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No. 101.— March, 1917. 

Annual Meeting and Report of the Council 

Balance Sheet 

Members of the Sociel^ 

List of Exchanges 

Books, etc., received during 19IQ 

Iro-nui-ma-oata, etc. By Tamuera Te Rei 

The Period of Iro-nui-ma-oata, etc. By S. Savage 

The Ngati-Thharetoa Occupation of Taupo. By Rev. H. Te Hata 

Meeting of the British Association, England. By H. D. Skinner, B.A. 

Polynesian Ling^iiBtics. By Sidney H. Ray, M.A., F.R.A.I. . . 






No. 102.— June, 1917. 

Iro-nui-ma-oata, etc. By Tamuera Te Rei 

The Period of Iro-nui-ma-oata, etc. By S. Savage 

The Ng^ti-Tuharetoa Occupation of Taupo. By Rev. H. Te Hata 

Mummification among the Maoris. By H. D. Skinnier, B.A., D.G.M. 

Mummification in New Zealand. By G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. 

Maori Mummies. By H. J. Fletcher 

Traditions and Legends of Southland. By H. Beattie 

Notes and Queries — Hawaiian Legends of Volcanoes (Mythology) 

Infant Demons 

Period of Iro-nui (Whiro-nui), etc. 


No. 103. — September, 1917. 

The Ngati-Tuharetoa Occupation of Taupo. By Rev. H. Te. Hata 
Maori Mummies. By Edward Tregear . . . . . . 

Polynesian Linguistics. By Sidney H. Ray, M.A., F.R.A.I. 

Traditions and Legends of Southland. By H. Beattie 

Some Place Names of Islands of the Society Group. By Elsdon Best 

Notes on the Kgati-Kuia Tribe of the South Island, N.Z. By S. Percy Smith 

Note on the Manaia in Maori Carvings. By S. Percy Smith . . 


Maori and other Polynesian Material in British Museums. By H. D. Skinner 

The Legend of the Korotangi. By George Graham , , 



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No. 104. — December, 1917. 

The Land of Tara. By Eladon Best 

Polynesian Linguistics. By Sidney H. Ray, M.A., F.R.A.I. 
The Ngati-Tuharetoa Occupation of Taupo. . By Rev. H. Te Hata 
Mummification among the Maoris. By H. D. Skinner 
Notes and Queries— Some Notes on Taumako Relationship Names 
Societe d'Etudes Oceaniennes . . 
• Ira, or Indra, the Eel God of India 

PrcKseedinga . . * . . 




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VOL. XXVI.— 1917. 

Fob the Year Ending SIst December, 1916. 

A MEBTma was called for the 12th Fehmary, hut as there was not a quorum 
present, it was decided that the present officers continue in their different positions, 
leaving it to any sufficient number of members to object to the proceedings. 

The Annual Report and Accounts were read and ordered to be printed as 
usual, and a vote of thanks was carried to Mr. W. D. Webster for auditing the 
accounts, and to Mr. W. H. Skinner for preparing the Index to Vol. XXV. of 
our * Journal.' 

The following members were elected : — 

As Hon. Member— Chas. M. Woodford, Esq., O.M.G., The Grinstead, 

Partridge Green, Sussex, England. 
„ „ ,, Sydney H. Ray, Esq., transferred from Corresponding 

„ Corresponding Member— H. D. Skinner, B.A., D.C.M., **M" Ware- 
house, Southampton, England. 
,, Ordinary Member — Francis James Green, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. 
„ „ Member — ^Te Anga, Hone Tukere, N.L. Court Office, 


For the Year Ending 31st December, 1916 

This, the Twenty-fourth Annual Report to the Members of the Society, will be 
brief, for there is little to record during the past twelve months. 

For the past two years we have had to reduce the size of our quarterly 
Journal owing to the falling off in our membership principally, owing to the war 
raging on the other side of the world. But with the return of peace we hope to 
keep up to our usual number of sixty-four pages. Matter accumulates faster than 
we can print it, and naturally the non-appearance of their papers is a disappoint- 
ment to the authors who so generously supply us with the results of their 
researches. Among the papers we hope to see in progress during the ensuing 
year are the series of Rarotonga documents secured in that island many years ago, 
and the translation of which is in a forward state. Side by side with these are 
other papers by Mr. S. Savage from the same locality, a start in which has been 
made. It is possible these two series will to a certain extent overlap, but that 
is perhaps not a disadvantage inasmuch as being derived from different sources, 
both authentic, they will serve to corroborate one another, while detail lacking in 
• the one may be supplied by the other. 

. The valuable matter collected by Mr H. Beattie from the extreme south of 
New Zealand, will be continued to the end ; and it is hoped that Mr. Elsdon 

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Best^s collection dealing with the history of Port Nicholson and the southern part 
of the North Island may be oommeuced. It seems almost hopeless to anticipate 
that any one sufficiently acquainted with the language in which the Marquesan 
Xiegends we possess are expressed will be found equal to a translation of them. 
As before remarked, these are probably the only existing documeuts dealing with 
the history and migrations of that fast disappearing people. On the side of 
Philology we shall continue Mr. Syduey H. Ray*s studies of the Polynesian 
elements in the languagfes spoken in the islands lying along the eastern verge of 
the Melanesian Islands of the Solomon and New Hebridies Group, and look 
forward to the result as tending to throw gfreat light on the question that is now 
exercising Ethnologists, as to whether the ancestors of these people formed part of 
the original migrations into the Pacific, or whether they form a * back-wash ' 
from the East. 

A work by our Hon. Member, W. Churchill, has lately dealt with this 
question in his last Philological work entitled ' Sissano ; Movements of Migrations 
within and through Melanesia,' and he concurs with as in thinking that they are 
some of the belated offshoots of the original migrations. His arguments flow not 
only from the language point of view, but from the consideration of some well- 
known customs of the people. 

The year has been marked also by the issue of another work, by our member 
Dr. Roland B. Dixon, who, in * Oceanic Mythology,' has for the first time brought 
into one purview practically the whole of the known Myths of the Oceanic races, 
including the Indonesians. This is the first attempt at anything of the kind, and 
great credit is due to Dr. Dixon for his industry in compiling such a work. We 
must look on it as a first step in the comparison of the whole life and thought of 
the Oceanic peoples, which, when followed along other lines, as it must be, will 
tend to the solution of the origins of the people. Dr. Dixon has made much use 
of our publications in the production of his work. 

Another work which has appeared during the year should be of interest to all 
Polynesian scholars, viz., the originals of *' Pomander's Collection of Hawaiian 
Antiquities and Folk-lore," on which Pomander based his g^eat work, ** The 
Polynesian Race." The originals are translated bv Mr. T. G. Thrum, and the 
work is published by the Bemice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Honolulu. Part I. 
lias appeared, to be followed by others. This series of traditions is valuable on 
account of their representing the * literature ' of the most northern branch of the 
Polynesian people, and they represent for the Hawaiian branch, what Grey's 
" Polynesian Mythology," White's ** Ancient History of the Maori," Shand's 
** Morioris " and our own volumes of ** Memoirs " do for the Southern branches. 
All honour to the most excellent Honolulu Museum for publishing this valuable 
•contribution to Polynesian ** Literature." 

During the year under review we have lost, through death, the following 
members : Mr. M. H. Gray, of Kent, England ; Mr. R. Coupland Harding, of 
Wellington, for some years the printer of our * Journal ' ; and Bishop W. L. 
Williams, our President in 1895-6. Besides the above, and since the close of the 
year, we have lost the Hon. Dr. McNab and Mr. W. H. S. Roberts. At the 
•close of the year the roll of Members was as follows : — 

Patrons . . . , . . 3 

Honorary Members ..11 

Corresponding Members .. 11 

Contributing Members ..160 

Total . . 186 

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Notwithstanding a few resignations and the deaths noted above, the new members 
elected make the roll 13 members in exoess of last jear. The Council will, how- 
ever, have to apply the pruning knife to some of the above members for being in 
arrear with their subscriptions. 

It will bo observed from the Treasurer's statement that we end the jear with 
a credit of £28 98. Od., the liabilities are nil, for the cost of producing the 
December * Journal ' is a charge on the year 1917. 

Maori Dictionary. — We learn from Archdeacon WilUaoL^ that the present 
position of the New Maori Dictionary is as follows : — ** That 128 pp. are printed 
off, 64 additional pages ready for printing, and probably completed ere this reaches 
you, which brings us to * Mahurangpa,' while it has been set as far as < Tu,* and 
nearly all of that has received a second correction ; that is, nearly eleven-twelfths 
are actually in type, and the Gk>vernraent Printing Office is pushing it on most 

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VOL. XXVI.— 1917. 

As AT 1st Januaby, 1917. 

The sign * before a name indicates an origiml member or f oqn^W. 

Ai tbis list will be publiBhed annaaUQ% the Seoietariee would be obliged if memben will 

eupply any omission, or notify change of address 


The Right Hon. Baron Plunket, K-CUi-G., K.C.V.O., ex-Govemor of New 
Zealand^ Old Connaught, Bray, County Wioklow, Ireland. 

The Right Hon. Baron Islington, K.C.M.G., D.S.O., ex-Goremor of New 
Zealand, Government Offices, Downing Street, London 

His Excellency The Right Hon. The Earl of Liverpool, M.V., G.C.M.G., 
Governor of New Zealand 


Liliuokalani, ex-Queen of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaiian Isles 

Rev. R. H. Codrington, D.D., Chichester, England 

Rev. Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A., Queen*s College, Oxford, England 

Right Hon. Sir J. G. Ward, Bart., K.C.M.G., P.C., LL.D., M.P., WeUington 

H. G. Seth-Smith, M.A., Chief Judge N.L. Court of Appeal, Auckland 

Pjx)f. Sir W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A., C.M.G., F.R.S., The University, Melbourne 

♦Edward Tregear, I.S.O., Wellington 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., 3, CranraerRoad, Cambridge, England 

Churchill, W., B.A., F.R.A.I., Yale Club, 30, West Forty-fourth Street New 

Sir J. G. Fraser, D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D., Brick Court, Middle Temple, London, 

Elsdon Best, Dominion Museum, Wellington 

Chas. M. Woodford C.M.G., The Grinstead, Partridge Green, Sussex, England 
S. H. Ray, M.A., F.R.A.I., 218, Balfour Road, Hford, Surrey, England 


Rev. T. G. Hammond, Hawera, Taranaki 
Te One Rene Rawiri Te Mamaru, Moeraki, Otago 
Takaanui Tarakawa, Rotorua 
Major J. T. Large. Rarotonga 
Hare Hongi, 3, Stirling Street, Wellington 
Tati Salmon, Papeete, Tahiti 

Tunui-a-rangi, Major H. P., Pirinoa, Martinborough 
Whatahoro, H. T. Putiki, Whanganui 
Christian, F. W., ' Montosa,' Hobson Street, New Plymouth 
The Rev. C. E. Fox, San Christobal ; vi& Ugi, Solomon Islands 
Skinner, H. D., B.A., D.C.M., c/oMrs. Bracken, 94, Bishops Mansions, Fulhami 
London, S.W. 

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894 Aldred, W. A., Bank of New Zealand, WeUington 

899 Atkinson, W. E. Whanganoi 

911 Antze, Dr. Gudtar, Lampestrasse, 7, 1, Leipiig, G^ennanj 
916 A very, Thoe.^ New Pljmouth 

892 ♦Birch, W. J. Thoreeby, Marton 

892 ♦Barron, A., Maodonald Terrace, Welling^n 

893 BaUej, R. T., Moawhango 

894 Bamfoid, E., Amej Road, Auckland 

896 Bridflh and Foreign Bible Society, 146, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.G. 
898 Buchanan, Sir W. C, Carterton 

902 Boston City Library, Boston Mass, U.S.A. 

907 Buick, T. Lindsay, F.R.Hist.S., Press Association, Wellington 

907 Brown, P^f. J. McMillan, M.A., L.L.D., Holmbank, Fendelton, 


909 Bullard, O. H., Chief Surveyor, New Plymouth 

910 Bni^net, J. H., Virg^iniau Homestead, St. John's Hill, Whang^nni 

910 Burgess, C. H., New Plymouth 

911 Bird, W. W.. Inspector of Native Schools, Napier 

913 Buddie, R., c/o Bank of New Zealand^ 1, Queen Victoria St., London, E.C. 

914 Brooking, W. F., Powderham Street, New Plymouth 
914 Beattie, Henries, P.O. Bpx 40, Gore 

916 Bottrell, C. G., High School, New Plymouth 

892 ♦Chapman, The Hon. F. R., Wellington 

892 Chambers, W. K., Fujiya, Mount Smart, Onehunga 

893 Carter, H. C, 475, West 143rd Street, N.Y. 

894 Chapman, M., Wellington 

896 Cooper, The Hon. Theo., Wellington 

900 Coates, J., National Bank of N.Z., Wellington 

900 Cooke, J. P., c/o Alexander and Baldwin, Honolulu 

903 Chatterton, Rev. F. W.. Te Ran, Gisbome 

903 Cole, Ven. Archdeacon R. H., D.C.L., Pamell, Auckland 

908 Coughlan, W. N., Omuio, Opotiki 
908 Carnegie Public Library, Dunedin 

908 Carnegie Public Library. New Plymouth 
910 Cock, R., New Plymouth 

8^2 ♦Denniston, The Hon., Sir J. E., Christchurch 
902 Dulau & Co., 38, Soho Square, London 

902 Drumraond, Jas., *^Lyttelton Times" Office, Christchurch 

903 Dixon, Roland B., Ph.D., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

910 Downes. T. W., Herald Buildings, The Avenue, Whanganui 

911 Drew, C. H., New Plymouth 

892 ♦Emerson, J. S., 802, Spencer Street, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 

904 Ewen, C. A., Commercial Union Insurance Co., Wellingfton 

892 ♦Fraser, D., Bulls, Rang^tikei, Wellington 
896 Fletcher, Rev. H. J., Taupo 

900 Fbtbes,E. J., 5, Hamilton Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 

901 Firth, John F., Survey Office, Nelson 

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1902 Eraser, M., New Plymouth 

1902 Fisher, T. W., 70, Brougham Street, Wellington 

1903 Fowlds, Hon. G., Auckland 

1906 Field Museum of Natural History, The, Chicago, U.S.A. 

1912 Fisher, Mrs. Lillian S., 560, Hancock Street. Brooklyn, N«w York, U.S.A. 

1912 Fisher, F. Owen, c/o Credit Lyonaise, Biarritz, B.P*, France 

1913 Fildes, H., Chief Post Office, Wellington 

1892 ♦Gudgeon, Lieut. -Col. W E., C.M.G., 39, King's Parade, Devonport, 


1902 Gill, W. H; Marunouchi, Tokio, Japan 

1902 Graham, G«o., c/o Commercial Union, P.O. Box 166, Auckland 

1910 Goding, Fred W., U.S. Consul General, Guayaquil, Ecuador 

1913 Gray, A., Technical College, New Plymouth 
1917 Green, Frances James, Honolulu 

1898 Hastie, Miss J. A., 11, Ashbum Place, Cromwell Boad, London 

1906 Hiersemann, Karl W., Konistrasse 3 Leipsig, Germany 

1908 Hallen, Dr. A. H., Clevedon, Auckland 

1909 Holdswortb, John, Swarthmoor, Harelock, Hawkes Bay 

1910 Hawkes Bay Philosophical Society, c/o Wilson, Craig & Co., Napier . 
1910 Hocken, Mrs. T. M., c/o Smith & Quick, Water Street, Dunedin 

1910 Home, Dr. George, New Plymouth 

1911 Heimbrod, G., F.R.A.I., Lautoka, Fiji 
1911 Henniger, Julius, Motuihi Island, Auckland 

1914 Harrassowitz, O., Leipzig 

1915 Homblow, John K., Foxton 

1915 Haines, Dr. H., The Northern Qub, Auckland 

1907 Institute, The Auckland, Museum, Auckland 
1907 Institute, The Otago, Dunedin 

1892 Johnson, H. Dunbar, Judge N.L.C., 151, Newton Road, Auckland 

1909 Jack, J. B.,P.O. Box 101, Whanganui 

1900 Kerr, W., S.M., Masterton 

1902 Kelly, Thomas, New Plymouth 

1910 King, Newton, Brooklands, New Plymouth 

1894 Lam>»ert, H. A., Belmont, Tay forth, Whanganui 

1910 Leverd, A., Sec. Mil. Hosp., Noumea, New Caledonia 

1911 Lysnar, W. D., Gisbome 
1913 List, T. C, New Plymouth 

1913 Lysons, E. W. M., New Plymouth 

1892 ♦Major, C. E., 22, Empire Buildings, Auckland 

1893 March, H. Colley, M.D., F.S.A., Portesham, Dorchester, England 
1897 Marshall, J. W., Tututotara, Marton 

1897 Marshall, H. H., Motu-kowhai, Marton 

1907 Minister of Internal Affairs, The Hon., Wellington 

1912 Marsden, J. W., Isel, Stoke, Nelson 

1915 Mahony, B. G., c/o C. Mahoney, Esq., Ruatoki, Taneatua 

1916 Mitchell, Library, The, Sydney 

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1895 Ngata, A. T., M.A., M.P., Parliamentary Buildings, Wdlington 
1900 Newman, W. L., New Fljmonth 

1902 New York Public labrarj, Attor Library Buildings, New York 

1906 Newman, Dr. A. K., Hobeon Street, Wellington 

1894 Partington, J. Edge, F.R.G.S., Wyngatee, Burke's Road, Beaoonsfleld^ 

1907 Publio Library, Auckland 
1907 Public Library, Wellington 

1907 Public Library, c/o G. Robertson & Co., Melbourne, Victoria 

1907 Public Library, Sydney, N.8.W. 

1907 Philosopliical Institute, The, Ghristc^uroh 

1907 Postmaster General, The Hon., The, Wellington 

1913 Potts, Norman, Opotiki 

1914 Parliamentary Library (the Commonwealth) Melbourne 

1892 *Roy, R. B., Taita, Wellington 

1903 Roy, J. B., New Plymouth 

1892 *Smith, W. W., P.B.8., Pukekura Park, New Plymouth 

1892 •Smith, P. S., Blenheim 

1892 *Smith, M. C, Surrey Department, Wellington 

1892 •Smith, S. Percy, F.R.G.S. , New Plymouth 

1892 •Stout, Hon. Sir R., K.O.M.G., Chief Justice, Wellington 

1892 •Skinner, W. H., Chief Surveyor, Christehuroh 

1893 Saxton, Henry Waring, F.L.S., New Plymouth 

1896 Smith, Hon. W. O., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 

1904 Smith, H. Guthrie, Tutira, ▼!& Napier 

1904 Samuel, The Hon. Oliver, M.L.C., New Plymouth 

1905 Schultz, Dr. Erich von, late Imperial Chief Justice, Motuihi Island, 

1907 Secretary of Education, Wellingfton 
1910 Savage, S., Rarotong^ Island 
1910 Steinen, Prof. Dr. Karl von den, 1 Freidrechstrasse, Steglitz, Berlin, 


1914 Spence, J. R., Blenheim 

1915 Smith, Alex., c/o W. W. Smith, New Plymouth 

1916 Shalfoon, G., Opotiki 

1892 ♦Testa, F. J., Honolulu 

1893 Tumbull, A. H., F.R.G.S., Bowen Street, Wellington 
1913 Tribe, F. C, Vbgeltown, New Plymouth 

1915 Thomson, Dr. Allan, M.A., D.Sc, F.G.S., A.O.S.M., Museum, Wellington 

1916 Taylor, E. Grant, Chatham Islands 

1916 Te Anga, Hone Tukere, N.L. Court Office, Whanganui 

1892 •Wright, A. B., Public Works Department, Blenheim 
1892 Williams, Archdeacon H. W., Gisbome 

1894 Wilson, A., Hangatiki, Auckland 
1896 Williams. F. W., Napier 

1896 Wilcox, Hon. G. A., Kauai, Hawaiian Islands 

1898 Whitney, James L., Public Library, Dartmouth, Boston, U.S.A. 

1902 Webster, W. D., New Plymouth 

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1903 Walker, Ernest A., M.D., New Plymoath 

1910 Wilson, Sir J. a., Bulls 

1911 Wilson, T. H., Judge N.L. Court, Disraeli Street, Mount Eden, Auokland 

1912 Westervelt, Rev. W. D., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 

1914 Waller, Captain W., Moturoa, New Hjmouth 

1915 Williams, H. B., Turihaua, Gbbome 

1916 Wilson, Thos., Captain, New Plymouth 
1916 Welsh, R. D., Hawera 

1916 White, Percy J. H., New Plymouth 

1892 *Young, J. L., c/o Henderson and Maofarlane, Auckland 

PRK8IDKNT8— Past and Present 

1892-1894— H. G. Seth-Smith, M.A. 
1895-1896— Right Rev. W. L. Williams, M.A., D.D. 
1897-1898— The Rev. W. T. Habens, B A. 
1901-1903— E. Tregear, I.S.O., etc. 
1904-1917—8. Percy Smith, P.R.G.S. 

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rpHE following is the List of Societies, etc., etc., to whioh the Joubnix is sent, 
J- and from most of which we receive exchanges : — 

Anthropolog^he, Ethnog^phishe, etc., G^eseUschraft, Vienna, Austria 

Anthropologic, Soci6t6 d\ 15 Roe Ecole de Medioin, Paris 

Anthropologia, Sooieta, Museo Nazionale di Anthiopologia, Via Gino, Oap- 

poni, Florence, Italy 
Anthropologic, Ecole d', 15 Rue Ecole de Medicin, Paris 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, 5 Elizabeth Street, 

American Oriental Society* 245, Bishop Street, Newhaven Conn., U.S.A. 
American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 
Anthropology, Department of, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 

Asiatic Society of Bengfal, 1, Park Street, Calcutta 

Bataviaasch Q^nootschap, Batavia, Java 

Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washing^n 

Bemice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, H.I. 

Canadian Institute, Ottawa, Canada 

Ethnological Survey, Manila, Philippine Islands 

Fijian Society, The, Suva, Fiji Islands 

General Assembly Library, Wellington 

G^graphie, Societe de, de Paris, Boulevard St. Germain, 184, Paris 

Geographical Society, The American, Broadway, at 156th Street, New York 

High Commissioner of Sew Zealand, 13 Victoria Street, Westminster, 

Historical Society, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 

Institute, The New Zealand, Wellington 

Indian Research Society, The, 32 Creek Row, Calcutta 

Japan Society, 20 Hanover Square, London, W. 

Kongl, Vitterhets Historie, och Antiqvitets, Akaderaen, Stockholm, Sweden 
Koninklijk Instituut, 14 Van Galenstratt. The Hague, Holland 

Na Mata, Editor, Suva, Fiji 

National Museum Library, Washington, U.S.A. 

Peabody Museum of Archeeology and Ethnology, Hirvard University, 
Cambridge, U.S.A. 

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Queenfiland Mosemn, Brisbane, Queensland 

Royal GI«ogrraphical Society, Kensington Gbre, London, S.W. 

Koyal G^og^pbical Society of Australasia, Brisbane 

Royal Oeograpbioal Society of Australasia* c/o Collingridge, Waronga. 

Royal G^eographioal Society of Australasia, 70, Queen Street, Melbourne 
Royal G^grapbical Society of Australasia, Adelaide 
Royal Society, Burling^n House, London 
Royal Society of New South Wales, 5, Elizabeth Street, Sydney 
Royal Colonial Institute, Northumberland Avenue, London 
Royal Anthropological Institute of Oreat Britain, The, 50, Gkeat Russell 

Street, London, W.G. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washing^n 

Soci^t^ Neuchateloise de Q^ographie, Neuchatel, Switzerland 

Soci^t^ d'Etudes Oceaneane, Tahiti Island 

University of California, Library Exchange Department, Berkeley, 

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From America — 

University of Minnesota 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of California 

The American Philosophical Society 
,, Geog^phical Society 
,, Oriental Society 
,, Folk-lore Society 
Smithsonian Institution 

,t „ National Mnsenm 

ff tt Bureau of Ethnology 

From Canada — 

Department of Mines, Anthropological Series 
From England — 

The Royal Colonial Institute 
„ t, Geographical Society 
ff ,t Anthropological Institute 
From Fiji- 
Editor of Na Mata 

The Fijian Society 
From France — 

Editors, Kevue Anthropologiques 

Soci6t6 d* Anthropologic de Paris 
From Switzerland — 

Soci6t^ Neuchateloise de Gkographie 
From The Philippine Islands — 

Journal of Science 
From Italy— 

Societa Italiana D*Anthropologia 
From Holland — 

The Koninklijk Instituut 
From Sweden — 

K. Vitterhets, Historie, Antikvitets Akademien 
From Batavia, Java — 

Bataviaasch Genootsohap 
From New South Wales — Royal Society 
From Queensland — 

The Queensland Museum 

Royal Geographical Society 
From South Australia — 

Royal Geographical Society 

Victoria Public Museum and National Gallery 
From Hawaiian Islands — 

The Bemice Pauahi Bishops Museum 

Prof. W. A. Bryan 
New Zealand— 

The New Zealand Institute 

T. W. Dov^-nes 

F. W. Christian 
From Solomon Islands— The Rev. T. C. O. Fox 

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Na TrviNi Haweti ma Tamubba Moee-Taunga-o-tb-tini, 



ITETAI ra, kua ui atura a Iro ki te metua vaine, " E aere ana a 
Pou-Ariki ki' ea?" Kua karanga atura te metua vaine, **E 
aere ki o Ngana e Yaea kai-karakia." Kua karanga atura a Iro ki te 
metua vaine, ** Ka aere au." Kua karanga ra te metua vaine, ** Kare 
paa koe e kite." Kua karanga mai taua tamaiti, ** Eiaa, ka aru*" 

Kua nako te metua vaine, **Eiaa e taku tama, aere mai ka noo 
taua, kua taoi atu na oki oou tiiakana e Pou-Ariki, e te karanga oki 
koe ka aere katoa koe. Aere mai ka noo taua.'' Kiia karanga atii ra 
a Iro, '* Eiaa e taku metua vaine, ka aere rai au." 

Kua akatika te metua vaine i te anoano o Iro, kua tau iora te kai 
ei nioemoeo no te tamaiti, ka maoa, kua aao aia i te tapora, e aiai 
iikera kua rave iora i te tapora kai e te ue vai-maori, aere atura aia na 
roto i te aiai-poiri e tae atura ki te kainga e noo ei te metua koia oki 
a Pou-Ariki, kia tae atura aia te kaikai ra a Pou-Ariki e te anau e 
nga tumu-karakia ko Ngana e Yaea ; oki atu ra a Iro ki muri i te 
tara-are pipini ei, e kua kai katoa aia i tana kai ki reira ; ka pou tana 
kainga -kai noo iora aia, ma te akaronga i te tuatua a te metua e nga 
tuakana. Ei reira kua aere atura aia ki te Are-vananga, kua 'eeu 
iora i te arua-kao o te are tomo atura aia ki roto i taua arua-kao. 
Kare aia e roa ki reira kua rongo aia i te tangata kua tomo ki roto i 
te Are-vananga, ko nga taunga .tena e nga tauira, e kua tamata ratuu 
i te apiipii i te karakia. Kua rave nga taunga i a raua angaanga. 
Kua akarongo matakite tikai i taua karakia. Kai atura aia i taua 
karakia e mou roa ake i aia, no te niea te rongo tikai aia i taua 
karakia i roto i tana ngai i pipini ei koia oki te arua-kao, kare takiri 
e nga ngai i topa i aia. Kua mangamanga iora te ai i roto i te are, te 
noo ua ra a Iro i te akakao o te are e tae atura ki te akirata, aere 
atura a Pou-Ariki ma te anau ki to ratou kainga e kua akaruke i nga 
tupuna ia Ngana e Vaea ki te ngai i karakia ai ratou, i te taime i 
tomo a Iro ki roto i te arua-kao kiia akaitiiti aia i tona kopapa mei te 
tamaiti meangiti ua nei. 

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Tataiata iora kua aere inai a Iro mei roto i te arua-kao, kua 
akatangata akaou i aia, tomo atura ki roto i te are vananga kua noo 
aia ki runga i te nooanga a te aronga kai-karakia, noo iora, ei reira 
kua rave aia i te kaara e te pau, no te mea kua pou i aia te au 
karakia i apiia ki te anau a Pou-A.riki, kare ra i mou ia ratou. Rave 
atura a Iro i te kaara e te pau, akatangi atura, tera tana i akatang^ 
ko te au karakia i karakia ki a Pou-Ariki e te anau kua mou takiri i 
aia, kare takiri e tuatua i topa, kua riro te kaara e te pau ei vaa nona 
i te tuatuaanga mai i nga karaka ia i apiia kia ratou. 

Ko eia puke tangata metua nei, ei tupuna nona koia a Ngana e 
Yaea, kua umere iora raua i te mea kua mou meitaki teia au karakiia. 
Kua ui atura nga tupuna kia Iro. **Koai koe ? " Kua karanga 
atura aia, ** Ko au ko Iro." Kua karanga atura nga tupuna ** Ko Iro 
i riro mai te rongo?" Kua karanga aia **E." Kua karanga atura 
nga tupuna, ** Ina, ka teketeke mai." Kua neke atura aia, kua 
karanga nga tupuna, ** E anga mai toou tua." Kua uri- atura aia i 
tona tua, kua a'a atura nga tupuna, kia a*a raua, mei te papa i o 
Rongo- ma- tane te marenarenaanga, ei reira raua kua karanga, ''E 
tangata umere tikai koe, kia a'a maua i toou tua mei te papa tapu a 
Eongo-ma-tane, mei te moenga tikai te paraparaanga, e tangata a'i 
koe i mou ei te korero, kua apii a Pou-Ariki ma te anau e kare ake 
rai i mou ia ratou, i a koe ua mai iia i mou ei." Kua karanga atu 
raua, ^^ Ko koe ainei te ai i manga." Kua karanga atura aia, ''E." 
1 muri i reira kua apii pu tikai raua ia Iro ki te karakia e mou 
yave ua i aia, okotai ua apiianga mou atura i aia. 

I tetai ra te noo ua ra a Iro ki runga i te turuki are o Ngana e 
Yaea, kare atura raua i kite tei reira aia, kia akarongo aia te iriiriea 
ia ra raua i to raua pbngi, te nako atura tetai ki tetai. '^ Eaa oki taku 
taeake i pong^ ana, na taua nga maanga i tera ngai e tera ngai, na 
taua nga tumu-nae, ma nga eki e nga pu-oi e nga pirita, te parata e 
te paratua-enua : Koai tama meitaki i te ao kia kai ei taua i te ate ia 
Moekiri e te manava o Irimango e te poro ia Te Mangarea, te Kuku 
ia Patiki " : Tera tikai te aereanga o tau% mii nei o raua : — 

Te poro o Te Mangarea 

Te kuku o Te patiki 

Te kuru o nga Tapetupetu 

Te manava ia Tuputai na taua ake ei ono i te kava 

Te manava ia Moekiri na taua uake 

Me riro mai ka maora nga moenga pae nono 

Ka niaora nga aoaiku. 

Kia rongo ake ra a Iro i teia tuetue anga a nga tupuna nei, ma te 
akara aia te akaingainga raua ia raua, kua ui atura aia kia raua, 
''Eaa korua e tuatua ua nei?" Kua karanga atura raua, ''Kua 
manako maua e kare e tangata." Kua ui rai a Iro, " Ecut ta korua 

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The Period of IrO'nui^ma'Oaia and Tangiia^nui-atiki. 3 

e tuetue ua nei ? " Kua uuna atura raua ma te karaQga, ** Kare maua 
i tuetue ana." I reira kua ui tikai a Iro kia raua, ^*E akakite mai 
naku e tiki tnua kai ta korua i manako." Tuatua iora raua, '^ Ko 
teia au kai nei e au mea mate anake, kare e rauka i a koe, kua pou e 
uki tangata e pSip^ ariki ; ki a koe na ka rauka mai.*' 

Kua ui atura a Iro, ** Te'ea te rakau o taku mea a Pou- Ariki." 
Tuatua mai ra raua, ** Tera, ko te rakau pueka." Kua kiriti mai a 
Iro i taua rakau mei te vairanga, ko te rakau a Moe-tara-uri, kare a 
Iro i kite e ko te rakau tena a Moe-tara-uri (no te mea kare aia i kite 
ake e kare a Pou- Ariki tona metua, ko taua rakau nei ko * Tautu-te- 
nio-more,' e kua vaio ia e Moe-tara-uri i taua rakau nei ki roto i te 
rima o Akimano, e nana i kave ki roto i te are tapu no te mea e 
rakau tapu. 

Kua aere a Iro ka tiki taua au kai ta nga tupuna i iriirieia ia, 
koia te poro, te kuku, te kuru, te kava Tupu-tai e te puaka ko 
Moekiri. Kua rauka ua i aia etai, kare e rauka ng^ta, arumaki atu 
aia i nga tiaki. Nara kia tae atura aia ki te ngai o Moekiri kua kai 
tamaki mai nga tiaki koia a Yaere e TSiru, no te mea ua raua i tiaki i 
tana au mea nei. Kia aere mai a Iro, te moemoe nga tangata 
nei, nara ko te puaka ko Moekiri, kia kite aia ia Iro kua ngunguru 
iora aia, ei reira kua rere mai a Vaere e Taru ki runga kua paruru ia 
Iro, kua riri iora a Iro, kua ta atura aia e eia nga tiaki nei, e kua ta 
te puaka ko Moekiri e kua ko i te kava ko Tupu-tai e kua tuku teia 
au mea ki runga i te amo, ko nga tangata e to kava ki mua i te amo 
e te puaka e tetai au mea i muri i te amo, okotai rai amo i te taoaka 
ia mai ei taua au kai, apai mai ra aia ki mua i te paepae o Ngana e 
Yaea. Kia kite raua e, kua tae mai a Iro ma taua au kai nei kua 
tupou iora raua ki raro, kua nako raua, "E tangata ka toa a Iro.'* 
E taunga oki raua, no reira kua kite raua. 

Kia riro teia au mea ki runga i te paepae, kua aere atura a Iro ki 
te tiki vaie ei tau i taua kai e te rautao katoa, e kua riro mai ; tera te 
tu o tana mea vaie, okotai ruru-vaie e varu umu e pou ei te ruru 
okotai, pera oki te ruru rau-tao e varu umu e pou ei te ruru okotai. 
Ei reira kua tau a Iro i tdua au kai ra, e, ei reira kua ono i te kava, 
tera te tu o te kava, okotai m^ma kua tutua mai ra, takiri te 
kumete i te mama okotai. 

Kia riro mai te rougo kia Pou-Ariki ma te anau, kua aere mai aia 
ma taua rongo, akara atura aia ma te riri ki a Iro, koia i apai i taua 
kai ki o Ngana e Yaea ; i tona manako e apai atura ki mua i tona 
aroaro, ei runga i tona paeptie vao ei ; ei reira kua papaki atura a 
Pou-Ariki i te turi ma te tuatua, " Eaa, no teia turi i raverave nunui 
ua'i i Kuporu nei." 

£aa rongo a Iro i taua roeroe kikino a Pou-Ariki aue atura tona 
ngakau e te mamae e te akama, ko to Iro kitenga ia e, na tetai ke ua 
aia, kare a Pou-Ariki. 

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Koa rave iora te takura, kua k& te nmu, tapoki atura. Te rake te 
umukai tu ke na Iro ma nga tupuna. Te mate ua ra nga tupuna no te 
pongi, na Iro rai i akaora akaou. Aere atura aia i te apai i nga 
tupuna ki raro i te vai, kua p&l i tetai, kua pa! i tetai, kua tiki mai i 
to raua moenga ma te kakau, kua petetue te tutae i to raua kopapa 
ma to raua moenga oki, kua t&ta aia i to raua kakau ki raro i te vai, 
kua tari ki te ra ta-m&r6, e m&r6 atu ra, apai ra ki to raua ngai, kua 
tiki katoa mai ia raua apai atura ki to raua ngai, maani iora taua 
tamaiti i to raua ngai, maani iora taua tamaiti i to raua mata, no te 
mea e m&t&po raua katoa. Kake atura a Iro i te nu, kua aaki iora, e 
kua aere mai ki mua i te arouro o nga tupuna, kua koi iora i te nu ki 
to tetai mata e ki to tetai mata e puera akera o raua mata, kua kite 
mata tikai raua ia Iro. 

Kua aere i reira a Iro kua t&t&u i te kava, kua uki mai ra i te 
umukai, kua tda atura a Iro na nga tupuna, ta tetai e ta tetai, ei reira 
kua karanga atura a Iro, '' Ei konei korua, te aere nei au." Tapu 
atura nga tupuna ; kare aia i noo, no te mea kua roto mamae aia i te 
tuatua kino tana i rongo mei roto i te vaa o Pou-Ariki, aere atu ra 
aia, e ki o te metua vaine. 

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The Period of lro»nui»ma*oaia and Tan§iia''nvi*ariki. 

PAE in. 

KUA aere atura a Iro ki te kainga o te metua vaine koia a 
Akimano, e kua tuatua atura ki te metua vaiue, ** Koai tikai 
taku metua ? " Tera ta te metua vaine, ** Ko Pou-Ariki toou metua." 
Karanga atura a Iro, ''Kare, e akakite mai koe, koai taku metua." 
Kua pera rai te metua vaine mei tana i tuatua i mua, " Ko Pou-Ariki 
toou metua." Kua karanga a Iro, * 'Kare, e akakite mai koe, koai 
tikai toku metua ? " Kare rai q, Ito i akapaki i te pati e tae uatu ki 
te rua o te ra ; kua manako iora te metua vaine kua tuatua ia te 
tamaiti e Pou-Ariki, no reir^ kua akakite te metua vaine, *^ £ tika rai 
e metua rai toou, tera to metua ko Moe-tara-uri i Vavau." 

Kua karanga atura a Iro, '' Tera ana oki e metua toku, e aa koe i 
uuna'i." Kua karanga atura te metua vaine, ** I pe'ea a Pou-Ariki 
ki a koe ? " Kua karanga a Iro, ** I papaki a Pou-Ariki ki te turi ma 
te karanga, kare tena tamaiti mei ko i tera turi, ma te karanga 
naringa no roto i tera turi ka akarongo i te metua." 

Aue iora te metua vaine ; kia oti i te aueanga kua akataka atura 
aia ki te tamaiti kua karanga atu ra ; '^ E iro e te oata nga arapo i 
tae mai ei a Moe-tara-uri, no reira toou ingoa ko Xro-ma-oata, kua 
tapara toou ingoa i nga arapo i tae mai ei toou metua a Moe-tara-uri." 
Kua karanga atura a Iro ki te metua vaine, ** Eaa koe i uima'i i toku 
metua i kore koe i akakite mai ki aku, tera taku tuatua ki a koe e 
taku metua vaine, ka aere au ka pari vaka noku ka aere au ka kimi i 
toku metua." 

Kua akatika atura te metua vaine, aere atura a Iro i te tipu 
rakau — tera te ingoa o taua rakau, ko TS^vai-nui-o-Vaea. Kia kite 
nga atua, ko ratou te kau-taunga i te pari i tona vaka, koia oki nga 
Atua i vaoia e te metua ki te metua vaine, ko nga Atua la i te akaora 
i aia i tona au mate ka mate ei aia e nga tuakana, koia teia, ko ratou 
rai te maani te vaka o Iro. E, oti ake ra te vaka kiMi tapa iora ratou 
i te ingoa o te vaka, tera ta ratou ingoa i tapa no te vaka ko 
** Te-Tiarapa-i-te-tainui-o-Yavau," e pai mana e te umereia. 

Kua akanokono iora a Iro i tona tere, riro atura te rongo ki Pou- 
Anki e te anau i teia tere, e teia te apinga tu ke, ko te vaka o te tama 
o Akimano ta nga atua i pari, e apinga tikai ko *'Te-Tia-rapa-i-te- 
tainui-o-Yavau " te ingoa. Kia aere mai ratou e tika rai, e pai tikai. 

Kua oti te akonokono te tere o Iro, e kua inangaro nga tuakana 
i te am i taua tere o Iro, e kua akatika a Iro, kua tuku te kai ma te 
au mea e tau no te tere ki runga i taua pai ra, koia oki ko te vaka, 
tuku atura nga Atua, aere atu, topa atura ki te moana. Kia topa ki 
tua, kua tuatua iora a Iro ki nga tu^ikana, '' Ka moe au auraka kotou 

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e akaara i taku nioe, ka moe au ia Pipiri e ara mai ia Akaau." No 
reira te tuatua i te moe o Iro e ono marama e, e ono Tria-rftnn^ i te 
araanga i tuatua ia e ko Iro-moe-roa. 

Eua moe atura a Iro, kua topa ratou ki te tai-tua, tela nga apinga 
kua tau mai ki runga i te tira o to ratou pai, e puke maiiu. Kua tau 
mai aua nga manu nei ki to ratou pai, kua ta atura nga tuakana o Iro 
i aua nga manu, e kua tuaki katoa i te ngakau o aua nga manu, ei 
i*eira kua akaara atura ratou ia Iro. Kia ara mai a Iro, kua mamate 
aua nga manu, kua karanga atu ra a Iro, '* Eaa kotou i ta'i i nga 
manu ? Ko nga manu teia o Tane. Eaa te ravenga e ora akaou ei 
raua ? Ka riro teia ei akakino i to tatou tere/' Kua tuatua akera a 
Iro, ** Akua ko te ora ko te mate." Tu ake ra a Iro, te rave ra aua 
nga manu ra, kua akara nga tuakana, tetai ki tetai ; rave iora a Iro i 
nga toka, tuku atura ki roto i aua nga manu ei ngakau no raua, no te 
mea kua tuakinaia e nga tuakana o Iro o raua ngakau. Kua tuku a 
Iro i nga toka ki roto i aua nga manu, kua karakia iora, e ora akaou 
atura tuku atura i aua nga manu kia rere, rere atura aua nga manu. 
I to raua rereanga kare i aite mei to raua tu i mua, i to raua tu i teia 
rereanganei kua rere tikaokao to raua rereanga, oki atura a Iro ki te 

Aere atura aua nga manu ra e tae atu ki mua i te aroaro o Tane ; 
kia akara a Tane kua tu ke te tu i aua nga manu aana, kua ui atura 
aia ki a raua, '^'Na'ai korua i rapu, na te Tiu e te Parapu? " Kare 
aua nga manu i ki ; e kua karanga a Tane, ^'Na'ai akera korua i 
rapu, na te Tonga e te Maoake ? " Kare aua nga manu i ki atu. Kua 
karanga a Tane, **'Na te Iku e te Tokerau korua i rapu? " Kare rai 
nga manu i ki atu, e, pou akera te au rua-matangi i te tatau ia e 
Tane, kare rai nga manu i k! atura. Kua ui akaou atu rai a Tane, 
** Na'ai korua i rapu, na te anau kanga o Pou-Ariki ? " Kua tungou 
iora nga manu i'inga atura raua ki raro mamate atura. Kitea i reira 
a Taiie na te anau a Pou-Ariki i rapu i nga manu aana. 

Aere atura a Tane, kapiki atura ki taua au tamariki kanga, koia 
nga tamariki a Eakamaomao ; ki te Tiu ma te Parapu, ki te Tonga e^ 
te Maoake, ki te Akarua e te Iku -tokerau ; paatu ra, karanga atu ra, 
** E aere kotou e ta i te anau o Pou-Ariki." Kua aere atura ratou e 
ta i te anau o Pou-Ariki, tupu atura te uriia i te moana, kare e 
marikonga, kua akaara atura ratou ia Iro, kua tu a Iro ki runga ;. 
kia tu mai aia kare ra e uriia e aite ki teia uriia i te maata. Kua 
karanga atura a Iro, **Ko ta kotou kanga tena, ko kotou i takinga- 
kino i nga manu a Tane ka mate ei tatou, ko au ra kare au e 
taitaia, nara ko kotou te taitaia nei au, ko ta koton akakoroanga mate 
noku ka uri tei reira ki runga5 to kotou uaorai upoko." Kare i oti te- 
tuatua a Iro, pokiaia mai ra te pai e te ngaru, takatiri atura ki raro i 
te tai, kare e ravenga e ora'i, maringi atu ra te tangata ki roto i te 
tai, ko etai ra kua rauka i te kake ki runga i te takere o te pai, ko- 

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The Period of Iro^nui^ma^oaia and TangiiUL-nui-ariki. 7 

taua anau o Pou-Ariki ko ratou tetai i kake ki runga i te takere-pai. 
Ko Iro, kua kau aia, vao atu ra nga tuakana e etai mai taiigata ki 
nmg^ i te tahere vaka. 

Kua kau ra a Iro, e tae roa atu ki te enua. Tae mai aia ki te enua 
kua p6, kua kake atura ki uta, aere atu ki roto i te enua e tae atura 
ki tetai are maata, e kua kite aia ki reira i tetai tane e te vaine, ko te 
ingoa a taua tangata ko Marotane. Ko eia nga tangata nei e puke 
ti^i are raua. Kua tu mamao atura a Iro ma te akara atura ki a 
Marotane e te vaine, kua kite aia ia raua i te aereanga ki ta'tai ma te 
koikoi aere i te kopapa o tetai au tangata tei papanu ua mai ki uta, 
e aronga kua maremoia e te tai, no roto ratou i te vaka o Iro. Kite 
iora a Iro i reira e angaanga teia ka tupu, e kua manako iora aia ka 
aere aia ka uiui eaa te angaanga. Ei reira kua akameang^ti aia i aia 
uaorai, e kua aite ki te tamaiti iti ua nei ; ei reira kua aere atura aia 
ki te ngai e noo mai a Marotane. Kia kite mai a Marotane i aia, kua 
ui atu, " Taiti e, e aa, taau ? " Karanga atura a Iro, " I aere mai au 
i te tiki ai," Kua rave mai a Marotane i tetai ai, kua oatu na Iro, 
kua rave a Iro, aere atu, e kia tae aia ki tetai ngai kua tamate aia i 
taua ai ra e kua oki akaou i te tiki i tetai. Kia tae aia ki te pae o 
Marotane, kua ui atura, ** Taiti e, kua oki mai koe, e aa tena? " "E, 
kua oki akaou mai au, i toku aereanga kua mate te ai, omai ra tetai,*' 
Kua oatu a Marotane i tetai ai akaou, rave atura a Iro, aere atu e kia 
tae ki tetai ng^i kiia tamate akaou i taua ai, e, oki atura ka tiki tetai. 
Kua riri i reira a Marotane ma te tuatua, '' Tena akaou mai koe." 
Karanga atura a Iro, '* Kua mate akaou taku ai, e omai rai koe i 
tetai." Karanga atura a Marotane. " 0, 0, e tamaki tena." Kua 
oake rai i tetai ai akaou, ei reira te ui atura a Iro, '*E aa te angaanga 
ka rave, ka umutarakai ? " Karanga atura a Marotane, ** Te 
teateamamao nei au no te aereanga mai o Tane." Kua ui atu a Iro, 
**Teeaaia?" Karanga atura a Marotane, "Tei runga i te rang^." 
Ko Iro: ** Aea aia ka aere mai ei ? " Ko Maro : ** I teia aiai nei kia 
po tikai." Ko Iro: " E aa te akairo?" Ko Maro: "Kia rongo 
mai koe i te ngurunguru o te maungungu, e kia topa te ua e kia 
korapa te uira ei reira aia ka aere mai." Ka karanga Iro : '* Na 
teea ngutupa aia te tomoanga?" Ko Maro : "Ka na te ngutupa 
tapu, tena tei mua are." Ko Iro : "0, E, kua kite au ; ka noo 
koe ka oki au ki te kainga." 

Kua aere atura a Iro, ma te apai i tona ai, aere atura aia e kia 
mamao ra, kua tae atu aia ki tetai ngai rakau, kua tomo atura aia ki 
roto i taua ngai rakau e kua tamate i te ai, e kua noo ma te nkara i 
ta Marotane angaanga. Kua kite aia i te tauanga i te umu e te tuku- 
anga i te au kopapa o taua aronga i maremoia ki roto i te umu e te 
tapoki atura. Kare i roa ia, kua maoa te kai e kua k^kara mai, kia 
ongi a Iro i te k§,kara umu kai e mea reka tikai. 

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Kia poiri po tikai kua tamata te maungungu, kua korapa te uira 
e kua nga mai te rangi, ei reira kua kite a Iro i tetai mea tu ke te eke 
mai ra mei te rangi mai, e, tomo atura ki roto i taua are na te 
ngutupa tapu. 

Kua oti takere te kai i te ariki ia ki roto i te are. Kua tu a Iro 
kua aere atu ki te are. Kua tu a Iro kua aere atu ki te are e kua tu 
ki mua i te ngutupa tapu, i reira kua akamaata takiri aia i tona tu, 
kua riro aia ei tangata maatamaata rava atu, ei reira kua noo aia ki 
raro kua takave i te are ki nga rima e nga vaevae. Ko te or a teia kua 
anoano te vaine a Marotaue i te aere ki vao i te mimi, kua tu aia ki 
runga e kua aere ki vao na te ngutupa-noa, kua teimaa roa tona mata 
no te moe, kia tae atura ra ki vao, kua ara tikai, akara akera aia kua 
kite aia i tetai apinga te purapura ua mai ra i roto i te poiri, kua oro 
aia ki roto i te are ma te kapiki, " Tera tetai apinga tei vao." Kua 
rongo a Tane i taua reo a taua vaine, kua ui aia, **E aa te tu, E maine?'^ 
Tera ta tera vaine- " Kia akara au e apinga te purapura ua ra mei 
te tua-veri, tena te marama meitaki mai i tera nei." Kua karanga a 
Tane, *' A, ko Iro tena, akua ko te mate ko te ora." 

Ei reira kua kapiki atui*a a Iro ** E rere ra ki te rangi." Ei reira kua 
tauru aia i tetai rima i reira na roto i te are i te opu ia Tane ; kite maira 
a Tane, e kua rere aia ki tetai tara o te are, ma te aru rai te rima o 
Iro ; oro atura a Tane ki tetai tara, aru atu rai te rima o Iro, pera ua ra 
raua, e, rere atura a Tane na roto i te titiro o te are e tae atura ki te 
rangi-tuatai ; aru atu rai a Iro ; rere atura a Tane ki te rangi-tuarua, 
aru aturai a Iro : mei reira rere atura ki te rangi-tuatoru ki te raiigi- 
tuaa ma te arumaki aere rai a Iro, e tae uatu ki te rangi-tuatini ; e 
te tomo nei a Tane ki te rangi-tuatini kua pa te rima o Iro ki te niaro 
tapu o Tane, kua mou, Karanga atura a Iro '* Kua mou koe iaku, ka 
pa au i a koe ki te rangi-tuatini nei." Kua kaku iora a Tane, 
karanga atura ki a Iro, ** Kia ora au, auraka koe e pa iaku e Iro, 
auraka e titiri iaku ki raro, e vao koe iaku ei atua noon, ka tuku au i 
te rangi noou," Ei reira kua tuku a Tane i te rangi ki a Iro ma te 
tuatua, " Noou te rangi, tera mai te taonga ariki ki toou rima, tera 
mai te onu e te vaevae-roroa, tera mai te tukaa, tera mai toou tuanga 
ariki ; ko koe te ariki o nga nuku e itu e kai koe, tera mai te rara-roa 
e te rara-tea, e ariki oe i te pa enua tinitini." 

Ora atura a Tane ia Iro e kua oki mai a Iro mai te rangi, koia oki 
te taonga ariki koia oki ko Iro-te-tupua ; ko te tuatau teia i riro mai 
tetai ingoa ou na Iro, ka a ingoa a Iro, i teinei, koia oki ko Iro-ma- 
oata, ko Iro-moe-roa, ko Iro-tua-veri, e Iro-te-tupua-ariki. Ko te 
tipapaanga o Iro ki vao i te are o Tane mei te veri te tu i mou ei tona 
ingoa Iro-tu-veri ki tetai papaki tangata. 

No tei riro mai te rangi mei roto i te rima o Tune i Te-rangitua- 
tini kua topaia e Iro i te ingoa i etai anna tamaiti e ko Ta-i-te-ariki 
(ko te taanga i te ariki ko Tane te aiteanga), ko Pa-i-te-rangi-tuatini 

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The Period of Iro-nui-ma-oaia and Tangiia-nui-atiki. 9 

(ko te pa^nga i te rima o Iro ki runga ia Tane i te rang^ tuatini) ; e 
ko Pa-ki-te-tua-kura-o-Tane. (Tera te aiteauga ko te paanga a Iro i 
te tua^kura o Tane i te tuatau i opu aia ia Tane ki runga i te rangi 
tuatini.) Ko te au ingoa teia o Pa-Ariki o Rarotonga ka tika kia 
rave aia i tetai o teia au ingoa. Ko teia Ta-i-te-ariki kua rave tetai 
oona metua kopu-tangata koia oki ko Tangiia i aia te tamaiti angai 
tikai nana e na Tangiia i topa i tona. ingoa ou koia oki ko Te-Ariki- 

Ka oki atura te tuatua ki te angaanga a Iro : Mei reira oki atura 
a Iro ki te enua o te metua vaine koia ko Akimano, e kua akakite 
atura ki aia i te ang^nga i tupu, to ratou aereanga ki te pai e tei 
tupu ia ratou e te tumu i oki mai aia, e tei rauka i aia, koia oki te 
rangi mei roto i te rima o Tane. Kua ui atura a Akimano i reira ki 
aia. ** Tei'ea nga ariki i aere kotou ? " Kua karanga atu ra a Iro, 
"0, tera rai kua akaruke au i te moana rai." Kua tuatua iora te 
metua vane, *' E oki E tama ! ki nga ariki, ko te tuatua kino i a koe i 
taau takingakino.'' 

Ooki atura a Iro i te aru i nga tuakana i te moana, aere atu ra, 
kua vaitata nga tuakana i te mate, kua un atu ra i te vaka, kua tu te 
pai, kua rave atura i nga tuakana ki runga i te pai ma te tangata 
atura tei toe mai, kua tau iora i te ai, no te mea kare rai e apinga 
tikai i ngaro ana mei roto i te vaka no te mea e vaka na nga atua, 
kua tamaanaana ia ratou ki te mura-ai, kua angai ia ratou ki te kai e 
era takiri atura ratou, ei reira kua tuku atura i tona tere kia aere ki 

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By Stephen Savage, Rarotonga. 


f Continued from page IJfi, Vol, XXV. J 

NOW, one day, Iro asked Akimano, '' Wliere does Pou-ariki go 
to ? " The mother said, " He goes to Ngana and Vaea to be 
instinicted in the karakta,^* ♦ Iro said, " I will go too." Akimano said, 
" Perhaps you will not be able to learn it." Iro replied, "Never mind, 
I will go." The mother said, " My son, stay here with me ; Pou-ariki 
has taken away your brothers and now you say you want to go also. 
No, stay with me." Iro replied, " No mother, I am going also." 

His mother gave in to his wish, and consented to his going. She 
prepared food for the journey, and after it was cooked placed it in a 
basket. In the evening Iro dressed himself, took his basket of food 
and gourd of water and, when dusk came, started oft on his journey. 

When Iro reached the place where Pou-ariki resided he found that 
he (Pou-ariki) and his sons were having their meal together with the 
priests, the instructors. Iro then went to the back of the house and 
hid, took some food out of the basket and ate it. After he had had 
sufficient, he sat and listened to his father and brothers conversing. 
He then went to the Are-vananga (or house of teaching) and reducing 
himself in size got into the double waU of the house [the house was 
made of kao (reeds) ] and hid there. He had not been there long when 
he heard the priests and pupils come in and commence the karakia. The 
priests began the instruction. Iro listened patiently and intently and 
learned all the karakia^ which he heard clearly from where he was 
hidden — he listened to every word that was uttered by the priests, and 
soon committed all the kartUcia to memory, not missing one sentence. 

It was at this juncture that the light in the house (candle-nuts) 
spurted twin flames ; Iro waited in his hiding place until morning, 
when Pou-ariki and the sons depai*ted to their house, leaving the two 

* InoantatioDB, prayers, ritual of oeremonies, &o., &o. 

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The Period of /rO'iiui'ma'Oata and Tangiia'nui'ariki. 11 

aged relatives in the house of instruction, that is to say, Ngana and 

Now Iro assumed his natural size and came out of bis hiding-place 
and entered the house, and seated himself upon the seat reserved for 
pupils receiving instruction in karakiay he took up the kaara and the 
pau (drums) (he having learned all the karakia that had been imparted 
by the priests to Pou-ariki and his sons, but they could not commit it 
to memory) and commenced to beat the kaara upon the kaara and the 
paUj that which he had learned. These two instruments became his 
mouth -piece (medium) through which he disclosed and gave out all 
that he had learned. 

The two aged priests, Ngana and Yaea, who were his grandfather 
and great-uncle respectively, were astounded because no mistake was 
made in the rendering of the karakia. They exclaimed, " Who are 
you ? " Iro replied, " I am Iro ! " The tupunas asked, " Are you 
that Iro of whom we have heard so much ? " He replied, " Even so." 

Ngana and Vaea said, ** Come close to us." Iro immediately went 
close to them ; they then said, " Tura your back to us that we may 
feel it." Iro did as he was instructed, and Ngana and Vaea felt his 
back, running their hands up and down over the skin, and in their so 
doing the skin crackled like a new made mat being folded. They 
exclaimed, " Thou art indeed a wonder ! Thy back feels like the sacred 
cloak of Bongo-ma-tane for smoothness and strength ; thou art indeed 
a wonderful man that you have been able to learn the ceremony we 
have been teaching Pou-ariki and his sons for some time, and they 
have not yet learned it, but you have only just come, and yet you have 
learned it. Was it because of your presence that the flame of light 
spurted twin flames ? " Iro replied, " Yes." 

After this Iro received full instruction in all the karakia which he 
quickly learned ; one instruction being sufficient. 

One day, whilst Iro was seated on the door-step of the house of 
Ngana and Vaea (they were not aware that he was tl^ere) he heard 
the two old men sighing and expressing wishes (for food) because they 
were both hungry ; one was saying to the other, " Why, my brother t 
should we hunger ? Oh, if we only had sweet food from all places — 
if we only had the tumuanae (edible plant of sweet relish) and the eke 
(squid or octopus) and* the heaps of 61 (edible roots) and all the ripe 
foods, the flesh and fat of the land. Oh, who is there who will satisfy 
our craving and hunger so that we may eat of the heart of Moekiri 
and the essence of Irimango^ and the sweet flavoured cabbage Te 
Mangarea.'^ (This should be rendered as follows for the old men 
chanted their longing in a mournful song : — ) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


** The sweet flayoured cabbage Te-Mangfarea, 
The sweet mussels at Te Patiti 
The breadfruit Tapetupetu 
The heart of the kava Tupatai — 
Oh if we only had it to brew a drafts— 
A draft of full essence — 
The heart and flesh of the pig Moekiri 
If we only had ik to satisfy hunger — 
Oh could we but get these things 
We could spread out our gay bordered sleeping mats, 
Then roll up in our ^ordua mats 
And lie and sleep in content. 
Oh our clothes made of aoa'ikuf 
Would fit tight o'er our swelling insides 
Oh that would be joy supreme.*' 

When Iro heard this wish so expressed by his grandparents and 
saw them rocking themselves to and fro, he said to them, ** What are 
you two talking of?" They said, " We did not know that anyone 
was near.'' Iro again asked, ^' What is it that you two desire so 
much ? " They said, *' We did not say any thing." (They did not 
want to tell.) Iro then insisted, and said, "Come, tell me, I will 
obtain what you desire." They said to him, " These things that we 
wished for — there is death in obtaining them, and you cannot get them 
easily. There have been generations of men, and numbers of arikU 
killed in trying to obtain them, and now you tell us you can get them." 
Iro said, " Wliere is my father's spear — Pou-ariki's spear ? " They 
said, " There it is, that one over there." Iro took the spear from its 
place — this spear was the one that belonged to Moe-tara-uri, but Iro 
was not aware of this fact (for as yet he thought that Pou-ariki was 
his father), it was the weapon ' Tautu-te-nio-more ' that Moe-tara-uri 
had left with Akimano, who bad bad it placed in the sacred house for 
it was a sacred weapon. 

Iro departed to obtain all the things that Ngana and Yaea so 
earnestly desired ; that is the sweet flavoured cabbage, the mussels, 
breadfiniit, the heart of the kava plant Tuputai (one stem or one 
growth), and the pig Moe-kiri. He succeeded in obtaining the first 
three named without much difficulty, easily driving the guardians away, 
but, when he came to where the pig Moe-kiri was kept be met decided 
opposition from the two guardians — one named Yaere and one Taru 
who kept constant guard over the pig and kava plant. When Iro 
approached these two men were asleep, but the pig Moe-kiri commenced 
to grunt as soon as it saw Iro, whereupon Vaere and Taru sprang up 
in alarm and defended the animal. Iro killed both, and tlien killed the 

* Ancient sleeping mats now rarely seen. 

t Cloth made of the bark of banyan-tree ; which was a beautiful white soft 

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The Period ef /re^nyi'ma-oafa and Tangiia^nui-ariki. 13 

pig, and afterwards dug up the kava. He then got an amo (carrying 
pole), tied the pig Moe-kiri on one end (rear end) and the kava and 
bodies of the two men on the other, together with other things he had 
obtained previously on tlie other end, and then carried them home to 
Ngana and Yaea, depositing the load on the paepae (open space in 
front of house) before their house. And, when the two old men knew 
that Iro had returned, having succeeded in obtaining all the things 
they had longed for, they bowed down and exclaimed, " Iro will surely 
become a great warrior ! " They were taungas (priests) and knew. 

When the things had been deposited on the paepae, Iro went away 
to get firewood and rau-tdd (leaves for covering an oven) and brought 
them; each bundle of wood was sufficient for eight ovecs, the same 
with the rati' tad. Then Iro cooked the food, and prepared the kava. 
This was the manner in which Iro prepared the kava : he first bruised 
it, then chewed it and ejected the juice into a kwnete {kava bowl), and 
each mouthful of juice filled a bowl to the brim. 

Now Pou-ariki and his sons heard of the doings of Iro, and they 
came to see if it was true. When they came to the abode of Ngana and 
Vaea and found that all they had heard was true, Pou-ariki became 
very angry with Iro ; he considered that Iro should have brought these 
things to him and not to Ngana and Vaea — they should have been 
placed upon his paepae and left there. He then slapped his knees and 
exclaimed, "These knees are not responsible for the man ! "* When 
Iro heard this insulting remark uttered by Pou-ariki he felt much 
grieved and ashamed, but did not show it. This was the first hint that 
Iro received that Pou-ariki was not his parent. 

Now Ngana and Vaea, on account of much fasting had lost 
consciousness, but Iro revived them ; he then carried them down to the 
stream and washed both and made them clean, then took their mats 
and clothes down to the stream and washed them, for the bodies of the 
two old men and their sleeping mats and clothing were covered with 
offensive matter. After washing the mats and clothes Iro spread them 
out to dry, and then carried Ngana and Vaea back to the house — to 
the place where they were accustomed to sit, and then prepared to 
almoin t their eyes for both were blind. 

Iro climbed a coco -nut tree, picked some nuts and descended, 
husked them and selected two, which he split into halves and placed 
one half of each nut over each eye of the two old men, and they 
received their sight and they now beheld Iro. 

Iro now opened the ovens and gave each man his share, placed the 
kava before them and said, " Farewell my grandparents, remain in 
peace, I am going." They begged him to stay, but Iro, who was 
smarting under the insinuation of Pdu-ariki, would not listen to their 
entreaties. Iro departed to his mother. 

* This is an indirect translation, being modified to suit the occasion. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


PART ni. 

NOW Iro went home to bis mother Akimano and said to her, 
** Who is my father ? " The mother replied, " Pou-ariki is your 
father." Iro said, " That is not so ; tell me who is my real father." 
The mother again replied, " Pou-ariki is your father." Iro asked a 
third time and received the same answer. He persisted in this question 
for two days, then Akimano thought that Pou-ariki must have said 
something to this, her son, therefore she said, '* It is true, oh my son I 
you have a father, his name is Moe-tara-uri of Vavau." Iro then 
exclaimed, *' So I have a father! Why did you conceal this fact from 
me ? " Akimano said, " What did Pou-ariki say to you ? " Iro replied. 
'*He slapped his knees and exclaimed, this son is not from these knees, 
if he was he would know to whom to render obedience and duty." 

On hearing this Akimano cried, and after a little time dried her 
tears and turning to her son, said, '* It was when the moon was one 
and three nights old (iro-ma-oata) that your father Moe-tara-nri came 
to me and that is why you are named Iro-ma-oata." Iro said to his 
mother, " Why did you hide this from me and not tell me who my 
father was ? Now this is what I have to say to you : I am going to 
build a canoe and then go and search for my father." Akimano agreed 
to this, so Iro went away and searched for a suitable tree, found one, 
and cut it down ; the name of that tree was "Tavai-nui-a-Yaea." 

Now the gods saw all this, and seeing that Iro purposed building 
a canoe, they came and performed the work for him. They were the 
builders of this canoe. They were the gods that Moe-tara-uri had left 
with Akimano ; they were the same gods who restoi*ed him to life 
when his elder brothers killed him. These elder brothers were named 
Iku-toto, Iku-taketake, Iku-tauira and Meamea-iku. After the gods 
had completed the canoe they called it * Te Tiarapa-i-te-tai-niii-o- 
Vavau,' (the conqueror of the stormy seas of Vavau) it was a most 
beautiful and wonderful vessel. 

Iro now prepared for his voyage. Pou-ariki and his sons heard of 
this projected voyage and of the canoe that the gods had built ; that it 
was a wonderful vessel and had been named * Te Tiarapa-i-te-tai-nui- 
o-Vavau,' they therefore came to see the vessel and found it true as- 

Iro had now finished his preparations for the voyage, when his 
brothers requested him to allow them to accompany him, to which Iro- 
consented. The food and other things required were placed on board,, 
and Iro, taking his gods with him, set out on his expedition. When 
Iro's canoe had got well out to sea, he said to his brothers, " I am now 
going to sleep for six moons so do not wake me, for after that I will 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Period of Iro-nui-ma-oaia and Tangiia-nui-aHki. 15 

remaiii awake for six moons (months)." Hence the tradition that Iro 
slept for one winter, and it was from this fact he received the name of 
Iro-moe-roa (Iro-the-long-sleeper) . 

Iro went to sleep, and the expeditioa sailed far out to sea, when 
two bii*ds visited the vessel and alighted upon the masts. Iro's 
brothers caught and killed the birds and removed the intestines, and 
then awoke Iro. When Iro awoke and found out what had been done 
he said to his brothers, "Why did you do this thing — why kill these 
birds? they are Tane's messengers, and how are we to restore them to 
life again ? Through this evil act of yours disaster will overtake our 
expedition." Iro then exclaimed, " If it is life, it is life — if death, it 
is death." (This may also be rendered " whether for life or death.") 
Iro's brothers exchanged glances one with the other. Iro then took the 
bodies of the two birds and selecting certain stones placed them inside 
the bodies to act as intestines, their natural ones having been removed 
and thrown overboard by his brothers. After placing the stones in the 
bodies he performed an incantation over them, so restoiing life to the 
birds, he then made them fly away. The birds flew away, but not as 
birds naturally fly, they were lopsided. Iro now resumed his sleep. 

In the meantime the birds flew away and eventually reached their 
master Tane and alighted before him. Tane looked at his messengers 
and noted that something was amiss with them ; he therefore asked 
them, " Who has been ill-treating you ? Was it the Tiu (east wind) 
or the Parapu (west wind) ? " The birds remained silent. Again Tane 
asked, ^* Who has been ill-treating you, was it the Tonga (south wind) 
or the Maoake (N.E. wind) ? " The birds answered not. Tane again 
asked, " Was it the Iku (8.W. by W. wind) or the Tokerau (N.W. 
wind) ? " Still the birds remained silent. Tane then named all the 
winds, but the birds made no reply ; at last he exclaimed, " Disclose 
who has been molesting you ! Was it the mischievous sons of Pou- 
ariki ? " The birds nodded their heads in assent, and immediately 
fell down dead. Tane then knew that the sons of Pou-ariki had been 
molesting his birds. 

Tane went and called upon the miBchievous children of Raka- 
maomao,* he called upon the Tiu, the Parapu, the Tonga, the Maoake, 
Akarua and the Tokemu and exorted them saying, " Go and destroy 
those sons of Pou-anki." 

Tiie winds sped upon the mission indicated by Tane, and caused a 
temflc hurricane to spring up that churaed the sea into a seething 
mass. Iro's brothers became afraid of the storm and at once awoke 
Iro. Iro got up and saw that it was indeed a fierce hurncane, nothing 
like it had been known before; he then said to his brothera, " This is 

* With the Maoris of New JZe»land this is one of the gods of the winds. — 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


the result of ycmr evil tricks, and for molesting the birds we are likely 
to die. For mysdf I fear not, but for yon I fear the worst ; yonr 
attempts to destroy me will end in yoor own destmction.'^ Iro had 
hardly finished speaking when great waves broke over the canoe, which 
overtamed it, and the people were precipitated into the sea and had no 
means of saving themselves. Many managed to get on the overtamed 
canoe, amongst them were the sons of Poa-ariki. As for Iro, he swam 
away leaving his brothers and the others on the overtamed canoe. 

Iro swam antil he came to a land ; it was dark when he reach 
shore. As soon as he landed he walked inland and came to a large 
hoose and there saw a man and woman ; the man's name was 
Marotane. These two persons were the honse gaardians. Iro stood off 
at Some distance and watched Marotane and his wife ; saw them go 
down to the beach and gather up the bodies of those who had been 
drowned. These bodies were some of the people who belonged to Iro's 
canoe, which had been washed up on the shore. Iro then knew that 
something was about to be done and intended to investigate, so he 
rednced himself to the size of a small boy and walked over to where 
Marotane was. When Marotane saw him he said, " Well my boy what 
do you want ? " Iro said, " I have come for a fire stick." Marotane 
gave him a fire stick, and Iro walked away some distance and then 
extinguished the light and returned for more. When he again got 
alongside of Marotane — Marotane again said, " Well, my boy, so you 
have come back, what do you want now?" "Yes, I have returned, 
my fire stick went out, give me another." Marotane gave Iro another 
fire stick, who went away for some distance and again extinguished the 
light and returned again for another. Marotane now got angry and 
said, " Oh ! Oh ! what is the game ? " Iro said. " My stick went out 
agnin, but give me another." Marotane did so, when Iro said to him, 
" What are you preparing for, are you going to give a feast ? " 
Marotane said, ** I am preparing a reception for Tane." Iro said, 
" Where is he ? " Marotane said, " He is up in the heavens." Iro 
said, " When will he come ? " " This evening about dark." Iro asked, 
" What will be the sign ? " '* When you hear the rumbling of the 
thunder and see the lightning flash and the rain falls, that is the time 
he will arrive." Iro asked, " What door will he enter by 2 " " By 
the sacred entrance, that is at the front of |;he house." Iro said, '^ Oh, 
I see, well I must go home."* 

Iro went away carrying his fire stick, walking some distance until 
he came to a place where there were many trees ; he entered therein^ 
and extinguished the lighted fire stick and watched what Marotane 

* Readers will recogfnise part of the f^torj of Maui and Mahuika incorporated 
here, where the former goes to the tower regions to procure firfe iur. maiikmd. — 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Th9 Period of /rO'/iui-ma-oaia and Tangiia-nui-aHki. 17 

did. He saw the ovens lighted and the bodies of the drowned people 
pnt in, soon everything was cooked and the smell thereof reached Iro ; 
it smelt very sweet. 

When dark came on. the rumbling of the thunder commenced, the 
lightning flashed and rain fell. Iro saw some shape descend from the 
heavens and enter the house by the sacred door. 

The food ^had been spread out in the house. [One version gives 
this part as follows :— When Iro came to land it was dark; he went up 
to where Tane's house stood and there lay down in front of the door, 
his face towards the eartii. This was how Iro always lay when sleeping 
outside, in the attitude of a centipede, for his - back gave off a 
phosphorescent glow like that of a centipede at night. Iro had not lain 
tliere long when Tane's wife came out to urinate, she came out of the 
house heavy with sleep, and not seeing Iro, urinated on his back. She 
now became fally awake and noticed something glistening in the dim 
light of the night, something that resembled a centipede; she 
immediately fled into the house and awoke Tane, saying, ** There is 
something outside of our door." Tane asked, *' What is its appear- 
ance? " His wife replied, '^Something that glistens like a centipede, 
you can see it now clearly outside," Tane said, ** That is Iro, it is a 
matter of life or death to me."] 

Iro called out from outside, "Leap up to the heavens, Tane! " 
Iro now entered into the house and Tane fled to one end, followed 
by Iro, who chased Tane all about the house. At last Tane fled 
through the out-look* of the house up to the first heaven, etc. 
Iro stood up and went to the house and stood at the entrance — 
where the sacred door was ; he then increased his size until he was 
of immense stature ; he then sat down in front of the house and 
embraced the house with both legs and arms. It was at this time that 
the wife of Marotane desired to urinate, so she got up and went out 
by the common door, her eyes were heavy with sleep, while she was 
outside she became awake and noticed something glowering in the 
darkness, she immediately ran into the house and called out, ** There 
is something outside." Tane heard and asked, *'What is its 
appearance ? " The woman said, " Something that glowers like the 
back of a centipede, you can see it clearly now." Tane said, "A! that 
is Iro, it is a matter of life or death to me." 

Iro now called out, ** Leap up to the heavens " (escape if you can), 
and forthvrith thrust an arm into the house to capture Tane, who 
leaped and dodged from one end of the house to the other to escape. 
At last Tane leaped out through the opening in the gable end of the 
house up to the first heaven. Iro pursued him there. Tane leaped up 

^Out-look : This means a window or opening made in the guble end of the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


to the third heaven, then the fourth and so on, pursued by Lro, and 
was just entering the tenth heaven, or greatest heaven, when Iro 
caught hold bf his m&rb (sacred waist cloth) calling out, •" You are my 
captive, I am going to cast you down — smite you here in the greatest 
heaven." Tane begged for mercy, and cried out to Iro, '*Let me live, 
O Iro ! Do not cast me down, I will be your god, I will deliver over to 
you the supremacy/* and Tane forthwith delivered over to Iro the 
supremacy, saying, " Yours is the supremacy, I now deliver to you 
the title of ariki, I give you the right over the turtle and man flesh, I 
give you the right over the tuikaa (pet pigs), and over human flesh ; 
here is your ariki food portion, you are the ariki of all the bind — to 
you I deliver the* seven lands fnga nuku e itu e kai koej to eat 

Iro spared Tane and returned with the rangi (supremacy) and title 
of ariki (Iro-te-tupua-ariki). It was at this time that Iro received 
his new name, that is, Iro-te-tupua-ariki. He now had four names, 
i.e., Iro-ma-oata, Iro-moe-roa, Iro-tua-veri, and Iro-te-tupua-ariki. f 

It was becaude of his conquest of Tane at ** te-rangi'tua-tinij'^^ the 
greatest heaven, that Iro in after years named one of his sons by 
three names, namely: Ta-i-te-ariki (the smiting of the ariki), 
Pa-i-te-rangi-tua-tini (hurling down from the greatest heaven), and 
Pa-ki-te-tua-kura-o-Tane (grasping hold of the sacred red back of 
Tane). These are the names that Pa-ariki of Earotonga may use. 
This same Ta-i-te-ariki was some years after adopted by his relative 
Tangiia-nui, who called him Te Ariki- upoko-tini. 

To return to Iro's exploits : Iro wont back to his mother Akimano 
(how he got there the story does not state) and told her all that had 
happened to his expedition since leaving, and the reason of his return 
and of his conquest of Tane. Akimano then asked, " Where are the 
ariki'' 8 sons who went with you ? " Iro said, " ! They are still at 
sea." His mother said, '*Eeturn at once to them or you will be 
spoken evil of and accused of their death." 

Iro went after his elder brothers at sea ; when he came upon them, 
he found them near to death, he righted the canoe and got his 
brothers and remaining crew on board, lit a fire on the hearth-stone 
(nothing had been lost out of the canoe for it was a canoe of the gods) 
and warmed them and gave them some food, so that they thoroughly 
revived, and then proceeded on his journey to search for Vavau. 

*Thi8 is where Kainuku -ariki derives hisaame of Kai-nuku, this name was 
given to the first man who bore ttiat name by Ta-i-te-ariki at Rarotonga after his 
election to the title of ariki by Tangfiia at Rarotonga. 

t In the New Zealand History of Whiro (Iro) he is sometimes named Whiro- 
te-tupoa-manatu. — Editor. 

fTo he continued. J 

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By THE Ebv. Hobta Te Hata of Waitahantji. 
Translated by the Ebv. H. J. Fletcher, Taupo. 

f Continued from page 16gy Vol. XXV.) 



Werewere |-j^ ^^^ many references that Lave been made from 

^^^* time to time to Tuwharetoa in the ** Journal of the 

Rangi-ka-whiwhi Polynesian Society" and other publications, the 

Tutamahutathe2iid eponymous ancestor of Ngati-Tuwhai-etoa is the 

TeAwhina only one mentioned. There are several men on. 

Te Rangi-tu-noii the Taupo genealogies with the name Tuharetoa, 

Rangi-Taua as Hoeta prefers to spell it. The genealogy of 

Kepa-Te-Ahura, Tuharetoa-a-Turiroa of Ngati-Kurapoto is as in the 

whose age was . ^ 

about 67m 1916. margin . J 

TUHAEETOA'S pa was Pimui [three miles], to the south of 
Tapuae-haruru, north end of Lake Taupo. This man, 
Tuharetoa-a-Turiroa belonged to Ngati-Kurapoto. He was a brave man 
although he fled when he met Te Ata's war-party at the time his wife 
was taken. Some time afterwards he went to one of his dwelling 
places called Pahautea. [A piece of bush on the south side of the 
Napier-Taupo road, and on the Taupo side of the Eangi-taiki river.] 
He spent some time there preserving kakas (parrots). His companions 
were his daughter and a slaye. The daughter's name was Tawhanga- 
rangi, and at that time quite young. One evening he returned to 
the dwelling place with his daughter and their slave, and when they 
arrived he told the slave to pluck some of the kakas, kindle a Are and 
roast the birds. The birds were soon ready, the fire blazing, the birds 
spitted and roasting at the fire for they were very fat. As soon as they 
were cooked they were taken to one side and before long they were 
eaten. While eating the girl said she was thirsty. Again, not long 

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after they had finished eating, she cried out for water. By this time it 
was getting dark, and when Tuhare-toa told the slave to go and get 
some water he took no notice. He was asked again, and again he did 
not obey. By this time it was quite dark, and the nearest water to 
the camp was the Eangitaiki river. 

At last Tuharetoa picked up a calabash and started off to bring 
some water from the river. As soon as he returned the girl had a 
drink, and when she had finished Tuharetoa said to the slave, ** There 
is some water for you." The slave said, ** I am not thirsty." So the 
calabash of water was placed on one side. When it was bed time 
Tuharetoa lay down to sleep, and the girl also, and before long his 
nose was snoring. He did this to deceive the slave, so that he might 
think he was overcome with sleep. 

As soon as the slave thought, by the snoring of the nose, that 
Tuharetoa was sound asleep, he arose and dipped his hand into the 
calabash, for he was not able to lift it and drink [in the usual way]. 
When Tuharetoa heard the noise made by the throat of the man- as he 
was drinking, he stood up and said to the slave, '* You were not at all 
thirsty when you were preparing the birds." 

Tuharetoa thrust a spear into him and killed him for his refusal to 
fetch water for them. 

When Tuharetoa had finished his work there he returned to his pa^ 
Ponui, and dwelt there. 

By this time the children of Waitapu and Te Rangi-ita had 
reached man's estate and they were acquainted with Maori customs. 
These children were the boys Tamamutu, Manunui, Meremere, and 
Tutetawha. On one occasion Urutaraia was using a net in the sea 
[lake] for the purpose of catching inanga. Tutetawha went on board 
the canoe that was carrying the net and paddled to the place where it 
was to be used. The net was to be pulled ashore. The net was cast 
into the water some distance from the shore and then dragged ashore, 
bringing the fish in front of it. 

As the ends of the net were brought close to the shore so the 
inanga came too and the stretchers stirred up the fish to the top of the 
water. Urutaraia jumped out of the canoe to press down the bottom 
line of the net, bending his head and fixing his eyes on the surface of 
the water. At the same time Tutetawha picked up some stones for 
the purpose of coaxing the inanga back into the net. He threw a stone 
outside and it fell in the place where the eyes of Urutaraia were fixed. 
The splashing of the water wet the whole of Urutaraia's face. He 
looked up and saw that Tutetawha had thrown the stone. He at once 
said to Tutetawha, ** E Taurekareka mate ngaro,** He also said- to 
Tutetawha, ** There is your man, Tuharetoa of Ng^ti-Kura-poto." 
Tutetawha wondered why Urutaraia had said this to him, and the 
reason of the saying. They finished their work, and when it was 

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The Ngaii'Tuhareioa Oecupation of Taupo-nui-a-Tia. 21 

evening returned to Maraekohai, where Te Bangi-ita and Waitapu 
were living. When Tutetawha arrived he told his parents about the 
words that Urutaraia had said to him. ** His words were tbese : 
* Taurekareka tnate ngaro, ina to tangata ko Tuharetoa.^ What is the 
meaning of these words ? " Waitapu replied, ^' The meaning of the 
woi*ds of Urutaraia are : * The death of Te Ata-inu-tai has not been 
avenged ' You had better go to your relative, Whitipatato at 
Maunga'-tautari, and arrange to avenge the death of your grandfather 
Te Ata." So Tutetawha understood the reason of the taunt of 
Urutaraia. Te Ata's death had not been avenged. 

Tutetawha went off to bring Whitipatato and others of Ngati- 
Eaukawa to carry out this duty. When he arrived at Maunga-tautari, 
Whiti was not at home, but on enquiring of Whiti's mother, she said 
that he was not far away and would be back soon. Whitipatato arrived 
in the evening, and as soon as he saw Tutetawha he asked for the 
reason of his visit. Tutetawha replied, " I have come to you about the 
death of Te Ata-inu-tai ; he has not been avenged." Whiti and all 
Eaukawa as far as Kawhia bestirred themselves to avenge the death 
of Te Ata. 

Whiti-patato came on slowly, but Tutetawha hastened to tell 
Waitapu and Te Rangi-ita. As soon as he arrived at Maraekohai 
he told them that Whiti-patato and [some of] Ngati-Raukawa were 
on their way. When Waitapu and Te Rangi-ita heard that they 
were on the way, they sent a man to tell them to come to Maraekohai 
and they, could go on from there by canoe. When the messenger met 
Whiti and his party, Whiti at once asked the reason of his coming. 
The man said, "The word of Waitapu and Te Rangi-ita; they said 
to me you should go by Maraekohai and on canoes to Ponui." Whiti 
considered that if he went by canoe the news of his coming would 
travel quickly, and secondly, perhaps Te Rangi-ita might try to keep 
him. So he said to the man, **I am not going by that way. Me 
tihoi noa ake he htiarahi moku.*^ Hence the name "Tihoi." [There is 
some confusion in the minds of the Maoris here about this saying of 
Whi^i-patato. There is a large block of land known as ** Tihoi*' to 
the north of Maraekohai. The writer derives the name of the block 
from the above saying. Other authorities maintain that the name of 
the block is older than the time of Whiti. The words are explained 
to mean, * My path must be a hidden or secret one.' This translation 
agrees with the context.] 

Whiti and his party went on overland until they came near to the 
Ngati-Kurapoto pa. It was getting on towards evening as they came 
near the pa. So Whiti said to his party, that is to say, to those of 
Ngati-Raukawa ; ** You remain Jiere and I will go and have a look 
at the pa of Tuharetoa." The party camped on the spot, Whiti with 
ten of his companions went on until they came to the brow of the hill. 

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From the top they saw the pa, and the canoes out on the sea [lake] 
catching inanga (Oalaxius atteiiuatus). Aknost at once Whiti heard 
the cry of men in the pa, calling out that there was a man on the top 
of the ridg^. As soon as Whiti heard the cry he stood quite still, 
without moving or turning or attempting to sit down, but just leaning 
on his taiaha. His companions were lying down below him. [While 
standing there] his legs were so badly bitten by sand-flies that he 
called to some of his men to scratch his legs. 

After a time Whiti called to his friends for one of them to stand 
up in order that he might sit down. [This was done by one man 
crouching behind him and gradually rising to a standing position and 
then Whiti sank down into the fern and moved away.] This was. 
done several times, so that the men of the place were completely 
deceived. They said it is not a man ; perhaps it is a tL If it had 
been a man he would have moved. The people were deceived, they 
were quite wrong. [The exact site of this incident is disputed. 
There are two ridges, and each ridge has its strenuous supporters. 
One side maintains that the spot was the top of a ridge almost due 
north of the pa ; the other side support the claims of a ridge to the 
north-west. The line of approach makes the latter the most probable.] 
At sunset all the men of the place assembled at the pa Poiiui. Tute- 
tawha came to his abode at Hapuawai, a place a little to the north of 
Ponui, but when it was evening he went up into the pa ; for he knew 
it would be entered by the war-party that night. It had been 
arranged between him and Whiti that the pa would be assaulted at 
dawn. In the middle of the night the attacking party came close to 
the pa. The sentries were on duty through the night and were 
changed frequently. The tatia were listening to the sentries and 
waiting for the appointed signal. 

It came to Tutetawha's turn, and he stood up and sang th& 
following words : — 

Ko po, ka po, ka ao, ka ao. 

I te ahatanga, I te kimihanga, 

I te whare nui no Ton^ifameha. 

Kai te ngaru puke, kai te ngtiru hohora. 

Ki te tihi, kai te pari. 

Ejii Matanuku, kai Matarangi 

Nohoanga atua, atua tahae, 

Whakamataku tahi au nei 

Te nini hau, te paratahae. 

Whakarong^rongo ana te taringa. 

Ko nga takitaki o te pukohu 

O te ngahere o te wao nui a Tane. 

He kiwi, he weka, he toko kokako. 

Ko te whauau a Kuratongia. 

Kia hara mai ana Maui hanga rere. 

Tona taokete, taua hunuhunu 

Waewae huruhuru kuri, au, au, ka hei tan. 

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The Mgaii'Tuhareioa Occupaiien of Taupo-nui-a-Tia. 23 

[The song is an ancient composition, old at the time of the 
incident. It was adapted for the occasion to direct Whiti-patato 
where to find the man he sought. A version of this ancient song is 
printed on page 107 of Sir G. Grey's Maori Poems. Another version 
is on page 1 19 of Vol. XVII. ** Poljmesian Journal."] 

When Tutetawha had finished his song he came out of the pa^ 
and returned to his own dwelling at Hapuawai. 

Wliile he was singing in the pa^ Whiti was carefully listening 
outside, and he knew by the words of the song, that Tutetawha was 
telling iiim that Tuharetoa was not iu the pa^ but he was at 
^' Matanuku and Matarangi." This cave is one with two openings in 
the cliff below the pa. The lower entrance is named Matanuku, the 
upper one Matarangi. This cave was Tuharetoa's sleeping place. 

It may have been that when Tutetawha was at Maungatautari, he 
told Whiti all about the cave, and how Tuharetoa was in the habit of 
sleeping there. 

Just as day began to dawn the pa was entered and taken. Whiti 
ran to one entrance of the cave and Tuharetoa escaped by the other 
and ran along the beach and got out to a rock in the lake. He then 
called out, "Who is the leader of the taua ?" Whiti replied, ** I am, I, 
Whitipatato ; the man who has been raised to avenge the death of Te 
Ata-inu-tai.*' As soon as Tuharetoa heard this he returned to the 
shore and stood in front of Whiti. He gave his patu, named 
*Parc^aro-houmea,* to Whiti. This patu has come down from the 
time of the death of Eango-Hape and his companions. Tuharetoa 
gave this weapon to Whiti as an instrument by which he might be 
killed, saying as he did so, " Here is your weapon." Whiti grasped 
the patu in his hand and struck Tuharetoa and killed him. When 
surrendering the patu to Whiti, Tuharetoa uttered the following 
proverb : ^'^ Mate, he mate, wareivare te kite i Opurukete." 

[Maori proverbs are often difiicult to translate, and when translated 
do not convey the idea of the original. A paraphrase is the nearest 
we can give to the intention of the speaker.] ** It is death, and I have 
acted as if I had forgotten all about Opurukete." 

The reason of this saying is : He would not have come to that 
pass if it had not been for Ngati-Tama and Poutu-te-Rangi and his 
people, who were killed at Opurukete and Hikurangi by Eongomai- 
huia, when Roro-i-hae was taken captive, and * Paroparo-houmea," 
the patu now used to kill Tuharetoa, was taken. 

After Tuharetoa liad been killed by Whiti, his head was taken and 
treated exactly as the head of Waikari had been treated. In this way 
the death of Te Ata-inu-tai was avenged, but Tuharetoa' s was not so. 

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Tuharetoa was descended from the ancestors of whom we hare 
spoken above. 












Te Awhina 



Kepa Te Aharu 

About 58 in 1916. 

[Tuamatua the first name on this list is the well-known ancestor 
of the Arawa people. This list is rather short, and possibly two or 
three names are missing between Ira-whitiki and Turiroa.] 

Now that we have told how the death of Te Ata-inu-tai was 
avenged we will tell about the children of Te !Rangi-Ita and Waitapu. 
Tamamutu went away towards the north and dwelt at Motutere. He 
built a pa there and called it Motutere. His first occupation after the 
completion of his pa, was to be a takahoa intimate (personal companion) 
to another man called Te Rangipatato. 

[Genealogical tables showing the connection of the leading 
characters in these stories, with the lines of descent from the Arawa, 
Tainui and Takitimu chiefs follow. 

These tables are partly from Hoeta te Hata's MSS and partly 
from MSS notes which I have gathered from the descendants of the 
characters of the stories. They have been compared and verified as 
far as possible with the published lists in the various Vols, of the 
Polynesian Society. 

Digitized by 


Th9 Kgaii'Ttiliareioa Oeoupaiion of Taupo^nui-a-Tia, 25 

1 HotnrtMi 








4 T^rongo 

7 Whakater« 


Te Atainutai 
9 Waitapu 







Te Heuheu Tukino 


2 Tamatea 




Te Rangitueha 

5 Mahinarangi 


8 Takihiku 




See Ut column 

3 Ngatoroirangi 








6 Tuwharetoa 







10 Te Rangiita 


^ ! 


See let column 

Another set of tables showing connection with East Coast tribes , 
is as follows : These are entirely from Hoeta's MSS, and they show 
Hoeta's descent from Kahuhunu, through the famous beauty Te 
Huhuti. The line is rather short, and it is possible that some names 

1. Hoturoa, captain of the ' Tainui ' canoe. 

2. Tamatea, captain of *Takitimu.* 

3. Ngatoroirangpi, priest of the ' Arawa.* These three canoes were part of the 
historic fleet which came to New Zealand about 1350 a.d. 

4 and 5. Turongo married Mahinarangi 

6. Tuwharetoa, the eponymous ancestor of Ngati-Tuwharetoa. 
7 aiid 8. Whakatere and Takihiku, two names for the same person. 
9 and 10. Waitapu married Te Rangiita the ancestor of Ngati-Rangpiita of 
Oruanui Taupo. 

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are missiog between Kahuhunu and Te Huhuti. A short line, 
however, should never be rejected because of its brevity, for it is 
well-known that men of sixty years and upwards have married girls 
of fifteen. Three of such unions occurring along the male line 
would unduly shorten that line and lengthen the female one. 

I Kahuhunii 


Te Huhuti 

2 Taha 








Hikawera (2) 


Te Awhina 


Hoeta, who ig about 78 years old (1916). 

The story of Te Huhuti and her swim across 
famous as the story of Hinemoa, but it is 








Te Whatuiapiti 
Hikawera (2) 
See line No. 4 

See line No. 2 

Te Roto-a-Tara is as 
almost unknown to 

This man, Te Rangi-patato, was a young relative of Tamamutu. 
One day he said to Tamamutu, ** Let us two go to my home at Roto- 
ngaio [on the e6wt side of the lake] to see my father Po-te-heuea." 
Tamamutu agreed to tlie proposal, so they started for the pa^ Te 
Rangi-patato carrying an inanga net. When they came to the cliff at 
Maniheke, Te Rangi-patato said, ** Let us see who can throw a stone 
to the top of the cliff, the one who cannot do so will have to carry the 
inanga net." Tamamutu having agreed to this, Te Rangi-patato 

1. Kahuhunu is another method of spellings Kahungfunu, the ancestor of 
Ngati-Kahungunu of Hawkes Bay and Wairarapa. 

2. Tahu is the same person aa we find g^ven hy Major Gudgeon on page 184 
of Vol. VI., " Polynesian Journal,'* as the ancestor of the various branches of 

3. Pakaumoana appears on page 157 of Vol. XIII., ^* Polynesian Journal " as 
belonging to Tangata- Whenua lines. The same reference confirms lines 5 and 6 and 
the latter part of line 4. 

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The Kgati'Tuharetoa Occupation of TaupO'nuf'Q-Tia. 27 

picked up a stone and threw it upwards with all his might. The 
stone just cleared the edge of the cli£E and fell on top. Tamamutii 
then picked up a stone and threw it towards the top of the precipice, 
but it fell back without reaching the top, so Tamamutu had to cany 
the net. 

[Maniheke is the name of the cliff on the edge of the lake, 
extending northwards from the Hineinaia river.] 

A little while after [the stone-throwing competition] Tamamutu 
said to Te Rangi-patato, '* Let us have a race." They ran along the 
sand, and Te Bangi-patato was left far behind, Tamamutu arrived 
first at Te Pirau, the pa at Roto-ngaio. When Po-te-heuea saw 
Tamamutu canying the net in his hand, he called out to him to hang 
it up over the entrance to the pa^ and Tamamutu did so. Po-te-heuea 
knew his son was coming on behind. 

Te Hangi-patato came on and entered the pa by the gateway over 
which the net was suspended. As soon as he had entered Po-te-heuea 
called out to him, **You have been shamed by your elder relative. 
Look up to the top of the gate- way by which you entered the pa.'''^ 
He looked up and saw the net, and understood that he had been 
shamed by Tamamutu. The reason why Po-te-heuea acted so as to 
shame his son, was because he was afraid of Tamamutu and what 
might follow through the fact of carrying the net. [According to 
Maori custom] it was not riglkt for Tamamutu the elder to carry the 
net for Te Bangi-patato the younger. 

When Tamamutu and his brothers Meremere, Manunui and Tute- 
tawha the 2nd, grew up, Tamamutu being the elder, he had the mana 
and skill in war, and all the accomplishments proper to a man of rank. 
He had mana over men and land. 

At the same time there grew up the children of Tuharetoa and 
Whanaurangi, Tukino and his younger brother Taipahau. They were 
grandchildren of Tuhereua. 

At the same time there were living some descendants of Ngati- 
Waipare, Te Rangi-ka-heke-i-waho and TeTawiri-o-te-rangi. These 
men were arikU from the line of Rongo-mai-te-ngaiigana. [This was 
a chief, a son of Tuwharetoa, he was killed at Kakatarae.] They 
were of equal rank, power and mana with Tamamutu. When the 
above were fall grown men, Whanaurangi, mother of Tukino and 
Taipahau, was killed by [some men of] Whanganui. Word was sent 
to Tukino and Taipahau. '^ The mother of you two has been killed by 
WhanganuL" The reason for this murder was not known. 

The two men and their sister Hokokai, had a tangi for their mother, 
and after tiie first sharpness of their grief had passed off, they began 
to think about avenging her death. Tukino said to his brother^ 
*'*' There is a man who has sufficient regard for us to help as avenge tlie 
death of our mother. Tamamutu and his brethren." As soon as the 

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meMeDger arrived he taid to Taauunntu, " I have come to yon to see 
if joa would go to avenge the death of Whanaurangi Takino and 
Taipahaa sent me to yon.'' 

On hearing this the war-party of Toharetoa, with Ngati-Waipare 
and warriors accustomed to bear arms, gathered togetiier at Tokaann. 
The war-dance was duly performed and tiien the party marched on to 
Manga-nni-a-te-ao. ['Die Manga-nni-a-te-ao is a tribatary of the 
WhanganoL It used to be one of the main high-ways to the interior 
of the North Island of New Zealand.] The ope took some of the pM» 
there, and Tutehoui and Tatewheriko were killed. 

Whanganui soon heard that there was a war- party in the valley of 
Manga-nni-a-te-ao harassing the people of that place, so Tu-rahni, 
Tohkura and Tamakana and party went to their asebtance, for the 
chiefo killed were of high rank. The Whanganni ope came to 
Ngakorake, for it was on tiie way by which Tamamutu and his ope 
travelled. This track was very precipitous, ladders were used to dimb 
the clilb. There was no other way, it was the only track, with ladders 
for the purpose of ascending and descending Uie dilb. At a certain 
place along the track Whanganui placed an ambush so as to intercept 
Tamamutu and all the other chiefs of Ngati-Tuharetoa. 

After they had finished the slaughter of the men of Manga-nui-a- 
te-ao tiiey began to return on their track by way of tiie cliffs, not 
knowing that the Whanganui chiefs were there. When they arrived 
at a certain portion of the track, the first man climbed up to the top ; 
he was immediately taken and killed by those lying in wait. Anotiier 
went up and was taken and killed in the same way; This went on 
until ten had been killed. The eleventh man saw what was taking 
place, so he turned back and told the rest tiiat a war- party was waiting 
above, and all those who had gone before him were kiUed. 

Tamamutu's party were much troubled at this, for tiiey perceived 
that their retreat was cut off. 

Tamamutu called upwards to Whanganui, '^ Ko wai U tangata o U 
00 marama?^^ "Who is the man of the world of light?" This 
question contains much more than appears on the surface. Tamamutu's 
question really meant: We are trapped. Who will enable us to 
escape ? Tohiora called down to him, ** I, Tohiora. Gome up." 

The war- party ascended the cliff and all gained the top, and found 
the ground covered with the war-party of Whanganui. As soon as 
they reached the top Turaliui spoke to Tamamutu. This is what he 
said, *' Taua, e, e hare a Tauheke ma e ea hi nga porotieke net, haere te 
nana au te haere atu na.^* Tamamutu replied, ** Haere ake, whaia 
rawatia e hoe hi te Jcopua kanapanapa,^^ When the exchange of words 
between Tamamutu and Turahui came to an end, Manunui strongly 
urged Tamamutu to attack Whanganui, but Tamamutu replied that 
the time was not opportune. 

Digitized by 


The Mgaii'Tuhareioa Oeoapat/M of Taupo^nui^a-Tia. 29 

I will now explain the meaning of the words used above — Taua^ e, 
this word is for the chiefs. Tauheke is for the arikis, and Porotieke for 
the ordinary person. Koptta kanapanapa is applied to the deep sea, to 
Taupo. Boto-a-ira is not a moana kopua kanapanapa, it is only a 
shallow lake, not deep enough for taniwhas to live in. 

[The real meaning of the diplomatic conversation between the two 
chiefs seems to have been : Tu-rahui said that it was not for Rangitiras 
and Arikis to avenge the deaths of common people. Tamamutu's 
reply meant : You follow us to Taupo and you will find a few taniwhas.] 

Tamamutu with his party of Tuharetoa and Ngati-Waipare 
returned to Motutere. 

Some of the waniors of Whanganui, under the leadership of 
Ta-rahui and Tamakana came on to Taupo and killed Te Tawiri-o-te- 
rangi and Te-Rangi-ka-heke-i-waho. These men were leading wrikis 
of Tuharetoa. 

It was the boastful words of Tamamutu and his challenge to 
Whanganui that led Tu-rahui and Tamakana to follow on to the 
kopua kanapanapa. 

News was brought to Tamamutu at Motutere that Tawiri-o-te- 
rangi and Te-Rangi-ka-heke-i-waho had been killed by Whanganui. 
He at once gave orders for the launching of * Te Reporepo.' It was 
soon afloat and filled with men, having according to Maoai counting, 
seventy doubled. This was the number the canoe generally carried for 
it was a very large one. As soon as the men were in their places 
they started to paddle, with Tamamutu as fugleman. Then was heard 
the steady swish of the paddles, and before long they were outside 
Motu-o-pa. [A precipitous headland on the eastern side of the lake, 
about twenty -six miles from the township of Taupo.] Tu-rahui stood 
up to listen, for he and his party had reached Motu-o-pa, and when he 
heard the noise of the paddles he knew it was ' Te Reporepo.' He at 
once commanded his people to start backwards. The Whanganui men 
went on to Tokaanu, at the south end of the lake, while the men of 
'Te Reporepo' landed at Waitahanui, for that was ihe paoi Te Rangi- 
ka-heke-i-waho and Tawiri-o-te- rangi. [Waitaha-nui was an old 
stronghold of Ngati-Tuwharetoa on the edge of the Taupo lake, about 
three miles from Tokaanu.] When they came ashore they were 
challenged in the usual way by those left in the pa. 

After the u$4ual ceremonies were finished the taua arranged their 
plan of campaign, and when this was settled Tamamutu rose up to 
speak about the coming fight. It was at this time these words were 
used : " TuharetoOy e, kia ata whakatere te waka, kai pariparia e te tai ; 
^no nenehu te kura net ; Whakamarotia atu ano, ka whakahoki mat ana ki te 
kapua whakapipi. Ka mate kainga tahi, ka ora kainga rua" [This proverb 
or string of proverbs may be rendered : Tuharetoa, be careful of the 
canoe, lest it be overwhelmed by the tide. Red is for burial. It is 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


frv/flk T^4aaB.ii i-A tie Tv 

ti^ k for wu I 'h^maA '^ 

wjM oomL^ Bt ti« txse Wlba&zKi^ n 

»rjrtiB»en ^A A tk^ RoC^^-^-irm ^^ake* Ta 

Wbea Wftaa^psvai amT«d at Ma{)i3«r£ki 

^>«S«i '>yf Pod-^is]^ Taiaaaita va* ai Pj«-aL 

kad n^ix^ Heretoa t>ii* paxtr >C Tiiar«.>4 wer» ai P« 

ta^o piaoea mrt abost tvo B5>a ap^rt, FapAraa a icart irscaaee aovtii of 

th^ preaeat JCaori i a l a/t eal>d ChokDo. BeraiM* yi tCH- cl5M •bo/re it.} 

At Heretoa tfe i^v mft or ^•ota perf smeii :be sfoal Ifjaoci ntes 
of dirinatioii, aad wbea &a»bed ^ p^:a:k<?d a dax Mf to exanuBe the 
abape of tlie plaee wiiere h had parted trom tk-e root. 'Hie ftfcaajia said 
tbat one partr aroold be kiLed. H£$ coaipfta:>a aaii ^ wms vroa^. the 
omen of the flax stalk waa goo^L T4>i Mf« Xol 1 brm^t his power to 
bear upon lua riral aad kiDed him for his interfereoee. 

Willie tfaer Whanganm were at Paparaa ther h«] aooae fDod. 
Tttrahm stood up to distribate some i»ar9 a small fish p**^l^y to 
Boto-a^ira^ He weat to his ovn people first, and br the tiane he 
reached Tamakaoa his iaara net was emptj. Tamakana »ud, '' There 
is nothing bat the net, there is no food tfaere.^ This was au intentional 
alight by TorahoL Just at this time Xgati-Toharetoa rosfaad npon 
them. Torahoi called oat to Tamakana to charge them, bot Tama- 
kana replied to Tarahai*s command, "* £ noko k^i ikm^ kirn kmere km 
rauJ*'* ['' fish eaters remain, net eaters are going.*'] Tamakana and 
his people fled and left Torahoi and his people to get their jaws braised 
with the weapons of Toharetoa. Not one of Torahai's people escaped 
the weapons of Ngati-Toharetoa. This ended the fighting against 
Whanganni, and then Tamamoto, Toharetoa and Ngati-Waipare had 
a rest. 

(7b he continued,) 

Digitized by 



AUGUST, 1916. 




By H. D. Skinner, b.a. 

IN his inaugural Presidential Address to the Association, Sir Arthur 
Evans dealt with the problem of the origin of modem European 
civilisation. The last two decades have seen the accumulation of so 
vast an amount of material of the Stone Age in Europe, that it is 
impossible for the student overseas even to keep in touch with the 
development of the story. Round this material there has grown up a 
voluminous controversial literature. The earlier part of Sir Arthur 
Evans' address included a masterly survey of the Reii^deer Period, and 
its Aurignacian, Solutrean, Magdelean, and Azilian subdivisions. 
These successive closing periods of the Palaeolithic represent on the 
whole a continuous story. Though present evidence indicates a gap in 
Western Europe between the Azilian and the Neolithic that follows it, 
we may be reasonably sure that some day somewhere the missing 
links will be supplied. ** It is clear that it is on this Neolithic 
foundation that our later civilisation immediately stands. But in the 
constant chain of actions and reactions by which the history of 
mankind is bound together no great human achievement is without its 
continuous effect. The more we realise the amount of progress of the 
men of the late Quartenaiy Age in arts and crafts and ideas, the more 
difficult it is to avoid the conclusion that somewhere 'at the back of 
behind * — it may be by more than one route and in more than one 
continent, in Asia as well as Africa — actual links of connection may 
eventually come to light. Of the origins of our complex European 
culture this much at least can be confidently stated: the earliest 
extraneous sources on which it drew lay respectively in two directions — 
in the Valley of the Nile on one side and in that of the Euphrates on 
the other." 

The later part of the address was concerned chiefly with the 
Minoan civilisation of Crete from which in turn have spining the 
civilisations of Greece and Rome. Even in the highly developed 
Minoan culture may be traced the enduring influence of Aurignacian 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Of special interest to students of Polynesia is Sir Arthur Evans^ 
conclusion that there was an Aurignacian cultural drift from Western 
Europe, north-east into Asia, where it may be traced in the art of the 
ancient Siberians and, perhaps, in the Siberians of the present day. It 
has often been suggested that this region has influenced America and 
the Pacific. Points in which the Maori culture resembled the 
Aurignacian are the painting of the dead with red paint before burial, 
the rock drawings and paintings in black and red, the use of the barbed 
bone harpoon or spear point with hole drilled in butt for lanyard 
attachment to wooden shaft, and the use of necklaces of Dentalium and 
other shells, living or fossil. These similarities lead us at once into the 
region of conjecture. Much patient study must be devoted to each of 
the cultural areas of the Pacific before it will be safe to venture wide 
generalisations on racial affinities, much less origins, in that region. 

The traditional is the only field in which the evidence of these 
points has yet been examined. An excellent example of study in the 
field of art and technology was supplied by Dr. Haddon's paper on 
Cultural Eegions in New Guinea. Taking the canoe as his basis of 
comparison, and examining especially the outrigger and its method of 
attachment, type of hull, and type of sail. Dr. Haddon was able to 
distinguish a number of cultural regions which exhibit corresponding 
differences in other respects such as presence or absence of pottery and 
its methods of manufacture, and in dialects. It could be wished that 
Dr. Haddon had included comparative examination of paddle, bailer, 
and prow carving, though these details are of more importance in the 
insular Pacific than on the New Guinea coast. It is interesting to note 
that Dr. Haddon's evidence points to a series of migrations south- 
eastward, and round the southern extremity of the island westward as 
far as Torres Straits. There is no evidence of any cultural drift 
southward or northward along the western coast. 

Dr. W. H. R. Rivers' paper on the distribution of the taro and its 
methods of cultivation was interesting as a contribution to the great 
controversy which only the war has been able to some extent to subdue 
on the question of the origin, nature, and distribution of the megalithic 
culture. The pugnacious attitude of Dr. Elliot Smith, the great 
protagonist of the theory of Egyptian origin, has aroused the fiercest 
storm that has ever swept the peaceful fields of Anthropology. Dr. 
Rivers pointed out that the distribution and methods of cultivation of 
the taro yielded strong evidence in support of Elliot Smith's theory. 

The papers by Mr. and Mrs. Scoresby Routledge outlining the 
results of their researches at Easter Island were of great interest and 
importance. Mrs. Routledge is able for the first time to throw some 
light on the nature of Easter Island script. Traditions were taught 
verbatim, and each tablet dealt with one tradition, each figure of the 
script being a reminder of a sentence or paragraph in the tradition. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

meeting of the British Association at Kewcastle, England. 33 

The great statues were erected along three roads from the quarries and 
on the ahu or burial plaoes, and appear to have been carved by the 
ascestors of the present people withiu recent times. Some of the ahu 
are o| a different type and are made of dressed stones to represent a 
canoe, the dead being buried in small chambers in the hull. The 
parallel with the method of the Morion and some other Polynesians is 
obvious. Each year received the name of the man who discovered the 
first egg of a migratory bird which rests on outlying islands. On some 
of the rocks overlooking the resting places there occur bas-reliefs of 
bird'headed men. Mrs. Routledge explains these as repi*esentation8 of 
the men who gave their names to the years. This explanation should 
be accepted with reserve when the bird-headed men, the manaia, of 
Maori art are remembered.* 

Owing to the absence of Dr. Hadlioka his paper on l^nspacifio 
Migrations was not read. Dr. Jenvon's paper on the Relationship of 
Magic and Religion dealt with highly debateable matter, and his 
clear-cut distinction between the two will not find general favour 
among field- workers. Miss Murray's paper on the Organisation of 
Witches in Medieval Times was of very great interest. Miss Ozaplicka's 
account of her investigations during a two years' stay in Siberia was 
interesting in itself and also as a part of the basis of any future 
examination of the queston of Aurignacian or other extraneous 
influence in America and the Pacific. Miss Freire Marreco's paper on. 
Personal Experience as a Basis of Folklore was a brilliant demonstra- 
tion based on American evidence of a source of folklore which must be 
remembered by every student of tradition. 

Dr. R. R. Marrett's Presidential Address to the Anthropological 
Section dealt with Anthropology and University Education. In a 
university all branches of anthropological study should be concentrated 
within a single school. The school should discharge two functions : 
it should impart to its students a thorough training in the theoretical 
sides of the different departments of anthropology, and it should train 
its students in methods of field work. 

Those papers which have no bearing on the problems of the 
Pacific I have not discussed. I should, however, mention that among 
those who contributed papers or took part in discussions were Sir 
Arthur Evans, Professor Ridgeway, Professor Boyd Dawkins, and 
Dr. Forbes, once Curater of the Museum at Christchurch, New 

* If Mr. and Mrs. Routledge claim to be the first to throw light on the nature 
of Baster Island Inscriptions, they are not quite right. Dr. Carroll of Sydney, 
has dealt with them in J.P.S., Vol. I., pp. 103, 233. As has also the Bishop of 
Axiere (Eastern Pacific), and Mr. W. J. Thompson, U. S. Navy, in Reports, 
National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, 1888-9.— Editob. 

Digitized by 




By Sidney H. Ray, m.a., f.b.a.i. 

CoHtimtedfrom poffe lOS, Vol. XXV. 

IX. — l^nswABT Island. 

THE Stewart's Island Atoll is situated on the eastern side of the 
Solomons, north-east of Mwala, or Malaita, in latitude 8^ 22' 
South, and longitude 162^ 44' East It now consists of a reef about 
six miles long, stretching from east to west, wiih a breadth of about 
two miles. There are four islands on the reef: Faole, Matuiloto, 
Mattiavi and Sikaiana. A fifth island Barena has been washed away 
since 1858, and is now only represented by a mushroom-shaped block 
of coral witii one or two coco-palms.^ All the islands are on the 
northern and eastern edges of the reef. The soil is coral rock or sand, 
there are a few mangroves along the shores, but unlike the Tasman 
and Mortlock Islands (Nukumanu and Tauu) there are no mosquitoes. 
The islands are Uiickly covered with coco-palms Sikaiana is ihe 
principal island, and the only one permanently inhabited. It is about 
a mile and a-quarter long and three-quarters of a mile wide.' 

The existence of Uiese islands was first made known by Pedro Fer- 
nandez de Quiros, the pilot of Mendana. On his second voyage to the 
Pacific in 1606, he discovered Taumako (Duff Group), and obtained 
there the names of more than sixty islands, among which was one 
named Ghikayana. A native of this island named Luka (baptised by 
the Spaniards in the name of Pedro) was one of four kidnapped by 
Quiros at Taumako, and from him Quiros obtained an account of 
Ghikayana and its productions.' 

1. Dr. G. Friederid. '* Sudaee-Inaeln." Mitt. d. GeseUa. f. Erdkunde zn Stnm- 
iHirg. J. 1911. Hft 2. Stnasborg 1912. p. 5. 

2. For the Geognphj of Sikmiana, etc, cf . Dr. G. Friederid. " Sudsee-Insdn,' ' 
and A. Ghejne. ** A Deecriptioo of Idanda in the Western Pkctfic Ocean." London, 

3. A. DaliTmple. '* An Histmical GoDection of Yojages." London, 1770-71. 
YoL L, pp. 145-174. P. Femandes de Qnelros. *' Historia dd Deacnibrimiento de 
las Regioneii Austriaks. Pnbbcada por Justo Zaragosa." 1876, etc., pp. 229-23. 
S. Porchas. '' Haklujtns Posthnmns, or Porchas his POgrimea.'' Glasgow, 1905, 
VoL XVTL, pp. 232-246. 

Digitized by 


Po/yo9sia/r Ungiiisiics, 35 

The island was discovered by Oaptain Hunter on a voyage from 

; Jackson to Batavia in 1791. It was visited by whalers during the 

. half of the nineteenth century for beche-de-mer, and Captain 

)yne spent nine months ashore there in 1847.^ It was also visited 

Dy Boyd in 1851,^ and by the Austrian frigate No vara during her 

voyage round the world in 18&8.^ Mr. Woodford was there in 1906,* 

and Dr. Friederici in 1909.* 

The people of Sikaiana form a healthy and prosperous community ^ 
which, in marked contrast to those of Tauu and Nukumano is not 
decreasing in number. The population in 1847 was 171; in 1912 it 
was 250. 

Physically the natives are said to be " almost pure Polynesians, but 
with a slight admixture of the Micronesian element."® Chejme says : 
"This little group is inhabited by a very hospitable and inoffensive 
race, who are of a light copper complexion."^ Scherzer describes them 
as "all fine, tall people, with full regular faces of European form. 
Their hair was black, thickly curled, but in nowise woolly. Many had 
it shorn off in such a way that merely a flowing tuft remained at the 
back.® Woodford refers to a mixture with Micronesian refugees. "The 
natives of Sikaiana are a tall race and resemble the Samoans or 
Tongans, but I noticed a few men of unmistakeable Micronesian type, 
and upon enquiry 1 was told that they were the descendants of the 
Kuria refugees who arrived more than a generation ago. The Gilbert 
Island type was quite unmistakeable, viz., long straight hair, high 
cheek bones, eyes looking down their cheeks, and generally sullen 

To Sikaiana belong the first words ever recorded of any Polynesian 
language. Quiros in his memorial to the king of Spain beseeching 
assistance for a new voyage, states that he collected a vocabulary of 
Chicayana from the native Luka (baptised Pedro). ' ^ This vocabulary 
and another of the language of Espiritu Santo, from a native named 

1. A. Cheyne. ** A. Description of Islands." 

2. B. Boyd. ** The Last Cruise of the * Wanderer., " Sydney. «. d. 

3. C. von Scherzer. ** Reise der Oesterreichischen Freg^tte Novara." 1861. 

4. C. M. Woodford. **Some account of Sikaiana, or Stewart's Island, in the 
British Solomon Islands Protectorate." Man. No. 103. 1906. 

6. G. Friederici. ** Siidsee-Inseln." 

6. CM. Woodfprd. Some account, p. 165. 

7. A. Cheyne. A Description of Islands, p. 52. 

8. C. von Scherzer. Beise II. p. 443. 

9. C. M. Woodford. Some account, p. 168. 

10. '* Uu puqueno vocabulario tengo, que es lo que pud6 juntar de las lengua^ 
de Pedro y de Pavlo ; lo que se. decir que es muy pronunjjiable." Zaragazo^ 
p. 235, cf. also Dalrymple and Purchas 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Pavlo, are lost, but a few words survive in the momorial of Qoiros.^ 
.They are : 

Totofe, an oyster. Of. 8. tofe^ H. toh'$'roay a shell fish. 

Vano/e, flesh of the oyster. (80 called from its resemblance to an 
eye ?) Of. m. kanohi^ eye. 

Care, shells for ear rings. Cf. 8. ^ale. 

Toafoa^ foafoa^ blue or black cloaks. Of. 8. t6fua^ a coarse wrapper 
of leaves. 

Tertta or terva, the devil. Of. 8.M. atua, god, etc. 

Tiouriy dog. The common Polynesian te kurij te kuli, 

Futiquilquily pearls. Cf. the common Polynesian fatu^ stone; s. 
*iluHlaf shining. 

Tr6($quey a greatly prized stone found in the mountains <^ 
Taumako.' This word I cannot identify. 

The word iaquila was used for a larg^ oyster (apparently Trtdacnu 
gigaSy the giant clam). This may be an Espiritu Santo word. In that 
island the word means a '^ pearl oyster.'' 

Vocabularies of the Sikaiana language have been published by 
Oheyne,^ Scherzer,^ and Woodford.^ Friederici has noted the terms 
used in navigation and a few other words,® and I also owe to him 
some MS. notes and a vocabulary collected on the island of MatuavL 
The grammar notes which follow, when not otherwise marked,^ are 
hased on Oheyne's phrases, but I have changed his spelling into a more 
regular system* 

Alphabet. — Vowels : a, e, t, a, w. Oonsonante: i, rf,/, y, A, it, /, 
w, n, p, r, *, t, v,u>. 

There is a good deal of variation in spelling by the various 
collectors. Friederici noted an interchange between / and r, and says 
that the men use f where the women use h, Oheyne alone uses th 
where others have t or s: thino for tino^ body ; atho for asoy day. The 
following words illustrate the variations in various vocabularies. 

Banana: hutiw.yjuti c; belly: manawa 8., manava w.; black: uri s., 
tf/tw.; cold: makalili w,, tnakaridi c; finger: motikao B.^motigau w,; 
head ; bosoulu 8., posoulu w. ; house : /ale 8. F., vale w., /are c. ; 
pigeon : lube w*, lupe C.F.; sea : tat 8., tahi w. ; rain : uwa 8., tMi w. F. ; 

1. Dahrymple, pp. 149, 158, 159, 156. Zaragoza, pp. 283. Purohas, pp. 235, 
241, 243. 

2. This word and the following^ one are not in Zaragosa^e reprint of the 
Memorial. He gives also totose for toiofe, einofe for tanofe^ tutiquilquil for fuHqu%l» 
^il, Mr. Woodford gives them as totose, einofe and titiquilqml. (On some little 
known Polynesian settlements, p. 39.) Toafoa may be a Meoarayla word. Cf. 
** Journal Polynesian Society," Vol. XXI., p. 167-168. 

3. Description of Islands. 4. Reise II. BeU. II., p. 15-20. 6. Some aeoount. 
6. Widsenschaftliche Ergebnisse II., p. 289-303, and III., p. 42. 

7.0.= Oheyne. 8. = Scherzer. ▼. = "Woodford, f. = Friederid. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

«tar : /ain s., vetu w.^/wtu c. ; tcK)th : nitteko «., niho W., niho, nig'o w.; 
water : vmai 8., ti^at w., vat c. F. 

Article. — Fiiederici states that this is distinctly de and ncrt te, 
Oheyne usually has de: de afi fire, de Jt$H banana. Bchersser has : fe 
tttoa neck) te la snn, but de hoeoulu heiid. Woodford has de lau leaf) te 
ala road. I also find da and to : da fare c. house, to »oa c. 8. friend. 

I only find one example of the plural article na : na kai food. 

Nouns. — The grammar of these does not appear in Cheyne, but 
Woodford has wa moa egg, lit. fiuit (of) fowl. This shows the geni- 

Adjectites. — ^These, and a qualifying noun follow the nouh 
qualified : tamaliktliki child small ; tama ma man white ; vmi tat 
salt water, wai mauri fresh water. The word fakawaira, fool, appears 
to be the Bamoan /a'ara/ea. This and the wordyb^rtand, weak, seem 
to show the causative prefix used with adjectives. 

Personal Pronouns. — These appear in Cheyne as follows : 
Singular: 1. anau^ kdnau; 2. akoe; 3. ia ke. 

Dual ; 1 inclus. taua ; exclus. maua ; 2. korua ; 8. 

Plural: 1 inclus. tatou; exclus. matou; 2. koutou; 8. 

Kdnau is given for * me,' and ke for * he ' in the vocabulary. Ko 
occurs with one example in the nominative : ko nauji/at, I like (to do). 
Scherzer has tamala for ' he." This is plainly tama la, man that. 

Possessives. — Cheyne's vocabulary has ayw mine, tau yours. 

Interrogatives. — The personal interrogative is kowai? Denei 
kowai? who is this? Dela kowai? who is that? kotoai domari? what 
is your name ? kowai domari de aliki ? what is the chiefs name ? 

A with the article ee is used for things : denei »e a? this is what? 
^e a taui ? what price ? 

Demonstratives.— Nei this, tenei this : de bo nei, this night. La 
that, dela that: kimala, he (that man B.) ; dela kotoai? who is that? 
(c. translates dela " there ") Na that, e hi na, that is good. 

Verbs. — Some verbs appear with u prefixed : ufea to be sick, umate 
dead, ufuti to pull, ilgu to dive, as in Nuguria. s. has kumate, dead. 

The causative faka appears in fakasenoy lie down, and in verbal 

The reciprocal does not appear. 

The desiderative is^ : akoe fifai olala kawa ? you like make beche- 
de-mer ? matou fifai, we like. 

The common verbal particle is e\ used with all persons and 
numbers : e iloa anau, I understand (know) ; akoe e fanu, you go ; de 
tvaka e tabu, the boat is tabu ; maua e taratara, we two talk. 

Other particles appear, but their exact use is not clear. Ka, ko, ke : 
enau ka fanu, I go ; akoe fifai nau ko noho, you wish me to stop ; e hi 
tatou ke ta ia, it is good we kill him. Na : akoe na wowa f what do you 
want ? 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The negative is Be : akoe se ta tamay you (do) not strike the man ; 
de alihi sefano ifo, the chief does not come. 

Adyebbs. — Directive : mai, hither ; kaumai, give hither (to me) ; 
ara maiy come hither ; fai mai ki anau, tell me ; atu, thither ; katiatu, 
give ; ki rarOy down ; noho ki laro, sit down ; i/b, down ; akoefano ifo te 
atho fea f you come down the day when ? fakaseno ki raro, lie down ; 
ki arunay up ; masani ki arunay raise up ; ki uta, shoreward ; fano ki uta, 
go ashore. 

Intebbogative : fea ? where ? when ? ki fea ? to where ? akoe 
e farm ki fea ? you go where ? denei da fenua fea ? this island (is) 
what ? akoe f ana ifo te atho fea f you came down the day when ? 

Place. — These do not appear. Dela, the demonstrative * that ' is- 
used for * there.' 

Time. — Te atho nei, to-day ; taiao, to-moiTow ; nanafiy yesterday. 

Pbepositions. — The only preposition found is the common directive 
kiy to. Examples will be found under directive Adverbs. 

Conjunctions. — None appears. 

NuMEBALS. — The Numerals 1 to 10 are given in all the vocabularies. 



















tdluy toru 


























9 ^ siwo 






katOy sehui 


Scherzer gives also: 11 kotoa-tahiy 12 kotoa-rua, 13 katoa- tora. 
For the tens from 20-90, Cheyne gives mata followed by the simple 
numeral, as e.g., 20 mata-ruay 30 mata- toru. Woodford gives the 
simple numeral followed by na huiy as e.g., 30 tolu-na-hui, 40 fa-na-hui^ 
In Cheyne and Scherzer: 100 lo, 200 rua lo, etc., to 900, but Wood- 
ford writes katoa instead of loy i.e., 100 katoay 200 lua katoa, etc. 

For 1000 Cheyne has si-mata ; Scherzer, katoa-lo ; Woodford, mano.^ 
and Woodford also has he ajl for 10,000. 

Friederici describes a method of counting in pairs as in Nukumanu. 

One pair (2) siava, two pairs (4) duava, three pairs (6) tonava, four 
pairs (8) hanava, five pairs (10) de hoe, te hoe, six pairs (12) siava^ seven 
pairs (14) duavay and so on to ten pairs (20) lua hoe. 

The following tens he gives thus : 30 to na hoe, 40 ha na hoe^ 50 limc^ 
na hoey 60 on na hoe, 10 Jitu na hoe, 80 wa na hoe, 90 siva na hoe. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Polynesian Linguistics. 


For the hundreds F. has : 100 katoa^ 200 lua Icatoa^ 300 iolu katoa, 
400 ha (or /a) katoa, 1000 mano, and vuoti the " finish " of the counting. 

For " seven and a half " F. has JUu de toina. The interrogative 
numeral is : Efiaf how many. 

X A Vocabulary of the Sikaiana Language. 
In the vooabnlaiy words unmarked are from Scherzer, those in curved 
trackets ( ) from Woodford, in square bracketf* [ ] from Cheyne, thope with 
asterick ♦ are Friederioi's Matuavi words. 





Adze (blade) 

.. (beniapu) 


. papay 

Adze (handle) 

.. (taga-n-toki) 


. [kuru] 8. 

AU .. 

. . koutou (P), [gn-oti] 

Breast (woman' t) 

U* X. 

Breast (man't) . 

. fatafata* 8. 


. . lima 8. 

Breast ornament 



. . [nasau] 


. [to-mai] 




. taina x. 

Ashes .. 

. . (uma) 


. (pepele) 



Castor-oil fish 


. . faldnokino, (faiego. 


. (lavena) 8. 

fakanavina) x. kino 


, kauvae* 


, . (huti) [futi] 8. 


. [aUH] 8. X. 


. . namo* [uta] 8. 


. (tama-Ukiliki) 8. x. 


. . [fuilani] 


. talaha,* talafa* 


. . babai, 8. ava 


. (niu) 8. 



Coco-nut ij/oung) 



Coco-nut (old) . 



Coco-nut (husk)., 

. [pekopeko] 


Coco-nut (shell) . . 

, [aubu] 


. . [hunahuna] 8. 


. (makalili), [makaridi] 


8. X. 


. . [kuratuma] 


. hari-mai x. 


. . manawa, (manava) 8. 

Come hither 

. [ara-mai] x. 



, [fat-taratara] 


. . (manu), manu* 8. x., 


. kaviti ♦ 



, mokotolo* 


. . uri, (uli) 8. 

Cut .. 

, [tutu] 8. 

Black -man 

. . tama-uri 

Cuttle-fish (««/mi« 


. . toto 8. X. 

kind with long 


. . ui, 8. uli 




. . waka, 8. X. (manou-i) 


. . fuai-tino, (vui-thino) 

8. tino 


, anu 


. . iwi 8. X. 


pouri, 8. X. [bo] 


. . (vavana [ka-wusu] 


. aso, [ata, atho] 8. 


.. gamete* 8. *umete 


. kumate, [mate], 

X. kumete 

mate * 8. x. 

Boy .. 


[ugu] X. ruku 

ligiligi] 8. X. 

Dog . . 

kuri 8. X. 

Digitized by 









. . (totoka) 8. faitoto*a 


. . makadou 

x. whatitolpi 


. , [burau], borau • 8. 

Drink r 

. . nunu 8. x. inu 


Haul (tail) 



. . bosoolu, (posoulu) 

Ear .. 

. . talina b. m. 


. . wagawaga 


. . gau, kau-tarina 


. . mauna s. 


. . kai 8. X. 


. . [tau-ofi] 8. tao^ 


. . fua 8. X. (wa-moa) 

Hook (JUh) 

. . [matau] s, x. 


Hot .. 

. . mafana, s. x. (vevela) 


. . kari-mata, kavranata* 

8. X. 


..fale, (vale), [fare] s.x. 


.. bura 


. . lofi-mata (oga-re- 

Pap .. 

. . mamao a. x. 





. . tama-fanua, fenua* 


. . [mataku] 8. x. 


. . [laiatu] 


. . motikao (motigau) x. 


.. mamao 


.. (afi),afi»8. X. 


.. [muli-mia] 


.. Ukitia, [ta] 


.. (ika)8.x. 


.. [iloa]8. 


.. (io), iho, X. kiri (of 


. . (lano) 8. X. 


. . fanua, [fenua] 8. x. 

Fly V. 

.. [kurili] 


.. naniu, (maniu) s. x. 


. . (beka) 8. X. 



. . [kai] 8. mea e <ai, x. 


. . [kata] 8. X. 



. . (lau) 8. X. 


. . [fakawaria] s. 

Let go 

. . [ti-ake] 


.. sapu-wai 

Lie down 

.. [fakasenu-ki-raro] 


. . moa-lai x. rae, mua 

Lies {to tell) 

. . [f akaririsi] 


. . (moa) 8. 

Lift up 

.. [tha-sau] 


. . soa X. 8. 


.. taiao 


. . (kolu) 


. . uila 8. X. 




. . [rehu] 


.. (Ukiliki) 8. X. 


.. [mauri] 


Lizard {black) 

. . moko* 8. X. 


. , [kau-mai, kau-atu] 8. 

Long, adj. 

. . [sokaroroa] 8. loha^ 


X. roa 

Go .. 

. . anau, [sai-ari] 




. . laui, (lavi), [loi] 


. . (kutn) 8. X. 


.. [penupenu] 


.. ui 


. . [pepena] 


. . malo* 8. X. 

Hair {head) 

. . ladn» (uln), lauru* 8. 


. . tanata, 8. x., (tama) 




. . (lima) 8. 

Man {old) 

. . roatua 8. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Ptlynwan LinguMiet. 


Hat (wovm ji 









Nail (Jinger) 






No .. 


Paddle, v. 





Pig .. 

I falTnA.lri 

. (vaea) 


(malama), [mirima], 
marama* X. 
. [sigioti] 
, taiao, [ao] s. 

, (namn) s. 


(tinana) s. [] 
T n^ ^in n - 8. X. 
moaieau, (moaisu) 


uso* 8. 

, uwa 8. 
, henua-lanra 
, po, (ubo) 8. X. 
, seal, 8. leai 
, kaiu8a, (gaiusu), 

[alo] 8. 
[ta^-i] 8. 

[pigi], pigi,* pigi- 
pnaka * 

(lube), [lupe], lupe* 

Pigeon (Carpop' 


Pole (of pile home) turuturu* 
Pull, pluck . . [futi] 8. M 
Put down . . [tugu] 8. 

Sail II. 

Sandal wood 

Scraper (foreopra) 

Sea . . 

See .. 


Shell (/tfr/Af) .. 


Shirt {Europeim) 





Sit .. 


Slack (a rope) . . 



Smoke ft. 

Smoke tobacco v. 






Stay (dwell) 








Sweet .. 




[wavi] 8. X. 

Rain . . uwa, (ua), ua* 8. x. 

Rat . . (kiole), [kiore] 8. x. 

Red . . . . (ula) 8. x. 

Reef . . [boburani] 
Rise (t^ morning) [masani-ki-aruna] 

Road . . (ala) 8. x. 

Root . . (bati-aka) x. pakiaka 

'Rope . . [maia] 8. 

Run . . saire, [teri] 




Taro (yellow) 

Tattoo #. 




[la] 8. X. 



tai, (tahi) 8. x. 

toka, [kite] x. 



[kirikiri] 8. x. gravel 


[botoboto] X. 


bese 8. 

kawe, [kave] 

nofo 8. X. 

(kili) X. 


moe 8. X. 

[ligiUgiJ, (lilali^)iK* 
. (ou) X. 


(maluhua) s. tnalulu 

talatala, [taratara] 8. 

(tao) 8. X. 
, velevele* x. puwere* 

, (savale) x. 

fatu, (yetu), [fetn] 8. 


. [noho] 8. X. 
, [kaia] 8. ngaoi x. kaia 
. purau 
fatu 8. 

. [bl] 8. 

, [faimafl] 

, [toro] 8. 

, la, (laa), la* 8. x. 

, (malanu) 


[kakau] 8. x. 

[tabu] 8. 
[to] 8. 

[fafa], fafa» 
tata 8. X. 

[faiaki] 8. fai, a'i 

Digitized by 








.. motikao-wai 


.. wuai, (wai), vai* B.X. 


. . aMo, (alelo), alelo* 

Water (iweet) 

. . [wai-mauri] K. 

8. X. 


. . [f akariaria] 


.. nitso, (niho), niho^* 


,, (ma) X. 

nig*o* 8. K. 



. . lagau, (kau) s. x. 


.. [matani], matani* 



8. X. 

Turn, V. 

. . [huri] M . 




. , masanai masana* 


. . [fifi] X hiahia, 8. fia 


. . (fafine), tonu-fahine* 


.. takaina, x., fenua* 

8. X. 

8. X« 


.. kekana, (felo).8. x. 

Yea .. 

. . oh [o] 


. . patua 


.. tane 

Notes on the Sikaiana Vocabulary. 

Words which are plainly cognate with Samoan or Maori are 
marked s. and m. 

Arrow. Cf . Tong^an ngahau, 

Beche-de-mer. Kuratuma may be 8. 

Bird. Lupi is a mifltaike for * pigeon.' 
Cf. 8. lupe. 

Bring. Cf . 8. to and mai. 

Cheeks. Cf. 8. ^auvae^ chin, jaw. 

Chin. Cf. 8. talafaf whiskers. 

Coco-nut (shell), Cf. 8. *aupu, baring a 

Coral. Lit. prickly stone. Cf. 8. fatu, 
talatala, x. taratara. 

Crocodile. There are no crocodiles in 
Sikaiana. In the Reef Islands near 
Santa Cruz (also no crocodile). Moko' 
tolo is the blue lizard. Cf. 8. fno*o 

Cuttlefish. Cf. X. tohiri to twist, 8. fiU. 

Ear (lohe). With gau. Cf. 8. *au stalk, 

TVtce. With oga. Cf. 8. *onga, princi- 
pal part. 

Tlesh. Cf . X. Artri, skin. 

Poot. Cf . 8. iftpu-vae, ankle, and x. 
taputapu and tapuwae 

Green. Cf. 8. «i, dark -coloured. 

Haul. Cf . 8. /m/i, to pluck. Tonga, 
to haul sail. 

Heart. Cf. 8. va*ava*a^ breast bone of 

House (thatch). Cf. 8. pola. 
Journey. Mamao means **far.*' 
Kill. With ta, Cf . 8. te, strike. 
Let go. Cf. 8. tia^ki, throw away, 
light. The word g^ven means *' mom- 

Lime. Cf. 8. lefu^ ashes. 
Live. Mauri is a common Melanesian 

word for ** live," **iife." 
Look. Cf. mirror, see. 
Mat. Cf . 8. fata, pandanus. 
Mirror. Cf. look. see. 
Morrow. Cf . x. jpo, ake 
Mouth. Cf. X. mua, 8. isu. 
Near. Cf . 8. tau^ arrive at, s. pilipili 

approach, and mai. 
Necklace. Perhaps named after the 

place of origin (P), fenua land, lauru^ 

New Ireland (P) 
Pearl oyster. 8. tifa^ nacre. 
Petticoat. Cf . 8. leuleu^ an old siapo 
Run. With taili cf. s. «a*i/t, seek ; with 

teri cf. 8. taleaHf run quickly. 
See. Cf. mirror, look. 
Slack. With teri. Cf. s. tele, large, 

hence * enlarge ' fakateri. 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 

Polynesian Linguistics. 43 

Smoke (tobacco). Cf. 8. mitimitif sound Sweet i>otato. A mistake (F) for ' jam/ 

of smoking ; x. to suck. s. uji. 

Strong. Cf. 8. fat, make ; mafai thick. Take. Gf. s. to. 

Toe. Gf . X. »Ma/tAa0, finger ; wae, foot. 

This leaves many words unaoooonted for. Some of them are like those in the 
Beef Islands, e.g., good, laui (b.i. lavoi) ; make, pepena (b.i. to clean) ; shark, 
pakao (b.i. pa^eo) ; teach, fakareotu (bx faka^li), etc. The word given for *■ boat,' 
tnanou'i suggests the San Gristoval tnanu, a boat name. 

fTo he eontinwdj 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by 



Na TrviNi Haweti ma Tamuera Morb-Taunoa-o-tb-tini, 
KoiA A Tamuera Te Rei. 


KIA fcae afcura ratou ki vao i te ava i Vavau, kua akara mai a 
* Moe-tara-uri i te vaka, kua karanga iora, "E vaka tela e tau 
mai nei i tua ; koai tela ariki e taeaia ei i tela enua ? — taku enua ko 
Vavau ! " Ko taua enua o Moe-tara-uri kare rave e taeaia e tetai, 
e pou i te mate ki raro i te ava. Kia tae to Iro kua tau mai ki vao 
i te ava, kua touo atura a Moe-tara-uri i nga tamaine aana, ko nga 
mate iia o taua ava i pou te taugata i te mate ; teia te ingoa i aua nga 
tamaine ; ko Aro, ko Potu, ko Atitou, ko Atuatu, ko Tau-akau, ko 
Koko, ko Maanga, e Tua ; e toko-varu ratou, e ko te au ingoa rai iia 
i aua nga mate i taua ava, koia oki e ngaru. Ko te tuakana ko 
Ngaru-aro, ko tetai ko Ngaru-potu, ko tetai ko Ngaru -ati-tou, ko 
tetai ko Ngaru-atuatu, ko tetai ko Ngaru -tau-akau, ko tetai ko 
Ngaru-koko, ko tetai Ngaru-maanga e ko Ngaru -tua. 

Kua karanga atura a Moe-tara-uri ki te tuakana, *'Aere koe ; 
koai teia ariki i karea mai ei teia enua ? " Kua aere atura a Ngaru-aro 
kua atuatu mai i muri i te vaka o Iro, ka popoki ki runga i te vaka ; 
kua kapiki atura a Iro, ^' Aere ! aere marie mai e taku tuaine, ka 
mauu to tungane." Kua papa iia ngaru, kare i popoki kua akamarino 
ua i te ava. Kia akara a Moe-tara-uri e kare te pai i mate, kua tono 
i tetai tamaine, '^ Aere koe ! auraka tena vaka kia tae mai ki uta." 
Kua aere atu ra a Ngaru-potu, kua ea i muri i te vaka o Iro, kua 
kapiki mai ra a Iro, " Aere ! aere marie taku tuaine ka mauu to 
tungane." Kua papa iia ngaru, kua akamaiino te ava. Kia akara 
a Moe-tara-un kare i mate te vaka, kua riri iora, kua tono i tetai ; 
aere atura a Ngaru -atitou kua ea i muri i te vaka o Iro, ka aatu ; kua 
kapiki a Iro mei tana i kapiki i mua i tetai ; kua papa iia ngani. 
Kua pera ua rai a Moe-tara-uri i te tono i ana nga tamaine e tae uatu 
ki te tokovaru i a Ngaru -tua ; e kare rai te pai o Iro i mate ; kua pera 
katoa a Iro i te kapiki ki ona nga tuaine e kua akarongo rai nga 
tuaine i te reo o to ratou tungane. Kua kite a Moe-tara-uri kua pou 
ana piri, karanga iora, " E ariki tau Vavau teia i kore ei e mate.'* 
E tae mai ra te vaka o Iro ki uta, kua kapiki atura a Moertara-uii^ 
^* Noo atu ana, ka tapatapa ingoa ana taua ! koai koe i taea mai ei e 
koe taku enua." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Kua karanga atura a Iro, " Noou one, uoou rekereke enua, naau e 
iiri laai, e manuin an ka e»" : . 

Kua akapapa mai ra a Moe-tara-uri, " E tupuiia noku ko Te 
Ariki-tapu-kura, anatl tana ko Moe-itiiti, anail tana ko Moe-rekareka, 
anau tana ko Moe-metua, anau tana ko an nei ko Moe-tara-uri." 

Kua karanga mai a Iro, '^ E tupuna noku ko Te Ariki-tapu-kura, 
anau tana ko Moe-itiiti, anau tana ko Moe-rekareka, anau tana ko 
Moe-metua, anau tana ko Moe-tara-uri ka takoto ki a Akimano te 
tamaine a Ngana-te-tupua i Kuporu, anau mai tana ko au nei ko Iro- 
ma-oata ko nga ara-po i tae atu ei ; ko Kaukura-ariki te tupuanga 
mai a taku metua vaine." 

Kia akarongo i te tapatapaaifga a Iro, kua rekareka aia, kua rere 
mai aia ki tai, kua ongi atura i te tama, e kua apai atura ki uta, kua 
karanga atura, '^ Kare e kitenga i tae mai ei koe e anki tau Vavau rai 
koe." lo atura i te enua, kua umutara-kai atura, e kua akaari atura 
a Moe-tara-uri i tona ira i runga i te tua o Iro koia oki ko taua ira 
Teri, ei reira kua iki atura i a Iro ei mono i te metua, e kua tuku atura 
1 te koutu ariki ki tona rima ; tera te ingoa o taua koutu ra ko Niuapu. 


~¥jl NOO iora a Iro i taua enua nona i Vavau, e roa akera kua 
-LJ anoano i te aere na te pa enua e kia rave mai aia i te au enua 
ta Tane i tuku ki tona nma. Kua akonokono iora i tona tere e kua 
aere atura na te pa enua ma tona rua-rau tangata e tau mai ki Kuporu 
i te kave i nga tuakana, koia oki te anau o Pou-Aiiki, akaruke atura 
1 reira. Mei reira akatere atura aia i tona vaka ki Iva-nui-koro- 
inatua, e kua aravei atura ki a Tutapu ki reira, koia oki ko Tutapu- 
aru-roa. Kua noo atura ki Iva no tetai tuatau e i tona nooanga ki 
reira kua aka-oa raua ko Tutapu. 

E, nonoo iora ki reira kua manako raua ka aere mai ki runga nei 
ki teia enua oki ko Nuku-te-varovaro, koia oki ko Rarotonga nei. E 
tttu mai ra to Iro ki Te-Avatapu-ki-Avaiki, koia oki ko Avarua, e kua 
rave a Iro i tana au peu ki reira, e kua ura oki ratou ki reira, kua oora 
oki tana tapu ki reira e tana pure kai, ma tetai atu apeape. 

I muri roa mai kua tae mai to Tutapu tere i te pae itinga o te ra, 
koia rai a Nga-Tangiia. E ingoa ou teia, a Nga-Tangiia, te vai rai te 
ingoa taito. Elia kite a Iro e kua tae mai a Tutapu : e r&i oki a 
Tutapu au peu i rave i to ratou taeanga mai ki te enua nei, kua 
tavliri ratou i te au repo e tae uatu ki Tongatua. Kua tipu ratou i te 
rakau. Kua tipu ratou i te rakau e kauariki ; apai atu ra ratou i te 
one ki Avana, e kua tapaia tei reira uta-one ko " Te-one-tari-a-Iva," 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Period of Ito-nui-ma-oata and TangUa-nni-aNki. 47 

e turaDga marae no Kainuku; e kua vao oki i tona tangata ko Ata, 
koia ko Ata-te-kura, ei tiaki. I taua tuatau ra kua aere a Iro mei 
Avarua ki Nga-Taiigiia, kua aravei afcura ki a Tutapu e kua akataka 
raua i te tuatua e ka okioki na Taiti-nui. Kua oti raua i te 
akonokono i te au mea no to raua tere, kua tuku atura a Iro i nga 
atua oona, ko Ron go, e Tangaroa e Tane, ki runga i te vaka o Tutapu^ 
ooki atura raua ki te moana. 

Tau atura to Tutapu ki Taiti, e tau atura to Iro ki Iva-nui- 
koromatua. Kia tae atu a Tutapu ki Taiti, kua noo takere a Tangiia 
e kua anau ana nga tamariki tokotoru i te tamaine a Maono, ko 
Pou-te-anuanua, e Pou-raka-rakaia, koia a Urakana, e Rongo-kivao. 
Kia tae atu a Tutapu ki Taiti kua aere a Tangiia ki Rangi-atea koia 
oki ko Raiatea i nga tamaine a Kui-vare-roa. Kia oki mai a Tangiia 
kua peke a Maono ki te maunga i a Tutapu. Noo iora, oki atura a. 
Tangiia ki te tamaine a Keu. Kia oki mai a Tangiia mei to tamaine 
a Keu kua mamate e tokorua o ana tamariki i a Tutapu, ko tetai kua 
ora, no te mea kua noo aia ki roto i te rima o te tupuna ko Maono. Ko 
taua aereanga o Tangiia ki te tamaine a Keu i aravei raua ma Iro, kua 
oki mai mei Iva mei te aereanga atu mei Rarotonga nei, e no te pati a 
Tangiia i aru aia i a Tangiia ki Taiti nonoo iora raua ki reira. I to 
Iro nooanga ki Taiti kua rave aia i te vaine ko Te - toko -o-te- ran gi te 
ingoa, e kua anau mai te tamaiti, e kua topaia iora te ingoa o taua 
tamaiti ko Ta-i-te-ariki, ko te tamaiti teia ta Tangiia i rave ei tama 
iia nona. I muri i reira kua aere atu a Iro ki Iva, e i taua aereanga 
ra kua tapae atura aia ki tetai enua ko Enua-kura te ingoa, noo iora 
ki reira no tei kino o te vaka. Kua rave aia i tetai vaine i teia enua, 
ko Yai-tu-marie te ingoa, e kua anau mai a raua tamariki e torn, tera 
o ratou ingoa ko Ta-i-te-marama (koia oki tei karangaia e ko 
Taimarama), aru i te tua ko Pari-rongo-taua-i-taputapuatea (koia oki 
ko Pia-rongo-taua), e tetai tamaine rai ko Vai-tu-mane. 

Kua kikaia te vaka o Iro ki uta i te one mUro e kia akara aia kua 
mataratara te oa i te vaka e kua taratara atura a Iro kua pari akaou 1 
te oa i te vaka. Kua rongo a Iro i te tuatua iriiriaea (mii) a tana 
vaine ki te tane keia, ko Ta^ta te ingoa, e tana tuatua e, engari ake a 
Ta^ta e rave .tikai, nara ko Iro e apikepike. Kia rongo tetai aronga 
vaine te noo-parai ua i te pae i a Vaitumarie, ki taua tuatua mii a 
teia vaine nei, kua maeva ratou i te kata no te tuatua a Vai i te 
kopapa a te tane e, e ai-paka tika a Ta^ta. 

Kia rongo a Iro i taua tuatua a te Vaine kua roto-riri aia; kare 
aia i ki atu e kua manako iora, tena ka tutaki tana vaine nei i taua 
tuatua aana. Kua oti te oa i te paripari, kua tiki aia i a Vaitumarie 
kia aere mai e tauturu i aia i te iroiro i te kaa i te tamou i te 5a ki te 
vaka, kare aia i akatika i tetai tangata ke mai kia aere mai e tauturu. 
Kua tuku aia i te vaine ki roto i te vaka, kua anga te aro ki te aro, ei 
reira kua rave a Iro i tana angaanga ma te koumuumu tuatua i tana i 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


rongo taringa tikai i te tuatuaanga a Yaitumarie i tona kopapa e tona 
paruparu. Kua angaanga iora, titiri atura i te kaa, mou atura tetai 
mero o te kopapa o te value, kua na mua te rima, kua kapiki, iora a 
Vai, " Taku rima e Iro e ! " Kare a Iro i akono atura ki tona tuatua, 
rave ua rai aia i tana angaanga ma te mura-riri. Kare e roa kua mou 
te kaki a te vaine ki roto i te iro, ei reira kua kapiki te vaine, kare a 
Iro i akono atu, kua t6t5 i te ka, kua taa atura i taua vaine ra. Kia 
mate taua vaine ra kua uuna atura a Iro ki raro i te tanga rakau ana i 

Kare e roa mai kua aere mai te tama, koia a Marama ; kui ui atu 
ki a Iro, " Te'ea a Vai ? " Kua karanga atura a Iro, " Tena, kua aere 
atu." Kua aere taua tamaiti i te kini ; kare rai e kitea. Kua oki mai 
ra taua tama kua ui akaou ki te metua, " Te'ea a Vai ? " Kua 
karanga atu ra a Iro, "Tena, kua aere atu ra, e aere koe e kimi." 
Kua karanga te tamaiti, "Kare ua, kua kimi au kare ua rai." 
Kua karanga a Iro, " E aere koe e kimi." 

Kua aere rai a Marama, kua kimi aia i tera ngai e tera mai ngai e 
kare ua rai aia i kite i te metua vaine ; kua kimi ua atu rai e roa 
akera kua oki mai kua tuatua ki te metua, "Ina, kua kimi marie au i 
te au ngai roarai e kare rai au i kite ake i a Vai, na ka akakite mai 
rai koe, teea aia ? " 

Kare rai a Iro e akakite ki te tama ko Marama, kua m&n&m^nata 
te metua i te uianga a Marama, kare e ravenga a te metua, e kua aaki 
iora e, " Kua mate, tena kua uuna'i e au ki raro i te tanga rakau." 

Kare a Marama i ki atura ; kua aere aia ki te ngai i uuna'i te 
kopapa, kua uke i taua metua vaine nona, kua aue iora. Elia oti tona 
aueanga, rave atura te kaoa, tipu atura i te metua vaine, motu rua i 
rotopu, kua apai atura i te kiko mua na Iro, ma te tuatua, " Tera mai 
taau." Ko te kiko muri, patiia iora i runga i tona upoko e tae uatu ki 
te mokotua e te kopu mei te pou ua ; aere atura aia ki te motu i te eva 
i te metua vaine e pe ua atu teia potonga kopapa o tona metua vaine 
ki runga i aia, kare aia i pal kare oki i viivii i teia aunga pirau i runga 
i aia. Teia tana angaanga i tai i te motu, e kaitangata. 

Ko Iro ra, e ariki tere moan a aia, e i tapae ua mai aia ki Enua- 
kura, e kua roa te nooanga no teia vaine nei ko Vai-tu-marie. Kua 
tupu atura te pekapeka i te Ati-Puna (Ngati-Puna) ma te Ati-Iro ; 
te ta nei te Ati-Puna i te Ati-Iro. Ko Puna te ariki o taua enua ra, 
te vai nei te maatanga o te tuatua i to raua pekapeka, no reira i 
tonokia'i ia te tamaine potiki o Iro, koia a Vai-tu-marie, e ingoa 
metua vaine, i te tiki ia Marama e aere mai, e akaora iti a Iro i te 
rima o Puna ma tona tini, no te mea kua kai tamaki mai ratou kia Iro 
ma tona tini. No te mea, i teia tuatau kua riro a Marama e toa riri 
nui e kua mataku te Ati-Puna i aia ; inara kua kimi a Iro i te 
ravenga kia angake te riri a Marama, no reira kua kini i te ravenga ki 
runga i taua tamaine. Kua akoako atura a Iro ki aia i taua ravenga 

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The Period of Iro-nni^ma-oaia and Tangiia-nui-ariki. 49 

kia anoano mai a Marama ki aia, ei reira na te tamaine e akakite 
atiua ki a Marama i te akakoroanga a te Ngati-Puna, e kua anoano te 
metua kia aere mai aia kia akaora i a ratou i te rima o Puna ma tona 

Kua aere a Yai-tu-marie kua teateamamao i aia no tona tere, kua 
tiki i te ue tari tai, kuii aere atura ki taatai, kua aere ki roto i te tai, 
ka aere atu ki te motu o Marama (ko taua motu ra e mamao atu rai 
mei te enua, nara ka tae atura te tangata nil runga i te akau, e tai rai 
taua ngai ra, kare ra e oonu). Elia vatata atura taua tamaine ki te 
motu a Marama kare ra i oki te manako ki muri, kua aere aia, me aere 
mai te tungans e ta i aia kia mate, mate uatu rai. Aere atu rai teia 
tamaine ma te tumu i te pee, ma te eu'eu i tona kakau ki runga e tae 
uatu ki te kitea takiriia tona kopapa. Kua kite a Marama i aia, e kia 
akara atu ra aia kua kaki mai ra a Marama, kua tuku i te rakau ta 
tangata ki roto i te rima maui, rave atu ra i taua tamaine ki te rima 
katau, kua apai ki tona are e kua moe atu ra ki taua tamaine ; ko te 
ravenga teia ka au ei aia ma te metua. 

Teia te potonga pee ta teia tamaine i tumu ana : — 

*< E Marama -toa i Enuakura, 
'* Ka pou a Iro i a Ati Puna. 

Ko te ara te iki i te tuang^ ariki 
*< Keing^ ia'a te tini a Iro 
*' E Maramatoa e, e Maramatoa e 
*' To mata akatakariri mainaina e vai roto riri e 
' ' I te aiai-po e te akirata maramarama, a5 e 

(e te Tfti atura taua pae nei) 

Kia moe atura a Marama ki teia tamaine nei, kua ui atura aia, 
** Eaa toou tere i tae mai ei koe ? " Kua karanga teia tamaine, " I 
aere mai nei au e tiki i a koe ei akaora i a Iro ma te tini, kua kai- 
tamaki mai te Ati-Puna." Kua karanga mai ra taua tamaiti, '* Aere 
ra, karanga atu ra e kana akari tiare noku e pai i toku aunga, akonei 
au e aere atu ei." 

Kua aere mai taua tamaine ra, kua akakite i te au mea i ikuia 
mai ki aia, e kua raveia rai mei te tuatua i tuatuaia mai ki taua 
tamaine. Aiai iora kua tae ai te pourianga, kua aere mai a Marama 
ki uta ; kia aere mai ra, tera a Ati-Puna tei roto te katoatoa i te are 
karie ; te kokoti kupenga iora e te apopo ra ka ta te Ngati-Iro kia 
pou. E kia oti ake ra to ratou uruoaanga kua ura atura te Ngati- 
Puna ma te manako e apopo e akapouia'i te Ngati-Iro i te ta. 

Kua tae mai a Marama, kua tuatua ki a Iro ma tona tuaina koia a 
Pia-rongotaua, kua au te tuatua e ka tu tiaki taua tuaine i tetai tara o 
te are o te Ngati-Puna, e nana te titiri rakau. Kua aere a Marama i 
te atoro i te Puna, kua kite aia te teatea-mamao nei ratou, e ka moe. 
Kua tu vaitata aia i reira kua titiri mai ra i ana rakau ki runga i te 

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are, kua arum ki runga i te are te rakau a Marama, e kua poitirere te 
Ngati-Puna, kapiki atura a Marama, ^'Teia a Marama toa." Kua 
tamate iora te Ngati-Puna i te ai, kua manako iora kua tomo a 
Marama ki roto i te are ta atura ratou, ratou uaorai i roto i terare, e 
pouiri ra, uru atu uru mai te rakau a Ngati-Puna i a ratou uaorai e 
pou atu ra te Ngati-Puna i a ratou uaorai, ko tei ora mai i te oro ki 
vao, kua rave a Marama ma te tuaine i te reira. Kia patia a Pia- 
rongo-taua i tona tangata kua titeni iora. 

O Pia tupu mai Te Vari tavatava 
E niua-enua taku rakau ara. 

Kia pou ra te Ngati-Puna, kua aere a Marama kua pai, kua pai i 
reira i te akari tiare, e i muri mai kua aere aia kua akaau ki te metua 
i a Iro. 

Ki muri i te tupuanga i teia angaanga kua aere a Iro ma tona tini 
ki te moan a, kua teretere aere i te pa enua, tapae atura ki Araura, ki 
Raro tonga, e Auau, e Akatoka-manava, e Enua-manu e Nukuroa e 
tae ua atu ki Avaiki-tautau. 

I to Iro aereanga ki te moana kua piri atu rai tetai mataiapo-ariki 
ki tona tere, ko Tura te ingoa ; tera te ingoa o te vaka o Tura ko ' Te 

I i*oto i tetai tuatau ki muri, koia oki i mun i to Tangiia nooanga 
ki Rarotonga, kua tae mai e rua tama a Iro ki Rarotonga, tera o raua 
ingoa ko Tautu-te-epa-ranjgi e Tautu-tapuae-mokoroa, e riro atura 
raua e puke mataiapo na Motoro Tinomana-Aiiki, koia oki te tama 
tika a Tangiia, e kua au a raua marae ki runga i a Te Kou. 

Ko te tuatua openga a Iro te vai atura te reira, kare tatou e aere 
roa ki reira, teia te mea i rave ei tatou i teia tuatua no Iro, e akakite 
kia tatou e okoiai rai tuatau o Iro e Tangiia-nui ei kite, teia ia ka aka- 
anau a Iro i tana tamaiti ki Taiti, tapa i te ingoa ko Ta-i-te-ariki, tei 
reira katoa a Tangiia, na Tangiia i arataki a Iro ki Taiti i to raua 
araveianga i te tamaine a Keu, ko Rapa-i-ava-i-raka te ingoa. I te 
tuatau kua akakoro a Iro ka akaruke i a Taiti ka aere ki Iva, kua pati 
ai a Tangiia i taua tamaiti a Iro e tama ua nana, ei ariki ki runga i te 
tini o Tangiia, koia oki ko Te Kaki-poto, Te-atu-t&katak&-poto, Te- 
kopa, Te-tavake-moe-rangi, Te-tavake-oraurau, Te-neke, Te-atata- 
pua, Te-tata-veri-moe-papa, te Avakevake, te Kairira e te Manaune ; 
riro mai ra taua tamaiti na Tangiia, tapa iora e Tangiia tona ingoa ou 
ko Te-Ariki-upoko-tini, e ko te tamaiti angai teia i ikiia ei aiiki ki 
Porapora. E, te rave liei taua angaanga kua tae atura a Tutapu, ei 
kite, tera tona pee. 

** Ariki iki ki Porapora 
Tuaru ma kina e." 

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The Period of Iro-nui-ma-oata and Tangiia-nui-ariki, 51 

Kare rai a Tangiia i akaoti i taua angaanga ra i Porapora, i muri 
roa mai, kia tae mai ki Rarotonga nei kua akaoti ei aia i taua 
angaanga. I to Tangiia oroanga i taua tuatau ra kua tae atura aia ki 
tetai enua ko Nuku te ingoa, e kua akatapu aia i aia uaorai ei ariki 
tikai ki taua enua, e kua iki aia i ona ui-mataiapo oko-a, e tona kau- 
taunga, e one ratou koia oki ko Potiki-taua, ko More-makana-kura, 
ko Tangara, ko Taramai-te-tonga> e Te Manu-aitu e tetai mai. 

Kia tae mai ra aia ki Rarotonga nei kua akaoti aia i tana anga- 
auga iki-ariki, koia oki i te akatainuanga i a Ta-i-te-aiiki i te Foutu 
ariki ko Paetaa e Arai-te- tonga, nana i iki i taua tama iia ra ei ariki 
M ninga i te vaka ko Takitumu-te-nu-roa-i-Iti, e me reira mai te vai 
nei rai te uanga a taua tama kua noo ratou ki runga i te taonga ariki, 
•6 ko to ratou ingoa ariki ko Pa-te-ariki-upoko-tini. 

Tera mai te papa ariki mei i a Ta-i-te-ariki e tae mai ki teia 
tuatau nei. 

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By Stbphen Savage, Earotonga. 


f Continued from page 18 y Vol. XXVI. J 

WHEN Iro's canoe arrived at the entrance of the harbour of 
Vavau, Moe-tara-uri saw the canoe and exclaimed, ** A canoe 
has arrived ! Who is this ariki who dares to come to my land ? " 
Now no one had ever before been able to land at Moe-tara-uri's 
Island of Vavau ; everyone who had attempted it without the per- 
mission of the ariki had met his death in the harbour. "When Iro's 
canoe arrived at the entrance of the harbour, Moe-tara-uri sent his 
daughters to destroy the canoe. These daughters were the destroyers 
of previous visitors to the place. Their names were Aro, Potu, 
Atitou, Atu?ltu, Tau-akau, K5ko, Maanga and Tiia — eight in number 
— and they were called the death dealers ; they were waves of the 
* ocean. The elder was Ngaru- Aro, and following were Ngaru-Potu, 
Ngaru- Atitou, Ngaru- Atuatu, Ngaru-Tu-akau, Ngaru-Koko, Ngaru- 
Maanga and Ngaru-Tua. 

Moe-tara-uri said to the elder daughter, ** Go and see who this 
ariki is who comes to my land." Ngaru- Aro sped upon her errand, 
and coming up behind the canoe, reared itself up, and curling, was 
about to descend and break over Iro's canoe, when Iro called out, 
** Go slowly, my sister ! else you will wet your brother." That 
wave subsided and did not break over the canoe, and the harbour 
became calm. When Moe-tara-uri saw that the first wave did not 
destroy the canoe he sent another daughter and said to her, ** Let not 
that canoe land here.'* Ngaru-Potu went, and rushing up behind the 
canoe, reared itself up, and curling, was about to descend upon the 
vessel, when Iro called out, " Go slowly, my sister ! else you will 
wet your brother." The wave subsided and the water became calm. 
When Moe-tara-uri saw that the second wave did not accomplish his 
command he became angry and sent another. Ngaru-Atitou went 
and was going to break upon the vessel when Iro called out as he 

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The Period of Iro-nui-ma-oaia and Tangiia-nui-ariki, 53 

had done to the previous ones. Moe-tara-uri sent another, and yet 
another, until all eight had been sent, each time the wave came Iro 
called upon them to go slowly or they would wet their brother : the 
sisters listened to the voice of their brother. When Moe-tara-uri had 
sent all the waves, and they had accomplished nothing, he exclaimed^ 
** This surely is an ariki of Vavau that he is not destroyed." 

Iro's canoe now made the landing, and Moe-tara-uri called out, 
** Stay where you are, we will each give our descent and our ancestors : 
Who are you that you are able to reach my land ? " Iro replied, 
** You are of the land, the land is yours, you commence first, I am a 
visitor and may err." Moe-tara-uri gave his descent : ** My ancestor 
Te Ariki-tapu-kura begat Moe-itiiti, who begat Moe-rekareka, who 
begat Moe-metua, who begat me Moe-tara-uri." 

Iro called out : **My ancestor Te Ariki-tapu-kura begat Moe-itiiti, 
who begat Moe-rekareka, who begat Moe-metua, who begat Moe- 
tara-uri, who took to wife Akimano, the daughter of Ngana-te-tupua 
the descendant of Kaukura-ariki, and they begat me, Iro-ma-oata; 
my name is the name of the night when Moe-tara-uri visited my 

When Moe-tara-uri heard this he was overjoyed, and sprang into 
the sea and rubbed noses with his son Iro, and conveyed him to the 
land, saying, **It was on account of your being an ariki of Yavau 
that you were able to come hither; it w^s not known when you 
arrived that you were a Vavau ari^i." The father then called all the 
people together and caused a great feast to be made in Iro's honour, 
and showed to the people the birth-mark on his son's back, the birth- 
mark of his house. He appointed Iro ariki over the land in his stead, 
the name of his koutu-ariki (court of royalty) was named Nuiapu.* 

* We suggest the name should be Niuapu, for Nioaf a is the name of the 
harboar and village in Vavau. Island of the Tong^ Group. — Eoitob. 

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IRO remained at Vavaiii for some time, when the desire came upon 
him to go and visit other lands, and to take possession of the 
lands given to him by Tane. So he had preparations made for his 
voyage, and left with his expedition, consisting of 400 picked warriors 
{e ma ran), and called at Kuporu* to convey his brothers to their 
home. From there he sailed to Iva-nui-koro-matua,t and there met 
Tutapu (Tutapu-aruroa). He stayed at Iva for some time, when he 
and Tutapu decided to come to this land — Nuku-te-varovaro (i.e. 
Barotonga). They travelled by difEerent canoes, Iro arriving first 
and landing at Te-Ava-tapu-ki-Avaiki (now known as Avarua inlet). 
Iro did many things whilst living at Rarotonga ; held festivities and 
placed his tapu on the land, and performed the prayers for food and 
numerous other deeds. 

Tutapu arrived at Rarotonga some time after Iro ; lie landed at 
the place now called Nga-Tangiia. When Iro knew that Tutapu had 
arrived he went to greet him. Tutapu performed many things here. 
Iro and he formed all the taro swamps from the the place now known 
as Avana-nui to Tongatua (about six miles). Tutapu's men felled a 
large kau-ariki tree by digging under the roots ; the workers carried 
the earth excavated to Avana, and there formed a Marae, which was 
named Te-one-tari-a-Iva. (The earth conveyed by Ivan*s.) That 
place is now a Marae belonging to Kainuku-ariki, and when Tutapu 
departed from Rarotonga he left one of his party, a chief named 
Ata-te-kura, as a guardian and sign of ownership. 

Iro now left Avarua and joined Tutapu, as they had decided to 
leave for Tahiti. All preparations for the trip being completed, Iro 
placed his gods Rongo, Tangaroa and Tane on board of Tutapu 's 
canoe and they sailed away. Tutapu arrived at Tahiti and Iro at Iva. 
When Tutapu arrived at Tahiti, he found that his relative Tangiia-nui 
had been established there for some time, and had three children 
born to him by the daughter of Maono, and that he had named them 
as follows: Pou-te-anuanua, Pou-rakarakaia (also known as Urakana) 
and Rongo-ki-vao, and he also found that Tangiia had gone to 
Ra'iatea (Rangiatea) on an amorous visit to the daughter of Kui- 
vare-roa of that island. 

When Tangiia returned he found that Maono had been driven 
from his place by Tutapu and had retired to the mountains. Tangiia 
stayed for some little time at Tahiti, and hearing of the beauty of the 
daughter of Keu-ariki of Akaau,J he departed for that place with 
amorous intentions. 

• *Ui)olu in Samoa. — Eoitob. 

t Possibly the Marquesas.— EDrroB. 

J Probably the island named Fakahau, in the Pau-motu Group. — EDrroB. 

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The Period of fro-nuimmamoata ahd Tangiia^uuariki. 55 

When Tangiia returued from his visit to Keu'a daughter, he found 
that during his absence Tutapu had murdered two of his children ; 
the third, being with the grandfather Maono, had thus escaped. It 
was during this visit of Tangiia's to Keu's daughter that Iro met him, 
Iro having at tliis time returned from Iva. Tangiia persuaded Iro \x> 
accompany him to Taliiti, which Iro did, and sojourned with Tangiia 
for some time. 

It was during this stay of Iro's at Tahiti that he took a wife 
named Te-toko-o-te-rangi, and by lier had a son to whom he gave the 
name of Ta-i-te-ariki. This is the one that Tangiia adopted. 
Afterwards Iro went to Iva ; on the way he called at a land called 
Enua-kura, and stayed there for some years. His canoe needed many 
repairs. He took a wife at tliis island named Vai-tu- marie, and -by 
her had three children, named Tai-marama, Pari-rongo-taua-i- 
taputapuatea (Pia-rongo-taua), and Vai-tu-marie. Iro had his canoe 
hauled up, and removed the decking, as he decided a new one was 
required and all lashings needed renewing. It was while Iro was 
adzing out the new decking that he heard his wife Vai-tu-marie 
express a wisli for her paramour Ta-eta, and make some objectional 
remark concerning his own person, at which the women who were 
squatting down around Yai-tu-marie laughed with great glee, for 
Vai-tu-marie had said Iro was not to be compared with Ta-eta, and 
that Ta-eta* was tlie more passionate of the two. 

Iro said nothing when he heard those remarks, but nursed his 
anger and inwardly vowed vengeance. When the decking was 
completed, Iro made Vai-tu-marie assist him in the work of lashing 
it to the canoe, he permitted no one else to come near, he placed her 
in the canoe facing him and commenced the lashing. Iro worked for 
some time without making any comment, he then commenced repeat- 
ing over to himself what he had heard Vai-tu-marie sajdng about 
himself and his want of virility ; he worked on, and as he made each 
loop, he threw the loop so as to imprison some member of Vai*s body, 
first* her fingers were caught, when she cried out, "0 Iro, my 
fingers ! " Iro sullenly repeated the remark, and repeated the 
manoeuvre, and so on, until at last he cast the loop over her head 
when he drew it taut, and not giving her a chance to cry out, lie 
killed her with a blow from a club (?)t, he then scraped a deep 
hollow among the chips and there hid the body. 

* It is possible that Taeta is the same as the New Zealand Tawheta, who 
figures ill the Ueimkii stories belonging to this i^ame epoch. — Editob, 

t One of the New Zealand versions states that Whiro cast the noose over 
the woman's head after reeving it through a hole in the side of the canoe, then 
pulling it tight, strangled the woman. Sometimes it is a child who was thus killed 
and buried in the chips. — Editob. 

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Some little time after, his son Marama came along and said to Iro, 
** Where is Vai ? " Iro said to him, " She has just gone away." 
The son went and sought for his mother, but could not find her. He 
returned to Iro and again said, ** Where is Yai?" Iro said, "She 
has gone somewhere, ^o and search." Marama said, ** I have 
searched but cannot find her.'* Iro said, ** Go and search again." 

Marama went away and searched every place he could think of 
but could not find his mother, and after continuing his search for 
some length of time he returned to Iro and said, ** I have searched 
everywhere, but cannot find Vai ; tell me where she is." Iro would 
not tell his son, but Marama pestered him so much with questions 
that at last Iro said, ** She is dead, you will find the body under the 

Marama did not say a word, but went and located the place where 
the body was buried, dug it up and lameuted over it. After his 
lament he procured a stone knife and severed the body into two 
halves, the head, arms and upper part he took to Iro and said, ** There 
is your part," and returned to where he had left the remaining 
portion, picked it up and placing it on his head, forced it down until 
it rested upon his shoulders. He then left his home and people, and 
lived in mourning, upon one of the islands adjacent to the main land. 
He carried this portion of his mother's body upon his head and 
shoulders until it decayed, he did not mind the offensive smell, nor did 
iie bathe from the time he left it. He became a man-slayer. 

Iro, who was a visiting ariki to the island of Enua-kura, and had 
prolonged his stay here on account of his wife Vai-tu-marie, had some 
-trouble with the Ati-Puna people,* Puna was the ariki of the land, 
and it was on account of these troubles that Iro sent his youngest 
(laugliter, Vai-tu-marie, to the motu (island) to try and pursuade 
Marama to come and assist him against Puna and the Ati-Puna who 
had threatened to attack Iro and his few followers ; for Marama had 
now become a fierce warrior, and held in great dread by the Ati-Puna 
people, and in order to first pacify Marama, Iro instructed . his 
daughter what she had to do so that her brother Marama would desire 
her," and by this means communicate to him the danger in which they 
stood, and his father's wish for his assistance. 

Vai-tu-marie went and prepared for her mission, she procured a 
gourd for carrying sea-water, and then went down to the beach and 
waded out into the sea in the direction of the island upon which 
Marama had taken up his quarters (this island was some little 
distance from the main land, but could be easily reached by wading 
across the intervening area of water that covered the reef.) When 

♦ Befer also to version collected by Major J. T. Large, published in * Journal,' 
1903, page 184, which differs to that given here. My second version also differs, 
and is desonbed in more detail. 

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The Period of Iro-nui'ma'Oata and Tangiia-nui-arikL 57 

she neared the shore of the island she perceived Marama coining, she 
did not hesitate but proceeded on chanting a song, at the same time 
opened up her loin-cloth and exposed her person. Marama came 
towards her grasping his formidable spear, but when he got near to 
her and saw her almost naked he immediately desired her, he put 
his spear into his left hand, and grasping the girl with the right hand, 
took her to his house and slept with her, not knowing at the time that 
she was his sister, and b}' this means made peace between him and 
his father. 

This is part of the song Vai-tu-marie sang as she waded towards 
Mara ma's island : — 

*^ Oh, Marama-toa of Enua-kura ! 
Iro will be destroyed by Ati-Puna. 
The cause is the eating of the ariki portion, 
Consumed by the Iro clan. 
O Marama-toa ! O Marama-toa ! 
Whose fiei-ce eye remains sullen with anger — 
In the shadows of evening ; in the bright dawn of day, etc., etc." 

After Marama had his desire, he said to the young woman, ** What 
is the reason of your coming here ? " She said, " I have come to you 
ior assistance, to save Iro and his people who are threatened by the 

Marama said to her, ** Go back, and tell them to prepare some 
sweet scented coco-nut oil with which to anoint myself, to rid me of 
this smell. I will come soon." 

Vai-tu-marie returned to Iro and told him what Marama had said, 
and it was done accordingly. That evening as it was getting dark 
Marama came on to the main land. When he came the Ngati- 
Puna were all gathered together in the great meeting house, and were 
planning an attack for to-morrow on Iro's people to completely 
exterminate them. After they had completed their plans they 
commenced to dance, thinking that to-morrow the Ngati-Iro's would 
be exterminated. 

After Marama had seen Iro and his sister Pio-rongo-taua he 
arranged that his sister should stand guard at one end of the house 
where the Puna clan were and he would attack. So going to the 
house he saw that the Puna people were preparing to sleep ; he stood 
a short distance away and then threw a spear upon the house, which 
made such a noise when it struck it that it threw the Puna people into 
a state of consternation. Marama called out, '* Here am I, Marama- 
toa." The Ngati-Pnna put out the light as they were under the 
impression that Marama had entered the house and was among them. 
They then, in the darkness, turned one upon the other and thus killed 
each other. Those who escaped outside were speared by Marama-toa 

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and hi8 sister. Everytime Pio^rongo-taua speared a man she shouted 
in exultation : — 

Pio sprung from Te Vari-tavatava 
Great is my spear of ara (pandanus) wood. 

After killing all the Ngati-Puna, Marama went and bathed and 
anointed himself with the sweet scented oil, and afterwards made 
peace with Iro. 

It was after this event that Iro and his followers journeyed to many 
lands. They visited Araura, Rarotonga, Auau, Akatoka-manava 
(Mauke), Enua-manu (Atiu), Nukuroa, and Avaiki-tautau,* and.many 
other lands. 

Iro was joined in his later expeditions by a chief named Tura,f 
whose canoe was named ** Te Taputiirangi." 

Some time after, that is after Tangiia had become established at 
Rarotonga, two of Iro's sons, named Tautu-te-apa-rangi and Tautu- 
tapuae-mokora, came to Rafotonga and eventually became mataiapos 
under Motoro (Tinomana-ariki), Tangiia's son. They made their 
Marae^s on the mountains named Te-kou. 

The latter part of Iro's history remains yet to be written, but this 
story shows that Iro and Tangiia flourished at the same period^ 
in witnesp w:hereof we know for certain that Tangiia adopted Iro's 
son, Ta-i-te-anki, when they resided together at Tahiti. Tangiia was 
the one who asked Iro to accompanj' him to Tahiti, when they sailed 
together to the land where Keu's daughter lived. Her name was 
Rapa-i-ava-i-raka. It was when Iro contemplated leaving Tahiti and 
going to Iva that Tangiia asked him for his son as he wanted to adopt 
him, as he was afraid Tutapu would try and murder all his own 
children, and Tangiia wanted one of his own blood to be ariki over his 
tribes, i.e., those named Kaki-poto, Te-Atu-takataka-poto, Te-Kopa, 
Te-Tavake-moe-rangi, Te Tavako-oraurau, Te-Neke, Te Ataata-pua, 
Te-tata-veri-moe-papa and the Manaune. Iro gave his son to Tangiia, 
who named him Te-Ariki-upoko-tini on account of the many tribes he 
would govern. It was this adopted son whom Tangiia commenced to 
install and anoint as ariki at Porapora, when overtaken by Tutapu, in 
witness whereof we have the following saying : — 

** My ariki whom 1 elected at Porapora! 
Came the enemy and we had to flee." 

* This is said to be a name for New Zealand by Te Ariki-tera-are, the old 
priest of Rarotonga in Dr. Wyatt Gill's time. — Editor. 

t The New Zealand Maoris have an account of a long voyage undertaken by 
"WTiiro (Iro) and Tura, and descendants "^of both still live in New Zealand. — Emtob* 

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The Period of Iro^nui^ma'Oata and Tangna-nui-anki, 59 

As Tangiia did not complete the ceremony at that place he came 
to Rarotonga eventually, calling on the way at a place called Nuku, 
where he himself was consecrated as a high ariki, and elected his 80 
^wflto*rt^(7« and his priests, six in number, the names of the priests 
were : — Potiki-taua, More-makana-kura, Tangara, Taramai-te-tonga, 
Te-manu-aitu and . 

When he reached Rarcitouga he again performed the ceremony of 
anointing Ta-i-te-ariki at Pae-taa and at Arai-te-tonga, both Koutm 
(Courts of Royalty), thus making his adopted son artkt over the land 
and over the tribe Takitumu-te-nu-roa-i-Iti, and from that day to this 
the descendants of Ta-i-te-ariki have been arikis over that tribe, and 
liave alwaj's held the name of Pa-te-ariki-upoko-tini. 

The descent from Ta-i-te-ariki to the present is : — 

[Note on the genealogical tables following. 

Mr. Savage has supplied very full tables of descent from Tangiia-nui, the great 
ancestor of the Rarotonga people, but only four of the principal ones are printed 
here. These tables, however interesting to the people themselves, have little 
interest for white-people. But they are all important in connection with Poly- 
nesian History, in that they are the only means of obtaining approximate dates 
in the history of the race, and history without dates is of no value. 

It will be observed that the mean number of generations from Tangiia-nui 
down to the year 1900 is 31*7, which, converted into years by the rule adopted 
by this Society, since 1895, of allowing 25 years to a generation, would 
make Tang^ia-nui to have flourished about A. D. 1100. This is as derived from 
Mr. Savage's tables. 

On the other hand, Te Ariki-tara-are, an old priest of Rarotonga, who 
flourished early in the nineteenth century, supplied the Rev. W. Wyatt Gill 
■with a number of traditions and genealogies, copies of which are in our library. 
Prom the mean of several lines descending from the same Tangiia-nui to the 
year 1900, we get 26 generations, which converted into years by the above rule 
will give the period of Tangiia-nui as a.d. 1250. And these latter tables com- 
pare closely as to date with those obtained from the New Zealand Maoris, 
Tahitians and Hawaiians. The whole history of the Polynesian people, so far 
: as published, has been based on this date of a.d. 1250, and therefore, without in 

. the least discrediting Mr. Savage's tables, it would be unwipe to adopt a new 
starting point in the chronology of the race, until further information warrants 

. our doing so. — Editor.] 

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I - 

I H 


^ tf ^ 

?^ H S 

1 1 ^ 






'o l-T 
^ o 













~g, — 2 


^ <2- 












































— .i- 


























S J 




H Eh H iZi 

C^ 1-I »-•»-• 1-^ 

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The Period of /ro-nui-ma-oata and Tangiia-nui-ariki. 61 


The following is the geneaolgy of the Tinomanas from Tangiia-nui. 
30 TANailA-NUI = MOETUMA Akatauira 

29 Motoro* = Te Pao-o-te-rangi 

28 Uenaka>taputapu 

27 Uenuku-rakeiora 


26 Uenuka-te-aitu (XJenga-atiia)t 


25 Tamaiva =: Te Uira-Kamo-ariki 

24 Tapetukura 

23 Tuiknra 

. I 
22 Maevatini 


21 Mata-ngae 

20 Tua-urupoko 

19 Taketake-maunga 


18 Anga 

17 Tinirau 

16 Manavaroa 

15 Tamafcoa 

14 Te Ariari-ariki 


13 Ruanang^ 

12 Rongooi 

11 Arauira-ati 


• I 



•10 Ngaariki-o-Tinomana =: Rauru 

9 Napa-ariki-kino 
8 Enua-ruru-tini 
7 Teiao 


6 Te 

(3rd wife) 

5 Enua-tama-nui (youngest son ; see note below) J 

4 Moana 

a Tinomana -Enua-ruru-tini =: Te Pori-a-Pa (2nd wife) 

2 Morcana ^ Te Ariki-tapu-rangfi 


1 Makea Tamuera Mereana^ (died 1907) 

(Noissue) (No issue) 

* Motoro-Tinomana-Te Araki-tapu-rangi (full name). \ Mereana was elected to title in 1884. 
t From these two descend lines to Maoris of New Zealand.— Editob. 

t It will be seen by this table that the present ruling family are not the oldest or main branch, 
which will be explained in the Tangiia-nui history. 

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I also give herewith the geneaology of Karika, that is, the descent 
from him to the present time. Karika was a contemporary of 

2 Te Mokoroa-ki-aitu •=. Tangiia-uui 

32 Puta-ki-te-tai ♦ = Te li-matoa 


31 Te Ariki-i-te-au = 

30 Te Ariki-akamataku^Piri-marae 


29 Te Ariki-akamaru = Te Kura-moe-ariki 

28 Te Atua-rere-vao = Te-vaa-rangi-nui 
(Te Eangi-tu-ki-vao) | 

27 Taritari-ua ^ Mata-uoauoa 


26 Tumupu = Ngamau 

25 Tinorei = Ngamata 

24 Potiki = Te Uira-ma-te-aa 

23 Maungungu = Te Vaa-nui 

22 Taiki •=. Tapaeru-nui 

21 Taruia-te-ra = Te Uru-moe-ariki ' 

20 Te Ta-Itinui = Te Kura-anuanua 


19 Te Inaina •=. Taranga-nuku 


18 Te Tauira-ariki = Mata-etu 

17 Te Ariki-apeapetini =: Te Ra-vero-tiitii 

16 Te Ratu-o-Tangaroa-ki-Manuka = Ngapii-ariki 

15 Ekeeke Tumupu = Rangikura 

14 Tukerae = Ngamau-o-Rongo-ma-tane 


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The Period of Iro^nuUma^oata and TangiiamnuUariki. 63 

13 Tamaporetu-Aramai-te-anaanaa =: Te Ra-tuanuku-a-Kainuka 

12 To Anuanua (Peaorongo) -=: Te Upoko-uri-o-Atea-e-Papa 
11 Te Konako -=. Etu-o-te-rangi-poiri 

10 Kangi-makeakea = Te Kura-poru Te Rangi-tu-ki-vao 

9 Putua-ariki Te Pa-atua-kino '"^ Pouna 


V 1 . 

8 Eeu Tautii Paenui Eao 

7 Tekao = Ngataraiau 


6 Bjirika 

5 Pa-Karika 

4 Makea-Pa-Karika 

3 Tuairi 

2 Tavake = Matiroeroe-a-Papai 

1 t Teupoko-a-nga-ariki = Te Ariki 1915 

* Vakapora once informed me that Puta-ki-te-tai was tlife son of Mokoroa-ki- 
aitu and Tangiia-nui. However, this will be referred to when the Makeia Karika 
history is sent in. 

t Present holder of title of Mahea Karika Ariki, age about 42 

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For further comparative purposes I also add the genealogy of 
Tangiiau, written in book on July 16th, 1853. It will be noticed that 
this is the senior line of the Tinomanas as far as at present known : — 



31 Tinoniana-Motoro-Tamaaa = Te Pao-o-te-rangi 
30 Tinomana-Uenuku = Te Uira-o-te-rangi 

29 Tinomaiia-Uenaku-rakeiora = Vaine-aru-marama 


28 Uenga-atua .= Kaaoia-ki-ata 

27 Tinomana-Te-Kao-Tamaiva = OmSpapa 

^6 Tinomana-Manarere = Pui-rangi 

25 Tmomana-Toikura =: Marangi 

24 Tinomana-MaeTatini =: Marae-kura 

23 Tinomana-Matangae = Te Paeru-maeTama 
22 Tinomana-Tuau-aitu := Kura-ei-tapu 


21 Tinomana-Taketake =: Ota-rangi-te-paa-ki- tonga 

20 Tinomana-Anga = Apakura 

19 Tinomana-Tinirau =: Tuei-ariki-ki- Aral- te- tonga 

18 Tinomana-Manavaroa = Kura-pei-rangi 


1 7 Tinomana-Taio-anki = Kura-orakia 


16 Tinomana-Te Ariaari-ariki = Patua-ariki 

15 Tinomana-Ruananga = Te Paeru-ariki (Ist wife) 

14 Tinomana-Taniatoa-atu-nui = Te XJpoko-tu 


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The Period of Iro^nuUmamoata and TangUamnuimarikL 65 

13 Tinomana-Tauira-te-rangi-o-Ayama ^ Te Upoko-tu-a-Pa 
12 Tinomaua-Ng^-ariki-o-Tlnomana-Tunui = Te Ata-o-te-rangi 

1 1 Tinomana-Napa •=. Tumai 

10 Tinomana-Ra = Tepaeru-a-Te-Aia 

9 Tinomana-Takao = Kaora-te-uira 


8 'nnomana-Te Mutu-Ariki = MaeTama 


7 Tinomana-Tepai-Tang^a Kea Tuki Te Reinga 

6 Tangiiau-te-yaa-tutae 


5 Tangiiau-Koau 

4 Tangiiau-Tipirang^ 


3 Tangiiau-Takaa Te Akamei 

(no issue) j 

2 Tangiiau-Mere (d. 1914) Tu 

1 Tamaaa lotepa 

Tamatoa (aged 19) 1915 

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By THE Eev. Hoeta 'JDe Hata of Waitahanui. 
Translated by the Eev. H. J. Fletcher, Taupo. 

( Continued from page 30, Vol. XXVI. J 


AHANDSOME kakahu kura was made and sent to Te Roro-o-te- 
raugi, and when Tamaniutu heard that it had been handed 
over, a man was sent to Eotorua to Te-Eoro-o-te-rangi to bring back 
the price of the garment. When he reached Eotorua and told 
Te-Eoro-o-te-rangi the object of his journey, he received nothing but 
curses. When the messenger returned to Tamamutu he said, ** Te- 
Eoro-o-te-rangi would not give me any payment for the garment, the 
only thing I got from him were curses." Tamamutu heard, and 
replied, ** To-morrow it will return to me here." (Kai apopo ia ka riro 
mai i a au ki konet.) 

Tamamutu with a wartparty of Ngati-Tuharetoa and Te Eangi- 
patoto prepared for action. As soon as the party were afloat, 
Werewere said to Tamamutu. **If you meet our young relatives. 
Tiki and Kaui, do not kill them." 

The war-party of Tamamutu [travelled down the Waikato river 
from the Taupo lake and] came to Hipa-patua below Tapapa-kuao 
where they left their canoes. [Hipa-patua is the name of a place on 
the Waikato river a short distance below the Spa, Taupo. Tapapa- 
kuao, the old Maori name of a portion of the Spa propeHy.] 

Going on from thence they met Tiki and Kaui and killed theui. 
Tamamutu was away behind when these men were killed by the rest 
of Ngati-Tuharetoa. There is a whakatauki (or saying) used on such 
occasions, ^^He maroro kokofi ihu uaka.^^ "A flying Ush cut ofP by 
the bow of the canoe." The storj^ of the death of Tiki and Kaui by 
the war-party of Tamamutu was caiTied to Werewere. 

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The Kgati^Tuhareioa Occupat/ion of TaupO'nut'.a-Tia. 67 

He at once went to the place where Tamamutu had left his canoes 
at Hipapa-patua and sent them all adrift in the Waikato. They 
drifted over the Huka falls and were all smashed up. The Huka is 
the famous waterfall on the Waikato river about four miles from the 
outlet of lake Taupo. 

Tamamutu and his party arrived at Rotorua and he stood up to 
arrange the order of battle and make the usual speeches to the 
warriors. He used this whakatauki : ** Rtiia taiteay ruia taitea, kia tu 
ho taikakaV The reason for the use of this proverb concerning chiefs 
and ordinary soldiers was, that Tamamutu claimed to represent the 
tatkaka, and said that Te Rangi-patoto represented the taitea. 

This proverb is taken from the totara tree (podocarpua totara), the 
outside of the sap is called taitea. It decays quickly— decays like the 
common soldier who has no standing. The inside of the totara is the 
taikaka, it does not decay, it is like the chief whose power does not 
fade. When Te Eangi-patoto considered the whakatauki of his friend 
Tamamutu he understood it was meant for him. So he left 
Tamamutu's party and went on to Te Awahou, Weriweri and Puhirua. 
[ThiQQ pa8 on the north-west side of lake Rotorua.] Tamamutu went 
against Pukeroa. [The hill where the park is in the township of 
Rotorua.] Which was the pa of Te Roro-o-te-rangi. Before very 
long Weriweri, Te Awahou and Puhirua were taken by Te Rangi- 
patoto and his party. 

At the same time Tamamutu and his party were strenuously 
besieging Pukeroa. Te Rangi-patoto came back and with his 
assistance it was soon taken. 

Tamamutu took Te Roro-o-te-rangi and killed him ; he also took a 
tiki pounamu (or jadeite breast ornament) named * Te Ngako ' and 
brought it back to Taupo. This was the payment then for the 
kakahu kura (or red-feathered garment), the greenstone which Te 
Roro-o-te-rangi withheld. 

The curse was also avenged, for the man who uttered it — 
Te Roro-o-te-rangi — was killed. 

A lady named Nga-waero was taken captive, and she became the 
wife of Tutetawha No. 2. Their son was Te Umu, who had Te Auroa, 
who had Toki, who was taken to wife by Mokonui-a-rangi, and they 
had Te Kuru-o-te-Marama. [" Polynesian Journal," Vol. I^ page 222, 
mentions Arama Karakn, a son of Te Kuru's, wlio was reckoned to be 
eighty-five years old in 1892.] 

. Wlien Tamamutu and Te Rangi-patoto returned to the place 
where they had left their canoes, they found that Werewere had set 
them adrift in the Waikato, ^.nd that they had all been broken up in 
the Huka fall. The war-party was very much enraged at this, 
especially the chiefs. 

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They went on and came to Roto-Ngaio, where Were were was 
living in his pa Papohatu. The pa was besieged by Tamamutu, but 
not taken. Tamamutu went on, but gave a hint that he would come back. 

Te Roro-o-te-rangi was buried at Motu-hinahina, Roto-Ngaio, on 
the western side of the lake. 

Tamamutu went on to his own pa at Motu-tere, but as soon as he 
had gone, Werewere fled to Heretaunga and dwelt at Motu-o-rmu in 
Manga-one. This place is near Ruku-moana on the boundary of Te 
Pohue block and on the Napier-Taupo road. 

When Tamamutu returned to again besiege Pa-pohatu it was 
standing empty. 

When Werewere had been living for some time at Motu-o-ruru he 
hfed a desire to go and kill men. So he went to Heretaunga to raise a 
war-party. [Heretaunga seems to be a name used rather indefinitely 
by the Taupo Maoris for a considerable portion of Hawkes Bay, 
especially for that portion which extends inland from Napier towards 
Taupo for about twenty miles.] 

Te Turuki was the leader of the war-party. They travelled on 
until they came to Runanga. \_k.n old Maori pa on the edge of the 
Taupo plains, about eighty-five miles from Napier.] At Runanga the 
party divided into two. One party went towards the northern end of 
Taupo. Te Teko, a son of Werewere, was the leader of this party. 

The other party, with Te Turuki and Werewere as leaders, went 
towards the south, where they took Te Koropupu, a pa between 
Motu-o-pa and Tauranga. 

Teko and his party assaulted Whare-waka. The name of this 
fight was Manuka-ka-ruia. 

They then crossed over to the other side to the Karaka and fought 
there. The name of this battle was Kari-tuwhenua. [Whare-waka 
is the eastern side of Tapuae-haruru Bay and Te Karaka the western 
side of Lake Taupo.] At Te Karaka two wives of Tutetawha were 
taken prisoners, their names were Raukato and Urututu. Teko and his 
party then returned to Whare-waka. As soon as Tutetawha knew 
that his wives had been taken he paddled across in his canoe to get 
them. He landed outside of Whare-waka and left his canoe afloat 
near where the taua was sitting ashore. Tutetawha asked for Teko. 
The taua replied that he wag close by. Tutetawha said, " Let him be 
called to come and stand on the shore." As soon as he ariived 
Tutetawha asked him about the welfare of the women. Teko replied 
that they were both well. Tutetawha then said, "Are you not willing 
to return them to me ?" Teko was willing to return Raukato, but he 
was not able to return Urututu for she hud been given to another man. 
So Teko surrendered Raukato to Tutetawha, and in acknowledgment 
thereof Tutetawha left his dog-skin cloak on a rook outside the point 
of Whare-waka. 

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The Hgati' Tuharetoa Occupation of Taupo^nui-a- Tia, 69 

The tawi of Werewere and Te Turuki returned having failed to 
catch Tamamutu, who at that time was living on Motu-taiko. 
[Motu-taiko is the precipitous island, about twelve miles from the 
township of Taupo and four miles from the Eastern shore.] If this 
taua had been seen by Tamamutu it would not have passed on 
untouched. They took Te Koropupu, but the people in it were not of 
rank among Tuharetoa. No chief was taken or killed. 

The taxm with Werewere, Te Turuki and Teko returned to Mohaka, 
to the crossing at Te Ngaru. This ford is below the bridge at Ponga- 
hiu'u. [Just above the present Mohaka bridge on the Taupo -Napier 

The taua stopped there for a night and Urututu*s master told her 
to collect some stones, which she did. She was then told to get some 
firewood, and this also was done. She was then told to go and fetch 
some mauku (a species of fern), and by this she knew that presently 
she would be killed for food. 

The next command was ** kindle the oven,** and presently the oven 
was blazing. The man then arose for the purpose of killing Urututu. 
When she saw him she fled to the river and was lost. The people 
searched diligently but she was never foimd. [From this arose the 
story that] she became the chief taniwha of those who live in Taupo- 
moana, of Horomatangi, of Te Ihi and Ara-tukutuku. 

Some time after this Werewere died at his own ^« at Motu-o-ruru. 
Here endeth this story. 

[To he continued.) 

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By H. D. Skinner, b.a., d.c.m. 

IN a review of Professor G. Elliot Smith's book **0n the Significance 
of the Geogi'aphical Distribution of the Practice of Mummifica- 
tion," published in the " Journal of the Polynesian Society " for 
September, 1916, the present writer quoted the following extract from 
the work of Prof. J. McMillan Brown : " After the extraction of the 
softer parts, oil or salt was rubbed into the flesh and the body was 
dried in the sun or over a fire; then the mummy was wrapped in 
eloth and hidden away. In some parts of New Zealand, the skeletons 
of mummified bodies are in the crouching or sitting posture." Refemng 
to this extract I said, ** The point raised in this passage — the existence 
of the practice of mummification among the Maoris — is so important 
that I challenge the learned author to place his facts on the table." 
An inference that may legitimately be drawn from the concluding 
sentence is that mummified bodies in New Zealand are at any rate not 
rare. This was met in the review by a denial of the existence of any 
mummified bodies in any museum. Finally, I asked for proofs that any 
system of mummification, apart from the preservation of heads, had 
ever been practised in New Zealand. It will be noted that I did not 
deny the existence of mummification. All I asked was that students 
should be told the authority on which Professor McMillan Brown's 
statement rested. The Professor is not a field worker among the 
Maoris. Hence the importance of some knowledge of his authority for 
the statement. 

In the *' Journal" for December, 1916, the challenge is taken up 
by Mr. Edward Tregear, and also by Hare Hongi. In the literature 
relating to the Maori there are few as widely read as Mr. Tregear. 
What evidence can he adduce from the great workers in the past ? 
His first authority is a photograph of a body which he infers is that of 
a mummified Maori. He states that this photograph is dated March, 
1893, and bears the name of R. B. Graham. Mr. Tregear asked me to 
find out the identity of R. B. Graham and so establish the fact that 
this body is really that of a Maori. Circumstances forbid me doing as 
Mr. Tregear suggests ; but, in any case, I submit that if Mr. Tregear 
wishes the photo to be accepted as evidence, the onus of finding out the 
identity of the photographer and of proving the body is that of a 

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Mummifhaiion among the Maoris, ?1 

Maori rests with him.* Assuming, however, that the body is really 
what he suggests — namely that of a Maori from the Kawhia district — 
Mr. Tregear must then prove that the body is mummified and not 
merely desicated. That there is a difference between these two 
processes has apparently been quite overlooked. If desication is 
synonymous with mummification, the head and neck and legs of an 
individual Moa preserved, in the Natural History Museum at South 
Kensington are parts of a mummy. So also the body of a European 
child in Central Otago, which the late Sir James Elector recorded. 

Mr. Tregear mentions the two bone-chests originally in the collec- 
tion of the late Augustus Hamilton, and now in* the Dominion 
Museum. On the authority of Hamilton these are described as 
mummy chests. If Mr. Tregear cares to inspect them he will see that 
they would scarcely accommodate the body of a healthy baby. If he 
cares to inspect the other chests, of which there are a dozen or so in the 
Dominion Museum, he will see that not one of them is large enough to 
contain any body except tliat of a very small child. 

The only admissable evidence, therefore, that Mr. Tregear 
advances is the passage from the late John White, and this evidence is 
in itself of too slender a nature to warrant any wide inferences. As 
Mr. Tregear points out, my denial of the existence of any Maori 
mummy in any museum is too sweeping. I withdraw it. I may say, 
however, that I have pereonally examined some fifty museums, 
including those most likely to contain such remains, but have found 
none.f I have also enquired from those most likely to know, but can 
hear of none. 

The evidence brouglit forward by Hare Hongi is new and quite 
conclusive. He is a field worker among the Maoris, and he has stated 
specific instances of mummification, and has quoted his authorities. It 
is much to be hoped that he will give students further information, 
especially regarding the process of embalming. 


By G. Elliot Smith, f.r.s. 

I AM especially grateful to my fnend, Mr. H. D. Skinner, for 
having elicited the very important and interesting statement by 
Hare Hongij published in the " Polynesian Journal," Vol. XXV., No. 4, 
page 169. My reason for writing now is to urge him (and any other 

~ * See the Rev. H.J. Fletcher's note at end hereof.— Editob. 
t It is not very likely such mummies would be found in museums. They were 
Ycr J sacred in the eyes of the Maori and would be hidden away in deep chasms as 
a rule. — Editob. 

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readers of the " Polynesian Journal " who may have access to informa- 
tion concerning the technique of mummification) to obtain and place on 
record every detail of the process and the associated practices, 
however trivial and unimportant they may seem. It is particularly 
important to discover whether or not any incisions were made for the 
purpose of preserving the body ; and if so, the precise situations where 
they were made. In the islands of the Torres Straits the body was 
opened through the right or left flank, or in other cases through the 
perineum, and similar variations of practice are found in most places 
where the Egyptian technique has made its influence felt. 

The measures taken for the preservation of the tissues of the corpse 
are also matters of importance. The commonest procedures elsewhere 
are desication, either by exposure to the sun or by fire, the use of salt, 
various kinds of oils, resins, powdered wood and other materials. 
Further information is also wanted as to the process of packing the body. 

Although in his book, "Maori and Polynesian," Professor McMillan 
Brown did not give any evidence in support of the statement to which 
Mr. Skinner so strenuously objects, or any indication of the source of 
his information, I accepted his account because I had presumptive 
evidence suggesting the very probability of the occurrence of mummifica- 
tion in New Zealand. Moreover, Professor McMillan Brown *s 
argument was not helped in any way by the assumption that embalming 
was practised ; so that he had no reason for inventing the story. 

My reasons for assuming that mummification would be found in 
New Zealand were briefly as follows : — The custom of preserving the 
head of friends or foes was derived from the Egyptian practice of 
mummification, and was spread abroad along with the latter. Even in 
ilgypt itself special importance was attached to the head, and in many 
places in its neighbourhood ; in Africa, Europe and Asia the head only 
was preserved. This was especially the case in Ancient Gaul (and 
probably in Britain also), where the analogy to tiie Maori customs 
associated with mokomokai is remarkably close. ^ 

In the easterly diffusion of these customs the significance of the 
special preservation of the head became enormously enhanced in South - 
Eastern Asia and Indonesia, which was in part due to the more 
obtrusive role of head-hunting. Thus when the practice of mummifica- 
tion spread into Oceania (which may have happened as early as the 
seventh century B.C.), both preservation of the complete body and 
mummification of the head only were transmitted, although for a 
variety of reasons, both cultural and practical, the latter practice was 
much commoner than the former. In the islands of the Torres Straits, 
and in Malekula and elsewhere both methods have continued to the 
present day. 

1. See A. Reinach, "Lea Tdtes Coupees," Revue Celtique, 1913. 

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mummification among the Maoris. 73 

Now it was the custom in Tahiti to preserve " the bodies of chiefs, 
and persons of rank and affluence, and those of the middle class." The 
details of the methods adopted have been given by Ellis,* from whose 
writing the above phrase is quoted. In view of the veiy close and 
intimate connection between New Zealand and Tahiti in the earlier 
periods of the former's history,^ it seemed to me to be altogether 
inconceivable that New Zealand could have wholly escaped the influence 
of Tahiti in the matter of mummification. In New Zealand there must 
have been many immigrants from the latter islands, whose most 
cherished beliefs would have impelled to mummify the whole body ; 
and conviction of this kind, as the study of human behaviour 
throughout the world so clearly shows, are not readily given up. 

In consideration of these facts I was persuaded that such customs 
could not have failed to have got to New Zealand and, therefore I 
quoted Professor McMillan Brown's statement, even though he did 
not give the source of his information. But I am none the less 
grateful to Messrs. Edward Tregear and Hare Hongi for the more 
definite evidence in substantiation of my argument. 

In Mr. Skinner's review of my article (which was published in the 
proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society's 
Proceedings, and afterwards in book form under the title ** The 
Migrations of Early Culture ") a further objection is raised to my 
claim that the use of the canoe in the burial ritual was ultimately 
derived, like the practice of mummification, from ancient Egypt. Mr. 
Skinner claims that in New Zealand it arose ** in a wholly different 
way from wholly different circumstances." But the adoption of this 
view will place Mr. Skinner and those who share his views in a very 
awkward dilemma. For many centuries before the custom of 
mummification began to spread east boats had played a very 
prominent part in the funerary ritual in Egypt. When it is recalled 
that these Egj^tian practices were carried to the east by sailors, it is 
inconceivable that the importance of the boat-element in the burial 
ceremonies was not still further enhanced. 

Thus the acceptance of Mr. Skinner's view would imply that the 
people who introduced into New Zealand the practice of mummification 
discarded the associated canoe-element in the ceremonies for disposal 
of the dead (and at once set to work to delete from their minds all 
recollections of such customs) and then re-invented the very things 
they had just been to so much pains to get rid of. I must confess that 
such a working hypothesis is utterly incredible. 

But this is not the only difficulty. Mr. Skinner's hypothesis, 
presumably, is put forward as an expression of the modern ethnological 

2. ** Polynesian Researches," Second Edition, 1832, Vol. I., p. 399, et seq. 

3. Percy Smith's *' Hawaiki," Third Edition, 1910, Chapter VII. 

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dogma that **the similarity of the working of the human mind 
explains the independent development of identical customs.'* But if 
the essentially identical canoe-element in the funerary ritual was 
developed ** in a wholly different way from wholly different circum- 
stances" in New Zealand and Egypt respectively, what becomes of 
the precious theory of ** psychic unity "to which so many ethnologists 
now bow the knee ? 

The brilliant work which Mr. Skinner has done within the last two 
years, both as an ethnologist and as a soldier, has earned him the 
highest esteem of all who have been brought into touch with him. I 
for one do not think the less of him for fighting to the last ditch in 
support of the ethnological doctrines in which he has been trained ; 
but when he honestly and bluntly states the grounds of his opposition 
to the view of cultural diffusion, I believe that by so doing he will be 
brought to see how untenable and false those doctrines are. 


In Vol. XXV., page 167 of the *' Polynesian Journal '' there is an 
article on Maori Mummies, by Mr. Edward Tregear. The article 
is illustrated by a Photograph of ** A Maori Mummy." The true and 
authentic history of the ** Mummy " is as follows : — 

When Europeans began to settle in what is now the township of 
Taupo, there was a Maori settlement on the western side of the 
source of the Waikato. The Maoris were in the habit of burjring 
their dead in shallow graves in the dry pumice soil quite close to the 
kainga. About 1875 a lad named Tukairangi, son of Henare Pohipi, 
died and was buried there. The boy was about six years old when he 
died. A few years later the site of tlie kainga was purchased by 
Mr. T. B. Noble of Taupo, but before transferring the site the Maoris 
dug up the bodies of their dead and buried them elsewhere. The 
body of the boy was one of the number. The dry soil had absorbed 
the moisture of the body to such an extent that it had dried up 
instead of decomposing. The photograph was taken by Mr. R. B. 
Graham of Wairakei. The body was again buried at Puke-tarata, 
about twelve miles north of the township erf Taupo. 

The only preservation of the dead the Taupo Maoris ever tried was 

the drying of " heads. '* 

H. J. Fletcher. 

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(Southland, New Zealand.) 

By H. Beattie. 

Continued frmn, page 98 of Volume XXV. 

SINCE writing the traditions already published, the collector 
embraced the opportunity afforded by the New Year and Easter 
holidays to re-visit several of his aged informants, and also to see 
some whom it had not been his good fortune to meet before, notably 
Messrs. Henare Te Maire, Tare Te Maiharoa and the Hon. Tame 
Parata. The result was a most gratifying addition to the number of 
hitherto unrecorded place-names in Southern New Zealand, bringing 
the tally from 530 up to 800 names to be recorded, besides a great 
quantity of oral traditions, some of which now follows, as well as 
corrections and extensions of what has already appeared. 


My informant made a correction or two to what I wrote on this 
canoe and added further infoimation. The sandbank at the mouth of 
the Waitaki river known as 0-te-heni is not called after one of the 
crew of Arai-te-uru, but after a woman of comparatively modern 
times. A rock there, however, is called **Moko-tere-a-tarehu,'' after 
one of the passengers on the Arai-te-uru, who was washed off and 
drowned there. One of the old men said this Moko was a son of the 
chief Hekum, but another said Moko was a sister of Mauka-atua 
and Eau-taniwha, who were also on board. One said, **The real 
captain was Pohu. He never left the canoe, and can be seen in stone 
sitting in the canoe to this day. This Arai-te-uru was the first canoe 
from Hawaiki to New Zealand. There were no people here then. 
The name of the South Island was then ** Te-Waka-a-Maui." The 
Arai-te-uru brought Te Rapuwai people here. Tapuae-nuku was on 
hoard, and the high mountain in the Kaikoura range is named after 
him.* Puketapu was caught by the daylight and turned into a hill. 

* The name of this mountain is Tapuae-o-Uenuku (the footsteps of Uenuku). 

— Editob. 

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She was carrying a bundle of wood by two straps, one of flax and one 
of toetoe, and you can see the marks of those two straps down her back 
yet as denoted by two gullies — one growing nothing but flax, and the 
other nothing but toetoe^ Another said, ** Hipo was the skipper of 
Arai-te-uru, and he can be seen as a rock in the stern of the petrified 
canoe. Others on board were Tarahaua and Hua-te-kirikiri (now the 
names of mountains at E-akitata river), Ruataniwha (a mountain at 
Ohou), Maukatere (a mountain at Rakaia river). Kakiroa, a man on 
board, is now the name of a mountain near Aoraki (Mt. Cook). There 
is also a mountain at Wanaka called Kakiroa, but it is named after a 
woman. Kaitakata, one of the men on board, was a painter* and 
settled near Lake Kaitangata and left a lot of maukoroa (paint) in the 
hills near there. Aonui was a cook and was turned into a rock in the 
sea and there is a kelp bag on each side of him. Aroaro-kaihe was a 
woman on board, but Aoraki and Kiri-kiri-katata were men. A 
strange thing about all those people on that canoe is that there is no 
trace of their having left any descendants as no whaJca-papa (or 
genealogical table) is in existence from them. Eoko-i-tua, who caused 
the Arai-te-uri to sail here, came on a rainbow himself, and there are 
two or three genealogies from him.*' 

The story of Roko-i-tua can be seen in extended form in the 
*V Transactions of the New Zealand Institute," Vol. XII., page 160. 
My informants say that the name of the people Roko-i-tua brought 
the kumara to in the South Island was Kahui-roko, and one said 
these people originated from those who came with Rakai-hautu. The 
statement that the Rapuwai people came in the Arai-te-uru lacks 
support. Another of the old men said : — ** Te Rapuwai was a tribe 
that came from the North Island in the canoe Tairea under Tukete, 
and landed where Nelson is now, and from there spread over the 
South Island." The fact that there are no genealogies from the crew 
of the Arai-te-uru to the present is passing strange seeing their 
names are so well-known. 


In regard to the information that has been given about this canoe, 
the three old men already mentioned in this "Journal," Vol. XXV., 
page 94, gave further particulars. The hill at Mandeville called 
Katata-o-Kurahaoa was named after the bailer that fell over- 
board when the first water struck the doomed canoe. [I have since 
looked up the description of the Takitimu canoe published in the 
*' Journal of the Polynesian Society," Vol. XXIII., pp. 198-218, but 
could see no names for the bailers.] The name of the Waimea Plains 
is Ka-ra-o-Takitimu (the sails of Takitimu) because it is compared to 

* Was he a member of an early Art Society ? — Editob. 

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Trmditions and LegBuds. 77 

the appearance of the sails when lying flat down. The island off 
Huapuke, known as Kauati-a-Tamatea, is called hy the Pakehas 
Grreen Island. 

In the song as published ('' Journal Polynesian Society,'^ 
Vol. XXIV., page 109J it is questioned if karu should not be karo. 
Karu is the southern rendering of ngaru (wave), and that line would 
read in northern form as ** Na nga ngaru.** 

The song was roughly translated to nie as follows : — 

" With regard to the broacliiiig of Takitimu, 
She came from the North Island. 
She arrived at the mouth of the Waimea stream 
And dropped the bailer. 
By the waves known as 
0-te-wao, Oroko and Okaka 
She was utterly destroyed. Alas ! '* 

These three waves are now represented by ridges. Okaka is 
" The Hump " at Waiau river, Oroko (or Orokoroko) is the southern 
portion of the Hokanui Hills, while 0-te-wao is " a ridge up Oreti 
river way." Another old man considered that Takitimu was unlucky 
because she was first damaged at Hawkes Bay, in the North Islaud^ 
and repaired, and then was finally wrecked at the Waiau river. 
Another said: ** Takitimu, the *root of the stump,' was so called 
because Tamatea pulled up the stump of the tree from which the 
canoe was made. This canoe landed * immigrants ' at Turanga-nui 
and Tamihau and other places in the North Island, and also in 
Southland. I do not know if this canoe went round to the West 
Coast Sounds, but there is a place there called after the captain, 
* Takaka-o-te-kerehu-a-Tamatea.' This canoe was wrecked in Foveaux 
Straits, and is now a range of mountains down tliere." 

The statement made in the ** Polynesian Journal," Vol. XXTII., 
page 206, that the Takitimu returned to Rarotonga finds no backers in 
the South, and, indeed, in **The Lore of the Whare-wananga " itself 
there is no direct statement to this effect.* Instead, it says that after 
Takitimu was wrecked, Tamatea stayed in the South f(n* a while, and 
then when he left he did so in a new canoe called Te Karaerae. Of 
course that does not say that the Takitimu was irreparably dama^ed^ 
but the presumption is that she was. Another canoe may have been 
built and called Takitimu, and returned to the South Sea Islands — 
this is a suggestion in view of the persistent belief down here tliat the 
original Takitimu rested finally at Murihiku. 

♦ No ! But it was so stated by the Scribo, and w supported by statements of 
the Karotongan people. — Editob. 

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With respect to Te Ana-wbakairo, the cave carved by the crew of 
Takitimu, there are plenty of limestone caves up the Waiau valley, 
and I would suggest it was one of these they carved, and not the 
"rock-painting" ones at the Waitaki as suggested* Limestone 
would make comparatively easy carving. 


The origin of the Rapuwai tribe has long been a subject of 
speculation and surmise, but one of my informants recalled fragments 
of what he remembered hearing from tbe old men who died fifty years 
ago. This was to the effect that the people who were afterwards called 
Rapuwai in the South Island were living about Patea, in Southern 
Taranaki, when Turi (the captain of the Aotea canoe) and his crew 
settled amongst them.f This people were not called Rapuwai in the 
North Island ; it was only after they came across to this island that 
such name was bestowed on them. In the North Island they were 
known as Patea. After the people of Turi settled amongst them a 
dispute arose, and some of the disputants took seven kos (or Maori 
spades) and stuck them in a point of land jutting out fi*om the coast. 
This caused that point to become detached from the coast and it floated 
out to sea carrying six of the kos with it, and leaving the other ko 
behind in the main land. The block of land had people on it, and it 
drifted over to the South Island to Taumatini near Motueka, in Tasman 
Baj, where the people landed. The six kos turned into a clump of 
bush which can still be seen at Taumatini.]: The leader of these 
unique voyagers was Raumano, and his followers were at first known 
as Baumano after him. One of their first settlements was near Te 
Hoiere (Pelorus Sound) at a place called Raumano (or now often known 
as Te-Mano-o-te-Rapuwai). They were a prolific people and soon spread 
inland. They liked nothing better than to settle round lakes as they were 
fond of eeling, canoeing and swimming, so that the lakes down 
Westland way soon harboured a strong colony of them. (My notes 
gravely and briefly summarises their predilections as " regular water 
rats.") They swam not like Maoris nor Europeans, but with their 
elbows close to their sides and with flapping arms, and it was their 
short beating strokes which caused the other people then in the South 
Island to call them "To Rapu-wai." (My informant showed me in 
pantomime the overhand swimming stroke, the breast stroke and the 

♦This is also the conclusion arrived at by the translator of ** The Voyagpe of 
Takitimu.'* There are, or were, paintings in a cave on the road descending to the 
Waiau valley, not far from Clifden.— Editob. 

t About the year 1350.— Editor. 

J The North Island — Patea— version of this story is to be found in * Journal 
Polynesian Society,* Vol. X., p. 196, and in our 'Memoirs^* Vol. I., p. 137. — 

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Traditiont and Legends, 79 

crawl, and then illustrated as well as he could the Eapu-wai method). 
This name Te Rapu-wai was not given after any man nor ancestor, 
nor did they call themselves by it until long after ; it was a nickname 
g^ven to them by their neighbours because of their peculiar method of 
progression in the water. When in after years the Rapu-wai and 
Kati-Mamoe intermarried the name "Patea" reverted to and was used 
to describe the amalgamated hapus. In the same way when the 
Waitaha and Kati-Mamoe intermarried the resultant hapm took the 
name **Te Kahea," after an ancient name of some of their ancestors. 
Amongst the otlier tribes in the South Island, when the Rapu-wai 
were spreading abroad, my informant remembered the name Kati- 
Tumata-kokiri,* and it was probably they who nicknamed the 
Rapu-wai. Other tribes then in the north of the South Island were 
Kati-Wairaki, Kai-Tara and Rakitane, but they never spread like Te 


In his interesting introduction to these articles Mr. S. Percy Smith 
deals with the origin of the Rapu-wai, Waitaha, Kati-Mamoe and 
Xai-Tahu tribes. I do not know much about this subject but what 
little I have gathered about the Kati-Mamoe may not be amiss here» 
Canon Stack in " South Island Maoris,'* p. 28, says that this tribe 
traces their origin to Awatopa, who was a brother of Rauru, and son 
of Ruarangif and Manu-tai-hapu, and he gives a short account of the 
occurrences that drove the predecessors of Kati-Mamoe south. With 
regard to the derivation of the tribal name the following, taken from 
an old note-book, may be of interest. A question had apparently been 
asked Tare Wetere-te-Kahu, on June 27th, 1885, about the origin of 
Kati-Mamoe, and the answer given was, " Rakiroa, Te Whatu-fekt^ 
Whatu-mamoej ko Kati-Mamoe tena,*'* Further along in the same 
note-book is a whakapapa running ; Na Rakiro^ ko Te Whatu-teki, ko- 
Whatu-mamoe, ko Auat-taheke, ko Matairaki^ ko Houmea, etc. In very 
few cases is the name of this chief given as Whatu-Mamoe — it is 
usually Hotu-mamoe in the southern genealogies, and Mr. S. Percy 
Smith writes to me that "the change from ^ lohatti'* to * hottt^ i& 
interesting, illustrating the Moriori and Hawaiian change of * tohaka *" 
to * hoko ' as a causitive." Asking the aged Southerners after early 
Kati-Mamoe history I gained the following particulars : — The tribe 
onginated in the North Island and takes its name from Whatu-manioe. 
One of my infoimants said, " There is a tnbe in the North Island called 
after Hotu-mamoe, and Kati-Mamoe is a branch of it. The late Te 

♦ Now extinct, but lived mostly around the west side of Tasmans Bay. — 

t Rauru and his father Ruarangi flourished in Hawaiki, not New Zealand, hj 
the best accounts. — EDnoB. 

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Whiti of Paribaka was connected with that tribe." In some of the 
southern genealogies Hotu-mamoe is given as fifth in descent from 
Boko-i-tua, whose name is associated with the Arai-te-uru canoe, but 
liow Hotu-mamoe came to be identified with the Kati-Mamoe tiibe is 
apparently not known. They fonned part of a tribe prior to his birth, 
so what led to two divisions of the tribe being called after him would 
be interesting to Maori students. My informant said that the tribe 
was living in the southern Waikato district, and were defeated by a 
tribe whom he thought was called Kati-Tumaro-uri. They were then 
under the leadership of a great-grandson of Roko-i-tua, whose name 
unfortunately eluded him. The name of the battle was Te-ika-a- 
Whaturoa (and strange to say the Kati-Mamoe fought another battle 
of the same name in the South Island generations later) and as a result 
of their defeat they migrated southward and eventually left the North 
Island for the South. 

The Morioris of the Chatham Islands are part of the same people as 
the Kati-Mamoe said my informant. They crossed from the North to 
South Island, and some of them settled at Hakaroa (Akaroa = 
Whangaroa) amongst the people there [presumably Waitaha or 
Rapu-wai]. These latter people received them peaceably until they 
killed a woman named Hine-rau. She was out spearing kakas and 
they killed and ate her, making fish-hooks of her bones. None of her 
relatives knew where she was, until one of them out fishing overheard 
.the Morioris refer to her bones catching the fish well. The offended 
tribe prepared for war, and the Morioris fled in a canoe called 
Matakoke, under a chief whose name the narrator forgot. No one 
knew where they had gone until many years after, when it was known 
that they had reached the Chatham Islands, but exactly how it 
l)ecame known the narrator could not say. 

In the ** Memoirs of the Polynesian Society," Vol. TIL, page 76, is 
given a genealogy which may be termed a Kati-Mamoe one, but it is 
certainly not of " tang at a whenua " times. In fact it is a fairly 
recent South Island whakapapa. For the story of Tu-te-kawa and 
Tu-korero see these present articles. Their son was Te Eaki-tamau 
who married a descendant of Rakai-hautu named Puna-hikoia. The 
children of Tupai and Waipunahau according to southern genealogists 
are (1) Te Kete-wahi, (2) Tutu, (3) Te Uatahu, (4) Te Pori, (6) 
Tuwhara-uka, (6) Te Mihi, (7) Te Whakatikipoua, (8) Weka, 
(9) Te Arakau ; and they lived only three or four generations ago, so 
it will be seen that it is erroneous to give their names as those of 
pre- Maori people, although it is a Kati-Mamoe genealogy. 

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Traditions and Legends, 81 


The Maori, who gave me the description of how the Rapu-wai 
people were named, and how they amalgamated with branches of the 
widespread Kati-Mamoe tribe to form "Patea** people, continued : 
** Baureka was one of those Patea people, but you know the story 
about her and the greenstone. Some of the Kati-Mamoe and Waitaha 
had a fight with those Patea people round in Westland, and that fight 
is known as 0-Tauaki. The invaders were led by Taka-i*waho, and 
the Patea by Te Huaki who was killed. The victorious Kati-Mamoe 
brought back over to this side of the island some prisoners." ** Once 
two Patea men, named Pakiha and Taka-ahi, came over from the 
other side (of South Island) and lived at Te-Muka Bush, where they 
would capture wayfarers, if in ones or twos, and kill them, but if in 
parties they would keep in hiding. They pounced on two nephews of 
Raki-tamau and killed them, and took the wives of the nephews to 
live with them. One of these two women escaped and told the news 
at Kaiapohia and Raki-tamau (this was after Tu-te-kawa was killed), 
and a band went and caught them in tlie evening. They were lying 
bound against a breakwind, and on the other side of it was Raki- 
tamau snoring, but reall}' wide awake and listening to their talk. He 
heard another chief come and secretly ask them directions to the 
West Coast and say he would take them for glides. They gave the 
directions, and then when all was told Raki-tamau came round and 
killed them for killing his nephews. Then when the party set out for 
Kaiapohia he lagged behind, pretending lameness, and his two sons 
(Weka and Marama) attended him. When the rest of the party got 
well ahead, Raki-tamau and his sons dodged off to the West. On the 
Divide one went one way and another went another way until they 
saw the lake spoken /)f, and they went down to it. Here they met 
only one man and woman, who showed them their eelpots and 
greenstone, and gave them much information. They killed the man 
and woman and returned to Canterbury, eating the flesh of those two 
people on the way, and witli as much greenstone as they could bring. 
They eutered the pa at Kaiapohia, Raki-tamau leading with a green- 
stone weapon in one hand and the shinbone of the man in the other, 
and they gave a haka, which brought the people out to see what was 
going on, and they got a great reception. That is all of that story." 



With regard to the Kai-Tahu leaving the Noith Island, one old 
man told the following narrative : — Tu-ahuriri and his two wives, 
Tuara-whati and Tama-kai-taki, were living quietly by the sea, near 
where Wellingt:>n is now, when a chief named Hika-ororoa led a war- 
pai"ty against them. Tu-te-kawa, and a young relative of his called 

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Bahiri, accompanied this tatia. Rahiri, who was a mere lad and full of 
boyish spirit, pressed on ahead of the party to the wrath of Hika- 
ororoa, who wanted to know who was this with the presumption to 
panekeneke (go forward) ahead of the rest. The lad ran back and told 
Tu-te-kawa, who became indignant at the insult to his kinsman, and in 
a fit of spite told the youth to go aside, and then run swiftly and wani 
Tu-ahuriii of his peril. They were quite near the place but night had 
fallen, and the lad raced up to the house and called out, " E ara ! E 
ara ! (Awake ! Awake !), and Tu-ahuriri called out, " Kowai fena ? " 
Rahiri replying, " E ara ! Kai muri tonu i a au ko Hika-ororoa,'*^ 
("Awake! Hika-ororoa is just behind me.") Tu-ahuriri jumped up 
at once and ran to a near-by cave, calling on Rahiri to bring his rakaic 
(or taiaha) and taku maro (my belt). He got safe away, but when the 
tatia came to his home Tu-te-kawa killed the two women. Then the 
taua went down to their canoes. Tu-ahuriri called out and warned 
Rahiri to keep his canoe close to land, rnd let the others keep out* 
Then he said a karakia and brought on the tempest known as Te Hau- 
a-Rokomai. The canoes were blown out a great distance from land^ 
and were out several days, and the crews were almost starving, until 
a man on board thought of a karakia that brought on a favourable wind 
that blew them straight back to shore, and by a curious chance they 
made land at the exact spot they had quitted some days before. 


We have seen how Tu-te-kawa in a fit of spleen saved Tu-ahuriri,. 
but mark the sequel. Moki was the youngest son of Tu-ahuriri, and 
when his tribe fell on Tu-te-kawa's pa at Waikakahi, Moki remembered 
the decrepit old chiefs warning to Tu-ahuriri, and was going to spare 
his life in return but Pakuku killed the old man against Moki's wishes. 
Pakuku was one of Moki's chiefs, but not related as far as the narrator 
knew (although Stack calls him the ** avenger of blood "). He speared 
Tu-te-kawa over Moki's shoulder, and the body was cooked and placed 
in bowls {ipu) and carried over to Koukourarata (Port Levy). Tu-te- 
kawa's son, Raki-tamau, was married to Puna-hikoia, and she was- 
carried prisoner to Port Levy. Raki-tamau was at Taumutu (south 
end of Lake Ellesmere) when this occurred, and he hurried over to- 
Port Levy, where he entered the camp at night, spared Moki's life,, 
talked to his wife, and left. When Moki learned that Raki-tamau 
could have killed him in his sleep, but liad refrained^ he let Puna-hikoia 
go and she rejoined her husband, and they returned to Taumutu. The- 
taua embarked in canoes to go to Kaikoura but met head winds and 
were greatly delayed. Pakuku died on board, and as his body com- 
menced to smell it was thrown overboard before they got to Kaikoura^ 
He was killed by witchcraft {maktUti) by two men, Tautini and 
Korotini, who did it to avenge Tu-te-kawa. At Kaikoura a great. 

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Traditions and Legends. 83 

feaist was held, and Moki spoke slightingly about two women who were 
distant relatives of his. They objected to being " scandalised," as my 
informant tenned it, and besought Korotini's aid. " Korotini caught 
Moki's breath by maktUu, and in thi-ee days Moki was dead. Makutu 
was quite common in the days before the White people came and broke 
its mdna. The old woman who brought me up had that power, and I 
remember she bewitched another woman, who died in a week. Some 
day I may tell you some stories of makutu,^^ 

In the 'Mournal Polynesian Society," Vol. XXIV., pages 83-4,' there 
is an account of the slaying of Tu-te-kawa which may refer to the 
episode I have recorded, although Rakai-hiku-roa and Tu-te-kawa 
should not be contemporaneous according to my reckoning. 


Before Tu-wiri-roa, the Kati-Mamoe chief, went to reside at the 
mouth of the Taiari river, a few miles south of Dunedin, he lived at 
"Wakatipu Lake, at a pa called Tititea, near Te Rotu (now called 
Kawarau Falls). Turwiri-roa was born at Tahima (Queenstown) as 
also was his daugher Haki-te-kura, who grew to womanhood there. 
Slie was the first woman who swam across Lake Wakatipu, and two 
places commemorate her name. The Kawarau Peninsula is **Tu-nuku- 
o- Haki-te-kura," and Ben Lomond is ** Ta-mata-o-Haki-te-kura." A 
chief named Putete left Tititea pa for a time and lived at Te-wai-a-te- 
ruati pa at Te Uraukaha. Here he married a Kai-Tahu lady, whom 
he took with him to Tititea. Here she unfortunately died, and her 
former tribe heard the news in such a garbled form that they 
concluded the Kati-Mamoe had killed her, and they sent up a taua to 
avenge her death. The tatia, under Te Mahika, went from **Te Muka " 
to Waihao, and then followed up the Waitaki river to 0-Marama and 
crossed over the Tatara-kai-moko range to 0-Mako (Lindis). They 
crossed the Mataau (Molyneux) at Kahuika (where the two branches 
join), and followed up the 0-Rau (Cardrona) and over the Hau- 
ma-tiketike range to Haehae-nui (Arrow River) and so on to Te 
Kirikiri (Frankton Flat), and there before them was the Tititea pa. 
(My informant said tlie pa stood on the south side of the Kawarau 
river, near the falls, but that there was also a settlement at Te Kirikiri 
on the north side of the Frankton arm of the lake). Putete went out 
to meet them, calling out his name and asking who they were and 
their en-and. The tana was 140 strong (counting in pairs, as tlie 
Maons often did, this would be 280) and Putete advised them that 
they were not strong enough to attack, and to go back ere it was too 
late, and he would follow them later. That night they lit numerous 
fires and slipped away leaving the fires burning. Next morning the 
Kati-Mamoe followed hotfoot and nearly overtook them at the 
Hau-ma-tiketike range, but as a wind was blowing down towards the 

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pursuers the pursued set fire to the dry vegetation and the fire and 
smoke kept the foe back, and further on a providental fog allowed 
them to get clear away. The mountains behind AiTOwtown are now 
often called Tititea because the men of that pa were almost burnt 

Some time after this Putete, with the wife he had married since 
the first one died, came down to Te Muka. He was uncertain of 
his reception, and some way out of Te Muka stopped and bound Ids 
hair in a manner that signified he was prepared to die (if 1 understand 
my informant correctly). The name of that place is to this day 
" Kopare-a-Putete." Te Eehe was then chief of Wai-a-te-ruati and 
befriended Putete, who thereafter dwelt there. (My informant also 
said that long before this time there was a sanguinary fight at 
Frankton Flat (Te Kirikiri) between two sections of the Kati-Mamoe 
tribe, over a quarrel about some fishing rights. He had forgotten the 
names of the two chiefs and could not remember the story.) 


After the events recorded, Tu-wiri-roa shifted his people down to 
the north of the Taiaii river, but some remained behind about Te 
Kararo (Queenstown Domain). It was at Taiari that the unfortunate 
Haki-te-kura met her death. Her lover, Koro-whiti, composed a song- 
while he was waiting for her one night, and tlie firat veree ran tluis : — 

Rua po a te tataii ai au Two nightn have I waited 

Kaore i hoki mai And thou returnest not, 

Kai whea koe i te maru awatea Where art thou in the soft daylight? 

E tata te hoki mai. • O ! that thou may est soon return. 

My informant could not remember the rest of it. The creek where 
it was composed was thereafter wards called Ruapo, and is perhaps- 
Lee's Creek. Morehu and Paitu told him that Koroki-whiti killed 
the girl. She swam to the canoe and he cut off her head and took it 
with him, letting the body drift. Tu-wiri-roa chased him round 
Stewart Island to Putatara, where Koroki-whiti, Tukiauau, and 
Tukete, who was a very fat man, were all killed with their followers, 
as narrated elsewhere in these writings. 


The Kati-Mamoe and Kai-Tahu were fighting up the Waitaki 
River, the former under Te Raki-tauneke, the latter under Huruhuru^ 
The Kati-Mamoe had a pa at Taki-harakeke on the north bank of tlie 
river. Raki-tauneke " went out one night after women," as the 
naiTator expressed it, and was caught and killed to the satisfaction of 
his enemies. That night his familiar spirit Matamata came and 
brought him to life again. Next morning the Kai-Tahu attacked the^ 

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Traditions and Legends. 8% 

pa with great confidence, but the appearance of Raki*tauneke, whom 
they took for an apparition, so unnerved them that they were easily 
vanquished. Huruhuru jumped into the river and swam to a rock and 
sat on it. Here he saw a spear coming, and dived just in time, and 
gaining the south bank, made off. Eventually after re-crossing the 
river and eluding his enemies he reached Te Muka. The Maoris still 
call the rock in the Waitaki, near Te Waro-kuri (" Wharekuri " of 
the Pakeha), by the name Te Tapapa|aka-o- Huruhuru, to commemo- 
rate his narrow escape. Eaki-tauneke afterwards had a pa on 
0-Te-popo Hill at Wai-anakarua, and later still he lived on a hill near 
the Taieri River. He had two guardian spirits, and would go to sleep 
with these spirits, in the shape of lizards, hanging from his nostrils I 
One was Matamata, and there was a spring in the whare with water 
bubbling up in it, and this spring was used by Matamata to ascend and 
descend to and from the Taieri River. The name of the spring was 
Te-tiroko-o-Matamata. The other guardian spirit was Tu-nui-a-te-ika, 
who went to the North Island subsequently, and it is there yet. It is- 
oftenest seen in the form of a " flying star." 


A Maori said to me : " Some time before Kawe-riri was killed ^ 
fighting took place at Lake Ohou, and it was because some of his 
people were killed there that he went to war. Tlie Kati-Mamoe, under 
Te Raki-tauhopu, beat the Kai-Taliu and killed Te Kaimutu and 
another Kai-Tahu chief whose name I forget. The Kati-Mamoe 
continued to live in a pa up at Ohou so the Kai-Tahu sent up a big 
party to get revenge. On the way up they made spears, but a lad 
named Kaunia was not allowed to have an axe to cut one, so he went 
and pulled a long manuka stick out by the roots and ' bashed ' it, and 
then went to the river and split a stone, and with the sharp edge 
rubbed the stick to a point. He put the point in a fire and it * whistled ^ 
[the narrator imitated the sound] , so as this was a good omen the lad 
followed after the war- party, but did not catch up to them. The pa 
was taken, and Te Raki-tauhopu slipped out unnoticed and fled. The 
lad met him, and just as he leapt into the river Kaunia ran the long 
stick through him and killed him. The youth went on to the pa and 
found the attackers turning over the killed to see if Te Raki was 
there, but they couldn*t find him, so Kaunia said, * Perhaps he is the 
man that I killed by the river,* so they went to look and found it was 
the chief. Kaunia got great praise, and whjen the taua returned to the 
East Coast he was given Kaweriri's grand-daughter, Te Hau-maiia, as 
a wife, and some of his descendants are still living." 

** After Te Raki-tauhopu was killed, two Kai-Tahu chiefs, 
Parakiore and Mu, left the coast and went up to Ohou to see if any 
more fighting was on. They left Parekura and went up past 

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O-Marama to Ahuriri, and Parakiore made a ' beeline ' for the ' war,' 
but Mu went up to Paritea (Benmore) and found no one there, so he 
made straight for Ohou, and, although he had gone ten miles further, 
he got there just on the heels of Parakiore. Parakiore got there just 
as a fight was going to start and dashed in and killed a man and 
shouted, '^ Nahu te ika i te atiy (These words imply that he had killed 
the mataika, or first man slain in the fight.) When Mu rushed up and 
Mlled another and shouted, ^^ Naku te ika i te whakawaha '' (this was an 
announcement that he had killed the second man), and the enemy were 
defeated and killed." 

fTo he continued. J 

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[271] Hawaiian Legends of Volcanoes (M3rthology)* By W. D. 

We have received from the author a copy of the above work, which fomw part 
of a series relating to the Hawaiian Islands, written (and to be written) by the 
author. The book under notice deals with the long series of legends that has 
accumulated round Pele, the fire-goddess of Kilauea volcano in the island of 
Hawaii, one of the wonder spots of the world. As is so common with the 
Polynesian race the legends have personified one of the forces of nature in the 
person of Pele— sometimes a beautiful woman, at others a hidious hag, but always 
with the supreme power at her command of launching her lava streams and other 
volcanic forces against those who offend her. This goddess is known to Tahitians 
and Pauniotuans as Pere, whilst with the Maoris of New Zealand she is recognisable 
under the name of Para- when ua-mea (Pele's full name is Pele-honua-mea), which 
Las come to mean disaster, both of a mental and physical nature. 

Mr. Westervelt has given us a very interesting account of Pele in this 
concise form (205 pages). Many of the originals in the Hawaiian dialects are to be 
found in the lata Dr. Emerson's ** Unwritten Literature of Hawaii *' (Smithsonian 
Xnstitution, Bureau of Ethnology, Bultetin No. 38). These legends are practically 
local, and have few connections with those of other parts of Polynesia ; but they 
illustrate the mentality common to the whole of the race. May we suggest to the 
author that Kuai-he-lani (p. 14) should be Kua-i-Helani, or, as we should express 
it in Southern Polynesia, Tua-i-Herangi, that latter name being one of those for 
a locality in the original Fatherland of the race, and the expression would mean, 
* Beyond at Herangi.' Again, on page 67 — we think Va-ihi should be Vaihi (or 
in Maori Waihi), the southern name for the Hawaiian islands. We are glad ti» 
notice that the author frequently separates the definite article from the noun 
(as all other parts of Polynesia do), though those who reduced Hawaiian to writing 
failed to do so, and thus led to much difficulty in comparing that dialect with 
others. — Editob. 

[272] Infant Demons. 

It is well known to most readers of the '* Polynesian Journal " that amongst 
the malignant evil-spirits of the Maori was the Kahukahu, the demon foetus of a 
premature birth. Dr. Shortland {Maori Religion and Mythology y p. 31) says they 
were selected to feed on the body of a relative under tapu " because, not having 
lived long enough on earth to form attachments to their living relatives, they were 
less likely to show them mercy.** 

It may be interesting to show how far away both in time and distance kindred 
beliefs may dwell. Pierre Loti {Egypt, p. 49) tells how be visited the Cairo 
Museum, guided by the Comptroller of the Museum, the greatest authority living 
on the subject of Egyptian antiquities. •' On a table in the middle of one of these 
rooms, a thing to make you shudder gleams in a glass box, a fragile thing that 
failed of life some two thousand years ago. It is the mummy of a human embryt), 
and some one, to appease the malice of this bom -dead thing, had covered its face 

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88 joOrmml of the polymesian society. 

with a coating of gold — for, according to the belief of the Egyptians, these little 
abortions became the evil genii of their families if proper honour was ngt paid to 
then). At the end of its negligible body, the gilded head, with its great fcetus 
eyes, is unforgettable for its suffering ugliness, for its frustrated and ferocious 
expression." — Edwabd Tbeoeab. 

[273] ** Period of Iro-nui (Whiro-nui), etc." ** Polynesian Journal,*' 
Vol. XXVI., p. 15, etseq. 
It should be clearly pointed out to the student, that among these references 
to the period of the human Iro ; history or tradition, legend and mythology have 
become hopelessly mixed by the Native narrator. This is more especially the case 
with Part III. which treats of — not the human Whiro, but — Whiro, the lord of 
Darkness, as* the antagonist of Tane, the lord of Light. (See *' Polynesian 
Journal," Vol.^XX., p. 64 ; Vol. XXI., p. 29 ; and elsewhere.) Whiro, lord of 
Darkness, pursues Tane, lord of Light, through the ten heavens ; (really houses of 
the Sun.) At the tenth heaven (the end of the mythological year, and mid- winter),, 
in the long dreary nights and short gloomy days of the period, the elders con- 
ceived that Whiro was overcoming Tane (who, however, subsequently emergM- 
triumphant). All of which is related in Part III of the treatise before us, and, 
quite wrongly, attributable to the human Iro by the Native narrator. The whole 
treatise calls for revision, so that tradition and legend may be sifted from the- 
purely mythological. — Habb Honoi. 

[We entirely agree with Mr. Hare Hongi*s last sentence.' But let us wait awhile. 
There is yet to follow the other Rarotongan account of Iro (Whiro) by another 
Karotongan priest of the old days. When these are published we shall clain» 
Mr. Hongfi*s assistance in the endeavour to fix definitely the date of Whiro, 
which is an important one in Polynesian history. Mr. Hare Hongi is doubtless, 
right as to that part of the story describing the interview with Tane— it belongs 
to the history^of the original Whiro. See our " Memoii-s," Vol. III., page 149^ 
— Editob.]* 

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A Mbstino of the Council was held at the Library on the 'ilst April, when the 
following were present : The President in the Chair, and Messrs. Newman, Boy, 
W. W. Smith, and G. H. Bnllard. 

Correspondence was read and dealt with, and the following new members 
elected : — 

Dr. P. Marshall, M.A., D.Sc., F.G.S. Collegiate College, Whauganni. 

Wm. Tarr, c/o Govt. Printing Office. Nuku-alofa, Tonga Islands. 

T. J. Ledingham, <* Montecule/' St. Eilda. Melbourne. 
The following papers were received : — 

Polynesian Linguistics (continuation). By S. H. Ray. 

Maori Mummies. By Rev. H. J. Fletcher. 

The Pungatai. By W. H. Skinner. 

Infant Demons. By "Ed. Tregear. 
Mr. Percy White was elected a member of Council in place of Mr. Drew 
absent on service. 

A Mbetino of the Council was held on the 27th June at the Library, when there 
were present : The President, and Messrs. Newman and W. W. Smith. 
The following new members were elected — 

The Hocken Library, Dunedin. 

The Dominion Museum, Welling^n. 

Clement Stephen List, Rata Street, Ingle wood. 
Papers received were as follows : — 

Photo. Old Maori Coflfins, Whanganui. By T. W. Downes. 

Notes on Mummies. By H. D. Skinner. 

On Mummification. By. Prof. G. Elliot Smith. 

Maori and Polynesian Material in British Museum. By H. D. Skinner. 

Note on the Period of Iro-ma-oata. By Hare Hong^. 

Note on the Manaia. By S. Percy Smith. 

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By THE Eev. Hoeta Te Hata of Waitahanui. 
Translated by the Eev. H. J. Fletcher, Taupo. 

(Continued from page 69 y Vol. XXVI.) 


THIS woman was a young sister of Tamamutu's. She was born 
after Te Hiko-o-te-rangi and Hikato. She was taken to wife by 
a man of Ngati-Kahungunu, who belonged to the sub-tribes Ngati-Tu 
and Ngati-Kurumokihi at Tangoio. [A place on the coast twelve 
miles north of Napier.] On a certain occasion there came against 
them the tribe of Te Kaliu-o-te-rangi, that is to say the men of 
Waikare river from the moutli of the Mohaka. Nga-pare-taua was 
killed along witJi her man and his people. It was not long before the 
story of the death of Nga-pare-taua, by tlie people of Te-Kahu-o-te- 
rangi, was brought to Te Hiko. Great was the grief of Te Hiko for 
his young sister. His tears fell like rain day and night. When 
Tamamutu saw the grief of his wife and Te Hiko he urged him to go 
and avenge the death of his sister. He also said, ** What are you 
thinking about that your grief is so heavy? Do not hide it from me." 
Te Hiko replied, ** The thoughts you are asking about are these. Let 
us go to Heretaunga to see if there is anything left of my sister^ 
there may be some survivors left." **It is well," said Tamamutu, 
** And you must go as our leader." In a very short time the party of 
Tamamutu was on its way. When they reached Tangoio they were 
joined by some of the inhabitants of that place. They went on 
towards Mohaka in search of Te Kahu-o-te-rangi until they came to 
Waikare, where there was a pa belonging to some of Te Kahu's 
people called Whare-kiri. 

At this point some of the Tangoio people advised Tamamutu to 
remain for a wliile until they went on to see if the tide would allow 
them a passage round the cliffs. To this Tamamutu assented. The 

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tana encamped where they were while two of the men went on. When 
they arrived at the cliffs they found the tide at low ebb and a long 
way away from the cliff. Tlie two men thereupon agreed to deceive 
the party of Tamamutu and they went and dipped their garments in 
the salt water until they were saturated. They then retraced their 
steps to Tamamutu. He asked them, **What about the cliffs 3-011 
went to inspect?" They replied, ** We were not able to pass for the 
tide was biting against the cliff ; we tried to wade but we were not 
able ; we were almost lost in the water. Look at our garments they 
are all wet.'* The reason why, the men acted so as to deceive 
Tamamutu was that they did not want Te-Kahu-o-te-rangi to be 
destro3'ed by Tamamutu, and they knew that Te Kahu was at 

Tamamutu then commanded his taua to assault Wharekiri, so this 
pa was taken to avenge the death of Nga-pare-taua. 

The taua started on its homeward way, and Tamamutu brought 
some karaka berries from the pa and planted them at Hamaria and 
called the name of the karaka Whare-kiri, after the name of the pa he 
had taken. [Hamaria (Samaria) is about sixteen miles from Taupe 
along the eastern shore of the lake. There are several very ancient 
karaka trees there. It was under these trees that the writer of these 
notes was baptised by Bishop Selwyn on November 5th, 1842. He 
was then about six years old.] 

As Tamamutu was on his way back to Taupo he came to 
Werewere's pa at Motu-o-ruru. He found that Werewere had died of 
some illness sometime before. After a long search for the body of 
Werewere in which he was not successful, Tamamutu captured Teko 
and his family and brought them to Taupo. He also fashioned a 
likeness to the head of Werewere out of a block of pumice stone, and 
called it **The Head of Werewere." Tliis was placed to mark 
the rubbish heap of his kumara plantation. Here endeth the story of 
the various fightings of Tamamutu. 

[The reason for some of the fighting was quite clear, but the 
reason for some fighting afterwards with the people of Patetere 
[country around Puta-ruru and Lichfield] is not clear like the 
accounts given above. They may have been quite clear to him.] 


This man Tutetawha was the last born child of Te Rangi-Ita and 
Waitapu. He was a most obstinate man, one who would not listen to 
the advice of his elder brethren Meremere and Manunui. This is one 
of the things he did : — 

On one occasion he said to liis elder brother, Meremere, **Let us 
go to Tuhua to see our brother-in-law and our sister Te Uru-kai-hina." 
[Tuhua may be roughly described as tlie country between lake Taupo 

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The Ngaii'Tuhareioa Occupation of Taupo-nui-a-Tia. 9$ 

and the Ongarue river.] This sister was a distant connection of 

The men went to Tuhua to the kainga of their brother-in-law and 
their sister. Food was prepared for them, and when it was cooked 
the woman went to her husband and asked which of the papa huahua 
(or cases of preserved birds) should be given to the visitors. The man 
wet Ids finger with his mouth and then thrust it into the ashes and 
showedSt to the woman. 

By this the woman knew that she had to give some mouldy huahua 
to her brothers. While the man was doing this he was observed by 
Meremere and Tutetawha, and wlien the food was placed before them 
by the woman they understood the reason for the action. The papa 
huahua was mouldy. After the food was eaten they went to sleep. 

Soon after sunrise fowl was again prepared and eaten, and then 
the men started on their homeward way. 

They had not got far on the way when Tutetawha said to 
Meremere, "E Tama! my weapon has been left behind; I must 
return to fetch it." Tutetawha retraced his steps until he reached the 
village, then grasping his weapon, with one blow killed his 
brother-in-law. He did this because of the mouldy huahua that had 
been given to them to eat. The woman fled crying, but she was 
caught by Meremere. 

When Tutetawha returned liis brother said to him, ** Why were 
you so long?" He replied, **I have killed our brother-in-law." 
Meremere then said, " Why did you not kill the woman?" Tutetawha 
replied, ** I left her so that she could weep for her man." This is the 
second of these actions of Tutetawha by which he made a name for 
himself. [On account of the first] there arose the proverb by which he 
got his name ** Tutetawha whare oneone." This was because of 
Tuharetoa-a-Turiroa, whose death is given on page 23, Vol. XXVI., 
of this ** Journal." The death of his brother-in-law was a kohuru 
(or murder). 


Pare-kawa was the elder sister of Tamamutu, Meremere, Manunui^ 
and Tutetawha. She was the eldest of the family, a chieftainess of 
rank, possessing mana. As her brothers grew up they acknowledged 
her position, and Tamamutu ceded to her all Hauhungaroa and other 
places. While he occupied this side [the eastern side] Pare-kawa 
dwelt at Hauhungaroa. She was well aware that her brother had 
estabUshed her in those places, and that he also had promoted the 
interests of her people. 

At this time Tutetawha was living at Rangatira [the Maori name 
of a large block of land bordering the lake south-west of Taupo 
township] , Manunui and Meremere at Pukawa and Kuratau, and 
Pare-kawa at Hauhungaroa. 

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On one occasion the idea came to her to try and promote the 
interests of Jier brother Tutetawha-whare-oneone, because he had 
avenged the death of their relative Te Atainutai. She began to 
search for some means of doing this. He possessed most of the valued 
things of the Maori, such as Ponnamu, Puahi (white dogskin mat), 
Mahiti (a white mat covered with the long hair from a dog's tail), 
Kakahu-waero (same as Mahiti), To-puni (black dogskin mat with 
border), and Awarua (a dogskin mat of black and white stripes). 
These are the garments proper to the use of a chief, with the 
Kahahu-kura (a most valuable garment, made of finely dressed flax, 
with red kaka feathers woven on the outside in such a manner as to 
look like a bird's plumage), and the Paepaeroa (a mat having a broad 
ornamental border), and other garments of the Maori. So Pare-kawa 
thought that as he had all these it would be of no use to give him 
others. Pare-kawa thought that the best thing she could do would be 
to make him a large supply of huahua. The year being a good bird 
year over all the country under the sway of Pare-kawa — over 
flaungaroa, Tuhua, Pureora, Whare-puhanga, Hurakia and Tuaro- 
paki. [These place names are those still applied to the heavily 
wooded country between the Taupo lake and the Ongarue river, and 
to a portion of the watershed between the Waipa and streams running 
into the Waikato.] She conmianded her people to get to work and 
prepare the food. As soon as her people heard her commands they 
turned to the work of catching birds. The birds were' killed ; the 
feathers stripped off, and then roasted. When cooked they were put 
into papas. These papas were made of Tanekaha bark {Phyllocladtis 
trichomanoides) for the special purpose of preserving the birds. 
Another name for them was patua. 

When the tribe had carried out the commands of Pare-kawa, and 
the food was hidden in iherpatuasy it was carried to the place where she 
was living. It was brought in from all the places [mentioned above] 
and placed before her. She then told her people why she had 
commanded them to prepare the food, and what she had in her mind 
to do for her brother because he l^ad avenged t}ie death of their elder, 
Te Atainutai. When the people heard this they were delighted, and 
they proposed that they should make a patua of extraordinary size to 
hold the contents of all the other papa^, and to carry it on a canoe. 

They made the patua, and when it was finished they gave it the 
name of ** Waiariki " because of its size. The (iontents of seven other 
large patuas were required to fill it, and then it was carried to 
Tutetawha at Rangatira. 

They carried the patua in two canoes by joining the canoes side by 
side, with a platform called a kaku-papa, and placed the pattia on the 
platform. Tbey did this because one canoe was too small to carry 
such a big patua. When they arrived at Rangatira the food was duly 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Mgaii-Tuhareioa Occupation of Taupo-nui-a-Tia. 95 

haoded ov^r to Tutetawha. Pare-kawa did not give any of her food 
to her other brothers ; to Tamamutu, Meremere or Manunui the elder 
brothers, but she gave it all to the last bom, Tutetawha. 

When Tutetawha considered the action of Pare-kawa their sister, 
and how she was trying to exalt him over his elder brothers, he 
began to be exceedingly vain and boastful, and to urge his brothers, 
Manunui and Meremere, to start out on a man-killing expedition. 
They had a fight, and a pa was taken [locality not given], and then 
they returned. Tutetawha did not urge Tamamutu to take part in 
these expeditions. The same party made a foray into the Waikato 
country, and after a little fighting they returned. 

A little later the desire came to them to visit the heart of the 
Waikato country. A large party went with a number of chiefs of 
Ngati-Tuharetoa, Te Tawhi-o-te-rangi, Nga Toko- warn, Manunui, 
Meremere and others. The two elder brothers said to Tutetawha, 
** O Tu, let us go and see our elder brother Tamamutu, then we will go 
and kill some men." Tutetawha replied, ** When we return after men 
have been cooked in the ovens we will visit our elder brother.'* 

Tu's counsel was taken, and the command was given to launch the 
war canoe, * Te Reporepo.' While being launched the keel creaked 
loudly, and the brothers said to Tu, ** Tu, the keel of * Te 
Reporepo' has creaked badly, it is an evil omen.** "No ! " said Tu, 
** It is a sign of good luck." The canoe was paddled across the lake 
to Maraekowhai and then hauled ashore, and the party went on 
towards the Waikato country. They took several pas on the way, 
until they came to Pae-totara, near the present town of Cambridge. 
Waikato heard that Ngati-Tuharetoa were besieging Pae-totara so 
they gathered from all the country round about, as far north as 
Nga-rua-wahia, and paddled up the Waikato. The first was quickly 
followed by others, and still more followed. When the first canoe 
arrived, Meremere. Manunui and Nga- toko- warn said to Tutetawha, 
"jE* Tu, a whiua i te tai itiititanga o Waikato. ^^ Tutetawha replied, 
**Let them come; before the sun sets over Makaho the greater 
number of Waikato will be dead." The ground was covered with 
Waikato and their multitudes. Tutetawha gave the word to commence 
the fight. 

A great chief of Waikato came forward named Te Putu, an 
ancestor of Potatau (the late so-called king). Te Putu and Tutetawha 
approached each other; Tutetawha being armed with a taiaka, or 
halbert, and Te Putu having a huata, or spear. Tutetawha guarded 
a blow from Te Putu, and returning the blow he wounded Te Putu. 
The taua was then overwhelmed by the numbers of Waikato. 

When Tu saw this he called out, ** Ye men there, leave the crowd 
of fighters." He was then smothered by the numbers of Waikato. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


In this way the majority of the party perished, but a few saved 
themselves by flight. 

Tokowaru was taken captive, but Tutetawha, Meremere, Manunui 
and many others were killed. 

The reason of this g^eat disaster was the boastfulness of 
Tutetawha, and his contempt for the advice of his elder brethren. 
Nga-toko-waru was taken prisoner, and placed in the midst of the 
taua of Waikato. Some of them said to him, ** Show us how you use 
a weapon when fighting." Nga-toko consented, and Waikato spread 
out so as to leave a clear space in the centre for him to move about. 
Nga-toko then stood up with a short spear in his hand, and for a 
considerable time went through the motions of a man fighting with 
a tete. He then said, " I would like to see the man who fought with 
Tutetawha." So Te Putu rose up, aud some of the Waikato moved 
aside so that Nga-toko might see him clearly. With one bound 
Nga-toko-waru reached Te Putu and plunged his spear into him. Te 
Putu fell and Nga-toko stood over him and pierced him again and 
again with iiis weapon, saying as he did so, '* A. parting gift from 
Nga-toko-waru." The reason why Nga-toko-waru stood over Te 
Putu was that his blood might flow on to him so that Waikato would 
not eat him. 

We will now explain the words used above by Manunui and liis 
companions. *^ JE Tiiy e whiua i te tai iUHitanga o Waikato.''^ Tu, 
let us fight them in detail. Had they done this Waikato would have 
been beaten. 

Tutetawha's rej^ly was, " Wait imtil the sun ceases to shine over 
Makaho." Makaho is a place where inmiga (white bait) are cauglit 
in large quantities in the Taupo lake, just out from Waihi. The 
reason for the saying is : — When the shadow of the hills at the back 
of Waihi falls across the village the nets are cast. One cast was 
enough to provide a Isurge supply of fish for they were so abundant. 
Hence the use by Tutetawha of " Makaho " in his saying concerning^ 

It was a considerable time after the death of Tutetawha and 
his companions that his relatives heard, through Ngati-Raukawa, that 
the head of Tutetawha was at Kawaha. 

It was brought from there by Te Iwi-tua-roa, who came by way 
of Tuhua. At Honotaka there is a famous tree where birds were 
speared ; it is a Toromiro {Podocarpiis ferruginea\ and it is called Te 
Iwi-tua-roa in memory of the man. 

The head of Tutetawha was brought back to his relatives at 
Taupo and placed in the ancient burial cave with his spear. This is 
the end of the stoiy of this man and his companions, and we cannot 
tell if they were ever avenged. A new generation sprang up, and of 
these we will next write. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Hgaii'Tuhareioa Occupation of Taupo-nui-a-Tia. 97 

[The Waikato account of the death of Nga-toko-waini differs 
somewhat from the above, and as it describes the ancient weapon the 
lete and gives the position of Te Putu on the pedigree, it is added liere 
as told by the late high chief Wahanni to Mr. G. T. Wilkinson, late 
Government Native Agent of Waikato. It was communicated to me 
in 1890.] 

A battle that took place about 200 years ago between some of 
the Waikato tribes, the Taupo tribes, and the Ngati-Baukawa. (The 
latter were evidently helping the Taupo tribe, though Hoeta Te Hata's 
narrative does not mention the fact.) The battle took place near 
Maunga-tautari, the mountain to the south of Cambridge. A chief 
named Nga-toko-waru (of either Taupo or Ngati-Raukawa — the 
Waikato account says of the latter tribe) was taken prisoner by 
Waikato. The weapon he carried in tlie battle was a long spear with 
a bone head, formed and sharpened something like a bayonet, or 
Larpoon, with projecting teeth cut in the reveree way to the point of 
the speai* head, so that on piercing a man's flesh it could not be drawn 
out without tearing the flesh away witli it and making a frightful 
wound. This weapon was called a tete^ or tete-paraoa (whale-bone 
tete)y and was often used by the Maoris in former times. 

Just before Nga-toko-waru was caught, he, knowing what his fate 
would be, broke off the bone end of his spear and hid it under his 
cloak, determined by its aid to obtain revenge for his own death, and 
also to save himself from the disgrace of being taken, killed and eaten. 
Wliile an oven was being prepared to cook him in, he asked that a 
great Waikato chief of the Ngati-Mahuta tribe named Te Putu, who 
was one of the leaders of the Waikato party, should come and speak to 
him. The latter did so, and while engaged in the honyi (pressing 
noses) with Nga-toko-waru, the latter drew his tete-paraoa from 
beneath his cloak and stabbed Te Putu in his throat, exclaiming as he 
did so, " Tena te koha a Nga-toko-waruy (" Behold the parting gift 
of Nga-toko-waru " — said satirically.) At the same time as the blood 
spouted out, Nga-toko-waru smeared Te Putu's blood upon his head, 
arms, and shoulders, which action of course rendered him tapu^ and 
therefore safe from being eaten by Te Putu's people. They, however, 
at once killed him, and burnt his body, a prospective end that did not 
affect Nga-toko-waru, for he knew that he was doomed, and he was 
saved the disgrace of being eaten and of affording the Waikato a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


chance in the future of jeering at his people by saying, ** We ate your 


Ouerata Tawhiao, in 1890 is said to have had in his 

I posseesion the tete^paraoa with which Te Putu was 

Tapaue killed. 

L The revenge taken by Waikato on Ngati-Raukawa 

I for Te Putu's death is an interesting story, but does 

Tawhia not belong to this narrative.— Editor. 


Te Kau-angaanga 

Tawhiao (late so-called Maori King, who died 
some 15 years ago at about the age of 80-90. 

{To he continued.) 


By Edward Tregear. 

THE discussion on mummies in New Zealand has become as useful 
as it is interesting. To Mr. Skinner I offer my warm congratula- 
tions on his distinction in arms as in learning. We are indebted to him 
also for once more calling attention to the value of definitions before 
argument. I used the word " mummy " in its general and widely 
accepted sense, viz., as of any animal body artificially preserved from 
corruption by diying. "Dried to a mummy" is a well-known phrase, 
and it is used even by scientific travellers when speaking of human 
remains in Australia, South America and other places. Mr. Skinner 
meant by " mummy " only embalmed remains. There has been no 
evidence yet adduced that human bodies were embalmed in New 

Mr. Fletcher's valuable and timely information as to the photograph 
disposes at once of that particular item in the discussion. The body is 
not a mummy because it was not artificially dried or desiccated. It was 
an accident of preservation owing to the dryness of the ground. That 
too applies to the remains of the moa, alluded to by Mr. Skinner; it is, 
though desiccated, not a mummy, because not artificially desiccated. 

Of course, if the position taken^ up by Mr. G. Elliot Smith be 
maintained, then dried heads are mummies, but I do not know if 
merely smoking the head would be accepted by Mr. Skinner as 
" embalming." 

[Note. — We may add to the above that the learned Whatahoro tells Mr. 
T. W. Downes that the East Coast Maoris did not mummify their dead, though ho 
does not question Hare Hongi's statements as to the practice being common in 
other parts of New Zealand. — Editob.] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



By Sidney H. Ray, m.a., f.r.a.i. 

VII. Lord Howe Islands. 

THE group known as Lord Howe Islands, or Ongtong Java, is 
situated south of the Tasman Group, on the north-eastern 
fringe of the Solomon Islands, in lat. 5° 10' to 5° 30' S, and long. 169°^ 
10' to 159° 50' E. It consists of a number of small coral islands upon 
a large reef extending for about forty miles from east to west, and 
about ten to fifteen miles from north to south. 

Part of the Ongtong Java reef appears to have been discovered by 
Alvaro de Mendana on Candlemas Day, 1567, and was by him con- 
sequently called **Los Bajios de la Candelaria " (Candelaria Reef). 
The group was sighted by Lemaire and Schouten in 1616, and was 
named Onthon-Java by Tasman, owing to its resemblance to some 
islands near Java. Maurelle passed the Candelaria Reef, named by 
him El Roncardor (the snorer) in 1781. The name of Lord Howe's 
Group was given by Captain Hunter in 1791. The Group belonged to 
Germany from 1893 to 1899, but Mr. C. M. Woodford proclaimed the 
British Protectorate early in 1900. 

Descriptions of the group and its inhabitants liave been given by 
Parkinson ^ and Woodford, ^ and the Rev. Dr. Brown. ^ The former 
states that some of the people have crisp hair and some smooth, and 

1. R. ParkinMon — (1) *' Zur Ethnographie der nordwestlichen Salomoinseln." 
Abhaud. d. Konig. Zool. U.S.W. Museums zu Dresden, 1899 ; also (2) ** Beitrage 
zur Kenutniss des Deutschen Schutzgebieten in der Siidsee." Mitt. d. Geog. 
Gresellnh in Hamburg, 1887-8; (3) **Zur Ethnographie der Ongtong- Java-und- 

' Tasman -Insel.** Internal. Archiv. f. Ethnog. X., 1892; (4j '* Nachtrage zur 
Ethnographie der Oiigtong-Java-Inseln.'* Internal. Archiv. f. Ethnog. XI., 1898 ; 
(5) ** Notes on Solomon Island Baskets and Lord Howe's Group." Man. 105, 

2. C. M.Woodford — (1) ** Notes on Leueneuwa or Lord Howe's Group." 
Man. 89, 1906 ; (2) '* On some little-known Polynesian settlements in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Solomon Islandw.*' Geographical Journal, 1916. 

3. Rev. G. Brown, D.D. — '* Notes of Voyage to Ysabel Island, Solomons 
Group, and Le ua niua (Ongttmg-Java or Lord Howe) and Tasman Groups." 
Adelaide Meeting, Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., 1907. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


that the latter have darker skins than the crisp-haired people. The 
king and his family and some of the otlier chiefs belong to the lighter 
coloured folk. Mr. Woodford says, ** the natives appear to be a mixed 
race composed of vanous elements due to the cliance immigrations of 
castaways from the Carolines in the north-west and from the Gilbert 
and EUice Islands, and other islands to the eastward, but the prevailing 
type and language are Polynesian." * 

Only two islands of the Ongtong Java group are permanently 
inhabited. These are Pelau at the western, and Leuaniua at the 
eastern end. The other islands, the chief of which is Keila, are visited 
for the coco-nuts and foi* fishing. The native name of the Candelaria 
Reef is recorded by Mr. Woodford as Kewobua. 

There is some uncertainty as to the native name of the largest 
settlement. On the charts it is written Leueneuwa, but Mr. Wood- 
ford and Dr. Friederici, who have a note on the subject,* call it Luaniua. 
Dr. Brown calls it Leuaniua.* 

Specimens of the language of Leuaniua have been recorded by 
Parkinson, 3 Woodford * and Dr. Brown.* The first gives, besides a 
long vocabulary, some specimens of songs. Thilenius also gives a 
specimen song.* Dr. Friederici has recorded the words used in 
navigation,' and I also owe to him a short MS. vocabulary. A few 
names are also extracted from Mr. Woodford's later notice.® From 
the vocabularies I have compiled the following summary of grammar. 
*1. Alphabet. — Vowels: a, c, t, o, m. Consonants: h^f, h, k, /, m, 
w, p, r, 8, /, f. 

Friederici notes an approach of u to o, and that / has a tendency to 
become ^' or y.* Parkinson uses /, ng, k^ h where others have r, n, t 
and V ovf. Woodford uses h where Dr. Brown has k, and k where 
Parkinson has h. 

2. Abticle. — This appears as se, ke or he ; se ave sister, ke ku^u 
star (p), se vaha, boat, ke la the sun (wj, he karinga the ear, he vae the 

1. ** Geographical Journal,** Julj, 1916. 
• 2. ** WiHsenschaftliche Ergebnisse,'* II., p. 299, note. 

3. ** Zur Ethnographie/* and ** Nachtrage." 

4. "Man," 1906 and "A Naturalist among the Head-hunters." London, 
1890. pp. 223-235. 

6. ** Notes of Voyage," pp. 10-11. 

6 . * * Ethnographische Ergebnisse, * ' pp. 96 - 1 GO. 

7. ** WissenschafUiche Ergebnisse," II., p. 299. 

8. ** Geographical Journal," July, 1916. 

* It is to be noticed that one component of this name, ' Niua,' is not 
uncommon in Polynesia, as in Nine Island ; Nina in the New Hebrides ; Niua-fou 
in the Tonga Ghroup, probably meaning * island ' originally. — Eduob. 

Digitized by 


Polynesian Linguistics. 101 

foot, he ara t!ie male, he hoe the pig (f).i Woodford has ni ia fish as a 
plural, where ni is the Sainoan nf , some. 

One of Woodfoixl's examples appears witli a Micronesian prefix : 
lokai sea. Of. Marshall Is. h-jit. 

3. Nouns. — The method of indicating the pluml does not appear. 
The genitive is shown by juxtaposition without the article: hua 
la'au flower (of) tree, po'u vae knee (head of leg), lau ngtiku lip (leaf of 
mouth) (p). 

4. ADJBC5TIVE8. — These follow the noun : lima makua^ thumb (p). 

5. Personal Pronouns. — Parkinson has : ngd'u I, o'oe thou, and 
kela kama he. The last is plainly intended for tei^a that, and tmna man. 

6. Possessive Pronouns. — These as given by Parkinson are 
merely the personal pronouns preceded by the word me (i.e. mea, thing) : 
tnengd^u mine, me oe thine, tne kela kama his. 

7. Verbs. — The verbal particle e is sometimes written u by 
Parkinson : malama e koa moon is full, makangi H lahi, wind is big. 
Woodford has e : e rowi good, e faio bad, e uri black. 

The reciprocal is fe or he : fe-aluai go about, he-leleai fly about (b). 
In these the suffix ai appears equivalent to the Samoan a'i. 

The desiderative is hi : hi-hunu (b), hi-ungu (p) thirsty, hi-ai (b p). 


The negative is ae: se iloa not undei^stand (b). 

8. Adverbs.— These follow the verb: haere ngase go slowly (b). 
Some adverbs of time are : aho ngei to-day, kaiao to-morrow, ke hora 
yesterday, ngahora e Itca day before yesterday. 

9. Preposition. — The locative i appears in i uta, inland (b). 

10. Numerals.— These are given as follows : 

P w F 

1 kau kahi kasi kahi 

2 e htia e lua Ine 

3 e kohu e kolu kolu, kok\ kogu 

4 e ha efa ha 

5 e lima e lima lima 

6 e ongo e ongo ongo, ono 

7 e hiku efiku hiku 

8 e valu e valu valu 

9 e siva e sivo tsivo 

10 sangafulu sangavulu singahulu 

20 maka ruha " kibu lua tihu lue 

30 maka hu kibu kolu tihu kolu 

40 maka ha kihufa tihu ha 

1. P = Parkinson, W = Woodford, B = Brown, F = Friederici. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



For the numbers 11 — 19 Parkinson gives sangafidu followed by ma 
kau kahi, sea hua, kau kohti, kau hoahoa, kau lima, kau ongo, kau hiku, 
kau valu, kau siva, Friederici has 11 sinahulu ma kahi, 12 sinahulu 
ma Itie. 

For 100 p and w have se laUy ¥ he garau^ and p has also: 1000 
se mata. 

The Interrogative numeral, how many ? is c hia ? (p) " Half " is 
kemuli, " many " is kamau 

Vocabulary, — In the vocabulary unmarked words are from 
Parkinson, words in brackets ( ) from Woodford, in square brackets [ ] 
from Dr. Brown, and with an asterisk* from Dr. Friederici. 

VIII. — A Vocabulary 


NiuA Language. 




Adam's apple i*i 


Arm . . lima, s. 

(milk) . 

. vai-ngiu, s. vai, niu 

Arm ijower) susu-lima 


Arm (upper) kahiko-lima 

(shell) . 

. ha-ngfiu 

Armpit ahinga 


. [hamaleo] 

Ashes elehu, s.lefulefu 


. [ha, ha-mai] 


. kale, s. 

Back . . ngakua, s. 

Bad .. (faio) 


. make, [mate], s.M. 

Banana . . huki 


. [mate], b.m. 

Bark (inner 


. aya, s.M. 

layer) pa'u, s. 


. mongo-i-tama, hoe * 

Beard . . raha, b. 


. ungu, s.M. inu 

Belly (upper) (mauava) s.M. 


. paopao, 8. popo 

Bird .. (manu), b.m. 

Bitter . . mara 


. kalinga, (karinga) s.M. 

Black .. uli (uri), s. 

Ear(/o*^) . 

. aua-kalinga 

Blind .. matau-pupungi 

Earth (soil) 

'ele'ele, s. 

Blue . . bala 



Boat . . (vaha), [vaka], s.M. 


. [ai], 8. 

Bone . . [ivi], s.M. 


. hua, s.M. 

'Bow\(wooden) nmete, s. 


. poulima 

Breadfruit . . uhu, s. ulu 


. [muli], s.M. 

Breast(»«aw'») hakahaka, s. 

Evening . 

. ahiahi, 8.M. 

Brother . . kahiga, M. taina 


. maka, s. 

Buttocks . . muri,* mori,* s.M. 

Eye -brow . 

. ku-e-maka 



. maka, s.M. 

weather maringo, M. 


. mao, s.M. 

Cheeks . . au-va«i, papa-i-aha* 


. kamanga, (kama), s. 

Chief . . tu'u 


Child . . kama-leli, s. 


karaanga— kauavanga 

Chin . . auvae, auvai,* s.M. 


. maka-lima, makarima* 

Cloud (rain) rehurehu 


. ahi, [afi], s.M, 

Cock .. moa-kange 


. i'a, (ni-ia), [ia], 8.M. 

Coconut . . ngiu, [niu] s. 


. lima-omi 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Polyimian Linguistics. 







. hua-la'au, s.M. 


, boboko, [lii], M. 

Fly, n. 

. laugo, s.M. 


[vaai], s. 

Fly, V. 

. ete, [hele], s.M. 


. [huku], S.M. 

Fly about . 

. [heleleai] 


. kapu-yae, m. kapukapu 


, ara* 

Forehead . 

. moa-lai, moa-rae 


(kanaka), s.M. 


. moa, 8. 


Mat {sleeping) 

1 moenga 

Girl * . . 

. heinge, s.M. 




. [baere, opluraQt : 


reatitiff arm 

Go about . 

. [fealuai], s. 

or leff) 

, kuarunga 


. aiku, s. 

Midday . . 



. (rowi) 

Moon {full) 

. malama, [marama], m. 

Hair {head) 

lau-uku, (lauolu), 


Moon (new) 



. lima, rima,* s. 

Morning . . 

kaiao, s. 

Hand {back) 


Mosquito . , 

. [namu], 8.M. 


. mamahua 


. hinga (kina), s. 

Hat {of 


sorceror) . 

. tonou 


. hinga-kau-avanga 


, poouku, (panolu) 

Mountain . . 

maunga, s.M. 

Head {back) 



nguku, (poo-ua), s. ngutu 


, longo, s.M. 


maunga, s.M. 

Nail {finger) 

maki-u'u, makiu,* M. 


, lua, 8. 




. [makav, matau]. 



. ua, ua,* 8.M. 

Hook (biff 

Neck {nape) 


wooden) ., 

. au* 



, vela s.M. 

{shell) .. 

kua, s. *ula 


. hale, (vale), [vare 

, fale], 

Needle {bone) kui 



ho'o'u, s.M. 

Honse {door) kokoa, s. 


po, [bo], s.M. 

Hungry {to 


[seai], 8. seei 


. hi'ai, s.M. 


, aisu, (isu) s.m. 

Inland . . [i-uta], s.M. 
Iron . . akanga 

Island .. ng^ia 



Knife {turtle' 


, hesu 


, (loloa), [lasi] 


. aka, M.S. *ata'ata 


. lau-mea, s. lau, mea 

Left hand . 

, mahuui, M. [lima-he-laua] 


, vae, vae*, s.M. 



. maha, m., matna 

Lightning . 

. uila, s.M. 


. lau-nguku, s.M. 

Nose oma- 
meut{tur tie- 
shell . . (asanga) 

Old man . . makua, s.M. 

Pestle . . kuhi 

Pig . . pua'a, boe, s. pua^a, m. 

{black for 

tattooing) (hakau) 
Priest . . (makua) 


. . [vave], s.M. 

Bain . . ua, s.M. 

Red . . mea, s. memea 

Ribs . . vahi-mangava 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 







Right hand 

makao, [Uma-he-matau] K 

Tatt<x>ing . 

. (helii) 


. ala, s.K. 


. reaiku, (haleaitu), s. 



Thirsty (to he) hiungu, [hiunu], s.M. 


. [maea], b. 


. via'a 



. hai, s.M. 



. pesia 

fish) (lavenga) 


lima-makua, s 


. kuhi 


. kai, (lokai), [tai], 8.ic. 


. kai, M. 

Seat (four- 

Tide(^W) .. 

,*opa*o, M. 

cornered) aluna 


kai-hungohongu, M. 


. manga^o, K. 


. (arivi), (arivi-ini), cf. notes 

Shoulder . 

. pagaoa 


. alelo, s.M. 


. ave 


. ngiho, (uifn), niso (»/!««'«)* 


. moe, s.M. 

niho (aharVs)* s.M. 


. [ngase], 9. ngesengese 


. la'au, s.M. 


. leU'i 


. masanga 


. ohu, 8. MUj M. an 


. aka, s. 


[iloa], s. 


. pisi-ola 


. mara 

Vessel (wood) 

1 haufa 


. hanga-me*e 


. kao, (makasi), s.M. too 


. vai, (mei-ingi), 8.M. 

Spring n. . 

. vai-*ele 


• [peaii] 8. 


. ku, S.M. 



, ku*u, (fitou), [fetu], s.M. 




haku, s. 


su, S., M. hit 


. makangi-u-lahi 


. maingi 


. la, s.M. 


. makangi, [matangi], s.M. 


. malie, 8. 


. [fafiiie], (fafini), s.M. 


. au, s.M. 


. (arivi moa) 


. maava, 8. 


. felo 


. engu 

Notes on the Leuaniua Vocabulary. 

In the vocabulary words plainly cognate with Samoan are marked s., with 
Maori M. 

Adam's apple. In the Reef Is., near Santa Cruz, ti is a ** winkle,*' 
Nerita ap. 

Arm (lower). Cf. s. smu'e, to lift up. 

Arm (upper). With hiko cf. M. iho down. 

Bitter. Cf. s. mala soft. 

Blind. Cf. S.M. matapo. 

Cock. Lit. fowl male. 

Cheeks. Cf. m. waha mouth, s. ava beard, and papa board. 

Ditch. Cf. s. ava, M. awa channel. 

Dog. Mongo i tama may perhaps be manu i tamay animal of man. Boe is also 
*pig,* and Melanesian. 

Ear (lobe). Probably '* handle of ear." Cf. s. *au. 

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Polynesian Linguistics. 105 

Earthquake. Gf . m. rwe shake, s. lue. 

Elbow. With pou cf . ». jpo*w, pimple. 

Fist. With owi, cf . s. ^omi^omi press between hands. 

Fly about. Cf . s felei fLj at. 

Forehead. Cf . 8.M. mua front, and m. roe. 

Head. Cf. m. upoko. 

Island. Cf. s. nu*H. 

Large. With loloa of. s. loa^ m. roa long. With last cf. m. rahi. 

M alo. Cf . 8. /ato pandanus. 

Sea. This word as given by Woodford has the Micronesian prefix lo, Cf. 
Marshall Island lo-jit sea. 

Sour. Cf . 8. inala soft. 

Spring. Cf . s. vai water, *eli dig. 

Storm. Lit. ** wind big." 

Syrup (of toddy) . Cf . Mortlock Is. (Micronesia) ari toddy, moa sweet. 

Throw. Cf . 8. peaif m. peki. 

Toddy (made from coconut). With arxvi cf. Mortlock Is. (Micronesia) ari 
toddy, with ini cf . Mortlock in mother. The arivi ini is the fermenting liquor, the 
boiled down syrup is the arivi moa. 

Yellow. Cf. B.felo light yellow, m. whero red- brown. 

These comparisons show a g^reat many words which cannot satisfactorily be 
accounted for. I have been unable to detect in them any special likeness to the 
Micronesian languages to the east, or to the Melanesian languages south of 
Ongtong- J aya. 

{To he contintied,) 

Digitized by 




(Southland, New Zealand.) 

By H. Beattie. 

PAET vn. 

Contimced from 'page 86 of this Volume. 

THE publication of this information collected from the Southern 
Maoris has created remark. This is only natural when one 
notes the small amount collected by the two principal South Island 
historians — Wohlers (who went to Ruapuke in 1884) and Stack 
(Kaiapoi 1859). The present collector has been asked concerning the 
authenticity of his information. This is a reasonable and justifiable 
question, in view of the fact that it has been repeatedly stated in print 
that through the whalers coming into contact with the Southern. 
Maoris the latter early lost their traditionary knowledge, and that the 
small remnant now left have preserved none of the olden lore. This is 
an altogether mistaken idet)., and I have frequently been surprised at 
the way ancient beliefs, legends, superstitions and history still linger 
in the South. How this survival has come to pass I shall try to 
briefly relate. 


Nearly all my informants in giving information would name the 
old men from whom they had got it, and on investigation we find that 
these old men had either acquired their knowledge in pre-Pakeha 
days or, if perchance their boyhood was in the whaling period, they 
had been brought up inland. For example, Kupa of Colac Bay, who 
is generally conceded to be the best living authority on Maori warfare 
in Otago and Southland, derived most of his knowledge from Rawiri 
te Awha, who was brought up at Lake Te Anau. Rawiri te Maire 
and Rakitapu, both old men well versed in ancient lore, and who both 
died in the nineties of last century, were brought up at Lakes 
Wnnaka and Hawea. Among the other old men quoted as authorities 
were names such as Matiaha Tiramorehu, Tare Wetere te Kahu^ 

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Traditions and Legends, 107 

Korako te Eehe, Takuma Tauwera, Te Makahi, Te Maiharoa, and 
others who had as boys and young men inbibed the teaching of the 
Wharekura, or Maori colleges. None of my informants had been 
initiated into the mysteries and rites of these schools because they 
were born at too late a day, but they say that their knowledge of the 
wars of old, the ancient canoes, and general lore, were gathered 
from men who had received such instruction, and who told them so 
that the memory of the past might not die out altogether. What little 
the collector gleaned about the Southern Maori institutions for 
perpetuating their ancient wisdom is here given. 


One of my aged friends said : — *^ In the South here I have heard 
of at least three scliools of teaching in the olden days. There was the 
Whare-tohuka (for the teacliing of wizardry), tlie Whare-kura (for 
the teaching of history and agriculture), and the Whare-purakau (for 
the teaching of fighting ; it was where weapons were kept — what you 
white people would call an armoury). A man who was sacred was 
called a takata tapu, and was invested with spirit tndna. A tohuka was 
a professor, but he might not be tapu, although if he were a tohuka 
tapu he was a very sacred person. A seer of either sex was a matakite. 
A name for a seer in the South was ta-ura. Do not write tauira, 
which was the name for a pupil or copyist.* The tohukas were men 
of knowledge and taught the youths." 

Another of the old men said : — " There were two main schools for 
learning in the South as far as I know. One was the Whare-kura, 
where the cultivation of the ground was taught, and also karakia^ or 
woiTship. The other was the Whare-puraka, or house where the 
youths were taught fighting and about wars. My father went through 
one of these schools, but not the other. We call the present white 
school-teachers mahita, a word which perhaps comes from the ancient 
times.f Although I never went through the Whare-kura, I was 
taught a number of karakia when I was a boy, and I used to repeat 
them before catching eels in certain lakes and streams, before meals 
when travelling in different places, when I saw a lizard, etc. Once I 
was at the Waimumu G-orge with two old men (one of whom was a 
man of mdna), and they told me it had been a place of worship where 
the old tohukas used to go, and that everyone who went through it 
had to karakia. When I was there I said the karakta,^^ [The writer 
tried to secure some of his informant's karakiaSj but was met with a 
firm refusal.] 

♦ The northern word tauira means a pupil, though in some of the islands the 
ivord taura means a priest. — Editob. 

t We think not. It is the Maori pronunciation of the English word master. — 


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One of my informants remarked : — ** There used to he wharehiras 
and tvharepurakaus all round the Houtli, ]»ut not in tliis generation. I 
have sometimes heard one of those schools called tlie Wkare-wanaka, 
hut it was not a common name down here, although some of the 
North Islanders use it often. I helieve, old Matiaha Tiramorehu and 
others ran a wharekura at Moeraki, about 1868, to teach the yoimger 
people some history, and that was the last one in the South Island." 

In some notos gathered by Mr. James Cowan in Canterbury in 
1905, and kindly lent to the writer, occurs this passage : — ** Te 
WTiare-kura (or Te Whare-purakau), About 1868 or '70 Rawiri te Maire, 
a tangata-tapu, revived the whrn-e-kura at Moeraki. They built a small 
house and here Te Maire, his son, Wi Pokuku, and others used to 
gather, and Te Maire and other elders would recite the history of 

.The collector believes that through this revival of the tvhare-kura 
nearly fifty years ago, much history was preserved that would other- 
wise have faded into oblivion. 


All my informants agreed about the extensive powers of the 
tohukas or priests, as will be seen from the following extracts : — ** The 
tohukas were men of mdna and could do wonderful things. Once at 
Otago Heads, a North Island and South Island tohuka were arguing 
about their gods, and the Southern priest brought down thunder and 
rain and won the contest. Another time a North Island tohunga came 
down here but went back North and told the people up there that the 
spirits were so strong down here that he could not manage them." 

** The tohukas were often skilled in navigation, and sometimes 
would steer the waka-unua (double canoes), when they would be 
called * tohuka-whakatere.^ An ordinary steersman was called a * takata- 
tohakatere,^ " 

** The tohukas had power over the winds, and knew the karakia to 
calm and roughen the sea. The gentle winds * Hine-tu-whenua ' and 
* Hine-tapapa-uta ' were called up to smooth the waves and * Tawhiri- 
matea ' would be called up to bring on a storm." 

** The tohukas knew the stars. They knew all about Puaka, tlie 
star of Spring showing when planting comes round ; Wero-i-te-ninihi 
and Wero-i-te-tokota the stars denoting Winter ; Te-waka-a-Tama- 
rereti a very ancient canoe, but now a group of stars in the heavens ; 
and Whiti-kaupeka or Te-ika-o-te-raki, which the Pakeha calls the 
Milky Way. The old tohukas knew all those things, most of which 
are now forgotten." 

" The tohukas of old knew very powerful karakia. When fugitives 
were fleeing over mountains they would pray, * ka karakia te Maori^ 

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Traditions and Legends, 109 

ka tuhua te kohu (tliat the mists might descend), and the tohukas of the 
pursuing party would pray, * kia watea te kohu ' (that the fog would 

" The tohukas knew the omens of war. When Puoho made hia 
^ raid on Tuturau [in 1836], Niho [of Westland] who was a tohuka, 
and the son of a tohuka, had a dream that a great shark lay across Te 
Wai Pounamu, and he warned Puoho not to come further, and told 
him what would happen to him, but Puoho scoi-ned the warning and' 
went on to his fate." 


One of my aged friends narrated liis personal experience of the 
tohukas^ powers, and firmly believes they were miracle- workers. He 
says : — ** There were great tohukas long ago, such as Rakitaiuieke (of 
Oreti) and Pakoko (of Tuturau), but even in my time some of great 
mdna remained. Such were Matiaha Tiramorehu (whose father 
Kareke was a celebrated tohuka), Pokihi (of Otakou), Tare Wetere te 
Kaku (of Otakou), Kahupatiti (of Euapuke) and Te Merehau (of 
Murikauhaka). Te Merehau could bring on snow or thunder, and he 
knew a great deal about the heavenly bodies, and Pokihi was also a 
great tohuka. Only once did 1 see Pokihi show his powers and it was 
quite enough for me. It was the time the Scotch ships came to Otago 
[1848], and I was a boy at the kaika at "Otago Heads. A North 
Island tohuka was visiting Otago, and he told Pokihi that the South 
had no gods and he defied him to prove that it had. The old man was 
angered and said karakia, and pushed a stick into the fire and pulled 
it out again. It was a fine day, but when he did this the thunder 
began to roll, and 'quickly great drops of rain came on and soon 
- turned into a heavy shower. Crickets or grasshoppers {tukarakau) 
came down in the rain, and I saw them with my own eyes. The 
people were in a great state of fear, and getting worse, so Tare 
Wetere te Kahu went in and begged the old tohuka to stop, and he 
put the stick back in the fire and the rain stopped at once. The North 
Island visitor admitted that the gods in the South were more powerful 
than any he had known in the North, and he went back to tell the 
people up there what he had seen done down here." [Note : The 
above incident was briefly referred to by another old man as quoted 
in an earlier part of this article.] 


An intelligent old Native said to me: — ** When I was a boy I 
went on voyages and knocking about with White sailors I lost my 
belief in the ancient ideas of my people, until a thing occurred which 
made me see that there was something in what the old tohukas had 
taught. I was at the Taiari kaika, near Henley, when the * Waimea ' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


a small two-masted scliooner of about twenty-five tons came up the 
river on her way from Dunedin to the Bluff. The vessel lay at the 
bridge for about a week then sailed, taking a g^rl as passenger to ^he 
Neck at Stewart Island. This was about 1866 or 1867, and a 
fortnight passed with no word of the craft's arrival at the Bluff. At 
the end of three weeks the girl's relatives had given her up for dead, 
and were going to hold a taki-aue over her when the old tohuka Te 
Makahi bade them wait until he found out if the * Waimea ' was lost 
and the girl dead. They scoffed at liim and said that he could not do 
it as the White men had driven away the mdna of the Maori. * JE kore 
e mdna ' they said, but the old man said he would consult the spirits 
and see if there was not still power to tell these things. He said no 
one must follow or watch him and he went out into an orchard. 1 
sneaked out tlie back door, in my stocking soles, and crept silently 
along. I could hear the old man reciting words I have never heard 
before or since and which I did not understand, and he seemed to be 
casting twigs in the air. All of a sudden he stopped his chanting and 
without looking round called out angrily, * There is someone watching 
me. It is you. . . . (naming me). Go inside at once or the mAna will 
depart.* I was so astonished that I obeyed him at once. Some time 
after he came in and said the vessel had been blown out to sea and 
was now sheltering in a place which he had never seen before but 
which he described exactly, and that all on board were well. The old 
tohuka was so sure of what he had seen that everyone believed him, 
and sure enough word reached us afterwards that the ' Waimea ' had 
had to shelter in Waikawa Harbour in exactly the position he had 
told us. Te Makahi died soon after, but he opened my eyes as to 
what tohukas could do. Witchcraft by sticks or divining by twigs was 
called rotarota or niu, but I doubt if anyone has been able to do such 
for many years past." 

So much for the feats of the tohukan as told to me by men who 
firmly believed in the powers of those old-time "men of knowledge." 
Some more of the history a6 preserved by the teachings of the 
southern wharekura will be given in later instalments. 

fTo he contimied.J 

Digitized by 




By Elsdon Best. 

IN traditions preseiTed by the Maori folk of New Zealand we note 
a considerable number of place names pertaining to the homes of 
their ancestors in the far off isles of Polynesia. Some of these names 
liave merely been preserved by oral tradition, while others have been 
applied to places in New Zealand. In locating such names of places 
in Polynesian isles we can probably assist to some extent in settling 
the question as to the islands from which the ancestors of the Maori 
migrated when they passed down the long sea roads to settle on the 
shores of New Zealand. 

A number of natives of the Society Group have of late been passing 
through Wellington en route for the training camps of New Caledonia, 
as also others returning home from the Solomon Isles, where they 
have been employed as divers for pearl shell for two years. Among 
other information obtained from these natives is included a number of 
place names, some of which are well-known New Zealand place 
names, and some are mentioned in tradition as the homes of Maori 
ancestors who left them to settle here. 

The change that has taken place in the dialect of the Society Isles 
since the ancestors of the New Zealand Maori left those parts twenty 
to thirty generations ago, is marked chiefly by the dropping of the k 
and ng sounds, their place being supplied by a little catch or break in 
the voice. Thus one notes a remarkable succession of vowels in some 
words. 2'angata has become tcHata^ but a word like Tcangakanga would 
be resolved into a^aa^a. Again wh seems to have been replaced by/ 
or A or r, thus a word like wJuikakakau in New Zealand Maori would 
appear as ja^a^a'au and whakaakaaka as fa^axCaa^a, If this progress 
is still continuing, it would be of interest to know what period of time 
must elapse before the Taliitian alphabet is composed of the lone 
letter *a.' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Local Name. 



Pu'e-hapopo . . 

(a hill near the shore) 

Pi'opi*o-i-hiti . . 





Ta'a'a . . 


Maori Dialect of New Zealand. 

Waima-tuhi-rangi. In Maori tradition the home 
of Nga-Toto, father-in-law of Turi, who came 
to New Zealand in charge of the *Aotea' 
canoe. Name located in New Zealand at 

Tikirau. A place name on East Coast of North 
Island of New Zealand. 

Whangara. In Maori tradition the house of 
Tama tea, a chief who came to New Zealand 
in the * Takitimu ' canoe. Name of a place on 
East Coast, North Island of New Zealand. 

Titirangi. In Maori tradition the pa or village of 
Tamatea at Whangara. Several old fortified 
hill villages so named on East Coast of North 
Island of New Zealand. One at Uawa, another 
at Te Wairoa. 

Puke-hapopo. In Maori tradition a hiil at or 
near Whangara, whence people watched canoe 

Pikopiko-i-whiti. In Maori tradition a place at 
or near Whangara where canoe races were 
held, etc.* 

Whangape. A place so named north of Auck- 
land, New Zealand. Fct'a denotes a valley at 
Tahaa island. The Maori whanga is used to 
denote an expanse or space of land, water or 

Muriwhenua. Name of Northern extremity of 
North Auckland peninsula. Said to have been 
named by Tamatea. 

Rakai-hikuroa. A place name at Poverty Bay, 
New Zealand. Also the name of a great grand- 
son of Tamatea of * Takitimu ' canoe. 

Tokahotu ? A small isle at Tahaa. 

Motueka. A small isle at Tahaa. A place mame. 
Nelson district. New Zealand. 

Takaka. A small isle at Tahaa. A place name. 
Nelson district. New Zealand. 

* It is now tolerably clear from Miss Teuira Henry's researches that there is & 
place of this name at Tahiti also, and that it refers to the enclosed waters within 
the reef. Such also is the description by Whatahoro of New Zealand. — Editob. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Some Place Names of Islands of the Society Group. 113 

Local Names. Maori Dialect of New Zealand. 

Arahura . . Arahura. A small isle at Tahaa. A place name 

and river, West Coast, South Island, NZ. 
Maui-mua . . Maui-mua. 
Maui-pae . . Maui-pae 
Maui-roto . . Maui-roto 

Maui ti'iti'i i te Maui tikitiki i te rangi. Four small isles at 
ra'i Tahaa. Two isles named Maui mentioned in 

Maori tradition.* 
Ba'itoto . . Rangitoto. A small isle at Tahaa (also a hill 

name). Name of D'Urville Island, Cook Strait, 

New Zealand. t 
Fa'arei . . Whangarei. Cf. Whangarei, North Auckland 

Fa' ape . . Whangape. See above, under Tahaa. 

Tapiltapu-atea Taputapu-atea. A marae in Opoa district. 

Preserved in Maon tradition. 

The order in which the place names of Tahaa, including those 
mentioned in the Tamatea legend, occur is as follows : — 
Fa*apiti (Whangarua or Whakarua). 
Fa'ara (Whangara) 
Titira'i (Titirangi). 
Hurepiti (KLurerua). 
Pu'e-hapopo (Puke-hapopo)*. 
Pi'opi'o-i-hiti (Pikopiko-i- whiti) 
Tiamahana (*? Tikaniahana). 
Tautau (an islet) 

These names occur in the above order as one walks along the 
beach. Two more names bring us to Waione ; the next is Fa' ape, 
next but one is Pu'eheru (Pukeheru), the next Murifenua (Muri- 
wlienua). The word piti (two) has taken the place of rw« in the 
Tahitian dialect. 

In addition to those names given above, a number of others are 
also found in New Zealand. Fa'anui (Whanganui) is at Porapora 
Island, as also are Hitia'a (Whitianga), Motu-tapu, Pahua, Te 
Waitapu, Ta'iha'a (Tangihanga), etc. 

Perhaps the most interesting item of information obtained from 
these natives was the statement made by one man .that the principal 

• We think, however, that the two islauds named Maui in Maori tradition 
refer to the Maui Inland of Hawaii, and to one of the lesser islands off it« 
coast. — Editor. 

t When the Maoris gave the namn Rangitoto to D'Urville island one of them 
said, **This reminds me of my home in Hawaiki," also called Rangitoto, and 
hence the name of D*Urville Island. — EDrroB. 

Digitized by 



atua or god of their local pantheon in past times was known as lo i te 
vahi naro (lo of the hidden place), with which name may be compared 
that of lo mata ngaro (lo of the hidden face), the supreme god of the 
Maori folk of New Zealand. Inasmuch as this name and conception 
have caused doubt in certain minds that attribute them to missionary 
influence or teaching, it follows that Tahitians must have invented 
practically the same name for a newly discovered supreme being, or 
that there has been collusion between Maori and Tahiti an in a pious 
fraud. On the other hand these curious theories may be quite wrong, 
and lo a genuine blue blooded atxia from time immemorial, whose 
name was brought hither by the Maori with those of Tane, Tangaroa, 
and other gods. We know that missionary teachings have influenced 
the Maori, and that the present day native may mix native with 
Christian myths, but no Bible teaching resembles the old Maori 
account of the cult of lo. 

At Motue'a (Motu«ka) islet at Tahaa Island was the abode of a 
dread monster known as Ai-fa'arua'i (Kai-whakaruaki in Maori), a 
destroyer of mankind. Here we have the Maori myth of the taniwha 
or monster Kai-whakaruaki, who destroyed the people of Takaka and 
Motueka, in tlie Nelson district of New Zealand. This story has been 
brought from Eastern Polynesia and localized in the Nelson district. 
See "Journal of the Polynesian Society,'* Vol. HI., p. 16. 

These islanders know the name of Upe (Maori Kupe) as that of a 
remote ancestor, but could not give a line of descent from him. A man 
of one of the northern isles, a desceiident of Upe, and bearing the 
same name, died some years ago. 

Another interesting place name mentioned by the natives was that 
of Mana, at Ila*iatea Island (the Rangiatea of Maori tradition). This 
name is pronounced with both vowels long, as the name of Mana 
Island in Cook Strait appears in some old Maori MSS. 
Fa'aroa Maori Whangaroa 

Fa'arei Maori Whangarei 

There are two inlets or harbours at Ra'iatea, the names of which 
appear as bay names on our North Island coasts. Fa'aparaoa, Maori 
Whangaparaoa is at Tahiti, Aora4 (Aorangi) and Hi'ura*i (Hikurangi) 
appears in several parts of our North Island as hill and mountain 
names, and Mt. Cook is known to the Maori as Aorangi. 

A number of places in New Zealand have the words mai Taivhiti 
(from Tawhiti) attached to their names, as Te Kawakawa-mai-Tawhiti 
and Te Mahia-mai-Tawhiti. The latter has special mention in Maori 
tradition, wherein it is stated that when the immigrants in the 
* Takitimu * canoe left Muriwhenua, in the far north, they came down 
the east coast seeking Te Mahia-mai-Tawhiti. They passed Te Ika 
a Tauira, saw Waikawa and Kahutara loom up ; then Ruawharo 
stood up, and said, ** Here is Te Mahia.'* As they drew in to the land^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Some Place Names of Islands of the Society Group. ' 115 

Nukutaurua stretched outwards. They landed and examined the 
place, which did not closely resemble Te Mahia (of Hawaiki)^ but 
they settled there and, opening the parcel of gravel they had brought 
from across the ocean, they poured it out at Te Mahia-mai-Tawhiti. 
They performed all the ceremonies they had been taught, and, next 
mom, a whale had drifted ashore. Their mother had said to them, 
*' At the place where a whale shall drift ashore, at that place you two 
must dwell." It is of interest to note that, according to Maori 
tradition, Nukutaurua was formerly an island.* 

A lengthy list might be compiled of Society Island place names 
that appear in New Zealand, but what is needed is a local correspon- 
dent there who has a fair knowledge of Maori traditions. Much 
interesting matter might yet be collected, especially, perhaps, in the 
northern isles of the Group. 

[The name Tahaa in Maori would be Tahanga. It is Taanga in 
Rarotongan. Its ancient name was Anupe, whilst those of Porapora 
were Fa*anui and Vavao. The ancient names of Ra'iatea were loretea 
and Havaii, wliilst the whole of the Society Group (excluding 
Tahiti) was named in ancient times Te Aotea. The whole Group 
(including Tahiti) was anciently called Tahuhu. 

Many more names in this Group will be found identified with 
those in Maori traditions in the book "Hawaiki," and in ** Reports, 
of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science " for 
1891 and 1898.— Editor.] 

* Which is most clearly bom out by the physical features of the place. The 
former strait is now filled with low sand hills. It is here the great rift extending* 
from Wellington passes out to sea. — Ebitob. 

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By 8. Percy Smith. 

IN 1894, when living in Wellington, a frequent visitor was old 
Eruera Wirihana Pakauwera, otherwise known as E. W. 
Xaipara. At that time the old man was about 76 or 78 years old, for 
he stated that at the death of Tama-i-haranui at the hands of Te 
Eau-paraha, in 1830, he (E. W. P.) was about 12 years old. He was 
a communicative old fellow in some subjects connected with his tribe, 
but would not be considered a first-class Ruanuku, or learned man. A 
great deal of information was nevertheless obtained from him by both 
Mr. Elsdon Best and myself, and particularly on the subject of the 
tribal songs of his tribe, Ngati-kuia, indeed he dictated to me some 
150 songs of various lengths, which were written down at the time in 
Maori shorthand. Few of these songs, etc., have any interest. He had 
an astonishing memory for his native songs ; it was only necessary to 
quote any one line, and he would immediately begin droning the rest 
of it. On other subjects — excepting that of bird catching — he was not 
well up, and his tribal histoiy was extracted from him with difficulty, 
though the stories of Maui and Tawhaki were told fairly well ; he had 
evidently learnt them by rote from the teaching of his grandfather 
Pakauwera, and was careful to repeat them in the exact words he had 
been taught. 

He drew a very strong distinction between the histories of Maui 
and Tawhaki. He told the former story with glee, but for some time 
declined to recite that of the latter, though finally doing so, for, said 
he, ** Tawhaki is a god, and all about him is tapu^ Needless to say, 
both are claimed by the Maoris as ancestors. Te Matorohanga, the 
Sage of our two volumes of " Memoirs " (Vol. III. and IV.), states 
that much of the story of Maui was a * winter night's tale,' the common 
property of all, not like so many of tlieir traditions as told in the 
Whare-wananga, which were of a semi -sacred character. This is a 
distinction well worth noting. 

At the massacre at Hikapu, in the upper part of Pelorus Sound, at 
its junction with the Kenepuru Sound, when Te Bau-paraha's and 

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Notes on the Mgaii-Kuia Tribe of the South Island, M.Z. 117 

Pehi-Kupe's tribe nearly exterminated the Ngati-kuia (this was in 
1828-29), E. W. Pakauwera, then a small boy, escaped with his 
father (Kaipara), and as they climbed a hill some distance from 
Hikapu the boy looking back saw the flames and smoke of their home 
arising to the clouds, and asked his father what it meant. "That is thy 
ancestor's bones burning at the hands of Ngati-Toa," said the father. 
In this massacre his mother Kunari was taken prisoner by Te 
Whakarau, and was subsequently married to Apitia of Te Ati-Awa 
tribe, and lived for some time at D'Urville Island, subsequently at the 
Chatham Islands. She was, says her son, a very handsome woman ; 
tall and well made, with long, chestnut -coloured curls hanging down to 
her waist. 

Old Pakauwera was the head of his tribe in 1894, and lived near 
Oanvass-town at the head of Pelorus Sound (or Te Hoiere, which is the 
Maori name of the Sound). He passed away some years ago. The 
following are some of the notes obtained from him ; but the songs as a 
rule are not worth translating. 

The Ngati-kuia (or Kati-kuia, as our infoimant always pronounced 
the name in accordance with the South Island change of the 'ng' with 
the *k') derive their name from a woman named Wainui {kuia means 
an old woman), who was the wife of Koanga-umu, both of whom came 
to New Zealand in the * Kura-hau-po ' canoe together with Awaawa- 
wetewete-tapiki, who settled at Te Taitapu or Massacre Bay, South 
Island. The tribe claims that their ancestors came from Hawaiki (or 
Tahiti) in the * Kura-hau-po '.canoe at the same time as several other 
canoes as a fleet, and they made the land on the East Coast, ' Kura- 
hau-po' came on south, landing parties here and there, and eventually 
she went on to the Grey River on the West Coast, South Island, 
whilst * Taki-timu ' canoe proceeded down the East Coast.* Some of 
the Bangi-tane tribe derive descent from the same people, and the 
Ngati-Apa tribe of Rangi-tikei, North Island, claim the * Kura-hau-po' 
as their ancestral canoe. This means probably that Ngati-kuia are a 
brancii of that division of Ngati-Apa which eventually settled on the 
West Coast of the South Island, and came to be known as Ngati- 
Apa-ki-te-ra-to (or the Sunset Ngati-Apa). Pakauwera says they 
were also closely connected with the extinct tribe of Ngati-Tu-mata- 

The territories of the Ngati-kuia appear to have been confined to 
the water-shed of the Pelorus Sound, for on my asking Pakauwera 
whether their people had any tradition of the massacre of part of 
Capt. Fernaux's boat crew at Arapaoa Island to the west of Queen 

* In this connection see *' J.P.S.,** Vol. XXTI., p. 217, on the question as to 
whether ' Kura-hau-po ' canoe did, or did not make two voyages to New Zealand. 

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Charlotte Sound, he replied they had not, for that part of the country 
was held at the time of the massacre by Ngati-Apa, and that Ngati- 
kuia only owned Pelorus Sound and D'Urville Island (or Rangitoto). 

Pakauwera says Ngati-kuia were 'Ac ivn karakiay a people using 
many karakias (invocations, incantations, ritual, in fact), but not * he 
iwi makutu ' — a people of sorcerers, like Te Ati- Awa of Taranaki. 

Their only karakias were charms to cause the wind to cease, or to 
prevent the hapuku fish (gropher) biting their opponents' bait ; but by 
using pa/raparormounu (a special kind of bait) the fish still would bite. 
They were good fishermen. The following is one of their customs to 
cause the dangerous winds to cease, it is called a rotu: If a canoe were 
out at sea fishing, or for any other purpose, and a storm came on, the 
chief of the party would say to his wife, who would be bailing out the 
water of the canoe, " Whakaarahia te huruhui*u ! " (Uplift the hair). 
The woman would then pull out a hair from her private parts and hold it 
up in her hand with her arm stretched out at full length, whilst the 
husband would repeat a long charm. The hair of the private parts is 
said to have been placed there by Rangi, the Sky-father, the husband 
of Papa, the Earth.* This lock of hair was not an offering to 
Tangaroa, god of ocean. So says old Pakauwera. It was probably an 
offering to the Sky-father to propitiate him and thus cause the stonn to 
cease. It is suggested that the first line of the ka/rakiay quoted by John 
White in "A.H.M." Vol. L, p. 107 (Maori), thus: '' Huruhuru 
takimtia i Raroliara^'^ refers to the same custom, for it was used under 
somewhat similar circumstances. The charm or invocation recited by 
Pakauwera is lengthy and difficult to translate. It commences : — 

Ko te huruhuru o Rangi, 'Tis the hair of the Sky-father, 

Kia whakahinga — a. Let it fall, a ! 

Kia whakahinga ki te hau. Let it fall to the wind, 

Kia whakahinga ki te tonga. Let it fall- to the south (i.e. storm). 

Like all Maoris Ngati-kuia were good fighters. Though we know so 
little of their histoiy, one of their raids was mentioned by Pakauwera 
which has an interest as giving the origin of a mere^ which is probably 
still with the Whanganui tribe. 

In the times of his grandfather Pakauwera, he, Maihi and Te 
Wai-here led a war-party of Ngati-kuia from their homes at Pelorus 
Sound to attack the people of Kai-koura. The chief of the latter 
people was Te Koake, and in the fight that ensued he was killed and 
his people defeated. Among the spoils of battle was a celebrated 
jadeite mere named * Ohiwa,' which was brought back to Pelorus 

* According to the teaching of the East Coast tohungasy the hair was taken 
from Punaweko, one of the offspring of the Sky -father, when woman was created. 
See ** Memoirs Polynesian Society," Vol. III., p. 140. 

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Hoies on the Mgaii-Kuia Tribe of the South Island, M.Z. 119 

Sound, and remained in the hands of the people for very many years. 
It was finally stolen by a woman visitor from Whanganui, and taken 
to that place. Said Pakauwera, " Major Keepa knows where it is." 
It is described as being superior in beauty to any other mere in the 
countiy. It was in the keeping of Te Haere when stolen. The 
following is the saying about it : ''" Te Koake te tangata ko Ohiwa te 
rakany (Te Koake is the chief, Ohiwa is his weapon.) 

About 1894, old Pakauwera dictated to Elsdon Best " The Story of 
Hine-popo," which was published in this " Journal," Vol. III., p. 101. 
The old man had a strong sense of fun, and some of his stories were 
really very amusing. The following is a specimen of them, but it 
ought to be read in the original to properly appreciate it: — 


** Riia dwelt outside, at the mouth of the Pelorus Sound (Hoiere is 
the Maori name) ; his village fronted on the ocean itself, and fish was 
the principal food of the people. He had a great friend named Tuiia, 
who lived a long way up the Sound, where salt-water fish were not 
procurable as at Riia's home. Now Riia was the man who gave 
utterance to the following * saying ' : — 

* Kei hea toku hoa a Turia, te puta mai ki waho 7iei ki te matau 
whakcuireare, ki te ngutungutu ki te wairore, ki te hau ki waho ra. E 
Kara tau ! he whakatangi tamariki.^ 

(Where is my friend Turia, that he does not come outside here to 
the wide open space and taste of delicious fish, to the fresh winds of the 
sea. Thine is not a pleasant life, 'tis naught but child's work.) 

The last sentence refei*s to the catching of pigeons, parrots, etc.. for 
which the forests of Pelorus were celebrated. Tuna enjoyed none of 
the delights of fishing, when fish took the hook every day of the year, 
whereas birds were only caught in their seasons, where food was 
plentiful and fish were constantly suspended on the drying stages, 
where there was plenty of hapuku (gi'opher) and koiro (conger eels), 
and all the fish of the sea. 

Pigeons (preserved) are only eaten at night. After they are snared 
and placed in the papa-totara (or troughs made of totara bark), then 
may they be eaten in daylight, for the time of snaring has passed. 

When Turia heard the * saying ' of his friend Riia, he said to his 
people, ' What is the month in which fish are scarce?' To this the 
people replied, * In Puwai-awa-tahi.' (June.) So Turia remained at 
home always havhig in mind the saying of his friend Riia. When the 
month of May came, he aiTanged with all his men to proceed to the 
forests and commence biixl -snaring. When they had snared a large 
number at the troughs, they were cooked and preserved in their own 
fat — there were 40 paporhuahuay or bowls of birds procured in this 
manner. On the completion of this work Turia said to his people, 

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120 jourhml of the polymesiam society. 

* All this food we will take outside to the sea, for this is Puwai-awa- 
tahi, the month of scarcity with the fish.' All the people consented to 
this, and then they launched their canoes and proceeded to the home of 
Riia on the seaside, where they hauled them up on the beach and 
proceeded to build shelters for themselves, and then awaited, antici- 
pating the usual presents of food to strangers from the people of the 
place. Nothing came, however, for the good reason the hosts had no 
food to give. On the third day Turia's party presented the whole of 
their 40 cases of preserved birds to Riia. 

Now the man Riia on receipt of this handsome present was over- 
whelmed with shame, for this was the month of Puwai-awa-tahi, and 
no fish were to be procured to feed liis guests with. So Turia presented 
his gifts, 40 cases ; two of them he opened in the marae of the village 
so that his friend* Riia might see their contents. And now all the 
people set to and had a feast, for the people of Riia had no food at all. 

On the following day Turia and his people returned to their homes. 
After they had left, Riia and his people desirous of making a return 
present of food, and feeling much ashmed at failui-e in hospitality, went 
out to sea to fish. It was at the time of the tai-moi (neap tides), so 
they got none. Then they waited for the spring tides and tried again ; 
but a storm came on, and Riia and his people were drowned; drowned 
in attempting to fulfil the meaning of his boast to Turia. 

When the news reached Turia, he said, * Alas my friend Riia, who 
invited me to go outside to taste thy delicious fish, now thou art 
drowned in the very sea that thou boasted of producing abundant 
food. Farewell!'" 

Another of the old man's yarns that he delighted in telling was as 
follows : Ta'ri was a member of tlie Ngai-Tahu tribe that dwelt in the 
pleasant district of 0-amaru in South Canterbury. He had a favourite 
saying, or boast, that was constantly on his lips. This was it: — 

Ka haere i te whenua, ko an, ko Tari ! 
Ka whati i te parekura, ko an, ko Tari ! 


Of all great travellers, 'tis I, 'tis Tari ! 

He i>vho puts the enemy to flight in battle, 'tis I, *tis Tari ! 

Now, an old man named Te Iwi-kai-tangata and his son, had to 
make, a journey, and Tari decided to accompany them. As they went 
along every now and then Tari would utter his boast, until the old man 
got sick of it. He carried a spear in his hand. At the third repetition 
of the boast Tari wound up by adding the words, "O Tari, of the great 
thoughts! Tari, of the lofty ideas!" The old man Te Iwi-Kai- 
tangata was marching in front, the boy following Tari. The former 

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Iloies on the Ugaii^Kuia Tribe of the South Island, II.Z. 121 

turned round facing Tari and said, " j^/ koia anoV^ (A ! is it so?) 
and made a lunge at Tari with his spear, striking him full in the chest 
and flooring him. Tari arose and a fierce struggle ensued. Then the 
old man called out to the boy, " Do your part ! spear him ! " " Where? 
said the boy, " In the anus ! " replied the old man. The boy did so and 
drove his spear into the vitals of Tari and killed him, and thus ended 
his boasting, whilst the old man and his son proceeded serenely on their 
•way no longer annoyed with Tan's refrain. 


The following is one of Pakauwera's stones — other versions of it 
Lave been given by Sir George Grey in his " Polynesian Mythology," 
and by John White in his ** Ancient History of the Maori." The 
Barotongan people are also acquainted with it, but have it in far more 
detail than the Maoris of New Zealand. An abbreviated edition of the 
story was published in " Hawaiki," 3rd Edition, p. 202, as translated 
from the Rarotongan traditions. There is no doubt the incident of the 
burning of the Tihi-o-Man5no is historical, and apparently took place 
shortly before Manaia's migration to New Zealand, at a date which can 
be approximately fixed as about the years A.!p. 1225 to 1250 — See our 
^* Memoii*8,' Vol. IV., p. 127. The Moriori of the Chatham Islands also 
have their own version of the story, which will be found in our 
" Memoirs," Vol. II., p. 67. The scene of the story is the Western 
Pacific, in the Samoan and Tonga Groups, and we may judge from the 
many particulars given in the Rarotongan version, that the naval 
battle took place off the Haabai Island of the latter group, the fleet of 
Whakatau and his friends sailing from Upolu of the Samoan Group. 

The following is old Pakauwera's version : — 

This is a story arising out of the murder of Tu-whakararo, who was 
killed by the people of Te Tihi-o-Manono. Whakatau-potiki did not see 
the murder of his elder brother, but was told all about it by their 
mother Apakura. Whakatau, was a very small man, indeed he was 
likened to a child of very few years. But he was a very learned and 
sacred personage who had acquired a knowledge of all the sacred ritual 
of his people ; he understood all the karahia o te rangi (the ritual of 
Heavenly things— implying a full knowledge such as is expressed in 
our " Memoii's," Vol. III.). He was called Whakatau-potiki in 
oonsequence of his small size {potiki, youngest, or little child). He 
was indeed the youngest child of his parents, and was called also 
Whakatau -punga were were on account of his small size. {Pungor 
werewerej a spider.) 

It was he who avenged the death of his elder brother Tu-whaka- 
raro. When he heard of the death, he urged on his parents, the 
elders, and people of his tribe the necessity of avenging it. He said. 

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** It will be for you adults to do th© figl^ting, as for me I will go with 
you to bail the water out of the canoe,'* he well knowing that his 
own powers would find a means of bringing the delinquents to 
account. All agreed to the proposal ; and then the canoes were 
launched, the party embarked and away they paddled for theh: 
destination. (The Rarotongan version here gives the account of the 
muster of the forces on the beach, 500 in number, the description of 
their arms, and some of the leader's names.) 

After the expedition had started, Whakatau's elders thought he 
had been left behind, for he was nowhere to be seen in tlie canoe. 
But he had reduced himself to the size of a spider (by his supernatural 
powers) and had hidden beneath the carved figure at the bows of the 

So the fleet paddled on until they arrived off the home of their 
enemies. There they met a fleet of canoes belongiug to Te Tihi-o- 
Manoiio, and a great naval battle en6ued, in whicli the latter were 
badly beaten. Wliakatau, rising froui his position, stood in the bows 
of their canoe and did prodigies of valour, aiding ver^'^ largely in the 
discomforture of the emeny. All the enemy's fleet was destroyed 
except one canoe, which escaped owing to its speed, and landed its 
crew on the shore at their home. 

Before leaving their home Wliakatau had said to his mother 
Apakura, " You will not be in ignorance of our proceedings, for you 
will see the flames from Te Tihi-o-Manono reflected on the clouds." 

The defeated people on landing fled to a large house where they 
lived, which house was called Te Tihi-o-Manono, and there they 
assembled together with others who had not taken part in the fight, 
and began to describe the incidents of the battle and why they had 
suffered defeat. They said, **We have all been defeated and many 
are dead. There was one man to whom our defeat was principally 
due, a very small man, not at all as big as an adult." They were 
asked, " How big was he ? such as I am ? " The reciter of the story 
replied, "Not so ! a very tiny little man." Then another man got up 
and asked, ** Was he at all like nie? my size?*.' The others replied, 
" Not a bit like you ; a very small man indeed ; no higher than this 
(showing his height, about four feet or so)." 

Whilst this was going on Whakatau had crept into the house and 
heard all that was said by the tanga-whenua, or people of the place. 
Ho had (by his supernatural powers) decreased his size to that of a 
spider. One of the escapees from the battle seeing Whakatau, called 
out, ** He was just like that thing which sits, in front of me!" 
Whakatau jumped up, knowing that he had been recognised, and 
rushed for the door. In the meantime his companions to the number 
of two hundred had surrounded the house, and as soon as Whakatau 
was outside, they shut and barred the doors and window of the house, 

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Iloies on the Ngaii-Kuia Tribe of the South Island, lt.Z, 123 

and Whakatau-potiki set fire to it. The flames rose up and reddened 
the sky, whilst all inside the house were burnt to death. The glare 
of the fire was seen by Apakura at her distant home, and she at once 
commenced to sing her paen of victory : — 

Ko wai ko te ahi Whose was the fire 

I hunuhunu ai te tau i a au. That burnt, for my loved one ? 

Ko * Uru-taki-nuku,' 'Twas * Uru-taki-nuku * 

Te rama a Whakatau The torch of Whakatau 

I tahuna ai ra, With which was burnt 

Ko Manono-i-te-rangi Manono-in-the-skies 

Te ngakinga i te mate In avenging the death 

No Tu-wliakararo-e. Of Tu-wliakararo, my son. 


Pakauwera's liistory of the feats of the celebrated Polynesian 
hero, Maui, is somewhat bald in comparison with the other accounts 
that have been preserved ; but they are nevertheless worth preserving 
because tlie series differs somewhat from other accounts, and it is by 
the aid of such differences when considered in connection with the 
various versions, that we may finally arrive at their true meaning. 
To this end Mr. Westervelt's collection of the numerous stories 
relating to Maui, published in liis volume, *^Maui, the Demi god,*' will 
render the greatest assistance. There are evidently two heroes of the 
name of Maui, one whom we may distinguish as '*Maui, the Demi 
god," the other as **Maui, the navigator," and it is from the latter 
and his four brotliers that Maoris trace a descent — he flourished 
about fifty generations ago. The other, the Demi god, is vastly more 
ancient, a fact which will be recognised, when it is known that 
some of Maui's feats are to be found in the myths of the Indians, 
Scandinavians and other races. 

The first of Pakauwera's stories of Maui belongs to the more 
ancient series. It is as follows : — 


** Maui's first undertaking was in connection with the Sun and the 
Moon. He separated them off from one another, for the reason that 
had he killed the Moon riglit out, there would have been no light (at 
night). The Sun he also separated that off to give light to all parts, 
and so tliat there should be a distinction between summer and winter, 
and he thus separated them, and bound each one (to its own sphere of 
action)." The old man does not tell ur. the story of Maui's thrasliing 
the Sun to make it go slower, which story I hold to be the mythical 
or emblematic account of the difference in the length of the da^^s 
between a former and a more recent hotne of the Polynesians. The 
modern tlieory about the Moon, as enunciated by Major Dawin, F.R.8., 

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(I think) is that it once formed part of the earth. The Maoris have 
hit upon much the same idea, but substitute the sun for the earth. 


The following story must also be very ancient, and probably 
belongs to that class of myth which has been promulgated by the 
priesthood to conceal some esoteric meaning, of which several instances 
are known among the Polynesians. This is Pakauwera's story : — 

'*Maui and his brother Taraka (Northern Maori, Taranga, who, 
however, is usually said to be Maui's mother) dwelt together, but the 
latter more often lived with his mother. Taraka was a man. As they 
dwelt together in their home, their mother used to prepare food for 
them, and Taraka used to gobble up his food, so that Maui went 
short. On one occasion he said to Taraka, his elder brother, * Let 
us go forth to the pakihi (or open country).' {Pakihi is a South Island 
word for the grass land.) Their mother asked, * Where are you two 
going? ' To which Maui replied, * We are going for a walk.' 

So the brothers went off to the pakihi^ and when they got there 
Maui said, * Let us sit down, for I feel unwell.' After a time Maui 
said to Taraka, * Come and eat,' and he forthwith fed his brother with 
filth, the latter thinking it was proper food. 

After this Maui threw his brother down on the ground, and 
proceeding to transform his appearance, by pulling out his legs, and 
made him a tail, then the arms were lengthened so that they should 
be legs also ; he made the ears erect, lengthened the head and made 
him a wide mouth, until he looked like a dog. Then Maui went to 
one side and called Taraka to come to him, but he would not come. . 
Then Maui whistled, upon which Taraka followed him, . . . and then 
he gave Taraka the name of L:awaru, because he had turned him into 
a dog. 

After Irawara had eaten some more filth, Maui returned home, 
and when his mother asked where his brotlier was, he replied that 
he would shortly return. So the old woman waited a long time, but 
the other son did not appear; she therefore said to Maui, *Your 
brother has not returned.' Maui told her to call him which she did, 
but there was no answer. At last Maui said, * Whistle for him ! " 
This the old woman did, and then the dog appeared, and when she 
saw that lie had been turned into a dog she said, * O you have com- 
pletely spoilt your brother! ' At which Maui burst out laughing." 


The next of old Pakauwera's stories refers to the first discovery of 
fire, and evidently this is very ancient, belonging to the same series as 
the foregoing, or in other words to the times of the first Maui. In our 

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Hoies on the Itgati-Kuia Tribe of the South Island, H.Z. 125 

** Memoirs," Vol. III., p. 178, it is suggested that this legend has 
reference to the discovery of fire from a volcanic outburst. 

The following is the old man's story : — 

"At this period Maui and his relatives lived in a certain house, 
and they were engaged in harvesting the kumara crop. But Maui 
himself remained always in the house (i.e., he did not assist in the 
work). All this time the brethren were indulging in feasts of the 
kumara, but they would not disclose to Maui whence they derived this 
food. Whilst his relations were engaged on this work, Maui was 
wondering where was the road to the place whence the kumara was 
obtained, for his brethren would not disclose it to him, and he could 
not discover it. 

So Maui determined on a scheme by which he might find out all 
about his brethren and his parents' doings. They all slept together in 
one house, but the people always left for their work before daylight, 
leaving Maui asleep. One night he got hold of his mother's maro, or 
waist cloth, and hid it underneath hipi. When she waked up she 
could not find her tnaro and searched all over for it. When Maui saw 
her thus engaged he asked, * What are you looking for ? ' She 
replied, * I can't find my kopa (another name for a maro).^ *Here it is,* 
said Maui, and gave it to his mother. By this time day was breaking 
and things could be seen. Plis mother took the ma/ro and went forth 
from the house. Maui followed her secretly and saw that she 
disappeared into the ground. *This then is the road,' thought 
Maui, and he prepared to follow, first making use of his miraculous 
powers to turn himself into a sparrow-hawk, and then he flew off and 
down the place in the ground where his mother had disappeared, and 
soon discovered his brethren engaged in the work of digging up 
kumaras. Alighting on a tree, Maui imitated the voice of a bird and 
said, * JTo, ko, ho, ko.^ When the people heard this and looked up and 
saw a bird, they decided to kill it to eat ; but do all they could they 
didr not succeed. 

After a time Maui changed himself back into human form and 
joined in the work of digging kumaras, at the same time reciting his 
KokO'kumara, or digging song, thus : — 

Papa, papa te Whatitiri i runga, 

Ko taua tini, ko taua mano, 

Te wai o Huru-makaka, 

Te tohi atu ki te wai o Tu-tau-araia, 

Ka uhiuhia te kakara o Tai-porohe-nui, 

I taku aro. 

Whiua ki te whakarua koia, 

AVhiua ki te whakarua koia. 

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(This is part of a much longer karakia, or invocation, known to 
other tribes. The old man could not explain its meaning ; the trans- 
lation does not afford much light on the matter either. All connected 
with the kumara crop was very sacred. A free translation is : — 
" Crash, crash tlie lound thunder up above, it is the same numbers, 
the same thousands, the waters of Huru-makaka ; perform the rite to 
the waters of Tu-tau-araia, the sweet scent of Tai-porohe-nui 
envelopes me. Cast (or direct) (the prayer) to the North West, 

After Maui had clianged himself into human form, he asked his 
mother, * What is that strange noise I hear?' (i.e., the noise of a 
fire-burning). His mother replied, * What is that to you ? It is 
your ancestor Mahuika.' Maui then said, * Would it not be possible 
for me to go there ? * His mother replied, * Do not attempt it, you 
would be killed by your ancestor Mahuika.' 

Nevertheless, Maui arose and proceeded to find out the source of 
the noise. Arrived there he found the fire of Mahuika burning, so he 
drew near to examine it, and said to Mahuika, * Give me also some 
fire.' So Mahuika gave him some, and Maui started to return. 
Presently he came to a stream, into which he kourua (to thrust, a 
Ngati-kuia word) thrust the fire which was immediately extinguished. 
He then threw some water over himself, so that Mahuika should 
think he had fallen into the stream. On his return to Mahuika, he 
said, * Give me some more fire, that which you gave me went out 
when I fell into the water.' 

By this time Mahuika began to see that he had to do with the 
celebrated individual whose deeds of deceit and daring were the 
common talk of everyone, and he determined to be equal with him, 
so he gave him some fire which would react on "Maui himself and kill 
him. On securing this fire Maui again turned himself into to a 
sparrow hawk and flew off, but as he went some of the fire dropped 
and all the world caught fire, Maui himself getting burnt and barely 
escaping with his life, but succeeded in extinguishing the fire at last, 
by calling on the powers of the heavy rain, the snow, and thunder 
storm. But the seeds of ' the fire of Mahuika ' remains in the trees 
kaikomako, totara and others. (These woods, and certain others, were 
used for procuring fire by friction.) After this Maui took on his 
human form and returned home." 


The following is probably one of the stories relating to the ancient 
Maui, and its meaning is equally obscure at present, but no doubt has 
an esoteric meaning. It may be the description of the catching of 
an alligator during the period the Polynesians dwelt in Indonesia, 

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Notes on the Ngaii-Kuia Tribe of the South Island, lt.Z. 127 

and we know it is about that time that one of the Maui family 
dwelt there. 

** This is another story of Maui's doings. There is a certain thing 
that dwells in the fresh water, which is in the habit of eating men, 
that is, it is a tanhvha (usually described as an immense saurian). 
When any one goes to fetch water, this creature seizes and eats him. 
Its name is Tuna (which is the common name for eel). 

Maui boasted that he could kill this monster ; but every one said 
Le would not be able to do so. To this Maui replied, * It can be done 
\)y laying down skids, and there must be nine of them.' 

So Maui went off with a man whom he pursuaded to accompany 
him, and there they laid down the nine skids leading up from the 
water. Then Maui said to his friend, * When the monster comes, you 
stand at the first, or lower, skid to entice him ; but stand in a careful 
manner, so you are not caught. When it reaches the second skid, 
do the same, and so on to the ninth.' When the man reached the first 
skid, Maui commenced to recite his karaka or incantation, as follows ; — 

Mata tuna ki te rango tuatahi, 

Ko ira i, ko ira i, ko ira i, torowai, 
Mata tuna ki te rango tuarua, 

Ko ira i, ko ira i, ko ira i, torowai, 

and so on repeating a couplet for each skid as the monster ascended, 
until he reached the nintli, and there Maui killed the Tuna." 


Pakauwera's next story of Maui, differs a good deal from that 
ordinarily given, and is difficult to follow, but was evidently told in 
the same words in which he liad been taught. Hine-nui-te-po — The- 
great-lady-of- night (or oblivion) was the presiding goddess in Hades, 
where she ruled with the god Whiro, the embodiment of all evil. 
(See a much fuller account in** Memoirs Polynesian Society," Vol. 
in., p. 144). 

" Then he listened ; and looked also. Maui said unto his mother, 
* What is that which is kamii (the noise of the lips opening and shut- 
ting) there ? ' When next morning came Maui said he would go and 
see. So he and his elder brother Taraka (who was turned into a dog, 
see ante) went off, and reached the side of the dwelling of Hine-nui- 
te-po, where they found the door open. He entered by the (? her) 
Eead, dwelt in the eyes, then the breast ; after all his chest had 
entered, then the arms, and down to the waist, the thighs and the 
legs, when he was laughed at by his companion Taraka, and so it was 
closed (presumably the thighs of Hine-nui-te-po) and thus Maui died. 
11 he had been able to come forth at the other end, mankind would 

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never die, they would have lived fur ever, both Maori and Pakeha 


This last story of Maui has to do with * Maui, the navigotor', as I 
hold, and is the Maori version of the story known to all branches of 
the Polynesians in much the same form, but usually much more 
briefly. Pakauwera says : — 

** The above is the name of tlie fish hook of Maui, with which he 
fished up this island of Te Ika-a-Maui (The-fish-of-Maui, the North 
Island of New Zealand). 

Now Maui dwelt at his home with liis brothers and friends. On 
one occasion he said to them, * Let us all go to sea " (to fish) ; but his 
friends said, *No! we alone will go.' Maui persisted, * Let me go 
also.' The others replied, * No ! you must remain ashore, you will be 
up to some mischief if we let you go.' 

So the others went off to sea leaving Maui at home. They 
returned with an abundance of fish. On another day after this again 
Maui proposed, *Let us all go on to the sea,' but the others gave the 
same answer and left Maui ashore. On another occasion the same 
thing occurred, this time Maui offering to go and bail out the water 
of the canoe. He had prepared bis hooks and lines, which he bad 
concealed in his clothing. But the brothers again refused their 
consent. Then Maui said, * If you let me go I will remain quite still 
and merely watch your proceedings,' and then the others at last 
consented to his accompanying them. 

So they all started and paddled their canoe out a long way to the 
usual fishing ground, and commenced fishing whilst Maui sat looking 
on. After a time the men wished to return home, but Maui said, 
* Give me some of your bait to put on my hook.' But the others 
refused. Maui begged for some bait, but without success. Seeing 
this, Maui drew out his line and hook from under his garments, and 
having tied on some of the flower of the bulrush, with his right hand 
he smote his nose until the blood poured forth, which he smeared 
with his left hand on to the hook. 

So Maui let down his line until it touched the bottom ; at the 
same time the others kept saying, * Let us return ashore,' these words 
being handed backwards and forwards between those in tlie bow and 
those in the stern of the canoe. Maui, who was sitting in the centre 
of the canoe, replied, * Wait ! wait until tlie fish takes my bait.' His 
companions called out, * Be quick then, and let us return ashore.' 
Soon after Maui got a bite ; he began to pull in ; two long and strong 
pulls, and the line became stretched out straight and began to pull 
the canoe after it. The men shouted out, * ! Let go your line ; it is 
an atua-tahae ' (a demon, a monster) but Maui replied, * A ! But this 

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Notes on the ttgaii-Kuia Tribe of the South Island, H.Z. 129 

is the very thing I came out for, I won't lot go ! " And he commenced 
liis karakia as follows : — 

Tina, tina taku aho ! Be firm, be strong, my line, 

Te ihi o te rangi, With strength derived from heaven, 

Ko koe e mau mai na. Thou, who art firmly caught 

Naku ano taku matau i ta ! By this hook of my own making. 

Then was Maui able to pull up his fish, and behold ! it was the 
land. The houses were standing, the dogs barking, people sitting 
and fires burning ! This was Te Ika-a-Maui (North Island of New 
Zealand). * That fish was not hauled up from this (North) Island, 
but from Aropaoa at the north end of the South Island ; and hence is 
the * Kauae-o-Maui ' to be seen near Heretaunga.' " (i.e., the Cape 
south side of Hawke's Bay, where several little islets and rocks 
project from the Cape in a curve, supposed (by the Maoris) to be 
where Maui's hook and line fell. The translation is " Maui's jaw " — 
his fish-hook was made from a jaw-bone.) 

The old man's story of Tawhaki must await until it can be dealt 
with together with others from various parts of the Pacific. 

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By 8. Percy Smith. 

IT is passing strange that all the writers (so far as I know) on the 
subject of the manaia — the many suggestions that have been made 
as to what it is, its origin, and meaning — appear to have overlooked 
the fact that this is a Samoan name for a lizard. The name as applied 
to a lizard is lost in Maori, and (I think) in all other dialects of the 
wide spread Polynesian language. Investigations so far made seem to 
show tliat the Samoans were the first to enter the Pacific and, no 
doubt, they brought the word with them, whilst the later migrations 
have lost the word. 

The manaia is often depicted in Maori carvings as a lizard 
apparently feeding on the ear of the human figure to which it is 
usually attached. Or, it may be, whispering some (? evil) counsel into 
the recipient's ear. Sometimes the manaia has a snake-like appearance 
rather than a lizai'd, and again, it occasionally has a bird-like head. 

This is not, however, intended to be a dissertation on the manaia, 
about whicli mucli might be said ; but rather to call attention to a 
drawing to be found in the " Journal of the Royal Anthropological 
Institute," Vol. XL VI., page 440, wliere we see a coiled snake with 
large head feeding, or at any rate touching the ear of a human figure, 
precisely as we see it in Maori carvings. I quote below the story of 
this picture as given by the Hon. John Abercrombie, F.S.A., Scot.: — 
He says, '* Among the few letters of Miss Blair preserved in the 
Royal Scottisli Museum is an envelope containing a photograpli, a 
reproduction of which is given by Figs, B.C. The envelope is docketed 
outside as follows: .... * photos of the Queen of Sheba's idols that 
are in the Museum at Bombay (I think) ; were found near Aden wlien 
repairing the dam built by the Queen of Sheba in recognition of the 
benefits she liad received from her visit to King Solomon.' It was 
afterwards ascertained that this sculpture was not in the Bombay or 
Calcutta Museu!!!." 

The accompanying plate is taken from the picture on page 440 of 
the work quoted, but the picture itself on that page is by no means 

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(Copied from the ** Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute," 
Vol. XLVI., p. 440.) 

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Mote on the Manaia in Maori Carvings, 131 

clear, sa it cannot be said for certain whether the figure with the snake 
attached is male or female. It is possible the " idol " is intended to 
represent the Biblical account of the temptation of Eve prior to the 
expulsion of Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden. There are marks 
on the chin of the principal figure that may be taken . for tattoo ; a 
primitive form of tlie Maori and Egyptian kauae, or cliin pattern of 

The smaller double figures in the picture has a considerable 
resemblance to figures carved on the Fox pataka in the Auckland 
Museum, and a drawing of which is also to be seen in Bulletin No. 6, 
p. 18, Dominion Museum. The attitude is very much the same, and is 
that of copulation. 

Aden (surely the most barren looking place on earth), where Queen 
Sheba's " idol" is said to have been found, is in the ancient " Land of 
*Saba," the southern corner of Arabia ; and it is from this country the 
late Judge Fomander, of Hawaii, in his book, " The Polynesian Race," 
claims that the Polynesians originated. He has been followed by 
others, as the late Judge Fen ton and Lieut. -Col. Gudgeon ; but, as I 
have stated in " Hawaiki," I do not think the traditionary evidence 
places the original Fatherland so far to the west. 

The similarity in apparent motif of the Maori manaia and the 
Queen of 8heba's " idol," is well worth following up. 

The three pictures in the same publication (Plates XXV-XXVII) 
originating from the same locality, show an "idol" that is somewhat 
like the Easter Island type of face, etc. 

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By the Ven. Abchdeacon H. W. Williams, b.a. 
jnnBLLiNaTON, n.z., ooyebnment pbintino office. 

WE are very glad to welcome this fifth edition of ** Willi am s' 
Maori Dictionary," tlie first edition of which was compiled by 
the late Bishop W. Williams at Paihia Mission Station, Bay of 
Islands, in 1844, followed by a second edition in 1852. The third and 
fourth editions were hy Bishop W. L. Williams of Waiapu, in 1871, 
1892, and now we have the fifth edition by the latter's son. 
Archdeacon H. W. Williamg. We heartily congratulate the Archdeacon 
on the successful termination of his fifteen years* labour during his 
spare time, the last year being devoted entirely to this work. 

The present work (which is ** edited under the auspices of the 
Polynesian Society") is a Maori-English Dictionary, while the former 
editions included also an English-Maori part. As showing the large 
accumulation of additional matter in the latest edition, the fourth 
edition consisted of 236 pages, while the new one has 586 pages, with 
(approximately) 24,000 meanings of words, many meanings of course 
often being attached to one word. 

Many Maori scholars have contributed their collections of words to 
this edition, and from all pai-ts of New Zealand, so that the work 
represents that part of Polynesian speech spoken in New Zealand 
more fully than auy previous edition. But, notwithstanding the help 
the author has thus received, he would be the last to say that all 
Maori speech has been included. There are a great number of 
obsolete words embodied in the ancient poetry and karakias (or 
incantations, prayers, charms, etc., etc.) the meanings of which can at 
present only be guessed at ; and these, as a rule, have been excluded 
in the work before us. 

We always understood that the late Alexander Shand had compiled 
and forwarded to the author, a fairly complete vocabulary of the 
Moriori dialect of the Chatham Islands ; but it does not appear in tliis 
volume. There were probably good reasons for excluding it ; but at 
the same time the publication of such a vocabulary would have a good 
deal of importance in helping to solve the origin of that people, which, 
though satisfactorily explained in our ** Memoirs," Vol. IV., so far as 
the writer is concerned, may not be so to others. 

Archdeacon Williams has supplied abundant examples of the use 
of each word in the Maori language, but few of these are translated j 
to do so would have occupied a large space, though useful to the 
learner. And the authorities of the quotations are generally given. 

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Reviews, 133 

In order to form some idea of the number oL meanings — not 
separate words — in the Dictionary, the following comparison with 
other dictionaries of the Polynesian language, is given. But such 
numbers are only a rougli approximation : — 

Maori Dictionary . . 586 pages — about 24,000 meanings. 

Hawaiian Dictionary . . 513 pages — about 12,000 meanings. 

Samoan Dictionary . . 286 pages — about 16,000 meanings. 

Marquesan Dictionary 192 pages — about 15,000 meanings. 

Tongan Dictionary . . 206 pages — about 13,000 meanings. 

Tahitian Dictionary . . 292 pages — about 9,000 meanings. 

Fijian Dictionary . . 170 pages — about 8,500 meanings. 

In many of the above Dictionaries the causative form of the 
verb is given which tends to increase the number of words, while the 
Maori Dictionary only gives those in which sucli causative alters the 
meaning of tlie word, and thus the comparison is all in favour of 
showing that a larger number of distinct words and meanings have 
been collected for the Maori branch of the language than tlie others. 

The new Dictionary is certainly an advance on its predecessors and 
will prove of extreme use to Maori scholars. It is to be obtained 
from the Government Printer, Wellington. Price 208., post free in. 
the Dominion. 


WE have also received from the Dominion Museum, Bulletin 
No. 5, ** Maori Storehouses and Kindred Structures," by 
Elsdon Best, of the Museum Staff, Wellington. Govt. Printer, 1916. 

The work appears to be fairly exhaustive of the subject, though 
the Director of the Museum, Dr. J. Allan Thompson, states in the 
preface, **In spite of the efforts made to exhaust the subject, it 
has already been found tliat the publication of such a monograph as 
that on the stone implements only serves to open up fresh sources of 
information, and it will be necessary in the future to publish 
supplementary papers in some suitable form." 

Mr. Best quotes his authorities, but we may be sure that a large 
part of the matter herein recorded is derived from his own intimate 
knowledge of Maori life and customs. The work is well illustrated 
with photographic illustrations, and the 103 pages give full descrip- 
tions of the various kinds of buildings used as storehouses. 

Why does our old colleague use the abomination of double vowels 
to express stress on, or for long vowels, as, for instance in aha kaaiiy 
instead of alca Jcdl ? The future philologist will surely see in suck 
casea the dropping of a consonant, and spell the words aka kakaiki \ 

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By H. D. Skinner, d.c.m. 

THE most notable collections of Maori material in English 
museums visited by the writer are those of the British Museum, 
the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge University, 
the Liverpool Museum, and the Rosehill (Lord Northesk's) Collection, 
now on loan at the Tudor House, Southampton. Scarcely to be 
distinguished from these iu importance are the collections at the 
Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, the Bristol Museum, the 
Hancock Museum, Newcastle, and the Royal Museum, Canterbury. 
But there is hardly a provincial museum that has not some Maori 
things, and they are often extremely rare and beautiful pieces. In 
general tlie objects in British museums are small and light, a quality 
arising out of the necessities of travellers and explorers. I have not 
seen anywhere a really large piece of carving. For the same reason 
the collections of stone implements and weapons, excepting greenstone, 
are small and uninteresting. Where British collections excel is in the 
smaller articles of wood, and in objects made from bone and 

On the whole the most notable feature of all these collections is the 
fish-hooks. The field collector in New Zealand is familiar with 
endless series of the bone points of fish-liooks found on beaches and 
on ancient village sites. As to the shape of the wooden shanks to 
which they were attached, as to the angle a.^ which they were set, and 
all else about them, he is very much in the dark. The student may 
learn a good deal from the fish-hooks in the Auckland Museum, but 
for final light on many points he will have to visit Great Britain. 
Perhaps the most perfect fish-hook was seer, in the Royal Museum at 
Canterbury. The shank, which is about four inches long, is of whale 
bone and is phallic. The bone point is barbed and has for bait-knob 
a tiny manaia head, exquisitely finished. In the Hancock Museum 
there is a set of five fish-hooks cut from shells. Each is attached by a 
line a few inches long to a stick notched as in sketch. I do not know the 
purpose of the apparatus. The stick is too small and weak to be a rod. 

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Maori and other Polynesian Material in British Museums. 135 

Pendants made of whale tooth, the point of the tooth cai-ved to 
represent the head of a fish, may be seen at the British Museum. 
There is a very fine example in the Hancock Museum. This type is 
extremely rare in New Zealand collections and its name and 
significance do not seem to have been recorded. Judging from pictures 
the type must have been common in Cook^s time. 

Wlii sties and flageolets are extremely common. A bone whistle in 
the British Museum is ornamented with a lifelike etching of a lizard, 
calling to mind the lizard carved on a bone - box in the Auckland 
Museum. A Maori whistle of whale ivory in Mr. Edge-Partington*s 
collection has the rich yellow colour that arises from coconut oil. It 
was purchased in Fiji. In the same collection is a Fijian club 
ornamented with Maori carving, likewise purchased in Fiji. Similar 
clubs in the British Museum, the County Museum, Truro, and the 
Canterbury Museum, New Zealand, has given rise to the theory that 
there is a hill tribe in Fiji, whose decorative art is an exact parallel to 
that of the Maoris. Mr. Edge- Partington holds the simpler theory of 
a Maori resident in Fiji. A very beautiful whistle in wood is in Mr. 
Fuller's private collection, and an equally fine one, with dogskin loop 
and ornament, is in the Hancock Museum. Flageolets are common, 
but are not so well designed nor so beautifully decorated as the 
wliistles. Of wooden trumpets there is a short example (36 inches) 
in the Hancock Museum, and a splendid example, upwards of six feet 
in length, in the Liverpool Museum. Tlie bell of this specimen 
is double, and the flax binding is ornamented with tassels of dogs' 
hair. The best shell trumpet noted is in the Museum of the Yorkshire 
Philosophical Society at York. It has a carved wooden mouth-piece, 
which is attached to the sliell by flax binding. It has a flax cord for 

Carved feather- boxes are very numerous. The largest collection of 
them is, of course, at the British Museum. The most perfect example 
and, in the opinion of the writer, the finest achievement of the Maori 
artist in that kind that has been preserved, is in the collection of Mr. 
A. W. Fuller, at Sydenliam Hill. In this box mastery in design and 
consummate skill in execution unite to form what would have been 
acclaimed a masterpiece in any age or country. Hardly below this 
box in merit, but of entirely different design, is one which is the pride 
of Baron A. von Hugel at the Cambridge University Museum of 
Archaeology and Ethnology. The design liere is of remarkable ' 
boldness, contrasting with the example previously mentioned, which is 
lacelike in effect. There is a beautifully carved lid with more modern 
body in the Eoyal Scottish Museum at Edinburgh. This example has 
a small piece of greenstone inlaid. Another example, the location of 
which I cannot recall, has inlaid a piece of whale ivory. The largest 
box seen, and certainly one of the finest, is in Mr. Edge- Partington's 

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collection, and has been figured in ** Man." There are some good 
examples in the hands of dealers. An unusually large example I was 
shown was priced at £100. 

As is to be expected, the British Museum has much the largest 
and finest collection of greenstone. The tikis include one in which the 
full-face human figure is carved on both sides. The well-known tiki, 
with a split head (sometimes described as double-headed) proved on 
examination to be a hybred .between hei-tiki (breast-pendant) and 
matau ffish-hook). The tikis of the Northesk collection are a particularly 
fine lot, but do not include any rare types. The British Museum has 
recently acquired by purchase a part of the John White collection 
made in the neighbourhood of Dunedin. Tlie purchase includes a 
number of greenstone diisels and gouges. The tikis of this collection, 
about twenty in number, are now on loan at the Bristol Museum la 
the Northesk collection at Southampton there is a fine greenstone adze, 
about seventeen inches in length, ornamented with the notches 
generally found on toki-potitangata. 

Carved paddles are much more numerous in British collections 
than in New Zealand. Those at the British Museum and in the 
Northesk collection are specially worthy of mention. The canoe sail 
at the British Museum is, I believe, unique, and deserves to be 
figured and described. Model canoes are very common, but none 
appear to be made to scale. A very fineljr carved ko step (or foot -rest 
on a spade) is in the Eoyal Museum at Canterbury. Of larger pieces 
of wood carving only two pieces call for mention. One of them is the 
extremely interesting trapezoid figurehead, of nothern type, in the 
British Museum, figured in ** Maori Art," and in " Man." In this piece 
the manaia forms have degenerated so far that they bear a superficial 
resemblance to elephants. The second is a cai-ved lintel now in the 
Horniman Museum. This is perforated in tlie manner common at 
Rotorua and further north, and is an unusually fine specimen. 

There are some good flax mats on view at the Royal Scottish 
Museum, and an interesting section at the British Museum. A hand 
net for fisliing, of rai'e type, is in the Museum at Bath, and is 
decaying through neglect. 


The Britisli Museum has a large and most important collection 
•from tlie Chatham Islands, derived largely from the Meinerzhagen 
collection. The bone objects indicate a close affinity with the Otago 
region in New Zealand. There is a whalebone patu, with a very 
deeply sorated edge, and having a realistically carved bird*s head at 
the butt. The adzes are numerous and interesting. In the Northesk 
collection are four small Moriori adzes. The Pitt-Rivers Museum, 
Oxford, has three bone fish-hooks. The Museum of Archseology and 

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Maori and other Polynesian Material in British Museums. 137 

Ethnology at Cambridge has some patus. In the private collection of 
Mr. Hodgson, Curator of the Museum, Plymouth, are a few interesting 
pieces, including two half -finished okewas. 


For all this region the British Museum collection completely 
eclipses the rest. Perhaps the most interesting class of objects are the 
wooden human figures from Easter Island. These show a remarkable 
likeness to the Moriori rendering in wood of the human figure, a 
likeness which in itself would amount to proof of some genetic 
connection. The Easter Island fish-hooks in Mr. Fuller's collection 
are closely allied to the fish-hooks of the Otago region in New 
Zealand. Material from the Hawaiian Islands is scarce, and the same 
may be said of the Marquesas. The carved paddles from Mangaia and 
High Island are very common, as are the well-known decorated adze 
handles of the same region. Of these there are many splendid 
examples still in the dealer's hands. 


Again the British Museuna is in the lead. The collection from this 
area of the Pacific, now at Cambridge, is very full and very important. 
There is much material in private collections and in the hands of tlie 


American material is well represented at the British Museum, but 
is scanty in all other museums visited. The only people who sliow any 
trace of Polynesian influence, so far as the writer has been able to 
observe, are the Haida. The material culture of these people shows 
some close, and entirely unexpected, resemblance to that of the 
Maoris. Light on this at present obscure problem may be expected 
from Mr. Ling Eoth's forthcoming papers on looms and methods of 
weaving, the first instalment of which was published in the ** Journal 
of the Eoyal Anthropological Institute,'* Vol. XL VI. 

In conclusion it may be stated that the writer is engaged on the 
compilation of lists of oil Maori objects on exhibition in British 
Museums. The lists are complete for a number of museums, and are 
on record at the Dominion Museum, Wellington. It is hoped that the 
census thus begun will be of service to the students of the future. 

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By George Graham. 

FOR some years past I have been striving to get some further 
evidence in connection with the above legend. 
In "Transactions New Zealand Institute," Vol. XXII., p. 140, 
will be found Major Wilson's article, wliich gives several watatas (or 
songs) ably translated, and supplemented by a note from Mr. Tregear. 
Some doubt was subsequently cast on the authenticity of the stone 
relic which the article by Major Wilson described {viiU "Proceedings," 
Vol. XXII., p. 522). These doubts never appeared to be cleared up — 
perhaps they never will be now. 

My enquiries have not resulted in anything that will shed any 
further light on the history of the stone relic said to be the identical 
object which was lost in ancient time, and lamented for in several 
watatas. However, the legend is undoubtedly of great antiquity. I 
have heard it recited in varying form (as is usual in all folk lore) 
among the Waikato, Hauraki, Kaipara and Arawa people. The 
tradition does not seem to be known in the far north and" far south, 
and I am inclined to believe it is of * Tainui ' origin. 

A version of the waiata for Korotangi was sung for me by Noka 
Hukanui, an aged man of the Awataha settlement in Shoal Bay, 
Auckland. He claims descent from * Tainui ' crew and Waiohua tribe 
of these parts, and asserts that this was the form in which he had 
heard the toaiata for Korotangi sung by the old people of Waitemata 
and Waikato : — 

He waiata tenei mo te rironga o te manu ko Korota : — 

Kaore te aroha o takii nei manu 

Titoko tonu ake i te aliiahi 

Ka tomo ki te whare taku ate kau ai 

Tirohia iho, e hiiie, ma, ki te parera e tere atu na 

Ehara tena he manu Maori. Me tikina 

Me titiro ki te huruburu whakairoiro mai no tawhiti. 

Kei whea Korotau ka ngaro nei P 

Tena ka riro, kei te kato kai 

I te rail pohata nga whakangaeore. 

£ waiho ana koe hei tiaki whare 

He korero taua ki taku taumata. 

I koparea pea koe ki te huahua 

Pohewahewa mai no Rotorna. 

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The Legend of the Koroiangi. 139 

This is a lament for the loss of the bird Korota : — 

Operwhelmiug is my affection for my bird 

It prepossesses my soul's deepest depths at eventide 

When I enter my house ; and causes my heart to throb. 

Look ! oh daughters, at the duck which swims away yonder. 

That is indeed no common bird. Bring it and 

Observe its plumage ornamented abroad in distant parts. 

Oh where is Korotau lost ? 

He has departed — to pluck food 

From the leaves of the pohata (sow thistle) 

With (his) deep thrusting bill. 

You were left to guard the home 

So that the hostile war-party might have cause to spe^k 

of my hill-top home. 
Perhaps you turned your eyes away to the preserved birds 
From Rotorua, causing you to stray from here. 

In explanation of the waiata, Noka's wife gave me the following 
legend extant among her people, the Ngati-Kahukoka and Ngati- 
Te-Ata tribes (Manukau district). These tribes claim descent from 
* Tainui ' crew, and also from the ancient Waiohua tribe : — 

** There was a man in olden times who came here in * Tainui.' He 
settled in Manukau. He went to see his relatives at Kawhia, and 
married a female relative of that place. His name was forgotten 
when I was a child ; my mother had forgotten it. Whilst he lived 
with his wife at Kawhia he went one day to catch fish by trailing the 
hook behind his canoe. He caught a bird on the hook, and drew in 
the line, intending to kill the bird. When, however, he saw the 
beauty of its plumage, he brought it home and kept it as a pet in a 
hut which he built for it, feeding it on the best of all foods he could 
procure, even feeding it on the much desired htiahua (birds preserved 
in fat). Now his wife thought his idea very foolish, and that much 
good food was being wasted ; especially as the bird was of no use — 
it was a mere ornament. So whenever her husband was absent 
fishing or hunting she shewed her illwill and teased the bird. She 
ate the hiiahua, and other good foods her husband had set aside for her 
to give the bird, which bird was a Korotangi. The bird fretted at its 
illtreatment and managed to escape — perhaps the woman let it go so 
that there might be no more waste of food, and that her husband 
might then devote more attention to her and his other duties. She 
wished herself to eat the huahua, which her people obtained in 
exchange from other tribes. She did not wish the bird to get any, for 
htiahua was scarce, and came from distant parts — from the Arawa 
tribe — in exchange for the fine mats and garments her people made in 
Kawhia. When the husband returned he went to g^eet his pet bird 
Korotangi, but he found it had gone. He asked his wife where 
Korotangi was. She replied, *He has gone; he escaped and has 

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swum away out to sea to the home from wheuce you caught him and 
"brought him/ So he went to seek his bird. In vain he went to the 
hill-top near their fortified village to scan the face of the ocean. In 
vain he went far out to sea in his canoe. He never again found 
Korotangi. All he found was some feathers it had shed on the ocean. 
So he brought the feathers home and wept over them, and composed 
the foregoing waiata for Korotangi. He made a carved box to hold 
them. Then his wife's people told him how his wife had purposely let 
the pet escape after illtreating it ; how she fed it on pohata leaves 
only, whilst she ate the foods he had provided. Then he became 
distressed and left his wife. He journeyed homeward to his place at 
Manukau, alid lived there until extreme old age. He sorrowed for his 
bird, and when he opened the carved box to gaze on the feather relics 
he wept and sang the toaiata. When he died he was interred with the 
carved box and his feather relics, for that was the custom in ancient 
times. His bones were afterwards sent to his people at Kawhia, also 
the box of feathers. They were all made up in a bundle {pute) and 
smeared over with red ochre, hence the name of that place at Kawhia 
called *Te Pute,' which belongs to Ngati-Apakura tribe." 

The expression "Korotangi " is still used as a term of endearment, 
or as a simile for any object treasured or loved. A mother lamenting 
the death of a child will, in her lament, refer to her lost one as her 
** Korotangi." * No doubt the simile has its origin in the above 
tradition, which also seems to be a feasible explanation of the waiata. 
It certainly explains the reference to the eating of the pohata leaves 
and the htuihua from Kotorua, as well as the allusion to the taumata 
(hill-top or ridge). 

The variations * korota ' and * korotau ' are undoubtedly the result 
of what we would call poetic license ; they are only used in waiatas, 

Noka said the waiata was, and still is, sung as a funeral lament 
{tangt\ and I myself have so heard it sung, with various additions 
suitable to the special occasion. This custom accounts for the varying 
forms of most Maori songs and proverbs. 

It is, of course, possible that a stone relic known as " Korotangi " 
was brought in the * Tainui ' canoe. Perhaps the pet bird was called 
Korotangi because of such tradition brought from Hawaiki, and then 
extant in reference to a similar bird. The question has some 
connection with the problem of the " Whence of the Maori," 
especially if there are any South Sea Island myths which can now 
be traced to a common oiigin. Here is a chance for the Polynesian 
scholar to make some useful research. 

* Korotangi appears an a place name at Mahnrangi, said to be a pa of Maki*s 
people there. 

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On the 24th September, 1917, a Meeting of the Council was held at the 
Library, when there were present: The President, and Messrs. Newman, 
W. W. Smith and Roy. Apologies were received from Messrs. Fraser and 

After dealing with correspondence, the following members were elected : — 
0. A. Wilkinson, M.P., Eltham. 
F. W. Platts, Resident Commissioner, Rarotonga. 

Also as corresponding members : — 

His Excellency, M. Julian, Governor of French Oceania, Tahiti. 
The Rev. Pere Herve Audranj Paumotu Islands. 

The following papers were received : — 

Maori Mummies. By £. Tregear. 

The Language of Uvea, Loyalty Island. By. E. Leverd. 
Some Oceanic Color Names By F. W. Christian. 
Traditions and Legends, Murihiku. By H. Beattie. 

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(the great harbour OF TARA) or port NICHOLSON 


By Elsdon Best. 

4 BOUT the time that the Norse seafarers were exploring the new 
-^^^ found coasts of far Vinland, the Harbour of Tara lay lone and 
silent in the south land. From the storm lashed cape of the far 
north to the rugged island outposts of the south, the smokeless lands 
awaited the coming of man. The far stretching forests, the lakes, 
rivers and seas, the plains, vales and mountains, were occupied only 
by the offspring of Tane and Tangaroa, of Punaweko and Hurumanu» 
The fair isles of the south had, through countless centuries, slowly 
ripened for occupation by man ; man the destroyer, and man the 

The story of the discovery and settlement of Port Nicholson, or 
Wellington Harbour, is closely connected with that of the discovery 
and settlement of New Zealand by Polynesians, hence we give a brief 
account of those happenings, both due to the energy and skill in 
navigation of the old-time Polynesian voyagers. In most cases we 
are able to assign an approximate date for historical occurrences 
connected with the Maori Tradition, but in regard to the time of the 
discovery of these isles we are at fault, for apparently no reliable 
genealogy from the discoverers has been preserved. From other 
evidence, however, we can assume that such discovery was made not 
less than forty generations ago, or say the tenth century. 

The first voya,gers to reach these isles are said to have been two 
small bands of adventurers from Eastern Polynesia, who, under the 
chiefs Kupe and Ngahue (also known as Ngake), reached these 
shores in two vessels, probably outrigger canoes, named *Matahorua^ 

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144 JmmiiL 9F THE MLfWEVU ttdEU. 

ud'Taviri-ia^' We an told tlwt Kiqw was Moanpttiied b j his 

wile aad diOdmi, aad tids is probabfy 
eoireci, for the Poljaiaisa l uja g mfc aften 
earned dMir wobmb folk witii tiiem on 
._l^^^ deep sea Tojages, even as Maori women 

aeeoapaaied dMir sen on war expe- 
ditioBS. Tlie wile <rf Knpe, one Apaiaagi bj aaae, was a grand- 
Aum^ktifw of Ponpaka, iHiein tradition daims to haTe been a funoos 
and bold narigatory tlioagk tnditian daims too mndi for him when it 
dabs him the lint deep-eea aailar, lor at that period the Pofynesiaas 
had sailed far and wide athwait the great PiMifie Ocean. However, it 
is weD to extol one's own ^ w ^^^ miA mm . Pnt of the tradition reads: — 
*'It was Po^aka who began saifing abroad on the ocean, when all 
odMEB feared to do so on aeeonnt <rf dMir dread of Tkw hirimate a and 
his offspring (penonified fonw ol winds% henee the Mlowing aaying 
became fnnoos:— < Tktmmmim Tmtkinmatm, whmHtww mm Aiydbs,' 
as also dds:— < Ate U m um m um m, km Urt Pmtf^km iUwru tm? " 

The stoij of the coming ol Ki^ is encmsted with myth, and 
there are several versions as to the cause ol his coming. One of tiiese 
vernons is to the e&ct that his danghter Pnnamkn was dain while 
bathing at Wai-o-Bongo, at Barotonga, where die was attadced and, 
as our i^rthopoetic Maori pots it 'carried off to Tai-whetoki,' the 
house of deadi. Kiqw punned the monster who had shun his 
danghter across far ocean ^aces untfl he finalfy caught and slew him. 
at Tiia-hiwi-nm-o-M<Ao, in Q^xk. Straits, aaeisted bj his nephew 
Mahakiroa. Othen who aasisted him were his rdativee Tipna, 
Kajponn, Awa-pornm, Te Awa-i-tsia, Mam-hangahanga, Mara- din, 
Han-pnhi, and his attendants Komako-hna, P<^ioCi and AhorikL The 
following taUe diows the position ol persons mentioaed in this 
tradition in regard to Kiq»e. It was giv«i by Te Matorohanga* of 
Wai-rar^ia, and shows Matin and Makaro as niecee <rf Kope, instead 
of danghten as tiliey a|^ear in anothw versicni : — 

• Tliii is tlie • S«ge ' <tf ov KeaMOis. Vol. m. aad IV.— Bnnttt. 

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The Land of Tara. 





II . 







-I J 
























It ia unnecessary to give the full account of the voyage of Kupe^ 
and Ngahue from Eastern Polynesia to Aotearoa, as he named New 
Zealand ; we will confine ourselves to that part of it that affects the 
Wellington district. Kupe was a chief who possessed interests in 
three different islands, for his father belonged to Hawaiki, by which 
name the island of Tahiti seems to have been known, his mother was 
a native of Barotonga, while his maternal grandfather was of 
Bangiatea, now called Ba'iatea (one of the Society Islands). 

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After a weary voyage across the southern oceau, one day a low 
hung cloud attracted attention. Quoth Kupe, '' I see a cloud on the 
horizon line. It is a sign of land." His wife cried, ^^ He ao! He ao ? " 
(A cloud ! A cloud !) That cloud betokened the presence of land, rest 
and refreshment for cramped and sea racked voyagers. The two 
vessels made the land in the far north, where the crews remained for 
some time, after which they continued their voyage down the east 
<X)ast of the North Island. On the way down Kupe named Aotea 
island (the Gh'eat Barrier), and the mainland was named Aotearoa, 
after the white cloud greeted by his wife Hine Te Aparangi {ao tea = 
white cloud). The longer name may thus be rendered as Greater 
Aotea, or Long, or Great Aotea. When Kupe returned to Hawaiki 
from these isles, the people asked him : — " Why did you caU the new 
found land Aotearoa, and not Irihia or Te Hono-i-wairua, after the 
homeland our race originated in? " But Kupe replied : — **I preferred 
the warm breast to the cold one, the new land to the old land long 

Our voyagers stayed a while at Castle Point (Bangi-whakaoma) 
and then came on to Palliser Bay, where they remained for some time 
to refit, at a place called Te Matakitaki-a-Kupe, so named by his 
daughter Hine-uira, because, from a rock at that place, Kupe looked 
upon the South Island and Mt. Tapuae-nuku {matalcitaki == to inspect, 
look at). In a saltwater pool at Te Kawakawa Kupe is said to have 
kept two kinds of fish known as kahaparu and ngongopuni. We are 
told that Kupe left Rere-whakaaitu at this place, Matauranga at 
Turaki-rae, Kahukura-a-tai at the entrance to the Whanga-nui-a-Tara, 
and Matiu and Makaro within the harbour, while he went on to the 
South Island after exploring Wellington Harbour. All these folk 
gave their names to the places they were left at, which probably 
means that places were named after them, and not necessarily that 
they lived or camped at all of them. 

Our seafarers now came on from Palliser Bay, and entered the 
harbour, landing at Seatoun, the foreshore of which place is known 
as the Turanga-o-Kupe, possibly so named from the fact that the sea 
rover was hurt against a rock when bathing at the Pinnacle Rock, 
known as the Aroaro-o-Kupe. While encamped at this place Matiu 
and Makaro are said to have named the two islands. Somes and Ward, 
after themselves. Rocks in the sea at Sinclair Head and Tongue 
Point are said to have been named Mohuia and Toka-haere after two 
of the daughters of Kupe. 

Hori Ropiha, of Napier, remarks that Kupe and Ngake (Ngahue) 
distributed their children all round Aotearoa. Their food was wind 
alone, and in these days those folk bear the aspect of rocks. The 
following lines from an old song referto these occurrences : — 

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The Land of Tara. 147 

** He uri au no Kupe, no Ngake 

E tuha noa atu ra kia pau te whenua 

Te hurihuri ai ko Matin, ko Makaro." 

The Maori, with his mythopoetic mind, would not state baldly that 
certain places, rocks, islets, etc., were named after these personages. 

Hori goes on to relate the old myth that Kupe left here the 
obstructions to travellers by land, such as the ongaonga (nettle, Urtica 
/ero»)y the tumatakuru {Discaria toumatou), and papaii {Aciphylla), which 
were burned in after times by Tamatea of Takitumu, an immigrant 
from the Society Group. Again we refer to a reference in song : — 
** Nga taero ra nahau, e Kupe ! 
I waiho i te ao nei." 

(The obstructions there, by thee, O Kupe ! left in the world.) 

Another old loc€d myth is to the effect that our harbour was at one 
time a lake in which dwelt two monsters named Ngake and Whataitai 
{syn. Hataitai, the native name of Miramar peninsula). These two 
beings attempted to force their way out of the harbour. Ngake 
succeeded by forming the present entrance, but Whataitai failed in a 
similar attempt at Evans Bay. Hence he assumed the form of a bird 
and betook himself to the summit of Tangi-te-keo (Mt. Victoria), 
where his shrieks were plainly heard. 

In the quaint conceit in which the North Island is called Te Ika-a- 
Maui (Fish of Maui), Wellington Harbour is styled the right eye of 
the fish, and Wai-rarapa Lake the left eye. 

Leaving Wellington Harbour our seafarers moved on to Sinclair 
Head, where they camped for some time in ordor to lay in a stock of 
sea stores in the form of dried fish and shellfish, for which that place 
has ever been famed in Maori annals. Here also they procured 
quantities of rimurapa (i)' Urvillea utilis), the great wide stems of 
which they utilised as vessels ( pohd) in which to store and carry their 
dried foods, a use to which this giant seaweed was frequently put by 
the Maori. It was on this account that the party named Sinclair 
Head Te Eimurapa. The point near this head known to us as the 
Ked Rocks is called Pari-whero, or Red Cliff by natives, on account of 
the peculiar colour of the slate rock in that vicinity. Here are two 
old myths concerning the origin of such redness. One is a somewhat 
prosaic one, namely that Kupe had his hand clamped by a paua 
{Haliotis) so severely that the flowing blood stained the surrounding 
rocks, as also the ngdkihi (limpet. Patella) of the adjacent waters. The 
other version sounds better, and is to the effect that Kupe left his 
daughters at this place while away on one of his exploring trips. He 
was away so long that the maidens began to mourn for him as lost to 

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the world of life. They lacerated themselves after the manner Maori, 
even so that the flowing blood stained the rocks of Pari-whero for ever. 

Moving on from Sinclair Head the rovers stayed a while at 
Owhariu, and then went on to Porirua Harbour. While at this place 
one of Kupe*s daughters is said to have found on the beach at the 
northern side of the entrance a stone higly suitable for a canoe anchor, 
hence it was placed on board ' Matahorua' to be used for that purpose. 
This stone anchor was named Te Huka-a-tai because such is the name 
of the kind of stone it was composed of. On account of this occurrence 
Kupe left one of his stone anchors at Porirua ; one named Maungaroa 
because he had brought it from a place named Maungaroa at 
Earotonga in the Cook Gh'oup. This anchor is said to have been 
carefully preserved for centuries, and is now in the Dominion Museum, 
Wellington. Long years ago old Karehana Wliakataki of Ngati-Toa 
conducted the writer to a spot near, and on the eastern side of the 
railway line at Paremata, a few hundred yards north of the bridge, 
and there showed him Kupe's anchor. It is a heavy and unwieldly 
waterwom block of greywacke, of a weight that casts a doubt on the 
assertion that it was used as a canoe anchor, certainly it could not be 
handled on any single canoe. A smooth faced hole through one 
corner of it is said to have been where the cable was attached, but it 
bears no sigh of human workmanship. This change of anchors is said 
to have been the origin of the name Porirua, but the statement is by 
no means clear. We know of no meaning of tlie word pori that throws 
any light on the matter. 

The voyagers went to Mana Island, ofP Porirua Heads, where 
Mohuia suggested that the island should be so named as a token of 
the maim (authority, etc.) of the voyagers, which was agreed to. This 
name origin is by no means clear, for the name of the island is 
pronounced Man^, whereas in the other word both vowels are 
short, mdndy and the correct rendering of vowel lengths is most 
essential in Maori. A point or headland at Ea'iatea island is known as 
Mana, and it may be thought that the name is a transferred one that 
has been corrupted, but this seems doubtful. A native writer, 
however, seriously enough, gives the island name as Manaa to show 
that the final vowel is long, but as this method of denoting long 
vowel sounds is never consistently followed by any native, we are still 
in doubt concerning the first syllable. 

From Mana Island the explorers crossed Cook Straits, went down 
the West Coast of the South Island, and, at Arahura, discovered 
greenstone, a very important occurrence in Maori history, of such 
value was that hard and tough stone to them in the manufacture of 
implements. Here also at Arahura the explorer Ngahue is said to 
have slain a moa at or near a waterfall in the river. On his return 

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The Land of Tara. 149 

home to Hawaiki he reported that the most remarkable products of 
Aotearoa were greenstone (nephrite) and the moa. 

The explorers coasted botli islands ere they left on tlieir return 
voyage, but these further adventures do not concern our harbour 
story. On his return Kupe visited Earotonga, Hangiatea, Tonga, 
Tawhiti-nui, and Hawaiki, that is Titirangi, Whangara, Te Pakaroa, 
and Te Whanga-nui-o-Marama, and at these places gave an account 
of his voyage, and of the moisture laden land he had discovered at 
tiritiri o te moanay that is, in the great expanse of the southern ocean. 
Here Kupe the voyager passes out of our stoiy. 

The interesting feature of this voyage is that the discoverers of 
these isles came to a lone land. They found here no human 
inhabitants, according to tradition, but when the next Polynesian 
voyagers reached these shores they found a conefiderable part of the 
North Island occupied by man, showing that probably not less than 
eight or ten generations had passed since the time of Kupe. 


The people found here by the first Maori (Poljrnesians) to settle in 
New Zealand, are generally alluded to as Maruiwi, though that was 
not a racial name for the people, but merely that of a chief, and, later, 
of a tribe. Three famous pu km^erOj or conservers of tribal lore, of 
the early part of the last century, named Tu-raukawa, Nga Waka- 
taurua, and Kiri-kumara, stated that the Chatham Island natives 
were known as Mouriuri, not Mooriori, and we know that those folk 
were descendants of the original inhabitants of the North Island, or 
Aotearoa. There is no explanation as to whether or not the Maori 
bestowed that name upon them, either prior to their leaving these 
shores, or on the occasion of the islands being discovered by 
Europeans and visited by Maori adventurers some time later. 
Presumably the alleged coiTupt form of Mooriori (so spelled in a 
Maori manuscript) was obtained either from the natives of the 
Ohathams or from Maori experts (to be corrupted later). Such 
primitive peoples seldom have a racial name for themselves, and the 
racial name of Maori for our New Zealand natives was apparently not 
used as such formally, for none of the earlier writers mention it. 

In giving the positions of some of the aborigines of New Zealand 
at the time they left the Bangitikei district to settle at the Chathams, 
the above experts remarked that the persons named were the 
principal men of the Mouriuri folk. 

According to traditions handed down by the Maori the original 
settlers of New Zealand were descendants of the crews of three canoes 
that came to land on the Taranaki coast and settled in the Urenui 
district. These folk had been driven from their home land by a 
westerly storm, but must apparently also have been driven southward. 

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to reach these shores. They may have drifted hither from the New 
Hebrides or the Fiji Group, for they described their home land as 
having a much Tvarmer climate than that of New Zealand. That land 
they called Horanui-a-tau and Haupapa-nui-a-tau, which are 
unknown to us as island names, and their three vessels were called 
Okoki, Taikoria and Kahutara. 

Maori tradition states that these early settlers were an ill favoured 
folk, dark skinned and ugly, tall and spare, with flat faces and flat 
noses, upturned nostrils, projecting eyebrows and restless eyes. Their 
hair was harsh and stood out, or was bushy ; an indolent folk and 
treacherous, extremely susceptible to cold. They erected no good 
houses, merely rude huts, wore no garments in summer, but merely 
leaves, and rough woven capes in winter. They lived on forest 
products and fish, and did not understand the preserving of food. 
Their weapons were the huata (long spear), the hoeroa, the kurutaiy 
and the tarerarera{\\\i\i^ thrown spear) ; another was the pere or koperey 
to project whicli they bent a piece of manuka (wood), using dog skin 
for cords. 

This description does not seem to fit the Fijian, and tlie origin of 
our first settler remains a mystery. A few alleged Mouriuri words 
preserved are of Polynesian form, but the description of their persons 
points to a Melanesian origin. They apparently differed much from 
the Maori, and may be the origin of the Melanesian peculiarities seen 
in many of our natives, a fact noted by a number of writers. 

These Mouriuri, or Maioriori, or Maruiwi folk were found 
occupying the northern half of the North Island by the first 
Polynesian settlers to arrive here. Their settlements extended as far 
soutli as Oakura, or, as another version has it, Wai-ngongoro, on the 
west coast of the island ; and about as far as Mohaka, in Hawkes Bay, 
on the east coast. After the arrival of the Maori- Polynesian settlers 
some of the original people settled in the Napier district, the inner 
harbour at that place being named after one of their chiefs, Te 
Whanga-nui-a-Orotu. We shall see, in the days that lie before, that a 
remnant of these people, known as Ngati-Mamoe, were pushed 
southward in later times, and took refuge at Wellington, prior to 
occupying the South Island. 

The incoming Maori seem to have rapidly increased in numbers, 
owing to the fact that they obtained numbers of women from the 
aborigines to supplement the number of those brought from Polynesia. 
As time rolled on this people of mixed descent waged relentless war 
on tlie original people, until the remnants of the latter were found 
only in the wild interior, such places as Maunga-pohatu and Taupo. 
A few fled to the Chatham Isles, as remarked above.* But we are 

* These Chatham Islanders called themselves Maioriori when Europeans first 
went among them. 

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The Land of Tara, 151 

anticipating, and must now bring the Maori from the sunny isles of 
Eastern Polynesia. 


We have here no space for the whole of this most interesting 
tradition, and can give but the bare outlines of it. In the time of 
Toi, who flourished at Uawaiki, Society Isles, thirty -one generations 
ago, a number of vessels were carried away by a stoim from that 
island. Among the crews were two near relatives of Toi, one of whom, 
Whatonga, was his grandson. Many of these ocean waifs, including 
Whatonga, did not return to the home island, hence Toi sailed in 
search of his grandson. He visited a number of islands, and sailed a» 
far west as Pangopango, at Hamoa (Samoa), and found some of the 
castaways at that group, but not his own relatives. He then sailed 
down to Harotonga in the Cook Group, but again met with 
disappointment. He now resolved to go further afleld, and said to 
Toa-rangitahi, a chief of Barotonga: — '* I now go forth to seek the 
mist moistened land discovered by Kupe. Should one come in search 
of me, say that I have sailed for land in far open spaces, a land that 
I will reach or be engulfed in the stomach of Hine-moana."* 

Even so Toi the voyager sailed from Raro tonga in his vessel 
named ' Te Paepae-ki-Rarotonga,' and boldly went forth <m the great 
expanse of ocean that rolls for 1500 miles between that isle and New 
Zealand. The story of how he missed this land, but discovered the 
Chatham Isles, need not be told here, sufficient for us that he 
eventually reached the land of Aotearoa. He stayed some time with 
his crew at Tamaki (Auckland isthmus) among the Mouriuri folk of 
that place, then the party proceeded to the Bay of Plenty and settled 
at Whakatane, where his descendants are still living, and point out 
the site of the home of Toi, the voyager from far lands — one of the 
gallant old-time sea rovers who laid down the ara moana or sea roads- 
for all time. 


Some time after the departure of Toi, from the home island in 
Eastern Polynesia, Whatonga returned to find that Toi had sailed to 
range the wide seas in search of him. Whatonga resolved to go after 
him, and, having prepared his vessel, 'Kurahaupo,' he carefully 
selected a crew of hardy deep sea sailors, and bade farewell to his 
home for ever. As the sacred ritual performance over his vessel 
closed, Tu-kapua said to him: — **Oson! Fare you well. You will 
yet find and greet your elder. ITe ihu whmua, he ihu tangataJ*^ And 

♦ Hine-moana, personified form of the ocean . 

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then, as dawn broke, Kurahaupo was hauled down to tlie sea and 
launched on the broad, heaving breast of Hine-moana. 

In course of time, after divers wanderings to and fro across the 
wide seas, Kurahaupo arrived at Harotonga, where one Tatao told the 
voyager that Toi had, in the month of Ihomutu, sailed for the humid 
land discovered by Kupe. And so, after due preparation, in the 
month of Tatau-urutahi (October), Kurahaupo sailed out from the 
land and lifted the long, rolling water-ways to Aotearoa. 

Kurahaupo made her landfall in the far north, and after a short 
sojourn there, her crew ran down the west coast as far as Tonga- 
porutu, where Whatonga learned from the Mouriuri folk that a 
stranger from far lands, named Toi, had settled on the east coast. 
Our voyagers then sailed northward again, rounded the North Cape, 
and ran down the east coast, finally reaching the home of Toi at 

Having sojourned some time with his elder, Whatonga again 
manned his sea going canoe and went to seek unoccupied lands on 
which to settle, finally making his home at Nukutaurua. This party 
obtained a number of women from the aborigines of the Bay of 
Plenty district. Whatonga was happy in the possession of three 

Hota-waipara= Whatonga = Reretaa = Poa-tautahanga 

Tara |" j 

Tautoki Rere-ki-taiari 



Tara, after whom our harbour was named, was the son of 
Hotu-waipara, and the eponymic ancestor of the Ngai-Tara tribe of 
Wellington district. His half-brother Tautoki had a son, Kangitane, 
whose descendants, the Rangitane tribe, occupied Wai-rarapa and 
southern Hawkes Bay. Reretua and Poa were aboriginal women, but 
as to Hotu tradition is not clear. Shortly before the birth of Tara his 
mother, while engaged in cleaning fish, was wounded in the hand by 
a spine of a nohu, the same being a fish resembling the porcupine 
fish, and having poisonous spines. Hence, when the child was bom 
soon afterwards he was named Tara (spine) in memory of the incident. 

When Whatonga left Whakatane with his party, he said to Toi :— 
** Farewell ! Remain here, while I go forth in search of lands whereon 
your descendants may dwell, to seek a resting place for them in parts 
not already occupied by man, and where they may dwell in peace; 
after which I will return to visit you here." 

Said Toi : — ** Gk) to the eastern side of the island, which is but 
thinly settled, and seek a home on coastal lands, that you may possess 
two good baskets, that of the ocean and that of the land, inasmuch as 

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The Land of Tara, 153 

food is the parent of the orpliau, of women, and of children. Quarrel 
not with such peoples as you may encounter, let peace encompass the 
land, that women and cldldren may walk fearless and unharmed 

The party of Whatonga was increased in numbers by some of 
Toi's folk joining it, as also by the women they had acquired from the 
aborigines Hying at Moharuru, a place now known as Maketu. On 
arriving at Huiarua our travellers resolved to remain there for some 
time. The hut of Whatonga at that place was constructed largely of 
trunks of a small tree fern, and was named Tapere-nui-a- Whatonga. 
After some time the travellers moved on to Maraetaha, and finally to 
Nukutaurua, where a permanent settlement was made at a place 
called Taka-raroa. 

In after days, when Whatonga felt the weight of years, he 
resolved to despatch his sons to explore the country to the southward,, 
to examine it and seek desirable lands whereon they might settle. 
Those sons were the half-brothers Tara and Tautoki, the full name 
of the latter being Tautoki-ihu-nui-a- Whatonga. 


Whatonga said to his sons, Tara and Tautoki: — "O sons, ga 
forth and examine the land. Take but few companions with you, and 
leave your women and children here, that you may travel quickly.*' 

Then were carefully chosen the men to accompany them, in, 
numbers thirty twice told. The party came by way of Te Wairoa to- 
Heretaunga (Napier district), then occupied by a tribe of aborigines. 
After an examination of that district, they came on to Bangi-whieika- 
oma (Castle Point), thence to Okorewa (in Palliser Bay), thence to- 
Para-ngarehu (Pencarrow Head), from which place they explored the 
surrounding district, and Tara remarked, " This is a place suitable for 

They then went on to Pori-rua, to Rangi-tikei, thence up the river 
to Patea, to Tongariro, to Taupe, whence they struck across to- 
Titi-o-kura, and returned by way of Mohaka and Te Wairoa to- 
Nukutaurua, to their home. 

On the return of the party of Tara, Whatonga rejoiced in once 
more seeing his sons, for they had been absent nearly a year. Tara 
and his brother, with the other members of the exploring expedition, 
now began to relate their experiences, and to describe the lands they 
had seen, the hills and mountain ranges, the rivers, lakes and 
harbours thereof, as also the plains and forests, togetlier with the lie 
of the lands in regard to the sun and prevailing winds. 

Whatonga enquired : — " Which do you consider the most 
desirable place to settle at, as in regard to food supplies ? " 

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Tara and Tautoki explained : — *' At the very nostrils of the island, 
where are situated the two isles we have heard of as having been 
named by Kupe after his daugliters Matin and Makai-o. The largest 
island (now Miramar peninsula) is situated to the southward, where the 
two channels connect with the vast expanse of Hine-moana ''^ (the 
ocean), but only a numerous people could occupy and hold this large 
island {ma te umauma tangata tenet e noho). The two small islands are 
desirable places whereon to settle; they can be reached only by 
«anoe, and the larger one (Somes Island) has fairly good soil, wherein 
food products might flourish. The isle to the east of this one is a 
bare place, with inferior soil (Ward Island)." 

Whatonga enquired : — ** What sort of a place is the large island 
you speak of, in regard to the cultivation of the kumara (sweet potato 
IponuM hatatas) ? " 

Tara replied : — " The soil is good, being a loam, vegetation 
flourishes and is not stunted in growth ; water soon flows ofE it." 

Whatonga remarked : — '* On dry lands a damp season is needed to 
cause crops to flourish." 

Said Tara : — ** Just so ; but some sheltered parts are suitable." 

Again Whatonga enquired : — ** Are the channels deep, did you 
observe, at low tide ? " 

Tara answered : — ** One of them, the channel on the eastern side, 
is deep (the present entrance). In the entrance channel on the 
western side (now an isthmus) a sand ridge extends from the ocean 
right through to the harbour. It seems to me probable that the 
western entrance channel may yet fill up and be raised." 

Whatonga asked : — " Are there no rock-reefs at the seaward end, 
outside ? " 

" No! The rocks are congregated near the clifPs (at LyalPs Bay)." 
Tara continued: — ** The other island (South Island) looked quite near, 
and is apparently about a day's voyage distant. The harbour on the 
western side (Porirua) is a fine expanse of salt water, and sheltered ; 
we observed that the hills shelter it from the winds. The soil of its 
lands is a loam ; and the entrance to the harbour a good one, but it 
is not a desirable place for a few people to settle at, it can be safely 
occupied only by a numerous folk. There is an island Ijring outside 
the entrance (Mana Island), which, if a canoe started at dawn, we 
thought might be reached by noon. It seemed a fine island, from 
what we saw of it, with a well exposed, fair surface, but the food of 
winds. Still it would be an excellent parent (place of refuge) for 
women and children. 

** The fresh- water sea on the easteni side of the mountain range 
<Wai-rarapa Lake) is surrounded by open land; its shores are 

♦ Hine-moana— The Ocean Maid. Personified form of the ooeau. 

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The Land of Tara. 155 

swampy, but it is apparently a good district for food supplies. 
Streams from the mountain ranges flow into it; it has such ranges on 
its eastern and western sides (Tlie Aorangi and Eemutaka Eanges), 
as also some lower ridges to the eastward. The mountain range to 
the westward is rocky, the soil thereof stony and poor ; snow lies 
thereon but not permanently. That range is one of the shoulders of 
the island, and extends right down to the ocean near our encampment. 
Streams from the eastern and western ranges flow into the lake, the 
outlet of which is but a small stream ; there is a small islet just of^ 
the eastern shore. It would require a large number of people to 
occupy and hold this district, as also the lands round the first harbour 
I spoke of, but the soil is good, in some places a loam, in others black 
soil, in yet others somewhat stony. The plain lands we saw are fine 
and have a good exposure. 

*' There is another sheet of salt-water much nearer here (? Napier 
Harbour), which receives certain streams from the interior, but those 
lands would require many people to settle them. However^ I have 
claimed the harbour at the point of the island as a resting place for us." 

**It is well," said Wliatonga, ** But do not attempt to occupy much 
of the land you saw, for you are not numerous enough to do so. It will 
be well, however, to hasten and lose no time in going to settle on the 
lands of the salt-water sea (Wellington Harbour), and of the fresh- 
water sea (Wairarapa Lake)." 

This was agi*eed to, and Whatonga accompanied his sons and their 
followers southward to take possession of and settle on the shores of 
the harbour discovered by Kupe. Some of Whatonga's men were left 
at Nukutaurua to hold those lands, and to protect the people who were 
dwelling in the open (not in fortified villages). 


Whatonga, with his sons and their followers, came by sea, staying 
a while at Heretaunga (Napier District), where Whatonga admired 
the lands of that region. At Bangi-whakaoma (Castle Point) he 
caused the canoes to be beached, that the party might rest a while. It 
was in the month of Akaakanui (December) that these folk came to 
Wai-rarapa, and to the Whanga-nui-a-Tara. They remained at 
Rangi-whakaoma until they had prepared a stock of food, fern-root 
and dried fish, when they came on to Okorewa (where the waters of the 
lake flow into Palliser Bay). One of the canoes was taken up to 
Wai-rarapa Lake to facilitate the exploration of its shores. On the 
return of this party to Okorewa the whole of the migrants came on to 
Poneke (modern name for Wellington district, and a coiTuption of 
Port Nick, as Port Nicholson or Wellington Harbour was termed by 
•early European settlers), and brought their canoes to land at Matiu 
(Scenes Island), on which island they settled. 

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The migrants now set about making a home for themselves, and 
their first task was to erect houses and plant food products. The 
timbei*s and thatch wherewith to construct houses were brought from 
the mainland. When these tasks were completed and land cleared for 
cultivation, humara and korau were planted. These crops were for 
winter stores, the sweet potatoes being dried and converted into kao, 
while the korau was dried by means of exposure on elevated platforms. 

The three superior houses built on Matiu island were named 
Haere-uioana (ocean traveraing), Aotearoa and Te Pu-o-te-tonga. 
These were properly framed houses, though adorned with painted 
patterns only (not carving), and, when finished, the kawa rite was 
pei*formed over them. I'hose names commemorated their coming 
hither across the ocean from Hawaiki in seach of Toi, that is 
Haere-nioana. l*he land where they settled, after abandoning their 
old home Hawaiki, Aotearoa, so named by Kupe when he crossed the 
ocean without seeing land, even unto this island, was the origin of 
Aotearoa (house). As for Te Pu-o-te-tonga (the true south) this 
name was to couimeniorate his leaving his children Tara and Tautoki, 
their sister Rere-ki-taiari, and his grandchildren, to dwell at the very 
southern end of this island, and theii* separation from him. 

Whatonga dwelt here with his family and his grandchildren, 
Tuhoto-ariki, Turia, Hine-one, Bangitane-nui, and others, also the 
people who had been selected to assist his children during the autumn. 

The party consisted of one hundred, twice told, of men and women, 
and Whatonga divided them, one hundred to Tara, and one hundred to 
Tautoki. Their sister, Rere-ki-taiari, was taken back by Whatonga to 
Nukutaurua, to look after him in his old age. For at that time 
Whatonga was an old man with great grandchildren. 

After the houses were finished, Whatonga, Tara, and some others 
as canoe paddlers, went to inspect Te Mana o Kupe (Mana Island). 
They reached Matakitaki, paddled onward to Kapiti, and then returned 
to live at Matiu island. Then they went to examine the entrance of 
the ocean and the large island between those two channels, after which 
they returned to Matiu. 

When the Ihonui (February) came Whatonga addressed his sons 
and their respective followers : — " After I have returned, this island 
will not be a suitable place as a permanent residence for you. Let this 
be a home for the women and children, and let the men proceed to the 
forest on the mainland to split timbers and obtain aka (stem of climbing 
plants) wherewith to construct houses and defensive stockades. Erect 
a stockade and houses at the place where I thrust in my staff, let all 
that part be enclosed within the stockade. When the fortified village 
is completed, then render the water spring accessible in times of stress 
by means of erecting a stockade on either side of the path leading to it, 
adding an elevated outer stockade, lest it be cut off by a besieging 

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The Land of Tara. 157 

force. The elevated storehouses should be erected on the summit of the 

" Erect the stockades ou the lines we marked with pegs, so that 
ample space may be enclosed. J^et there be but one entrance to the 
main way into the fort, and see that that main way is stockaded on 
both sides. Construct two elevated platforms for defenders at the 
entrance to such way, also two where the passage enters the plaza of 
the village. There should indeed be three such stages on either side of 
the passage way. Let all the posts of the stockade be bulky ones, 
with but two palisades between them, that an attacking force may be 

" All parts overgrown with manuka, fern and brush should be 
burned oft each year that it is abundant, less it be used by an enemy 
as a means of burning the stockades when piled against them, that 
is why you will so clear all such places. 

''Let there be three lines of stockades, one oblique line, leaning 
outwards, one elevated screen stockade, and the main stockade, which 
is the innermost of such defences." Here he explained that his 
advice was intended to lay stress on the protection of old folks and 
women and children. 

Whatonga continued: — ** Now, bear in mind that this will be your 
exposed, accessible position, whereat the want of food will be sorely 
felt, for such will be the weapon for an enemy to use ; they will 
invest the place in order to starve you and cause its fall. Construct 
many storage places for yourselves at the rear of your dwelling- 
houses, as places wherein to store fish, dried kumara and korau, also 
shellfish, dried pipiy kuku, and paua {Chione, Mytilm^ and Saliotu) as 
food supplies. Then, when enemies appear, you will have a goodly 
store of foods, including fern root and kernels of karaka and tawa, the 
sustenance of your forbear Toi-kai-rakau, on which account he was so 
named * Toi who consumes forest products.' *' 

Again Whatonga continued : — " Your cultivation grounds situated 
near the village will be no care, for those working thereat will return 
to the village to sleep. But regarding cultivations situated some 
distance away, you must erect secondary fortified places to protect 
them. There are two objects in constructing this kind of pa, the 
protection of the cultivations, and also the warning of the principal 
village when an enemy force is advancing to attack it." 

** Let the stockaded village of one of you (brothers) be built on 
the hill on the right (eastern) side of the eastern entrance, in the 
same manner. But the principal cultivations should be on the big 
island, as I remarked. The storehouses should be of a similar kind 
to those I have described the aspect of, as also their situation. I so 
advised that, when an investing enemy force see no storehouses and 
stages, it will belieV^e tliat a short siege will cause misery in the 

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village through lack of food, hence he will continue to invest the 
place, and you know that a long continuance of the seige will cause 
hunger to hustle him away. And if you are able to deliver an attack 
on tlie enemy at some distant part of his lines, then ere long that 
enemy will fall, enfeebled as he will be by lack of food. Such is the 
reason why food supplies should be placed in the places described. I 
have spoken to you two in this manner so that one of your fortified 
villages may ever act as succourer of the other, when a hostile force 
attacks one let the other come to its aid." 

Again Whatonga addressed them: — "Another task for you two 
is to seek a suitable place, unseen by travellers and difficult for a 
person to find, and construct a hamlet at such place, and there store 
food supplies that keep well, such as dried fish, fern-root, dried shell- 
fish, foods preserved in fat, dried karaha and tawa beiTies. Such a 
home is called a kainga punanga and is intended to be unseen. At 
night only are food preparing fires kindled, not in daytime, lest the 
smoke be seen curling up. This punanga (place of concealment) is for 
occupation when a fortified place is taken, then survivors congregate 
and dwell there, or when a hostile force is said to be approaching, 
then the women, old folks and children flee at <mce to that place and 
live there, so tliat the foi-tified place be left clear for the fighting men, 
not crowded, and that they may not be hampered by the old men, 
women and children. If you follow my instructions you will never 
be worsted by an enemy.*' 

Here Tautoki remarked to Whatonga": — "The isles would be 
suitable places as a place of sojourn for the old folk, women and 
children." (Alluding to Somes and Ward islands.) 

Whatonga replied : — "No, the weakness of that plan is that the 
enemy would see that the old people, women and children were there, 
whereupon they would leave the bulk of their force to invest the fort, 
and othere would go and capture the islands." 

Here ends the instructions as to the construction of the fortified 
village, the refuge, and the secondary forts. Again Whatonga 
spoke: — " There are three weapons of which you should learn the 
use, the spear, a short striking weapon, and the taiaha or poutohenna, 
the two latter being practically one and the same. Do not delay 
learning the use of these weapons. The principal sign for you to 
judge by is given by the shoulders of a person, when you see his 
shoulders move, he is about to deliver a blow at you. Another such 
sign : watch closely the big toe of his waewae whangai (advanced foot), 
take no note of his waewae tarewa (rear foot), but gaze only at the 
foremost foot, or the shoulder that controls the weapon. (As you gaze 
at the big toe you will see, a brief moment before your advei-saiy 
delivers his blow, or point, that toe clinch downwards on the earth ; 
that is your moment for action, to parry, avoid, or strike.) 

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The Land of TarcL 159 

" If your advei-sary is grasping his spear, or taiaha or pouwhentia with 
both hands, note which hand controls the weapon, for an adept is 
ambidextrous, both right handed and left handed. You also must 
acquire that facility. Should he shift his weapon to the left, do 
you also shift yours to the left, and should he shift to the nght hand, 
then you must shift yours to the right, and so hold it, keeping your eyes 
on his shoulder, or his big toe. Do not disregard these directions, and 
you will ever be forewarned of a coming blow. 

'^ Now, as to the short striking weapon, there is no pai*ticular inile 
as to its use. If you grasp yours in your right hand, it is well, and 
should he hold his in his left hand, that also is well, for these are but 
short weapons, and their use is about equivalent to using the hands 

*' Now, if you and your advei*sary come to close combat, keep your 
feet moving, do not stand still. If he turns so as to face your side, then 
do you turn so as to face him, but be swift to close in on your 
opponent, and to make a feint so that he will quickly spring aside. Do 
not allow the point of your weapon to project far outward, but keep the 
point of your spear, taiaha, or pouwhentia just in front of your advanced 
foot. If you are using one of the last two, the point is for feinting 
with, the blade end to strike with. If a spear be your weapon, keep 
the point quite near your advanced foot, or waewae taki as it i» 
sometimes styled. 

" As to the short striking weapon, one mode is to hold it blade 
downwards; another method is to hold it out with extended arm, that 
he may be tempted hastily to strike in at you past your guard. When 
you see him attempt to do so, let your left arm ward oS. the blow, so 
that your right arm be free to deliver a blow, and, as he withdraws his 
weapon- wielding arm he is already struck by your weapon. The place 
where a person may be quickly killed is the base of the ear, the skull at 
that part is thin, no second blow will be needed ; never strike at the 
body. If the weapon -wielding arm be exposed, deliver a cut on the 
upper arm, just below the point of the shoulder, but keep your arm 
well up as you deliver the blow." 

Again Whatonga spoke : — "In regard to making a sortie out of 
the fort against the enemy, let the warriora issue forth quickly, two 
at a time, the couples following up quickly. Let the proved warriors 
lead, but not to pass out and stand just outside, they should at once 
run to a clear space, to which tried men will follow them, thus tlie 
gateway will be left clear. It also gives courageous men a chance to 
dash forward and secure the mdtdika (first man slain) and so make a 
name for himself. When all the party is clear of the fort, if the enemy 
be congregated outside the gateway, charge straight into the body of 
them, but let the expert weapon -wielders press to the front. That 
force will not stand against you, be it ever so numerous." 

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Again Whatoiiga spoke to his cliildreu : — '* Should you be leading 
a force agaiust our enemy, send ten nimble legged men in advance, 
and, when they are well forward, send out the kaika/pe relief. If this 
party contains as many as ten trusty men, let five of them follow close 
behind the nimble footed ones, still at some little distance from them. 
If the warriors of the other force attack, let them approach close to 
your first ten, then let them be lured on by a deceptive flight of your 
nimble ones. When the first ten men turn back, let the five trusty 
warriors advance slowly, crying out, * Turn ! Tura ! ' merely as a feint, 
not that they will turn, let the ten retire behind the five and then turn 
and act as a support for the ^^e braves. Now the other five braves 
told oft to the rear should remain close behind the ten nimble ones. If 
matters be so conducted, none can prevail against you. The main body 
is behind ready to rush in, which act should be accompanied by every 

Such was the advice of Whatonga to Tara and his younger 
brother Tautoki-ihu-nui -a -Whatonga. Having so concluded, 
Whatonga taught them the mata rakau (charm repeated over weapons 
in order to render them effective), and the hoa tapuwae (chaim used 
when pursuing a person). Having done so, Whatonga said: — "The 
mauri (stone employed as a shrine or abiding place for spirit gods) of 
the principal fort should be taken by you two to the lower side of the 
beam of the latrine of the fort, and there deposited. It should be a 
huka-a-tai or an onewa stone, no other kinds should be used. Then 
locate Tuhinapo and Tu-nui-o-te-ika at that place, the two will be 
enough, those were the gods dwelling at latiines even from olden times. 
Maru is' another god employed in that manner ; these gods protect the 
fort, give warning of the approach of hostile forces, and also warn 
armed forces, or village communities of impending misfortunes." 

Having delivered these instructions, Whatonga stated that he 
intended to return home, but he would yet come back and visit them : — 
" When your ancestor is concealed within the gi*eat stomach of the 
earth -mother, then will I by degrees move your younger relatives and 
the people generally to settle the lands on this side of Te Wairoa, and 
it is for you folks to gradually settle this end of the east coast of the 
island. If immigrants should arrive after you, send them on to settle 
on the western coast, and retain Te Mana-o-Kupe and Kapiti islands for 
yourselves, to serve as a resting place for old men,. women and children 
duiing such times as you are conducting forays. Do not utilise these 
isles (Somes and Ward) as such retreats for old men, women and 
children, lest it should necessitate a division of your weapon -wielding 
braves, but be strenuous in inciting your nimble footed men to leaiii 
the use of arms, that they may become accustomed to thrust and parry 
in the presence of strange folk." 

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The Land of Tara. 161 


After the return of Whatonga, in the month of Putoki-nui-o-tau 
(March), the twain turned to the collecting of timber and Uianes for 
house building, and also for the village defences marked oft with peg» 
by their father, by Whatonga. 

(Here, as this matter was being recited by the adept Te 
Matorohanga, one Kereopa enquired : — " Moi I What was the year 
in which occurred the events you are narrating, so that we may know 
the years during which the island was gradually settled, down to the 
present time." 

Moihi Te Matorohanga replied: — "The native folk had no 
reckoning of yeai*s, as the white man has. The only things that are 
clear are the months and the days, as also summer and winter.) 

Te Matorohanga continued : Let my discoui*se return to Tara and 
the younger brother, as also their people. They busied themselves in 
procuring timber, some in rafting timber, some in felling trees, others 
in cutting the lops into given lengths, others in splitting, othei*s in 
hewing, others in carrying the timber to the bank of the river called 
Heretaunga (the Hutt river), whence they were rafted across to the 
other side of the Whanga-nui-a-Tara (or Port Nicholson). 

But be clear as to this : when Whatonga left his grandfather, Toi^ 
no names had been assigned to Ohiwa, Huiarua, Turanga, Marae-taha, 
Nuku-taurua, and, down this way, Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, Porirua 
and Kapiti; but as to Matiu, Makaro, and Te Mana-o-Kupe, those 
places had been named by Kupe and his young people ; thus the places- 
where they stayed, or went to, possessed names. It was Katorangi, a 
person fourth in descent from Kupe and Hine-te-aparangi, who stated 
that his forbear had told him the names of the parts of the island 
successively named by him and his children. 

Well, the main fortified place was erected, that is the stockaded 
place ; when finished, the houses were built within it. There were two 
good framed houses among them, one of which was named Raukawa 
after the sea between this island and the other (Oook Straits) ; thi» 
house belonged to Tautoki. The other framed house was named 
Whare-rangi, as a remembrance of the place where stood (the sacred 
house of) Wharekura at Te Hono-i-wairua, at Uru (the original home- 
land of the Maori, situated west of a land named Irihia). The water 
spiing was given the name of Te Puna-o-Tinirau. That name they 
so gave refers to the place in the ocean where whales are said to 
originate. The fort was named by them Te Whetu-kairangi, the 
ongin of that name being the fact that they here saw no persons of other 
tribes, but dwelt in a lonely manner, the stars {whetu) of the heavena 

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were the only things they had to gaze at eveiy night, hence the name 
of Te Whetu-kairangi. 

When the fort was finished, Te Uniu-roimata (wife of Tara) said 
to Tara : — " Yon should give your name to the harbour," to wliich 
Tara agreed, hence it was named Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara (the Great 
Harbour of Tara). 


Again Te Umu-roimata addressed Tara : — " Three foi*tified places 
should be erected on the other side, on the mainland, so as to observe 
approaching hostile parties, or visitors from tribes of distant parts, so 
that you of Te Whetu-kairangi may be prepared. Those forts should 
be erected as a shelter for Te Whetu-kairangi, lest we be rent by man 
whilst the sun be shining." 

Tara agreed to those three fortified positions being constinicted. 
Uruhau was built on the southern end of the Banga-a-Hiwi ridge, and 
completed ; Te Maioha was the big house therein ; it was not an 
elaborate, framed house. 

Then Te Aka-tarewa was erected, another pa^ on the south side of 
Matairangi (Mt. Victoria) was the site of that fort. The principal 
house within it was named Moe-ahuru, which was not of the superior, 
carefully fitted type. When this fort was completed, another was 
erected on the extremity of that ridge facing the north (Point 
Jerningham) ; when built it was given the name of Te Wai-hirere. 
The origin of that name was tlie distressful wet condition of the women 
and men during a heavy rain storm. So abundant were the watei^s of 
the rain storm on that point that a ditch was dug, whereupon the 
water flowed into the harbour, so the name of Te Wai-hirere (The 
Gushing Water) was given to that fort. The principal house within 
it was named Waipuna, a name pertaining to the water supply of that 
fort, which was an excavated spring, and this name was given to the 

The difficult part of all their labours was the preparing of the 
timbers. The length of the secondaiy posts of Te Whetu-kairangi and 
the fort of Tautoki, that is Para-ngarehu, on the point of the easteni 
«ide (Pencarrow Head) was the site of Para-ngarehu, which was also 
a large fort, though not so large as Te Whetu-kairangi ; well, the 
length of the intermediate posts was three arm stretches (three 
fathoms), while the palisades were two fathoms. The secondary 
posts and palisades were sunk one hau (half fathom) in the 
ground. There were four stockade rails all lashed to the uprights 
with aka tohai (stem of climbing plant). The main posts of the 
stockade were five fathoms in length ; the size of those posts, if 
a single post, was one fathom (in circumference)^ the secondary posts 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Land of Tara. 163 

being half a fathom in girth, not to speak of the palisades inserted 
between the posts, which resembled those of a. pa (fortified village) of the 
present time, and the length of which was two fathoms and a half, 
while they were sunk half a fathom in the earth. Now you can 
perceive the magnitude of the task (as perfoimed with stone age tools) 
and the weight of those timbers, as also the labour of floating them 
from the place at which they were prepared to the other side of the 
Great Harbour of Tara, timbers for those forts, including the small 
foi*ts and their houses. The refuge hamlet prepared as a dwelling 
place for women, old men and children, when fleeing fi*om a fallen fort, 
or battlefield, was located at Takapau-rangi, at the head of Wainui-o- 
mata, a lagoon to the eastward of the Great Harbour of Tara, inland of 
the fort of Para-ngarehu that refuge camp was situated. 

Now there were many cultivation grounds, as Kirikiri-tatangi 
(Seatoun Flat) on the eastern side of Te Whetu-kairangi, also Marae- 
nui, likewise on the shores of Te Au-a-Tane (entrance channel). 
Another was Huri-whenua, the place now called Te Aro, which 
extended as far as the base of Tawatawa to the north west. The place 
reserved as a pleasure ground (Basin Reserve) is the site of the 
Hauwai cultivation ground. The place called Watts Farm, that 
region right through to the western side of Uinihau (pa on hill east 
side of Island Bay) was all known as Pae-kawakawa, and was a 
kumara cultivation ground belonging to Hine-kiri. This was a well- 
bom woman, offspring of Tara, a sister of Wakanui, Hine-kiri being 
the first born, then Wakanui, then Ti-whana-a-rangi, all were 
children of Hine-akau, the superior wife of Tara ; Hine-akau being a 
grand-daughter of Whata. 


The Wai-hirere fort belonged to Te Rangi-kai-kore, a son of 
Tuhoto-ariki, elder brother of Turia. He was a well-born man of 
fine character and great kindness. A certain woman and her three 
children, of the Mua-upoko tribe, had been captured by a raiding paity 
of Ngati-Rangi. On arriving at the Uruhau fort, which belonged to 
Pakau, that woman was handed over by Whiri-kai, chief of Ngati- 
Rangi, to Pakau, as an equivalent for a basket of dried barracoota and 
a basket of fern -root given him when they were on their way to raid 
Mua-upoko at the time of the slaughter at Pukehou, which is a pa east 
of Otaki. 

That woman and her childi'en were brought from that place, 
brought away alive to serve as payment for those food supplies. Te 
Rarigi-kai-kore was staying at that place when Ngati-Rangi arrived, 
and the woman and her children were handed over to Pakau. When 
this was done, Pakau rose and said to Te Rangi-kai-kore : — *' Let two 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


go to you to serve as a savoury food to eat with youi' sweet potatoes ; 
and two to me as a food relish for my daughter, Wliakapiriuha." 

Te Rangi-kai-kore said to Pakau and Whirikai : — " Man ! Should 
a person die three deaths, the faUen fort (destroyed home), the handing 
over as payment for food for you two, and the decision to slay them as 
a tasty food for you. This is by no means a just procedure of yours." 

He then caUed to that woman, to Hine-rau : — " Young woman I 
Arise, let ns and your children go to the shelter of Te Whetu-kai- 
rangi, the refuge of mankind/' 

Even so was that woman and her children taken away. On their 
arrival at that place, Wakanui said : — '^ O friend ! Te Rangi-kai-kore \ 
Go, conduct the woman and her children to Pukehou, there to dwell at 
their own home. You are right ; is it meet that a person die three 
deaths in one day ? They are still living, let them remain so. Do not 
enslave them." 

Now that is why I remarked that Te Rangi-kai-kore was a fine and 
noble person. 





The raidof Ngati-Rangi clan against the Mua-upoko tribe of the 
Otaki district resulted in Te Kopara, chief of Mua-upoko, going to 
Patea to raise a force of the Nga-Rauru and Ngati-Ruanui tribes to 
avenge the defeat of Mua-upoko at Pukehou, where the chief of the 
fort was slain. Even so came Tamatea-kopiri* and Kakataia, who 
were the chiefs of that armed force raised by Te Kopara. This force 
did not advance by way of the vale of Heretaunga (Hutt Valley) 
against Te Hau-karetu, Pa-whakataka and Pari-horo, the places (forts) 
occupied by Ngati-Rangi, but struck oft to Hataitai, Uruhau, Te 
Aka-tarewa and Te Wai-hirere, so that, these places having fallen, they 
might be able to attack Te Whetu-kai-raugi, the high-class fortress of 
the island of Motu-kairangi. 

It was Hine-kiri who gave this name to the island (Miramar 
Island). Tara had remarked to Umu-roimata : — ^^What shall be a 
name for our island on which we are dwelling ? " 

Te Umu-roimata said: — ^'Is Te Whetu-kairangi such an insignifi- 
cant name ? " 

•In the ** Journal of the Polynesian Society," Vol. IX., p. 229, is given a 
genealogy from Tun, showing one Tamatea-kopiri as his gfrandson. The latter 
flourished twenty-three generations ago. This, however, may not be the same 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Land of Tara. 165 

** Oh," said Twa, **Tliat name already applies to the /?«." 
Whereupon Hine-kiri called out : — " Let Motu-kairangi be a name 
for it.'' 

It was agreed to by the eldei*s and people that Motu-kairangi 
should be its name. The reason why that name was agreed upon was 
the fact:that there was never a level place, or flat, or plain to serve as 
a strolling place for the people. Looking forth at night one saw 
nought but the stars and moon ; in daytime, only the sun, and the 
clouds drifting across the heavens, with the sea on either side. Hence 
was that island named Motu-kairangi, the fortress being Whetu-kai- 
rangi. On the western side (of the island) is a swampy lagoon where 
eels were kept, having been brought thither fi*om up Te Awa-kairangi, 
that is the Heretaunga river (Hutt river). 

As to this name of Heretaunga : When Rangi-nui and his party 
arrived here on a visit to Tara and his younger brother Tautoki, while 
staying here, seeing nothing but hills on either side, and forest, he 
said : — " Alas ! How dreadful ! Is Heretaunga truly your home, 
that you should bury yourselves in this place?" 

Tautoki remarked :— " O man ! What is the open basket compared 
to the closed one wherein the mind is at peace ? " 

Those remarks of Rangi-nui refened to the fine aspect of Here- 
taunga (Napier district), its open nature, where an approaching party 
is seen afar off and cannot be undetected. Whereas Te Whanga-nui- 
a-Tara is but a poor place, hills and forests alone are seen, and where 
the sudden appearance of travellers from afar startles one. Now the 
remark made by Tautoki implied that Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara was a 
superior place to Heretaunga, where people were safe from the attacks 
of enemies, and derived sustenance from the ocean, where also 
cultivated foods were abundant, where abounded food supplies of the 
ocean, and birds of the forest — for such was the meaning of the ' closed 

So then Rangi-nui exclaimed : — " O son ! Let the river Awa-kai- 
rangi be Heretaunga in memory of our discourse." And such was the 
oiigin of the name of the Heretaunga river. 

Now let our discourse return to the war-party of Te Kopara, of 
Mua-upoko. The real cause of the consenting by Nga-Raum and 
Ngati-Ruanui to that enlisting of their forces to avenge Pukehou was 
a desire to obtain huia plumes, native garments, and shark- tooth ear 
pendants. So they came; but this part of the story I did not 
thoroughly acquire, nevertheless, I heard that that party came by 
canoe, in four vessels, all war canoes, and landed at Porirua. They 
encamped at Papa-kowhai (between the Gear homestead and Bowler's 
wharf), at the eastern side of Porirua, and there awaited the arrival 
of Mua-upoko. 

Digitized by 



Mua-upoko arrived at the time the kowhai {Sophora tetraptera) was 
ill blooui. When the force arrived at the summit of Te Whai'au (the 
range above Kaiwharawhara village, north side), the members thereof 
saw fires burning at Te Wai-hirere, Te Aka-tarewa, Uruhau, Te 
Whetu-kairangi, Pae-kawakawa, Motu-haku, Makure-inia, and Wai- 
komaru, the last two being the fortified villages of Tu-kapua of the 
Ngati-Mamoe tribe. These two places were in the vicinity of Te 
Bimurapa (Sinclair Head). 

Tamatea-kopiri enquired : — *' To which one of the fires we see 
burning shall we direct our way ? " 

And it was said : — ^^ Let us keep to the clear way of the far spread 
region," that is the part where the people dwelt in scattered com- 
munities. To this the party agreed. 

Now, during the night of quite a different day, Kauhika, who was 
an aunt of Te Rangi-kai-kore, and a dreamer of dreams, had a vision. 
In a dream she saw Te Wharau ridge occupied by men : — " The fii-e 
kindled thei^e cast its glow here to Uruhau, and I was alarmed and 

Te Rangi-kai-kore said : — *' Let a person go to Te Wharau, and 
there stay on the eastern side of the main ridge, where the crest of the 
spur of Te Wharau breaks down suddenly, there to lurk aside from 
the path, to see if we cannot light upon a solution of the dream of the 
old woman." 

So Mohuia and Kaipara were sent, and on arriving at the place 
advised by Te Rangi-kai-kore, remained there. When the sun became 
suspended over the bounds of night, the invaders were seen advancing 
along the Wharau ridge. The scouts returned, and reported : — 
" There is a hostile force at Te Wharau examining the appearance of 
the burning of the fires." Te Rangi at once commanded : — ** Go to Te 
Aka-tarewa and Unihau in order that the women and children may be 
sent to Te Whetu-kairangi. Send a pereon to Para-ngarehu (fortified 
village at Pencarrow Head) to advise them of the hostile force at Te 
Wharau that is examining the country." 

Even so Mahuia went to Te Whetu-kairangi, and Kaipara went to 
Te Aka-tarewa and as far as Uruhau. The canoes of the local people 
were taken across to Motu-kairangi (Miramar Island), while certain 
persons went to watch the main ridge extending from Te Wliarau by 
way of the spur extending towards the south. A man was despatched 
to Puke-ahu (Mt. Cook), above Hauwai (Basin Reserve), for it is said 
to have been a moonlight night. The enemy was now seen advancing 
along the beach at Kumu-toto (Woodward Street). The scouts of 
Puke-ahu returned and reported the rear of the force as passing 
Waititi (foot of Charlotte Street) while the head was at Kumu-toto. 
'The men are ranked as close together as trees in a forest gi'ove.' The 
scouts then remained at Kaipapa (site of Vice -regal residence), on the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Land of Tara. 167 

eastern side of Hnuwai, there to await developments, and to note which 
fort the enemy made for. It was then seen that the force was moving 
directly* on Uruhau to deliver an attack. 

When the stars of the morning were high up, the people of Te 
Wai-hirere (at Point Jemingham) marched out and joined the people 
of Te Aka-tarewa. Then the people of Umhau began to move out. 
One division of the invading force made for the sea beach below the 
Uruhau fortress, while the other division occupied the ridge ; thus they 
invested the fort. Pahau, the chief of Uruhau, was now convinced 
that the enemy would be defeated by him, and he also knew that the 
men of Te Wai-hirere and Te Aka-tarewa were outside the fort 
waiting for him to sally forth. There also were Tara and Tautoki, who 
had ascended the ridge at Orongo (ridge extending from signal station 
to eastern head of Lyall Bay), a name given by Tamatea-ariki on hi& 
arrival at Te Whetu-kairangi. He ascended that ridge to obtain a 
view of the Great Harbour of Tara, also of the other island. *Takitumu * 
(his vessel) was below, at Te Awa-a-Taia, being relashed as to her top- 
strakes, and having gum of the houhou {Nothopanax arboreum) worked 
into the lashing holes, and, when this was done, *Takitumu' went to 
Arapawa, that is to Te Wai-pounamu (the South Island). It was 
Kupe who gave this name to that island ; and by him also was the 
first greenstone found at Ara-hura, on the west side of that island. 

However, Tara and Tautoki ascended that ridge at Orongo, there 
to await the attack of the enemy on Uruhau. As the light of morn 
came the enemy force was seen on the beach below the fort of 
Uruliau, and the men of the land had moved out of Uruhau, as wa* 
denoted by the voice of Pakau being heard shouting out, " Charge I 
Charge ! " Some of the local braves had diverged by the track to the 
beach, where fighting had commenced, while those of Te Wai-hirere 
and Te Aka-tarewa joined the Uruhau men. Te Rangi-kai-kore cried 
out : — ** Pakau ! Attack ! Join in ! " On hearing this the enemy 
fled to the forest to the west of Uruhau. Then fighting was carried 
on at the seaward side, and Te Toko, one of the chiefs of the enemy 
force, was slain in a fight at Waitaha, on the beach at the promontory 
on the western side of Te Awa-a-Taia. 

When night fell, the people of this part, the clan Ngati-Hinewai^ 
bethought them that the enemy might turn to and dig up their seed 
kumara, which had been planted and were sprouting, so they pulled 
them up during the night. This, act was the cause of the name 
Ngati-hutihuti-po (The Night pullers) being assigned to the clan 

This task completed, all crossed over the channel and entered Te 
Whetu-kairangi. When Te Rangi-kai-kore, Pakau and Te Piki- 
kotuku, the chiefs of the forts of the mainland, arrived, the women, 
children and old men had crossed over to Para-ngarehu, where they 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


were then staying. Dwelling within Te Whetn-kairangi nought 
remained Eare weapon- wielding braves ; the fort was well manned, 
for Ngai-Tara numbered six (? hundred) twice told at that time, 
while the enemy force of Ngati-Ruanui and Mua-upoko was four 
hundred once told« 

That night the bodies of Te Toko and Whakatau (two slain chiefs 
of the invaders) were burned with fire in Hoewai (Houghton Bay), 
west of Te Bae-haihau (western headland of Lyall Bay) on the coast. 

Next morning the invaders burned the forts of IJruhau, Te 
Aka-tarewa and Te Wai-hirere, the huts in all the cultivation grounds 
at Pae-kawakawa and all other cultivations of the mainland. The 
raiders then betook themselves to the making of rafts, whereby to 
eross over to Motu-kairangi. Having all assembled on Motu-kairangi, 
they then invested the Whetu-kairangi fort. One hundred were 
stationed at Takapuna, one hundred at Kirikiri-tatangi (Seatoun), one 
hundred at Te Mirimiri, and one hundred at the side toward Kaiwaka, 
the lagoon on the western side of Te Whetu-kairangi, thus was Te 
Whetu-kairangi invested. Fern was obtained from the mainland 
wherewith to set fire to the stockade defences of the fortress, to be 
kindled when wind sprang up. A contention ensued in the rolling of 
bundles of fern against the defences, which did not reach them, so 
energetic were the men in tlie fort in casting whip-spears from the 
fighting stages of the fort. Seven men were slain by the garrison by 
means of these spears slung with a whip from the elevated 
platforms. This weapon was of this form : one end was brought to a 
point and deeply notched behind the point ; wlien this notched end 
pierced a person, it broke off in his body. (It is said that some of 
these rough spears had two such notches, and, when a man was 
pierced with one, and a person endeavoured to pull it out, then it 
broke at the second notch, the one jiearest the point, which end piece 
was left in the wound, and would assuredly cause death.) 

It is said that the investing force camped out in the open, and on 
a certain night came on a southerly storm accompanied by rain, 
whereupon the invaders were greatly distressed by the rain and cold, 
even to the next day. Also they suffered for want of food, for they 
had consumed all the kumara sets they had dug up in the cultivation 
grounds. The food supplies of the ocean, Budipatia (Haliotts), Kuhi 
{Mytilus), and pipi ( Chione) of Te Awa-a-Taia were unprocurable on 
account of the storm. 

Then Tara said to his warriors : — " To-morrow, in broad daylight, 
let us issue forth, and let three men challenge the company, while 
those behind press on and cover them. Grant them no rest ; ere the 
fight has raged long, they will be wearied on account of their hunger 
and exposure to the storm." 

Digitized by 


The Land of Tara. 16& 

All the people within Te Whetu-kairangi agreed to this action. 
In the dead of night they prepared food ; as they were eating it day 
came. Then Te Whetu-kairangi poured forth its braves. On account 
of the heavy fall of snow of the previous night continuing until the 
sortie was made by the warriors, when the enemy realised their action 
the whole six hundred once told had issued forth from the fort. 

The invaders fled to the western side of Te Awa-a-Taia; some 
reached it in safety, others, owing to the flood tide, perished in the 
waters, while yet others were slain by the local folk. Tamatea-kopiri 
and Marohia were the only chiefs killed ; one of the chiefs perished in 
the waters and his body was cast on shore. The story is that many 
escaped, that is they crossed the channel of Te Awa-a-Taia, floated 
across it, and when the pursuera arrived at the shore of Te Awa-a- 
Taia, the majority had already crossed. This was known by the 
number of dead, which amounted to one hundred odd. It is said that 
most of the dead were of Mua-upoko. Here ended this fight. 

At this period the folk occupying the three pas on the Ranga-a- 
Hiwi ridge were known as Ngati-Hinewai. 

(To he continued. J 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



By Sidnst H. Ray, m.a., f.r.a.i. 

IX. The Islands of Bennbll and Bellona. 

EENNELL Island is about ninety miles to the south-west of San 
Cristoyal in the Southern Solomons. It is about fifty miles in 
length from east to west, and about seven or eight miles broad. The 
smaller island of Bellona lies about fifteen miles north-west of 
Itennell, and is only about twenty miles in circumference. Both 
islands are composed of upheaved coral, and Bennell presents the 
appearance of an old reef with enclosed lagoon, which has been raised 
about 300 feet above the sea, and from a distance appears as a long 
flat island fringed with perpendicular cliffs of rugged coral. The 
surface of the old lagoon is covered with red, clayey soil, with a lake 
of brakish water. Fresh water is found only on the beach. 

A short account of Bennell and its inhabitants was given by Mr. 
Woodford in 1907,* and he has since given a much fuller account. ^ 
The islands were apparently discovered and named by Captain Butler 
in the ** Walpole" in 1801, but Bellona was first visited by Bishop 
Selwyn (the elder) and Mr. (afterwards Bishop) Patteson in the 
'' Southern Cross " in 1856.3 

In 1863 Bishop Patteson and Dr. Codrington went to Bellona to 
return Te Kiu, a light coloured tattooed youth whom the Bishop had 
had in New Zealand. While the Bishop was inland a native came 
down to the boat, and the Rev. J. Palmer, who knew Maori, had no 
difficulty in communicating with him. On this occasion Bishop 
Patteson took ashore the first pigs and first fowls seen on the island, 
as he had learned from Te Ktu that they had none. They were 
received with astonishment. The man who came to the boat gave Dr. 

1. ** Notes on Bennell Islaud.*' Man., 1907. No. 24. 

2. ** On some little-known Polynesian Settlements in the neighbourhood of the 
Solomon Islands.'* By Charles M. Woodford, O.M.G. 

3. Charlotte M. Yonge. ** Life of J. C. Patteson." London, 1874. I. p. 272. 

Digitized by 


Polynesian Lingui$iie$. 171 

Codrington hia shell adze (now in the British Museum). The scene is 
illustrated in Dr. Codrington's book. * 

Beyond the fact that the natives of Rennell and Bellona were 
Polynesians,* nothing was known of them until Mr. Woodfoi'd visited 
the islands. 

The south-west portion of Bennell is known as Bethona (which 
appears to be the same word as Bellona). The part more to 
east- ward is Mangihamoa. The villages on Bennell are : Juguge 
on the south-west coasts Okeoke Kungava on centre of the 
south coast, Deha Kungava on the south-east coast, Kungivi in 
the interior, at the west end of the lagoon, and Yinegau on the south 
coast of the lagoon. These names are due to Mr. Woodford. 

There is some uncertainty as to the native names of the islands. 
Mr. Woodford in 1907 stated that they had not been ascertained, "^ but 
in his later account he calls Bennell Mangana and Bellona Mangiki. 
In some MS. notes used by me in 1896, Bennell is called Moava and 
Bellona Moiki.* Miss Yonge in the account of Bishop Selwyn's visit 
names them Mongaua and Mongiki.^ Wawn calls Bennell Muava or 
Mungava, and Bellona Muighi or Mungiki.^ Thilenius uses Muava 
or Mungava for Bennell, and Moiki for Bellona.' The late Bev. F. 
Drew wrote Moaba and Moiki or Mongiki. 

Since the names are plainly made up of the word Mo (perhaps 
meaning Motu, island), with the native equivalents of the Polynesian 
Lava, Baha or Baha, and Liki or Biki referring to the size, I have 
used them in the form of Mo-ngava (i.e., long or large Mo) and 
Mo-ngiki (i.e., little Mo). 

According to Mr. Woodford Bennell is known to the Melanesians 
of San Crlstoval by the name of Totohuti. He considers that it may 
be identified with the island known to the Sikaiana natives as 
Fenuahala (land of the Pandanus tree). Fenuahala was said to have 
no sand beaches, and to be inhabited only by women, who reproduced 
the species by the aid of the banana fruit. ® Totohuti in the Wango 
language of San Cristoval means ** sap or juice of the banana." 

1. Rev. R. H. Codrington, D.D. "The Melanesians." Oxfoi-d, 1891. 
p. 322, and letter to S. H. Ray. 

2. Rev. R. H. Codrington. Op. cit., pp. 2, 16, 313,^ and ** Melanewan 
Languages." Oxford, 1886. pp. 8, 33. 

3. Man., 1907. No. 24. 

4. These were apparently made during Bishop Pattesou's visit in 1863. 

5. Charlotte M. Yonge. ♦* Life of J. C. Patteson." London, 1874. 

6. W. T. Wawn. *♦ The South Sea Isknders." London, 1893. p. 236. 

7. Dr. G. lliilenius. ** Ethnographische Ergebnisse aus Melanesien." Nova 
Acta. Abh. d. E. Leop. Carol. Deutsoh. Akad. d. Naturforsoher. Bd. LXXX. 
No. 1. Halle, 1902. 

8. ** On some little known Polynesian Settlements." *' Geographical Journal," 
July, 1916. 

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The only printed specimen of the language of Bennell consists of 
the numerals and nine words given hy Mr. Woodford.* Some MS. 
noted taken bv or for Bishop Patteson, apparently daring the visit of 
the ** Southern Cross*' to Bellona in 1856, or on his second visit in 
1863, formed the subject of a notice in 1896. ^<* Mr. Woodford has 
now very kindly sent me a much l<mger vocabulaiy in the Bennell 
language. The late Rev. F. Drew also gave me a larger vocabulary 
from Bellona. 

From the MS. notes I extract the following elements of Mo-ngiki 
grammar. I have added a few notes on Mo-ngava from Mr. 
Wooilford's vocabulary : — 

K Alphabet. — Vowel* : #, r, #, «. w. Consonants : iy mg^ p^/^ r, irA, 
/, m^ #, •, A, 

The nasal Nf ^as in English ^*timg *') appears to be intended for the 
Melanesian guttural trill $. Its sound is thus described in a note on 
the MS. ^' It i« not the pure iff sound, but has something of the r 
mixed with it.'' Thus it corresponds to the r or / of related dialects. 
In $«Mne words the sound seems to have >*eea miswd Cf. Mo>ngiki 
wtwds for ear, hand, ti^ngue. 

A WMHnasal $ is u:*^ by Mr. Dr^w and Mr. Woodfoid. 

The sounds of/, 4, and ir* are not distoKC ** Hove " m Mongiki 
is indiffwenth' />«^, hmmft or irtwjf, the SaBic«m Uie^ Maori vImwv. 
Mr. Woodfovd «s^ w m Mo-ngava in m^rmki sBoke ^^««, mki) and Mr«, 
nin^ Bolk Mr. Woodford a^d Mr. Drew c^ton «e & for r. 

i. AKiTCUes. — ^Th««e are : Ap ringular. mi pluimL if iBdefinite. Tk 
imftm ui%fmtm Xl*-ih^ the naaie of my laad is Mo-iki i t^mi if img9& 
« ar Ptm^^ t wuU mm* * who is the nanoe ctf the nnn .^wbo'i dw«fls here ? 
^^4 »<3t / 4|pi #K 6$hiMi ai^^ naany th«v^ ; mm mmhm ar fmt^ kitker for me 
a tblb^^>k ; 4^ «^. a gaicMct. 

Im M«>-«^T« SMne exa&pwM ^>w a <liax|!«o< vwnel in tW article: 
fr ifcwHir th^ ia::>d« ^ mmmm the SMu tm m^mf tW dkxsd. Ai afM the 
^ail Tb^c^ is 4U<^^ a ^iyii^ t^^ ir : «ir «^ a£L iir ftmfm ckieTs hoose. 
T^ |C;£nJ ^p* jtf i fBfcj^ tv^ ^Kvtsr si t^ wjc«i ^twsL iat ^-paHle" sf* 

$. A:c»"nxi»^ — nke» Kvjmt taie wa a^i ave caaBaaadhr «wd 
wtsii t^fisitacve #: ?mywr » afjtC <aie am.: ■• ^ r ipt. &ik many ; 
» ^ ^^fiMk a k«^ ib& : ■• AM Mt. «^ i,^«s. 

4. FW55V«jLi I\vVP*x:3Ps:: — 

l>uu : t ::3>dL ^ lar ^MMi : £ ^^xa. . ^ ■■■■ : i. «» ayaw ; Z 

im ^nw a 
F^ts^ : « JXkx . ^ acom ; I «i2L ^ ict ■mi ■ : ±^ im imz Z, 

4. li*a,. ::5W" Xa i%^ 

Digitized by 


Polynesian Unguisties. 173 

In the singular te is introduced (as in Tongan and Samoan) after 
the prepositions I'ia and ia : avatu kia te at, give to him ; hia te an, to 
me ; kia te koe, to thee. 

In Mo-ngava : Singular: 1. «« I, aku me. 2. ana you, 3. ana he, 

5. PossESSiVEs: — 

Singular: 1. toku; 2. ton; 3. tona. 

Dual : 1 (^incl.). tota ; 1 (excl ). toma ; 2. tongua ; 3. tonga. 
Plural: 1 (ind.). totatou] 1 (excl.). tomatou; 2. tokoton; 3. 
These consist of the article te, the word o and a suffixed pronoun. 
The corresponding words ma and mo are also foimd : makn te gau, for 
me a fish-hook ; makn te kai, for me food ; moku te ake, for me a 
garment. These show the distinction between a and o, usual in 

The Mo-ngava vocabulary has: Sing. 1. ookn my, 2. oo your, 
3. oona his. Plural : 3. ongatu theirs. 

6. Intekrogattv'ES. — Who? ko at? Wliat? tea? tia? Koai te 
ingoa o te tangata ? Who is the name of the man ? Tia te net? What 
is this ? 

7. Demonstratives. — This te nei, that te na, yonder te nga. These 
correspond to the Maori tenei, tena, tera. 

8. Verbs. — Only e is generally used in the notes, with au and siai 
as negatives : Tangata o ^Moava e ango ki Moiki, matou e ango ki 
Moava, people of Moava paddle to Moiki, we paddle to Moava ; ko koe 
e kongu ia te au, thou strikest me ; ko koe e kanukann a mato mttna, 
thou writest our words ; mato e au kite a Paulo, siai te fenua e tu mai, 
we do not see Bauro, * not the land stands up hither ; e au mahonga e 
au, I do not know ; e hengo te tangata ki te tau, is speared the man 
with the spear ^ ; ko au muna atu kia te koe, I speak to thee ; na toa 
siai, there are no fowls. 

In one phrase te is apparently a particle : tona hua te polo, its fruit 
(is) cut up (?), but the phrase is not translated and may mean its 
fruit the capsicum, the fruit (of) the capsicum. Samoan polo. (In 
Mo-ngava the word for * red ' is written with e : e unga, Samoan 
ulaula, red.) 

The imperative appears with no particle in the singular, but has a 
shortened pronoun in the plural : noho iho, sit down (to one) ; koto 
noho a kiho, sit down (to many). 

9. Adverbs. — Directive : mai hither, to me ; atu thither, to thee ; 
angi thither, to him ; iho down. 

1. Bauro is San Cristoyal Island, north-east of Belloiia. 

2. The translation is conjectural, and the phrase is untranslated in the MS. I 
take hengo and tau for the Samoan velo and too, Maori icero and too. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Interrogative : te hea ? where ? e hia ? Iiow many ? toko hia ? how 
many persons ? t iia ? whitlier ? where ? 

Place : ki ngunga above, ki ngango below. 

Time : iiiitt by and bye. 

A general relative adverb is at : na ika e apt at, fishes are many 

10. Prepositions. — ki to, kta to (pronouns) ; i, at, at. 

11. NmcBRAi^. — The Mo-ngiki numerals are thus given in the 
Patteson M8. and by Kev. F. Drew. The word given by the latter if 
different is placed within brackets. 

1 last, 2 nffua, 3 tongu, 4 ha^fa {fa), 5 ngima, 6 owo, 7 Jitu {whitu), 
8 vangu {bangu), 9 iva {iba), 10 angahungu, katoa, 

Katoa means *all/ and Rev. F. Drew gives tuani for the finish of 
the countiug, and also mentions a method of counting backwards from 
angahungti II, iva 12, hangti 13, to tasi. 

The higher numbers given in Patteson MS. are: 20 ngua ngahtingu, 
30 tongti ngahtmgu, 40 ha ngahungu, 50 ngima ngahimgu^ 100 noa, 200 
ngiia nga noa, 1000 afe, 10,000 nimo te tau nga. 

The numerals are used with the particle e : te ika e fa, four fishes. 

Mr. Woodford gives the Mo-ngava numei-als as follows : 1 tahi, 
2 ngua, 3 tongu, 4 ha, 5 ngima, 6 ono, 7 hitu, 8 hangn, 9 iwa, 10 katoa, 
20 katoa haka ngua. Haka in the last term is the causative particle. 

The grammar notes on the language of Mo-ngiki formed the 
material for a notice by W. von Bulow in 1908.^ He showed that 
the language practically became Samoan when the following sound 
changes were taken into account : — 

1 . A g, h, OT loh at the beginning of a word, or h between vowels 
represents Samoan y. 

2. The h following a consonant does not appear in Samoan. 

3. The k before or between vowels is elided in Samoan. 

4. The ng of syllables which have not ng in Samoan, represents the 
Samoan /. 

In the grammatical particle when these rules are applied no 
non-Samoan foi-m appears. 

1. Einige Bemerkungen zu dem Artikel '*Die Sprache von Moi-ki, Bellona 
Tuael " in dem Aufsatze von Sidney H. Ray : Mittheilungen iiber drei Dialekte der 
Salomon -Inseln. Von W. von Bulow, Matapoo, Samoa-Inseln. Zeitsch f. afrik. 
u. ocean. Sprachen, IV. Berlin, 1898. pp. 146-150. 

Digitized by 


PofyiiBsian Linguistics. 


XII. -^ A Vocabulary of the Mo-ngiki Language. 





Adult . . 

. ta-matua s. 

Fowl .. 

.. toa 

Arm .. 

ngima s. 

Fruit .. 

. . hua 8. 


, ngasiau 


.. ake 

Back .. 

. tua 8. 

Give , . 

. . avatu, au-mai s. 

Bag. basket 

. kete 8. 

Give present 

. . takioa s. } 


. huti 8. 

Go away 

. . bo-atu 

Beard .. 

. tangaha 

BeUy .. 

. menaba s. 

Hdir .. 

. . ngau-ung^ s. 

Bow n .. 

. kauhutu 

Hand .. 

. . ima 8. 


. tinac 

Head .. 

. . ung^ s. 


. kahoho 

Hear .. 

. . ngongo 8. 

B07 .. 

. tama-ngiki h. 

Hot .. 

.. buabua 

House . . 

. . haugai, fange, hange. 

Calf of leg 

. ate-bae s. 

whange s. x. 

Chest, breast 

. hatahata s. 

Chief .. 

. angiki. s. hakahua 

Know .. 

.. mahonga 

Child .. 

. tama s. 

Child (small) . 

. tama-iti s. 

Land . . 

. . fenua s. 

Clothing {man) . 

. huna 

Leg .. 

. . bae, wae s. 

Clothing {woman) 



. . au-ngutu, ngutu s. 


. niu 8. 


. . ngoa 8. 

Come . . 

. ngaji 

Louse .. 

.. kutu 8. 

Come here! 

. bo-mai 

Cut up 

. polo 

. . tangata s. 

Many . . 

.. api 

Deck . . 

. tau 8. 


. . moenga s. 

Die . . 

. oti 8. 

Moon .. 

. . masina, s. 


. tipa 


. . flugangau s. 

Dwell .. 

. uoho 8. 

Name .. 

. . ingoa 8. 

Ear .. 

. tainga, t«,nflringa s. 

Navel .. 

.. pito 

Earth .. 

. keange 

Neck .. 

. . ua 8. 

Eat .. 

. kai 8 

Net .. 

. . kupenga s. 

Elbow {outside) . 

. tuuge-ima 

Night . . 

.. po 8. 

Eye .. 

. mata s. 


.. bai-u 

Nose .. 

. . isu, ishu s. 

Fan** .. 

. ingi H. 

Fan V ., 

. bebeng^ 

Paddle v 

. . ango 8. 


. mangi-a-ima 


. dano-ima 

Rise .. 

.. tu 

Fish n 

. ika 8. 

Rope {sinnet) 

.. kaha 8. 

Fish t; . . 

. taia 


. kaut 

Sell . . 

. . tau 8. 


. uka 8. 

Ship .. 

. . lakatau 


. peka 8. 

Shoot V 

. . fana s. 

Flvinfif-fox teeth 



. . noho 8. 

t Written gau in the MS. notes. 

{ Written tagioa {g not nasal) by Rev. F. H. Drew. 

Digitized by 








Speak .. 

. . muna 


.. enga 

Spear .. 

. . tau 8. 


.. aio 

Staud .. 

. . tu 8. 

Tooth .. 

. . niho, uifo 8. 


.. menaba, 


Tree .. 

. . akau, ngakau s. 

Strike . . 

. . kongu, ta s. 


. . tongo 8. 

Water . . 

.. bai § 


. . na'a 

Write .. 

. . fafine 8. 
. . kanukanu 

Taro .. 

. . tango 8. 


. . tatau 8. 

Yam .. 

. . uhi 8. 

\ Thi8 word is inferred from the word given for 
* milk." Cf . note on «* nipple." 

• nipple," which is plainly 

Notes on the Mo-ngiki Vocabulaky. 

By the application of Herr von Bulow's rules a large number of 
the words agree with Samoan. These are marked by s. following: — 

Gk> away. Cf. Mao. ho^atu, go on. Also 
cf. oome here. 

Know. Sam. m&fola, to be plain, Mao. 
m&hora, exposed to view. 

Month. Herr v. Bulow suggests that 
this is a reduplication of Sam. ^/lati, 
to dispute, hence to dispute violently, 
with prominent activity of the mouth. 

Navel. Mao. pito, Sam. pute. 

Nipple. Apparently a mistake for 
•*milk.** Cf. Mao. wai «, milk, 
water of breast. 

Rise. Cf. Mao. tulu, Sam. Mao. tn, to 

Speak. Cf. Sam. muna^ to contradict, 
Mao. to speak treacherously. 

Strike. Herr v. Bulow compares kongu 
with Sam. oln, to be marked with 
stripes (as a consequence of being 
beaten). The word olu is not in 
Pratt's Samoan Dictionary, 3rd Ed. 

Sun . The word no' a appears irregularly 
for ngaa, which would be the correct 
representative of tlie Samoan la, Maori 

Thigh. The word enga probably means 
the "thick part" (i.e. of the leg). 
Cf. Sam. oga. 

Beard. Cf. Sam. talafa, hairy faoe, 
whiskers, and Mao. tUrd in tarih&u^ 

Belly. Cf. Sam. tifwe, entrails of fish. 

Bowstring. Cf. Sam. nfo, Mao. oho, 
line, etc. 

Clothing (man). Herr v. Bulow sug- 
gests a connection with Sam. funat, 
to conceal (i.e. the private parts). Cf. 
Mao. hun&. 

Clothing (woman). Cf. Mao. maro, 
woman's girdle. 

Come here. Cf. Mao. homai. Sam. 
an mat, bring. Also cf. go away. 

Cut up. Sam. polo, to cut up a pig with 
a bamboo knife. 

Drum. Cf. Sam. tipa, to rebound. 

Earth. Sam. 'ele, red earth, Mao. kirl 
in klrengih. 

Fan *'. Cf. Sam. vevela, hot, or pepe, 
flutter, with noun suffix ga. 

Fish t'. Cf. Sam. lata, to fish tor paloio, 

Fishing-line. — Cf. Sam. «'«, the paper- 
mulberry, and netting made from the 

Fowl. Sam. ton, cook. 

Garment. Cf. Sam. la^ei, a train, to 
wear a train. 

Digitized by 


Polj^nesian Linguistics. 


Fish- hook. ^^A'ai* or ymi is a common M^lanesian word, for which 
the Polyaesiau is usually matau, but otiier words I have not 
identified as definitely Polynesian or Melanesian. These are : — 

Hot. Bttabua, 

Arrow. Ngasiau. 

Bow. Kauhutu. Kau in the oommon 
word for ** tree '* in Melanesiau^ found 
as ** stalk, stick*' iu Polynesian, and 
common in words for ** bow.'* 

Chief. Hakahm. 

Come. Ngaji. 

Finger. Mangi a ima. With ima. 
Mao. rima, Sam. lima, Mangi 
perhaps represent mai as in Mao. 
mai'kuku, claw. 

Finger-nail. Dam is not identified. 

Flying-fox teeth. TttUi. 

Give as a present. Takioti^ or tagioa. 



, etc., 

Many. Apt, Cf. Sam. aupito^ many. 

Ship. Lakatau, Laka appears to be the 
common akOy vaka ship, as in the 
Motu (New Guinea) laka-toi, Mala- 
gasy lakana. But tan cannot be com- 
pared with the Motu toi, which means 
** three.'* Most likely tau is the word 
for trade. Sam. tau^ the ship being a 
** trading** vessel. 

Tongue. This may represent aleloy with 
the two Va lost. 

Write. Kanukanu. 

XIII. — A Vocabulary of the Mo-ngava Language. 
By C. M. Woodford, C.M.G. 





Ahve .. 

. . maungi 

Cloth (bark) 

. kougoa 


. . pua 

Cloud .. 

. tu-ugangi 

Club (stone'headed 

Bad .. 

. songu 


. ngakahu 

Bag (native, of 

Cold . . 

. makeke 


. . kete s. M. 

Come .. 

. to-mai, cf. s. mai 

Bag (another kind) mango 


. kangi s. 


. . huti 8. 

Cut hair r. 

. dobiku 

Beard .. 

. . tangaha, jovi 

Cut (or wound) n 


Belly .. 

. . tina 

Big (too much) 

. . e ha 

Dead .. 

. mamati,matimatis.M. 

Bird . . 

. . mauu 8. M. 

Drink . . 

. binu s. M. 

Black . . 

. . Ullgi 8. 

Drum . . 

. titipa 

Blow (the nose) 

. . isu-bohonu 

Duck {wild) 

. maugago 

Blow (with mouth) orka 

Boat . . 

. . vaka 8. M. 

., Ear .. 

. taiiginga s. M. 

Bone . . 

. . ivi 8. M. 

Eat .. 

. kai 8. M. 

Bowl (for lime) 

. . kapia 

Egg • • 

. tahi 

Bowl (for water 



. . tatai 

Fall down 

. po uugi 


. . me 


■ tugi 


. . nouoH, momono 

Far away 

. mamao s. m: 


. mauania 

Carry . . 

. . to'o 


. oti 

Catch (seize) 

. . jabu 

Fire . . 

. vakai 

Chew (betel) 

. . kaiiiu 

Fish . . 

. ika s. M. 

Chief's stick 

, . taaiigaka 



Child .. 

. . tama-itiiti s. m. 

Go . . 

. gevo 

Close up 

. . hitai-aki 

God . . 

. atua 8. M. 

Digitized by 








Good .. 

. gaui 

Satisfied (full up 

withfood) . 

. mahina 

Hand . . 

. ngfima s. 


. anga s. 

Hot . . 

. . bebenga s. m. 

Sea .. 

. to-moana s. x. 


. hangi s. x. 

Sharp .. 

. kakfli 

Hoiue {ehufi) . 

. de-tunga 

Sleep . . 

. momoi s. x. 


. ongea 

Smell r. 

. gubia 


, awahi (x. auahi) 

Itoh .. 

. . mamai 


, snmeko 

Snake . . 

. ngata s. 

Kill .. 

. taa s. X. 

Spear (larpe 

wooden) . 

. ta-tao 8. X. 

Land .. 

. te-hanua s. x. 

Spear {tipped with 

Leg .. 

. yai'i s. x. 

bone) . 

. kapiui 

Light ff. 

,. pungu 

Stand .. 

. tutU*U 8. 


. amod 

Star . . 

. hatu*u s. X. 

Louse .. 

. ungu s. X. 

Stone (o#ray*) . 

. ha'atu s. x. 


. mahongu 

Make .. 

String . . 

. uka, kaha s. 

Man .. 

. tangata s. x. 

Sun .. 

. nga'a s. x. 

Mat .. 

. majikc^i 


. titingo 

Tap (litne bowl 

Moon .. 

. mahina s. 

with stick) . 

. gpituku 


. hu-ngutu 

Taro . . 

. tangos. X. 


. ngutu X. 


. tatau 8. 

Tattooing {creseen 

Noee .. 

. isu 8. X. 

tie oti buttock) . . 

haka-thapa x. rape 


. katanga 

Teeth (of flying 


. tu'u 


. kangau 


. unguvanga 


. tupe 


. ngahoi 

Too much (big). 

. eha 

Pillow {wooden) 

. . ung^nga s. x. 

Tooth .. 

. niho 8. X. 

Turn round 

. hungiugfiu 

Quick . . 

. gHgage 

Walk about 

, degehu 

Red .. 

. unga s. X. 


. vai 8. X. 

Rub noses 

. 80Songo 8. X. sotiffi 


, tangi 8. X. 



Sail {*nat, of 


. hahini x. s. 

eoHoe) . 

. de-nga s. x. 

Sail (of skip) 

. tu-ng'a 8. X. 

Yawn . . 

. mubaba s. 

Sand (white) . 

. isi mana*a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Poljnman Lingui$ties. 


Notes on the Mo-ngava Vocabulary. 

By S. it. Ray. 

Words cognate with 8amoan are marked s, if with Maori m. : — 

Alive. Maungi repreMents a verj 

oommon Melanefdan word mam-i, life, 

Areca nut. Of. San Cristoval bua. ThiA 

i8 the common Solomon Islatid word. 
Beard. Of. 8. lalafa, etc. 
Belly. Of 8. tituf^t entrails. 
Blow nose. Of. s. mm, hohonu 
Blow {with month). Cf. M. whakaha 
Bowl (for water), Cf . s. tata, baler. 
Broken. With tiwioa cf. 8. nonoa tie. 

Jfomoiio is pps. a mistaks for momomo, 

8. broken. 
Carry. Cf. s. to 
Chew betel, x. kamu eat. 
Close up. Cf. 8. fetiuaHf crowded 

Cloth. Cf. 8. *ohaf property of foreign 

Clo«d. PpB. for asu smoke, ngangi sky. 
Club. The same word as ** tree *' as in 

Tahiti and Nine. 
Cold. 8. »m*e% to shiver. 
Cut hair. m. tope, to cut off. 
Drum. Cf. s. tipa. 
Fall down. Apparently a cautionary 

word ** dark,'* hence * fall.* 

Fan. Cf . M. tuki [Y) 

Finish. Cf. s. x. oti, die, x. oti, finish 

Fire. Cf . x. wahie, fuel. 

Fish-hook. Cf . note on Bfongivi Vocabu- 

Hungry. Cf. s. ofc, to beg, x. owy<f, 

Itch. Cf. K. matna*i pi. of «w*t, sick, 


Light. Puugii repreHcuts a common, 

Melanesian word pulu^ torch, candle. 

San Cristoval hum. 
Mirror. Cf . x. titiroj look. 
Moustache. Hu is pps. for huruj hair, 

s./m/m, and ngutu is ** mouth.** 
Paddle. Probably plural article ngay 

and hoij x. hoe paddle. 
Sharp. Cf. x. kaiy to bite. 
Smoke. Cf. x. an smoke, ahi fire. 
Smoke. SuniekOy English *' tobacco.** 
Stretch. Cf. m. x. ttwfola, spread out. 
Tap. Cf. 8. ongavai. 
Thigh. Cf. 8. ongavai 
Turn round. Cf. h./hH^ x. huri. 
Whit«^. Cf. 8. sesengtty to be dazzled. 

A few words which are unlike 8. or x. are the same as in the Reef Islands 
(near Santa Cruz). Some examples are : big ha (b.i. fa) : bowl for lime kapia 
(e.i. kapia); good gani^ ngaui (e.i. iavoi) ; house of chief de ttmga (b.i. iaunga 
house). The word for **breadfiniit,** me^ is the same an in Tikopia (and EaHteni 
Polynesian) mei^ and Micronesian mai. 

These notes conclude the series on ** Polynesian Languages of the 
Solomon Islands." An account of the " Polynesian Languages of the 
Santa Cruz Islands " will follow. 

Digitized by 



By THE Eev. Hoeta Te Hata of Waitahanui. 
Translated by the Rev. II. J. Fi,etcher, Taupo. 

( Continued from page 97, Vol. XXVI.) 

meremere and te heuheu the first. 

WE now tell of Meremere tlie 2nd and Te Heuheu the Ist. 
[Meremere is the same person as the Meremere given in the 
list No. 1 on page 25 of Vol. XXVI ** Journal Polynesian Society."] 
This man for some unknown reason went to Waitangi, Rotoiti, and 
died there. His soft and heir was Te Rangi-tua-matotoru, who was a 
man of great power and influence and who did much to uphold the 
mana of Ngati-Tuharetoa. In his time tliere was much fighting, but 
I am unable to tell the reason of the tigliting. This fighting was the 
cause of much passing to and frt) of Ngati-Tuharetoa. On one 
occasion Tuharetoa met some of Ngati-Kea at Okurawi on the 
Wairakei Block. A fight ensued and Ngati-Kea were beaten and 
their chiefs Te Ihukino, Kongo- whiti-ao and Te Hau-o-Taranaki were 
killed. It was at this time Te Tauri lost his taiaha (or halbert) iii a 
peculiar way. After the fight Tuharetoa collected the bodies of the 
slain and placed them in a heap ; but there seems to have been one 
of them only stunned. For in the night, while tlie taua was asleep and 
the taiaha was struck upright near the heap of slain, the man arose, 
grasped the taiaha and fled. The name of the taiaha was * Matua-kore.' 

We return to the story of Matotoru the sou of Meremere. When 
he grew up his first work was to build a house. This house was built 
at Heretoa, Roto-a-Ira. 

It was named Haruru-o-te-rangi, and it was modelled after the 
plan of a lohare called Te Riri-ka- ware ware at Tokaanu. There was 
another whare like it at Motu-tere called Hau-tu-te-raugi. The whare 
of Te Rangi-tua-matotoru was a sacred carved house, where the 
Maori gods Ririo, Takaka and all their company were accustomed to 
frequent. The reason why they used it was because the liouse was 
named after their dwelling place on Tongariro. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Ugati'Tuhareioa Occupation of Taupo-nut'O'Tia. 181 

[These gods were said to be of liuinan form, and they were in the 
habit of sweeping down on the dwellers in Taupo-nui-a-Tia. A 
Maori artist has depicted his idea of what they were like on the walls 
of a wharepuni at Korohe. If they were anything like their portraits, 
they were fearsome monsters indeed.] 

The axe used in sharpening the rafters and posts of the 
house was of greenstone, and it was named Hauhau-pounamu. 
The chisels used in (carving the posts and other things were also of 
greenstone, and were given the same name as the axe. There was a 
song about these houses, about Haruru-a-te-rangi, Riri-ka-wareware 
and Hau-tu-te-rangi. This is the song : — 

Kaore hoki koia te mamae 

E wahi pu ana te tau o taku ate 

Ka tu te whare puni ko Haruru-a-te-rangi 

Hei whukawaiutanga mo taua e 

E kaoa nei kai runga tuakana ki 

Te manaaki ki te whare ka tu ki Tokaanu 

Ko Te Riri-ka-wareware 

Ka tu ki Motu-tere ko Hau-tu-te-rangi 

Ka ngangana mai te whakairo 

Na Hopara i taratarai ki te pounamu 

Te reo o te wai i mate ano au 

Ki te mapunga mai o tona reo haere 

Kia maro te mau toki 

Kai hukerikeria kai motu mai to poupou 

Waiho tonu atu kia kino ana a he tauira 

Ki te mau toki Tu-ramarama-i-nuku Tu-ramarama-i-rangi 

Haere i te pupuke haere i te korouga 

Haere i te ara tapu o Tane 

Kai te whakarite koe ki te marama 

E titi mai ra ki tou tumuaki 

Ka whaka — Maui koe ia a koe. 


Alas the pain I feel throbbing as if it would break my heart 
strings. We have, as yet, no liouse, but our elder brother has taken 
pity on us. 

There will stand a large house to be called Haruru-o-te-rangi. 
At Tokaanu there is Te Eiri-ka- ware ware and Hau-tu-te-rangi at 
Motu-tere. There gleams the carving of Hopara, shaped with the 
gi'eenstone. Listen to the voice of tlie waters ; I am weary with the 
sound of its rushing. 

Hold fast tlie adze, gi'ip it finnly, that tlie posts may be sliaped. 
Do it carefully, lest the pattern be marred. Hold fast the adze 
* Tu-ramai*ama-i-nuku, ^ Tu-ramarama-i-rangi. 

1 and 2 are given on page 161 of Vol. I. ** W.A.H.M.," as two of the beingn 
who dwelt in the bosom of Bangi and Papa before their separation. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Go on learning and desiring to tread the sacred paths of Tane, 
until you are like tlie moon, now shining on your head, for brightness. 
Until you become as clever as Maui. 

The man who carved this house, Hau-tu-te-rangi, was Hopara, 
a man skilled in the art of carving. After the erection of the house the 
fame of Te Bangi-tua-matotoru increased among his own people and 
throughout the whole of Taupo-nui-a-Tia. 

This is another exploit of this man : — A man named Kereua of 
Ngati-Awa was killed near the Waikato, to the north of Tauliara, by 
some of Ngati-Tahu. A chief named Tu-taka-roa, a young relative of 
Te Whatu-Pounamu of Tu-hare-toa, heard of the death of Kereua, 
who was also a connection of liis. Tu-taka-roa at once started for 
Motu-tere, where Te Eangi-tua-matotoru was 'living. When he 
arrived, Matotoru said to him, ** Where are you going?" He replied, 
**I am going to Whakatane to see about the death of our relative 
Kereua, and to kill some one in payment." Matatorii said, ** If you 
return alive take a recompense for Kereua from my armpits.'' 

The reason for this saying of Mototoru is as under : — 

Tu-taka-roa went on to Whakatane to see Ngati-Awa. When they 
heard the reasons for his coming they arranged a truce between them. 
Ngati-Awa and Tu-taka-roa then arranged to avenge the death of 
Kereua. They came to the Waikato and assaulted the Ngati-Tahu 
pa and took it. 

A number of men were killed, but Tama-kino fled. He was seen 
by Tu-taka-roa, who went in pursuit. Tama-kino was overtaken and 
killed as payment for Kereua. 

Ngati-Awa then returned to Whakatane, and Tu-taka-roa came on 
to Taupo, to Te Rangi-tua-matotoru at Motutere. He told Matotoru 
that he had killed Tama-kino. Matotoru replied, **Well then, it 
will be for us to avenge the death of Tama-kino." Tu-taka-roa knew 
from this that at some time he would be the payment for Tama-kino. 

Tu-taka-roa travelled on until he came to Toka-anu, then Te 
Whatu-pounamu, an elder relative of Tama-kino, heai-d of his death. 
Te Whatu [and others] were very angf}' at this, for Tama-kino 
belonged to this place ; he was a Ngati-Tu-hare-toa. 

Tu-taka-roa kept in mind the words of Matotoru, that he would 
avenge the death of Tama-kino. He built 2l pa for himself and named 
it Whaka-oho-kau. This pa stood on the western side of the mouth 
of the Toka-anu stream by the side of the sea of Taupo. 

Mototoru had said that he himself would avenge Tamakino, but 
he sent messengers to the Arawa, to Tu-hou-raugi, to Ngati-Whakaue, 
to Rangi-tihi and other hapus of Te Arawa to come and avenge the 
death of Tama-kino. 

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The Ngaii'Tuhareioa Occupation of Taupo-nui-a-Tia. 183 

The coming of Te Arawa was like that of gi'asshoppers. They 
came on to Mototoru at Motutere, and then on to Tokaanu to beseige 
the pa of Tu-taka-roa. Mototoru came on with the party and they 
asked him how they should know Tu-taka-roa. Mototoru told them 
that Tu-taka-roa could not be hidden for he was a tall stout man, a 
warrior and a good man to fight. This description of Tu-taka-ix)a by 
Matotoru was sufficient for the taua. Some of the party went on by 
canoes to the mouth of the Tongariro river with Matotoru. They 
landed there and waited for the rest of the party to come along the 
shore so that they might all go across to the assault of Tu-taka-roa' & 
pa. While they were waiting Matotoru went away quietly by himself 
to make peace with Tu-taka-roa. It was only when the taua was- 
making preparations for the fight that his absence was discovered. 
The canoes were paddled across and approached close to the pa. As- 
they came Tu-taka-roa came out of the pa, and he was recognised 
by the taua by the signs mentioned by Matotoru. Tu-taka-roa waded 
out into the lake to try and spear some of them. He waded out until 
the water was up to his breast, then he turned to see what had 
become of his men. Not seeing them, he turned and made for the- 
shore. The canoes chased him, but he reached the pa in safety. 

As the canoes reached the shore the men saw Matotoru comings 
out of the pa, and they knew by that that peace had been made. The 
men were angry at the idea of peace being made in this way. Te- 
Arawa returned to their own country. 

Some time after this there was a man named Tai-hakoa, of Taupo,. 
who owned two pas in the Taupo district named Nga-mokai and 
Operua, went on a visit to Te Arawa. As he went by lake Tarawera 
he came upon a party of Te Arawa and a party of Tuhoe fighting. 
Tai-hakoa joined himself to the Arawa. They met and fought at 
Puke-kahu and Te Arawa were beaten. Tai-hakoa was killed, 
and as he had l>een specially noticed by Tuhoe, some of the captives- 
they had taken were asked about him. The prisoners said he was a 
man of Taupo. 

This is the reason why trouble afterwards came to Taupo. It wa» 
the **seen face of Tai-hakoa," and his unwarranted interference in the^ 
fight between Tuhoe and Te Arawa, that was the cause of the fighting^ 
that afterwards took place at Taupo. When Tuhoe came they over- 
whelmed t^o pas belonging to Tai-hakoa. These pas were Nga-mokai 
and Operua. Tai-hakoa's people fell before the invaders and many 
of them were taken prisoners. 

Among the slain was Te Hinga-nui a grandson of Te Rangi-tua- 
matotoru. Matotoru at this time was living at Motu-tere when he 
heard of the taking of these pas by Tuhoe. He at once thought that 
perhaps his gi-andson had been either taken captive or slain. So he 
went on board his canoe, with thirty men to paddle, and came on to- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Haiuaria. They anchored outside in the sea (lake), and Matotorii 
called out to the taua to enquire if Te Purewa, Te Umu-ariki and Te 
Hiko, chiefs of Tuhoe were there. The reply was, " They are here." 
Matotoru then asked that they might be called. Tlie chiefs were 
•called, and Te Purewa and his companions stood up on the cliffs at 
Nga-totara, Hamaria. Mototoru then called out, ^' Has my grandson 
been killed ? " Te Purewa replied, ** What was he like ? " Matotoru 
«aid, " He was red haired." Te Purewa said, " Yes, lie is dead." 
Matotoru waved liis hand. He then made aiTangements for peace with 
Te Purewa and the other chief, and they agreed upon Opepe as the 
place where peace should be made. The peace was to be the " Peace 
of the Jade door " that should never be broken. When tliese things 
wei'e finished Matotoru and his party returned to Motu-tere. 

When they arnved there they found a party of Tu-hare-toa, who 
had come in their canoes to attack Tuhoe. Matotoru advised them to 
retuni for he had made peace with Tuhoe. But the men stood up aud 
persisted in their intention of going on to fight Tuhoe, and because of 
the desire of the chiefs of Tu-hare-toa the advice of Matotoru was 
imheeded. The taua went on to Orona [at Hamaria] and fell upon 
Tuhoe, thus breaking the peace that Matotoni had made. Tu-hare-toa 
was badly beaten. 

[There are several references to Tai-hakoa in Mr. E. Best's 
valuable papers published in the " Journal of the Polynesian Society." 
In Vol. VI., pages 9-66, and Vol. XL, pages 14, 57, 58 and 132.] 

Some time after the above events Matotoru died and liis body was 
placed in a small house on Motu-taiko Island. The house stood there 
witli the body inside it with a Maori mat as a screen across the door- 
way. This was the Maori custom of treating the bodies of their 
principal chiefs. 

While the body lay there in the house on Motu-taiko a party of 
Ngati-Maru and Ngati-Raukawa came through on their way to 
Hau-raki and Maunga-Tautari. Tliey were returning from Kapiti, 
and their leaders were Pataua, Wahine-iti and Hape. The party 
called at Te Rapa, where Te Heuheu was living, to boiTow canoes 
from him. 

The canoes were given to them, aud they were told to go straight 
■on and leave the canoes at Marae-kowhai. 

Bnt they had only got beyond Wliaka-rongo-tukituki at Pukawa, 
when they went ashore and dug up some bodies of the dead belonging 
to Ngati-rua. When this was known to some of the tnbe, they sent on 
to Te Heulieu and told Jiim tliat tlie bodies of liis relatives had been 
desecrated by Ngati-Maru and Ngati-Raukawa. Te Heuheu replied, 
** They are not people of ordinary rank. Ko te tangata i mohio ki te 
matatahi, me te kaituha.^^ This is a saying of Te Heuheu about 
Matatoini. The words ** matatahV^ and ^^ kaituha^^ are to be undei-fetood 

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The Ngaii' Tuharetoa Occupation of Taufw^nui^a- Tia, 185 

as applying? to Te BaHgi-tua-raatotora, for lie was la)^il,who had tbe 
power of life and death. The saying of Te Heuheu was uttered 
because Ngati- Maria and Raukawa h«^d goneM-mt cf. tlieir wajvljoA-isit 
Mo tu-Taiko and desecrate the grave of Matotoru;., • v. i »;»•«: k I 

They had taken away the mat .that was used>;ae a ;(?AirtaiM ti* the 
doorway of the whare in which the body of- Matotora wag' lying, riVft^r 
this they crossed over to Motu-tere and illused the people living there 
by taking away their garments and all their other goods. They then; 
paddled on towards Ranga-tira [at the north end of the lake]^ 

As soon as they had gone on, Hurihia, a sister of Te Heuheu, who 
was married to Te Tauri, a grandson of Matotoru^ started for Te:Rapa 
to tell Te Heuheu what had happened. As she went she had an old 
broken net girt around her loins, with no other garment, for they had 
all been taken by Ngati-Maru. When Te Hetiheu saw his siste^r 
ooming with nothing on ^ave an old n«t, he . knew that the people of 
Motu-tere had been badly used by Ngati-Mani. He asked hef ^he4r 
had happened, and she told how they had been i^obbed, and th^t. the 
grave of Matotoru had been desecrated by the party oj ^gati-Ma^'U a«^d 
Ngati- Raukawa. 

Word was at once sent forth to all the boundaries of .T»^-hare-toH 
to assemble at Motu-tere. When they were assembled, Pipiii and Te 
Tauri advised Te Heuheu not to pursue Ngati -Maru, but to let the 
desecration work its own revenge. [The violatipi) of the ta^u of such a 
man as Matotoru would be avenged by his atue^ or god.] This advice 
was by no means pleasing to Te Heuheu ; he was for instant pursuit* 
His counsel was taken and the chase commenced. 

This was one of those actions that led to the mam that Te Heuheu 
became famous for. When the canoes went on to Motu-tere, Hape 
went from there by land, for he reckoned from the words of the otliers 
in the pa that Ngati-Maru would not be pursued. 

Ngati -Maru and Ngati-Raukawa arrived at Ranga-tira, and;were 
seen by the men living there. Hape had already arrived and told his^ 
story, so the men of the pa knew about Matotom. Hape*was hidden 
by his relatives, so that he would not be seen by the visitors. \ 

The men of the pa told the ope or wai'-partyjto bind their canoes 
with three ropes to each canoe so that they might not be drawn away 
into the current of the Waikato. So the canoes were tied to portions 
of the palisading of the pa. The pa was Ranga-tira. The ope slept 

The pursuing Ngati -Tu-hare-toa crossed to the Karaka, about two 
miles from Ranga-tira, and left their canoes drawn up on shore. They 
then sent some spies along to see where the ope were camped. The 
spies found them asleep outside of the pa, so they quickly went back to 
report. Te Heuheu ordered his party to surround the sleeping ope and 
wait for the dawn. This was done, and the party crouched r^ady and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


watched for daylight. At the first sti*eRk of dawn the assault was 

Ngati-Maru and Ngati-Raukawa were badly beaten, and the chiefs 
Fataua and Wahine-iti were killed. 

In this way the insult to Te Rangi-tua-matotoru was amply 
avenged as a lesson to the generations coming after. 

There was no chief of those days equal to Te Rangi-tua-matotoru 
in mana. It was because of his mana that Te Heuheu spoke of him — 
** Te tangata i mohio ki te matatahi nie te kaitukay (The man who 
understood good and evil, or who had the power of life and death.) He 
was the equal of men like Rangi-horoa of Tarawera, Te Ruruku-o-te- 
rangi of Heretaunga, and others. 

Another story is told of Matotoru and Te Ua-mai-mngi. There 
was a man named Takuao of Ngati-Kahuhunu man*ied to a woman 
named Te Ra-to-ahiahi of Ngati-Awa. Because of his own connection 
with Heretaunga, and his wife belonging to Ngati-<Awa of Whaka- 
tane, he was continually passing to and fro. On one occasion as he 
was passing he was attacked and killed by some people along the track. 

When Ngati-Kahuhunu heard of it they closed the tracks between 
the two places. One track by way of Titi-o-kura, and the other by 
way of Te Ranga-a-Tawhao. So that no one was able to come from 
the east to this place, or to go from this side to the East Coast. Te 
Ua-mai-rangi was unable to visit his people Ngati-Awa and Ngati- 
Pikiao of this side because of the pi*ohibition. Te Rangi-tua-matotoi*u 
heard that Te Ua-mai-rangi was unable to get through, so he sent him 
a message to come on to Motu-tere by way of Tahu-nui and Te 
Puta-a-te-haki. Te Ua did so, and then was able to get to his people at 
Roto-iti and Whakatane. [Te. Ua-niai-rangi wt^J the gi'andfather of 
Renata Kawepo. His name and that of Te Rangi-tua-matotoru are 
coupled together in the " Polynesian Journal," Vol. XXI., page 86.J 

Matotoru in mentioned in the following patere, it is called the 
** Patere of Manomano." 

E noho ana i te koko ki Wai-hora, 

Hewa uoa ki te karanga oho noa mai ko tu pari. 

£ hoa ma taia atu i te putanga mai i te matarae ki 

Hinga-rae. Pewhea teua te kokihi o te waka i a Te 

Puau. Ma ie kawariki e taunu mai he tureti ahahaia. 

He aha te manu e tiorero nei te moana P 

He tara ka muhuka i maua atu. £ Hi, aku korero 

Hau atu ana ki te tore wa he kenokeuo 

He pororua tupapatihake te tau iho turama touu. 

Ka haere ra i kafaa o te ngutu ki Waikato. 

Ki a Muri-whenua ai rawa he peha turanga korero 

Ki te ngutu maioro e, ki Hangahauga ki a te Whata-uui. 

Ko wai te pai kia torere au ko Ta-tare. 

B[ai te uranga o tera ko Hine-mati-oro. 

Te mutu noa te korero. Wani noa koe i te tau tahi. 

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The Mgatt'Tuharetoa Occupation of Taupo^nui-a'Tia. 187 

Wani noa koe i te tau rua. Waiho aiio te toremi papa, 

Kia auiui. E kore pea e tahuritia mai. He tihotihoia 

Katahi. He waha maugaia ka rua. Ako noa koutou nei 

Ki te atahu. He ougaonga i te ugaherehere. 

Ko au kia wehe nei. Ka whiti ra i te taha mate. 

Ka wani ra i taha kaha. Ka tau kau 1 waeiiga. 

Ko nga ruru au o te ngare o te Kobera. 

Taku pukepuke ko Pae-nui-o-Rehua. 

Taku taumata ko Hinemoa. Kia maranta te titiro 

Ki nga keo rau ki Tarawera. Awhi ana au 

Ko te hahae kia honjai te koriraugi 

Hai whakangaoko noa i toku kiri. 

E tara inai nei e te ngutu tni. « 

Mei kore te kei o te waka i a Haerebuka. 

Piri ana au i te kopa o te wbare o Te Rang^-kouariro 

Ko tona tama. Hoki mai ano ki te paekiri ki te Motu- 

Tawa. Ko te Kaburoro koi be mai Te Hurinui. 

He ruru pebopebo au. Mene touu mai runga, 

Meue touu and raro, Mene tonu mai runga, 

Mene toun ank raro, Mene tonu mai te ngare o Te 

Rangi-Ita. Hei kabika i te aroaro. 

Katabi nei ka tikanga, katabi nei kit ponanga, 

Katabi nei ka rawe rua taku mea. 

Ki te mea no roa te tau te anmnga mai a taku mea. 

He aniwba koia te mauawanui «> taku mea. 

Ka whiti nei kai te pae. Ka rongo ra te ngutu iti. 

Ka rongo ra te ngputu rahi. E Whata ! boea te wai ki 

Taupo. Kai te whakatutu au i taku poi tawhare^ 

Ko titi te warn, bewa noa nei ki te kai*aiiga o runga 

Te rangi. Ka berea i te ibi o te ra. 

Ka kutia mai e te paea o banga kino e te waro. 

I tari mai te pukupuku. I tari mai te harebare. 

Tc hokabokanga o te marama. Te tau akinga o Matariki. 

Takubuihui ko Hinewai, Tautoru, Whanui, ko Puanga 

Ko Rehua kai tangata. Kia mau koia e Tao te hapai 

Hai mariunga kokinga ki Hauraki. 

Hangarau e waiho noa i te takiwa ki kai perei. 

Ka kite ra Matotoru e tutaki i te wbakataumanutanga 

O ana na waka. Ko koia e ara, e.* 

[Tbei*e are seveml obscure " points in this patere to be cleared up 
before we can give a passable translation.] 
There is another patere beginning : — 

'* E nobo ana i toku taumata i Tibeia/' 

But as this has already appeared in the pages of the ** Polynesian 
Journal," Vol. XV., page 11; and another vereion is given in Sir 
George Grey's " Moteatea," we do not give it.] 

♦Many words in this composition appear doubtful — they are not known in 
other connections. Maoris are much given to altering common words when used 
in song for the sake of euphony. — Editob. 

Digitized by 



By H. I). Skinner. 

THE various notes and papers on this subject that have appeared 
in recent numbera of the 'Journal' have elicited the information 
that mummification was practised in recent times among Nga-Puhi. 
It does not appear to have been recorded elsewhere in New Zealand. 
From this it might be argued that the practice liad been introduced 
among Nga-Puhi, perliaps in the not very distant past, from some 
other part of the Pacific. Tliat such was not the case is proved, 
liowever, by the Moriori evidence. In Volume 11. of the ** Memoirs 
of the Polynesian Society," page 184, Alexander Shand writes: "The 
Morioris also had a custom of opening the bowels of the dead ; for 
love, it is said — mana-pou or matmwa-poii — but my informant in this 
case neglected to say what next transpired. In other cases they also 
sometimes suspended the bodies close to the roads leading out from 
their houses, and even, it is said, inside their houses, scraping off the 
black mildew or decayed matter ; this, however, appears exceptional, 
and not to have been the prevailing custom, although possibly a 
modification of some ancient one partially adhiered to ; nor does it 
appear probable that they dwelt in the house in such a case, such 
being contrary to their general custom of burying the dead as soon as 
possible." If the facts here recorded are compared with those set out 
by Hare Hongi it is impossible to doubt that Shand has, quite 
imconsciously, set on re(;ord the practice of mummification among the 
Morioris. The correspondence between the two accounts is complete. 
The thought suggests itself that, in transferring the information from 
his note book to his MS. for publication, Shand may^ to a' small 
extent, have broken the continuity of the original Moriori statement. 
In his too generous reference to the present writer's work and of 
the review which called forth Hare Hongi's paper, Dr. Elliot Smith 
quotes me as asserting that the practice of canoe burial had no 
connection with the similar Egyptian custom, but that it ** arose in a 
wholh' different way from wholly different circumstances." If he 
consults the review again he will see that I made no such dogmatic 
assertion as he attributed to me. My words were: **The second point 
arises from the connection that exists throughout the Pacific, and is 
clearly expressed among the Maori, between the rites of burial and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Mummification among the Maoris, 189 

the canoe. Does this relationship prove connection with Egypt, where 
the same connection existed, or did it arise in a wholly different way, 
from wholly different circumstances? T)ie weight of evidence, too 
long to state in this review, points to the latter alternative." 

In his great work, ** The History of Society in Melanesia," 
Dr. Kivers has essayed the task of setting forth and elucidating, 
among otlier customs, the burial rites of Melanesia. Except in so far 
as Kivers has dealt with it, the problem in Polynesia still remains 
unattacked. As an indication of its complexity it may be mentioned 
that in a single tiny group— the Chatham Islands — the following 
methods of disposal of the dead were practised : interment in the 
sitting position, burial in the sitting position with half the body al)ove 
the ground, burial erect, burial in a coffin, cremation, and launching 
the dead to sea in a canoe. There is also evidence for interment 
horizontally and for the abandonment of the bodies of the common 
people to decay on the tiiahus. This diversity of burial customs 
indicates that a great diversity of race must have gone to the forma- 
tion of Moriori society. The present writer does not attempt to 
elucidate this diversity. An explanation of the connection between 
canoes and burial may, however, be suggested. All the islands in 
Polynesia were colonised by inmiigrants who travelled in canoes. 
There is a belief widely spread in Polynesia that the semis of the dead 
plunge into the sea and return to the fatherland. Speaking of the 
Morioris, Shand says : **The bodies of the dead were always placed 
facing west, as the way back to Hawaiki " (the original fatherland), 
** whither the spirits returned, indicating thereby, no doubt, the 
direction from which the canoes came." And further, ** The spirits 
dived into the sea at Perau, on their way back to Hawaiki — coming 
on their way thither along the high ridge of the land down to where 
the Rautini gi'ew, over the crossed branches of which went the chiefs, 
but under them the common people, then, seizing the aka vine, swung 
off with a dive into the sea, emerging ultimately at Hawaiki, the 
cradle of their race." In accordance with this belief of the return of 
the dead to the home across the sea, the dead were sometimes actually 
launched to sea in a canoe. This is the explanation of the coimection 
between the dead and the canoe which I had in mind when writing 
the review quoted above. I still believe that by itself it would be a 
perfectly legitimate explanation. The strength of Dr. Elliot Smith's 
general proposition is so strong, however, that his explanation of 
Egyptian influence must be admitted as the more probable. While it 
is legitimate to argue that a practice such as mummification may 
have arisen independently m Egypt and in the Pacific, it does not 
seem possible that such arbitary practices as mummification, the 
connection of the dead with boats, and sun-worship could have arisen 
and become associated independently in Chatham Island and in Egypt. 

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[274] Some Notes on Taumako Relationship Names. 

While spending a day at Pamua, a school belonging to the Melanesian Mission 
where young boys are trained, I met two hoys from the Duff Group (Taumako), 
one about 16 years old, the other younger. Both were pure Polynesians in 
appearance, tall and fair, with black, straight hair. The following facts which I 
learned from them may be of interest to your readers. I could not get a full list 
of their relationship terms but sama meiins father, father's brother, and mother's 
brother, while tina is mother, father's sister, and mother's sister. Both grand- 
father and gfrandmother wore called sipu, a term also given to the husband of the 
father's sister. Son is tuhmta liki (daughter ?). Brother is expressed by three 
words tuku kafe (apparently a general word), ttikti tokana elder brother and tuku 
teina younger brother. Sister is tuku tqfine whether elder or younger. There is 
a special bond between a boy and his mother's brother, he may take any of his 
uncle's property freely, and when the uncle dies all his property goes to his 

The people are divided apparently into clans named after fish ; for example, 
the shark {pakewa) clan, the members of which are forbidden to kill or eat a shark 
(the elder of my informants belonged to this), the turtle {fonu) clan, the alala 
clan (to which my other informant belonged ; apparently alala iA a ray), the takuo 
clan (a long fish) and others. None of the clans can kill or eat the fowl kio. A 
boy belongs to the clan of his mother. 

The people chew betel-nut, calling the whole process kamu (the San Cristoval 
word is damn or tamu) . The leaf they call lau pita, the areca nut matapij and the 
lime kapia. They also drink kava, which they call puo, and which is prepared by 
chewing ; but this is not a common habit like betel chewing, for the kava is only 
drunk on special occasions ; as at the time of a funeral, one of my informants 

I hope this note may be of interest though the infonnation it contains is so 
scanty and incomplete. I talked to the boys in the Mottt language which both 
spoke well, and when I visit Pamua again in two or three months' time may be 
able to get more for you, if you are interested in the people. 

C. E. Fox. 
Tarumare, San Cristoval, 

Solomon Islands. 

[275] Societe d'Etudes Oceaniennes. 

We have received with much pleasure the first Bulletin of the new Society 
organised at Tahiti for the study of similar things to those of our Society. We 
heartily welcome our new comrades in the field of Polynesian studies, and trust 
they may have a prosperous existence. The ** Arrcte," creating the •' Societe 
d'Etudes Oceaniennes " under the hand of His Excellency M. G. Julien, Governor 

Digitized by 


Notes and Queries, 191 

of the French Establishment in Oceania, declares in it* first article the objects of 
the Society as follows : — 

Article Ist. — '* There is founded at Papeete, chief site of the French Establish* 
meut of Oceania, a group (or association) named the *• Soci^te d'Etudes- 
Oceaniennes,' having for object the study on the ground of all questions attaching- 
to Anthropology, Ethnology, Philology, ArchaBology, the history and institutions, 
manners, customs and traditions of the Maoris of Eastern Poljmesia." 

From the above it will be noted that the new Society will be run on the same- 
lines as our Society. 

The first Bulletin contains the rules, lists of members (honorary, corresponding, 
ordinary) , and exchanges, together with correspondence, among which we notice- 
with pleasure that His Excellency' hnd given orders for the preservation of the 
*' stone divinities ** existing at Raivavae Island. The papers consist of a study of 
some Polynesian colonies among the Melanesian Islands by our fellow member, 
M. A. Leverd; an interesting paper on the little known Christmas Islands- 
(probably one of the resting places on the old route from the Hawaiian Islands to- 
Tahiti, mentioned by Fomander in his '* The Polynesians ") by Emm. Rouger ; 
and another paper on the "Moving Rocks'* of Moorea Island, by Madam 

[276] Ira, or Indra, the Eel God of India. 

In this '* Journal '* for September last, page 127, is given part of an old Maori 
incantation connected with Maui's feat in hauling ashore, and finally killing, the 
mythical tuna or eel, which the nantitor also described as a taniwha, usually 
meaning some saurian-like monster. The incantation in the second line presents- 
such difficulty of translation, that the effort was abandoned. It is repeated 

below : — 

Mata tuna ki te rango tuatahi, 
{refrain) Ko Ira i, ko Ira i, ko Ira i, toro ai.* 
&c. &c. &c. 

Mr. Elsdoii Best suggests that the word, or name, Ira above, is intended for 
the Hindu god Ira. god of eels (and other things), a name which subsequently 
developed into Indra. Mr. J. F. Hewitt in his ** History and Chronology of the 
Myth-making Age," London, 1901, says, page 33, ** This deer sun-god of the 
hunting races was succeeded by the eel-god of the united hunters and agfriculturist» 
who called themselves in Asia Minor and Europe the Iberians, that is the Ibai-erri 
or people (erri) of the rivers (ibai), the Iravati of India, sons of the eel-mountain- 
goddews Ida, Ira, or Ita." In another place he says this eel-god became in India 
the Vedic Indra (pp. 127, 132). 

On the supposition that Mr. Best's suggestion is correct, we may venture a 
translation as follows : — 

The tuna^8 face is on the first skid, 

*Tis Ira, 'tis Ira, 'tis Ira, that stretched forth (hauled it up). 

Apparently an invocation to Ira, or Indra ; and if so it furnishes another 
" Polynesian and Aryan point of contact." 

S. Percy Smith. 

* In my MS. this word is torowai ; it may quite as likely have been toro aiy. 
for the distinction between the two is extremely small. 

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A Meeting of the Council wag held on the 12th December, when there were 
present: The President, in the chair, and Messrs. White, Newman, Roy, Bullard 
and W. W. Smith. 

Correispondence was dealt with from Prof. Otley Beyers, Philippine University ; 
The Rev. G. E. Fox, Solomon Islands; E. R. Smith, Dunedin; The John 
Rylands Library, Manchester, England ; The Minister of Internal Affairs, New 
Zealand ; The Tiflis Caucasas Institute of Archaeology. 

The following members were elected : — 

W. J. Wheeler, Inspecting Surveyor, Gisbome. 
Professor H. Otley Beyers, Philippines University, Manilla. 
John Topi Patuki, Ruapuke Island, Invercargill^ 
John Rylands Library, Manchester, England. 

Papers received : — 

Notes on the Taumako Island language. By Rev. C. E. Fox. 

Taupo-nui-a-Tia. Rev. H. J. Fletcher. 

The Land of Tara. By Elsdon Best. 

Mummification among the Maoris. By H. D. Skinner. 

Traditions and Legends of Murihiku VII. By H. Beattie. 

A donation of £10 towards the * Memoir* Fund was received from Mrs. 
Hocken, and thanks duly passed for the same. 

It was agreed to donote a set of our publications to the Louvain University 
Library, Belgium (destroyed by the Grermans). 

It was reported that the new rooms for the Society in the Museum building 
were nearly ready for occupation. 

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Arai-te-uru Canoe. The first to voyage from 

Hawaiki ? to New Zealand, 75 
Annual Meeting of the Society, i 
Annual Report of the Council, i 
Aotearoa. Name given to New Zealand by 

Knpe, its discoverer in 10th century, 146 

Balance Sheet of Society for year ending Slst 

December, 1916, iv 
BiATTiB, H. Traditions and Legends of 

Southland, N.Z., 76 
Bellona Island (Melanesia). Some account of, 

Bkst, Elsoox. Place Names of Islands of the 

Society Group, 111 
Bust, Elsdon. ** Maori Storehouses," Re- 
view of, 133 
Brst, Elsuos. '* The land of Tara," 143 
Books, etc., received in Exchange by Society 

durmg 1916, xii 
British Association Meeting, 1916, and Papers 

on Anthropology by H. D. Skinner, 31 

Canoe, The. Its connection with Polynesian 

burial rites, 188 
Chatham Islands discovered by Toi on voyage 

from Rarotonga to New Zealand, 161 
Chatham Islands. Methods of disposal of the 

dead, 189 

Exchanges. Lost of for 1916, x 

Fire, discovery of by BCaui. Polynesian Mith, 

Fletcher, Rrv. H. J. Translation of "The 

Ngati-Tuharetoa Occupation of Tanpo, 

New Zealand," 19, 66, 91, 180 
Flbtcheb, Rbv. H. J. Maori Mummies, 74 
Fox, Rkv. C. E. Notes on Taumako (Duff 

Group) Relationship Names, 190 

Genealogical table. Tuharetoa of Taupo, 24 

€Ninealogical table. Lines of descent of Taupo 
chiefs from Hoturoa, Tamatea, and Nga- 
toroiraugi, 26 

Genealogical table. Lines of descent of Taupo 
chiefs from Kahuhunu, Tahu, and Paku- 
moana, 26 

Genealogical table (Rarotonga). Lines of des- 
cent from Iro-uui-ma-oata, 60 

Genealogical table (Rarotonga). Lines of des- 
cent from Tangiia-uui, 61, 64 

Genealogical table (Rarotonga). Lines of des- 
cent from Karika-Tara-Apeape-moa, 62 

Genealogical table. Lines of descent from 
Marewa, father of Kupe the navigator, 146 

Graham, Gboror. Korotangi (stone bird). 
The legend of, 138 

Greenstone discovered by Kupe at Arahura, 
New Zealand, 148 

Haki-^te-kura (of Ngai-Tahu). Lament for her 

death. 84. 
Hawaiian Legends (Myths) of Volcanoes. Note 

by W. D. Westervelt, 87 
Heretaunga or Hntt river, Wellington, N.Z. 

Origin of its name, 165 
Hine-nui-te-po, Goddess of Hades, and the 

death of Maui the demi-god, 127 
HoRT A Te Hat a, Rkv. " The Ngati-Tuharetoa 

occupation of Taupo,^' 19, 66, 91, and 180 

Infant demons, Maori and Egyptian. Note by 
Ed. Tregear, 87 

Ira or Indra, the Eel God of India. Note by 

S. Percy Smith, 191 
Irawaru, turned into a dog by his brother 

Maui. Story of, 124 
Iro (Maori Whiro) voyages to many lands, 

including New Zealand, 58 
Iro-nui (Whiro-nui), Period of. Note by Hari 

Hongi, 88 
Iro-nui-ma-oata and Tangiia-nui-Ariki, bf 

Rarotonga. The period of. By Stephen 

Savage, 10, 62 

Korotangi (bird in stone), I^egend of. By Geo. 
Graham, 138 

Ko to Rarotonga are-korero teia no Iro-nui- 
ma-oata, 1 

Kupe (and Ngahue), the vovagers and their 
discovery of New Zealand, 143 

Kurahaupo canoe arrives in New Zealand in 
command of Whatonga, 152 

Lord Howe Island, or Ongtong-Java. Dis- 
covery and description of, 99 

BCaioriori people— See Mouriuri below 

Makutu or witchcraft. Moki killed by, 82 

Manaia, The. In Maori (and other) carvings. 
By 8. Percy Smith, 180 

Maori. The coming of to New Zealand from 
central Polynesia, 161 

Maori Dictionary by Archdeacon H. W. 
Williams, B.A. Review of, 132 

Maori aud other Polynesian Material in British 
Museum. By H. D. Skinner, 134 

Maori (Ancient) Schools and Learning. Exam- 
ples of. 107 

Maori Storehouses. By Elsdon Best. Review 
of, i:« 

Matin (Somes Island, Wellington Harbour, 
New Zealand). Its first occupation, 156 

Matorohanga, Te, the learned priest tells the 
story of the discovery of New Zealand by 
Kupe and it« occupation later, 143 

Matotoru, Te Rangi-tua. A high priest and 
warrior of Taujpo, New 2jealand, 188 

Matotoi-u, Te Rangi-tua. Apatere or song in 
memory of, 18« 

Maui, 'ilie Polynesian hero. Stories of his 
doings, 128 

Members of the Society, 1916. List of, v 

Moa (bird). Said to have been slain by 
Ngahue at Amhura, 148 

Mo-ngava language (Solomon Islands). Vo- 
cabulary of, 177 

Mo-ngiki language (Solomon Islands). Vo- 
cabulary of, 175 

Morioris of Cbathara Islands. A tradition of 
their migmtion from New Zealand, 80 

Mouriuri, or Maioriori folk. The original in- 
habitants of, and their coming to New 
Zealand, 149 

Mua-ux>oko tribe attack the descendants of 
Tara around the harbour, Wellington, 
New Zealand, 164 

Mummies and Mummification (Maori). By 
H. D. Skinner, 70, 188 

Mummies and Mummification (Maori). By 
Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S., 71 

Mummies and Mummification (Maori). By 
Rev. H. J. Fletcher, 74 

Mummies and Mummification (Maori). By 
Edward Tregear, 98 

Murihiku, or Southland. New Zealand. Tra- 
ditions and legends of, by H. Beattie, 75, 
and 106. 

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Ngahue (and Knpe) diaoorer New Zealand, 143 

Ngati-kuia tribe of South Island. New Zea- 
land. Notes on, by 8. Percy Smith, 116 

Ngati-Mamoe tribe of South Island, New 
Zealand. Traditions of ori^n, 79 

Ngati-Mamoe tribe in occupation of country at 
Sinclair Head. Wellington, N.Z., 166 

Nga-iMtre-taua (of Taupo). Story of her death 
and results, 91 

Ngai-Tahu tribe. Traditions about leaving 
North Island, New Zealand, 81 

Ngati-Tuharetoa occupation of Taupo-nui-a- 
tia, by Rev. Hoeta Te Hata, 19, 66, 91, 180 

Notes and Queries, 87, 190 

Ohou lake. North Otago, N.Z. Ancient Maori 

ii^hting at, 85 
Olcoki, name of one of three canoes that 

brought original inhabitants to New 

Zealand, 150 

Pare-kawa of Taupo, N.Z. Incidents in her 

Ufe, 93. 
Polynesian Linguistics. Languages of the 

Solomon Islands, by Sidney H. Bay, M. A.. 

34, 99, and 170 
Proceedings of Polynesian Society, 89, 141, 192 

Kapuwai, ancient tribe of New Zealand. Tra- 
ditions about, 78 

Barotonga. Early traditions. By Stephen 
Savage, 10, 52 

Bay, Sidney H., M.A. Polynesian Linguis- 
tics, 34, 99, 170 

Bennell Island (Melanesia). Short account 
of, 170 

Biia (of Pelorus Sound, N.Z.). The story of, 

Savaoe, Stephen. The period of Iro-nui-ma- 
oata and Tangriia-nui Ariki of Barotonga, 

Sheba. The Queen of, her idol (illus.) Like- 
ness to Maori carving, 130* 

Skinner, H. D. Maori and other Polynesian 
Material in British Museums, 134 

Skinner, H. D. Mummification among the 
Maories, 70, 188 

Skinner, H. D. Notes on Anthropological 
Papers read at Meeting of British Associa- 
tion, August, 1916, 31 

Takitimu Canoe, South Island, N.Z., legends 

about, 76 
Tamamutu. A warrior chief of Taupo and his 

doin^, 26, 67 

Tane (the god) pursued to the tenth heaven and 

captured by Iro-nui-ma-oata, 17 
Tangiia-nui-Aiiki (Barotonga). The period of, 

by Stephen Savage, 10 
Tari of the Ngai-Tahu tribe of Oamaru, N.Z. 

Story of, 120 
Taumako (Duff Group, Melanesia). Notes on 

Belationship Names, b^ Bev. C. E. Fox, 190 
Tetc-jMiraoa, ancient Maori weapon with bone 

barbed point, 97 
Te Heuheu. Chief of Taupo, N.Z., 180 
Te Ika-a-Maui ('North Island of New Zealand) 

is fished up from the sea by BCaui, -128 
Te Paepae-ki-Barotonga. Name of canoe in 

which Toi voyaged from Barotiinga to 

New Zealand, 151 
Te Wai-pounamu, namegiven to South Island 

of New Zealand by Kupe, 167 
" The Land or Tara." By Blsdon Best, 143 
Toi sails from Barotonga to rediscover Aotea- 

roa or New Zealand, 151 
Traditions from Murihiku (Southland, N.Z.), 

by H. BeaUie, 75, 106 
Tbeoear, Edward. Maori Mummies, 96 
Treoear. Edward. Infant Demons (Note on), 

Tutapn sails with Iro from Barotonga to 

Tahiti, 54 
Tutetawha of Taupo, N.Z. Incidents in his 

life, 92 

Voyages of discovery by early Polynesian 
Navigators, 143 

Waiata (song or lament) for the loss of the bird 
(stone) Korota (Korotangi), 138 

Waiata (song or lament) for ue carved house 
at Heretoa, N.Z., 181 

Wakatipu lake, Otaga, N.Z. Ancient Ma(m 
wa^ai-e at, 83 

Wellington Harbour, N.Z. (Te Whanga-nui-a- 
Tara). Story of the occupation of. By 
El8don Best, 143 

Whakatau-Potiki. A South Island Maori ver- 
sion of this Polynesian Myth, 121 

Whatonga arrives in New Zealand in the 
canoe Kurahaupo, 151 

Whatonga settles his sons in Wellington dis- 
trict, N.Z., 165 

Whetu-Kairanga Pa (Miramar, Wellington, 
N.Z.}, its building by Tara and his people, 

Williams, Ven. Abchdeacon, H. W. Dictionary 
of the Maori Language. Beview of, 132 

Wi nds. Polynesian names for, 15 

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No. 1. 





Published under the Authority af the Council, and Edited 

by the President 

No. 101. MARCH, 1917. 


[AHthora are alone rejtponsihle far fhcir respective siatemenU.) 







Na Tivrsi Ha^tkti hl Tamveua. MoBE-TAtr?r0A-o-TB-TiNi, koia a Tajcubra 

TbRei .. 

By Stephen Bavaor 

By the Rkv. Hoeta Te Hata, Translated bit the Rev. H. J. Fletcher 

ENGLAND. By H. D, Ski3^>;e, b.a. . . 
POLYNESIAN LINGUISTICS. Bt Sidistet H. Ray, m.a., f.e.a.i. 





niw Plymouth, n.Z* 



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Thb Ri&WT Hon. Lokd Pi-unxet, Lafc© Governor of New Zealand. 

The Rigut Hon. Lobd Islinqton, P.C, K.O.H.G., 

Late Governor of New ZeAlanjl. 

Thb Ri&ht Hon. Thb Eael of Ltvbrpool, M,Vo G.C.M.G,, 

Gov*?nior of New Zealniid. 

lusikut : 

8. Peboy SuriTH. F.Il.G.8. 
^^/*o Editor {jtf JantHtiL) 

CouiuU : 

M. Frases, 

W, L. Newsuk. 

J, B. Roy. 

P. J. H. Writb. 
W. W. SsaTii. 

Cir. H. BiriXA&D. 

loiiU ion. jieaetams anb fxeasums: 

W. W. SitiTH and W. L. Newman. 

^pHE Society is formed to promote the study of the Autbropuloi^y, Etliuology, 
* Philo^og^y, History, Hitd Antiquities of the Polytiman races by the publi- 
cation of iiiii official journal U> be called ''Thk Journal or thk Poltnbsian 
SoOTErrYj*^ acd by the colleetioii of booka, manuaeript8, photogritplis, relict*, aud 
other illastrations of the history of the Polyne«ian race. 

The term ** Polynesia" is iatorniod to include Australatda, New Zealand, 
Helauesiaf Micronesia, and Mfllaysia, as well ii« Polynesia proper. 

Candidates for adnjissiou to tlie Society shall he admitted on the joint 
reoouiine^dsLtioii of a tu ember of the Society and a member of the Council^ and on 
the approval of the Council. 

Every person elected k) membership shall receive immediate notice of the 
f*ame from the Secretaries, together with a copy of the Rules, and on papneut 
of hia aubficriptiou of one pound ahtdl be entitled to all the benefits of memhenship^ 
SubBcriptionfl are payable in advance, on the 1st nf January of each year^ ^or on 

Papem will be received on any of tbe above subjecta if sent through a member. 
Authors are requested to write only on one side of the paper, to ns<> quarto paper 
^nd to leave one inch margin on the left-hand side, to allow of binding. Proper 
names should be written in ROMAN" TYPE. 

The price of hack numbers of tbe iToumul, to members, i« 28 6d, 

members and exchangees are requested to note that the Society's 
Office is at New Plymouth, to which all communioatione, bookc,. 
exchanges, etc., should be seat, addressed to Hon. Secretaries. 

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Publications of Polpncsian Societp. 

The Journal is published in the first week of January, 
April, July, and October, and contains about 60 pages 
each issue, with occaBional illustrations, 

A few copies of the second edition of Volumes I., 
IL, III., IV. (1892-5), price ten shillings a volume, are 
now available. 

Volumes V, to XXV. are all available at ten shillings 
a volume, with a reduction on taking more tlian eight 

memoirs or m Polpncsian Socictp* 

Vol. L — ^* History and Tkaditions of the 
Taranaki Coast," 8vo., cloth, 
561 pages, with a number of 
illustrations and maps. Price^ 10s. 6d. 

Voh IL^ — '^The Moriori People of the 
Chatham Islakds : Their His- 
tory AND Traditions/' 8vo., 
paper, about 220 pages, illus- 
trated. Price J 5s. 

Vol. IIL — "The Lore of the Whare- 
w ANANGA.''— Part I, : ^ Things 

Celestiab' About 200 pages. 

Vol IV.— Part II. : ' Te Kauwae-raro, or 
Things Terrestrial,' 279 pages. 

Price (each Part) to Members, 8s. 
To others ,.. lOs. 

'* Eahotonga Records/' being extracts from 
the pajiers of the late W. Wyatt Gill, 
LL.D.j 125 pages, map, paper cover .., 3s. 

WANTED.— A copy of Tregear\s Couaparative Maori 
Dictionary. — Apply to Hon. Secretary, 

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3 9015 02795 1600 


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