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Full text of "The journal of the Polynesian Society"

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^SttXS \vwcn1 bL^NNlKG ^' 

BEQUEST 
[UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 
CEKJfERAL LIBRARY j 



JOURNAL 



POLYNESIAN SOCIETY 



CONTAINING 



THE TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 
OF THE SOCIETY. 



Vol. XII. 



1903. 




WELLINGTON, N.Z. : 

PRINTED FOR THE 80CIETT BY WHITCOMBE AND TOMBR UMITED, LAMBTON QDAT. 

AGENT FOR AMERICA: 
BEV. S. D. PEET, EDITOR OF " THE AMERICAN ANTIQUARY," CHICAGO. 

1903. 



^^^FU CONTENTS OF VOL. Xlf. 



No. 45.— Makch, 1908. 

Polynesian Society — 

Officers and Constitution 

Boll of Members 

List of Exchanges 

Minutes of Annual Meeting 

Annual Report of the Couucil 

Balance Sheet . . 
Niue Island and its People. By S. Percy Smith. Part IV. 
Appendix : The Traditions of Niue-Fekai 
Notes on the Art of War, as conducted by the Maori of New Zealand, 

By Elsdon Best. Part V. 
The Whence of the Maori. By Lieut.-Col. Gudgeon, C.M.G. Part III 
Transactions and Proceedings of the Society 



PAGE 
V. 

vii. 

xi. 

xiii. 

xiii. 

XV. 

1 
22 

32 
61 
62 



No. 46.— June, 1908. 

Notes on the Art of War. Part VI. . . . . . . . . . . 65 

The Traditions of Niue-Fekai {continued) . . . . . . . . 86 

The Whence of the Maori (continued) . . . . . . . . . . 120 

Notes and Queries : 161 The Place of Departed Spirits ; 162 Tree-lelling 

with the Stone Axe . . . . . . . . . . 131 

Trausactions and Proceedings of the Society . . . . . . 132 

No. 47. — September, 1908. 

The Aitutaki Version of the Song of Iro. Translated by J. T. Large . . 133 

Te Autara i a Iro. Na Iseraela-tama . . 140 

Notes on the Art of War. Part VII. . . . . 146 

The Whence of the Maori. Part IV. . . . . 166 

Mysterious Belies. By Joshua Rutland . . . . 180 

The Making and Unmaking of Man. A Legend of Fiji. By E. Tregear . . 182 

Who Discovered Tahiti ? By George CoUingridge 184 

A New Maori Dictionary . . 187 
Notes and Queries : 163 The Fire- walking Ceremony ; 164 Professor A. 

Agassiz's Expedition to the Pacific . . . . . . . . 191 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Society . . . . . . 192 

No. 48. — Decembeb, 1908. 

Notes on the Art of War. Part VIII. . . . . . . . . 193 

Arai-te-Tonga, the Ancient Uarae at Barotonga. S. Percy Smith . . 218 

Some Paumotu Chants. Translated by C. Garbutt. By S. Percy Smith . . 221 

A Maori Ceremonial Comb. By S. Percy Smth . . Inset facing 242 
Notes and Queries : 165 The Karaka Tree ; 166 The Kotaha, or Sling-spear ; 

167 Mysterious Stones . . . . . . . . . . 243 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Society . . . . 244 



POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 



OFFICERS f:OR 1903. 
E. Treoear, F.R. Hst. S. 



aioititcU \ 



S. Percy Smith, F.U.G.S. 
M. Fraser. 
W. L. Newman. 



W. H. Skinner. 
W. Kerr. 

F. P. CORKILL. 



S^oint ^0%x. ^ccv9tavi99 and ®^r«a«urjer0» attb 

QBMtor« of :^auvnai i 

S. Percy Smith and W. H. Skinner. 



Y^HE Society is formed to promote the study of the Anthropology, Ethno- 
^^ logy, Philology, History and Antiquities of the Polynesian races, by the 
publication of an official journal, to be called "The Journal of the Polynesian 
SociBTT," and by the collection of books, manuscripts, photographs, relics, and 
other illustrations of the history of the Polynesian race. 

The term "Polynbsia" is intended to include Australia, New Zealand, 
Melanesia, Micronesia, and Malaysia, as well as Polynesia proper. 

Candidates for admission to the Society shall be admitted on the joint re- 
commendation of a member of the Society and a member of the Ck)uncil, and 
on the approval of the Council. 

Every person elected to membership shall receive immediate notice of the 
•ame from the Secretaries, and shall leceive a copy of the rules; and on pay- 
ment of his subscription of one pound shall be entitled to all the benefits of 
membership. Subscriptions are payable in advance, on the 1st January of 
each year, or on election. 

Papers will be received on any of the above subjects if sent through a 
member. Authors are requested to write only on one side of the paper, to use 
quarto paper, and to leave one inch margin on the left-hand side, to allow of 
binding. Proper names should be written in ROMAN TYPE. 

The office of the Society is at present at NEW PLYMOUTH, New Zealand. 

The price of back numbers of the Journal, to members, is 2s. Cd. 

Vols, i, ii, iii, and iv are out of print. 

Members and exchanges are requested to note the 
change in the Society's Office from Wellington to New 
Plymouth, to which all communications, books, exchanges, 
&€., should be sent, addressed to the Hon. Secretaries. 



MEMBERS OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

AS AT 1st Januaby, 1908. 



The sign * before a name indicates an original member or founder. 

As this list will be published annually, the Secretaries would feel obliged if members will supply 

any omissions, or notify change of residence. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Liliuokalani, ex-Queen of Hawaii, Honolula, Sandwich Islands 
Kev. B. H. Codrington, D.D.y Wadhurst Rectory, Sussex, England 
Rev. Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A., Queen's College, Oxford, England 
Hon. Sir J. G. Ward, K.C.M.G., M.H.R., Wellington, N.Z. 
Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., Wellington, N.Z. 
Professor H. H. Giglioli, Florence, Italy 
H. G. Seth-Smith, M.A.. Auckland, N.Z. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Prof. Otis T. Mason, A.M., Ph.D., Smithsonian Institution, National Museum 

Washington, U.S.A. 
Rev. T. G. Hammond, Patea, Taranaki, N.Z. 
W. Te Kahui Kararehe, Rahotu, Taranaki, N.Z. 
Te One Rene Rawiri Te Mamaru, Moeraki, Otago, N.Z. 
Rev. Mohi Turei, Waiapu, N.Z. 
Takaanui Tarakawa, Te Puke, Maketu, N.Z. 
Karipa Te Whetu, Whangarae, CroixelleSr Nelson, N.Z. 
Tiwai Paraone, Miranda, Auckland, N.Z. 
Aporo Te Kumeroa, Grey town, N.Z. 

F. W. Christian, Tenterfield House, Putney Hill, London, S.W. 
Hare Hongi, Hawera, N.Z. 
Wiremu Kauika, Waitotara N.Z. 
Tati Salmon, Papara, Tahiti. 
Pa-ariki, Ngatangiia, Rarotonga. 
Bev. J. £. Mottltan, Nukualofa, Tonga Island. 
ChurchiU, W., 166, Rodney Street, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS. 
» Adams, C. W.. Survey Office, Blenheim, N.Z. 

♦ Alexander, Dr. E. W., F.R.G.S., Dunedin, N.Z. 

♦ Alexander, Hon. W. D., F.R.G.S., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 
Aldred, W. A., Timaru, N.Z. 

Aitken, J. G. W., M.H.R., Wellington, N.Z. 
Atkinson, W. E., Whanganui, N.Z. 

• Broderick, T. N., Timaru, N.Z. 

• Birch, W. J., Marton, N.Z. 

• Blair, J. R., Terrace, WelUngton, N.Z. 

* Barron, A., Land for Settlement Department, Wellington, N,Z. 

* Best, Elsdon, Bua-tahuna. Rotorua, N.Z. 

• Bishop, Hon. C. R., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 

Buller, Sir W. L., K.C.M.G.. F.R.S., Terrace, WelUngton, N.Z. 

Bate, A. T., Wellington, N.Z. 

Battley, B. T., Moawhango, N.Z. 

Bamford, £., Auckland, N.Z. 

Benn, H. B., Galatea, Botorua, N.Z. 

Buchanan, W. C, M.H.R., Carterton, N.Z. 



viii JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Burnett, Franli, Vancouver 

Brown, Rev. C. Crisp, Te Ngae, Rotorua, N.Z. 

Bennett, Rev. F. A., Bell Block. New Plymouth, N.Z. 

British and Foreign Bible Society, 114, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.G. 

Browne, A. H., Rarotonga 

Bleazard, Rev. Colin, West Maitland, N.S.W. 

Bell, Peter, Whanganui, N.Z. 

Baeyertz, C. N., The Octagon, Dunedin, N.Z. 

Brown, Mrs. J., Brown, Kohimarama, Auckland 

• Chapman, F. R., Dunedin, N.Z. 

• Carroll, A., M.A., M.D., Denbeigh Ho., Koogarrab, Sydney, N.S.W. 

• Carkeek, Morgan, Otaki, N.Z. 

Claxton, Rev. A. E., Chung King, Hankow, China 

Chambers, W. K., Repongaere, Gisbome, N.Z. 

Carter, H. C, 475, West, Ist and 3rd Street, New York 

Comins, Archdeacon B. Blundell, Norfolk Island 

Chapman, M., Wellington, N.Z. 

Cooper, Rev. E. V., Leone, Tutuila, Samoa 

Caddick, Miss H., c/o A. Caddick, Esq., Glejitield. Sutton Coalfield, England 

Cooper, His Honour Theo., Wellington, N.Z. 

Castle, G. P., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 

Compton, Rev. A. W. H., Opunake, N.Z. 

Cooke, J. P., Honolulu, Hawaii 

Coates, J., Wellington, N.Z. 

CorkiU, F. P., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

Christian, Eugene, 177, Duane Street, New York. 

Clarke, A. E. A., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

Cowan, Jas., " Star " Office, Auckland 

Clark, Patrick, c/o Wilkie A Co., Dunedin, N.Z. 

Chattertou, Rev. F. W., Te Rau, Gisbome 

• Denniston, His Honour J. E., Christchurch, N.Z. 
Da vies, Henry, Napier, N.Z. 

Dalau & Co., 37, Soho Square, London 

Drummond, James, ♦'Lyttelton Times" Office. Cijiisichurch, N.Z. 

Donne, T. E., Tourist Department, Wellinj^Lon, N.Z. 

• Emerson, J. S., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 
Emerson, Dr. N. B., Honolulu, Hawaiian I.>;land.^ 
Ewen, C. A., Wellington, N.Z. 

Edger, F. H., Judge N.L.C., Auckland, N.Z. 

• Eraser, J., LL.D., West Maitland. N.S.W. 

• Eraser, D., Bulls, Rangitikei, Wellington, N.Z. 
Friedlander, R., Carlstrasse 11 Berlin, N.W. 
Friedlaender, Dr. B., Regenten Strasse 8, lUulin, W 
Fletcher, Rev. H. J., Taupo, N.Z. 

Forbes, E. J., 8, Spring Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Eraser, M., New Plymouth, N.Z., 
Fisher, T. W., New Plymouth, N.Z. 
Frear, Judge, W. F., Honolulu, Hawaii 
Frith, John F., Survey Office, New Plymouth. 

• Grace, L. M., N.L.P. Dept., Government Buildings, Wellington, N.Z 

• Gudgeon, Lieut.-Col. W. E., C.M.G., British Resident, Rarotonga 
Gordon, H. A., F.G.S., Auckland, N.Z. 

Gully, H. v., Nelson, N.Z. 

Gurr, E. W., Chief Judge, Pangopango, Samoa. 

Gill, W. H., Kobe, Japan. 

Graham, Geo., c/o Wynyard A Purchas. .\uckland, N Z. 

Haddon, A. C, D Sc, F.R.S., Inisfail, Hills Road, Cambridge, England 

• Hursthouse, C. W., Roads Department. Wellington, N.Z 

• Hocken, Dr. T. M., F.L.S.. Dunedin, N.Z. 

• Hamilton, A., Otago University, Dunedin, N.Z. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. ix 

Henry, Miss Teuira, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 

Harding, K. Coupland, Wellington, N.Z. 

Harris, Christopher, VVyndham St., Auckland, N.Z. 

Harper, W. K., Holden St., Ashfield, Sydney, N.S.W. 

Hutchin, Eev. J. J. K., (of Rarotonga), 3, Aadley Villa, Saffron Walden, 

Kent, England. 
Has tie, Miss J. A., 11, Ashburn Place, Cromwell Boad, London 
Hutton, Capt. F. W., F.R.S., Christchurch, N.Z. 
Hughes, R. C, New Plymouth, N.Z. 
Hoby, A., Wellington, N.Z. 

lorns, William, Masterton, N.Z., 

' Johnston, Dr. D. G., Carterton, N.Z. 

• Johnson, H. Dunbar, Judge N.L. Court, Auckland, N.Z. 
Jollie, Mrs., Edinboro Road, Riccarton, Christchurch, N.Z. 

' Kenny, Hon. C. W. A. T., M.L.C., Picton, N.Z. 

' Kensington, W. C, Survey Department, Wellington, N.Z. 

Kuhl, W. H., W-Jiiger Strasse, 73, Berlin 

King, John, Gisborne, N.Z. 

Kerr, W., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

Kelly, Hon. T., M.L.C., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

' Lawrence, Rev. W. N., Aitutaki Island, Rarotonga 
' Large, J. 1., Aitutaki Island, Rarotonga 

• Laing, R. M., M.A., High School, Christchurch, N.Z. 
Leggatt, Rev. T. W. Watt, Malikula, New Hebrides 
Lambert, H. A., Tane, Pahiatua, N.Z. 

Leslie, G., Government Buildings, Wellington, N.Z. 
Lethbridge. F. Y., M.H.R., Feilding, N.Z. 

Marshall, W S., Pemberton, Wellington, N.Z. 
Moss, F. J., c/o E. B. Moss, Paeroa, Auckland, N.Z. 
Morpeth, W. T., Survey Department, New Plymouth, N.Z. 
' Major, C. E., M.H.R., Hawera, N.Z. 
MacDonald, Rev. Dr. D., Efate, New Hebrides 
Mackay, A., Judge N.L.C., Wellington, N.Z. 
Mitchell, F. J., Home Rule, Mudgee, N.S.W. 
McArthur, J. P., McArthur & Co., 79, York Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Mackay, Captain A. W., Bathurst, N.S.W. 

March, H. Colley, M.D., F.S.A., Portesham, Dorchester, England 
Mair, Captain G. W.. F.L.S., Thames, N.Z. 

Maginnis, Craig, 2y, Caerwys, Putney Common, Putney, London, S.W. 
McCuUock, W. F., Fairmount Park, Hawthorne, Victoria 
Marshall. J. W., Marton, N.Z. 
Marshall, H. H., Marton, N.Z. 
McNab, R., M.H R., Gore, N.Z. 
Maunsell, R.. Masterton, N.Z. 

Maclaurin, Professor, Victoria College, Wellington, N.Z. 
Martin, Josiah, F.G.S., Auckland, N.Z. 
Mackintosh, Rev. A., Honolulu, Hawaii 
Mcintosh, D. T., Res. Eng., Whanganui 

Nelson, C. E., Rotorua, Auckland, N.Z. 

Nathan, D. J., Wellington, N.Z. 

Newell, Rev. J. E., Malua, Samoa. 

Nairn, F. E., Hastings, H.B., N.Z. 

Ngata, A. T., M.A., LL.B., Te Aute CoUege, Hawke's Bay, N.Z. 

Newman, E., Cheltenham, England 

Newman, W. L., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

Oahu College, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 

Phillips, Coleman, Featherston, N.Z. 

Pope, J. H., Education Department, Wellington, N.Z. 



JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Pratt, T., M.H.B., Waikoaaiti, Otago, N.Z. 
Priit, Archdeacon, F. 6., Gairlook, Brisbane, Queensland 
Partington, J. Edge, F.B.G.S., British Maseum, London, England 
Pomare, Dr. M. H. P. N., Health DeparUnent, Wellington, N.Z. 
Parker, J. H., New Plymouth. 

* Butland, Joshua, Canvastown, Marlborough, N.Z. 

• Boy, B. B., Taita, Wellington, N.Z. 
Bedwood, J. H., Blenheim, N.Z. 
Beweti, Bu, Whanganui, N.Z. 
Boy, J. B., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

• Smith, W. W., F.E.S., Ashburton, Canterbury, N.Z. 

* Shand, A., Chatham Islands 

• Smith, F. S., Gisbome, N.Z. 

* Smith, M. C, Survey Department, Wellingtou, N.Z. 

• Smith, S. Percy, F.B.G.S., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

* Stout, Hon. Sir B., K.C.M.G., Chief Justice, Wellington, N Z 

♦ Skinner, W. H., Survey Department, New Plymouth. N Z. 
Saxton, Henry Waring. F.L.S., New Plymouth, N.Z. 
Scannell, D.. Judge N.L.C., Auckland, N.Z. 

Smith, T. H., Grafton Road, Auckland, N.Z. 

Scott, Prof. J. H., M.D.. F.R.S.E., Otago University, Dunedin. vZ. 

Stainton, W., Wairima, Pahiatua, N.Z. 

Smith, Hon. W. O., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 

Spencer, W. E., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

* Tregear, E., F.R.Hist.S., Wellington. N.Z. 

* Testa, F. J., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 
Tumbull, A. H., Bowen Street. Wellington, N.Z. 
Tinline, J., Nelson, N.Z. 

Turner, G. D., 97, George Street, Dunedin, N.Z. 

* Webster, J., Hokianga, N.Z. 

♦ Wilkinson. G. T., Otorohanga, Auckland, N.Z. 

• Wheeler, W. J., Whanganui, N.Z. 

• Weetmaii, S., F.R.G.S., c/o Bank of N.Z., 1 Queen Victoria Street, London 

♦ Williams, Right Rev. W. L., B.A., Bishop of Waiapu, Napier, N.Z 

• Wright, A. B., Survey Department, Auckland, N.Z. 
Williams, Bev. H. W., Gisbome, N.Z. 

Williams, J. N., Frimlev, Hastings, Hawke's Bay, N Z. 

White, Taylor, Wimbledon, Hawke's Bay, N.Z. 

Wilson, A., Survey Office, Auckland, N.Z. 

Wilcox, Hon. G. N., Kauai, Hawaiian Islands 

Watt, Bev. W., Tanna, New Hebrides 

Williams, F. W., Napier, N,Z. 

Wallis, F., Bight Bev., Bishop of Wellington. N.Z. 

Whitney, James L., Public Library, Dartmouth, Boston, U.S A. 

Wilkinson, Percy, B., c/o. Climie ^ Fairhall, Hawera, N.Z. 

Woodworth, W. McM., Museum Comp. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

Webster, W. D., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

* Young, J. L., o/o Henderson & Maofarlane, Auckland, N.Z. 



LIST OF EXCHANGES. 



THE following is the list of Societies, (fee, (fee, to which the Joubnal is sent, 
and from most of which we receive exchanges. There is a tacit under- 
standing that several Public Institutions are to receive our productions free, so long 
as the New Zealand Government allows our correspondence, <fec., to go free by post. 

Agent-General of New Zealand, 13 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

Anthropologische Gesellschraft, Vienna, Austria. 

Anthropologie, Sooi^t^ d*, Paris. 

Anthropologia, Museo Zoologica, Florence, Italy. 

Anthropological Society of Australia, c/o Board of International Exchanges 

Sydney. 
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, 3 Hanover Square, London, W. 
Anthropologie, Ecole d', 15 Kue Ecole de Medicin, Paris. 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, University, Sydney. 
Ante (Te) Students Association, The College, Te Aute, Hawke*s Bay, N.Z. 

Bataviaasch Genootschap, Batavia, Java. 

Buddhist Text Society, 86/2 Jaun Bazaar Street, Calcutta. 

Blenheim Literary Institute, Blenheim, N.Z. 

Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 

Bemice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, H.I. 

Canadian Institute, 46 Richmond Street East, Toronto. 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, Cambridge, England. 

Faculte des Sciences de Marseilles, Marseilles, France. 

General Assembly Library, Wellington, N.Z. 

Geographic, Soci^t^ de, de Paris, Boulvard St. Germain 184, Paris. 

Historical Society, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Institute, The Auckland, Museum, Auckland, N.Z. 
Institute, The Philosophical, Christchurch, N.Z. 
Institute, The Philosophical, Wellington, N.Z. 
Institute. The Otago, Dunedin, N.Z. 

Japan Society, 20 Hanover Square, London, W. 

Kongl. Vitterhets Historic och Antiqvitete Akademen, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Literary and Historical Society, Quebec, Canada. 

Luzac <fe Co., publishers of Oriental Text, 46 Great Kussell St., London, W.C. 

Museum, Christchurch. 

Museum, The Australasian, Sydney. 

Minister of Education, Wellington. 

Minister, Bight Hon. the Premier, Wellington. 

Minister, Hon. The Colonial Secretary, Wellington. 

Na Mata, Editor, Sava, Fiji. 

New York Public Library, c o Stevens <k Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, London 
W.C. 

PubUc Library, New Plymouth, N.Z. 
Public Library, Auckland. 
Public Library, Wellington. 
Public Library, Melbourne. 
Public Library, Sydney. 

Peet, Rev. S. D., Ph.D., Editor of •• The American Antiquarian,'' Chicago. 
Peabodv Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard Universitv, Cam- 
bridge, U.8.A. 



xii JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Beading Boom, Botorua, N.Z. 

Bojal Geographical Society, 1 Saville Bow, London. 

Boyal Geographical Society of Australasia, Brisbane. 

Boyal Geographical Society of Australasia, c/o G. Collingridge, Waronga, 

N.S.W • 
Boyal Geographical Society of Australasia, 70 Queen Street, Melbourne. 
Boyal Geographical Society of Australasia, Adelaide. 
Boyal Society, Burlington House, London. 
Boyal Society of New South Wales, 5 Elizabeth Street, Sydney. 
Boyal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 87 Park Street, Calcutta. 
Boyal Colonial Institute, Northumberland Avenue, London. 
Beal Academia de Ciencias y Artes, Barcelona, Spain. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 

Sooi^t6 Neuchateloise de G^graphie, Neuch&tel, Switzerland. 

Secretary, General Post Office, Wellington. 

Secretary rUnder) Colonial Secretary's Department, Wellington. 

Secretary (Under) Justice (Native), Wellington. 

Wisconsin Academy of Science and Arts, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF TFIE SOCIETY. 

Hfld at New Plymouth, Sew Zealand, Jamuiry 27th, 1903. 



IN th« absence of the President, who telegraphed to say that business prevtnttd 
his attendance, Mr. William Kerr, a member of the Council, pret'ided. 
The minutes of the last two annual meetings were read and confirmed, as 
was also the annual report and accounts for the year 1902, which will be found 
below. 

The following officers were re-elected for the ensuing year : — President, Mr. 
Edward Tregear; Council, Messrs. William Kerr, F. P. Corkill, and W. L. 
Newman ; and Mr. H. W. Saxton was re-elected Auditor. 
The following new members were also elected : — 
360. J. B. Roy, New Plymouth. 
351. Rev. F. W. Chatterton, Te Rau, Gisborne. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31st, 11H)*2. 



Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Society, January UTth, lyOH, in tfrnut oj 

Rule No. 31. 



IN presenting its Eleventh Annual Reix)tt, the Council has pleasure in drawing 
attention to the fact that the work for which the Society was formed con- 
tinues to be carried on with success. The main object we have always had in 
view has been the preservation of original matter relating to the Polynesian rHce. 
and hIbo to afford members a medium, in the Journal, of recording the results of 
thfir studies and experience. In this respect we can claim to have fulfilled the 
anticipations of our founders. The full value of the matter collected will, how 
ever, be more appreciated as time goes on. and when the original sources from 
which information can be collected liave di<^Hp|ie:ired. together with the old i>eople 
of both the native and European races. 

It is with much regret we have to record the loss hy death of several members. 
some of whom were founders of the Society. In no previous perio<l have our 
nombers so decreased through this source. The Right Rev. Dr. Cowie, and 
Messrs. A. S. Atkinson. F. .\rthur Jack>on, N. J. Tone, and D. C. Wilson, were 
all original members, and Mr. Tone was. for myme time, one of our Hon. Secre- 
taries. In addition, we lost Mr. F. F Watt, of Rotorua. Out of the original 112 
members who founded the Society in lti\r2, there are now only 07 on the roll, the 
rest having either died, resigned, or been struck ofT. 

On January- 1st, 19(3, our membership stood as follows :— 

Ordinary members . . 176 

Life members . . ti 

Honorary members . . 7 

Corresponding members . . . . 10 

2a5* 

* Th« two new members elected at tbt* auuaal lueetiua umke^ the number 21/7. 



xiv JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

The total for last year was 216. 

The eleventh volume of the Journal, containing our Transactions and Pro- 
ceedings, has been issued in quarterly parts with more punctuality than hereto- 
fore. It is somewhat larger than the ten previous volumes, and contains more 
illustrations. 

Our financial position is fairly good, but the Council has still to regret the 
number of members in arrear with their subscriptions. They are, however, some- 
what less than last year, the numbers being — 28 members in arrear for one year, 
and 15 in arrear for two years. At the end of 1901 we had a balance in hand of 
£44 14s. 2d., against which there were liabilities of about an equal amount. The 
sum received during the year was £174 l5s. 8d., and the amounts paid 
£183 18s. Id., leaving a balance of £36 lis. 9d., out of which the Council hns 
authorised a refund of £10 to Capital Account in repayment of part of the 
Microncsian Vocabulary Loan.* The Capital Account on December Slst, 1903, 
stood at .£70 19s 6d. 



• This has since been paid to Capital Account. 

S. PERCY SMITH. ) Hon. 

W. H. SKINNER, f Secretaries. 



BALANCE SHEET. 



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VOL. XII, 1903. 



NIUE ISLAND, AND ITS PEOPLE. 



By S. Pbboy Smith. 



Pabt IV. 
History and Traditions. 

^XAE now come to the somewhat difficult question of the whence 
/ r of the Niue people— difficult, that is, because of the lack of 
precise traditions amongst the people themselves. In this they dififer 
very materially from all other branches of the race I know of. Ii has 
been already pointed out that there appear to have been two separate 
migrations to the island — the Motu and the Taliti people — of which 
the Motu division was, in all probability, the original one. 

The traditions of the people say that they came from Tonga, or 
from Fonua-galo, or from Tulia. Now Tonga does not necessarily 
imply the island of that name, because to the Niue people all foreign 
lands were called Tonga, as are foreigners tayata toyuy and ships toga. 
And the name, as applied to foreign parts, is, I think, not an invention 
since the arrival of the people in Niue, but was applied to some country 
with which the people in their former homes had frequent dealings. 
This points strv>ngly to a former residence in Samoa, and to the period 
during which constant intercourse, generally of a hostile nature, took 
place with the Tonga group. It is at that time I think the name of 
Tonga arose for a "foreign country,*' and in process of time with the 
Niue people the name has become general, in the same manner as 
1 



2 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOClEit. 

Hawaiki did with the Maoris. The second name, Fonua-galo, as that 
of a place, does not give any indication of locality, for, so far as I 
know, there is no such island ; and moreover, the meaning of the 
word is "lost-land," and implies that it is a name signifying the fact 
that the real name has been forgotten. The other name, Tulia, is not 
known as that of an island at the present day, and the only thing like 
it I know of, is the name of a place on the west end of Savai*i Island 
in Samoa, called Tulia also. 

The names of the ancestors who originally settled in Nine do not 
help us either. They are Huanaki, and Fao, as the chief persons, 
together with Fakahoko, Lageiki and Lagiatea, besides several others, 
all of whom in process of time have become tnpuas, or deified 
personages. These are the Motu ancestors. The only name 
recognisable from the genealogical tables of other branches of the 
race is Fao, but, from various reasons, this man can scarcely be 
identical with the Maori ancestor named Whao (which is the same 
as Fao). Just prior to the last migration of the Maoris in the fleet 
of six canoes to New Zealand in circa 1850, there flourished in Tahiti 
one Uenuku, whose great enemy, named Whena, or Hena — a resident of 
Barotonga — had a son named Whao, whose son again was called 
Whao, and it is of course possible that Fao of NiuO miy be identical 
with one of these. But it is not likely ; for Niue was settled before 
this period if I am right in my theory of their origin. It should be 
noticed also, that Fao is said by Niue tradition to have left that island 
in old age and settled in Aitutaki Island — not very far from Barotonga, 
where Whao of Maori tradition lived. 

I asked my friend, Mr. J. T. Large, of Aitutaki, to institute 
enquiries amongst the people of that island as to whether they had 
any record of Fao, or his supposed migration, and he replies as 
follows : " The people of this island know nothing about him, but a 
Niue toay or warrior, named Titia was brought to Aitutaki many 
generations ago under the following circumstances : Aitutaki was at 
that time overrun with the Aitu people, said to have come from 
Mangaia Island. Maeva-kura, who flourished about eight generations 
ago, i.e. circa 1700 according to the Aitutaki genealogies, sent 
messengers to his daughter Maine-maraerua, at Barotonga, to obtain 
help to expel these invaders. She sent her son Maro-una, who, 
taking a war-party with him, first made war on all the islands near 
at hand and also at Niuo, obtaining a toa or warrior from each island, 
Titia being the man he obtained from Niue. With them he exter- 
minated the Aitu people in Aitutaki. Some of Titia's descendants 
are still alive here." 

This incident is also alluded to in the *' Autara ki Aitutaki," as 
follows : '* Maro-una .... would not then land as he was going on 



NIUE ISLAND, AND ITS PEOPLE. 8 

to Vare-a-tao, or Niue Island, to get more warriors, and after a 
tempestuous voyage Maro-una arrived there. After a great deal of 
fighting he succeeded in getting the warrior Titia ; and then returned 
to Aitutaki."— J.P.S., vol. iv, p. 70. 

Fao appears to be a not uncommon name in Samoa. 

In order to arrive at an understanding of the probable origin of the 
Niue people, it will be necessary to briefly sketch the history of the 
race during the period extending from the sixth to the thirteenth 
century. In doing so, reliance is placed on the Barotongan traditions 
as being by far the most complete of any that have been preserved 
relating to that epoch, and, being written by the last high priest of 
that island have an authenticity quite exceptional. In about the sixth 
century, the Samoan branch of the race had already occupied their 
group. This branch, indeed, was probably the earliest migration from 
Indonesia. The eastern part of the Fiji group was in occupation of 
the later migrations, whom, to distinguish, we may call the Tonga- 
Fiti people, for such is the name they are referred to in Somoan 
tradition. Tonga, at this time, had in all probability been settled, 
and maintained a constant communication with the same branch of 
the race in Fiji. Towards the close of the sixth century, com- 
munication was frequent between the Tonga-Fiti people and the 
Samoans, indeed the former had then commenced the occupation of 
the coasts of Samoa, which did not cease until circa 1250. High 
chiefs of the Tonga-Fiti people, were at that time making some of 
their astonishing voyages all over the Pacific, discovering fresh lands 
to colonize, and becoming the expert navigators their subsequent 
lengthy voyages proved them to be. The period extending from the sixth 
to the thirteenth century was one of unrest and trouble. Tribe fought 
against tribe in the headquarters of the race in Fiji, and many 
expeditions started from there to discover homes in other parts of the 
Pacific, finding no peace at home. About the early part of this 
period Hawaii and Tahiti were first settled, and somewhere about the 
middle of the ninth century New Zealand received its first settlers, 
the same people in all probability that furnished the inhabitants of the 
Chatham Islands — the Morioris — but not at so early a date as the 
ninth century. 

Now, I take it to be somewhere in the above period, Le, from the 
eighth to the thirteenth century that Niue received its first inhabitants. 
It was probably after the commencement of the great voyages which 
led to a knowledge of most of the islands in Central and Eastern 
Polynesia — and this was approximately the year a.d. 650. We may 
say tentatively, that Niue was first occupied by the Motu people in 
about A.D. 700. The reason I fix on this date is, that the people 
have many of the traditions common to the race, the period of which 



4 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

is prior to a.d. 700, but so far as I gathered, none of a later date 
that are not merely local. Many of the great heroes of Polynesian 
history are unknown to the Niue people, because they flourished after 
the migration to Niue. 

The causes which led to the migration of Huanaki and Fao are 
said to be their dissatisfaction at being omitted from the feasts given 
by their relatives and friends, which was due to their own fault in 
neglecting to help in the preparation of food for such feasts. This 
may not appear to be a very serious affair to European minds, but to 
the Polynesian it was a grievous insult, and the result was that the 
two chiefs and their followers migrated to find a land distant from 
that of their relatives, for they were probably not sufficiently strong 
to wipe out the insult in blood, which would have been the usual 
course. As to the place they migrated from, there is strong probability 
that it was the western end of Savai'i, and the emigrants themselves 
were probably either Samoans of the old stock, or a mixture of Samoans 
and the Tonga-Fiti people. The use the people make of the word itta 
for the east, shows that their forefathers dwelt for a lengthened period 
on the west coast of some country ; and their use of the word mounga, 
a mountain (which they do not apply to any hill in Niue) shows this 
country to have had mountains in it, as Savai'i has. The Samoan 
customs and words, with the Samoan god Sa-le-vao (Ha-le-vao) the 
Niue people have, show an intimate connection with Samoa. But 
this was before the Samoans softened the '*h'* to *'s," and dropped 
the **k" oat of their dialect. The year 700 was before the incident 
known as Mata-mata-me in Samoan history,* and prior to that time 
Samoa had no king of the whole group. Hence, when the Niue 
migration came away, they brought with them the system then in 
force in Samoa, i,e, of chiefs, but no kings. At that early period, if I 
am right in my reading of Polynesian history, cannibalism had not 
yet been introduced as a custom of the race — it was not until the 
close connection that subsequently existed between Polynesian and 
Melauesian in Fiji, that the formei learnt this custom from the latter. 
Hence the Niue people are not cannibals. 

As to circumcision, it is doubtful if any argument can be drawn 
from tbe fact of the Niuo people not practising this rite, though they 
were acquainted with it. We do not know if this is an ancient Tonga- 
Fiti custom, though probably it is, and brought by some branch 
of the race from their original home in Asia. There are some 
divisions of the race who did not practise it ; the majority of the 
Maoris did not, nor the Morioris. Some of the East Coast tribes of 
New Zealand did, but from the account of its introduction, it is 

* See Journal of tuit Poltnksun Sociktt, vol. viii, p* 231. 



NIUE ISLAND AND ITS PEOPLE. 6 

comparatively speaking modern. It was first known to these people 
in the time of Tama-ki-te-ra and Tama-ki-te-hau, who flourished two 
generations before the arrival of the fleet in New Zealand, or about 
the year 1800. It was no doubt introduced from Eastern Polynesia 
by some of the voyagers who at that period visited New Zealand. 
Hence it was probably unknown to the tanffata-whemuiy or original 
inhabitants of New Zealand — ^who, I have reason for thinking, were 
of the Tonga-Piti branch of the race — or the practice had become 
obsolete, and only resusitated in the case of the Maoris, through 
renewed intercourse with Central Polynesia.* 

The absence of tatooing amongst the Nine people seems to lend 
weight to the argument that the Motu people were Samoans. It is 
blown by tradition that tatooing was introduced into Samoa from Fiji, 
i,e. from the Tonga-flti people, but the date cannot be fixed. It is, 
however, certain that there was a period when Samoans did not tatoo, 
and it was during this time that the Motu people of Nine split off from 
the parent stem in all probability. 

It is probably due to this Samoan origin that we find the following 
names in Nine, which are all Samoan : Hamoa (Samoa), Matafele, 
Havaiki (Savai^), Tutuila, Vaea, Tuapa, Avatele, and Tafiti, which 
latter is a Samoan name of Fiji, whilst Lakepa is the same as Lakemba 
of the Fiji group. 

As to the second element in the Nine population, those called 
Tafiti, there can be no doubt that they are much later emigrants than 
the Motu people. The only account of them I have is as follows, 
and even then the story does not relate to their first coming. The 
original will be found under the same paragraph numbers in the 
native language later on : — 

69 Describes the manner, truly marvellous, by which a woman 
of Niue named Gigi-fale was conveyed away to some island called 
Tonga, for which see translation. 

70. ** Then came down some of the people of the land, who 
surprised and caught the woman, whom they took away with them 
and cared for her. She was a handsome woman, was Gini-fale, and 
was taken to wife by the chief of the island. When the time 
approached that her child should be bom, the husband was constantly 
in tears. So Gini-fale asked him, ** Why do you cry ?" Said her 
husband, ** I am crying on your account, because of your child.** 
Now the custom of that island was to cut open the mother that the 

* The idea that it was an old custom renewed is born out by Hawaiian 
tradition, which, whilst assigning it a ver}' ancient origin, also say that it was 
introduced or became more universal in the times of Pau-matua, one of the leaders 
of the many parties of immigrants into Hawaii from Southern Polynesia in the 
twelfth century. 



6 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

child migh* be bom, but the mother died, This was the reason why 
Lei-pua was so sorry. Then Gini-fale said, ** thou ! I will disclose 
to thee the way by which the child may be born." 

71. When the time came, a male child was born, and they called 
him Mutalau. After the child had grown up he learnt that his 
mother came from Motu-te-fua (Niue), and he felt a strong desire to 
visit the home of his mother.'* 

MUTAL.AU AND MaTUKU-HIFI. 

72. ** Tihamau was the chief of Nuku-tu-taha (Niue) ; he built his 
great house at Hapuga and Faofao, a village at the Ulu-lauta, at 
Mata-fonua of the Lelego-atua (at the north end of Niue ; there is no 
such village now). He was the lord of the male (plaza) of Fana-kava- 
tala and Tia-tele ; and of the stone house built by Huanaki at Vaihoko 
— he was the first king of the island of Niue-fekai. 

73. Matuku-hifi was the hagai or lieutenant of Tihamau, whose 
duty was to guard the entrance against the Tongans, lest they 
seized the island. He dwelt at the upper rock at Makatau-kakala, 
at Oneone-pata, Avatele. He prepared some white operculiiy and 
bound them (over his eyes) with hiapo, when darkness set in, and 
thus leaned back on his seat. The rock against which he supported 
himself was opposite the sea. When he had the openuUi in his eyes 
they shone white, as a man who was wide awake, and then he slept 
soundly until daylight. 

74. This was at the period that Mutalau arranged to come to the 
island, but Matuku-hifi kept strict guard so that it was difficult for 
Mutalau to land. Mutalau used frequently to come by night, without 
success, so he waited till daylight at which time Matuku-hifi went 
away to work, and leaving his canoe at Tioafa, crept up to the resting 
place of Matuku-hifi to see what kind of a man he was. 

75. When the hour of Matuku-hifi's return came, he made his fire, 
and bound on his artificial eyes and rested in his stone-seat. Then 
Mutalau saw that it was all deceit ; so he waited until Matuku-hifi 
was sound asleep, then seizing his weapon he went up by the path, 
and struck Matuku-hifi on the bead and cut it off, together with the 
stone-seat. Thus died Matuku-hifi. 

76. After this Mutalau went to Vaono, near Mala-fati, a village 
between Lakepa and Liku, where he met Tihamau, the king. Here 
they disputed together, because Mutalau had come to the island. 

77. Lepo-ka-fatu and Lepo-ka-nifo were the sons of Matuku-hifi, 
and they were both small children at. the time of their fathers's death ; 
but when they grew up they enquired who their father was. The 
family told them, ** Matuku-hifi was your father, but he was killed by 
Mutalau who lives at the Ulu-lauta (north end of the island). The 



NIUE ISLAND, AND ITS PEOPLE. 7 

sons and their relatives now desired to make war, and prepared 
accordingly, and when the preparations were complete, they went to 
the north, and killed Mutalau. This was the beginning of war in 
Nine, which lasted until the coming of Peniamina, Toimata and Paulo 
to bring the word of Jesus to prevent further fighting." 

There are some interesting points in this tradition, quite outside its 
connection with Nine. It contains fragments — generally perverted — 
of traditions known to other branches of the race. For instance, the 
Cesarian operation referred to in par. 70 is part of the story of Tura, 
an ancient Maori ancestor.-^ 

It is also probable that the first part of the story of Gini-fale, is 
based on one of the Tinirau legends — is in fact a perverted account 
of Hina's adventures. Both of these stories belong to the Maori- 
Rarotongan branch of the race, and hence Nine people only know 
them in a sketchy kind of way and have made a local application of 
them. Tinirau, or as they and the Samoans call him, Tigilau, was 
known by name to the Nine people, which is natural, for he flourished 
before the date of the migration to Nine, in Fiji. 

Now this story, though it only mentions the name of one emigrant 
—Mutalau — and partakes of the frequent marvellous character of so 
many old legends, contains no doubt the germs of a true story of a 
further accession to the inhabitants of the island. 

As to the origin of the Tafiti people, it seems to me probable that 
they were some of the Tonga-Fiti people who occupied the coasts of 
Samoa, and were expelled from there at the time of Matamata-me, or 
when Savea became the first king of all Samoa, and received the 
name for the first time, of Malietoa. This occurred according to the 
several Samoan genealogies about the year 1250,1 or about 550 
years after the arrival of the Motu people at Nine. This period is 
characterised in Polynesian history by the close connection of the 
Polynesians with the Melanesians in the Fiji group, when intercourse 
was frequent and intermarriage constant. Hence the greater 
Melanesian strain in the Tafiti people than in those of Motu, It is 
due also to this Melanesian intercourse, that the large number of 
Tongan words, with some of their grammatical forms, was introduced 
into Nine, gradually overriding and replacing much of the purer 
Polynesian dialect spoken by the Motu people, the traces of which are 
still apparent in their old songs. 



* In the osaal story of Tura, according to Maori history, he is shown to be a 
contemporary of the Polynesian hero, Whiro. Bat it is clear this latter Tura is 
quite a different person from the more ancient Tura, who visited the country where 
natural birth had to be assisted by an operation. 

t See this Journal, vol. viii, p. 6. 



8 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Subsequent History of Niue. 

The first notice of Niue Island from an outside source is contained 
in the Rarotongan traditions. Here we come, for the first time, on 
something a little more reliable as to dates than anything the Niue 
people can furnish. The following brief notice will be found in the 
Rev. J. B. Stair's ** Early Voyages of the Samoans.'"" I quote this 
account because it is in print, rather than the MS one in my posses- 
sion, which has not yet been translated. But though Mr. Stair refers 
to the large number of voyages described in his paper as Samoan, they 
were only so in the sense that many of them were made from Samoa, 
but by the Maori-Rarotongan ancestors, who at that date were leaving 
Samoa for the Eastern Pacific. Mr. Stair says, ** Sixth voyage, (under) 
Tangiia. After this they left that side of the heavens (i,e. that part 
of the Pacific), and sailed eastward to Niue and Niua-taputapu 
(Keppel Island), to Niu-lii, Niu-tala and Iva (Marquesas), and then 
they sailed to Tahiti, where Tangiia made a settlement at a place 
called Puna-auia." 

It is easy to prove by a number of genealogies that Tangiia 
flourished about the year 1250. If the tradition is to be relied on, 
and I know of no reason to doubt it, the name Niue preserved in 
Tangiia's voyage, and not one of the ancient names of the island 
shows that the voyage of Levei-matagi and Level -fualoto had already 
been made to Tutuila, and the coco-nut introduced to Niue, as related 
previously. It is possible the East Polynesian name fatu-kaldj for a 
black stone axe, is due to this voyage. 

The next incident in Niut* history was the visit of Veu and Veu 
from Manuka in eastern Samoa, as related in the Samoan traditions 
collected by the Rev. T. Powell and translated by the Rev. G. Pratt 
and edited by Dr. J. Fraser. ♦ This tradition refers to the visit to 
Niue of Veu aud Veu, two people of Manu'a, who were expelled for 
breaking the local laws. Although the tradition is full of the marvel- 
lous, as is common to these old legends, it no doubt relates an 
historical fact. After recounting the birth of their son, Fiti-au-mua, 
and the fact of his being brought up by a Nun" woman whose own sou 
was named Laufoli ** who was a true Niueau ; he was a warrior," the 
story relates the return of Fiti-au-niua to Manu'a in Samoa, where he 
engaged in a war to punish those who had exiled his parents, and his 
subsequent warlike visits to Fiji, Tonga, Savai^i, i*^c., and his death at 
the hands of Le Fanonga, at Mata-utu. The story then goes on : 
" Laufoli, wondering why Fiti-au-mua did not return (to Xiue), came 
in search of him ; fought with Manu'a : Manu'a was overcome ; went 

• Journal of Polyxehian Society, vol. iv, p. 104. 
t Sk£ thib Jocbkal, vol ix., p. 125. 



NIUE ISLAND, AND ITS PEOHLE. 9 

to Tutuila : Tutuila was overcome ; came to Upolu ; Upolu was over- 
come ; then he arrived at Savai*i. After that he went back to Nine, 
and was not seen again in Samoa." 

From the above brief story, it is evident that Laufoli was a warrior. 
We will now see what the Nine traditions say aboiit him. One of the 
stories will be found in the original later on ; from that and another 
account I have, the following is produced : 

The Story of Lau-foli. 

^* A long time ago there lived in this island a man named Laufoli 
who was famed in his day for his skill, and the adventures he met 
with. He was a tall man, a warrior, and a chief in his generation. 
He was possessed of a staff which was his constant companion, and 
with which he performed some astonishing deeds— it was in fact a 
magic staff. It frequently occurred that the high tops of the Pandanus 
trees were found cut off, but for a long time no one could ascertain 
how this was done, or who did it. Finally it was discovered that 
Laufoli struck off the tops of these trees with his staff. On one 
occasion a party of Tongans came to Nine (not necessarily from Tonga), 
and they were surprised at seeing the Pandanus trees without tops. 
"What has been done to the trees ?'* asked they. " Laufoli has cut 
them off," was the reply. The chief of the Tongans was so taken 
with Laufoli that he persuaded him to accompany the visitors on their 
return to their own country. Before departing in the large war canoe, 
Laufoli carefully wrapped up his staff in the leaves of the tefiri plant 
and concealed it in the canoe ; and so they departed for Tonga. 

On airival in their own country, the Tongans decided to put 
Laufoli's powers to the test. They first asked him to cut down a 
species of banana called a hulahula,-' Laufoli dispatched one of the 
Tongans to the canoe to fetch his staff; but after searching he could 
not find it, so returned with a paddle. Then Laufoli himself went 
down, and after carefully unfolding the tefiji leaves in which the staff 
was wrapped, he ascended to cut down the banana. But a piece of iron 
(lapatoa) had been inserted in the core of the banana, so Laufoli failed 
at his first attempt. He then took the staff in his left hand and with 
one blow cut down the banana together with the iron core, *' and the 
Tongans turned pale with astonishment."! 

* There is a species of plant in Samoa called sukisula (identical with hulahula)^ 
and one in Fiji called ftulisuli, but not apparantly in Tonga. 

t Lapatoa is the word used for iro.i iu Niue. In another account the word 
toa is used, and this is probably correct, for the toa or iron wuod tree (Casuarina) 
grows on all the groups near Niue, i.e. Samoa, Tonga, Fiji, (&c., bjt not un Niu(? 
itself. 



10 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

The Tongans having failed to foil Lau-foli, now proposed another 
test of his powers. They took him to a wide chasm and told him to 
jump it, expecting to see him fall and be killed ; but Laufoli succeeded 
in jumping the chasm in safety.* 

The Tongans now decided on another test of Laufoli's powers. 
They sent him to a certain cave in which dwelt Toloa-kai-tangata, or 
Toloa-the-cannibal. When Lau-foli got there, Toloa was absent, but 
his wife was at home. Lau-foli asked her, " Where is Toloa gone ?'* 
The woman replied, •'* He has been gone a long time, fishing." Said 
Lau-foli, ** At what time will he return ?" To this the reply was, 
" When the rain falls, and the heavens thunder, will he arrive with 
his back-load of human-flesh.'* Lau-foli said, "The man smells!" 
As Toloa came back he looked* and saw Lau-foli waiting at his cave ; 
he stepped forward, smiling in glee on beholding a victim for a feast, 
but Lau-foli struck at his feet with his weapon, and cut off both of 
them, and then his hands. Then the cannibal begged of Lau-foli to 
spare his life, promising that he would never return to man-eating 
again. Lau-foli said to him, ** Put out your tongue ! " Which he did ; 
and then Lau-foli cut it out and burnt it in the fire. Thus died 
Toloa- kai-tagata, and the Tongans were able to live in safety. 

After three nights, the Tongans arranged that Lau-foli should 
ascend a certain mountain, and attack the people living there. Bo he 
ascended, and as he did so the people on top rolled down great stones, 
which he avoided by stepping on one side, but continued the ascent all 
the time. When smaller stones came rolling down he straddled his 
legs and let them pass, but he continued to ascend. At last he arrived 
on top, and then with a sweep of his weapon towards the north he 
upset all the people in that direction ; then he turned to the south, to 
the east, and to the west, and did likewise. Then all those loft alive 
begged of him to spare their lives, which Lau-foli agreed to. 

Lau-foli now descended, and remained with the Tongans until he 
was an old man. He married the king's daughter and had three 
children born to him, after which he abandoned his wife. This 
angered the Tongans, who all cried out : ** Exile him! Kill him! 
Exile him ! " For this reason Lau-foli returned to Niue." 

The story then goes on to describe the death of Lau-foli, who fell 
or jumped into a f/-oven, and there perished. The account will be 
found later on in the original and translation. 

Taken in conjunction with the Samoan tradition, it is no doubt an 
historical truth that Lau-foli visited Fiji and Savai'i, and there 

• In one of the songs about Lau-foli's dce<lR, this jump of his is said to be 
over the tnpi mi aji, which I can only translate as over ** the cre«t of H»»rv water,** 
which may mean a volcanic vent. 



NIUE ISLAND, AND ITS PEOPLE. 11 

occurred the last scene of the attack on the mountain. At that time 
possibly one of the volcanic vents was active, for I believe volcanic 
action in the west part of Havai4 has only ceased in comparatively 
modem times.* It is clear that the people with whom Lau-foli left 
his home did not come as enemies. 

This, however, was not always so, for there are plenty of signs that 
indicate frequent visits of ^^Tongans" on warlike expeditions. It is 
highly probable that the Tonga, or Vavau people, were amongst these 
warlike visitors, for they are celebrated all through Polynesian history 
for the extent of their voyages and their wars with other islands. 

At a later date than the adventures of Lau-foli occurred the 
incident of the Ana-Tonga. This place is a cave in the great longi- 
tudinal chasm that lies on the east side of Niue. From the Niue 
account, it appears that an invasion of Tongans took place, much to 
the alarm of the local people, who finally decided to attempt by 
stratagem what they could not perform by open fighting. A path 
was made leading from the coast, right up to the deepest part of the 
chasm — now about 36 feet deep — and here a bridge of slight branches 
was thrown across and covered with earth, whilst the Niue people 
waited below. The Tongans advanced, and as soon as a good many 
of them got on the bridge of course it gave way and they were 
precipitated into the chasm, where, according to Niue story, all the 
party were killed. But the story is an absurdity. The chasm where 
bridged is only about ten feet across, and therefore but few people 
could stand on the bridge. No doubt there is foundation for the story, 
but clearly the whole party could not have been killed as the Niue 
story says.t 

We hear of one Nini-fale, a woman, who in former days led a party 
from Tonga and settled on the coast near where Tama-kau-toga village 
is now situated. There are at the present time living in Niue great- 
grandchildren of some Tonga women who were captured during a 
Tongan raid on Niue. Moreover, Mr. Lawes informed me that a few 
years ago might be seen not far from Liku the rotting remains of a 
large Tongan canoe. 

It is obvious from these incidents that Niue had frequent 
communication with the outside world, albeit that communication was 
generally of a hostile nature. It was no doubt, after one of these 

* Since the above was written, a volcanic outburst has again occurred in 
Savai*i. 

t Since writing this story, I liave seen Mr. Basil Thompson's " Savage Island, 
an Account of a Sojourn in Niue and Tonga," Johu Murray, London, 1902, in which 
is the Tongan account of this afifair, which occurred under the chief Kau-ulu fonua 
fifteen generations ago, or about the year 1525. The Tongans claim to be the 
victors, as is natural. 



12 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

visits that some fell disease was left behind that affected the Nine 
peeple very seriously, and caused them to oppose the landing of any 
foreigners. This was their reason for opposing Captain Cook, whose 
visit will now be described as copied from his second voyage, a 
publication which is rare, and I therefore think it may be acceptable 
to our members to see it. 



Captain Cook's visit to Niue, 1774. 
Vol. II, 1777. 

** Thursday, 16th June, 1774 (page 2).— From this day to the 16th, 
we met with nothing remarkable, and our course was West southerly ; 
the winds variable from North round by the East to S.W., attended 
with cloudy, rainy, unsettled weather, and a southerly swell. We 
generally brought to, or stood upon the wind, during night ; and in 
'the day made all sail we could. About half an hour after sun-rise this 
morning, land was seen from the top-mast head, bearing N.N.E. We 
immediately altered the course and steering for it, found it to be 
another Reef Island, composed of five or six woody islets, connected 
together by sand banks and breakers, inclosing a lake, into which we 
could see no entrance. We ranged the W. and N.W. coasts, from its 
southern to its northern extremity, which is about two leagues ; and 
80 near the shore, that at one time we could see the rocks under us ; 
yet wo found no anchorage, nor saw we any signs of inhabitants. 
There were plenty of various kinds of birds, and the coast seemed to 
alxiimd with fish. The situation of this isle is not very distant from 
that assigned by Mr. Dalrymple for La Sagitaria, discovered by Quires ; 
but by the description the discoverer has given of it, it cannot be the 
same. For tliis reason I looked upon it as a new discovery, and named 
it Palmerston Island, in lionour of Lord Palmerston, one of the Lonls 
of the Admiralty. It is situated in latitude 18° 4' South, longitude 
168' 10' W^est. 

(Page H), At four o'clock in the afternoon we left this isle and 
resumed our course to the W. by S. with a fine steady gale easterly, 
till noon on the 20th, at which time, being in latitude 18^ 50', longi- 
tude 16H ' r)2', we thought we saw land to 8.S.W., and hauled up for 
it accordingly. Hut two hours after, we discovered our mistake, and 
resmiicd our course W. by S. Soon after we saw land from the mast- 
hejul in the same direction ; and, as we drew nearer, found it to be an 
island which, ai i\\v, o'clock, bore West, distant five leagues. Here 
we H))ent the night plying under the top-sails ; and, at daybreak next 
morning, bore away, steering for the northern point, and ranging the 
West coast at tlie distance of one mile, till near noon. Then, 
perc<iMng some people on the shore, and lauding seeming to be 



NIUE ISLAND, AND ITS PEOPLE. 18 

easy, we brought to, and hoisted out two boats, with which I put off to 
the land, accompanied by some of the officers and gentlemen. As we 
drew near the shore, some of the inhabitants, who were on the rocks, 
retired to the woods, to meet us, as we supposed ; and we afterwards 
found our conjectures right. We landed with ease in a small creek, 
and took post on a high rock to prevent surprise. Here we displayed 
our colours, and Mr. Forster and his party began to collect plants, &c. 
The coast was so overrun with woods, bushes, plants, stones, &c. 
that we could not see forty yards round us. I took two men, and 
with them entered a kind of chasm, which opened a way into the 
woods. We had not gone far before we heard the natives approaching; 
upon which I called to Mr. Forster to retire to the party, as I did 
likewise. We had no soon joined, than the islanders appeared at the 
entrance of a chasm not a stone's-throw from us. We began to speak, 
and make all the friendly signs we could think of, to them, which they 
answered by menaces ; and one of two men, who were advanced before 
the rest, (page 4) threw a stone, which struck Mr. Spearman on the 
arm. Upon this two musquets were fired, without order, which made 
then all retire under cover of the woods ; and we saw them no more. 

After waiting some little time, and till we were satisfied nothing 
was to be done here, the country being so overrun with bushes, that it 
was hardly possible to come to parly with them, we embarked and 
proceeded down along shore, in hopes of meeting with better success 
in another place. After ranging the coast, for some miles, without 
seeing a living soul, or any convenient landing-place, we at length 
came before a small beach, on which lay four canoes. Here we landed 
by means of a little creek, formed by the flat rocks before it, with a 
view of just looking at the canoes, and to leave some medals, nails, 
&c., in them ; for not a soul was to be seen. The situation of this 
place was to us worse than the former. A flat rock lay next the sea ; 
behind it a narrow stone beach ; this was bounded by a perpendicular 
rocky cliff of unequal height, whose top was covered with shrubs ; two 
deep and narrow chasms in the cliff seemed to open a communication 
into the country. In, or before one of ihese, lay the four canoes 
which we were going to look at ; but in the doing of this, I saw we 
should be exposed to an attack from the natives, if there were any, 
without being in a situation proper for defence. To prevent this, as 
much as could be, and to secure a retreat in case of an attack, I 
ordered the men to be drawn up upon the rock, from whence they had 
a view of the heights ; and only myself, and four of the gentlemen, 
went up to the canoes. We had been there but a few minutes, before 
the natives, I cannot say how many, rushed down the chasm out of 
the wood upon us. (page 6). The endeavours we used to bring them 
to a parley, were to no purpose ; for they came with the ferocity of 



JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

wild boars, and threw their darts. Two or three musquets, discharged 
in the air, did not hinder one of them from advancing still further, 
and throwing another dart, or rather a spear, which passed dose over 
my shoulder. His courage would have cost him his life, had not mj 
musquet missed flre ; for I was not five paces from him, when he 
threw his spear, and had resolved to shoot him to save myself. I was 
glad afterwards that it happened as it did. At this instant, our men 
on the rock began to fire at others who appeared on the heights, which 
abated the ardour of the party we were engaged with, and gave as 
time to join our people, when I caused the firing to cease. The last 
discharge sent all the islanders to the woods, from when they did not 
return so long as we remained. We did not know that any were hurt. 
It was remarkable, that when I joined our party, I tried my musquet 
in the air, and it went off as well as a piece could do. Seeing no good 
was to be got with these people, or at the isle, as having no port, 
we returned on board, and having hoisted in the boats, made sail to 
W.B.W. I had forgot to mention, in its proper order, that having 
put ashore a little before we came to this last place, three or four of 
us went upon the cliffs, where we found the country, as before, nothing 
but coral rocks, all over-rim with bushes ; so that it was hardly 
possible to penetrate into it ; and we embarked again with intent to 
return directly on board, till we saw the canoes ; being directed to the 
place by the opinion of some of us, who thought they heard some 
people. 

The conduct and aspect of these islanders occasioned my naming 
it Savage Island. It is situated in latitude 19^ 1' South, longitude 
16d° 87' West. It is about eleven leagues (page 6) in circuit ; of a 
round form and good height ; and hath deep waters close to its shores. 
All the sea-coast, and as far inland as we could see, is wholly covered 
with trees, shrubs, &c. ; amongst which were some cocoa-nut trees ; 
but what the interior parts may produce, we know not. To judge of 
the whole garment by the skirts, it cannot produce much ; for bo 
much as w^ saw of it consisted wholly of coral-rocks, all over-run with 
woods and bushes. Not a bit of soil wai to be seen ; the rocks alone 
supplying the trees with humidity. If these coral-rocks were first 
formed in the sea by animals, how came they thrown up to suoh an 
height V Has this island been raised by an earthquake ? Or has the 
sea recodoil from it ? Some philosophers have attempted to aocoont 
for the formation of low isles, such as are in this sea ; but I do not 
know that any thiii^ hivs Ikh^u said of high islands, or such as I have 
Ikhui s^H'akiug of. In this island, not only the loose rocks which cover 
(he surface, biu tho cliffs which bound the shores, are of coral stone, 
which tho continiuHl l)oating of the ^a has formed into a varietjy of 
curious caverns, somo of them very large : the roof or rook over \ 



NIUE ISLAND, AND ITS PEOPLE. 16 

being supported by pillars, which the foaming waves have formed into 
a multitude of shapes, and made more curious than the caverns them- 
selves. In one we saw light was admitted through a hole at the top ; 
in another place, we observed that tlie whole roof of one of these 
caverns had sunk it, and formed a kind of valley above, which lay 
considerably below the circumjacent rocks. 

I can say but little of the inhabitants, who, I believe, are not 
numerous. They seemed to be stout well made men, were naked, 
except round the waists, and some of them had their faces, breast, 
and thighs painted black. The canoes (page 7) were precisely like 
those of Amsterdam (Island) ; with the addition of a little rising like 
a gunwale on each side of the open part ; and had some carving about 
them, which shewed that these people are full as ingenious. Both 
these islanders and theif canoes, agree very well with the description 
M. de Bougainville has given of those he saw off the Isle of Navigators, 
which lies nearly under the same meridian.'' 

The place of Captain Cook's second landing where he had the 
affray with the natives is at Opahi, about a mile west of the mission 
house at Alofi. The accompanying picture shows his landing place 
and the rock (on which the people are) where the marines were drawn 
up. At the present day the people can tell very few particulars of 
Captain Cook's visit; but they insist that their object in opposing 
him was to prevent the introduction of disease. 

Rev. John Williams' Visit, 1880. 

The next known event in the history of Niue was the visit of the 
well known missionary, John Williams (the martyr), who, when on a 
voyage in his home-made little vessel, the ** Messenger of Peace," 
called at the island with the intention of landing native teachers from 
Aitutaki. The account of his visit will be found in his ** Missionary 
Enterprises," published in 1846. The following was given to me by 
the Rev. F. E. Lawes, and is derived from the natives : In July, 
1880, the mission vessel brought to off Falekula, near Tuapa, where 
the present king lives, and after a time, some of the teachers on board 
with Mr. Williams came ashore (Williams himself implies in his book 
that he did not land) where they were met on the reef by two Niue 
young men named Tokolia (afterwards called Heremia) and Hikimata, 
who conducted them up the steep bank to near where the king's house 
now stands. They then got some taru and proceeded to cook it, and 
when ready Williams had prayers and divided out the food. By this 
time other natives had come up with no very friendly feelings towards 
the new comers, but seeing the food divided out they oame to the 



16 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY, 

conclusion that Williams had no evil intentions towards them. Before 
the meal was ready they heard a large party approaching with much 
noise, and with war cries, who turned out to be the inhabitants of 
Makefa. They came up with a rush, evidently with the intention of 
killing the party. The two young men commenced to dance about, 
flourishing their arms, as is their way, in defiance of the new comers. 
Williams, thinking matters looked serious, now returned slowly to the 
seaside where the boat was waiting. On his way he asked the name 
of plants, &c., wishing to show he had no evil intention. On the reef 
they were met by an old man (father of Mrs. Head) having a very 
savage appearance, and who made at Williams with a spear ; but 
Williams laughed at him, and took hold of the spear and attempted 
to pass it off as a joke. Then the body of people followed down to the 
reef, which induced Wilhams to put off in the boat. A.t this time 
some of the people had been off to the vessel and had returned with 
some pearl shells which they had obtained on board, and which they 
considered very great treasures. Many others now went off to the 
ship, induced to go by the desire of obtaining more pearl shell. A 
large number went off, but there was no disturbance. Mr. Williams, 
at page 252, thus describes the appearance of one of these redoubtable 
Savage Islanders : ** An old chieftain was however at length induced 
to venture into the boat, and with him they hastened to the ship. 
His appearance was truly terrific. He was about 60 years of age, 
his person tall, his cheekbones raised and prominent, and his 
countenance forbiddmg ; his whole body was smeared with charcoal ; 
his hair and beard were long and grey, and the latter plaited and 
twisted together, hung down from his mouth like so many rat-tails. 
He wore no clothing except a narrow slip of cloth (i.e. hiapo) 
round his loins for the purpose of passing a spear through, or 
any other article he might wish to carry. On reaching the deck, 
the old mem was most frantic in his gesticulations, leaping about from 
place to place and using the most vociferous exclamations at every 
thing he saw. All attempts at conversation with him were entirely 
useless, as we could not perbUcule him to stand still even for a single 
second. Our natives attempted to clothe him by fastening rouhd his 
person a piece of native cloth ; but tearing it off in a rage, he threw 
it upon the deck, stamped upon it, and exclaimed, *' Am I a woman 
that I should be encumbered with this stuff?** He then proceeded 
to give us a specimen of a war dance, which he commenced by poising 
and quivering his spear, running to and fro, leaping and vociferating 
as though inspired by the spirit of wildness. Then he distorted his 
features most horribly by extending' his mouth, gnashing his teeth, 
and forcing his eyes almost out of their sockets. At length he 
oonoluded this exhibition by thrusting the whole of his long grey 



NIUE ISLAND, AND ITS PEOPLE, 17 

beard into his mouth, and gnawing it with the most savage vengeance. 
During the whole of this performance he kept up a long and continuous 
howl." 

To continue the native narrative : Mr. Williams secured two young 
men from the island named Uea and Niuma ga, and took them away 
with him. (His intention was to teach them and then return them 
to their own people). The vessel went to Tonga, then to Samoa. 
The lads were very much frightened directly the vessel began to draw 
oflf the land, and more so when they saw the crew taking lumps of 
flesh out of the harness cask to eat, for they thought it was human 
flesh, and that they would be served up in a similar manner. After 
a time, finding no harm was intended them, they quieted down. After 
Williams' visit to Samoa he tried to land the youths at their own 
island, but the winds being against them, he carried them on to 
Ra*iatea, which the Nine people call Kangiatea, as do Maoris and 
Barotongans. Here the youths were taught many things, and some- 
thing of Christian doctrines. After several months they were returned 
to their own island, but they do not appear to have been able to 
accomplish any good amongst their own people. They introduced to 
the island the loku or papaya. Unfortunately the ship that brought 
them back introduced some disease into the island, which caused many 
deaths, and this led to reprisals. Uea, one of those who went away 
with Williams was killed by Hopo-he-lagi, the father of Iki-lagi, one 
of the respected chiefs of Aloli at the present time. This induced 
more fighting, in which Hopo-he-lagi and some ten others were killed 
by the Liku people. The other young man, Niumanga, belonged to 
Alofi, and his life was spared. Subsequently this young man together 
with Niukai and Peniamina left Nine in a timber ship for JSamoa, 
where Peniamina fell into the hands of the missionaries, and became 
a servant of Dr. Turner, who taught him a good deal. He was a 
clever man, and could both read and write. About 1844-5 Peniamana 
returned as a missionary to his native island and began to teach the 
gospel, but he '*fell from grace," and eloped with another man's wife. 
He went off to a calling vessel, just like any other of the wild islanders, 
with long floating hair, &c., which was their custom. He was not 
altogether a success as an dvangelist. 

it was then decided by the mission in Samoa to send Paulo, a 
native Samoan, and evidently a man of superior character, who arrived 
in Niue in October, 1849: He became very popular and won the 
hearts of the Niue people ; he taught them many things, amongst 
others to build churches and the substantial lath and plaster houses 
now so common. He lived at Mutalau, and gradually christianized . 
these wild people. The Mutalau people at that time were in the 
ascendant, and through their means he got the people of the island 
2 



18 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

togethi3r at a place between Liku and Lakepa, and there persuaded 
them to make peace, which has lasted to this day. Afterwards other 
Samoan teachers came : Samuela, who was teacher at Avatele ; Sakaia, 
at Tuapa ; Mose, at Aiofi, &c. 

The Avatele natives told Mr. Lawes and myself, that about the 
year 1840 a ship arrived off that place, and a number of white people 
landed from her, many of whom w^ere dressed in red coats — no doubt 
marines — and they formed up on the beach at Oneonepata. The 
natives in the mean time lined the cliffs above, and then commenced 
throwing down stones at the strangers, who thought it best to return 
to their vessel. What ship this could be, I know not ? This vessel 
landed and left a pig ashore. 

Between the date of Captain Cook's visit in 1774 and Williams' in 
1830, there must have been occasional visits from whalers, but there 
is no record of them, except in one case which Williams mentions 
(with his usual neglect of names and dates), when the natives had 
seized a boat belonging to a vessel which had touched there a few , 
months before his visit, and murdered all the crew. 

The Rev. William Gill (not Dr. Wyatt Gill) says in his " Gems 
from the Coral Islands," that the next visitor after Williams in 1880, 
was made by '' an assistant missionary of the Samoa Islands in 1840 
in a small schooner not more than twenty tons burden, having many 
Samoa natives on board. On reaching off* shore a numerous company 
of islanders came to the vessel, all of whom were armed with clubs 
and spears, and who might easily have taken possession of it and 
murdered the strangers . . . they had their confidence increased in 
the objects of our mission." 

In 1842 the island was visited by the Rev. A. Busacott in the 
missionary brig *' Camden." He had intercourse with the people, and 
in his attempt to land a teacher he well nigh lost his life, for it was 
ascertained that the natives laid a scheme to sink the boat, destroy the 
property, and murder the missionary. 

Subsequent visits were made by the Rev. A. Murray and others. 
At this time many of the young men had engaged themselves on board 
whale and merchant ships that called at their island, and were brought 
to Tahiti, the Sandwich Islands, and Samoa. Among those who 
reached Samoa was Fakafiti-enua {m- ? Fakatiti-fonua) and Peniamina. 

Mr. Gill says, ** On a missionary voyage in the * John Williams' in 
184G, we called at Samoa and found Fakaiiti-enua and Peniamina not 
only willing, but by christian education prepared to return home and 
use their influence to secure the location of a teacher on the island. 
We arrived at the island in the month of October, 184G, with these 
two men on board. . . . Fakafiti-enua, who was a man of some 
influence on shore, arranged that Peniamina should remain and 
prepare the way for others. We have ali*eady seen what was the 



NIUE ISLAND, AND ITS PEOPLE. 19 

result, but he did some good apparently, for when the Rev. A. v\ . 
Murray visited the island in 1852 he found some progress had beeu 
made. 

In 1861 the Rev. W. G. Lawes, brother of the Rev. F. E. Lawes, 
the present worthy missionary, arrived to take up his residence in tnc 
island, when he found six churches erected, and only eight heathen left ! 

Mr. Gill says, '* In 1852 a ship of war called at the island in search 
of the crew of a vessel wrecked on a near reef, and intercourse was had 
with the people of the last formed christian station, most of whom 
were yet under the influence of heathenism. (Paulo had come from 
Samoa in 1849). Natives were admitted on board to barter, and all 
passed on without difficulty, until it was found that some of them had 
stolen articles belonging to the ship. Upon this discovery, the whole 
party was thrown into confusion ; some of them who were on board 
were secured at once, and boats were lowered to follow those who were 
returning to the shore. Canoes were capsized and broken ; the natives 
were pursued and fired upon, and beaten in every direction — one man 
died in the sea of shot wounds, and several others were detained on 
board the ship for two days ; when, early in the morning two of the 
natives thus confined were released, while the ship was near the shore, 
and they landed in safety, but later in the day others were put over- 
board, three of whom landed half dead the next day ; but nine of the 
party lost their lives. One of these nine was a chief who only a few 
months before had give his protection to the native christian teacher ; 
his wife, through grief on account of his death, threw herself from 
a high precipice and was killed. The guilty man, who had been the 
thief on board, escaped to the shore ; but his own people were so 
enraged at him, that they compelled him to go out in a small canoe 
and he perished at sea ! " 

I learned quite recently from Mr. Maxwell, that the visit of this 
man-of-war was to search for the crew of a Spanish or Portuguese 
vessel which foundered off the coast, and the crew of which reached 
Avatele on a raft, and it was from them that the natives procured 
their first dog (referred to in Part I hereof), and not from the timber- 
laden ship. These shipwrecked people afterwards reached Samoa, but 
in the meantime the British man-of-war, alluded to in Mr. Gill's 
narrative, had heard of the disaster and came to Nine looking for the 
crew. Owing to a misunderstcmding, and believing that the crew 
were detained prisoners inland, many natives were detained, others 
killed, as Mr. Gill says. 

In my account of the Kermadec Islands,* at page 15, I mentioned 
the fact, copied from Stemdale, of a large number of Tokelau natives 

* '* The Kermadec Islands : their capabilities and extent,' by S. Percy Smith, 
Assistant Surveyor-General. Government Printer, Wellington, 1887. 



20 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

(since kno>\n to be Niuc natives) having been taken to Sunday Island 
by a Callao slaver in 1861, where nearly all of them died. I got the 
Nine account of this affair through the Rev. F. E. Lawes. It was not 
very long atter the arrival of the Rev. W. G. Lawes at Niue that a 
Peruvian slaver appeared off the coast at Aloff, under the command of 
an American. They succeeded in getting a large number of the people 
on board and induced them to go below, when they clapped the hatches 
on and secured them. There were about 200 of them. The people 
on shore, seeing the others did not return, began to understand that 
something was the matter. So Fata-a-iki, who was an enterprising 
and determined chief (but not then king), got a large number of people 
together and went off in their canoes, with the intention of over- 
powering the ship and releasing their fellow-islanders. But the crew 
prevented their getting on board, and tired on them to keep them off — 
one man being killed and others wounded. The crew manned and 
lowered an armed boat, and gave chase to the canoes, which made for 
the shore. A big fat man in Fata-a-iki's canoe wanted to cease 
paddling and offer up prayers for their safety ; but Fata-a-iki said, 
** Leave your prayers till we get ashore," and insisted on urging their 
canoe to its full speed. Some time after this an Irish sailor came 
ashore to the mission house to fetch some medicine, and Fata-a-iki 
wanted to make him prisoner as a hostage for their own people, but 
Mr. Lawes dissuaded them, thinking the captain would not wait for 
his sailor. Soon after the vessel sailed, and before very long dysentry 
broke out amongst the unfortunate prisoners, when many died, and 
were cast overboard. Things got worse, so the captain, being then 
near Sunday Island, lauded most of the others in Denham Bay, and 
there left them to die, as all the unfortunates did. Some few were 
taken on to Peru, where they were made to work as slaves in the mines 
and other works. Some years after this an American whaler manned 
by Aitutaki natives arrived at Callao. Two of the younger Niue people 
determined to escaixi by her if they could, and communicated their 
desire to the Aitutaki crew, who arranged with the captain to take the 
young men, if they came off* dresseil in their best, and hid somewhere 
near the shoe. When the whaler's boat came ashore, the heart of 
one of the young men failed him, thinking they would be recaptured 
by the Peruvians, but the other went off in the boat. The coast- 
guard suspecting something gave chase, but the boat reached the ship, 
and the captain being all ready put to sea at once. This young lad 
was landed at Oahu, from whence he managed to communicate with 
his rolati\es at Niur : but lie was! afraid to come btick on account of 
his father, who he knew would hold him responsible for his brother 
left in Peru. He married at Oahu, but in the end made his way back 
to Niue 



NIUE ISLAND, AND ITS PEOPLE. 21 

The notorious Bully Hayes also managed to kidnap a number of 
the Niue people and carried them away to Tahiti, where he sold them. 
It will thus be seen that the Niuc experiences of civilized nations has 
not been altogether of a character to give them an exhalted idea of our 
people or our methods. 

I must refer readers to Dr. Turner's '' Nineteen Years in the 
Pacific," for particulars of his two visits, from which will be gathered 
the progress of the islanders at various dates since 1840. The island 
has received visits from some eight men-of-war, including those which 
brought Commodore Goodenough, Sir Arthur Gordon (in 1879), Lord 
Ranfurly, &c. 

In November, 1887, the natives applied to Her Majesty, Queen 
Victoria, to be taken under her protection and have a Commissioner 
sent to reside. This request was repeated on February 12th, 1898, 
and also October 10th, 1899. Mr. Basil Thompson was dispatched 
from Fiji to hoist the British flag and bring the island under the 
British Protectorate, in H.M.S. ** Porpoise," and did so, 20th April, 

1900. In October, 1900, His Excellency, the Earl of Ranfurly, 
Governor of New Zealand, visited Niue and proclaimed the British 
sovereignty over the island, 19th October, 1900. On the 11th June, 

1901, the island was annexed to New Zealand by a proclamation made 
at Auckland by H.R.H. the Duke of Cornwall and York. The first 
Government Resident (the writer hereof) arrived at Niue from New 
Zealand 11th September, 1901. 

Kuenaia ! 



APPENDIX. 



The following are the traditions I collected whilst at Niue. Like 
all such productions, they should have questions asked on them, in 
order to clear up obscure parts ; but I had not the opportunity of doing 
so very fully, for they came into my possession too late. I have 
endeavoured to follow the native writers as closely as possible in the 
translation, but feel that I have sometimes failed to grasp their 
meaning. They are worth preserving in the native dialect, ar. nothing 
of the kind has ever been attempted before for Niue Island ; nor has 
any matter of a secular nature (not educational) ever been printed in 
their language. Their printed literature consists of the Scriptures, 
hymns, iic. 



22 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAI. 



Written by Pulekula, Teacher at Tama-ha-le-leka. 



Lieu, October, 1901. 



(Translati >n f, 

IT commences with the preparation of the island (as a dwelling- 
place) down to the birth of mankind from a tree ; also describes 
the gods, male and female. It is the story of the waters, of the 
hsh, of the birds, of creeping things, and of the trees on the surface of 
earth ; of the tierceuess (or evil), the stealing, of the upright (works) ; 
also of the kings : of the arrival of Captain Cook in 1774 ; of 
Peniamina and Toimata in 1846 ; of Paulo in 1849 ; of Mr. Lawes 
in August, 1861 ; of the three kings — Mataio, Fata-a-iki and 
Tongia-pule-toaki — down to the hoisting of the British flag at Nine in 
1900. 

The Gods of Old. 

1. There were live goils (tupua) that fled hither from Motu-galo. 
They were men who lived in idleness, and took no part in the prepara- 
tion of feasts. (So it came to pass) when their parents made a feast 
and when all others partook, no portion was sent to them. They 
were left out because of their laziness. This became the constant 
rule, and the parents became greedy : then (the Ave) fleil away to seek 
an island on which they might dwell i>ernianeutly. 

2. Tiiere are three accounts about them- that they came from 
Fonua-galo ; from Tulia : from Toga aiul some luhtr islands '- These 
are the names of the tui'ttas — Fao. Faka-hoko. lluanaki, Lage-iki and 
Lagi-atea. 

8. IWtwoon Liku and Lake|>a. there is (a part of the) sea-shoro 
calletl Motu -whioli name remains to this day; it is a small level 
space on the reof. with Mata-kao-lima on the north, Makato on 
iho east ; whilst at lliola spring iip the streams from which they 
(jvople^ drink, which there gush forth from the rocks. 

1. iliey \^these tnpims) came up fr^>m U^neath a pix)l on the reef ; 
Fai> fn.>ni near the base of the cliffs, wheiv his way o[)ened up and he 
ascended to buiKl a ivsidence at Toga-liuhi. He found a single small 

' Tiu' Toga htiv niontioiioil lUvs not nocos^arilT meau Tonga<tapa Island, for 
all (oiti^n laiuli \uiv ouUcvl Tonga by the Nine people. 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAI. 28 



KO E TOHI HE TAU TALA I NIUE-FEKAI. 



Ko E MENA TOHI E PuLEKIJLA, KO E AkOAKO I TaMA-HA-LE-LEKA. 



LiKu, Oketopa, 1901. 



XUA kamata he tauteaga he motu ato hoko ke he fanauga he tagata 
mai he akaii, ke hoko ke he tau tupua oti, ko e tau tane mo e 
tau fifine. Ko e tala he tau vai, mo e tau ika, mo e tau manu- 
lele, mo e tau manu-tololo, mo e tau akau he fuga kelekele ; ko e favale 
he kaiha, mo e tutonu. Ko e tau Patuiki, ko e hoko mai a Kapene 
Kuka, 1774, ke hoko mai a Peniamina mo Toimata, 1846, ke hoko a 
Paulo, 1849, ke hoko a Misi Lao, Aukuso, 1861, ke hoko ke he tau 
Patuiki tolu, ko Mataio, ko Fata-a-iki, ko Togia-pnle-toaki, ke hoko ke 
he fakatu ai e matini Peritania i Niue-fekai, 1900. 

Ko E Tau Tupua tuai. 

1. Ko e tokolima e tau Tupua ne fehola mai he Motu-galo. Ko e 
tau tagata nofo noa a lautohi, nakai taute he galue. Ne taute galile 
e tau matua ha lautolu mo e kai oti ni, nakai momoi atu ma lautolu ; 
ko e tiaki he teva. To mahani mau pihia, kua loto-kai lahi a laiitohi, 
mo e fehola ke kumi motu ma lautolu ke nofo mau ai. 



2. Kua tolu e talahau ki a lautolu : — ne hau i Fonua-galo, ti hau 
i Tulia, ti hau i Toga, mo e fain a motu. Ko e tau higoa he tau 
Tupua, hanai : Ko P^ao, ko Fakahoko, ko Huanaki, ko Lageiki, ko 
Lagiatea. 

8. Ko e vaha loto i Liku mu Lakepa ko e tahi ne higoa ko Motu, 
ko e hana higoa ia ke hoko mai ke he aho nai, ko e tofola tote, ko 
Mata-kao-lima i tokelau. Ko Makato he fahi uta, ke hoko atu ki 
Hiola ne puna ai e tau vai-lele ke inu ai a lautolu — he lele mai i loto 
he maka. 

4. Ne huhu hake a lautolu mai lalo he loloto ; ne hu a Fiio he 
pokoahu, ti pu ai e hala hana, ti hake leva ke ta e kaina i Toga-li-ulu. 
Taha ni e mena tote ne moua, ti tu vivivivi ai hana hui hema ka e 
nikiti ki luga hana hui matau, ko e tau peau ne hau liga ni e tafia. 



24 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

ripaee. on which ho siocmI treiubhng (in^ecnrelv) with his left foot, 
whilst the right was elevated, and the waves came ap as if to sweep 
hiiij away. 

•l. Tht-n apivared Fakahoko, and he remained at the gateway by 
which he came. u.>r ascending to \nsit Fao at Toga-liula, and help 
him in the work he was preparing. 

6. Next came up Huauaki. He said to Fakahoko, " Why do you 
remain here, and not ascend and assist in the work ? *' Then he went 
up to ToffA-iiulu : one of his feet the left) stood insecurely, whilst the 
riirht wa> elevateii, and the waters and the waves came, so that within 
a liiile ibe island was swept by the flowing water. 

7. Then these two — Fao and Hnanaki — worked away. The island 
iucreasrti thrv>ugb Uuauaki's work, and they soon possess^ a place to 
dweil in : and Fiio had a place for both feet throagh the celerity of 
Huanak/s work. When the island was completed by these two, then 
Hnanaki i;;ave names to the land, thns : Nnka-ta-taha, Mota-te-foa, 
Fakahoa-moiu and Nukxi-tuluea. These are the meanings of the 
names: Naku-tu-taha. a. single island withont companions: Motu- 
t*: -fua. a liesolate. barren island ; Fakaboa-motn, because the work of 
Fao \*a- uoi nnished. but was completed by Huanaki. 

S. \Vh»>n the work was completed, Huanaki said to Fao, '• The 
work you •in<li-rtook was left undone.*'" Thus was this name applied 
10 :he vi J:^ee of Liku. •' Tuanaki noa he toli o aiua.'*^ The village 
of Lak-pa is namcil * Malr-loa he fakaeteeie," because the feet of 
Fao L\> ill g.^ >iiKx>thiy over ibe »'i<i/<= or plaza, as made by Huanaki 
fr^ :.i one c.-nier :o the other. 

9. A l:keness of Huanaki was made of stone at Vai-hoko, on the 
o^fi-i a: M r.'.lau. on the point to the west sidtr of Vai-opeope, the 
r.'i::.':: it f •: I'-u-vvhi being to the ea^^t. and Kavatsi on the west ; 
Vs: hoko is 'j«tnvt<n. The ^fonuer^ village of Vai-hoko was often 
ca.lt 1 :ht ** Kaupu of Huanaki.' At the lar^ nx^ks a hous^ of stone 
wa- b.iil; ly :hv fei t oi Huanaki to shelter the people ; the likeness 
a!i ': :!.i i. n-e :h.;< nanit\l are ponuanent — it is a cave, unto this ilav. 

\k^, L:^^'e-ihi also eamo up. and he remained there to await the 
cm:: j cf ibi ftvnau ti^vua^ who should follow the others, and he 
:..,.:.:»■ - :.. : :lu \ for this was his custom. He had children, 
v':. V- :t MM- ca.if.1 Lajje-iki. who dwi-lt ail i\Mind the island of Niur-, 
! ..: ::.i p. t:.: rtinaine.l ai Aloli, and is the chief tai*^a at Puua-fofoa. 
usei iho di a:h of many women, ihrxnigb his evil actions. 

i } .it*i*fw.7*).iW. a work \ti\ undone becaiue eaeh ihooghl the 
. : ::t- >vii;lo':«tl or comphmonurr naoM« given to Likn; tee 



THE THADITIONS OF NIUEFEKAI. 26 

5. Kua hu hake a Fakahoko, ti nofo bifo he gutuhala ne hau ai, 
nakai hake a ia ke ahi a Filo ki Toga-li-ulu ke logomatai e gahua ne 
taute e Fao. 

6. Ko Huanaki ne hu hake a ia, ti tala age ki a Fakahoko. '' Ko 
e ha ne nofo ai a koe ; nakai hake ke logomatai e gahua ? " Ti hake 
leva a ia ki Toga-li-ulu ; ko e taha ni e hui hema kua tu vivivivi, ko 
e hana hui matau kua nikiti hake ki luga, ko e vai mo e tau peau ne 
hau, toe tote ti lofia e motu he vailele. 

7. Kua gahua e tokoua na, ko Fao laua mo Huanaki. Ati tolomaki 
atu e motu i a Huanaki, kua fai mena ke nofo ai a laua, ti tu ua e tau 
hui a F&o ki lalo, he vave e gahua a Huanaki. Kua oti e motu he 
gahua e laua, ti fakahigoa ne fai e Huanaki e fonua hanai : — Ko 
Nuku-tu-taha, ko Motu-te-fua, ko Fakahoa-motu, ko Nuku-tuluea. Ko 
e kakano e tau higoa hanai : Nuku-tu-taha ; ko e motu tokotaha, 
nakai fai kapitiga ; Motu-te-fua, ko e motu tufua ui ; Fakahoa-motu, 
kua fakahoa e motu ne gahua e Fao, ti nakai mau, ka e mau i a 
Huanaki. 

8. Ne oti e gahua, ti pehe age a Huanaki ki a Fao, ** Kua tuanaki 
noa ne fua a koe !" Ati, ui ai pihia e higoa pihia he maga i Liku ko 
e ** Tuanaki noa he toli o atua." Kua ui e maga i Lakepa, koe 
** Male-loa he fakaeteete." Kua fakaeteete tuai e tau hui ua a Fao he 
male loa ne ta e Huanaki ke tina atu ai ke he taha potu mo e taha 
potu. 

9. Kua ta tuai e fakatinc a Huanaki he maka i Vai-hoko, ko e tahi 
ia i Mutalau. Ko e mata-potu he fahi lalo i Vai-opeope, ko e afati ko 
Ulu-vehi, ke he fahi uta, ko Kavata ke he fahi lalo, ko Vai-hoko i loto. 
Ne fa ui ai pehe ko e maga i Vai-hoko ko e kaupu ia a Huanaki. Ne ta 
ai foki e fale maka lahi he tau hui a Huanaki ke fakamalu ai e tau 
tagata ; kua tumau ai e fakatino mo e fale ia ne higoa pehe, ko e ana, 
ke hoko mai ke he aho nai. 

10. Ko Lage-iki ne hu hake a ia, ti nofo hifo ni ke leo mo e tatali 
ai he tau tupua hfine ka mumui mai ki a lautolu, ti hoana ni e ia. 
Ne nofo a Lage-iki ke gahua fifine, ko e Katuali hana ika ne polovalu 
e fakatane a Lage-iki, ti fa mamate e tau hfiue ki a ia. Ne fanau e ia 
e tau tama, ti ui ni ko Lage-iki, ne takai e motu ko Nine he nofo ai 
e tau tama a Lage-iki, ka e nofo e matua i Alofi, ko e Patu ni i Puna- 
fofoa. Ne mamate oti e tau iifine ki a ia ; ko e hana mahani ke 
fakaolo hake i Vali-kele, ko e tahi ia i Mutalau ne lata tonu hifo he 
fahi tokelau he fale he akoako i Lalo-toi. Ti hehele fakaave aki e 
Havilia e fohi, ne higoa foki ko e kolota, ti mamuta e f a e polo ; ati, 
tupu mai e falu a ika mitaki. 

Ko Havilia, ko e tama a Huanaki, ati, fa mahala ai mo e mataku- 
taku a Katuali ke he matagi Havilia, neke fakamotu c mena fa ne toe. 
Ko e mena ia ka tu e matagi mo e havili atu ke he kili-moana, ti 
alomaki e Katuali ke hola. 



26 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

11. La^-atea appeared last, and ioxmd La^-iki awaiting the 
coming of the women ; then he went up to Huanaki at Toga-lialn, and 
after speakin? to Faka-hoko, visit^ Fao. hiit the work had then been 
completed bv Huanaki. so he remained on the chff-tops. Both he and 
Lage-iki were alike in their evil course?. . . . 

12. The road by which they came from the sea at Mota is a pool 
in the reef. Lage-iki came up near the place where the waves break, 
and Huanaki in the middle pan. Both Fakahoko and Fao came 
up near the place where the waves break, and Huanaki in the middle 
part. Both Fakahoko and Fao came forth near the cliff-foot. Lagi- 
atea came after, and ascended to the cliff-tops. 

13. This is the song of Huanaki after the residence had been 
settled ; he sung it to his brethren : — 

To hakn higoa 
A Foa-ULTftli 
Ke he taanaki noa. 
Noho fakaoti au ia. 
Noho fakaoti au ia. 

13a. Then follows the counting (?) of the island of Huanaki and 
his oflfepring. These were the children of Huanaki : — 

1. Tagaloa-pupa-kiinaka 

2. Tafa-he-moana 

3. Tali-mai-miku* 

4. Maka-poe-lapi 
o. Fakana tua 

f>. Lia-vaha 

7. Lagi-tai-taea 

8. I.age-iki-ua 

9. Havilia 
10. Leo-matagi 

18b. Each one of these was gifted with great strength (? power) ; 
they ruled over all — the ocean and all things in it, the waves, all 
great waters, the fish, the sands, the rocks Mow, — to glorify Hua- 
naki. The ** Kingdom " of rocks, of the very centre of the deep-seated 
rocks, was the dwelling place of Huanaki. 

14. Maka-poe-lagi (No. 4 above) rule<l at Namuke, a part of the 
coast between Liku and Hakupu. It is he that frequently resounds 
from that part of the sky to tho oast — that his strength may be 
manifest in all parts. It is he that causes to fall the meteoric stones 
that bum the treos and^ . . . and his *'guns" are before all 
others (louder) in the thunder. 

* Taraniai-nuku. Ono of the Maori anco^^tors wa^^ also so called, but it does 
not follow that they are one and the same persi>n. 

* Mo e hoka aki e tjutu, an expression I cannot iranalate. 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAI. 27 

11. Lagi-atea; ne hu fakamui mai, kua leo tuai a Lage-iki be tau 
fifine ka o mai, ti bake ni a Huanaki, kua bake tuai ki Toga-liulu ti 
vagabau mo Fakahoko ; ti hake ke ahi i a Fao ; kua oti tuai e gabua 
he taute tokoua mo Huanaki, ti nofo a ia he feutu i luga he mata be 
toafa. Ti takoto ne fai he puhala ke alai be hala ka bifo mai be 
motu e tau fifine ; ti avaga bake e ia, be tatai ua e tau fakatane ha 
laaa mo Lage-iki. Ka mafiti e fifine mo e laka vave e tau bui, fa e 
polo, ke hu atu ke be fifine, te moui e fifine ia. Kua fakatu ai e fifine 
mo e laka fakatekiteki, ti bu oti e polo-valu, ti mate e fifine ka pihia. 

12. Ko e puhala nai kua huhu hake ai a lautolu i Motu, be tabi, 
he loloto, he tuatua. Ne pu a Lage-iki tata hifo ke he mena ne fafati 
ai e peau, ti lotoga a Huanaki ; ti pu hake ai a Fao he pokoabu. Kua 
mui a Lagi-atea, ti bake leva ke he feutu i luga. 

18. Eo e lologo a Huanaki he mau e kaina — ne uhu ke he tau 
mata-kainaga hana : — 

To haku higoa, 
A Fou-tavali, 
Ke tavali 

Ke he luanaki noa. 
Noho fakauti au ia, 
Noho fakaoti au ia. 

18a. Ko e totou ne fai e Motu i a Huanaki mo e hana fanau — ko 
e tau tama hanai a Huanaki : — 

1. Tagaloa-pupuki-maka 

2. Tafa-he-moana 
8. Tali-mai-nuku 

4. Maka-poe-lagi 

5. Fakana-tua 

6. Lia-vaha 

7. Lagi-tai-taea 

8. Lage-iki-ua 

9. Havilia 
10. Leo-matagi 

18b. Kua igatia a lautolu mo e malolo-lahi ; kua pule a lautolu 
i lalo be tabi mo e tau mena oti i ai — ko e tau peau, mo e vai-lahi, 
oti ia, mo e tau ika, mo e tau oneone, mo e tau maka i lalo oti ni ke 
fakalilifu atu ni ki a Huanaki. Ko e motu he toka he uho-toka-ho- 
kulo, ko e kaina i^i a Huanaki. 

14. Ko Makapoe lagi (4) kua pule a ia i Namu-ke, ko c tabi ia 
i Liku, be vahaloto mo Hakupu. Ko ia ne fa paku-lagi mahaki mai 
he fahi lagi i uta, ke haolo atu ke be tau fahi hana malolo. Ko ia ne 
mokulu hifo ai e patuliki, ke huhunu ai e tau akau mo e hoka aki e 
gutu, ko e tau fana hana ne mua he pa lahi ke he pu-lagi he tau 
paku-lagi oti ni. 



28 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Of Other Tttpttas 

15. And the tnpuas increased until they were numerous ; some 
ascended to the kingdom {mota) above, the kingdom of day and night, 
and exchanged with the family of Huanaki. They were : — 

1. Maka-hopokia 

2. Eainono 

3. Taomaga 

4. Lagi-loa 
6. Fue-fou 

6. Fiti-hulugia 

7. Mono-taga-tu 

8. Lagi-halulu 

9. Tu-tau 

10. Tulaga-momole 

11. Anoano-tau 

12. Hala-pouli 

13. Tu-mote-knla 

14. Lagi-afa 

15. Tapa-tu-tau 

16. Tapa-tu-lele 

17. Tapa-tu 

18. Tau-felele-aki 

16. They were all endowed equally with p:lory and goodness 
(? beauty i and ruled over all divisions of matters that spring from the 
surface of the earth — the many diflferent flowering plants, the creeping 
things with life, and the birds of the heavens. 

17. In former times these (symbolical) names prevailed : — 

Tama-la-fafa, the ancient nnnie for the Lupe (pigeon) 
Tiha-tala ,, ,, Tuaki (tropic bird) 

Ha-le-vao ,, ,, Peka (the Hying fox) 

Huli-ua „ „ Ilga (crab) 

Ate-lapa ,, ,, Kale (tlie Toiphyrio biul) 

Ti-lalo-fonua ,, ,, Kiuna (the rat) 

18. The pigeon was called Tama-la-fafn. He and lla-le-vao came 
from a grave (?) to fly along the way of Nuku-tapa and Oloolo, which 
is a burnt forest ; and they descended to the clifl's and the top of the 
cliffs on the coast. 

19. The Ti-lalo-fonua (the rat) was a bird of the heavens; but 
Ha-le-vao, which is called a Peka (flying fox) was a creeping thing on 
the earth ; they were of the same family. The Poka looked at the 
Kuma (rat) and saw how quickly he sped along, and (thought) it was 
beautiful. Then he begged of Kuma to give him his wings to allow 
him to make a trial of them. But Kuma was very grudging. Still 
Peka urgently prayed for the wings with many blandishments -until 
his request was granted through love to Peka. 

20. Then said Kuma, ** Come then ! that I may give you my 
wings that you may have a short trial of them, t^) see if you know how 



THE TRADITIONS OF HIUE-FEKAI. 29 

Eo B TAU TUPUA KEHEKEHB. 

15. Ko e tolomaki ue fai e tau tiipua ke tokologa ; ke bake falu ke 
he luotu i luga, ko e motii he alio mo e pouli, ne fetogiaki he maga- 
faoa oti a Uuanaki : — 

1. Maka-hopokia 

2. Kaiuouo 

3. Taomaga 

4. Lagi-loa 

5. Fue-fou 

6. Fiii-hulagia 

7. Mouotaga-tu 

8. Lagi-halulu 

9. Tu-tau 

10. Tulaga-momole 

11. Anoano-tau 

12. Hala-pouli 

13. Tu-mote-kula 

14. Lagi-ofa 

15. Tapa-tutau 

16. Tapa-tu-lele 

17. Tapa-tu 

18. Tau-felele-aki 

16. Ko lautolu ia kua igatia mo e lilifu mo e mitaki, mo e pule 
ke he tau tufaaga ne tupu ai he fuga he kelekele — ko e tau akau-fiti 
kehekehe — loga, mo e tau manu-lele he pu-lagi. 



17. Ko Tama^la-fafa, ko e higoa mua i a Lupe 



Ko Tiha-tala 


» if 


„ Tuaki 


Ko Ha-le-vao , 


» ' »i 


„ Peka 


Ko Hali-ua 


»» »» 


.. Uga 


Ko Atelapa 


» M 


„ Kale 


Ti-lalo-fonua 


»» M 


,, Kuma 



18. Ko Lupe, ne higoa ko e Tama-la-fafa, ko ia mo Ha-le-vao ne 
hau he tukuga ke lele atu he hala Nuku-tafa mo e hala Oloolo, ko e 
vao-vela ia ; ne hifo atu ke he toafa mo e feutu i tahi. 

19. Ko e Ti-lalo-fonua, ko e manu-lele ia he pu-lagi. Ko Ha-le- 
vao kua ui ai ko e Peka — ko e tagata totolo ia he kelekele, ko e faoa 
taha a laua. Ne kitekite atu e Peka ki a Kuma, kua maiiti lahi ni 
hana a lele, ti fulufuluola lahi ni ; ti ole ne fai ke ta age e tau tapakau 
a Kuma ke fakafifitaki e ia, po ke iloa nakai. Ne lamakai lahi a 
Kuma, ka e ole fakalahi atu a Peka mo e fakahaiia atu. Kua talia e 
Kmna he fakaalofa ki a Peka. 

20. Kua tala age e Kuma, '' Ati hau a, ke ta atu haku na takapau 
ke fakalata fakatote a koe, po ke iloa nakai." Ka e tali atu a Peka, 



80 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

to use them.** But Peka answered. ** Give me them then ; but you 
fasten them on just like you do — make them firm — lest you are the 
cause of my falling and being killed." So Kuma fastened them 
strongly and well ; and then lifted Peka up and said, '* Now then, 
fly!'' 

21. Ha-le-vao Peka arose in flight : he laughed and called to 
Kuma. •' Are the things (wing>) as well as with you ? " Kuma called 
to him, ** Come down I you have l^en sufficiently long ! " As he flew, 
Peka called down gently, - Presently I Presently ! " and then he 
made off altogether, leaving Kuma to bewail the loss of his treasure, 
but gave Kuma a parting greeting. Thus the creeping animal took to 
flight, whilst the fl>*ing bini had to creep. '* Peka Ha-le-vao, the 
evil-minded. " Ka ! Fa ! Kiki i" ! Kiki in .' *' said he below, 
whilst Peka replies, " AT'^Z-jAy .' kolokif .'*' from above. 



r» h^ cmtinif^'L 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAI. 81 

*' Ati mai a, ka e fakatu mai e koe tuga i a koe, mo e fakamau ke 
inau, neke fakato e koe au ke mate." Ne taute fakamalolo e Euma, 
ati mau mitaki e na tapakau ua, ti lagaaki hake e ia ki luga mo e 
talaage, *<Atilele a!'' 

21. Kua lele bake a Ha-le-vao Peka, ati kata a ia mo e ui age, 
*' Ne mitaki ai pihia hau a tau mena ! " Kua iii atu a Kuma, ** Hifo 
a ! Kua leva tuai." Ha ne lele kua ui fakatepetepe bifobifo a Peka, 
'* Aukiala ! Aukiala ! '* Ati fano fakaoti e Peka, kua tagi e Euma he 
f of o e tau koloa hana. Kua mavehe atu e Peka, * ' Hau na te haku 
nai ! ** Kua lele e manu-totolo, ka e totolo e manulele. ** Ko Peka- 
Ha-le-vao, loto kelea, ea, ea, kiki io, kiki io,' a ia i lalo. Kua pehe a 
Peka, ** Koloke, koloke," i luga. 




NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR, 

AS CONDUCTED BY THE MAORI OF NEW ZEALAND, 
WITH ACCOUNTS OF VARIOUS CUSTOMS, RITES, SUPER- 
STITIONS, Ac, PERTAINING TO WAR. AS PRACTISED 
AND BELIEVED IN BY THE ANCIENT MAORI. 



By Elsdox Best, of Tuhoe-land. 



Part V. 



Para-\Vhakawai. 

Y^HE para-whakauai was the school of anns of the Maori, 
^^ wherein the young men were trained to the use of arms — 
to guard, parry, thrust and strike. They were taught the use 
of arms by the old, tried warriors, known as Ikaa-Whiro, They 
were pitted against each other and performed sham duels, the 
ends of the weapons l>eing wrapped in old garments, so as to 
avoid inflicting a wound. These trials of skill were known as 
uhakahonthtno rnkau. Wrestling was also indulged in, and was 
termed irhatoto. Trained warriors would irhakatu rakau, i.e., fi[o 
through the various guards, passes, il'C, with the various weapons 
before the young men, that the latter might acquire these arts, and 
learn to tread tho ways of Tu, the fierce-eyed — Tu-tawake who recks 
not of human life, but 

Loves to drink the siesim that reeks 
From the fresh battlefield. 

There would appear to have also l)een performed at these exhibi- 
tions, or clas.<;('s, a sort of mimic encounter, wherein two opposing 
force's in lolnnin wont through the perfornumces of challenging, tic, 
and single combats, as in actual war, the performers being closely 
watched by tho older men. in oixler to see who were the more 
proficient, and also to note any lapses from the rules of war, aitua, 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 88 

or mistakes, such as the korapa, &c. The following brief invocation 
was repeated by the priest over these, as yet, unblooded Children 
of Tu :— 

'* Ngaa atu koe ki tua te arorangi 

Ngaa atn koe ki te kapaa i te rangi." 

HoA Rakau, &c. 
War was, with the Maori, ever deeply imbued with their religious 
ideas or superstitions. No man might hope to achieve fame or 
success, or even to retain his knowledge or his bravery, tact and 
presence of mind without the assistance of the gods. We will, 
therefore, look at those means by which weapons were rendered 
eflficient after they had left the hands of the artificer, and at the 
tapu with which weapons were impregnated when in the service of Tu 
(supreme war-god of the Maori). 

The weapons of the Maori being imbued with a certain amount of 
tapu were necessarily carefully looked after. They were generally 
kept suspended from the side walls or roofs of the houses, long spears 
being usually slung to the roof. During active service, weapons 
appear to have shared in the extra amount of tapu with which each 
warrior was imbued. At such times, and also on the return of an 
army to the tribal home, great care was displayed lest the weapons 
become tamaoatia (polluted, void of tapu or sacredness), which 
misfortune would not only render them non-efficient in battle, but 
also be liable to bring dire disaster upon the war party. 

The word hna is a generic term for divers karakla (invocations, 

incantations) intended to destroy or weaken either men or inanimate 

objects. Thus the tapuwae {hoa tajniwae) is repeated in order to render 

an enemy less fleet of foot, and also to strengthen and render more 

fleet the reciter. Another hoa is repeated in order to cause stones to 

be fractured, i.e., broken simply by the power of spell or charm. 

This was one test applied to young men who had been educated as 

priests. A stone was handed to him, over which he repeated a Juta, 

and then cast it on the ground. Had the scholar fully grasped the 

matter imparted to him by the priests, and duly observed all the 

necessary precautions, &c., that stone would be shattered simply by 

the power of his incantation. Another hoa was repeated whereby to 

blast living trees. Yet another was repeated over a spear \vhich was 

laid across, or buried beneath, the trail over which a hostile force was 

advancing. Should the enemy pass over the spear — he paveknra ! — 

they had entered the world of death, and disaster lay before them. 

In olden days some peculiar methods of restoring a sick person 

obtained, one of which was to carry the patient, after sunset, to the 

side of a stream, where sundry rites were performed. One of these 

was the heating of a small earth-oven by the priest, and in which he 

8 



84 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

placed a portion of sacred food, repeating over it a certain hna. When 
the oven was opened by the priest, should the enclosed food be not 
properly cooked, that patient was doomed. If cooked, the patient 
would recover, and the thunder of heaven would resound. So much 
for lioa as a generic term. 

Now for the Ima rakau, or hoa for weapons. This is often termed 
in Tuhoeland a mdta-rdkan, and is also known among some tribes as 
a ki-tao. It was a karakia ( = invocation or spell) to make a weapon 
efficacious and destructive in battle, as also to weaken the enemy. 
The words employed to render the enemy powerless, to deprive him of 
strength, are often embodied in a karakia known as a tuaimu. The 
word tua here means to subdue. Another tua is a spell employed to 
subdue the elements, to calm a storm, i.e,y to subdue Tawhirimatea, 
who is the personification of the winds. The spell repeated by the 
priest in the above described ceremony in regard to a sick person, 
appears to be sometimes termed a tndimu (of which tuaumn and 
umu and imn are variant forms). The tuaimu to quell the raging 
winds is also known as umu purn-rangi. 

It is stated by the natives that when an efficacious mata-rakau 
{ = h()a rakan) has been repeated over a weapon, that even a slight 
wound inflicted by such weapon will cause death — the power of the 
spell completing the work of the weapon. That is to say, he will die 
unless he be fortunate enough to gain the services of a tohumja (priest) 
who has sufficient power of a sacerdotal nature to enable him to over- 
come the mata-rakau spell of the enemy. 

The following quotation will show that the terms tuaimu or 
tudumuy mata-rakau and hoa-rakau are applied to the same thing, with 
the exception that the two latter are specific terms, and cannot be 
misunderstood, whereas tuaimu^ being a generic term, must be con- 
nected with the object in order to render it clear as to which tuaimu is 
meant. It will be observed that it is so connected with the point of 
the weapon — te mata o to rakau — in the following illustration : — 

** Art tudumutia e au te mata o taku rakau — kaore e ora i a au. 
Ahakoa he puhuki te mata n te rakau — kia pa ki te tinana o te tamjata — 
mate tonu atu.'^ ... I tuaimu the point (or edge) of my 
weapon, and no enemy can withstand me. Although the point (or 
edge) of my weapon be blunt — let it but strike the body of man— and 
he perishes. 

In pursuing an enemy a warrior will sometimes repeat a hoa over 
his weapon and then cast it at his flying foe. 

Here is a definition of the above hoa — *• Au te mata-rakau he 
karakia mo te lioariri : he hoa mo te huata, kia kaha ki te lujau tanyata.'* 
The mata-rakau is a spell used against an enemy ; a hoa for the spear, 
that it may destroy man. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 85 

Our warrior, weapon in right hand, stands forth. An Ika-a- Whiro is 
he, and a blooded son of Tn-tawake. He is about to engage an enemy, 
to enter battle, or single combat. He lifts his \veapon to his mouth 
and expectorates upon it. He then repeats, in a low tone of voice, 
speaking secretly to the point of his weapon {ka karakia jmku ki te 
mala o tana rakau) the Jwa or mata-rakau : — 

To ringa i tu, to ringa i pe, May thy hand be stricken, be rotten, 

Pepehi nuku, pepehi rangi, Press down earth, press down heaven 

Takataka o rangi Falling is thy eminence, 

Kaki whatia Broken is thy neck. 

Taka tonu, heke tonu Begone ! descend, 

Te ika ki te Po The victim to Hades, 

Maa ka oti atu ki te Po Begone for ever to Hades. 

He ika ka ripiripia Slashed is the victim. 

He ika ka toetoea Torn in shreds is the victim. 

He ika ka haparangitia. Disembowelled is the victim. 

Such is a mata- rakau as repeated when the warrior desires to slay 
his enemy. The words '^ Man ka oti atu ki te Po,'' consigns him to 
the Po, Hades, the World of Darkness, for evermore. Should, 
however, his opponent be a relative, or should the warrior, for some 
other reason, not wish to slay his opponent, he will omit the above 
seven words ; and should his opponent fall to his weapon, he will 
stoop over the body and, wetting his fingers with his spittle (hfiarS), 
will rub them on the face and body of the stricken one, at the same 
time repeating this spell : — 

Hoki mai ki te ao nei Betum thee to this world ; . 

Mahihi ora Bise up to life, 

Ki te whai ao, ki te ao marama To tlie world of being and of light, 

Eo rou ora To the life acquired. 

This process is to restore the wounded opponent to the world of 
life and being. The eyes blink and he is restored. 

The following is a variant form of the tuaimu : — 

Te imu kai te ruhi The rite to effect exhaustion, 

Te imu kai te nene ( = ngenge) The rite to effect tiring, 

Te imu kai te ta The rite to effect the killing, 

Te imu i tukitukia The rite of smashing, 

Te imu i wawahia The rite of splitting open. 

Tuku tonu, heke tonu Away ! descends 

Te ika ki te Po. The victim to Hades — 

He ika ka ripiripia The victim that is slashed. 

He ika ka toetoea The victim that is torn in shreds, 

He ika ka ripiripia The victim that is slashed, 

He ika ka loetoea The victim that is torn iu shreds, 

He ika ka haparangitia The victim that is disembowelled 

Muimui te ngaro Gather the flies, 

Totoro te iro Crawl the maggots, 

Mau ka oti atu ki te Po Begone for ever to ILides, 

Oti aiu ki te Po wherikoriko. Begone to the Hades of blackuess. 



HO JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY, 

And btill another : — 

Ha te ruhi. ha te Dgeoge, ha te umu. 
Ha te ruhi, ha te ngenge, ha te omo 
Mui te ngaro, totoro te iro 

E mate ki te Po, 

E hori ki tua, ki wai, 

Oti ata. 

Another statement made in regard to the hoa takaii is that when 
a warrior repeated the spell, he lifted his weapon to his month {ka 
whahaha i tana rahau /•/ tona \raha), as a precaution {kei hoki mm ki 
a ia)y lest his karahia be turned against him, or be overcome by that 
of his enemy. Hence the lifting of the weapon to the mouth appeaj*8 
to have been for the purpose of whakamana — to give mana (power, 
force) to the spell. Possibly the act of spitting upon the weapon was 
supposed to have a similar effect. The saliva entered into many rites 
in ancient Maori land. The saliva of an enemy, if obtained, could 
be used as an (thomja or passive agent, through which to take 
the life of such enemy, the spell repeated by the performer being the 
active agent When, however, a person made use of his own saliva it 
was generally, I believe, used in the sense of whakaora — i,e,, to retain 
life, health, strength, or prestige. I have read that, among the 
dancing dervishes of the east, when members fall in a swoon from 
exhaustion, or self-inflicted wounds, the leader of the band restores 
such by nibbing thom with his saliva. 

Whon the Urewera foil a squabbling at Pa Waimori (Waikare- 
nioana) ovor a woman, a party attacked that diminutive island 
stron.u:hol(l. Topatopa repeated a hoa rakau over his spear, and, 
thrusting it between the palisades of the fort, succeeded in spearing 
Pao-nahue in the breast and killing him. 

It is a fact that the Maori of old evolved personifications of almost 
ovorythinji:, animate or inanimate, on earth or under the earth, in the 
waters and in tbo heavens, and the free winds that blow between 
thorn, llonco, l)y close questioning among the few old men who still 
retain a ronniant of the ancient lore, we find that a special atua (god, 
demon, ^c"), one ro-niutu by name, presided over weapons and the 
ritos and incantations connected therewith. The mata-rakaii invoca- 
tion has the olYeot of practically locating re-mutu upon the point of 
the s|var, \o. ■ that is to say, the power (tapn) and prestige of that 
iUiia is >o looatod, tbo pi>int of the weapon is impregnated with such 
virtues or powers of tbo i^rixl. *' Ka karakia i te mata rakaii^ ka haotu a 
l\-ioutii '.'/ Tf liuita " tf rakau, ara, ka nkakatiohia'a tana atua ki tf 
mata .' ti ra'^oit, hai uhakamatt' i t* luHuiri," (The wata rakaa spell 
is ivjH'aiod. thuN Kx^atinj; lo-mutu on the |H)ini of the weapon, in 
oidor thrtt ho n\j\y brintr doatli to tho onon\y.^ There are evidences 
thai :^ -^jvoi:*) nn*Haiioi\ was ouiployo*l in onlor to cause the I'e-mutu, 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 87 

or the power of that atua, to be absorbed by that weapon. That 
karakia seems to have been known by the name of the atua, and the 
following words are said to be a portion of it : ** K (? he) runt taiaroa 
m Tu:' 

On the return of a war party to the village home some very strict 
rules were enforced. They might not mingle with the people until 
the tapa had been taken from them by the priest. No one might eat 
of the human flesh brought in — this applied in a most stringent 
manner to women— until the whakanoa rite had been performed and 
the tapu taken off. . . . ** Kei kai ratau i te mata o te rakaii'' — 
lest they eat the point of the weapon — i.e,y lest they pollute the tapu 
of the weapons, and thus render them non-efficient. For the flesh of 
enemies brought in for food is, for the time, sacred, having been in 
contact with Ue-mutu. ** Ko taiia rakau toa kai riuKja tonu i te tauffata 
e haere ana'' — The sacredness of the victorious weapons is still upon 
the people — until the tapu is lifted. 

Here endeth the koa rakau, 

Ta u-ma taki-tahi — Single Combat . 

In the old Maori style of warfare, with the weapons of a neolithic 
people, even a general hand-to-hand engagement was, of course, a 
series of single combats as it were, each warrior selecting an adversary 
and engaging him with spear, club or battle-axe. But apart from this 
the single combat was a great institution, and such affairs were 
deliberately arranged and carried out, as the term tau-mataki-tahi 
itself implies. And not only on the battlefield did such encounters 
occur, but also during quarrels concerning women, land, &c. When 
two hostile forces met on the field of war it often occurred that a chief 
would step forward and challenge some noted toa, or brave, of the 
enemy to single combat. It sometimes happened that a noted warrior 
would thus vanquish in succession several of the enemy, and that the 
latter would then retreat, leaving their foe in possession of the field ; 
thus the main body on both sides would have taken no part whatever 
in the fray. 

In such aflairs each warrior would be accompanied by his piki, or 
second, whose duty it was to guard his principal, and often to assist or 
avenge him. The term piki toto means to take blood vengeance. Piki- 
turanija means ** to come to the rescue," '* assist anyone in fighting," 
and also ** a successor." 

The expression *' mannuja te uhana " means to run, it is often 
applied to the flight of an enemy. 

As to the weapons used in single combats, each warrior pleased 
himself and used his favourite weapon. In many cases one would be 
armed with a short weapon, as the pata, and his adversary with a 



88 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

taiaha, or spear, or tewhateivha. The general verdict of the few 
survivors of the days of the rakau Maori or native weapons is that a 
skilful man armed with a patu would usually vanquish his opponent 
of the longer thrusting, or striking, weapon. Doubtless the former 
would use some form of pad or shield in his left hand (see aute) with 
which to take or parry a spear thrust. 

When encountering an enemy whose ranks contained a noted 
warrior, famous for his skill in fighting, it often occurred that such a 
toa would be attacked (poke) by several in order to make sure of 
despatching him. Pa-i-te-rangi, a famed warrior of Bua-toki, was 
to be assailed. His attackers felled him to the ground and tried to 
slay him so, but he evaded them, and Tapoto in admiration thereof 
called off his men and challenged Pa to single combat. Pa was armed 
with a patu, Tapoto with a tokotoko, spear. But Tapoto had the best 
of it, and when Pa had received eight spear wounds he seemed to 
think the affair somewhat monotonous, and so called on his warriors 
to close in battle. 

When Ngati-Awa, under Tikitu, were advancing to attack Tuhoe at 
Rua-Tahuna they camped a night at Hukanui. Early next morning 
Piki, a chief of Tuhoe, was seen descending the trail. Tikitu was 
seated in the camp, engaged in scraping his taiaUa. As Piki approached 
Ngati-Awa watched their chief to see what fate awaited the traveller. 
Tikitu raised his hand, and, doubling or closing the forefinger thereof, 
placed it to the side of his nose. Then Ngati-Awa knew that Piki 
was not to be slain, that peace was proclaimed. Tikitu said, ** Farewell ! 
I return no more to these parts. I have closed the door of the 
house." 

So Ngati-Awa rolled back down the Whakatane river. At Nga- 
Mahanga they stayed awhile and fraternised with Tuhoe of that place. 
An exhibition of skill in the use of ai'ms was given. Many single 
combats occurred between the two forces. Tikitu engaged Te Ahi- 
kai-ata of Tuhoe, but his Unaha was no match for the patiti (iron 
hatchet) of Te Ahi, which soon drew blood, and the combat ceased. 

Then Ngati-Awa rose to depart. Tikitu stood forth ; he said to 
Tuhoe, to Te-Ahoaho and others, ** Farewell ! Do not be alarmed at 
having shed my blood. I may avenge it elsewhere, but not here." 

When Koura and Te Ika-poto of Tuhoe visited Ngati-Awa at Te 
Kupenga pa (near hotel at Te Teko) after the above incident, Te 
Piariari of Ngati-Pukeko and Te Ika-poto engaged in a taumatakitahi. 
The former was very quick with his taiaha, and in making a rapid 
feint {ivhakahopif) swept his weapon close to tho eyes of his opponent, 
who started and stepped back. Then Ngati-Awa applauded their 
representative and cried, ** Kua korapa ! Kua korapa a Te Ika-poto ! *' 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 89 

For his movements constituted a korapa, which was an evil omen for 
him. Such combats as these were not, of course, duels to the death, 
but trials of skill. 

A famous single combat was that fought out by Te Purewa, of 
Tuhoe, and Te Waha kai-kapua, of Te Arawa, on the bloody field of 
Puke-kai-k&hu. Korotaha acted as second {piki) to Te Purewa, and 
Toko performed a like oflBce for Te Waha. Then was seen a Homeric 
combat as these two giants strove together. Te Purewa fought with 
a patu onewa,* his opponent used a spear (tokotoko). The former, in 
warding off a blow, had his weapon broken, the stump thereof alone 
remaining in his hand. Waha then pierced him in the shoulder with 
his spear, felling and pinning him to the earth. Korotaha strove to 
save his principal, but was attacked by Waha's second, and thus had 
his hands full. Waha shortened his grip on his spear in order to 
drive it home, when Te Purewa, with a desperate effort, struck upwards 
at the temple of his foe and slew him with the stump of bis patn.j 

The Maori War Parit. 

How it was raised, and of the various rites, &c., pertaining to war, 
with some account of the old methods of fighting, of peace-making, 
&c., &c. 

As already stated, the Maori possesses a remarkably revengeful 
nature, hence he was ever ready to fly to arms on the slightest pretext, 
to avenge some insult, real or imaginary, to individual or tribal 
honour. Tradition, custom and self-preservation all tended to make 
the Maori remorselessly cruel, not to speak of his natural ferocity or 
bis craving for revenge. The Maoris bear a great resemblance to 
certain divisions of the Celtic race in their ceaseless inter- tribal wars 
and utter incapacity to form themselves into an united nation. 

Among the communistic Maori tribes there was no form of con- 
scription. The tribal weal demanded that every man capable of 
bearing arms should be ready at all times to defend the tribal lands 
from aggression. At such a time no private aflEairs would serve as an 
excuse for a fighting man remaining at home ; indeed it is probable, 
owing to the simplicity of the domestic economy of the natives, that 
his wife would be eager to accompany him, and very often did so. 
For, after the crops were planted, the people were comparatively free 
and could leave their homes. Private property was by no means 
excessive in quantity. When a man had his clothing on and his 
weapon in hand he could sever himself from his home without incon- 
venience. His most sacred care was the bones of his dead. Destroy 
his property or seize his wife, and you leave but an ordinary 

* t.e., A Btone patu. f This mcident was given to me by Captain Mair. 



40 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

take or cause for war. But should you interfere with the bones of his 
dead you will then start a blood feud that may run down the 
centuries. 

The appearance of the star Rehua marked the sixth month of the 
Maori year (October-November). It was then that the crops were 
planted, and men were free to follow the trail of Tu, the fieroe-eyed, 
and the raised weapon. It was at this time that the war party was 
sent forth. In the spring a young man's fancy lightly tamed to 
thoughts of war. Hence the above star is often termed Behua-kai- 
tangata, i.e.y Rehua, the man destroyer. 

Extra-tribal war was the one thing which could bind the various 
divisions of a tribe into a more or less harmonious whole. At other 
times the different clans or sub-tribes frequently turned on each other 
and fought fiercely among themselves. A strange mixture of ideas 
would appear to occupy the native mind. They were of a remarkably 
independent and jealous nature. No chief could order a tribe to 
engage in any war ; each clan did as it pleased and remained under its 
own chief. A chief endowed with great prestige in war, or with a 
supposed supernatural power — as the waka or medium of a war goii — 
might become leader of the collected tribal divisions in war. But on 
the conclusion of the fighting his temporary authority over the whole 
tribe would end, or be much lessened. The whole of the Tuhoe clans 
placed themselves under Uhia, medium of the tribal war god Te Behu- 
o-Tainui, in the wars against Te Arawa, Ngati-Tuwharetoa and other 
tribes. Yet the Ngai-Te-Riu clan, for some reason, never took part 
in the fierce struggle of Puke-kai-kahu, but drew aside and allow^xl 
the other clans of Tuhoe to win that field. 

It would appear that many of the so-called democratic ideas of the 
Maori are merely the outcome of the universal feeling of pnhaehae or 
jealousy, which is so prominent a trait in the native character, as it 
may well be among any undisciplined people. 

And yet has the Maori many ideas which lean towards aristocr^icy. 
A few days since I was speaking to a native on the subject of the 
families noted for producing prominent fighting men in the days of 
yore. He spoke of the Parahaki aud other famed families, and 
stoutly maintained that only high-born families produced famous 
warriurs, that a toa was necessarily of good family, and that no irarv 
or plebeian ever became noted as a warrior. Although by no means 
agreeing with him, yet his remarks showed that his ideas were of an 
aristocratic nature. 

For some time after the government road works started at Rua- 
tahuna, Te Wheiuia-nui, head of tlie aha ariki, or principal family of 
the district, worked in various contracts of bushfelling and formation. 
The tribe, however, held a meeting at which it was decided that it waa 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 41 

not seemly for their principal chief to engage in such work. This 
decision was made known to him, with the result that he has not 

since done any such work. 

* * * * + 

And now Rehua-kai-tangata gleams ahove the horizon, Tu of the 
dread visage turns his fierce, barbed eyes upon man, the booming of 
the war horns is heard across far lands. Great Ra (the sun) has 
abandoned his wife Hine-takurua on the far ocean, he returns to land 
to dwell with Raumati (summer) of the seared leaf. The ovens are 
open and void, the gods must be appeased with the hearts of the quick. 

We will gird on our war belts and perform the sacred wai tana, we 
will send forth the kara (token) to the Children of the Mist, and sing 
the hidden tMm by the shores of the Sea of Toi. The ancient Earth- 
Mother shall tremble to the roaring chorus of the war dance, and 
many tribes shall rise at the sign of the burned robe. 

* ^ j;: ^ ^ 

A war party is termed a taua or ope taua, sometimes simply ope. 
To raise a war party is tutu taua^ or ichakataka ope, or tirare ope. 

We will now explain various methods by which a war party was 
raised, either for defence or offence in days gone by. 

TiWHA OR Kara. 

When a chief or tribe was desirous of obtaining the assistance of 
another tribe, distant or related, in war it was not usual to ask plainly 
for such assistance. Either a material token was sent as an application 
for such help, or the request was made in the singing of a song which 
contained a hint, however vague an one, of what was required. This 
token or hint is known as a tlwlia among the Tuhoe tribes. It is also 
known as a kara, or mjakau, or koha, or whakapiko, or udhi. So soon 
as the token was placed before him, or the song sung, a chief would at 
once know what was required of him, and he would reply to it by 
entering the league or declining to do so. His reply was often in the 
form of a song, as will be shown anon. 

For instance — " I may be living away from my own people, with 
another tribe. The thought comes to me that this tribe once killed 
an ancestor of mine. I send to my own people to come and visit me. 
They come, and I cause to be placed before them a basket of food. 
Among that food is a stone which I have placed there. That stone is 
a tiwha, and by it my people understand, without a word being spoken, 
that I am asking them to attack the people I am living with, as 
a ranaki mate, to avenge the death of my ancestor." 

Another favourite mode of asking armed assistance was the 
following : The chief takes his cloak (a korowai, or some other kind) 
and, by means of a firebrand, burns a number of holes therein. The 



42 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

cloak is taken to the chief whose assistance is required and laid before 
him, the name of the sender (if sent by a messenger) is of course 
mentioned Bboiild the recipient consent to join in the war, he takes 
up the cloak and puts it over his shoulders. But he speaks no word. 

During the fierce inter-tribal wars which raged in the Bua-toki 
district four or five generations ago, one Rangi-mo-wuho was hard 
pressed, for the tribes of Kaka and Kongo were fighting at death grips. 
So Rangi took his cloak and, having burned the holes in the orthodox 
manner, be set forth for 0-tama-haka. On his arrival he found the 
chief Raha seated on the ground, while Te Ngahuru, the younger, 
stood beside him. The latter asked Rangi where he was going. 
**Here only," replied Rangi, who then opened the burned cloak and 
placed it over the shoulders of Raha. It was not removed by that 
chief, and Rungi then knew that he hud found an ally. Some time 
after a chief named Tohi-a-manu entered the house. He saw Rangi 
and he saw the burned cloak on the shoulders of his companion— and, 
without a word being spoken on the subject, he read the situation at 
a glance. He took the cloak off the back of the other and put it on 
himself. That was his consent to enter the league. And still no 
word was spoken. 

When Ngai-Tama, of Te Wai-mana, slew Te Manu-auare, there was 
trouble in the land. Tu-hukia was abroad on his travels —he came 
from Raroa and was seen by the wife of the slain Manu. She 
prepared food for him, preparing an oven of tanty which she allowed 
to remain in the oven until they were much overdone, quite dried up. 
These she put in a basket, and placed the same before Tu-hukia. He 
at once knew that it was a tiwha, Tu-hukia knew that the burned 
food was a tiwha, because it was repulsive — it evidently had been 
overcooked purposely. Sometimes the tiwha or hara was a most filthy 
substance inserted in a basket of food. If the recipient consented to 
the request, he would eat the food set before him, no matter how 
repulsiv(i. If he declined to take part in the fighting^ he would leave 
the food untouched. In the case of a stone being the material thrha 
in the food, he would show his consent by raising the stone to his 
mouth. 

When the insurgent natives of Taranaki evolved the Hauhau 
njligion, they proceeded to disseminate the same. The head of a slain 
liritish ofVicer was sent to the East Coast to rouse the tribes of 
that part -to bring them into the fold and cause a general rising of 
tli<^ tribes on both coasts. The severed head was a tiwha. 

In Mr. Wilson's "Story of Te Waharoa," is given an account of 
tbt^ slayinK »>f <>"<' liunga, cousin to the formidable Waharoa himself. 
The body of llunga was cut up antl the pieces sent to the Arawa tribe 
lis a till ho. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 48 

When Tuhoe attacked the Ngati-Awa League on account of the 
expulsion of Warahoe, Ngati-Awa sent a turha to the Arawa, asking 
for their assistance, which was given. In like manner, when Te 
Kareke were driven from Te Poroa ;>a at Ruatoki and fled to Opotiki, 
they sent tiwha to Te Whakatohea and other tribes for assistance. 
These agreed, and the allied tribes marched on Rua-toki, and the 
whole of that classic vale rang to the din of war. So much for the 
material tiwha. 

When Tuhoe went to Nga-tahuna to assist Ngati-Mahanga in their 
wars, and were given no food by the latter, some of the warriors of 
Tuhoe climbed on to a free branch of a fallen tree, and swinging 
themselves vigorously up and down thereon, sung the famous pioi 
song by which they hinted to their comrades the advisability of slaying 
their hosts, that they might obtain food — a thing which was actually 
done. 

When Te Rangi-waitatao and Te Toroa, of Tuhoe, were slain by 
the Wairoa people at 0-rangi-amoa, it was resolved by Tuhoe to ask 
the assistance of the northern tribes in order to square the account. 
A tiivha song was composed by Tipihau, in the form of a lament for 
his grandchild, one Tipua-horonuku by name. When Te Mai-taranui 
of Tuhoe visited Maunga-pohatu, Tipihau sung this lament. Te Mai 
at once recognised it as a tiwha. He started for the north, raising the 
tribes from the Bay of Plenty to Ngapuhi. These tribes sent many 
warriors, and a great raid was organised on the East Coast. There 
was fighting from the East Cape to Te Whanga-nui-o-Orotu, and dark 
days fell upon the Children of the Rising Sun. Here follows the 
above-mentioned tiwha : — 

" E tama ! Tipua-horonuku 

E tangi nei ki te kai mahau . . u 

Mahau e haere ki tawhiti 

Whaia e koe i muri 1 a Hongi 
Kia Bomai ana ana kai mahau 
Koia te pungapunga, koia te parareka, koia te poaka 
Nga kai i ahuatia ai to poho 
Eati, ka hoki mai ki au 
Kia hoaia koe ki te putiki whai . . i 
Kia tiaia koe ki te manu rere rangi . . i 
Te Rau o Titapu 

Kia pai ai koe te haere ki runga ra 
Nga wai e rere i roto Te Wairoa 
Tena ra to koka te tao tonu mai ra 
I te umu pongipongi, i te umu whakaware . . e 
I te umu kai . . i kino 
Nohea e mana . . a 
Whakiua E tama ! Nga kupu o te liri 
Nga kupu o tawhiti 
lie mea ka tupouo i runga i te taugata 



41 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Ka kapiti runga nei, ka kapiti raro nei 
Ka kapiti te whenua 
He pokanga nuku, he pokanga rangi, 
He tai ka tuku atu, he tai ka heke atu 
Mimiti pakora te tai ki Hawaiki." 

•• my son ! O Tipua-lioronuku, 
Crying there for food ; 
Distant shall be the journey 
Thou shall follow after Hongi, 
That he may give thee of his strengthening food, 
Of the puwjapunya and parereka and pigs, 
The foods that give strength ; 
'Tis so, and when thou retumest. 
Thou shait be adorned with the plume 
Of feathers from the flying bird, 
The Huia's plume ; 
That thou mayest be handsome. 
On the streams that in the Wairoa fall, 
Where liest thy mother in death-sleep. 
In oven-debasing, oven-insulting, 
In the food oven, oven of evil ; 
But it shall not debase us. 
Utter these, Son ! the words of war. 
The words from afar ; 
And if when thou frontest the enemy, 
Then all above and below shall close — 
The very earth shall close ; 
The earth and heavens shall pierce 
Like a passing tide, a failing tide, 
A tide dried up to Hawaiki (death)." 

Such was the nature of a tiwha as given in the form of a song. 

When the Tuhoe or Urewera tribe heard of the fighting in the 
Waikato district between the insurgent natives and the troops, they 
were much disturbed. They feared that the troops might be sent 
against them to take their lands from them. Hence it was proposed 
to send a contingent of warriors to assist Waikato against the English 
troops. These were the backbone of the men who fought us at 
Orakau. 

Piripi Te Heuheu, a leading chief of Tuhoe, determined to march 
north to join Waikato. He therefore called a meeting of the tribe at 
Bua-tahuna, at which he sung the following song, of the type known 
AH jfuhuj but >vhich was really meant to show the tribe his intention, 
and asking them to join him. It was, in fact, a tiwha : — 
" Puhi kura ! Puhi kura 1 Puhi kaka ! 
Ka whakatautapa ki Kawhia 
lluakina I Huaki I " 



Ka whakakopu ra Kuarangi 
Uape. T« Ina o TupaUka 
lluakina! '' 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. . 46 

' Tahi ka riri, toru ka wha 
He matamata — hopukia ! 
Homai ra to whirl kaha, toro kaha 
Kia wetewetea 
A-te ! A-ta ! A-tau ! 



' Waikato i te mori . . e 
Whakaronga mai ra 
Ka whai an i te tonga o te ra 
Tukua ano ka harataa taku hoe 
Ka rere wharawhara te whenua 
Kai manSwa 
A-ha ! Ma taua ta taua nei mahi.'* 



Ka tohe an, ka tohe au, ka tohe au, 

Ki Waikato ki taku karanga 

I whakau ra i te waru 

E tu nei Tiki 

Kia katia ! ... An ! ... An 1 

Kia wherahia 1 . . . Au ! . . . Au ! 

Kia rere atu te kekeno ki tawhiti 

Titiro mai ai . . . 

A-e ! A-e ! 

A!" 



' Tenei ku-kutia. Tenei ko-kopia 
I te tohe mai koe tena wherahia 
He aha he kai ma te niho kehokeho ? 
He keho ano . . . tu ana te kehokeho 
Ngaua ki ou niho, he mamae poto 
Kai pakoko, kai tua te ra 
Waikure tihe 1 " 

• £ uhi tai I Uhi tai . . E ! 
£ uhi tai ana koa 
Nga baemanga kai Waikato 
Kai tutuki to waewae i te poro o te paewai 
E uhi tai ! Uhi tai ! 



Tukua mai ana te riri 

I raro i a Mari whenua 

I a Te Mahaia ra 

Ehara ra teke pakupaku e koe 

Kai te uru, kai te tonga 

E kai te lakau pakeke 

Kihi ! Aue ! " 

There were, of course, various modes of signalling adopted by the 
natives — as on the approach of an enemy, or when a village or fort 
was attacked. Several kinds of trumpets and war horns were used. 
Fleet-footed runners were employed to carry the tidings of a raid and 
to raise the various villages. In the rugged district of Tuhoeland, 
boras, messengers and fire signals were used, and, in urgent cases. 



46 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Buch as the invasion of Rua-tahiuia by Te Whakatohea under Piki, 
the wild bush men of the mountain hamlets, provided with pitch pine 
torches, marched all night over their rnt(ged trails in order to attack 
the enemy at dawn. 

On the Eve of War. 

Like most primitive peoples, possessing no form of written 
language, the Maori is ever a good speakev, and, even at the present 
time, all tribal affairs are settled at meetings of the people, where 
each speaker stands up and makes his speech that all may hear. 
Hence such meetings and speech makings are an important element in 
Maori life. 

Prior to the starting forth of a war expedition, the various tribal 
subdivisions would meet at some convenient village, where the plan of 
campaign would be discussed and arranged by the various chiefs. At 
such a time most eloquent and stirring speeches were made, speeches 
teeming with strange old saws and aphorisms, with numerous 
allusions to the famed deeds of an(M-stors and to the classic myths of 
the Polynesian race. Songs were sung by the orators — songs of 
various import, but usually coming under the heading of tan mtuae 
tana. The term tan is quite a generic one, embracing the tan to waka, 
(a chant sung during the hauling of a canoe), the tati whakararau 
ivhninay and others. The tan tnarae tana, however, is a song sung to 
start the party on the war trail, to get it under way {hai hiki i te 
taui/afa Ida hanr hi te riri). Should the singer forget part of the song 
— tbat is looked upon as an evil omen. One person would leail oflf 
with the song, the whole audience joining in the chorus. 

'I'he following incident illustrates the independence of tribal chiefs 
of each other : " 'I'he clans of Tuhoe gathered at Rua-tahuna tn 
(liHciiss the invasion of Wai-kato l)y the pahvha (Europeans). The 
Hiib tribes of the mountains and of the outlands were there seen. 
Piripi Tf Ih»uheu rose and exposed his proposition to the asscqnbled 
peopit's : '* Htar me, Tuhoe ! Our country is in pain (trouble). I 
propose that Tuhoe, here assembled, do give ear to the waihng of our 
country that the nu»n may be in front, the land behind.*' Then 
Te Aboaho, ('hi(»f of Tuhoe, arose and said : ** My opinion, O Tuhoe I 
It is this: Let Matatna be sheltered from the atonn — that no evil 
may assail it." l*irii)i rephed : "It is well. Hut I and the iXK>ple 
Uhiior me will show our grief for our country.*' 

Ilrn«, in I*iri|>i's first remark, he proposes that the Tulux" tribe 
mIihII join tlu» insurgents and tight against the English troops, in order 
to proN'ct tilt* tribal lands. Te Aboaho objects to this, for fear the 
InndM may hv lost. Rather let the land bo saved by the warriors 
rnmuniing at home to protirt them. lie usi>s the name Matatua, that 
of tliii vpssel by wbich their ancestors eanu' to New Zealand, to denote 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 47 

the tribal lands — let Matatna be kept within the sheltering canoe shed. 

Piripi marched his warriors to Waikato and applied to the chief Rewi 
for the site for a pa in which to await the coming of the British troops. 
Rewi advised them not to fight, saying that it was useless to try to 
prevail against the ever-coming multitudes of the pakcha. Tuhoe, 
however, remarked that their guns and ammunition were too heavy to 
carry so far for nothing. They worked all night at their earthworks 
and were surprised and surrounded by the troops next morning. And 
there they fought the pakeha for three days, foodless save a few raw 
pumpkins, and armed with old-fashioned guns, utilising peach stones 
for bullets. The story of that siege has been ofttimes told, but it is 
not credited to the warriors of Tuhoe who defended the assaulted face 
of the defences. 

When a war party was about to leave the tribal home, they would 
be addressed by a tribal chief, or priest of high standing, who would 
call upon the warriors to uphold the honour of the tribe and to care- 
fully avoid committing any acts by which they might be assailed 
by Tu-m^ta-rehurehu — to carefully observe the proper forms and rites 
by which alone they might retain the aid of the gods. 

The Virtues of Honcotakawiv and of Te Wheawheav. 

Under this heading come various performances by which the 
progress of a hostile force may be stayed. This is brought about, not 
by the hand of man, nor by the weapon it contains, but by the awful 
powers of makutu or magic, and by the help of the gods who live for 
ever. 

We have already seen, under the heading of " Hoa rakan/' that 
a spear, after being subjected to certain karakia or charms, and being 
buried beneath a trail, is a sure preventative of any enemy advancing 
by such track, inasmuch as, so soon as they step over the spot, they 
have signed their own death warrant. This is a most useful item, and 
we will here explain it, in case it should be necessary for any of our 
readers to make use of it. 

The particular ntita which presided over this cheerful custom is 
known to fame as Rongo-takawhiu. The priest, bearing the emblem 
of this atfia (god or demon), would proceed to the track which it was 
desired to bewitch. With this emblem, usually a short pole, carved 
at the top into the form of a human figure, he would draw a line or 
furrow across the track — hence the expression : " Ao Jionf/o-takawhuif 
ka haea te kahn o te whenua — and repeat the following spell : — 

•• Te Ika a Tu ka hikitia " The victim of Tu exalted, 
Te Ika a Bongo ka hapainga Tbe victim of Tu raised up, 

Te Ika a Tangaroa ka haehaea The victim of Taiigaroa out in pieoea 

Taka tonu, heke tonu, Cast down, descends 

Te ika ki te Po The victim to Hades ; 



48 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

He ika ka ripiripia A victim that is ripped up, 

Ho ika ka tootoea A victim that is sliced. 

He ika ka haparangitia." A victim that is disembowelled." 

Heoi ! Enough said. The wily tohunfia retires in a state of 
placid contentment, for he knows full well that, should an enemy 
cross that line, he is doomed to pass through the gates of death. 

Homo natives assert that the stick was thrown across the track and 
that no furrow was made. Also that, when a man was being pur- 
sued, should ho stop and draw this line behind him, either on earth 
or in the wator, and repeat the chann, he is a saved man, his pursuer 
will perish when he passes the bewitched spot, or at least be so 
weakened that the pursuit will be a mere farce. 

The above explanations, given as supplied by natives, do not 
necoHsarily mean that the enemy perishes so soon as they cross the 
line of death, but that thoy will be defeated, weakened as they are by 
the power of the spell. 

The followinjj: account, given by Ngati-Awa, states that that tribe 
possosaiHl a sixmr named Uongo-takawhiu. which was used as above 
desoribod. This spoar would probably bo the tribal emblem of 
Uongo-takawhiu. On Wing asked the moaning of the name Rongo- 
takawhiu, a tiativo will reply, '* tie atua^ hekarakia'^ — /.«»., a god, an 
inviHMition. I am unablo to say pn^cisoly whethtr the name should be 
oxplaitiod as an attm presiding over this form of magic, or as the 
namo of tho ritual, it Iving used in lH)th ways by the natives. 
IVssibly Hoiigo-iakawhiu is tho porsonitieation of tho deadly power 
of tho ritual : - 

*• Thi^ oomvrns luu^ Tolua-i-to-rangi. an ancestor of mine. Ngati- 
Awa wont u^ \V ha ns:a nulla to aNrngo ihoir dofoal by Ngati-Maru. 
riio ranoo>< ot Nj^aii Maru wiro soon appivaohiug— the euemy came in 
ihou' uiultHudo. Njiati Aw a wislunl to raroat. but Tohia held them. 
\\k^ took tho spoar \t^•K^^t^■\o\ its namo was Kongo takawhiu — and 
r\»ivattHl a '(.mi ovor it. Wi^ divw with ii a mark aon>ss the earth, the 
onouiy ad\anood. tho\ on^^sod iho lino, and fell U'fore my ancestor 
IVhia \ W rauvru who wa< tho fathor v^f my gnmdfalher," 

Vnotlur w:i\. a>i tho i^v^ko\\ Uvk hath it. was to ivi'^eat the spell 
o\or :» X j-.i yvw^A't iv^;a;o^ wiv.oh wa< baruxi in the middle of the 
:5.u'k h' \\\\\u'< \iu!on: Mt^to-x *^t :ho Maori. ' vol. iii., p. 71, 
i>i >;'.\o" :ho i.sKnvi:^: „"..^ .; N^ Iv :vi\:i:vo. ^ni r tho bvirioil A'Hmam : — 

r .rV : ".A 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 49 

** When the war-party steps over the place, they will break and 
fly, through the power of the spell." This is the Ngati-Porou version. 
The word viahunu "\H equivalent to />a/f//«/( (already explained). The 
spell is intended to cause the enemy to become nervous and anxious — 
to break and fly. 

Streams were also bewitched in a similar manner. A stone, over 
which the proper spell was repeated, w^ould be placed in a stream, and, 
anyone drinking of the waters thereof, would perish miserably. 

Another atua or ritual of olden times was known as Te Whea- 
wheau, and it would appear to have been used for the above described 
purpose, among other things. In this case a branchlet was used by 
the tohunga or priest. Invocations would be recited over it in order to 
impregnate the same with the power of the atua or ritual. The priest, 
branch in hand, would advance to the forefront of the advancing 
enemy, where he would wave it to and fro before them, repeating at 
the same time an incantation to weaken and render nerveless the enemy. 

{Ko te Wheawlieau, he atua, he ran rakau, ka heria f te tohinu/a, ka 
powhiriwhiria e ia ki te aro o te hoanriy hai rotii i te hoariri, he tnea 
karakia hoki). It is needless to add that, at that period, the Winchester 
and Mauser were not yet to hand. 

When the northern league of. Nga-Puhi and other tribes attacked 
the Wairarapa natives of the lower valley, they encountered a similar 
obstruction to the above. As they ascended the river in their canoes, 
and approached a pa they wished to attack, they saw a pole stuck 
upright in the river-bed, and to the top of which was fastened a bunch 
of rarauhe fern and other plants. This was a magic pole, which had 
been set up by the people of the fort, in order to stay the advance of 
the enemy by its supernatural powers. However, it did not act 
properly for some reason or another. As an old chronicler has it — 
** It was a magic thing to destroy us, but we had no fear of that pole, 
and had we been short of fuel we would have taken that pole and the 
fern to heat our ovens with.*' 

Still another style of blocking a track was to place a log or branch 
across it, or hang up a garment over it. These articles, being endow^ed 
with the necessary destructive powers by the priest, were quite 
efiBcient. 

There is a place named Pa-rangiora (on the Poroporo Block) near 
Buatoki. It was one Maru-hakapua who blocked that track by means 
of his deadly powers. He heard that Kaituareke was coming on evil 
deeds intent. He therefore placed a branch of the raiu/lora shrub 
across the track and repeated the necessary spell over it. This was 
the pa (obstruction) which caused Kai to fall, for he fell literally and 
Te Paheketanga o Kaituareke is a name that still applies to that spot. 



60 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

In like maimer, Pa-puweru, a place near Heipipi at Bua-tahuna 
had its origin in a similar occurrence. A priest of Ngati-Tawhaki 
hung up a garment across a track there, in order to turn back an npe 
that was approaching. It does not appear that this party (ope) was 
coming to fight, but anyhow their presence was not desired. Had 
they disregarded the token, evil would have befallen them, for they 
would be disregarding and treating with contempt the power, prestige 
and spells of the priest of the settlement — an act by no means 
conducive to long life in ancient Maoriland. 

But it is by no means certain that, after having gone to the trouble 
of raising, or rather laying down, all these fearsome obstructions, they 
are going to have the desired effect. If the mana or supernatural 
power of the tohumja (priest) of the invading force is greater than the 
mana of the tohinnja who made such obstructions, then they will have 
no effect whatever. For as that hostile force advances, the priest 
thereof repeats certain incantations to uhakawatea or clear the road of 
all such obstructions which may lie before the party. Indeed, he may 
possibly march at the head of the column himself, bearing the emblem* 
of his atiia, under whose wing the war party is, and if that atua is 
a more powerful demon than the god of the force to be attacked then, 
not only will the road be cleared, but also there is dire defeat looming 
ahead for the people of the land. 

Again, the attacking force may not come by the track which has 
been mined by the dread priests of the Black Art. They may break 
out a trail for themselves, in order to avoid such unpleasant things. 
Or, if a convenient stream be handy, they will probably keep in the 
bed thereof, walking in the water in order to avoid leaving their 
footprints on the earth. For, as you already know, it is a most 
dangerous thing to leave one's footprint on the sands of time (how- 
ever desirable from a pakeha point of view). For an enemy may take 
the waned or hau (personality) of such footprint and, by the dread 
powers of old, consign you to death and the World of Darkness, where 
Noke (the Worm of Death) reigns supreme. 



(7'<* be amtinu^iL) 



• This rrnlili'in i-^ UtiiukI amnrtinpi. 




THE WHI<:NCE of the MAORI. 



By Lieut. -Col. Gudgeon, C.M.G. 



Part III. 
ToKOMARir Canoe. 

VERY much the same features are to be found in the traditions 
relating to the crew of Tokomaru. In this case the wife of a 
chief named Manaia had been outraged by some men of another 
tribe, whom he had employed to build a canoe ; and the chief, in order to 
maintain his mana — which in this, as in many other instances, meant 
the respect of his neighbours— caused the offending workmen to be 
slain. In the war that ensued Manaia was badly beaten, and only 
saved himself from destruction by manning his canoes and sailing 
south to New Zealand. Of the subsequent doings of the crew of this 
canoe but little is known ; but tradition relates that they first made 
land in the neighbourhood of Whangaparaoa in the Bay of Plenty, 
and thence sailed round the North Cape and south to Tonga-porutti, 
where they landed and proceeded overland to the Waitara, where 
Manaia found some of the ancient people of the country living at Te 
Rohutu (mouth of the Waitara River), and slew them in accordance 
with Maori custom in such cases. 

For some unknown reason this migration did not remain long at 
the Waitara, for we next hear of them fighting their way up the coast 
past Kawhia and on to Whanga-rei, where they would seem to have 
intermarried with the descendants of Awa-nui-a-rangi, and became 
known a:j Ngati-Awa. For many generations they were the leading 
tribe of northern New Zealand, but in due turn they were expelled 
and returned to the Waitara, where their descendants may yet be 
found living under t^e same old tribal name. Another section of the 
same tribe, who are better known as the Aupouri, held on to the 
extreme north until they in due turn were destroyed by the Nga-Puhi, 
who were themselves the offspring of one Rahiri, who, some fifteen 
generations before, had left the Ngati-Awa of Whaka-tane and 
migrated northwards, 



52 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

On the range of hills to the north of the Whanga-rei harbour 
there are several pinnacles of rock, which are said to represent certain 
of the leading men of Tokomaru. These stones are known as Manaia, 
Tarakiekie (his wife), Teatea (his daughter), Paeko, and Rangitoto. 
The tale told is to the efifect that while engaged in fishing Manaia 
caught two fish in succession, each of which had been hooked in the 
abdomen. This was an omen of exceedingly evil import, since it 
proved beyond all doubt that Tara-kiekie had been guilty of some 
impropriety. This incident caused the chief to return hurriedly to 
his village, where he slew not only his wife, but also his slave 
Rangitoto, and turned both of them into stone as a lesson to all evil- 
doers. But how it came to pass that the other members of the family 
became petrified I am unable to say. 

Takitumu. 

Concerning this canoe there is a great deal of mystery. The 
Ngati-Whatua, indeed, claim that their ancestors Tua and Tangaroa 
came in this vessel, but the number of generations they count from 
the ancestors in question to the present day is quite inadequate, and 
in itself sufficient to disprove the claim. So also the Ngati-Kahung- 
unu and the Ngati-Porou claim to be of the Takitumu migration, but 
apparently without foundation, for they cannot even say what ancestor 
of theirs came in the canoe. Tradition asserts that this migration 
was the result of a quarrel, which originated in a dispute over the 
ownership of a plantation, and according to the Ngati-Porou the 
leading men of these emigrants were Te Ariki-whakaroau, Ngarangi- 
tere-mauri, Tohi-te-l'rurangi, To Irirangi, Te Whakawhiringa, Te 
Kauru-o-te-rangi, Te Manu-tawhio-rangi, Te Aonoanoa, and Rua- 
wharo. It may be that their respective families were with them in 
the canoe, but if so it is strange that not one of these men is known 
to have living doscondants at the present day, unless, indeed, the 
Ruawharo, who cohabited with Nganuhaka of the ancient tribe of 
Rua-kapua-nui, is the man of Takitumu. The only tribes that we 
can fairly admit at the present day to bo of the genuine Takitumu 
migration arc those descended from an ancestor named Paraki, and 
who count some twenty-four generations from that man to people now 
living. The tril>es descended from Paraki are Ngati-Hine and Ngati- 
Maru, who liave occupied the forest district lying between Poverty 
Bay and Maunga-Pohatu-- known as To Tahora — for more than four 
hundred years. 

Tito genera I iniprossion on the Maori mind with reference to this 
canoo is tliat il brought gods and not men to New Zealand. The 
Ngati Porou athrni that this canoe was su sacred that fooil could not 
bo carriod ilioroin. and thorof(>ro only nion of the highest rank and 
cortain gods woro i>laood on board of the Takitumu canoe. 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 58 

Absurd as this tale may seem it is quite likely to be true, for I do 
not quite see how sacred chiefs, and still less gods, could well travel 
in the same canoe with uncooked food ; with cooked food it would of 
course have been a simple impossibility. It is probable that the crew 
of Takitumu depended upon the other canoes of the fleet for their 
supply of food, and having become separated from their consorts 
en route found themselves in a very awkward predicament. In 
whatsoever manner it may have come to pass, the Ngati-Porou tale is 
to the effect that the crew of Takitumu shortly found themselves 
dying of hunger, and cast lots in order to decide who should die to 
the end that others might live. The lot fell upon Ruawharo, who 
straightway claimed the right to call upon the fishes of the deep to 
come to his aid. This chance of safety was allowed him, and he 
thereupon uttered a most potent Aara^/fl, invoking the aid of Tangaroa, 
who instantly sent thousands of cray-fish to the surface, and these 
were seized upon and devoured by the famished crew. This timely 
supply lasted only a few days, and again Ruawharo was in danger ; 
but once more he invoked the assistance of the Sea god, who on this 
occasion sent them a supply of the Paua shell fish (Haliotis), which 
fortunately lasted until the canoe reached the coast of New Zealand. 

Rawiri Makaua, one of the most learned of Maoris, holds that 
gods alone came in Takitunm, viz., Tahaia, Tukopiri, Te Whenuapo 
Tu-nui-o-te-ika, Tara-kumukumu, Poro-hinaki, and Tama-i-waho. 
According to the same authority this canoe brought live eels to New 
Zealand, which were liberated in the Whakatane River, and from 
that place all the rivers and lakes in the two islands were stocked. 
As to the proceedings of Takitumu it is said that she touched at 
Tauranga, where one of the crew — Tokitoki-Whakaone-Tangata by 
name — was landed, after which the canoe sailed for Kaikoura, in the 
Middle Island, where it remains to this day. 

The Ngati-Kuia of the Pelorus Bound tell another tale, for they 
claim that their ancestors Te Koanganui and Wainui-a-ono came in 
this vessel, and that she was subsequently wrecked at Te Mawhera 
(Grey River). 

Yet another favourite legend of the Maoris with reference to this 
canoe is that it made two voyages to New Zealand, the first under the 
name of Takitumu, and the second under that of Horouta, or hasten 
to land, a name given in recognition of the great sailing powers 
displayed by this canoe on her first voyage. Now if this tale be true, 
it would prove that Takitumu did not come with the Arawa migration, 
for, as I shall presently show, the Horouta canoe had already been 
here for five generations when the Arawa entered the Kaituna River. 
As it happens the tale is not true, and has only been invented to 
account for circumstances which the Maoris themselves can see 



54 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

require explanation. The fact remains that no one really knows any- 
thing of the history of this craft, and hence no two tribes tell the 
same tale about it. This much is, however, certain : that the ancient 
history of those tribes who call themselves the Takitumu migration 
can be traced with prreater certainty than is the case with any other 
tribe in New Zealand, for we find that their ancestors Paikea, Ira, 
Buatapu, Hakiriraugi. and others are all sons or grandsons of 
Motoro, a son of that Tangihia who colonised the island of Barotonga. 

Mata-atia. 

Concerning this canoe, we are told that it was made from a tree 
that grew on the banks of a river in Hawaiki, called Pikopiko-i-whiti, 
and that while engaged in shaping this vessel one of the workmen 
murdered a boy called Takorata, and hid his body in order to avoid 
the vengianco that would inevitably follow the detection of such a 
crime. This murdor was not known to the other workmen ; but on 
the day selected for dragging the half-tinished craft to the sea, those 
who were engaged found themselves unable to move it, and it soon 
became evident to all that for some reason Tane-mahuta, the god of 
forests, was striving against them. Among the Maoris such spiritual 
manifestations wore not uncommon, but from certain signs it became 
clear to the ^•Au/^/<l in charge of the work that the gods were not only 
angry, but that they had also reason for their anger. When once 
this fact had impressed itself on the mind of the tnhuw/ay it also 
occurred to him that the father of Takorata had long been searching 
for his son who was missing, and by a natural sequence of ideas he 
concluded that the lx)y had been munlered by one of his party. 
Having discovered the reason of the former obstinacy of the canoe, 
the t^hun'ia iHM^amo master of the situation, and then and there 
uttered the famous " Tau-waka " which has lx*en preserved by the 
Ngati-Awa of Whakatane oven to the prt»sent day. After this incan- 
tation the canoe moved slowly towanls the sea, where the rattawa (top 
sidos^ woro fastened on, and the craft made generally seaworthy. 

In this migration came the Chiefs Toroa, Muriwai, Wairaka, 
Tanoatna» ruhi-moiina-ariki and others, and the canoe landed at 
Whak itano m tlie Ray of Plenty, which place is still owned by the 
dosoondonts of those whom I have mentioned : in fact, they own the 
coast from Opa^v to l>tama-rakau, and are known as Ngati-Awa, 
Npni Tukoko. TuluH\ and the Whaka-iohea, but it must be understood 
tliat tliOM^ people are also tlesoended from tho-^» ancient ancestors Toi, 
and l'o:ikl, \\lio<e tie^'endonts wi-re living in the Wliakataue Valley 
\\\u\\ M;U;i :inia *nuv,d the rivi r of that name. 

lei lain i^f ihoM- \v)u> i ame \i\ this cauix- iiiigrHie<l under Pahi- 
uuniua ariki to the r>a\ of Islands. This migration was caused by a 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI, 55 

jeering remark made by Toroa, which annoyed and affronted Puhi, 
who thereupon left his people, and settled in the north, where his son 
Rahiri founded the valiant and numerous tribe of Nga-Puhi. 

It is said that Rua-auru was the real chief of Mata-atua ; but I 
am not aware that any tribe, or even individual, can claim descent 
from that man at the present day. There were, however, other men 
of rank who, though they came in Mata-atua, did not properly belong 
to that migration. These men were the ancestors of the Taranaki 
tribes — viz., Te Moungaroa, Turu, Te Akamapuhia, Tukapua, and 
others. The reason assigned by the descendants of the above named 
chiefs for their having occupied a seat in Mata-atua is, that just before 
the canoes were launched for the voyage, some tohunga with malice 
aforethought, bewitched the Kurahaupo canoe, with the result that 
when it was launched it split in two. From this disaster it came to 
pass that the crew of the damaged vessel would have been left behind, 
had not the chiefs of Mata-atua offered to take them and their goods 
to the new land. The offer was accepted, and the strangers landed at 
Whakatane, from whence they made their way overland to Taranaki. 
Such is the tale that has been told, and therefore I will not at present 
speak at length on the subject of Kurahaupo, since there is a doubt 
whether that boat actually came with the fleet. There are, however, 
many tribes who claim descent from the crew of that canoe, and 
assert that she made more than one voyage, and that the last one was 
made to the Middle Island of New Zealand. Certain it is that the 
Ngati-Tumata-kokiri of Massacre Bay, the Ngati-Kuia of the Pelorus 
Sound, and the Ngati-Apa of Rangi-tikei all claim Kurahaupo as their 
canoe. My own impression is that this vessel made as many as three 
voyages to New Zealand, and probably other canoes did much the 
same thing. It is worthy of note that Kurahaupo is said to have 
brought no less than three varieties of potato to these islands — viz., 
the Parareka, the Wini, and the Maori. 

Tainui. 

Most important of all the canoes of the final migration is that 
known as the Tainui ; and, as usual in such cases, the crew left 
Hawaiki in consequence of a quarrel with their stronger neighbours, 
the special cause in this instance being the ownership of two planta- 
tions, named respectively Tawa-ruarangi and Tawa-ruararo. In this 
canoe came the Chiefs Hoturoa and Rakataura, who are the ancestors 
of the confederacy called Waikato, as also of Ngati-Maru of the 
Thames, Ngati-Haua, Ngati-Paoa, Ngati-Maniapoto, and .Ngati- 
Raukawa. The leaders of the crew of Tainui were as follows : — 
Raka-taura was the priest and Ariki, Hoturoa was the war captain, 
and Te Peri, a female Patu-paiarehe (fairy), had authority over the 



60 JOURNAL OF THE POLY N LSI AN SOCIETY. 

forf part of tlio cauoe, and assumed the functions of Kapehu, or 
presiding genius, whose duty it was not only to direct the course of 
the canoe, but also to guard against all evil. This semi -supernatural 
being was, it is said, the sister of one Tainui, who, many generations 
previously, had been buried at the foot of the tree from which the 
canoe was made, and so it came to pass that his name was given to 
the canoo, in rocoguition of the fact that tlie tree had been in some 
measure n Tifum. That there was something distinctly uncanny 
alK)ut the tree may be inferred from the fact that it was found 
imjH^ssiblo to fell it, until Tia, of the Arawa family, took the work in 
hand with his enchanted axe Hauhau-t*-i*angi. 

Tainui first made the land at Whauga-paraoa in the Bay of Plenty, 
and thoro one of the crt»w, Taikehu by name, landed and was purposely 
loft Whind by lloturoa, who hoptnl by this means to obtain possession 
of Ins wife Torero. If. however, such was his aim. he was disap- 
pointed, for the woman succeedeil in leaving the canoe at the place 
now nanuHl after her, bm for some reason she did not rejoin Taikehu, 
but eoliaiMied with one Manakiat). a descendant of the ancient 
auoo>:vM* loi. the w^xhI oater, and frv»m this marriage has sprung the 
Ngai- lai tribe. 

Tarawa ;s also said t.> have Otnne in this canoe, though he repre- 
stnited hnii>eif as having swuni i\w whole way from Hawaiki to New 
/.eauuuK and :heivby seamed i:reat reputation among the ancient 
|HMjle of thi laud, until a: la-*: a gn\Hi tiooil in the Motu river 
oxl.ibKoa \\\\\\ a> a frauvi. inasuiuoh that ho ha^l to take to a tree to 
Ss-ue b.v.usi'.i. a thmc ;ha: no '.nu UmiKhii would have thought of 
do\u;:. V o.r.juraMvoly \\'a\k is known of this ancestor, except that he 
m:ov:;;;i'.ritd wnh iho jvop'.i of :lu land and w,h> the ancestor of the 

\e: another ot ti.o ».u\\ v>f Ta:r.;;: w;»^ ran-taroua. a brother of 
Hot.nwi auvi an anoostov of ;hi Ta:.! n^hu inlv, and another brother 
of jIu s,v.r.o {a;v.*.i\ was Mo:,;, whox ■.^.'iuu was civen lo a river in the 
Ua\ 01 r'ie-..;\ .;:,der :V.i foKiW.r.;: o;rouiiisiAnc*s : Motu had a son 
r. a V. ; €\ i H e ix x ^ •o.'^ va w lu^ w a > xi ro>x : . t ^i . : . : i^; i a forest id n \ or and washed 
o;;: ;o ><;*. ; V.o tathtr. w :\o ha,; :\o: >i\n ".hi fau of his child, sought 
1\ ; r/. 1 V. \ a ' r. . .•- r. : • ". ;*i : 1 a > , . uvi . ;; ii ;* >> .;rt\i : r:al ht must be dead, he 
mt.. :^^ ':..- '.;i;l^< V .IVv. a; llawa.K.. ask.::^ i::m so mviw Tangaroa 
.Nty;..v.v ., a,.or.xi \\\c ;.: v^v. ;* K^n^.n vi,si< Thi* ^xl. accoiupanied 
^\ :tv. •..'.•.tr.s. >:".x\-^l 01 v.s; . who wcri. .i 0vV,;i>k-, his children, 
;-i .;, •.■,'...• * , •.»',■..: ' '.. .1 -» . . . '. : :■. t : o v. : ;'. v a'. *« •>■. W .-i r .; : Vwml^r). and 
V .■•...... 'v.'-. :w,: .'i \ ,..,;vV,i ... ;ri;-i:t quantities and 

X . - o. V ,: ':it K. '.,a:vi This curs« still 

. ... s • ..' -^ . .,*ir*'..i- . ; ♦,*: j;;.;\.... .or t-.-uh xiAr ;* is ihi- late of a 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 67 

shoal of tamure to enter the Motu Hiver, and ascend it as far as the 
rapid called Kaitaura, where they are caught and eaten by the Motu 
tribe. 

After leaving the Bay of Plenty Tainui sailed northwards into the 
Wai-te-mata, where her crew endeavoured to drag her over the portage 
into the Manuka harbour. They, however, failed in the attempt, 
partly because of the sin of Whakaoti-rangi, and in part because of 
the incantations of Rakataura, who wished to delay the arrival of 
Tainui at Kawhia, to which place they were bound ; these two causes 
combined rendered it beyond all human power to move Tainui over- 
land. They were therefore compelled to follow the coast round the 
North Cape, and thence sail south to Kawhia, where they arrived 
after many vicissitudes, and settled finally. The last resting-place of 
Tainui may still be seen on the shores of the Kawhia Harbour, marked 
by two slabs of stone, erected, it is said, by Bakataura and Hoturoa 
respectively, in order to mark the exact length of the canoe, and 
probably the last resting-place also of the vessel in which they had 
journeyed from afar. 

It is related that when Hoturoa and his men failed to drag their 
canoe over the Manuka ■' portage, ten men were selected by Rakataura 
to carry the two sacred stones Tanekaihi and Mokoparu overland to 
Kawhia. The party were as follows: Hia-ora, Rotu, Marukopia, 
Tane-whakatia, Mataora, Taranga, Taunga, and Hine-pu-anginui. 
How it came to pass that these people knew of the existence of 
Kawhia is not explained, but it is clear that they did know, and that 
they intended to settle at that place from the time they entered the 
Wai-te-mata, or glittering waters, of what is now the Auckland 
Harbour. 

The names of certain other men and women who came in the 
Tainui canoe have been handed down by tradition — viz., Hotuope, 
Hotu-awhio, Hotu-matapu, Huaki, Bua-muturangi, Kuo, Ao, Marama, 
Tama-te-marangai, Oho, Waihare, Whaene, and Houmea. In all 
some thirty persons of both sexes are said to have arrived in New 
Zealand by means of this vessel, but the only persons who are known 
to have descendants at the present day are Rakataura, through his 
sons Houmea and Hia-ora, also Hoturoa and Oho, from which last 
came the extinct tribes of Nga-iwi and Nga-oho, of the Auckland 
Peninsula. As for Taunga, he is said to have been devoured by a 
taniwha on the East Coast. 

AOTKA. 

It seeiiis probable that this vessel arrived after the fleet to which I 
have given the name of the Arawa migration, and was under the 
leadership of a gi-eat chief of Raiatea, Turi by name, who had urgent 

* Miscalled Mauukau by European settlers. 



68 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

reasons for leaving Hawaiki, which on this occasion would seem to 
have heen either Raiatea or Huahine. The special reason that Turi 
had for leaving his ancestral island was, that his son Potiki-roroa 
having offended one Ueniiku, had heen killed and eaten by that 
truculent chief. Turi was unable to deal openly with the murderer 
by reason of the fact that his following was but a small one. He 
therefore made no sign but quietly bided his time, and in due season 
appeased the manes of his son by slaying Hawhe-Potiki, a son of 
Uenuku, and then, having already prepared his canoe for a long 
voyage, Hed in company with all his near relatives to avoid the 
inevitable vengeance. Tradition maintains that Turi came to New 
Zealand under the verbal directions of the navigator Kupe, who told 
him not only how to steer, but also how to find the Patea River As, 
however, Kupe had long been dead at that time, it was probably 
information derived from tradition that enabled Turi to reach his 
destination. Touching the canoe Aotea it is said to have been formed 
from the half of a great tree, which grew on the banks of the Wai- 
harakeke River in Hawaiki, and that it was made by one Toto, who 
gave it to Rongo-rongo. Turi's wife ; also that he made a canoe from 
the other half and gave it to Kura-marotini, her sister. 

From the traditions of both Whanganui and Ngati-Ruanui, it 
would appear that this alone of all the migrations to New Zealand, 
touched at two islands on its way hither, named, respectively, Ron- 
go-ru{)e and Rangi-tahuahua. The first-named of these we may, 
I think, conclude to have been the lost island of Tuanaki, whose 
inhabitants use<l to visit Rarotonga not more than a hundred years 
ago, but which has since that period disappeared beneath the waves. 
The second island is, undoubtedly, one of the Kermadecs, for it 
is still known to the people of the Cook Ishinds as Rangitaua, and 
if we required any additional evidence on this we should find it 
in the fact, that to Turi alone of all the ancient sea rovers, is 
given the credit of bringing the liaraka tree to New Zealand. 
Now this tree is indigenous to the Kermadecs, and all Maori tribes 
contend that Turi introduced it to New Zealand. 

It ib said that Turi himself did not remain in New Zealand 
but after establishing his three sons and other relatives at Patea 
on the West Coast of the North Island, he returned to Raiatea, 
and there died. From the children of Turi, viz., from Turanga-i-mua, 
Taneroroa and Tutara, have sprung the tribes of Ngati-Ruanui. Ng^ti- 
Hine, Nga-Kauru, and Whanganui ; but the people also claim Kewa 
and Ilaapipi of the sjuik* migration as ancestors, not to montion 
Ruatupua and others of thi' ancient piM)pb'. In likt^ mannor the 
Ngati-H'iko, of the Upper Thames, claim that Uongo-inatane, of 
the Aot( a migration, was one of their ancestors. 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI, 69 

Te Whatu a Ranganuku. 

This canoe undoubtedly followed after the Arawa migration, 
inasmuch that it belonged to a section of the Heketanga-rangi. The 
tradition relating to this vessel is distinctly startling, for it draws very 
largely on the marvellous, and requires a good deal of the element 
of faith. The tale told is as follows : — When the Arawa canoe was in 
mid ocean it was discovered that the tata (bailer) of the canoe had 
been left behind. Now it i? possible that this article, which had 
received the name of te Whatu-a-Ranganuku, was of importance 
to the crew of the Arawa eanoe. It may even have been a sacred 
portion of that vessel, but whatever the reason it was deemed necessary 
that some one should return for the missing article. Volunteers were 
called for, and a man of the name of Tahu, not only responded 
to the call, but instantly jumped into the sea with the intention 
of swimming back to Raiatea. Even the Maoris of the present 
day abmit that Tahu would have been unequal to this desperate effort 
of endurance, had he not been aided by the gods of his tribe ; but 
in those days the kara/cia (invocations) of the Maori had manoy and 
Tahu received the assistance of his ancestral Tanitvliay who were 
always at hand and available for such work — if properly invoked. In 
dealing with traditions of this nature, it is not advisable to be too 
critical or examine too deeply into the narrative ; it will, therefore, be 
sufficient to say that Tahu reached Hawaiki, and there secured 
the missing bailer, and also found some seventy members of the 
Waitaha tribe who had been left behind when the Arawti, canoe started 
on its voyage, and were then awaiting an opportunity of following 
their friends. In Tahu they found the required leader, for he at 
once assumed command, and directed that instead of waiting for an 
opportunity they should make one by building a canoe. This command 
was obeyed, and the seventy working as one man, and governed 
by the master mind of Tahu, soon finished a Waka-moana^ to which — 
in honour of the circumstances that had caused their leader's return — 
they gave the name of the bailer, viz., Te Whatu-a-Ranganuku. I 
have been requested by several old and learned Maoris, to explain 
clearly, that both the bailer and the canoe were called by the same 
name, and hence it has resulted that certain ignorant Maoris have 
conclnded that seventy men came from Hawaiki on a canoe bailer, and 
have told the tale in this manner, to the manifest discredit of 
Maori tradition generally, and of this instance in particular. The 
old people justly remark that since the power of the gods is unlimited, 
it would have been as easy for Tahu and bis men to come to New 
Zealand on the bailer as in a canoe ; but as they did not do so it 
is clearly wrong to mislead the Pakeha in such a matter. 



60 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

The voyage was successfully performed, and the party lauded 
somewhere on the Wai-rarapa Coast, and there reside d for a time with 
Te Takanga, who was the chief of the ancient people, to whom 
that district belonged. It is probable that these Waitaha, like all the 
** heavenly migration," were a very bounceable lot, for the Wairarapa 
people soon found them objectionable, and began to meditate their 
destruction; then, however, was seen the value of an ncestral god, 
for Kahukura, acting in the interests of Tahu, was keeping an eye 
on his enemies, and having ascertained their intentions sent the chief 
a message by one of the minor deities, Whakapiri. This message 
was conveyed in a strictly orthodox manner at midnight, when the 
spirit spoke from the ridge-pole of the house in which they all slept 
and said — ** Tahu, the people of the land will rise up against you this 
night, and will burn you in your house." 

Tahu was pre-eminently a man of action, he therefore roused 
up his people and disclosed to them the message that he had received 
from the spirit world. The position was one of great danger, for 
the doors were already guarded, and any attempt to escape would 
be a signal for the attack. Under these circumstances Tahu proposed 
to bury all his people weapon in hand, and to this end ordered them to 
dig a hole in the tioor of the house. As for the chief himself he 
resolved to trust to his own good fortune to escape the flames. This 
plan was carried out and each man covered with sufficient earth to 
ensure that he would not be roasted, and then Tahu sat down to 
await whatever fate might be in store for him. In due time the house 
was fired, but seemingly in one place only, for Tahu manag^l by dint 
of great activity to move from place to place so as to avoid the flames, 
until at last his enemies, satisfied that they had completed their 
murderous work, left the place. Then Tahu burst through the flames 
and though terribly injured hid himself to await the end of the 
tragedy. 

In the morning the treacherous host came, expecting to find only 
half- roasted bodies, but to their surprise they found but a mound of 
earth. Very hastily they uncovered it, little dreaming that these men 
were yet alive. Hut Waitaha were of a different opinion, for actuated 
by one impulse they rose and slow the ancient tribe of Wai-mrapa, 
who were panic stricken at the power of those gods who upheld the 
wanderers. 

Tahu, though badly burned, was found alive, and from that time 
forth look the name of Tahu-wera (burned Tahu). The Waitaha 
experience of the Wairarapa had not been so pleasant a^5 to niduce 
them to remain in that disiricl. They therefore started overland to 
rejoui their friends at Maketu, in the Bay of Plenty, carrying their 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 61 

chief with them in a litter. En route at Uawa (Tolago Bay) they 
found it necessary to fight a battle with the Nga-Oho, descendants of 
Toi-Kai-rakau, whom they defeated, and thence they moved on to 
Otama-rakau, near Maketu, where they found some of the Arawa 
people living under the Chief Uruika, whose daughter Pikiraruuga 
was given to Tahu as a wife, and from this union has come that 
branch of the Waitaha called Turauta (overland). 

This is probably the last of the modern canoes, but there have 
been so many migrations or visits made by the Polynesians to New 
Zea.land, or as the Maoris would call it Aotearoa, that it is not in all 
cases easy to say whether any one of them came before or after the 
Arawa fleet. 



(To be continued.) 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 
POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 



A MEETiN(} of the Council took place at New Plymouth, on the 1st April, UH)3« 
Much corrertpondence was dealt witli, and the following new member elected : — 
350 lloland B. Dixon, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

Papers received : - 

251 The Maori People. Lieut. -Col. (irudgeon, C.M.G. 

252 The llti Maori. Elsdon Best. 

253 The Making and Un-making of Man. Ed. Tregear. 

254 Who discovered Tahiti ? Geo. Colliugridge. 

Tlie Secretaries reported that Bishop Williams had presented to the Society 
some MSS. of Maori traditions, collected by the late S. Locke. The thanks of the 
Society were voted to the Bishop. 

It was agreed to exchange publications witli the Koninklijk In^titat of The 
Hague, Holland. 

The following list of Exchanges, etc.. were reported as received since the 
publicati(m of the last number of the Journal : — 

1407 Maori Papers of the late Samuel Locke, from Bishop Williams. 

1408 .l/f'woirx, American Muxemn o*' Natural Ilixtori^. Vol. iii. Anthro- 

pology ii. 1900. 

1409 „ „ ,. Vol. vi. 1902. 
1410-11 lioletin de la Jleal Acadrmia de Cifnciag y Artety Barcelona. 

Vol. ii., Xos. 4 and 5, 1902. 
1412-16 Mcniorias de la lUal Acadfinia df Ciriu-ia:t y Arte*, Jiarcfloua, 

Vol. iv., Nos. 20, 27, 28, 29, :J0 
1417-20 Science of Man. Nov.-Dec, 19U2; Jan.-Feb.. 1903. 
1421-24 Mitthcilunyen der Anthropoloyischtn ii esc I lac ha ft, Vienna. Band 

xxxi., 3, 4, 5, ; xxxii., 1, 2. 
]425 iS it zunysherichte ,, ,, „ Jahrgang. 1U02. 

1426-28 Sa Mata. Oct., Dec., 1902; Jan., 1908. 
1429-31 lUdletin* et M^nMiret* de la Societe d'AnthropoUufie de Pan$. 

1902—1, 2, 3. 
1432-35 La Geoyraphie, Bulletin de la .Socirte de Geoyraphie de Pant. 

July, Aug., Sept., Oct.. 11H)2. 
1436-38 Iterue de VKcole d'Anthropoloyif d4 Pari*. Sept.. Nov., 190*2; 

Jau., 1903. 

1439 Konyl Vitterhet* llitttorie iM'h Antiqvitetn Akademenj(, ManatfUadt 

Su-edf-n. 1897. 

1440 The American Antiquarian. July and August, 1902. 

1441-2 Tiiihchri/t vimr Imlifche Taal-,Land-, en Volhenkunde, liatavia, 
D.-.l xlv.. xlvi. 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS. 68 

1442 Notulen van de Algemeene, (ft*., Bataviaasch Geuoutschap. Deel xl., 

Af. 3, 1902. 

1443 Aaiihangsel tot dc Brieven rati en nan Mr. H, J. vati de Grant. 

Batavia. 1902. 

1444 Tahel ran (>?/</-, en Sienwlndi:<che Alphabetten. Batavia. 1882. 

1445 Het DiaUht van Tegai. Batavia. 19^3. 

1446 RegUter of dc Ker^te 50 Deelen (1853-1899) van de " Bijdragen tot de 

Taal-, Land-, ^n Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indie. Tlie 
Hague. 1901. 
1447-48 Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch 
Indiff. The Hague. 1902, 1903. 

1449 The Geographical Journal. January. 1903. 

1450 Proceedings U. G. S. of Australasia. Adelaide. 1902. 

1451 Proceedings, Canadian Institute. Toronto. 1902. 

1452.-54 Journal oj the Royal Colonial Institute. Deoembar, 1902; 

January, February, 1903. 
1^55 Annual Report, Smithsonian Instittition, Washington. Part ii., 1897 
1456 „ „ „ 1899. 

1457-58 Luzac's ()rient<il Lists. September to December, 1902. 



NOTES ON THE ART OP WAR, 

AS CONDUCTED BY THE MAORI OF NEW ZEALAND, 
WITH ACCOUNTS OF VARIOUS CUSTOMS, RITES, SUPER- 
STITIONS, Ac, PERTAINING TO WAR, AS PRACTISED 
AND BELIEVED IN BY THE ANCIENT MAORI. 



By Elsdon Best, of Tuhoe-land. 



Part V. 
The Wai Taua, with its Attendant Rites and Invocations. 

V^ EFORE a war party could lift the war trail, there were many 
1(3^ precautions to l)e taken and various rites to be performed 
some of which have already been explained, under divers 
different headings. The main objects of such rites, &c., were 
— the averting or prevention of disaster on the battlefield, and the 
placing of the tapu on the warriors and their weapons, i,e,y the dedica- 
tion of the warriors to the service of Tu, the supreme god of war. 
The warriors remained under the tapu until they returned home, when 
it was taken off, and they were then free to return to their families 
and their ordinary labours. 

The above rites were performed by the side of a stream, pond or 
lake, water being absolutely necessary in the rite of baptising the 
warriors to the service of Tu. It may here be observed that nearly all 
the more important ceremonies or rites of the Maori call for the use of 
one of the two elements, fire or water. 

Adjacent to every settlement was a pond or stream set aside for the 
performance of such rites. A pool or pond was preferred, inasmuch 
as the state of tapu in which it always was, did not interfere with any 
of the domestic requirements of the people. Were a stream under 
tapu it would be inconvenient, as no water therefrom might be taken 
or used by the people. This sacred water was known in Tuhoe-land as 
the wai wliakaika^ or by the more generic term of wai tapu, A famous 
wai tapu at Te Whaiti, in former times, was a pond known as Te Roto- 
a-karakia, situated nearly opposite the junction of the Minginui and 
5 



66 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Whirinaki streams. Such places were extremely tajm (he turumdtanffa. 
Cf turuma in Paumotuan), and people were not allowed to go near them 
unless conducted thither by a priest, in order to go through some rite 
of a religious nature, such as hair cutting or ceremonies performed over 
sick persons, witchcraft, the wai taua, &c. 

The tohunfja or priest has collected the warriors at the wai tapu or 
sacred waters. He is naked, save a few green twigs or branchlets of 
La ram u fastened round his waist, aud which are thrown into the water 
when his duties are over. In his hand he bears a small wand or 
branch, plucked from the shrub karamuj and which has been stripped 
save a bunch of leaves left on at the end. The warriors are assembled. 
Before approaching the sacred spot, each man has divested himself of 
his clothing, and, hanng tied a leaf of flax round his waist, sticks 
thereunder a few branchlets of the karamn shrub, with the leafy ends 
hanging down. The warriors squat down at the waters edge in a row. 
Should more than one hapu or tribal sub-division be present, each 
hapu would separate itself from the others, and each would have its 
own priest. 

The tohmiffa (priest) takes two strips of flax and, having tied them 
together, or tied a knot in the middle, if a long piece, he places the 
same in the water ; if a stream, with the knot up stream. He allows 
an end of the flax to pass on cither side of him, so that he is standing 
in the water and between the two ends of the flax, in the bight of the 
line. Ka hUa lie kuwha tamiata tana harakeke — the flax is said to 
represent the legs of man. 

The priest then dips the end of his branchlet into the water, and 
taps the right shoulder of the flrst man therewith, repeating at the 
same time an invocation known as a tohi (see ante), of which specimens 
have already been given, together with other information anent this 
rite. The priest passes down the rank, repeating the above process 
over each man. The object of the invocation is to render the warriors 
brave in battle. It is a tohi tana. 

Another karakia or invocation recited by the priest at such a time 
is the katra. There are several different karakia which oome under 
this name. The kaira ivhare is recited during the religious ceremony 
of opening, and lifting the tapu from a new house. Another is the 
kawa ora^ which is repeated over a child, in order to endow the same 
with health, vigour, strength. The war kaica is termed a kawa mo U 
riri or kaica tana. It appears to have been recited by the priest over 
the assembled warriors before the ceremony described abo\'e. 

There are many different kaica tana. As a rule each tribe has a 
different one, and they even differ sometimes among sub-divisions of 
the same tribe. For instance, the kaira taua of Te Urewera clan of the 
Tuhoe tribe is tiangaroa : — 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 67 

*' Te whatu whiwhia, te wbatu rawea 
Te wbatu moana, (&c." 

Whereas the kawa tana of their neighbours, the Ngai-Te-Riu and 
Ngai-Tu clans of the tribe is that known as Pnhi. Pnhi is a very 
sacred A-^ira, whereas Ilantfama is much less so. Ptthi seems to be so 
named from an ancestor or demigod, but whether Puhi, the eel god of 
Polynesia, or one of the later Puhi, such as Puhi-kai-ariki, is not clear. 
Anyhow the descendants of Puhi, of the two clans named, have always 
been most careful to prevent their arms coming in contact with fire. 
Should any of the hairs of the arms be burned, some great disaster 
will overtake the people. ** Mehenim ka tahiiri ki te tutnki i te ahi, kei 
wera ntja hnruhuru o te riwja, he aitua^ h^ mate.'' Also — " Ko wja 
huruhuru o nga ringa o nga url a Pnhi kaore e wera i te ahi" 

The war god connected with the Puhi kaica was Te Ihi-o-te-ra, 
whose functions have already been given. The Hangaroa kana was 
used in connection with, and by the mediums of, the gods Maru and 
Te Hukita. 

It is stated that the Matatua imigrants brought to N.Z. the three 
katca, known as Hangaroa-i-te-kaunauna, Hangaroa-i-turiroa and Tiki. 

The following kaiva is given as an illustration. It is known as Te 
Kawa-o-Tainui, and also as Tu-whakararo : — 

" Manawa mai, tatari mai 
E Ta te riri, E Tu te nguha 
£ Ta te paninihi, te parere 
E Tu te pakoko 
Koira i raro i aku taha 
Ka ngame Tu ki te rangi 
Te whakarongo mai ai 
Ki taktt haa taua. 

" Papa te wbatitiri i runga i te rangi 
Ka rarapa he uira 
He uira mai te rangi 
Te whakarangona atu 
Ma te ati tipua, ma te ati tawhito 
Te tipua horo nuku 
Te tipua horo rangi, horo uta 
Takina te manu ki te Po ki Uarotonga . . o.o- 
Takina ki Hawaiki." 

'* BoDgo te Po, rongo te ao 
Rongo i te pukenga, rongo i te wananga 
Tahito te rangi 
Te aea riri, te uea nguha 
Te waewae a Bereahn 
Me ko Tama ki tona whenua 
Papakura te tangi whakamataku 
Kia ngakia te mate o Tu-whakararo 
Tangi amaamu ki ona tuahine, 
Nunui, roroa a Wai 



6ft JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

E kore e iaea, ko Whakatau anake 
Te toa e nganga ai te tangi a te tuahine 
Ki teiramatu 

Bukuhia hukahuka tapotu ki te tai 
Wero ake ko tona ihu 

'* I whangai ake ko tona aho . . i 
Hekeheke iho i ona aitu 
Ea rarapa ki te rangi 
Me kau Orokewa 
Te bono a Whakatau 
E hi te ata, he poke iaaa." 

** Tukua te whakataa ki roto i te whare 
Ki tona whakapua werewere 
Til tara wananga te toa i tai nei 
He toa, he rere, he ngaro i roto i te matikaka 
Tenei ahaa e te tipaa." 

*' Te tete niho i te poa o te whare 
Whakataa, hikitia to tapawae 
Tu ana i waho te rakau o Whakataa 
He mnmu, he awha 
Tai pinia, tai whanake 

*' Eua makaa te ngakinga 
I te toto o te iramata e Ta-kahan 
Naa mai e waha i taka taa 
Ea roro taoa i to mataa manawa 
I taaria he pakahara 
Ea riro i a koe ona 

Te hono o Rakei nui e ta nei, e noho nei 
Hana te riri, haua te nguha 
Whiria he kaha taatini moa 
Whiria he kaha taa mano moa 
He ko te whenaa, te keri whenaa e kore e tae 
Eo Whakataa anake te toa 
E tamaaa Whiti roua 
Hara mai te toki-haami . . e ! 
Hui . . e ! Taiki . . e !"• 

The object of the kawa tana seems to have been to hold or maintain 
the strength, vigour, courage, &c., of the warriors, and to render them 
efficient in the field. 

TiBA-OBA &0. 

Another important rite performed at the Wai taua was 
the tira ora. Its object was to wipe out all evil from the warriors, evil 
thoughts or acts, or consequences of evil deeds — hei muru % nga he, i 
nga viate — to give them absolution in fact. By evil must be under- 
stood such matters as offences to the gods, acts which might lead to 
the inflictions of Tu-mata-rehurehu^ infringement of the rules of tapu, 
&c. 

*For translation, from a slightly different version, J.P.S. vol. Tiii-p. 154. 



NOUS ON THE ART OF WAR. 69 

The officiating priest proceeds in this wise : Near unto the wai 
whakaika he forms two small mounds of earth, into each of which he 
sticks a small branch of the karamu shrub. One of these mounds is 
termed Tuaku-o-te-ranffi (altar of the heavens), and the branchlet there- 
on is the tira ora (wand of life). The other mound is known as Puke- 
niii'O'Papa (Papa = the earth or earth mother), its branch is the tira 
mate or wand of death. The first mentioned mound and its tira 
represent life, health, vigour, prestige, <&o. The latter mound and tira 
represent death, evil, sickness, &c. Other names for these mounds are 
Piike-i-apoa and Puke-i-ahua apparently. 

The priest, by means of invocations (karakia), causes Puke-nni-o- 
Papa and the tira tnate to absorb all the sins, or evil, pertaining to the 
warriors. The tira mate becomes the aria or representation of such 
evil. He then casts down the tira mate and leaves the tira ora stand- 
ing, reciting his invocations meanwhile. By this act he has purged 
all evil from his warriors, the wand of death, and of evil lies low, the 
wand of life and health, &c., stands triumphant. Good has prevailed 
over evil, life over death, the heavens over earth, male nature over 
female nature — the tama-tane is uppermost. For the female nature 
ever represents death and sorrow in the ancient Maori myths — it is the 
whare o aitua, or origin of misfortune. The warriors are now clear of 
all earthly sin or taint, they are enrolled in the service of the gods, 
they are the children of Tu-mata-uenga. 

After the above, the incantations known as maro and weteivete are 
repeated, also a karakia makutu (magic spell) to weaken the enemy. 

The army marches to the wars. Before the attack is delivered another 
icai tana is performed. Thus before approaching a fort), which it is 
proposed to assault, the party will halt at some convenient place, and 
the priest will perform this second rite. Its purposes are to preserve 
the life, bravery, &c., of the warriors, and also divination rites, already 
described, are there performed. 

During the above ceremonies the priest is attended by a young 
priest or neophyte, who assists him in his duties, and often accompanies 
him on the expedition. This neophyte would carry the kete pure or 
sacred wallet, in which is carried a portion of the kumara, roasted at 
the horokaka fire. 

The following charm was repeated over the warriors at the second 
wai tana. It is known as a hirihiri^ and was for the purpose of 
'' binding*' or drawing closer the life, health, vigour, courage, &c., of 
the warriors : — 

*' Kotabi koe ki reira 
Eotaei koe ki te minaka i Whakatane 
Kotahi koe ki reira 

Kotabi koe ki te Makaka i Whakatane 
Katabi koe ki reira 



70 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Kotahi koe ki te pouaha i Whakatane 

Kotahi koe ki reira 

Kotahi koe ki te Marae-o- Whakatane 

Kia mau patu koe 

Kia whiwhia, kia rawea, kia mau.*' 

One art thou there, 

One art thou at the manuka at Whakatane 

One art thou there, 

One art thou at the makaka at Whakatane 

One ait tliou there 

One art tliou at the altar at Whakatane 

One art thou there 

One art thou at the marae of Whakatane 

May thou carry arms. 

And possess and firmly hold (thine enemies.) 

Koinei te hirihiri mo te whatvhai, e ruhe ana i mja he, i nga mate — 
mo Ti(, mo te riri — toa tonii atir' 

Pouahn seems to be the same as tudhu — an altar or sacred place. 
The pouahn at Whakatane was a famous place, and was mentioned in 
many different spells to ward off harm or evil. It had the power of 
wiping away the evil or weaknesses of men, as in the ceremony above 
given. In war, sickness and witchcraft it was applied to, to ward off 
death, disaster, ill-fortune, &c. Another ancient war invocation or 
talisman was Te Mata-taketake, it belonged to Taunga, who lived at 
Te Awa-a-te-atua. It was given to Tamure and Matatini of Taiooi. 

The Makaka, mentioned in the invocation, was the inxnous jwuahu 
at Whakatane. It belonged to the aborigines of that place ; it belonged 
to Te Makaka-o-te-rangi, who was an atua, the form in which he is 
\isible to ordinary eyes, being a certain redness of the bky. In after 
times Tama-ki-hikurangi became the medium of that god. 

After the harakia (charm, spell, invocation, incantation) above was 
repeated, at a given time each warrior raised his right hand, in which 
he held his weapon to his forehead, and held it so as if shading the 
eyes {muri iho ka tipare te tana). This was to * bind* the performances 
of the priest, to * bind' the desired qualities of courage, &c., and that 
all the charms, <&c., might be effective. 

A karakia \cai tana is given in ** Nga Moteatea'* at p. 277. 

Whatu moana, — This is an expression used to denote the courage 
{too) implanted in the breasts of the warriors by means of the A-nira 
taua. It represents ' the war god's heart of stone.' This expression 
must not be confounded with the material whatu moanay which was a 
stone used as a mauri (a mascot of the stone age). 

Ilorokaka. — The horokaka was a sacred fire kindled by the priest 
prior to the starting forth of a war party. A single kumara was roasted 
at this fire and eaten by the priest, and an invocation repeated to endow 
the warriors with courage. I have heard it stated that this sacred fire 

*This is the invocation for war time, it al)olishes s{n<^ and misfortunes. It is 
for Tu, for war, the subject will conduct himself gallantly. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 71 

was also kindled on the return of the war party, probably to take off 

the tapn. This fire or umu (steam oven) was kindled within a small 

enclosure at the wahi tapu or sacred place of the village. Only the 

priest and his assistant or scholar were allowed within the enclosure. 

This rite placed the tapu on the party. The kumara cooked was an 

offering to the gods, although its substance was eaten by the priest. 

The remnants of the food here cooked were placed in the sacred wallet, 

and taken by the priest or his assistant to the wars. 

Ahi marae. — The ahi warae appears to have been a large fire, or 

rather oven, in which food was cooked for the men. It was not tapuj 

or sacred as was the horokaka, but no females were allowed to eat of 

the food thereof. 

Ahi taumatn, — This is a fire kindled by the priest, as a war party 

is approaching the fort of the enemy. It is also known as ahi tahoka 

and ahi ta whakataumata. The war party, on approaching the fort of 

the enemy, are halted by the tohnnga (priest), generally on a hill or 

spur commanding the aforesaid fort. Here he kindles the sacred fire 

known as the ahi taumata. He recites the taumaia invocation as 

follows : — 

** Hika ra taku ahi, Tu . . e 
Tu ki runga, Tu . . c 
Ta hikitia mai, Tu . . e 
Kia kotahi te nioenga, Tu . . e 
Eo te taina, ko te tuakana, Tu . . e 
Kia homai, Tu . . e 
Ki te umu, Tu . . e 
Ki te matenga, Tu . . e.*' 

I ignite m j fire, O Tu ! 

Tu up above, Tu ! 

Tu start forth, O Tu ! 

Let lliere be but one bed, Tu ! 

For the younger and the elder brother, Tu ! 

Give them, O Tu ! 

To the oven, O Tu ! 

To the death, O Tu ! 

These spells are said to have the effect of causing the weather to 
become stormy, the winds arise and blow fiercely, rain and mist 
abound — hai whakaware i tepa — to delude the garrison of the fort into 
the belief that no enemy will deliver an attack during such disagree- 
able weather, t.e., to throw them off their guard. 

The following spell or karakia is then recited by the priest : — 

** Hika atu ra taku ahi, Tu ma tere 
Tonga tere ki te umu toko i a . i . i . . . e 
Tere tonu nga rakau, tere tonu ki te umu . . e." 
I ignite my fire Tu I 
Quick be the south wind, quiok to the oven, 
Quickly the weapons, quick to the oven. 

And then the following : — 

" Roki ai nga lian riri 
Roki ai nga hau uiwba 
Ka roki i nga rakau 
Ka roki nga tea 
Ka roki ki te umu . . e 
Ki te umu a Tu-matu-uenga . . e." 



72 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Frustrate, the angry winds, 
Prostrate, the barbed winds. 
To prostrate the trees. 
To prostrate the warriors. 
Prostrate into the ovens — 
The oven of Tu-mata-uenga. 

These spells also are supposed to weaken the enemy and the force 
of their weapons. The generic name of these incantations is ahi, or 
kauahi. 

The priest then performs a rite which, extraordinary as it may 
appear, is but a natural outcome of the native belief in the power of 
magic, and the power of the spirit of man to leave its basis — the bodyt 
and roam about the country. 

He takes the sacred wallet, known as kete tapu or kete pure, 
containing the remains of the sacred food which we have seen was 
placed therein after the Iwrokaka rite was performed. This he exposes 
at the fire for a time, and then opens the mouth of the basket or 
wallet, and places it so that the opening faces in the durection of the 
enemy. He then repeats an incantation termed Haruru (the generic 
term being kete). This spell is to draw the spirits (wairua) of the 
enemy into the sacred wallet, which is then closed, the act being 
accompanied by the reciting of another spell, while still another 
is repeated by the priest in order to destroy the spirits of 
the enemy enclosed within the kete tapu,* 

A portion of the sacred food in the kete tapu is eaten by the priest, 
and he also gives a fragment to each of the warriors, who carries it in 
his girdle — hai irhakamdrama ite wjakau, i,e,, that he may be fearless 
and clear headed in the fray. When Tuhoe were marching against 
the Arawa, prior to Puke-kai-kahu, and killed the kawau papa at Ghana, 
that bird was placed in the kete tapu and carried by the priest to the 
field of war, where the flesh of same was used in the above rite. 

Other accounts differ, merely by stating that the spirits of the 
enemy were lured into the fire by means of spells, and so destroyed 
(ka rotua nya wairua o nga hoariri kl roU) ki te ahi). This operation is 
as a tamoe, a suppressing or rendering harmless, of which more anon. 

Umu tamoe, — This was the name of a ceremony and incantation 
made use of in order to weaken the enemy, and render them powerless 
and nerveless when attacked. 

When the Matatua canoe, of the great migration, arrived at 
Whakatane-nui-a-rangi, it is said that Wairaka, daughter of Toroa, 
recited the foUowinjif tau , , * hai tamoe i nya kino a nga tantjata o uta* — 
to suppress the power for evil of the inhabitants of the land, i.<*., of 
Te Tinio-Toi. 

* See another account in White's A. U. M., Vol. 111. p. 111. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 78 

'* Eo Toroa, kaore koa 
Ko au» ko Nu, ko Weka 
Ko Buaihona, ko Te Tahinga-o-tc-ra 
Tenei te maro ka hurua 
Huruhuru nui no te wahine 
Ka tu tapore ake» ka ta tapore mai 
Wero noa, wero noa, nga rakau whakaiaia 
Na nga tupuna i tikina ki rawahi 
Hai rakau mo taku waka, mo Wai-mihia 
Te mata o nga rakau a Tu-ka-riri, 
A Tu-ka-niwha, a Tu-kai-taua 
Whanowhano. Hara mai te toki 
Haumi . . £ ! 
Ui . . E 1 Taiki . . E !" 

Toroa is not able, 

But I (descendant of), Nu, and Weka, 
Of Bau-ihona, of Tahinga-o-te-ra. 
Now is the girdle fastened — 
Qirdle of woman's hair. 
I stand up begirt, hither begirt. 
In vain (they) lanoe (their) piercing weapons 
Brought by the ancestors from over sea 
As weapons for my canoe — for Wai-mihia. 
The points of the weapons of Tu-ka-riri, 
Of Tu-ka-niwha, of Tu-kai-taua. 
<tc., (&C. 

When Whare-pakau camped at the base of Tawhiuau, prior to 
attacking the aborigines of the Whirinaki valley, he performed this 
umu tamoe rite, in order to weaken the Tini-o-Te-Marangaranga, whom 
he proposed to attack. 

The umu tatnoe is also said to have been used by the victorious 
party of a battle, in order to deprive the enemy of the power of aveng- 
ing their defeat. It is said to have been performed by Tuhoe after 
the battle of Te Kauna, that Ngati-Awa might not obtain revenge for 
that field. Three other expressions, which bear much the same meaning 
as tatnoe, are whakaeo, whakanehenehe, and rotu. The term irhakaeo is 
applied to the subduing of gales by means of incantations, as also to 
subduing taniwlm, demons and supernatural monsters of divers breeds. 
Also in the case of the kotipu or meeting a lizard in the track, an evil 
omen as already explained, a person acquainted with the proper way 
to whakaeo is selected to repeat the appropriate spell, as follows : — 

** E tama ! E patu koe ki tua 
E patu koe ki waho 
E patu koe ki te bau e pa nei 
E patu koe ki a Papa e takoto nei 
E pat a koe ki te Bangi nni e tu uei 
Tau e riri ai 
Ko uta. ko tai 
Ko rou ora 
Ki te whai ao, ki te ao marama.'' 



74 JOURNAL OF THE POLYHESIAN SOCIETY. 

O Son ! strike thee behind, 

Strike thee outside, 

Strike thee the wind that blows, 

Strike thee Mother Earth there Ijing, 

Strike thee the Great Heaven above 

Thou shalt wage war 

With inland, with seaward. 

Stretch forth life to the world possessed 

To the world of light. 

Ei)tu means '^ to deprive of power.** Rotu is the name of a spell to 
cause sleep to overcome a person— as an enemy. Rotu mnana is a 
charm to calm the ocean. The trheaivheau rite already given is per- 
formed as — full rotu i tc hoar in — to deprive the enemy of power, to 
cause them to become listless. 

NgARAHU TAUA. WAR DANCE. 

We now come to a most important item in the art of war, accord- 
ing to the Maori mind. There were three occasions on which the war 
dance was performed. (1). On the arrival of a company of visitors, 
either a peaceful party (ope tuaranni), or a party who have come to 
demand satisfaction for injuries received by them {taua mum) ; or a 
tana urahine^ who have come to protest against the taking of one 
of their women, &c. (2). It was performed by a war party the day 
before leaving their homes, or just prior to a fight, in order to observe 
the omens, and ascertain as to whether success or defeat lay before the 
party. The above come under the heading of turanga-a-tohu. (8). It 
was performed by the victorious side on the battlefield after the flight 
of the survivors of the enemy. This had two meanings — it was a 
dance and son^' of deliance, and also an expression of the joy of 
the victors. 

When perforinin*,' the war dance, either as a war dance (;>^rfi/M*rff or 
tutu icaeirae or nt/arahn taua), or as a turaniia-a-tuha^ the performers 
were naked, with the exception of the girdle, probably a belt with a 
small maro in front. Feathers might be worn in the hair, which 
might be either cropped short or tied up on the head in one or more 
tufts. The imiiania were long feathers thrust through the nose at such 
times. When two long feathers are so inserted, projecting horizontally 
across the face on either side, the efiect is most grotesque. 

We will suppose that the tiuka has been sent out to a neighbouring 
tribe and has been accepted. The warriors spring to anns, and, each 
clan under its head chief, march on a central settlement where the 
tribe is to assemble. As thoy approach the meet ing place they a<lvAnce 
in dose column. The clans living nt or near the meeting place have 
alreaily assembled there, in order to receive their allies, and ivrfonn 
the war dance as a turaniiaatohu or species of divination. These 
warriors of the central settlement, who have gathennl to receive the 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR, 76 

allies from other districts, we will term the tangata whenua ; while the 
advancing force we term the ope. The tamiata irhenna form in close 
column. All are kneeling down on the left knee, and have the gun or 
taiahay or other weapon, grasped in both hands. Such a column is 
termed a mdtua . 

The warriors of the ope are slowly advancing in column, in perfect 
silence. The most famed fighting men are in front, the head chief is 
probably in the rear to command the column. 

From the silent, kneeling column of the tangata wlienua, there 
appears the first wero or challenger. He is a man selected for his fine 
appearance. He carries the challenging spear, usually a rough, light 
spear of manuka. Stripped to the girdle, he advances towards the 
oncoming ope. While yet some distance from them he casts his 
challenge spear towards them and retires to his matna. The ope takes 
DO heed of the challenge, but marches steadily forward. 

A second challenger advances from the ranks of the tangata whenua, 
and, not approaching too close to the ope, hurls his spear at them, and 
retires as did challenger I^o. 1. The ope moves onwards and takes no 
notice. 

Forth from the ranks of the tangata wlienua the third and final 
challenger advances, spear in right hand, weapon in left. He has been 
selected as being the swiftest runner of the party. Note his appearance 
and actions. Naked to the four winds, his fine limbs and body show 
well, the muscles are rippling beneath the smooth, brown skin. For» 
as he advances, every muscle in his body is strained until they quiver, 
his step is quick and light. With brandished weapon, and hideous 
grimaces, he bounds from side to side, emitting at the same time, deep- 
chested and distressing grunts. He is the most agile and active of the 
tangatu tchenua, he is the admired of all, he is the final challenger. 
When within thirty yards, more or less, of the advancing ope, he gives 
a final exhibition of agility, lung power and defiance. The ope appears 
to take no notice. Then with a swift cast the challenger (nero) throws 
his spear at the oncoming ope, and, turning to bis right, darts back at 
his top speed to the tangata ivhenua. The rakau inutu, or final spear, 
has been cast. The ope takes up the challenge. 

The spear has scarcely grounded before the pursuer (kai wluii)'^' 
bounds forth from the flank of the ope, and dashes forward in pursuit 
of the challenger. He also is a picked man, and will strain every 
nerve to overtake the challenger. Should he succeed in doing so, he 
either strikes him down with his weapon, or else will rapahuki him, 
i.e.f thrust his weapon, taiaha, or whatever it may be, between the legs 
of the fleeing challenger and thus throw him. Sometimes the pursued 

*Somethues there are two pureuers. 



76 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESiAN SOCIETY. 

would rapahnki the pursuer. When advancing, should either the 
challenger or pursuer look back at their respective matua, that is a 
korapa and an evil omen for his party. Or should the challenger, 
when turning to run, turn to his left instead of the right, that also is a 
korapa, that party must be very cautious on the trail and in the field. 
The gods do not give vain warnings. When the final spear is cast, 
should it reach the ope, and should any member thereof attempt to 
ward off or dodge the missile, that also is a korapa, and an evil omen 
for the ope. Should the pursued challenger be caught by the pursner, 
that is an evil omen, but for the challenger only. 

On his return, the challenger enters his matna or column on the 
flank, not in front, and the pursuer will kneel down just opposite 
where the challenger entered the column. 

Meanwhile the ope is coming forward at the run, weapons held in 
the right hand, advancing with short, quick strides, a sort of trot, 
with restricted stride, at the same time giving tongue to a quick, 
jerky, semi-dental, semi-sibilant cry, as expressed by the repetition of 
a single sound ti-ti-ti-ti-ti-ti I which, as I heard it expressed, is ** spit 
out though the teeth.** 

The ope advances in close column in this manner, until the head 

reaches the kneeling pursuer, where they stop. Meanwhile the 

fugleman (kai-whitiwhiti) of the tatujata ivhenua springs to his feet, and 

with a wild cry — 

*' Whiti ! Whiti ! . . E !" 

he calls upon his warriors to rise. Then the mass of naked, bronze- 
hued fighting men spring up as one man, giving a long, piercing, 
quivering, eldritch cry as they rise This is termed ickakaaraara 
matua. The tangata ivhenua then run forward in the same manner as 
the ope advances. The two columns pass each other in parallel lines 
with the same stamping tread, giving vent to the same weird cries* 
Their eyes stare wildly, their muscles are quivering, their actions and 
appearance denote excitement and defiance. 

On reaching the place where the final spear was thrown, the 
tanyata whenua turn to the right about and return in the same manner. 
The ope do the same, the two columns passing each other in the same 
parallel manner, quivering with excitement, and half suppressed energy 
of voice and muscle, the stamping of hundreds of bare feet upon the 
earth drones upon the ear. These movements are termed unuunu. 

On reachihg their original stations, each party faces about, and 
every man kneels down on the loft knee, his right foot on the ground, 
his weapon brought to his right front, grasped in the right hand, left 
hand resting lightly upon it. Each man looks downward, and is quite 
silent. The two colunms arc facing each other. Not a sound is 
heard. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 11 

The fugleman of the tawiata wh>nxHa again springs to his feet, and 

gives the ivhiti cry- - 

" Whiti ! Whiti! . . E !" 

As one man, and with the same wild cry, the warriors rise for the war 
dance. Each man grasps his gun by the barrel with the right hand, 
brandishing it butt uppermost. Then commences the peruperu. 

The war dance itself is a terrific affair. The weapons (guns in 
modem times) are brandished in the air in tune with the peruperu or 
war song. The warriors are transformed for the time into the most 
demoniac looking beings it is possible to imagine. Every nerve and 
sinew is strained, the eyes roll wildly, or seem to stand forth from the 
head, tongues loll out to an incredible extent, guns are brandished 
wildly but uniformly, and in perfect time the apparently frenzied 
warriors stamp with their bare feet on the ground until the earth 
trembles. They jump from the earth and descend with both feet flat 
on the ground, also in perfect time. But high above all else may be 
heard the thundering roar of the war song. Given five hundred 
natives performing the war dance, and long miles away, the hoarse 
chorus of the puha (war song) will be heard like the boom of the ocean 
surf on a distant coast. 

The mode of advance of the challenger, the quick, abrupt, jumping 
movements, accompanied with the brandishing of his gun, or spear, 
&c., and the dreadful distortion of features, is known as pikan or 
trhakiipi. The rolling of the eyes, shewing the whites thereof, is termed 
ichdkana or piihana. The bulging out of the eyes is wJiete {ki wliete nya 
kanohi), Hoahoa is a word used to expresses the arranging of the 
matua in true alignment. *' Katahi ka lioaina n(ja matua,'''^' If not 
in true line they would be described as kureureu or uneven. 

The following is a karakia repeated when the matua of the two 
parties are facing each other : — 

«' He aba te manu ki uta ? 
He koekoea 

He aha te manu ki tai ? 
He pakapaka kai, ahaha ! 
Whaia ana e toku tini 
E toku mano 
Whano wbano 
Hara mai te toki 
Haumi . . E ! " 

What iR the bird inland ? 
A lon« tailed cuckoo, 
What is the bird at the sea? 
A Pakapaka kai, or what not ! 
'Twill be chased by my numbers. 
By my thounands, 
Forward, forward ! 
Bring hither the axe, 
'Tis found I O ! 

*Then the columns are arranged. 



78 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Daring the war dance should any man not keep time with the others, 
or not leap so high, these also were korapa and evil omens. When 
called on to arise by the leader, should the warriors rise in perfect time 
— all together — that is a hura takahi ptnii and a good omen. But if 
some are slow to rise, and lag behind, that is a haivaiki pe^yeke^ and an 
evil omen for the expedition. In the case of the omens during the war 
dance being unpropitious, the two parties would go through the whole 
performance again the next day, even to the challenging. This was a 
tu ora, to obtain better omens. If no error was made by the performers 
— that was a xcai or a, and the party would proceed to the wars. 

Should the ope come from different districts they will often form 
each a separate matna or column. Each of these columns will be 
challenged by the challenger of the tamfata whenua, and will afterward^ 
join (tuhono) and form one column. If closely related to the tantjata 
ichenua, this column will then join forces with them, thus the whole 
force now form but one matna or column. This column then advances 
as a kawau mdro, and faces the fort or village to perform the war dance. 
Should they perform it with their backs turned on the village — ^that 
would be a korapa of the kind known as kotua, a bad omen. 

Regarding the term kairau mam, it means " prepared for flight," 
or ready to start. The kawau or connorant, when about to take wingi 
invariably stretches out its long neck until the same appears quite 
straight and stiff (wdro), ** Ka mdro te kaki o te kawau" The neck of 
the kawau is stretched for flight, is a common saying used to denote 
that a person or party is ready to start. 

The war song, which accompanies the war dance, is tei*med a puha 

or pervperu. We give a few specimens : — 

" Kia kutia . . au ! . . au ! 
Kia wherahia . . au ! au ! 
Kia rerc atu te kekeno ki tawhiti 
Titiro roai ai 
A.e! A.e! A! 

At the word kutia the right arm is bent inwards until the weapon 
is brought in front of the body. At the wonl whtrahia the right arm 
is extended. 

When the Rakei-hopukia fort at Te Teko, held by the Irawharo 
clan, fell to Ngati-Tuwharetoa, the following war song was sung by 
the latter : — 

" R tu ra koe i te huirangi 
A, ka tnkua iho ! 
A, ka tukua iho ! 
A ka hitiga Irawharo 
Ka mate Irawharo 
Tukua iho ! 
A. ka tukua iho !'* 

Here is another old-time puha : — 
•• Ane ! 
Whiti ! whiti ! . . a ! 



And again 



Again so :- 



And yet again : 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 79 

Ane ! Aue ! 

VVikuwikii mai te waero 

Ko roto ko takii puta 

He puta tohu te puta . . e 

E rua nei, ko te puta . . e." 

♦* A, ko te Puru 
Ko te Puru koa 
A Tokatoka, kia ueue 
Kia tntangatanga te riri 
£ kore te riri e tae mai ki konei 
Ka puta \\-aitia koa 
A! A! ai teriri!' 

*' He aha te kai ma taua? 
He pipi, he arube 
Ko te kai e ora ai te tangata 
Mntoetoe ana te arero 
I te mitikanga 
Me te arero kuri . . au !" 

"Whiti! Whiti! A . . aue! 
Haere atu ki Mfinga*reporepo 
liaia . . ha ! 
JKa haere te tiare 
K hiwa ! . . ha ! 
A . . he nihinihi 
He aha kai waho mai ? 
A . he kiri tapa 
He aha kai ou tapa ? 
A . . he kea ! . . a ! " 

The following puha was chanted at Bua-tahuna by the warriors of 

Tuhoe, prior to their marching on Waikato, in order to fight the 

British troops : — 

" Kg nga nj^irangira te whitau 
Ki Dga hotahota o te whitau tapahia . na, eho ! 
Ka awheawhe te rua tamariki . . . ka, eho ! 
Nan ano i whai mai ki aku nui . . ka, eho ! 
I kite ai au . . ka, eho ! 
I taku tau ropi . . ka, eho ! 
I te ra rua o te tara o Whitau 
Tapahia hotuina . . eho! 

When Te Maitaranui of Tuhoe accompanied the party of Nga-Puhi, 
under Pomare to Whakatane, they were received by the main body of 
Nga-Puhi ut Whakatane in the usual manner. As Pomare saw the 
challenger advancing, spear in hand, he said to Te Mai — ** The 
challenger is Te Hihi, the swiftest runner of Nga-Puhi. Do you pursue 
him, and should you overtake him, that will be a bad omen for 
Nga-Puhi.'* Te Mai succeeded in overtaking the challenger, and speared 
him in the back. Pomare cried to his tribe — " Nga-Puhi ! You have 
fallen. Your prestige is gone.** 

After a war party has left their own district, should they come to 
a village of a friendly people, or of a tribe who are going to join them 
in the raid, the war dance will be performed again in order that the 
omens may be observed by these people. When Tuhoe were marching 



80 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

on Waikato they were receiverl by a section of Nj^ati-Raiikawa. The 
member of Tiiboe who pursued the challenpfor committed a knrapa — 
result, Tuhoe were defeated by the British forces at O-rakau. 

When Lord Glasgow visited the Ngati- Whare tribe at Te Whaiti, the 
principal chiefs met him a mile from the village, and challenged Id 
modern style, /•., with guns, fired right and left. No pursuit was 
arranged for. This is termed a taki. 

Maroro Kokoti Ihu Waka. 

This has been referred to under a previous heading. A war party 
setting forth in search of blood vengeance, must slay the first man they 
see in the course of their journey, although he may be a relative. If 
the latter, the body was not molested, but taken aside and concealed or 
buried. If not a relative, the heart is taken out and offered to the war 
god of the priest. Were this first man met by the tana piki toto 
spared by them, disaster would overtake them. By slaying him thej 
increase their courage, itc, for the gods are appeased. 

When a war party, under Tikitu, were marching against the 
Whakatohea tribe, in order to avenge the death of Te Ngahue, who had 
been slain by witchcraft, they met a woman named Kerangi, who was 
at once slain, the body being cut up and taken back to Whakatane, 
where it was cooked and eaten by the gentle children of Awa. 

As an illustration of the free and easy manners of those times, we 
mention the following: — A mourning party of Tuhoe joumed to 
Whakatane to join in the wailing over Te Ngahue. As they fared on- 
wards below Rua-toki, they encountered one Te Kopa of those parts, 
who was at once slain and his body put in a canoe and taken to the 
meeting place where it was eaten. Tuhoe took part in the tangi for 
the dead, and returned home. But Ngati-Awa were not satisfied, and, 
moreover, suspected Tuhoe of being concerned in the bewitching of Te 
Ngahue. They then organised the war party, which was defeated at 
Te Kauna, as already explained. 

Notes Concerning Youn(» Warriors. 

A young warrior on his first expedition was compelled to be most 
careful in regard to his acts and general demanour, lest he transgress 
one or more of the numberless rules which apply to warriors when in 
the service of Tu, and thus give offence to gods or men. Such a 
young, unblooded warrior was termed a tanira, his first battle was his 
whakatauiratamja, (** / whakatauiratia a Wharfkauri ki Te Tumu** is 
equivalent to saying that Wharckauri took his degree in fighting at the 
battle of Te Tumu). 

When a tauira kills his first man in battle, he cuts a lock of hair 
from the head of the slain, and takes it to the priest, who repeats over 
the young warrior an invocation to whakau (make firm) his courage 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 81 

and skill The karaln'a is a species of tnhi or kaiva. We give a 

specimen : — 

•• Kia mau patu koe ki a Tu 
Kia whiwhia, kia rawea 
Kia whangaia ki a mua ra 
Ki te tuahu, ki te atua 
Kia rawea, kia titiro 
Kia karo pata 
Kia mau ki te atu a Bongo, 
A Tawhirimatea 
Ka puta koe ki taa ra 
Ki te whai ao, ki te ao marama 
Ka ora, ora ki tupua 
Ora ki tawhito.*' 

Mayest thou bear weapons in the service of Tu ! 

MayeRt thou acquire and and retain success in war ! 

And the victims of thy prowess be offered in the preseuce, 

Before the altar, a sacrifice to the god. 

May thou be successful ; quick in sight ; 

Able to guard the weapon's blow. 

Be thou steadfast in service in the ranks of Bongo, 

Of Tawhirimatea. 

That thou mayest come forth from the battle 

To the world of being, to the worM of light. 

That thou mayest live, by the powers below, 

By the powers above. 

The first loot taken by the novice is presented by him to the priest, 
be it a weapon, or ornament, or cloak. 

War Cries. 

We give a few specimens of the war cries used by chiefs in battle. 
When the fighting commences a chief will cry — ^' Ane! Te viamae * 
(Alas! the pain or anguish), or ^* Aue ! 'Te whakamamae roa , , e !'* 
This ciy is an auhiy he leads his men into the presence of death, and 
hence bewails himself — koia ka taukuHy ka auhia — hence he greets. 

The following were war cries which were intended to incite to urge, 
on the warriors : — 

** Hoatu ki roto , , e . , e ! Hoatu ki rotn /" (** Dash in ! Dash 
in !") 

** liiria ! E te whanau . , e , , e , , e ! Uiria .'" (** Give battle 
children") 

*' Xapihia ! Napihia /*' (equivalent to " Hang on.** ** Stick to 

it.") 

** Tahuna .'^ Tahiina .'" (This is a modern cry, used in fighting 
with guns. Tahuna is the imperative mood of the verb tahu — to set 
fire to. Presumably it refers to the powder used, and may be given as 
equivalent to our command—** Fire ! ") 

A cry often heard in battle was — ** Tikarohia mja whetu /** i.e. — 
Pluck out the stars — meaning, slay the chiefs. Also, ** Tikarohia te 
marama" —Pluck out the moon — i.e?., slay the principal chief or most 
noted warrior. 
6 



82 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

When an invading force was seen approaching, warning was given 
by the cry — ** Te nhakaariki . , e , . e , . e ! Ko te whakaarikil** the 
" f *' sound being prolonged. Another such warning cry was — *' Te 
taua : Te tana .'" 

The Attack. 

In the days of the rakau Maori, or native weapons, when two 
hostile forces joined in battle, each side was in fairly close formation 
but the bravest men, the noted toa (warriors), and those who wished to 
ka\ce ingoa or make a name for themselves, would forge to the front. 
The toa or famed warriors were termed toka tu moana — a rock standing 
in the sea. The principal chief, who must be a toa to hold his position 
on the field of war, would probably be found in the rear during an 
attack, in case of a repulse or panic, when he would urge on his men. 
Should the leading men fall back, he urges them forward again to 
renew the combat ; this is termed a puni. There are, of course, other 
chiefs in the lead, that is to say other toa. For, as a conservative 
native friend informed me, all toa (famed warriors) are necessarily 
chiefs ; bravery is not foimd among icare, /.f., persons of low birth. 

Mataika. 

The first man of the enemy slain in battle was known as the 
mdtdika or mdtdngohi, or ika i te ati, t.«., the *' first fish.** Ika a Tu is 
a term applied to the dead enemy on the field of battle. The second 
killed of the enemy is called the pehi among some tribes. I have seen 
it stated that tatao also means the second person killed, but have not 
met with its use. Among the Tuhoe people tatao means " younger" 
in speaking of a family. " K hia oh tatao f i.e.y how many are there 
younger than you ? The same tribe term the last man slain in a fight 
the taiifjata H-hakatiki. 

The shiying of the first man wa^ an importaut item. It was a 
great feather in the cap of the slayer, an incident to be handed down 
to future generations. Also it was the heart of the mdtdika that was 
offered to the gods by the priest. The ** first fish" was usually slain 
by some noted warrior, or by a young man desirous of winning a name 
for courage and dash. As he struck the man down he would say, ** AVi an 
te mataika ! "* or ** AVi an te ika i te af/," in order to notify others that 
he has secured the first man. We have related how Te Purewa secured 
the tnataika in the battle of Puke-KaiKahu. When the nritish troops 
made an attack on C) mkan, using sandbags as a protc*cti(n], it was 
Eauaeroa, of Tuho<j, who secure<l the mataika of that tight, by leaping 
from the palisades of the fort and killing the foremast soldier with a 
blow of his tomahawk, amid the loud applause of the;></. 

* I.e., ** I have the first nuai.'* 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 86 

When Tuhoe attacked Ngati-Tuwharetoa and other tribes at Ariki- 
rau, in order to avenge the katwhi kitea, it was Tama-hore, of Tuhoe, 
who leaped forward and struck with his weapon a tree or shrub {ka 
tamarahi ki te pu tamniivini)^ crying — ** Kai an te ika i te ati.'' His 
brother, Te Purewa, then struck down the first man. Wahitapu, o^ 
Tuwharetoa, was the tamjata wluikatiki or last man killed in that 
fight. 

The striking of a tree, as in the above quoted case, was allowable, 
and agreed to hy the people. It was done to startle the enemy, to 
cause them to think that one of their number had been struck down. 
Gases are on record where a gourd would be broken with a blow, and 
which is said to have caused a sound like the breaking of a man's skull 
under the stroke of dkpatu. 

The above was by no means an unusual occurrence, and it would 
appear that the party would generally recognise it as quite correct, and 
in accordance with native rules and modes of thought, ka. 

At Te Eauna a dog was the niataika. As Tuhoe advanced to 
attack Ngati-Awa, a dog belonging to the former people ran forward 
into the Ngati-Awa lines. Te Wao at once gave chase. As he 
approached the animal, Ngaurei, of Ngati-Awa, cried — << Haehaea tutia, 
E Wao'E 1'' The unhappy dog was slain, its heart torn out and 
offered to the Ngati-Awa war god. 

Whanoai Hau. 
The ceremony of ivhaufjai hau was a most important one in war. 
It was the offering of the slain enemy to the gods. Williams gives 
* wlianijai i te hau !' — to make an offering to an atua, and quotes from 
the Legend of Maui. Then Maui was taken to the water side by his 
father, who performed the t(>hi over him, after which — ka whanyaia te 
hau mo ana mahi — (i.f., offerings were made to the hau on account of 
his deeds). Hoani Nahe states that the lock of hair taken from the 
head of a person slain in battle, or captured in a fight, is termed a Aai/, 
and is taken to the priest who recites karaida over it in order that the 
gods may enable the warrior to retain his courage, (&c., the rite being 
known as whatujai haur Agaiu Takaanui Tarakawa says that the 
hair of the man slain is offered to the gods, in order that the essence of 
the courage of the warriors may be returned to the tribal m4iuri,\ Mr. 
Shand states that this whanyai hau was to prevent revenge being 
laken. | Mr. White states that the heart of the slain man is taken as 
representing the hau or vital essence of the tneiuy, and is offered to the 
gods who reside in the hau (winds or space). 

* See Journal of the Polyuesiuii Society. Vol. ill, p. 28. 
t See Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. Ill, p. 207. 

♦ See Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. V, p. 89. 
. Leotures. p. 177. 



81 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

It would appear that the statements of Messrs. H. Nahe, Tarakawa 
and Shand apply to the rite perfonned aftei- the battle, and which we 
will describe anon under the heading of Mdive. Whereas the whangai 
hau rite we give is performed so soon as the mataika is slain, and hence 
in some cases, takes place before the two parties close in battle, as the 
mataika may be a scout or straggler. 

My own notes on the subject are not voluminous, but differ some- 
what in the nature of the explanation. One explanation given me by 
a native is to the effect that the priest offers the heart of the victim to 
his own (the priest's) hau, in order to placate the same and assure 
victory. I have no faith in this statement, nor do I believe it to be 
Maori. I have never heard of a man making an offering to his own 
hau, although he would make such to his atiia. Nor have I ever heard 
that a person's han could so influence external mattars. As I have said 
—it is not Maori. 

The following is nearer the mark : — ** The heart of the first slain is 
taken, as representing the hau, or vital essence or prestige of the whole 
hostile party. The tohumja takes out (tipoka) the heart ot the mataika, 
and offers it to the atua or god of which he is the medium, and ander 
whose oogis the war party is, while on the war trail. Remember that 
the heart is not really the hau of the enemy, but is used as a medium 
through which the hau of the enemy is affected by the invocations of 
the priest performing the rite. It is, as it were, the han of the enemy 
that is offered or fed to the atua wo te lirl or war god. Hence the 
prestige, vitality, &c., of the enemy is affected, and, if their atua is not 
too powerful, the party of the whauf/ai hau will be the victors. Should 
they be defeated, then some law of the said atua has been transgressed 
by one or more of the warriors. 

The heart so offered is not eaten by the priest. The usual way 
of making the offering is to wave (poi) it towards the heavens. The 
body of the mataika will be cooked and eaten, when circumstances 
permit, the priest first eating a piece of the fiesh, after which the 
warriors account for the remainder. 

Another explanation given me is, that the heart of the mataika is 
**fed" or offered to the hau o te takiwa (the air of space), because the 
gods reside in space. Anyhow it is certain that the heart represents 
the enemy, and that it is offered to the atua under whose influence the 
party is. To neglect the rite of irhatujai hau is termed a xchakatiki, 
A karakia xrhamjai hau is given in Taylor's Te Ika-a-Maui 2nd En. 
p. 152. 



( To be continued / 



NIUE ISLAND, AND ITS PEOPLE. 



Appendix Continued. 



The Birth of Man. 



(For translation of paragraphs 22 to 26, see paragraphs so numbered 

in Part IV). 



Ko E FANAU HE TAGATA. 

22. Kua fanau mai e tagata moui he akau — ko e akau ne higoa ko 
e Ti-mata-alea, ne tu he tafagafaga, nakai ko e mata-alea he vao 
motua, ko e taue ia. Hanai : Ka fatu ne fai e tama-afine kua fai-tane, 
ti tagi lahi ni ke he fia-kai he ti, mo e kau-ti ; ne o e tane mo e tau 
matua ke tao e umu-ti mo e fakahua e tama. Kua kai ni he fifine, ti 
mao e tama he kai e umu-ti. Kua mahani tuai e motu ko Nine ke 
pihia, tali mai he ta e motu. Ne ua e po ne tao e umu to fuke, ko e 
amu ne tanu he kelekele. 

Kua pihia, ha ko e matua ia he tagata, ke kai ni e tama he puke 
he matua, ko e Ti-mata-alea ; kua fanau e tama, ti kai ne fai e puke- 
huhu he matua fihne. 

23. Kua fanau e tama-tane, ko e fua mai he malo-tau a ia. ** Fua 
he malo-tau.*' Ko e tane ia. Kua fanau e tama-fifine, ko e fua mai 
he La-Lava. ** La-Lava " — ko e fua fifine. Nakai pehe ko e tama- 
tane, po ke tama-fifine, kua huhu ko e fua mai he hainoa, e tama ko 
e malo-tau, ko e La Lava. 

24. Kua fanau e tama uluaki, ti koukou ne fai ke he vai, kua 

mulu ni he patu lahi e tino he tama, ti oti, kua lapolapo mo e vagahau 

atu pehe ke he muke ha ne fakatutala ki a ia : — 

Eia teletele totonu, 
Teletele fa tagi 
Teletele fa tiko 
Teletele fa mi mi 
Teletele fa vale, 

Kua tele mui e tama i fonua. 

Ka e tele mua a mea i Paluki 

Fiti-kaga ai o tupua 



86 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Vai-Matagt and Vai-BValolo. 

27. Vai-Matagi and Vai-Fualolo were two men who (formerly) 
dwelt at Hiola, at the sea on the east side of Motu. There are streams 
there that flow from the rocks. Vai-Matagi is above all others m 
sweetness ; it is fresh, notwithstanding that the waves come up and 
cover it. When the tide returns then (the waters) are drank ; they are 
not bitter ; from this cause it has remained a drinking-water always, 
down to the present day. 

28. Vai-FualoIo is the same, but not always, so when the 
seas come up it is covered ; if only a little, it is sweet, but its sweetness 
is less, not like that of Vai-Matagi. There is a small spring between 
the other two, which is called Vai-maga-ua, which is drank by 
the families. These two springs were named Vai-Matagi and Vai- 
Fualolo, because they (the two men of those names) used to drink 
there, and they became tapii, nor would they step over them.* 

29. They dwelt at Kula-na-hau and Kaupa. At Kaupa was built 
the first church by Paulo (in 1849), the teacher from Samoa that came 
to Mutalau. Now Vai-Matagi and Vai-Fualolo went on a journey 
to examine various different islands. Their expedition brought them 
to an island named Tutuila, the king of which island was named Moa. 
This chief never lifted up his eyes, for fear if he did so, and looked on 
the trees, they would die. It was the same with all things on the face 
of the earth ; the same with animals that crawl, the same with 
men. He ever kept his eyes directed to the earth, never turning from 
it, lest the land and all things in it be cursed. 

80. The expedition of Leve-i-Matagi and Leve-i-Fualolo arrived 
(at their destination). Thon the chief of the island asked them, 
** Whence do you two men come'? Make known to me the name 
of your island, what it may be, and what have you to eat there ?" 

81. They spoke, and said unto the chief Moa, *'This expedition of 
ours has come from Nuku-tutaha, from Motu-te-fua, from Fakahoa- 
motu, from Nuku-tuluea ; very good are the waters which we drink, 
and we eat many little fruits of the soil. That is all !** 

82. Then the chief prepared a feast for the expedition ; and they 
ate of some luscious things, which were sweet to their lips. Then 
they praised the food, and felt their lips and the oil on their hands, 

*Ii 9*'ems probable that the two men were named Matagi and Fualolo or Leve- 
i-Matagi and Lovo-i-FnaloU). (Set* par. SO), but in the proeens of time after the 
springs were given their nanivs. and nn (waiei) has U*come attached to iheir 
personal names. Deing tapu, of course it would be desecraUoo to step over ibam. 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUEFEKAI. 87 

Teletele ke tufuga, 
Teletele ke iloilo, 
Teletele ke taitai 
Teletele ke mafiti 
Teletele ke uka-hoge. 

Kua tele mui e tama i fonua, 

Ka e tele mua a mea i Paluki 

Fiti-kaga ai o tupua. 

25. Eo e kamataaga ne fai ke age e tau mena kai ke he gutu ; ko 

e heahea, mo e kamakama mo e to-maka, ko emanu-leleko e Taketake, 

ko e tau manu kalo mo e mafiti, mo e to-maka nakai mate vave he tu 

he vao, ke fakapoa aki e tama. Ti liogi atu ne fai ke he fakapoa 

ia. Ko e tama-tane : — 

Kia ta ai a Tagaloa. 

Ke monuina, ke mafiti 

Ke mata-ala, ke loto-matala. 

Ke maama e loto he tau fahi oti, 

Ke manava-lahi, ke ahu-maka. 

Ketoa, 

To iloilo ke tufuga he tau mena oti ni, 

To molu e loto, to loto holo-i-lalo, mo e tututonu 

To faka mokoi. 

Eiia to e uha, ti fano ai ; kua to a matagi, ti fano ai ; ke he aho 
mo e po : Kua nakai tafia ke he peau ; ke hola mafiti ni ka tutuli 
he kau, ti moui loa ke nofo he fuga kelekele. 

26. Ko e tama-fifine : — 

Tufuga ke lalaga tegitegi, mo e tutu hiapo ; ke fili kafa-lauulu, 
mo e fili kafa-hega ; ke lalaga kato ; mo e tau gahua oti ne tupu mai 
he La Lava ; ke nu pia mo e tu-hoi ; ke tufuga ke taute mena kai, mo 
e leveki e tau gahua oti pihia. 

Ko Vai-Matagi mo Vai-Fualolo. 

27. Ko Vai-Matagi, mo Vai-FualoIo, ko e tau tagata tokoua ia 
ne nofo i Hiola, ko e tahi he fahi uta i Motu ne hele ai e tau vai mai i 
loto he maka ; ko e Vai-Matagi ne mua ni he humelie, to raagalo, pete 
ni he hoko hake e peau ke ufia e vai ; ka oti, kua liu e tahi, ti inu ni, 
nakai kona ; ko e kakano ia he vai inu mau he tau magaaho oti ke 
hoko mai he aho nai. 

28. Ko Vai-Fualoto ne pihia ; ka e nakai pihia mau. Ka hoko 
hake e peau, ti ufia ni ; to tote e hoko he tahi, ti magalo, ka e tote 
hana a magalo, nakai tuga mo e Vai-Matagi. Ko e taha vai tote 
ne toka i loto he vaha loto i a laua, ko e higoa ai nai ko e Vai-maga-ua, 
ko e vai ia ke inu ai e fanau. Ne ui ai e tau higoa e Vai-Matagi mo 
Vai-Fualolo, ne inu kehekehe a laua ke he tau vai ua na, ti tapu e laua 
nakai felaka aki e laua. 

29. Kua nonofo a laua i Kula-na-hau mo Kaupa ia, ne ta ai e Fale- 
tapu mua, he ta e Paulo, e akoako mai Samoa, ne hau ki Mutalau. 
Kua o fenoga a laua, ko Vai-Matagi mo Vai-Fualolo ke kitekite ke he 
tau motu kehekehe. Ne hoko e fenoga ke he taha motu kua higoa ko 



88 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

which wore greasy, with the fat of the coco-nut, and they said to 
the chief. *' We possess nothing like this at our island." 

33. When the feast was over, they gossiped about various things. 
Then the chief gave them two coco-nuts ; first he gave a niit-hila 
to Leve-i-Matagi, and afterwards a niu-Inna to Levei-Fualolo, and 
said, " Kn (I nine .'" These coco- nuts are for you two. Take them 
with you ; dig in the soil of your island and bury them, but guard 
them carefully till they grow ; then tend them until they fruit, for they 
will be useful to your bodies and for your children —and they will grow 
for all generations for you." 

84. The coco-nut remains as a great treasure ; when thirsty, 
the milk is drank, or when hungry the flesh is eaten. The fibre 
is twisted and (used in) lashing up the houses, the fibrous wrapping of 
the leaves are prepared as food — /.<\, for straining the arrowroot, and 
to strain the fai-kai; and the ribs of the leaf are used as brooms 
for the houses. The leaves are also woven (into baskets) in which 
things are placed when people go on journeys, and into mats to lie on, 
and are used in thatching the houses. They are also woven into fans 
to cool the face when hot, and are used (as torches) by people travelling 
in the dark. They are now used to obtain much money to procure 
useful things for the body and for all things. 

85. Those two kinds of coco-nuts have grown in the island down 
to the present day. The niii-tea, and the white one are the coco-nuts 
of Fualolo ; these are they that grow but few in the island ; they 
are used as medicine for the sick, and young children are bathed 
in their milk. The spring of Fualolo is often swamped by the sea 
at Hiola, and they have to wait till it is low water to drink. It is very 
beneficial to sick persons. 

8(). The niu-kula is the coco-nut of Vai-Matagi — one of whose 
name was Levei-Matagi. They do not cease to drink of this at 
any time ; it is the coco-nut in greatest number on the surface of 
the earth down to this day. It is the coco-nut that all men drink 
constantly. 

87. It was this family of two that named the island Niue-fekai — 
which was the third naming of the island, thus : Huanaki gave it four 
names Nukutu-taha, Motu-te-fua, Fakahoa-motu, and Nuku-tuluea ; 
Levei-Matagi, and Levei-Fualolo named it Niue-fekai, whilst Captain 
Cook called it ISavage Island. 

88. Captain Cook landed near Alofi, at the reef-opening of 
Opahi, the village near the point Halagigie. The chiefs of Nine 

* Hence the name of Sarage Island, Kiue. 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAI. 89 

Tutu-ila. Ko e Patu-iki he motu ia ko e Moa hana bigoa, ko e 
iki ia ; nakai haga ki luga e tan mata hana. Ka haga atu ke he akau, 
ti mate e akau ia ; pihia ke he tau mena oti he fuga he kelekele ; 
ti pihia ke he tau raanu-totolo, to pihia ke he tagata. Ko e tukutuku 
hifo ni e tau mata ke he kelekele, nakai fuluhi e ia neke malaia 
e motu mo e tau mena kua tutupu ki ai. 

30. Kua hoko e fenoga a Leve-i-Matagi mo Leve-i-Fualolo, ati 
huhu ai e iki na ki a laua, '* Ko e tau tagata ne o mai i fe a mua ? Ke 
fakailoa e mua he higoa he motu ha mua, po ko hai ? Ko e heigoa ne 
tokai ke kai e mua ?" 

81. Kua vagahau e laua mo e tala age ke he iki ko Moa. ** Ne o 
mai e fenoga ha maua i Nuku-tu-taha, he Motu-te-fua, he Faka-hoa- 
motu, he Nuku-tuluea. Ko e mena mitaki e tau vai ne inu ai a maua, 
ti kai ai he falu a fua akau ikiiki mai he kelekele. Kuenaia!" 

82. Kua ta aga he iki e galue ke kai e fenoga ia. Kua kai e laua 
e tau mena lolo, mo e humelie ke he tau gutu ha laua. Ati nava ai a 
laua mo e amoamo e tau gutu, mo e lolo he tau lima, kua huni he 
gako niu, ti pehe a laua ke he iki. " Nakai fai mena pihia he motu ha 
maua " 

88. Kua oti e kai e galue, ha ne fakatutala a lautolu. Ati tA, mai 
he iki e ua e f ua-niu ; ti age mua e fua-niu-kula ki a Leve-i-Matagi, ka 
e age fakamui e fua-niu-hina ki a Leve-i-Fualolo — ti pehe atu e 
iki, " Ko e niu v ! ma mua. Ti uta e mua ; ke keli e kelekele he motu 
ha mua, ti tanu hifo ai, ka e leveki e mua ka tupu, ti leoleo mitaki 
a mua ki ai ato fua, mo e aoga ai ke he tau tino ha mua, mo 
e tau fanau — ke tupu ai mai i a mutolu he tau hau oti ni." 

84. Kua toka ai he niu e koloa lahi mahaki. Kua hoge ke he fia- 
inn, ti inn e vai mai i a ia. Kua hoge ke he fia-kai, ti kai, ti kai 
e kakano mai i a ia. Ko e tau pulu ke fili ke falo ai e tau fale; 
ko e tau lau kaka ke taute ai e tau mena kai — e tau pia, mo e 
tu-hoi, mo e tatau ai e fai-kai : ti taute e tau kaniu mo tafitafi e fale. 
To lalaga foki e tau lau ke tuku ai e tau mena ke uta he tau fenoga he 
tau tagata. To lalaga foki e tau lau ke faliki ai e tino ; to lalaga 
foki ke ato e tau fale. Ti lalaga e tau lau ke iliili ai e fofoga ka af uafu 
mo e vevela. To huhu ai foki e tau fenoga ka pouli he po. Kua eke 
tuai ai nai ke moua ai e tupe lahi ke aoga ai e tino oti mo e tau 
mena oti kana. 

85. Ko e ua e niu na kua tupu he motu ke hoko mai he aho nai, 
Eo e niutea mo e mea; ko e niu a Fualolo ia ; ko e niu ia ne tupu tote 
he motu, ko e niu ia ne eke kafo he tau tagata gagao, ti koukou ai e 
tau tama ikiiki. Ko e fa loiia he tahi e vai hana i Iliola, ti leo ni ato 
pakupaku e tahi to inn. Kua aoga lahi he tau gagao ke nialolo. 

86. Ko e niu-kula, ko e niu a Vai-matagi ia— taha hii^oa hana ko 
Levei-Matagi. Kua nakai okioki he inu tote e magaaho ne leo ai 



90 JOURNAL OF THE POLYHESIAN SOCIETY. 

painted their lips, teeth, and cheeks with the red joice of the banana 
called hulahuUiy and spread out their arms, and showed their teeth to 
frighten Captain Cook to depart, and not come to their island. Their 
teeth were dyed red (to make believe) it was man-eating — it was deceit ; 
and so he named the island thus (Savage Island). It is right that the 
three names of Huanaki and that of Captain Cook should be left, but 
that of Levei-Matagi and Levei-Fualolo be retained, NiuS-fekai. 

Mele. 

89. There was a young girl named Mele, who was an invalid. 
They took her to the spring at Hiola to bathe, but when they brought 
her back she was dead. Then her parents took her body and placed it 
on a rock which had been prepared. After having been left on the 
rock for three days, the parents rose early to visit her, and to wash and 
bathe her body, but she was not there, the girl was lost. Then the 
parents, the relatives, and the visitors deeply lamented the girl, for she 
was not. 

40. But the girl named Mele lived, she came and sung to all her 
family. They were astonished, when they heard the voice of the young 
girl as she sung to them, as they were staying in the mourning shed 
which had been built, and where they performed the dances for the dead. 
The song is thus : — 

Taken was she to bathe at Hiola 

She has been brought here, and returned, 

Let the moon shine bright 

That the chief may admire, 

In the spring of clear water. 

Visitors have anointed her. 

Who shall stay here? 

Mele is happy, 

Mele is blessed. 

Let the chief admire 

In the spring of clear water 

Now, is Mele happy. 

The Family of Uuanaki. 

41. Then the families divided ; the family of Huanaki to dwell in 
their home at the pool. This is a rock at the bottom of the sea named 
Fonua-galo ; no one has seen it. Some of them went up to the first 
heaven — which is a dry land, and is said to be the country of the day- 
light, that is where they dwelt. 

42. The second heaven, is that above wherein stands the sua and 
the moon and the stars ; but that heaven is low ; it is called Motu-o- 
Hina, and her family are : — 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUEFEKAI. 91 

Ko e niu ia kua mua e labi ho fuga kelekele ke boko mai he aho nai. 
Eo e niu ia ne inu mau ai e tau tagata he tau abo oti ni. 

87. Eo e faoa tokoua nai ne fakabigoa e motu ko Niu^- 
fekai — ko e lagatolu ia e ui higoa e motu hanai : Ko Huanaki 
ne ui e tau bigoa e fa; ko Nuku-tu-taha, ko Motu-te-fua, ko 
Fakaboa-motu, ko Nuku-tuluea. Ko Levei-matagi mo Levei-Fualolo 
ne ui e bigoa nai, ko Niuc-fekai. Ko Kapene Kuka ne ui e bigoa ko 
Saviii Ailani. 

88. Ne bake a Kapene Kuka i Alofi, ke he ava i Opahi, ko e maga 
he mata nai, ko Halagigie. Ti o e tau patu NiuS, mo e vali aki e tau 
toto-kula he futi ne bigoa ko e bulahula e tau gutu mo e tau nifo mo 
e tau kauvebe ; ti fakamamaga atu e tau matalima, mo e tau nifo ne 
fakaiite, ke fakamatakutaku atu ki a Kapene Kuka, ke bola bifo, neke 
hau ke be motu ha lauLolu. Kua kula e tau nifo ha lautolu ke kai 
tagata — ko e fakatai ; ati fakabigoa ai e ia pibia. Kua lata ke toka e 
tau higoa tolu a Huanaki mo e bigoa ne fakabigoa a Kapene Kuka, 
ka e fakamau ia Levei-Matagi mo Levei-Fualolo, ko *' Niue-fekai " haia. 

Eo Mblk. 

89. Ko e tama-fifine ne bigoa ko Mel^, ne gagao a ia. Ti uta ai 
ni mo e koukou be vai tama i Hiola ; ti ta mai, kua mate ni e tama. 
Ti uta ai be tau matua bana tino mo e tuku ai i luga be maka ne 
taute. Ti tolu e po be toka i luga be maka ia ; kua ubu atu e tau 
matua ke ahi a ia, ke koukou bana tino mo e bolobolo, kua galo e 
tama, nakai tokai. Ti tagi tau tau e tau matua mo e magafaoa mo e 
tau ahi atu, ka e nakai moua. 

40. Kua moui e tama ne bigoa ia Mele. Ne hau mo e lologo atu 
ke he bana faoa oti. Ne ofomate a lautolu mo e fanogonogo atu ke 
he leo he tama-fifine ne lologo mai ki a lautolu ne api lava ai ke be 
fale tulu ne ta, mo e ta ai e tau fia-uhi ke be mate. Eo e lologo nai, 
ne pehe : — 

1. Kua fakahaele ke konkou i Hiola, 
Kua fakahaele mai, to fakahaele atu, 
Ka fakahuhulu mahina 

Ka puna ho iki e, ke puna ho iki e. 

2. Ke mulu tau ahi mai, 
Ke nolo foki a hai hinai, 
Ki ele-ki-ele ko Mele, 

Ki ele-ki-ele ko Mele, 

Ke puna ho iki e, ke pona ho iki §, 

Ke ele-ki-ele ko Mele. 

Ko E Magafaoa a Huanaki. 

41. Ko e vevehega ne fai e tau magafaoa ; ko e faoa a Huanaki ke 
nofo be loto kaina ha lautolu he loto-moana, ko e toka ia i lalo be 
moaiia, ko Fonua-galo ia, nakai kitea e taha. Ko e o bake ne fai falu 



92 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNtSlAN SOCIETY. 

1. Hina 6. Hina-kula 

2. HiDa-hele-ki-fala* 7. Hina-taiTaiva 

3. Hina-o 8. Hina-ma 

4. Hina-e 9. Hiki-malama 

5. Hina 10. Hiki-lauulu 

48. The females of the second heaven, are accomplished in making 
many things — to plait girdles of hair, girdles of paroquette feathers, 
and the hetja-palua ^a girdle) which is most beautiful; to mix the 
different colored braids of the hega-tea (light coloured paroquette feather), 
of the heija-kula (red colored paroquette feathers). This is the luga- 
palua, which was a treasure of great beauty in Niue-fekai. It was 
not possessed by all men ; but by the chiefs and warriors. 

In olden times Kili-mafiti, a chief of Mutalau, possessed one 
twenty fathoms long ; Lagi-likoliko, of Mutalau, had one also of 
twenty fathoms long, and Pala-kula, of Mutalau, another of eighteen- 
and-a-half fathoms. In recent generations Peniamena, Toimata, and 
Paulo,! possessed them, but a long time ago, the warriors used to 
have these scarlet girdles. 

44. Prayers were offered to the females written above when the 
women were preparing this kind of work, thus: — " Hina-e ! Hina-o! 
Hina! Ilina-ma! Hina-taivaiva ! Hiki-malama! Hiki-lauulu! give to 
us knowledge of our work." 

MaTILA FOAl-'OA. 

45. Mele, Lata, Fakapoloto, Hakumani and Matila-foafoa were 
persons of note of old. Matila foafoa was a man noted for his skill at 
the game of Ta-tika. These were the males of the Motu-a-Hina, that 
is, the second heaven. Matila-forfoa had a son bom to him, which he 
took and cast away in the forest that he might die in the first heaven. 
Some hiapo cloth was stuffed into the child's mouth, which became fall 
of the spittle, and this became as milk for the child. So the child ate 
it and lived, and grew up to run about, but he knew not who his 
father was. 

46. The child went forth and came upon a chieftainess who was 
blind from her birth, as she cooked yams by the tire. The child went 
and sat down by the side of the lire where the yams were cooking. 
When one was done the blind woman scrapeil it, and returned to the 
fire for another, but the boy snatched the cooked one and eat it. The 
blind-woman returne<l and scrai)ed another, leaving seven remaining. 
She said, " My eight yams have become seven." She returned again, 
and the seventh was taken, leaving six. She said, *' My seven yams 
have become six." So on with the fifth, fourth, third, .second and 

* This was Uie child beloved by Hina, the chief. 
t These men were the first three Christian teachers. 



THE THADITIONS OF NIUEFEKAI. 98 

ke nonofo he lagi-tua-taha^ko e kelekele momo ia, ti pehe ko e motu 
he aho a ia, kua nonofo ai a tautolu. 

42. Ko e lagi-tua-ua, ko e laga i luga ia, ne tu ai e la mo e mahina 
mo e tau fetu ; ka o tokolalo e lagi ia, ko e Motu-a-Hina ia, mo e hana 
mangafaoa, hanai : — 

1. Hina 6. Hina-kula 

2. Hiua-helc-ki-fata* 7. Hina-taivaiva 
8. Hina-o 8. Hina-ma 

4. Uina-e 9. Hiki-malfljna 

5. Hiua 10. Uiki-lau-ulu 

43. Ko e tau fifine ia he lagi-tua-ua, kua iloilo ke taute mena — 
ke fili kafa-lauulu mo e kafa-hega, ko e hega-tea, mo e hega-palua ne 
mua he mitaki, ke hoho aki e gahua he Rli ai e tau fulu hega-tea mo 
e tau fuhi he liega-kula oti. Ko e hega-palua ia, ko e koloa ia ne mua 
he mitaki i Niue-fakai. Nakai moua he tau tagata oti ; ko e tau iki 
ni mo e tau toa ke moua e koloa ia. 

Ke he vaha tuai ne moua a Kilimahti, e Patu i Mutalau, ko e kafa 
no 20 ofa ; ko Lagi-likoliko, i Mutalau, ne 28 ofa! ko Lagi-likoliko, i 
Mutalau, ne 20 ofa ; ko Kulatea i Hakupu, ne 20 ofa ; ko Palakula i 
Mutalau, ne 18^ ofa. He hau fou, te moua mai a Peniamina mo 
Toimata, mo Paulo, ka e loga he vaha fakamua atu ko e moua ni he 
tau toa e kafa-kula ia. 

44. Kua liogi atu ke he tau fihne ne tohi ai i luga la, e fifine ke 
taute gahua pihia: — **Hina-e, Hina-o, Hina, Hina-ma, Hina-taivaiva, 
Hiki-malama, Hiki-lauulu, ke mai ho tufuga." 



Matila-foafoa. 

45. Mele, mo Lata, Fakapoloto, Hakumani, mo Matila-foafoa. 
Ko Matila-foafoa ko e tagata ia kua mua e vave he ta-tika ; ko e tau 
tane ia he Motu-a-Hina, ko e lagi tua-ua ia. Ne fanau a Matila- 
foafoa e tama-tane, ti uta mo e tiaki he vao ke mate i lalo he lagi tu 
taha ; kua fafao aki e hiapo ke he gutu he tama ; ati puke e hiapo he 
ifo he hana gutu, kua eke tuai mo puke huhu ke he tama. Ati kai ai 
e tama, kua moui ni, kua lahi ke evaeva, ka e nakai iloa e ia hana 
matua. 

4G. Kua fano e tama mo e pu ai he patu -fifine matapouli tali he 
fanau mai, ha ne tunu ai he ufi la-valu he afi ; ti fano e tama mo e 
nofo ai he tapa he afi ne tunu ai e ufi ; kua moho, ati vouvou he 

* Ko e tama fakahelehele a patu Hina. 



94 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

first ; all the yams were eaten by the child who lived on milk of spiitte. 
Then be put a stone to roast at the fire ; and the woman got nothing 
but the stone. 

47. The blind-woman was very angry, and felt about with her 

hands. She then adopted a scheme, threw off her kilt and 

walked about to the north, south, east and west sides trying to find oat 
the theif. But the boy soon laughed at her, which she heard and 
knew it was he who had stolen her food. 

48. The boy now asked, *' Who is my father ?" Said the blind- 
woman, *' Go thou and pluck two young fruit of the niu-lM (or light- 
colored coco-nuts). He went and did as he was told, and came back 
and said, '' I have got them.'* The blind- woman then said, " Come 
here ! *' The boy brought one and after husking it, touched the right 
eye of the woman, and she saw with it. He then took the other and 
touched the left eye, and then both eyes were opened. The blind- 
woman was delighted. 

49. The boy now asked, ** Who is my father?" and the woman 
said, '' Come then ! after three days the court of casting tikas will be 
set up at Fana-Eava-tala. If you hear one saying this : One-one-pata, 
Mata-vai-hava, the plaza at Fana-kava-tala (which is the plaza at the 
Ulu-lauta at Mata-fonua — north end of the island) do you go down to 
the end of the plaza, of the leleija-atna, and hide and await the man 
of the black tika (dart) which will be thrown last, it is mui-hiim of the 
plaza ; that will be thy father." 

50. The boy went and awaited the chief of the plaza when he oast 
darts. Matila-foafoa was the last to act ; and the dart went right to 
to the place where the boy was sitting, who seized it and broke it. He 
jumped up and wrestled with his father, saying, *' Matila-foafoa, O my 
father ! why did you cast me away ?" The son had found his father. 

(The above story illustrates the confused and sketchy nature of the 
traditions presented by the Nine people. It embraces part of the 
Maori story of Tawhaki and Whaitiri, known also to the Hawaiians, and 
the Rarotongan story of Tarauri (*' Myths and Songs," p. 118, also 
p. 181, and a far more complete story in my collection). Matila-foafoa 
is the Matira-hoahoa of Maori ancestory, but though the Maoris 
have many stories of magical darts, he is not connected with them that 
I know of.) 

FiSHINO-NBT KaKINO. 

61. Faka-poloto and Hakumani belonged to a family accomplished 
in netting fish nets ; Mele also Lata also, with the others, were olever 
in netting and twisting cord to catch fish with, and also to net birds. 
When the work of netting is undertaken (the workers) call on Faka- 
poloto, Hakumani, Mele and Lata to direct them in their operation. 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUEFEKAI. 95 

matapouli e ufi ; ti liuaki ke he afi, kua lei he tama e taha la, ti kai 
e ia. Kua liu atu e matapouli ta mai vouvou ai, kua toe ni e fitu« 
Ti pehe, ** Eo e haku ufi la valu kua la fitu ai." Ti liu aki foki, ti 
lei e fitu ; kua toe e ono, ti pehe, ''Ko e haku ufi la fitu kua la ono ai." 
Ti pihia e lima, ti pihia e fa, ti pihia e tolu, ti pihia e ua, ti pihia e 
taha, ti oti pito he kai he tama ne moui he pukehuhu gatu kafu he 
afi he fifine matapouli ia. Ti age e ia e maka ke tunu he afi ; ati ta 
mai he fifine ko e maka noa. 

47. Kua vale lahi e matapouli, mo e amoamo fano hana tau lima, 
ti eke ni e ia e lagatau, kua hafagi hana felevehi, mo e lei hana faka- 
Mne, ti evaeva atu ke he tau fahi tokelau, mo toga, i uta mo lalo. 
Ati kata vave e tama, ti logona he fifine ko ia kia ne fofo hana mena 
kai. 

48. Kua huhu atu e tama, *• Ko hai haku a matua?" Ti pehe 
mai e matapouli, *' Fano a koe ke toli mai ua e fua niu-tea, ko e tan 
kola mui ni." Ti fano e tama mo e toli mai ua tuga e kupu, ti hau 
mo e pehe, *^ Kua moua tuai." Kua tala age e matapouli, '* Hau !'* 
Kua ta mai he tama e taha, ka huki ke fakapa atu ke he mata matau 
he fifine, ti ala e mata ia, he ta foki taha, ka huki atu, ke fakapa atu 
ke he mata hema, ati ala ua ia. Kua fiafia e matapouli. 

49. Ne huhu atu e tama, ^^ Ko hai hakuamatua?" Ti pehe e 
fifine, '^ Hau a koe ; ne tolu e aho ne toe, ti ta ne fai e male he pulele 
tika ki Fana-kava-tala he aho ia. He vagahau e ia pihia," He one 
one-pata, he mata-vai-hava, ko e male he Fana-kava-tala : *' (Ko e 
male ia he Ulu-lauta, he Mata-fonua). Ti hifo a koe ke he potu male 
he lelega atua ; ti fakamumuli ai a koe ke leo ai ko e tagata ke ta e 
tika uli, ko e tika kiva, ke ta he fakahikuaga ko e mui huni ia he 
male, ko e matua hau ia.*' 

50. Ne fano e tama mo e leo he patu male ha ne ta e tau tika. 
Ati ta fakamui a Matila-foafoa ; ti fano leva e tika, hu atu ke he mena 
kua nofo ai e tama. Ati toto mai e tama mo e papaki ka e oho atu 
tau fagatua mo e matua. Ti tala age e tama *'A Matila-foafoa, e 
haku matua ! ko e ha ne tiaki ai e koe au ?*' Kua moua tuai he tama 
hana matua. 

Ko E TIA-KUPEGA. 

51. Ko Fakapoloto mo Hakumani ko e faoa ia ne iloilo ke tia- 
kupega. Ko Mele mo Lata, ko lautolu oti ia ne tufuga tia, e filo mo e 
tia ke tatau ai e tau ika mo e heu aki e tau manu-lele. Ke taute e 
kupega ke tamata, ti ui atu ni ki a Fakapoloto mo Hakumani, ko Mele 
mo Lata foki, ke vagahau atu ki ai ke fakailoa mai e tia he kupega. 



96 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

52. Eupega (fishing not) and Eeho (? coral) came down to fish in 
the great sea ; Kupega pressed (?) whilst Keho took the basket, he 
was at the row of fish to draw in the first net, after twice (?) pressing, 
the bag of the neck was quickly filled with many fish, and then they 
returned to their owu country (the heavens). 

58. Puga, or Puga-tala, or Puga-feo, was a member of Huanaki*8 
family. He saw how successful the family of Faka-poloto and Hakumani 
were in fishing ; a little time and they were able to return home ; and it 
was thus every night. Then he thought he could do likewise, but, 
without success, because darkness came on so soon. 

54. When those two returned to fish, Puga begged them to give 
him the basket of the net to bold ; but they refused. But when he 
asked them quietly, they gave it to him. When they came to (?) press 
the UtHe of the net, it was scratched by the coral, and the back arm of 
the fish-bag taken off, and the basket in which the fish were gathered 
also broken ; when they poured in the fish to fill it, they fell out of 
the back of the basket into the sea. They tried again with the same 
result. Then they wondered what made it thus diflficult ; and they 
tried in a deep place, where the net got entangled ; so they both dived 
after their net, and Puga did the same and lashed it, so that it was more 
firmly caught. Daylight was near, but the fishing net was most firmly 
caught ; so they abandoned it and came up. 

55. When the light of the morrow came, Puga went down and 
carefully undid the net ; and when he had accomplished, it, brought it 
up and spread it in the sun till it was dry ; then undid (the knotting) 
and saw how it was made from the commencement. Thus Niu# 
learned how to make nets through the schemes of Puga ; Niu§ 
now knew how to make diffierent kinds of nets, even until this day. 

56. Puga was one of the family of Huanaki, and a wise man. We 
see the coral reticulated like the meshes of a net, in the pools of 
the sea, and the pools of the reef. He was the man who stole the net 
of Faka-poloto and Huanaki ; it is said, Keho and Kupega are the 
servants when they go to catch fish. 

(This story, though differing in detail from the Maori account 
of how they learnt to make fishing nets from the Patu-pai-arehe, 
is based on the same ideas, /.<., that they learnt it from the gods, 
or, in other words, from a strange people. It also does away with the 
idea that the story is a purely New Zealand one). 

SoMK OTHKR AND DIFFERENT TlIPUAS. 

57. Talimainuku gave birth to people who appropriated things. 
They separated, some dwelling in the sea — the family of Huanaki ; 
some on land, some of them crawl, some fly. Puga sprung from 
them. 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUEFEKAI. 97 

52. Kua o hifo mai a Kupega mo Keho ke taiitau ika ke he tahi 
lahi ; kua tatau a Kupoga, ka v toto o Keho e kato, ko ia ke he atu e 
(?he) tau ika ke puto ai he kupega lagataha, ti lagaua e tatau, ti puke 
vave e oa he loga he ika, ti o hake ni ke he motu ha laua. 

58. Ko Puga, ti Puga-tala, ti Pugafeo ; ko e iagata he faoa a 
Huanaki a ia. Ne kitckite atu a ia ke he faoa a Fakapoloto mo 
Hakumani ne olatia vave ai pihia e tau ika, magaaho tote ka e liu ; 
pihia e tau po oti. Ati manatu e ia ke moua, ka e nakai moua, he 
fa tuai ni he pouli. 

54. Ne liu mai a laua ka tatau ika, ti ole ni e Puga e oa ke age ke 
iotc e ia ; ka e lamakai ni e laua, ka e ole fakatekitiki e ia ; ati age e 
laoa. Ha ne o ke tatau e taue, ti lolote e puga, aki e lima e (?he) 
rnni oa, ti niahe e kato ke fafao ai e tau ika ; ha ne liligi hifo e tau ika 
ke he oa, ti puke ; ka e uiokulu hifo ni he mui oa kato ke he tahi- 
Ti tatau foki, ka e niokulu foki. Ti manatu e laua ko e ha ne uka ai 
pihia ; ati unu hifo ke he mena hokulu, kua vihi e kupega, ati uku 
fetogiaki e laua ha laua a kupega, ti uku hifo e Puga mo e lavahi atu 
ai, ati ue atu e vihi uka, ko e aho ne tata mai, ko e kupega ne uka 
lahi; kua tiaki tuai e laua ka e fehola hake ni. 

55. Kua hoko ke he aho a pogipogi, ti hifo a Puga mo e vetevete 
fakatekiteki ; ati maeke ni, kua ta hake e ia mo e tavaki ato paku- 
paku, ti vete ni e ia mo e kitekite e hala ne gahua ai mo e kamataaga 
ne tia ai e kupega. Kua iloa tuai e Nine ke tia kupega he lagatau 
a Puga; kua iloa e Niue-fekai ke taute e tau kupega kehekehe ke 
hoko mai he aho nai. 

56. Ko Puga, ko e tagata he magafaoa a Huanaki a ia ; ko e 
tagata iloilo. Ka kitekite atu a tautolu ke he puga ne matamata 
taga e tau mata-kupega ne tu he loloto he tahi, mo e tau loto he 
pokoahu mo e tau pupuo ne hake mai he moana. Ko e tagata ia ne 
fofo e kupega a Faka-poloto mo Hakumani, kua pehe, ko Keho mo 
Kupega ko e tau fekau ia, ke o ke tau tau ika. 

Ko E FALU A TUPUA KEHEKEHE. 

57. Kua fanau mai e Tali-mai-nuku e tau tagata fofo mena. Ke 
vehevehe ni, kua nofo falu ke he tahi, ko e faoa ni a Huanaki ; ka e 
nofo e falu i uta, kua totolo e falu, ka e lele e falu i a lautolu. Ne 
tupu ai a Puga he magafaoa ia. 

58. Ko Toli-o-atua, ko ia ne fanau e kaiha. Ko Nifo-taha mo 
Kai-haga mo Kai-hamulu mo Ate-lapa, ko e kule ia. Mo Tilalo- 
fonua, ko e kuma ia ne fofo e Peka e tau tapakau ; ti fa kaiha ai foki 
e falu a veheveheaga he tau tagata. 

59. Ko Tali-mai-nuku, ne nofo ai a ia i Tautu ; ko ia foki ne 
fanau a Fakatafe-tau mo Fakalagalaga, ko e tau takitaki a laua he 
ian gahua ke tau. 



98 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

58. Toli-o-atua was he who gave birth to thieves : — Nifo-taha» 
Eai-haga, Kai-hamulu, Ate-lapa (who was a kule, i.e., Porphrio bird), 
Tilalo-fonua (who was a rat, whose wings were stolen by Peka), 
and some divisions of them became fish. 

59. Tali-mai-nuku lived at Tautu, and he gave birth to Fakatafe- 
tan and Fakalagalaga, who are the leaders in works of war. 

HiNA-HELE-KI-FATA. 

60. She was the beloved child of Hina, the chief, who dwells 
in the second heaven. The heavens were (at one time) very low, 
causing men of the earth to crawl ; they rested on the tops of the 
Pia (or arrow-root plant), and the Tavahi-kaku tree. So Maui thrust 
up the heavens — one of his feet was at Tuapa, the other near Ali-utu ; 
it is seven miles and a bit between v^rhere his two feet stood ; there are 
two depressions in the rocks where the soles of Maui's feet stood, 
down to this day.* 

61. Hina sent down her beloved child to bring up some fire from 
the first heavens below, which was with the Chief Moko-fulu-fulu.t 
Moko-fulu-fulu gave her some fire which went oat very quickly. She 
returned for more, and that went out also. Again she returned, and 
then Moko fulu-fulu presented his head to her that she might clean it 
of insects. Then he seized this t'ipu woman and did evil unto her. She 
ascended to her parent, who took her by the legs and with a loholoho, or 
stem of the coco-nut leaf, beat her daughter. 

62. The daughter cried bitterly and flod, finally resting by the 
side of a stream and the sea. She cried out to the birds and the creeping 
things, and the fish. Some fish came to her, and she sang to them, 

thus : — 

If there swims a fish with kind iDtent, 
Let it swim hither to me. 
If there comes a fish of savaj-^e nature 
Let it swim awa}' from here. 

68. Many fish came, and she asked of each : '* What do you come 
for ?" The fish replied, ** I come to bring my body that you may 
mark it." So she marked their bodies, some striped, some spotted, 
some rod, some white, some black. Then came a Lakua (Bointo) with 
laughter and . . . . ? gazing on Hina-hele-ki-fata. She took 
him and placed him before her. After this came the shark, of whom 
she asked, " What do you come for ?" ** I came to bring a tooth to 
shave your head !" At this Hina was angry ; she stood up and 
debased the shark. 

*One of these depressions is on the track from Alofi to Ali-utu. It i8 some 
what like a foot made in the coral rock* ahout eighteen inches long. 

tMoko-falu-fulu is the name (Moko huruhuru) of one of the Maori gods 
of Sorcery. 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAI. 99 

HiNA-HELE-KI-FATA. 

60. Ko Hina-hele-ki-fata, ko e tama fakabelehele la a Patu Hina, 
kaa nofo he lagi tna-ua. Ko e mena tokolalo e lagi ia ne fakatoloiolo 
e tau tagata he toko-lalo, ti hili he tapunu he Pia mo e Tavahi-kaku, 
ti toko e Maui ; ne tu taha hui i Tuapa, ka e tu e taha i Ali-utu, ne 
fitu e maila mo e maga e mamao he tau hui ua na ; ko e pokopoko ua 
e aloalo-hui a Maui ke he maka he kelekele ke hoko mai he aho nai. 

61. Ne fakafano hifo e Hina e tama fakahelehele ke uta afi ke he 
lagi tua-taha, i lalo, ke he patu ko Moko-fulufulu. Ti age e Moko- 
folofulu e tau ail mate vave ma Hina-hele-ki-fata. Kua fano, ti 
mate he puhala ne fano ai — nakai hoko ki a Hina. Ti liu foki, ti 
mate foki e afi ia. Ti liu foki, ti age e Moko-fulufulu e ulu hana ke 
faala e tau kutu, ati tapaki e ia e fifine tapu mo e fakakelea e fifine. 
Kaa hake ke he matua ; kua toto e tau hui he tama, ti ta mai e ia e 
loholoho niu ne tau ai e tau fua mo e fahi e tama. 

62. Kua tagi lahi e tama mo e hola, kua nofo e tapa he vailele mo 

e tahi. Kua tagi atu ke he tau manu-lele, mo e tau manu-totolo, mo e 

iau ika. Kua o mai e tau ika ki a ia ; ti lologo atu e ia, pehe : — 

Ka hau ha ika lele totonu, 
Kia tele mai ki hinai, 
Ka hau ha ika ne tele favale, 
Kia tele atu i hinai. 

63. Eua o mai e tau ika loga, ati ui atu e ia. '' Ko e hau a koe 
ke ha?" Ti vagahau atu e ika, ** Kua hau au ke ta mai he tino ke 
tohi e koe !" Ati tohi e ia e tau tino ha lautolu, kua ivaiva mo e 
ilaila, kua kula, mo e mata-ono atu ki a Hina-hele-ki-fata. Ti ta mai 
e ia mo e tuku he mua hana. Kua hau e mago, kua ui atu e fihne, 
*' Ko e hau a koe ke ha ?*' Ti pehe, *' Ne hau au ke ta mai he nifo 
ke hifi aki e ulu hau." Ti ita e fifine mo e tu hake, ti mimi atu ke 
he tino he mango. 

64. Kua hau fakamui e Fonu, ha ne kakau mai ko e fakahikuaga 
ia he tau ika. Ne huhu atu a Hina, '* Ko e hau a koe ke ha ?" Ti 
vagahau age e Fonu, ** Kua hau au ke ta mai he na una ke tau aki 
ho na penapena." Ati nava atu e fifine ki a ia ; kua hifo mo e heke 
ai he tua hana. Ko e tau fua-niu e oho ko e hifo ne fai. Kua 
vagahau age e Fonu, '* Ka inu e niu, ti ui mai, to fakakite e au 
taha mena ke fela ai ke kai ai koe." Kua inu e Hina-hele-ki-fata, kua 
maha ; ti nakai ui age ko e fe e mena ke fela ai e fua-niu, ka e toto 
e ia ti fela fakalahi ke he tumuaki-ulu he Fonu, ati omoi hifo e ulu 
he Fonu ki loto mo e fakamemege he mamahi, ati ulu-tomo ai e 
Fonu ke hoko mai ke he aho nai. 

Ko FOLAHAU. 

65. Ko e fifine ne higoa ko Folahau, kua nofo a la he tumuaki he 
lagi tua-taha, ko Tuku-ofe e higoa e tumuaki founa ia. Ko e fifine 



100 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

6i. Last of all came the turtle. Hina asked, ** What do you come 
for?" The turtle replied, **I came to bring some tortoise shell 
to suspeml in your curls." The woman praised him; she descended 
and got on to his back. Some coco-nuts wore taken as food for 
her projectod voyage. The turtle said, ** AVhen you want to drink one 
of the coco-nuts, tell me, and 1 will show j*ou something on which 
to open it." (Presently) Hina drank, and emptied the coco-nut, but 
she never asked the turtle what to open it on, but broke it open on the 
top of the head of the turtle. The turtle withdrew his head within 
his shell and contracted it with the pain, and so the turtle withdraws 
his head within his shell to this day. 

FOLAHAU. 

65. There was a woman named Folahau who dwelt at the "Crown 
of the first heaven," the name of that land is Tuku-ofe. She was 
a woman accomplished in the beating of hinptt (bark cloth). When 
she was preparing the hiopn, there was no water to enable her to peel 
the rods, and the sun ever set before her task was done, besides she was 
consumed by thirst— for the land was very dry with drought. 
She sung and prayed to the birds and beasts, but they gave her 
no water. She also bogged of the fishes, and the sea where are 
the waters. Then the earth shook with a great earthquake, and 
her body trembled, whilst the waters came up and boiled over ; it came 
right up to where Folahau was sitting, and where the hiapos were lying 
at her feet. She was overwhelmed with the water; she drank at once, 
because* of her great thirst, but she never gave thanks to them 
(who cause the water to rise), nor blessed them for the water that 
sprung up. 

6G. That is the reason why the waters return to the very 
bottom (of the chasms), nor are they able to tlow and water the 
different parts of Niue Island. These kinds of waters are used at 
Paluki, at Liku, and some at Alofi, for preparing the arrowroot, but 
they (the chasms) empty quickly, because Folahau ignorantly drank, 
without lirst praying and giving thanks for them. These waters 
are superior in sweetness down to this day- those that return l>elow 
but do not flow. 

(Most of the fresh water in Niue is obtained from deep holes and 
chasms. In some, the water rises aiul falls with the tide, though 
the surface may be eighty to one hundred feet above tide level). 

GlNl-FALE. 

67. There was a woman named (vini-fale, often also called Mata- 
gini-fale, who was very expert in printing hinpo. She (once) sat by the 
side of the sea, making the patterns on the hiapo with a shell, some of 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUEFEKAI. 101 

tufuga ke tutu hiapo ; ne tauteute e ia e tau hiapo, ti nakai fai vai ke 
una aki ha kua to e tau la, ko e mate foki a ia he fia inu — kua mago- 
mago lahi ni e kelekele. Kua lologo a ia mo e liogi atu ke he tau 
manu-lele mo e tau manu-totolo, nakai ta mai e lautolu ha vai. Kua 
ole atu ke he tau ika mo e tahi ne tokai e tau vai. Kua galulu tuai e 
kelekele ke he mafuike, ati vivi ai hana tino, mo e pa hake e vai mo e 
pu&pua, kua lele atu ke he nofoaga a Folahau, mo e tau hiapo kua 
tokai he hana a tau hui. Kua lofia he vai ; ti oho atu a Folahau mo e 
inu vave, ha ko e fia inu lahi. Nakai fakaaue atu a ia ki a lautolu, 
mo e fakamonu atu ke he vai kua puna. 

66. Ko e mena ia ne liu ai e vai hala-toka, nakai maeke he lele 
atu mo e tafe ai ke he tau fahi he motu ko Nine. Ko e vai e ne fa 
no ai e tau pia he faoa i Paluki mo Liku mo e falu mai i Alofi, ka e fa 
maha vave ni, ha kua inu gofua e Folahau, nakai liogi mo e fakaaue 
ki ai. Ka e mua ni e vai he humelie ke hoko mai he aho nai, ko e vai 
ne liu hifo nakai lele atu. 

GiNI-FALB. 

67. Ko e fifine ne higoa ko Gini-fale ne fa ui foki ko Mata-gini- 
fale, ko e fifine tufuga a ia ke helehele hiapo. Kua nofo a ia he tapa 
he tahi mo e helehele fakakupukupu e tau hiapo ke he fohi ; ne tuku 
e falu a fohi ke he mapua he felevehi ka e gahua e falu. Ne hau e 
Taufua mo e ulo hake e tau pokoihu mo e ta hana tapakau ke he 
kill moana. Kua amuamu hifo a Gini-fale mo e va hifo, *' Taufua 
olu pekepeke ! taufilei, taufilei !*' 

68. Kua lagona e Taufua ati ita mo e hake tatao hake ha ne hifo 
a Gini-fale ke fagota he uluulu. Ne hagatua atu ke he moana, kua 
fakaolo mai e lima, ko e vaha loa e tapakau, kape aki e fifine, ti 
hapini he hana finefine, ti puku he hana gutu, ti fofolo atu ke he 
manava. 

69. Kua hola e ika-lahi ke he toka hokulo ; kua moui a Gini-fale 
i loto he ika ; ti mau atu e ia e fohi helehele tutu hana, ha ne toka he 
mapua felevehi, ne toto mai he hana lima, ti hele aki e ia e manava 
he ika. Kua mamahi e ika, ati mioi a ia mo e hola-fano, kua go 
fano e fatu ke he tau maka, ka e gahua e Gini-fale ke hele. Ti pe ke 
he motu ne higoa ko e Toga. Kua mahe tuai e fatu he Taufua ki 
fafo ; ati hu mai a Gini-fale mo e hake ke he motu; ti nofo ai mo e 
fakalala ai ke he la ha kua lahi e makalili. 

70. Kua hifo mai e tau tagata he motu, ti moua e lautolu e fifine ; 
kua uta e lautolu a ia mo e taute mo e leveki. Ko e fifine mitaki a 
Oini-fale ; kua hoana he taha iki he motu a ia. Kua fatu e fifine ti 
tagi mau e tane he tau aho oti. Ti huhu a Gini-fale, '' Ko e ha ne 
tagi ai a koe?" Ti pehe e tane, *' Kua tagi au i a koe, he tama i 
lotol" Ha ko e mahani he motu ke Ihi e manava to ta mai e tama, 

8 



102 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

which 5:hells she had in the recepticle of her girdle, others she used in 
her work. There came a whale, who hlew out his nostrils, and strook 
his fins ou the surface of the ocean. Gini-fale derided and mocked 
him, saying, " Whale with the rough head ! taufilei I tauHlei ! " 

68. When the whale heard this he was angry, and drew near and 
hid when Gini-fale came dowh to fish on the reef. When she turned 
away from the sea the whale stretched out his limb (the long fin) and 
seized the woman, carried her in his fins, put her into his mouth, and 
swallowed her, right down to his belly. 

69. The great fish made off to the depths of the ocean, bat 
Gini-fale remained alive within it. She took from her garment one of 
the shells she had for marking the hiapo and cut the belly of the fish. 
The fish felt the pain and writhed, and went ofif rapidly to some rocks 
where he rubbed his belly, whilst Gini-fale continued to cut, and 
the whale was stranded on an island called Toga. The whale's belly 
was cut open, and then Gini-fale came forth and went ashore, where 
she sat and warmed herself in the sun, because the cold was great. 

70. The people of the island came down and found the woman 
whom they took and cared for. She was a handsome woman 
was Gini-fale, and a certain chief of the island took her to wife. 
When the woman became pregnant, the husband used to cry every 
day. Gini-fale asked him, **What do you cry for?" The husband 
said, ** I am crying on your account, because of your child." It was 
the custom of that island to split open the belly and then take the 
child out, but the mother died. This was the reason Lei-pua was 
so sorry. Gini-fale said, ** thou I I will show you the way the child 
shall come (be born)." 

71. When the child was born it was a male, and they called 
its name Mutalau. When he had grown up he learnt that his moUier 
came from Motu-te-fua (NiuC), and he desired much to return to 
his mother's home. 

(For paragraphs Nos. 72 to 77, see Part IV. hereof)."^ 

The Albinoes. 

78. There was a woman who came up from ** The Lost Land,** 
Popo-efu was her name, of the family of Momole, who dwelt pleasantly 
in their country. When the first and second nights after the fuU 
round moon came, and between then and the now moon, they 
constantly came to the (this) island to fetch food, and returned before 
dayliglit. Often the men (tritul to) seize lier, because she was a fair- 
skinned wonum. but she could not be e«iu«;ht, lirr U>dy was so slippery. 
So Tu-Mouiole made a net, and with it stoppeci up the way by which 

'Page 6, Vol. xii J.i'.H. 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAI. 108 

ka e mate e matua. Eo e mena ia ne momoko lahi ai a Lei-pua. 
Kua tala age a Gini-fale na, '' A koe I to fakakite e au e hala ke hau 
ai e tama.*' 

71. Eua hoko ke he fanauaga he tama, ko e tama tane, ti ui e 
laua e higoa ko Mutalau. Ne lahi e tama ti iloa e ia ko e matua 
fifine hana kua hau i Motu-te-fua. At ikolo ai ke liu ke he kaina he 
hana^natua fifine. 

Eo Mutalau mo Matuku-hifi. 

72. Eo Tihamau, ko e iki a ia he Nuku-tu-taha ; kua ta hana fale- 
lahi i Hapuga mo Faofao, ko e maga ia he Ulu-lauta he Mata-fonua 
he Lelego-atua. Eo e patu a ia he mals i Fana-kava-tala mo Tia-tele, 
ti hifo ke he fale maka ne ta he tau hui a Huanaki i Vaihoko ; ko e 
P^tu-iki mua ia he motu ko Niue-fekai. 

78. Eo Matuku-hifi, ko e hagai a ia a Tihamau ; ko ia ne nofo ke 
pa e gutuhala ke he tau Toga, neke fofo e motu ha laua. Eua nofo a 
ia he maka tokoluga i Makatau-kakala, ko e Oneone-pata i Avatele. 
Ne taute e ia e tau mahina-alili ne falo he hiapo, ke hoko ke he pouli, 
ti falanaki a ia ke he nofoa, ko e maka ne falanaki ai hana tua ke 
hagao atu ke he moana ; kua pipi ai e tau mahina-alili ke he mata 
hana, ti hina, tuga e tagata ne ala hana tau mata, ti mohe-popo a ia, 
to hoko ke he aho. 

74. Eo e vaha ia ne foli ai a Mutalau ke hau ke he hana motu, ka 
e leoleo ni e Matuku-hifi, kua uka ni a Mutalau ke hau, kua fa ala 
mau a Matuku-hifi. Ne toka e Mutalau e magaaho afiafi ne fa hau 
ai, ka e hau tuai ne fai he pale e la, ko e fanoga ia a Matuku-hifi ke 
gahua ai, kua hiki e Mutalau e vaka hana i Tioafa, ka e totolo niai 
tatao e nofoaga a Matuku-hifi ko e ha e tagata ia. 

75. Eua hoko e magaaho ne hau ai a Matuku-hifi ke nofo he nofoaga, 
ti fano ne fai ta mai e afi mo e vetevete ti tahake mo e pipi he hana 
mata, ti nofo he hana nofoa-maka. Ne kitia e Mutalau, ko e fakatai 
noa ; ne leo atu a ia ato mohe-popo a Matuku-hifi, ti fua a ia he akau- 
toa mo e hake he puhala-tu, ati fakalau aki mo e ta ke he ulu a Ma- 
tuku-hifi, kua motu pu ai, ti lauia ai mo e nofoa-maka, kua motuhia atu 
mo e maka. Eo e mateaga ia a Matuku-hifi. 

76. Ne hake a ia, ti feleveia mo Tihamau i Vaono, ko Mala-fati 
ia, ko e maga i Lakepa mo Liku. Ti fetoko ai a laua he iki, he huhu 
e Mutalau, ti vili ai e laua e tau mui-akau ke he maka. Eua nofo a 
Mutalau i Vai-goha, ko e kaina a Huanaki. 

77. Eo Lepo-ka-fatu, mo Lepo-ka-nifo, ko e fanau tane haia a 
Matuku-hifi, ne ikiiki a laua he vaha ne mate ai e matua ha laua ; 
kua lalahi e fanau, ti huhu ne fai ko hai e matua ha laua. Ti tala 
age e faoa, '^ Eo Matuku-hifi e matua ha mua ; kua mate ni he keli 
e Mutalau, ha ne nofo i Ulu-lauta.*' Ti kolo tau e tau fanau mo e 



104 JOORNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

ghe came, then she was caught by the net of Tulaga-momole who made 
her his wife. 

79. The woman prayed that she might be allowed to go to her own 
country. She gave birth to a child who was an Albino. This is how 
the Albinoes originated at Niue, but their eyes are dazzled and are not 
good in the light of the sun, hence the eyes of the white Albinoes that 
grew up in Niue-fekai are mostly shut and blink quickly. ^ 

The Reflecting Water at Tuo. 

80. Lelego-atua was left at Tuo, as a reflection (looking-glass) on 
a white stone. It was the custom of the Tupuas, of all parts of NiuS, 
to assemble there, at the spring to reflect their faces and bodies 
therein. The water fills the white stone ; when it reflects darkly and 
not clearly, the sides are painted with charcoal and then it shines and 
reflects admirably ; and there the people dressed their hair and blackened 
themselves (as in war). This place is at Ulu-lauta, near Mutalau, 
This is the song in reference thereto : — 

1. Proceed, descend to Tao 

To look at thyself in the spring, 
And there unloosen thy tresses, — 
Thy tresses that are unfastened 
Thy tresses that are unfastened. 

2. The shell ornament of Poi-ulu, 
That was stolen by Mala-kai, 
Go then, right down to Tuo, 

Down, to look at thyself in the spring, 
And return again with a fair skin. 

8. The angry and mischievous family 

Have destroyed my preserved Tiale flowers. 

Marked to gather to-morrow 

Thou bus taken the best, 

And left nothing but twigs to gather. 

4. Then go down the road at Vai-Kele, 
Gather the fine Tiale there. 
Only twigs of preserved Tiale 
Are left to gather to morrow, 
For thou has taken the best. 

Fakahoko. 

81. Lua-tupua was a woman who lived at Ava-tele, probably she 
was the wife of Fakahoko, one of the family of Ave who came up from 
Motu — Fakahoko, Luatupua, Lua-fakakana, Lua-totolo, and Lua. 
Tagaloatatai, Tagaloa-fakaolo, Tagaloa-fafao, and Tagaloa-motumotu 
were the Tupuas who ruled at Ava-telo an.i who wished to destroy the 
sands (iKMioh), whicli were lost in thr in'oan. Whon tho clouds denot- 
ing a gale arc seen, then follows tlu* wind which blows and causes the 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAI. 105 

fakaako tau. Ti hake a laua mo e tamate a Mutalau. Ko e 
kamataaga ia he tan i Nine, ke hoko mai a Peni-ainina, a Toimata mo 
Paulo ke ta mai e kupu a Jesu ke vete aki e tau ke toka, ko hoko mai 
he aho nai. 

Ko E TAU MAHELE. 

78. Ko e fifine ne hake mai he fonua-galo i lalo, ko Popoefu hana 
higoa, ko e faoa a Momole ne mitiki a lautolu he nonofo he motu ha 
lautolu. Ka hoko e pouli-taha mo e pouli-ua he kau lapalapa e 
mahina-kau mo e vahega ke pula mui e mahina, ne fa hau ai ke he 
motu ke uta oho, ti liu hifo, ai nofo ke aho ; ti fa tapaki he tau tagata, 
ba ko e fifine moka a ia ne tapaki, ai mau he momole e tino. Ne tia 
e Tu-momole e kupega, ti alai e hala ne fa hifo ai a ia, kua hola, ti 
puto ai he kupega, kua moua tuai e Tuiaga-momole e fifine, Ti hoana 
e ia. 

79. Ne ole age e fifine ke toka a ia ke fano mo e (? ke he) motu 
hana ; kua fatu e fifine, ti fanau mai e tama ko e mahele ; ko e mena 
ia ne tupu ai e tau mahele i Niue, ka e mata-hegihegi a tau mata, ai 
lata mo e maama e la, ko e mena ia ne fa mohemohe ai e tau mata 
mo e kemokerao fakaave e tau fofoga he tau mahele hina ka tupu i 
Niue-fekai. 

Ko B VAI-FAKAATA I TuO. 

80. Ko Lelego-atua, kua toka ia i Tuo, ti tokai mo e fakaata he 
maka hina. Ne mahani ke tolo ki ai e tau tupua oti he tau fahi i Niue ; 
ti o atu ke he puna ke fakaata hifo hana mata mo e kitekite ai ke he 
hana tino oti. Ko e vai ne puke hake he maka-hina ; ka ata pouli mo 
e nakai maama e puna, ti vali aki e tau malala e tau fahi ne tokai e 
vai, ti mua ni he kikila luo e ata mitaki ke he tino tagata ; ti taute e 
ulu mo e hamo ai a ia. Kua toka ia ke he Ulu-lauta i Mutalau. Ko 
e lologo nai ki ai : — 

1 Haele ke hifo leva ki Tuo 
Ke fakaata ke he puna. 
Mo e vetevete ai ho lagi, 
Ho Ifigi kua tafuke 

Ho lagi kua tafuke. 

2 Ko e monomoDO a Poi-ulu 
Ne kaiha mai e Mala-kai, 
Haele ke hifo leva ki Tuo. 

Ke hifo ke fakaata ke he puna 
Ti hake mai kua kili-mokamoka. 

3 Fanau vale ti matahavala 
Tau moumou haku goto fakatu 
Fakatu ke tau he pogipogi 
Kua tau mua tukua e koe 

Tau pili tugi e tiale. 



106 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

waves on the surface of the ocean. When the canoes are dragged down 
at Nuku-lafalafa, very often they are destroyed at the point Tepa, but 
some escape with difficulty. Those who see and are accustomed io 
Faka-hoko when he is angry, and stretches out the evil signs in his 
sky, exert themselves to flee to Ava-tele at once. If they despise the 
signs their canoes are seized, drawn away and destroyed. It is thus 
even unto this day. 

82. Great is the abundance of fish off that point (Tepa). A 
cartain chief named Foufou, composed a song when following the fish, 
to take them to a feast at Paluki, when Galiaga was annointed as king. 
The king was annointed by the chief named Mohe-lagi, at Tama-ha- 
leleka, Liku. 

(For the song, see the original : it contains several words unknown 
to me.) 

Tau-piti-pa. 

88. There was a woman named Tau-fiti-pa who was preparing 
arrowroot in the cave at Vai-huetu ; she was followed up by a company 
of people to take her arrowroot away. But Tau-fiti-pa prayed to her 
god, Maka-poe-lagi, to disclose to her a way of escape. The company 
had occupied the way into the chasm by which she came. Then Maka- 
poe-lagi split open the rock through which she escaped to the cliff-top 
inland, and then she fled, for she lived, and took with her her arrow- 
root. Folo-hoi and the others waited a long time, but Pae-lagi had 
taken the woman to Vai-huetu. This is an arrowroot scraping cave 
between Hiola and Tautu. 

Thb Kings. 

84. 1. Tihamaa, was the first king. 

2. Pnni-mata. 

3. Patua-valu. 

4. Foki-mata 

5. Galiaga 

(). Fakana-iki) Thet^fc two kinqs wore not annointed (oecepted) 

7. Hetalaga j by the whole inland. 

8. Pakieto 

The kings were often killed, and kings of Niuc-fekai were not 
descendants of kings, but they were of tlio families of the conquerors in 
each generation, and often the island was without kings whilst they 
were fighting al>out it. The last king, Pakieto, was of Tamalagau, but 
then they turned to fighting to decide who should be king. The people 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAI, 107 

4 Ti o hifo he hala i Vali-kelo 
Tau atu he tiale lahi ia, 
Tau pili tugi e tiale 
Goto fakatu, ko tau he po^ipogi 
Kua tail miia tukua e koe. 

Ko FAKilHOKO. 

81. Ko Lua-tupua ko e fifine ne nofo i Avatele, liga ko e hoana a 
Fakahoko, ko e taha ia he faoa toko-lima ne o hake i Motu — ko 
Fakahoko, ko Lua-tupua, ko Lua-fakakana, ko Lua-totolo, ko Lua. Ko 
Tagaloa-tatai, ko Tap^aloa-fakaolo, ko Tagaloa-fafao, ko Tagaloa- 
motumotu. Ko e ulu tupua kua pule i Avatele, ka loto ke moumou 
e oneone, ti galo oti ia ke he moana. Ka tu hake e hokohoko-lagi, 
ii fale ne fai e matagi, kua agi mo e tafe lahi e kili raoana. Ha ne 
toho hifo e tau vaka ke he Nuku-lafalafa ti fa mamate ai e tau folau 
he mata i Tepa, ka e haohao-fetamakina e falu. Ko lautolu ne 
mahani mo e kitia a Fakahoko kua vale mo e fakaoloolo hake hana 
tau afoafo-lagi, ti eke-taha ke fehola ki Avatele. Ka fakateaga, ti 
moua mo e toho mo e moumou ha lautolu a tau vaka. Ne pihia 
agaia ke hoko mai ke he aho nai. 

82. Kua mua e mata ia he muhu ika. Ne uhu ai e taha patu ne 

higoa ia Foufou e lologo he tutuli ika ke o hake ke he toloaga i Paluki 

ke koukou i a Galiaga mo Patu-iki. Ko e iki ia ne koukou he patu 

i Tama-ha-leleka, Liku, ko Mohelagi : — 

Tepa, mo e Nuku-lafalafa 
Kau falanaki ai, 
Vete i luga to vete i lalo, 
Lauta he aho ka hake mai, 
Na mata tiale o Avatele 
Moku fofola ke he iki e. 
Talu vete aki e foto e (?he) iki 
Ke mafola i Paluki, ke mafola. 
To muhn iloa, to muhu iloa 
Kua taha haku ola Pala 
Ua aki haku ola kiega 
Mo tag! e lau ki Paluki e. 

Ko Tau-fiti-pa. 
88. Ko e fifine ne higoa i a Tau-fiti-pa, ne tuhoi he ana i Vai- 
huetu ; ne tutuli e kau ke fofo e tuhoi ; ti liogi atu a Tau-fiti-pa ke 
he atua hana, ko Maka-poe-lagi, ke fakakite taha hala ke hao ai a ia. 
Kua alai he kau e hala he inaihi ne hau ai a ia. Ti Ihi e Maka-poe- 
lagi e maka, ti pu atu ke he feutu i uta, ti hola a Tau-fiti-pa, kua 
moui. Ti uta hana tau mena kai. Kua talali a Folo-hoi mo e hana 
faoa ati noa ka kua uta e Pae-lagi e fifine ki Vai-huetu. Ko e ana 
kaihoi ia ne toka he vaha loto i Hiola mo Tautu. 

84. Ko E TAU Patu-iki. 

1. Tihamau, ko e iki faknmua a ia 

2. Pnnimata 

3. Patuavalu 



108 



JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 



of Mutalau hoped they would be able to set up a king for the whole 
island ; whilst they were choosing one, they were preparing for war» 
against all the other divisions who were ready to fight about it, but 
found it difficult. 

85. This was in 1846, but Paulo (the Samoan teacher) came in 
1849. The island had been (previously) served by Peniamina and 
Toi-mata ; the brethren at Mutalau, of Toi-mata, expelled him — sent 
him to sea in a canoe — because he often took the wives of the brethren. 
The island was nearly ruined through Toi-mata. A whale ship came 
to Vai-tafe and Toi-mata and his relatives boarded it, and Toi-mata 
went to Samoa in that ship, where was Peniamina, and the missionaries 
appointed these two to bring a mission-ship to Mutalau, to the village 
of Toi-mata, because these missionaries thought the Mutalau people 
would conquer, as they had often conquered in former times at Ava- 
tele, Alofi, Makefu, and Tama-hatokula. Peniamina was a man of 
Makefu. They landed at Ulu-vehi, and Toi-mata swam ashore whilst 
Peniamina stayed in the boat ; the brethern of Toi-mata came down 
and there was much simulated fighting (as was the custom on the 
return of the absent), after which there was a great crying. 

86. The warriors and Toi-mata consulted ivith the object of 
making Peniamina a leader of Mutalau. These are their names : — 



Kili-mafiti 


Lagi-moto 


Lau-Mahina 


Fulun 


Kalipa-he-mata 


Togaiki 


Vihe-kula 


AhO'tau 


Ligatoa 


Lagi-likoliko 


Makaea 


Iki-mahina 


Fakalaga-toa 


Punua-togia 


Mata-kaitoa 


Fakapa-tau 


Lau-ke-he-kula 


Tau-fakaoti 


>rale-ono 


Hekau 


Iki-matagi 


Httke-atu-motu 


Toko-lagi 


Palaa 


Kai-kava 


Oolo-toa 


Mata-ihu 


Kalala 


Tangaloa-holo 


PaUkola 


Tama-talule 


Koukoaiki 


Maka-toa 


Huaga 


Huna-tau 


He-gutu 


Ulu-ke-he-Ua 


Pa-ika-taa 


Ta-toa 


Fati-kieto 


Teitai-tau 


Haml-tan 


La-mouga 


Iki-fitu 


Tafaki 


Foe-lagi 


Toko-Uu 


TQ-h«-h«ga 


Fataa-tau 


Fanoga-bo-mana 


Tau-faa 


Toloa 


Togia-U>-(ano 


Fakala-iki 


TafeU 


Latoa 


i^palagi 


Togia-toga 


Katogaaho 


Togia-tau 


Tobo-to* 







THE TRADITIONS OF NIUEFEKAL 



109 



4. Foki-mata 

5. Galiaga 

6. Fakana-iki ) Nakai koukou e iki tokoua na he 

7. Hetalaga f mota oti. 

8. Pakicto 

Kua fa keli ni e tau iki, ti nakai ko e iki a Niue-fekai he ohi iki, ko 
e iki ni he faoa kua kautu he tau hau oti ia, ti lahi he toka noa e 
motu, ka e haga aki tau a lautohi. Kua fakahiku he Patuiki i Tama- 
lagau ko Paki-cto, ko e haga aki tau o tau kautu a Niue to kitea ko e 
kautu fe ke fakatu e Patu-iki. Kua amaamanaki a Mutalau ko e 
fakatu ne fai e ia e Patu-iki ma e motu oti. Ha ne fifili e Patuiki ka 
e ha ne gahua ke tau. Ko e tau kautu ne hagao ke hake ke tau ki a 
lautolu, ka e uka ni. 

85. Ko e tau 1846 i a Oketopa ka e hoko mai a Paulo, 1849. Kua 
lekua e motu i a Peniamina mo Toimata; ne vega he tau mata- 
kainaga i Mutalau a Toimata ke folau ke mate, he fa fofo a 
tau hoana he tau matakainaga. Toe tote e kautu ti malona ni ki a 
lautolu i a Toi. Ne hau e vaka hoka-ika i Vai-tafe, ti tutuli e Toi- 
mata mo e matakainaga, ti fano ai a Toimata he toga ia. Kua hoko 
i Samoa ko Peniamina na ia, ti age he tau Fai-feau a Peniamina mo 
Toimata ke ta mai he vaka-lotu ki Mutalau, ke he maga a Toimata, ha 
kua fitili kautu e tau Fai-feau, he fa mahala he tau hauaga fakamua ia 
Avatele, i Aloti, i Makefu, i Tama-hato-kula. Ko e tagata Makefu a 
Peniamina, ka e ta mai e Toimata. Kua o mai i Ulu-vehi, ti kakau 
hake a Toimata ki uta, kua nofo a Peniamina he tulula. Kua o hifo 
e tau matakainaga a Toimata mo e lahi ai e tau muatau ha lautolu ; 
kua mole, ti tagi tau tau ai. 

86. Ne pulega e tau toa mo Toimata ke tahake a Peniamina mo 
akoako a (? i) Mutalau. Ko e tau higoa a lautolu hanai : — 



Kili-mafiti 

Fulaa 

Vihe-kula 

Lagi-likoliko 

Fakalaga-toa 

Fakapa-tau 

Male-ono 

Hake-ttta-motu 

Kai-kava 

Kalala 

Tama-tiilule 

Haaga 

Ulu-ke-he-tau 

Fati-kieto 

La-mouga 

Foe-lagi 

Fatua-tau 

Toloa 

Tafeta 

Togia-toga 

Toho-ioa 



Lagi-moio 

Kalipa-he-mata 

Aho-tau 

Makaea 

Puoaa-togia 

Lau-ke-he-kula 

Hekau 

Toko-lagi 

Oolo-toa 

Tagaloa-holo 

Koukou-iki 

Hunu-tau 

Pa-iku-taa 

Teitei-taa 

Iki-fitu 

Toko-tau 

Fanoga-be-mana 

Togia-to-fano 

La-toa 

Eatoga-aho 



Lau-mahina 

Toga-iki 

Liga-toa 

Iki-mahina 

Mata-kai-toa 

Taa-fakaoti 

Iki-matagi 

Palaa 

Mata-ihu 

Pala-kola 

Maka-toa 

He-gutu 

Ta-toa 

Hami-tau 

Tafaki 

Tu-he-hega 

Tau-fua 

Fakala-iki 

Papalagi 

Togia-tau 



110 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

87 These were the rulers (chiefs; of Mutalau, sixty-one in number. 
So Peniamiua was left, and Paulo came, and then they changed and 
wanted to make him king (?) ; the war parties of Nine wanted to fight 
about it, but did not do so, and then peace prevailed in Niuo, and Jesus 
ruled. 

88. Mr. Lawes came in 18G1, and Niue had peace down to 1876, 

when Niuc (again) begged for a king, and one was annointed 2nd 

March. Mataio was his name ; he died July 14th, 1887. Then Fata- 

a-iki was set up 21st November, 1888, and he died 15th January, 1896. 

After that, Togia-pule-toaki was appointed dOth June, 1898. The 

British flag was hoisted 20th April, 1900, by Mr. Basil Thompson ; 

Governor Ranfurly came in October, 1900, and ^Ir. Percy Smith. 11th 

September, 1901. 

It is Ended. 



THE HISTORY OF NIUE-FEKAI. 



Written by Mohe-ijicu, of Alofi. 

89. The historj' of the island was not in writing (formerly), but 
was retained in the minds of the wise and clear-headed. 

The growth of man is from Ava-tele, and they spread over the 
island thus : — 

(See the original where the names of the principal villages are 
recited, and the — what we may call — honorific sayings connected with 
them are given, but without the aid of the learned men of Nine, I 
hesitate to translate them, connected as they are with the gods and 
other matters.) 

Laufoli. 

90. This is the story of a certain man nametl Laufoli, who dwelt 
here until (once) there came some Tongans. When they had landed, 
they asked, ** What ha? l)een done to the Pandanus trees ?" The i)eople 
said. ** Thiir tops have lx»en cut off l>y Laufoh." lie wa.»? a warrior, 
and a great chief in his generaticui. Whin they heard this, the 
Tongan chief commanded thai Laufoli >hould go (back) with them . 
80 they went down to the nika-lukittln (said to be a double canoe), 
Laufoli took a weapon, wrnppcul up in tf-fin leaves: and the canoe 
sailed and reacheil Tonga. 

91. The Tongans sent Laufoli to cut down a banana ; so he des- 
patched one of the Tongans to fetch his wea|x>n from the canoe ; he 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUEFEKAI. Ill 

87. Ko e kautii Mutalau haia, ko e 61. Ne toka a Peniamina, ti 
hau a Paulo, ti hiki atu a lautolu ke fakatu e Patu-iki ia ma lautolu, 
ne kolo e tau kau a Nino ke tauiate, ka e nakai maeke. Ati tupu ai e 
nafola i Niue mo e kautu ai i a Jesu. 

88. Kua hoko mai a Misi Lao 1861. Kua mafola tuai a Nine- 
fekai ke hoko he tau 1876. Ti ole Patu-iki a Niue, ti fakauku ai e 
Patu-iki a Niue, ti fakauku ai e Patu-iki ma lautolu i a Mati 2, ko 
Mataio hana higoa, ti matulei he 1887, Tulai 14. Ne fakatu a Fata-a- 
iki, Novema 21, 1888, ne matulei a ia Tesemo 16, 1896. Ti fakatu 
hake a Togia-pule-toaki, Juni 80, 1898. Kua fakatu ai e matini 
Peritania Aperila 20, 1900, ko Misi Tamisone, he hoko mai a 
Kavana Lanifale, Oketopa, 1900. Ne hau a Misi Mete, 11th Sepe- 
tema, 1901. 

EUBNAIA i 



KO E TALA KI NIUE-FEKAI. 



Ko E UENA TOHI E MoHE-LAOI. 

Ko e tala ke he motu nai, ai tohi e tau tala, ka e taofi i loto he tau 
tagata iloilo mo e loto-matala. 

89. Ko e tupuaga he tau tagata, ne tupu mai i Avatele ; ti vevehe 
he tolo ke he motu nai : Hanai : — 

1. Avatele, he oneonepata, he mata-vai-hava, mo Lua-tupua. 

2. Hakupu ATUA, ko e tuaga a Fiti-ki-la, takina mai ke tu 

i luga. 
8. LiKu, fakatafetau he tuanaki noa, mo Togaliulu, he tuaga 
tafetau. 

4. Tamalaoau, male-loa, mo e fakaeteete, he pui mafua 

5. Mutalau, ko e ululauta mo e lelego atua, takina mai ke tu 

i luga Huanaki. 

6. Tama-hato-kula, mahina tu mai, he tuaga Fiti-ki-la. 

7. Uho-motu, he tu vae ua mo kiato motua. 

8. Makefu, fale-kaho-atua mo fale-kilikili, takina mai he tuaga 

vetelagi. 

9. Paluki, ko e tuaga a viko-tau mo viko-tupua. 

10. Alofi, fakaleama mo e fakalokoga he topetope, he tauaga 
folau, mo e fakahaga ki Toga, he tuaga Lage-iki. 
Ko e tau higoa haia he motu nai, ko Motu-tu-taha, mo e tau tala 
be motu, ko e tau higoa ia kua oti e tohi ai. 



112 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

went down and searched but could not find it, but brought back a 
paddle. Then Laufoli went down and withdrew the weapon from the 
te-fifi. leaves, and proceded to cut down the banana. They had in- 
serted in its centre a piece of iron'^ so he could not manage it. 
Then he tried with his left hand, and did ahn\ it, and the iron was 
separated, and the Tongans turned pale (with astonishment). 

92. Then the Tongans sent him to the tapi rai ^' so Laufoli went 
and jumped over it ; the Tongans thought he would probably be killed 
therein. 

98. The Tongans then sent him to a cave where dwelt the Toloa- 
kai-tagata (or Toloa-the-cannibal). Laufoli went there, but Toloa was 
not there, though his wife was. Laufoli asked, " Where has he gone ?* 
The woman replied, " He has been gone a long time fishing.** He 
said, ** At what time will he come ?" Said the woman, ** When 
the rain falls, and the thunder peals, he will arrive with his back load 
of human flesh.** He said, ** The man stinks !'* (i.e., the place stinks 
of rotten flesh). 

94. Toloa- kai-tagata (on his return) looked up and saw Laufoli 
sitting at his cave ; he smiled (in glee) and stepped forward, Laufoli 
struck him on the feet and cut them off, then his hands. Then Toloa 
begged that his life might be spared, and he would not return to man- 
eating. Laufoli said, " Put out you tongue !'* which Toloa did ; 
Laufoli plucked it out and burnt it. Thus died Toloa-kai-tagata, and 
the Tongans lived in safety. 

95. On the third night the Tongans appointed him to ascend 
a mountain whereon people dwelt ; so Laufoli ascended the mountain. 
They rolled down nuiny great stones, but he stood on one side and 
ascended. When the stones were small he straddle<l over them but 
ascended. He arrived (on top) and stretched out his weapon to 
the north side, the south side, to ihe east side, and the west side. 
Then the (remaining) people together begged to he spared ; so Laufoli 
left them alive. He de'^ended, and dwelt there (with ihe Tongans) 
till he was old, and marrieil the daughter of the king. He had three 
children born, and then discarded his wife. The people said, ** Exile 
him ! kill him !*' and so Laufoli returned to Nine. 

96. On his return to Niu? he dwelt at Liku. The people of 
the island assembled to gather tirowooil to burn. When the oven was 

*Lnpatoa, iroD ; but very probably the iroQ-wood, or Umi in intended, 
tl do uot know what ahu moans in thit conneotiou. 

XTapi vai is the ' sommit of the water.* but olearlj ihit it not the meaning here 
probably it meani a chasm with hot water in it--a boilinf tprinf . 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAI. 118 

Ko Lau-foli. 

90. Eo e tala hanai ke e taha tagata la, ko Lau-foli e higoa. Ne 
nofo a ia, tali mai i Toga ; ti o hake mai e tau Toga, ti pehe, *' Ko 
e eke fefe e tau fa ? '* ti tala age e tagata, '* Ko e tipi e Lau-foli ! " 
Ko e toa foki a ia, ko e iki foki he hau ia. Ti, iloa e tala na, ti puaki 
mai e iki i Toga ke fina age a Lau-foli ; ti hifo he vaka-heketolu. 
Taha e akau he hifo, fakavihi aki e lau-tefifi ; tuku he vaka, ti hoko 
hifo ki Toga. 

91. Ti fekau he tau Toga ke ta e futi ; ti fekau e Laufoli e Toga 
ke hifo ke ta mai e akau he vaka ; ne o hifo ke kumi, ai kitia, ta mai 
ni e fohe. Ti hifo a Laufoli kua aki mai mo e mumulu e tau tefifi ; 
ti aki e ia ke ta aki e futi ; kua fakauho aki e lapatoa ke he futi ia, ai 
lata. Liu aki e ia ke he lima hema, ti ahu aki e ia, ti motu pu ai e 
lapatoa, ti hinalua ai e tau Toga. 

92. Ti fekau he tau Toga ke fano ke he tapi vai, ti fano a Lau- 
foli, hopo e tapi vai, mahala e tau Toga po ke mate ai a ia ki ai. 

98. Ti fekau e tau Toga ke fano ke he ana ne nofo ai e Toloa-kai- 
tagata. Ti fano a Laufoli ki ai, ai nofo ai — ko e hoana ne nofo ai. Ne 
huhu a Lau-foli, *^ Kua fano ki fe ? '* Ti pehe e fifine, *' Kua fano 
iuai, takafaga.*' Ti pehe age a ia, '<Ka hau e magaahofe?* Ti 
pehe mai e fifine, '^ To e uha, paku e lagi ; hoko mai, tuku e kavega 
tagata.'* Ti pehe a ia '^ Ne namu e tagata ai.'* 

94. Ti haga atu e Toloa-kai-tagata ko Lau-foli ne nofo mai he ana, 
ti malimali ai a ia mo e laka atu ; ti ta e Laufoli e tau hui, ti ma- 
mutumutu e tau hui mo e tau lima. Ti ole e Toloa ke toka a ia ke 
moui, ai tuai liu kai tagata. Ti tala age a Lau-foli, *' Fakatelo la e 
alelo.*' Ti fakatelo e alelo, ti hamu mai e Lau-foli, tugi he afi ; ti 
mate ai e Toloa-kai-tagata, ti momoui e tau Toga. 

95. Po-tolu, ti kotofa ai he tau Toga ke hake ke he mouga ne nofo 
ai e tau tagata ; ti hake a Laufoli ke he mouga. Ti taveli hifohifo e 
tau maka lalahi, ti fakatitafa ai a ia, ka e hake. Ti ka tote e maka ti 
fakamamaga, ka e hake. Kua hoko ; ti uulu aki e ia e akau e fahi 
tokelau, ti uulu aki e ia e akau e fahi toga, mo e fahi uta 
mo e fahi lalo. Ti ole agataha e tau tagata ia ke toka a lautolu, 
ti toka a lautolu. Hifo ai, a nofo ai he motua, ti hoana ai a ia he 
tama he Patu-iki, ti fanau tolu e tama, ti toga he hoana a Lau-foli. 
Kua pehe e tagata, '* Paea ! fakamate ma paea! * ti hau a Lau-foli ki 
Nine nei. 

96. Ne hoko a ia ki Niue, ti nofo ai a ia i Liku. Ti tolo e motu 
fai gafi fakaka. Af u e umu, ti ai iloa he tau tagata ko e fakaafu e 
omu mo ha. Ti fakaafu e lautolu e umu, ti kotofa e ia e tau 
tagata toa ke o ke hoka e umu, ofa ono e akau ne ulu aki e umu, 
tokoua e toa, ko Vihe-kula mai Mutalau mo Kula-tca mai liakupu. 
Ti hoka e laua e umu-ti, ti ai maeke. Ti oho atu ni a Lau-foli, 



114 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

heaped up, the people did not know for what purpose it was. When 
the oven was lighted he chose the brave men to stir the oven ; the 
poles were six fathoms long, used to level the oven; there were two 
warriors — Vihe-kula, of Mutalau, and Kula-tea, of Hakupu. So they 
(tried to) stir the ti-oven, but could not do it. Up jumped Laufoli 
with a pole and levelled (the stones of) the oven, and sprung on to it, 
right into the burning oven. Then some men of Toga who came with 
him gazed at him as he rose up from the (heap ?). A red hot stone of 
the oven exploded and struck him, and it suddenly killed the man. 

97. That is the story of the warrior Laufoli, and his wonderful 
end in the burning oven, where he died. He is the ancestral source 
from which sprung Mohe-lagi, who is a son (descendant) of the family 
of Laufoli. 

98. When he came back to Nine he gave to himself the following 
names : — 

1. Togia-from-Toga. 2. Summit-of-water-from-Toga. 8. Toloa- 
from-Toga. 4. Mountain -from -Toga. 6. The heir-of-chiefs. 6. 
Tagaloa-of-the-chief. 

99. These are the songs that Laufoli composed : — 

1. How many strands shall the rop€ be twisted, 
It shall be twisted with eight strands. 

To humble the pride of the Tongans. 

(Who) would sacrifice the life of a man, 
Where will be the ending ? 

2. The banana stood with a bad (iron wood) core. 
To sacrifice the life of the man. 

Where will be the ending ? 
Where will be the ending ? 

3. (They) sent him to the brave ones. 

And the children of Toga gathered to see. 
They gathered, 

They gathered, the children of Toga. 
For n warrior indeed is this. 

4. They sent him to the chasm. 
And the Tongans gathered to soc. 

And the Tongans came to look. 
For this is u warrior indeed. 

5. They sent him next to the Toloa, 
Shaded was the sky when \w got there. 
Whilst the children of Tonga assembled 

Gathered were the Tongans. 
For this is indeed a warrior. 

6. They seat him to ascend the mountain. 
Where tiny U»ggt»d they might ho spared 
To live, 

An^i asM'mbleii the child i en o( 'i\'ii;;a. 
iiutiurtd together arv the Tong.Mi>«. 
For this ii indeed a warrior. 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAL 115 

eke mai e akau, ulu aki e ia e umu, ti hopo ni a ia ki ai, ki loto he 
umu kaka, ti mate ai a ia. Ti tanu ai he tau tagata e umu, ala malu 
e umu. Ati hahaga atu e tau tagata, ko e tagata Toga ne o mai mo 
ia ha ne fakaea mai he matahala ; ti pa mai. e maka kaka lafu he 
umu, fano lau ai he tagata ia, ti mate mogoia e tagata ia. 

97. Ko e tala haia ke he toa ko Lau-foli, he nava haia he fakahiku 
ke he umu kaka, ti mate ai a ia. Ti ko e mataohi haia ne tupu mai 
ai a Mohe-lagi, e tama haia ainei — ne tupu mai he magafaoa a 
Lau-foli. 

9b. Ti hau ai a ia ki Niue, ti ui ai e ia e tau higoa hanai : — 

1 Ko Togia-ma-toga 2 Tapi-vai-mai-toga 3 Tuloa-mai-toga 

4 Mouga-mai-toga 5 Hakeaga-iki 6 Tagaloa-ke-he-iki 

Ko e tau tala haia ke he tau higoa a Lau-foli he hau i Toga hana. 
99. Ko e tau lologo hanei ne uhu e Lau-foli : — 

1 To lilo a toua ke la fiha, 
To lilo a tona ke la ono 

Ka fakatanoa hifo ki a Toga. 
Fakalele moui tagata ia 
Tuka la ki fe ka oti — e 
Tukn la ki fe ka oti— e. 

2 Futi tu he mena tokotoko-kelea. 

Fakalele uiuui tagata ia, 
Taku la ki fe ka oti — e 
Tuka la ki fe ka oti— e. 

3 Fekouna ke fano ke he toa 
To fakaputu mai tama Toga 
To fakaputu. 

To fakaputu mai tama Toga ni, 
Ko e toa a euei. 

4 Fekouna ke fano ke he maihi 
Ti, fakaputu mai tama Toga. 

Ti, fakaputu mai tama Toga ni, 
Ko e toa a enei. 

5 Fekouna ke fano ke he Toloa 
Malumalu e lagi to hoko mai 
Ti fakaputu mai tama Toga ni. 

Ti fakaputu mai tama Toga ni 
Ko e toa a enei. 

6 Fekouna ke hake ke he mouga nei, 
Kua ole mai ke toka a lautolu 

Ke momoui. 

Ti fakaputu mai tama Tonga 
Ti fakaputu mai tama Toga ni 
Ko e toa a enei. 



116 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

100. This is the history of the kings of old, which are now 
written ahout, but it was (formerly) retained by the wise and clear- 
headed people. 

1. PuNi-MATA, the King of Nine, who was annointed at Papain, at 
Hakupu, and borne thence to Fatu-aua ; he died of old age, and 
was buried at Hopuo. For a long time, to the middle ages, but how 
many generations is not known, no other king was set up. 

2. Patua-valu. — The people assembled to appoint another king for 
the island, and Tage-lagi was proposed. Then the island assembled to 
annoint him but Tage-lagi declined, and proposed Patua-valu; he 
promised to guard him, for he was a warrior. Then Tuge-lagi annointed 
Patua-valu. He was bathed at Puato, by Tage-lagi, who then 
composeed the following song : — 

Let us uplift a stone and set it up, 

Erect it within at Puato, 

On which to annoint the King of Niue, 

Sing with spirit and gladness. 

Sing with spirit and gladness. 
Hoist up my flag, 
Let it fly in the heavens. 

Sing with spirit and gladness. 

Sing with spirit and gladness. 

Patua-valu was king, but was guarded by Tage-lagi. Patua- 
valu died first, of old age, and after him Tage-lagi. Then another 
was set up to replace the late king. 

8. Galiaga-a-iki, the king who was killed. He was bathed by 
Mohe-lagi, at Paluki, when the latter composed the song following : — 

The people have gathered at Paluki, 
To bathe the king at the platform ; 
Look not back to the Fale-una, 
But downwards to the island platform^ 
Now gathered at Paluki. 

4. FoKiMATA, the king, was annointed by Fakahe-manava at 
Paluki. He composed the following song :— 

The kamapiu shrub has grown at Tafala-mahina. 
Broken off (were it« branches) by my sister, 
And beaten uu my body to scent it. 
Sweet scented to go to Paluki, 
Iki tua loto (Wia.* 

5. Pakikto, this kin-,' did ni»t reign a yoar, and then dicnl. 

* I cauuut truiiblatv thi>. 



THE TRADITIONS OF NIUEFEKAI. 117 

100. Ko e tau tala hanei ke he tau Iki i tuai, ti tohi e tau tala ki 
ai, ka e taofi noa ni he tau tagata iloilo mo e loto-matala. Hanei : — 

1. Ko Pi:ni-mata: E Patu-iki a Niu6, ne koukou a ia i Papatea 
i Hakupu, ti tauloto hake ki Fatu-aua, ti mate he motua, ti tuku ai a 
ia i Hopuo. Ti leva, ti hoko ke he vaha loto ia, te nakai iloa ko e 
fiha hau he vaha loto ia to fakatu ai e taha. 

2. Patua-valu. Ti tolo e motu ke pulega taha tagata ko Tage-lagi 
e higoa. Ti tolo e motu ke fakauku a Tage-lagi mo Patu-iki, ti hukui 
ni e Tage-lagi ke tuku i a Patua-valu mo Patu-iki. Ti koukou ai a ia 
i Puato ; ti kouk«>u ai e Tage-lagi, ti uhu ai e ia e lologo pehe : — 

To nikiti e maka ke fakatu, 
Fakatu aki loto Puato, 
Koukou aki e Tni-Niue. 

Lologo mo fakahau leva e, 

Lologo mo fakahau leva e. 
To hake ho matini, 
Tetele he logi. 

Lologo mo fakahau leva e, 

Lologo mo fakahau leva e. 

Ko Patua-valu e Patu-iki ka e leoleo e Tage-lagi. Ti mate faka 
mua a Patua-valu he motua, ka e mate fakamui a I'age-lagi. Ti 
fakatu ai e taha ke hukui aki e Patuiki. 

8. Ko Galiaga e Patuiki ne mate he keli. Ti koukou ai e Mohe- 
lagi e Patu-iki la i Paluki ; ti uhu ai e ia e lologo, pehe : — 

Motu kua tolo ki Paluki, 

Ke koukou e Iki ke he tafua, 

Hagatua hake ki Fale-una, 

Ka e hagaao hifo ke he tafua motu, 

Kua tolo ki Paluki. 

4. Ko Fokimata e Patu-iki, ti koukou ai e Fakahe-manava i 
Paluki ti uhu ai e ia e lologa pehe. 

Kamapiu ne tu ki Tafala-mahina, 
Fati mai he haku mahakitaga, 
Haha aki taku tino ke manogi, 
Ke mauogi ke hake ki Paluki, 
Iki tua loto aula. 

5. Ko Pakieto, ko e taha Patu-iki ia, ai fai tau a ia, ti mate ni. 
Ko e tala hana ke he tau Patu-iki tuai he vaha pouli, ka ko e tau 
Patu iki he vaha liogi hanai ; kua kumi ni e motu ke he tagata kua 
lata mo e mahani mitaki, ke lata ai. Hanai : — 

6. Ko Tui-TooA e Patuiki fakamua. Ko Mati 2, 1875, ko e aho ia 
ne fakauku ai. Ti, mate ai ia Juni 18, 1887. Ko e lologo i uhu ai 
kia Tui toga, pehe : — 

Motu tolo he tauaga matini, 
Motu kua kumi ke he Iki, 
Motu e, kua kumi ke he Iki, 

9 



118 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

This is the history of the kings of old and heathen times ; but the 
following are the kings since Christianity. The island searched oat a 
man whose nature was suitable to the office. Thus : — 

6. Tui-TOGA (or Mataio) was the first king ; he was annointed 2iid 
March, 1875, and died 18th June, 1887. This was the song oompoeed 
for Tui-toga. 

Assembled are the people at the hanging flag, 

Seeking are the people for a king ; 

The island is seeking for a lord, 

Seek for a king (like) Pataa-valu, 

Who fell full ripe in years, 

Seeking are the people for a king, 

Let it be the weapon-eating lord there, 

To watch for the dreaded companies. 

Seeking are the people for a king, 

7 Fata-a-iki was the next king, who was annointed 21st November, 
1788, and died 16th January, 1896. 

8. Togia was the next king, and he was annointed ISth June, 
1898, and was in office when the Resident came to Nine, 11th 
September, 1901. 

By me Mohe-lagi, of Paluki. 

Then follows (101) a difterent version of Laufoli's song, in which 
s mentioned the tapi-vai-a/i, summit of burning water. 



FHE TRADITIONS OF NIUE-FEKAI. fl9 

Kami ke he Iki a Patua-valu 
Eo e Iki ia ne veli momoho, 
Moiu kua kunii ke he Iki, 
Ka e toko ke he Iki-kai-akaa na, 
£ lika to kau luatakuiaku, 
Motu kua kumi ke he Iki. 
Ka e toka ko he Iki-kai-akaa na, 
£ lika to kaa matakutaka, 
Mota kaa kumi ke he Iki, 

7. Ko Fata-a-iki e Patu-iki ; ne fakauku ai a ia Novema 21, 189B 
Ti mate ai a ia Tiaemo 15, 1896. 

8. Ko TooiA, e Patu-iki ; ne fakauku ai a ia Juni 13, 1898, ne 
moua he Kavana ko e Kautu Peritania, ne hoko mai a ia ke he motu 
nai, he aho 11th Sepetema, 1901. 

Ko au ko Mohelagi i Patuiki. 

Ko £ T4HA LOLOQO KI 4 LaUFOLI, HA HBNA KKHBKXHE, MAI HaKUPU. 

To filia toua aki ke la fiha, 
To iilia toua aki ke la ono, 
La OQO ke iilia ki a hai, 
La ono ke filia ki a au. 

Hoku aga moui ka pelukia 

Fakaiele moui tagata ia 

Tuku la ki fe ka oti e 

Fekauina ke hake ke he moaga 
Kua ole e mouga e fahia 
Toe taha la ka kapaea, 
Ole mai he hana fia moui 
(Bepeat chorus) 

Fekaaina ke hifo ke he Toloa, 
Malumalu he lagi to hifo ai 

(Hepeat chorus) 
Tapi vai afi kau hopo kia. 

(Repeat chorus). 




THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 



By Lieut.-Col. Gudgeon, C.M.G. 



Part III. 



NUKUTERE. 

IT must I think be conceded that this was one of the first canoes to 
brinp^ a band of emigrants to these shores ; but I do not desire 
it to be inferred that it was among the first to visit New Zealand, be- 
cause it is clear that there are many others that might properly be 
given priority. There is, however, this in favour of Nukutere that 
there is a fair amount of traditional evidence, as to the ancestors 
of those ^laori people who came therein. On the other hand most of 
the canoes, the names of which have been preserved by tradition, appear 
to have been mere visitors who passed on and left no member of their 
crew here, to hand down the memory of their name or fame. 

Tao-tu-rangi is alleged to have been the chief of Nukutere, and 
from him and his wife, Rangi-haka, are descended the ancient tribe 
once known as Te W'akanui and afterwards called Te Pane-nehu 
(the buried head), who are now represented by the \Vhakatohea of 
Opotiki. r>y the line of Tu-tamure it is now twenty seven generations 
since this cnnoe landed at Te Ko-tukutuku, near Opape, in the Bay of 
Plenty, and brought with it the god Tama-i-waho who took 
possession of the sacred place then known as Te Knpnrangi, and who 
has ever since been the tribal deity of the ^Vhakatohea. Hawiri- 
Tuahine, the ujoat learned man of the tribe in ([uestion, is of opinion 
that the followinij: persons came in Nukutere : Nga-toro-haka, Nga- 
tora-rert', Ngji-toro-ijuebu, Nga-toro-nmngo, Ngu-toru-taita, Te l*iki. 
o-te-rangi, Te Tao, and Te Matata, and he nuikes Tao-tu-rangi a son 
of Nga-toro-haka. If this be the case, then on tliis line there would 
be only twenty-thiee generations fi-oni the date of their arrival in the 
Bay of Plenty. The Ngati-Porou are also interested in this canoe, for 
it is admitted bv all that the ancestor ^Vhironui came therein, and thgt 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 121 

he was already settled at the East Cape, when Kahutia-te-rangi made 
his memorable journey to Aotea-roa on the back of his ancestral 
taaiwha Paikea, and ever after took the name of that benevolent 
monster in commemoration of the event. Paikea married a daughter 
of Whironui, Hotu-rangi by name, and became the ancestor of all the 
tribes of the East Coast. 

It seems probable that this migration was from one of the Cook 
Islands, probably Mangaia, inasmuch as it is related that when Paikea 
first met Hutu-rangi he went with her to the plantations where her 
father and his people were planting the htmara ; and there finding 
that Whironui was not conducting the very sacred ceremony in proper 
form, he took the matter out of his hands and himself finished the 
invocations, by which alone a good crop could be ensured. This cir- 
cumstance — it is said— disclosed the identity of Paikea, who was at 
once recognised as the elder branch of the family of which Whironui 
was a junior member. Now if this be the case then Whironui was a 
Cook Islander, for it is clear that all of the tribes on the East Coast of 
the north island of New Zealand, are descended from Rarotongan 
ancestors. It would seem that the great arihi Tutapu of Tahiti, con- 
ceived a dislike to his brother Tangiia, and the latter to escape death 
fied to the small island of Mauke, where he co-habited with Moetuma 
who gave birth, to a son named Motoro, and this man finally took up 
his abode on the island of Rarotonga, where he become the ancestor 
of a very numerous people. 

The following is the genealogy : — 

Tangiia. 



Te Rei Tinomana Te Upoko-tini Motoro 
at Rarotonga at Rarotonga \ 

* Uenuku Bakeiora 



Kahntia-te-rangi Ruatapu Hakiri-rangi Ira 

I I Tnhot tribes \ 

Pouheni 11 | of N.Z. Iwi 

I Tamaiwa Moenaia Hau | 

Nanaia d/'cendants decendants | Kahuogaoa 

I at Aitutaki at Mauke Niwaniwa Hawkers Bay tribes 

Porou-rangi | of N Z, 

in N.Z. East Coast Poroa-rangi 

decendnnts on 

East Coast of 

N.Z. 

From Porourangi and his brother (Tahu-potiki) have sprung all 
the tribes of the East Coast and the Middle Island. And from Ira 
have descended the Ngati-Ira and Whanau-a-Apanui of the Bay o 
Plenty, and last but by no means least, from Kahungunu come all the 
tribes from Mahia Peninsular to the Wairarapu. 



122 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

The Pane-nehu can hardly be said to exist at the present day, for 
both the Whakatohea and the Ngai-Tai have taken a leading part 
in the destruction of that people, who in the days of Tu-tamure, only 
sixteen generations ago, \Yere strong enough to make Eahungunu sue 
for peace. The only Pane-nehu now living are to be found among the 
two tribes above mentioned. Te Awanui, chief of the former counts 
twenty-six generations from Tao-tn-rangi and about twenty from 
Muriwai, who came in Mata-atna. We may therefore safely assume 
that Nukutere came here at least one hundred years before the Arawa 
migration. 

HOROUTA. 

It is probable that this canoe arrived in New Zealand about the 
same period as Nuku-tere ; at any rate it was one of the early 
Polynesian visitors to this country. Concerning this migration the 
traditions are singularly clear and reliable, for we must remember that 
six hundred and fifty years have passed since the great navigator Paoa 
brought his frail bark to these shores. 

Paoa has, of course, being deified by his descendants, and all 
sorts of impossible and absurd actions have been ascribed to him. It 
is said that Horouta first made the land in the Bay of Plenty, where 
she grounded on a shoal called ** Tukirae-o-kirikiri.*' One half of the 
crew left the stranded vessel at that place, and proceeded overland to 
Tauranga-nni-a-Rua (l^overty Bay), under the command of Paoa, Ira, 
Koneke, Te Paki, Hakutore, Awapaka, Fane-herepi," Tangi-torona, 
Mahu, and Tararoti. Those men went, it is said, in order to obtain 
timber with which to mend their canoe, while the other half under 
the chiefs Hiki-tapua and Makawa remained on board, and not only 
succeeded in getting their canoe off the reef, but also sailed into 
Poverty Bay where they picked up the remainder of the crew. 

There are many strange circumstances connected with this 
migration that require explanation, and foremost among them is this : 
that though the names of at least fifty men and women who came in 
this canoe are known, yet only three members of the crew are recog- 
nised as having descendants in New Zealand at the present day, viz., 
two children of Paoa named respectively, Hine-akua and Pairangi and 
the Tuhoe ancestor Uakiri-rangi whom, I have already mentioned. 

For this and other reasons it may he assumed that Horouta re- 
turned to Hawaiki ; indeeod the explanation will probably be found in 
one of the traditions of Upolu in the Navigator Island. In Turner's 
*' Samoa' we learn that a man named Pava — ^practically the same 

* Rakurakii, of the Ura-wora tribe, informed mc that Taue-herppi wan ttiA son 
of Motoro, niontioued above ; the son of Tangiia of Haro-tonga. Kakuraku was a 
competent authority on sucb matters. — [Editob.] 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 128 

name as Paoa — once resided at Upolu, and left that place in con- 
sequence of a quarrel with the god, Tangaroa. The method whereby 
he succeeded in leaving that island has the merit of novelty, for we 
are told that after invoking the aid of his gods, he took a leaf of a 
Taro (caladium) and sailed thence to Fiji. This feat will probably be 
regarded with respectful astonishment, or it may be that it will be even 
doubted by his half -educated descendants of the present day, who are 
no longer assisted or even protected by the gods of the Maori pantheon ; 
but after all it is no more wonderful than some of his subsequent 
performances in New Zealand, where-by a simple effort of nature he 
formed the three rivers, Wai-Paoa, Wai-apu, and Motu. Mr. Turner 
relates that after an absence of many years, Paoa — very much to the 
astonishment of his friends — returned to Upolu, bringing with him a 
son of the King of Fiji, and here he passes out of Maori history. 

Mata-whaorua. 

From two to three generations after the arrival of Horouta, there 
came the famous sea rover Kupe, who is generally credited with the 
kudos due to the discoverer of these islands. In my opinion, he is not 
entitled to any such credit, for it is beyond all question that the Ara- 
tauwhaiti and other vessels, came here long before Kupe. The only 
thmg to be said in favour of this popular tradition is, that he was 
probably the first man from his own group to visit New Zealand ; and 
as there is reason to believe that Kupe came from Raiatea, it was 
probably the tradition of his voyage that caused Turi to leave that 
island in Aotea, and the Arawa to leave Tahiti and follow in his wake. 

It does not appear that Kupe's voyage had anything to do with 
the desire to colonise. It was rather one of adventure, undertaken it 
is said, in order to recover his wife, Kura-marotini, who had been 
carried off by his own brother, Hotu-rapa. Whatever the motive of 
the voyage may have been, it is certain that the adventurous rover left 
some of his children behind him, in order to colonise the North Island, 
and from one of his daughters have descended the Mua-upoko tribe. 

Te Mamari. 

This is one of the many ancestral canoes of the Nga-Puhi, and was 
commanded by the chief Nuku-tawhiti who came here in search of a 
previous migration that had sailed under the command of Tuputupu- 
whenua. Such is the tradition as to this canoe, and but for the 
tradition, we would have been justified in supposing that Tupu was an 
autocthone, for the name signifies '< sprung from the soil." Nuku-tawhiti 
met Enpe near the North Gape and there learned from him that the 
people whom he sought were at Hokianga ; from this it would appear 
that the migration of Tiipa had preceded Kupe, but in any case the 



124 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

usual fact appears that they not only knew where they intended to 
settle, but also that Nuku-tawhiti knew where to look for those whom 
he sought. In the legendary history of almost every migration we 
find evidenee of exact knowledge, showing that the emigrants lef^ 
nothing to chance, since they acted in all cases like men who possessed 
reliable information. Even Mori-ori tradition shows that the Chatham 
group was known and occupied generations before Mihiti left the 
shores of New Zealand. 

Te Mahuhu. 

This was the canoe of the Roroa tribe of Nga-Puhi, but I 
have not been able to ascertain where it landed, or indeed any- 
thing connected with this migration ; the fact is that Nga-Puhi 
have so long been the subject of Christian experiments that ihey 
have lost all knowledge of their own history. It is possible that 
the crew of this canoe were the people whom Nuku-tawhiti sought ; 
but if so the genealogy of those who came in Mahuhu is somewhat 
short, for from the chief Whakatau to middle-aged men now living 
there are but eighteen generations. A very singular tale is told of two 
men, namely Korako-uri and Korako-tea, who were the fourth in 
descent from Whakatau. These men were, it is said, veritable 
Siamese twins, connected below the shoulders, but in all other respects 
well-formed men. It may perhaps be thought that this connection 
would have prevented independent action on the part of either, and 
have debarred them from taking part in battle ; but such was no( the 
case, for tradition describes them as very valliant men and skilful with 
their weapons. At last, however, one of the brothers was wounded 
and died, and the natural decay of his body killed the remaining twin* 
Korako-uri had a son, Ngangaua, whose grandson Murua was also a 
wizard of the very first order, as was but natural in a descendant of 
Eorako-uri ; he, it is said, possessed unusual powers of locomotion, 
and like the great tohinuja, Papahurihia could fiy through space at will/-' 

KURAHAUPO. 

Whether this canoe was or was not one of that fleet known as the 
Arawa migration, is, as I have said, a vexed question ; there can, how- 
ever, be no doubt that the same craft had previously visited New 
Zealand. The Aupouri tribe, who at one time occupied the north end 
of this island, claim that their ancestor Pou came in Kurahaupo, and 
that the canoe in question landed its living freight in Tom Bowlines 

* Mahuhu, is essentially the canoe of the Ngati-Whatua tribe of Kaipara, but 
formerly of the North Cape. When I firtt knew this tribe, forty-three years ago^ 
their old men knew a very great deal about Mahuhu, and their claim to descend 
from its crew is as well established as that of any other Maoris of N.Z.~[EittT0B.] 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 125 

Bay ; from which place the vessel was sent back to bring the remainder 
of the tribe, many of whom had been left behind at Hawaiki on 
the occasion of the first voyage by reason of the fact, that the tribe 
was too numerous to find accommodation in tlie canoe in one trip. 

Whether Eurahaupo was damaged when about to start on her 
second cruise — as stated by the Taranaki tribe — is doubtful/^ but the 
people of the Bay of Plenty have a legend to the effect, that 
when Eura-haupo had been damaged and left behind, she was repaired 
and refitted by a section of the Ngariki tribe, under their chief 
Te Hoka-a-te-rangi, and was re-named Te Bangi-matoru. The god, 
Tu-kai-te-uru, is said to have been the directing deity of the craft. As 
to who was really the chief of this canoe there is some doubt, for 
of those whose ancestors came in Bangi-matoru, some claim that 
Te Bangi-hokaia was the chief, others that Te Tangi-whakaea held 
that position. Whosoever may have been the chief matters very 
little, the interesting fact is that the tribe was Ngariki, for we are 
thereby enabled to fix with tolerable certainty the place from which 
they set out, namely, one of the islands of the Cook Group. In 
the Island of Mangaia there is still the remnant of a very ancient 
tribe, who are, and have been known as Ngariki or Ngati-Mourea, who 
are descended from Avatea (daylight) and his wife Vari (mud) through 
their son, Papa-aunaku, who landed in Mangaia from the canoe 
Maukoro some one hundred and forty generations ago. For may own 
part I do not believe that Kura-haupo and Bangi-matoru are one and 
the same canoe, for the Ngati-Euia and other tribes of the West Coast 
of the Middle Island assert not only that their ancestors came 
in Kura-haupo, but also that the canoe was lost at the entrance to the 
Mawhera (Grey) Biver, and the Taranaki, Ngati-Apa, and Ngati-Kuia 
who came in that craft certainly know nothing of Bangi-matoru. 

Tu-NUI-A-RANGI. 

This vessel is said to have been the property of the ancient tribe 
of Ngai-Tahuhu, who at one time owned all the land from the 
Auckland Peninsula, to a point about fifty miles north of Whangarei. 
These people have long been extinct as a tribe, but we have signs of 
their presence in many of the old names ; for instance, Otahuhu, which 
signifies the place of Tahuhu, was named after the founder of the 
tribe. As I have said, this tribe has long been wiped out of existence, 
but there are still a few men of almost pure Ngai-Tahuhu descent, 
namely, ihe grandchildren of Moetarau, and even the Ngati-Buangaio, 

*The Nga Rauru accouDt coofirms the Taranaki account of the partial wreck of 
this canoe at Bangi-tahna (Sunday) Island. The accoant is circomstanted, and 
from many things has strong probability in its favour. — [Editor.] 



126 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

of Whangarei, who of all men were the chief factors in the destruction 
of this ancient tribe, can claim descent from Tahuhu-nui-a-rangi. It 
is from one of this tribe, the old chief Taurau-Eukupa, that I am 
indebted for this fragment of Maori history, which differs in many 
important respects from that of any other migration of the Maori 
people; inasmuch that the narrative would seem to refer to a very 
remote period, before the existence of Aotea (New Zealand) had become 
generally known to the Polynesians. 

The tradition is to the effect, that while the Ngati-Awa and Ngai- 
Tahuhu yet lived on one of the small islands of the Pacific, the name 
of which has been forgotten, they noticed that the Euaka (curlews) 
migrated every year in a southerly direction, and that they invariably 
flew towards and returned from the same point. From these observa- 
tions the learned men of the two tribes deduced the theory that there 
was land in the direction of the curlews' flight. To settle this qne^tion, 
two canoes were built and fitted out; one for the Ngati-Awa, the 
other for Ngai-Tahuhu. The name of the first canoe was not known 
to my infoimant, but the second was called Tu-nui-a-rangi. Now 
at this particular period there were two chiefs of the Ngai-Tahuhu 
(brothers), each of whom aspired to lead the migration to the shores of 
the unknown land, and each of whom earnestly desired his brother 
to remain at home, and take charge of the women, children, and 
old peoplo, for whom there was no room in the canoe. After much 
wrancfling the elder brother, whose name was Te Kokako, consented to 
remain behind ; but when the canoes were about to sail he repented 
him of his bargain, and hid himself under the grating in the bow 
of the canoe. Here he lay concealed, and afraid to show himselfi 
even when far out at sea ; but the calls of nature at length betrayed his 
presence to those who, like himself, occupied the bow, and those 
men, angry at the deceit practistnl upon them, and at the desertion of 
the women and children by the man whose duty it was to stand 
by them even in the gates of dwiih, propostnl to throw Te Kokako over- 
board, and would have done so had they not been prevented by 
the younger brother, who occupied the place of honour in the stem of 
the canoe. In this way was Te Eokako saved from a watery grave ; 
but such is the nature of Polynesian man thnt he was not grateful, and 
bore constantly in mind the fact that thi' men in the Ik>w of the canoe 
had proposed to destroy him. On this point, however, he said nuthing, 
for in such a case he recogniM'd that ho was one against many 
and therefore silence was golden, but none the less he quietly bided hi 
time. 

The first land made was Motukokako, an island off the liay 
of Islands coast, and so called booauM' To Kokako was the first to land 
thereon nd give it his name. Fitnu this point thov sailed south 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 127 

to NguQgiiru, where the water supply of the canoe ran out, and 
tho people suflered greatly from thirst. This was the opportunity sought 
for by the recreant chief, who craftily persuaded the tribe that the surf 
ran too high to permit them to beach their canoe with safety ; but as a 
supply of water was urgently required, he volunteered for himself 
and the men of the bow, to swim on shore with the empty vessels and 
bring off a supply. This offer was readily accepted, and the swimmers 
succeeded in reaching the shore, but they ^ould find no water fit 
to drink, and were about to return with that doleful intelligence, when 
Te Eokako, having first bewitched his spear, thrust it deep into 
the sand, and as he withdrew it a spring of water gushed out, at which 
his thirsty folio ivers drank deeply, and almost immediately after fell 
and died. Then Te Kokako, having accomplished his purpose, and 
avenged the insults received from the men of the bow, returned to the 
canoe, and hiding his own share in the tragedy, persuaded his brother 
to leave the poisonous waters of Ngunguru, and move further down the 
coast. This advice was followed, and the migration sailed south 
to Whangarei where they settled, and were known as the Ngai-Tahuhu, 
until they were wiped off the roll of tribes by the Nga-Puhi, descendants 
of that Rahiri, whose father Puhi came thither in the canoe Mata- 
atua. 

The foregoing are the canoes by means of which the ancestors 
of the Maori people succeeded in colonising the islands of New Zealand ; 
but in making this statement I do not wish it to be inferred that there 
were not others engaged in the same work, for tradition has in fact 
preserved the names of many canoes which I have not yet mentioned ; 
some of which would seem to have come hither out of mere curiosity, 
and if they did rest for a while on the shores of Aotea, it was simply 
for the purpose of re-fitting the vessels in which they intended to make 
the return voyage to their homes in the Pacific. Other canoes are 
known to have contributed to the colonising of these great islands 
of the sea of Kiwa, by leaving one or more of their crew behind them ; 
and in this class, I think, we may include the 

Banoi-matoru. 

Tradition relates that this canoe entered the Bay of Obiwa, under 
the direction of the chiefs Hape and Te Bangi-whakaea, and the 
last-named is supposed to have remained in this country with a small 
tribe, who were a section of the ancient tribe of Ngariki, but of 
which Ngariki is not now known ; for there were several tribes of 
that name now almost, if not quite, extinct. The god of this clan 
was, it is said, Tu-kai-te-uru, who singularly enough was also the 
god of the Ngati-Maru of Hauraki, who are of the Tainui migration, 
and could not have been connected with Ngariki. 



128 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Of old there were Ngariki in the valley of the Waipaoa rirer 
(Poverty Bay), and also in the Piako and Lower Waikato; bat in 
neither case can they be said to exist as a tribe at the present day. 
The Ngariki, of Mangatu, on the Waipaoa river, claim descent 
from Ariki-niii, who flourished some tweuty-four generations back, but 
they know nothing of Te liangi -whakac^a, nor have I been able to trace 
a single descendant of this man, who, 1 am of opinion, was the 
ancestor of the Ngariki who are said to have perished miserably in the 
snow of the Rangipo desert, during the very early days of the occupa- 
tion of New Zealand by the Ma(;ris. My reason for coming to 
this conclusion is that the last-named Ngariki were from Whiro- 
te-tupua, who is known to be an ancestor of the people of Mang.iia/-' 
which IS also the ancient home of the Ngariki tribe, and where 
they mii^ht still be living, had they not been possesse*! of such 
inordinate ambition, that life did not appear worth living to 
them unless they were the masters and directors of that life. Not 
only did they decline to allow others to manage the affairs of Ngariki, 
but also to manage their own, and in pursuance of this idea they 
died. 

PUKA TE WaIXUI. 

According to the Arawa tra<lition this was the canoe in which 
Rua-aio crossed the great sea of Kiwa, and took possession of Maketu 
in the Bay of Plenty; for it is generally admitted that Uua-aio 
was found in occupation of that place when the Arawa crossed the bar 
of the Kai-tuna river. The tradition is to the effect that the tvro 
migrations live<l |>eaceably side by side until a quairel arose over 
a woman, l)etween Tama-tc-kapua and Rua-aio. In the struggle that 
ensued Rua-aio was worste<l and went inland, but to what place is 
not known, for it is supposeil that ho has no living descendants. 

Concerning this canoe there is a certain amount of doubt, 
for it is also said that Rua-aio followed Tama-le-kapua from Hawaiki 
in order to recover his wife, who had Uvn carried off by that man, 
and that he accomplishcil this journey alone and unaide<l, except by 
the power of his kamkia (incantations) ; or to use the corn*ct ex- 
pression, *• his canoe was the tip of hi>« tongue." 

Taiira. 

This canoe landeil at \Vhans;a-narao:», in the Bay of Plenty, aUnit 
three generations liefore the arrival of tlie .\rawa migi'ation. The 
chiefs of the canoe were Motatau uiai-tawhiti, Tauira, Rakin>a, and 
Maru-papa-nui ; the last-nameil oi these was one of the aneoNtors 

• He is also an anci-*tor of Maoris. Tnhiiian*. Hawaiian^. Aiuitakiaui*. nnil 
oiher>. — [EDrroi:. 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 120 

of the Pane-nehu tribe o! Opap^, near Opotiki, and the first-named 
was the ancestor of the tribe known as the Whanau-a-Apanui, and 
the man who had the honour to bring with him the famous heirloom, 
called Te Whatu-kura-a-Tangaroa, concerning which I have written in 
my chapter on Maori superstition." It seems probable also that the 
Tauira, here mentioned, may have been the ancestor of the tribe 
of that name that once occupied the Wairoa, near Hawke's Bay, 
and who may yet be found there in great number's but under the name 
of Kahungunu. 

Tu-TE-PEWA-WHARANGI. 

In this vessel it is said that Paikea, the great ancestor of the 
Ngati-Porou, came to New Zealand. I give the tradition for what 
it may be worth, but I cannot admit that it is true. It is of course 
possible that a man of that name may have come to these islands 
in a canoe of that name, but most certainly the Ngati-Porou Paikea 
did not. From the information I have been able to collect on this 
subject, I am of opinion that tlie true Paikea was a descendant of 
Toi-kai-rakau, and as such was born in New Zealand ; moreover 
as I shall presently show, the Ngati-Porou do not admit that their 
ancestor came in any canoe whatsoever, but that he was the Kahutia- 
te-Rangi who came to New Zealand by the aid of the Taniwha 
Paikea. I do not agree with them in this idea, for I am inclined 
to think that Kahutia and Paikea were two different men. 

Pangatoru. 
Rakei-wananga-ora was the chief of this canoe, but the crew 
are said to have remained here for a very short time and then 
sailed away into the unknown. 

Tb AKmi-A-TE-TAU. 

Tamatea-kai-ariki was the chief of these people, but beyond 
the mere name nothing is known of them. 

Haere. 
The chiefs of this canoe were Tu-ngututangata and Tungu- 
tungu. None of the crew of this vessel remained in the country. 

Araiuru. 
Of this vessel nothing is known except that Tata-i-tu was the 
chief. 

Rereanani.I 
Supposed to have landed at Whangara, and that Rongomai-tuahu 
and Pouheni were the chiefs. Clearly this tradition is not trust- 

* See also this journal vol. ii, p 234, vol iii., p 201. f Qaery Bere-anini. — [Ed.] 



180 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

worthy, inasmnch as the two men mentioned were the ohildren of 
Paikea who, as I have already said, was him'*«lf bom in New Zealand. 

Te Ruakaramea.. 

The Harawa tribe of Mangonui claim this as one of their canoefl, 
and state that it landed at or near Mangonui, and that the chiefs were 
Te Uriparaoa and Te Papawi. 

Te Waipapa. 

Another of the canoes of the Barawa that landed at Taipa 
near Mangonui, and brougbi the chiefs Kaiwhetu and Te Wairere. 

MOTUMOTU-AHI. 

Claimed as a canoe by the Nga-Rauru in which Pua-tautahi 
was the chief. This is a very doubtful canoe. 

Otu-rerk-ao. 

This vessel brought the chief Taikehu to Ohiwa, where it is 
said he foun(i Tairongo and the Uapu-oneone tribe already in 
possession. 

HiKA-l-TA. 

This was the canoe of the great Kiwa who landed at Turanga, and 
his descendants inter-marrying with those of Paoa, produced all the 
tribes of Poverty Bay. 



( To he continued ) 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[161] The Place of Departed Spirits. 

In notes 149 and 155 reference was made to the place that spirits were 
supposed to take their final departure from, according to the belief of the 
Hawaiians, Maoris and Morioris. We have received a copy of the Christmas 
number of the " Western Pacific Herald," published by Alport Barker, Victoria 
Parade, Suva, Fiji, a paper admirably printed and abundantly illustrated, and 
which is full of interesting traditions of the Fijians, from beginning to end. 
Amongst them we find the following which bears on tbe subject of this note, and 
shows the Fijian belief to be identical with so many branches of the Polynesians : 
"• The natives on Vanua Levu, the second largest island of the Fiji Group, have a 
legend that the departed spirits go to the west end of the island. They say that 
when a Fijian dies, his spirit enters a rock situated on the road from Savusavu 
Bay to Labasa, and then travels seventy or eighty miles down to the end of the 
island. The spirit then throws reed spears at a balawa tree (screw pine). It is 
supposed that, as soon as they hit the tree, they can go to rest." — Ed. 

[162] Tree feUing with the Stone Axe. 

In rambling over the islets in Waikare-iti lake, I came across a totara tree 
which some one has in past times commenced to fell with stone axes and gave up 
the task after catting in about six inches. The tuaimu or kerf is about two and 
a half feet in depth and bears no traces of fire having been used. The process has 
been to make two horizontal cuts, at the top and bottom of the kerf, and then to 
chip out the block of timber between the two cuts by means of a stone adie, 
osed sideways. The marki of the implements used are plainly seen in the heart 
wood in the centre of the kerf, but at the edges the sap wood has encroached in an 
endeavour to heal the wounded trunk. The upper edge of the kerf, however, still 
bears traces of the toki. The whole is a very interesting illustration of tree-felling 
as practised by the neolithic Maori. — Elsdon Best. 



[We may add to Mr. Best's^note, that the part of the kerf betwten the top 
and bottom cuts was, in some tribes cut out by the heavy axei called pokit which, 
unlike the ordinary toki^ were fastened on to the handle in a line continuous with 
the handle, and not at right angles as with the common tohi. The pokit indeed, 
was used as a hnge chisel, bat without the use of a hammer.— Ed.] 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 
POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 



A ifEETiNo of the Council was held at New Plymoatb on the 29ih Jane, IMS. 

Correspondence vas rend and accounts passed for payment. The following 
new members were elected : — 

351 Dr. W. H. Goldie. Symonds Street, Auckland. 

352 The Bev. Father Cognet, S.M., as Corresponding Member. 

It was agreed to exchange publications with the American Oriental Society, 
New Haven, Conn., U.S. America. 

The following list of exchanges, Ac, was read, as received rince the lait 
meeting' of the Council : — 

1459-1462 Jievue de VEeole, D'Anthropologie de Pari*. February to 

May, 1903 
14 63 Journal AtithrajHtlntfiral Itintitute, July-Dec., 1902 
1464-5 Mamriait de In Heal Academia de Ciencias y Attes. Vol. iv., 

31, 32 

1466-1469 Jotuttdl Jioijal Geographical Society, Feb. to May. 1903 

1470 Thf Satire Lauyvayrg of Cnlijornia. Roland B. Dixon and 

Alfn d L. Kroeber. From the authors. 

1471 Maidu Myth*. Roland B. Dixon. From the author. 

1472 The Arapaho. Bulletin of the American Museum, Natural 

Histoiy. vol. xviii, part 1 

1473 Atttiijrarixh Tid»lriftfor Srerriye. Vol. xvii., 1-2 

1474 Records Au.tralian Muieum. Vol. i.. No. 1 

1475 Procvedinps of the Canadiuu Int^titute. Vol. ii.. part 6 
1476^7 The Americati Antiquarian. Vol. xxiv., 5-6 

1478-1480 Berichte, Land-vnd Forcstyrirtschajt in Heuttch (Htaffica^ 

Heft 3-1-5 
1481 A}chivio pw I.'Anthropologia, Societa Italiana D*AHtkropotofia* 

vol. xxxii., 3, 1902 
1482-3 Na Mata. February- April, 1903 
1484-5 Science of 3! an. March -April, 1903 

1486-8 Jotirtial Itoyal Colonial Jnttitvte. March- Apiil-lfay, 1908 
1489-90 Te Pipiirharatiroa. March and Apiil. 1908 
1491-3 Journal A»iotic Society of Hen gal. No. cccci., cocciv., ccocv. 

1494 Mittheilnmnn der Anthropologischen GeteUtchafi in Weift. 

l^ai>d xxxiii., 8-4 

1495 The I'nireraity ot sMonrana. Bulletin No. 9 

1496 Mtniuir*, American Mnt^evm vf Natural History, vol. v. Kwakiutl 

Texts 

1497 Ahstraliin Mustuw. Sest* und Kggs of Pirds, A¥$traUa attd 

Tasmania. Part iii. 
1498-9 Annual PejK^rt, Smithsonian tmtUution. 1900, liK)l 



THE AITUTAKI VERSION OF THE 
STORY OF IRO. 



Tbanslatbd bt J. T. Large, of AirinAKi. 



[Tb« following is the Aitataki Tersion of the story of Iro, rs those people oall him^ 
bat who is named Hiro and Firo by Tahitians, and Whiro by Maoris of New 
Zealand. He is a common ancestor of all three branches of the race, and 
holds an important position in tUeir histories. The Maori acoonnt of Whiro 
is to the effect that he was one of those great navigators that floarished in 
the Central Pacific in tha twelfth and thirteenth centnries There are many 
scattered notices of him in various chants, and some of his adventures are 
related in John White's ** Ancient History of the Maoris," Vol. U. There 
is a great deal abont him also in the Barotongan traditions (not yet 
published), and much also in the Tahitian traditions. His place on the 
genealogical table, given at the end of Mr. Large's paper, does not agree 
with either Maori, Barotongan, or Tahitian accounts— he is six generations 
too early. But this is explained by the fact of there having been two, if not 
more, Whiros, and in process of time the deeds of the one have been con- 
founded with the other. The proof of this is, that Ta-eta, mentioned in 
this narrative, is the Maori Ta-wheta, or Heta, as be is sometimes called, 
who was a contemporary of Uenuku-rakei-ora— No. 42 on Mr. Large's list. 
— Editor.] 



MoB-TERAURi, the father of Iro, came to Enuakura from Avaiki 
seeking after women. He made love to one Akimano- 
ki-a-tu, a married woman. He first visited her on the two 
nights of the moon known as Iro and Oata. When the woman became 
pregnant Moe-terauri said to her, ** If our child jou are about to give 
birth to turns out to be a boy I will call him by my two nights of the 
moon, Iro-nui-ma-Oata." The woman gave birth to a son, and he was 
80 named accordingly. Iro lived and grew up to manhood ai Enua- 
kura. The Ariki of the land at that time was Puna, who resided there 
with his people. These are some of Iro's doings during his youth. 
He took to drinking the beer called Aremango, which he made him- 
self, filling a kumete (large wooden bowl) with one brewing. He then 
went and stole a fed pig called Taapua, belonging to the Ati-Puna tribe, 
10 



184 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

which was kept in a cave at the base of the monntain. He cooked it 
in a native oven, and ate the whole of that big pig himself. He then 
drank the beer, and under its influence performed an exiraordinaiy 
feat. He overturned one mountain on top of another. The sign or 
proof of his handiwork may be seen in the spur or ridge of rooks 
extending from the top of the mountain to the sea, and it is called to 
this day <* Iro's rope," by which he overturned the mountain."*" On the 
summit of the same mountain appears in bold relief the paddle (turned 
to stone) of Iro's canoe. ** Otutai," the famous vessel itself — ^now 
transformed into a rock — reposes at the bottom of the lagoon between 
Raiatea and Tahaa, where it may be seen in calm weather, while the 
resounding gong of Iro's vessel is represented by a harmonious stone 
on the small reef-islet Opua at Porapora not far ai^ay. One notable 
enterprise carried out by Iro was a voyage from these windward islands 
to Vavau to the westward in his canoe named " Tutakeke-nui.'* He 
and his ship's company remained at Vavau some time, then returned 
to windward (Tahitian Group). When they came back they were 
accompanied by a chief named Makeu, who, together with his people* 
came in their canoe '' Tutakeke-iti," the two canoes keepmg close 
together. This Makeu was a noted thief, his gods being Uri-kovaro 
and Mata-taiiumi, the die ties of thieves. As they voyaged together 
Makeu took a great liking to Iro*s canoe, and sought means whereby 
he might steal the same. He threw his magic spells over Iro and the 
people in '^ Tutakeke-nui," and caused them to fall into a deep sleep, 
and then bringing the two canoes together he transferred Iro and his 
people and their belongings to *' Tutakeke-iti,** while he (Makeu) with 
his people took possession of '' Tutakeke-nui ** and paddled away with 
it. Hence arose the saying, * The sleep of Iro on returning from 
Vavau was (like) falling asleep in winter and awakening in summer.** 
When Iro awoke from his magic slumber ho found that his canoe 
(** Tutakeke-nui '*) had been stolen from him. It was thus Iro 
returneil to the eastward. 

At Enuakura Iro had three wives — the tirst was Te Koa-o-te- 
Rangi. the second Vai-tu -marie, and the last Noonoo-ringa. He begat 
many children by these three sources. On one oocusion the Aii-Iro 
and the Ati-Puna went fishing. The latter tribe found a turtle which 
was named Te Akairi-raukava. They attompt^i to turn it (on its 
back) but were unable to do so. They then fewheil the AtiJro to help 
them to turn the turtle. The Ati-Iro said, ** Wo will turn the turtle 
(by ourselves^ and carr}' it inland." Tlie .Xti-Puna then left the fish 
ami went away. The AtiJro turned the turtle and carried it off to 

* Tahitian tradiiion pUcos the soone of thU exploit in Tahfta. one of the 
Societj ltland« we beliere ~Ei>. 



THE AITUTAKI STORY OF IRO. 186 

Iro's settldment at Motupae. Iro cut open the fish, reserving only a 
small portion for Puna, which he gave to a numerous party of his 
relatives to convey to that Ariki, but they refused to go as they knew 
they would be killed by the Ati-Puna if they went on such an errand. 
As they would not stir Iro then gave the portion of turtle to a small 
party of his relatives to take to Puna — namely, to his son Tautu — 
though Iro well knew that his son would be killed in carrying out the 
mission.'^ Tautu, however, took the piece of turtle, carrying it in a 
food basket named Tira-tu-ki-te-Bangi. When he arrived before Puna 
he said, *' Taste this, my lord, this is the first portion of uncooked 
fish ; I will return and fetch the cooked fish for you.** Puna's two 
taungas (priests or wisemen), Tao-pa and Tao-vananga, said to him, 
** Puna ! do not taste this offering : the fish has been consumed by 
Iro at Motupae.'* Then Puna became very angry, and killed Tautu, 
cutting ofif his head and flinging it on to his rubbish heap of food 
refuse. Thereupon the spirit of Tautu returned to Iro and said to 
him, *' I am dead." Iro replied to the spirit, ** Return, and triumph 
over Puna in argument.'* Then the spirit returned into Tautu*s head 
that had been cut ofif, and this is what it said to Puna, *' Puna ! my 
lord, was it a real sin ? What was the sin for which Tautu was 
killed, and now lies dead ; (tell me) Tao?" Puna said to Tao-pa and 
Tao-vananga, ** Explain to Tautu what his sin was.** Those two 
wise men then answered Tautu's spirit as follows : — 

'* Tantu's sin was the great original sin of old, 
From the conoeption of the progress of Earth and Sky, 
When the Sky was embracing (Earth) below 
When the Sky was clinging aboye. 

From the time of (the gods) Tn-te-arakura and Tu-te-akatere 
Of the Heaven of peace and plenty. 
Yon will become a world of light (and leading) 
There are two gods of this bright world, the Sun and the Moon. 
The sins of the East, and the sins of the South, bind them together. 
Put them in the canoe and take them to Vayau. 
There are (the gods) Tane-roa, Ti, and Akarimea, 
And the great rapacious fish of the Ocean — Iro himself. 
Gat him open and give him as satisfaction for Tautu's sin." 

Tautu replied, ''That sin is blotted out, Tao! It has been 
blown through the oocoanut, built into the canoe, and scooped with 
the fishing net.** Tautu again asked, *' What was the sin for which 
Tautu was destroyed and now lies dead, Tao ?** Puna then said to two 
dififerent wise men Tauu and Tapakati, ''Explain to Tautu what his sin 
was.** They pleaded : " Was not the sin that of (eating) Akalri-raukava 

* As stated above Puna was the ariki or high chief of the land, and as such 
the turtle was his due — hence Iro's offence in appropriating it, a very serious 
n^itter according to Polynesian law. -Ed. 



186 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

which was consumed by Iro at Motuhae ? '* Tauta replied, " Akairi- 
raukava remains intact, it has not been disposed of.*' Tantu once 
more repeated liis question. Puna then directed two fresh wise meD, 
Maiama and Maikatea, to explain to Tautu what his sin was. They 
said, *< We do not know, and wo are not clear that he has committed 
any sin." Tautu waited a short time for them to speak further, bat 
they remained silent. Tautu then said, ** This is a trifling worihleBS 
work (like) the fleshless ara (tree) of the forest. I have vanquished 
you (Puna) in argument, and to-morrow will be oar (Ngati-Iro's) 
victory with the spears, when your head will be taken off by my 
father, Iro at Motupae." The spirit of Tautu then left and became 
extinguished. 

On a subsequent occasion Iro's wife with a number of other women 
were bathing in the Vai-te-pia stream, and they related to each other 
with much laughter their adventures with their paramours. While 
entertaining themselves in this way they were overheard by Iro*8 
youngest boy. Iro also heard their uproarious merriment while they 
were bathing. When the young fellow went to Iro, the latter asked 
him, '* What is all this revelry going on down in the stream ? *' His 
son replied, '' Vai-tu-marie has been speaking about you, and of her 
connection with Taeta, and she told her companions that she enjoyed 
sleeping with him more than with you." This made Iro very angry. 
When his wife came back from bathing he said to her, '* Let us two 
go down to the beach to lash (secure) the joining of the canoe 
** Otutai." When they reached there Iro sent his wife inside the 
canoe to pass the turns of lashing (through the holes in the joining) 
while he hove them taut. While thus engaged, Vai-tu-marie*8 hand 
caught in a turn of the lashing. She called out, " Iro, my hand ! ** 
Iro looked, and seeiug that her hand was not caught securely, 
slackened the lashing, and Vai-tu-marie proceeded to reeve the turns as 
before, and Iro to haul them taut. Again her hand was caught in a 
turn of the lashing — this time it was held fast. Iro then seised the 
titia^ he was working with, and striking his wife over the back of the 
neck with it, killed her. He tlion dug a hole under the centre skid 
supporting the canoe and buried his wife's body there. After which 
he returned to the settlement. This is the lament composed by 
Taimarama— the eldest son of Iro and Vai-tu-marie — for his mother's 
death : — 

'* When I went to seek thee al thy dwelling place thou wert not to be foand. 
I am held fa^t in mj grief and moarning, lamenting for my mother Vai-tu-marie 
(Whose body) has been thrust by Iro beneath the centre skid of (his canoe) Otutai. 
The noiiiome pit of the evil Hpints Nganangana and Unumea 
I will spring up and run far and near, yet gently, such a man will I become. 

1 A Wooden tool used in the lashing of the joining o( a canoe. 



THE AITUTAKI STORY OF IRO. 187 

O Tiki (ataa) let as two go to Uea,^ for at Uea are the graves. 

O Tiki, let as two go to >Arekorero, for at Arekorero are the graves. 

O Tiki, O let as two go to >Arevananga, for at Arevananga are the graves. 

(Much remabs of this lament too long for insertion. It is intended 
to set forth the intense grief of Taimarama for the murder of his 
mother by his father Iro.) 

After Tai-marama had finished his lament he ran away to the 
mountains and became a wild man of the woods out of grief for his 
mother. While Iro was reposing at the settlement on the day he 
killed his wife, his youngest son asked him, <* Where is Vai-tu-marie ?" 
As the boy persisted in his enquiry, Iro at length replied, " Where, 
indeed is Vai-tu-marie, my son ; she lies dead under the main skid of 
Otutai." 

Some time after this Iro decided to make war on the Ati-Puna, and 
he sent his daughter Pio* to fetch Tai-marama, his message being that 
Marama was to come to slay the Ati-Puna in revenge for the death of 
his younger brother Tautu. Iro also instructed Pio, ** If you find 
Marama asleep, take his bundle of spears and hide them, then retire 
to some distance and call him." Pio proceeded to carry out her 
errand to fetch Marama. She met some men of the Ati Puna tribe 
on the open space through which she was travelling. She wrenched 
off one of the aerial shoots of an ara tree, and stabbed the man to 
death with it, shouting in exultation : — .. 

** O Pio sprong^ from Yaarie (a brave ancestor) 
the shoot of ara (wood)."t 

Pio went on, and some distance further along met another member 
of the Ati-Puna tribe, whom she served in the same way, shouting her 
poean of triumph as before. When she reached Marama's location she 
found him asleep, so she carried away his bundle of spears and hid 
them — as directed by Iro— in tlie bush. She then retired to some 
distance and called out to him, *' Marama, the warrior of Enuakura, 
whose stedfast gaze remains fixed alike in the dusk of evening, in the 
gloomy midnight, or the morning dawn, turning by the decree of the 
gods into perfect day." 

1 An island said to be in the North and West, perhaps Wallis Island..: 
^-Saored hoaees i^ Avaiki like Wharekara of the N.Z. Maoris. 

* Pio, according to Maori history is Pio-ranga-taua, a daughter of Whiro's. 
Thia Aitntaki story shows the origin of the Maori name-— ran^a-touo — i.e, Pio- 
4he-»rmy-Tai»er.— Bp^ 

t Slightly transposed on parpose to preserve the sense: meaning " Pio, what 
wonders yon .have done jnth your ara dab ! " 



188 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Aroused by her Bbouting Marama Bproog up and roBhed about 
hunting for his bundles of spears, but he could not find any. He 
then chased Pio. She ran some distance, then stood and threw off 
her clothes, and advanced naked towards Marama as she had beon 
previously instructed to do by her father Iro in order to ensure her 
safety. Marama then seized her and took her into his house, where 
he slept with her ; he did not recognise then that she was his sister. 
In reply to Marama*s enquiry as to the object of her journey Pio gave 
him the message she had received from Iro that he was to return at 
once to assist in the attack that would be made on the Ati-Puna on 
the morrow. Marama said to her, *• You return and tell Iro to have 
" Otutai " all ready for launching and to get the Ati-Puna to stand at the 
side of the canoe opposite to the outrigger — to assist at the launching — 
while the Ati-Iro will take the outrigger side. Also to have the 
morning meal before daybreak. I will be there at sunrise.** Pio 
returned to Iro and delivered Marama*s message to him, which Iro 
arranged to have carefully carried out, and on the following morning 
at break of day his people were all ready for the fray. They fetched 
the Ati-Puna and placed them on the katea side of the canoe as 
directed. At sunrise Marama arrived; he grasped the stem-piece, 
while the Ati-Iro took the roaa (outrigger) side, and all was in readiness 
to launch the canoe. This was the song at the moving of the ancient 
Maori vaka, ** Otutai '*— * 

Solo : ** Launch the cauoe Otatai for Iro-niii 

Hand the beater, step the mast, the mast Toratatai. 
the multitude of Paoa are without." 

Chobus: "01" 

Solo : ** the multitude of Iro are within." 

Chobus: "01" 

Solo : *' Pakiara*s black . . . Pakiara*s black . . . '* 

Chobus : " You will be consumed beneath (the canoe) 

You will be exterminated beneath (the canoe)." 

The Ngati-Puna saw by the insulting burden of the song, when it 
was too late, that they were entrapped to their destruction, but they 
could not help themselves. It was the fulfilment of Ati-Iro*8 revenge 
for the murder of Tautu. When the canoe was lifted up Marama 
overturned it on top of the Ati-Puna and slew them. The Ati-Iro had 
previously hidden their weapons in the herbage at that spot, and when 
the canoe was thrown on to their enemies they seized their spears and 
slaughtered the Ati-Puna, only a few of whom escaped, fleeing to the 
ocean in their canoes. The land passed entirely into the hands of the 
Ati-Iro, hence the name '' Marama the warrior of Enuakura.** 

* This amu is still oooaaionally recited in Aitutaki on the UuDobing o< a 



THE AirUTAKI STORY OF IRQ. 189 

This was Moe-terauri's song exalting his son Iro's name: — 
*' Iro who stands facing the wind as a barrier to the Maoake,^ 
Take an offering for Bongo.^ Thou shalt climb on the shoulders of the people 
On the back of daylight. Long, long away and hidden from sight. 
Fear not, no great Ariki in thy generation can compare with thee 

my son. Art thou a Torea* for Anatonga ? > 

Art thou a Torea^ for Tongaiti^? Art thou a Torea> for Tangaroa> the mourner? 

1 know you now. 

Tou skimmed along o*er the tide, with craned neck and eager gaze, just touching 

the brine with your pinions. 
the shoulders of Tane^ stoop down low, we two will kiss. 

Tane> grieving for his bird (Iro) Tane> let us roam together. 
No, we will not roam, eh ? Await the arriyal of the wise men 
Au-pu, Au-yananga, Biro and Toro. 

Biyet the gaze of your eyes Oatuke^ that they may strike and pieree upon 
lu-makao.^ 

1 will lick (follow) Atuke*s shadow in the valley and on the long outer reef. 
A noil' looking like a rock, a young patuki^ carefully guarding the channel. 
A division of speech from the sea, from the Lord of the Oeean, 

To be lost in the deep at Akatautipa. 

The laughter was long and hearty of this son of the hurricane (Lro) 
Frequenting the dark ocean, the waste of waters. 
Enlivening musical sounds (of the kaara"^ are heard, proclaiming : — 
The fame of our warlike deeds shall spread afar. 
The fame of our warlike deeds shall stand. 
This is a descent by the road leading down to Nuku-aio. 
The children (of Lro) shall eat of the food of the land. 
Their sleep shall be as sound as a rock. 
They shall be subdued and afraid only of thee, O the god." 
This ends the story of Iro. 

1 The M.£. quarter, from which point hurricanes usually start. 
> Ancient gods^Bongo, Tane and Tangaroa being the greatest. 

* The well-known wading bird found on the shores of the lagoon, believed of 
old to be one of the messengers of the gods. 

A Ancestors. 

* A repulsive roek-like looking fish some 6 or 8 inches long, which lies half 
concealed in the sand in the lagoons, and on which the natives with their bare feet 
are very apt to tread. Its erect, hollow, dorsal spines, through which the fish 
discharges a poisonous fluid, are capable of inflicting a dangerous, painful wound, 
and in some oases in Aiintaki have caused death. 

' A bony fish some 8 or 10 inches long, only found in the channels through the 
reel, and lodked upon in former times as guardian deities of those waterways. 

7 ** Titikereti " and ** tatakareta '' in the Maori text describe the musical 
sounds produced by the ibaani, a large wooden gong much used on festive ooeaeions 
IB fonntr times. 



TE AUTAEA I A IRO. 

{^X ISBBABIA-TAMA, AlTUTAKI.) 



Na Baati (J. T. Laboe) i koi. 



MEi AvAiKi mai a Moe-terauri te metua tane o Iro ki ranga ki 
Enuakura i te mokotoro vaine, i te vaine Akimano-ki-a-tu e 
vaine noo tane. Tera nga po i aere ei a Moe-ieraari « atoio i 
aia, e Iro e te Oata; e kia nui taua vaine ra, karanga atu a Moe- 
terauri, '* Me anau ta taua tamaiti e tamaroa ka tuoro au ki oku po e 
Iro-nui-ma-Oata.*' Kua anau e tamaroa kua tuoro ki taua ingoa ra. 
Kia noo a Iro ki Enuakura kua tupu aia ei tangata. Tera te Ariki ki 
runga i.te enua i taua tuatau ko Puna e tona pae tangata. Tera tetai 
rare a Iro i tona mapuanga kua kai aia i te kava ko Aremango te 
ingoa. Eua kumu a Iro i taua kava ra okotai kumuanga i ki te 
kumete. I reira kua aere a Iro kua keia i te puaka a te Ati-Pona ; 
tera te ingoa i taua puaka ra ko Taapua, e puaka angai i raro i te 
tumu te Maunga i rojbo i te ana. Kua tao aia i taua puaka ra» kua 
kai, kua pou i aia anake taua puaka atupakapaka. Kia inu aia i taua 
kava kua rave aia i tetai rare tu ke, kua turaki aia i tetai maunga ki 
runga i tetai ; te vai ra te akairo i tana i rave, e ivi maunga mei runga 
mai i te maunga e tae ua atu ki te tai, e ivi toka kaoa nei, i ksrlmgaiA 
ko te taura a Iro i turakina i te maunga. Tei runga i taua inaungm 
rai te akairianga i te oe o te pai o Iro ko Otutai. Ko te tinp i te pai 
tei raro i tetai roto tei roto pu ia Baiatea e Tahaa« Eo te pate o te 
pai o Iro tei Porapora, tei runga i te Motu i te Opua. 

Tetai rare a Iro kua tere mai aia mei runga, ma tona aonga vi^ 
kua aere ki raro ki Vavau ; tera te ingoa o taua vaka i aere ei ki ZfR) 
ko Tutakeke-nui. Kia tae aia ki Vavau kua noo aia ki reira e roa, koa 
oki mai aia ki runga nei. Kua aere katoa mai tetai tangata ko Makeu 
i taua aerenga o Iro ; tera te ingoa o tona vaka ko Tutakeke-iti. Koa 
kapiti nga vaka i te aerenga mai. Ko taua Makeu ra e tangata .keia ; 
ko tona au atua ko Uri-kovaro, ko Mata-tanumi — nga atua no te keia. 
Kia aere mai raua i te Moaua kua anoano taua tangata ra a Makeu i te 
pai a Iro kua kimi aia i tona ravenga keia e rauka i aia te vaka o Iro. 
Kua matairi moemoe &i& l^ft'lTopkia'parongia e te moe kia riro i aia te 
vaka o Iro. I reira kua tiria a Iro i te moe ma tona vaka tangata. 
Kua acre mai a Makeu kua tapiri i tona vaka i te pae i to Iro vaka, 
kua akairiia a Iro ki runga i tona vaka ko Tutakeke-iti, ma te au : 



THE AITUTAKI STORY OF IRO. Ul 

katoa atu no runga i te vaka o Iro. Kua aere a Makeu e tona au 
tangata ki runga i te vaka o Iro, ia Tutakeke-nui, i reira kua oe i ie 
vaka o Iro, kua peke i aia. No reira i karangaia^, *' E ko te moe a 
Iro mai Vavau ka moe i a Pipiri ka ara i a Akau." Eo te aerenga mai 
o Iro ki runga nei. Kia ara aia kua peke tona vaka i te keia. 

Eua takoto a Iro ki nga vaine tokotoru ; te value mua ko te Eoa- 
o-te-Kangi, te vaine rua ko Vai-tu -marie, e ko te vaine openga ko Noo- 
noo-ringa. Eua anau nga tamariki e tokorai mei roto i aua nga puna 
e torn ra. Eia tae ki tetai tuatau kua aere te Ati-Puna e te Ati-Iro ki 
te tautai. Kua kitea te onu e te Ati-Puna, tera te ingoa i te onu ko 
Akairi-raukava ; kia uri te Ati-Puna i taua ika ra kaore i rauka. I reira 
kua tiki i te Ati-Iro e uri. Tera te autara a te Ati-Iro, '* Naku e uri, 
naku e kave atu." Eua aere te Ati-Puna kua akaruke i te onu. Ei 
reira te Ati-Iro kua uri, kua apai ki Motupae, koia te ingoa i te ngai i 
poo ei a Iro. Ei reira kua tuaki a Iro i taua ika ra, kua tuku 1 tetai 
ngai iti ua te tumu i te karaponga na Puna. Eua oake ki te kopu 
tokorai e kave; kaore e keu. Eua kite ratou ka mate 1 te Ati-Puna. 
Eia kore e keu te kopu tokorai, e tuku ei a Iro ki te kopu tokoiti, kia 
Tautu. Eua kite rai a Iro e, ka aere rai ka mate. Eua kave a Tautu 
i taua potonga ika ra kia Pima, kua tuku ki roto i te raurau, ko Tira- 
tu-ki-te-rangi. Eia tae a ia ki mua i a Puna, tera tana, ^* Ea tongi ; E 
taku ariki ! ko pikaomua tena, ko te ikamata tena, ka oki au ka tiki i 
te ika maoa." Tera ta nga taunga o Puna, ta Tao-pa e ta Tao- 
vananga. <* E tio e Puna ! auaka e tongi, kua pou te ika i a Iro. ki 
Motupae." Ei reira kua riri a Puna. Eua ta i a Tautu, kua tipu i te 
upoko, kua titiri ki runga i te utunga kai, koia te vairanga teita a 
Puna. Eua oki te vaerua o Tautu ki a Iro ku&akakite, *' E kua mate 
au." Tera ta Iro ki taua vaerua, ''E oki koe ei akare korero kia 
Puna." E oki ei te vaerua ki roto i te upoko o Tautu i tipuia ra, tera 
tana autara kia Puna : — 

« E Puna taku ariki ! e ara tika ko te ara, e aa te ara ka tineiia^i a 
Tautu ka mate ei nei E Tao ? " 

Tera ta Puna kia Tao-pa e Tao- vananga, '^Apitoa tai ara a 
Tautu." 

Tera ta raua autara :— 

'* £o te ara ia te toma ko te ara ia te kere, ko te ara ia Aitanga a Nuku la 
Aitanga a Bangi. 

I te Bangi piri io, i te Rangi piri ake, i a Tu-te-ara-kara i a Ta-te-akatere, 
i te Rangi-akaparia. 

Ka pa koe e ao Marama. 

Tokoiua la nga Ariki 6 aVatea ko te Ba ko te Marama. 

Ko te ara i Iti, ko te ara i Tonga, e runi e uta ki te Taka e kave ki 
Vavau. 

£ina ra'ko Taqe-roa ko Tane-potb ko Ti ko Akarimea. 

Ko te Ika-pokopoko arera o te Moana — Ho Iro ia — tnakina, oake e one i te 
ara a Tautu." - - 



142 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Tera ta Tautu, ** Eua eke ia ara e Tao ! kua pui ki te mii» koa rarango 
ki te vaka, kua akaei ki te kupenga." Eua ui akaou a Tautu, '' Eo ie 
ara, e aa te ara ka tineiia'i a Tautu ka mate ei nei e Tao ? *' Tera ta 
Puna ki nga taunga ke, *' E Tauu e Tapakati ! Apitoa tai ara a Tautu/* 
Tera te autara a nga taunga, '<£ aa oki te ara i Akairi-raukava i 
pou ia Iro ki Motupae." Tera ta Tautu, '< lli^ra rai Akairi-raukava, 
kaore i uriia kaore i paakia. ' ' Eua ui akaou a Tautu i taua uianga mua rai. 
Tera ta Puna ki nga taunga ke, ko Maiama e Maikatea, " Apitoa tai 
ara a Tautu." Tera ta raua, '* Eaore ta maua ara i kite. Eaoie old 
a maua ara i marama." Eua tiaki poto a Tautu kia ki mai ratou 
kaore rai. Tera ta Tautu, ** E umiumi e angaanga ua iora ko te ara 
kiko kore o te vao, ko te re korero tena te apai nei au, apopo ko te re 
tokotoko e peke ei toou upoko i toku metua i a Iro ki Motupae.*' I 
reira kua oki te vaerua, kua mate. 

E tae ki tetai tuatau kua aere a Vai-tu-marie, te Taine a Iro ki 
raro i te vai me tetai toi vaine, kua autaratara ratou ki raro i te vai i 
Vai-te-pia, i ta ratou au tane keia. Te akarongo ra te potiki openga a 
Iro, te kite ra oki a Iro i roto i te are i te mama i raro i te vaL I 
aere ei taua tamaiti ra ki a Iro, i ui mai ei a Iro, '* E aa te mama i 
raro i te vai ? " Tera ta te tamaiti kia Iro, " I autara ana a Yai-tu- 
marie i a koe ko taau moe i aia mapiipii mnga ua kia moe ra a 
Ta-eta — te tane keia — i aia papapapa tukia ki te Atupapa.*' I leira 
kua tupu te riri o Iro. Eia aere mai te vaine mei i raro i te vai kua 
karanga atu a Iro ki aia, *' Ea aere atu taua, ki t&tai ka aro i te 
vaka i Otutai. Eia tae ki tatai kua tuku a Iro i te vaiue ki roto i te 
vaka ei akapapa i te kaa, tei vao a Iro i te keke i te kaa. Eia save 
raua i ta raua rare, kua keke a Iro i te kaa, kua piritia te rima o te 
vaineki te kaa, tera ta te vaine, '' E Iro E 1 taku rima ! " Kia akara 
a Iro kaore i mou meitaki te rima ki roto i te kaa, kua tuku Ida 
matara. Kua mea akaou i te kaa kua piritia rai te rima o te vaine. 
Kua mou meitaki te rima kua opara a Iro i te titia i te vaka, kua patu 
ki runga i te reikaki, kua mate. Ei reira kua ko a Iro i te vaaraa ki 
raro i te rango metua i Otutai, kua tanu i te tino o Vai-tu-marie i reira. 
Kua oki a Iro ki te kainga. 

Tera te take a Tai-marama te tamaroa no tona metua vaine, no 
\ai-tu-marie: — 

*' Eia tauoroi ui ata ana au ki toou kainga e kore e takaroa. 
E taapu atu ana au e, e eva. £ eva metua ana au nooku i a Vai-ta-inarie. 
Kua tiria ake nei e Iro ki raro ki te rango metua ia Oiutai. 
Ko te rua ia nga taae o Nganangana e Unumea. 
E matike ra au ki runga nei. Te ororoa te oropoto te oro mainaina. 
E pu ra tangata e. E Tiki E I taua ra ki Uea. tei Uea oki, ei reira nga ma. 
E Tiki E ! taua ra ki Are-korero, tei Are-korero oki ei reira nga ma. 
£ Tiki E 1 taua ra ki Are-vananga, (ei Are-vananga oki ei reira nga ma.** 

(Te vai atu ra te roaanga, i taua tako nei.) 



THE AITUTAKI STORY OF IRO. 148 

Eia oti ia Tai-Marama i te rave i tela tako no tona metua vaine. 
Eua oro aia ki te maunga, kua riro aia ei tangata rere vao no te aue ki 
te metua vaine. Eia noo a Iro ki te kainga i taua aiai kua ui te potiki 
ki aia, '* Teiea a Vai-tu-marie ? " No te rai maro i te ui a taua potiki 
ra kua akakite a Iro, ** Teiea oki a Vaitu-marie, e taku potiki ! kua mate 
tei raro i te rango metua ia Otutai." 

Eia tae ki tetai ri^ kua akatupu a Iro i te tamaki ka ta i te Ati- 
Puna. E i reira kua akaunga i te tamaine, i a Pio, ei tiki i a Marama. 
Tera tana poroki. Eia aere mai a Marama ka ta i te Ati-Puna ei ranga 
i te ua o toona teina a Tautu. Tera tetai autara a Iro kia Pio, ** Me 
aere koe kua varea e te moe, e tari koe i te ruru o te tokotoko e uuna, 
ei reira koe ka oro ei ki tetai ngai ka tuoro ei i a Marama.*' Eua 
aere i reira a Pio i te tiki i a Marama. Eua aravei i nga tangata 
no roto i te Ati-Puna i te arata i te aria. I reira kua aati a Pio 
i te kaiara, ko tana tokotoko ia i te ta i aua nga tangata ra ; kua 
mate. Tera tana akariro, '*E Pio e ! te kai ara varie te taputapu." 
Eua aere a Pio e tae atu ki tetai ngai kua aravei i tetai tangata kua 
aati ra i te kaiara, kua ta, kua mate, ko taua akariro*rai. Eua tae i 
reira ki te kainga o Marama; kia aere atu kua varea a Marama e te 
moe. Ei reira aia e tari i te ruru tokotoko i te uuna ki te ngangaere, i 
acre ai a Pio ki tetai ngai tuoro ei ; tera tana tuoro, *< E Marama-toa-i- 
Enuakura ! i karo ei te aiai metua i te turuaipo, i te tatauata, te po tea 
uaine e te Atua ei ao.*' Taua tuoroanga kua tu ki runga a Marama, 
kua oro ki te ruru tokotoko, kaore ; kua aere ki tetai ruru tokotoko 
kaore ; kua oro kua tuaru i te tuaine, kua oro a Pio ki tetai ngai kua tu 
mai kua tatara i te kakau kua titiri, kua oki ki runga i te tungane, e 
mea poroki na Iro kia akapera ei paretea kia ora. Ei reira kua rave a 
Marama i a Pio ki roto i te are, kua moe. Eare aia e kite e ko tona 
tuaine. Ei reira kua ui a Marama ki aia, *' E aa toou aerenga ?'* Aka- 
kite atu a Pio, '' I akaungaia au e Iro, ei tiki i a koe ka ta i te Ati- 
Puna apopo." Karanga atu ei a Marama, <'E oki koe e akakite kia 
Iro e akaaroaro ia Otutai e tuku i te Ati-Puna ki katea, e tuku i te 
Ati-Iro ki roto i a roa." Eua karanga oki a Marama kia Pio, '<£ 
akakite koe kia Iro kare e maae te ata ka kai i te angai. Ea aere 
atu au i te kakenga i te ra." Eua aere mai a Pio kua akakite kia Iro 
i te autara a Marama. Eua ariki katoa a Iro i ta Marama i autara 
mai. I taua ra e po, popongi ake i te tatavata kua kai i te angai. Eua 
tiki i te Ati-Puna i te apaianga i a Otutai, kua tuku rai i a raiou ki 
katea ; ka kake ake te ra kua tae mai a Marama. Eua mou a Marama 
ki muri i te muri vaka. Tera te Ngati-Iro ki roto i a roa koa rave- 
rave tarere i te apai i te vaka. Tera te amu i te apaianga i a Otatai 

Ka tou : " Akateretere vaka ia Otatai na Iro-nai, 
Ko mai te titia, akatu te tira, ko Toru-tatai 
E, tei vao te tini o Puna e I " 



144 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Kamou, "0!" 

Ea toa, " Tei roto te tin! o Iro, e ! " 

Ka mon, ••0!" 

Ea toa, '* I kaari no Pakiara, io kaari no Pakiara ! " 

Ea moa, ** Ea pott koe ki raro. Ea poa koe ki raro ! " 

(Eo te aiteanga i tei reira amu ei akakino i te metua vaine o Is 
Ati-Puna, ko Pakiara, kua kite ratou e, e taki^i a ratou ki te male» 
kaore to ratou ravenga. Ko te ranga ia o te ua ^ Tautu). 

Kia peke te vaka ki runga kua takauri a Marama i te vaka ki nmgA 
i te Ati-puna, kua ta. Kua na mua te Ati-Iro i te tauru i ta ratou aa 
tokotoko ki roto i te ngangaere i taua ngai. Kia tauri te vaka Id 
runga i te Ati-Puna. kua mou te Ati-Iro ki a ratou tokotoko koate; 
kua mate te Ati-Puna. Tei ora kua peke ki te moana. Koa rizo Is 
enua, ko Enuakura, i te Ati-Iro. No reira te ingoa ko Maraina*toa-i- 
Enuakura. Tera te tako a Moe-terauri no tona tamaroa no Iro : — 

" E, Iro E ! e tunguta matangi ko te arai i te maoake, 

Tangi nga anu na Bongo. Ea eke i te kapu na e ! 

Eo te tua o Avatea. Taa atn, Una atu, Akiukia, Anaanaa ! 

Eiritiia te taea. Eaore oki e Ariki nui i kake ana i te papa i a koe nci. 

Taku lama e ! E Torea ! E Torea ainei koe na Ahatonga? 

E Torea ainei koe na Tongaiti ? E Toiea ainei koe na Tangaroa-ta eva*i ? 

Eua kiten koe e aa. 

I tipi ana koe i reira. I aro ana koe i reira, i tapa Uritai ana koe i niia. 

E te ua o Tane piko io ki raro ka ongi tana. 

£ Tane iangitangi i tana mana, E Tane ka tetere taua. 

Aua tana te tetere i kia tae mai nga taunga ko Aa-pa ko An-vanaiifla ko 

Biro ko Toro. 
Akatoroa4 ra i kona 0-Oa mata E Atake kia ta kia pata ki ranga i o Tn- 

Makao. 
Naaku e mitimiti ki te Ataiti i roto o Atake, i te Tarai i te Akau raraa., 
E noa matai punga, e teina pataki tiakina moe a te aTaava, 
E vaainga kupa no tai no te Ata Moana. 
Ea roroti ake nei ki tai o Akataatipa, 
Eaa kata-oreore mapi, ko tama aa ariia. 
Aerea ki moana uriari, ki moana vaivai. 

Na titikereti na tathkereta ; te ingoa ra o Mana taua Mumo te Ma. 
Te ingoa ra o Mana taua Moamoa terea. 
E eketanga na te Ara ki raro Nakoaio. 
Ea kati ake ana nga tamariki i te uaanga o te kai. 
Ea moe akatoka ka vi ka riaria. Ea matnku au i a koe e te Atna." 

Ko te autara ia ia Iro. 

Tera te akapapaanga tupuna niei roto i a Atea ma Papa e tae kia 
Iro ; mei a Iro kia Kuatapu, mei a Ruatapu kia Marouna, mei a Maio* 
una ki te Tupu-o-Rongo. I reira te uaanga o nga puna e torn a tae 
ei ki nga ariki tokotoru o Aitutaki ko Vaerua-rangi^ ko Tamatoa, • ko 
Te Uru-kura : — 



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NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 147 

OiT« power to me this youngest born, 
And let me go forth in safety, 
Like a first-bom chief from side of hoase. 
I come forth 1 forth to the world of being, 
To the world of Ught." 

While the heart of Ue-imua was being offered up or fed, the 
following karakia was repeated : — 

"Ka kai pa, ka kai ariki 

Ka kai matamua, ka kai pukenga 

Ka kai nga atua 

Ka kai au, tenei tauira.'* 
" The high priest eats, the high chief eats. 

The first-born eats, the other priests eat. 

The gods eat, 

I, this disciple eats." 

This first karakia is one of those termed a/*/, which were recited by 
the priest while kindling the sacred fire {ahi tapu). Hika ahi means 
to generate fire, i.e, to obtain fire by friction — the ancient method. 

1 do not think that the heart of Ue-imua was eaten, as it was not 
the custom to so eat the heart of a relative. It was merely placed to 
the mouth (he men whakaha ki te walia). This ceremony prevented any 
serious consequences following the act of Tuhoe in having slain 
the mdtdmna, or first-born of the family. The evil consequences 
referred to are those coming under the heading of hauhau-aitUy already 
explained. 

In the case of a tama-a-hara^ or blood feud, the heart, being that 
of a deadly enemy, was eaten. The rite was — hai ivhakau i te toa — 
to fix or make firm the victory and the courage of the victor. 

In the above instance the body of Ue-imua, being that of a relative, 
would not be eaten, but the makakd incantation would be repeated over 
it in order to render it iapu. This was to prevent anyone from taking 
it as food. The body and heart would be buried. 

When Eahuki attacked the people of One-kawa at 0-hiwa, he slew 
two children whom he found hiding in a pit. He cut off their heads 
and took them to Pane-kaha at the Whitiwhiti pa. That individual at 
once offered them to his atua (trhangata tonutia atu ki te atud). 

But about the mdvce. The mdwe is a term applied to some article 
which represents a defeated foe, or the battle or battlefield in, or on 
which they fell. This mdwe is generally a lock of hair taken from the 
head of one of the dead enemy. Mdxce (spelled maawe by native 
writers) also means a swirling motion of a seaweed waving about in 
the water. At one time I cherished a theory that maawe was originally 
makawe ( = hair), and that the ''k** had been dropped through some 
process of erosion. But mdwe also applies to any object taken Ip 



l^Q JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

represent a defeated enemy. Thus instead of the taio maJkatr«, or lock 
of hair, a piece of a dead man's clothing may be taken as a mdwe. 
Again, when Maui drew up the North Island of New Zealand from 
the depths of Wainui, mother of waters, he took the mdwe of his prey 
back to Hawaiki. However, these may be later applications of the 
term. 

After the battle, the mdwe is taken to the priest, who recites over 
it certain karakia (spells), in order to retain the victory and the 
courage, etc., by which that victory was gained, and also destroy the 
courage of the enemy. Usually the warrior who slew the mdtaika 
would bear the mdwe to the priest, for should he omit so to do the 
omission would be an evil omen for himself. The rite performed over 
the mdtce also lessened or weakened the tapu under which the warriors 
were, they having shed human blood in tlie service of Tu — hoi tchaka- 
horo % te toa a tana parektira. 

Before proceeding further, let us explain the difference between the 
mdwe and the ahua of a parekura ( = battle, or battlefield), and the rites 
performed over them. The ahua of a parekura was the semblance 
thereof. A bunch of grass or weeds with which the dead body of an 
enemy had come in contact, was plucked and taken to the tchunga 
(priest) as the emblem or symbol of the battlefield. Over this ahua 
or personality the priest repeated incantations to weaken the enemy and 
prevent them obtaining revenge. This was preformed by a priest of 
Tuhoe after the battle of Te Kauua (Eaunga) to prevent Ngati-Awa 
obtaining revenge. We will refer to this mdxce again, when our war 
party returns home, for the mdwe was taken there by the priest. 

When a war party was approaching the pa (fort) of an enemy, they 
would sometimes send forward a man to obtain, under cover of dark- 
ness, a piece of the defences, such as a part of the aka, or creepers, 
used for lashing the palisades. This was termed a mdwe^ and used by 
the priest as being the semblance or personality of the defenders, as 
emblemising the fort and the people therein, and over it were repeated 
incantations to weaken the enemy {hai whakanehmehe i te hoariri). 

Although the definition above, in relation to mdwe and ahua of a 
battlefield, and the objects of the spells repeated over them, was given 
me by the Tuhoe people, yet I may state that, in many accounts, the 
terms appear to be interchangeable- io ht* applied to the same thing. 

After the fall of Mokoia Island in ancient times in Rotorua (lake), 
Bangi-te-ao-rere took the mdwe to the famous pouahu or sacred place 
at Whakatane. 

During the Maori-British war in Now Zealand, our gentle allies of 
Ngati-Kaliu-ngunu captured a rebel chief at \\ aikare-moana and slew 
him, but comiuiited the error of givmg him a meal tirst. This was 



NOTES OM THt AItT Of WAH. 149 

looked upon as unpardonable. Had they killed him without first 
treating him in the above manner, it would have been quite correct. 
Horotiu avenged him, however, by slaying in cold blood six of the 
allies, and taking the heart of one of them (Te Roto-a-Tara) as a mdwe 
to the Hauhau priest at the M&tu&hu pa on the lake shore. 

We have seen how gods, such as Tamaran, were despatched by 
their priestly medium in order to obtain, and return with, the mdwe, 
as a lock of hair from the head of a chief of the enemy. 

In the days of old an ancient warrior, Ira-tu-moana, was going 
down the Rangi-taiki river in his canoe. He met Tu-mahuki who was 
poling his canoe up stream. Ira asked, *' What fish are being caught 
on the coast?" Tu said," You sent the wind from oflf your head." 
This was a grave insult, the sacred head of Ira had been spoken 
lightly of. Ira went on and succeeded in taking fish. When he 
brought them ashore, Tu-mahuki was there and attempted to take 
some of the fish. Ira rose in his anger and killed him. 

Now the mdwe taken by Ira in this case was one of the fish and a 
portion of the seaweed which his fishing-net contained. It is not 
clear why he should have taken this as a mdwe instead of the ordinary 
article. As be had quarrelled with Tu over the fish, the latter may 
have been looked upon as the semblance of the struggle and of the fall 
of Tu. The original reads — Ko te mdwe o Tu, ko te rimu o Tangaroa= 
The mdwe of Tu (war god) was the seaweed of Tangaroa. Although 
Tangaroa is the Maori Neptune, yet the men of this district inform 
me that Tangaroa was a land god. 

We will now follow the war party in its return home, and note 
what becomes of the mdwe. 

On approaching the village home, the warriors form up in oolomn, 

the priest being in front bearing the mdwe. The priests who remained 

at home gather at the tudhu, or sacred place of the village, usually 

situated in some retired spot away from the village. They gather 

round the tudhu to receive the war party. Naked are they, with the 

exception of a piece of green flax leaf tied round the waist, with 

probably a few twigs of karamu stuck therein. As the taua (war party) 

march silently forward, the head priest at the tOdhu cries : '' I hara 

mai Tu i hea /'*^From whence has Tu come 7 The priest of the ope 

replies : — 

** I hara mai Tu i U kimihanga 
I bara mai Ta i te raogahautanga." 

" Ta comes from the seeking 
Tu comes from the searching." 

The bearer of the mdwe then comes forward and deposits the mdwe 
at the tudhu (or it is hung up there). The assembled priests then all 
clap their hands, and the following karakiu is repeated :— 
U 



160 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

** E taka ana i ona tatanga 
Aaahi naka, aaahi rangi 
Aaahi te papa i ahau . . e 
Ea kai ki hea takn rakau? 
Ea kai ki te Makaka toku rakau 
Ea kai ki hea tako rakau? 
Ea kai ki te poaaha taka rakau 
Ea kai ki hea taku rakau ? 
Ea kai ki Whakatane taku rakau 
Hikihiki taiaroa 
Tihore Tu 
Te inati o Tu.** 

Pabaphbase. 
** Now are the preparations made, 
To lift the tapu from the warriors, 
The smoke of earth, the smoke of Heavens, 
The smoke of the victory is with me, 
Where shall my weapon strike ? 

My wefipon shall strike Te Makaka, 
Where shall may weapon strike ? 

It shall strike the pouafm. 
Where shall my weapon strike? 

It shall strike at Whakatane, 
Uplifted is the tapu all over, 
Peel off the influence of Tu — 
The afflictions of Tu.*' 
This is the karakia (incantation) repeated by Bangi-te-ao-rere at 
Mokoia. The slain of Te Tini-o-Eawarero were collected and piled in 
a heap, when Bangi climbed to the top of the heap of dead bodies and 
repeated the above karakia which is termed — Te huinga o U patu a Tu.* 
The pouahu or sacred place at Whakatane was famous for its power 
and prestige. It was a viauri, a permanent, talismanic tuahu, by 
invoking which all evils might be averted. 

After reciting the above incantation, Pio makes the following 
singular statement, but whether referring to the karakia or the all 
powerful tuahuy I know not : '* Koia nei te mana o te iwi Maori iUao 
nei. Koia nei te putake mai o te ure tone, Koia nei te putake o t4 tor$ 
wahine i te ao nei — e haere nei i te tantjata, i nga nianu, i nga ika, % ngm 
ngarara,** = {For such is the power or prestige of the Maori people in 
this world. Such is the origin of the male and female organs, 
possessed by all li\4ng things.'*! 

Should the taua return defeated, the above rite is, of course, not 
performed. 

The next important step is to whakanoa the warriors, ue, to lift the 
tapu from them. The warriors cannot proceed to their homes until 

* t.f. The gathering of thuse slain by Tu. 

t It would seem to refer lo the tnahn vl pouahu ratluT than the Karakia,— Ep. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 151 

this rite is performed, nor can their friends approaoh them or greet 
them. The party proceeds to the wai tapu, or sacred water of the 
village, where the priest performs the whakahoro rite to take the tapu 
off the men. The party camps hard by, and next morning the huri^ 
hanga takapau* is performed, The tohunga kindles a fire known as 
horokaka, and another termed the ahi ruahine. At each of these he 
roasts a single kumara (sweet potatoe). The priest {tohunga) eats the 
kumara of the horokaka and hands that of the ahi ruahine to the 
woman who has been selected as a ruahine to complete the whakanoa 
rite by eating the cooked food. Of course these rites are accompanied 
by divers invocations, recited by the priest. The warriors are now 
free of tapu, they are freed from the service of Tu, and may proceed 
to their homes. They may now partake of food and mingle with the 
people, the last ceremony having been performed very early in the 
morning, before the villagers or war party were allowed to eat. 

The woman employed to act as a ruahine in such cases is either 
childless or past the age of child-bearing, for the karakia recited would 
have a most harmful effect on the unborn child. Women are employed 
in the whakamja ceremonies (to take the tapu off) because they are noa 
or common (void of tapu) from and before birth. Males on the other 
hand are tapu before and after birth. 

It will be observed that the elements of fire and water enter largely 
into native rites. 

On arrival at the kainga, or village, a returning war party will, if 
they have lost many or some important men, be received by the people 
who have collected in the mame, or plaza, for the purpose of lamenting 
for the dead. The two parties will remain opposite to each other, 
probably for two hours, wailing and weeping copiously. 

After the tangi, or lament, the adventures of the returned party 
would be related to the assembled people, by some fluent member of 
the war party. 

Sometimes laments or other forms of uaiata (chants) were 
composed in connection with battles. The following was composed 
by Te Tara-ki-tauaki of Tuhoe as a lament for the defeat of Tuhoe 
by the British troops at Orakau. : — 

He Tanoi mo ts pabbkuaa i Obakau. 

" E tangi ana hoki 
Aae ! Te mamae 
Na koutou rawa i tua 
Takahia ata i te toha whakapipi 
A Ngati-Baukawa 

Ea haere ai koe ki te hopu parekura 
Ki te whakapakapa ki maa ki te apoko." 

* Tbis tenn has a similar meaning to that of whakahoro and whakanoa 



I5fi JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Whri tuabua {Smond VerH). 

** Tenei taku poho te Doho takere nei 
Kihai rawa i pan mai 
Tini o te haa pa ki roto nei ta ai 
Kia tina ake ai." 

*' Let us then lament, 
Alas I The pain ! 
'Twas ye that felled them, 

Trodden on by the close packed ranks of Ngati-Bankawft, 
As thou went forth to gain renown 
On the battle-field. 
To grimace in front of the head." 

Second Verte. 
** Alas my belly is empty, 

Becaase ye brought not back 

The many heaps (of slaio) 

That might have filled it, 

And be satisfied in fall/' 
And— 

The Lamsnt of Tira-mate of Tuhoe fob her Bbotbbr, 
who fell at o-rakau. 
*' Eaore te mamae kai kinikini ana 

Te tan o takn ate, Timoti maro 

Te hoki te mahara ki mori ra 

Tnku tahi whakarere 

Ei te kawau ruku roa 

Ki te ranga maro 

E ware ana an ki te ika tere mai 

I waho i te moana 

Engari, e te hoal Me tika ana koe 

Ei roto o te Ariki mo te Ngatete ra, mo Pereki 

Eia hinga iho ana he arunga pounamn 

Whiua ki Tupateka ki roto o Wharau-rangi 

Mo Papai ra, he ara ka whanai 

Ki takn matua ia 

E moe mai ra i te muri." 

" Alas this pain that constricts 
The strings of my heart, for Timoti, 
Thou never thought of those now left, 
But dashed headlong forward 
Like the long-diving Kawau, 
Midst the serried ranks. 
Forgetful am I of the fish coming hether 
From the ocean beyond (the white-man) 
It would have been better Friend, hadst thou gone 
To Te Ariki, and died for Ngatete and Pereki, 
And fallen like a chief 
Or at TupHteka inside at Wharau-rangi 
For Papai, by the broad road 
To nty parent there. 
Who now sleeps with the dead.*' 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 158 

Battlbfiklds undbb Tapu. 

After the fierce conflict on the field of Puke-kai-k&hu, where so 
many of the leading chiefs of Te Arawa were slain, the priests of that 
tribe laid the tapu on that place and on the adjoining lake of Rere- 
whakaitu, even that no man might pass over that field, or take fish in 
the waters of the lake. The tapu was lifted in 1869, probably sixty 
years after the battle. "^ 

After Whitmore's raid on Te Whaiti and the fall of the Harema 
pa, some of the Ngati-Hinekura sub-tribe settled at that place. They 
were, however, expelled thence by Ngati-Tawhaki on account of blood 
having recently been spilled there. The tapu was still fresh or heavy 
— engari kia mataotao nga mats — i.e. it would not matter later on, when 
the tapu became less strong. 

During the siege of the Okarea pa by Tuhoe and Ngati-Awa, Te 
Hauwai was slain, his body falling over the cliff into the Wai-a-tiu 
stream below the pa, thus rendering the waters of that stream tapu. 
Tahawai was also slain in a like manner. Hence the waters of the 
Whirinaki river were long under tapu, the Wai-a-tiu being a tributary 
of that river. It was Puritia who, in after years, took the tapu off by 
slaying a slave named Tamure as a sacred offering, and performing the 
necessary rites. 

POKAPOKA, BTC. 

It was often the case, in the days of old, that certain marks or 
signs (tohn) would be made or set up in order to commemorate the fall 
of men in battle, to mark the spot where a certain person fell that his 
descendants might know. In some cases a block of stone was set up. 
In others a post was firmly set in the ground. The usual thing in 
this district, however, appears to have been the pokapoka. This was a 
hole dug in the ground in a conspicuous place at or near the spot 
where the person was slain, that all who pass that way may see it. It 
was usually dug by the children of the person killed. It is probable 
that such holes would only be made for a chief, though one hears the 
remark that the pokapoka for a chief is dug in the track, or in a con- 
spicuous place, while that for a person of low birth is made on the 
side. *^ E kore e pat kia tuwhera te pokapoka ki t^haki, engari me 
tuwhera tonu ki te papa o te huarahi/* It is not meet that the poka- 
poka should be dug on one side, but rather let it be seen in the track. 
This was an expression often made use of in speeches. 

* Thii item wm gif«n me by G^ptain Ifair. 



164 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

The battle-ground of Puke-kai-kshu was so marked by the Arawft 
tribe in order to denote the places where so many of their leading chiefs 
fell. The descendants of a person killed will not pass over the spot 
where he was killed, or the pokapoka, but will go round it. 

After Ngati-Aotahi and Ngati-Pou fought the good fight on the 
Pokohu Block, a stone was set up to mark the battlefield. 

When Patahi was slain at Tokotoko-rau, on the same block, by 
Ngati-Hape, a wooden post was set to mark the spot where he fell. 

When Ngati-Pukeko attacked Te Hika pa on the Manga-kirikiri at 
Bua-tahuna, they were defeated by Tuhoe, the survivors escaping to 
Oro-mai-take pa at Nga-putahi. The tangata whakatiki or last man 
slain by the pursuing Tuhoe was one Taua-abi-kawai. He fled up the 
slopes of Tara-pounamu, past Te Euri and was making his way up 
the range through the bush, but carefully avoiding the track. When 
near the clearing of Te Haka, his pursuers heard the cracking of sticks 
as be advanced. They called to him, pretending to be fellow refugees. 
He came to them and was slain. His descendants dug €k pokapoka 
at the spot, which place is still known as Te Pokapoko-o-Taua- 
ahi-kawai. 

Now there is another kind of pokapoka, which it is as well to 
mention, in order to distinguish the difference of meaning of oertaiii 
place names. This other pokapoka is a similar hole or pit, but is made 
to serve as a landmark to shew the boundary of lands. Thus Te 
Pokapoka-a-Te-Purua is such a mark made by one Te Puma, in times 
past, at Parahaki. Te Pokapoka-a-Te-Umu-tiri-rau is another, which 
was dug by Te Umu on the Tara-pounamu-Matawhero block. These 
places are known by the above names. The distinction between these 
land-mark names and those of the pits dug for the fallen chief, is thai 
the former have the active 'a,' while the latter have the preposition <o.* 
This land-mark pit is known as a whakaumu among some tribes. 

Pursuit of Enemy, ktc. 

When in pursuit of a fleeing enemy the main thing was to possess 
a good knowledge of the arts by which one's fleetness of foot might 
be increased and, if pursued, the pursuer hindered in his progresSp 
together with sufficient prestige to render the spells efiective and over- 
come those of one's enemy. 

The spell, or invocation, repeated in order to increase and sostain 
a person's running or travelling powers, is termed a tapuwae {tapuwae^ 
a footmark or footstep). The tnpunae comes under the generic term 
of Aoa, uud IS often leiined a hoa tapuwae. Here follows a tapuwae : — 



NOTES ON WE ART OF WAR. 166 

" TatQiatu mai 
A iatu; torona mai 
A torona mai; a rikiriki 
A rakaraka 

Tere atu taka waewae ki maa ra 
Pae maunga e to mai i mua ra 
Tu mai koe ki man ra 
Tnka atu aa kia rere 
Me he matakokiri anewa i te rang 
Te rokohina takn tapawae nei 
Eg te tapawae o wai? 
Ko te tapawae o Kiwi, o Weka 
Ta hokai naka, ta hokai rangi 
Ta te wbakaani raoihi." 

And another — 

**Whakarongo marire iho ana aa 
£ tapiri ana a Bohi taanawenawe 
Te waka ki taa o te wai rangi 
Te tapawae o Bongo Sahiwahiwa 
Marere i ana oru 
He whanawhana e To, wheura 
Te mata o Tawhiri 
E Ta awhiawhi ki taa o Papa-ahaa 
He tokitoki te whenua i tawhiti ra 
Awbitia mai kia piri, kia tata 
Te moana i kaaia e wai? 
I kaaia e mana 

Ko mana te tiatia, ko mana te hokahoka 
Hokahoka to ake ki taka rangi 
Ki he mamao 

Tarawa a ata, tarawa a tai 
Whiti-a-naanaa te rokohia koe 
E hika— el 

The venerable Hamiora Pio, of the sons of Awa, assures me, that 
by the aid of the following tapuwae, he was enabled, in the days of his 
youth, to travel on foot in one day from Te Teko to Te Whaiti, about 
fifty miles, and on another occasion from Tauranga to Te Teko in one 
day It is another version of the first one given : — 

'' Tu mai a rikiriki, tu mai a rakaraka 
Tere ake nei taku waewae ki mua ra 
Piko o te ara i mua ra 
Tu mai koe ki mari ra 
Pa rarauhe i mua ra 
Tu mai koe ki muri ra 
Pae maunga i mua ra 
Tu mai koe ki muri ra 
Tuku atu au kia rere 
Me he matakokiri anewa ki te rangi, Ac, 
(Finishes a& No. 1.) 



U« JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

The following is known as the Tapuvtas o Rua: — 

" Ea rerere hold taaa i te kahni tipaa 
Sa rerere hoki taaa i te kahai tahito 
Tukaa ata te mana nei 
Kia tia, kia o i te whata kaa pe 
Maunga nanui, maunga roroa e to mai ra 
Awhitia mai kia plri, kia tata 
Te moana i kauria e wai? 
I kauria e mana 

Ko mana te tin, ko mana te hokahoka 
Ko tapuwae a wai? 
Ko tapnwae o Baa tangata mataa 
I hikitia ai, i hapainga ai 
Ea taa ki te kamwa i waho." 

The above is said to be the spell used by Bongo- whakaaia, a noted 
ancestor of the Poverty Bay natives, when pursuing his wife, who had 
fled to 0-potiki. 

When Tama-ruarangi and his son Te Bangi-tu-mai of the Baioa 
pa were captured by Maruiwi, the latter made preparations for a can- 
nibal feast. The elder captive was laid on the ground, his doak 
placed over him and pegged to the ground, to prevent him from es- 
caping. He lay there, watching the heating of the ovens wherein the 
bodies of himself and son were to be cooked. His son was surrounded 
by their captors. The old man pondered as to how he might save his 
son from death, and the thought came. He made the following 
remark to his son, as a hint for him to escape, at the same time not 
using words the meaning of which might be noted by the surrounding 
enemy : *^K ki ana an i vhangaia koe ki te ngtmge o te tamure o Wfum^a* 
panuij kia tiu koe, kia oha," (or kia rere) I thought that I had fed you 
on the fat-tailed tamure fish of Whanga-panui that you might be strong 
and swift. 

His son Bangi understood the hint and, turning to the waniorsv 
asked them for the loan of a taiahuy that he might once more go 
through the various guards and passes, <^c., pertaining to that weapon, 
and exhibit his skill therein. This was agreed to, and a clear space 
was left for him to perform the manual exercise of his favourite wea- 
pon. The admiring enemy surrounded him on all sides save the rear, 
where was a perpindicular cliff, beneath which ran the Tauranga river 
in flood. So Bangi gave his exhibition. Meanwhile his father was 
earnestly repeating the following tapmcae to enable his son to escape : — 

*' E Uma-e I I hoaia pea koe 
Ki te tapaae o fiongo-ka-bawahiwa 
Mai rere i ona aru he ngangaaa 
Te ta he arm ki tua o Papa-boaloki 
Te whenna i tAwhiti ra 
Awhitia mai kia piri, kia tela 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR^ 167 

Te moana i kaaia e wai ? 

Ko mana te tiatia, ko mana te hoihoi 

Hoihoi ta taku rangi he mamao 

Tarawa a uta, tarawa a tai 

Hiki a naunan 

Te rokohina koe te ahi a te hai nai 

Hoi nai no wai-e ? 

Hai nai no Papa-e 

Tenei i runga, tenei i rare 

Tenei i te iha motokia 

Pera hoki ra nga ora papa 

Bori noka, hiki papa, hiki taaa 

Hiki naka, hiki papa, hiki taoa 

Whakamoe te raahine, arai he awa 

Kia mana koe, kia haa 

Ma Tahiri-matea koe e kawe 

Ki ruBga ra ki ta raagi pooxi, 

Ei te rangi potango, ki te rangi 

Whakawhiti ki ninga.'* 

As the old man finished his silent invooation, he signalled to his 
son by a movement of his head. Bangi at once leaped to the cliff 
head and jumped into the river below, eventually escaping. But the 
grim old warrior, who had charmed the footsteps of his son that he 
might retain life, went down to Hades via the ovens of Maruiwi. 

One Tama-whai, an ancestor of the Tuhoe people, effected his 
escape from enemies by means of a tapuwae; at least his descendants 
say so, and they ought to know. His captors took a pole, sharpened 
it at both ends, and then thrust each end through a hand of their 
prisoner. Thus his arms were stretched out to their full extent, and 
each hand impaled on a point of the pole. He induced the enemy to 
dig for certain valuable greenstone implements which he said he had 
buried at the base of a post. While they were engaged in this task 
Tama was standing by diligently repeating his tapuwae. When 
finished he ran to the river bank and jumped over. He managed to 
break the pole across a rock, and thus, with free but maimed hands, 
succeeded in escaping."^ 

Tupe. — The word tape means " to deprive of power." Tup^hau 
(Aau, wind) is an ancient term for the verandah or porch of a native 
house. But the tupe we deal with here is a charm to deprive a person 
of power or strength to run. When pursuing an enemy you repeat 
the tupe charm, which so weakens the pmsued that you are enabled to 
surely catch him. Or if another pursuer is ahead of you and you 
want to pass him, the tupe comes in equally handy, he will fall 
psesently. 

* Mahuruhuru was the name of another ancient tapuwae. Also see A. H. M., 
by G. White, vol, 8, p. 124. 



168 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Punga. — This is another oharm {karakia) which is used by a pur- 
sued person in order to render the progress of the pursuer slow, and 
thus prevent him from catching the pursued one. It weakens a per- 
son and affects his speed. 

A pursued person will repeat the tapuwae to render himself fleet of 
foot, and then, waving his hand behind him, he repeats the punga: — 

He Kabaku pxtnoa.* 

" Rauihi. rauihi te ponRft i muri ra 
Ki kona koe ta mai ai 
Ta ki tupaa, tu ki tawhito 
E tu i kona 

Ta ki tupaa, to ki tawhito 
Tu ki man«anea.'* 

The ubiquitous Pio here asserts himself again. Just after the war 
party of Ngati-Maru passed through Te Teko en route for Te Taka- 
takanga, to attack the Ngati-Manawa, news arrived of the fight 
at Te Ariki between Ngati-Whare and Te Arawa. Pio volunteered to 
carry the news to Taraia, who was camped at Wai-o-hau. Te Tutare 
said that he would go as he had a horse, so he saddled up and started. 
Pio then pulled out on foot and, as he sped on at the tot (trot) of the 
old time Maori, kept reciting the punga charm to render slow the 
progress of the horseman, and the tapuwae to hasten his own. Bo 
effectual were these spells that Pio passed the horseman on the long 
descent from Ohui to the Rangi-taiki river at Wai-o-hau, and had 
already related the story of Te Ariki to Taraia when Te Tutere arrived. 
So much for Pio and the punga. 

It was a good thing to be fleet of foot in the old fighting days, 
before the firearms of the intrusive pakeha (Europeans) had brought 
all men to a level. We have given certain adventures which befell a 
war party of Te Whakatohea which invaded Tuhoe-land. We will now 
relate an incident which occurred during the march of another division 
of that band of invaders, under Tama-riwai, up the Whakatane river. 
The intention was that the two columns should converge on Rua- 
tahuna and destroy the people thereof, but the gods who live for ever 
were against it. Tama-riwai's party captured Te Whatu-pe of Tuhoe 
at Manga-o-hou, and Tama said, '* We will now proceed to the place 
of Te Manu-ka-tiu, but you will never catch him by running." The 
sons of Kokako remarked, ^*Ka rere it ki hea i nga kokako a KotikotiT' 
= How will he escape from the kokako of Kotikoti ? — the latter 
being their father's name. This was a double pun, Kokako being the 
name of their mother and also of a bird (the New Zealand crow). 
Shortly after they met Te Manu-ka-tiu on the trail. The two sons of 

' cj. Punga^tax anchor, to engulf. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 169 

Kokako sprang forward to capture him. Te Mann stepped behind a 
clump of pirita (a tough trailing creeper), and, gathering them 
together, pulled them back. As his pursuers came close he released 
the pirita, which sprang back and struck them, and when they 
had recovered from their momentary confusion, Te Manu was flying 
down the trail, crying out as he ran, '* That is the only way in which 
you will catch me; I now adopt the manu-kawhtiki (see ante)." Te 
Whakatohea knew that the tribes would be up in front of them, and 
decided to retire from so dangerous a country. Tama-ri-wai gave 
the order to retire, saying, *' I told you that you would not catch 
Te Manu-ka-tiu. Just think of his name." (Te Mana-ka-tia=sthe 
bird that soars). 

We will now touch on another peculiar trait in the Maori 
character. 

In 1871 the Ngati-Porou allies marched on Bua-tahuna, where 
they built the redoubt known as Eohi-marama and proceeded to 
subdue the turbulent Tuhoe, who by no means appreciated these new 
neighbours. Ngati-Porou expressed their intention of camping there 
until they caught two infamous leaders of the rebels. Then some of 
the Tuhoe people at once turned round and offered to guide our allies 
to where the desperadoes were living. One party, so guided, went to 
0-haua, to take Kereopa, the murderer of the Rev. Mr. Volckner. 
Kereopa and another native named Te Whiu were seen sitting in front of 
a hut and, when they caught sight of the party, they fled. Heteraka of 
Tuhoe, who was guiding our allies, called on Te Whiu to return, which 
he did, feeling safe when his own chief called him. Te Whiu then 
joined in the pursuit of Kereopa and, owing to his being the swiftest 
runner, succeeded in capturing him. Kereopa remarked that he knew 
ill -fortune lay before him because, when he swallowed the eyes of the 
Rev. Mr. Volckner, one of them stuck in his throat. The end of his attua 
(evil omen) was the hangman's rope in Napier gaol. So ended 
Eereopa-kai-whatu, the eye eater. 

Again, when Ngati-Porou were advancing on Maunga-pohatu, they 
came across a family of the enemy living in a most secluded spot in 
the bush. The man escaped, but his wife and children were captured. 
After that, at each wayside camp the Ngati-Porou chief caused some 
scrap of the clothing of these prisoners to be left behind. At one such 
camp an ambush was left when the column marched on. Shortly 
after they had left, the bushman came up and while greeting over a 
piece of one of his children's garments, was captured. When caught 



160 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

he at once offered to serve as guide to our allies and lead them i 
his own friends.* 

We have observed that the tapuwae and punga are wondrous 
effective, and passing useful to man. But there is another institution 
which is still more surprising to the pakeha mind. This was a most 
potent karakia which had the effect of contractihg the earth and thus 
causing the distance to be travelled much shorter. A most useful 
charm. No traveller should be without it. Listen ! 
" Takn tau kawe kino 

Taka taa kawe hara 

Nau mai, E te taa! 

Ea haere tana i mnga o Hniaran 

Eai waho o to Kami 

Kia marama ai te mihi 

Te tangi ki a koe 

Kamea ki roto 

Kamea mai noka, komea mai rangi 

Kumea te whenaa . . a . . a . . e 1 ** 
This was the spell used by Manu-nui of Tuhoe when in search of 
his son on the Huiarau mountains. It contains local allusions, &c., 
but serves our purpose as an illustration. 

I have heard some strange tales told by natives of various ingenious 
methods of concealment by persons when pursued and in danger of 
being caught, but have kept no notes thereon. 

When Ropata Wahawaha defeated the rebel natives at Te Earetu, 
over seventy were shot in the river, into which they had jumped. 
After the fight Bopata was looking at these slain and noticed one body 
floating in the water, the eyes closed and the nostrils just above water. 
The old chief said, *^ That man's eye is winking. Fetch him out" 
It was found that the wily rebel was not even wounded. But he was 
the next minute.f My old friend Tu, of Maunga-pobatu, was in that 
affair and, although fired upon, escaped by diving. 

When Bangi-te-ao-rere destroyed the Tini-o-Kawarero tribe of 
Mokoia island, the chief Kawarero could not be found. At length 
he was discovered out in the lake, his bead just out of water and 
concealed by a rock. The murderer of the captain of the *' Caroline" 
whaler at Eorohiwa (the Coalheavers), near Pori-rua, concealed 
himself in a similar and equally futile maimer. 

* ''Life ol Kopata Wahawaha," by Col. Porter. We mi^ add, that the 
reason why we find a captured man turning on his friends in this unnatural 
manner, is, that being in an exceedingly degraded and humiliated state of mind, 
be seises the first opportunity to assuage that feeling by killing imme on« in 
revenge — whether it is a former friend or not, is a matter of little oonseqaenoe 
according to Maori tikanga — some one mast suffer. There are many instanoas 
in Maori history of prisoners joining the ranks of their masten, and even *MMv>ining 
leaders against their own people. — ^Ed. 

t From '* Life of Major RopaU Wahawaha," by Col. Porter. 



MOTES OH THE ART OF WAR. 1«1 

I onoe heard a story of an old warrior who, when hard pressed, hid 
himself within a thick mass of climbing plants which oo^red tibe 
trunk of a tree. His pursuers proceeded to prod their spears into the 
mass to see if it concealed their quarry. One spear passed through the 
old man's arm, but he gave no sign. At last he was speared in the 
side, and the flinching of his body sent a quiver down the slender 
spear shaft that was the undoing of the old gentleman. 

In the Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. iv, p. 186, is an 
account of one Pakewa who concealed himself in a leafy karaka tree 
on the brink of a stream. He was discovered by the reflection in the 
water of his weapon, a white patu paraoa. 

When Ngati-Whare were defeated by the Wairoa natives at Bangi- 
houa, the fugitives fled back towards the forest ranges. On arriving 
at a hill-top overlooking the Wairoa valley, they stopped and raised 
the tajig^i (lament) for their dead whom they had left behind. 

When Ngati-Apa invaded the realm of Nga-Potiki, they were 
defeated by the latter and pursued up the Whakatane river. The 
pursued turned up a small tributary creek known as Manga-o-Tane, 
but were hard pressed by their pursuers. On arriving at a steep cliff, 
the pursued were unable to proceed farther, they were foiled (miere), 
and many were slain. During the pursuit many, lagging behind, 
were caught by Nga-Potiki. The place where each one was killed has 
since been known by his name. 

Ngai-Tai did better. Te Pane-nehu attacked and defeated Ngai- 
Tai at Wai-aua. The latter raised a force and marched to Whiti-kau. 
They were seen by the Pane-nehu, and pursued up the Taka creek. 
They came to a waterfall, in a deep- walled canon, where they made a 
stand and defeated their pursuers. 

The Ngai-Tane clan, with some of Ngati-Whanga, came from 
Whare-kopae, in the Turanga district, and settled at Te Pa-puni, 
where they were attacked by Te Mibi of Tuhoe. The above people 
are known to Tuhoe as Ngati-Eotore, they being the descendants of 
a man who received that name because he tried to pass himself off as 
a woman when caught by enemies. 

Heoi ! — We are aweary. We pursue no more. 

We have already referred to the sparing of the lives of enemies in 
war, and will now give a few anecdotes concerning the matter. 

When Tuhoe were marching to attack Ngati-Manawa at Te Tapiri, 
they took prisoner one Harehare Aterea, a chief of the latter people, at 
Ahi-kereru. Tuhoe were about to kill their captive, when Kereru, a 
chief, saved his life by throwing his own cloak over him. 



162 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

When the wretched remnant of Mna-npoko Tentnred from the 
remote gulches of the Tara-rua mountains to seek the protection of 
Te Whata-nui, they asked him, ** Can yon save us ?" The old chief 
replied, *^ Nothing but the rain from the heavens shall fall upon yon." 

When a chief promised safety to an enemy in battle, should the 
latter express doubts as to the power of the former to save him, that 
chief would probably reply, ** Where is the rain of the heavens that 
may fall from the brow of Tane-nui-a-rangi." 

The famous Awa-tope of Ngati-Awa saved the life of the murderer 
of his father after he had defeated him in battle, by casting his cloak 
over him. 

After the fall of Eai-uku pa, where the East Coast tribes were 
defeated, Potiki, a chief of Ngati-Maru, noticed a body of fugitives 
fleeing in the distance. He at once knew that they were travelling 
in that manner in order to save and protect a chief, otherwise they 
would have scattered. Me pursued and caught up to them. He 
captured one Eauhu who ^as carrying a child on his back. That 
child was Te Eani-a-Takirau, in after years the leading chief of 
the East Coast. Potiki lifted his patiti (iron hatchet) to strike 
down Kaubu, when the latter said, ^^ Kaua ahan e patiia ki te 
patiti tioiio taht" = Do not let me be slain with a one-edged 
hatchet— i.^. with a common sort of weapon. At the same time 
he drew his famous greenstone patUj known as Te Heketua, from 
his belt, and handed it to Potiki, saying '* tJ Ta ! Ina te patu hai patu 
i ahau, kia whakarongo maeneene ake ai aAati.'* = Here is the weapon 
to slay me with, that I may feel the softness of its stroke. Potiki was 
equal to the occasion. He gave his patiti to Eauhu, saying '*Here is 
a weapon for you. Go ! Be strenuous to save your child and self.*' 

If a chief calls upon a fleeing enemy to return and give himself up, 
he is not enslaved but treated as au equal. 

During the wars of Rua-toki a man's life was purchased from his 
captor by handing the latter a greenstone ear ornament. Tu-te-rangi- 
kurae, a chief of Ngai-Tai, was slain by the Whakatohea, who cut up 
the body and distributed the pieces thereof among their various 
clans, Ngati-Rua obtaining the head. Some time after, Ngai-Tai 
redeemed the head of their chief by giving a greenstone patu^ known 
at Wawahi-rangi, for it. 

Survivors of a fight in which their people met with a crushing 
defeat would often fly to rough, wild country and there remain until 
they could return to their land or, failing that, take refuge with some 
other tribe. 

Acts of desperate valour were termed \rhakamomori. They would 
occur in cases of blood vengeance or when a reckless warrior wishes to 
have imoa or make a name. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 168 

Prisonbbs, Slaves and Vassals. 

In the old-time native wars prisoners were taken and enslaved. It 
was looked upon as a great calamity and degradation by the Maori. 
Even if a person thus enslaved were to esape, or be permitted to return 
to his own tribe, the disgrace still clung to him, and also to his 
descendants. Cases are on record of a man slaying his own son, who 
has thus returned from a state of slavery, in order that the evil name 
should not go down to his descendants. Again, when the chief 
Tama-i-hara-nui and his daughter were taken prisoners by Ngati-Toa, 
the old chief strangled his daughter and thus saved her — from the 
Maori point of view. 

It is said that, when Ngati-Awa attacked Eare-tehe and his people 
at the Wai-horu ;>a, at 0-whakatoro, the above chief appeared dubious 
about the result of the fight, and actually buried his two children 
alive, lest they should fall into the hands of the enemy. 

Prisoners of both sexes sometimes married into the tribe of their 
captors. Women would be taken by men as inferior or slave wives. 
The children of such an union would be free but they, and also their 
descendants, would be always liable to be taunted with the fact that 
their ancestor was enslaved. There were, however, various degrees of 
such stigma, according to how the person was taken. Suppose we 
attack a pa and it fall to us. I find therein a child whom I take and 
rear. I may in after years, when angered, call him a slave. He will 
reply, **Apd he mea hopu nau, engari he mea tomo a whare,' * = You did 
not capture me, you found me in my own house. 

When a war party returned, bringing prisoners vdth them, the 
widows of those who had been slain would sometimes avenge their 
death by murdering a lot of the hapless prisoners."^ 

When prisoners were taken in war, it was often the custom to 
weave a piece of cord into their hair, to serve as a rope to lead them 
by and prevent their running away.f During their raid on Wai- 
rarapa, Nga-Puhi took many women prisoners. They compelled them 
to dress flax fibre and make some strong cords, which were plaited 
into the long hair of the women. By these cords the unhappy women 
were led about the country during the marches of NgaPuhi, until at 
length the prisoners managed to obtain some shells with which they 
severed the cords and so escaped. Other prisoners taken by the same 
party were fenced in with stakes, as the native dogs used to be served. 
These made a hole under the fence by digging and so escaped. 

* See many instances of this in the " Missionary Becord" for the 2nd and 
8rd decades of the 19th Century. — Ed. 

t They were made to walk before the person who held the cord. 



IW JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Prisoners about to be slain often asked permission to be allowed to 
chant a song before being killed, into which song they would introduce 
references to their tribal lands and their friends, &c. ^hen Taxna-i- 
rangi, the leading chieftainess of Ngati-Ira of the Wellington district, 
was taken prisoner at Oha-riu by Ngati-Awa, she thus sang a song of 
farewell to her people and the tribal lands, in which she referred to the 
various beautiful scenes of the forest-surrounded harbours and other 
matters dear to her and her people. 

In the fight of 0-tu- kai-marama, two men of Tuhoe, Wahawaha 
and Tipoka were taken prisoners by Ngati-Awa. These two men sang 
a lament before they were slain, greeting their friends and homes and 
bidding a last farewell to tribe and tribal lands. Next morning they 
were slain by the widows of those whom they had killed. 

Prisoners kept as slaves by another tribe would sometimes send the 
following message to their friends, ** Tukuna mat he kapunga dneons ki 
auy hai ean//t." = Send me a handful of earth to weep over. And they 
would send him a small parcel taken from his home, and over which 
he would lament {tangi) to his hearts content. 

When about to be slain a prisoner would sometimes say, '*Arahma 
ahau ki U rohe o taku tthenua j>atu ai, kia mihi ahau ki taku whmua.** 
= Conduct me to the boundary of my lands and there kill me, that I 
may greet my tribal home. And usually his request would be granted. 

Or, under similar circumstances, a prisoner might ask to be allowed 
to drink of the waters of some stream at or near his home, before 
being slain. He would either be conducted to such stream, or a 
messenger would be sent to procure a vessel of water therefrom — 
before he was despatched. 

The last food partaken of by a dying person is termed o maUnga,"^ 
The last drink of water taken by such, is known as the Wai o Tane-pL 

We have said that Whakatohea took Te Whatu-pe of Tuhoe 
prisoner during their raid on Tuhoe-land. Before he was slain he 
drank of the waters of the Manga-o-hou stream, on the banks of 
which his home was. 

Te Maitaranui, a young chief of Tuhoe, and Te Roro of Ngati- 
Manawa were invited to a feast by Tu-akiaki of Te Reinga, where they 
were treacherously slain. As his enemies were about to slay him Te 
Boro said, ** Do not kill me until I have drunk of the waters of Kai- 
tarahae.*' Te Maitaranui said, **He manu hou ahau, he kohanga ka 
rerea,*' s= I am a young bird, a nest but now deserted. This was, of 
course, an allusion to his youth, but that did not save him. A dreadful 
revenge was taken by Tuhoe and allied tribes for the death of this 
young chief. 

* I.e. Food for the joomej of death. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 166 

Conquered tribes are sometimes reduced to a state of vassalage, and 
compelled to set aside a portion of the products of lands and Waters, 
as a tribute to be taken to their conquerors. 

When the unhappy Ngati-Manawa were returned by Tuhoe to Te 
Whaiti, they prepared a quantity of preserved birds and took them to 
Rua-tahuna for the Tuhoe people. Te Purewa, of Ohaua, whose hand 
lay heavy upon Te Whaiti, considered himself aggrieved at not 
receiving any portion of the tribute. He said, " Na wai i ki tetahi 
kowhao kia purupurua, tetahi kia whakatuwhera'* — and at once organised 
his fighting men for a raid on the hapless and much harried Ngati- 
Manawa. His remark is an ancient saying, and refers to the caulking 
or plugging of the holes in the side of a canoe, through which the 
lashings of the side planks are passed, **Who said that one hole 
should be plugged and another left open ? '* The application is obvious. 

Col. Gudgeon gives an illustration of such vassalage and tribute 
paying in his paper on the East Coast tribes. '' The Ngati-Buanuku 
and Wahine-iti tribes were, after their defeat by Tu-whakairi-ora, 
subservient to that chief, and were required to bring him presents of 
food, sach as birds and rats. Even in this capacity they did not 

hesitate to exhibit their fierce and defiant character It is said 

they carried the food on the points of their spears and in this fashion 

laid the birds, &c., before Tu He took the hint and released 

them from their state of vassalage." 

Ngati-Ira appear to have been a similarly defiant people when 
living under the inana of Toko-rakau, inasmuch as the following 
saying was applied to them, **A'o 7iga pahura tenei a Toko-rakau^ kaore 
€ rorifjo ki te hie,'' = These are ih^pakura of Toko-rakau, who will not 
barken to the hie. The pahura is the swamp-hen which was a great 
raider of the cultivations in olden times. These birds were driven 
away by a cry known as hie, 

'♦ Hie ! Hie ! 
Haere ki U huhi, 
Haere ki te repo 
Hie! Hie," Ac. 

Awhenga, — This term was applied to people saved from an enemy 
out of a kind of pitying contempt. ** Should the Pu-taewa of Te 
Whaiti be defeated in war, and the survivors fly to us for refuge, and 
we give them shelter — that would be an anhenga because they are not 
our friends, although we have saved them. There is a certain amount 
of degradation in the term. If we assisted friends in that manner, it 
would be termed awhina, not airhenga.'' Awhina means '*to befriend,** 
whereas aire signifies '' to gather in a heap.'' 

(To be continued.) 
12 




THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 



By Likut.-Coi*. Gudgeon, C.M.G. 



Pabt IV. 



Kauria. 

IN this canoe came Wharewharenga-te-tangi and other ancestors of 
the ancient tribe of Ngati-Hako, who still live on the head 
waters of the Waihou (Thames) river. 

We might also quote Tu-te-puehu, Ngaengae-moko, Eapua-hora- 
hora and many other canoes, of which the names only have been 
preserved by tradition ; indeed the list might be indefinitely extended, 
but those already mentioned will be sufficient to show that we have 
grounds for the belief that the visits of roving parties of Polynesians 
were not by any means of rare occurrence during that period of unrest 
which would seem to have been felt by all branches of the Polynesians, 
about the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. But numerous as these 
canoe visits undoubtedly were, there were yet other ancestors of 
the Maori people who evidently despised so prosaic a mode of transit, 
and who succeeded in making their way hither, by means altogether 
strange and unheard of except among people of great viaua, such 
as the ancestors of the Maoris. The methods of transit, to whioh 
I have referred, are, I need hardly say, a source of great pride and 
satisfaction to the descendants of those who employed them ; for 
surely no living man delights and believes in the marvellous as does 
the Maori, and if perchance any one of my readers should desire 
to stand well in the estimation of the Maori he will do well to avoid 
scoffing remarks on the supernatural. 

We are told that one Tamarau, the ancestor of the Hapu-oneone, 
flew hither through space from Arorangi. I cannot say that I know 
of any place of that name in New Zealand, nor did my Tiihoe 
informants in the year 1890 ; but I have since learned that there is an 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 167 

Arorangi on, the Kainga-roa plain. I do not, however, believe that it 
was from the latter place that Tamarau flew, because he need not have 
done so ; he could have walked the few miles he required to pass over 
and thereby have avoided all notoriety ; we will assume rather that he 
came from the district of Arorangi in Barotonga, where there is a 
spring of water known as the well of Tamarau. 

In like manner it is related that Baka-taura, the great ancestor of 
the Ngati-Maniapoto tribe, disdained to enter the Tainui canoe, for the 
reason that he considered it a mode of locomotion suitable only for very 
common people, and therefore preceded his migration by travelling on 
the back of a taniwlui ancestor, whose name was Pane-iraira. I may 
here explain that the right to and the possession of taniwha as 
attendants, is an hereditary privilege of the Maori aristocracy; 
dependant only on the rank inherited by the individual from his 
ancestors, a patent of nobility accorded by the other world, and 
as necessary to the social status of a Maori rangatira, as was the 
banshee to a good old Irish family, or the family boat of the Grants 
on the occasion of the Noachian deluge. 

Concerning this Pane-iraira there can be no manner of doubt, for 
I am informed on the best Maori authority that he was last seen 
near the Island of Tiritiri-matangi in the year 1868, and that his 
appearance on that occasion was regarded as a pressage of coming 
disaster for the tribes of Waikato. Probably the Maoris had good and 
sufficient reason for believing that the appearance of this monster 
betokened evil days for them, for the impression was shortly after 
verified by the result of the Waikato war, in which the descendants of 
Baka-taura measured their strength against the Pakeha. Since there 
are in all communities a class of men who doubt everything that does 
not come within their own small experience, I may as well explain for 
their benefit that Pane-iraira was recognised on the occasion above 
noted, by the fact that this taniwha has a singular cavity or depression 
in the back of its head, constructed probably for the convenience of 
passengers, at any rate Baka-taura took shelter therein during his 
voyage from Hawaiki to New Zealand. While on this subject, it will 
not be out of place to explain that the Baka-taura family had more 
than usual )tiana over the monsters of the deep ; for instance, his 
daughter Irakau, had mana over all the fishes of the sea, and this 
power has descended to the Waitaha tribe, better known as the 
Whauwhau-harakeke of Piako, concerning whom we shall have much 
to say hereafter. 

In much the same mysterious manner several generations before the 
arrival of the Mata-atua canoe, the chief Irakewa came to Whakatane. 
Why he came is not known, but the tradition is to the effect that 
be was eaten by the Warehou and Araara. (fishes). That this tale was 



168 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

believed to be founded on fact, may be assumed from the circnmstftnoe 
that the Ngati-Awa paid so much respect to the memory of the 
deceased chief that for many generations — indeed until quite lately — 
they declmed to eat the two fishes in question. The only sensible 
action recorded of Irakewa is that he returned in spirit to Hawaiki, and 
there instructed his descendants as to the position of Whakatane, and 
informed them that it was theirs by right of his discovery ; he, more- 
over, indicated to Muriwai the position of a certain cavern, and 
intimated that it might be useful as a dwelling place. When the 
Mata-atua migration, following these instructions, arrived at 
Whakatane, Muriwai at once sought out and occupied the cave, 
the existence of which had been disclosed to her by the spirit of 
her ancestor, and which is known even to this day as the "Ana a 
Muriwai.'* 

Tradition relates that Kahutia-te-rangi, an ancestor of the Ngati- 
Porou tribe, was saved from instant death by one of his ancestral 
taniwha, on the occasion that he and 140 of the elder sons of his tribe 
embarked on board of the Huri-pure-i-ata canoe, and were deliberately 
wrecked in mid-ocean by his revengeful brother, Ruatapu, who is the 
ancestor of most of the people of the Cook Islands. Fortunately for 
Kahutia his presence of mind did not forsake him even when struggling 
in the water, and he invoked the aid of both Paikea and Huru-manu- 
ariki, who at one time were presumably men, since the Maoris 
invariably speak of them as ancestors, and as I can say with confidence 
that they have not as yet adopted the doctrine of evolution, it is 
evident that they believe that these taniuha were once men. Anyhow 
Paikea came to the assistance of his chief, and landed him safely at 
Ahuahu, which is popularly supposed to be Mercury Island in the Bay 
of Plenty, hut which was beyond all reasonable doubt the Island of 
Mangaia in the Cook Group. •= 

Tarawa, an ancestor of the Ngati-Toki section of the Whakatohea, 
claimed to have made the journey from Hawaiki to New Zealand 
swimming, and gained not only a wife, but also much kudos by relating 
his adventures to the simple aborigines of the Motu forest. I am, 
however, inclined to believe that his longest swim was from the 
Tainui canoe to the shore, and the fear he displayed when overtaken by 
a flood in the Motu valley, during the darkness of the night, induced the 
belief that the hero was not always truthful. Indeed, the family into 
which he had married, on the strength of his super-human feat, utterly 
disbelived the tale when they found that he was alarmed by a mere 
mountain floo<l. 

Tura, the ancestor of the tribe of that name, who reside at Patetcre, 
performed the same hazardous journey on a lump of pumice, at least 

One of the ancient namei of which waa A*cia*a — the RarotongHns do not 
pnmoance the *' h"— [Ed.] 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 169 

such is the tale told ; but I onoe heard a young man, who had been 
educated at Te Aute College, suggest that the legend had probably 
originated in the fact, that the canoe of Tura had been mamed Te 
Pungapunga (pumice stone). The suggestion was scouted oy all the 
elderly and therefore influential men of the villiage, and the 
boy only escaped being called an infidel, because that convenient 
epithet is reserved — it would seem — for the special use of advanced 
Christians. The youthful student succeeded in making his peace with 
his outraged elders, by explaining that he ought not to be held 
responsible for opinions, which were the natural result of Missionary 
and Government teaching ; and so like Galileo having judiciously 
recanted, he was forgiven. 

By the same simple expedient of pumice floats two adventurous 
men, named respectively Hoake and Taukata, succeeded in making 
their way from some unknown island of the Pacific to Whakatane. The 
tale told by the Ngati-Awa, of the Bay of Plenty, is to the effect that 
many generations before the arrival of the Arawa migration Hoake 
and Taukata, either despising the use of a canoe or being unable to 
obtain the aid of that very useful article, floated over the sea on lumps 
of pumice which were impelled in the right direction by the power of 
their karakia. The two men landed at the mouth of the Whakatane 
river, below the pa Kapu-te-rangi, which at that time was occupied by 
the descendants of Toi and the tangata whenua. The wanderers made 
the land in the early morning, and having come direct from the 
tropical islands of the South Seas they naturally felt the cold of th^ 
river valley, and fearing lest they should be frozen, Taukata uttered 
a karakia of great mana in order to cause the sun to rise and give them 
warmth. This invocation was overheard by Te Kura-whakaata (a 
daughter of Toi),* who had come down from the pa in order to obtain 
water from the spring, and she was the first to welcome the strangers, 
and led them into the stronghold of her tribe where the women had 
just commenced to prepare the morning meal by pounding fern root 
The noise attending this operation greatly astonished Taukata who 
asked if it was thunder, and generally behaved in the mannei: 
attributed to new chums. The two guests were kindly received by Toi, 
who ordered food to be placed before them ; and accordingly fern root 
— then and always the staple food of the Maoris — was placed before 
them, together with Ti (root of the dracoena), and Mamaku (pith of 
the tree fern). This variety of food was new to the Polynesians who 
hardly knew how to begin to eat, the whole of the food looking 
so suspiciously like wood. Their embarrasment was so obvious that 
Toi asked them after a while what food they were in the habit of eating 

* Some Native authorities saj she was a daughter of Tama-ki-Hikurangi, a 
descendant of Toi's, which from other things, seems more probable.— [Co.] 



170 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

in their own land. Hoake, by way of answer, opened his girdle, and 
taking therefrom some kao (dried kumara) which he had brought with 
him from Hawaiki, he placed it before Toi. The wonderful fragrance 
of this new article of food pleased the chief, who when he had eaten 
some, asked how he also might obtain a supply of the new vegetable. 
Taukata replied, *' By means of a canoe,'* and promised to aid Toi in 
his quest. After remaining a few weeks at Eapu-te-rangi, Taukata 
went out to search for a suitable tree wherewith to make a canoe, and 
found a log of stranded totara on the sea beach near the mouth of the 
Whakatane river, and this they soon converted into a canoe and called 
it Te Aratawhao. In this vessel, representatives of all those tribes who 
acknowledged Toi as their chief, embarked, viz., of Te Tururu-mauku, 
Te Ma-rangaranga, Te Raupo-ngaoheohe, Te Tini-o-te-tuoi, Te Tini-o- 
te-Makahua, and Te Kokomuka-tutara-whare. Everything possible 
was done to ensure success, and the karakia used was of such potency, 
that the voyage to Hawaiki scarcely lasted more than 24 hours. On 
their arrival at the last-named place they not only received a supply of 
seed kumura, but they were also instructed in the method of planting 
and storing the crop, and were moreover warned that if they witihed 
to retain the kumara as a permanent article of food in New Zealand, it 
would be well to appease the gods, by the sacrifice of some human 
being, and Taukata was suggested as the victim. This advice was 
carefully noted for future consideration, and Tama-ki-Hikurangi 
returned with his valuable cargo. The seed obtained was planted on a 
piece of land immediately under the puy and from that day the 
plantation has been called Matiri-rau ; and when in due season the crop 
had been gathered and stored in the underground houses provided for 
the purpose, Taukata was slain as an offering to the gods, and as a 
natural sequence the kumara permanently remained in the land. 

The same tradition relates that the Aratawhao escorted back a 
fleet of the following canoes : — Mata-atua, Takitumu, Nukutere, Te 
Arawa, Rangi-matoru, Turereao, Tokomaru, Kura-haupo, Tainui, and 
Tauira ; another canoe named Te Awe-kumu being left behind. This 
is the tale told by certain sections of the Ngati-Awa, to account for the 
introduction of the kumara, which it would seem was not known to 
the Maoris of New Zealand previous to the events I have now 
recorded. 

That there is probably something in this legend may be inferred 
from the fact that the Ngati-Porou have their version of the same 
story, the details of which arc even more incredible than the last. 
According to their version it was the god Kahukum, and his 
man friend Rongo-i-amo, who first introduced the kumara ; the latter 
carrying it hither in his famous girdle Uetonga. Now this god 
Kahukura had mana over the rainbow, and therefore it was that 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORt. 171 

he chose the aroh of the bow as the path or bridge whereby he might 
reach these islands, and not only did he himself arrive safely by this 
very uncertain path, but he also brought with him his friend Bongo-i- 
amo, who being a mere human being would under ordinary circum- 
stances have required something more substantial to travel over. But 
to the gods nothing is impossible, and tradition says that Bongo came 
by that part of the arch that is called the Whare-umu, and found Toi 
living in his house Hui-te-rangiora on the island of Hokianga in the 
Bay of Ohiwa. Here the travellers were hospitably received, and the 
usual Maori food placed before them, to their great confusion since 
to them it appeared that they were asked to eat wood. From this 
point the narrative follows pretty closely that of Ngati-Awa, except 
that it is said that Horouta was the canoe used by Tama-ki-Hikurangi 
on this memorable occasion, when he went to Hawaiki to fetch the 
kiimara. 

The Ngati-Hako of Ohine-muri claim that one of their ancestors 
came to New Zealand at the very commencement of history, when Te 
Mana-huri was sent by Tinirau in search of his pet whale that had 
been carried off by Kae. It is not said whether Te Mana-huri was one 
of the party that actually ascertained the fate of that animal, but it is 
probable that he was not, for the ancester in question and his 
descendants have ever since that period lived in New Zealand. 

The traditional history of the Maori justifies the belief that the 
earliest Polynesian visitor to these shores was Maui-potiki, otherwise 
known as Maui-tikitiki, son of Taranga, indeed we may say that he 
was the actual discoverer of the island, and hence in the figurative 
language of the Maoris, be is represented as having fished up the land 
from the bottom of the sea, using for the purpose a hook of great mana^ 
made from the jawbone of his ancestress, Muri-ranga-whenua. 
Certain it is that many of the most ancient tribes, who are spoken of 
as tangata wlienua (aborigines), claim descent from this Maui-potiki, 
and in this respect they are singular, forasmuch that all the later 
migration, who are known as the Hawaiki people, claim descent from 
the elder Maui, through Hema, Tawhaki, Wahie-roa, and Bata. 

The traditions of the Ngati-Porou, Ngati-Kahungunu, Ngai-Tai, 
Rongo-Whakaata, Ngati-Awa, and Tuhoe, show that they are all of 
the Maui-potiki family, but they all admit that their mana and 
nniffatiratam/a (prestige and rank) has been derived from some member 
of the Hawaiki migrations. It is only their right to the land that has 
been derived from the Maui-potiki branch of their family. Even at 
the present day there are one or two hapus (sections of tribes) who are 
almost pure descendants of Maui-potiki through Toi-kai-rakau, and 
this is specially the case with the Ngati-Ue-pohatu who own the land 
in the vicinity of Hikurangi mountain, near the East Cape, and who 



178 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

assert that Maui himself, is buried on the slope of that moontain 
These people have no knowledge whatever of the canoe in which their 
ancestors came to New Zealand, nor do they know the names of those 
who migrated hither. This ignorance is very strange, for there cannot 
be a shadow of a doubt, that they, like the Moriori of the Chatham 
Islands, are of Polynesian descent. It can only be accounted for on 
the hypothesis that they are of an exceedingly ancient migration. The 
tradition of the Tuhoe and Ngati-Awa is to the effect that the 
ancestors of Toi-kai-rakau arrived in the Ara-tau-waiti canoe, that one 
of them, named Maku, came from Hawaiki, but that another, Tiwa- 
kawaka, came from Mataora, a very different place. Very ancient tradi- 
tions, such as these, are necessarily incomplete, and perhaps un -reliable; 
but on one thing we may rely and that is that of all the well-known 
ancestors, Toi would seem to have been the first really domiciled in 
New Zealand. I have qualified this assertion by using the word ** well- 
known,'' for the reason that there are other Maori ancestors of ancient 
date, who are not claimed to be descendants of either Toi or Maui-potiki ; 
such are Eua-kapua-nui, of Nuhaka, and Bua-tipua, of the Upper 
Whanganui, concerning whom we know but little beyond the fact that 
their descendants regard them as tangata whenua, and do not know the 
canoe that brought them or their progenitors hither.* 

The fact cannot be disguised that we know but little of the Maoris 
or their history, and we may say, that from the very nature of things, 
we can never know much more than we now do ; but we may assume that 
the earliest migration from Polynesia landed on these shores not more 
than 82 generations ago, and this would give eight hundred years 
for the Maori occupation of New Zealand. It would also seem that 
during the first two hundred and fifty of these years, visits from all 
parts of Polynesia were of comparitively common occurrence, for 
throughout that period of unrest and activity, no less than 50 canoes 
are mentioned as having touched at these shores, and as their crews 
have, for the most part, left no descendants among the Maoris, it is a 
fair conclusion that they did not remain to colonize, but, being merely 
explorers, passed away to other islands of the Pacific, or perchance 
returned whence they had started. How little was thought of such a 

*NoTE.— The learned men of Mangaia, one of the Cook Group, believe that Toi 
went from that place to New Zealand, but they are quiet certain that he returned from 
the latter place in the Oumatini canoe, and en route landed at Nuku-to-Varovaro 
(Barotonga). That on his return to Ahuahu (Mangaia) Toi was known as Pau-te- 
anua, and his marae as Taumatini. Among other things recorded of this man is 
that he had a growth of bone on his heels like the spurs of a cock. 

We would suggest thst Pau-tc-anua mentioned in theabovo note is the same a<t 
Pon-te-anuanua, of Barotonga history, and who was a son of Taugiia. There is a 
good deal about him in the Barotonga MSS. in our possession.— [Ep. j 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 178 

voyage in tbose halcyon days of navigation, may be inferred from the 
tradition of the journey made by Ngatoro-i-rangi to Hawaiki, in order^ 
to avenge the curse of Manaia. 

In hke manner about ten generations ago, when the chief Pakiko, 
of Wai-apu, finding that he was likely to be assailed by the whole of 
the Ngati-Porou, with the view of avenging an injudicious speech made 
by a woman of his tribe, took to his canoes with the express intention 
of returning to Hawaiki ; it does not appear that they entertained the 
least doubt as to their ability to reach that haven of rest. From these 
circumstances I am led to infer that there was perhaps a time, when 
there were migrations both to and from New Zealand ; for in no other 
way can we account for and reconcile certain of the Maori traditions, 
wherein well-known Maori ancestors are shown to have resided both 
at Hawaiki and in New Zealand. 

Of all the many interestmg questions relating to the early history 
of New Zealand, by no means the least of them is the much disputed 
question of prehistoric inhabitants. It will be noticed that so far all 
the tribes I have mentioned, whether ancient or modern, have been of 
undoubted Polynesian descent, notwithstanding that they may, like 
the Moriori, dififer greatly from the Maori, and even show signs of 
Mpngol ancestry. There were, however, tribes known to tradition the 
names of which alone survive, who may have been Polynesians ; but if 
we may judge from the names given to them by the men of Hawaiki, 
were of a milder type and much less warlike than the true Maori. 
The following names were probably applied to these people by their 
enemies, but they fairly denote the character of the people to whom 
such names were applied. 

Te Raupo-ngaoheohe The undulating bolrosh 

Te Aruhe-tawiri The trembling fern root 

Nga-rarauhe-mamae The bracken m pain (or grief) 

Te Tau-harakeke The flax rope (ancient people of Kawhia) 

Te Papaka-whero The red crab 

Te Haere-marire Travel gently 

Te Eareke-hoehoe The scatttering qaail 

Te Marangaranga Sprung from the soil 

Te Tipapa The garment of Cordyline leaves 

Te Tururu-mauku Those who crouch beneath the mauku fern 

Te Tawa-rauriki The imall leaved tawa tree 

Te Karauhe-tarahunga The low growing bracken 

Te Puru-kupenga Those who fill the net 

Te Ngungu-kauri Those who fell the kauri trees 

The last-named tribe were the earliest occupants of Maraetai, 
in the Hauraki Gulf, and were enslaved by the Wai-o-Hua, who have 
themselves passed away as a tribe ; at the present day they are 
represented by the Ngati-tai. We might quote other ancient tribal 
names, but the foregoing will be sufficient to show what sort of people 
these must have been to have justified the application of such offensive 



174 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

names to them. If these people ever had a history not a whisper of it 
has been handed down to the present day ; not a word is said of their 
having offered a natural resistance to the aggression of the Maori, 
except on one occasion near Maketu, where they attacked and defeated 
Maru-kukere and the Tapuika tribe ; had they shown natnnd manliness, 
on any other occasion, the Maoris certainly would not have hidden the 
fact, for never did one of that race hesitate to admit valor in his 
enemy. One can hardly suppose that these early migrations from 
Polynesia could have lost their ancient vigor, except by inter-marriage 
with some alien and inferior race whom they probably found in 
occupation of the country'*' ; for surely two large islands like those of 
New Zealand were not absolutely desert when Maui-potiki paid his 
first visit ; such a condition of affairs would seem to be contrary to the 
economy of Nature. I do not contend that the people whom the 
Arawa migration found in possession of the country, and whom they 
called tan/jata whenua were autocthones, for they were even at that 
early period half-caste Polynesians, but I am of opinion that they were 
not the proud fierce race whom we know as Maoris ; on one point there 
need be no dispute, namely, that within two or three generations after 
the arrival of the Hawaiki immigrants, the latter had seized upon all 
the power and authority in the land. 

It may be contended that even though these tribes may have 
been destroyed by the Maoris, the latter must be largely descended 
from them ; and such may be the case in a limited degree. Whenever 
the half-castes displayed sufficient courage and ability, to justify their 
adoption into the Polynesian tribe, they were doubtless adopted, 
but certainly not as equals. Those, however, who had not the force of 
character, which is absolutely necessary in Maori tribal life, became 
mere hewers of wood and drawers of water, nor would their Polynesian 
blood do more than ameliorate their condition ; they doubtless became 
neither more nor less than servants to their pure-bred relatives, and 
were subject to all the dangers of a ser\ile condition. 

In the early days of Maori history tribes were conquered and 
enslaved in luuch the same manner as in modern times, but there was 
this difference : That in the early contests the countrj' was not over- 
populated, and therefore there were few, if any, lx)undary disputes, or 
of those instances of manslaughter whicli necessarily attend differences 
of opinion in connection with lands. For this reason the deadly 
element of i-evenge was for the most part wanting in the early contests 
for supremacy. Tribes were indeed conquered for having uttered a few 
idle words in depreciation of their neighbours ; but I am of opinion that 

* We should prefer putting it this way : whom they liad probably inter- nmrried 
with prior to occupying thih country. [Ei>. 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 175 

very few men were killed on such occasions. The pa would be taken 
either by assault or surprise ; those who resisted would be killed, and 
some of the most attractive women carried off; but the remainder 
of the tribe would be spared, and told to bring occasional presents of 
food to their masters. In all other respects their lives would move on 
in much the same manner, except that they would be vassals. They 
would remain a tribe, but would be under the mana of strange chiefs. 
No startling cruelties would be practiced on them, nor would there be 
any general massacre of young and old ; unless indeed it were 
found that they were becoming dangerously strong in numbers. It was, 
however, precisely this thing that could not well happen to a 
subject tribe, for should any of their masters during a visit see a very 
fine girl, she was at once be- spoken as a vdfe for some member of the 
dominant tribe, so that the masters were always increasing at the 
expense of the subject tribe. 

There was, however, a still more perilous liability attached to the 
vassal tribe, and it was this : If two rangatira tribes, or even 
individuals quarrelled, the fact might not justify those tribes or 
individuals in killing one another ; but it might be held to justify the 
injured party in killing the dependants of the other side, and in carry- 
ing off their women and children. The inevitable retaliation would, 
in like manner, fall upon the innocent vassals of the other side, and 
thus it will be seen that the circumstances incidental to slavery among 
the Maoris, would not take long to reduce the subject tribes to 
the position they occupied when the European first appeared upon the 
scene, namely, to a few inoffensive old men and women who were 
generally to be found in attendance upon the chief of their masters, 
and who were by no means unhappy in their lot. 

When also we consider that it was these conquered tribes who had 
to find the victims to give eclat to a great feast, to the building of an 
important house, or the launching of the great war canoes, the 
wonder is not that so many tribes have disappeared, but that any 
of the weak ones survive. 

In the matter of prehistoric inhabitants, we have not much evidence 
that can be called reliable, but what there is points to the conclusion 
that the early Polynesian colonists found an aboriginal population in 
possession of these islands. In fact that, ' the moa hunters ' of Sir 
Julius von Haast, were not mere creatures of his imagination, but a 
reality. It is very doubtful if the people of the Arawa migration ever 
saw a moa, for they have no traditions applying to that bird, excepting 
always the reference to the koromiko (veronica) as the wood that 
cooked the moa, and the proverb that refers to a moa as a wind eater. 
These proverbs, if they ever did apply to the extinct bird— which is 
by no means certain— may well have been adopted from the ancient 
tribes, who had beyond all doubt both seen and hunted the bird. Of 



176 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

the early navigator, Ngahue, it is recorded that he left HftwaUd 
in consequence of a quarrel with Hine-tu-a-honga and discoyered New 
Zealand, and that he visited Tauranga, Te Wairere*, Taupe, Eapiti 
and many places in the Middle Island where he found the greenstone, 
and made two axes, one of which was Hauhau-te-rangi, and an 
ornament called Kaukau-matua, and that on his return he met a 
moa at Te Wairere and slew it. Now the fact that Ngahue was able to 
give the uames of the places he visited is proof positive that the 
country was inhabited, even at that remote period ; but I cannot say 
that I think that the reliability of the tale has been improved by 
its adoption by certain people of Rarotonga; their tale follows 
too closely the lines of the Maori tradition, there is none of that 
variation that might reasonably have been expected, and the tradition 
does not appear to be generally known even to the learned men of the 
Island. ! 

There are Europeans who, although conversant with the history 
and language of the Maoris, are yet firmly of opinion that New 
Zealand was uninhabited up to the date of the last or Arawa migration* 
Why they should adhere to this opinion is not clear, for certainly 
it should not be deemed a matter for wonderment that there weie 
ancient inhabitants ; the marvel is that the fact should ever have been 
doubted. *' It is," says a learned writer, ** a matter of history that 
no country is found deserted by an invading or migrating race ; also thai 
no race, however long established, or however indigenous it may deem 
itself, but will be found to have come from somewhere else if we can 
only get back far enough to find out." The writer might perhaps have 
added these words : And there is no race, however long it may 
have been in occupation of a country, but will be found to have a more 
or less well-defined tradition of other and more ancient occupants 
whom they had destroyed or absorbed. 

In New Zealand we have tradition of an ancient and probably 
indigenous people. The Nga-Puhi claim that the first tribe to occupy 
the land of the North Island were the Kui, who were left here 
by Kupe, the great navigator ; that they were followed by the Tutu- 
maiao, who inter- married with the Kui, and tiually destroyed them. 
Lastly came the Turehu, who attacked and destroyed the Tutu-maiao, 
and were themselves destroyed by the Maoris. Wo may safely ignore 
that portion of the tradition which states that the Kui were left 
here by Kupe, for that man was by no means the first Polynesian 
to visit these shores; indeed, according to the Maori tale, he was 

•Query. Wairorc at Whakataiie. — Eu. 

] Wc differ from Col. (iudegon here. Surely old Taiuarua, of lUroiuiiga, was 
an authority, and a " learned man" — more so, we think, than any now U? in>;. — £u. 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 177 

contemporary ^ith the Arawa migration, and therefore of com- 
paratively modern date. The real value of the tradition lies in the fact 
that it admits the existence of a people in New Zealand who were 
not Maoris.* 

The Southern tribes of this island invariably speak of the Turehu 
as fairies, or, at any rate, regard them as supernatural beings, and 
assert that they had red hair. Why they should have given this tribe 
of strangers red hair it is difficult to say, unless indeed they were 
a race of men who had red hair, for it is neither a cause of reproach 
nor matter of astonishment among the Maoris of New Zealand, seeing 
that the highest type of Maori is often an Urukehu, that is, a golden or 
red haired man. When the great fighting chief of Ngati-Rereahu had 
to fight the musket-armed Nga-Puhi with wooden spears, it is said 
that he chose 150 Urukehu for that purpose and utterly destroyed his 
foes. It is therefore clear that it was supposed that the Urukehu was 
superior as a fighting man to all other types, and if this be so, 
his superiority in all things may be assumed, for all the gifts within 
the power of God are mere lumber if personal courage be withheld. 

The Ngai-Tamatea, of Mangonui, claim that the ancestor, Tamatea, 
was on the mother's side, descended from one Kare-tehe, a chief 
of the Turehu, and the Nga-Puhi, of Hokianga, have a tradition to the 
effect that there was a time when the Maoris were ignorant of the art 
of catching fish by means of nets, and that they learned the very 
useful work of net making from the Parau, a tribe of Turehu, 
who lived in the mountains, but who came nightly to the sea to 
fish and always disappeared before sunrise. It would seem that the 
Maoris knew that the Parau were in the habit of visiting the sea 
coast nightly, but never could discover by what method they caught 
their fish, until a very fearless^ man lay in wait and joined them 
unobserved, he even volunteered to assist in stringing the fish together, 
and was most industrious, but he purposely omitted to fasten the end of 
his flax line, so that the fish slipped off one end as fast as they 
were threaded at the other. The Parau, alarmed at the approach 
of daylight, urged him to hasten his work, but by various devices 
he delayed them until the first rays of the sun appeared above 
the horizon ; then the Parau fled in confusion, leaving behind them some 
of their nets, which were subsequently copied by the Maoris, who 

*We submit that the Nga-Puhi traditions referred to do not authorise the 
belief that these early people were other than Poljnesians.— Ed. 



178 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

in this way not only learned to make nets, but even to improve upon 
those of the Parau.* 

Such are the traditions of the North Island on the subject of 
prehistoric man, and those in the Middle Island follow in the same 
groove, for we hear of the Eahui Tipua (herd of demons) who 
were giants and man eaters, fighting with the Bapuwai, and that the 
latter were exterminated by the ancient tribe of Waitaha. This 
last tribe are now claimed as an off-shoot from the Wai-taha, of the 
Arawa migration ; but the claim is absurd, as might easily be shown, 
for the chiefs, Euri and Tuahu-riri, who, it is said, left the Bay 
of Plenty to colonize the Middle Island, are not the ancestors of 
Waitaha of the South, who had been destroyed before the two 
chiefs were ever heard of. It seems probable that the tradition to 
which I have referred, relates to the former existence of a race of men 
distinct from the Maori, and hence the tales about the Waero or 
Mohoao (bush people) whom the Maoris believe to have existed almoBi 
to the time of the Pakeha. 

There is yet another and more important reason for presuming the 
former existence of an ancient and non -Polynesian people ; and that is 
the peculiar and highly conventional carving and moko (tatooing) 
of the Maori. It seems beyond a doubt that they did not bring 
this carving or moko with them from beyond the seas, for it is not 
to be found in any Polynesian or Melanesian Island ; and it is hardly 
possible that the complicated designs that may be seen, even in 
the oldest Maori carvings, have been the indigenous growth of a 
few hundred years. Very many beautiful specimens of carving 
have been found deeply buried in swamps, where they have probably 
lain for seven or more generations, but in these we see no sign 
of the prentice hand. They are generally of the same t}'pe as those of 
the present day though better finished, and of a pattern to be 
found in New Zealand only, but when or where originate<l we know 
not. 

There are many things in the Pacific, the history of which we shall 
never know, though we may feel very certain that the Polynesians 
were neither the most important people nor the first to colonize 
the islands of that sea ; nor had they anything to do with those relics 
of old times to which I refer. Who, ask.s Mr. Sterndalo, orocted the 

*Thi8 tradition of (he fishing net being known to (he people of Nine (see 
J.P.8., Vol. xii., p. 94), it clearly is not indigenous in New Zealand nor to 
Nine. It is probably far older than the migration of the Polynesiantt into 
the Pacific. In oar opinion it iR the Kame with the light haired people, and 
both traditions are merely localised versions of the firbt contact of the PolyncAiana 
with the light-coloured maritime people, from whom the former learned the 
art of making fish nets.— Ed. 



THE WHENCE OF THE MAORI. 179 

remarkable Cromlech on Tonga-tapu that is unlike all others of 
which we have record, inasmuch that on the top of the horizontal 
slab, in a depression evidently made by the hand of man, there 
is a round ball of stone, probably an emblem of some long forgotten 
religion ? As to this Cromlech, the present theory is that it was 
made by the first Polynesians who arrived on the island. This tale I 
simply pass by, the Tongans did not know this 40 years ago — How, 
then, have they learned the fact since that period? Cromlech's 
are not built without some sound reason, and if the Tongans built 
it we shall be glad to hear from them on the subject. We shall want 
to know the religious significance of this widely-distributed stone 
emblem, for if the Tongans erected the stones they know why they did 
so, and the significance to be attached to them. So also the great 
marae or pyramid on the same island ; this may have been built 
by the present inhabitants, for the use of the fnarae is known to 
all Maori tohungas ; but of the building of this relic of the past 
not even the natives have a record, and if their ancestors ever did 
know, such knowledge has now been lost. This fact is in itself 
sufficiently remarkable to those who know and can appreciate the 
astounding memory of uncivilised man, and the careful manner in 
which the traditional history of the past has been preserved and 
handed down from father to son, as part and portion of the religious 
exercises of the M6U)ri people. 

By whom also were the remarkable structures of Ualan, Ponape, 
and other islands of the Western Pacific built ? — ruins which in some 
measure seem to typify the seven circles of Meru, that mount and 
centre of the Bhuddist universe. Are not these the imperishable 
records of some most religious and industrious race who have passed 
utterly out of the memory of man ? Much nearer home we have 
the interesting specimen of Tamil industry, Mohoyded Buks ship's 
bell and its unknown history; it is one of the many mysteries of 
the Pacific, and we shall never know how it was brought from India 
to New Zealand. 



MYSTERIOUS RELICS. 



Bt Joshua Rutland. 



^N various places within the bush, along the shores of the Peloms 
^ Sound, New Zealand, very symmetrical egg-shaped stones, 
foreign to the locality have been picked up, evidently relics of the 
ancient inhabitants of whom there are everywhere traces. Two of 
these stones in my possession, one well polished, the other nearly 
smooth, weigh respectively 64 and 74 ounces. The use of these stones 
I have not been able to discover, but the following passage in a 
letter from Colonel Smythe, who in 1860 was sent by the British 
Government as Commissioner to Fiji, may throw some light on 
them : — 

*' Mr. Waterhouse held a short ser\uce in English in Hany*8 
house. In the afternoon we left Namusi, and ascended the secluded 
and lovely valley in which it lies. On reaching the sacred place, 
whence the Bewa god Wairua was said to have drifted, we stopped to 
examine it more closely, and asked the guides to point out the exact 
spot. They indicated a hole in a small tree by the side of a stream a 
few yards from the path. Manoah put his hand into the hole 
and brought out an oval stone of very regular form, about the size of 
a swan's egg ; the guides said that was the god. Manoah again pot 
in his hand and brought out some small stones of a similar shape, 
which they said were the god's children. We then began to question 
them about the god, on which they looked very grave, and pressed 
us to move on. Manoah wanted to throw the stones away, but as the 
act would only have irritated the natives without doing any good, we 
desired him to restore them as ho had found them.* In addition to 
these oval stones a number of equally symmetrical but much larger, 
nearly spherical stones, have k'on found in the Sounds and in 
the Pelorus Valley ; one of these, 26 inches in circumference which I 
possess, was discovered in very dense bush on a hill at Four-Fathom 
Bay, Pelorus Sound. I have heard of another that was found 
in a hollow tree, and of one concealed in a fork of a large tawa 
tree. Six of these stones which I examined were very much alike 
in sha^x^ and size, and several others described to me must have been 
very similar. These stones have the appearance of waterworn boulders, 
but how such a number of boulders so nearly alike were obtained it is 
difficult to conceive. I have repeatedly questioned both Maoris and 
Europeans, but have not been able to obtain any satisfactory 

' ** Six months in Fiji," by Mrs. Smythe. 



MYSTERIOUS RELICS. 181 

explanation of these curious relics. Traces of stone-worship in the 
Malay Archipelago have been noticed by various writers. 

To Mr. H. 0. Forbes we are indebted for the following account of 
the temples and Luli stones of Timor : — 

*' It is not very easy to obtain a good idea of the interior arrange- 
ments of the lhna-L\ili, as it is impossible for heretics to get within it 
or often very near it. Even natives of Timor, who have become 
nominally Sirani (Christian), are prohibited from entering it ; but by 
sedulously questioning those who knew, I was able to gather that 
of the two doors (whose direction does not seem to be a matter of 
importance) one is reserved for the Dato-Luli or chief priest, and the 
other for the persons consulting the fates to enter. By the Batons 
door no one but himself may enter ; it opens into a portion railed off 
by ornamented wooden pillars from the larger portion of the buildipg 
into which the people have entrance. In the smaller part are 
preserved different articles of veneration — the cranium of a buffalo, a 
spear, a shield, a chopper, a gun (almost falling to pieces, and of 
an old, old pattern, my guide told me, ** yet it is more powerful than 
any other gun however new.") Besides these there is a bag contain- 
ing the vestments of the priest, which are a broad band of scarlet cloth 
for his head, a circular breastplate of gold, worn suspended from the 
neck, two gold discs, about 15 centimetres in diameter to cover the 
ears, a broad crown of gold with two long buffalo-like horns of the 
same material projecting from it, and gold armlets and earrings. 
Within this enclosure there is besides the most sacred object of 
all —the y a til- Luli or stone on which the offerings are laid 
to the invisible deity. Each of these stones they believe to 
have been given to the people of Timor when the uni- 
verse was made. In the larger portion of the building there is 
a fire-place, and vessels and utensils sacred to the use of the Uma 
LhU,'' Besides the sacred stone in the Uma Luli each residence had 
what may be termed a household god. ** If a man has an ordinary 
sickness in his house he does not consult either of the larger Luli 
houses, but offers a fowl or a pig to the Luli at a little railed off 
portion in his own house."'*' 

Unfortunately Mr. Forbes has given no description of the Luli 
stones ; but from the tradition regarding their origin it seems evident 
that they are natural, not artificial. After reading Mr. Forbes account 
of the Timorese idols and Colonel Smythe*s description of the Fiji god, 
the question immediately presentes itself, are the mysterious relics 
brought to light through the destruction of our forests, the fossil 
remains of an extinct religion ? 

'Naturalist's wanderings in the Malay Archipelago, H. O. ForbeSp 



THE MAKING AND UN-MAKING OF MAN. 
(A LEGEND OF FIJI). 



By E. Tregear. 



Y^HE great god Degei," who is the impersonation of eternal existence, 
dwelt in a cave in the sacred valley of Na Eauvadra. As 
the god appears to men, his form is that of the serpent of wisdom, bnt 
the lower part thereof is of stone, the symbol of everlasting duration. 

As Degei one day passed along the valley he perceived that 
the snipe (kitu) had built a nest and therein had laid two eggs. 
Thereupon the god resolved that these eggs should receive divine 
protection, and, covering them with his influence, he brooded over 
them until the eggs grew warm with life. Then the shells divided, 
and forth came a boy and girl, the primal pair whose eyes first saw the 
great ocean and land, the future home of men. Degei removed the 
twins from the nest, and placed them in safety from the hot rays 
of the sun, under the shadow of a gigantic vesi tree (the ** green heart** 
of India ; Afzelia bijuga). Here the god tenderly watched over them, 
nourishing them with delicate food day by day, until they were 
about five years old. Tp to this time, however, the children had 
not seen each other, for the vast trunk of the tree was between 
them, and they had not known of the existence of other l)eing8 
than their foster-doity. 

But the boy, peeping round the tree, discovei*ed his little mate, and 
with celestial cleverness prompting him said, *• girl, the great 
unborn gods (kalou ru) have brought us two into existence in order 
that we may have children who shall people this land.'* Then Degei 
put forth his power on the soil of Viti, and the ground proiluced yams, 
nddhi {tartf) and bananas for their fooil ; green and pleasant the leaves 
sprouteil, and the roots were pleasant to the taste, as the fruits were 
delicious on the trees. The gods of the sea brought fish to the growing 
children, and to them was taught the secret of the wooils in which the 
seed of fire is hidden, to bo brought forth by friction. And on 

' NoTK. l*n.moiinc*d Ndoti^'ei. 



THE MAKING AND UNMAKING OF MAN. 188 

the burning ooals the roots of yam and ndalo were cooked, but on 
the fire the bananas were not laid. Thus, under the shadow o( the vest 
tree grew up our first parents till the years brought them full strength 
and stature. Then the pair became man and wife, and their 
descendants peopled the land. 

There came a time when this father of men grew very feeble with 
the weight of years, and his eyes were dark with death, so his 
soul left his body and went to Mbolutu, that he might dwell for ever 
with his divine foster-father Degei. While his body was being buried 
by his sons a god appeared to them and said, ** What are you doing ?" 
The men replied, '* This is the body of our father who is dead, and we 
are burying it.** Then said the god ** He is not dead. The body 
must not be buried ; take it up out of the grave.'* The sons were 
obstinate, and answered, " Our father is surely dead ; he has been 
dead for four days, and the corruption causeth the corpse to stink.*' 
" Take up the body,*' said the god ; ** I tell you that he yet liveth." 
Then the sons grew angry and repeated their statement that their 
father had been four days dead. They refused to take the body from the 
grave. The air shook with thunderings and grew dark with the scowl of 
the off'ended deity, who said, ** Listen to the words of the gods. The 
banana when it is green is buried in the earth for four days. Under- 
neath the soil it grows ripe ; then it is dug up again and is fit for use 
as food. As the banana is ripened to something better, so would you 
have found the body of your father had you listened to the commands 
of the Heavenly Ones. So also would it »have been with your bodies 
and those of your children ; but you have been wicked and deaf to the 
instruction of the gods. Now there shall be death to all — death 
for your father and your mother — death for you and for your children 
— death for man and woman — all shall die, and there shall be no 
escape nor deliverance. All shall rot, and there shall be the end.'* So 
when the first man died, the death of all men was made certain 
by disobedience to the gods. 



WHO DISCOVERED TAHITI? 185 

Spain in the year 1607. In the year 1606, however, he passed 
through the Tuamotu or Low Archipelago, on his way to Santa Cruz 
Island, on which occasion he discovered the New Hebrides, or, at 
least, the largest island of that group, which he named the Tierra 
Australia del Espiritu Santo. But, to return to the first quotation, I 
had a little difficulty in disentangling the jumble that brings in 
de Queiroz's name with the isla d'Aamav and the establishment of 
a settlement there, because I knew that their was no such name 
as Ula iVAaiiiar in all de Queiroz's nomenclature. I knew also 
that de Queiroz had never attempted any settlement in that part 
of the South Pacific Ocean. 

The mention of settlement, however, brought back to my mind 
Boenechea's attempt to colonize Tahiti, nearly two centuries later, in 
the year 1772 and 1774, and the name which he gave to Tahiti 
in commemoration of the Viceroy and Governor- General of Peru 
and Chili flashed across my mind : ida (VAatnav, I thought, must be 
meant for Lsla d'Amatl Thus the statement that ** in 1767 Wallis 
discovered the group again, for the Spanish visits had been ineflfective 
in civilizing or colonizing the islands" is rather amusing, and partakes 
of the nature of what happens in '* Alice in Wonderland," when the 
Red Queen screams piteously and bandages her finger beforehand 
because she is going to cut it. But this is the way some people write 
history, and the ** Encyclopoedia Britannica," in the six columns of 
matter devoted to Tahiti, never mentions Boenechea's visit in 1772, 
although it names many small islands discovered by some (?) Irishman 
named Boenshea. How has all this confusion come about, and 
who really did discover Tahiti ? I will answer the last question first. 
Captain Wallis, in 1767, in command of the Dolphin, is, undoubtedly^ 
the first European to discover that island, which he named King 
George Island ; so that the honour belongs to England. Now, as to 
the supposed Spanish discovery in 1606 by de Queiroz. I think I can 
tell how that mistake came about, although I have not yet come across 
the arch -culprit who first made the statement, for de Queiroz himself 
never did, nor do any Spanish or Portuguese authorities, set up a 
claim for de Queiroz. On the 10th and 11th of February, 1606, 
de Queiroz discovered an island (to the south-east of Tahiti)', which he 
called La Saffitaria. The members of the little Spanish fleet were 
badly in want of wood and water, especially water; they found no 
drinkable water on the island, and were obliged to quench their thirst 
with cocoa-nuts. A passage, in the description of the island, speaks 
of a shallow, sandy, and narrow channel, between two little woods 
(Bosquecillos) which, at high tide, communicates with the other 
sea (lagoon) on the other part of the island. For anyone acquainted 
with atolls, in which the entrance to the interior lagoon is through a 



186 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

narrow channel, the above description is intelligable enough. But the 
person who first misinterpreted the Spanish text of Torqnemada was 
evidently ignorant of the Spanish language and of the pectdiar 
conformation of coral islands ; and, for him, the sandy channel between 
the two woods became a sandy neck of land. Now, this narrow neck 
of land is the corpus delicite, the nail on which all the mistakes were 
hung, for there happens to be a narrow neck of sand on Tahiti. 

A sandy isthmus divides Tahiti in two", and so it came to pass that 
the hitherto nameless arch-culprit (I'll find him out someday), jumped 
at this narrow neck and came to the conclusion that de Queiroz landed 
in Tahiti. A conclusion which is utterly inadmissible, because de 
Queiroz's lieutenant Torres, describes La Sagitaria as a flat island, and 
no fresh water was found there. It was, in fact, an atoll ; whereas 
Tahiti is a very mountainous island, with a plentiful supply of freBh 
water which may be seen from a ship at sea, flowing down the sides of 
the hills. Then the longitudes and latitudes, mentioned in the 
Spanish texts, do not correspondence with Tahiti, whereas they do 
correspond with atolls to the south -south -east of Tahiti where de 
Queiroz *R Sagitaria must be looked for in the Tujimotu (or Paomotu) 
group. 

HoRNSBY, N.S.W . 

25th Fob., 1903. 



* [Mr. Gollingriclgo is himself in error here. The isthmus that joinft the main 
islHnd of Tahiti (Tahiti -nui) to the leBser one (Tahiti-iti) is known at Tarav»o» 
and is formed of land about 100 feet above sea level. It ia of voloanic formation 
and generaUy covered with wood, but partly open land and the roil fairly good 
but there if< no sandy ueck. -£dI. 



A NEW MAORI DICTIONARY. 



©UB members will have noticed incideDtal reference in the 
pubhc press to a new Maori Dictionary about to be under- 
taken. Below, is printed a copy of a circular from the 
Rev. H. W. Williams, M.A., who has undertaken the very heavy 
task of compiling the large amount of existing matter, and seeing 
it through the press. The Dictionary is to be published under the 
auspicies of this Society. The Council, on becoming aware of the 
large amount of MS. matter in existance, approached the Government, 
with a view to securing their approval and help, for it is considered 
an object in which the state may fairly be called on to assist in 
making this unpublished material available to scholars. The 
Government appears inclined to meet the request of the Council 
in a liberal spirit; so we may hope to see the new Dictionary an 
accomplished fact. We draw attention to the matter here with a 
view to asking the many Maori scholars amongst our members to 
render all the assistance they can in the direction indicated in 
Mr. William's circular. 

In the fourth edition of ** William's Dictionary/' and in Tregear's 
*' Maori Comparative Dictionary " there are, roughly speaking, about 
fourteen thousand words and meanings given. The new matter 
which has been collected siuce the publication of those works and which 
will appear in the new Dictionary, will probably amount to about 
six thousand additional words and meanings. In addition to the 
collections mentioned in Mr. William's circular, help has been 
promised from Messrs. A. Shand, G. H. Davis, Ed. Tregear, and 
A. H. Turn bull, and we have no doubt other collections will be 
forthcoming when the object is known. It is probable therefore that 
the new Dictionary will be an important help to the study of the 
** Great Polynesian Language," the interest in which is growing from 
year to year. It may be convenient to summarise h^e, what has 
been done and is doing, in connection with the Polynesian language, 
in rendering it available for scholars. 

1. The ** Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary," Ed. Tregear, 
1 Vol., 675 pages. Lyon & Blair, Wellington, New Zealand, 1891. 



188 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

2. A ** Dictionary of the New Zealand Language," 1 Vol., 823 
pages, Right Rev. W. Williams, D.C.L. ; 4th Edition by Archdeacon 
W. L. Williams, B.A. (now Bishop of Waiapu). Upton & Co., 
Auckland, 1892. 

B. A " Maori-English Lexicon," Part 1, Maori-English, 182 pages 
(to the letter A only), Rev. W. Colenso, F.R.S., and F.L S., 
Wellington. Government Printer, 1898. 

4. A "Tahitian and English Dictionary" ^dth Grammar, (By 
the Rev. Davies ?), 323 pages. Tahiti, 1851. 

5. An " English and Tongan Vocabulary " and Grammar, 1 Vol., 
258 pages, Rev. Shirly, W. Baker, M.D., D.M., LTj.D., (with which 
is incorporated th(» Tongan Vocabulary by Rev. Stephen Rabone), 
Vavau, 1846, pp. 217. Auckland, 1807. 

6. A ** Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language" 
1 Vol., page 416, Rev. Geo. Pratt; 3rd Edition by Rev. J. E. Newell, 
The Religious Tract Society, London, 1898. 

7. A ** Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language" 1 Vol., 559 pages, 
Lorin Andrews. Thos. G. Thrum, Honolulu, 1865. 

8. ** Dictionnaire Futunien-Fran9ais," 1 Vol., 301 pages, Le. P. 
Grezel, Paris. Maisonneuve et Cie, 1878. 

9. ** Dictionnaire Toga Fran^ais," 1 Vol., 422 pages. Par les 
Missionnaires Maristes, Paris. Ch. Chadenat, 1890. 

10. A ** Dictionary of Mangareva," 1 Vol., 121 pages, Ed. Tregear. 
Published by the Governors of the New Zealand Institute. Wellington 
Government Printer, 1899. 

11. A "Paumotu Dictionary," 1 Vol., 160 pages, Ed. Tregear. 
Published by the Polynesian Society, Wellington, 1895. 

12. ** Phrase-book for the Cook Islands," 1 Vol., 81 pages, 
Frances Nicholas. Wellington, Government Printer, 1898. 

13. ** Dictionnaire Latin-Uvea," Par le P. A. C, 1 Vol., 185 pages. 
Paris, Poussielguo freres, 1886. 

14. ** Vocabulaire Ocoanicn-Franvais," (Hawaiian and Marquesan), 
1 Vol., 318 pages, L*Abbe Mosblech, Paris. .Jules Renouard ot 
Cie, 1843. 

15. ** A Short .... Hawaiian Grammar," 1 Vol., 59 pages, 
Prof. W. I). Alexander, Honolulu, 1891. 

16. **Te Akataka Reo Rarotonga," Rarotonga- English Grammar, 
1 Vol., 78 pages, Rev. A. Buzacott, Rarotonga 1854. 

17. '* Dictionnaire Samoan -Franyais," (of which we have no 
further particulars). 

18. "Vocabulary of the Language of Nine,'* 14 pages, Harold 
Williams, Journal Polynesian Society, Vol. II., pages 17 and 65. 

19. ** Vocabulary Tongareva Dialect," 4 pages, 8. Percy Smith, 
Transactions New Zealand Institute, Vol. XX., 1889. 



A NEW MAORI DICTIONARY. 18fl 

20. <<Voeabalary Nukuoro Dicdeot," F. W. Christian, Jtmmal 
Polynesian Sooiety, Vol. VII., page 224. 

21. A short vocabulary of the dialect of Stewards' Island 
(Sikaiana) contained in Cheynes' '' A description of the Islands of the 
Western Pacific/' 1852. 

22. '' The Tonguse Grammar," 48 pages, by Bev. Thomas West. 
(Published as an Appendix to ** Ten Years in South Central Polynesia," 
London, Jno. Nesbit & Co., 1865.) 

To the above may be added the following, which, whilst not 
strictly dialects of the Polynesian language, are necessary to its 
study : — 

" A Fijian-English Dictionary and Grammar," 1 Vol., 847 pages. 
Rev. D. Hazlewood ; 2nd Edition by Kev. Jas. Calvert, London, 1872. 

'' Grammar and Vocabulary .... Motu Language," New 
Guinea, 1 Vol., 108 pages. Rev. \V. G. Lawes, Sydney, 1885. 

'' A Mota Dictionary," the Rev. R. H. Codrington and Archdeacon 
J. Palmer, S.P.C.K., 1896. 

*' Dictionary of the Efate Language," Rev. D. Macdonald. 

We may add that a Vocabulary of the Nine dialect, comprising 
some 2,500 words, by Ed. Tregear and S. Percy Smith is nearly 
ready for publication, and that our corresponding member, W. 
Churchill Esq., late U. S. Consul General at Samoa is also preparing 
a new Samoan Dictionary. Further, a Marquesan Vocabulary is 
also in hand, and the materials for a Rarotonga Dictionary are 
accumulating. 

Many Vocabularies of the New Guinea dialects will be found 
in the Annual Reports of the Administrator of the Government of 
New Guinea. 



Te Rau, Gisborne, 

September 10th, 1908. 
Dear Sir, 

As you are doubtless aware, the late Mr. A. S. Atkinson, of 
Nelson, collected a large amount of material with the intention of 
assisting in the production of a new Maori Dictionary based upon the 
4th Edition of William's Dictionary. This material has been placed 
in my hands with the request that it should be used as Mr. Aitkinson 
had intended. Mr. C. E. Nelson, of Whakarewarewa, and Mr. S. 
Percy Smith, late Surveyor- General, have also kindly placed at my 
disposal for incorporation iu the work the large number of words, 
meanings, and examples which they have collected. In addition to 
this, the Cabinet is entrusting to me the MS. prepared by the late 
Mr. W. Colenso for the Dictionary which the Government at one 
time proposed to bring out. 



190 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Although the balk of the matter mentioned above has been 
collected for a number of years it was not available for publication 
at the time when Mr. E. Tregear produced his nui^iim opus: and 
in point of fact is not as yet accessible for students of the Maori 
language. 

It is thought that with these materials in hand no time should be 
lost in preparing the new Edition for the press, and a systematic 
attempt should be made, while some of the older generation of Maoris 
still survive, to compile as complete a vocabulary as possible of the 
M6U)ri language. It is proposed therefore to proceed at once with 
the work, which will be published under the auspicies of the 
Polynesian Society; and a strenuous effort will be made to have copy 
ready for the press early in the year 1907. 

In order that nothing may be omitted which is now available for 
use, I shall be glad if you can see your way to assist me in the 
following ways: (a) by letting me have a list of such words and 
meanings as you have noted as not occurring in the existing 
dictionaries; (b) by obtaining imformation as to the local use of 
words and their meanings ; (c) by furnishing the names and addresses 
of such persons, European and Maori, as would, in your opinion, be 
able and willing to co-operate in these ways. 

If you have material available under (a) 1 shall be glad to supply 
you with as many cards as you may need for entering the words, 
unifoim with those which are being used for the work. If yon will 
also kindly imdertake work under (6) you will receive lists from time 
to time of words upon which more light is wanted, so that you can 
consult with the most trustworthy Maoris in your neighbourhood. 
Any help under the heading (c) sbould, for obvious reasons, be given 
at once ; and to that end I enclose extra copies of this circular, and 
would ask you to let me know the names of those to whom you have 
sent them. 

I shall be glad to have an answer to this at your earliest con- 
venience, stating in which ways yo\i are willing to assist. 

I am. 

Yours faithfully. 

Herbert W. Williams. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[163] The Fire Walking Ceremony. 

Dr. S. P. Langley, Secretary to the Smithsonian Institution, in the Annual 
Report of that institution for 1902, describes his experiences in Tahiti, where he 
witnessed the above ceremony, and gives the conclusions he arrives at, which may 
be briefly stated as follows : That the conductivity in the porous basaltic stones 
used in the oven (umu-ti) is so small, that in walking over the stones the feet do not 
really get so heated, as appearances would seem to warrant. Of course Dr. Langley 
gives his reasons at length, but we think the above fairly states his conclusions. 

In Vol. XXXV. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute (1902), Mr. 
Robert Fulton, M.B., CM., Edin., describes the same ceremony as witnessed by him 
at Bega, Fiji, on 30th June, 1902, and gives the result of his observations at some 
length. He arrives at practically the same conclusions as Dr. Langley. For 
previous references to the umu-ti, see this Journal, Vol. II, p. 105, Vol. Ill, p. 72, 
Vol. m, p. 68, 188, 269. 



[164] Professor A. Agassiz's Expedition to the Pacific. 

We have received from the Museum Comparative Zoology, Havard College, 
" Reports of the scientific results of the expedition to the Tropical Pacific in charge 
of Alexander Agassiz," <&c., parts 1, 2, 3, and plates 1, 2, 3. This is a work got up 
in the usual handsome style characteristic of American Scientific Institutions. It 
deals principally with the study of coral reefe, and is very interesting reading* 
What we wish to call special attention to is the very large number of excellent 
photographic illustrations, which are admirable, and very fully illustrate the 
characters of the coral islands, besides some of the volcanic islands. We regret to 
see, however, several of the native names of islands mispelled. 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 
POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 



A MEETING of the Council was held at New Plymouth on the 19th August, 
when correspondence was dealt with, and the following new members elected :— 

353 Venerable Archdeacon 11. H. Coles, D.C.L., New Plymouth. 

354 William George Malone, New Plymouth. 

355 Dr. Ernest Walker, New Plymouth. 

Books, (tc, received since last issue of the .TorRNAi. :— 

1500-1 Bulletin, Museum Conqyaratire Zoology, Havard ColUge, 
Vol. v., No. 8, Vol. xxxix., No. 1. 

1502-3-4-5-6-7 Memoir:* do., lifports of the Scieuti/ic ReiuUs of 
the Expedition to the Tropirnl ravifw in charijt of Alexander 
Agasidz, tCv. Parts 1, 2, 3, do. Plates, parts 1, 2, 3, do. 
Descriptive. 

1508 Ten copies Popular Maori Songg. Supplement No. 2. J. McGregor. 

From the author. 

1509 Journal lioyal Colonial In^^titutv. Vol. xxxiv., part H. July, 

1902. 

1510 Tijditchrift voor Indihchv Taal-l.'Uid-i'nVoikrnliund*'. Decl xlvi. 

3-4. 

1511-12 SotuUii van de AlgfrnefUi-, d'c, liatariaasrh Uenoottchtp. 
Deel xl. H.4. 

1513 Proceeding*, liogal Sorietg of F.dinlm rough. Vol. xxii. 

1514 Quvennland Cicogiayhical Journal. Vol xvii. 
1516 ya Mata. .July. lt»03. 

1507-18-19 Sriemr of Man. May, June. .Inly, IIMKJ. 
1520 Juunuil liogal CoUmial Imtitute. .luno. P.'i ;t. 
1520 Thv (iiHtgraphival Journal. Juno. 11M>:>. 
1522 Rerue de VEcole dWnthropologie de Parit. .lune. V,H)'A. 



i 



NOTES ON THE AKT OF WAR, 

AS CONDUCTED BY THE MAORI OF NEW ZEALAND, 
WITH ACCOUNTS OF VARIOUS CUSTOMS, RITES, SUPER- 
STITIONS, Ac, PERTAINING TO WAR, AS PRACTISED 
AND BELIEVED IN BY THE ANCIENT MAORI. 



By Elsdon Best, of Tuhoe-land. 
Part VIII. 



Wounds, &c. 

X3 WOUNDED person is termed taotil or tudln'n (tu-a-kin). The 
SA>*' former was, I am told, the old term, used before the 
acquisition of guns (tao = a spear: ^/ = to be wounded). Tu-a-kiri is 
a modern term, adopted since the acquisition of firearms. 

Natives have been known to recover from very severe wounds, 
whereas it is stated that half-castes often die of slight wounds. The 
natives tell me that it took several wounds to bring down a toa (a 
brave man). Te Puehu received six spfiar wounds at Papakai and 
then escaped by running. Kai-namu, of Te Arawa, was also wounded 
in six places at Te Ariki, all being bullet wounds, and yet lived. 
However, in the lack of information respecting the nature of these 
wounds, these cases are not of much interest. 

Wounds were sometimes cauterised in order to stop the flow of 
blood. A piece of half dry pirita (supple-jack, a forest climbing 
plant) was ignited and used for the above purpose. Also all such 
crude attempts at surgery were accompanied by the reciting of 
karakla whakomdhu or invocations (spells) to heal. 

Wounded persons were carried on an m)m or litter, constructed of 
poles and lashings of flax or forest creepers. In desperate cases a 
length of pirita creeper would be fastened round the leg of the 
wounded person, and he would then be dragged off the field by such 
means until a litter could be made — a somewhat rough process for the 
unhappy man. A force must be in a bad plight indeed when they 
14 



194 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

leave their wounded behind, for they would assuredly be eaten, and 
perhaps tortured before death. The latter does not appear to have 
been a common occurrence, but dreadful things occurred in cases of 
blood vengeance. 

When the northern tribes were raiding Taranaki some of the 
warriors were wounded. These wounded were burned alive by their 
own people to save them or even their bones from falling into the 
hands of the enemy. These raiders were far within the enemy's 
country at the time, and could not encumber themselves with 
wounded men." 

I have heard of cases which occurred during their ten years' 
struggle against the English where, when a native was wounded 
severely, he would, with a final exertion of his strength, throw his 
gun back towards his friends, that it might not fall into the hands of 
the enemy. 

In several actions between the Colonial troops and the rebels, after 
the latter had accepted the fanatical Hauhau religion (so-called), the 
latter considered themselves perfectly invulnerable to our bullets. 
Holding their right hand up, they would recite a so-called karakia of 
meaningless gibberish, and expect the bullets of the pakelia to be 
warded off by such means. 

When Tuhoe marched to Waikato to fight the British troops a 
tohinhjn of Kua-tiihuna gave them some bottles filled with a decoction of 
divers barks, roots, etc., which he informed them would render them 
impervious to pakeha bullets if they drank of it before going into 
battle. The simple warriors tried it at 0-rakau, but it did not work 
properly, and many were killed, including several women. 

In the case of broken limbs splints of manuka bark were used. 
These would be supplemented with a charm known as a hvnOf which 
is said to have the elloct of causing the honv to join and heal. The 
following is one of the numerous charms, tornitMl whaif for the healing 
of wounds : 

♦* He nonota. he karawa, he au ika 

Ko Tano tutakina te iwi 

'Pane tutakiDa to nana 

Tanc tutAkina te kiko 

Tane tutakina te kiri 

Tane tutakina t«) parupani 

Tane tutakina te kapiti rangi 

K nnihu akuanei. e n\ahu aiH^po 

E mahu a takiritan^a o lo ata." 

* This incident was related to me by Mr. C. K. Nelson. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 195 

Here is another : — 

" Te whai one tuatiia, one taitaia. 
Ko te piere, ko te ngawha, 
Ko te kapika-pi 
Mahu akuanei, mahu apopo 
Koi tae mai ki to kiri tipu 
Ki to kiri ora, ki to mataniho 
Kai tai rori i tai pnpu 
Tenei te rangi ka ruruku 
Kukutia i ou kiko 
I on toto, i ou uaua 
E mahu, E ! " 

The name of another ancient and famous charm for healing 
wounds was Titikura, ^^Mehemea ka tu i te huata^ ka hoaiaki a TitihirOy 
kia ora.'^'^' This karakia is mentioned in the story of Rata in Grey's 
** Polynesian Mythology.** 

Cremation. 

When fighting away from their own homes the natives were 
accustomed to cremate the bodies of their slain, in order that they 
should not fall into the hands of the enemy. In the event of the 
body of a chief being thus cremated, the head would first be cut off 
and preserved and taken to the tribal home. Cremation of the bodies 
of the dead was a common occurrence, even in times of peace, probably 
more especially among people dwelling in open or plain country. 
There was ever the dread of a body being found and eaten by an 
enemy, or the bones thereof being fashioned into implements. 

When Tu-Korehu attacked Tuhoe at Te Tahora, he lost Te Tiroa, 
a chief of his party. The body was at once destroyed by fire, lest it 
be devoured by Tuhoe. 

When Nga-Puhi and other tribes, under Tu-whare, Te Rauparaha 
and other chiefs, were marching by the coast from Wellington Harbour 
to Wai-rarapa, they camped on the beach for some time in order to 
devour many bodies of the enemy whom they had slain. The effect 
was an epidemic in the camp, and two hundred of the invaders died of 
it. The whole of these bodies were destroyed by fire. 

Pakipaki Mahunga. 
We have mentioned the preserving of human heads by drying. 
This is known as pakipaki maliutifja, and the process is as follows : — 
An umii (steam oven) was prepared, heated, and covered in, save a 
small hole at the top, through which the steam rose. Over this 
aperture the head was placed, neck downwards, so that the steam 
should ascend and have the desired heating and drying effect. When 

* If wounded bj spear thrust the titikura ora (charm) was repeated in order Iq 
tieal the wound. 



196 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

severing the head from the body the skin was stripped off as far down 
as the shoulders, in order to allow for contraction, The brains, etc., 
were not scooped out ; the hot steam alone did the work. In the case 
of a relative the lips were sewn together so as fco cause them to retain 
a natural position, and if well done the remark **Me te kidcu ka kopi" — 
like the closing of a shell — was applied to it. The loose skin was 
drawn tight and tied underneath to prevent it from wrinkling. Heads 
of relatives were thus kept for many years, and occasionally exhibited 
to be mourned over. 

The dried heads of enemies, as a rule, had not the lips sewn ; 
therefore they were parted in a ghastly grin. These heads of enemies 
would at times be taken out and stuck on short stakes {turuturu) in 
the plaza, where jeering remarks and speeches were made at them. If 
the teeth were white, even, and sightly, the expression ** Me te niho 
kokota '* was applied to the same, comparing them to a white shell. 

Heads of relatives were often carried about for some time after 
death, and frequently wailed over. Heads of enemies were often 
placed near the ovens when women were cooking, as an act of 
degradation to the dead and also the living relatives, as nothing was 
so contaminating as cooked food. 

Ngati-Ngahere, of 0-potiki, were tired. They yearned for human 
flesh. Ngati-Ngahore said : "■ We will raid the rising sun." They 
did so, and aitackcd Ngati-Kahungunu at Te Papuni, where they slew 
one Mahia. Makawe, chief of the invaders, speared one of his enemies 
through the body, and held him down with the spear while he reached 
for the patu in his belt to despatch him with. Before he could do so 
he was himself struck down and severely wounded. His party camped 
at Te Pa-puni. 

Makawe drew near to death. He called upon his people to procure 
some human flesh as an o matriuja (food for tlie death journey) for him. 
Enough said. His people attacked Ngati-Kahungunu at Puke-taro, 
slaying several. They returned to their chief, briiiging with them the 
heart of one of their victims as an u mataiua for Makawe. But 
Makawe, of the fighting Whakatohea, had already passed lK}yond the 
need of food. 

The head of Makawe was cured by hi? jx^ople, wlio carrietl ii in 
their wanderings to the east, where they fought at Tara inahiti and 
elsewhere, afterwanls returning to 0-potiki. 

Having won a battle, the con4uen.)rs would at once dry liio heads 
of chiefs of the enemy who had fallen. Thesi^ would be taken home 
and used as scarecrows, or kept to be reviled. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 197 

When the kumara (sweet potato) crop was planted, and the priest 
repeated the invocations in order to produce a good crop, these dried 
heads were sometimes taken to the spot and placed on the borders of 
the cultivation. They had, in some manner, a beneficial effect on the 
growing crop. 

Well tatooed heads of enemies were particularly desired. When 
Tuhoe marched on Te Arawa prior to the battle of Puke-kai-kahu, 
one division advanced under Tangahau via Paeroa, where they 
defeated Ngati-Tahu at Te Kopiha. On arriving at Puke-kai-kahu they 
found the main body busy drying the heads of the Arawa chiefs who 
had fallen in the fight. When Tangahau saw what finely tatooed 
heads they were he is said to have felt| much abashed, as those 
secured by his party at Te Kopiha were very poor specimens. 

When Ngati-Manawa were defeated by Tuhoe at Te Tapiri in 1865, 
the latter cut off the heads of Eru and Tamihana, of the former tribe. 
These heads were dried and taken away by Te Whakatohea, the eyes 
having previously been scooped out and swallowed by Kereopa, the 
infamous. 

In the skirmish at Oharuna in 1869, Te Arawa cut off the heads of 
three men of Tuhoe whom they had slain, and stuck them up on a 
rock in the creek-bed. This is the last instance of decapitation in this 
district that I know of. 

It frequently happened in the wars of old, that prisoners were 
compelled to carry on their backs to the homes of their conquerers the 
dried heads and flesh of their own relatives who had been slain. 

Peace- Making. 

Peace and peace-making is by no means a modem institution with 
the Maori. It originated in the mist-laden epoch when the sons of 
Heaven and Earth strove with each other. Rongo-ma-tane was for 
peace. Had his appeal been listened to war would have had no place 
on earth ; peace would have prevailed. There is a very ancient myth 
which describes how Tu-mata-uenga overcame Kongo, and how Rongo 
went to the whare pataki, to Marere-o-tonga and Timu-whakairia, in 
order to fetch the wananga, that peace might prevail. It is an old, 
old, story, and, I fear, now lost. The following is a fragment of an 
invocation pertaining thereto : — 

" Te whare patahi-e hui te rongo 
E hui te rongo, e puta mai ki waho." 

This myth is also referred to in an old waiata or song which was 
sung at times of peace-making. It was sung by Te Turuki (Te Kooti) 
during the late unpleasantness in Te Ika-a-Maui (North Island 
of New Zealand). 



198 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

** £ mahi ana ano a Ta raua ko Rongo 
I ta raua mara, koia Pohatakawa 
Ka patua tenei, koia moeoga kura 
Ka patua tetahi, koia moenga toto 
Na raua ano ka he i te riri 
Ka tikina ki raro ra, kia Marere-o-tonga 
Kia Timu-whakairia 
E ora ana te wananga-e 
Manria mai nei ko te rongo-a-whare 
Ko te roDgo-taketake 
Ki miia ki te atua 
Ka whakaoti te riri-e." 

Rongo is looked upon as the origin, personification, or tutelary 
deity of peace. The word rowjo denotes peace; hohou row//o = to make 
peace. 

Haumia, loio-whenua, and Pit-tr-hue also made for peace, and 
upheld the peaceful art of cultivation as against war and strife. These 
peaceful precepts descended to Te Hapu-oneone and Te Heketanga- 
rangi. We still observe the fruit thereof in the world. Such is the 
salvation of man. 

The terms lowjn-takHake and tatau-puunamu are applied to a firmly 
bound, permanent peace-making. A weak or temporary peace-making, 
soon broken, is known as wrniujo-ithatinhati. The former is quite an 
important ceremony, and is arranged by the leading men of both sides. 
A party of fifty or one hundred men would visit an enemy's country 
in order to make peace, and would be received with every evidence of 
fierce hostility, after the manner of the Maori. Then many speeches 
are made, threats are hurled at the visitors. After a while these 
actions and words of defiance calm down, and the two sides will 
probably hold a tatuji and lament those who have been slain. Then a 
chief will arise and welcome the visitors : ** Welcome ! welcome in 
the light of day. Welcome, my brothers ! Here let us turn to the 
peaceful ways of our ancestors. Let us walk in the light, beneath the 
shining sun of this day, etc., etc." Then the kawa for peace-making 
are recited — 

*• Uia ra I Uia ra ! Uia ra ! 

Kongo mai takawhiu ana mai 

Te rongo o te pakan<;a nei 

Te pnkanga i a Tu, to pakanga i a Rongo 

Iloki whiwhia, hoki rawea 

Tenn takapau ka horu 

Ko te takapau o te pakanga 

Tu mai te toki 

Haumi e . . ! " 

Then one of the visiting chiefs rises : — ** Tan patu, mr pa ki tua^ 
tne pa ki wahn " Let your weapons be turned in other directions. My 
brothers I The sun shines once uioi-e : — 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 199 

** Kei te tohi i runga, kei te tnhi i raro 
Kei te rapa i runga, kei te rongo i raro 
Kei, te anewa i raro, kei te patu i raro 
Kei te ora mata pupuni 
Kei a Tu, kei a Bongo 
Kei a tauira mai te awha 
Ta mai te toki 
Haumi . . E ! " 

Another chief rises : — " Welcome ! Welcome in the light of day.*' 
" Huia, huia te manu i uta ra 
Huia te mana i tai ra 
Te manu i te katoa 
Te homai nei, te hoake 
Ki te tuanuku, ki te taarangi 
Kia whangaia koe ki te hau no Tu 
No waho, no Mataora 
No te papuketanga mai 
I te po-uriuri, i te po tangotango 
I a Kua te pupu, i a Rua tc heihei 
Tutara kaaika 
Mao ki uta, mao ki tai 
Tu mai te toki 
Haumi . . E ! " 

A chief of the tantjala whenua (people of the place) rises : — 
** Welcome ! My brothers, let us respect the good counsel of our 
ancestors. We enter the light, etc. 

'* He aea te hau e pa nei 

He kari maranga hake 

He pipi haerenga 

Haere koe i runga, haere au i raro 

Mou tai tu, moku tai kapna rangi 

I te tai tuarua, i te tai tuatoru 

Te Tai o Ruatapu 

Tu mai te toki 

Haumi.. E!" 

Then the final karakia is repeated : — 
" Taumaha te kahukura uta 
Te kahukura tai 
Te ruhi ma tau ea 
Te kotore ma tau ea 
Te ruhi mai Karotonga 
Te awa tere mai Tauera 
Te awa tere mai Barotonga 
Te hau mihi aroha no Ue 
No waho, no Rakei-a-tu te oriori 
Ka taka mai te aio 
He rongo ka mau, he rongo ka ea 
He rongo ka whiti te ra 
Ka rongo taketake." 

lleoi .'—Peace is firmly bound between the two tribes, and rowjo 
aw (placid peace) prevails in the land. 



200 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

The rongo-a-whare s^ems to be when the leading chief enters the 
fort and meeting-house of the enemy, and peace is established by 
both sides discussing the matter and making the arrangements. 

The following is sometimes recited by the tanyata whenua : — 
<* He aha te mana ki uta ? 
He koekoea. 
He aha te maDu ki tai ? 
He pakapakaia 

Whaia ano e toku tini, e toku mano 
Ki te korero whanowhano. 

When Te Whiua, a chief of Ngati- Awa, crossed the land boundaries 
of Te Arawa in order to make peace with that tribe, the following was 
the karakia recited : — 

*' Tua atu taku tira ki uta 

Ki tai, ki t« tonga nei 

Kaore, ka ora mai au i te pukanga Dci 

Kia liuakina atii e au te kohn ki uta 

Ki tai, ki te tonga nei 

Ka waiho ra matou nei 

Hei pou wharc ki Whare-rangi ra (a hill at Te Boto-iti) 

Koe riu ka tuwhera, koc waka ka pakaru 

Ka ruruku atu au i te waka nei 

Honiai, e tai ma, te pu 

Honiai, e tama ma, te iho (? ihu) 

Kia mail ai tc kiato 

Hau nui. hau roa, 

E pupuru mai te pakanga nei 

Koo manii tukutuku, koe manu hokahoka 

Ko taku manu hau turuki. .e." 

Tutau-ponnamn is a singular expression. The word tatau means a 
door ; pounamn (t]:roenstone) is used here because it was the most 
vahied of materials to the ancient Maori. We use the term 
** golden" in a .siiuilar sense. The chief who was conducing the 
peace negotiaiions would, after be and his party had been welcomed, 
rise and say — *' /v<ii<i //;/'/ .' Kamuffa! Itnei U- haere nei^ etc. Ta iatau 
ttUau-ponnfthiH ht W'tt maiimfit, etc. He would generally name some 
well-known hill or mountain as a tatau-fotinaHnt. 

After the war between Tiihoe and Nijati-Tuwharetoa, :he Mtoii- 
pninutwit was •* ereiitHr' at Oix^jx?, which ** erecting" is, of course, 
purely a tigurntive expression, as uiucb so as is the " jade dtor'* which 
closes on war and strife. 

When peace was niaJe between Tiihoe and Njjrati-Awa, after their 
long feud, Hatua of Awa siid to Te Ikapoto of Tuhoe : "C'bserve the 
clump of bush whiih stan-ls at C>hui. and which has Wen so reducinl 
by Uros. No lir^ in the future shall \xi kindled there. Tliat is our 

* ''Welcome us. Ueie wo come Our tatau poiinamu is such a iiouuuiu." 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 201 

tatau'pounamu. It shekll be as a sanctuary, that even women and 
children may roam there and no harm shall come to them." 
This again was merely a figurative expression. ** The tatan-ponnamu 
was raised at Ohui, where it still stands. It has not fallen, even unto 
this day," which simply means that the peace has never been broken. 

Puke-kahu, near Galatea, was the tatau-pounamu when peace 
was cemented between Tuhoe and Te Arawa after the fights that we 
have referred to. 

When Tuhoe and the tribes of Waikare-moana and the coast, tired 
of their long and bloody war, they resolved to make peace. Hipara 
said : "I will give my daughter Hine-ki-runga, in wife to Tuhoe, as 
an ending of the war." Nga-rangi-mataeo said : *' Let us have a 
tatau-pounamu, that peace may never be broken." Then (the hill) 
Kuha-tarewa was set up as a wife, and (the hill) Tuhi-o-Eahu as a 
husband. By the union of these two hills the tatau-pounamu 
was raised and war ceased — ceased — nor has it since arisen. 

** Kei whati nga rakau o te tatau-pounamu i muri neiy kei pohehe 
koutou hi iujo ara korero a o koutou tupuna,''"^ 

There is another expression that is often met with in Maori history, 
and which may be given a little attention. 

In times long passed away, trouble arose between the ancestors of 
Tuhoe and the Tauranga tribe. The former raided that district in 
order to avenge the death of Mana-i-te-i;^ngi. Four battles were 
fought and the woman's death avenged. Then peace was made. The 
word was *' Kei pikitia te pikitanya i AroJuna' — lest the ascent of 
Arohena (a hill) be trodden. This was equivalent to saying do not 
violate the peace now made. Nor was it trangressed until the time of 
M&ro and Te Umu-ariki, who both fell on the field of Orua-matua. 

When Tapoto was leaving Bua-toki, after much fighting against 
Tuhoe, he said : ** Hai konei ra, te whanau e ! I muri i a au kei pikitia 
te pikitanya i Wahipapa,'' Farewell people 1 Take heed, lest the 
ascent of Wahi-papa be trodden, after I have gone." But the 
turbulent bushmen of Maunga-pohatu would have none of it. 
Tai-turakina called out : '^ Mau ana, jna tama-ngarengare e hi iho kia 
kaua e haerea/'* -'^*' Is it for you, the base-born, to say that it shall not 
be trodden?*' When spring returned Tuhoe marched on the rising 
sun, and attacked Tapoto at Whakaari pa, where the majority of the 
Tuhoe force remained. But few survivors returned. 

* " Have a care, lest the support of the tatati-pounamu be broken in after days, 
lest you forget the precepts of your ancestors." 



2M JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

He Wauta hohou Bongo. Na Te Toraki (Te Eooti).— A 8(we 
OF Peacemakino. 
'* Tera te haeata ka rere te whakairi 
Na ronga ana mai o Tarakeha raia 
Kai tua te kawaa he tangata paka riri 
Tenei te haere nei he maanga rongo 
Aknanei au ka takahi i te one 
Noho ana hoki au i Marae-nui ra . . e 
Hai hapai kapu mahau, E Te Tatana! 
Tu noa hoki au i te akau raia . . e 
Noa tou pono, £ Nga-moki ! " 

The Vmu Hiki. 

The singular rite known as umu hiki was performed in order to 
cause a people, whose presence as neighbours was not desirable^ to 
rise and migrate to other lands. It was a most useful institation in 
war time — that is, if you possessed a priest of sufficient power to giye 
proper effect to the spells uttered. In connection with the above ftie 
employed the two terms ye and hiki, (>, or lieue, means to move» 
as a verb — to impel, to incite, to shake. Hiki has a similar meaning ; 
it means to adjourn, transplant, start. ''Mehetneti ka patua iaku 
whanannga f tetahi ixci nniy ka uea e au taita iwi kia haere: h§ kiki tona 
tikanga,'' If a relative of mine be slain by a numerous people, I 
impel that tribe to migrate (by means of incantations). It means to 
move them away. Here we see the probable origin of the custom. 
Were the offending tribe less numerous they might be destroyed in 
battle. Being a numerous people, however, it is wiser to call on the 
dread powers of the priest,' that he may hiki those people and cause 
them to flee to foreign parts. The spell laid on the people causes 
them to become uneasy, nervous, and with little faith in their own 
power to withstand an attack. Mentioning this rite in narrative, a 
native will say — "Aa uea te pou o te whare '—i.e., the post (upright of 
a house) of the house was shaken — to loosen it that it may be easily 
removed. Not that such a post was really loosened ; the expression 
is one of many singular idioms to be met with in the Maori tongue. 
The enemy were ** loosened *' in their hold on the district by means of 
the umu hiki rite. The ue described below throws some light on the 
use of the term " post of the house." 

The term umu means an oven — i.^., the steam oven of the Maori, 
being a hole dug in the ground. But the word is also use<l to denote 
various religious and sacred rites of tho old-time Maori, as iihim 
parapara and umu ftotufipotuji. The word ahi (tire) is usetl in a similar 
manner. The origin of these two tenus, as applied to riti^s and their 
attendant charms, spells, or invocations, I am convinoinl lies in the 
general introduction of lire into ancient Maori ritos. Tho term hika — 
to generate fire — is also used in a like manner. But uion? of this 
anon. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 308 

Two extraordinary actions in connection with the vmu hiki have 
heen explained to me by natives. One is that when a priest 
performed the umu hiki he dug a large hole in the earthem floor of his 
house and crawled down into that hole head first and recited his 
spells in that eccentric position, quite naked, with the exception of a 
girdle around his waist. 

The other item appears in the following extract from the history 
of Maruiwi, a section of the ancient people of New Zealand, whose 
ancestor Awa, a son of Toi, migrated to Heretaunga and was the 
origin of Te Tini-o-Awa of that district. 

In the time of the chief Maruiwi the tribe of that name left 
Heretaunga and migrated to Te Waimana district, near Whakatane. 
After some time they became involved in trouble with their neigh- 
bours. It was in this wise : The time arrived for the tapu to be 
taken off the kiunara cultivations of Maruiwi. The priest prepared to 
perform that important rite. A human sacrifice was needed in order 
to give mana (prestige, power) to the ceremony. A visiting youth of 
the Whakatohea tribe was utilised for the purpose. Now there were 
two priests of the youth's tribe there who had come to assist in the 
ceremony of taking the tajm off the crops. A portion of the flesh of 
the youth was given to them to eat with their meal. When these two 
found that the youth Waeroa of their tribe was missing, they knew 
that it was he who had been slain as a sacrifice. They lost no time 
in acting. They took the basket of food and carried it to the latrine, 
where, grasping the uprights, they recited the incantation termed a 

hiki : 

'' Hiki Duku, hiki rangi, 
Hiki papa, hiki taua 
Whakamoe te mahine." 

They then recited the spell or karakia known as uexu : 
" Ue nuku . . e, ue rangi . . e 
Ue tahitahi, ue papa 
Uea ai te pu, uea ai te more 
Uea ai te aka, uea ai te tahetahe, 
Hopu ringa, hopu mau 
Kia mau i to tiki tiki." 

Then, taking up the basket of food, the elder held it over the 
latrine and, opening the bottom of the basket, let the contents fall 
therein. 

Not long after that Maruiwi girded up their loins and fled the 
district, intending to return to their old homes at Heretaunga. 

It fell upon a certain fine day that Paumapuku and Maiopa, of 
Nga-Maihi tribe, went forth across the fair lands of Kawerau in order 
to slay a neighbour, as a human sacrifice for the ceremony of taking 
the tapu off a new house. They were, however, seen and pursued by 



204 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

a party of people of those parts, and forced to fly. Maiopa was caughfc 
and slain, but his brother reached their home at Maai-wareware. As 
soon as he reached the opposite bank of the river he shouted out " T0 
whakaariki. .$,.e,,e ! Te whakaariki ! " — a cry raised when a hostile 
force is seen advancing. Pau swam the river and joined his friends. 
The people collected in the large house, while Tamatea-pakoko (he 
who slew Tangihaniru, of the Pu-tarwa) climbed on to the ridge-pole 
of the house, where he recited the following : — 
"Uea! Uea! 

I te pou tuarongo o te whare nei 

Kia tutangatanga 

Pera hoki ra he kapua whakairi naku 

Ei runga o Tama tea 

Ka tai (? tahi), ka moe tahua, ka maa 

Whakaarahia um ao 

Ka mahuta te tapatu karakia 

£ Puhi £ ! Kai tai ! Kai tai ! 

Kai te whakarua koia . . e." 
Meanwhile the enemy had surrounded the house. But as the 
reciter concluded his karakia Nga-Maihi poured forth and routed 
them. 

The other form of the ue of which we spoke was performed on the 
occasion of a feast. When the guests arrived they would find a new 
house built for the occasion, and the people of the village drawn up 
outside it. The visitors entered the house and ranged themselves 
along the walls. Their priest, who accompanied them, would climb 
on to the ridge in the house and there recite the ue. As he reached 
the final word each man of the house seized the upright nearest him 
and tried to shake or loosen same. If anything carried away, that 
was an evil omen for the tribe who built the house. They will hiki. 
Not that they will move away in the body, but their minds and 
thoughts will hiki — i.r., become unsettled, and they will take no 
further pride and interest in that feast. 

The Pa ]Vhauhai or Fighting Pa (Fort). 

The term pa moans a fortified place. A }ni wu'nrft is a place 
defended by earthworks and palisades. A fut twrattiirata is one whore 
palisades only are used. The earthworks or ombankmonts are known 
as maioro usually, but the word maninro is t-mployod by some of the 
peoples of the Whanga-nui district. In late times iho ttrin ;»(i has 
been erroneously employed to denott» an unfortified village, which 
should be styled a kainyn. 

If available the natives profentHl to buiKl thoir ft on hills, where 
they might escarp the slopes thon^^f, and thus ri^ndor them ex- 
ceedingly steep, and erect a strong palisadins; on the loy* of xhv >earp. 
A series of defences of this style would give the hill a terraced 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 206 

appearance, as often the ground between the top of an escarpment 
and the foot of the next one would be levelled for the purpose of 
building houses thereon. Many such terraced hills are seen through- 
out the country, many of them appearing most symmetrical and 
picturesque, such as the Bakei-hopukia pa at Te Teko. The top of a 
hill or even spurs of hills were utilised in the olden times when the 
only known missile weapons were stones and the throwing spear. Of 
course the weak point of these hill forts was the want of water, which 
has caused the fall of many such which could not be taken by 
assault. Water might, to a certain extent, be stored in troughs and 
gourds, but an invading force would sometimes draw its lines round 
a fort and camp there through all the changing months, until the 
weakened garrison capitulated or broke out in desperation to force 
their way through the investing lines. 

These notes on the old native forts are very incomplete, inasmuch 
as Tuhoe were not a pa building people, trusting rather to the rough 
nature of the country which they inhabit. As old Tamaikoha once 
said to me : ** The swift rivers and narrow canons were my defences. 
The huge boulders and rock cliffs were my palisades.*' 

As I take it, the complete pa maioro or earthwork fort had three 
steep scarped faces and four rows of palisades, each defence having its 
distinctive name. The innermost palisading was erected on the top 
of the highest escarpment in a hill fort, another stood on the top of 
each succeeding one, and the outermost or lowest on the earthwork 
formed by the material thrown out from the escarping and the ditch 
or moat often made at the base of the lowest defence cut out of the 
solid. It may be observed that the term maioro^ like the word moat, 
seems to apply equally to earthwork banks for defence or the dry 
moats which were usually formed between them. 

In the case of a fort (^pa ) constructed on level ground, such were, 
if possible, built on a river bank, where such bank would be formed 
into one or more defences, and moreover a supply of water would be 
available. On the land side high embankments of earth were formed 
by excavating two parallel moats, or ditches, for the length of the face 
of the fort. Between these moats the earth would be formed and 
packed until a high wall, from ten to twenty feet in height from the 
base — i.f., the bottom of the ditch — was formed. Some of these 
defences were yet higher, especially in terraced hill forts. The outer 
palisading or ttuvatawnta was erected outside the outer ditch described 
above. Sometimes but one wall was thus formed, but often two or 
more such earthworks were so constructed, usually in parallel lines on 
level fi:round, but following the natural advantages of the ground in 
the case of a hill pa. On level ground the defences were often close 
together, and consisting of at least one heavy earthwork, two ditches, 



206 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

and two rows of palisading. We are speaking of pre-gun days, be it 
understood. Inside these defences were the dwelling-houses, food 
stores, cooking sheds, etc., of the occupants of the fort. Where the 
nature of the ground admitted of it, the houses were neatly arranged, 
each with its small plot of ground or yard fenced off and lanes or 
roads running between such fences throughout the fort. When 
members of different sub-tribes occupied the same pa, they appear to 
have had each their portion of the fort fenced off or protected by a 
row of palisades, and sometimes of earthworks — presumably a 
precaution in the event of inter- liapu quarrels. They would also 
serve to baffle and delay an enemy who had gained an entrance to the 
fort, and provide the occupants with supplementary lines of defence. 
A good illustration of a fort so divided with lines of palisades is the 
Umu-rakau pa of Ngati-Pukeko at Te Whaiti, where the sub-divisional 
lines of palisades may still be traced, while the 0-te-nuku pa at 
Rua-toki is a good specimen of a fort so divided by means of 
earthwork walls and moats. 

Many of these native forts were immensely strong and could 
scarcely be taken, save by surprise, when the occupants were off their 
guard or by means of a long investment until the defenders were 
reduced by hunger and thirst. 

Take the case of a hill fort. A single line of defence might well 
consist of a steep scarp twenty feet in height, on the top of which 
would be a timber palisado dcfonco constructed of heavy timbers set 
deep in the earth and bound together by means of rickei-s or saplings, 
used as lateral rails, and to which the palisades were lashed with 
tough forest creepers (aka-tea). Spaces were left between the uprights 
through which long spears could be thrust at any enemy who 
attempted to climb up the defences. 

The height of the palisading would be from ten to fifteen feet. 
Add this to a steep scarp of fifteen or twenty feet, and it may readily 
be seen that, in the days of the rifkau maori or native weapons, it was 
no slight task to overcome such defences. 

The palisades of a fort are termed tuwafawata or wmrd. The 
innermost stockade of a complete pa of four lines of defence, was 
termed the pdrdkiri or kiri-tannata or kotikoti. The next is the main 
defence, known as the katua. The next is the m'//<i, while the fourth 
or outermost is termed the pekvrarun or Uki or kereteki, or tata, 
or aparua. 

The space imniediaU^ly outside a row of palisades was termed the 
kiritai or paekiri. It applied to the outer stockade only. 

The moat or fosse was termed axcamaU, The ditch inside a 
palisade was called the ichakaaicarua. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 207 

The entrance to a fort was termed the uaharoa or kuiraha. The 
entrance was usually at one of the sides of the fort, but the Okarea 
pa near Te Whaiti had at one extremity a line of palisades running 
close bo and nearly parallel with a perpindicular rock cliff. Where it 
approached to within a few feet of the cliff, there the entrance was 
made. Thus anyone entering the naharoa would necessarily pass 
along a narrow space before the main defences of the fort were 
reached. Another plan was to erect a covering stockade just within 
and opposite the uaharoa or entrance, and which stockade had wings 
flanking either side of the entrance. Thus a person passing through 
the entrance could not proceed straight ahead, on account of the 
covering defence, but would have to turn to right or left, in fact 
to make a right-about turn, in order to get round the covering wings 
and enter the fort. This passage is termed the ahuriri or ngutu. 
The name waha-tieke is also applied to the entrance. 

stockade 



§ 



The tahitahi of a pa is the slope down from the outer defences 
the glacis. The moats were crossed on a couple of poles laid across 
and which were taken up when the entrance was closed. 

As observed the stockades were composed of posts or piles of 
timber set in the ground in an upright position, and along which 
were lashed rails (huahua). As an additional means of strengthening 
the stockade, there were erected at intervals much larger and heavier 
posts, firmly set in the ground. They were often two feet in 
thickness. These large posts appear to have been known by the 
generic term hvnu. If, as often was the case, the tops were 
carved into figures of human form, or into a large round or oval knob, 
they were known as tn/anranf. When left perfectly plain, and in 
the rough, the term toto kaa was applied to them, as an adjective ; as a 
plain canoe, with no carved work about it, is termed a waka toto kau\ 
or a plain house, a xvhare toto kait. 

On either side of the waharoa or entrance, often towered such 
huge pillars, their tops carved into monstrous, half-human figures, 
of hideous aspect, with protruding tongues and gleaming eyes of 
patia-'- shell. Or the entrance might be surmounted with a huge 
figure, through the base of which the entrance led. The Rev. W. Colenso 
has placed on record the singular effect produced at Waikare-moana 

* HaliotiSy the abalant of the Califomian coast. 



208 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

by cutting the eye-holes right through such figures in the defences 
of a pa. In ascending the steep shore of the lake to gain the fort, 
the sky seen through these spaces had a singular effect. 

If possible, timber of a durable nature was used for these stockades, 
totara, puriri, and heart of kowhai were thus often used. In the con- 
struction of the Waerenga-a-Hika pa at Turanga, many huge posts of 
puriri were used, the whole trunk being set up without being split or 
reduced in size. In after years, the peace of Bongo having settled 
upon the district, I utilised many of these timbers as straining posts 
for wire fences, and in squaring them into form, cut through many 
bullets which had just penetrated the thin covering of sap wood, a 
token of the stirring sixties, when Fraser and the Forest Rangers 
sent over a hundred Hauhau down to Hades at that place. 

These native forts were sometimes termed kohamja^ a word meaning 
a nest. For these strong redoubts were the nests which protected the 
people, in which they were reared to manhood, for the service of Tu ; 
or to womanhood, to follow the arts presided over by Bongo and 
Hine-te-iwaiwa. 

In building a fort, the old time Maori displayed that wonderful 
patience, continuity and diligence which was such a prominent trait 
in his character, but which his descendants have lost. He had no 
hardware store handy, whereat to purchase tools. Every implement 
used must be made by himself, from wood, or stone, or bone, and with 
the use of most sorry tools. The felling of a tree involved him in 
many days of strenuous labour, the carrying of firewood with which 
to keep a fire constantly burning at the base of the desired tree, the 
chipping off of the charred surface with stone axes, a weary task. In 
like manner the working of earth, especially of stiff clays, was most 
tedious. In building a fort he loosened the soil by means of a pointed 
stick, called a MYiMin/w, it was lifted on rou^h wooden spades termed 
rapa maire (bein^' made of the hard mdire wood) and put in baskets in 
which it was carried to the top of the embankment and there padded 
into solidity. When fonuing ditches, in suitable soil and situations, 
a bank would be formed or left across the upper end, so as to collect 
and hold rain water. When a good quantity was gathered it would be 
let out, and materially assist the work, in sweeping out the loosened 
earth below. 

The spaces between the walls or defences of a pa were tenned 
tuku. In a hill fort a tuku may be quite a wide terrace ; where houses 
are built; those of the leading chi(»fs will probably be found facing the 
marae or plaza. The highest part of a/'fl, and innermost, is termed thetiAt 
(summit or citadel). When attacked the principal chief will probably 
take up his stand on the tihiy where he can command the fray. If 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 209 

driven from the outer defences the defenders fall back on the second 
line, and so on, and finally enter the defences of the tiki or citadel, 
where the most desperate fighting would take place, under the 
immediate command of the head chief. Many stubborn defences of 
this last defence are on record, where the garrison, turning in savage 
desperation on the investing enemy, have changed the fortune of the 
day at the last gate and expelled the attackers. When the Arawa 
league attacked the Taumata-o-Te-Biu pa at Bua-tahuna, they took 
the first tukuy but the sullen bushmen of Tuhoe held grimly on to the 
next defence and forced the attacking party to withdraw. I have 
heard old-timers say that if the outer defences of a fort fell and there 
was no influential chief to rally the fighters on the tihi^ then that pa 
was lost. 

To lash the rails of a pa in an incorrect manner was deemed an 
evil omen (aituaj, a sign of coming misfortune. 

When a new pa was built and finished, a rite was performed in 
order to take the tapu off it, similar to the one performed at the 
opening of a new house. Kunmra (sweet potatoes) and a piece of the 
aka or bush creeper used to lash the palisades with were roasted and 
offered to the gods." 

Within these forts were erected lofty platforms, called pnharay\ on 
a level with the top of the palisades. On these was often stationed 
the watchman {kai-mataara), who would amuse himself during the 
lone night-watch by chanting watch songs (whakaaraara pa), which 
would notify any lurking enemy that the garrison were on the alert. 
These platforms were also utilised as fighting stages, on which 
warriors were stationed during an assault, and from which they cast 
down stones upon an attacking force, and lunged at them with long 
thrusting spears ( huaUf roroaj. 

On this platform also was suspended from two uprights the pahu, 
or wooden gong, formed by hollowing out a piece of sound and clear 
matai wood. This suspended gong, or drum, was struck with a 
mallet or beetle of the same timber. The watchman would, ever and 
anon, strike it, and thus both friend and foe would know that he was 
on the alert. 

♦ A very old custom obtained formerly in building a new pa, similar to that 
used in launching a new canoe, when the vessel was dragged over the bodies of 
slaves. In the case of a pa slaves were often buried in a sitting posture, 
embracing the base of the main posts of the tu-watawata. Not many years since 
six skeletons were discovered in such position at the base of the posts of a large pa 
near 0-potiki. En. 

t The watch-tower of a fort was termed ahurewa by the N-Kaukawa tribe. 
15 



210 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

We give below a few of the old watch songs of the Maori : — 
He Whakaaraatu Pa. 

" Ko-ko-koia, E tu . . E I 
Eo-ko-koia, E ara . . E 1 
Ko-koia e nga tangata 
Ka whakati^uri rawa te riri 
Ki tua ki Moeangiangi 
Ka anga mai ai te riri . . e 
E te riri ! " 

A Watch Song. 
'* Tirohia atu nei Kopu 
Kia morunga, kia moraro 
Kia whakatakataka 
Ko te manu nui na Rua-kapana 
Ka tutu te hiahia 
Ka roki te tai o Whatiwhati 
Ka rere whakaaitu ki te Po 
Tfikahia te puna te wai koriri 
E rapa te niho o te kuri . . au ! 
Ka hei tau." (hei = ahei) 

Waiata Whakaara.— (Watch song) 

*' Koia I 
Hoki mai ki to uruoga 
Ki to moenga 
Ki te paepae tapu o Tane 
Hoki mai te manu ora 
Ki te maunga 
Koia I " 

A WnAKA.VR.VAR.\ PA. 

'* Kia hiwa ra . .el 
Tenei tuku kia hiwa ra 
Teni Uiku koi ap-.n-na koe ki to toio 
Whakapnru tonu ! 
Whakapnru tonu I 
Whakapuru tonu I 
Te tai ki Heriheii 
Ka tangi likajvi te tai ki Mokan 
Kaoro iara e kinii ana 
K ra)^a ana i nga kokonga 
K ka ao mai te ra 
Ki tua o ia.** 

The word koko moans to chaunt a watch song. It is apparently 
allied to Ai>, to sing as biixls in the early morning. Towers termed 
taumaihi were also ennrtiHl in a fort. Probably these were formed 
of earth. Such towers were sometimes oonstructeti by an attacking 
force in order to enable them to ctnnmand the interior of a fort. 











W if 



I '^m^ \ 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 218 

In attacking these forts, the assailants often separated into two 
parties, and delivered their attacks from different quarters. When a 
fort was attacked by a tana a toto or blood vengeance party, it was 
usual for the occupants of the fort to remain within their defences, as 
they would know that such a party fights with desperate valour. 
Otherwise it was a common thing for the defenders of a pa to sally 
forth and fight outside. 

When about to attack a pa, it was an ancient custom to send forth 
a man, under cover of night, to obtain a piece of the aka used to 
lash the palisades with, or a some other portion of the defences. 
This was taken to the tohunga or priest of the attacking force, who 
utilised it as a mdwe, which has already been explained, But methods 
of attack and defence of these native forts will probably be best ex- 
plained by means of illustrations taken from actual war, historical 
incidents in fact. 

When Waikato attacked Te Buaki pa on the west coast, they tried 
direct assault, but were repelled by the garrison. They therefore 
closely invested the fort, and erected around it a strong stockade, so 
as to prevent the garrison from breaking out, and then for three 
months they sat down before that doomed pa, until it fell. Many 
were slain and many more carried ofif into slavery. 

At this time the Taranaki and Nga-Buahine tribes were living in 
two forts known as Wai-mate and Orangi-tuapeka, where the Wai- 
kato warriors proceeded to attack them. They were repulsed with 
the loss of five men killed, whose heads were cut off by the delighted 
garrison and stuck on the tops of the palisades of the fort as a 
cheering spectacle for their friends. 

The main body of Waikato afterwards attacked Wai-mate pa, 
but leaving a party in ambush near the other fort. For they argued 
that the garrison of the latter would go to assist their friends at 
Wai-mate, and leave their own pa with few defenders, when it might 
be taken by the party aforementioned. The garrison did so leave 
their fort, but took the precaution of making the women and boys 
therein assume the rough cloaks or capes usually worn by men, and 
so show themselves to any enemy who might be lurking about. The 
ambushed party, believing the fort to be strongly held, refrained from 
attacking it."^ 

Fire was often employed as a destructive agent in the attack on a 
fort. 

Nga-Maihi were living in their pa at Puketapu, when they sent a 
party to obtain fern-root at Titina-roa, where grew in abundance the 
mdtd variety of that root, much used as food in former times. The 

* See *' History and Traditions of the Maoris," by J. W. Gudgeon. 



214 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Ngai-Tama-oki sub-tribe (also of Ngati-Awa) objected to ibis as a 
trespass on tbeir rights, and forthwith attacked Nga-Maihi, but were 
defeated by the latter. The news of the fight reached the valley 
hamlets. It came to the home of Whakapa, of Te Pahipoto, as he 
was engaged making himself a new taiaha. He said : " Had I been 
there I would have slain Te Amo-pou with the tongue end of my 
taiaha and Te Hahae with the blade, and then have brought their 
hearts home as food for my child.*' So saying, Whakapa called on 
his fighting men and marched on Puketapu (at Te Teko). They wer« 
seen by Nga-Maihi, who marched out of the fort to meet the enemy. 
Whakapa then advanced from his men, who were in column formation 
(matua), and Te Au-whiowhio left the Nga-Maihi column. The two 
met in the open space between the two forces, and there engaged in 
single combat (tau mataki takii, Whakapa struck rapidly at Te Au 
with his taiaha, but the latter warded off the blow with his hoeroa and 
then, with guard and point, thrust the thin blade of his weapon 
through the ribs of his adversary before the latter could recover 
himself. So fell Whakapa of Te Pahipoto. 

Various other branches of the Ngati-Awa tribe now rose and combined 
to attack Puketapu fort, which is some three or four hundred yards in 
length, and is situated near the Rangi-taiki river. The whole of the 
hill has been most strongly defended by three huge maioro and other 
smaller ones, not to speak of stockades. 

However, finding the jm too strong to take by direct assault, as 
many other weary men of arms have found, before and since, the 
avengers of honour be-draggled elected to burn a passage through the 
colossal stockades. They succeeded in kindling a fire near the sea- 
ward end of the pa. But the gods who live for ever were against 
them. They thought the dense smoke would drive the defenden 
from that portion of the stockade and enable them to rush through 
the smoke and attack the garrison inside the defences. Not so. They 
had reckoned without their host, that is to say, without the chief and 
priest of the fort, Te Hahae of famed deeds, he who stood cairn 
and unhurt upon the red hot stones of the fierce umu-taro, when he 
sent Ngai-Te-Rangi down to Hades by means of his dread powers. 

For Te Hahae, the seer and magician, at once proceeded to oall 
upon the child of Raka-maomao, that is to say, the south wind, which 
came rushing at his call and defeated the scheme of the attacking 
force by blowing the flame and smoke off the stockade. A fire was 
next kindled on the inland side of the stockade so as to obtain the 
services of that south wind. But Te Hahae rose to the occasion by 
calling upon and raising the Paeroa or sea wind, and the smoke and 
flames fell ofl' to the westward. 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 216 

The war party then kindled a fire on the east face of the pa^ and 
Te Hahae foiled them — on the west face, and he raised the wind which 
comes across the realm of Awa from the shining east. The fern and 
brush around the fort had now been all used as fuel. And still the 
pa fell not. 

And so the fight went on, day after day, until the garrison came 
to suffer severely from thirst. Then Nuku bethought him of sending 
his son Tikitu through the investing lines in order to obtain water. 
For he was of noble blood, was that stripling, and of chief's standing 
in many hapu (divisions) of Ngati-Awa, hence the investing enemy, 
who were also of Ngati-Awa would not slay him. And Tikitu went, 
provided by the cunning Nuku with a bundle of gourds {ruruni tdhd) 
or calabashes, as water vessels. Tikitu passed out of the fort and 
entered the enemies lines. On being asked his errand, he said : " I 
go to obtain water.'* "For whom?'' ** For Nuku," he replied. 
Enough said. He was allowed to proceed, to procure water and 
return with it, unmolested, to the fort. For Nuku, albeit an enemy 
for the time being, was closely related to the besiegers, and an 
influential chief of Ngati-Awa. 

This went on for three days, Tikitu passing through the close 
drawn lines each day with his bunch of calabashes and returning 
with them full of water to the besieged. On the third day it struck 
the party that the water gourds were somewhat numerous to contain 
water for one man. They therefore stopped the youth and did proceed, 
with malice aforethought, to pierce the aforesaid gourds with their 
sharp pointed tokotoko spears, thus allowing the water to escape. One 
alone they left intact, as a supply for Nuku. 

Attacks on the pa still continued but met with no success. 
Finding that their efforts were unavailing, the investing force called 
out to Te Hahae to deliver up to them the person of Te Au-whiowhio, 
he who had slain Whakapa. That unhappy individual was therefore 
handed over to the enemy who at once killed, cooked, and ate him. 
This man was given up to ensure peace, but the attacking force 
disrepfarded their promise and renewed the attack in order to slay 
Te Hahae, so as to thoroughly square the account, and again the 
attack failed. 

Then the chief Bangi-ka-wehea took compassion on the luckless 
Nga-Maihi within the fort and cast about for a plan whereby they 
might escape from the fort and find safety elsewhere. He therefore 
induced his force to collect at one end of the pa and there perform 
a haka or dance. This was done at Muri-rotu. The beseiged, grasping 
their opportunity, left the fort by the other end, so as not to be seen 
by the enemy. As they passed O-tu-te-reinga, the chief Bangi-ka- 
wehea appeared and bid them farewell, saying: ^*E Koro mat 



216 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Haere ki tua na icliakaluhe atu ai. He kura kamtja € rokohia.** 
(Farewell, 0, Sirs! Go afar off that you may escape misfortime. 
A peaceful home shall be found). And then Nga-Maihi went forward 
on their way, and settled at Tauranga. None remained save a few 
whom Rangi-ka-wehea retained as beaters of aute, they being skilful 
in the manufacture of cloth from that bark. So ended that seige of 
Puketapu, though many another Homeric combat was yet to take 
place beneath those frowning ramparts in the classic land of Awa, 
in the years that lay before. 

Long years after, when Te Bau-paraha raided the South Island, 
he took the Kaiapohia />u by means of burning the stockade thereof, 
the priests of either side endeavouring each to raise a wind favourable 
to their side, a dead calm prevailing ; the besieged bethought them 
of firing the piles of brush which had been placed near the stockade, 
that it might be consumed before a wind arose. But as the fire 
burned up the wind arose and blew dead on to the stockade whioh 
v/as soon breached, and then came a slaughter grim and great, and a 
long train of captives was sent up to the north. 

Again — The bushmen of Tuhoe rose in arms, under Te Bangi- 
aniwaniwa and other chiefs, and marched on the Oputara pa at 
Whirinaki, in order to square accounts with the Pu Taewa for the 
slaying of one Pare-uia. The war party camped at the clump of 
bush at Tauaroa, and discussed the attack. Te Whatae proposed to 
attack that night. The Bangi -aniwaniwa said : *' Am I a low born 
person that I should attack an enemy under cover of darkness. No ! 
We will deliver our attack when the broad daylight flashes down from 
Mount Tawhiuau.*' Now Te Whatae noticed that in the fort the 
houses were thatched with toetoe leaves. He took his pauku cloak 
and placed it in the spring near the bush, so as to render it impervious 
to spear thrusts. Then he lashed together by their ends two long 
huata spears and fixed a torch to the end thereof. Then he generated 
fire, donned his pauku^ kindled the torch and approached the stockade 
of the fort, amid a shower of missiles, darts and stones. Long spears 
were thrust between the palisades and lunged at him, but he succeeded 
in firing the houses within the pa which soon became untenable on 
account of heat and smoke. Then trouble came unto the Pu Taewa. 
When the sun rose next morning, it shone not upon Oputara, but 
upon a long line of bushmen ascending the range, each loaded with a 
swag of human flesh, as provisions for the journey which lay before 
them. For the bloodstained cloak of Pare-uia had been found at 
Oputara where it had been brought by Ngati-Mahanga. And the 
chiefs of Tuhoe said : ** Men of Tarentum ! It will take not a little 
blood to wash this gown,** — or words to that effect* 



NOTES ON THE ART OF WAR. 217 

Suppose a party are about to go forth in order to attack the fort of 
an enemy. The priest wishes to weaken the garrison so that the fall 
of the fort may be assured. He therefore proceeds to construct a 
small replica of that fort. That miniature fort is then <* entered *' or 
assaulted by the priest — i.e., he repeats a spell of magic in order to 
weaken the enemy and cause the fall of their pa. This replica of the 
doomed fort is termed a pa whakawairua. 

One of the most singular methods of defence was that employed by 
Tuhoe when the news came that Ngati-Awa were going to send an 
expedition up the Whakatane Gorge in order to attack them at 
Rua-tahuna. Tuhoe collected in the fort known as Mana-te-pa, near 
Tatahoata. This fort is situated on the edge of a terrace with a 
precipitous cliff on one side and the level terrace on the other. 
Across the terrace, through a white pine bush, ran the trail from the 
lower country by which the enemy would advance on the pa. Now 
at this time Tuhoe had obtained European axes, by barter from 
the coast tribes. They therefore evolved the brilliant idea of felling 
the bush on either side of the trial and allowing it to dry. Then 
when the enemy advanced to attack the fort, the bush should be 
fired in their rear, thus cutting off their retreat. However this 
wondrous scheme never was executed, although the bush was felled ; 
for the invaders came no further up the valley than Huka-nui. 
While they were camped at that place, their chief, our old friend 
Tikitu, he who was water carrier at Puketapu, but now a renowned 
warrior, their chief was' seated in camp engaged in scraping his 
taiahoy when one of his party cried : *' Tikitu! a man is descending 
the hill.'* Looking up he saw Piki, a Tuhoe chief, descending the 
Rua-tahuna trail towards them. As Piki approached him Tikitu 
placed the bended forefinger of his hand beside his (own) nose. 
His party saw the sigu and knew that it meant that Piki was to be 
spared and not slain. Tikitu said to Piki : *' Farewell ! remain here. 
As for me, I return from here, and close the door after me*' — meaning 
thereby that he would not return to fight Tuhoe. And that remark 
remained as a tatu poiinamii for this district. 



(To be continued.) 



^ssi£-^~--;?--'i- .>, ■,^- ^^. 



ARAI-TE-TONGA, THE ANCIENT MABAE AT 
RAROTONGA. 



By S. Percy Smith. 



IN 1897, accompanied by Mr. Hy. Nicholas and Te Ariki-Taraare, 
I visited the famous inarae of Arai-te-tonga, situated about two 
miles east of the village of Avarua, island of Rarotonga. The 
following brief account of this marae may prove of interest, because a 
few years more and it will have disappeared from mortal ken owing to 
neglect and the overwhelming growth of tropical vegetation. 

First, as to the Ara-nui-o-Toi, shown on sketch accompanying 
this, the ancient road which encircles the island of Rarotonga on 
which the Marae is, and along which in former days were situated the 
principal villages of the island The ** great road of Toi " is the 
meanmg of its name, but who Toi was there is some doubt; 
none of the natives I consulted could tell me anything of this 
man, beyond this, that he lived in the **vcry long ago,** before 
the times of Tangiia, who flourished circa 1250. It may be that this 
is the same Toi-te-huatahi who the Maoris of New Zealand say lived 
in Hawaiki some generations before the great migration to New 
Zealand circa 1850, but it is uncertain. This ancient road follows 
generally the foot of the hills, cutting across the mouths of the 
valleys, and leaving the level flat that encircles Rarotonga outside or 
seaward of it. It is about 22 or 28 miles in length, and for about 
two-thirds of its length is paved with flat volcanic or coral stones. 
Its width is about 15 to 20 feet. In several places, at the sites of the 
old villages (or oite) are to be seen the stone seats where the 
local gossips used to sit and learn the news of the passers by. These 
are better preser\'ed at Arai-te-tonga than in other places, and are of 
the form shown in sketch. 

Arai-te-tonga was the principal itniraf of Rarotonga, where the 
ruling chiefs of the Makea family often dwelt, and where the sacrifices 
to the gods were made, and the Takurua, or annual feast at the 
presentation of the flrst-fruits, was held, accompaniinl by many 
ceremonies and much rejoicing. It is probable that, like the other 
inaraes of the Cook group, it was at one time enclosed with a stoDe 
wall but there is no sign of it left. 





I 



1 



Pr -hi 



,'5 lO 



<2 



5 



ti ^ 


















^t5'§ll§^^44^ij« 



280 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

ariki is io bear in future is given him hy Te Ariki-taraare. At this 
time also is delivered over to the ariki the supremacy over the lands, 
the right to all turtles and sharks caught, &c. After this the Ngati- 
Tangiia clan take the ariki to another maras, named Pukura-nni, 
where the slain in battle are first offered before being finally taken to 
Vaerota, a ftuirae just on the north-west point of the entrance to 
Nga-tangiia harbour, and opposite the islet Motu-tapu. Mimiti^ or 
skulls (? of the slain), are deposited at Vaerota."^ 

It is absolutely necessary that the member of the Makea family 
who is appointed ariki shall own a portion of land, however small, at 
Arai-te-tonga. The younger branches of the Makea family are named 
Anau-toa, Tumu-toa, Tutara and Kao. In case the right of anyone 
to be ariki is disputed, it is said of him, •* K kirikiri teatea no Arai-te- 
tonga,'' the translation of which is, "a white pebble from Arai-te- 
tonga/* but no doubt it has some historical meaning not disclosed in 
the words themselves. 

At '/' on the sketch is a large xUh (or BarrinyUnUa BiUonica 
Forst) said to have been growing there in the time of Tangiia {eirea 
1250). 

The spot marked * h* on sketch is where the offerings to the arM 
were made, i.e., of the special matters which pertained to him as of 
right, such as the onu (the turtle), the raratea (the shark), the urua 
and punupunu (certain fish), c^c. These are still the right of the 
present ariki , Makea-Takau. 

Letter * T on sketch marks the seat appropriatecl to Pa-ariki, the 
head of the Ngati-Tangiia clan, whilst 'j' is that of the Kainuku, 'k* 
of the Au and Maturua, '/ ' of Tino-mana, * m ' of Vaka-a-tini families 
and others. 

Te Au-o-touga warae is said to have boen built originally by 
Tangiia, who was driven from Tahiti, and settled in Rarotonga circa 
1250, but it has always been the particular marae of the Makea family, 
who obtained it, and the supreme power in the island, during the 
troublous times just after Tangiia had settled down. In order to 
obtain the lissistance of Makea-Karika (a chief who came from Samoa 
to Rarotonga with his people not long after Tangiia) against Tu-tapu- 
aru-roa, Tangiia agreed to hand over the supremacy to Makea, and it 
has remained in that famil> down to the present time, the present 
representative being the worthy old lady Makea-Takau, who is 
twentieth in descent from Makea-Karika. 



' A gale early iu 1H'J7 disclosed over 100 skulU at thii ^pot. 



SOME PAUMOTU CHANTS. 



[When in Eastern Polynesia in 1897, a fellow voyager, a Paumotu woman, 
allowed me to copy the following chants from an old book she had. The chants 
bad been written down by her father, Tapanga, a native of Anaa Island* in the 
" forties " ; but his writing was vtry bad ; in some cases I may unintentionally 
have miscopied his words. The chavitR have no particular interest, perhaps, 
anless as specimens of Paumotu knrakiax, excepting that part which recites the 
'* log book " of their migrations. But I think it well to preserve this matter in 
print, because probably there is none other of a similar nature in existence. As 
to the translation, our fellow member, Mr. J. L. Toung, persuaded a Tahitian 
gentleman, Mr. Charles Garbutt, who understood the Paumotu dialect to under- 
take it. This he has done by aid of some old Paumotu people living in Tahiti. 
It will be obvious to Maori scholars that the dialect is closely allied to Maori, and 
indeed contains a great many identical phrases to be found in Maori karakiaa. 
For this latter reason I have presumed to alter the translations in some parts 
whore the Maori meaning seemed to be more in accord with the general scope of 
tht^ chants than Mr. Garbutt* s rendering. 

The chants are those sung at the birth of a high chief. In the usual cryptic 
manner of these compositions, they go back to the beginning of all things, and 
then trace the origin of the new born to the gods and thence through the ancestors 
of the migrations. As denoting the ancient connection with the Maori branch of 
the race, the first god mentioned is Tane (and his wife Hina), thus showing how 
very old it is. Tangaroa has no important place in these chants, for he is a 
more modern god, at any rate to many branches of the race. — S. Pkbcy SsfiTH.] 

No. 1. 

I Manava te tere i a Tane, 

Manava te tere i a Hina, 

No te manava-tumu, manava* tumu, 

Manava- tumu nui. 
i Manava- tumu ^ manava- tumu, manava-tumu iti. 

Manava-tumu, manava-tumu, manava-tumu piri, 

Manava-tumu, manava-tumu, manava-tumu mau. 

Manava turuturu, manava turuturu, manava turuturu. 

Manava hirinaki, manava hirinaki, manava hirinaki. 

* Tapanga was apparently a man of some consideration belonging to one of 
the chief families of Anaa. Eight generations prior to himself he had a common 
ancestor with the Pomare family of Tahiti. 



222 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

10 Eei haea mai e koe tena pungaverevere 
Ea heke i te manava a Rua-kaua. 
Ka pu fanuanua faki te rangi matere ua 
Maeva te ariki, maeva te uho, 
Te ariki, ko Kongo. 

Manava mahiri, manava mahiri, manava mahiri 
15 Manava manatu, manava manatii, manava manatu, 

Manava ko fakapuku, manava ko fakapuku, manava ko fakapuko, 
Manava ko fakaheo, manava ko fakaheo, manava ko fakaheo, 
Manava ko fakahihi, manava ko fakahihi, manava ko fakahihi, 
Manava ko fakahunga, manava ko fakabunga, manava ko fakahunga. 
io Manava ko fakaveu, manava ko fakaveii, manava ko fakaveu. 
Kia tapata tu vau ki a koe, Koropauga, 
Eia fa inumia atu ki Manahoa 
Ko Tangaroa kia tina, kia mana, 
Kia maeva te ariki, maeva te uho 
25 Fanuanua faki te rangi matere ua. 
Maeva te ariki, maeva te uho, 
Te ariki ko Kongo. 

E ui i Manuka, e tere matahoa Tane, 

Te mataheui atu nei au ki a koe, 
80 Kitekite ki teie reko. 

Ko te tumu, ko te reko kite ai toie reko 

Ko te piri o teie reko, ko te niana o teie reko, 

Ko te aki o teie reko, ko te rava o teio ivko, 

Ko te tangata i hanu i teie reko 
33 Te vahine i hanu i teie reko, 

Te tamaiti i hanu i teie reko, 

I metua ai nei, i rauraha ai nei, i hohor.i ai nei, 

Tokobie maua e haere atu n< i 

Ko to huru, ko to veu, ko to ate, ko to voua, 
40 Ka unu atu, ka iinu mai, ka unu kaki, k)i hakapahu, 

Ka pu e ariki fanuanua faki to ranj^'i maiero ua 
Maeva te ariki, maeva to uh(^ 
To ariki ko Kcmgo. 

Ka heui, ka heui, ka heui i to tumu- o 
45 E tumu nui, e metua to tumu, 
E kimi au, e kinii au, o kinii au. 
Ki aku iho ki a Piritako uui Kiiuata vahint- 
Hirihiri muna kaufau, 
E noho ana i roto i to tahua 



SOME PAUMOTU CHANTS. 228 

10 Kia haea iho ki to mata, 

Ko to konake ki te ata miramira (muramura in m) 

Kg tau tumu ma tau vananga, 

Ma tau tarau, ma tau korero, 

Ma te oi, fanau ai tau tamaiti o te tumu, 
55 Tumu-nui, tumu-iti, tumu-piri, tumu-mau, 

Ko te tumu i rui ai Atea, 

Ko te tumu i rui ai Fakahotu, 

Ko te tumu i rui ai ko Kongo, 

Te ara ki te po, 
60 No te atua, 

Te ara ki te ao no te tangata, 

Ka unu atu, ka unu mai, ka unu kaki, ka hakapahu 
Ka pu e ariki ko Kongo. 

E ui i te tumu, e ui i te tumu, 
*K, Ui atu vau ki raro i a te tumu — e — 

E ui i te tumu, e ui i te tumu, 

Ui atu vau ko tumu-nui, ko tei runga, 

Ko tumu iti, ko tei raro, 
75 Ko te tupuranga ia o Vaitu-ma-tangata — e — 

E ui i te tumu, ui atu vau 

Ko turuturu, ko tumu kia, ko tei runga, 

Ko tumu nana, ko tei raro, 

Ko te tupuranga ia o Vaitu-ma-tangata — e — 

E ui i te tumu, ui atu vau, 
75 Ko turuturu ko tei runga 

Ko hirinaki ko tei raro, 

Ko te tupuranga ia o Vaitu-ma-tangata — e — 

E ui i te tumu, ui atu vau, 

Ko mahiri ko tei runga 
so Ko manatu ko tei raro 

Ko te tupuranga ia o Vaitu-ma-tangata — e — 

E ui i te tumu, ui atu vau, 

Ko fakapuku ko tei runga, 

Ko fakaheo ko tei raro 
g5 Ko te tupuranga ia o Vaitu-ma-tangata — e — 

E ui i te tumu, e ui atu vau, 

Ko fakahihi ko tei runga, 

Ko fakapeka ko tei raro, 

Ko te tupuranga ia o Vaitu-ma-taiigata — e — 
yo E ui i te tumu, e ui atu vau, 
. Ko fakahunga ko tei runga, 
Ko fakaveu ko tei raro. 



224 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Ko te tupuranga ia o Vaitu-ma-tangata — e — 

E ui te tumu, ui atu vau, 
95 Ko ihoiho ko tei runga, 

Ko ngakongako ko te raro, 

Ko te tupuranga ia o Vaitu-ma-tangata — e — 

E ui i te tumu, ui atu vau, 

Ko tuturi ko tei runga 
i«o Ko pepeke ko tei raro, 

Ko te tupuranga ia o Vaitu-ma-tangata — e — 

E ui i te tumu, ui atu vau, 

Ko te hau ko tei runga 

Ko putake ko tei raro 
105 Ko te tupuranga ia o Vaitu-ma-tangata — e — 

E ui i te tumu, ui atu vau, 

Ko papakia ko tei runga, 

Ko tumu-moe-hania ko tei raro 

Ko te tupuranga ia o Vaitu-ma-tangata. 
110 E ui i te tumu, ki tapata tu Koropanga, 

Kia fainumia atu ki Manahoa, 

Ko Tangaroa kia tina, kia mana, 

Kia maeva te ariki, maeva te ariki, 

Ka pu fanuanua faki-te-rangi matere ua, 
115 Maeva te ariki, maeva te uho, 

Te ariki ko Kongo. 

E ui i te tumu, e ui i te tumu, 

Ui atu vau ki raro ia te tumu-e, 

E ui i te tumu, 
120 Koi tokotahi, koi tokorua, koi iokotoru, 

Koi tokoha, koi tokonma, koi tokoono, 

Koi tokohitu, koi tokovau, koi tokoiva, 

Koi tokotini, koi tokotapu, 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Rongo, 
it5 E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Tupuna, 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Metua. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Tama. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Karoha. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Punua. 
190 E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Hokin<;a. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i to ariki nei ko 'ruhan<>:a. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko IIaon>nga. 

E tupai avai ra to uho i te ariki noi ko Nohohanga. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i to ariki noi ko Oihangu. 
IS* E tupai avai ra te nho i te ariki nei ko Tuturihunga. 



SOME PAUMOTU CHANTS. 

E tupai aval ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Vihanga 

£ tupai aval ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Kaufauranga. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Hiringa. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Toparanga. 
140 E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Fakatukirohanga. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Fakamoimoihanga. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Fakatangataranga. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Fakamamahanga. 

E tupai avai ra te uho i te ariki nei ko Fakaououhanga, 

Ka unu atu, ka unu mai, ka unu kaki, ka hakapahu, 
145 Ka pu ariki ko Kongo. 



No. 2. 

Manava tumu-nui manava tumu-nui, raanava tumu-nui, 

Tumu-iti torohaha, tumu tumu mate kofai, 

Ko Tumu-henua e tumu ki te papa, mahora ki te one 

Fanau ko Tumu-nui e tane, 
150 Fanau ko Tumu-iti e vahine, 

A pu a raua tama, 

Tena tei vaho Tangaroa-manahune, 

Ko Te Pou-o-te-rangi, ko Te Piri-o-te-rangi, 

Ko Te Taha-o-te-rangi, ko Te Hakamakore-o-te-rangi, 
155 Ka pu e ariki, fanau ki Hiti — ko Hiti-nui, 

Koi nunuku mai te henua, 

Koi neneke mai te henua, 

Ko Hiti-taravai te henua, 

Ka he tumu, ka he ori, 
160 Ka taua te henua i a Papa-henua, 

E taua, e taua, e tupu ai te taua — e. 

E fakatupuranga taua. 

Tupu ake te henua, Havaiki, 

Tupu ake te ariki Rongonui, 
155 Tara korero ana i tana korero 

E hora ana i tana vananga, 

Fakapupu ana i tana hoariki, 

E huti ana i tana kurariki, 

Hutia fakamau ki te vae 
170 No te fakariki ra Rongonui ariki nei, 
Ka pu e ariki fanau. 

Tupu ake te henua ko Vavau, 
Tupu ake te ariki, Toiane, 
Tara korero ana i tana korero, 

16 



226 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

175 E hora ana i tana vananga, 

Fakapupu ana i tana hoariki 

E huti ana i tana kurariki 

Hutia, fakamau ki te vae 

No te fakaariki ra, Toiane ariki nei, 
180 Ea pu e ariki fanau. 

Tupu ake te henua Hiti-nui 
Tupu ake te ariki Tangaroa-manahone 
Tara korero ana i tana korero 
E hora ana i tana vananga 
1S5 Fakapupu ana i tana hoariki, 
E huti ana i tana kurariki, 
Hutia fakamau ki te vae 

No te fakaariki ra, Tangaroa-manahune ariki nei, 
Ka pu e ariki fanau. 

iM Tupu ake te henua Tongahau 

Tupu ake te ariki Itupava, 

Tara korero ana i tana korero. 

E hora ana i tana vananga 

Fakapupu ana i tana hoariki 
195 £ huti ana i tana kuniriki, 

Hutia fakamau ki te vae 

No to fakaariki ra. Itupava ariki nei, 
Ka pu e ariki fanau. 

Tupu ake te honua PahanirHhau^a 
^>» Tupu ako to ariki Uorvnuoanki 
Ka pu ariki fnnau. 

Tupu ako :o honua ko Tahiti 
Tupu ako 10 ariki Mari-Tan^rarvM 
Totahi ariki To Man*:i-o ^oni^\ 
2o: Totahi ariki fakatupurauj^a :aua, 
Tupu ako :o honua >[eko:ika* 
Tupu ako :o ariki Tuhi\-a. 
Totahi ariki Tara tu vahu 
Totahi ar.k: faka;uparar>» ;a::a. 
Tv.pa ake :o houua >[Aka;oa 
Tura aktf to anki T.iruia 
Te:ah: ar.k: T.iua a:::a to ba^^ r:ii* :\ 
Total: ar-.k: :ANa;i;pi:r.r:c* tau.*, 
Tur,i ake :o h«.r.ua lv«:i^*r^.vi. 



SOME PAUMOTU CHANTS. 227 

215 Tupu ake te ariki Tamatoa-ariki 

Tetahi ariki Itupava, 

Tetahi ariki fakatupuranga taua. 

Tupu ake te henua Ngarutua 

Tupu ake te ariki Tabua, 
220 Tetehi ariki Torohia, 

Kaukura : — Maroturia ma Rongonui te ariki. 

Apataki : — Pukava ma Tahuka-tuarau te ariki. 

Niau: — Pui-huki-kangakanga ma Riritua te ariki. 

Toau : — Rahua-tuku-tahi ma Te-mate-ki-Havaiki te ariki. 
225 Fakarava : — Makino ma Maoke-taharoa, te ariki. 

Faite : Rahui ma Hekava, te ariki. 

Anaa : — Tuamea ma Mahanga-tuaira te ariki. 

Fanaua i raro nei, ko Tumu-henua i Henua-mea, 

Te vahine Ivitua-ivitau, Tumu-nui, Tumu-tango, 
280 Tapauta, Tapatai, ko Vivi, ko Vava, 

Te vahine matau, e tui matau 

E rangi te vahine toro-nuku, toro-rangi, 

Te vahine Kai-kai-rangi 

Ko Roaka te vahine, ko Turukia te vahine, 
2t5 Mokouri te vahine, Mokotea te vahine 

Te Uamata-iti te vahine, Ruarangi-piri-take te vahine, 

Ko te mau, ko te piri, 

Te vahine fanau ai Marumaru-atua 

Ko te tupu, ko te hoe, ko te rito, ko te kao, 
240 Mahora nuku ra o Atea 

Mahora rangi o Fakahotu, 

Piripiri ki te aroaro, moe ki te papa-nui i a Raharaha o Atea nei ra 

Ma take ki reira ko Atea nei ra, 

Maranga ki reira ko Atea nei ra, 
2^5 Noho ki reira ko Atea nei ra, 

Hume maro ki reira ko Atea nei ra 

Taka ki reira ko Atea nei ra, 

Fakapapa ki reira ko Atea nei ra, 

Turi ki reira ko Atea nei ra, 
250 Tohi tu Rongo ma Tutavake 

Ka fararei ki Tu-manu-kura 

Ki te ata ahiahi e moe ana ko Turuturu 

Ki ataata fakatangana. 

Ko Uanuku kirapeka e tutohi, 
255 E ka nuku e tutohi e karaki 

Mavae te po, mavae te ao 

Tei Matukituki mahoahoa na Papa ia— o — 



228 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Na Papa-i-raharaha na Kuhi, 

E tere ki vao o te rangi 
260 Na tangata nei ra — e — 

No raro nei maua, no Papa-tukia, 

No Papa-reva no Papa-mono-taki — 

Mono-taki te uho i a Tane — 

Tane-tutira, te ata noho kapua, 
285 Mariu o te rangi, taua tohi-kava, 

Ka pu fanuanua fakiterangi matere ua, 

Maeva te ariki, maeva te uho 
Te ariki ko Rongo. 

Taku ariki e, ka nanao ra vau ki aku vananga, 
270 I aku korero, i a Tumu-nui, i a Turau-iti 

Tnmu-kerekere, Tangaroa tavahi, Tumutumu ma te kofai, 

Ko Papa-tukia, ko Papa-henua, Papa-ronaki 

Teni tenia te Papa, tupu i te Papa. 

Mahora i te one ; e one varevare, 
275 Ko Tane hutinga mauku, 

Vaerenga tahua, horahanga one, turanga rakau, 

Ka hura i te pu-vananga — 

Mua-vananga, roto-vananga, muri-vananga, ihu-vananga, 

Tarakapu i te heuenga korero, 
2** Karakara kahaki au i taku vananga. 

£ tapu taku vananga nei. 

Te one uri hoki tei Hawaiki, 
Te one manga tei Vavau-nui, 
Te one kere tei Tonga-hake, 
**5 Te one vare hoki tei Orofena 
Te one uri hoki tei Tahiti, 
Te puke hoki tei Punakau. 

[The same formula is applied to the following places, mostly 
Paumotu Islands, and ancient warats. Sec translation.] 

Rangi roa Tahanea 

Hitianga Motu-tunga 

wo Ahuroa Tuanaki 

Niutahi »o Hitiroa 

Farekura Katiu 

Tainoka Pouheva 

Turamoe Maoha (or Mavake) 

295 Kotukurere Araputa (or Faraputa) 

Ngunaia ^^ Puhingani 



SOME PAUMOTU CHANTS. 

Faturona Maramarama-i-atea 

Apaapa-te-raugi Fareaka 

Ngarutua Tama-te-faufere 

Apataki Ngoiokao 

3^0 Kaukura «» Makemo 

Niau Taenga 

Toau Nihiru 

Fakarava Raroia 

Faite Pukamaru 

^^* Farepia ^25 Fangatau 

Riuriu te hono mai Hivau, 
Tangi ake te poko, te moaua mai Hiva, 
Vinivini te tangi o te kura 
Koto koto te tangi o te Kenehu, 
**° Riroriro te tangi o te atua 

Noho ake ra vau ki runga i te pia 
Teitei te kau-ariki-roa, ei turuturu no te rangi, 
Rau-kuru, Rau-tara, ko huia, ko katoa 
Ko Runa, ko Pea, ko Hikiepo, ko Rangaepa, 
3^ Ko Fakatutua, ko Fakamamae. 

Ovaria ona tangata ia i ari ai te pito o Rongo-po, 
Ariki te po, e ao ariki te ao, 
Ko te turanga ia o te kohiti vakevake, 
£ fai i te fai, e fai Punakau tei te fakariki 
'^^ Tei a Hau-te-ruru, ia Hau-te-kapakapa, 
Tanga ka maeva atu e Rongo ; 
Fanau Tangaroa-manahune, fanau ki Hiti, 
Ka raka ki Hiti, pipiri ki Hiti, ka momoe ki Hiti, 
Fakaipo ki Hiti, i mana ki Hiti, 
^*5 Ka tohua ki Hiti, ka hapu ki Hiti, 
Oioi ki Hiti, turanga ki Hiti, 
Ka huki ki Hiti, fakatuna ki Hiti, 
Fakamamae ki Hiti, fanau ki Hiti, 
Ka purero ki Hiti, kohiki ki Hiti, 
■^ Punganui ki Hifci, ka veveu ki Hiti, 
Huruhuru ki Hiti, hopemanga ki Hiti, 
Maranga ki Hiti, ka rere ki Hiti, 
Ka huri ki Hiti, ka onga ki Hiti, 
Ka tau ki Hiti, tiaia ki Hiti, 
355 Tangohia ki Hiti, ka roaka ki Hiti, 
Hutia ki Hiti, fakapapa ki Hiti, 
Fakatura ki Hiti, fakamana ki Hiti, 
Fakamaeva ki Hiti, taraukara ki Hiti. 
Tei te fakariki te ora. 



280 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

*o Koi Tahiti-nui, koi Punakau, 

Koi a Bongo-metua, koi a Hau-te-ruru, 

Koi a Hau-te-kapakapa. 

Tonga te matangi, 

Tutape ariki tai morehna punua 
3*5 Tei te fakariki te ora, 

Koi Tapuae-manu, koi Tangahape, 

Koi Maroro-ariki te matiti o te rangi, 

Te Kahakura o Atea e Keha ravaru te ariki 

E kura te ariki Maeva-rangi 
^0 Te ua topitipiti, te ua topatapata, 

E tu te ahu-rangi te kura tuao punua, 

Koi Kakukura-roa, koi Farekura koi a Maro turia, 

Te fare mahi roa, te puna kai ariki, 

Tahuka tuarau te pehu tuariki, 
•76 Koi te fakariki te ora. 

Koi Nganaia, koi Farepia, ko Te Nuku-tae-roto, 

Koi te Vai tomeamea mahanga. 

Tu ai ra moemoe a Taheta, 

E tu fakamaukura, ka pu koe 
3*> Ki te heiao ma te uira 

E pu to kofa ei faukura 

vaua te ao punua, tika i te vananga, 

Hara i te korero tika, i te korero hara i te vananga, 

Vananga ka tika, ka tika vananga, 
9^ Ka hara, ka hara, ka huro vananga i moana, 

Teie tei roto i te papa, ko Ru-roa, ko Ru-poto, 

Ko Ru-farara, ko Ru-tuanohu 

Ko Ngaohe, ko Pingao, ko Tope, ko Pepe, 

Ko Titi-matai-ao, ko Hane-nui, ko Taneiti 
®o Ko Tane-paku, ko Tane-te-hihiri, ko Tane-te-rarama. 

Ko Tane-toto-iho, nana e fakatanga taua rangi i runga nei, 

Na te reira e pepehi i taua rangi i runga nei, 

Teie na pofaki, Te Fatu-kura-tane, 

Tetahi ko Fatitiri-takataka, 
5 Tetahi ko Pingao, tei haro i te rangi i runga nei. 



{To he contunietL) 



SOME PAUMOTU CHANTS. 281 

PAUMOTU CHANTS. 



[Translation.] 



No. 1. 



1 Welcome is the expedition of Tane, 

Gratifying is the coming of Hina ; 

From the original source, 

From the great origin of all ; 
5 Springing from a small cause, a little cause, 

A narrow source, a secret source ; 

A true origin, a real (or permanent) source (or origin) ; 

A supporting origin ; a holding up origin , 

A sustaining origin to lean upon. 
10 Tear apart that veil (rend not that spider's web), 

And let pass the project of Rua-kana, 

Appears the rainbow, filling the sky and dispersing the rain. 

Long live* the King, long live his companions. 
The King Kongo. 

15 A laborious thought ; a laborious thought ; 

A profitable thought ; a beneficial plan ; 

An expanding thought, an extending idea ; 

An idea worthy of admiration. 

A ray making, dazzling thoughtt 
* An assembling thought, a collective thought, 

A shape-giving, form-making thought. 

I appeal to you Koropanga, || 
To give drink to Manahoa} 

And let Tangaroa be firm, be powerful. 
^ Let the King and his companions live. 
And be happy and powerful. 
The rainbow fills the sky, the rain disperses. 
Long live the King, long live his companions, 
The King Bongo. 

• Maeva, to shout, to cheer. 

t Fakahihi ? to gush forth, sprmg forth. 

II Koropanga, a female attendant whose duty was to give the kava driuk. 
\ Manahoa, an eyil spirit. 



232 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

^ Ask Manuka * if Tane came from afar 

With anxiety in his face, 

To hear this news, this speech ; 

The origin and importance of this news, 

Its wonder and power, 
35 Its meaning, its extent, 

The man who gleaned this news. 

The woman who gathered this news. 

The child who brought it, 

A parent I perhaps who circulated and spread it ! 
*o How many are we now approaching, yourselves, 

Your forms, your shadows and their reflections J 

The discussion is over ; beat the drum 

To announce the King, the rainbow fills the sky, the rain diSperses. 

Long live the King, long live 
*5 The King Bongo. 

Seek, seek, search for the cause.. j 

A great origin, a parent is the origin. 

I will search, I will look, I will seek it 

With my friend 5 Piritake and Kauata-vahine 
^ Invoking a secret prayer to the gods. 

Who abide on the platform. 

Who pass before my sight,* 

Like the shadows of a tinted cloud. 

By my source, by my recitals, 

By my invocation, by my speech, 
^ By the agitating power was bom my child, from the stem, 

A great stem, a small, a wonderful, an induring stem. 

Of the cause (seed) spread by Atea ; 

Of the seed spread by Fakahotu '■ =• 

Of the seed spread by Bongo. 
^ The way to darkness (Hades) is of the gods. 

The way to the light is with man. 

Let then discussion cease. Beat the drum. 
Uail, King Bongo. 

* / ^[^^n^^kl^, at Manuka, i.e. the Maiiu*a island of Samoa, famous as the fini 
of that group to bo settled. 

1 1 inetua <ii, ? who fathered it, i.e., who originated it, 

* Seeing the subject of this chant, this line might read, '• Thy hair, thy 
young shoots, thy heait, thy bones." 

Tumu, cause, origin, original source (in this case of man), stem. 
;i //<(), ? spirit, a god, an anc«t>tral spirit invoked. 

* That flashes before the eyes. 
•• Fakahotu, Atea's wife. 



SOME PAUMOTU CHANTS. 288 

Enquire the cause, enquire the origin, 
^ I ask the cause beneath the origin. 
Enquire the cause, enquire the origin ; 
I ask of the great cause that is above. 

That below is the growth of Vaitu-ma-tangata. 
Enquire the cause, I ask of the cause, 
7° The hidden cause. Above is the real cause. 

And below is the growth of Vaitu-ma-tangata. 
Enquire the cause, I ask ; 
The sustaining power, it is above. 

And below is the urging force of growth of Vaiti-na-tangata. 
^5 Enquire the cause, I ask. 

The supporting power, it is above. 

The resting is beneath the growth of Vaitu-ma-tangata. 

Enquire the cause, I ask : 
Excitation is above 
* And thought is below. 

Such is the growth of Vaitu-ma-tangata. 

Enquire the cause, I ask : 
The inflation is above. 
The appreciation is below ; 
^ The growth of Vaitu-ma-tangata. 

Enquire the cause, I ask ; 

The shining ray* is from above, 

The mischief making! is from below : 

Such is the growth of Vaitu-ma-tangata. 

^ Enquire the cause, I ask ; 

The assembling of the parts is above. 
The shape making is beneath : 

Such is the growth of Vaitu-ma-tangata. 
Seek for the cause, I ask, 
^ The ghosts! of the dead are above. 
The remembrance is below : 

Such is the source of Vaitu-ma-tangata. 

Seek for the cause, I ask, 
The kneeling is above, 
^^ The bending of the arms is below : 

Such is the source of Vaitu-ma-tangata. 

• Fdkahihij the spriuj^ing up, the growth. 
t Fakiipcka, the branching, 

* Ihoihoy ancestral spirits. 



284 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Seek for the cause, I ask, 

The wind * is above, 

Its origin (the root) is below : 
1^ Such is the source of Vaitu-ma-tangata. 

Seek for the cause, I ask, 

The flattening out is above, 

The sleep-covered foundation is below : 

Such is the source of Vaitu-ma-tangata. 
^^^ Seek for the cause, call on Koropanga, 

To give drink to Manahoa, and power to Tangaroa ; 

That the King may be happy and powerful. 
Long live the King. 

The rainbow appears, filling the sky and dispersing the rain, 
-^5 Long live the King, long live his companions. 
The King Kongo. 

Seek for the cause, seek for the cause, 

I ask for the cause beneath the origin, 

Enquire the cause, 
130 Once, twice, thrice. 

Four- times, five- times, six- times. 

Seven-times, eight-times, nine-times. 

Ten- times, eleven - times, i 

[At the celebration of the birth of the child of King Bongo, hu 
adherents, apparently nineteen in number, each gave him a name to 
commemorate the event. \ As each commenced his address or speech, 
he stamped his foot to call the King's attention to his homage.] 

Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Kongo, Grand- 
father. 
125 Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Kongo— Tupuna. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Kongo, Metua — 
Parent. 

• Halt, also means spirit. 

f Iiiiies 120 to 12.S — Mr. Oarbutt sjiys these numbers are not from Anfta 
island, but ure mixed up from the otlier Pauiuotu i^huuU. The Anaa numerals at 
the present day are: — Oniri, aitt\ iiwiiti, ttojn\ ,tktkif, ahiHe, ahito, nfmra, atiipa, 
hiirihori. At the same tinie. they are the numenils common all over I'olyoesia, 
Anaa being peculiar in this resiH»ct 

* Mr. Clarbuit adds. ** This refers to a Paumotu custom, in which, when the 
subjects of a kin*; went to con^^ratulate him on the birth of a child, or other im- 
portant event, they assembled at the court, or mnhor,i. and before commencing 
their si^H^ches. the one about to commenee. stamped with hi^ foot, to indicate that 
he asked {KTinissioii to speak. .\s soon as he had eauj^'ht the kind's eye. he knelt, 
and with the preamble of *' imuvn r,* uriki," comm-Mieod his >poech of hoiaag«. 
Having concluded, he arose and gave place to tht next. Ao." 



SOME PAUMOTU CHANTS. 286 

Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Rongo, Tama — 

Child. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Karoha — 

Love. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Punua — 

Family. 
^^ Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Hokinga — 

Beturning. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Tuhanga — 

Standing. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Haerenga 

— Walking. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Nohohanga 

— Sitting. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Oihanga 

— Turning round. 
135 Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Tuturi- 

hanga — Kneeling. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Vihanga — 

Afraid. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Kaufau- 

ranga — Teaching. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Hiringa — 

Speaking. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Toparanga — 

Fallmg. 
^^ Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Fakatukiro- 

hanga — Made famous. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Fakamoi- 

moihanga — Becoming old. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Faka- 

tangataranga — Beaching manhood. 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Bongo, Faka- 

mamahanga — ? 
Thus stamps the foot of the friend of the King Rongo, Fakaouou- 

hanga — ? 
Cease discussing. Beat the drum. 
1*5 Hail to King Bongo. 



286 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

No. 2. 

A well-founded origin, an important origin. 

Like a small tree shooting out its roots, and becoming 

Widespread like the Kofai. * 

Tumu-henua was the original foundation, spread with sand (or 
earth). 

A male was born, named Tumu-nui ; 
^^ A female was born, named Tumu-iti ; 

They gave birth to Tangaroa-Manahune, 

Te Pou o-te-Rangi, Te Piri-o-te-Rangi, 

Te Taha-o-te-Raugi, Te Hakamakore-o-te-Rangi. 
^^ Came forth a king's born at Hiti, Hiti-nui ! 

The land comes gliding along, 

The land comes creeping along, 

Hiti-taravai is the land. 

It is formed, it moves. 
160 The people of the land quarrelled with Papa-henua, 

War was proclaimed, 

War was originated. 

Then grew up the land Havaiki, 

With its King Rongonui. 
1^ He proclaimed his decisions, 

And gave forth his priestly power. 

He sounded the King's war-cry, 

And plucking the sacred red feathers, 

Fastened them to his ankle (or foot), 
170 i^'or the appointing of Rongonui king. 
Hail to the King brought forth. 

Then appeared the land Vavau, 

With its King, Toiane, 

He proclaimed his decisions, 
175 And spread out his priestly powers. 

He sounded the King's war-cry. 

And plucking the sacred red feathers, 

Fastened them to his ankle. 

For tlie appointing of Toiane king. 
1*^ Hail to the new born King. 

Tiien appeared the land Hiti-nui. 
With its King, Tangaroa-manahune. 
Ho prochiimed his law.^. 
And uttered his priestly wisdom. 

* Kofai, u large tree with red and yellow llowcrs. 



SOME PAUMOTU CHANTS. 287 



1®* He sounded the King's war-cry, 
And plucking the sacred feathers, 
Fastened them to his ankle, 
For the appointing of Tangaroa-manahune, King, 
Hail to the new born King. 

^^ Then appeared the land Tongahau, 

And the King Itupava. 

He uttered his proclamations. 

And showed his priestly powers. 

He sounded the King's war-cry, 
1* And plucking the sacred feathers. 

Fastened them to his ankle. 

For the appointing of Itupava, King. 
Hail to the new born King. 

Then appeared the land Pahangahanga, 
-^ With the King, Horomoariki. 

Hail to the new born King. 

Then appeared the land Tahiti, 

With the King Mari-tangaroa, 

And another King Mangi-o-Rongo, 
205 A king who stirred up war. 

Then appeared the land Meketika, 

With the King Tuhiva, 

And King Tara-tu-vahu, 

And another king who stirred up war. 
210 Then appeared the land Makatea, 

With the King, Taruia, 

And King Puna-ama-te-hao-rangi, 

And another king who stirred up war. 

Then appeared the land Rangiroa, 
215 With the King Tamatoa-ariki, 

And King Itupava, 

And another king who stirred up war. 

Then appeared the land Ngarutua, 

With the King Tahua, 
220 And King Torohia, 

And another king who stirred up war. 

Then appeared the land Kaukura, 

With the King Maroturia, 

And King Rangonui, 

Then appeared the land Apataki, 

With the King Pukava, 

And King Tahuka-Tuarau, 



238 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

Then appeared the land Niau, 
With the King Pui-huki-kangakanga, 
And King Biritua, 
Then appeared the land Toau, 
With the King Rohua-tuku-tahi, 
And King Te-mate-ki-Havaiki, 
225 Then appeared the land Fakarava, 
With the King Makino 
And King Maoke-taharoa, 
Then appeared the land Faite, 
With the King Rahui, 
And King Hekaoa, 
Then appeared the land Anaa, 
With the King Tuamea 
And King Mahanga-Tuaira. 



Then were born below, = Tiimu-lieniia and Henua-mea, 

The women Ivitua-ivitau, Tumu-nui, Tumu-tango, 
230 Tapauta, Tapatai, Vivi, Vava, 

The tish hook women, fish hook makers, 

liangi, the woman who stretches out space and sky, 

The woman Kaikai-Rangi, 

The women Roaka, Turukia, 
235 Mokouri, Mokotea, 

Te Uamata-iti, Ruarangi-piri-take, 

The permanence and the secreting. 

The woman who gave birth to Marumaru-atua. 

The growth, the projection, the budding and the ripening. 
**o As the wide spread earth of A tea ; 

As the clear, open spreading sky of Fakahotu. 

Adhering face to face, asleep, on the great llat surface I of Atoa. 

Rooted there, is Atea ; 

Raiseil up there, is Atea ; 
2*"» Dwelling there, is Atea ; 

Girdled with the uiaro cloth, is Atea ; 

Isolated; there, is Atea; 

Waitinij there, is Atea ; 

Kneeling there is Att»a. 

• litiro, also mcjininj: west. 

} r.ijHiritKiii\ihi, tlu' out >i>roail rurth of PajMi. 

* 7ii/.ii, luoi'ariil, niUtriu'J. np[H-urs more suitable to iho context. 



SOME PAUMOTU CHANTS. 289 

250 They were seven,* Kongo and his people with Tutavake, 

Who met Tu-manu-kura, 

Under the evening cloud, where Turuturu lay sleeping. 

Fearing to get separated, 

Uanukut perplexed, stepped aside, 
2M Turned back, stepped aside and waited. 

Then opened out the night, opened oat the day, 

And the Papa (earth) was broken up, with loud noises. 

By Papa-i-raharaha,I and Kuhi, 

Came forth from the heavens, 
«o All mankind. 

We two are from below, from Papa-tukia,i| 

From Papa-reva§ and Papa-mono-taki,§ 

Monotaki the bosom friend of Tane — 

Tane-tutira, the shadowy cloud dweller — 
2^ Mariu-o-te-rangi, the lord of the sky, 

Hail to the rainbow, which fills the sky and disperses the rain. 

Long live the King long live his companions, 
Rongo, the King. 

My King, draw forth from my mind, 
^0 My address about Tumu-nui, about Tumu-iti, 

Tumu-kerekere, Tangaroa-tavake, Tumutumu-ma-te Kofai, 

And Papa-tukia, Papa-henua, Papa-ronaki. 

Exalted be the Papa and may it increase. 

Spread out with earth, marshy earth- 
275 'Tis Tane that causes vegetation to grow. 

The clearing of the platform, the levelling of the sand, and 

The setting up of posts. 

Tane discloses the sources of history. 

Speakers from in front, speakers from the centre, 

Speakers from behind, speakers at random ; 

Mix up the separate speeches, 
2*^ I will take out my oration, 

And it shall be sacred. 

Dark is the soil (or sand) of Havaiki ; ^ 
Clean is the soil (or sand) of Vavau-nui ; 
Black is the soil (or sand) of Tonga-hake ; 

• Toliitu, remained, untouched. 

t Possibly the Maoii Uenuku, the rainbow. 

I The wide-spread earth. 1' Another name for the earth. 

§ Probably also names for the earth, 

*t According to a native pundit of Anaa (says Mr. Garbutt), Hawaiki-tei-ranga 
is Tahiti, and Hawaiki-tei-raro is Raiatea island. He adds, that according to their 
ancient legends, Tahiti was a shark fished up by Maui, and was called by them 
•* Te paru no Maui," or Maui*s fish. 



240 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

285 Clayey is the soil (or sand) of Orofena ; 
Dark is the soil of Tahiti ; 
There is high land at Punakau. 

(The same words are used to the following maraes and islands) : — 

Rangiroa an island of the Paumotu group ; 

Hitianga, a marae on the island of Rairoa ; 
290 Ahuroa, a marae on the island of Tahanea ; 

Niutahi, a marae on the island of Motutunga ; 

Farekura, a marae on the istand of Anaa, district of Otepipi. 

Tainoka, a marae on the island of Anaa, district of Temarie ; 

Turamoe, a marae on the island of Anaa, district of Putuahara ; 
*^^ Kotukurere, a marae on the island of Fakarava ; 

Tahanea, an island of the Paumotu group : 

N.s:anaia, a name for the island of Anaa ; 

Motutunga, an island of the Paumotu group : 

Tuanaki, an island of the Paumotu group ; 
'^ Hitiroa, a marae on the island of Tuanaki : 

Katiu, an island of the Paumotu group ; 

Pouheva, a marae on the island of Katiu ; 

Maoake-taaroa, a marae on the island of Makcmo ; 

Faraputa, a marae on the island of Nihiru ; 
^'» Pnhingaru, a marae on the island of Raroia ; 

Faturona, a marae on the island of Takume : 

Apaapa-te-rangi, a marae on the island of Fangatau ; 

Ngarutua, the name of one of the Paumotu islands, Arutua. 

Apataki, the name of one of the Paumotu islands ; 
310 Kaukura, the name of one of the Paumotu islands ; 

Niau, one of the Paumotu islands ; 

Toau, one of the Paumotu islands : 

Fakarava, one of the Paumotu islands : 

Faite, one of the Paumotu islands ; 
315 Farepia, a marae on the island of Anaa, district of Tuuhora ; 

Maramarama-i-Atea, a marae on the island of Anaa, district of 
Putuahara 

Fareaka, a marae on the island of Motutunga ; 

Tama-te-faufere, a marae on the island of Raraka ; 

Ngoiokao, a marae at the island of Raraka ; 
*^ Makenio, one of the Paumotu islands ; 

Taenga, one of the Paumotu islands : 

Nihiru, one of the Paumotu islands ; 

Raroia, one of the Paumotu Islands. 

Pukamaru, a marao of the island of Roroia ; 
3-' Fangatau, one of the Paumotu islands. " 

• Mr. Garbutt says. *• It is related that nearlj all the marae* above, wer« 
named after the first person sacrificed thereat." 



SOME PAUMOTU CHANTS. 241 

Whirling around is the relish (after kava) from Hivau, 

Resounds the trumpet from the sea of Hiva.'*'' 

Shrill is the voice of the kura,} 

Mournful + is the cry of the kenahu ; 
8*^ Evanescent is the voice of the god. 

I will stay on the top of my high resting place ; 

Of the giant kings, that hold up the sky. 

Rau-kuru, Bau-tara, relations all with 

Runa, Pea, Hikiepo, Rangaepa, 
335 Fakatutua and Fakamamae, 

Who are the men appointed to pinch off the navel of Rongo-po. 

King of the night, king of the day, 

That is the place of the cloth to cover his nakedness, 

And work his incantations at the marae of Puuakau, 

Where the royal offering must be made. 
3<o By Hau-te-ruru (the wind shaker). 

And Hau-te-kapakapa (the wind trembler). 

They will do honour to Rongo. 

Tangaroa-Manahune is born ; born at Hiti, 

Weary at Hiti, close together at Hiti, sleepy at Hiti, 

Cherished at Hiti, acquired power at Hiti, 
3*5 Conceived at Hiti, pregnant at Hiti, 

Quickened at Hiti, stood up at Hiti, 

Birth throes at Hiti, made slippery at Hiti, 

In pain at Hiti, born at Hiti, 

Delivered at Hiti, swaddled at Hiti, 
3W Became hardened at Hiti, soiled at Hiti, 

Hair grew at Hiti, 

Stood up at Hiti, ran at Hiti, 

Turned round at Hiti, angered at Hiti, 

Rested at Hiti, stumbled at Hiti, 
355 Carried at Hiti, taken care of at Hiti, 

Brought up at Hiti, kept in order at Hiti, 

Respected at Hiti, acquired power at Hiti, 

Honoured at Hiti, adorned at Hiti. 
With the king maker is life. 

3<» At Tahiti the great, at Punakau, 

With Rongo-metua, with Hau-te-ruru, 

With Hau-te-kapakapa. 

A Tonga, the wind. 

Tutape, the King, the shriek of the wind from Punua* 
365 With the king-maker is life. 

* Probably Nuku-hiva island, called Iva by the Rarotonfi^ns. 
t Winiwiui and kotokuto, expressive of deep grief in Maori and Rarotongan. 
Kura is a bird of red plumage and keiuihUy a large bird of prey. 



242 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 

At Tapuae-manu, at Tonga-hape, 

With Maroro-ariki, the thunder of the sky, 

The red mantle of Atea, Keha-ravaru the King. 

Red is the King Maeva-ariki. 
370 The rain sprinkles, the rain spatters. 

Put on the sky garment, the red of Punua. 

At Kaukura-roa, at Farekura,"^' at Maro-turia. 

The house, long in building ; the ariki consuming spring, f 

Numerous are the belongings of the King. 
^^ With the king-maker is life. 

At Anaa, at Farepia,J is Te Nuku-tae-roto,|| 

At Te Vai-tomeamea.^ 

Mahanga-Tuaira-moemoe-a-Taheta. ^ 

Keep firm in your position, proclaim yourself, 
380 With the crown of mom, and the lightning. 

Assert your power ? 

. . . the reign of Punua, the orator arose. 

A just speech will do harm, if the orator speaks badly ; 

A just orator will make a correct speech. 
^5 If it is wrong, it is wrong . . . 

These are in the earth, Bu-roa, Bu-poto, 

Ru-farara, Ru-tuanohu, 

Ngaohe, Pingao, Tope, Pepe, 

Titi-matai-ao, Hane-nui, Tane-iti, 
3^ Tane-Paku, Tane-te-hihiri, Tane-te-rarama, 

Tane-toto-iho, he that thrust the sky above. 

It was he who held up the sky above, 

Here are the gatherers, Te-fatu-kura-tane, 

And Fatitiri-takataka, 
^^ And Pingao, these seized and held sky above. 



(To he contimted.) 



' Kaukura-roa is the island of Kaukura. and Farckura is a marae at 
Anaa.— C. G. 

f Te Puna-kaiariki, is the name of a swift current, rushing through a imaU 
passage in the reef at Fakarava, near Tamauu.— C. G. 

* Farepia, a ppiarae at Anaa. — C. G. 
Te NukU'tae-roto, reflection of the lagoon in the sky, of a bluish tint, from 
the deep water ; seen only over the lagoons of Anaa, Kaukura and Matahiva. — G. O. 

(( A reddish reflection from the shallow water of the lagoon at Anaa.-— C. G. 

^ A king of Anaa. 



JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 
A MAORI C!EREMONIAL COMB iHEHUj. 



Hy S. Percy Smith. 

THK accoiiipiuiyin*i: picture shows the hirjjrest of three combs which 
are now in a private collection at New Plymouth, and which 
came orij^inally from Parihaka, near Cape Egmont. They are 
(piite uni(iue within my experience, for though combs of a size 
approxinuitely inches by 2 or 8 inches were not uncommon fifty 
years aj^^o. these are of far larger size, that shown in the picture being 
of the following dimensions: — Across the top, 8 5 inches; across the 

bottom, (r5 inches ; 
height along the sides, 
9 inches ; and in thick- 
i.ess, O'G inches. It 
is evidently fairly old 
work, made of a dark 
wood, possibly Puka- 
tea, Hud the carvings 
very good and in the 
true old Maori pat- 
terns. It is carved in 
the same numner both 
back and front, and 
has had on each face 
four inlaid mothar-of- 
peail (/'^//^</-shell) eyes 
only one of which is 
now existing — see the 
lower eye on the left. 
The edges are also fully carved. The teeth of the comb are made of 
the same dark wood and are very close. They aro sometimes made of 
the inner black *' strings " or fibres of the nntinakn tree fern, which on 
drying become very hard and look like blackened wire. 

Such combs [hern) were formerly worn stuck in the top- knot of 
hair universal amongst the men in former days — for the men wore their 
hair long, the women generally short. They were often nnide of 
whalebone, and inlaid with mother-of-pearl, in which case the teeth 
formed part of the solid body, whilst in those wooden ones 1 have seen 
the teeth were attached— as in the picture — by fine close lashings of 
spun (I ho (or umkn cord). 

Students of Maori history will remember that it was the un- 
authorised use of such a comb by Rua-tapu, lenukus younger son, 
which led to the incident known as " J'c /tiui-/niii'i-atay" where 
many elder sons of chieiiy families were drowned. This was in far 
Hawaiki, circa 1200. 




NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[165J The Karaka Tree. 

I have just seen an article in the current number of ''Botany" by Hemsley 
on the Corynocarpiia, describing two new species (differing very slightly in the 
florets), one from New Caledonia and one from the New Hebrides. He points out 
the interest that attaches to this from the traditional point of view, and suggests 
that the genus may yet be found in other islands. — A. Hamilton. 

[It is a pity we have not the native names of these new species of karaka. 
In Niue island there is a large tree called kalaka, that in habit and appearance is 
just like the New Zealand karaka, but it is a different species. — Editob.] 

[166] The Kotaha, or sling-spear. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, in his interesting book, *' Head Hunters," referring to the 
Delena people, South-East New Guinea (p. 200), has the following: — "What 
interested me most was a child's throwing spear. It consists of a short thin reed, 
in one end of which is inserted the mid-rib of a palm-leaflet to represent the blade 
or point : but the real interest consists in the fact that it is thrown by means of a 
short piece of string, one end of which is knotted and then passed twice round the 
3haft, the other end is passed twice round the index finger. The reed is held 
between the thumb and other fingers, with the index extended ; when the spear is 

cast the string remains in the hand This child's toy may yet prove 

to be a link in the chain of evidence of race migration." 

[If, as so many things seem to indicate, the South-East New Guinea people 
have been subject to Polynesian influences, we may probably see in the method of 
spear-throwing described by Dr. Haddon another link in the evidence, and a 
connection with the Maori kotaha. — Editob.] 

[167] Mysterious Stones. 

In reference to Mr. Rutland's paper on the above subject, smooth polished 
stones are frequently found on the sites of old settlements. In some cases they 
may have been regarded as atium, as in New Guinea and other places fcharm 
stones). More probably they were, if small, pet stones ; if large and in any 
quantity, they almost certainly were net weights, being fastened in little flax bags 
by a lashing to the foot of a flax net. In some places heaps of these carefully 
selected round or oblong smooth stones may be seen lying where a net has rotted 
away. Strangely enough, on the preceding page (J.P.S.^ vol. xii., p. 179) mention 
is made of a smooth round bit of stone on top of the cromlech of Tonga, "probably 
an emblem of some long-forgotten religion." It almost recalls the crystal divining 
ball of the Druids —A. Hamilton. 

[From what we have heard of the hollow in the horizontal stone on the 
trilithon at Haamonga, Tonga, it is of considerable size— say, 12—15 inches wide 
— and appears to us to have a possible connection with similar hollows and spherical 
stones found on the cromlechs in the Marianne Islands (see de Kienzi's work. — 
Editor.] 




TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 
POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 



A MEKTiNG of the Council was held at New Plymonth on the 23rd December, 
1903, when the following new member was elected : — 

356 George Fowlds, M.H.B., Auckland, New Zealand. 

The following papers were received : — 

255 *' Wallis, the discoverer of Tahiti." Miss Teoira Henry. 

256 Wars between North and South, N.Z.'' Part Vm. S. Percy Smith. 

Eight members of the Society were struck off the roll, for non-payment of 

subscriptions. 

The Annual Meeting was fixed for the 26th January, 1904. 
List of books, exchanges, c^-c, received. 

1523-28 La Geof/raphic. November, 1902 to April 1903. 

1529-32 The Geographical Journal. July to October, 1903. 

1533-34 Fauna Hairaiu-mth. Vol. iii, part 2-3. 

1535-36 Journal, Aidatic Society f Bengal. Titles, indexes. 

1537-40 Journal, Aniatic Society, Bengal. Nos. 402, 40(5, 407, 406. 

1541 Smithsonian Institution, Taimxhian Text*. 

1542 Tibetan- Fsnglish Dictionary, dr. 

1543 Pipitrharauroa. 67. 

1544-47 Bulletimet Memoirs de la Sovit^te tVAnthropologie de Paris, lak 
3, 4, 5, 6, 1902. 

1548 Arcfdvio per VAnthropologia. Italian Society of Anthropoloiy. 
Vols, xxiii, 1, V,m. 

1549 Mevutirs, Australian Musnnn. No. iv. part 6. 

1550 Jicconh, Australian Museum. Vol. iv, part 8. 

1551 Aunales de la Famlte ties Sciences, de Marseille. Tome xiii. 

1552 Dagh-Ticgister. Casteel Batavia. 1644-1645. 

1553 Notulen ran de Algemeene. Bataviasch Qenootchaps. Deel zli. 
No 1. 

1554-5 Tijdschrift voor Jndischc, Taal-, T.and-, en Volkenknnde. Deel 

xlvi. No. 4-5. 
1556 Bijdaagen tot de Taal-, J. and,- en Volkenkunde. S'Gravenbage, 

1903. 
1557-60 Revue de VEcole d' Anthrt>jMtlogie de Parin. July, Angnat, 

September, October, 11K)8. 

1561 Hiftory of One Tree HiU, Auckland. By M. 11. Wynyard. 

1562 Trausaetiijns, Literary and Historical Society, Quebec. No. 94. 

1563 Queensland Geographical Journal. Vol. xviii. 

1564 Old Manatcatu. T. L. Buick, J.P. 

1564 Transactions, Geographical SiH'iety of the Pacijic. Vol. ii, series S. 
1566 Journal and Proceedings, Royal SiH'U'ty, New South Wales. Vol. 

xxxvi. 
1567-69 *V/i Mata. .August. Scptenibor, November, 1*^3. 



INDEX TO VOL. XTI. 



Absolution (Hrorora) oeremony, 00 
iMBsiz'B expedition to the Paciflo (note), 

191 
Ahi-manawa, war ceremony. 145 
Ahua, bunch of Rraae or other article from 

a battlefield, used in magic, 148 
Aitutaki version of the story of Iro. 

J. T. Large, translator, 153 
Albinos, Legendary origin of. 102 
Ancient marae (Arai'te-Tonga) at Raro- 

tonga, 118 
Annual Meeting, Minutes of, xiii 
Annual Beport of the (Council, xiii 
Aotea canoe, 57 
Arai-te-Tonga, the ancient marae at Raro- 

tonga. H. Percy Smith. 218 
Arai-uru canoe, 190 

Aristoeratic ideas among the Maoris. 40 
Art of War, as conducted by the Maori. 

Eisdon best. 32.65. 145, 198 

Balance-sheet of the Society, xv 

Battlefields under tapu, 158 

Best, Elsdon. Notes on the Art of War, as 
conducted by the Maori of New Zealand, 
83, 65. 145. 193. Tree-felling with the 
stone axe fnote), 181 

Birth of man, Nine legend of the, 66 

Carving, Decorative, designs peculiar to 

New Zealand, 178 
Chants, Some Paumotu, 221, £31 
Charms for healing wounds, 194, 195; to 

Khorten distances, 160 
Chiefs of Mutulau, Names of the sixty-one, 

106 
Circumcision among the Polynesians, 4 
Cloak thrown over prisoner, a sign that life 

is tobespiired.161 
CoLLiNGRiiXJK, Qrorur. Who dlscovored 

Tahiti? 184 
Comb, Maori ceremonial (illustrated), facing 

242 
Constitution of Society, 5 
Contents, Table of, iii 
Cook's visit to Nine (1774), 12 
Cremation among the Maoris, 195 
Cromlech and pyramid of Tongatapu, non- 
Polynesian, 179 

Dictionary, A new Maori, 187 

Epidemic, Destructive, consequent on a 

cannibal feast, 196 
Exchanges, List of, xi 

Fao, an ancestor of the Motu, Nine, jS 

Fire- walking ceremony (note), 190 

Fires, Sacred (horokaka), 70; (ahi taumata). 

71 
" ¥iT%t fish " (mata-ika), first slain in battle 

82 
Fishing nets, Nine legend of the origin of. 

96 
Fola-hau, Legend of, 100 
Fonua-galo, the "Lost Land" of the Nine 

people, 2 

Garbutt, Charles, translator. Some Pau- 
motu chants, 231 

Genealogies — Atea - Papa — Tamariki-te- 
urukura and others, racing 144 ; Tangi- 
hia— Porourangi. 121 

Oini-fale and the whale. Story of, 102 

Oodsof old(Niue).22 

0cDGEO2f. LrEUT.-COL. The Whence of the 
Maori, 51, 120, 166 



Haere canoe, 120 

Hamilton, a. The karaka tree (Ooryno- 

carpua) in New Hebrides and $ew 

Caledonia (note), 248; Mysterious stones, 

(note), 248 
Heru^ a Maori ceremonial comb, facing 242 
Hirauta canoe, 130 
History and Traditions of Niue, 1 ; of Niue- 

Fekai, by Mohelagi, 110 
Hoa, a class of charms or Incantations— the 

hoa rakaUf etc.. 33 
Horokaka^ sacred fire, 70 
Horonta canoe, 121 
Huanaki, an ancestor of the Niue people. 4 ; 

Family of, legendary, OB 
Human heads. Drying of, 196 

Iro. The story of, Aitutaki version, 133 
I8KRAKLA-TAMA, Aitutaki. Tc autara i a 
Iro, 140 

Kara or tiwha tokens, 41 

Karaka tree in New Caledonia and New 

Hebrides (note), 248 
Kauria canoe, 166 
Kuwa, or native Invocations, 60 
Kereopa, incident of his capture, 169 
'* Kings " of Niue, 106, 116 
Korako-uri and Korako-tea. Maori "Siamese 

twins," 124 • 

Kotaha, sling spear. The (note), 242 
Kumara, Legend of the introduction of, 170 

Larob, J. T., translator. The Aitataki 
version of the storv of Iro, 183 

Later history of Niue. 8 

Lau-foli, Story of. 9, 110 

Legend of Foln him, lou : of Gine-fala, 
Hwallowidd by tise whaler, loej ; of mne- 
bela-kf-faU &n>l the turtlti, 9B ; of intro- 
duction of the kiimarftt ITO: of jQventtoo 
of ttHhiiif uetH {Nia6>.9€; of Iro (Altn- 
taUik, l;t.1 ; of Limfoli, D. 11" : of MiCtila- 
fo(ifoa.t«; of Maui (Xlue», flS; ofMomoIe, 
flnca*tresH ot the uJWno». lOJ ; of Hofeu 
and the Hetirgod, 56 , of ihe t€miwha 
Panetraira, IttTj of tbtj ^iil Mele, 90; 
of Vai-Matoe" aiitl Vni-Fualolo, 86 

Making and unmaking of Man, The. A 
legend of Fiji. E Tregear. 182 

" Manukau," proper name, European cor- 
ruption of Manuka (footnote), 57 

Maori art of war. 32, 65. 145. 108 

Maori ceremonial comb {heru), facing 242 

Maori dictionary. A new, 187 

Maori. The whence of the, 81, 120, 166 

Maori war-^arty. The, 39 

Marae (Arai-te-Tonga) at Barotonga, The 
ancient. 218 

Mata-atua canoe, 54 

Hata-whaorua canoe, 123 

Mata-ika or Mata-^ngoMf the first slain in 
battle, 82; tree 6r goord- eometimes 
counted as mata-iia. §i : at Te'Shona a 
dog, 83 

MatUa-foafoa, Legend of, 90 

Maui, Niue, Legend of, 98 

Mawe, lock of nair or other article pertain- 
ing to an enemy, used in magic rites, 
147 

Mele, Legend of, 00 

Members of Society, List of, vii 

Minutes of annual meeting, xiii 

Mirror, Pool at Too used as, 104 

MoHR-LAOi, of Alofl. The history of Niue- 
Fekai,UO 



248 



JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. 



Momole, mother of the albinoe. Legend of, 

102 
Monaments, Non-Polynesian, at Tongatapu 

and in Western Pacific. 179 
Motu and Tafiti. the two Nine migrations. 1 
Motu and the sea-god. Legend of. 56 
Hotomotu-ari canoe, 190 
Mysterious relics. Joshua Rutland. IHO ; 

(note on) A. Hamilton, 248 

New Maori dictionary, 187 

Ngarahu-tati/i (war-dance). 75 

Niu--Fekau, History of, 110 

Niue Island and its people. S. Percy Smith. 

1.85 
Niue legend of the birth of man. 85 
Niue. "Kings "of, 100. 116 
Nine visited by Captain Cook in 1774. 1*2 
Notes and Queries, 131, 191 243 
Notes on the art cf war as conducted by the 

Maori of New Zealand. Elsdon Bcbt. 

*2, 65, 145. 193 
Nukutere canoe, 1*20 

Officers of Society, vii 
Operiki. >iege of, 211 
Otu-rere-ao cauoe. IhO 

Peace-making, 1U7 

Queries, Notoh and. 131, 191, 243 

Rangi-matom canoe. 127 

Belies. Mysterious. 180 

Rereanani canoe. 129 

Return of a war-i)arty. Observances con- 
nected with, 37 

Rock-pool at Tuo used as mirror, 104 

Rongo-takatriu and t*- irhenvhen, charms to 
stay a hostile foe. 47 

Botu, a native spell. 74 

RcTLAXi), .T<)>HLA. Mystcrious relics. 180 

Sacred Urea— h^rokain, 70 I'ahi taiiuuita, 71 

Samoan names in Nine, 5 

" Siamese twins," Maori. 125 

siege of Operiki, 211 

single combat, a Maori institution. 37 

Slaves and prisoners. 16:^ 

SMITH. S. Pkrcv. Niue Island and its people 

1, 85 : The traditions of Niue-Fekai, 22. 

85 : Arai-te-Tonga. the ancient wutrae at. 

Rarotonga, 218 ; Some Paumotu chants. 

*221: a Maori ceremonial comb Ou-ru), 

facing 242 
Some Paumotu chant«. witb translations 

by Mr. Charles Garbntt, 221 
Songs. Charms and Proverbs- - 

A well-founded origin, an imiK>rtaut 
origin, 23C 

A white i^ebble from Arai-te-Tonga, 220 

Akateretere vaka ia Otntai na Irouni. 
143 

Alafl : this pain that constrictis 152 

Assembled are the people at thi 
hanging flag. 118 

Aue: ^^'hiti: whiti: a ! 78 

E Ijo e ! E tnngutu mataugi ko te arai 
i te maoake. 144 

E kirikiri teatea no Arai-te-Tonga, 290 

E kore I E nai kia tuwhora te ]K>kaiKika 
ki tahaki, 153 

E mahi ano a Tu raua ko Rongo, 19b 

E Marama-toa-i-Emakura ! 148 

E Pio e! te kai ara varie te taputapu, 
143 

B taka ana i ona takanga. 150 

K Tama o! I hoahon nea koe, 156 

E Tamn ! K patu koe ki tua, TA 

K Tama '. Tipua horonuku. 43 

E tangi ana iioki. 151 

E tapu te rangi, 14.'« 

Ha te rube, ha to ngenge. ha te umu, :» 

Hacle ke hifo Uva ki Tuo. ]&"> 



Songs, Chann« and ProTertn— (eo«lteM^ 

Have a care lest the mipport of the 

tatitu-poumamm be broken, 901 
He aea te an e pa nei. Ifl9 
He aha te mann ki uta? 77, 100 
He nonota, he karawa. he mi ikft. IN 
Hie ! hie! Haere ki te hnhi, 10S 
Hika atn ra takn ahi, Ta ma tere. 71 
Hika ra taku ahi. Tu. 71 
Hiki nuku, hiki rangi, 90S 
Hoatikiroto! 81 
Hoki mai ki te ao nei. 35 
How many strands shall the rope be 

twisted? 114 
Hoia, huia. te mana i uta rs, VBB 
if there swims a fish with Und Intent. 

99 
I hara mai Tu i te kimihanga, 14B 
I kindle my fire, O Tu ! 71 
It is not meet that the motapoiui ■hookl 

l>e dug on one side, ISA 
Ka hau a ika lele totunn, 85 
Ka kai pu, ka kai ariki, 147 
Ka rerere hoki taua i te kahni tipua. US 
Kamapiu ne tu ki Tafalarmahi^a. 117 
Kaore te mamae kni kinikini ana. US 
Koite tnhi i runga.kei tetahi i raio,]99 
Kei whati nga rakau o te tatan-poanamn 

i mnri nei, dOl 
Kia hiwa ra. e I 210 
Kia kutia an : an ! 78 
Kia man patu kue ki a Tu ! 81 
Kia tauoroi ui atu ana an ki toon 

kainga, 142 
Kia tele tele totonu, 85 
Kia tu ai a Tagaloa, 87 
Ko nga ngirangira te whitau, 79 
Ko te ara ia te tunm ko te ara ia Is 

kere. 141 
Ko Toroa. kaore koa. 73 
Koi:) : Hoki mai ki te urunga, 210 
Ko-k(>-koi«. E T.i. e ! 210 
Kutahi koe ki reira. e9 
KuH fakahaele ke koukon i Ihola, 91 
Kumi ke he Iki a Patnu-valu. 110 
Launch the canoe Otntai for Ironnl, W 
Let us then lament. 152 
Let us uplift a stone and set it up. m 
Manava te tere i a Taue, 221 
Manava. Tumunui. manava Tuuiunai 

226 
Mauawa mai, tatara mai. 67 
Matea-hopokia 2h 
Mav the sarrod powers of the heavena 

14C 
May thy hand be stricken, Ite rotten, aS 
Mayest thou l>ear weRi>onB in the terrioe 

of Tu : 81 
Motu kua tolo ki Palnki. 117 
Motu tolo he tauaga matini. HT 
Na wai i ki tetahi kowhao kia purupoma* 

165 
Napihiii: Napiliia! 8! 
Nguu atu kiioki tnii te aroruiiiiri, 33 
Now am t!n' i>r»'i«r;ttion- ro«iie, ISO 

• » ln». who>i:.iuU Jtu-ij.' xhf w.nd. 13t 

• > Miirjnin. tlio warritir of Kir.iakiira : 137 
o m> "M-: • > Tipua-lioronuku ! 41 

O Pli\ «|irung from VMirif. 137 

o jion ; rtriko thee l^hiinl. T4 

Ooe art tlion tb< re, 70 

Proived, dnceiitl to Tuo, Wi 

PTostra?<». tho angry win.ls "• 

I^ihi kiirft! Puhi knra: I^ihikaka! 44 

Raaihi. ranilii t^ pi:n{sra i n.un ra. IKH 

Kotiirn thee fc» tlii<( witM. :^^ 

Kiriti. e ti' whanaii.e nna ! M 

Hi'kt ai iif.':! bau riri. 71 

Tntnkl'W'Ptipii kimakn, iV. 

Tahunu' Talmna ' v: 

TntuTatu mai. UA 

Takrii %kii<> ^r o t4« iMthi- at HiaI.. -.h* 

Taku tail k!i«i- kiut». Im' 

Taumaha \v Kahukura ut.i. l'.':* 

TautaV mu wax tlir gn^t oiiirmal mii. M^