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% 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




UBRARY OF THE 

GRADUATE SCHOOL 
OF EDUCATION 



TKCES 



JOURN/L OF PIjOCEEDINGS AND ADDRESSES 



n 



lATIONAL EDUCATlONAL/SSOCpN, 



Session of the Year 1884, 



MADISON, WIS. 



PUBLISHED BY THE ASSOCIATION. 



BOSTON : 

J. E. FARWELL & CO., PRINTERS, 

45 Pearl Street. 

1885. 







CONTENTS 



PABT I. 



PROCEEDINGS AND REPORTS OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL 

ASSOCIATION. 

Page 

Journal of Proceedings 5 

Constitution 25 

Life Memberships 29 

Treasurer's Report ()4 

President's Report 66 

General Managers for States ... .... 67 

Superintendents of Excursions 68 

Officers and Members of Local Committees at Madii^un ... 70 

General Program of the National Educational Association ... 70 

National Council of Education 74 

The Froebel Institute of North America 74 

Preliminary Statement bt the Treasurer 77 

National Council of Education, President's Report, E. E. White, LL. I). . 78 

The Educational Exposition at Madison 80 

Report on the Exposition of Education at Madison .... 82 

Report of the Committee on the Kindergarten Exhibit ... 86 

Report of the Committee on State Exhibits 81) 

Report of the Committee on Art and Industrial Education ... 9*^ 

Report of the Committee on Special Exhibits 9: 

CALEXa>AR OF MEETINGS 10' 

0FFICBS8 FOR 1883-4 10 



CONTENTS. iii 



FABT n. 

T*ROCEEDINGS AND ADDRESSES OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL 

ASSOCIATION AND THE SEVERAL DEPARTMENTS. 

Page 

Openikg Session at Mabisok, Wis 2 

OiTizsHSHip AMD Education, by J. L. M. Curry, LL. D 4 

Secovd Session 17 

QtOY, Rusk's Address 18 

Mayor Stevens' Address 18 

Ex-Got. Lucius Fairchild's Address 20 

Hon. W. H. Chandler's Address '. 21 

President Bascom's Address -23 

Dr. Hagar's Address 26 

Prof. Zalmon Richards* Address 27 

I>r. Kckard's Address 27 

Dr. White's Address 29 

Gen. Eaton's Address 30 

The President's Annual Addbess, Thos. W. Bicknell, LL. D. . 32 

The New South, by Robert Bingham 76 

The Supplementino op the Wae, by Albert Salisbury 96 

Neoeo Education; Its Helps and Hindrances, by Prof. Crogman . 106 

Last Words from the South, by Rev. A. D. Mayo 117 

The Educational Outlook in the South, by Booker T. Washington 125 

Needs in American Education, by Mrs. Eva D. Kellogg 131 

The Constant in Education, by B. A. Hinsdale . ' 144 

Woman's Work in Education, by Mrs. May Wright Sewall .... 158 

Woman's Work in Education, by Louisa Hopkins 157 

Woman's Work in Education, by Miss Frances E. Willard 161 

The Needs of Southern Women, by Miss Clara Conway .... 169 
Education op the Indian : 

Gen. S. C. Armstrong's Address 177 

Gen. Eaton's Address 180 

Mr. A. L. Riggs' Address 181 

Method in Teaching, by John W. Dickinson 185 

Relation of the Art to the Science op Education, by W. T. Harris, LL. D. 190 

What Children Know, by J. M. Greenwood 195 

ELEMENTARY DEPARTMENT. 

President's Address, F. Louis Soldan . 199 

Form, Color, and Design, by Fannie S. (Comings 207 

Methods in Teaching Music, by Prof. H. E. Holt . . - . 213 

Evolish Instruction for Children, by O. T. Bright 217 

NORMAL DEPARTMENT. 

PitKsiDENT's Address, E. C Hewett 236 

Normal Schools : their Necessity and Growth, by Thomas Hunter . 238 
Some Applications of Psychology to the Art of Teaching, by Prof. 

W. H. Payne 249 



iv ' CONTENTS. 

DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER INSTRUCTION. 

Pag** 

President's Address, J. L. Pickard, LL. D 26^ 

The Civic Education, Abstract, by William Folwell, LL. D. . . . 261 
The Part which the Study of Language Plays in a Liberal Educa- 
tion, by John Bascoin, LL. D 27' 

SUPERINTENDENCE DEPARTMENT. 

President's Address, B. L. Butcher 281 

City and Town Supervision of Schools, by R. W. Stevenson . . . 283 

INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENT. 

President*s Aderess, C. M. Woodward 292 

A Layman's View of Manual Training, by Col. Augustus Jacobson . . 293 
Technical and Art Education in Public Schools, as Elemrnts of Culture, 

By Prof. Felix Adler 308 

Handwork in the School, by John M. Ordway 319 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ART EDUCATION. 

Inaugural Address, by L. S. Thompson 336 

Report of Committee on Course op Study . . . . . . 345 

PABT ni. 

THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION. 

Secretary's MimrrEs 3 

Report op Committee on Hygiene in Education 9 

Report of Committee on Elementary Education on Oral Teaching . . 13 

Discussion of Mr. Dickinson's Paper* 17 

Report of Committee on City School Systems 19 

Discussion of Committee's Report 24r 

Duties of City Superintendents 26 

Discussion of Mr. Gove's Paper 34 

Report on Preparation for College 36 

Discussion of Committee's Report 39 

Report of Committee on Pedagogics . . ^ 42 

Is there a Science of Pedagogics ? *3 

Discussion of Mr. Soldan's Paper 48 

Pedagogics as a Science '*9 

Discussion of Mr. Harris' Paper ....... 66 

Officers, Members, and Committees 68 

Constitution 64 



THE NATIONAL EDOCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



FmST DAY'S PROCEEDINGS. 

TUESDAY, JULY 15. 

The twenty-third annual meeting of the National Educational Associ- 
ation began its sessions in Madison, Wis., on the evening of Tuesday, July 
15, 1884. 

On account of the large numbers present the general sessions were 
divided into sections A, B, and C, held respectively in the Assembly Cham- 
ber, Senate Chamber, and Congregational Church. 



SECTION A. 

President T. W. Bicknell, of Boston, Mass., presided, and after 
music, vocal and instrumental, introduced the speaker of the evening, Hon. 
J. L. M. Curry, of Virginia, who delivered an address upon ''Citizenship 
and Education." 



SECTION B. 

In this section Hon. Birdsey G. Northrop, of Connecticut, pre- 
sided, and the main address was delivered by Rev. A. D. Mayo, of 
Massachusetts. 

SECTION c. 

President J. L. Pickard, of Iowa, presided and introduced Prof. J. M. 
Coyner, Ph. D., of Utah, who spoke on " The Utah Problem as Related to 
National Education." 



6 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

SECOND DAY. 

WEDNESDAY A. M.— OPEN AIR MEETING. 

The Association met at 9 a. m. in Capitol Park, President Bicknell 
presiding. Prayer was offered by Rev. C. H. Hiehards, D. D., of Madi- 
son, Wis. Music by Lender's Band. Governor Jeremiah M. Rusk, 
of Wisconsin, was introduced by President Bicknell and spoke as foUows : 

It is a great pleasure to me to bid you a cordial welcome to the State of Wisconsin, 
coming as you do from every State in the Union, for that laudable purpose of consult, 
ing as to the best methods of teaching and training the rising generation of this glorious 
country. 

Any one who has looked over your program and your school exhibits will be 
justly satisfied, and gratified, that great good will come from the meeting of the educa- 
tional interests of the Nation. I had no idea of the extent of the school exliibit until 
after it had arrived. From it we see at a glance that the industrial interests go hand 
in hand with the education of the mind ; that physical training is necessary to develop 
mental culture, and the one without the other is deprived of more than half its force and 
usefulness. We are glad to have so many that are engaged in this great national work in 
our midst. From you we expect to receive an incentive for renewed vigor and hard 
work, and harder work, and an inspiration of pure thought. We receive you as the 
teachers of morality and justice, — the cardinal principles upon which our government 
is founded, and its permanency depends ; and for being such we grant you a most cor- 
dial welcome, and assure you of the kindness and liberality of all our citizens. 

Tlie Mayor* 8 Address. 

Mayor B. J. Stevens, of Madison, after referring to the remarkable 
growth of Wisconsin, and especially of Madison, and welcoming the mem- 
beiii to its hospitalities, said : 

We recognize the magnitude of the work before you and somewhat its difficul- 
ties. It is the old unsolved problem with which are associated the great names of the 
past. Strike from the history of civilization that which pertains to education, and 
every chapter and page is mutilated. The history of one tells the life-story of botli. 

In the philosophy of education, — the discovery of methods, — your labors may add 
to the gathered knowledge and wisdom of the past a little, but only a little — such accre- 
tioQ as one generation, aided by those preceding it, may reasonably hope to make. 
The so-called new methods are found to be, largely, old methods. The method cf 
teaching by objects, — words and things to go hand in hand, — is as old as the time of Plato. 
The importance of the study of individual dispositions and of tenderness in discipline 
was urged in Quintllian's time. The contemporaneous training of body and mind, was 
practised as far back as the twelfth century. That children should be taught while 
playing, was orthodox school doctrine at the time of the Reformation. *^ Teach a thing 
first, then reason about it," says John Sturm, of Strasburg. The relation of the stady 
of classics to education, a question now before the public, was discussed pro and con. 
m the sixteenth century. The ideal education of to-day is not greatly different from 
that of the Qreeks and Romans. Nor is unmeasured zeal iii this work, new iu the 
world. Will many here undertake to stand in comparison with the good Pestalozzi? 

But in the matter of testing and developing methods there is before you an unex- 
plored opportunity ,-~one new to the world. For the first time in history, it is possible 



JOURNAL OF rROCEEDINGS, 7 

to apply to educational methods, on a scale sufficiently large to justify a hope for prac- 
tical results, the tests of experimentation and comparison. 

May it not be hoped that from comparisons so widely made, and the interchange of 
views so widely held, some standard or test, some nomenclature or formula will arise, 
by which methods may be tested and results measured and tabulated ; to the end, that 
those methods found to be valueless, may be abandoned for all time? 

Looking in this direction, is the fact, that professorships for the development of the 
science of pedagogics have lately been established in the universities of Germany, 
England, and the United States, — and not in all England until 1873, only eleven years 
ago; while the fifth in order, and probably latest in time in the United States, was es- 
tablished at the last meeting of the Regents of the University of the State of Wisconsin. 

Yoa are welcome at our city and our homes. If your numbers be such as to make 
our gift of comforts limited, you must take more of the welcome ^ which is unlimited. 

Gen. Lucius Fairchild, of the committee on Arrangements, was then 
presented, and added a most hearty welcome. 

Hon. W. H. Chandler, Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion in Wisconsin, also spok^ in an eloquent vein of the great educational 
institutions of the State, and the enormous interest developed in the Asso- 
ciation by the teachers of Wisconsin. The great number of life-member- 
ships in the National Association, bought by representative Wisconsin edu- 
cators, was alluded to as an evidence of the interest. 



Address of President Bascom. 

Dr. John Bascom, president of the University of Wisconsin closed the 
list of welcoming speakers. The doctor said in substance : 

It has been assigned me, as my pleasant duty in behalf of the highest institutions 
of learning in Wisconsin, to welcome those here present representing similar institu- 
tions in other States. 

From an educational point of view there are three particulars to which I may fitly 
invite the attention of those who come to us from older States. These points of differ- 
ence in our educational methods are to be ascribed as much to the circumstances of 
our history as to any preconceived purpose on our part. 

Our higher educational institutions are united more closely and directly to interme- 
diate and primary education than in most States. The students of the University come 
to it almost wholly from the high schools of the State ; and the high schools of the 
States are organized and aided in direct connection with the University. The State 
Tniversity in Wisconsin gathers in and concentrates the educational influences and 
work of the State in a manner that is not usual in the £ast. Tliis arises from the fact 
that the State and the University, aided both by the general government and by the 
local government, have grown up rapidly together, and so the lead in education has 
naturally and inevitably fallen to the University. 

A second difference alike in origin is found in the close union of classical and 
scientific instruction in the same institutions. When the claims for more extended in- 
»>truction in science arose, the colleges of the £ast were found guided and controlled by 
those chiefly interested in classical work. In many cases, therefore, the new demand 
was met by new institutions, by schools of science and technology. No such priority 
of possession existed in the new West, and hence its State Universities embrace even- 
handed both branches of education. If thero is in this method some loss, there is also, 
a:! we think, decisive gains in it. Education in both directions is more catholic than it 
is likely to be when pursued in distinct institutions. 

A third divergence is offered by co-education. The higher institutions of the 
West are co-educational. This fact is also due to historical causes. This claim also 
found the East established in its method, while it entered into the West as new ground. 



8 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

Hence, from the beginning there have been with us no customs to be corrected, and 
fewer prejudices to be overcome. Ideas and events have had unobstructed sway, and 
co-education everywhere prevails. This is a very great fact, and is likely to carry 
with it social differences of grave moment. The East cannot readily appreciate how 
natural, how much a matter of course, co-education has become with us. A gentle- 
man walking with a lad, inquired of him, "Who is that man ahead of us?** The 
answer was, " Why; he is my father. Don't you know my father? I know him just 
as easy." We understand co-educatioa just as easily as the boy knew his father, and 
we are only reminded that it is something out of the common line by eager inquiries 
from the East concerning it. 

Honored guests, we shall gladly gfive you what we can, and gladly receire what 
you have to bestow. Once more we assure you of our hearty welcome. 

Other Addresses, 

President T. W. Bicknell, in a brief and eloquent speech, alluded to 
the fact that the Association had been assured of a warm welcome at Madi- 
son, and in Wisconsin nearl}' a 3'ear ago, but that the welcome which had 
been experienced upon arrival here had passed all expectations, and was as 
boundless as the grand prairies which characterize the State and the West. 
He closed by introducing Dr. D. B Hagar, of Salem, Mass., as the 
author of the Constitution of the National Educational Association. Dr. 
Hagar happily outlined the organization of the Association, and read the 
original call for a meeting, to open August 27, 1857, at Philadelphia. The 
babe then born in Philadelphia looked sickl}' indeed, he said, but in the 
twenty-seven years past it has developed so rapidly that it was compelled 
to come to the open West for room in which to expand. 

The meeting was further addressed by Prof. Z. Richards, of Washing- 
ton; Dr. J. L. Pickard, of Iowa; Dr. E. E. White, of Ohio; and General 
Eaton, of Washington ; all of whom spoke of the unbounded success of the 
meeting. The Association then listened to the President's Address. 

Gov. Rusk extended an invitation to the Association to attend a recep- 
tion at his residence on Thursday evening. 

On motion of Eli T. Tappan, LL. D., of Ohio, the invitation was 
accepted, and the president and secretary were directed to give formal noti- 
fication of this acceptance. 

Adjourned to meet immediately at the Congregational Church for a 
business session. At this session, President Bicknell in the chair, on 
motion of Hon. B. G. Northrop, LL. D., the president was authorized to 
appoint the usual committees. 

Dr. Eli T. Tappan presented the amendments to the constitution, of 
which notice was given last year. The several amendments were adopted . 

Dr. Tappan presented the following resolution : 

Resolved^ That a committee be appointed by the Board of Directors to consiikT 
the organization of a permanent and international council of education ; that the com- 
mittee be authorized to consult with otTier committees appointed for this purpose ; and 
in the name of the National Educational Association of the United States, to call for a 
first meeting of such international council at New Orleans the coming winter. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 9 

Dr. G. Stanley Hall moved the omission of the word ** permanent** 
from the resolntion. After further discussion the resolution was referred 
to the Board of Directors. 

Adjourned. 



EVENING SESSIONS. 
SECTION A. 

Assembly Chamber^ Hon. M. A. Newell, of Maryland, in the chair. 
Addresses were delivered by Maj. R. Bingham, North Carolina, on "Educa- 
tional Status and Needs of the South ;" by Albert Salisbury, New York, "The 
Supplementing of the War;" and by Prof. Wm. H. Crogman, of Georgia, 
on " Negro Education in the South, — its Helps and Hindrances." 



SECTION B. 

Rev. A. D. Ma3'o, presiding. Addresses by Hon. Gustavus J. Orr, 
of Geoi^a, and Prof. B. T. Washington, of Alabama, on " The Educa- 
tional Outlook in the South." 



SECTION c. • 

President Bicknell occupied the chair, and addresses respecting the 
New Orleans Exposition were delivered by Maj. E. A. Burke, Director- 
General, and by Gen. John Eaton, LL. D., United States Commissioner 
of Education. 



SESSIONS OF THURSDAY, JULY 17. 

Aa^mbly Chamber^ 9 a. m.. President Bicknell in the chair. The 
president announced the following committees : 



ON NOMINATION OF OFFICERS. 

Miwsachusetts — Wm. T. Harris, oh'n. 

Mftine — V. A. Johnston. 

New Hampshire — C. C. Rounds. 

Vermont— J. M. Hitt. 

Rhode Island— I). W. Hoyt. 

Connecticut- S. T. Outton. 

New York -S. A. Ellis. 

New Jersej* — W. -H. Bwrringer. 

Pennsylvania— S. H. Jones. 

Maryland — M. A. Newell. 

Virginia — S. C. Armstrong. 

West Virginia — J. G. Giddinjfs. 

North Carolina — Robert Uingliam. 

South Carolina— V. C. Dibble. 



Georgia — Major Sl«yton. 
Alabama— B. T. Washington. 
Mississippi — E. D. Miller. 
Louisiana — Warren Easton. 
Arkansas — O. V. Hays. 
Tennessee — Thomas H. Payne. 
Wisconsin — Geo. S. Albee. 
Kentucky— R. D. Allyn. 
Ohio — J. B. Peaslec. 
Illinois— A. G. Lane. 
Indiana— H. B. Hill. 
Minnesota — Invin Sliepard. 
Iowa — Henry Sabin. 
Michigan — H. R. Gass. 
Florida — J. S. Cowdon. 



10 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



Kansas— A. R. Taylor 
Missouri — J, M. Greenwood. 
Nebraska — Supt. James. 
California — H. 15. Norton. 
Colorado— .J. C. Shattuck. 
Arizpna — George C Hall. 
Oregon— Ella C. Sabin. 
Texas— Prof. Sellers. 
Utah— J. M. C«)yner. 
Dakota— W. H. H. Beadle. 
Montana— A. S. Nichols. 
District of Columbia — Z. Richards. 
Wyoming — N. K. Stark. 
Nevada — Chas. S. Young. 



ON XECKOLOGy. 

W. E. Sheldon, Massachusetts. 
A. J. RickoflT, New York. 
Geo. F. Magoon, Iowa. 
W. F. Phelps, Minnesota. 
G. J. Orr, Georgia. 

OJf RESOLUTIONS. 

E. E. White, Ohio, chairman. 
W. H. Bell, Indiana. 
Clara Conway, Tennessee. 
D. H. Kiehle, Minnesota. 
George Howland, Illinois. 
Sarah E. Doyle, Rhode Island. 
J. A. Page, Massachuitetts. 



A communication respecting instruction in the hygienic effect of alco- 
holic liquors was received and referred to a special committee to be 
appointed by the chair. 

The following communications were read, received, and placed on file : 

From the principal chief and Board of Education of the Cherokee 
Nation, appointing Rev. W. A. Duncan and Prof. J. H. Coval its represen- 
tatives to this Association 

From the State Board of Education of the State of Oregon, appoint- 
ing Miss Ella C. Sabin a representative at this Association. 

From the State Teachers' Association of California, appointing Miss 
Emma Marwedcl a delegate to this meeting. 

• From the State Teachers' Association of Kentucky, appointing Prof. 
William N. Bartholomew its representative at this meeting. 

From the State Teachers' Association of West Virginia, appointing 
twelve persons delegates to this meeting. 

Telegrams of greeting were read from the teachers of New York, from 
the Teachers Association of Pennsylvania, and from Senator II. W. Blair 
of New Hampshire ; while letters were submitted from Hon. John M. 
Gregory," of the Civil Service Commission, Washington; J. A. Haworth, 
Superintendent of the Indian School at Olathe, Kan. ; from the Russian 
Minister of Public Instruction, St. Petersburg ; Dr. H. B. Sprague. president 
of the American Institute of Instruction, of Cottage City, Mass. ; from the 
Minister of Public Instruction, at Cairo, Egypt; from D. W. Bushyhead, 
principal cliief of the Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory ; from the Ottawan 
Legation, New York ; from Gen Benj. F. Butler, Boston ; from the Super- 
intendent of Education, Dutch Guiani ; from Hon. Jos. Desha Pickett, of 
Kentucky; from Hon. David Allls, Minister of Education, Nova Scotia; 
from Rev. J. Van Bockelyn, Buffalo, and from others expressing sympathy 
with the work of the Association and regretting their inability to be 
present. 

Superintendent R. W. Stevenson, of Ohio, stated that the Americkn 
Association for the Advancement of Science, had api)ointed a committee 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. U 

to consider the following question : " Which of the physical sciences 
should find a place in the courses of studj^ for secondary schools and what 
methods of instruction should be made use of?" and he moved the adop- 
tion of the foUowing resolution : 

Resolved, That a committee of five persons be appointed to confer with a similar 
committee from the American Association for the Advancement of Science in the con- 
sideration of the above question. 

This resolution was referred to the Board of Directors. 

Hon. J. L. Fickard, Chairman of the Auditing Committee of the 
Board of Directors presented the following : 

Your committee on auditing to whom has been referred sundry reso- 
lutions reports as follows : We find that to reach the ends sought sundry 
amendments must be made to the constitution. Such amendments we 
present herewith : 

1. Amend Article III. by adding Section 4 as follows : Any associa- 
tion may become a perpetual member by the payment of thirty dollars, 
and shall be entitled to one representation each year for every thirty dol- 
lars so paid. 

2. Add to Section 1 of Article IV. as follows : Whenever a life- 
member desires to become a life-director be shall be credited with the 
amount be has paid for his life-membership. 

3. Amend Section 9 of Article IV. by inserting after the word life- 
directorship in the third line, the following : life-memberships, perpetual 
memberships, transfer of association funds, or donations, etc. 

It will appear from the above that the committee considers favorably 
all the resolutions referred except the one which contemplates quarterly in- 
stalments in payment of life-directorships, which we do not favor. 

Since these provisions of the constitution cannot become operative 
until another year we would recommend that all perpetual memberships 
created by associations previous to July 1, 1885, may be created upon 
the payment of twenty dollars, the same as life-memberships. 

We also recommend that' a sum not exceedijig dollars 

be transferred from the treasury of the Association to the permanent 
fond in the hands of trustees. 

We also endorse most heartily tlie substance of resolutions looking to 
an active canvass for lifedirectorshipS and life-memberships with the 
miderstanding that all moneys thus obtained will be placed in a perma- 
nent fund. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. L. PiCK.\RD, Chairman. 
D. B. Hagar. 



12 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

Recommendation received and ordered spread upon the minutes . 
Notice was given by Dr. John Hancock that he should at the next annaa.1 
meeting of the Association move the adoption of these amendments. 

Dr. C. O. Thompson, of Indiana, introduced the following resolution 
which was referred to the Committee on Resolutions : 

Resohedy That considering the importance of the present movement for instniction 
in industrial education, an exhibit of results similar to that now made in this building 
should be made in each State at its capitol during the session of the legislature. 

E. E. White, LL. D., of Ohio, presented the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the educators of the United States, in National Convention assem- 
bled, most heartily commend the recent action of the United States Senate in makirif^ 
a liberal appropriation of money to aid the several States in their efforts to lessen and 
remove the alarming illiteracy which so seriously threatens free institutions, and they 
most earnestly hope that this important measure may receive the early and favorable 
consideration of tlie House of Representatives. 

The resolution was adopted by a unanimous vote. 
Wm. F. Phelps, LL. D., of Minnesota, presented the following reso- 
lution : 

Resolved, That the Board of Directors of this Association be requested to transfer 
the amount received for life-membership at this meeting and during the current year 
from the general to the permanent fund for investment with the proceeds of life-direc- 
torships now being established. 

Referred to the Board of Directors. 

The committee on Nominations was directed to select a committee of 
one from each State to solicit life-memberships in this Association. 



GENERA.L SESSION. 



Gen. S. C. Armstrong, of Virginia, addressed the Association on 
" A Six Years' Experience in Indian Education at Hampton, Virginia." 
Remarks on Indian Education were also made by Gen. John Eaton, of 
Washington, D. C. A song, '' Ajnerica,'* in the Dakota language, was 
then sung by a choir of students from the Santee Normal Training School, 
Santee Agency, Nebraska. 

The following resolution, introduced by Mr. Pratt of the Santee 
Agency, was adopted : 

Resolved, That the practical as well as humnne solution of the Indian question in- 
volves education of all Indian youth in such a manner as will best fit them for civilized 
life and for the duties and obligations of citizenship, and, to this end, the General 



JOURNAL OF PkOCEEDINOS. 13 

Government which long since assumed And now exercises supreme control over the 
Indian tribes should at once organize an efficient system of schools in the whole Indian 
country; and the training in the schools thus organized and supported should include, 
so long as maj be necessary, the teaching of those trades and occupations by which 
the Indian may earn a living by honest labor, — a fundamental condition of civilized 
life. 

A collection, amounting to about $175, was taken up to defray the ex- 
penses incurred in bringing the normal students from the Santee Normal 
Training School to this meeting, and it was voted'^that whatever sum addi- 
tional may be necessary for this purpose should be paid from the funds of 
the General Association. 

Supt. B. A. Hinsdale, of Cleveland, then read a paper on '' The Con- 
stant in Education." 

The chairman appointed as a committee on the Exposition as a whole, 
Wm. T. Harris, LL. D., of Massachusetts, and the following committees 
on various departments of the^Exposition : 

On Indvstrial and Technical Education — J. L. Pickard. chairman, Iowa; D. B. 
Hagar, Massachusetts; John Hancock, Ohio; 8. R. Thompson, Nebraska; John 
Baldwin, Texas. 

On State Exhibits — Aaron Gove, chairman, Colorado; G. J. Orr, Georgia; H. G. 
Gass, Michigan ; C. C. Hounds, New Hampshire ; L. D. Brown, Ohio. 

On Art — C. N. Thompson, chairman, Indiana; Larkin Dunton, Massachusetts; 
W. W. Folwell, Minnesota; A. J. Rickoff, New York; Mrs. John Bascom, Wisconsin. 

On Special Exhibits — J. H. Hoose, chairman, New York; E. T. Tappan, Ohio; 
W. H. Barringer, New Jersey; V. C. Dibble, South Carolina; A. G. Boyden, Massa- 
chusetts. ^ 

On Kindergarten — F. Louis Soldan, chairman, Missouri; Z. Richards, Washing- 
ton; J. B. Peaslee, Ohio ; Mrs. E. A. Blaker, Indiana ; J. W. Stearns, Wisconsin. 

Adjourned. 



WOMAN'S EVENING. 

SECTION A. 



Thursday evening was set apart by the Association as woman's even- 
ing; and the chief meeting of the occasion was held in the Assembly 
Chamber. 

President Bicknell opened the meeting by announcing the following 
Committee on Temperance which he had appointed and which was to re- 
port at Friday's meeting : Dr. John Bascom, Wisconsin ; Mary Allen West, 
Illinois ; Henry B. Norton, California ; Eva D. Kellogg, Massachusetts ; 



14 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

B. G. Northrop, Connecticut; May Wright Sewell, Indiana; W. A- 
Mowry, Rhode Island. 

He introduced Miss Sarah E. Doyle, of Rhode Island, who delivered 
a brief address and presided during the evening. Addresses on " Woman's 
Work in Education" were delivered by Mrs. May Wright Sewell, of Indi- 
ana, Mrs. Louisa P. Hopkins, of Massachusetts, and Miss Frances E. Wil- 
lard, of Elinois. 

SECTION B. 

Section B met in the Congregational Church ; President T. W. Bick- 
nell presided, and Dr. Chapin, president of Beloit College, led in prayer- 
President Bicknell then introduced Miss Frances E. Willard, of 
Chicago, president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, who 
spoke on '' Temperance in Schools." She A^as followed by Mrs. Eva D. 
Kellogg, of Massachusetts, on " Needs in American Education," and by 
Miss Clara Conway, of Tennessee, on '' The Needs of Southern Women.*' 
After adjournment of the sections the As^^ociation attended a reception 
tendered by Governor Rusk at his private residence. 



FRIDAY, JULY 18, 1884, 8 : 30 A. M. 
CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

President Bicknell in the chair. The session was opened with sing- 
ing by the choir, and prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. Allen, of Illinois. 
Despatches .ind other congratulatory communications from various persons 
were read by the secretary. 

The resolution of Mr. Stevenson, referred to the Board of Directors, 
was reported back to the General Association for action. The question to 
be considered was amended so as to read, " What science teaching should 
find a place in the courses of study for Elementary and Secondary Schools 
and what methods of instruction should be made use of?" 

The Board of Directors reported that they had approved the applica- 
tion of the Kindergarten and Musical Associations to be admitted as de- 
partments of the General Association. 

The committee on Resolutions presented a resolution in reference to 
the Mormons. Report recommitted. 

The following resolutions were then offered and adopted : 

Thankinpr the local papers and reporters of other papers here for tlieir full and ac- 
curate reports of the meoiinj^s. 

Thanking; Senator Blair for his successful efforts in behalf of the common schools 
of the country. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 15 

That a committee of five be appointed by the chair, to report next year, on the in- 
sufficiency of teachers* salaries and the terms of teachers* office. 

That a committee be appointed to report next year on the propriety of introducing 
political economy and physics into the public schools. 

Resolved, That we have heard with deep interest the statements made by Hon. K. 
A. Burke, Director General, and Commissioner Eaton, respecting the coming World's 
Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition in the city of New Orleans and especially 
respecting the proposed Educational Exhibit therein, and it is earnestly hoped that all 
State and local school officers and all tt'achers may heartily co-operate with the United 
States Commisisioner of Education in his efforts to make this department of the Expo- 
sition worthy of the great cause of popular education. 

Resolvtdj That we recommend that the excellent collection of school products and 
appliances now on exhibition in Madison in connection with this meeting, be preserved 
by those who have made these contribution^ and that they be made, so far as may be 
practicable, a part of the New Orleans exhibit. 

Resolved, That in view of the valuable results of Arbor Day work in the six States 
where such a day has been observed, alike upon the school and the home, this Associa- 
tion recommends the general observance of Arbor Day for schools in all our States. 

Resolved, That the National Educational Association express their deep sense of 
joy and gratitude that it has pleased a kind Providence to preserve the lives of the 
heroic Lieutenant Greely and a few of his brave companions ; and while deploring the 
deaths of so many men equally courageous, we, as teachers, cannot but feel elated by 
the fact that an American has added so much to our geographical knowledge, and 
planted the American flag nearer to the North Pole than any other explorers. 



TEMPEHANCE. 

Dr. Bascom, of the special temperance committee to whom the various 
resolutloDs on temperance had been referred, made the following report, 
which was adopted : 

The committee on temperance notes with profound satisfaction the practical direc- 
tion now being given to the aroused temperance sentiment of this country. Especially 
do we rejoice in the well-directed efforts of the Women's Christian Temperance Union 
to secure instruction in physiology and Jivgieue in all grades of the public school sys- 
tem, with particular reference to the effect of alcoholic stimulants upon the human 
system. Legislation to this effect has already been secured in five States, — New York, 
Michigan, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Rhode Island. We recommend the hearty 
co-operation of this Association in making such legislation general throughout the 
land. 

The committee on Nominations then presented the following report : 

To the Naiional Educational Association : 

The Committee on Nomination of Officers for the ensuing year, beg 
leave to offer the following report : 

Being fully impressed with the importance of holding the next annual meeting at 
the South and feeling anxious above all that said meeting shall equal and if possible 
surpiiss the present meeting in representation from all sections of the country as well 
as in enthusiasm for the cause of education, your committee have dropped all minor 
considerations of personal preference, of prescriptive custom, and of sectional pride, 
and have united in nominating for re-election the men who have proved themselves in 
this emergency able to draw together a representation of educators entirely unprece- 
dented in numbers and character in the annals of our nation. They accordingly sub- 
mit the following list of officers for the following year and recommend that the same be 
elected : 



16 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

For President — Thomas W. Bicknell, Massachusetts. 

For Secretary — Horace S. Tarbell, Indiana. 

For Treasurer — N. A. Calkins, New York. 

Vice-Presidents— T>, F. DeWolf, of Ohio ; J. Baldwin, of Texas ; B. F. 
Wright, of Minnesota ; B. L. Butcher, of West Virginia ; B. G. Northrop, of 
Connecticut; H. E. Speer, of Kansas ; Miss H. M. Morris, of New York ; 
J. W. Dickinson, of Massachusetts ; E. H. Long, of Missouri ; John Swett, 
of California ; G. P. Beard, of New York ; Miss M. S. Cooper, of New 
York. 

Counsellors at large — Eli T. Tappan, of Ohio ; John Eaton, of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia; W. E. Sheldon, of Massachusetts. 

Counsellors — L. S. Thompson, of Indiana ; Henry Raab, of Illinois ; 
Henry Sabin, of Iowa ; Irwin Shepard, of Minnesota ; A. R. Taylor, of Kan- 
sas; W. W. W. Jones, of Nebraska; J. B. Carterlin, of California ; Aaron 
Gove, of Colorado ; J. W. Phelps, of Vermont; A. G. Boj'den, of Massachu- 
setts ; Merrick Lyon, of Rhode Island ; Mrs. M. A. Stone, of Connecticut ; 
Mrs. Rebecca D. Rickoff, of New York ; E. A. Singer, of Pennsylvania ; 
W. N. Barringer, of New Jersey; R. Bingham, of North Carolina; Miss 
Ella Peques, of Mississippi ; V. C. Dibble, of South Carolina ; Julia S. Tut- 
weiler of Alabama ; Alexander Hogg, of Texas ; Miss Clara Conway, of 
Tennessee; John M. Birch, of West Virginia; C. M. Woodward, of Mis- 
souri ; R. W. Stevenson, of Ohio ; C. C. Rounds, of New Hampshire ; Mrs. 
F. C. Mallon, of Georgia; C. W. Heywood, of Michigan; Z. Richards, of 
the District of Columbia. 

Your committee recommend that the counsellor for each State and Ter- 
ritory be the agent of the Association for procuring life-memberships and 
life-directorships. 

The report was received. The president and secretary declining 
re-election the report was re-committed to the committee on Nominations. 

The committee on Necrology reported that no person known to have 
been officially connected with this Association had deceased during the 
year. The report of the committee was accepted and the committee was 
continued for the coming year. 

Mons. Capel was then by vote of the Association invited to address 
the meeting. To this invitation he courteously responded. 

The Board of Directors reported in reference to a proposed Interna- 
tional Council of Education, asking that the proposition be referred to a 
special committee. The report was received and the committees on this 
subject heretofore appointed by the National Council of Education and the 
Department of Superintendence w^ere constituted jointly the committee 
of the Association. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS, 17 

The committee on Nominatioa of Officers presented the following 
amended report . 

President — F. Louis Soldan, of Missouri ; Vice- President — Thomas W. 
Bicknell, of Massachusetts ; Treasurer — N. A. Calkins, of New York ; 
Secretary — W. E. Sheldon, of Massachusetts, and other nominations as 
previously reported. 

The report of the committee was accepted and adopted. 



REPORT FROX THE NATIOHAX COUNCIL OF EDUCATION. 

E. E. White, LL. D. , President of the National Council of Education, 
reported orally on the proceedings of that body during its meeting, which 
opened on Thursday evening, the 10th instant, and closed on Tuesday 
afternoon last. Reports* were submitted by the following standing com- 
mittees : On *' Hygiene in Education ;" on " Recess or No Recess ;" on 
*^ Elementary Education ;** on '* Oral Teaching ; " on " City School Sys- 
tems ;" on " Supervision of City Schools ;" on " Pedagogics ;*' on " Ped- 
agogics as a Science." A report by a joint committee, consisting of the 
special committee on preparatory schools and the standing committees on 
higher edacation and secondary education, on preparation for college, was 
made, and a report of progress by the special committee on pedagogical 
inquiry. An abstract of these reports will be submitted to the Secretary 
of the General Association for publication in the volume of proceedings. 
A paper on " Elementary Education" was then read by G. Stanley Hall, 
LL. D., of Maryland ; one on '' Methods in Teaching," by Hon. J. W. 
Dickinson, of Massachusetts, and one on " Primary Education," by J. M. 
Greenwood, Missouri. These papers were discussed by Hon. W. T. 
Harris, of Massachusetts ; Mr. Rust, of Illinois ; Prof. W. N. Hailman, 
of Indiana ; Col. F. W. Parker, of Illinois, and Mons. Capel. 



RESOLUTIONS. 

D. B. Hagar, of Massachusetts, introduced the following resolution, 
which was adopted : 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Association are hereby tendered to Hon. H. M. 
Teller, Secretary of the Interior, for his endeavors in behalf of education in 6upp<irt 
of the Bureau of Education, and for the establishment of industrial and other schools 
among the Indians. 

Upon motion of Dr. E. E. White, of Ohio, the president was author- 
ized to appoint a committee of fifty to represent the National Educatioual 
Association at the World's Centennial and Cotton Industrial Exposition ; 



18 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

and, upon motion of Dr. John Hancock, of Ohio, a resolution was adopted, 
authorizing the Board of Directors to publish the proceedings of the Na- 
tional Council of Education with those of the National Educational Asso- 
ciation, if in their judgment it was deemed advisable. 
The meeting then adjourned. 



FRIDAY EVENING, JULY 18, 1884. 

Assembly Chamber^ President Bicknell in the chair. Music by 
Lender's Band. Prayer by Rev. L. Moss, LL. D., of Indiana. 

An address was delivered by Rev. A. D. Mayo on " The Duty of the 
Nation to its Schools." 

After the delivery of Dr. Mayo's address, MissNast, of Madison/sang 
a solo, entitled " The Three Singers." Moos. Capel then addressed 
the assembly on " The Catholic View of Public Education." 

At this stage in the proceedings. President Bicknell announced that 
for the accommodation of the hundreds who were crowding the entrance to 
the Assembly Chamber, striving in vain to gain admission, a meeting would 
be organized outside, at the east portico of the Capitol building, which 
would be addressed by Mons. Capel, of England; Rev. Dr. Mayo, 
of Massachusetts ; Prof. F. W. Parker, of Chicago, 111., and other gentle- 
men. 

NATIONAL AID. 

A resolution was introduced by Mr. Cowden, of Florida, and adopted, 
favoring National Aid to education in the South. 

E. E. White, LL. D., then read the following resolutions, which were 
unanimously adopted : 

Resolvedy That this twenty-seventh annual meeting of the National Edncational 
Association is without precedent in the number of persons in attendance, the number 
of States and Territories, school systems and institutions represented, tlie magnificent 
reception tendered, and the enthusiastic interest of all who have participated in it, and 
we, one and all, felicitate ourselves that it has been our happy fortune to witness this 
grand triumph of Association effort. 

Resolved, That this unparalleled success is chiefly due to the energy, devotion, and 
organizing ability of Hon. T. W. Bicknell, the president of the Association, whose 
wi!>e and comprehensive plans, enthu siastic and self-sacrificing efforts and directing 
hand have inspired and guided the great undertaking from its inception to its present 
triumphant close, and no formal words can properly express our thankful appreciation. 

Resolved, That we also recognize the praiseworthy and successful labors of the 
treasurer, secretary, railroad secretaries, and other officers of the Association, who 
have so earnestly and wisely co-operated in all the efi%)rts which have resulted so hap- 
pily and successfully; and we would specially mention the efforts of Hon. J. H. 
Smart, the director of the exposition, and his able and faithful associates, who have 
made this department so attractive and instructive a feature of the meeting, and abo 
to those who, at great cost and labor, have made these excellent displays «f school 
products and appliances. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINOS, 19 

Resolved^ That our thanks and s^ratitucle are due His Excellency Gov. Knsk and 
other State offlcerd of Wisconsin, the mayor and other officers of the city, the State 
department of public instruction, the school officers of the city, the local committees of 
arrangements, and all others who, in an official capacity, have contributed to the suc- 
cess of this meeting and the entertainment of its members ; and, above all, we must 
record our regrets that we cannot command words that adequately express our admira- 
tion of the public spirit, open-handed and large-hearted hospitality of the citizens of 
this beautiful lake-set city, culminating last evening in the Governor's brilliant recep- 
tion — an example in entertaining and honoring this Association which has never been 
approached by any other city, and, as we believe, will never be surpassed. We accept 
all this impressive demonstration of esteem and honor as an expression of the deep 
and abiding interest which the people of this grand Northwest feel in the great cause 
of public education — a demonstration of confidence and interest which more than off- 
sets all the carping and unwise criticisms of the public school in the last decade. 

Resolved, That our hearty thanks are due and are hereby tendered the daily papers 
of Madison for their excellent reports of our proceedings, to the agents of the press 
for their labors in disseminating these reports throughout the country ; the churches 
for their open doors; the hotels and board in$(-houses for reduced rates; the railroad 
companies for liberal reduction of fare, and especially those railroad officials who 
have so heartily co-operated with the officers of the Association in disseminating 
information respecting this meeting ; the leader and members of Lender's orchestra 
and Professor Parker and the vocalists under his direction, for their excellent music ; 
and, finally, we thank every body and every thing that has borne a burden, put forth 
an effort, or made a contribution to this the largest and moat inspiring educational 
convention ever held. 

Addresses on the above resolutions were delivered by Gen. Eaton, 
Rev. Dr. Moss, and President Bicknell, and they were adopted by a rising 
vote. 

The president then announced that short speeches would be delivered 
by representatives of several States and Territories, and the following per- 
sons addressed the meeting : Prof. Freeman, university of Wisconsin ; Dr. 
Searing, Minnesota ; Dr. Allen, Illinois ; Prof. Edson, Iowa ; W. E. Shel- 
don, Massachusetts ; Alice S. Nichols, Montana ; Hon. J. C. Shaddock, 
Colorado ; Miss Sue D. Center, Arkansas ; President Drehr, Virginia ; 
Hon. S. M. Amell, Tennessee ; Mrs. Clara Conway, Tennessee ; N. A. 
Calkins, New York ; Prof. Sellers, Texas ; V. C. Dibble, South Carolina ; 
Mr. Cowden, Florida ; J. G. Ryals, Alabama ; Prof. Canfield, Kansas ; 
Gov. Rusk, Wisconsin ; Gen. Atwood, Wisconsin ; Mr. Burdick, Wiscon- 
sin ; Mr. Sheldon, Wisconsin ; Mr. Moseley, Wisconsin ; Supt. Graham, 
Wisconsin ; and Asst. Supt. Chandler, Wisconsin. 



PRESIDENT BICKNELL S FAREWELL. 

President Bicknell then, in appropriate language, presented a gavel to 
the National Educational Association, through Vice-President Butcher, in 
the absence of the recently-elected president. Dr. F. Louis Soldan, of Mis- 
souri. He said that its head was made from the wood of a cherry-tree 
planted by Thomas Jefferson at his beautiful retreat at Monticello, and the 
handle from the red-wood of the Santa Cruz Mountains of California, the 
two components representing the welding of the two extremes of the 



20 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

Nation, — the East and the West. Mr. Bicknell feelingly referred to his 
official connection with the Association, and returned thanks to all who 
had rendered him valuable assistance at various times. 
Adjourned. 

H. S. Tarbell, Secretary. 



MINUTES OF THE MEETING OK THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 
MADISON, WIS., JULY 15, 1884. 

The Board met at 4 p. m. at the Park Hotel. Present : Messrs. 
Bicknell, White, Sheldon, Calkins, Wright, Dibble, Northrop, Orr, Boy- 
den, Rickoff, Gove, Hewett, Sabin, Stevenson, Lyon, Peaslee, Butcher, 
Tappan, Barringer, Rounds, Phelps, L. S. Thompson, Baldwin, Shepard, 
Newell, and Tarbell. President Bicknell in the *chair. Prayer by Dr. 
White. 

Minutes of new Board of Directors held at Saratoga, July 11, 1884, 
were read and approved. 

Report of Treasurer Calkins for the meeting held at Saratoga in 1883 
was accepted and referred to the Auditing Committee. This committee, 
appointed by the president, consists of Messrs. Pickard, Rickoff, and Hagar. 

Remarks were made by President Bicknell giving the reasons why 
Madison was selected as the place for the present meeting and stating the 
plan upon which the meeting has been organized. Statements of expen- 
ditures and receipts for this meeting were given. 

Dr. Tappan made a report from the trustees of the permanent fund. 
Reported $200 in the permanent fund. This money is loaned, but the 
party to whom it is loaned desires to repay it, and instruction was asked. 
There is also a fund of $80 bearing interest since 1881. Referred to the 
committee on Audit. 

Dr. Tappan presented the following resolution which he desired to 
present to the Association and asked the approval of the Board of 
directors. 

Resolved^ That a committee be appointed by the Board of Directors to consider the 
organization of a permanent and international Council of Education ; that the com- 
mittee be authorized to consult with other committees appointed for this purpose ; and 
in the name of the. National Educational, Association of the United States, to call for a 
first meeting of such International Council at New Orleans the coming winter. 

Approval given. 

Messrs. D. N. Camp and E. C. Hewett were selected members of the 
National Council of Education for the term of six years. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 21 

The request of the treasurer to be allowed to enter certaia school 
boards and societies as life-members of the Association on payment of the 
usual fee, was referred to the Auditing Committee. 

The president, secretary and Dr. Phelps were appointed a committee 
to arrange time for a meeting of the ex-officers of the National Educa- 
tional Association. 

All financial questions affecting this meeting were referred to the 
Auditing Committee. 

An Executive Committee consisting of Messrs. Tappan, Shepard, and 
Lyou was appointed to assist the president in the conduct of this meeting. 

Adjourned subject to the call of the president. 



MADISON, WIS., JULY 17, 1884. 

The Board of Directors of the National Educational Association met 
at 2 p. M. at the Park Hotel. Present : Messrs. Bicknell, White, Phelps, 
Soldan, Sheldon, Orr, Northrop, Butcher, Sickel, Wright, Baldwin, 
Tarbell. 

The minutes of the previous meeting of the Board of Directors were 
read and approved. The question of the payme nt of certain bills for car- 
penter work on tables, etc., for the exhibition was discussed and referred 
to a committee consisting of Messrs. Gove, Sheldon, and Wright. 

A communication of Dr. Smart and the treasurer of the exposition 
was referred to a special committee, consisting of C. O. Thompson, 
Indiana ; Lucius Fairchild, Wisconsin ; and Larkin Dunton, Massachu- 
setts. 

W. F. Phelps presented the following report from the ex-officers of 
the Association. 

MADISON, WIS., JULY 17, 1884. 

To the Board of Directors of the National Educational Aaaociaiion : 

Gentlemen: At a meeting of the ex-presidents and other officers of the Associa- 
tion held on the 16th inst., the matter of securing an endowment of the Association 
through life-directorships and other agencies was under consideration, and after an 
informal interchange of views the undersigned was requested to submit to your 
respected body the following summary of their views : 

1. That it is exceedingly desirable in view of the growing influence and useful- 
ness of the Association that it should, as soon as practicable, be placed beyond the 
contingency of pecuniary embarrassment and be made self-sustaining. 

2. That to this end they urge that the scheme of creating life-directorships on 
the payment of the sum of 9100 be carried forward to completion as vigorously as 
possible. 

3. That life members who have already paid the fee of $20 be allowed to become 
life directors, on the payment to the treasurer of the further sum of $80. 

4. That these payments may, at the option of the candidate for a life-director- 
ship, be made in four equal instalments during the year in which the first payment 
shall have been made. 

2a 



22 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

5. That during and after the present year all sums received for life-memberships 
be transferred to the permanent or endowment fund with the proceeds of the life- 
directorships in the hands of the trustees of the said endowment fund as provided hy 
the constitution. 

f'lHiiie. Thej recommend in furtherance of this scheme that a suitable ce rtificate or 
diploma of life-directorship be provided and issued to all who sh^U avail themselres 
of the privilege of such directorship. 
aLr'.^ Respectfully submitted. 

W. F. Phelps, Chairman of the Meeting of Ex- Presidents. 

Consideration of this report was deferred until the next meeting. 

A communication from certain persons asking for the creation of a 
new Department, to be known as the Department of Vocal Music was 
received, and by vote was referred to Dr. White. 

Meeting adjourned to 5 p. m. 



MADISON, WIS., JULY 17, 1884. 

An adjourned meeting of the Board of Directors of National Educa- 
tion was held at Park Hotel at 5 p. m. Present: Messrs. Bicknell, Smart, 
Rickoff, Pickard, Butcher, Gove, Calkins, Dibble, Wright, Shepard, 
Sickel, Tappan, Northrop, Sabin, Baldwin, Phelps, Thompson, Tarbell. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

A report from the committee appointed at the 2 p. m. session to con- 
sider certain claims for carpenter work, etc., was presented. The report 
was as follows : 

We, the directors of the National Educational Association recognizing the great 
educational value of the Exposition to the members of this Association, and learning 
that a certain portion of the local expenses thereof has been Toluntarily contributed 
by the exhibitors of the purely educational products of the Exposition as represented in 
the departments of Art, Industrial Education, Kindergarten, State Exhibits, Pedagog- 
ical, Literary, and other exhibits of a purely educsitional character, recommend the 
appropriation of a sum not exceeding 9250 to be used to defray these necessary 
expenses of the director in preparing the Exposition. 

Aaron Govb. 

B. F. Wright. 

W. E. Sheldon. 

The report was adopted. 

The request of the managers of the World's Industrial and Cotton 
Exposition that the exhibits here made be forwarded to New Orleans for 
exhibition there in December next, was referred to Dr. Smart with a 
request that he confer with the several exhibitors. 

Certain invitations to the Association to hold its next meeting at 
places named were received and referred to the new Board of Directors. 

A resolution in respect to transfer of funds presented to the General 
Association and referred to the Board of Directors was received and 
referred to the Auditing Committee. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDmOS. 28 

A resolution on Science Teaching in Secondary Schools presented by 
B. W. Stevenson, of Ohio, was referred to the General Association. 

Dr. White reported on a request for a new department recommending 
that a new department of Vocal Music be created. The name was changed 
to department of Music Education, and the approval of the Board of 
Directors given. The secretary was instructed to notify the signers of this 
request of this action. 

A committee consisting of Mr. Shepard, of Winona, was appointed to 
receive a communication from the Froebel Institute in reference to becom- 
ing a Department of the Association. 

The Association of the Instructors of the Deaf and Dumb was invited 
to meet with the National Educational Association next year, and the sec- 
retary was instructed to notify this body of this action and of the pro- 
visions of our constitution. 

On motion of E. T. Tappan the president was directed to reply to cer- 
tain communications as to an International Educational Association that 
the communications referring to International Association were referred to 
the General Association with the recommendation that the joint com- 
mittees from the Department of Superintendence and the Council, with 
the President of the Association, constitute the joint committee on this 
subject. 

The Froebel Institute was authorized to organize as a Department of 
the Association. 

Adjourned. 

6 P. M., FRIDAY, JULY 18, 1884. 

Meeting of the Board of Directors at the Park Hotel. 

Present : Messrs. Bicknell, Gove, Sheldon, Calkins, Hagar, Peaslee, 
Dibble, Rickoflf, and Tarbell. 

The treasurer was authorized to pay to the order of James H. Smart 
so much of $250 as may be necessary to pay certain claims of exhibitors 
in accordance with the report of the special committee thereon. 

Adjourned. 

H. S. Tarbell, Secretary, 

NEW BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

MADISON, WIS., JULY 18, 1884. 

The new Board of Directors of the National Educational Association 
met at Room 6, Park Hotel, at 5 o'clock p. m. The roll was called by the 
secretary, and a quorum was present. Thomas W. Bicknell, first Vice- 



24 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

President, occupied the chair, in the absence of the president, F. Louis 
Soldan. 

The question of Fiuauce was discussed. Thomas W. Bicknell, F. 
Louis Soldan, W. E. Sheldon, N. A. Calkins, and D. B. Hagar, were 
chosen a committee to consider the best means of raising and investing a 
permanent fund for the Association, with full power to act. 

H. S. Tarbell, Thomas W. Bicknell, the President of the National Coun- 
cil of Education, and the Presidents of the Departments were chosen a 
Committee on Publication of the proceedings and addresses for 1884. 

Zalmon Richards, of Washington, offered the following resolution, 
which was adopted. . 

Resolved, That such of the discussions of the General Association and of the several 
departments as the Committee on Publication may deem best, shall be published in the 
Tolume of the proceedings for 1884. 

Adjourned, 

MADISON, WIS., JULY 18, 1884. 

The new Board of Directors held a second meeting in the Senate 
Chamber, at 11 o'clock p. m. , Vice-President B. L. Butcher, of West 
Virginia, in the chair. 

Invitations were read by the secretary from persons representing the 
following places for the next meeting in July, 1885 : St. Augustine, Fla. ; 
White Sulphur Springs, W. Va. ; Hot Springs, Ark. ; Thousand Island 
Park Association, N. Y. ; Chautauqua, N. Y. ; Nashville, Tenn. ; and Sara- 
toga Springs, N. Y. Richmond, Va., Washington, D. C, Hampton, 
Va., and Asheville, N. C, were also mentioned. 

After considerable discussion of the place for the next meeting, it was 
voted on motion of E. E. White, of Ohio, to refer the whole question of 
time and place of next meeting to the Executive Committee with full 
power to decide the question and make all arrangements. The Executive 
Committee was chosen to consist of the president, secretary, treasurer. 
President of National Council of Education and the Presidents of the eight 
departments. 

The committee, consisting of C. C. Rounds, of New Hampshire, 
George D. Brown, of Indiana, and George D. Farnham, of Nebraska, 
to whom the petition of E. C. Carrigan, and nineteen others, for the estab- 
lishment of a Department of Evening Schools was referred, reported in- 
expedient to create such a department, and the board voted to grant leave 
to withdraw on the ground that the topics taught in the Evening Schools 
come properly under departments of the Association already existing. 

A resolution asking the Executive Committee to consider the claims of 
the South as the place of the next meeting, provided suitable arrange- 
ments could be made in that section, was passed. 

Adjourned. 

W. E. Sheldon, Secretary, 



CONSTITUTION 



NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



PREAMBLE. 



To elevate the character and advance the interests of the profession 
of teaching, and to promote the cause of popular education in the United 
States, we, whose names are subjoined, agree to adopt the following 

CONSTITUTION. 
lAs amended July 13 and 16, 1880.] 
ARTICLE L— NAME. 
This Association shall be styled the National Edacational Association. 

ARTICLE II.— DEPARTMENTS 
[As amended July 4, 1884.] 

Section 1. It shall consist of eight departments: the first, of School Superin- 
tendence; the second, of Normal Schools; the tliird, of Elementary Schools; the 
fourth, of Higher Instruction ; the fifth, of Industrial Education; the sixth, of Art 
Education ; the seventh, of Kindergarten Instruction ; the eighth, of Music Educa- 
tion; and a National Council of Education. 

Sect. 2. Other departments may be organized in the manner prescribed in this 
Constitution. 

ARTICLE IIL— MEMBERSHIP. 

Sbctiok 1. Any person in any way connected with the work of education shall 
be eligible to membership. Such person may become a member of this Association 



26 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

by paying two dollars and signing this Constitution ; and he may continue a member 
by the payment of an annual fee of two dollars. On his neglect to pay such fee, his 
membership will cease. 

Sect. 2. Each department may prescribe its own conditions of membership, 
provided that no person be admitted to such membership who is not a member of the 
general Association. 

Sect. 3. Any person eligible to membership may become a life-member by paying 
at once twenty dollars. 



ARTICLE IV. — OFFICERS. 

Section 1. The officers of this Association shall be a President, twelve Vice- 
Presidents, a Secretary, a Treasurer, one Counsellor for each State, District or Terri- 
tory represented in the Association, and the officers charged with the administration 
of their respective departments. Any friend of education may become a life-director 
by the donation of one hundred dollars to the Association at one time, either by him- 
self or on his behalf; and any educational association may secure a perpetual director- 
ship by a like donation of one hundred dollars, the director to be appointed annually 
or for life. 

Sect. 2. The President, Vice-Presidents, Secretary, Treasurer, Counsellors, Life- 
Directors, President of the Council, and presiding officers of their respective depart- 
ments shall constitute the Board of Directors, and, as such, shall have power to 
appoint such committees from their own number as they shall deem expedient. 

Sect. 3. The elective officers of the Association shall be chosen by ballot, 
unless otherwise ordered, on the second day of each annual session, a majority of the 
votes cast being necessary for a choice. They shall continue in office until the close 
of the annual session subsequent to their election, and until their successors are 
chosen. 

Sect. 4. Each department shall be administered by a President, Vice-President, 
Secretary, and such other officers as it shall deem necessary to conduct its affairs. 

Sect. 5. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Association and of the 
Board of Directors, and shall perform the duties usually devolving upon a presiding 
officer. In his absence, the first Vice-President in order who is present shall preside ; 
and in the absence of all Vice-Presidents, a pro tempore chairman shall be appointed 
on nomination, the Secretary putting the question. 

Sect. 6. The Secretary shall keep a full and accurate report of the proceedings 
of the general meetings of the Association and all meetings of the Board of Directors, 
and shall conduct such correspondence as the Directors may assign, and shall have 
his records present at all meetings of the Association and of the Board of Directors. 
The Secretary of each department shall, in addition to performing the duties usually 
pertaining to his office, keep a list of the members of his department. 

Sect. 7. The Treasurer shall receive and hold in safe keeping all moneys paid 
to the Association, shall expend the same only upon the order of the Committee of 
Finance, shall keep an exact account of his receipts and expenditures, with vouchers 
for the latter, which accounts he shall render to the Board of Directors prior to each 
regular meeting of the Association, and shall also present an abstract thereof to the 
Association. He shall give bond for the faithful discharge of his duties as may be 
required by the Board of Directors. The Treasurer's term of office shall continue till 
the settlement of the business of the session for which he is elected. 



CONSTITUTION. 27 

SscT. 8. The Board of Directors shall hare power to fill all racancies in their own 
body, shall hare in charge the general interests of the Association, shall make all 
necessary arrangements for its meetings, and shall do all in its power to make it a 
nsefUl and honorable institution. Upon the written applicaUon of twenty members of 
the Association for permission to establish a new department, they may grant such 
permission. Such new department shall in all respects be entitled to the same rights 
and prifileges as the others. The formation of such department shall in effect be a 
sufficient amendment to this Constitution for the insertion of its name in Article II., 
and the Secretary shall make the necessary alterations. 

Sect. 9. The Board of Directors shall appoint three' Trustees, into whose hands 
shall be placed for safe keeping and inrestment all funds which the Association may 
receiTe from the creation of life-directorships, or from donations, unless the donors 
shall specify other purposes for which they may be used. The income of such funds 
so inrested shall be used ezdusiyely in defraying the expense of publishing the annual 
Tolnme of the Association, unless the donors shall specify otherwise. The Board of 
Directors shall require such Trustees to gire to the Association their joint bond in a 
sum equal to twice the amount of such trust fund as may be in their hands. 



ARTICLE v. — MEETINGS. 

8scT»QN 1. The annual meeting of the Association shall be held at such time 
and place as shall be determined by the Board of Directors. 

Sbct. 2. Special meetings may be called by the President at the request of fire 
Directors. 

Sbct. 3. Any department of the Association may hold a special meeting at such 
time and place as by its own regulations it shall appoint. 

Sbct. 4. The Board of Directors shall hold their regular meetings at the place, 
and not less than two hours before the assembling of the Association. 

Sbct. 5. Special meetings may be held at such other times and places as the 
Board or the President shall determine. 

Sect. 6. Each new Board shall organize at the session of its election. At its 
first meeting a Committee on Publication shall be appointed, which shall consiit of the 
Secretary of the Association for the previous year, and one member from each depart- 
ment 



ARTICLE VI. — BY-LAWS. 

By-laws, not inconsistent with this Constitution, may be adopted by a two-thirds 
vote of the Association. 



ARTICLE VIL— AMENDMENTS. 

This Constitution may be altered or amended at a regular meeting by the unanimous 
Tote of the members present, or by a two-thirds vote of the members present, pro* 
Tided that the alteration or amendment has been substantially proposed in writing at 
a prerious mee tin g. 



28 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 



BY-LAWS. 

1. At each regular meeting of the Association there shall be appointed a Com- 
mittee on Nominations, one on Honorary Members, and one on Resolutions. 

2. The President, First Vice-President, and Secretary shall constitute a Committee 
on Finance. 

3. Each paying member of the Association shall be entitled to a copy of its 
Proceedings. 

4. No paper, lecture, or address shall be read before the Associatioup or any of its 
departments in the absence of its author, nor shall ai\y such paper, lecture, or address 
be published in the volume of Proceedings without the consent of the Association in 
each case. 



MEMBERSHIP 

OF THE 

NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



The dates in the margin indicate the year in which the several mem- 
berships began. The addresses have been changed from those last 
published in cases where information of a change of residence has been 
fnmished to the treasurer. And where there is a reasonable doubt as to 
the residence it is indicated by ( ?) . The ♦ indicates that the member has 
deceased. The names printed in Italics represent those who were present 
at the Madison meeting. 

PERPETUAL DIRECTORSHIP. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

1879. Philadelphia Teachers* Institute. 

Represented in 1883 and '84 by M, A. Sickel. 

LIFE DIRECTORS. 

NEW YORK. 
1 881. Rickoff, Andrew J. , Yonkers. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 
1877. Marshall, T. Marcellus, GlenviUe. 

LIFE MEMBERSHIPS. 

ALABAMA. 
1881. Woodward, G. A., Selma. 



30 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



COLORADO. 

1883. Gove, Aaron, DenTer. 

CONNECTICUT. 

1864. Barnard, Henry, Hartford. 1870. Stone, Mrs. M. A., New Milford. 

1884. Northrop^ Birdsey O,, Clinton. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

1884. Bell, Alex, Chrahwni^ Washing- 1864. Richards, Zalmon, Washington, 

ton. 1880. Wilson, J. Ormond, Washington. 

1880. Hiiz, John, Washington. 

GEORGIA. 

1881. Mallon, Mrs. Frances C, At^ 1880. Setzepfand, A., Dalton. 

lauta. 

ILLINOIS. 

1870. Allen, Ira W., Chicago. 1884. Hewitt, Edunn C, Normal. 

1884. Allyn, Robert, Carbondale. 1880. Partridge, Lelia E,, Normal 
1884. CheTuy, Augustus J,,U% Wabash Park, Cook Co. 

Ave., Chicago. 1884. Raah, Henry (State Supt), 
1864. Eberhart, J. F., Irving Park, Springfield. 

Chicago. 1876. Schmitz, J. Adolph, Lake 
1876. Forbes^ Alexander, 369 Wabash Forest (?). 

Ave., Chicago. 1864. ♦White, S. H., Peoria. 
1884. Hay ward, Emily A., 932 S. 4th 

St., Springfield. 

INDIANA. 

1876. Bell, Tf. A., Indianapolis. 1866. McRae, H. S., Marion, Grant Co. 

1880. Brown, Oeo. P., Terre Haute. 1879. ♦Mills, Caleb, Crawfordsville. 

1870. Hobbs, B. C, Bloomingdale, 1877. Smarts James H, LAftLyeUe, 

Park Co. 1876, Stevens, M. C, Lafayette. 

1880. Irwin, J. S., Fort Wayne. 1876. rA<>wp«o», X. iSf. , Lafayette. 

IOWA. 

1876. Armstrong, Allen, Sioux City. 1880. Oilehrist, J, C, Cedar Falls. 
1870. Crosby, W. E., Des Moines. 1864. * Wells, D. F., Iowa City. 

KANSAS. 
1883. Taylor, A, R. (State Nor. School), Emporia. 

KENTUCKY. 

1877. Bartholomew, W. C, Louisville. 1877. Monsarrat, Mrs. L. L., Louis- 
1877. Half as, Anna L, 732 Second ville. 

St., Louisville. 

MARYLAND. 

1876. Newell, M, A, (State Nor. 1876. Richmond, Sarah E., Baltimore. 

School), Baltimore. 



LIFE MEMBERSHIPS. 



81 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



1882. Bteknell, Thomas W., 16 Hawley 
St., Boston. 

1864. Hagar, D, B., Salem. 

1876. Harris, Wm, T., Concord. 

1870. Jones, D. W. (Roxbury), Bos- 
ton. 



1880. Marble, Albert P., Worcester. 
1865. Sheldon, Wm. E.^ 16 Hawley 

St, Boston. 
1870. Tourjee, Eben, Boston. 
1870. Wilcox, M. C, Boston (?). 



MICHIGAN. 
1870. Heywood, C. W., Cheshire (?). 1866. Mayhew, Ira, Albion (?). 

MINNESOTA. 
1870. Phelps, Wm. F. (Supt. Schools), Winona. 



MISSOURI. 



1880, Bibb-Sndborough, Grace 

Omaha (?). 
1864. Pennell, C. S., St. Louis (?). 
1870. *Read, Daniel, Columbia. 



C, 1876. Rollins, James S., Columbia (?). 

1877. Soldan, F. Louis, 1616 Hickory 
St., St. Louis. 



NEBRASKA. 



1876. Heals, S. D., Omaha (?). 
1884. Currey, Robert, Palmyra. 



1884. James, Henry M. (Supt. Schools) , 
Omaha. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 
1876. Rounds, C. C (Nor. School), Plymouth. 

NEW JERSEY. 
1880. Spring, E. A., Perth Amboy. 





NEW 


YORK. 


1871. 


Anderson, John J., 343 Adelphi 


1876. 




St , Brooklyn. * 


1873. 


1864. 


Bradley, P., Lyons (?). 


1882. 


1879. 


Calkins, N. A., 124 East 80th 






St., New York. 


1870. 


1880. 


Coe, Miss E. M. (Bible House), 
New York. 


1879. 


188S. 


Corey, Lucien B., Hicks^ille, 


1870. 




Queen's Co. 


1880. 


1864. 


Cruikshank, James, Oxford St., 


1883. 




Brooklyn. 


1882. 


1864. 


Danforth, Edward, Elmira. 




1883. 


Day, Mrs. Albert, 252 Broad- 
way, New York. 


1884, 



Dorna, G.Videlia, New York (?). 
♦Haines, Mrs. H. B.,New York. 
Hodgdon, Josephine E., 354 

Ninth St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Hoose, James H.^ Cortland. 
Kraus, John, 7 East 22d St., New 

York. 
Rickoff And. /., Yonkers. 
Rickoff, Mrs. R. D., Yonkers. 
Steele, J. Dorman, Elmira. 
Stern, M., 27 East 44th St., New 

York. 
Van Aiken, Mrs. (7., 63 Park St., 

New York. 



32 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



1884. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 
Bingham J Robert y Bingham School. 



OHIO. 

1870. Arey, Oliver, Cleveland. 1883. 

1884. Bennett, C. W. (Supt. Schools), 1876. 

Piqua. 1870. 

188p. Bennett, Hnmpton, Franklin. 1879. 

1880. Brown, LeRoy D. (Slate Com.), 1880. 

Columbus. 1880. 

1880. Bums James J. (Supt. Schools), 1880. 

Dayton. 1880. 
1870. Cole, W. H., Marysville. 

1883. Coy, Eliah W. (Hughes High 1882. 

School), Cincinnati. 1880. 
1866. Curran, U. T., Sandusky. 

1880. Davidson, C. C, New Lisbon. 1882. 

1881. De Wolf, Daniel F., Columbus. 1870. 
1880. Dviion, Bettie A., 94 State St., 

Cleveland. 1880. 

1876. Hancock, John, Dayton. 1870. 
1866. Hartshorn, O. N., Mt. Vernon. 



Harvey, Thos. W., Painesville. 
•Henkle, W. D., Salem. 
Holden, L. £., Cleveland (?). 
McMillan, Reuben, Yonngstown. 
McMillan^ Mrs. S,, Youngstown- 
Miller, Lewis, Akron. 
*Norris J. A., Columbus. 
Peaslee, John B. (Sup't Schools). 

Cincinnati. 
Robert, J. A., Dayton. 
Stevenson, R. If. (Supt. Schools), 
' Columbus. 

Tappan, Eli T., Gambler. 
White, Emerson E„ Walnut 

Hills, Cincinnati. 
Widner, Esther, Dayton. 
Williams, Mrs. Delia A. [Lath- 

rop], Delaware. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



1876. Brooks, Edward, 1416 Chestnut 
St., Philadelphia. 

1879. Foster, Rachel Gordon, Philadel- 
phia. 

1879. Gratz, Simon, Philadelphia. 

1866. Ingram, S. D., Harrisburg. 



1879. Paxson, Joseph A., Philadelphia. 

1879. Shippen, Edward, Philadelphia. 

1880. Singer, Edgar A. , 4767 Penn St. . 

Philadelphia. 
1865. Wickersham, J. P., Lancaster. 



RHODE ISLAND. 
1866. •Greene, S. S., Providence. 1872. Stone, E. M,, Providence. 

TEXAS. 
1877. Franklin. M. B., Grapevine (?). 



VIRGINIA. 



1870. Manly, R. M., Richmond. 



1870. •McGuffev, W. C, Charlotte- 
ville.' * 



WISCONSIN. 



1884. Albee, Geo. S. (Normal School), 

Oshkosh. 
1884. Aylvfard, John Arthur, Black 

Earth. 
1884. Bascom, John (Pres. University), 

Madison. 
1884. Beck, George, Platteville. 
1884. Carpenter, J, H, Madison. 



1884. Chandler, W. H. (State Capitol) . 

Madison. 

1884. Charlton^ E. A., Brodhead. 

1884. Clark, L. N, Tomah. 

1884. Eden, P^i7t>. Platteville. 

1884. Emery, J. Q., Fort Atkinson. 

1884. Flavin, J. T.,\VaieTtoxrn. 



PERPETUAL MEMBERSHIPS. 



88 



1884. 


Graham, Robert (State Supt.), 


X 1884. 




Madison. 


1884. 


1884. 


Harvey, Lorenzo Dow, Sheboy- 
gan, 


1884. 


1884. 


Howiand, H, C, Eau Claire. 


Ife84. 


1870. 


Hoyt.J. W. (?). 


1884. 


1884. 


JVy«, Charles H,, Platte ville. 


1884. 


1884. 


Parker, ]rttr?e?i -f?.. River Falls. 


1884. 


1884. 


Parkinson, John B. (University), 


1884. 




Madison. 


1884. 


1884. 


Rusk, Hon. ,/. M. (Governor), 
Madison. 


1884. 



Shaw, Samuel, Antigo. 

Stark, Joshua^ Milwaukee. 

Stearns, J. W. (Nor. School), 
Whitewnter. 

Stewart, I. N., Appleton. 

Stewart, Sarah A.^ Milwaukee. 

Taylor, Henry J., Black Earth. 

Thayer, J, B., River Falls. 

Twining, JV. C., Monroe. 

Willis, Wm. A,, Baraboo (?). 

Whitford, Wm. C. (Pres. Col- 
lege), Milton. 



PERPETUAL MEMBERSHIPS. 

BOARDS OF EDUCATION IN WISCONSIN. 

1884. Board of Education — City of Milwaukee. Supt. W. E. Anderson, Represen- 
tative for 1884. 

1884. Board of Education— City of Janesville. Supt. R. W. Burton, Represen- 
tative for 1884. 

1884. Board of Education —City of Oshkosh. Rufus H. Halsey, Representative for 
1884. 

1884. Board of Education — City of La Crosse. Supt. Albert Hardy, Representa- 
tive for 1884. 

1884. Board of Education — City of Beloit. Supt. Fayette Royce, Representative for 
1884. 

1884. Board of Education — City of Watertown. Chas. F. Viebahn, Representative 
for 1884. 



INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES IN WISCONSIN. 

1884. Alumni Association of City Normal School of Milwaukee. Wm. J. Desmond, 
Representative for 1884. 

1884. Athenaeum Literary Society, State Normal School, Platteville, Clara Orindell, 
Representative for 1884. 

1884. Board of Regents of State Normal Schools of Wisconsin. Rev. G. E. Gor- 
^don, Milwaukee, Representative for 1884. 

1884. Milwaukee County Teachers' Association. Leans Funk, Bay View, Repre- 
sentative for 1884. 

1884. Milwaukee Spencerian Business College. Robert Speneer, Milwaukee, Repre- 
sentative for 1884. 

1884. Principals* Association of Milwaukee. Chas. E. Spinney, Representative for 
1884. 

1884. Intermediate and Upper Sections, Milwaukee Teachers* Corps. , 

Representative for 1884. 

1884. Primary Section, Milwaukee Teachers* Corps. Charlotte Bergnall, Repre- 
sentative for 1884. 

1884. Philadelphian Society, State Normal School, Platteville. C. G. Woolcoek, 
Representative for 1884. 

1884. Public School Teachers of Janesville. Miss De Etta Howard, Representa- 
tive for 1884. 

18S4. State Normal School, Platteville. Duncan McGregor, Representative for 1884. 

1884. Wisconsin Principals* Association. W. H. Beach, Madison, Representative for 
1884. 

1884. Wisconsin Teachers' Association. Hon. W. H. Chandler, Madison, Represen- 
tative for 1884. 

1884. Wisconsin County Superintendents' Association. Henry J. Taylor, Black 
Earth, Representative for 1884. 

1884. Wisconsin County Superintendents' Association. James T. Lum, Ironton, 
Representative for 1884. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING JULY 1, 1886. 



ALABAMA. 



Armstrong, H. Clay, Montgomery. 
Caller, Miss M. A., A. C. F. College, 

Tuskegee. 
Frazer, Robert, Marion. 
Origgs, Lelia V., Tuskegee. 



Rencher, Claude B., Morganville. 
Rishcl. E. H., Selma. 
Ryals, Jr., James G.« Jacksonville. 
Trimble, Prof. A. F., La Fayette. 
Washington, B. T., Tuskegee. 



ALASKA TERRITORY. 



Jackson, ReT. Sheldon, Sitka. 



ARKANSAS. 



Brooke, Ida J., 920 W. 5th St , LiUle 

Rock. 
Clarke, Isaac A., Berry ville. 
Cohn, Hattie, Little Rook. 
Cully, D. Texarkana. 
Cunningham, Kate, Little Rock. 
Geisreiter, S., Pine Bluff. 
Hayes, O. V., Camden. 
Hicks, James T., Hope. 
Jordan, J., Pine Bluff. 
Littiepage, John &, Little Rock. 
Masely, C. H., Pine Bluff. 



Parhan, R. H., Little Rock. 
Sampson, C. L., Washington. 
Senter, Miss S. D., Hope. 
Sterling, Mrs. B. B., Little Rock. 
Swain, Mrs. Bell^, Little Rock. 
Taylor, Miss Clide, Hope. 
Thompson, Monte, Hope. 
Trimble, D. L., Pine Bluff. 
Trimble, Mrs. D. L., Pine Bluff. 
Watt, Miss M. K., Prescott. 
Weaver, Mary« A., Little Rock. 



CALIFORNIA. 



Dunn, Harriet E., State Nor. School, 

Los Angeles. 
Dye, Minnie E., Santa Rosa. 
Marwedel, Emma, 1810 Sacramento St., 

San Francisco. 



Snyder, Libbie M., cor. Date 

Chavez St., Los Angeles. 
Wheelock, Dorcas, Santa Barbara. 



and 



COLORADO. 



Allan, Sara A., Fort Collins. 

Baker, J. H., Denver. 

Beggs, Robert H., Denver. 

Hover, H. M., 16th and Curtis Sts., 
Denver. 

Kendall, Mrs. E. R., Loveland. 

Knapp, W. E., 669 Arapahoe St., Den- 
ver. 



Manley, Fanny, Georgetown. 
Mc Arthur, Mary, Georgetown. 
Norton, H. B., San Jo86. 
Reed, Emma C., Denver. 
Wegener, H. F., Denver. 
Wegener, Mrs. H, F., Denver. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS. 



85 



CONNECTICUT. 



Barrows, Miss H. F., Hartford. 
Beach, Miss 8. A., Hartford. 
Bishop, Prof. N. L., Norwich. 
Bradley, Miss C. J., New Haren. 
Brockleaby, John H., Rockford. 
Butterfleld, C. S., Norwich. 
Batterfield, J. A., Norwich, 
Butterfield, Mrs- J- A., Norwich. 
Cairns, Miss S. H., Waterbury. 
Camp, David N., New Britain. 
Clark, L.. B., Hartford. 
Clark, Mrs. S., Hartford. 
Datton, 8. T., Supt. Schools, New 

Haven. 
Fitch, Mrs. L. A., Montowese. 
Fox, Geo. L., 7 College St., New 

Haven. 
Gillespy, Edith, Greenwich. 
GiUespy, Estelle, Greenwich. 
Graves, J. A., 28 Charter Oak Place, 

Hartford. 
Hall, Miss £. P. New Haven. 
Humes, Ellen £., Hartford. 



Hyde, Mrs. Anna C, 35 Dwight St., 
New Haven. 

IngersoU. Miss M. A., Waterbury. 

Jepson, B., New Haven. 

Kirby, Miss L. C, New Haven. 

Linsley, E. L., New Haven. 

Linsley, Mrs. Grace M., North Haven. 

Miller, Miss I. C, Taftville. 

Moorse, E. G., Box 793, Hartford, 

Osgood, Mrs. H. W., New Britain. 

Pease, Miss H. £., Hartford. 

Peck, Luliet E., 104 York St., New 
Haven. 

Rynn, Alice M., Wallingford. • 

Rynn, Katy C, Wallingford. 

Shaw, Geo. E., Putnam. 

Stevens, Dr. J. A., Hartford. 

Stoddard, I. H., New Haven. 

Stoddard, Mrs. I. H., New Haven. 

White, Miss K. E., Waterbury. 

Williams, Job, 690 Asylum Ave., Hart- 
ford. 

Young, Miss M. £., Hartford. 



DAKOTA. 



Beadle, W. H. H., Yankton. 
Blackburn, W. M., Grand Forks. 
Bon, C. D., Lower Brule Agency 
Colton, J. E., Sioux Falls. 
Culver, G. E., Vermillion. 
Doyle, Anna, Flandrau. 
Ericson, E. C, Elk Point. 
Ericson, Mrs. E. C, Elk Point 
Foley, P. H., Jamestown. 
Fuller, Flora M., Huron, 
Hazard, R. B., Vermilion. 
Healy, E. A., Drayton. 



Issenhuth, E. C, Huron. 
Jones, R. W., Columbia. 
Leitch, Jennie, Tetonka. 
Lynch, May L., Yankton. 
Miller, Nona, Canton. 
Pinney, Addle B., Fargo. 
Richards, Lizzie M., Pierre. 
Richardson, Charles S., Madison. 
Sayles, Anna R., Ashton. 
Turner, Carrie, Turner. 
Turner, Eunice, Turner. 



DELAWARE. 



Spenser, Mattie G. , Wilmington. 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 



Ames, Delano, 1600 Thirteenth St., N. 
W., Washington. 

Bartlett, Florence M., 2017 I St., N. 
W., Washington. 

Bell, Alex. Graham, Scott Circle, Wash- 
ington. 

Bell, A. Melville, Scott Circle, Wash- 
ington. 

Bell, Mrs. A. Melville, Scott Circle, 
Washington. 

Briggs, Martha B., Washington. 

Cocik, G. F. T., Washington. 

-Crosby, Fanny S., 611 4th St., N. W., 
Washington. 



Davis, Benj. R., Treas. Dep% Wash- 
ington. 

Eaton, Gen. John, Bureau Education, 
Washington. 

Ellis, Anna, Washington. 

Gallaudet, E. M., Kendall Green, Wash- 
ington. 

Little, Geo. E., Washington. 

Maguire, Frank Z., Washington. 

Mann, Mrs. M. E., 937 K St., Washmg- 
ton. 

McDonald, Mrs. L. P., Washington. 

McLean, Nellie E. L., 1125- 13th St., 
Washington. 



36 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 



Montgomery, H. P., Washington. 

Patton, Rev. Wm. W., Howard Univer- 
sity, Washington. 

Paul, B. A., High School, Washington. 

Pollock, Mrs. Louise, Washington. 

Presbrey, O. P., Washington. 

Presbrey, Mrs. S. A., Washington. 

Richards, Dr. C. S., Howard Univer- 
sity, Washington. 



Schreiner, Mary K., 1624 Mass. Ave.» 

Washington. 
Shadd, Marion B., Washington. 
Shields, Anna P., 827 Uth St., N- W., 

Washington. 
Shields, Mary S., 827 14th St., N. W-, 

Washington. 
Smith, Lyndon A., Washington. 
Van-de-Sande, Mary F., 924 19tli St., 

N. W., Washington. 



Cowdon, J. J., St. Augustine. 



FLORIDA. 



GEORGIA. 



Abbott, Sibyl, Clarke University, 

Atlanta. 
Burger, A. J., Macon. 
Lathrop, S. E., Macon. 
Mitchell, Flora, Clarke Univ., Atlanta. 
Mooty, A. P., Supt. School, Columbus. 



Moore, Ella W., University, Atlanta. 

Orr, Mrs. G. J., Atlanta. 

Orr, Gustavus J. , State Supt.-, Atlanta. 

Salisbury, Albert, Atlanta. 

Sergeant, Nettie C, Atlanta. 

Slaton, W. F., 109 Jones St., Atlanta. 



ILLINOIS. 



Adams, J. Q., Des Plaines. 

Akers, Lida, 3458 Cottage Grove Ave., 

Chicago. 
Aldrich, Rachel H., Bloomington. 
Alexander, Mrs. U. W., Joliet. 
Allen, Ella S., Carbondale. 
Anderson, Miss M. A., Springfield. 
Anderson, Marie C, Normal. 
Anderson, Lucy J., Nashville. 
Andrews, May, 251 Winchester Ave., 

Chicago. 
Applegate, O. H. P., Wabash Ave. and 

Washington St. , Chicago. 
Aurand, J. R., Freeport. 
Austin, Mrs. C. H., Palatine. 
Austin, W. W., Rockton. 
Ayres, Mrs. L. B., 537 W. Jackson St., 

Chicago. 
Baker, Myra, 907 Seminary St, Rock- 
ford. 
Baldwin, Sarah, Joliet. 
Ballengar, A. F., Ridott. 
Ballengar, £. S., Ridott. 
Balliet, T. M., Normal Park. 
Bracroft, Jane, Evanston. 
Barbour, O. F., Rockford. 
Barnard, Alice S. , Washington Heights, 

Cook Co. 
Barrett, Emma, 1718 E. 4th St., 

Chicago. 
Bathurst, S. B., Ottawa. 
Bartholf, C. S.. Springfield. 
Barton, II. J., Normal. 
Barton, Mrs. H. J., Normal. 
Baumgardener, Elizabeth, Springfield. 
Bazter, Emma S., Austin, Cook Co. 



Beckman, Mattie, Naperville. 

Belfleld, H. H., 5734 Madison St., Chi- 
cago. 

Belfleld, Mrs. H. H., 5734 Madison St., 
Chicago. 

Belknap, Franklin, Worth, Cook Co. 

Bellows, Addie, Harvard. 

Benson, Fannie H., Fulton. 

Bevans, Homer, Englewood. 

Blackmar, O., 22 St. John's Place, 
Chicago. 

Block, L. J., 2406 Wabash Ave., 
Chicago. 

Boltwood, Henry L., Evanston. 

Bostwick, O. P., Lena. 

Bowman, S. Annette, Andalusia. 

Boyden, Helen W.,864 W. Halsted St, 
Chicago. 

Boyer, E. R., Lewistown. 

Brady, Wm., Marseilles. 

Bright, O. T., 3028 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 

Brockway, Mrs. L. F., Times Building, 
Chicago. 

Brown, C. E., 369 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

Brown, E. E. , Belvidere. 

Brown, Jennie, Normal. 

Brown, Mary E. , 434 Irving St, Chicago. 

Brydges, W. H., Lockport. 

Buck, Martha, Carbondale. 

Bush, Libbie E., Sterling. 

Bushnell, Lu R., Evanston. 

Button, W. J., 379 Wabash Ave., Chi- 
cago. 

Cable, F. S., 109 Wabash Ave., Chi- 
cago. 

Caldwell, A. J., Carlinville. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS, 



37 



CarmichcieU A. K., Fairbury. 
Carpenter, Mrs. Mary L., 325 E. State 

St., Rockford. 
Cassidy, Rose, 504 S. First St, Rock- 
ford. 
Cheney, Hrs. A. J., Oak Park, Chicago. 
Claflin, A. H., 242 Wabaah Are., Chi- 
cago. 
CleTerdon, Kittle, Jollet. 
Colbum, Minnie, Kensington. 
Cole, A. J., Care Business College, Peo- 
ria. 
Colton, B. P., Ottawa. 
Colton, Mrs. B. P., Ottawa. 
Coman, Miss N. L., Kankakee. 
Cook, £. H., Winnetka. 
Couse, Mary E., Woodstock. 
Cowan, Mary M., Englewood. 
Cuckow, Mary A., 603 Warren Ave., 

Chicajto. 
Curran, Miss J., 529 W. 12th St., Chi- 
cago. 
Currier, Emily C, Oak Park, Chicago. 
Curtis, L. A., Waukegan. 
Curtis, J. L., Dekalb. 
Darling, D. H., Joliet. 
Davis, George W., 8i 38th St., Chicago, 
De Clark, Geo, W.,6110 Wabash Ave. 

Chicago. 
Delano, £. C, 59 Aberdeen St., Chi 

cago. 

Dillraan, L. M., 224 State St., Chicago. 
Dimock, Mrs. E. M., B'd of Education, 

Chicago. 

Dodge, Chester C, Oakley School, Chi- 
cago. 
Dodge, W. C, Normal Park. 
Dorman, G. W., 186 £. Jackson St., 

Chica.?o. 
Dongall, Miss J., 45 Cedar St., Chicago. 
Duer, Lucy B., Monmouth. 
Dupuis, Denise, Savanna. 
Dyckes, Minnie, Lewiston. 
Eddy, Sara Hershey, Hershey Music 

Hall, Chicago. 
Ellis, John C, 149 Wabash Ave., Chi- 
cago. 
Ellis, Mrs. John C, 149 Wabash Ave., 

Chicago. 
Faber, H. C, Richmond. 
FaUnws, S. M., 328 W. Adams St., 

Chicago. 
Farson, M. E., 134 Warren Ave., Chi- 
cago. 
Farson, Miss N. M., 134 Warren Ave., 

Chicago. 
Farson, Miss R. M., 134 Warren Ave., 

Chicago. 
Field, Ella V., Joliet. 
Finley, Miss £. C, Carbondale. 
Fisher, H. A., Wheaton. 
Pitch, I. W., 335 Wabash Ave.. Chi- 
cago. 

3a 



Flanagan, A. M., 163 Randolph St., 

Chicago. 
Flanagan, Mrs. A. M., 163 Randolph 

St., Chicago. 
Fleming, Martha, llO Drexel Block, 

Chicago. 
Forbes, H. C, Polo. 
Ford, Charles H., West Jackson St. 

School, Chicago. 
Fox, Alice E., Bclvidere. 
Fox, 8. W., 222 Michigan Ave., Chi- 
cago. 
Franklin, Miss L., Belvidere. 
French, Mrs. Emily L., 64 23d St, 

Chicago. 
Furry, Mary C, Sterling. 
Futsham, J. R., Springfield. 
Gastraan, E. A., Decatur. 
Gastman, Carrie S. , Decatur. 
Getty, Kate A., Geneseo. 
Getty, Miss Louie, Geneseo. 
Gillett, Philip G., Deaf & Dumb Inst., 

Jacksonville. 
Goodrich. Lewis, Pecatonica. 
Goodwin, Bertha, 1504 E. State St., 

Rockford. 
Gougar , Lizzie A. , P. O. Box 1984, Joliet. 
Greenman, A. V., Creston. 
Green, Inez I., Mt. Vernon. 
Griffin, Lida, 3408 Indiana Ave., 

Chicago. 
Griswold, Sarah E., Normal Park. 
Gruery, C. S. , Peoria. 
Gunther, Clara H., Quincy. 
Halsey, Helen L., Kankakee. 
Halsey, Rebecca A., Kankakee. 
Harding, F. F., Rogers Park. 
Harding, Mrs. S. A., Monmouth. 
Harkins, W., 162 La Salle St., Chicago. 
Harrison, Betty, 2535 Prairie Ave., 

Chicago. 
Hartmann, Mary, Normal. 
Hatch, Mrs. Celia P., 2301 Wabash Ave., 

Chicago. 
Hatch, H. D., Moline. 
Hanstein, Herman, 361 Mohawk St., 

Cliicago. 
Hawes, Harriet I., 74 Chicago St., 

Freeport. 
Haw ley, Elizabeth, care J. K. Botsford, 

Chicago. 
Haynie, Mrs. M. D. L., Normal. 
Healy. Nellie D., Hyde Park. 
Heath, W. R., Peru. 
Henderson, Mrs. J. E., Joliet. 
Heninger, J. W., Bloomington. 
Hey wood, F. S., Chicago. 
Hillard, S. IL, Warren. 
Hodgman, Carrie £., Princeton. 
Hoenshel, E. J., Charleston. 
Hoenshel, Mrs. E. J., Charleston. 
Holden, Kate L., 174 Wabash Ave., 

Chicago. 



38 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



Holder, Mary E., Freeport Station. 
Horber, Ida L., CG3 Ashland Ave., 

Chicago. 
Housel, G. R., Uoek Island. 
Howland, George, Supt. Schools, 1420 

Wabash Ave., Chicago. 
Howlistown, Mary, Joliet. 
Huggins, Nellie, Ravenswood. 
Hughes, Estelia M., Blooming^n. 
Hall, John, Carbondale. 
Hyde, Carrie M., Princeton. 
Hyde, Mary A., 833 N. Broad St., 

Galesburg. 
Inglis, S. M., Carbondale. 
Jackson, Hamilton, 256 W. Adams St, 

Chicago. 
Jenkins, W., Mendota. 
Jillson, B. C, Champaign. 
Johnson, Martha, Decatur. 
Johnston, Martha E., Charleston. 
Jone8, Emma F., Springfield. 
Jones, Ida, Joliet. 
Kenible, S. S., Rock Island. 
Kennedy, Julia E., Normal. 
Kent, Alice L., Austin, Cook Co. 
Kent, Mrs. V. J., 3208 Calumet Ave., 

Chicago. 
Kenyon, Sophie G., Joliet. 
Kimball, C. F., 26 Giflford St., Elgin. 
Kimball, Mrs. C. F., 25 Gifford St., 

Elgin. 
King, Hattie G., Sterling. 
Kirkley, Sarah A., 6 Union Park Place, 

Chicago. 
Klein, Carrie, Springfield. 
Krape, A. A., Lena. 
Krueger, Anna, Springfield. 
Kuhl, Mary H., illgh Sch.. Bloomington. 
Kusel, Frances, Springfield. 
Lane, Albert, County Court House, 

Chicago. 
Lane, C. E.,, 152 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 
Lathrop, Carrie B. , Princeton. 
Leeper, Margaret, Decatur. 
Leighty, Elizabeth, Monmouth. 
Lennon, Anthony, 1098 W. Madison St., 

Chicago. 
Leslie, J. O., 116 N. Orange St., Peoria. 
Lewis, Cora E., Blue Island. 
Lewis, Carrie N., Lombard. 
Lewis, Leslie, Hyde Park. 
J^ewis, Miss S. M., Blue Island. 
Little, Samuel A., Lake Ave. and 43d 

St., Chicago. 
Little, Mrs. Samuel A., Lake Ave. and 

43d St., Chicajjo. 
Lock, H. B., 251 W. Jackson St., 

Chicago. 
Loomis, George C., Fulton. 
Lumry, O. F., Wheaton 
MacDonald, A. E., May wood. 
Mackintosh, Miss H. J., Joliet. 
Maloney, Miss M. R., Rutland. 



Maloney, Mary, Washburn. 

Mariner, C. D., Winnebago. 

Marsh, Emma, Rockford. 

Martin, Miss A. B., Oak Park. 

Martin, John, Albion. 

Mathews, W. B., 34 Madison St., 

Chicago. 
Matthews, Ida C, Monmouth. 
Maxwell, Lettie B., Lockport. 
Maxwell, S. A., Morrison. 
Mc Anally, Mary C. Carbondale. 
McCauley, J. C., Wilmington. 
McClintock, Nellie, Oak Park. 
McCollum, W., 313 Wabash Ave., 

Chicago. 
McCormack, Gertrude, Princeton. 
Mcintosh, L. D., 192 Jackson St, 

Chicago. 
McKearnay, J., St. Nicholas Hotel, 

Joliet. 
McKey, F., 134 Warren Ave., Chicago. 
McLauchlin, A. L., 369 Wabash Ave., 

Chicago. 
DeMedici, Charles, 163 Randolph St., 

Chicago (?). 
Metcalf, Thomas, Normal. 
Miller, Jacob. Princeton. 
Montfort, Helen R., Cor. 64th and Dick- 
ens Sts., Chicago. 
Moore, Laura, Petersburg. 
Morgan, Maggie, Alden. 
Morgan, R. T., Wheaton. 
Mountz, S., Sterling. 
Murray, J. A., 75 Clark St., Chicago. 
Naramore, M. O., Lena. 
Nichols, F. W., Kensington, Cook Co. 
Norbury, Alice M., Lombard. 
Norbury, Emily A., Lombard. 
Northrop, Helen A., 616 Fulton St, 

Chicago. 
Norton, Miss M. E., 601 S. 3rd St, 

Rockford. 
Nourse, E. H., Englewood. 
Noyes, Lucy A., 2536 Prairie Ave., 

Chicago. 
Oldt, F. T., Lanark. 
Olmsted, W. A., 179 Wabash Ave., 

Chicago. 
Owens, Mrs. Frances E., 630 Fulton St, 

Chicago. 
Parker, Francis W.. Normal Park. 
Parker, Mrs. Francis W., Normal Park. 
Parker, Charles I., 1504 4l8t 

Chicago. 
Parkhurst, Mrs. Emogene, 312 W. Adam^ 

St, Chicago. 
Parsons, Mrs. A. S., Hyde Park. 
Patterson, Ella, 404 W. Adams St., 

Chicago. 
Paul, J. C, Nunda. 
Peabody, Selim H., Champaign. 
Pennell, Miss F., Normal. 
Perkins, H. S., 162 State St, Chicago. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS, 



39 



Piper, J., 149 Wabash Are., Chicago. 

Porter, Mrs. T. C, Freeport. 

Porter, A. H., 162 Wabash Are., 

Chicago. 
Potter, B. S., 301 E. Locust St., 

Bloomington. 
Pratt, Harriet, 99 Walton Place, Chicago. 
Pugh,, Clara, Charleston. 
Quantrell, L. J., EarlTille 
Ramsey, Anna J., Rushville. 
Kassweiler, J. K., Wheaton. 
Ray, W. H.. Hyde Park. 
Recher, Philip, Rogers Park. 
Reed, Bella, SOS 3l8t St., Chicago. 
Reid, D. W., Normal. 
Rennie, R. II. Algonquin. 
Richardson, Anna, Bloomington. 
Rinkenderge, Lottie, Blue Island, Cook 

Co. , 

Rlshel, A. C, Paxton. 
Roberts, Mary A., care Ganger, Olirer & 
Co., Cor. 22d and Laflin Sts., 
Chicago. 
Robinson, Mrs. E. S., Chicago. 
Roots, B. G., Tamara. 
Roots, Mrs. B. G., Tamara. 
Ross, Matilda H., 175 32d St., Chicago. 
Rashton, Mary, Harvard. 
Sabin, A. R., Franklin School, Chicago. 
Sabin, S. B., 138 Locust St., Chicago. 
Schouler, Miss J. £., Normal Park. 
Scott, Mrs. A. B., 1730 Indiana Are., 
Chicago. 

Scott, H. B., Sterling. 

Scott, Maggie J. , Monmouth. 

SeU, Miss M. J., 516 N. 6th St., Spring- 
field 

Sharp, Prof. S. Z., Mt. Morris. 

Sherrill, H. J., Belvidere. 

Sherrill, Mrs. H. J., Belyidere. 

Shimmin, Kate, Pecatonica. 

Shimmin, Lucile, Pecatonica. 

Shippen, J., 59 Portland Block, Chicago. 

Shuman, W. C, 179 Ontario St., Chicago. 

Slade, James P. , GreenTille. 

Smally, D. H., 199 Clark St, Chicago. 

Smedley, Era A., Belvidere. 

Smedley, Fred W., Belvidere. 

Smith, Ida A., Hyde Park. 

Smith, J. Frank, Eagle Point 

Snow, C. P., Princeton. 

Snow, O. T., Batavia. 

Sondericker, Prof. J., Woodstock. 

Sondericker, Wm., Woodstock. 

Speer, W. W., Normal Park. 

Starbuck, Ada C, Joliet 

Steams, Geo. G., 209 Wabash Ave., Chi- 
cago. 

Stedman, Clara, Millburn, Lake Co. 

Stephenson, Lilly S., Oak Park. 

Sterett, Mary A., Monmouth. 

Stoner, W. H., El Paso. 

Stowell, C. G., 459 Dayton St, Chicago. 

Straight, Dora, Minonk. 



Strong, E., 147 S. Kellogg St, Gales- 
burg. 

Swahlen, Wm. F., Lebanon. 

Swahlen, Mrs. Wm. F., Lebanon. 

Swan, Lizzie P., Chenoa. 

Swinerton, Carrie P., 754 Gordon St, 
Chicago. 

Talbot, Geo. I., De Kalb. 

Thomas, L. A., La Salle. 

Thorp, D;R. a., Ottawa. 

Thresher, Emma, Kankakee. 

Tinkey, Lizzie E., Greenville. 

Todd, Miss E. J., Aurora. 

Todd, Miss M. A., Aurora. 

Tracy, F. N., Kankakee. 

Tracy. Mrs. F. N., Kankakee. 

Vaile, E. O., Oak Park, Chicago. 

Vaughn, Miss M. A., Delavan. 

Veeder, Rev. P. V., Lake Forest 

Yen Santford, Nellie, Sterling. 

Vial, Jennie M., May wood. 

Walker, P. R., Rockford. 

Walsh, Mrs. M. L., 2133 Calumet Ave., 
Chicago. 

Washington, Lucy, Ashland Ave., Chi- 
cago. 

Waters, Kate, Charleston. 

WeUers, Meta, 429 W. Monroe St, Chi- 
cago. 

West, Mary Allen, Galesburg. 

Westcott, O. S., N. Div. High Sch., Chi- 
cago. 

Wheeler, Emily F., 108 6th St, Rockford. 

White, Sarah P., cor. College and Cap- 
ital Ave*s, Springfield. 

Whitmore, Eva B., 29 De Puyster St, 
Chicago. 

Wilkinson, J. W., Decatur. 

Wilkinson, Mrs. J. W., Decatur. 

Willard, Samuel, 16 S. Sheldon St, Chi- 
cago. 

Willard, Mrs. A. M., 80 Dearbon St, 
Chicago. 

Williams, J. D., 153 Wabash Ave., Chi- 
cago. 

Williamson, A. W., P. O. Box 900, Bock 
Island. 

Wilson, Daniel T., Abingdon. 

Wilson, O. G., 1212 Wabash Ave., Chi- 
cago. 

Wilson, W. B., Tuscola. 

Winchell, Ann E., Norwood Park, Chi- 
cago. 

Winchell, Harriet N., Norwood Park, 

Chicago. 
Wire, L. May, Winslow* 
Wiser, Mattie S. , Beardstown. 
Wood, A. J., 216 Warren Ave., Chicago. 
Wood, S. L., 647 Washington Boulel 

vard, Chicago. 
Woods, F. M., Evanston. 
Woodbury, Rev. F. P., Rockford. • 
Woodruff, Julia H., Joliet. 



40 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 



Works, Laura, 501 £. Seminary St., 
Rockford. 

Works, Mary, 601 E. Seminary St, Rock- 
ford. 



Wylie, Mrs. M. J. B., 4616 State Su, 

Chicago. 
Young, Mrs. E. F., 365 W. Jackson St., 

Chicago. 



INDIANA. 



Anderson, Ida E., Indianapolis. 

Baily, A. H., Spiceland. 

Banta, W. H., Valparaiso. 

Benst, M., New Albany. 

Blaker, Mrs. E. A., Indianapolis. 

Boone, R. G., Frankfort. 

Brown, Alice E., 69 S. 9th St., Lafa- 
yette. 

Brown, Jessie H., Indianapolis. 

Bryan, E. A., Vincennes. 

Byers, W. H., Terre Haute. 

Byers, Mrs. W. H., Terre Haute. 

Cannon, Alfred J., Jeffersonville. 

Chapin, Alice, 345 N. Pa. St., Indianap- 
olis. 

Compton, Emma K , Lafayette. 

Cooper, John, Evansville. 

Cooper, Mrs. M. J., Indianapolis. 

Darling, Miss E., La Porte. 

Deland, Geo. W., Perry rille. 

Delano, Mrs. Geo. W., Marysville. 

Dunn, T. H., Crawford ville. 

Goss, W. M., Lafayette. 

Kallmann, Mrs. Eudora, La Porte. 

Hailmann, W. N., La Porte. 

Harris, Charles, Vincennes. 

Holcomb, J. W.» Indianapolis. 

Horney, Mattie, 327 N. 8th St., Rich- 
mond. 



Horney, Susie, 327 N. 8th St., Richmond. 

Hyatt, H. H., Clay City. 

Jones, L. H., 440 Broadway, Indianapolis. 

La FoUette, H. M., Lebanon. 

Lane, C. T., 336 W. Washington St., 

Fort Wayne. 
Lawrence, Margaret, Frankfort. 
Logan, Maggie, Spring Hill. 
Martin, Alexander, Greencastle. 
Merrill, J. T., Lafayette. 
Morris, Ruth, Terre Haute. 
Moss, Lemuel, Bloomington. 
Newlin, Thomas, Spiceland. 
Newlin, Mrs. Thomas, Spiceland. 
Sanders, Amos, North Vernon. 
Schroeder, W. G., South Bend. 
Selleck, Miss R. E., Indianapolis. 
Smith, E. E., Lafayette. 
Stevens, A. B., Angola. 
Taylor, Edward, Vincennes. 
Thompson, C O., Terre Haute. 
Thompson, Lura L., Lafayette. 
Thompson, Mrs. L. L., Lafayette. 
Tompkins, Arnold, Franklin. 
Tompkins, Jennie, Franklin. 
Trendley, F., Union City. 
Valentine, Georgia, Richmond. 
Vayhinger, Monroe, Rei. 
Wood, Marion, Kouts, Porter Co. 



INDIAN TERRITORY. 



Corel, J. H., Cherokee Nation, Salina. 
Duncan, W. A., Cherokee Nation, Tale- 
quah. 



Riddell, Mrs. J. W., Cherokee Orphan 
Asylum. 



IOWA. 



Abbott, Abbie S., Marshalltown. 

Acheson, Ella M., Ainsworth. 

Ainsworth, S. S., West Union. 

Akers, J. W., State House, Des Moines. 

Alexander, Jennie, Mt. Vernon. 

Allen, Lizzie, Manchester. 

Atkins. Chas. H., 1046 Sixth St., Des 

Moines. 
Aupperle, D. W., Pattersonville. 
Avery, M. F., Fort Dodge. 
Baker, Lida, Altoona. 
Barnette, Mattie, Independence. 
Barrett, R. C, Rice ville. 
Barrett, Mrs. R. C, Riceville. 
Bartlett, M. W., Cedar Falls. 



Beach, Mrs. A., 319 Franklin St., Keo- 
kuk. 

Beardsheer, W. M., Toledo. 

Bedford, Lizzie, De Witt. 

Benham, W. I., Fontanelle. 

Berry, B. W., Clinton. 

Beasey, C. E., Ames. 

Bingamar, Nannie E., O^kaloosa. 

Bingham, G. W., Denmark. 

Bingham, Mrs. G. W., Denmark. 

Bingham, R. S., Cedar Falls. 

Boisot, Mrs. Albertina, 1107 Main St., 
Dubuque. 

Boisot, Alice, 1107 Main St., Dabuqae. 

Boisot, Lewis, 1107 Main St., Dubuque. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS, 



41 



Bowman, J. R., DaTenport. 

Boyes, W. W., Dubuque. 

Breckenridge, J.,Dccorah. 

Breckenridge, Mrs. J., Decorah. 

Bridges, R. M. , Malvern. 

Bronson, Minnie, Fayette. 

Brown, Jessie, McGregor. 

Buchanan, Miss A. E., Washington. 

Buck, S. J., Grinnell. 

Back, Misa E. C, Grinnell. 

Buckley, Eva M., Strawberry Point. 

Bulis, Ada A., Decorah. 

Cadwallder, Sarah, Janesville. 

Carletoo, Julia, Clinton. 

Carpenter, O. T., Pres. Drake Unirer- 

sity, Des Moines. 
Carroll, Lizzie, New Hampton. 
Chamberlin, A. Door, 25 Locust St., 

Dubuque. 
Chandler, George, Osage. 
Chapman, Idelle, Cedar Falls. 

Clancy, A. W., Des Moines. 

Clarke, Jessie A., 210 Seminary St., 
Dubuque. 

Cleaves, Jennie, Davenport. 

Colgrove, C. P., Fayette. 

Colgrove. Mrs. C P., Fayette. 

CoflFeen. H. L., Decorah. 

Collins, L. B., Lyons. 

Cooley, E. G., Strawberry Point. 

Cowles, Jennie, Po-tville. 

Cowles, Lydia, Postville 

Cramer, Tillie, Cedar Falls. 

Crane, M. E., Clinton. 

Cratty, Miss S. A., Oskaloosa. 

Cunningham, Eva A., Washington. 

Curtis, Mi9sK. M., Lamoille. 

Dana, J. L., Nevada. 

Davies, Alma, Marshalltown. 

Davis. Miss S. A., Daren port. 

De Armond, J. M., Davenport. 

Deering, Anna L., Independence. 

Dixon, Helen, Clinton. 

Dixon, W. H., Webster City. 

Doling, Ira, Dexter. 

Donnelly, Annie, Box 537, Sioux City. 

Douglas, H. H.. Mechanicsville. 

Dunbar, Helen M., 417 Fifth Ave., Clin- 
ton. 

Eckerman, Mary B., Washington. 

Edmundson, M. B., Hampton. 

Edson, H. K., Grinnell. 

Eldon,Mr8. M. A., Jefferson. 

Ely, E.H., Iowa City. 

Emerson, O. F.. Grinnell. 

Ensign, S. Laura, Cedar Falls. 

Esgate, E. J., Sahula. 

Fellows, S. N., SUte University, Iowa 

City. 
Field, Ellen, Waterloo. 
Finster, Miss M. C, Steamboat Rock. 
Fitch, G. N., West Union. 
Freer, H. H., Mt. Vernon. 
Fuller, H. Q., Eldora. 



Gardner, Sarah, Newton. 
Gensman, Clara, Webster City. 
Gerlinger, Clara, Burlington. 
Gilchrist, Maud, Cedar Falls. 
Gilchrist, Fred, Cedar Falls. 
Gilliam, Miss M. B., Marshalltown. 
Girton, W. W., Harlan. 
Graham, Margaret, Strawberry Point. 
Guilbert, E. A., Dubuque. 
Guilbert, Mrs. E. A. , Dubuque. 
Guilbert, Grey F. , Dubuque. 
Guinsby, Alice, 119 S. 6th St., Burling- 
ton. 
Gumey, C. H., Shenandoah. 
Hadley, J. C, New Providence. 
Hall, Anna B., Waukon. 
Hall, Delia S., Delmar. 
Hall, Maria, Delmar. 
Hamlin, H. F., Manchester. 
Han ford, J. M., Charles City. 
Hanford, Miss. F. J., Charles City. 
Hanna, Mrs. J. A., 1104 Park St., Dei 

Moines 
Harlan, James E., Mt. Vernon. 
Harlan, Mrs. James E., Mt. Vernon. 
Hamden, Mrs. Sarah, Mason City. 
Harrington, Georgia, Dubuque. 
Harrison, Norman, Lost Nation. 
Hart, A. C, Grinnell. 
Hart, Mrs. Delia, Newton. 
Hastings, L. M., Manchester. 
Haupt, A. P., Snpt. Schs., Des Moines. • 
Hayden, C F., Panora. 
Hemstedt, Lucy, Morse. 
Henderson, Mrs. Clara E.,Mt. Vernon. 
Hennes8v,Mary E., Clinton. 
Hewitt, Juliette F., 9th and Locust Sts., 

Dubuque. 
Hidey. C. M.. Den Moines. 
Hill, W. B., New Hampton. 

Hineline, N. H., Clarkville. 
Hollister. H. A., Springdale. 
Howell, Miss L. G. (Sohool Journal), 
Keokuk. 

Hull, W. N., Cedar Falls. 

Hyde, Mrs. Thomas, Dubuque. 

lUsley, lonn, Des Moines. 

Jackson, Anna, Epworth. 

Jackson, Prudie, Humboldt. 

Jones, Augusta, Hampton. 

Jones, J. B., Independence. 

Jones, Geo. W., Epworth. 

Jones, Gertrude, Hampton. 

Kaufman, Belle, Comanche. 

King, W. F., Mt. Vernon. 

Kinsley, Lucy, Monona. 

Klinefelter, L. L., Mason City. 

Klinefelter, Mrs. L. L., Mason City. 

Knapp. S. A., Ames. 

Knight, J. Ada, Independence. 

Knight, Delia, Oskaloosa. 

Knott, W. S., Dubuque. 

Knott, Mrs. W. S., Dubuque. 



42 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



Kretflchmer, Charles G., 1434 Clay St., 

Dubuque. 
Kretschmer, Miss K. A., 1434 Clay St., 

Dubuque. 
Lackey, John M., Washington. 
Lang, Carrie J. » Marshall town. 
Lapham, J. A., New Hampton. 
Lapliam, Mrs. J. A., New Hampton. 
Laws, Kittle J., Shenandoah. 
Lewis, Lucina, Ogden. 
Lewis, D. W., Washington. 
Lewis, Jessie, Waukon. 
Lewis, Irene, Cedar Rapids. 
Lewis Mrs. X. Cedar Rapids. 
Lewis, N. L., Grinnell. 
Lillibridge, Clara, Waterloo. 
Macy, J., Iowa College, Grinnell. 
Magness, E. F., Waterloo. 
Magoun, Geo. F., Iowa College, Grinnell. 
Mabin, Mrs. £. L., Muscatine. 
Marsh, C. C, Manson., 
Marsh, H. H., Manson. 
Marsh, Mrs. H. H., Manson. 
Marshall. Geo. £., Keokuk. 
Martin, C. S., Epworth. 
Mason, Alice E., Webster City. 
Mason, Rosa, Webster City. 
Matthews, Lizzie K., 1419 Locust St., 

Des Moines. 
Mattice, Florence, Webster City, 
McBride, T. H., Iowa City. 
McBride, Mrs. T. H., Iowa City. 
McClellan, J. W., Marion. 
McClellan, Miss A., 321 Crocker St., 

Des Moines. 
McClellan. Miss M., 321 Crocker St., 

1l>^s Moines. 
McConnell, J. J., Atlantic. 
McGovern, Anna E., Cedar Falls. 
McKeon, B. M., Mason City. 
McKnight, Rebecca, Dubuque. 
Millard, J. C. Montour. 
Mallard, Mrs. J. C. Montour. 
Millard, O. P., Montour. 
Millard, Mrs. O. P., Montour. 
Miller, T. B., Plymouth. 
Miner, Mrs. J. M., Charles City. 
Mooncy, M. E., Charles City. 
Moore, C. E., Grand Junction. 
Moore, Mrs. C. E., Grand Junction. 
Morgan, M. F., Le Grand. 
Morgan, Mrs. W. J., Newton. 
Morris, R. Anna, 1110 Ninth St., Des 

Moines. 
Moyer, Charles D., De Witt. 
Murphy, D. D., Guttenberg. 
Myers, H. W., Cresion. 
Nagel, J. J., 1411 W. Locust St., Daren* 

port. 
Nelon, Miss B. M., P. O. Box 814, Sioux 

City. 
Newman, A., AekK»y. 
Nichols, Susie, Des Moines. 
Nichols, J. W. A., Winthrop. 



Norton, W. H., Mt. Vernon. 

Omans, E. D., Albion. 

Osborn, Herbert, Ames. 

Osborne, Mrs. J., Scranton. 

Packer, Anna E., Keosauqua. 

Packer, Emma M., Salem. 

Palmer, Kate E., Oskalor>sa. 

Palmer, Ida M., Cedar Rapids. 

Parker, Ida M., Shenandoah. 

Parrish, L. W., Dos Moines. 

Parvin, T. S., Iowa City. 

Patten, G., Charles City. 

Payne, Wm. B., Tabor. 

Pearce, Alice, Clinton. 

Pennock, H. W., Iowa City. 

Plimpton, Miss T., Dubuque. 

Pickard, J. L., Pres. State Univ., Iowa 

City. 
Pillsbury, F. J., Dubuque. 
Pillsbury, Mrs. F. J., Dubuque. 
Plaister, James, 1140 Main St., Dubuque. 
Powers, Abbie S., New Hampton. 
Pratt, Mrs., New Hampton. 
Pusey, M. J., Eldon. 
Randell, Amelia, Epworth. 
Regan, Ella L., Oskaloosa. 
Rice, W. A., Waverly. 
Rice, Hattie, New Hampton. 
Richardson, G. F., Webster City. 
Richardson, Miss N. B., Webster City. 
Richmond, Mrs. T. P., Council Bluffs. 
Richmond, Sue, Harlan. 
Ripsom, Hattie, Bristow. 
Robins, II. B., Lyons. 
Rogers, C. P., Marshalltown. 
Rosser, J. W., Peosta. 
Round, Jennie M., Cedar Falls. 
Rowe, Mattie, Waukon. 
Rudd, Miss M. E., Burlington. 
Sabin, Henry, Clinton. 
Sabin, Mrs. Henry, Clinton. 
Saylander, O. J., Brooklyn. 
Scott, Fannie, Shenandoah. 
Scott, O. C, Oskaloosa. 
Seeley. Addie, Clinton. 
Seerley, H. H., Oskaloosa. 
Shahan, Mollie E., Avery. 
Shellenbers^er, Ida, Humboldt. 
Showers, Sarah, Cedar Falls. 
Sibley, Evangeline, Lcmars. 
Smith, J. F., Monona. 
Snelling, Nellie, Marshalltown. 
Southard, Rose E., Brooklyn. 
Spaulding, Lizzie, Waukon. 
Steiniger, O., Bryant. 
Stevens, Nellie, Newton. 
Stevenson, C. S., Independence. 
Sturges, C. L., Tabor. 
Sutherland, Emma, Maquoketa. 
Sweet, Julia J., Clinton. 
Thomas, Mrs. A. E., Van Meter. 
Thomas, Lizzie £., Newton. 
Thompson, Flora, Webster City. 
Thompson, Belle S., Davenport. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS, 



43 



Tinkey, Kate, Columbia. 

Tirrill, R. W., Mmchester. 

Tirrill, Mrs. R. W., Manchester. 

Tim«, Cynthia, Wilton. 

Torrance, Nannie, Sigourney. 

Treu, Anna C, 9th and Locust St., Du- 

bnque. 
Tressaler, Martin L., Monroe. 
Trewin, C. B., Earlville. 
Truax, Mary. Maquoketa. 
Tyler, Emma. Marion. 
Van Auken, Julia, Mason City. 
Vanderreer, Clara, Grinnell. 
Was^ener, Eva S., Oskaloosa. 
WaNh, Marv E., Clinton. 
Ward, Eda, Ren wick. 
Warren, Ida E., Oskaloosa. 
Waters, Kate M., Lemars. 
Watzke, Frank, Charles City. 
Waizke, Mrs. Frank, Charles City. 
Way, lone, Chickasaw. 



Welsh, W. M., Mrtquoketa. 
Weller, J. A., Toledo. 
Wheeler, Hulda, Hampton. 
Wheeler, Mary, Himpton. 
• Whicher, M. E., Muj«catine. 
White, Eldora, Sixth Ave., Clinton. 
White, Harry. Sixth Ave., Clinton. 
Whitnev, U. G., Union. 
Williams, S. N., Cornell College. Mount 

Vernon. 
Wihon, W. E., C*»dar Rapids. 
Wilson, Mrs. L. M.. Des Moines. 
Witter, M. A. B., Mt. Vernon. 
Woodruff, L. J., Marengo. 
Wright, D. S., Cedar Falls. 
Wright, Lyman. Ep worth. 
Wright, S. M., Epworth. 
Young, Julia, Lyons. 
Young, J. B., Davenport. 
Zook, Libbie, Hampton. 



KANSAS. 



Can field, J. H., Lawrence. 
Esterly, C, Ottawa. 
Fairchild, Geo. T., Manhattan. 
Fitzpatrick, Frank A., Leavenworth. 
Funchess, Bertha, Netawaka. 
Uolmes, Lulu, Emporia. 
Horner, Hattie, Holden. 
Kahlmann, Emilv, Emporia. 
Marvin, James, Emporia. 



Miller, Mrs. Hattie I., Washburne Col- 
lege, Topeka. 
Price, Viola B., Emporia. 
Smith, Clarence J., Wyandotte. 
Spencer, Martha P., Emporia. 
Taylor, Mrs. A. R., Emporia. 
Wilcox, M. J., Beloit. 
Wood, Mrs. Annie S., Manhattan. 



KENTUCKY. 



Albrecht, Louise, Louisville. 

Allen, R. D., Military Institute, Farm- 
dale. 

Brachey, A. M., 210 Clay St., Louisville. 

Colgan, Fanny, Owensboro. 

Dietrich, C. H., Hopkinsville. 

Eaton, H. W., Male High Sch., Louis- 
ville. 

Ferrell, J. O., Hopkinsville. 

Gilbert, R. B., 943 W. Water St., Louis- 
ville. 

Hixon, W. D., Maysville. 

Hodge, Mollie, Henderson. 

Hughes, Miss L., Owensboro. 

Hunting, B. S , Berea. 

Hnntoon, B. B., Louisville. 

Huntoon, Mrs. B. B., Louisville. 

Jones, Miss Vie, Owensboro. 

Matz, Lizzie D., Covington. 



Maxwell, J. M., 942 Fifth St., Louis- 
ville. 

McDowell, Miss A., Danville. 

McDowell, Miss M., Harrodsburg. 

Payne, J. M., Elizabethtown. 

Payne, Mrs. Mary F., Elizabethtown. 

Pyle, Lizzie, Covington. 

Pye, James, Hopkinsville. 

Randall, S. E., London. 

Russell, Maggie, Frankfort. 

Rust. J. O., Hopkinsville. 

Rust, J. W., Hopkinsville. 

Ryan, W. H., Hopkinsville. 

Scott, S. T., Louisville 

Scott, Mrs. S. T., Louisville. 

Stewart, Jessie, 1124 Green St., Louis- 
ville. 

Talbot, J. W., Louisville. 

Walter, Mrs. L. A., 2320 W. Jefferson 
St., Louisville. 



LOUISIANA. 



Easton, Warren, State Supt., Baton 

Rouge. 
Leche, A. S., 7 Prvtania St., N. Orleans. 



Rogers, W. C, Supt Schools, New Or- 
leans. 



44 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



MAINE. 



Bacon, Miss M. A., Portland. 

Barton, Miss E. L., Deaf Mate Day 
School, Portland. 

Bashford, J. \V., 219 Cumberland St., 
Portland. 

Bashford, Jeniiie F., 219 Cumberland 
St., Portland. 

Blondel, F. H., Topsham. 

Bumps, W. A., Dexter. 

Chase, Edwin L., 3 Chestnut St., Port- 
land. 

Chase, Mrs. Edwin L. , 3 Chestnut St. , 
Portland. 



Clark, Miss G. M., Cumberland MilK 
Clark, Miss M. A., Cumberland Mills. 
Crosby, George, Bangor. 
Crosby, Mrs. George, Bangor. 
Henry, Miss S. M., Portland. 
Johnson, Miss V. A., Farming^n. 
Jones, Emma, Bangor St., Augusta. 
Loihrop, V. W., Monmouth. 
Philbrick, Miss F. J., Waterville. 
Pike, Miss E. F., Livermore Falls. 
Powell, S. H., Orono. 
Taylor, L. W., Bangor. 
True, Miss N. G., Waterville. 



MARYLAND. 



Adams, S. Herbert, Maryland Inst., 

Baltimore. 
*Edward8, Charles G., Baltimore. 
Fuchs, Otto, Medical Inst., Baltimore. 



Hall, S. S., Johns Hopkins Uniyersity, 

Baltimore. 
Peterson, Frank H., Lavender Hill. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



Ackerman, Mrs. R., Lexington. 

Adams, C. F., 2 Normal St., Worcester. 

Alden, George J., Worcester. 

Allen, Mercie A., Danvers. 

Allen, Mrs. Harry, 40 Dale St., Boston. 

Allen, N. T., West Newton. 

Allen, Mrs. N. T., West Newton. 

Allen, Miss S. C, West Newton. 

Allen, Rosa, West Newton. 

Ames, Charles H., 7 Park St., Boston. 

Andrews, O. A.. Milton. 

Anthony, Mrs. H. J.. Rockland. 

Austin, W. R., Salem. 

Austin, Mrs. W. R., Salem. 

Avery, W. H., Harvey St., Boston. 

Ayres, W. M., 64 Pine St., Danvers. 

Babcock, Miss S. O., Quincy. 

Baily, Sidney E., Walpole. 

Baker, O. M., Springfield. 

Batchelder, Miss B. F., Lowell. 

Bell, Geo. ()., North Woburn. 

Bicknell, Mrs. T. W., 16 Hawley St., 

Boston. 
Blum, A., 110 Washington St., Boston. 
Bodwell, Mrs. A. E., 44 High Rock St., 

Lynn. 
Bohnsedt, Theodora, 47 Revere St., 

Boston. 
Bohnsedt Mrs. E. A., 47 Revere St., 

Boston. 
Boutelle. H. N., Athol. 
Boutelle, Mrs, H. F., Athol. 
Bowers, W. H., Boston. 



Bowers, Mrs. W. IL, Boston. 

Boyden, A. G., Normal School, Bridge- 
water. 

Boylston, Clarence, Milton. 

Boylston, Mrs. Clarence. Milton. 

Boynton, E. P., Cambridge. 

Boynton, Mrs. E. P., Cambridge. 

Brackett, Walter F., Nor. Art School, 
Boston. 

Bradley, Anna M., North Andover. 

Brigham. Helen F., 293 Columbus Ave., 
Boston. 

Brigham, Mary M., 293 Columbus Ave., 
Boston. 

Brown, Catherine T., Eiast Somerville. 

Bruce, D. R., 085 Tremont St., Boston. 

Bunker, Alfred, Quincy School, Boston. 

Bunker, Lizzie D., Readville. 

Burr, N. H.,97 Hillburn St., New Bed- 
ford. 

Burrill, Abby, 16 Hanover St., Lynn. 

Butler, Miss M. E., Ipswich. 

Callahan, Julia F., Lynn. 

Carpenter, Miss E. F., 104 West Cheater 
Park, Boston. 

Carrigan, E. C, care Ben. F. Butler, 
Boston. 

Casey, Miss A. FJ., Boston. 

Chaffln, Kate, Fitchburg. 

Chapman, Kate M., II Stony St., Cam- 
bridge. 

Chase, H. L., Lynn. 

Chase, Mrj«. H. L., Lynn. 



•Deceased. 



ANNUAL MEMBER8UIPS. 



45 



Chaae, W. O., Boston Herald, Boston. 

Chase, L. M., 16 Woodville Sq., Boston. 

CUoate, Alden, 8 Mason St., Lynn. 

Clark, Minnie C, 53 Chambers St., Bos- 
ton. 

Clark, Miss A. P., Winchester. 

Clark, Mrs. Abbie A., 20 Parker St., 
Charlestown Dist., Boston. 

Clark, Wilraer B.. 20 Parker St., 
Charlestow^n Dist., Boston. 

C«lbT, E. C, Lawrence. 

Converse, Mrs. S. E., Winchendon. 

Crozier, Annie M., 223 Main St., Boston. 

Crozier, Thomas, 223 Main St., Boston. 

Cndworth, Miss A. M., East Boston. 

Cuniniings, Geo. J., Manson. 

Damon. Wealthy C, North Marshfield. 

Dana, Mrs. Major, 62 Brattle St., Cam- 
bridge. 

Dana, R. S., Boston. 

Danforth, A. W., 68 Thornton St., Bos- 
ton. 

Davis, M. F., 115 Central St., Lowell. 

Davis, Alice, 40 Rock St., Lowell. 

Day, Jessie A., Woburn. 

Deane, A. B., 22 High St., Fall River. 

Dearborn, H. A.. College Hill. 

Dearborn, Mrs. H. A., College Hill. 

Deiter, F. J., Martin St., Boston. 

DeMeritt, Bernice A., 127 Saratoga St., 
Boston. 

Dewar, Robert, Easthampton. 

Dickinson, J. W., Sec. Board Education, 
Boston. 

Doane, Mrs. M. F., West Newton. 

Dodge, Eliza S., 9 Baltimore St., Lynn, 

Dodge, Lydia C, 9 Baltimore St., Lynn. 

Donaldson, Miss M. S., Brockton. 

Dorr, Moses, 30 Commerce St., Boston. 

Driver, Miss M., Rockland. 

Drown, Miss E. R., 127 Saratoga St., 
Boston. 

Dmmells, Mrs. L., Boston. 

Duncan, Miss M. E., Mattapan Station. 

Dunton, Larkin, Normal School, Asford 
St., Boston. 

Dntton, Miss S. A., 23 Mt. Pleasant Ave., 
Boston. 

Earl, Henry H., Fall River. 

Earl, Newton R., Fall River. 

Edwards, Miss A. C, South lladley. 

Elder, Ella C, Florence. 

Fairbanks, J. W., Easthampton. 

Fay, Miss E. A., 15 Joy St , Boston. 

Fein Mrs. L., 70 Kendall St., Boston. 

Fitton, Marion E., North Easton. 

Fox, F. C, 685 Tremont St., Boston. 

Fox, Mrs. A. S., 685 Tremont St., 

Boston. 
French, Miss S. W., Quincy. 

French, Miss N. W., Quincy. 

Frost, Miss F. E., Waltham. 

Fuller, Sarah, School for Deaf Mutes, 
Warrenton St., Boston. 



Gannett, Rev. George, Chester Square, 
Boston. 

Gannett, Mrs. George, Boston. 

Gardner, Rebecca, New Bedford. 

Gay, Helen L., Easton. 

Gilsleeve, W. H., Hingham. 

Gleason, Miss E. L. , Dorchester, Boston. 

Gleason, J. C, Rockland. 

Gleason, Mrs. J. C, Rockland. 

GUdden, Miss M. E., 3 Franklin St., Ne- 
ponset. 

Gk>odman, W., East Boston. 

Goodman, Mrs. W., East Boston. 

Gookin, Miss L., Lowell. 

Gookin, Mrs. D., Lowell. 

Gouchcr, Ida M. , Southwick. 

Gramer, E. D., 70 Kendall St., Boston. 

Gramer, Mrs. T., 70 Kendall St., Boston. 

Guernsey, E. A., Amherst. 

Gutterson, Annie M., 510 Western Ave., 
Lynn. 

Gutterson, Miss E. C, 510 Western Ave., 
Lynn. 

Hall, Grace, Westfleld. 

Hallowell, Miss H. T., Milton. 

Hallowell, Susan M.. Wellesley. 

Hanson, Martha, Maiden. 

Haven. Caroline T., 16 Walnut St., 
Worcester. 

Hawes, Martha, East Weymouth. 

Hawley, M. L.. Gloucester. 

Hayes, S. H.. Boston. 

Hayes, Mrs. S. H., Boston. 

Hayes, S. M., Hyde Park. 

Hay ward, Miss L. A., Boston. 

Hazeltine, Miss C. H., 18 Trowbridge 
St., Cambridge. 

Heath, Miss G. L., Wakefield. 

Herrick, J. W., Matfield. 

Herrick, Mrs. S. W., Matfield. 

Hewes, W. O., 90 Summer St., Boston. 

Hicks, Mrs. Mary D., 62 Brattle St., 
Cambridge. 

Higgins, K. C, 154 West St., Worces- 
ter. 

Higgins, M. P., 154 West St., Worces- 
ter. 

Higgins, W. D., Boston. 

Hill, Chas. W., 35 Circuit St., Roxbury. 

Hill, Mrs. C. W., 35 Circuit St., Roxbury. 

Holt, Mrs. H. E., Lexington. 

Hopkins, A. H., Boston. 

Hopkins, Mrs. L. P., New Bedford. 

Hovey, Laura E., Dorchester Station, 
Boston. 

Hunt, C. L., Winchendon. 

Kellogg, Mrs. E. D., Ill Pembroke St., 
Boston. 

King, C. F., Lewis School, Boston. 

Knox, Miss G. M., Waltham. 

Lamb, Mary C, Holyoke. 

Lancaster, E. M., Hyde Park. 

Lang, Jr., Thomas, Maiden. 

Learoyd, Amy A., Dan vers. 



46 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



Lincoln, H. H., 247 Webster St , East 
Boston. 

Lincoln, Leltie L., North Easton. 

Lincoln, Jennie C, Abington. 

Locke, Mrs. Abby, Boston. 

Longee, A. L., Salem. 

Lord, Miss A. L., Ipswich. 

Ludd, Marion F., New Eng. Hospital, 
Boston. 

Macmurthy, Miss F. W., Salem. 

Mason, Luther W., care Ginn, Heath & 
Co., Boston. 

Matchett, Clara E., 23 Bigelow St., Cam- 
bridge. 

Mayo. Rev. A. D., IGHawleySt., Bos- 
ton. 

McLeod, W. A., 105 Princeton St., East 
Boston. 

MoMaster, Carrie E., Fitchburg. 

Merritt, Parker, Hyde Park. 

Mcserve, C. F., Rockland. 

Meyer, Mrs. H. L., Boston. 

Millard, H. Augusta, Newtonville. 

Miller, Miss M., Boston. 

Mills, George F., Williamstown. 

Moody, H. E., Haverhill. 

Moore, Miss R. L., 100 Chatham St., 
Worcester. 

Morrill, Charles, Lowell. 

Morris, C. W., 232 Beacon St., Boston. 

Morris, Mrs. C. W., 232 Beacon St., 
Boston. 

Morrison, James, 41 Portland St.,Bo8ton. 

Morrison, Lizzie, 18 Avon St., Cambridge. 

Morse, Louis, Roxbury. 

Morse, Mrs. Louis, Roxbury. 

Morse, C. H., North Andover. 

Morton, Alex. A., Wakefield. 

Morton, Miss E. J., Hatfield. 

Mott, Miss C. F., Swampscott. 

Moulton, L. Laura, 723 E. 8th St., South 
Boston. 

Mowry, Wm. A , 16 Hawley St., Boston. 

Mowry, Mrs. Wm. A., 16 Hawley St., 
Boston. 

Munsell, A. H., Boston. 

Murdock, C, Wakefield 

Murdock, Mrs. C, Wakefield. 

Murray, Mrs. Julia C, 2 Akron PI., Rox- 
bury Div., Boston. 

Murray, Miss P. C, 2 Akron PL, Rox- 
bury Div., Boston. 

Newcomb, Miss E. A., Quincy 

Newell, Miss C. A., Elliott Sch., Boston. 

Newhall, Mrs. F. H., East Saugus. 

Nichols, Wm. F., Rockland. 

Nickles, Delle, Lawrence. 

Noyes, Minna B., Peabody. 
% Nye, Miss A. A., Lynn. 

Nye, Miss A. F., Boston. 

Nye, Miss S. P., Lynn. 

Orcutt, Hiram, 16 Hawley St., Boston. 

Orcutt, Mrs. E. L , Boston. 

Orcutt, Mrs. L. A., Boston. 



Orcutt, Wm. D., Boston. 

Ordway, JohnM., Inst, of Technology, 
Boston. 

Ordway, Mrs. John M., Boston. 

Osgood, J., Cohasset. 

Paige, J. S., Athol. 

Paige, Mrs. J. S., Athol. 

Page, Mrs. L. A., Townsend. 

Page, Miss J., 'Boston. 

Page, Miss N. A., Townsend. 

Page, W. A., Townsend. 

Parkhurst, Miss H. M., Waltham. 

Perkins, Priscilla, Plymouth. 

Perkins, J. F., 48 South St., Medford. 

Perry, Miss S. F., 23 Pinckney St., Bos- 
ton. 

Perry, Walter S. , 35 West St., Worcester. 

Perry, Mrs. Walter S., 35 West St., 
Worcester. 

Phinney, S. E , 3 Lander St., Lynn. 

Pierce, Miss A., Chelsea. 

Pierce, Miss E. A., Waltham. 

Pillsbury, J. H., Smith College, North- 
ampton. 

Pitts, Mrs. E., Leominster. 

Poole, J. B., Rockland. 

Potter, A. S., 99 Summer St., Boston. 

Pratt, Sarah E., East Soraerville. 

Pray, Miss S. E., Boston. 

Rafter, A. L., 604 Tremont St., Boston. 

Reed, Adelaide, East Somerville. 

Rhodes, Miss S. L., Boston. 

Rich, Ruth G., 8 Midland St., Dorches- 
ter Dist., Boston. 

Bobbins, Clara, 223 Webster St., Boston. 

Robie, Miss G. W., Boston. 

Robinson, Mary, 32 Franklin St., Lynn. 

Rollins, Charlotte A., 25 Princeton Sl, 
East Boston. 

Rugg, Chas. P., New Bedford. 

Rugg, Mrs. C. P., New Bedford. 

Rugg, Miss L. S., New Bedford. 

Russell, Miss E. F., Boston. 

Sanborn, J. O., Ilingham. 

Sanderson, Miss J. A., Boston. 

Sawin, Henry C, Newton. 

Sawin, Mrs. Henry C, Newton. 

Sawyer, Rufus, Mi^dford. 

Scribner, Miss C. A., 484 Columbus Av., 
Boston. 

Sevrens, Amanda, North Woburn. 

Shedd, Miss F. L., Roxbury. 

Smith, Miss L. E., Chelsea. 

Smith, Miss W. F., Woburn. 

Smith, H. Porter, Franklin St, Boston. 

Smith, Mrs. J. E., Rockland. 

Snell, A. L., Lawrence. 

Somerly, C. A., Maiden. 

Spencer, Miss A., Chelsea. 

Spuoner, E. P^, North Easton. 

Stanton, Louis C, Newton. 

Stevens, J., North Andover. 

Stickney, Edward, Chelsea. 

Stratton, W. E., Lowell. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS. 



47 



Streeter. Clara, Brockton. 

Stuart, Miss M. E., Boston. 

Swasey, Ctara, Bererlv. 

Swasey, C. T., 19 Hall St., Beverly. 

Swasey, George, Beverly. 

Taylor, Miss A. B., 31 Summer St., 

Salem. 
Tewk^bury, J. G., 238 Devonshire St., 

Boston. 
Tewksbury, Mrs. J. G., 238 Devonshire 

St. , Boston. 
Tewksbury, E. G., 238 Devonshire St., 

Boston. 
Thing, Addie L., 9 Cherry St., Lynn. 
Todd, Miss M. A., Lynn. 
Todd, Nelson, Lynn. 
Tozier, Carrie , Concord. 
Tyler, Fred, Hjrde Park. 
Ufford, Chas. A., 43 West St., Boston. 
Voorhie!^, Mrs. C. C, Cambridge. 
Waite, H. U., 30 Franklin §t., Boston. 
Walton, G. A., Newton. 
Ward, Mrs. S. E., Hyde Park. 
Ware, Mrs. A. F., Cambridgeport. 
Ware, Wesley, Cambridgeport. 



Warren, L. F., West Newton. 

Warren, Mrs. L. F., West Newton. 

Waterman, Dr W. W.» Taunton. 

Webster, C. E., 188 Boylston St., Boston. 

Weis, Frank M., 40 Belmont St., Bos- 
ton. 

Wentworth, Mrs. F. G., Hamilton. 

Wetherbee, Miss S. A., Ellsworth, Mid- 
dlesex Co. 

Weyman, M. T., Worcester. 

Wheeler, Mrs. M. G., Woburn. 

White, M. P., 484 Columbus Ave., Boston. 

White, Mrs. L. B., 484 Columbus Ave., 
Boston. 

White, MissL. B., 484 Columbus Ave., 
Boston. 

Wilcox, Julia E., Dalton. 

Willard, Carrie L., Leominster. 

Willard, Charlotte K., Auburndale. 

Willard, Miss K. S., Auburndale. 

Williams, O. S., Haverhill. 

Wilson, Charles B., Rockland. 

Wiswa'l, Anna, Sc^arle Ave., Brookline. 

Wiswall, Emma, Brookline. 



MICHIGAN. 



Anderson, Mary J., 3 Frelinghuysen 

Ave., Battle Creek. 
Bamhardt, Irving W., Flint. 
Bellows, C. F. R., Ypsilanti. 
Bronson, T. B., Orchard Lake. 
Cady, Theresa, Ypsilanti. 
Campbell, Nancy, Grand Rapids. 
Cannon, G. N., Union City. 
Carman, C. W., 5 N. Ingalls St., Ann 

Arbor. 
Church, E. P., Greenville. 
Coe, F. H., Menomonee. 
Collins, M. P., Homer. 
Cook, Webster, Manistee. 
Cox, W. J., Lake Superior, Calumet. 
Douglass, C. H. J., Ann Arbor. 
Ellis, Geo. N., Olivet College, Olivet. 
Endres, Eda, Ypsilanti. 
Enfield, Mrs. Susie C, Calumet. 
Ewing, J. T., Petoskey. 
Ewing. J. W. Ionia. 
Fairfield, E. B., Grand Haven. 
Field, Abbie, Grand Rapids. 
Field, Emma. Grand Rapids. 
Gaige, F. S., Concord. 
Gass, Hershell R., Lansing. 
Gidley, E. B., Ann Arbor. 
Gidley, Minnie, Ann Arbor. 
Green, Caddie, Ionia. 
Halsey, Le Roy. Battle Creek. 
Hamilton. Victoria, Ontonagon. 
Hayes, Ella M., Charlotte. 
Hitchcock, Carrie B., Union. 
Houseman. C. L., Muskegon. 



House, Susie, Menomonee. 
Howell, Prof. D., Lansing. 
Hull, L. C, High Sch. Building, Detroit. 
Jones, M. Louise, Charlotte. 
>Love, Sarah, Hart. 
Lowell, Miss A., Grand Rapids. 
McDonald, Anna E., 19 Orleans St., Ann 

Arbor. 
McDonald. Flora, 19 Orleans St., Ann 

Arbor. 
McKenzie, Miss J. K., 276 Third St., 

Detroit. 
McLouth, Lewis. Ypsilanti. 
Merriam, C L., Escanawba. 
Merriara, Mrs. H. B.. Escanawba. 
Mitchdl, I. N., Grand Rapids. 
Nichols, B. E., Ann Arbor. 
Norcross, Mrs. S. L., Union. 
Norcross, F. V., Union. 
Pattengill, H. R., Grand Rapids. 
Payne, W. H., University of Mich., Ann 

Arbor. 
Perry, W. S. 65 Washington St., Ann 

Arbor. 
Ransome, W. E., Stanton. 
Rice, Carrie M. 693 Jefferson St., Grand 

Rapids. 
Seibly, Emma, Lansing. 
Sill, J. M. B., Supt. of Schools, Detroit. 
Slauson, H. M., Houghton. 
Snyder, W. L., 276 Adams St., Grand 

Rapids. 
Spencer, Z. C, Battle Creek. 
Stewart, J. A., Monroe. 



48 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



Tait, E. C, Menomonee. 
Talbot, Ada E., Bay City. 
Taylor, Harriet L., Manistee. 
Thomas, C. B., Saginaw. 
Thompson, Jennie A., Bay City. 
Thompson, O. D., Romeo. 
Tibbals, Will. H., Escanawba. 
Voigt, Miss C. L., G95 St. Auburn Atc., 

Detroit. 
Volland, A. J., Ypsilanti. 



Volland, Mrs. A. J., Ypsilanti. 

Warman, Prof. E. B., Detroit. 

Wean, Frank L., Alpena. 

Webb, J. Russell, St. Joseph. 

Welch, Mrs. J. M., 840 Fort St., W. 

Detroit. 
Willetts, Edwin, Ypsilanti. 
Willett8,Mrs. Edwin, Ypsilanti. 
Whitney, Harlan K., Battle Creek. 
Yutema, D. B., St. Johns. 



MINNESOTA. 



Akers, Mrs. C. N., Red Wing. 

Allen, F. S., Winona. 

Ames, Martha, Reed's Landing. 

Ayer, Miss M. L., Redwood Falls. 

Bargen, J. J., Mankato. 

Beede, James R., Howard Lake. 

Beede, Mrs. AUie S., Howard Lake. 

Bingham, Kitty J., Northfleld. 

Black man, Lethe L., Winona. 

Blackman. Miss C. W. A., 286 Norris St., 
St. Paul. 

Bond, J. D., 137 W. 6th St., St. Paul. 

Bosworth, Inez, 332 14th St, S. Minne- 
apolis. 

Bradh^y, M. C.,406 5th St., S. Minne- 
apolis. 

Brady, John, Preston. 

Brady, P. H., Preston. 

Brown, Josie, Stillwater. 

Bryant, Rose A., Even Prairie, Hennepin 
Co. 

Buck, B. F,, Wadena. 

Burton. Mrs. C, 1707 Laurel Ave.. 
Minneapolis. 

Burton, Miss Georgie, 1707 Laurel Are., 
Minneapolis. 

Cameron, D. C. La Crescent. 

Cameron, Mrs. D. C, La Crescent. 

Campbell, Ella B., Rochester. 

Clinch, A. B., Anoka. 

Clinton, C. W., Faribault. 

Cook, F. L., Rochester. 

Currie, FmmaE., Stillwater. 

Curtice, C. C. , Cor. Nicolette Ave. and 
5th St., Minneapolis. 

Curtis, V. G., Stillwater. 

Dawley, Daniel, Smithfield. 

Dick, Clarence F., Dakota. 

Dick, Emma, Anoka. 

Dieter, Fanny B., Rochester. 

Dodge, Vienna, Winona. 

Donaldson, Ella, Winona. 

Donovan, Mrs. Hattie R., Winona. 

Dresser, Fannette, Owatonna. 

Elmer, Frances A., 18 West 5th St., 
Winona. 

Engstrone, A. E., Cannon Falls. 

Fiske, F. W., St. Paul. 



Fockens, Anna C, Huflf St., Winona. 

Folwell, Wm. W., Prest. College, Minne- 
apolis. 

Foster, S. A., Plainview. 

Freeman, W. W. Anoka. 

Freeman, Mrs. N. N., Anoka. 

French, Fanny G., Wabasha. 

Gilbert, C. B., St. Paul. 

Goodhue, Jr., H., Northfleld. 

Graves, Maud, Adrian. 

Gray, T. J., St. Cloud. 

Gray, Mrs. T. J., St. Cloud. 

Greene, Agnes, Stillwater. 

Grover, Naney E., Zumbrota. 

Hamlin, Conde, Winona. 

Hand, Laura, St. Paul. 

Hanscome, C. M., 916 N. 4th St., Minne- 
apolis. 

Hartley, T. B., Waseca. 

Hathaway, B. T., 41 Washington St, 
Minneapolis. 

Holden, Eleanor E., 1155 W. 7th St. 
St. Paul. 

Hoverstwlt, Berith, Holden. 

Hovey, E. O., Minneapolis. 

Hubbard, F. V., Redwood Falls. 

Jenness, Mrs. M. E., St. Paul. 

Jones, Myra C, 1126 First Ave., S. 
Minnes polls. 

Kelsey, Ella, Anoka. 

Riehle, D. L., State Supt Schools, 
Minnt>apnlis. 

Kiehle, Ada M., Minneapolis. 

King, Ella P., Anoka. 

Kirk, T. H., Winona. 

Knerr, B. F., 1816 Portland Ave., Minne- 
apolis. 

Kunze, Lizzie F., Winona. 

Laughlin, Ada, 144 E. 1 1th St, St. Panl. 

Leafing, Edward, Mankato. 

Lillian, Mrs. S. T., New Vernon. 

Long, Lily A., 443 Carroll St, St Paul. 

Lord, L. C, St Peter. 

Macomber, Carrie M., Cambridge. 

McCleary, J. T., Mankato. 

McDonald, Mary, Portage. 

McGlauflin, Ida, Cambridge. 

Mead, Mrs. Irwin, Winona. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS, 



49 



Mitchell » Ada L., Winona. 

Molyneaux, F. A., Winnebago Citj. 

Moore, J. G., University Ave., Minne- 
apolis. 

Moore, Mrs. L. A., Mankato. 

Morton, Miss L. H., 520 Fourth St., S. 
£. Minneapolis. 

Muffley, S., Delano. 

Nelson, N. L. T., Vasa. 

Nerhottgen, Lida, Zambrota. 

Noyes, J. L., Faribault. 

Parr, S. S., 127 E. 8th St., St. Paul. 

Patten, Miss A., 178 E. 14th St., St. Paul. 

Perley, Mrs. Geo., Moorhead. 

Reynolds, B. M., Fergus Falls. 

Kiue, Daniel, 808 Sixth Ave., S. Minne- 
apolis. 

Richardson, Mrs. Harris, St. Paul. 

Richardson, Clara, Elgin. 

Richardson, Sylvia, Elgin. 

Robinson, S. K., Viola. 

Rocheleau W. F., Sauk Centre. 

Rogers, Jennie, St. Paul. 

Rollerson, O. J., Wedal. 

Rollit, Miss H., 1614 Fourth St., S. E. 
Minneapolis. 

Salisbury, A. H., 27 Highland St, Minne- 
apolis. 

Salisbory, Mrs. A. H., 27 Highland St., 
Minneapolis. 

Searles, Anna, Elgin. 

Semple, Oliver C, Rochester. 



Shepard, E. R., 818 Nicolette Ave., Min- 
neapolis. 

Shepard, Irwin, Normal School, Winona. 

Bhewmake, Emma, Winona. 

Shryock, D., 1511 Eighth Ave., 8. Minne- 
apolis. 

Sias, Mrs. S. M., 1628 California St., 
Minneapolis. 

Smedley, Jennie A., Stillwater. 

Smith, George C, 557 Broadway, St. 
Paul. 

Smith, Carrie V., Box 44, Winona. 

Smith, C W., Minneapolis. 

Southroayd, C. E., Carman. 

Stanford, Alma B., Fergus Falls. 

Stanton, G. U., Northfield. 

Stebbins, Miss Althea, Winona. 

Steward, Darius, Mankato. 

Strong, J. W., Northfield. 

Taylor, E. M., 701 Fifteenth Ave., S. E. 
Minneapolis. 

Taylor, S. S., Sherborn Ave., St. Paul. 

Thompson, W. H. , Duluth. 

Todd, Lottie R., 1916 Hawthorn Ave., 
Minneapolis. 

Walker, Julia W., Stillwater. 

Warren, W. J., 822 First Ave., S. Min- 
neapolis. 

Wilson, F. T., Stillwater. 

Wright, Anna V., Rice School, St. Paul. 

Wriglit, Lizzie, Monroe School, St. Paul. 

Wright, B. F., St. Paul. 



MISSISSIPPI. 



Dickey, Sarah A., Clinton. 
Lipscomb, Dabney, Agricultural College. 
Lusk, Miss A. T., Cotno Depot. 
Miller, E. D.. Holly Springs. 



Preston, J. R., Water Valley. 
Rainwater, J. A., Sardis. 
Smith, J. A., Jackson. 



MISSOURI. 



Barnard, J. N., Kirksville. 
Barnard, Mrs. J. N., Kirksville. 
Blanton, J. P., Kirksville. 
Barton, Mrs. Mollie, Kirksville. 
Carrington, M T., Jefferson City. 
Chase, Jennie, Kansas City. 
Christian, M. D., Paris, Monroe Co. 
Colcord, Saidee, 2800 Morgan St., St. 

Louis. 
Cotty, Dora, Knox City. 
Curtiss, E. E., Kansas City. 
Dinsmore, Silas, Kirksville. 
Fisher, Lena, Fulton. 
Foster, Benj. R., Cor. Sixteenth and 

Pine Sts., St. Louis. 
Goebel, Laura A., St. Charles. 
Goodlett, M. C, St. Charles. 
Greenwood, J. M., SnpU of Schools, 

Kansas City. 



Handly, J. L., Palmyra. 

Holden, L. S., 11 North Seventh St., St. 

Louis. 
Holden, Mrs. Addie A., 11 North Seventh 

St , St. Louis 
Krall, G. M., Washington University, 

St. Louis. 
Locke, Josephine C, Board of Education, 

St. Louis. 
Long, E. H., Seventh and Chestnut Sts., 

St. Louis. 
Mason, W. P., Kirksville. 
McMillan, Mrs. L. E., Greenfield. 
Mugan, M. D., St. Louis. 
Murphy, Geo. T., Supt. Public Schools, 

St. Louis. 
Osborne, Mrs. S. V., Warrenburg. 
Osborne, Geo. L., Warrenburg. 
Powell, Mary, St. Charles. 



50 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



Smith, George W., Washington. 

Tedford, Addie W., Savannah, Andrew 
Co. 

Tharp, F. D., North Wabash Ave., Kan- 
sas City. 

Thomas, Wm.L., 605 Chestnut St., St. 
Louis. 

Thompson, Ben., 11 North Seventh St., 
St. Louis. 

Tracy, S. M., Columbia. 



Vaughn, W. H., 731 Morgan St., St. 
Louis. 

Vickroy, W. R., 2713 Dayton St., St. 
Louis. 

White, E. C, Kansas City. 

White, C. F., St. Louis. 

Woodward, C. M., St. Louis. 

Yates, W. W., 1102 Chestnut St, Kan- 
sas City. 



MONTANA TERRITORY. 



Earle, Mary, Diamond City. 
Engelhorn, H. T., Helena. 



Nichols, Alice S., White Sulphur Springs. 



NEBRASKA. 



Alger, Addie, Lincoln. 

Armor, E. E., York. 

Austin, Ellen M., Wisner. 

Barber, G. E., Lincoln. 

Barr, J. Frank, Denton. 

Blake, H. N., Beatrice. 

Blake, Mrs. H. N., Beatrice. 

Bostwick, Jennie, North Platte. 

Bowers, H. S., 946 E St., Lincoln. 

Caldwell, Mrs. Carrie, Grand Island. 

Clelland, Effie, North Platte. 

Farnham, Geo. L., State Normal School, 

Peru. 
Farnham, Mrs. Mary A., Peru. 
Gillespie, J. A., Omaha. 
Gillespie. Mrs. J. A., Principal N. Inst., 

Omaha. 
Goodrich, Emma E., Grand Island. 
Grant, U. L., State Normal School, Pern. 
Hawthorn, L. D., York. 
Hewett, Kate L., Hastings. 



Ingalls, C. C, Hastings. 
Ingalls, Mrs. G., Hastings. 
James, Mrs. H. M., Omaha, 
Johnson, Isaac, 403 G St., Lincoln. 
Jones, W. P., Normal College, Tremont. 
Jones, W. W. W., Lincoln. 
Knapp, Anna, York. 
. Link, Claire F., 1420 K St., Lincoln, 
Mercer, J. W., Harvard. 
Miles, F. W.,DeWitt. 
Moncrief, J. E., Columbus. 
Morton, Maggie, Beatrice. 
Mosher, Lindie, Beatrice. 
Pearse, C. G., Wilbur. 
Riggs, Alfred L., Santee Agency. 
Roe, A. Z., York. 
Sandford, J. A., Lincoln. 
Stauffer, A., Ayr, Adams Co. 
Thompson, S. R., Lincoln. 
Weber, Caroline, Niobrara, Knox Co. 



Young, C. S., Carson City. 



NEVADA. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE- 



Bean, R. E., Franklin. 

Blodgett, Kate P., 95 School St., Con- 
cord. 

Bowen, Mrs. Paulinp L., 16 S. State St., 
Concord. 

Bower, Maria N., 1602 Elm St., Man- 
chester. 

Brooks, Gertrude H., Manchester. 

Brown, Mrs. Sarah M., Dover. 

Burbank, Miss L. A. , Concord. 

Bussell, Anna E., Nashua. 



Churchill, S., Nashua. 
Churchill, Mrs. S., Nashua. 
Churchill, C. E., Nashua. 
Connor, Miss E. F., Henniker. 
Dane, Eliza S., Dover. 
Dearborn, Cora, Manchester. 
Drew, Carrie B., Dover. 
Fitz, Elizabeth H., Chester. 
Fitz, Josie, Chester. 

Flagg, Lizzie M., 4 Miller Ave., Ports- 
mouth. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS, 



61 



Folger, Ellen A., Concord. 

Fox, P. E., Marlow. 

Fox, Mrs. P. E., Marlow. 

Gage, Bessie M., 84 Pleasant St„ Con- 

cord. 
Crage, Mary, 84 Pleasant St., Concord. 
Haley, Clara A., Exeter. 
Harvey, Mrs. S. S., Manchester. 
Hathom, Miss C. S., Nashna. 
Hayes, Mattie M., Manchester. 
Haynea, Louisa H., 27 Atkinson St., 

Dover. 
Hazeldne, Miss M. A., Plaiston. 
Hazeltine, Mrs. M. E., Plaiston. 
Herbert, Miss A. J., Concord. 
Hoffman, J. H., Henniker. 
Jefts, Miss M. P., Drews ville. 
Jefts, Mrs. E., Drewsville. 
Jenness, Miss S. A., North Wakefield. 
Keith, Wm. E., Franklin. 
Kelly, J. L., Franklin. 
Kelly, Mrs. J. L., Frnnklin. 
Lane, F. K., Manchester. 
Lay ton, Juhn F., Franklin. 
Leach, Agnes A., Franklin Falls. 



Leach, E. G., Franklin Falls. 

Leighton, Mrs. J. F., Frrtnklin. 

Locke, Izetta S., Manchester. 

McAfee, Lizzie M., Concord. 

Payne, E, B., Minchesier. 

Perkins, Hattie F., Marlow. 

Pickering, Amanda, Portsmouth. 

Prescott, Mrs. A. S., Franklin. 

Robinson, W. A., Franklin Falls. 

Robinson, Mrs. W. A., Franklin Falls. 

Ryder, B. C, Manchester. 

Sanborn, Miss M. W., Hampton. 

Sears, Mrs. L., Manchester. 

Small, Emma A., 95 School St., Con- 
cord. 

Stevens, Olive J., Manchester. 

Taylor, Mrs. J. L., Whitefield. 

Thompson, Annie L., Manchester. 

Veckford, Hattie J., Dover. 

Waterman, Jessie L., Dover. 

Whittle, Mrs. J. A., Manchester. 

Wilson, Mrs. Julia C, cor Bridge and 
Pine Sts., Manchester. 

Woodman, Nettie C, Manchester. 

Woodman, Susie G., Manchester. 



NlWr JERSEY. 



Ball, W. P., Irvington. 

Barringer, W. N., Supt. Schools, New- 
ark. 

Barry, Will H., Paterson. 

Bishop, Mrs. J. T., New Brunswick. 

Braun. Miss L. E., 127 Livingston St., 
Elizabeth. 

Braun, Miss S. M. 127 Livingston St., 
Elizabeth. 

Bnlkley, Miss J. E., Plainfield. 

Campbell, W. A., Prin. High School, 
Hoboken. 

Canniff, Amelia, Caldwell. 

Clark, Miss M. A., 53 W. Jersey St., 
Elizabeth. 

Clark, Jennie, 53 W. Jersey St., Eliza- 
beth. 

Clark, Joseph, Newark. 

Clement, R. E., Roselle. 

Dix, J. Aug^iBtus, Elizabeth. 

Eckersley, W., Long Branch. 

Fawcett, Miss S. A., 39 Lombardy Place, 
Newark. 

Foster, Lambert, Plainfield. 

Giffin, Wm. H., Lawrence St. Sch., New- 
ark. 



Gile, Miss M. M., East Orange. 
Green, J. M., Long Branch. 
Heineken, W. L., Sykesville. 
Lewis, Mrs. Sarah E.. Rahway. 
Luster, Josie, 28 Prospect St., Elizabeth. 
Milligan, Wm., Woodbury. 
Morris, Wm. B., Montclair. 
Mulford, Miss S. P., 81 W. Grand St., 

Elizabeth. 
Pease, N. W., 31 Morrel St., Elizabeth. 
Potter, E. G., Summit. 
Quick, Mrs. J. E., New Brunswick. 
Reed, Laura, Orange. 
Riley, Miss S. M., Bridgeton. 
Rockwood, F. C, Bridgeton. 
Runyon, David R. , Springfield. 
Runyon, Mrs. S. D., Springfield. 
Shotwell, Mrs. A. V., Rahway. 
Stimers, Imogene, Caldwell. 
Stimets, Chas., Hasbrouck Inst., Jersey 

City. 
Stockton, Linda, Burlington. 
Taylor, T. F., Orange. 
Taylor, Mrs. T. F., Orange. 



NEW YORK. 



Allen, Jerome, 25 Clinton Place, New 

York. 
Anderson, Anna, 105 State St., Albany. 
Atkins, Miss H. A., Mariner's Harbor. 
Ayer, Ada, Albany. 



Bardeen, C. W., Syracuse. 
Beattie, David, Supt. Schools, Troy. 
Beattie, Rev. Chas., Middlctown. 
Boehme, Herman C, Fordham, New 
York. 



52 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



Brigfifg, Miss I. L., New- York. 

Bristol, E. N., 29 W. 23(1 St., New York. 

Brown, C. W., 6 Bond St., New York. 

Calkins, Ella, 124 East 80th St., New 
York. 

Coley, Sarah E., 360 W. 19th St., New 
York. 

Comings, Fannie S., 854 9th St., Brook- 
lyn. 

Cornell, Miss M. C, 416 E. 5l8t St., New 
York. 

Crafts, Kev. W. F., 106 E. 8l8t St., New 
York. 

Crafts, Mrs. W. F., 106 E. Slst St., New 
York. 

Crannell, Euretta, 206 Hudson Ave., Al- 
bany. 

Cristy, Miss A., 17 Wood Place, Yonkera. 

Curry, Ellen, Teekskill. 

Davey, Edward, Medina. 

Davis, Mary R., 181 Lexington Ave., 
New York. 

Davison, Jr., Henry J., Mabbettsville, 
Dutchess Co. 

Dixon, Geo. E., Cohoes. 

Dodd, Maggie £., 234 S. 9th St., Brook- 
lyn, E. D. 

Donaldson, Miss M. E., 329 £. 19ih St., 
New York. 

Drew, Delos P., 237 W. 14th St., New 
York. 

Eagan, Mary, 1 18 Madison St., Brooklyn. 

Eager, Annie E., 104 E. 85th St., New 
York. 

Ellis, S. A., Supt. of Schools, Rochester. 

Elting, Miss M. E., 151 E. 5l8t St., New 
York. 

Enders, Rev. J. Henry, 9 Pearl St., Al- 
bany. 

Evans, Barbara, 356 W. 16th St., New 
York. 

Evans, Mary A., 305 East 18th St., New 
York. 

Farr, D C, Glens Falls. 

Fitch, Dr. Wm., Dryden. 

Garnet, Mrs. Sarah J. S., 175 MacDou- 
gal St., New York. 

Gifford, Miss M. W., 416 East 5l8t 
St., New York. 

Gorton, Mrs. J. I., Sing Sing. 

Gorton, Carrie R., Sing Sing. 

Graham, Mary, 422 Clermont Ave., 
Brooklyn. 

Greene, Irene A., 70 Rodney St., Brook- 
lyn. 

Greene, Rebecca L., 70 Rodney St., 
Brooklyn. 

Griffin, Miss F. A., 115 East 12th St., 
New York. 

Hailes, T. C, Albany. 

Hailes,Mrs. T. C, Albany. 

Haines, Mrs. F. £. H., 23 Center St., 
New York. 

Haines, Francis H., 28 Center St., New 
York. 



Hall, Caleb G., New Berlin. 

Hall, Henry H., 358 Clinton St., Brook- 
lyn. 

Hamilton, C. Warren, East New York, 
Kings Co. 

Hanaway, Emily S., 257 West 40th St. 
New York. 

Hart, Mary A., Walden. 

Hart, Julia E., Walden. 

Harvey, Carrie M., Boonville. 

Harvey, Florence M., Boonville. 

Hatfield, C. K., Horseheads. 

Haviland, Solomon A., White Plaina. 

Hays, Geo. W., Walden. 

Hendrix, J. G., Brooklyn. 

Horton, Mary E., Cor. Atlantic and 
Kingston Aves., Brooklyn. 

Horton, E. M., 56 Reade St., New York. 

Howell, Edwin E., 2 College Ave., Roch- 
ester. 

fiudson, W. F., 73 West 131»t St., New 
York. 

Hulse, P. B., 734 Broadway, New York. 

Hunter, Thomas, Pres. Nor. College, 140 
E. 80th St., New York. 

Hunter, Anna, 140 E. 80th St, New 
York. 

Johnson, Anna, 169 Hall St, Brooklyn. 

Jolmaon, Mary E., 215 East 87th St, 
New York. 

Jones, Miss E. E., Great Valley. 

Jones, William, 118 East 80Ui St. 
New York. 

Katkameyer, Henrietta, 170 Taylor St, 
Brooklyn, E. D. 

Katkameyer, Miss M. E., 170 Taylor St, 
Brooklyn, E. D. 

Kellogg, Amos M., 25 Clinton Place, 
New York. 

Killmer, Mrs. Mary, 356 West 15th 
St, New York. 

Kipling, Mrs. A., 190 Rodney St , Brook- 
lyn. 

Kipling, Miss A. M., 190 Rodney St, 
Brooklyn. 

Lane, Carrie, 235 Madison St, Brooklyn. 

Loeb, Minnie, 691 Lafayette Ave., 
Brooklyn. 

Loomis, Mrs. C. E., 217 Main St, 
Geneva. 

McAllister, A. G., Warwick. 

McCullah, Rev. A., 135 Bedford Are., 
Brooklyn. 

McFadden, Agnes, 276 Liberty St., New- 
burg. 

McKinley, Hattie, 83 Bank St, New 
York. 

McNary, John G., 150 Macon St, Brook- 
lyn. 

Meigs, Annie K., New Berlin, Chenango 
Co. 

Messenger, Miss S. A., 116 Eighth St. 
Brooklyn. 

Messenger, Miss J. D., 116 Eighth St, 
Brooklyn. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS, 



53 



MUlspaugh. T. F., Walden. 

Mirick, Mrs. G. A,, 467 W^st 43d 

St,, New York. 
Newell, Ellen M., 124 Madison Ave., 

New York. 
Nichols, Florence C, 78 Richmond Ave., 

Buffalo. 
Nostrand, Minnie S., 149 Taylor St., 

Brooklyn. 
O'Neil, Rose M., 209 Rutledge St., 

Brooklyn, E. D. 
Osborn, F. W., Cor. Lafayette and St. 

James Place, Brooklyn. 
Palmer, F. B., State Normal School, 

Fredonia. 
Palmer, Mrs. F. B., Fredonia. 
Palmer, Geo. W., P. 0. Box 5110, East 

New York. 
Parsons, Rev. E. B., Baldwinsville. 
Parsons, Emily S., New Rochelle. 
Patterson, Calvin, Snpt. Schools, 20 St. 

James Place, Brooklyn. 
Payson, Eliot R., Binghamton. 
Plimpton, Geo. A., 4 Bond St., New 

York. 
Plimpton, Miss L. A., 105 State St., 

Albany. 
Potter, James C, Springwater. 
Putnam, H., New York. 
Rehom, Eunice D., Yonkers. 
Rehom, Carrie W., Yonkers. 
Reytiolds, Alice, Peekskill. 
Ricker, Mrs. Mary J., 262 S. Ninth St., 

Brooklyn. 
Roberts, Emily R., 190 Rodney St., 

Brooklyn. 
Robinson, Hannibal, 46 W. Tenth St., 

New York. 
Rockwell, L. H., 194 Elm St., Albany. 
Rockwell, Mrs. L. H., 194 Ehn St., 

Albany. 



Rorick, Lizzid M., Middleburg, Scho- 
harie Co. 
Sanford, H. R., Supt. of Schools, Mid- 

dletown. 
Schwedler, Fannie E., 155 West 84th 

St., New York. 
Scott, Isabel S C, Sing Sing. 
Seward, T. F., 35 West 14th St, 

New York. 
Stacker, Mrs. E. C, 207 Schermerhom 

St., Brooklyn. 
Stebbins, Emma, Homer. 
Stebbins, Mary, Homer. 
Stewart, Anna D., Carthage. 
Stillman, Mrs. M. G., Rye. 
Stogdill, Miss E., 457 West 43d St., 

New York. 
Stott, Chas. E., 19 Murray St., New 

York. 
Tarpy, Peter E., 344 East 14th St., 

New York. 
Thompson, Wm. E., Genesee Wesleyan 

Seminary, Lima. 
Thompson, Mrs. Wm. E., Lima. 
Tucker, Gilman H., 30 Lafayette Place, 

New York. 
Wait, Edward, Lansingburg. 
Ward, H. L., 2 College Ave., Rochester. 
Webster, Emma S., 112 Aberell Ave., 

Rochester. 
Welsh, Howard F., 256 Decatur St., 

Brooklyn. 
Welsh, W. A., 255 Decatur St., Brook- 
lyn. 
Westervelt, Z. F., Deaf Mute Inst., 

Rochester. 
Westervelt, Mrs. Z. F., Rochester. 
Winne, Martha, 192 Elm St., Albany. 
Worden, J. P., Batavia. 
Worington, Dora, Rochester. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



Robinson, Lucy M., Charlotte. 
Scarborough, J. C, Raleigh. 



Thompson, D. Matt, Lincolnton, Lincoln 
Co. 



OHIO. 



Aberle, Mary, Mansfield. 
Adair, M. Agnesse, Upper Sandusky. 
Adams, Julia M., Perrysburg. 
Aiken, Miss E. L., West Borough. 
Ainslee, Minnie, 316 E. Adams St., San- 

dnsky. 
Allen, Willette, South Newbury, Geauga 

Co. 
Andrews, Rev. I. W., Marietta College, 

Bfarietta. 
4a 



Arnold, Jennie E., Cadiz. 
Bowman, Ida C, Wooster. 
Boyd, Mrs. M. A., Martin's Ferry. 
Brown, Mrs. Le Roy D., Hamilton. 
Brown, Eva, London. 
Burger, Julia £., 75 Clinton St., Cleve- 
land. 
Butler, Mrs. J. G., Youngstown. 
Campbell, Mary, Youngstown. 
Clancy, M. J., New Lisbon. 



54 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 



Coleman, L. F., Lebanon. 

Collins, S. A., 40 W. Water St., Xenia. 

Comstock, Miss M. E., 135 Walton Are., 
Cleveland. 

Cox, E. B., Xenia. 

Coy, Alice B., Hughes High School, 
Cincinnati. 

I>ean, Chas. F., Court House, Washing- 
ton. 

Dickson, Edith, Wellington. 
^ Dowd, J. W., Toledo. 

Dugan, Carrie E., Morrow. 

Ellison, Lizzie, Cadiz. 

Everett, C. D., Columbus. 

Everett, Chas. E., Glendale. 

Eversol, W. S., Wooster. 

Fairchild, Lewis, Morrow. 

Feurt, Ella, Wheelersburgh.. 

Frambes, G. A., Columbus. 

Eraser, Ella, 52 Hamiltou Ave., Colum- 
bus. 

Gannett, Cora E., Wellington. 

Gayer, Cora, 1911 Walker St., Cleveland. 

Gilpatrick, J. L., Granville. 

Gilson, W. D., 316 S. Broadway, Dayton. 

Goodnough, W. S., 161 Hamilton Ave., 
Columbus. 

Goodspeed, J. M., Athens. 

Hamilton, Miss M. E., 100 Elm St., To- 
ledo. 

Hamilton, Lonta, 126 E. Long St., Co- 
lumbus. 

Hanna, J. C, High School, Columbus. 

Hard, M. E., Gallipolis. 

Heidelbaugh, Elvina F., cor. Barr and 
McDonough Sts., Dayton. 

Henry, Lida, Defiance. 

Herholz, Alfred, 60 W. 9th St., Cincin- 
nati. 

Hinsdale, B. A., Supt. Schools, 443 Eu- 
clid Ave., Cleveland. 

Hinsdale, Mrs. Mary E., 443 Euclid Ave., 
Cleveland. 

Howard, Geo. A., Cincinnati. 

Hughes, Miss L. W., Columbus. 

Hyde, Esther, Mansfield. 

Hyde, Mary, Mansfield. 

Irish, F. v., Hicksville. 

Irvin, James B., 396 W. First St., Day- 
ton. 

Irvin, Mrs. Mary, 395 W. First St., Day- 
ton. 

Irvin, Obed W., 395 W. First St., Day- 
ton. 

Irvin, James M., 395 W. First St., Day- 
ton. 

Johnson, Miss Orpha, New Vienna. 

Jones, E. A., Massillon. 

Keller, Addie, Wauseon. 

Knepper, C. O., Tiffin. 

Long, C. R., Zanesville. 

Lundy, Miss M. C, Cleveland. 

McComber, A. E., Toledo. 

McConoughey, Ella, Warren. 



McMillan, John H., Xenia. 

McMurdy, R., Dayton. 

Miller, Carrie L., 203 W. 2nd St., Daj- 
ton. . 

Mitchell, Dana A., Mt. Liberty- 

Monton, E. F., Warren. 

Munger, Cora E., Delta. 

Nelson, Elizabeth, New Lisbon. 

Overholser. John, Alpha. 

Owen, W. B., Delta. 

Page, R. S., Ironton. 

Palmer, Chas. B., Yellow Springs. 

Parker, H. M., Elyria. 

Peaslee, Mrs. J. B., Cincinnati. 

Perley, Miss M. S., 311 W. Water St-, 
Dayton. 

Pratt, A., Deaf and Dumb Inst, Colum- 
bus. 

Puckett, Sada D., Hillsboro. 

Raschig, H. H., Cincinnati. 

Redington, Etta, Marietta. 

Richardson, Wm., Cliillicothe. 

Ritson, K. B., Columbus. 

Rogers, Martha J., Kent, Portage Co. 

RoUwagen, Chas. W., CincinnatL 

Roscoe, Cora M. , Milan. 

Shawan, J. A., Mt. Vernon. 

Schuyler, A., Berea. 

Scott, W. H., Toledo. 

Silcox, Julia C, 1911 Walker St., Cleve- 
land. 

Smith, E. G., Hillsboro. 

Stevenson, Mrs. R. W., 65 S. 6th St., 
Columbus. 

Stewart, Charlotte A., Middletown. 

Stewart, N. C, 26 Jenney Ave., Cleve- 
land. 

Stickney, Lucia, Hughes High School, 
Cincinnati. 

Strickler, Ida, 178 Monroe Ave., Colum- 
bus. 

Super, Chas. W., Athens. 

Sutherland, Miss M. N., 64 S. Main St, 
Mansfield. 

Tappan, Mrs. EliT., Gambler. 

Thomas, Sebastian, Lodi. 

Thomas, Wm., Palmyra. 

Toralinson, lone, Mt. Vernon. 

Turrill, M. S., Cumminsville Station, 
Cincinnati. 

Wall, Frank T., Marysville. 

Warren, Orrie L., Wellington. 

Washburn, G. W., Chillicothe. 

Wassom, Jennette A., Columbas. 

Wells, C. K., Marietta. 

White, W. J., Springfield. 

White, Mrs. E. E., Walnut Hills, Cincin- 
nati. 

Williams, W. G., Delaware. 

Wilson, Susie A., 27 Fulton St, Cleve- 
land. 

Wolverton, Miss N. Y., Nor. Sch., Co- 
lumbus. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS. 



55 



Wood, Linnie S., IGO N. Washington 

St., Columbus. 
Wright, Miss E. C, New Vienna. 



Wright, Miss E. E., New Vienna. 
Yarnell, M. A., Mt. Vernon. 
Zirwas, Charles, Toledo. 



OREGON. 



Atkinson, Alice, Portland. 
Priest, Wm.,Medford. 



Sabin, Ella C, 135 Jefferson St., Port- 
land. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



Barr, Samuel A., Reading. 

Baker, Mrs. Francis M., Media. 

Baker, James W., Media. 

Batchellor, Daniel, 1014 Clinton St., 
Philadelphia. 

Beale, Albert B., 713 Filbert St., Philar 
delphia. 

Beale, Mrs. A. B., 713 Filbert St., Phila- 
delphia. 

Bolton, Emma, 1634 Sydenham St., 
Philadelphia. 

Borden, Chas. N., 248 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia. 

Borden, Edw. P., 248 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia. 

Borden, E. Shirley, 248 Chestnut St., 
Philadelpliia. 

Borden, liicliard P., 248 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia. 

Brown, C. J, 1538 Chestnut St., Phila- 
delphia. 

Buehrle, A. K., Lancaster. 

Burritt. Ruth (Kindergarten), Philadel- 
phia. 

Cargo, R. M., Mt. Washington, Pitts- 
burg. 

Cole, Dora J., 941 Lombard St., Phila- 
delphia. 

Curdery, Miss D. L., 1621 N. Eleventh 
St., Philadelphia. 

Cordery, Miss S. W., 1621 N. Eleventh 
St., Philadelphia. 

Cornell, Watson, 1605 N. Tenth St., 
Philadelphia. 

Coster, H. H., Scranton. 

Couo^hlin, James M., Kingston. 

Crouter, A. L. E., Deaf and Dumb Inst., 
Philadelphia. 

Dace, Jennie, 112 Vine St., Harrisburg. 

Day, Emma A., Norristown. 

Day, Lizzie M., Norristown. 

Deiiaff, Jacob, Lebanon. 

Drake, Miss M. E., 1219 Parish St., 
Pjiiladelphia. 

Erben, Mary A., Philadelphia. 

Fhnt, A. P., 930 Market St., Philadel- 
phia. 

Foose, L. O., Supt of Schools, Harris- 
burg. 



Funklehouser, A. P., Harrisburg. 
Gallagher, Amelia, Pottsville. 
Gay, Marianna, Germantown. 
Geddes, Chas. K., 31 W. Fourth St., 

Williamsport. 
Gloninger, Mrs. Julia, Lebanon. 
Graham, Eva A., 1406 N. Twenty-Third 

St., Philadelphia. 
Giiaham, Mrs. Thomas, 1331 Pine St., 

Philadelphia. 
Graham, Thomas, 1331 Pine St., Phila- 
delphia. 
Harpel, Wm. F., Shaniokln. 
Heiges, S. B., Shippensburg. 
Higbee, E. E., Harrisburg. 
Hill, Miss S. E., 1222 Hancock St., 

Philadelphia. 
Houck, Henry, Harrisburg. 
Jacobs, Miss M. L. , Norristown. 
James, E. J., Philadelphia. 
Jones, H. S., Supt. of Schools, Erie. 
Keith, D. S., 1616 Sixth Ave., Altoona. 
Lancaster, Martha G., Lancaster. 
Landis, L. B., Allentown. 
Logan, J. M., Pittsburg. 
Logan, W. W., Coltersville. 
Low, Abbie, Erie. 
Luckey, Geo. J., Hazal and Second 

Aves., Pittsburg. 
MacAlister, James, Supt. Pub. Schools, 

Philadelphia. 
MacDuffee, Mary, House of Refuge, 

Philadelphia. 
McCartney, J. L., Geneva College, 

Beaver Falls. 
Madole, Sarah, Erie. 
Miller, J. C. Carlisle. 
Minor, Samuel, Titusville. 
Morrison, A. J., 954 Randolph St.,Phila- 

deli/hia. 
Morrison, Mrs. A. J., 954 Randolph St., 

Philadelphia. 
Morrow, John, 16 City Hill, AUegliany. 
Patterson, B. F., Pottsville. 
Peirce Mrs. C. L., 1416 WalAut St., 

Philadelphia. 
Price A. B., Huntingdon. 
Schenk, C, 824 Cumberland St., Leb- 
anon. 



56 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



Schenk, Mrs. C, 824 Cumberland St., 
Lebanon. 

Schuyler, Dr. J. , Bloomsburg. 

Schuyler, Prof. W. H., Franklin, 
Venango Co. 

Sickel, Mrs. J. F. C, 687 N. Fourth St., 
Philadelphia. 

Sides, J. H., 1105 N. 4l8t St., Philadel- 
phia. 

Smith, Miss A. M., Philadelphia. 

Spayd, H. H., Minersville. 



Stephens, Dr. Wni., Germantown, Phil* 

delphia. 
Sterner, Mrs. Hattie, 713 Filbert St 

Philadelphia. 
Straddling, J. M., Philadelphia. 
Stout, Geo. H., 713 Filbert St., PhiUdeV 

phia. 
Strickler, Mrs. Sarah D., Philadelphia 
Sturges, £. B., Scranton. 
Wilson, James, 924 Chestnut St., Pliil* 

delphia. 
Wright, Mary, Frankford, Philadelphia 



RHODE ISLAND. 



Bartlett, Miss A. F., Providence. 
Benedict, S. G., Pawtucket. 
Benedict, Mrs. S. G., Pawtucket. 
Bevan, A., Providence. 
Bevan, Mrs. A., Providence. 
Carter, C C, Providence. 
Clark, Miss A. R., Pawtucket. 
Grossman, A. J., Providence. 
Grossman, F. A., Providence. 
Curtis, Miss L. S., East Providence. 
Daggett, Miss M. J., Providence. 
Delano, Miss R., Pawtucket. 
Everett, R. P., Providence. 
Gammcll, A. M., Providence. 
Gerald, Miss A. M., Providence. 
GetchcU, Miss M. E., Providence. 
Gleason, Agnes B., 356 Benefit St., 

Providence. 
Hall, J. M., 23 Camp St., Providence. 
Hastings, Miss E. M., Providence. 
Hazard, Mrs. A. E. J., East Providence. 
Hibbard, -Mrs. Chas., 61 Sabin St., 

Providence. 
Hoyt, D. W., Providence. 
Hoyt, Mrs. D. W., Providence. 
Ingraham, Miss K. A., Providence. 
Kimball, Miss A. P., Providence. 
Lathrop, Mrs. H. M., Providence. 
Lathrop, Wm. G., Providence. 



Lyon, Merrick, Providence. 
Merewether, T., 21 Bowen St., Prov; 

dence. 
Merewether, Mrs. T.,. 21 Bowen Si. 

Providence. 
Newhall, Wm. R., Academy, Etoi 

Greenwich. 
Paine, Mrs. P. C, Pawtucket. 
Paine, Miss L. M., Pawtucket. 
Pease, A. F., Pawtucket. 
Peuse, Mrs. A. F., Pawtucket. 
Peck, Wm. T., Providence. 
Pierce, Miss L. W. , Providence. 
Rawson, Mrs. M. E., Providence. 
Reid, Miss A. A., East Providence. 
Rose, E., Providence. 
Shaw, Miss E., Providence. 
Smith, Lewis B. , Nayatt. 
Stevens, Miss H. A., Tiverton. 
Stockwell, T. B., State Supt., Provi 

dence 
Tarbell. H. S., City Supt. of School* 

Providence. 
Walker, Miss M. A., East Providena 
Webb, J. A., P. O. Box 1065, Proii 

dence. 
Webster, Minnie P., 356 Benefit St 

Providence. 
Whitaker, N. B., Providence. 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Clark, A. J., Lancaster. 
Counts, E. 0., Prosperity. 
Coward, A., Columbia. 



Dibble, Virgil C, 32 Montague St 

Charleston. 
Payseur, L. C, Lancaster. 



TENNESSEE. 



Arnell, S. M., Columbia. 
Arnell, Miss Maye, Columbia. 
Brader, Rev. J., Nashville. 



Brader, Miss M. E., Nashville. 
Brennan, T. P., Shelly ville. 
Clark, Carrie, Franklin. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS, 



bl 



7Ia.rlc, Mrs. M. £., Tennessee Female 
Oollege, Franklin. 

^n way, Clara, 129 Adams St., Memphis. 

?ravath, E. M., Fisk Unirersity, Nash- 
ville. 



Garrett, W. R., 416 S. College St., Kaeh- 

ville. 
Paine, Thos. II., Nashville. 
Steele, A. J., 294 Orlt-ans St., Memphis. 



TEXAS. 



Anderson, L. C, Hempstead. 
Baldwin, J., Nor. School, Huntsville. 
Battle, Hattie, Decatur. 
Berlin^er, A., Rockdale. 
Bryant, C A., Calvert. 
Bryant, S. U., Austin. 
Dean, S. H., Austin. 
Ili^nderson, Lucy A., Jewett. 
Johnson, F. M., Cleburne. 
Long:, J. L., Omen. 
Melton, O. C, Winona. 



Montgomery, A. L., Lawsonville. 
Mott, Mrs. W. N., San Antonio. 
Noyes, Nettie E., San Antonio. 
Packard, B. R., Ennis. 
Parsons, H. S., Fort Worth. 
Patillo, T. J., Texarkana. 
Pictole, Mary A., Calvert. 
Rait, Lizzie, San Antonio. 
Sellers, Prof. H. Lee, Galveston. 
Steele, Miss L., San Antonio. 
Wood, Josie L., Brenham. 



VERMONT. 



Abbott, L. A., Montpelier. 
Bailey, Mrs. M. W., St. Albans. 
Barker, Pliny, Waterbury. 
Barker, Mrs.' P., Waterbury. 
Belknap, 8. C, St. Johnsbury. 
Brooks, A. A., Swanton. 
Chandler, Miss A. C, Westminster. 
Clark, Mrs. Louise M., Montpelier. 
DeaiU, W. G., Burlington. 
Dewey, Thomas, Montpelier. 
Dutton, F. W., Northficld. 
Dutton,Mrs. F. W., Northfield. 
Emery, J. C, Montpelier. 
Emerv, Mrs. J. C, Montpelier. 
Fish,'Mr8. A. B., St. Johns. 
Fish, Electa, St. Johns. 
Griggs, J. C, Waterbury. 
Griggs, Mrs. J. C, Waterbury. 
Hitt, J. M., Northfield. 
Hitt, Mrs. J. M., Northfield. 
Hinman, L., West Charleston. 
Howard, Anna F., Fairfax. 



Jackman, Miss J. B., Windsor. 
Jackman, Miss G. O , Windsor. 
Jackson, Mrs. G. I., Barre. 
Martin, C. Burt, Montpelier. 
Miller, Harvey, Windsor. 
Morse, Wm. E., Burlington. 
Nichols, C. P., Burlington. 
Norton, Mi^s E. C, Windsor. 
Pope, W. D., Burlington. 
Randall, J. J. R., Rutland. 
Sears, Miss C. S., St. Albans. 
Simpson, Miss M. A., Burlington. 
Smiiie, Melville, Montpidjer. 
Taylor, H., Proctorsville. 
Thompson, N. H., Burlington. 
Thompson, Miss P. A., Barre. 
Vaughn, R. B., Barre. 
Vaughn, Mr& R. B., Barre. 
Webster, H. C, Montpelier 
Webster, Mrs. H. C, Montpelier. 
Wood, Mrs. C. M., Barre. 



VIRGINIA. 



Armstrong, Gen. S. C, Hampton. 
Curry, J. L. M., Richmond. 
Dreher, Julius D., Roanoke College, 
Salem. 



Marye, John L., Fredericksburg. 
O'Neil, Kate, 1403 Broad St., Richmond. 
Ramos, Miss S. E., 1705 E. Main St., 
Richmond. 



WASHINGTON TERRITORY. 
Thompson, T. B., Goldendale. 



58 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



WEST VIRGINIA. 



Brackett, N. C, Harpers* Ferry. 
Butcher, B . L., State Supt., Wheeling. 
Carter, Fanny, Pahitine. 
Crago, F. II., Wheeling. 
Crurabacker, Sue E., 16 Ohio St., Wheel- 
ing. 
Deane, Miss R. L., Wheeling. 
Gittings, John G., Clarksburg. 



John, L. F., Biickhannon. 
McClasky, Olive, Moundsville. 
Mitchell, Walter, Wellsburg. 
Morrison, Mary J., Wheeling. 
Myers, Cora, Moundsville. 
Shields, D. W., Keyser. 
Swift, Mary E., Wheeling. 



WISCONSIN. 



Abbey, C. D., Wausau. 

Able, Thomiis W., Fon-du-Lac. 

Ackerman, J. H., Arciidia. 

Adams, J, N., Ellsworth. 

Adams, Lydia, Racine. 

Allen, Hattie, Prescott. 

Allen, L. Kate, Berlin. 

Allen, Mrs. P. L., Oshkosh. 

Allen, Walter, 662 Hanover St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Allen, Prof. W. F., Madison. 

Allen, Mrs. W. F., Madison. 

Ailing, Mrs. E. J., Fort Atkinson. 

Amery, Fannie, St. Croix Falls. 

Anderson, B. F., Sheboygan Falls. 

Anderson, Mrs. B. F., Sheboygan Falls. 

Andrews, A. D., River Falls. 

Andrews, Geo. N., I ronton. 

Apthorp, Mary, Oshkosh. 

Ashmun, Minnie, Rural. 

Auerswald, £., Marinette. 

Augustine, A. B., 221 6th St., Racine. 

Babcock, Gertrude A., Eau Claire. 

Bacon, Florence. West Salem. 

Bacon, Hattie E., Manitowoc. 

Baetz, Lizzie, Two Rivers. 

Bailey, Emma, Boscobel. 

Bailey, Jennie, Racine. 

Bailey, Ruth, 327 Lake St., Milwaukee. 

Barber, Marion, Fulton. 

Barker, Wm. E., Pepin. 

Barrett, L. H., Bloomington. 

Bateman, Mrs. Helen, 789 Astor St., 
Milwaukee. 

Beckwith, E. E., Port Washington. 

Beebe, Eleanor, Racine. 

Bender, Lydia M. , Oconomowoc. 

Binner, Paul, 1222 Fon-du-Lac Ave., 
Milwaukee. 

Bird, John P., La Crosse. 

Bivins, Miss M., 718 Galena St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Blackburn, Mary E., Oshkosh. 

Bliss, Fannie P.', Eau Claire. 

Bliss, Lizzie A., 833 Main St., Racine. 

Bloss, Aurie E., 414 Jackson St., Osh- 
kosh. 

Bonesteel, Fanny, Grand Ave. House, 
Milwaukee. 

Boorman, Curtiss A.. Tomah 



Bostwlck, Minnie, Eau Claire. 

Bowker; Miss M. L., Somers. 

Bradford, I. A., Hartford. 

Bradford, Mary, Kenosha. 

Brand, T. H.. 348 W. Main St., Madison. 

Brennan, John. Fon-du-Lac. 

Brier, W. J., Plymouth. 

Briggs. L. W., Oshkosh. 

Brigham, Chas. I., 325 Cass St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Broughton, Aaron, Albany, Greene Co. 

Brown, G. W., Madison. 

Brown, Hattie H. , Fond-du-Lac. 

Brow, Fred M., 116 E. Gorbam St-, 
Madison. 

Buckley, Kate E., Black Hawk. 

Buell, Callie T., Eau Claire. 

Buell, I. M., Beloit. 

Buerki, Emily, Sauk City. 

Burk, Ida, Hudson. 

Burr, A. W., Beloit. 

Burton, A. W., Neillsville. 

Burton, George, Annaton. 

Burton, Mrs. L. D., Geneva Lake. 

Cabinis, Geo. E., Platteville. 

Cable, D. A. (Girls' Industrial School). 
Milwaukee. 

CaJey, Ella, De Pere, Brown Co. 

Cady, Sarah, Reedsburg. 

Caldwell, Miss C. J., River Falls. 

Campbell, Julia, 251 27th St., Milwaukee. 

Cass, Frances S., East Troy. 

Cassidy, Anna F., Whitewater. • 

Caverns, Miss C, Kenosha. 

Chaffee, Ellen B., Burton, Grant Co. 

Chamberlain, J. N., Beloit. 

Chapin, Rev. A. L., Beloit. 

Christie, Eliza J., 820 Union St., Racine. 

Christie, Jessie, 130 10th St., Milwaukee. 

Clapp, Betsey, New Richmond. 

Clapp, Etta, New Richmond. 

Clapp, Marv, New Richmond. 

Clark, Clara T., Milton. 

Clarke, Mrs. L. H., Tomah. 

Clarke, Mrs. J. G. N., 493 Jefferson St., 
Milwaukee. 

aay, Leora, 344 Washington St., MU- 
waukee. 

Cleaver, Emma O., 344 Washington St., 
Milwaukee. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS. 



59 



riement, E. W., Beaver Dam. 
Cleveland, J. J., La Crosse. 
Clinton, Emma, Waukesha. 
Clough, W. G., Portage. 
Cochran, Mrs. L. L., Oshkosh. 
Colcord, Fanny C, State Nor. School, 

Oshkosh. 
Coleman, Mary E., First Ave., Cor. 

Becker St., Milwaukee. 
Coleman, Nellie P., Milwaukee. 
Congdon, J. W., La Crosse. 
Conklin, Margaret, Seymour. 
Connell, SarsJi A., South Germantown. 
Cook, Mrs. Ada Ray, Whitewater. 
Cook, Kate, Ironton. 
Cook, Martha, Ironton. 
Corbett, Miss F. K., 619 Hanover St., 

Milwaukee. 
CrandalU Alice, Madison. 
Craw, Alice L., Oshkosh. 
Crawford, J. C, Green Bay. 
Cubb, Lousia, I>ancaster. 
Cuddy. Anna, Eau Claire. 
Curtis, Cora M., Rosendale. 
Cnrtis, Inez, Hebron. 
Cutting, Mrs. Delia, 409 Seventh St., 

Racine. 
Cutting, Miss Delia, 409 Seventh St., 

Kacine. 
Dame, M. L., 414 Seventh St., Racine. 
Darnall, Lizzie A., Black River Falls. 
Damall, Rebecca, Black River Falls. 
Davis, Hattie E. A., Omro. 
Davis, Nancy M., Winneconne. 
Davis, Sophie, Winneconne. 
Delaney, A. P., Whitewater. 
Delaney, Mary, Whitewater. 
Deming, H. W., Neillsville. 
Denison, Gertrude, Barn boo. 
Dewey, Miss L. C, De Pere. 
Diedrichson, John A., 802 Grand Ave., 

Milwaukee. 
Donaldson, N. S., La Crosse. 
Doolittle, M. E. , Eau Claire. 
Doolittlc, R. E., Eau Clare. 
Doty, Elrena R., La Crosse. 
Doty, Minnie L. , La Crosse. 
Drury, Harriet D., Fond-du-Lac. 
Dndgeon, R. B., Hudson. 
Dwelley, Mrs. E. I., Hudson. 
Dynes, Maria, Columbus. 
Dynes, Sarah A., Columbus. 
Eastman, Laura, Berlin. 
Eastman, Maggie, Platteville. 
Emerson, Jennie, 930 Superior St., 

Racine. 
Evans, Eliza E., 940 Park Ave., Racine. 
Evans, J. H., Platteville. 
Evans, Kate A., 940 Park Ave., Racine. 
Everest, Kate A., La Crosse. 
Falge, Louis, Manitowoc. 
Fairchild, A. M., 1303 State St., Racine. 
Farnsworth, AdaE., Oakdale. 
Fisk, Jr., J. P., Beloit College, Beloit. 



Fisk, Miss S. E., Darien. 
FitzGibbons, Eliza, Waunakee. 
Flanders, Mary, Platteville. 
Flynn, Hannah, Durham. 
Foley, Kate, Oconto. 
Ford, Lizzie S., 374 Pierce St., Milwau- 
kee. 
Foote, Lucy E., River Falls. 
Foote, Mary L., Sparta. 
Fowler, C. E.,.New Lisbon. 
Fox, C. M., Muscoda. 
Frankenburger, D. B., 116 W. Oilman 

St., Madison. 
Frankenburger, Mrs. D. B., 115 W. 

Oilman St., Madison. 
Frank, Noma, Muscoda. 
Eraser, Annabel, Durand. 
Frawley, M. S., Eau Claire. 
Freeman, Prof. F. C, Madison. 
Friedel, Chartes, Necedah. 
Gardner, Mrs. B. A., Platteville. 
Gardner, D. E., Platteville. 
Gafiron, Otto., Plymouth. 
George, Ella, Kenosha. 
Gettle, Emma Y,, Cadiz. 
Gill, Flora, 365 Pearl St., Oshkosh. 
Gillett, Anna E., Kenosha, 
Gillett, G., Kenosha. 
Gillispee, Mary, Waukesha. 
Gittings, W. G., Racine. 
Gleason, Nellie R., Westborough. 
Goldberg, Etta, Manitowoc. 
Goodill, Mary, Stockbridge. 
Gooding, Lizzie L. , Wausau. 
Goodrich, Jennie M., Durand. 
Goodrich, Mary, Oconto. 
Goodsell, E. B., Highland. 
Gould, J. H., Stoughton. 
Graham, Hattie E., 418 Marshall St., 

Milwaukee. 
Graham. Ruth A., Baraboo. 
Gray, Alice, 904 Winchester St., Milwau- 
kee. 
Gray, Bessie, 904 Winchester St., Mil- 
waukee. 
Greene, Annie M., Spring Prairie. . 
Gregor, Fanny, Kewannee. 
Greibe, Henry, Franklin. 
Grindell, Lillie, Platteville. 
Oris wold, Anna M., Horicon. 
Gross, Sophie, Merrimack. 
Grotophorst, M. S., Black Hawk. 
Grubb, Ge I. D., Elroy. 
Guile, Delia S., 219 Grove St., MUwau- 

kee. 
Gunn, Anna, Eau Claire. 
Haber, J. P., Ripon. 
Hall, J. C. Unity. 
Hannahs, Etta, Kenosha. 
Hannahs, Julia, Kenosha. 
Hanson, Carrie S., Oshkosh. 
Hanson, Richard, 17 Fairchild St., Madi- 
son. 
Harper, Maud, Eau Claire. 



60 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



Harrington, John, Bear Creek. 

Harkcll, Alfaretta, Oshkosh. 

Harney, Mrs. O. M., Oshkosh. 

Haakins, H. F.. Prairie-du-Sac 

Raskins, Mrs. H. F., Prairie-du-Sac. 

Hastings, Helen, Kenosha. 

Hastings, Jennie, Kenosha. 

Haugliton, William, Viroqua. 

Havens, Sarah B., 703 Cass St., Milwaa- 
kee. 

Hayes, Dora, Spring Green. , 

Haylett, E. G., Menasha. 

Hazard, Martha E., Beloit. 

Heinman, Frances, 280 Tenth St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Hempel, Alma, Whitewater. 

Henry, Adele, Jefferson. 

Henry, Mi^s S. A., Fond-du-Lac. 

Herring, C E., Poynette. 

Hesse, Henry D., 253 Third St., Milwau- 
kee. • 

Hewitt, P. H., Manitowoc. 

Hibbard, D. O., Racine. 

Hickey, Mamie, 768 Michigan St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Hill, Edith C, Roscndale. 

Hirsch, J. T., Milwaukee. 

Hitchcock, Ida. New Richmond. 

Hodge, W. J., Ripon, 

Holbrook, Ella, Arkansaw. 

Holcombe, Alice. Menasha. 

Holcomb, Eva, Berlin. 

Holconib. Mary, Sheboygan Falls. 

Holden, Josephine, Hudson. 

Hooper, S. A., 6th Dist. School, Milwau- 
kee. 

Hosford, Margaret, Robert's Station, St. 
Croix Co. 

Howard, F. C, Waupon. 

Howard, Mrs. F. C, Waupon. 

Howitt, J., Waukesha. 

Hoyt, L. W., 221 Monona Ave.. Madi- 
son. 

Hoyt, Ida M., Hudson. 

Hoyt, J. E., Lodi. 

Hubbard, Zilphe S., River Falls. 

Hughes, Mrs. Masrgie, Antigo. 

Hughes, H. S., Waukesha. 

Hughes, W. J., West Salem. 

Hulburt, L. S., Monroe. 

Huley, A. B., Menomonee. 

Hume, Anna, Oconto. 

Hunter, Mary, Ripon. 

Huntington, Hattie A., Baraboo. 

Hutchins, C. A., Fond-du-Lac. 

Hutton, A. J., Platteville. 

Hyde, C. S., Lancaster. 

Ingals, J. G., Menomonee. 

Irwin, Lu E., Brandon. 

Jackson, F. D., Janesville. 

James, Clara C, 98 High St., Oshkosh. 

James, Elinor. Trempealeau. 

James, J. A., Hazel Green. 

James, Sarah, 98 High St., Oshkosh. 



Johnson, Laura, Black River Falls. 

Johnson. Lucy R., Black River Falls. 

Johnson, Tillie, Berlin. 

Jones, Eliza A., 817 Campbell St., 
Racine. 

Jones, Miss E. C, River Falls. 

Jones, Jennie H., 531 Jackson St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Jones, Jenny L., Eau Claire. 

Jones, Minnie, Berlin. 

Jones, W. F., Rockland, 

Jones, William, Clinton. 

Jones, W. W., Georgetown. 

Jones, Susie, Racine. 

Jordan, W. P., Berlin. 

Kahn, Bertha. 467 Fourth St., Milwau- 
kee. 

Kelleher, Maggie G., De Pere. 

Kelleher, Minnie H., De Pere. 

Kellogg. D. M., Whitewater. 

Kellogg, Gertrude A. , Janesville. 

Kelly, J. T., St. Francis. 

Kern, Addie M., Oconomowoc. 

Kerr, Alexander, UOLangdon St., Madi- 
son. 

Keyes, C. H., River Falls. 

Kimball, Hattie, Berlin. 

Kimball, W. W., Omro. 

King, Prof. F. H., River Falls. 

Keener, Adela. 366 llth St., Milwaukee. 

Kopplin, Otto, Fall Creek. 

Kriesel, C. A., Oakland. 

Ladd, Miss Bay, West Salem. 

Ladd, Mary H., German Academy, Mil- 
waukee. 

Lakin, May M., 201 Ninth St., Milwau- 
kee. 

Lamb, Miss L., Melrose. 

Lan, Charles, Cedarburg. 

Lansing, L. L., Beloit. 

Lansing, Mrs. L. L., Beloit. 

Lantry, Mary, Manitowoc. 

Larson, Marie C, Oakdale. 

Leith, John A., Appleton. 

Leland, Lily, Whitewater. 

Lewis, C. S., Cottage Grove. 

Lewis, Mrs. E. , 909 College Ave., 
Racine. 

Lewis, Irene, Eau Claire. 

Lewis, Mary, 909 College Ave., Racine. 

Lewis, Mrs. Xury, Neillsville. 

Lily, Catherine H., Whitewater. 

Linfield, G. F., Beaver Dam. 

Little, Mrs. Sarah C, Janesville. 

Livingston, J. W., Dodgeville. 

Luebke, Emma, Milwaukee. 

Lugg, Mary L., 526 Astor St., Milwau- 
kee. 

Lynch, Ed., Grand Rapids. 

Lynch, P. A., 212 Biddle St., Milwaukee. 

Main, Julia B., Platteville. 

Majee, Julia A. , Oconto. 

Maloney, Mary A., Osman, Manitowoc 
Co. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS. 



61 



Mapel, J. J., High School, Milwaukee. 

Marble, Nettie, Oshkosh. 

March, OrraL., Clemansville. 

Marsh, C. O., Antigo. 

Martin, H. C, Darlington. 

Martin, Mrs. H. C, Darlington. 

Martin, Mag, Sheboygan Falls. 

Martin, R. W., Oshkosh. 

MarYin, Addie, Randolph. 

Massee, Clara, Knapp. 

^latthes, F., Hustisford. 

Mathews, Clara, Burlington. 

Maxon, Henry D., Wliitewater. 

Menges, John, Madison. 

Merk, Ida, Sauk City. 

Merrifield, Edith, Milton Junction. 

Merrifield, Miw H. A., Milton Junction. 

Merrill, Mrs. W., 232 Riddle St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Meyer, Louise C, 502 Prairie St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Middlecamp, William, Do Pere. 

Miller, Cora, Elo, Winnebago Co. 

Miller, Frank, Oshkosh. 

Minehan. Nellie, Bay View. 

Mink, Carrie, Burton, Grant Co. 

Miner, Mrs. C. A., Cherry St. School, 
Fond-du-Lac. 

Mitchell, Nellie L., Neenah. 

Monat, Miss M. C, Janesville. 

Moody, J. L., Ellsworth. 

Moore, Clara, Lancaster. 

Morehouse, Louisa, 770 Jackson St., 
Milwaukee. 

Morrison, Sarah, 1108 Park Ave., Racine. 

Morse, Clara, 36 Merritt St., Oshkosh. 

Morse, E. C, Arkdale. 

Morton, 6. M., Richland Centre. 

Mack, Katy A., Jefferson. 

Muesse, Ollie, Lancaster. 

Munroe, Christia, Union Grove. 

Murphy, James P. , Platteville. 

McArthur, Edie, Lake Mills. 

McConahy, Mary, Durham. 

McCntchan, Mary L., 571 Seventh Ave., 
Milwaukee. 

McCntchin, Nora E., Sturgeon Bay. 

McConnell, J. E., West Salem. 

McEachron, Julia, 39 Ninth St., Racine. 

McFadden, Anna C, Fond-du-Lac. 
McGinnis, Lucinda, 209 Mifflin St., E. 
Madison. 

McGovem, Mary, Madison. 
McGrath, M., 304 Van Buren St., Mil- 
waukee. 
McGregor, J. K., 524 Lake St., Eau 

Claire. 
McGuire, Maggie, Baraboo. 
McKee, Clara, Delavan. 
McKenzie, Flora F., Hillsborough. 
McLaughlin, Ed., Fond-du-Lac. 
McMahon, Martin, Meenie. 
McMahon, M., Durand. 
McMahon, Rose, Doylestown. 



McMurdo, Mellie, Hortonville. 
McMynn, J. G., 942 Wisconsin St., . 

Racine. 
McNamara, D. W., Hartford. 
McNeal, Sue P., Eau Claire. 
Nageler, John G., New Holstein. 
Nftgle, John, Manitowoc. 
Nash, Jennie, Hudson. 
Neff, Angle. Neillsville. 
Nelson, Mary A., Manitowoc. 
Niquttte, Lucy, Two Rivers. 
North, Alex. F., Pewaukee. 
Nye, Ella A., Baraboo. 
Nye, Zella M., Baraboo. 
Parker, Mrs. Louise, River Falls. 
Patterson, Miss H., Eau Claire. 
Patterson, Ida, Fox River. 
Patterson, Sarah, Fox River. 
Patterson, V., Jox River. 
Patzer, C. E., Manitowoc. 
Patzer, Mrs. C. E., Manitowoc. 
Peaslee, Anna J., Omro. 
Perry, Mrs. E., Grand Ave. House, Mil- 
waukee. 
Peterson, J. P., Luck, Polk Co. 
Phillips, C. J., Wyocena. 
Phillips, W. B., Boscobel. 
Pickards, Cynthia, Neenah. 
Pickering, C. R., Basswuod. 
Pierce, Rose, Racine. 
Pinch, Mary, West Rosendale. 
Pinning, Miss E. M, 84 Elm St., Osh- 
kosh. 
Pollock, W. J., Hebron. 
Porter, Anna A., Madison. 
Pray, Prof. T. B., Whitewater. 
Ramsay, Margaret, Nicollette. 
Rankin, W. L., Waukesha. 
Reed, J. H., Lancaster. 
Reik, Lydia M., G09 Washington St.. 

Milwaukee. 
Rielly, T. W., Fond-du-Lac. 
Remington, Maud, Baraboo. 
Rhea. A. O., West Salem. 
Riedel, Cathinka, Lancaster. 
Richardson, Mrs. E. B., Janesville. 
Richards, Rev. C. H., Madison. 
Roberts, L. D., Shawano. 
Robins, Mamie E., Oshkosh. 
Rodee, Alice, 314 Sycamore St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Rogers, Miss C, Whitewater. 

Rogers, G. A., Oconomowoc. 

Roggenban, Maggie S., 420 Sixth St., 
Racine. 

Roll, Richard, Hustisford. 

Rosenblatt, Mrs. H., Beloit. 

Rowb, Sadie, Prairie-du-Chien. 

Royce, Almira A., Oshkosh. 

Russell, Ella J., Waupon. 

Russell, Hattie J., Omro. 

Salisbury, Celia, Elkhorn. 

Salisbury, Emma, Whitewater. 

Salisbury, Harriet, Whitewater. 



54 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



Coleman, L. F., Lebanon. 

Collins, S. A., 40 W. Water St., Xenia. 

Comstock, Miss M. £., 135 Walton Ave., 
Cleveland. 

Cox, E. B., Xenia. 

Coy, Alice B., Hughes High School, 
Cincinnati. 

Dean, Chas. F., Court House, Washing- 
ton. 

Dickson, Edith, Wellington. 

Dowd, J. W., Toledo. 

Dugan, Carrie E., Morrow. 

Ellison, Lizzie, Cadiz. 

Everett, C. D., Columbus. 

Everett, Chas. E., Glendale. 

Everbol, W. S., Wooster. 

Fairchild, Lewis, Morrow. 

Feurt, Ella, Wheelersburgh. 

Frambes, G. A., Columbus. 

Eraser, Ella, 52 Hamilton Ave., Colum- 
bus. 

Gannett, Cora E., Wellington. 

Gayer, Cora, 1911 Walker St., Cleveland. 

Gilpatrick, J. L., Granville. 

Gilson, W. D., 316 S. Broadway, Dayton. 

Goodnough, W. S., 161 Hamilton Ave., 
Columbus. 

Goodspeed, J. M., Athens. 

Hamilton, Miss M. E., 100 Elm St., To- 
ledo. 

Hamilton, Lonta, 126 E. Long St., Co- 
lumbus. 

Hanna, J. C, High School, Columbus. 

Hard, M. E., Gallipolis. 

Heidelbaugh, Elvina F., cor. Barr and 
McDonough Sts., Dayton. 

Henry, Lida, Defiance. 

Herholz, Alfred, 60 W. 9th St., Cincin- 
nati. 

Hinsdale, B. A., Supt. Schools, 443 Eu- 
clid Ave., Cleveland. 

Hinsdale, Mrs. Mary E., 443 Euclid Ave., 
Cleveland. 

Howard, Geo. A., Cincinnati. 

Hughes, Miss L. W., Columbus. 

Hyde, Esther, Mansfield. 

Hyde, Mary, Mansfield. 

Irish, F. v., Hicksville. 

Irvin, James B., 395 W. First St., Day- 
ton. 

Irvin, Mrs. Mary, 395 W. First St., Day- 
ton. 

Irvin, Obed W., 396 W. First St., Day- 
ton. 

Irvin, James M., 395 W. First St., Day- 
ton. 

Johnson, Miss Orpha, New Vienna. 

Jones, E. A., Massillon. 

Keller, Addie, Wauseon. 

Knepper, C. O., Tiffin. 

Long, C. R., Zanesville. 

Lundy, Miss M. C, Cleveland. 

McComber, A. E., Toledo. 

McConoughey, Ella, Warren. 



McMillan, John H., Xenia. 

McMurdy, R., Dayton. 

Miller, Carrie L., 203 W. 2nd St., Day- 
ton. . 

Mitchell, Dana A., Mt. Liberty. 

Monton, E. F., Warren. 

Munger, Cora E., Delta. 

Nelson, Elizabeth, New Lisbon. 

Overholser, John, Alpha. 

Owen, W. B., Delta. 

Page, R. S., Ironton. 

Palmer, Chas. B., Yellow Springs. 

Parker, H. M., Elyria. 

Penslee, Mrs. J. B., Cincinnati. 

Perley, Miss M. S., 311 W. Water St., 
Dayton. 

Pratt, A., Deaf and Dumb Inst., Colum- 
bus. 

Puckett, Sada D., Hillsboro. 

Raschig, H. H., Cincinnati. 

Redington, Etta, Marietta. 

Richardson, Wm., Chillicothe. 

Ritson, K. B., Columbus. 

Rogers, Martha J., Kent, Portage Co. 

Rollwagen, Chas. W., CincinnatL 

Roscoe, Cora M., Milan. 

Shawan, J. A., Mt. Vernon. 

Schuyler, A., Berea. 

Scott, W. H., Toledo. 

Silcox, Julia C, 1911 Walker St., Cleve- 
land. 

Smith, E. G., Hillsboro. 

Stevenson, Mrs. R. W., 56 S. 6th St., 
Columbus. 

Stewart, Charlotte A., Middletown. 

Stewart, N. C, 26 Jenney Ave., Cleve- 
land. 

Stickney, Lucia, Hughes High School, 
Cincinnati. 

Strickler, Ida, 178 Monroe Ave., Colum- 
bus. 

Super, Chas. W., Athens. 

Sutherland, Miss M. N., 64 S. Main St, 
Mansfield. 

Tappan, Mrs. Eli T., Gambier. 

Thomas, Sebastian, Lodl. 

Thomas, Wm., Palmyra. 

Tomlinson, lone, Mt. Vernon. 

Turrill, M. S., Cummins ville Station, 
Cincinnati. 

Wall, Frank T., Marysville. 

Warren, Orrie L., Wellington. 

Washburn, G. W., Chillicothe. 

Wassom, Jennette A., Columbus. 

Wells. C. K., Marietta. 

White, W. J., Springfield. 

White, Mrs. E. E., Walnut Hills, Cincin- 
nati. 

Williams, W. G., Delaware. 

Wilson, Susie A., 27 Fulton St., Cleve- 
land. 

Wolverton, Miss N. y.,-Nor. Sch., Co- 
lumbus. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS, 



55 



Wood, Linnie S., 160 N. Washington 

St., Columbus. 
Wright, Mia« E. C, New Vienna. 



Wright, Miss E. E., New Vienna. 
Yarnell, M. A., Mt. Vernon. 
Zirwas, Charles, Toledo. 



Atkinson, Alice, Portland. 
Priest, Wm., Medford. 



OREGON. 



Sabin, Ella C, 135 Jefferson St., Port- 
land. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



Barr, Samuel A., Reading. 

Baker, Mrs. Francis M., Media. 

Baker, James W., Media. 

Bat^rhellor, Daniel, 1014 Clinton St., 
Philadelphia. 

Beale, Albert B., 713 Filbert St., Phila- 
delphia. 

Beale, Mrs. A. B., 713 Filbert St., Phila- 
delphia. 

Bolton, Emma, 1634 Sydenham St., 
Philadelphia. 

Borden, Chas. N., 248 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia. 

Borden, Edw. P., 248 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia. 

Borden, E. Shirley, 248 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia. 

Borden, Ricliard P., 248 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia. 

Brown, C. J, 1538 Chestnut St., Phila- 
delphia. 

Buehrle, A. K., Lancaster. 

Burritt, Ruth (Kindergarten), Philadel- 
phia. 

Cargo, R. M., Mt. Washington, Pitts- 
burg. 

Cole, Dora J., 941 Lombard St., Phila- 
delphia. 

Cordery, Miss D. L., 1621 N. Eleventh 
St., Philadelphia. 

Cordery, Miss S. W., 1621 N. Eleventh 
St., Philadelphia. 

Cornell, Watson, 1605 N. Tenth St., 
Philadelphia. 

Coster, H. H., Scranton. 

Coughlln, James M., Kingston. 

Crouter, A. L. E., Deaf and Dumb Inst., 
Philadelphia. 

Dace, Jennie. 112 Vine St., Harrisburg. 

Day, Emma A., Norristown. 

Day, Lizzie M., Norristown. 

DeHuff, Jacob, Lebanon. 

Drake, Miss M. E., 1219 Parish St., 
Pjiiladelphia. 

Erben, Mary A., Philadelphia. 

Flint, A. P., 930 Market St., Philadel- 
phia. 

Foose, L. O., Supt. of Schools, Harris- 
burg. 



Funklehouser, A. P., Harrisburg. 
Gallagher, Amelia, Pottsville. 
Gay, Marianna, Germantown. 
Geddes, Chas. K., 31 W. Fourth St., 

Williamsport. 
Gloninger, Mrs. Julia, Lebanon. 
Graham, Eva A., 1406 N. Twenty-Third 

St., Philadelphia. 
Gcaham, Mrs. Thomas, 1331 Pine St., 

Philadelphia. 
Graham, Thomas, 1331 Pine St., Phila- 
delphia. 
Harpel, Wm. F., Shaniokln. 
Heiges, S. B., Shippensburg. 
Higbee, E. E., Harrisburg. 
Hill, Miss S. E., 1222 Hancock St., 

Philadelphia. 
Houck, Henry, Harrisburg. 
Jacobs, Miss M. L. , Norristown. 
James, E. J., Philadelphia. 
Jones, H. S., Supt. of Schools, Erie. 
Keith, D. S., 1616 Sixth Ave., Altoona. 
Lancaster, Martha G., Lancaster. 
Landis, L. B., Allentown. 
Logan, J. M., Pittsburg. 
Logan, W. W., Coltersville. 
Low, Abbie, Erie. 
Luckey, Geo. J., Hazal and Second 

Aves., Pittsburg. 
Mac A lister, James, Supt. Pub. Schools, 

Philadelphia. 
MacDuffee, Mary, House of Refuge, 

Pliiladelphia. 
McCartney, J. L., Geneva College, 

Beaver Falls. , 
Madole, Sarah, Erie. 
Miller, J. C. Carlisle. 
Minor, Samuel, Titusville. 
Morrison, A. J., 964 Randolph St.,Phila- 

delpliia. 
Morrison, Mrs. A. J., 954 Randolph St., 

Philadelphia. 
Morrow, John, 16 City Hill, Alleghany. 
Patterson, B. F., Pottsville. 
Peirce Mrs. C. L., 1416 WalAut St., 

Philadelphia. 
Price A. B., Huntingdon. 
Schenk, C, 824 Cumberland St., Leb- 
anon. 



56 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



Schenk, Mrs. C., 824 Cumberland St., 
Lebanon. 

Schuyler, Dr. J. , Bloomsburg. 

Schuyler, Prof. W. H., Franklin, 
Venango Co. 

Sickel, Mrs. J. F. C, 687 N. Fourth St., 
Philadelphia. 

Sides, J. H., 1105 N. 4l8t St., Philadel- 
phia. 

Smith, Miss A. M., Philadelphia. 

Spayd, H. H., Minersville. 



Stephens, Dr. Wm., Germantown, Phila 
delphia. 

Sterner, Mrs. Hattie, 713 Filbert St. 
Philadelphia. 

Straddling, J. M., Philadelphia. 

Stout, Geo. II., 713 Filbert St., PhUadel- 
phia. 

Strickler, Mrs. Sarah D., Philadelphia 

Sturges, E. B., Scranton. 

Wilson. James, 924 Chestnut St., Phila- 
delphia. 

Wright, Mary, Frankford, Philadelphia. 



RHODE ISLAND. 



Bartlett, Miss A. F., Providence. 
Benedict. S. G., Pawtucket. 
Benedict, Mrs. S. G., Pawtucket. 
Sevan, A., Providence. 
Bevan, Mrs. A., Providence. 
Carter, C. C, Providence. 
Clark, Miss A. R., Pawtucket. 
Grossman, A. J., Providence. 
Grossman, F. A., Providence. 
Curtis, Miss L. S., East Providence. 
Daggett, Miss M. J., Providence. 
Delano, Miss li., Pawtucket. 
Everett, R. P., Providence. 
GammelU A. M., Providence. 
Gerald, Miss A. M., Providence. 
Getchell, Miss M. E., Providence. 
Gleason, Agnes B., 356 Benefit St., 

Providence. 
Hall, J. M., 23 Camp St., Providence. 
Hastings, Miss E. M., Providence. 
Hazard, Mrs. A. E. J., East Providence. 
Hibbard, Mrs. Chas., 61 Sabin St., 

Providence. 
Hoyt, D. W., Providence. 
Hoyt, Mrs. D. W., Providence. 
Ingrahara, Miss K. A., Providence. 
Kimball, Miss A. P., Providence. 
Lathrop, Mrs. H. M., Providence. 
Lathrop, Wm. G., Providence. 



East 



Lyon, Merrick, Providence. 

Merewether, T., 21 Bowen St., Provi- 
dence. 

Merewether, Mrs. T.,. 21 Bowen St., 
Providence. 

Newhall, Wm. R., Academy, 
Greenwich. 

Paine, Mrs. P. C, Pawtucket. 

Paine, Miss L. M., Pawtucket. 

Pease, A. F., Pawtucket. 

Pease, Mrs. A. F., Pawtucket. 

Peck, Wm. T., Providence. 

Pierce, Miss L. W. , Providence. 

RawBon, Mrs. M. E., Providence. 

Reid, Miss A. A., East Providence. 

Rose, E., Providence. 

Shaw, Miss E., Providence. 

Smith, Lewis B. , Nayatt. 

Stevens, Mi^s H. A., Tiverton. 

Stockwell, T. B., Sute Supt.» Provi- 
dence. 

Tarbell, H. S., City Supt. of SchooU. 
Providence. 

Walker, Miss M. A., East Providenct 

Webb, J. A., P. O. Box 1065, Provi- 
dence. 

Webster, Minnie P., 856 Benefit St. 
Providence. 

Whitaker, N. B., Providence. 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Clark, A. J., Lancaster. 
Counts, E. O., Prosperity. 
Coward, A., Columbia. 



Dibble, Virgil C, 82 Montague St. 

Charleston. 
Payseur, L. C, Lancaster. 



TENNESSEE. 



Arnell, S. M., Columbia. 
Arnell, Miss Maye, Columbia. 
Brader, Rev. J., Nashville. 



Brader, Miss M. E., Nashville. 
Brennan, T. P., Shelly ville. 
Clark, Carrie, Franklin. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 65 

DISBURSEMENTS. 
The disbursements on account of the year ending July 1, 1884, were 
as follows, viz. : 

For printing Membership Certificates, and Circulars, for R. R. 

and Hotel rates — by the Treasurer . $18 76 

Postage, telegrams, express, and stationery by Treasurer 16 12 

Printing, postage, etc., for meeting of Superintendents' 

department . . . . . 3 00 

Printing circulars, programs, etc., — by the Secretary 25 00 

Mailing programs, postage, envelops, etc., — by the Secre- 
tary ...... 9 80 

Notices of meeting to the Press, postage, etc., — by the 
Secretary ..... 

Special expense of two Readers and one Lecturer 

Publishing 500 copies of the Proceedings for 1883 

Rent of Church and rooms for meetings of the Association 

Lumber and carpenter's work, fitting up tables, etc. 

Total expenses for the year 
Paid W. £. Sheldon, balance of cash advanced on account of 

Vol. for 1882 

£. T. Tappan, amount of cash advanced on account of 

Vol. for 1882 

£11 T. Tappan, balance of the indebtedness of the Associa- 
tion . ..... 

Total paid on account of indebtedness incurred 

prior to July, 1883 .... 

Balance in Treasury July 1, 1884, carried to the account for 

the succeeding year ..... 



The above accounts have been compared with Treasurer's books, and 
found an exact transcript of the same ; and for all accounts of expendi- 
tures vouchers have been presented fully agreeing with statements made by 
Treasurer. 

The committee desire to express their gratification . at the excellent 
system of accounts kept by the Treasurer, which renders the auditing of 
his accounts a simple matter, and easily comprehended. 

J. L. PiCKARD, \ Committee 

Andrew J. Rickoff, > of 
D. B. Haqar, I Audit. 



22 22 




37 60 




228 19 




80 00 




9 13 






9449 71 


^29 97 




250 00 




180 96 






660 93 




o 83 




91,115 97 



Madison, Wis., July 15, 1884. 



58 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



WEST VIRGINIA. 



Brackett, N. C, Harpers' Ferry. 
Butcher, B . L., State Supt., Wheeling. 
Carter, Fanny, Pahitine. 
Crago, F. H., Wheeling. 
Crurabacker, Sue E., 15 Ohio St., Wheel- 
ing. 
Deane, Miss R. L., Wheeling. 
Gittings, John G., Clarksburg. 



John, L. F., Buckhannon. 
McClasky, Olive, Mountlsville. 
Mitchell, Walter, Wellsburg. 
Morrison, Mary J., Wheeling. 
Myers, Cora, Moundsville. 
Shields, D. W., Keyser. 
Swift, Mary E., Wheeling. 



WISCONSIN. 



Abbey, C. D., Wausau. 

Able, Thomas W., Fon-du-Lac. 

Ackerman, J. H., Arcadia. 

Adams, J. N., Ellswortli. 

Adams, Lydia, Racine. 

Allen, Httttie, Prescott. 

Allen, L. Kate, Berlin. 

Allen, Mrs. P. L., Oshkosh. 

Allen, Walter, 662 Hanover St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Allen, Prof. W. F., Madison. 

Allen. Mrs. W. F., Madison. 

Ailing, Mrs. E. J., Fort Atkinson. 

Amery, Fannie, St. Croix Falls. 

Anderson, B. F. , Sheboygan Falls. 

Anderson, Mrs. B. F., Sheboygan Falls. 

Andrews, A. D., River Falls. 

Andrews, Geo. N., 1 ronton. 

Apthorp, Mary, Oshkosh. 

Ashmun, Minnie, Rural. 

Auerswald, £., Marinette. 

Augustine, A. B., 221 6th St., Racine. 

Babcock, Gertrude A., Eau Claire. 

Bacon, Florence. West Salem. 

Bacon, Hattie E., Manitowoc. 

Baetz, Lizzie, Two Rivers. 

Bailey, Emma, Boscobel. 

Bailey, Jennie, Racine. 

Bailey, Ruth, 327 Lake St., Milwaukee. 

Barber, Marion, Fulton. 

Barker, Wm. E., Pepin. 

Barrett, L. H., Bloomington. 

Bateman, Mrs. Helen, 789 Astor St., 
Milwaukee. 

Beckwith. E. E., Port Washington. 

Beebe, Eleanor, Racine. 

Bender, Lydia M. , Oconomowoc. 

Binner, Paul, 1222 Fon-du-Lac Ave., 
Milwaukee. 

Bird, John P., La Crosse. 

Bivins, Miss M., 718 Galena St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Blackburn, Mary E., Oshkosh. 

Bliss, Fannie P.*, Eau Claire. 

Bliss, Lizzie A., 838 Main St., Racine. 

Bloss, Aurie E., 414 Jackson St., Osh- 
kosh. 

Bonesteel, Fanny, Grand Ave. House, 
Milwaukee. 

Boorman, Curtiss A., Tomah 



Bostwick, Minnie, Eau Claire. 

Bowker; Miss M. L., Somers. 

Bradford, I. A., Hartford. 

Bradford, Mary, Kenosha. 

Brand, T. H. , 348 W. Main St., Madison. 

Brennan, John, Fon-du-Lac. 

Brier, W. J., Plymouth. 

Briggs, L. W., Oshkosh. 

Brigham, Chas. I., 325 Cass St., MQ- 
waukee. 

Broughton, Aaron, Albany, Greene Co. 

Brown, G. W., Madison. 

Brown, Hattie H., Fond-du-Lac. 

Brow, Fred M., 116 E. Gorham St., 
Madison. 

Buckley, Kate E., Black Hawk. 

Buell. Callie T., Eau Claire. 

Buell, L M., Beloit. 

Buerki, Emily, Sauk City. 

Burk, Ida, Hudson. 

Burr, A. W., Beloit. 

Burton, A. W., Neillsville. 

Burton, George, Annaton. 

Burton, Mrs. L. D., Geneva Lake. 

Cabinis, Geo. E., Platteville. 

Cable, D. A. (Girls' Industrial School), 
Milwaukee. 

CaJey, Ella, De Pere, Brown Co. 

Cady, Sarah, Reedsburg. 

Caldwell, Miss C. J., River Falls. 

Campbell, Julia, 251 27th St. , Milwaukee. 

Cass, Frances S., East Troy. 

Cassidy, Anna F,, Whitewater. • 

Caverns, Miss C, Kenosha. 

Chaffee, Ellen B., Burton, Grant Co. 

Chamberlain, J. N., Beloit. 

Chapin, Rev. A. L., Beloit. 

Christie, Eliza J., 820 Union St., Racine. 

Christie, Jessie, 130 10th St., Milwaukee. 

Clapp, Betsey, New Richmond. 

Clapp, Etta, New Richmond. 

Clapp, Mary, New Richmond. 

Clark, Clara T., Milton. 

Clarke, Mrs. L. H., Tomah. 

Clarke, Mrs. J. G. N., 493 Jefferson St., 
Milwaukee. 

Clay, Leora, 344 Washington St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Cleaver, Emma O., 344 Washington St., 
Milwaukee. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS. 



6a 



Clement, E. W., Beaver Dam. 
Cleveland, J. J., La Crosse. 
Clinton, Emma, Waukesha. 
Clough, W. G., Portage. 
Cochran, Mrs. L. L., Oshkosh. 
Colcord, Fanny C, State Nor. School, 

Oshkosh. 
Coleman, Mary E., First Ave., Cor. 

Becker St., Milwaukee. 
Coleman, Nellie P., Milwaukee. 
Congdon, J. W., La Crosse. 
Conklin, Margaret, Seymour. 
Connell, SariJi A., South Germantown. 
Cook, Mrs. Ada Ray, Whitewater. 
Cook, Kate, Ironton. 
Cook, Martha, Ironton. 
Corbett, Miss F. K., 519 Hanover St., 

Milwaukee. 
Crandall, Alice, Madison. 
Craw, Alice L., Oshkosh. 
Crawford, J. C., Green Bay. 
Cnbb, Lousia, Lancaster. 
Cnddy, Anna, Eau Claire. 
Curtis, CoraM., Kosendale. 
Curtis, Inez, Hebron. 
Cutting, Mrs. Delia, 409 Seventh St., 

Racine. 
Cutting, Miss Delia, 409 Seventh St., 

Racine. 
Dame, M. L., 414 Seventh St., Racine. 
Darnall, Lizzie A., Black River Falls. 
Darnall, Rebecca, Black River Falls. 
Davis, Hattie E. A., Omro. 
Davis, Nancy M., Winneconne. 
Davis, Sophie, Winneconne. 
Delaney, A. P., Whitewater. 
Delaney, Mary, Whitewater. 
Deming, H. W., Neillsville. 
Denison, Gertrude, Baraboo. 
Dewey, Miss L. C, De Pere. 
Diedrichson, John A., 802 Grand Ave., 

Milwaukee. 
Donaldson, N. S., La Crosse. 
Doolittle, M. E., Eau Claire. 
DooUttle, R. E., Eau Clare. 
Doty, Elrena R., La Crosse. 
Doty, Minnie L. , La Crosse. 
Drury, Harriet D., Fond-du-Lac. 
Dudgeon, R. B., Hudson. 
Dwelley, Mrs. E. I., Hudson. 
Dynes, Maria, Columbus. 
Dynes, Sarah A., Columbus. 
Eastman, Laura, Berlin. 
Eastman. Maggie, Platteville. 
Emerson, Jennie, 930 Superior St., 

Racine. 
Evans, Eliza E., 940 Park Ave., Racine. 
Evans, J. H., Platteville. 
Evans, Kate A., 940 Park Ave., Racine. 
Everest, Kate A., La Crosse. 
Falge, Louis, Manitowoc. 
Fairchild, A. M., 1303 State St., Racine. 
Farnsworth, Ada E., Oakdale. 
Fisk, Jr., J. P., Beloit College, Beloit. 



Fisk, Miss S. E., Darien. 
FitzGibbons, Eliza, Waunakee. 
Flanders, Mary, Platteville. 
Flynn, Hannah, Durham. 
Foley, Kate, Oconto. 
Ford, Lizzie S., 374 Pierce St., Milwau- 
kee. 
Foote, Lucy E., River Falls. 
Foote, Mary L., Sparta. 
Fowler, C. E.,.New Lisbon. 
Fox, C. M., Muscoda. 
Frankenburger, D. B., 115 W. Oilman 

St., Madison. 
Frankenburger, Mrs. D. B., 115 W. 

Oilman St., Madison. 
Frank, Noma, Muscoda. 
Eraser, Annabel, Durand. 
Prawley, M. S., Eau Claire. 
Freeman, Prof. F. C, Madison. 
Friedel, Charles, Necedah. 
Gardner, Mrs. B. A., Platteville. 
Gardner, D. E., Platteville. 
GaffVon, Otto., Plymouth. 
George, Ella, Kenosha. 
Gettle, Emma Y,, Cadiz. 
Gill, Flora, 366 Pearl St., Oshkosh. 
Gillett, Anna E., Kenosha, 
Gillett, G., Kenosha. 
Gillispee, Mary, Waukesha. 
Gittings, W. G., Racine. 
Gleason, Nellie R., Westborough. 
Goldberg, Etta, Manitowoc. 
Goodill, Mary, Stockbridge. 
Gooding, Lizzie L. , Wausau. 
Goodrich, Jennie M., Durand. 
Goodrich, Mary, Oconto. 
Goodsell, E. B., Highland. 
Gould, J. H., Stoughton. 
Graham, Hattie E., 418 Marshall St., 

Milwaukee. 
Graham. Ruth A., Baraboo. 
Gray, Alice, 904 Winchester St., Milwau- 
kee. 
Gray, Bessie, 904 Winchester St., Mil- 
waukee. 
Greene, Annie M., Spring Prairie. . 
Gregor, Fanny, Kewaunee. 
Greibe, Henry, Franklin. 
Grindell, Lillie, Platteville. 
Griswold, Anna M., Horicon. 
Gross, Sophie, Merrimack. 
Grotophorst, M. S., Black Hawk. 
Grubb, Gei. 1)., Eiroy. 
Guile, Delia S., 219 Grove St., Milwau- 
kee. 
Gunn, Anna, Eau Claire. 
Haber, J. P., Ripon. 
Hall, J. C, Unity. 
Hannahs, Etta, Kenosha. 
Hannahs, Julia, Kenosha. 
Hanson, Carrie S., Oshkosh. 
Hanson, Richard, 17 Fairchild St., Madi- 
son. 
Hari>er, Maud, Eau Claire. 



60 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



Harrington, John, Bear Creek. 

HarkeU, Alfaretta, Oshkosh. 

Harney, Mrs. O. M. , Oshkosh. 

Haskins, H. F., Prairie-du-Sac. 

Haskins, Mrs. H. F., Prairie-du-Sac. 

Hastings, Helen, Kenosha. 

Hastings, Jennie. Kenosha. 

Haughton, William, Viroqua. 

Havens, Sarah B., 703 Cass St., Milwau- 
kee. 

Hayes, Dora, Spring Green. , 

Haylett, E. G., Menasha. 

Hazard, Martha E., Beloit. 

Heinman, Frances, 280 Tenth St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Hempel, Alma, Whitewater. 

Henry, Adele, Jefferson. 

Henry, Miss S. A., Fond-du-Lac. 

Herring, C. E., Poynette. 

Hesse, Henry D., 253 Third St., Milwau- 
kee. • 

Hewitt, P. H., Manitowoc. 

Hibbard, D. 0., Racine. 

Hickey, Mamie, 768 Michigan St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Hill, Edith C, Rosendale. 

Hirsch, J. T., Milwaukee. 

Hitchcock, Ida, New Richmond. 

Hodge, W, J., Ripon, 

Holbrook, Ella, Arkansaw. 

Holcombe, Alice, Menasha. 

Holcomb, Eva, Berlin. 

Holconib. Mary, Shebnj-gan Falls. 

Holden, Josephine, Hudson. 

Hooper, S. A., 5th Dist. School, Milwau- 
kee. 

Hosford, Margaret, Robert's Station, St. 
Croix Co. 

Howard, F. C, Waupon. 

Howard, Mrs. F. C, Waupon. 

Howitt, J., Waukesha. 

Hoyt, L. W., 221 Monona Ave., Madi- 
son. 

Hoyt, Ida M., Hudson. 

Hoyt, J. E., Lodi. 

Hubbard, Zilphe S., River Falls. 

Hughes, Mrs. Maifgie, Antigo. 

Hughes, H. S., Waukesha. 

Hughes, W. J., West Salem. 

Hulburt, L. S., Monroe. 

Huley, A. B., Menomonee. 

Hume, Anna, Oconto. 

Hunter, Mary, Ripon. 

Huntington, llattie A., Baraboo. 

Hutchins, C. A., Fond-du-Lac. 

Hutton, A. J., Platteville. 

Hyde, C. S., Lancaster. 

Ingals, J. G., Menomonee. 

Irwin, Lu E., Brandon. 

Jackson, F. D., Janesville. 

James, Clara C, 98 High St., Oshkosh. 

James, Elinor. Trempealeau. 

James, J. A., Hazel Green. 

James, Sarah, 98 High St., Oshkosh. 



Johnson, Laura, Black River Falls. 

Johnson, Lucy R., Black River Falls. 

Johnson, Tillie, Berlin. 

Jones, Eliza A., 817 Campbell St., 
Racine. 

Jones, Miss E. C, River Falls. 

Jones, Jennie H.,531 Jackson St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Jones, Jenny L., Eau Claire. 

Jones. Minnie, Berlin. 

Jones, W. F., Rockland, 

Jones, William, Clinton. 

Jones, W. W., Georgetown. 

Jones, Susie, Racine. 

Jordan, W. P., Berlin. 

Kahn, Bertha. 467 Fourth St., Milwau- 
kee. 

Kelleher, Maggie G. , De Pere. 

Kelleher, Minnie H., De Pere. 

Kellogg, D. M., Whitewater. 

Kellogg, Gertrude A., Janesville. 

Kelly, J. T., St. Francis. 

Kern, Addie M., Oconomowoc. 

Kerr, Alexander, I40Langdon St., Madi- 
son. 

Keyes, C. H., River Falls. 

Kimball, Hattie, Berlin. 

Kimball, W. W., Omro. 

King, Prof. F. H., River Falls. 

Keener, Adela, 366 llth St., Milwaukee. 

Kopplin, Otto, Fall Creek. 

Kriesel, C. A., Oakland. 

Ladd, Miss Bay, West Salem. 

Ladd, Mary H., German Academy, Mil- 
waukee. 

Lakin, May M., 201 Ninth St., Milwau- 
kee. 

Lamb, Miss L., Melrose. 

Lan, Charles, Cedarburg. 

Lansing, L. L. , Beloit. 

Lansing, Mrs. L. L., Beloit. 

Lan try, Mary, Manitowoc. 

Larson, Marie C, Oakdale. 

Leith, John A., Appleton. 

Leland, Lily, Whitewater. 

Lewis, C. S., Cottage Grove. 

Lewis, Mrs. E. , 909 College Ave., 
Racine. 

Lewis, Irene, Eau Claire. 

Lewis, Mary, 909 College Ave., Racine. 

Lewis, Mrs. Xury, Neillsville. 

Lily, Catherine H., Whitewater. 

Linfield, G. F., Beaver Dam. 

Little, Mrs. Sarah C, Janesville. 

Livingston, J. W., Dodgeville. 

Luebke, Emma, Milwaukee. 

Lugg, Mary L., 526 As tor St., Milwau- 
kee. 

Lynch, Ed., Grand Rapids. 

Lynch, P. A., 212 Biddle St., Milwaukee. 

Main, Julia B., Platteville. 

Majee, Julia A. , Oconto. 

Maloney, Mary A., Osman, Manitowoc 
Co. 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIPS. 



61 



Mapel, J. J., High School, Milwaukee. 
Marble, Nettie, Osiikosh. 
March, Orra L., Clcmansville. 
Marsh, C. O., Antigo. 
Martin, H. C, D»rlingtoii. 
Martin, Mrs. H. C, Darlington. 
Martin, Mag. Sheboygan Falls. 
Martin, R. W., Oshkosh. 
Marvin, Addio, Rnndolph. 
Massee, Clara, Knapp. 
Matthes, F., Hustisford. 
Mathews. Clara, Burlington. 
Maxon, Henry 1)., Whitewater. 
Mengea, John, Madison. 
Merk, Ida, Sauk City. 
Merrifield, Edith, Milton Junction. 
Merrifield, Miss H. A., Milton Junction. 
Merrill, Mrs. W., 232 Biddle St., Mil- 
waukee. 
Meyer, I^ouise C, 602 Prairie St., Mil- 
waukee. 
Middlecamp, William, Do Pere. 
Miller, Cora, Elo, Winnebago Co. 
Miller, Frank, Oshkosh. 
Minehan. Nellie, Bay View. 
Mink, Carrie, Burton, Grant Co. 
Miner, Mrs. C. A., Cherry St. School, 

Fond-du-Lac. 
Mitchell, Nellie L., Neenah. 
Monat, Miss M. C, Janesvillc. 
Moody, J. L., Ellsworth. 
Moore, Clara, Lancaster. 
Morehouse, Louisa, 770 Jackson St., 
Milwaukee. 

Morrison. Sarah, 1108 Park Ave., Racine. 

Morse, Clara, 36 Merritt St., Oshkosh. 

Morse, E. C, Arkdale. 

Morton. G. M., Richland Centre. 

Muck, Katy A., Jefferson. 

Muesse, Ollie, Lancaster. 

Munroe, Christia, Union Grove. 

Murphy, James P., Piatteville. 

McArthur, Edie, Lake Mills. 

McConahy, Mary, Durham. 

McCntchan, Mary L., 571 Seventh Ave., 
Milwaukee. 

McCutchin, Nora E., Sturgeon Bay. 

McConnell, J. E., West Salem. 

McEachron, Julia, 39 Ninth St., Racine. 

McFadden, Anna C., Fond-du-Lac. 

McGinnia, Lucinda, 209 Mifflin St., E. 
Madison. 

McGorern, Mary, Madison. 

McGrath, M., 304 Van Buren St., Mil- 
waukee. 

McGregor, J. K., 524 Lake St., Eau 
Claire. 

McGuire, Maggie, Baraboo. 

McKee, Clara, Delavan. 

McKenzie, Flora F., Hillsborough. 

McLaughlin, Ed., Fond-du-Lac. 

McMahon, Martin, Meenie. 
McMahon, M., Durand. 
McMahon, Rose, Doylestown. 



McMurdo, Mellie, Hortonville. 

McMynn, J. G., 942 Wisconsin St., , 
Racine. 

McNamara. D. W., Hartford. 

McNeal, Sue P., Eau Claire. 

Nageler, John G., New Holstein. 

Nngle, John, Manitowoc. 

Nash, Jennie, Hudson. 

Neff, Angle, Neillsville. 

Nelson, Slary A., Manitowoc. 

Niqurtte, Lucy, Two Rivers. 

North, Alex. F., Pewaukee. 

Nye, Ella A., Biiraboo. 

Nye, Zella M., Baraboo. 

Parker, Mrs. Louise, River Falls. 

Patterson, Miss H., Eau Claire. 

Patterson, Ida, Fox River. 

Patterson, Sarah, Fox River. 

Patterson, V., Fox River. 

Patzer, C E., Manitowoc. 

Patzer, Mrs. C. E., Manitowoc. 

Peaslee, Anna J. , Omro. 

Perry, Mrs. E., Grand Ave. House, Mil- 
waukee. 

Peterson, J. P., Luck, Polk Co. 

Phillips, C. J., Wyocena. 

Phillips, W. B., Boscobel. 

Pickards, Cynthia, Neenah. 

Pickering, C. R., Basswood. 

Pierce, Rose, Rjicine. 

Pinch, Mary, West Rosendale. 

Pinning, Miss E. M, 84 Elm St., Osh- 
kosh. 

Pollock, W. J., Hebron. 

Porter, Anna A., Madison. 

Pray, Prof. T. B., Whitewater. 

Ramsay, Margaret , Nicollette. 

Rankin, W. L., Waukesha. 

Reed, J. H., Lancaster. 

Reik, Lydia M., 609 Washington St.. 
Milwaukee. 

Rielly, T. W., Fond-du-Lac. 

Remington, Maud, Baraboo. 

Rhea. A. O., West Salem. 

Riedel, Cathinka, Lancaster. 

Richardson, Mrs. E. B., Janes ville. 

Richards, Rev. C. H., Madison. 

Roberts, L. D., Shawano. 

Robins, Mamie E., Oshkosh. 

Rodee, Alice, 314 Sycamore St., Mil- 
waukee. 

Rogers, Miss C., Whitewater. 

Rogers, G. A., Oconomowoc. 

Roggenban, Maggie S., 420 Sixth St., 
Racine. 

Roll, Richard, Hustisford. 

Rosenblatt, Mrs. H., Beloit. 

Rowb, Sadie, Prairie-du-Chien. 

Royce, Almira A., Oshkosh. 

Russell, Ella J., Waupon. 

Russell, Hattie J., Omro. 
Salisbury, Celia, Elkhorn. 
Salisbury, Emma, Whitewater. 
Salisbury, Harriet, Whitewater. 



70 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF LOCAL COMMITTEES AT 

MADISON. 

ON ENTEBTAINMENT, HOTELS, LUNCHEONS, AND LODGINGS. 

Hon. J. H. Carpenter, Chairman, Madison; Elisha Burdick, Esq.; Maj. Charles 
G. Mayers. 

ON NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL EXHIBITION. 

Hon. W. H. Chandler, Chairman;. Capt. W. H. Bennett; W. A. Tracy, Esq. 

ON FINANCE. 

S. L. Sheldon, Esq., Chairman; L. S. Hanks, Esq. ; S. Klanber, Esq. ; W. Ram- 
sey, Esq. ; J. W. Hobbins, Esq. ; J. Suhr, Esq. ; Hon. J. A. Johnson. 

ON HALLS AND PLACES OF MEETING. 

Gen. Lucius Fairchild, Chairman; A. H. Main, Esq. ; J. E. Moseley, Esq. ; F. J. 
Lamb, Esq. ; Mrs. J. W. Sterling. 

ON INVITATIONS AND RECEPTION. 

Hob. Robert Graham, Chairman; Fres. John Bascom, D. D., LL. D. ; Supt. S. 
Shaw; Gen. E. E. Bryant; Mrs. John Bascom; Mrs. S. L. Sheldon; Mrs. Willett S. 
Main ; Gen. David Atwood ; Frof . F. A. Farker, Fh. D. 



The following programs have been prepared for this meeting, and are 
submitted for the approval of the Directors. 



General Program of tbe National Educational Association. 



TOPICS AKD SPEAKERS. 



I. The President's Annual Address. 

II. Citizenship and Education. Hon. J. L. M. Curry, LL. D., 
Virginia; Gen. John Eaton, LL. D., Washington. 

in. Education in the Northwest. Col. William F. Vilas, 
Madison. 

rv. Education at the South. Pres. A. 6. Haygood, LL. D., 
Georgia; Rev. A. D. Mayo, Massachusetts; Supt. Albert 
Salisbury, Georgia; Prof. William H. Crogman, Geoi^ia; 
Prof. R. H. Jesse, Louisiana ; Major R. Bingham, North Car- 
olina ; Prof. B. T. Washington, Alabama, and others. 



PRESIDENT'S REPORT. 71 

V. Needs in American Education. Mrs. Eva D. Kellogg, 

Massachusetts. 
VI. The Constant in Education. Supt. B. A. Hinsdale, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Vll. Woman's Work in Education. Mrs. Rebecca D. Bickoff, 
New York; Miss Frances E. Willard, Illinois; Mrs. May 
Wright Sewall, Indiana ; Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper, California ; 
Miss Alice E. Freeman, Massachusetts ; Miss Clara Conway, 
Tennessee ; Miss Ella W. Somerville, Washington, and others. 
Vni. Education of the Indian. Gen. S. C. Armstrong, Virginia ; 
Capt. R. H. Pratt, Pennsylvania ; Rev. Albert Riggs, Dakota ; 
Hon. J. W. Haworth, U. S. Superintendent of Indian Education, 
Washington. Educated and uneducated Indians will be pres- 
ent as an object lesson. Hon. Henry M. Teller, Secretary of 
the Bureau of the Interior, has been invited to be present, 
and has given the officers hope that he will be, and take part 
in the discussion. 

IX. Deap-Mute Education as related to Public Education. 
Prof. Alexander Graham Bell, Washington. The friends of 
deaf-mute instruction in the United States are invited to be 
present and take part in the discussion. Those especially 
interested will have the opportunity offered to hold other 
meetings, independent of the Association, if they desire. 

X. Principles and Methods of a System of Elementary Edu- 

cation. G. Stanley Hall, Ph. D., Maryland, and Hon John 
W. Dickinson, Massachusetts. One session of the Associa- 
tion will be devoted to this important subject, and it is expect- 
ed that the leaders in thought and work in this department 
will have a large opportunity to express their views. William 
T. Harris LL. D., Massachusetts; Col. F. W. Parker, Illi- 
nois; Hon. J. H. Greenwood, Missouri; Hon. O. V. Tousley, 
Minnesota; Supt. Geo. Howland, Illinois, and others, have 
been invited to take part in the discussion. 

XI. The Utah Problem as related to National Education. 

J. M. Coyner, A. M., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
XII. The National Educational Association will close with a 
Mass Meeting in the Park of the Capitol, on Friday evening. 
Addresses may be expected from Hon. J. M. Rusk, Governor 
of Wisconsin ; Es-Gov. Hon. Lucius Fairchild, and other dis- 
tinguished representatives of the several States and of Foreign 
Governments. 



72 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS. 



ELEMENTARY DEPARTMENT. 

F. LOUIS SOLDAN President, 

I. Address by the President op the Department. 
II. Language Lessons. Orville T. Bright, Principal Douglas 
School, Chicago, Illinois. 

III. Form, Color, and Design. Miss Hattie N. Morris, Princi- 

pal Training School, Brooklyn, New York. 

IV. Method in Music. Prof. H. E. Holt, Boston, Mass. 

NORMAL DEPARTMENT. 

E. C. HEWETT. Ptesideni, 
WEDNESDAY, P. M. 

I. Opening Address, Appointment of Committees, etc. 
II. "The Necessity for Normal , Schools," by Dr. Thomas 
Hunter, President of the Normal College, New York City. 
Discussion led by J. Baldwin, A. M., President of " Sam 
Houston " Normal School, Huntsville, Texas. 

III. " The General Bearing of Psychology on the Art op 

Teaching," by Prof. W. H. Payne, of the University of 
Michigan. Discussion led by A. G. Boyden, A. M., Prin- 
cipal of State Normal School, Bridgewater, Mass. 

FRIDAY, p. M. 

IV. Election of Officers and General Business. 

V. '* Professional Enthusiasm," by Prof. Henry B. Norton, 

Vice-Principal of the State Normal School, San Jose, 
California. Discussion led by Thomas Metcalf, A. M., 
Training Teacher in the State Normal University, Nor- 
mal, Illinois. Closing Exercises. 



PRESIDENT'S REPORT, 73 

DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER INSTRUCTION. 
J. L. PICKARD, President 

I. Address bt the President of the Department. 
II. The Part which Language plats in a Liberal Education. 
John Bascom, LL. D., Madison, Wisconsin, President 
Knapp, Iowa. 
ni. Political Science in our Colleges. W. W. Folwell, LL. D., 
Minneapolis, Minnesota ; Col. William Preston Johnson, 
New Orleans, Louisiana. 

DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE. 

B. L. BUTCHER, President, 

I. State Supervision of Schools. Hon. J. D. Pickett, State 
Superintendent of Education, Kentucky. 
n. County Supervision op Schools. J. C. Macpherson, Esq., 
Superintendent of Schools, Wayne Co., Indiana. 
m. Cmr AND Town Supervision of Schools. R. W. Stevenson, 
Esq., Superintendent of Schools, Columbus, Ohio. 

INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENT. 

C. M. WOODWARD. President. 

I. A Layman's View of Manual Training. Col. Augustus 
Jacobson, Chicago. 
n. Address by Dr. Felix Adler, New York City, " Manual 

Training an Element of Harmonious Culture." 
m. Address by Prof. John M. Ordway, .of Boston, ''Hand 

Work in Public Schools." 
IV. A Teaching Exercise in Shop Work. Chas. F. White, 
Manual Training School, St. Louis. 

DEPARTMENT OF ART EDUCATION. 

L. S. THOMPSON. President. 

L Address bt the President of the Department. 
II. Report op CoMMnrEE on Course op Study in Industrial 
Drawing por the Public Schools. James MacAlister, 
Chairman, 



74 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION. 

JULY 10, 11, 12, H, AND 15. 

The Committees of the Council are investigating such important ques- 
tions as the 

"Organization of State School Systems," "Manual Training in General Edacft- 
**School Supervision in Cities," tion," 

"Requirements of Admission to College," "Pedagogics as a Science," 

•'Preparatory Schools," "The Limits of Co- Education," 

"Oral Instruction," "Sanitary Appliances of Public Schools,** 

"Practice Departments in Normal "School Reports," 

Schools,*' "Educational Statistics," and 

"Moral Education." 

Reports on several of these topics will be considered by the Conncili 
and a summary of the conclusions reached will be reported to the National 
Educational Association. It is expected that each of the fifteen committees 
of the Council will hold meetings at Madison, in connection with the meet- 
ing of the Council. 

Albeett G. Boyden, Secretary, E. E. White, President. 



THE FROEBEL INSTITUTE OF NORTH AMERICA. 

MEETING AT MADISON, July U-17, 1884. 

The Meeting of the Froebel Institute will be held in connection with 
that of the National Educational Association, and all arrangements for re- 
duction of railroad fares and entertainment at Madison will be made by the 
Executive Committee of the National Association. The Froebel Institute 
will be organized one day before the organization of the National Associa- 
tion, thus giving our friends an opportunity to transact the bulk of their 
business undisturbed. The sessions on the 16th and 17th are so arranged 
as not to interfere with the general work of the National Association. 

July 14, Evening Session. —Reports of Officers. Address of President Appoint- 
ment of Committees. 

July 16, Morning Session. — 1. Address: To wiiat Extent cnn the Kindergarten 
become a Part of the Public School Systt>m? Supt. Jatnes MacAlister, Philadelphia. 

2. Address : What U the Purpose and Scope uf the Manual Training suggested by 
Froebel? Prof. H. H. Straight, Normalville, 111 



PRESIDENrS REPORT. 75 

3. Address : What Benefits maj be expected from Charity Kindergartens? Pres. 
John Ogden^ Washington. 

Afternoon Session, — 1. Address : How should Efficient Training-Schools be organ- 
ized? Miss Sarah A. Stewart, Milwaukee. 

2. Address : How can the Friends of Froebel be organized for Efficient Local 
Work? Hon. John Hitz, Washington. 

Jolt 16, Afternoon Session. — 1. Address : The Conflict of the two Ideals. Col. 
F. W. Parker, Illinois. 

July 1 7, Afternoon Session. — 1. To what Extent should Primary Teachers be 
Familiar with Kindergarten Methods? Pres. Irwin Shepard, Winona, Minn. 

2. Reports of Committees. 

3. ** Five Minute reports " from all quarters. 

W. N. Hailmakk, President j Laportb, Ikd. 



In order that the proceeds of this meeting might not be drawn 
upon to any great extent to meet its expenses, the president and other 
officers have made special ejQforts to meet them by pledges in advance of 
the meeting, and by the solicitation of life-memberships. Wisconsin edu- 
cators pledged $500 towards the expenses and through the noble and 
inspiring labors of Hon. W. H. Chandler, ably seconded by the principals 
of normal and high schools and others in this State, $1000 have been raised 
and paid into the Treasury for fifty life-memberships, and by this grand 
efiTort, Wisconsin is now the banner State in this department of member- 
ships, an example which may well stimulate the educators of other States 
to do likewise. In addition, other life-memberships have been made and 
pledged, to an amount to meet most, if not quite all the probable expenses 
of this meeting. 

In addition to the usual department and general work of the Associa- 
tion, requests have been received from the president of the Froebel Union 
of North America, from Prof. Alexander Graham Bell, and others inter- 
ested in Deaf Mute Instruction, and from Prof. L. M. Mason, and others 
interested in Musical Instruction, to be allowed to hold meetings in Mad- 
ison, not in conflict with our arrangements. As so many of our members 
are interested in those departments of instruction I have cheerful!}' granted 
those requests, and the Association is invited to enjo}' the benefits of their 
meetings. It is quite possible that one or more of these organizations may 
ask for admission as departments of this Association, and I am sure that 
the Directors will give such applications a candid and a friendly hearing. 

To accomplish the results manifest in this gathering of at least six 
thousand educators from ail parts of our own, and from foreign lands, I 
have had the constant and hearty co-operation of every officer and member 
of the Association, and my gratitude cannot be expressed for the many 
marks of confidence and fellowship I have received from them. To 
His Excellency Hon, J. M. Rusk, and all the State oflScials ; to Hon. J. 
H. Carpenter, chairman of the local committees, and his associates; to 



76 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

W. H. Stennett, Esq., and the oflacials of the Chicago and Northwestern 
Bailway ; to A. V. H.- Carpenter, Esq., and others of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul Railway; to Charles S. Fee, Esq., and others of the 
Northern Pacific Railway; to Jas. Stevenson, Esq., and S. M. Cummings, 
of the Grand Trunk and Central Vermont Railways, and all other railroad 
officials governing the 75,000 miles of railway made tributary to this meet- 
ing; to the editors of the press which has rendered so valuable aid in 
informing the people, of the Association as a great National Educational 
organization, and to the people of Madison who have received us so cordial- 
ly, 1 feel deeply indebted and grateful. 

In the performance of the work intrusted to me, as the Executive of 
the National Educational Association, I have spared neither time nor 
strength. In its interests, within the last twelve months I have travelled 
more than 12,000 miles, being absent from my home and business at 
least three months of the year. My services have been rendered with a 
single desire to promote the interests of education, and to upbuild our 
beloved Association. My personal expenses in travel I wish to contribute 
to the Association. I present a small bill for clerk hire for a portion of the 
year. I commit to the Directors of the Association the work which has 
been wrought earnestly and conscientiously for the good of the cause. 

Thomas W. Bicknell, 
President National Educational Association. 
MiiDisoN, Wis., July, 1884. 



STATEMENT BY THE TREASURER. 11 

PEELIMINARY STATEMENT BY THE TREASURER. 

NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION — 1884. 

It is customary, and is in accordance with the provisions of the con- 
stitution of this Association, for the Treasurer to present his accounts '' to 
the Board of Directors, prior to the regular meeting of the Association,'* 
at which his term of office expires. Yet it seems to be desirable that a 
financial statement be made now and published in the volume of Proceed- 
ings which is to be sent to the members for 1884. For this reason the 
following facts, stiowing the present condition of the treasury, are given : 

It is proper to state in this connection, that the several bills for the 
items embraced in the disbursements were submitted to the Auditing Com- 
mittee, which was appointed at Madison by the Board of Directors, J. L. 
Pickard, of Iowa, Andrew J. Ilickoff, of New York, D. B. Hagar, of 
Massachusetts, and approved by them for payment, and that the Treas- 
urer holds vouchers for the same. 

RECEIPTS, 1884. 

Balance from account for 1883 . . $ 5 33 

Interest from Permnnent Fund . . . 12 00 

From 61 Life Memberships . . . . . . 1,220 00 

From 2719 Annual Memberships ..... 6,438 00 

Balance from Funds for National Educational Exposition at 

Madison . . . . . 50 94 



Total resources ...... »6,72G 27 



DISBIJUSEMENTS, 1884. 
For expenses of " General Managers " in 22 States . . 6402 72 

Superintendents of R. R. Transportation . 348 32 

President Bicknell while making arrangements 

for the meeting .... 2.50 00 

Printing note heads, circulars, certificates of 

membership, etc. .... 250 11 

Printing programs, posters, badges, etc., at 

Madison . . . . . 210 25 

Special Services, Manager of Reports of Meet- 
ing for the Associated Press, and Report of 
Discussions for the Volume . . 176 00 

Special Postmaster, Messengers, Assistants of 

Treasurer, and Clerical Help . 66 00 

Postage on letters, circulars, bulletins, express 

charges, and telegrams . . . 292 37 

Special expenses for departments . . 46 25 



Total disbursements to date . . $2,041 02 



It may be added that the cost of publishing about 3000 copies of the 
Proceedings of the Madison meeting, and other necessary expenses during 
the next two months, will materially reduce the amount now in the 
treasury. N. A. Calkins, 

Trta$urer National Educaiional Assoetaiton. 

N»w YoBK, Nov. 1, 1884. 



NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION. 



PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL REPORT. 

The constitution of the National Council of Education makes it the 
duty of the President to make *' an annual report of its work to the Na- 
tional Educational Association.*' In accordance with this provision I have 
the honor to aubmit the following statement of the work of the Council for 
the year 1883-84. 

The investigations of the Council, which cover nearly the entire field 
of school education, are assigned to twelve standing committees. The 
general subject or inquiry assigned to each committee is divided into three 
to five sub-topics as bases for successive investigations and reports. This 
arrangement distributes the work of each committee over several years, 
and its successive reports, being each confined to one topic, are brief and 
the Council is able to discuss the same in an intelligent and satisfactory 
manner. 

The annual meeting of the Council, held in connection with this meet- 
ing of the National Educational Association, opened on Thursday evening, 
July 10, and closed with an executive or business session on Tuesday 
afternoon, July 15, the whole number of sessions (half-day or evening) 
being nine. Thirty-eight of the fifty-one members were present, and five 
of the honorary members. The interest in the exercises was well sus- 
tained. 

Reports were submitted by six committees, as follows : 

1. Committee on Hygiene in Education, on ** Recess, or No Recess," J. L. Pick- 
ard, Chairman. 

2. Committee on Elementary Education, on ** Oral Teaching," J. W. Dickinson, 
Chairman. 

3. Committee on City School Systems, on ** Supervision of City Schools," A. J. 
Rickofif, Chairman ; with supplemental report on ** The Duties of School Superintend- 
ents," by Aaron Gove, a member of the committee. 

4. Committee on Pedagogics, on ** Pedagogics as a Science," W. T. Harris, 
Chairman; with report to the committee on *' Is Pedagogics a Science?" by F- Louis 
Soldan. 

5. Joint Committee on *' Preparation for College," Lemuel Moss, Chairman. 

6. Special Committee on "Pedagogical Inquiry," G. Stanley Hall, Chairman; 
a preliminary report. 



REPORT OF PRESIDENT WHITE, 79 

These several reports were prepared with unusual care and the dis- 
cossioDS were searching and thorough. 

At the opening of Friday's session, the Council authorized the Presi- 
dent to appoint a reporter of the discussion of each paper, with a view of 
preserving the more important points for publication. This action was 
taken after the consideration of the report on ** Recess or No Recess," 
and hence no report of its discussion was made to the Council. The re- 
ports of the other discussions were read to the Council for approval, with 
the exception of the report of the discussion of Dr. Harris's paper on 
" Pedagogics as a Science," read the last day of the meeting. The report 
of this discussion was not submitted for approval, but is believed to be sub- 
stantially correct. These concise reports of the Council discussions will 
add much to the value of its published proceedings. 

It was my purpose to present in this report a succinct statement of 
the substance of the reports and discussions at this meeting of the Council, 
but since the Association has just authorized the publishing of the Council 
proceedings in the volume of Association proceedings, the making of such 
a summary is unnecessary. The proceedings of the Council will also be 
published in a separate volume, at the expense of members and for their 
use* 

It must suffice to say, in conclusion, that the work of the Council in- 
creases in importance and value from year to year. The success of its 
fourth annual meeting is a hopeful promise that it will meet, in the near 
future, at least, the more moderate anticipations of its founders. 
Respectfully submitted. 

E. E. White, 

President of Council of Educatioji. 
Maduoh, Wis., July 18, 1684. 



♦This third volume of Council proceedings will be sent, postpaid, on receipt of 60 
cents. Either of the two preceding volumes will be sent at the same price. Address 
N. £. Publishing Co., 16 Hawley St., Boston, Mass. 



THE EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION AT MADISON. 



One of the most important contributions to the work of the National 
Association at Madison was the educational exhibition which was made in 
the State Capitol. The first suggestion of the possibility of such an ex- 
hibition came to the President on his first visit to Madison, in September^ 
1883. The two wings of the Capitol extension were then nearly completed, 
find the Governor and other State authorities offered the new unoccupied 
space, with such other room as could be spared, for the display of educa- 
tional material in connection with the meetings of the Association. It 
seemed to Mr. Bicknell that the unusual facilities offered for the illustration 
of the visible and material products of our schools and colleges were well 
adapted for the presentation of a great object lesson which all visitors could 
appreciate and profit by, and it was decided to add this a,ttraction to others 
of the usual order, provided it could be done without extra expense to the 
Association. The plan was readily approved by the executive committee of 
the Association, and to ensure its complete success, Hon. J. H. Smart, 
LL. D., President of Purdue University, Indiana, was invited to become the 
Director of the Exposition. In December, President Smart visited Madi- 
son in company with President Bicknell, and after examining the Capitol 
buildings and the space allotted for the exhibition it was decided to pro- 
ceed with the completion of plans and the collection of material. At an 
early day, Director Smart announced the scheme agreed upon and selected 
his associates in charge of Departments as follows. 

NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION. 
DEPARTMENTS. 

The Exhibit will be organized into twelve departments, viz. : 

1. Main Exhibition. Including work of higher school?, both public and private. 

This part of the exhibit will be grouped in divisions by States. 

2. Dbpartment op Industrial Education. H. H. Belfield, Chicago, III., Super- 

iniendeni. This department will include the products of all technical schools 
and manual-training schools. Space will be afforded for showing processes, if 
exhibitors desire it. 



EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION, 81 

3. Art Department. Walter S. Perxy, Worcester, Mass., Superintendent. This 

department will include special exhibits of drawini^s, crayon work, water colors, 
and all forms of decoratiye art, to be exhibited by city schools and private 
schools. 

4. Kindergarten Department. W. N. Hailmann, Laporte, Ind., Superintendent. 

This depitrtment will include all products of public and private Kindergartens. 
Opportunity will be afforded to a limited number of those who may desire to il- 
lustrate methods of Kindergarten instruction. Concessions will be granted in 
this department to dealers and publishers who wish to display Kindergarten ap- 
pliances. 

5. Exhibit Selected from the National Educational Museum. This depart- 

ment will include a most interesting exhibit of school products and appliances 
gathered from foreign countries, and now forming a part of the National Educa- 
tional Museum at Washington, D. C. 

6. Exhibit of pEDAaooio Literature. Wm. E. Sheldon, Boston, Mass., Super- 

intendent. This exhibit will include bound pedagogioliterature, and will exclude 
all current periodicals. 

7. Ward's Museum of Mineralogy, Geology, and Zoology. H. A. Ward, 

Rochester, N. Y., Superintendent, This exhibit will be made exclusively by 
H. A. Ward, of Rochester, N. Y., and will form one of the most interesting fea^ 
tures of the exposition. 

8. Exhibit of School Architecture, Including Ventilating and Heating Ap- 

paratus. J. J. Burns, Lancaster, O., Superintendent, This department will 
include all exhibits made by architects, builders of school-houses, and inventors 
and makers of apparatus for heating and ventilating. Concessions will be granted 
in this department to manufacturers and dealers. 

9. Exhibit of School Journals and other Current Educational Publica- 

tions. William A. Mo wry, Providence, R. L, iS^i(pcr»»<en<i«n<. 

10. Department of Apparatus and Supplies. H. R, Sanford, Middletown, 

N. Y., Superintendent, This department will include chemical and physical ap- 
paratus, globes, charts, appliances for use in laboratories, etc., both for elementa- 
ry and higher schools. Concessions will be granted in this department to manu- 
facturers, dealers, and inventors. 

11. Department of School Books., William A. Mowry, Providence, R. L, 

Superintendent, 

12. Department of School Furniture. J. J. Burns, Lancaster, 0. , Superintendent. 

Departments 11 and 12. Concessions will be granted to all publishers, and 
authors of text-books, and to all manufacturers of school fnrniture who may wish 
to display their products. 

.James H. Smart, Director^ Lafayette, Ind. E. E. Smith, Secretary and Treasurer. 



The Directors and Superintendents labored with great energy and 
fidelity, and their efforts were promptly and cordially seconded by those 
who were interested in the general departments in all parts of the country. 
If space would allow, it would be desirable to give the names of contribu- 
tors and contributions to this exposition of such unusual interest and 
value, but we can only give a general statement of the material exhibited, 
followed by reports of committees on special Departments of the work, 
and a summary of the exposition as an educational factor, by W. T. Harris, 
LL. D., of Massachusetts. 



82 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



REPORT ON THE EXPOSITION OF EDUCATION AT MADISON. 

Hon, T. W. Bicknell^ President of the National Educational Association: 

Sir: The undersigned, appointed by you, general chairman of the 
committees, to inspect the several departments of the educational exposi- 
tion at Madison and report on the same to the National Educational Asso- 
ciation, begs leave herewith to offer his report. 

The reports of the several special committees, appointed respectively 
to examine and report upon the departments have already been placed in 
your hands. They are 

1. The committee on Industrial and Technical Education. 

2. The committee on State Exhibits. 
8. The committee on Art. 

4. The committee on Special Exhibits. 

5. The committee on Kindergartens. 

In extent and completeness the exposition at Madison challenged com- 
parison with that of the Educational Exhibit at the Centennial at Phil- 
adelphia. 

I. The Industrial and Manual Training Exhibition. In this depart- 
ment were found exhibits from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
the University of Wisconsin, Purdue University of Indiana, the St. Louis 
Manual Training School of Washington University in Missouri, the Illinois 
Industrial School. Pattern making, wood carving, designs for print pat- 
terns, telescope making, fire engines,, locomotive and stationary engine 
making, engraving and casting in bronze, tool making, working drawings 
for wood and metal work — these and the like were shown to advantage. 

II. The Art Exhibition. This department, auxiliary to the former, 
inasmuch as its results are the training of the hand and eye for industrial 
purposes, was in itself a demonstration of the general attempt of the pub- 
lic schools of the cities in the land to give some industrial training. 
Twelve cities in ten States and many special institutions located in various 
parts of the country were represented, and the development of free-hand 
drawing from its first lessons on to a very advanced grade of perfection was 
illustrated with great painstaking. The exhibit covered nearly seven 
thousand feet of space. It told at a glance how widely the system im- 
ported from England, and known here at first as the Walter Smith system, 
had been adopted even by rival teachers and systems. 

III. The Kindergarten Exhibition. This was a surprise to every 
one. There were exhibits from eighteen cities in this country, besides one 
from Japan, another from Geneva, and a third from an Indian orphan 



EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION. 83 

asylom. The arrangement of this exhibit ander the direction of Prof. W. 
N. Hailmann was a masterpiece of skill — solving as it did the difficult 
problem of disposing of an immense mass of material within a small space, 
insufficiently lighted, and displaying everything to advantage. 

IV. iSpecicU Exhibits. There was Prof. Henry A. Ward's Museum 
of Natural Objects from Rochester, N. Y. Besides its display of rare 
types of specimens from the fields of Mineralogy, Geology, and Zoology, 
there was a most comprehensive exhibit of the different kinds of rocks that 
form the crust of the globe. Native ores and fossils in real specimens and 
in models formed the most attractive part of this display. The exhibit of 
the school journals and educational publications, the display of optical and 
physical instruments, the Japanese music charts, the methods of teaching 
gec^raphy, and the exhibit from the Institution for Feeble-minded, will be 
remembered by all who visited Madison. 

V. The State Exhibiia. There were five States that made full ex- 
hibits and many others that made partial ones. Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana, 
l^Iinnesota, and Illinois took the lead. Probably fifty different localities 
contributed to the exhibit for Iowa. It was a model exhibit for a State. 
The ingenuity shown in preparing the exhibit so as to show at a glance to 
the public what was the essential feature, seemed to surpass anything at- 
tempted in the Philadelphia exposition of education, — this was particularly 
noticeable in the Minnesota department. Each one of the five States above 
named was in charge of able exhibitors. 

All who visited the Centennial remember the exceptional excellence of 
the Indiana exhibit under the management of J. H. Smart. It was not 
too much to expect of the exposition at Madison, directed as it was by the 
same gentleman and assisted by men of tried ability, that it should present 
a noteworthy feature of the meeting. Expectations were more than real- 
ized. The exhibition rooms were thronged from the very beginning. One 
cannot calculate the influence of it for good. 

At Philadelphia there was a disproportionate presentation of what- 
ever in education tended to monstration. Whatever could make a show 
was seized upon for the exposition. In one State exhibit a stranger 
would have supposed that ornithology and taxidermy were extensively 
taught because so large a portion of its space was filled with cases of 
staffed birds. Another State seemed to be devoted to teaching the 
construction of machinery. Another showed only what it was doing in 
economic botany, while another seemed to be doing most for map-drawing. 

The exposition at Madison was not so one-sided. And yet it must be 
confessed that the work in which all the schools are engaged in for nine- 
tenths of the time made very little show and indeed could not make much 
show for the very reason that it is of such a nature that it cannot be ex- 
hibited like the products of the farm and workshop. Education produces 



84 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

cultured human beings and these cannot be placed on exhibition like grain 
and cloth. Neither can the methods of education be shown to advantage 
except in the school- room. Only the physical appliances can be shown. 
These are the buildings, furniture, apparatus, and books. These appli- 
ances do not have so direct a relation to their product as the plow and 
reaper have to the grain, or the spinning-machine and the loom have to the 
cloth. But they are valuable instruments after all. 

The written work in the shape of examinations seems to be more 
nearly a test of the work actually done by the pupil. But examination 
papers bound into volumes are not easily inspected by the visitor. They 
require too much time if one wishes to make a sound estimate of the rela- 
tive merits. Nevertheless, if one is sure that the work has been done 
under strict precautions, he has before him a good basis for forming a cor- 
rect opinion of the results of the instruction. The hand- writing, spelling, 
use of language, clearness of definition, accuracy of instruction, breadth of 
thought, neatness of habits — all these may be judged from the written ex- 
amination of a pupil if faithfully performed. 

Perhaps drawing is the most easily exhibited of all school work. 
When hung up on frames it is inspected with the greatest facility. Draw- 
ing has demonstrated again and again its right to a place in the curriculum 
of the common school. There seems, however, to be a tendency on the 
part of its teachers to set foith extravagant claims for it. It should be 
in their opinion a new species of language and on a par with speech in its 
oral and written forms. That only one person in a thousand has occasion 
in his vocation to reduce ideas to .drawings and only two in a hundred ever 
have the slightest occasion to read drawings in the technical sense, does 
not seem to be taken into full account. As a training of hand and eye 
drawing may claim a place in all public schools and throughout all grades. 
One hopes that the universal teaching of drawing in this country will 
eventually produce designers for our print-works and other manufactories, 
so that we shall hear no more of the necessity of importing skilled work- 
men in that department. 

The kindergarten has not yet been made a part of the school system 
except in a few cities. It deserves a place, however. The problem of its 
economical introduction bars the way to its rapid adoption, in most places. 
In St. Louis the cost of instruction has been reduced to a lower rate in the 
kindergarten than in the primary school, and the question of its practicabil- 
ity solved, at least, for that city. The intrinsic merits of its training and 
the devoted enthusiasm of its advocates are likely to devise methods 
whereby it may become a part of the primary school system of every town 
and village. 

The best part of its training is not mental so much as it is the cul- 
tivation of skill in the use of the hand and the eye and the training into 



EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION, 85 

habits of politeness and a teaching of the conventionalities of life and 
what may be called morality. For morality begins in the formation of 
habits of regularity, punctuality, neatness, silence, observance of forms, 
self-restraint as regards one's own likings, and the preference of what is 
good for what is selfish. The mathematical training in form and num- 
ber, given previous to the culture in the arts of reading and writing, is 
excellent. The child comes from the kindergarten into the primary school 
with much beneficial training in good habits and strengthened character — 
ability to occupy itself in its own proper task without interference with 
others, or direction from the teacher, and, more than all, with a reasoning, 
inquiring habit of mind. These effects are procured in a good kinder- 
garten without an overstrained cultivation of the intellect and memory 
such as is wont to be produced in infant schools by giving the child in- 
struction in reading and writing before his mind is mature enough to leave 
what is symbolic and take up what is purely conventional. 

The prominence of the industrial and manual training schools in the 
Madison Exposition shows that the new departure gets the most represen- 
tation, whether it forms a large or a small part of the general system. All 
will rejoice that the matter of fitting for one's vocation in life is to become 
a matter of schooling rather than of apprenticeship. Intelligent skill will 
supplant mere ^^ knack." Valuable time will be saved for general studies. 
Educated workmen from manual training schools wiU flirnish overseers 
that can teach as well as '' boss " their subordinates. It is not necessary as 
some think to introduce manual training into the common school. What 
we want is the manual training school side- by side with the high school as 
an independent institution for the preparation of youth for their vocation. 

Whatever may be the true and ultimate view in regard to these themes, 
the exposition at Madison has contributed much towards jdrawing the at- 
tention of the country to their solution. The thousands who studied those 
exhibits went home impressed with the paramount importance of the claims 
of the new education and with a vivid idea of its appliances. 

An exposition of education like that at Madison should be formed at 
every State capitol in the country. No better means could be devised to 
bring legislators to a sense of the meaning and significance of the common 
school. The detailed mention of persons and exhibits is left, as is proper, 
to the special committees who have reported on the departments. 

In conclusion, it only remains to say that the exposition was a grand 
success in aU its departments and formed a very important feature in the 
greatest educational gathering ever held in this countiy. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

W. T. Harris. 



a^ 



86 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE KINDERGARTEN 

EXHIBIT. 

Hon. T. W, Bicknell^ President of the NcUional Educationcd Association: 

Sir : The committee appointed by the National Educational Association 
to examine the exhibit of kindergarten work at Madison, collected and pre- 
sented by the Froebel Union, beg leave to present the following brief 
report : 

The exhibition was one of the most extensive and complete which has 
ever been made of kindergarten work. It was a strikingly rich and char- 
acteristic display. An exhibition of this kind can, of course, show but 
one side of the rich and manifold training which the kindergarten imparts ; 
it is understood that only the tangible and more external features of the 
work admit of such representation. But, while the educational processes 
of the kindergarten can find a limited representation in an exhibition of 
the gifts and the results of the occupations, and while there are many im- 
portant features which cannot be embodied in such an exhibit, the mate- 
rial here collected indicated, nevertheless, the great scope of the work of 
the kindergarten in its entirety ! 

The work displayed in the exhibition was most comprehensive in char- 
acter. Beginning with the lowest gifts which are to be placed in the 
hands of the infant, it extended to specimens of work in form, color, and 
design, made in the higher grades of schools. It included, also, the work 
in folding, modelling, etc., of the young kindergarten teachers who are at- 
tending a training or normal school. The various systematically arranged 
gifts of geometrical bodies which are to be placed in the child's hands for 
the purpose of leading him to knowledge and skill through contemplation 
and activity, were here represented in their logical continuity. Besides 
the gifts, which he receives from the teacher, there was also the child's 
own work in clay and paper ; the forms which he imitates and invents by 
the use of sticks, wires, peas, etc. ; the colors which he learns to select 
and combine harmoniously, and the whole almost endless variety of means 
and devices which the ingenuity of the kindergarten teachers have made 
subservient to the manual and mental training of little children. 

The range of institutions, also, which had placed work on exhibition 
was a wide one. Kindergartens for white and colored children, from New 
York to San Francisco; "transition" schools; kindergartens for blind 
children, and public schools of all grades, were here represented. The 
following is a list of the 



EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION, 87 

TEACHERS AND SCHOOLS THAT PARTICIPATED IN THE EXHIBITION. 

1. Public Kindergartens of Milwaukee, Wis. ; W. £. Anderson, superintendent. 

2. Milwaukee Normal School; Miss Sarah A. Stewart, principal. 

3. The Froebel Institute of North America. 

4. Kindergarten Department of the State Normal School of Winona, Minn. ; Mrs. 

Eudora Hailmann, director. 
6. German and English Academy of Milwaukee, Wis. ; Miss Hermine Weissen- 
bom, kindergartener. 

6. Miss Emma Marwedel, San Francisco, Cal. 

7. State Normal School of Oshkosh, Wis. ; Miss Colcord, kindergartener. 

8. Miss J. L. Jones, Eau Claire, Wis. 

9. Tenth Street Kindergarten, Milwaukee, Wis. ; Miss Bonesteel, kindergartener. 
iO. Connecting Class of Tenth Street Kindergarten, Milwaukee, Wis. ; Mrs. K. 

H. Dousman, kindergartener. 

11. Union Relief Works, New York City; Miss Fannie Schwedler, kindergartener. 

12. Miss H. M. L. Egglestun, Madison, Wis. 

13. Massachusetts School and Perkins Institute for the Blind ; M. Anagnos, super- 

intendent. 

14. Kentucky Institute for the Blind; Miss Eleanor Beebe, kindergartener; B. B. 

Huntoon, superintendent. 

15. Miss M. J. Gay, Philadelphia, Pa. 

16. Mrs. Louisa Pollock, Washington, D. C. 

17. Chicago Free Kindergarten Association; Miss M. H. Koss, superintendent. 

18. Public Kindergarten, Menomonee, Wis. ; Miss Lucy Washington, kinder- 

gartener. 

19. Dr. £. B. Phelps, East Orange, N. J. 

20. Mrs. C. M, N. Alden, Providence, R. I. 

21. California Training Class ; Mrs. K. S. Wiggin, San Francisco, Cal. 

22. Miss Ella NafFy, La Crosse, Wis. 

23. Cherokee Orphan Asylum ; Mrs. J. W. Riddell, kindergartener. 

24. Mrs. C. J. Clarke, Milwaukee, Wis. 

25. Public Schools of Laporte, Ind. ; W. N. Hailmann, superintendent. 

26. Japanese Kindergarten, Tokio, Japan ; Dr. L. W. Mason. 

27. Madame A. de Fortugall, Genera, Switzerland. 
2%. Florence Kindergarten, Florence, Mass. 



THE COMPREHENSIVE CHARACTER OF THE EXHIBITIOX 

was not its only noteworthy feature ; the systematic and logical arrangement 
of the objects was still more remarkable, and deserves recognition and praise. 
The various gifts which Froebel invented were placed in such juxtaposition 
that the arrangement served to explain their use and educational value. 
The same is true of the exhibition of the specimens of the children's work. 
Their arrangement suggested the connection subsisting between the sim- 
plest forms, which the youngest child contemplates and imitates, and the 
more and more complicated occupations of advanced grades. 

It was manifest everywhere that the objects placed on exhibition 
were presented, not as results accomplished, or as specimens of work valu- 
able in themselves, but rather as indications of the training which may be 
given to hand and mind through the appropriate use and the handling of 
objects, and through directing the attention and activity of children, on 
the one side, toward form, color, and number, and, on the other, toward 



88 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

nature and life. The order of the gifts and specimens of work as pre- 
sented in the exhibit illustrated the plan of kindergarten training, as far 
as it relates to objects and their handling. It demonstrated how the child 
is led from the contemplation and perception of form and color to imita- 
tion and invention. 

While the foregoing embodies the general features which your com- 
mittee considered, they beg leave to mention, also, 

A FBW SPECIAL POINTS 

which they deem of importance : 

1. The systematic completeness and consistency of the leading exhibits, taking 

each by itself. 

2. The beauty, abundance, and great yariety of gifts and work placed on exhibi- 

tion, and their excellent workmanship. While the geometrical basis of 
Froebel's plan could be discerned in every exhibit, there was much in- 
genuity displayed in regard to adaptation and invention. Quite a number 
of new objects, gifts, and devices were presented. 

3. The artistic taste displayed in the work of the children, both in regard to color 

and form. 

4. The attention paid in many exhibits to the hygienic criticism of the last few 

years in regard to the injurious nature of some colors, and in regard to 
the effects which some of the discarded occupations had on the eyes. 

5. The efforts made in the direction of manual training, which will serve aa a 

preparation for the industrial training of later years. 

6. The exhibits of the ** transition schools *' deserve notice ; these institutions are 

designed to fill the place between the kindergarten and the public school, 
to make and the transition from the former to the latter. 

7. The specimens of *' ambidextrous " drawing exhibited show the noteworthy 

results of attempts to give training to the left hand as well as to the right. 

8. The remarkably successful application which the kindergarten idea has found in 

the training of blind children ; it is evident that an accurate idea of form can 
be developed in these children through the occupations of the kindergarten. 

9. In some of the exhibits a whole system of schools, beginning with the kinder- 

garten and extending to the grammar grades, is represented. These well- 
graded specimens of manual work suggest that certain features of the 
kindergarten, such as lessons in form, color, and design, learned through 
practice, may be advantageously embodied in the work of higher grades. 

Your committee is of opinion that the exhibition of the kindergarten 
work during the session of the National Educational Association in Madi- 
son was most interesting and instructive to the teachers of the whole coun- 
try, and that the thanks of the Association are due to those teachers and 
schools that have sent specimens of their work and participated in the ex- 
hibition. Their names have been mentioned before. The thanks of the 
Association are due especially to Prof. W, N. Hailmann, president of the 
Froebel Union, and to Mrs. Hailmann, to whose unremitting efforts, tal- 
ents, and indefatigable zeal the success of the exhibition is largely due. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

F. Louis Soldan, Chaiiynan, 1 

Z. Richards, f ^^^ ^ .. . ^ 

John B. PEA8LEE, )^CommiUee. 

J. A. Stearns, 



EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION. 89 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON STATE EXHIBITS. 

Hon. T, W. Bichnellj Prestdent of the National Educational Association : 

Sir: The undersigned, appointed at the annual meeting ut Madison, 
Jaly 15, 1884, as a committee on State Exhibits at the Exposition, present 
the following report : 

The committee are under special obligations to Messrs. Henry Sabin, 
of Clinton, Iowa, John Hull, Carbondale, 111., and B. M. Reynolds, Fer- 
gus Falls, Minn., for valuable aid rendered them. 

Aaron Goye, Col. 

C. C. Rounds, Me. 

Herschel R. Gass, Mich. 

LeRot D. Brown, Ohio. 

G. J. Orr, Ga. 

IOWA. 

The Iowa Department of the Exposition was arranged in the Supreme 
Court Room. It consisted of specimens of work fh>m over 17,000 different 
pupils under the care of a thousand different teachers. 

Every phase of school work was exhibited from the schools in the 
smaller districts of the State to those of the largest and best graded schools 
in the cities. 

The exhibits showed the ordinary work of the school-room. There 
was but little selected work, and that from the higher grades. 

MANUSCRIPTS. 

The manuscript work in bound volumes consisted of examination 
papers, essays, letters, and language exercises, etc. 

The schools from the rural districts exhibited some very creditable 
volumes. Some of the work bore unmistakable evidence of being the first 
attempt at anything of the kind, and was all the more acceptable on that 
account. On the other hand, some of the very best work exhibited was 
from the district schools. 

INDUSTRIAL WORK AND DRAWING. 

There was a very fair exhibit of industrial work. One school sent a 
number of pieces of apparatus manufactured by the pupils. Another con- 
tributed specimens of articles which pupils made at their homes. The 
exhibit was sufficient to show : (a) that under a competent teacher pupils 
can manufacture for themselves the more simple pieces of apparatus, suf- 



90 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

ficient to illustrate important truths in Natural Philosophy ; and (6) that 
the teachers of to-day are not wholly engaged in the culture of children's 
brains, to the neglect of the hand and eye. 

The kindergarten work of the Iowa schools came from the prominent 
cities of the State, but several small places exhibited good work. 

A number of schools sent specimens of work in drawing. The most 
elaborate came from the graded schools in which drawing had constituted 
part of the regular course of study for several years. 

The mechanical drawings, free hand and original designs, were ver}' 
creditable. 

The State Normal School made an excellent exhibit of relief maps, 
drawings, and manuscript work. The State University exhibit had some 
very fine work; a collection of land and fresh water shells and a case of 
bound volumes consisting of theses written and illustrated by the students. 

The Institute for the Deaf and Dumb exhibited industrial work; a 
case of well-made shoes and some fine drawings by the pupils. 

The State Department was represented by a large number of bound 
Reports and Educational journals, and also two very large tablets illustrat- 
ing the educational development and growth of Iowa. There was also a 
complete collection of text-books and educational works by Iowa authors. 

The exhibit was arranged by cities and counties. 

The exhibit was under the charge of Supt. H. Sabin, of Clinton, aided 
by Prof. T. H. McBride, of the State University, and Principal C. M. 
Hughy, of West Des Moines. 



MINNESOTA. 

The Minnesota Educational exhibit was not on a large scale. The 
committee had no funds with which to meet expenses. St. Paul and 
Minneapolis and one or two other cities made appropriations to meet the 
expenses of their own exhibit, but the State made no appropriation. 

Work in drawing, illustrative charts, and specimens in penmanship 
were on exhibition from the schools of St. Paul, B. F. Wright, Superin- 
tendent. These charts consisted of pictuies from illustrated papera and 
other sources pasted on manilla paper and mounted on pedestals. They 
were classified so as to illustrate animal and plant life in the different parts 
of the world and served also as the basis of language lessons. Examina- 
tion papers, maps, and drawings were exhibited by the Anoka schools, 
J. C. Cummings, Superintendent. 

Home-made apparatus illustrative of Natural Philosophy and Chem- 
istry was sent from Stillwater. The superintendent was E. V. Curtis. 

Winona furnished a good exhibit of drawing and penmanship. Wm. 
F. Phelps, Superintendent. The Winona Normal School furnished a large 



EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION. 91 

exhibit of kindergarten work, maps, and charts illustrative of Natural 
History, etc. Irwin Shepard, President. 

Specimens of drawing were on exhibition by the Minneapolis schools. 
O. v. Tousley, Superintendent. 

A marked feature was school work from the country schools of Olm- 
sted County. F. L. Cook, Superintendent. 

Taken altc^ether Minnesota*s educational exhibit at Madison was ex- 
cellent throughout. 

WISCONSIN. 

The exhibit of the Mechanical Department of the Wisconsin State 
University was under the supervision of Prof. C. I. King and was an at- 
tractive display of mechanical work. Among the most important articles 
were the following : An equatorial telescope, made by H. W. Pennock of 
the class of '83. It had an eight-inch objective, and the tube was ten feet 
long, of steel. A large Sweet lathe with many improvements. There were 
also two turning lathes and one grinding lathe. A self-contained jig-saw 
was on exhibition, which differed from other machines of the same class in 
that it can be placed in any location, regardless of connections. Among 
the smaller tools was a fine collection of straight-edges and squares. 
There were also specimens of gear-cutting, turning, milling, filing, and pat- 
tern work. Numerous designs of mechanical drawings ; also a sectional 
chart of the city of Madison, showing her system of sewerage. Forty 
samples of chemicals manufactured and put up by students in the phar- 
maceutical laboratory were also among the exhibits of the University. 

MILWAUKEE SCHOOLS. 

An inventory of their exhibit gives the following : 

I. Kindergarten work from the 5th, 8th, 10th, 12th, and 14th District Kindergar- 
tens, embracing slate work, tablets, weaving, picking, sewing, folding, 
cutting, etc. 
II. Methods of instruction, prepared by teachers of primary achools. 

III. Eleven bound volumes of manuscripts of examination papers from the first 

eight grades ; also sixteen bound volumes of examination manuscript from 
the high school. Specimens of drawing from all grades were on exhibition. 

IV. Photographs of Milwaukee school buildings. 

V. Copies of the graded course of study in the schools. Copies of the report of 

the School Board for the years 1881-1882, and 1882-1883. 
VI. Banner-bearing statistics of the school system. 



GERMAN AND ENGLISH ACADEMY, MILWAUKEE. 

The exhibit from the German and English Academy consisted of kin- 
dergarten work, of landscape work, needlework, etc. 

The Tenth street kindergarten school exhibited under the charge of 
Miss Borsteel numerous devices. of hand- work in clay, splint- work on 
paper, and a number of quite well executed crayon drawings. 



92 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

The Milwaukee Normal kindei^arten exhibit embraced nearly all the 
articles named above, with a few additional, among which were beaatifal 
samples of work made from tissue paper, also various designs of work on 
folding cards, wrought in silk, colored and gilt paper, pin punctures, and 
splints. 

The School Association, Kindergarten Department, of Madison, Wis. 9 
had also a creditable display of kindergarten work. 

This school is under the charge of Miss H. M. S. Eggleston, and the 
work exhibited showed her efficiency in this kind of instruction. The kin- 
dergarten exhibits were varied and attracted much attention. 



LA CROSSE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

From these schools were exhibited a large number of neatly bound 
volumes of examination papers, representing the work of a number of 
grades. A collection of nearly two hundred botanical specimens was on 
exhibition from the La Crosse schools. 



TWO RIVERS 

had a collection of flowers mounted upon cards. 

THE BELOIT 

exhibit contained some very creditable examination papers, a fine display 
of work in object drawing, and two specimens of crayon drawing which 
showed artistic skill. 

FROM THE DEAF AKI) DUMB INSTITUTION 

at Delavan was presented a large number of specimens of studio work in 
crayon, which showed high attainments in drawing. Samples of work 
from the cabinet shop, and boots and shoes made by students were also in 
this exhibit. 

THE INSTITUTION FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE BLIND 

had a very creditable exhibition. 

THE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS 

presented quite an extensive exhibit. Thirty-six specimens from the work* 
rooms of the school were in the collection. 



EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION, 93 

Several coanties had samples of school work on exhibition which was 
done by papils in the rural districts. 

As a whole the Wisconsin department reflected much credit upon the 
teachers and officers connected with the schools represented, and the^ peo- 
ple of this State have just reason to be proud of what their commonwealth 
is doing to advance the educational interests of her youth. 



INDIAKA. 

The exhibit of this State was under the direction of State Superin- 
tendent Holoombe, and was admirably organized to show the public school 
system of the State. The part that the schools of Indiana have taken in 
previous expositions was shown by diplomas won at Philadelphia in 1876, 
and at Paris in 1878. The exhibit of State Reports and of various publi- 
cations bearing upon the history and condition of education in the State 
was very complete. The systematic manner in which State examinations 
and Teachers' Institutes are conducted was clearly shown. 



THE EXHinrr of town and city schools 

was well arranged, consisting of manuscripts showing the character of 
work from primary to high school. The cities of Laporte and Lafayette 
make special displays of art work and kindergarten work. The exhibit of 
drawings and of specimens of work from fifty pupils in each of the grades 
from the first to the eighth year, made by the schools of Lafayette, was 
highly creditable. 

THE EXHIBrr OF COUNTRY SCHOOLS 

was quite varied, consisting of manuscripts, map drawings, mechanical 
drawings, and drawings of school-houses in one county (St. Joseph) . In- 
teresting collections of specimens of forest woods were shown. No such 
exhibit can adequately represent the schools of a State, but from such ex- 
hibits much may be learned of the organization and working of educa- 
tional systems; and from the systematic arrangement and operation of 
the school system of Indiana as here shown, some older States might learn 
valuable lessons. 

ILLINOIS. 

The exhibit was originally proposed as a State exhibit, and should be 
considered with reference to the purposes for which it was proposed : first, 
and most important, to give direction and uniformity to school work in the 



94 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

State by the character of work prescribed by the committee having the 
matter in charge ; and, second, to stimulate to better performance. 

The work of the schools was exhibited in three classes : country schools, 
graded schools, and high schools. 



COUNTRY SCHOOLS. 

In this class were included all schools except high schools, and graded 
schools with eight regular grades, and papers were presented in spelling, 
business forms, letters, arithmetic, common things, geography and history, 
language, botany, ph3'siology, and zoology. 

Thirteen counties were represented in the country school exhibit: 
viz., Boone, Cook, Ford, Henderson, Knox, La Salle, Marshall, Ogle, 
Randolph, St. Clair, Sangamon, Whiteside, and Wild. In the country 
school exhibit maps were shown only from five schools, and drawings from 
only one. It contained some of the neatest papers in the whole exhibit. 



GRADED SCHOOLS. 

By graded schools in this exhibit was meant a system of schools under 
one management, embracing the usual eight grades below the high school. 

For the first, second, and third years, work was presented in number, 
spelling, and language ; for the fourth year, in number and languc^e ; for 
the fifth year, in arithmetic and spelling ; for the sixth year, in geography 
and language ; for the seventh year, in arithmetic and language ; for the 
eighth year, in United States history and language. 

The specimens of writing and drawing presented in this exhibit deserve 
conmiendation. 

HIGH SCHOOLS. 

, In this class the following departments of study were represented : 

Languages, — Latin, Greek, German. 

Mathematics. — Algebra, Geometry. 

Sciences. — Physiology, Astronomy, National Philosophy. 

^/i^r/w/i.— English Literature, English Essays, Ciril Government, Book-keeping. 

Eight high schools exhibited work, viz. : Lake View, Danville, Spring- 
field, Evanston Township, Joliet, Moline, Farmington, and Lanark. 

The papers in these exhibits could not in the time at the disposal of 
the committee be so critically examined as to determine their minute points 
of excellence, nor their relative worth. Sufllce it to say, that so far as 
such an exhibit can show the character of schools, the showing was highly 



EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION. 95 

creditable, and there can be no doubt but that the main purpose kept in 
view by the committee having the matter in charge, that of giving direction 
and uniformity to the school work of the State by these annual exhibits — 
such direction as inexperience always needs, and a uniformity which need 
not degenerate into mechanical routine — was admirably served. 

The committee of the State Teachers' Association, John Hull, Sarah 
P. White, SUas Y. Gillan, John P. Yodes, and Rufus M. Hitch, with Hon. 
Henry Raab, State Superintendent, who have organized this work and pre- 
pared the rules for the conduct of so comprehensive a system of examina- 
tion, have laid under obligation all who were privileged to examine their 
plan and the results of their labors. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ART AND INDUSTRIAL 
EDUCATION. 

Hon. T, W. Bkknell^ President of tJie NcUional Educational AssocicUion : 

Sir : Your committee, to whom was asigned the duty of examining and 
reporting on the exhibits made by the Industrial and technological schools, 
beg leave to offer the following : 

The several exhibits in this important department of school work 
included samples of work done by students in eight schools ; and was in- 
tended to illustrate the course of instruction in whole or in part. Though 
varying greatly in extent and completeness all were interesting and instruc- 
tive. 

The diverse character of the departments represented, not less than 
the variety of things exhibited, rendered any. classification impracticable. 
On this account your committee have thought best to confine this report to 
a brief mention of the things exhibited by each school represented. 

In general it may be said that all the articles on exhibition, with the 
exceptions elsewhere mentioned, were the work of students. Many of the 
exhibits were so admirably arranged as to show the several steps in the 
course of instruction, each illustrated by its appropriate products. 

PURDUE UNIVERSITY, LAFAYETTE, IND. 

THE MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT. 

This exhibit was made up of mechanical drawing and shop work. 



96 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

The shop work indaded : 

1. Bench Work in Wood, — Examples of planing, sawing, rabbeting, plowing, 

splicing, mortising, tenoning, doTetailing, framing, and panelling. 

2. Machine Work in Wood. — Examples of circular sawing, scroll sawing, and 

taming. 

3. Pattern Work and Moulding, — Patterns and core boxes for pulleys, gears, 

columns, and pipe bends ; a complete set of patterns for a steam-engine, and 
for a speed lathe. Machine work made from these patterns were also shown. 

4. Vise Work in Iron, — Examples of surface chipping, key seating, surface fil- 

ing, squaring, and fitting, round filing, sawing, scraping, and polishing. 

5. Iron and Steel Forging, — Examples of turning, planing, fitting, and screw 

cutting, one steam-engine, and two speed lathes. 

All the shop work shown, together with the mechanical drawing, was 
the result of class work during the freshman and sophomore years of the 
mechanical course. 

The mechanical drawing included working drawings of various ma- 
chines and tools used in the course of instruction. 



THE FINE ART DEPARTMENT. 

The exhibit in this department included : 

1. Illustrations of architectural ornaments modelled in terra cotta. 

2. Wood earring for commercial purposes, in which are used not toy tools, but 

thoseused in regular shops. The examples shown consisted of ornamental 
furniture, rases, tables, brackets, etc. 

Not the least interesting part of this exhibit was the work done by two 
young ladies who had a bench and tools for wood carvings in the room, and 
were seen busily engaged in their work. 

8. Work in decorative design for flat surfaces, such as wall papers, carpets, oil 

cloths, etc. 
4. Illustrations of the course in model and object drawing, shaded in different 

mediums ; also drawings in water and oil colors. 



WISCONSIN STATE UNIVERSITY. 

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. 

The exhibit in this department seemed to indicate that the work done 
by the students was principally of the constructive kind. The exhibit 
included : 

1. A telescope modelled after the larger first-class instruments. It had an eight- 

inch Clark objective, and was constructed mainly by Henry W. Pennwsk. 
of the class of 1883, and was intended for the Boswell Observatory of Doane 
College, Nebraska. 

2. A large engine lathe made for Cornell University, from drawings and plans 

prepared by Prof. John £. Sweet. This lathe was a fine piece of workman- 
ship, and contained a number of new and peculiar adaptations. There was 
also a boring and drilling-machine, a box lathe with a screw-cutting device 
operated by hand, a grinding lathe, a jig saw, and a number of smaller 
tools. 



EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION, 97 

3. Specimens of work in gear cutting, turning, milling, chipping, filing, pattern- 

making, and tlie like. 

4. Construction drawings of engines, bridges, roof-trusses, pumps, stone, and 

brick work. 

In connection with this display were two exhibits belonging to other 
departments, bat worthy of special mention. One consisted of forty kinds 
of chemicals prepared by students in the school of pharmacy; and the 
other a collection of microscopic slides containing specimens in histology, 
zoology, and embryology, prepared by Mr. A. J. Ochsner, a student. 



THE ILLINOIS INDUSTRIAL UNIVERSITY. 

COLLBOB OF ENGINEBRINO. 

In this school the instructive method of teaching mechanic arts is used 
the first year, and the constructive afterwards. The exhibit here contained : 

1. Specimens showing the course followed in learning the use of wood-working 

tools, in working plane and moulded surfaces, constructing all cabinet- 
makers' joints, splices, Teneering, gluing, inlaying, and wood turning. 

2. IllustratiTe methods in stone work, exemplified in blocks of plaster. 

3. Iron and steel forging, making and tempering simple tools. 

4. Vise work in filing, fitting, shaping, chipping, etc. 

5. Machine work in metal, planing, turning, boring, and screw cutting. 

6. Models of bridge and roof trusses made by students. 

7. Working drawings of buildings, brick and stone work. 

8. Drawing of machines, or portions of machines in both line and washed shad- 

ing. 



THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, AT 

BOSTON, MASS. 

The School of Mechanic Arts of this institution exhibited : 

1 . Specimens of iron casting, pattern work, brass and type-metal casting ; a com- 

plete set of products in learning forging, scraping, filing, chipping, iron 
turning, making, and tempering steel tools. 

2. Working drawings of course in vise work, details of machinery, etc. 

3. Specimens of wood-work produced in learning use of wood-working tools. 

A beautifnl toy brass cannon was shown in connection with this 
exhibit, but no information could be obtained concerning it. 

The Lowell School of Design in the same institution showed a number 
of designs for wall papers and textile fabrics. An important feature of 
these collections was that they included sixteen designs made by pupils, 
and used by manufacturers ; also eighty-eight designs prepared in the same- 
way, and shown by specimens of the fabrics themselves. 



98 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS. 

The exhibit was classified as follows : 

1. Drawings, (a) Free-hand, Pencil and Charcoal ; Shaded Projections of Objects ; 

Outline Projections of Machines; Outline Perspectives of 
Models. 
(6) Instrumental and Brush Work; Pen Exercises; Projections of 
Machines ; Projections of Models ; Development of Surfaces ; 
Lettering; Shading; Geometrical Surfaces; Finished Draw- 
ings of Engines, etc., from the objects. 

2. Wood-work, (a) Class Exercises in Joinery ; Framing, Fitting, Gluing, etc. 

(5) Class Exercises in Turning ; Gorge and Chisel Work ; Chuck- 
ing, Rings, Caps, Boxes, etc. 
{e) Class Exercises in Pattern Making. 

3. Forging. Class Exercises in Drawing, Upsetting, Welding, Tempering, 

Brazing, and Tool-making. 

4. Metal Fitting. Class Exercises in Chipping, Filing, Planing, Turning, Screw- 

cutting, Polishing, Drilling, Shrinking, and Hand-tooling. 

5. Projects. Finished Work ; Jack-screw, complete ; Boring Bar, and Hori- 

zontal Engine, cylinder 4i in. X 6 in. 



THE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL OP THB SANTEE INDIAN AGENCY, KNOX CO., NEB. 

This exhibit showed some of the products made by the boy students in 
learning the several trades of carpentry, blacksmithing, shoemaking, 
brickmaking ; and by the girls in learning the feminine arts, of knitting 
and sewing. 

THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF STILLWATER, MINNESOTA. 

This exhibit consisted of a large number of articles made by Mr. 
F. T. Wilson, Principal of the high school, for illustration in Natural 
Philosophy. Their purpose was to show what can be done at home in the 
making of good serviceable apparatus for illustration. 

In conclusion, your committee desire to express their profound satis- 
faction with the evidence furnished by these exhibits of the rapid extension 
of better methods of instruction in the various technological departments 
of our higher schools. And they farther venture to suggest, that in fliture 
exhibitions of this kind still greater pains be taken to show how the several 
articles are related to the course of instruction. To a considerable extent 
this was done in the present instance, but still greater effort in this direc- 
tion would have added greatly to the educational value of the exhibition. 

S. R. Thompson, for (he Committee. 



EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION. 99 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON SPECIAL EXfflBITS. 

Hon. J. H. Smart, Director of Exhibits: 

Dear Sir: The committee on special exhibits submit the following 
very brief report. The following is a list of the exhibits : 

1. Exhibit of the American Missionary Association, under the direction 

of Rev. Albert Salisbury, Superintendent of the Mission. The 
exhibit comprised specimens of work of Indian and of colored 
pupils, showing their handicraft as well as their mental acquire- 
ments. 

2. Industrial exhibit of the school for the feeble-minded, Boston, under 

the direction of Miss L. Laura Moultou, principal teacher in 
the school. The exhibit displayed not only specimei^ of manual 
skill, but also specimens of writing, reckoning, and of artistic 
taste. 

3. Music Charts from Japan, exhibited by Prof. Luther W. Mason, of 

Boston, the author of the charts and sometimes teacher of music 
in Japanese schools. 

4. Topical method of teaching geography, exhibited by Mr. Chas. F. 

King, sub-master of Lewis grammar school, Boston. The exhibit 
consisted of work completed by pupils who had pursued the 
system. 

5. Exhibit of specimens in zoology, mineralogy, and geology, from 

Ward's Natural Science Establishment at Rochester, N. Y. The 
exhibit was under the direction of Messrs. Ward and Howell. 

6. Solar camera, exhibited by Prof. Chas. F. Adams, of the State 

Normal School, Worcester, Mass., in order to show the use of 
the instrument when introduced to aid pupils to study geography. 

7. Adams* Historical Chart, exhibited by Mr. G. W. Dorman, Chicago, 

ni. 

8. Relief map made by students in the normal school, at River Falls, 

Wis. 

9. Jas. W. Queen & Co., Philadelphia, Penn., Philosophical and Chemi- 

cal apparatus. 

10. Union School Furniture Co., Chicago, III. 

11. Books, Magazines, Artist's Drawings, D. Lothrop & Co., Boston, 

Mass. 
^ ( ' ' National Journal of Education , " ) 
^^* \ " The American Teacher," V T. W. Bicknell & Co., Boston, 

13. *' Education," j Mass. 

14. Chas. De Medici, Chicago, 111., Commensuration. 



100 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

15. Encyclopaedia Britannica, J. L. Atwater, Chicago, 111. 

16. Soule Photograph Co., Boston, Mass. 

17. The People's Cyclopaedia, Phillips & Hunt, New York. 

18. The Central School Journal, Keokuk, la. 

19. The Practical Teacher, Chicago, 111. 

20. A. Flanagan, Chicago, 111., Pub. Books on Teaching. 

21. The Tonic Sol Fa System, Biglow & Main. 

22. Levy, Baker & Co., Indianapolis, Ind., Stationery, Blank Books, 

and School Architecture. 

23. L. D. Mcintosh, Chicago, 111., Optical Apparatus. 

24. W. A. Ohnstead & Co., Chicago, 111., School Supplies. 

25. The Index and Educational Journal, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

26. American Meteorological Journal, Detroit, Mich. 

27. Freeman & Riddle, Columbus, O., G-eographical and Historical 

Charts. 

'«• {"?£ISl?iSi.„.. ! «• ■■• ^'^^ " <»■• N.- -for'- 

29. Penmanship Instruction Card, J. H. Read, Lancaster, Wis. 

30. R. E. Bean & Co., Franklin Falls, N. H., Ready Binder. 

31. L. D. Allen, Fair Haven, Vt., Slate Blackboard. 

Did the space allotted to this report in the volume of proceedings 
permit, the committee would be very much pleased to review at considerable 
length the many points of merit that the exhibits presented; to com- 
pliment the ingenuity and learning which were revealed by those who 
constructed such valuable school appliances as were placed in the exhibits ; 
to analyze the several systems of instruction that were illustrated in the 
exhibits; to enumerate the educational value of the various systems of 
instruction that were represented in the work shown ; to dwell upon the 
difficult educational problems that confronted those who exhibited edu- 
cational specimens ; to trace historically the origin and progress of those 
organizations represented, that purpose to cherish and nurture the un- 
fortunate ; to mark the progressive spirit of the age in all that pertains 
to educational theories and practices, so far as it was manifest in the 
exhibits ; and to note with favorable comments the success that rewarded 
the teachers whose exhibits indicated their intelligent dealings with pupils 
whose capacity was to them a feeble and an unknown quantity. 

Nevertheless, your committee cannot conclude this report without 
pointing out plain inferences which some of the exhibits indicated. The 
exhibit made by Mr. Salisbury fairly demonstrates the proposition that 
industrial education is the fundamental requisite to enable primitive con- 
ditions of a people to be changed into civilization by the people them- 
selves. Industrial education is the need of the Indian and the colored 



EDUCATIONAL EXPOSITION. 101 

man, in order to enable them to subsist by their own labora ; and it is 
pursued primarily for its utility, not for its disciplinary value. 

Miss Moulton's exhibit was an exhortation to teachers to redouble 
their effective energies and powers in the school-room ; for the intelligence 
that made the specimens on exhibition had to be almost literally created 
by the teachers ; the spark of mind had to be fanned into a flame of light 
by the instructor ; the exhibit showed how well the efforts of the teachers 
'were rewarded by success. 

Prof. Mason's exhibit showed the progress among foreigners of 
American systems of instruction. 
Respectfully submitted. 

J. 

E. 

W. 

V. 

A. 



H. 


HOOSE, 


' 


T. 


Tappan, 




H. 


, Basrimger, 


• Committee, 


C. 


Dibble, 




S. 


BOTDEM, 





CALENDAR OF MEETINGS. 



NATIONAL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 



1857. — PHIIiADKLPHIA, PA. 

Organized. 

James L. Enos, Pres. 
W. E. Sheldon, Sec. 

1868. — CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Z. Richards, Pres. 
J. W. BuLKLEY, Sec. 
A. J. RiOKOFF, Treas. 

1869. -WASHINGTON. D. C 

A. J. BioKOFF, Pres. 
J. W. BuLKLEY, Sec. 
C. S. Pennell, Treas. 

18G0. — BUFFAI«0, N. T. 

J. W. BuLKLEY, Pres. 
Z. RiCHABDS, Sec. 
O. C. Wight, Treas. 

1861. — No Session. 

1862.— No Session. 

1863. — CHICAGO, IIX. 

John D. Philbrick, Pres. 
James Cruikshank, Sec. 
O. G. Wight, Treas. 

1864. — OGDENSBUBG, N. T. 

W. H. Wblm, Pres. 

David N. Camp, Sec. 

Richards, Treas. 



1865. — HARRISBURG, PA. 

S. S. Greene, Pres. 
William £. SnELDOKy Sec. 
Z. Richards, Treas. 

1866.— INDIANAPOIJ8, IM1>. 

J. P. WiOKSRSHAM, Pres. 
S. H. White, Sec. 
S. P. Bates, Treas. 

1867. — No Session. 

1868. — NASH YIULB, TENN. 

J. M. Gregory, Pres. 
I^ Van Bokkelbn, Sec. 
James Grdikshank, Treas. 



1869.— TRENTON, N. J. 

L. Van Bokkblen, Pres. 
W. E. Crosby, Sec. 
A. L. Barber, Treas. 

1870. — CLEV]SI.ANI>, OHIO. 

Daniel B. Haoab, Pres. 
A. P. Marble, Sec. 
W. E. Crosby, Treas. 



NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



1871.— ST. I«OUIS, MO. 

J. L. Pickabd, Pres. 
W. E. Crosby, Sec. 
John Hancock, Treas. 

1878.— BOSTON, MASS. 

E. E. White, Pres. 
S. H. White, Sec. 
John Hancock, Treas. 

1873.-EIiMIRA, N. Y. 

B. G. Northrop, Pres. 
3. H. White, Sec. 
John Hancock, Treas. 

1874.— DETROIT, MICH. 

S. H. White, Pres. 
A. P. Marble, Sec. 
John Hancock, Treas. 

1876.-MINNEAFOM8. MINN. 

W. T. Harris, Pres. 
W. R. Abbot, Sec. 
A. P. Marble, Treas. 

1876.-BAI-T1MORB. MD. 

W. F. Phelps, Pres. 
yf. D. Hknkle, Sec. 
A. P. Marble, Treas. 

1877.— tOUISVIIitE, KY. 

M. A. Newell, Pres. 
W. D. Hbnklr, Sec. 
J. Ormond Wilson, Treas. 



1878 ^No Session. 

1879.-PHII«ADEI.PHIA, PA. 

John Hancock, Pres. 

W. D. Henkle, Sec. 

J. Ormond Wilson, Treas. 

1880.— CHAUTAUQUA, N. T. 

J. Ormond Wilson, Pres. 
W. D. Henkle, Sec. 
E. T. Tappan, Treas. 

1881.-ATI«ANTA, GA. 

James H. Smart, Pres. 
W. D. Henlke, Sec. 
Eli T. Tappan, Treas. 

1882.-8ARATOGA SPRINGS, N. Y. 

Eli T. Tappan, Pres. 
W. E. Sheldon, Sec. 
N. A. Calkins, Treas. 

1888.— SARATOGA, N. Y. 

G. J. Orr. Pres. 
W. D. Henkle, Sec. 
E. T. Tappan, Treas. 

1884.— MADISON, WIS. 

Thomas W. Bicknbll, Pres. 
H. S. Tarbell, Sec. 
N. A. Calkins, Treas. 



LIST OF OFFICERS. 



103 



National Educational Association 

OF THE UNITED STATES. 



OFFICERS FOR 1883-4-: 



GENERRL USSOCIRTION. 

THOMAS W. BICKNELL, Boston, Mass President. 

H. S. TAKB£LL» Indianapolis, Ind Seereiary. 

N. A. CALKINS, 124 East 80th Street, New York, N. Y. . . . Treasurer. 

N/ITIONML COUNCIL OF EUUCMTIDN, 

EMERSON E. WHITE, Lafayette, Ind President. 

THOMAS W. BICKNELL, Boston, Mass Vice-President. 

ALBERT G. BOYDEN, Bridgewater, Mass Secretary. 

ELEMENTMRY OEPRRTMENT, 

P. LOUIS SOLDAN, St. Louis, Mo President. 

W. N. BAKRINGER, Newark, N. J Vice-President. 

MISS ELLA CALKINS, 124 East 80th Street, New York, N. Y. . Secretary. 

OEPRRTMENT OF NORMJIL SCHOOLS. 

E. C. HEWETT, Normal, 111 President. 

J. BALDWIN, HontSYille, Texaf Vice-President. 

M. S. COOPER, Oswego, N. Y Secretary. 

oephrtment of higher instruction. 

J. L. PICKARD, Iowa City, Iowa . President. 

LEMUEL MOSS, Bloomington, Ind Vice-President. 

JOHN H. WRIGHT, Hanover, N. H Secreta/ry. 

BEPRRTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE. 

B. L. BUTCHER, Wheeling, W. Va. President. 

D. F. DEWOLF, Columbus, Ohio Vice-President. 

H. R. SANFORD, Middletown, N. Y Secretary. 

INUUSTRIRL BEPMRTMENT. 

C. M. WOODWARD, ^t. Louis, Mo President. 

H. H. BELFIELD, Chicago, HI Vice-President. 

G. A. SINGER, Philadelphia, Pa. Secretary. 

OEPRRTMENT OF RRT EOUCRTION. 

L. S. THOMPSON, Lafayette, Ind President. 

W. S. PERRY, Worcester, Mass Viee-President. 

JOSEPHINE C. LOCKE, St Louis, Mo Secreta/ry. 



PROCEEDINGS AND ADDRESSES 



^m^i EDUCATIONAL JlSSOCljlTIOfi 



SEVERAL DEPARTMENTS. 



lb 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



OPENING SESSION AT MADISON, \VISC0NSIN. 

JULY 15, 1884. 

The opening session of the Association was held in the Assemblj 
Chamber of the Capitol, the President, Thomas W. Bicknell, presiding. 
The meeting was called to order at eight o'clock. After music by Laeder*s 
Band and the singing of the Doxology, the following prayer was offered by 
the Rev. Dr. Magoon, President of Iowa College, Grinnell, Iowa : 



Our Heayenljr Father : we thank Thee for this assemblage of the teachers of th* 
land and for Thy good Providence which has brought us together. We ask Thy Mess- 
ing to rest upon us, and we ask it with hope and courage because Thou hast favored 
the coming together of these instructors of youth so greatly. We oifer Thee our 
thanks this evening for the circumstances of convenience and privilege and enjoyment 
under which we assemble. We offer Thee thanks for all the courtesies and hospitalitaes 
which have been extended to us ; for the success Thou hast given to the endeavors of 
Thy servants, the officers of this National Association in making the arrangements for 
this meeting, and for Thy blessing in this kindly and sweet air which we breathe, in 
the comforts we enjoy day by day, and in what has already appeared of the spirit and 
power of this meeting of teachers. Now, Heavenly Father, be pleased to be with us 
not only this evening, while we listen to such words as shall be addressed to as, but in 
every session. In the other assemblages at this hour be present, and in all our assem- 
blages day by day. God grant His great blessing on these Thy servants who have 
come up from various parts of the land, and are engaged in training those who are to 
come after us and discharge the duties that now rest upon us. Give choicest blessings 
of wisdom to ;ill who teach. Pour Thy spirit down upon all officers and all charged 
with responsibility in respect to our schools. Through the length and breadth of the 
land give the people an earnest and generous and forecasting spirit in respect to the 
training of the young, and let Thy grace be in our hearts, that we may give to Thee the 
glory of all our privileges and of all our success in labor, and that we may be able to 
give to those who shall come after us greater privileges in respect to training for useful- 
ness and duty than were accorded to us. The Lord heard us for His dear Son*s aake. 
Amen. 



DR, CURRrS ADDRESS. . Z 

The President : Ladies and Oentlemen, tnembera of the National 
Bdacafioivil Association : I congratulate you on your presence at this open- 
ing si^sion of the Association, and, in its behalf, extend to yon a cordial 
invitation to all the meetings of this week, and to all the privileges which 
this occasion offers us. We meet as members and friends of one of the 
noblest callings in our land, in this beautiful capital city of the Northwest, 
in a State which has been among the foremost in the cause of learning and 
religion. We are among friends, whose warm hearts and cordial hospitali- 
ties are extended to greet and to cheer us, and to a social as well as 
educational feast we are bidden as gladly welcome guests. Let these de- 
lightful days be filled with the best occupation of our social and profession- 
al opportunities, and let us partake in large measure of ^*the com and the 
wine" of this promised land. 

Looking over this great country for the orator of the evening, we 
soaght to find a patriot, a scholar, and an educator, one who could take a 
comprehensive view of our educational needs as a people and who could 
inspire this meeting with a key-note of lofty thoughts and noble en- 
deavors. As the result of our search, it is my great pleasure to intoduce 
to this great audience of American teachers, the Honorable Dr. Curry, 
general agent of the Peabody Kund, and a resident of the Commonwealth 
of Virginia. 



Db. Currt : Mr, President t Ladies and Oenilemen: There is a fitness of things 
in the fact that this grandest and most numerous assemblage of educators and teachers 
that ever came together on the American continent, should meet in the most beautiful 
as well as the most hospitable capital city of our great Union. All of us since we have 
been here have realized the beauty and the appropriateness of the description of 
Longfellow when speaking of this city, he said — ' 



" All like a floating landscape seems, 
In cloudland or the land of dreams, 
Bathed in the golden atmosphere. " 



But a few days ago I in a neighboring city there were conventions fierce and hot of 
the two great hostile parties of the republic, the *4ns" striving to keep out the *'outs** and 
the *■ ^outs" striving to oust the ' 'ins. '* This great convention comes together, not with hos- 
tile purpose or selfish intent but for the purpose of preserving the republic and of mak- 
ing it worth preserving ; and I have said that it was fit that we should meet together in 
this most beautiful of our capital cities. Here, where we are, is the Capitol, where as- 
semble the departments of the State government, and at the other end of the avenue, 
confronting this building, stands the g^eat University of this young State ; one looking 
upon the other, both joining hands together, law and learning in fellowship bound for 
the promotion of humanity and the development of the manhood and the womanhood of 
this great people. 



4 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

CITIZENSHIP AND EDUCATION. 

BY J. L. M. CURRY, LL.D., RICHMOND, VA. 

My purpose is practical, — to deduce and enforce a moral. As all art 
is derived from science, so the practical is best reached through the 
philosophical. My aim is to make such a statement as to American 
citizenship as to set us thinking about present aspects and future 
needs, and to divining, and therefore controlling, the destiny in store 
for us. The past may furnish lessons of wisdom, helping us to solve 
serious problems of statesmanship. The right reading of the present 
may enable us to forecast the future and make proper and vigorous 
preparation for it. It would be criminal for such an assemblage of edu- 
cators not to inquire thoughtfully into the social, moral, and intel- 
lectual condition of the people, to ascertain their wants ; to devise 
means to better their condition ; to avert possible perils ; to help the 
weak and ignorant in securing their individual and political rights. 

Great Britain in her colonization sought to found an empire, and 
wrought wiser than she knew. The purpose was accomplished, but by 
means entirely different from what she intended. The secession of 
the Colonies thwarted her immediate plans, but accomplished the end 
more certainly and wisely. 

The Declaration of Independence was pregnant with momentous 
consequences. The New World had been the plaything of popes and 
kings, and the dominant policy had been that of direction, control, 
and repression. The Declaration was the announcement of free-will 
and of equal and inalienable human rights. It was not aggressive 
propagandism, not Quixotic crusade for humanity, but a calm appeal 
to ancient charters, a new and bold application of necessary truths. 

The United States now has a robust young life. The growth has 
been unparalleled. Since the Colonies formed an Union of equal 
States, the population has multiplied sixteen-fold, and now exceeds 
the population of any European State. Exodus from Europe U re- 
garded there with disfavor. To us, immigration has been a source 
of strength and wealth. The centre of population gradually moves 
westward. Territories are organized and rapidly mature in to States, 
Colorado and Nevada entering the sisterhood on the same basis of 
equality with Massachusetts and Virginia. This expansion is not a 
symptom of weakness, but the means and the proof of increasing 
strength. Bigness becomes greatness. Old States and new, in one 



CITIZENSHIP AND EDUCATION. 5 

federative organization, — an indissoluble union of indestructible 
equals, — are held together, without jealous}' or inequality, without 
claim of political superiority on the part of older or larger States, 
all enjoying in equal degree civil and religious freedom. 

Science by electricity and steam has so brought into close proximity 
and unified our widely extended country as to remove the apprehen- 
sion felt by some of the fathers of the Republic, as growing out of 
conflict of interests and rarefied patriotism. 

Our power of recuperation astonishes. Storms, floods, drought, riots, 
wars, plagues, seem not to prevent or delay progress. Bad legislation 
and departure from soundest principles of currency and political econ- 
omy are comparatively innocuous. What has elicited such commend- 
ation for France because of her recovered resources, has been more 
than eclipsed here. Climate, soil, diversity of products, allied to the 
creativeness of free institutions, unrestricted trade among the States, 
and the energy, hopefulness, and irrepressibleness of the people, have 
wrought these magical results. 

There is danger, however, growing out of pride, presumption, and 
the intoxication of material and military success. Our history is not 
to be a record of dynasties, families, reigns, presidencies, stock- 
boards, and incomes ; but the evolution of ideas, the progress of lib- 
erty and human development. 

Our governments, — Federal and State, — interrelated and depend- 
ent, are based on the equality of the States and the equality and citi- 
zenship of the inhabitants. We recognize no such relation as one 
person or State being subject to another person or State as dominant 
sovereign. Filmer's '* kingship by the grace of God " has no adher- 
ents except among the few who deny the right of universal education 
and talk about Dissenters and Non-Conformists in religion. Our 
universal and equal citizenship is an evolution of American civiliza- 
tion and freedom. A distinction exists betwixt citizen and subject. 
Bonaparte made his ally Tippo in India Citoyen Tipou, but a citizen 
with us is one born of American parents or naturalized by due process 
of law, and as such is entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immuni- 
ties of any other citizen. Political rights belong equally to every citi- 
zen and inhere in the nature of American citizenship. Under our free 
governments, we have no castes nor legal classes, and recognize no 
distinctions, no subjects, no slaves. No one here has his place in life 
predetermined by the name or title his father wore, or by the family 
of which he is a member. There are no gradations of citizenship. A 
tailor or a canal-boy, equally with the most wealthy, is eligible to 
highest offices. 



6 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

Recognizing the right of expatriation, having sympathy with the op- 
pressed, needing an increase of population, our land was thrown open 
to all comers. Twice in our history have immigrants created parties 
controlling State and Congressional elections. The general senti- 
ment has proscribed proscription and welcomed all Europeans. In 
the present Congress twenty -one of the members are by birth aliens, 
and, according to Justice Strong, twenty-five were elected in part by 
constituencies of unnaturalized aliens. 

Assimilation of different nationalities has been hastened by the dis- 
persion of the immigrants and the unifying influence of churches and 
schools. Common education and the universal and proper adoption 
of the English language in instruction and in courts and legislatures 
have prevented many evils. We should tolerate no Scandinavian, 
German, Italian, or Irish factions or parties ; no half-hearted allegiance 
to country of adoption ; no paramount attachment to fatherland. It 
cannot be too forcibly emphasized that this is not Germany nor Ire- 
land ; that questions which pertain to Bismarck and Parnell, to Al- 
sace and Lorraine, and Cork and Ulster, are not to be engrafted on 
American politics, nor to nullify the Washingtonian policy of absti- 
nence from entangling alliances with foreign powers. Kossuth may 
inflame popular enthusiasm in behalf of the Magyars, but neither the 
executive, nor the Congress, nor secret societies with foreign sym' 
bols, must embroil us with transatlantic strifes. The early settlers 
may have subverted nations and governments, extinguished families 
and languages, disposed of land as dominant parties do of spoils, but 
we cannot consent that our Government and institutions shall share 
the fate of the civilization of the red man. 

Our citizenship is complicated and lacking in homogeneity. There 
are three classes of citizens : Qz) those ot one race and nationality ; 
(^) those of same race and different nationalities ; ' and (c) those of dif- 
ferent races. Community of race, community of religion, and commu- 
nity of interest, have been regarded as the three strong ties which hold 
States in unity, — as fundamental conditions of peace and stability. 
In a monarchy there may be a mechanical union of alien races and 
nationalities, but in a free, representative government, until the fusion 
and assimilation are complete, there will be continually recurring 
weakness and danger. It is not quick nor easy work to conquer or 
eradicate racial prejudices ; and in matters where questions of race 
are even remotely concerned, you may expect bitter alienations and 

^ It may be mentioned that our early colonists, with few exceptions, ** belonged to a com- 
mon stocks and proceeded from a single nation, having common political instineta and tlic 
traditions of conunoa institutions." 



CITIZENSHIP AND EDUCATION, 7 

hostility. Macaulay makes Protestantism and Romanism to depend 
largely on Teutonic and Latin origin of peoples. The tendency to 
alienation and separateness may be aggravated by long tradition, by 
antecedent dependence and inferiority, and be less controllable when 
the racial badge is ineffaceably stamped in physical characterisrics. 
Ethnological differences have been a serious obstacle to high civiliza- 
tion and advancing freedom. A congeries of strongly-marked, widely- 
variant races may be held in cohesion by external force, but that is 
the antipodes of our theory of government. Autocratic Russia has 
Sclavs, Germans, Turcomans, Armenians, Greek-Christians, Ro, 
man Catholics, Protestants, Mussulmen, and Buddhists ; but to make 
a homogeneous and prosperous people of Caucasians, Indians, Afri- 
cans, and Mongolians, in our free Republic, some substitute must be 
found for the repressive and mechanical force of despotism. 

Two distinguishing and conservative peculiarities, if not excel- 
lencies, of our system of government seem to be disappearing, and 
should arrest the attention of the patriot. 

(a) A novel feature of our Republic was its complex character, — 
its dual system of Federal and of State governments, united to the 
extent of the powers delegated, separated as to powers withheld. 
The separate States organized themselves into one representative re- 
public, " embracing all the guaranties of civil liberty then known to 
man, and having a principle of expansion which should extend these 
guaranties to every new polity which might arise in all the future of 
America," by bringing new and equal States into the Union. Some 
of England's wisest statemen have suggested, as a solution of the 
colonial problem, the establishment, after the American model, of an 
" imperial parliament, controlling an assemblage of federalized states, 
each possessing the fullest measure of home rule." The federal form of 
government as a political formation is not historically new, but this du- 
ality and inter-citizenship, and absolute divorce of state and church, are 
our contributions to the science of politics. The drift is now toward 
centralization and the absorption of the local governments, which 
were once regarded as vital to the development and preservation of 
our institutions. The thoughtful political student must have noticed 
in late years the contraction of State interests, and the expansion of 
national relations, interests, and powers. It is, for instance, gravely 
proposed by jurists and theologians to transfer from State to Federal 
jurisdiction the whole subject of marriage and divorce. States seem 
to be sinking to inferior, subordinate municipalities, sustaining the 
relation to the General Government that counties do to a State. A 
strike a local riot, has caused abdication of State autonomy and 



a THE NATIONAL EDVCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

refuge as a helpless suppliant to national protection Secession, or 
the right of State interposition, for the redress of grievances, is as 
dead as African slavery, but the States are as important and as valu- 
able as the Union. 

(J?) Whatever advantages were supposed to accrue from a written 
Consutution of well defined grants and limitations have been practi- 
cally ignored, under pressure of exigencies or in view of real or sup- 
posed benefits to grow out of consolidated power, or an unlimited 
central government. The Constitution, wherein, as Macintosh said, 
'* the authors constructed a great, permanent, experimental answer to 
the sophisms and declamations of the detractors of liberty,'* em- 
bodied in systematic form and precise language what in England is 
"expressed tacitly in institutions, or scattered in archives and anti- 
quated records." The instrument was ordained by the preexisting 
States as their grant of well-defined powers, but party assumptions 
and national needs have made it popular to regard the complete ex- 
pression of governmental power in a written code as impossible. 
Compression within the limits of exact language is sneered at as 
Utopian, and permanent changes have been wrought without recourse 
to the constitution-amending authority, — the certain determinate 
bodies provided for the purpose. It must be conceded that the argu- 
ment for flexibility has much force. The artificial mechanism of a 
written Constitution is not a guaranty of good government. If ours 
is 2i living organism, there must be growth. This is the law of life, of 
progress. To deny this growth is to paralyze effort. Original com- 
pleteness transcends human wisdom. Political infallibility is as heret- 
ical as ecclesiastical or clerical. As vigorous life comes on, new 
forms may be required, but still we should not be ready to concede 
that a constitution violated is a constitution abrogated. 

As the organic law in its restraining efficacy is losing its potency, 
so, from hyper-democratic theories, domination of selfish passions, 
and want of proper training as to duties of citizenship, law is losing 
its majesty and authoritativeness, and the individual citizen is ele- 
vated above the supremacy of society and of the state. Freedom is 
perverted into a right to throw off restraints, gratify resentments, and 
render property insecure and worthless. In a monarchy the supreme 
power is more or less centered in a living person, and is backed by a 
ready police and obedient soldiery, while tradition and loyalty are 
auxiliary forces to insure subjection and obedience. In a republic 
law is somewhat impersonal, and sovereignty is not seen. General 
suffrage, vicious demagoguism, false and mischievous notions as to 
popular sovereignty, or the absolute supremacy of the majority, com* 



CITIZENSHIP . iND EDUCA TION. ^ 

bine to rob law of its sanctions, and to give ascendency to the whims 
and passions of the populace, to the licentious frenzy of a mob. The 
Athenians justified themselves in acting in contradiction to the laws 
on the ground that they were the people, made the laws, and could 
unmake them. De Tocqueville said that all classes in the United 
States are attached to the legislation by a kind of parental affection. 
It is rather to be feared that enactments are set aside because of this 
supposed parental authority, and the fable of Saturn devouring his 
children finds realization in our day. The too prevalent theory is, 
that as law exists in the will of the people, it can only exist when it 
accords with that will, whether expressed through legislative forms, 
in a town meeting, or by an irrational, proscribing, confiscating, 
ferocious mob. It is not the French alone who say, Le peuple- 
empereur. The acts of the people are valid and authoritative as laws 
only when done through prescribed forms. The people, in the aggre- 
gate, outside of a political organism and preestablished rules, can do 
no act which has legal vitality. An absolute dmocracy is where the 
will of the people, whenever, wherever, or however expressed, is the 
supreme law. Our " conscript fathers " were guilty of no such 
folly as this in establishing our governments Power, undivided, 
unchecked, is absolutism, whether in the hands of one, or of the few, 
or of the many. The error is too common, that political liberty con- 
sists in unlicensed freedom and in the absence of restraints. The 
passions of men need subjection in order to the enjoyment by others 
of their rights. The preference of society over undisciplined nature 
is that, by a power exterior to unorganized men, to which obedience 
can be enforced, "the inclinations of men can be thwarted, their 
wills subdued, and their passions bridled.*' 

There can be no liberty where the citizen is not subject to the law ; 
that is, to "public opinion organically passed over into public will." 
This is the supremacy of law ; the union of law and order ; combina- 
tion of liberty and authority To this awe-inspiring majesty of law 
there must be ready acquiescence. 

Protectiorv against kingly absolutism entered into all the great strug- 
gles in the mother-country for civil freedom. The dispensing power 
of the Stuarts, the higher law of monarchs, was resisted to revolution 
and blood, but absolutism of a majority may be more dangerous. 
" Give me," says President White, " an autocrat ; give me a despot, the 
worst in history, and I will take him cheerfully rather than that many- 
headed despot, an unenlightened, uneducated democracy.'* In fleeing 
from the divine right of kings, let us not plunge into democratic 
might, for one is as hostile to tnie liberty as the other. Civil liberty 



10 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

liberty applied to political man, means checks in restraint of all human 
power. Supremacy of law applies to cabals, factions, parties, the 
clamorous, heady multitude, as well as to Stuarts, Bourbons, and 
Hapsburghers. 

The severity of the old Hebrew law-giver needs to be revived in 
these sentimental, disjointed days of the gospel of the dynamite and 
the dagger. Moses recognized law as of vital importance, and had a 
notion that it was made to be obeyed. We need a revival of that an- 
tiquated sentiment in American citizenship. The needed lesson 
should be diligently taught in every school-room. The " welfare of a 
people and its inner moral greatness can only prosper through the rule 
of right embodied in the law." 

There may be forms of aggression on property and person kindred 
to this The remedy of riots has its crazy votaries, but the more 
peaceful gospel of the omnipotence of the ballot-box has a larger fol- 
lowing. It is common to confound citizenship and suffrage, but 
they are quite distinct, and are not equal in logical or political extent 
Suffrage is not a natural right, nor ex necessitate a political right, 
nor commonly a consequence of citizenship. 

Human and political rights differ widely. The rights of man arc 
innate and universal. Political rights are special and limited. The 
elective franchise is the gift of a sacred trust, a matter of wise dis- 
cretion, of governmental policy, the granting or withholding of which 
is to be determined by its bearing on the general ends of good gov- 
ernment. Government in its character, form, and methods of admin- 
istration is tentative, is a balancing of probabilities. Its organism is 
determined by environments, and is at best an imperfect and change- 
able " working hypothesis " to secure life, liberty, and the pursuit of 
happiness. Self-government is not a creation, but a slow growth, a 
tardy evolution. Few people are fit for it. Extension of franchise 
is a living question in such a free and enlightened government as is 
Great Britain. Generally, in the Union manhood suffrage is conceded. 

Some of the States formerly had property qualifications. Massa- 
chusetts, South Carolina, Connecticut, and Rhode Island impose an 
educational condition. Several States require prepayment of poll or 
other taxes. Universal suffrage is a myth. Age, residence, sex, men- 
tal condition, civil status, are universal limitations. Children, women, 
paupers, soldiers, insane, and certain criminals are debarred. In- 
dians and Chinese are excluded, and the wildest visionary has not 
sought to make them safe and useful citizens by giving them the right 
to vote. Negroes when emancipated had suffrage imposed upon them, 
and the blunder of the centuries is irrevocable. 



CITIZENSHIP AND EDUCATION. H 

There is everywhere a limitation in law upon majorities. States, 
counties, and towns, as political divisions ; three departments of gov- 
ernment, two branches of the Legislature, electoral districts, fixed 
times for elections, registration, etc., are all based on the idea of con- 
current majorities and of fair and intelligent use of the franchise. All 
these limitations presuppose evils as resulting from unorganized 
action and from the unlimited right of the citizen to vote. Universal 
suffrage, if possible, would rest on the assumption that a State is an 
individual unit, a "collection of atomistic individuals." As this 
radical democratic theory is approached, it is pure chance whether the 
representatives are honest and intelligent, or vicious and ignorant, and 
there remains not the vaguest assurance of the public weal. 

Giving suffrage to a mass of unlettered and suddenly-emancipated 
negroes, making them depositaries of large political powers, was the 
severest strain to which our Republic has been subjected.' Whatever 
justification or provocation inspired the experiment, there was a dis- 
regard of the fears which the philosophic and liberal Macintosh had 
of the "establishment of universal suffrage among emancipated 
slaves." It was sad irony to mock with a " free ballot " a race which 
in the past had achieved comparatively nothing in agriculture, sci 
ence, and government, and in this country had had. from legal dis- 
abilities, by no fault of their own, no experience of freedom, no op- 
portiinities, except from contact with a superior race, for fitting them 
for the responsibilities of citizenship. Now, fortunately, the negroes 
have personal and civil liberty, equal claim for protection, justice, 
freedom, and education ; but they have little individuality, little power 
of independent initiative, loose ideas as to value of character and the 
nature and working of our institutions, and are too thoroughly un- 
trained in family government and political affairs to have the delicate 
and difficult functions of a free representative government committed 
to their hands. 

We have seen that citizenship involves grave duties and solemn 
trusts, — that the General Government is in transitu ixova a republic 
with a written constitution of well-defined grants and limitations to a 
government where the loosely-expressed will of the people is supreme, 
— that we have a heterogeneous conglomeration of different nationali- 
ties and races, and that suffrage has been pushed to an extreme in 
disregard of the teachings of history and philosophy. It follows from 

^Senator iSlair, to whom the South and the youth should put a statue in the Hall of the 
Nation's glor;, said: "Secessron, and a confederacy founded upon slavery as its chief 
comer-stone, would be better than the future of the Southern States; better for both 
races, too, if the nation is to permit one-third, and that the fairest portion, of its domain to 
become the spawning-gronnd of ignorance, vice, anarchy, and of every crime." 



12 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

these and other considerations that the obligation to educate Ameri- 
can citizens is unspeakably imperative. Families, churches, commu- 
nities, State and General Governments, separately and in combina- 
tion, should put forth such sufficient effo'rts as will give every facility 
to citizens for obtaining such a degriee of knowledge as may render it 
safe to trust them with power and as will qualify all for an independ- 
ent, intelligent, and safe exercise of their privileges. 

It may be well for this immense assemblage, representing every 
State and Territory in the Union, to express in no dubious terms its 
sense of the paramount national importance of the passage by the 
House of Representatives of the Senate bill giving federal aid to the 
public schools of the States. Nothing is more astonishing than the 
stolid unconcern with which some men in high positions, clothed with 
remedial power, look upon the perils to civilization and free institu- 
tions which a mass of uneducated and semi-civilized citizens creates. 
One cannoi but regret that this measure of emancipation from the 
bondage of ignorance had not been consummated on the Fourth of 
July, thus doubly hallowing that day as a second anniversary of inde- 
pendence and liberty. 

Education is an universal right, a prime necessity of man, and it is 
the duty of the State to provide it, because, as Macaulay said, it is the 
most efficient, the most humane, the most civilized, and, in all re- 
spects, the best means of attaining the main end of government. A 
certain minimum of education is the right of every child, and the child 
will fail to secure unless the State provide. In the most civilized 
communities the practical decision has been that the State must put 
children into a condition to "understand the duties obligatory upon 
them and to earn an independent livelihood." The well-being of the 
children and of all others demands this. The existence of a free com- 
monwealth demands it. Where the minimum is to be fixed is not a 
^^/^r/ determinable. What is the limit within which a State may as- 
sume to educate by a tax on property } is a question of practical politics 
that I forego the discussion of. 

Education should be so conducted as to make good, law-abiding, 
self-supporting, productive people. This, however, is wider than 
the theme assigned. My thesis is limited by citizenship, which im- 
plies that the citizen requires some general education, and some 
special education of a civic character As to the first, without it the 
functions of citizenship cannot otherwise be safely discharged, or the 
just expectations of American citizens be realized. Citizenship in a 
free, representative, constitutional Republic presupposes more gen- 
eral culture an'l enlightenment than is needed in a less popular gov- 



CITIZENSHIP AND EDUCATION, 18 

emment. Suifrage is a mockery unless based on the intelligence of 
the voter, — on some knowledge of the character, conduct, and creed 
of the person voted for. Eligibility to office implies a larger measure 
of knowledge. Jury and other civil duties cannot be well met by 
ignorant citizens. Wliat a select or privileged class does elsewhere 
is here devolved without class-discrimination on the mass of adult 
male citizens. It is of little use to concede political rights to all un- 
less they can be so far assisted as to qualify for an intelligent and in- 
dependent exercise of those rights. The character of our Federal 
and State governments and general manhood suffrage give American 
schools a new character, and perforce make them quasi national in- 
stitutions. The educated citizen becomes a bulwark of society as 
he has a stake in public order and welfare. In the absence of general 
education, who is hopeful of the perpetuity of our institutions ; what 
guaranty against Nihilism and Communism ; the vulgar arts of 
bribery ; what security for property, which owes its existence and 
value to the recognition and fiat of Society ? An ignorant and un- 
productive citizen is full of " communistic dreams about labor and 
wages,"— cares little for stability or security, and is the ready tool of 
demagogue and conspirator. If we choose ignorance, we make igno- 
rance the arbiter of our social and national life ; for, as one of our 
profoundest thinkers has tersely said, •* we are tethered to the lowest 
stratum of our population, and must accept their influence on our 
politics." 

The need of a special education of a civil character, of "schools 
of citizenship and patriotism," may not be so apparent. 

Political discussions are educatory, — furnishing information, teach- 
ing tolerance, and accustoming to look at both sides. I have heard 
able debates from the stump, by formidable and courteous opponents, 
on tariff, currency, annexation, Mexican war, treaty obligations, nature 
of the government, rights and remedies of States, that would have 
been creditable in highest legislative assemblies. Those who were 
thus habitually addressed reached a discipline and maturity of thought 
and a familiarity with public questions not equalled in the best days 
of Athens, and thus were evolved some of the grandest men of this 
century. Caucuses, despotism of party machinery, insolence of 
bosses and factions, corruption of the spoils theory, struggle for sur- 
vival, have banished these face-to-face discussions. 

The newspapers are invaluable agencies in training for civic duties. 
Local self-government is a schoolmaster leading the people to famil- 
iarity with details of administration and methods of government. 
Out of these educ^ory processes come much roughness, incapacity, 
•error, harm, but also experience and higher attainments. 



14 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

Trial by jury, which Lieber regarded as a vital guaranty of civil 
liberty, has indirect and tuitionary effects which are most whole- 
some, star route trials to the contrary notwithstanding. It is a 
great " business and political school of the people qualifying them- 
selves for self-government. It connects the administration of the 
law, which in early times was in the hands of the nobles, with the 
people," so that in judicial proceedings the people have a voice as 
well as in the legislature. 

It has been often remarked that a democratic government is better 
adapted for the peaceful conduct of society, or for an occasional 
effort of extraordinary vigor, than for the hardy and prolonged en- 
durance of the storms which beset nations. An intelligent experi- 
ence and calm judgment may give clear perception of the future and 
prepare for patient endurance of national crises. A democracy is 
often the slave of prejudice and passion, the facile instrument of 
demagogues and despots. Disappointments and temporary ills fret 
and enrage, and the exigency of the moment controls instead of cool 
reason and the public good. "Ignorance deprives a man of fore- 
sight. . . . Foresight is the guide and the stimulus to the exer- 
tion of active power, and just in proportion to the want of it must 
men be directed and compelled by force outside themselves. Igno- 
rant men are liable to fall an easy prey to their appetites and pas- 
sions. Self-control is the product of knowledge and training." 

The overpowering strength of the masses, the fearful energy with 
which they may be made to act, the excessive liberty, too often un- 
restrained and unrebuked, can be pushed into despotism, making 
paper securities and plighted faith and personal rights and corporate 
franchises as " green withes " in the hands of the misled and infuri- 
ated people. Before the fiery breath of a Cincinnati mob public 
buildings and records, private property and human life, are alike in- 
secure and perishable. Free government can only reach its truest 
development as a sound and intelligent public opinion is elaborated, 
collected, and expressed through preordained forms and institutions 
organized over a country. The trial of the generals who fought at 
Arginusae has a pregnant lesson for us. The commanders in that 
successful and brilliant action were condemned to a felon's doom by 
the precipitate and uncontrollable wrath of a deluded populace. 
The unchained Demus would hear nothing of law, and " clamored 
that it was monstrous if the people should not be allowed to do what- 
ever seemed good to them." The character of the Athenian Demus 
in this transaction, — fickle, heady, unprincipled, superstitious, merci- 
less, — justifies Plato when he compares a furious and demagogue- 
driven people to a drunken crew who destroy their pilot. The un- 



CITIZENSHIP AND EDUCATION. 15 

tutored or corrupted democratic voice sometimes declares for an 
imperial despotism. A plebiscite in France enthrones perjury and 
tyranny, and thus the multitude of the ignorant and irresponsible 
became the foe of liberty, the annuUer of compacts, the facile ser- 
vants of unscrupulous Catilines. 

If governments furnish and control education, it would seem to be 
a corroUary that one chief end should be to fit youth for good and 
useful citizenship. An acquaintance with certain social and political 
questions, their historical origin and growth, their tendencies, might 
be given without being degraded to partisanship. Service as jurors, 
as municipal, county, State, federal officers, requires some acquaint- 
ance with the structure of government. Presidential and con- 
gressional elections sometimes involve questions of much magnitude 
and far-reaching interest. 

Every voter acts representatively. In one sense, it is not true 
that he can vote as he pleases. Government is an instrument, not 
an end ; and all concerned, from President to the most fatuous voter, 
act as trustees and guardians. The Federal Constitution might well 
be studied in its general features, for it is easily understood when 
studied apart from selfish greed, legislative infraction, and judicial 
usurpation. Gladstone, the greatest living statesman, in Kin be^ 
yond SeUy said, *' The American Constitution is, so far as I can see, 
the most wonderful work ever struck off at a given time by the brain 
and purpose of man." 

Some rudimentary principles of political economy, of taxation, of 
currency, — some clear understanding of personal liberty, of the in- 
alienable rights of conscience, of ethical truth, — would be valuable 
information to any citizen. Said Mr. Forster in 1875, " No boy ought 
to leave school without knowing what the British Empire is. If he 
fully gains that knowledge, I think he will not seldom draw the infer- 
ence that the British Empire ought to last, and determine that, as far 
as in him lies, he will do what he can to insure that it shall last." A 
similar result would certainly follow the proper study of American 
history, as accorded by impartial and catholic historians who recog- 
nize the virtues and achievements of all sections. 

A people, whose political education has been wisely cared for, who 
have been taught to appreciate their share in the government, — not 
Napoleon's idea of government, " Everything for the people, nothing 
of the people," but the sounder and more American idea of President 
Lincoln, " A government of the people, by the people, and for the 
people," — may, under the influence of panic or passion, go astray, but 
the sober, second thought of intelligent reaction will correct the 
aberration. 



16 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

Startling as has been our progress as a ptiople, ^ustrous and benefi- 
cent as have been our achievements, useful as have been our contribv 
tions to the cause of liberty and the science of free government, yet 
abuses have sprung up ; bad men have put in practice bad methods; 
low passions and propensities have repressed new and better aspira- 
tions ; offices have become spoils for partisan service ; success in an 
election is paramount to public good ; despotism of party makes the 
choice of a constable in Washington Territory dependent on the can- 
didate's presidential preferences ; judges are partisan and legisla- 
tures are purchaseable. We need educated and patriotic citizens, an 
union of wise Conservatism and enlightened Progress, to remedy 
abuses, affect reforms, secure better and honester modes of adminis- 
tration ; to stimulate and guide an upward tendency ; to follow ideas 
rather than prescription and tradition ; to give fullest protection to 
the rights of every citizen ; to make our complex and correlated gov- 
ernments, in fact, as in theory, the embodiments and guarantors of 
justice, integrity, equality, and freedom. 

This leads to the closing thought. Let us lift the duty and the right 
of education to a higher plane. Our institutions, the grandest ex- 
periment of self-government, are based on the essential freedom of 
man. There is no exaltation of class above class, no recognition of 
legal distinctions. Politically, the humblest would shake hands with 
the Queen upon her throne, and think it honor to her Majesty. Man, 
politically, meets man as man, *' without assumption on one side or 
cringing on the other, without contempt on the one side or impudence 
on the other." As a freeman, with absolute equality in the eye of 
the law, every one is entitled to education. Humanity is above citi- 
zenship or nationality. Man existed before the State, and will live 
after it. Citizenship in a constitutional, representative, federal Re* 
public, or in a free State, is a high honor and privilege, but a man is 
more than a citizen. He has a moral nature, an infinite destiny. 
Earth does not bound horizon, nor limit responsibilities and aspira- 
tions. What he is to be implies and demands discipline, education, 
progress, freedom. It is arrant blasphemy that a race, or a sex, or a 
class, or a man, is not to be developed to fullest possible capabilities. 
Education is very defective if it have not reference to man's nobler 
nature, the spiritual, the immortal. Proper training for the future 
fits for the present. The two are indissolubly allied. One who truly 
lives, recognizes his relation to the Divine, the Eternal, his citizen- 
ship in heaven, best discharges civic duties on earth. False to God, 
false to society. Development of the intellect does not suffice. The 
better and nobler part of man must not be ignored. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 17 

SECOND SESSION. 

WEDNKSDAY, JULY 16. 

Owing to the crowds of people in attendance, it was found necessary to 
hold the morning session in the Capitol Park, the speakers and masicians 
occupying a platform on Ihe eastern steps of the Capitol ; President Bick- 
nell presiding. 

Prayer was offered by Rev. C. H. Richards, of Madison, Wisconsin. 

PRAYER. 

Oh, Lord God, our Heavenly Father : we thank Thee for those blessings which 
Thou art continually pouring into our lives ; for the brightness and beauty of this 
morning, and for the privilege of tliis great gathering here at this time. We thank 
Thee for the minds Thou hast bestowed upon us, and for the opportunities of develop- 
ment and enlargement which Thou liast given us, for these great privileges of Christian 
education in this Chrij>tiRn land. And now we ask Thy blessing upon all the deliberations ' 
of this National Association of Teachers. Guide them in all their consultations. Shine 
Thou into their minds and make them go forth from this meeting better fitted for their 
great and important work, better fitted to train the young and rising generation in the 
ways of power and of usefulness : and may the thought of this assembly be a perpetu- 
al joy to their hearts. Bless the President and ofiScers of this lAssociation. Bless all 
the teachers that are here gathered. Bless all the youth of our land, and may they not 
only be taught and trained in regard to the things that may make them wise for the 
present life, but may they receive also that moral and spiritual development and en- 
largement that shall give them the eternal life. , Pour out Thy blessing, we pray Thee, 
upon this Commonwealth of Wisconsin, upon its Governor and all its officers, and all 
the people. Give Thy blessing to the President of the United States and all associated 
with him in power and authority. Bless this great nation of ours, and so give it in- 
telligence and training that going forward from this point of advantage it may have 
larger prosperity and greater usefulness to the end of time. So g^ide us and keep us 
evermore, through Jesus Christ our Lord ; Amen. 

[JfMSic by Lueder^s Band."] 

The President : Members of the National Association, Ladies and 
Gentlemen : 

I am both guest and host this morning, having lived in Madison for 
the last twelve months in my thought and interest with reference to this 
great meeting. Bat I must take the part of host in reference to the Nation- 
al Educational Association, and introduce those who are to welcome us to 
this beautiful city and to this noble State of the Northwest. Chief and 
first among all the citizens of Wisconsin to-day stands her distinguished son 
whom she has chosen as her Governor, and whom she has honored before 
in many capacities. Governor Rusk has served his country on the battle- 
field, going out as a Major in the service and returning as a General. He 
has represented Wisconsin in the national councils. He has occupied every 
position of honor and tiiist in this State from the lowest to the highest, and 
I have theu pleasure of introducing to you, to welcome us to this grand 
State, the Hon. J. M. Rusk, Governor. 

2b 



18 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



GOVERNOR RUSK'S ADDRESS. 

Mr, Pi-esideni and members of the National Educational Association of 
the United States : It is a great pleasure to me to be able upon this occasion to bid 
you a cordial welcome to the State of Wisconsin. I will not attempt to detain yon 
by many words. We meet you and greet you, and extend to you the right hand of 
fellowship. Coming as you do from every State of the Union upon this great occasion, 
we feel highly honored to have tliis Association with us. My friends, I had no idea of 
the extent of this Association and what this meeting would be when it was decided to hold 
it here ; but any one who will look over your program and over the school exhibit will 
be satisfied that great good must come from this National Association of Teachers. 
We have a young State, but we are proud of its record and its natural gifts. Our 
people are industrious and generous, and will treat you while you are with us with 
kindness. I might say something in regard to the beautiful city of Madison, but our 
honored Mayor and other distinguished gentlemen are here to speak for the city» and 
they will do it. They have done everything in their power to make it pleasant for you 
while you remain with us, and you need not hesitate to ask for any favor they can 
grant. They will be as willing to bestow it as you are to receive it. Mr. President 
and Teachers : We are glad that this location was selected for this great occasion. 
We expect it will result in great good to our educational interests. Renewed energy 
and renewed life will take hold of our educational people. I again welcome you to 
this beautiful capital of our State. Mr. President : I thank you for selecting the State 
of Wisconsin as your place of holding this great national feast 

The Presidei^t : We thank you for preparing such a feast for us in 
Wisconsin. Madison has been growing upon me for the last twelve 
months. I watched its beauties here in the early September days. I 
have seen its winter snows and felt its cold ; and this summer, coming 
back here, it seems almost a paradise of delight. I could give a long 
chapter of experiences of the pleasure and satisfaction I have derived in 
connection with this most beautiful city of the Northwest, I may almost 
say unparalleled in its beauty in the country ; but I leave it for its honored 
31ayor, Mr. Stevens, one of its most distinguished citizens, to present to 
you some points with reference to Madison, and to extend to this Associa- 
tion the hospitalities of this city. I have the pleasure of introducing to 
you his Honor, Mayor Stevens, of Madison. 



MAYOR STEVENS* ADDRESS. 

Mr, President t Ladies and Oenilemen : Upon me, as a citizen of Madison, is 
devolved the pleasant duty of extending to this great gathering of educational people, 
the velcome of the citizens of Madison. In you we recognize the leading laborers of 
the country in educational work, abreast of —no doubt— the foremost of the world. 

While complimented by the fact that Madison was selected as the place for your 
gathering, we yet feel tliat it was so {^elected, not unwisely, in consideration of our 
great interest in your work, begotten of our needs. 

The population of the State of which this city is the capital is equal in number 
to seventy-four per cent, of the population of the great state of Massachusetts and 
to about one-fourth of that of the greater state of New York, and to nearly one-half 
of the total population of the thirteen original States, as it stood at the census of 
1790. And while as compared with New York the total population is but twenty- 
three per cent., the school portion is fully twenty-nine per cent, and as compared 
with Massachusetts, while the total is seventy-four per cent., the school portion iJ 
fully ninety-four. 

There are in attendance At Wisconsin schools not less than three hundred tfaoQ' 
sand (299,514) pupils. Our needs make interest for us in your work. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS, 19 

And we have interest from the fact timt in common witli the otiier communities of 
the country, we too are represented in your body and have here for examination and 
for comparison with that of others, the evidence of our educational work. In mak- 
ing this comparison it may be interesting to remember, that this, like many others at 
the West, is a transplanted community made up of those wlio were rooted elsewhere. 

Witiiin forty years, while the populations of New York and Massachusetts, each, 
have liuic more than doubled, that of Wisconsin has increased more than forty -fold. 
Thirty thousand in 1840, it is more than thirteen hundred tliousand now. 

We recognize the magnitude of the work before you and somewhat its difficul- 
ties. It is the old unsolved problem with which are associated the great names of the 
past. Strike from the history of civilization, that which pertains to education, and 
every chapter and page is mutilated. The history of one tells the life story of both. 

In the philosophy of education — the discovery of methods — your labors may add 
to the gathered knowledge and wisdom of the past a little, but only a little — such 
accretion as one generation aided by those preceding it, may reasonably hope to 
make. The so called new methods are found to be, largely, old methods. The 
method of teaching by objects — ^words and things to go hand in hand — is as old as the 
time of Plato. The importance of the study of individual dispositions and of tender- 
ness in discipline was urged in Quintilian's time. The contemporaneous training of 
body and mind, was praciiscd as far back as the twelfth century. That chiWren 
should be taught while playing, was orthodox school doctrine at the time of the 
Reformation. 'Teach a thing first, then reason about it," says John Sturm, of Strasburg. 
The relation of the study of classics to education, a question now before the public, 
was discussed pro and con. in the sixteenth century. The ideal education of to-day 
is not greatly different from that of the Greeks and Romans. Nor is unmeasured 
zeal in this work, new in the world. Will many here undertake to stand in com- 
parison with the good Pestalozzi ? 

But in the matter of testing and developing methods, there is before you an 
unexplored opportunity — one new to the world. For the first time in history it is 
possible to apply to educational methods, on a scale sufficiently large to justify a hope 
for practical results, the tests of experimentation and comparison. It is within the 
life, and possibly the business life of men here assembled, that steam was first large- 
ly applied to transportation uses, while later on came the telegraph. By these 
agencies, distance, as a barrier to irtercommunication, has been annihilated. The 
countries of the world, though separated by great oceans arc moored side by side, 
and cities, like files of soldiers, are in line touching elbows, and the open country is of 
the city a part. Such a gathering as this is was not possible in earlier days. You have 
come from every part of the land, overcoming in hours, distances, which a century 
ago, could not have been overcome in weeks, or months, or at all. Never before in 
this land and probably never in time, was there so great an assemblage of educa- 
tional laborers. 

May it not be hoped that from comparisons so widely made and the interchange of 
views so widely held, some standard or test, some nomenclature or formula will arise, 
by which methods may be tested and results measured and tabulated ; to the end, 
that those methods found to be valueless, may be abandoned for all time? 

Looking in this direction, is the fact, that professorships for the development of the 
science of pedagogics have lately been established in the universities of Germany, 
England, and the United States — and not in all England until 1873, only eleven years 
ago, while the filth in order and probably latest in time in the United States, was 
established at the last meeting of the Regents of the University of the State of Wis- 
consin. 

You are welcome at our city and our homes. If your numbers be such as to 
make our gift of comforts limited, you must take more of the welcome^ which is 
unlimited. 

The PREsroENT : We are absorbing your welcome in very large meas- 
ure. Wisconsin has very many favorite sons who have distinguished 
themselves at home and abroad, on the field and in the council chamber, 
but I have in my mind one especially whom you all will be glad to hear, 
and whom Wisconsin and the country have always delighted to honor. An 
empty sleeve speaks too eloquently for me to say more at this moment. I 



20 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

« 
have the honor and the pleasure of introducing to you ex-Gov. Fairchild, 
«f Wisconsin, 

ADDRESS OF EX-GOV. LUCIUS FAIRCHILD. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : I hardly know why my name was introduced into this 
program this morning, as our excellent Governor has welcomed you on behalf of 
the State of Wisconsin, and our excellent Mayor has so eloquently welcomed you to 
the city of Madison. I can only think that I am introduced because I have had 
the fortune, or misfortune — fortune I count it — to have been assigned to the duty of 
chairmanship of the Local Committee of Arrangements, and the Local Committee of 
Arrangements have resolved themselves during the last six weeks into a committee of 
chambermaids. We have searched the town with a fine rake for beds for you. We 
have searched Chicago for cots for you. We have searched other towns for blankets 
for you. We have stretched -our hospitality to its utmost extent, but, as our Mayor 
has truly said, our welcome has not been stretched at all. The hearts of the people 
of Madison are large enough and warm enough to have welcomed ten thousand of you 
had they come, and had they given us due notice of their coming, they should have 
had a good warm meal three times a day and a good bed at night. I can add 
nothing to what has been so well said by the distinguished gentlemen. That you 
are welcome I think you must know. Every house in this town, almost without ex- 
ception, high and low, rich and poor, has been opened to you, and in the lowliest house 
in town or the most luxurious mansion in town with the openin g has come to you my 
friends a real, heartfelt welcome. They mean it. Madison has been proud to be 
selected as the place of your meeting. It is a white day in our history, and we shall 
mark it with a white piece of chalk. And we only hope, and our anxiety has been, 
that such arrangements as could be made for your comfon will meet with your ap- 
proval. If there is a gentleman or lady in all this audience, or in this town to-day, 
that is not sufficiently accommodated, as they may think, they must lay it to our poor 
limits of capacity and nothing else. But I will tell you, my friends, there were in beds 
in this town very nearly five thousand strangers, and we had some seven hundred beds 
left. We are only sorry that there were not seven hundred more good people like 
you to occupy those beds. 

The President : They are coming to-day. 

Mr. Fairchild : The President says they are coming to-day. I hope they will, 
but I hope there will not be seven hundred and one. Mr. President: I can only 
add to what has been so well said, and what I think you have heard on every hand 
in the city, a most hearty welcome. We are very glad you came. We hope you 
will be happy ; we hope you will be comfortable ; and we hope you will go away from 
U8 feeling kindly towards us, for we shall send you away — we shall not send you away, 
but we shall be obliged to let you go away, because you can not stay always, with the 
kindest, proudest feelings towards you. 

IMutie hy Leuder^s Band,"] 

The President: Ladies and Gentlemen: Before the National As- 
sociation adjourned last year at Saratoga we had in our possession tele- 
graphic despatches from at least three important authorities in Wisconsin 
inviting us to hold our next meeting in Madison. One of those came from the 
State Teachers' Association ; others came from the Educational authori- 
ties of the city and State ; and from that day to this they have ceased not 
to apply themselves with urgency to our coming, and to put forth every 
effort for our best good and our highest pleasure while here. Among 
those who have distinguished themselves is the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Hon, Robert Graham, who I hope is present and will 
say a word to us in behalf of the State authorities. In his absence, I will 



JOURXAL OF PROCEEJfJSGS. 21 

introduce the vice-Superintendent, and I wish to say a word concerning 
his valuable and distinguished services in our behalf during this year. It 
was he who welcomed me to Madison when I first came here, in the ab- 
sence of the State Superintendent, and it is he who has stood at the post of 
duty froin that time until this in the most arduous labors for our gratifica- 
tion and for the success of this great meeting. And let me tell a little 
more, which he perhaps in his modesty would prefer that I would not men- 
tion. He said, " We will give 3'ou our deeds as the guaranty of our word, 
and we will urge upon our teachers such an interest in 3'our association 
that at least five hundred dollars shall come into 3'our treasury- from life- 
memberships in the State of Wisconsin" Ladies and gentlemen: that 
pledge lias been more thanlfulfilled, and through the eflforts of him whom 
I am now to introduce to ^-ou, seconded so noblv b}- the great band of edu- 
cators of Wisconsin, fifty j^life-memberahips. of twent3' dollars each, have 
been put into the treasury of the National Educational Association. Wis- 
consin is to-day the Banner State. She holds the palm^ and we will give 
her the palm before this meeting is over in some more suhstantial form. 
I have the pleasure of introducing to you the Honorable W. H. Chandler, 
of Madison, Wisconsin, who said to me at one time, '^ The hospitalities of 
the State of Wisconsin are so flexible, we will open our doors so wide, that 
the whole countrj' may come here." His heart is large ; his house is large, 
and he will show you how large his interest is in the work of education. 



ADDRESS OF HON. W. H. CHANDLER. 

Jfr. President, Ladies and Oenttemen: There remains but a single word of 
this general character to say in regard to our welcome of you to our State and 
to our city and to our heart*. From the placid waters of our great lake on the east 
to the Father of Waters on the west, from tlie intangible line that divides and sepa- 
ratee us from a sifter State on the south to the superior waters of that inland sea which 
spread from the Briiiah possessions on the north, Wisconsin to-day is stirred with a 
great and an unusual joy. Our fair State has put on her garments of promise and of 
hope. Our bams already are burdened with the weight and the frasTrance of our 
earlier harvest. Our steedn and our machines stand restlessly by the field waiting for 
the ripening of the later products, and eager for the fray. In all our borders there 
is a great stirring in our industrial interest. Five thousand axe-men in our forests 
have for a time suspended their labors there and transferred 1 hem to other fields of 
activity. Our rivers are filled with the product?* of the f«)re8t. and they are being 
floated' to those great and magnificent mills wliich by day and by night, by sunlight 
and by electric light, are converting these products into the nierchanta>>le ones of 
laniber and lath and shingles. Our miners are delving in the chambers of the earth 
and bringing forth the treasures of centuries, of lead and of iron. Our factories are 
buzzing with the whirl of spindles and of looms. Our mechanics of every description 
are fall of labor and full of encouragement. But these are not the things that are 
stirring unusual joy in our people to-day. We have a beautiful home. There is no 
pestilence in our air. Our homes have not been desolated by floods, as those of other 
states have been. No desolating and cyclonic storm has swept over our borders 
leaving devastation and death and destruction in its path. These things are not the 
things, however, that are stirring our joy to-day. These are the things that we al- 
ways have and are constantly enjoying, and, while we thnnk Almighty God for tliese 
beautiful homes, for these gre«t benefits and exemption-*, I say again it is not these by 
which our hearts are being stirred to-da>. What, then, you will ask me, is it which 



22 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

caoses this thrillingr and throbbincf of interest throuji^hout your commonwealth? Your 
presence, your work, your courtesy, and recognition. It is true we invited you to come 
to our state. It its true that various cia^ses of our citizens bade yon come and welcome. 
We have redeemed our pledge in this respect. I hold in my hand a list of life- mem- 
berships which have been proposed to tliis organization. These are cold, dry, dead 
iitatistics, but behind them, sir, there is a history instinct with life and with power, and 
I want to tell you two or three of these. We have gatljcred these from sixteen 
counties in the State. No little junta of men around the Capitol Park have incitt»d 
this interest and put themselves forward for this honor and these positions. They 
have come from sixteen counties in tlie State, and the neighboring village of 
Chicago has one. The business colleges of this State are represented by one 
member. The normal schools in this State are represented by eleven members. 
The boards of education in the cities of this State are represented by six mem- 
bers. The universities and college.-* of our State are represented by three mem- 
bers. The board of regents of normal schools is represented by one member. 
Seven associations of teachers are represented here, each with a single member. 
The teachers of the State, of their own motion, individually, selecting from their own 
number, are represented by nine memberships, and even the school boys and the school 
girls in the streets have caught the infection of this enthusiasm, and they have 
brought in their pennies, their nickels, and their dimes with which to constitute 
eight of their principal teachers, memberships in this association, representing a 
withdrawal of one hundred and sixty dollars from the candy and confectionery. shojMi 
and placing it in your treasury. We have two miscellaneous memberships, or.e of 
which I have told yod of as coming from an unimportant village near our borders^ 
and the other is our honored Governor, J. M. Ru»k. You ask me further why 
our interests have been thus stirred from end to end and from side to side of our 
grand State. Let me tell you in a word and relieve your patience. Wisconsin has no 
history. The men of this generation that are now in active life have made this State 
what it is. They have made from this virgin soil, untrodden by the feet of white men 
until they came, a State dotted over by beautiful farms. They have turned thej«e 
primeval forests into fields of industry and profitable labor. They have taken posses- 
sion of these water-courses aud made them the channels of intercourse and of business. 
They have conceived and carried forward these great enterprises of labor and of com- 
merce and of education ; they have established this State lAuiversity and nursed it, and 
cared for it through the infantile period. They have established a system of normal 
schools, endowing it with a million and a quarter of dollars capital. They have 
built up a great system of graded and high schools in the State, and above all and 
best of all and most important of all they have dotted six thousand common schools all 
over the face of our fair commonwealth. Now, sir, this has been dcme with great labor, 
with great effort. We have been obliged to come sometimes to these halls of legislation, 
and sometimes with suppliant knee and yet more suppliant voice have begged of these to 
give us our birthriglit for ourselves and our children. Sometimes we have prevented 
the watches of the night in constructing arguments why they should give us what we 
asked, and again we have come with the boldness, and perhaps the impudence, of 
men who were confident they were right, and threatened that unless assured 
of the gift we sought we would hurl them from their positions of power, as th« 
great father of politics and politicians is .«aid to have been hurled from higher battle- 
ments above. Ey hook and by crook, by fair means and by some other means, we 
have generally obtained what we asked. I only regret we have not asked for 
more. As I say, the people of this generation that came from the east and from 
tlie south have made this State. We have come to our manhood now. We have 
passed the meridian of life. We are conscious that presently we must pass over this 
labor to others, and we are looking forward with a serene and satisfied expectation to 
the time when we may retire to our household and tu the council chambers and spend 
in retirement the evening of our days; but we have had one strong and constant and 
irrepressible desire for one other thing ere we pass from this stage of action, and this is 
that which stirs our hearts to-day. We have been exceedingly anxious, sir, that 
in some formal manner, in some great public way, in some recognized form, this 
coming generation, this generation of our love, this generation of our hope, 
should have a ohristening day, a baptismal da}', and we have invited you and 
your associates to come and baptize our child to-day. Wo do not ask now that you 
shall have any tenderness in your laying on of hands. We do not care for a mers 
sprinkling of diluted platitudes. We ask that you will ptmr upon these men and 
maidens that represent this coming generation your spirit; thatytm will lead them into 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 28 

the great deeps of power in your reflective and your inveetifirating and your enquiring 
attitude. We ask you to take them and show them the length and breadth and the 
greatness of this universal thing, universal education. And now this day and this hour 
is upon us. You have come at our bidding ; you are here for the ceremony. We pre- 
sent you this child and heir of this generation soon to pass away, and we ask that ere 
yon depart you shall leave such an impress upon it that it shall take up this work and 
excel, far excel its father in its effort and its success. They tell us, sir, that on the 
border of your eastern sea they are laying the foundation deep and wide and strong 
for a great pedestal, upon which ere long there shall surmount a noble statue, from 
whose uplifted hand there shall flame a torch perpetually shedding forth its light as a 
symbol of liberty lighting the world. During all these years of your history, you and 
yours have been laying the foundation of another pedestal and the uprearing of 
another monument, and it is our supreme and our unspeakable joy to-day to be per- 
mitted to unite with these from north and south, from east and west, and add another 
section to this uplifting monolith that shall, not only from its apex, but from window 
and from oriole, from translucent side and from all its parts, shed forth that flame, — 
that light whose beams shall reach the utmost bounds of earth, and by whose light all 
nations shall learn to read and heed the legend, ** Morality, education, industry ; these are 
the triple elements, the triune substances, that assure a nation's greatness, a nation's 
strength, and a nation's perpetuity." 

The President: In reference to the cei^emony referred to by our 
friend, Mr. Chandler, I would say that the High Priests are here ; you seem 
to have plenty of water ; the only question now is whether you will have 
the child sprinkled or dipped. You have the reputation out here, I sup- 
pose, of being pretty honest people. I do not know that you have ever 
been charged with being Star Routers or anything of that sort, or of 
making any depredations upon the general government and its treasury ; 
but you have been drawing upon a great treasure house which has been 
depleted very severely by your draughts. I will not say that you have 
been stealing, but you have drawn the strength of manhood and woman- 
hood from the East to people this great State of Wisconsin. You have 
taken her bright boys and girls out here to make these grand men and 
w^omen, to build up here a great commonwealth which shall be the glory 
of this Northwest. You have taken of our riches of all sorts and kinds 
to build your colleges and your various institutions, and I shall now call 
upon one who is regarded as one of our choicest treasures, whom you 
came to New England for, calling him here to yoiu* capital city and plac- 
ing him over your great University established so nobly and beneficently, 
and we welcome him, to give the welcome for j'ou and for the State in 
its higher education. I have the pleasure of introducing to you Hon. 
John Bascom, President of the University of Wisconsin. 



ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT BASCOM. 

Mr. President and members of the National Educational Association: It has 
been assigned me as my pleasant duty, in behalf of the higher institutions of learning 
in the State of Wisconsin, to welcome those who represent kindred institutions in other 
portions of our blessed land. We have here bright men and bright women from all 
the States, east and west, north and south, We know this by the foretaste of our 
knowledge, and we know it by the spirit of propliecy and intuition that is in us. 



24 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

Yon come to us full of knowledge, full of liigh incentives. We shall sit, so far wm 
the duties of our hospitality will allow it, very willingly at your feet for instructioa. 
We are only at fault as to the kind of return that we shall be able to make to you in 
point of interest and instruction. We at the West appropriate very freely the f?ifts of 
Heaven, and, on the whole, they are our best gifts. We invite you, therefore, 
freely to enter into the light of these skies that are above us, into the pleasure of this 
rolling landscape that is about you, into the beauty of these lakes that surround us, 
to have and to hold all that is not covered by our title deeds, and very little indeed is 
covered by them. We invite you also to enter heartily into the enthusiasm of the 
position that we occupy. The State of Wisconsin is interlaced by the upper waters 
of the Mississippi. It is a portion of that great continental valley that is buttressed on 
the right by the Rooky Mountains, and on the leA; by the Allegheny Mountains, and is 
fringed by the sea-coast States. We welcome j'ou to this continental valley which has 
been reserved in the history of the world to mark an epoch in civilization, a valley 
that 'shall be occupied by a population of more wealth, more intelligence, and, we 
trust, of more happiness than has yet found place on the surface of the earth. One 
of our guests requested that he or she might be placed in a typical western house- 
hold. Now we invite you all to a typical western State. Wisconsin is a character- 
istic state in several particulars. It has had the same rapidity of development thai 
characterizes the Northwest, the same variety of nationalities and even somewhat 
more than the usual variety of interests. There are three points in our educational 
institutions to which I venture to direct your attention. The first is that our educa- 
tion is somewhat more organic, somewhat more complete within itself than the 
education that is found in all of our states, more especially in the older states, and, 
we owe this fact, not so much to any peculiar wisdom on our part as to thfi circum- 
stances which have surrounded us. These stites have grown up rapidly, and the 
higher education has grown up under the fostering hand of the state and the United 
States in connection with primary and intermediate education, and hence it happens 
that the three are more closely united than is common in the older states. I do not 
know of half a dozen Colleges or Universities in these states which have the same 
number of students in their college course from the state itself that the University 
of Wisconsin has. It stands among the first institutions in this one paticular, in 
the number of those belonging to the state that are gathered within its college 
courses. Four-fifths of our students come to us direct from our High Schools. An- 
other point to which I invite your attention is that classical and scientific education 
is more closely united with us than usual ia the older states, and for reasons 
similar to those I have given. In the older states the claim for higher education 
found the colleges preoccupied with classical work, and therefore in many cases, by 
way of self-defence, they have established for themselves scientific and technical schools. 
The two forms of education have come up with us hand in hand, and we find them 
both united in our Colleges and Universities, and thus we have been able to secure a 
decree of symmetry, a degree of proportion, which we might not have otherwise 
attained to. I ask attention to but one other point. Not only have we reached a 
point of organic unity and symmetry which are desirable in education, but we have 
come even-handed to our citizens. Our higher institutions are almost universally 
institutions of co-education. The University of Wisconsin during the past ten 
years has sent out over a hundred young women, graduates of that institution. 
Now I wish to say to some of my Eastern "friends, with whom I discussed this ques- 
tion somewhat warmly before I came West that this is in and of itself an exceedingly 
significant fact. Society in these Western States will ultimately be greatly modified 
by this circumstance that its youth are educated together, that they have the same line 
of instruction, and they go out together to meet the duties of life. A gentlemen 
walking with a lad asked of him, " Who is that man in front of you?" The lad re- 
plied, *' He is my father. Don't you know him? I know him just as easy." Now 
this is our condition in the West iii connection with co-education ; we know it " just as 
easy" and manage it just as readily as the boy knew his father. We are only 
surprised when we hear inquiries from the East corcerning the possibilities of this 
method. Ladies and gentlemen, men and women, bright and beautiful, beautiful 
and bright, we give you a hearty welcome to Wisconsin. ^ 

Thr President : Ladies avd Gentlemen : I have been trying to exhaost 
the hospitalities of Madison and Wisconsin, and by the attempt have 
almost exhausted myself. It is inexhaustible I find. At any rate, so far 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 25 

mj attempt has proven it to be so. Your Excellency, the Governor, Your 
Honor, the Mayor, and the other gentlemen who have addressed us : I wish 
to thank you on behalf of this association for the very eloquent and cordial 
words you have given us. They were in the air, floating about our ears 
and sounding through our whole hearts, before we came to your city, or 
before we saw your State, and the best evidence that we appreciate it is 
the fact that we have come in such magnificent numbers to enjoy it. This 
great company is the best assurance that we believed that Madison and 
Wisconsin has a body and a heart large enough to receive all these educa- 
tors, representatives of every State and of every Territory', and of every 
grade of instruction throughout this great country, and we have come hei'e 
to fiind that your hospitalities are large and full and free ; like your prairies, 
thej- are almost boundless, like the horizon stretching out before us to an 
almost unlimited extent, and we thank you for this greatness of heart and this 
liberality of spirit that has opened your doors as well as your hearts, that 
has consecrated to our service this whole State for the benefit of this great 
National Association. In fact your scenery, this beautiful air, these lovely 
lakes, all that we have seen in our travels through the West, have been to 
us a source of welcome and inspiration, and as we meet here to-day to 
touch hands and hearts with this noble band of educators of -the North- 
west, so ably represented by our friends Mr Chandler and Dr. Bascom, who 
have spoken to us, we are moved to great depths of feeling by the friend- 
liness of the relationship which cements and binds us together. You are 
something like a little Kcntuckian who said that his live weight was a hun- 
dred pounds, but when he was mad he weighed a ton. So it is with the 
citizens of Wisconsin. Your live weight may be a hundred pounds, but 
when you attempt to show us your liberality and your spirit you weigh tons, 
an<l we are glad to come to realize to some extent this generosity of wel- 
come which you have accorded to us. In fact the happiest man I have 
seen is the man who has Stowed away four thousand teachers, and he was 
at the depot yesterday looking for '-more worlds to conquer." 

You, therefore, Your Excellency, and ladies and gentlemen, have the 
credit and the honor, and the glory, it may be, of having set in motion, 
throngh your large-hearted invitations and the splendid opportunities 
afforded us here, forces and influences which stir the heart of this Nation 
from its centre to its circumference, and shall send forward a great nation- 
al movement from this meeting which shall uplift and build up an 
educational sentiment truer and deeper and more lively than has ever been 
felt on this continent before. If this object is consummated, how the hearts 
of the members of this association will be delighted, and how the educa- 
tional work of this country shall advance with great rejoicing. These 
homes of Madison, these beautiful scenes, this park and this capitol, all 
are ours for our enjoyment for these few days, and there are other blessings 
far beyond. This is but the doorway. We have just entered the portico 



26 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

of this magnificent mansion of the Northwest. Oh ! how grand it i«. 
What its present is you perceive. What its future shall be your imagi- 
nation and mine cannot conceive. How grand to have the men and 
women from the East come up to see this lively representation of the 
grandest work of our republic. How grand to have the men and women 
of the East, the more conservative forces of our country, come up here 
to be enlivened and enlightened by the i)rogressive spirit which fills and 
thrills every heart and nerve of this great system of republics of th« 
Northwest. And how grand it is that we may come here together as 
brethren and sisters in this great educational movement, to be ourselves 
lifted a little higher toward that eminence on which God stands. 

Brethren, receive these congratulations from our friends, and further 
we return to you, dear friends, the heartiest sympathies, the bursting sym- 
pathies of our heart for what you have done for us. No other city in this 
land, I am sure, could have done what Madison has done. No other State 
could have done it and our thanks are due to you, Your Excellency. You 
met me with open arms and a ready palm and a Western grip, and yon 
said, " Come, and bring your forces with you." You discounted me a 
little when I told you we might have 1500 or 2000 people here, and I 
hardly dared promise you what I thought might come. I had to stand on 
a very difficult platform when I came here, promising a little, knowing 
what might be, but hoping for the grandest meeting of educators ever held 
on this continent. Our expectations are realized, and I hope that yon are 
gfatified ; that our efforts have been satisfactory and a pleasure to 3'ou, as 
well as a delight to us. Without further remarks on this occasion, I take 
pleasure in introducing to you some of our members who will respond more 
fittingly than I can to your grand and noble words. The National Associ- 
ation was formed in 1857. We have some of its fathers here to-day. In 
fact the man who wrote the first call for the first meeting sits on the plat- 
form by my side, and I have the pleasure of introducing to you, Dr. D.B. 
Hagar, not the man who wrote the Declaration of American Independence, 
but the man who wrote thp declaration of independence for the National 
Teachers' Association of the United States. Dr. D. B. Hagar, of Salem, 
Mass., than whom no one can more fittingly respond to these words of 
welcome from our friends of the Northwest. 

Dr. Hagar : Ladies and Oenilemen : Fortunately for me, and more fortunately 
for you, the President has not called upon me to make a speech. He has simply asked 
me to read a call for a convention of teachers to form an educational association. Il 
happens that I have in my hand the original copy of the call which was put fortli in 
1857 callin.i^ for an assembly of teachers in the city of Philadelphia. I think it no 
more than just to a well-known educator of the state of New York that I refer to him 
as the man who first conceived the plan of forming a national association. I refer 
to James W. Valentine who for many years was a teacher of a grammar school 
in the city of Brooklyn. At that time he was the president of the New York 
State Teachers' Association. He wrote to me suggesting that there ought to be asump- 
mons for a national meeting of teachers. He wrote also to presidents of state ataoci- 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 27 

ations throughout the country askins^ them to join with him in organizing a national 
association. Tliat call was responded to favorably by only nine of the Presidents of 
the several State associations. The larger portion of tlio«e Presidents did not believe 
it pra<!tlcable to organize such a body, and they declined to sign the call. But nine 
were willing to attach their names to the call. I have been requested to read, as a 
matter of historical interest, the call that was put forth in 1857. [A copy of the orig- 
inal document may be found in the President's address which follows.] This call is 
dated May 15, 1857. In accordance with tliat call a number of gentlemen assembled 
in Philadelphia for the purpose of considering whether it were expedient or not to 
organize the proposed association. The meeting was very small in numbers. I re- 
member that our first meeting was held in the Common Council Room of the city of 
Philadelphia, and there was ample room in that Council Room for more than were 
present. But very few assembled at that time h.id any great faith in the success of the 
proposed enterpri>e, and few only were in earnest. Four of the gentlemen then present 
are here with us to-day. Many looked on and said, '* It is impossible. The interests 
of the different parts of the country arc so various, and in some respects so contrary 
that it will be impossible to harmonize them so as to form a successful body." The 
babe that was born there in Philadelphia started into life looking rather sickly. 
Many prophesied its early death. But that babu grew into stalwart proportions, and 
now, at the age of 27 years, it has grown so large that it needs more room, and so it 
has come out into this great northwestern region to get a chance to grow. I do not 
care to detain you longer. So many emotions come to my mind as I contrast that first 
meeting; with this greatest of educational meetings that I have no words at command 
to express those emotions. I can only say in conclusion, when I consider from how 
small a spark this great educational flame has grown, ** Behold how great a matter a 
liUle fire kindleth.** 



The Puesident : Ladim and Gentlemen : I have shown you the writer 
of our declaration. I now present to you Dr. Richards, of Washington, 
first President of the Association, one of the most distinguished and 
prominent teachera in the country. 



Dr. Zalmon Richards : Ladies and OenUemen : I suppose President Bicknell 
wants to present the first nurse of tliat babe born in Philadelphia. So he has heen a 
nurse, and if some of you luul f)assed through the first three years of the history of the 
National Association you would have seen llis\t the nurse had something to do. When 
the first annual meeting was lield in Cincinnati, five members oniy were present to 
grace the ceremonies on that occasion, one sitting in that part of a large audience, 
another here, another there, who has gone to his grave, and another by my side, with 
a company of fio's noble gentlemen on the platform to 6peak for us, but within one 
hour's time one hundred members united tlieniselves with us, and some of them arc 
here upon the platform to speak for themselves. 



The President : I have presented to you one of the fathers. You 
have seen the nurse. Now I am going to present to you one of the god- 
father:», Dr. Pickard, of Iowa. 



Dr. Pickard: :Vr. President and Ladies and Gentlemen: I can conceive of but 
two reasons for cnlling me out on this occasion. The first is that I may show the dif- 
ference between the depleted Ea^t and the full-fiedged West. You have been told that 
the best part of the West has come from the K:ist. You have seen what it has left of 
the East. Another reason, I supposte, for calling upon me at this time was because of 
my early acquaintance with a portion of the West. What I knew of the West is all Kast 
now, and I do not feel, my friends, like standing hereto represent anything but Wis-, 
consin. I cannot do it for the life of me. Nineteen years I resided in this State, and 



28 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

aflsociiitod in the early days with the men who have addressed you, riding over th<' 
pr dries of the West with this jfood Governor Ra!4k, with whom I am not ashamed to 
ride, and another, a representative also of the younjj life of this State that has appeared 
before you, with one hand welcominiir you, but in that hand a heart as big as is held by 
both hands of most people. Governor Fairchild was a boy in the University when I 
first knew this part of Wisconsin. I want to say also, for your comfort, perh»ips, that 
I WHS instrumental in part in calling tiie attention of this Association to Wi^^consin. 
Forgive mc if I have called it wrong, if I have promised anything for the State and 
for tins city that ha^ not been fulfilled ; and yet in the midst of all the joy that appears 
here, in the midst of all the welcome we have had, in the midst of all the congratula- 
tions for the work done, I have just one word of fault to find, and that word is that 
they have left my bed with only one person in it besides myself. I expected two or 
three when I came here, and I think that 1:1 a somewhat common fault. I want to say 
also in behalf of those who have been so thoroughly welcoming us that we of the groat 
West, who have come in here to partake of your hospitality, came expecting to be en- 
tertained. We came expecting to receive a full welcome, as we have received it. We 
came also knowing the heart that was in yon. We came knowing that the house wa» 
small but the heart was large. I recall an incident some twelve years ago in that neigh- 
boring village of Chicago where in a small house, simply sufiicient for four persona, as 
we thought, there was brought in one night, when a hundred thousand persons were 
homeles!*, a family of eleven people additional to our own, and that family found 
abundant rest, and how? Why, I would lie down on the floor and go to sleep and be 
stood up in the corner, and let somebody take my place. That is what you could have 
done here if you would, l^it your guests to sleep and stand them up in a comer, and 
put somebody- else in their beds. I have many a time in tliis State been put into the 
bed of a person who had occupied it the first part of the night. We know something 
about *' school sections "in this part of the country. We know how they have been 
filled with beds and with people lying foot to foot and head to head, lying touching 
each other so closely that tlieir hands could not kill the mosquitoes without touching 
somebody else. Now, my good friends, there are grumblers here of course, but they 
do not mean anything by it; that is only their way of expressing their joy. You know 
there are a great many people, like Mark Tapley, who are only happy when they are 
miserable. And those who are thus grumbling are most supremely happy. Take joy 
th6n if you are complained of, in tiie knowledge that this is the best way that some 
people can express their joy. There are those that would not go into Heaven, I be- 
lieve, if the angel did not come down with a coach of gold and take them from the gate. 
There are some perhaps that thought they ought to have been waited on at the depot 
by some one besides the omnibus. There are some, I know, who feel very happy to 
be here, and there is nobody any prouder of the work done in the city of Madison, no- 
body prouder of the work done in the State of Wisconsin, than one who wa.s in it be- 
fore it became a State, one who travelled across from the lake to the Mississippi River 
when there was hardly a resting place between the two, one who has known something 
about the wild prairies and about the fires sweeping over thosi* prairies, who has slept 
on puncheons, with a horse blanket for a mattress and a buflTalo robe for the cover, or 
the other way, and been invited to breakfast in this way, "Please haul up a cheer and 
help yourself to such as you love best." 

There was not a chair in the house, and what I loved best must have been corned 
beef or hacon, hut I know there was no warmer heart in the State of Wisconsin than 
that of my host at that time. I am proud of being a guest, and now let me say I am 
proud of being your host. Welcome all to this State, that I M-ill for the moment take 
for my own St:ite in the past, and whenever you see fit to go across the Mississippi 
Kiver into the next State w(*st you shall have just as warm a welcome as yon received 
here, and more room on the prairie. There are not so many lakes there to crowd 
you. 

The President: The next speaker, father or god- father, or nurse, or 
what I do not know, is one of our distinguished men. one of the leaders of 
thought and action in this country and one of the distinguished Presidents 
of this Association. He is now in the early days of life and we have great 
hopes as to his future. I have great pleasure in introducing to you Dr- 
•White, of Cincinnati, Ohio. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 29 

Pr. White: The hearty and eloquent wonls of his Excellency the Governor, and 
the other representatives of this f^reat Commonwealth and this beautiful city have stirred 
me with uncommon emotion, but there is in tlus ocoision an eloquence that cannot be 
put into words. There is a thought in such a body as thix, gathered under such circum- 
stances that no human language can express, and it is the eloquence of this occasion, 
it is the circumstances under whicli we have met this morning that have stirred me 
with the deepest emotion and have aroused in my mind the most stirring, the most 
promising thoughts. Just as we sit and stand here the mind goes back fifty years when 
this grand commonwealth had no word of welcome, had no great people or city, but 
was silent with the thought and the purpose of God, who spread out this rolling coun- 
try, who fashioned this great valley of the Mississippi for Uis grand designs and who 
looks down on us this morning seeing in part the accomplishment of that great pur- 
pose ; and this occasion speaks with a voice tiiat comes from the very throne of Omni- 
potence, and from the mind and heart of Him who has brought this nation into being, 
and who is guiding it for great purposes for the good of man. And now the thought 
that comes out of this is, why are we here, and why this hearty welcome of teachers 
and these educators of the country? Is it because the education which is here repre- 
sented touches the material prosperity of this great nation, because the school-master, 
by the creation of wealth, is belting this continent with roads and bridges of iron, is 
filling it with cities and homes that are blessed with ease and comfort and satisfaction 
snch as no other people ever enjoyed? Is it that these schools are touching with bene- 
ficent power the industrial prosperity and wealth of this great nation? Is this the sig- 
nificance of this hour. If these schools did nothing else they would be worthy of the 
welcome of this occasion, but, as I read it, there is a higher purpose. Is t\\U occ^ision 
significant because this occa<«ion which is here embodied and is here represented is 
making possible the perpetuity of this great nation of ours? Is it because these 
teachers are laying the foundations of civil liberty in this land so firmly that genera- 
tions to come shall rest securely thereon? Is it because the perpetuity of this grand 
heritage of our fathers is dependent on the work of these feachers? Is that the in- 
stinct and full significance of this occasion? If it were, it would be sufficient to ac- 
count for it all, for this grand nation of ours has a function and a purpose in history 
that is worthy of all the effort that is being made in education, and in every other form, 
for perpetuating and establishing it securely on its foundation. In 1820, in that re- 
markable centennial address at Plymouth Rock, Webster laid down three conditions 
for the perpetuity of the American Republic. These conditions were, universal edu- 
cation, universal religious training, and the proper division of landed property. ^ And 
the schools of this country are aiming certainly to realize the first of those conditions. 
And so out of that fact alone, this occasion would have significance. But, my friends, 
what is this country? What are these institutions, and what is this material wealth, 
but a means to a sublimer end, and that end is man. This people are higher than their 
institutions, and their institutions have meaning because they contribute to the worth 
and glory of this country. And so in welcoming this great body of teachers here to- 
day, we are welcoming those wlio are doing more than touching material wealth with 
power; more than those who arc laying the foundations of civil liberty in this land and 
fortifying it against all enemies within and all enemies without. We are welcoming 
those who are touching with beneficent power that for which these homes and wealth 
exist and that for which this Republic is established, a great people, whose life and 
whose work transcend all institutions and all material things. You are welcoming 
those who look upon these boys and girls as the* richest inheritance of God, and whose 
sublimest duty it is to fashion them into men and into women with the thought of God 
stirring their hearts and the purpose of God leading them to a true manhood and a true 
life. These teachers are not making artisans as their chief purpose. They arc not 
training soldiers, they are not training citizens ; they are making men and women, and 
fashioning them and culturing them toward the image of God in which we are all 
created, and to this sublime work this great West calls anew. And we here would 
consecrate this great body of educators to this sublime work, and make this generation 
of children in our schools go out from these schools,' not only with skilled hands and 
healthy bodies, and loyalty to country and purpose to defend the rights of the people to 
the end, but make them go out with hearts pure, with minds widened and ennobled, and 
with a consecration to all that is true and good and beautiful in human life. May this 
generation of children take up this heritage which has passed to them and make it 
wiser and better than it has been. Now the great West summons this great body of 
teachers, not only for the highest glory of the country, but for the uplifting of the 
people and the blessing of the world, and that highest function is the forming of right 



30 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

character in the young. Character is better than culture, ia better than skill. It is 
that which saves all and blesses everything ; and character in the next generation will 
put sunshine in our political sky, will bless our social life, will remove all doubts and 
troubles, and leave this great people serene in the conscious power of true manhood 
and true womanhood. To that work you welcome us, and in tliHt spirit we receive the 
welcome. Into our hearts we draw this hour an inspiration that shall burn till we drop 
our work and report unto Him who can give us our reward and measure our labors in 
love. 



The President : I cannot close this exercise without introducing to 
you one whom we all delight to honor as our Executive at the National 
Capitol, who, as the great leader of our educational forces through this 
country, has stood at that post, I believe, for nearly fifteen years, a man 
who is doing a noble work for the North and the South, the East and 
the West, whom we are glad to have honor us with his presence to- 
day ; I have the pleasure of introducing to you the Hon. John Eaton, 
LL. D., Commissioner of Education of the United States. 



Gbk. Eaton : Mr. Prtsident and Teachers of fifty-four millions of A merieans: 
I have been present on various public occasions of welcome when I thought the 
welcome was overdone. I have not thought so on this occasion. These words may 
have seemed to some extravagant. They have not seemed so to me. Who are these 
that I see welcomed here to-day? Here is the teacher who has fitted more young 
men for college than any other living man in America. Here are the college Presi- 
dents from the experience of one year up to that of thirty or forty. You have seen 
the founders of this Association. Here are the State Superintendents, the City Su- 
perintendents, of great systems moulding the generation that is, and in the hands of 
men who are here that you have welcomed have been moulded many of the public 
men that have been the actors in our day and the leaders in our affairs. Nay, I tell 
you this hearty welcome is not extravagant for this occasion. And now what shall I 
say? What can be added? I nm in the situation of the young student in the deaf 
and dumb examination. The answers were written on the black-board, and two had 
written, and now came the third; what could he do? The subject had been fully 
treated. He could only go to his assigned place and write '* ditto." I write ditto to 
all that has been said, and I wish to add that while I have been here listening to 
these words one controlling impulse has prevailed within me, and that is to rush down 
and shake the hand of some familiar officer or teacher. I have desired that this 
body of teachers should not only hear these great thoughts moved by these great 
considerations, but that they should know each other; that no teacher in this great 
number should go away without becoming acquainted with every other one here. I 
have noticed a group of College Presidents moving about among themselves not 
knowing each other. I have seen other eminent public educators similarity situated. 
Let every one become acquainted ; and I wish at the proper time to have the Pres- 
ident appoint a committee of one from each State who shall appoint five associates to 
introduce every body to every body, that every body may take the entire impulse of 
this ()Cca<iion back to his State, back to his City, back to his school-room, back to his 
point of labor with the illiteracy and ignorance of the country ; for while it is a grand 
moment, a grand occasion, the greatest assemblage of teachers that ever convened in 
this Country, a fact that shall mark this as a year of note in the history of education, a 
fact that together with anotherthat the United States Senate debated the subject of 
education for three weeks, shall add to the honors of the year. May we hope that out 
of this occasion there shnli flow impulses and influences to make the year still more 
distinguished by securing simihir action Irom the House of Kepresentives, and then 
this year shall stand out as noted for this great teachers' assembly, for this debate and 
action of the Senate, and for the passage of a measure through Congress that shall 
carry light into all the darkness of the land and hope and courage to every teaclier. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS, 81 

The Pbesident : I have a very interesting announcement to make. 
Friends of the Association : I have the honor and pleasure of stating 
that our distinguished friend, His Excellency Gov. Rusk, in the noble- 
ness of his heart, to add to the other great hospitalilies we have received, 
invites this' Association as a bodj" to his residence on Thursday evening 
for a reception, to be introduced to him, to his family, to each other. 

Dr. Tappav : I move that the President and Secretary return formal thiAiks to the 
Goremor for his kind invitation, and express our intention to accept it. 
Which motion was carried. 

[ Music by Lender^ s Band,'] 

President Bickmell then delivered the annual address before the 
Association. 



82 TUE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 

THE ANNUAL ADDRESS BEFORE THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AS- 
SOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES, AT MADISON, WIS., JULY i8. 1884. 

BY THOMAS W. BICKNELL, LL.D. 

This great assemblage of teachers, which may be a memorable 
one, meets on historic ground. We are in the midst of what was 
formerly styled the Northwest Territory. Its boundaries in 1784, 
a century ago, were the Great Lakes on the North ; on the east, the 
lakes and the Ohio River ; the Ouabash or Ohio River on the south, 
and the Mississippi on the west It belonged to the thirteen infant 
States, which guarded its eastern frontier. On the south, lay the 
Territory of Tennessee, to which the Whites and Indians held dis- 
puted rights. On the west, Spain held possession of the Territory of 
Louisiana, which extended from the Gulf of Mexico to the sources of 
the Mississippi, and on the north, Great Britain claimed the territory 
and government. It was a splendid possession, originally claimed 
by several of the States as lying within their charter limits, which 
extended from ocean to ocean, but ceded to the United States by the 
several claimants for the common benefit. 

ORDINANCE OF 1 787. 

During the year 1787 the Congress of the United States passed 
an ordinance which has become famous. It provided for the govern 
ment of the Northwest Territory, as it was called, until certain desig- 
nated parts should possess sixty thousand inhabitants, when they 
were to be admitted as States. It also provided, at a time when each 
of the old thirteen States held slaves by statutory law, and there 
were no less than 600,000 in the country, or one slave in five of the 
population, that slavery or involuntary servitude, except for crime, 
should be forever prohibited therefrom. While, therefore, every foot 
of land east and south of the Ohio River has been cursed by human 
slavery, and every State in that great territory is responsible for that 
institution, it may proudly be declared that the Northwest Territory 
has always been, and always shall be, the land of the free, and that 
the foot of no man has ever trod its soil as a slaye. 



PRESIDENT lilCKXELVS ADDRESS. 88 

COMMON SCHOOLS ENDOWED. 

While this prohibitory legislation was of vital importance to the 
settlement, growth, and prosperity of the several States to be carved 
out of this new empire of the Northwest, there were positive enact- 
ments which have made their action memorable, and the actors 
distinguished as statesmen, among whom were Washington, Jefferson, 
Sherman, Madison, Monroe, Hamilton, Morris, and others of lesser 
fame. The two ordinances of the government of the Northwestern 
Territory, enacted in 1785 and 1787, set apart section sixteen of 
every township for maintaining public schools, and as a justification 
for such a generous and sovereign gift, this memorable declaration 
was instituted for the benefit of posterity : " Religion, morality, and 
knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness 
of mankind, schools and the means of education shall be forever 
encouraged." It has not been unusual for kings and conquerors to 
grant title-deeds of vast estates to enrich their favorites, but when in 
history has it been known that legislators have bestowed such princely 
fortunes, not on titled greatness, but on the handmaids of freedom, — 
religion, morality, and knowledge ? 

SUPPORT OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 

But the fathers of this great commonwealth of States, only one- 
third of which as now, being then bom, looked beyond the common 
school as one of the essential needs of free States, and with a wisdom 
which puts to shame much of the public discussion of our day rel- 
ative to higher education, provided that two complete townships of 
lands were to be given perpetually for the purposes of a university ; 
and in full compliance with this provision, two townships have been 
given to every State organized since the commencement of the pres- 
ent century. Ohio, the first State admitted to the Union from this 
celebrated territory, has been fortunate enough to acquire three 
townships, — one while as a territory, and two on her admission to 
the Union in 1802 ; while Florida and Wisconsin each have received 
four. The States which have received the sixteenth section only are 
Louisiana, Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, Maine, Missouri, 
Arkansas. Michigan, lowc, and Texas, the last of which was admitted 
to the Union in 1848. 

FURTHER GRANTS FOR EDUCATION. 

In the same year that Wisconsin was admitted as a State, Oregon 
was organized as a territory, and Congress made further provisions 
for the maintenance of common schools, setting apart the sixteenth 

3b 



34 TUI2 lyAT/OyAf. E DUCAT tOXAL ASSOCIATWS. 

9 

and the thirty-sixth sections of each township for their support ; so 
that all the States admitted since 1848 have received the benefit of 
the two sections donated for common school education. These States 
are California, Minnesota, Oregon, Kansas, Nebraska, and Nevada. 
Were it a part of our present purpose, we could show the added 
generosity of the Government in its later legislation by which sev- 
eral States, notably those admitted to the Union since 1849, have 
received an aggregate of 75,000,000 acres of land, which have been in 
the main honestly devoted to Ihe purposes of popular education, and 
now constitute an accumulated permanent school fund, in eighteen 
States, of $50,000,000. From the Northwest Territory, which so 
early received the notable considerations of such wise legislation and 
munificent benefactions, have been formed five great States, — Ohio. 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and a part of a sixth, Minne- 
sota, which was admitted to the Union in 1857, the same year that 
the National Educational Association was formed at Philadelphia. 

THE EAST AND THE WEST ONE. 

It may be incidentally noted, in passing, that two other agencies 
have fostered and established in these great States of the Central 
West and Northwest excellent systems of free schools, covering the 
whole field of the primary school and the college. To the enlight- 
ened liberality of the legislator have been added the intelligence, 
enterprise, and high moral character of the founders and settlers of 
these empire States. The chief concern of these men of New Eng- 
land and Eastern birth and extraction, was to build on good founda- 
tions for the future. Hence the school-house, and a proper tax for 
its support, have been the first stones laid in town and county organ- 
ization. A community without a school is an anomaly on the prai- 
ries or in the forests of what was the Northwest Territory, while two 
of the States born of that generation, Michigan and Wisconsin, have 
the leading universities of the West as State institutions. 

THE WESTERN COLLEGE OF TEACHERS, 1 83 1. 

Another agency, to which too little public attention has been 
called, was the Western Literary Institute »and College of Teachers, 
formed in Ohio in 1831,' and whose influence has been powerful in 
moulding the educational systems of these States. When emigration 
first began to set westward from New England, New York, and Penn- 
sylvania, it was of vast importance that some agency should aid in 
the establishment of schools, and give wise direction in their control. 

* Annals, pp. 427-8. 



PRESWEXT UICKXELL'S ADDRESS. 85 

From this college of teachers went forth instruction, by addresses 
and printed pages, which helped the new settlers to fashion new sys- 
tems without the errors of the old. State superintendencies, school 
funds, county taxes, boards of education, were the subjects which 
this college discussed and urged before the people ; and although 
that body has ceased to exist, its works do follow in the almost uni- 
versal establishment of a system of schools founded on the only 
proper unit of classification and of organization, namely, that of the 
county. An eminent gentleman who attended the annual session of 
the college of teachers at Cinxrinnati, in October, 1834, j^st fifty 
years ago, leaves the following memoranda of that meeting : " I was 
deeply impressed while attending the session of the College of Teach- 
ers, with the influence that body is to put forth upon the Nation, and 
more surprised than I can express at the progress education is mak- 
ing in the West. The convention was composed chiefly of Western 
men, who have made teaching a profession, from the common school 
to the university. A good many speeches were made and papers 
read by persons little known, which would have done credit to Horace 
Mann, John C. Spencer, or Beriah Green, who are now revolution- 
izing the East. Of course the great attraction was the elaborate 
address of Thomas S. Grimke, of South Carolina, the elegant scholar, 
the magnanimous philanthropist. The day after delivering that 
noble address, while on his way to visit a brother, an eminent State 
judge of Ohio, he was suddenly seized with Asiatic cholera, now 
fearfully malignant in this region, and taken from the stage-coach to 
die. What a loss to the cause of education ! He was a great and 
good man ; a reformer without fanaticism ; a revolutionist without 
the slightest tendency to anarchy ; a Christian without sectarianism ; 
abhorring slavery without hating the slaveholder.'*' 

THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INSTRUCTION, 183O. 

The American Institute of Instruction, national as its name sug- 
gests, antedates the college by a single year, and is now hale and 
hearty at the age of fifty-four years. That its work may be associated 
with that of the College of Preceptors in the West, permit me to 
give a brief word as to the formation of that influential body of 
teachers ; for, as the political history of our country took shape and 
got momentum from the gatherings of the colonies in their associ- 
ated action, so will it be found to be true that all the great advances 
in educational work and reform date from the formation of our State 
and general associations. In fact, the needs of the hour and the 

iC. Edwards Lester. Note Book* MSS. 



36 THE AATJOXAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

pressing urgency of great measures created the necessity for the 
Institute and the College. 

In March, 1830, a meeting of teachers was held in Boston to con- 
sider and discuss the condition of educational concerns, and a resolu- 
tion was passed "to form a permanent association of persons en- 
gaged and interested in the business of instruction." A committee 
was raised to draft a constitution and make the preliminary arrange- 
ments for the organization. But one of that committee, Hon. Henry 
K. Oliver, of Salem, is still living. 

The committee followed their instructions and extended a call for 
a meeting to be held in the Representatives Hall in the State House, 
in Boston, Aug 19, 1830. Fifteen States were represented by over 
two hundred persons, chiefly teachers, and as a measure of their 
zeal, we have to relate that they travelled from the remote parts of 
our land by stage-coach, and remained in session five days, during 
which time the American Instiute of Instruction was given an exis- 
tence. Francis Wayland, President of Brown University, Provi- 
dence, R. L, was elected its first president, and Gideon F. Thayer, 
of Boston, first secretary. The first vote passed was to the effect 
that all prefixes and affixes, excepting only such as designate the 
Presidents and Professors of colleges, should be removed from the 
lists of officers chosen, and the officers henceforth have been desig- 
nated by the democratic title, " Mr.'* Until the year 1836, the pub- 
lic were rigidly excluded from attendance upon meetings. EflForts 
to open the doors to the public were unsuccessful until, on motion of 
Mr. Thayer, at the meeting at Lowell, the second held outside of 
Boston, the citizens of that city were invited to attend. Since that 
time the attendance at the Institute has been uniformly large, and 
the membership to date numbers over 4.000 persons, mostly teachers, 
and representing more than half the States of the Union. Of the 
fiftyfour meetings, previous to the present, twenty-three have b^en 
held in Massachusetts, five in Maine, ten in New Hampshire, five 
in Vermont, three in Rhode Island, five in Connecticut, and three in 
New York. Until the formation of the National Teachers' Associa- 
tion in 1858, it was the only general association of teachers in the 
country, and the name American was given it as expressive of its 
character as a leading representative of the American system, as 
well as the New England ideas of education. During the fifty-five 
years of its life, over four hundred lectures and addresses have been 
made by men and women of experience and culture on topics con- 
nected with the work of the common schools, and normal schools, 
and the colleges. 



PUEi^WEyV UiCKXELL'S ADDRESS, 37 

PURPOSE AND INFLUENCE OF THE INSTITUTE AND THE COLLEGE. 

In the formation of these Associations, which have had so power- 
ful an influence in stimulating and directing the educational senti-* 
ment and action of the country, the main-spring was " combined and 
concentrated action** for an approved condition of American educa- 
tion. Here and there was an eminent instructor, an excellent 
school-book, a vigilant and faithful school committee, a distinguished 
institution, a memorable endowment, or a local arrangement which 
had justly immortalized its projectors. But there had been no 
associated action of men, eminent and active in literature, science, 
and public life; no interchange of views of instructor^ with refer- 
ence to methods of instruction, the philosophy of methods, or the 
practical vehicles of teaching. School committees had acted vigor- 
ously, but not in concert. Endowments were conferred with little 
judgment, and town and state policy was warped and dwarfed by 
mis-directed and unwise legislation. The pioneer societies I have 
named, — the one in the East, and the other in "The Far West" of 
that early day, — sought, (i) To aid parents in the domestic educa- 
tion of their children, or in the establishment of what were then 
styled infant schools. (2) To aid instructors in the discharge of 
their duties. (3) To secure the establishment of schools or colleges 
for the professional training of teachers. To these important sub- 
jects Governor Lincoln of Massachusetts, and Governor Clinton of 
New York had called the attention of the Legislatures of their re- 
spective States in their annual messages of 1836. (4) Educational 
libraries were to be established by these Associations ; and (5) 
school-books were to be improved. Say the founders, " We do not 
surely lay ourselves open to the imputation of being sanguine when 
we venture to say that a national uniformity in plans of instruction 
and in school-books would furnish a bond of common sentiment and 
feeling stronger than any that could be produced by any other mean» 
in the season of early life." Certainly these Sauls are to be reck- 
oned among the true prophets of an educational Jsrael. These and 
other motives lead such men as Samuel Lewis, Albert Pickett, T. J. 
Matthews, W. H. McGuffey, Dr. Joseph Ray, Calvin E. Stowe, O. 
M. Mitchell, Caroline Lee Hentz, J. H. Perkins, and others in the 
West, and Henry K. Oliver, George B. Emerson, Gideon F. Thayer 
Francis Wayland, Horace Mann, Henry Barnard, A. Bronson Alcott, 
and others in the East, to form these two Associations, — the parents 
of all younger organizations, greater or lesser, whose lights now en- 
lighten our whole educational world. 



88 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 185/. 

The National Educational Association, whose twenty-eighth anni- 
versary and twenty-fourth meeting we greet and celebrate, was born 
in 1856, at Philadelphia, where the Nation itself had its birth, and 
was of good stock, — national brotherhood, and national unity. The 
times were those of great political and sectional strife. The repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise, "bleeding Kansas," the excitement of 
the Fremont and Buchanan campaign, the memorable Douglas and 
Lincoln debate in Illinois, the terrible duel of debate over an irre- 
pressible conflict in our National Congress, occupied the minds of 
the American people, and educators were not unmindful of their 
duties and responsibilities. What can we do to unite a distracted 
people,-— what to unify discordant elements, — what to cast oil upon 
the troubled waters, — what to calm the tempest of personal and sec- 
tional passion } Important questions for statesmen, these ; equally 
important for the makers of statesmen. 

The two gentlemen most active in the formation of this Association 
were T. W. Valentine, of Brooklyn, N. Y., recently deceased, then 
president of the State Teachers* Association of New York ; and Dr. 
D. B. Hagar, of Salem, Mass., president of the State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation of Massachusetts. The call for the first meeting of what was 
at first styled the National Teachers' Association was from the pen 
of Dr. Hagar : 

ORIGINAL CALL. 

" The eminent success which has attended the establishment and 
operations of the several State Teachers* Associations in this country, 
is the source of mutual congratulations among all friends of popular 
education. To the direct agency and the diffused influence of these 
Associations more, perhaps, than to any other cause, are due the 
manifest improvement of schools in all their relations, the rapid in- 
tellectual and social elevation of teachers as a class, and the vast de- 
velopment of public interest in all that concerns the education of 
the young. 

That the State Associations have already accomplished great 
good, and that they are destined to exert a still broader and more 
beneficent influence, no wise observer will deny. 

'• Believing that what has been done for States by State Associa- 
tions may be done for the whole country by a National Association, 
we, the undersigned, invite our fellow-teachers throughout the United 
States to assemble in Philadelphia on the 26th day of August next, 
for the purpose of organizing a National Teachers' Association. 

** We cordially extend this invitation to all practical teachers in the 
North, the South, the East, and the West, who are willing to unite 
in a general effort to promote the educational welfare of our country, 
by concentrating the wisdom and power of numerous minds, and by 



PRESWEyr UICKAELI/S ADDRESS, 39 

distributing among all, the accumulated experience of all who are 
ready to devote their energies and contribute their means to advance 
the dignity, respectability, and usefulness of their calling ; and who, 
in fine, believe that the time has come when the teachers of the Na- 
tion should gather into on.e great Educational Brotherhood. 

" As the permanent success of any association depends very much 
upon the auspices attending its establishment, and the character of 
the organic laws which it adopts, it is hoped that all parts of the 
Union will be largely represented at the inauguration of the proposed 
enterprise" 

SIGNERS. 

This call, — broad, generous, catholic as the spirit of its origina- 
tors, — was signed by 
T. W. Valentine, President New York State Teachers* Association. 
D. B. Hagar, President Massachusetts State Teachers' Assoc. 
VV. T. Lucky, President Missouri State Teachers* Association. 
J. Tenny, President New Hampshire State Teachers* Assoc. 
J. G. May, President of Indiana State Teachers* Association. 
W. Roberts, President Pennsylvania State Teachers* Association. 

C. Pease, President Vermont State Teachers' Association. 

D. Franklin Wells, President Iowa State Teachers' Association. 
A. C. Spicer, President Wisconsin State Teachers' Association. 

FIRST MEETING, 1857. 

The call was dated May 15, 1857, ^^^ the meeting was held at 
Philadelphia, August 26, 1857, when James L. Enos, one of the 
county superintendents of Iowa, was chosen temporary chairman, 
and William E. Sheldon, of Massachusetts, secretary. Messrs. Hagar 
of Massachusetts, Cann of Delaware, and Challen of Indiana, were 
appointed a committee to draft a constitution. The name at first 
adopted, "The National Teachers' Association," was subsequently 
changed to " The National Educational Association," in answer to a 
more liberal provision as to membership. At the outset, as with the 
American Institute, only gentlemen were admitted to active mem- 
bership, but the National, coming into existence in a more liberal 
period, and "being born later in life," adopted an honorary member- 
ship-annex for ladies engaged in teaching, an admission to which by 
a board of gentlemanly directors gave women-teachers " the right of 
presenting in the form of written essays (to be read by the secretary 
or any other member whom they may select) their views upon the 
subjects assigned for discussion." 

The rights thus gallantly accorded by the National, and as heartily 
seconded by the Institute, have not frequently been exercised, through 



40 TUE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

whose neglect we cannot bear testimony ; and the large opportunity 
granted to women at the present meeting may be regarded as a con- 
fession and penance for past shortcomings. 

Nine States were represented at the first meeting, — Delaware, 
Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, 
Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and the District of Columbia, — and 
thirty-eight members were enrolled. The only regular address was 
written by William Russell, of Massachusetts, and read by T. VV. 
Valentine, of New York, on The Importance of the Organization of a 
National Association of Professional Teachers. At the first election 
of officers, Zalmon Richards, of Washington, D. C, was chosen 
president ; T. W. Valentine, of New York, first vice-president ; J. 
W. Bulkley, of New York, secretary ; arid T. M. Cann, of Delaware, 
treasurer. The meeting at Cincinnati in 1858 was the first held 
under the constitution, and seventy-three members were enrolled. 
President Richards, in his inaugural address, after reciting the 
causes which led to the formation of the National Association, urged 
the following important ends to be aimed at in its future work : 

1. The union of all teachers (North, South, East, and West) in 
friendly associated action. 

2. The creation of a teaching profession by professional methods. 

3. The examination of teachers by competent Examining Boards. 

4. The establishment of Departments of Pedagogics in connection 
with all schools which send out persons to teach. 

A I^ATIONAL BUREAU OF EDUCATION. 

5. The establishment of a National Bureau of Education, to be 
connected with the Department of the Interior at Washington. The 
establishment of such a central agency for the collection of statistics, 
the unification of State systems, courses of study, etc., and the in- 
terchange of school-documents, seemed of so much importance that 
President Richards said : ** This is a great and a noble work, and it 
will require great and noble efforts to accomplish it ; but do I over- 
rate the ability and efficiency of this Association when I say I be- 
lieve it can accomplish \\,V' A sure prophecy worthily fulfilled by 
the influence of the leading members of this Association, supported 
by James A. Garfield in the National Congress, and by Dr. Henry 
Barnard, the veteran educator of America, who was so fitly chosen 
as the first U. S. Commissioner of Education under the act creating 
the National Bureau. Had the Association lived only to secure this 
one great act of national legislation, which has given us the services 
of Dr. Barnard and General Eaton as Commissioners of Education, 



rUE^WENT UWKSELL'S ADDRESS, 41 

its labor would have been amply compensated. The establishment of a 
National University at Washington, on as comprehensive a scheme 
as the foundation of Oxford and Cambridge, was a pet scheme of 
some of the early friends of the Association ; and until the magnifi- 
cent endowment of Johns Hopkins at Baltimore, continued to occupy 
the minds of many of our leading men. 

A NATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATION. 

6. The publication of a National Journal of Education by the Asso- 
ciation was one of the presidential recommendations, which waited 
sixteen years for its fulfilment as an outgrowth of its New England 
ally, the American Institute of Instruction. At this first annual 
meeting, Horace Mann, then president of Antioch College, was one 
of the leading spirits, and Daniel Reed, LL.D., then the venerable 
professor of Mental Philosophy in the young University of the young 
State of Wisconsin, read an address on the Condition and Needs of 
American Education, in which he paid tender tributes to the memory 
of such Western educators as Dr. Wilson of Ohio, Dr. Wylie of In- 
diana. Dr. Linsley of Tennessee, Dr. Bishop of Kentucky, Drs. Mc* 
Guffey and Scott of Ohio, and Dr. Ray, "who had but recently 
completed his course in life's Polytechnic." 

We cannot omit the following gallant resolution, introduced by 
Mr. Bulkley of Brooklyn, in acknowledgement of a note sent to the 
desk by a lady who had devoted her life to the cause of education : 
" Resolved, That we are encouraged in our work by the approving smiles 
and encouraging words of women, and that we regard her as the most 
accomplished and successful teacher; that we hail as honored co- 
laborers every * Lady Pilgrim ' who, ' with high and holy aims, and 
calm and happy minds,' produced *by the perusal of God'S Holy 
Words,' and 'with healthful and robust body,' devotes her powers 
to the noble work of education." We doubt not that the almost over- 
whelming influx of ladies to the teaching ranks since that date re* 
ceived much of its impulse and inspiration from this remarkable 
"hail" and "welcome." 

DEPARTMENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

I have thought that these details of the origin of this Asssociation 
would be new and interesting to many, who have never attended its 
sessions, and would be glad to know something of its history. The 
whole work of the Association was done in general session until 
1880, when, at the Cleveland meeting, — Dr. Hagar of Massachusetts 
presiding, — the Normd School Association and the National Associ- 



42 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

ation of Superintendents, two independent bodies, were merged as 
dependents within the larger body. Since that date the work of the 
Association has been still further specialized in the formation of 
the Elementary, the Higher, the Industrial, and Art Departments, 
while its work has been directed in the channels of philosophic in- 
quiry and pedagogic study through the National Council of Education, 
which was organized within the Association at the meeting at 
Chautauqua, New York, in July, 1880. 

The two important Conventions now holding their sessions at Mad- 
ison, in connection with the Association, — the Froebel Institute of 
North America, under the presidency of Professor Hailmann, and the 
islational Musical Convention, under the presidency of Dr. Hagar, — 
are with us by courtesy awaiting the wise counsels of our Association 
as to the time when these may become departmental relatives to this 
body. It is to be hoped that neither will be obliged to wait long at 
the threshold of this hospitable national mansion* before admission 
shall be gained. 

ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF A SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

Our school systems have been of slow but steady growth. The 
various parts, from the primary school to the university, have each a 
separate origin and history, growing out of the wants of society as 
civilization has advanced. The common school is'at once the child 
and the mother of the State, and in its historic growth has taken on 
such forms and appliances as society seemed to demand, and has 
yielded to such formative influences as the growth and changes ot 
social and business life have required. What we call school systems 
are but the aggregate of the trial-attempts of the past in practice and 
in legislation, to bring to pass the solution of one problem, — namely, 
given an infant child, to produce the useful and intelligent citizen. 

One of the first principles to be established is, that every child 
shall receive a fair share of education. History tells, and repeats 
the story, of the slowness of the great mass of people to accept and 
adopt so cardinal and vital a policy. In theory, this doctrine lay at 
the foundation of our State and National Governments. Winslow, 
Wintbrop, and Williams were advocates of a system of sound learning, 
both in the school and the college. Domestic education in New 
England was the first care of the founders, and in 1642 it was ordered 
in the Court of Plymouth, " that the selectmen of every town in the 
several precincts and quarters where they dwell, shall have a vigilant 
eye over their brethren and neighbors, to see, first, that none of them 
shall suffer so much barbarism in any of their families as not to en* 



P&ESIDEST niCKNELL'S ADUIIMSS, 43 

deavor to teach, by themselves or others, their children and appren- 
tices so much learning as may enable them perfectly to read the 
English tongue, and knowledge of the capital laws, under penalty of 
twenty shillings for each neglect therein," Not to keep and maintain 
the schools required by law, has been an indictable offence in 
Massachusetts since 1647. Attendance at school, if not enforced by 
law, was sustained by a strong public sentiment. Legal compulsion 
in attendance is the modern feature, which our own times enact to 
protect the State from the greater dangers and wider encroachments 
of rice and ignorance. 

The second principle is, that the property of the State should be 
responsible for the education of its children. Admitting the first 
principle, which is now almost an educational axiom, it required 
years of growth to reach the next period, of free education for all the 
children of the people. To incorporate this principle into the policy 
of even enlightened people, has cost volumes of argument and 
years of wordy warfare. What seems to us so plain and well 
established as these two principles, were at one time the issues over 
which battles, — political, ecclesiastical, and social, — were fought and 
won on either side. Growing out of these two principles are practical 
matters of vital importance, such as the provision for school-build- 
ings, teachers, books, etc , all oT which had their settlement in local, 
rather than general legislation. 

The New-England States, and the country generally, long ago 
passed through these two periods of school-history, and have now 
entered upon the third epoch, — namely, that of school unity and sys- 
tem as secured by school supervision. Schools of various grades 
have been established, the children have more or less generally at- 
tended them, and the people have more or less generously supported 
them. But we can readily see that the several parts of this educa- 
tional work could never become a complete and harmonious whole 
without some great controlling, unifying power. The diversity of 
origin, the plan, spirit, work, and success of the various school 
agencies, testify to the need of a central administration, which should 
embrace all its parts in its comprehensive control and impulse. 

Forces to be effective for good must be organized, supervised, and 
controlled by some superior agency. Educational forces are subject 
to law, and their highest utility is secured, and the least waste of 
energy accrues when a wise intelligence directs the movements of all 
the parts. It may seem a matter of surprise that so important ele 
ments as those of organization, system, and supervisory care, should 
be among the last phases of educational development, — that what 



44 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

was needed at the outset should be the latest adjunct of the school- 
work. While the genius of order and wise direction enters so largely 
into the other secular plans and enterprises of the day at their birth 
and establishment, we shall find that the school systems of the world 
have been tentative in their growth, the people have been slow to 
apprehend their needs, and that very gradually the work has been 
built up. But it is the natural order or law of proceeding from parts 
to the whole, from particulars to genera, from units to systems: 
first the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in the ear. Minerva 
may have sprung full panoplied from the brain of Jupiter, but we 
wait the day for the full-equipped school system, though centuries 
have followed its birth. 

A SCIENCE OF EDUCATION. 

Education seems to be slowly becoming a" science by a gradual 
change of basi^. Twenty, or even ten, years ago all works on Peda- 
gogy that made much pretence to be systematic, both here and in 
Europe, were based on metaphysical first principles, as expounded by 
Hegel, Herbert, Hamilton, Comte, as the case might be, different as 
these were among themselves, and the object was a philosophy of 
education. Now such works rest upon a more inductive and scientific 
basis. 

1. Anthropology has contributed a mass of material helpful to 
teachers. 

2. Empirical psychology, or the analytic experimental study of 
sense-perception, of memory, attention, and association of ideas, has 
made great progress during the last ten years, and sheds very much 
light on educational methods. 

3. The study of morbid psychology, or incipient disorders of the 
emotions, will, and intellect, — traces of which are so common among 
school-children, — adds something, and is likely to add more. 

4. The history of education in its broadest sense, including the art 
of study generally, and all those avenues by which knowledge passes 
outward, from cultivated or adult mind, to the ignorant and the 
young ; the history of school legislation in countries where it is better 
codified than in America ; the history of great schools, of learned 
societies, of endowments, etc., seem to us better utilized in saving 
the work of trying over old experiments, proven to be wrong. 

5. Moral education is an *' infinite question," opening now very 
fast. If the public, so omnipotent, should ever lose faith in the good 
moral tendencies of the three R's, and come to feel that our cur- 
riculum did not make men better, public confidence in appropriations 



PRESWEyr n{CKXKLL'S ADDRESS, 45 

for education would be reduced. This is the only possible, and not 
very imminent, danger now threatening our system. 

The present seems to me the time of all times, so far in the educa- 
tional history of our country, for all interested in education to make 
a long, a strong pull all together, for there was never so deep and wide 
an interest in it before. Things were never so plastic, changes never 
so rapid, questions and opportunities never so open. 

T/ie thing we want to know, I think, is the natural history of the 
normal child's faculties and growth ; the child's interests, the things 
it is curious about, the subject it likes, are, in fact, all determining ; 
the art of teaching is to adapt to these, not to teach strictly by rules.; 
The many studies of children's likes, dislikes, plays, and games ; the 
<:reat science of ignorance (i, e., what they don't know as distinct 
from what may be presupposed), are now making great progress by 
many methods and with rich results. These methods themselves 
will, when perfected, be part of every normal pupil's practical train- 
ing. To know one's pupils is just as important as to know the sub- 
jects ; and the preeminence of the great teachers of the race, — Pesta- 
lozzi. Froebel, Socrates, and even Jesus, — ^lay in the arts of adaptation, 
and must be based on a more all-sided knowledge of the youthful 
faculties. 

PRIMARY EDUCATION — ITS CONDITION AND WANTS. 

Primary education is indispensable for American citizenship ; so 
much is conceded by all, even by those who oppose higher educa- 
tion. That a government of the people, for the people, and by the 
people, can be perpetuated without so much general intelligence as 
is implied in the studies of the common school, is utterly impossible. 
The question of the welfare of the common schools, and of the con^ 
dition and needs of the primary schools, is always one of the most 
lively interest and of the greatest public importance. 

The kindergarten movement has had and will continue to have a 
wholesome influence on the methods of securing discipline in the 
primary school-room. The atmosphere of the primary school is 
lighted up with a sunshine that exerts nearly the same influence on 
the children that the July sun exerts on growing plants. There is 
not now the same abrupt transition from the family to the school that 
once existed. Further growth in this direction is desirable, and it is 
coming, especially in the city and village school systems, where the 
kindergarten influences have already affected the primary schools 
lor good. 

The advocates of industrial education urge upon the primary 



46 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

school the substitution of industrial disciplines for some at present 
retained. From the experience of the kindergarten it would seem 
as if the training of the hand and eye could be carried up into the 
primary school. But the direction of the primary school will not con- 
sent to neglect those branches of instruction which are traditional in 
its course of study. The main thing that keeps back industrial edu- 
cation is the defect of methods that can generalize the various manual 
processes in the trades. In fact, it is the progress made in this direc- 
tion already by the Russian training school that has given so much 
impulse to industrial education. Further progress in this direction 
will come in time, and will be accompanied by corresponding growth 
in the system of schools devoted to manual training. Industrial 
drawing has had much trial in our schools, and is past the stage of 
mere experiment, and will hold its place in primary instruction as a 
general discipline of the hand and eye. 

When other manual training discovers disciplines that are of so 
general application to all pursuits as free-hand drawing, undoubtedly 
they will be made a part of the course of study and training in the 
common school.' 

Primary instruction will always include the teaching of reading, 
writing, and arithmetic, as the most desirable accomplishments to the 
individual who should be helped to self-help. For of all the good 
things that it is possible for one human being to do for another, the 
best is that which confers with it the power of self-help. 

There has been great progress made in late years in the art of 
teaching reading. The impulse given by the labors of Colonel Parker, 
at Quincy, has been felt everywhere over the land, and other waves 
of influence have accompanied it, all tending to direct the attention 
of the teacher to the method of securing the speediest mastery of 
the printed page. 

There is a good move at present, in the schools, toward encour- 
aging reading at home, and developing a taste for better reading. 
This looks toward a closer connection of the school with the public 
library. 

In the study of numbers, primary arithmetic, doubtless we are on 
the eve of important revolutions. The use of physical objects, the 
divided cube of the kindergarten apparatus, for example, in the earlier 
stages of instruction in numbers, have proved of decided value. We 
may expect as great modifications, however, in this direction as in 
the methods of teaching reading. 

The elements of natural science, it is conceded by the most ad- 
vanced public opinion, should be taught in the primary schools. 



PREHIUENT UICKNELVS ADDRESS. 47 

There is no doubt of the truth of this position. The great question 
is one cf method. He will earn lasting honors who will invent a 
method that will prove as successful as the method of teaching read- 
ing. The main point to be kept in mind is the importance of avnid- 
ing one-sidedness, and taking one science or one class of sciences for 
the whole. The same tendency has been observed in the matter of 
industrial education. It has been supposed, apparently, that one 
special branch, — that of carpentry or working in wood, — includes 
i^eneral industry. The fact that only one person in twenty is needed 
for working in wood even in the communities most given to mechan- 
ical employments does not seem to have had due weight. So the study 
of botany alone is not enough to meet the demands of natural science. 
The question of moral instruction in the common school has re- 
ceived much attention, and there is found a perpetual necessity for 
this in the growth of secularizing tendencies in modern society, and 
especially in American society. A study of the moral tendencies of 
the school undoubtedly reveals much that is encouraging, — the cul- 
tivation of the good habits of self-control in matters of regularity, 
punctuality, and silence and industry ; obedience to the direction of 
the superior, courtesy towards equals, and these essential matters,- 
so well taught in the well-disciplined school, — the fundamental basij 
of a moral character is well laid. But the still more important ma'- 
ter of religious education has not been provided for in the common 
school system, and the proper adjustment of the boundary between 
what may be called sectarian and what may be considered as within 
the domain of common general morality, and justly a matter of public 
legislation, remains a problem. 

The matter of the attacks on the common school should receive a 
word of comment. The staple grumble in the all-knowing editorial 
is : " Education makes people indolent and unwilling to earn their 
living by honest labor." 

" Is it wise or best to educate our children beyond the position 
which the vast majority of them must always occupy ? " 

*' Our present educational system largely unfits young people to 
deal with the actual necessities of those who are to earn their own 
living. It takes away self-reliance, begets conceit, and draws atten- 
tion to what is ornamental rather than what is fundamental." 

The supposition that reading, writing, and arithmetic, together 
with training in habits of self-contrdl and industry, should demoralize 
the youth of the land, is something wonderful. 

The question whether education prevents crime has been answered 
in the report of the United States Commissioner for 1872^ to the 



ig THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

effect that in seventeen States the statistics of a total number of 
110,538 prisoners showed that the number of convicted criminals 
from the illiterate portion of those States was seven times as large as 
the proportion from the educated. 

The common schools are a great moral force in our civilization ; 
and the common school teacher is the most important factor in de- 
termining the character, both mental and moral, of our future men 
and women. 

CONCERNING TEACHERS. 

Our profession as teachers has made great advances within the life 
of this Association. Horace Mann in his first report says of the pub- 
lic school teachers of Massachusetts, " Wherever the discharge of my 
duties has led me through the State, with whatever intelligent men I 
have conversed, the conviction has been expressed with entire 
unanimity that there is an extensive want of competent teachers for 
the common schools. This opinion casts no reproach upon that most 
worthy class of persons employed in the sacred cause of education. 
The teachers are as good as public opinion has demanded. Their 
attainments have corresponded with their opportunities ; and the 
supply has answered the demand as well in quality as in numbers. 
Without a change in prices, is it reasonable to expect a change in 
competency, while talent is invited through so many avenues to 
emolument and distinction.^" In the same report, Mr. Mann says 
that the average wages per month paid to male teachers throughout 
the State, inclusive of board, was $25.44, and to female teachers. 
$11.38. Allowing $2.50 per week for the board of men, and $1.50 
for the board of women, the compensation per year for male teachers 
on an average in Massachusetts (the best-paid State in the country) 
was $185.28, and of female teachers was $64.56. 

In 1840, ten years after the Institute was formed, Secretary Mann 
says, in speaking of the influence of that association in improving the 
system of education, **The qualifications of teachers hold a place 
second in. importance to none. I believe there is scarcely a single 
instance in the reports where the school committees speak with uni- 
versal commendation of the success of teachers they have approved." 
But the most marked improvements in the teaching force of New 
England and the country have been made within the memory and 
experience of most of those in thistaudience. 

The standard of preparation for the work has been also raised 
through our common and professional schools. Methods of teaching; 
have thereby changed from the forced and unmethodic towards 



PRESWEST niCKyKhhS ADDRESS 49 

natural and normal. More than one-fourth of our teachers have 
taken full or partial courses of normal-school instruction, and all have 
felt the impulse of a new professional spirit. The higher apprecia- 
tion of the school in the community, as judged by its better results, 
has led to the increased pay of the instructor, so that teaching is now 
the most lucrative employment which society holds out to women, as 
shown by the fact that more than seven-eighths of the teachers in this 
country are women ; more by far than in any other employment, and 
possibly many others combined. While our cities and larger towns 
have paid largely increased salaries over former times, we have still 
reason to be ashamed of the small compensations paid. One of the 
surest remedies for the removal of poor teachers in a community is 
the advancement of salaries. That community will then seek better 
talent, and the better talent will then seek the better pay. The 
great problem of the adjustment of the three factors, — ability, labor, 
and compensation, — is just now before us for solution. My im- 
pression is that its arrangement will follow something this line of 
movement : 

1. The best talent and largest experience will be found in our 
primary grades of school. 

2. Our best primary teachers and our best high-school teachers will 
itceive equal salaries, and these the maximum. 

3. A sliding scale of salaries will be adopted, based upon qualifi- 
cations and experience, ranging from a minimum for beginners to the 
maximum for the well-established and successful instructor. 

4. These salaries will never be subject to a decrease during the 
term of office of any incumbent. 

Give ^ our teachers a scale of salaries which shall recognize grades 
of qualification and experience, make the ultimate salary one to 
which the best talent will be ambitious to aspire, and if you please 
confer a life annuity at the end of a given term of service, — say twenty 
or twenty-five years, — and we shall have laid the foundation for a 
permanent rather than a floating profession. Uneasiness and un- 
certainty in regard to salary is one of the most disturbing agencies in 
our work. Nothing depresses personal enthusiasm so much as to be 
constantly harassed as to one's fing^ncial concerns. It is all wrong 
that we should be driven to our wit*s ends to make our salaries cover 
our annual expenditures, and then forced into a heated, feverish term 
of excitement lest the next year's tncome should be* reduced and we 
compelled to make new terms with the landlady and she in turn 
reduce her grocer's bill proportionally. It is a high crime and mis- 
demeanor of the State to ask us to expend our best energies in the 

4b 



50 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCLi^TION. 

instruction of her youth, and then require us to use the balance in 
solving the problem of how to make the week's wages meet the week's 
necessary expenses. To remedy this enormity, equally an injustice 
to the teacher and society, we need first a competent and impartial 
beard to judge of the qualifications of those who may enter the pro- 
fession, as in law, medicine, and theology. When once over the 
threshold, we want the protection of provisional and life certificates, 
and the assurance of a comfortable living so long as we continue to 
give our services for the good of our fellows ; and when we have 
served our day and generation in school work, have a sufficient re- 
serve against *' the rainy days " of the teacher's life. 

It is most gratifying, in this connection, to quote from a dis- 
tinguished English authority, the Bishop of Manchester, as to the 
comparative worth of American teachers. After referring to the 
want of more complete appliances for the training of teachers, he 
says, "There is a greater natural aptitude in American than in 
English women for the work of teaching. They certainly have the 
gift of turning what they do know to the best account ; they are self- 
possessed, energetic, fearless ; they are admirable disciplinarians, firm 
without severity, patient without weakness. Their manner of teach- 
ing is lively, and fertile in illustration ; classes are not apt to fall 
asleep in their hands. They are proud of their position, and fired 
with a laudable ambition to maintain the credit of the school ; a little 
too anxious, perhaps, to parade its best side and screen its defects ; 
a little too sensitive of blame, a little too greedy 6f praise. I know 
not the country in which the natural material out of which to shape 
the very best of teachers is produced in such abundance as in the 
United States." In the midst of much that would tend to discourage 
us, it is encouraging to refer to the testimony of so valuable a 
witness. 

SOCIAL STATUS OF THE TEACHER. 

There is one compensation which we enjoy to a large degree in this 
country which is denied to the teachers of most other countries, and 
which may properly be referred to here. It is the high social rank 
and privileges of our profession. The teacher is shut out from no 
society merely on acconnt of b*eing a teacher. More likely than 
otherwise, the avenues to social life are more easy of access by reason 
of the training and culture which our educators, men and women, 
possess. In England the teacher stands on the social level of the 
hall servant. Often he must join with the business of teaching, the 
work of beadle, parish clerk, verger, or sexton. Quoting from Bishop 



PRESIDENT DICKNELL'S ADDRESS. 51 

Fraser on this point : " As to the character and repute of the teach- 
er's profession in America, it certainly stands very high. The 
teacher of the humblest district school occupies a far higher social 
position than the teacher of an elementary school in England. All 
hangs upon the teacher's personal character and qualifications ; as far 
as his profession is concerned, he is on a level with anybody. I was 
occasionally invited to visit their homes. They appeared to me to 
live in a sort of cheerful and refined frugality, able to exercise a 
hearty but inexpensive hospitality." 

Standing on such high vantage-ground, the American teacher 
should not rest satisfied with ordinary attainments and results. Much 
has been done, more remains, to satisfy our ideal of the truly sue 
cessf ul educator. It is the special work of the National Educational 
Association to shape and energize these educational forces, to 
quicken to higher entertainments in professional life, to release our 
systems from the dead weights of incompetency in high and low 
places, to give to our profession the functions of permanency and 
power, and to secure for it the proper rewards which* an intelligent 
society should ever render for intelligent service. 

THE teacher's TENURE OF OFFICE. 

The law of survival involves two elements, — superiority, both phys- 
ical and mental, and harmony with one's environment. Translated 
into the vernacular of the teaching-profession, this law declares that 
the conditions of permanent success are: (i) Capacity, — physical, 
mental, and moral. (2) Professional acquisitions, plus natural gifts. 
(3) The attainment of certain standards of qualifications, as de- 
termined by experimental tests, under experts, including trial tests, 
examination tests, and teaching tests ; add to these the zeal and in- 
spiration which foreshadow great success, as the prophetic gift, and 
you have all that compels to true teaching, and against which no 
earthly power can prevail when the possessor is installed in the 
teacher's office. The law of spiritual gravitation knows no superior 
force, and the man or woman who must teach has a commission which 
men can neither give nor revoke, Mary Lyon of Holyoke, Dr. Taylor 
of Andover, Horace Mann of Antioch, Arnold of Rugby, Froebel 
and Pestalozzi, Socrates, and Jesus of Nazareth, held certificates, 
God-given, which man had neither the ability nor the will to annul ; 
and every true successor of these has little need of the protection of 
a civil service applied to teaching, or a tenure-of-office fixed by 
statute law. 

The common schools of America are suffering to-day, not so much 



52 THE NATIONAL FA)UCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

from the fact that inexperience and incompetency get an entrance at 
the back-door of our school systems, as from another more appalling 
fact, — namely, that we cannot cast out of the front-door enthroned 
imbecility and nepotism. Conservatism, innate and deep-seated as 
original sin, stands guard to protect shallow conceit and the garrulous 
ghosts of an elder day ; while talent and qualification, which carry in 
their own persons their own claim for and tenure-of office, must stand 
and dance attendance on the guardians of historic methods and tra- 
ditional educational faiths. Our platform as to school service has 
but three planks, — Qualification, Inspiration, Consecration. Standing 
on these we shall be able to enter upon our work when the call 
comes, and have grace to leave it when it is done. Then we shall 
hear the "Well-done." 

HIGHER EDUCATION. 

The interests of learning in the common school and the college 
are one. Public and private institutions, primary and collegiate edu- 
cation, are but the parts of one complete whole. As the school-boy 
and college graduate have a personal identity, so also the unity of all 
scholarship must be seen in the sum-total of school-life. The stages 
differ only in degree, not in nature. 

'' From Nature's chain, whatever link you strike, 
Tenth or tenth thousandth, breaks the chain alike. 

When the common school advances, higher education flourishes. 
As the college grows, its magnetic life should pervade the domain of 
the district school. The very presence of the college in a State is an 
inspiration and a blessing to all good learning, of whatever name. 
The ideal hopes and purposes of the best taJent in our common 
schools center here. As the high school and the academy gather the 
first-fruits of the lower grades of instruction, so the college opens its 
doors to satisfy the aspirations and ambitions of those who may 
complete the preparatory course with honor. The stimulus from 
above may be felt throughout the system, elevating, energizing, and 
stimulating all its parts. 

The humblest home and school in our land feel the influence of the 
college, and bless it for the incentives, the opportunities, and the 
possibilities which they furnish. Every science taught there, every 
truth unfolded, every professorship actively employed, and every dol- 
lar spent in facilities for higher instruction, add directly and indi- 
rectly to the common stock of agencies which benefit and build up 
the common school ; and he who for any reason attempts to degrade 
any department of higher or academic instruction, is engaged in th# 
foolish undertaking of pulling down the roof which shelters him. 



PRESIDENT BICKNELLS ABDRESS. 53 

While all this is true, there still remains in many of our States an 
unbridged chasm between the common school and the college. 
Want of unity, sympathy, and relationship is the complaint which 
goes up from the lower to the higher ranks ; while the higher often 
sends down to the lower no helping hand, no look of cheer, no word 
of fellowship and assistance. This unsympathetic condition of things 
is more patent in the East than in the West, where the State Univer- 
sity stands as the head of the system, and is the exponent of all that 
is best in that system, — where the primary school, the granunar 
school, the high school, and the college are but successive steps up 
the educational ladder, and so constructed that each ascending round 
is made the stronger by the multiplication of supports from the bot- 
tom of the ladder. When the colleges of the land shall feel that a 
vital relation exists between them and the common schools of the 
country, and that each is the complement of the other in the educa- 
tional whole, one of the elements of weakness in our colleges will 
have been converted into strength. 

Our American colleges are suffering also from a lack of thorough 
preparation of students, at admission, in the elements of an English 
or a classical education. Exact knowledge in the fundamentals of an 
education is the essential to advanced knowledge, and the complaint 
comes from from many of our higher institutions, not only that real 
knowledge is wanting, but that the discipline from study is weakly 
superficial. This lessening of the value of the college course is partly 
owing tQ the unhealthy competition existing between the various col- 
leges in their rivalries for large numbers of students, and partly to 
the rash haste, of parents to see their children in professional life at 
too early an age, or in the equally faulty desire of young men and 
women to enter upon the duties of life while yet unprepared for 
them ; and still another reason exists in the break-neck pace at which 
all of our life, — ^business, social, professional, religious, — is pushing 
on toward an imaginary goal, through imperfect methods, all by 
short cuts ; while the king's highway is one of slow and steady toil, 
free from the excitements and stimulus of modern society. 

The courses of study in our colleges are now open to lively discus- 
sion, Loth as to the adjustment of the mathematics, the sciences, and 
the ancient and modem languages in the cirriculum ; and also as to 
electives for students, reaching now in some colleges, -^ as Harvard, 
for instance, — to the freshman year. A liberal education, as defined 
by President Eliot and others, may be acquired by passing any one 
of the score of combinations in the make-up of college studies. It 
may be large classics and little mathematics, or the opposite ; it may 



54 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

be modern languages, with Iktle classics and less mathematics, with 
a percentage of science ; or it may be a little of all, with a heavy sup- 
ply of base-ball and college boating. Has it occurred to our college 
friends that the wonderful permutations and combinations of college 
studies are destroying the confidence of young men in liberal studies, 
and that grave uncertainty is attached to all common standards by 
which a liberal education can be measured ? 

Has it also occurred to them that boys and girls, infants in the law. 
yet in their teens, may not be the wisest judges as to the best studies 
to be pursued, either as culture-studies or knowledge-studies, or both. 
Are we to commit to the untrained and inexperienced the solution of 
a problem, by chance choice or whimsical caprice, which the wisest 
and the best of the world have wrought out by the slow processes of 
educational evolution ? 

While it is undoubtedly true that scientific studies, the modern 
languages, and the English language especially, should have a prom- 
inent place in a college course, it seems to us equally true that there 
is somewhere a fixed limit, a maximum and minimum standard, as 
respects the time to be devoted to each in the college, and that our 
colleges are liable to go to pieces on the rocks and shoals of elective 
studies. We must declare that some studies do enter as constituents 
into a liberal education ; that others are optional or elective, and that 
the latter should not infringe upon the claims of the former. This 
doctrine, and this only, will save liberal studies from threatened 
shipwreck. 

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. 

Americans are an industrious and an industrial people. Ceaseless 
activity, ingenuity, productiveness of hand and brain, are our world- 
known characteristics. The wage-producing capacity of Americans, 
per capita, exceeds that of any other nation on the globe. By the 
census of j88o, of our fifty millions, 17,392,090 were pursuing "gain- 
ful occupations," that number being 3469 per cent, of the entire 
population of 1880, and 47.31 per cent, of the population of ten years 
of age and upward. 

Those following " gainful occupations'* are distributed into classes 
as follows : Agriculture, 7,670,493 ; professional and personal servi- 
ces, 4,074,239; trade and transportation, 1,810,256; manufacturing, 
mechanical, and mining industries, 3,837,112; as divided by sex, 
14,744,933 were men, and 2,637,157, women. In other words, one 
in seven of our people is a farmer, one in twelve is engaged in pro- 
fessional life, one in twenty- five is a tradesman, and one in four- 



PRESIDENT BICKNELl/S ADDRESS, />:> 

teen is a manufacturer, a merchant, or a miner. Conceding for argu- 
ment's sake that the ratio of the population in the industries above 
named to the total population is a normal one, the inquiry at once 
arises as to the best method of educating one-third of our people for 
the special callings enumerated. The agencies now employed are the 
common schools, the high schools, the colleges and universities, the 
agricultural, technical, scientific, and professional schools of various 
names, and manual-training schools. Do we need others, or shall we 
change the method and purpose of those already existing ? Just 
now this matter of industrial or manual education is in such a mud» 
die in the popular mind that it is impossible to tell just what is 
wanted. The new education is accredited with bringing into being 
a revolution in the thoughts and theory of the school in this regard, 
and in its operation so to direct the physical, mental, and moral edu- 
cation of the child as to make him a skillful machine to put to any 
and all mechanical or intellectual uses, just as circumstances may re- 
quire. The leading paper of the North-west beyond Chicago, the 
Pioneer Press of St Paul, in an editorial of a few months ago, says : 

PRESS OPINIONS. 

" The New Education is a phrase which signifies more than can be 
defined in a few paragraphs, but within it lies the germ of promise for the 
people and the State. Let us get as near the heart of this all-important 
matter as we can. Starting with the fundamental proposition that one of 
the first duties of a republican government, resting on universal suffrage, is 
the education of those who are to rule its destines in all that is essential 
to citizenship, we may easily discover how events have moved up to the 
present time. The meaning of the term education, in the minds of he 
founders of our system, was not instruction in those matters which make a 
man socially useful and politically wise, except indirectly. The pattern 
necessarily followed was the then prevailing idea of education in other lands ; 
an idea whose end and object was culture. It contemplated instruction 
in the elementary branches chiefly as a preparation for college, the perfec- 
tion of mundane enlightenment. Only by degrees, as the States committed 
themselves more freely to the university plan, did this idea extend itself, but 
It came at last to dominate the whole." 

" The primary inquiry was not what does this boy or girl need for the 
actual life lying ahead ; but what is best for the ideal boy or girl who shall 
attain a well rounded development of the purely mental faculties. We have 
the legitimate products of the system to-day in courses of study where Latin 
and Greek are far from alone in answering the charge of practical inutility ; 
n faithful and well-trained teachers patiently going the round of their 
Sisyphean labor ; in a few pupils who persevere to the end of the course 
only to find themselves prepared for nothing but a professional life from 



56 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATJON. 

which they may he utterly debarred by nature or circumstance ; and in a 
great army of children who have fallen by the way, who never expected or 
desired to obtain the ultimate end of culture, and who find too late that the 
time spent in so-called education was as nearly wasted as time can be, so 
far as their life-work or their duty as citizens is concerned." 

** The substitute is the^ew Education. Its cardinal principle is the per- 
manence of individuality. Its rule is to give to the many what the many 
need, without cutting off from the few free access to the higher paths that 
they see opening before them. It aims at no sudden iconoclasm, but asks 
that instruction shall proceed in the order of its importance to those 
instructed, — in the ratio of its practical usefulness. And the order present- 
ed is scientific : First, things needful in every relation, — that is, instruction 
in the fundamental branches ; second, things needful in vital relations, — 
that is, industrial training ; third, things needful for social ralations, — that 
is, the education which directly bears upon intelligent performance of the 
duties of citizenship ; and, fourth, things adding to the happiness of life, — 
that is, the higher education as it is now understood. Nothing that has 
been found of value is to be discarded, but into the educational fabric is to 
be woven the strand of industrial education, which alone can give to the 
whole the color and the texture that it needs. In this we shall only be 
following the lead of men and communities whom this same problem has 
confronted, and who have thought out its solution for themselves. The 
manual-training school of St. Louis is a proved success. In Philadelphia 
the brilliant Mr. Leland has done the noblest work of his life in building up 
a fine industrial school. A building for the same purpose is being erected 
in Chicago. And at the instance of men like Charles Francis Adams, 
Edward Atkinson, and Colonel Parker of Quincy, manual training was two 
weeks ago incorporated in the curriculum of the public schools of Boston. 
It is coming everywhere ; and it is coming, not as an interloper, but as one 
who seeks and claims the rightful heritage so long denied him. Culture 
will not suffer ; but the masses, who do not hope for culture, will not be 
denied that practical help which is the only justification for education in the 
name and by the liberality of the State. In the«e labor-schools the time is 
so divided between text-book-work and shop-work that no pupil leaves them 
ignorant of the fundamentals of education, or of what he should do with the 
hands and the mental faculties that are perhaps his only capital. From 
this root true education must spring, no matter how high it rears its lordly 
trunk. To this it must come unless it would be false to every promise it 
has made. They who welcome this reform at once do but anticipate the 
future, when the children of the Nation shall no longer be given a stone in 
answer to their piteous cries for bread." 

MECHANICAL OR CREATIVE. 

Dr. Felix Adler says that the phrase "industrial education " has 
two distinct meanings. "As understood by one party it means the 



PRESIDENT BICKNELLS ADDRESS, *7 

kind of education that is intended to foster industrial skill, and to fit 
the pupil while at school for the industrial pursuits of later life. 
Perhaps the majority of those who insist on the importance of in- 
dustrial education in public schools, and who are urging its adaption, 
use the phrase in this sense." This view he stigmatizes as a plan 
" to make the mass of mankind more machine-like than they already 
are, though with the proviso that shall be made more perfect 
machines, more skillful to increase wealth, and to find the channels of 
the manufacturer's profits." " I firmly believe," he says, " that the 
State violates the rights of children when it undertakes to prescribe 
their future career during the school-age, and that the public system 
of education should be kept free from any subserviency to the 
• bread and butter interests ' of later life." 

The true theory, as we maintain, is that in which labor is 
regarded as a means of mental development ; that the education of 
the hands shall be the means of more completely and surely edu- 
cating the brain ; that to introduce a trade into the school is to de- 
grade the school ; and that to take away from the young the time 
that should be dedicated to the elements of general culture, and de- 
vote it to training them in a special aptitude, however useful later 
on, is to impair the humanity of the children. Here, then, we have 
the sharply-defined position of the two leading schools of opinion, — 
the one making the school subservient to the trade, and the other 
making all the general training subordinate to the mental power and 
moral power of the pupil. 

THE CREATIVE METHOD. 

" The creative method " which makes an elementary training- 
school subserve intellectual uses, the elevation of the tastes, and the 
formation of character, is undoubtedly the true one, and this prin- 
ciple determines in a large measure the methods of introducing 
manual training into the educational work. The common school has 
no specializing functions, and can only aid in the industrial processes 
in an indirect and general way. School life is too brief and its oppor- 
tunities too limited to expect that a youth shall come forth from the 
school full armed for the battle of life, as Minerva from the head 
of Jupiter. Whatever can be introduced into the school cur- 
riculum that aids in gaining mental, physical, or moral power is 
right, proper, and excellent. All else should be dispensed with. 
The fault has been in America, as in other countries at first, that 
people look too much to the economic or commercial side and too little 
to the hand-work education in training the mind itself. A mercenary 



58 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

or mercantile spirit has overcome the true educational purpose. Until 
there is a more general extension of the idea that hand-work educa- 
tion is for something more than to teach boys and girls to earn money, 
industrial education will amount to but little. In other countries it 
has not flourished till the broader idea began to prevail. So far as 
we make hand-work and head-work go together in school, without re- 
Sard to pecuniarily profitable results, success may be expected. 

If we extend the term " industrial education " to include tech- 
nological schools, as they sometimes do in Germany, where they have 
their training schools that teach only the theory of trades, we might 
say that in such schools the chief defect is that there is no real hand- 
work except drawing. Tool-work is very important, and the day has 
come in some quarters when it is seen that the technological student 
must have hand-work to make a whole man of him. The Institute 
of Technology of Boston has made a beginning by requiring students 
of mechanical engineering to go through with a regular course of 
shop-work. The same thing should be extended to students of archi- 
tecture and those of civil engineering. All experience shows the 
value of practical work in connectiori^with technological instruction. 
The school of Mechanic Arts in that institution is a fair sample of 
what we would call an industrial or hand-work school. 

We have in America no technical schools as they have in Europe, — 
schools of weaving, of horology, of engraving, of basket-making, 
of horse-shoeing, etc. Indeed we have much less need of these 
special technical schools than of general hand-work schooh at the 
completion of a grammer school course of study. Under the general 
head of Technological Education there are now at least five heavily- 
endowed institutions, in which the work is fully up to the standard 
of West Point, and in efficiency and thoroughness far in advance of 
that done in any college in corresponding departments, except that 
done in the special departments at Harvard ; these are the Rennsalaer, 
the Sheffield, the Worcester, the Boston, and the Rose schools. 

SEVERAL CONCLUSIONS. 

Several conclusions seem evident from a survey of the field of 
technological training : 

1. That the mercenary or mercantile motives for industrial or 
manual training as a part of the common-school curriculum are giving 
way to a true educational theory. 

2. That the introduction of the workshop into the school-house is 
a poor make-shift for industrial education of any sort. 



PRESIDENT BICKNELL'S ADDRESS. 59 

3. That the short school-life of the average American child de" 
mands that up to the age of 14, he should be held closely to the cul- 
tivation of the powers of observation, and "a scientific habit of 
thought and investigation," with a broad foundation of elementary 
and special instruction. 

4. ' That it is of the utmost importance to technology that reforms 
in methods of teaching the common branches of knowledge in the 
common schools should be urged most strenuously. This is the 
thing to do, rather than lunge off into manual training. What the 
polytechnic can do for young men depends as much upon what they 
bring to her door as upon what they draw from her stores. 

5. That by some discreet pruning a place can be made for instruc- 
tion of all boys in the grammer schools, in the six mechanical 
powers ; this is a kind of knowledge that they need take hold of 
greedily and find very useful. The necessary apparatus can be 
bought for ;$20,ooo for each school. 

6. That the establishment of free manual training schools, as at 
Baltimore and Chicago* seems to point to the true solution of the 
difficulties which beset the problem of securing an increase of 
skilled labor. 

7. That the establishment of apprentice schools, like those in 
Paris and other parts of France, is the real need of the time. Dr. 
Philbrick of Massachusetts, in writing of one of these schools, says : 
" The school located on the Boulevard de La Villette in Paris, which 
was opened in December, 1872, is the best school of its kind in the 
world. It has passed the period of experiment, and the city authori- 

ics have decided to establish schools of a similar type in the different 
industrial sections of the city. This is a real industrial school of the 
handicraft type. It is for boys who have completed their elementary 
education, but do not aspire to a high-school education. It is for the 
benefit of the great working-class. It is desigi^ed to form the skilled 
artisan, — not, indeed, to complete the training required for the finished 
workman, but to carry the apprentice far on his way to this goal, on 
which his eye is fixed." 

(8) That college and special schools should adopt their instruction 
in technics and scientific methods to the local wants of the com- 
munities where they are established. 

EMINENT AUTHORITY ON AMERICAN SCHOOLS. 

In closing my remarks on this topic, I beg to refer to an opinion 
of our technological schools from a noted English scholar and states- 
man, the Right Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, K. C. B., M. P., given in a 



60 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

speech at the annual dinner of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
Kingston, London, March 26, 1884: "I have visited probably every 
technical school in Europe, as well as in America, and I may say 
there is no one school in this country that may be considered a 
fully equipped technological school, fitted to teach the industrial arts 
in the complete and full way in which they are taught abroad. I 
happen to spend every autumn in America, America knows that it 
must compete with us before long with regard to our industry. Its 
protective tariff cannot long exist, and they are establishing the 
most complete technological colleges in different parts of the United 
States to be ready for this competition. In the Technical School at 
Boston there is not only the most complete equipment for persons 
intending to go into every art, the mechanical arts, the chemical arts, 
and other arts connected with the industries of the country ; the lab- 
oratories are not only fully equipped, but the education is one of the 
most complete character. They have not only Schools of Design, 
but they carry the design into engraving and wood-cutting, and actu- 
ally into the dyeing of the textile fabric. There are founding labo- 
ratories connected with the cotton trade, in which every scientific 
application with regard to cotton industries will be taught. They 
have machine-shops in connection with the Boston School of the 
most complete and equipped character. We have nothing in this 
country to compare with them. There is one which I hope will do 
so before long, the Technological School which is being built at 
South Kensington.** 

ART EDUCATION. 

In no department is the educational outlook more promising than 
in that of Art Education. To fully realize this, it is necessary to 
consider Art Education, not as limited to work done in art classes 
and schools of art, but in the broader and truer sense of including 
also the creative work of school-life from the manual activities of the 
kindergarten; the study of form and color, and the expression of 
form-ideas through drawing and handiwork, in elementary schools ; 
the practical, constructive, and decorative work in manual training- 
schools, in technical schools, and in schools of design ; the study of 
the history of art in secondary schools and colleges, to the work in 
form, light, and shade, and color of the student-sculptor and artist in 
museums and schools of fine art. In all these directions, great prog- 
ress has been made, and the causes which are impelling these efforts 
are not difficult to be seen. 



PRESIDENT BICKNELVS ADDRESS. 61 

The great educational movements of to-day are based on the de- 
velopment of the individuality in each pupil, and this individuality 
cannot be developed save by the cultivation of all the expressive and 
creative powers. In short, it has been found that individual expres- 
sion of thought is the only sure test of individual knowledge. As 
soon as this fact became recognized, it was seen that educational 
progress could come only through enlarging the means of expressing 
thought, — that the old methods, by limiting expression mainly to 
oral and written language, confined the expression of thought within 
such narrow bounds that it was impossible to secure individual de- 
velopment, — and, moreover, that art-study of every kind would be a 
most valuable aid on the much-needed expressing side. It was not 
long, therefore, before earnest efforts were made to promote the 
study of drawing in the schools as a means of expression. 

The history of drawing as a school study is extremely interesting. 
Drawing, in the schools of thirty years ago, was an "ornamental 
branch," was pursued as an " accomplishment," and was generally 
the merest mechanical imitation of poor pictures. Later it was ad- 
vocated as a culture-study, but only for the few. It was first intro- 
duced into the pub/ic schools as disciplinary, as a means of cultivating 
attention ; later, for industrial reasons, chiefly in the narrow field of 
design. Now it stands on broad educational grounds, and is advo- 
cated as afiFording a fundamental means of obtaining and expressing 
form-ideas, whether of a scientific, industrial, or artistic nature, and 
also as of great practical value in the great proportion of employ- 
ments of adult life. Drawing is, therefore, no longer a superficial 
study, consisting of the production on the surface of one sheet of 
paper, the lines that may exist on another, but is now vivified by the 
study of form from objects, and becomes a means for the expression 
of the pupil's own ideas of form gained from the objects themselves. 
It is now understood, also, that objects must be studied, — 

First, With regard to their actual facts of form. 

Second, With regard to their appearance to the eye. 

Third, With regard to their decoration. 

This not only systematizes the work educationally, but also shows 
its practical tendency, — 

Firsts To a knowledge of structure and construction, necessary 
therefore in science and manufacture. 

Second, To a knowledge of pictorial representation, necessary in 
descriptive science and art 

Third, To a knowledge of decoration, necessary in industrial art 
and architecture. 



«2 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

So this Study of form is carried forward until the whole realm of 
the natural world is studied by its means. Thus Drawing is now pur- 
sued, as much as a language of description and discovery, as an art. 
Resting on these foundations laid in elementary schools, provision 
must soon be made for broader instruction in this study in high 
schools and in advanced education, to meet the demands of scientific 
investigation and of artistic and industrial creations. 

The work of evening drawing classes of art schools will then be 
lifted to a higher plane, with wonderful possibilities before them. It 
is too early to forecast in detail the effect of this movement in Art 
Education, but it needs no prophet to predict that, in the next de- 
cade, there will result an art-development, based on sound education, 
to an extent that few men comprehend. 

For Art Education is no longef a mystical and cloudy subject. 
Its underlying principles are real, and capable of systematic develop* 
ment It is found to be a subject susceptible of educational treat- 
ment, is recognized as of fundamental educational value, and is now 
presented with true educational method. 

It behooves educators, then, not to stand aside and watch its de- 
velopment under the hands of specialists, but to acquaint themselves 
with its principles and its methods as bearing upon the great work of 
human development 

At the last meeting of this Association a new department, — that 
of Art Education, — was created, and to this department were com- 
mitted investigations into the matter of drawing and art instruction 
generally. An able committee was appointed to make these investi- 
gations, and to report on a course of study in drawing for public 
schools ; and we are to have, as part of the proceedings of this Asso- 
ciation, the report of this committee. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

If numbers are a criterion of success, then our normal schools are 
to-day in the enjoyment of a remarkable prosperity ; for in all parts 
of the country the schools already established are full to overflowing, 
and there is an increasing demand for enlarged facilities for profes- 
sional teaching. The growth of normal schools during the last ten 
years is something very wonderful. 

In 1872 there were 98 schools, having 773 instructors and 11,778 
students ; in 1882 there were 233 schools, 1,700 instructors and 51,132 
students, — a gain in ten years of 135 schools, 927 teachers, and 39,- 
354 students. When we recall the fact that the first normal school in 
America was opened at Lexington, Mass., under the secretaryship of 



PRESIDENT BWKNELVS ADDRESS. 63 

Horace Mann, in 1839, we may truly express our great surprise that 
a half-century has produced such fruits.' In no other class of our 
schools do so great differences of condition, work, and results exist» 
for several reasons : 

(i^ The varied conditions of preparation of students seeking 
admission to the professional school. 

(2) The relative amounts of academic and professional work ac- 
complished. 

(3) The variation in courses of study and methods of instruction. 

(4) The marked individuality and singular ability of the heads of 
normal instruction. 

(5) The more or less complete recognition of the inductive methods 
in instruction. 

(6) The breadth or narrowness of the foundation principles, in- 
volving teaching and government. 

It is very clear that no fixed standard can be set for the admission 
of students to normal schools. This being the case, each school 
must be a law unto itself as to the relative amount of academic or 
professional work done, and the question is an open one, whether 
what is styled professional study can be thoroughly secured without 
a large measure of academic work ; and, still further, it is questioned 
whether a true normal school can exist most successfully without a 
practice school, or school of observation, within its doors or within 
easy and constant reach of the students. 

DEFECTS IN NORMAL INSTRUCTION. 

The principal defects in normal instruction in America are, — 
(i) A too rigid mechanism in methods, resulting in the destruc- 
tion of what the Germans call "freedom," and which Americans call 
*• individuality." 

1 ENTRY IN HORACE MANN'S DIARY. 

July 2. — *' To morrow we go to Lexington to laanch the first Normal School on this side 
the Atlantic, and I cannot indnlge at this late hour of the night, and in my present state of 
fatigue, in an expression of the train of thought which the contemplation of this event 
awakens in my mind. Muck must come of it, either oigood orilL I am sanguine in my 
faith that it will be the former. But the good will not come itself. That is the reward of 
toil, of effort, of wisdom. These, as far as possible, let me furnish. Neither time nor care, 
nor such thoughts as I am able to originate, shall be wanting to make this an era in the 
welfare and prosperity of our schools ; and, if it is so, it will then be an era in the welfare of 
mankind. 

July 3.— The day opened with one of the most copious rains we have had this rainy 
season. Only three persons presented themselves for examination for the Normal Schoo 
m Lexington. In point of numbers, this is not a promising commencement What re- 
mains but more exertion ; more and more until it must succeed." 



64 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

(2) The analytic processes are carried to excess, and the instruc- 
tion is sometimes spoiled by chopping it too fine, and by making too 
fine distinctions ; by making processes chronologically distinct, that 
should be conducted almost simultaneously. Thus we have the 
"perceptive," the " conceptive," and the "reflective" stages set oflF 
with sharp lines and assigned to different periods of training. The 
pupil who chances to be in the " perceptive " period must not " con- 
ceive," and when in the " conceptive " must wait a little longer for 
the reflective processes to begin. 

(3) The tendency to establish the teaching profession on too nar- 
row' a foundation ; to foster a crude half -culture ; to make the stu- 
dents feel satisfied with a secondary education, and thereby tend to 
arrest intellectual development. As the normal school is but a sec- 
ondary school, it cannot compete with the university in its work, but 
it can and should secure for its principalships, and, as far as possible, 
for its faculties, men and women of the'largest breadth of scholar- 
ship, as well as professional skill. For want of such faculties many 
of our normal schools are poor apologies for training the members of 
an intelligent profession. 

HINDRANCES. 

(i) The indifference of the people to broad professional training, 
an indifference growing out of ignorance of the true value of sueh 
instruction. 

(2) OflScial ignorance, and even opposition, to normal or natural 
methods. The normal school is judged by its fruits in the poor re- 
sults achieved by men and women who are not allowed to practice 
what they have been taught in their training course. The restrictive 
and proscriptive spirit and policy of our school-boards, in their un- 
willingness to grant a large personal freedom to the teacher, neutral- 
ize the work of the school, destroy the ambition of the teacher, and 
tend to foster a spirit of deceit or conceit at once subversive of the 
true spirit of an instructor of youth. 

(5) Perhaps the most serious hindrance to the success of normal 
schools is the want of sufficient means to carry on the legitimate work 
of such schools. 

(a) For the employment of teaching force, both of men and women, 
of talent and qualification, for conducting original investigations in 
pedagogic science. In this connection we are glad to note the follow- 
ing concerning the Rhode Island State Normal School : 



PRESIDENT BWKNELUS ADDRESS. 65 

Another important change has been made in the school, in accordance with a reci)m> 
mendation made, by the State board of Examiners in its last report to the Legislature. 
That report said : ** If the corps of teachers in the Normal School contained more men, 
more young men would be attracted as students, more ambitious young men destined to 
make their mark in any profession, and the grade of the school would be raised to a post 
graduate rank, like the law schools and medical schools. Then, the common-school 
authorities of the State, seeing the advantage of trained male teaching, would, it is hoped, 
make such appropriations as would enable them to secure more of it, and thus to meet one 
of the greatest present wants of the common schools.** 

(*) For securing longer courses of study, in order that scientific 
subjects may receive more attention. 

(c) For the more complete and continued application of the prin- 
ciples of inductive philosophy to all teaching, and to the fuller study 
of educational theories, history, and philosophy. 

EVENING SCHOOLS. 

This department of educational work, though of vital importance 
as a means of reaching the masses, is, without doubt, neither fully 
appreciated by scho9l authorities nor fairly understood by the general 
public. Hundreds of cities and towns in the country, burdened with 
an appalling and increasing illiteracy, provide no means whatever for 
evening classes, while a great proportion of the schools maintained, 
are either indifferently managed by committees or miserably mas- 
tered. That this is a grave error, and demands our serious attention, 
none conversant with the subject can doubt. By the report of the 
Commissioner of Education for 1881, it is seen that but thirty-two 
cities in the United States provided evening instruction, though I 
am happy to note that since the writing of that report this number 
has materially increased, as also have the means for their suitable 
and successful maintenance. 

In Massachusetts alone, during the past year, thirty-seven cities 
and towns, at an expense of $56,744 54, maintained 1 10 elementary 
schools, the average attendance thereat being 3,613, some 60 per 
cent of the total enrollment. Reports from other States show a 
growing (yet by far too slow) tendency to encourage this class of 
work. That there are many causes which have materially contributed 
to the discouragement of committees and teachers in the manage- 
ment of these schools is not doubted, yet I am confident that they are 
not without remedy. 

Experiments in New York, Brooklyn, Cincinnati, Boston, Worcester, 
Lowell, and other cities, have demonstrated beyond ali doubt that 
the crowding, confusion, and chaos common at the opening of ele- 

6b 



66 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

mentary evening schools, as well as their great irregularity of attend- 
ance, can, under a healthy regime, be succeeded by the same order, 
interest, and regularity which characterize the opening and conduct 
of our well-regulated day schools. It must not be forgotten that 
evening schools, as a whole, exist under permissive authority, while 
day schools are maintained by the rigid construction of mandatory 
statutes. But two States, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, have to 
any degree advanced this department to a like standard with the 
public schools. To contrast the condition of this branch of the ser- 
vice, even under the most favorable auspices, with that of the day 
school is both unfair to the school and an unpardonable demand upon 
those who have been zealously battling with difficulties and dis- 
couragements in the securing of more permanent provisions and a 
perfect system for their proper maintenance. What, then, may be 
asked, must be done ? There is but one answer : Remedial legisla- 
tion to meet the demands of the time is imperative. 

The enactments of Massachusetts or Pennsylvania, in the absence 
of any better legislation, should be stereotyped by every state in 
the Union. To these should be added laws compelling the attend- 
ance of all illiterate minors, with proper exemptions in special cases 
of hardship. Truant laws should be made applicable which, supple- 
mented by a hearty public support, would insure success. The 
Massachusetts State Board of Education, in their last report, com- 
menting on the improved condition of the evening schools of. the 
State since the enactment of the compulsory law, say : " The classes 
have been removed from ward-rooms and cellars to the desks occu- 
pied by day pupils. Better text-books and more liberal supplies, with 
teachers of recognized ability, have been added to the service. Or- 
ganization, classification, and system have been substituted fpr the 
chaos, which, under the old regime, characterized many of the ele- 
mentary schools, especially of Boston. In several localities, however, 
these schools have been reported as failures. Careful inquiry and 
examination disclose the fact that in every case the management, and 
not the members of the school, is at fault. There has been no 
marked success where there have been incompetent teachers, con- 
demned supplies, torn and defaced text-books. With proper pro- 
visions for accommodations and supplies, competent teachers and 
good management, there is no doubt that evening schools will take 
rank with day schools, and can be made a credit to every community. 
In the face ©f the annual influx by immigration, further and more 
pertinent provisions by law are necessary to convert the great body 



PRESIDENT BICKNELVS ADDRESS. 67 

of foreign-born illiterate persons into intelligent, industrious citizens." 

Such sentiments cannot fail of approval by all who have worked 
in this most fruitful field. The eleemosynary support of the system 
should at once be succeeded by the most liberal appropriation of 
public money. There is no wiser, better, safer depository for Federal 
aid than in the maintenance of a well-regulated system of elementary 
evening schools. The government would do well to imitate the 
great example at Creuzot, France, or the more recent action of the 
Willimantic Linen Company in Connecticut, which corporation, in 
the following order, issued August i, 1882, has made a precedent 
meriting the highest commendation : 

" No person now in the employ of the Willimantic Linen Com- 
pany will be continued in their service after July 4, 1883, unless 
such person can read and write ; and on and after this date no per- 
son will be employed by the company who is unable to read and 
write." 

The agent of the company, replying to a letter of inquiry as to the 
effect of this measure on their work-people, said : 

" In order to give the work-people of the company who were in- 
cluded in the above notice an opportunity to protect themselves, 
evening schools were established during the following winter and 
spring. About one hundred and fifty availed themselves of the privi- 
lege, and the schools were very successful, so that at the expiration 
of the notice less than thirty were discharged. Exceptions were 
made in some cases, especially of those above 45 years of age. A 
large proportion of those attending these schools were of foreign 
birth, principally French Canadians. I consider that the schools 
were a perfect success, and was very much surprised at the rapid ad- 
vancement most of them made in their studies, and the interest they 
took in the school." 

Of evening high schools there appears but one sentiment : wherever 
properly maintained, they have fully justified the most liberal ex- 
penditure. In New York, Boston, Cincinnati, Brooklyn, and other 
cities, the reports show an increased public interest, which, to a great 
degree, is the true criterion of the good or ill management of this 
class of work. The curriculum of the New York Evening High 
School, while co-extensive with that of the high schools of the state, 
has successfully maintained advanced courses in collegiate work. In 
the Boston Evening High School, where the past winter were en- 
rolled 1,643 young gentlemen and ladies, under a corps of nineteen 
teachers, under the principalship of Mr. E. C. Carrigan, a member of 



68 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

the Massachusetts Board of Education, could have been seen for five 
evenings of the week the most earnest, devoted, and faithful pupils, 
representing all classes of industries, the majority oif whom were 
present to complete the interrupted and unfinished course of the 
grammar and high schools. In addition to the regular work, this 
large body assembled twice a week in the exhibition hall, where a 
forty-minutes' lecture concluded the evening work. 

SCHOOL SUPERVISION. 

One of the greatest faults of our supervision of schools is its ten- 
dency toward a superficial, artificial, non-vitalized, and non-vitaliz- 
ing relation to the school. The visits and wx)rk of some superintend- 
Cents oftener seem a visitation of Providence rather than a helpful, 
hearty, vital support to teacher or school. One of the great move- 
ments to overcome the somewhat mechanical and forced relation of 
much of our supervision is in the exercise of supervisory relations by 
the principals or masters of schools, to all the community of schools 
tributary to their own. The principal is recognized as the head of 
the work in a certain district. Certain responsibilities are com- 
mitted to him ; certain results are expected of him. Power should 
be granted him to shape those results, and to bear those responsibil- 
ities with credit to himself and profit to his associates and pupils. 
As a superintendent he should (i) have some controlling choice in 
the election of associate teachers ; (2) he should have an advisory 
relation to the School Board with reference to studies, text-books, 
discipline, modes of teaching, test examinations, and examinations 
for promotion. The important fact that for the last twenty years all 
the leading supervisory officers of the country have been promoted 
and chosen from the ranks of the teachers, is the most convincing 
proof that the experience of the principal is the vitalizing link 
between the administrative and teaching departments of a school 
system. And here let me urge what was so ably presented before 
the American Institute of Instruction at Providence, in 1875, — tbe 
organization of 

SCHOOL FACULTIES, 

consisting of the selection of leading teachers, whose duty it shall 
be to advise with each other and school boards on all matters per- 
taining to the schools, save those which are personal or incongruous 
to their official position. Dr. Eliot said, in the course of his argu- 
ment, " While confessing our obligations to the superintendents who 



PRESIDENT BICKNELVS ADDRESS. 69 

have labored in our behalf, it is not ungrateful in us to doubt their 
being equal to the educational management of the schools in all its 
completeness. In becoming superintendents they cease to be teach- 
ers ; they are no longer on the same ground where they stood before, 
and where, as I have ventured to assert, it is best for our educational 
managers to stand. They are in an office whose functions are not 
merely educational, but largely administrative ; and though they have 
shown themselves thoroughly competent to do what they have had to 
do, they have not had to do some of the things which our schools 
need to have done. From the very nature of the case, — from the 
two-fold character of the labor committed to them, — from the fact 
that they are administrators, as well as educators, they are, at least 
to some extent, disqualified for the purely educational details of which 
teachers, and teachers alone, are the natural masters ; it is, therefore, 
to teachers that I would have these details transferred." 

School faculties should sustain similar relations to the schools of a 
community that the college faculty does to the college ; while the 
superintendent should be the presiding genius, directly advising, and 
administering on the higher plane of an executive as well as a super- 
visory officer. These faculties should be chosen from the corps of 
teachers, exercising such functions as their superior wisdom in mat- 
ters of practical detail would fit them to enjoy. The true dignity of 
the teacher's office would be recognized by such a relation and posi- 
tion in the school work of the city, town, county, or State. The 
proper balancing of influences, educational and administrative, would 
be secured in the most important decisions relating to the educational 
work of the community, and unity, harmony, and permanence of rela- 
tionship would be readily secured and maintained. Much of the 
power of our teaching talent is now wasted in the merciless wear and 
constant friction between the authority that contrives and the hands 
that execute. How glad the day when the teacher and the officer 
can see, eye to eye, and work shoulder to shoulder, animated by a 
common purpose, each with the freedom of his own personality, but 
governed by the loyalty of all true hearts to ^duty, conscience, and 
the higher law 1 

TENDENCIES IN SUPERVISION. 

The tendency seems in the direction of greater breadth of view, to 
make supervision less empiric and more philosophical in its methods. 
Superintendents are looking less to petty details and experiments in 
school-work, and more to the fundamental principles upon which any 



70 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

efficient methods of building up intellect and character must rest. 
They are also growing more disposed to grant greater freedom to 
their teachers in managing and instructing their schools. And I 
doubt not the day is not far distant when they will quite clearly per- 
ceive the advantages that will be gained from availing themselves of 
all the power that may arise from the free and intelligent thinking 
of their teachers. 

DEFECTS. 

These may be stated briefly thus : (i) Too much time taken up 
in petty and unproductive details ; (2) too much time devoted to 
harassing examinations, — /. e., too much drawing from empty wells ; 

(3) too much mechanical work enforced and encouraged in schools ; 

(4) too much empiricism, and too little philosophy ; (5) not enough 
stimulation of the right sort for teachers and pupils ; (6) too much 
egotism ; (7) not enough power vested in the superintendent for the 
correction of unquestioned defects in methods of teaching and man- 
agement of schools. 

REFORMS TO BE SOUGHT AND METHODS OF SECURING THEM. 

The first and most essential reform is getting superior men for 
superintendents. Unless success crown efforts in this direction, all 
other efforts will be of little avail. No man should be allowed in 
this office who is not possessed of wide views and great enthusiasm, 
and who does not know his profession thoroughly. If he shall have 
arisen from the ranks, so much the better. A thorough knowledge of 
the work of each grade of his schools is almost imperative, and a longer 
term of office. The living from hand to mouth, year by year, as 
most are now compelled to do, and, in consequence, being debarred 
from entering upon any settled line of policy, deprives such officers, 
however able, of more than half their efficiency. 

To secure these ends, wiser men must be elected to Boards of 
Education. This can only be brought about by arousing and en- 
lightening the people. And this last is to be done through public 
lectures, the public press, and the efforts of teachers and superin- 
tendents. 

TEMPERANCE TEACHING IN SCHOOLS. 

The giant evil, — ^yea, crime, — of our day is intemperance. Com- 
pared with it all other vices and crimes are but its infant children. 
The great reform of our day is temperance. Compared with it all 



PRESIDENT niCKNELVS ADDR^ESS. 71 

Other reforms are born of its healthful and omnipotent generation. 
Two persons stand at the threshold to protect the incoming genera- 
tions from becoming an easy prey to the devourer of health, happi- 
ness, hope, life, and heaven. The natural protectors of our youth 
are the parent and the teacher, and the home and the school are the 
citadels for their defence. With a sagacity born of a true philosophy, 
and a holy purpose born of woman's enthusiasm, the bravest of knights 
have begun a great crusade which is as certain to drive intemper- 
ance, with its deadly hosts from the land, as is the light of day to 
chase away the fast-fleeing clouds of darkness. Formatioii, not refonna- 
tio9i, is now the educational watchword which woman has proclaimed 
as the signal to be sent to all her allies in the world, and the two 
words, — Woman and Temperance, — each the symbol of the true 
and good, shajl be forever united. It is a marvel to many that this 
new gospel of teaching the children the laws of health, of chastity, of 
purity, of hope, and of temperance, should have such a remarkable 
spread, and meet with so general acceptance ; that legislators in 
town, city, country, state, and nation should listen, hear, and legis- 
late to protect childhood from the ravages of Rum, and that a litera- 
ture should spring up as by magic from a hitherto sterile intellectual 
soil. 

But think of it for a moment. Is it true that a drunkard desires to 
entail to his son a drunkard's life, or does the rumseller or the man- 
ufacturer desire the law of primogeniture, as to business, to apply to 
his offspring, or would the citizen legislator destroy all hope of honest 
legislation in the future, by allowing social, civil, and financial ruin 
to stand as the external ex post facto of violated physical law? No ! 
— a universal No! Hence it is that human nature, in its best and 
poorest estate, would protect its offspring ; and this instinct rises 
superior to the befoulments of lusts, the debasements of appetite, the 
bewitchments of passion, and the degradations of avarice, and says 
to the mother and the teacher, with a tongue almost palsied with in- 
dulgence, "Teach my son, teach my daughter the lessons of unsel- 
fish living, of purity of thought and speech, of temperance in food 
and drinks, and in all manner of healthful and righteous example." 
With the voices of the good to cheer, the wicked to warn, and the 
wise to guide, what an inspiration for the teachers of our land to use 
the golden opportunity to make and keep our children free ; to plant 
in virgin soil the good seed of temperance in all things ; to enlist 
conscience on the side of law, and to enthrone Law as the supreme 
Rider and Judge ; to make precept weighty with example ; to re- 



72 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

inforce all with historic fact, incident and story ; and, above all, to 
throw arouijd the easily tempted feet of childhood the restraints of a 
personal, loving devotion, which shall make us the saviors of little 
children, and, if occasion calls, by viqarious Christ-sacrifice to stand 
over against the cross ot self-sacrifice, where the light of the Crown 
flashes across the vision, the hope erf a brighter day, as others go 
marching on to victory. 

NATIONAL AID TO EDUCATION. 

These states of ours are a community with common interests and 
a common destiny. The evils which aflSict one touch the life of 
all. The blessing which adds to the common weal in one section of 
our land, however remote from the centre, blesses all. Illiteracy is 
an universal menace to free institutions. Intelligence is a perpetual 
safeguard. 

Of the SO»i55»783 people of the United States there are 6,239,958 
over ten years of age, — 12.44 P^r cent., or nearly one-eighth of our 
entire population, who cannot write. These illiterates are thus 
distributed : 

Illiterate whites in 22 Northern States 1,272,208 

Illiterate whites in the 8 Territories 69,933 

Illiterate blacks in the 22 Northern States and 8 Territories .... 1 56,644 

Illiterate whites in the 16 Southern States and District of Columbia 1*676,939 

Illiterate blacks in the 16 Southern States and District of Columbia . 3.064,234 

Total 6,239,958 

An analysis of these statistics shows that in eighteen States, in- 
cluding two Territories, more than 13 per cent., aad in eleven more 
than 25 per cent., cannot write. In fifteen States and Territories 
more than 1 1 per cent, of the white population over ten years of age 
cannot write, varying in these from 1 1 to 45 per cent. 

While no portion of the country is free from this scourge of igno- 
rance, the condition of the Southern or former slaveholding States is 
especially lamentable and full of danger. More than one-fourth of the 
entire population of these States is illiterate. 

Eight of these States, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Missis- 
sippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, have over 40 per 
cent, of illiterates of all classes, white and black. The whole number 
of persons, white and colored, in the sixteen Southern States was 
i8,5cx),cxx). Of these, the number of illiterates was 4,71 5i39Si or 27.1 
percent. This illiteracy is largely confined to the colored people, 47.7 



PRESIDENT BICKNELUS ADDRESS. 78 

per cent of whom (3,220,878) cannot write, while only 6.96 per cent, 
of the whites (3,019,080) are in that condition. 

The two bills now before Congress relating to Federal aid for edu- 
cation, — the Blair bill, which has passed the Senate, and the Willis 
bill in the House, — do not differ materially in their general pro- 
visions, and either, if adopted by Congress, will render very essential 
aid to the needier parts of our country, which are so sadly suffering 
for want of the blessing of free schools, and that largely from the 
poverty, and not from the want of interest, of the people to be edu- 
cated. Both bills distribute the money directly from the United 
States treasury to the several States and Territories on the basis of 
illiteracy of the census of 1880, school and adult, from ten years old 
and upward. Both bills recognize the educational authorities of the 
States, aided, as the proper officers, to superintend the disbursement 
of the funds in the several States, and both require annual reports to 
Congress, through the Commissioner of Education, concerning the 
application of these funds to the public instruction of the children of 
whites and blacks impartially, for at least three months in each year 
Both bills require tlie aid to be extended over a period of ten years, 
but the amounts are unequal, the Willis bill asking for only fifty 
millions of dollars, while the Blair bill calls for over one hundred and 
six millions of dollars. The latter bill distributes fifteen millions the 
first year, and reduces the amount one million dollars each year, clos- 
ing with about six millions of dollars the last year ; while the Willis 
bill begins where Blair's ends. 

Of the merits of these bills we do not propose to speak, except in 
comparison with a third bill, which is now under the consideration of 
the Joint Committee on Education of both houses of Congress. This 
bill is the work or the Inter-State Commission on Federal Aid ap- 
pointed at Louisville in September last, and seem to us to embody 
valuable principles not yet recognized in this most important piece 
of national legislation. We will note a few of the leading features of 
the new bill. 

(i) The amount to be distributed is sixty-five millions of dollars, — 
a compromise between the amounts of the Blair and Willis bills. 

(2) The distribution reached over a period of twelve years instead 
of ten, thus enlarging its capacity for helping the people. 

(3) Its distribution is to be made, not on the basis of the total 
illiteracy of the country, but on the school illiteracy between ten and 
twenty years of age, inclusive. Hereby the' money is directed to the 
illiteracy within the school age 



74 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

(4) The distribution is made on the following plan : For each illit- 
erate person in the States, between the ages of ten and twenty inclu- 
sive, and for each person in the Territories, between and including the 
the same ages, as shown by the census of 1880, there shall be appor- 
tioned for the first, second, and third years, each year four dollars ; 
for the fourth, fifth, and sixth years, each year three dollars ; for the 
seventh, eighth, and ninth years, each year two dollars ; and for the 
tenth, eleventh, and twelfth years, each year one dollar ; when all 
appropriations shall cease. 

(5) One-third of the money apportioned to each State may be used 
for the erection of school-houses and the support of normal schools 
and normal institutes, and the other two-thirds to be used for common- 
school studies, including elementary industrial education. 

(6) The common schools are required to be kept four months in 
each year, and the money is to be expended, under State laws, by the 
ordinary educational authorities. 

(7) To superintend the carrying into effect the provisions of the 
bill, a board of trustees is created, consisting of the Secretary of the 
Interior ex-officio, two senators and two representatives, not belonging 
to the same political party, the Commissioner of Education, and the 
Fourth Auditor of the Treasury. This board is to attend to the dis- 
tribution of the funds, to secure reports, to look after the honest ad- 
ministration of the funds in the several States, and to stand as a 
guardian of the trust for the Nation until its full disbursements has 
been made. 

Singularly enough, the last-mentioned item meets with opposition 
from those who most urgently seek and need Federal aid, and this on 
the ground that it is an interference with States' rights ! Now all must 
admit that the whole plan of Federal aid to education is in opposition 
to the doctrines of Calhoun and Stephens. There is no possible 
justification of Federal interference with State administration of 
schools except on the ultra ground of a great national exigency, which 
knows no primal law but that of self-preservation. The Government 
proposes to meet local needs in the hour of peril, and asks that the 
hand which administers may connect with its aid the eye that watches 
over its wise and careful distribution. * In no case does it propose to 
interfere with the distribution, but, as in the case of the Peabody 
fund, to place wise and trusty men over the great gift to see that it 
reaches and accomplishes its desired work. At the same time that 
the trusteeship is a protectorate over the fund going out of the 
national treasury, it is an equal protection to those who are to receive 



PRESIDENT BIGKNELI/S ADDRESS. 75 

il ; and both, as has been seen in the history of Congressional grants 
hitherto for all purposes, need just such watchful guardianship. 

While we do not doubt the integrity and good faith of the men at 
the head of educational affairs north, south, east, or west, we do in- 
sist that the General Government should demand some sort of super- 
vision of a fund going out of its treasury for a period of years, lest 
Congressional investigation shall, by-and-by, come in to bring our 
schools and school systems into disgrace. For the reason that our 
State school officers are good and honest men, they should.be willing 
that the light of an eternal day should shine through their actions 
and their administration of a just gift from a paternal hand which 
seeks only the best good of all its children, and especially of the weak 
and unfortunate. 



76 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



THE NEW SOUTH. 

BT ROBBBT BINOHAH. 
THE EDUCATIOKAL STATUS AND NEEDS OF THE NEW SOUTH. 

Mr, President — Ladies and Gentlemen: I appear before this higlily 
cultured audience, composed almost entirely of Northern men and women, 
to tell of the educational status and needs of the South, and I wish yoa to 
understand distinctly that I am a Southern man, of Southern birth, of 
Southern blood, of Southern education, of Southern record, of Southern 
prejudices, if you will. I was a Confederate soldier. I saw the last sun 
rise on the army of Northern Vuginia. I was one of Lee's 7500 armed men 
at Appomattqx Court-House, who never bowed the knee to any BaaU bat 
fought to the bitter end. And it was a bitter end ; but these bitter pangs were 
the birth pangs of the new South, which, though still in its swaddling bands, 
is greater and more powerful in some respects than the old South, and 
which will soon be greater and more powerful in all respects than tiie old 
South could ever have been. 

When the bitter end came we surrendered in good faith. We ac- 
cepted the conditions, anr] having done our duty as we saw it in one 
direction, we laid down our arms and betook ourselves to repairing the 
wreck and ruin around us. It was folly to stand, like the figure at the 
stem of a vessel, looking backward and weeping over the troubled waters 
behind. The Almighty gave man eyes in front only, that he may look to 
and live in the present and future. 

The past of the South is irrevocable, and we do not wish to recall it. 
The past of the South is irreparable, and we do not wish to repair it ; 
for, terrible as the lesson was in the learning, there are two propositions 
which meet with universal acceptance in the new South : First, that the 
greatest blessing that ever befell us was a failure to establish a nationality ; 
and, second, that the next greatest blessing was getting rid of slavery on 
any conditions. A few of the older men — stranded wrecks of by-gone 
days — may cling to the dead past ; but their influence has ceased, and, 
like giants Pope and Pagan in Pilgrim's Progress, they are harmless. 

With regard to slavery, the men who are the motors of the new 
South reason very simply and conclusively that before the war, with 
organized labor and organized capital, the South made a little more than 
3,000,000 bales of cotton. In 1880, only fifteen years after the sur- 
render, with disorganized labor, and with no capital but the growing crop, 
we made more than 6,000,000 bales of cotton. 



THE NEW SOUTH, 77 

North Carolina made 140,000 bales of cotton before the war, and 
25,000,000 pounds of tobacco, and in 1880 she made 400, 000 bales of 
cotton 'and 50,000,000 pounds of tobacco and as much grain as before;, 
that is, we have as much to eat as we ever had, and we handle twice as 
mach money, and at this rate it will not take many years to make up for 
all OUT losses by the war ; so that the wayfaring man must be an enormous 
fool, if he cannot see that as 6,000,000 bales of cotton are better than 
3,000,000 bales, so the present conditions will soon be better financially 
than the conditions before the war. 

Again, we see the impossibUity of a Southern nationality as plainly 
as we see the difference between the 6,000,000 and the 3,000,000 bales of 
cotton. 

Every student of history must recognize the fact that the most 
marked characteristic of the Teutonic man, the man of the ages, is his 
intense instinct of local self-government. It was this instinctive fear 
of centralization that divided the England of the Angles and Saxons 
into a heptarchy before the infusion of centralizing Norman blood, and 
the same instinct has divided the Teuton beyond the Grerman Ocean 
into so many petty independencies that the unification of Germany is an 
unsolved problem still. This same instinct of local autonomy prevaUed 
after the Revolutionary war to such an extent that a federal union on any 
basis was of very difficult accomplishment, and the states' rights theory 
prevailed so fully as a theory that it was taught even at West Point fifty 
or sixty years ago, insomuch that if any of the West Point graduates 
who became Confederate leaders had been tried for treason, one very 
strong point in their defence would have been the text-book on con- 
stitutional law used at the Academy while they were there, in which the 
states' rights theory was distinctly taught. And the United States could 
not have considered it treason in men to practise what the United States 
taught them officially as hoys to believe.* 

Now, in contrast to this denationalizing teaching at West Point fifty 
years ago, I wish to give you, very briefiy, the kind of instruction which 
1, a Southern Democrat, give my pupils — instruction which last summer I 
was called upon to repeat at three or four State normal institutes in North 



*The following letter is my authority for this statement : 

4117 Pine Street, Philadelphia, March 25, 1884. 

Dear Major Bingham : While the question of Jeff Davis's trial for high 
treason was pending, Mr. Reed, counsel for the defence, was a member of my brother's 
congregation at Orange Valley, N. J. He told my brother, after it had been decided 
that the trial was not to take place, that if the case had come to trial the defence 
would have offered in evidence the text-book on constitutional law from which Davis 
had been instructed at West Point by the authority of the United States Government, 
and in which the right of secession is maintained as one of the constitutional rights 
of a State. You are quite at liberty to refer to me for this statement, which is given 
according to the best of my recollection. 

Very truly yours, L. W. Bacon. 



78 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

Carolina, before nearly 1000 teachers of common schools. It illuBtratea 
the manner as well as the animus of the instruction given in Southern 
private and public schools. 

*' Geography," I said, *' b}' derivation, means earth-writine, as 
telegraphy means far-writing, and photography means light- writing. 
There are two kinds of earth-writing : Man's^ which is political geog- 
raphy, and is feeble and ephemeral, and God^a^ which is physical ge(^- 
raphy, and is strong and eternal, predetermining climate, population, and 
the history of nations. 

*' One of the most distinctive features of physical geography is, that 
there are almost always some strong, bold strokes of God's earth- writings 
between nationalities. Nations have very rarely crystallized except behind 
natural barriers. Take China, for instance, a triangle with the highest 
mountains in the world to the southward, with mountains equally high 
climatically, to the northward, and with the greatest of oceans to the 
east. In this triangle, separated from the rest of mankind by impassable 
barriers on all sides, constituting the boldest strokes upon the earth of 
God's earth- writing, the mo&t remarkable civilization among man has 
been developed; for while a succession of Western empires has risen, 
culminated, and passed away, the Chinese civilization, defective as it is in 
many respects, surpasses all others in having attained continuity. Man 
may come, and man may go, but the Chinaman goes on forever; for 
Grod's earth-writing isolates him completely. 

*' In Europe we find nationalities separated by natural barriers. The 
Pyrenees separate France and Spain; the Alps separate Austria and 
Italy; the Rhine flows between Germany and France; the thread of 
silver sea between England and the mainland has been a wall of fire which 
no alien enemy has dared to cross since the days of William the Norman. 

^^ Civilization, like solids in solution, does not crystallize while motion 
continues. A natural barrier stops migration, and national peculiarities 
develop during the temporary rest. But when the peoples on opposite 
sides of an intervening barrier evolve organization enough to overcome 
the barrier, they meet with developed peculiarities which make them dif- 
ferent, and which make them enemies. 

" In the United States we find physical features bold enough for 
barriers between nations in the Appalachians, in the Mississippi, in the 
Rockies; but these lines of God's earth- writing ran north and south, at 
right angles to the lines of population, and did not stop migration. A 
father reached the Appalachians; a sou and a daughter settled on this 
side of the mountain ; a son and a daughter crossed the mountain, and the 
mountain separated a homogeneous population. The same was the case 
with the Mississippi — the same was the case w ith the Rockies. 

''What we of the South tried to do, was to establish a nationality 
along a line 3000 miles long from east to west, where there was not a 



THE NEW SOUTH. 79 

s»troke of God's earth- writing to separate one nationality from another, 
&nd the Almighty, who had written this country one with His earth- writing 
pen, spurned our efforts, though man fought for a nationality never more 
lK)ldly before.** 

Such is the instruction given to ray pupils, who come from every 
State in the South, and, by request, to nearly a thousand teachers of pub- 
lic schools last summer. Now contrast the theoretical disunion taught at 
West Point fifty years ago from man's standpoint, and the practical union 
from God's standpoint, impressed upon the pupils of a private school, and 
upon nearly a thousand teachers of public schools last year by a Southern 
Democrat, in a Southern State, and ask yourselves if the years have 
wrought no changes. 

But when the war ended, we of the South were the poorest people in 
the civilized world. We staked everything unreservedly upon the decision 
of the swoi-d, and lost. The intensity of the struggle is not realized by 
the people of the Northern States. A comparison between the men under 
arms during the Revolutionary war and during the late civil war illustrates 
this point. In 1776 the Colonies numbered 3,000,000, and never had 
more than 30,000 men under arms at one time ; that is ^^^^^^^y, ^S^r, ^^ 
of the population were under arms at once. 

In 1861 North Carolina had 600,000 white inhabitants; 60,000 of 
them were under arms at one time — that is, l^^xftru^ /it, tV of the popu- 
lation were under arms at one time — so that, in proportion to population. 
North Carolina was engaged ten times more intensely in the late war than 
our ancestors were in the war with England ; and to illustrate what ten 
times any thing means, I call your attention to the fact that a race-horse 
only moves six times faster th£^n a man in a rapid walk, and a railway 
train, at the overwhelming rate of forty miles an hour, moves only ten 
times faster than a man walking rapidly down the track ; so that the 
speed of a railway train at forty miles an hour and of a man walking 
rapidly bear the same proportions to each other as North Carolina's share 
in the war between the States and the share of the Colonies in the war 
with England. And when the conflict ended in which we staked our all, 
we had nothing left but the ground we stood upon, and were deeply in 
debt besides. 

The comparative wealth of* the two sections of the United States is 
illustrated by the fact that in 1880 the taxable wealth of New York City 
was equal to that of'Virginia, Kentucky, Georgia, and Texas. 

The taxable wealth of Boston was equal to that of Virginia and Ken- 
tucky. 

The taxable wealth of Rhode Island, with only one forty-seventh of the 
area, was equal to that of Georgia. 



80 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

The taxable wealth of New York State, including New York City, was 
eqnal to that of the whole thirteen Southern States, with an extra State 
equal to Georgia thrown in for good measure. 

In short, the Federal dollar started at a dollar in gold, went down to S3 
cents, and then back to a dollar, and those who claimed it as their dollar 
became very rich ; but the Confederate dollar, which started at a dollar in 
gold, went down to absolute zero, and staid there, and we were left with 
nothing but our manhood. And if those to whom the war was such a source of 
wealth should ever attempt to inaugurate another war involving the integrity 
of the Federal dollar — ^the dollar which we are now beginning to handle — we of 
the South, to whom the war was a source of much terrible poverty, will 
guard the integrity of the Federal dollar, if need be, with bullet and 
bayonet. 

But with all our losses by the war, our manhood remained. In fifteen 
years after the war ended, with no basis of credit but the growing crop of 
each year (which has been mortgaged ahead ever since the surrender in 
order to raise means for its own cultivation) , we had double the number of 
bales of cotton ; we have taken a dollar's worth of (K>tti)n and manufactured 
it into coarser fabrics worth $2, and thereby have forced the New England 
spiuner to make finer fabrics, thus increasing the value of one dollar's worth 
of cotton to $4. 

It is safe to say that no conquered people ever showed such powers of 
recuperation. The example of France, after the Franco-Prussian war, is 
often referred to ; but France lost very few. men on the battle-field ; they 
were all captured ; France spent but little money on military equipment ; 
she had very little militar}' equipment ; and so the money was all in the 
country, intact, to pay the German indemnity after the war was ended, and 
was actually produced for this purpose. 

Another thing which I wish to mention, is the fact that we have no 
prejudice against Northern men or Northern ideas per se. There were re- 
cently ^YQ of my own former pupils learning the business of cotton-spinning 
at the same time in the mills of Lowell and Fall River, at ordinary mill- 
operatives' wages, and the fathers of these young men are our most promi. 
ncnt people, and were all slave-owners before the war. Again, the teachers 
in our public schools have gone to New England in large numbers (I can 
mention at least twentj-five myself) to inspect the public schools. North- 
ern experts have superintended our teachers' institutes from year to year. 
After some weeks spent looking at the working of the public schools in 
Massachusetts, I was called upon at our University Normal School to tell 
about what I had seen. I said, "That, with nothing in the heavens above, 
the earth beneath, or the waters under the earth to build a prosperity' upon, 
the people of Massachusetts are, per capita, the richest people in the world. 
The country produces nothing but granite and ice ; and yet I was told that 



THE NEW SOUTH, 81 

the average i)er capita wealth of Boston is over $1700, and of the whole 
State over $1 JOO ; they have the best intercommunication in the world, the 
greatest distance of a man's house from a railroad station in Massachusetts 
being ten miles, and the average distance not being more than three miles, 
and they pay the highest per capita school tax in the world ; and that it be- 
comes us to find where the secret of this Samsonian strength lies." 

And when some one said that I was turning ''Yankee," I went on to 
say ^' that I had seen some other things. I saw a free-school house built 
with tax money which cost $750,000 ; I saw the names of 100 free-school 
teachers, head masters of the Boston schools, who got nearly four-thousand- 
dollar salaries ; I saw women (there are about 100 of them in Boston, free- 
school teachers) who get two-thousand-eight-hundred-dollar salaries. Now, 
there are," 1 said, ''tlxree hundred and fifty teachers present, and 3'ou know 
that you do not get more than an average of $25 per mouth, and you don't 
get that for more than four months in the year ; and you know further, that 
if 3'ou could superinduce a set of conditions under which the best man 
among you would have a chance at a four-thousanH -dollar salary*, as free- 
school teacher, $1000 more than our governor gets, and the best woman 
among jou a chance at a two-thousand-eight-hundred-dollar salary as a free- 
school teacher, $300 more than our chief justice gets, if you could do this, 
3-0U know very well that you would all turn Yankees unless you are idiots." 
To illustrate further the feelings of our people, I wish to say that, at 
first, there was a good deal of prejudice in our minds i^ainst those who 
came from the North to teach the freedmen. Some of this prejudice was 
reasonable, some of it was not. Unreasonable prejudices have passed away. 
Six years ago the Virginia Educational Association, composed almost en- 
tirely of ex-Confederates, met in the buildings of the Hampton Normal In- 
stitute. Many of the members were entertained b}' the superintendent and 
his colleagues, and it was then that I first enjo\'ed the privilege of becoming 
acquainted with General Armstrong and his wonderful work. 

About ten years ago a missionary of the Northern Presbyterian Church 
was driven b}' the climate from his work for the heathen in tropical Asia, 
and asked to be put into some mission field where the climate was not pro- 
hibitory. He was sent to North Carolina, and put in charge of a school 
for colored men. 

He came to do good, not harm ; to quiet the troubled waters, not to 
stir up the mire and filth ; he came as a teacher, not as a carpet-bag politi- 
cian ; he came to work for God and for good, not for the Republican party, 
though he has voted the Republican ticket at every Presidential election 
since he came to the South. 

Now, this Northern educator of colored men, this head of a negro 
school, is cordiall}' received in any pulpit in the State, and is a favorite 
preacher with the young men attending the leading denominational college 

6b 



82 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

of the Southern Presbyterian Church ; and young men and boys are more 
sensitive than mir older mm. Further still, one of his daughters taught till 
her marriage, in the largest foniale school in North Carolina, and with very 
unusual success. Another daughter taught in the most successful female 
school in Virginia, where she was pressed to remain, but she resigned her 
position in Virginia to accept a position in a very prominent female school 
in the same town in which her father teaches colored men; and our people 
are much more sensitive about their girls than about their boys. I mention 
these things because I know them to be facts. I have seen them with my own 
eyes, and I have permission from the parties concerned to give the names, 
dates, and localities in full, if it is desired.* An ounce of fact like this is 
worth ten tons of theory based upon statements made in some sensational 
book or by some sensational newspaper scribbler, or upon the opinion of 
some one who rode through the South on a railroad train and thought the 
information thus gained was sufficient to base an authoritative opinion upon. 

Again, the public schools for both races in Wilmington are in the hands 
of the same white superintendent, and this superintendent, the first man of 
Southern birth who ever had charge of the schools for both races in North 
Carolina, was a pupil of my own, and was teaching for me when he was 
called to take charge of the public-school work in Wilmington, our largest 
city^ at the highest salary ever paid up to that time to a public-school teacher 
in North Carolina. The example set by Wilmington has already been fol- 
lowed by Charlotte and Winston. 

While these things have nothing to do with the social relations of the 
races, which will regulate themselves, as social relations regulate themselves 
eveiywhere — '*for the hand of Douglas is his own" — yet such facts as these 
must tend, I think, to correct misapprehensions which I found existing in 
the minds of Northern people, among whom I have spent several months 
within the last three years. 

I wish to correct another misapprehension, which I found common 
among New England people, as to what we are doing ourselves for educa- 
tion. I take North Carolina and Massachusetts as the units of measurc. 
In 1880 the taxable property of Massachusetts was $1,600,000,000, and the 
school tax was $4,000,000 ; 4,000,000 out of 1,600,000,000 is y^^, ^^jr : 
that is, Massachusetts pays for school purposes $1 a year out of ever\' $400 
of taxable property. In 1880 the taxable property of North Carolina was 
$160,000,000 ; the school tax was $400,000 ; that is, $4 out of every $1600, 
ir^u' fiu ? ^1 ^"* of every $400 of taxable property, which is exactly what 
Massachusetts gives ; and it is much harder to give a little out of a little 
than to give much out of much. Our Lord emphasized this when he said 
that the widow's mite was more than the rich, of their abundance, had given : 

♦For further particulars address Rev. Dr. Mattooii, Charlotte, N. C. ; Capt. J. li. 
Burwell, Raleigh, N. C. ; and Rev. W. R. Atkinson, Charlotte, N. C. 



THE NEW SOUTH, 88^ 

and in the Soath since the war the school tax is but too often literally the 
widow's mite. And, what is more, ninety-nine hundreths of what is raised 
in North Carolina is paid by the white people, and three-sevenths of it goes 
to the children of the blacks And besides the State tax, many of our 
towns tax themselves and keep up schools eight or nine months in the 
year; so that, as a matter of simple fact, four-sevenths of our population 
raise as much b}' taxation as seven-sevenths of the whole population in Mass- 
achusetts do on ever}- one hundred dollars' worth of property, and tax 
themselves heavily besides to continue the schools after the public money 
is exhausted. 

I came here to ask for national aid, and I mention these things to show 
that we are not paupers, but that we are doing much more for ourselves 
than the people of Massachusetts are doing for themselves, in proportion 
to our means, and are ''carrying" the blacks besides, who contribute almost 
nothing to the school fund, and get three-sevenths of its proceeds. 

And we have other terrible difficulties to contend with. We have 
1,400.000 people in North Carolina (taking North Carolina and Massachu- 
setts again as the units of measure), which is 300,000 less than the popula- 
tion of Massachusetts ; but the area of North Carolina is seven times as great 
as the area of Massachusetts, and the difficult}^ of reaching so sparse a popu- 
lation is very great. And not only so, but in Massachusetts 900,000 — more 
than half of the people — live in cities and towns of as much as 2000 inhabi- 
tants, while only 60,000 — one twenty-third of the people in North Caro- 
lina — live in towns ; and the rest — twenty-two twenty-thirds — live scatter- 
ed over an area seven times as large as Massachusetts, larger than New 
York, and nearly as large as all New England, and many of them 
are 100 miles from a railway and 20 miles from a post-office, with its 
mail only once a week. That is, with only one-tenth of the money which 
Massachusetts has, North Carolina must reach seven times the area, which 
makes our difficulties seventy times as great as those of Massachusetts, 
even if area and money were the only factors. 

Another great difficulty is the illiteracy of our people. I have been 
frequently called upon to talk to the people of my native State upon the 
subject of education, and when I get a set of North Carolina people to- 
gether I talk very plainly, and tell them exactly what the situation is, as I 
see it. I say that there is one black fact which we must meet. The illiteracy 
of white people in North Carolina is somewhat greater (according to the 
census, of 1880) than anywhere else where God's sun shines upon the 
English-speaking man. But if a Virginian, a South Carolinian, a Tennes- 
seean, or a Yankee were to come to North Carolina and violate the law of 
courtesy (which is as much of a law of God as the law against murder or 
against stealing), by talking about our illiteracy, or about any other de- 
fect, however freely we may talk of it among ourselves, I would help to 



84 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

put him in the horse-pond ; and an}' one of you would do the samo 
thing if a stranger were to make himself disagreable by abusing your 
people. 

Before the French Revolution there were 28,000,000 people in France, 
of whom 27,000,000 were illiterates ; and look at the result. 

In North Carolina, and, indeed, in the whole South, nearly half of 
our people, white and black, are illiterate ; and while we do not exp« ct 
any such calamity as befell France, we are too near the ragged edge when 
so large a proportion of those who at the polls decide the destiny of the 
country cannot read the votes they cast, and so are tools for demagogues, 
and we cannot afford to risk our prosperity and our lives upon such 
conditions. It is to wake up our people to their danger — to show them 
the rod they are cutting for their owa smiting — that we talk to them as 
we do. And it is stirring them up. But we cannot permit any outsider 
to talk in that way. 

And our people have been aroused. Our public schools are doing the 
best that can be done under such circumstances. We tax our dollar 
as heavily as Massachusetts taxes hers, as I have already shown, and yet 
we keep our public schools open only three months in the year, and pay 
the teachers, on an average, $25 per month for their work, and they board 
themselves. By our constitution, which is a legacy of the period of re- 
construction, we cannot tax our people more than so many cents on tlie 
dollar, and that limit has been reached. In the towns a local option tax 
is levied (understand that the words ^' local option " suggest public schools 
with u«, and not whiskey, as with yow), and very excellent public schools 
are kept open for nine mouths ; but in the R URAL DISTRICTS, where 
all of our people live but about 60,000, the limit of taxation has been 
reached, and the schools cannot be kept open any more than three montiis 
in the year. 

But our poverty — the fact that we have no accumulated capital, 
and that each prospective crop is made by a mortgage on itself, so that 
ever since the war we have been trying the difficult feat of pulling our- 
selves up by our own boot-straps, so to speak ; all these things are smaller 
difficulties than the duality of our civilization — the presence of two 
races upon the same soil, and this duality we must look squarely in the 
face. 

Ladies and gentlemen, a very large proportion of you are from tiie 
North. I came here to conciliate, not to offend you ; but I tell you that 
the great mass of your people, however much you may think you know 
about it, are profoundly ignorant of the conditions in the South and of 
the relations between the races. 

In the North one-sixtieth of the population are of African blood. In 
the whole South one-third are of African blood. In the Gulf States more 



THE NEW SOUTH. 85 

than one-half ; in some States more than three-fifths, and in localities in 
all the former slave States nine -tenths of the population are of African 
blood. We know more of these people than you do ; whatever may be 
the feeling toward them collectively, we have a kindlier feeling for them 
personally and individually than you have ; we know how to work 
with them and for them better than you do. As a simple matter of fact, 
I have hardly ever known a Northern man, since the war, to get along 
with them as laborers, and 1 have not known a Northern woman, since the 
war, to get along with them as house-servants at all. 

These people have deserved well of us. I say this everywhere and 
always. They have behaved with more quietness, and with less violence, 
than any people ever behaved before upon the face of the eaith under 
circumstances in anywise similar. I was reared in a slave woman's lap ; 
I was interested in slave property ; several hundred freedmen have been 
employed in my b.siness since the surrender, and I have never had an 
unkind word, nor have I ever lacked for a kindly service from one of 
them. The men who lead public sentiment in the South realize that the 
negro is the youngest child of civilization, and that it is our interest, as 
well as our duty, to aid in his development ; and the history of the world 
does not show any other example of such development from savagery to 
civilization as among the Southern negroes. 

Compare the negro as he is in the South to-day — the quiet, peace- 
able, industrious citizen, the labor of whose hands produces six million 
bales of cotton annually — compare him, I say, with what he was one hun- 
dred 3'ears ago ; compare him with what his cannibal savage kindred are now 
in Africa ; compare the Southern negro who has received nothing but the 
ballot from the United States Government, and who produces six million 
bales of cotton annually — compare him, I say, with the American Indian, 
whom the United States Government has had in its special charge for one 
hundred years, and on whom millions have been spent, and who produces 
absolutely nothing. Make these comparisons and ask yourselves if any 
savage race has ever shown such development in so short a time. 

The Sandwich Islander alone can compare with the American negro 
in development ; but while this development has been a blessing to him 
intellectually and morally, it has deprived him in a great measure of his 
powers of procreation ; children are born to him no longer, and the race 
*' is wearing awa' like snow wreathes in thaw " before the sun of civili- 
zation under wliich the Southern negro has increased in numbers as rapidly 
as he has intellectually and morally. 

But the two races in the South must BE DEALT WITH SEPA- 
RATELY. The continued duality is an absolute necessity. The load of 
the country in the South must continue to be pulled by a double-horse 
team, so to speak, with the white horse *' in the lead " and the black horse 



«6 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

on the '* off side," to use our farmers' phrase, and, to change the figure, 
a European man with a thousand years of culture on his back, and 
especially an Anglo-Saxon man, God's king of men, will be and must be 
ahead of an African man with only a hundred years of culture on his 
back, and eighty of that spent in slavery, and any forced change of the 
relations will be' fatal to the weaker race in the South, as force has been 
fatal to the weaker* races always and everywhere, and nobody knows and 
acknowledges the fact more fully than the blacks themselves. The white 
and the black horse work very kindly together, without, to use our farm- 
ers* i)hrase again, even a " bearing-stick" between them; for they know 
that they are pulling the same load upon the same " double-tree," and they 
know that it takes them both to pull it. But you cannot grind the two 
horses up and make one huge-Bologna -sausage- white-and black horse of 
them. 

Employers and employed, even of the same race, however harmonious 
their relations may be economically, occupy different social planes every- 
where in the world, and when the race question comes in, as it does with 
the Anglo-Saxon man and the Irish man and especially with the Anglo- 
Saxon woman and the Irish woman in Massachusetts, with the Anglo- 
Saxon and the yellow man on the Pacific coast, or with the Anglo-Saxon 
and the black man and woman in the South, it viiist settle itself as it 
settles itself the world over. There can be no middle ground about it, 
until the flood of years deposits a middle ground from its current as the 
Nile or the Mississippi deposits its delta from its own waters. 

In mj- intercourse with Northern people I have found a good deal of 
misapprehension on this very matter. They think that the white people 
have driven the negro out of the synagogue. But this is a great mistake. 
Though the youngest child of civilization, he is in one thing just as -"smart" 
as Julius Caesar. When Cicsar was crossing the Alps, one of his staff snid 
that the little village through which they were passing, with all its disadvan- 
tages had this great advantage, that no one of its inhabitants had any 
ambition. ** Yes," replied the great Ca?sar, ''but I would rather be first 
in this Alj)ine village than second at Rome " The colored man feels his 
race- inferiority. He knows that if he remains in the white church he 
must *' take a back seat." If his child goes to the white school, he knows 
that his child will feel uncomfortable, no matter what the teacher or the 
other pupils think and feel about it, just as a half-grown, gawky boy feels 
uncomfortable in a company of gentlemen and ladies, however kindly 
their feelings may be to him ; and so the colored man has simply moved 
his church to *^Alpina," where he can be first without let or hindrance ; 
and hard by his church is his school, where his child can be first without 
let or hindrance. It is as much against his nature for the Soutliern negro 
to worship in the white church, and for his child to learn in the white 



THE NEW SOU TIL 87 

scliool, aB it is for the wandering Arab to live in a house or the Anglo- 
Saxon in a tent. The feeling was as distinct in Boston fifty j'ears ago as 
it is now in the South ; and it would be distinct in Boston to-day if there 
were negroes enough in Boston to have separate cliurches and schoob. 
It is barely possible that it may be different in the South fifty x'cars hence ; 
but a physician does not ask what his patient's symptoms may be in fifty 
years ; he asks what they are now, and treats the case accordingly. 
These social relations must be left to take care of themselves in the 
South as they are left to take care of Iheraselves everywhere else in the 
world. Neither race will brook any interference in this matter, and yet, with 
all our race instincts, stimulated as they have been by circumstances, 
there is to-day less race prejudice in the South than in the North. Let 
me give you a practical example — not one that I read alxmt, not one that 
I lieard somebody else tell about ; I have not dealt in a single such so- 
called *' fact" since I began to talk to you. I have told you of things 
which [ have seen with my own eyes. I will not refer to the way in which 
the Northern people have driven the Chinese, not only out of the syna- 
gogue, but out of the country ; foi* that might seem political, and mi^ht 
be disai^reeable ; but I think 1 am s ife in saying that there is scarcely a 
community in the North where a colored mechanic enjoys tiie rights of 
equal manhood as he does everywhere in the South to-day. If a con- 
tractor in Massachusetts or Michigan had twenty white bricklayei*s and 
twenty white carp-MUers employed, and were to employ five colored brick- 
layers and five colored carpenters at the same wages paid to the white 
men, would not the white men refuse to work with such a contractor? 
Now, I wish to tell you, not what I read about, or heard somebody else 
tell about, but what occurred on my own premises. All our buildings 
were burnt about two years ago. We employed a white contra(.-tor to re- 
build them. White men and colored men, carpenters, bricklayers, painters, 
and common laborers worked togetht-r in the greatest harmon}, at the 
same wages for the same kind of work. This could hardly have occurred 
in New England. Colored men got higher wages than white men doing 
the same work, if the colored men were better workmen. This could 
hardly have occurred in Michigan or Wisconsin. And what may seem 
stranger still to you Northern people, w-ith your strong race i)rejudices, 
colored men and white men, with wages graded by skill, not by race, 
worked in perfect harmony together under our contractor's negro foreman 
or ** boss carpenter;*' a thing which could hardly have occurred in any 
Northern State.* 

But this duality, indistinct as it is in some lines of activity in the 
South, is in other lines as distinct as the lanl is from the sea. The ''hith- 

*Fc>r particulars aiMross T. C. ()iikli»y. Builder and ContractDr, Durham, N. C. 
Re». Dr. Mattoon, Charlotte, N. C told nie that the same thinff occurred during the 
erection of the new building at Biddle University. 



88 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCfATJOX. 

erto shalt thou come, but no farther," is as distinct in the minds of the 
two races as the color is in their faces. And it is very expensive educa- 
tionally. The decision is simply between two schools for a community or 
no school. There is no middle ground. And not only so, but the white 
people, who are so impoverished as not to be able to sustain respectable 
public schools for their own children, have taxed themselves of their own 
accord to sustain schools for the blacks. 

The white people of North Carolina, as I have already said, pay 
ninety-nine hundredths of the taxes, and three-seven»hs of the money 
raised goes to sustain the public schools for the blacks ; and, besides this, 
we have, of our own accord, established separate normal schools to teach 
their teachers ; we have, of our own accord, established a separate deaf 
and dumb institution for their mutes ; and we have, of our own accoixi, built 
a costly asylum Uw their insane ; in order to do this we have taxed our- 
selves up to the highest constitutional limit, and as heavily as Maf^sachu- 
setts taxes herself; and in consideration of our local-option taxes for 
graded schools, and in further consideration of the fact that nearly half of 
our population pay no tixes. the white people of North Carolina are to- 
day taxing their dollar twice as hard as the white people of Massachusetts 
are taxing their dollar for public schools, and yet we can keep our public 
schools open only three months in the year, and can pay the teachers only 
$25 per month and they board themselves. 

In these peculiar straits we cry for help. We could educate our own 
people, with our own means ; but we cannot educate our own children 
even, when three -sevenths of the money raised in North Carolina and a 
much larger proportion in other Southern States, must go to educate the 
blacks, whom the United States Government armed with the ballot, with- 
out making any provision for giving them intelligence to use it. Is this 
just to us? Is it just to the blacks? Is it just to the country at large? 
As a matter of fact, we of the South are paying the heaviest war tax in 
proportion to our means which a people ever paid, to educate the children 
of another race, for whose presence among us we are not responsible, who 
were thrust into our citizenship without our consent, and for whose educa- 
tion we are doing so much, of our own volition, that when our own chil- 
dren cry to us for bread we have to give thbm a stone. 

The United States Government, and the Unittd States Government 
alone, is equal to the emergency. There is a surplus in the Treasury, and 
the constitutionality of appropriating such a surplus has already been set- 
tled, if precedent can settle it. The government has in effect endowed 
agricultural and mechanical colleges in almost every State in the Union 
with money's worth in public lands. Now, if the government can give 
and the States receive money's worth for higher education, it seems idle 
to object on constitutional grounds to the government's giving money for 



THE NEW SOUTH, 89 

the edacation of the masses, and especially for the education of the hlacks, 
who will be benefited more than the whites by national aid. And we of 
the Sonth feel that in previous benefactions by the government we have 
not had our share. 

According to the American Almanac for 1879 the Northern States 
have received more than 70,000,000 acres of public lands which, at SI. 25 
per acre, the government price, amounts to S88, 000,000, while the South 
has received only six and a half millions of acres, amounting in round 
numbers to $8,000,000, a difference of $80,000,000 in favor of the North, 
who have suffered no calamity, who have had no mass of illiterates added 
to their citizenship, whose prosperity has been uninterrupted, and where 
illiteracy prevails only among an inappreciable proportion of tlie population. 

Some who favor the distribution of the surplus among the States say 
that the distribution ought to be made according to population and not 
upon the basis of illiteracy. Does not this objection seem futile to any 
reasonable man? In time of danger the army goes to the threatened 
point ; the navy goes to the threatened point. When an epidemic prevails, 
the aid goes to the threatened point. Illiteracy is the point of extreme 
danger, and should not the aid be sent to the place where it is needed on 
the same principle which regulates the movements of the army or the navy, 
or of aid when epidemic or flood comes ? 

Some say that the States cannot be trusted with the distribution of 
the money. But the States Itave been trusted with the distribution of the 
proceeds of the public lands, and why not with a cash surplus? Every 
Southern State has a system of public instruc tion in successful operation, 
and no misappropriation of funds has occurred in any part of the South 
since the carpet-baggers were driven out. Some say that the colored peo- 
ple will not get their share ; but they get their share now of all public 
moneys raised by taxation, though the whites pay ninety-nine hundredths 
of the taxes ; and if we give them their per capita share of money, wrung 
from the impoverished white people by taxation carried by our own voli- 
tion to the utmost limit allowed by the Constitution, we may surely be 
trusted to give them their share of money given by the government, more 
for their benefit than for ours, and more their due than ours, under all the 
circumstances. 

Some say that the South has contributed but little to the national 
Treasury, and so has but little right to call for national aid. But in 1881, 
according to the report of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, North 
Carolina paid in direct taxes $2,479, 3G2, and Massachusetts $2,699,680, 
only $200,000 more, with 300,000 more people and with ten times the tax- 
able property. And North Carolina pays nearly twice as much as all New 
England, excluding Massachusetts, the figures being for North Carolina, 
in round numbers, $2,400,000, and for all New England, excluding Massa- 



90 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCLATION. 

chusetts, $1,400,000. And while North Carolina pays nearly as mueli 
internal revenue yearly as Massachusetts, and $1,000,000 more than all 
New England, excluding Massachusetts, with only one-tenth of the tax- 
able property per capita, the difference is still more marked between North 
Carolina and Kansas. With a population a little greater than Kansas, 
North Carolina probably consumes as many goods which pay a tariff as 
Kansas, while North Carolina pays ten times as much internal revenue as 
Kansas, the figures being for North Carolina $2,400,000, and for Kansas 
$240,000 yearly, in round numbers, and we pay at the same time a very 
heavy voluntary tax for the gratuitous education of the wards of the 
nation, and are so strained to do it that our own children are neglected 
and are growing up in illiteracy around us. 

But there are some limitations which we think ought to be made. 
The aid ought to be limited to communities who do something for them- 
selves. Any system of relief which pauperizes those relieved is a curse iu 
the guise of a blessing ; a veritable wolf in sheep's clothing, a devil as an 
angel of light. Require each community to put down a dollar of their 
own and *' cover" it with a dollar, or two dollars, or more if need be, 
from the national aid fund ; but do nothing till the community which you 
intend to aid has done all it can for itself. 

There is another limitation which seems to me ought to be insisted 
upon. Do not allow any of the national aid to be put into buildings. 
We do not want one dollar of it put into bricks ; we want it all put into 
brains. I believe that the greatest mistake which has been made edu- 
cationally. North and South, has been in endowing bricks instead of en- 
dowing brains. There are literally hundreds of communities in the South 
who determined to drive out the devil of ignorance ; ami so they made a 
grand effort, got a long subscription list and put a large sum of money 
into a showy school building, without providing a dollar to pay teachers ; 
and for a while they enjoyed the vain delusion that a school-house is a 
school. But the devil of ignorance, like the unclean spirit that went out 
of the man in the parable, after walking through dry places seeking rest, 
tindeth none, and he saith, I will return to my house whence I came out, 
and he findeth it "empty," it is true, but neither '^swept nor garnished;" 
and so he goeth and taketh to himself seven other devils worse than him- 
self — the devil of discontent, the devil of disappointment, the devil of mis- 
appropriated funds, and so on through the seven, and they enter in and 
dwell there, and the last state of that community is worse than the first. 
In order to emphasize this objection to endowing bricks instead of brains, 
I call your attention to the fact that at the firat great reformation, the for- 
mation of Christijinity in fact, our Lord and his immediate followers, 
the reforming and reformed element, left all the buildings and other church 
property in the hands of the unreformed element and preached from 



THE NEW SOUTH, 91 

house to house, in highway, fiehl, and wilderness. In the second great re- 
formation, Luther and his followers imitated the example of -our Ix)rd and 
his followers, and the church buildings and property were left a second time 
hy the reformed in the hands of the unreformed. The same thing occurred 
again in the Wesleyan movement. The same thing occurred again in the 
free church movement in Scotland in 1837. I tell you if you endow teach- 
trships — if you put a good teacher to work — a house will crystrdlize around 
him, goo J enough for all praciical purposes, and as a practical proof of 
this I call your attention to the encouraging fact that in 1882 the public 
school property in North Carolina, backward as we are in many things, 
was worth twice as much as it was iif 1881, according to the report of the 
superintendent of public instruction ; and by the end of 1884 it is safe to 
say that it will be worth twice as much as it was in 1882. A snail builds 
his own house. An oyster secretes his shell from his own substance, and 
if a school cannot do as well as a snail or an oyster, we had better give 
up the business of public education. 

Another limitation should be, it seems to me, that not a dollar should 
be paid in salaries to officials. We do not want any more revenue officers. 
The states have administered the proceeds of the land scrip amounting to 
nearly one hundred million dollars for higher education, and the States 
can surely administer a smaller sum for the education of the masses. The 
educational machinery of every State, and of every county of every State, 
is in running order, and is running at half speed in the South for want of 
motive power ; put in the motive power in the shape of teachers' salaries, 
so as to increase the duration of the schools from three to six months, and 
the teachers' salaries from $25 to $50 per month, and the results would be 
marvellous. 

Another limitation should be, in time. The aid, if given, ought to 
be temporary, so that our people may be stimulated to their utmost while 
the aid lasts, and thus they will not be emasculated by depending upon 
external aid for internal needs. 

The need is the result of entirely anomalous conditions — the terrible 
prostration of the white people and their consequent inability to educate 
their own children, and the presence of six million illiterate blacks armed 
with the ballot, which they cannot read. These conditions make a crisis 
of momentous import, and neither whites nor blacks have, as yet, any ac- 
cumulated resources, but must draw upon the future, year by year, by 
mortgaging the growing crop in order to get supplies to make it with. 
But the worst is past. Our people are aroused. The new education is 
abroad among us. The teachers of our common schools are visiting the 
Northeast and the Northwest in search of the best methods of instruction. 
Experts from the Nort'ieast and Northwest have come in large numbers 
to preside over our normal schools and teachers' institutes in various parts 



92 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

of the South, and many of our teachers are doing work of this kind in 14. 
way which would do them credit in any part of the Union. 

The graded school movement.to which I have referred incidentally, ha» 
given a wonderful impulse to public edccation. These schools are estab- 
lished in almost every town of any considerable size, the proce eds of the 
regular school tax being supplemented by a local option tax, which 
supplies money enough to keep the schools in operation for nine months. 
The germ of this, the most important educational movement among us, 
is the Tileston Normal School, established in Wilmington, N. C, by Miss 
Bradley, almost immediately after the war, and sustained by the muni- 
ficence of Mrs. Hemenway, of Boston. I doubt whether the same 
amount of money ever produced as great results, educationally, before. 
The success of Miss Bradley and her female colleagues convinced our 
people of two things which they had not realized before : 1st, that a 
public school could be made worthy of the patronage of our best people : 
and, i?d, that female teachers could do it. And now there are many of 
these *' graded schools," presided over by a male superintendent as a 
rule, but taught almost exclusively by female teachers, and doing as good 
work, in the opinion of such a man as Dr. Mayo, of the New England Jour- 
nal of Education, as any schools in the United States. Under all these 
circumstances, '• the set time to favor Zion " has come. 

With national aid for ten years, we can manage illiteracy, both of 
blacks and whites, ourselves ; but, if we continue the unequal struggle for 
these most germinant ten years without the support which we are in a con- 
dition to use with the greatest effect now, our people will be discouraged, 
and there is danger that a, darkness that will, sooner or later, make itself 
felt will envelop a people who only need temporary aid to put them where 
they can and will provide for themselves. 

And the poverty of our people will, in one respect at least, give 
momentum to this great educational movement ; for nowhere in the civil- 
ized world can the same class of teachers be commanded for as little 
money. In other countries the most cultured people, those who lead 
public sentiment, those who stand highest socially, cannot be induced, in 
any considerable numbers, to undertake the laborious business of teach- 
ing. But in the South hundreds of cultured men and thousands of 
cultured women, are reduced to such pecuniary straits that they are ready 
to do any respectable work which will yield them even the scanty 
pay which taxation and national aid combined will give to a public school 
teacher. This is especially the case with our women. There are very few 
avenues of employment open to them, and the pay they can earn is 
very small ; but they are looking, as never before, for some honorable 
means of becoming self-supporting. I have been calling the attention 
of our people for several years to the fact that so many teachers 



THE NEW SOUTH. 93 

at the North and bo few teachers at the South are women. Two years 
ago seven-eighths of all the teachers in public schools in Massachusetts 
were women, while only one-seventh in North Carolina, as a 
whole, were women, though in "graded schools," taken alone, fully six- 
sevenths of the teachers are women, which accounts for their excellent 
work for children, and their comparatively small cost ; and the Tileston 
Academy at Wilmington, already referred to, was, I think, the Orst school 
of the kind in a Southern State. We wish to organize and utilize the 
God-given skill and earnestness of our women in the management of our 
school children in the COUNTRY SCHOOLS also (where twenfy-two 
twenty-thirds of the children must be trained, if trained at all), as has 
been done already in the towns and teaching children is a business ; in which 
the fingers of most men are all thumbs, the thumbs all elbows, and the elbows 
arc cut off at the shoulder joint. If we had teacherships paying S500 a 
year, the best and most cultured women in the South could be commanded 
to do the work of public instruction in the country schools, as they are 
already doing it in the graded schools in the towns, and this is the only 
hope €or the twenty-two iwent}^- thirds of our population ; for only one 
twenty-third live in towns. Furthermore, no educational movement can 
be successful till the work is done by native teachers ; and, as I have 
already said, a better class of native teachers can be commanded to-day 
Id the South and for less money, than anywhere else in the civilized world. 
But in order to prepare this large body of prospective teachers to be 
most efficient, normal tbainino by experts must be provided for. Some 
of these prospective teachers, especially among our young women, are 
already well equipped as far as a knowledge of subjects is concerned. 
Brains, intelligence, and enthusiam can be commanded, and these will 
make vastly better teachers without any special normal training than all 
the normal training of all the normal schools, without brains, intelligence, 
and enthusiasm. But a large proportion of those who must do the teaching, 
if it is done at all, lack the necessary knowledge, both of subjects and of 
methods, and they have no money to pay for such knowledge. If schools 
of repute among us, where »ubjects are already successfully taught, could 
teach methods in normal " annexes," presided over by one trained special- 
ist to each such school, (just as military tactics are taught in schools of 
repute North and South by specialists detailed for the purpose from the 
U. S. Army and paid by the Government to do this quasi military-annex 
work), if some such arrangement as this could be made, so as to utilize 
and supplement the educational work among us in which our people have 
confidence, and to direct it towards training teachers, the greatest good 
oould probably be done soonest, most cheaply, and most permanently. 
But schools of repute in the South are almost all straitened financially, 
and such of them as are willing to do any gratuitous work are already 



94 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

so overburdened with the regular instruction of non-paying pupils that they 
cannot establish efficient normal classes for the stpecifd instruction of non- 
paying teachers. The States can do no more than ihe}' are doing in the 
way of summer institutes, lasting only four or five weeks : and unless 
continuous normal training is provided for in some way at points numer- 
ous enough to be reached at small cost and without tuition fees, national 
aid will lose full}' one-half of its value, and probably two-thirds of its 
value, for lack of teachers to administer it who know methods as well as 
subjects. 

Such colored men and women as General Armstrong, at Hampton, 
has inspired with the spirit of the Almighty God should be enabled to train 
their own race, and, if the pay were sufficient, by degrees our best white 
people, who, in man}' localities, have labored for years in the religious 
training of the colored people in Sunday-schools, etc., would become in- 
terested in their public school work, and such schools, like mission schools 
in heathen lands, without disturbing the social relations of teachers and 
taught, would do much to secure harmony and to cultivate kindliness l>e- 
tween the races. 

As proof of the personal interest which our best people are now taking 
iu the colored schools, I beg you to note the fact, already referred to, that 
in as many as three of our largest towns in North Carolina, the graded 
schools for both races are managed by the same white superintendent, and 
the additional facts, that our most prominent physicians are instructing a 
class of colored medical students in Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C, and 
that the son of a prominent clergyman and doctor of divinity of the South- 
ern Presbyterian Church, has been giving instruction to the colored men 
in Biddle University, Charlotte, N. C, and that the principal of one of our 
most successful private schools, who for seven years has been a teacher in 
the Univereity Normal School, is to take charge of the Colored Normal 
School at New Berne in August.* 

How grandly, then, under all these circumstances, can the General 
Government show the world, b}' this appropriation, the estimation in which 
education is held in the Great Republic ! How grandly can the General 
Government endorse the labors of the thousands of hard worked and 
poorly paid teachers, that noble army of martyrs, who do so much for 
others and so little for themselves. How grandl}' can the General Gov- 
ernment supplement the liberality of benevolent people in the North, who, 
from their private resources, have given more than $10,000,000, since tlie 
surrender, for the education of illiterates in the South. 

The war between the States is one of the grandest dramas of all the 
ages. Its results have been momentous. It advanced the civilization of 



* For particulars, address Dr. Richard H. LewTis, Kingston, N. C. ; Preji«ident of 
Biddle University, Charlotte, N. C. ; and President of Shaw University, Raleigh, N, C. 



THE NEW SOUTH. 95 

this country womlerfull}'. We are to-day a cenlui-y ahead of what we 
would have been without it. The clash of arms ceased nineteen years\ 
ago ; but the war will not be really ended till the lepros}' of illiteracy is 1 
removed from the white people whom the war impoverished, and from the / 
blacks whom it enfranchised and armed with the rights of citizenship/ 
What a grand ending of the war forever, what a grand dropping of th 
curtain upon the grandest drama of the grandest century of all the ages, 
for the United States Government to make this grand appropriation for 
education. Let this great act be done. Let the sun of the nineteenth 
century set in this splendid radiance, making the evening of the century 
** One of those ambrosial eves 

A (lay of tempest sometimes leaves.** 



96 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



^ 



THE SUPPLEMENTING OF THE WAR. 

BY ALBERT SALISBURY. 
Supei-inienlent of Education for the American Missionary Associaiion. 

That is not a bad enemy which being a victor becomes a friend, mak- 
ing kindness the sequel of defeat. I well remember how ray boyish mind 
was impressed by Whittier's little ballad, *• The Conquest of Finland," as 
it came to me in the newspaper many years ago. 

** Out spake the ancient Amtman, at the gate of Heisingfors: 
* Why comes this ship a-spying in the track of England's wars? ' 

*' God bless her,' said the coast-guard, ' God bless the ship, I say. 
The holy angels trim the sails that speed her on her way ! 

*» « Where'er she drops her anchor, the peasant's heart is glad; 
Where'er she spreads her parting sail, the peasant's heart is sad. 

'^ ' Each wasted town and hamlet she visits to restore ; 
To roof the shattered cabin and feed the starving poor. 



'* ' And so to Finland's sorrow the sweet amend is made, 

As if the healing hand of Christ upon her wounds were laid him!' " 

/ Surely no such hand of healing ever followed the hand of violence, 

\ except the spirit of Christ moved the hand. If any man would have 
c assurance that the Christian idea is gaining mastery over the world, let 
him study the history of wars, how they are waged and how they are sup- 
plemented. Let him begin with the Wars of the Assyrian monarchs, come 
on to the Roman Conquests, to the Thirty Years' War, and compare all 
these with the Civil War of the United States. I assert without hesitancy 
that no great war in human history was ever waged with so little of 
brutality or barbarity, or accompanied by such acts of Christian ministry 
and alleviation, or followed within so short a time by such a degree of 
respect and friendliness between the contestants, as was our Civil War of 
1861-5. 

I sat once under a flag of truce with a Confederate lieutenant while he 
assured me in terms more emphatic than reverent that he would ^^ teach 



THE SUPPLEMENTING OF THE WAR, 97 

his children's children to hate the Yankees.'* But I am sure he has not 
done it^ He has relented ere this, and forgotten all about it. 

With this by way of striking the key-note, let me call your attention 
to certain ways in which the Christian element of the successful North has 
been making ^' sweet amends" to the overpowered South, and helping to 
turn defeat into blessing. 

What has the North done in the South since 1865 ? 

It did some rasping things in a political way, it must be confessed, — 
things which, whether they made for ultimate good or evil, created a 
present bitterness that left no room in the mouth for any other taste. 

At the same time, almost unconsciously to the recipients, lessons were 
taught by these same ^^carpet-baggers" of business thrift and method 
which have come to a rapid and successful fruitage, a fact on which I 
should like to enlarge with corroborative detail, did my present purpose 
permit. 

Deeds, too, of sympathetic and kindly charity have not been want- 
ing, such as lightened the miseries of the great yellow fever epidemic of 
1876. 

These things I may barely hint ; but my theme is a movement greater 
and more fundamental than those of politics, business, or physical 
ministry. 

At the close of the war, two great diseases rested on the South more 
heavily than did the plagues on Egypt, — poverty and ignorance. The flrst^ 
except so far as it was a special and transitory result of the war, must find 
its cure, if anywhere, in the cure of the second. And this second radical 
disorder was most wide and deep. All the black population, and a very 
great share of the white, lay in a state of intellectual and moral destitu- 
tion so dense and hopeless that a clear perception of its breadth and 
depth, at that time, would have been a misfortune, as tending to paralyze 
effort. And, no uncommon thing, the patient did not understand its own 
ailment. Smarting with the stings of defeat, rasped by its poverty, a dis- 
ease eaisy of apprehension, the South was in no trim for an immediate 
grapple with the covert malaria which so threatened its future. 

Now behold what happened. Those very men, extremists, enthusi- 
asts, ''fanatics," who had formed the backbone of the abolition move- 
ment, veritable John the Baptists of the era which has now opened upon 
us, became the dauntless leaders of an educational movement which was 
the natural sequel and supplement of their first crusade. 

I know not which most to admire, the intrepidity or the wisdom of 
those men. They were partially bUnd ; but the leaders of great renovating 
movements need to be so. Their zeal was not always tempered by wis- 
dom ; but if they had been of the prudent ones they could not have 
wrought at all.* They did not then realize that the need of such help was 
7b 



98 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

not confined to the colored race. But to the work and the need as they 
saw it, they gave " their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor." 

Turning now from generalities, I will tr}' to set forth some tangible 
details of this healing and saving work in its practical operations and re- 
sults. The first organization to undertake educational work in the Soutli 
was the American Missionarj' Association. This society was organized in 
1846, and had its origin in the slavery struggle. It was composed of 
those who could not endure the compliant attitude of other missionaiy 
societies toward slavery ; and thus it gathered naturally into its con- 
stituency the class of men known as abolitionists. 

When the war opened and camps of colored refugees began to form 
about the national military posts, it truly seemed as if the American Mis- 
sionary Association '' had come into the Idngdom for such a time as this ; " 
and it entered at once upon its providential work. 

The first school ever opened for the ex-slaves of the United States 
was near Hampton, Va., under the guns of Fortress Monroe, on Septem- 
ber 17, 1861. This was the beginning, not only of the far-famed Hamp- 
ton Institute, but also of a work that ma}' be called national in its scope. 
The work carried on among refugees not yet recognized as free men, and 
under the wing of the Union army, grew rapidly ; and in 1864 the Associ- 
ation had in the South 250 teachers and missionaries. 

In 1862, a number of Freedmen's Aid Societies were formed, first in 
Boston, then in New York, and in several Western cities. In 1865, these 
societies had in the field over 600 teachers. In 1866, thej' were all com- 
bined into the American Freedmen's Union Commission; but this soon 
began to disintegrate and was finally dissolved in 1869, the work having 
passed into the hands of the denominational agencies. The American 
Baptist Home Missionary Society took up work among the negroes in 
1864 ; the Presbyterians and Episcopalian^ in 1865 ; and the Freedmen's 
Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church began operations in 
1866. 

With emancipation as a fixed fact and the war drawing to a close, the 
government also put its shoulder to the wheel through the organization 
known as the Freedmen's Bureau. This had many other burdens to carry 
besides that of school work ; yet in its fii'st year, 1865-6, it reported 975 
teachers and 97,030 pupils. In 1869, the number had increased to 
2500 teachers and 250,000 pupils. This work, though so wide-spread, 
was only temporary and, in a certain sense, superficial. Its swarms of 
eager pupils met under great disadvantages, and were, of course, taught 
only the barest rudiments of an education, — seldom more than ^' the three 
R's," and only a smattering of them. 

One most important legacy of the Bureau to the freed people, 
consisted in the large number of plain but commodious school-houses built 
by it in every important town of the South. But for the providential 



THE SUPPLEMENTING OF THE WAR. 99 

erection of these houses, the work of education among the negroes, 
whether public or charitable, could not possibly have attained its present 
proportions. 

The Freedmen's Bureau wound up its affairs in 1870, leaving the mis- 
sionary societies, which had co-operated with it during the period of its 
existence, to carry alone, for a time, the burden of enlightening five 
millions of people suddenly come into the estate of freedom and citizen- 
ship without any prej^aration for either. I say left to carry it alone ; for 
the public school systems of the Southern States, enacted in 1868, and 
thereabouts, had not yet come into any efficient operation for either whites 
or blacks. 

Nor did the churches flinch from such an overwhelming task,- but hava 
continued from that day to this to pour from half a million to a million 
dollars a year into the South, applying it through the aid of a small army 
of self-sacrificing men and women, to the point of greatest need, doing for 
the South a saving work which it was no£ yet able or willing to do for 
itself, the upbuilding in morality and intelligence of its most needy and 
undeveloped class. 

This work, carried on now for over twenty years without intermission, 
has undergone a gradual change in its character ; so that the work ot 
to-day and that of fifteen or twenty years ago constitute two very distinct 
phases, the old and the new. 

The early work in " Bureau " days, was of necessity a primary work ; 
all were beginners. The whole race, just released from bondage, looked 
upon education as the secret of the white man's power ; and old and young 
flocked to the school- rooms. Learning to read was the main business. 

But the old people, in time, found the acquisition of knowledge 
attended by unexpected diflSculties, subjective and objective, and largely 
abandoned the pursuit. The more favored youth pressed on beyond the 
spelling-book. The public school systems of the South came forward, at 
last, with some sort of primary instruction. The work of teaching the 
public schools for colored people was remanded to their own race. But 
there was no place whatever, in the South, where colored teachers could be 
prepared for their work except in the missionary schools. And so 
a higher and multiplicative work was thrown upon those schools. 
They were compelled to withdraw, largely, from primary work and to 
assume a more permanent character in the centres of population. 

The withdrawal of the Freedmen's Bureau and this change of policy 
and concentration on the part of the societies marked an epoch ; and the 
generation which came out of slavery now marks time past by two eras, — 
** when freedom came in" and " when the Yankee teachers went away." 
But the Yankee teachers had not really gone away ; and while the work 
was now restricted in the numbers of pupils directly reached, it was 
greatly increased in its secondary results, and the missionary societies be- 
came more truly than ever the educators of the freed race. 



100 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

The American MisBionary Association, with wise foresight, began the 
establishment of normal schools as early as 1866 ; but it is only within 
the last few years that much has been done to give any of the missionary 
schools a distinctively professional character. The word " Normal " was 
very liberally and loosely applied to any school from which pupils went 
forth to teach. But this is now changing, under the leadings of experi- 
ence and the spirit of progress. 

Colleges, with schools of theology, law and medicine, have risen by 
slow and steady growth to respectable estate ; and there is now scarcely a 
Southern State in which the negro may not obtain as liberal an education 
as his white neighbor, all of which is due, directly or indirectly, to the 
Northern missionaries. 

The new movement toward industrial education, moreover, has not 
failed to reach these missionary schools, but is receiving their special at- 
tention and encouragement ; and I venture to predict that in a few years 
more they will have given it a more practical and useful development 
than any other schools in our land. 

That what I have said and what I am about to say may be the better 
appreciated, let me pause here to present some figures indicative of the 
magnitude of this work of the Christian North in and for the South. 

For the school year, 1882-3, the American Missionary Association 
fostered in the South, including two grown-up and self-supporting chil- 
dren, Hampton Institute and Berea College : 9 collegiate and professional 
institutions ; 12 Normal and High schools ; and 42 schools of lower grade, 
with a complement of 260 teachers, and at a cost, including improvements, 
of over $300,000. 

The Freedmen's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 
the same year, had, including its white work, 13 collegiate and professional 
institutions, and 22 seminaries with 162 teachers, at a cost of $142,500. 
The Baptist Home Missionary Society had 12 schools and 78 teachers, 
costing about $100,000 ; the Presbyterians had 7 institutions and over 50 
parochial schools ; while work to a more limited extent was carried on by 
the Episcopalians, the Free Baptists, and the Friends. 

The educational work of the missionary societies may be summed up 
roughly at 180 schools, mostly of the higher grades, with '650 teachers, ami 
an outlay of $750,000. The number of pupils for the year was between 
25,000 and 30,000, a small contingent, truly, from 6,000,000 people ; but 
it must not be forgotten that these are mostly young people preparing iov 
teaching and the ministry, the coming leaders of their race. 

The sum expended, three quarters of a million annually, is also smalt 
as compared with the sums proposed to be devoted to public education by 
the various bills now before Congress, — small even as against the aggre- 
gate amount now expended on public schools by the Southern States them- 
selves ; but when we consider its source, that it is a free-will offering from 



THE suppLEMEyrryG of the war. 101 

the mites of the children and the poor as well as from the abundance of 
the rich ; and when we observe the manner of its application in the prepa- 
ration of leaders, the doing of what the States are not yet ready to do, 
the supplementing and vitalizing of public effort by disinterested Chris- 
tian benevolence, it loses all aspect of smallness, and stands out as one 
of the grand facts of a Christian and humanitarian age. 

It may be that some will say, *' Why should such a draft upon the 
revenues of charity still go on ? Why should so heavy an annual tax, the 
income at six per cent, of $12,500,000, still be laid on the Christian givers 
of the North ? The South is now rehabilitated in the garments of prosperity 
and sitting in her right mind ; the public schools should now assume the 
education of all her children, black or white.** 

This has a plausible sound ; but those who reason thus have seen but 
a little way into the whole truth of the case. The need and urgency 
are not less now than heretofore < but greater than ever ; and how great, 
no words of mine can possibly express. The mark made on the great, 
dark mass of illiteracy and moral degradation in the South is as yet but a 
scratch. "A little knowledge is a dangerous thing; *' and the Freedman 
is at a most critical stage in his development. No greater calamity could 
happen to the nation at this time than for its good people to sit down in 
content, thinking that matters are now well enough with him and his. All 
the agencies that can be combined, whether public or private, national or 
voluntary, can scarcely equal the emergency. 

And we must not count too largely, yet, upon the Southern public 
schools for results. On6 who should visit a few towns like Charleston, 
Nashville, and Atlanta, and be kindlj' chaperoned through the city schools, 
would rightly open his eyes and take courage. But outside of these few 
principal cities, the public school bears little resemblance to what we of 
the North mfean by that term. It is taught, in general, for but three or 
four months of the 3'ear, often in mid-summer, in some decaj'cd hut or 
windowless cabin, by a poorly paid and poorlj' qualified teacher. Little 
is taught but the old Webster's, or '* blue-backed" spelling-book, the 
fourth reader, and the multiplication table ; and what is done is badly 
done. 

There is a dire and almost fatal lack of school-houses. In no South- 
ern State, so far as I have learned, can any communit}* tax itself to build 
a school-house, except that the large cities may get permission by act of 
the legislature. A school-house, therefore, can be secured only by volun- 
tary gift or contribution. Consider what effect such a fact would have 
had upon the development of education at the North. There is, more- 
over, as yet no corps of trained teachers, and next to no provision for cre- 
ating such a bod}'. The teachers generally have no ideal of what a good 
primary school should be ; for the}' have never even seen such a school. 
(Of course, I am not speaking of exceptions, but of majorities, — not ot 



102 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

cities, but of the countr}' at large.) And probably not much more than 
one-half of the population is reached by even such agencies as these. 

I cite these facts not in an^'' sense of reproach to the Southern people. 
On the whole, they are doing what to them seems the best that their cir- 
cumstances permit ; and the administration of the public schools is quite 
fair to the negro. Indeed, ihe cry is now and then raised by some moss- 
backed relic of the old regime that '' the niggers are getting all the bene- 
fits of the public schools," which, if true, as it is not, would not be 
specially discreditable to the ** brother in black." 

The trouble does not lie in *' the color line," but in the general con- 
ditions. The State mmf^ as men reason, apply its efforts to the lower 
stratum, the common schools; it. has few qualified teachers and suiall 
facilities for making more ; and so the labor of making bricks without 
straw must go on indefinitely, unless help comes from without. This help 
is coming from a variety of sources ; but to the colored people it must 
come chiefly through the benevolence of Northern philanthropists. 

It is the function, therefore, of the inissionary schools to prepare and 
send out a body of trained colored teachers to meet the increa^ng demtiud 
and give efficiency to the public schools for their race. It is a second 
and most important function to educate to a reasonable degree a body of 
colored ministers who shall displace the old-time preachers, always grossly 
ignorant and often grossly immoral, and who shall be able to preach and 
exemplify the gospel in its fulness, Christian morality as well as Chris- 
tian faith. There is also, of course, the education for business and 
the remaining professions, especially that of med cine. And I can 
count on my fingers all the schools in the South, outside of the missionary 
systems, in which a colored man can get anything above a common school 
training. 

But there is another function of the greatest moment Xhese schools 
have been and are the beacon liglit and the touchstone of the race. They 
have shown to the negro himself and to his former mascer that mind is 
mind and man is man, whatever the color of the skin, proving the capa- 
cities of the race to learn anything that men can learn The man of the 
South could not enter upon the work of educating the Freedman until the 
missionaries had demonstrated what he did not before believe, that a negro 
can be educated. 

Again, these schools have often set a standard of efficiency in in- 
struction which has jostled and stimulated all the school work about them. 
*'It is a shame," said the people of a Southern citv, '' that the ne;iroes 
have better schools than our own children have ;" and they bestirred them- 
selves. This work has been silent and almost unconscio is. Those who 
have been the recipients of its influence would be, perhaps, the last to 
admit the fact, even X/) themselves ; but the fact remains. 

There is now looming up before these schools a new problem, that of 



TUB SUPPLEMENTING OP THE WAR. 105 

industrial education, or such a modification of former modes of education as) 
shall more perfectly fit the infant race, for it is a race in its childhood, tol 
harmonize with . its environment, relieving manual labor from the staini 
placed upon it by slavery, and opening doors now closed. This race is, I 
after all, to live mainly by the sweat of its brow and the hardening of its I 
hands. But shall it be kept by want of skill and training in a sort of ' 
Coolie caste, fit only for the mule whip and the cotton hoe, or shall it be 
taught and helped to force its way into the higher trades and the walks 
of skilled artisanship ? The answer to this question lies mainly with the 
missionary schools. When they have shown what can be done, and how 
to do it, the Southern public may by that time be ready to take up the 
work for itself. 

There are still other problems for which the key must be found ; and 
not the least of these is : How shall the colored young woman be brought 
into a position of greater safety? How shall she be rescued from the 
wolf that lies in wait for her at every comer from the going down of the 
sun to the rising thereof? How shall she be brought to see life seriously, 
and to wisely mother the coming generations of her race ? 

I know great Northern hearts in the Southland who are bowed with 
wrestling over this problem, while the great public passes them scorn- 
fully or unheedingly by. I tell you, brethren, when the war was over 
and the constitutional amendments were registered, the work was only 
begun. We had given political freedom and rights to a race; we had 
yet to give intellectual and, most of all, moral freedom, the attributesJ 
of Christian manhood and womanhood, attributes that come not by wail 
or lightning stroke, but with slow growth like the fruit-bearing tree that! 
is digged about and watered. 

Five years may end an epoch-making war; but its supplementing 
and finishing needs many years. Wise citizens are coming to realize this 
fact ; and perhaps the most important measure now pending in Congress 
has its origin in this perception, combined with the feeling that the nation 
in its organic form should be the conservator of its own future. 

Should wisdom prevail and railliong annually be devoted to the cure 
of illiteracy, what would be the effect on the missionary schools ? Would 
they be superseded and no longer needful? By no means. They would 
not be relieved of a single burden or responsibility. When public educa- 
tion is extended and improved at the South, by whatever agency, the de- 
mand for colleges, for normal schools, for industrial schools, for moral 
and Christian training and character building, will only be increased and 
intensified. Not one penny of relief will come to the missionary schools 
by the passage of any of the ^'National Aid" bills now pending. National 
Aid will increase our opportunities but lift no burdens. 

Thus far, I have spoken of this educational mission-work almost 
wholly as related to the colored people. But the question is often asked. 



104 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

"Why do you work for the blacks alone?" "Is not the 'poor whit«' class 
just as needy?" To this, the answer has usually been, "Our schools are 
for all who will come, irrespective of race or previous condition." But 
the feeling is growing that this answer does not cover the whole ground, 
and that the time has come for some widening of reach. The Freedmen's 
Aid Society is already supporting a considerable number of institutions 
attended only by whites; and the American Missionary Association is 
now pushing into the mountain districts of Kentucky and Tennessee 
wher^ the population is almost exclusively white and most bitterly in need 
of efficient Christian schools. 

In dwelling thus at length upon the work of the Northern churches, I 
have not been forgetful of other agencies working along side of them. 
First among these, is the well-known "Peabody Fund," a most wisely ad- 
ministered benefaction, which since 1868 has put into the work of South- 
ern education a yearly average of $91,000. While limited to no race or 
color, much the greater part of this has, properly enough under all the cir- 
cumstances, been devoted to the white people, largely by way of stimulat- 
ing the gi'owth of public schools ; and in the results of this the blacks have, 
of course, shared. Besides this, the Vanderbilts have given $1,125,000 
to the white university at Nashville which bears their name; Hon. 
Geo. I. Seney has given $200,000 to white colleges in Georgia ; Paul 
Tulane, of Princeton, N. J., left, in 1882, a property estimated at 
$1,000,000 to found a university for whites in New Orleans; and, in the 
same year, Jno. F. Slater, of Connecticut, gave $1,000,000, the income 
of which is devoted to advance the education of the emancipated blacks. 
Mrs. Heminway, of Boston, has spent $100,000 in establishing and 
maintaining the famed Tilejston School at Wilmington, N. C. 

Put all these princely gifts together, and we have a principal of near- 
ly five and a half millions, which, added to the twelve and a half millions 
on which the churches pay six per cent, into Southern schools, gives an 
aggregate of eighteen million dollars as th* Endowment fund now set 
apart by Northern beneficence for the helping of the South and the supple- 
menting of the war. 

And, now that I have got into figures again, let me try to sum up the 
total outlay in this direction since 1861. 

The Freedmen's Bureau expended for schools alone, $5,250,000 
The American Missionary Association, (including 

Hampton and Berea), over .... 6,000,000 

The Freedmen*s Aid Society, .... 1,350,000 

The American Baptist H. M. Society, . . . 1,000,000 

Presbyterian and other denominations (estimated), 2,000,000 

Private individuals to date, 5,500,000 



Total, $21,100,000 



THE SUPPLEMENTING OF THE WAR. 105 

As this includes no estimate of the expenditure by the undenomina- 
tional societies between 1862 and 1869, to say nothing of a hundred minor 
an<l unknown sources, the estimate that $25,000,000 has been expended in 
this work of helping the South is not an extravagant one. Let that fact 
stand as illustrating the truth of ray opening proposition. 

In closing, I venture to touch for one moment on what may seem rather 
delicate ground. How has the South received all this " ministry of educa- 
tion '? Has she ever been able to say with the Amtman of Helsingfors, 

** We braved the iron tempest 
That thundered on our shore; 
But when did kindness fail to find 
The key to [South -land's] door?'' 

. yiy residence in the South, short as it has been, has brought me to a 
respectful and kindly estimate of the better class of the Southern people. 
The lower class there have no advantage over the lower classes elsewhere ; 
only they are of closer kin to the better classes, and so have more recog- 
nition. They are not tramps nor the scum of foreign nations, but only 
home-keeping Anglo-Saxons who have become so narrowed and intensified 
in certain mental and moral habits by ignorance and isolation and the 
indirect results of the peculiar institution," that they have become unlovely 
to those of unlike antecedents. From this class our educational missionaries 
had little to expect but misunderstanding, suspicion, and active persecu- 
tion. From the better class they got, and still get, simpl}' social ostracism, 
the most severe letting alone that history records. 

I say this in no feeling of harshness. Those who have never felt the 
hot plowshare of war driving through their own homes, in one stroke an- 
nihilating property and overthrowing the m >st cherished political and social 
ideas, can not begin to conceive what the South had to face in the years 
following the war. Coming atop of all other visitations, the education of 
their former chattels seemed like adding insult to injury ; and it goes with- 
out saying that our Southern kinsmen are not the people to submit kindly 
to either. Prejudices whic^ are the outcome of social systems and of 
generations passed in one way of thinking wear awa}' slowly, very slowly, 
it seems to the victims. There are still thousands of men in the South who 
believe that it is dangerous and culpable to educate the negro, and regard 
with intense dislike and scorn those who attempt it. But they are not aU the 
people, and the day is coming — its heralds are within our sight and 
hearing — ^in which, with a better understanding of the truth of things, the 
native magnanimity of the men of the South will lead them to say, 
^^Behold, these were our brethren, and we knew it not!" 



106 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 



NEGRO EDUCATION ; ITS HELPS AND HINDRANCES. 

BY PROFESSOR CROOMAN. 

Mr, President^ Ladies and Gentlemen: Members of the NaJtional 
Educational Association : The first speaker to-night told you that the negro 
is the youngest child of civilization, and I appear before you at this very 
late hour as a striking illustration of that fact. Nevertheless, I appreciate 
most heartily the invitation extended to me to speak before you with 
regard to the educational interests of my people in the South ; nor can I 
well suppress within me the feeling that this act of courtesy on your 
part was prompted by a generous consideration for a race long obscured 
but now hopefully struggling into light under the benign influences of Chris- 
tian liberty. Surely, too, it will be encouraging to that race to think that 
notwithstanding all the discouragements of the past, notwithstanding all 
the embarrassments, notwithstanding all the misgivings and speculations 
in regard to its intellectual and moral capacity, it has nevertheless within 
twenty years of freedom been found worthy of recognition by you and 
given to-day several representatives among the educators of this great 
nation. Verily the world has been moving, and we have been moving in 
it, but whatever may have been the advancement of the race within these 
years, whatever its progress, it would ill become me, to speak of it in a 
boastful manner, for that advancement, that progress, is due as much, I 
suspect, to your generous assistance as to our earnest endeavors. As a 
race we have been greatly helped in our struggles up towards a higher and 
better life, helped from many and from various directions, helped by the 
nation, the state, and the church, helped by individuals and helped by or- 
ganizations, helped in money and helped in prayers ; in a word the history 
of the nineteenth century does not present a page more luminous, a ps^e 
more creditable to our civilization, than that on which are recorded the 
benevolences of the American people to their brother in black. As a repre- 
sentative of the race, I take very great pleasure in making before you to- 
night this grateful acknowledgment. Nor would we, on the other hand, 
have you ignore the fact that we have also helped oureelves. Freedom 
was a great educator to the negro, as it has usually been to other people. 
Indeed it must ever be the base of all true education. To build upon any- 
thing narrower would be useless, for when you begin to educate a human 
being it is hard to tell to what altitude he may rise. Let him feel that the 



ySGRO EDUCATION, 107 

earth is beneath him, Go 1 above him, and nothing in the intermediate Sfiaee 
to check his growth or chill his aspirations, and then you may begin to 
teach him the alphabet. 

Many things doubtless have come to the negro in this country in the 
inverted order, but his freedom and his education, I think, in the natural. 
Under the inspiration of the former and in the light reflected from ttie 
latter he has been enabled during the last two decades to learn quite a 
number of things about himself and other people, and has been led to the 
discovery of this simple but solemn truth, namely, that whatever may be 
the number of his friends and however unbounded their generosity, a true 
and manly independence can only be reached by self-exertion. How this 
discovery has affected his character and influenced his actions is apparent, 
I think, to any candid and observant mind. It may be seen, I think, 
in his desire to acquire landed property, to own some spot of ground upon 
which he can stand up erect and which unencumbered he may transmit 
to posterity. It may be seen in his efforts for more and better education. 
Never was there a time in the history of this country when there were so 
many colored children in the schools as there are to-day. Never was there 
a time when the colored people, independent of State aid, supported so 
many private schools for the education of their children as tliey are sup- 
porting to-day. Indeed it is not uncommon now to find, even in the rural 
districts of the South, here and there, settlements where the three months' 
summer school supported by the State, is supplemented by a three months' 
winter school supported by the parents. One of the very best graded 
schools in the city of Atlanta, a school that would reflect no discredit on 
the city of Madison, one of the very best graded schools, with kindergar- 
ten attached, taught by an efficient corps of white lady teachers from the 
North, consisting of from four to five hundred pupils annually, and an- 
nually sending away from its doors scores of applicants for admission, has 
for the last six years been supported by the colored citizens of Atlanta, as 
an independent school, partly because the educational facilities afforded 
by the city of Atlanta have not been quite adequate to the demands made 
upon it for instruction, and partly because of the superiority of the work 
that has ever been done in that school 

From one who has a right to know, I learned that within the last six 
years the colored people of Atlanta have paid into that school for. the edu- 
cation of their Children between eighteen and twenty thousand dollars. 
Surely this looks a little like effort on the part of the negro to help himself 
to an education. I am informed that similar schools exist in other large 
cities of the South. I know that they do exist in Charleston and 
Savannah. 

Last year in the four institutions of higher learning, planted in Atlanta 
through Northern benevolence, there were in round numbers twelve hun- 
dred students. Of these the Atlanta university enrolled 310, the Clarke 



108 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

university, 222, the Baptist seminary for males about 140, and the Baptist 
seminary for females 500 ; but Atlanta is only one of the great centres of 
education to-day in the South. There is Nashville literally girdled by insti- 
tutions of learning. There is New Orleans. Indeed you will find to-day 
in every Southern State one or more institutions for the higher training of 
negro youth, and the very fact that all these institutions are more or less 
crowded annually ; and the very fact that a constant appeal goes out from 
them to Christian philanthropy for more buildings, for better accommoda- 
tions, are proofs conclusive, I think, that the negro not only appreciates 
the advantages held out to him, but is even exerting himself to enjoy 
them. 

Dr. Ruflfner, for fully ten years, I think, superintendent of public 
instruction for the State of Virginia, in one of his reports bore this testi- 
mony to the negro. He says : *' He wants to do right, and is the most 
amiable of races." The negro craves education, and I believe his desire 
has increased, it certainly has not diminished. He makes fully as great 
sacrifices to send his children to school as the laboring classes of the 
whites. 

The civilization of the race is progressing even faster than its thought- 
ful friends anticipated. I turn for a moment from the school to the 
church, where these evidences of self-help are equally striking, if not 
more so. To be brief and to confine myself to accurate knowledge, I will 
confine myself to the work done by the denomination with which I am con- 
nected. Immediately after the close of the war the Methodist Episcopal 
Church entered the South and began her work among the colored people : 
to-day she has among them a membership of 200,000. Twenty years ago, 
and for many years after, every church among the colored people was sop- 
ported, either in whole or in part, by funds from the missionar}* society ; 
to-day it is safe to say that very nearly one-half of them are self-support- 
ing. In the conference included within the State of Georgia we have 
15,000 members and about 100 churches, not more. Of these churches 
fifty-six are self-supporting. 

I have dwelt on these particulars, because, unfortunately, there still 
live in this country some persons who, reading negro history with their 
prejudices rather than their eyes, deny us the credit for even the little we 
have accomplished for ourselves and persist in holding us up to this coun- 
try as that abnormal baby which never grows, which never can grow, and 
which the American people must nurse for all time. 

In the North American Review for this very month, Senator Morgan, 
of Alabama, in a discussion of the future of the negro has this remarkable 
passage : *' For fifteen years every means that Congress could devise 
have been supplied to the negro race to enable them to attain a condition 
which will protect them in all the rights, privileges, and liberties that are 
enjoyed by the whites. To the personal and political power of the ballot 



NEGRO EDUCATION, 109 

have been added the guardianship of the Freedmen's Bureau, the Freed- 
raen*3 Bank and its branches, the civil rights statutes, and all the power 
of t3'rannical courts to enforce their alleged civil rights, and still they are 
DO stronger as a race, and probably no better as individuals than they were 
at the beginning of these efforts." I say this is a remarkable statement 
— remarkable because coming from a United States senator who ought 
to be better informed with regard to the condition of a people in the 
midst of whom he was born, and now lives. He cannot see that we are 
any stronger as a race to-day, or any better as individuals than we were 
fifteen years ago, and that^ too, in the face of the following array of facts 
which a few months ago were widely circulated through the medium of 
the press. 

''The colored people have nearly one million children at school, publish 
over eighty newspapers (and I have learned since that they publish over 
200), furnish nearly 16,000 teachers and about 15,000 students in the high 
schools and colleges ; about 2,000,000 members in the Methodist and Bap- 
tist churches ; own 680,000 acres of land in Georgia alone, and 5,000,000 
in the whole South. The increase in the production of cotton since eman- 
cipation has been one million bales per year, or one-third more than when 
working under the lash. They had deposited in the fraudulent Freedmen's 
Bank fifty-six millions of dollars. Besides this, colored men have engi- 
neered and nearly completed a railroad in North Carolina, and they are 
assessed over ninety-one millions of taxable property." The editor of the 
paper from which this bit of information was clipped asks the question, 
'* How do these facts impress you when you consider the fact that this 
race did not own itself twenty- two years ago?'* 

I repeat that question in your hearing. How do these facts impress 
you, gentlemen? Have they any significance? Are they at all indicative 
of industry, or thrift, or economy, of growth intellectually and morally ? 
If they are, then, verily, the negro, outside* of the help he has received 
from friendly sources, has helped himself creditably in all those things 
which pertain to the building up of an intelligent and virtuous people. 
It is true, of course, that all our achievements, taken in the aggregate. 
are but small compared with the immense responsibilities which still lie 
before us, but they, nevertheless, constitute a beginning, and that begin- 
ning is very auspicious. The unfairness of our critics usually lies in the 
fact that they do not usually see but one side of the question, for while 
they recognize very readily our weaknesses and our vices, and while, for 
the purpose of bringing out into bold relief these weaknesses, they invari- 
ably marshal to the front our helps, somehow or in some way or other the 
other fact usually escapes them, namely, that we have also had some hin- 
drances. Let us consider these in a dispassionate way. 

At the close of the war the negro found himself pretty much in the 
condition of a man who wakes up out of a sound sleep, in the midst of a 



no THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

dream, in which all things around him seem strange and confnsed. It 
took him some time to adjust himself to the new state of affairs. He was 
restless, he could hardly realize that he was free. As the impotent man 
sitting at the gate of the temple when healed by Peter, not only praised 
God, but walked and leaped, so the negro to test his freedom began to 
move about. At first these movements were individual, then general, as 
leaders sprang into existence, and it is really remarkable how many are 
the leaders when the masses are ignorant. For ten or twelve years after 
the war nothing was more common in the South than leaders among the 
negroes Every little politician, every little crank, constituted himself a 
jMosos to lead the negro somewhere, and various were their cries. One 
cried " On to Arkansas," and another cried " On to Texas," and another 
cried "On to Africa," and each one had a following, more or less. One 
man told me that he had been instrumental in leading away from the 
State of Georgia to the States of Arkansas and Texas 35,000 colored 
people. 

Besides these spontaneous and voluntary movements there were also 
•of course, some forced movements caused by tyrannical and unjust treat- 
ment, such as that memorable exodus some few years ago when thousands 
fled from the levees of the Mississippi to perish in the snows of Kansas. 
Now, whatever go »d may have come out of these movements, and I am 
not prepared to say that some did not, I have never been able to satisfy 
myself that they did not, by keeping the people in an unsettled state, and 
by frequently disturbing the growth of the home, greatly hinder the cause 
of popular education. 

Again, no one I suppose will question the truth of the assertion that 
the South at the close of the war was not in a condition to take upon her- 
self the education of the masses. Crippled in her resources and without 
a common school system, she was left to confront the most awful responsi- 
bilities ever thrust upon a people. That she succeeded as soon as she 
did in establishing a common school system is very creditable I think to 
the common sense and good judgment of her people. But if the South at 
the close of the war was not in a condition to enter upon the work of the 
education of the masses, neither was she in a mood to rush enthusiasti- 
cally into the work of negro education. To prove that she was would be 
to prove that human nature has undergone a very radical change, and 
Mrs. Partington says she finds that there is a good deal of human nature 
in folks to-day. 

The South grew gradually into the idea and the work of negro educa- 
tion, some States, to their credit, leading off in advance of others. I do 
not know which was first. I do know that Georgia was not last, for, as 
late as 1879, Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, writing on the education of the 
freedmen, in one of the leading magazines of this country, says: "With 
this enlightened policy of other States it surprises us to find that in Ken- 



NEGRO EDUCATION. HI 

tuckj the 'colored race have uo share of the common school fund and are 
oppressed by peculiar laws. A colored school-house is not allowed within 
a mile of a white school-house, nor, in towns, within six hundred feet." 
It is very easy then to see that the present conditions in the South 
as relate to education in general, and to negro education in partic- 
ular, did not fly into existence at the stroke of some magician's wand, 
nor sprang they forth, as the fabled goddess, full-armed from the 
head of Jupiter. They are the result of gradual and steady growth ; but, 
as the old adage has it, ^^ While the grass is growing the horse is starv- 
iuvr," and so while things were taking these years to settle down, while 
opinions were conflicting one with another, while the Southern mind was 
seeking a state of stable equilibrium, while popular sentiment was crys- 
tal Uizing around the idea of general education, the black child, and the 
white one, too, were waiting very impatiently for their intellectual pabu- 
lum, and had it not been for the kindly efforts of the Christian church, 
had it not been for the philanthropic heart of the North in those days of 
uncertainty and delay, had it not been for the Christian church, I say, 
and had it not been for the good people of the North, who sent down 
among us without stint both money and men, it is hard to tell what might 
have been the fate of the black child, who was the child of the country 
in which he lives. The South, therefore, to be judged fairly, must be 
judged not simply by what she has done but by what she has prepared to 
do ; nor must the negro in his advancement along the lines of Christian 
e lucation be judged merely by the length of time he has been freed, but 
also by the length of time it took to give him a start. 

Now I learn that in horse-racing and in boat-racing a great deal of 
im(M>rtance is given to the start. Every thing must be ready. All the 
preparations must be completed. The horseman must be trained. 
To-day the negro has a better start than he had twenty years 
ago. You have heard here to-night that he has several thousand 
trained teachers now among his own race. Besides the effort of 
the Christian church, he has the benefit, little or much, of the 
coTnmon school fund throughout the entire South, and he has also a little 
more. He is receiving gradually the recognition, sympathy, and influence 
of a few of the best white men of the South. Prominent among them, 
and pre-eminently worthy of recognition, is our magnanimous friend Dr. 
Atticus Gr. Haygood, of Georgia, the morning star of a better day, the 
splendid Christian knight, whose white plume is seen in the thickest of 
every battle, rallying more stout hearts and strong hands around the 
cause of humanity than all the hosts that ever thronged around the stan- 
dards of Navarre. The branch of the Christian church to which the Doc- 
tor belongs has recently established in the city of Augusta, a school 
fort he freedmen, at the head of which is Dr. Calloway, assisted by Prof. 
Walker, of South Carolina, and some others, all Southern men. That 



112 TUE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

school to-day is the lone star of Southern Methodism, but it shines with 
an auspicious light. It will be the brightest star in the constellation of 
similar schools by and by. The world is moving and all its movements 
are in the direction of humanity. Gethsemane and Calvary will yet con- 
quer. 

Sometime ago I read an article written by an Ohio man who knows all 
about it. He had spent a couple of years in the South, teaching negroes. 
From the tone of the article it was evident that he had been deceived in 
more ways than one. At any rate in that article he poured out without 
stint the vials of his wrath upon those poor negroes' heads. He told all 
about them, all that they could do, and all that they could not, and that 
article was made up of more '' could nots '* than *' coulds." I think they 
stood seven to one. Among other defects of the race he made the 
marvellous discovery that the negro children down South cannot learn as 
fast as the white children up in Ohio. Well, I thought, after reading 
that, if black children on Southern plantations covJid make as rapid 
progress in their studies as white children up in Ohio, it was high time 
for our Anglo-Saxon friends to begin a complete revision of their 
philosophy. 

You leave out of consideration an inheritance of two thousand years, 
the trained intellect which is impelling your race forward with a tremen- 
dous momentum ; you leave out of consideration this inheritance of two 
thousand years of trained intellect. The white child's cradle was rocked by 
an intelligent hand, the hand that moves the world. His earliest footsteps 
were directed by an intelligent mind, it was his good fortune to be born in 
an intelligent home. From the time that his eyes and ears were opened he 
has been drinking in wholesome instruction. There are pictures on the 
wall for him to gaze on. There are carpets on the floor for him to walk 
on. There is order, there is system, there is neatness in that home, more 
potent in its influences than either school or college. The white child has 
been drinking in, and is drinking in intelligent conversation daily. Daily 
he is hearing that which tends to elevate him. He is daily imbibing now 
ideas. He is in a magnificent school. How many are his helps, how few 
his hindrances ? 

Come with me to the cabin of the South. I will not call it a home. 
Look into it ; perhaps it has but one room, in which live father and mother 
and several children ; in this they cook and eat and sleep. Father and 
mother are not models of intelligence, oh, no, poor creatures ! Knowl- 
edge to their eyes, her ample page, rich with the spoils of time, did 
ne'er unroll. Here are no art decorations fitted to educate the eye, to 
elevate the soul. Here breaks in more often the loud laugh that sptaks 
the vacant mind ; yet here too is a school, and the black child is pupil here. 
Alas, how few are his helps, how many his hindrances ! 



NEGRO EDUCA TION. \ 13 

The various Christian denominations laboring in the South, recognizing 
that the education of the colored people must be greatly hindered so long 
as the influences of the home militate against the influences of the school, 
have begun to establish, in connection with their institutions, model homes 
or schools of domestic economy, where girls are taught all manner of house- 
work, taught how to sew, how to knit, how to cut and how to cook, how 
to become worthy wives of worthy liusbands, presiding with sweet and 
qaeenly dignity over the affairs of well-regulated Christian homes. 

Now, to meet a question that perhaps suggests itself to the minds of 
some of you, a question that has often been asked me by white friends, 
*' Why do not our people, now that they are accumulating more means, move 
oat of these old cabins and build them better homes?" I reply that very 
many of them have done so all over the South, and are doing it. I know 
that in the city of Atlanta colored people have secured very many 
comfortable homes, and some very elegant ones, and I find those who have 
done so are those who have been under the influence of the schools, the 
younger people that have felt the inspiration of the Bible and the spelling- 
book. The older people are more inclined to cling to their old modes of 
living, and in this they are not peculiar ; they simply illustrate the lack 
of taste and the power of association. To have men concern themselves 
with beautiful things there must first be created in them a taste for the 
beautiful. 

Again, in these cabins the older people have experienced their joys 
and their sorrows, their little ones were born there, their aged ones have 
died there, and, if it be true that home is where the heart is, those cabins 
are their homes to-day, notwithstanding they are obstructions in the way 
of the education of the people. 

But now, to hasten over a good deal, I wish to tell you, in brief, what 
I consider to be the greatest and most aggravating hindrance to-day to the 
education of the negro in this country, and I shall speak very plainly, for 
a man who has convictions and not the courage to express them is not 
worthy to stand where I stand to-night. I say that the greatest and 
most aggravating hindrance to the education of the negro in this country 
to-day is this counter-education that is going on to-day in society. The 
negro is taught one thing in the school-room, in society another. In the 
school-room he studies the same Bible that you do. In the school-room he 
is taught that he is a man made in the image and likeness of his Creator. 
He is taught that God made him, that Christ redeemed him, that the Holy 
Spirit sanctifies him. In society he is taught that, although God did make 
him, and although Christ did die for him, yet there is a vast difference 
between the black man and the white, a wall of partition between a Jew 
and a Samaritan. In the school-room he is taught the dignity of manhood 
according to the American idea; he is taught that ^^rank is but the 
guinea's stamp, a man's a man for a' that." In Eociety he is taught that. 



114 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

rank or no rank, if the man is a black man he is hence not a man for all 
that. In the school-room he is taught — and you teach it to him, yon 
remember — that character is the only shibboleth demanded of a man in 
civilized society ; that learning, that culture, that refinement are the only 
passports required. In society he is taught that, whatever his character 
may be, whatever his culture, whatever his refinement, he must not 
attempt to enter into every hotel in this country North or South, and that 
he must frequently, after paying for first-class accommodations, be com- 
pelled to ride in second-class cars in the midst of smokers and drinkers 
and blasphemers. 

Here is a piece that I clipped out of a New York paper only last 
week, the tenth of July : " Prof. JR. T. Greener has recently made an ex- 
tended tour through the Southern States ; his opinions of the progress of 
his race are reported by the daily press as worthy of great respect. 
Few men are better qualified to form a judgment. He finds more 
pride of race, more independence of character, greater neatness of 
dress, a stronger desire to enter business and increasing thirst for 
education. He expresses high admiration for the work of the missionary 
teachers ; he found the negro, not only in the cotton field and tobacco fac- 
tory, but acting as carpenter, wheelwright, hackman (often owning a 
stable)*, blacksmith, brakeman, and other avocations. He returns very 
greatly encouraged as to the future of his race. It is a burning shame 
that this cultured gentleman was four times ordered out of first-class cars 
and it is to his credit that in each case he refused* to go." 

Now, who is Prof. R. T. Greener ? He is nothing less than a full-fledged 
graduate from old Harvard. I know him well, and his mother before him. 
When he was but a little boy working in a grocery store in the city of 
Boston, his employers, white people, noticing the brilliancy of his mind, 
thought it was too bad to keep the boy knocking around their store sweep- 
ing, and so they helped him on his way to get an education. He grad- 
uated from Harvard about fourteen years ago, and has risen gradually. 
To-day he is one of the foremost leaders of his race, but what does 
society care about a graduate from Harvard ? When that young man waa 
in that ancient institution of learning he took several prizes, competing 
with white students. What does society care about that? The Ethiopian 
cannot change his skin, and so he must suffer for being black. That is it ; 
nothing more and nothing less. Now, I ask you, friends, what is to come 
of all this? 

It must be very evident to you, the educators of this country, that the 
more you educate men the more sensitive you make them to bad treatment. 
What is to be the outcome? I will tell you. Some men are devising 
makeshifts, men who in the language of Dr. Calloway, of Georgia, are 
inquiring, not what can we do for the negro, but what shall we do with 
him? You cannot do anything with him, he is in God's hands. You 
can do a great deal for him ; you can do simple justice to him. 



NEORO EDUCATION. 115 

In the Popular Science Monthly ^ I think it was, for February, 1883, a 
professor of John Hopkins University, in the discussion of this so-called 
negro problem, advises colonization as the only remedy to get rid of us. 
Colonize whom? Colonize men with ballots in their hands, and with half 
of the white people in this country protesting against their departure ! for 
Anglo-Saxons will fight over an idea, and the negro in this country does 
represent an idea. No, gentlemen, colonization will not do. 

Another writer in a pamphlet recently published, remarkable more 
for its bitterness than its logic, thinks that we ought to be helped to go to 
the newly founded States of the Congo, where we may display our capacity 
for self-government in the land of our fathers. Well, now, that is worth 
a good deal as rhetoric, but we do not want that kind of help, for we are 
not ready to go to the newly founded States of the Congo and display our 
capacity for self-government in tlie land of our fathers. A good many of 
us will go by and by to help lift Africa out of barbarism. But we are 
not ready to go yet ; we want more in our heads, and by the time that 
we are ready we shall not need that gentleman's help. 

Well, now, as to that exfiression, *' The land of our fathers," it is a 
very tender and fatherly expression, and yet when the writer made that 
remark he certainly ignored a very vital fact. Of the six millions and a 
half of us in this country, one million more or less would have very great 
difficulty in finding the land of our fathers. We should very likely find 
Africa, the land of our mothers, but the land of our fathers we should 
have to seek somewhere else, perhaps along the shores of the Dead Sea, 
or the borders of the Scandinavian Peninsula. No, gentlemen, we are 
not going anywhere. ^ 

Did you ever consider the impracticability and absurdity of this idea 
of colonizing and sending us off, so as to get the two races apart. Sup- 
pose I should start to-morrow and go to Africa, I would like to know in 
what part of Africa I should go to not find a white man. If I go to the 
barbarous States, thou art there. If I take my way down into the 
Soudan, thou art there— and in a rather precarious position to-day. If I 
should steer away to the West coast, to Sierra Leone, I should find 
Stanley there. If I should take the wings of the morning and fly to the 
uttermost parts of fhe cape, thou art there. If I should sail away to 
Mozambique and Madagascar, thou art there, fighting the natives for that 
little piece of land. If I should go to Abyssinia I should most certainly 
find you there, trying to induce King John to help you fight against 
the false prophet. 

Now, do you see the absurdity of these plans to colonize us, or to 
expatriate us ? We find you everywhere. If the white man wants us to 
go abroad, let him first stay at home. If I can live with you in Africa, 
I can live with you here. Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, the 
most of us, at least, intend to remain here in this best country under the 



116 ^^^ NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

sun, this gift of God to humanity. When the Lord put that idea into the 
head of Columbus to torment him, and you all know it did tonnent him, 
and sent the poor man tramping all over Europe, from country to country, 
and city to city, the jeer and laughing-stock of the little folks of thai 
day, until he did succeed in getting aid to carry out his noble project, — ^I 
say when he came here, finally, and took charge of this land in the name, 
I underatand, of the Castilian sovereign, if Columbus had had the light 
of the nineteenth century, instead of taking possession of it in the name 
of the Castilian monarchs, he would have taken possession of it in the 
name of God and humanity. We say that we are going to remain here ; 
we are not going anywhere. 

When God sent Columbus to discover this land it was because the 
Almighty was sick and tired of looking down on the tyranny of the old 
world and the oppression of his people, and because he wanted to found 
here in this Western land a people who should wrench the sceptre from 
kings and should found a government for all mankind. Colonization, 
I fancy, will not do. 

Hear, now, the conclusion of the whole matter, — not colonization but 
education, and I mean education in the best and broadest sense, — that 
education which will make the black man a strong man, not a weaklings not 
a snob, not a dude. Let us have that kind of education, and above all, 
let us have even-handed justice. The negro asks for no more, he ought to 
have no less. Go preach this from your pulpits ; go teach this in your 
school-rooms ; go educate the people up to where they stood in the days of 
George the Third, when they declared, and staked their fortunes on the 
declaration, ''That all men are created equal, that they are endowed 
by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are 
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.*' Go teach this, I say, in the 
letter and the spirit, in the class-room and by the fireside, and twenty 
years hence, when some negro addresses a National Educational As- 
sociation of the United States, he will have the exquisite pleasure, 
denied me to-night, of thanking you for the helps, without reminding 
you of the hindrances. 



LAST WORDS FROM THE SOUTH. 117 



LAST WORDS FROM THE SOUTH. 

▲DDRR88 OF REV. A D. MATO, AT THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL CONVEN- 
TION, MADISON, WISCONSIN. 

I congratulate myself, Mr. President, that yon have given me an 
caay task ; I am not here to speak for the sixteen Southern States of this 
Union ; they are here to speak for themselves. I only propose to tell you 
of a few things 1 have seen in a four years' ministry of education through 
fourteen of these States — a ministry conducted with open eyes, and I hope, 
with open mind and heart, to find out what these, our brothers and sisters 
of the southern portion of our country, are doing in behalf of the children 
and youth, and in the building up of the new American civilization that 
is coming to pass in all these United States. 

I shall not burden your patience by any account of my personal ad- 
ventures in this deeply interesting ministry of education . But this I may say, 
that in all my wanderings through the vast regions of these Southern States, 
I have always kept in mind the golden law of judgment setup by Coleridge, 
greatest of British critics, when he said, " No man is competent to speak of 
the defects of a book or work of art till he knows its msrits.'* I accept that 
golden rule of judgment in my estimation of men, states, and peoples. In 
ray journeyings to and fro, I have come across enough to furni!ih material 
for a political lower-story investigation of Southern society through indefi- 
nite presidential campaigns. But, leaving this work, however important 
it may be, in abler hands, I have given myself a good deal to* the more 
hopeful task of upper-story investigation in the regions where the moving 
powers of society are located, out of which must finally issue the destinj' 
of the Southern people So I am not here to speak to you of a thousand 
things our neighbors are not, but to remind you of a few profoundly signifi- 
cant things which these people are doing and becoming. And so powerful 
has been the impression on my own mind of this upper-story investigation, 
that I am ready to assert that, if we, in the North, will stand by what 1 
may call the Educational Public of the South, man and woman fashion, for 
a generation to come, all good things for which all good men and women 
now hope and pray will surely come to pass down there and all through 
our beloved land. 



118 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCLiTION. 

Tlie first note of hope and cheer that I strike is this : that the most 
influential people of the South, of all classes and both races, are learning 
the true American way of education, by learning to help themselvt's. 
Every American state, city or little border hamlet must finally be educated 
by itself, in league with the educating Providence, as revealed to that 
locality. I always lose interest in our most eminent teacheris of foreign 
birth, as soon as they entrench on the "genuine method," from over the sea. 
Of course, we need all that Europe, the rest of the world, ancient and 
modern, can give us. But we need all this, first and foremost, plus the 
Almighty God, here and now, to help us train American citizens with the 
flavor of this new age and its mighty revelations in human affairs. 

I am glad that the North and the nation have given $50,000,000 to 
our brothers of the South within the past twenty-five years, as a friendly 
lift in the beginning of the great work of the education of the whole people. 
I pray that Congress, after the presidential agony is over, and men are 
f^ain free to stand up in their places and say they believe in God and man 
and the Ten Commandments, may confirm the grant of $70,*000,000 vc»teil 
by tlie Senate to reinforce the whole country in its death struggle against 
our national illiteracy ; that illiteracy being only the ^ne dictionary name 
for the new American barbarism which is the home devil of New York and 
New Orleans alike. But all this is only the friendly encouragement of that 
radical work of training the younger third of the Southern people for our 
new civilization, which they must and will do of themselves within the com- 
ing fifty years, and I go to these people and ask you all to go out to them 
with the power of your noblest sympathies and most practical aid, because 
they are waking up to this great obligation and because your sympathy will 
be the most potent encouragement to its speedy performance. 

Even the Southern colored citizen, the least educated of all Americans, 
is gradually waking up to this American idea of self-help ; is coming to 
understand that he is nobody's man, but God's man and his own. The 
seven million Southern colored people cannot be gathered in as an attach- 
ment to any great ecclesiastical party. North or South, or even garnered 
up as an humble Anglo-Saxon annex. Everywhere I find him making com- 
mendable eflTorts to get himself in hand and place himself in line with Uie 
great American family, into whose house of freedom of many mansions he 
is the latest comer, and in which he is to be not the least favored occupant 
in the long ages to come. The Southern col >red man does not specially 
need our pity or our patronage, and takes no stock in any man's despair. 
Coming up the Mississippi in its annual overfiow, last April, our little 
steamer was weighted almost to the water's edge by the poor people we 
picked up along shore, drowned out by the wide waste of weltering waters 
that changed the valley to a muddy ocean a hundred miles wide. Down 
in the l»ow huddled a crowd of disconsolate-looking white laborers and 
tramps, the very image of despondenc3^ At one landing we took in a 



LAST WORDS FROM THE SOUTH. 119 

group of colored women with their flock of babies and the popr household 
wrecks saved from the flood ; the most complete human " object lesson" 
in ** reduction to its lowest terms " I had ever seen. At first, these poor 
creatures dropped where they were, on a level with their demoralized white 
brothers. But, by and by, a big, jolly sister stood ud, six feet in her 
muddy shoes and stockings, surveyed the field, and with a grand toss of 
her head and a superb sweep of her hand spoke up : ^^ Ladies, this is no 
place for us, come up here on deck !" I am glad to report that in all my 
wanderings among the Southern people I have come across no considera- 
ble class of any color who propose to be saved by anybody but God Al- 
mighty and themselves. The poorest of them, as soon as they hear the 
cry of despair from school-man, politician, or priest, rise up and say : 
"Brothers and sisters, this is no place for us, come up here on deck !" Be- 
lieve me, friends, the key to the present situation down South, is the glori- 
ous American gospel of self-help. It is our duty and privilege to do all 
we may, for years to come, in the opening era of training our Southern 
youth for the glorious future that is coming to them like morning over the 
kindling eastern hills. But all this is as nothing to the demand that will test 
the uttermost invention, enterprise,and consecration of the Southern people ; 
to educate the myriads of children that God is sending down that way, in- 
numerable as the leaves on the trees and the waves of the sea. And the 
best of all we can offer is the love that sweetens every gift and lifts giver 
and receiver to the plane where both are henceforth one. 

So let the little group of Southern senators who seem to be worried 
lest a moderate National Aid for education should demoralize their people, 
possess their perturbed souls in peace. Big Texas and little Delaware 
will take and ought to take all of Uncle Sam's money they can honestly 
get for the children. The whole South will and ought to take all it can 
honorably get from all sources for the training of the children and youth. 
For when all is given that can be had, these millions will hardly be enough 
to fill its big pocket with change to buy educational "goodies" for the 
little ones. Whatever we do, the final work of educating the generations 
must be done by the "old folks at home." So the first note of hope and 
cheer I strike is, that the Southern people are learning the great Ameri- 
can way of educating the coming generation by learning to help themselves. 
God bless them ! Let us take hold and do all we can to help them and 
then look on, with patriotic joy and pride, to see them do it. 

The second note of hope and cheer, like all that follow, is only a 
variation of the grand theme of American self-help : is the great awaken- 
ing of the Southern people, of the better sort, to this work of the Educa- 
tion of all the children. I am afraid our busy people, north of the Potomac 
and the Ohio, do not know much of this ; and some of them are unwilling 
to believe when told of it. I, too, as long as my own knowledge of the 
Soathern people was from the press, supposed that the leading people of 



120 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

these States were largely occupied la watching on the border for a change 
of political administration at Washington that would restore them to their 
old place in national affairs ; that the white men did the voting and the 
colored brethren did the work ; and that their young men were held in leash 
for a political outbreak that was sure to come unless certain great civic fathers 
continued to sit up in the places of power. When I went among them I 
did find a good many politicians, probably as many and as unreliable as in 
Massachusetts or New York. I also learned what 1 was not obliged to go 
South to learn ; that there are always, in this country, ten men yearning 
for an oflScial chair when there will be one chair vacant in ten years. But, 
after pushing through this outer fringe of partisan politicians, I learned 
that the '*solid South" has set its heart on two things: First, to keep 
the wolf from the door ; and second, to put the children at school. 

No people, in modern times, has been so overwhelmed and impover- 
ished by the wreck of civil war as the superior class of the South. And 
where one of these men is now crying aloud for an oflSce, ninety-nine are 
hard at work, building up their new interests and enterprises and laying 
the foundations of their new era of free labor by the faithful performance of 
the homely duties of common life. Old Dr. Johnson used to say, ''What- 
ever the parsons may preach, men are seldom so usefully and morally 
employed as in honestly making money.'' The Southern people must and 
ought to be greatly engrossed, for a generation to come, in the develop- 
ment of their magnificent country, a wonder land, from which the veil of 
centuries is being slowly lifted to the amazement of the civilized world. 

Next to this revival of industrial life, along with it, goes the great 
awakening of the better sort of people, of both races, for that flducatton 
which is the great American chance for every American child. I have 
never been in any locality so obscure that I didn't find this spirit abroad, 
like fire running untler ground, ready to burst into an open fiame. And no- 
where, in any city, have I found such electric popular attention as in many 
of these communities, where a whole neighborhood rises up, and, forget- 
ng past and present discouragements, laying aside local contentions, 
rising above thq natural jealousy of outside interference, has welcomed the 
Minister of Education, though a stranger, with a spirit as fresh and a con- 
fidence as sacred as the first love of confiding youth. 

No estimate of Southern affairs is reliable that does not take into 
account this widespread and irresistible movement of the Southern people 
for that Education which is the great American chance for every American 
child. Of course, there are thousands of people who are not reached by 
it ; many who do not know of it and some who will not hear of it. But this 
I have noticed ; that, when a public man mounts a pile of antiquated 
political rubbish for an old-fashioned harangue against modern times, un- 
less the political sense is clean leaked out of him, he straightway feels the 
ground shaking beneath him and a mighty stir in the air warns of a com- 



LAST WORDS FROM THE SOUTH, 121 

ini^ cyclone of the people*s wrath. I noticed that a week after the begin- 
kig of the great debate, last winter, in the Senate, on National Aid, 
almost every Southern statesman of first-class reputation came to the front 
in its support ; solemnity was in order ; and "fools who came to scoff re- 
mained to pray." Every Southern senator who opposed that bill will 
have abundant opportunities to "rise and explain" to constituents within 
the coming six months. The school question is coming to the front, below 
tariff and currency ; below sectional and partisan issues ; perhaps the most 
powerful eriucator of the class of intelligent younger men of affairs who 
will lead the people in the years to come. 

I wish I could reproduce in you the feeling that comes upon every gener- 
ous mind at the sight of this wonderful uplifting of the spirit of whole 
communities and peoples through these great commonwealths. It reminds 
me of a voyage down the Mississippi, on the first big steamer that carried 
the electric light The news of the coming glory ran ahead and, at every 
landing where the light was let on, we saw crowds of wondering people, 
wocshipping the midnight sunrise ; while ever}- city and hamlet was revealed, 
as by an awful judgment-day • radiance, from its topmost spire to its 
lowest slum. Let any man who has lost faith in the people go with me, 
and from the platform where I face the gathering multitudes, look upon 
the flush of pride on the cheek of maidens and youth ; the waking up of 
the irrepressible crowd of small boys on the front benches ; the coming out 
of sweet and noble looks in faded old faces, with new and grander vis- 
ions, through springing tears, in dimmed and waiting eyes ; as the glorious 
gospel of the New Education is proclaimed ; and he will know the divine 
meaning of the old words — "The people that sat in darkness have seen a 
great light, and to them that dwelt in the region and shadow of death light 
is sprung up." 

The third note of hope and cheer is : that this awakening is not a sen- 
timent or a temporary excitement, but is gradually " materializing" into 
the establishment of the American system of Education in all the Southern 
States. I know what the experts can say about a good deal of the school 
life already on the ground. I understand all that the lower-stor^' critic can 
offer concerning the terrible illiteracy and lack of opportunity in the most 
favored of these commonwealths. But here are a few stubborn facts. 
During the most dreary twenty years that ever clouded the upward struggle 
of any modern people, the better class of the South has restored their old 
system of collegiate, academical, and professional schools for whites, on 
broader foundations and with better methods than before the flood, with 
but little aid from abroad. They have also, in the last fifteen years, do- 
mesticated the American system of common schools, for all classes and 
both races, in every State ; in almost every State made this a little better 
every year ; and never was the outlook for popular education so favorable 
in these sixteen States as it is now. This year, the South will pay 



122 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

$15,000,000 for common schools alone ; beside all the money expended on 
the higher academical, professional, and artistic education ; a sum, consider- 
ing their pecuniary condition, equivalent to ten times $15,000,000 in our 
powerful, wealth^', and prosperous North. 

Even the Freedman, from a condition of absolute ignorance and 
poverty, in twenty years has made good progress in building up that aris- 
tocracy of intelligence, character, and industry, on which, like every race, 
he must rely, as the chief elevator to the American order of citizenship. 
In the same time there has been developed a body of several thousand 
creditable teachers of common schools, some of them eminent instructors 
in the higher grades of education. The Freedman has not died out ; he is 
very much alive ; increasing and multiplying faster than any of us ; has 
already laid up $100,000,000 in one short generation, and wherever I go 
I find his children crowding the school-house door, like little Oliver in 
the story, *' asking for more." 

Everywhere I find the evidence of this work for the children. I have 
visited a score of towns whose eminent respectabilities assured me were 
dead and buried in educational indilference. But almost invariably, if I 
went back to one of these places in two years, I was welcomed by crowds 
of children, with their teachers in the graded school, and the unrespectable 
thing turned out to be want of faith in the people. And one good thing in 
this building up is the home flavor that is coming into the best of these 
schools. These best graded schools are no more an imitation i^f similar 
institutions in the North than a South Carolina cotton-field is like an Ohio 
corn-field ; a Texas prairie iu April like a village common in Vennont, or 
a Florida orange-grove like a California wheat-farm. The old professor 
of dust and ashes is already becoming an antiquity, and the bright youns; 
men and women who are called to superintend the New Education are mak- 
ing it, as it should be, American in substance, but instinct with the best 
spirit and flavor of the home life. It is a new revelation of our national 
type of Education ; with the elan and electric enthusiasm of these people 
in the very atmosphere ; in its own way doing for the children in the South 
what Iowa and Wisconsin are doing in the great Northwest. Even 
our faithful Northern graduates who have gone to he Professors and Pi'esi- 
dents in the new universities and colleges for the colored folk have builded 
belter than anybody knew, because compelled to turn their back on the past 
and forget themselves in the effort to shape the university of the future for 
God's last people introduced to civilization. Harvard and Yale and 
Columbia and Princeton ma}' smile at the big names put on b}' these su- 
perior schools for colored youth. But, tried by the most eminent educators 
of ancient and modern times, Hampton and Fisk and Atlanta, and the 
whole group of superior schools for colored youth are nearer the type of the 
true university than many a notable college in the cultivated Northeast. 
The leading teachers of the South are better informed of the disabilities 



LAST WORDS FROM THE SOUTH. 123 

and perils of their educational life than their most eloquent advisers from 
the North or abroad. Neither they nor the educational public they repre- 
sent have ^' attained.'* But they are laying the foundations of that Southern 
American system of universal education which, in due time, Providence 
permitting, and all good men helping, will bring out the Southern youth 
abreast of his companions in the North, in the republic of the years to 
come. 

The final note of hope and cheer I strike is this : that, in the South, 
as in the North, the most vital department of education is passing into the 
hands of woman. The most radical element in the new American educa- 
tion is the woman power ; — ali*eady so potent in the elementary and .com- 
ing into such prominence in the secondary and higher school. No people 
in Christendom has called its young womanhood to such a responsibility as 
the American people has laid on the head and heart of the army of heroic 
girls that '' hold the fort" in the little children's school. It is not becausd 
the people are stingy ; although the woman teachers are too often poorly 
paid. It is not that they are indifferent to the best in education ; as they 
are not indifferent to the best elsewhere in American life. But it is because 
our people has made up its mind to trust her whom God calls to the mater- 
nity of the child with the most vital training of the child during the years 
of infancy and early youth ; — also to invite her to a full copartnership 
with man in the work of the secondary and higher school. So far, despite 
all drawbacks, the girl-teachers have not disappointed the people. No 
class of persons, to-day, is doing more to meet the high demand of the 
country than the leading class of woman-teachers, in every grade of the 
American school. 

The South is showing itself American in this : that it is calling its 
choicest young womanhood to serve in the school-room. And, as if to 
give Providential endoraement to this tendency, I find multitudes of the 
daughters of the better sort of families compelled by their condition to 
look to the school-room, not only for the most convenient means of 
pecuniary support, but as the best opportunity for honorable station in 
life. The most afiecting and pathetic scenes in my wanderings among the 
Southern people are the efforts of so many of these noble young women to 
gain this furnishing for service in the upper regions of Southern society. 
The greatest opportunit}' of a people sometimes comes from what appears 
the most appalling calamity. The two most apparent perils and drawbacks 
of Southern life, — the widespread poverty, and the terrible ignorance of its 
lower grades of society, — are already waking up the Christian womanhood 
of that section to toils and sacrifices which always bring down the conse- 
cration of the Holy Spirit upon any earnest soul. It will be 3'ears before 
the finest young men of the South, in any large numbers, can be directed 
from the activities and the ambitions that are now so absorbing in the direc- 
tion of industrial enterprise. It will only be graduallj^ that our new industries 



124 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

will be developed in these States, out of which so many women are gaining 
an honorable support in the great centres of labor in the North. But, 
meanwhile, the young womanhood of all these States will be assigned to the 
charge of the whole upper-story of Southern life ; and through her the 
school, the church, society, and the higher public opinion will be wonder- 
full}'^ reinforced in all things true and beautiful and good. I meet this 
spirit everywhere and work with it like a man under a spell ; and If I, speak 
of it in this wa}' it is not from a sentimental illusion, but from a sober 
estimate of the power of such an agency in our American affairs. 

The conclusion of the whole matter is : that the foremost people of the 
Southern States, of all classes and both races, are awake and at work to 
bring their commonwealths up to their primal duty as members of a true 
union of States. And so believing, I declare it our noblest privilege and 
most imperative duty to aid them as friends in all practical ways that God 
has put into our power. If it were only for a wise comprehension of na- 
tional self- protection, I would say: Help the Southern people educate 
their children for a generation to come ; for national Illiteracy is the na- 
tion's peril, and the least State is big enough to let in a raging deluge of bar- 
barism that may swamp us all. But 1 rise above the common level of 
secular self-interest and invoke, not only j-our *• material aid," but friendly 
co-operation, philanthropic interest, personal love for our brothers and 
sisters of the Southland. Do not believe anybody who tells you these 
people are not worth all we can do for or give to them ; or that they need 
us more than we need them. We gave the lives of a quarter of a million 
of our dear boys in blue and the earnings of a generation to keep them 
from going awa}' from us twenty j^ears ago ; not a man too many or a dol- 
lar too much for the mighty hope that demanded and the glorious consum- 
mation that crowned the nation's sacrifice. They are not our enemies and 
it will be our sin and shame if their children are not our children's lovers, 
and their country's friends. Thej^ are waiting for our last word of hope 
and cheer, and we shall never be at peace with ourselves or with Heaven 
till we give it them and all around the Republic peace and good will shall 
ebb and flow like the swelling and sinking of ocean tides that enfold us all. 
And I rejoice, with joy unspeakable, that whatever men and women else- 
where, or whatever we in other relations may not be doing ; we, the men 
and women of the East and West, and North and South, here assembled 
to take counsel for the cause of God and the human race, can work to- 
gether, with no cloud above our heads and no pitfall beneath our feet, to 
think and talk and pray for those who shall come after us in the mighty 
upbuilding of the new Republic which. Heaven willing, and all good men 
helping, in God's own time, will surel}' come. 



THE EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK IN TIIS SOUTIL 126 



THK EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK IN THE SOUTH. 

BY BOOKER T. WASHINGTON, PRINCIPAL TU8KE6EE NORMAL SCHOOL, 
TUSKEGEE, ALABAMA. 

Fourteen years ago it is said that Northern teachers in the South for 
the purpose of teaching colored schools were frightened away by the whites 
from the town of Tuskegee, Alabama. Four years ago the democratic 
members of the Alabama Legislature from Tuskegee voluntarily offered 
and had passed by the General Assembly a bill, appropriating $2000 an- 
nually to pay the salaries of teachers in a colored normal school to be locat- 
ed at Tuskegee. At the end of the first session of the school the legislature 
almost unanimously passed a second bill appropriating an additional $1000 
annually, for the same purpose. About one month ago one of the white 
citizens of Tuskegee who had at first looked on the school in a cold, dis- 
tant kind of a way said to me, ^^I have just been telling the white people 
that the negroes are more interested in education than we, and are 
making more sacri6ces to educate themselves." At the end of our first 
year's work, some of the whites said, " We are glad that the Normal 
School is here because it draws people and makes labor plentiful." At the 
close of the second year, several said that the Normal School was beneficial 
because it increased trade, and at the close of the last session more than 
one has said that the Normal School is a good institution, it is making the 
colored people in this State better citizens. From the opening of the 
school to the present, the white citizens of Tuskegee have been among its 
warmest friends. They have not only given of their money but they are 
ever ready to suggest and devise plans to build up the institution. When 
the school was making an effort to start a brick-yard, but was without 
means, one of the merchants donated an outfit of tools. Everj- white 
minister in the town has visited the school and given encouraging re- 
marks. When the school was raising money to build our present hall, it 
occurred to one of the teachers that it would be a good idea to call on the 
white ladies for contributions in the way of cakes, etc., toward a fair. 
The result was that almost every lady, called on, gave something and the 
fair was made up almost entirely of articles given by these friends. A 
former slave-holder working on a negro normal school building under a 
negro master-carpenter is a picture that the last few years have made 
possible. 



12G THE NAWONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

Any movement for the elevation of the Southern negro in order to be 
successful, must have to a certain extent the co-operation of the Southern 
whites. They control government and own the property — whatever bene- 
fits the black man benefits the white man. The proper education of all the 
whites will benefit the negro as much as the education of the negro will 
benefit the whites. The Governor of Alabama would probably count it no 
disgrace to ride in the same railroad coach with a colored man, but the 
ignorant white man who curries the Governor's horse would turn up his 
nose in disgust. The president of a white college in Tuskegee makes a 
special effort to furnish our youn? men work that they may be able to re- 
main in school, while the miserable unlettered * 'brother in white" would 
say "you can't learn a nigger anything." Brains, property, and character 
for the negro will settle the question of civil rights. The best course to 
pursue in regard to the civil rights bill in the South is to let it alone ; let 
it alone and it will settle itself. Good school teachers and plenty of money 
to pay them will be more potent in settling the race question than many 
civil rights bills and investigating committees. A young colored physician 
went into the city of Montgomei^, Alabama, a few months ago to practise 
his profession — he was the first to professionally enter the ex-confederate 
capital. When his white brother physicians found out by a six days* ex- 
amination that he had brains enough to pass a better examination, as one 
of them said, than many of the whites had passed, they gave liim a hearty 
welcome and offered their seiTices to aid him in consultation or in any other 
way possible — and they are standing manfully up to their promise. Let 
there be in a community a negro who by virtue of his superior knowledge 
of the chemistry of the soil, his acquaintance with the most improved tools 
and best breeds of stock, can raise fifty bushels of corn to the acre while 
his white neighbor only raises thirty, and the white man will come to the 
black man to learn. Further, they will sit down on the same train, in the 
same coach and on the same seat to talk about it. Harmony will come in 
proportion as the black man gets something that the white man wants, 
whether it be of brains or of material. Some of the county whites looked 
at first with disfavor on the establishing of a normal school in Tuskegee. 
It turned out that there was no brick-yard in the county ; merchants and 
fai mers wanted to build, but bricks must be brought from a distance or 
they must wait for one house to burn down before building another. 
The normal school with student labor started a brick-yard. Several kilns 
of bricks were burned ; the whites came four miles around for bricks. 
From examining bricks they were led to examine the workings of the 
school. From the discussion of the brick-yard came the discussion of 
negro education — and thus many of the "old masters" have been led to 
see and become interested in negro education. In Tuskegee a negro 
mechanic manufactures the best tin ware, the best harness, the best boots 
and shoes, and it is common to see his store crowded with white customers 



THE EUCATIONAL OUTLOOK IN THE SOUTH, 127 

from all over the county. His word or note goes as far as that of the 
whitest man. 

I repeat for emphasis that any work looking towards the permanent 
improvement of the negro South, must have for one of its aims the fitting 
of him to live friendly and peaceably with his white neighbors both socially 
and politically. In spite of all talk of exodus, the negro's home is per- - 
manently in the South : for coming to the bread-and-meat side of the 
question, the white man needs the negro, and the negro needs the white 
man. His home being permanently in the South it is our duty to help him 
prepare himself to live there an independent, educated citizen. 

In order that there may be the broadest development of the colored 
man and that he may have an unbounded field in which to labor, the two 
races must be brought to have faith in each other. The teachings of the 
negro in various ways for the last twenty years have been rather too much 
to array him against his white brother than to put the two races in co-opera- 
tion with each other. Thus, Massachusetts supports the Republican 
party, because the Republican party supports Massachusetts with a protec- 
tive tarifif, but the negro supports the Republican party simply because 
Massachusetts does. When the colored man is educated up to the point 
of reasoning, that Massachusetts and Alabama are a long ways apart and 
the conditions of life are very different and if free trade enables my white 
neighbor across the street to buy his plows at a cheaper rate it will enable me 
to do the same thing, then will he be consulted in governmental questions. 
More than once have I noticed that when the whites were in favor of pro- 
hibition the blacks led even by sober upright ministers voted against it 
simply because the whites were in favor of it and for that reason the blacks 
said that they knew it was a ^'Democratic trick." If the whites vote to 
levy a tax to build a school-house it is a signal for the blacks to oppose 
the measure, simply because the whites favor it. I venture the assertion 
that the sooner the colored man South learns that one political party is 
not composed of all angels and the other of all devils, and that all his 
enemies do not live in his own town or neighborhood, and all his friends in 
some distant section of the country, the sooner will his educational advan- 
tages be enhanced many fold. But matters are gradually changing in this 
respect. The black man is beginning to find out that there arc those even 
among the Southern whites who desire his elevation. The negro's new 
faith in the white man is being reciprocated in proportion as the negro is 
rightly educated. The white brother is beginning to learn by degrees that 
all negroes are not liars and chicken thieves. A foi*mer owner of seventy- 
five or one hundred slaves and now a large planter and merchant said to 
me a few days ago, *'I can see every day the change that is coming about. 
I have on one of my plantations a colored man who can read and write 
and he is the most valuable .man on the farm. In the first place I can 
trust him to keep the time of the others or with any thing else. If a new 



128 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

style of plow or cotton planter is taken on the place he can understand its 
construction in half the time that any of the others can." 

My faith is that reforms in the South are to come from within. 
Southern people have a good deal of human nature. The}' like to receive 
the praise of doing good deeds, and they don't like to obey orders that 
come from Washington telling them that they must lay aside at once cus. 
toms that the}^ have followed for centuries, and henceforth there must be 
but one railroad coach, one hotel, and one school-house for ex-master and 
ex-slave. In proof of my fii-st assertion, the raih'oads in Alabama required 
colored passengers to pay the same fare as the whites, and then (compelled 
the colored to ride in the smoking-car. A committee of leading colored 
people laid the injustice of the matter before the railroad commissioners of 
Alabama, who at once ordered that within thirty daj's every railroad in the 
State should provide equal, but separate accommodations for both races. 
Every prominent newspaper in the ^tate pronounced it a just decision. 
Alabama gives $9000 annually towards the support of colored normal 
schools. The last legislature increased the annual appropriation for free 
schools by $100,000, making the total annual appropriation over $500,000, 
and nearl}' half of this amount goes to colored schools, and I have the 
first time to hear of any distinction being made between the races by any 
State officer in the distribution of this fund. Why, my friends, more pip- 
pins are growing in the South than crab-apples, more roses than thorns. 

Now, in regard to what I have said about the relations of the two 
races, there should be no unmanly cowering, or stooping to satisfy unrea- 
sonable whims of Southern white men, but it is charitj' and wisdom to keep 
in mind the two hundred years' schooling in prejudice against the negro, 
which the ex-slave-holders are called upon to conquer. A certain class of 
whites South object to the general education of the colored man, on the 
ground that when he is educated he ceases to do manual labor, and there is 
no evading the fact that much aid is withheld from negro education in the 
South, by the States, on these grounds. Just here the great mission of 

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION, 

coupled with the mental comes in. " It kills two birds with one stone," viz. : 
secures the co-operation of the whites, and does the best possible thing for 
the black man. An old colored man in a cotton-field in the middle of July, 
lifted his eyes towards heaven, and said, *' De cotton is so grassy, de work 
is so hard, and de sun am so hot, I believe dis darkey am called to 
preach." This old man, no doubt, stated the true reason why not a few 
enter school. Educate the black man, mentally and industrially, and there 
will be no doubt of his prosperity ; for a race who have lived at all, and 
paid for the last twenty years, twenty-five and thirty per cent, interest on 
the dollar advanced for food, with almost no education, can ceitainly 
take care of themselves when educated mentall}' and industrially. 



EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK IN THE SOUTH. 129 

The Taskegee Normal School, located in the black belt of Alabama, 
with an ignorant, degraded negro population of twentj-five thousand within 
a radius of twenty miles, has a good chance to see the direct needs of the 
people ; and to get a correct idea of their condition one must leave the towns 
and go far out into the country, miles from any railroad, where the majority of 
the people live. They need teacBers with not only trained heads and hearts, 
but with trained hands. School-houses are needed in every township and 
county. The present wrecks of log-cabins and bush harbors, where many of 
the schools are now taught, must be replaced by comfortable, decent 
houses. In many school-houses rails are used for seats, and often the fire 
is on the outside of the house, while teacher and scholars are on the inside. 
Add to this a teacher who can scarcely write his name, and who is as weak 
mentally as morally, and you then have but a faint idea of the educational 
condition of many parts of the South. It is the work of Tuskegee to send 
into these places, teachers who will not stand off and tell the people what 
to do, or what ought to be done, but to send those who can take hold and 
show the people how to do. The blacksmiths, carpenters, brickmasons, and 
tinners, who learned their trades in slavery, are dying out, and slavery 
having taught the colored boy that labor is a disgrace few of their places 
are being filled. The negro now has a monopoly of the trades in the South, 
but he can't hold it unless the young men are taught trades while in school. 
The large number of educated loafers to be seen aix>und the streets of 
our large cities furnishes another reason in favor of industrial education. 
Then the proud fop with his beaver hat, kid gloves, and walking cane, who 
has done no little to injure the cause of education South, by industrial 
training, would be brought down to something practical and usefhl. The 
Tuskegee Normal School, with a farm of 500 acres, carpenter's shop, 
printing-ofilce, blacksmith's shop and brick-yard ibr boys, and a sewing 
department, laundry, flower gardening, and practical housekeeping for 
girls, is trying to do its part towards furnishing industrial training. We 
ask help for nothing that we can do for ourselves ; nothing is bought that 
the students can produce. The boys raise the vegetables, have done the 
painting, made the brick, the chairs, the tables, the desks ; have built a 
stable, a carpenter's shop, and a blacksmith's shop. The girls do the entire 
housekeeping, including the mending, ironing, and washing of the boys' 
clothes ; besides they make many garments to sell. 

The majority of the students are poor and able to pay but little cash for 

board ; consequently, the school keeps three points before it. First, to 

give the student the best mental training ; secondly, to furnish him with 

labor that will be valuable to the school, and that will enable the student 

to learn something from the labor p^r Be; thirdly, to teach the dignity of 

labor. A chance to help himself is what we want to give to every student ; 

this is the chance that was given me ten years ago when I entered the 
9b 



130 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

Earapton Institute with but fifty cents in my pocket, and it is my only 
ambition in life to do my part in giving it to .every other poor but worthy 
young man and woman. 

As to morals, the negro is slowly but surely improving. In this he 
has had no standard by which to shape his character. The masses in too 
many cases have been judged by their ^so called leaders, who are as a 
rule ignorant, immoral preachers or selfish politicians. The number of 
these preachers is legion. One church near Tuskegee has a total mem- 
bership of two hundred, and nineteen of these are preachers. 

Poverty and ignorance have effected the black man just as they effect 
the white man. They have made him untruthful, intemperate, selfish, 
caused him to steal, to be cheated, and made the outcast of society, and 
he has aspired to positions which he was not mentally and morally capable 
of filling. But the day is breaking, and education will bring the com- 
plete light. The scales of prejudice are beginning to drop from the 
eyes of the dominant classes South, and through their clearer and more 
intelligent vision they are beginning to see and recognize the mighty truth 
that wealth, happiness, and permanent prosperity will only come in pro- 
portion as the hand, head, and heart of both races are educated and 
christianized. 



NEEDS IN AMERICAN EDUCA TION. 131 



NEEDS IN AMERICAN EDUCATION. 

BY MRS. EVA D. KELLCX}G. 
I. 

The training of the children of any people is a work of such breadth 
and importance, as to call for the studious attention of the deepest 
thinkers, brighest intellects, and truest souls. There are distinctive 
characteristics of each national plant-growth to be distinctly recog- 
nized, lest the symmetry be lost as the outspreading branches seek 
the larger space of the upper realm. This training requires not only 
the completest ideal of what it must be in its perfected develop- 
ment, but the practical knowledge resulting from close observation 
and inventive power ; for there is pruning to be done also, ex- 
cresences to be removed, and oft-times the engrafting of new scions 
to utilize the native vigor in the production of finer fruit. These 
figurative processes, applied to the education of children and youth, 
is what we shall mean in offering a few suggestions as to the ** Needs 
in American Education." 

That "nobility imposes obligation," is as true in a republican 
country as in a monarchy. Much may be rightly expected of the in- 
telligent citizens of our republic, standing unshackled by any fetters 
of caste or social limitation ; men as free as he who first looked on 
paradise, reared and cherished in the protecting arms of its free in- 
stitutions, lifting them gradually to beckoning honors further on and 
higher up if they be ambitious to climb; with blood scarcely cooled 
from the ardor of the old revolutionary struggle: what may not the 
world expect of such a people } One could hardly think it would be 
necessary to teach a love of country to any native American who 
can claim one ancestral link to a land that makes a Mecca of its 
Plymouth Rock ; that love and honor would seem to come to all such 
as instinctive as the love of life. The bitter test and proof of self- 
sacrifice has not been wanting in America in the century that is past ; 
but it is sometimes easier to die for a cause than to live for it. 
Thrilling with pride at the sight of a national flag that rocks one's 
heart upon its billowy folds, — and who that has tarried long under 
other skies has not felt this at the sudden sight of the starry home 
symbol } — this quick sensation of rapture may be quite possible to an 
American who would not surrender one prejudice or correct one 



132 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

national fault that would take away a single reproach of us in the 
eyes of other nations. 

While yet our country was in its infancy and everjr energy was 
needed in keeping on our feet, that were never quite certain of a solid 
foundation beneath them, it could not be expected that men and 
women could have time or thought for the correction and cultivation 
of many things that have become prominent throup:h neglect, and 
stand out' now as targets for observation and comment by other 
peoples. Now, that the uncertain foundations of a century ago have 
become terra firma beneath us, is it not time to pause and see if there 
be any good cause why other nations attracted to our shores, mingle 
certain criticisms with their warmest praise ? If their censure be just, 
then the smallest child entering upon its first day of school (for we 
shall not touch now upon the home obligation in this matter) should 
feel this corrective influence. Is it not, then, among the foremost 
duties of the teachers of this republic, to ascertain what these national 
faults are that are said to blot the fair surface of our fame.? Let us 
step up and out from the narrowing circle of our school routine while 
the pressure of duty is lifted in these vacation hours and look upon 
our national peculiarities from some high peak or broad plateau of 
observation, so clear and sunlit that no fog of prejudice shall obscure 
the vision. Let us now find such an observatory, if you please, 
and for the time let some other flag than our own float in the clear 
air above us, while we look at our beloved country, as one only can see 
their dwelling-place, by going out of it. 

Perhaps every honest, thoughtful American will best justify his 
claim to be such by confessing his extreme sensitiveness to criticism 
at home or abroad. While human nature is not specially adapted to 
receive this unwelcome visitor in any form, yet it is not only possible, 
but absolutely necessary, to reach the point where one can sincerely 
solicit its offices before the height of individual excellence is reached. 
As educators we recognize the importance of mutual criticism in the 
prominent place we give it in our educational institutions. No 
graduate of a training school ever steps out as a competent teacher, 
till she has learned to stand like St Sebastian and receive the arrows 
of criticism from her class. The principle which applies to an in- 
dividual holds good in an aggfregate of fifty millions of individuals 
grouped in the American nation, yet we have placed an invisible 
statue of warning at the entrance to every harbor large enough to 
admit a foreign steamer, that stands with uplifted finger, saying : 
** We welcome you to the most magnificent country the sun has ever 
shone upon t We r^come you to the glories and delights of uni- 



NEEDS IN AMERICAN EDUCA TIOl /. 1 33 

versal freedom ! We open to you every door of opportunity, promis- 
ing the enjoyment of entire social and political and religious freedom 1 
We cordially offer you the fraternal hands of good fellowship ; but, 
don't you dare to criticise us ! We are a great nation, but not great 
enough to be told our weaknesses." Evidences of this spirit are found 
in our reception of every unpleasant truth that has been told us since 
our guns proclaiming national independence first echoed round the 
world, summoning thousands on thousands of surprised listeners to 
seek the spot where the dream of universal freedom had become a 
waking reality. On the other side of the ocean we praise the genius 
of the man who portrays the weakness of his country through in- 
imitable character-sketching ; but he comes to us, employing these 
same rare powers in the observation of our peculiarities, and we feel 
only the indignation of wounded pride at what we denounce at once 
as an exaggeration and a caricature. Another is acknowledged to be 
the greatest living critic of his age, three thousand miles away, but 
he dares discuss our idols on our own soil, and we refuse even to con- 
sider its truth or justice. A man or woman cannot visit America 
and accept the lavish attentions of our hospitality and ever afterward 
express an adverse opinion concerning us, without incurring the 
reproach of ingratitude and national prejudice. It is a school-boy 
spectacle, this standing in a belligerent attitude and comforting our 
wounded vanity by a long list of wrongs that exist on the other side, 
as if that retaliation would lessen our absurdities or make them less 
noticeable. We always correct this spirit in our children, but are we 
not guilty of it ourselves in a larger way } And is it not a growing, 
if hitherto unrecognized, need of American education to cultivate a 
willingness to listen to adverse opinions of us as a nation, and to 
correct whatever, upon impartial examination, proves to be true } If 
" the child is father to the man " can we not make the average boy 
an "object lesson" in this examination of the criticism we so 
sensitively condemn } There is but one day in all the year when an 
American boy gives a perfect expression of the pent up spiiit within 
him, and this volcanic exhibition makes our Fourth of July one 
hideous succession of hours to be counted off in glad relief. The 
rumble and smoke of this shut-up fire is heard all the year in every 
school-room in the land. A teacher feels its pressure like some con- 
cealed dynamite, and this consciousness immeasurably increases the 
work of teaching. All teachers who have ever mingled nationalities 
in the school-room have felt the different degrees of effort necessary 
to secure docile, teachable pupils. A group of American teachers in 
a London institution, made up of nearly *every nationality except 



134 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

Americans, were discussing the prospect of a new j-upil fcr the next 
day. "What would you like him to be?" asked one teacher of 
another. A chorus of " Scotch, English and German " followed, in 
which German predominated. " Why don't somebody say American f* 
continued the inquirer. '* No, don't ! ** emphatically exclaimed one of 
the most loyal American women we ever knew, who was never tired 
of chanting the superiority of her own country over every other, and 
who was so homesick that minute that she would have sailed for home 
on the next steamer. Now the cause of that involuntary *' Don't ! " 
from loyal lips will give us the real reason of the undesirability of 
American children as pupils or learners in any industrial depart- 
ment, — a charge so often alleged against us. Their brightness, 
ability, and energy are gladly admitted ; but the quality that makes 
the German schools preferred by the teachers in cities where this 
element is a large factor in the population, — the docility, teachable- 
ness, and diligence, — these are wanting, with that other great lack in 
American character, — the want of reverence. This quality seems to 
be actually sifted out of the national character, in the shaking and % 
tossing about to which the nation has been subjected in the last 
century. The impulse of conscientious revolt against unwarrantable 
authority, that gave birth to our national Jife, has passed from one 
generation to another, but has somehow lost its fineness of quality 
in the transmission and been coarsened into an undue self-assertion 
and irreverence. Says Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, in looking over 
our past : 

*< Yet somehow we have lost amidst our fi^ain, 
Some rare ideals time may not restore. 
The charm of courtly breeding, seen no more, 
And reverence^ dearest ornament of all.*' 

The national life is sustained by air that has lost its awe-inspiring 
properties, and the children innocently inhale the atmosphere all un- 
conscious of the vitiation. A teacher enters the school-room expect- 
ing to meet the resistance of irreverent self-assertion. The sentinel 
nerves stand ready to sympathize with every threatening indication 
of an outbreak, and under this wrought-up tension, teaching is 
attempted and carried forward, under a nervous pressure unknown to 
any other mental occupation. Actual teaching does not wear out a 
teacher ; it is the expenditure of nerve and will-power to hold the 
pupil in a necessary condition to be taught, that saps the teacher's 
strength. We do not mean that the passion for play that rules a 
healthy child-life is antagonistic to a teachable spirit ; this is a normal 



NEEDS IN AMERICAN EDUCA TION. 1 35 

condition and full of suggestions of ways and means to the ingenious 
teacher. But there is a natural defiance of controlling authority in 
American children that presents an intangible barrier to the teacher's 
approach, — ^a kind of ** annex" to the total depravity one is prepared 
to meet. To teach over and in spite of this characteristic obstruc- 
tion of bristling self-assertion, is the great feat to be accomplished by 
American teachers. To fail to do this, is to be buried beneath the 
general epitaph, " Want of executive ability." 

While spending a month at a family hotel last summer, filled with 
guests from wealthy and cultured homes, we were particularly struck 
with the deferential respect of the members of one family to each 
other, especially of the children for their parents. In parlor, balcony, 
and play-ground, but especially in the dining-room, was this most 
noticeable. The quiet repose in table manners, low tones, silence 
when others were speaking, led to the question : •' Who are these 
people ? ** The answer, '* From Beacon street in Boston," ought to 
have settled any matter ; but the name did not suggest the May- 
flower, and with the true Boston doubt of everything that didn't start 
there, we persisted in inquiry till the truth came at last. They were 
natives of Sweden, but had lived for the last eighteen years in Eng 
land and had not yet become accustomed to the reverse positions that 
parents and children occupy in this country. Let what will be said 
of the subjugating influence of monarchical governments and of the 
evils of class distinction in contrast to our own heavsn-ordamed dis- 
pensations of " inalienable rights," the fact still remains that the fair 
flower of reverence has blossomed in fuller luxuriance under other 
skies than our own, and that we need to transplant its roots deep in 
our own soil without jealousy and with no false pride, simply because 
our national growth is incomplete without it, and we cannot afford to 
lose its refreshing fragrance. How to cultivate this attribute of 
character in our schoolrooms,is the practical question growing out of 
this discussion. The opportunities are numberless when once the 
teacher has learned to recognize these shortcomings for what they 
really are. The efforts for the cultivation of this indispensable 
quality of a complete character, should be made, not in the narrow 
sphere of the teacher's personal benefit, but on the broader plane of 
the future good of the pupil as an American citizen. Let us cultivate 
in our children a reverence for law, in an abstract sense ; for position ; 
for age and the richness of its experience ; for sacred things and their 
public observances ; for the gentle courtesies of life, its proprieties 
and reasonable conventionalities ; for the rights of the poorest souls 
that exist in the universe ; and over and above all, a sacred reverence 



136 TUE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

for his own honor, that shall preserve his soul white and his hands 
clean to touch that mighty thing of lightest weight, the ballot, — 
whether it be deposited in some obscure corner of the vast republic, 
or in the congressional halls at the capitol. There is no need of set 
hours to inculcate these lessons. The tone of the child's voice, the 
look in the eye, the indifference to other's opinions, the untimely self- 
assertion, — all these will point to opportunities that must not pass 
unimproved if we would look for the character-building' of the future 
American citizen. # 

II. 

Whatever may or may not be acknowledged as to the justice of 
other criticisms, there will be, we think, an instantaneous and half- 
pleased concession to the accusation that we are a rushing nation. 
The following conversation, cut from an American newspaper, not 
only illustrates this hurrying without a cause, but glimpses the com- 
placent smile with which we confess it : 

" Why does that gentleman rise from his seat ?" 

"Because he gets out at the next station." 

" But we have not got near the next station yet." 

" I beg your pardon. From an American point of view we are 
very near it. It is less than a mile away ! ** 

" See ! He rushes wildly toward the door, and now he is on the 
platform. Is he not in danger } " 

** The only danger he dreads is the danger of losing one-quarter of 
a second." 

** We are almost at the station now. Will he not wait till the cars 
stop?" 

" No, indeed ; that would be a waste of precious time." 

•'There he goes! The cars have run over him! They have 
picked him up. He speaks. Listen ! Yes, he says ; ^ I die a true 
American' " 

But there is a serious side to this morbid desire to ** save time." 
The mother holds her breath while her boy jumps upon a horse-car 
in motion ; if he falls he is punished ; if he succeeds she may shake 
her head, but smiles softly to herself over her courageous boy. An 
engineer, to ** make up time," risks the lives of hundreds in the dizzy 
speed of a lightning express, in the face of danger and collision. 
No censure if he succeeds. Only the glow of pleasurable excitement 
as we recount the success of this daring adventure. Success in- 
toxicates us always, and the less time spent in acquiring that success 
adds proportionately to its value. We live in a whirl and revel in its 



NEEDS IN AMERICAN EDUCA TION. 1 ^3 7 

increasing velocity. We have no time to be sorry for those who can- 
not keep up with the current. Our sympathies are blunted, and the 
finer feelings lost in the dizzy speed of our practical lives. The con- 
sequences of this feverish' haste, are seen in forms that may not be 
directly traceable to this cause. The effects on our schools in the 
overcrowded course of study,is too plainly seen to be repeated here. 
But the brusqueness that one meets whenever and wherever there 
are gathered together a sufficient number to cause a local whirlpool, 
— is not this one of the inevitable results of the locomotive speed of 
living that we regard so complacently? We have grown so 
accustomed to the hurried step, jerky bow, and abrupt reply in all 
business, and often in social relations, that we have ceased to notice 
them at all. We accept incivility and call it brevity. A reasonable 
courtesy will stamp a man as "very genial." Values are only esti- 
mated correctly in their comparison and relation to other things. 
The chilling abruptness of official despatch, which we regard as in 
separable from executive force, is often shorn of its disguise when 
seen under different surroundings. 

An American lady, after spending several months abroad, was 
obliged to consult the U. S. Consul at London upon a matter requir- 
ing government aid. Every day of absence from her native land had 
only made it dearer, and with genuine anticipation she sought the 
Consul's office ; for would it not be a glimpse of home } The floating 
stars and stripes which guided her way to the building, seemed all the 
brighter in this dismal London blackness, and the "jE Pluribus 
Unutn " on the national emblems, up the first flight of stairs, seemed 
the symbol of many greetings in one clasp of welcome and proud pro 
tection. But an Arctic blast awaited her, sending sentiment to Zero, 
as she met the Consul and made known her errand. With a frigid 
abruptness, with which he would have disposed of an impostor for 
charity, he dismissed both the business and the lady, sending her to 
the American minister without explanation. Standing there alone 
before her country's representative, she begged for the direction to 
the locality and received-dead silence and a slip of paper containing 
an illegible street and number. As she turned away in disappoint- 
ment and perplexity, an English laborer who was present, waiting 
some order, followed her down stairs, called a carriage, and stood 
with uplifted hat, giving her the only kind words of direction and 
assistance she had received. It may be of interest to add that the 
result proved the duty to have properly belonged to the Consul, who 
made an elaborate apology to the lady, after receiving an official 
reprimand from Washington, where the case was reported Yet this 



138 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

man's whole course would have passed unnoticed in any business 
transaction in our cities, multiplied, as it is, over and over again in 
every-day life, because of the way we submit to be treated ; too much 
in a hurry ourselves to spend time to think of it. The true coloring 
of this incident, was only seen because of the change of setting in cir- 
cumstances and surroundings. Is there any greater need in all the 
wide range of American education, than the cultivation of courtesy in 
every relation of life? And, since the moral effect of this high- 
pressure living is to make us unmindful of the rights and feelings of 
others, is it not a moral responsibility upon every teacher in the land 
to check the unconscious haste in the children before the momentum 
becomes so great that the warning hand will be too slight a thing to 
stay the onward progress ? Is not the oft-repeated assertion that 
" American women have no repose of manner ; " that they are 
nervous to invalidism, another serious result of this feverish haste in 
living ? Is the endless catalogue of nerve troubles, that is stealing 
away the helpmeet quality in our women and turning our home- 
makers and home-keepers into wandering boarding-house inmates, 
unable and unwilling to meet household cares, but another result 
from this same cause ? Is the hurried, anxious look upon the faces of 
our school-girls, the easy exhaustion, frequent school absences from 
illness, but the visitation of past excesses in nervous expenditure 
" upon the third and fourth generations " ? Go to any girls* school in 
our large cities, and sit for one half-hour in each of the dozen rooms 
you may find there, and search for the serene, unanxious look that child- 
hood and youth should wear. Watch them as they go to and from 
recitation and recess, and calculate the prospect for strong-nerved, 
reposeful women from that mass of hurrying girlhood, pushed solely 
by the force of the ever-increasing momentum of American life. If 
there be a class of human souls in all the wide world, who need to be 
physically strong, mentally capable, and spiritually refined and self- 
reliant, to meet the responsible future of limitless opportunity just 
opening before them, that class are the " little women '* in our school- 
rooms to-day ! Do not the teachers of our girls need to look at this 
matter with clear, unprejudiced eyes, searching for the cause of every 
unwholesome effect, and discouraging the passion of admiration for 
precocity and smartness, that has stolen like a subtle poison into the 
thousand veins of our national life, warping the judgment that can 
only estimate an excellence in education, by an arbitrary standard of 
percentages 1 Is there any more urgent need in American girls' edu- 
cation than in the attention to this one feature of hygienic reform ; 
this laying of cooling fingers on the restless, throbbing pulse of the 



NEEDS IN AMERICAN EDUCA TION. 189 

future wives and mothers of the American citizen, training them to a 
serene, healthful, self-reliant womanhood that shall carry its powerful 
influence into every home of the future ? 

III. 

Time will only permit the mention of one other cause for the 
judicious pruning in character-growth, that should begin in the school- 
life of the child. This can be best classed under the general term of 
our national conceit. The American citizen, whether in ripe de- 
velopment or in school-boy miniature, would be sadly lacking in one 
of the strongest protective influences that human character can feel, 
if he be not girded about with an ennobling, strengthening national 
pride that extends to his individual responsibility to live nobly in 
demonstration of its principles. We all remember how we read in 
in saddest days that wonderful story, " A Man Without a Country," 
when the terrible pathos of passing events brought it home to us with 
thrilling effect. In the story of this man that suffered the punish- 
ment of never hearing his country mentioned, or knowing aught of 
its welfare, and who gladly welcomed a longed-for death that he 
" might have a country again at last," we learned as never before how 
the love of country is as necessary to the completeness of life, as the 
love of kindred or friend. But how shall this just pride of country 
be fostered without rousing the danger of conceit } Only by the ut- 
most care in teaching the child the exact grounds upon which this 
justifiable pride is based, justly and generously crediting other 
nations with every achievement and superiority of which history has 
informed us. If a gathering of boy-princes from every reigning family 
on earthy could be brought together in one circle of royalty ^ the American 
boy could step into t/ieir midst, bearing a single sentence from our 
Declaration of Independence and stand the greatest of them all: " We 
hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal ; 
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable 
rights ; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happi- 
ness '' The power in that single sentence, discrowning kings, de- 
molishing thrones, and blotting out every dividing line of class- 
distinction, makes of every boy in America a little sovereign in his 
own right. Upon the underlying justice, equality, and fraternity 
that blend in the foundation principles of a republican government 
the American citizen must base his pride, too sacred in character, too 
lofty in its far-reaching height, to be lowered or stained by a vulgar, 
commonplace conceit. If the boasting about our national develop- 
ment in material resources, our unparalleled progress in manu- 



140 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

factures, our marvelous ingenuity and inventive power that gave the 
world the great revolutionizing secret of electric communication over 
the land and under the sea ; if the natural and legitimate pride that 
an American youth slwuld feel in these and numerous other 
achievements should degenerate into a narrowing conceit ; if the 
tares begin to grow among the wheat, root them out by the careful 
study of the discoveries and successes of other nations from the re- 
motest periods. Let him find that the Spanish nation manufactured 
cotton a thousand years ago ; that the Egyptian priests wore linen 
garments ; that the Romans taught the manufacture of wool ; that 
paper has been made for nearly two thousand years, and the first book 
was printed four hundred years ago ; that locomotive power was em- 
ployed in Englandatthebeginningof the present century ; that the first 
patent for steam navigation was obtained nearly a hundred and fifty 
years ago ; and that the history of the human family has been written 
in the varied forms of its architecture, since the earliest dawn of 
civilization. America has but added her contribution, ingeniously 
fashioned it is true, to these towering monuments of civilization, 
whose foundations were laid ages ago, and whose crowning stones 
will only be reached in the far-distant future. Stepping into the 
refining atmosphere of literature and art, fill his mind and heart with 
loving appreciation of the choicest gems from our best authors, 
essayists, and poets, but do not fail to acknowledge that the world's 
highest admiration is given to men who wrote, sung, painted, and 
sculptured before the little colonies of America had even learned to 
stand alone. Yet time has only added charms to the genius of these 
gifted souls, and succeeding generations have prized them most, in 
the softened radiance of their life's afterglow. If our children could 
be made to feel that it is no detraction from the greatness of America, 
that we are in our infancy in literature and art ; that the fame of old 
masters could no more be expected of us, than the richness of age from 
the immaturity of youth, would it not go far to remove the uncalled- 
for sensitiveness of the future American citizen.^ Our boys and 
girls close their study of U. S History with a confused jumble of 
memorized dates,and a complacent consciousness that we have some- 
how beaten all the world that was worth the victory, and now rest 
secure in laurel crowns that every other nation is enviously criticiz- 
ing. If our country's history, with its lights and shades, could be so 
taught, and the influence of school-life could be such that they would 
step forth from it in proud humility, and with a chastened sense of 
responsibility to guard the mighty interests of a Republic, as yet 
scarcely beyond the experimental stage, and depending for its future 



NEEDS IN AMERICAN EDUCATION. 141 

Stability upon just such reserve material as now compose our public 
schools, would it not be a strong stimulus for the sacrifice of mere 
personal ambition^to the broader one of repairing the wrongs of the 
past ? Such problems as those of race and illiteracy, now confront- 
the nation with all their dire possibilities, will not settle themselves 
if let alone ; and the little children now in our school-rooms must be 
taught, that they have something else before them than office-seeking 
or office-holding, if America can ever show a consistent Republic that 
need fear no criticism. 

During the recent convention at Chicago, we overheard an interest- 
ing conversation between a journalist and a lawyer of opposing 
politics, but carried on with unusual fairness and the absence of all 
partisan spirit, yet they both reached the same gloomy prediction of 
an extinct republic in the distant future. 

'* III fares the land to hastening ills a prey, 
When wealth accumulates and men decay," 

quoted the journalist, after canvassing the merits of the political 
leaders on both sides. "The great question now is, how to evade the 
law rather than to obey it," said the lawyer ; " and there is a great 
moral sentiment of the people needed to enforce laws that will not 
execute themselves ; but where are the coming men that shall mould 
public opinion and assimilate these conflicting elements ? " *' Oitr only 
hope lies in the children^' said one of the gentlemen." "Yes, true," 
answered the other; "but that is the most completely hopeless con- 
clusion of all, for each generation is more carelessly trained than the 
last" Here were two broad, calmly-reasoning men, looking from 
different points down their retreating lines of vision, yet seeing them 
meet at last at the same vanishing-point of a vanishing republic, in 
the dim perspective of future years. Without sharing their forebod- 
ings or gloomy prophecies, — far from it, — ^yet we were glad that in- 
dividuals even, if not the great parties that they represented, could 
see that in the tread of the hosts of the on-coming children, the future 
generations will welcome their sole chance of victory against the dis- 
integrading forces of a republican government, or hear, in the mighty 
advance of these myriad footsteps, the dead march of their national 
defeat. 

Can we, as educators, ignore the responsibility of inculcating 
principles, that shall yield the fruitage of a self-sacrificing manhood 
and womanhood, willing to surrender personal prejudice and a narrow 
ambition, to the higher good of a nation's welfare } We may bring 
every child in our school-rooms up to the absurd standard of one 



142 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

hundred per cent, in scholarship, and cover them, our work, and our- 
selves all over with a blaze of numerical glory, yet stand before that 
higher tribunal of intrinsic excellende, dwarfed and humbled, in our 
failure to train these children for their future participation in the 
world's ac/on. Is there a single teacher in Madison to-day 
who will say that this is not the legitimate work of the school-room ? 
As well step into a hot-house, and watch the forcing of plants into 
premature blossoming and call that the proper cultivation of plant- 
growth. — instead of fertilizing the soil, and giving the best conditions 
of sunshine and dew and all the healthful inlBuences of nature, trust- 
ing to time and heaven to take care of the blossoming, — as to call a 
great proportion of the high-pressure results in our public schools, 
the proper training of children. God help us to realize that there is 
something else to be accomplished in our school-rooms, besides 
intellectual acquirements and mental discipline. We pause here in 
these suggestions of the *' Needs of American Education." They 
sum up in the two words, character-training. The outstanding points 
that we have touched, have seemed most prominent and most neglect- 
ed ; but there are outlying paths leading from these in every direc- 
tion, in which the children must not walk unguided and alone. Now 
that the full dawn of the New Education is lighting up the hilltops 
and sending its bright rays into the valleys, clearing away mists and 
showing the best pathways to the minds of our children, it has seemed 
best to call attention to the character side of school-room work, that 
must not be overlooked in the intense interest in New Methods. 
Does some teacher answer, that by these suggestions we have piled 
up the weight of responsibility already too heavy to be easily borne ? 
Yes, just as the responsibility of the moral growth of our children 
must be felt and carried, though it increases the teacher's duties a 
hundred fold. Only many-sided chiselings ever brings the angel out 
of the marble. Will it be said, also, that teachers can do but little in 
carrying out these suggestions, if the influences outside the school- 
room are all in the opposite direction? Do we reason in that way in 
our moral instruction } Do we not feel an increased obligation in our 
duty to those children, who come from the worst home influences? 
The army of American teachers cannot enter mto a crusade against 
these evils, without a perceptible weakening of their forces. But they 
must first be recognized as evils, before they will be attacked or con- 
quered. America is too great and her position among the nations of the 
earth too proud, to have that greatness marred by any national faults 
which it is in the power of her people to correct. And since it is a law of 
our nature that our interest strengthens in that for which we sacrifice 



NEEDS IN AM ERIC IN EDUCA TION. 1 4;^ 

most, this constant care of our habits of mind and thought, as a 
nation's representative j will not only improve our individual character, 
but deepen the love of country in proportion as we seek to guard its 
name from dishonor or reproach. 

Have we seemed to call attention too much to the shadow-side of 
our beloved country ? There has been no intention to even compare 
the brightness with the shadows. There is no comparison to be made 
between them. The sunny side is illuminating a world with its in- 
creasing brilliancy, and carrying hope and courage to every corner of 
the earth that feels its cheering influence. 

The light that slowly lit up the Eastern sky eighteen centuries ago, 
paling the stars with its celestial splendor, did not proclaim " good 
tidings of great joy*' more truly to the watching shepherds at mid- 
night, than has the radiating glory of this American Republic pointed 
a world of struggling humanity to the land, where the simple dignity 
ofii/orthy manhood transcends the glory of rank or inheritance. And 
to the little children of America must be committed the trust, to clear 
away every stain that has dimmed our history in the past, and to 
leave only the noblest record on the unwrittea pages of the future. 



144 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



THE CONSTANT IN EDUCATION.^ 

BY B. A. HINSDALE, 
Superintendent of Schools, Cleveland, O. 

In his once celebrated treatise, entitled " Elements of Criticism," 
I,ord Karnes, after observing that " human nature is a complicated ma- 
chine, and unavoidably so in order to answer its various purposes," 
makes these sagacious remarks: "The public indeed have been 
entertained with many systems of human nature that flatter the mind 
by their simplicity. According to some writers, man is entirely a 
selfish being ; according to others, universal benevolence is his duty ; 
one founds morality upon sympathy solely, and one upon utility. If 
any of these systems were copied from nature, the present subject 
might be soon discussed ; but the variety of nature is not so easily 
reached " Dr. Mark Hopkins, writing a century and more later than 
Lord Kames, notices the same tendency in ethical science. He 
attributes the conflicting accounts that have been given of the nature 
and foundation of moral obligation mainly fo " a partial apprehension 
and wrong adjustment of the facts and principles of our complex 
nature." ** A striking fact, as of a^ociation, or a powerful principle, 
as of self-love or sympathy, is seized upon," he says, " and made to 
account for everything." ■ These observations, so eminently true in 
their own place, can be transferred with a few verbal changes to the 
history of education. Educational theories have been as narrow 
and partial and transitory as ethical theories. Sometimes, views 
of human nature, altogether too simple, have been made their basis ; 
and sometimes, a striking fact or powerful principle has had an 
undue influence on the minds of their authors. 

How famous, and how excellent when at their best, were the schools 
of the Jesuits, is well known even to general and superficial readers of 
the history of education. But with all their fame and all their ex- 
cellence these schools strikingly illustrate the consequences that flow 
from narrow theories and imperfect methods. The creators of these 
schools saw the great value of a definite course of study. They dis- 
covered " that a course [of teaching] in which uniform method tends 
to a definite goal would, on the whole, be more successful than one in 
which a boy has to accustom himself, by turns, to half a dozen 

1 A paper read at Madison, Wis., before the Natioaal Teachers' Associat'on. 
■ •• The Law of Love,*' p. 2, 



THE CONSTANT IN EDUCATION. 145 

different methods, invented at hap-hazard by individual masters, with 
different aims in view, if,* indeed, they have any aim at all.** « They 
make another discovery — one that almost needs to be made over 
again — viz., that frequent changes of teachers are unfavorable to 
the progress of the pupil. They clearly saw, also, the immense 
value of thorough instruction. Accordingly, they devised the " Ratio 
Studiorum," which was a scheme of studies ; they promoted the 
teacher with the pupil year by year, if possible, and provided that 
change of teachers, when it came, should not bring change of method 
or of management. The ordained instruction must be given accord- 
ing to the ordained methods. To secure uniformity a rigid and com- 
prehensive system of supervision was established. First and highest 
in the hierarchy stood the General of the order; next stood the 
Provincial, appointed by the General ; thirdly, the Rector of the school, 
appointed by the General, and responsible to the Provincial ; fourthly, 
the Prefect of studies, appointed by the Provincial ; and finally, the 
Teacher, subject to the Rector and Prefect. Great stress was laid on 
repetition. Each lesson began with a recital of what had been learned 
on some previous day or days ; it closed with a re-recital of the lesson 
for the day. One lesson each week was given to repetition ; and in 
the lowest form, the second half of each year was wholly devoted to 
repeating what had been learned the first half. 

Here are several things that are most noteworthy : A prescribed 
course of study, unfrequent changes of teachers, supervision, and 
thoroughness. What could be more admirable.? It was mainly 
owing to these features that the Jesuit schools succeeded ; it was 
mainly owing to the same features that they failed. The Jesuits were 
schoolmasters rather than educators. They gave the receptive and 
reproductive faculties a splendid development, but neglected the 
faculties of origination and discovery. They paid more attention to 
learning than to truth. They made scholars, men of erudition, not 
thinkers, investigators, explorers. The individuality of the teacher 
was constantly suppressed. Macaulay says of the Jesuits, in his 
admirable way: "They wanted no talent or accomplishment into 
which men can be drilled by elaborate discipline ; but such discipline, 
though it may bring out the powers of ordinary minds, has a tendency 
to suffocate rather than to develop original genius. " They appear," 
he says again, " to have discovered the precise point to which in- 
tellectual culture can be carried without risk of intellectual emanci- 
pation/' * The Jesuits teach two lessons impressively enough to last 
forever, — what mere drill can do, and what mere drill cannot do. 

1 Quick : •• Educational Reformers," p. 16. • History, Chap. VIIl. 

10b 



146 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

Locke observed that the teachers of his time failed to toucn a 
spring of marvelous power in child-nature ; viz., love of amusemeAt 
He saw that teaching was made irksome and repulsive rather than en- 
gaging and pleasant. He, therefore, proposed to combine instruction 
and sport, study and play. Nothing like work should be laid on 
children. In the cases of young children, " the great use and skill of 
a teacher," he says, " is to make all as easy as he can." In the next 
century, Basedow went farther in the same direction, if possible, than 
Locke ; he made studies games. Some of his school exercises were sim- 
ply ludicrous. That Locke and Basedow laid bare a great defect in the 
teaching of their times, and suggested an important corrective, is in- 
disputable ; but that they carried their idea as far as to cooflict with 
the principle so firmly stated by Pestatozzi is all indisputable. " I 
am convinced that such a notion will forever preclude solidity of 
knowledge, and from want of sufficient exertions on the part of the 
pupils, will lead to that very result that I wish to avoid by my prin- 
ciple of a constant employment of the thinking powers. A child 
must very early in life be taught the lesson that exertion is indis- 
pensable for the attainment of knowledge." * 

In the days of Rousseau, society was artificial in the worst sense. 
Authority was the ruling principle in church, in state, and in school. 
The life of a child was restrained and cribbed to an extent simply 
marvelous. Probably some progress had been made in the right 
direction since the day that Luther, writing ot the vexations and tor- 
ments attending declining and conjugating, characterized school- 
masters as tyrants and executioners, and schools as prisons and hells 
in which nothing was ever taught ; and said that he himself had been 
whipped " fifteen times one morning without any fault of his own, 
having been called on to repeat what he had never been taught," » 

^probably some progress had been made since that day ; but schools 

and teachers and child discipline were still absurdly unnatural and 
horribly severe. Rousseau saw this with the clearness that marked 
all his observations of man and society. Naturally, therefore, as a 
part of his demand that men should return to *• Nature," he insist 
ed, virtually, upon the abrogation of authority over children, and said 
they should be left to themselves. Until he is 12 years of age, Emil 
shall know nothing about books ; he shall not even know what a book 
is, at least as the result of external tuition ; no control or authority 
that is apparent or conscious to Emil shall be exerted over him; 
his education must be purely negative ; " do nothing and let nothing 
be done," is the ideal. The root idea here is, time and opportunity 

1 Quick : " Educational Reformers." p. 193. ■ Kostlm : " Life of Martin Luther," p. 13 



THE CONSTANT FN EDUCA TION 147 

for the child to vegetate and " stool out," — time for life and character 
to grow from within outward. That Rousseau did a great and much- 
needed work, goes without the saying; and that he carried his 
doctrine of ** Nature " to an extreme, basing his theories of govern- 
ment and education on two narrow premises, requires no argument 
to prove. However, it is worth inquiring whether we are not 
tending in one direction that Rousseau rightly reprobated, — the 
too early development of the child. Is it not true, for example, 
that the school, with its books and methods and teachers, is over- 
prominent in child-life ;• and is it not true that more nature and a 
less early development of the self-consciousness would be a gain.^ 
Whatever the answer to this question may be, the name of Rous- 
seau brings us at once to the great educational movement of our 
times. This is an attempt to divest education of the mechanical, 
barren, severe, and even cruel features that were once so prominent, 
and to make it natural, fruitful, humane, and even pleasant This 
movement embraces four particulars : 

First : An effort to discover and to interpret the facts of the child- 
mind. 

Secondly : An effort to select and to combine in a course of study, 
studies that are consonant with these facts. 

Thirdly : An effort to invent methods of instruction adapted to the 
child-mind. 

Fourthly : An effqjrt to establish a discipline that shall secure order 
and develop character. 

These ideas have powerfully stirred all enlightened communities, 
at least in this country. They are the cause of what is most charac- 
teristic in our public school education. They are the sources of our 
"developing processes," "natural methods," " normal systms," and 
" new educations." They are a fountain that sends forth bitter water 
and sweet ;t he bitter being the deluge of educational quackery that 
constantly sweeps over the land. As the champions of the so-called 
•* new education " claim that this is the latest and ripest product of 
educational wisdom, I shall devote to it three or four paragraphs. 

And first, it is not easy to define the new education. In the narrow- 
est sense, the phrase seems to describe certain methods of primary 
instruction. However, in the sense that I shall use it, the phrase is 
the name of something that is really much more comprehensive and 
valuable. Secondly, the new education, as I use the name, is not a 
canon of principles and methods agreed upon by approved professors. 
Indeed, the attempt to create such a canon would clash at once with 
that repudiation of authority and that assertion of freedom and in- 



148 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

dividuality which are put forth as first principles. Nor, in the third 
place, is there much in the new education that is really new. The 
principal facts and principles on which it is built have all been 
stated time and again in the clearest and boldest language. Much of 
the New Education originated with Socrates, and more of it originat- 
ed with Jesus. " I have many things to say unto you, but you cannot 
bear them now;" is the best extant statement of that invaluable 
principle. Dr. Sauveur's " Natural Method of Teaching Living or 
Ancient Languages " no doubt lies within the compass of the subject. 
But the fundamental principles of this method were known to the 
Oxford Reformers. Colet and his compeers saw the folly of an 
exclusive grammer and dictionary method of teaching language. M. 
Littre's suggestion, "To begin with authors and to end with 
grammar, instead of beginning with grammar and ending with 
au*^hors," is hardly any improvement on directions given by Colet, 
by Ascham, and by Montaigne. Montaigne also anticipated one of 
the most valuable maxims of the new school ; he insisted upon hold- 
ing to things, and not contenting one's self with words. 

What, then, justifies the name " New Education " ? I see two 
things, and only two : 

First : Clear insight into facts, principles, and methods. This insight 
is no deeper and clearer than was sometimes shown in former times ; 
but it is shared by many more persons. Instead of being the sole 
possession of a rare thinker here or a superior teacher there, these 
facts and methods have come to be the property of a large and in- 
creasing number of minds. What was proof of genius in Ascham 
or Montaigne now only proves that one shares in the common stock 
of educational ideas. If the new school have not discovered new 
truths, they have given wings to old truths. 

Secondly : The best educators of to-day seek to bring together, 
and to fuse into one whole, facts, principles, and methods that have 
heretofore been widely, but thinly scattered. They seek to harvest 
and garner the whole field, from the sages of high antiquity to the 
essayists and teachers of our own time. If I may borrow a word from 
a related science, " Systematic Pedagogy " is beginning to appear. 

These two things History will accord to the present age. They are 
an attempt to find and to combine the various facts and principles 
pertaining to child-nature, to studies, and to methods that have been 
approved by past experience, and then to carry still further the in- 
vestigations that have led to their discovery. The only new educa- 
tion that is worth considering is an effort to know and to practice the 
best things that have been thought and said on the subject, just as 



THE CON^ TANT IN EDUCA TIO\ 149 

Matthew Arnold says culture is " knowing the best that has been 
thought and said in the world." 

We must not blind ourselves to the fact that there has been 
good education since the day that men began to study and to 
teach. Not to go to antiquity, even under the reign of Lily's Gram- 
mar, and before that when methods were still more barbarous, — nay, 
in the darkest days of dialectical hair-splitting and word-defining, 
there were good teachers and students and scholars. Moreover, 
good teaching has been more abundant in the past than we are 
apt to think. Too frequently our judgments rest on external feat- 
ures ; too unfrequently they fail to go to the heart of the matter. 
One teacher may instruct orally, another may use text books ; one 
may find his materials in nature, another in literature ; one may 
use science as his instrument, another mathematics or philosophy ; 
but if they are all good teachers they will impart knowledge, ener- 
gize mind, and develop character. Then the value of the teach- 
er's peculiar methods, important as they are, is commonly over- 
estimated. To a degree these are private property, a part of the 
teacher's indefeasible personal estate. A Mohammedan neophyte 
had listened with wonder to the tales ahout Omer ; he longed to 
see the sword with which the hero had won his victories. Intro- 
duced to the great chief, he expressed surprise on seeing the weapon 
that hung by his side. Omer remarked that the secret of victories 
is not in the sword, but in the arm and in the heart of the warrior. 
No more is the secret of education in methods. Consider, for exam- 
ple, the various ways of teaching reading ; the A-B-C method, the 
Word method, the Phonetic method, the Sentence method, etc. Now, 
I am far from saying that one of these methods is as good as another ; 
but it is a fact that children did learn to read, and to read well, in 
the old days when they learned their letters in the most literal 
, sense. Touching reading, Mr. Swinton tells the simple truth when 
he says the notation of our composite language is made up of frag- 
ments of the notations of the various languages from which it is de- 
rived, and that the pupil needs help from every device and theory. 

Perhaps my remarks thus far appear scattering and wide of the 
subject. If so, I trust it is in appearance only. I have sought to 
show, (i) That educational theories and methods have usually been 
too narrow and exclusive ; (2) That they have been, as it is best 
they should be in a degree, in a constant flux ; (3) That the correc- 
tion of one error has been followed by another lying at the opposite 
pole; (4) That there is something in education which transcends 
theory, — something which survives the flux of method, — something 



160 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

which is permanent and ever-living. This permanent, ever-living, 
transcending something is the constant in education. This element 
is the pupil's own free, intelligent, personal effort to learn. If this be 
present, the absence of much else may be excused ; if this be absent, 
the presence of all else only makes the failure the more signal and 
striking. Studies may change, methods alter, theories vary, and 
teachers come and go ; but if pupils will work freely and intelligently, 
good educational work will be done. We have here, therefore, the 
scale and the measure by which to try theories and methods, teachers, 
and schools. If a teacher deadens the mind of the pupil and dampens 
his zeal for knowledge, our verdict is condemnation ; but if he energizes 
the mind, kindles the sacred fire of learning, and stimulates the pupil 
to self-activity, our verdict is approval. It is the everlasting glory 
of Socrates that he roused his pupils out of sleep, compelled them 
to know what they knew as well as what they did noi know, and then 
sent them with a mighty impulse along pathway of self-improvement* 
This is his great message to modern educators. 

Now, the fatal criticism on many teachers and schools is, that the 
send this all-important fact to the rear. Noisy pretenders advertise 
their methods as education made easy. They undertake to teach 
the French or German language in six months or six weeks (I just 
forget which). Some man of small ability or honesty, or both, discovers 
or borrows a " new method " ; straightway he opens a private school, 
founds an "institute,** establishes a " normal school" or "college," 
and advertises that he will give a better education than the colleges 
furnish in one-half the time. This is quackery ; but there is a ten- 
dency which is not confined to quacks, to make far too little of the 
child's apparently humble and feeble effort. To value ^/lat effort 
highly detracts from the glory of the teacher and his "system." 
Moreover, to advertise a device in education as saving both time and 
money well suits the American temper. One result is, that the public 
is sometimes misled, and that injustice is done to meritorous ideas and 
methods. Thus, it requires no prophet to tell that the kindergarten, 
in this country at least, will never justify the extravagant expectations 
created in its behalf a few years ago ; the historian can already tell 
us that. Nor can I resist the conviction that the new education, to 
a degree, lies under this criticism. Many of its devotees have so much 
to say of " the saving of time," " the economy of labor," and •' the 
rich fruits" to follow the adoption of "natural methods," that, 
relatively, they fail to appreciate the fact that still pupils must work 
long and faithfully to become scholars, and that much of their work 
will be dry and irksome. This is true of the genuine new education ; 



THE CONSTANT IN EDUCATION. 151 

much more of it true of the spurious ** new education " that assigns 
most of the work done in the school to the teacher, and that ac- 
complishes little for the pupil beyond making him superficial and 
talkative. Few things American more impress a cultured foreigner 
than a bright American school. It is smart and interesting ; there is 
abundant life and action ; the unfolding of subjects is excellent : but 
the flow of knowledge and the skillful exposition belong only too often 
to the teacher. Dr. Dale clearly saw this when he visited us a few 
years ago.' He also saw, as every discriminating judge must see, 
that the school would be really better if there were fewer flowing 
descriptions and illustrations by the teacher, and more halting ones 
by the pupil. It is pretty clear that formerly children were left too 
much with their books. "Studying" was quite too prominent in 
their schooling. The book needed the teacher's genius to make it 
live and speak. But now, with our "oral instruction," "graphic 
work," and "illustrative methods," are we not swinging to the other 
extremity of the arc ? 

Prof. C. K. Adams says his method of teaching history " never 
ceases to remember that at least three-fourths of all the time spent 
by a boy of twelve in trying to learn a hard lesson out of a book is 
thrown away. Perhaps one-fourth of the time is devoted to more or 
less desperate and conscientious effort; but the large remaining 
portion is dawdled away in thinking of the last game of ball and 
longing for the next game of tag." « Accordingly, Professor Adams 
recommends direct instruction in the form of attractive and popular 
narration. This may all be very true of history-teaching. Moreover, 
real mental activity is not limited to the use of books. But instruc- 
tion involves discipline as well as knowledge; and however the 
teacher's talk may answer the ends of knowledge, it will not answer 
the ends of discipline. There must be study, and the study of books, 
before the pupil is twelve years old. We cannot despise the printed 
page. Nay, cramming has its uses, and I would have the pupil learn 
hqw to cram. The physician in active practice crams. The lawyer's 
preparation to try a case is often only cramming ; the greatest counsel 
rarely do so much as to prepare their briefs. The statesman must 
cram. And so with the man of business. In fact, every man of 
actual intellectual life is compelled to take up subjects hastily and 
to acquire some of their leading facts quickly. Now, we cannot 
learn to cram by cramming ; the best preparation for such struggles 
is the discipline and self-mastery that come from thorough study; 

A Sec " Impressions of America," pp. 155, et uq» 
9<*Met)»9c}9 oi T^ching and Studying History ;" p. 174. 



152 TUB NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

but there is a measure of truth in the paragraph that I now quote : 
"Some men, — and those whose judgment is not least worthy of 
respect, — have maintained that the dead strain of reading up for an 
examination is not a bad preparation for the work that is often to be 
done in life, — the gathering up of the faculties for a prolonged effort. 
To say that learning so acquired does not stick, is a feeble objection. 
Forgetting has its own use, and, in many things, to have learned how 
to learn is all that is needed. Having learned to learn is, indeed, 
worth far more as a preparation for life than any particular informa- 
tion." « 

My contention, then, is for the constant in education, — the pupil's 
own free, active, and intelligent effort. The smooth phrases now 
current, " normal development," " natural method," and " new educa- 
tion," must not make us deaf to its incalculable importance. Or- 
pheus built his Thebes by playing on his flute ; but we shall never 
build ours in a similar manner. 

»"The Nation/' No 90a 



wo MAN'S WORK IN EDUCATION. 153 



WOMAN'S WORK IN EDUCATION. 

BT MRS. HAY WRIGHT SEWALL. 

This evening is not to me of merely grave importance, not merely of 
secondary interest, but it is to me of historic suggestion and of historic 
value, for, grateful as I am for it, glad as I am to seize upon this oppor- 
tunity and use it, proud as I am of the noble women who will follow me, 
with words of eloquence and wisdom and instruction, yet I recognize this 
as merely an historic sui*vival. This occasion is a survival from the time 
now dead, when every church held its distinct comer for distinct and in- 
ferior classes. Not that we are considered inferior; not that we are 
brought here as curiosities to be exhibited ; we are I know welcomed by 
our loyal-hearted president as having equal claim upon this platform with 
men ; still it is a picture, still it is a survival from that time, and of greater 
interest to me as a survival than from any other standpoint. One thing, 
if the gentlemen who have spoken before various sections of this conven- 
tion will permit me in perfect good humor to allude to it, and if they will 
in perfect good humor receive it, will illustrate my meaning. Notwith- 
standing the fluttering of fans and the fluttering of ribbons, and the gay 
waving of plumes, and ihe glancing smiles, and the eloquent blushes from 
the audience, speakers have persisted in addressing their audiences as 
'^ gentlemen." Doubtless a preconceived supposition of who would be 
here has been more to them than the testimony of their eyes, and notwith- 
standing the major part of their audiences, save the audience of superin- 
tendents convened this afternoon, notwithstanding the major part of every 
andience has been constituted of women, gentlemen have absolutely been 
enabled to see them, and have persistently addressed the remarks, which 
women were assiduously endeavoring to hear and pro6t by, to men. 

However, as I have but fifteen minutes of time, I will address myself 
to briefly discussing two or three of the points in which I think women have 
contributed to the work of education in this country. The first visible 
effect of women's entrance upon the profession of teachers was the ameli- 
oration of discipline in the school-room. I will not be so presumptuous as 
for one moment to assume that that amelioration sprang from the greater 
tenderness of woman, that it sprang from the greater consideration of 
woman, that it sprang from greater philosophical insight into the child's 



154 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

needs and the effects of various orders of discipline. I confess freely that 
the first effect of woman's influence in the profession, the amelioration of 
discipline, was the direct result of her inferior physical strength. This 
inferior physical strength compelled women to substitute for the physical 
agencies that had before been used, spiritual ones. Not the increased 
happiness of the child in the school, not the increased physical safety of 
the child in the school, not the increased physical care and comfort, was 
the greatest gain from this amelioration of discipline, but so soon as 
spiritual agencies were introduced we learned that spirit kindled spii'it. 

The moral sense is a divining rod, and so soon as the moral sense of the 
teacher was brought to bear upon the child, so soon, and never before, 
were the moral powers of childhood discovered. It is true indeed that 
softer discipline, that moral suasion, that spiritual force, were resented by 
the big boys. He demanded the birch and the rawhide and ferule upon 
his teacher*s desk as external symbols of the superior animal force by which 
alone he wished to be bound. Notwithstanding the big boy's resentment, 
which for a time worked out its purpose, and confined women teachers in 
the country to district schools in the summer, when the big boy could not 
be there, notwithstanding that, the spiritual agencies substituted by 
women were necessarily soon adopted by men, and the growth of the moral 
powers, which had, perhaps by accident, or, at least unconsciously, been 
discovered by women, was thenceforth conscientiously and studiously 
developed. This seems to me the second great contribution made by 
women to our profession, the discovery of the child's moral powers, and 
the conscientious, intelligent, and studious prosecution of effort to develop 
and train those moral powers. With rattan and birch in hand it is quite 
impossible for our profession to make a successful prosecution of psycho- 
logical study. The third great contribution of woman to our profession, 
it seems to me, we owe again to a deficiency. I hope the gentlemen in the 
audience will mark the modesty with which I make the claims for our sex. 
We owe what they have given us to our defects. It was without doubt the 
inadequate education of women, the inadequate education with which 
women began their work, which enabled them or led them or forced them 
into such laborious, painstaking, conscientious efi'orts to make the very 
most of their feeble resources, whereby they learned also to economize 
the cliild's powers. The waste of childhood the world knows, and the 
world weeps, and the world bewails, and from the waste of childhood the 
world, I will not say never will, but, it seems to me through ages and 
ages, cannot recover. So the economy of childish power, of childish 
talent, of childish love, of childish zeal, following the necessary economy 
of the teacher's own powers was the third great contribution made by her 
sex to professional advancement. Thus far the moral effects have Ijcen 
chiefly noted. I wish briefly to review other limitations. 



WOMAN'S WORK IN EDUCATION, 155 

The very same feeling, the very same line of thought, the same 
arguments that held the first generation of teachers in the district schools 
in the summer term, later held the next generation of teachers in the pri- 
mary departments of the city schools, the thought being that the little child 
can be swayed by moral means only, the little child can be led by such 
moral agencies as the defective physical force of woman made necessary, 
perhaps underlying that this farther thought, that only the young child is 
yet near enough to God to be held remote from man and the physical 
agencies of discipline which he would enforce upon the child. Gradually 
the woman walked through the elementary departments, through the 
grammar departments, into the high school. Still the thought remained 
that nature had endowed man for the ruling places there, and as a prin- 
cipal of high schools, only very recently has woman been given the 
opportunity to show what she might do. Still the thought remains that 
for the executive labor that falls to the superintendent, a man yet must 
be retained, and only very rarely are women called upon to fill those 
places, kept from them by the same limitations of thought, the same 
limitations of feeling, the same limitations of prejudice, even in this 
relatively enlightened hour, that they were at first kept entirely from the 
school-room. Women do, however, hold the oflSce of superintendent, 
and in these higher places, as superintendents, as principals, as professors 
in colleges, as tutors, the same agencies are working to the same results, 
and the insight, ability, which lies at the basis of psychology, psychology 
necessarily lying at the basis of instruction, is going through her work 
with the lai-ger as through her work with the younger. The intellectual 
contributions of woman to education can hardly be sketched. One may 
say there i^ not much yet to tell. Naturally, so far. woman's best efforts 
have been given to the young of their own sex, for the educated woman's 
first feeling, I might almost say her primary conviction, is that her duty 
binds her to her own sex, that she may mako to them possibilities for such 
training as was denied to her. So most of the great teachers among 
women, those whose names have become at all illustrious in the profession, 
have become so in connection with girls* schools or women's colleges, 
established and carried forward by them in the hope, expressed or un- 
expressed, of, through these efforts, by and by, attaining the abs«>lute 
equality that the first aspiring women dreamed of. From these limitations 
has come one more contribution which I cannot forbear to mention, that 
which we may call the inspiration of the profession. I do not doubt that 
the gentlemen present, as well as the women present, if their school-days 
are suflSciently near to have placed them under the influence of women 
teachers, would join in the testimony that it was the women teachers 
rather than the men teachers who have inspired them with the ambition to 
go beyond what seemed to be the limits of their possibilities, under their 
instruction. This inspiration, which may spring from what may be called 



156 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

the intuitional or the emotional nature of woman, has yet been a great 
contribution. How is that inspiration illustrated in this meeting? 

To me, ladies and gentlemen, it has been a most touching sight to see 
the women from the Gulf of Mexico, and the women from the Pacific slope, 
who had endured the expense, the burdens, the fatigues of a long and 
wearisome journey, that they might come to meet with the teachers who, 
coming from the supposed, and probably the truly supposed, more en- 
lightened sections of the country, could give to them such help as they 
could not get within their own States. I believe myself that woman's 
farther contribution in the school in our profession will be closely 
connected with the effort which statesmen have in mind, but so far 
have failed to make good. If the chasm that has divided sections of 
our country is ever to be bridged, it will be bridged by the school and the 
home ; it will be bridged, not by the efforts made at the ballot-box, it will 
be bridged by the intelligent, the conscientious, the patriotic, the devoted 
instruction given in the schools of North and South to the boys and girls 
within those schools. This is one glimpse of intellectual help that shall 
come side by side with the moral help that has come, and in direct line with 
the flow of moral help that still continues from woman's work in educa- 
tion ; but, above all, I must believe that, this intellectual service being 
rendered, the moral service rendered by woman in our profession will 
remain her great service. I believe that, within my own memory of 
current opinion, I can see that the cuirent opinion regarding daily 
moralities has been greatly modified by the influence of women in our 
public schools. Women there, competing more on an equality with men 
than in any other profession or walk in life, have gained that accuracy, 
that promptness, that sense of punctuality, of order, of business in- 
tegrity, theretofore monopolized by men. Men, there competing with 
women, have attained an almost feminine purity. That is not perhaps 
the flnal, but one of the great contributions of women in their work in 
education. 



WOMAIPS WORK m EDUCATION. 157 



WOMAN'S WORK IN EDUCATION. 

BT LOUISA HOPKINS. 

WomaD's work in education is distinctive ; it differs in kind from that 
of man. The element of sex enters into the constitution of mind and 
determines the sphere and quality of intellectual activity. According to 
the principle of the continuity of law, the mental and moral nature as well 
as the physical is conditioned by sex ; this gives limitations, but it also 
gives expansions. We have been too apt to look at the limitations. 
Women are naturally and properly offended by a crude, low, and physical 
statement of the limitations of sex ; the physical outlines are typical and 
mdicate the plan of the three-fold being. The mind and soul of woman 
are as strongly and thoroughly conditioned by sex as the body ; science 
has as yet scarcely touched the question of the mental and moral differ- 
ences of sex. I offer a slight contribution to the analysis of that differ- 
ence and to its indications as to the nature of woman's educational work. 
There are two kinds of intellectual and moral function, viz. : that of 
immediate and tangible expression and that of structural and orgslnic in- 
building. Both these functions are common to the sexes, but the first is 
the supreme function of man ; the second, the supreme function of woman. 
The exercise of the first produces concrete works of art, science, and liter- 
ature, — the exercise of the second produces ce//, nerve, and fibre of mind 
and of soul ; this latter is the transmissible capital of intellectual and 
moral power ; it must be conserved not expended. What is wholly spent 
is exhausted ; it is the unexpressed genius of one generation that is carried 
over to the next. Some one has said that it Is the repressed energies of 
the father that are worked out in the son. It is not without design that 
woman's mind and soul are framed for unconscious and organic activity 
rather than for exhaustive expression ; the significance for us of this fact 
is in the indication of woman's vocation. Nature (not man, not society, 
not outward circumstances, not tradition), has moulded the history of 
woman's achievement. If she has failed as man's competitor it is because 
she has made the mistake of trying to assume functions as supreme which 
nature has not made supreme in woman, and in trying to subordinate 
functions which nature intended should be dominant. We speak now of 
intellectual functions. Do we complain of nature? is it less honorable to 
conserve for larger uses than to expend in more obvious expression? 
Nature has held woman back from equal or superior direct accomplishment 
to man in science, literature, and art, because it ordained her for indirect 



158 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

agency in those realms. Woman has not represented herself by a Newton, 
a Shakespeare, a Goethe, a Beethoven, a Raphael — but she has by unnoted 
processes built up the brain cells of humanity, created the sense for beauty 
and harmony by the operation of her structural determination of mind- 
function ; this power does not win the instant applause of the unthinking 
world, but is as worthy and more enduring than that which does ; it pushes 
the race onward and upward, it pervades and evolves humanity. This 
structural determination of woman's mind gives her quicker intuitions than 
man ; this intuitive action has been counted as a weakness by many, but 
what is it the result of —is it not the result of thoroughly organized 
thought ? thought so long habituated to the mind as to have become auto- 
matic, unconscious, organic ; processes are lost sight of, axioms take the 
place of conscious deduction ; it is the sum of race-thinking and race- 
knowledge ; it is knowledge and thought packed into brain and mind- 
power ; this intuitional quality of woman's mind makes her work distinc- 
tive ; she cannot do her best work in the line of man's best work — her 
rights and privileges, her expansions as well as her limitations she must 
accept from nature ; she must believe her position to be hot inferior to 
that she would have chosen, she must throw herself into sympathy with it, 
not struggle against it, then will she dignify it and it will dignify her. 

But although the most obvious purpose of this difference of sex in mind 
is transmission, yet as a direct educational force it is constantly active ; it 
does not preclude acts of specific effort. Woman is by no means desti- 
tute of the faculty of immediate expression, of ability to work intellect- 
ually as man works, but her sex of mind fits her for that kind of work in 
education which we may call nurture. Plato set forth nurture as the 
highest form of education; it is the unfolding in the personal atmos- 
phere, the unconscious influence of culture and character, a harmony 
which envelops the subject of educative effort until the mind and soul 
grow as the flowers grow in the sunlight and the air. In this sphere are 
born the ideals of harmony and true education. Paths of knowledge may 
be explored, culture must become perfect by aggregation as well as by 
growth ; she may learn and teach specifically, but above and through all 
this, must work her educational power as a woman, that with which the 
quality of her mind has endowed her, the unconscious, the intuitional, the 
harmonizing power of nurture. Directly in the channel of all this deter- 
mination of sex is the finer moral sense, nicer perception, and keener 
sensitiveness of the soul in woman — also the accumulative tendency of 
her forces which prepares her for continuous strain, which gives her more 
steady faith and patience and helps her to do without the vulgar plaudit ; 
to dispense with the sudden reward, and to wait for the harvest of that 
larger sowing. 

To this end is woman so closely connected with the next generation, 



WOMAN'S WORK IN EDUCATION 159 

that nurture may he complete. Her work in education begins with the 
iDreath of life, is unintermittent and affeetional, inspired by the very 
essence of her nature as woman ; it is so truly and thoroughly inspired 
that it amounts to a revelation ; its instinctive methods are the gospel of 
education. The greatest genius of modern educational science acknowl- 
edged this and made the nursery his university. Froebel sat down at the 
mother's feet and tried to write the alphabet of educational science. Let 
ivoman trust her intuitions as Froebel trusted them, and work in the 
glory of her instinctive functions, to surround man from the cradle to the 
grave with the harmony, the purity, the sweetness, and the grace which 
nature made so much more accessible to her than to man, and she 
will fill her place as an educator. Let her never forget that her work 
means soundness and completeness, not disproportion and one-sidedness ; 
she may instruct in a department of science, and do it well, but more 
largely by virtue of her sex. She is to develop the whole being of her 
pupils harmoniously, to nurture both mind and soul, and though it may be 
unconsciously, yet if she be a true woman it is inevitably ; this is what 
God is doing through her, even while she in her own proper self attempts 
mere teaching. Character, taste, thought, feeling, all these are being 
wrought out by her intrinsic personality through any relation which her 
specific connections establish for her ; - that these may be wrought out 
purely to a noble pattern, she must have built up in herself that noble 
pattern, the structural propensity of her nature must furnish in herself 
the source of that wonder-working atmosphere, that ethereal and magnetic 
iufluenee which transmutes all it touches. This penetrating influence will 
reach to the inward life of every subject of its educative activity ; it feels 
its way into homes, into hearts, into springs of life to be redistributed. 
It is the harmonizing power in the development of the race, it works un- 
observedly and all of a sudden, the wide earth is conscious of its great 
results. 

The soul of woman is conditioned by sex to finer methods of conduct, 
to more responsive sympathies, both human and divine, than is man's soul. 
What a force this gives her as an educator ! Nothing crude or mechanical 
is worthy of woman as means or methods of education. Woman's work 
in education is so fine, so high, so loving as to redeem each generation if 
it were accepted and occupied by woman. Woman may be professionally 
a teacher of sewing, of music, of history, or of mathematics ; but essen- 
tially she is a teacher of all that she is or can communicate through this 
unconscious miracle of influence, of nurture, intellectual and moral. If she 
should assume this her natural function as an educator and address her- 
self to the highest and most harmonious development of human nature 
how far-reaching and free would be her power ! 

There is a class of women of the best American culture, graduates of 



160 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

colleges who, having been led to this kind of wwk through implicit obe- 
dience to their spiritual intuitions, following the directions of that book 
which I would call, the History and Science of the soul of man, carrying 
on a great and far-reaching mission of education in other lands, and 
among the Indians of our own land ; they have planted schools of every 
grade, all the higher schools, of which are normal schools, in China, India^, 
and Turkey ; they have established a penetrating system of home work ; 
they have revolutionized the physical condition of woman and their dis- 
pensaries and personal medical attendance have taken hold of the physical 
problem with an unflinching courage. Sixty-four teachers have gone oat 
from one school in Turkey in nine years ; forty of the graduates were in 
one year teaching sixteen hundred native girls. 

Mrs. Capron at Madui*a has one thousand women under her influence. 
The colleges in Armenia and Constantinople offer as wide a curriculum as 
our own best schools (these are only examples), and in all these the body, 
mind, and soul, the whole being, is harmoniously developed so that an 
immeasurable influence has been spread noiselessly abroad through those 
lands to elevate, to educate, to civilize, and to christianize, teaching the 
Bible as a science in every school. In these last days its harvest has 
been gathered in by that splendid apostle of Oriental Christianity, Keshub 
Chunder Sen who did not hesitate to recognize it in large measure as the re- 
sult of this truly womanly work. The British Quarterly Reoiew says : "We 
doubt whether the Americans are doing anything in Turkey, that is so 
sure sooner or later to change the entire character of society as what they 
are doing for the education of the women of Turkey." 

I can only point to this great educational movement of American 
women abroad as an illustration of the power of intuitional methods, as 
well as of harmonious and complete aims. I refer you for the great array 
of facts to the Reports of the Woman's Board of Foreign Missions — aux- 
iliary to the American Board. 

Woman must take herself — her whole consecrated self into her work, 
to teach perhaps, but more largely and distinctively to nurture^ through 
the influence of her personal culture and the magnetic forces of her inteU 
lectual and spiritual intuition, conserved as nature designed, not spent in 
exhaustive acts of constant expression ; thus will she accomplish her work. 

Das Unanssprechliche 
Hier wird es Zathan 
Das Swig Weibliche 
Zieht uns hinm. 



}VOMAirS WORK IN EDUCATION, 161 



WOMAN'S WORK IN EDUCATION. 

BT UISS FRANCES E. WILLARD. 

Dear Friends : I quite enjoyed the idea of this symposiam as they call 
it, — a woman's symposium, — a woman's evening, — and here we are to 
have it all our own way. I thought it a very liberal idea on the part of 
the President of the Association, and certainly liberal on the part of our 
friends who, in such large numbers, have gathered here to listen while the 
women have their say about their views, for we are full of views. I think 
to say that you have views is a very modest matter. It simply says, we 
have reached up to a certain height on the great mountain of truth, and as 
I look out from my point of view, I inevitably, necessarily, by the laws of 
things, see a certain landscape, and that is my view, and I would just like 
to have you come around and stand where I do, and you will likely see just 
as I do. So we are always coaxing people to come around and see our 
view. I have had some thoughts about this matter of which the lady 
spoke who just took her seat. Now I confess that I intended to begin 
with a quotation with which she just closed, only I had it a little different- 
ly translated, "The great Feminine draweth on." The great French 
romancer, Victor Hugo, said that the nineteenth century is the woman's 
century, and here we are right in the midst of it, and I am sure I am ever 
so glad to be here just at this particular time. I am glad that I am alive, 
and that X have a part in an age so liberal toward women, for I remember 
that more than a century or so back — I remember by the telescope of liter- 
ature — ^I am not here confessing that I go as Oliver Wendell Holmes said, 
away back in 1800 and ever so far, tho'»gh the calendar might bear me out 
in that form of expression, but I remember that in my studies of English 
literature I read about a genial, noble, and gifted man of England, one of 
the leading lights of literature, who said that, " If any woman of my name 
shoiiild have the effrontery to set to work and write a book I would disown 
her from that out." He said that, and do you know that Archbishop 
Fenelon, a friend of the noble and gifted Madam Guion, was willing to say, 
^^ For a woman to be learned is almost as bad as for her to be vicious." 
That was one style of man. I do not consider it the highest style of man. 

Assuredly it was not the twentieth century man that said any such 

thing as that, and we have a good many of twentieth century men around 

about in America. I do not know as they have that species in any other 

country ; I have not seen them in any other, but, as the age ran on, and 

lii> 



162 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

this new style of man began to be more prominent in public affairs, he 
rose in his place in the great parliamental man, the concentration of the 
world of thought, and he said, ^^ Nonsense about women writing books! 
If they can do it, let them go right to work and do that very thing, — 
write just as good a book as ever they can, and we will buy the book, and 
perhaps we will read it, and throw up our hats in the air, and say, write 
some more, and we will buy them and read them too." And so when it 
was said by our brothers, the dominant power, for that they were, they 
made public opinion on this subject more than anybody else. When that 
became the general idea, then if you had listened, you would have heard 
the voice of Elizabeth Barrett Browning with the " Cry of the Human," 
so tender and sweet. You have heard as I have in this wonderful age 
Julia Ward Howe with her "Battle Hymn of the Republic," and Harriet 
Beecher Stowe with her epic of the slave. You would have heard Dinah 
Mulock with her pictures of home life, not equalled in any literature, and 
women came forth, when the great thunder cloud of prejudice went 
rumbling below the horizon, a good deal after the manner of the sound of 
those cannon we heard here to-night, — women came forth after the man- 
ner of singing birds just after a thunder-storm, and they are warbling about 
in this pleasant air, and it makes it far more musical. Then away back in 
ever so far, there were men that said that women must not be taught, they 
must not go to the schools, for, if they do, it will change the whole regime 
and plan of creation and be the very worst of all the curses that ever 
afflicted humanity ; but there were other men, like Horace Mann, who said, 
''Nonsense, let the women sit down beside their brothers at the banquet of 
Minerva even, as at their homesteads, they are seated beside us ;" and then 
women came forth and took their places in the academies and universities 
and in the ranks of teachers, until two-thirds of our teachers are women 
to-day ; and if you want to find the gentlest and strongest and noblest 
types of women look at the teachers of your native laud. And I believe 
that this people love these teachers because of the kindliness they liave 
shown in the training of your children, and I believe that our people would 
say that my verdict is correct ; they would make no dissent therefrom. 

And so the time went on, and you, our brothers, invaded our realm, and 
we are not a bit jealous that you did, and we bring no words in the indict- 
ment to your harm. With forceful and strong hands you built railroads 
and tunnelled mountains and carried forward your splendid endeavors, and 
then you looked in on the realm of the household and what wonderful 
havoc you made there. My mother has a quilt which she made in her 
country home on a farm in western New York. She not only spun but 
wove the material that enters into that wonderful composition, and she 
said to me it was just a play-day from the spinning and the weaving for 
the family that they had to do. In those days the women picked their 
own geese and did their own dyeing, and here came the brotherhood, and 



WOAfAy*S WORK IN EDUCATIOX, 163 

they took the wash-tub and carried that out of the house and built great 
laundries, and they set little nibbling fingers at work on that weaving and 
spinning, and did it by steel fingers, and it did not tire the women's lingers 
any more, and they are going on at such a rate that I predict that they will 
sooD have the cook-stove out of the house, and I am not sorry. I do not 
think we shall see so many dinners with a broiled lady at the head of the 
feast. I look for the time when the great caterer of the town shall re- 
quire nothing of me but to stand in the back hall and put my lips to the 
telephone and order my dinner and it will-'come tlirough the pneumatic 
tube. We are going on at just that rate; the wash-tub and cook-stove 
are not the Lares and Penates of the home. You, having done this, are 
welcome to go on and do more and more of it. Because you have accom- 
plished so much already is the reason that women's hands are free to 
take up this splendid work of teaching, and these grand endeavors of 
philanthropy. 

I am here to-night just thinking these things over because this is a 
woman's symposium, trying to think wliy it is there are so many women 
teachers and doctors and philanthropists. They are trying to do what? 
Since you have invaded the home and taken away so many of the cares 
and inconveniences of the past, women have made up their minds that 
the whole world shall be homelike ; that we will go out into social life and 
try tu make that more homelike ; that we will go out into the professions 
and try to make them more homelike, and in the wide sphere of govern- 
ment try to prove that you need two heads in council as beside the 
hearth. So, if you think that it is a wandering from the sphei^e of woman, 
remember that women, by becoming teachers, have made the school-room 
far more homelike, and the little ones happier than they were ever made 
before. 

Now, since I am a temperance worker, and since my whole endeavor 
in life is to build firm and deep foundations for the protection of the 
homes of the country that I love so much, I ask you as those loyal to the 
home as I am, those who are striving in your avocation, as I am in mine 
(and I once belonged to your own honored guild), I ask you to stand by 
us in our effort and our endeavor to so work upon the brain and heart of 
childhood that the children of our nation shall go forth forearmed and 
forewarned against the greatest enemy of home, and that is the liquor 
trafiSc, and the drink trafiSc, in this ^' land of the tree and home of the 
brave." 

You take a watch, for instance (I might use as an illustration this 
little one that a Boston woman gave me) : suppose it was not gold, but 
Britannia, or German silver, or something like that ; you take the fine 
works that are inside this watch, full jewelled, and with the best Geneva 
workmanship, and put them into a German silver case or a China case, 
and the watch would go just as well, keep time perfectly just the same ; 



164 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

but, oh, my friends, there is another watch I God has wound it up, it 
goes on, tick, tick, tick, through all the years to seventy, and that watch, 
with the balance-wheel of judgment, the main-spring of reason, the full 
jewels of imagination and fancy, the dial-plate of character and pointers 
of reputation, that watch cannot go as well in a coarse case as in a fine one. 
There is interdependence between the soul and its environments ; and what 
the body is and what its nutriment, determine what the soul shall be, and 
you are those who work upon the instrument of thought, you are those 
that care more for the brain than for any other organ. 

I am here as a temperance worker to remind you that we are doing 
grand service in your cause, for we women of the temperance society are 
out in a splendid fight for a clear brain. That is what we have set our 
hand to do. We come here to-night to ask your co-operation as women in 
this battle of home-building and home-protection. Perhaps I shall find a 
better illustration in the flower. What the flower is depends on what is at 
the roots ; on what was in the atmosphere, the sunshine, and in the con- 
stituents that were in the soil and the water, that were the nourishment of 
the blossom, and, as I was once a teacher of physiology, I remember so 
well this nervous system as it is depicted in the manikin and taught in the 
charts. With its fine tendrils it answers to the most delicate plant, and 
the brain is the blossom of man's being, the perpetual night-blooming 
cereus hidden away in the dark crypt of the skull. Its delicate petals are 
so wrought that the least intrusion of alcoholic drinks upon it is like the 
blight of frost upon the most delicate flower. 

The brain is the skylight of the soul, it mirrors God*s thought, but, 
oh, when it is cobwebbed with beer, when the impact of strong drink is 
put upon it, the brain can no more reflect the high and rational ideas that a 
man ought to entertain. Plutonian fires in the brain from alcoholic drinks 
render it impossible for the lighting up the Promethean fires so dear to 
the heart of the enthusiastic and earnest teacher ; and so I come to you, 
kind friends, to speak about the fact that it is physiologically true that the 
impact of strong drink upon this delicate substance of the brain, the organ 
of thought, makes it physiologically impossible for a man to have as clear 
a perception of the fact that there is a God somewhere about, that there is 
a future somewhere ahead, that there are laws of Grod that interlace us every- 
where, and we cannot escape them. That which is evoluted must first be invo- 
luted. Behind everything there is a thought ; behind every thought there 
is a thinker ; behind every thinker there is the primal thinker, God, and 
the brain cannot take in those ideas if it is bewildered and impacted with 
the blur of strong drink. That is a physiological fact, and the men that 
take in the doctrine and the philosophy of that iconoclast, Robert Inger- 
soU, are men with a beer mug in one hand and a pipe in the other. 

We have everything to gain by the triumph of this scientific temper- 
ance work, and it is so practical ; it goes to make the school-houses where 



WOMAN'S WORK IN EDUCATION 165 

the children can go from the mother's protection to the protection of the 
school-house. God hasten the day when with the guaranties of the State, 
and the majesty of law, and the dignity of science, the young people shall 
get a ''thus saith nature," *' thus saith reason," " thus saith physiology 
and hygiene," for the doctrine that it is best never to touch the products 
of the vineyard, the brewery, or the still. 

It is to that proposition that one branch of our temperance 
work is dedicated, and in five States of our nation, already New York, 
Michigan, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Rhode Island, by the efforts of 
our society, the State has declared that a part of the curriculum in the 
public schools shall be that of hygiene with special reference to this curse 
of drink, with special reference to alcoholic stimulants upon the tissues of 
the body and the temper of the soul, and I am so glad I ever lived to see 
the day when the marching column of children from my native land are 
going to find, not only that the teacher shall point out to them the mael- 
strom of the Scandinavian coast, but shall point out to them the maelstrom 
of drunkenness and the currents that feed it and lead into it ; when the 
teacher shall not only in a grammatical sense give them knowledge about 
the verb to be, to do, to suffer, but shall work that out into the every-day 
teaching that shall protect thoughtless and ignorant boyhood ; when it 
shall come about that not only in the drawing lesson shall you give them 
the perspective and the free-hand drawing, but you shall show them by 
the diagrams that we are spreading all over the country, the enormous 
waste in the products of the country that comes because of drink. We 
have it all reduced to an object lesson. 

We are learning something of your kindergarten system. If there is 
anything on this earth that I am enthusiastic about it is the kindergarten. 
I know that most of the children do not get it until they are trained in the 
high school. But I know that if we could take all of the little soldiers who 
are mustered into the army. of temptation and sin, and have them taught 
with all the beautiful lessons of the kindergarten ; this specific also of a 
clear brain, it would be the perfection of teaching for our country. We 
must remember that the body is the temple of the Vio\y Ghost. It has its 
ritual, it has its decalogue, and I must sny to you that I believe that there 
is a woe pronounced by natural law, not by an abstract vengeance, upon 
the untutored ones that do not listen and arc not taught these oracles of 
God. So I come before you to la}' before you my plea to ask that you 
shall have a resolution in this most potent and highest congress of teachers 
of the nation, declaring that you will co-operate with these women, earnest 
and faithful, for the W. C. T. U is made up mostly of teachers that are 
striving to bring about this greatly needed reform. Now, may I say to 
you that I hope as you go hence, j'ou ladies especially, you may think 
whether you cannot in your own localit\' co-operate with our society, as the 
superintendent of this 'special work in your own school, building over 



166 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

against j'our Jerusalem, thinking about the little ones gathered about yoa- 
If each of us, standing in our lot and place, should do a little, how soon 
the " consummation devoutly to be wished" would have arrived upon the 
scene. 

Friends, I believe that in this temperance work we are to have the 
alliance of the great forces of the nation. It is but a few weeks ago, since 
in Louisville, Ky., in a great opera house, by invitation of the manage- 
ment, every temperance woman had an opportunity to speak about these 
Sunday-school lessons for the eight million children who are under the care 
of the Sunday-school teachers, and by an unsought invitation from your 
management, for which 1 honor your president, who has stood so nobly by us, 
I am here to ask like co-operation from the teachers. Between the upper 
and nether millstones of these two bands of educators we can crush out 
the appetite in time. You have the greatest opportunity, because you 
have the first opportunity with the child's character. 

I believe the time is coming when this shall be known as the great 
sister and mother country of Christendom. In my mind's eye I see two 
great statues as the emblems of the two great lines of thought the world 
has seen. The first is the Colossus at Rhodes ; the second is Barthold's 
statue of the Goddess of Libeity. The first is the emblem of physical force ; 
the second is the Emblem of the subtle, spiritual force that lies back of the 
physical, the emblem of the new America. I have thought of that beauti- 
ful statue as it will soon stand on Bedloe's Island ; I have thought of that regal 
and kindly and affluent presence as the type and symbol of American 
womanhood ; I have thought of the emigrant ship as it shall come in. I 
have been at Castle Garden, and my heart has ached a< I have seen them, 
the kind-faced Scandinavian so lonesome-like, and looked at the Celt 
with the home-ache in his honest heart, and seemed so sorry that the 
Emerald Isle was so far away. I have thought as they saw that gracious 
and benign presence that it would come into their hearts that America is a 
motherly country ; that it is a home-like place ; that into the activities of 
our time are coming those gracious, sweet, and tender infiuences which can 
only come when manhood and womanhood go forth side by side to make 
the nation a home, and I believe if we can gather the children of the Ger- 
man and the Celt and the Scandinavian into our public schools, and teach 
them that we are not fanatics when we want to give them the law of a clear 
brain according to science ; teach them we are not fanatics when we wish 
to outlaw the liquor traffic, 1 believe they will come over to our way of think- 
ing, and a little child shall lead them. Let sweet reasonableness, the reason- 
ableness of science, of the latest experimentation, of the wisest thought 
and the fittest survival, let that be taught in the curriculum from ocean to 
ocean, and two or three generations hence, the German shall say that we 
are not fanatics, but we have just good square level heads on this question — 



WOMAN'S WORK IN EDUCATION 167 

that is the solution of the problem. We all welcome the foreign popula- 
tion, except for the one thought that they are so far behind us on this 
temperance question. Why? for the simple reason that the impact of 
much thought has not been put in contact with the convolutions of their 
brain, as it has with ours, and the school where everybody goes, which is 
open to us all, is just the place where they can get that teaching. 

I would that I were stronger to-night, I would that I had more vigor to 
speak to you about the subject that lies so near my heart, but in my home this 
morning my dear old mother said, ''You are not fit to go up there to Madi- 
son, I wish you would not, you are undertaking too much." I said to 
mother, " Somehow I seem to hear the little feet that go patter, patter, 
pattering along to school, the little untrained ones, and I must speak a 
word to those whom I believe to be their very best friends ; I want to bring 
before theni the dear and sacred hope of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union." 

Dear friends, I have one last thought — you know there is a statue, 
the first one that was ever erected in honor of a woman in America, 
which was erected in New Orleans, in Margaret Place, only two or three 
weeks ago, perhaps less. When I was in New Orleans they told me about 
that noble woman, to whose memory that statue was erected. She was an 
Irish woman and a catholic, — a woman who never learned to read or write, 
a woman who never wore a silk gown or a kid glove, and yet a woman who 
amassed a splendid property ; a woman who had God*s very best gift — a 
great, royal, loving heart, and a woman who was everybody's friend, so 
that they called her the giver of bread, a woman who was especially in- 
terested in orphans, and founded orphan asylums. At the unveiling of her 
statue, a Roman Catholic Jesuit Priest and the Rev. Dr. Palmer, of the 
Presbyterian Church, officiated side by side, and it was a gala day for all 
the city, for no woman was ever so beloved. Now, friends, I have been 
fond of the intellectual type of women. One of the earliest of my ideals, 
and I have had many, was Margaret Fuller, and she has never ceased to be, 
and yet I tell you I am glad after all, I, who used to wonder that no 
woman ever had a statue in America when women were such patriots and 
so noble, 1 am glad that the first woman in my country who had a statue 
erected to her memory and to her fame was that woman ; ignorant and un- 
taught, but who was royally dowered with that aristocracy that everybody 
appreciates and everybody loves ; the aristocracy of a great, loving 
motherly heart. 

^ And I say to you, dear teachers, that only as we have that tender love for 
, everybody are we fit to be the teachers of the little ones ; only as we look 
' into their eyes with the tenderest gentleness do we reach the true crown 
I and the highest degree of a teacher's possibilities. So let us go forward, 
1 praying that, although we may never win great laurels for intellectual 
I achievement, we may all be as much beloved as a woman I know in the 



168 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

State of Illinois, a woman that never quoted to me a classic ; a woman 
who never told me what a fine poem that was in the Atlantic or the Century; 
a woman who never broached, in my hearing, a scientific theory, and yet 
a woman so deeply taught in the language of the better life of the ties of 
brotherhood and love, in the mystic tie of the golden rule ; a woman at 
whose feet I was glad to sit and learn of her ; so loved that when she died 
there was nothing too good to do to show how much the people honored 
her, and the governor and the mayor and the high officials were glad to be 
those nearest her coffin, and little barefoot boys and ragged children came 
with some little bit of a flower, perhaps a dandelion which they had gather- 
ed out of the fence crooks, and put it on her coffin and said, '^8he was so 
good to us." God grant that with all the scintillating brain of womanhood 
in this age we may each and all take for our motto, "Womanliness first, 
afterwards what you will." 



THE NEEDS OF SOUTHERN WOMEN 169 



THE NEEDS OF SOUTHERN WOMEN. 

BY MISS CLARA CONWAY. 

There comes to me oftentimes the vision of a sunrise on Lake Geneva 
— the breaking of a perfect dawn on lake and mountain. The. white morn- 
ing mist drifted away in long, fleecy wreaths of vapor, till, iridescent with 
the morning light, they couched in sofb masses upon the broad breast of 
the mountain. The great sun had sent his flaming torch-bearer to take the 
message of his coming, and the heavens were a scarlet canopy. The 
wliite mist flushed until it became a garland of roses wreathing the gray 
hills. The quiet lake was a burning mirror, taking on all the colors of 
the resplendent sky — liquid gold and silver, pink and gray, white, green, 
blue, a great flashing, brilliant kaleidoscope — this was/the Lake of Geneva 
waked into morning light and beauty hy the summer sun. The great chain 
of the Alps stood afar off, grim and gray, except that Mount Blanc, in 
" crystal silence," lifted its snowy head high over all, pure and cold, in the 
morning light. In the north, great drifts of purple clouds massed them- 
selves against a background of living green. In the east, a ball of fire 
came up, scattering the mists like frightened ghosts, and unrolling huge 
banners of light, until the sky was a living flame. As I looked, the up- 
coming sun paid ho heed to the dark, grim mountains. There they stood, 
silent and awful, untouched by the swift light that leaped from cloud to 
cloud. But lo ! as I look again, a long line of rosy light is thrown out 
across the sky toward the south till it touches the white head of Mount 
Blanc. There it rests, and the snowy summit is bathed in rosy splendor. 
The mountain monarch seemed to say, *' Let there be light," and there was 
great joy among the mountains. '* What ailed thee? O, ye mountains, 
that ye skipped like rams and ye little hills like lambs?" 

Shall life be less beautiful than one of its mornings? Shall we, who 
are women, be tempted " to lie down and rest, to quench aspiration, be- 
cause of its trouble, and thought, because of its weariness ?" Shall you, 
who are men, shut down the lid of hope upon a woman's life and bid her 
sit with folded hands all the day idle ? Shall we not, rather resolve, men 
and women alike, come what will, to disentangle truth from the meshes of 
falsehood and error. Shall we not make our way through the dai'kness of 
ignorance out into the full, clear sunlight of God's truth, ''for the truth 



170 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

shall make us free." And if at first we do not see the way, '' if the gloom 
be too thick, and the noise too loud, let it be our wisdom to wait till there 
be light enough for action ;*' then, when the fight is over, *' and the mists 
float away in the west to die in the daylight of God," we shall know the 
full, strong meaning of the word, " Well done, good and faithful servant." 

To-night, if there be one indifferent to the women's cry for more of 
the bread of life ; who would shut his eyes to the growing light, or raise 
his voice in stern rebuke, him would I remind of the divine reproof: 
" Why trouble ye the woman? Let her alone. She has wrought a good 
work for me." 

But no apology is needed for the word which 1 shall speak. The mists 
of error, falsehood, and ignorance are dissolving in the sunlight of troth, 
justice, and liberty, and here in this great, free, growing Northwest, no one 
questions a woman's right to do what to her seemeth best. I do not, there- 
fore, ask if we may rightly claim for ourselves what one of the catechisms 
calls the three gifts of the Holy Ghost, '* will, memory, and understanding." 
As if I should ask whence came these gifts, you would probably answer 
with one voice, "-From God, or by the working of his law." 

'^ God is law, say the wise ; O ! soul, and let us rejoice. 

For if He thunder by law, the thunder is yet His voice ; 

Law is God, say some, no God at all says the fool, 

For all we have power to see is a straight staff bent in a pool ; 

And the ear of man cannot hear, and the eye of man cannot see. 

But if we could see and hear this vision — were it not He?" 

If you admit mental faculties and capacities, which are the gift of 
God, let us begin by considering the question, why were they given? That 
they may be hid under a bushel? '' Neither do men light a candle and put 
it under a bushel, but on a candlestick, and it giveth light unto all that are 
in the house." And shall she who is the light of the home, its centre, its 
royal mistress — shall she do less? Shall she crush her ambitions, silence 
her hopes, kill her aspirations, because she is a woman ? 

One of the strong arguments for immortality is the natural longing for 
life in the heart of man. 

'* Whatever crazy sorrow saith, 

No life that breathes with human breath, 

Has ever truly longed for death, 

*Tis more life And fuller that we want." 

" Man has capacities which ask an eternity for bloom and fruitage," 
and He who implanted in the heart this natural hunger meant that it 
should be answered. He, who gave to woman, hopes and aspirations, 
reaching from the centre to the circumference of human life, meant that 
these needs should be filled. How can this be done, is the next considera- 
tion. I answer, by a full, rounded, harmonious development of every 



THE NEEDS OF SOUTHERN WOMEN. 171 

God-given power. By the highest cultivation, physically, mentally, and 
spiritually. By such careful, systematic, all-rounded training as will best 
fit her for eternal life. By such development as will make her spiritual hap- 
piness of the most supreme import. " We do not live by bread alone," and 
much as I value self-reliant womanhood, independence is not the first consid- 
eration. " There is more than one utility in relation to the welfare of man- 
kind. True education does not increase our matericU happiness only. It 
does more »than provide for outward wants ; it does more than enable us to 
succeed in our worldly ambitions. To give a roof over the head is im- 
portant, but to awake the heart, to feed the germs of sympathy, tenderness, 
and parity, to stir within the softl the sleeping enthusiasm for truth, are 
conditions of eternal life/' and ^* is not the life more than meat, and the 
body than raiment?'* 

The desire to help woman towards the attainment of a high ideal 
should be founded upon reverence for the divine within her and a desire to 
help her see the divine idea, and to express it in her life. This should be 
the basis of all true education. Upon such strong and sure foundations 
will naturally arise the structure of an independent womanhood, firmly 
centred because God-centred. 

'^ And the rains descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew 
and beat upon the house, and it fell not, for it was founded upon a rock." 
Such education will place women forever beyond the reach of want, 
or a dishonoring marriage —marriage for a living or a home. I would have 
every woman so strengthened and disciplined, so fortified against want and 
dependence, that she would give her hand onl}- where her heart had gone 
before. I would have her so brave and strong that the reproachful term 
'' old maid *' would have no terror for her. I would have her feel that there 
need be no superfluous woman in all the lands. I would have her know 
that though a perfect marriage is the most perfect of all earth's joys, mar- 
ried misery is the misery of hell itself. I know women who are walking 
silently to the tomb with breaking hearts, bearing burdens too great for 
any human life. This is the natural result of the ruling of corrupt and 
rotten customs, because, as has been said with great force, the whole sys- 
tem of society as regards the mode of establishing girls in life, is one 
plague of cowardice and imposture — cowardice, in not daring to let them 
live or love except as their neighbors choose ; and imposture, in bringing 
for the purpose of our own pride, the full glow of the world's worst vanity 
upon a girl's eyes at the very time that the happiness of her future life 
depends upon her remaining undazzled. 

I have said, let us give out women such training mentally, morally, and 

physically as will destroy the force of the word superfluous women. But 

how are we to do this? The how is not so readilj^ j^poken as the wherefore. 

In the North many of the great endowed colleges are open to women. 

In the South scarcely one. Cornell and Michigan University oflfer the same 



172 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

course of study to men and women students. Vassar, Wellesley, Smith 
are women's colleges, and offer rare opportunities for attaining the best. 
Harvard has a constantly widening annex, and even conservative Yale has 
a fine art school open to all. Besides these there are schools of art in all 
the great citi«s — ^industrial and scientific schools and business colleges — 
and as the result women are filling places of trust and profit in many 
departtoents of commercial industry. These things are only beginning to 
reach us in the South. The old-time school for girls with no endowment 
fund, and a superficial course of study is being built up by a strong and 
growing public ijentiment, yet in the light of the newly dawning day we 
read the promise of better things. But the light of the present hour shows 
us the State University in which a boy may find the best ; while the sister 
of that boy, even though she be his superior mentally, having the same or 
higher ambitions, aspirations, and hopes, must go to a far-ofl[ college for a 
full education, or she must be content with the superficial course of the 
town academy or fashionable boarding-school. But she can get married I 
3'ou may answer. Can she? How do you know? Let us suppose, bow- 
ever, that she can and does marry, and let us read her history a few years 
later. We find her standing alone one day in a world, for whose fierce and 
bitter contest she is not armed ; alone, save for the little ones whose help- 
lessness is their best appeal. The mother's instinct is too strong to let her 
die, and rising with the strength born of a woman's love, she chokes down 
the rising sob, wipes the tears from her eyes, and begins to look aboat for 
something to do, something by which to put bread into the hungry months 
of the children. She may sew, you think. Unless one is an artist with 
the needle, to live by it is a process of slow starvation. Then she can 
teach, you say. Let us see. Suppose she comes to me. I say in reply to 
her statement that she can teach little children. ''Can you? Then you 
are worth more than 3'our weight in gold." But let us see : What do you 
mean by "teach"? How would you begin? What is the philosoph}'- of 
teaching? Name the powers of a child's mind in the order of their true 
development? She cannot. These things are a sealed book, but she is 
willing to learn. What would you say, business men, if one professing to 
be a mechanic should, without tools and without skill, seek work at your 
hands? These are parallel cases, in one sense, the lower and material; in 
the higher spiritual sense they are far removed as pole from pole, for the 
teacher deals with human souls, and I have no word of condemnation 
strong enough for the man or woman who undertakes to mould a human 
destiny, without knowledge of the material with which he works. The 
teacher's work is sacred, heaven-ordained. 

But I am not yet done with the forlorn woman who has knocked at my 
door, and hoping still to help her, I ask: "Had you the advantages of 
university study ?' ' ' *No," she answers sadly ; "1 hoped for as much, but in 
my girlhood the college doors were closed against me." I tell her I am 



THE NEEDS OF SOUTHERN WOMEN. 178 

sorry, but I cannot help her. Were I a city board of education, or as 
county board of trustees, and were she a sister, cousin, or aunt, I might 
mercifully find her a place, but even in that case she hopelessly flounders 
on, the " blind leading the blind,'* the generous board of education, respon- 
sible to high heaven when both she and the little ones fall into the ditch. 
Remember this is the self-same girl whose aspirations were stifled in that 
by-gone time, but whose brother had the blessed privilege of a full course 
in the university of his native State. And j-et with or without that coui*bc 
any place in the nation is within his reach, from the anvil to the pulpit, 
from the ])low to the presidential chair, while the college doors are closed 
against the girl who would have entered if only to eat of the "crumbs which 
fall from the master's table." 

O ! Fathers of our land, is this a just discrimination in favor of your 
sons and against your daughters? Do you consider that the fair, sweet 
girl at your side to-night, may be this poor unhappy woman of the future ? 
No father here, or elsewhere throughout this broad, free land, even though 
he count his income by the millions, can give an absolute guarantee to his 
daughter that in twenty years she shall not be poor and helpless, unless, 
indeed, he be wise enough to cultivate her best gift. Unfortunately we 
have educated our girls to believe that their very helplessness is their best 
appeal to the helpfulness of some man, who will one day become the pro- 
tector and bread-winner. If any one present should answer me with the 
thought, "This is as it should be ; God meant it so in the beginning." 
To him I say that I am not dealmg with that phase of the question. What 
God meant in the beginning, I have no means of determining. Evil is in 
the world to-day and rampant. How it came and why, is a secret locked 
up in the bosom of God. The conditions are reversed, the times out of 
joint. Hundreds of women and children are without protectors, and what 
18 worse, unable to protect themselves. Your argument would have some 
force — a very little — if every woman married happily, and could have a 
guarantee made in the court of heaven, signed, sealed, and delivered, that 
her husband should be strong, temperate, competent, and long-lived. But 
it has no force at all, while unmarried women are on every hand, while 
widows and orphaned children fill the air with their piteous wails and lam- 
entations. The promise of a happy home and wifehood cannot be given. 
What father or mother then will dare lift up a presumptuous voice to say : 
^^These things shall not come to me or mine." I know helpless women whose 
hopes were once as bright and fair as those of any within the sound of my 
voice to-night, women to whom the thought of self-dependence never 
came. In the face of these things, in the face of the glaring and terrible 
stories of desertion, cruelty, and murder that fill our papers, do you tell me 
that women should not be fitted for a life work as well as men ? 

There is a senseless, unfounded prejudice against the liberal educa- 
tion of woman, which finds its best expression in the term "strong- 



174 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

minded," applied to any woman who thinks, reads, and reasons. It ib 
said that such women are not fond of home, that they neglect its duties, and 
find their chief happiness elsewhere. I have never seen more beautifnl 
homes than those of women in Syracuse, N. Y., who spend their Saturdays 
in the woods botanizing, and who have been so successful in their favoritt- 
study that they are quoted as authority by the botanists of America. 

I have never seen a lovelier home than that of a Boston woman who had 
made a close, careful, and systematic study of Shakespeare for more than 
twenty years. 

I have never breathed a sweeter air than that of a household on a 
Mississippi plantation, presided over by a gentle woman, full of all sweet- 
ness and grace, yet who gives part of each day to the study of political 
economy, for the comprehension and intelligent discussion of the vexed 
question of free trade and tariff reform. Home ! Why, it is the sweetest 
word in the wide range of every true woman's vocabulary. I claim the 
highest education for woman, " that she may have the power to fill her 
home with inspirations, with all spiritual forces that will fit her for worthi- 
ly sitting at the head of her household. Such training lends a glory to 
material things, and lifts up the commonplace to the plane of tho spiritaal. 
E^ery simple homely art becomes the symbol of a willingness to please and 
a desire to give our best to those whom we love and honor.** The heart 
finds its best expression in little tendernesses like that of the woman in the 
gospel, of whom was said, " Wheresoever the gospel shall be preached in 
all the world, this also which this woman has done, shall be told as a 
memorial of her.'* 

This education is becoming the ambition of young American woman- 
hood, but as yet the girls of the South must look away from home for the 
opportunities of a broad and deep culture. The blessings of university 
study are not within their easy reach. Many of them, because of their 
poverty, cannot go away from home. We need a university at our door, 
and we must have it. We are ready, the time is ripe, the demand is strong 
and pressing. Since the spirit of the age does not swing open the pon- 
derous gates of Vanderbilt University, our girls must have their own col- 
leges. Every consideration of right and justice demands it. Some time 
since, desiring to send pupils to some well-appointed college, for special 
study, to fit them for teaching, I looked about for an opportunity near l»y, 
and though they and I live almost in the shadow of Vanderbilt, it was 
necessary to send them to the far-off East. It cannot be otherwise until 
our universities open their doors to women, or until well-endowed colleges 
are established in our land. 

The spirit of the higher education is abroad ; our girls are beginning 
to hunger and thirst. Soon no one will dare shut the door of any college 
in a woman's face with his dogmatic, ''Thus far and no farther." 



THE NEEDS OF SOUTHERN WOMEN 175 

'^ We, who believe not in a capricious idol of power, but in a just 
Father, who loves — we. who hold that there is nothing which is not in God 
— cannot doubt the end." It is a beautiful thought that our best desires 
are but pictures of the things God means to give us, and so it is that I see 
in the wish nearest my heart to-night, the bold outline of a university, 
which, to use Dr. Mayo's words, shall be furnished with everything need- 
ful, without a flaw of sham education, from lofty turret to foundation 
stone, 80 well endowed, that for $200 a year a thousand students will 
throng its corridors, and no girl be kept out because of her poverty. 

The great acquired and inherited fortunes will do this work in a way 
to '^ blazon them with the gold of honor and brighten with tears of grati- 
tude.'* And whenever, throughout this land, such a work is needed, do it, 
men and women of the North and South. I use the words North and 
South in a geographical sense only. They have no other meaning to us 
now. We are all simply Americans ; the North is mine equally with the 
South ; the South is yours equally with the North. There was a family row 
in the past, but it is settled now, and the boy in gray has come home to 
spend bis days, the impulsive, hot-headed, large-hearted boy, youngest and 
well-beloved son of a fond mother, who floundered about in his little states- 
right boat till it went to pieces in the breakers. He returned as if awakened 
from a troubled dream, the blue sky and bright sunlight were above him, 
and the twittering birds in the trees about him. Putting his arms around 
his mother's neck, he said : " I will be a good boy, mother." Smoothing 
his disordered hair with lier fair, soft hand, and wiping the tears from his 
eyes, she pressed upon his lips the kiss of peace and reconciliation. He 
has kept his word, and to-day there is no more loving or more loyal son in 
all the land than the boy in gray, way down South in Dixie. 

Men of America, whether great or small, you are first among the na- 
tions. Setting foot upon our soil, for the first time in months, after a 
visit to another land, your manly courtesy, your tender, whole-souled 
reverence, made me feel that to be an American woman, was to wear the 
crown of queenhood in my own right. The courtly grace of the French- 
man, the profound gravity of the German, the wide culture of the English- 
man, I remember with pleasure and gratitude, but the honest, whole- 
he|irtedness of the American gentleman, his broad, liberal thought, his 
nobility of soul, are a glory to the nation and an honor to all manhood. 
In the name of that nobility and for the sake of the woman whom you love, 
give the strength of your manhood to the upbuilding of such institutions 
for your daughters as will lend an added glory to our land. Some years 
ago, in conversation with one of our Tennessee University men, I said these 
words : " If I were eighteen years old to-morrow, I would knock at the 
door of the Tennessee University saying, ' Gentlemen, may I come in?' " 
He answered: ''If / were there I would say in reply, 'Come in Miss 
Clara, have a chair and make yourself perfectly at home.' " He is not 



176 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

here in the flesh to-night, but others are, as large of soul and wide of 
vision. Make the spirit of his words 3'our own, by removing every barrier 
that lies in the path of progress, by lending a strong, helping hand to the 
sister woman who knocks at the gate, by saying to her with the nobility 
and grace worthy of your American manhood : " O ! woman, great is thy 
faith ; be it unto thee, even as thou' wilt." 



INDIAN EDUCATION 177 



EDUCATION OF THE INDIAN. 

General S. C. Armstrong, of Hampton, Virginia, was introduced and 
spoke as follows : 

For over a hundred yeara the Indian question has been a concern of this Nation. 
It has recognized its duties to these people. The result of it must be regarded as dis- 
appointing. Oovernment can build bridges and railroads and custom-houses, but it can- 
not make men ; it amounts to what has been fitly described as a century of dishonor. 
During the same time, the Christian philanthropy of this country has recognized the 
claims of the Indian in a noble, faithful, but comparatively quiet work during the cen- 
tury, the result of which has been far from appreciated. The Cherokees and other 
tribes of the Indian Territory and a portion of the Sioux and other of the Northern and 
Northwesterly tribes have been labored with most successfully. It is no time to de- 
tail these things now, but I wish to refer to the fact that this century has not been one 
of dishonor so far as the Christian education of the Indian has been concerned. The 
criticism on it has been that it has been limited, but its success has been assured. 
There are bright spots over all this Indian country to make proof of that, one of the 
brightest of which will be represented by Mr. Riggs, who will succeed me on this plat- 
form. 

Wherever I go I find this question, Does it pay? To-day the majority of intelli- 
gent people of tills country do. not know whether it is worth while, and the great point 
that seems to be made is this, can the Indian be civilized, or, more properly, does the 
Indian stay civilized? What becomes of him when he is educated and returns to his 
own country? That question has only been answered effectually by workers across the 
Mississippi ; the reports that come in the Missionary magazines few have read, and I 
have come to you, representing the Eastern work particularly, Carlisle as well as 
Hampton, to say that we bring nothing new, but simply repeat and affirm what has 
been proved by better men than we are in these past generations. We say this : that 
there is no difficulty in educating Indians. My own personal experience has covered 
only six years, but in that time it has been quite thorough. We have selected Indians 
from eight or ten different reservations, chiefly Sioux, brought them from t)ie wild 
Northwest and the Southwest, thrown them into civilizing surroundings for about three 
years, giving about half the time to two studies, viz : the English language and indus- 
trial work, chiefly teaching them the trades, some attention being given to agriculture, 
but especially to the mechanic arts ; giving the girls instruction in the art of making 
and sewing garments and cooking and household work, and teaching the young men 
eleven different trades, the most important of which is carpentering and blacksmithing 
and wheelwrighting and harnessmaking, work in leather and wood, which is the most 
important at their homes. As the result of this work we have sent back already one 
hundred who have had a three years* course or near that. Thirty returned so recently 
that it is pot fair to claim much for them, though they are all in a hopeful way and at 
work, but some seventy returned over a year ago, commencing in 1881 and over 
a year and a half after that. There is an opportunity to speak fairly of the tendency 
of the Indian when he is educated and returns to the wild life on the reservations. To 
take an Indian or any other wild man from wild life, anybody but a degraded white 
man, anybody who has been in the midst of life and rejected it, those we do not claim 
to do much with, but for those who never knew the light, those who never fell because 
they had no place to fall from, there is great hope for them, and the work for these 
races, the Indian and Negro, is the most stimulating and hopeful of any on this conti- 
nent, for the reason that those to whom light is first offered receive it with an earnest- 
ness that you, the teachers of the white race that live in the light, know little about. 
These seventy Indians who are a fair test of the work that has been done at Hampton 
12b 



178 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

and Carlisle represent the practical, sensible method of manual labor. Of these seventy , 
all but seven have done fairly wtll. Only seven have gone back to the blanket, which 
means they put on the war paint, ttttend the war dances and live a lazy, camp life; nof 
one of them has become a h(ir.-e-thief or a renegade. 1 believe that the result of 
Indian education for the last five years' will show that not one of them will do what 
some of our public men say they will all do, that is, take to the war path and murder. 
They have some of them relapsed, perhaps ten per cent. Aside from those who have re- 
lapsed, eight of them have died, and the others are doing fairly well, principally sup- 
ported by the occupations that are given to them within the Indian reservation where 
the Government has its carpenters and blacksmiths, etc. That is the hope of the re- 
turned Indian under the supervision of the Government and under the supervision of 
the Indian agents, who employ a number of wliite men. Those white men are doing 
what the Indians should do; there is no difficulty with the Indian, they make the shoes 
and harness and all the things that are to be made in a perfectly satisfactory way, and 
they learn to manufacture at the Indian schools a great variety of things purchased by 
the Government for the Indian service, and they do it well. The result of educating 
Indians is that we find that Indians arc very much like other people. With the same 
chance in the school they will do as well as whiteo, particularly in the mechanic arts, but 
when they return the tendency is to do as young white men do when they go into the 
unrestrained life of the West. The Indian is the victim of circumstances, as the rest 
of us are. The education of the Indian is very eapy when we have the proper appli- 
ances. 

Twenty-five thousand of the thirty thousand Indians to be educated must be edu- 
cated on their reservations. ' The point of taking them to the schools in the East is that 
we are able to devote more money to the work and have better fitted establishments of 
every kind. On the other hand, this work at the East, I think it is fair to say, was 
inspired by Captain Pratt, that great tamer of man, a man who never went to school 
perhaps over two years in his whole life, who conceived that a band of red-handed 
prisoners of war might be improved ; and the result of that noble effort on his part, 
unsustained by Government, unsympathized with by all, is the grand movement at 
the present time in connection with Indian education. Hampton came in and continued 
that work when no one else would lend a hand. On that basis he organized Carlisle, 
and the work at those schools has been an object lesson. People representing the edu- 
cation and the wealth of the country have come there from all parts, and there has been 
an object lesson in Indian civilization given to our people that has been a great thing 
for the cause. The work West and the work East has its special significance. That 
in the East has had the effect of building up that public sentiment which is at the bot- 
tom of any political movement or social movement in any civilized country. When 
they go back what happens to them, do they fall? I have giv^n you the facts; why 
should it be so? simply this, if you can only give the returned Indian occupation, he will 
work. We have sent them right back there among those old tents and tepees, and 
those Indian boys went at once to the chief and said, *' Let us have a house by our- 
selves." He promised to do it, and they got a cook and lived by themselves, out of the 
old camp life, and they were appointedto their duties of carpenter, blacksmith, or this or 
that, and they went to work. The gospel of hard work enters into this question very 
largely. Wherever they had plenty to do, wherever they had proper management on 
the part of the agents, they have not gone back to their old ways. Every effort that 
is put forth is a thing to be thankful for. The fault of the Indian policy is cheap men, 
cheap beef, cheap everything; that is the weak point in the Indian work. The sixty 
Indian agents are getting about 91200 a year. How are they to live on this $1200. 
which is only about twice the pay of a common laborer ; how are they to make up tliis 
amount? They are almost forced to steal. The Indian agent is the only white man 
the Indian knows ; he calls him father; he stands to the Indian as the embodiment of 
civilization ; let him be fine and high and the Indian will move on. To one who has 
visited the agencies the difference in the Indians is the difference in the condition of the 
agents. It is a question of money to some extent, but the Indian question, like all 
questions involving the progress of humanity, is a question of men. I have been at 
nearly all the Indian agencies in the country, and I came away from them all impref^scd 
with that one idea. Let the Indian agents be men, and this question will be settled. 
Whether it is dividing up the lands, or keeping out whiskey, or the matter of educa- 
tion, or griving them work, or this or that, the man there stands for everything, and 
where there is a good man the work is progressing. These people have got to be led 
and influenced. I dwell on this as that which, in my experience, is the most discour- 
aging point, that our work at Hampton is one-half, and the easiest half, of the work for 



INDIA y EDUCATION. 179 

the Indian. Is it possible to get good men in? We try to select good men, and by 
every influence get good men there; and rather than bave them leave we belp them. 
When the Koman Catholic, McLaughlin, was about to leave last winter in order to get* 
a better siilarv, a protestant lady in Boston gave 9400 to be added to his salary that be 
might be retained, and s^he never made better use of ber money. 

A wave of progress isi moving across the continent at the rate of twenty miles a 
year. Unless vigorous action i^ tjtken the Indian will be wiped out. While this is 
true, and the Indian seems to lie giving way on the one hand, there is the singular fact 
that these two hundred thoui^aml Indians are keeping at bay our whole fifty millions of 
Anglo-Saxons, demanding that we shall feed them or they will fight. That anomaly 
exists, that rather than fight tiiein we will feed them, and feeding them in this way is 
worse than flogging them. The old Mlaveholfler was h gentle, tender master compared 
with the would-be politician who would vute food to put into their stomachs that cost 
them no sacrifice whatever. We bave made by this feeding process manhood impossi- 
ble, and that is the great crime we have committed against them. 

What is the remedy for all this? We wish good men to take bold of this; 
that is about the upshot of the question. The trouble is not in the Indian or his 
surroundings so much as in legislation at our National Capitol ; there is the difficulty ; 
in our public men, most of them who mean well, but few of them are posted, and many 
of them' are ignorant and indifferent. The indifference of Congress is the curse of the 
Indian. For the last two or three sessions of Congress there has been a great improve- 
ment ; there has been a wonderful improvement in the ideas of our educators on the 
subject of the education of the Indians. When we look back at the way things were a 
few years ago there is rea.<<on to thank God and take courage. Washington is where 
the thing is to be done, and not on the plains. We must go back of the legislators; 
there is somebody to blame nearer home than that; it is you ; you represent the people; 
it is the put)lic sentiment which underlies every question in every civilized nation, and 
if the public sentiment were right, there would be no difficulty in Washington. The 
trouble is with the people; they do not care about the thing; it is the indifferentism of 
the people that makes the indifferentism and it^norance of Congress; that works this 
great negative wrong to the Indian, and keeps the doors of manhood and womanhood 
closed to them ; but I think there is hope. About three centuries ago there came curi- 
ously in contact three races, the Negro, the Anglo-Saxon, and the Indian. On the 
banks of the James River, a few miles from the town of Hampton, that germ of 
English life, with others planted along our coast, has expanded into a population of 
over fifty million, the destiny of whom it is to become the teachers of the race, and you 
have a big job on band. We can hardly ask your attention from that to the compara- 
tively small concerns of the red and the black races, but it is interesting to note how 
the five hundred thousand who were brought from the African coasts in the slave ships 
and landed on the shores of America have increased to six millions, and are multiply- 
ing faster than any other race on earth. Those people brought here in slavery while 
under the lash learned our language, acquired our industrial habits, and embraced the 
Christian faith. All these three were equally imperfect, but all were tremendous for- 
ward movements in the hand of God, who overrules the wrath of man and makes it 
praise Him. There was no grander move, morally, in the history of man than that of 
American slavery, paralleled only by that of the Children of Israel, and for the same 
motive and in the same direction. We have not yet learned to look at that thing 
rightly. When we get cooler and calmer we will see it. Experience has given me 
these views. The Indian, on the other hand, has neither our language nor our labor 
habits, nor our industry, nor our religion. The Rappahoes and the Sioux, tens of 
thousands, are just as far from our religion as the people of China. It is one of the 
startling things in American life that there were probably three hundred thousand of 
these people at the time our forefathers landed, and to-day about two hundred and 
sixty-two thousand. Dying out, you may say. Yes, the pure blood Indians are either 
holding their own or decreasing, but the half-bloods are increasing. The Indian is 
here to stay, but not the full blood Indian. It will finally resolve itself into a curious 
question of Indians who are not Indians, but who have the legal fights of Indians. 
They are a permanent factor whose form may be changed, but who will not be de- 
stroyed. With the negro, by the great factors of the surrounding influences of civil- 
ization, citizenship, and education, a result will be produced that will be a credit to our 
country ; a grand thing for that race and the ultimate redemption of Africa, which was, 
under God, the moral objective of American slavery, I believe. The Indian wants just 
the same; he wants that surrounding influence of civilization, which is the first condi- 
tion of progress that the negro has ; he has it not. The red race seems to yield or die, 



180 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

where the black race holds its own and even increases ; still it must come to thiB» and 
is coming : The Indian race, by means of the railroad and trade, is coming into con- 
tact with civilization, and if it kills him he must meet it; he has got to have that, for 
there is no force equal to that of the railroad and of trade and business. It is ten 
times to the negro what our schools are. We think we are the educators ; nonsense, 
we are only doing only a little part of it. The educators of this country' who are pro- 
fessionally so are only part of the educating force. Commerce and trade ia an enor- 
mous educator, if you look at it rightly, and that is coming to the Indian, and. if it 
kills him, never mind; he has got to have it, and he must be prepared to meet it; that 
is what makes the crisis. In order to meet it, he wants these other two things, citizen- 
ship and education ; that i;3 what the negro had. It gives every person who comes in 
your country from abroad the benefit of bur national digestion. We must bring to 
operate upon the Indian, as we do on all the races, this assimilative force that we have 
got, and if it is strong enough it will settle all questions of our future, and if not we 
will break down with political dyspepsia. I think we can stand the Indian as we do the 
rest. The question is whether he can stand us. We must give them citizenship ; we 
must make them voters, and we must educate them. 



The President : General Eaton is here at this moment and I have 
asked him to speak because he is obliged to leave. 

General Eaton : I cannot tell you how much I am delighted that you have had 
this opportunity of hearing General Armstrong. They have in Ireland what they call 
a travelling dairy, taken about the country by a good Bishop to tetich the dairymaids 
how to make butter. General Armstrong is the travelling dairy of this Indian question. 
He teaches the good people of the North and the East on this question. I am delighted 
that you have had the opportunity to listen to him, and that you have listened with 
Buch Interest and attention. Now I beg you, it may not prove to be merely that inter- 
est and attention that you give to a novel, to a fine and pleasant fiction, for this ia a terri- 
ble fact, and I recall this, that, when I included in the national report of education the 
subject of Indian education, there were objections to my including it by teachers of the 
nation. *'What had the national report on education to do with the education of the 
Indian?" But we have included the statement year after year. Now the teachers of 
the country are ready to have the subject on the program of their convention, and 
they are delighted and intensely interested by these addresses. But you have some- 
thing to do. General Armstrong has pointed out to you that the difficulty is not with 
the Indian. It is your work. With this work you have a direct responsibility, and you 
can act, every one of you in your place, and that is what I want to call your attention 
to. You have your relation as citizens ; you have your relation as teachers ; you hold 
positions of influence ; you have your relations to members of Congress, every one of 
you, whether man or woman, and you are bO far responsible as you hold that relation 
for the action of the members of Congress. See to it then and do something. Do not 
think because you are in the distance, and only one, that you can be excused from 
action. You cannot be excused, and you will by and by produce results. You have 
produced results this very year. I remember very well when once called upon in the 
presence of teachers to say a word about education in the Territories. 1 alluded to the 
subject of education in Alaska, and when I sat down, a good friend of mine said, **You 
have made a fool of yourself in alluding to a question so far out of the way with this 
body of teachers ; what have they to do with education in Alaska?" My dear friends, I 
never had such a conception of a teacher as that. I believe that the teacher of 
America has a relation to every child in America and I try to act on that principle. I 
remember once when the presiding officer half pushed me off the stage when I was 
trying to enforce the idea of negro aid, and friends came down and said, **Why did 
you not resist that app>irent insult?" No, my friends, we are not yet in the millennium, 
but we are going, towards it mighty fast. I say you have done something this very 
year, and I want to tell you how it works. That subject of Alaska is grand. There 
is something accomplished on that subject; and the teachers that would not at first con- 
sider themselves responsible or interested in the subject have come to the rescue and 
the petitions they have sent up from their localities north, east, west, and south. Con- 
gress has acted upon, and there is a government in Alaska, and there have been 
appropriated twenty-five thousand dollars for general education, and fifteen thou- 
sand dollars for industrial schools in Alaska. Now with reference to this popula- 



INDIAN EDUCATION. 181 

tion ; some of those problems that General Armstrong has suggested need not exist 
unless you force them upon this people, and you shouhl be intelligent about it and see 
to it that the Government never complicates the administration of public affairs in 
Alaska with some of the elements of the Indian problem that have arisen elsewhere. 
There are about twenty thousand of those people there. Let us give them a fair 
chance. It is one of the grandest opportunities for a great educational experiment 
ever offered to the American people. It is on a large scale and it is off by itself. It is 
not complicated as the question of negro education was in the South. Let us study it. 
I^et us go at it philosophically ; let us bring to the problem the experience of other 
nations in educating degraded populations ; let us take the child as he is and move him 
along the road of life, giving him a knowledge how to use his hand and his brain, and 
every faculty he has, for his own good, and the good of his neighbor, and the honor of 
(lod. It is in the power of education to do it, and if it fails, you. Ladies and Gentle- 
men, I charge you, in a measure, will be responsible for it. Do not go away delighted 
with this speech of General Armstrong merely, or with what you saw in the exhibition 
above, but go away to do something ; go away to make your preacher feel that here 
are some of the damnable sins that he should preach about, and which should be cor- 
rected under your influence, and make your member of Congress feel that here are 
some of the great problems of statesmanship that are entitled to his attention and to 
his honest and faithful action, and we shall have it if you are effective in your 
endeavors. These problems are all connected. This points out to you that you have 
a national relation; it points out to you how you mdy help General Armstrong and 
others laboring with him in these great problems; and those state superintendents and 
city superintendents and teachers of the South that come up with a measure of self- 
sacrifice that yrm, who live in Iowa and Minnesota and these rich and advanced locali- 
ties in rospect to education, have no knowledge of. You see where your efforts may 
help them, and although you cannot give them dollars ; although you cannot give them 
teachers that can work for nothing, you can say to your member of Congress, here is a 
national obligation, these people want education, they are endeavoring to get it for 
themselves ; they are confiscating their property in some instances now to get universal 
education. It is an obligation of the general Government, and it should be met by 
every ropresentative in (Congress. Let the teachers of the country see to this, and 
light will break. The bill that is now lodged in the House of Hepresentatives, or 
some other equally good bill should be passed, and there will be glory in the land. 

The President : Ladies and Gentlemen : We have a beautiful object 
lesson in our Exposition of the Indian work in its physical form. We 
have also an object lesson to present to 3'ou in the beautiful song which the 
Indian boj's and girls frotn the Santee Normal training school will sing in 
their own Dakota language. We are very glad to welcome to-day a num- 
ber of teachers and quite a number of pupils of the Santee Normal training 
school of Nebraska. The Rev. Dr. Riggs, of sainted memory, began the 
work in the Indian country many 3ears ago, under a great sacrifice and 
with great toil, and almost life itself was in danger. He has gone to his 
rest, but has left his sons to carry on the great work. We see some of the 
fruits of the seed which he planted so many years ago. 

The Indian pupils then sang "America" in the Dakota language and 
a hymn in English. 

Mr. a. L. Riggs, principal of the Santee Normal training school of 
Nebraska, was then introduced and spoke as follows : 

My Friends. I take it that the question of the possibility of educating Indians is 
settled; thai no more discussion is needed on that point, and 1 belie .c to-day that the 
teachers of this country are taking up the question of Indian education as a problem 
of their future work, and, with that conviction, I would contribute something if pos- 



182 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

8ible to the dlearing up of that problem, and speak for a few moments of certain diffi- 
cultifg that lie in the way of Indian education which must be met, or else our efforts 
will be more or less failures. 1 know that I might choose something more ple»<ant 
and perhaps more entertaining, but, as workers, hs those intent upon accomplishing a 
certain result, I believe that you will welcome any thing thtitcan be contributed by one 
who has msde this subject a life-long study. There are four present difficulties. The 
first ist in the fact that the Indian is a wild man. The second lies in the fact that he 
ha^ little individual or independent personality. The third is in his religion. The 
fourtii is in his language. I will speak briefly, as time may give me chance, upon 
some of ihese points. 

In saying that the Indian is of a wild nature I do not mean that he is natnrally 
savage or vicious. White men can be and are more savage and more vicious than any 
Indian. I do not mean either that he needs to be tamed. The Indian is the most 
gentle of the human race, but he has an undisciplined character. He lacks habit : 
habits of thought, habits of body and of work. He cannot think of any thing with the 
idea of having it continued in like manner and with regularity. The Indian woman 
does not make two moccasins alike ; and consequently we ftnd right here one of the 
greatest difficulties and obstacles to carrying out any of the higher ideas of education. 
We have to biggin back of where we ordinarily begin, because some things that we take 
for granted we find do not succeed, for the basis is not there. An Indian has very little 
idea of time. He lives in space, but his idea of time is deficient. One day, one year, is 
just as good as another, and although, in truth, he is the most honest man upon the 
continent, yet he is never known to repay a loan when he says he will. The Indian, as 
I said, has little independent personality; he is a member of a corporate body ; he 
lives in that corporate lif^ ; that corporation may have no formal organization, or very 
little, and yet it is a power. It is the power, the unit, in Indian society, and not the 
individual. It is the family, the clan, the tribe, the people ; but the man, never. And 
this is the important thing to be taken into consideration in any efforts for his civiliza- 
tion and his education. It is not only the generation of to-day that rules him, but all 
the generations of the past sit upon his shoulders. You may have before you a bright 
child and think that you have only to do with him, but you are not only trying to teach 
him but all his grandfathers, both living and dead. Other difficulties are found in his 
language and in his religion. By his religion he is bound into this life that has come to 
him from his forefathers. He is one of them in tradition, in practice, and however he 
might like to yield to the solicitations of his white brother, whom he recognizes as 
superior, and whose God he is willing to call the great God, yet he says that liis Go«i 
will not allow it. And so before you can bring him into a ne^r life and into a new hope, 
you must give him a new religion and a new God. 

Now there are certain practical conclusions that come, and one is that training 
must occupy a more important place in Indian education than it may needs occupy in 
white education. Teaching is not enough. Teachinsf is not the principal thing, but so 
to realize that teaching, to materialize it, if necessary, as to give it body, form, and 
reality to him, and through that process to bring him into habits of thought, into habits 
of work. You train his eye, you train his hand, you train his whole bodily powers, 
and you can train him to think. Training is the great thing. Not that in the pursuit of 
training we should do as our Government has erroneously attempted to do, put intel- 
lectual instruction and training aside, but that we should make them co-ordinate. They 
live by the power that they gain from each other. Another thing is that you must edu- 
cate the whole Indian people at once. It will not do to pluck a few twigs from the 
stalk and plant them in a better place for their better growins;, while the old stalk is 
continually sending out new shoots and perpettiatini; the ignorance and degradation of 
the Indian race. We must raise no more ignorant Indians. We must commence to- 
day to educate the whole people at once, and, a-* a coroUarv and ccmclusion to that, it 
is necessary to do that in the Indian country. You cannot carry them away to 
another land, these many Indian children, and though they sre ready for education, 
they cannot be eilucated anywiure else except on their own lands. 

There is no question of the character of tlie schools that have been raised in the 
East, they are prominently before the public eye. General Armstrong has well stated 
the relation of the Eastern and Western schools, and indeed there should be no pos- 
sible disagreement between us, a-j r«'presentativcs of the sune Missionary Association, 
the American Missionnry Association, working East and West, North and South. Just 
here let me say, in regard to that work of educating upon the ground, that it is often 
said and often thought that we are losing power by so doing, because the scholars are 
so dragged down by the Indian society around them. It is true, but everything that 



INDIAN EDUCATION, 183 

you lose in the scholar is taken up in the community, and ultimately the {^(un is 
j^reatiT. The community is advancing in sympatiiy with the children whom they have 
nent from their own families, and whom they receive a;?ain into homes that are already 
beau ified and prepared for their civilized off-print;. Two of these girls that stood 
before you to-day have heathen and pagan parents, awaiting them in northern Dakota, 
who wear the blanket, who, while bound in a measure to the paj^an belief, are yet fol- 
lowing their daughters with affection and solicitude and pride. The father is now 
buiidin>; them a new house into which they shall enter. 

It !>eems to me, my friends, that we are now at a place where we can demand of 
the *reneral Government that they take up this work thoroughly and efficiently, and that 
they proceed at once to organize such a system of public instruction upon the Indian 
ground as shall take up this question and settle it in these present years. It is true 
that this leaven of education will spread until it has ultimately permeated the whole 
mass. The white population, as General Armstrong has said, is pressing in on every 
side, and there Crtn be no delay — the time is now. The Indian sentiment is ripe, is anxious, 
and, if you do not do this work to-day, we^hall never leave it to be done by posterity. 
We must look to the Government that they put this work into efficient and well organ- 
ized shape. They must be divorced entirely from the present Indian agency system. 
Thirty miles from where I live, at Yankton agency, in the last four years there has 
been a change of agents once in six months, and every time the agent was changed the 
sciiool-master was changed, and the Government school was torn up from top to foun- 
dation. And that is just why it is that there can be no efficient, fruitful work under 
Government until this whole school business is taken out of the control or any rela- 
tion whatever to the Indian agencies. Another thing is supervision. Some seven 
years ago I began to agitate the supervision of Indian schools, and, as a result, during 
the past two years we have had the appointment, in some respects, of a most excellent 
man. Major Hayworth, whom I know thoroughly, with whom I have camped many a 
night on the prairie. He is the superintendent of Indian schools, but he has a whole 
continent to care for. What can he do? He has only one clerk in his department at 
Washington. What can he and his one clerk do? How would General Sheridan like going 
out with a single aid and no battalions? We might do that here in our departments. 
There is not the expenditure for Indian schools that you find in a single county in 
Wisconsin or Ohio. It is an everlasting shame to this country ; it is more than that, 
it is a shame to the teachers of this country, that up to this time they have allowed any 
such thing to happen. And now, my friends, I look to you upon this day and in 
the coming years that you will awaken to your responsibility and your opportunity, and 
you will take this question in hand, and you will see to it that our national government 
puts into order and efficiently carries on such a work of education, so thoroughly sys- 
tematized, so thoroughly supervised that there shall be school-houses dotted all over 
the Indian country before the meeting of a second gathering like this. 

Mr. Pratt, of the Santee Agency-, offered the following resolution : 

Resolved^ That the teachers of the National Educational Association in convention 
assembled, recognizing the great importance of Indian education aud citizenship, not 
only to the Indian himself, but to the honor of the country, do earnestly hope and pray 
that Congress shall give an early and hearty passage to the Dawes bill or some similar 
bill looking to the elevation and advancement of a race of people whose interests the 
American people have too long been indifferent or actually hostile to. 

Referred to the committee on resolutions. 

Dr. White, of Ohio : I want to take just two moments of this very precious time 
to say a word on this question. The education erf the Indian is a question that very 
early received my attention, and among my early pupils were Indians, and I wish here 
to bear testimony, and have this audience understand, that forty years ago a noble 
man in the State of Ohio, moved with the feeling that the Indian, to be improved, must 
be taken away from the Indian country, took a few of them, and educated them and 
6ent them back, — raised money and gave money and opened an academy, in which I 
was a student preparing for college, for the education of Indian youth from the Chip- 
pewa and Ojibway tribes, and for five years he had fVom sixteen to twenty-five Indian 
youth of both sexes in that school. And that noble man, to-day eighty-five years of 
age, if my memory serves me, is in poverty, through the sacrifices he made for the edu- 



184 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

cation of the Indian, using wliat money he could get, nnd his entire fortune that he had 
accumulated as a teachej* w^as sunk in that attempt. Now, in that work we found that 
it was not the best course to take, to tsike these Indians away from their own country 
and educate them and send them back, unless we could give them industrial training, 
of which we knew nothing. We were simply treating them as ordinary scholars. 
They went back. They could do nothing, and their education was lost. But on one 
line we worked efficiently, and that was to get the sons and daughters of the chief men 
of tiKJ tribe, and educate at the hea<l of the tribe, for they would go back and change 
the tribe, and that was the work he did. I am glad that after thirty-flve years the 
Amerioan people are waking up to the duty that that good man, now in his years and in 
his poverty, saw what must be done for this country. That man's name I give to put 
on the record. I refer to the Rev. James Bissell, President of the Twinsburg Institute 
in the old western reserve, which was consecrateii early to the rights of man. 

Mr. Garvby : Let me say that it was my privilege over a year ago to stand by the 
bedside of the father of Mr. Rigors and to hear him, thrilled by this music, say, "I 
thank God that it has been my privilege to ^nsecrate my life to the advancement of 
the human race." 

The audieace then united with the Indians in singing '*Old Hundred." 



METHOD IN TEACHINO. 185 



METHOD IN TEACHING. 

BY JOHN W. DICKINSON. 

Teaching is defined, b}^ some, to be the act of presenting objects of 
knowledge to the learner's mind. This definition implies that it is the 
teacher's duty simply to establish the conditions necessary to learning, and 
to that growth of the mind which the act of learning may produce. Method 
in teaching has reference to a way in which the act is to be performed. 

As there are different waj's of performing the act, there are different 
methods of teaching, and the methods will receive different names accord- 
ing to the peculiar marks by which they may be distinguished from one 
another. If the objects of knowledge are themselves presented, the objec- 
tive method is employed. 

By oral objective method is meant that which adds to the purely 
objective method the use of such words as are necessary to direct the 
learner's mind in thinking of the objects presented. 

The written method substitutes language for things. This method is 
used by those who suppose that previously acquired knowledge or an active 
imagination will render the presence of objects of study unnecessar}-. 

The two methods just described direct our attention to the effects pro- 
duced by the presence or absence of objects of thought. There are methods 
that may be distinguished by the manner of thinking which they occasion. 
One of these is called the analj'tic method, which consists in presenting 
first the whole to be known, whether it be an object or subject. Secondly, 
the parts in their order and relations and lastly the reconstructed whole. 
Another is the synthetic method — the reverse of the one just described. 
It ma}' be detected b}* observing the order of proceeding as the teacher 
teaches, or as the pupil recites the lesson. The S3'nthetic method of 
teaching reading will be known by observing that the teacher presents first 
letters or elementary sounds, then these combined into syllables, the S3i- 
lables into words, and the words into propositions. 

The synthetic method of teaching things, presents first qualities or 
parts, and supposes that with them the learner can construct the wholes, of 
which they are the elements. All teaching and recitation, and all mental 
processes, that begin with the use of definitions, without having derived 
them from a previous analysis, employ the synthetic method. Thus 



186 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

we see that method in teaching may be a way in which the things to be 
known are brought before the learner's mind, or a way of leading the mind 
to think of them when presented. The true method will be that one which 
will best accomplish the purposes for which the act of teaching is exercised. 
These purposes are to direct the pupil to the acquisition of knowledge ; to 
the true way of thinking, and to a right development of the whole nature. 
The conditions of knowledge are the presence to the mind of proper 
objects, a true method of thinking, and the abilit}' and inclination to use 
the method. The first mental products of which the mind is conscious are 
ideas. These are not innate as some claim them to be, for they never 
exist until they are produced by the activity of a mental power. The 
powers that produce ideas are innate, and are ready to act whenever appro- 
priate objects are presented to them. Ideas are the elements of thoughts 
and of knowledge. Thoughts are the products of acts of comparison of 
ideas, and knowledge is the consciousness of their agreement or disagree- 
ment. From the relation of dependence that knowledge holds to ideas, 
and that ideas hold to the presence of their objects, we learn that the 
objective method of teaching supplies one necessary' condition for the ac- 
quisition of knowledge. Only so far as this fundamental truth is observed 
in teaching will the pupil know what his words describe. The use of books 
and lectures as original sources of knowledge is one of the most pernicious 
fallacies of modern teaching. They present the names of things and the 
descriptions of their modes of existence, but it is not in them to become 
the things themselves. John Milton says *' that language is the storehouse 
of the past, but if it is only a verbal possession, it is like a storehouse, the 
inlets to which have been closed up." '' Hence though a man know all the 
tongues that Babel cleft the world into, yet, if he have not studied the solid 
things in them, he is not learned." *' Because the children are taught at 
school to appear to know, nnd to speak as if their knowledge was real, 
when they are conscious that it is not, the}' are trained in the habit of un- 
truth." '*The result is, that truth is absent from ///e, from society^ and 
that there is no profession in which is to be found simple truth, and 
virtue, and the highest aim." 

It is impossible for a teacher imbued with a knowledge of the condi- 
tions of learning to simply* direct his pupils to books^ or to formal lectures, 
and require nothing more of them than to reproduce the language the}' have 
committed to their memories. 

Another condition of knowledge is a right method of thinking. A 
complete knowledge of any object of thought includes a knowledge of it as 
a whole, of the relations which the parts bear to one another, and to the 
whole, and thirdly of the parts themselves. • 

These three elements of complete knowledge can never be obtained 
except the whole be considered first. The relations of parts cannot be ob- 



METHOD m TEACHINO. 187 

served unless the whole is present, and parts never become parts to a 
mind that is ignorant of their relations in a whole. In the pursuit of ele- 
mentary knowledge the individual whole is the one to be analyzed. In 
teaching natural objects, an individual plants or mineral^ or animal should 
be brouofht at once as a whole before the mind. The mental process that 
follows the observation of the thing as a whole is that of analysis. 

In teaching language the entire word or the entire proposition must be 
presented at first, if a name or a grammatical construction is to be the ob- 
ject of study. Beginning with the whole, the mind of the learner has 
placed before it the right occasions for the analysts that must precede every 
intelligent synthesis. There may be synthetic teaching, but as a method 
of study it requires an impossible process. For parts are never parts to a 
mind that has not perceived the whole ; nor is it possible to think of them 
an (rombined into a whole until the relations they bear to one another have 
been observed. 

The synthetic method of teaching is faulty in this, it leads the learner 
blindly along from parts to whole, by making all combinations for him, 
keeping him in suspen->e until the process is completed, and the whole is 
constructed. The teacher who solves problems and discovers truth for his 
pupils, uses the synthetic method, and as a result he presents no occasions 
for the cultivation of active power, nor for the acquisition of that method 
of study which ^ives to them the ability to help themselves. 

Every complete . mental process of thinking of an individuil object 
consists of first perceiving a whole, secondly, of an analysis for a knowl- 
edge of related parts, and thirdly, of a synthesis by which the parts 
can be joined again in the whole. In scientific study the class whole 
is the object of analysis. This whole is presented by a definition, with 
which all scientific processes should commence. Defining is a synthetic 
act, but the scientific student should be prepared for it by having passed 
over a thoroughly elementary cours'i in which individual objects have been 
analyzed for a knowledge of their resemblances and differences. In an 
elementary course of study, definitions are out of place, for the young 
pupil has not yet come into possession of those general notions which 
definitions express. The elementary student begins his study by the 
analysis of individual objects. The scientific student begins by analyzing a 
general truth. Elementary knowledge prepares the mind for scientific 
knowledge, and the latter is impossible to a mind that has never been con- 
scious of the former. The right use of the analytic method of teaching re- 
quires a definite order of proceeding. In the analysis of an individual 
object, if it has parts, they should be taken in the order in which they are 
found. If it has qualities or attributes only, they should be taken in the 
order of their importance or in the order of their appearance to the mind. 
In the analysis of subjects, the parts should be taken in the order of their 



188 ^ THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

logical dependence. If these rules are observed in elementary and scien- 
tific study the knowledge obtained will be arranged in the mind of the 
learner in an orderly manner, so that by the use of the laws of association 
he can hold it in his memory, and find in it occasions for that knowledge 
of relations which a confused order of thinking of unrelated parts is never 
able to discover. The pupil will learn a true method of thinking from a 
true method of teaching. He will after a time refer to his experience as a 
learner, and become conscious that his knowledge has been made real by 
the actual presence to his mind of its objects, and that it has been made 
valuable to him through the method by which it was obtained. It is quite 
necessary for all practicable purposes, that the knowledge acquired by 
study in school should be sufl3cient in quantity and reliable in its character. 
Elementary knowledge is the occasion of all scientific knowledge. If 
the one is wanting the oth^r is impossible. If the one is ffdse^ the other 
will be fahe also. Besides, that pursuit of truth which fails of the end 
it seeks, will be likely to produce bad habits of thinking, and a willingness 
to accept that which appears to be for that which really is. From these 
things it appears that the analytic method of teaching supplies the second 
necessary condition for the acquisition of real and complete knowledge. 

But the highest end that school exercises are adapted to produce is the 
right training of the faculties. This truth has been enunciated and be- 
lieved from the most ancient times. Knowledge is useful^ mental devel- 
opment is a good. The one is a means to an end, the other is an end in 
itself. The mind is developed by an exertion of its own energy. This 
is the great mental law. Subordinate to this it may be said that the 
mind acquires facility in performing those acts which it is accustomed 
to perform. These truths should have a controlling influence in deter- 
ing what method of teaching shall be chosen. Text-hooks and lectures 
may menn nothing to the len.rner's mind. At the best, they require noth- 
ing but that the one to whom they are presented shall understand the 
ideas other minds have invented. In this act the passive powers only 
are called into exercise. No power of self-control is acquired. No 
strength for independent activity is produced. 

Language has its place in teaching and learning. Its province is 
to call attention to things, and to save the pupil from gi'oping after knowl- 
edge. All teaching finds its immediate end in directing the learner in his 
work. It becomes pernicious when it degenerates into the simple act of 
communicating information. That teacher is the most skilful who is able 
to excite the mind of his pupil to the most vigorous activity' in the orderly 
study of things to be known. It must be remembered that every human 
mind must think for itself all the thoughts of which it will ever be conscious. 
It must produce for itself all the strength that will ever be added to its 
original power. 



METHOD IN TEACniNG. 189 

Ever^' teacher of youth should bear in mind that famous and most 
rational ^dvice given b}' Philip, of Macedon, to Aristotle, the chosen 
teacher of Alexander. This was the advice. Strive to make yourself use- 
less. What did Philip mean by that strange saying? He meant do not con- 
fuse the mind of my boy by presenting to it words as the original sources of 
ideas. Do not by the use of text-books, or learned lectures, attempt to pour 
knowledge into his mind as water is poured from one vessel into another. 
Do not set him to combining parts or attributes into wholes which he has 
never observed or known. Finally, do not deprive the child of the inesti- 
mable privilege of using his own faculties in that free, full, v^orous man- 
ner, which after a few years of training, under your direction, will make 
him to be a strong and independent man. 

I have spoken of the objective analjrtic method of teaching as the one 
best adapted to occasion learning and development. It is the Philosophical 
Method. It is the method to be used for all forms of knowledge land all 
kinds of development. The time must come when the teachers of the 
country will understand it, and by a skilful application of its principles be 
able to put their pupils well on their waj' towards a true education. 



190 TUB NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



RELATION OF THE ART TO THE SCIENCE OF EDUCATION. 

BY W. T. HAKBIS, LL. D. 

I ask your attention very briefly to the following remarks upon the 
subject assigned me, which is the relation of the art of education to the 
science of education. What I say must be in the way of a comprehensive 
summary. Each person here will agree with me that the human race has 
been constructing a spiritual ladder for the last six thousand years, and is 
climbing to the top of that ladder. 

Each human being puts his experience into the fund of the whole, in 
order that those who come after him may not have to live over precisely 
the same experience that he has lived, and suffer the same amount of pain 
for that experience ; but that each individual may, standing on the shoul- 
ders of all that have gone before him, rise higher. Education is the process 
of availing oneself of this ladder. This general definition of education 
will indicate to us the solution of this question, the relation of the art to 
the science of education. 

Art has special relation to the training of the individual to do some- 
thing. The art of education includes the process by which the individual 
shall be active in doing the work of educating. The science of education 
shall contain the consolidated experience of the race in regard to the best 
manner of educating men. It is evident from our point of view that the 
individual teacher must be benefited and helped in every way by knowing 
of the experience of his fellow teachers. The person who practises the art 
of teaching must reinforce his own experience with the consolidated results 
of all human experience — he must climb the ladder built for him, and, 
moreover, he must not sit down and rest on the higher round of this ladder. 
After he has learned the consolidated experience of the race with regard to 
this art of teaching, he must reach up boldly' and build another round, or 
attempt to build it, and he must do his best to combine with his fellow-men 
and build a firm support. 

Those two points, therefore, will be in the true teacher's mind always, 
to master the experience of the human race with regard to teaching, and 
to add something to it for the benefit of his fellow teachers, to pay them 
back with his own little contribution to the wisdom of the race. We all 



SCIENCE OF EDUCATION 191 

of as believe in a religion which holds that the fundamental principle of this 
universe is expressed in the doctrines of grace and vicarious atonemt nt ; 
the doctrine of grace means that the whole shall give to each such an im- 
mense mass of benefit and good that, compared with it, the individual's 
contribution is as nothing. The individual's contribution, do the best he 
can, is as nothing compared with what the race will give him. Therefore, 
humanity acts toward the individual in the attitude and form of grace. 
Vicarious atonement means that each individual suffers some experience, 
receives some kind of knowledge, or finds out something through his own 
pain, and contributes this experience of his to the great fund of the wis- 
dom OF THE RACE, and thereby renders it unnecessary for others to suffer 
the same pain in order to gain that experience. Human society, in its 
deepest principle, in its most fundamental law, is founded on these doc- 
trines of vicariousness and grace as stated in these two central dogmas of 
our religion. 

Now, to come to details, in what respect does the science of education 
come practically home to the one that practises the art? It comes home to 
him in three forms. The one who practises the art of teaching must have 
something to do with the forming of the course of study, the what the 
pupil shall learn. Every teacher, considering what the pupil shall learn, 
looks around and gets information from the experience of the race in re- 
gard to those subjects. The scientific investigation of the course of study 
collects the different experiences of the race in regard to education, and 
explains them one by the other, so that no teacher need say, ^' this has 
been and therefore it shall benow," nor, '* the customs have been diverse, 
and one may choose whatever studies he pleases." But science compares 
one course of study with another and finds out the logical necessity for 
each, and then discovers what is adaptcd^to the present circumstances. 

The next matter is discipline in the school. To the art of teaching, 
discipline is essential. The teacher wishes to educate the pupil as a 
school, and so he establishes such a discipline that one pupil may combine 
with another to produce an aggregate result, and not have the labor of 
each interfered with and destroyed by the meddlesomeness of all. That is 
the significance of discipline in the science of education, and that is the 
practical significance of it in the art of teaching. 

The next point is the organization and management. How many 
pupils shall we have to a teacher? How shall matters be arranged in re- 
gard to length of sessions and recitations and hours of study, and such 
details? It includes also the architecture and furnishings of school build- 
ings. The art of education, in trying to answer this particular problem, 
" What must I do here and now?" will look to the science of education 
and find the great torches of aggregate experience flaming aloft for his 
guidance. But the teacher must know how to get at the genuine science 



192 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

and Qot mistake the mere shimmer of something that professes to be the 
scieace of education and is not. He therefore will look abroad over 
human history and note the outline of the history of pedagogy, the history 
of school management and discipline and course of study, and endeavor to 
discern the trend of historic progress. He will look, moreover, not only at 
those lights that shine up there, stars that have ascended into the sky not 
to fade away for all time, but he will look also at the new lights — the rush 
lights and the others, some of them electric lights — tliat are kindled in his 
own time. He will compare them photometrically with the celestial lights. 
How will he find a Critical principle — a test for comparison ? He will stady 
especially all writings that relate to social science, for social science mast 
include pedagogy as one of its provinces. 

In the department of the science of education he will study especially 
the three methods, the analytical method, the synthetical method, and the 
method of investigation. The analytical method was beautifully described 
in the last paper. It takes a general survey and goes down into details, 
having the advantage that it keeps for the mind a clear survey as it goes 
down. While the analytic method is deficient in other respects, it gives 
clearness in respect to a general survey, and connects the new knowledge 
with that already in the mind. It Oils the mind with the question marks 
and keeps it all aroused and active in this descent into details. It discov- 
ers the relation of this particular object before me to all this and to all 
other departments. 

The synthetic method begins with the particular and proceeds to the 
discovery of its dependence on othera, finding that "A" implies " B" and 
therefore A and B make up synthetically one unit. This method, too, has 
great value, but it is blind when it starts, and must borrow guidance from 
the analytical method. By itself it can only grope. It is liable to take up 
the most insignificant thing before it and commence its synthesis by adding 
it to the next most insignificant thing. Unless the mind has in it the ana- 
lytical principle which starts from the whole and descends to the parts, it 
cannot guide its s^'nthetic investigation. The synthetic method by itself will 
prove very wasteful, because it will not avail itself of what the race has found 
as the total net result. Six thousand years of climbing up the ladder of 
human experience has not left us entirely in the dark with regard to very 
much. No individual is going to rise in this time and build a whole ladder, 
although he may add a round to the top of the ladder that is built. 

The method of investigation takes analysis and synthesis together, and 
actively works with them, uniting them, or weaving one in and through the 
other in such a way that it makes a higher method, the method of teaching 
the pupils how to get at the original experiences ; how to vivify the discov- 
eries of the race and how to make new ones for himself. 



SCIENCE OF EDUCATION. 198 

How to investigate* things in the external world, this is the first lesson, 
and, as you and I know, it is the simplest part of education. But the get- 
ting hold also of the inner experiences of man, and the method of that 
procedure — this is not so simple. It cannot be done by objective lessons ; 
not the lessons usually called objective, at least, but it must be done by 
those lessons in tlie analysis of human experience. The pupil must learn 
how to dive down into himself and discover, in his own experience, 
elements coiTCspondiug to what he learns out of books regarding his fellow- 
men. 

He must find in himself the archetypal forms of humanity as por- 
trayed in the literature of the ages. That method of investigation includes 
both of the other methods ; it uses analytical and synthetical processes. 

Moreover, the method of investigation makes discoveries ; and thus it 
really does contribute toward the building of the higher round at the top of 
the ladder. It is not wont to say: ^^Lo, behold! I have built a new 
round to the ladder of human experience," when it has only begun at the 
bottom and built for itself a round. That was built fifty-five hundred years 
ago. It does not have that false pride of originality which wishes to do 
everything for itself, but the method of investigation will avail itself of the 
achievements of the race and prove its title to originality by building a 
round at the top. 

And now as we have come to consider what bears on educational 
reforms, let us ask : what shall be the attitude of the teacher to the edu- 
cational reformer? I reply: he shall reverence the spirit of the educa- 
tional reformer. He will very likely find that the educational reformer is a 
narrow man ; that he often builds rounds of the ladder that had been built 
long ago, or that he builds a round now and then to some wrong support, 
but he shall respect and reverence the spirit of the educational reformer, 
and endeavor by all means to teach his own pupils to be educational 
reformers and possessed of the true spirit of investigation. He shall, 
therefore, reverence these reformers, and not simply repeat over the cata- 
logue of their mistakes. 

It is great to have faith in a cause. Faith gives life and enthusiasm. 
Engaged in the business of leaving the accumulated wisdom of the past 
there is constant danger of forming a too receptive habit of mind. The 
fires of criticism and alertness may die out and the habits of '^ dry-as-dust " 
supervene. The educational reformer, even of the narrowest type, helps 
to preserve us from this dreadful result. He is the salt of the earth to all 
who are engaged in teaching. In the place of dull or lifeless conformity 
he inspires doubt ; and doubt is the parent of investigation. Investigation 
is the parent of scientific certainty. 

The educational reformer, when he throws his challenges in the face of 
prescribed custom, has done an essential service to teachers, even if 
13b 



194 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

matare iDvestigation sustains no one of his points of attack. After the 
discussion there is a more intelligent use of the old method, or else the 
adoption of a new and better method. 

The attitude of the teacher towards the reformer should be, therefore, 
one of open-minded, open-hearted attention. ^^ Prove all things and hold 
fast to the good?" yes, but the beginning is investigation. The teacher 
will kindle his coal at the torches of the great reformers. He will look at 
the blaze of their enthusiasm, and say to all like-minded, ^'Ascend and 
blaze at every round of the ladder. Let us all rejoice in the genial light 
and warmth of the blaze kindled by the oil of great enthusiasm and pure 
human love." 



WHAT CHILDREN KNOW, 195 



WHAT CHILDREN KNOW. 

BT J. M. OREENWOOD. 

Parents transmit possibilities only to their offspring ; hence the child's 
knowledge is acquired, not inherited. These possibilities may be either 
good or bad ; physically — strong or weak ; mentally and morally — acute or 
dull. To arouse the dormant powers of the child, two forces are emploj'ed ; 
the one, the world force ; the other, teachers and books. 

The child's original capital of knowledge is nothing. Action and 
reaction induce appropriation and assimilation. From the time the child 
is bom till the age of six is a sort of '' unexplored region" on the educa- 
tional chart. Mothers know that their little ones prattle, reason, and investi- 
gate ; but teachers generally regard them as small vessels to be filled with 
knowledge, wit, and wisdom. No one yet has been able to approximate 
the amount of knowledge that the average child of six summers possesses. 

Dr. J. M. Gregory, a few years ago, made a note of all the words 
used in one week by a little boy six years old that lived in the country, and 
this vocabulary embraced more than six hundred words. This child had 
never attended school, yet he had a good knowledge of the meaning of the 
words he used. 

Prof. 6. Stanley Hall, some time last year, began a series of exami- 
nations amongst some of the very little folks in the Boston schools, an 
account of which was published in the May number of the Princeton 
Review for 1883, and is an attempt to find out what children have in their 
minds. 

This curious and remarkable report by Professor Hall, is entitled " The 
Contents of Children's Minds." The professor, assisted by several superior 
lady teachers, examined about two hundred small children, probably very 
small children, upon many common as well as uncommon things, and tabu- 
lated the results, which furnished the material for the article referred to. 

Mj* observations with small children being so different from the results 
published by Professor Hall, I decided to investigate the subject among 
the lowest grade of pupils attending the public schools of Kansas City. 
Pupils are admitted to school in the State of Missouri at the age of six, 
hence the children that I examined were six years old and upwards. 



196 



THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



The examination was conducted during the months of March, April, 
and May of the present year. During this period the total number of 
pupils examined was 6 78 j of whom forty-seven were colored. Sixty-nine 
questions from Professor Hall's list were selected, and the results are here- 
with tabulated with his for purposes of comparison : 

COMPARATIVE RESULTS OF EXAMINATIONS. 

BY G. S. HALL AND J. M. GREENWOOD. 



NAME OF OBJECT OR CONCEPTION. 



Bee-hive 

Crow 

Ant 

Squirrel 

Robin 

Sheep 

Bee 

Frog 

Pig 

Chicken 

Worm 

Butterfly 

Hen 

Cow 



PER CENT. OF CHILDRKH lOKOHAJIT 
OF IT. 



In Boston. 



80 

77 

65.5 

63 

60.5 

54 

52 

50 

47.5 

35.5 

22 

20.5 

19 

18.5 



In Kansas City. 
White. Colored. 



66 

59 
19.1 

4.2 
10.2 



4.2 

















59.4 
47.3 
21.5 
15 

30.6 

3.5 

7.27 

2.7 

1.7 

.5 

.5 

.5 

.1 

5.2 



Growing wheat 

Elm-tree . 

Oak 

Pine 

Maple 

Growing moss 

Growing strawberries 



92.5 

91.5 

87 

87 

83 

81.5 

78.5 



23.4 
52.4 
66.2 
65.6 
31.2 
30.7 
26.5 



66 
89.8 
58.6 
87.2 
80.8 
42.5 
1.1 



Where are the child's ribs 
*t xi a u lungs 

" " '' " heart 

u u a u wrists 
Where are the ankles 

'' '' '' waist 

*' '' '' hips 

" " '' knuckles 

" " " elbows 
Know right and left hand 

" cheek 

" forehead 

" throat 

*' knee 

** stomach 



90.5 


13.6 


81 


26 


80 


18.5 


70.5 


3 


65.5 


14.1 


52.5 


14 


45 


14 


36 


2.9 


25 


1.5 


21.5 


1 


18 


.5 


15 


.5 


13.5 


1.1 


7 


1.6 


6 


27 2 



6.4 
44.6 
18.1 





4.2 

4.2 

8.5 


10.2 








45.9 



WHAT CHILDREN KNOW. 



197 





FEB CEKT. 


OF CHILDREN lOSOBANT 






OP IT. 




NABIE OF OBJECT OR CONCEPTION. 




In Kansas City. 




In Boston. 


White. 


Colored. 


Dew ..... 


78 


39.1 


70.2 


What season it is . 


75.5 


31.8 


56.1 


Seen hail ..... 


73 


13.6 


18.1 


'' rainbow .... 


65 


10.3 


2.1 


'' sunset .... 


56.5 


16.6 





" sunrise .... 


53.5 


19.5 





'• clouds .... 


35 


73 





" stars .... 


14 


3 





** moon .... 


7 


26 


53 


8een watch-maker at work 


68 


30.1 


49.7 


•' file . 


65 


20.8 


36.1 


*' plow ..... 


64.5 


13.9 


8.5 


** spade .... 


62 


7.3 


15 


•' hoe ..... 


61 


5 


10.6 


*' brick-layer at work . 


44.5 


10.1 


2.1 


*• shoe-maker at work . 


25 


8.7 





*' axe ..... 


12 


18.4 


53 


Thai leather things come from animxds 


93.4 


50.8 


72.3 


Origin of cotton things 


90 


35.7 


15 


What flour is made of , 


89 


34.7 


57.4 


WhaZ bricks are made of . 


81.1 


33.1 


53 


Shape of the world 


70.3 


46 


47 


Origin of wooUen things 


69 


55 


44 


Never been in bathing 


64.5 


13.4 





Can tell no rudiment of a story 


58 


23.6 


12.7 


Notknow wooden things from trees . 


55 


19.3 


6.4 


Origin of butter .... 


50.5 


6.7 





Origin of meat (from animals) 


48 


8.3 


12.7 


Cannot sew ^ . . . . 


47.5 


23.4 ' 





Have never saved cents at home . 


36 


8.2 


12.7 


Never been in the country . 


35.5 


13.1 


19 


Can repeat no verse 


28 


20 


42.5 


Source of milk .... 


20.5 


4 





Total pupils examined 




631 


47 



The average age of the pupils would not vary far from six and three - 
fourths years. In all such examinations, to be of great practical value, the 
occupations of the parents should be taken into account, as well as the 
opportunities the pupils have for gaining information. Children raised on 
a farm know t^en times more of trees, vegetables, fruits, grain, grasses, 
birds, and domestic animals than those living in towns and cities, while 
city children are far better informed in regard to those things which they 
see dail3'. But a child may even be ignorant of many very common things 
and yet not be an ignorant child. Ignorance, as I take it, is absence of 
knowledge, and knowledge is whatever one knows. 



198 TUE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

It also appears that Professor Hall pushed his investigations somewhat 
further than even this list of objects would indicate, and some of the 
answers he recorded convey a degree of thoughtfulness hardly to be 
looked for among little children. 

If ninety^er cent, of the Boston children could not find their ribs, is it to 
be wondered at that the^' should think *' cheese is squeezed from butter"? 
That is a much closer guess than a great deal of what has passed currently 
as " scientific knowledge " during the present century. How religious the 
answer " that God stuck the trees into the ground" when we reflect that 
trees were on the earth before man ! 

In all seriousness, what should babies know *' of forty degrees from 
the zenith," or that the sun goes down or up? It took humanity a long 
time to settle the " sun question," and even Professor Young leaves it now 
in a blaze of doubt. The little urchin who said that '^ Grod lights the stars 
with matches " displayed a degree of profound comparison worthy of the 
sage of Concord, and only equalled by that other little philosopher who 
thought the stars " sparks from God's fire-engine." 

Yet I cannot leave the astronomical phase of this examination without 
glancing briefly at one or two other topics of much deeper significance, 
and which, by the way, are original contributions to theologic and specula- 
tive thought. Listen ! '* The bad place is like an oven or a poUce-station^ 
where it burns, 3'et all is dark, and folks want to get back, and God kills 
people or beats them with a cane." Pretty good theology this, and why it 
was paraded as an evidence of ignorance I am at a loss to understand. 

These and all similar statements so gravel}' recorded in the Princeton 
Review^ are strong evidences of deep philosophical insight upon the 
part of the examined, as well as commendable skill in obtaining such rare 
and remarkable answers to questions both profound and intricate. For 
years I have entertained the idea that children when they first enter school, 
come there pretty liberally^ stocked with knowledge — knowledge of Tacts, 
of things, and fair interpreters of human nature, and a keen sense of jus- 
tice and that the skilful teacher is one who is able to utilize to the child's 
advantage all this knowledge, while the unskilful one plods along as if it 
were so much '' dead loss." 

All primary work in the school-room should be hitched on to what the 
child brings with himself to school ; otherwise that fundamental principle 
— to pass b}' easy steps from the known to the unknown — is violated. 



ELEMENTARY DEPARTMENT.' 



FIRST SESSION. 

WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON, JULY 16, 1884. 

This department was called to order at 2 :30 p. m. in the Lecture Room 
of the CoDgregational Church by the president, F. Louis Soldan, of St. 
Loais, Mo. 

Prayer was offered by Z. Richards, of Washington, D. C. 

P. R. Walker, of Illinois, was chosen vice-president, pro tern. 

On motion a committee of three was appointed by the president to 
nominate a representative of the department, in the Council of Education. 

President F. Louis Soldan then delivered the following 



OPENING ADDRESS. 

It is an agreeable duty for me to welcome so many of my feUow- 
teachers in this meeting of the elementary section of the Association. It 
is a pleasure to meet those whose interests and experience resembles ours. 
Such meetings are both pleasant and profitable. They are an agreeable 
diversion and a departure from the monotony of daily work. The teacher 
occupies the place of authority in the schoolroom, he controls others ac- 
cording to the dictates of his individual judgment, and is accustomed to 
see his will received as incontrovertible law. Such a position is likely to 
have an undesirable influence on the manners and habits of each of us, 
and to make the outlines of personality too hard and rigid to move smooth- 
ly in the current of life with others. There is a danger of becoming mild- 
ly imperious, impatient of contradiction, and slow of adaptation. Flexi- 
bility of manner is lost, and opinion is apt to assert itself dogmatically. 
Constant intercourse with young and immature minds is likely to result in 



200 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

a permanent adjastment of speech, habits, and mind to the level of the 
child, which makes it more and more difficult, as the teacher grows older, 
to readjust his manners and views to the ever-changing level of life in 
general. 

And yet such a readjustment is necessary and wholesome for the 
teacher. He must not allow himself to become narrow, to be shut up within 
the close walls of a school-room so entirely that he hears th6 demands 
which his time makes on education and which are shouted in street and 
market but from a dim distance, faintly. It is a principle alipost as old 
and as fixed as the mountains : Educate the child, not for the school but 
for life. To know the demands of life the teacher must keep in living con- 
tact with it. He must try to preserve freshness and buoyancy of spirit. 
He must not allow the dust of the school to settle on the wings of his soul. 
The remedy for many of these evils is found in social intercourse with 
others, who meet us as our equals or superiors. Such intercourse, which 
is useful to everybody, is a necessity for the specialist, to him who by the 
nature of his vocation is obliged to move within one circumscribed and 
uniform stratum of society, and is excluded thereby from the modifying 
and smoothing influences of the current of life in general. 

There is another remedy open to the specialist by which he may coun- 
teract this tendency (which may be called the professional bias) in his own 
mind, namely, the intercourse with others of the same vocation. In them 
he sees himself reflected, and realizes qualities which he himself either pos- 
sesses or lacks, and which he wishes to imitate or discard. These meet- 
ings possess a still higher value than that of being professional incentives 
and personal correctives. They form a kind of educational exchange 
where teachers can meet at the noonday of the year to determine the value 
of current educational doctrines and demands. In this market of opinions, 
exchanges and transfers are made, in which all are gainers. Those who 
have been invited by their fellow-teachers to come here and present infor- 
mation to them, attain higher clearness by being compelled to state their 
views to others and by listening to their replies. Those who listen to 
the papers and discussions, on the other hand, have an opportunity of en- 
larging and correcting their own experience by that of others. We visit, 
as it were, each other's schools in spirit, although they may be thousands 
of miles apart, when the substance of the views prevailing in their man- 
agement is placed before our mind's eye.. 

There can be no better means of disseminating educational ideas and 
a knowledge of new school-appliances, of clearing and sifting current edu- 
cational doctrines, than meetings like this vast gathering of teachers from 
all tiie parts of the land. 

Besides the general meetings of the National Educational Association, 
there are opportunities offered for an exchange of opinions among teachers 



ELEMENTARY DEPARTMENT, 201 

belonging to special classes of schools. Higher education, normal schools, 
superintendency, art teaching, in short, every great feature of school work 
finds time and place for discussion iu tlie meeting of some special section. 
Among these departments there is none of higher importance than 
that on elementary education, in whose work you have allowed me to par- 
ticipate this year. In elementary education the largest number of teachers 
is engaged. It reaches the largest number of pupils and supplies them 
with the most indispensable acquirements for life. To the development 
and perfection of elementary education, by far the greater part of the edu- 
cational funds of the State and of the attention of the public is given. It 
is capable of reacting with the strongest influence on the community at 
large, for it sends its little child-messengers to every home, and brings 
every parent in contact with school work. It is a most potent agency in 
arousing that general educational interest among the people, by which all 
other institutions of learning are benefited. 

Elementary education is of the greatest importance as a basis for all 
higher educational work. It renders secondary instruction possible ; it 
makes its road smooth and its course speedy. When elementary educa- 
tion is imperfect and deficient, it drags higher institutions of learning down 
from the lofty position which they ought to occupy and compels them to 
devote time and strength to preparatory primary work, which clearly lies 
below their province. On the quality of elementary education all higher 
edacation depends. While, historically speaking, the common schools 
have grown out of the universities, it is equally ti*ue that at the present 
moment colleges and universities grow out of the common schools. The 
common schools neglect part of their task if they forget to stimulate the 
pupil to continue his education after he has finished their course. At the 
end of the common school course, or rather along its road there must be 
finger-posts pointing to library or college. 

Within a department whose work it is to discuss questions concerning 
a branch of education as important as that of elementary instruction, there 
can be no lack of topics which are of vital iuterest and which challenge the 
attention of every thinking teacher. Most of the educational problems of 
the day which require solutions relate to elementary education. - 

Among the questions connected with primary education which have 
been roost prominent during the past, are those concerning the adaptation 
of some of the kindergarten ideas to elementary instruction, and the em- 
ployment of some of the kindergarten occupations or devices, in a more or 
less modified foi-m in the common schools. Connected with this is another 
problem which has attracted the attention of a still wider circle : The ques- 
tion of maiuial training. It is in so far connected with kindergarten in- 
struction, as in the latter the training of the hand is carried on together 
with the development of the mind through gifts and games. There is no 



202 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

doubt that, theoretically speaking, manual training, if it is of value to the 
child from his third to his sixth year, continues to form a valuable means 
of training after the child enters the school. But practically, in many 
schools, the truth of this inference is not admitted, for in them no such 
systematic training is imparted to the hand. 

Various views as to the manner of making manual training part of ele- 
mentary instruction have been advanced. There are two principles in re- 
gard to this question on which all educators agree, namely, that the hand 
should receive training at an early age while it is still plastic, and that 
many things may be learned better by doing them than by reading or hear- 
ing about them. This principle, old as it is, has received new force 
through the efforts of the kindergarten teachers. They have done much 
service to the cause by showing that not all education which the child 
should receive is necessarily book education. 

While there is an essential agreement in regard to those principles, 
there is the widest difference regarding the mode in which the training of 
the hand should be embodied among the immediate aims of common school 
instruction. While it would be unbecoming to advocate from this place 
any special view on this subject, there can be no objection to a brief state- 
ment of the principal plans of giving manual training in the primary 
schools. Three general directions may be recognized in the suggestions 
made by the friends of the cause: (1) Manual training limited to draw- 
ing ; (2) carried on through drawing and the incidental use of objects and 
colors in illustrating the topics of arithmetic, geography, and natural sci- 
ence ; and, lastly, manual training in more or less simple workshops con- 
nected with the schools. 

Those who advocate that manual training in the common schools 
should limit itself to the thorough study of drawing, with due emphasis on 
the industrial side of it, aud should, perhaps, include modelling also, assert 
that only a comparatively small percentage of the children in the schools 
of the land will enter the trades and their workshops, as a glance at the 
statistics of the census will show. Training in any kind of workshop, there- 
fore, is not a legitimate task for the common school. The training of the 
hand, however, is of educational importance to ewry child, no matter what 
his vocation may be. Therefore, while direct industrial work is not a 
proper subject of common school training, they hold that drawing sliould 
be taught because it gives manual training of a sort beneficial to every 
child. Drawing imparts a knowledge of form with all the training of the 
observing and imitating faculties which this involves, and it cultivates 
habits of neatness and the careful handling of materials. 

The second plan to which I referred, adds to the instruction in draw- 
ing the incidental but systematic use and handling of objects and color by 
the children themselves in the studies which admit of such a course. This 



ELEMENTARY DEPARTMENT, 203 

plan deserves special notice, because, while it imparts manual training on 
one side, it is an application of the kindergarten idea on the other, since it 
leads the child to acquire knowledge through the handling of objects. 

The leading idea in manual training through the incidental use of ob- 
jects, is to devise a graduated series of illustrations or gifts which are to be 
used in connection with the various studies and topics as they make their 
appearance in a course of study. Thus, to mention a few special exam- 
ples which come to my notice : One of the New Jersey teachers who is with 
us to-day adapts the ruled surface of the kindergarten table to instruction 
in arithmetic in the primary grades, by ruling on a piece of cardboard one 
hundred squares, and on this board the children represent easy problems 
objectively, by using counters. In one of the large Brooklyn schools quite 
a number of practical devices of this kind have been invented, and are 
most successfully used. A lady connected with that school is present, and 
will present a clearer and fuller view of these important experiments than 
I can give in the short space allotted to this address. It would be a thank- 
ful task for a thinking teacher to formulate a plan for such incidental, 
objective, and manual training for the various grades of instruction. 

The third and most radical plan of imparting manual training to the 
pupils of elementary schools, is that of giving instruction in workshops 
connected with the schools. Denmark has had the lead in this experiment. 
The remarkable success of some schools there established and carried on 
in accordance with this ph\a by Mr. Claassen, has attracted attention 
throughout Europe. In our country, among many other realizations of 
this idea, the workingmen's school of New York deserves mention on ac- 
count of the consistent [)lan there worked out, by which manual training is 
made to run parallel with intellectual instruction from the lowest to the 
highest grade. There is drawing taught in all the rooms, and whatever is 
drawn on 8late or paper is then imitated in solid material in the workshop. 
The lower classes work with a composition that can easily be cut with a 
chisel, the more advanced classes in wood. The principal of the school 
has assured me that the time which is taken daily from the regular lessons 
for this kind of work is not lost, even as far as intellectual progress is con- 
cerned, and that the manual training which his classes receive seems to pro- 
mote indirectly, but very perceptibly, the intellectual development of the 
children. Professor Woodward, of the St. Louis Manual Training School, 
whose noble work is known to all of you, has, I think, expressed a similar 
opinion. 

While experiments like those described seem necessarily confined in 
theu- application to manufacturing centres, and their introduction is usual- 
ly beyond the power of the teacher, there is an open field for the display of 
the inventive ingenuity of the profession in the direction of incidental man- 
ual training. How much can be done by industry and talent in regard to 



204 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

the inveution of instructive and well-graded occupations for children is well 
exemplified by the exhibit of the kindergartens in the Capitol. The coming 
world's exposition in New Orleans will offer an opportunity to show the 
progress made in this direction. 

Leaving these two important topics of manual training and of the 
adaptation of kindergarten ideas, another problem (which appeals to us) 
might, perhaps, be mentioned, namely, the advancement of professional 
science and the assistance which the teachers of elementary instruction can 
render to it. 

I spoke at the beginning of this paper of the professional bias which 
the teacher's work, continued through many years, is likely to engender in 
him. We are apt to become lost in the little routine of our work. The in- 
tellectual eye being compelled by the nature of the vocation to dwell on the 
details of our labors, becomes near-sighted and unable to recognize the 
more remote and grander outlines of wider views, unless we vary the daily 
rhythm of school duties by reading and study. It is a marvellous privilege 
of cultured man that when he opens the work of one of the great writers 
and thinkers of the world, their thought which has lain buried on the 
printed page, rises into new life in his mind. He looks at life, grave and 
gay, through Shakespeare's eyes, he sees the mysteries of the universe 
through Plato's soul. He stands upon the heights of the world, his glance 
penetrates immeasurable distances and his soul bursts through the narrow- 
ing limitations which the daily task has drawn round it, and soars upward. 
Cheerfulness and a.kind heart for every erring young humanity remain his 
golden treasure and possession. 

Not only general reading, but also the study of science, to whose prac- 
tice his efforts are devoted, is a necessity for the progressive teacher. In 
it are embodied some of those eternal verities which in all changes remain 
fixed and immovable, like the guiding star of the north. When the wind 
of irrational public demands blows into the sails of the educational vessel, 
heavily laden with subjects as it is, a glance above will help him to sail his 
true course. The demands of the time should not be disregarded, but the 
teacher must learn that neither the loudest claim nor the newest study is 
the most important. 

The science of pedagogics is not to be learned from books alone ; it is 
to be drawn from the study of living childhood, and here the teacher may 
be an original investigator. Ours is a new and growing science, starting 
into a fuller life at the present time. A new line of study and research 
has sprung up and ther^ is no position in which more valuable contribu- 
tions can be made to the science of education than that of the teacher of 
elementary education. I mean the study of child-nature on an inductive 
basis, through observing and recording the ways of children. Professor 
Stanley Hall's remarkable work in this direction is known to all of you. 



ELEMENTAR Y DEPAR TMENT. 205 

Bronson Alcott's book was a first step in the samrf direction. In Germany 
Sigismund published almost thirty years ago a faithful record of the devel- 
ment of mental life in an infant. Preyer s " The Soul of a Child," a more 
scientific work on the same subji^ct, was introduced to the American readers 
through the pages of the Magazine '' EJucation." Darwin's ^^ Sketch 
of an Infant" is well known to most of you. 

The richest literature in this specialty has sprung up in France within 
the last twenty years. In 1863 a little book containing a record of the de- 
velopment of intelligence in an infant, written by a German scholar, 
Thierry Tiedman, but either unnoticed or forgotten in his own country, at- 
tracted the attention of a French teacher, who translated it for one of the 
Paris educational journals. It was read and studied extensively, and in- 
stigated similar researches, leading to the publication of several important 
works. 

The works of Mr. Perez, ''The First Three Years of Childhood," 
*^The Child after his Third Year," and " The Psychology of the Child," 
and Mr. Egger's book. '* The Development of Intelligence and Language 
in Children," mark an era in pedagogical knowledge. In those works a 
careful and exact record of the traits of children is made and inferences are 
drawn on the basis of incontrovertible facts. 

Of the development of the mental life of children of school age, exact 
and full records are needed, and no one can supply this information better 
than the teachers engaged in elementary instruction. Those investigations 
in jparticular which must be carried on through question and answer can be 
more successfully attended to by the teachers to whose presence, language, 
and ways the children are accustomed, than by anybody else. 

Allow me to say a few words of the work of this session of the ele- 
mentary department, as it appears on the program. There is one paper 
on Form and Design, one on Music and another on Early Lessons in English. 
While each paper is distinct and independent of the other, they form to- 
gether a systematic program. The paper on form is a description of 
the work in this direction in a large public school in Brooklyn, N. Y., of 
which Miss Morris, one of the representative women of the profession, is 
the principal. Sickness prevents her. from being with us to-day, but her 
associate and assistant. Miss Comings, has prepared^ an essay on the sub- 
ject which she will present to us to-day. While this paper treats of a sub- 
ject akin to that of Manual Training and therefore points in the direction 
of utility, Mr. Holt's paper will treat of Music, a study tending to develop 
taste and pointing in the direction of aesthetic education. The last paper 
discusses a topic belonging to intellectual education ; it treats of that 
study which must ever remain the central and highest point in common 
school education : The English Language. 



206 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

In conclusion, allow me to thank you for your kindness in calling me 
to this chair by your action last year. May this session prove profitable 
and pleasant to all of us. For my own part I have never left any of these 
meetings, without confessing to myself that I had learned something, and 
without feeling thankful to my fellow teachers for giving me an opportuni- 
ty of meeting them in council, and of listening to their words. 

The address of the president was followed by the reading of the fol- 
lowing paper by Miss Fannie S. Comings, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 



ELEMENT AR T DEPAR TMENT, 207 



FORM, COLOR, AND DESIGN. 

BY FANNIE 8. COMINGS. 

" It is only by labor that thought can be made health}^ and only by 
tbought that labor can be made happy and the two cannot be separated 
with impunity." It seems to me that this thought of Ruskin's is in the 
mind of all earnest educators of the day, for the subjects of technical 
skill, industrial education, and manual labor, in connection with mental 
growth, are being discussed on all sides. How the two great factors of 
physical and mental growth, labor, and thought can be brought together 
to produce a harmonious result in the development of a human being is the 
problem in the educational world of to-day. 

We may fill the mind with useful ideas and beautiful thoughts, but 
^' the hand alone can give precision and durability to the simplest ideas 
afber all. When the mind is ac^ve and the hand inapt ideas run to waste, 
therefore," says Dr. Seguin, " let us educate the hand." 

But it is not only the hand we must educate, the sense of beauty in form 
and color must be awakened and the power of the eye cultivated. '^ We 
ask for a sense of beautiful forms, harmony of colors, etc., in the work- 
man, and find only dull eyes and senses which cannot tell the crooked from 
the straight and know not how to put light and shadow in the right places." 
This would not be if Frcsbel's plans for the harmonious development of the 
child could be fully carried out, or if our public schools gave the proper 
instruction to develop these ideas. The poorer the man the better edu- 
cated his hand should be and the more his eye needs to be trained to appre- 
ciate the charms of form and color which surround him. 

One of the chief agents in hand culture is drawing. Its importance 
is felt more as the demand is made for more intelligent and careful manual 
labor and more time is being given to it in our courses of study. Drawing 
trains not only the hand but also the eye. We must first see intelligently 
before we can express clearly what we have seen, and when a person has 
once acquired this power of perceiving and showing forth to others, what a 
stronghold he has within himself I 

There is not a calling in which an educated eye, nice in distinguishing 
form, color, size, distance, and the like, and a hand educated to an equal 



208 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

nicety, will not be of inestimable service to its possessor. An artisan with 
these gifts is in constant demand. 

When an eye rests upon something it sees firat color, then the form 
which the color takes. Form may exist without color, but we are never 
satisfied with the mere outline, or the light and shade alone. The eye 
craves the brightness and variety which we see everywhere in nature. 
" Color is the smile of nature." It does two things for us — charms us with 
its beaut}^ and serves to separate the forms of objects, or parts of objects 
around us. ^' Had nature applied but one color to all objects they 
would have been indistinct in form as well as monotonous in aspect. It is 
the boundless variety of her tints that perfects the modelling and defines 
the outline of each, detaching equally the modest lily from the grass whence 
it springs, and the glorious sun, parent of all color, from the firmament in 
which it shines." 

The human eye and hand acquire their power slowly, and all wUl agree, 
I think, that it is in childhood the training should begin. Miss Morris 
thought of this when a short time ago she introduced into her school a sys- 
tematic study of Form and Color in the production of a Design. 

1 shall be able to tell you only, in a brief way, how she has tried to 
develop these ideas in her work in drawing, and show you some of the 
results. The plan, I know, is not entirely new, it is foreshadowed in the 
form and stick laying of the kindergarten and in most of the systems of 
industrial drawing. It is not intended to take the place of the object- 
drawing, but to be carried along with it. * 

In Brooklyn we have no public " child gardens " in which to nurture 
and train the budding powers before we place the delicate plants in the cold 
atmosphere of the graded class, so we need something especially adapted 
to give power to the little hand and to quicken the eye. Children love to 
use their fingers, yet many at five and six years of age are very helpless 
when you put a pencil in their hands and have eyes which seem scarcely 
yet to have been used. 

How often when we look over the slates do we find letters or figures 
made upside down, lines zig-zag or partly curved, or three or four times 
the length required. I know how discouraged I felt not long ago after 
looking over the work of the lower grade and finding how incapable the 
little hands and eyes were of copying the simplest work of their teacher ! 
To teach the little people to draw and design seemed almost an absurdity, 
and 3'et we made the attempt. They were allowed and encouraged to copy 
and draw from memory the outline drawings of the illustrations to their 
reading lessons and thoroughly enjoyed it, as you know all children do, 
although they usually have to tell you what they have drawn, and you have 
to draw upon yowv imagination to perceive the truth of their statements. 
*' The art of seeing must precede the art of drawing," and the bright eyes 
as well as the little hands must be taught to work readily. 



ELEMENTAR T DEPAR TMENT. 209 

We must begin very early to teach them order and arrangement. One 
of the first things a child must learn in school is that he is a part of a great 
whole, and that he has a place of his own, just as every minute piece of 
glass has its own place in a grand mosaic. Children brought up in cul- 
tured homes, or fortunate children nurtured in the kindergarten soon learn 
this, but many that we have to deal with in our large cities have no idea of 
government and a feeling of no limitation to the exercise of their awakened 
powers. We must make them feel the restraining influence of society and 
teach them to observe, and arrange, and construct in such a way as to 
make the best use of the knowledge we impart. A wise teacher will find 
much to help her in this direction in the drawing lesson. It has been 
found conducive to good penmanship to line the slate or paper to be writ- 
ten on, as a guide. 

In the kin dergarten the slates and tables are ruled in squares so that 
the child, when buildin g with his blocks, laying his forms, or drawing, is 
able to present regular and symmetrical work. The dotted surface we find 
answers the same purpose, and is best suited to our primary classes. The 
dots are half an inch apart and are lettered and numbered so that a child 
soon learns to find certain dots called for by the teacher and can readily 
show you tlie place of beginning and ending, or how far a line of certain 
length would extend. A blackboard is dotted to correspond with the slates 
and books, but the dots are three inches apart. 

Of course the first lessons are very simple drawing *' standing up" 
lines, " lying down" lines, and " slanting" lines from dot to dot. Then 
the same lines covering three dots, four dots, etc. The lines are then 
combined to form angles, triangles, squares, and oblongs, covering a given 
number of dots and many little outline figures of simple objects, such as 
ladders, doors, windows, tables, bird-houses, flower-pots, etc., are drawn, 
using the dots as guides. 

Dictation lessons can be commenced very early and will be found a 
great assistance in training the child, in close ^ attention and rapidity of 
work. 

As soon as a child can draw a square he is taught to draw the diame- 
ters, to form a simple design, and there is placed in his hands a box of 
colored crayons. 

The class have special object lessons in form, from the beginning, 
using tablets, paper folding, and clay, and also lessons in distingutshing 
and matching colors, so, that they are able to name the colors in their 
boxes and give the name, ** square " and its " diameters " to the figure 
drawn. The teacher outlines upon the board the same design, and shows 
the children how to color the alternate squares, telling them at first which 
colors to use. After several lessons they may be led to choose the colors 
they think would look well together, and thus their individual taste will be 
Hb 



210 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

developed, and the first lessons in harmonj' can be given. Their box of 
crayons contains six colors, but at first they are allowed to use but two 
in the same figure, for it is necessary to teach them which always look well 
together. 

Some children are found who insist in putting a bright blue and 
green together, or a purple square next to a red one. The brightest 
colors attract the e^^e, and give thcni pleasure, but by experiment and a 
little careful guiding on the part of the teacher, the ideas of contrast and 
harmony will soon be developed. 

The first year the children draw and color upon their slates, but in the 
second year the}' are given a book. From drawing the diameters they go 
on to the diagonals, and then to shorter lines and closer divisions of the 
surface of the square or oblong, having only straight line figures the first 
two years. They learn the law of opposites in drawing and coloring, and 
it is trul}^ a delight to them when the}' begin to understand it well enough 
to produce a perfect design of their own. 

In placing the color upon the surface, the children acquire a certain 
dexterity and delicacy of touch, and all the time the ej-es are fed and 
pleased with the bright tints. The pupils are encouraged from the begin- 
ning to make up their own designs, and much original work is produced. 
Children soon tire of working by pattern, and if we ask them only lo 
imitate we stunt the growth of the creative power in their minds, and 
deprive them of the great pleasure of showing that they possess the knowl- 
edge and power requisite to produce a thing of beauty. "B}* contem- 
plating beauty the character becomes beautiful," and I am sure that the 
awakening which the mind receives in this development will react in a 
beneficial way on the growing man. 

At the beginning of the third year, two drawing-books are given to 
the children, a "home book," and a "school book;" in the latter the 
design is drawn only, the figure being dictated by the teacher, then placed 
upon the board and colored by one of the pupils. It is the last thing the 
children see on leaving the room in the afternoon, and for their " home 
work " they draw and color the same design from memory, and bring to 
school the next morning for their teacher's criticism. "The art of 
memory," says Pa^'ne, " is the art of paying attention," and this is a very 
good exercise towards gaining the attention of the young mind, and thus 
strengthening the memory. Of course some children can do much better 
than others, and some do \Qxy poor work indeed at first ; but I have 
not known of a case where a child's second book was not a great improve- 
ment in ever}' respect on his first, and in my dealings with the pupils in 
the primary classes, I have not known of a child that did not take pleasure 
in the work ; they talk about it, at home and in the street, looking for 
pretty designs in oil-cloth, tiling, colored glass, or frescoing, and Xiy to 



ELEMENTAR Y DEPAR TMENT. 2 1 1 

imitate or improve upon them. The color is the attraction ; not one-half 
the enthusiasm could bo aroused with the uncolored design, we know, for 
we have tried it. 

Each teacher is provided with a book containing designs suitable for 
her grade, for it is necessary to put before the children at first good 
designs. The power to originate comes slowl}'. These patterns may be 
chosen from any good examples of decorative art, or may be the figures 
from the children's industrial drawing-book. The use of the dotted sur- 
face is continued in the grammar grades for the dictation work only. As 
soon as possible curved lines and the box of water colors are introduced. 
In the lower grades, the soft crayons or wax pencils are used, because they 
are easier to handle, and because the little ones, I am ashamed to tell you, 
have no desks or tables to work upon. 

A short time has to be spent in teaching the children how to flow the 
color, and to handle their brushes ; then on the first pages of their exercise 
books the different mathematical figures are correctly drawn and colored, 
while definite instruction is given in the principles of geometrical construc- 
tion, and in the tones and qualities of color. Every alternate page is used 
for a design drawn and colored from dictation or cop}', and on the other 
pages are found the designs showing the pupil's own taste and originalit}'. 
Sometimes part of a design is given for the pupils to finish in their own 
way ; sometimes a design is asked for made up of certain colors or certain 
forms, and sometimes each pupil will bring in a different design, and the 
class will vote on which they consider the best, and then all will copy the 
same in their books. 

Colored inks are used to obtain certain tints, but the moist water 
colors have been found best for general use. Compasses are used in 
circular designs. As I said, in the beginning, these lessons should not 
abolish the lessons in object drawing, but should be taken in connection 
or alternate with those lessons, the one being an aid to the other. Pupils 
delight to apply the color to the decoration of the drawing of an object, 
and much maj' be done for them towards the formation of a good and pure 
taste, if we bring them into contact with the beautiful to be found in form, 
and in the harmony and contrast of color. We are constantl}' surrounded 
b}- the beautiful that we do not perceive because our eyes have not been 
opened. Every purchase we make with a design or pattern about it, 
encourages good or bad art, and I am sure if our young people were better 
instructed in the principles of good design, we should certainly have fewer 
ugly and discordant things to look upon. 

Dr. Seguin says in his Report on Education, " Nothing ever so fine in 
its color and details leaves an impression of beauty unless it fills the 
chamber of the eye harmoniously, or attracts the eye in a series of plans," 
and so it is in the harmonious arrangement of color, and in the balance, 



212 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

s^Tnmetry, and repetition of forms, that even j'oung children may be taught 
to perceive the beautiful. 

We believe that the effect of these lessons is seen in other work — the 
writing has improved, the children's books are kept neater, and there is 
more order in the arrangement of different exercises in their blank books. 
The combining and thinking has been a good exercise for the mind. Many 
of the children as soon as they have learned to use their water colors, 
have developed into embryo artists, and "painted ships upon a painted 
ocean," and pictures of flowers of every hue and shape, have been pro- 
duced, all showing that the artistic sense is awakened. Dr. Wilson says in 
his admirable little book, "The Five Gateways of Knowledge," " To culti- 
vate the powers of the eye so that it shall be the entrance gate of the 
largest amount of instruction and delight, is one of the great ends of all 
education," and we feel that in opening up to our boys and girls the 
beauties in the harmony and contrasts of form and color, we are develop- 
ing that in their character which will not only produce pleasure and a 
certain technical skill, but may bring forth a beautiful design of the Maker 
of us all. For the results of a teacher's work are not found on paper, 
but in the mind and character of his pupil. " Though we travel the world 
over to find the beautiful," says Emerson, " we must carry it with us, or we 
find it not." 



A lively discussion of the papers followed, and was participated in by 
W. H. Barry, of New Jersey; Z. Richards, Washington, D. C. ; P. R. 
Walker, Illinois ; W. E. Sheldon, Boston, Mass. ; W. N. Barringer, New- 
ark, N. J. ; W. A. Bell, Indianapolis, Ind. ; A. J. Rickoff, Yonkers, N. 
Y. ; J. M. Greenwood, Kansas City, Mo. ; C. E. Lane, Chicago, 111. ; 
Miss Eva A. Smedley, Belvedere, III., and other ladies and gentlemen. 

The committee for nominating a representative in the Council of Educa- 
tion reported the name of Larkin Dun ton, of Boston, as representative of 
this department. This report was unanimously adopted. On motion the 
following members were api)ointed a committee to nominate officers of the 
department for the ensuing year. 

Z. Richards, of Washington, 

A. R. Taylor, of Kansas, 

Miss F. S. Comings, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The department now adjourned to meet at 2 : 30 p. m., on Thursday. 



ELEMEStAR V DEPAR TMENT, 213 



SECOND SESSION. 

THURSDAY AFTERXOON, JULY 17, 1884. 

The meeting was called to order by the president at 2 : 30 p. m., after 
which prayer was offered by Mr. Bell, of Indianapolis. The following 
paper was read by H. E. Holt, of Boston, Mass. 



METHODS IN TEACHING MUSIC. 

BY PROF. H. E. HOLT. 

AIL true elementary teaching seeks to awaken an interest in the sub- 
ject by presenting to the mind the real objects of thought. The teacher 
who can keep the pupils actively e m ployed in thinking upon the subject, 
simply guiding the mind in its investigation, has learned much of the ait 
of true elementary teaching. To do this successfully in teaching music 
the mind must be kept constantly active in thinking sounds. There 
is no subject taught in our public schools to which the principle of objec- 
tive teaching can be more easily and successfully applied than in that of 
music; the real objects of thought are always at hand — we are never 
obliged to use substitutes in the form of pictures or diagrams In teach- 
ing colors, we have arranged upon color charts the real objects constantly 
before the eye for comparison and study. If the pupil ever gains a clear 
perception of these different colors, it must be by observing them closely 
and comparing them critically. 

The same is true of music ; but we cannot put sounds upon charts as 
we can colors. The successful teaching of music demands that sounds 
should be as clearly presented and named*to,the ear as colors to the eye, 
and that repetitions and comparisons of these sounds should be made unti 1 
they become perfectly familiar. If music is properly taught, no more rea- 
soning power is required than is necessary in teaching colore and their 
names. The whole subject of reading music is comprehended when we 
train the mind to two conceptions, viz. : a conception of sounds in pitch and 
lengths. The former can be as clearly presented and named to the mind 



214 TUE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

as colors ; the latter can be as clearly indicated and named to the ear as 
inches and fractional parts of inches to the eyes. In reading music, we 
must be able to unite these two ideas. Music in our public schools should 
be taught in its simplicity as an art, and not in its complicacy as a science. 
This is all accomplished by proper methods of teaching, which consists in 
presenting the real objects clearly to the mind, naming them orally, and 
giving practice upon them until they are known, and associating them with 
their true representation. If, this is properly done, every character used 
in representing the pitch and length of sounds will have been named by 
teaching and naming the sound itself before the character is given. Not a 
question should be asked that is not immediately preceded by the sound to 
which it refers. 

Music as an educational factor is worthy of a prominent place in our 
common-school studies, and educators will demand its adoption when its 
value is known, and the people will not be satisGed with the present super- 
ficial teaching of the subject. The most skilful instruction and super- 
vision for the regular teachers will always be in demand, but we shall never 
secure the best results in music so long as it is regarded as a special study 
to be taught by special teachers. 

It has been my firm conviction for a number of years that music in 
public schools must be put upon the same basis as other studies. Acting 
upon this conviction, it has been my study to so improve the methods of 
presenting this subject as to make available the teaching ability of the reg- 
ular teachers. That the subject of music can be so simplified and syste- 
matically arranged as to secure for it the teaching ability of the regular 
teachers who know nothing of music as a science is no longer a question of 
doubt. Music stands sadly in need of teaching power in our schools. 
This power can be found in every school-room that is so fortunate as to 
have a real teacher in other studies ; it only needs to be utilized. Al)Out 
a year and a half ago a superintendent of schools joined ray normal train- 
ing class for teachers. At the close of the first lesson he said tome, '• Mr. 
Holt, that is just what I am doing in number ; you know lam no musician, 
and cannot sing, hut I think I can do that." He took the course of ten 
lessons and directed his teachers how to train their classes in thinking 
sounds. At the close of the year the people were so much pleased with 
what had been accomplished in music that his salary was increased $500, 
the amount formerly paid a music teacher. 

This gentleman said to me, after directing the instruction in music in 
his schools for one year, ** The most surprising thing to me in this matter 
is that I have learned to sing myself." Said he, " I have made three at- 
tempts to learn to sing in the old way and have given it up." It may be a 
matter of interest to know that this gentleman was a member of the Bridge- 
water Normal School eighteen years ago, while I was a teacher there. I 



ELEMENTARY DEPARTMENT, 215 

tliiuk I was considered a successful teacher of music at that time, but from 
my present standpoint I can see a good reason why this gentleman did not 
learn to sing, and I wish in all frankness to say that in my opinion the 
fault was not his. In the light of the developments growing out of my 
experience during the past three or four years I feel compelled to say that 
I consider my former results in teaching music in public schools a failure 
in comparison to what can and ought to be accomplished. When we con- 
sider the exalted position which Germany holds in the musical and educa- 
tional world it is very natural that we should adopt her system of teaching 
music in our schools. I have come to believe that in so far as we have 
imitated Germany in this matter we have beeii led wrong in our methods 
of teaching. I judge from the results obtained in Germany and compar- 
ing them with what can be accomplished ; also by the statements of Ger- 
man teachers and musicians who are familiar with the work in the Ger- 
man schools. The fact that the notation is not taught until the children 
are nine or ten years of age, and that rote singing is so long continued 
that part songs are taught by rote, shows that the Germans have either 
not appreciated the ability of little children to acquire a knowledge of 
sounds necessary to sing intelligently at sight, or have not learned to sepa- 
rate music from the complications of its science and notation and present it 
systematically in its simplicity to the mind. 

To teach this subject successfully we should first establish a clear ap- 
preciation of the relative pitch of sounds. The series or succession of 
sounds known as the major scale is the basis upon which music is written, 
and forms the unit in thinking the pitch of sounds. This series of sounds 
being the unit must be presented to the mind as a whole which comprises 
so many mental objects, each of which must have an oral name by which 
it is known. The practice of this series of sounds is just where we should 
commence in teaching the art of reading music, and without a quick and 
accurate knowledge of these sounds in every possible relation to each other, 
all so-called reading music is a delusion and a sham. Reading music at 
sight consists in looking at characters and being able to think accurately 
the sounds which they represent in pitch and length. Does it appear to 
any real teacher that we shall ever succeed in training children to think in 
music by teaching the names of these characters, and by giving written ex- 
aminations upon them ? In training the mind to think sounds in pitch we 
must work with the real sounds continually. If we would train children to 
sing in time we must first teach them to think and feel the rhythm accurate- 
ly. To require children to learn the fractional names of notes, as yhole, 
half, quarter, eighth, etc., with their corresponding rests, and to attempt 
to measure their values by certain set motions of the hand for the different 
forms of measure, called beating time, is from ray present standpoint a 
very bungling way of teaching this subject, notwithstanding it has been in 
use from tune immemorial. 



216 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

I am aware that I shall meet the strongest opposition from some of 
my fellow-musicians in the position I have taken upon this subject, and 
that I may be read out of the musical profession in consequence, but I feel 
sure of the support of the teaching profession, who have made the mental 
laws, by which the mind acquires knowledge, more of a study. After a 
clear comprehension of rhythm has been established, beating time is a very 
simple matter. Before we can discuss this subject intelligently we must 
first ascertain what it is that we are teaching. What are we presenting to 
the mind? What is the real object of thought? Is it anything that can be 
seen? Or must it be felt? Can we impart it through the eye? Or must 
the mind receive the impression through the ear? 

The real objects of thought are mental, and must be felt ; they are 
pulsations or accents, and cannot be conveyed to the mind through the eye- 
Any outward demonstration like beating time is only an indication that 
these accents have been established in the mind. The regularity and 
rapidity of the movement may be given through the eye, but the pulsations 
or accents, and the different combinations of lengths of sounds, must be 
indicated to the mind through the senses of feeling and hearing, and there 
is no other way. Every definite and distinct musical idea should in the 
teaching of music have an oral name. The important idea in teaching time 
is the grouping of accents, and it is of the greatest importance that these 
accents should be named. The teaching of time is thus reduced to the 
practice of accents, and the relative length of sounds measured by these 
accents. 

Mr. Holt interspersed his paper constantly with practical illustration, 
showing how to teach the various steps in music, bj* asking the audience 
to act as a class, and to sing the exercises. 

At the conclusion of the preceding essay, Mr. O. T. Bright, of 
Chicago, was called upon to read the paper which is here given. 



ELEMEXTAR Y DEPAR TMEXT, 217 



ENGLISH INSTRUCTION FOR CHILDREN. 

BT O. T. BRIGHT. 

Probably at no other time since the claj'S of Horace Mann, has educa- 
tional dry bones been so shaken up as during the past five years ; and 
almost the last subject to get an overhauling is the instruction given in our 
own language. More than any other one thing, however, the Mother 
Tongue is now asserting its right to attention, and that with the pupils 
in our primar}^ schools. 

Cau the average English speaking child be trained to use good 
English? The only definite and truthful answer which our past experience 
can furnish for this question is, "He never has been ;" and we might add 
with equal candor and truth, "Our results in this respect are fairly 
measured by our efforts." 

In the acquirement of their means of communicating thought, children 
have been left to the resources of the homes, the playgiound, and the 
street. The result would indicate that all these resources have been 
taxed to their utmost. 

Almost nothing in the line of bad English has escaped, and some- 
thing of it appears in nearly; every sentence the children utter — taking 
the average as the standard. 

Latterly, however, the idea seems to be . gaining ground with more 
thoughtful teachers, that it may be more in accordance with the laws of 
common sense, to instil habits of correct speech while children are 3'oung, 
than to tr}' to reform the almost hopelessly bad habits of maturer years : — 
habits of which ver}' few need a reminder outside of their own personal 
experience. Also that ease and elegance of written expression of thought, 
if acquired at all in school, must be the gradual growth of all the years of 
school life. • 

Slowlj* has dawned upon teachers here and there, the fact that with 
the vast majority of even those children who complete a grammar school 
course the study of grammar has not produced, and, from the very nature 
of the case, cannot produce correct use of the English language. In fact, 
taken in all its parts, it has very little to do with it. This is a somewhat 



218 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

heterodox opinion, 1 know ; but if the experience of the past fifty years 
proves anything, it proves the truth of the assertion. 

After writing this thought, I was glad to read in the preface of Prof. 
Whitney's very excellent book, "Essentials of English Grammar." the 
following opinion on the same subject : 

"That the leading object of the study of English Grammar is to teach 
the correct use of the English language, is, in my opinion, an error, and 
one which is gradually becoming removed. It should be a pervading 
element of the whole school training of the 3*oung, to make them use their 
own tongue with accuracy and force. Along with any special drill to this 
end some of the rudimentary distinctions and rules of grammar are con- 
venientl}' taught. That is not, however, the s tudy of grammar, and it will 
not bear the intrusion of much formal grammar without being spoiled for 
its own ends. 

'' Itis constant use and practice under never failing watch and correc- 
tion that makes good writers and good speakers. The application of direct 
authorit}' (meaning the teachers) is the most efficient corrective. 

'' One must be a somewhat reflective user of language, to amend even 
here and there a point by grammatical reasons. No one ever changed 
from a bad speaker to a good one by applying the rules of grammar to 
what he said." 

Whatever may be the thought of the opinions of a grammar school 
master, certainly those of so profound a scholar and eminent teacher as 
Prof. Whitnc}' , are entitled to respectful consideration. 

For the purposes of grammar-making the English language is an un- 
fortunate one. The models for the old authors were the Latin grammars 
then in use ; and it was found difficult indeed to stretch the English 
language over a Latin frame- work. It was done, however, after a fashion ; 
and after various modifications, was divided into Orthograph}', Etj'mologj', 
Syntax, and Prosody. Now and then an enterprising author has added 
another division called Orthoepy. These divisions, with their endless 
sub-division^, classifications, definitions, and rules have been more or less 
rigidly followed since the da3's of Sowth and Lindley Murray. 

The average annual production of English grammars for the past 
hundred 3'ears has been about twenty' ; the total product to the present 
time somewhat more than tw«) thousand. 

With rare exceptions, very few new ideas of any value have entered 
into grammar making ; possibly because the gld authors used them all up. 
But as tailors and drapers, the thousand and one authors have been 
a success. The new suits of clothes for the old ideas, ought to have 
satisfied the most capricious among them. Just how much the world owes 
these book-makers, it would be difficult to determine ; but if one were to 
judge by what he sees and hears in visiting schools, in almost any part of 



ELEMENTARY DEPARTMENT. 219 

the country, he might be excused for not estimating the debt of gratitude 
an eternal one. 

In the vast majority of schools no direct attention whatever is given 
to language until children are considered old enough to study grammar. 
''To study grammar" usually means to commit to memory a certain 
section of the text-book — definitions, rules, and illustrations. In very 
many cases, it is years before these definitions and rules assume any 
meaning whatever to the mind of the child In vastly more cases they 
never do. 

In spite of what is said about it in view of the waste of time, and 
the abuse of mind, there is something grotesque in the grammar study of 
the average country school. Certainly nothing could be more utterly 
barren of result. 

After the definitions in Orthography and Etymology, comes parsing 
with all our senseless distinctions of mode, tense, gender, person, and 
case. 

Oh ! the millions and millions of words gabbled over in this parsing 
with its intermidable repetition ! 

Common, neuter, third, singular ! Common, neuter, third, singular 1 
Ding, dong ! Ding, dong ! Ding, doug ! 

After parsing comes analysis, whose only aim usually is to classify 
sentences, and tell in what grammatical way the elements are joined to- 
gether, according to the pet forms and nomenclature of the author whose 
grammar happens to be in use. 

In connection with analysis is that most senseless of all expedients 
for consuming the time of teachers and pupils — the diagraming of sen- 
tences. 

This is the great feature of many modern grammars, and its dis- 
covery, or invention, was quite a godsend. 

An irreverent teacher, who has made something of a stir in this coun- 
try of late, once said in my hearing, that the tearing to pieces of a beau- 
tiful sentence, and hanging its distorted members on the hooks of a 
diagram, always put him in mind of a meat-market. 

In all these processes, any study of beautiful thought or sentiment 
of the author whose composition is under consideration, or of how this 
or that element serves to modify by enlivening, beautifying, or strength- 
ening, is not attempted nor thought of, in one class out of twenty. 

I speak of schools in general, and from personal observation in them, 
and not of the best class of graded city or town schools. But a very 
small portion of the children of this country ever enter this sort of school ; 
hence the discussion of any theme of education which leaves out the needs 
and possibilities of the ungraded school, will sadly fail of its purpose. 

In these very schools have been educated, and are being educated, 
the great moving forces of this country. 



220 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

For a very few moments, will you bear with a little of detail in notic- 
ing certain processes of so-called language teaching? 

To fully appreciate Orthoepy, one must see what it may become in the 
hands of a skilled orthoepist. He studies the lips, teeth, tongue, palates, 
throat, and chest. He gathers together all the elementary sounds and 
sighs for more^-often invents them. Then he classifies and defines his 
labials, dentals. Unguals, sublinguals, palatals, gutturals, and pectorals. 
The acme of all his labors comes in diacritical marking. 

Teachers institutes and even normal schools run mad on these subjects, 
and when it comes to the schools we find children analyzing and marking 
words which they have pronounced correctly all their lives. And then they 
are marked on their marking and the grind goes on. 

What is it all for? Orthoepj' signifies the correct speaking of words. 
In teaching reading to beginners, there is no doubt that the use of certain 
elementary sounds and of a few marks, may be very advantageous in the 
hands of a skilful teacher, and that through their use children learn to 
read much more rapidly than in any other way. Their eflSciency ceases, 
however, as an aid to reading with the first book. Leading strings are of 
no account after a child can run alone ; and with a second reader be should 
learn his words in the form in which he will ever afterwards find them. 

In the study of the dictionary, of course, a knowledge of marks is in- 
dispensable to determine the sound of a word ; but after this is once done, 
the pronunciation of that word is fixed in the memory through the sense of 
hearing and not of seeing. There is and can be but one test of pronuncia- 
tion, and that is pronunciation. If a child can read his lesson acceptably 
why should he mark the words in it ? Would you give bin a spelling lesson 
from words that you know he spells correctly ? 

With foreigners long and careful drill should be given on those sounds 
peculiar to English as compared with their own language. These vary 
with different languages, and so will the instruction of a careful teacher. 
Such instruction will be effective only when it is individual. 

Orthography signifies the correct writing of words. If a child or an 
adult writes correctly the words in his vocabulary, his orthography is per- 
fect whether he can define the term or not ; whether or not he can detach 
prefixes and sufl^xes from Latin and Greek roots and define each fragment 
of the word ; whether or not he can define l-y ly and t-i-o-n tion ; or tell 
why one word ends in able and another in ible. 

Did you ever try to pass a scientific eocamination in Orthography and 
Orthoepy? May the Lord help you if it is yet before you! We have 
them in the West and I have actually known a cultivated lady who could 
write one page or one hundred without an eiTor, who was a teacher of un- 
usual ability and experience and that to the personal knowledge of the ex- 
aminers, refused a State certificate because she could not answer peventy- 



ELEMENTAR T DEPAR TMENT, 221 

five per cent, of a set of questions prepared by one of these orthographical 
cranks. 

It ma3' be well enough to know these things, but my advice is to teach 
children spelling. Probably more than half of all the time given to Eng- 
lish in schools is taken up in the study of etymology. Let us look at the 
noun for example. We wish children to be able to use nouns in English 
sentences. Trace our nouns through all possible case relations, and I 
think there are fifteen or twenty of them, supply with all persons and gen- 
ders, and we find the only error possible in speech (except in pronunciation) 
is in the formation of a few irregular plurals. An intelligent child of six 
years will unconsciously furnish almost as great variety of correct con- 
structions, as the most hair-splitting pedagogue. He cannot use his nouns 
wrong. In toriling there is the troublesome apostrophe for the possessive 
case. Why, after all our study of grammar, can so few overcome the only 
difiSculty attendant upon the use of nouns? The reason is not far to seek. 

We have just two adjectives that take a change of form — this and that. 
The others are the same words in whatever use, with whatever case, per- 
son, number, or gender. Still, the time of children is diverted from legiti- 
mate use of language, to learning and defining such classifications as this 
from several very modern grammars: 

Adjectives are limiting and qualifying. Limited adjectives are divided 
into: Articles, subdivided into definite and indefinite. Pronominal 
adjectives, subdivided into distributives, demonstratives, reciprocals, and 
indefinites. Numeral adjectioeSj subdivided into cardinal, ordinal, and mul- 
tiplicative. Every house was burned. Every limits house. The frame 
house was burned. Frame does not limit house. 

And the foregoing stuff is taught to children who can write only bare- 
ly respectable sentences— or worse ! The old question comes, " How does 
U hdpf^ No, it is not the old question ; it is the new one. 

One serious difiSculty arises in the use of adverbs of manner. There 
is no trouble about any others. It cannot be overcome, however, by learn- 
ing and applying the dozen difierent classifications of adverbs. In prepo- 
sitions, conjunctions, and interjections the only difiSculty is in using the 
right words, with which grammar has very little to do. Like a bad dream 
still lingers in my memory a certain classification of conjunctions that 
helped to make me a bad boy in school. English inflection is really in- 
significant. Properly speaking, nouns have none, except to form the 
plural ; adjectives have none. The use of the separate words that make up 
the declension of pronouns should be taught long before the declension 
age. Then the formulating of the words into a tabic will be a very small 
matter. 

The most serious trouble of all comes in the use of the irregular verbs. 
With pupils whose training has been only in conjugating and parsing verbs. 



222 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

the cure is well nigh hopeless. What a time the children have over con- 
jugation ! I well remember my old Bullion's grammar, and how, as a 
twelve- y car-old-boy, my first winter in a graded school was embittered by 
" I love, thou lovest, he loves." Night after night, when the other pupils 
had gone, I staid with the teacher and tugged at that senseless conjugation, 
and never learned it. I did just what nine-tenths of all grammar students 
do to-day, tried to commit to memory the words on those pages in their 
written order. My only idea of the subjunctive, was the word " if," of the 
potential, the words " may " and " might," of the indicative, was tliat it 
wasn't either of the others. The same is true of our pupils. How inter- 
esting is such a recitation as this — naming each person and number. '" I 
loved, you loved, he loved. We loved, you loved, they loved." Every 
body loved. 

With the exception of the verb " be," the only distinctive termination 
caused by the subject is in the third person singular of the present tense. 
Our rule, so often required, that a verb must agree with its subject in per- 
son and number does no harm, and it does little good, since identically the 
same verb agrees with every person in either number, excepting only the 
case noted, and the form am of the verb he. 

Great effort has been made to maintain Murray's five modes and his 
distinctions of time, but their support is getting very shaky. Whitney 
and others give us three modes. Of these the use of the subjunctive is 
beyond the comprehension of grammar school children, or of anybody else 
except skilled writers. As was recently said in the Penns^-lvania School 
Journal^ " Grammars will soon dispose of it in a foot note." Modern home 
training of children makes superfluous any school practice of children in the 
use of the imperative. 

Of the use of the irregular verbs I shall speak farther on. If learned 
in school it must be before conjugations can be taught. When this is done 
why conjugate at all? I recently heard a class parsing this sentence, 
" The boys ran quickl}' into the house." They were beginners and gave 
reasons for all statements. I wrote the p arsing exactly as I heard it and 
it covered two full pages of foolscap. The teacher was an exceptionally 
good one. The children were from ten to twelve years of age. Of course 
as the}' advanced the process would be much abbreviated ; but it represents 
the same thing. 

I pondered over the lesson long and earnestl}' asking m3*8elf many 
questions. After the sentence is finished is the meaning at all clearer? 
Is any grammatical error guarded against? Is anj' thought awakened? 
How has the thoughtful, practical use of English been advanced? What 
has the recitation gained for the children ? Until we can answer these 
questions satisfactorily in view of our responsibility to these children » 
wouldn't it be just as well to call a halt in this matter of parsing? 



ELEMENT AR Y DEPAR TMENT. 223 

In the stud}^ of sj^ntax taken at the proper time and in the proper 
manner, there is material for the most delightful and profitable work. 
Beside being made in part a test of the child's understanding of an author's 
meaning, it is without a superior as a disciplinary study in our grammar 
schools. 

The stud}' called anal3'si8 and diagraming, however, is apt to fall into 
or never rise above mere platitudes and senseless minutiae. There is a set 
classification for each kind of sentence, a set phraseology to be gone 
through with, a set label for each element. The most unimportant word 
has the same lingo connected with it that the most important has. Text 
books are followed so slavishly that the pupils taught by Mr. A. in one 
town cannot understand the analysis of those taught by Mr. B. in the town 
adjoining. Any system of analysis, diagraming or terminology, becomes 
ridiculous when its originality prevents anj- fair grammarian from under- 
standing it. 

Do 30U imagine that I am drawing from fancy, or assailing a man of 
straw ? I have very recently' taken great pains to find out the truth in 
regard to our school work in English grammar, both from personal obser- 
vation and from intelligent observers. The following illustrations of anal}'- 
sis are not unusual. This verj- complicated statement was to be anal3'zed 
by a class well advanced in grammar: '^ They waited two days." The 
anah'sis, verbatim, covered more than a half page of foolscap. 

In another class tlie analysis of this sentence, " The longer I waited, 
the more restless I became," covered an entire page. This was the highest 
class in a grammar school. I heard a seventh grade class in one of the 
fine schools of a great city spend thirtj^ minutes on a single analysis of this 
sentence, " Squeers, arming himself with his cane, led the way across the 
yard to a door in the rear of the house." I think a boj' of almost any age 
rould understand the force of that sentence. The class got about three- 
fourths through the lesson in the half hour and the teacher and principal 
seemed well satisfied. 

A verbatim report of the analysis covered two and one-half pages of 
foolscap, and I know that the scholars in my own school couldn*t tell 
whether it was right or wrong. From a recently published grammar I 
copied a model for analysis for grammar school pupils. The sentence con- 
tained just two lines of Anglo-Saxon words. The analj'sis closely written 
covered three pages of foolscap . Not one of these sentences was above 
the comprehension of a child six jxars of age. There was nothing in any 
sentence to call for even a difference of opinion as to meaning. From 
another modern grammar was copied this classification of a sentence : 

" His refusing to apologize was proof that an insult was intended." 
*'This sentence is complicate, simple, co-mixed, secondary, copulative, 
neuter, afllrmative, positive, indicative." Ery, iry, ickory, Ann, fiUsy, 
fohsy, Nicholas, John. 



224 TUE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

I may be accused of caricaturing this part of my subject. I claim 
that it is beyond the power of any human being to caricature it. 

I wish I could convey to your minds, as clearly as they are in my own, 
two pictures of two grammar lessons. Each was conducted within a very 
few weeks by a teacher of marked ability and fine reputation. The first 
was in a normal school with a class of thirty young men and women, vary- 
ing from sixteen to twenty years of age. They were earnest and faithfaU 
as normal students always are, and possessed fine ability too. They were 
analyzing simple, detached sentences found in a grammar. Every sentence 
was analyzed just like every other. For instance : 

"A small boy saw a large dog." "This is a proposition ; it is the 
combination of a subject and predicate ." *' It is the expression of a thought 
in words; therefore it is a sentence." " It is a simple sentence; it con- 
tains but one proposition." " It is a declara tive sentence; it asserts or 
declares something." Without one word of variation, this rigmarole was 
gone through with just as many times as there were sentences. How do 
you think it sounded from the mouths of men and women? 

The analysis was of the same sort as the prelude, abounding in absurd 
minutiae and repetition. There was no interchange of opinion, although 
there was attention. Such work does not rouse opinion. These pupils are 
to teach and carry the same sort of work among the children of country 
schools, with the prestige of a great normal school to back them. At the 
same time, no more than one- half of these same young men and women 
could write a respectable English composition. 

The other exercise to which I referred was conducted by a lad}- 
teacher with a class of eighty pupils, in the highest grade of a grammar 
school. The study was on our old school-boy favorite , " Marco Bozzaris." 
The thought and meaning of the author, the force of his words as used, his 
beauty of expression ; all in connection with the grammatical relation of 
elements wherever there might be a difference of opinion on that relation, 
called forth sharp discussion, criticism, and terse expression of thought. 

Every one of the eighty young minds seemed on the alert during the 
entire hour, and at its close I reluctantly left the room feeling strengthened 
as if by an elixir. I thank heaven that there is here and there such a 
teacher. Then there is such difference of opinion on so many of these 
grammatical points, and the opinion is as firm and immovable as the 
everlasting hills. They are like points of theology, you know ; stronger 
as they become non-essential ^ or nonsensical, 

A superintendent said to me not long ago, '' Every predicate has a 
copula and an attribute; the verb '&e' is found in every verb in the 
English language." 

It was said with such a '' shtep-on-me-coat-tail " air that I meekly as- 
sented. I saw the same thing in a recently published grammar, with the 



ELEMENT AR Y DEPAR TMENT. 225 

somewhat extraordinary statement that "Snow falls" is an equivalent 
statement to '" Snow is falling." So when an order is given " Halt! " it 
is equivalent to "Be halting," or, as Pat would have it, *'Be after halt- 
ing ! " 

I recently noticed in an educational journal a long article in which 
somebody takes to task Reed and Kellogg's parsing of "waiting" in the 
obscure construction " He kept me waiting.'* The discussion covered 
five or six pages of foolscap. The idiom is at the command of every 
three-year-old not an idiot. 

Go on with your learned and hair-splitting discussions my friends, 
but do not dwarf the energies and waste the time of the children. Who 
cares whether a sentence is co-mixed and secondary or not. The all- 
important question is, are the children? 

The verb " 6e " is entitled to profound respect, but life is too short to 
try to squeeze it out of every other verb. I suppose good old Prof. 
Greene was responsible for that piece of nonsense, as also for much other 
connected with analysis. I have been informed that he repented the 
error before his death. " Alas ! the evil that men do lives after them ! '* 

Now from our school work, what results do we find so far as ability 
to use English is concerned ? Just what we might fairly expect. 

Calling the first four years of school primary, the second four gram- 
mar, and the third four high school, and taking the simple writing of a 
letter as a test of those who finish these schools, from the primary the 
result will be almost nothing, from the grammar very bad, from the high 
school only fairly good. 

So far as the use of English is concerned the graduates of our gram- 
mar schools are a disgrace to the teachers of this country. The matter 
cannot be overstated. Not more than half of the teachers of the country 
do use good language, and a large proportion of these cannot. Let who- 
ever doubts the truth of this statement visit teachers' institutes. 

Only two years ago in certain institutes quite up to the average, I 
called for the writing of a few sentences involving nothing more diflScult 
than the use of singular and plural nouns and pronouns, a few very com- 
mon irregular verbs, and first reader punctuation. The sentences were 
identically those given a few weeks before to children passing from second 
to third reader. The results from the adults were shocking, not nearly so 
good as from the children. And why ? 

The children had had careful drill for a year and a half in speaking 
and writing correctly their own childish thoughts. The teachers had never 
had careful drill in correctly expressing anything. They had studied 
grammar, however, from four to eight years each ; and we had a most 
interesting time in telling our experiences. They could parse and analyze 
fairly well, and could use diacritical marks ; but they could not correctly 
15b 



226 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

write second reader sentences ; and it was no fault of their own. Tbey 
were faithful, earnest, and honest men and women. 

A prominent teacher said to me recently, " When in college, I used 
to write the letters of application for winter schools for most of my cla^- 
mates who were studying Latin and Greek. I had been clerk in a store 
for several years, and there had learned to write respectable English." 

I am not making this confession especially for the West. The schools 
of New England, whose public schools were her boast before this great 
commonwealth and beautiful city were born, in the matter of English 
instruction are but little in advance of our own. The simple tests in 
language given by Mr, Walton, and others, to schools in Massachusetts 
show lamentable ignorance, on the part of children nearly fourteen years 
of age. These results are much the same throughout the Northern States, 
taking a commonwealth as a unit. Isn't it fair, fellow teachers, to con- 
clude that there is something wrong in our common school instruction? 
That, as Prof. Whitney says, we have been looking for certain returns 
from a source that cannot possibly give them. 

It would be a low standard to say that the average pupil who leaves 
the grammar schools shall use good English ; but it would be infinitely 
higher than we have now. Let us gird our loins and remove one reproach 
at least from our common school system. 

Language instruction is peculiarly suited to the primary school. The 
first few years of a child's life are the most impressible, and his constant 
eflbrt is to gain means of expression. The six years usually spent before 
entering school are not idle ones by any means. Under the guidance of 
those most consummate teachers, the mother's, the little ones have learned 
name words, quality words, action words, and enough of syntax so that 
these words are joined into sentences. They have learned about things 
being in contact with them. Under the mother's teaching the name of 
object or quality is given only after a direct appeal to the child's senses, 
when all his interest is aroused. The name of an action is given only as 
the action is performed. She never attempts to teach anything except 
when the child's best emotions are aroused and he is happy. Every new 
thing learned is chattered about from morning until night, ever to the 
kind and patient response of the teacher that God has provided. There 
is no method in the chatter, nor in the teaching of the mother, from the 
school-master's standpoint. She passes rapidly from object to object — 
too rapidly for anything like systematic instruction. 

Still the child learns wonderfully, if not very thoroughly. In his 

teaching, thus far, there have been great tact, great patience, and much 

repetition ; on his own part ceaseless questions and never-dying interest. 

With his stock of crude material he comes to school. This is the 

great event of his life Even the necessary repression of the school-room 



ELEMENT AR T DEPAR TMENT, 227 

is a wonderful change to him, but the over-disciplined school, together 
with the forced and artificial way in which we go about our teaching, too 
often seem to change the entire nature of children. How they ask about 
everything out of school ! How they almost never ask about anything in 
school ! Of course the aggregating of so many children together, neces- 
sitates something of a change, but no barrier must be allowed to grow up 
between the teacher and the children. A feeling of freedom on their part 
most be secured and maintained. Take what the children already have 
acquired as the basis on which to build, pursue somewhat the method of 
the mother, and there will be no trouble. 

Nothing so delights the child as the consciousness that he knows 
something about any topic presented by the teacher. This knowledge he 
will express as soon as his shyness is overcome and his interest aroused. 
Toys, dolls, kittens, canary birds, pictures, and little children work to- 
gether in wonderful harmony. With what feelings of strange curiosity 
and delight they see these things produced in the school-room ; and find 
out that those objects of never-failing interest to them, their own play- 
things, may also come to school. 

Confidence caused by a feeling of security in the friendship of the 
teacher, and by the fact that there is no abrupt transition from the case of 
his home surroundings, will cause the child to talk. This is all essential 
in connection with his first teaching, and language lessons should begin at 
once. • 

The language which the children use has been learned from a hun- 
dred different sources, some of them pure, and some of them impure. 
They have a stock of several hundred words ; some of them they pro- 
nounce correctly, and some they do not. These words they have formed 
into sentences for years, according to their own sweet wills. They have 
at hand, and are constantly using, almost every construction, or miscon- 
struction in the language. Expression of want or emotion has received all 
assistance possible ; correct expression very little or none. 

This out-o^-school practice must be counteracted in school if at all ; 
and here is the problem to be solved. Many systems of language lessons 
have been proposed; many books made for the use of children. '^The 
text-book is indeed the first danger that is to be guarded against. It is 
the rock on which the whole scheme is liable to be wrecked." 

Much the same interest has been aroused in the subject, that object 
lessons received twenty-five years ago, and there is great danger that the 
same result will follow. 

State Supt. Raab, of Illinois, gives a reason for the failure as follows : 
" Most of the books on object lessons were undoubtedly written by com- 
petent men ; but they were slavishly followed verbatim et literatim in the 
school-room. Every object was discussed by set questions, and the whole 



228 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

subject drifted into mere formalism. So also text-books on Language 
Teaching have been written by competent teachers ; and by putting these 
books into the hands 6f children, and teaching them ^ to talk ' from them, 
we expect them to acquire language. This is simply impossible with a 
subject so varied as this, in which there is so constant need of illustratioa. 
The basis of all proficiency in oral or written expression is the living 
word; the free and easy conversation between teacher and pupil. All 
progressive teachers are agreed on this subject, although not all are suc- 
cessful in these exercises." 

For my own part I do not believe any successful text-book on this 
subject possible for little children — unless, perchance, it were a book filled 
with bright pictures, without a word in it. 

If children talk correctly they will write correctly, when they know 
how to spell. The converse of this proposition is not true by any means. 
Hence the first lessons, and these when the children enter school, should 
be in talking. The plan of the teacher must be clear in her own mind and 
weU arranged. There should be a definite line of instruction so far as 
liability to error in speech is concerned. 

Recollect that perfect freedom on the part of the children is the 
^^ sine qua non" in language exercises, and until this is secured, little 
heed should be paid to the manner of speech, except that it be understood 
by all. To know what kind of talk should be sought, if there are no chil- 
dren in your own homes, go to those of your pupils and hear them talk to 
their mothers about toys or pictures. Also note the manner and style of 
speech of the mother lest your own formality and teacherishness may 
extinguish all interest on the part of the children. Great teachers, as 
well as small, may note this advice. I shall long remember the sort of 
stunned look that came to the faces of a grammar school class recently as 
a very learned educator talked to them about ^' ratiocination." 

The English constructions most violated will appear in the speech of 
the children. These will vary with different classes, and so should the 
instruction. 

In describing toys and other objects judiciously selected, not omit- 
ting the children's pets, the absolutely correct use of the indefinite articles 
may be easily secured, provided that the teacher so guides the conversa- 
tion that they shall recur with great frequency. There are a few nouns 
whose plurals are irregularly formed. AU others the children nse as cor- 
rectly as does the teacher. 

The few about whose use there is any trouble may be selected and the 
correct forms secured by having more than one object of a kind at hand. 
When it is not feasible to have the objects, pictures will answer quite well. 

The use of this and that^ and of their plurals, is a very important 
topic. In conversation it involves the plural formation of nouns, the 



ELEMENT AR Y DEPAR TMENT, 229* 

change in form of verbs and personal pronouns, to say nothing of the posi- 
tion of the objects of conversation. The constant change which the use of 
the words suggests holds attention and interest, and easily and naturally 
children in the first reader become perfect masters of them, and of their 
influence upon sentences. 

Let me be understood right here. The greatest study of the teacher 
should be to arouse the thought of the child, to train him to quickly grasp 
any situation, to observe closely what is brought to his attention. Then 
he is to express his thought in language. In order to obtain the construc- 
tion which she wishes to impress, she does not ask for the use of ihia word, 
or that word ; but she so environs the child that he shall produce those con- 
stuctions naturally in expressing his thought. 

It is nonsense to say that he will produce them unconscix>usly — children 
know when teachers are doing something quite as well as when they are 
doing nothing ; and it is desirable that they know what they are learning. 
They will learn to use troublesome constructions by using them, and they 
can do it in no other way. 

There is nothing else that children like so much as physical action. 
In the description of such action may be secured the correct use of adverbs 
of manner, or adverbs so largely formed from adjectives. The use of 
other adverbs is attended with no difficulty ; and if the time given to labell- 
ing them, were spent upon the use of these, good English would gain 
greatly. 

A careful count of all errors of speech among children for a given 
time, would show the occurrence of about one-half of them in the use of the 
verb be. This is not a random statement. The conversations to which I 
have alluded will afford infinite practice in this troublesome verb, and go 
far to establish its correct use. Then come the other irregular verbs, for 
which the old grammarians had so great respect as to call them ^^ strong 
verbs :" some of them might well be called " tough verbs." 

To what endless errors do they give rise ! By judiciously selecting 
those in most common use and so arranging conversational lessons, that 
the verb selected shall play an important part, correctness may at least 
be approximated with the children. With many of the verbs the practice 
in school should be very extensive, as the home influence is entirely in the 
wrong direction. 

It will be unnecessary to mention other points involving English con- 
structions. All common errors of speech may be classified under com- 
paratively few heads, and during the four years of school, these .may all 
be carefully presented by the teacher. 

The correction of false syntax by the children will help to attune 
their ears aright ; a discord in speech should strike like a discord in music, 
and for the same reason. This false syntax, however, should be such as 
presents itself unbidden in conversations and recitations. 



280 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

None of it should be lagged in by the teacher. Its use should appear 
accidental and the repair applied as soon as possible. 

This leads me to notice something that I have lately seen in several 
rather respectable journals of education, stamped with the especial 
approval of the editors. They have published long lists of sentences 
containing false syntax with the recommendation that they be written on 
the blackboard for the inspection of children. Thus contaminate the 
sense of sight as well as that of hearing. 

Would you furnish foul air for children in order to show them the 
desirableness of good ventilation? Would you lie to them in order to 
show the beauty of truthfulness ? Must you bring them into contact with 
dirt and filth in order to teach cleanliness ? 

Thus before the age for studying grammar, children should know and 
use correct constructions. In any direct instruction in this subject, the 
sentence is the unit as it is the expression of one complete thought ; and 
of course sentence-making is the immediate aim. This is true in learning 
the use of any language. 

The teacher who stops here, however, will leave her work only begun, 
and the impression she makes will very likely be transitory. Even the 
youngest children in school should be trained in composition — first, oral, 
then written. 

The oral compositions at the homes are something marvellous in quan- 
tity and in quality. How stories and descriptions struggle to find expres- 
sion for the eager interest of the children. By securing this oral compo- 
sition in the school-room and so directing it as to apply gently a principle 
6i rhetoric here and there, the way may be readily prepared for written 
composition. This should begin as soon as the child can write with readi- 
ness — not later than with second reader. Nothing is more surprising than 
that teachers will still persist in teaching children to print. Just as soon 
as they can print they stop it and never take it up again. The first few 
months should secure to the child the ability to copy in script, sentences 
from his reading-book, or from the blackboard. 

This copying when well managed is a powerful factor in language 
teaching, aside from its being the very best means of teaching orthography. 
The forms of words, their meaning as used, correct constructions, use of 
capitals, and punctuation are all gradually impressed upon the child' as he 
carefully copies well-formed sentences. 

Written composition, once begun, should continue as long as the child 
attends school. '*• Talking with the pencil " is the pleasant name which Col. 
Parker gives the exercise. I would have it every day until the third reader 
is completed, and as often thereafter as an increasing number and difficulty 
of studies will permit. Conversational drill upon special constructions, as 
already indicated, should be kept up parallel with composition writing. This 



ELEMENTARY DEPARTMENT, 231 

will secure something like correctness in both oral and written use of Eng- 
lish, and, so far as I know, nothing else will. Undoubtedly the perceptive 
faculties are the first to be trained. Hence the child must be taught or led 
to observe, and then to use language to expres"* the thought. The dealing 
with the reasoning faculties comes later. " How shall I be able to awaken 
and stimulate thought?" should be the prompting question in arranging the 
details of any plan for composition. 

With little children, observation, memory, and imagination play the im- 
portant roles^ and in order to cultivate the second, close attention is indis- 
pensable. It should at first be taxed for very brief spaces of time. The 
description of familiar objects, and of pictures, the narrating of personal 
experiences, the reproduction of stories heard or read, and the production 
of stories which the imagination gets from pictures, are suggestive of the 
work that may be done. Letter writing should receive very early attention, 
as it is the only written composition that ninety-nine hundredths ever in- 
dulge in after they leave school. What more desirable accomplishment 
than to be able to write a good letter? Children who finish primary grades, 
or the first four years, should be able to do far better in this matter than 
can now the children who leave the grammar schools. The letters of the 
latter should be well nigh faultless. 

From the time the child enters school his manner of speaking words 
should receive careful attention. I refer to careful enunciation and cor- 
rect pronunciation. Habits of indistinctness are frequently the result of 
timidity — so painful in a primary school ; occasionally they are the results 
of pure laziness ; often there is sufficient noise and energy, but no exact- 
ness ; with foreigners difi3culties are peculiar to each nationality. The 
multiplicity of troubles makes any one specific impossible. Quite as many 
teachers fail in finding out the trouble, as in applying the remedy. Dis- 
tinct enunciation should be secured in the primary school at whatever cost 
of time, study, and patience. The battle once fought out, will be fought 
out for all time ; and economy says, " the earlier the better.*' Short gener- 
al exercises in the pronunciation of lists of words whose use is familiar to 
the children, only four or five at a time, will produce great results. The 
words should be those liable to mispronunciation, and the exercise not to 
exceed five minutes in length. All the difficult words in their vocabulary, 
with sufficient repetition to thoroughly impress them, will require but a few 
months. 

The most delightful language exercises that I have ever heard, have 
been drills upon the new words of reading-leysons, preliminary to any at- 
tempt to read. Recognition at sight, pronunciation, enunciation, and use 
of words were the features of the exercises, as the new words were trans- 
ferred to the blackboard from the sentences of the children. Like a bright 
vision lingers in my memory one such reading exercise heard several years 



.232 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

ago in Quincy, Mass. Every reading-lesson should form a subject for 
conversation, especially with little children. The fact that the oonrersa- 
tion is sure to come will fix the attention of the children, and they will gain 
from the lesson whatever of information there is in it. This sort of exercise 
will be far more profitable when primary reading books are written about 
something^ instead of about nothing. God speed the day 1 

The lessons read should often form subjects for composition writing ; 
I say lessons read^ not repeated from memory. Then we have in connec- 
tion with reading, awakening of thought, use of words, recognition at sight 
of new words, intelligent reading, conversation on what has been read, 
and finally written composition suggested by the lesson. *' All in a fifteen 
minute recitation?** some one will ask. Certainly not. The effect of this 
sort of training is not only immediate but far reaching, as it looks forward 
to topical recitation in other branches of study. Facility of expression is 
a powerful aid in acquiring all branches of knowledge. It places text-book 
question and answer processes at a discount, and also that most fatal of 
all hindrances to mental development — memoriter recitation. 

School training should bear largely upon the other studies pursued. I 
recollect in one second reader a beautifully written lesson upon the struc- 
ture and habits of the "fly." None of the stories in the book had half 
the attraction for the children that this lesson had. They returned to it 
again and again with the never tiring interest of children, each time hav- 
ing something of their own obser\'ation to relate. In a third reader was a 
somewhat similar. lesson about the " cat." I was greatly interested to see 
how the household pets were investigated, and how with sparkling eyes the 
children corroborated the statements of the author. There was no trouble 
about compositions on those subjects. These exercises also do vastly more 
to instil lessons of human kindness than do long homilies on the subject. 
I know the sort of reading-lesson to which I refer has been pronounced a 
failure, but it is be^-ause no mind able to produce good literature for the 
children has written about animals. 

What an endless field for reading-lessons is furnished in the study of 
geography, and what Another in history ! What other so good time to 
read of what is grand and sublime in nature, or of what is heroic and 
noble in the lives of men and women, as in connection with the study of 
these subjects ? Shakespeare and Milton are all well enough but they have 
no business in our school readers. When the children in our grammar 
schools can read fluently and intelligently Humboldt's accounts of the 
Tropical Regions, or Mr. Agassiz*s charming description of coral forma- 
tion, the teacher may consider her work well done, even with no reference 
to monotone, orotund, or other elocutionary nonsense. Then we have in- 
vestigation and study — hard work here, but not drudgery — class reading 
and discussion, and composition writing upon each important topic, for 



ELEMENT AR T DEPAR TMENT. 233 

Natural History, Geography, and United States History, beginning in our 
primary and extending through our grammar schools. How the children 
broaden under it I Knowing that every considerable topic studied will be 
a subject to be written about, they will search far* and wide for informa- 
tion, and the attention to every reading-lesson will be intense. In the 
schools of which 1 speak I very much doubt whether composition writing 
other than of the nature to which I have referred is either feasible or de- 
sirable, and the writing should be mostly if not altogether done in school. 
In connection with composition, either oral or written, drawing may 
be a most powerful auxiliary as an expression of thought. Not long ago 
I had the pleasure of hearing a third reader class talk about Alaska and its 
inhabitants. As the children told their stories about houses, boats, sledges, 
seals, or weapons, they promptly stepped to the board and represented the 
objects of which they were speaking, and with the same easy confidence. 
Cue of them, without hesitation, undertook to delineate an Esquimaux in 
full dress. I have seen much of the same sort of work and with astonish- 
ing results in my own school within the past month. I call it language 
teaching. You may call it gec^raphy, drawing, or history if you choose. 
It is hard to draw the line of distinction. I also believe the training of the 
hand, other than in drawing, to be in the direct line of language teaching. 

The ability to make a thing necessitates the ability to think about it ; 
when it is finished, naturally comes a description of the process. The bet- 
ter it is made, the better will be the thought and the better the description. 
The more difficult the thing to be accomplished, the greater must be the 
thought ; and the power of expression will be taxed in the same proportion. 
As regards what he does or makes with his own hands, the interest of the 
child is always intense. Hence as a powerful means of language develop- 
ment, I include manual training ; notably that of the kindergarten. Style 
of writing as regards unity, symmetry, etc., will of course need attention ; 
but the freedom and originality of the child's expression are of more ac- 
count during his primary course. Guard against glaring faults of style, 
keep him within reasonable bounds, and practice will work out his salva- 
tion. As he goes on through his grammar and high school course the 
rhetorical reins should be tightened accordingly. 

As a potent means of cultivation in the correct use of language and in 
freedom and power of expression none other plays so important a part as 
the reading of good books. Dr. Harris says in a recent article : " There 
is no other way to gain a command of good language than to become 
familiar with the best authors." And again, " The habit of reading good 
literature, it is acknowledged, will soonest develop a command of language. 
It will not only give a ready understanding of the printed page, but will give 
a capacity of fluent expression to the pupil.'' So far as dealing with the 
children is concerned, here is a fine field for the exercise of common sense. 



234: TUE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

In several learned discussions on this subject, I have heard but two classy 
of books mentioned. The dime novels were condemned, of course. It is 
a pity that they and their authors were not all consigned to the nether 
flames. The books recfommended, however, for the c hildren to read were 
Shakespeare, Milton, Hume, and Gibbon You might just as well recom- 
mend corn-beef and cabbage for infants. 

The essentials of books for children are purity of thought, purity of 
language, and matter that has for them an interest. These secured, let 
them read the books they like best and plenty of them. It would be posi- 
tive cruelty to a book-loving child, to cut off his supply of story books and 
force him to read only history and biography. Undoubtedly for some wise 
purpose God has implanted in every childish bosom a delight in stories, 
and it is only those who have forgotten their own childhood, or never had 
any, that cry out against this best of childish desires. A wise teacher will 
commend the taste and use it for the child's good, in slowly forming a taste 
for the very best in children's literature To this end the reading and dis- 
cussion of some good book may well occupy a small portion of the time 
each week. When practicable the reading should be done out of school ; 
then an hour's discussion of the portion read each week will form a de- 
lightful language lesson, and also lead to the proper reading of books. For 
the higher grammar grades the cheap publications of standard literature, 
furnish abundant material within the reach of all. For the middle and 
lower grades good books in cheap form are harder to find, and the reading 
may well be done aloud in school hours ; although for the purposes of lan- 
guage lessons this is not so good. Such reading of even one good book 
each term may be of immeasurable benefit to the children. The man who 
reads and loves good books is certain to become a good citizen. 

Shall we not have literature in school for its own sake? Aside from 
that which directly or indirectly promotes practical use ? By all means if 
the teacher has a genuine love for it. Otherwise she would better let it 
alone. There is something grotesque mixed with what is painful, in the 
haggling and stumbling over beautiful gems of English thought by children 
in the hands of incompetency and ignorance. The teacher who loves and 
appreciates such gems will introduce them to her pupils, and she will add to 
their value by selecting such as meet their capacity and needs. AVith the ac- 
quirement of the use of language, whatever is necessary in • technicalities 
may be gradually introduced and made familiar. 

Definitions in grammar, as in other studies, should grow out of the 
child's thorough understanding of the nature and use of the thing defined. 
If anything of rule is necessary, he should formulate it himself by describ- 
ing his own constructions. Our school work almost all has been^ and is 
from definition and rule to use : whereas it ought to be exactly the reverse. 



ELEMENTAR Y DEPAR TMENT. 235 

The acquiring of language is one thing and the study of English grammar is 
another ; and it is time that earnest and honest men and women found it 
out. With all the chaff and rubbish winnowed out of it, when taken at the 
proper time and in the proper manner, the study of English grammar is a 
beautiful and helpful one. I believe in it most thoroughly. If I had written 
this paper expressly for teachers of ungraded schools, it would be exactly 
what it is now. Your responsibility in this matter is the greater, because you 
are educating the majority of the children. You have some disadvantages, 
it is true, but you have to deal with greater earnestness and strength of 
character, and in most cases you are not borne down by overwhelming 
numbers. 

After all that has been, or that can be said or written on this subject, 
in any system of language lessons the working out of detail must rest 
almost entirely with the teacher. If she is equal to this she will succeed. 
If she is only a slavish copyist, she will fail, of course. The earnest 
thought of earnest teachers will work out e very plan needed and there will 
be many best ones. 

The greatest work any man can do is to set men to thinking ; and he 
who sets teachers to thinking does the greatest work of all. 



Mr. Bright's paper was followed by a discussion in which the follow- 
ing members of the Association participated : Z. Richards, of District 
of Columbia ; Miss Curtiss, of the Kansas City Schools ; Mr. Thomas, of 
Ohio ; Mr. Smith, of Missouri ; Mr. Cook, of Illinois ; Mr. Bell and Miss 
Thompson, of Davenport, lo wa ; Mr. Ford, of Illinois ; Mr. Livingston, 
of Wisconsin ; Mr. Barringer, of New Jersey ; Col. Parker, of Illinois ; 
W. W. Yates, of Kansas City ; Mr. Broughton, of Wisconsin. 

The nominating committee reported the following names as officers 
for the ensuing year : 

For President— W , N. Barringer, of Newark, N. J. 
For Vice-President — A. R. Taylor, Emporia, Kansas. 
For Seci-etary— Miss EUa Calkins, New York City. 

After electing the nominees by a unanimous vote the meeting 
adjourned. Ella Calkins, Secretary. 



NORMAL DEPARTMENT. 



JULY 16, 1884. 

The Normal School section began at 2 : 30 at the Methodist Charch. 
Vice-President Norton, of San Jose Normal School, California, opened the 
meeting with prayer. J. N. Wilkinson, of Kansas Normal School, Emporia, 
was chosen secretary of the meeting. President E. C. Hewett, of the Illi- 
nois Normal, gave the opening address as presiding ofl3cer. By unani- 
mous vote, this section nominated Principal Boyden, of Bridgewater Nor- 
mal School, Massachusetts, to continue as its representative in the 
National Council of Education. The first paper of length was presented 
by Dr. Hunter, president of the largest normal school in the United States 
— the Normal College of the city of New York. 

For Dr. Hunter's paper see page 288. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

E. C. HEWETT, LL. D., 
President Illinois State Normal University, 

Fellow'ioorkera in Normal Schools: 1 do not purpose to make a set 
and formal address on this occasion. Time is very precious here ; and I 
have nothing new to present. 

I congratulate you, — congratulate the friends of true education in the 
whole country, and congratulate myself, on meeting so large a number of 
the earnest men and women of our land, whose business it is to train ilB 
teachers. 

The great want of our schools is competent and well-trained teachers, 
and that is likely to be the great want for years to come. To supply this 



NORMAL DEPARTMENT. 237 

want is the only legitimate purpose of normal schools. Hence, questions 
pertaining to normal schools lie at the foundation of all educational topics. 

But, while this is so, there are those who deny even the need of nor- 
mal schools. Not long since, a legislator in my own State declared that, 
although normal schools might have been necessary at one time, the neces- 
sity existed no longer, — they had fulfilled their function, — we had trained 
teachers enough now. Wise man ! We shall outgrow the need of normal 
schools when we outgrow the need of cradles and bibs, and not before. 
It is proper, therefore, that our program should provide, as it does, for 
the presentation of the theme of the " Necessity for Normal Schools ;" and 
I am sure that the eminent gentleman to whom the topic is assigned will 
have something to say about it that it will profit all of us to hear. 

But no normal school can do good work, unless it founds its methods 
on a correct knowledge of human nature, — on the laws of mental action 
and mental growth. Therefore, an able man is to bring before us some 
of the significant facts of Psychology, and to show their relation to the 
work of normal schools. 

Yet the clearest perception of the necessity for normal schools, joined 
to the most profound knowledge of the principles that should govern their 
conduct, is not enough. To give life and power to their work, and to the 
subsequent work of their students, there needs to be the " fervent spirit" 
in the teacher, a genuine, well-founded enthusiasm, that shall pervade 
and vivify all principles and all methods ; that shall lubricate all the 
machinery; that shall lift the worker above the petty annoyances and 
vexations of his calling ; that shall fuse all refractory substances, and blend 
the teacher's work into a beautiful, efficient, and life-giving unity. 

This essential is not forgotten in our program; and I know that 
our friend from the Pacific coast [Mr. Norton] has in himself an abun- 
dance of that enthusiasm and professional spirit- about which he is to dis- 
course to as. 

The necessity for our work, the principles that should guide it, and 
the spirit that should animate it: these topics, and these only, are to 
claim our consideration at this time. 

And I bespeak thoughtful attention to the papers that will be read, 
and a free and full discussion of the thoughts that will be presented. 

Thus, I trust, we may go back to our homes, not only cheered and 
encouraged by social intercourse with our fellow- workers, but better pre- 
pared to do our part well in that work whose importance far transcends 
that of President-making even, in its effect for good or evil, upon the 
future prosperity of our beloved country. 



238 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



NORMAL SCHOOLS: THEIR NECESSITY AND GROWTH. 

BY THOMAS HUNTER. 

The first immigrants to these shores thought it a sacred duty, amid 
manifest privations, to make provision for the instruction of their chil- 
dren. Nor was this duty limited to the English-speaking settlers. The 
Dutch, the Swedes, and the Norwegians manifested a similar desire to dif- 
fuse the blessings of education among their people. For a hundred and 
fifty years prior to the Revolution, the American people had acquired and 
practised the art of self-government. So that when, by the Declaration 
of Independence, they discharged their master, George III., and set up 
for themselves a government of their own, the administration of affairs, 
civil and military, fell into no feeble hands. On the contrary, it fell into 
hands of the Titans. It is no exaggeration to say that the common 
school, established by the first settlers of America, made the Revolution a 
success and a Republic a necessity. 

Universal suffrage without universal education is a delusion and a 
snare. The ballot and the reading-book should be inseparable ; for, of all 
forms of government under the sun, a republic composed of an ignorant 
population is the worst and most dangerous. Everywhere in Europe the ex- 
tension of the franchise has been immediately followed by the diffusion of 
knowledge. Wherever the people acquire power and a voice in the shap- 
ing of their own government, common schools have been established and 
extended, for the simple reason that an intelligent people is always con- 
servative. It is admitted as a political axiom that, in a republic, the edu- 
cation of the people at public expense is an indispensable necessity. 
Hence it is that every State of the Union has made itself the public school- 
master. It is to be regretted, however, that the functions of the oflBce 
have been, in some instances, but inadequately performed. In order to 
prove the truth of this statement, the following statistics will be amply 
sufficient : 

In a population of 10,176,198 white persons, between 10 and 20 years 
of age, both ages included, 962,617, or in round numbers, nearly a million, 
could not write ; of 1^663,972 colored persons, of the same age, 1,072,978 
could not write ; and including white and colored, in a total of 11,840,170 



NORMAL DEPARTMENT, 28^ 

persons, between the above-mentioned ages, 2,035,595 could not write ; or, 
in other words, 17 per centum of the rising generation, who, in a few 
years, will control the destinies of the Republic, could not write ! In the 
North and West, the illiterate whites, between the ages of 10 and 20, 
amount to only 3^ per centum ; and the illiterate colored persons, of like 
f^e, to 16 1-10 per centum. In the South the illiterate whites, between 
10 and 20 years of age, both ages included, amount to 23 9-10 per centum, 
and the illiterate colored persons, of the same age, to 68 3-10 per centum.* 
These figures are simply appalling, and demonstrate most conclusively that 
many of the States have failed to do their duty by the people. Do the 
well-to-do classes, the great manufacturers, the great railroad kings, the 
great bankers, ever pause and reflect upon the insecurity of life and prop- 
erty consequent upon allowing such a mass of people to grow up in igno- 
rance, with the power to exercise the right of voting and to shape the 
policy of the government? When they periodically oppose the secondar}' 
schools, from which the great bulk of the teachers are appointed, do they 
ever think that they are striking at the primary schools and putting a pre- 
mium upon illiteracy and communism, — nay, upon the very destruction of 
their own property ? 

In order to establish an efficient system of public primary schools, it is 
indispensably necessary to first establish ^n efficient system of public sec- 
ondary schools ; and the most important of all the secondary schools is 
the normal school. For generations it has been the custom, to a consider- 
able extent, to waste the public money and private benefactions by placing 
incompetent and untrained teachers in charge of free or common schools 
for the poorer classes. These schools can not rise above the level of their 
teachers. A few figures will show the kind of teachers many of the States 
are willing to employ. In 1880, the total cost of public education in the 
United States was $85,111,442 ; the number of public school-teachers was 
289,159; and the salaries of these teachers amounted to 5(55,291,022. 
The average wages per teacher was $192 a year, or S16 a month ! It must 
not be foi^otten, however, that the rate of wages is greatly reduced by the 
employment of thousands of teachers for only three or four months of the 
year ; but, making every allowance for those who teach during a part of 
the year only, the fact remains that the compensation of teachers is ridicu- 
lously low. The average monthly salary of male teachers in the enlight- 
ened State of Vermont was, in 1880, $29.76 ; of female teachers, S16.84. 
In Alabama, for white teachere, $22.98, and for colored teachers, $23.15 ; 
even in the Empire State, with all its wealth, the average monthly wages 
for all public school teachers is only $42.24 ; and this includes the larger 
salaries paid in some of the great cities. As the salary is the outward and 



*See Gen. Eaton's Report for 1881 ; the Pacific States and the Territories not included. 



240 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

visible sign of the importance of an office, from that of the President of 
the United States down to that of a tide-waiter in the custom-house, it is 
an easy matter to calculate the degree of dignity that belongs to the office 
of teacher, and the low estimate placed upon it by the American people. 
What sort of qualifications, and what kind of service, can be commanded 
for such wages as have just been mentioned? The present speaker met at 
a State convention of teachers, held in New York a few years ago, two 
middle-aged female teachers, whose murder of the English language was 
perfectly excruciating, who informed him that their wages were respec- 
tively $2.50 and $3.00 a week ! and as he listened to their double negatives 
to express an affirmative, and other manifestations of utter ignorance, he 
inwardly confessed that their services were not worth half the money. 
What a farce to employ such persons as teachers I How or where, or 
under what circumstances, did they obtain licenses to degrade the teacher's 
calling ? But this is not the worst case : the late President of the Board 
of Education, the Hon. William Wood, found a public school teacher in 
the city of New York, about eleven years ago, writing the pronoun I, 
twice on the blackboard, a small i with a dot over it ; and when he called 
her attention to the mistake and had it corrected, such was her inveterate 
habit of dotting that she placed a dot over the capital. Ignorance among 
teachers, similar to the cases just mentioned, is by no means rare in the 
United States. General Eaton, in his report for 1881, says: "The 
standard of qualifications for teachers appears to be lower in the United 
States, taken as a whole, than in other countries in which provision has 
been made for the education of the masses." 

Geo. A. Walton, special agent of the Massachusetts Board of Educa- 
tion, uses the following language : " Let all the towns apply 25 per centum 
more to the wages of teachers and expend the money in securing and re- 
taining the best the market affords ; and the schools could be made one- 
fourth better." 

Educators make the mistake of attributing the deficiencies of teachers 
to the low rate of wages ; the converse of this proposition is much nearer 
the truth : the low rate of wages is caused by the deficiencies of the teach- 
ers. Educated and trained teachers are in demand and will generally 
command high salaries. 

The schoolmaster has been an object for scorn and ridicule from time 
immemorial. Dickens excoriates him in the character of " Squeers," and 
Scott makes him a creature demanding our pity, in " Dominie Sampson," 
Adam Clark and Adam Smith were pronounced dull boys by their brilliant 
schoolmasters. Swift received his degree by special grace, and Goldsmith 
was pronounced a dunce. Shelley and Byron broke away from the tram- 
mels of the schooh and educated themselves. Edward Everett graphically 
describes the schools and schoolmasters of his day in the following ex- 
tract : 



NORMAL DEPARTMENT. 241 

'^ The school was under Master Little, who, in spite of his name, was 
a giant in stature, — six feet four at least, and somewhat wedded to the 
past. He struggled earnestly against the change then taking place in the 
pronounciation of u^ and insisted on our saying monooment and natur. 
. . . As for a blackboard, I never heard of such a thing at school. 
Geography was taught in that day from very imperfect compends ; it was 
confined to the rehearsal of a few meagre facts in physical geography, and 
a few barren statistical details which ceased to be true while you were 

reading them A globe, I believe, I never saw at a public 

school near enough to touch it. A large and accurate map was never ex- 
hibited in school fifty years ago Such were the schools ; and 

the school-houses were in keeping with them, — cold in winter, hot in sum- 
mer, without ventilation, destitute of everything required for accommoda- 
tion, health, and comfort." 

Even in Germany, as late as the close of the last century, we read 
that ignorant pensioners, ex-common soldiers, and ignorant old women 
were placed in charge of schools for the so-called lower classes. We read, 
too, that a Maryland planter advertised for his runaway slave, stating that 
he was a schoolmaster by trade, and able to teach book-keeping by single 
entry. In the oldest school in the State of New York, the school of the 
Dutch Reformed Church, we are told that the first schoolmaster not only 
taught the boys and girls, but took in washing. But whether this washing 
was done by himself or his good wife, history fails to record. 

It is customary for old men to speak in glowing terms of the great 
actors, lawyers, physicians, divines, and statesmen who flourished when 
they were boys ; but, with rare exceptions, who has ever heard one of them 
praise his schoolmaster, except, indeed, to boast of the strength of the 
right arm that administered severe castigations, frequently undeserved. 
As a case in point, Anthony Trollope informs us in his autobiography, re- 
cently published, that his schoolmaster having first whipped him in the 
wrong, refused to confess his mistake before the whole school, though he 
admitted it privately to the boy. Poor Anthony boasts that he was the 
best flogged boy he ever heard of, having received five castigations on the 
same day. 

Is it any wonder then that the schoolmaster has been ridiculed and 
held up to the scorn of the world ? Is it any wonder that the teacher is 
worse paid than the mechanic, and scarcely ranks in point of wages with 
the day laborer? The average conpensation of cooks and chamber-maids 
is greater than that of female teachers. Is there no remedy for this cry- 
ing evil? Is there no way in which the teacher's calling can be raised to 
a higher plane ? Yes, there is one way, and one way only, and that is by 
making the vocation of teaching a learned profession. With such a seeth- 
ing mass of illiteracy in the country, and with tens of thousands of unedu- 
16b 



242 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

cated and poorly paid teachers, the urgent necessity for normal schools 
must be evident to every thoughtful mind, and should occupy the attention 
of every patriotic statesman. 

Facts and figures are stubborn things. Let us examine the statistics* 
and see what report they give concerning professional teaching. In 1881 
there were in the United States 113 public normal schools, employing a 
staff of 979 instructors, and containing 27,685 students, of whom 1,^9 
engaged in teaching ; and also 112 private normal schools, with 594 teach- 
ers and 21,020 students, of whom 468 engaged in teaching ; that is to say, 
2,307 graduates of normal schools recruited the ranks of the great army of 
289,159 public-school teachers. We have no data to show the number of 
vacancies caused every year by death, marriage, or entrance on the duties 
of some other so-called higher profession. The number must be large. 
Owing to the fact that so many engage in teaching as a temporary make- 
shift to make pin-money prior to matrimony, or to use it as a stepping- 
stone to something that will pay better, it is safe to assert that at least 16 
per centum of the public-school teachers leave the profession every year. 
This is a low estimate ; but assuming, for the sake of argument, that 10 
per cent., or 28,915 vacancies occur every year, and granting that the 2,307 
normal graduates fill these vacancies (which is not at all probable), then 
for every 100 teachers employed annually, only eight are trained and educa- 
ted teachers. Fancy eight graduates of medical colleges in every 100 
physicians licensed to practise the profession of medicine ! Fancy eight 
graduates of law schools in every 100 lawyers ready to fill a seat on the 
bench of the supreme court ! Who would intrust the life of a child to a 
medical quack, or his property to a legal "shyster** ? And yet the bulk of 
the people are willing to place the moral and intellectual well-being of 
millions of children in the hands of untrained teachers. Is the immortal 
soul of a child of less value than an acre of real estate? 

It would be a highly important and interesting fact to ascertain, with 
a certain degree of accuracy, what per cent, of the great army of public 
school teachers have received special training of any kind for the work of 
instruction. Rhode Island, after careful inquiry, ascertained that of her 
public-school teachers 4 per cent, had received a collegiate education, ^^> 
per cent, a high-school or academic education, and 21 per cent, normal 
training, while 13 per cent, had only a common or district-school educa- 
tion. It must be borne in mind that Rhode Island is an old and enlight- 
ened State with an excellent normal school ; and hence it would hardly be 
fair to draw inference from these figuries and apply them to the whole 
country. Doubtless, as we reach the States in which illiteracy prevails t4> 
a far greater extent, we would find the teachers much inferior in [joint of 
education and professional training. It may be perceived, however, from 
these figures that virtually the superior schools do not furnish teachers ; 



NORMAL DEPARTMENT, 243 

that the secondary schools furnish 83 per cent., and must always he de- 
I>ended upon to provide instructors for the primary schools ; and that over 

13 per cent, of the Rhode Island puhlic-school teachers only received a 
primary education. A little more than one-fifth of her public teachers re- 
ceived professional training. 

During the last decade the normal system has been widely extended. 
In 1872 there were but 98 normal schools, with 773 instructors and 11,778 
students; while in 1881, there were 225 of these schools, with 1,573 in- 
structors and 48,705 students. It is gratifying to note that, in spit<^ of all 
opposition, the system has increased its number of schools more than two- 
fold, and its number of students more than four-fold. And yet in order to 
meet the requirements of the public-school system in the United States it 
ought to be increased fifty-fold. 

Great reforms are like oaks, of slow growth. It is now two hundred 
years since tlie normal system was founded by the Abb6 J. B. de la Salle, 
at Rhines ; but from 1681 until the beginning of the present century it 
made little headway. In fact, until about forty years ago it made but little 
impression anywhere, except in some of the States of Germany. Recently 
it has reached India and Japan, and penetrated into Africa. Strange as it 
may appear, the erroneous monitorial system of Bell and Lancaster imparted 
the first great impetus to the normal system in England and America. As 
empirical astrology paved the way for scientific astromony, the monitorial 
system paved the way for scientific teaching. The enthusiasm of Lancas- 
ter, the genius of Bell, would have infused life and vigor into the worst 
system the ingenuity of man ever invented. There is no wish to detract 
from the honors worthily bestowed on these two pioneers in the cause of 
common-school education, for their work was honest and their motives pure. 
They were philanthropists in the largest sense. But when their system fell 
into weaker hands ; when the temporary teachers studying other profes- 
sions, when the failures in other callings, undertook to carry out the Bell 
and Lancaster system, it entirely failed. The raw, uneducated, untrained 
boys and girls from 12 to 14 years of age, who were appointed, as a matter 
of economy, to assist one man or one woman to instruct a school of 400 
children, were generally ridiculous failures. Just think of a green boy of 

14 placed in charge of a class of other boys nearly as old as himself, with 
ample opportunity to exercise petty tyranny, to accept petty bribes, and to 
wreak his petty vengeance upon all who incurred his displeasure or dislike ! 
And yet this was the system that so delighted George III. that he subscribed 
£100 annually toward its support ; that so recommended itself to Mr. Whit- 
bread that, in a speech in the House of Commons, he hailed it as ^Hhe great- 
est reform that could take place in the kingdom ;*' that caused Joseph Lan- 
caster to receive an ovation on his lecture tour through the provinces, and 
to become the welcomed guest of great nobles ; and, not satisfied with his 



244 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

triumphs in the Old World, he crossed the ocean to the New. More fortu- 
nate than Alexander, lie had a new world to conquer. Hear how the great 
men of America received him. De Witt Clinton said, '*I confess I recog- 
nize in Lancaster the benefactor of the human race I con- 
sider his system as creating a new era in education ;" President Nott, of 
Union College, said, ^ 'Where is Lancaster, who has introduced and is in- 
troducing a new era in education?" and John Adams wrote to a friend in 
Cambridge, ''I have heard friend Lancaster with pleasure ; he is an ex- 
cellent scholastic and academic disciplinarian." 

This is but a specimen of the style in which Lancaster was received, 
and proves conclusively how utterly ignorant at that time the great men of 
the country were when discussing education as a science. Like many an- 
other genius who went up like a rocket and came down like a burnt stick, 
poor Lancaster outlived his own greatness and came to an untimely end 
beneath tlie wheels of a New York omnibus. It is sad to say that, after 
all the praise heaped upon Lancaster in the early part of his career, he 
had been anticipated by Dr. Andrew Bell who had learned the monitorial 
system from a Malabar boy whom he found teaching his playmates to write 
in the sand. In fact, the system of mutual instruction by children had 
long previously existed in China and Hindoostan. Pietro della Valle, the 
celebrated traveller in Turkey, Egypt, Persia, and India, has given an ac- 
count of it in a work published in 1660 and translated into several Euro- 
pean languages. Perhaps it was from him that the good Abb^ de la Salle 
caught the idea of educating and training boys to become teachers. Be 
that as it may, out of evil good often springs. Thoughtful men in school 
boards clearly perceived that the monitorial system would work great mis- 
chief unless the monitors were educated and trained for their work ; and 
this special training became the nucleus of the normal system. At first 
its growth was slow and uncertain ; it met with much opposition ; the uni- 
versities sneered at it ; the wealthy self-made men condemned it, because 
they could not understand it ; and half-educated teachers, fearing compe- 
tition, denounced it. But in spite of all opposition and many impediments, 
the little fountain that sprang into existence at Rheims has grown into a 
mighty river which fertilizes every land through which it flows. 

At the foundation of the firat normal school in the United States, that 
established in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, in 1838, the eminent states- 
man and scholar. President John Quincy Adams, uttered these memorable 
words: "We see monarchs expending vast sums, establishing normal 
schools throughout their realms, and sparing no pains to convey knowledge 
and efficiency to all the children of their poorest subjects. Shall we be 
outdone by kings ? Shall monarchies steal a march on republics in the 
patronage of that education on which a republic is based?" On tlte same 
occasion the great Daniel Webster said, with that comprehensiveness of 



NORMAL DEPARTMENT, 245 

grasp for which he was remarkable: ^' This plan of a normal school for 
Plymouth County is designed to elevate our common schools, and thus 
carry out the noble ideas of our Pilgrim Fathers. . . . Now if normal 
schools are to teach teachers, they enlist this interest on the right side ; 
they make parents and all who any way influence childhood competent for 
their high ofBce. . . . If it is an experiment, it is a noble one and 
should be tried." 

There is a relation between political affairs and educational progress 
which should not be overlooked. The great French Revolution that de- 
stroyed forever the " Divine right" of kings to oppress their people, de- 
stroyed a still more dangerous right, the right of kings to keep their people 
in ignorance. Just as soon as Napoleon could procure a momentary ces- 
sation of the wars waged by the allied despots to restore the Bourbon to 
the throne of France, he set to work to establish a system of education, 
which, as he afterward stated, when a prisoner on the Island of St. Helena, 
would have made every French mechanic an artisan, and every artisan an 
artist. Let us quote the words of this great genius : '* Only those who 
seek to deceive the people and rule for their own advantage, wish to keep 
them in ignorance. . . . There can be no stable political state if there* 
be not a corps of instruction with settled principles." Napoleon here 
enunciates the great political and social truth that no system of public in- 
struction can ever be successful without a corps of educated and trained 
teachers ; and in oixier to carry out his great scheme of public education, 
in 1802 he divided the institutions of instruction into three classes : first, 
the municipal or primary schools, of which there were to be 23,660 ; sec- 
onds the secondary schools or communal colleger; third, the lyceums and 
special schools maintained at the expense of the public treasury. He 
founded special military and naval schools, and two practical schools of 
mines. He developed the great polytechnic school which has been found- 
ed by the Directory, and the greater Nonmal School planned under the 
convention. This Normal School received its beneficial settlement and 
establishment under his fostering care. 

What signifies the opposition of small politicians to the normal sys- 
tem, when we know that it has received the sanction and support of states- 
men like John Quincy Adams, Webster, and Napoleon? It may be said 
with truth that all your normal-school graduates are not successful teach- 
ers ; but this is a lame argument against normal training ; for it can be 
asserted with equal truth that all the graduates of medical schools are not 
successful physicians ; nor all the graduates of law schools successful law- 
yers. Any argument against normal school training can be brought to 
bear with equal force against any technical training whatever, civil or mili- 
tary, mechanical or artistic. 



246 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

While tlie normal schools have achieved a great reform in methods of 
teaching and school governments, it must be frankly admitted that ihej are 
by no means perfect, and that they themselves are, in some instances, sad- 
ly in need of information. It is said of Peter the Great, that while he civ- 
ilized his people, he himself lived and died a barbarian. Let no similar 
oharge be brought against the normal system. Against some of the normal 
schools there has been, to some extent, just cause for complaint ; and the 
charges made by the enemies of the system, as well as the criticisms made 
b}^ its friends, should be boldly met and carefully examined. If found fair 
and just, the remedy should be fearlessly applied. It has been asserted by 
both friends and foes that there is a tendency in some of the normal schools 
to make machine teachers, to ride certain hobbies to death, and to permit 
too much practice teaching on a slender basis of education. If such be 
the case, if half-educated persons skim lightly over an extensive course of 
pure mathematics and natural science, Latin and psychology, to say noth- 
ing of the review of elementary branches, in a year or two, and at the 
same time spend a portion of their time in the training school, what can be 
expected but that a normal school so conducted will turn out inflexible ma- 
dhine teachers, who will teach nothing but barren formulas, and utterly 
fail to comprehend the underlying principles? The trained faculty, indis- 
pensable to the apprentice-teacher, is here wanting ; and trained faculty- 
means simply a good education. Until this truth, — that the proper foun- 
dation of good teaching is a good education, — is admitted and acted upon, 
the normal system will be liable to periodic attacks from its enemies. Of 
the two, — a superior education with limited practice, or much practice with 
inferior education, the former is preferable; for, to say the least, a culti- 
vated mind will be brought to bear on the work of instruction. 

The man of one idea is always to be feared. The man who fancies 
that the universe turns on object-teaching or map-drawing in the sand, or 
moulding objects out of clay, is very apt to neglect a dozen other subjects 
equally important, and to turn out teachers but poorly equipped to reflect 
credit on the normal system. Object-teaching for the purpose of cultivat- 
ing perception is an excellent thing ; map-drawing and modelling are very 
useful to teach the child to use his hands ; but when these things ar« car- 
ried to excess, how much better are the teachers who ride them as hobbies, 
than the teachers of the old school, who thought that all human culture was 
comprised in declining Latin nouns and conjugating Greek verbs? These 
are some of the evils of the system, which time and a greater grasp of the 
subject will remove. 

Let us see the good that the normal system has achieved. It may be 
safely asserted that normal teachers throughout the world have united, — 
and remember this is no small gain, — on the following principles of ed- 
ucation : 



XORMAL DEPARTMENT. -247 

First : A knowledge of physiology and psychology is necessary as a 
basis for scientific teaching. 

Second : There is an order in which the mental faculties should be de- 
veloped, and that special subjects of study should be used to train special 
faculties. 

TTiird: Activity, physical, mental, and moral, is the law of the child's 
being. 

Fourth : the idea should precede the word ; the concrete, the abstract. 
We proceed by easy steps from the known to the unknown. 

It may be asserted that the other principles of education are but cor- 
ollaries of these. If the normal system had done nothing more than give 
vitality and currency to these great principles, it would have repaid a hun- 
dred-fold the cost of its establishment. But it has done much more. The 
necessary knowledge of physiology has compelled the normal graduate to 
make allowance for physical weakness, to utilize physical activity, and to 
guard against uncleanliness and a vitiated atmosphere. It has given an 
impetus never known before to gymnastics and calisthenic exercises as 
means of preserving human health. The study of psychology has caused 
the normal graduate to recognize the fact that one child differs from 
another child, as one star differs from another star in glory, — that one child 
may be dull and another intelligent, that one may be indolent and another 
active, and that the children can no more help their mental and physical 
condition than they can help the color of their hair or the form of their 
faces ; so that no normally trained teacher will punish a child for being 
stupid, as God made him, as was done most liberally in the '^ good old 
times," when thrashing was the panacea for every physical defect and 
every intellectual shortcoming. The normal system has been the means of 
introducing better methods of teaching and better management of schools ; 
but it has done something even higher and holier, — it has done more than 
all else combined to introduce humanity and happiness into the work of 
instruction instead of the brutality and misery that prevailed when many 
of us were boys. 

We read of light-houses built far out at sea on wave- washed rocks, where 
the workmen toil with life preservers about their bodies, death staring 
them in the face, — where labor is possible but a few days during the sum- 
mer, — where years are required to drill the holes by which to fasten the 
foundation-stones. But in spite of wind and wave the massive edifices 
have been erected ; and their beacon-lights have warned many a stately 
ship and saved many a precious life. Thus have the educational light- 
houses, the normal schools, been established ; and, although lashed by the 
storms of prejudice and beaten by the waves of ignorance, the powers of 
darkness can not now prevail against them. 



248 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



DISCUSSION OF DR. HUNTER'S PAPER. 

The discussion* of Dr. Hunter's paper was opened by President Baldwin, of the 
Sam Houston normal school, Texas. The normal schools are a necessity of the nev 
education. While it was believed that anybody could teach school, there was no need 
of normal instruction. The fact that every educational state of the world has estab- 
lished normal schools shows how wide-spread is the new education. The tendency of 
the normal school is to produce a class of artists. The grandest of the arts is the 
development of the infant mind. From these thoughts need not be argued the impor- 
tance of the normal schools nor the necessity of making them as efficient as possible. 

President Hewett suggested that all present are sufficiently convinced of the 
importance of normal schools, but we should do most effectual service by suggesting 
how to make the public see whflt is so clear to us. 

Jerome Allkn, of St. Cloud normal, Minnesota, suggested that a very important 
work for normal workers is to educate the people as to what good teaching is. 

Prof. Willet, uf Cincinnati, thinks the normal schools have not had the courage 
of their convictions. They have graduated persons unfit for teaching. His school 
graduated thirteen this year, t%venty-five per cent, of whom should have been dropped 
before they reach graduation 

Principal Rounds, of New Hampshire, suggested that time be limited so as many 
as possible may be heard. 

Principal Gilchrist, of Iowa normal school. Cedar Falls, knows that a larger 
per cent, of normally prepared teachers than of others succeed. 

Dr. Alltn, of southeru Illinois normal school, finds mucli opposition from pro- 
fessional men who were not educated for their professions, and from teachers without 
special training who find their positions liable to be lost. 

Prof. Albee, of Oshkosh normal, regrets the shortness of the teacher's career. 
He believes the normal teachers will remain much longer in the work. 

Prof. Norton, of California, thinks normal schools have provoked hostility by 
seeming to rival other schools in furnishing an education that prepares for other pro- 
fessions. 

George L. Osborn, of Missouri, reports that they are criticised because their 
pupils crowd out the old-time teacher. 

President Hewett reports that most of their graduates distinguish themselves, 
in the classes of 1860 and 1861, half the living male members are here to-^day in this 
city, and they all stand high in the profession. 

Prop. Payne, of the department of pedagogics in Michigan university, 

presented a paper on Psychology as Related to Teaching. 



NORMAL DEPARTMENT, 249 



SOME APPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY TO THE ART OF 

TEACHING. 

BY PROF. W. H. PAYNE, UnivtrMy ^f Miohigan. 

The latest contribution to the psychology of teaching is a volume of 
about seven hundred octavo pages ; and it is with a feeling akin to con- 
sternation that I think of an attempt even to talk about this subject within 
the compass of half an hour. The most that I can hope to do is to present 
an imperfect syllabus of one phase of this vast subject. 

By reason of the limitation of time, my treatment will be so summary 
as to seem, I fear, dogmatic. I can do little more than state some of the 
results of my reading and thinking, in connection with the more obvious 
applications to practice. To give some degree of unity to my essay, I 
have selected one characteristic phase of the subject, and under this I 
have stated a number of its principal implications. In the selection of 
matter, my purpose has been to present ti'uths that have a very direct 
bearing on the art of teaching, — fruitful truths, as Mr. Bain would say. 
My hearers will discover that I have left whole fields of valuable truth 
untouched. But this is my misfortune, not my fault. 

There is the same reason why the professional teacher should have an 
articulate knowledge of psychology ^ as there is that the professional physician 
should be well versed in physiology. 

The physician needs to know the structure of the human body and 
the mode of its organic activities, in order that he may adapt means to 
ends ; for skill in an art consists in this deft adaptation. The teacher's 
art is addressed primarily and principally to the mind ; and, if this art is 
to be rational, the teacher must know the structure of this organism, and 
the mofle of its organic activities. This knowledge of psychology is pro- 
fessional knowledge strictly so-called; i. c, the knowledge that chiefly 
differentiates the teacher from the scholar. 

The most instru>ctive of the general characteristics of mi7id is its setf- 
activity in the line of growth. 

This conception has the following implications : 

1. There must be a supply of something in the nature of aliment that 
can employ these activities and thus sustain this growth. In other words, 



250 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

there must be something upon which the organism can react in such a way 
that growth may take place through a process of elaboration and assimila- 
tion. The most general name for this aliment is knowledge. 

2. The elaborating instrument is primarily automatic, and has uniform 
and predetermined modes of activity ; and in this functional activity there 
is absolute continuity from infancy to maturity. In other words, the 
functional activity of the mind is the same whether in the child or the 
man ; just as the functional activity of the stomach is the same in both 
cases. In both departments of growth, the organism may react on one 
kind of aliment and not on another ; but if there is reaction at all, it is 
uniform in its mode. 

3. The kind of growth will depend chiefly on two things : (1) The 
state of the elaborating organism, as weak or strong; and (2) the kind 
of aliment that is assimilated. There are innate differences in mental 
constitution that determine some differences in the results of growth. 
That marked differences in mental regimen will produce variations in 
growth, is a fact too obvious to require comment. 

4. As the mind is constitutionally automatic, mental growth is 
mainly unconscious ; the rule being, that when aliment is supplied at the 
right time, in the right form, and in due quantity, its elaboration will pro- 
ceed without further assistance. 

5. The automatic action of the mind whereby it reacts upon aliment 
may be stimulated and directed by deliberate purpose. Thus a pupil's 
mental growth may be purely spontaneous or fortuitous, or he may deter- 
mine that he will think on a given subject for a given purpose, or his 
teacher may determine the purpose and the subject, and then provoke the 
process of thought by some form of stimulation. The normal stimulant 
for this specific purpose, is a question. Such a question is a demand on 
the pupiFs resources, and the effort to supply this demand determines 
some mode of mental activity. 

6. The elaboration of aliment implies some loss of identity. The 
original presentations may disappear as such, but will reappear in some 
higher form. The highest form of this reappearance is opinion, belief, 
character, common sense, faculty, power. A presentation has served no 
high purpose if it has not suffered some degree of transformation. In 
many cases, the presentation may have served its high purpose, and then 
have absolutely disappeared. In this region we find the uses of forgotten 
knowledge. 

7. Time is an all-essential element in mental growth. There may 
not only be a long interval between the reception of a presentation and its 
elaboration into a higher form, but the progressive steps in this transfor- 
mation are indeterminate, and so involve indeterminate amounts of time. 



NORMAL DEPARTMENT. 261 

8. The distribution of aliment is sabject to the following law : The 
faculty that is strongest, or that needs the least, will appropriate the most ; 
while the faculty that is weakest, or that needs the most, will appropriate 
the least. In other words, the strong faculties will grow stronger, and the 
weak, weaker. If the purpose is to promote a symmetrical growth, ali- 
ment must, by some means, be diverted into these unaccustomed channels. 
The onW mode ot doing this is by calling the weak faculties into use. 
Exercise will determine a flow of aliment, nurture will give new strength, 
strength will permit facility, facility will make exercise agreeable ; and so, 
by means of reactions and interactions, there is a virtual re-creation of 
faculty ; or, power in ease has been evolved out of power in posse. 

Along with this piomotion of symmetry by excitation, there should go 
some clipping of an exuberant faculty, by holding it in abeyance. The 
partial disuse of such a faculty will leave some energy unemployed, and 
this can be transferred to the account of a weaker member. 

Distaste for a study generally indicates a loss of tone in some part of 
the mental organism ; and instead of this being a valid plea for an excuse 
from the subject, it is rather to be regarded as an argument for its pursuit. 
There is, at least, this element of truth in the ascetic belief in disagreea- 
ble studies. 

On the contrary, with the purpose of symmetrical culture still in 
mind, the fact that a pursuit is very easy, or very agreeable, may be a 
reason why it ought to be discouraged. When the period of general train- 
ing is past, there is no doubt that pursuits should lie in the lines of one's 
predilections. 

9. The second condition of growth — aliment being the first — is exer- 
cise. Two general modes of mental activity should be distinguished. 
First, there is the mental act whereby knowledge, is gained, and then the 
subsequent act by which it U applied to use. Absolutely speaking, the 
mind is never passive, for activity is one of the essential marks of mind. 
States of suffering are states of intensest activity. £ven when the process 
of learning is most mechanical, there must be some kind and degree of 
mental reaction, otherwise acquisition would be impossible. But during 
all processes of instruction, the mind must constantly react on the presen- 
tations made to it, and this reaction is the first mode of mental exercise. 
So far, we may say that the process of alimentation is itself a disciplinary 
process, that the mind is formed while being informed. So far as I am 
able to see, the precept, '^ first form the mind, then furnish it," is an 
absurdity, an impossibility. The true conception is, that the mind is 
formed while being furnished. 

The second mode of mental exercise consists in the use of the knowl- 
edge that has been acquired, or in the application of knowledge to the 
production of some determined result. These two phases of exercise may 



252 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

be distinguished in memory and recollection, in the reproductive and the 
constructive imagination, in the learning of a mathematical truth and its 
application to use, etc. 

10. We must distinguish accumulation from organization ; that is, 
the acquisition of material from its elaboration into structure, faculty, and 
power. It is customary to state this distinction as that between growth 
and development ; but I am unable to conceive of development except as 
a mode or a higher form of growth. The facts in the case seem to be 
these : (1) The materials of thought may be collected in advance of their 
actual transformation into thought; and (2) this transformation is a 
process of infinite gradations. But it may be described as a progress from 
vagueness to definitude, or from alow type of organization to progressively 
higher types of organization. "When I was a child," says Paul, *'I 
thought as a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child ; but when 
I became a man, I put away childish things. For now (in infancy and here) 
we see through a glass darkly ; but then (in maturity and in the hereafter) 
face to face." 

These facts should guard us against two false assumptions : ( 1 ) That 
accumulation and elaboration should proceed pari passu; and (2) that a 
child's knowledge should necessarily be clear and definite. On the con- 
trary, the indications are that accumulation may precede elaboration by an 
indefinite period; that the necessary gaining of material is pro tanto 
antagonistic to transformation ; and that the noi*mal state of a child's 
knowledge is that of confusion, vagueness, and indefiniteness. The con- 
ception of mind as a growth makes this a fundamental principle of instruc- 
tion : There should be a gradual evolution of definitude out of confusion. 

1 1 . The fact that material must be collected somewhat in advance of 
its transformation, clearly points out one of the functions of memory, and 
settles a disputed question in practical teaching, viz., whether one may 
memorize what may not at the time be understood. From the view of the 
mental processes that has been stated, it follows that the crude material of 
thought should be held, so to speak, in store ; and this holding in store is 
the primary function of memory. It follows further, from this concep- 
tion, that matter not only may^ but must be memorized before it is under- 
stood ; for the understanding of a thing is synonymous with its elaboration, 
or its transformation. For truth's sake, it is necessary to distinguish 
memory before elaboration from memory after elaboration. We must 
memorize in order that we may understand, and then hold in memory what 
we have understood. The only real question at issue is whether memoriz- 
ing should be formal or informal. As formal memorizing favors clear rep- 
resentation, it is worthy of much more respect than is now paid it. 

12. The normal mode of the mind's reaction upon its material, is 
first by resolution or disintegration, and then by re-construction or re-in- 



NORMAL DEPARTMENT, 253 

tegratioa. The normal mode of progress is from apprehension to compre- 
hension, from confused aggregates to articulate wholes : and the normal 
process is analysis complemented by a reciprocal synthesis. This doctrine 
is opposed to the current assumption that a child's knowledge should, in 
the first instance, be built up constructively out of elements supplied by 
the teacher. The true conception is, that the mind is to find elements by 
the disintegration of some aggregate, and then is to re-construct a new 
whole out of the parts of this dismembered aggregate ; and that this dis- 
integration and re-integration constitute thought proper. 

13. The material that serves for the mind's reactions may be pre- 
sented to it immediately or mediatel}', that is, it may be intuitive or repre- 
sentative, presented without the mediatipn of language or with such media- 
tion. All knowledge of the past is impossible save through the mediation 
of symbols ; knowledge of the remote and the inaccessible is impracticable 
save through such mediation ; and through the limitation of time, very 
much that is near must be made known by representation. As a conse- 
quence of the division of labor, and as a condition of progress, knowledge 
at first hand must stand to knowledge at second hand as a part to a con- 
stantly and rapidly increasing whole. 

An intuitive presentation is concrete in the strict and limiting sense of 
that term ; it is a congeries of many parts or qualities, a complex thing 
appealing directly to the senses ; and if the mind reacts upon it, it must 
be in the way of discrimination or analysis ; it cannot be brought into rela- 
tion with other knowledge, cannot be assimilated or organized without a 
discovery of its marks or qualities. Such discover}' is always analytical. 

Compared with an intuitive presentation, a representative presenta- 
tion, or one made by means of symbols, is always abstract ; for language 
always employs general terms. Strictly speaking, therefore, purely con- 
crete instruction is impossible; but by general consent, statements that 
refer to an individual thing and that make a direct appeal to sense, are 
called concrete ; while statements referring to a class, and making no direct 
appeal to sense, are called abstract. Strictly speaking, there is no abso- 
lute line between concrete and abstract instruction ; but, in general, the 
degree of concreteness may be estimated by nearness to sense, and the 
degree of abstractness, by remoteness from sense. From the psychological 
point of view, the essential thing to note is that whether the presentation 
be intuitive, whether the statement be (relatively) concrete, or whether 
it be abstract, the material thus offered the mind is some complex whole ; 
and if the mind reacts upon it, the mode of reaction must be analytical. 
In other words, all presentations, whether concrete or abstract, conform to 
the great psychological law, that '* the first procedure of the mind in the 
elaboration of its knowledge is always analytical." 



254 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

14. As the first stage in thought proper is the resolution of aggre- 
gates, small or great, it is important to note the fact that the great instra- 
ment of mental analysis is language. Let us suppose that a general truth 
has been formulated in words. In what way is the statement to be inter- 
preted to the end that it may be comprehended or understood ? If the 
language is significant, each word arrests the attention upon one element 
in the aggregate, so that when the series of words has been passed in re- 
view, the complex whole has been broken up into a larger or smaller num- 
ber of parts. Counting is a ready illustration of this general process. In 
passing regularly from one upward, each number is a deteiminant, and 
when the last number has been reached, what at first was an indefinite ag- 
gregate has been resolved, say into fifty parts. Analysis by means of 
language is more difiScult than this, because the word must first be trans- 
lated into a notion, and then the notion individualized ; but as mere pro- 
cesses, reading and counting are essentially the same ; they serve to call 
attention to marks, and the determination of marks is a process of reso- 
lution. 

The more general a term is, that is, the fewer its marks and the greater 
the number of individuals that it contains, the. more diflScult it is to inter- 
pret it, that is, to translate it into an individual image. Hence the ob- 
served fact that so-called concrete statements are more easily understood, 
or resolved, than abstract statements. At the same time, another impor- • 
tant truth becomes obvious, — that the pupil's ability to inteipret a general 
statement is determined by his knowledge of language. 

15. Whether instruction shall be concrete or whether it may be ab- 
stract, that is, whether the terms shall be near to sense, or whether they may 
be remote from it, is thus not a psychological question at all ; for both 
forms of instruction conform to the great law of mental growth. It is 
merely a question of ease or difficulty. Only a general statement can be 
made, somewhat in this form : The terms employed in the instruction of 
children should be narrow in extent and near to sense ; while those em- 
ployed in the instruction of the more mature, may be of wide extent and 
remote from sense. All instruction must employ general terms, and there 
is always the danger that these terms may not be individualized, or rather 
realized. The remedy is in a careful study of words, and in the testing of 
the pupil's interpretation by requiring him to express the meaning by the 
use of other symbols. 

16. Sense-impressions are the original material out of which the 
mind, by its elaborate processes, constructs the whole fabric of thought. 
Out of a comparatively few primary notions, by combination and permuta- 
tion, the mind is furnished with an almost infinite variety of new construc- 
tion. New knowledge is but a new combination of old material, and the 
most of our thinking consists in discovering or establishing relations be- 



NORMAL DEPARTMENT. 255 

tween part and part, and between parts and some containing whole. 
When a sense-impression has once been established, there is no further 
need of the object that produced it. Forever after, the symbol of the 
thing is all that the processes of thought require. The materials for think- 
ing are not objects, but ideas ; and, in general, thought proper takes place 
with the greatest facility and sureness in the absence of sense-stimulation. 
The assumption that intense sense-activity is conducive to thought proper, 
is a vulgar error. The senses have served their purpose when they have 
famished the mind with the crude materials of thought. A prolonged and 
acute training of the senses is iiTational in its tendency ; it magnifies the 
animal and minimizes the mau. The movement of the animal intelligence 
is invariably outward ; it makes no return upon itself. The movement of 
the human intelligence is somewhat outward, but characteristically inward. 
So far as it is rational, it returns upon itself in the act of reflection. The 
proof of this doctrine lies in the incompatibility of a confirmed outward 
flow of activity with that inward flow which is the necessary condition of 
thought proper ; and also in the actual state of the savage intellect, where 
we observe an acute training of the senses conjoined with almost absolute 
toi*por of the intellect. In fact, the savage is a living example of persist- 
ent sense-training. 

The inference to be drawn from this doctrine, is that a training of the 
senses that more than suflSces to furnish the mind with the crude material 
of thought is downward in its tendency. 

17. Feeling and thinking are mental states in such broad contrast 
that, in their extreme manifestation, they are mutually exclusive. That is, 
intense feeling is fatal to thinking, and intense thinking deadens feeling. 
It seems to be one of the ultimate facts of our mental constitution, that the 
tendency of wholeness is to excite and sustain feeling, and the tendency of 
analysis is to prevent or to destroy feeling. Conversely, feeling resists 
the decomposition of aggregates, and so opposes thinking ; and thinking, 
so far as it is analytical, destroys the emotional element in an object. 

Some of the more important inferences to be drawn from this doctrine 
are the following : 

1. Sense-actiTity, per se, is unfavorable to thinking. This has been noted, in a 
general way, in the preceding section. 

2. The normal condition for thinking is, in Mr. Bain's happy phrase, '* the qui- 
escence of the emotions." Interest in the individuality of a thing, partisanship, preju- 
dice, passion, affection, are each and all the enemies of thought proper. They resist 
discrimination and insight, and so becloud and betray the judgment. The common 
saying that ** love is blind," implicates a whole philosophy. 

3. The direct tendency of mental culture is to weaken the empire of passion and 
emotion ; and, consequently, mental culture is at the same time moral culture. 

4. As the purpose of art is to please, an analysis of a work of art that just sufllces 
to raise the quality of its wholeness, is conducive to its high purpose ; while any analy- 
sis that tends to injure or to destroy this organic unity, defeats the supreme purpose of 
the artist. Proximate analysis heightens the notion of organic unity, while ultimate 
analysis, especially if it serves some technical end, as surely destroys such unity. Lit- 
erary criticism, as now administered in many secondary schools, transgresses this law 
of aesthetic unity. 



256 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

18. We state a well-known phjBiological fact when we say that the 
feeling of hunger is the motive for eating ; and it is a truth of the same 
order, but of wider significance, to state that the feeling of interest is the 
motive that leads the mind first to apprehend and then to comprehend. I 
do not forget that the earliest movement of the mind is automatic or in- 
stinctive, nor that automatism always plays an important part in mental 
growth ; but I here refer to another characteristic fact, that the larger part 
of mental activity is volitional, and that the will is stimulated by motive. 
Perhaps the clearest conception of the mechanism of motives may be gained 
by regarding them as forces that act, some by aUra/ction^ and others by /w?- 
puJaim- In other words, we may do a thing because there is some force 
ahead of us drawing us toward the object ; or because there is some force 
behind uapiLshing us toward the object. Pleasurable motives affect us in 
the first way, and painful ones in the second way. Under the deft manipu- 
lation of motives, teaching becomes a fine art ; and an adequate exposition 
of this theme would constitute the most valuable chapter in applied psy- 
chology. I can do no more than state a few practical observations : 

1. The ultimate aim of the teacher should be to establish motiyes of the attrsctiTe 
sort that will act continuously and powerfully. Perhaps a love of knowledge for its 
own sake, or a confirmed taste for intellectual improve mept, is the highest and most 
comprehensive motive that the teacher can seek to establish. But this motive must be 
regarded as the last term of an ascending series. 

2. A less diffuse, but more intense motive, is what Mr. Bain terms ** intrinaic 
charm," a feeling developed and sustained by the particular subject in hand. A ready 
illustration of this motive is the feeling excited by a work of fiction. It is possible that 
the sustaining motive in the study of geometry or of grammar may be of thia sort. 

3. Before the motive of ** intrinsic charm " can be brought into service, it will 
often be necessary to arouse the feeling of pleasure in prospect. Per se, a study may 
be uninteresting ; but if the pupil can be made to see that some future good is involved 
in it, he will endure some degree of present discomfort. But when the study is once 
fairly under way, it is always possible to awaken the feeling of interest in the subject 
itself. 

4. Closely related to the preceding is what may be called borrowed interest^ from 
the circumstance that an enthusiasm manifested by a teacher, by classmates, or by a 
friend, will often induce a like feeling in the breast of the learner. Inherited predilec- 
tions and antipathies are very common and very powerful motives. 

5. At this point we probably cross the line separating the attractive from the pro- 
pelling motives. It is doubtless to be regretted that it should ever be necessary to re- 
sort to these vis a iergo motives ; but, accepting things as we find them, as we are very 
often bound to do, we are obliged to employ stimulants of the painful sort. But these 
modes of stimulation should be regarded as artificial and temporary, to be superseded, 
as soon as possible, by the attractive motives first described. 

The limits assigned to my paper have now beeu reached, and this im- 
perfect summary must be closed. 



NORMAL DEPARTMENT. 257 



DISCUSSION OF PROF. PAYNE*S PAPER. 

The discussion of the subject was continued by Principal Boyden, of 
Bridgewater, Mass. He spoke of what teaching is, what psychology is, 
and the relation of the two, and concluded by showing the vital relation ex- 
isting between them. 

There was a very general desire to engage in the discussion of Prof. 
Payne's paper, but on motion of Mr. Brown, of Terre Haute, it was de- 
cided to hold a special session at 2 : 80 p. h., July 17th. By general con- 
sent Mr. Newell, of Maryland, not being able to attend again, took the 
Hoor for five minutes to speak on the paper, and dissented in the following 
points from the inferences to be drawn from Prof. Payne's views. 

1. Oar beginnings of knowledge are not analytical but imlnctire. 

2. The use of the memory to store up knowledge that is not comprehended is waste- 
ful, injurions, stupefying, and deadening. 

The President announced the following Committee on Nominations : 
Messrs. Rounds, of New Hampshire, Gilchrist, of Iowa, and Baldwin, of 
Texas, after which the session closed. 



JULY 17TH. 

The Normal section met according to adjournment. Prof. Payne was 
called upon to re-read his paper and give an opportunity for discussing 
paragraph by paragraph. 

Dr. Alltn, of Illinois, questions whether all mental growth is not, like bodily 
growth, unconscious. 

Dr. Hoose, of New York, asks that some one who used the word assimilation tell 
what is meant by ** the mind assimilates knowledge." 

Mr. Brown, of Terre Haute, suggests that the mind does not assimjllate food as the 
body does ; he thinks objects and words stimulate the mind. 

Dr. Hancock, of Ohio, thinks the figure of assimilation applied to the mind is 
misleading. 

Many other members took part in the discussion, and the consideration 
of Prof. Payne's paper continued with unabated interest until 5 p. m., the 
hour set for adjournment. 

JULY 18TH. 

The Normal School section met in its closing session at 2 : 80 p. h. 
Prof • H. B. Norton, of California, read a paper on " Enthusiasm." 

Prof. Thomas Metcfilf, of Illinois, followed in a very interesting 
essay on the same subject. 
17b 



258 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

In the long discussion which followed, Mr. Boltwood, of Illinois, sug- 
gested that if enthusiasm means God in us, it ought also to mean we in 
God. 

Mr. Allen, of Minnesota : Enthusiasm demands physical, mental, and spiritosl 
strength. 

Dr. Hoose, of New York : Eren the best body and mind become weary, and it i» 
doubtful whether we have the same ground for enthusiasm as the soldier who fights for 
an idea. 

Mr. Brown, of Indiana, presented a motion that speeches be limited to 
five minutes each. The motion prevailed. 

Mr. Brown : Enthusiasm is quiet. 

SuPT. Feitzhaus, of Illinois : Enthusiasm comes from determination to do bet- 
ter work each year. 

Mr. Grant, of Nebraska : Enthusiasm is work ! work I ! work ! ! ! 

Miss Kennedy, of Normal : Enthusiasm may be caught from the faces of the 
children. 

Mrs. Williams nee Lathrop, of Cincinnati : The teacher's enthusiasm Bprings from 
a feeling of fitness for the work. 

Pres. Hewett.: There should be more enthusiasm in the work of this section, and 
normal schools should be more closely united. 

The section next received and adopted the report of the Committee on 
Nominations, which resulted in the choice of the following officers for the 
ensuing year : 

President — Geo. P. Brown, of Indiana. 
Vice-President — John Baldwin, of Texas. 
Secretary — Miss Sprague, of Minnesota. 

The session of 1884 then closed by adjournment. 



Department of Higher Instruction. 



MADISON, WIS., JULY 16, 1884. 

Department of Higher Instruction of the National Educational Asso- 
elation met at Assembly Hall of the University at 2 : 30 p. m. 

The secretary being absent, Prof. Wm. B. Payne, of Tabor College, 
was chosen Secretary pro tern. 

On motion of President Folwell, of Minnesota, Dr. I. W. Andrews, 
of Ohio, was chosen member of the Council for six j'ears. 

On motion of President Folwell, Dr. I. W. Andrews and the secretary 
were chosen a committee on nomination of officers. 

Dr. Pickard, of Iowa, read the President's address on the " Co-educa- 
tion of the Sexes." The following is a brief abstract : 

To the last half of the nineteenth century is to be credited a marked ad- 
vance in the estimate put upon woman as a student. Her claims are equal, 
if not superior, to those of men. Identical education not a necessity, since 
the elective system is so widely prevalent. "Sex in Education" is a strong 
argument for co-education. Sex characteristics are best developed and 
strengthened in mutual exercise. Seclusion thwarts God's plan. Co-edu- 
cation favors a more thorough acquaintance, formed in the higher realm 
of intellect, safer and surer than that possible under society's forms and 
concealments. Health is not injured, as proven . by statistics. Woman 
will do her work in a woman's way. The introduction of woman to equal 
rank with man in professional chairs will prove a bar to injury. In all 
co-educational institutions there is a steady widening of the courses of 
study and raising of standards in response to the capabilities and the de- 
mands of woman herself. Economy favors the policy, as duplication of 
agencies is not demanded. Steady increase in the number of co-educa- 
tional colleges prove their worth. 



260 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

The address was followed by discussion. 

Dr. Andrews requested an explanation of the limited extent to which co-educa- 
tion has gained favor at the East. lie mentioned the rapid growth of Wellesley, 
Smith, and other colleges exclusively for women, and the comparatively slow growth 
of those Eastern colleges to which both sexes are admitted. 

Professor Chandler, of Wisconsin, expressed the opinion that the reputation of 
some of the older colleges for hazing and other evils prevent patents from sending 
their daughters to these institutions. In respect to health of students he had observed 
that of young women to be better than that of young men. 

President Marshall considered the conservatism of the people and the 
ultra conservatism of the older colleges, as well as the idleness and viciousnesb 
of young men in some of these as checking the progress of co-education. 

Bishop Fallows, of Chicago, described the manner in which co-education had 
been gradually introduced into the University of Wisconsin, the uniformly favorable 
results of each step overcoming opposition, and leading.to the next step. 

Professor Blaisdale, of Beloit College, spoke of the " fine edge of womanly 
modesty," and asked these questions concerning this : 

1. Is it worth preserving? 

2. Is it impaired by co-education? 

3. Can this impairing be avoided by not having ladies appear in public? 

Dr. Pickard answered that this '*flne edge "is not dulled by j>roper co-educa- 
tion, but in many instances it is sharpened. Those peculiarly sensitive do not seek 
co-education, while those less sensitive are improved by it. 

Professor Lumry, of Wheaton College, could say the same thing from an expe- 
rience of thirty years. 

President Moss, of Indiana, agreed very heartily with the paper. He inquired 
whether our notions of the shamefacedness required of ladies are correct. He thinks 
conservatism of New England families explains the fact that co-education does not 
meet with more favor there. He has found young women in all studies equal to young 
men. He considers co-education favorable to development of manhood and woman- 
hood. 

President Tapfan, of Ohio, inquired to what extent the idea of having lady 
officers who have general oversight of the young ladies is carried out 

President Folwell stated that he has found the young women better physically 
than the young men. Co-education has worked well in University of Minnesota. The 
young women there are the daughters of farmers and others not wealthy. These are 
improved. 

Dr. Andrews inquired concerning the effect on those having wealth and refine- 
ment at home. 

President Folwell replied that such do not remain, and that at University of 
Minnesota they have not yet to 'do with this class. He had in mind a certain young 
woman whom he would not send to any co-education college. 

President Magoun, of Iowa College, stated that after two daughters of trustees 
were admitted in 1857 the results were so satisfactory that the trustees became unani- 
mous in favor of joint education. He believes in joint education, but does not believe 
that it should be the same for both sexes. There are some young men, and some 
young women for whom joint education is not good, but these are exceptions. 

Voted, to adjourn until 2 :30 p. m., to-morrow. 

President Pickard in chair. 

Wm. B, Payne, Secretary pro iem. 

MADISON, WIS., JULY 17, 1884. 

Department of Higher Instruction met at the Assembly Hall of the 
University at 2 : 30 p. m., President Pickard, presiding. 

On motion of Dr. Chapln, of Wisconsin, a committee on nominations 
was appointed by the chair. This committee consisted of Dr. Chapin, Dr. 
Tappan, of Ohio, and Prof. Searing, of Minnesota.. 

President Folwell, of Minnesota, read the following paper on •' Political 
Science in the College Course." 



DEPARTMEXT OF HIGHER INSTRUCTIOX. 261 



THE CIVIC EDUCATION— ABSTRACT. 

BY WILLIAM W. FOLWELL, LL. D. 
President of the University of Minnesota. 

The passage of the Civil Service Reform Act by the forty-seventh 
Congress astonished and, in spite of the gravity of the measure, amused 
the country. Convinced that the people were resolved, our national solons 
disposed of the bill with the promptness of a boy who. seeing no way of 
escape from the doctor's orders, swallows his dose precipitately, feeling 
that it "were well done if 'twere done quickly." Besides, there was the 
conspicuous incongruity that in the ranks of the great party of moral ideas 
and refonn no champion could be found for the great reform of all, which, 
therefore, had to accept the hospitality of that other great party whose 
motto had some time been, " To the victors belong the spoils." It was a 
full generation from the adoption of the constitution to the time when the 
infamous doctrine that public offices are proper rewards for political ser- 
vices, went into practical effect. From that time the tj^anny of the majori- 
ty has been established and maintained, and government by the people 
has been supplanted by government by party. Except as far as influence 
extends, the out-voted minorities might as well have been disfranchised. 
Our national elections have become tremendous contests for the possession 
by one political army or the other of the public treasury, the armed force 
of the country, and all other instruments of government. 

We are chiefly concerned with the fact that by the passage of the civil 
service reform act, the doom of that system has been spoken. The law 
has gone quietly into effect and with great wisdom its operation has been 
confined to a limited range of offices. Of the 110,000 positions in the 
United States civil service only 14,000 have been brought under the opera- 
tion of the law. The first report of the Civil Service Commission I think 
to be the most important public document of the age, as proving the feasi- 
bility of the law, and showing how it may be extended to all offices in 
service. Hereafter we shall hear no machine politicians proclaiming that 
it will not work. It does work, and works well. 



262 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

The civil service act means that by and by no majority shall have the 
right or the power to seat its bosses and whippers in the public offices. It 
means that no party in power shall organize the hundred thousand public 
servants into solid battalions for political campaigns. It means that no 
political party shall have the right or the opportunity of depriving the 
people of the services of capable and experienced servants. It means, 
country and people before party and spoils. The principle will be ex- 
tended to our public education, and will result in permanent employment 
for competent teachers, who will then, and not sooner, form a profession. 
The just principle of this reform — that only those shall do things who 
know how to do them — will at length be carried over from the administra- 
tive functions of government to directive and legislative functions. 

An ultimate result of the civil service reform — and all I have said up 
to this point has for its purpose t