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New Series, Vol. I. 









Vol. I, 1905. 






The pages of the Journal should be bound first : they are 
numbered consecutively at the top iu the usual place from 1 to 
274. The pages of the Proceedings should follow -. they are 
paged consecutively at the bottom from I to 56. Those who wish 
may bind the list of members and the accounts thereafter. The 
index, the pagination of which is immaterial, will come last. The 
lists of books added to the Library are not intended for binding. 

Plates i. and ii. to follow page 82. 

Plate iii. to face page 120. 

Plate iv. to face page 121. 

Plate V. to face page 124. 

Plate vi. to face page 200. 

Plates vii., viii. and ix, to follow page 258. 

Plate ix, (map) to face page 230. 

Plate xi, to follow page 260 ; 

or all to be placed at the end of the volume. 


Journal and Proceedings, Asiatic Society of Bengal, New Series, Vol. I, 

Line 14, for page 258 read page 238. 

„ 15, „ Plate IX „ Plate X. 


Jonrnal, pp. 1-26 Proceedings, pp 





159-172 „ 


217-244 „ 


p. 1-2 

21 st June 


18tli July 

. 31-34 

;2fcli August 

, 35-38 


, 39-40 

llfch September 

, 41-44 

4th October 

, 45-48 


, 49-50 

27 tb 

, 51-52 

10th January 

, 53-56 

28th February 



LIST OF PAPERS botanical 



Annandale, Nelson, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

Additions to tlie Collection of Oriental Snakes in the Indian 
Masenm. — Part II. Specimens from the Andamans and 
Nieobars .. ... ... ... ... 173 

Additions to the Collection of Oriental Snakes in the Indian 

Museum.— Part III. ... ... ... ... 208 

Contributions to Oriental Herpetology II-III. Notes on the 
Oriental Lizards in the Indian Museum, witli a List of the 
Species recorded from British India and Ceylon. — Parts I-II. 81,139 
The Hydra of the Calcutta Tanks ... ... ... 72 

Notes on an Indian Worm of the Genus Chsetogaster ... 117 

Notes on the Species, External Characters and Habits of the 

Dngong ... ... ... ... ... 238 

Beveridge, H., I.C.S. 

The Emperor Babar ... ... ... ... 137 

The Nafaisu-1-Maasir ... .. ... ... 236 

Burn, R., I.O.S. 

Formation of New Castes ... ... ... ... 2.')6 

Bore, Malcolm. 

Earwigs of the Indian Museum, with De.'^criptions of New Species 27 

Chakr.waeti, Monmohan, M.A., M.R.A.S. 

Pavanadiitam or Wind-Messenger, by Dhoyika, a court-poet of 
Laksanasena, king of Bengal, with an Appendix on the Sena 
kings ... .. ... ... 41 

Dahlmann, Father, S..I. 

Archaeologisch Onderzoek op Java en Madura. I Beschrijving van 
de ru'ine bij de Tesa Toempang, gennamd Tjandi Djago. 
Batavia, 1904 ... ... ... ... ... 94 

Da8, .Tamini Mohan. 

Note on the Kantabndiyas of Cuttack ... ... ... 215 

Das, Saeat Chandra, Rai Bahadur, C.T.E. 

The Monasteries of Tibet ... ... 106 

A short history of the House of Phagdu, which ruled over Tibet 

on the decline of Sakya till 1432, A.D. ... ... 202 

Tibet, a dependency of Mongolia (1643-1716 A.D.) ... ... 152 

Tibet under her Last Kings (1434-1642 A.D.) ... ... 165 

Gage, Captain A. T., I.M.S. 

Hedyotis sisaparenais, a hitherto undeacribed Indian species ... 244 

Gordon, Eet. E. M. 

Notes concerning the People of Mnngeli Tahsil, Bilaspore District 181 

Gbierson, G. a., CLE, 

Vidyapati Thakur ... ... ... ... 228 

Hill, E. G., B.A. 

The Colonring Principle of the flowers of Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis 102 
The Composition of the oil from Bir Bahoti or the " Rains Insect" 

(Torombidiam grandissimum) ... ... ... 74 

Laskar, Ganga Mohan, M.A. 

Ponr new Copper- Plate Charters of the Somavaipsi Kings of Kosala 

(andKataka?) ... ... ... ... 1 

LiNSTOW, Dr. ron. 

Ascaris halicoris, JSaiVrf ... ... ... ... 258 


Some remarks on the Geology of the Gangetic Plain ... ... 230 

Numismatic Supplements, V.-VI. ... ... ... 121, 261 

S'astree, Yog^sa Chandra. 

A note on Halayadha, the author of Brahmanasarbasva ... 35 

Shastri,Haraprasad, M.A. 

An Examination of the Nylya-siitras ... ... ... 245 

History of Nyaya-sastra from .Japanese Sources ... ... 177 

Some Notes on the dates of Sub.indhu and Din-naga... ... 258 

SiLBEERAD. O. A,, B.A., B.Sc, I.C.S. 

Not>^ on a Decomposition Prodnct of a Pecnliar Variety of Bundel- 

khand Gneiss ... ... ... ... ... 168 

Vedantatirtha, VanamalI. 

Optimism in Ancient Nyaya ... ... 251 

Vidyabhusana, Satischandra, M.A. 

An Analysis of the Lnnkavatara SQtra ... ... ... 159 

Aniiruddha Thera— a learned Pali author of Southern India in the 

12th Century A.D. ... .,, ... ... 99 

Dignaga and his Pramana-samucchaya ... ... .. 217 

Sarvajna.-mitra — A Tantrika Buddhist author of Klsmira in the 

8hh Century A.D. ... ... ... ... 156 

Vredenburg, E. 

Occurrence of the genns Apusin Baluchistan ... ... 33 

Wright, Nelson. 

See Numismatic Supplement. 


for Philology, Hutory and Antiquities. 
A B 

Abaling, pr. n., 152. 

AhliidhammaWiasarhgaha, 99. 

Abhisamaya, 160. 

Abhyagata, 38. 

Abul Fazl, 137, 138. 

Abu Sa'M Saltan, 137. 

Adam's Bi'idge, 43. 

Adhhuta Sagara MS., 46. 

Adisura, Raja, 36. 

Afaq Begam, a wife of Babar, 137. 

Ahmad I, 273. 

Ahm»d Kbwajagi Klsani, 137. 

Ahmad Shab Bahadur, 130. 

Ain-i-Akba7-2, 45. 

Aita, pr. n., 38. 

Ajapala, King, 4. 

Akalankadeva, Buddhist; logician, 

Akbar, Some rare coins of, 125. 
ATibarndma, 47. 
Aksliapada, Logic of, 249. 
Alcshapada Siitra, 177. 
Akshi, a capital of Farghana, 137 
Alamhana pratyaya dhydna Sdstra, 

'Alamgir II, Some rare coins of, 126. 
Altyn Bishik, 137. 
Amdo, province, 113. 
Amitabba, Image of, 110. 
Anai, pr. n., 36. 
A'nanda Bhatta, author, 46. 
Anangapala Deva, 261. 
Ancient Nyaya, Optimism in, 251. 
Anhikapaddhati, 40. 
Annruddha Sataka, poem, 99. 
Annruddha Thera, a learned Pali 

author, 99. 
Arabinda, pr. n., 37. 
Arama, town, 3. 
Archaeologisch Onderzoek-op Java en 

Madura, 94. 
Ardhavainasika or half-nihilist, 249. 
Arsaling, pr. n., 152. 
Aiyadeva, philosopher, 178. 
Asanga, author, 2.54. 
AntasdhaHrikd Prajndpdramitd, 159. 
Arand-danhili, poet, 236. 
Atisa, Remains of, 108. 
Aiirangazeb, Some rare coins of, 126. 
Avalokitesvara, Image of, 111. 
Azam Shah, 129. 

Babnr, the Emperor, 137. 

,, Memoirs of, 137. 
Baharnamd, Some MSS. of the, 133i^ 
Badali, pr. n., 38, 
Bahadur, 2/8. 
Bahuriipa, 37. 

Bakarganj, Inscription of, 46,r 
Balilditya, Raja, 254, 
Bangala, pr. n., 37. 
Berezine, publisher of Mubayyara, 

Beri, King of, 152, 153. 
Beveridge, H. A few interesting 

things about the Emperor Babar, 

Bhadanta, 221, 222. 
Bhadrapalita, minister, 221. 
Bhatta Mahodadhi, 8. 
Bhatta Narayana, 35, 
Bliimaratha, King, 2. 
Bhimavarman, 48. 
Brahma SandeSah, 42. 
Bhujagapura, town, 43. 
Bibliotheca Lindesiana, 138. 
Bithu Bandya, pr. n., 36. 
Bleazby, G , Mr , 121, 123. 
Bodhiruci, author, 159. 
Bodhisattvas, Images of, 110. 
Bon, religion. 152 
Boro-Bodur, a Buddhist Sanctuary in 

Java, 95. 
Brahma Ksatia, an appellation, 50. 
Brdhmana 8a7-basva, author of, 35. 
Brandes, Dr., Dir.-Genl. of Arch. 

Survey, Dutch East Indies, 94. 
Buddha, Image of, 110. 
Buddhist Logicians, Names of, 218. 
„ Sects, Eighteen, of Tibet, 

Bukka family, of Vijayanagar, 251. 
Bushing, border state, 154. 
Byang, province, 167. 

Cdtaka Sandem, 42. 

Chagpoiri, a monastic institution^ 

Chag-tse-tugu, place, 202. 
Chahada Deva, 262. 
Chakar, Khan of, 152. 

Index for Philology, History and Antiquities 

Cham-clien-choijeQakya Ye^es, 112. 

Chandragnpta, Inscriptions of, 253. 

Chandragupta II, King, 48. 

Chandraprakasa, Raja, 253. 

Changa-Kung, appellation, 204. 

Charters, Tabular abstract of the 
eleven, 25-26. 

Cliatta, family, 35, 36, 37. 

Chatta, Sakuni, pr. n., 36. 

Clia-zjm<i:-k!mg, place, 204. 

Chethang, Monastery of, 114. 

Choi Khor-ling, college, 115. 

Choi Slukha, place, 202. 

Choi-tog Gya-tsl.o, 165. 

Chola, nation, 43. [King, 101. 

Chola I, Eajrajendra KulottQnga, 

Cholka, province of Tibet, 154. 

Chomonkhar, village, 203. 

Cboraganga, pr. n., 50, 51. 

Chungar, 155. 

jDhyam-chen Shal-reh Lhakhang, 

(temple, 113, 
Chyam Khang, temple, llO. 
Chyan-chub Gyal-tshan, 204. 
Chyangkha, province of Tibet, 202. 
Chyang-shon, 203. 
Chyang-tag Chyan, Head of the 

State Clinrcli, 205. 
Cliyang-tse, college of religion, 109. 
Chyan. na, Governor, 205.. 
Chyan-na Rinpoche, hierarch, 202, 
Chyarog-dong-chan (evil spirit), 113. 
Chyazang Joug, place, 204. 
Chyipa Khamang, college, 113. 
Chyog Nampar Gyalwa, 115. 
Coins, 121 

Conieeverum, town, 101. 
Copperplate Charters, Four new, of 
the SomavansI Kings of Ko^ala, 1. 


Dachan, town, 112. 
Dag Lah-zig, family, 202. 
Dag-nid-chenpo, hierarch, 204. 
Dahala, country, 4. 
Dahlmann, Father, S.J. — Archaeolo- 
gisch Onderzoek op Java en Ma- 
dura, 94. 
Dakhbid, town, 137. 
Daksina Kosala, country, 2, 44. 
Dalai Yontan Gyatsho, 166. 
Dana Sdgara, MS., 46. 
Dansa-thil, hierarch, 202. 

,, town, 165. 

Dapung, The monastery of, 114. 
Dapung, " premier," 165, 114. 

,, „ College of, 115. 

Dapung Shalugo, president, 115. 
„ Tulpaiku= incarnate Lama, 

Darbag, town, 114. 

Darbag-thang, Monastery of, 114. 

Dar Fiqh, appellation, 236. 

Darma Rinchen, Gyal-tshab, llO. 

Dar-ul-Mulk Hazrat, 263. 

DasabhumUvara, 159. 

Dasanariya, river, 7. 

Dawar Bakhsb. Coins of, 127. 

Dayan Khan, Ruler of Tibet, 154. 

Dayaree Kesava, pr. n , 36. 

Deba Kyid-Shoi, 167. 

Debala, pr. n., 37. 

Deladeli, village, 8. 

Deopara, Inscription of, 46. 

De Qeg Lhakhang, 110. 

Desrid Sonam Choiphel, 153. 

De-Yan, college, 115. 

Dhananjaya, pr. n., 39. 

Dhlradatta, ranaka, 7. 

Dharani, 160. 

Dharniaklrti, philosopher, 217, 218. 

Dharma Raja, = Upholder of religion, 

153, 206. 
Dharmottara, Buddhist Logician, 218. 
Dhoyika, poet, 41. 
Dhoyi Kaviraja, poet, 45. 
Dhruvasarman, 48. 
Dhyani Buddhas, 96. 
Dihnaga and his Pramana Samuocaya, 

,, Buddhist Logician, 217. 

„ Date of, 178, 226-227, 254. 

,, Different appellations of, 

„ Life of, 218. 

,, Some notes on the date of, 

,, Snpernatnral powers of , 220. 
Di-gun, province, 205. 
Dikhung Di-giin, hierarch, 202. 
Dingsai, Sankara, pr. n., 36. 
Disri Kuntob-pa, pr. n., 203. 
Divakara Garagari, 36. 
Dog Leg-se, 116. 
Dogon Phagpa, 116. 
Dohdah, place, 165. 
Doh-Soh, pr. n., 177. 
Dokari Masacataka, 36. 

,, Pippalai, 36. 
Dok-poiri, hill, 109. 
Dom-ton-pa, 107, 108. 
Dondib-dorje, 165. 
Do Niii je Padma Karpo, 107. 
Don-yo-dorje, King, 152, 165. 
Dorje of Yarlang, 203. 
Dorjepal, pr. n., 202. 
Dorje, Tag, Monastery of, 155. 
Douka Gurn, 36. 
Dozon Ang, 137. 
Dsong of Holkha, 165. 

Index for Philology, History atid Antiquities, 

Dubchoi Tsang-Khang, chapel, 110. 
Dug-pa, sect, 165. 

Dukhang Chenpo, congregation hall, 

„ Gong-ma, congregation liall, 
Dukhang, Images in the, 113. 
Dukhang- Karpo, 111. 

„ -Uma, 109. 
Dak-pa, sect, 106. 
Dul-dsin, 110. 
Duthuktha, Khan of, i 52. 



Eagle's Head, monastery. 

Khyamgo-Chan, 107. 
Eastern Ghats, 3. 
Edicts of Asoka, 43. 
Edward Terry, 266. 
Elliot MSS., Catalogue of the, 138 
Equivalences, Table of, 268. 
Erskine, 137. 


Farghana, province, 137. 

Fateb Khan, Gold coins of, 121. 

Fazer, James, 129. 

Firoz Shaz Zafar, Gold coins of, 121. 

Fleet, Mr., 1, 2, 3. 

Fryer, Mr., 268. 


Gajpati, Raja, 237. 

Gahdan, Monastery of, 153, 108. 

,, hierarch, 153. 
Gahdan-tse, Palace of, 204. 
Gah-wa Nor-shoii, pr. n., 114. 
Ganapati, 262. 
Gandavyuha, 159. 
Ganga Mohan Laskar — Four new 

Copper-plate Charters of the 

Somavaipsi Kings of Kosala (and 

Katsika), 1. 
Gangesa Qpadhyaya, philosopher, 

Ganai, pr. n., 36. 
Garagari, Divakara, pr. n., 36. 
Garhva, Inscription of, 48. 
Garura, pr n., 37. 
Gautama Pntitunda, 36. 
Qautama Sutra, YJl, 
Gednn-Dub, 115. 
Geddn Gyatsho, 115, 165. 
Gediin Gyat.sho, tlie Dalai Lama, 

Gedun Phun Phun-tshong Lozang 

Tanzing, minister, 110. 
Gegan-Khan, 152. 

Gelug-pa, institution, 166. 

Gephel Rivo-che, hill, 114. 

Geses Tag-kar-pa, 116. 

Ghfizi-ud-din Khan, 131. 

Gibbs, Mr., 121. 

Glta Govinda, poem, 45. 

Gobardhanacarya, pr. n., 37. 

Goohhashandi, wife of Dhananjaya, 

Go-chye-khang, temple, 114. 

Godavari, river, 44. 

Gogochu, pr. n., 203. 

Gokar Tartars, 153. 

Gompa Shagrin, abbott, 202. 

Gomtson, 202. 

Gongkar, place, 205. 
„ fort, 206. 

Gon-Khang, chapel, 109. 

,, Images in the, 113. 

Gon-po De-mar, (genius). Image of 

Gopee Bandya, pr. n., 36. 

Gosvami Radhamohan, pr. n., 245. 

Grierson, G. A., Dr., on Vidyapati 
Thaknr, 228. 

Gujarat Fabric, Coins of, 266. 

,, Sultanat. On some genealogi- 
cal coins of, 271. 

Gulbadan Begam, 237. 

,, „ Memoirs of, 137. 

Gunabhadra, author, 159. 
Giira, Douka, pr. n., 36. 
Gushi Klian, 152. 
Gyal Khar tse, province, 167. 
Gyal Shonpal, pr. n., 203. 
Gyal-tshab Darma Rincheu, 110. 
Gyal-tshan Kyab, Governor, 203. 
Gyal-tshan-zang, pr n., 205. 
Gya-Tva-tsbang, college, 118. 
Gyal-wa-ni-pa, 115. 
Gya-mo-shong, village, 205. 
Gya-thang, place, 202. 
Gyavo, nickname, 203. 

Halayang, place, 202. 

Halayndlia, author, 35, 37. 

Halsi, Plates of, 48. 

Hansii d-Cbtam. 42. 

Hansa Sandesa, 42. 

Hara Bandya, 36. 

Hiirii Narayana, 36. 

Haraprasad S'astri : An examination 
of the Nyaya 
SQtras, 245. 
„ „ H i s t o r y of 

Nyaya Siitraa 
from Japanese 
Sources, 177. 


Index for Philology, History and Antiquities. 

Haraprasad Sastri ; Some notes on 

the dates .of 

Subandhu and 

Dinnaga, 253. 

Haribhadra Suri, a Jain writer, 248. 

Harsa, 7. 

Hashya, Gangnii, 36. 
Hazrat Imam Azam, 236. 
Hayagriba, Tantrik image of, 114. 
Hemanta Sena, King, 46, 50, 51. 
Herbert, Sir Thomas, 267. 
Hetudvdra, 221. . ' 

Hgos-chos-grnb, 159. 
Hienth Sang, the Great, 177. 
HInayanist, Buddhist doctrine, 249. 
Hodna, place, 166. 
Hodsalphug, the cavern of light, 

Hodgson, Mr., 159. 
Hoh-hen-shin-rov , 111. 
Holkha Dsong, fort, 165. 
Hor Jam, a Tartar Commissioner of 

China, 202. 
Hor Tibetans, a nomadic tribe, 202. 
Hosod, Khan of, 152. 
Hoso-tshe, province, 152. 
Hphags pa-lafi-kar-gsegs-pa-theg-pa- 
chen-pohi-mdo — Tibetan version 
of Liinkavatara Sutra, 159. 
Hng-yug-ling, fortress, 206. 
Hung Thaije, 155. 
Hwang-sze = yellow temple, 112. 
Hwenthsang, Chinese traveller, 

Ilahi rupees, Inscription on, 123. 

Isana, 37. 

Islam Shah Suri, 131. 

I^vara Kr?na, 219. 

Jahandar Shah, Coins of, 264. 
Jahangir and Nur Jahan, Some rare 

coins of, 125. 
Jalajadda, place, 7. 
Jalhana, 37, 45. 
Jami, poet, 286. 
Jam-yang Choije, 114. 
Jamyang Gahlo, 115. 

,, S'akya, appellation, 204. 
Janamejaya, king, 2 
Jangsa thnl, country, 158. 
Je-Deleg-Nima, 116. 
Jenghis Khan, 152. 
Jetsundampa, 153. 
Jina, identified with Dinnaga, 221. 

Jinendrabodhi, Buddhist logician, 

Johnson, Richmond, 138. 
Jovo Tagpa RIa, 203. 
Junagarh, Inscription of, 48. 
Jungar, Mongolian Chief, 108. 


Kahagyur, scriptures, 110. 
Lliakhang, 116. 

Kahdam-pa, sect, 108. 

Kakusthavarman, king, 48, 

Kalinga, country, 3. 
,, people, 3, 44.. 

Kalinganagari, town, 44. 

Kalyang Gyatsho, 7th Dalai Lama, 

Kalzang Lhakhang, 116. 

Kamadeva, 7. 

Kamalasila , Buddhist Logician, 218. 

Kami, poet, 236. 

Kanada, the atomic philosopher, 252. 

Kanakanagarl, Gandharva town, 42. 

KiincT, town, 43. 

Kancipnra, town, 100, 43. 

Kang-yeng, province, 202. 

Kanjilala, family of Kulins, 37. 

Kanu, pr. n., 37. 

Kardo, place, 202. 

Karingampath Nambudri, poet, 42. 
Karjong, fortress, 206. 
Karma- pa, sect, 154. 

„ hierarch, 165. 

Kasan, province, 137. 
Kashmandi, 49. 

Kasili, place, 10. 
Kataka, country, 2. 

Kaveri, river, 43. 
Kdvydlankdra Sutra Vrtti, 253. 
Kayya, King of Lata, 158. 
Kayyavihara, Monastery of, 158. 
Kazan, place, 138. 
Kearney, Mr., 138. 
Kerala, country, 42. 
Keralapntra, country, 43. 
Keralas, people, 43. 
Kesava Dayaree, pr. n., 36. 
,, Mahinta, pr. n., 36. 
„ Sena, pr. n., 35. 
Khalkha, country, 152. 
Kham, province, 113, 152, 202, 206. 
Khanpo Ringyal, 202. 
Khandbadam, 137. 
Khanda Kapala, Image of. 111. 
Khandoma, sainted fairies. 111. 
Khan Tangriylr, appellation, 137. 
Khartag Gonsar, Monastery of, 205. 
Khizr Khwajah Khan, pr. n., 237. 
Khojand, province, 137. 

Index for Philology, History and Antiquities. 

Khojas, History of, 137. 

Khokand, Khanate of, 137. 

Klion, family, 116. 

Khortog-cha, place, 202. 

Khoblai Khan, Chinese Emperor, 

Khudayan Saltan, appellation, 137. 
Khyang-thang-gang, 167. 
Khynngo-chan, llonastery of, 107, 

King, White, Dr., 131. 
Ktra-dutam. 42. 
Kirti-lata, 228. 
Kokonor, country, 152. 
Kongpo, province, 106, 155. 
Konting Gushri, title of honour, 205. 
Kosiila, country, 2. 

,, Four new Copper-plate 

Charters of the Somavansi kings 

of, 1. 
Kosalendra, title, 2, 3. 
Kosam, Inscription of, 48. 
Kraraaditya, 255. 
Krsna Sarvabhauma, author, 42. 
Ksanika, 160. 

Ksitivamidvall Garitam, 45. 
Ku Chyog-ling, college, 115. 
Kumara Gupta, pr. n., 254. 

I, king, 48. 
Knmarila, author, 254. 
Kulmuc Mongols, 152, 153. 
Kundalala, family of Kulins, 37. 
Kunda Visvesvara, pr. u., 36. 
Kundu-Hng, college, 154. 
Kun-zang, 165. 
Kusari, Yaba, pr. n., 36. 
Kushi Khan, Statue of, 110. 
Kushri, appellation, 153. 
Kutuhala, pr. ii., 37. 
Kwa-tin Kan Sri, title of honour, 

Kwei-ke, pr. n., 177. 
Kya-ya-dag-chu, family, 203. 
Kyen-Hun, Chinese prime minister, 

Kyen Tai Di-Wang, Emperor of 

China, 206. 
Kyid-shoi, place, 166. 
Kyi-shoi, place, 167. 

Labb-u-tawarikh , 236 
Lak^manasena, King of Bengal, 41. 
Lalitavistara, 159. 

Lamas, Eed Cap and Yellow Cap, 152, 
I-ama-khang, 110. 
Laugchen ri, bill, 114. 
Langdarma, King of Tibet, 116, 152, 

Lanka-dvipa, island, 43. 
Lanhdvatdra Sutra, 159. 

,, ,, An analysis of 

the, 159. 
Lata or Central and Southern 

Gazerat, 158. 
Lavada, district, 10. 
Leo-half rupee, found at Ahmadabad, 

Lhabzang, 154 

Lhaje Phagmodu, hierarch, 203. 
Lhakhong Labrangpa, abbott, 203. 
Lha-tho-ri, King of Tibet, 227. 
Lha-zig, family, 204, 205. 
Lhobrag, province, 106. 

„ Shong-de, province, 202. 
Lindesiaiia Bibliotheca, 138. 
Li-Wang, Emperor of China, 206. 
Lluttaruma, village, 10. 
Lodoi Choi Kyong, 110. 
Lokapalas, Images of four, 109. 
Lokayala, sect, 159. 
Lopon Tagzang, pr. n., 204. 
Lo-tsa-wa Ge Long, author, 159. 
Lozang Gyatsho, 115. 
Lozang-Jinpa, 154. 
Lozang-ling, college, 115. 
Liing Shoi, place, 166. 


Ma-chen Pomra, mountain God, 111. 
Madana, pr n., 36. 
iMadanapada, Inscription of, 46 
Madanpala Deva, 261. 
Maddhila, place, 7. 
Madhavacarya, philosopher, 251. 
Madhava Kavindra, poet, 41. 
Madhumathana, Vinali, engraver, 

Madhusiidana Eayee, pr. n., 36. 
Madjapahit, Kingdom of, 97. 
Mahabhavagupta I, 1, 2. 

,, . „ 11,1,2. 

Maha-Dinnaga, pr n. 177. 
Mahamati, pr. n , 160. 
Mahanadi, river, 2, 41. 
Maha-Sandhivigraliin, 7, 8, 
Maha-Sivagupta, king, 1, 2, 44. 
Mahavarnsa, 99. 

Mahayanist, Buddhist doctrine, 249. 
Mahendra, mountain, 44. 
Mahesvara, pr. n., 37. 
Mahinta Kesava, pr. n., 36. 
Mahmud I, 273. 
Maitreya, Image of, 110. 

,, philosopher, 178. 

Makaranda, pr. n., 37. 
'Makhdiim A'azam, saint, 137. 
Malabarvrala, E. P., Mr., 133. 

Index for Philology, History and Antiquities 

Malaya, hill-range, 43. 

Malyavanta, hill-range, 43, 

Mandelso, Albert, 267. 

Mani Lhakhang = prayer-wheel tem- 
ple, 106. 

Mania &ri Bhairava, 109. 

Manju S'rl Mula Tantra, 107. 

MaTi-pa-tva-tshaiig = medical college, 

Mamsabhaksana, 160. 

Maqdum Azam, pr. ti., 236. 

Martanda, pr. n., 36. 

Mascataka, Dokari, pr. n., 36. 

Masyakarni, saint, 43. 

Manlana, Jami, poet, 236. 

Meghadutam, Imitations of, 41. 

Memoirs of Babar, 137. 

„ ,, Gulbadan Begam, 137. 

Meru, Monastery of, 116. 

Methog Than of Gyal, 165. 

Milaras-pa, Golden image of, 108. 

Mimdmsd Sai-vasva, 40. 

Mindolling, Monastery of, 155. 

Mir 'Abdu-1-latif, pr. n., 236. 

Mirok, pr. n., 177, 249. 

Mir Yahya, author, 236. 

Mirza 'Aland-dauhih, Qazvini, author, 

Mi- Wang, Nehn-Dong pa, ruler, 165, 

Mok Shok, pr. n , 177. 

Monasteries of Tibet, 106-116. 

Monkhar, place, 202. 

Mon-lam Chen po, 108, 165, 115. 

Monmohan Chakravarti : — on Pavana- 
dutam, a Sanskrit poem by DhoyT- 
ka, a conrt-poetof Laksmanasena, 
king of Bengal, 41. 

Mubayyan, poem, 138. 

Muchak, pr. n. 177. 

Mughal Emperors, gold and silver 
coins of, 121. 

Muhammad I, 273. 
II, 273. 
,, bin Tughlaq, gold coins of, 

Muhammad-i-Bakhtyiir. 45, 50. 

Muhammad Sarban, Darveshf 138. 

Mujaliiduddin, 130. 

Mukhaiti, family of Kulins, 37. 

Muktapida Lalitaditya, king of Kas- 
mira, 158. 

Murasima, town, 3. 

Mnzaffar I and II, 273. 


Na-chu-tug, Lhakhang, 116. 
Nadir Shah, 129. 

Nafaisu-1-Maasir, a note on, 236. 

Nagadatta, pundit, 218. 

Nagah-rikor-snm, province, 206. 

Nagarjuna, philosopher, 178. 

Nagnas, sect, 163. 

Nag-pa Namgyal-ling, college, 115. 

Nag-pa Tva-tshang, (Tantrik col- 

_ lege), 116. 

Nag-wang Choitag, hierarch, 106. 

Nag-wangLozang Gyatsho, 5th Dalai 

Lama, 116. 
Nag-wang Tashi, Tibetan ruler, 206. 
Nag-wang, Yese Gyatsho, 116. 
Nai-ctioikhang, 111. 
Nairmanika, 160. 
Naiyaikas, sect, 163. 
Nalanda, monastery at, 157. 
Ndma-rilpa-pariccheda, 99. 
Nambudri, Karingampath, poet, 42. 
Nam-Gyal, chorten, 110. 
Namgyal-ling, Govt, house, 202, 
Namgya! Jong, city, 205. 
Namkha Zangpo, governor, 114. 
Nam-me-chenpo, lama, 204, 
Namna Karpo, god, 114. 
Namo, place, 202. 
Nangso Don-yod, chief, 165. 
Nanya, king. 49. 
Narasiipha, 7. 
Narayana, poet, 42. 
Narayana Hara, pr. n., 36. 
Naropa, Indian saint, 111. 
Nasirud-din Yahya, Amir, 236. 
Nava dhammn. 159. 
Na-wa Rong, people, 166. 
Nayari Tailabati, pr n., S6. 
Nedong, Palace of, 204, 202. 
Nedongtse, city, 204. 
Nehu Dong, province, 167. 
Nehn-Dong tse, town, 165. 
Nehu-Dsoiig, Fort of, 114. 

,, province, 114, 

Nehu-p.T, governor, 112. 
Nenii dutam, 42. 
Nethang, place, 116. 
Ngah-ri, border stale (Ladak), 154. 
Ningma. monasteries, 155. 
Ning-ma, sect, 106 

Nin-ma, Bnddhists, 108. [137. 

Niyaz Muhammad Khokhandi, author, 
Nom-tsho, a lake in Tibet, 202. 
Norpuiliug, college, 113. 
Nrsinha, commentator, 42. 
Ntaradi, village, 10. 
NQr Muhammad, 138. 
Nyagrong, province, 113. 
Nyang, province, 106. 
Nyaya, Ancient and Modern, 217. 
„ modern. Buddhistic origin 

of, 217. 

Index for Philology, History and Antiquities. 

Nydyabindu, logic, 217. 
Nyaya Sittra, of Gotamn, 217. 
Nydya Siicinibandha, 245. 
Nydyadvdra S'dstra, 221. 
Nydyasarhasva, 40. 
Nyaviv Sasti-a, Bibliography of, 177. 
Nyaya Sutras, An examination of, 
, , ,, History o f , f r o m 

Japanese sources, 177. 
Nydyasfdroddhdra, ?45. 
Nydya Vaihsika, 251. 
Nydya Vdrtika, 245. 


CEleuth Mongols, Khan of, 152. 
Ongii, river, 3. 
Ohgatata, district, 3. 
Optimism, in ancient Nyaya, 251. 
Orad Mongolia., country, 152. 

Faddnkadutam poetn, 42. 

Padma-Karpo, 166, 206. 

Padma Sambhava, Siiint, 154. 

Pakardsiii pn. 116. 

Pdgsam jon Zang, a Tibetan work, 

Paldam Lhama, goddess, 113. 
Paldan-senge, 115. 
Paljor Lhundub, minister, 116. 
Pallava, dynasty 101. 
Pallavas, Kingdom of the, 101. 
Panataram, a Baddhist Sanctuary in 

.Java, 95. 
Pancapsara, tank, 43. 
Panchen Lozang Clioigyan, of Tnshi- 

Ihunpo, 116. 
Panchen, Rinpoche, 153, 167. [116. 
Pari-chen Sonam Tagpa, hierarch, 
Pandavas, people, 3. 
Pandita, pr. n., 38. 
PnndituHarhdsva, 40. 
Pa.ndya-dei?a, country, 43, 
Paramdtthuvinicchdya, 99. 
Piiraiara Simali, pr. n., 36. 
Pariguddhi, by Udayana, 177. 
Paikhang, printing house, 111. 
Pasiipatas, sect, 163, 1.59. 
Paiu'pafipaddhuti, 40. 
Ptltna, native state of, 2. 
Piiranoddfam, a Sanskrit poem, 41. 
Phabong-Khu, 116. [205. 

Phag-du, a town in Central TiWet, 
,, houRC of, A short history of. 

„ d\ nasty, Reign of the, 207. 

Phagmadu, province of Central Tibet, 

Pliag-pa, 116. 

Phalpo-che, 107. 

Phodang Marpo, palace, 154. 

Phola, Jung VVang, 111. 

Phuntshog, Namgyal, 167. 

Pippali, Dokari, pr. n., 36. 

PTtamundi, Sanbara, pr. n., 36. 

Poi-chen, or Greater Tibet, 106. 

Ponclien = Chief Governor, 203. 

Ponchen, Antrlen of Sakya, 203. 

Ponchen Gyal-tshang, the Sakya re- 
gent, 203. 

Pon Son;im, Choiphel, 154. 

Potala, Lion, Throne of, 154. 

Pradyumnesvara Siva Temple of, 40. 

Prajnapti hetu Songraha, 222. 

Pramdna-cintdmani, 217. 

Pramdna-Samuccaya, of Dingnaga, 217. 
,, „ Compilation of, 


Pramdnavdrtiha-kdrikd , comtnentary, 

Pramdna-viniScaya, 218. 

Prambanam, a Brahmanical sanc- 
tuary in Java, Description of, 95. 

Pnnja, 1. 

Pnra Gupta Raja, 255. 

Purusapdrlksi, 228. 

Putitunda, Gautama., pr. n., 36. 


Qultnq, appellation, 137. 
Qutabaldin Ahmad II, 273. 


Hab Byampa Geleg Lh^indt^ib, 166. 

Rab-Chyaitipa, 152. 

Kab-Deng, Monastery of, 107. 

Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford, 
Governor-General of Java, 94. 

Ragliava, King. 49. 

Rdjuratndkari, 99. 

Rdjtarangini, 158. 

Rajdvcd'/, 99. 

Rajput coins, found in Garhwal Dis- 
trict, 261. 

Ralpaclian, King of Tibet, 116, 159. 

Riitna Gopala, court-poet, 42. 

Mamanna, country, 100. 

ijainiinniii., Vaisnava, jneacher, 101. 

Rama<5afika,ra, commentator. 43. 

KamoSvara, God and place, 43. 

Hamlajlvatta, Maliarniridhirfij, 42. 

Ranaka IJhurudatta, 7, 8. 

Iliinii Sanga, pr. n., 138. 

hidex for Philology, History and Antiquitiei 

BaDson, E.I., 263. 

Bed Cap Church, 166, 167. 

ESngacaryya, poet, 42. 

Eatan Naiayana, Pandit of Delhi, 

Eatna Gyalpo, rnler of Tibet, 154. 
Eavanadhyesana, IfiO. 
Bayee Madhusudana, fir. n., 36. 
Eeva, river, 4i. 

Eiiicheiipnng, a small town, 166. 
Eincheii Shun-pa, pr. ri., 112. 
Eincheu Tagyal, 204 
Einchen Tashi, the Govenior of Sakya 

monastery, 203. 
Eia Dorje, Wang (king), 206. 
Rinpiing, town, 165. 

,, Deva Garwa, 165. 

,, Norzang, Governor, 165. 
Binpung-pa, 165, 166. 
Eitsi Wang Gyalpo, pr. n., 203. 
Eoberts, M. B., Major, 261. 
Rodgers, 0. I., Mr., 123. 
Roii/ii, a logical treatise, 177. 
Bonsfiiki, a logical treatise, 177. 
Bon Shin, a logical treatise, 177. 
Eosakara, pr, n., 37. 
Eow, Sir Thomas, 266. 
Budradaman, pr n., 48. 
Eupa Gosvami, author, 42. 
Eynju, pr. n., 177. 


Sadajiro Sngiura, 246, 254, 

Saddarsana Samuccayn, 254. 

Saddharmdlanhdra, 99. 

Saddharmapundarllia, 159. 

Sadukti-Karnamrta, 45. 

Saizida Afag, wife of Babar, 137. 

Sahti, 97. 

Sakimi Catta, pr. n., 36. 

Sakya sect, 106. 

S'akya Gyal-tshaii, 204. 

Sakya Emchen, 206. 

Samddhirdja Sutra, 159. 

Sa'nf«nphenallava, 7. 

Samanta Sena, king, 46, 50. 

Samarkand, citv, 137. 

Samdab-tse, fort, 153, 165, 166. 

Samksepa-Sanharajnya , 251. 

S'ambara, Image of, 110. 

Sam-ye, place, 114. 

Sandhivigrahin, 8. 

Sangkhar, Monastery of, 112. 

Sang-nag ^ar, Monastery of, 167. 

Sangphu Nehu thang, monastery, 

Sangye Gyatsho, 154. 
Sankara, Dinsai, pr. n., 36. 

Sankara, Pitamundi, pr. n., 36. 
Sankara SvamT, philosopher, 177. 

„ philosopher, 252. 

Samkhyas, sect, 159, 163. 
S'antabhadra, Buddhist logician, 218. 
Sanula, district, 7. 
Saradlpitha, in Kasmira, 252. 
Sarat Chandra Das : — A short history 
of thehoQseof 
Phagdu, which 
ruled over Ti- 
bet on the de- 
cline of Sakya 
till 1432 AD, 
„ „ ,, Tibet a depen- 

dency of Mon- 
golia, 152. 
,, ,, ,, Tibet under her 

last kings, 165. 
,, „ „ The monas- 

teries of Tibet, 
Sarma-Khang, 110. 
Sarts, people, 137. 
S'artse Tva-tshang, college, 109. 
Sarvadharma Samuccaya, 160. 
SarvadarSana Sangraha, 159. 
Sarvajna Mitra^ a Tantrika Buddhist 
author of Kasmira, 
„ Story of, 156, 157. 
Sarvasunyatavada, Doctrine of, 249. 
SarvaldUsana-dhydna Sastra, 221. 
Sarvastivada, Doctrine of, 249. 
Satis Chandra Vidyabhiisan : — On 
Thera, a learn- 
ed Pali author 
of Southern 
India, in the 
12th century. 
A D , 99. 
„ „ An analysis of 

the Lankavata- 
ra Sutra, 159. 
,, „ Dinnaga and his 

P r a ra a n a - 
S a m u c c aya, 
,, ,, Sarvajna Mitra, 

a T a n t r i k 
author of 
K asm Ira in 
the 8th cen- 
tury A.D., 156. 
S'avara, the Bh&syakara of MImansa, 
,, tribe, 44. 

Index for Philology, History and Antiquities 

■Sedmi-Miduii = the seven early monk 
scholars, 116. 

Seish, pr. n., 177. 

Sena, dynasty of Bengal, 45. 

Senge-Tag, hill, 107. 

Sera, The monastei-y of, 112, 165. 

Sera Theg-chen-ling, monastery, 112. 

Sera-tse, hermitage, 112 

Serdan-Teang Khang, chapel, 110. 

Serthi, the hierarchical throne. 111. 

Sgrolma, Tibetan goddess Tara, 156. 

•Shah 'Alam II, 130. 

■Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb, Two rare 
coins of, 128. 

Shah Shuja, a new type of coins of, 

Shakya Gyal-tshan, Head of tlie 
Church, 204. 

;Sham8-i-TabrizT, pr. n., 236. 

Shamsuddin Altamash, 262. 

Shaw, author of the History of the 
Khojas, 137. 

Shigatse, town, 153. 

Shokmok, pr n., 177. 

Shoa-nu Gyal-tshan, Governor, 202. 

Shon-nu Yontan, Governor, 203. 

Shwamar, or Red Cap School of 
Tibet, 152. 

S'iksananda, 159. 

Simali Parasara, pr. n., 86. 

Simhadatta, minister, II. 

Simhavakta, city, 218. 

S'ira, pr. n., 37. 

Sisa, pr. n., 38. 

Situ Akyid, 202. 

Situ Chyan-tshan, pr. n., 203. 

Situ Ladoi Gyal-tsan, pr. n., 203, 

"S^va Gupta, King, 2. 

Sivasarhasva, 40. 

Skanda Gupta, Raja, 254, 255. 

Somesvara Deva, 262 

Somakula, lunar race, 2. 

Somavamii Dynasty, The names of 
the four successive Kings of the, 2. 

Somavamii Kings, Four new copper- 
plate charters of the, 1. 

Sonam Choiphel, 153. 

Sonam Gyal-tshan, Grand Lama, 203, 

Sonam Gyatsho, Dalai Lama, 115, 
116, 206. 

Sonam Namgyal, 167. 

S'ofaganga, 51. 

Sragdhard-Stotra, 156. 

Bragdhard-Stotra tlkd, 156. 
9^1-idhanya Kataka, ancient monas- 
tery of Southern India, 114. 
■ffridharadasa, compiler, 45, 49. 

Sriperumatur, town, 101. 
S^rltundra, Queen, 46, 50. 

Srong-tsaa Gatnpo, King of Tibet, 

Subandhu, Some notes on the date 

of, 253. 
Subhagasandeiah, poem, 42. 
Suhhdsita Mulctdvali, 45. 
S'ucha, pr. n., 37. • 

Snhma, country, 44, 45. 
S'lcka Sandesah, 42 
Sultau Abii Said, pr. n., 137. 
Sultan Muzftffar III, 269. 
Sultans of Dellii, Gold coins of, 121. 
Surya Sena, Klyastha, II. 
Suvm-naprabhdsa Sutra, 159. 
Stonskor Sabs-druug, hieraroh, 153. 
Sze-Chuan, province, 206. 

Tahakdt-z-Ndsiri, 50. 
Tagkar fort,' 206. 
Taglung, city, 202, 

,, monastery of, 166, 167. 
Tag-pa Gyal-tshan, King of Tibet, 

205, 206. 
Tagpa-Phozer, pr. n., 203. 
Tagrin, pr. n. , 205. 
Tahi Situ Chyan Chub Gyal-tshan, 

Tailabati, Nayari, pr. n., 36. 
Tai-Sitn, title of honour, 203, 206. 
Taisri Tagpa-liodpa, Governor, 203. 
Taka Kusa, pr. n , 254. 
Ta Kansri, holy order, 153. 
Talai Khan, ruler of Tibet, 154. 
Talai Lama, 115. 
Talakajja, village, 7. 
Talitnagara, 41. 
Taming, dynasty, IJ 2, 206. 
Ta-Ming, Emperor, 205. 
Tamralipti, port town, 45. 
Tamraparni, river, 43. 
TangriyarKhan, 137. 
Tan-gyeling, college of, 154. 
Tan Kyong Wangpo, Karma, 167. 
Tanzia Wangyal, ruler of Tibet, 154, 
Tapa, monastery boys, 106. 
Taras, mystic powers, 96. 
Tarikh-i-Shahrukhi, title, 137. 
Tarkikas, sect, 163. 
Tarpandiglii, inscription of, 46. 
Tashi Badur, Khan of Kokonor, 110. 
Tashi Dokha, place, 114. 
Tashi-dong, place, 202. 
Tashi-goinang, college, 115. 
Tashilhunpo, city, 153, 
Tashizil, monastery of, 153. 
Tathagata, temple of the, 110. 
Tathdgataguhyaka, 159. 

■Index for Philology, History and Antiquities. 

Tathagatimityanitvatva, 160, 

Tdtparya ttha, by Vacaspati, 177. 

Taylor, Geo. P., 124, 127, 128, 135. 

Tela, river, 3. 

Teliltatta, district, 3. 

Tengri Nor, lake in Tibet, 202. 

Tempora, village, 203. 

Tenzing, Choigyal, 153. 

Thakar, Vidyap.iti, a poet, 228. 

Thfmawala, Framji, J., 126. 

Tliangpo-Chin-liiig-me, place, 202. 

Tliegclian Choigyal, 116. 

Tliig s6g Gyalmo, lake, 152. 

T'bikhang = a Govenitnent honse, 202. 

T'hi-Lodoi Gyatsho, 154. 

T'liin las Gyatsho, 154. 

Tlii-pa = President, 112. 

T'hipon = a provincial governor, 

Tliisrong-den-tsan, king, 109. 
Thoisam-ling, college, 113, 115. 
Thomas, Mr., 121 
Thngan Themur, the Tartar Emperor, 

Thugwan Thnmer, Chinese Emperor, 

Thumed Mongolia, 152. 
Thnmer Bukhoi, Mongol prince, 203. 
Thnrston, Mr., 133. 
Tibet, a dependency of Mongolia, 

„ the monasteries of, 106. 

„ under her last kings, 165. 
Tjandi Toempong, a Buddhist Sanc- 
tuary in Bnsfcern Java, 95. 
Toral Behu, 152. 
Transoxiana, province, 138. 
Tri-Kalinga, countries, 3. 
Trikalingadhipati, appellation, 3. 
Tsang, province, 10(5, 203, 204. 
Tsang-Khang, Chapel, 115, 109. 
Tsang-Gyadthang-gang, 167. 
Tsera Hodzer mn, reformer, 111. 
Tse-thang, monastery of, 204. 
Tse-thang, town, 206 
Tshad-mahi-mdo-k u n-1 a s-b t u s-p a 

Tshad-ma-kun-ht<is, 219. 
Tslial, province, 205. 
Tshan-ha Wang, title of honour, 205. 
Tshe-Chog-ling, College of, 154 
Tshemo-ling, College of, 154. 
Tshe-Wang Dorje, 166. 
Tshebum = pot of longevity, 111. 
Tshong-dui-tag-kha, place, 202. 
Tshong-du-tag-khan, 202. 
Tson-dui Fal, pr. n., 203. 
Tsong-khapa, Buddhist reformer, 
108. 114, 154. 
„ statue of, 110. 

Turki-divan, poem, 138. 
Turki Memoirs, 138. 


tr, province, 106, 203, 204, 205. 
Uccavanaga, 7. 
Udayana, Parisuddhi of, 177. 
Uddhava dutam, 41, 42, 
Vddhava Sandesam, 42. 
Udyotakara, author, 221. 

„ Yartika of, 177. 

Umapatidhara, court pandita, 40, 
Updyakausalya, 178. 
Uragapura, town, 43. 
Utan Hoso, place, 153. 
Utsava, pr. n., 37. 
Uttarumiila, monastery of, 100. 
Uttarola, monastery of, 100. 
Utthitasani, 7. 
Uzbeg, people, 137. 

Vacaspati misra, pr n., 245. 

Vacaspati, Tatparya tika of, 177. 

Vaisesikas, sect, 163. 

Vaisravana, the god of riches, 114, 

VaitaranT, river, 3. 

Vajra Bhairava, image of, 110, 116. 

Vajra Mukuta, King, 157, 158. 

Vajrapani, image of. 111. 

Vajra Varahi, goddess, 114. 

Valentya, F., 129. 

Valldla Caritam, 46. 

Vamana, pr. n., 37- 

„ author, 253. 
Vanamali, Vedantatirtha, on Opti- 
mism in Ancient Nyaya, 251. 
Vardhana, King, 49. 
Vdsavadattd, 253. 
Vasu, 7. 

Vasubandhu, pr. n., 227, 254, 177. 
Vasudeva, poet, 42. 
Vastubandhn, pr. n,, 253. 
Vatsayana, Bhasya of, 177. 

the Bhasyakara, 178, 179, 
Veni Bamhdra, 35. 

Venkatesa Vedantacaryya, poet, 42. 
Vidyapati Thakur, poet, 228. 
Vijaybandhu I, King of Ceylon, lOO.. 
Vijaya Kataka, town, 4. 
Vijayapura, capital, 42. 
Vijaysena, pr. n., 45, 50. 
Vijfiani Madhava, 7. 
Vikrama, poet, 42. 
Vindhya, range of hills, 44. 
Yinita deva, Buddhist logician, 218, 
Vinitapui'a, town, 2. 
Vipras, sect, 163. 

Index for Philology, History and Antiquities. 

Vira, King, 49. 

uccaya-ttkd, commentary, 218. 

Visnuvardhana, King, inscription 
of, 97. 

Visuddhimagga, commentary, on 99. 

Visvarupasena-deva, pr. n., 46, 50. 

Visvanatha Cakravarti, commenta- 
tor, 42. 

Visvesvara, Ghosala, pr. n., 36. 

Visvesvara Kunda, pr. n., 36. 

Vladimir Petrovitcli Nalivkine, 
author, 137. 

Vost, Captain, 122. 

Vyavasthddarpanam, 35. 


Wang-Jung-ne, King of Tibet, 206. 
Wenhi, Chinese Professor, 159, 
White King, L., Dr., 122. 
Wind-messenger, or Pavanadutam, 

a poem, 41. 
Wright, H. N., 121, 124, 127-128, 

129, 133, 273. 

Yaba Kusari, pr. n., 36. 
Tahzan, province, 205. 
Yambu, (Nepal), 154. 

Yangas, 179. 

Yang.paohan, temple, 110, 111. 

Yar-Mnhamraad, pr. n., 137. 

Yarlung, city, 202. 

Yasodevi, Queen, 46. 

Yayati, King, 2. 

Yayatideva, 7. 

Yayatinagara, town, 2. 

Yayatinagarl, town, 44. 

Yellow Cap Lamas, 153. 

Yellow Church, 106, 153. 

Yogesa. Candra S'astri : — a note on 

Halayudha, the author of Brahma- 

nasarbasva, 35. 
Yogins, 179. 
Yontan Gyatsho, Dalai Lama, 116. 

„ ,, of Tsaiigthon, 115. 

Tul-Jyal, title of a work on political 

ethics, 204. 
Yunglo, Emperor, 112. 
Yung Ming, 206. 


Zain Khawafy, historian, 138. 

Zainuddin Khwafi, pr. n , 237. 

Zangri-Phodang-gnng, place, 202. 

Zim-Khang, 110. 

Zimgaria, 155. 

Zodiacal Half- rupee, found at Ahmad- 

abad, 124. 
Zunkhang, 115. 


for Natwral Sciences with Anthropology . 
* An asterisk denotes a new form. 

Ahldbes laliodmis, 210. 

*„ gilgiticus, sp nov., 210. 
„ nicoharensis, 175. 
,, rappii, 210. 
Ahlepharus hrundtii, 150. 
,, grayanus, 150. 

Acanthodactylus cantoris, 149. 

,, micropholis, 149. 

Acanthosaura armata, 85, 92. 

,, crucigera, 85, 92. 

„ hahhiensis, 92, 93. 

,, lamnidentata, 85, 92. 

„ major, 92. 

„ minor, 92. 

„ tricarinata, 92. 

jlcontias hurtonii, 150. 
,, layardii, 150. 
,, monodactylus, 150. 
„ sarasinorwrn, 150. 
jljfaTjra agrorensis, 93. 
„ caucasica, 93. 
„ dayana, 98. 
„ himalayana, 93. 
„ isolepis, 93. 
„ Hrata, 88, 93. 
„ megalonyx, 88, 93. 
,, melanura, 88, 93. 
., nupta, 89, 93. 
,, ruhrigularis, 93. 
.iljama, sp., 89. 

„ tuherculata, 93. 
Agamidas, 85, 92-93. 
Agamura cruralis, 91. 
„ persica, 91. 
Agraharifl, The, of Sasarain(Proc.),34 
Agricultural Practices, 183. 
Alchemical Equipment in the ele- 
venth century, (Proc.), 50. 
Allodahlia scahriuscula, 28. 
Alsophylax pipiens, 82, 90. 

,, <ubercuZatun, 90. 

Amhlycephalus monticola, 176. 
Amulets as agents in the prevention 

of disease in Bengal (Proc), 50. 
Andamans, Snakes of the, 175. 
Anechura ancylura, 28. 
,, metallica, 29. 
Anechura, ap., 29. 

Anguidae, 90, 93. 

Ani, (concnbines of the redcapped 

Lamas), 107. 
Animals in the Inscriptions of Piya- 

dasi (Proc), 55. 
Anisolahis annulipes, 28. 
Apachys fese, 27. 
Aphaniotis fusca, 89. 
Apterygida bipartita, 29. 
Apus, Occurrence of, in Baluchistaa, 

Artesian well at Lucknow, 233, 
Art, Indian, in Java, 95. 
Arya Samaj, 256. 
Ascaris halicoris, 258. 
Ashariya, (a snake), 194, 195. 
Avilliah, 241. 


Baer tree, 188. 

Barahsenis (shopkeepers), 256. 

Bhotins, Note on the, of Almora and 

British Garhwal (Proc), 50. 
Bir Bahoti. See Tromhidium. 
Birth Practices, 187. 
Blow-gun, Exhibition illustrating use 

of, in S. India and Malaya (Proc), 

Branding of Infants, 196. 
Bucella carniola, 74. 
Buddhism in Java, 96, 97. 
Bundelkhand gneiss, DecompositioB 

product of, 168-171. 
Bungarus cxruleus, 176. 
,, sindanus, 213. 
Bunia, 256. 
Butea frondosa, 102. 

Cabrita jerdonii, 149. 

,, leschenaultii, 149. 
Calamaria leucocephala, 209. 
Callodactylus aureus, 91. 
Calotes andamanensis, 93. 

,, ceylonensis, 93. 

„ elliotii, 93. 

,, emma, 92. 

„ fax, 93. 

Index for Natural Sciences with Anthropology. 

Calotes gigas, 87. 

„ grandisquamis, 93. 

„ jerdonii, 87) 92. 

„ juha+us, 89, 92. 

,, liocephalus, 93. 

„ liolepis, 93. 

„ maria, 87, 92. 

„ microlepis, 86. 

„ mystaceus, 87, 93. 

,, nigrilahis, 93. 

,, ophiomachus , 93. 

,, rouxii, 88, 93. 

,, versicolor, 87. 
*,, 1/wnnanensis, sp. nov., 87-88, 
Canal, Anapshahr branch, 234. 

„ main upper Ganges, 234. 

„ Sarda, 234. 
Castes, Formation of new, 256, 
Cattle, Respect paid to dead, 181. 
Ceramodactylus affinis, 90, 
Ceratophorus aspera, 92, 

„ stoddartii, 92. 

,, tennentii, 92. 

Cerlerus rhynchops, 176. 
*Chsetogaster bengalensis, sp. nov., 

117-120. Plate III. 
Chalcides ocellatus, 148, 150, 

„ pentadactylus, 150. 
Chalcideseps thwaitesii, 150. 
ChanQr, (a wrestler), 256. 
Charasia blanfordiana, 93. 

„ dorsalis, 93. 

,, ornata, 93. 
Cliausenis, 256, 257. 
Ghelisoches glaucopterus, 28. 
(?) Ghelisoches melanocephalus, 28. 
{Jhelisoches morio, 28. 
Ghelisochella superha, 28. 
Chrysopelea ornata, 176. 
Ghrysydrus granulatus, 175. 
9iva, in Java, 96. 
Coluber melanurus, 173, 175, 

,, oxyrephalus, 175. 

,,. porphyraceus, 175, 

„ radiatus, 210, 
Colabridee, 173, 209. 
Gophotis ceijlanica, 92. 
Customs and Religion of the Uraons 

or Oraons (P/oc), 43. 
Cuttack, Kantabudiyas of, 215. 


Dalai Lama, Hierarchy of the (Proc), 

Dapung, Monastery of, 114, 
Deformity, Belief regarding, 186. 
Dendrophis pictus, 17 i, 175. 
Deserting Houses, 189. 
Dhdbha, (stomach complaint), 197. 

DibamidsB, 150. 

Dibamus novas-guinea, 150. 

*Diplatys gladiator, sp. nov., 27, 29-30, 

,, ridleyi, 27. 
*Dipsadoides decipiens, sp. nov., 213. 
Dipsadomorphus ceylonensis, 174, 176, 
,, cynodon, 213. 

„ hexagonatus, 175. 

Dipsas fusca, 174, 176. 
*Distira andamanica, sp. nov., 174- 

,, lapemidoides, 175. 
Doab, central, Members of endoga- 

mons groups of, 256. 
Domi (spectacled cobra), 194. 
Bound, (Indian wormwood), 188. 
Draco blanfordii, 92. 

„ dussumieri, 92. 

,, maculatus, 92. 

„ norvillii, 92. 

,, quinquefasciatus, 89. 

,, tseniopterus, 92. 
Dryocalamus tristrigatus , 210. 
Dugong, Habits of, 241. 

„ Notes on the species of, 238. 

„ Round worm of, 258. 

„ Superstitions regarding, 241. 
Dumbness, Granaries causing, 181. 
Dyeing, materials from Nyctantheg 
arbortristis, 102. 


Earthquakes in India, (Proc), 55. 
Earwigs of the Indian Museum, 27. 
Echinosoma sumatranum, 27. 
Eclipse, Effects of an, 185. 
Enhydris curtus, 175. 
Entertaining, Customs concerning, 

Eremias brevirostris, 51, 149. 

,, fasciata, 149. 

,, guttulata, 149. 

„ velox, 149. 
Eublepharidae, 85, 92. 
Eublepharis hardwicMi, 85, 92. 

,, macularis, 92. 

Eumeces blythianus, 150. 

„ schneideri, 150. 

„ scutatus, 148, 150. 

,, taeniolatus, 148, 150. 
Euprepes halianus, 151. 

,, longicaudatus, 143. 

,, monticola, 143, 144. 


Fairies, Beliefs in Bilaspur regarding, 

Fevers, Prevalence of, in the Dinaj- 

pur District (Proc), 2, 

Index for Natural Sciences with Anthropolog y . 

Fields, Wedding of, 181. 
Fisherman's Net, The, 193, 
Fordonia leucohalia, 176. 
Forcijpula decolyi, 27 

,, quadrispinosa, 27. 

,, trispinosa, 27. 
'*Forficula acer, sp. n., 29, 30-31. 

,, beelzehuh, 29. 
*Forficula celer, sp. n., 29, 31. 

„ tomis, 29. 
Friendships, sworn, Customs regard- 
ing, in Bilaspiir, 187-188. 


Gah-dan, Monastery of, 108. 
Gallmiudr (bbinket or dressing 

gown), 237. 
■Gangdjal as a term in friendship, 

Oangetic Plain, Remarks on the 

Geology of, 230. 
<5arhwal District, Hoard of Rajput 

coins found in the, 261. 
<5echo monarchus, 92. 
Oeckonidao, 81, 90-92. 
Gecko stentor, 92. 

,, verticillatus, 92. 
■Gehyra mutilata, 91. 
•Geology, Some remnrks on, of the 

Gangetic Plain, 230-35. 
■Gilgit, Festivals, customs, and folk- 
lore of {Proc. ), 37. 
Glauconia hlanfordii, 209. 
Olanconidae, 209. 
Gneiss, Decomposition of, 168. 
God, Pacifying the, 191. Plate II, 

fig. 3, 91. 
Gonatodes andersonii, 83. 
,, gracilis, 83, 91. 

„ indicus, 91. 
,, jerdonii, 91. 
„ kandianus , 83, 91. 

,, littoralis, 91. 
,, marmoratvs, 91. 
„ mysoriem^is, 91. 
,, ornatus, 91. 
„ sisparensis, 91 . 

,, wynadcnsia, 91. 

Oonyocephalus hellii, 92. 
,, grandis, 92. 

„ hutnii, 87, 92. 

,, suhcristatus, 87, 92. 

Oouhd (cobra without spectacles on 

the head), 194 
Gouriydn (snaUe-charmers), 193, 194'. 
Grain, Measuring of, 181. 
Granaries causing dumbness, 181. 
Gymnodactylun alhofasciatus, 91. 
,, brevipes, 90. 

*Gymnodactylus consohrinoides, sp. 

nov., 82, 83, 91. 
Qymnodactylus consobrinus , 82. 

,, deccanensis , 90. 

,, fasciolatiis, 82, 91, 

„ fees, 84, 91. 

„ fedtschenkoi, 90. 

„ frenatus, 91 . 

,, jeypoiensis, 90. 

,, knchensis, 90. 

,, khasiensis, 91, 151. 

,, lawderanus, 90. 

,, niarinoratus, 82. 

„ microtis, 81. 

„ nebulosus, 90. 

,, oldhami, 82, 91. 

,, peguensis, 91. 

„ pulchelhts, 82, 83, 91. 

,, rubidiis, 91 . 

,, scaber, 90. 

„ stoUezkse, 82, 90. 

,, triedrus, 91. 

,, variegatus 82, 91. 


Halicore australis, 238. 

„ dugong, 238. Plate V. 1. 
Hariydli (snake-charmers' festival), 

Harsinghar {Nyctanthes arhortristis) , 

Hdthdjori (hands joined), 195. 
*Hedyotis sisaparensis, 244. 
Hemidactylus bowringii, 91. 

„ brookii, 81, 91. 

,, coctsei, 81. 

,, depressus, 91, 

,, fidviviridis, 81, 91. 

,, frenatus, 84 91. 

„ garnotii, 91. 

,, giganteus, 91. 

,, gleadovii, 81. 

,, gracilis, 91. 

,, karenorum, 84, 91, 

,, leschenaultii, 91. 

,, ■miiciilatus, 91. 

„ persictis, 91. 

,, platyurus, 84, 91. 

„ reticuhitus, 91. 

,, subtriedroides , 91. 

,, subtriedrus, 84, 91. 

,, triedrus, 84, Plate II, 

fig. 2, 91. 

,, turicicus, 91. 

Herpetology, Contributions to Orien- 
tal, 81-93, 139151. 
Holi Festival, 186-187. 
Hoplodactylus amimallensis, 92. 

„ duvaucelii, 92, 

Index for Natural Sciences with Anthropology. 

Hydra dioscia, 72. 

„ fusca, 72. 

„ of Calcutta tanks, 72. 
*,, orientalis,-^Bp, nov., p. 72, 73. 

,, vulgaris, 72. 
Hydrus plahorus, 176. 

India, Earth Eating and the Earth- 

eating hsibit, in, (Proc), 55. 
India, Southern, Fauna of a Desert 

Tract in, (Proc), 55 
Infants, Massage and Branding of, 

Inscriptions of Piyadnsi, Animals 

in the, (Proc), 55. 

*Jnpalura andersoniana, sp. nor. 85- 

86, Plate II, fig. 4, 92. 
Japalura planidorsata, 92. 

„ viiriegata, 92 
Java, Archseology of, 94. 

„ Pour new Barnacles from the 
neiglibourhood of, (Proc), 47. 


Kaddl'pudru (" Sea pig "), 241. 

Kalima, 237. 

Kanawar folklore, Contributions to, 
(Proc), 34. 

Kantabndiyas, of Cuttack, 215. 
,, Cnstoms of, 215. 

" KiSdir " (Geological), 230, 281,232. 

Ko-thtlmgyab-pa, (a kind of punish- 
ment), 154. 

Kris hilt, Exhibitions of specimens 
and drawings of, (Proc), 36. 

EnnTcar (nodular limestone), 230, 231, 

Lahidura hengalensis, 27. 
,, lividipes, 28. 
,, riparia, 28. 

Lahidurodes rolustus, 28. 
Lacerta viridis, 140. 
Lacertidse, 139, 149. 
Lachesis cantoris, 176. 
,, gramineus, 176. 
„ pur puree ma culatus, 176. 
Lamp Light, A primitive form of, 
„ Saluting at, 184. 

Lepidodactylus aurantiacus, 91. 
,, ceylonenis, 84, 91. 

,, luguhris, 91. 

Liolepis hellii, 89, 93. 
Lifpoing (plnstering with cow-dung)^ 

Lizards, List of Indian, 90, 139. 
Lncknow, Artesian well at, 23S. 
Lycodon aulicus, 173, 175. 
Lygosoma albopunctatum, 150. 

,, anguinum, 148, 150. 

„ atrocost'itum, 147. 

,, heddomii, 146, 150. 

,, hilineatum, 150. 

*„ cacharense, sp. nor. 145,^ 

,, calamus, 150. 

,, chinense, 147. 

„ comottii, 147, 150. 

,, cyanellum, 150. 

,, dorise, 146, 149. 

,, dussumieri, 149. 

,, var. con color, var. nov., l45» 

* , fallax, 150. 

„ /ea?, 151. 

,, formosum, li6, 150. 

„ guentheri, 150. 

„ himalayanum, 146, 149. 

,, ind.icum, 144, 149. 

,, jerdonianum, 147. 

,, Itakhienense, 149. 

,, ladacense, 150. 

,, laterimaculatum, 150. 

,, lineatuni, 150. 

,, lineolatum, 147, 150. 

„ macrotis, 1 50. . 

,, macrotympanum, 150. 

„, maculatum, 143, 144, 149. 

„ melanostictwin, 149. 
•„ miianense, sp. nov., 144,. 

,, olivaceum, 149. 

,, ,. var. griseumy 


,, pulchellum, 145, 149. 

„ punctatolineatum, 150. 

,, sikMmense, 146, 149. 

,, sing apor ens f, 147. 

„ suhcoeruleum, 149. 

„ taprohanense, 150. 

,, traghulense, 146, 149. 

„ zehratum, 151. 

Lyriocephalus scutatus, 92. 


*Jfa?)wra anahular, nom. nov., 143, 149 
„ beddomn, 149. 
,, btBronu, 149. 
„ dissimilis, 143, 149. 

Index for Natural Sciences with Anthropology. 


■ Mdbuia dorise, 149. 

,, monticola, 143, 149. 

„ miatifasciata, 141, 143, 149, 

,, novemcarinata, 149. 

,, quadricarinata, 149. 

,, rugifera, 141, 149. 

,, septemtasniata, 149. 

„ tytleri, 142, 149. 

,, vert ehr alia, 149. 
Macrofisihodon hinialnyanus, 210. 
Mdhdprdsad as a term in friendship, 

Malayan Peninsnla, Materials for the 
Flora of (Abstract), Proc, 40, 47, 
Mango Seeds, Sowing, 181. 
Marriage practice, 196. 
Massage of Infants, 196. 
Matrimonial Beliefs and Practices, 

Meeting, Customs concerning, 184. 
Mnngeli Tahsil, People of, 181. 
Murari, (Name of a snake) 195. 
Mushroom, Belief regarding a, 192. 


i\^«m hungarus, 176. 
,, tripudians, 176. 

Nephrurus asper, 81. 

Nicobars, Snakes of the, 175. 

Night, Terrors of the, 192. 

North-West Frontier Province, Cus- 
toms in the Trans-border Terri- 
tories of the {Proc ), 33. 

Nyamdo pun (Tibetan relationship), 

Nycfanthefi arhor-tristis, Colouring 
principle of flowers of, 102-105. 


Oligodon suhlineatus, 175. 
,, trilineatus, 173. 

,, u-oodmn f!oni. 173, 175. 
Ophiomorus hlanfordii, 150. 
,, tridactylus, 150. 

Ophi'ipH heddomi, 149. 
„ elegans, 141, 149, 
,, jerdonii, 149, 
,, microlepin, 149. 
,, schleuteri, 141. 
OphitfuuruH apus, 90, 93. 

„ gracilis. 90, 93. 

OpisthocoHmia oannen, 29. 
* Opisthocoamia , sp. nov., 29. 
*Opiiithoconmia vivax. sp. nov,, 29, 30. 
OraoHH, Keligioii and customs of the, 

(Proc), 4H. 
Otocryptin heddomii, 92. 
,, bivittnta, 92. 

Panchdyat, The, 185. 
Pdtdl, (the nether region), 194. 
Plielsuma andamanense, 92. 
Phrynocephalus caudivolvulus, 93. 
„ euptilopus, 93. 

,, luteoguttatus, 93. 

,, inaculatus, 93, 

,, olivierii, 93. 

,, ornatus, 93. 

„ theobaldi, 93. 

Phul as a term in friendship, 188. 
Phyllodactylus hurmanicus, 83-84, 
Plate I, fig. 1, 91. 
,, europasus, 84. 

,, siamensis, 83, Plate 1, 

figs, lb, 2a. 
Piyadasi, Animals in the Inscriptions 

of (Proc), 55. 
Platurus coluhrinus, 176. 
Polydontophis histrigatus, 175. 
,, Sagittarius, 175. 

Pora (a festival), 193. 
Porpoise, freshwater, 235. 
'■ Possession," A case of, 189. 
Pregnancy, Cause of prolonged, 181. 
PreUa spirit), 188 
Pretins (spirits), 189. 
Pristurus rupestriti, 91. 
Prymnomiodon, 174. 
Ptychozoon honialocephaluni, 92. 
Ptyctoliemus gularis, 85, 92. 
Ptyodactylus honiolepis, 91. 
Pygidicrana eximia, 27. 
Python reticulatus, 175. 


Quarrels, Settling, 192. 


Ra-deng, Monastery of, 107. 

Rain, Binding the, 183. 

" Hains Insect." See Tromhidium. 

Raja Kans, 256. 

Rajput.? of Narwar, 262. 

Ra^it (milk-man), 189. 

Records, Methods of keeping, 183. 

Religion and customs of the Uraons, 

or Oraons (Proc), 43. 
Ristella bedomii, 1.50. 

,, guentheri, 150. 

,, rurlcii, 150. 

,, travancovica, 150. 


Sal- Ammoniac (Proc), 50. 
S'dea anamallayana, 92. 
„ hnrsfieldii, 86, 92. 


Index for Natural Sciences with Anthropology, 

Sasaram, The Agraharis of (Proc), 

Scapteira acutirostris, 149. 

„ aporosceles, 141, U9. 
„ scripta, 141, 149. 
ScincidEe, 141, 149-150. 
Scincus arenarius, 148. 

,, mitranus, 148, 150. 
Scorpion stings, Immunity from, 192. 
Sepophis punctatus, 150. 
Sera, Monastery of, 112. 
Shaitan, 190, 191. 
Siam, Lower, Note on a Rock Shrine 

in, {Proc), 43. 
Simotes woodmasoni, 173. 
Sinkip Island, Lizards of, 84, 89. 
Sitana ponticeriana, 92. 
Siva, see ^i^a-- 
Small-pox, Superstitions regarding, 

Snake-charmers, 193. 
Snake-lore, 193. 
Snakes, Oriental, 173, 208. 
Sowing, Customs regarding, 181. 
Spindle, Superstitions regarding the, 

Spongiphora sphinx, 28. 
Stenodactylus lumsdenii, 90. 
,, orientalis, 90. 

Stilts, Festival of, 193. 
Stone Heaps, 197. 
Stone Implements, 200. 
Styes, Beliefs regarding cause and 

cure of, 184. 

Tachydromus haughtonianus, 139, 140. 

,, septentrionalis, 139,149. 

„ setlineatus, 140, 149. 

,, smaragdinus, 140. 

,, tachydromoides, 139, 140. 

Tdpd (monastery-boys), 106. 
Tattooing, 185. 
Teratolepis fasciata ,91. 
Teratoscincus scincus, 90, 
*Theconyx, gen. nov., 151. 
Tibet, Monasteries of, 106. 
Tjandi Toenipong, Temple of, 94. 
Toothacbe, Beliefs regarding cause 

and cure of, 186 
Transmigration, Ideas regarding, 197. 
Tromhidium grandissimum, Cotnpo- 
sition of oil from, 74. 

Tromhidium, Exhibition of living 

specimens of (Proc), 52. 
Tropidonotus himalayanus, 210. 
,, khasiensis, 210. 

,, nicoharensis, 174, 175. 

,, nicobaricus, 174. 

„ nicoiariensis, 174, 

,, piscdtor, 174, 175. 

,, sfolatus, 175. 

,, subminiatus, 210. 

Tropidophorus berd^norii, 150. 

,, yunnanensis, 150. 

Typhlopidee, 173, 208. 
Typhlops acutus, 209. 

,, andamanensis, 173, 175. 
,, hi-aminus, 173, 175. 
*,, hapaladua, sp. nov., 208- 
„ mulleri, 208. 
„ oatesii, 173, 175. 


Uraons, Religion and customs of the. 

(Proc), 43. 
Uromastix asmussii, 93. 
,, hardwickii, 93. 

„ microlepis, 151. 

Varanidae, 90, 93. 
Varanus hengalensis, 93. 

,, dumerilli, 90, 93. 

,, flavescens, 93. 

,, griseus, 93, 151. 

,, macrolepis, 90. 

,, nehulosus, 93. 

,, salvator, 93. 
Vermin from the clouds, 183. 


Weighing Beams of the " bismer" 
type, Exhibition of {Proc ), 52. 

Witches, Belief's at Bilaspur regard- 
ing, 188, 189. 

Worm, Indian, of the genus Chseto- 
gaster, 117. 


Zainenis mucosus, 175. 




J^ew Series. 
Vol. 1.— 1906. 

Four new Copper-Plate Charters of the Somavatnsi Kings of KoScda 
(and Kataka ?) . — By Ganga Mohan Laskar, M.A. 

These four charters, each consisting of three copper-plates, 
were sent a few months ago from the Patna State in the Central 
Provinces to the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and the task of deci- 
phering them was entrusted to me. They form an addition to. the 
series of six charters of the Somavamsi Kings edited or re-edit^id 
by Mr. Fleet in the Epigraphia Indica (Volume III, pages 323 to 
359). Four of the published charters wei-e gTantecl by Maha- 
BhavagujDta I, one by Maha-S'ivagupta and the last by Maha- 
. Bliavagupta II. Of the four new charter's one belongs to the first 
and the remaining three .to the second of these kings. Thus we 
now possess five land-grant charters of Maha-Bhavagupta I, foixr 
of his son Maha-S'ivagupta and one of the latter's son Maha-Bhava- 
gupta II. A copper-plate charter granted by Puuja, a feudatory 
chief under Maha-Bhavagupta II, in the 13th year of the latter's 
reign, has been edited by Dr. Kielhorn in Epi. Indica, Volume IV. 
(page 254, &c.). 

The language and forms of expressions of the new charters 
are much the same with those employed in the old ones. The 
characters in which they are inscribed are the same. They do not 
bring out any new important facts about the history or the identifica- 
tion of the gi'antoi's, except the names of the villages granted and 
a few other minor details scarcely worthy of notice. The his- 
torical and palffiogi'aphical remarks made by Mr. Fleet on the 
old records apply equally to the new ones. Yet a few words may 
not be unnecessary to serve as an introduction to the account of the 
newly-discovered copper-plates given in the following pages. 

Mr. Fleet calls his charters as A, B, 0, D, E and F ; the new 
ones may be named G, H, I and J respectively. These ten 
charters, together with the one granted by Punja, are the 
only records that we possess of this dynasty. They disclose 

2 OJiarters of the Scmiavamsl Kings. [January, 1905. 

to ns tte names of four successive kings, viz., (1) S'ivagupta, 
(2) Malia-Bhavagupta I alias Janamejaya. (3) Malia-S'iva- 
gupta alias Yayati. and (4) Maka-Bliavagupta II alias Bliima- 
ratha. Eacli of tlie first three was tlie father of his siiccessor. 
They call themselyes as members of the Somakula (lunar race) 
and as the ' lords of the three Kaliiigas.' They grant lands 
in the different districts of the Kosala country. In the grants 
B, C and D, issued in the thirty-first year of his reign, Maha- 
Bhavagupta is referred to by the title Ko^alendi^a (lord of Kosala) . 
Charter J is said to have been -wiitten by a clerk of the office of the 
' minister for peace and war ' of the Kosala country. These facts 
prove beyond doubt that these kings ruled over the Kosala country, 
or at least a part of it. About five of the coj>per-plate charters were 
found in the N"ative State of Patna in the Central Provinces, and 
the remaining five in the neighbourhood of Kataka (or Cuttuk) . 
The charters of Maha-S'ivagupta and his son are issued from 
VinitajDiu^a and Yayatinagara, towns or a town on the Mahanadi 
river. ' The village granted by the charter E is said to be situated 
in Daksina-Tosala* which may be- a_ mistake for Daksina- 
Kosala or Southern Kosala. These facts show that it was Dak- 
shina-Kosala (or southern Kosala), identifiable with the south- 
eastern parts of the Central Provinces, which was included in 
the kingdom of these kings. 

Mr. Fleet thinks that these kings ruled over Orissa also and 
had their capital at Katak (Cuttack), and that both Vinitapura and 
Yayatinagara, the issuing places of the charters of Maha-S'ivagupta 
and his son, were identical with it. His view is based upon the 
word " Vijaya-kataka," which is applied to the issuing places of 
Maha-Bhavagupta I's charters. He considers it to be a proper 
name denoting the modern town Cuttuk. The collocation of words 
in which the term occui's would suggest another meaning. The ex- 
pressions f(JC^«T^*rraTf%rT^*Trft f^5nT«ira^reJ and ^T^nT^WT?Tf%?r- 

* The word Tosali as the name of some country in or near Orissa is as 
old at -least as the third century B.C. The two separate edicts of Asoka 
found in the version of Dhauli in Orissa are addressed to the officials at 
Tosali. The expressions^ " Ubhaya Tosalyam " {i.e., in both divisions of 

,Tosali) and " Daksina Tosalyam Franga (doubtful) ^asaye " {i.e., in the Franga ' 
visaya or district in. Southern Tosali) occur in an old copper-plafce grant found 
in some Native State in Orissa. It is written in the old Gupta characters 
and cannot be of a date later than the 5th Century A.D. It is clear from'the 
above that Tosali was a country very near to, if not comprised in, the posses- 
sions of the Somavamsi kings under notice. So we cannot be free from doubt 
when we take Daksina Tosala as a mistake for Daksina Kosala (Southern 
Kosala). Only two small fragments of the plate mentioned above were found. 
The inscription was very sadly damaged. The name of any king could 
not be found. The few words that could be satisfactorily deciphered convinced 
me that it was certainly a land-grant charter. A seal was received with the 

. above fragments. It was circular in shape and had a diameter of two-and-a- 
half inches. One face of it contained in its upper half a female fignre, seated 
on a lotus, with two elephants (one on each side) having their trunks up- 

^lifted over her head. This emblem is similar to that found on the seals of 

rthe Somavamsi kings under notice. There was a line of writing below the 
emblem, biit it was too much damaged to be diciphered. 

Vol. I, No. 1.] Charters of the Somavatn^t Kings. 3 

^fl^ f%^*J«ti«*"ni Avould, as they stand, mean ' from the glorious 
camps of victory pitched at Murasima and 5rama, respectively^' 
or "from the camps of victory of the glorious king ('^inft) 
who -was residing at Murasima and Arama, respectively." ]\ir. 
M. M. Chaki'avarti, who assigns the charters to the 12th centnry 
rather than to the 11th as done by Mr. Fleet, objects to Mr. Fleet's 
interpretation of the term and considers that these kings conld 
not rule in Orissa, for at that date kings of the Grangavain^a 
dynasty were masters of that province. .- 

The title Tri-Kaliiigadhipati (lord of the three Kalingas) used 
by these kings requires a little consideration. The word Tri- 
KaliDga is a vague term to us. But it seems to be sure that it 
included the whole of Kalinga with at least a few districts in the 
neighboui'hood. 'Now Kalinga was a strip of country between the 
sea-coast and the Eastern Ghats. It extended to about Vizaga- 
patam in the south. Its northern limit is said in the Mahabharata 
to be the river Vaitarani (mod. Byterni), which river and the 
Kalinga people the Pandavas are described to Imve reached at the 
same time on their southward jDrogress from Bengal in the course 
of pilgrimage. According to this account, Kalinga would include 
a considerable portion of Orissa. But the limits of countries fluetu^ 
ated fi'om time to time and there is no certainty that the same- 
river was the northern boundary of Kalinga alsa at the- time - of 
the inscriptions under notice. Be that as it may, we find in these 
inscriptions some points which would indicate that Kosala was 
included in the countries known as Tri-Kalinga (or the three 
Kalingas). The grantors of these charters have the title Tri- 
Kalitigadhipati attached to theii' names, but not the title Kosalendrai 
(lord of Kosala), although they were undoubtedly the masters of . 
the Kosala country. Indeed, by the latter title Maha-Bhavagupta I 
is referred to in charters B, C and D. But this title is not use3[.! 
along with, their names nor is it joined to the title Tri-Kalinga- 
dhipati, which is almost invariably prefixed to their names... 
This seems to show that the title Tri-Kalingadhipati was thought., 
sufficient by these kings to imply their possession of Kosala also.- 
It is therefore pi"obable that Kosala, (i.e., Southern Kosala) was 
included in Tri-Kalinga (three Kalingas). Thus we see that they 
possessed at least a part of Tri-Kaliiiga and therefore the title; 
Tri-Kalingadhipati was not altogether an honorific one as thought; 
by Mr. M. M. Chakravarti. I do not mean to say, however, that; 
the whole of Tri-Kalinga was under their rule. That these kings ) 
held sway over what is now called the Patna State is certain. Two . 
of the visayas or districts are called Telatatta and Ongatata (see 
Table). These mimes imply that they were on the banks of the j 
Tela (Mod. Tel) and the Oiiga (Mod. Ong) river. These rivers 
flow across the Patna State into the Mahanadi and are found on the 
maps. Hence the Patna State or a considerable part of it formed 
part of their kingdom. 

If Mr. Fleet's identification of Vinitapura and Yayatinagara 
with the town of Katak (Cuttuk) be correct, we may notice this- 
fact. The issuing places of Mahil-Bhavagapta I's charters .are., 

4> OTiarters of the Somavamsi Kings. [January, 1905. 

described as t<^^ «JRR5 I The charters granted in the 8th and 9th 
years of his son Maha-S'ivagnpta (Yayati) are issued from Vinita- 
piira ; while the charters granted in the 24th and the 28th years 
of the latter's reign and the one granted by his son are issued 
from Tayatinagara. Taking Mr. Fleet's view to be correct, we 
may say that Maha-S'ivagnpta, who was otherwise called Yayati, 
changed the name of his capital and called it after his own name 
as Tayatinagara (' city of Yayati '), and his son also continued the 
new name. 

'No grants of S'ivagupta, the first king, has come down to us. 
He is not called Trikaliiigadhipati, nor is the word Maha (the 
Great) prefixed to his name. This shows that the powers and 
possessions of this dynasty were increased by Maha-Bhavagupta I. 
His son Maha-S'ivagnpta is said in one of the eulogistic verses 
to have defeated Ajapala (a king probably) in battle and to have 
captured thirty-two big elephants. From the third plate of 
Charter H, which is the worst executed of the charters, it ap- 
pears that he defeated the Gedis and devastated thei» country 
(Dahala) , 

I have made a tabidar abstract of the whole series of ten 
charters. This will facilitate their comparative study and will 
save the ti-otible of going through the records themselves. The 
abstract is appended with this paper. 

Some Details common to the new Gharters (G, H, J, and J) . 

As already stated, they were found somewhere in the Ifative 
State of Patna attached to the Sambalpur district in the Central 
Provinces. Each charter consists of three plates strung together 
by a thick ring, the ends of which are joined in a circu- 
lar seal. The seal bears in relief a seated female figure with 
two elephants with uplifted trunks. Other details of the seals 
cannot be well distingniished owing to the rust that has accum- 
culated upon them. The inscriptions are on both sides 
of the middle plate and on the inner sides of the first and the 
third plate. In J, the inscription extends to the outer side of 
the thii^d plate. The characters employed are IS'agari of the north- 
ern type and belong to that particular variety of it to which the 
name of Kutila has come to be applied. The engraving is usually 
deep and legible ; the letters do not usually show through on the 
opposite sides of the plates. The language employed in these re- 
cords is Sanskrit ; and except for the benedictive, imprecatory and 
eulogistic Verses, they are generally in prose throughout. A point 
of orthography common to all these records is the use of v for 6. 

G.—PdtnS. Cop;per-Plate Grant of the 6th year of Mahd-Bhava- 
gupta's reign. 

The plates, the ring and the seal together weigh 2 seers and 
12| chhataks (i.e., a little more than 5| lbs.). Each of the plates 
measures about 7f '' by 5". The ring is about half an inch in 

Vol. I, No. 1.] Charters of the Somavamsi Kings. 6 

thickness and 4" in diametei'. The seal is 1|" in diameter. In relief 
on a countersunk siu-face it shows a seated female figure, perhaps 
of the goddess Laksmi, with two elephants. The plates are al- 
most smooth ; only the middle one and a side of another have their 
ends raised into rims to i^rotect the writing. The insci'iption, 
which is deep, is in a state of perfect preservation. Although the 
engraving is deep, the letters do not show through on the reverse 
sides of the plates as the latter are substantial. The characters 
are 'Kutila.' They include forms of decimal figures for 6, 13 and 
5 in lines 42, 43 and 46 respectively. 

The avagraha does not occur in this record. Final forms oc- 
cur' of t in Katakat (line 1), vaset (line 24), cladyat (line 26), 
Samvat (line 42) ; and of to in adin and sarvvan (line 7), in etdn 
Sind partMve7zdrdn (line 37). The language is Sanskrit, and except 
for the benedictive and imprecatory verses from lines 20 to 40, 
the whole record is in prose. The rules of Sandhi are neglected 
in several places. There are several spelling mistakes which must 
have been due to the Kayastha (or clerk), e.g., KT^ , g^if%W , the 
use of n for u and several othei-s. The average size of the letters is 
about f of an inch. V is used for b throughout. E is used for 
I in pravarggayanti in line 27. 

This charter is the second of the two (A and Gr) issued in the 
6th year of Maha-Bhavagupta's reign. In lines 16 and 17, the 
village granted is said to have been made revenue-free ( ^<ft<lA(<| ) ; 
yet in the concluding two lines a nominal revenue of five silver 
coins a year seems to be fixed as the king's share. The charter is 
moreover called in line 45 to be a revenue -charter (Kara-S'asanam). 
Charter A also conveys lands subject to a similar yearly payment. 
In lines 19 and 20, we find the expression '''' prativarsa-ddtavya- 
rupyakdsta'palakaraddnain viniscitya. 

Abstract of the Contents of G. 

From the victorious camp located at Murasima [or from the 
victorious (city of) Kataka] — 

[11. 1-4] The most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahesvara, 
the ParamalDhattaraka, the Maharajadhiraja, the ornament of the 
iSomakula, the lord of the three Kaliiigas, the Paramesvara, the 
glorious Maha-Bhavagupta-rajadeva, who meditates on the feet of 
the Paramabhattaraka, the Maharajadhiraja, the Paramesvai-a, the 

[11. 4-5] S'ivaguptadeva, [" being in residence at Murasima," 
(this is to be put here if the interpretation of the description of the place 
of issue given above in the 1st line of the Abstract be objected to)], 
being in good health and having done worship to the Brahmans of 
the Pasitala village in the Pota district (visaya), 

[11. 5-8] issues this command to the cultivators and other in- 
habitants of the village as well as to all the dependents of the king who 
may be living from time to time in that district, such as the Sama- 
hattfB, &(i. 

6 Gh,drte7's of the Somava?n^i Kings. [January, 19Q5. 

[11. 8-18] ."Be it known to yon that foi' the increase of therelir 
gious merit and glory of our (^^ *rnnfV^J ) godly parents as well as of 
our own selves, this village, — ^with everything included within its four 
boundaries, with its hidden treasures and deposits, with the freedom 
from all lets and hindrances, with the power to receive all extra cesses, 
with its ditches and deserts, with the exemption from the entrance 
into it by regular and iiTegular troops — is granted by us with liba- 
tions of water, after being made revenue-free — to be enjoyed -as 
long as the moon, the stars, the sun and the earth endure, 

[11. 11-14] to Bhattaputras (Sri) Kesava and (S'r!) Apya, sons 
of Bhattd DaddT, belonging to the Kauiika gotra, with the pravaras 
Audala, Devarata and Visvamitra, students of the Kanva sakha, 
immigrants from Kommapira and inhabitants of Loisrga. 

[LI. 17-18] Knowing this you should live in happiness, render- 
ing unto them (the donees) the taxes, gold and other shares of their 

[LI. 18-40.] In these lines are contained the mandate to future 
kings for the preservation of the grant and the iisual imprecatory and 
benedictive verses (for which see the translation of J.). [LI. 40-46]. 
This charter was written by Kayastha Koighosa, son of Ballabha- 
ghosa and a writer attached to the office of the Mahasandhivi- 
grahin Malladatta, son of Dharadatta, on the thirteenth titM of 
the bright fortnight of the month of Kartika in the sixth year of the 
victorious reign of Paramabhattaraka, Maharajadhiraja, the 
Paramesvara, the glorious Janamejayadeva. Or (dated) in figui^es, 
Samvat 6, Kartika sudi 13. This revenue -charter is gTanted after 
the fixing of the yearly revenue as five silver coins. 

ff. — Patna Copper-Plate Grant of the 8th year of (Yayaii) Maha- 
Sivagupta's reign. 

The weight of the plates, the ring and the seal together is 3 
seex's and 6 chhataks (or about libs). Each of the plates measures 
8" by 5|." The ring is 4|" in diameter. The usual device on 
the seal is visible. The interiors of the letters show marks of the 
working of the engraver's tools. The engraving is deep ; but it 
has been done with extreme haste and carelessness, so that many 
letters and sometimes whole words have been omitted through 
mistake. The record is full of spelling mistakes and other gross 
inaccuracies. The material is very soft ; so that the edges of the 
engraved lines have been pressed up considerably above the sur- 
face of the plates. For these reasons it has not been possible to 
read the record completely and in certain parts, especially towards 
the end, the meaning has remained obsciu-e. The characters include 
decimal figui-es for 8 and 13 in lines 39 and 40 respectively. The. 
ftvag(ra7«a. occurs in^?^sf*IS^ in line 13. . . _. .. 

' ■ ' Ahstraet. _ 

It is issued from Vinitapura. The place of issue is mentioned 
in the words (Vinitapurat Kanaka t), which incline one to Mr. Fleet's 

Vol. I, No.'l.J OJiarters of the Somdvamil Kings. 7 

"view about the identification of Vinitpiira with Cuttak ; for the 
word • Katakat ' looks as if it were in apposition with Vinitapiira. 
-The words may, nnder this"^ view, be translated as '' from Vinitpnra, 
which is Kataka." 

This inscription pui'ports to convey lands on the northern part 
of the Dasanariya river (or the river of the Dasarna country), 
belonging to the village Talakajja in Sanula for Sanrla) Vi^ayn 
(district) in the Kosala country — to a Brahmana, named Kamadeva. 
grandson of Harsa and son of K^ai-asimha, an immigrant from 
Maddhila and a resident of Jalajadda in Kosala, having the prava- 
j-as Gotrapa, Kasyapa. Vatsa and Xaidhruva, and a student of the 
-Madhyandina S'akhS oi the Vajasaneya (Samhita);: 

Lines 15-36 contain the usual injunction to future kings with 
the benedictive and imprecatory verses aboUt the nierits of the pre- 
-serratiou and the demerits of the confiscation of granted lands. 

Lines 36--41 tell us that it Was written by Uccavanag'a (or 
Utsavanaga ? ), the JJttlutasani '( ? )5 son of Samamphenallava ( ? ), 
by the command of the j'-aT^ft^'o- Dharadatta, the Maha-Sandhivigra- 
hin, in the 8th year of the victorious reign of Tayatideva, and 
that it was engraved by Vijnani MSdhava, son of Yasu. 

Lines 40-42 contain a verse setting forth the trans itoriness of 
life and its pleasures and enjoining the pi'eservation of the good 
works of others. The next lines are very obscure. They speak of 
a powerful Kosala king of the Somavamsa (referring probably to 

Maha-S'iva.gupta himself) who defeated probably the Gedis (^^[Sf 
may be a mistake for ^^TT'T)- The last two words of the record 
S23eak of the devastation of some place, probably Bnliala or the 
GecK country ("^TT'TT 1%«T«n"^«fil<! "made Dahana or Dahala 
uninhabited"). The same king probably was the author of the 

I. — Falna Copper-Plate Grant of the 24th year of Yayati-Maha- 
S'ivacjupta' s reign. 

Each of the plates measures 8^" by 6|". The ring is 5|" in 
diameter. The diameter of tlie seal is 2j". It contains the usual 
female figure. The weight of the plates, the ring and the seal 
together is 4 seers and 5 chataks (or nearly 9ft). The characters 
includes decimal figures for 24 and 5 in line 62. The virama, occurs 

in "mKX^ (1. 12), dt}lr<j[ and ilJRJff in line 13, and in ?gWTft^j'n line 
24. It is mistakenly omitted in ^WT^ and s^Tr^r in lines 56 and 57 
I'espectively. Final forms occur of n in y<jKT«r (1. 18) ^T»r, ^^«r 
(1. 19) and «*i"<l«^H^ (20) ; and of m (??) with a viramia below" 
in 3«^frrT^ iu tlie last line. The avagraha occurs wrongly in 
fsT^S^Tf'^ in line 19 and correctly in g^5l'«T7^sf»T€lf% i n line 38. 
The average size of the letters is f of an inch. As for the ortho- 
graphy, we may notice the use of A (w) for anusvara iu '!jgf^lP?(f?I 

8 Gliarters of the ScmiavamH Kings. [January, 1905. 

in line 61 and the use of n (•[) for anusvara in ^^^ in line 9. V is 
used for h as usual in tliese records. 

The wordings of the present record are almost identical with 
those of J. Both the donor and the donee are the same persons 
with those in charter J. Both these charters were issued from the 
same place Yayatinagara. The only diiference lies in (1) the 
names of the villages granted, (2) the names of the writers and 
engravers and (3) in the dates. The present charter does not con- 
tain the verse in praise of the Sandhivigrahin (who is however a 
different person here) which is found in J toward the close. 

This charter purports to convey the (lines 25-26) village of 
Deladeli in the Telatatta visaya in the Kosala country to Bhatta- 

[LI. 59-64]. — " This charter was written hy the KdyastJia 
Tathagata, a writer belonging to the office of the Mahasandhi- 
vigrahin, the RdnaJca Dharadatta, on the fifth titM of the bright 
fortnight of the month of Asadha in the twenty-foui^th year of the 

prosperoiis and victorious reign of .....the glorious Yayatideva." 

It was engraved by Vijnani Vasuka. 

For the translation of this record, reference is made to the 
translation of J, with which it is identical in almost all parts. 

J. — Patnd Copper-Plate Gi'anf of the 28tJi year of Yaydtz-Mahd' 
S'ivagupta's reign. 


Each plate measures 9|" by 7." The ring is slighty above ^ 
in thickness and is 4|" in diameter. The diameter of the seal is 
2\." It contains the usual female figure, etc. The weight of the 
the whole is 4 seers and 5 cJiataks (or about 9 lbs). The 
inscription extends to a portion of the outer side of the third 
plate. The average size of the letters is about |". The engraving 
is good and fairly deep ; but the plates being substantial the letters 
do not show through on the reverse sides, except very slightly on 
the outer side of the first plate. Final forms occur of n («t) in 
=ftHT5T (line 14), -ST^RTiT, ff»m5[,— T^T^T (line 22), ^f^t's^JT^^ (line 24), 
^»TT^ (line 63) and-sspR (line 64) and of (^) vi in ^c|1R«f4i (line 75), 
in which last instance the virdma is put below it. 

The final form of t («t) is found in the following ligatures : — 
jft (line 12), '^ (in line 18), ^ (in line 24), ^ in (line 73). The 
virmna occurs in "SErKT^ (112) ; while in several cases it has been 
omitted through mistake: e.g., in MT^t«L (line 32), ?ig?T^, •RITJ^ 
(line 13) and f^aB_ (line 14). The avagraha occurs incorrectly in 
. f«IFnS3iriTnj; and correctly in ^^SgrfW»[f?f*J (line 73). As regards 
the orthography, we may notice that rfl^ is written for cTT^, and 

^f'^'i! for f^^fl I The use of v for h is iisual. 

As this record is the longest of the four charters under notice, 
I give its full translation, to which reference is made for the mean- 
ing of the rest, . 

Vol. I, No. 1,] Olinrtcrs of flie Somavcun.n Kings. ' 9 


Full Translation op J. 

[L. 13] Orb Hail! From that glox'ious town of Yayatinagara, — 

[L. 1-4] — -where the enjoyment of love is being continually 
intensified and still more intensified by the close embraces (of 
lovers), by which fatigae is removed, in which hissing sound often 
appears and in which hairs often stand on their ends, although 
such enjoyment suifers interruptions as the ardent young couple 
show their skill in the various processes of conjugal enjoyment 
with their eyes dilated (with excitement) and with their minds 
subdued and fascinated by amorous thoughts ; 

[LI. 4-7.] — -where, even in the midst of quarrels arising from 
jealousy, lovers, beaten by lotuses from the ears of women who 
have cast the beauty of the celestial damsels into shade by the 
gTeatness of their endless and peculiar charms, have all their men- 
tal anguishes roused to action by the entrance of the sharp arrows 
of Cupid, with their hairs standing on the ends (lit. sprouting up) 
on account of the sprinkling of the drops of sweat (from the persons 
of the objects of their love) ; 

[LI. 7-11.] — where, at the tops of houses beautifully white- 
washed, the places of assignation of unchaste women and their 
pearl ornaments were whitened by the clusters of rays issuing fi'om 
the club-like tusks of very lofty elephants — the rays which rendered 
the autumn moon useless in the matter of dispelling darkness ; 

[Lines 11-13] (and) whei-e the fatigue of the women enjoying 
conjugal caresses with ardent attachment is removed by the breezes 
surchai^ged with the particles of water sent up by the breaking and 
swelling of the high waves of the Mahanadi. 

[Lines 13-16] There was on the earth a beautiful king named 
Janamejaya, who had a pure and mild appearance and a lotus-like 
face, who had subjugated by the force of his arms all his enemies, 
and whose spotless fame, well known throughout the three worlds, 
covered the eight quarters like a canopy. 

[Lines 16-18] From him sprang King Yayati, whose glory was 
sung in all the three worlds, who defeated his enemies with con- 
tempt as it were, and whose sword had its sharp edge made rugged 
Avith the pearls coming out of the foreheads of the elephants rent 
asunder by it ; 

[LI. 18-21.] whose sword rent asunder with its point the 
. foreheads of a large number of elephants, from which heaps of pearls 
came out and adox'ned the bosom of the damsel of the earth in every 
battle ; the dusts of whose lotus-like feet, as pure as the rays of the 
gems in the head-dresses of kings constantly bowing down at his 
dooi/s, assumed, thrcugh equality, the lustre of these (i.e. the gems) ; 

[LI. 21-24.] who, having defeated Ajapala in battle, aston- 
ished the heavenly damsels by capturing alive with a smiling 
face, thirty-two big elephants, named Kamadeva, etc., whose i-iders 
liad been killed, — elephants who had sharp and huge tnsks 
and whose temples were discharging /'ohor and therefore abounded 
with Hocks of greedy bees getting intoxicated (by d?'aughts of the 
fragi'ant fluid). 


10 Gharters of the SomavamSl Kings. [January, 1905 

[LI. 26-29.] The most devout worsliipper of (the god) Mahe- 
svara, the Paramabhattaraka, the Maharajadhiraja, the Parame- 
svara, the ornament of the Somakula, the lord of the three Kaliiigas, 
the glorious Maha-S'ivagupta-raja-deva, who meditates on the feet of 

[LI. 24-27] the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahesvara, 
the Paramabhattaraka, the Maharajadhiraja, the Paramesvara, the 
ornament of the Somaktda, the lord of the three Kaliiigas, the 
glorious Maha-Bhavaguptarajadeva, 

[LI. 2-9-33] being in good health and having done worship to the 
Brahmans of the district at the village of Lluttaruma of Telatatta 
Visaya or district in Sannavati, issues a command to all the de- 
pendants of the king such as the samahatrs (^^TT'^S),* the sanni- 

dhntrs (^1%^!^), the NiyuMadMkarikas (f^^WlfV^lf^), the Banda- 

pas-iJcas (^^xnf^W), the Pisunas (fMai-j), the Vetrikas (tf^Sf), the 

Avarodhajanas (^T'ClN^T'f), the Banalias (iTnH^), the Rdjahallahhas 

(^IW^IW) &c. (in the following words) : — • 

[Lines 33-43]. "Beit known to you that for the enhance- 
ment of the religious merit and glory of ourselves and our parents, 
this village, extending to its four boundaries — with its hidden trea- 
sui^es and deposits, with the right to fines for the ten offences, with 
the freedom from all lets and hindrances, with the right to mango- 
trees and honey-combs, with its ditches and barren lands, with 
its lands and waters, with the privilege that it shall not be entered 
into by the regular and irregular troops — is, by a copjDer-plate 
charter, granted by us as revenue-free, with libations of water, 
to be enjoyed as long as the moon, the stars, the sun and the earth 

[Lines 37-40] to Bhatta Mahodadhi, son of Siddhjesvara and 
grand-son of Paramesvara, an inhabitant of N"taradi in the Lavada 
district (visaya), an immigrant from Kasill in the Sravasti 
Mandala, a member of the Kausika gotra,wit]i the prava^-as Devarata, 
Audala and Yisvamitra and a student of the Grautama sakho. 

[Lines 43-44]. Being aware of this, you should dwell in hap- 
piness rendering unto him the rents and other shares of enjoyment 
due to him." 

* ^4if-^^ — {Lit, those who collected). Prob. purveyors or collectors 
of revenue. 

^f^^T3~1^1^o'® whose duty was to keep near. Prob. Usherers. 
f«I^ Wrf^ <tf [ f<^«t>" — Tliose in charge of the Appointment Department. 
^(i^mrv^<^- — Those whose duty was to punish the wrong-doers. 
f^^iJSRf— Spies. 

^f^^ — Lit. an officer who held a cane. Prob. Chamberlain. 
^«< <t ^^T*f — Officers employed at the harem. 
^P5^— Probably a title of high distinction. 
^^T^psritH — Favourites of the king. 

Vol. I, No 1.] Charters of the Somavamsi Kings. 11 

[N. S.-] 

This my grant should be preserved like their own grants by 
future kings also, from a regard for religious laws and my own 
earnest request. 

L.46. Thus it is said in religious books : — 

[Lines 48-49]. Land has been given by many kings com- 
«iencing with Sagara ; whoever at any time possesses the earth, 
to him at that time the reward accrues. 

[Lines 49-50]. The giver of land enjoys happiness in heaven 
for 60,000 years ; -while both the confiscator and the person who 
acquiesces in so doing go to hell. 

[Lines 51-52]. Grold'is the fii^st offspring of fire ; the eai'th is 
the daughter of Visnu ; and the cows are born of the sun. He who 
gives gold and cows and lauds, by him, by that act, are given all 
the three worlds. 

[Lines 52-54]. Fathers (in the world of the dead) clap their 
hands upon their arms, and grand-fathers leap from joy, saying, 
'■ A giver of land has been born in our family ; he shall become 
our deliverer." 

[Lines 54-55]. Both the giver and the receiver of land are 
doers of meritorious works and -will certainly go to heaven. 

[Lines 55-56]. A confiscator of (gifted) lands is not purified 
even by the excavation of a thousand of tanks, by the performance 
of a hundred of vajapeya sacrifices and by the gift of a crore o* 

[Lines 56-57]. He who steals apiece of gold or a cow or even 
half-a-finger's breadth of land is consigned to hell till the destruc- 
tion of the world. 

[Lines 57-59]. That ignorant fool who confiscates or causes 
the confiscation of lands is, being tightly bound in the fetters of 
Varuna, I'eborn of lower animals. 

[Lines 59-60] . He who confiscates lands given by himself or 
others becomes a worm in the ordure and stinks there with his 

[Lines 61-62]. The sun, Varuna, Visnu, Brahma, Soma, the 
god of fire and the great god S'u.lapaai welcome the giver of land 
(as he goes to heaven). 

[Lines 62-63]. Ramabhadra again and again requests all the 
future kings, saying, " This bridge of religion is common to all 
men ; it is to be observed by you in all times." 

[Lines 64-66]. Thinking that wealth as well as human life 
are as unstable as a drop of water on the leaf of a lotus and undei-- 
standing all that has been said above, men should not destroy the 
good works of others. 

[fjines 66-69]. He who surpassed the' preceptors of, the kings 
of the gods and of the demons (i.e., Vrliaspati and S'uki-acai-ya) in 
wisdom and pride, who bore with peii'ect ease the heavy burden of 
the state affai)-s imposed by the king and who had both policy and 
prowess as his dear and constant friends, — that fortunate pel^sor^ 
of the name of (S'ln) Sihghadatta (Sinihadatta) was the hohler of 
the post of " the minister of peace and wai-." (¥^«ff^iI^'T<[j 

[Lines 69-71]. This charter, written by Kayastha Suryaseua 

12 Charters of the Somavamsi Kings. [January, 1905. 

belonging to the office of (or a servant of) the ' minister of peace 
and war ' of the Kosala country, is to last as long as the moon, 
the sun and the stars endure. 

[Lines 71-74] . On the fifth tithi in the bright fortnight of the 
month of Bhadrapada in the 28th year of the victorious reign of 
the most devout v^^orshipper of (the god) Mahesvara, the Maha- 
rajadhiraja, the Paramesvara, the ornament of the Somakula 
(lunar race), the lord of the three Kalingas, the glorious Tayati- 
deva. Or, in figures, Samvat 28, Sudi 5. 

[Lines 74-75]. Engraved by Vinali (Yijnani) Madhuniathana. 

[Transcriptions of all the following charters are from the original plates] 


First Plate. 

[1] >#» ^% I gK%JT^3FrT^Tf'EIcT^3Tcrt f^ST^^SoRTcT ^^[-] 
[3] t^^?; xp[TIHfTi:5|\JTf T^15TTf«tT5l^>Hf ^fcT^5(f5^^f^^T- 


[7] fipg;i^ %f%sfiT^rN5T5rTT5j^^HTf!5T ^«rtiT i;i5Ti?i^*t^^[-] 

[10] filer: ^T'?n^5jf: ^JIttVJ^^: xrfc!f5lf^^^T3HS:Er%«[^5[:-] 

N.B. — The letters and signs enclosed within brackets [ ] are supplied by 

1 Read ^. 2 This mark of punctuation is unnecessary. 

5 Read 3)9^^)*. * This mark of punctuation is unnecessary. 

6 Read ! Bl ^ mr* f ■ ' ^ea,^ ^^. ^ Read ^g, 8 Read ^. 

Vol. I, 'No. 1.] Ghariers of the Somavainsi Kings. 13 

IN. 6'.] 

[11] T'a3nwTi*. %Tf^9i:^jrt^i*^t i^^t^^^r-f^'siTfTr'^ir^f-] 

[13] g^lfT^T^^T^^t *^=^^[-] 

Second Plate («). 

[14] ^^^^9gi2n»?}T['] Hf^TftC^T*^T['] ^f^^^Rf ^:[-] 

[15] «?;3TT=g'^?TR^l^^rcT^?7^T^TT^tJIT^J ^^^frTc!T[-] 

[16] fq'^?;ifiqir^ \^?rgft5fira^t ^WW9i:TB^5TT^ftlf[-] 

[17] (3T RfcT^Tf^cT HWmum ^^fgcT*ftJIHTJI^Tfl-i:^Tf%[-] 

[18] ^ff^xH^fg^T^fg: g^l gfcT^^3!?fflfcT I HTf^fir^ ^'] 

[19] frlfif^f%^€t^fr^ft^T ^^3ft^^T^9i^§rl"^T^ ^[-] 

[20] ^ffjfc^Tf in^^^T cTm=^tai[*] ^^sit^ i 

Here follow the usaal verses, being thirteen in all. Twelve of these 
occur in Plate A (see Epi. Ind. Ill, p. 343), and for the remaining one, see 
transcrijjtion of Plate J, lines 56-57, i^^T|T &c. The last of these verses end 
in the words ^t^-^-. t^^ gi n I 

Third Plate, [11. 36-46.] 

[41] ?: ^5T5r%5T^^w^ f^sy^^T^ ^x^^t** w$ ii" ^Tf^[-] 

[42] %fIT^f^cT^^'^'5ft^35t ^'^T^: 'EIl^c^'" i ^Tflr^ gf^ 
[48] \^ f"5lf?§cff*T^ «[T^5f iT^I^lf^f^^^Pf ^?TW^Tl^^K^[-] 

[44] Tr^cTirfcrw:^^r^^€tj[^t^5i ^^Kg't^%T i irffT^[-] 

[45] ^ %-m nm^ ^^q^^tg^lfiT fsrg;^ ^it^^lT^T^^' 
[46] ^^ ^^l^^ ^l 

1 Road ^. 8 Read ff. ^ Koad ig. * Read 5. 6 Read 5. 
' Kn.'id iff. "^ Road ft;. ^ Road ^^Tf^?;. ^ Tiiis mark of punctua- 
tion is unuecessary. w [{cad J^^n, 

1^ , Charters of the Somavamsl Kings. [January, 1905. 


First Plate. 

[1] ^^ ^fm I ^Wf-cnj^'OcT ^?^TcTTTKr«]^Tt^*^q^HH[-] 
[4i] Tr^^^fcT^5j^f^5frf^1fff^qfcT^J71-lf^9^^'"H^15T^^: 

[7] ^ci5 m'^nnp^wrs?? ^ f^^^^: 

[9] TJ^ 1^9^T^^5Tfr^qf555Tgi[T]l5T^T^'°^ I TTT^^f^f'T[^]rJT^ 
[10] ^^^5f^5!|^T^^T^ I ^^Tfr'^TlS I TW1$ t[-] 
[11] ^^^^cTT^ [^f^^^Rl] T|^"'?::^?:frT^'5rcTR^Mf^fcf^3T- 


[12] jitS TrTcnfxiwl"?;T(?TT^T5'i?J^9it5fH«^% cni?gn^^5fT[-] 
[18] 5([;^g\«ir tffcnTTft'^'cr nm-mim ^^Tft^*?Tf ^^f^^^[-] 

* This record is quite full of mistakes and omissions. The short w ia 
almost throughout expressed by the long one. In the footnotes only the 
most salient mistakes are corrected. 

I We have both the plain symbol as well as the letter for ^. 
% Read ^. S Read g for ti. * Read ^, 6 ^^^^ ^ , 

8 Read ^, '^ Read ^, 8 short n for long u. 

9 Read ffj. ^'^ Read short u for long ii. H Rend short u for long u. 

12 Read ij. ^^ Omit the visarqa. 1-i This sign of punctuatiou is 
unnecessary. 1' "3^* These two letters are doubtful, and may also be 
read tJK ^fTK- '* Read ^ | ^^ Should probably be corrected to "^ 

18 Omit the sign for long a. Probably the next word should be ^TH^. 

19 Should be TTWW^'I^n^gl^^- I ^^ ^^^ad f^. SI Read g. 
»2 Read % 

Vol. I, No. 1.] Charters of the Somavatnsi Kings. 15 

[N. S.^ 

Second Plate (a). 

[15] irfcTf«^^f=^'fi^?T^ft^T ■q^TJrVwT^^^f^fi-gr^^^r^Tcl 

[16] ^T^RT^^^T I cT^T^^t^ ?if^ilT^ 

Here occur tlie same thirteen verses as are found on Plates G and are 
referred to after 1, 20 of the transcripts of G. Lines 16-35 are as full of spel- 
ling mistakes as the rest of this charter (H). 

Secoxp Plate (h). [11. 28-40.] 
[85] q^JTJTT|[-] 

[36] '5I^^T3THfT^^TTfRT^Tf?I^T5|Xr^^^*?;5Efi'?Tf^fcf[-] 
[87] ^5Rf^cfrf?!T1fTf^qfcf^?Tg^TfcTt^^T5I^ f%^^^^^T^J^[-] 

[38] ^^^T^% j?*^4f9i:^*ni" g^xT^ ^^"^^^tVJ ^^ci^ ^ 
[89] miJi ^f^ \^ f^f^crfir^ cTii^gn^T* fr=f T'^^f^qf^^Ti!i[- 

Third Plate. 
[41] TfK^JIIT^Wl^T I ^cffq\^['*l f^=^l^ i?WT" ^T^l%- 

[42] ■ ^5f^3Txr^5T^THT^f^cf fl^JD^sfrfcT^*^ H^^^^^lfcTTt 

[48] iff^^t^T: srt^^^t 'SiTfcTfK^f^^'TniT xf^' I «t*i; 'fX?! ^>[-] 

[44] Hf ^mHT5; ^HT^gwt fl^x^^^^ I ^5 ^t'fl^T 

[45] qi^iTTS^f f^^ fffsff^T ^^'^^Tf^cTcni^^Tt I XWV^ 

[46] 5[;Tf9l%;q^^*T2T^ '^HS^f^Rijf^^ 32f fj?^ 

1 Read fe; 2 Omit the r-strokens. '^ Omit the r-strokens. 

* Read sfl. - 6 Read ^*^. ^ Read ^jijf. 7 Read ^Jf- " I^ead ^*^^| 

^ Read ?gj .10 This is doubtful, proljubly f^ is to bo read. If so, the 

correct form hero would be ^fwiWI^f^- | ^' Probably ^gf?^'§* Pllfrf^ 

•RTM^f i« correct ; the word l^lf^t means an artist. 

16 Gliarters of the Somavamsl Kings. [January, 1905, 

[48] g: I cT^TcT^W f^^ft^T^T^'J I ^f3rTT5T»ftW2-ET?ft 

[49] W?irT^f5T|:5^cT iT5qiT'ft^=^T^lT?IIlf^^«rT 

[50] ^^R I 

N.B. — The transcription of tlie third plate of H is full of doubtful points 
here and ttere : in some places, they are altogether obscure. This plate, or 
rather the whole record, was very hastily and carelessly inscribed. 

Charter I. 
Plate I. 

[1] ^ ^^% P^Trfsf^^gT^Wl^t! ^T^tH^^W^ 

[3] Or ^cnrcnTT^^^cTf^H^^€1:c[^TOi?r^5^[^]fiTci^[-] 

[4] Ir: ^^il'B: SJHJT ^f ^1^^ II "^T^T^^f^^T^^TTr-] 
[5] JTff HIXTT^T^3C:oRTf«flfK5lt%^t^^t^iT iTWf^i: 

[6] srim^rt^iff en: i mi^^ ^f%^NcT^^9i^iftc2iTfq[-] 

[7] cTT^5i^T['] ^f^§^5i^T^^=^,T^^Tf^^fcf^ti7T[-] 

[8] 1;^C. II '^(^TFW^ft'^^'rig^^gtl^Tf^^tf^^^t 

[9] ^t^^'^l'f^^Ri^li^il^^^t: ^4^T [l] ^^-[^ 

[10] ^'a^sT*!^ f^^i g^TJT^ fli^sf ^rert^^Tri3i^^?j[-] 

[11] ^^Hn^T^g^lfT^CIcT: II *flf TiTfl515=cTT1i=H1fT'^R>'^[-] 
[12] _ ^^^^^f^^IT^Tcj; I ^f^^cn^f^Jl^<ff5TT5[t ^^^mtt^: 
[13] f3R«f% ^^r^5 II cT^T^ ^?1^Tfc{JI7TO^ II ''^"t^^^^f^JL"] 

[14] c(3g»^?igftf^m'T^HT^f^5fig^Hr*Tr4rilft;^wf : i ^t^t . 

Jf.B.»— The letters and signs enclosed within brackets [ ] are supplied 
by me. 

I Read tj. 2 Metre: S'ardulavikrldita. S Read ^^5f. * Metre: 

Upajati of Indravajra and Upendravajra. 6 Omit the sign of long a, 

8 Metre : Vasantatilaka. ' 

Vol. I, No. 1.] Charters of the Somavamsl Kinqs. 17 

[_N. 8.-] 
[15] ^v^ ^f^Hf^cT H^Jjf^: ^fTT'^^t^i^^ift 5TiJ%5T^Tf-] 

[16] ^: II '^f^c^Tft^ftif <w^g-^f ^f 3irqi^Er^^^'5^^f[-] 

Plate II {a). 
[17] ^R: I cTQTT^STT^T^ 5TJT=^?rjf1:cT€tfTT¥^TfkfTr4c^R:^[-] 


f{J^ 5f[-] 

[20] ^c^g^^^^^r: wxm' ^ ^^\Himf{^?u^ ^tT^^k[-] 

[21] l^^[T]5r?7^^J II iT^JTiTT%=5^TT^*^Hfn:5ri^?'rRT5Tlf^?;TST[-] 

[22] W^J: ^t«7f^rcr^5Ff%^f^<ffTf^iTfeTsftiT¥TH^?IF^T5l^^[-] 
[23] t(KTf^TcTlT?:<?*lTt'Sr^ ^^C3THfT^^?Tf TT;T5nf?J^T5TlT[-] 

[24] -^^x. iEftfff^fcT^5fif^crrf^^Tf^xi:fcT^iT^[ta3g[-] 

[25] W^Tsr^^: ^^ I ^t^^%^ %^TcT5f^^% 

[26] t^Ttwt?7T% ^T^iDT'^511551 cTf^^^ ^^T5|rT^T[-] 

[27] -mf^^' ^JTif^^f^T^i^^f^j^Tft:^ ^^utTifsi^ 'gf [-] 

[28] M^^nm^ ts:^T^t^5iiT rr'^05Ti5Ti^?D5|f?rT5![-] 

[29] ^^*rift^ ^^t^rsiqT^tq^f^T: ^^rmiir^fcT f^[-] 

[80] f^cm^ HqfcTt ^^T^Tf*n;^ ^T*T*. ^f^f^: ^'^JTf^ftj: 
[81] ^^9lTqOy: ^o^^TSJlf^^fXcT! ^lo^TTft^^T^T5?'Rfl?[-] 

I Metre : Vasantatilaka. « Metro : Smgdhara. « Read ^'UT*. 

* Read <j<^f iHi^^ as in J. 6 p.ead tf^^T I 

IB Charters of the Sotnavamsi, Kings. [January, 1905 

Plate II (&). 
[82] cT: I ^t€tlTTq^^: ^T^WH^s 'BJlTn^?;: ^5T^^[-] 
[88] ^: ^fTf^^'gfHfir%9i: ^f^^mt^T^ ^^^TeT[-] 
[84] ^^K^f^J^TriT^^^KW 3^cT?T^T^T^qTf^^ ^T^f%Tr[-] 
[85] ^«^ SRTf^^f^fsnTcTT^ ^T^T^^^['^]'fr?:f^^T^^T^ 

[86] TTT%=gTTir^ ffiS'g^Lgcn^ H^^^TTt^^ ^[-] 

[87] ^5fr?jT?iTp:!^^ ^'^j^ctt^i^tiri Y=^r<T^4H *■ i *??) ^*rt5fTT[-] 

[38] ^\ TTTcrTrxTft^TSFrsi^ ^'iig^rftsfvr^^ ctt«^91t^[-] 

[89] %5n5rr^^(3T nt^mf^cr jj^i^w^ ^^fn^^mi-] * 

[40] *Tt^^^%^^!?rTf^<«rT^55iriT^r^5f|[j ^ %[-] 3ft[-] 

[41] T ^^l^fi=rfcT [l] HTf^fH^ ^firt^fklfTlfelT^ft^T ^^- 
[42j ?:^K^^5T>SfT^ ^^f^f^^T^CTT^^TT [l] cTJn'^lw V'^[-] 

[43] in^ 

N.B. — Here occur the usual verses, for which see lines 47-66 of the text 
of J below. 

Plate III. 

[59] TT?^mt'5^ iT^*T>ffr^^iTlT^T3lcf^^T5lt{^%J5[-] 
[60] i: ^>?7f ^^^^ t%5(vf^|JTf?l^f<T^?T^^TfcT^^m^g[-] 
[61] c[^T1^5T?TU5?l=^gr4^^girc(^^(5T' ^T^ri^^^liW ^- 

[62] ^ ^^m ^wiTfq ^^^ R.^ ^m\-^ gfsr y. ^fecr[-] 

ff^i in[-] 

[64] ^T^^ cmiJT^^^ f^Tlffll* ^T^^lt'c^ta?^ II 

N,B. — The letters and signs en-closed within brackets [ ] are supplied by me. 

1 For ^q^tJiT %T^W I'ead ^^XT^^^- There is a sign above ^, 
which may stand for the e- sign. 2 Read '^^f^TjffJ ^«ld<J< I ^ Read ^^tf 

4 Read f^^rfir. 6 Read -i^i^^H 

ol. I, No. 1.] Charters of the Somavamsi King's. 19' 

First Plate. 

[4] ^: ^TiT['] ^^^T25I% II ^^'^T^^r^^*^^tTTrf%"iTTXn^T[-] •- 
[7] i'^5T^R%=gi^giTf^Sjtcrtt*TTl^^- II ^^f <?fTif 5tf[-] 

[9] ^iicTa:?:^s^>^^: ^^t [ ! ] ^^i^t^^^sri^ 

[10] ftgr^ ^HfT^T^ TT^sf ^JcTT^^iT^cft^^f-] 
[11] "^^RT^I^g51?T^^5 II lTfTlftgi5'^^1fHl'^T[-] 
[1 2] rt^^c^^^^f^^T^T^ [ I ] ^f^gcTTil%*?^1?5rTlt ^W[-] 

[13] ^! f^?T^ H'if^: II 5T^Tc[ #^5TTt%5I3T^T^ I ^"^3(f^^ir[-] 

[16] 5nrT^: 'T*T^f^crTf3C^ftfi»ii^l^g?R^aiT^^¥^^[-] 

[17] ^^'Tl^I^fTilRJ [ I ]cl^T^5i[T]^ci 5TIIW^''ir3?t^^f%t[>T[-] 


I Represented by a symbol. 2 Metre : TH'^^ftflft^W. 
8 Metre j TTT^V 'glf't flr tf^fl . * Read ^. 6 Read ^rf^^rf^rf I 
8 Read ^t^. ^ Upajati of Indravajra and Upend ravajra. 
8 Read ^ for ^ 9 Read ^^«| | 1" Metre : Sardulavikridita. 
11 Read ^fi. it2 Metre: Sardulavikridita. i8 Read 3ff | '♦ Read ^5J. 

20 Charters of the Somavamsi Kings. [January, 1905. 

Second Plate (a). 

Second Plate (&). 












1 Metre : Sardulvikriditam. 2 Metre vasantatilaka. 3 Read ^. 
* Read f^rT I ^ Bead f^mi ^ This mark of punctuation is unneces- 
sary. T Read Zf. ^ fs^. 9 This mark of punctuation is unnecessary. 
I'' Instead of (f^ read ^ | 

"Vol. I, iTo. 1.] Charters of the SomavatnSi Kings. 21 

IK8.-] -^ 

[88] ?§T^Tf5r^ ^T^f^nT<^% SffTf^^tf^t^af cTT'ET ^T^^Tf^[-] 

[89] ^jfi^^^a^T^ iT^%'5?7i\i'f5Eii'i?:^«TT[-] 

[40] ^ ^^sftiTwt^Sft 3^5R^TTTi?::^^[?^]^T'^5^[-] 
[41] cTR^T^fwfcT^fl^T^WNlT^^ VTcnf«T^t^Tf3R'r[-] 
[42] ^ IW?I?f)-^H^:^ cTTJ^^W^TTSfrftlKST tff«TqTf^[-] 

[43] cT 5:<?r^jT'ir ^f f^cT5fr3[^^^^t3iHT7rTf^3|f^[-] 

[44] TT3T5jf|^^f|^: TO irfcT^^^l^^ II >fTf^fiT[-] 

[45] 'g ^fcrfH^f^f^^nr^lft^T ^^3^^T^^^g[-] 
[46] rNT^ ^^f^f^^Tf xTT^nt^T II ci^T^tHf ^#rgiT# ^f fif 
[47] ^[^i«fT ^fiT ^mfvr: 'a^nTTf^fn: i ^r^ ^r^ ^r^ 

^fi?'^^ cr[-] 

[48] ^ cT^T ^^ n "iTT *i,^T?i^9irT ^' ^^^f^ TTTf^^T: '^t[-] 
[49] 5TTcT tir^*IT«J5T5i* TT^^TlTf qi^^ U ^^f^^»^^^W^Tf«!I ^[-] 

[50] TT irWcf ^fiT^: I ^TWKT '^TgiT'TlT/^ ^?I^^ T^5jrjq[-] 

[51] ^cf II '^^?:iTf5»* irwiT i^5f ^w^ ^'^^^[t]'^ it^' ^' 

Third Plate (a). 

[52] 5RT^5f JiT^ iT=#t^ ^^Tcf [ I ] ^Tfi ^^^1 ^^f^ ^>%^ii 

[53] ^^f^ ftTcT^t ^^JFT^f'fl ftTcTWf T:^° II ^ffTT^TcTT f % mic{'. 
[54] ^ I^TcTT Hf^^fcf [l] ''^fit^: EI^JZ^TfcT i^ ^f^t 

1 Eead— ^ffJirtf* I ^ ^.ead ?fTWn^«IT- I * Metre : Anushtubli. 

* May be corrected to " ^ I VI^^ ;ts Fleet has done. But I think ^RSRJ 
also may be retained meaning ' longlaBting," especially as all the versions 
show this form. 

6 Metro : Annshtuhh. « Head Iffg^ | '^ Metre : Indravajra. 

•^ Read ^JY^fT! ' Metre Anushtubh. ^^ Omit one perpendicular. 

li Metre : Anushtubh. 

^2 Charters of the Somavd^nst Kings. [January, J 905. 

[55] fcr [l] ^^ eft i5?5l^'J7t<D^ f^^* ^31311^?^ [ll] ^cTSTJlTlt 

[56] ^T5T^^gi%5r '^ [ i ] JT^t ^fe^[^T]^5T ^tWi^T T g^f^ I 

-^m^'^4 iTi^stft 

[58] ^ciT ^f?r?;5?n%*T 5 i-ifei [ 1 ] f ^t fi^^fcr' ^^^ 

TfJ^^^irtScT: I i[-] 

[59] ^■^ ^vm- ^^mXmh^\fi ^ Ji^fer [«] ^^^TiTxr^^Tit^T 

[60] ^sft f TcT ^^-^Tj ^ fa^T^t liffr«^?3IT^° fTTSfH[:] ^1 

^^'^ I! ^^ggT[-] 
[61] f^=fr|-^' ^^cft f^^^'^^T ^'^irJ-^cTT^Ri ^^ [ I ] 3g;^xrT[-] 
[62] f^ii^ KJi^TTfH5i5^f*fi ^frr^ l [ l ] '^^WT^Jlt [5]^['] 

[63] g^lximt affl^ ^T% i?T^5T\sf> H^: II ^o^f ^cTTSf HTf%[-] 
[64] T: inf^^'^T'?: 'l^'^ "^ ^1^^ ^TiTH^J I '^?[fer Wf\-^- 

[65] ^^n^f^^^t^ f9}^3T5f^5?g iT^^^f^cf^ [ I ] 5Er^^- 

[66] ^^TW^ 1^ Tf% l^t: TT^3ft=^5ft f^^^V' [ I ] 


[67] l':Tl^T^5^Ef=^Tfif5TTi?t^cft ^mRtfiTcTTT5?3m?lT[-] 

[68] g^ 'sf^T^^^^gi I I ] ^r^rr^^^rf^TTi^mfEr ''r^t- 
- ^r^T^[-] 

i Metre; Annshtubh. 2 Metre : Anushtubh. 3 Read ^qin-. 
* Read %. B Eead jj^. 8 This sloka has six feet : metre ^Sl^V. 
"J Read-f^TfT. ^ Metre j Anushtubh. 9 Read ^. 10 Read 5^^ 
11 Metre : Anushtubh. 12 Read ^t 1^ Read .^ f . , M Read ^: 
16 Metre : S-^lini. 16 Metre : PushpitagrA. H Metre SardMavikridita. 
■Read sr for anusvara . 

Vol. I, !N'o. 1. Gharters of the Somavatnst Kings. 23 

[69] ol^T ^ ^?TT5«icT^f5;^f^Trrq^-' ^tf^f^i^^j [ ii ] 

Third Plate (&). 

[70] m^'m ^^t^^t f%f?§cf ^^^ ^T^^ m^^j^s^crT[-] 

[71] T^ II xnCfT'TTt'S^ TR5RHf T?:^Hf TTT5nf«[TT^TT^[-] 

[72] m. ^>fif ^fci^5fif^5|ff^rf\jxrfcT ^?^^^T^^^ ■Er[-] 

[73] wimsTf^si^^T^S^Tf^'^lfeT^ ^T^c^^^' HT^XT^^Tli- 
[74] f%cTTT=% fcT^ TT^»gt ^'^wfcr ^»^^ R^ ^ft^^ 
[75] if^ <i f¥l# II ^^J^ 3T^^^1>cpftftcI?^^ II 

1 Probably epl )H«^ <J^^ f<< 4J f^ ^^T<(f is the correct expression, meaning 
" belonging to the ofl&ce of the minister of peace and war of the Kosala 

^rfjc(i — The sign of ^jppis not very distinct; it looks more like the 
sign of a 'full stop. The word must, however, be either ^^^ or ^WRT. 
It is derived most probably from root ^^ . It is equivalent in meaning to 
wid«l^ i^ ^i^^ ^'^ ^^ A, line 47 of B, line 40 of G. The three letters may also 
be read as ^^^, a mistake for ^«<«h', a servant. 

8 Bead ^^cj^ I Read— '^t%*l 

4 E, F and H have fq ^|4^ , which is probably the correct form. This 
was probably an official title. I has (q«iH. 
6 Read sliluitl | 

Vol. 1, No. 1.] 
[N. S.] 

Charters of the Sumav'y.wsi Kings, 
A Tabolajr Abstract of the Eleven Ohaktbrs. 




3 ! 4 





9 10 

ll' 1 13 







Place of 


The place 
from whict 
the charter 

is iasued. 


The dis- 
trict or 
Visaya in 
which the 
granted vil- 
lages are 

in which 

(7) is 



in whicl 
(10) is 

Place from 
which tlie 
grantee is 
an immi- 




-J3 •© 

Month etc. 



1 dhivjgra- 













(1) Diima- 





In A and 


vagupta I 

alias Jana- 


sndi 8. 

camp at 

(2) N4ra. 

(8) Vaau- 

(4) Konda- 












son of 

(who be- 
longed to 
Ihe office 
the son of 


radatta . 

G, the 
grunts are 
made sub- 
ject to the 
of a small 







(1) Kesava 






audi 13. 

(2) Apya. 


(son of 


son of 






(1) Eanda 










In B, C, D, 


endi 13. 

camp at 

(2) Alan- 
da W. 

(the Ma- 


son of 




son of 

the other 
name Ja- 
isnot men- 



Prob. near 

























This is the 

gnpta, alias 









sant), son 

jf Samam- 


by com- 

mand of 




son of 



• Thongh the name of the cotmtry is not given, I suppose It must be Kosala. For Pova in B should be read Pota. The letter looks like ( rather than v. 

Charters of the Somavaiiisl Kings. 
A Tabular Abstract of the Eleven Charters — Continued. 

[JamTary, 1905. 






■ 6 













Place from 

„ Place of 
No- find. 



Place of 


The dia- 
trict or 





which the 
grantee is 

















(Sri) Siia- 


(S'ri) balla- 




audi 13. 


[Prob. a 
mistake for 



grania in 









gaptn, alias 



sadi 5. 



[or DeU- 





Ntarndi in 

Kasili in 

a Kiiyastha 
(writer) of 
the office of 
the Maha- 













in Snnna- 


(of the 

office of the 




of the 



Prob. near. 















vagnpta II, 
alias Bhi- 

sadi 3. 



the rSnaka, 

(grama) in 

grama in 









cliief, a 
lord of 15 



Pauja. son 

of BodS, 

of Pnfiia 
at Va (?) 
vagnpta II 
was resid- 
ing at Ya- 
' g»ra. 




putra) Na- 

rayiina, son 

of Janiir- 



datta, son 
of Kirana, 
the Sfres- 
thin of 

in a very 

band. The 

ratha, of 
vagnpta II 
is not men- 

Vol, 1, No. 2.] Earwigs of the Indian Museum. 27 

[N. 8.-] 

2. Eancigs of the . Indian Museum, with Descriptions of New 
Species.— By Malcolm Burr, B.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S., P.E.S. 
Communicated by N. Annandale. 

Grentis AFACHYS Seevillb. 

ApacMjs fese Bovm. Sikhim. Nos. 5301-02/14, 1802/6, 2552- 
3-4-5-6-8-9/5. All nymplis. Previously recorded from Silhet and 

Genus DIPLATYS Serville. 

Biplatys ridleyi Kirb. Upper Assam, No, 1332/9, 9 . 
This species lias been recorded from. Sumatra, but the specimen in 
question does not appear to be distinct, 

Biplatys gladiator, n. Calcutta. 1 d* , No, 7336/14, and a larva, 
taken also at Calcutta, by Mr, Nelson Annandale. Owing to the 
distribution of the colours, I feel certain that this larva belongs to 
this species. It has the very long segmented cerci that are 
characteristic of the larvae of this genus. 

Genus PYGIDICRANA Serville, 

Pygidicrana eximia Dohrn. No, 5310/14, $ ; Berhampur 
No. 5962/12, 9 , 

Genus ECHINOSOMA Serville, 

JEchinosoma sumatranum (Haan). Khasi Hills, Sibsaugor 
No, 5324/14, (S, E, Peal,) One 9 , Also a fragment which 
I refer with doubt to this species, labelled Calcutta, and another 
fragment from Sikhim, No, 2560/5, The species is abundant in 
Java, Sumatra, etc. 

Genus FORCIPULA Bolivar. 

Forciptila trispinosa (Dohrn). Sikhim, Nos. 8858/13, d'-. 
5308/14 9, 5315/14, c?, 

Forcipiula quadrispinosa (Dohrn), Sikhim, Nos. 5319-26-29/14, 
All females. Both these species are previously known from India 
and Bunnah, 

Forcipula decolyi Borm, Sibsaugor, (S. E, Peal), Id', No. 
5317/14, Pi*eviously recorded from Madras. 

Genus LABIDURA Leach. 

Lahidura hengulensis (Dohrn.) Berhampur, No. 5960-1-3-4- 
5/12. 2d" d',3'9 9. Hardware, f J Wood-Mason), 1 c? , No. 
5320/14. Calcutta, 1 d' & 1 9 , (Mus. Collr.) Also a larva, Ber- 
hampur, No. 5969/12. 

28 Earwigs of the Indian Mtiseum. [February, 1905 

Lahidura riparia (Pall,) var. inermis Brunner, Berliampur, 
Nos. 5967-8/12. 1 d" , 1 5 . Calcutta, 18 c? c? , 42 9 9 , 25 larv«. 

Lahidura riparia(Yd^&s.) Type form. Bangalore, (Cameron). 
No. 5314/14, 1 c?. Berhampui', No. 5966/12, 2 9 . Seistan Bound- 
ary Commission, IcT. Delu^a Dun, ISTo. 6337/8, larva. 

Lahidura lividipes (Dufoui\), Ranciii, No. 8426/12. Calcutta, 
Nos. 5577/12, 5528/12, 2$ 9 , & 8200/11, broken. 

Genus LABIDURODES Bormans. 

Lahurodes rohushis Borm. Tavoy, No. 170/5. This specimen 
is not mature, but it agrees well witb de Borman's description of 
the type from New Guinea. 

Genus ANISOLABIS Fibbee. 
Anisoldbis anmdipes LiTcas. Calcutta, 2 c? c?. 

Genus SPONGIPHORA Seeville. 
SpongipJiora sphinx 'Butt. Calciitta, 1 c?. 

Genus CHELISOCHELLA Verhcepp. 

GheUsochella superha (Dohrn.) Johore, (J. Wood-Mason.), No, 
5305/14. Icf. 

Genus CHELISOCHES Sctjddee. 

Chelisoches morio (Fabr.) ? New(?) Hebrides, No. 5306/14. 
coll. Distant), 1 9 . Johore, No. 5304/14, (J. Wood-Mason.), 1 (?. 
Abundant throughout the Oriental Region. 

Chel-isoches glaucopterus Bormans. Upper Assam, No. 1330/9, 
1 S . Recorded from Burmah, 

(?) GheUsoches melanocephalus (Dohrn.) Upper Assam, No, 
1334/9, 1(J. Recorded fi^om India. 

Genus ALLODAHLIA Yeeh(eff. 

AUodahlia scahriuscula (Haan.). Sikhim, Nos. 5303/14, 9015/7, 
2$ 9 ; Sikkim, Mung Phu, No. 6225/8, Icf. Sibsaugor, Nos. 
5322/14, 5318/14, 2 d c? , ( S. E. Peal). Dunsiri Valley, No. 5321/14, 
1 6 ( Godwin-Austen). Upper Assam, Nos. 1327-28-29-31/9, 2 cf ^ , 
29 9 No. 5311/14. l&. 

Genus ANECHURA Sudder. 

Anechura ancyhira (Dohrn.) Naga Hills, (Capt. Butcher.) 
No. 5309/14. ? . 

Vol. 1, No. 2.] Earu-igs of the Indian Museum. 29 

[JV. 8.'\ 

AneT^lmra sp. Sliillong. No. 5312/14 (Godwin- Austen). 1 9 . 

AnecJium metallica (Dohrn.) Khasia Hills, ( J. Wood-Mason), 
No. 5316/14 (5', Km-seong (purcliased), IS. 


Opisthocosmia oannes Burr, Klaasia Hills. No. 5323/14 1 ^ . 
Slightly different in colour from the type, (described from Assam ;) 
the elytra and wings are bright bronzy castaneous instead of dark 

Opisthocosmia s-p. Ti. Sikhim. No. 5325/14 9. 

Opisthocosmia vivax n, Dikrang Valley, Nanangs, No, 5313/14, 
( Godwin- Austen. ) 

Genus FORFICULA Linn. 

Forficula sp. n. Rang, Sikhim, No. 5775/5. 9 . 

Forficula tomis Koll. Oiwake. 1885. c? . Recorded from 
Siberia and Japan. 

Forficula sp. n. Sikhim. No. 53235/14. 9 . 

Forficula heehehuh Bui-r. Dardjiling, No.5745/5. 9 • Pre- 
viously recorded from Dardjiling. 

Forficula sp. n. Gilgit Exp. No. 3824/6. 9 . 

Forficula celer n. Khasia Hills. No. 5327-8/14 (? 9 . 

Forficula acer n. Sikhim, Mung Phu, No. 6724/8. 

Genus APTERYGIDA Westwood. 

Aptenjgida hipartita Kirb. Nos. 5330-5361/14, 41, c? c? , 61 9 9 ; 
Bangalore (Cameron), Nos. 5364-5-6-7/14, 6(5" c?, 12 9 9- Some 
very dark in colour ; also several fragments. 

Descriptions of Nbav Species. 


Caput fuscum, postice pallescens, oculis atris ; occiput postice 
carinulis 4 instructum, suturis valde distinctis ; frons inter oculos in- 
distincte bi-impi^essa : antennae typicse, pallidse : pronotum rotunda- 
turn, aeque longum ac latum, pallidum ; scutellum magnum, palli- 
dum, triangulare : elytra brevia lata nigra ; alse rudimentarise, haud 
prorainentes ; pudes pallidi ; abdomen gi-acile, Iseve, tuberculis 
lateralibus parum distinctis, testaceo-rufum ; segmentum penulti- 
mum breve, propter magnitudinem segmenti ultimi ceteris valde 
latius ; segmentum ultimum dorsale quadratum, postice paullo 
dilatatum, vnfnm, la^ve, pro])e mai'giriem posticum medio impi-es- 
sum, mHrginc jxjstico recto, pj"O])0 angulos postico oblique truncato : 
forcipis bracchia valde depi-essa, basi subcontigua, margirie intemo 

30 JEar^igs of the Indian Museum. [February, 1905. 

in dentem acutum magnum clilatata, clehinc inei'mia, incnrva, 
attenuata, aream ovalem incliTclentia. d. 

Long. corporis 8"75 mm. 

„ forcipis 1'5, 

INDIA : — Calcutta. 

A very distinct species, characterised by the i^udimentary 
wings, black elytra, which are broad but short, round pronotum, 
and the form of the last abdominal segment and forceps. 

There is a larva with long segmented cerci which, on account 
of the distribution of colours, I attribute also to this species. It 
also comes from Calcxitta. 


Statiu^a majore, castanea : caput magnum, tumidum sulcis 
Y-f ormantibus, j)i'of unde impressis : pronotum oblongnim, antice 
rectum, postice paulo angustius, subrotundatum ; prozona tumida, 
metazona plana, rugulosa : elytra ampla, granulosa ; al83 promi- 
nentes, l^ves : prosternum latum, postice angustatum, margine 
antico recto, paulo reflexo : abdomen medio dilatatum, l^ve ; seg 
mentis omnibus margine postico pilis brevibus spissis horizontalibus 
instructis ; segmentum ultimum dorsale angustum, declive, margine 
postico recto, integro ; medio impresso, utrinque subtuberculato : 
pygidium prominens, validum, coins 2 acutis terminatum : forcipis 
bracchia remota, gTacilia, subsinuata, apicem versiis incurva, 
margine interno per totam longitudinem denticulata. 9 . 


Long' corporis 18 mm. 

„ forcipis 9'6, 

INDIA : DiKEANG Valley, Nanangs. No. 5.313/14. (Godwin- 

This is a very distinct species, characterised by the occipital 
sutures, the form of the pygidium, and the dilated abdomen. 

The basal part of the abdomen is badly broken, but the speci- 
men is apparently a female, though the well developed characters 
would appear to be more suitable to a male. It is possibly a male. 


Nigra ; caput globosum, rufum, suturis obsoletis, laeve ; anten- 
nae...?, (segmenta 7 restant), nigrse : pronotum jjrozona vix 
seevata, deplanatum, medio sutura longitudinali instructum, latum, 
tfpite vix angustius, margine antico recto, postico lateribusque 
pauUo rotundatis, lateribus ipsis paullo reflexis : elytra et alee 
edvia, rufo-nigra, lata ; abdomen segmentis 1-3 fere Isevibus, nigris 

Vol. 1, No. 2.] Earwigs of the Indian Museum. 31 

[N. S.] 

■ upberculis lateralibus distinctis ; segmentis ceteris f usco-rufis, 
punctulatis ; segmentum ultimum dorsale transversum, margine 
Uostico incrassato, utrinque tuberculo magno nigro instructum : pygi- 
aium raagnum longum, angustum parrallelum, apice truncatum : 
corcipis bracchia rufa valida basi subcontigua, depressa ac deplanata, 
valde elongata : pars depressa margine interne laminato-crenulata, 
dente acute ac forti terminata ; dehine bracchia attenuata, depla- 
nata, sensim incurva, infermia. c?. 

Long, corporis 8*5 mm. 

- Pygidii 1- 

,, fore. part. depressa3...2"5. 
,, tota forcipis....8'5. 

IN"DIA : SiKHiM, Mung Plm. No. 2724/8. cf. 
This specimen is of the " macrolabia form " of forceps ; it is 
characterised by the long parallel pygidnm. 


Caput Iseve, globosum, rufo-nigrum : antennae ll-segmentaee, 
rafae, apice pallescentes : pronotum magnum, latum, capite vix 
angustius, margine antico recto, postico rotundato, granulosum ; 
elytra ampla, lata, fulva ; alse longge, fulv^ ; pedes fusco-rufi : 
abdomen punctulatum, tuberculis lateralibus distinctis ; segmentum 
ultimum dorsale (? transversum, utrinque obtuse bituberculatum ; 
2 angustius, tubei'culis obsoletis : pygidium haud perspicuum : 
forcipis bracchia d basi contigua, deplanata, margine inerno lami- 
noto-dilatata, usque ad dimidiam partem longitudinis, dehine 
subito attenuata, sensim incurva, apice haud attingentia, ? conti- 
gua, recta, inermia. 5 . 

d 9 

Long, corporis 9 mm. 8 mm. 

forcipis 4 2.25. 

INDIA : Khasia Hills. Nos. 5327-8/14. 

Ihe genus Ajpas in BaliicMstdn. 

Vol. I, No. 3.] 

3. Occurrence of the genus Apus in Baluchistan. 
BURG, Geological Survey of India. 

The foUowiug 
is an extract from 
my diary : " Ko- 
liian, 18th Febrxx- 
ary, 1901.... At 
Thaloiik there 
are some strange 
phyllopods." The 
above extract to- 
gether with a 
rough sketch of 
the animal, is all 
that I have 
wi'itten in my 
diary regarding 
these creatiu-es, 
but I am able to 
•supplement this 
short notice from 


-By E. Vrbden- 

I was not 
aware, till a few 
days ago, that 
the matter was 
of any interest 
whatever, and 
only drew the 
sketch in order 
to be able j to 
identify what ap- 
peared to me a 
very '.": curious 
crustacean, not 
thinking that I 
could, thereby, 
add any infoima- 
tion regarding' 
its distribution. 
The cii'cumstance 
did not recur to 

my mind until a few days ago, when, on showing my sketch to 
Major Alcock and to Mr. Annandale at the Indian Museum, they 
recognised it as representing the fresh-water phyllopod crustacean 
Apus, and informed me that the genus has never yet been found 
within the limits of the Indian Empire. Although, in the absence 
of an actual specimen, it is not possible to determine the exact 
species, yet the occurrence of the genus within a region where it 
had not yet been known to exist appears sufficiently interesting 
±0 be worth bringing to the notice of the Society. 

Thaloiik is situated in Latitude 28" 24' N. and Longitude 64° 
4.3' at the foot of an abrupt limestone range forming the northern 
border of the Kharan desert which constitutes a portion of the 
semi-independent State of Kharan in Western Baluchistan. I 
passed this locality while marching to Kohian, a camping place 
situated about three miles further east, and did not have any 
opportunity of again visiting it. Except for a few wells and 
springs this region is almost watei4ess. On the occasion of my 
visit in the winter of 1900-1901, there had been, however, quite 
an unusual amount of rainfall. Heavy shoAvers fell on all the 
hill-ranges at the end of December and beginning of January. 
Considerable tracts in the desert were flooded, and pools of water 
remained in many places for weeks and perhaps months At 
Thaloiik I came across what appeared to me a pool of this kind, 
occupying a shallow depression in the desert plain. It had 
dwindled to scarcely more than a yard in diameter, and, to me it 
seemed to be of a ti-ansitojy nature. Perennial pools, fed by un^ 
derground springs, do occur in certain parts of the desert, and I 

34 The genus Apus in Balvchistdn. [March, 1905. 

cannot say for certain tliat this one was not of that kind, but 
from its appearance, this seemed unlikely. On approaching the 
pool I found it swarming with the Crustacea of which I here give 
a sketch. There must have been dozens of them, all of about the 
same size. I placed one of them in a bottle of water, but it prob- 
ably got injured while removing it from the pool for it died al- 
most immediately. I tried to preserve it in spii^t, but the bottle 
was accidentally broken and the specimen lost, so that the only guide 
remaining to identify it is the rough sketch that I drew the same 
day that I observed these creatui-es. 

The sketch is di^awn approximately of natiu'al size It is 
quite diagrammatic, but sufficiently detailed to enable clear identi- 
fication of the object represented. The diagram shows distinctly 
the principal features of Apus, the shield with the main details 
of its oimamentation, the anterior pair of eyes, the anterior legs^ 
transformed into long antenniform filaments, the expanded branch- 
ial legs pi-otruding on either side of the carapace, the greatly seg- 
mented abdomen and the caudal appendages. The portion of the 
body extending beyond the shield is proportionately longer than 
in the specimens and figures that have been sho^^T^i to nie by 
Major Alcock and Mr. Annandale. Its relative dimension is pos- 
sibly slightly exaggerated in my sketch. Thei-e is no doubt, how- 
ever, that it really was longer than in the examples that I have 
since seen figaired or pi-eserved in spirit, for I was particularly 
struck, at the time, by its shape and size. My sketch shows one 
pair of eyes in the anterior part of the shield. Thei-e exists, in 
Apus, a third unpaired eye placed slightly fiu'ther back than the 
line joining the paired eyes, but it is very small and easily escapes 
detection if one does not know of its existence. The caudal 
appendag'es are much shorter in my sketch than in the figures and 
specimens which I have seen in Calcutta. Perhaps they had got 
bi'oken in my specimen. 

The presence of so large a number of Crustacea in the situa- 
tion where I observed them, appears very puzzling. If the pool 
was the remnant of a larger pond temporarily filled by rain-water, 
one can understand that they should have gradually become 
crowded into a small space as the water receded, but their deve- 
lopment must have been very rapid, for if the pool is not one of 
the perennial ones alluded to, it could scarcely have existed for 
more than two months previous. If the pool is perennial and 
normally of the small size it possessed when I saw it, its crowded 
population is still difficult to account for.^ 

As noticed at a previous meeting by Mr. Annandale, it is prob- - 
able that the reputed absence from this country of many well- 
known fresh- water invertebrates is due to our scant knowledge of 
its fresh-water fauna. 

1 Mr. Annandale }ias drawn my attention to the account of the genus in 
Bird's Natural History of the British Entomostraca, according to which 
Aipus can reach a length of one inch after three weeks development from the 
egg. It lias also been noticed in Europe that this crustacean appears sporadi- 
cally and suddenly in an unaccountable manner. 

•V-ol.-I,\Nro. 3.] A note on Haldyifrdha. 85 


4<. A note on Haldyudha, the author of Brdhvianasarhasva. — By 
YoGEsA Chaxdka S'astree. 

Part I. .. 

Bralimauasarbasva is a ■vvell-known book which deals with 
the explanation of certain Mantras of the Yajurveda. Its author was 
Halayndha — a Brahmana of considerable merit and talent. He 
was a great scholar of Yaidika and Loukika Sanskrit. He wi^ote 
several books in Sanskrit dealing with the different branches of 
learning. There are different conjectures as to his identity besides 
what is given by himself in his Brahmanasarbasva. 

Pundita Lalamohana Yidyanidhi, the author of Sambandha- 
nrrnaya, says that Halayudha, the Prime Minister of Lakshmana 
Sena, was the Halayudha of the Chatta family, who was honoured by 
Ballala Sena. He also says that this Lakshmana Sena equalized 
the rank among the Kulins of the Rarhi class, and was the son of 
Kesaba Sena, and hence the great-grandson of Ballala Sena.^ 

The late Pundita Muktarama Yidyabagisa, who edited Yeni- 
samhai'a, a well-knoAvn di'ama by Bhatta Xarayana, at the expense 
of the late Babu Prosanna Kumai' Tagoi-e of Calcutta, says in 
its preface that Halayudha, the Prime Minister of Lakshmana 
Sena was sixteenth in descent from Bhatta Xarayana and was 
an ancestor of the Tagore family. He wrote many books on Smritis 
(Hindu Law and Usage) which are still extant. Dr. Rajendi'a 
Lala Mitra and Raja Sourindi'a Mohana Tagore, the nephew of 
Babu Prosanna Kumara Tagore, mentioned above, are of the same 
mind with Yidyabagisa, only differing from him in respect of the 
degree of descent. ^ 

The late Babu S'yama Charana Sarakara, the author of Yya- 
basthadaiiianam, a well-known digest of Hindu case law, -RTites in 
its preface, most ^^I'obably following Muktarama Yidyabagisa, that 

1 Vide ^^fS[X^^\;w^ by Lala Mohana Vidyanidhi. First edition, pages 162, 
163, 207, 208, 209. 

2 Vide Sena Ea.j4s of Bengal, by Dr. E. L. Mittra, and English translation 
of Veni Samhira by Babu Sourindra Mohana Tagore (now Riija). 

36 A note on Haldyudha. [March, 1905. 

" this great Pundita (Halayudha) was the spiritual guide of 
Laksmana Sena, a renowned monarch, who gave his name to an 
era of which upwards of seven hundred years have expired. Halji- 
yudha was a decendant in the fifteenth degree of Bhatta I^arayana, 
author of Venisamhara (a celebrated drama) and one of the five 
Vedjintists, who were brought from Kanouj by Rajji Adisura and 
whose descendants are almost all the Rarhi and Barendra Br«i,h- 
manas of Bengal."^ 

Now, three questions arise here for decision : — 

(1) If Halayudha, the author of Brahmanasarbasva, did 

really belong to the Chatta family as stated by Lala 
Mohana Vidyanidhi, or the Bandya family as stated 
by Muktarama Vidyabagisa and his followers. 

(2) If he was the prime minister of Lakshmana Sena, the 

son of Kesaba Sena and great-grandson of Balljila 

(3) Who was he in fact ? 

At a certain date in his reign Ballala Sena, the King of 
Bengal, made a gift of a golden cow. Some Brahmanas of the Rarhi 
class after causing that cow to be cut into pieces, accepted the gift 
of gold. Their names are as follows : S'amkara Pitamundi, Diva- 
kara Graragari, Douka Gura, Dokari Pippali, Martanda, Anai, 
Granai, Hara and Gopee Bandya, Dokari Mashachataka, Madhu 
Sudana Rayee, Yaba Kusari, J^arayana Hara, Kesava Dayaree, 
Kesava Mahinta, Sakuni Chatta, Nayari Tailabati, Yisvesvara 
Kunda, Bithu Bandya, Madana and Yisvesvara Ghoshala, Hasya 
Ganguli, Goutama Putitunda, Parasara Simali, and S'amkara 

According to the injunction of the social law and royal com- 
m.and, the above-named Brahmanas, who accepted] the forbidden 
gift, the goldsmith, who cut the golden cow into pieces, and the 
Vanika, who bought or sold those pieces of gold, were all 

I Preface of <iJ^'4^T^^W ^7 ^lie late S'yamacbarana Sarakara, pages 23, 24. 

f^ETT: xrfcT^^Tl^TcTT: ^^^^TWf^^cn: II 
ar^t^T^^TTJTT '^ TN^^^ f^W^ II 
^T*ITf5T^ JlISITf^=g TTftilt^ '^ ^^^T' II 

Vol. I, No. 3.] A note on Haldyudha- 37 


Ballala Sena having observed this evil practice of the Rarhi 
class of Brahmanas, selected some principal Kulins from'st those who abstained from accepting the gift and invited 
them to his capital. When the Brahmanas reached his place 
Ballala, after careful examination, declared them to be spotless 
Kulins and honoured them. The names of those spotless Kulins 
are as follows : Bahurupa, S'ucha, Arabinda, Haldyudha and Bangala 
of the Chatta family, Grobardhanacharya of the Putitunda family, 
S'ira of the Ghoshala family, Roshakara of the Kundalala family, 
Jalhana, Mahesvara, Debala, Vamana, Isana and Makaranda of the 
Bandya family, Utsaba and Garura of the Mukhaiti family, Kanu 
and Kutuhala of the Kanjilala family.' It is probable that Ballala 
honoured the above-named Kulins of the Rarhi class about the same 

time that he established the aristocracy (vfft^^sq') among the 
Barendra Brahmanas. 

fi^ifi:^^ sjmi =^ f ft*iRT5rjn>5riT =9 ii 

^9^^ ^^^ ^^ ^T^ ?}% ci§^ =g I 
f^^f^' ^T^^i^ '^ ^sgf- ^^ T5i= ■5'T= 11 

( ^^f ^ cif^fecTJT ) 
Tllfra^ ^*TT?^TcrT: Xf^% =^f ^ai^T: II 
3TT^^ ^ fgi?fT5lTITT 5r^^>TT5fi^^^T II 
i^^^t ^W^^^ k^l^ ^WTr^W' II 

38 A note on Haldyudha. [March, 1905. 

Some time after this Ballala died and his son Lakshmana Sena 
became the King of Bengal. During his reign he found that those 
19 Kulins, who were declared by Ballala Sena to be spotless, were 
quarrelling with one another in respect of their rank. None of 
them thought himself inferior to another, but everyone considered 
himself superior to another. This put a stop, as it were, to their 
matrimonial connection. 

Lakshmana Sena, the son of Ballala Sena and inheritor of 
his throne, having marked this disorder of the Society, which 
originated from malice, equalized the rank of those 19 Kulins who 
were previously honoured by Ballala and who were quarrelling* 
with one another for rank, i.e., he declared them to be of the same 
status. In the time of this equalization Utsaba and Grarura were 
both left out but were replaced by their children — Aita, Abhyagata, 
Pundita and Badali. There were in all two equalizations among 
21 Kulins. In the first, Aita, Bahurupa, S'ira, Gobordhana, S'isa, 
Makaranda and Jalhana, these seven Kulins were counted ; and in the 
second, Arabinda Haldyudha, S'ucha, Bangala, Debala, Mahesvara, 
Isana, Roshakara, Badali, Vamana, Pundita, Abhyagata, Kanu 
and Kutuhala, these 14 Kulins were reckoned.^ Ballala did not 
make any laile in respect of secondary aristocrats (j^t^ ^^^) • 
They became apostate drawing the time of Lakshmana Sena, and 
consequently were expelled by him from the Kulin class - 

In the beginning of this note I have stated that Halayudha 
wrote Brahmanasarbasva — an explanatory treatise of certain 
mantras of the Yajiuweda. In its beginning he has identified himself 
in the following words : " In the lineage (Jlt^) of Vatsya there was 

Vol. I, N"o. 3.] A 7iote on Haldyudha. 39"' 

[N. S.] 

a pre-eminent sacrificer called Dhananjaya having a wife by 
name Gocliliashandi. Halayudha was the son of Gochhashandi by 
Dhananjaya. In the prime of his age he (Halayudha) was a Court 
pundita of Lakshmana Sena, in middle age he became Lord 
Chancellor and in old age he was the Prime Minister of the same 

From Halayudha's own version we know that he never 
belonged to either S'andilya or Kasyapa lineage (jfl^) as stated 
by Muktarama and Lalamohan respectively ; but he belonged to 
the lineage of Vatsya and his father's name was Dhanajaya. 
Halayudha who was honoured by Ballala was born in the Chatta 
family, and hence he belonged to the lineage of Kasyapa and he was 
one of the equalized Kulins ; and Halayudha, who was born in the 
family of Batta Nai'ayana, the ancestor of Bandya and hence 
Tagore family, belonged to the lineage of S'andilya. His father's 
name was Ramarupa, and he cannot be found in the list of 
the equalized Kulins. For these reasons, we can safely say that 
Halayudha, the author of Brahmanasarbasva, and Prime Minister 
of Lakshmana Sena, son of Ballala Sena, is a quite different person 
from Halayudha, the ancestor of the Tagore family, and from 
Halayudha of the Chatta family who was honoured by Ballala Sena. 

I am unable also to admit the statement made by Vidya- 
nidhi, when he says that Lakshmana Sena or Lakshmana 

40 A tiote on Haldyudha. [March, 1905. 

NS/rayana Sena, the son of Kesaba Sena, equalized the rank of the 
19 Kulins honoured by his great-grandfather — Ballala Sena, and 
that Halayudha was his prime minister, inasmuch as we find in Hala- 
yudha's own version that he was a Court pundit of Lakshmana 
Sena in the very prime of his age, while he became Laksh- 
xaana's Lord Chancellor in his middle age and in old age, the 
Prime Minister of the same King. It is stated also by Vidyanidhi 
that Halayudha was honoured by Ballala Sena. How then could 
Halayudha be in the prime of his age during the time of 
Lakshmana Sena, the great-grandson of Ballala ? Moreover, 
it is quite impossible for the same 17 Kulins, who were 
honoured by Ballala, to live up to the time of Lakshmana, his 
great-grandson, without a single of them being dead. It is really 
wonderful to observe that Vidyanidhi did not hesitate even to 
make Umapatidhara a Court pundita of Lakshmana the great- 
grandson of Ballala. This Umapati was a Court pundita of 
Vijoy Sena, the father of Ballala Sena. He composed the verses 
inscribed on a stone slab attached to the temple of Prodyumnes- 
vara S'iva established by Vijoy Sena. Vidyanidhi may try to 
.support his view regarding Umapati by citing the instance of 
Joyhari Chandra, a grandson of Maharaja Krishna Chandra, who 
.(Joyhari) was present in his time and is still present in the time 
■of Maharaja Kshitisa Chandra, the 7th in descent from Krishna 
Chandra. But it is quite illogical to say that as Joyhari Chandra 
is living, so Umapati lived, inasmuch as Joyhari's case is merely 
an exceptional one and cannot be made a general rule. 

Under these circumstances we must hold that Halayudha, the 
author of Bi^ahmanasarbasva, never belonged to either Kasyapa 
(Chatta) or Sandilya (Bandya) lineage ; but that he was of the 
lineage of Vatsya, being the Prime Minister of Lakshmana Sena, 
the son and not great-grandson of Ballala Sena, 

This Halayudha wrote several other books besides Brahmana- 
sarbasva, namely, Pundita sarbasva, ISTyayasarbasva, S'ivasarbasva, 
Mimansasarbasva, etc. His elder brother Pasupati wrote a treatise 
on S'raddha and other ceremonials, known as Pasupatipaddhati. 
His younger brother wrote Anhikapaddhati, a treatise on the 
daily duties of Brahmanas. These books are still in existence 
but not very widely known. 

Vol. I, No. 3.] Favana-dutam, or Wind-Messenger. 41 


5. Pavana-dutam, or Wind-Messenger, by Dhoyllca, a court-poet of 
Laksmanasena, king of Bengal, with an Appendix on the Sena 
kings. — By Monmohan Chakkavaeti, M.A., M.R.A.S. 

This poem was first brought to public notice by our Philo- 

Introduction. ^^S^J:] „ Secretary Mahamahopadhyaya 

randit Haraprasad ^^astri m " JNotices of 
Sanskrit MSS.," Second Series, vol. I, part II, pp. 221-2, (No. 225). 
A brief abstract of its contents was read by him in the Proceed- 
ings of this Society for July 1898, which was reproduced with 
some variations in his Preface to the above " Notices, "pp. xxxvii- 
viii. He described the MS. as " a discovery of some impoi'tance," 
and rightly, for before this, no poem of Dhoyika was known, and 
even up to now this MS. is the only copy known. Its owner Pandit 
Raghui'am Tarkaratna of Visnupur, District Bankura, has, at the 
instance of its present subdivisional officer Babu Atal Behari Bose, 
kindly lent me the MS., and has thus enabled me to edit the 

The MS., on yellowish country paper, consists of 12 leaves 
(or rather 23 pages), 13|"x3|". It was 
ino MS. apparently part of a large MS., for the leaves- 

are numbered on the left side from 151 to 162. The text, five or 
six lines to a page, is 10i"x 11|", and has besides marginal 
notes. The characters are modern Bengali ; the handwriting neat 
and generally legible. The colophon states that the MS. was copied 
by one Ramagati in paka 1752 Karttika sita, or A.D. 1830, 
October- November, bright half (of the lunar month). Ramagati is 
father of the present owner. In the text are various omissions 
and mistakes, some of which have been connected in the margin 
apparently by the copyist himself. The marginal notes ai^e few, 
and give no help in difficult or deficient passages. I have therefore 
given the text exactly as it stands in the MS., the conjectural 
emendations being noted in small brackets, and the omissions in 
larger brackets with asterisks. Several passages, however, still 
remain doubtful. 

The poem has 104 stanzas, all in the metre Mandakranta. It 
Contents ^^^ composed in imitation of Kalidasa's lyric 

poem, Megha-dutam, cloud-messenger, (better 
known in the south as Megha-sandegah) . The metre is the same ; 
the stoiy is an evident adaptation from the latter ; and in several 
stanzas reminiscences and even actual words of the Meghaduta 
verses can be traced. 

Such imitations of Kalidasa's poem are 
Imitations of not infrequent in later Sanskrit literature,- 

Meghadutam. ^s the following list will show :— 

1. fiddhava-dutam, (vv. 141), by Madhava Kavindra 
Bhattacaryya of Talitanagara (Printed in J. Yidya- 
sagara's Kavya,-samgraha, Calcutta). 

-42 Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. [March, 1905. 

2. JJddhava-dutam or U.-sandegam, (vv. 131), by Rupa 

Grosvami, the disciple of Caitanya (printed in K. 

3. Klra-dutarti, (vv. 238 ?), by Ramagopala, the coiu't poet 

of a king of Vanga (MS. Ko. 67, "Kotices" 2nd series, 
Vol. I). 

4. Gatalca-scmdegah, (vv. 141), by a Brahmin of Kerala, 

(J.R.A.S., 1884, p. 451). 

5. Nemi-dutam, (vv. 126), by Yikrama, a Jaina poem 

(Kavya-mola, Vol. II, Bomhay). 

6. PaddnJia-dutam, (w. 146), by Mahamahopadhyaya 

Krsna Sarvabhauma in f^aka 1645 under the patronage 
of Maharajadhii^aj Ramajivana (Printed in Kdvya- 

[Commentaries by Radhamohan and Ramahari.] 

7. Pavana-dutam, the present poem. 

8. BJiramara-sandegah, (vv. 192), by Vasudeva of Kerala 

(J.R.A.S., 1884, p. 452). 

9. Qulxa-sandecah, (w. 163), by iLaksmidasa of Kerala 

(Printed in J.R.A.S., 1884, pp. 404-431). 

10. CnJia-sandegah, by Karingampalli Xambndri (Oppert's 
' List of MSS. 2721,6426). 

[Commentary by Eralpatu, king of Calicut.] 

11. Qulia-sandegah, by Raiigacaryya (Rice's Mysore List 

of MSS,, 2i44). 

12. Suhliaga-sandegah, (vv. 130), by ISTarayana of Kerala 

(J.R.A.S. 1884, p. 449). 

13. Hamsa-dufam, (vv. 40), by Kavindi'acaryya Sarasvati 

(Burnell's Catalogue of Tanjore Palace Library, p. 

14. Hamsa-dutam, (vv. 142), by Rupa Gosvami (Printed 

in Knvya-sanigraJia). 

[Commentaries by Nrsimha, Rama^arikara and 
Vicvanatha Cakravartti.] 

15. Hamsa-sandegah, (vv. 110), by Vehkate9a Vedantacaryya 

(J.R.A.S., 1884, p. 450). 

[Commentary by Appayya Dik«ita.] 

16. Hamsa-sandegah, (vv. 110), by anunknowTi poet, writing 

apparently in rivalry of Vehkate9a, K'o. 15, (J.R. 
A.S., 1884, pp. 450-1). ' . . 

The story of the poem is very simple. On the sandal-hills is 
a Gandharva town named Kanaka-nagarl 
otory. ^^^ Y^ There Kuvalayavati, a fair Gan- 

dharva girl, saw King Laksmana who had come on world-conquest. 
She fell in love with him (v. 2). But imable to express to him her 
feelings she passed several days in grief. Deeply distracted, she 
at length begged the southerly breeze (v. 3) to convey to the king 
of Gauda her message of love (v. 5). She then describes the 
countries and the people, the wind would have to pass over 
(vv. 8-35), until it would come to Vijayapura the capital of the 

Vol. I, No. 3.] Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenaer. 4<q 

[_N. 8.-] 

king. The capital and the king are then described (vv. 36-60). 
Then the love message and the pangs of her sufferings the wind is 
asked to comninnicate to the king (vv. 61-100). The last four 
stanzas ai^ personal or benedictive. 

Interesting geographical details are furnished in the descrip- 

Geographical tion of the wind's journey (vv. 8-36). The 

Details. breeze starts from the Malaya (v. 8), the 

hill-range forming the eastern boundary of Travancore. Cross- 
ing the valleys at the foot of the Malaya, it will go to Pdnda-deca 

Pandya-deca. with its capital Uraga-pura or 'Bhujaga- 

(v. 8); Panda-dega or the country of the Pandyas is comprised 
in the modern Districts of Tinnevelly and Madura with S. Travan- 
core ; Tinnevelly itself stands on the left bank of the river Tamra- 
parni. The Pandyas are known from very early times, being men- 
tioned in the rock Edicts of Asoka, the Varttikas of Katyayana, 
and also in Mahabharata and Ramayana. The capital Vragavura 
is' mentioned inRaghuvam9a, vi. 59-60; while the Tamraparm with 
the pearl fishery at its mouth in the Gulf of Mannar is still more 
famous. The Greek and Roman name for Ceylon, Taprobane, is 
l)elieved to be derived from this river's name. 

The wind will then pass by the Bridge of Rama which looks 
like an arm of the earth extended to the LanJca-dmpa (v. 10) ; 
and here lies the god Bcimegvara (v. 11). This refers, of course, 
to the Adam's Bridge and the well-known temple of Rame^vara, 
described to be one of the twelve Jyotirlihgas. 

The wind next proceeds to Kancipura, the ornament of the 
South (v. 12), the capital of the Cola ladies 
^ ' (V. 14). -ZTa^lcf or Conjeeveram is one of the 

oldest cities of India, being mentioned in Patarijali's Mahabhasya ; 
while the Colas have been named in the rock Edicts of Asoka, and 
the Varttikas of Katyayana. At the time the poet wrote, the Colas- 
were the most powerful in the South, having been raised to that 
eminence by Kulotturiga Cola I (A. D. 1070-1118.) 

Following (westward) the coui'se of the Knverl (v. 115), the 
_ wind will come to the land of the Keralas (v 

Keralas. -^^y The river Kaverl, which fertilises the 

•Cola country, flows past the great temple of f^iraiigam. The 
Kerala land is identifiable, with the west coast from JS". Travancore 
to Gokarna in N. Mysore. Kerala was known to Pataiijali, and 
is appai-ently the same as Kerala-putra of Asoka's rock Edicts. 

Having thus gone through the" southern half of Deccan, the 

Malyavati Mt. - • wind will next see the Mrdyavanta moun- 

■ tain (v. 18), and Pancapsara t\\^ tank of 

Masyakarni ^si (v. 19). . Both these names are well known from 

Ramayana. 1 Mdlyavatda^ is apparently the central jiortion of the 

i Ramayana 3. 11. 11-12; Raj,'lmvam9a, 13, 38. • ' . ^^ ' 

* For Mdlyavanta, see Riiiriayana 4. 28. 1. The difference between 
.poetical talent and iioetical genins can be well seen by comparing the 

44 Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. [March, 1905, 

Eastern Ghats between the I'iyers Pennar and Krsna ; and the 
Paiicapsara tank is to be located somewhere between the Krsna 
and the Godavari. 

Then the wind avoiding the passes ronnd about the Godavarl 

. _ will tui^n to the capital of Kalingas, {y.2\); 

Kalmga-nagari. ^^^^ ^j^-^j^ -^ ^-^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ sea-coast (v, 22) . 

It is clear that the Kalinga capital was near the sea but not on the 
coast. In the 12th century this capital was at KaUnga-nagara, 
which has been reasonably identified with modern Mukhalingami in 
Parla-Kimidi Tributary State, District Ganjam. This town stands 
on the river Vamgadhara, 18° 37'lat. 84.° 3' long., about 22 miles 
by map from Kaliiigapattam, the port at the mouth of this river. 
From the sea-coast the wind will blow over the Vindhya- 

Vindhya Mouu- padah, frequented by elephants (v. 23), to 
tains. the Beva with its groves peopled by Savarts 

and its plains by more civilised races. The hill ranges to the north 
of the Mahendra Mountain were considered to be a part of the 
Vindhya ; and this hilly region was then occupied by the Savarix 
tribes. The wind thus cuts direct north and reaches the source of 
the i^iver Beva or l^armmada in the Amarakantaka hill. 

The wind is then asked to go to Yayati-nagari to see the 

Yavati-nagari. amorous frolics of Kerall girls (v. 26). This 
' town has not yet been identified, but it is 

mentioned in a copperplate inscription of Maha-9iva-gupta.* 
There it is said to be on the bank of the Mahanadi, which may, 
after all, be a common name referring to some large river. Any- 
how it was in the country of Daksina-Kosala, identifiable with the 
eastern part of Central Provinces, Curiously enough the people 
are called Keralas. 

From Yayati-nagari, the wind will blow on to the Suhma-deQa 
on the Ganges (v. 27). Here the Brahman ladies wear tendei' 
palm leaves as ear-ornaments (v. 27) ; and here the god Murari 
resides (v. 28). On the bank of the Ganges is (an image of) Qiva 
and Parvati combined (v. 30). Fui^ther up comes the separation 
of the Bhagirathi and the Jamuna rivers (v. 33) ; and 
place is reached the capital Vijayaptira on the bank of the Gan- 
finally 36). 

description of Malyavanta in v. 18 of Pavanadiitam with Raghu 13. 26 and 
Uttara-X'amacarita, 1. 33, 

I Ep, Ind. IV, pp. 188-9. 
« Ep. Ind. Vol. Ill, p. 356. 

"Vol. I, No. 3.] Pavana-dufaiio or Wind-Messenger. 45 

[N. S.] 

Suhma is tlie old name of a Division of Bengal comprising 
Suhma northern Midnapore, District Hughly Avest 

of the Sarasvati river and the eastern part 
of District Burdwan. TamraUpfi was its port,i and Vtjayapura its 
capital. Yijayapura is apparently to be identified with I^udiah 
(^ISTadia or JTavadviiD), which was the capital of Lakhaniya at the 
time of the inroad of Muhammad-i-Bakht-yar.^ Is this name con- 
nected in any way with Vijayasena, grandfather of Laksmana- 
sena ? 

The poet Dhoyika (or Dhoyi Kaviraja as per colophon) can 
The time of the have his time ascertained only apjoroxi- 
poet. mately. Being mentioned in GUa-govinda, 

verse 4, he must be a contemporary of or slightly older than Jaya- 
deva. But Jayadeva's time has not yet been definitely ascertained. 
Dhoyika's verse is quoted in Jalhana's Stihhasita-muktavaU, com- 
piled in the second half of the 13th centiuy^ and in ^ridharadasa's 
SaduTcti-harnamrta compiled in A.D. 1205-6.* So he must be 
earlier than 1205. He cannot be much earlier, for in the present 
poem he makes Laksmana of the Sena dynasty its hero. 

The chronology of the Sena dynasty in Bengal is involved in 
much confusion. It is therefore discussed at length in an Appen- 
dix. I have therein come to the conclusion that Laksmariasena 
ruled from A.D. 1170-1 to about 1200. He must have ruled 
for some time, before he could be mentioned as having gone out 
on world-conquest (v, 2). Consequently the composition of the 
poem may be reasonably inferred to have taken place in the fourth 
quarter of the 12th century. 

The text with an index of 9loka-beginnings and of proper 
names, chiefly geographical, is appended. 


The Sena Dynasty of Bengal. 

The chronology of this dynasty was, up to a recent period, 
« Tk f largely based on traditions given in the 

II y y« Kula-panjikas of ghotahs (matchmakers), 
and in such works as Ksitlga-vamgavall-caritam and Ain-i-Akbari, 
Recent researches are, however, clearing the ground. As the 
author of Pavana-dutam, Dhoyika, was the court poet of Laksma- 
nasena, it has become necessary to ascertain the approximate time 
of this king, and thus indirectly of the whole dynasty. 

1 Dagakumdra-carite 6th uccahdna " Suhmem Ddmalipt-dhvayafiya," 

2 Uaverty's translation, p. &54. 

i NoticoB of Bombay tJanskrib Mss., 1897, p. XXVI (Qoi-dhoi Kabirdja). 
* R. L. Mittra's Notices of S?.n8krit Mss , Vol. Ill, pp. 135, 145. 

46 Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. [March, 1905. 

Documents for From tlie following documents the succes- 
determining their sion of the Sena kings has been well estab- 
Succession. lished : — 

(a) The Vallala-carifam of Inanda Bhatta (Biblotheca In- 
dica edition) p. 61 ; Adhyaya 12, 9lokas 50-3 ; 

(h) The MSS, of Bana-sagara and Adhhuta-sagara attributed 
to Ballalasena (their introductory verses) ;^ 

(c) The stone inscription of Vijayasena at Deopara (Ep. Ind. 

I., pp. 307-8). 

(d) The copperplate inscriptions. 

(i) Tarpanadighi, of Laksmanasenadeva (J.A.S.B., 
XLIV, p. 11). 

(ii) Bakargaiij, of Vi^varupasenadeva (J.A.S.B,, VII, 
p. 43). ■ 

(iii) Madanapada ; of Vi9variipasenadeva (J.A.S.B,, 
LXV, p. 9.) 

These show that the dynasty was founded by Samantasena ; 

. _, . then his son Hemantasena who married 

Tneir buceession. yasodevi ; then his son Vijayasena; then 

his son Vallalasena ; then his son Laksmanasena who married 

^ri-tandra (?) ; and lastly his son Vi9varupasena. 

The succession thus proved disposes of the assumption of 
Dr. R. L. Mittra that two Laksmanasenas existed in the Sena 
dynasty. 2 It also sets aside the traditionary list in the Ain-i- 

The next question is about the times of the Sena kings. The 
_,, . p, , determination of these times largely de- 

pends upon the ascertainment of Laksmana- 
sena's rule. For the beginning of Laksmanasena's rule various 
dates have been given A.D. 1106,^^ 1119-20,6 1170,6 and 1172.7 
On account of conflicting data, the solution of the problem is 
not free from doubts. 

The first historical fact to be noted is an era, known as 
_ , _ Laksmansena's samvat, abbreviated to ^«> 

LaksmansenaEra. ^g.. " This era is still W in Mithila, and 

1 Of tlie Ddna-sdgara, extracts from three MSS. are available (E. L. 
Mittra, Notices of Sanskrit MSS. I, p. 151; Eggelling, India office MSS. 
Catalogue, p. 545 ; and " Notices," 2nd Series by Haraprasad ^Hn, Vol. I, 
p, 170). Of the Adhhuta-sagara extract from one MS. is known, Eeporfc on 
Sanskrit MSS., Dr. R. G. Bhandarkar, 1897, pp. 83—85. 

2 J.A.S.B., XLYII, pp. 398, 402. 

8 Jarrett's Transl. Vol. II, p. 146. 

4 J.A.S.B. XLVII, p. 398; ValUla-caritam, Adh. 27, 9I. 4, p. 121. 
B Epig. Ind. Vol. I, p. 306; J.A.S.B., LXIX, p. 62. . , 

6 J.A.S.B.,;LXV,p. 31, ■''■'_': ' 

T Report on Sanskrit MSS, in Bombay, 1897, p. LXXXVIII' ^ - 

Vol. I, Xo, 3.] Pavana-dutani or Wlnd-Messenqer. 47 

[iY. S.] 

according' to some modern calculations it began in A.D. 1106. But 
■calcnlating from six of tlie earliest dates (five in MSS. and one in 
inscription), Prof, Kielliorn arrived at the conclusion that the 
era really began in A.D. 1119-20. According to him the La° Sa° 
was an ordinary southern (Karttikadi) year with the amanta 
scheme of lunar fortnight ; and the first day of the era was 
Karttika sudi one of the expired caka year 1041 = 7th October, 
A.D. 1119.1 I think this is a right conclusion, particularly as 
it is supported by a statement in the Akbarnama^ and other 

The era is generally taken to begin from the first year of 
The era taken to Laksmanasena's reign which, according to 
"begin from his first an anecdote in the Tabakat-i-ISrasiri,s began 
y63'^' . . with his bii'th. But this view is open to 

Objections. serious objections. Firstly, it involves the 

■assumption of a rule of more than eighty years — a fact unprecedented 
in Indian history and I suppose in the recorded history of the woi'ld 
too, even if the rule began from his birth. Moreover, in the Adbhuta- 
sngara Ballalasena is described to have raised his son to the throne 
before his o^y^l death.* If so, Laksmanasena must have been of 
■same age at the time of accession ; and his reign for more than 
eighty years becomes still less credible. Secondly, in the MSS., 
ihe Ddna-sUgara is said to have been composed by Vallalasena in 
paka year Cagi-nava-daga (1091) ; while the Adhbuta-sdgara is 
said to have been begun by Ballalasena in the faka year Kha- 
nava-kli-end-vahde (1090).^ These show that Ballalasena was 
reigning in faka 1090 and 1091 (A.D. 1168-69 and 1169-70), 
which is incompatible with the assumjDtion of Laksmanasena's 
rule beginning in A.D. 1119-20. The MS. of Adbhuta-sagara dis- 
tinctly says that though begun by Ballalasena, it was completed 
by his son Laksmanasena, whom he (Ballala) raised to the throne 
before his death. If this be true, Laksmanasena could not, possibly, 
have been king before A.D. 1168-69, Thirdly, it is curious to 
find that not a single date in the Laksmanasena era has yet been 
found earlier than 51, i.e., earlier than A.D. 1170-1.^ 

Tne ■woraingoi rpj^g ^^^q known inscriptions of this era 
tions in this era. ^^® peculiarly worded, and run as follows : — 

(1) Cri'inal-Laksmansenasy-dtita-rdjyesam 51 BJiddra-dine 29.'^ 

1 Ind. Ant., XIX (1890), p. 6.; Ep. Ind. I, p. 306, note 6. 

2 " For example, iu Bengal, the era dates from the beginning of the rule 
of Lachman Sen, from which date till now 465 years have elapsed ;" Akbar- 
naraa, Boveridge's transl , vol. II, pp. 21-2. 465 La. Sa. = 1506 r;aka = 164l V. 
Sara vat. 

3 Major Raverty's Translation, p. 555. 

4 Notices of Bombay MSS., 1897, pp. LXXXV-VI. 

6 Catalogue of India Office MSS., p. 545; and Bom. MSS., 1897, 

8 Jour. Bom. Br. R.A.S., XVI, p. 358. 
T Jour. 13oni. Br.E.A.S., XVI, p. 358. 

48 Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. [Marcli, 1905. 

(2) Crlmal-Lahsraanasena-devapadam-atUa-rajye sum 74 Vaipa- 
hha-vadi 12 Guraii.^ 

Literally, these would mean — " years 51 or 74 expired of 
Laksmanasena's reign, " i.e., his regnal years. But may not the 
years really refer to that of a general era which fell in that king's 
reign ? Several such instances are known in Indian epigra- 
phy, e.g.— 

(1) In the Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman — 

I. 4 — '■'■ Mudradamno varsTie dvi-saftatitame 70 2."^ 

(2) In the GrarhYa inscription of Candragupta II — 

I. 10 — " Cvi-Candragti/pta-rajya samvvatsare 80 8.^" 

(3) Bilsar inscription of DhruYacarman — 

I. 6 — " Cri-Kiiviaragiiptasy-ahliivarddlicvinana-vijaya- 
rajya-samvatsare slian-nav ate. '''"'' 

(4) Garhva inscription of Knmaragupta I — 

I. 2 — " Cri-K.uinara.gupta-rajya-samvatsare 90 8. "^ 

(5) Kosam inscription of Bhimavarinan — ■ 

I. 1 — " Mal'iarajasya Cri-BMmavarmanali samvat 100 
30 9."6 

(6) Halsl plates of Kakusthavarman— 

1. 4 — " Sva-valjayike aqUitame samvatsare.'" '^ 

In (1 ) the year is referred to paka era and in (2) to (5) 
the years to Gupta era ; they are not considered to he regnal years. 

More facts are needed to arrive at a reliable conclusion. On 
The era is from ^^^ existing data the safest theory at present 
the founder's first is to take the fii\st year of the era as the 
year. first year of the dynastic founder, and to 

Toelieve that on the accession of Laksmanasena, the era was- 
either foi^mally, adopted or made so widely prevalent that the era 
came to be known as Laksmanasena's, This theory meets the 
objections above raised on the ground of length of years or the 
dates of compilation of the Dnna-sagara and the Adhhuta-sagara.. 
It also helps to explain the following additional facts : — 

In the Deopara inscription, v. 20, Vijayasena is described to 
have assailed the lord of Gauda, to have put down the prince of 
Kamariipa and defeated the Kaliiiga. In the succeeding verse, 21,. 

1 Ind. Ant. X, p. 346. 

2 Ep. Ind., VIII., p. 41 and note 6. 

3 Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions, p. 37. 

* " " " P-^?- 

6 „ „ ,> P- 41- 

6 „ „ „ p. 267. 

T Tnd. Ant. VI, p. 23. 

'Vol. I. Xo. 3.] Parana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. 49 

[N. S.] 

are named Nanya, Raghava, Yardhana and Vira, as (kings) who 
were kept in prison.*- Presumably tliese names inchide the 
names of the defeated kings. Who was the defeated king of 
Kalinga ? Is he Raghava ? Such was nndonbtedly the name of 
a Kalinga king who ruled between A.D. 1156-1171.2 The early 
years of Raghava (A.D. 1156-60) would lit in with the last years 
•of Vijayasena, if the above view be adopted. 

According to Tabakat-i-Wasirij^ the news of the victories of 
Muhammad-i-Bakht-yar and of his conquest of Bihar reached the 
ears of Rae Lakhmaniah, when he had been on the throne for a 
period of eighty years ; and the following year he invaded the 
Rae's capital Xudiah and sacked it. Now, a rule of eighty years 
and more is not in itself credible, as I have already pointed out. 
But if the year be taken as Sathvat 80 of the era during the reign 
of Laksmanasena, as Professor Kielhorn pointed out,* the incredi- 
bility disappears. This would make the inroad and the sack of 
ISTudiah fall in Samvat 81 or A.D. 1199-1200. This date very 
nearly agrees with the date arrived at from Mussulman histories 
by Dr. Blochmann, as A.H. 594 or A.D. 1198.6 

JSTo doubt Major Raverty held the date of ini'oad as A.H. 
590 or A.D. 1194,^ because Muhammad-i-Bakht-yar who died in 
A.H. 602 is said to have reigned 12 years. But this does not 
necessarily mean 12 years after his sacking of !N"udiah ; it may 
as likely refer to the time of his first charge, when holding 
the fief of Kashmandi (or Bhugwat and Bhiuli).^ On the other 
hand, Dihli was occupied in A.H, 589, and Dr. Blochmann shewed 
that after this occupation various events occurred with respect to 
Muhammad-i-Bakht-yar which would have taken several years. 
^' It would, indeed, be a close computation if we allowed but five 
years for the above events, i.e., if we fixed the conquest of Ben- 
gal as having taken place in 594 H., or A,D. 1198. "^ 

Laksmanasena's reign came to an end shortly after Muham- 
mad-i-Bakht-yar's inroad.^ From the introduction to SadUhti- 
Jcarnamrta, it does not appear that Qridharadasa was Mahnmanda- 
lika under Laksmanasena, though he says his father had served 
him. 10 Evidently therefore this king did not live at the time of 
composing that work in A.D. 1205-6. 1200 A.D. might accord- 
ingly be taken as the approximate termination of Laksmanasena's 

1 Ep. Ind. I, p. 309, lines 19-20. 
3 J. As. Soo. Beng., LXXII, p. 113. 

3 Transl. pp 554, .555, 557. 

4 Ind. Ant., XIX, p. 7. 

6 J.A.S.B., XLV, p. 276. 

^ Tab. Nas tiansl., note 4 below p. 559, note 8 below p. 573. 
T „■ pp. 549-550. 

« .J.A.S.B., XLV, p. 276. 
^ Transl., p. 558. 
10 R. L. Mittra, Notices of Sanskrit MSS., TIT, p. 141. 

so Pavana-dutam or Wind-ALesseiKjer. [March, 1905^ 

Chronology of To summarise, the chronology of the 

the Sena Kings. Sena kings would then stand as follows : — 

Samantasena, founder (AD. 1119-20) 


His son 
Hemantasena = Yasodevi 

His son. 
Yiiayasena, contemporary of Raghara (also of Coragangajl 


His son 

Ballalasena (1158-60—1170) 


His son 
Laksmanasena (1170-1200 CiVeo) =9ii-tandra (?) 

Sam 51, 74, 80, 81. 
Inroad of Muhammad-i-Bakht-yar (A. D. 1199 Circa) 

His son 

It is noted in the Tabakat-i-JSTasirl : "His [Lakhmaniah'sJ 
descendants, up to this time, are rulers in the country of Bang."^ 
By " up to this time, " I suppose, is meant either the years in 
which the author was in Bengal, A.H., 641-2 (A.D. 1244-5) or the 
year in which it was finished A.H. 658 (A.D. 1260). 

Sonxe discussion took place in the time of Dr. Rajendralal 

Their caste Mittra as to the caste of the Sena kings.. 

In the Deopara inscription of Vijayasena, 

Samantasena is described as " Brahma-Ksatriy-dncim kula-giro- 

dama,'"^ The same term Brahma-Ksatra is used in the Vcdldla- 

caritam for these kings.* 

What does Brahma-Ksatra mean ? Prof. Kielhorn translated 
the above passage " head-garland of the clans of Brahmauas and 
. Ksatriyas.^" In Cnka-sandega v. 34, Kerala l?ind is described as 
" Brahma-ksatram janapadam ; " and in note 11, the word is taken 
to mean " Brahman-kinged.^ " Were the Sena kings then Brah- 
manised Ksattriyas ? In the inscriptions they are said to be of 
lunar race. 

Did the founder come from the south ? In the Deopara in- 

. . . scription it is said that in the lunar I'ace 

Tneir origin. arose Daksinatya imlers, Virasena and the 

rest (v. 4) ; that in that Sena family was born Samantasena 

(v. 5) who singly killed the robbers of Karnata (v. 8), and who in 

his old age frequented the hermitages on the banks of the (ranges 

1 ralldla-caritam, Adli. 12, v. 52, p, 61. 

2 Transl., p. 558. 

5 Ep. Ind., I, p. 306. 

* Adhyaya 12, v. 54, p. 61 ; cf. v. 45. 

6 Ep, Ind., I., p. 312. 

8 J.R.A.S,, 1884, p. 409; for note 11, pp. 433-4. 

Vol. I, N"o. 8.] Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. 51 

[iV. s.-] 

(v. 9) ; and that from liim was born Hemantasena (v. 10). With 
this may be compared Dhojika's selection of the southerly breeze, 
and his high eulogy of the Co/a-land as the ornament of the south. 
Is it likely that Samantasena is connected with Coragaiiga of 
Kaliiiga P Qoraganga conquered and apparently killed the Mandara 
king on the bank of the Ganges (Mandara seems identifiable with 
Suhma), after he had conquered Utkala^ ; and Utkala must have been 
conquered by him several years before Caka 1040 (A D. 1118-9), 
an inscription of which year describes him as "' sakal-Otkala-smn- 
rajya-padavl-virajmonaihy^ Is it therefore possible to infer that 
Coraganga, after killing the king of Suhma, put Samantasena in 
charge as feudatory ? 

1 J.A.S.B,, 1895, p. 139, note 1 ; Do. 1896, p. 241 ; cf. also J.A.S.B. 1903. 
p. 110. 

2 Ind. Ant. XVIII, p. 169. 


Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenyer. [March, 1905, 


[The numeral figures refer to the number of versa. 2 

Uraga-pura, a town, — 8, cf . 10. 
Kanaka-nagara, Gandharva town — 1. 
Kavi-nai-apati, — 103 (cf. colophon). 
Kavi-Esmdbhrtdm Cakravartti, (title) 

Kdnci, town — 12, 15. 
Kdlinga-nagara, town — 21. 
Kaverl, rivei' — 15. 
Kuvalayavatl, the hex'oine, — 2, 62. 
Kerali, nation — 16, 26. 
Gangd, river— 16, 27, 32, 39, 102, cf. 

Gocldvartka, residents of river Goda- 

varl — 21. 
Gauda-dega, country — 6. 
Gauda-rdja — 96. 

Gauda-Ksauni king of Gawda — 5. 
Gaud-endra king of Gauda — 101. 
Can'dan-ddri, Malaya hill range — ] , 
Cola, nation — 14. 

Tapana-tanayd, river Jamuna — 33. 
Tdmra'parnt, river — 8. 
DdJcsindtya, tract — 17, 63. 
Deva-rdjya, country — 28. 
Dhoyika, poet — 101. 
Dhoyi-Kavirdja, poet (with title) — 


Pancapsara, tank — 19. 
Pdnda-dega, country — 8, 
Bhdgirathi, river — 33. 
Bhujaga-pxcra, town — 10. 
Malaya, a hill range — 
Malaya-Tcataka — 63. 
Malaya-Tcpnddhara, — 5, cf . 1. 
Malayaja-rajah — 71 . 
Malaya-pavana — 3, 85. 
Malaya-maruta — 9, 92. 
Malaya-opatydkd — 62, 88. 
Misyaharm, saint, — 19. 
Mdlyavanta, hill range — 18. 
Yaydti-nagarl, town — 26. 
Rdme^vara, god and place — 11. 
Bevd, river Narmmada — 25. 
Lanlcd-dvipa, Ceylon Island — 10. 
Lahsmana, the king and hero— 2. 
Lopamudrd, wife of Agastya Rsi — 44, 
Vindhya, a range of hills — 23, 24. 
Vijayapura, capital — 36. 
Qavari, tribe — 25. 
^ri-lchatid-ddri, hill — 8, 62. 
Sena-dnvaya, the Sena dynasty — 28. 
Suhma, country — 27. 
Sva-rnadi, river Ganges — 30. 

Vol. I, 'No. 3.] Pavana-dutam or Wind-Mesenger, 53 

[N. S.] 

5R^ t# 3Z^ fi^JTcrtsi^ll^^J m ^^^ I 

^Tm ^^: f iiT^5^5 ^*f^v^^*i,^ II 5^ 11 

JTT^f^^T iT^^X(^5f ^Er?!IW ^m% II ^ II 
cT^T"^ r^f«J ^1 '^^T 5ffR?Dtcft5f^W^: 

m^ fvrwr H^f«T f^^^T ?^ ^^f^^^ « » II (^ol* 1**) 

54 Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenyer. [Marcli, 1905, 

m^Ht^f^^TJifcT ^1 c^Tf giHt xr^T^j II i. II 

^ri-ji5n5TT^^3f[=5<^)^ ^(^^T^t ft^fm II ^ If 

; ^^ g7^?fi^^cr^fH4^^^%^T! II ^ II 

^■*¥ri"jn^ g^^5i^cn^:^i-T5Tt ^hstt (Fol. 2^) 

liiin^^T T{^5T?T^cT^T^^5^^r^1% II .L II 
HTfcT ^f T^^f5fc^^(5T)^T^g^n^I^tcft- 
l"^fWq* ^^^cT f^^: '^^^^IT^^ II \\ II 
T^ ^'^ Hf f^^ lS[^'t^TJT^ TUT^TiHt 

Vol. I, Xo. 3.] Faiwm-dutam or Wind-Messenger. 55>' 

[N. 8.-] 

^mft^HT^^f^ S^^r €tf^¥^: ^^^ II \^ II 

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cft¥( : * ) ^m ^f^ f^^^^ ^Tf=^JnT?2TT^^'(!?l5 I 


g^iTSTT^ ^=^5T cT^qt f^^fif: f^Jil?: || \« || 
fe(Fol. 3^)3^T(^)i^W 5^f»f^q§: q4cf W^T^^W 
TT^^cr(Tr)%cTfiT^ ^: %9iqTg3: ?f^^T: I 

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^: q^r^^ \fc{ f cT^ciT^T i^^ir: I 

TT^^?rrq?TcT^fcJii$nD^(^?i3??fTr ii \«£. if 

S6 Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. [March, 1905, 

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c?t^ ^T¥[: qf^(rol. 3'')Hi;Tfr^XTJrHT^ ^^^' I 

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*Tl?f^J«Tf%^^^f^cr'^T^«lT(^l-)^=^^!ITf5I II ^^ II 
31^: ^m siJifcT T^T^^iTl^^TT at ^^T^: I 

Vol, I, No. 3.] Pavana-dutam or Wmcl-Messetiyer. STT 

[N. S.] 

m^t ^^ fg5T^«q€tT»MJT^TXr5Tf?fr II R^ II 

^T^?gt^f^ ^iSJT^t f^^^ i^^ii;! I 

cIT^xr^ ST^gif9i:5(r^T^>JT^ ^^ ^Tfd II 5^«> 11 

\T' l(^T)WT^^fcT 5jrfr^l%f^^R> ^5;Tfj[: I 

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^TcTWl"(^t)4 ^TilfcTSlitt^ ^1'(^)t^?TTt: 

^^T^^trflT?!^^ (d) 5I15q^5E|T5Tct't^T^TT*TT-. 
Vr=§4wT9igiy^^^Tr^^TTj ^Wf^ I! '?<£. II 

ift^^^nt JI^fcT fr(d)?:(3T)?Iig'*}31'3TTf^JTT«T: II ^« IP 

cTcT'^^^ (Fol. 4'') f^f^^^nf:cTif[^?:r ^^^w- 

^^ i^T^*T?:*TJlft ^f^fi^T f^VTTfcT II 9^^ |1 

lSirSl\^.l^ ^srfcT 31^^^ ^^ffl ^JT'^ft^lT 

3|tTr* %gra nf^ f^JT^^cTT ?TT f^HlfcT || ^^ || 

ftf^^t: "^JTiillTrt: 1?JTfr^H^ ^: I 

.S8 Pavana-drdam or Wind-Messenger. [March, 1905. 

ciTJn^t^ f^^il^fi;crl" fsr3T^(cTTJT)»5Ji^tcT i 
«t( ffT ? ) f*TH^Tf^cn?rfiD^Hgil^5TT ^TcrTT(^>) ^- 

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^T^ ^f r (Fol. 5^) ?7WJn=f f^cTT^Tift^l^^T^II ^y^ n 


-^*»rt^T5^ ^xrf^ f^cTsftf^t^^i=r^Tf*T ii ^^ ii 

^^^^S ^W^rfiT i:f : ^Tfflnri^^'fT^il- 
STi^'^^ ■qfT5T5T^?jmf<!lf^^tf<ncTI»*(: II ?^ || 


'Vol, I, Ko. 3] Pavana-dutam or Wind- Messenger. 59 


tS ctt^t (Fol. 5") 3^fxrcrf%f^5ftci^5iT ^^^^ i 

sfl^'^p^ T5ir*Tf^JT% q|?:HT^¥ ^W !1 8^ II 
^M'§^T3T^^fI?^'rT5^^^^3lf=?r (Fol. 6") m^i 

=^(0^4^ f ^fcT f%t?^'(^^) ^^ ^m^?;'^ II 8 8 II 
lif^T w{f^ ftr^cT^Jli-T*r5^afnT:^^5ft{ ii 8y, ii 

•5*^^5^.5I^Tq=5T;et^?n5ftTl]FfsT^f>f: II 8'^ fl 

60 Pavana-dutcnh or Wind-Messtn^er. [March, 1905'.- 

?fT 9f»Tf5ff f 1^^5^*- ^T 5R^T f^^JT^ II 

^t?^T^l=^W5R^^^: ^nni^If^t cT'jtrcf II 8£. ir 

^R^i tiTinf^vifcr ^f%^»i5 gi'icf ^t:?!! n y^» ii 
Tft?:^?!n ^f^59j»fr srt^t *i^^^ ii y.'i ii 

Vol. I, Is'o. 3,] Pavana-dutam or Wind- Messenger. 61. 

^^ ^^IJlfcT^ 3Ti:^> ^T5T=^^T M^f^ 11 H3 II 
^SSi: ^?§ f^^fi^^?i[^'t=^^ ^f^HTJIT:(Ji:) II «i.l II 

«^> ^^■^' m^^^^^K'^^w^T^ II >!,< II 

^im\^ g5Tf^^(^)«(^)cfT^3i^^r*^^T (Fol. 7") fHi 

f^2g^_if\cr: f^^€j(^^ *)^ft!l€tfj ^Z\W' 
^"^WtfW: ^xrf^ 5T3Tftf^^% W^^t ^: II U:? II 

^f Tint: if^^f^f?§cn*TT§ifcf ^^h^ i 

Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. [March., 1905. 
^T^tr^^T ^Xff^ Xf^ff ^^Ct^^iU^ II ^^11 

c^(^x[^miferivRiT^Scr3ft^^T3it i 

^f^^T^^^fjTcW^ficr c^(5l?tif f^^Ti: II < 8 II 
^T ^^^ fif^^fq T ^'gii^^^T^^fcT II iX II 

?T% ^T^r f iH^5^t Wfei ^w^T^ I 


sTTcTi HEr^^=f ^cTj: ^r>^ ^rlooff^^^ 11^^ n (Fol. 8'') 

'.^1^(^J ^T^ff! ^^1T cTi;^ ^=^% ^^^TtT- 

'Vol. I, 1^0. 3.] Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. 63 

IN, 8.'] 

sftfi ^f# ^il^Rfif «TiIWrq% ^I^ItTT 

^T^=f ^T^fxf ^ ^=f ^T fiT(ift)f^cfTwt f^HT(^)fcr ||^.L11 

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^[^TTT ST^TRT ^f^cTT f^^^ qT^^rRlI II O^ || 

64 Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. [March, 190&. 

^r^ ^m T^rsTTT^ff ^*j^5riT(iT) xf^fn^t 

^?T gr^^TT cT^ ?75ft^f^*i: iftcra^ || ^y^ II 

^^T^t^ ^mm^ far ^t ^irt^r ^^ ii ^< ii 
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?r^Tf^5|^t(^T-) U kx 1 Pi ci ((err-) ^n^ ft^T(^fT)?:Er5Tft- 

Vol. I, No, 3.] Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. ^)5 

[N. 8.-] 

1(5)§T:^T H^f^ flcTcf ^^(f^jcfl^J^STT^ II ^o II 

irT%^ra5|xrfctsfrf ^^wvrff f^f^ ii ^^. ii 
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STTcft K^^fe \-3i ^ =^TiTTTT'^: ^^: II ^^ || 
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^giTzi^ ^^^xjortT^^^ggxtf^ II ^"i. II 

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66 Pavana-diltam or Wind-Messenger. [March, 1905* 

cfffT^ITt f^iflTfiT ^=f 'flT ^4^?^' (Fol. 10'') frN^TST 


f^3^ sttSt ^?^?Df^^% ^Tf ^ 5rT=^i:f^ II "c*! II 
^ili^m ^ ^^ ^^^ ^cT5EJT f^^cft^fcr II «Lo II 

'SfT^^^T: xr^^xrf^cTt f*15%^^TT^: II i\ II 

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R«2rT^[5rTcT ^mi ^w^\ f^^^ ^^^^fc{ \ 

S sj 

^^^g^^T^fsTcn^^^ ^ ^^f«r? 11 «E ^ II 

Vol. I, 1^0. 3.] Favana-didam or Wind-Messenger. 67 

[iY. 5'.] 

=^^ ^^; ^wxrft^T =^^^ ift^^f^ I 

^2gT^=f}: gi^^^f gft ^^^=^TEl^K.- II d 8 II 

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^^^^ f^^^f^^T •5^^g(crt)5^^^ I 
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€8 Povana-dntam or Wind-Messenger, [March, 1905. 

fFol. 12'') 

^^^T^ g^TcliTsr^T %^3^t f^TTfiT II \«8 II 

^^5^cTTOTn»?lt TTTt ^W' \ ^TJW I ^ffrj II o II 
^^^T^lllMT»?lt ^-^t ^W- II ° II 

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^IcifTc^: I ^a'i^ II 

(Fol. 12'*) 

Vol. I, N'o. 3.] Pavana-dutam or Wind-Messenger. 





70 Favana-dutam or 


8^^'er. [Mavct, 1905. 
^(^^KT^XffC ^^>rt ... 3^ 

?Ti?^^K^3T^?rn ... 1^ 

f^^^T^i ^f^ =^?7ir^: ... < 8 
^^»5cTfg^^=r=5rt • • • y^e^ 

Vol. I, 'No. 3.] Pavana-dutam or 

^^- ^cWT ^^T f^l^T . 


5 O 

Wind- Messenger. 71- 

^i?:iTgK f^^^^^ffr ... ^^ 
f%TO«ijmr^^ f^5[:fxrrTT... ya 

72 The Hydra of the Calcutta Tanks. [March, 1905. 

6. The Hydra of the Galcutta Tanks — By N'elson Annandalb, 
B.A., Depicty Supermtendent of the Indiaji Museum. 

Description. — Body and tentacles very elongate, the latter not 
■clubbed ; body cylindrical tlia^ougbout ; six (sometimes five) tentacles 
in well-grown, five in young, individuals ; ovaries one or two, testes 
numerous. Testes and ovaries do not occur together on the same 
individual. Coloration. — Tentacles and base milky white ; distal 
portion of the body either pale or dark olive-green, deep chestnut, 
orange-brown, pale brown, cream-colour or dirty white ; never 
bright green. 

When I exhibited specimens of the Calcutta Polyp to the 
Society I was inclined to regard it at most as a variety of Hydra 
vvridis, using the specific name in a more extended sense than 
its author Linnaeus adojDted, to include H. fusca. A careful 
study of the descriptions of the European forms and an examina- 
tion of a larger number of Indian specimens has since led me to doubt 
whether I was correct ; in coming to a decision I am indebted to a 
note received from my friend Dr. J. H. Ashworth, of the University 
of Edinbui^gh, who has not, however, seen the Indian form. On the 
whole this form appears to be related to Pallas' H vulgaris ; but 
the question of specific characters, in animals so simple and so 
variable in appearance from moment to moment, is a very difficult 
one. From ty]Dical specimens of H, vulgaris^ it differs in several 
important details. 

When the animal is clinging to an inclined or vertical surface 
the expanded tentacles are arched, their proximal portion project- 
ing in a straight line from the disk, while the distal extremity 
either falls downwards or extends upwards. Every phase of 
colour may be found in the same tank, but the darker speci- 
men are more common over deeper water. Specimens kept in a 
bright light fade so as to become of an almost pui^e and uniform 
white, whatever their original coloration may have been. 

The Polyp is usually found on the under surface of the 
floating leaves of water-plants. It is by no means uncommon 
but may be a little hard to find. Sexual reproduction takes 
place at any rate from December to March, but probably 

1 I have jnst seen Downing's recently published summary of what is 
known regarding the species of Hydra, in his paper on " The Spermatogenesis of 
Hydra. {Zool. Jahrh., Anat., 1905 ) He recognizes, on wliat appear to be suffi- 
cient grounds, the following four, with one variety of the first : — (1) H. viridis, 
Linn. ;(2)H. grisea, hinn. (with H. vulgaris, Pall., as a synonym); (3) H. 
Jxisca, Linn. ; and (4) H. dicecia, Downing. I£ sexual characters are to be 
taken into account, as has been done in constituting H. dicecia — and the only 
objection is that a specimen which it is desirable to identify may not be breed- 
ing — then the Indian Hydra should be regarded as a distinct species, though 
it may only be protandrous or the converse. Under the circumstances it 
will be convenient to give it, at any rate provisionally, specific rank, calling it 
M. orienialis. The description above is a sufficient diagnosis. June 6th, 1905. 

Yol. I, K"o. 3.] The Hydra of the Calcutta Tanks. 73 

ceases at the comineiiceinent of the hot weather.' Budding oc- 
curs simultaneously. I have not seen more than two huds on one 
adult at the same time, and one is commoner ; nor haye I seen an 
attached biid budding. The food consists chiefly of small Crustacea 
and worms. Large Daphniids on coming in contact with the ne- 
matocjsts are temporarily paralysed biit break loose through their 
o^wn weight and recover movement after a few minutes. Adtilt 
Polyps show little inclination to leave a situation in which they 
have settled, and buds rarely move far from their parents ; conse- 
quently, large numbers of individuals may often be found within a 
small radius in the tanks, though there may be none on the sur- 
rounding plants. In an aqtiarium they desert the water-plants 
and take up a position on the side of the glass farthest from the 
light. If starved they become extremely pale and attenuated 
within a day or two, their coloui^ disappearing very much more 
rapidly than it does when they are well fed but kept in a bright 
light. They do not seem to be able to endure a change of tem- 
perature such as that brought about by the sun shining directly 
on the surface of the water in a large glass jar. 

So far as I am aware, the genus Hydra has not previously 
been recorded from British India, but a species (Zf. fusca ?)^ is re- 
ported from Tonkin. The late Professor J. Wood-Mason, as 
Major Alcock informs me, collected many specimens in Calcutta, 
I have myself seen a species (probably the same as the Calcutta one) 
in an aquarium in the Experimental Grardens at Penang, 

1 Since the beginning of the hot weather my captive specimens have disap- 
peared, and I have not been able to find any free in the tanks. April 12th 
1905. This remark still holds good. Jnly 21st, 1905. 

2 Richard, Mem. Soc. zool. France, vii, p. 237. What may be the same^ 
species is recorded from Turkestan (Daday, Zool. Jalirb. Syst., 1904. p. 480). 

74 Composition of the oil from Bir Bahoti. [Marcli, 1905. 

7. The Composition of the oil from Bir Bahoti or the " Bains 
Insect,'' (Trombidium. graBclissimuin). — By E. G. Hill, B. A., F.C.S. 

The animal known to natives as Mr hahoti and 'wliich. is de- 
scribed as tlie " rains insect," the " red velvet insect," the " lady 
cow," in the CyclojDEedia of India, and as Bticella carniola in 
Platts' dictionary, is a red mite about half an inch long and from 
a quarter to three-eighths of an inch in its widest part. It is 
covered with a, scarlet, velvety down, and appears on the ground at 
the beginning of the rainy season. It is only to be found for a few 
weeks in the year, but it has a great reputation among Mahome- 
dans as an aphrodisiac, so it is collected and kept for sale in the 
bazaar. The insects from which the author extracted the oil for 
his experiments were piu-chased from a dealer in Allahabad city. 
They had been kept for several months, but had not jDutrified at 
all. On pressui'e they exuded a deep red oil. It is this oil which 
is used medically as an external application. The CyclopEedia 
quoted above states that the oil is tised as a counter-irritant, but 
it appears to have no such properties, and its efficacy as a medicine 
is probably purely imaginary and due to its colour'. 

About a pound of the insects -were extracted with ether in a 
Soxhlet's apparatus. The extraction was carried on till the ether 
came over colouiiess, and the various fractions were then mixed 
together and the ether evaporated. The oil was slightly wet and it 
was dried over a little calcium chloride. Thus obtained it was 
almost as deep in colour as bromine. It had a specific gravity 
of "907 at IS^'C. On being kejDt at that temperatui-e for a day or 
two, it set to a semi-solid mass which melted at 18^-19'. The oil 
had a very peculiar odour somewhat resembling that of Malwa oil 
of opium. It began to boil with decomposition at 240'. The first 
portions of the distillate were liquid, but subsequently at a higher 
temperature solid products also passed ovei\ These were all 
colourless. Acrolein was obviously one of the products. 

With strong sulphuric acid the oil gave a vivid blue colour 
T^hich turned to green. With nitric acid all coloia- was destroyed. 
Cold potassium hydrate, chlorine water, hydrochloric acid and 
ferric chloride had no action on the oil. 

The oil readily dissolved in ether, but alcohol left a small por- 
tion undissolved. This was of the same red colour as the original 
oil : it was more soluble in hot alcohol, but was thrown out of 
solution as the alcohol cooled. 

With nitrous acid the oil gave a buttery elaidin in a few houi's. 

On distillation in steam partial hydrolysis took place, and the 
distillate had a ]Dungent odour which seemed to be that of 
butyric acid. This acid was recognized by neutralizing the 
distillate with potassium hydrate and evaporating to dryness on 
the water bath. The salt thus obtained was treated with alcohol 
and a few drops of sulphuric acid, and warmed, when the distinctive 

"Vol. I, IS'o. 3.] Composition of the oiL from Bir Balioti. 75 

IN. S.-] 

odoiu' of ethyl biityi-ate was obtained. The distillate with, steam 
also contained a small qiiantity of a solid acid. 

The following vakies were obtained for i\\e oil by the usual 
methods. It determining the saponification value aniline blue was 
used as an indicator and gave fairly good results, the very deep 
colour of the oil making very acciirate observations extremely 
difficult :■ — 

Sp. Gr. atl5° ... ... -906-907 "^ 

Acid value ... ... 62'3 | 

Saponification value ... 194" 7 [^Mean of three 

Ester value ... ... 132'4 | determinations. 

Unsaponifiable ... ... 3"7 per cent.J 

Heichert-Meissl value ... 0"55 

Hehner value ... 94 

Iodine value ... 65 

The unsaponifiable matter above was extracted with ethyl 
ether from a solution of the soda soap. It contained a good deal 
of coloui'ing matter. 

Preliminary examination. — As a preliminary examination part 
of the extracted oil was saponified with potassium hydrate and 
the fatty acids liberated. These were then fractionally precipitated 
with an alcoholic solution of magnesium acetate. The various frac- 
tions were decomposed with hydrochloric acid, and the melting 
points of the free acids thus obtained were all between 48° and 66'^. 
The above indicated the probable presence of a mixture of the 
glycerides of the more commonly occurring fatty acids, but re- 
crystallization of the six fractions of the free acids obtained from 
the magnesium soap gave a comparatively large amount of an acid 
melting at aboiit 52°, which seemed to indicate the possibility that 
there was a large amount of myristic acid in the oil. 

Unsaponifiable matter. — A quantity of the oil was carefully 
saponified with alcoholic potash, and the soap dried on clean sand. 
This was then extracted with ethyl ether in a Soxhlet apparatus. 
The extract contained soap, so it was dried on sand and extracted 
a second time. The insoluble poi'tion was added to the soap left 
from the first extraction. The ether extract seemed to contain some 
unsaponified oil, so it was saponified a second time and again ex- 
tracted with ether. On evaporation of the extract the solid product 
was ajoparently free from soap or oil. This was fractionally crys- 
tallized from alcohol in two fractions which had melting points of 
106^ and 95^. These fractions were separately acetylized by boil- 
ing with acetic anhydride under an inverted condenser, and the ace- 
tates precipitated by pouring into boiling water. The acetaes were 
carefully washed and crystallized frora alcohol when their melting 
points were 98° and 68° respectively. The acetates wei-e decom- 
posed with potassium hydrate and the alcohols taken up in ether. 
The oxtr-acts were evaporated to dryness and ci'ystallized from 
alcoliol and had melting points of 110° and 104° respectively. , 
Neither of the products thus obtained crystallized in the 

76 Composition of the oil from Bir BaJwti. [March, 1905» 

characteristic raanner of cholesterol. The crystals were thin 
plates, but their shape was quite irregular. Tested for cholesterol 
by the colour reactions the results were as follows : — 

A solution of a very small quantity in acetic anhydride gave 
an intense blue coloiu' on the addition of strong sulphuiic acid 
drop by drop, and the same result was obtained by Biirchard's 
modification of the above test in which the cholesterol is first 
dissolved in 2 c.c. of chloroform, and then treated with 20 drops 
of acetic anhydride and one drop of sulphuric acid. Salkowski's 
modification of Hager's reaction gave the colour which is charac- 
teristic of cholesterol. A minute quantity was dissolved in 2 c.c. 
of chloroform and an equal volume of concentrated sulphuric 
added to it and the mixture shaken. On separating, the chloro- 
foi"mic layer was coloured red, and on standing changed to purple- 
on the following day when the lower layer had a decided green 
fluoresence. It should be stated that the unsaponifiable raatter 
used in the above tests was quite free from colour. 

These reactions and the melting point of the alcohols obtained 
indicate the presence of cholesterol, and possibly of a fatty alcohol 
of high molecular weight. The amoixnt of unsaponifiable matter 
available was too small for fuj'ther investigation. 

The Fatty acids. — The soap freed from unsaponifiable matter 
was treated with dilute hydi^ochloric acid, and heated to liberate 
the fatty acids. These were thoroughly washed and di'ied in a 
steam-oven. They were still tinted red, but not enough so to 
render impossible the use of phenol-phthalein as an indicator. 

For the mixed fatty acids the following values were obtained : — 

Saponification value ... ... 199 

(Hence mean mol. wt. ... ... 282) 

Iodine value ... ... 66'6 

Melting point ... ... 31°-32° 

It is stated by Lewkowitsch that when the mixed fatty acids 
are triturated with alcohol specific gravity •911, the unsaturated 
acids are almost completely dissolved. Accordingly the mixed 
acids obtained as above were tr-eated in that way in the cold and 
filtered. The filtrate was reserved for treatment by Varrentrap's 
method. The residue of saturated acids was washed with alcohol 
sp. gr. "911 and fractionally crystallized from absolute alcohol. 
Three fractions were thus obtained, and each of these was recrys- 
tallized three times from hot alcohol. The melting points were 
then 54", 53°, and 53''. 5. After a fourth crystallization the melt- 
ing points were 54°. 7, 53". 4 and 53°. 6, respectively. They were 
thus very nearly pure, but not quite, and the presence of myristic 
acid with a small quantity of palmitic or stearic acids was 
indicated. The three fractions were mixed and put on one 

The filtrate from the alcohol sp. gr. "911 were evaporated down 
to dryness and saponified with an alcoholic solution of potassium 
hydrate. The soap was exactly neutralized with acetic acid and 

Vol. I, ]S"o. 3.] Composition of tlie oil from Bir Balioti. 77 

[lY. S.-] 
poured in a tliin stream into a boiling solution of lead acetate 
(7 per cent.) with constant agitation. The operation was conducted 
in a flask according to Tortelli and Ruggeri's modification of Var- 
rentrap's method. The solution was cooled and the supernatant 
liquid poui^ed off and the lead salt washed with lukewarm water 
and then di'ied with filter paper. The lead salts in the flask were 
then warmed ^vith ether on the water bath, and shaken, until they 
had completely disintegrated. The flask was kept at a tempera- 
ture of 10^ for 24 houi's, and then the liquid was filtered. The 
filtrate was decomposed with dilute hydrochloric acid, washed, and 
the ether evaporated oif in a stream of dry carbonic acid. The 
Tinsatui^ated acids obtained in this way gave an iodine value of 84. 
They were almost coloiu4ess, having a faint yellow tint, and remained 
liquid at the temperature of the laboratory, which was about 
17° CentigTade. Compared with the acids left after trituration 
with alcohol "911, the amount was not large. 

The lead salts, insoluble in ether, were also decomposed with 
hydi'ochloric acid and washed and dried. The acids were then 
added to the mixed fractions from trituration with alcohol men- 
tioned above. This mixture then contained all the satiu-ated 
fatty acids. 

These mixed saturated acids were then treated according to a 
suggestion of Partheil and Ferie. The solubilites in alcohol of the 
lithium salts of oleic lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids 
differ sufficiently for it to be theoretically possible to separate 
them. In the following, Partheil and Perie's directions were 
followed, but the alcohol used was the " absolute alcohol " of the 
laboratory and was subseqiiently found to have a sp. gr. of "809. 

The acids (8 grams) were saponified with 120 c. c. of half 
normal alcoholic potash, and the soap dissolved in 800 c.c. of 50 
per cent, alcohol. A ten per cent, solution of lithium acetate in 50 
per cent, alcohol was added, and the mixture warmed on the water 
bath to 60^, Nearly the whole of the precipitate formed at first 
passed into solution, and on cooling, a quantity of minute crystals 
separated out. These were filtered off, washed with 50 per cent, 
alcohol, and the filtrate which should have contained lithium oleate, 
together with the lithium salts of the less saturated acids, was put 
on one side. 

The lithium salts precipitated on cooling the solution in 50 
per cent, alcohol were dissolved in hot absolute alcohol A large 
amount was required, but the whole of the precipitate was brought 
into solution. The solution was then allowed to stand in the cold 
for 24 hour-s, at the end of which time there had settled down a 
precipitate which should have been the lithium salts of palmitic 
and stearic acids. There was only a small quantity of this preci- 
pitate, but it was filtei^ed off, the free acid liberated in the usual 
manner, well washed and crystallized from alcohol. The acid thus 
obtained had a melting point of 54''.5 to 55°, and was probably a 
mixture of stearic and myristic acids in equal proportions. Accord- 
ing to Reintz such a mixture melts at 54^.5, and as will be shown 

78 Composition of the oil from Bir Bahoti. [March, J 905. 

later tliere were clear indications of the presence of stearic acid in 
the oil. 

The filtrate from the solution in absolute alcohol should have 
contained only lithium mjristate. The alcohol was evaporated off 
and the salt decomposed with hydrochloric acid and washed. It 
melted at 53^^.7, and after recrystallization at 53°. 8. Myristic acid 
melts at 53 \8. 

Combustion of '1077 gram gave — 

HgO •1162 gram, i.e., 11"98 percent, hydrogen. 
COg '2777 gram, i.e., 70'3 per cent carbon. 

Myristic acid, C^^IIggOg, gives 11'8 per cent, hydrogen and 
70'5 per cent, carbon. 

This acid was obviously pure myristic acid. 

The filtrate from the solution in 50 per cent, alcohol was eva- 
porated down and decomposed with hydrochloric acid. The free 
acids thus obtained were liquid at the temperature of the labora- 
tory, showing that all the liquid acids had not been removed by the 
trituration with alcohol sp. gr. 911. The amount was too small for 
further exaraination. 

In the above work there is uncertainty as to the presence of 
stearic acid, and owing to the method adopted for the separation 
of the fatty acids it appeared desirable to make a separation 
ab initio by means of the lead salts and redetermine the iodine 
value for the unsatui'ated acids. Accordingly a fresh lot of tke 
mixed fatty acids was saponified. The soap was converted into 
the lead salts and these treated according to the method of Tor- 
telli and Ruggeri. The solid and liquid acids were thus separated. 
The liquid acids on standing for a few days at 18° had deposited a 
few^snaall needle-like crystals which melted or dissolved in the 
liquid acid on slightly warming it. These are mentioned below. 

The solid fatty acids were converted into their lithium salts 
as before, and the 50 per cent, alcoholic solution was heated to 60°, 
cooled and filtered. The filtrate gave liquid acids on hydrolysis. 
These were added to the liqiiid acids obtained from the lead salts. 
The salts on the filter were digested with absolute alcohol and 
filtered hot in a hot water funnel. This step Avas rendered neces- 
sary by the fact that the dissolved myi^istic acid began to crystallize 
out as soon as the temperature fell more than a few degrees. The 
precipitate left after filtering the hot solution gave on hydrolysis a 
small quantity of acids which was dissolved in boiling alcohol.. 
The crystals were pressed in filter paper. This was rejDcated foTir 
times, and after each crystallization the melting point of the crys- 
tals was taken. These were 49°.5, 51°.5, 53°.5, 62°.6. The re-.: 
m.aining acid was fractionally ciystallized in two fractions, and tke- 
melting point of each fraction was found to be 64°. 5. Since 
this is above the melting point of pure palmitic acid it m.ay be' 
taken as certain that stearic acid in small quantity is present in' 
the oil. 

The filtrate from the hot alcohol solution was cooled. Tliere 

"Vol. I, Xo. 3.] Composition of the oil from Bir Bahoti. 79 

was a copious deposit of litliium nayristate. This was filtered olf and 
tte freed acids were crystallized in three fractions which had melting 
points of 53 ''■7, 53°"8 and 53°"8 respectively. The acid was thus pure 
niyristic acid. The filtrate from this lithiiim myristate was 
evaporated down and the acid liberated in the usual manner. It 
was myi'istic acid with the melting point 53^.4, and after crystal- 
lizing from alcohol, 53 ^"7. The unsaturated fatty acids obtained in 
the second series of operations had deposited a few white crystals 
■after standing for two days at a temperature of 20"". As it was 
possible that they might still contain a small amount of solid acids 
.they were again converted into the lead salts and treated with 
^ether as above described. The acid thus prepared again deposited 
crystals in two days at 18', but the iodine value was 94''. 5, so it 
was probable that the solid acid was an unsaturated acid. 

For the investigation of this solid acid the crystals were 
filtered oif, and freed as far as possible from all liquid acids by 
gently pressing them between filter paper. The acid was dis- 
iinctly solid and was quite white. The amount was only 0"1390 
gram which had the iodine value of 67. The iodine value of the 
liquid filtered off ivas again taken to see whether it had undergone 
any alteration. It was found to be 67 when taken at the same 
time as that of the crystals, and when taken foia^ days later after 
exposure to air was found to be less still. Since the original value 
was 95, it seems likely that the unsaturated acids consisted mainly 
of oleic acid, and possibly of a lower acid of the same series. The 
change in the iodine value would be due to oxidation or decompo- 
sition. These changes seem similar to those experienced by Sen- 
kowski {Zeit.f. Phtjsiolog. Ghem. 1898, 434). 

The acids isolated were present as glycerides as is shown by 
the saponification value of the oil. Glycerol was, however, isolated 
in the usual way by saponifying the oil, removing the fatty acids 
and neutralizing the remaining solution. This was then evaporated 
to dryness and extracted with alcohol. The extract after removal 
of the alcohol was a rather dark liquid readily miscible with water. 
It gave all the reactions of glycerol. 

Conclusion. — The above experiments point to the conclusion that 
the oil is principally composed of myi^stodiolein, and that there are 
also present snaall quantities of stearin, cholesterol and colouring 
matter. The butyric acid may be the result of decomposition. 
There is possibly also pi^esent an alcohol of high molecular weight 
belonging to the fatty series of carbon conajDOunds. 

In the above it will be seen that the author's results regarding 
the separation of stearic and myristic acid do not agree with those 
of Partheil and Ferie. The latter state that when a mixture 
of stearate, palmitate and myristate of lithium ai-e heated with 
absolute alcohol so as to dissolve the salts, only the stearate and 
palmitate separate out on cooling, while the myristate remains in 
solution. Lewkovvitsch, indeed, suggests a method of separation 
of the acids based on their work, but he qualifies his remarks by 
the statement that Partheil and Feri^ worked on such small 

80 Coviposition of the oil from Bit BahoH. [Marcli, 1905^ 

quantities that tlieir results need confirmation. Wliat is probably 
the case is that owing to the greater solubility of the lithium salt 
such a separation is possible when the amount of myristic acid is- 
not in very large proportion to the stearic and palmitic acids, but 
that when it is large the method needs modification. The author 
proposes to investigate this question. 

Vol. I, N'o. 3.] Gontrihutions to Oriental Herpetology. 81 

[N. S.] 

8. Contributions to Ojriental Herpetology II. — Notes on 
the Oriental Lizards in the Indian Museum, loith a List of the 
Species recorded from British hidia and Geylon. Pai^t I. — By I^elson 
Annandale, B.A., Deputy Superintendent of the Lidian Mtisettm. 
(With 2 plates.) 

The collection of lizards in the Indian Museum is mainly Indian 
^nd Biu'mese, including examples of the great majority of the in- 
digenous species ; but interesting material from neighbouring coun- 
tries, sj)ecially Persia, Eastern Turkestan, Yixnnan, Siam and 
Malaya, is also included. Of forms from more distant regions only 
a comj)aratively small number are represented, one of the most note- 
worthy being the rare and peculiar Australian Ball-tailed Gecko, 
Nephriirus asper} of which a good specimen was obtained in exchange 
with the Queensland Museum some years ago, under a wrong 
identification. The Skinks and Lacertidee of Palestine, however, 
are well represented by the collection of the late Di-. J. Anderson. 
Regarding the majority of our Oriental specimens, an exami- 
nation adds little to the systematic and geographical knowledge to 
be found in Mr. Boulenger's works. Of a few, however, this is not 
the case ; for there are still parts of India — the country between 
northern Assam and southern Tenasserim is one of them — of which 
even the systematist has not yet exhausted the vertebrate zoology, 
and from which the Museum possesses specimens not examined 
critically until within the last few months. 

In the light chiefly of Mr. Boulenger's volume in the " Fauna 
of India " and subsequent papers, it is no longer possible to main- 
tain many of the older Indian naturalists' identifications, whether 
published or in manuscript, and he has recently pointed out that the 
names of two of the commonest of our Indian lizards cannot stand 
— that Hemidactylus coctsei, D. & B., the common house-lizard of 
Calcutta, must be known as H. fiaviviridis, Riipp, while H. 
gJeadovii, Murray (which is even more abundant in some parts 
of India) is identical with H. brookii, Gray. I must expi^ess my 
pei\sonal obligations to Mr. Boulenger for examining certain 
Geckos about the correct identifications of which I was doubtful, 
notably the specimens on which the form Gymnodactylus consoh- 
rinoides is founded. 


Alsophtlax pipiens (Pall.) 

■Gymnodactylus microtis, Blanford, J.A.8.B. XLIV (2), 1875, p. 

193 ; and 2nd. Yarh. Miss., Bept., p. 15, pi. ii, fig. 1. 
Alsophylax pipiens, Boulenger, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. i, p. 19. 

Dr. Blanford does not record this species from Ladak, though 
it appears to be common in Eastern Turkestan ; but there is a 

1 Ita locality is given as Queensland. 

'82 Coutrihut'ions to Oriental Herpetology. [Marcli, 1905. 

sjDecimen in the Museum (from Stoliczka's Yarkand collection)? 
wMcli bears a label corresponding to the locality " Kbarbu, 
Ladak " in tlie register. By some error tbis individual is entered 
as Gymnodactylus stoliczkce — a species so distinct from A. pipiens 
tbat it is hardly probable that any confusion can have been made 
between them. It is possible, however, that some accidental 
exchange of labels may have taken place, and the latter species 
must be recorded as belonging doubtfully to the fauna of British 
India. It is desirable, if it does occur in Ladak, that further 
specimens should be obtained. They are easily recognizable on 
account of the extremely small size of the ear-opening. 
Bistrihution.- — Turkestan ; Transcaspia. 

Gtmnodacttlus oldhami, Theob. 

G. oldhami, Theobald., Gat. Bept. Brit. Bid., p. 81. Boulenger^ 
Faun. Bid., Bept., ^. 38. 

The Indian Museum possesses the type and three other speci- 
mens of this Gecko. Except the tyjDC, they are from Lower Burma 
(" Tavoy," " Mintao," and " Tenasserim Expedition ") ; while the 
type is recorded as from S. Canara. This locality is more than 
doubtful. It was merely suggested to Theobald (loc. cit.) by 
Beddome, who did not take the species himself in South India. 

Boulenger's "keys" in the " Eauna of India" and the 
"Catalogue" hold good for G. oldhami, G. fasciolatus and G. 
variegatus, the types of all of which are in the Indian Museum 
but have lately been examined by him. 

Gymnodactylus marmoeatus. Gray. 

G. marmoratus, Boulenger, Gat. Biz. Brit. Mus. i, ]3. 44. 

The Museum has lately received specimens of this species, 
from the Malay Peninsula in exchange with the Selangor State 
Museum. It is to be hoped that it will be sought for in Lower 

Gymnodactylus consobrinoidbs, nov. 

The description is based on two male specimens, both probably 
immature, obtained in Tavoy a number of years ago by one of the 
Museum collectors. 

Biagnosis. — A form closely allied to G. pulcliellus and the 
Bornean species G. consohrimis. There is no trace of a 

.preeanal groove ; probably the adult male has an almost 
straig'ht series of pr^anal and femoral pores, uninterrupted 
in the middle line and numbering about 26 ; in the young male 
these are represented by depressions in a row of enlarged 
scales. The dorsal tubercles are smaller than in G. ptilchellus 
and less distinctly keeled ; the ventrals are larger ; the ventral 
region is not marked off by a line of enlarged tubercles ; the 

Vol, I, ]N"o. 3.] Gontrihutdons to Oriental Herpetology, 83 

plates on the ventral surface of the tail are not separated from 
the scales of the sides, as thej are in G. pulchellus, bj heterogene- 
onslj shaped, slightly enlarged scales. The head is very slightly 
depressed in the frontal region. In the types the colours have 
faded ; the dorsal surface is dirty grey-brown, "vvith nine darker 
cross-bars, edged with dirty white, on the body, and ten or 
eleven on the tail ; on the body they are considerably narrower 
than the interspaces, but on the tail they become gradually 
broader from before backwards ; the enlarged dorsal tubercles 
are pale ; the lower surface is dirty pale brown. - 

Meastirements (Immature male) . 

Total length 

... 112 m. 


... 36 „ 


... 62 „ 


... 14 „ 

Breadth of head 

9 „ 

Fore-limb ... 

... 15 „ 

Hind limb ... 

... 24 „ 

I have not been able to compare the specimens with examples 
of 6r. consobrinus ; but Mr. Boulenger regards them as representing 
a species intermediate in some i^espects between O. pulchellus and 
G. consobrinus. On the whole, the points in which they differ 
from, the former seem to tend rather in the direction of the latter's 
characteristic peculiarities. 

- GoNATODES ANDERSOOTi, Annand. (Plate II, fig. 3). 

Gr. andersonii, Annandale, J.A.8.B. (2) suppL, 1904, p. 21. 

Since the descinption of this form was -written two additional 
specimens, both from ISTarcondam, have been presented to the 
Museum by Mr. C. Gr. Rogers. They agree well with the types 
and differ in the same respects as they do from G. Tiandianus and 
G gracilis. On the whole they show that the Andaman (or 
I^arcondam ?) form is undergoing what is probably a parallel 
evolution to that which has produced G. gracilis. 

Phyllodacttlus burmanicus, Annand. (Plate, I, fig. 1 ). 

P. burmanicus, Annandale, Ann. Mag. N. H. (7) XV, 1905, p. 28. 

Since I described this species another specimen, from the 
same locality and collection, has been found in the Museum. It 
is also a male. The proportions of the head differ somewhat from 
those of the type, so that these cannot any longer be considered as 
specific characters. The number of lamellfB under the fourth toe 
is smaller than in P. siamensis, being 8 or 9 in the specimens 
examined fsee figs, lb, 2«, PL I). 

84 Contributions to Oriental Herpetology. [March, 1905. 

The possession hj the males of this species and of P. 
siamensis, Blgr., of pr^anal pores marks the two forms off as 
■eonstitnting a very distinct section of the genus Phyllodactylus, 
if not a separate genus. I take this ojoportunity to j&gure certain 
strnctui^al details, as P. europasus is the only other species of which 
I have examined specimens. P. siamensis and P. hurmanicus are the 
only forms kno^Ti from the Indian Region. 

Hemidacttlus triedrus (Daud.) (Plate II, fig. 2). 

H. subtriedrns, StoUczTca, J.A.8.B., XLI (2), 1872, p. 93. 

H. triedrus, Boidenger, Gat. Liz. i, p. 133, and Faun. Ind., 
Bept., p. 89. Annandale, Ann. Mag. N. H. (7) XV, p. 30. 

There is a fair series of this Gecko in the Indian Museum, 
but unfortunately most of the specimens are without localities. 
One labelled " near Bllore " and named, apparently by Stoliczka, 
Hemidactyltcs subtriedrus, agrees closely with Jerdon's description 
of that species, which, however, is not definitive. It agrees with 
Boulenger's definition of H. subtriedrus in having ten labials, a 
head more depressed than that of typical specimens of S. triedrus 
and rather smaller ventral scales ; but it dilf ers in having only seven 
infradigital lamellee under the thumb, nine under the middle finger, 
and nine under the middle toe. It may, therefore, be regarded as 
intermediate between the two forms. The fact that it is fi'om 
the EUore district suggests the possibility that other specimens 
of an intermediate character occur and that H. subtriedrus is not 
specifically distinct. Possibly it is one of the two specimens 
referred to by Stoliczka in the reference quoted ; but it is not the 
one fig-ured. Its donor's name was originally omitted in the 
Museum register, but " Dr. Stoliczka " has been written in in pen- 
cil at a later date. 

Hemidacttlus karenorum (Theob.) 

A specimen from Cachar, Assam (Wood-IIason') . Previously 
known from Pegu. 


Specimens from " Hills between Burma and Siam " and from 
Tavoy (Museura collector). 

List of Gteckos prom Sinkip Island. 

The following species Avere taken on Sinkip Island, which lies 
some little distance off the east coast of Sumatra, by the late 
Prof. J. Wood-Mason's collector : — 

1. Grymnodactyhis fese, ^Igr. (3 specimens). 

2. Semidactylus frenatus, Gray (numerous specimens). 

3. Semidactylus platyurus (Schneid.) (numerous specimens). 

Vol. I, Xo. 3.] Gontrihxttions to Oriental Herpetology. 85 

[K 8.-] 



I find it ]aard to ascertain the exact range of this somewliat 
rare species. The Mnseum has specimens from, the following 
localities: — Qnetta; Khorda, Orissa ; Granjam ; the Siinderhans, 
near Calcutta. Very few of the Indian lizards are found both in. 
Baluchistan and Lower Bengal, 


Pyctol^mus gularis, Ptrs. 

A male from Goalpara, Assam (JT. L. Houghton). 

The male differs from the female only in the development of 
the gnlar ponch, which commences in a vertical line with the cen- 
tre of the eye and terminates behind at the anterior border of the 
shoulder giixUe. It can be folded into the surface of the throat 
so as to be very inconspicuous, but is evidently capable of great 
distention ; the three pairs of gular folds which characterize the 
female are well marked on its sides. Its general colour is black, 
Ibut these folds and the lower border are dirty white : the speci- 
men, however, is much faded. 


A lamnidentata, Boulenger, Faun. Ind. Rept., p. 126 ; and Ann. 
Mus. Geneva (2) xiii, p. 317. 

Coloration is no guide in the identification of this species. 
Specimens of A. lamnidentata, A. armata and A. cructgera, may all 
be colonized ^ (at any rate if faded) exactly alike, as the series in the 
Museum shows. This series bears out Boulenger's contention, 
that the relative length of the superciliary spine affords a constant 
distinction between A. lamnidentata and A. crucigera, though the 
two forms are otherwise practically identical. In A. armata the 
spine is considerably longer than in either. 

The Museum possesses characteristic specimens of A. armata 
fi'om " Bui^ma " {Major Berdmore') and from Mergui (Anderson), 
The latter is the one recorded in the Fauna of Mergui, i, p. .343. 

Japalura andersonia^a, nov. (Plate II, fig. 4), 

This species is founded on two male specimens collected 
by Col. Godwin-Austen in the Duffla Hills (Assam-Bhutan 
Frontier). The late Dr. J. Anderson recognised it as new, but 
neither gave it a name nor described it. 

Diagnosis. — Body rather slender, strongly compressed ; hind- 
limb long, reaching to the tip of the snout or beyond. Snout 

^ But cornpiirc iny note in Faacic. Malay, — Zool, 1, p. 15i, 


Contributions to Oriental Herpetology. [March., 190,5. 

sligMly longer than the diameter of the orbit, obtuse ; rostral 
and STiperciliarj ridge j)rominent, continuous ; the latter suc- 
ceeded behind, after an interval, by a large conical tubercle, 
round which several others of smaller size are grouped. There 
are two other prominent tubercles between the top of the head 
and the tympanic region on each side. A curved line of smaller 
tubercles otitlines the inner margin of the superciliary region and a 
'flat or slightly depressed sub-circular area is similarly marked off 
on the snout. All the scales are keeled ; those on the sides are 
small, with five oblique rows of larger and more j^i'ominent scales 
running do"v\Tiwards and forwards from the base of the dorsal crest 
to or beyond a longitudinal line of similar scales ; between every 
two of these rows there is another, which is much shorter and 
does not reach as much as half way down the body. The dorsal 
surface of the limbs is covered with rather large heterogeneous 
scales, the larger of which show a tendency to be arranged in 
'V-shaped series; the scales on the belly and ventral surface of the 
limbs are larger than those on the sides ; the tail is covered with 
small, imbricate, leaf-shaped scales, which are not enlarged below. 
The nuchal crest is well developed (in the male), consisting of a fold 
of skin covered with three or foru* parallel horizontal rows of flat, 
smooth scales, the uppermost of which are larger than those below 
them and form a feebly serrated ridge ; the dorsal crest is much 
lower, consisting of a single row of similar scales. There is no 
gular pouch and no distinct gular fold. 

Coloratton—Dorssl surface dirty brown, rather dark, brighter 
on the head, feebly marbled on the sides, pale on the ventral 
siu'face ; pale, dark-edged lines radiating from the eyes. 

Measurements c?. 

Total length (tip of tail 


... 119 mm. 
... 20 „ 

Width of head 

... 11 „ 

... 33 „ 


... 29 „ 

Hind limb 

... 52- -„ 

This species can be distinguished easily fr 
by its compressed body and long hind lirubs. 

om J. plam'dorsata 

Salea soespieldii, Gray 

Specimens from Moulmein (/SfoZ-z.C2;A;a) and from "Hills near 
Hannatti, Duffla Expedition" (_GocIwin- Austen). 

Calotes microlepis, Blgr. • 

Of this species, previously known from the hills of northern. 
Tenasserim, the Museum possesses a specimen from Manipud'^ 
(E. n. OJdliam.) . 

Vol. I, K^o, 3.] Gontribuftons to Oriental Herpetology. 87 

Calotes yersicolor (Daud). 

C. gigas, Blyth, J.A.S.B. XII, 1853, p. 648. 

C. gigas {under C mystaceus), Boulenger, Faun. Ind., Reijt. 
p. 138. C. yersicolor id., op. cit., p. 135. 

I liaYe examined several liimdred specimens of tliis com.mon 
lizai'd. Tliej came from nearly all parts of India and Ceylon, 
ffom Malaya and Pitsanuloke in Siam. With these I have 
compared Blyth's types of G. gigas (which are in the Indian 
Museum), with the result that I find the two forms to belong 
clearly to the same species. There is no oblique fold in front of 
the shoulder in Blyth's specimens, and therefore they cannot be 
associated with G. tnystaceus, as Boulenger, who had had no oppor- 
tunity of examining them, thought probable. 

The types of G. gigas, which are adult males, diifer from 
the majority of specimens only in having the secondary sexual 
characters more fully developed ; the scales (especially those on the 
throat) are heavily keeled and inclined to be lanceolate in outline, 
the crest is very high, the cheeks are greatly swollen, the size 
above the average. The large series examined shows that in 
Lower Bengal (and probably in Assam, Biu-ma and Malaya), the 
males of G. versicolor rarely if ever reach an exti-eme degree of 
development in these respects ; but no exact line can be di'awn. 
We have specimens frora Sind, from South and JSTorth-West India 
and from Ceylon which agree almost exactly with Blyth's, while 
a much larger number are intermediate in character. Dr. Blanf ord's 
examples from Baluchistan {Eastern Persia ii, p. 313) belong 
to this intermediate phase ; but specimens from Calcutta have 
the male characters even less marked. The extreme phase 
(gigas} probably bears much the same relation to versicolor as 
Gonyocephalus humii (Blyth) does to G. subcristatus (Stol). 

Calotes yunnanensis. nov. 

C. m.aria (joaH.), Anderson, Anat. Zool. Bes. Yunnan Ex., p 806. 
Among the lizards collected by Dr. Anderson in Yunnan I find a 
Calotes which does not agree with any published description. It is 
registered in the Museum books as 0. maria and is the only speci- 
men from Yunnan now in the collection which at all resembles this 
species. It differs, however, in certain respects from the des- 
criptions and from specimens from Assam, and I think that (in the 
present state of systematic nomenclature) it is worthy of a specific 
name. Anderson states that the specimens of G. maria which he took 
in Yunnan were compared with the types of the species ; but what 
has become of the rest of them I have been unable to discover. As 
regards several important points the new form is intemnediate 
between 0. maria and 0. jerdonii ; but it has a distinct though rather 
short and shallow oblique fold in front of the shoulder covered with 
gr-anular scales. Were it not that the presence or absence of such 
a fold is a very constant character in other members of the genus, 

"88 Co7itrihutions to Oriefital Herpetology. [Marcli, 1905. 

tlie specimen would practically break down the distinction between 
the two species, or would have to he regarded as an aberrant 
example of G. maria. 

^Diagnosis. — Upper head scales moderate, smooth, imbricate, 
slightly enlarged on the superciliary area ; two parallel rows of 
■enlarged, erect scales on the temple, the posterior few of each 
series ending in short s]Dines ; the lower series is sejoarated fi'om 
the tympanum (in the type) by three rows of small scales. Tym- 
panum nearly half the diameter of the orbit, Gular pouch not 
developed ; gular scales strongly keeled, larger than ventrals, 
equalling dorsals. A rather short and shallow oblique fold in 
front of shoulder ; dorso-nuchal crest well developed anteriorly, 
the longest spines (just behind the head) measuring between half and 
two-thirds the diameter of the orbit. Fifty-six scales round the 
centre of the body ; dorsal and lateral scales feebly keeled, directed 
upwards and backwards ; ventrals much smaller than dorsals, 
strongly keeled. The adpressed hind limb reaches the anterior 
border of the oi'bit ; third and fourth fingers nearly equal. Tail 
round, slender, very long. Colour green (faded in the type), with 
pale (red ?) markings on the sides and on the knees and elbows. 



Total Length 

. 405 Mm 


.. 34 „ 

Width of head 

. 17 „ 

. 65 „ 


.. 305 „ 

Pore-limb . . . 

.. 53 „ 

Hind limb , . . 

.. 68 „ 

Calotes eouxii, D & B. 

C. rouxii, Boulenger, Faun. lozd., Rept., p. 142. 
Several specimens from Travancore (Beddome). 

ActAma mbgalontx (Gthr.) 

A. megalonyx, Boulenger, Cat. Liz. ; i. p. 347. 
Two specimens from the Perso-Baluch frontier {I)7; TurnbuU 
and Col. Wahah). 

Agama likata (Blanf.) 

A. lirata, Boulenger, Faun. Ind., Mept., p. 150. 

Pour specimens from Sind {Murray ?) agree very closely 
with the type, which is in the Indian Museum. Probably this 
species does not reach the full dimensions of A. melanura ; its tail is 
more slender and projDortionately longer. 

Vol. I, N"o. 3.] Contrihutions to Oriental Herpetology . 89 

Agama. sp. 

There are two specimens of a large Agama in tlie collection 
which represent a species allied in some respects to A. 7iupta, 
De Fil, As theii' origin is uncertain I prefer to leave them 
tinnamecl. The numbers on their museum labels have been ori- 
ginally entered in the register without particulars, but "Dr. W. T. 
Blanford. Persian collection ?" has been written in at a later date 
in pencil and the collector's labels attached to them resemble those 
of the Persian Collection, 

They differ from specimens of A. mipta (of which I have- 
examined a large sei-ies) chiefly in the character of their dorsal 
lepidosis. There is along the vertebral line a narrow band of enlarged 
scales which widens slightly from before backwards. These scales 
are not homogeneous or arranged in any order, but differ largely 
inter se both in size and in development ; they are strongly mucro- 
nate and their bases do not overlap ; some of them have almost 
the character of retroverted spines. Similar scales are scattered on 
the sides of the posterior part of the body, and there are others, 
which have a rather larger base, on the postero-lateral surface of the 
thighs. The majority of the dorso-lateral scales are extremely 
minute, but the antero-lateral scales of the thighs are large, imbri- 
cating, leaf- shaped, homogeneous and strongly keeled. The other 
characters are those of A. nupta. 

Agama nupta, De Fil. 

A. nupta, Boiilenger, Faun. Ind. Eepi., p. 151. Alcock and 
Finn, J.A.S.B. lxv(2), 1896, p. 555. 

The verticillation of the tail, at any rate in old specimens, may 
be practically absent. The coloration is frequently an almost 
ujiiform brownish-black. The Museum processes a characteristic 
but imperfect specimen from Chitral (D?'. G. M. Giles) 

LiOLEPis BELLii (Gray) 

L. bellii, Boulenger, Fascic. Malay, Zool, 1, p. 155, An- 
nandale emd Bobi7iso7i, ibid, (note). Annandale, P. Z. S., 1900, p. 
857, and Ann : Mag. N. H. (7) XV, 1905, p. 32, 

We have several immature specimens from Burma which 
exhibit the characteristic "juvenile livery" so well marked in 
examples from the Malay Peninsula. 

List of AoAMiDiE taken on Sinkip Island by Wood-Mason's 


1. Draco quinquefasciatus (Gray) (numerous specimens). 

2. Aphaniotis fusca (Ptrs.) (one specimen). 

3. Calotes juhatus (D. & B.) (one specimen). 

:90 Oontrilutions to Oriental Herpetology. [March, 1905. 

Ophisaurus apus (Pall.) 

Tlie known range of this species is from Dalmatia to Afghanis- 
tan, from near the Indian border of which we have a specimen ; 
hut it probably occurs also in adjacent parts of India. There 
are several specimens in the Indian Museum which have come 
from the Alipore Zoological Grardens, unfortunately without any- 
definite history ; but the probability is that they are from IS'orth- 
We stern India, 

,Ophisaueus gracilis (Gray) 

Of 0. gracilis the Museum possesses a large series, which exhi- 
bits great variation as regards colotir. Judging from a collection 
recently made by Major Alcock, this species is common near 
Darjeeling. Major Alcock tells me that it is extremely sluggish 
and generally " shams dead " when handled, 


Yaranus dumbrilii (Miill.) 

The only specimen we possess is immature, being the type of 
Blanford's Varanus macrolepis. It is very desirable that further 
■examples should be obtained, as the other Indian species of the family 
,«,re represented by large series. 



1. Teratoscincus scincas* (Schleg.) ... (Alcock and Finn, J.A S.B., 1896.) 


2. Ceramodactylus affinis, Murray* ... (iid, ibid.) Balucliistan. 

5. Stenodactylus orieutalis, § Blanf. ... Sind. 

4. Stenodactylus homsdenii, BIgr. ... Baluchistan. 

^ -5. Alsophylax pipiens * (Pall.) ? ... Ladak ? (iLniea.) 

6. ,, tuberculatus, § (Blanf.) Sind, BalucMsfcan. 

' 7. Gymnodactylus fedtschenkoi, Panjab Salt Range. 

Straucli. " 

8. Gymnodactylus seaber (Riipp). ... Sind. 

9. ,, brevipes, § Blanf . .,. Baluchistan. 

10. ,, kachensis, § Stol. ... Katch; Baluchistan; Sind. 

11. )) stoliczkEe, Steind. .. Upper Indus Valley. 

12. ,, lawderanus.§ Stol. .., Almorah and Kumaun. 

13. „ nebulosus, Bedd. ... S. India and Ceylon. 

14. Gymnodactylus jeijporensis, Bedd ... Jeypore. 

15- )) deccanensis, Gthr. ... Bombay Presidency. 

1 A * denotes an addition to the Indian fauna since 1890 ; a § that a type 
or co-type is in the Indian Museum. The names of species not represented 
in this collection are printed in italics. . 

Yol. I, Xo. 3,] Contributions to Oriental Herpetology. 

16. Gymnodactylus alhofasciatus, Blgr. ... S. Canara. 

17. Gymnodactylus oldhami, § TJieob, ... Lower Burma, 
triedrus, Gthr. ... Ceylon. 



19. „ frenatus, Gthr. 

20. „ . khasieusis § Jerd. ... 

21. „ rubidus,§ (Blyth.)... 

53. Gymnodactylus pegitensis,* Blgr. 

23. Gymnodactylus pulcliellus (Gray). .,, 

24. „ consobrinoides,*§ 


25. „ variegatus § (Blyth). 

26. „ feas, * Blgr. 

27. „ fasciolatus§ (Blyth.) 

28. Agamura crui-alis, § Blanf. 

29. „ persica* (A. Dum.) 

30. Pristuras rupestris. § Blanf. 

31. Gonatodes indicus (Gray) 

32. ,, wynadensis (Bedd.) 

33. Gonatodes sisjjare/isis (Theob.) 

34. Gonatodes ornatus (Bedd.) 

35. „ marmoratus (Bedd.) 

36. ,, mj'soriensis (Jerd.) 

37. ,, kandiaaus (Kelaart.) 

38. „ andersonii, * § Annand. ... 

39. ,, gracilis (Bedd.) 

40. ,, jerdonii (Theob.) 

41. „ littoralis (Jerd.) 

42. Phyllodactylus burmanicus,*§ 


43. Callodactylus aureus, Bedd. 

44. Ptyodactylus homolepis, § Blanf. 

45. Hemidactylus reticulatus, Bedd. 

46. ,, gracilis, § Blanf. 

47. „ frenatus, D. & B. 

48. ,, brookii, Gray. 

49. ,, turcicus (Linn.) 
.50. ,, persicus, § Anders. 
.51. ,, maculatus, D. & B. 
52. ,, triedrus (Daud.) 
.53. Hemidactylus substriedrus, Jerd. 

54. Hemidactylus subtriedroides,*§ 


55. „ depressus, Gray. 

56. ,, Icschenaultii, D. & B.... 

57. „ fluviviridis, Riipp. 

58. ,, gigauteus, § Stol. ' ... 

59. ,, bowringii (Gray) 

■60. ,, karenorum (Theob.) .. 

61. ,, garnotii, D. & B. 

62. ,, platyiu-QS (Schneid.) .. 

63. Teratolepis fasciata,§ Blyth. 
•64. Gehyra mutilata (Wiogm.) 

65, Lepidodactylus ceylonensi.s, Blgr. .. 

66. „ aurantiacus (Bedd.) 
€7. „ liigubri.y (D. & B.) .. 

Assam; Upper Barma, 


(Boulenger, Aiui. Mus. Genova {2} 

xiii) Pegu. 
Bengal (?); and Lower Burma, 

Tavoy. (Antea.) 

Lower Burma. 

(Boulenger, op. cit.), Pegu. 

Western Himalayas. 


(Alcock and Finn, op. cit.) 

Sind; Central India (?) 
Nilgiris, S, India. 
Wynaad „ „ 
Nilgiris ,, ,, 

Malabar District. 

Ceylon; S. India, and Preparis I. 
(Annandale, J.A.8.B , (2) suppl. 

1904) Andamans. 
Ceylon and S. India. 

.Malabar District. 

(Annandale, Ann. Mag. N.H., 1905), 

N. A root. 
Sind and Baluchistan. 

S. India. 

Central Provinces. 

S. and E. India; Burma; Ceylon. 

(=H. gleadovii, Murray.) All 
India and Ceylon. 


Deccan and S. India. 
Central and S. India; Ceylon. 
S. India. 
(Annandale, op. cit.}, Upper Barma^ 


All India, Burma (?) and Ceylon. 
( = H. cocta3i, D. & B.), All India. 
Malabar district. 
E. India and Burma. 
Pegu ; Cach«r. 
Sikliim and Burma, 
E. India ; Burma and Ceylon. 
Deccan and Sind. 
N.E. India; Burma and Ceylon. 
Burma and Ceylon. 
S. India. 

Burma and Ceylon ; Andamans 
and Nioobars. 


Contrihttions to Oriental Eerpetology. [Marcli, 1905, 

68. Hoplodactylus duvaucelii (D. & B.) ... 

69. Hoplodaotylus anamallensis (Gfchr.) 
YO. Gecko verticillatus, Laur. 

71. ,, stentor (Cant.) ... 

72. ,, monarclitis (D. & B.) 

73. Ptycliozoon homalocephalum fCrev.) 

74. Phelsuma andamauense § (Blyth.) .. 

Bengal (?) 

Anamallays, S. India. 

N.B. India ; Burma. 

Cliittagong, Burma ; Andamans 

and Nicobars, 
Lower Burma; Andamans (?) and 



75, Eublepliaris hardwickii, (Gray.) 

76. ,, maculnrius, § Blytb, 

Peninsular India ; Balucbistan. 
Punjab and Sind ; Chitral. 


77. Draoo maculatas (Gray.) 

78. ,, blanfordii, Blgr. 

79. „ norvillii, *§ Ale. ... 

80. ,, dussumieri, D. & B. 

81. „ tseniopteras, Gthr. .. 

82. Sibana ponticeriana, Oav. 

83. Otocryptis bivittata, Wiegm. 

84. Otocryptis heddomii, Blgr. 

85. Ptyctolsemus gularis, Ptrs. 

86. Copbotis ceylanica, Ptrs. 

87. Ceratophorus stoddartii, Gray. .. 

88. ■ „ tennentii, Gtbr, 

89. ,, aspera, Gthr. 

90. Lyriocepbalus scutatus (Linn.) 

91. Goiiyocephalus suberistatus (Blytb.) 
[G. humii (Stol.) = G. bubcristatus (aged 

92. Gonyocep'halus'bellii ['D. &,'&.) 

93. ,, grandis (Gray.) 

94. Acantbosaura armta (Gray) 

95. ,, crucigera, Blgr. 

96. ,, lamnidentata, Blgr. ., 

97. Acanthosaura minor (Gray.) 

98. ,, kahhiensis (Anders.),, 

99. Acanthosaura major (Jerd.) 

100, „ tricarinata§ (Blytb.) 

101, Japalura andersoniana, *§ Annand, 

102, „ variegata, Gray ., 

103, ,, planidorsata, Jerd. 

104, Salea horsfieldii, Gray 

105, ,, anamallayana (Bedd.) 

106, Calotes microlepis, Blgr. 

107, „ cristatellus (Kubl.) 

108, „ jubatns (D. & B.) 

109, „ versicolor (Daud.) 

[C. gigas, Blytb = 0, 

110, Calotes maria, Gray 

111, „ . jerdonii, Gtbr. .,, 

112, „ emma, Gray 

, Assam and Burma. 

, (Alcock, (2) J.A.S.B. LXIV.) 

Upper Assam, 
. Malabar Coast, 
. Tenasserim. 

. India and Ceylon (not in Hima- 


S. India, 


. Ceylon (mountains only.) 



Kandy district, Ceylon, 

Andamans and Nicobars. 
individuals), Annandale, J.A.S.B. (2)^ 
1904, suppl.] 

. Pegu, 

. Tenasserim. 
. Lower Burma, 

Sikhim and Assam, 
. ( = Calotes fese, Blgr,) Burma^ 
. W. Himalayas. 


[A^itea], N.E, Assam, 
. Sikbim, Assam and Bengal. 
, Assam; Sikbim. 
. S. India ; Ceylon (?) ; Burma 5 N. E"^ 

, Animalay and Patni Hills, S, India 
. Lower Burma ; Manipur. 
, , Tenasserim. 
. Nicobars. 

All India, Burma and Ceylon, 
versicolor (Daud.)] 
., Assam. 
., )) 

., Burma and Assam, 

Vol". I, No. 3.] Contributions to Oriental Herjgetology 
113. Calotes mystacens, D. & B. 


114. Calotes grandisquamis, Gthr. 

115. Calotes nemoiicola, Jerd. 

116. Calotes ceylonensis (F.Miiller) 

117. Calotes liolepis, Blgr. 

118. Calotes undamanensis,* Blgr. 

119. Calotes ophiomaclius (Merr.) 

120. „ nigrilabis, Ptrs. 

121. Calotes liocephalus, Gthr. 

122. Calotes rouxii, D. & B. ... 

123. „ elliotii, Gthr. ... 

[Calotes fese, Blgr, = 

124. Charasia dorsalis (Gray) 

125. „ blanfordiana, Stol. 

126. „ ornata (Blyth) 

127. Agama isolepis, Blgr. ... 

128. „ rubrigularis § (Blanf.) 

129. „ megalonyx* (Gthr.) 

130. „ tubercnlata, Gray 

131. „ dayana (Stol.) ... 

132. „ himalayaiia (Steind.) 

133. „ agrorensis § (Stol,) 

134. ,, melanura (Blyth) 

135. „ lirata§ (Blanf.) ... 

136. „ iiupta, De Fil. ... 

137. „ caucasica (Bichw.) 

S. India, Ceylon, Andamans and 


Nilgiris; Malabar. 

(Boulenger, Aim. Mag. N.H., 1891) 

Ceylon ; S. India ; Nicobars. 

138. Phrynocephalus olivierii., D. & B 

139. „ theobaldi, Blyth 

140. ,, caadivolvulus (Pall.j 

141. „ ornatus, Blgr. 

142. „ maculatus, Anders. 

143. „ euptilopus, *§ Ale. & 


144. „ luteogattatns, Blgr. 

145. Liolepis bellii (Gray) 

146. TJromastix hardwickii, Gray 

147. ,, asmussii* (Strauch) 

Bombay Presidency ; Travancore. 
S. India. 
Acanthosaura kakhiensis (Anders.)] 
... S, India (hills). 
Central India. 

Central and North-Bastern India. 
... N.W. India. 

Baluchistan (Antea). 
Kashmir and W. Himalayas. 
Foot of W. Himalayas. 
Upper Indus Valley. 
N, W. India (high altitudes). 
Sind ; Panjab ; W. Himalayas. 
Sind ; Baluchistan. 

,, „ ; Chitral. 

Upper Indus Valley. 
N, Baluchistan, 

[Alcock and Finn, 
op. cit.2 

S. India; Burma. 
N. W. India, 
Baluchistan [Alcock 
op. cit.']. 

and Finn, 


148. Ophisaurus gracilis (Gray) 

149. „ apus* (Pall.) ? 

... N.E. India; Sikhim ; Assam 

Upper Burma. 
... N.W. India ? (^ritea.) 


150. Varan ns griseiis (Daud.) 

151. ,, flavesreiis (Gray) 

152. „ bengalensis (Daud.) 



nebulosus (Gray) 

durnorilii 'IMiill.) 
salvator (Laur.) 

N.W. India (deserts). 

N. India ; Burma. 

Peninsular India and Ceylon j 

Burma ? 
Central Provinces (?) ; Bengal j 

N. E. India ; Ceylon ; Burma 

Andamans and Nicobars. 

(To be continued.) 

94 Archseologtsch Onderzoek ojp Java en Madura. [Marcli, 1905. 

9. Archseologisch Onderzoek op Java en Madura. I Beschrijving 
van de ruine hij de Tesa Toempang, genaamd Tjandi Djago. 
Batavia, 1904. — By Father Dahlmann, S.J. Oommumcated by 
the Philological Secretary. 

A magnificent volume of Archaeological research has lately- 
been presented to the Asiatic Society by the Batavian Society of 
Letters and Arts. It is the first outcome of the researches con- 
ducted by the newly established archseological survey in the 
Dutch Bast Indies, and it treats of one of tliose highly interesting 
relics of true Indian Art, so profusely scattered over the whole 
ground of Middle and Eastern Java. Although I cannot claim any 
title to introduce to you this adniii^able work — yet the favourable 
opportunity I enjoyed of visiting Java on my way back from 
China and of personally examining some of its most distinguished 
monuments, may perhaps excuse my saying a few words about the 
results embodied in this volume. I am all the more anxious to 
do this for the Asiatic Society in that it was a distinguished 
English statesman and administrator in the Far East, who gave 
us the first accui^ate and scientific knowledge of the monumental 
antiquities of Hindoo civilization in Java. I refer to Sir Thomas 
Stamford RaiSes, Grovernor General of Java and its dependencies. 
This distinguished member of the Asiatic Society, inspired by that 
high enthusiam for Indian research which led to so many dis- 
coveries, revealed to us for the first time a new world of Indian 
art in his masterly History of Java. I say " masterly : " for when 
we remember that until his time nothing had been done to clear 
the way for the study of the relics of Hindoo Religion and Art 
once predominant in Java, everyone must be surprised at the 
vast and minute learning with which Raffles introduced into the 
descriptive and figurative details of research. His History of 
Java gave the first impulse to closer investigation of the grand 
monuments. But although since his time some remarkable works 
have been published by distinguished members of the Batavian 
Society, it was long before a methodical inquiry, covering the 
whole ground of ancient Hindoo relics, could be inaugurated — 
perhaps according to a German proverb, " Gut Ding hat Weile," 
" a good thing needs time." And indeed it is a good thing, in fact 
an excellent thing, which finally has been brought forth by the 
Archfeological Survey of the Dutch East Indies under the leader- 
ship of its talented Director General, Dr. Brandes. 

The volume presents to us a complete arch^ological picture 
of a Buddhist Sanctuary in Eastern Java, now-a-days called Tjandi 
Toempong. The monument described is neither one of the earliest 
nor one of the finest works produced by the Hindoo artists in Java. 
For the monuments erected in the Eastern Kingdoms of Hindoo 
Princes show, in style and workmanship, a remarkable decline 
from what we admire in the artistic beauty developed at a much 
earlier period in Central Java. If we look for the monuments 
of the classical period, we must turn our eyes to Boro-Bodur and 

Vol. I, No. 3.] Arclimologisch Onderzoeh op Java en Madura. 95 

[_N. 8.-] 
to Prambanam. We might have perliaps expected that the system- 
atic research now inaugiu'ated would begin with those master- 
pieces of art. The sm^vej has taken a contrary coiirse, beginning 
with Eastern Java, where art was in its decline and leading in- 
vestigation from the latest relics of true Indian art to the earliest 
and at the same time the most glorious representatives of Indian 

I say " true Indian art." For when you go through the 
splendid photo-series illustrating this volume, you will immedi- 
ately be impressed by the truly Indian character of the ornament. 
This is not only the case with the decorative ornament in general. 
The true Indian character shines forth above all in the sculpture 
cycles decorating the terraces of the montiment. It was one of the 
characteristic features of the Hindoo artists in Java, that they 
decorated the walls not only with detached sculptures and statues, 
but Tvith a continuous line of scenes representing' a whole cycle of 
legends. They reached their highest perfection in the sculpture 
cycles of central Java. At the Brahmanical sanctuary of Pram- 
banam the legend of the Ramayana is worked out in a splendid 
set of reliefs. But in the Buddhist sanctuary of Boro Bodur we 
have the whole legend of the life of Buddha as told in the 
Lalitavistara, put before our eyes within the frame of more than 
sixty reliefs. Another series of sculptui^es represents in continu- 
ous line more than thirty Jatakas, that is to say, more than all the 
Buddhist monuments of India proper and of Afghanistan toge- 
ther contain. Besides there is another sculpture cycle of more 
than sixty highly-refined reliefs, of which the meaning has not yet 
been discovered. We meet with the same characteristic featui'e 
in the monument described in the present volume. 

The Sanctuary is mounted on a threefold terrace, one terrace 
rising above the other. The walls of every terrace have their 
peculiar cycle of legends. In the first ten-ace we meet with a set 
of legends evidently taken from the fables of the Pancatantra ; the 
reliefs of the second terrace represent scenes of the Rama legend ; 
those of the third terrace give the Arjunavivaha and especially 
Arjuna's fight with piva ; finally the walls of the Sanctuary itself 
are decorated with scenes of the Krishna legend. So we see 
here united within the architectural limits of a small sanctuary 
a good number of favourite topics of Hindoo epic poetry. 

Now as regards artistic workmanship the sculpture-cycles of 
Tjandi Toempang are, as I have already pointed out, far inferior 
to those found in Central Java. For comparison's sake I have laid 
befoi-e you a few of my own photos, repi-esenting scenes of the 
sculpture cycles either of Boro-Bodur or of Prambanam. Nay, 
the artistic value of our Tjandi must be held even much inferior 
to the reliefs of Panataran, lying in the same region of Eastern 

But it is not the artistic value, which gives to the sculpture- 
cycles here represented their importance. This is fco be sought 
for in quite another line of comparison. 

96 Archaeologisch Onderzoek op Java en Madura. ' [Marcli 1905. 

The artists of the classical period of Hindoo art in Java 
closely followed the original Sanscrit texts when lepresenting their 
legendary objects. The legends, as told either in th*? original 
Ramayana and Mahabharata or in the original Lalita vista ra, 
were the models put before the eyes of the workmen of Central Java. 
In Eastern Java, on the contrary, it is no longer Hindoo epic poetry 
as contained in the original epic, but Hindoo poetry remodelled in 
the old Javanese Kavi translation. The scenes of the jBrst terrace, 
although closely resembling some legends of the Pancatantra, follow 
the old Javanese Tantra, which itself is based on the original Pan- 
catantra or on the Hitopade9a. The cycle of the second terrace 
follows the Rama legend as told in the old Javanese Ramayana. 
And so with the legend of Arjuna in the third terrace and with the 
Krishna legend on the walls of the Sanctuary. It is therefore as a 
Javanese reflex of Hindoo poetry, that is to say, as a typical old 
Javanese development of Hindoo thought and Hindoo life,- — an 
outcome of that continuous Hindoo influence, spread over the 
country for so many centui^ies — that the monument before us 
should be viewed and a place assigned to it in the history of Indian 
art in Java. In these sculptures we must look therefore for the 
true representative of all those literary and artistic characteristics 
which Hindoo civilisation finally developed on Javanese ground 
and which, combined together, make out the proper and original 
type of old Javanese civilisation. 

But there is yet another remarkable point to be noted in our 
monument ; a point which is of considerable importance with 
regard to the religious and artistic development of Hindoo belief 
not only in Java but over the whole sphere of India. 

Look at the decorative element of our sanctuary. You will 
find nothing in it indicative of a work of Buddhist devotion. 
The sculptiu-e-cycles, in which piva plays such a remarkable part, 
might lead you to say that Tjandi Toempang is a monument of 
^iva worship. 

But this is not the case. Although the ornament is all 
Brahmanical and as regards the sculpture cycles rather pivaite, 
the monument itself was consecrated to the worship of the five 
Dhyani-Buddhas and of three Taras or mystic powers. This 
becomes evidently manifest in the splendid statues representing 
separately the Dhyani-Buddhas and their Taras. And if there 
could be a doubt about the character of these statues, the old 
IN'agarl inscriptions, giving to every statue its proper signification 
would dispel it. 

How is this fact, that is to say the close connexion of pivaite 
art and Buddhistic worship, to be explained. 

The foundation of the Sanctuary, according to an inscription 
found at Tjandi Toempong is to be assigned to the first half of the 
thii^teenth century. Hindoo society in Eastern Java was at that 
time absolutely yivaite ; it had been f'ivaite ever since the 
seventh and eight century and remained fivaite in spite of the 
Buddhistic influence spreading over the country. Buddhism 

Vol. I, No, 3,] Archseologtsch Onderzoek op Java en Madura. 97 

became in tlie ninth, centiuy so strong that it conld give rise to 
monuments of sinjii splendour as we see in Boro-Bodur and in its 
neigbourhoo " . It is as if a mighty wave of Buddhist influence 
bad sud'^^.-iily come over Hindoo civilisation, established in Java 
on a thoroughly Brahmanical ground, either fivaite or Vishnuite. 
Later on tliis Buddbist wave lost its strength amidst Qivaite and 
Visbnuite worship, rooted deeper and spreading farther its branches 
amongst the Hindooised population. 

But in the beginning of the thirteenth centuiy a second wave 
of Buddhist influence reached Java on its eastern shore. This 
second wave came evidently from the south of India and gained 
some teraporary ascendancy in the mighty kingdom of Madja- 
pabit. That there must have been sucb an influence coming from 
the south, long ago, was pointed out by Burnell in his South-Indian 
Inscriptions. He found evidence of it in the close resemblance of 
the Nagari type of inscriptions we find in connexion with tbe 
statues to tbe Nagarl type of South India. He was only wrong 
about tbe epoch, saying that according to tbe resemblance of types 
this influence must have been exerted in the eleventh century. The 
writing of the inscriptions closely resembles tbe Nagari character 
of the first half of the thirteenth century, which is quite in ac- 
cordance with the age of the monument, as attested by the inscrip- 
tion of King Visbuuvardbana. The monument described is there- 
fore a new proof of the fact that Buddhism was yet existing 
in the south of India at tbe beginning of the thirteenth century, 
as in fact it existed in the north of India. But at the same time it 
is evident that Buddhism as developed in the Mahayana, had 
entered into a close religious and artistic alliance with ^iva worship. 
With regard to this the Sanscrit inscription found in Kasia in the 
North- Western Provinces and recently interpreted by Prof. 
Kielhorn of Gottingen gives a striking parallel. 

The inscription in the two first lines celebrates piva ; in the 
third line Tara, the Bxiddba^akti is mentioned disertis verbis. 
In the fourth and fifth line Buddha is celebrated as Tathagata and 
Munindra. So we find in the north of India the same connexion of 
yiva on the one side, of Buddha and its (^ahti on the other side 
that we meet with in the eastern part of Java. 

The few words I desired to say have become many. But 
they are, I hope, not quite out of place, since they tried to 
show how much light the religious and artistic development of 
Hindooism in Java may yet throw on the whole history of Indian 
religion and art. Further research may perhaps lead to the dis- 
covery of a page of the history of Indian art, lost in India proper 
and preserved in tbe Hindooised island far away. 

Vol. I, No. 4.] Anuruddha Thera. 99 

IN. S.] 

10. Anuruddha Thera — a learned Pali author of Southern India 
in the 12th Century A.D. — By Prop. Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, 

With the rise of Buddhism the Pali language rose to pro- 
minence in the 6th Century B.C. From that time to the close of 
the 1st Century B.C., that is, for nearly five hundred years, the 
Buddhist books including the well known Tripitakas, which were 
rehearsed in the three famous Buddbist councils, were used to be 
written principally in the Pali language. But since the rise of 
the Mahayana school of Buddhism under the auspices of the 
foui"th Buddhist Council that was held in Kasmira about the 
beginning of the Christian era, Sanskrit has been chosen as the 
principal medium of Buddhistic communications and the Bud- 
dhistic books have generally been written in the Sanskrit 

Thousands of Indian books written in the Sanskrit language 
have recently been recovered from or traced in Nepal, Tibet, 
China, Japan, etc. But very few Indian books written in the Pali 
language have been obtained from those places. Are we then to 
suppose that with the rise of the Mahayana school about the 1st 
Century A.D,, the use of the Pali language in the sacred scrip- 
tures was altogether stopped in India ? I daresay the answer is 
no, for, even in the 5th Century A.D., when the Mahayana school 
attained its highest development, India produced several eminent 
Pali writers of whom Buddhaghosa^ stands as the foremost. In 
the Ceylonese records^ we find indications that even up to the year 
1462 A.D. Ceylon used to derive some of its Pali literature from 
India and Buddhist monks were in large numbers sent to Ceylon 
by the Southern Indian kings of the Chola and other dynasties. 
It is not within the scope of this paper to enumerate all the Pali 
writers that flourished in India between the 1st Century A.D. 
and 15th Century A.D. In the present paper I shall give a brief 
account of only one of the many Pali writers that adorned India 
during that long period. The name of this writer was Anurud- 
dha Thera. 

Anuruddha was the author of three works in the Pali lan- 
guage, viz., Abhidhammatthasamgaha, Paramatthavinicchaya and 
Nama-rupa-pariccheda. Besides, he was the author of a did- 
actic Buddhistic poem in classical Sanskrit which is generally 
known under the name of Anuruddha-sataka.^ 

I Vide Mahavamsa, chapter XXXVII. 

8 Mahavamsa, Rajuvuli, Kajaratnakari, Saddharmalankara, commentary 
on the Visuddhimagga, etc. 

S In the Saddliammasamgaha, chap. IX, verses 14, 15, London Pali Text 
Society's edition (Fide J.P.T.S., 1890), two Pali works of Anuruddha have 

100 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Betigal. [April, 1905. 

In the Saddhammasamgaha and Paramatthavinicchaya it is 
stated tliat Anuruddha was born in Kancipura on the Kaveri 
where he spent the early part of his life as a Buddhist priest. He 
gradually rose to the position of Sanghanayaka or High-priest. 
Subsequently he went to Tinnevelly and Tanjore and resided there 
for some time for the propagation of Buddhism. Afterwards he 
went over to Ceylon and was admitted into the priesthood of tlie 
Uttaramula monastery. He is mentioned in the S'ataka as an 
upasthavira, but in the Saddhammasamgaha and other books he is 
described as a thera. 

The Uttaramula or Uttarola monastery' originated in Ceylon 
at the latter half of the 11th Century A.D. Anuruddha who 
belonged to that monastery 2 must therefore have lived after the 
11th Century A.D. 

In the Mahavamsa^ it is stated that Vijayabahu I, who was 
King of Ceylon from 1065 A.D. — 1120 A.D., sent messengers 
with gifts to the Ramanna country unto his friend the King of 

been mentioned, viz., Abhidhammatthasamgaha and Paramatthavinicchaya 
Thns we read there: — 

T^XM 5Jicf ^T TRJT3^f^f«T'^^*T II \ H II 

^^wsTW^wg*^ ^fW^'JTSPEnrf II ^1 II 

( ^i^^irr, T?f^^^ £. ) I 

Elsewhere we find the mention of two other works of Anuruddha, 
viz., Namarupapariccheda and S'ataka. The Abhidhammatthasamgaha has 
been published by the Pali Text Society of London, and the S'ataka by the 
Buddhist Text Society of Calcutta. 

1 Mahavamsa, chap. LYII, verse 20. 

3 Mahavamsa, chajj. LX, verse 5. 

Vol. I, JS'o. 4.] Anuruddha Thera. 101 

Anuruddha to bring from there some learned Buddhist monks and 
elders of the church. I have reasons to believe that the Rainanfia^ 
country was identical with the kingdom of the Pallavas that lay in 
the Coromandel coast, and " the King of Anuruddha " was the 
PallavaKing in whose territory Anuruddha was born and from whose 
territory learned monks including Anuruddha himself were taken 
over to Ceylon. Anuruddha must on this supposition have gone 
to Ceylon early in the 12th Century A.D. when Vijayabahu I was 
King of the island. 

Kancipura in which Anuruddha was born is identified with 
modern Conjeeveram, 43 miles south-west of Madras. It was the 
capital of the ancient kingdom of Dravida and was the residence 
of the kings of the Pallava dynasty till that dynasty was over- 
thrown by the Cholas at the close of the 11th Century AD. 
Rajarajendi^a Kulottutiga Chola I, who reigned from 1064 — 1113 
A.D., is said to have completely crushed the power of the Pallava 
kings and to have destroyed the city of Kanci, He, however, sub- 
sequently rebuilt and greatly improved that city but selected 
Tanjore as the permanent place of residence of the Chola kings. 
Anuruddha, we have seen, lived both in Kanci and Tanjore. 

It may be noted here that the Pallava Kings who reigned in 
Kanci were staunch Buddhists and belonged to the Sthavira school. 
It has already been stated that they were overthrown by the 
Cholas in the 11th Century A.D. From that time downwards they 
remained as vassals under the Chola kings. The last mention of 
the Pallavas as a dynasty occurs, as far as it is known at present, 
about the year 1223 A.D. In 1310 A.D. the Cholas being con- 
quered by the Mahomedans Kanci passed into the hands of the 
conquerors. Early in the 12th century A.D. Ramanuja, the cele- 
brated Vaisnava preacher, flourished in Srlperumatur, 18 miles east- 
north-east of Kancipura, and converted the kings of the Chalukya, 
Chola and other dynasties into his religion. The Buddhists were 
henceforth persecuted by the Vaisnavas of the Ramanuja school 
as well as by the Mahomedan conquerors. Still Buddhism 
lingered for some time in Kancipura or Conjeeveram and finally 
disappeared from it at the close of the 15th Century A.D. Anurud- 
dha Thera, who flourished in Kancipura early in the 12th Century 
A.D., was by no means the last Buddhist Pali scholar of that city. 

' In Burmese books we find, however, that Ananrata or Anuruddha was 
the 42nd for 44th) King of Pagan and Ramanna or Eamagniais the country- 
round Thaton. Vide Bigandet's Legend of Gaudama, Vol. II, pp. 145-146 
(3rd edition). Rev. T. Foulkes observes : — " Sir Emerson Tennent guesses 
that this Kingdom of Aramana [Ramanna] maybe apart of the Indo-Chinese 
Peninsula probably between Arracati and Siam ; and Turnour had already, 
without giving any authority, fixed it in Arracan ; but the passages in the 
Rdjaratniikari, the Bdjdvali and the Mahdvamsa, in which it is mentioned, 
clearly locate it on the Coromandel coast; and, as it is not Pandya nor Chola, 
the only part of tliat coast which remains is that which lies between Chola 
and Kalinga, namely, the old dominions of the Pallavas." The Indian Anti- 
quary, Vol. XVII (1888), page 126. 

102 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

11. The Colouring Principle of the flowers of Nyctanthes Arbor- 
tristis.—By E. Gr, Hill, B.A. 

Tlie Nyctanthes Arhor-tristis, known in Urdu as " Harsinghar, " 
is a large shrub of the order Oleaceae. The flowers are sessile in 
bracteate fascicles, they are pedunculate and are arranged in short 
terminal trichotomous cymes ; the corolla tube is orange, and the 
limb white. The flowers open at night and fall to the ground the 
following day. They are then collected for use in dyeing. The 
plant grows most abundantly in the sub-Himalayan districts. 

For use in dyeing, the flowers are steeped or boiled in water 
and the solution strained off. It is a beautiful rich golden-yellow, 
and dyes cotton fabrics without a mordant. The effect is tran- 
sitory, the colour fading slowly. When used with .alum or lime- 
juice the colour is brighter and less transitory, but the chief use 
of the dye is in combination with turmeric and safflower. It is 
seldom used with indigo. It is sometimes employed for colouring 
fancy leather-work. With safflower, turmeric, red ochre, myroba- 
lans and sulphate of iron it gives a fast maroon-brown, and with 
Butea frondosa and indigo and acidtilated water, a fast grape 

N^o reference has been found to this flower in the chemical 
literature at my disposal, but in 1902, A. P. Sirkar made in my 
laboratory, a preliminary investigation into the colouring principle, 
which he considered existed in the flowers as a glucoside. He was 
unable to obtain this in a pure state, owing to its sparing 
solubility in most solvents, but he suggested Ci^Hg^Og for 
the colouring matter, althoiigh on boiling this with dilute hydro- 
chloric acid, he obtained a substance with a brighter colour and a 
higher percentage of carbon. He also considered that there were 
two methoxy groups present in the compound and at least one 
carbonyl group. 

The most noticeable feature of the colouring matter was the 
high percentage of hydrogen which was invariably obtained on 

The method of work was as follows : — 

Aqueous extract. — The flowers were extracted in cold water 
and the extract carefully filtered. The infusion was light -yellow 
in dilute, and dark-brown in concentrated solutions. It had a great 
attraction for flies. The infusion gave an acid reaction with litmus, 
and a yellow precipitate with basic lead acetate which became yellow 
on addition of ammonia. With copper sulphate it gave a pale-yellow 
precipitate, which became green with ammonia. Stannous chloride 
gave a turbidity which disappeared on adding acetic acid. Ferric 
chloride gave a greenish-black colour which darkened on adding 
ammonia. Fehling's solution was reduced, as were also gold chloride 
and ammoniacal silver nitrate. It gave no reaction with gelatin. 
When a few drops of the infusion were carefully added to a few 
cubic centimetres of concentrated sulphuric acid, an intense blue 

Vol. I, No. 4.] Colouring Principle of Nyctanthes Arhor-tristis. 103 

colour was produced at tlie junction of the two liquids. This soon 
darkened and disappeared. 

When the infusion was allowed to stand for a few days alone, 
a reddish- brown deposit settled. If a little hydrochloric acid was 
added to the infusion, a reddish flocculent precipitate settled after 
about twelve hours. A similar precipitate was obtained by 
heating the infusion with basic lead acetate, decomposing the 
washed yellow precipitate with sulphuretted hydrogen, and warm- 
ing the yellow solution obtained on filtering. The amount ob- 
tained was always very small, but attempts to get more from the 
solution by heating on the water-bath with dilute hydrochloric acid 
resulted in the deposition of a black amorphous substance. When 
dried, it was very light and friable, and varied in colour from a 
very dark-brown to a jet black. On evaporating the solution after 
removal of this black substance, it was found to contain a sweet 
substance, which reduced Fehling's solution on boiling. 

About two grains of the red colouring matter wei-e collected, 
and washed with water. On boiling with alcohol a large quantity 
dissolved, and the residue appeared to consist of mineral matter. 
The alcoholic solution on evaporation gave a dark-red lustrous 
deposit. This was entirely soluble in alcohol. Thus obtained, the 
substance melted between 250° and 260°, dissolved in alcohol, ethyl 
acetate, and ether, but it could be made to crystallize from none 
of these. It also dissolved readily in alkalis and alkaline carbon- 
ates, and in a solution of borax. It was sparingly soluble in 
chloroform and carbon bisulphide, insoluble in benzene and cold 
water, very slightly soluble in hot water, and soluble in acetic 

Alcoholic extract. — Owing to the apparent high solubility of the 
colouring matter in alcohol, some of the flowers were extracted in a 
Soxhlet apparatus with alcohol (sp. gr. "SIO) till they were colour- 
less, and the hot alcohol was then allowed to cool. On cooling, 
bunches of needle-like crystals had settled all over the flask. 
These were pale-yellow, but after several recrystallizations became 
white. They had a sweet taste, reduced a solution of ammonia- 
cal silver nitrate, but did not rotate polarized light. 

Analysis gave : — 

Carbon =39-62 
Hydrogen. = 796 

Manniton . f = 39-57 

C«H,AJ''^'"'''\H= 7-7 

The crystals melted at 166° ; 
Mannitol melts at 168°. 

When the filtrate from the mannitol was slightly evaporated 
and cooled, no further precipitation occurred, but a small quantity 
of wax separated. The residue contained crude colouring matter 
with some resinous products. To obtain the colouring principle. 

104 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

the alcoholic solution was heated with dilute hydrochloric acid, 
when a bright scarlet product was obtained. This was filtered 
oif and washed with alcohol. 

The yield was very small, but thus prepared, the colouring' 
principle was only very slightly soluble in all solvents. If dissolved 
in large excess of alcohol and allowed to evaporate the colouring 
principle deposited a mici-oscopic powder which seemed to be 
crystalline when viewed under an oil immersion (yV)- 

Preparation of the colouring principle. — Since the above method 
was obviously not adapted to the preparation on a large scale, the 
colouring matter obtained by hydrolysis of the aqueous extract was 
dissolved as far as possible in alcohol and the solution heated with 
hydrochloric acid, when, as a rule, the bright red colouring principle 
was deposited. It was only possible to work with small quantities at 
a time, and in some cases black tarry products resulted at once with 
no red deposit at all. Moreover in some cases it appeared that 
the hydrolysis of the aqueous solution resulted at once in precipi- 
tation of most of the colouring principle, in wliich case the 
precipitate from the acidified water solution would not dissolve to any 
extent in alcohol, and the colouring principle could not be extracted 
by this method. The extraction was thus attended with great 
difficulty, and it was found that the best method was to keep 
solutions dilute, not to add too much acid, and not to boil The 
flocculent precipitate from the aqueous extract was then moderately 
soluble in alcohol, and on warming tlie alcoholic solution with 
hydrochloric acid a red precipitate settled down which could be 
easily filtered off. This red precipitate was washed with alcohol 
and water, and the pui^ified product collected. 

For a long time this could not be obtained pure, but it was 
eventually found to crystallize from pyridine and toluene. In the 
former of these it was very soluble, in the latter moderately so. 

The crystals were apparently of two kinds — one yellow and 
one red, but on gently warming the yellow crystals they became 

The melting point of the crystals was 225° — 230°. They were 
tested for methoxy groups by Ziesel's method ; none were present. 

Two combustions of an incompletely purified sample (it 
yielded a trace of ash on combustion) gave -.— 

= 69-10 , = 68-91 

H= 7-53 ^"""^ H= 7-34 

o. /p TT ^^ ■ i = 69 5 

^ i*-^4-°-5^) requires j g^ ^.^ 

0„H„0. .. /C=6S-! 



H= 7'5 

Several other combustions of other samples had been made 
in the course of the work. Results varied from 68-60 to 
70-36 for carbon, and 7'34 to 8-3 for hydrogen. The author thus 

Vol, I, N^o. 4.] Golouriny Principle of Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis. 105 
iN. 8.-] 

does not attach importance to the formulge mentioned above. 
It is certain, however, that Sirkar's results are useless. 

Properties of the colouring matter. — The red crystals were 
practically insoluble in water, very slightly soluble in ether, benzene, 
alcohol, ligroin, moderately soluble in toluene, and readily in 
pyindine. With strong sulphuric acid they gave an intense blue 
compound which rapidly became yellow through apparent 
absorption of atmospheric moisture. 

The author hopes to complete the investigation on some 
future occasion. 

106 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

12. The Monasteries of Tibet* — By Bai Saeat Chandra Das 
Bahadur, C.I.E. 


Tibet is the land of monasteries. Her history chiefly compri- 
ses records of the establishment of monasteries and temples and 
their endowments by the State, chiefs and nobles of the country, 
commencing from the middle of the 7th Century A.D., to the 
18th Century. 

There are eighteen different Buddhist sects, out of which four 
are widely distributed all over higher Asia including Tibet, Mongo- 
lia and Western China, Of these four sects three, viz., Sakya, 
Duk-pa and Mng-ma have the red-cap, which they use during 
religious services only, to distinguish them from the remaining 
15 sects. The fourth which is the reformed sect and therefore the 
purest of all, has become dominant since the middle of the 17th 
Century. Its monks use the yellow-cap. The Dalai Lama is the 
head of this Church. 

In the official register at Lhasa, in 1882, the total number of 
monasteries belonging to the Yellow-cap Church was 1026 with 
491,242 monks. Out of this number, 281 monasteries belonged to 
the provinces of U and Tsang which constitute Tibet proper, 150 to 
the provinces of N'yang, Lhobrag and Kong-po; 27 to Upper 
Kham; 154 to Lower Kham and 414 to Ulterior Tibet which is 
called Poi-Chen or greater Tibet. In this list village-monasteries 
and Mani-lhakhang (prayer-wheel temples) have not been entered. 

The number of monasteries belonging to the three red-cap 
sects, is a little more than the total of the Yellow-cap Church insti- 
tutions. This would bring the total of the monasteries of all the 
18 sects to over 2,500 and that of the monks to about 760,000. 

In Tibet every third boy in a family, as a rule, is sent to the 
monastery, in consequence of which the male population of the coun- 
try may be roughly estimated at 2| to 3 millions. 

The Yellow-cap Church Lamas take the vow of celebacy, which 
circumstances precludes them from keeping female company. But 
many among them while residing abroad seldom conform them- 
selves to monastic discipline. 

The miserable pittance which the monks of even the State- 
supported monasteries get for their subsistence, hardly exceeds 
three Tanka, i.e.. If Re. a month. Owing to this, about one-fifth 
of the monks in a monastery generally turn into traders. Many 
among them become mendicant priests and roam over the country in 
quest of the necessaries of life. These are called Tapa or monas- 
bery-boys. The agricultural population often regard them with 
dread for their irregular habits of life and clamom-ing for alms. 

There are few convents in Tibet and the number of nuns 
(Tsunmo) in them is very small. While the largest monastery 
contains 10,000 monks, the largest convent can hardly count 100 

* Compiled from Pagsam Jon zan and other Tibetan historical works. 

Vol. I, No. 4.] The Monasteries of Tibet. 107 

\_N. S.-] 

nuns for its inmates. The nuns of Tibet have the reputation of 
beingr pure as only the most religiously disposed among the fair 
sex betake themselves to monastic life. The red-cap Lamas gener- 
ally keep concubines called Ani who often dress as nuns. 

Marriage being the exclusive privilege of the eldest brother in 
a landholder's family, the younger brothers seldom care to share 
the bed of the house- wife with him which the custom of the coun- 
try allows. They generally keep concubines. It is true that 
there is marriage among the rich cultivators and herdsmen, but the 
majority of the common people make family in wedlock either 
singly or jointly. Thus, side by side with polyandry, concubinage 
has become a popular institution in Tibet. Out of 100, 99 people 
keep concubines. This explains the question as to what becomes of 
the majority of the female population who remain unmarried. The 
Tibetan male is generally less jealous than the Tibetan female 
which cii"cumstance has given rise to the formation of that much 
despised relationship called Nyamdo-pun, i.e., brotherhood in wed- 
lock versus brotherhood in matrimony which is polyandry piire and 


< ^ 

The monastery of Radeng was founded by Dom-ton-pa ' in the 
year 1056 A.D. Many predictions were on record in some of the 
sacred books such as Manju9ri Mula Tantra,^ Phalpo-clie, Do iiiii- 
je Padma Karpo,^ etc., as to the rise and progress of a great school 
and monastery in the centre of Tibet. Conformably to them, 
Dom-ton-pa founded Ra-deng in one of the finest spots of U,^ rich 
in various kinds of alpine vegetation. The valley of Ra-deng is clad 
in thick forests of firs, cedars, cypresses, and junipers. It abounds 
in numerous brooks and fountains, which yield very good water. 
Nine mountains, the culminating cliffs of which have various 
slopes, form the back-ground of this famed old monastery. Many 
kinds of medicinal plants grow on these hills. 

At this charming place which was possessed of many auspi- 
cious signs essential to the site of a sacred Buddhist institution, 
Dom-ton-pa built the monastery of Khyungo-chan, or " Eagle's 
head," in the vicinity of the hill of Senge-tag ^ (lion's rock). The 
valleys which open to the east and west of Ra-deng have spacious 
plateaus rich with verdure. On account of the tall and horn- 
like shape of the trees growing in this place, the monastery of 

108 Jotirnal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

Khyungo-clian ^ was called Ra-deng from (rwa, 'a horn,' and sgreng, 
* standing erect.' ) The large silver tomb wliicTi contains Ati^a's ^ 
remains is tlie most remarkable of all tbe sacred objects of Ra-deng. 
The central chapel of the monastery contains a complete set of the 
images of the Tantrik pantheon, in which Buddha is observing the 
triple vows, Maitreja watching the course of the world, and the 
four gods of medicine (Manlha) ^ looking to the four quarters as in 
life. Outside the cupola of the great Chorten was constructed the 
mansion of the chief Tantrik deity of GuJiya Samaja (the mystic 
commune) with a number of mystical gods, all in relief. When 
the erection of the monastery with the images was completed, 
Dom-ton-pa is said to have propitiated the god of the Tnshita 
heaven to enable him to have his monastery consecrated by his 
spiritual father. Accordingly, Ati^a, who was then seated on the 
right of Maitreya, the coming Buddha, showered flowers toward 
Ra-deng from Ttishita. Dom-ton-pa presided over the monastery 
for eight years. 

At Ra-deng there is a golden image of Milaras-pa, the famous 
Buddhist saint, _ It is said that the J^ingar Mongolian Chief, who 
persecuted the Nin-ma* Buddhists in 1716, on his way to Lhasa 
visited Ra-deng, and was much astonished when he was told that 
the hair on the head of the saints' image was not artificial. In 
the library of Ra-deng there were many rare ancient Sanskrit 
works kept sealed by the Grovernment of Lhasa. Ra-deng was 
the chief seat of the first and the earliest Baddbist hierarchy of 
Tibet and belonged to the Kahdam-pa School. 

The Monastery of Gah-dan. 

Tsong-khapathe great Buddhist reformer of Tibet, in fulfilment 
of a certain prophecy of Buddha, in the year 1408 A.D., established 
the grand annual prayer congregation of Lhasa, called the Mon-lam^ 
chen-po. After making offerings to the gods he prayed for the 
welfare of all living beings. In the autumn of the same year he 
examined the auspicious signs regarding the suitability of a plot 

vSN '^ »f-j I rpj^g name by which Dipaoikara ^rijnana the high- 
priest of Vikrama (^W&Viharaoi Magadhais known all over Tibet. He was 
I)om-ton-pa's spiritual teacher and died at Ne-thang near Lhasa only three 
years before the foundation of the monastery. 

Vol. I. No. 4.] The Monasteries of Tibet. 109 

{.N. 8.-\ 
of land situated on the hill of Dok-poiri ^ with a view to erect on it a 
great monastery. In the rocks of that hill he observed many religi- 
ous symbols such as the sacred mystic syllables "Om mani-padme 
hum, om vajra pani hum," etc., and seeing that there was some scar- 
city of water, he touched with his hand the water of a little foun- 
tain that trickled down. On further examination the fountain 
proved to be the source of a streamlet. In the midst of the rocks 
of Dok-poiri he found several fossil conch-shells one of which 
having its whorls from right ^ to left was believed to have been 
used by the Buddha himself. Erom a rock-cavern in the neigh- 
bourhood he unearthed a mask believed to have been used by the 
Lamas during King Thisiong-deu tsan's ^ time. It had the miracu- 
lous power of dispelling all the evil spirits of the place. On this 
auspicious place Tsong-khapa laid the foundation of the world-re- 
nowned monastery of Gahdan. Within the remaining months of 
the year the Dukhang-Unia * (central congregational hall), seven 
cells for the j-esidence of monks, and a building for the high-priest's 
residence, were finished. As soon as the monastery approached com- 
pletion, presents of gold, silver, precious stones, and other articles 
from the pious flowed to it from different quarters. The number of 
monks increased every year. Tsong-khapa furnished the monastery 
with numerous religious books, objects and symbols. In the 64th year 
of his age he erected the Tsang-khang ^ the principal chapel in the 
monastery. This was followed by the Gon-khang,^ the chapel of 
the hideous looking gods of mysticism. Then were constructed the 
Khyamra or courtyard, and overhanging it all round, porticos 
resting on 70 pillars. The Tsang-khang or chapel of worship was 
provided with a large image of the Buddha, three superb mansions 
of the gods of the Tushita heaven made of precious stones, with 
Bhau^ava, Mafiju fri, the deities presiding over the destinies of all 
living beings of the world and with the huge images of the four 
Lokaj)ala. He also enriched the library with many rare books of 
Buddhism. At Gahdan there are now only two colleges for reli- 
gious instruction to 3,300 monks, viz: — 

(1) par-tse Tva-tshang,''' where metaphysics are taught. 

(2) Chyang-tse,^ where esoteric Buddhism and mysticism 

are taught. 

110 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

Later on, during the ministry of Tsong-khapa's illustrious suc- 
cessors, the monastery became converted into a grand university 
both for secular and religious education. 

In the temples erected by Gyal-tshab ^ Darma Rinchen and 
Dul-dsin the most remarkable object is the Nam-gyal* Chorten,^ 
which contains the remains and personal properties of the great 
reformer. A satin tent hangs over the altar containing the urn. 
During the ministry of Gedun Phun-tshog Lozang Tanzing,"* Tashi 
Badur the great Khan of Kokonar covered the silver tomb of 
Tsong-khapa with thin plates of gold. (The gold used there is 
said to have been one year's revenue derived fi-om Kham). On 
the right and left of this central torah-chorten there are the tombs 
of the disciples and the illustrious successors of the founder. In 
some of them are placed their respective statues. 

In the chapel, called Serdan-Tsangkhang ^ (golden pure hall) 
at the centre of the great temple called Yang-pachan, there are the 
images of Buddha, Maitreya, and Amitabha. In the Gonkhang 
the life size statues of Kushi Khan ^ and his generals are placed in 
martial attitude. Besides these, stand several mythological war- 
riors all in divers frightful attitudes. In the chapel called Dub- 
choi "^ Tsaug-khang the remarkable thing is the image of ^amvara 
the chief of the Tantrik deities, with the SaJcti (female energy) in 
his clasp. 

In the Lama-khang a statue of Tsong-khapa, his works in 
original, painted tapestries, a set of Kahgyur scriptures written in 
gold, etc., are among the remarkable articles. This was Tsong- 
khapa's study in his old age. There are also several Gliortens and an 
image of Yajra Bhairava, the fearful defender of Buddhism. In 
the Sarma-khang, erected by Lodoi Choikyong, ^ there are the 
images of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas made of gold, sandal- wood, 
medicinal minerals besides numerous chortens, tapestries, pictures, 
etc. IntheDe feg ^ Lhakhang, i.e., the temple of the Tathagata 
there are eight silver chortens consecrated to the eight Buddhas. 
The most prominent of the images of the temple called Chyam- 
khang is that of Maitreya, the future Buddha, which is said to 
have come flying from Magadha. Beside it, stand in row the im- 
ages of several Bodhisattvas. In the Zim-khang ^'^ the private 

9 "^ "*^ 10 ^- 

Vol. I, N'o. 4.] The Monasteries of Tibet. Ill 

[N. 8.-] 

residence of Tsong-khapa, which contains the chair of the great re- 
former, is to be seen the curious image of the hero Khanda Kapala 
with a halo of variegated colours round his head. In the ascetical 
cell called So^Zsalphug' (the cavern of light) where Tsong-khapa used 
to perform ascetical meditation the images of the terrific Yaji-apani 
and his retinue attract the attention of the pilgrims. In the interior of 
the hall of pi-iestly assembly called Dukhang-Karpo, * the Serthi ^ 
(the golden chair, i.e., the hierarchical throne) and the statue of 
Tsong-khapa impress the faithful pilgrim with awe and reverence. 
Phola Jung Wang provided this temple with a gilt dome built after 
the Chinese style and deposited in it a set of 108 volumes of the 
Kaligyur scriptures written in gold. In the Nai-choikhang * a 
tooth of the saintly reformer, called Tsem-Hodzer-ma ^ (the lustrous 
tooth) and the image of the thousand armed Avalokitegvara whose 
eleven heads look with eyes of mercy on all living beings of the 
world, are remai-kable. 

In the college of Chyang-tse, there is an elephant illustrative 
of one of Buddha's former births with a number of devout followers, 
all made of horn. Thei-e are also some representations of sainted 
faiiies called Khandoma,^ and a set of Tantrik bone ornaments 
including strings of beads, earrings, chains, amulets, etc., all made 
of human bones. All these are said to have once been used by the 
Indian saint Waropa. Naropa's mitre-shaped crown and his Tshe- 
bum (pot of longevity) containing consecrated water which never 
dries, are looked upon by devout pilgrims as wonderful objects of 
veneration. In the Gonkhang of this college there are terrific 
rej)resentations of the Lord of Death and his frightful companions, 
messengers, and guards. In the Parkhang (printing house) are tobe 
seen Tsong-khapa's voluminous works — all engraved on wooden 
blocks which are piled up in different rooms from which impres- 
sions can be had on daphne paper, at any time, at a small cost. In 
the temple of Yangpa-chan7 there are the scenes of Buddha's triumph 
over Mara (the evil one) and his legions. In the outer passage of cir- 
cumambulation called Ghyi-kor ^pilgrims are shewn many self -exis- 
tent (^an^-./wwgf) 5 sacred letters, figures, and fountain heads, finger- 
marks and footprints on rocks, and outside of this passage there 
is a lofty seat consecrated to the mountain god of Ma-chen 
Pomra, who is said to have patronised Tsong-khapa in his arduous 
works. The successors of Tsong-khapa, who are appointed by 

112 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

election from among the most learned and pious Lamas of ordinary- 
birth, occupy the hierarchical throne called SertM. They are, there- 
fore, called Grahdan Thi-pa} i.e., President or Chairman of Grahdan. 
Men of learning generally resort to Grahdan. Its monks, for the 
excellent education they get in the university, always rise to dis- 
tinction in the public service both secular and religious. All 
sections and classes of men are represented at Gahdan. 

The monastery of Sangkhar which contains 200 monks at 
Dachan,^ north of Lhasa, was founded by Tsong-khapa under the 
auspices of a rich noble named Rinchen Shun-pa of Tag-kar. It 
is under the supervision of the Gahdan Thi-pa. 

The Monastery of Sera. 

The monastery of Sera (literally, wild rose) was founded by 
Gham-chen-clioije fakya Ye9es^ in 1418, the year of Tsong-khapa's 

The Governor ]^ehu-pa who patronised Tsong-khajoa and his 
disciples, frequently used to invite them to Sera-tse,* a retired 
hermitage on the top of the hill overhanging Sera. On these occa- 
sions Ghoije devotedly served the reformer, ia consequence of which 
Tsong-khapa predicted a great future for a monastery which 
Ghoije would found in that neighbourhood. A saintly Lama while 
sitting in meditation, cast his eyes on a spot lower down the 
hermitage which was filled with wild rose plants in blossom. 
He predicted that some day there would be a monastery there. 
Emperor Yunglo of the Taming dynasty, had sent an invitation to 
Tsong-khapa to visit Peking ; but the great reformer, finding Ghoije' s 
time fully occupied with the more important work of religious 
reformation, sent Qakya Ye^es as his representative. Yunglo did 
honour to the Yellow-cap Church by showing every consideration to 
this disciple of the reformer on his arrival at Peking where Ghoije' s 
first act was to bring about the recovery of the Emperor from a seri- 
ous illness by the efiicacy of his religious services. The temple 
of Maitreya, then recently built by the Emperor, was placed in his 
charge and he was given the name of Chyam-chen Ghoije. Un- 
der the Imperial auspices Ghoije founded the monastery of 
Hwang-sze (Yellow-temple) in one of the imperial gardens of 
Peking situated a few miles to its north. For diffusing the reform- 
ed creed of Tsong-khapa in China he had taken with him several 
of Tsong-khapa's works and a set of block-print Kahgyur 

Vol. I, No. 4.] The Monasteries of Tibet. 113 

scriptures. After converting tHe Lamas of Peking to the reformed 
Tellow-cap Church he returned to Tibet. On the way he paid his 
reverence to Tsong-khapa making rich presents to him. Subse- 
quently, he founded the raonastery of Sera Theg-chen-ling, which 
now contains 5,500 monks and exercises much influence in the 
secular and religious administration of the country. 

He established a university in it with four Tva-tshang or col- 
leges. Of these GjSb-Tva-tshang belonged to the upper division 
of Sera and the remaining_^three, i.e., Thoisam, IS'orpuiling, Chyipa 
Khamanj^ Tva-tshang, and!N'ag-pa Tva-tshang belonged to Sera Meh, 
(snia^) i.e., lower division of Sera. In the middle of the eighteenth 
Century two of the colleges were established. It still continues to 
be a favourite resort of learned men of Tibet and Mongolia. The 
monks of Sera^ belong to respectable families of Tibet proper, 
Amdo, Kham, N"yagrong, Mongolia and Western China. 

There are in the Dukhang (grand hall of congregation) the 
images of — 

1. Buddha vanquishing Mara the evil one and a host of 


2. The sixteen Sthavira (Neh-tan Chu-rCig ') brought from 


3. Several life-like images constructed by the famous artist 

I^ehu Chang-wa, 

In the Gonkhang (the temple assigned to the Tantrik deities 
there are — 

1. The image of the six-armed Bhairava, constructed by Leg- 

gy an of Shwau. 

2. Gon-po Clioiijyal with four arms. 

3. The goddess Paldam Lhama (Kali) on horseback, her legs 

being tied by a chain, probably as a punishment for 
her wicked conduct. 

In the front wall there are painted representations of the in- 
vasion of U by the Tsang army and their defeat by the Tartars 
in 164<3, the scenes of war, and the images of fearful spirits, such 
as Gon-po De-mar, the genius (Chyarog-dong-chan, he with araven'^ 
head), etc. On the western wall are painted the likenesses of the 
successive high priests of Sera, etc. 

In the western corner of the upper congregation hall (Du.k- 
hang Gong-ma), are the images of Amitabha Buddha, the eleven- 
headed Avalokite9vara and the four-armed Gon-po, Maitreya made 
of silver, the Bodhisattva (^akya) as a citizen, and the eight 
spiritual sons of Buddha and also the Kah-gyur and Tangyur 
collections, all written in gold and silver. 

In the temple of Chyam-chen Shal-reh Lhakhang, the image 
of Ati9a with a Chintamani wishing-gem in his hand is conspicuous. 

cr|3j^-q^<3^-q^*5q] 1 

114 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

In tlie Go-chye-khang there are the images of Buddha and a 
silver Chorten. In the further niche of the Dukhang there is a 
golden image of the coming Buddha. In the front hall of the 
Dukhang there are the Dharma Pala. The most remarkable 
object in the passage of circumambulation round the monastery is 
a small Ghaitya (said to be one of the 84,000 chaitya constructed 
by Emperor Afoka) which was brought from Magadha. There is 
also a Tantrik image of Hayagriba with the goddess Vajra Varahi 
in his clasp. 

The Monastery of Dapung. 

Dapung the great monastery of lower C now the premier 
monastery of Tibet, was founded by Jam-yang Choije ^ in the year 
i^ire-mo7^/i:e?/, i.e. 1415 A.D. with 5,000 monks. His father Grah-wa 
Nor-shon, on account of his wealth, was believed to have been an 
incarnation of Vai9ravana the god of riches. Jam-yang was 
born at Sam-ye, and admitted into the sacred order at Tse- 
thang (Chethang). He received his first lessons in sacred litera- 
ture from the abbots of Sangphu. At Gahdan, Tsongkhapa and 
his principal disciples ordained him with the final vows of the 
oi-der of Bhiksu. At Tashi Dokha, Tsong-khapa advised Jnm-yang 
and his friend Jfamkha Zangpo, the Governor of ]^ehu-Dsong, to 
found a monastery after the model of the ancient monasteiy of 
^ri-dhanya Kataka of Southern India. One night, while Jam-yang 
was asleep in the fort of N^ehu-Dsong he saw in a dream the god 
Nam-iia Karpo telling him that if he founded a monastery at Dar- 
bag thang, situated in front of the hill called Gephel Hivo-che, he 
could get 5,000 monks to reside and study in it. Accordingly, he 
visited Dar-bag and Rivo-che. There he saw several fountains and 
small lakes called " the lakes of fortune. " On another occasion, 
while seated on the margin of a lake situated on the top of Lang- 
chen ri, Tsong-khapa mentioned to him that that was "the lake of 
learning. " Another night he dreamt that several men were 
assembled on a river's edge in order to cross it. Jam-yang at 
once swam to the opposite bank and threw a bridge across to 
enable others to follow him. After several such curious dreams 
he determined to found the monastery of Dapung. Tsong-khapa 
supplied him with the necessary plan after the model of Qri- 
dhanya Kataka, and his friend the Governor of 'Nehu Dsong, fur- 
nished him with funds ; and through the joint exertions of Jam- 
yang and his patron, Dapung was founded. On account of the 
Governor's help the rich nobles of Tibet gave endowments of 
lands to it and sent their boys for religious education there. 

Vol. I, No. 4.] The Monasteries of Tibet. 115 

Their example was followed by tlie merchants and other land- 
holders, in consequence of which it soon became a favourite insti- 
tution of the aristocracy of Tibet. Jam-yaug establislied eight col- 
leges for teaching the different branches of sacred and secular learn- 
ing. In course of time the monastery became the principal seat 
of learning, and learned and wise men flocked to it from the different 
parts of the country. In discipline, moral culture and purity of 
life, the monks of Dapung excelled the monks of all other similar 
institutions in Tibet. It soon claimed a university with seven 
colleges for the study of the different branches of sacred litera- 
ture including metaphysics, logic, medicine, and one for that of 
profane literature for the benefit of the lay people. After Tsong- 
khapa's death, Jam-yang presided over the Monlam-chenpo of Lhasa 
and raised it to prominence. From this circumstance the power of 
Dapung over the Monlam-chenpo became paramount and con- 
tinues so to this day. The president of the Monlam-chenpo 
called the Dapung Sha^-ngo, exercises supreme authority in the 
spiritual affairs of the country during the raonths of January and 
February, when the Talai Lama himself submits to the resolutions 
passed by the congregated clergy on the occasion. The chair of 
Dapung was filled by many able and distingcished sages, among 
whom Paldan-senge, one of the disciples of Tsong-khapa, Jam- 
yang Gahlo, and Yontan Gyatsho of Tsang-thon, were the most 
learned. On the rise of Dapung with its great university the 
glory of Gahdan was overshadowed. The fame of the Gahdan 
Thipa as the profoundest scholar of the Yellow-cap Church was 
surpassed by that of the high priest of Dapung. Under the presi- 
dency of Gedun-Gyatsho who was called Dapung Tulpaiku (incar- 
nate Lama of Dapung), the monastery with its university claimed 
precedence even over Gahdan. Gedun-Gyatsho in whom the spirit of 
Gedun-dub had appeared was called Gyal-wa ni-pa (2nd Gyalwa). 
He was, therefore, the first incarnate hierarch of the Yellowcap 
Church, from whose time the monastery enjoyed the proud name 
of Chyog nampar Gyal-wa — victoi-ious in all the quarters, which 
expression is preserved to this day in the silver currency of Tibet. 
Dapung contained the following Tva-tshany or colleges :— 

1 . Tashi-gomang. 4. Nag-pa ISTamgyal-ling. 

2. Lozang-ling. 5. Ku chyog-ling. 

3. Thoisam-ling. 6. Choikhor-ling. 

7. De-yan. 

Of these only four are now in existence. Thoisam-ling, Ku- 
chyog-ling and Choikhor-ling were abolished during the presidencies 
of Sonam Gya-tsho and Lozang Gyatsho. There are at present 
7,700 monks in the monastery, most of whom^ are recruited from 
noble families in Kham, Mongolia, Gyarong, Nag-rong, Amdo, U 
and Tsang. In the Zimkhang, Jam-yang Ghoije's residence, sitti- 
ated behind the grand cloister, is the image of Jam-yang Sung-chon 
(speaking Mufiju 9^^!). In the central Tsang-khang (chajoel) are 
the golden images of the Buddhas of the past, present and future 

116 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

in sitting posture and surrounded by their respective eight disci- 
ples. In the temple of Na-chu-tug Lhakhang there are the sixteen 
sthavira (sages) brought from China by the illustrious Phag-pa 
during the reign of the Emperor Khublai Khan. In the new chapel 
consecrated to Champa there are — the huge image of the coming 
Buddha, representing him as a youth of twelve, and a silver trident 
used by Jam-yang himself. In the Kalzang Lhakhang there are one 
thousand Buddhas, all made of copper gilt with gold. In the 
Kahgyur Lhakhang, i.e., the library of sacred books, there are 
Kahgyur collections all written in gold. In the cloister of the 
Nag-pa Tva-tsJia?ig (Tantrilc College), there are many articles very 
sacred to the Buddhists. On the right of the image of Vajra 
Bhairava is the statue of Tsoug-khapa and on its left is the image 
of the Lord of Death with his horrid train. The principal temple 
is three- storeyed- The principal hall of congregation called the 
Dukhang Chenpo on the ground flooi' contains 240 wooden pillars, 
distributed over an area of 34,560 sq. ft. to accommodate 7,700 
monks when they assemble to perform religious service. 

The third hierarch was Pan-chen Sonani Tag-pa ; the 4th, 
Sonam Gyatsho, the Dalai Lama ; 5th, Yontan Gyatsho, Dalai 
Lama ; 6th, Panchen Lozang Choigyan of Tashilhunpo ; ^7th, 
Nag-wang Lozang Gyatsho, the 5th Dalai Lama ; 8th, Nag- 
wang Ye9e Gyatsho (Pakardsin-pa) ; 9th, Kalyang Gyatsho (7th 
Dalai Lama) in the year 1726. 

The Monastery of Meeu was one of the four sanctuaries 
founded at the four cardinal points of Lhasa by King Ralpachan 
in the 9th Century A.D. It was abolished by King Langdnrma, 
but was afterwards restored to its former condition and formed 
the metropolitan monastery. 

Chagpoiei is a monastic institution with classes for the study 
of medicine. It is called the Man-pa Tva-tshatig or the Medical 
College. It does not contain more than one liundred pupils. 

Phabong-kha was anciently King Srong-tsan Gampo's favourite 
resort, where he used to propitiate his tutelary deities. The seven 
early monk-scholars called Sedmi-midun also had their residence 
there. During the persecution of Buddhism by King Langdnrma 
there existed no monastic establishment at Phabongkha. Ge^es 
Tag-kar-pa revived the institution. During the hierarchy of 
Sakya, Dogon Phagpa repaired the monastery and gave rich 
endowments, for its maintenance, but during the dispiate between 
Sakya and Phagmodu it again dwindled into insignificance till 
it was repaired by Thegchan Choigyal and revived by Je-Deleg- 
Nima. But again, when internal discords convulsed Tibet, it 
declined and remained in a neglected condition till the year Earth- 
sheep of the tenth cycle when Minister Paljor Lhundub of the 
family of Khon rescued it from ruin. Since then it has been 

Sangphu I^ehu thang, situated on a hill beyond Nethang, was 
founded by Dog Leg-ye in the same year when Sakya was 

Vol. I, N'o. 4.] Notes on an Indian Worm. 117 

iN. 8.-] 

13. Notes on an Indian Worm of the Qenus Ch^togaster — By 
Nelson Annandale, B.A., D.Sc, Deputy Superintendent of the Indian 
Museum. (With, one plate. ) 

The fresh-water worms of the genus Chsetoqaster are held by 
some authorities to constitute a separate family ; but Beddard,' whom 
I have followed in drawing up my account of Ch. hengalensis, regards 
them as belonging to the Naidomorpha, a rather obscure group of 
Oligochgetes which appears to be well represented in the Calcutta 
tanks. Hitherto the genus, well known in Europe and record- 
ed from America, does not appear to have been reported from 
wathin the limits of Asia. The Calcutta species is not un- 
common and I have taken specimens of what may be a second in 
the Botanical Gardens at Sibpur. This merely proves, as I have 
already pointed out to the Society, that a vast field lies open to any 
naturalist who would devote himself to the study of Indian pond 
life. lam much indebted to my friends Mr. F. F. Laidlaw, of 
Ow^en's College, Manchester, and Dr. J. H. Ashworth, of the 
University of Edinburgh, both for the generic identification of 
the worm in the first instance and for references to literature later. 
My thanks are also due to Major A. Alcock for his unfailing 
sympathy and assistance in the work undertaken. 

Description of Ghsetogaster bengalemis, sp. nov. 

Prostomium forming a large, sub-circular sucker : another 
smaller sucker at the posterior extremity of the body. (Esophagus 
longer than pharynx, with two well-marked dilatations, the poste- 
rior of which shows indications of a second constriction in its 
posterior third when empty. Tlie anterior dilatation is covered 
with large, flat, polygonal cells of a faint yellowish colour. 
There is a sense-organ (otocyst ?) in the brain: the remainder 
of the nervous system normal for the genus, the somewhat 
discrete nature of the ventral ganglia, their number in the first 
few^ segments and the separation of the two ventral nerve 
chords in the same region being characteristic. The first pair 
of nephridia is larger than the others posterior to it. Set^ 
arranged on each side of the ventral surface in bundles of from 
15 to 17. Body colourless and almost transparent. Length vary- 
ing gTeatly with state of contraction, at least 10 mm. when the 
body is fully expanded. There is a very distinct flattened area on 
the ventral surface between the two bundles of seta3. Outward 
appearance somewhat resembling that of an JEolosoma. 

Pos.sibly this worm should be regarded as the type of a new 
genus; but it seems more convenient to regard it I'or the present 
as a Gheetogaster. 

' A Monrujraph of the Order Oligoclueta, p. 304. Oxford, 1895. 

118 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

Bionomics of Chsetogaster hengalensis. 

The Chsetogaster of the Calcutta tanks is usually found clinging 
by means of a posterior sucker to the external surface of the body 
or the edge of the shell of a water-snail. When disturbed it with- 
draws itself entirely within the latter. It does not confine itself 
to any one species of snail, but generally chooses a Limnseiis, 
Limnophysa or some similar species, apparently because these 
genera are common in its habitat, do not possess an operculum 
and have a wide aperture to their shells. In one instance I saw, 
in an aquarium in which snails were somewhat scanty, a solitary 
worm attempting to establish itself on a Planorbis; but the connec- 
tion was only temporary, not lasting for more than a few minutes. 
The mouth of the shell in this genus, though there is no oper- 
culum, is evidently too constricted to be suitable for the worm, 
which is generally gregarious. As shovvn by the figure (plate III, 
fig. 1), a considerable number of individuals may establish them- 
selves on a single snail. Occasionally Gh. hengalensis quits its 
host altogether and either wanders away in search of another or 
drops to the bottom. This happens whenever the water becomes 
foul or reaches too high a temperature (in an aquarium when the 
sun, falling directly on the surface, heats the water), or when too 
many individuals are settled on a single host after rapid asexual 
multiplication. Before fixing themselves on a fresh snail they 
frequently crawl over the external surface of the shell. 

Progression is mainly effected by a series of contractions and 
elongations of the body, aided by the two suckers. The posterior 
of these having been fixed to any surface, the body is stretched 
forward to its greatest extent. The anterior sucker is then applied, 
the posterior one set free, and the body contracted. As a rule, the 
ventral surface is not lifted, but something analogous to the "loop- 
ing " of a leech or a Greometrid caterpillar, but not so marked, takes 
place very occasionally. When sinking through the water, as it 
does when its hold is released, the worm can change its direction 
slightly by moving the posterior part of the body from side to side ; 
it cannot swim or raise itself upwards without support. The setae 
appear to play a very small part in ordinary progression, except 
as aids in adhesion. Each bundle is capable of an independent 
rotatory motion somewhat resembling a rapid turn of the wrist. 
This movement is very useful when the worm is insinuating itself 
into a crevice, as it thrusts the body forward rapidly. All the setae 
are frequently moved at once, although each bundle can be turned 
separately. The anterior bundles have a different function, as we 
shall see. 

Although this species' lives in close connection with water- 
snails, it is not, strictly speaking, parasitic upon them ; for it captures 

^ The European species also live on water-snails, but some of them at any 
rate are said to be internal parasites. Dr. J. H. Ashworth has sent me a 
specimen of an English species in which the food probably consists of 
diatoms and the like. 

Vol. I, No. 4.] Notes on an Indian Worm. 119 

[N. 8.] 

living prey and only uses its host, so to speak, as a beast of burden 
and a stalking horse. Carried along clinging to it by the posterior 
sucker, the body is extended outwards as far as possible and 
waived rapidly in all directions, the " head " being invariably free 
of the snail's shell. As soon as it comes in contact with the body 
of a small crustacean, the anterior sucker takes a firm hold. Its 
ventral surface is covered with small prominences, which are 
not grandtilar but mere projections of the epidermis. These 
probably give an additional grip, the limbs of the struggling prey 
becoming entangled amongst them. The anterior set?e do not 
project free from the ventral surface as in the posterior bundles, 
but are contained in a pocket or introvert in such a way that 
they lie below the mouth inside a lower lip or lobe which forms 
the wall of the posterior part of the prostomial sucker. As long 
as the body is elongated they are placed almost parallel to one 
another in a vertical line, leaving the aperture free; but as soon as 
the body is contracted, a rapid twist of their bases takes place and 
they spread out in a fan-like formation, so that the tips of the 
inner setge of each bundle are practically in contact with those of 
the other side. (There is no difference in stracture or arrangement 
between these setae and those posterior to them, but the latter are 
considerably shorter) . By the movement described the j)rey is seized 
by the setee and conveyed into the mouth, which opens directly into 
a large pharynx with greatly thickened walls, a small lumen, and 
numerous mnscle-bands radiating from it to the body- wall. A 
function of this organ seems to be to crush the prey to death ; 
but a similar pharynx is found in species in which the food 
probably does not need crushing. A narrow slightly coiled 
passage leads into the first dilatation of the oesophagus. The 
cells on the surface of the latter probably have some 
digestive function (" liver cells ") and the interior of the Crusta- 
cea swallowed become disintegrated very largely in this chamber. 
Even at the moment of the passage of food into the second dila- 
tation, the constriction between the two remains distinct. The 
feeble constriction in the posterior dilatation is a mere fold of the 
walls of the structure, allowing a certain enlargement to take place. 
The intestine which leads from the oesophagus to the anus is rather 
broad ; this is rendered necessary by the bulky nature of the 
indigestible joarts of the food, for the shells of small Copepods and 
Ostracods pass through the body of the worm practically unaltered, 
even the appendages remaining attached to the trunk in many cases. 
Regarding sexual reproduction I have prnctically no infor- 
mation. During the period between December and April, through- 
out which I have had living specimens under observation, it does 
not take place and the sexual organs are imperfectly developed. 
Reproduction by fission is, however, active at this season. I find it 
a little difficult to say what is the normal number of segments pre- 
sent in the species, but it appears to be twenty or twenty -one. 
More than this number are, however, produced by budding from 
the penultimate segment, and at first it is impossible to distinguish 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [April, 1905. 

between them and the original ones. When several have been 
produced, the most anterior can be distinguished from the others 
by a dilatation of the alimentary canal which ultimately becomes 
the pharynx of a new individual. The prostomium never takes 
its place as a regular segment in the series, but grows out as a 
lobe on the dorsal surface. The mouth of the young worm is in 

\- /■ 

continuity with what will be the new anus of the parent and the 
shells of the food pass to the exterior of the old anus, at the extrera- 
ity of the young individual, until the separation has been com- 
pletely affected. This does not occar until at least 16 new seg- 
ments (in addition to the old extremit}^) have been formed. The 
clitellam (10th and 11th segments) is ak-eady conspicuous, being- 
devoid of setee. In adult individuals, however, the glandular struc- 
ture of its integument extends partially over another segment 
on either side. 



Mo- 1. 


Ghastogaster bengalensis on a Water- Snail, X 2. 

Anterior extremity of an adult individual from below, 

showing nerve cords, etc. (Mtich enlarged). 
p. — prostomium, I. — lower lip, s. — -anterior setfe, n. — 

nerve chords, g. — ganglia. 
Diagram showing arrangement of the setfe in a similar 

bundle from the right side. Each dot represents a seta 

in cross-section. 
A bundle of setae from the left side of one of the posterior 

segments, seen from behind. (Much enlarged). 

{Text figure.) 

Young Ghastogaster bengalensis just separated by fission 
from its parent. {Someivhat diagrammatic as regards 
the nephridia) . 

p. — prostomium, p/i. — pharynx, — lumen of pha- 
rynx, ce. — oesophagus, c. — clitellum, n, — nephridia, 
p.s. — posterior sucker. 

Vol. I, Xo. 4.] Numismatic Suppleme^it. 121 

[N. 8.^ 


(With Plates IV & V.) 

Note. — The numeration of these articles is continued from p. 116 of 
the Journal for 1904. [ISoctra number.) 


Sultans op Dbhli. 
31. Muhamm,ad hi^i Tughlaq, PI. IV. 1. 

A new vai'iety of Muhammad bin Tughlaq's lighter gold, 
coins lias recently been obtained at Agra by Mr. G. Bleazby who 
has sent it to me for publication. An almost similar coin of the 
same mint was described by rae in the Journal of the Rojal Asiatic 
Society 3900, p. 775. The date of the present coin, however, is dif- 
ferent, and Daulatabad is given the title of ij*as^ instead of t-^^Jl^tiS, 
Tlie coin is in very fine condition. In my paper above mentioned 
I suggested that the words in front of the mint name were 
^4U»| i^j **P and not i*lL.t j^^JiS *Vi as read by Mr. Thomas or 
^iLo* 5/( *Ai as preferred by Mr. Gibbs. I have, however, since had 
reason to modify this opinion, as I find that on the gold coins 
of Piroz Shah Zafar and Fateh Khan the form of the two first 
letters of the words (•^ilt is identical witli that of the same letters 
in ^Um* Jit on the margin of this coin. I have therefore adopted 
Mr. Gibb's reading. 


Weight, 143 grains. 

Size, -7. 

Mint, Hazrat Daulatabad. 

Date, 730 A.H. 

Obverse. Reverse. 

Kalima in circle. 


H. N. Wright. 


Mughal Emperoes. 

32. Jalal-ud-din Akbar. 

(i) Metal, Gold. PI. IV. 2. 
Weight, 168 grains. 
Mint, HajiiJur. 
Date, 983 A.H. 

122 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

This uniqae mohur was acquired from a Hindu priest 
shortly after the last Magh Mela at Allahabad, to which it is said 
to have been brought by a pilgrim from Bengal. N'o coins from 
the Hajipur Mint were preyioiTsly known. The place is situated 
in the Muzaffarpur District, Bengal, and lies on the east bank of 
the Little Gundak, a short distance above its confluence with the 
Ganges opposite Patna. Hajipur figures conspicuously in the 
history of the struggles between Akbar and his rebellious Af gh an 
governors of Bengal, having been twice besieged and captured by 
the Imperial troops in 1572 and again in 1574 A. D. This mohur 
was struck in 1575, when apparently order was again restored. It 
is in fine condition and of the type of the mohur illustrated as 
Figure 65, Plate III, of the British Museum catalogue of Coins of 
the Mughal Emperors. 

(ii) lle^aZ, Gold. PI. IV. 3. 
Weight, 167 grains. 
Mint, .launpur. 
Bate, 988 A.H. 

This is, I believe, the only square mohur of Akbar known 
from the Jaunpur Mint. His square rupees frora the same mint 
are extremely rare. The date on this mohur appears in the right- 
hand lower corner of the obverse — a comparatively rare occurrence. 

(iii) Metal, Silver. PI. IV. 4. 
Weight, (looped.) 
Mint, Jaunpur- Chaitaur. 
Date, 976 A.H 

This strange combination of names has long been a puzzle to 
me, which I have not yet succeeded in solving. There seems no 
doubt about the reading, and the coinis certainly genuine. It is of 
the usual type of Akbar's broad rupees from the Jaunpur Mint 
(No. 96, Plate IV of the B.M. Catalogue), but with this difference 
that, while the name Jaunptir appears in the usual place in the 
lower margin of the reverse, the word Chaitaur occurs in the upper 
margin on the same side of the coin. Hitherto only copper coins 
of Akbar were known from the Chaitaur Mint and none with two 
mint names. Silver coins of Sher Shah are known from the 
Jahanpanah-Ujjain Mint. This coin was acquired in Laho]:'e 
some years ago. 

(iv) Metal, Silver. PL IV. 5. 
Weight, 44 grains. 
Mint, Lahore. 
Bate, 987 A.H. 

The inscription on one side of this coin reads ^'^\ *JL/f " Akbar 
is God" and not the usual iM\ jiS) " God is great." A four-anna 
piece with a similar legend was published by Dr. L. White King 
and Captain Vost in 1896 in the paper already referred to, but 
although it bore the same year, it was from the Ahmadabad Mint. 

Vol. I, No. 4.] Numismatic Supplement. 123 

• IN. S.-] 

It has been stated by some writers, among them the late Mr. C. J. 
Rodgers, that in the thirtieth year of his reign, when Akbarfoand- 
eda new religion, he changed the legends on his coins, his object appa- 
rently being that he should be looked upon and worshipped as God ; 
and coins of the kind described^above have been quoted as strength- 
ening the assertion regarding the object he had in view. But, so far 
at least as these pieces are concerned, is it not more reasonable to 
suppose that the ti-ansposition of the words was due to a mistake 
in the dies which was almost immediately rectified, for if Akbar 
really intended to assume divine honours and to proclaim himself as 
God, surely these coins instead of being of the greatest degree of 
rarity, would be abundant even now, and the inscription would also 
have been found on coins of the higher denominations instead of 
being confined to four-anua bits ? 

(v) Metal, Silver. PI. IV. 6. 
Weight, 177 grains. 
Mint, Lahore. 
Bate, 997 A.H. 

The rupee is apparently unique, or at any rate extremely rare, 
by reason of the mint name appearing in the upper margin of the 
reverse. On this side, the name and titles of the king are given in 
a square with loops at the four scorners. The Kalima, with the 
usual accompaniment, appears on the obverse in a quadrilateral 
area with three curves in each side. 

(vi) Metal, Silver. 

Weight, J 76 grains. 
Mint, Urdu Zafar Qarin. 
Da^e,Alif= 1000 A.H. 

This rupee, which is precisely similar to the mohur porti"ayed 
as Figure 79, Plate III, of the B.M. Catalogue, is probably unique. 
It is the only round rupee of Akbar discovered so far from the camp 
mint and of the year (1000) alif. It was acquired in Amritsar some 
years ago. 

(vii) Metal, Silver. 

Weight, J 75 grains. 
Mint, Ahmadnagar. 
Bate, 4-llahi. 

This rare coin is of rude fabric, and, in this respect, much re- 
sembles the rupees of Akbar from the Bairat Mint. The legend on 
the reverse is — 

^ A4A.f ^ 

The obverse has the inscription usual on Ilahi rupees. 

Geo. B. Bleazby. 

124 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [April, 1905. 

33. A Zodiacal Half 'rupee. PI. V. 1. 

A few days ago I came across in the Ahmadabad bazar a 
zodiacal Leo half -rupee [Legend, normal : Date, Hijri year wanting, 
regnal year 13 ; Mint, Ahmadabad]. If this be, as it seems to me 
to be, a genuine specimen, it furnishes evidence, hitherto wanting, of 
the existence of zodiacal coins of that denomination. Imitation half- 
rupees, indeed, bearing representations of the signs of the Zodiac, 
are well known (See Br, Mus. Catal. N"os. 386-401), and these them- 
selves, qua imitations, may fairly be taken as proof more or less 
substantial of the currency of the original coins they counterfeit. 
Had there been no genuine half -rupees, it is hard to see why the so- 
called "imitations " should ever have been fabricated. 

Beside the recently-discovered half-rupee, three full rupees of 
Leo type lie before me on the table at which 1 am now writing. 
Two of the three were evidently struck fi'om one and the same die, 
but the third not less evidently from a die slightly different. On 
the two, for instance, the word )jij is written as )jJ',) with no 
superscribed dot over the " ze " (PI. V. 2), but on the third as 
^yj with no subscribed dots under the " ye" (PL V. 3). Also on 
the duplicates after the word »L*) of Jahangir Shah comes a small 
curved flourish distinctly to the left of the " ha " ; but on the third 
we have a longer sprawl, not to the left at all, but directly above 
-the "ha," The two are evidently indentical with the coin 
No. 385 figured on Plate XI of the Br. Mus. Catal., and there styled 
an " imitation rupee." If these be imitations, then the third (of the 
jjJ) type) is certainly genuine, and it is with this third specimen 
that the half -rupee agrees in every particular. 

But, indeed, on what ground the Br. Mus. rupee N'o. 385 is 
adjudged to be an imitation I fail to apprehend. A complete state- 
ment of the dilferentife that serve to discriminate between a genuine 
Zodiacal muhr or rupee and the beautifully-executed " imitations," 
a statement more detailed, and thus more practically helpful, than 
the paragraph on pp. LXXXIII, f . of the Br. Mus. Catal., would, 
I feel sure, be very acceptable to the collectors of the coins of 
this fascinating series. 

GrEO. p. TaTLOE. 


Note. — 1 take the opportunity to figure yet a third variety in 
which the word j^j is written without any dots (PI. Y. 4.) All 
three types appear to be equally genuine. 1 note also that on the 
two specimens of the " Cancer " rupee in my cabinet, the reverse 
legend of which is similar to that on the " Leo " rupee above 
mentioned, the word^J also appears without dots. 

^ H. N. Wright. 

Vol. I, No. 4.] Numismatic Supplement. 125 


34. Some rare Mughal Coins. 

In tTie hope that the following coins from my collection may 
be of some interest to numismatists, I beg to offer some short de- 
scriptive remarks regarding them : — 

(i) Ahbur. PL V. 5. 

Weight, 306 grains. 
Size, -85." 
Mint, Sironj. 

Obverse. In double circle with dots between. 

Reverse. ^^i IT'^ 

Date, Ilahi 38. 

Month,, Mihr (7th Persian month). 

This is a new Mughal Mint. The coin was obtained in Bom- 
bay two years ago. 

(ii) Jahangir and Nnr Jahan. PL V. 6. 


Weight, 176 grains. 
Size, -85." 
Bate, 1035-21 
Mint, Lahore 



[i.] r* njyo ii 

The legends on both obverse, and reverse of this rupee read 
downwards — omitting the regnal year 21 and Hijri year (10)35, 
— form the following couplet : — 

Zi Xam-i-Shah Jahangir tabuwad sikka-i-bar nur. 
Fa?;udah Nur Jahan Begum ru-i-Lahor. 

126 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

(May the coin by the name of King Jahangir, remain with light • 
And may the face of Lahore be made by N'ur Jahan Begam 

i.e., may this coin which is struck at Lahore remain for ever 

shining with lustre, both from King Jahangir, and his 

(Queen Consort) Begam I^Tur Jahan. 

This rare rupee was obtained by me at Aljmadabad on my 
short visit to that city- on 29th of January last. Rupees of 
Jahangir and Nur Jahan from the Lahore mint with legends form- 
ing a couplet are known. This is a new couplet altogether* : — 

(iii) Auranazeh. PL V. 7. 

Weight, 103 grains. 
Size, -7" 
Mint Burhanpiir. 



A new mint of of Aurangzeb in copper, I got it at] Burhan- 
pur some two years ago. 

(iv) A'lamgfr II. PL V. 8. 

Weight, 105 grains. 
Size, -66." 
Date, 1171—4? 
Mint, Machhlipatan, 

Ohverse. '-^4^ 

i I V I o"->^ 

Reverse. f* 

This is a new mint of Alamgir II. in copper. The name of the 
Emperor is not engraved on the coin, but the year helps us in 
assigning it to him. 

Fkamji J. Thanawala. 

*Note.— The reading of the interesting coin of Jahangir 
suggested by Mr. Thanawala, appears capable of improvement. 

Vol. I, No. 4.] Numismatic Supplement. 127 

[lY. 8.-] 

Owing to tlie coin being somewhat worn, it is difficult fco nay with 
certainty what the couplet is. The following is given as an 
alternative suggestion. 

Obverse. jy ^ %'^ ^ ^t^^'t'^ *'-* f^^ 3 

Reverse. )y^)i *^*» <—j) '^\'^. )y *^jJ* 

The words on the reverse read by Mr. Thanawala as /♦■^j and 

dj are, 1 think, unmistakeably ^^-t and j). Similarly, I do not think 
that the penultimate line of the obverse can be read as d *^*». The 
second letter is much more like a <s than a i^, and it is followed by 
what is clearly a 55. The rhythm of Mr. Thanawala's couplet, 
also appears to be defective. Dr. Taylor of Ahmadabad, who has 
also seen the coin, has suggested that the last three words on the 
obverse read jy y ^\. He would make the % at the end of the 
penultimate line the last letter of the word Jil^w in the second line. 
It is true the t of JsLi is not visible elsewhere on the coin but 
the coin is very much worn to the left of l^ where one would expect 
to find the letter ». Also there is no " alif" on the coin, and as 
far as I can see no room for any. 

H. N. Wright. 

35. Batoar Bakhsh. PI. TV. 7. 

The coins of this grandson of Jahangir who occupied the 
throne of Dehli for three months as a stop-gap for Shahjahan are 
so scarce that it is worth while chronicling any finds. A rupee 
of Lahore mintage has been described and figured in the Cata- 
logue of the British Museum (Moghul Emperors, No. 527). A 
second was contained in the collection of the late Pandit Ratan 
Narain of Delhi, and the coin described below, which was obtained 
by me at Meerut in March last, is, I believe, the only other known. 
All three are identical in legend. No gold coins of Dawar Bakhsh 
have apparently come to light yet, but doubtless some were struck. 


Weight 172 grains, 

Size, -85. 

Mint, Lahore. 

Date, 1037 A.H. Ahd. 





^t*ii i) 


<*. ♦s^A) I .pv 


128 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

The coin, but for three shroff marks on one side and four on 
the other, is in very good condition, 

H. N. WRiaHT. 

36. Tivo rare coins of Shahjahan and Aurangzeh. 

Among 246 silver coins recently acquired as treasure -trove in 
the district of Bhandara C.P., and sent to me for examination, 
two are of sufficient rarity to warrant special notice. One is a 
coin of Shahjahan of Katak mint but of a new type ; the second 
of Aurangzeb, struck at the Town of Allahabad. This latter is, I 
believe, one of two known, the other having been presented to me 
some years ago by my friend Dr. Gr. P. Taylor of Ahmadabad. It 
has not, however, been previously described. 

(i) Shahjahan. PI. IV. 8. 


Weight, 173 grains. 

Size, "9. 

Mint, Katak (Cuttack). 

Bate, Brd regnal year. Month Aban. 

Obverse. Reverse. 

aJJf J^j sj. '■ ^ 

(ii) Aurangzeh. PI. lY. 9, 


Weight, 174 grains. 

Size, '9. 

Mint, Town of Allahabad. 

Bate, 1072. A.H. 4th regnal year. 

Diverse. Reverse. 

Usual couplet but ^Lf «J| ij^xL 

j^^ vice jAj ^^^ 

date to left of ^^j^^ Caa^xa) tyjii^ 
lower line. t* ^^ 

H. N. Wright, 

Vol. I, No. 4.] Numismatic Stopplement. 129 

IN. 8.} 

37. Note on Kam Bakhsh and Bahadur Shah. 

I notice on p. 24<1 of the Journal, Vol. LXXII, Part I, for 1904, 
a statement bj Mr. H. N. Wright that " Kam Bakhsh was made 
Governor of the Subahs of Bijapiir and Haidarabad by his 
brother, Shah 'Alam Bahadur" [should be S.'A., Bahadur 8hah']. 
I do not think that such an en'or,"^ coming from a leading numis- 
matist, should be allowed to pass without a protest. The mere 
fact that Kam Bakhsh issued coin in his own name suffices to 
show that he claiuied sovereignty. 

Kam Bakhsh never held his authority from Bahadur Shah ; he 
was either an independent sovereign, as his father intended, or a 
rival who had usiu-ped part of Bahadur Shah's kingdom. By his 
alleged will 'Alamgir attempted to make a partition of the 
country between his three surviving sons ; and it was in parsuance 
of this design, no doubt, that on the 14th Zu,l Qa'dah 1118 H. 
(17th February, 1707 JST.S.), he nominated Kam Bakhsh to be 
Governor of Bijapur and Haidarabad. Kam Bakhsh started from 
the court at Ahmadnagar at once to take up his appointment. 
'Alamgir died on the 2nd March, 1707 (IST.S.) 

The exact words used in the will, as translated by James Frazer 
"Nadir Shah," p. 36, are: "Whoever of my fortunate children 
"shall chance to rule the empire, let him not molest Mahommed 
"Kam Bakhsh, should he rest content with the Two New Subahs." 
The text from which James Frazer translated was, apparently, 
that now in the Bodleian Library, see Sachau and Ethe's " Cata- 
logue of Persian MSS." No. 1923 (Frazer MSS. No. 118) fol. 13a. 
After doubting for a long time, I have at last come to look on 
this will as authentic. Khafi Khan, II, 549, says it was made 
over to Hamid-ud-din Khan, a confidential servant in the Emperoi-'s 
entourage ; Kamwar Khan states that 'Alamgir kept it, after 
signature, under his pillow. Immediately after 'Alamgir's 
death, its j^rovisions were appealed to by Bahadur Shah when 
writing early in June, 1707 to his brother A'zam Shah, then 
advancing on Agrah to contest the succession ; and a copy had 
reached Surat as early as the 18th October, 1707, as may be seen 
from F. Valentyn, Oude en Nieun ost Indie," IV, 274. The pro- 
babilities are in favour of the document having been executed ; 

1 The statement quoted above was based on the following extract from 
the Muntafchahu-l-l'uhdb (Text Vol. II. p. 605) as translated by Professor 
Dowson (Elliot's History of India, Vol. VII , p. 405). 

" A kind and admonitory letter was addressed by the Emperor (Shah 
'A'lam I) to his brother Pri)ice Muhammad Kam Bakhsh to the following 
effect : ' Our father entrusted you with the government of the Saba of 
Bijapur; we now relinquish to you the government of the two subas of 
BijapQr and Haidarabad, with all their subjects and belongings, upon the 
condition, according to the old rule of the Dakhin, that the coins shall be 
struck and the khutha read in our name. The tribute which has hitherto 
been paid by the Governors of these two provinces we remit.' 


130 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

and in any case, the dates show that Kam Bakhsh was appointed 
to, and started to take possession of, Bijapnr before his father's 

William Irvine, 

38. Ahmad ShaJi Bahadur. A new Mughal mint. Mujahidahad. 

This coin was obtained by me in Cawnpore two years ago. I 
have been nnableto identify the locality of Mujaliidabad. Ahmad 
Shah at his accession took the title of Mujahid-ud-din (Elliot, 
YIIL, p. 112.). 

The mint is entered in Mr. Burn's list of Mughal Mints 
(J.A.S.B., Pt. I., No. 2, of 1904) but the coin has been nowhere 

M. PI. IV. 10. 

Weight, 165 grains. 

Size, '85. 

Mint, Mujahidabad. 

Bate, 1163, A.H. 3rd regnal year. 

Obverse. Reverse. 

Within dotted circle. 
j^l.jj %^ i>*A.| 


Within dotted circle. 

H. N". Wright. 

39. A find of coins at Manhhum. 

A large and interesting find, containing 540 coins, from Shah- 
jahan I to Shah Alam II was recently made at Ghorati in the 
Manbhiim district. The find was esj)ecially rich in the Bengal and 
Benares mintages of the later Mughals, Muhammad Shah, Ahmad 
Shah, 'Alamgir II and Shah 'Alam II as the following figures 
will shew : — 

Mubammad Shah Ahmad Shah 'Alamgir Shah 'Alam II. 
Jah anglrnagar 








5= 85 

5= 13 

= 1 




31 = 213 




1= 69 
2= 2 

Vol. I, No. 4.] Numismatic Sttpplement. 131 

[N. S.] 

Of tlie Muhammadabad Benares Mint there were coins of the 
16th. regnal year, and of each regnal year from the 18th to the SOth. 
of Muhammad Shah, a complete series of the coins of Ahmad 
Shah and 'Alamgir II, and coins of the firgt_five years of Shah. 
'Alam II. The latter coins and those of 'Alamgir II shew a 
great variety of types and mint marks. The find also contained a 
complete series of the rupees of Azamabad for the reigns of 
Ahmad Shah and 'Alamgir II, except in respect of the 4th year 
of the former sovereign ; and it appears from them that the mint- 
mark identified with the Azimabad Mint in later times was first 
placed on the coins in 1163 A.H. — the 3rd year of Ahmad Shah. 
Rupees of Katak of Muhammad Shah, of Jahangirnagar of 
Muhammad Shah, and 'Alamgir II, and of Mungir of Shah 'A lam 
II have not, as far as I know, been previously found. 

The find further contained a rupee of 'Alamgir II of Calcutta 
mintage, a rupee of Shah Alam II of Allahabad, with a date which, it 
seems to me, must be read as 1172 A.H. , i.e., two years before he 
ascended the throne of Dehli ; and a rupee of Shah Jahan III of 
Azimabad, dated 1174 A.H. 

The Mungir rupee of Shah 'Alam II calls for special notice. In 
Dr. White King and Captain Vost's paper " Some N^ovelties in 
Moghul Coins," published in the N"umismatic Chronicle, Vol. XVI, 
a dam of Akbar was desci-ibed and figured, on which the mint 
name Manghir ^^U was read, though no ' ye ' is visible in the 

illustration of the coin. This place was identified with Monghyr 
in Bengal. The latter, however, is always in Persian characters 

spelt j*^j-^, and this is the spelling found on the coin of Shah 
'Alam II in the Manbhum find. It seems certain, therefore, that 
the mint town of the copper coin of Akbar above mentioned cannot 
have been Monghyr in Bengal. It is more probable that it was 
"Manghar," a fort built by Islam Shah Siiri, 76 miles north of 
Amritsar (see Thomas's Chronicles, page 414). This would ac- 
count for the Suri type of the reverse. 

The Allahabad rupee of Shah 'Alam II, dated 1172 A.H., is 
puzzling. It is, I understand, not the first found, but I have myself 
seen no other. In Elliot and Dawson's History of India, Vol. 
VIII, page 172, it is stated that in the 5th year of 'Alamgir's 
reign, which would correspond to 1172-73 A.H., Shah 'Alam left 
Dehli after fighting a battle with Ghazi-ud-din Khan and proceed- 
ed eastward. He was joined by the Governor of Allahabad, and 
proceeded to invade Bengal, with a view to " establishing his 
claim to the viceroyalty of the eastern Siibahs " (Br. Mus. Cat., 
page 12). After his defeat at Buxar and the signing of the 
Treaty of Allahabad iu 1765 A.D. (1178-79 A.H.) the latter 
place became the headquarters of Shah 'Alam for some years. 

(i) Muhammad Shah. PI. IV. 11. 
Weight, 179 grains. 

132 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

8ize, '9. 

Mint, Katak. 

Bate, 1154 — ■24th regnal year. 

Obverse. ^)k* *^*« t5"3'* i^i/^' »Lw ij^^^x } i et« 
Reverse. i-^iS" >-j^ tj^y-^-^ tjui*jj^ (j^j^ •'f* *^** 

(ii) 'Alamgir Shah II. PL IV. 12. 


Weight, 179 grains. 

Mint, Jaliangirnagar. 
Date 117 — 6tli regnal year. 

Obverse. kJ^U* «C«, ^jli uU^Ij ^^i^l* I ( v 

Reverse, j^ j^^'^ ^j'^ i^^^ oaA^j-* jj*^i^ i *x«s 

(iii) 'i^am^^V Shah II. PL IV. 13. 


Weight, 179 grains, 

iS^'^e, 1". 

Mint, Calcutta. 

Bate, 1172— 5tli regnal year. 

Obverse, i I vr ^^Lyo «Cw 4_53U »U^L)jj;f ^l* 

Reverse. *iWL^ vj** jj^'^ vi^-^-^x* (^^1^ * *i*« 

ikfwi mark: 

On obverse — "Sub," 

On reverse — " Cinquefoil " (traces of). 

(iv) Shdhjahan III. PL IV. 14. 


Weight, 179 grains. 
Size, "9. 

Mint, Azimabad. 
Bate, 1174— AM. 

Obverse. I I yf* ^j^ *^*« t^jli J(U»ib hjI^a. »U 
Reverse. ,j«>>>L« o^i♦J-«o (_,;«^iai. i>^| *iu» ^itl^^Jap »_,^/« 

(v) S^a/i 'iZam IJ. PL IV. 15. 


Weight, 180 grains. 

Size, -95. 

IfiW, Mangir (Mongliyr). 

Daie, 1176 — 4th regnal year. 

Vol. I, No. 4.] 

IN. 8.] 

Numismatic Supplement. 





(vi) S^a/i 'Alam IL PI. IV. 16. 


Weight, 179 grains. 

/S4;ze, -9. 

Mint, Allahabad. 

Date, 1172 (?)— AM. 

Obverse. 1 1 vr iJ) V «il«, ^^jl* JsL&^U ^Jl* sjLi 

Reverse. ^UaJi w^ao <j»>JU« «ji*x*>;-* (ja^^^ "^^I *■*■'• 

H. N. Wright. 

40. Iwo double rupees of Surat Mint. 

Mr. R. F. Malabarwala, of Bombay, has sent me for publication 
a double rupee of the Surat Mint struck in the name of Alam- 
gir II. The Hijra date is unfortunately wanting, but the 
regnal year on the reverse fixes it as 1176 or 1177. Below is a 
description of the coin. As far as I know, the only other double 
rupee known is the one in the cabinet of Dr, G. P. Taylor of 
A^madabad, which he bas kindly permitted me to describe in this 

Rupees of the type of the Surat rupee of the Mo gh ul Emperors 
were coined by the Bombay Mint. Mr. Thurston in his History 
of the East India Company's Coinage says (page 43): " The 
Nawab's rupees, however, were soon found to contain 10, 12 or 
even 1.5 per cent, of alloy, in consequence of which the Bombay 
rupees were melted down and recoined at Surat. The coinage 
of silver in the Bombay Mint was suspended for twenty years, and 
the Suratis alone were seen in circulation. At length in 1800 
(1214 A.H.) the Company ordered the then Surat rupee to be 
struck at Bombay." As both the present rupees were issued before 
1780 A.D. (1194 A.H.) it cannot be definitely stated whether they 
were struck by the Mu gh al Emperors whose names they bear or 
issued from the Bombay Mint. 

(i) (G-. P. T.) PI. V. 9. 

Weight, 349 grains. 
Siza, VO. 
Mint, Surat. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905. 

Bate, [1172] 5tli regnal year. 
MM., » in tlie jj« of (j*^-^ 



(ii) (R. F. M.) PL IV. 10. 


Weight, 350 grains. 

Size 1-0. 

Jtfmi, Snrat. 

Bate, [1176] 4tli regnal year. 

M.M., seven pet ailed flower in tlie (^ of (j«>A- 

H. N. Weight. 

41. " Mumbai-Surat " ( ^j^^ ^i*"^ ) or " MahUur ( ^y* t5t* ) 

which ? 

Grave doubt slionld, it seems to me, be entertained re- 
garding tlie existence of the so-called " Mumbai-Surat " Mint. 
And for the following five reasons : — 

1. The only coin attributed to this mint is the quarter -vu-^qg 
registered as N'o. 80 on page 280 of the British Museum " Cata- 
logue of Indian Coins, Moghul Emperors. " 

2. Neither element of this compound-name, " Mumbai-Surat, " 
can be regarded as an adjectival epithet subordinate to the other 

.element. We have here coordination pure and simple, produced 
by the mere juxtaposition of the names of two distinct mint 
towns. In the long list of the Mugbal Mints in India I can recall 
no other instance of a name built up in this agglutinative fashion. 

3. If the legend given in the British Museum Catalogue is 
true to the original, then amongst contemporary coins this quarter- 
rupee is exceptional in recoiaing the name of its mint simpliciter, 

without the prefixed term " darb, "v:/'* 

4. The crescent symbol here present, when found on other 
coins of this period, is held to be a mint-mark distinctive of the 

Vol. I, IS'o. 4.] Numismatic Supplement. 135 

[N. S.] 

French Compagnie des Indes. Now, in the 45th regnal year of 

Shah ' Alam II ' ' -■ , the year of the issue of this quarter 

rupee, France was still a belligerent power, harbouring hostile de- 
signs against Bintish India, It is thus well-nigh incredible that 
any coin struck in that year by the English at either Bombay 
on Surat, cities remote from the sphere of French influence, should 
bear this acknowledged symbol of French ascendency. 

5. An autotype representation of the quarter-rupee is included 
in Plate XXXI of the British Museum Catalogue ; but the mint- 
name as there shown — at least in my copy — does not admit of 
decipherment as Mumbai-Surat. 

Rejecting for the above reasons the British Museum version, 
I venture to submit the following as the true rendering of the 
legend that is contained, so far as the plan admits, on the reverse 
of this coin : — 

If this readirug be correct, the quarter-rupee was struck at the 
Mahisur (Mysore) Mint. At Mysore the French held a dominant 
position till the fall of Seringapatam in 1799, and doubtless the 
crescent on this coin of 1803-4 stands as a survival from that 
earlier period of power. 

A comparison of this quarter-rupee (No. 80) with the Pondi- 
cherry and Machhlipatan rupees (Nos. 128 and 143) reveals the 
fact that all three are of the same (French) type, bearing not only 
the crescent symbol, but an identical obverse impression. In all 
the arrangement of the words of the legend is precisely the same, 
and the row of diamond-shaped clusters, each of four dots, is a dis- 
tinctive feature of the field. 

The Labor Museum Catalogue registers a full rupee of Mahisur, 
dated the 47th year of Shah 'Alam II, but unfortunately the 
description given of this rupee is imperfect. It would be interest- 
ing to examine the coin anew, and see whether in type and make 
it is allied to the " Mumbai-Surat " quarter-rupee. 

Query : — In the L. M. Catal. Rodgers's brief note reads : — 

"Year vj* (for Pv) and mint j(>*» (^^<^ ." May this VP 

(? = f*v. . • .) stand for the regnal year " 4a;" prece- 
ded by a rudely formed or misshapen crescent ?* 

Geo. p. Taylor, 


* I have ascertained from Labor that the reverse of this coin bears the 
crescent symbol to the left of yjc,— H. N. W. 


Annandale, N. — ContributioDS to Oriental Herpetology III. 
Notes on tlie Oriental Lizards in the Indian Museum, with a 
list of the species recorded from British India and Ceylon. 
Journal and Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. I, No. 5, 1905, pp. 


Mabuia anakular, Annandale, N. nom., nov. pp. 

Lggosoma Mitanense, Annandale, N. pp. 144. 

,, Dusswmierii, var. Concolor, var. nov., 
Annandale, N. p. 145. 

„ Gacharense, Annandale, N. sp, nov. 
pp. 145. 

Vol. I, ISTo. 5.] The Emperor Babar. 137 

[N. S.-\ 

15. TJie Emperor Babar — By H. Beveridge, I.O.S. (retired.) 

As everytliiiig relating to Babar is interesting, I shall here 
set clown a few things about him which are not mentioned in 
Erskine and Abul Fazl. The most important is a tradition which 
is still ciuu'ent in Babar's native country of Farghana, and which is 
recorded in the "History of the Khanate of Khokand (i.e., 
Farghana) by Vladimir Petrovitch I^alivkine, a translation of 
which by Aug. Dozon was published at Paris in 1889. The author, 
after stating in his preface that the Meraoirs of Babar are nearly 
imknown in Farghana or by the Sarts, and that Babar himself has 
a bad reputation in that country, says, at p. 63, that when 
Babar hurriedly evacuated Samarkand in 918 A.H. (1512 A.D.), 
after his defeat by the Uzbegs, Saizida Afaq, one of his wives, who 
was accompanying him in his flight, was seized by the pangs of 
child-birth in the desert which extends from Khojand to Kand- 
badam (east of Khojand and north of Isfava) and gave birth to a 
son. Babar dared not tarry, and so the infant was wrapped up 
and left under some bushes. As a token of whose child he was, 
and as a reward to the finder, Babar fastened round the babe his 
girdle which contained things of price. The child was found by 
natives of the coimtry, and in allusion to the valuables which 
were beside him they gave him the name of Altyn Bishik 
or, " The golden cradle." Afterwards he received three other 
names viz., Qultuq (the armpit?). Khan Tangriyar (the 
friend of God), and Khudajan Sultan. It was by the last of 
these names that he was generally known in after life. Altyn 
Bishik grew up and spent most of his life at Akshi, one of the 
capitals of Farghana. He was a disciple of the famous saint 
Makhdum A'azam who was a native of Kasan, and whose real name 
was Ahmad Khwajagi Kasani. Several saints of the name of 
' Makhdum A'azam are mentioned in Shaw's history of the Khojas, 
A. S.B.J. Supp. for 1897, but the one referred to in the tradition 
before us is the Makhdum A'azam who was a friend of Babar and 
who died in 949 A.H. (1542 A.D. He lived chiefly at Samarkand, 
and is bui-ied near there, at Dakhbid. Shortly before his death 
he came to Akhsi and saw his disciple Altyn Bishik and his son who 
also had the name of Tangriyar and was then 5 or 6 years old. Altyn 
Bishik died in 952 A.H. (1545 A.D. ), and his grandson Yar Muham- 
mad went off to India, to his relations, the descendants of Babar. 

The same tradition is told, with some differences, by ISTiyaz 
Muhammad Khokandi in his Persian work the TdriJch-i-Shahrukhi, 
Tantnsov, Ka'^an, 1885. With i^egardto the above tradition, which 
is probably genuine, it may be noted that an Afaq Begam, a 
gi^and-daughter of Sultan Abu Sa'id and consequently a cousin 
of Babar, is mentioned in Gulbadan Begam's Memoirs, transla- 
tion, p. 204. It is doubtful, however, if she can be the same as 
Saizida Afaq. In a Persian MSS. in the Shaw Collection in the 
Indian Institute, Oxford, there is a reference to Babar's frlend- 
.ship with Makhdum A'azam, for it is stated there that Biibar, 

138 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [May, 1905. 

after Ms victory over Rana Sanga, sent Darvesh. Muhammad 
Sarban to the saint with, presents, and a quatrain expressive 
of his respect for dervishes. Perhaps it was on this occasion 
that Babar sent to Transoxiana the long religious poem called 
the Mubayyan, one-half of which has been published by Berezine 
at Kazan, and of which Sprenger saw a copy at Lucknow. Babar 
wrote it in A.H, 928 (A.D. 1521), for the instruction of Humayun. 
At Rampur in Rohilkand there is in the Nawab's Library a small 
book of Turki verses which, according to a note by Shah Jahan,. 
are in Babar's handwriting. It seems desirable that they should 
be edited and published. It is probably the Turki-divan men- 
tioned by Haidar Mirza and Abul Fazl. 

Some MSS. of the Babarnama. 

There is a good manuscript of 'Abdu-r-rahim's translation of 
the Memoirs in the Pott collection in the Eton College Library. It 
is ISTo. 175, p. 22, of Professor Margoliouth's Catalogue of the 
Pott MSS., but is wrongly entered there as a History of Far- 
ghana. The MS. was written in Agra and bears the date of 7 
Jamada-al-awwal, 1051, (4th August, 1641). The MS. formerly 
belonged to Mr. Richard Johnson, and was bought in Lucknow for 
ten iai]Dees. In the Bibliotheca Lindesiana, now in the Joha 
Rylands' Library, Deansgate, Manchester, there is a thick octavo 
volume containing 'Abdu-r-rahim's translation of the Memoirs. 
It is a well-written copy (ISTasfaliq), but has neither date nor 
colophon. Probably it belongs to the 17th centuiy. At the end 
of the account of the translations of the year 908 there is a curious 
deviation from other manuscripts. Instead of ending abruptly, as 
in the Shirazi Bombay Lithographs, p. 75, or in Brskine, p. 122, 
with the words " Should a man live a hundred, nay, a thousand 
years, yet at last he must die," it goes on to say that Babar's friends 
came up and arranged that he should leave the place, and that his 
ladies {Khatunan-i-harav%) should be taken care of. It looks as if 
Babar or some copyist had attempted to round off the description. 
As is well known, some of the Turki copies have a much longer 
narrative in this place. The Bibliotheca Lindesiana also possesses 
a small fragment of the Turki Memoirs. There is no date ,or- 
colophon, but the MS. looks older than 1780, the date assigned' 
by Mr. Kearney, and it has at the end the words dastkhat Nur 
Muhammad ahlah (? ignorant ?) wa Abul Fazl. Possibly this 
means that the MS. was written or signed by the Niir Muham- 
mad who was Abul Fazl's sister's son. There are also one or two 
other words which I could not read, but which perhaps give a 
regnal year. 

It is much to be wished that the history of Babar by Zain 
Sawafy entered in Sprenger's Catalogue of the Elliot MSS. 
J.A.S.B., Vol. XXIII, p. 241, referred to in a note at p. 123 of the 
Asiatic Quarterly Ssvietv for July 1900, could be found. It was 
described as a very old copy and as the property of a friend of 
Sayyad Jan of Cawnpore. Perhaps it still exists at Cawnpore.- 























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Vol. I, IS'o. 5.] Gontrihutions to Oriental Herpetoloqy III. 139 

[N. S.-] 

16. Contributions TO Oriental Heupetology III. — Notes on the Ori- 
ental Lizards in the Indian Museum, with a List of the Species 
recorded from British India and Geylon. Part 2. — By Nblson 
Annandale, B.A. (Oxon.), D.Sc. (Edin.), Deputy S^tperiyiten- 
dent of the Indian Museum. 

The present is a contimiation of my former paper with the 
fiam.e title, and deals with the remaining families of Oriental 
Lizards, viz., the Lacertid^, Scincidge and Dibamidee. As before, 
I append a revised list of the species in the families dealt with 
which have been, or ai-e here, recorded from British India and 
Ceylon, with their distribution within these limits. To the epithet 
' Oriental ' I have given a liberal interpretation, including under 
the category of Oriental Lizards all those forms which occur on 
the mainland of Asia or in the western section of the Malay 
Archipelago, but excluding those only known from New Guinea or 

Lihamus is represented by two specimens, a male and a female, 
from the ISTicohars. They do not call for any comment. As re- 
gards the Lacertidge and Scincidee, however, the series is a fine 
one, natvirally richest in Indian and Burmese forms — we are 
rather poor in examples from Ceylon — hut including a very consi- 
derable number of specimens from Palestine (collected and pre- 
sented by the late Dr. J. Anderson, F.R.S.), from Persia ^ (mostly 
obtained by Dr. W. T. Blanford, F.R.S.) and from Eastern Turk- 
estan* (with a few exceptions, from the late Dr. P. Stoliczka). 
There are a few specimens also from Malaya, one or two from 
Singkip Island off Sumatra and several from Borneo ; the last 
obtained from the Sarawak Museum, while those from Malaya 
and Singkip were either collected by one of the Museum collectors 
under the auspices of the late Professor J. Wood-Mason or were 
donated by the late Dr. Stoliczka. Otherwise the exotic [i.e., 
extra-Indian) part of the collection is of little importance; it 
consists of a considerable number of miscellaneous specimens from 
Australia and the two Americas and a few from Europe and 


Tachydromus septentrionalis, Gthr. 

T. haughtonianus, Jerd., P.A.S.B., 1870, p. 72; Stol, 
J.J.S.B., (2), 1872, p. 88. 

T. tacliydromoides (part.), Blur., Gat. Liz. iii., p. 5, and Faun. 
Ind., Rept., p. 169. 

T. septentrionalis, id., P.Z.8. 1899, p. 161. 

1 Sue Blanford, Eantern Pernvi, Vol. ii., Reptiles. 

2 I'l., Scientific Results of the Second Tarlcand Mission, Reptiles. 

140 Journal of tJie Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1905. 

The sjnonomy of tlie Indian species of TacJiydromus, like that 
of many other genera, has been rendered obscure by imperfect 
descriptions. At least three closely related foi"ms must be recog- 
nized as occurring within or near the borders of British India. 
They are (1) T. sexlineatus, Gray, recorded from Assam, Burma, 
Siam, the Western Himalayas, the Siamese Malay States, S. 
China, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, etc. ; (2) T. septentrionalis, Grthr., 
known from S.-W. China and here recorded from Assam, and (3) 
T. tachydromoides (Schleg.), formerly believed to occur in Assam 
but jjrobably confined, so far as our knowledge goes, to China, 
Korea and Japan. A very distinct species, T. smaragdinus, Blgr., 
from the Loo Choo Islands is repi-esented in the Maseum by a 
specimen given by the late Dr. J. Anderson. 

T. tacJiydromoides was apparently included in the Indian 
fauna by Boulenger because he regarded it as synonymous with 
T. haug]ita}iianus, which was described later. He also regarded 
T. septentrionalis, Gthr., at the time when he wrote his volume in 
the " Fauna," as identical with Schlegel's species ; but more 
recently he has pointed out that Giinther's species is really distinct,, 
though very closely allied to the other. An examination of Jer- 
don's type in the Indian Museum shows that it is merely a speci- 
men of T. septentrionalis, and, therefore, as Boulenger's more 
recent views seem to be correct, the name T. tachydromoides must 
be crossed out fi^om the list of the Indian Lizards and T. septen- 
trionalis inserted in its place. 

Apparently the only specimen of T. haughtonianus recorded 
was the type, which I have examined. It is distinguished from^ 
specimens of T. tacJiydromoides by the absence of granules- 
between the supraoculars and superciliaries and of a shield 
between the supraocular and the loreal. From T. sexlineatus- 
it differs in having five rows of dorsal scales and a distinctly 
more elongated head. There is only one femoral pore on each 
side, btit no small scales separate the outer rows of lateral plates. 
The specimen has four pairs of chin shields developed quite 
symmetrically — a condition I find also in two young specimens of 
T. sexlineatus, out of twenty- seven, young and adults, of this 
species examined. The coloration and proportions (except as 
regards the head) are practically identical with those o£ 
T. sexlineatus. 

Lacerta viridis (Laur.) 

L. viridis var. major, Blgr., Gat. Liz., iii, p. 17. 

The Museum possesses three specimens from Mount Hermonr 
{J. Anderson) of Boulenger's variety major. As there is in the- 
British Museum a specimen of the variety (Gray's species) 
strigata from the same locality and collection, the two varieties 
must occur together. The only specimens of strigata in the 
Indian Museum come from Persia [W. T. Blanford) and are 

Vol. I, 1^0. 5,] Contributions to Oriental Herpetology III. 141 

[N. ^.] 

Ophiops schleutbet, Boett. 

0. sclileuteri, Blgr., Gat. Liz., iii, p. 77. 

0. elegans (part), Werner, Zool. Jalirhr. Syst. xix, 1904, p, 334. 

Among a large number of specimens of OpMops elegans from 
Palestine and Asia Minor ( J. Anderson ) six individuals from 
Mount Hermon have the more numerous hody scales and other 
peculiarities of 0. sclileuteri, Boett., answering very closely to the 
descriptions of this form, which was at one time believed to be 
peculiar to Cyprus. The differences between 0. elegans and 
0. sclile^iteri are very small but seem to be constant; they can 
generally be perceived, by mere inspection, without actually 
counting the scales. Boulenger suggests that Boettiger's 
species may be only a variety, but it seems best to consider it for 
the present as a distinct species occurring side by side with 
0. elegans, which, however, has a very much wider range, extend- 
ing from Turkey to North-West India. 

The remaining Lacertids in the collection call for no special 
mention. Only two species, Scapteira scripta, Strauch, (of which 
we liave two Indian examples) and 8. aporosceles,^ Ale. & Finn., 
both from Baluchistan, have been added to the Indian fauna since 


Mabuia rugipera (Stol.) 

M. rugifera, Blgr., Faun. Ind., Kept. p. 190. 

A specimen from Perak (Mus. colltr. ) has seven longitudinal 
whitish bands on the dorsal and lateral surfaces. The three 
innermost commence immediately behind the head, the next two on 
either side at the posterior mai^gin of the orbit. At the posterior 
exti-emity of the body they become indistinct, disappearing on the 
tail. We have also a specimen, in which the colour has faded, 
from the Nicobars (Stoliczha). 

Mabuia multifasciata, (Kuhl) 

M. multif-isciata, Blgr., Faun. Ind., Bept., p. 191; S. Flower, 
P. Z S. 1899, p. 646. 

The Museum possessess a large series of this common Indo- 
Malayan ski'nk. The following table shows the number of 
specimens with tri- and quinquecarinate dorsal scales respectively 

I Alcook uud Finn, J.A.S.B., 1896 (2), p. 559, 


Journal of tJie Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Maj, 1905. 

from different localities Six specimens from Penang and two 
from. Upper Biirma have tricarinate dorsal scales : — 

Total Fo. 

Witii 3 Keels. 

Witt 5 Keels. 

with 3 Keels. 

Assam ... 




92 3 

Lower Burma 




92 3 














These figures show clearly, though the number of specimens 
ex amined is not very great, that while Assamese, Burmese and 
Bornean specimens agree with those from Malaya {fide S. Flower) 
in being mostly provided with tricarinate dorsal scales, there is a 
greater tendency among Andaman specimens for these scales to 
be quinquecarinate, as I have already suggested. ^ 

Mabdia tttleri, Blgr. 
M. tytleri, Blgr., Faun. Ind., Bept., p. 191. 

Of this Andaman Skink the Museum possesses seven adults 
and a young one. One of the adults was obtained in the 
Botanical Gardens near Calcutta by the late Dr. Anderson ; but 
probably it had been introduced with specimens of living plants. 
As Boulenger had only Theobald's and Stoliczka's imperfect 
descriptions to go upon, it may be well to give a new diagnosis of 
the species, which is very distinct from any other. 

Lower eyelid scaly : a postnasal. Body stout, head large, 
triangular ; snout moderate, obtusely joointed ; cheeks swollen in 
the adult ; tail long and slender, more than twice the length of 
head and body when perfect. N'ostril behind suture between rostral 
and first labial ; supranasals generally in contact behind rostral ; 
anterior loreal not, or but slightly, deeper than posterior, in 
contact with second, sometimes also with first, labial ; frontsnasal 
slightly broader than long ; preefrontals in contact mesially ; frontal 
generally as long as frontsparietals and interparietal together, in 
contact with second supraocular ; four supraoculars, second largest ; 
superciliaris inclined to break up irregularly. Ear-opening cres- 
centic, vertical, smaller than a lateral scale, without, or with 
small and indistinct, anterior lobules. Dorsal scales tricarinate, 
nuchals and laterals feebly keeled ; 24 to 26 scales round centre of 
body, subequal. The hind limb reaches the axilla. Subdigital 
lamella smooth. Coloration: dorsal surface uniform greyish 
brown, spotted on both limbs with dark- brown and white ; ventral 
surface dirty- white or greenish, tail dull-green or dull yellow. 

I J.A.S.B. (2), 1904, Suppl., p. 19. 

Vol. I, 1^0, 5.] Contributions to Oriental Herpetology III. 143 

[N. S.^ 

In tlie young there is a dark lateral stripe wliich gires tlie 
Lizard much the appearance of Lygosoma maculat^im, with which, 
judging from specimens in the Indian Miiseum, it has sometimes 
been confused. Even a verj superficial examination is of course 
suflBcient to distinguish between the two forms. The dimension, at 
any rate in respect to length, appear to exceed those of M. mul- 
tifasciata ; but the tail is very brittle and none of our specimens 
seem to be quite perfect as regards this organ. The shape of its 
head is very different from that of this species. 

M. tytleri appears to be much scarcer than M. WMltifasciata in 
the Andamans. 

Mabtjia monticola, (Theob.) 

Euprepes monticola, Gthr., apud Theobald (nee. Gunther) 
Bept. Brit. Lid., p. 52. 

The specimens described as Euprepes monticola, Gthr., by 
Theobald in his Meptiles of British India are quite distinct 
from that form, wliich is ( as Boulenger states) a synonym of 
Mabuia dissimilis (Hallow). The following description is based 
upon Theobald's examjDles, three in number, and a young specimen 
from. Arakan {Mtis. colltr.). 

Lower eyelid scaly : a postnasal. Habit slender ; head very 
small ; snout short, obtusely pointed ; tail slender, about If times 
the length of head and body. Hind limb reaches the elbow 
of adpressed fore-limb. Supranasals meet behind rostral, fronto- 
nasal broader than long ; preef rentals in contact be bind fronto- 
nasal ; four large supraoculars followed by one small one, second 
lai'gest, in contact with frontal ; parietals entirely separated 
by interparietals, with straight posterior termination ; one pair 
of nuchals. Ear-o]3ening subcircular, smaller than a lateral 
scale, with several feeble anterior lobules. Dorsal scales bi-, 
tri- or quinquecarinate, generally with only two keels distinct 
34 to 36 scales round centre of body. The colour has completely 
faded in the specimens. 

Theobald's specimens have no history ; joossibly they come 
from the Eastern Himalayas or the hills of Assam. 

Mabuia anakulae, nom. nov. 

Euprepes longicaudatus, Anderson (nee Hallow), J.A.S.B. (2) 
XL, 1871, p. 13. 

The specimen described by Anderson as Euprepes longicaudatus 
represents a very peculiar form, i-esembling in its elongated and 
cylindrical shape some members of the genus Lygosoma but techni- 
cally belonging to the genus Mabuia. As Anderson's name Avas 
preoccupied by Hollow, I have rechristened the species. The 
following description is based upon Anderson's specimen: — 

Habit snake-like ; limbs well developed, pentadactyle, hind 
limb reaching elbow of adpressed fore-limb ; distance between 
tip of snout and fore-limb contained 1^ times in distance between 

144 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1905. 

axilla and groin. Head very small ; snout short, obtusely pointed, 
convex above. Lower eyelid scaly ; a postnasal. Supranasals 
separated by frontonasal. Praefrontals form a median suture ; 
frontal shorter than frontoparietals and interparietal together ; 
parietals meet behind interparietal, one pair of enlarged nuchals. 
Ear-opening a little smaller than eye-openiug^ longitudinal, 
without lobules. Thirty scales round centre of body ; dorsals, 
laterals and nuchals with 4 to 6 keels, only two of which ai-e at all 
strongly marked. Length from snout to vent 35 mm. ; tail (now 
much broken) at least three tianes as long as, stout in comparison 
with, body. 

One speciraen from Cachar {Mus. colltr,). 

Anderson was right in regarding this species as allied to 
Theobald's JEuprepes monticola, from which, however, it is quite- 

Ltgosoma maculatdm, (Blyth) 

L. maculatum, Blgr., Faim. Incl., Rept., p. 196. 

Comparison with other specimens (of which we have a very 
large series), shows that those from IS^arcondam (see Annandale, 
J.A.8.B., (2) 1904, Suppl., p. 13) belong to this species. Boulenger 
says (^loc. cit. and similarly in the Gatalogiie of Lizards Hi, p. 242),. 
" distance between end of snout and fore-limb equals 1-g- to 1^ times 
distance between axilla and groin." This is obviously a lapsus 
calami, for the latter distance is the greater. 

Ltgosoma mitanbnsb, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis — 

Allied to Lygosoma indicum, with which it agrees in lepidosis, 
except that it has 42 smooth scales round the centre of the body, 
the dorsals being considerably larger than the laterals or the 
ventrals. The hind limb I'eaches a point midway between the 
shoulder and the ear. Length from tip of snout to fore-limb is 
contained about Ij times between axilla and groin. The tail, 
which is laterally compressed, is more than twice the length of the 
head and body. The type is much discoloured but appears to 
have been marked in much the same way as L. maculatum. 

Hmensions of type — 

Total Length 

... 130 







Eore-limb ... 


Hind Limb 


Breadth of Head 


A single specimen from Meetan, Lower Burma {Tenasserim- 

Vol. I, N'o. 5.] Gontrihutions to Oriental Serpetology III. 145 

IN. 8.-] 

Lygosoma DussDMiBRii yar. CONCOLOR, var. nov. 

"We have a specimen from Canara {Gol. Beddome) which 
perhaps differs sufficiently from others to be given a varietal name, 
thongh the differences may be due to age. The rostral is convex ; 
the dorsal and lateral surfaces are of an almost uniform pale bronze 
m.arbled on the sides of the neck with white, a colour which 
appears in the same manner on the labials and the sides of the 
tail ; the size is greater than that of any other specimen I have 
seen (snout to vent 57 mm ; tail 105 mm.). 

Lygosoma oltvacbum var. grisedm, (Gray). 

The only specimen of this variety in the Museum is one from 
Sinkip Island (/. Wood-Mason). Mr. Boalenger has kindly ex- 
amined it. Specimens from the Andamans and Mcobars belong to 
the typical variety. 

Lygosoma cachaeense, sp. nov. 

Subgenus Keneuxia, Gray. 

Habit lacertiform ; limbs well developed, pentadactyle ; hind 
limb reaches wrist of adpressed fore-limb. Distance between 
tip of snout and fore-limb contained 1^ times in distance from 
axilla to groin. Snout short, obtuse, convex above ; lower eyelid 
scaly ; no supra- or postnasals. Prseafrontals meet behind rostral; 
frontal as long as frontoparietals and interparietal together ; fi"onto- 
parietals meet behind parietal ; so enlarged nuchals. Fifth and 
sixth upper labials beneath eye, enlarged. Ear-opening almost as 
large as eye-opening, oval, vertical. Twenty-four smooth, sub- 
equal scales round centre of body, nonimbricate laterally ; pr^anals 
slightly enlarged. Tail less than twice tlie length of head and 
body. Coloration — dark-brown above, with darker lateral line ; 
paler below : — 

Total Leng-th ... ... 118 mm. 





Hind Limb 

Breadth of Head 


One specimen from Nemotha, Cachar (/. Wood-Maso7i) . 

Lygosoma pulchellum (Gray) 

L. pulcliellum, Blgr., Cat. Liz. iii., p. 254, pi. xvii, fig. 1. 

I have been somewhat surprised to find an example from 
Tavoy {Mus. colltr.) of tliis extremely beautiful and distinct little 
Skink, which was described from the Philippines. It agrees 

146 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1905. 

closely botli as regards lepidosis and proportions (actual and 
relative) and as regards coloration witli Boulenger's description 
and figures. Major Alcock has kindly examined some of its 
most characteristic features with me. 

Ltgosoma sikkimense (Blyth) 

There is a specimen from Simla in the Indian Museum, 
wrongly identified as L. dorise. I am not aware that the species 
has been recorded hitherto from the "Western Himalayas. 

Lygosoma tragbulense, Ale. 

L. himalayanum var. tragbulense, Alcock, Report N. H. 
Pamir Bound. Gomm., p. 36, pi. II, figs. 1, la. 

Out of eleven specimens of Lygosoina collected on the Trag- 
bal pass by Dr. G. M. Giles four belong to Alcock's variety trag- 
hulense, while the remainder represent the typical L. Jiimalayanwm. 
Some of the latter are very much smaller than those of tragbulense, 
which, as well as the types, are fairly well grown. The coloration, 
thei-efoi-e, cannot be due to youth ; and though variety in colora- 
tion in itself is not a safe specific difference in the Skinks, it may 
be taken, when it is very distinctive, as an additional reason for 
separation if combined with differences in scaling. The greater 
number of subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe which Alcock 
noted in his specimens, is constant, as are also the characteristic 
dorsal and lateral stripes, while the ventral scales have not the 
obscure dark edging common in L. hitnalayanum but are of 
an opaque white. There may be two scales under the eye ; but 
this character is not constant. 

Ltgosoma beddomii, Blgr. 

The only specimen in our collection which can be assigned 
to this species differs from the descriptions in that the limbs do 
not meet when adpressed. Otherwise it conforms to Boulenger's 

Ltgosoma foemosum (Blyth) 

Mocoa formosa, Blyth, J.A.S.B., (2) xxii, p. 651; Blgr., 
Faun. Ind., Bept., p. 205. 

The following description is based on the three types of 
Blyth's iraperfectly described species : — 
Subgenus Emoa, Gray. 

Habit stout ; head moderate ; snout obtusely pointed ; limbs 
well developed, overlap slightly ; head and body about f length of 
tail. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk, no 
supra or postnasals. I^ostril behind suture between rostral and 
first labial ; rostral forms a straight or nearly straight sulture 
with frontonasal ; prsefrontals in contact ; frontal in contact with 

Vol. I, N'o. 5.] Gontribidions to Oriental Herpetology III. 147 

1st and 2nd snpraculars ; 4 supraoculars, 2nd longest ; 6 to 8- 
superciliaries, snbequal ; frontsparietals distinct ; no enlarged 
nuclials. Dorsal scales smooth, larger than ventrals or laterals ; 
30 to 34 scales round centre of bodj. Goloration — Dorsal surface 
olive-green or pale-brown, spotted with, dark-brown and white ; a 
dark lateral band, also spotted with, wbite ; ventral surface and 
tail pale-brown or olive-green. 

From Mirzapore (IS^ortb-West Provinces) and Wazirabad,. 

Ltgosoma atrocostatum (Gray) 

L. atrocostatum, Blgr., Gat. Liz. iii., p. 295 ; S. Flower, 
P.Z.8. 1899, p." 649. 
L. jerdonianum, Blgr. t. c, p. 300. 
L. singaporense, id., t.c, p. 297. 

In addition to Stoliczka's type of Mabouya jerdoniana from 
Pulau Tikus (Rat Island) off Penang, we have a specimen from 
Sinkip Island (/. Wood-Masoii) which, resembles it closely on tlie 
wliole but has only 34 scales round the centre of the body, and six 
specimens from Borneo (Saraivak Ilns. ) . These Bornean and Sinkip 
specimens have a single frontoparietal, while this scale is only 
partially divided in Stoliczka's. One of the Bornean specimens 
has sujDraoculars. I agree with Flower in regarding L. jerdonia- 
num as a synonym of L. atrocostatum, to the synonomy of which 
I would also add L. singaporense, though I have not seen a speci- 
m.en of the last. 

L. atrocostatum does not appear to have been recorded from 
Sxonatra, where it probably occurs, being found on Sinkip. 

Lygosoma chinensb (Gray) 

L. chinense, Blgr., Gat. Liz. Ill, p. 318. 

A specimen from Hong Kong (/. Wood-Mason) must, I think, 
be referred to this species. It has 4 supraoculars, and the 
coloration is as follows : — dorsal surface pale brown ; lateral surfaces 
and tail mottled with dark brown and white; a dai-k lateral line 
starting from below the eye and becoming indistinct behind the 
fore-limb : ventral surface yellowish. 

Lygosoma lineolatum (Stol.) 

A specimen from Martaban is probably one of the types, but 
is entered in the Museum register simply as purchased, which is 
the case with other types of Stoliczka's. 

Lygosoma comottii, Blgr. 

A specimen from Tavoy {Mus. coUtr.) agrees with Boulenger's 
description except that the fifth, not the sixth, upper labial is 
under the centre of the eye. The species does not appear to have 
been recorded from Lower Burma. 

148 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1905. 

Ltgosoma anguinum (Theob.) 

In addition to the types we liave another specimen from Pegu 
and one from Amherst in Northern Tenasserim. 

BuMBCBS scuTATUS (Theob.) 

E. tEeniolatns, Blanf. Res , 2nd Yarh. Miss. Rept. p. 19. 
E. scntatus, Blgr. Faun. Ind. Bept., p. 218. 

The Museum has specimens from Sind {KaracJii Mus.) ; 
Rajputana (JV. Bellety) ; N. Kashmir {27id. Yarhand Miss.) ; 
Chitral {F. J. Balij), and Afghanistan (Dr. B. M. Green). The 
species has frequently been confused with F. tmniolatus. 

Etjmeces t^niolattjs (Blyth) 

E. taeniolatus, Blgr, Faun, Ind., Rept., p. 219. 

Of this species we have only two true specimens, both from 
the Punjab Salt Range [Theobald). One has two, the other only 
one postmental ; otherwise they agree closely, differing consider- 
ably from the preceding form. 

SciNCUs MiTRANUS, Anders. 

S. mitranus, Blgr., Gat. Liz. iii,p. 393. 

S. arenarius, id., t.c p. 392; & Faun. Ind., Bejpt., p. 221. 

In his description of S. mitranus Anderson states that it has 
five supraoculars. The type, however, (the locality of which is 
doubtful) has six on one side of the head ; while on the other 
traumatic injuries to the skin forbid an opinion. Specimens of 
Miirray's S. arenarius from Sind agree in every other respect with 
this individual, which is, on the whole, well preserved. 

Ohalcides ocellatus (Forsk.) 

There are a number of specimens {purchase^ in the Museum 
said to come from Haldibari (Kooch-Behar) : their true pro- 
venance is doubtful but probably Indian. They belong to var. 
A of Boulenger's Catalogue (iii, p. 401), as also do Persian ex- 
amples {Blanf ord), but are rather darker than examples from 
Palestine and Egypt. 

Vol. I, 'No. 5.] Contributions to Oriental Herpetology III. 149 


156. Tacliydromus sexlineatus, Daud. ... E. Himalayas; Assam; Burma. 

157. „ septentrionalis,* Gthr. Assam (—T. tachych-omoides Schleg. 

(partim) in Blgr., Faun. Ind., Bept., p. 169). 

158. Acantliodactylus cantoris, Gthr. 

159. ,, micropliolis,§ Blanf. 

160. Cabrita leschenanltii (M.-Edw.) 

,, jerdonii, Bedd. 
Opliiops jerdonii, Blyth. 

„ beddorai (Jerd.) 

,, elegans, Menefcr. 

,, microlepis,§ Blanf. 
Eremias guttulata (Licht.) 

,, brevirostris§ (Blanf.) 

„ velox (Pall.) 

„ fa3oiata,§ Blanf. 
Scapteira scripta,* Strauch 

171 . Scapteira acutirostris, Blgr. 

172, Scapteira aporosceles,*§ Alo. 


... N.-W. India. 

.., Balnohistan ; Sind. [Berar. 

... S. India as far north as S. E, 
... Godavari Yalley ; Ellore. 
... Centi-al and N.-W. India. 
... S. India; Bombay Presidency. 
... Punjab. 

... N. India from Katch to W. Bengal. 
... Sind; Baluchistan. 
... Punjab. 
... Baluchistan. 
... Baluchistan. 
.., N. Baluchistan (4?iiea). 
... N. Baluchistan. 

... N. Baluchistan (Alcock & Finn, 
J.A.8.B. (2) 1896). 




Mabuia bibronii (Gray.) 
Mahuia do7-i3s, Blgr.... 
Mabuia dissimilis (Hallow) 

septeratseniata (Reuss) 

iiovemcarinata§ (Anders.) 

beddomii (Jerd.) 

vertebralis, Blgr. 

rugifera§ (Stpl.) 

multifasciata (Kuhl) 

tytleri, Blgr. 
Mahuia quadricarinata, Blgr. 
Mabuia monticola *§ (Theob.) 
,, anakular,*§ Annand. 

186. Lygosoma indicnm (Gray) 

187. ;> niitanense,*§ Annand. 
,, maculatum ( Blyth.) 


189. ,, dussamieri, D. & B. 

190. ,, olivacenm (Gray) 

191. ,, cacharense,*§ Annand. 

192. Lygosoma suhcmruleum,* Blgr. 

193. ,, pul'^hellura * (Gray) 

194. Lygoaoma kukhienenhe, Blgr. 

195. Lygosoma melanostictum, Blgr. 
19G. ,, sikkimense (Blyth) 

197. ,, himalayatmm (Gthr.) 

198. ,, tr:igbalenae,*§ Alo. 

199. Lygoioma dorve, Blgr. ... 

S. India; Ceylon. 

Upper Burma. 

N. India from Sind to Bengal. 



S, India, north to S.-E. Berar. 

Central India. 

Nicobars. [Nioobara. 

Assam; Bnrma; Andamans and 

Andamans; Calcntta (introduced ?). 

Kakhyen Hills, Upper Burma. 

Arakan ; ? E. Himalayas (Antea). 

Cachar ( = Euprepes longicaudatus 

Anders. Antea). 
B. Himalayas ; Hills of Assam and 

Lower Burma, {Antea). 
N. Bengal; E. Himalayas; Assam 

Malabar province. 
Tenasserim ; Andamans; Nicobars. 
Cachar {Antea). 
Travancore (Blgr; Ann. Mag. N. H, 

1891, p. 289). 
Tavoy (Antea). 

Kakhyen Hills, Upper Burma, 
Tenasseriin ; Tavoy. 
W. Bengal (Pareshnata Hills); B. 

Himalayas; Simla. 
W. Himalayas ; Kashmir ; Central 

Tragbal Pass, Kashmir (Alc.Pamtr 

Bound. Gomni. N. H,, p. 36). 
, Upper Burma. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1905. 

200. Lygosoma ladacense (Gthr.) 

201. Lygosoma later imaculatum, BIgr. 

202. Lygosoma bilineatum'^ (Gray.) 

203. Lygosoma beddomii, Blgr. 

204. „ maorotympaiium § (Stol, 

205. Lygoso7na Tnacrotis [Steind.) 

206. Lygosoma formosam*§ (Blyth) 

207. „ taprobaneiise, (KeL) 

208. „ fallax, Ptrs. ... 

209. „ lineolatum § (Stol.) 

210. „ comotti, Blgr. 

211. „ albopunctatiim (Gray) 

212. „ puncfcatum (Liiin.) 

213. „ gaentheri (Ptrs.) 

214. „ cyanellam ^ (Stol.) 

215. ,, aguinum § (Theob.) 

216. Lygosoma calamus, Blgr. 

217. Lygosoma lineatum (Gray) 

218. Lygosoma punctatolijieatitm,* Blgr.., 

219. Ablepharus brandtii, Strauch 

220. ,' grayaiius,§ (Stol.) 

221. Ristella rurkii, Gray. 

222. „ travancorica, Bedd. 

223. Ristella guentheri, Blgr. 

224. Ristella bedomii, Blgr. .. 

225. Tropidophorus berdmorii, (Blyth) .. 

226. Tropidophorus yimnanensis, Blgr. .. 

227. Eameces scutatus (Tkeob.) 

228. „ tEeaiolatus§ (Blyth) .. 

229. „ schneideri (Daud) 

230. ,, blythiaiius§ (Anders.)., 

231. Scincus mitranus,*§ Anders. 

232. Ophiomoras tridactylus (Blyth) 

233. Ophiomorus hlandfordii, Blgr, 

234. Chaloidea ocellatus (Forsk) 

235. Chalcides pentadactylus (Bedd), 

236. Sepophis punctatus, Bedd. 

237. Chalcideseps thivaitesii (Gthr.) 

238. Acoutias burtonii (Gray) 

239. „ monodactylus (Gray) 

240. „ layardii, Kelaarb 

241. Acontias sarasinorum, F. Miiller 

,. Ladak. 
,, S. India. 

., S. India. 

) S. Andamtins. 

,. Nicobars. 

, N.-W. Provinces; Panjab [Antea.) 

. Ceylon. 

. Martaban, Lower Burma. 

. Upper Burma; Tavoy. 

.. S. & E. India ; Assam ; Burma. 

,. Peninsular India; Ceylon. 

, S. India ; C. India ; Bombay. 

. Burma. 

, Pegu ; N. Tenasserim. 

. Upper Burma, 

,. Central Provinces. 

. Bia-po, Burma [Bigs., Ann. Mus, 

Genova, 1893, p. 321.) 
. Punjab ; Sind ; Baluchistan, 
, Katoh and Sind. 
I Anamalay Hills, S India. 
. Travancore (hills). 
. Madura (hills). 

S.-W. India (hills). 
, Lower Burma. 

, Kakhyen hills, Upper Burma. 
. Sind ; Katch ; Punjab ; Kashmir j 

. Punjab Salt Kange. 
. Baluchistan. 
, ? Punjab ; Afridi District. 
, Sind (-S. arenarius, Murray, Antea.} 
, Punjab ; Sind ; Baluchistan. 
. Baluchistan. 
. Sind, 

. Beypore, Malabar, 
. Golgonda and Godavari Hills. 
, Ceylon. 

242. Dibamus novEe-guinese, D. & B, ... Nicobars. 

In the above list, as in that of the preceding families, a * op- 
posite a name indicates that the species is new to the Indian fauna 
since 1890 ; a § that the Indian Museum possesses a type or cj- 
type. Names in italics are those of species not represented in the 

1 Y. Eama Chandran, M.A., student, Madras, has lately sent me a 
specimen of L. bilineatum which has, as he points out, 26 scales round the body. 

June 22nd, 1905, 

2 Including L. fex. 

See Boulenger, Ann, Mus. Oen, (ii) xiii, p. 320, 

Vol. I, 'No. 5.] Contribtdions to Oriental Herpetology III. 151 

[N. S.-] 

In Boulenger's volume in the " Fauna of India " (1890), 221 
species of Lizards are described ; at present 242 appear to occur 
within the Indian Empire and Ceylon, but the grounds on which 
three of these are included are a little insecure. The majority 
of the species added have been new to science, but a few previous- 
ly known from other parts of Asia have been recorded from Balu- 
chistan. Several new forms have been described from the same 
neighbourhood several from Burma (chiefly from Lower Burma), 
one from S. India, two from the Andamans and one from Cachar. 
Undoubtedly novelties still remain to be discovered, especially in 
the extreme east of the Empire ; and probably certain forms now 
regarded as solely Malayan will be found also in Tenasserim. 
Several forms, e.g. Lygosoma zebratmn and i. feae have been shown 
to be at most varieties of previously desc:dbed species. 

Mr. Grey Pilgrim, of the Geological Survey of India, has 
lately collected in Eastern Arabia and presented to the Museum 
the following specimens : 

TJromastix microlepis, (Blanf.) ... One specimen. 

Yaranus griseus (Daud.) ... „ 

Uremias hrevirostris (Blanf.) ... Two specimens. 

I neglected to mention in the former part of this paper, that 
Gymnodactylus hhasiensis has lately been recorded from Upper 
Burma by Boulenger, Journ. Bombay N.H. Soc, xiii, p. 553. 

July 26th, 1905. 

JVoie.— Through the kindness of Dr. A. Willey, F.R.S., Director of the 
Colombo Museum, I have lately had an opportunity of examining the types 
of Nevill's Huprepes halianus, a Ceylonese Skink regarding the systematic 
position of which Boulenger expresses a doubt. As they possess retractile 
claws, while otherwise agreeing with Lygosoma, I propose to place them in a 
new genus Theconyx, which will be fully described later in Spolia Zeylanica, 
the organ of the Colombo Museum. August 23rd, 1905, 

152 Jovrnal of the Asiaiic Society of Bengal. [May, 1905. 

'17. Tibet, a defendency of Mongolia. — (1643 — lllQ KJ).).— By 
Rai Saeat Chandra Das, Bahadtir, CLE. 

Tlie six Khanates of Mongolia had, for a long time, remained 
under a solemn compact which kept them in peace. At last, the 
Khan of Chakar, named Legdan, who had grown amhitious, made 
a breach into it, in consequence of which internal dissensions broke 
out among them. Friendly advisors and intermediators came 
from the neighbonring States to bring upon reconciliation among 
the contending parties in Khalkha, the country of the Kulmuc 
Mongols. One of the claimants to inheritance in that Khanate 
being driven out of the country, came with his hordes to the bank 
of Lake T'hig-pog Gyalmo and took possession of the province of 
Ho9o-tshe of Thumed-Mongolia. His descendant who had set- 
tled there was attached to the sTiivamar or Red-cap School of Tibet. 
About this time the two rival sects of Buddhism, namely, the Red- 
cap and the Yellow-cap Lamas, were fighting with each other in 
Tibet. Rab-chyampa, a representative of the Red-cap sect pro- 
ceeded to Mongolia and appealed for help to the Khan of 
Ho90-tshe. In the year Tree-hog the Khan sent his son Arsaling 
(Abaling) at the head of 10,000 Tartars to Tibet to extirpate 
the Tellow-cap Church. The prince being humane and pious 
refrained from doing' injury to the Tellow-cap Lamas, so the 
Red-cap Lamas, out of spite, sent misrepresentations against him 
to his father, accusing him of partiality to their enemies. The 
Khan, who was at that time engaged in war in the Kokoncr 
country, became furious at his son's conduct and wrote to the 
Rab-chyampa to take the prince's life. On Arsaling's death, which 
was probably caused either by poison or assasination, the Tartar 
troops were thrown into disorder. For the want of a leader they 
dispersed like a cloud and returned to their country. About tliis 
time the Khan of Duthukthu, a descendant of Jenghis Khan, 
who had also espoused the cause of the Red-cap Lamas, started 
from Chakar with a large army to help them in their struggle 
with the Yellow-Church. But on his arrival at Kokonor he acci- 
dentally died. A great enemy of Buddhism now arose in Kham, 
who followed the Bon religion. This was the King of Beri, named 
Don-yo dorje. He, like King Langdarma, had destroyed all the 
Buddhist Institutions of Kham belonging to the Red-cap and the 
Yellow-cap sects. He was about to start with a large army for 
conquering Tibet proper when the Khan of CBleuth Mongols 
entered Kham with his Tartar hordes. This was Gushi Khan the 
third of the five sons of the Khan of Hogod, one of the four divi- 
sions of Orad Mongolia. Like Jenghis Khan, he too was believed 
to have been an incarnation of the Lord of Death. His native 
name was Toral Be^u, but he is better known by the names Gushi 
Khan or Gegan Khan. Owing to his devotion to the cau sof tlic 

Vol. I, 'No. 5.] Tibet, a dependency of Mongolia. 153 

[N. 8.-] 

Yellow-cap Churcli lie is known in Tibet by the Tibetan name 
of Tenzing Choigyal, the upholder of religion or Dharma Raja. 
While only thirteen years of age he was entrusted by his 
father with the leadership of the Tartar hordes. He defeated 
the Gokar^ Tartars and brought them under subjection in 1593. 
At the age of 25 he was successful in reconciling the Kulmucs 
of Khalkha with the QEleuth Mongols who were quarrelling 
on account of a question of precedence between the hierarch of 
Grahdan and Ston skor Sabs-di-ung named Jetsnndampa, and 
thereby averted a fierce and bloody war in the heart of Mongo- 
lia. For this service, he was decorated with the holy order of 
Ta Kausri by the Emperor of China in 1605, from -which cir- 
cumstance his name Kushri or G-ushi Khan had originated. 
At the age of 35, at the earnest entreaties of Desrid Sonam 
Choiphel, Panchen Rinpoche of Tashilhampo and other repre- 
sentatives of the Yellow-Church, he agreed to march into Tibet 
to punish their enemies. In the year Fire-ox in the first 
month, i.e., February, he entered Kokonor with a large army. 
He despatched about 10,000 troo|)s to fhog-thu in Khalkha to 
suppress a rebellion there. His hordes routed 40,000 Tartars in 
a single battle fought at Utan H090 in one day, and killed the 
Khan. From Kokonor, Gushri Khan moved towards Tibet. He 
reached the great monastery of Gahdan in the auspicious evening- 
of the 27th day of the month, when he saw a halo of light 
brightening the horizon at dusk. 

During the winter of that year he again visited Kokonor, and 
from there proceeding to Kham, on the 25th of the 11th month, 
he annexed the whole of King Beri's dominions to his kingdom. 
Seeing that Beri would be dangerous to both the Church and the 
State he put him to death and released the Lamas of the several 
Buddhist sects who had been thrown into prison by that apostate 
king of Kham. Gushri then brought under his control all the 
territories bordering on Jangsathul — the dominions of the king 
of Jangsa. Then entering Tibet proper with his invincible hordes, 
he Inade presents to the great monasteries of the Yellow-Church 
and proclaimed his authority over the whole country. From 
Lhasa he marched to Tsang with the major portion of his army. 
In the year called water-horse, on the 8th of the first month, he 
captured thirteen large Jongs (forts), including that of Samdub-tse 
at Shigatse, and overthrew the power of the king of Tsang. On 
the 25th of the llth month he threw him into prison. At first, out- 
of respect for the valour of the fallen monarch, he did not order 
him to be beheaded, but at the representation of the leaders of the 
Yellow-Churcli he was found guilty of the highest crime, having had 
established a rival monastery of the Red-cap Church, called Tashizil, . 
in the immediate vicinity of Tashilhunpo, with the object of ruining 

I The Western Mongolians who had become Mahomedans were called: 
Gokar on account of their using the white Pagri, from go head and har 

154 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Maj, 1905. 

the latter. Gusliri Klian caused him to be packed in a hide ^ and 
then threw him into the river. He then commenced the pious work of 
establishing a University with thirteen colleges, which were called 
Ling or divisions, at Lhasa, for the education of both the laity and 
the clergy. Of these thirteen Lings only four have survived, namely, 
Tan-gyeling, Tshe-chog-Ling, Kundu-Ling and Tshemo-Ling. He 
brought all the great Gholka or Provinces of Tibet under his 
power. Hearing that the Lamas of Kongpo, were greatly 
attached to the Red-cap Karmapa Sect, he sent a division of his 
army there and annexed the eastern provinces to his dominions. 
He now declared himself the supreme ruler of all Tibet and 
Mongolia, and sat on the Lion-throne of Potala at Lhasa. On this 
auspicious occasion he received presents from the border states of 
India, such as — -Bushing (probably Bushahir), Yambu (iN'epal), 
ISTgah-ri (Ladak), etc. The Tibetans of the older sects began to 
regard him as an incarnation of their saint Padma Sambhava. 
After making the Yellow-Church dominant all over Tibet and 
Mongolia he shewed tolerance to the followers of the rival sects 
and patronized learning. Thus Mongolia and Tibet being brought 
together under the sovereignity of one Royal Umbrella, the religion 
of Buddha, as reformed by Tsongkhapa, flourished and shone with 
greater lustre than it had done even during the reformer's time. 
Under the benign rule of this devout king all classes of people 
enjoyed peace and prosperity, as if they were living in the ideal 
age of perfection. 

After Gushri Khan's death his son Dayan Khan reigned for 
fourteen years over Tibet. On his death his son Talai Khan, also 
called Ratna Gyalpo, succeeded to the throne. Ratna's eldest son 
named Tanzin Wangyal succeeded him, but he did not reign long, 
being mysteriously poisoned. During the reigns of these kings 
the office of the Besrid was successively filled by Pon Sonam. 
Choiphel for seventeen years, from the year Iron-serpent ; by T'hin 
las Gyatsho for ten years ; by Lozang thutob for six years ; and by 
Lozang Jinpa for three years. Then it passed to the layman 
Sangye Gyatsho who held it for nearly twenty-five years from the 
year JEartli-slieep, during which time he completed the building 
of the nine-storeyed palace on Potala called the Phodang Marpo. 
In the year Fire-tiger there was war between the Khalkha and the 
CBleuth Mongols. The hierarch of Gahdan, named T'hi-Lodoi 
Gyatsho, reconciled the belligerents to each other and induced them 
to make a treaty of peace. On the death of Tanzing Waiigyal, 
Lhabzang, the younger son of Ratna who was exiled, succeeded to 
the throne. His first act was to wreak vengeance ^ on the Besrid, 
Sangye Gyatsho, who had been instrumental in bringing about his 

^ This punishment is called Ko-thUmgyab-pa, i.e., packing the criminal 
in hide or skin and then throwing him in the deep water of a river. This 
is the capital pnnishment that is inflicted on the higher class of criminals in 

S At this period it was suspected that the Lama authorities of the Yel- 
low-cap Church were intriguing to kill the king (Lhabzang) by exorcism. 

Vol. I, No. 5,] Tibet, a dependency of Mongolia. 155 

baBishment. Duriag Lis exile Lliabzang had collected about 500 
Tartar troops. Entering Tibet with them he collected a large 
army from the 13 ThiTior of Tibet, besides Kongpo and other pro- 
yinces and took possession of the throne, In the year Tree-bird he 
killed Besrid Sangye Gyatsho. He reigned for nearly thirteen 

Hearing the news of Desrid's violent death, the Khan of 
Chungar (Znngaria), the left branch of the CEleuth Mongols 
named Hung Thaije, who was devoted to the Yellow-cap Church, 
sent presents to the Dalai Lama, and with a view to i-estore peace 
and pr-osperity in the troubled land of the Lamas, sent his generals 
to invade Tibet with a large army. In the year Fire-bird they 
captured Lhasa, defeating Lhabzang in a battle in which he fell. 
Thus in 1716 ended the short-lived kingdom founded by Grushri 
Khan in Tibet. In the year 1717 the Chungar army, after sack- 
ing the Ningma monasteries of ISTamgyaling, Dorje Tag, Mindol- 
ling, etc., and making the Yellow-cap Church still more pre- 
dominant all over Tibet, returned to Mongolia. 

156 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [May, 1905 > 

18. Sarvajna-mitra — a TantriJca Buddhist author of Kasmtra in 
the 8th century A.D. — By Peof. Satis Chandea Yidyabhusana, M.A. 

Among the man-u scripts presented to the Asiatic Society o£ 
Bengal by Mr. Hodgson, there is a Buddhist Sanskrit work 
named Sragdhara-stotra Tby Sarvajna-mitra. The work derives its. 
name from that of the metre, viz., Sragdhar 0,^110. which it is written. 
It is a hymn consisting of 37 stanzas in praise of the Tantrika 
goddess Tara who is called in Tibetan Sgrol-ma. There is a Sans- 
krit commentary on the work, called Sragdhara stotra-tika, by Jina- 
raksita who was a monk of the great monastery of Vikramasila 
and a spiritual guide of a king of the time. 

The commentator states that Sarvajiia-mitra, the author of 
Sragdhara-stotra, was a devout monk of Kasmira and was re- 
nowned for liis unbounded charity. Having given away everything 
he possessed, he left the country and wandered abroad as a men- 
dicant. Once while he was proceeding to the kingdom of Vajra- 
mukuta, he met on the way a poor old Brahmana who was in a 
very pressing need of money for the marriage of his daughter. 
The Brahmana, who was going to the place of Sarvajiia-mitra 
himself for help, having learnt that the latter had nothing left 
except the beggar's bowl and robe, fell into great despair and shed 
tears. Sarvajna-mitra, however, consoled him saying : " Be not 
sad, I shall give you what you ask for." At that time King Yajra- 
mukuta was told by a certain person that all his desires would be 
fulfilled if he could wash himself sitting on 100 skulls 
freshly severed from the trtinks. The king who had already 
secured 99 persons completed the number 100 by purchasing 
Sarvajna-mitra, who sold his person for its weight in gold which 
was given to the poor Brahmana. The 100 victims were in a 
morning led into the Executioner's Tank by officers of the king. 
Sarvajna-mitra finding no means of escape composed and chanted 
37 stanzas in praise of ' Arya Tara, whereupon ai2 the victims- 
were miraculously saved and taken to their respective homes. 
Heaps of gold equal to the weight of the victims remained depo- 
sited on the edge of the tank. The king, surprised at the miracu- 
lous power of the monk, became a disciple of his. 

The story of Sarvajna-mitra and a literal Tibetan translation- 
of the Sragdhara-stotra are to be found in the Tangyur, section 
Rgyud, vol. L. 

A similar story about Sarvajna-mitra is narrated in the Tibetan 
work called Pagsam-jon-zang edited by Rai Sarat Chandra Das- 

1 The Sragdhara metre contains twenty-one syllables in each foot broken 
into three eqaaJ. parts. In the Chandomanjari, the Sragdhara verse is- 
thus scanned : — 

\^ \^ <j \j \y \j 

Vol I, Xo. 5.] Sarvajna-niitra. 157 

Baliadiir, CLE. Accoi^ding to this work Sarvajna-mitra, tliougli 
born in Kasmira, was a student of the monaster j at IS^alanda in 
Mao-adha where he became a great master of sciences. The king 
to whom he sold his person is called Vajra-mukuta in the Sanskrit 
Srao'dharastotratika, while he is called Sarana in the Tibetan, 
Pao-sam-jon-zang'. The story contained in the Pagsam-jon-zang 
(p. 102) rnns thus : — 

" A little bastard child of the King of Kasmira was carriedaway 
by a vulture from the roof of the palace and dropped on the top 
•of the Gandhola (the great central temple) of Ifalaiida in Maga- 
-dha. The Pandits of the Vihara, taking mercy on it, nursed it. 
As he grew up the child acquired great knowledge and became 
a scholar. He propitiated the goddess Arya Tara and thereby 
acquired great wealth. He gave away all his riches in charity, and 
when there was nothing left he started on a journey to Southern 
India. Meeting on the way an old blind Brahniana who was 
being led by his son, he inquired where he was going. Being 
told that the blind Brahmana who was very poor had started on 
his distant journey to beg help from Sarvajua-mitra of 
I^alanda, he was overpowered with pity and determined to sell his 
own body to give gold to the helpless beggar. At this time he 
learnt that King Sarana, who at the advice of his wicked spiritual 
^uide had undertaken the performance of a Yajna in which 108 
human sacrifices were necessary, was in search of one more victim 
which was wanting to complete the full number. The king was 
convinced that if he successfully performed the Yajna he would 
attain the longevity equal to the sum of the longevity of 108 souls 
that would be sacrificed in it. SarvajSa-mitra sold himself to the 
king and paid the gold that he had obtained therefrom to the blind 
Brahmana. While waiting one night for death in a dark dungeon 
he invoked the goddess Tara with the utmost concentration of his 
mind. When fire blazed up from the piled firewood and all the 
108 men were led in chains to the pyre, a heavy shower of rain fell 
which extinguished the fire within a short time and convei-ted the 
whole plain where the sacrifice was being performed into a large 
sheet of water resembling a lake. The king and his ministers 
hearing that this was due to the mercy of the goddess Tara who 
was invoked by the victim who had sold himself to save othei's, 
now acquired faith in the religion of Buddha and having released all 
the lOB victims of the unholy sacrifice sent them to their respec- 
tive homes loaded them with presents. Sarvajiia-mitra before 
whom the goddess had miraculously aj^peared, held fast a comer 
of her celestial robe and was carried to the land of his birth." 

The same story is related in Lama Taranatha's history of 
Buddhism (vide A. Schiefner, p. 168 ff. ). 

Neither in the Sragdhara-stotra nor in its commentary is there 
any mention of the date of either of the two works. Dr. Rajendra 
Lala Mitra who notices the two works in his Buddhist Literature of 
Nepal, p. 228, says nothing about their dates. The Rajatarangini,the 
well-known chronicle of Kasmira, supplies us, however, with some 

158 Journal of tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May 1905. 

data to determine tlie age of Sarvajna-mitra the author of Srag- 
dhara-stotra. In Book lY, verse 210 of the Rajatarangini, we find 
that Bhiksu Sarvajfia-mitra, who appeared as another Jina, resided 
in Kayyavihara, which had been built by King Kayya. This 
Kayya is stated to have been a king of Lata or Central and 
Southern Guzerat, and was subordinate to King Muktapida- 
Lalitaditya of Kasmira. As Lalitaditya is generally held to have 
lived early in the 8th Century A.D., Sarvajna-mitra who resided in 
Kayyavihara could not have flourished before that time. As the 
monastery of ISTalanda was destroyed in the 9th century A.D., 
Sarvajna-mitra, who was educated there, could not have lived after 
that time. This leads me to suppose that Sarvajna-mitra lived in 
the middle of the 8th century A.D. 

King Vajramukuta or Sarana has not yet been identified. 
Vajramukuta is perhaps identical with Vajraditya, son of Lali- 
taditya, King of Kasmira in the 8th Century A.D, 



SiLBBRRAD, C. A. — Note on a Decomposition Product of a pecu- 
liar Variety of Bandelkhand Gneiss. Jour, and Proc. As. Soc. 
Bengal, New Series, Vol. I, No. 6, 1905, pp. 168-171. 

Vol. I, No. 6.] An Analysis of the Lanhavcitara Sutra. 159 

19. An Analysis of the Lankavatara Sutra. — By Prof. Satis 
Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A. 

The Lankavatara Sutra is an ancient Buddhist Sanskrit work, 
a maniiscript of which was brought from Nepal by Mr. Hodgson 
nearly eighty years ago. It gives an account of a miraculous 
visit which Buddha paid to Ravana, the King of Lanka. Though 
the visit was altogether an imaginary one, the book is very valu- 
able as it gives a copious explanation of the Buddhistic meta- 
physical doctrines as well as an account of several non-Buddhistic 
sects such as the Lokayata, Satikhya, Vaisesika, Pasupata, and 
others. It is one of the nine most sacred books of the Nepalese 
Buddhists called their Nava-dhamma.^ 

A Tibetan version of the Lankavatara Sutra is found in the 
Kangyur, Sect. JXdo, Volume V. In Tibetan it is called Hphags- 
pa-lan-kar-gsegs-pa-theg-pa-chen-pohi-mdo, in which it is stated 
that the Sutra was translated into Tibetan by order of the Tibetan 
King Ral-pa-can in the 9th Centiiry A.D. Lo-tsa-wa Ge-long 
(Hgos-chos-grub), who translated the Sutra ia Tibetan, also added 
to the translation a comm.entary of a Chinese professor named 

There are extant three Chinese translations^ of the Lankava- 
tara Sutra. The first translation, which is incomplete, was made 
by Gruaabhadra, 443 A.D., the second by Bodhiruci A.D. 51.3, and 
the third by S'iksananda A.D. 700-704. 

Hwen-thsang, who travelled in Ceylon early in the 7tli 
Century A.D., points out the Malaya mountain as the place where- 
in Buddha, in olden days, sat to deliver the Lankavatara Siitra.'*' 

The Sutra was merely known by name to the Pandits of our 
country from a reference to it in the Sarvadarsanasaiigraha^ of 
Madhavacaryya in the 14th Century A.D. 

1 The nine most isacred books of the Nepalese Buddhists are : — 

1. Astasahasrika Prajnapriramita ; 2. Gandavyuha ; 3. Dasabhumisvara ; 
4. Samadhiriija Sutra; 5. Lankavatara Sutra; 6. Saddharmapundarika ; 
7. Tathagataguhyaka ; 8. Lalitavistara and 9. Suvarnaprabhasa Sutra. 

Divine worship is offered to these nine works by the Buddhists of NeiDul. 
Cf . Hodgson's Illustrations of the Literatare and Religion of the Buddhists, 
p. 19. 

2 Vide Csoma de Koros's Analysis of the Kangyur, p. 432 (Asiatic Resear- 
ches, Volume XX). 

^Vi'le Bunyia Manjio's Catalogue of the Chinese Tripitaka, Nos. 17.5, 
176, 177. 

The first Chinese translation consisting of 4 fasciculi, 1 chapter, bears 
two prefaces by Tsiang C'-chi and Su-shi, of the later Sun dynasty, A.D. 
960-1127. The date of the latter preface corresponds to A.D. 1085, The 
second Chinese translation consists of 10 fasciculi, 18 chapters. The third 
Chinese translation consisting of 7 fasciculi, 10 chapters, bears a preface by 
the Empress Wu-tso-thien, A.D. 684-705, of the Than dynasty, 

* Vide Si-ya-ki, Book XI ; Seal's Buddhistic Records of the Western 
World, p. 251. 

6 Madhavacaryya qaotes a passage from the Lankavatara Sutra saying : — 

160 ■ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, "1905. 

The woi"k consists of ten Parivarta or chapters named re- 
spectively as, (1) Ravanadhyesana, (2) Sarvadharmasamuccaya, 
(3) Anityata, (4) Abhisamaya, (5) Tathagatanityanityatva, (6) 
Ksanika, (7) JS'airmanika, (8) Mamsabhaksana, (9) Dhai-ani, and 
( 10) the tenth chapter which bears no special name. 

Throughout the Laiikavatara Suti-a the speaker is Biiddha 
himself. The first chapter is addressed to Ravana while the 
person spoken to in the remaining nine chapters is Mahamati. 
Ravana, King of Lanka, prayed to Buddha for the solution of two 
questions, viz., (1) what is the distinction between clharma and 
adharma; and (2) how could one pass beyond hoih. dharma and 
adharma. Buddha's answers to these questions form the subject- 

(^^^W«r^^^, chapter on ^(f^^sr) | 

The passage referred to here occars with a little variation twice in the 
Laiikavatara Sutra (in Chapter II. p. 50, and Chapter X. p. 115 respectively 
of the Bengal Asiatic Society's manuscript) : — 

The Tibetan A'ersions of the passages ran respectively as follows : — ■ 
(Kangynr, Mdo., Vol. V. Leaf 150, A.S. MSS.) 

(Kangyur, Jlfdo, Vol. V. Leaf. 253, A.S. MSS.) ; . ! 

" Of things that are discerned by intellect no self -existence can b© 
ascertained ; therefore they are shown to be inexplicable and essenceless." 

Vol. I, No, 6.] An Analysis of the Lankavatara Sutra, 161 

[N. S.] 
matter of the first chapter. Thereafter one hundred and eight 
questions were raised by Maharaati ; Buddha's answers to these are 
treated in the remaining nine chapters. 

Some information about the author of the Lankavatara Sutra 
may be gathered from the following verses occurring in the lOtk 
Chapter of the work : — 

(A.S. MSS. p. 143). 
The Tibetan version of the above runs thus : — 

NO , 

(Kangyur, Mdo, Vol. v., Leaf 292-293, A.S. MSS.) 
The above passages may be translated thus : — 

" My mother is Vasumati, my father the Brahman named 
Prajapati ; I belong to the same clan as Katyayana ; my name is 
Jina, the passionless one, I was born at Campa. Somagupta sprung 
from the Lunar race is (in fact) my father and he my grandfather 

1 The orig. is f^f^Tfft wln'oh should be f^^^ for the Tibetan eqiai- 
valent is iQj ;ij:^ | 

2 The meaning of this line is nol clear. 

16-2 Joiirnal of the Asiatic Society of Beyigal. [June, 1905. 

In the tenth chapter Buddha in a prophetic style predicts 
certain future events which help us in determining the approxi- 
mate date of the work. Thus he says : — 

irf^ fT€% ^^^^ ^Wt I KT^cT^^T I 

A^\ T^T=^ iJTTl^ cTcft #^T ^^\^m> I 

(A.S. MSS., Leaf 142.) 
The Tibetan version runs thus : — 

(Kangyur, Mdo, Vol. Y., Leaf 292, A.S. MSS.) 

The passage may be translated thus : — 

" One hundred years after my Nirvana, Vyasa, the author of 
the Mahabharata, will flourish. Then the Pandavas, Kauravas, 
Kandas and Mauryyas will arise. The !N"andas, Mauryyas, Guptas 
and the Mlecchas, the vilest of kings, will flourish in succession. 
The MIeccha rule will be followed by tumult of ai^ms and the 
tumult will be followed by Kali-yuga. " 

Several non-Buddhistic sects are mentioned thus : — 

(A.S. MSS., Leaf 135.) 

1 The Sanskrit manuscript reads ?T*T ^ ^ | ti ^^ Avhich is evidently 
tvTong. The correct reading has been restored from Tibetan. 


Vol. I, N'o. 6.] An Analysis of the Lankavatara Sutra. 163 

IN. 8.] 

" The Samkhyas, Vaisesikas, Nagnas, Vipras and Pasupatas 
have taken the extreme views of permanence and non-permanence 
and are destitute of the discriminated truth. " 

The views of Kapila and Kanada are specially discussed on 
leaf 132. 

Not merely in the 10th but in some of the previous chapters 
too the JiTaiyayikas and Tarkikas are specially referred to. Thus 
in Chapter II we read : — 

(A.S. MSS., Leaf 11.) 
The Tibetan vei'sion runs thus : — 

" Tell me how in future times the Naiyayikas will flourish." 
The very first question asked by Mahamati in Chapter II 

^^ fw ^w^ cfw- m^ c{4' ^^4^^ i 

(A.S. MSS. Leaf 11.) 
The Tibetan version runs thus :— 

(Kangyur, Mdo, Vol. V„ Leaf 93, A.S. MSS.) 

" How is ratiocination corrected and how does it proceed ? " 
The following doctrine of the Tarkikas is specially mentioned : — ■ 

(A.S. MSS., Chap. X., Leaf 143.) 
The Tibetan version runs thus : — 

164i Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [June, 1905. 

"Whatever is iTr ^aA;a (produced) is destructible, this is the 
"v^iew of the Tarkikas." 

According to the peculiar calculation of the Nepalese Bud- 
dhists, the Lankavtara consists of 3,000 verses. So it is stated : — 

^^fjT ^^^T^TTT ^^tj^l^JITf^RsriT II 

Wh; ^TC: ^^\m ^^t^nf^RfcT ^Vl%c| II 

(A.S. MSS. Leaf 141.) 

" I belong to the clan of Katyayana, I am come from' the S'ud- 
dhavasa heaven ; I teach men religion leading to the City of Nir- 
vana. This religion is an old one. I and other Tathagatas teach 
this religion by means of 3,000 Sutras (verses)." 

Katyayana to whose clan the author of the Lankavatara be- 
longed, seems to have been the same person who composed the 
Hindu socio-religious institute called Katyayana Dharma Sutra, 
for Katyayana is raentioned along with Yajfiavalkya thus : — 

(A.S. MSS., Chap. X., Leaf 143.) 
The Tibetan version runs thus : — 

(A.S. MSS., Kangyur, Mdo, Vol. V., Leaf 293.) 
" Katyayana is an author of Sutra, so also is Yajnavalkya." 

1 The Sanskrit manuscript reads IJ^^lir | The reading ^nW^^W is 
restored from Tibetan. 

Vol. I, No. 6.] Tibet under her Last Kings. 165 

20. Tzbet under her Last Kings (1434—1642 A.D.)— % 
Bai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, C.I.E. 

About eighty years after Ta7ii Situ Chyan Cliub Gyal-tshau's 
annexation of Tsaug to tlie Groverment of Central Tibet, one of the 
Grovernors under the Phagmodu Rulers named Rinpung-Norzang, a 
native of Tsang, caused a rising of the people against the Phag- 
mo-du authorities, and from the year tree-hare of the 7th Cycle, 
the Shikha (towns) of Rinpung and Samdub-tse (modern Shiga-tse) 
passed under the authority of Kun-zang Uon-dub-dorje, the two 
sons of Rinpung Norzang. They established their power 
over the whole of Tsang in the year 1434, but nominally acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the Phagmodu Chief. From the year 
Earth-tiger of the 8th Cycle, the Government of Central Tibet 
had to contend with internal dissensions both in the uorth and 


south of U for which Mi-wang Ne^u-dong-pa, the Ruler of 
Phagmodu, removed his residence to Dansa-thil, the seat of the 
Phagdu hierarchy. In the year Iron-ox, the son of Kunzang 
named Don-yo-dorje, who was also called Rinpung Deba Car-wa, 
inviting the Karma heirarch Choi-tog Gya-tsho of the Shiva-mar 

(Red-Cap sect) invaded U with ten thousand troops. He drove 
away Miwang Ne/iu-ddng-pa from his cajDital, and took possession 
of it. In this connexion, it is stated, that though the hierarch 
of Gahdan had twice tried to turn the tide of victory towards the 
Ruler of Ne/iu-dong-tse by propitiating some spirits yet the Karma- 
pa hierarch, his adversary, by superior exorcism made Rinpung-pa 
victorious at the eud. This heralded the triumph of the Shtva-mar 
(Red-Cap Church) over the Yellow-Church. Thereafter, for sup- 
pressing the growing power of Sera and Dapung monasteries, two 
monasteries of the Red and Black Cap sects of the Karma-pa school 
were erected under Rinpung-pa's auspices. This was done with a 
view to make Sera and Dapung, the two great Yellow-Church 
monasteries, to die a natural death for want of support either from 
the State or from the pious. The Karma-pa and Dug-pa sects sent 
troops to overpower some of the smaller Yellow-Church in- 
stitutions which, thereby, became converted to the Red-Cap Church. 
Some of the land endowments of Sera and Dapung wei-e taken 
away from them, for which reason the breach between the rival 
schools became wide. From the year Earth-ox to that of Earth- 
tiger in the 9th Cycle, the Lamas of Sera and Dapung were pre- 
vented from taking part in the Monlam Chenpo of Lhasa. But 
since the year Fire-dog, Miwang Ne7iu-dong-pa, the Chief of Ne/iu- 
dong-tse recovered his authority to some extent over the province 

of U. Again in the year Fire-bird (about 1508) during Gedini 
Gyatsho's residence at Methog Thang of Gyal, the Digong-pa 
Lamas brought troopn from Kong-po for crushing down the 
power of the Yellow Church. When they were about to demolisli 
tlie outer Dsong (fort) of //olkha, the Chief Nangso Don-yod of 
Dohdah came with his troops for rescuing it. The Digong-pa 

166 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1905. 

Lamas failing to destroy the Dsong, diverted their attention to- 
wards Liing Shoi, IZod-na, and other places where they succeeded 
in converting eighteen Gelug-pa (Yellow- Church) institutions into 
Red-Cap school. In the year Water-ox the Yellow-Cap Lamas also 
sent troops to Kyor-lung and other places under the Kahgyud-pa 
authorities. In this manner the Lamas of the different sects 
and schools became involved in civil dissensions. Daring this 
peinod the state of affairs in Tibet resembled the dark days which 
laad followed the successsion of the apostate Langdarma to the 
throne of Tibet. 

The Chiefs of Tsang, who held office under the Phagmodu 


Rulers of Central Tibet, frequently led their troops to U to hai-ass 
the people. They sometimes retired to their own strongholds after 
defeat, but often quietly annexed parts of their master's territories 
to their possessions. The Lamas of the Yellow Church struggled 
for power and to establisli their supremacy over Tibet, in which 
act they met with reverses on account of the powerful help which 
the Chief of Tsang had given to the Lamas of Shiva-mar sects. 

In the year 1564, Tshe-wang Dorje, the chief representative 
of the house of Rinpung,*^ with his son Padma-Karpo held the fort 
of Samdub-tse, and having brought the whole of Upper Tsang under 
his power, declai-ed himself Tsang-toi Gyalpo, the King of Upper 
Tsang. In the year 1569 (Iron-Jiorse of the 10th Cycle) the autho- 
rities of Digong fought with those of the monastery of Tag-lung. 
In the year Water-serpent, there was a rebellion at Kyid-Shoi against 
the Phagmodti authorities. The Dalai Lama, Gedun Gyatsho, inter- 
ceding in the affairs broiight upon an agreement between the ruler 
and the ruled. Again afterwards, in the year Tree-hog (1574) Rin- 
piing-pa brought his troops to Kyid-Shoi for creating disturbances, 
but they were compelled to withdraw from there after they had 
caused some injury to the people. In the year Iron-serpent (1580) 
internal dissensions again imaged in Digong. On Dalai Yontan 
Gyatsho's return from Mongolia, the iS/iif^a-^uar hierarch, Nag-wang 
Claoitag, complimented him with a letter written in verse ; but some 
misapprehension having arisen as to its concealed meaning, Rab 
Byampa Geleg Lhundub and others sent a discourteous reply to it 
couched in terms which were interpreted as conveying insult to the 
hierarch. This incident, unfortunately, raked up greater bitterness 
in the strained relations between the two rival Buddhist Churches 
of Tibet. 

The King of Upper Tsang, with the help of a few petty 
chiefs of the south and north, incited the Na-wa Rong people to 
rebellion, in quelling which, the resources of the Government of 
Central Tibet were greatly exhausted. Taking advantage of this 
disturbance he asserted his independence. 

In the year Tree-serpent heading the troops of the Red and 
Black-cap Lamas of the Karma-pa School, he attacked the military 

1 Einpung or Rinchenpufio:, a small town in the Tsang Rong district. 
It contained a huge image of Maitreya fanioas under the name of Rong- 

'Vol. I, No. 6.] Tibet under her Last Kings. 167 

[.Y. 8.-] 

encampment of Deba Kyid-Shoi and killed a large number of 
Dungkhors (civil officers) of the Government. On this occasion the 
Karma-pa Lamas became exultant and made a metrical rejoinder to 
the Dalai Lama's reply by placing their letter before the 
image of Buddha in the Cathedral of Lhasa. This step, which was 
meant to be an appeal to show that the SJnva-mar hierarch's wel- 
come to the Dalai Lama was sincere, produced disastrous effects. 
It induced the Yellow-Cap Lamas to invite the help of the Mong- 
olian hordes. About the time that Sonam Namgyal was Deba 
of Kyi-Shoi, several ' thousands of Tartar horsemen had already 
come to Tibet and encamped in the neighboui'liood of Lhasa. In 
the year Iron-dragon (1609) the Karma hierarch named Phun- 
tshog Namgyal, with his son Karma Tan Kyong Wang-po, led the 


Tsang army to U, but finding that the Mongol horsemen, that had 
come to protect the Yellow Chui'ch, were waiting for an action, 
out of fear they quietly withdrew. In the year Water-mouse 
(1611) he brought the whole of Tsang including Gyal-Khar-tse 
(modern Gyang-tse) and Byang (northernmost province of Tsang) 
under his power, and became known as Tsang Gyal, i.e., King of 
Tsang, This was the first instance in which a Karma hierarch 
had marched at the head of a victorious army, having betaken 
himself to worldly life, and become lord temporal and spiritual. 


Later on, again invading U with the Tsang army, he took 
possession of ITe^u Dong and all the lands, and some of the smaller 


monasteries of U. In the seventh month of the year Earth-hare 
(1617), resolving ta entirely demolish the Yellow-Cap Church he 
beseiged Sera and Dapung and killed many thousand monks- 
He expelled the Yellow-Cap Lamas from Lhasa, In their dis- 
comfiture the Lamas took shelter at Tag-lung, In the year 1619, 
that is, shortly after the humiliation of the Yellow-Cap Church 
and its patron Miwang Nehix Dong-pa, the Mongolian army 
arrived and met the Tsang army first at Kyang-thang-gang near 
Lhasa, and ultimately at Tsang-Gyadthang-gang and completely 
routed them. In the seige of Lhasa, which followed this success of 
the friends of the Yellow -Church, about 100,000 Tsang men were 
captured. They all would have been killed had not the Panchen 
Rinpoche (Tashi Lama of Tsang) timely interceded and procured 
their release. The monasteries of Sang-hag Khar and others, 
besides many Lamas of the Yellow Church that had been taken 
over to the Red-Cap Church, were restored in 1620 to the Yellow- 
Church, Avhich got back its lost territorial endowments as well. The 
king of Tsang and his friend the valiant Karma hierarch failing in 
their military en terprize in Tibet, sought for help from the Mongo- 
lian Chiefs who were devoted to the Red-Cap Church, It took 
them nearly twenty years to consolidate their power in Tibet after 
the retirement of the Mongolian hordes from Tibet. When they 
had again grown powerful they began persecuting the Yellow- 
Church with greater animosity than before. 

168 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1905. 

21. Note on a Decomposition Product of a Peculiar Variety of 
Bunclelkhancl Gneiss. — By C. A. Silberkad, B.A,, B.Sc, I.O.S. 

During tlie construction of tlie Ken Canal, my attention was 
called by the Executive Engineer in charge of the work, to a 
peculiar soft, white, clayey material found in the low hill on and 
around which the village of Deora-Bhapatpur in the Ajaigarh 
State is built. The hill is one of the low gneissic hills charac- 
teristic of this part of Bundelkhand {vide Medlicott and Bland- 
ford's ' Greology of India,' Volume I, page 11, et. seq.), but 
appears to be of a somewhat unusual variety of gneiss and one 
more than usually liable to decomposition. At several places on 
the sides of this hill, all about half-way up, small pits have been 
dug into it, and a white clayey material found, which is locally 
used as " white wash." The same material has been found about 
1| miles south of this in the course of excavating a deep cutting 
{up to 50 feet deep) for the canal. Both positions are within three 
or four miles of the head works of the canal, and some ten miles 
west by south of Ajaigarh town ; they are about eight miles north- 
west from the Vindhyan scarp. 

I accordingly obtained some samples and sent them to my 
brother. Dr. 0. J. Silberrad, Ph.D., Research Chemist to the War 
OflBce Explosives Committee, who examined them, and through the 
kindness of a friend had them tested at a pottery as regards the 
suitability of the clay for the manufacture of earthenware or 
other pottery. To them I am indebted for all the following in- 
formation : — 

The report is subjoined. Beside the figures showing the re- 
sults of the chemical analysis, I have added those of Finite as 
given in Dana's Mineralogy, which appears to be a somewhat 
similar material. The occurrence of Titanic Acid in the clay is, 
however, of interest. 

''^Report on Clay from Deora-BhapatpUr. 
Analysis of clay is as follows :- 

Clay from 



















Ferric Oxide 



9 13 








Titanic Acid 



• <ff 

Combined water and 

organic matter . . . 

6-14 ") 
110 i 



Fhosphoric Acid ... 




100-461 100-09 

Yol. I, K^o. 6.] Note on Bimdelkhand Gneiss. 169 

[_N. 8.-\ ... 

The clay was tested for its capacity of forming a diina or 
earthenware in the following- manner : — 

1. About 20 grams of the dry clay was mixed with sufficient 
water to give a plastic clay, which was moulded into the form of a 
triangular pyramid. This was dried at 100°, then baked for 3| 
hours in a gas muffle, at a temperature of 890°. The resulting 
mass was pink in colour, easily broken, possessed little cohesion, 
was soft and friable. 

2. Another portion of the clay was mixed with calcium car- 
bonate, in proportion to give a mixture containing 2°/^ added cal- 
cium carbonate (196 grams clay, "4 grams CaCOg). This was 
moistened, kneaded, and the resulting plastic clay formed into a 
pyramid as before. This was dried at 100°, and heated in a blast 
muffle, together with the pyramid used in the first experiment 
(made from clay alone). Pyramids charged into cold muffle and 
muffle lit at 9-10 a.m., on 8th ISToveinber, 1904. 

Temperature at 11-10 a.m. ... 1155° 

„ 12 noon ... 940° 

„ 12-30 P.M. ... 1150° 

„ 1p.m. ... 1300° 

Heating was then discontinued as one of the pyramids wa» 
seen to be sinking, the result of incipient fusion. The muffle was 
turned out at 1 p.m. Pyramids drawn at 2-15 p.m., and broken. 

Clay alone. — Pyramid had sunk considerably. Was smooth, 
glazed, dirty brown on the outside. The fracture was highly 
porous and cindery. Heated to a temperature as high as this 
(1300°), the clay would not be of any use as earthenware. 

Clay + 2q/° CaCOg. — The surface of the pyramid was 
smoother and more highly glazed than that of pyramid just 
described, and the mass had sunk more, indicating that the clay 
mixed with 2^/° CaCOg is more fusible than the clay alone. Tlie 
colour of the exterior was dark brown. A fracture showed a 
porous, spongy layer under the surface, then a moi-e compact, blue- 
black central mass. Useless as earthenware. 

3. The earth was made into a plastic clay as before, without 
any admixture (except water) and formed into a pyramid, and a 
small dish. These were dried at 100°, charged into cold muffle,, 
and muffle lit at 9-15 a.m., on 9th November, 1904. 

















11 a.m. 
11-30 „ 
11-50 „ 
12-25 P.M. 


1-30 „ 
2-15 „ 
3 „ 
3-30 „ 
4-15 „ 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1905. 

Temperature at 

5 A.M. 

5-25 „ 


Muffle turned out at 5-30 p.m. Pieces drawn at 9 a.m. on lOtli 
I^ovember, 1904. They had not altered in shape, and showed 
no signs of fusion. They were glazed on the surface, dark brown 
in colour. Were dense and hard, giving a metallic ring when 
struck. The fracture showed the pieces to be solid, not porous 
at all, and was somewhat glassy. The pieces were strong and 
requii'ed a sharp blow to break them. 

4. Pyramids were made in the manner previously described, 
containing respectively 5°/^ CaCOg and 10% CaCOg (19 grams 
clay + 1 gram CaCOg, and 18 grams clay + grams CaCOg). They 
were dried at 100°, charged into cold muffle, and muffle lit at 
9-20 A.M., 9th November, 1904. 


at 11 




)) DC 



55 • 





















Muffle turned out at 5-30 p.m. Pieces drawn at 9 a.m., 
10th November, 1904. 

Identical results were given by both pyramids. They were 
pink, not glazed, of only moderate hardness, easily broken, giving 
a dull fracture. Apparently not strongly enough heated to give 
a satisfactory earthenware. 

The two pyramids were i-echarged into cold muffle, and 
muffle lit, at 9-10 a.m., 10th November, 1904. The temperatures 
were taken with a thermo-couple (all the previous temperatures 
having been taken in this way) and also with the Wanner Optical 
pyrometer. The corresponding readings are given below. 



Temperature at 11 a.m. 

... 1040° 


11-30 A.M. 

... 970° 


„ 12 noon 

... 1090°- 1100° 




Temperature at 12-30 p.m. 

... 1110°-1130° 


„ 1 P.M. 

... 1090°-1100° 


2-16 P.M. 

... 1040°- 1050° 


Vol. I, Ko. 6.] Note on Bundelkhand Gneiss. 171 

[N. .S.] 

When two thermo-couple temperatures are given for the same 
time, they refer to different points in the muffle. 

Muffle turned out at 2-20 p.m. Pieces drawn at 3 p.m. 

Pyramid with 5°/^ CaCOg. — This was a dark, coloured, hard, 
dense mass, glazed on the surface though not so much as the 
pyramid made from the clay alone, and somewhat lighter in 
colour. 1^0 change of shape could be detected, a,nd there were no 
signs of fusion. The fracture was glassy in parts, the rest being- 
dull and stony, and was blue to brownish-black. 

Pyramid with 10°/o CaCOg. — This was much lighter in colour 
than the two px'evious pieces, was light brown, dull, not glazed. 
Was not so hard or dense as the Pyramid with 5% CaCOg. The 
piece was easily broken, giving a dull, sandy fracture, and show- 
ing the interior to be fairly compact. The colour of the fracture 
was a brownish pink. The pyramid had not sunk at all, and 
showed no signs of fusion. 

The best results as regards the making of earthenware ap- 
pear to be given by employing the clay alone, without any ad- 
mixture of lime. The addition of lime in small proportions re- 
duces the melting point. The hardness and density of the ware 
depend on the temperature to which it has been heated. If that 
temperature has been too high, the upper parts of the pieces are 
porous and cindery, this probably being due to the liquation of a 
fusible silicate. The colour of the ware is necessarily dark, 
owing to the high percentage of oxide of iron in the clay. 

It does not appear to be possible to obtain good earthenware 
from the clay. Experiment III gave the best pieces. 

The clay is evidently not Puller's earth. 

When mixed with water, with, or without additional lime, a 
highly plastic clay is obtained." 

In addition to the experiments recorded in the above report, 
the clay was fired in an ordinary earthenware kiln, but it refused 
to bind and simply dried to a porous friable mass differing very 
little from the prodiict obtained by merely moistening it and let- 
ting it dry at an ordinary temperature. Heated in an electric 
furnace to a temperature of about 2900'C the clay melted to fluid 
which could be easily poured or cast. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the clay is little like- 
ly to be of any use except that to which the villagers have put it 
from time immemorial, i.e., for whitewashing their houses. 

Vol. I, 1^0. 7.] Oriental Snakes in the Indian Musexim. 173 

IN. 8.-] 

22. Additions to the Collection of Oriental Snakes in the Indian 
Micseum. — Part 2. — Specimens from the Andamans and Nico- 
hars. — By Nelson Annandale, B.A., D.Sc, Bepidy Snperin- 
tendent of the Indian Mioseum. 

All the snakes recorded or described in this communication are 
from the Andamans or the ISTicobars. With one exception, they have 
been collected and presented to the Museum either by Major A. R, 
Anderson, I.M.S., or by Mr. C. G. Rogers, The one exception is 
the type of a new Sea-Snake, which was taken by the Indian 
Marine Survey. Mr. G. A. Boulenger has kindly examined several 
of the other specimens. I am much indebted to Major Anderson 
for several letters on the snakes of the islands. I have added a 
revised list of the species known to occur in the two archipelagoes 
or represented from them in ti.e Indian Museum, having re-examined 
the specimens recorded by Mr. W. L. Sclater in all casea in which 
there was any doubt. 


Ttphlops braminus (Daud.) 

This is evidently the common species in the Andamans, or at 
any rate in the neighbourhood of Port Blair. Major Anderson has 
lately sent us twenty-four very dark specimens from that station. 

The type of T. andnmanensis still remains unique, if it is in 
existence. I have not been able to trace its history. The Museum 
does not possess examples of T. oatesii, described from the Cocos 


Ltcodon aulicus (Linn.) 

We have lately received several specimens of this common 
Indian species both from the Andamans and the Nicobars. One 
from the Nicobars belongs to var. E of Boulenger's " Catalogue ; " 
those from the Andamans to var. C, a common form in Ceylon. 

Oligodon woodmasoni (Scl.) 

Simotes woodmasoni, Sclater, J.A.S.B., (2) LX, p. 235 ; List. 
Snakes, p. 24. 

A young specimen, lately received from Major Anderson, has 
been submitted to Mr. Boulenger, who regards it as belonging to 
the genus Oligodon. I have compared it with Mr. Sclater's types, 
with which it h identical. Mr. Boulenger notes that it is nearly 
related to 0. trilineatus, a Malayan species. 

Coluber melancjrus, Schleg. 

A specimen from the Andamans has the entire dorsal surface 
of the head and body of an almost uniform dark plumbaceous 

174 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1905. 

grey. The markings on the side of the head and on the neck are, 
however, quite distinct, and the individiial is otherwise normal. 
We have in the Museum a similar specimen from Borneo. 

Dendrophis pictus (Gmel.) 

A specimen has been sent by Mr. Rogers from Henry Law- 
rence Island, Andamans. 'J'he species appears to be common all 
over the Andamans and Nicobars. Some of the Andaman speci- 
mens, are very dark in colour, but this character does not seem 
to be constant. 

Tropidonotus piscatob (Schneid.) 

We have lately received a specimen from the South Anda- 
mans, while we had already a number from several localities in the 
archipelago. I have not been able to find any record of the 
occtirrence of this common Indian species in the Nicobars. 

Tropidonotus nicobarbnsis, Scl, 

T. nicobaricus Sclater, J.A.S.B., LX (2), 1891, pp. 231, 250. 

T. nicobarensis, id., ibid, p. 241. 

T, nicobariensis, Boule?iger, Gat. Snakes; p. 192. 

The type of this species still remains unique. I have examin- 
ed it very carefully, dissecting out the maxillary on one side, and 
have no doubt that Mr. Sclater was right as to its generic identifica- 
tion. The maxillary teeth, 24 in number, increase slightly from 
before backwards, and show no signs of being stunted posteriorly ; 
but the division of the anal plate appears to me to have been trau- 
matic. If the species is identical with Cope's Prymnomiodon, the 
latter must have been founded on an individual injured or abnormal 
as to its dentition. This seems possible, as the tyj)e was otherwise 


Mr. Rogers has presented two sj)ecimens from the South 
Andamans. The snakes from Assam and the Andamans identi- 
fied by Mr. Sclater as Dipsas fusca, are individuals of this 


Head moderate, hardly separated from the neck ; the greatest 
depth of the latter half that of the body ; body deep, str"ongly 
compressed ; tail short. Rostral much broader than deep ; nasals 
shorter than frontal, three times as long as the suture between the 
prsefrontals ; frontal not much longer than broad, shorter than dis- 
tance from rostral, much shorter than parietals ; one prEeocuiar, 
very large ; 3 postoculars ; no loreal ; 2 large, superimposed 
anterior temperals ; 7 upper labials, 3rd and 4th entering eye ; 
two pairs of sub-equal chin shields, the jDOsterior pair separated 

Vol, I, No. 7.] Oriental Snahes in the Indian Museum. 175 

from one another by two rows of scales. Head scales smooth fox" 
tbe most part, but with a few minute, irregularly placed pits. Eyes 
large and prominent. Body scales imbricate, but feebly so or not at 
all postei'iorly, with a very short keel or a tubercle ; 3 1 scales round 
neck, 39 round body ; ventrals distinct, bituberculate, with a cen- 
tral longitudinal groove, occasionally divided, 238 (in the type) in 
number. Colour — pale-yellow on sides and belly, with about 40 
large, black rhomboidal marks on the dorsal sui'face. These are not 
in contact either above or below, reaching about half way down the 
body on the neck and tail and almost to the ventral margin of the 
tail. Throat and chin darker yellow, the former feebly irrorated 
with black. Dorsal surface of the head pale- green as far backwards 
as the posterior border of the pi-gefrontals aud of the 2iid supraocu- 
lar, black posteriorly 

Measurements of type — 

Total length 
Lene'tli of tail 

30 inches. 

A single female from the Andamans. Judging from its bold 
coloration, this specimen is immature. In many respects the spe- 
cies resembles Enhydris curtus, from which it may be distinguished 
superficially by the possession of unbroken parietals and distinct 
chin shields. It has six grooved teeth posterior to the lai-ge poison 
fangs in each maxilla. Its nearest ally is D. lapimidoides. 

Snakes of the Andamans and Nicobars, 

Name of Snake. 



Typhlops bi'atninus§|| (Dand.) 

Typhlops oatesii* Blgr. 

,, andamaiiensis* Stol. 

Python reticulatus,§l| Schneid. 

L)'codon aulious§|l (Linn.) .. 

Polydontoijliis sagittarius§|| (Cant.) 
,, bistrigatusll (Gthi-.j 

Ablabes nicobarensis,* Sfcol. 

Oligodon sublineatus, D. & B. 
„ woodrnasoni* (Scl.) 

Zamenis mucosus§!| (Linn.) 

Colaber porphyraceus, §j| Cant. 
„ melanurus§l| (Schleg.) 
,, oxycephali]s,§|| Boie ... 

Dendrophis pictus§|| (Gmel.) 

Tropidonotus .stolatns§i| (Linn.) 

„ piscator§}| (Sclineid.) 

„ nicobarensis,* ScL 

Chrygydrus granulutua §|| (Schneid). 

DipsadomorphuB hexagonatus (Blyth) 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Benyal. [July, 1905. 

Name of Snake. 



Dipsadomorphus cejionensis.ijl Gthr. ... 


Chrysopelea o)")!-ata§!2 (Shaw) 



Cerberus rhyiicliops§| (Sclineicl.) 



FordonialeucobaUa §1| (Schleg.) 



Bungarus cierideiis § (Sdiueid.) 

- X 


Naia tripudians,§| Merr. 


_ - ■ 

,, bungarus. § 1 Schleg. 



Platnrus colubrinus§|| (SohDeid.) 



Distira andamanica,* Annand. 



Hydrus platurus§|| (Linn.) ... 


Amblycephalus monticola|| (Cant.) 



Lachesis cantoris* (Blyth)... 



,, graniineus§|| (Shaw) 



,, purpureomaculatus§| (Gray) 



In the above list, the names of those snakes which are not 
represented in the Indian Museum, by specimens either from the 
Andamans or from the Nicobars are printed in italics. In the 
first column a * indicate.5 that a species is peculiar to the Andamans, 
the Nicobars or both archipelagoes ; a § that it has been recorded 
from the Malay Peninsula south of the Isthmus of Kra ; a || that 
it is known from Assam or Burma. In the other columns, a x 
shows that a species is known to occur, a — that specimens have 
not been taken. 

It will be seen from this list that the Ophidian fauna of the 
islands has close affinities with that of Burma and Malaya, while 
there is possibly a less obvious connection with Ceylon. So far 
as we know, three species are peculiar to the Andamans. two to 
the N'icobars, and two to the Andamans and ISTicobars together ; but 
our knowledge is still extremely limited, especially as regards the 
smaller snakes of the IS'icobars. 

1 Dipsas fusca (Gray) apud Sclater, List Snakes, p. 47. 

2 Major Anderson has taken a specimen (var. A) on Narcondam. 

Vol. I, No. 8.] History of Nyayasastra. 177 

IN. S.] 

23. History of Nyayasastra from Japanese Sources. — By 
MahamahopIdhyIya Harapkasad Shastei. 

The bibKography of Nyayasastra of the Orthodox Hindus is a 
very short one. It consists of : — 

(1) The Sutras attributed to Gautama or Aksapada. 

(2) Bhasya attributed to Vatsyayana. 

(3) Vartika by Uddyotakara. 

(4) Tatparyatika by Vacaspati. 

(5) Parisuddhi by IJdayana. 

But the bibliography of the Buddhist Nyayasastra, as known 
in China and Japan, is a long list. It attributes the first inception 
of the Nyayasastra to Shok-mok or Mok-shok which, transliterat- 
ed into Sanskrit would be Aksapada. 

The second author who treated of Nyaya is said to be Buddha 
himself. The third is Ryuju, who is said to have preached the 
Mahayana doctrines of Buddhism with great success. His Hoh- 
ben-shin-ron is one of the polemical works against heretics. It con- 
tains one volume on logic. The fourth is Mirok (Maitreya). 
The fifth Muchak (Asanga), Mirok's disciple. Muchak's younger 
brother Seish (Vasubandhu) wrote three books on Logic — Eonki, 
Hon-shi-ki, and Ron-shin. After Vasubandhu, came Maha Dih- 
naga and his disciple Saiikarasvami, whose works were translated 
into Chinese, by the gTeat Hienth Sang. Hienth Sang had two 
great disciples — Kwei-ke in China, and Doh-Soh in Japan. 
Kwei-ke's " Great commentary " is the standard work on Nyaya in 
China and Doh-Soh is the first promulgator of Buddhist doctrines 
and Nyaya Sastra in Japan, Since then there had been many dis- 
tinguished teachers of Nyaya both in China and in Japan, and up 
to the pi-esent day Dia-uaga has a firm hold on the learned people 
both in China and Japan, The European system of logic is 
a very recent introduction in Japan, where Din-naga is still 

In the two paragraphs given above, I have tried to give the 
bibliography of Brahmanic and Buddhistic logic of ancient India. 
Both attribute the invention of the science to one person, namely, 
Aksapada. The only clue given about this personage's chronology 
is that it was before Buddha. But no clue of his time can be 
found in Brahminical works. Mr. Justice Pargiter tells me that 
there is no such person as Aksapada mentioned in the Mahabha- 
rata, which was in a nascent condition about the time of Buddha's 
birth. The Chinese attribute to him two things, namely, "Nine 
Reasons" and " Fourteen Fallacies," while the Hindus attribute to 
him the entire body of Sutras divided into five Adhyayas, ten 
lectures, eighty-four topics, five hundred and twenty-eight sutras, 
seventeen hundred and ninety-six words, eight thousand three 
hundred and eighty-five letters. It may be said, in passing, that 
the Chinese peo2>le are doubtful about the " Nine-Reasons " being 
attzibuted to Aksapada. It may also be remarked that in the 

178 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

whole body of Sutras, there is nothing which corresponds to the 
^' Ifine Reasons " and " Fourteen Fallacies," which, we know 
from Chinese sources, and which even Din-naga is said to have 
attributed to Soc-mock. An examination of the " N^ine Treasons " 
reveals the fact, that it is historically prior to the invention of 
syllogism. It means an effort of the human mind to exhaust 
all possible forms of the relation between, what is now called the 
Major Term and the Middle Term of a syllogism. And such 
an examination must precede the formulation of syllogism. In 
what light the later writers have seen this examination, and 
what conclusions may be drawn from it, need not trouble us 
here. Suffice it for a historical student to know, that this early 
effort is attributed to Soc-mock, universally known as the first 
writer on N^yaya. The theory of " Fourteen Fallacies " too, in 
their crude and undeveloped shape, shows signs of greater 
antiquity than the I^yaya Sutras. 

These two theories of Aksapada seem to have been the com- 
mon property of Indian pandits before Buddha's time, as Buddha 
did not scruple to take advantage of these. 

The " ISTyaya Sutras," as we have them, seems to be a much 
later production. Haribhadra, a Jain scholar of the 6th Century 
A.D., says that it is a sectarian work ; that the sect, which either 
composed it or adhered to it, was a Saiva sect. IS'ow a Saiva or 
Mahesvar sect existed long before Buddha. Soc-mock and the 
eighteen gurus of the sect, l!^akulisha and others, might have be- 
longed to this sect. That the Sutras were not composed by 
Aksapada ajDpears to be almost certain. But it bears his name. 
How to explain this fact ? The only explanation is that it belonged 
to that sect, of which he was thought to be one of the earliest 
representatives. I am not sure if the work " N'yayasutra " had 
not gone through several redactions before it assumed its present 
shape. But it is pretty sure that from the time of Soc-mock to the 
period when the IS'yayasutras were reduced to their present form, 
India was fall of polemical writings, much of which has perished. 

Though we know nothing from Brahmanical sources of the 
process of the development of N"yaya, we know some stages of this 
development from the Buddhists. ISTagarjuna and Maitreya wrote 
on Nyaya. In fact one of the volumes, I believe, the fifteenth of the 
great polemical work by Nagarjuna on Upayakausalya is devoted 
to the exposition of Nyaya. Maitreya, Asanga and Vasubandhu 
— all wrote on ISTyaya. Then came the great Difi-naga, the dis- 
ciple of Asanga, whom the Japanese place between 400 to 500 A.D., 
and Kern between 520 and 600. 

But in the meanwhile on the Brahminical side the Sutra has 
been reduced to its present shape and a Bhasya has been composed 
when, nobody can say. If am permitted to hazard a conjecture, 
both the Sutra and Bhashya came after the development of the 
Mahayana School, i.e., both came after Nagarjuna and Aryadeva, 
say in the 2nd Century A.D. The Bhasyakara, Vatsyayana, 
.though he does not even mention the Buddhists or even any Bud- 
dhist writers, pointedly refutes all the Mahay anists doctrines of 

Vol. I, "No. 8.] History of Nydyasdstra. 179 

[N. 8.] 
Transitoriness, of Void, of riidividuality, and so on. Savara, tlie 
Biiasyakara of Mimansa, was liberal enough to speak of refuting 
the Mahayanic theory that the whole is merely a collection of 
pai-ts and not in any way different from them. But Vatsayana is 
not so liberal. He would not name the Buddhists. There is 
another Vatsyayana, however, who flourished about this time. He 
may be identical with or a relation of, or at least, haVe be- 
longed to the same gotra with the Nyaya Bhasyakara," on the 
supposition that families and clans rise into importance under one 
political circumstance and then disappear from history, both Vat- 
sayanas may be said to have belonged to the same epoch. That 
Vatsyayana is the celebrated writer on Eratics. He mentions some 
scandals about the Satavahanas who flourished by the middle of 
the 2nd Century A.D. And the geographical information gleaned 
from his book cannot refer to a period later than the rise of the 
Grupta family. 

We glean one historical information from the Brahmanical 
sources, namely, that Diu-naga severely criticised the Bhasyakara 
Vatsyayana, and that the Vartikakara, who comments upon the 
Bhasya, defends Vatsyayana's work against Din-naga. 

The modern Hindu idea is that the Buddhists believed in two 
of the pramanas only, namely, Pratyaksa and anumana, i.e., per- 
ception and inference. But this is not a fact, so far as early 
B uddhism and even early Mahayanism are concerned. For we know 
distinctly from Chinese and Japanese sources that Analogy and 
Authority were great polemical instruments in the hands of the 
early Buddhists, i.e., that all early Buddhists from Buddha to 
Vasubandhu were indebted to Aksapada for their pramaras or 
polemical instruments of right knowledge. Maitreya discarded 
Analogy, and Din-naga discarded Authority, and made N^yaya pure 
logic, in the English sense of the term. 

The followers of Aksapada are sometimes called Yogins, and 
Yaugas, and the Buddhist tradition is that Mirock (Maitreya) in- 
troduced Yoga in the system of discriminating true knowledge 
from false (i.e., the system of Aksapada), some form of Yoga. 
And we find that at the second lecture, fourth chapter, of the Kyaya 
Sutras, there is a long section devoted to Yoga, and that Yoga is of 
a peculiar character. How the section on Yoga was adopted into 
the Nyayasastra, it is is difficult to say, because Yoga does not be- 
long to the sixteen topics which Aksapada, in the first sutra, pro- 
mises to expatiate upon. Whether j)roperly or improperly intro- 
duced, it forms a part of Hindu Nyayasastra and also of Buddhist 
ISTyayasastra. The Buddhists say that Mirok introduced it, but 
the Hindus cannot say who introduced it. 

I reserve the result of my examination of the N^yayasutras 
for the second instalment of this paper; and I conclude this in- 
stalment with the remark that though Diii-naga and the Buddhist 
system of Xyaya.?astra is almost comjiletely lost in India, so 
much so, that the discovery of a Tibetan translation of one of Din- 
naga's works, was regarded by scholars as a matter of congratula- 
tion, it is still studied and commented upon in China, Japan, Corea, 

180 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

and Mongolia. In Japan only, it has a rival in the European 
system. But I have been assured that the rivalry has only 
strengthened the position of the Hindu system. While the colleges 
study the European system, the monasteries study the ancient 
system with great zeal. 



Annandale, Xelson. — Additions to llie Collection cf Oriental 
Snakes in the Indian Museum. Part 3. (With 3 figures) 
Jour, and Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. I, No. 8, 1905, pp. 


TypMojps kapaladua, n. sp. from Malay Archipelago. 

Annandale, K, pp. 208-209. 
Typhlops acutus, habits of, pp. 209. 


Dryocalamus tristrigatus, from Malay Archipelago. 

Annandale, IS., p. 210. 
Ahlabes gtlyiticus, n. sp. from Grilgit. Annandale, N., pp. 

Dipsadoides, n. gen., Annandale, N., pp. 212-213. 
Bipsadoides decipiens, n. sp. from Malay Archipelago. 

Annandale, N., p. 213, | 

Vol. I, N"o. 8.] The People of Mtingeli Tahsil. 181 

[N. S.] 

24. Notes concerning the People ofMungeli Tahsil, Bilaspore District. 
— By Rev. E. M. Gordon {continued from the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. LXXIII. Part 3, No. 1, 1904). 
[With one plate.] Communicated by the Anthropological 

B. 38. The Measuring of Grain. — It is a never-failing practice 
wlien a man stops measuring for him to throw a handful of grain 
back into the measure. On innumerable occasions, for many 
years, I have seen grain being measured and not once has this act 
been omitted or forgotten. It is considered lucky for the measure 
to be never empty. Much the same idea probably underlies the 
practice of never sweeping out the granary. This would be consi- 
dered tantamount to sweeping out prosperity. 

39. Sowing Mango Seeds. — There is a prejudice against the 
sowing of seeds from mangoes which have been eaten. The 
fruit of trees grown from such seeds would be considered impure. 
They would be called Jhufta, i.e, false or impure. This is an ad- 
jective applied to food left over on one's plate after eating. 

40. Respect paid to Cattle ivhich have cZ^'efi. — I once noticed a 
few clods of earth placed on the carcass of a cow which was lying 
on the outskirts of the village. On inquiring as to why those 
clods were placed there, I was told that the owner of " a beast of 
burden " or other domesticated animal that has died will with 
due respect place a few of clods of earth on the carcass and consider 
that this act has taken the place of a formal burial. The car- 
cass is then taken by the leather workers, who remove the hide, 
or it is thrown away at a distance to be devoured by vultures. 

41. Granaries causing Dumbness. — I was once questioning a 
father regarding his child and remarked that it was late in speak- 
ing. His reply was that the child had been placed on a granary, 
and this was assigned as the reason for the delay in its acquiring 
the power of speech. 

42. The Cause of prolonged Pregnancy. — A woman came to the 
Mission Hospital in Mungeli, and stated that for eleven months 
sbe had been pregnant and yet there were no signs of the ap- 
proach of the expected event. In conversation the doctor learnt 
that there is a belief aruongst the women that if one who is preg- 
nant should step across a string by which a horse is tied, her 
term of pregnancy will be prolonged and she will take the term 
required by a mare before delivery. In order to remove the evil 
consequences of having crossed the rope of a horse, the woman in 
question must take a quantity of grain in her sari and present 
the grain to the horse which has affected her. The horse having 
eaten of the grain she will be relieved of the malign influence. 

43. Wedding the Fields. — There is a practice in connection 
with the sowing of fields, which I mention because of the desire of 
folklorists to have on record every insignificant item which, is 
apparently of no consequence to the layman and yet may be 
■fraught with much meaning to the specialist. After sowing the 
cold-weather crops, such as wheat, gram, etc., it is customary to 

182 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906. 

take the plougli around tlie field and sow in a circular form in 
several rows. This may be for the purpose of covering the ground 
wliicli had not been sown ; but it is interesting to note that the 
farmers call this final sowing bihana, to wed or marrj. Going 
around the field in a circle may be associated with the circumven- 
tion of the marriage pole. 

44. The Milk Woman on the Plough. — In sowing the cold- 
weather crops, the plough invariably has a mass of damp earth 
placed on it at the point where the handle of the plough meets the 
tongue. This is said to assist the plough to go deep down into 
the soil. But why should it be called the " milk woman " — the 
JRautain ? The farmers are always greatly amused when I ask 
them why they call the lump of earth the Rautain ; the term is so 
familiar to them that they have never asked themselves the ques- 
tion as to where the connection comes in with the " milk woman." 

45. A Possible Explanation of the Preceding. — Since writing 
the two preceding notes I have been reading Hiawatha. In the 
section entitled " Blessing the Cornfields," I find the follovsdng 
lines. These lines are given without note or comment and the 
reader must judge for himself as to whether there is any connection^ 
between the practice they refer to and the practices described in 
notes 43 and 44. 

" Once when all the maize was planted, 

" Hiawatha wise and thoughtful, 

" Spake and said to Minnehaha, 

" To his wife the Laughing "Water. 

" You shall bless to-night the cornfields, 

" Draw a magic circle round them. 

" To protect them from destruction 

" Blast of mildew, blight of insect. 

" In the night when all is silence, 

" In the night, when all is darkness, 

" Bise up from your bed in silence 

" Lay aside your garments wholly 

" Walk around the fields you planted 

" Round the borders of the cornfields 

" Covered by your tresses only. 

" Robed with darkness as a garment 

" Erom her bed rose Laughing Water. 

" Laid aside her garments wholly, 

" And with darkness clothed and guarded 

" Unashamed and unaifrighted, 

■' Drew the sacred magic circle, 

" Of her footprints round the cornfields." 
In these lines, then, we find definite reference to a nude 
woman going around the borders of the cornfields for the purpose 
of protecting them from injury. In my notes iN'os. 43 and 44, it 
is stated that a plough with a lump of earth called " the milk 
woman " is taken around the fields several times after they are 

1 [See Frazer, The Golden Bough, 2nd ed., vol. II, chap. III. — Ed,] 

Vol. I, No. 8.] The People of Mnngeli Tahsil. 183 

iN. S.-\ 

sown, and this making of a circle around tlie field is called 
"wedding the fields." Is there a connection in these two prac- 
tices ? 

46. Binding the Rain. — Mr. Crooke, in his Folklore of North- 
ern India, tells of various devices for binding the rainfall. In 
this district there is the belief that certain persons have the 
power to cause the rain to cease. It is said that the merchant 
when he has stored away large quantities of grain to be sold at a 
profit, will gather some rain from the eaves of the house in au 
eartLen vessel, and this vessel filled with rain-water he will bury 
under the grinding mill. The consequence is that from that time 
forward the thunder will be heard rumbling in the distance like 
the grinding of a flour-mill, but there will be no more rain. I 
think it is said that the rain must be gathered from the eaves 
of a house at the Pora Festival. 

47. Gotmting and keeping Records. — The method of enu- 
meration followed by the most ignorant people of the district is 
that of counting by fives. For instance, if a man is counting 
fruit, he lays aside five which make one ganda. Four groups 
of five make one kori, and five groups of kories make one hun- 
dred. According to Bates' Hindi Dictionary, a ganda means four, 
in this district, however, it invariably means five. The great maj- 
ority of the people in the district cannot count further than ten. 
The usual way to state high numbers is in koris or twenties — 
1 60 rupees is eight kories, and so on. Intermediate numbers are 
expressed as follows: 46 = six over two kories; 115 = five less six 
kories, and so on. The grain measures most in iise are also on 
the same principle. Twenty katas make one khandi, and twenty 
khandies make one gara. When grain is being measured at the 
threshing floor, the record is kept by making one small pile of 
grain (a handful in quantity) for every khandi. When grain 
is given out to the labourers from the granary, the record is 
made on the earthen wall of the granary in cow-clung, — one stroke 
of the finger dipped in cow-dung means one kata, when twenty 
strokes have been made they are crossed out and a cipher takes 
their place and the perpendicular strokes start again from one to 

48. Some Agricultural Practices — (1) With regard to the 
sowing of linseed, there is a belief that if the seed is sown from a 
woollen blanket and cattle graze in a field grown from seed thus 
sown, the cattle will surely die. I questioned a farmer in the 
Damoh District on this point and found that the same belief 
prevails there also. (2) It is also said that if iron in any shape 
should come in contact with peas when they are being sown, 
the seeds will not germinate. An iron or metallic spoon is 
never used to stir the peas when they are being boiled as daU, for 
the metal will cause the dall to be tough and indigestible. (3) 
When the rice or Icodo harvest is about to be completed and the 
reaper comes to cut the last sheaf, he will throw it up into the aii- 
and use some of the obscene phrases which are used in the Holi 
Festival. (4) When the grain has been threshed in the threshing 

184 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

floor aBcl the first load of threslied. grain is being carried to the 
house to be stored, the housewife will come out to meet the labourer 
who is carrying the load. She has in her hand a lota of water, and 
with this she walks around the man carrying the grain and does 
obeisance to the grain. This respect is paid to the first load of 
grain only. 

49. Cause and Cure of Styes. — There is a wide-spread belief 
that styes are caused by seeing a dog in the act of defoecating. 
And there are seyeral remedies employed to remove a stye. One 
of the most common remedies is connected with the Dalhan Pahar^ 
the hill which occupies such a jDrominent position as a geographi- 
cal feature of the district. This hill may be seen at a distance 
of fifty or eighty miles. The peak of the hill seen at a distance 
just appearing above the horizon has some resemblance to a stye. 
The belief is that if a person siiffering from a stye should face this 
mountain and say, " Dalhan Paliar cJiotd mor suite hard " (the 
Dalhan Hill is small, my stye is big) the hill will be annoyed, the 
stye will be pleased, and as a result the stye will disppear. Some 
say that while saying these words, the afflicted person should rub 
the third finger of the right hand in the palm of the left hand and 
apply the finger to the stye. It is also customary to take a grain 
of the wild rice, apply it to the stye, and then throw it away. As 
the grain decays the stye will disappear. 

50. Sahiting at Lamp-ligTit, — It is customary amongst the 
Satnamies for the menials and subordinates to salute a superior 
when the lamp is first lighted at dusk. I was once seated outside 
a tent with a number of villagers around me, when the servant 
lighted the lamp and placed it on the table inside the tent. 
Immediately all the villagers arose and said " Satnarn " to me and 
then resumed their seats. Being a stranger to the people at that 
time, I was completely taken aback ; but on inquiry I learned that 
this is a common practice. IS^ow I have come to look for the saluta- 
tion under similar cii^cumstances. The entry of the lamp is 
coiasidered the ushering in of a new period of time, and hence the- 
people " wish jou the time." 

51. Goncerning Meeting and Tjntertaining. — It is an invariable 
practice when relatives come together who have not met for a long- 
while, for the womenfolk to weep and wail loudly. A son has 
been away for months and returns to his parents' house. He will 
first go and touch the feet of his father and mother. When he has 
been seated, the mother and sisters come to him and each in turn,, 
placing both hands on his shoulders, weeps lou.dly and in a 
wailing tone narrates anything special that has taken place in his 

To a stranger it would seem that a great loss has befallen 
them. A daughter would be welcomed in the same way. Fre- 
quently I have mistaken the weeping of meeting for that of 
mourning. Experience, however, has taught me to distinguish the 
two kinds of wailing. When anyone goes as a guest to a friend's 
house, he partakes of the usual food prepared by the family. When, 
the people who are entertaining prepare some specially good food,_ 

Yol. I, No. 8.] The People of Mungeli TaJisil. 185 

[N. S.] 

lie takes it as a sign tliat his entertainment has now come to an end, 
■und the nest day he takes his departure. 

52. The Spindle and the Panchayat. — When n, panchayat or 
meeting' of the leading men in a village is in progress, it is consi- 
dered unwise to haye anyone present who is twirling a spindle. 
It is said that as the spindle keeps revolving, so will the discussion 
move in a circle and fail to come to a decided issue. 

53. Vermin from the Clouds. — There is a very prevalent belief 
that worms, frogs and snakes drop from the clouds. After cloudy 
weather, when insects appear on certain vegetables, it is said that 
they have dropped from the clouds. Strange as this idea may 
seem to us, we have a phrase which is even still more strange, for 
we sometimes say, " It is raining cats and dogs." 

54. Tattooing. — This is done by the Gond women who usually 
travel through the district during the harvest time. The tattooing 
is not as elaborate as is seen in other parts of India. In fact, it 
appears to me to be strikingly meagre. The most common figures 
are those of two deer facing each other, and also the figure of a 
chain or part of a chain. It is said that if a woman is not tattooed 
in this world, she will be marked with a Sabar or crow-bar by the 
gods in the next world. A woman will on no account allow her 
husband to pay for any tattooing she may have done, lest he should 
say to her when displeased, " I have not only paid for you at our 
marriage, but I have paid for your tattoo marks as well." Rather 
than give occasion for this taunt, she will beg of a friend to pay 
for the tattooting she may have done after leaving her parents' 

55. Some Matrimonial Belief s and Practices. — (1) In the event 
of a bachelor marrying a widow, he alone goes through the 
marriage ceremony, for a woman never goes through the marriage 
ceremony more than once. The bachelor in this case would be 
wedded to a dagger, and the dagger will take the place of the bride 
throughou-t the ceremony. (2) If a couple should have twenty-one 
children, it is said that bhey would go through the raarriage cere- 
mony together a second time. Or if a couple should live to see a 
grandchild's grandchild, they will do the same. I was told 
that a couple in a certain village lived to see their grandchild's 
grandchild; and my informant claimed to have been present at the 
marriage ceremony which was performed. I will not vouch for 
the truthfulness of my informant. 

56. Lippoing. — When a house is lippoed, i.e., the floor 
plastered with cowdung, it is customary to begin at the doorway 
and do the plastering inwards. Never is the house lippoed out- 
wards except after a death. 

57. Effects of an Eclijjse.— An eclipse, it is said, has a detii- 
mental effect on granaries and on animal life not yet born. In 
order to avoid the grain in the granary losing its germinating 
power, a mark is made on the side ot: the granary with cow-dung. 
The same means is employed to remove the evil influence from 
pregnant animals. A mare would have a mark made on the side 
witli ijohur (cuw-dung) and a pregnant woman has a mark made 

186 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905» 

on her left side. I think it is a circular mark that is made. If 
this precaution was not taken, the offspring would be deformed. 
I once met a lad on the roadside with a deformed leg. I after- 
wards questioned the man who accompanied me as to the probable 
cause of the deformity. The reply was " Grahankhich Hya^' — The- 
eclipse has drawn it up. His meaning was that shortly before 
the lad was born, there had been an eclipse, which caused the 

58. Cause of another deformity. — There is a firm belief that 
if one should have a sixth finger, it was caused by his having 
stolen garlic or hiildi (turmeric ) in the previous incarnation. 
So firm is this belief that gardeners have no fear of losing these 
vegetables from their gardens by theft. One who steals would 
appear in the next world with the mark of theft on his hand. 

59. Toothache, Cause and Cure. — An insect is said to be 
boring in the tooth and causes the pain. In order to remove the 
insect, the patient is given a piece of hollow bamboo and he sits 
over a slow fire in which some particular leaf is burning. One 
end of the hollow bamboo is over the smoke rising from the 
fire, the other end is placed in the mouth as near as possible to 
the decayed tooth. It is said that the insect comes out of the 
tooth, falls through the hollow bamboo into the fire, and the 
toothache ceases. The gum of some of the Indian figs is also 
used to close the hollow of a decayed tooth. 

60. Anent the Eoli Festival. — Crooke in liis Folklore of Upper 
India gives raany interesting particulars regradiug the Holi. 
I will mention only a few details observed in this locality. A 
heap of thorns, etc., are stacked about the first of the lunar 
month of Phagun. This stack is made just outside the village on 
some open space. As the days go by and the Holi festival draws 
near, the stack of thorns and dried branches increnses continually^ 
for the boys keep adding to the heap of fuel day by day. In the 
centre of the stack of thorns is a high bamboo pole, to which is 
tied a branch of the castor plant (RicintLS commiinis.) Under 
the pole which stands in the centre of the Holi stack are some 
kowries or pice, and some turmeric. To the top of the pole is tied 
a sheaf of dried grass or straw. On questioning a gardener as to 
when he would sow a certain vegetable, he replied he would do so 
when the Holi pole {dang) falls. His meaning was when the Holi 
is burnt. I find this is a common idiom — " When the Holi pole 
falls." The stack is set on fire by the village priest, who presents 
hovi at the village shrine, and he is often a Gond or a Baiga or 
one of the " aboriginal tribes." The fire with which the Holi i& 
lighted must be obtained from the chak mak or flint and steel. 
No other fire will suffice. Some of the ashes of the Holi are kept 
and supposed to have power in removing evil influences of spirits. 

61. The Burial of Gosais. — On hearing of the burial of a 
prominent Gosai, I gathered the following information from some 
disinterested persons of other castes, who were present at the 
burial and witnessed the whole ceremony. (1) Immediately after 
death the body was washed and covered with moist ashes. (2) A 

Vol. I, No. 8.] The People of Mungeli Tahsil. 187 

[_N. S.-\ 

deep, whole was dug on the bank of the tank and the body was 
placed in this hole in a sitting posture with legs crossed as 
represented in the figures of Buddha. (3) The face was toward 
the north. (4) The body had a langoti, a meagre loin cloth. 
(5) Another piece of cloth was cut open in the centre and the 
head was put through this opening in the cloth, so that the cloth 
rested on the shoulders. It was coloured with a red earthen 
dye {gem). See Exod. xxviii. 31,32, R. Version. " Thou shalt 
make the robe of the ephod all of blue. And it shall have a hole 
for the head in the midst thereof." (6) Under the shoulder was 
placed Sb jhoU or bag of cloth, the string of which went around the 
shoulder. (7) The right hand was placed to the mouth and in the 
hand was a chappatie (loaf of unleavened bread) touching the 
lips. (8) Inside the mouth was an udrnj (the sacred bead which 
mendicants or those of the priestly castes wear around the neck. 
In the mouth was also a leaf of the Bael, tree {Myle mar- 
melos). (9) By the side of the body was placed a stick such as 
mendicants carry and also a kamandal or water- vessel made from 
a gourd. (10) There were placed by the body a pair of wooden 
sandles. (11) Apiece of cloth was tied carelessly around the 
head, and over this was placed an earthen plate turned upside 
down. (12) The body was then surrounded with fifteen katas oi 
salt (something over a maund.) (13) When the earth had been 
filled in there was a Siv (stone image of of the Linga) placed over 
the grave, and the fellow-caste-men went around the grave seven 
times and sprinkled rice on the 8iv. (14) Every night a lamp is 
lighted at the grave for one year and a lota of water and some 
rice is sprinkled over the Siv daily. In connection with this burial 
I should mention that a short distance (five miles) from the village 
(Heraspore) in which this burial took place, is another village 
(Dharampura) which for many decades past has been the residence 
of Gosais. On the banks of the tank of this village are five different 
temples. I was told that each of the temples is built over the 
grave of a man buried as described above. My informant was 
able to give me the names of four of the Gosais buried there, but 
he said the name of the man buried under the fifth temple 
(certainly the oldest and now in a delapidated condition) was un- 
known to the village people. They had forgotten the name. 

62. Birth Practices. — Immediately on the delivery of a child 
the mother has cotton stuffed into her ears. This is said to " keep 
out the wind." This is also done when one is expiring. There 
is a belief that a male child comes into the world the face upwards, 
and the female with the face downwards. It is said that if a male 
is born face downwards, he will be effeminate, and vice-versa. The 
hair is never allowed to remain knotted during delivery, and if 
delivery is prolonged and painful, the woman is taken into another 
house as it is believed the house has something to do with the delay 
in the child being born. 

63. Svjorn Friendships. — These are known by various names, 
which are usually connected with the object employed in sealing 
the friendship. One of the most common names is Mdhaprasaa, 

188 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

(the great feast or food). It is supposed to be formed bj the 
convenanting parties partaking together of some of the food cooked 
and sold at Jugganath, and brought home by returning pilgriras. 
As a matter of fact Mahaprasnd now means anyone who has sworn 
to be a life-long friend. These friendships are also formed with the 
use of Ganges water brought home by pilgrims. In this case the 
friendship is known as Gangajal. 

Then, again, any flower may be employed, and the friendship 
would be termed merely phul (flower). This is usually the 
case amongst women. Each party places a flower in the ear 
of the other and the friendship is formed. If some particular 
flower is used that flower gives the name to the friendship. In 
all these bonds of friendship, it is incumbent on the promising 
parties to refrain from taking the name of his friend, and they 
call each other Mahaprasad, Gangojal, Douna {Artemisia vnl- 
_garis or Indian wormwood) or merely Phul. It is astonishing 
how very binding these friendships are considered. After an 
acquaintance with the people of 14 years I can recall only one 
instance in which such a friendship was broken. Like David 
and Jonathan, the parties stand by each other, they are bound 
together for better or for worse, etc, etc. In has been hinted to 
me til at these friendships sometiraes result in a community of 
possessions extending even to a community of wives. In this 
connection it is interesting to note what is done when one of the 
friends happens by forgetfulness or necessity to take the friend's 
name. He will go to his friend and say, " Tor douki mor douki, 
gendri gajla phul" These words may have two meanings and 
have been interpreted both ways to me. They may mean, " Your 
wife and my wife are a garland of marigold flowers ; " or they 
may mean, " Tour wife is my wife, a garland of marigold flowers." 
By repeating this couplet to his friend it is supposed the offending 
one makes propitiation for his offence. 

64. Gonceriiing Witches, Fairies, etc. — (1) There is a belief 
that witches sometimes have an insatiable desir-e for human 
blood, and they can suck blood from the navel of a child with- 
out anyone knowing it. As a result the child becomes ema- 
ciated and dies. Thei'e was once a Telin witch who was posses-sed 
by this desire for blood, and not being able to suck the blood 
from the navel of any other child she was compelled to draw 
blood from her own infant. If an adult also should suddenly 
become emaciated and loose flesh, it is said that a witch has sent 
down a long tongue or tube from the roof of his house when he 
was asleep and has drawn blood from his navel. In order to regain 
strength it is necessary to eat a small kind of fish found in 
the rivers. Also to eat a kind of rice. (2) If a child is 
believed to be possessed by a witch or an elf, it is customaiy 
for the parants to take a bangle and a tassel worn at the end of 
a plait of hair by women and to tie these articles to a twig of 
the Baer tree {Jujtiba vulgaris). The Baer tree is supposed to 
be the special residence of witches, or elfs or other invisible 
beings. (3) According to Bates' Hindi Dictionary, the word Fret 

Vol. I, No. 8.] The People of Mungeli Tahsil. ■ 189 

[N. 8.] 

has several meanings, " a spirit of tlie dead, a goblin spirit, evil 
sprite, fiend, etc." Here I find it is commonly used to mean an 
elf or fairy, not necessarily a being with, evil influences. Pretins 
are said to assume the form of women and freqnent tlie bazars. 
By their superhuman powers they can take away articles from 
the stalls of tradesmen without being detected. A woman with 
^ crooked nose is suspected of being a Pretin. The story is told 
of a Eatot (milk-man) who was returning from a bazar when he 
saw a Pretin, most befiutiful to look upon, fomenting her child 
under a Ba'^r tree. He persuaded her to go to his house, but he 
hid her sari in a hollow bamboo. The Pretin lived happily with 
the Raut and they had three sons. At the marriage of the eldest 
son the neighbours asked the mother to dance and amuse them. 
She refused to do this unless she was given her own snri, which 
the Raut had hidden. Persuaded by his guests the man at last 
produced the hidden sari from the hollow bamboo. Scarcely 
had the woman put it on when she became invisible and dis- 
appeared, never to return. It is said that the descendants of the 
three sons of this Pretin are still in this district, but no one has 
ventured to inform me just where they may be found. Students 
of folklore will recognize in this story the widespread belief that 
the influence of fairies, giants, etc., lies in some special object, 
e.g., Samson's strength being in his hair. (4) It is believed that 
some have the power of placing a Pretin in a flute or fiddle, and 
in this case the instrument will make music of its own accord 
without any human assistanre. 

65. Deserting Houses. — I have been told that amongst the 
jungle people of this district if a death should take place, the 
entire settlement, never very large, moves away to another site, 
doubtless because of the belief that the deceased will frequent his 
former abode. Amongst the people of this Tehsil, who live in 
larger and more settled villages and hamlets, there is an inclina- 
tion to desert the house in which a death has occurred, and 
to build another hotise on another site. Higher up in the grades 
of civilzation we find a desire to withdraw from the room in 
which one has died, if not from the belief that it is haunted, 
then on account of the unpleasant associations. Amongst the 
people of whom I write, if a house is to be deserted it will be 
leepoed, n Inmp lighted, and the residents will withdraw. 

66. Punishment of Witches. — If I was to tell of all the witch 
stories which are told amongst the people, these notes would have 
to swell out to undue proportions. Perhaps I should mention that 
Chhattisgarh has long had a reputation for witchcraft and similar 
cults. Sleeman, writing as far bade as 1835 in his Rambles and 
ReaAlections, mentions these parts as having an unfavourable 
reputation. It is currently reported that in the old days when 
a witch was found she would be tied to the horns or the legs of 
a buffalo, and the buffalo was then infuriated till the victim 
was killed. 

67. A Gnse of " Possession.^' — It was on the night of the 9th of 
August, 1901, that I had the following experience with a man said 

190 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905» 

to be possessed by tlie Devil. At eleven o'clock I was called to 
the Leper Asylum, of whicb I am. Superintendant, to see a leper 
iiam.ed Yisabu, wbo was laid hold of by Shaitan. It was a 
dark, drizzling night and I went to the Asylum lantern in hand. 
Approaching the gate of the Asylum I heard many loud voices 
for the lepers were greatly excited, and I could also hear the 
grinding of teeth from the unfortunate man. This was heard 
at a distance of fully one hundred yards. On approaching the 
crowd I found the leper Yisahu, a man of medium physique, 
lying on the ground on his chest struggling violently, while 
two men were seated on him trying to keep him down. They 
told me he was making efforts to run away from thetn, and a& 
the river was not far off they feared he would drown himself. I 
immediately ordered the men to loosen their hold of him, and 
1 talked with him calmly and firmly and tried to pacify him. 
Meanwhile I noted the wild meaningless look in his eyes, as 
though he was terribly frightened. He was trembling, shaking 
from head to foot, his teeth were grinding, and I was convinced it 
was not a case of shamming. I concluded he was in a fit of 
some kind. Ordering the ammonia bottle from the hospital, I 
led Yisahu to his own room, and had his bed put in readiness. As- 
we were about to enter his room, the man broke away from me 
and rushing through the lepers who had gathered around, he 
went straight for the gate. I went after him as fast as possible,. 
and the crowd followed me. Yisahu ran straight into the grveyard, 
close by ; seeing this the crowd hung back and only two atten- 
dants followed me as I ran after the man over the Ghamar 
graves. With shod feet and with a lantern we had difficulty in 
following the man because of the cactus tijorns and the ditches full 
of water. He, however, did not seem to heed these, and ran along" 
bare-footed over the graves and the thorns to the other end of the 
graveyard wh ere he plunged into a ditch full of water. When 
we overtook him, he sat quaking and grinding his teeth staring- 
around wildly. I again laid hold of his arm and led him back 
to the Asyhim and seated him in the Chapel. Here I kept him 
under my gaze, talked with him and poured water between his 
set teeth. For sometime he gazed at me stolidly, with a vacant 
look a nd without blinking ; there was no intelligence in his face. 
In the meantime the ammonia was brought from the hospital. 
He did not seem affected by it. After about ten minutes in the 
Chapel, his face changed, he looked around to the others and 
said, "Why have you brought me here?" He seemed like one 
waking from sleep. He felt the mud and water on his body 
and asked why we had thrown water on him. I asked him 
where he had been ; he said, "I^owhere ! " He had no recollection 
of having acted strangely. He then became conscious of the 
bruise on his knee and the thorns which had become imbedded 
in his feet. On questioning him I learned that he had been 
on leave from the Asylum and had returned that morning walking 
some eight miles. After a night meal, he sat in the corner of 
his room playing on a long bamboo flute which has a deep 

Vol. I, No. 8.] The People of Mnngeli Tahsil. 191 

monotonous tone. He wife was also in the room. After playing^ 
for some time he arose and went to the door to go out. Outside 
the door he said he saw a fig-ure and exclaimed, " What is this ? " 
Immediately hs fell forward, and that is all he could remember, 
I am positive that this was not a case of shamming. I am also 
positive that lie did not recall what took place, that he had no 
recollection of what took place from the time I saw him on the 
ground to the time he " came to himself " in the Chapel lam 
also certain that he was not under the influence of an intoxicant. 
This case puzzled me for a long while. I could not bring myself 
to believe it was a case of demon possession, though everything 
seemed to support that theoiy. Since this experience, I have 
looked into the siibject of hypnotism, and I am now of opinion that 
this so-called " case of possesion" was actually a case of auto- 
hypnotism. The man playing his fliite in a monotonous tone 
for a long time (probably gazing at the light) brought himself 
into the hypnotic state when he was susceptible to any outside 
suggestion. Seeing a shadow, may he not have taken this to be 
a spirit about to possess him ? Then the cries of his neighbours 
" Shaitan laga hai " would still further deepen the impression, or, 
technically, the " suggestion," until he actually became to himself 
a man possessed. I have seen persons coming out of the hypnotic 
state, and the way in which consciousness returned to them re- 
minded me of the way in which the leper came to himself and was 
first conscious of his bruises. I mention this case with the only ex- 
planation which suggests itself to me. Perhaps I should say 
again that there was no history of the use of intoxicants, and the 
man who is still in the Asylum (May, 1905) is not addicted to the 
use of intoxicants. Need I add that all the lepers and all the 
neighbours were fully convinced that it was Shaitan who possessed 
the man, and the Shaitan was supposed to be the spirit of a leper 
who had died fifteen days before and was buried in the grave- 
yard into which Yisahu took us on that memorable night in 

68. Pacifying the God. — I once saw a man leading a black 
goat. On questioning him I was told that he had a buffalo worth 
forty rupees which was ill. He was taking the goat to tie near 
the buifalo. He would feed the goat in the name of the deo 
which possessed the buffalo, and when the buffalo recovered, at the 
next principal festival, the goat would be slaughtered in the name 
of the god. Some days later I heard that the buffalo had died, 
and the man was wishing to sell the goat. Another sacrific, however, 
proved more foriunate. I had a syce, a Ghassia by caste, who had 
an only son, who was drowned in the river. As the syce and his 
wife were getting on in years, they wished to have another son. 
I recall the time when my syce asked leave that he might sacrifice 
a pig at some shrine in order to have a son. A year or eighteen 
months later I was told that Raru, the syce, had a son. This boy 
is now living, is about ten years of age, and comes to me every 
Christmas for Baksheesh. His father is too old for service. 
Nothing could convince the father that the son was not given in 

192 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

answer to his sacrifice. To his parents he is in very truth a Samuel 
— " asked of God." 

69. Terrors of the Night. — In common with all primitive 
peoples, the villagers of this Tehsil are greatly scared by the dark 
night. It is not the dread which civilized persons have of stepping 
on a snake or a scorpion, hut the darkness to them is frequented by 
evil spirit and malign influences. Specially after someone has died 
is this fear apparent. It is comjDletely removed during the moon- 
light nights and most apparent during the dark wet nights in the 
rains. On a dark night it is considered unwise to name a person 
■recently deceased ; a snake also should not be mentioned. By 
naming the snake or the deceased they will come near. " Speak 
of an angel," as the saying goes. 

70. Settling Q.uarrels. — The Rants or herdsmen have a festival 
in September or October, which I am sure will repay investigation 
by an expert. I wish to mention one item in this connection. For 
about a month the Rants go around dressed up with strings of 
shells {kowries) with leather or metallic shields and lathies or 
wooden swords in the hand. At this time they have what is 
called matcir jagna. Jagna means to awake, but what Matar 
means I cannot say. The Rants get together on the site where they 
usually tie the cattle during the heat of the day, and at this place 
they have a great feast and a merry time. They are all dressed 
up as described above, and I am told they eat with their shoes on 
and their lathies in their hands. After this feast they go forth to 
settle any quarrel which may have arisen with neighbouring 
Rants during the past year. The quarrel is settled by the use of 
lathies and not by words, one party throws out the challenge by 
shouting out words of abuse, the others reiDly and they engage in 
a hand-to-hand fight till the people in one party are defeated and 
take to theii' heels. The people tell me that these fights still take 
place, but 1 have had no positive evidence of this being the case. 

71. Scorpion Stings, Immunity from. — I know for a fact that 
there are jDcrsons on the Tahsil, who are immune to the sting of 
the scorpion. A man of my acquaintance will deliberately take 
up a scorpion holding it by the tail. This is not merely done by 
courage due to dexterity, for I once saw the scorpion strike him and 
the only discomfort he experienced was a pain as though the part 
had been burnt or rubbed with chillies. There is a belief that dark 
skinned j)ersons are more susceptible to the poison, for they suifer 
more intensely. It has also been stated that if a woman is stung 
by a scorpion during pregnancy, her offspring will be immune to 
the scorpion poison. There are certain persons who have a re- 
putation for removing the pain consequent on the sting of a scor- 
pion, and they go through various mesmeric passes over the part 
stung ; and- if the distressed portion be the arm, they profess to 
gradually bring down the pain to the fingers from which extremity 
the pain is eliminated. 

72. Concerning a Mushroom. — There is a dark-coloured 
rather high-growing mushroom found in the open fields, which is 
known as Siiri gae ki dhetti, i.e., the teats of the Suri (wild) cow. 

Vol. I, No. 8.] The People of Mungeli Tahsil. 193 

I am told that this mushroom grows over the spot where a cow has 
given birth to its young. It is an invariable practice for the herds- 
men or the ploughmen when they find this mushroom to stick it 
in the cord round the waist or to put it behind the ear. It seems 
to serve no practical purpose, and yet people carry it around like a 
charm. This mushroom is tough and leathery and appears to be 
quite durable. 

73. The Festival of Stilts. — During the latter half of the Hindu 
month of Sravan is held, what I have termed, the festival of stilts 
because of the practice amongst the boys and sometimes the young 
men of making stilts and playing with them for 1 5 days. Just as 
soon as the light half of Sravan comes aronnd, these stilts will be 
seen. The stilts are made by tieing small pieces of bamboo about 
a foot in length to a long bamboo six feet long, and the foot is placed 
not across the step of the stilt, as is usually done by English school- 
boys, but the foot is placed lengthways on the step of the stilt, so 
that the long bamboo is held by the toes of the foot. The stilts are 
not nailed in any part but are tied with twine ; and when the twine 
is wet it makes a creaking noise rubbing against the bamboo, and 
this noise made at every step of course adds immensely to the enjoy- 
ment of the youngsters. When the fifteen days are over, at the Ford 
festival, the children make some specially dainty cakes, and taking 
their stilts they all go down in a body to the river or tank. Here the 
stilts are all stacked together like i-ifles in a guard-room. Before 
this stack of stilts the childi^en offer horn (incense), sometimes 
merely burning dried cow- dung Then they untie the foot-pieces 
from the stilts, and one foot-piece is thrown into the river and the 
other is either buried in the sand by striking it upright or it is 
carried to the home and struck in the ground in front of the door- 

The long pieces of bamboo are also taken home and put in the 
roof to be kept till the next season. After this festival of stilts, the 
Kumhdrs make earthen bullocks, paint them in gay colours and 
take them round for sale. They also make earthen grinding mills 
and small vessels to amuse the girls. This time of the year 
appears to be specially the time of amusement for the little ones. 

74. The Fisherman's Net. — T)uvh\g the Dasherah festival a 
fisherman goes around with his net and he throws this on to the 
child of any prominent person. This appears to be a sign of 
good- luck or prosperity, for the parents of the child reward 
the fisherman with grain or money. A fisherman once tried to 
throw his net on my little girl ; she was greatly alarmed and 
would not allow it to be done. The man thought it would be 
unfor-tunate to be thus hindered ; so he placed his net over me. 
It is a question whether he was more concerned for his own 
interests or mine. 

75. Snake-Lore and Snake- Charmers. — The snake-charmers of 
the district are called Gouriyas. They appear to be few in number 
and I do not find them named in the Census Report. They reside 
in a few villages of this Tahsil, engage in agriculture during the 
rains, and in the dry months they wander away to great distances 

194 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

■with their carious pets, which they exhibit and thus make a 
precarious living. I have called them snake-charmers, bnt they 
do not charm with music. I have yet to see the Gouriyd who uses 
the gourd flute so often seen in other parts of India. They 
wear the peculiarly twisted narrow turban which is characteristic of 
the Indian snake-charmer. They have attached to their turbans a 
few claws of bears or tigers and the talons of hawks or large birds 
of some kind. The snakes usually carried around are the Pythoti 
molurus and two varieties of the cobra ; one with the spectacles and 
the other without them. The cobra with the mark on the head is 
called the Bomi ; without this mark it is called the Gouha, they 
are believed to be quite distinct snakes. I learned, in conversation 
with the men, that they make an agreement with the snake when it 
is first captured as to how long it will be kept in captivity. Some 
vow to keep it for six months, others for a year-and-a-half . When 
the time is up, the snake is given its freedom and another is cap- 
tured. It would be considered a very great misfortune if a snake 
should die in captivity. On questioning a man as to how the 
cobra came to have the mark on its head, I was told that when 
Bhagivaoi, the deity, went into Fatal, (the nether region) he placed 
his foot on the N(^g, and it is the footprint of Bhagivan that is 
seen on the snake to-day. " It shall bruise thy head, etc." Gen. 
iii, 15. The Python molurus is considered the most dharmi 
(righteous) of all snakes. The reason is that it will never go out 
•of its way to seek for its prey ; it lies quietly till the victim hap- 
pens to come into its immediate vicinity, and then_it will lay hold of 
it. The Ptyas mucosus is locally known as the Ashariya^ from the 
Tnonth Ashar, corresponding with June-July. It is so called from 
the popular belief that it is poisonous only in Ashar. The follow- 
ing interesting story is told concerning this snake. I have heard 
t;his tale with many variations and it appears to be widely known : 
At one time the Ashariya was the only poisonous snake^ in existence. 
It found a raut (a herdsman) lying on the side of a field where 
he had fallen asleep while tending his cattle. Near the head of 
the herdsman lay his bamboo flute, which he often played to while 
away the time while watching his cattle. Now the Ashariya 
had often heard the sound of the flute, and was annoyed at 
hearing the music. Finding the raut asleep, he detei"mined to 
silence him forever. He approached the head of the sleeping man 
and struck him in the forehead saying, " Now you are silenced, and 
I_ will never again be troubled with your music." When the 
Ashariya had gone away, to his great astonishment he again 
beard the sound of the herdsman's flute just as before. The flute 
lay at the head of the dead body in such a position that the wind 
blowiug through it cause_d it to make music just as when played 
on by the owner. The Ashariya was much enraged at the thought 
of his poison not having silenced the raut. He determined to 
distribute his poison to others, and to increase the possibility of 
the man being killed by his poison. He therefore gave an invita- : 
tion to all manner of reptiles to come to a feast which he had 
prepared. All the reptiles came in great numbers to this feast. 

1 [C/. tlie Karia and Pafcani Malay stories of the pythoa (Mason's Burma 
and Annandale, Fascic. Malay Anthrop. I). — Ed,] 

Vol. I, No. 8.] The People of Mungeli Tahsil. 195 

While distributing food to the guests the Ashariya mixed with the 
food a good portion of his own deadly poison, which up to that time 
he alone had possessed. The cobra and the scorpions and all 
•other stinging insects received as much poison as was contained 
in the food of which they partook. Hence the various degrees in 
the poison of snakes. The Xshariya in consequence had only a 
little poison left, and so it is poisonous only in the month 
of Xshar. It is said that traders in cattle and those who 
have to do_with the breaking in of cattle keep a piece of the 
tail of the Asliariya by them. If the tail of this snake is pushed 
up the nostril of a refractory animal (a bullock or a buffalo) the 
animal will immediately become manageable and submissive. 
There is still another snake which holds an important place in the 
folkloie of the district. This is locally known as the " Murari 
sap.'" I cannot supply the scientific name, but it belongs to the 
family of earth-snakes, which burrow underground and come to the 
surface only occasionally. It is not much more than eight inches 
in length, thick and of much the same dimension from end to end. 
On account of the similar appearance of head and tail, it is some- 
times said to liave two heads. For six months it goes one way, 
and for six months the other. On being touched this snake 
has a way of curling ai'ound in a circular from. This may account 
for the name {murna means to twist), and it certainly accounts for 
the popular belief that it is the greatest enemy of the larger 
snakes, for it will twist itself around them till they are strangled. 
But the most common belief wnth regard to the Murari is that it 
will attach itself to a woman's breast and draw away her milk 
while she sleeps. The snake, it is said, will place its tail in the 
child's mouth and thus soothe the child while drawing away the 
milk for its own nourishment. Women hold this snake in special 

While speaking with a man concerning the Murari, he told me 
that only recently he had killed this snake in the house of a 
neighbour, and he had found a quantity of milk in its maw. On my 
expressing my doubt he went on to explain that his neighbour's wife 
had a child which had lost flesh for some time past. The reason 
given was that the snake was taking the woman's milk while the 
child was starving. Now that the snake had been destroyed, the 
child was gaining flesh and improving in health. If a Mttrari is 
found in the fields, it is taken up on a stick and thrown towards 
the sun. This is called suraj dehhana (shown the sun). It is 
thrown high up in the air and is killed as a result of the fall. The 
snake charmers also informed me that at the Hariyaii festival, it is 
their practice to go out in the fields and burn ho')n (sacrifice) at the 
roots of the trees or herbs which are employed as antidotes to snake 
poison. It is at tliis festival also that they lay in a stock of anti- 
dotal herbs for use during the coming year. 

76. A Love Portion called Hathnjori. — The Gond women who 
£(0 around the Tehsil in the winter months tattooing and selling 
herbs and I'oots with medicinal properties, also have wiUi them a 
lierb known as hrlthdjori, which may be roughly translated hands 

196 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

joined. I liave seen this liei-b or root, and it certainly resembles two- 
Hands clasped together. This is said to be a mohini and is 
given by a suitor to a woman whose affections he may wish to win. 
Dr, Watt's in his Economic Products of India mentions a vege- 
table growth of this name and he calls it " Eagle's claw." (See his 
Dictionary M. 208.) He makes no reference to its being a love- 
portion, and may be he describes an entirely different herb to that 
which is sold by the Grond women. I have mentioned the hathajori 
here because of its connection with the following passage in The 
Sacred Tree (a work by Mrs. J. H. Pliilpot), page 106. " In the 
valley of Lanzo in Piedmont, lovei'S iu donbt whether to marry 
consult the oracle in the form of a herb called concordia, the root 
of which is shaped like two hands each with its five fingers."^ 
Jewellers sometimes advertize in their catalogues ladies' brooches, 
which represent two hands clasped together. Is this merely a 
convenient emblem of friendship, or is it a survival from herbs 
which looked like clasped hands which were used as love- 
portions ? Since scarf pins with the horse shoe are a survival of 
the primitive belief that iron wards off evil spirits, why may not 
this clasped-hand brooch also claim as ancient an ancestry ? 

77. A Marriage Practice. — Going through a village, I noticed 
a strange figure made of straw attached to a long bamboo hanging 
over a house. On inquiring I was told that a marriage had re- 
cently taken place in the house, and the figure which drew my 
attention was that of a deer. I then learned that it is customary after 
a marriage for the bride and bridegroom and friends to resort to the 
river or tank and wash off the huldi with which the persons of the 
bride and bridegroom have been covered ; and while this is being 
done there is much fun and joking and teasing. One of the plays at 
this time is to make a deer of straw and place a bow and arrow 
made of bamboo in the hands of the bridegroom and not let him 
go from the river till he has taken good aim and pierced the deer 
with his arrow. After striking the deer he gives chase to the 
bride who with her friends runs away to the house, and is there 
overtaken by the bridegroom and his friends. The deer is hoisted 
on a high bamboo and hangs over the house for some time. 

78. A Primitive form of Lavip Light. — The Groton tiglium i& 
most commonly found throughout this Tehsil. It is used as a 
border plant for gardens and groves. The seeds of this shrub form 
a drastic purgative, and are used for this purpose by the people. 
But there is still another use made of the seeds. They are strung- 
together by children in long rows, and the lowest seed is set on fire 
and the seeds burn in succession one after the other very slowly, at 
the same time giving out quite a deal of light. This play amongst 
the children may possibly be the remains of a general practice of 
lighting the houses with the seeds of the croton strung together. 

79. Massage and Branding of Infants. — It is considered a neces- 
sity for the mother to massage her infant daily. The mother sits 
on the floor with her two legs stretched out together straight in 
front. The child is placed on its back in her lap, the head resting^ 
between the knees and the feet towards the mother. By the side 

Vol. I, "N'o. 8.] The People of Mungeli TaRsa. 197 


of the raother is the Goisi or roughly-made earthen pot in which 
are kept the slowly-burning cowdung cakes. The infant's abdomen 
is first oiled and then the mother places one hand over the fire and 
the other over the child's stomach, aiad thus with rapid movements 
of the hands massages the child with each hand alternately. 
Meantime she is singing some soothing lullaby. This fomentation is 
intended to remove flatulence. But sometimes a much severer 
process is adopted. The child is said to be attacked with a 
complaint which is called Dhahha. I am unable to say whether this 
is merely a severe attack of flatulence or constipation or a specific 
disease. The stomach of the infant, it is said, becomes swollen and 
hard. If it be a mild attack of Dhablia, the abdomen is branded 
with the point of an iron sickle. The sickle is placed in the fire till 
it is red hot and the point is then applied to the stomach in eight 
or ten different places. Once when passing through a village at 
night I heard excrutiating cries from a child ; on inquiry I was 
casually informed that a child was suffering from Dhahha and 
the parents were having it branded. If the disease assumes a 
severe form, what is called big Dhahha, then several double-pice are 
placed in the fire, they are then taken up with pinchers and applied 
to the surface of the abdomen leaving a burn the size of the face of a 
pice. I believe fully 99 per ceat. of the natives of this Tehsil carry 
on their person the marks of this infantile branding. Some of them 
carry the marks for forty and fifty years. May we not ask if this 
practice of branding infants has not some connection with the 
widespread belief that changlings and witches are afraid of fire 
and also of iron. This belief may have originated the practice, 
which has continued because of the beneficial results due to counter 
irritation. Adults ai-e also branded on the arms and. legs in severe 
cases of rheumatism or in cases of sprains. - 

80. Stone Heaps. — In certain parts of the Tehsil will be found 
a great pile of stones. A single heap of stones is called a Kuriha, 
from Kurhona to heap. The people can tell nothing as to the origin 
of the practice, but they say it is considered fortunate to throw a 
stone on to the heap in passing and thus add to the accumulation of 
stones. In 2 6'am. xviii 17, with regard to the burial of Absolam, 
we read that he was thrown into a pit and they " raised over him a 
very great heap of stones" (Revised Version). In Adam Clark's 
commentary on the above passage I find the following remarks : 

"This was the method of burying heroes and even traitors The 

ancient cairns or heaps of stones in different parts of the woi-ld are 
of this kind." In Col. Meadows Taylor's novel Tara, a Maharatta 
Tale, I find the following passage descriptive of the country near 
Bijapore. "The heap of stones had been formed gradually by 
travellers who, coming from all sides, took up one from the path, 
and threw it with a prayer to the local divinity upon the pile. 
This had been done no doubt for centuries." 

81. Ideas rerjard?'ng Transinirjration. — Some years ago I was 
quite intimate with a Satmani Ghamor. He was fully eighty years 
of age. This man had many strange ideas, which, unfortunately, 
at that time I did not appreciate. With my present acquaintance 

198 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

with folklore, I would have regarded him a valuable " find." 
For raany years now at the Divali festival, a lamp has been bui-iit 
at his grave for three nights in succession. This old man claimed 
to be able to tell just what form any man or animal has assumed 
in the last life, or incarnation. He said that he had some cattle, 
who were persons who had died owing him money ; and they had 
returned in this form to pay their debts. He himself claimed to 
have been a Rajput in the last life, and for some offence he was 
born a Chamar. He expected on his return to the earth to be born 
a Brahman. I once took him to see my horse which was tied in the 
stable. On our entering the stable the horse started. I said to 
Goburdhan, " Now, can you tell me what this horse was in the last 
life." He was equal to the occasion, for he replied immediately, 
" He was a deer and was shot." " How do you know ?" I asked. 
'■'■ Did you not notice how he started when we entered," he replied, 
"he is timid like a deer, and look at this," pointing to a birth-mark 
on the side of the animal, " this is where a bullet has entered. 
He was a deer and was shot." It is a common idea amongst the 
people of this district that marks on the body are transmitted. 
If a child should be born and should die almost immediately, 
the expression used is " hahurgaya, " It has returned." The idea 
is that the life came into this world and went back from whence 
it came. 

82. Observation during a Small-pox Epidemic. — Early in 1904 
there was a small-pox epidemic in the town of Mungeli ; and I had 
ample opportunity of making many interesting observations. The 
conclusion I came to was, that during the epidemic the jaeople feel 
that there is some strong personality in their midst, and all their 
efforts are with the purpose of pleasing this great power or in- 
fluence or jDerson. As is usually the case, they believe what 
would please themselves will please this great being or power. 
The mat a or devi is supposed to be visiting the family in which there 
is a case of small-pox. It is not considered a misfortune but rather 
an honour. The yard of the house in which the patient lies is 
surrounded by a hedge of thorns or dried twigs. The pur- 
pose is to keep away persons whose presence will annoy the 
goddess and to hinder persons with shod feet approaching the house. 
Someone is always in attendance on the patient. Every word he 
may utter is considered the word of the goddess. If the patient 
reqaests water, the attendants will say, " The goddess is thirsty," 
and will bring the coldest, piu-est water obtainable. In the delirium 
all the wild sayings of the patient are considered the utterances of 
the great person in their midst. The behests of this person must 
be complied with, however difficult and repulsive. If the patient 
says he wants food from the house of a scavenger, it must be done 
rather than incur the wrath of the goddess. Once a man walked 
eight miles to ask for food from my table. The reason was that 
his daughter had small-pox, and when asked what she wanted, she 
was understood to say she wanted food from the sahib's house, and 
the father begged me to give him some. On several occasions the 
people have come asking for the fruit of the papiya from my 

Vol. I, 1^0. 8.] The People of Mungeli Tahsil. 199 

[N. S.^ 

-garden, as tlie mdta had asked foi' this fruit. If the goddess should 
demand a hen, the hen will be purchased and tied near the bed of the 
patient. It is said that a hen with reversed feathers is the one 
most appreciated. During a small-pox epidemic I have known 
poultry with reversed feathers to sell at an exoi-bitant price. Some- 
times a goat is tied in the house of the patient and daintily fed in 
the name of the goddess, with a promise that it will be slaughtered 
in the event of the patient's recovery. Every evening in each 
house in which there is a small-pox patient, music is heard and 
songs are sung in praise of the goddess. Musical instruments are 
also employed, more especially the drum. The f liends of the patient 
will sit up all night. If the patient is in distress, nothing is 
■done to alleviate the suffering ; but the friends perplex themselves 
in trying to find out what they have done to annoy the goddess or 
what they have omitted to do which will please her. One evening 
I questioned a young man passing my gate as to where he was 
going. He replied he was going to join his friends who were to 
watch by the house of a caste-fellow who had sraall-pox. On in- 
quiring why he was going to watch, he replied, " In case a dog or 
-a cat should come near the house at night and annoy the goddess." 
I asked how long the friend had had the sickness. He replied, " Six 
years." On seeing my perplexity he explained that they say 
yeai- for day in speaking of this illness. I then asked how much 
longer he expected the friend would be sick. He replied, " Eight 
■or ten years." When the epidemic was abating in the town of 
Mungeli, the following story was told around and about the town 
and was believed to be true by all who heard and all who told it. A 
certain Bania, whose name was given, went from Mungeli to the 
neighbouring town of Nawagarh ; on his return after dark he came 
upon seven women seated by fires on the roadside. He addressed 
them as " friends " and asked them for fire to light his birhi (pipe). 
They paid no attention to him, and he noticed their fires had no 
smoke and that they burned steadily. He then went his way on 
horseback. His syce or groom came behind him and met these 
^ame women. They said to the syce, " Your master addressed us as 
friends and we have destroyed two of his children. Tell him we 
have done our work in Mungeli and are now going to l!*rawagarh." 
This story was believed to account for the sudden cessation of the 
disease in Mungeli and its sudden appearance in I^awagarh just at 
that time. I have been told that when the disease first appears on 
a person, he is seated on a bed and his feet are bathed with 
great ceremony. The water in which his feet are washed must be 
taken from a ranning stream ; and the water must be taken up in a 
vessel drawn against the current and not in the dii-ection in which 
the water is flowing. When the sickness has left the patient his en- 
tire body is bathed with great ceremony either on a Monday or a 
Thursday. Several months after the patient has recovered, the 
people have thecei'emony of " Vida karo,'" that is, "sending away " 
the goddess, as some visitor, is sent off, with ceremony. Special 
food is prepared, and the family party all wear new clothes, and 
with music and procession they all proceed to the river, where 

200 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

food and small articles are thrown into the stream. Those who- 
vowed the gift of hens or goats, go to the temple or shrine of the 
goddess, and there they will either set free those creatures or will 
slaughter them and leave the remains to be removed by the 
-sweepers or other low-caste people. It so happened that the hoK 
festival came on when the epidemic was in full force. I had ex- 
pected this festival to be observed with much zest as the harvest 
had been plentiful. In such years all festivals are observed with 
^nuch ado. To my surprise the holi festival that year received but 
-little attention, and singing and obscene language were guardedly 
employed. The reason, I learned, was the presence of the mata in 
their midst. It was considered offensive to the goddess to sing 
the hoU songs. Special songs are sung at night to please the god- 
dess, and it will be interesting some time to have these songs re- 
corded and translated and published in this Journal. 

83. Concerning Stone Inplements.^— While conducting a class of 
young men, I happened to have on my table a copy of the Journal 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. I showed the class illustrations 
of the stone implements in the Journal. One of the men remarked, 
" When I was a boy my father had a stone like that one," pointing 
out one in the illustrations. The youngmansaid his father called 
it a " sarag pcdar" — heaven or sky stone. I immediately saw the 
importance of this name and was positive the young man referred to 
a stone implement. In widely separated countries the belief prevails 
that the stone implements are thunderbolts, and here was the name 
"heaven stone" used by the people in Mungeli. Next morning 
I made further inquiries, and my syce offered to get me a " sarag 
patar " which was owned by one of his uncles. The uncle turned 
up in due time bringing with him a bored stone, and I saw 
immediately that it was undoubtedly a stone implement of former 
days. The only use for which this stone was now employed was 
as a remedy for gahva, swollen glands, round the neck. The 
man who owned the stone, said it had come down from father to- 
to son in his family, for generations. Together with this 
stone the man brought me a piece of stag's horn, which he said 
had always been with the stone. I now very much regret thnt I 
took no interest in the stag's horn and purchased only the bored 
stone. It did not occur to me that there was any possible con- 
nection between the stone and the stag's horn. Some months later 
I was reading Sir Daniel Wilson's book on Left-handedness. 
On page 49, he shows that in all probability the makers of flint 
arrows, etc., employed bones or horns, for these were the only imple- 
plements at their service. The fact that a stone and a stag's hoi-n 
were handed down for generations together would indicate some close 
connection between the two ; and it seems probable that the stag's 
horn was the implement with which the stone was the bored. After 
two years of search I have succeeded in getting together only a 
dozen stones. Some of these have been badly rubbed when they 
were used medicinally. But we are able to judge of their original 
shape and form. One or two of the stones are beautifully smooth 
inside where bored, " as smooth as glass," as a friend remarked. 

1 See Plate VI, 

Vol. I, No. S.] The People of Mungeli Tahsil. ' 201 

One stone has undoubtedly been arrested in the process of manu- 
facture. The outward form is complete and it has not been rubbed 
in any way for medicinal purposes. The hole in the centre, how- 
ever, is only half bored. This hole was evidently made by strik- 
ing in some sharp-pointed implement. It certainly does not show 
signs of the rotatory action of a horn or bone implement. One or 
two of the stones in my collection were said to have been found 
in fields near the site of an old village. Others have been heirlooms 
in families for many generations. One man told me he owned a 
" heaven stone," bat his house was washed away in a flood and the 
stone disappeared. The people are very reluctant to make known 
the fact that they own the stones ; and they seem very reluctant 
io part with them. 

202 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905... 

25. A short history of the House of Phagdu, which ruled over Tibet 
on the decline of Sakya till 148^ A.D. — By Bai Saeat Ohandea 
Das, Bahadur, CLE. 

When in former times the Sakya hierarchs enjoyed the proud 
privilege of being the spiritual instructors of the Tartar Emperors 
of China, the envoy Situ Akyid took a census of the households 
of the agricultural Tibetans and also of the Hor Tibetans (so 
called from their leading a nomadic life like the Mongols ) . With- 
in the Thilior or governorship of Phagmodu in Central Tibet, 
there were included two thousand four hundred and thirty- 
eight families, out of which six hundred belonged to Lhasa City, 
and five hundred to Taglung. When Hor Jam, one of the 
Tartar Commissioners of China, visited the Chyangkha (the 
northern province, including !N"om-tsho or lake Tengri Nor), he 
included the numerous tribes of herdsmen that dwelt there in 
the political province of Phagmodu. The Emperor of China, 
in consultation with the spiritual authorities of Sakya, placed 
this large division under an able T'hijpon or provincial governor. 
Formerly, when both Dikhung Di-giiii and Dansa-thil hierarch 
amalgamated their temporal and monastic possessions, Gompa 
Shagrin, the abbot of Dikhung, with the general consent of the 
clergy and laity of Tibet got one of his relations, named Gom- 
tson, appointed as T'hipon who, under the patronage of the Chiefs 
of Kang-yeng and lower Mongolia built the government house 
(T'hilchang) of Tshong-du-tagkhar. Thereafter, Khanpo Ringyal. 
the Tolpon of the famous hierarch Chyan-na Rinpoche, became the 
chief of Lhobrag Shong-de. About this time a native of Kham, 
named Dorjepal, by his ability, energy and accomplishments, 
attracted the notice of Chyan-na-Rinpoche. This young man, 
introducing himself to that Grand Lama as one sprung from the 
noble family of Dag Lah-zig, and as very anxious to be his dis- 
ciple, so insinuated himself into his confidence, that the Grand 
Lama, struck with his general efficiency in all matters of impor- 
tance, sent him to China to represent the interests of his grand 
hierarchy. There he took the opportunity of securing for himself 
and his heirs the governorship of Central Tibet, together with a 
state seal and decorations. Returning to Tibet in the year Tree- 
tiger (1192 A.D.), he built the T'hihhang (government houses) of 
Yarlung, called ISTamgyal-ling and ISTedong-tse. During his rule, 
•which extended over thirteen years, he enjoyed the goodwill both 
of those who were above and under him. He was renowned for 
his liberality. His governorship extended over twelve important 
places, besides I^Tedong-tse, which was the chief seat of his 
government. These were Halayang, Namo, Chag-tse-tugu, 
Thangpo-chin-ling-me, Choi Slukha, Monkhar, Tashi-dong, Gya- 
thang, Tshong-dui-tag-kha, Zangri-Phodang-gang, Khortog-cha, 
and Kardo. After his death, his younger brother named Shon-nu 
Gyal-tshan, discharged the duties of Thi^on for three or four 
jears. He was succeeded by one of his relations, named Chyang- 

Vol. I, 1^0. 8.] History of the Rouse of Phagdu. 203 

IN. 8.-] 
shon (born of the family of Kya-ya-dag-chu) , during whose 
administration tlie Sakya and Dikhung hierarchies fought with 
each other. Chyang-shon had the good wishes of the Sakyapa 
authorities, hut owing to some cause having incurred the dis- 
pleasure of Ponchen (chief Governor) Anglen of Sakya, he was 
ordered to be burnt alive, bat on explaining matters he was 
exonerated and his life spai-ed. After his death the grand- 
son of Shon-nu Gryal-tshan, named Shon-nu Yontan, became 

At this time Thumer Bukhoi, a Mongol prince of the Im- 
perial family, with his wife, came on a pilgrimage to Tibet. The 
T'hipon having failed to show his efficiency in military as well as 
in civil matters, and being reported to have oppressed his subjects, 
the younger brother of Chyan-na Rin-pochhe, nicknamed Gyai'o, 
or the bearded, recommended his dismissal to the Mongol chief. 
During this time the State affairs of Phikhor were conducted by a 
council formed of the following : The governor of Sakya Mon- 
astery, named Rin-chen Tashi, Tson-dui Pal, a relation of Chyan- 
na-Rin-poche, the second cousin of Shon-nu Yontan, Tagpa-P^o- 
zer, the son of Gogochu, named Dorje of Yarlung, Joi'o Tagpa 
Rin, and others. In the meantime, with the sanction of the 
Emperor of China, Taisri Tagpa-7^o(^pa became governor. By 
bringing Gyaro, the brother of Chyan-na-Rin-poche, over to his 
side, he also assumed the spiritual power. He gave the ex- 
governor, Shon-nu Yontan, the villages of Tenpora and Chomon- 
khar for his personal maintenance. On the death of Gyavo, the 
elder brother of Chyan-na-Rin-pochhe, named Gyal Shonpal, pro- 
ceeded to Peking, and with the sanction of Lhaje Phagmodu, 
(Phag-du heirarch) assumed the office of fliipon. Shortly after, 
he was deposed by the Sakyapa authorities, who placed his 
younger brother in charge of the government. From him the office 
descended to Gyal-tshan Kyab, the son of Shon-nu Gyaltshan. 

When Disri Kuntob-pa proceeded to China, Gyal-tshan 
Kyab was discharged from the governorship. Ritsi Wang Gyalpo 
then became fhipon, and received the title of Tai Situ. He was 
succeeded by Sonam Gyal-tshan, the grandson of Gyal-tshan Kyab, 
who performed the duties of T'hipon. He was very popular with 
his subjects. He was so very resolute that no one could oppose 
his views or outdo him in anything. He brought all Tibet under 
his sway. Situ Chyan-tshan, from his early age, became skilful 
in war, literature, and religion. At the age of fifty-five in the 
year Water-monkey ^ in the 15th of the second month, he undertook 
the task of rescuing the Sakya regent, Ponchen Gyal-tshang, who 
had been kept in durance by the abbot Lhakhong Labrangpa of 
the great temple of Sakya ; and for this purpose he placed himself 
at the head of the troops of tJ and Tsang and waged war with 
Sakya. On the 5th of the fifth month of the same year, with 
the assistance of the minor chiefs, he besieged Sakya and delivered 
the chief from the hands of his enemies. Before dispersing his 
army he compelled the heirarch to appoint him as chief fhijpon 
of Tibet, and was supported by his nephew, Situ Lodoi Gyal-tsan, 

^04 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

in his works: He was presented witli a hexagonal seal, and the 
people of Tsang distinguished him by raising white silken banners 
in his honour. He encouraged both literature and religion. 

Chyan-chub Gyal-tshan (the younger brother of Rinchen 
Tagyal) was born in the year Tree-tiger 1302, A.D. In the four- 
teenth year for his age {Hare-year) he took his admission into the 
monastery of Sakya, where he stayed with the heirarch Dag-nid- 
chenpo. He was entrusted with the office of keeping the Govern- 
ment seal. Once the Grand Lama asked if he (Chyan-chub) would 
go up for the church, so as to be called a Rinpoche, or for the State 
to be called t'Mpofi or gOYcrnor. On his wishing to be a Rinpoche, 
the Grand Lama said, " 'No, you are destined for the State. In 
order to qualify yourself for a governorship you should study the 
work called 'Yul-Jyal' and some works on political ethics." 
Thereafter, taking leave of the Grand Lama, he became a pupil of 
Lama Nam-me-chenpo and learnt the two parts [of logic. In 
the autumn of Tiger-year Chyaii-Chub and his elder brother 
Lopon Tagzang were respectively invested with the temporal and 
spiritual offices. At the investiture, people were entertained with 
tea boiled in the same cauldron. Lopon Tagzang expounded the 
sacred laws and delivered sermons, while Chyaii-Chub assumed 
the dignity of T'Mpon or governor. 

When Chyan-Chub became known all over the country, with 
the help of all other minor T'hipon, he besieged Sakya. He occu- 
pied Chya-zang-gang, which was then called Cha-zang-kang, and 
from some good action done in it, it became known by the name 
of Chyazang Jong (or the place of good action) . During his reign 
the house of Lha-zig became very powerful. Having achieved 
many exploits in temporal matters, he (Chyan Chhub) resolved 
upon doing pious actions. He built the monastery of Tse-thang 
(Chethang) and established a college there. He made Kedong- 
tse the chief seat of government. Inviting the Grand Lama 
Sonam Gyal-tshan, he consecrated the religious establishment 
founded by him and appointed his cousin, Shakya Gyal-tshan, as 
the head of the church and president of the ceremonies to re- 
gulate the order of precedence. Thus the government of Phag- 
modu, for its efficiency both in temporal and spiritual matters, 
became very famous, and excelled those preceding it. At the 
age of 63, in the year Fire-dragon, he retired from this existence at 
the palace of T^edong ( Gahdan-tse). His cousin, Cakya Gyal- 
tshan, succeeded him in the throne of Nedong-tse, and assumed both 
the spiritual and temporal affairs of the State. By his able adminis- 
tration of the church and the secular laws, he increased the pros- 
perity and peace of U and Tsang. On account of his being ever 
thoughtful for the happiness of his subjects, he was praised by all 
men and called Jan Yang pakya. The Tartar Emperor, Thugan 
Themur, conferred on him the title of Changa-kung. After his 
death, his younger brother Shakya Rinchen, became chief the 
fhipon and filled the throne of N"edong-tse. He was very fond 
of inspecting the works of local officers and inquiring after the 
condition of his subjects. Once while on tour in IJ and Tsang, he 

Tol. I, IS'o. 8.] Mstory of the Rouse of Phagdii.' '" 205 

IN. S.] 
stopped at the village of Gya-nio-Sliong. Here tlie house that he 
and his party occupied, accidently caught fire, which quickly 
spreading so surrounded him that he and his servants very 
naiTowly escaped from being burnt. On his return he founded the 
monastery of Khartag Gonsar, and stayed there to avert the 
calamities that, according to his fortune-tellers, hung over him. 
He always roved from one place to another. Chyang-tag Chyan 
presided at the head of the State Church for a few years. 

After pakya Rinchen's death his younger brother, Tagrin, 
filled the throne of Nedong-tse. For some time the state aSairs 
were in the hands of Gyal-tshan-Zang and his cousin. The con- 
trol of the government remained with Chyan-iia till Gyal-tshan 
Zang, also called Tagrin, came in a state , hide-boat from 
Gongkar to relieve him of the charge. He was succeeded by 
Tagpa Gyal-tshan, a boy of eleven, the son of f^kya Rinchen, in 
the year Tree-hird. 

From his boyhood Tagpa Gyal-tshen took to athletic and 
iDtellectual exercises. When he advanced in age he began to 
-show his ability and fortitude. Within a few years of his attain- 
ment of youth, he established his authority over all the governors 
of "0" and Tsang. The Emperor Ta-Ming bestowed on him the 
decorations of Konting Gushri and Tshan-lia Wang, and presented 
him with a gold seal. He also from time to time received other 
titles of honour, besides kind instructions from the Emperor him- 
self. Power, fortune, and wisdom were ever attached to him. 
His reign extended from the 11th to the 59th year of his age. 
The State under his rule progressed very much in wealth and 
prosperity. Of all the rulers of the Phagdu dynasty, his reign 
was the longest. He died at Nedong-tse in the 59th year of his 
age in the year Water-mouse. 

From the foundation of !N"edong-tse and Namgyal Jong of 
Yarlung by Tlii-pon Dorjepal in the year Tree-tiger to the present 
year Tree-tiger (1432 A.D.) 240 years have elapsed. N"edong-tse 
was therefore founded in the year 1192 A.D. 

Anotlier account of Ghyan-Chub Gyal-tsan aitd his successors. 

In the year 1302 A.D. Chyan-Chub Gyal-tshan, of the well 
known family of Lhazig, was born in the town of Phag-du in 
Central Tibet After subjugating all the thirteen (Thikor) provinces 
•of Tibet proper and also Kham, he had established his sway over 
Tibet. At the age of eighteen he was appointed to the com mand 
of 10,000 soldiers under orders from the Emperor of China. This 
sudden elevation oxcited the jealousy and enmity of the chiefs of 
Di-gun, Tshal, Ya/izan and Sakya authorities, who spared no pains 
in devising means to ruin him. At last, they drove him to war. 
In the first battle he met witli some reverses, but was victorious in 
the second. The war lasted for many years, when ultimately 
victory attended the arms of the chief of Phagdu, who captured^ 
almost all the hostile chiefs and threw them into prison. After 

206 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905, 

this discomfiture, the chiefs, nobles and Lamas of "0" and Tsang- 
jointly petitioned the Emperor to degrade the upstart. But the 
irrepressible Chief proceeded to Peking ; there, presenting the skin 
of a white lion, besides other rich and rare presents to Emperor 
Thugwan Thumer, he represented the circumstances connected 
with the case. Pleased with his sincere statements, the Emperor 
decided in his favour and appointed him hereditary noble of Tibet, 
assigning the whole of Xl to him with the exception of the province 
of Tsang which continued to remain under the heirarchy of Sakya. 

After his return to Tibet from Peking, Chyan-Chub organized 
a regular forra of government for Central Tibet. He reformed 
legislation, and revised the ancient laws and regulations. He 
built the castle of Nedong-tse and a large fortress with three gates 
to the ramparts. Inside it he founded a monastery. He endea- 
voured to observe the JDasa Qlla (ten moral virtues). By his 
exemplary morals and pity, and above all by his beneficial rule, 
he won the sincere esteem of his subjects. He founded the town 
of Tse-thang with a monastery in it. He built thirteen forts 
such as Gongkar, Tagkar, &c. Later on, he induced the Tartar 
Emperor to confer on him the high distinction of Tai-Situ together 
with authority over the whole of Tibet. By his able rule he 
increased the happiness and prosperity of bis people. 

The fourth in succession from him was Sakya Rinchen,! who 
became a favourite of the Emperor, by whom he was entrusted 
with the collection of revenue from one of the great provinces 
of China, and also with the charge of guarding the Imperial 
palace. Sakya Rinchen, intead of showing his gratefulness, took 
part in a conspiracy matured by the Chinese prime Minister 
named Kyen-Hun, to usurp the throne. He sent many wagons, 
loaded with armed soldiers, concealed under heaj)S of silk clothes 
under cover of darkness inside the imperial city. The Emperor, 
fortunately, having got scent of the matter secretly fled towards 
Mongolia. Sakya Rinchen proclaimed the minister's son, Li- Wang, 
as Emperor of China. Thus through the help of a Tibetan chief 
the Ta-Ming dynasty was established. Yiing Ming presented 
Tag-pa Gyal-tshan, son of Sakya Rinchen, with a gold seal and 
the additional possession of ulterior Tibet. He was made the 
undisputed sovereign of all Tibet, which extended from K'agah- 
rikor-sum to Sze-chuan. Tag-pa Gyal-tshan was succeeded by 
his son Wang-Jung-ne, whose appointment was confirmed by the 
Emperor Kyen Tai Li- Wang. He built the fortresses of Hug- 
Yug-ling and Karjong. His grandson, Rin Dorje, obtained the 
title of Wang (king) from China. Nag Wang Tashi was a very 
impartial and just ruler. He shewed great veneration for the Dalai 
Lama So-nam Gyatsho, whom he greatly patronized. The cele- 
brated Bharma Raja named Padma Karpo of Bhutan was also a 
friend of his. He several times fought with his rebel minister 
Rinchenpuiipa and was every time successful. He was decorated- 
with the title of Kiva-tin Kau Sri by the Emperor. 

i Son of Rimhen Kyab. 

Vol. I, No. 8.3 Kistory of the House of Phagdu. 207 

[xV. s.-] 

Duiing the reign of the Phagdu dynasty all Tibet enjoyed 
peace and prosperity. People became rich in money and cattle. 
The country enjoyed immunity from famine and murrain, and was 
not harassed by foreign invasion. Although, some petty fights 
and quarrels with some of the disaffected and rapacious ministers 
now and then disturbed the peace of the country, yet on the 
whole, the dynasty was beneficial to Tibet. 

208 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Angasb, 1905. 

26. Additions to the Gollection of Oriental Snakes in the Indian 
Museum, Part 3. (With 3 fig-ores). — By N". Annandale, B.A., 
D.Sc, Deputy Superintendent of the Indiatt Museum. 

The present communication deals with a miscellaneous assem- 
blage of specimens, and completes for the present riiy notes on recent 
additions to the collection, all the Oriental species having now being 
worked out and arranged^. Four new species and a new genus are 
described below, two of the former coming from the Malay Archi- 
pelago, one from W. E. India, and one from Gilgit. Considering 
the number of individuals examined, this does not represent a 
large percentage of novelties ; and although new forms will certainly 
continue to be discovered from time to time in the remoter dis- 
tricts of the Indian Empire, it is clear that we now have a good 
general knowledge of the systematic ophiology of the country. 
The addition of a second species of Helicnps to the fauna of Asia 
is interesting, while one of the new Malaysian forms is a good 
example of supei"ficial resemblance, if not of " Mimicry." A new 
Typhlops and a new Ahlabes have no particular importance, but 
must be recorded in order to complete the list. 

In regard to doubtful specimens, I have made it a practice to 
dissect out the jaws on one side. This seems to me to be the only 
way in which it is possible to ensure a satisfactory view of the 
dentition. The operation can be performed without materially 
damaging the specimen externally, and if the bones are preserved 
in a small tube stoppered with cotton wool in the bottle in which 
the specimen is kept, they are available for future study. 


Typhlops mullebi.* 

A specimen from the Malay Archipelago is mottled on the 
dorsal surface of the posterior part of the body with dull yellow, 
the remainder of the back and sides being brown instead of black ; 
but the latter peculiarity may be due to imperfect preservation. 

Ttphlops kapaladua,* sp. nov. 

Diagnosis. — Habit stout; length about 27 times diameter of 
body ; tail much broader than long, ending in a spine ; snout obtuse, 
the sides rounded, moderately projecting. Rostral between ^ and -I 
as broad as head, reaching the level of the eyes behind, separating 
the nasals completely. Nostril lateral, almost visible from above, 
with a single large subcircular pit embracing the nasal cleft 
beneath it ; nasal completely divided, the cleft starting from the 

1 Since this sentence was written I have obtained some further addi- 
tions to the collection in the desert tract of S.E. India. They will be de- 
scribed in a later communication to the Society. September 16, 1905. 

Vol. 1, No. 8.] Oriental Snakes in the Indian M nsevm. 209 


second labial, not reaching the upper surface of the head. Supra- 
oculars large, frontal and parietal feebly developed. Apraeocular; 
no subocular ; the former larger than the ocular, in contact with the 
second and third labials ; eye barely distinguishable. Twenty-six 
scales round body. G olor at ion— U'pipev surface olive -brown, each 
scale paler at the edge ; upper head scales broadly edged with 
yellow, a yellow f\ on the snout and a wedge-shaped mark of the 
same colour behind each eye; lower half of the rostral and labials 
and the whole of the lower surface, yellow. 

Total Length.— 280 mm. 

A single specimen from the Malay Archipelago, probably 
from Java. 

Typhlops acutus. 

This species appears to be commoner than any other in Cal- 
cutta. It is sometimes found in native houses. I have lately had 
''an opportunity of observing living specimens. When placed in a 
■ vessel with earth at the bottom they burrowed very rapidly, pro- 
vided that the earth was not too hard, forcing their way down by 
^ muscular action of the anterior part of the body and making* a 
passage no broader than their own diameter. I failed to see them 
feed, but have reason to think that they eat the earthworms with 
which they were supplied, at night. When taken in the hand they 
coiled round one of the fingers and pressed the tip or side of their 
hooked and pointed snout against the skin. They could do no in- 
jury in this way to the human skin, but seemed rather to be at- 
tempting to get a grip. Probably this peculiar modification may 
be useful in restraining captured worms and it is worthy of note 
that the caudal spine present in a larger number of the Typhlopidae 
is absent both in this form and in several exotic species in which a 
beak is developed. 



G. blanfordii, Alcock and Finn, J.A.S.B., 1896, (2), p. 561. 

In addition to the specimeus recorded by Messrs. Alcock and 
Finn, we have received during the last few years others from 
Quetta {Major G. G. Nurse) ; Khotri, Sind {Bombay Nat. Hist. 
>S'oc.), and Bushire, Persia {Karachi Mus.). The relative diameter 
of the body varies considerably, but the number of the scales round 
it appears to be constant. Well preserved specimens have the 
upper scales feebly edged with pale-browu. 


Calamaria leucocephala.* 
Two specimens from the Malay Archipelago, one from Java. 

210 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

Deyocalamus tjbistrigatus.* 
A small specimen of this rare snake from the Malay Arcliipelago. 

Tkopidonotus khasiensis.* 

A specimen, probably from Burma, obtained by one of the Museum 

Macropisthodon himalayanus. 

Tropidonotus himalayanus, Boulenger, Faun. Ind., Bept., p. 347. 

Dissection of the jaws of a specimen lately received from Sureil, 
Darjeeling, {Major A. Alcock) shows that this species belongs to the 
genus Macropisthodon. Fourteen small teeth are followed in the 
maxillary, after an interspace, by two large, backward-directed 
fangs. In T. subminiatus, the condition is somewhat similar, but 
the interspace is not so clearly marked. Evidently the separation 
between the two genera is not a natural one, but the great number of 
forms included in Tropidonotus, in which I would propose to leave 
subminiatus, makes it convenient. 

Coluber radiatus. 

A specimen from Cuttack, Orissa, {B. T. Grighton). I am 
not aware that the species has hitherto been recorded from this 
part of India. The late Prof. J. Wood-Mason corresponded with 
the donor about the specimen, which has been in the Museum for 
many years ; but it appears to have been mislaid at the time when 
Mr. W. L. Sclater was compiling his List of Snakes. r, 

Ablabes baliodieus.* f , ^ 

Specimens from Java and the Malay Archipelago. 

Ablabes gilgiticus,* sp. nov. 

Diagnosis. — Habit slender; head small; tail short, ending in a 
well developed spine. ^ Rostral deeper than broad, visible from 
above ; nasal divided ; eye half as long as snout ; prtef rental un- 
divided, its length much greater than that of the sutures between 
the internasals ; frontal as long as its distance from the snout, 
much shorter than the parietals ; one prae-and one postocular ; 
loreal lai-ge, much longer than deep ; temporals 1 + 2 ; 7 upper 
labials, third and fourth entering eye ; 4 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin shield, which is larger, than the posterior. 
Scales smooth, in 15 rows; ventrals 158; anal entire; caudals 34 
Coloration — Back and sides dark brown, each scale edged, spotted 

1 A similar spine occurs in other members of the genus, notably A . rappii 
.but is not so large in any Indian form as in the new species. 

CoERiGENDUM Vol. I, part 8, p. 211. 
Helicops tndicus, Anna,udale = Hypsirhma enhydris (Schneid.) 

T"ol. I, No. 8.] Oriental Snakes in the Indian Museum, 211 

[N. S.] 
or blotched witli pale yellow ; ventral surface paler brown ; a broad 
jrellow collar ; nape, labials, cbin and throat, yellow. 

Dimensions — 

Total Length ... ... 125 mm. 

Length of Tail ... ... 18 „ 

A single specimen from Grilgit, collected and presented by 
Capt. McMahon. 

This species may be distiaguished from any other Indian 
Ablates by its extremely short tail. It has much the facies of a 

Helicops indicus,* sp. nov. 

Head flat, rather viperine ; snout obtuse ; canthus rostralis well 
Taarked. Eye not more than half the length of the frontal ; pupil 
■yery small. Rostral much broader than deep, well visible from 

Fig. 1. 
Helicops indicus. 

above, separated from the internasal, which is undivided ; frontal 
more than twice as long as broad, obtusely truncated in front, 
sharply pointed behind, slightly longer than its distance from 
snout and than the parietals ; loreal deeper than long ; one 
prseocular, two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2 ; 7 upper labials, the 
fourth entering eye ; three lower labials in contact with the anter- 
ior chin shield, which is shorter than the posterior. Scales 
smooth, in 21 rows ; ventrals 161 ; anal entire ; sub-caudals 72, 
Coloration — dark brown above ; on each side of the dorsal surface 
a pale line originates at the posterior border of the parietal and 
runs along the body and tail. Ventral surface dull yellow reticu- 
lated more or less distinctly with dark brown ; a dark spot in the 
centre of each ventral shield. Labials dull yellow marbled with 
dark brown. 

Dimensions — 

Total Length ... ... 200 mm. 

Length of Tail ... ... 40 „ 

212 - Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. August, 1905- 


Monghyr, Bengal, and Rarapore Tea Estate, 'N. Cachar. Two- 
specimens, both ptircliased. 

H. indicus may be distinguisbed from H. scMstosus, tbe only 
other Asiatic species, by its viper-like head, small eye and smooth 
scales. As possibly the type specim.ens are immature, the colo^ 
ration may be more uniform in the adult than that described. 

The following is a " Key " for the two Indian species : — 

1. Diameter of the eye more than half the length of the frontaL 

Scales keeled, in 19 rows ... ... schistosus. 

2. \ Diameter of the eye not more than half the length of the 

frontal. , 

Scales smooth, in 21 rows ; nasals in contact behind the 
rostral ... ... ... •.. indicus. 

The distribution of the genus Helicops is very interesting 
Species occur in Tropical Africa ; in S. and E. India, Burma, 
Ceylon, Malaya and Yunnan ; in Florida, Central America, tha 
West Indies, and S. America east of the Andes. The similai-ity 
between this distribution and that of the Ceecilian genus Herpele,^ 
^which has recently been elucidated by Alcock, is striking. I may 
point out that one of the types of Helicops indicus is from the same 
locality and collection as that in which the type of Herpele fulleri 
was found. This fact, seemingly trivial in itself, illustrates the 
improbability of convergence or parallel development being the 
explanation of all such difficulties in the study of the distribution 

Fig. 2. 

Helicops indicus. 

of animals ; for both Helicops and Herpele are well defined and ap- 
parently natural genera, having no peculiarity in common with 
one another superficially or anatomically. 

DiPSADOiDES, gen. nov. 

Family Colubrid® ; sub-family Dipsadomorphinse. 

Head distinct from body ; eye large, with circular pupil ; body 

1 Ann. Mag. N. H. (xix), 1904, p. 267. 

Vol. 1, No. 8.] Oriental Snakes in the Indian Museum. 213 

IN. S.] 
strongly compressed, with dorsal row of scales enlarged tlirough.- 
ont, scales in rows of uneven numbers (19 in type), with apical 
pits ; caudal s divided. Palate toothed ; solid maxillary teeth few 
(6 in type), subequal, followed, after a short interspace, by a pair 
of moderately sized, almost vertical grooved fangs ; mandibular 
teeth subequal. 

Fig. 3. 
Right maxillary of Dipsadoides decipiens. 


Head small, flattened, very distinct from neck ; snout short, 
obtusely rounded ; eye prominent, nearly as long as snout ; nostril 
large, directed backwards, in undivided nostril. Tail slender, 
tapering. Rostral broader than deep, just visible from above. In- 
temasals larger than prefrontals ; frontal longer than broad, as 
long as its distance from snout, slightly shorter than parietals ; a 
large praeocular and a small postocular ; supraocular very large ; 
loreal deeper than long ; temporals 2 + 2 ; eight upper labials, the 
third, fourth and fifth entering the eye ; two large subequal chin 
shields, the anterior in contact with four labials, both in contact 
with their neighbours. Body scales narrow, leaf-shaped, slightly 
oblique on neck, strongly imbricate ; in 19 rows ; the dorsal row 
enlarged throughout, broader than long. Ventrals rounded at 
the edge, keeled at either side, 258 in number ; anal entire ; caudals 
152. Coloration — dorsal surface and sides pale brown profusely 
spotted and marbled with dark brown and, less profusely, with dull 
yellow ; a large number of irregular dark bars on the dorsal sur- 
face. Ventral surface dull yellow marbled posteriorly with dark 
brown ; chin and throat spotted with dark brown. 
Dimensions — 

Total Length ... ... 900 mm. 

Length of Tail ... ... 265 „ 

Habitat. Malay Archipelago. A single specimen. 

This remarkable snake was confused at first sight with some 
specimens of Dipsadomorphus cynodon in the same collection to 
which it bore a close external resemblance. It is one of the many 
interesting species received from the Royal Natural History Society 
of Batavia. 


B. sindanus, Boulengevy Journ. Bombay N. H. 8oc. XI, 1897- 
1S98, p. 73, pi. 

214 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905. 

A specimen 64-| inches long has latelj^ been sent to the 
Museum from the Zoological Garden, Alipore. The Superintend- 
ent of the Gardens tells me that it was captured at Midnapore, 
Lower Bengal, by a reliable collector and arrived at the Gardens 
early in 1896. It must, therefore, have lived in captivity for nine 
years. The Giant Krait, as this species may be called, has hither- 
to been recorded only from Sind, but probably occurs, somewhat 
sparingly, all over northern India, 

Vol. I, No. 8.] Kantahudiyas of Guttack. 215 

IN. S.] 

27, Note on the Kantahudiyas of Guttack, — By Jamini Mohan Dai. 
Gommimicated by the Anthropological Secretary. 

The Kautabudiya caste numbers less tban one thousand per- 
sons, and is confined to the Guttack District. The family titles 
are Khuntiya, Parira, Nayak, Lenka, Sahu, Baru, Behara, Raut, 
and Mahanti. Most of these are also titles of the Khandaits and 
■Chasas, and the Kantahudiyas may have been degraded from one 
of these castes because they took to the occupation of dealing in 
tobacco. The members of the caste claim that it is an offshoot of 
the Khandait caste. They use the same Santak or signature mark 
as the Khandaits — the Katdri or dagger. Like the Khandaits, they 
assume the sacred thread at marriage, but unlike them, they only 
wear it for eight days and not permanently. They account for 
their name by a legend that they are the descendants of a found- 
ling who was abandoned near a thorny bush (Kantahuda) but 
tradition does not give any further pai'ticulars as to his origin or 
history. The caste is divided into two totemistic gotras, Kacchap 
and Nagasa, the members of which revere the tortoise and the 
cobra respectively. These groups are neither endogamous nor ex- 
ogamous. There are no endogamous groups within the caste. 
The exogamous limit is formed by the family title. A Khuntiya 
for instance may marry a Parira but not another Khuntiya. 
Similarly, a person may not marry into a family which bears the 
same title as his maternal grandfather. 

Widow re-marriage is allowed. Divorce is permitted on th^ 
ground of unchastity. There is nothing to prevent the re-marriage 
of a woman who has been divorced, if any one will take her. 
Polygamy i.s not practised unless the first wife is barren or suffers 
from an incurable disease. 

The Kantahudiyas belong to the Vaisnava sect. Adhikari 
Brahman s act as their priests, and Brahman and Karan Vaisnavas 
as their gurus. In all essential respects they follow the marriage 
customs of the Khandaits and Chasas. 

Persons who die before marriage are buried. Others are 
buried or burned according to convenience. Mourning continues 
for ten days and the Sraddha is performed on the eleventh day. 

The traditional occupation of the caste is dealing in tobacco 
and tur-meric, but about half of the members now combine agricul- 
ture with it. There is no organised caste council ; meetings of 
the caste are presided over by the most learned or intelligent 
member pi-esent. 

In the matter of food and drink, the Kantahudiyas follow the 
customs of the Khandaits and Chasas, who will not, however, take 
any food from them. The higher castes will not take their watei", 
but they are served by the barber and washerman. The Gauras, 
however, will neitlier carry iheiv palkis nor e&t in their houses, and 
this alone is sufficient to show that they rank lower than the 
Khandaits and Chasas. As a consequence of this custom, the 
Kantahiidiya bridegrooms walk on foot in their marriage proces- 



MoLONY, E. — Some remarks on the Geology of the Gangetie 
Plain. Jour, and Proc. As, Soc. Bengal, Vol. I, No. 9, 1905, 
(N.S.), pp. 230-235. 


Anna-NDALE, N. —Notes on the Species, Habits and extei'nal 
characters of the Dugong. Jour, and Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, 
Vol. I, No. 9, 1905, (N.S.), pp. 238-243, with three plates. 


Gage, A. T. — Hedyotis aisaparensis : a hitherto undescribed In- 
dian species. Jour, and Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. I, No, 9, 
1905, (N.S.), p. 244 

Vol. I, Xo. 9.] Dignaga and his Pramana-saviuccaya. 217 

28. Dignaga and his Pramana-samuccaya. — By Satis Chandjia 


Hindu pliilosopliy is divided into six principal systems of 

which the Nyaya is one. This I^yaya 

Distinction be- again is divided into two schools called re- 

NTIya^'and'mo'dem 1^''*''''^^^^.?^^ ^^""^^""t ^^t^''^ ^""'^ modern 
Nyaya. ^JS^J^- -Lhe distinction between the two 

schools is this : the ancient ]\"yaya treats o£ 
atoms, properties of atoms, souls, the transmigration of the soul, 
mind, God, etc., as well as of processes of perception, inferences, 
and the like, while the modern JTyaya deals ordy with t})e methods 
of perception, inference, etc. The object of the ancient Nyaya is to 
explain the means of salvation, wliile that of the modern N'yaya is 
to give an exposition of the fundamental principles of reasoning. 
This shows that the ancient Nyaya is a mixture of physics, meta- 
physics, theology, logic, etc., while the modern Nyaya is exactly 
identical with what we understand by the term logic. 

As this modern Nyaya is the most favourite and honoured 

. . . subject of study in the Sanskrit foZs (acade- 

Buddhistic on- • ' x f Bengal, it is worth while to trace 

gm of the modern ., ^. . ° ' , j i,x j. x, 

Nvava ^^ origin, ihere can be no doubt as to the 

modern Nyaya having been developed from 
the ancient Nyaya, but nothing can be definitely stated as to how 
and when it was so developed. The first extant work on ancient 
Nyaya is undoubtedly Grotama's Nyaya Sutra dated about 600 B.C., 
but we do not know definitely what was the first work on modern 

It was for a long time the universal belief of the Pandits of 
our country that the Pramana-cintamani, compiled by Gahgesa 
Upadhyaya of Mithila in the 14th century A.D , was the oldest 
work on modern Nyaya. But this belief of the Pandits was shaken 
nearly sixteen years ago by Professor Peterson, who published 
under the auspices of the Asiatic Society of Bengal a Buddhist 
Sanskrit work on modern Nyaya, called Nyayabindu, by Dharma- 
kirti. This work, which was dated the 7th century A.D., at once 
showed that Grangesa Upadhyaya's Pi-amana-cintamani could not 
have been the first work on modern Nyaya Recently another re- 
volution has been caused in our theories by the literary collection 
of the late Tibet Mission. The Mission has brought from Gyantse 
the Tibetan version of another Buddhist Sanskrit work on modern 
Nyaya, called Pramana-samuccaya, compiled by the Buddhist logi- 
cian Dignaga who flourished long before Dharmakirti. The Sans- 
krit ori)iinal of this work is not available in India or Nepal and has 
perhaps been lost. But the Tibetan version and numerous authori- 
tative commentaries on the same show in unmistakable tei'iiis that 
this work is the earliest at present known work on modern Nyaya. 

In Tibetan there are numerous treatises on logic by various 
Indian Buddhist authors. These ti'eatises are contained in the 
'J'angyui-, section .Mdo, volumes 05-116. There the first work on 

218 Journal of the Asuitic Society of Be?iyaL [November, 1905. 

logic is Pramanasamuccaya by Dignaga. The next work is Pra- 
mana-vartika-karika (or a commentary in verse on the above). 
Then follows Pramana-vartikalankara, and so on. Jinendrabodhi's 
excellent commentary on the Pramana-sanniccaya, called Visalama- 
lavati-nama-Pramana-samuccaya-tika,' is also to be found there. 
Nyayabindu, Pramana-viniscaya and other excellent Buddhist 
works on logic are also preserved there. The Tangyur, containing 
all these works, has been brought from Gyantse by the Tibet Mission, 
and is now deposited in the British Museum, London. Nearly 
eighty years ago another set of the Tangyur was brought from 
Tibet b}' the late Mr. B. H. Hodgson. That set is now contained in. 
the library of the India Office, London. These excellent and old 
works on logic lead us to conclude that the credit of having 
founded the modern Nyaya must be attributed to the Buddhists,^ 
among Avhom there were numerous logicians such as Dignaga,. 
Dharmakirti, Dharraottai-a, Vinitadeva, S'antabhadra, Akalanka- 
deva, Jinendrabodhi, Kamalasila and others. These Buddhist 
w^riters had flourished long before the Brahmanic logician Garigesa 
Upadhyaya compiled his Pramana-cintamani. 

The circumstance which led the Buddhists to forsake the 
ancient Nyaya and to lay the foundation of a new system called 
modern Nyaya was due to the peculiarity of the religion which 
they professed. Having considered the sixteen categories treated 
in the ancient Nyaya to be redundant and some of them as mainly 
based on the orthodox principles of the Hindus, the Buddhists took 
up only one category, viz., Framana (evidence of knowledge), and 
treated it in such a way that the doctrine of evidence might be 
equally applied to the religious systems of the Hindus and Bud- 
dhists. Tlae attempt on the part of the Buddhists to divest the 
principles of logic from those of theology, metaphysics, etc., was 
the cause of the foundation of tlie modern Nyaya, otherwise called 
Tarka-sastra or Logic proper. 

As Piamana-sarauccaya (Tibetan: c^^'3>J'n7<3k'i^^^' \ is th& 

.J. . _ __^. _ earliest-known work on the Buddhist Nyaya, 

^ ■ a short account* of its author may be of 

some interest to the reader. Dignaga (Tib. Phyogs-glari 

2^cn^'n]C\ the celebrated author of this work, was born in a^ 

Brahman family in the south near the country of Kafici bordering^ 
on the city of Simhavakta, and acquired vast knowledge in all 
Tirtha systems. By Nagadatta the Pandit of the Vatsiputriya 
school he Avas admitted to the religious system of that school and 

A This work (together with the Tibetan version of the Nyaya-bindti-tika, 
Canrlia-vyrikarna and Tfira stotra) has been kindly lent to me for six moiitJis 
by the Government of India, 

S Vide !^qfi|'Z5<V5j'"g3i 7:j^C' Pag-sam-jon-zang (pages 100-101), edited 

by Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, C.I.E., and Lama Taranatha's Buddhism^ 
Schiefner, pp. 130-135. 

Vol, I, No. 9.] Dignaya mid his Pramana-samtcccaya. 219 

attained erudition in the Tripitaka of the S'ravaka. Afterwai-ds he 
became a disciple of Acaryya Vasubandhu, with whom he studied 
all the Pitakas of the Mahayaua and Hinayana. When he had 
specially obtained incantation formula from a mantra-knowing 
Acaryya and practised sorcery, he saw the face of Maiijusri and 
learned the dharma (Law) from him. He resided in a solitary and 
woody country in the land of Orissa in a cavena of a mountain 
called Bhnrasila, and gave himself entirely up to contemplation. 

A few years later he was invited at Nalanda, where lie 
defeated the Brahman Sudurjnya and other Tirtha dialecticians 
and led them into the doctrine of Buddha He expounded many 
Sutras to the religious body, spread the Abhidharma, and composed 
several logical and dialectical S'astras. He is said to have com- 
posed one hundred sastras in all. Returning to Orissa he busied 
himself with contemplation. Seeing that the S'astras on Dialectics, 
composed earlier by him, remained scattered about, he resolved to 

collect them. Accordingly, putting together 
Coniplilatioa oi fragments from particular works, he engaged 

himself m compiling the Pramanasamuccaya 


(Tib. Tshad-mahi-mdo-kun-las-btus-pa, or 
simply,Tshad-ma-kun-btus) in which at the opening lines he pays 
obeisance to Buddha : — 

" Having bowed down before Him who is Logic incnrnate, the 
benefactor of all creatures, the teacher, Sugata and the protector."... 

While he was writing the opening lines the earth trembled 
and all the places were filled with light and a great tumult was 
audible. A Brahman named Isvara Krsaa,i surprised at this 
wonder, came to Acaryya Digaaga, and, finding that he had gone 
out to collect alms, wiped out the words he had written. When in 
this manner he had wiped them oat twice, Dignaga wrote them a 
third time and added — " Let no one wipe this out even in jest and 
spoi't, for none should wipe out what is of great importance ; if the 
sense is not right and one wishes to dispute on that account, let 
one appear before me in person," When, after he had gone to col- 
lect alms, the Brahman came to wipe out the writings and saw 
what was added, he waited. When the Acaryya had returned they 
began controversy, either staking his own doctrine. When he had 
vanquished the Tirtha several times and challenged him to accept 
the 13uddhist doctrine, the Tirtha scattered ashes, pronounced in- 
cantation formula on them and burnt all the goods of the Acaryya; 

I Krsn-Isvnra, or simply Krsna, seems to be the same as Isvara Krsna, the 
celcVjrated author of SIrpkhya-Karika, which was translated into Chinese by 
Paramartha, A.D, 5 57-, "36 i, noticed in Nanjio's Catalogue, No. 1300. The 

Tibetan name -s 31^1 ^J'S^'^'Jl = Krsna-'Tsvara. 

220 Journal of the Asiatic, Society of Bengal. [November, 1905, 

and wlien the Acarvya was kept back by the conflagration the 
Tirtha went away. Thereupon Dignaga reflected that when he 
could not work the salvation of this single individual he would not 
be able to work that of others, and was on the point of giving up 
his jDiirpose (of compiling Pramana-samuccaya). Aryya Maiijusri 
apj)eared to him in person and said : — 

" Son, don't do so, don't do so : owing to contact with a low 
person there has Jirisen a bad thought in thee : know that the 
Tirtha crowd cannot harm this S'astra of thine : since I shall remain 
thy spiritual adviser until thou attainest perfection, this S'astra 
will henceforth become the sole eye of all the S'astras." 

The Acarj-ya asked : — 

" If I am to suffer many unbearable misfortunes and have to 
rejoice in the practice of an ignoble being, and if it is difficult to 
meet with a noble one, what profits it to me to see thy countenance 
if thou dost not bless me ? " 

Maiijusri replied, " Trouble 'thyself not, I will jDrotect thee 
from all terrors," and disappeared. Thereupon Dignaga completed 
the S'astra. 

Once he was slightly ill and obtained alms from the city ; 
and having fallen asleep while staying in a 
r>owers of Dienaea forest he dreamed a dream. In that dream 
he saw the face of many Buddhas and at- 
tained many samadliis. He saw many gods pouring rain of flowers, 
and the flowers of the wood coming together before him and the 
elephants affording him cool shade. The king of the country, who 
had gone for a pleasure excursion with a troop, saw him and, full 
of admiration, he caused him to be awakened from sleep by the notes 

Vol. I, No. 9.] Dignaga and his Pramana-saviuccaya. 221 


of music. Being asked whetlier lie was Dignaga, he replied in the 
affirmative, and the king fell at his feet. Subsequently he travelled 
to the south, chieflj meeting his Tii-tha controversalists in discus- 

He restored, for the most part, the schools of religion founded 
by the former Acaryyas. Again, at Orissa, he converted to 
Buddhism Bhadi^apalita, the ti-easury minister of the king. This 
Brahman founded sixteen viharas and placed religious men in them. 
As a proof of the perfect puiity of his character, the stem of a 
Myrobalan tree, called Mustiharitaki, which cured all diseases and 
which was to be found in the garden of this Brahman, having been 
entirely withered, revived in seven days after the Acaryya had 
uttered an incantation for its restoration. 

Since he had refuted chiefly the Tirtha controversalists, he was 
called the " Fighting Bull " (Sanskrit: TarJcaptingava ; Tibetan: 

5f5r'nQ'fI]'3^^cn' \ His pupils, combined together by religion, filled 

all countries, but he had not with him a single Snmanera who could 
succeed him. Since he was a man of limited desires and content- 
ment, he performed during his life-time the twelve tested virtues 
and died in a solitary wood of Oiissa. 

In the works of the Chinese pilgrims the name Dignaga is not 
. ^--fi J mentioned at all. But there occurs the 
with Dienaffa name Jina, which I suppose to be identical 

with Dignaga. Dignaga in the Brah manic 
Avorks, especially in those of Udyotakara and Vacaspati Misra, is 
designated as a Bhadanta. Similarly Jina in Chinese books, 
specially in those of I-tsing, is mentioned as one of the ten Bhadan- 
tas (vide I-tsing's TakaJcusu, p. 181). As Dignaga in Sanskrit 
and Tibetan books is known as an eminent logician, so is Jina in 
Chinese books. Thus I-tsing observes {TaTiaTiusu, p. 184): — 
'■ When they have understood the arguments of Hetuvidya (logic), 
they aspire to be like Jina (the great reformer of logic). I-tsing 
continues (Takakiisu, p. 188): — "When a pi-iest wishes to distin- 
guish himself in the study of logic he should thoroughly under- 
stand Jina's eight S'astraa," These, according to I-tsing, are : — 

1 . The S'astra on the Meditation of the Three Worlds (not 


2. Sarva-laksana-dhyana-sastra (karika) — (Nanjio's Cata- 

logue, Xo. 1229). 

3. The S'astra on the Meditation on the Object. Probably 

Alambana-pratyaya-dhyana-sastra (Nanjio's Cata- 
logue, No. 1173). 

4. The S'astra on the Gate of the Cause (Hetu-dvara) — (not 


5. The S'astra on the Gate of the Resembling Cause (not 


6. The Nyaya-dvara (taraka) S'astra (by Nagarjuna ?) — 

(Nanjio's Catalogue, Nos. 1223, 1224). 

222 Journal of the Asiaiic Society of Bengal. [NoTember; 1905 

7. Prajnapti-hetu-sangraha (?) S'astra — (Nanjio's Cata- 

logue, No. 1228). 

8. The S'astra on the grouped inferences (not found). 

The seventh book, called Prajnapti-hetti-sangraha, compiled by 
Jina, seems to be identical with Pramana-samuccaya which, besides 
ninety-nine other works, was compiled by Dignaga. 

According to I-tsing (Takahisu, p. 182) Dharmakirti made 
a fui-ther improvement in logic after Jina. From Indian sources too 
(such as from N'yaya-bindu) we know that Dharmakirti was a 
distinguished successor of Dignaga and a commentator on his works 
(ride K. B. Pathaka's article on the authorship of Nyayabindu in the 
journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1895, 
Vol. XIX, ISTo. LI, pp. 47-57 ; also G. A. Jacob's ISTote on the 
authorship of ISTyaya-bindu in the London Royal Asiatic Society's 
Journal, April 1905, pp. 361—362). 

Hwen-thsang (vide Beal's Buddhistic Record of the Western 
World) mentions Jina as having been born in the country of 
Andhra in the south. We have ah'eady seen that Dignaga was 
born near the country of Kafici in the south, probably in the 
dominion of the Andhras. 

The facts stated above go to show that Dignaga and Jina were 
the same person. As a matter of fact Jina seems to be only a 
Chinese phonetic equivalent for Dignaga. 

So it appears that Dignaga ( Tibetan : phyogs-glaii ) was 
. variously named as Jin.n (victor) Bhadanta i 

Of oSi'lga ^^^^^ (a venerable monk) and icaryya (as in 
N^yayabindu, the Tibetan equivalent being 
Slob-dpon). He w^as also called Mahadignagarj\ma (vide Eitel's 
Dictionary of Chinese Buddhisin), and is thus often mistaken for 
N"agarjuna. This explains the fact that Nyaya-dvara-taraka-sastra, 
really composed by Dignaga, has been attributed to Nagarjuna. 
Dignaga also bore the title of Tarkapuhgava (a fighting bull) ; while 
His Brahmanic opponents gave him the title of Ku-tarkika (a 

Besides the allusion to Dignaga in Kalidasa's Meghadiita ^ 
_ _, . we come across several of his actual views 

ences to Dienaea ' criticised by such eminent authorities as 
Udyotakara, Vacaspati Misra and others. 

I The word Bliadanta in the vocative case assumes the forms Bhaddanta 
andBhante. Compai-e V< ^«ri i jf ♦T^fT V^ (^"U-^O Kaocnyana, p. 141, 
edited by Satis Chandra Vidyabhusaiia,). A junior monk should address a 
senior monk by calling him Bhante or Ayasma. So Buddha says : — if^lT^ii 

fv^STT %crrr f*m ^^ ^ ^n^girfw ^ ^^j^l -^j R H'^ T r (Mahaparinib- 
banasuttta, Bhanavara, 6) 

Vol. I, Xo. 9.] Dignrtya and his Pramana-samuccaya. 223 


Udyotakara in liis Nyaya-vartika ^ mentions Dignaga under 
the name of Bhadanta, and describes liim as a Ku-tdrhika. Vacas- 
pati Misi^, in his Tatparyatika ^ on the Nyayavartika has identified 
Bhadanta with Dignaga, has mentioned Dignaga by name and has 
tried to justify his appellation Ku-tdrhika. Dignaga's definition of 
Pratyaksa (perception) has been mentioned by Udyotakara and 
Vacaspati Misra^ thus : — STfij^ ^W^TT^^lf I " Perception is (intui- 
tive and therefore) exempt from reflection." * 

( ^^ccTiT, TT^%W:, \S ) W 

The commentator Mallinatha says that Bignaga referred to in this verse 
"was the Buddhist philosopher of that name. 

^TflT^ WT^ STJicft ^JIT^ « 

edited by Vindhyesvaii Prasada Dube, in Bibliotheca ludica series). 

T^T^'H l[f^ I P-l) Nyayavartika-tltparyyatika , edited by Gangadhar S'astri 

... 351^1^ ^jmm W[^^\ ^^ 5f2TW ^T^TcT: 5(f^ II(?f'^ ^'^q'TT- 
( ^gT^fWlfrT^, \-\-9, ^' 8^8 8 ) 11 

( 59T^^lfl?^cn?TS}^t5RT, \-\-^, 1?: \«^ ) I 

* The same definition of Pratyalcm (perception) occurs in Dignaga's 
PramlnaHamuccaya. Compare the I'ibetan version of the Pramanasamuccaya 
in the Tangyur. Boction Mdo, volume XCV. fol. 2a, quoted by Prof. Do La 

224 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Ifovember, 1905. 

Regarding fmMHzawa (inference)' Dignaga, according to Udyo- 
takara and YacasiDati, says: — By seeing smoke, we do not, as it 
has been usually asserted, infer two things — viz., (1) fire, and (2) 
the connection between fire and the place which is the abode of 
fire ; but we infer only one thing — viz. , the place as containing the 

Udyotakara and Vacaspati further inform us that Dignaga 
did not accept upamana (comparison) ^ and aptavacana (testi- 

Vallee-Poussin in the Museon ; vide Prof. Poassin's Extraifc du Museon, p. 53. 
The definition runs as follows :— STC^'^JW^^ C]'V'^C;'QgQJ'ZT I 

^T^T ^cTTftrJT^ ^91^; I ^f?T3T15T ^91 ^f^ %^ ^ ^TT^ 

^^^Wf^TcT ( 5?JT?7^Tf^3(f, ^^-^-li, ^: «A.^ ) I 

^*^^ifq ^^ TT% ^^ ^^^ cT^fcr I 

( sgiif^Tfp.^ cTlrqsi €^^T, \-\-H., W- X^" ) I 

tT^ ! Tim J\^^^m^^ ^^f^^^li jm^^m tfcr i ww^ 

Vol. I, No. 9.] Diqiioya and his Pramana-sumaccaya . 'i^^ 

mony) ' as separate forms of evidence, but included the former in 
pei-ception and the latter in perception and inference. Dignaga 
criticised Vatsyayana's inclusion of vianas (mind)^ among the sense- 
organs, "O'liile his own theory of sclntaratva (interstice or interval) ^ 
was criticised by Udyotakara and Vacaspati. 

Dignaga is said to have cited an instance of inference contrary 
to perception, and his view was criticised by Kumarila Bhatta, as 
we learn from Parthasarathi Misra's gloss, on 59-60, Anumana- 
pariccheda of Kumarila's vartika on the 5th siitra of Jaimini. 
Udyotakara and Vacaspati Misra too * criticise the same view of 

( 5gT^^Tfn[T5|\ cTTcqsi €\^J, \-\-i, ^- \^:^) I 
Tf'^^^'^^r^'^^g'Er ^¥w 5IT ?i:^S§fT ErfcTXlf%: ^TJT37T^: I 

:226 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [November, 1905. 

Jayanta in his K^yayamanjari (3rd almika, p. 131, Vizianaga- 
ram Sanskrit series) probably alludes to Dignaga in tlie subject 
called " Bhadanta-kalalia." 

I have already refei-red to the fact that Dharmakirti wrote a 
. . commentary 1 on a certain work of Dignaga 

encLt?Dig/&ay" besides alluding to his logical views in the 
JNyaya-binda. it was JJharraottaracaryya'^ 
who explicitly mentioned Dignaga sometimes under that name, but 
often under the name of Dignagacaryya or simply J,caryya. 
Jinendrabodhi 3 and others wrote commentaries on Pramanasa- 
muccaya of Dignaga. 

The exact date of Dignaga is not known. On the authority of 
Dienaffa'*? date Mallinatha we have found that Dignaga was 

an opjDonent of Kalidasa, and from Tibetan 
sources we have seeu that he was a contemporary of one Isvara- 
Krsua who, I believe, was no other person than the celebrated 
author of the Samkhya-karika. From Sanskrit sources we have 
further learnt that Dignaga was anterior to Udyotakara but pos- 
tei-ior to Vatsyayana, and that Kumarila Bhatta a-nd Dharmaklrti 
flourished after the time of Dignaga. But these facts do not help 
us much, as the dates of most of these writers are unknown. From 
■Chinese sources we know that Isvara-Krsna's Samkhya-karika was 
translated into Chinese by Pai^amartha 557-567 A.D. (Nanjio's Cat., 

1 I onipaie. 
^?TT f^STT srt'^: I (^T^jf^^stlfT ^: ^^) I 

( 5?n^f%^2l^T, ^:^8 ) I 
'S^l^ ^mm% I Tm\ f^^ ^W' I 

( s^I^r^^ft^riT, i: ^8 ) I 

^ ^fi- ^T=^Tsif^?rjn5t5TT^ t5 Tt^ ^^ x'^v^ \ 

( 5^i^r^€\^T, ^: ^y^ ) I 

3 Jinendrabodhi's commentary on Pramana-samuccaya is named " Visala- 
inalavati uama Pramana-samuccaya-tika " — Tibetan ^^^V'M'^^^'C'f^/S' 

"Sn'SJ' #,Q]'^^^'5^ I It is contained in the Tangyur, section Mdo- 
Volume Re. 

Vol, I, No. 9,] Diynaga and Ms Pramana-samaccaya. 227 

1300). One of Jina's works was also t.ranslated about the same time 
and by tlie same translator (Nanjio's Catalogue i. 10). We have 
already seen that Jina was identical with Dignatja. These lead ns 
to conclude that Dio-naga flourished before 5-57 A.D, 

From Tibetan sources we have further found that Dignaga 
was a disciple of Yasubandhu. Now Vasubandhu i was contem- 
porary of Lha-tho-ri, King of Tibet who lived vip to 371 A.D.2 
There seems to have existed a Sanskrit woi-k ^ on the life of Vasu- 
bandhu which was translated into Chinese by Kumarajiva A.D, 
401-409, These facts go to show that Vasubandhu lived in the 
middle of the 4th century A.D, and Dignaga about 400 A.D.* 

1 Vide Pag-sam-jon-zang. 

* Csoma De Koros's Tibetan Grammar, p. 182. 
3 Nanjio's Catalogue, Appendix i. 6. 

* Mr. Takakusu in a very learned article on Vasubandhu, published in the 
Journal of the London Royal Asiatic Society, January 1905, fixes the date of 
Vasubandhu at about A.D. 920-500. According to this theory Dignaga must 
have flourished about 500 A.D. Takakusu's chief argument is that Samgha- 
bhadra was a contemporary of Vasubandhu {vide Hwen thsnng, I-tsing, 
Paramartha's Life of Vasubandhu, etc.), and was the translator of the Saman- 
tapasldika of Buddhaghosa into Chinese in 488 A.D. 

228 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [Xoveniber, 1905. 

29, Vidyapati Thakur. — By G. A. Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., 
D. LiTT., Honorary Me'mher of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

1 have read with great interest the account of the collection 
of Vidvapati's poems, which is given by Babu Nagendra Nath 
Gupta" on pp. 20 and fE. of the Extra K'o of Vol. LXXIII, Part 
I, of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. He has been 
kind enough to refer to the small collection of songs published by 
me about twenty-three years ago. In order to facilitate his 
labours, may I state at once that I have learnt a good deal since 
then, and that I by no means maintain all that I wrote about 
Vidyapati in 1882. 

Babu I^agendra l^ath Gupta refers to the deed of gift of the 
village of Bisphi as if he considered it to be a genuine document. 
I am afraid that this contention can hardly be sustained. The 
plate contains a date in the Fasli San, and that date was long- 
before the Fasli era had been invented. He will find a facsimile 
of the grant in the Proceedings of the Society for August, 1895. 
My reasons for considering it to be spurious are given in full on 
page 96 of Vol. LXVIII (1899), Part I, of the Journal. See also 
Dr. Eggeling's Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS. in the India Office 
Library, Part IV, No. 2864. 

The following list of articles on Vidyapati may be useful : — 

J. Beames. The Early Yaishnava Poets of Betigal. Indian 
Antiquary, II, 1873, p. 37. 

J. Beames. 0?z the Age and Gauntry of Vidyapati. Ibid. IV, 
1875, p. 299. 

Article in the Banga-darsan, Vol. IV, 1282 B.S. (Jyaistha), 
p. 75. 

S'arada-caran Maitra. Introduction to Vidyapatir Padavali. 
Second edition, Calcutta, 1285, B.S. 

G. A. Grierson. Vidyapati and His Contemporaries. Indian 
Antiquary, Vol. XIV, 1885, p. 182. 

G. A, Grierson. On some Mediaeval Kings of Mithild. Ibid. 
Vol. XXVIII, 1899, p. 57. 

Pandit Chanda Jha, referred to by Babu Nagendra Nath 
Gupta, has published a useful edition of the Sanskrit text of the 
Purusapariksd, together with a translation into Maithili. It was 
printed at the Raj Press, Darbhanga, in 1296 F.S. He has added 
a valuable Appendix dealing with historical questions, and con- 
taining frequent quotations from the Kirtti-lata, a work of Vidya- 
pati partly written in the Maithili of his time. If these quotations 
are correct, they show that the vernacular of the poet's time 
differed widely from modern Maithili, and was rather a form of 

I believe that Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Hara Prasad 
S'astri discovered a very old collection of Vidyapati's poems in 
Nepal in the year 1899. He was kind enough to send me a copy 
of one of them, which showed much the same Prakritic appear- 
ance. I had published a cuiTent version of the same song in my 

Vol. I, No. 9.] Vuhjapatl Thakur. 229 


edition of 1882, and the points of diffex'ence showed that there 
had been extensive modei^nization in the language of my copy. 
The same is no doubt also true with regard to all the genuine 
songs in my collection. 

I am very glad to learn that an attempt is going to be made 
to publish a correct text of the dainty sonnets of the old Master- 
Singer, and I look forward to its appearance with pleasant anti- 

230 Jimrnal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [November, 1905. 

30. Some remarks on the Geology of the Ga?igetic Plain. — By 
E. MoLOXY. [With one plate.] 

It requires no argnment to prove tliat the present gangetic- 
plain is the alluvial deposit of the river Ganges, and that the 
whole of the area of the gangetic plain south of the Himalayas 
must at one time have consisted of a network of morasses and 
river- channels very similar to the Siinderbans at the present time. 
It is also evident that, over the whole area of the United Pro- 
vinces of Agra and Oudh, so far from the Ganges being at pre- 
sent engaged in raising its flood plain, it has become an agent of 
denudation, and has, long since, entered on the work of denuding- 
the whole of its plain which lies above flood-level. 

It may be taken as proved that this great change has been 
occasioned by the submergence of the area at the mouth of the- 

The period at which this important movement took placfr 
must have been very remote. 

The river has eroded a bed in the old alluvium which is in 
many places several miles in width. 

Within the limits of the former bed there is a considerable 
amount of later alluvium, but it varies very much from the older 
alluvium in its characteristics, and, in most places, there is a very 
well-marked line of demarcation between them 

Most of the recent alluvium is liable to be flooded during 
high floods of the Ganges, though there is some which has never- 
been flooded during the memory of man. This is probably due to 
deposit of sand and light soil b}" the action of the wind during 
the hot weather. 

In the recent alluvium the substratum is nearly always pure- 
river sand, the finer soils being deposited in shallow water where 
the current is usually less. 

Another difference is that the recent alluvium never contains 
nodiilar limestone (kunlcar), which occurs in most places in the- 
old alluvial deposits. 

I liave perhaps made this assertion more positive than the- 
text-books would appear to warrant, but I have never come across 
an instance in which hunkar was found in soil that clearly 
belonged to the recent alluvium, though I have occasionally found 
it in a locality near the boundary of the new and old alluvium. 

The soil also difl:ers, the recent alluvium being generally" 
much more fertile, at any rate in the eastern portion of the United 
Provinces, where the recent alluvium contains a percentage of the 
black cotton soil brought down by the Jumna and its tributaries 
from Central India. 

The area that lies between the extreme limits up to which 
the Ganges has excavated its bed in the old alluvium may be 
styled the "Khadir." 

Having had good opportunities for observation in the Ghazipur 

Vol. I, Xo. 9.] The Geology of the Gangetic Plain. 231 

■ [.N.S.-] 

District, I have marked in on a map of tlie district the limits of 
the " Khadir." 

I may say that in some places the limit of the " Khadir " is 
exceedingly plain, whereas in other places it is not at all so plain 
to the eye. 

However, by tracing the line from one curve which is well 
defined and following slight indications, it is almost always pos- 
sible to follow the line till it reaches another point where the 
indications are again quite unmistakeable. 

In the Ghazipur district the only part where, in my opinion, 
the line is really doubtful, is the western edge of the island of old 
alluvium opposite the confluence of the Granges and Karmnasa. 
Both the northern and the southern edges of that island are 
extremely well defined as far west as a line drawn north and 
south just west of Birpur; but the western edge is very ill- 

In my opinion, two causes have united to create this diflS.- 
culty. The first is the proximity of the deep stream of the Gan- 
ges Avithin comparatively recent years, which has led to a great 
accumulation of water-borne material ; and the second is the prox- 
imity to the west of the boundary of a large sandy tract whence 
a considerable amount of material has probably been blown by 
the strong west winds which prevail during the early part of the 
hot weather. 

It is clear that at any particular time each bank of the river 
must have concave bends alternating with convex bends. Centri- 
fugal force throws the current against the concave bends and 
away from the convex bends. Erosion, therefore, only takes place 
at the concave bends, and this is the reason why the edge of the 
"Khadir," as delineated on the map, does not contain any convex 

The fact that these concave bends, which form the limits of 
the " Khadir," are not connected by convex bends, but cut each 
other at various angles, proves that no two adjacent bends could 
have been made at the same time. 

The width and shape of the " Khadir " opposite the town of 
Ghazipur show that there must have been many complete altera- 
tions in the course of the river. 

Between each of the alterations in the course of the river, 
indicated by the indentations in the edge of the " Khadir," a very 
long period must have elapsed. 

Although the vagaries of the Ganges are proverbial, it must 
be borne in mind that, whenever the river impinges on the old 
alluvium, the process of denudation is very slow. 

In the new alluvium the river often cuts away three or four 
hundred feet in a year, but in the old alluvium, whenever the 
river impinges on reefs oi'kunkar, there is practically no denudation. 

Even where the river impinges directly on the stiffish clay 
(without any Jcunkar reefs to protect it), which is the prevail- 
ing soil in the Ghazipur district, the denudation, as will be shown 
later, does not exceed ten feet in the year. 

232 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [November, 1905. 

It will be noticed tliat all sharp bends of the river are in the 
old alluvium, and that the main direction of the river's course is 
determined by the bends in the old alluvium. Although, in the 
new alluvium, the river does, at times, rapidly make consider- 
able changes in its course, yet its general direction remains con- 
stant for long periods of time, owing to the fact that it is deter- 
mined by the bends in the old alluvium, which alter very slowly. 

There is no historical record of the river ever having been at 
any distance from either Zamania, Ghazipur or Chausa, although 
the configuration of the " Khadir " shows that, at some past 
period, it must have been several miles distant from each of these 

The same probably holds true of both Benares and Chunar. 
At the time of the battle of Chausa, where Humayun was 
defeated in 1539 A,D., the point of confluence of the Granges and 
Karmnasa must have been at the same place as at present, 
though it is clear, from the island of the old alluvium just oppo- 
site, that, at one time, the Ganges must have been flowing a con- 
siderable distance to the north, and the confluence of the Ganges 
and Karmnasa must have been east of Buxar. There is, there- 
fore, unmistakeable historical evidence that there has been no 
radical alteration in the course of the Ganges in the Ghazipur 
District for close on four hundred years. 

At Chochakpur there has been very little alteration in the 
course of the river. The configuration of the " Khadir " in the 
reach between Chochakpur and Zamania can be accounted for by 
supposing that between Chochakpur and Karanda the river origi- 
nally flowed nearly east to west, and that the great bend at 
Zamania has been the result ot" gradual and continuous erosion 
hj the river. 

The distance between Karanda and the point of the bend at 
Zamania is 72 miles or 39,000 feet. 

Allowing 4,600 feet as the original width of the river, this 
would give a distance of 35,000 feet which has been eroded by the 

The first survey was made of the district in 1840. From 
that time to 1872 Mi". Oldham records in his Memoirs of the 
Ghazipur District that the annual rate of erosion was 12 feet 
{vide p. 3 of Oldham's Memoirs of the Ghazipur District). Since 
the last survey, made in 1882, the annual rate of erosion has 
been 9 feet. This gives an average of close on 11 feet a year for 
the last 64 years. 

At this rate the erosion of the Zamania bend wo aid require 
about 3,200 years. At the Zamania bend the soil is the ordinary 
stiff clay found in the district without any IcunTcar reefs. There 
is, however, a kunkar reef at Zamania town, and very solid k^m- 
kar reefs at Ghazipur. 

Another noteworthy feature shown by the map is the island 
of old alluvium opposite Chausa surrounded on all sides by the 
" Khadir." 

It is stated in Mr. Oldham's Memoirs that a similar island 

Vol. I, Xo. 9.] Tie Geology of tie Gangetic Plain. 233 


exists in the Benares District opposite Saidpur. I have not had 
an opportunity of verifying the statement, and have not therefore 
shown it on the map. 

Mr. Oldham's is the only possible explanation, viz., that the 
river Ganges has gradually eroded the land at some bend in its 
coui'se till it has cut into the course of the affluent at a point 
above the former confluence. 

When once a channel had been made into the course of the 
affluent, centrifugal force would drive the water of the Granges 
through the breach so made, and the new channel would rapidly 
be widened out till it became the main course of the Ganges. 

The island opposite Chausa must have been caused by the 
Ganges usurping the course of the Karmnasa, and that opposite 
Saidpur by the usurpation of the course of the Gumti, 

Similarly, tradition, which Mr, Oldham considered trust- 
worthy, says that, at one time, the water of the Gogra joassed 
down the present river Sarju, or Tons as it is sometimes styled, 
which separates the Chazipur and Ballia Districts. This would 
indicate that the Ballia District consists of a similar island caused 
by the river Gogra (or Sarju as it is called in some parts) usurp- 
ing the course of some smaller river that used to flow down the 
present bed of the Gogra. 

Any such usurpation of another river's course would probab- 
ly completely alter the set of the current at the old confluence, 
and release the river from the bends in the old alluvium which 
had formerly given the river its general direction. 

At the commencement of the paper it was taken as already 
proved that the area at the mouth of the Ganges was an area of 

There are, however, indications that within the area of the 
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh the southern portion of the 
Gangetic jalain has sunk relatively to the northern portion. 

The first piece of evidence is that supplied by the artesian 
well sunk at Lucknow, {vide Oldham's Geology of India, p. 434. ) 

At a depth of 158 feet the water stood at 61 feet below the 
top of the borehole. At a depth of 975 feet the water had risen 
to 2 feet. At 990 feet it stood at a depth of 5 feet below the 
top of the borehole, and at 1,189 feet the water rose over the top 
of the casing, itself 24 feet above the surface of the ground. 

This shows that the lower strata must be inclined, though it 
does not indicate the direction of the dip. 

As the Himalayas are known to have risen and the Gangetic 
phiin to have sunk, the probability is that the dip of the strata is 
from north to south. 

A river flo.^ing over a flat alluviual plain would naturally 
find it.s way directly down the slope, and there is no reason why 
the "watershed should not be equidistant from either bank. 

If, however, after the luver had excavated a channel for itself 
with the watershed equidistant fi"om either bank, the whole allu- 
vial plain through which it flowed was slightly tilted at right 
angles to the river's course, the result would be that the slope into 

234 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [November, 1905. 

the river from one bank would be increased, while the slope to the 
other bank would be decreased. Consequently, denudation on one 
side of the river would be greater than on the other. The same 
thing would happen to all the rivers flowing on parallel courses. 
Thus, in the area between two rivers which run on nearly parallel 
courses, the denudation into one river would be greater than into 
the other. Each river would, in time, force the water-shed on one 
bank back towards the next river, but, in exchange, would lose on 
the other bank an equivalent in its catchment area. 

The result would be that each river would have a larger 
catchment area on one bank than on the other. This appears to 
be the case in several districts of the United Provinces with which 
T was acquainted. 

Canals are generally aligned to run along the water-sheds, 
and in the following cases the canals are aligned very near the 
rivers running parallel to them on the north side : — 

(a) The main upper Ganges canal in the Aligarh District is 
very much nearer the Kali N"addi on its north than 
the Jumna on the sotith. 

(fe) The Anupshahr branch of the Ganges canal in the 
Aligarh District is very much nearer the Ganges on 
its north than the Kali Naddi on its south. 

(c) The projected Sarda canal in the Lucknow District was 
aligned very much nearer the Gumti on its north 
than the Sai on its south. 

The fact that, at Lucknow, water from a great depth rose to 
above the surface, shows not only that the strata at great depths 
are inclined, but that they are continuous over very considerable 

This is a very interesting fact, because it has been conclu- 
sively shown that the surface strata are not continuous. 

For certain reasons too technical to be given here a good 
irrigation well can only be made where the masonry cylinder can be 
taken down to a firm clay stratum underlaid by waterbearing sand. 

A good deal of attention has therefore been paid to the strata 
near the surface, by which I mean down to a depth of say 125 

Colonel Clibborn was deputed in the seventies to make an 
examination into the subject of wells, and, in his report published 
by the Board of Revenue of the Korth-West Provinces and Oudh, 
in a collection of papers relating to the construction of wells, it is 
clearly demonstrated that the clay strata so essential to the 
saccess of wells are not continuous. 

I might add that anyone practically acquainted with the 
construction of irrigation wells knows that Colonel Clibborn's 
conclusions are correct. 

A very difficult problem is here presented to us ; how can 
we account for the fact that the surface strata are clearly not con- 
tinuous, while those at great depths appear to be continuous ? Two 
possible explanations suggest themselves ; the first is that at gx-eat 

Vol. I, No. 9.] The Geology of tie Gangetic Plain. 235 

depths, tlie pressure of tlie superineumbent earth renders imper- 
vious to water everything but the coarser and cleaner kinds of sand. 

Extensive and continuous deposits of such sand would only 
be found along the beds of the larger rivers which may be pre- 
sumed to have existed though they have been long since deeply 
buried by alluvial deposits. 

If a deep borehole struck such an old river-bed, it is concei- 
vable that the necessary head to bring the water to the surface 
might be supplied through a deposit of sand in the former river- 
bed continuoas up to a point in its uppper course where it attained 
the necessary elevation. 

The observed facts at Lucknow do not, however, support this 
explanation, as there were several rises in the level of the water in 
the borehole, and it seems unlikely that one borehole should have 
struck the beds of several such former rivers one above the other. 

The second possible explanation is that the surface deposits 
were laid down in running water and the deeper deposits in still 
water. Anyone acquainted with the country can see in the cres- 
cent-shaped swamps and the alternations of clay, light soil and 
sand on the surface of the country, the result of the same agency 
that is reproducing similar features ia the alluvium of the great 
rivers, namely deposition by running water ; and the inference is 
inevitable, that the surface of the countiy was formed by the 
deposit of the material derived from the mountains in a labrynth 
of vast morasses amd deltaic rivers. 

This agency, however, would not explain the enormous area of 
clay and sand revealed to us by the Lucknow borehole ; and it 
seems necessary to assurae the existence of an enormous sheet of 
water with currents sufficient to transport sand great distances 
to account for the phenomena. 

In Oldham's Geology of India, p. 144, the occurrence of a 
species of fresh-water porpoise, common only to the Ganges and 
Indus and their tributaries, is cited as showing that the Ganges 
and Indus flowed at one time into the sea through a common delta. 

The sea is shown to have extended up the Indus valley within 
a geologically recent period ; and it seems possible that it may have 
extended east much further into the gangetic plain than is usually 

The absence of any indications of marine origin in the upper 
strata might well be due to their having been deposited in fresh 
water after the communicabion with the sea by the Indus valley 
had been cut off. 

At any rate, whether the water was fresh or salt, the con- 
tinuity of the deeper strata over great distances seems to strengthen 
the theory that the lower strata were deposited in a great sheet of 
still water. 

Such a great sheet of water, originally salt but gradually be- 
coming fresh as the communication with the sea became gradually 
more and more obstructed, would satisfactorily account for the 
change of the salt-water porpoise into an animal inhabiting fresh 

236 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [November, 1905. 

31. The Nafaisu-l-Maasir — By H. Bbvekidge, I.C.S. (retired). 

Among the Elliot manuscripts in the British Museum there is 
a volume which contains, among other things, about a hundred 
pages of an extract from the Nafa'isu-1-Maasir. It is numbered 
Or. 1761 and is described at p. 1022a of vol. Ill of Rieu's Persian 
Catalogue. The title N'afa'isu-l-Maasir may be rendered "Choice 
Deeds," and is a chronogram implying that the book was begun in 
973 (1565-66). It is stated by Dr. Sprenger that a postscript 
gives 979 as the date of the completion of the work, but that much 
later dates are mentioned in it. The work was a biographical dic- 
tionary of Persian poets and was written by Mirza 'Alau-d-daulah 
Qazvmi, the younger brother of Mir 'Abdii-l-latif, who was for a 
time Akbar's preceptor. 'Alau-d-daalah was himself a poet, and 
wrote under the name of Kami. He is described by Badayiini at 
pp. 97 and 816 of the third volume of his history. A copy of the 
original work was seen by Dr. Sprenger in the Moti Mahall Library 
in Lucknow, and he has described its contents at pp. 46-55 of his 
Catalogue ; but apparently the manuscript was lost in the Mutiny, 
and there does not seem to be any copy in our public libraries. It 
is to be hoped that a copy will turn up in India some day for the 
work was a valuable one and was the basis of Badayiini's 
third vokime. Sprenger states that the book contained notices of 
about 350 poets, most of whom flourished in the time of Akbar. 
He also gives the index of the names. Fortunately the Elliot MS. 
contains the historical introduction which gives an account of the 
reigns of Babar, Humaytin and Akbar. The account of Akbar is 
the fullest of the three, but only goes down to 982 or 1575, i.e., to 
the twentieth year of the reign. Though the historical introduc- 
tion is only a sketch, it gives here and there useful bits of infor- 
mation, and it is valuable as being, appai-ently, the earliest written 
of all the lives of Akbar. Like his father Mir Yahya, the author 
of the Labb-u-tawarikh, 'Alau-d-daulah is veiy fond of chrono- 
grams, and gives many of them in his introduction. Among others 
he gives the well-known one about Babar 's birth, and adds that it 
was composed by Maulana Jami. This cannot have been the great 
Jami. On p. 266 he speaks of Babar's religious poem, and corrobo- 
rates Sprenger's statement that it was entitled "Dar Fiqh," He 
adds that it was sent to Hazrat Imam A'zam, who is probably the 
same person as the Maqdiim A'zam of Transoxiana whose name is 
mentioned in !N"ey Elias's history of the Khojas. That is, he is 
probably one of several Maqdnm A'zams, for the name was borne 
by more than one saint. At p. 33& we have the statement that 
Humayun conversed in Herat with the writer's father, here called 
Amir N'asiru-d-din Yahya. At p. 37& mention is made of a Khwa- 
jah Qazi who was Humayun's prime minister and who, unless he 
be the same as Khwajah G;hazi, does not seem to be named by other 
authorities. It is added that he belonged to the family of the 
famous enthusiast Shanis-i-Tabrizi. The account of Humayun's 
death gives one or two new details. In the first place it says that 

Vol. I, Xo. 9.] The Nafnisu-l-Maasir. 237 

[_N.8 ] 

tlie accident of the fall from the roof occurred on Friday the 16tli 
Rabi-al-awwal, and not on the 11th, and that he died on the follow- 
ing Sunday the 18th. Then it adds, p. 376, that Humayun was 
wrapped in a blanket, or dressing-gown (galimioar) at the time,. 
and was leaning on his staff when the latter slipped on the stones. 
When he came to his senses, he repeated the Kalima. Then follow 
several chronograms. Khizr Khwajah Khan, the husband of 
Gulbadan Begam, is mentioned as one of those who concealed the 
fact of the death for some days. 

In the account of Akbar's conquest of Hajipur we are told 
that Rajah Gajpati (of the Dumraon family) assisted with 2,000 
Cherus, and in mentioning Da'iid's escape by boat from Patna on 
the night of Sunday 21 Rabi-as-sani the new circumstance is 
given that he fled to Tanda. When the bridge over the Pun Pun 
was broken down by the flying Afghans, some 2 000 of them wei-e 

The Elliot MS. gives, besides the introduclion, a few extracts 
from the notices of poets in the body of the work. Among them is 
the interesting account of Waf ai, i.e., Zainu-d-din Khwafi, who was 
Babar's Sadr, or ecclesiastical judge, and who translated, or para- 
phrased Babar's Memoirs. It is this account which has been 
borrowed by Badayuni (see Dr. Banking's translation, p. 609). 

I hope that this notice may lead to the discovery of the ori- 
ginal work, and if not, that someone will publish the extracts in 
the Elliot Manuscript. 

24th July, 1903. 

238 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [N"ovenil)er, 1905. 

32. Notes on the Species, External Characters and Habits of the 
Dugong. — By "N. Annandale, D.Sc, Deputy Superintendent 
of the Indian Museum. [Witli three plates.] 

The present communication is largely of the nature of a pre- 
liminary notice. Later I hope to offer to the Society a memoir on 
the anatomy of certain organs and structures in the Dugong, 
which will be based partly on the specimen whose measurements 
are given below, and partly on the fine collection of Indian and 
Australian skulls and other bones already in the Indian Museum. 
At present I feel confident in stating (with foiu" fully adult Indian, 
two fully adult Australian, and parts of three immature Indian 
skulls before me) that the individual variations among Indian 
specimens are at least as great as those which were believed by 
Owen to constitute a specific difference between Indian and 
Australian species. Skeletons of the Dugong exhibit very great 
differences (not solely connected with sex and age) ititer se, and 
these cannot be specific, as they are not constant even in a series 
from the same seas. Owen's Halicore australis, therefore, must 
be relegated, as most recent mammalologists have thought pro- 
bable, to the synonomy of H. dugong.^ 

In the summer of 1905, I was deputed by the authorities of 
the Indian Museum to visit the northern part of the Gulf of 
Manaar, in order to obtain a complete skeleton and skin of an 
Indian specimen of the Dugong, the only skins hitherto in the 
collection, and the most nearly perfect skeleton, having been 
obtained from Queensland in exchange with the Brisbane 
Museum. . Thanks largely to the kind offices of the Rev. A. D. 
Limbrick, of Ramanad, I was so fortunate as to obtain a fine 
male, the external characters of which are described below : — 

"Dimensions — 

1 Length to tip of tail ... 

2 Length to extremity of fluke 

3 From posterior border of anus to tip 

of tail 

4 From anterior border of anus to 

genital opening 

5 Length of flipper 

6 Width of flipper 

7 Breadth of fluke (injured at one 


8 Height of facial disk ... 

9 Breadth of facial disk 
10 Length of upper lip (upper jaw pad) 

1 Strictly speaking, the specific name should be divyong, in accordance 
•with the Malay; but the incorrect form is so well known that it seems 
better not to change it. 

9 ft.. 

, 6 

9 „ 


3 „ 


1 „ 
1 ., 



2 „ 





Vol, I, 'No. 9.] Notes oh the Bugong. 239 


In this table and thronghont the paper the " tip of tail " 
means the extremity of the actual tail. The length between this 
point and the extremity of the snout was measured by means of 
sticks stuck into the sand. The " length to extremity of fluke " 
was obtained by drawing a straight line immediately in front of 
the snout and another parallel to it immediately behind the unin- 
jured extremity of what may be called, on the analogy of the 
Cetacea, the fluke. The posterior margin of this organ being con- 
cave, the latter measurement is considerably the greater. The 
third measurement given practically represents the length of the 
tail, which is a little less than half that of the head and body. 
This observation is perhaps of some importance, as the pads of 
stout connective tissue intervening between the dorsal vertebrte are 
of considerable thickness, although there are no bony epiphyses. 
Consequently, skeletons, as set up in museums, very often do not 
represent anything approaching the true length of the animal. 
By the " facial disk " I mean the flattened area, which does not 
include the nostrils, above the tusks. It will be described in 
detail later. What I have called the " upper lip " is plainly the 
homologue of what Murie and others have called the " upper 
jaw pad" in the Manatees; but it is better developed in the 
Dugong and probably plays a more important part in the assi- 
milation of food. 

Colour — 

The dorsal surface, shortly after death, was a dull brownish 
grey, which faded gradually, though pure grey on the sides, to 
dirty flesh-colour on the belly. The face, flippers and fluke were 
dull gTey ; but the skin round the base of the tusks and the upper 
lip was mottled with dirty flesh-colour, which was also the tint 
of the lower jaw. Judging from the different descriptions given 
by different observers, the coloration of the animal is as variable 
as I find its skeleton to be. 

Integument — 

The skin of the specimen had not the corrugated and wrin- 
kled surface of that of the Manatees; but, on the other hand, it 
had not quite the smooth and oily appearance of that of many of 
the Cetacea. It was smooth, as it were, but not polished. 
Undoubtedly the hair, especially on the back, contributed to this 
effect, giving the animal quite a prickly appearance in certain 
lights. I shall here state merely that three distinct kinds of hair 
existed on the external surface, two on the facial disk and lower 
jaw, and a third over the whole of the trunk, limbs and fluke, the 
the kind last mentioned having two distinct phases of growth. 
The hairs are apparently devoid of pigment. The general 
character of the integument, apart from the hairs, resembled 
that of tropical Cetacea, the " blubber " being less thick than 
that of northern Porpoises. N"o oil was set free by cutting through 
it. Beneath it, however, there was a layer of opaque white fat 
very like that of a pig in appearance. 

240 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [November, 1905. 

General Characters of the Trunk and Limbs — 

The general form differed very considerably from that of all 
Cetacea, resembling that of some of the larger Eared Seals in 
several points. The appearance of the animal was clumsy, and 
evidently not adapted for rapid motion of any kind, the back and 
sides being rounded and the belly flat. There Avas no apparent 
neck, but the head was massive and terminated bluntly in front. 
The tail was distinct from the trunk, having a more compact and 
a less amorphous character. The vertebral column extended to the 
tip, which projected slightly below the edge of the fluke. The 
latter organ was deficient as regards one extremity, which had 
been removed, probably by the bite of a shark. The wound had 
healed completely. Running from near the tip of the tail to a point 
near its commencement was a conspicuous ridge formed chiefly by 
a thickening of the epidermis. This was about two inches high 
near the centre. It is well shown in the photograph reproduced on 
plate 7. The fore-limbs were regular in outline, flattened, with a 
distinctposteriorfringe, but with no trace of separation of the digits 
externally. Only the fore- arm projected externally, the humerus 
being buried in the body as far as the articulation of the radius and 
ulna. There was a conspicuous fold of skin immediately above the 
limb. The mamm^, which were large considering the sex of the 
individual, were situated immediately behind the limb, almost on 
a level with its posterior edge ; they were long in comparison 
with their diameter. Judging from a female, otherwise correctly 
mounted, in the Colombo Museum, this elongated character of the 
mammae is characteristic of both series. The lateral position is 
apparently characteristic of all living Sireuia. Native fishermen 
tell me that in the lactating female the milk squirts out with 
great violence to a considerable distance if the mamma is pressed. 
The copulatory organ, of which Dr. Francis H, A. Marshall, of 
the University of Edinburgh, has kindly promised to furnish a 
desci-iption later, was entirely withdrawn into the body. 

Head — 

The head of the Dugong is perhaps its most characteristic 
feature, but all the figures of the animal, including some very 
recent ones, that I have been able to discover, are incorrect as 
regards this part, at any rate if they are intended to represent 
adult males. The only mounted specimens I have seen which 
are at all correct are those in the Colombo Museum ; but these 
are a female, a half-grown male and a newly (probably pre- 
maturely) born young one. Except as regards the tusks, they 
agree very fairly well with my notes and photographs. 

The mouth of the specimen w-as very small. It was tightly 
closed by the upper lip (" upper jaw pad ") which projected over 
the lower jaw, the lower lip being represented merely by a tliin 
fold of skin. The upper lip was stout in shape, flabby in struc- 
ture, in the newly-killed specimen ; tongue-shaped, smooth and 
hairless on the surface. The tusks, one of which was broken, 
projected through the skin above it, not from the mouth, as has 

Vol. I, No. 9.] Notes on the Dugovg. 241 


been stated. The curious projection of the anterior part of the 
lower jaw was only covered by a thin layer of skin and con- 
nective tissue ; it is the rounded structure which looks like a heavy 
lower lip in fig. 1, plate 8. Above the tusks the integ'ument 
expanded into a large flattened disk, which was divided into two 
halves by a vei-tical cleft. This cleft also extended along the base 
of the upper lip betweeu the tasks. The lower part of the disk 
bore two broadly raised transverse ridges, which were divided from 
one another by the cleft and covered with bristles comparable to, but 
shorter and blunter than, the spines of a Porcupine. These ridges 
are evidently the honiologues of the two lobes of the " upper lip," 
by means of which the Manatees crop the plants on which they 
feed. They do not appear to be either so mobile or so widely 
separable, however, in the Dugong. Above them the disc was 
covered with longer and finer bristles, evidently of a sensory 
nature. The upper edge of the disk was turned backwards and 
upwards, and there was a more or less inturned flap on either side. 
The nostrils were entirely outside the disk, on the top of the head : 
they were ci^escentic in shape and could evidently be closed dimng 
life. The tissues surrounding the eye were somewhat prominent ; 
but the eye itself was small, black, beady and deeply sunk. It was 
not surrounded by radiating wrinkles as in the Manatees. The 
presence of large glands in connection with it afforded some justi- 
fication for the Malays' belief^ that the Dugong weeps when 
captured. The external ear was extremely minute, being a 
circular aperture less than 10 mm. in diameter. 

Habits — 

It seems probable that the habits^ of the Dugong have 
changed considerably within the last half century, together with 
the diminution in its numbers noted by Blanfoi-d and others. 
Only having seen a freshly-killed specimen, I am not in a position 
to say anything on this point from actual observation, but from 
what I was told by the native fishermen, who possess special nets 
for the capture of the Dugong, it is rare nowadays for more 
than one specimen to be taken at a time, whereas formerly, in the 
Gulf of Manaar, flocks of many hundreds were said to occnr. 
Further, the animal appears to have ceased to frequent shallow 
water, for, according to the fishermen, the only specimens they 

i They regard the tears of the ikan duyong (" Dugong fish) " as a 
povreiful love-charm. Muhammadan fishermen on the Gulf of Manaar 
appeared to be ignorant of this usage, but told me that a "doctor" once 
m-nt out with them to collect the tears of a Dugong, should they capture 
one. Though tley do not call the animal a fish, they are less particular 
about eating its flesh than are the Patani Malays and the Trang Samsams, 
who will not do so unless the " fish's " throat has been cut in the manner 
orthodox for warm-blooded animals. The common Tamil name for the 
Dugong is kCtdilpudru (" sea-pig"); but the fishermen at Kilakarai (Lubbais) 
call it dvUleah. 

2 These remarks refer only to the Gulf of Manaar. Major A. R. Ander- 
son informs me that in the Andamans, Dugongs still enter Port Blair 
harbour occasionally in parties of two or three. Dec. 15th, 1905. 

242 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [November, 1905. 

see near the stioi'e are those which have been wounded or are sick. 
I was unable to discover the depth at which those taken for the 
market are usually captured ; but a gentleman who has visited 
the Dugong " fisheries " off the northern coast of Queensland, tells 
me that in Australian waters the usual depth is from the ten 
to twelve fathoms. In the Gulf of Manaar stout nets, very deep, 
with a large mesh and heavily weighted, are sunk in the neigh- 
bourhood of the animal's known feeding-places, and individuals 
of both sexes, but apparently more especially young ones, become 
entangled in them and are thus taken. Occasionally specimens 
are even captured in the ordinary drift nets used in catching fish. 
I was told that as many as sixty were sometimes brought into 
Kilakarai, a large native port near the northern corner of the Grulf 
on the Indian shore, in a year; but this number is probably 
exaggerated. The Muhammadans of the district are so fond of 
the flesh' that they give large prices for it, and probably the 
fishermen who possess the right kind of nets go in pursuit of the 
Dugong as often as they have nothing else to do ; for the search is 
precarious, but the profits considerable should it be successful. 

As regards the food of the Dugong, it has often been stated, but 
not by Blanford, that it feeds exclusively on a marine phaneroga- 
mous plant. This is evidently not the case, as the stomach of my 
specimen was full of pieces of a green alga, all of which belonged to 
one species. Two tilings struck me about the contents of the stomach 
and the upper part of the intestines : (1) their freedom from all 
adventitious growths, either animal or vegetable, and (2) their 
perfect and unbruised condition. They consisted of clean pieces of 
seaweed about 2|- inches long, plucked off and evidently not 
masticated. Even the little bladders which the seaweed bore 
had not burst. As regards the method of feeding, I do not think 
that it can be the same as that of the Manatees, which pluck the 
plants which they eat by meaias of the two lobes above the " upper 
jaw pad," and push their food towards the mouth with their 
flippers. Similar lobes certainly exist in the case of the Dugong, 
but they did not appear in the fresh specimen to be capable of 
any great degree of separation or movement, while the flippers 
are hardly long enough to give any great assistance in feeding. 
As the "upper jaw pad " (upper lip) itself, on the other hand, was 
evidently freely moveable and possibly to some extent extensile, it 
seems possible that it is used in plucking seaweed, which certainly 
could be grasped between it and the lower jaw. This would 
necessitate the food being passed under the horny pad, with its 
bundles of more or less consolidated hairs, on the anterior part q^ 
the palate. Possibly these hairs may have the function, as they 

i The meat is excellent ; roasted, I could not have distinguished it from 
good, but rather tough beefsteak. It had none of the peculiar flavour of 
whale-meat. Moreover, it has the same quality as that assigned, both by the 
old voyagers and by modern observers, to the flesh of the American Manatees 
— it keeps good for a considerable time, for at least three days in hot 
weather, during which mutton goes bad in twenty-four hours. The blubber is 
not made into oil at Kilakarai. 

Vol. I, ISTo. 9.] Notes on the Dtigong. 243 


certainly have the appearance, of the bristles of a scrubbing- 
brush. I have already noted the small size of the mouth, and I 
believe, judging from the small area of the articular surface of 
the lower jaw, as well as from observations on the fresh specimen, 
that the jaw has very little, if any, lateral movement. For all 
these reasons I doubt whether the persistent teeth have any 
function beyond crushing the calcarious or other growths brushed 
off the seaweed by the hair-papillEe of the anterior palate. 

The fishermen told me that they took females with young 
ones accompanying them at all times of year, but never more than 
one young one with each female. They had never seen the female 
raise the upper part of her body vertically from the water, clasp- 
ing the young one in her flippers, which seem hardly suitable for 
the purpose. Judging from the scars on the specimen examined, 
I believe that the males fight with their tusks at the breeding 

244 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N'oTember, 1905. 

32. Hedyotis sisaparensis, a hitherto undescribedlndian species. — By 
Captain A. T. Gage. I.M.S. 

The writer wlien re-arranging tlie earlier genera of Rnbiaceffi 
in tlie Calcutta Herbarinm in 1902, came across what appeared to 
be an undescribed species of Hedyotis. The writer's opinion was 
confirmed by Sir Greorge King, who kindly compared the species 
at Kew. The description written in 1902 is now offered for pub- 

Hedyotis sisaparensis. — Undershrub with branches about as 
tliick as a crowquill, glabrous, pale grey almost white, four angled ; 
internodes niuch shortened in the region of the infloresence and 
hidden by the stipules. Stipules about 9 mm. long, pectinate, 
scurfily tomentose, and showing a few raphides. Leaves shortly- 
petioled, lanceolatet acute, base narrow cuneate tapering into the 
glabrous petiole ; lamina glabrous on both surfaces, upper surface 
bright green, lower grey, with abundance of raphides ; midrib on 
lower surface of lamina flattened out, white ; lateral nerves 4-6, 
rather faint, running forward at an acute angle with the midrib ; 
length of lamina 5-8'8 cm,, breadth l'25-2'5 cm , length of petiole 
6"5 mm.-l'25 cm. Flowers in axillary bracteate cymes of about 
4'5 cm. in length; main peduncle 1"8 cm. long; bracts about 
5 mm. long, flowers pseudo-pedicellate in groups of three on the 
secondary peduncles. Calyx including lobes 8 mm. long, lobes 4, 
subulate, equalling the length of the calyx-tube, but exceeding the 
capsule. Corolla, unopened, exceeding the calyx tube, lobes 4. 
Stamens 4. Ripe capsule 3 mm. in diameter, glabrous, dehiscing 
septicidally. Seeds not seen. 

Wynaad, Beddome. Above Sisapara, Nilgiri district, 7,000 feet 
alt. Gamble, N'o. 13381. 

The afiinity of this species is with H. mollis. Wall., from 
which it is easily enough distinguished by its infloresence. 



Burn, R. — Formation of New Castes. Journ. and Proc. As. 
Soc. Beng., Vol. I, No. 10, 1906, pp. 256-257. 

Vol. I, 'No. 10.] An Examination of the Nij ay a- Sutras. 245 


34. An Examination of the Nydya-Sutras. — -By Haraprasad Sasi RT. 

Anyone wlio carefully reads the Nyaya Sutras will perceive 
that they are not the work of one man, of one age, of the pro- 
fessors of one science, or even of the professors of one system of 
religion. It would seem apparent that at diiferent ages philoso- 
phers, logicians and divines have interpolated various sections into 
an ah'eady- existing work on what we may, for the want of abetter 
term, call Logic. 

It is evident that such a book would be full of contradictions, 
inconsistencies and irreconcilable passages. So the JvTyaya Siitras 
are. The Hindii Commentators from Vatsayaiia, in the third 
century a.d. to Radhamohan Grosvami in the nineteenth, have 
attempted to evolve a harmonious system of Logic and Philosophy 
fi'om the Sutras. The task is an impossible one, and so every 
one of them has failed, and that miserably. They have imported 
later and more modern ideas into the commentaries, but without 
success. The acute logicians of Bengal thought it was a diffi- 
cult work ; and they had recourse to various shifts to explain the 
Bhasya and other commentaries. They have changed some 
passages and imported extraordinary meanings into others. 

But unfortunately the idea of studying the Sutras by them- 
selves did not occur to any one of them. N^inety-nine per cent, of 
the manuscripts of this work are accompanied with some comment- 
ary or other. Manuscripts giving the Sutras only are extremely 
rare. I got one from Midnapore, and gave a copy of it to my 
friend Dr. Venis, and it was published at Benares. It is known as 
the Nyayasutroddhara. My friend Pandit Vindhyesvariprasada 
Duve got one at Benares, and he published it in the Bibliotheca 
Indica as an appendix to his edition of the ISTyayavartika. This' 
is known as ^N^yayasucinibandha, But from what I know of the 
habits of pandits, I am sure nobody has studied the Sutras by 
themselves. They have been used only as works of reference. 

I took up the Nyayasucinibandha for independent study. 
On comparing the Sutras as given there with Sutras in editions 
accompanied by commentaries, and also with the Nyayasutrod- 
dhara, I was struck with the variety of readings which the Nyaya 
Sutras presented. A number of Sutras are regarded as spurious. 
The readings of a large number of Sutras are irreconcilably 
different in different editions. This is not the case with the 
Vedanta Sutras, and with the Mirafimsa Sutras, in which various^ 
readings are extremely rare, almost non-existent, and interpolated' 
Sutras there are none. I am not speaking of the Saipkhya and' 
Yoga Sutras, which are comparatively modern. The' difficulty* 
which I feel in regard to the Nyaya Sutras was ■ also felt about a' 
thousand years ago, when Vacaspatimi-sra, who flourished about' 
the end of the tenth century, twice attempted to fix the number' 
of Sutras and their readings, namely, in Nyiiyasutroddhara, and 
in Nyayasucinibandha, both of which go by hif^ name. If both 
are tlie workB of one man, as they profess to be, it is apparent 
that the author did not feel sure of his ground. 

246 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905- 

For convenience sake, I took up the Xyayasucinibandha 
dated 898 Saka, i.e., 976 a.d., and that for three reasons, 
— ( 1 ) because it cotints the number of Sutras, number of 
words, and even the number of letters in the Njaja Sutras ; (2) 
because it divides the Sutras into sections, each dealing with a 
single topic ; ( 3) and because it is dated, and there are internal 
evidences to show that it was written bj the great Vacaspati, 
the commentator on the six systems. I have made an English 
translation of the Sutras with as little help from the commentaries 
as possible. 

The study of the Sutras makes it apparent that works of two 
diiferent sciences have been mixed up. One is a work on 
Logic, or rather the science of Reasoning, or, as Sadajiro 
Sugiura terms it, " science of discriminating true knowledge from 
the false" ; and the other is a work on some system of philosophy. 
The work on Logic is confined almost exclusively to the first 
and the fifth chapters. I say almost, because some sections of the 
second chapter also may belong to the Logic part. The rest of 
the work with about eight Sutras in the first chapter belong to 
the philosophical part. 

Let us analyse the Logic section. This section seems to 
contain three separate treatises. The first chapter, with the 
exception of the Sutras mentioned above, constitutes the first and 
the most important treatise. It is complete in itself. The first 
Sutra enumerates the sixteen topics essential in Debate, and 
all the sixteen topics are fully treated of in the first chapter. It 
is fully self-contained, and nothing farther is needed to complete 
it. The first Sutra gives, so to say, the objects and reasons for 
the science. It says that anyone who has a complete knowledge 
"of the sixteeen topics attains the highest proficiency in every 
walk of life, and the first chapter deals with the complete knowl- 
edge of all the sixteen topics. 

1 may remark in passing that the science embodied in the 
first chapter of these Sutras is not Logic, in the present signi- 
fication of the term, but Logic in its primitive and rudimentary 
stage. It may better be called the Science of Debate. And all 
the requisites of a well-regulated Debate are included in the 
sixteen topics. They are not always the requisites of the science of 
Logic, as known at present. The second treatise on Logic, embodied 
in the Sutras, is the first " daily lecture " of the fifth chapter. The 
last Sutra of the first chapter simply says that Jatis and Points 
of Defeat are many, thus leaving no room for any elaborate 
subdivision of these two topics. But the first lecture of the fifth 
chapter not only enumerates twenty-four subdivisions of the Jatis,, 
but gives careful definitions of every one of them. The author who 
wrote the first chapter is not the author of the first Lecture of 
the fifth chapter. The last section of the first lecture of the 
fifth chapter, which has nothing to do with definitions of the 
subdivisions of Jatis, but which limits the extent of a fruitless 
Debate, is no part of the second treatise, and seems to be an 
iiddition. The third treatise consists of the second "daily lecture '" 

Vol. I, 'No. 10.] An Examination of the Nymja-Sutras. 247 

of chapter fifth. It enumerates the various Points of Defeat and 
defines tliem. 

One of the most cogent reasons for considering these trea- 
tises as separate, and also for considering them to be composed by 
diiferent authors, is the fact that the same technical terms have 
been used and defined in all the three, but in very different senses. 
The Definition of Jati, as given in the first, does not cover all the 
subdivisions enumerated in the second. The terms prakaranasama 
and sadhyasama are defined among the " Semblances of Reason " 
in the first treatise, but these two have been differently defined as 
subdivisions of Jatis. The term matnnujna has been defined one 
way in the second and anotlier way in the third. If all the 
three had been written by one and the same person, the same 
technical terms would not receive at his hands two such wide 

It is difiicult to say whetlier the composition of the second 
and third treatises preceded or followed that of the first treatise^ 
which is a comprehensive work on the Science of Debate. Many 
scholars hold that such comprehensive treatises generally follow 
separate and partial treatises on parts, just as the unfidi-sutras 
andthe gana-sutras preceded Panini, and that these separate treatises 
after the composition of the comprehensive treatise, formed its 

One would be tempted to believe that all the sections of the 
first lecture of chapter second, with the exception of the last, 
and the first and last sections of the second Daily Lecture of that 
chapter, may be included in the Logical part, because they have a 
direct l)earing on pramana or the instruments of true knowledge, 
which forms the first essential topic in the Science of Debate. 

The commentators and modern pandits, in order to make 
this incoherent collection of Sutras a harmonious whole, are 
obliged to say that the N'yayasutras consist of the enumeration, 
the definition and the examination of the sixteen topics. The 
enumeration is complete in the first Sutra, the definition in the 
first chapter, and the examination in the other chapters. There 
would have been no cause of complaint if all this were a fact. 
The examination is, however not complete. It does not comprehend 
all the sixteen topics. The topics examined in fact are the 1st, 
2nd, 3rd, 15th, and 16th. The examination of others have been 
altogether omitted. If there is any, it is of a very nebulous charac- 
ter. So a complete examination of the sixteen topics is not to be 
found in the Sutras, and this is exceedingly suspicious. The 
examinations are, as a rule, examinations of the definitions given in 
Chapter I., at least so the commentators say. If so, the examina- 
tion of Jati and of the Points of Defeat are not really the examina- 
tion intended by the commentators. On the other hand, in the 
case of Jati, we find that the definition as given in Cliapter I., 
depending simply upon homogeneity and heterogeneity, does 
not apply to a number of the subdivisions of Jatis as given in 
Chapter V. The examination of other three topics, too, contains so 
much of heterogeneous matter, besides an examination of the 

248 Jotirnal of tJie Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905. 

definition, that one is tempted to say that the whole of the 
examination affair, i.e., all the chapters II. to IV. are an addition. 
So far about the Logic portion. 

The Philosophy portion has its beginning in the second Sutra of 
the first chapter. The first Sutra of Chapter I., as has been already 
said, gives the objects and reasons of the work. And these 
objects and reasons seem to be all secular. Thei-e was no 
need for a second enunciation of the objects and reasons. But 
the second Sutra again enunciates them. And in this case, 
they are philosopicnl and spiritual. Vacaspatimisra puts the 
two together in one section, and calls the section " objects and 
reasons." The commentators have tried to reconcile this double 
enunciation of objects and reasons, but without success. The 
only reasonable explanation of this double enunciation seems to 
be that some later writer has interpolated the second Sutra with 
a view to add philosophical sections to the work. The second 
Sutra contains topics which are not enumerated in the first, and 
the thoughtful reader is struck with the introduction of new 
matter so early as in the second Sutra. These topics are misery,, 
birth, activity and fault together with " apavarga." The intro- 
duction of these new topics is defended by saying that they fall 
under the subdivisions of the second topic, in the first Sutra, 
namely, " objects of tvue knowledge." " The object of true knowl- 
edge " is a topic which is so vast that all the topics of the world 
may come under its subdivisions. And, as a result of this, the 
interpolator has tampered with the definition of prameya (Sutra I. 
I'D) which is virtually an enumeration of its subdivisions, and put 
in five new topics into it. That the prameyasutra at one time was 
different from what it is now, is apparent from the statement of 
HaribhadrasLiri, a Jain writer, who in his saddarsana samuccaya 
describes the prameyasutra in the following terms : — 

■Sffl"^ IJTfUi^r^ ^€l I^*J^<dTfsr '^, (Bibliotheca Indica edition), 

or, as in the Benares edition, vmii 'Wi\^\^\^ ^^[^^J^'^Tf^T 'W. 'J'h& 

order of words is different; sukha or happiness seems to have 
been included in the old prameyasiitra Sukha finds no place in 
that Sutra no?r and in Chapter lY., Ahnika I., the Section 13 on 
the examination of duhkha, reduces sukha into duhkha, and is not 
prepared to admit sukha as a separate subdivision of prameya. 
But from Haribhadra's statement we find that sukha was there at 
some early time. K^ow the question is, who changed the Sutras 
and why ? The answer is not far to seek. In a work on Logic 
prameya, as a topic, must come in. But Logic does not require a 
long enumeration of prameyas and an elaborate examination of 
their details, which are essential in philosophy. So the author 
who wanted to convert a logical treatise into a system of 
philosophy, iind who is responsible for the interpolation of the 
second Sutra is also responsible for this alteration in the 
prameyasutra The logical treatise was an ancient Hindu 
treatise, and Hindus never took an ultra-pessimistic view of the 
world. Sukha is the ultimate goal of the Mimamsakas, of the 

Vol. I, No. 10.] An Examination of the Nyaya-Sutras. 249 

Vedantins, tlie two really orthodox systems of Hindu, philosophy. 
Why should Nyaya be so pessimistic ? There is no reason 
for it, and it has been shown that the word sukha did at one 
time occur in the prameyasutra. The Buddhists are downright 
pessimists. To them everything is duhkha, and it is they who 
believed that sukha was, if properly analysed, duhkha. It seems 
that the Hindu logical treatise underwent the first stage of its 
philosophical transformation in the hands of some Buddhist phil- 
osopher, and became a gloomy and pessimistic science. The second 
Sutra of the first chapter, destroying so many things successively 
and reaching to apavarga, has the appearance of Buddhistic 
teaching. They enumerate a long series of effects from false 
knowledge, and teach us that as we destroy effects, we perceive 
the causes, that these causes are also effects ; we destroy them and 
gTadually we come to the original cause of all these, namely, 
false knowledge ; when that is destroyed we come to nirvana. 
This is precisely the teaching of the second Sutra, though the 
enumeration is not so long. The Buddhist tradition, as we know 
it from China and Japan, distinctly says that the Logic of 
Aksapada was their handbook in logic, and that tliey added to and 
subtracted from it. The tradition is positive that Mirok mixed up 
Nyaya and Yoga, and we find in the present Nyayasutra a long 
section on Toga in IV. 2, and one is puzzled to know why it has 
been introduced. The grounds advanced by Hindu commentators 
for its introduction are of the flimsiest kind. But the fact 
comes from China that Mirok mixed the two up. So some other 
Buddhist philosophers might have introduced the second Siitra 
and changed the prameyasutra so as to stiit his purpose. 

That the science of Aksapada was, for a long time, in the 
hands of the Buddhists, and, therefore, not in great favour with 
the Brahmanist, will' appear from the following considerations. 
The Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Puranas, and even the 
Dharmaastras dislike those who studied the Tarkasastra. 
The Vedantasutras distinctly say that this science was not 
accepted by the orthodox. They are known as little removed 
from the Buddhists — the Buddhists are nihilists, they are half 
nihilists (ardhavainasika). That there was an unholy alliance 
between the Nyaya and the Buddhists in the early centuries of 
Buddhism, is not open to grave doubts. The introduction of the 
second Sutra, the alterations in the prameyasutra, and the 
definitions of misery, birtli or rebirth, activity, faults, and 
emancipation in the first chapter appear to be the work of Bud- 
dhists. The e.vami nation of these definitions occupy the whole of 
the first Lecture of the fourth chapter. 

The work underwent another transformation in the hands of 
a later Hindu sect who vigorously assailed some of the prominent 
Buddhist doctrines, both Maliayanist and Hinayanisfc. These 
as.sailed Sarvadsiinyatavada on the one hand, and Sarvastvada 
on the other. To know who they were not, one has simply to 
cast his eyes on the various theories that have been assailed 
in connexion with the examination of rebirth. These are 

250 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905, 

l^sjpftqr^T^, t^^Ti^T^I, ^T*1%^^, ^-^tl^riiar, 'a^fsictisi, ^^5^^, 
mq ^ «^jfrT, ^T^?FTfr^^ l But this gives us no clue to the identi- 
fication of the sect, save and except that they were non-Buddhists. 
Haribhadra, however, tells us that these were Saivas and Hari- 
bhadra belongs to the fifth ceniury of the Christian era. 

Haribhadra's statement is borne out by two facts. Sutra 8, 
Chapter I., seems to be out of place. The pramanas aie defined 
in the four previous Sutras, and, all of a sudden, comes a Sutra 
subdividing sabda ; subdivisions of sabda are unknown in other 
systems of philosophy. It is generally translated by the word, 
*' dogma." The distinctions between the Revealed Word and the 
Ordinary "Word is peculiar to the Nyayasiitras. It is not Buddhis- 
tic, because they did not know of this subdivision. And in the 
fifth century, they discarded dogma altogether. Moreover, the 
introduction of this Sutra explains the introduction of the section, 
on the authority of the Vedas, and along with it, of a quarrel with 
the Mimanjsakas on the eternity of sound. 

All this seems to be the work of a Hindu sect which we take 
to be the Saivas at the instance of Haribhadra. These are a 
compromise between the Hindus and the Buddhists. 

So the present Nyayasutras consist of three treatises on Logic. 
And the bit of Hindu systems of philosophy that it contained has 
been mixed up with two other systems of philosophy, wliich have 
been laterly interpolated into the book. 

Even after a careful examination, I do not find the Nine 
Reasons and Fourteen Fallacies attributed to Aksapada by the 
Chinese authorities. There are chapters on fallacies and ' homo- 
geneity, and heterogeneity ' play an important part in the Nyaya- 
sutras. But yet no "Nine Reasons" and "Fourteen Fallacies," 
Perliaps the primitive work of Aksapada was systematised in 
very early times by another person named Gotama. But this 
is diving too deep into the antiquity of Hindu thought, and our 
appliances are not sufficient for the purpose. 

"Vol. 1, No. 10.] Optimism in Ancient Ni/aya. 251 


35. Optimism in Ancient Nyaya. — By Vanamali VedantatIetha. 

In the iiitei-esting paper "A study of_tlie Nyaya- Sutras," 
which Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasada Sastrl read in the 
Asiatic Society's Meeting in November 1905, I was delighted to 
find him advocating, with very cogent arguments, that the original 
Nynya-Sittras ivere not pessimistic. Nowadays Nyaya Philosophy 
means Nyayavaisesika, and the philosophic productions of the 
modern Naiyayikas are really Vaisesika Philosophy in a Naiya- 
yika garb. The terminology and the method are Naiyayika, but 
the philosophy is, nevertheless, Vaisesika. Thus the pessi- 
mism of the modern Naiyayika is due not to his Nyaya, but to 
his Vaisesika, from which he does not know how to distinguish 
his Nyaya. The well-known couplet 

makes the Vaisesika salvation consist in an anconscious, pleasure- 
less, painless existence. This is as it should be. But when 
Srihasa makes Grotama (otherwise called Aksapada) responsible 
for a pessimistic doctrine of salvation, he seems to have uncriti- 
cally stated the common opinion of his time. Says he — 

%^ ^: ftl^Tt^T^ ^T^JJ% 5R%ff^T?T 
TO^ cT?7%=^ (5) ^ ^^T f^-m cT^"^ W. 

(Naisadha XVII., 75.) 

The following extracts from the Sarnksei^a-Saukarajaya of 
Madhavacarya will substantiate the Sastri's view. It shows 
that even the comparatively recent Madhava was not unacquain- 
ted with the fact that the Naiyayika salvation was really optimis- 
tic and included an element of pleasure, though it was vulgarly 
identified with the Vaisesika salvation. Whether the aixthor 
was or was not the celebrated Madhavacarya, the minister 
of the Bukka family of Vijayna,gar, is immaterial to the argument. 
For what is cont_ended hei-e is that even in such a late production 
as the Saksepa 8ankara-jaya, which professedly is an abstract 
of a larger life of Sankara, the Naiyayikas are cj-edited with an 
optimistic view of salvation. 

252 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905» 

(Samksepa Sankarajaya XVI., 68-69). 

Says tlie N'aiyayika varuitingiy (to Saiikara) : " If you' are 
omniscient, state tlie difference between tlie theories of salvation as 
held by Kanada and by Aksapada, Otherwise give up your 
pi-etensions to omniscience." (Replies Sahkara) "According to 
Kanada, salvation is existence, where all connexion with attributes 
has been absolutely destroyed, and the soul remains like the sky. 
According to your Aksapada that salvation includes a conscious- 
ness of pleasure." 

Sankara, the great Advaita commentator on the Brahma- 
sutras, went to Sarada-pitha in Kasmira, and before he could 
enter into the shrine, he was questioned by diiferent philosophers 
on nice points of Indian Philosophy. Permission to enter was 
conditional upon answering these questions rightly. The two 
couplets quoted above occur just after §ankai'a had successfully 
answered the atomic philosopher (Kanada). 

From what has been said, it, will be evident that though 
sukha or pleasure is not enumerated as a separate prameya in 
Ifyayasutra (I. 1. 9), as known at present, and though section 13 
of the first ahnika of the fourth chapter reduces it to mere pain, yet 
it (pleasui-e) had a place in the old l^yaya Sastra, and that the 
true tradition was not lost in such out-of-the-way places as the 
_arada pitha in Kasmira, and that only such great masters as 
Saiikara were expected to know it, the tradition having been lost 
in the mainland of India much earlier. 

Vol. I, ISTo. 10.] The Dates of Suhandhti and Bin-nnga. 253 


36. Some Notes on the Dates of Stibandhu and Din-naya. — By 
Haraprasad S'astri. 

Since the publication of an edition of tlie Vasavadatta b j 
Edward Hall, in the Bibliotheca Indica, in 1859, the date of its 
author is taken to be either the end of the sixth century or the 
beginning of the seventh. The reason assigned by Hall for 
arriving at this conclusion is the fact that Bana in the beginning 
of the seventh century mentions Sabandhii as one of his prede- 

However unsatisfactory the reason might be, the Orientalists 
have accepted the above date for Subandhu. The question, how- 
ever, is still an oijen one ; and here are facts which may be taken 
for what they are worth. 

In discoarsing on the excellencies of style, Vamana, who 
belongs to the ninth century a.d., in his Kavyalatikara Sutra 
Vvtti, quotes a verse as an example of the excellency named 
Significance (sabhiprayatva). 

The verse or rather hemistich runs thus : — 

" The celebrated son of Candragupta, the young raja Gandra- 
praksa, has become the refuge of learned men, and fortunately 
his labours are successful." 

Commenting on this the author says, that the words, " the 
refuge of learned men," are significant, been use they bring to 
mind the fact that Subandhu was one of his ministers. 

Now, there were two Candragaptas in the Gupta line ; both 
were called Vikramaditya. The first was the founder of the 
erapire and the second his grandson. The second Candragupta 
was a patron of learned men. Is it not likely that Subandhu 
served under one of his sons, Candraprakasa ? 

It is an old custom among Indian sovereigns to appoint their 
adult sons to rule extensive territories, and these Princes used 
to hold courts on the model of their imperial fathers This 
Candraprakasa seems to have done with Subandhu as one of 
his ministers. ; 

As Candragupta's inscriptions range from 400 to 414 A.D., 
Subandhu must have flourished about that time, i.e., in the 
beginning of the fifth century. 

There may be an objection to this, that in some MSS. 
the word is not Subandhu but Vastubandhu. But there is no such 
name as Vastubandhu in the history of Sanskrit literature, so 
far as it is known. Vastubandhu may be a corruption of 
Vasubandhu who flourished about this time ; but he was a 
Buddhist monk who would not accept office and would not be 
spoken of with favoui- \)j a Hindu wiiter. Vastubandhu is only,. 
I believe, a scribe's mistake for Subandhu. , i 

254 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905. 

There is a passage in Subandhu's own woi'k Vasavadatta 
whicli seems to coBfirm my conclusion. In the preface to his 
Vasavadatta, he regrets that on the death of Vikx^amaditya, new 
people came to the front, the old taste for poetry was gone, and 
everyone's hand was at his neighbour's throat. It seems that on 
the death of Candragupta there was a civil war, and Subandhu 
came to grief, by supporting a losing cause. The successor of 
Candragupta Yikramaditya was Kumaragupta and not Candra- 

Kern in his " Indian Buddhism " puts down Diiinaga between 
520 and 600 a.d. The Chinese think that he flourished in 
the tenth century of the Buddhist era, i.e., between 420 and 520 
AD, Takakusu, in his paper on the date of Vasubandhu, has 
shown from the dotted Buddhist records left by Indian 
pandits in Chinese monasteries, that the date of Buddha's death 
is very nearly the same as has been arrived at by the Orientalists 
of Europe, viz., 480. B.C. 

I have got a quotation from Dirinaga's woi'k in Haribhadra's 
famous work entitled " Saddarsana Samuccaya." He says that the 

definition of Pratyaksa or perception is ^fWTT'Tl'S'TIWr'fr — and he 

also says that tlie Buddhists believe only in two sources of right 
knowledge. It is well known that Ditiiiaga discarded §abda, 
or dogma, from the sources of inght knowledge, and fixed the 
number of these sources at two ; and Dinnaga's definition of 

Pratyaksa is known to be ^^m rS^ftS'T^I'^. So the quotation is 
from Diiinaga. 

Haribhadra was one of the great Jaina wi'iters whose date 
of death is fixed by the universal tradition amongst the Jainas, at 
535 Vikrama samvat, i.e., 479 a.d. The dates are given in 
two Prakrta gathas, in pp. 372 and 378, vol. iv. Peterson's 

A study of Haribhadra's work confirms the idea that he 
belonged to about the fifth century a.d. He does not know 
Vedanta as a system of Philosophy. He enumerates the following 
as the six systems : — 

Bauddha, Naiyayika, Samkhya, Jaina, Vaisesika and Mimam- 
saka. But, says he, if one considers K'aiyayika and Vaisesika 
iiO he one and the same system, to him the sixth would be the 
Carvaka. All these stamp him as flourshing before the rise of 
Vedanta and Yoga. His Mimamsa does not show any sign that 
he knew Kumarila. 

If Haribhadra, before 479 a.d., quotes from Dinnaga and 
adopts his view as universally accepted by Buddhists, Dinnaga 
must have flourished some time before him. 

Sadajira Sugiura, who writes a monograph on Hindu Logic 
as preserved in China and -Japan, says that tlie name of Dinnaga's 
i^eacher is not known. But Kern says he was a pupil either of 
Asanga or of Vasubandhu — two brothers who distinguished them- 
selves as Mahayanist writers. Takakusu places Vasubandhu in 
ihe reign of Skandagupta, and his son Baladitya in the seventies 

Vol. I, No. 10.] The Dates of StihaiulJm and Din-naga. 255^ 

and eighties of the fifth centiny a.d. This, I think, is untenable. 
Takakusu makes two initial mistakes: (1) Skandagnpta is not 
Vikramaditya but Kramaditya ; and (2) he was not succeeded by 
Baladitya but by Pura Gupta. 

If we take the Yikramaditya mentioned by Takakusu to be 
Candragupta, who is really called Yikramaditya in his coins, and 
Baladitya for his heir-apparent Kumaragupta, then the account by 
Takakusu and that bj^ Haribhadra can be reconciled. Baladitya 
is not a proper name : it simply means " the young Sun," the 
heir-apparent. If this view of the thing is accepted. Dinnaga, 
the pupil either of Vasubandhu or of Asanga, would write his 
books in the first quarter of the fifth century ; and by the time- 
Haribhadra wrote, they would be well-known works. 

Candragupta Vikramaditya seems to have had two sons — 
Candrapi-akasa and Baladitya ; of these Baladitya favoured the 
Buddhists and succeeded to the throne, while Candraprakasa was 
worsted in civil war and his minister Subandhu complained 
that " new men " came to the front, the old taste for poetry was 
gone, and everyone's hand was at his neighbour's throat. 

256 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905. 

37. Formation of New Gades. — By B,. Burn, I.C.S. 

An interesting example of the constant movement going on among 
Hindu castes lias recently been brought to my notice. Among tlie 
numerous endogamous groups included in the term Yaisya or Bania 
are two known as Barahseni and Chauseni, the members of which 
are chiefly found in the Central Doab. The former claim descent 
from the Chandravansi King Brasni, while one account of the 
latter traces their oi-igin to Ghana r, a wrestler attached to the 
Court of Raja Kans who was slain by Krisna. There seems little 
■doubt that neither group is in reality of any considerable antiquity. 
While the Barahseni s are shopkeepers and frequently confectioners, 
they were, till recently, only allowed to sell articles made up of 
milk and curds, such as pera, harft, etc., and not sweetmeats contain- 
ing flour or grain such as puri and haliva. The Chausenis are 
usually regarded as a class composed of illegitimate children of 
Barahseni s or outcastes from that group. 

Two events have, however, recently happened which show 
that the Chausenis are rising in importance and now object to 
receive recruits in the usual manner. The Hindu Barahsenis 
have already reached the stage at which widow remarriage is no 
longer recognized. Some members have, however, joined the 
Arya Samaj, and a marriage was lately celebrated between a 
Barahseni man and a widow of the same group. When the 
project was announced, the orthodox Hindus held a meeting and 
endeavoured to stop further proceedings, but without success. 
Two days after the marria,ge another meeting was held, and the 
raarried couple and those who aided them were solemnly ex- 
communicated. A printed notice has been widely circulated 
directing all Barahsenis to avoid dining, marrying, drinking or 
holding any communication with those outcasted. A large feast 
was subsequently held, at which about 4,000 orthodox Barahsenis 
were present, but to which none of the guilty members were 
invited. The feeling has gone so far that some men whose sons 
had previously married into families now outcasted have re- 
called their daughters-in-law, and refuse to let them visit their 
parents. Others have turned their own daughters out of their 
houses as they are married to outcastes. 

The other case differs in nature. A Barahseni, A, has a 
daughter who was married to B. B abandoned his wife and 
kept a Musalman woman by whom he had several children, and 
it was thought that he had become a Musulman. He recently 
came to A and claimed his wife, and was entertained by his 
father-in-law. A has, thei-efore, been outcasted, and was not 
invited to the caste feast which celebrated the expulsion of those 
concerned with the remarriage of a widow. 

The question now arises, what is to become of the persons 
outcasted ? Up to a recent date they would have been received 
by the Chausenis. This group, however, refuses to admit them, 
as an important section of it has refused to recognize widow 
man^iage, and even the rest of the group look on the practice 

Vol.^T, ISTo. 10.] Formation of New Castes. 257 


with, growing disfavour. The oiitcastes in the first case themselves 
refuse to be considei'ed as Chausenis on the ground that the widow 
remarriage took place between persons of the same caste, while 
degradation is only effected where a connection takes place be- 
tween members of different castes. The Chausenis refuse to 
accept A and B, because they hold that the contact with Musal- 
mans has rendered them unfit for any relations. So far, no final 
decision has been arrived at, and the result is that the excommu- 
nicated persons are regarded as having no caste at all. It is not 
improbable that the persons turned out for their connection with 
the widow remarriage will form a separate group. 

258 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905^ 

38. Ascaris Tialicoris Baird. — By Dr. V. Linstow. Commnvicated 
by N. Ana'Andale.i (With 1 plate). 

Aus der Pars pylorica des Magens von Halicore dugong Quoj 
& Graim. Golf von Manaar. 

Owen, Catalogue of the Physiological Series of Comparative 
Anatomy, London, 1833. 

Owen, Proc. Zool. Soc , London, VI., 1838, p. 30. 

Baird, Proc. Zool. Soc, London, XXVIL, 1859, pp. 148-149,. 
tab. Ivi, figs. 2-2c, 

Parona, Annal. Mus. Civic. Genova, 2 ser., VII., Genova, 
1889, pp. 751-761, fig. 1-3, tab. xiii, figs. 1-16. 

Stiles u. Hassall, Intern. Paras, of the Fur Seal, Washington^ 
1899, pp. 147-151, figs. 70-75._ 

Aus deni Magen von Halicore dugong : Penang, Rothes Meer,. 

Die Art hiess friiher Ascaris halicoris Owen, aber Owen's 
Bezeichnung vom Jahre 1833 ist ein blosser Catalog-]S"anie ohne 
jede Beschreibung ; aiich im Jahre 1838 sagt er nur : " in each case 
the gland (des Magens von Halicore dugong) was infested hy 
Ascarides, hereafter to he described " ; er hat aber eine solche- 
Beschreibung nicht gegeben. 

Die erste Beschreibung, audi unter dem N^amen Ascaris 
halicoris, stammt A^on Baird, der die Lange des Mannchens auf 
63'5 mm, die des Weibchens auf 82'5 mm. angiebt, und die Vulva 
des Weibchens in f der Korperlange vom Kopfende findet. 

Bine eingehendere Beschreibung lieferte erst Parona ; er 
giebt an, dass das Mannchen 85-115 mm. lang ist, am Schwanzende 
stehen jederseits 4 prae- und 1 post-anale Papille und die Spicula 
sind kurz ; das Weibchen hat eine Lange von 85-144 mm. und 
eine Breite von 3" 5 mm ; die Vulva liegt an der Grenze vom 1. 
und 2 Drittel des Korpers ; die Vagina ist 6 '5 mm., die Uteri sind 
29 mm. lang ; eine blinddarmartige Verlangerung des Darms 
verlauft nach vom neben dem Osophagus und hat ^ der Lange 
desselben ; Parona giebt Durchschnitte der Korperwandung mit 
der Muskulatur, dem Dorsalfeld und dem Lateralfeld, letzteres 
mit dem in ihm verlaufenden Excretionsgefass, Durchschnitte der 
3 Lippen, des Osophagus, des Darms, des Blinddarms, des 
Ovarium, des Uterus und des Hodens. 

Stiles und Hassall haben die Art nicht untersucht ; sie 
referiren iiber die Beschreibungen Baird's und Parona's, und 
reproduciren einen Theil der Abbildungen derselben. 

Parona's Schilderung kann ich mehrfach erganzen und die 
Exemplare, welche meinen Untersuchungen zu Grunde lagen 

[1 Dr. von Linstow has been kind enough to send me the accompanying 
note on the Eonnd Worm of the Dngong. It appears that no commu- 
nication hfis previously been published in German by the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal ; but it has been felt that the work of so distinguished an authority 
should be issued exactly as it was received. No student of the Nematodes 
can be ignorant of the contents of Dr. von Linstow's numerous and invaluable 
contributions to the litei-ature of the group. — N. A.] 

Vol. I, No. 10.] Agciiris HaUcoris Baird. 259 

verdanke ich der Giite des Dr. N". Anxandale, Deputy Superinten- 
dent of the Indian Museum in Calcutta. 

Die Farbe der Nematoden soil ini Leben eine griinliclie sein. 
Beide Korperenden sind verdilnnt, und Kopf und Schwanzende 
sind abgerundet. 

Die Cuticula ist in Abstiinden von 0'016 mm. regelmassig 
quergeringelt ; eine grobere, tiefere Querringelung findet sich in 
Entfernungen von 028— 0'35 mm., und in den beiden Seitenlinien 
stehen in Inter vallen von 79 mm. vertiefte schwarz-pigmentirte 

Die Leitenfelder liaben eine Breite von \-^ des Durcbmessers 
und scbimmern als weisse Strange durch die Cuticula hindurcli. 

Die di'ei Lippen sind ohne Zwischenlippen, Zahnleisten und 
Loffelbildung ; die Dorsallippe ist 0'45 mm. lang und 0'48 mm. 
breit ; die grosste Breite liegt etwas vor der Mitte ; die Form ist 
gleicbmassig abgei^undet, die Pulpa bildet 2 rundliclie Vorspriinge 
nach vorn, die jeder einen kleinen fingerfoi'migen Auslaufer nach. 
innen, nicbt weit A^om Vorderrande, liaben ; die Papillen stehen 
im vorderen Drittel und sind weit nach aiissen geriickt. 

Der Osophagus nimmnt \ — ^ der Gesammtlange ein und ist 
0"59 mm. breit ; der 0'51 mm. breite Darm sendet eine blinddarm- 
artige Yerlangerung nach vorn, die an der Dorsalseite des Osopha- 
gus verlfiuft und langer als die Hiilfte des letzteren ist. 

Das Mannchen erreicht eine Lange von 115 mm., und eine 
Breite von 3'16 mm. ; das Schwanzende, welches -^^-^ der Gresammt- 
lange einnimmt, ist ventral eingebuchtet ; an demselben stehen 
jederseits ingrossen Abstanden4 prae- und 3 post- anale Papillen ; 
die vorderste der prae-analen steht 4"9 mm. vom Schwanzende 
entfernt ; das 0'19 mm. breite Vas deferens schwillt 4"7 mm. vor 
der Cloakenoifnung zn einer spindelformigen 062 mm. breiten 
Samenblase an ; die beiden Siri-en sind fast gerade, an der Wurzel 
knopiformig vex^dickt und 1'58 mm. lang bei einer Breite von 
0'079 mm. Sie verlaufen in einem Musculus protrusor, der sie mit 
einer Scheide rings umgiebt, und konnen von einem Musculus 
retractor ziiruckgezogen werden. Das dickwandige Vas deferens 
ist aussen gebildet von einer Ringmuskellage, an der innen ein sehr 
breites gekerntes Epithel steht ; audi der Ductus ejaculatorius hat 
im. Innern liohe gekenite Epithelzellen. 

Das Weibchen wird 140 mm. lang und 3'95 mm. breit ; das 
Schwanzende nininit Jy- der ganze Thierlange ein ; die Vulva 
theilt die Lange von vorn nach hinten im Verhaltniss von 14-29, 
liegt also an der Grenze von 1. und 2. Drittel. Die Vagina ist 
4'75 mm. lang and 0"39 mm. breit ; sie ist sehr dickwandig und 
lasst unter de;- Hiillniembran eine breite gekernte Ringmuskel- 
schicht erkennen ; dann folgt eine honiogene Lage und nach innen 
von diesei- eine breite Auskleidungsmembran mit Langsleisten. 
Die Vagina theilt sich in 2 Uteri, die 1'07 mm. breit sind ; unter 
der dicken Hiillniembian liegt eine gekernte Ringmuskelschicht, 
innen von dieser eine gTanulii-te Lage mit kleinen Kernen und 
nach innen von dor letztern eine Schicht sehr kleiner hyaliner 
kugelfoiTniu'ci- gf'kcrntei' Korfiorclien. Die Uteri verschmalern 

260 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1906. 

sicli am Ende anf 0'24 mm. und gehen in ein gestreckt eiformiges 
Receptaculum sem.inis von 1*78 mm. Lange und 0"59 mm. Breite 
■jiber, das an seiner Innenwand rundliclie gekernte Epitbelzellen 
tragt ; dann folgt eine 4'3 mm. lange und 0"24 mm. breite Tuba, 
welche ausser der Hiillmembran nur aus einer sebr macbtigen 
gekernten Ringmuskulatur bestebt, und auf die Tuba folgt das 
0*39 mm. breite, sebr lange, Yielfacb gewundene Ovarium. 

Die Eier sind kugelrund und 0'13 mm. gross ; die Schale ist 
dick und aussen dicbt mit unregelmassigen Eindriicken bedeckt, 
die bald rundlicb, bald viereckig, bald dreieckig und bald linien- 
formig sind. 

ErJclcirung der Ahhildtmgen. 

Eig. 1. Dorsallippe. 

Eig. 2. Mannliclies Scbwanzende von der linken Seite. 

Eig. 3. Querscbnitt durcb das Vas defei-ens. 

Eig. 4. Querscbnitt durcb die Vagina. 

Eig. 5, u Uterus-Bnde ; r Receptaculum seminis ; t Tuba ; 

o Tbeil des Ovarium, 
Eig. 6. Querscbnitt des Uterus. 
Eig. 7. Tbeil eines Uterus-Querscbnitts (starker vergros- 

Eig. 8. Querscbnitt der Tuba. 

Eig. 9. Tbeil eines Querscbnitts des Receptaculum seminis. 
Eig. 10. Vagina mit dem Beginn der beiden Uteri. 

Vol. I, No. 10.1 Numismatic Supplement VI. 261 


N.B. — The enumeration of these articles is continued from page 133 
of the Journal for 1905. 


42. A Hoard of Rajput coins found in the Garhwal District. 

The following analysis of a hoard of Rajput coins found at 
Lansdowne, in the Garhwal District of the United Provinces, is of 
sorae interest, both on account of the contents of the hoard and on 
account of the place of its discovery. 

The circumstances of the find cannot be better described than 
in the words of the owner, Major M. B. Roberts, 1/39 Garhwal 
Rifles. In a letter to the British Museum, dated 29tli May, 1905, 
lie says : — 

" The following is the history of the finding of these coins: 

My Regiment is permanently stationed at Lansdowne (a 

cantonment which came into existence on 4th November, 1887) in 
the Garhwal District of the United Provinces of Agra and Oadh 
(late North-Western Provinces). The station is situated on the 
outer range of the Himalayas between 5,000 or 6,000 feet above 
sea level, and lies just about half-way between Naini Tal and 
Mussoorie. The district is populated for the most part by Rajputs, 
who were supposed to have immigrated there from Rajputana at 
various periods up to about 1,000 years ago, I believe. On the 
22nd October last, whilst having a building site for my house ex- 
cavated on the top of the ridge, a number of these coins, all exactly 
alike, were discovered buried in a small earthenware pot about two 
feet below the surface. Unfortunately the earthenware pot was 
broken into minute fragments by the pickaxe." 

The coins were 167 in number ; they were of copper, often show- 
ing traces of silverplating, and they were all of the well-known 
Rajput types "the bull and horseman." They are distributed as 
follows : — 

Tomcira Dynasty of Dehli and Qanauj. 

Sallaksana-Pala Deva, A.D. 978-1003.^ 

(v. Cunningham, Coins of Mediseval India, page 88, 

PI. IX. 1) ... ... ... 5 

Ananga-Pala Deva, A.D. 1049-1079. 

{ibid, page 85, PI. IX. 4 and 5) ... ... 6 

Rahtor Dynasty of Qanauj. 

Madana-Pala Deva, A.D. 1080-1115. 

(ihid. page 85, PI. IX. 15) ... ... 39 

i The diices given are those of Caiiiiingham. 

262 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905^ 

GliauTian Dynasty of Ajmir and Dehli. 

SomeSvara Deva, A.D. 1162-1166. 

(^■6^(^. page86, PL IX. 9) ... ... 21 

Uajputs of Naricar. 

Chaliada Deva, A.D. 1234-1256. 

(Thomas, Pathmis, page 70, referred to but not 

illustrated in Cunningham, op. cit. page 92) 72 

-Coins not completely identified. 

(cf. Cunningham, op. cit. page 88) ... ... 14 

Total ... 157 

It will be seen that the coins, which are at the same time both 
the most numerous and the latest in date, are those of Chahada 
Deva ; and it is, therefore, not unreasonable to suggest that the 
hoard was most probably concealed during his reign. 

An excellent summary of the chief events of the reign of 
Chahada Deva is to be found in Thomas, Pa^/mws, page 67ff. His 
position seems to have been that of " the recognised leader and 
lord paramount of the Hindu princes of Central India, struggling 
to preserve their kingdoms from the foreign invader " (op. cit.. 
page 68). He is described in an inscription of his descendant Gana- 
pati (Vikrama 1855, A.D. 1298) as the founder of a family of 
Rajput princes reigning at !Nalapura (Xarwar),! and his coins of 
the Narwar type bear dates varying from 129a3 to 1311 Yikrama 
(A.D. 1233-1-33 to 1254)2 ; but such of his coins as occur in the 
persent hoard are not of the well-known Narwar type, and they 
would certainly seem to indicate some extension of his dominion. 
Ajmir would be a far more probable attribution for these coins, 
though the varieties of Rajput coinage have not yet been studied 
with sufficient minuteness to enable us in most cases, to deter- 
mine their different localities with precision. ^ All that can be said 
with certainty in regard to the locality of these coins is that they' 
do not belong to Narwar, the characteristic types of which are 
quite different. 

As Thomas points out (page 70), the coins bearing the name 
of Chahada Deva represent him either (1) as an independent sov- 
ereign, or (2) as a tributary to the Muhammadan conqueror, Shams- 
ud-din Altamsh. All the seventy-two coins of his which are in- 
cluded in this hoard belong to the former class ; and we may 

1 Indian Antiquary, XXTI, p. 81. 

S Cunningham, Goiris of Mediaeval India, p. 90, PI. X. 5-7. 

3 Cunningham {op. cit. p. 91) attributes these coins to Ranthambhor, 
But if the chronological .table given by Thomas, p. 45, is correct, Rantham- 
bhor was captured by Altamsh in Hejira 623 = A.D. 1226; and Chahada- 
deva seems not to be heard of before A.D. 1234 (Thomas, p. 67). 

Vol. I, No. 10.] Numismatic Supplement VI. 263 


perhaps conclude that the hoard was buried in the earlier part of 
his reign before the date of his submission to Altamsh. 

Major Roberts has noticed the tradition which is still preserved 
of immigrations of the population frora Rajputana to Garhwal. 
It is extreraely probable that the Mnhammadan conquests were 
one of the chief causes of such immigrations ; and the hoard, which 
we have examined, may, therefore, be regarded as an historical 
record of considerable interest. 

It remains only to add that, through the generosity of Major 
Roberts, specimens of each variety represented in the hoard have 
been added to the collection of the British Museum. 

British Museum : E. J. Rapson. 


Some rarh; Mughal Coins. 

(i) Akhar. 

Weight, 306 grains. 
Size, '84 inch. 
Date, 981 in Persian words. 

Obverse. ij^^ o^*aa». 

Reverse. jiliw** {San-i-Nuhsacl hashtdd wa yak) 

Fulus of Akbar from the Dehli Mint with the title Hazrat are 
known, but this Fuliis bears the full title Ddr-ul-Mulk Hazrat, 
which we'meet on Humayun's Fulus. 




Weight,\lh4: grains. 

Size, •? inch. 

Bate, 965 in Persian 




■b Fulus 



Firoza ) 

ijfj^ ^j*^ 

264 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905. 

•^•^-^^r*^ fij^ {San-i-Tdrikh 

Reverse. *^«2 Nuhsad 8hasht.) 

(^-Ap (wa) Panj). 

This Fidus (liitlierto unpnblisliecl. ) weighs 154 grains, and i& 
therefore half a Dam or half a Fulus. 

There is an eiglit-rayed star just to the right of «-> of (j»^A* 

(iii) Farrukhsiyar. 


Weight, 100 grains. 
Size, '75 inch. 
Mint, Bahadur gai-h. ? 
No date. 

Reverse. S *j* J'^'f? 

This is a new mint in copper of this king. As the word Baha- 
dur is found engraven on this FnlUs, it is open to question whe- 
ther it is (1) Bahadurgarh, (2) Bahadurpatan, or (3) Bahadurpur. 
I was fortunate in getting this coin as a jjresent from my kind friend 
Mr. Cowasjee Eduljee Kotwall of this place, along with some 
rubbings of copjDer Fuliis of the same king. On one of the rub- 
bings I read distinctly the mint (Bah)adurgarh. 

(iv) Jahdnddr Shah. 


Weight, 166 grains. 

Size, "75 inch. 

Mint, Daru-s-Saltanat Burhanpur. 

Date, Ahad (^^.-t 

Obverse. Portions of the usual legends, 
in three lines. 


Vol. I, JN'o. 10.] Numismatic Supplement VI. 265 


Hitlierto coins are known to have been issued from the Bur- 
hanpiu" Mint either without, or with one of its titles — viz., Baldat 

jjixb Baldat-i-FaJchira S^a^li 8*1} and Daru-s-Sarurjjj^\)\d. This 

')nolir adds a new epithet to this mint. 

(v) Raflu-d-Darjat. 
M. " 

Weight, 170 grains. 
Size, '92 inch. 

Mint, Zinat-nl-Bulad Ahmadahad. 
Date, 11(31) A.H. 

Obverse. Couplet in three lines thus — 

The Hijri year is at the right of the top line. 



jj*^.sIa3 ij>i*i;« tW^^ 

I have had a rupee similar in design to this gold mohr pre- 
sented by my kind friend Dr. Geo. P. Taylor, of Ahmadabad. 
It was Dr. Taylor who pointed out, for the fii-st time, that 
Ahmadabad, like other epithets, was associated also with the 
title Zinat-ul-Balad (the Beauty of Towns). F^■c^e his interest- 
ing article on "Coins of Ahmadabad," pages 436-437, Plate Y. 
Volnme XX. No. LVI, Journal Bombay B.R.A, Society. 

F. J. Thanawala, 


44. A New Type of thr Coins of Shah Shuja'. 

The coin described below lias I'-ecently been acquired for the 
Luoknow Museum from a find in the Banda District. 

Ohrcrsc. Bsverse. 

Margin doubt tiil. 
A<- Weiyhl, 143. Sizf^, -T-". inch 

266 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905. 

Ko coins of Shah Shuja are recorded in the catalogues of the 
Calcutta and Lahore Museums. The British Museum Catalogue 
describes two coins ( Nos. 690 and 691). The reading of the 
new coin differs from these in the case of the reverse. There 
is no trace of a square area, and in this respect the new coin 
resembles the earlj issues of Shah Jahan. The horizontal mark 
below the first line is probablj^ part of the Avord »l^, and the similar 
mark above the last line is possibly ^^j, the completion of the word 
^\ which commences in the last line. I cannot explain the letter 
read as j which coraes between ilj and ijj^ in the first line. The 

reading of the last line suggests that the lower margin of the re- 
verse on both the coins described in the B.M. catalogue should 

read »Uj<yi^*i. In Coin Xo. 690 it is read ^U ( I )^ ( t ) which 

is historically improbable. The right margin of Coin Xo. 691 is 

read isL>t c^t'- -A. comparison with Coin l!s^o. 690 shows that it 

shoald be ^J>^ ii)\^AA.^^, The top margin of Xo. 691 seems to 

read \^j^\ ^■»'^ , which presents a difficulty. 

R. Burn. 

45. On the Identity of the Coins of Gujarat Fabric and the 


In this article I purpose submitting evidence which, in my 
opinion, goes to prove that the silver coins designated in the 
British Museu.m Catalogue coins of " Gujarat Fabric " are iden- 
tical with those known to early writers under the name of " Surat 

I. From the testimony of Eui'ojDean travellers in India in 
the seventeenth century, it is clear that in the first half of that 
century silver coins of two distinct types were current in and 
around the city of Surat. 

(a) Edward Terry, " Chaplain to the Right Hon. Sir 
Thomas Row, Knt., "' landed from the good ship 
" Charles " at the port of Surat on the 25th of 
September, 1616 (A.H. 1025). In his "Voyage to 
East India," first jDublished in 1655, he thus 
writes : — 

" They call their pieces of money roopes, of which 
" there are some of divers values, the meanest 
" worth two shillings and three-pence, and the 
" best two shillings and nine-pence sterling. By 
" these tliey account their estates and payments. 
" They have another coin of inferior value in 
" Guzarat, called Mamoodies, about twelve-pence 
" sterling ; both the former and these are made in 
" halves, and and some few iu quarters ; so that 
" three-pence is the least piece of silver current in 
" those countries, and very few of them to be seen. 

Vol. I, 'No. 10,] Numismatic Supplement VI. 267 


" Their silver coin is made either round or 

" square, but so thick as that it never breaks, nor 
" wears out.^" 

The " meanest " rupees in this passage correspond doubtless to 
the ordinary rupees issued by Akbar and Jahangir, weighing each 
about 180 grains ; but the " best " rupees will be the heavy ones, 
from 212 to 220 grains each, that were struck in the first few 
years of Jahangir's reign. The ratio of the former to the latter 
would be 180 : 220, or, as l^erry has it, 27 : 33. But besides 
these rupees a coin distinctly inferior was also cui-rent in Gujarat, 
to wit, the " mamoody," worth about 12ti, or a little less than 
half the ordinary rupee of that time. 

( h) Sir Thomas Herbert, who, as Secretary to the English 
Embassy to Persia, journeyed in the East from 
1627 to 1629 (A.H. 1037-9), writes in bis " Travels " 
regarding the money of " Indostan. " 
" The current money here is pice, which, is an beavy 
" round piece of brass, 30 of wliicli make one 
" shilling. The Mamoody, which is of good 
" silver, round and thick, stamped after the man- 
" ner of the Saracens (who allow no images) with 
" Arabick letters, only impoi-ting the King and 
" Mahomet, is in value one shilling of our coin ; 
" and the Roopee, which is made also of like pure 
" silver, is 2s. 3d., and a Pardow 4.s.^ 
(c) But it is Albert de Mandelslo, resident in Siirat in 
1638 (A.H. 1048), who gives the most precise infor- 
mation as to the money current in " the Kingdome 
of Guzuratta." In his " Voyages and Travels " he 
writes : — 

" They have also two sorts of money, to wit, the 
" Mamoudies and the Ropias. The Mamoudis are 
" made at Surat, of silver of a very base alley, and 
" are worth about twelve-pence sterling, and they 
" go onely at Surat, Brodra, Broitchia, Cambaya, 
" and those parts. Over all the Kingdome be- 
" sides, as at Amadabath and elsewhere, they have 
" Ropias Chagam, which are very good silver, 
" and worth halfe a crown French mony. Their 
" small mony is of copper, and these are the 
'' Peyses we spoke of, and whereof twenty-six 

" make a Mamoudy, and fifty-four a Ropia 

" Spanish Ryalls and Rixdollars are worth there 

" five Mamoudis The Chequines and Ducats of 

" Venice are more common there (than the Xera- 
" phins), and are worth eight and a half, and 

' Terry : "A Voyage to East India," edition of 1777, p. 113. 
2 Harris- " A Oomploat Colloctioii of Voyages and' Travels," Vol. T. 
p. 411. 

268 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905, 

" sometimes nine Ropias, Surat-money, accord- 
" ing to tlie change and the rate set on the 
" money." I 

Reckoning the French crown (ecu), the Spanish real, and 
the German rixdollar (reichsthaler) each at 4s. 6d., and the 
Italian sequin and Venetian (gold) ducat each at 9s. 4c2., we arrive, 
according to the above passage, at the following values : The 
" Ropia Chagam " 27(Z. ; the Mahmiidi, or " Ropia, Surat-money," 
12'f., or VM. or 10 8fZ. or 12 Ad. It thus appears that, while the 
"Ropia Chagam," which is evidently the full Imperial rupee, 
stood fairly constant at 27d., the value of the Surat Mahmiidi 
fluctuated between a minimum of 10"8c?. and a maximum of 13d. 
We should also bear in mind that the silver of the Mahmiidi is 
here stated to have been inferior to that of the rupee ; also that 
the district in which the Mahmiidi passed as current coin was 
limited to the southern part of the province of Gujarat, say from 
Surat to Cam bay. 

II. With what coin may we identify this Surat Mahmudi ? Is 
it the same as the well-known Mahmiidi of Persia ? 

That any Persian money should have been current in Gujarat 
and restricted there to merely the southern districts is certainly 
very improbable. 

Moreover the value of this Persian Mahmiidi is given bj 
Tavernier as one-sixteenth of the Venetian sequin, i.e., 7d. or 
one-eighth of the Spanish dollar, i.e., 6^d.^ Also in the Table of 
Equivalences prefixed to J. P[hillips]'s English Translation of 
Tavernier's "Six Voyages" (1636-1667) the Persian Mahmiidi is 
entered as 8'06d. This, then, is plainly a considerably less valuable 
silver piece than the Siirat Mahmiidi ranging from lO'Sd. to ISd. 

When treating of the Persian coins, Fryer, whose eight 
letters were w^ritten from India or Persia between the years 1672 
and 1681, states — 

" 3 Shahees is 1 Mam. Surat ; 
2 Shahees is 1 Mamood. Persia "^ 

When Fryer thus definitely distinguishes between the Siirat 
Mahmiidi and the Persian, we may safely conclude that the two 
coins are not identical. 

III. Can the Siirat Mahmiidi have been a silver coin of one 
or other of the various types that were current in Cutch and 
Kathiawar (N'avanagar, Jimagadh, and Porbandar) ? 

The trade between Gujarat and Cutch, or Gujarat and 
Kathiawar, was for the most part carried on by land and not by 

i Mandelslo : " Voyages and Travels " : English translation by John 
Davies, edition of 1662, p. 85. 

Ball's edition of "Travels in India by Jean Baptiste Tavernier,'^ 
Vol I., p. 26, n. 4. 

8 Fryer: "A New Account of East India and Persia": edition of 
1698, p 211. 

Vol. I, N"o. 10.] Numismatic Stipplement VI. 269 


sea, and tlie influence of this trade would thus be specially felt in 
the north and north-west portion of the province. It hence 
appears extremely improbable that any coins from Cutch or 
Kathiawar should become the circulating medium in South Gruja- 
rat, yet not find acceptance as currency for Ahmadabad and the 

The coins of Cutch and Kathiawar may indeed have been 
originally called ' mahmudis,' but this designation soon gave 
place to the term ' kori,' the name that still attaches to them. 
Accordingly, if ever current in the Surat district, they would, in 
all probability, have been denominated not the Mahmudis but the 
Koris of Surat. 

Lastly, these Koris, like the Persian Mahmudis, were all of 
them considerably inferior in value to the Siirat Mahmudi. The 
latter, we have seen, was reckoned at about \2d., the rupee being 
27(?., but the Cutch Kori is now, and was probably then too, ap- 
praised at 7-l(Z., that of Jiinagadh at V'SJ., of Navanagar at 7'6^., 
and of Porbandar at Shd. Or, to express these relative values in 
another way, in exchange for Rs. 100, 225 Surat Mahmudis 
sufiiced ; but of the Ran ash ai Koris of Porbandar 318 were 
required ; of the Jamshai Koris of N^avanagar, 355 ; of the Diwan- 
shai Koris of Jiinagadh, 369 ; and of the Koris of Cutch, 380. In 
fact it would seem that, while the Surat Mahmudi fluctuated 
between half a rupee and a third, inclining to the half, the Kori 
ranged in value between a third of a rupee and a quarter, inclin- 
ing to the quarter. 

For the above reasons the conclusion is inevitable that the 
Kori, whether of Cutch or of Kathiawar, cannot be regarded as 
identical with the Surat Mahmiidi. 

IV. Were the Siirat Mahmudis the same as the silver coins 
of the Gujarat Saltanat ? 

Xo reason can be given why the Gujarat Saltanat coins should 
have remained current in the south of Gujarat, yet not in the 
north. Indeed, bearing in mind that during the declining years of 
the Saltanat, say, after the death of Bahadur in 1536, its coins 
probably all issued from a single mint — that of Ahmadabad — we 
may fairly assume that they would survive in circulation longer in 
the Ahmadabad, or northern, districts than in the south. It seems 
incredible that coins struck in Ahmadabad should be superseded 
there and yet be accepted as the currency of Surat. 

It was in A.H. 980 (A.D. 1573) that Akbar conquered Gujarat 
and annexed it to his Empire. In that same year he issued coins 
in his own name from the Ahmadabad Mint, and we may safely 
affirm that thereafter he would permit no more coins to be struck in 
the name of the vanquished Sultan Muzaffar III. Save for the five 
months of A.H. 991 (A.D. 1583) when Muzalfar again held the 
sovereignty of Gujarat, the minting of coins of the independent 
Saltanat must have ceased in the year 1573, thus some sixty-five 
years before Mandelslo's visit to Surat. Now it is surely most im- 
probable that during all these sixty-five years the coinage — never 
very plentiful — of the conquered province of Gujarat should have 

"270 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905. 

maintained its standing as the recognised currency of the southern 

We have already seen that the Surat Mahmudi was worth just 
about four-ninths of the Imperial I'upee, hence, had both coins been 
of equally good silver, the Mahmudi wo aid bave weighed 80 grains 
over against the 180 grains of the rupee. Its actual weight, how- 
ever, owing to the presence of a " very base alley," must have been 
more than 80 grains, say between 85 and 90. I^ow, no silver coins 
of the Gujarat Saltanat are known of this weight : tliey are all 
-either much lighter or much heavier. Of fifteen silver coins of 
Muzaffar III. now in my possession, the weights are as follow : — 
"35, 36, 67, 70, 71, 72 (four), 73, 74, 110, 111, 112, and 114 grains. 
Of these not one could by any possibility be regarded as in value 
four-fifths of a Mughal rupee. 

Thus we are compelled to the conclusion that the Surat Mah- 
mudi was not identical with any silver coin of the Gujarat 

y. If, now, this Mahmudi current in Surat was not the Persian 
Mahmiidi, nor the Catch orKathiawar Kori, nor the Mahmudi of 
the Gujarat Saltanat, then, by the " method of exhaustion," it must 
have been the Coin of Gujarat Fabric — the only remaning type. 
The identity of these two is confirmed by the following considera- 
tions : — 

(a) All the Gujarat Fabric coins bear impressed the name of 
Akbar, the conqueror of the province, and hence the 
Impei'ial Government would readily sanction the use 
of such coins for currency in a portion of the Empire. 

(h) The dates on these coins, ranging, so far as yet known, 
from A.H. 989 to 1027 (A.D. 1581-1618), bring 
them easily within the period to which the state- 
ments made regarding the Surat Mahmudi by Terry 
and Herbert and Mandelslo have reference. 

(c) One comes across these coins nowadays in the strip 
of country between Surat and Ahmadabad, but 
they are seldom found in Kathiawar or in North 
Gujarat. Thus it is the area in which the Surat 
Mahmudis were originally current that mainly sup- 
plies us at the present day with specimens of Guja- 
rat Fabric coins. 

(fZ) And — most important of all — the average weight of 
these Gujarat Fabric coins which now come to hand 
proves to be 85 grains. Hence we may infer the 
original weight to have been about 90 grains. Con- 
sidering both their base material and their weight, the 
money-value of such coins would bear to that of the 
Akbari or ordinary Jahangiri rupee a ratio of just 
about 12 : 27 — the ratio afiirmed by Mandelslo to 
subsist between the Surat Mahmudi and the " Ropia 

If, then, as the conclusion of the whole matter, we may regard 

yol, I, JSTo, 10.] Numismatic Supplement VI. 271 


the Gujarat Fabric coins as identical with the Surat Mabmudis, 
we may further unhesitatingly accept as true Mandelslo's express 
statement that these coins were " made at Surat." For a currency 
purely local tbere was apurel}^ local mintage. The capital city of 
the province, Ahmadabad, issued imperial rupees in the very year 
of the imperial conquest ; but soon thereafter the less important 
city in the south, Surat, opened with, we may well believe, im- 
perial sanction, a mint of its own, whence for some forty years 
issued not indeed " Kopias Chagam " bat the Surat Mahmudi,. 
known to-day as the coins of " Gujarat Fabric." 

Ahmadahad. Geo. P. Taylor. 


46. On some " Genealogical " corns op the Gujarat Saltanat. 

On the occasion of a recent visit to Bombay it was my good 
fortune to visit the rooms of the Bombay Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society in the company of my kind friend Mr. Framji 
Jamaspji Thanawala. He had previously written me that in the 
Society's cabinet he had discovered two coins of the Gujarat Sal- 
tanat, remarkable since bearing the pedigree of the regnant Sultan 
traced back, in each case, to the founder of the dynasty. Two 
such, if we may so call them, " genealogical " coins of Gujarat 
have already been published, one in Thomas' " Pathan Kings," and 
the other in the Journal of the Bo. Br. R.A.S.'No. LYIII. A 
description of all the four coins now known of this extremely rare 
type may jDrove of interest. 

J, Vide Thomas: "Pathan Kings," page 352. 


Weight, 172 grains. 

Bate, A.H. 828 (by a misprint entered in Thomas as A.H.^ 
823), A.D. 1424-25. 

( )Jti-i''rse. 

272 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905. 

2. In cabinet of Bo. Br. R.A.S. This coin was once looped, 
but the loop has been wrenched off. 


Weight, 167 grains. 
Bate, wanting. 

Obverse. In square. 

Margins quite illegible. 


3. In cabinet of Bo. Br. R.A.S. This coin is looped. 


Weight, 188 grains. 

Bate, A.H. [8]65, A.D. 1460-61. 



On the last line the first word is probably i^HaLJ^ 


This is the earliest Gajanxt coin yet known bearing the phrase 
ii)ViJ\ «iJlj ^}i]Jh, the Truster in Allah, the Gracious. 

"Vol. I, No, 10.] Numismatic Supplement VI. 273 


4. Vide Jour Bo. Br. R.A.S., No. LVIII., page 334, and 
Plate lY. 


Weight, 130 grains. 

Bate, A.H. 933, (A. D. 1526-27). 


Part of this legend is worn, but it is probable that the coin 
bore at this part the words (J.^a)\ji\ 


Thiis the legend, beginning on the obverse, is continued on the 

This most interesting coin was very kindly presented to me 
four years ago by Mr. H. Nelson Wright, I.C.S. 

In connexion with these four " genealogical " coins in silver, 
reference may be made to a bullion coin of allied type, struck by 

N.B. — The following Genealogical Table includes all the kings 
of the Gujarat Saltanat whose names occur on any of the five 
coins : — 

2.— MuzafEar I., H. 810-813. 

1.— Muhammad I., H. 806. 

3.— Ahmad I., H. 813-846. 

4.— Muhammad II., H. 846-855. 

5. - Qutbaldin Aljmad II., 6.— Mahmud I., H. 863-917 

H. 855-863. 

7.— Muzaffar II., H. 917-932. 

8.— Bahadur, H. 932-943. 

274 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 1905. 

Mahmud I in A.H. 863 (A.D. 1458-59), in which his relationship 
to the two preceding Sultans is indicated. The coin is figured 
on Plate II (Nos. 15a, ' 156) of the Jour. Bo. Br. R.A.S., 
1^0. LVIII. 

Its legends read as follow : — 


J Uj«>.J| j^A^ 

j-iA>t }i\ t^iiyh 

8(m> ,2^s«../o 


1)\.^ v^i ^t 

^\.M <>>«.su« ^J,> 

Air ^i)^ — 'i 


Geo. p. Taylor. 







The Monthly Genei^al Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 4th Januaiy, 1905, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.C.S., President, 
in the chaii". 

The following members were present : — 

Mr. J. Bathgate, Major W. J. Bythell, R.E., Babn Manmohan 
Chakravai'ti, Rai Sarat Chandra Das Bahadnr, Mr. F. Doxey, 
Mr. G. C. Dudgeon, Mr. N. L. Hallward, Dr. W. C. Hossack, Mr. 
H. H. Mann, Dr. M. M. Masoom, The Hon. Mr. Justice Saroda 
Charan Mitra, Captain L. Rogers, I.M.S., Pandit Yogesa Chandra 
Sastree, Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana. 

Visitors .—Mr. H. Chandler, Mr. P. M. Choudry, Rev. Ekai 
Kamagaichi, Mr. B. T. Pell, and Mr. S. C. Sanial. 

The minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

Sixty-nine presentations were announced. 

His Honour Sir A. H. L. Eraser, K.C.S.I., Lt.-Col. H. T. S. 
Ramsden, LA., Mr. J. T. Rankin, Mr. Sukumar Sen, Babu Muck- 
soodan Das, and Mr. F. Turner, were ballotted for and elected 
Ordinary Members. 

It was announced that Babu Roormall Goenka and Major A. H. 
Bingley, I.A., had expressed a wish to withdraw from the Society. 

The President announced that he had, in accordance with the 
resolution passed at the last CoiTucil Meeting, that the objects 
which the Society decided to lend to the Trustees of the Victoria 
Memorial Hall for exhiln'tion should be lent to them for exhibition 
during this cold season as soon as H.E. the Viceroy wished for 
them — handed tliem over to the Trustees, except the Asoka stone 
which the T)-nstees excluded. 

The President also announced that lie liad received six essays 

Proceedings. [January, 1905. 

in competition for the Elliott Prize for Scientific Researcli for the 
year 1904. 

Rai Sarat Chandra Das Bahadur described the Laniaic in- 
carnation of Tibet. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. On the MarJicmdeya, Purana.—By The Hon. Mr. Justice 
F. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.'O.S. 

The paper will not be published in the Journal. 

2. The Dalai Lama's Hierarchy. — By Rai Sarat Chandra 
Das Bahadur, C.I.E. 

The paper' has been published in Journal, Part I, Extra 
No., 1904. 

3. On the Prevalence of Fevers in the Dinajpur District. — By 
Leonard Rogers, M.D., I. M.S., Officiating Professor of Pnthology, 
Medical College, Calcutta. 

The paper has been published in Joiirnal, Part II, Sup- 
plement, 1904. 



FEBRUARY, 1905. botanical 


The Annual Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, 
the 1st February, 1905, at 9-30 p.m. 

His Excellency Lord Cukzon, G.M.S.I., Gr.M.I.E., Patron^- 
in the chair, - 

The following members were present : — 

Dr. A. G-. Allan, Mr. N". Annandale, Mr. J. Bathgate, Rev. 
P. 0. Bodding, Babu Monmohan Chakravarti, Mr. B. L. Ohaudhnrii 
Mr. W. R. Griper, Mr.- J. IS". Das-Giipta, Mr. W. K. Dods, Mr. 
F. Doxey, His Honour Sir A. H. L. Fraser, Mr. N". L. Hallward, Mr. 
T. H. Holland, Mr. D. Hooper, Dr. W. 0. Hossack, Mr. G. W. 
Kiiehler, Mr. 0. W. McMinn, Mr. J. Macfarlane, Mr. E. D. Macla- 
gan, Kumar Ramessur Maliah, The Hon. Mr. Justice F. E. Pargi- 
ter, Mr. W. Parsons, The Hon. Mr. A. Pedler, Kumar Satindradev 
Rai Mahasai, Dr. P. K. Ray, Mr. H. H. Risley, Captain L. Rogers, 
I.M.S., Dr. E. D. Ross, Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastree, Mahama- 
hopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, Mr. H. E. Stapleton, Pandit 
Satis Chandra Vidyabhushana, Mr. E. Vredenburg, Mr. W. H. 
Arden Wood, Mr. J. Wyness. 

Visitors .—Mr. R. E. V. Arbuthnot, Miss B. Buckland, Mr. H. 
Chandlei", Mr. E. C. Cotes, Mr. A.F. Cousins, Rev. J. Dahlmann, S.J., 
Lady Fraser, BabuDevabrata Mukhopadhyaya, Kumar Manindrader 
Rai Mahasai, Mr. S. C. Sanyal, Mr. Gr. Stapleton, Rev, A, 
Willifer- Young. 

According to the Rules of the Society, the President ordered 
the voting papers to be distributed for the election of Officers and 
Members of Council for 1905 and appointed Messrs. Gr. W. Kiiehler 
and N. L. Hallward to be scrutineers. 

The President announced that the Trustees of the " Elliott 
Prize for Scientific Research " had awarded the prize for the 
year 1904 to Babu Sarasi Lai Sarkar, and read the following report 
of the Trustees : — ' 

Be'port on the Elliott Prize for Scientific Research for 1904. 

The Tmstees have received Essays from the following com- 
petitors for the prize : — 

1. On the crystalline properties of a potassiicm copper fer- 
rocyanide compound. Parts I 8f II. — By Sarasi Lal Sarkar, M.A. 

2. On the experimental determination of the Electro-chemical 
(iquivahnt of nickel. (With diagrams.). — By Surendka Kath ■ 

IT) Maitra, M.A. 

02 3 


Annual Beport, [FeTbruary, 1905. 

3. On a complete investigation of a Phenomenon taking place 
heyond the critical angle. — By Jagadindra Roy, 

4. Ussay on metal soaps. — By Akshaya Kumar Majumdar, M.A. 

5. An JEssay on the results of '^Original Researches" (made 
during 1903-04) leading to the discovery of a cheap and simple chemical 
process for the extraction and cleaning of fibre from plantain and banana 
stalks easily adaptable for the development of a profitable industry by all 
classes of people in Bengal or in any place in India. — By Manindra- 
nath Banbrjee. 

6. On the Hindu method of manufacturing spirit from rice 
and its scientific explanation. — By JoGES Chandra Rot. 

The Trustees, after consulting experts as provided in the 
gcheme, adjudge the prize for the year 1904 to Balbu Sarasi Lai 
Sarkar, M.A. 

F. E. Pargitbr, 

President, Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Alex. Pedler, 
Director of Public Instruction, Bengal, 
Vice- Chancellor, Calc^itta University. 

80th January, 1905. 

The President also announced that the Barclay Memorial 
Medal for the year 1904 had been offered to Lt.-Col. D. D. Cunning- 
ham, F.R.S., C.I.E., I.M.S., (retired). 

The President then called upon the Secretary to read the 
Annual Report. 

Annual Report for 1904. 

The Council of the Society have the honour to submit the fol- 
lowing Report on the state of the Society's affaii^s during the 
year ending 31st December, 1904. 

Member List. 

During the year under review, 39 Ordinary Members were 
elected, 8 withdrew, 5 died, and 18 were removed from the, list, 
viz.: 6 under Rule 38, as defaulters ; 9 under Rule 40, being 
more than 3 years absent from India ; and 3 under Rule 9, not 


I^ebruary, 1905.] 

Annual BejporL 

having paid their entrance fees. The election of one memher was 
cancelled at his own request as he was not prepared to join 
the Society at once. Of the members elected, 2 were old members 
who rejoined. The total number of members, at the close of 1904, 
was thus 343 against 335 in the preceding year. This is higher 
than that of any year on record. Of these 132 were Resident, 
130 N'on-Resident, 14 ForeigTi, 21 Life, and 45 absent from India ; 
and one a Special N'on- Subscribing Member, as will be seen from 
the following table, which also shows the fluctuations in the num- 
ber of Ordinary Members during the past six years : — 




, a 
































































The five Ordinary Members, whose loss by death during the year 
we have to regret, were Dr. U. 0. Mukerjee, Mr. A. T. Pringle, Mr, 
H. M. Rustomjee, Dr. Mahendralal Sircar and Dr. C. R. Wilson. 

There was one death amongst the Honorary Members, viz., Dr. 
Otto von Bohtlingk. To fill this vacancy and others previously 
existing, the Society on the recommendation of the Council elected as 
Honorary Members, Professor H. Kern, Professor Ram Krishna 
Oopal Bhandarkar, Professor M. J. DeGoeje, Professor Ignaz 
Goldziher, Sir Charles Lyall, Sir William Ramsay, and Dr. 0. A. 

The List of Special Honorary Centenary Members and Associate 
Membei-s continued unaltered from last year ; their numbers 
standing at 4 and 13 respectively. 

Intimation was received of the death of Dr. Emil Schlagint- 
weit, the only Corresponding Member of the Society. 

No members compounded for their subscription" daring the 

Annual Report. [February, 1905. 

Indian Museum. 

There was only one change amongst the Ti'ustees ; it was 
caused by the death of Dr. Mahendralal Siroar, and Mr. J. Macf ar- 
lane was appointed to fill the vacant place. 

The other Trustees who represent the Society have been : — 

: The Hon. Mr. A. Pedler, CLE., F.R.S. 

G. W. Kiichler, Esq., M.A. 
T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
The Hon. Sir J. A. Boui-diUon, K.O.S.I. 


The accounts of the Society are shown in the Appendix under 
the usual heads, and besides in this year's account there is an 
additional statement under the head " Ai'abic and Persian Manu- 
scripts." Statement Xo. 9 contains the Balance Sheet of the 
Society and of the different funds administered through it. 

The financial position of the Society shows an improvement, 
and the" credit balance at the close of the year amounts to 
Rs. 1,92,939-7-5, which is more than eleven thousand rupees in 
advance of last year, and is chiefly due to the special Grovemment 
grant of Rs. 10,000. 

The Budget for 1904 was estimated at the following figures.:— 
Receipts Rs. 17,700 ; Expenditure Rs. 25,374-4 (Ordinary 
Rs. 17,254-4 ; Exti'aordinary Rs. 8,120.) Taking into account only 
the ordinary items of receipts and expenditure for the year 1904, the 
actual results have been : — Receipts Rs. 30,368-13-8 ; Expenditure 
Rs. 14,134-0-7, showing a balance (after setting aside the special 
grant of Rs. 10,000) in favour of the Society on its ordinary 
working of Rs. 6,234-13-1. Against this balance, there have 
been several extraordinary items of expenditure amounting to 
Rs. 5,182-8-10 ; the net balance is Rs. 1,052-4-3. There is a Tem- 
porary Investment of Rs. 48,300, at the close of the year, out of 
which Rs. 33,259-5-7 is in favour of the Society, Rs. 5,097-1-3 
Oriental Publication Fund, Rs. 3,578-0-5 Sanskrit MS. Fund, and 
Rs. 6,365-8-9 Arabic and Persian MS. Fund. In addition to this, 
a sum of Rs. 1,088 has been added to the Reserve Fund from 
entrance fees paid during the year. 

Thei'e is an increase in receipts under every head except 
*' Miscellaneous," which has fallen off very slightly. 

The ordinary expenditure Avas estimated at Rs. 17,254-4-0, 
but the amount paid out was only Rs. 14,134-0-7. The principal 
items in excess were " Postage," " Freight," " Books," " Pi-oceed- 
ings," and the increase was caused by larger transactions and 
the payment of outstanding printing charges and of Messrs. Luzac 
and Go's account from April 1902 to October 1904. The actual 
expenditure on the Journals was Rs. 3,673, against a budget provi- 
sion of Rs. 6,200. The balance is due on outstanding printing bllls7 

February, 1905.] Annual Report. 

There were tliree extraordinary items of expenditure during 
1904; under tlie heads " Furniture," " Pension " and " Building " 
not provided for in the Budget. New furniture was required, the 
lavatory arrangements were improved, and on the retirement of 
the Cashier, a pension of Rs. 112, at the rate of Rs. 20 per month ; 
has been paid to him, and in his place Babu Asutosh Dhur has been 

The expenditure on the Royal Society's Catalogue (including 
subscriptions sent to the Central Bureau) has been Rs. 5,842, 
while the receipts under this head from subscriptions received 
on behalf of the Central Bureau (including the grant from the 
Grovernment of India) Rs. 5,352. A sum of Rs. 610 is due to 
the Central Bureau and will be sent. 

Four extraordinary items of expenditui^e were budgetted for. 
Out of the sum of Rs. 1,000 for the salary of the Assistant engaged 
in revising the Library Catalogue, Rs. 81 only have been spent, as 
his services have been dispensed with. Rs. 1,800 were assigned 
for cleaning, varnishing and relining the Society's pictui'es, and 
Rs. 1,306 have been spent ; but a sum of Rs. 500 which had been 
advanced to the late Mr. A. E. Caddy, for cleaning the pictures, 
has been written oif as unrecoverable on his death, and Rs. 566 
have been spent on the freight, etc., due on the frames which 
were procured from England, while their cost has yet to be paid. 
Rs. 2,320 were paid for renewing the floor of the entrance hall, 
which is now gTeatly improved, and Rs. 366 were spent in 
tidditions to the lavatory arrangements. 

The Budget Estimate of Receipts and Disbursements for 1905 
has been fixed as follows : — Receipts Rs. 18,100, Expenditure Rs. 
17,654. The item "Rent of Rooms " has been increased, as one 
room has been rented to the Automobile Association of Bengal at 
Rs. 50 per month. On the expenditure side, the items " Freight " 
and " Journal Part III " have been increased, as greater activity 
is expected. " Insurance " has been i^educed by half owing to the 
removal of the Photographic Society of India. The item, " Regis- 
tration Fees " has been omitted, as under the Act no fee will be 
charged for filing copies of the Society's papers. There is a new 
item of Rs. 192 under the head " Pension." 

Three extraordinaiy items of expenditure have been budget- 
ted for during the year 1905, namely, Rs. 1,000 for the new 
Library Catalogue, Rs. 2,809 for reframing the pictures, and Rs. 
1,220 for white-washing and colourwashing part the Society's 
premises. Besides these provisions, the application of the 
special grant of Rs. 10,000 from the Government towards the 
thorough repair and improvement of the Society's premises is 
under careful consideration. 


Annual Report. 

[t'ebniary, 1905. 





Estimate. Actuals. 






... 7,500 



Sale of Publications 




Interest on Investments 

... 6,000 



Rent of Rooms 




Government Allowances 

... 3,000 13,000 







17,700 30,369 

18,100 - 





Salaries ... 









• A B •• • 







Lighting and Fans 




Municipal Taxes ... 




























Journal, Part I 




,, n ... 




„ . „ ni ... 








Pi"inting Circulars, &c. 




Registration Fee ... 


Auditor's Fee ... 




Petty Repairs 










14,1.34 17,654 

February, 1905.] 

Annual Beport. 

Extraordinary Expenditure. 

1904. 1904. 1905. 

Estimate. Actuals. Estimate. 

Library Catalogue 




Royal Society's Catalogue ... 





and Varnishing 


... ... 



Pictn re Frames ... 










... ... 





... ... 












The Council has transferred the London Agency of the 
Society — from Messrs. Luzac & Co. to Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 15 

During the year no publications have been sent to Messrs. 
Luzac & Co., pending the settlement of the question of Agency, 
but from them we have received books and papers of the value 
of £28-13-5. They have submitted a statement of their accounts 
to the end of October 1904, and the balance of £36-6-11 due to 
them has been remitted in full settlement of their account. 

Two consignments of publicatiotis have been sent to Mr. 
Quaritch since his appointment as the Society's London Agent, 
amounting to £60-17 and Rs. 533-2, being value of 480 copies- 
of the various issues of the Journals and Proceedings and of 741 
fasciculi of the Bibliotheca Indica, respectively. 

Our Continental Agent is Mr. Otto Harrassowitz, to whom we 
have sent publications valued at £19-17-6 and Rs. 560-8, of which 
£19-14-4 and Rs. 229-11-9 worth have been sold for us. 


The total number of volumes or parts of volumes added to the 
Library during the year was 2,949, of which 675 were purchased and 
2,274 presented or received in exchange for the Society's publica- 

The MS. of tfce new edition of the Society's Library Catalogue, 
after careful revision by the members of the Library Committee, 
was sent to the Press at the beginning of January 1905. 

The Government of India, with the assent of the Council, 
decided to publish a combined subject-index of the books in Euro- 
pean languages in the Society's Library and the Imperial Library. 
This is expected to be in print early in 1906. 

Annual Report. {¥ehrua,vj, 1905. 

In continuation of the Council order, the Imperial Library has 
been allowed to borrow books and MSS. from the Society for 
the use of its readers until the end of Aug'ust 1905. During the 
period from 28tli January to 31st December, 1904, 26 books and 5 
Manuscripts have been thus borrowed. 

In connection with the proposed rejection of certain books 
from the Society's Library, the General Meeting resolved , (1) 
that the books weeded out by the Committee be rejected and 
disposed of, the Medical works being placed in a collection by 
themselves ; (2) that the best way of disposing of them is by 
sale, and that they be accordingly offered for sale ; (3) that 
the first offer be made to the Imperial Library, and that, if 
it purchases any of these books, the prices of the books be settled 
between the Council and that Library according to the price- 
catalogues of Quaritch and other booksellers ; (4) that the next 
offer be made to the Calcutta University, the Presidency and 
other Colleges and the Medical College, and that the pi'ices of books 
bought by them be settled similarly ; (5) that the remainder of 
the rejected books be disposed of by public auction under some 
arrangement by which members and others can bid, and by which 
real prices may be obtained if possible ; and (6) that all books 
rejected and disposed of be first stamped plainly and indelibly 
with a special stamp. 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. 

During the year, the two remaining volumes of the first 
annual issue and the volumes of the second annual issue, with the 
exception of the volumes on Chemistry, Meteorology, Botany and 
Zoology have been received and distributed. 

Of the thii^d annual issue the volumes on Physics and Astro- 
nomy have been published but have not yet been received. 

A great falling off among subscribers for the second and 
subsequent issues has to be here I'ecorded. The Agent to the 
Governor- General in Rajputana (four sets), the Agent to the 
Governor- General in Central India (two sets), the Bombay Univer- 
sity Library (one set) and the l^ative General Library, Bombay 
(one set), are the most important ; special part subscribers have 
in three instances discontinued their subscriptions. 

The Director at the Central Bureau was informed of the 
number of copies thus left in hand, and he advised that they 
should be returned to London. The books have been packed up 
and will be sent off soon. 

All the subscriptions for the first annual issue, with two or 
three exceptions, have been received. A sum of £340, representing 
subscriptions for 20 complete sets, and another sum of £17-15-0 
for special parts, have been remitted to the Central Biireau during 
the year. 

The sanction of the Govei^nment of India was obtained 


February, 1905.] Annual Report. 

during the year to the expense of postage in the distribution 
of the Catalogue being met from the grant. 

Owing to the illness of the clerk dui-ing three months of the 
year a number of index slips were left over ; these after being 
checked by the experts will be despatched shortly. The number 
of slips sent to London was 71. 

Mr. W. D. Wright was appointed Clerk attached to the Regi- 
onal Biu'eauof the Royal Society in the place of Mr. J. B. Richard- 
son, resigned. 

Elliott Prize for Scientific Research. 

A sum of Rs. 1,000 out of the accumulated interest on account 
of the Elliott Pi'ize Fund in the hands of the Accountant Ceneral 
of Bengal has been invested in 3| per cent. Government securities ; 
and the Coiuicil has decided to reserve the power to make use 
of this investment, if required by the Trustees, in awarding the 

Barclay Memorial Medal. 

In connection with the Barclay Memorial Medal, the following 
gentlemen were appointed to form a special Committee to make 
the award during 1905 — Captain L. Rogers, I. M.S., the Natural 
History Secretary ; Mr. K. Annandale, Captain A. T. Gage, 
I.M.S., Mr. H. H. Hayden, and Major F. J. Drury, I.M.S. 

The Society's Premises and Property. 

The Council met several times to consider a letter from the 
Secretary to the Trustees of the Victoria Memorial, suggesting 
the loan of certain poi'traits and other objects of interest to the 
Victoina Memorial Hall, and, on the matter being referred to the 
general body of members, under rule 64A, it has been decided 
to lend certain specified objects for exhibition in the Victoria 
Memorial Hall, namely, the following portraits and ' other 
objects : — 

Tavo portraits of the Society's founder Sir William Jones 

(one of him as a youtli and the other in middle age) 

(Nos. 67 and 41); 
the portrait of Warren Hastings (No. 65) ; 
the bust of .James Prinsep (ISTo. 19) ; 
the old cannon of Mir Jumlu (No. 2) ; 
a Ms. of the Gulistan (No. 114) ; 
a Ms. of the Badsliah-riama (No. 118) ; 
three old co]jper-plate inscriptions (No. 126, found at 

Amgachi ; No. 135, found in the Sambalpur district ; 

and No. 136, found at Angasi) ; 
a stone edict bf King Ai^oka (No. 25) ; 


Amiual Report. [^Febftiaiy, 1905. 

a portrait of Shall' Haidar, King of Otidh 

(Xo. 26); 
a portrait of. James Grant Duff, antlior of tlie " History 

of the Mahrattas " (JN^o. 51) ; 
a painting of the interview between the Governor- Greneral 

and the Raja of Kota, (No. 107) ; and 
a portrait of ]!^asarat Jang, j^awab of Dacca (N^o. 91). 

This decision was communicated to the Trustees. They 
asked that these objects might be placed at their disposal at once, 
with the exception of the Asoka stone, for exhibition along with 
the other Victoria Memorial Exhibits in the galleries of the 
Indian Museum, and the Council have handed over the objects 
for exhibition in the Indian Museum Gallery during the cold 
season of 1904-5 with the request that the objects be returned 
when the exhibition closes, to be on view in the Society's rooms. 

During the year certain portions of the Society's rooms were 
whitewashed and colourwashed ; and the Council has now under 
consideration a proposal to execute thorough repairs and certain 
structural improvements in the Society's building. The cost will 
be great, but will be chiefly met out of a grant of Rs. 10,000 
which the Government of India has generously made to the 
Society for the purpose. The estimates are now under considera- 

All the pictures of the Society have been cleaned and var- 
nished at a cost of Rs. 1,306, and new frames have been received 
from London. The pictures will be reframed as soon as possible. 

Exchange of Publications. 

During 1904, the Council accepted eight applications for 
exchange of publications, viz : (1) from the Botanic Institute of 
Buitenzorg, Java, the Society's Journal Part II and Proceedings 
being exchanged for their " Annals " and " Icones Bogorienses " ; 
(2) from the Schlesische Gesellschaft fiir vaterlandische Cultur, 
Breslaii, the Society's Journal Parts I — III and Proceedings 
being exchanged for the publications of that Society ; (3) from 
the University of Montana, the Society's Journal Parts II 
and III for the " Bulletin " ; (4) from the R. Accademia dei 
Lincei, Rome, the Society's Joui^nal Part I-III and Proceedings 
being exchanged for the publications of the Academy ; (5) 
from the Societe d'Ethnographie, Paris, the Society's Journal 
Part III, for their " Bulletin " ; (6) from the Societe Royale Beige 
de Geographic, Bz^ussels, the Society's Joui-nal Part III being 
exchanged for their " Bulletin ; " (7) from the Department of 
Fisheries, Sydney, the Society's Journal Part II, for their 
" Report " ; and (8) from the Archgeological Survey Department 
of India, the Society's Joui-nal Parts I and III being exchanged 
for the publications of that Department. 

In addition to these exchanges, the Imperial Library 

February, 1905.] Annual Report. 

and the Luckuow Provincial Museum have been placed on tlie 
distribution list of the Society's publications. 

Secretaries and Treasurer. 

Dr. E. D. Ross carried on the duties of Philological Secretary 
till April, when Dr. T. Bloch returned from tour and took charge 
of the office in addition to the editorship to the Journal Part 
J, and the numismatic work which he had retained. Dr. Bloch 
continued till I^ovember ; he left then on tour, and Dr. Ross con- 
sented to undertake both the duties, while Mr. H. N. Wright was 
in charge of the numismatic work. 

Captain L. Rogers, I.M.S., continued Natural History 
Secretary and editor of the Journal Part II, throughout the 
year. • 

Dr. Ross continued Anthroj)ological Secretary and editor 
of the Journal Part III, till July, when he left India on leave for 
three months, and Mr. J. Macfarlane took charge of his work 
duL'ing the intei'val. In December, Mr. • JST. Annandale was per- 
manently appointed Anthi-opological Secretary in the place of Dr. 
Ross, who resigned. 

Dr. C. R. Wilson continued to be Treasurer till April, when 
he left for Darjeeling. The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopa- 
dhyaya consented to officiate during his absence, and when Dr. 
Wilson resigned his office, of ill-health in May, he was 
appointed permanently to this position. During October he left 
Calcutta for a few weeks and Mr. W. K. Dods officiated for 

Mr. Macfarlane continued General Secretary and editor of 
the Proceedings throughout the year, except during thx-ee months, 
from May to July, when he went to Europe on leave, and Lt.-Col. 
J. H. Tull Walsh, I.M.S., took charge of the work. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, was in charge of 
the Bibliotheca Indica and the Search for vSanskrit Manuscripts, 
and carried on the duties of the Joint Philological Secretary 
throughout the year. 

Mr. J. H. Elliott continued Assistant Secretary and Librarian 
throughout the year. 


There were published during the year ten numbers of the 
Pj-oceedings (No.-. 9 — 11 of 1903 and Nos. 1 — 7 of 1904) containing 
llo pages. 

Of the .loumal. Part 1, five numbei-s were published (No. 2 of 
190.3 ;ind NoK. 1 — 4 of 1904) containing 472 pages and 9 plates. 
'¥\h- Numismatic Supplement has been published in Joui-nal Part 
I, noH. 1, 2 and 4, under the editorship of Mr. Wright. 

Of the Jouiaial Part 11, six numbers were published (No. 4 


Amiual Report. ' [Feiaruary, 1905 

of 1903 and Nos. 1 — 5 of 1904) containing 358 pages and 9 plates. 
The Index for 1903 was also published. 

Of the Journal Part III four numbers were published (I^os. 
1 — 4 of 1904) containing 77 pages and 4 plates. The Index for 
1903 was also published. 

The other publications issued dui'ing the year were the 4th 
fasciculus of the Catalogue of the Society's Sanskrit Books and 
Manuscripts, and the 2nd fasciculus of the Catalogue of the 
Society's Arabic Books and Manuscripts. 


All important papers noticed in the Proceedings have appeared 
in full in the various parts of the Journal, only small papers and 
abstracts of the important papers being published in the Pi'oceed- 
ings. The Rev. P.O. Bodding contributed a paper on Shoulder- 
headed and other forms of stone implements in the Santal Parganas. 
Of the implements those with square edge's are supposed to be very 
rare in India. Mr. E. H. Walsh described certain stone implements 
found in the Darjeeling District, which are locally believed to be 
the weapons of gods and to possess various protective and 
medicinal powers. Mr. C. Little contributed two papers, 
one on the Himalayan Summer Storm of September 24th 
1903, and the other on the Cyclone of 13th November 1903 in 
the Bay of Bengal ; both have been published in the Jpurnal with 
maps. Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad S'astri exhibited two 
Bengali documents obtained from Rai Jadunath Mozumdar Baha- 
dui" of Jessore, in which the executant purported to sell himself 
and his family into slavery. One was executed daring the later part 
of the Emperor Aurangzeb's reign and the other during the great 
famine of 1176 B.S. Among other exhibitions one may be 
mentioned by Pundit Yogesa Chandra S'astree of two important 
copper-plate grants from Rajputana and Guzerat and a beautiful 
itaage of Manjunath, a Buddhist deity, brought from Lhassa. 
Major P. R. T. Gurdon, I.A., contributed Notes on the Khasis, 
Syntengs, and allied tribes inhabiting Khasia Jaintia hill district 
in Assam. These tribes are matriarchal ; and among them the 
youngest daughter inhei-its from the mother ; failing daughters, the 
property passes to the youngest niece ; and failing a niece, to the 
youngest female cousin. Babu J. -M. Dass in his paper " Notes on 
the titles used in Orissa " said that the Oria people are very fond 
of titles, which they accept not only from the Raja of Puri but also 
from great landlords and even from their castemen, while new titles 
are still being invented. 

Journal Part I. 

Eive numbers were published during the year under review, 
namely. No. 2 of Vol. LXXII and Nos. 1-4 of Vol. LXXIII. The 


Februaiy, 1905.] Annual Report. 

papers published in these numbers are of historical and linguistic 
value and ranged from the 6th centarj B.C. to the 19th century 
and from the Eastern extremity of Assam to the Western pro- 
vinces of the Indian Empire. 

Taking the papers chronologically : — Babu Parmeshwar Doyal 
identified the Pragbodhi cave, where Buddha sat in meditation for 
some time before he came to Budh Graya, with a stone chamber about 
14 or 15 li from the Bodhi tree in the range of hills called by 
General Cunningham, Pragbodhi mountain. The chamber, says 
the writer, had never before been visited by an antiquarian. 

The late lamented Dr. C. R. Wilson identified Sandanes of the 
Periplus with Sundara Satakarni of the Puranas and placed his 
short reign between 83 and 84 A.D. 

Babu Gangamohan Laskar, a research scholar, has deciphered 
three copper-plates from Khurda written in what is called the ■ 
Kutila variety of the Nagari character and placed the donor of the 
gTant before the latter half of the 7th century. These plates give 
some information about the S'ailodbhava dynasty of Kalinga, with 
seven kings. This dynasty was already known from the Baguda 
plates explained by Dr. Kielhorn. 

Mr. W. N. Edwards and Mr. H. H. Mann described some 
interesting fortifications situate'd just over the boundary line of 
British territory in the independent Daphla country and gave the 
local traditions connected with them. These traditions reach back 
to the 13th century of the Christian era. 

Babu Monmohan Chakravarti's paper on the Chronology of 
the Eastern Gaqga kings of Orissa has already been refeiu'ed to in the 
last Annual Report. It is a scholarly paper giving a collected history 
of these kings from the 11th century to the 15th century based 
upon inscriptions. The author says, " Their history {i.e. of the 
kings of the Garjga dynasty) now rests on siu-er grounds than the 
unreliable traditions embodied in the Madala Panji." 

The works of the genealogists or ghatakas of Bengal have never 
been explored by Oriental scholars, yet they embody valuable in- 
formation about the great races inhabiting Eastern India from the 
7th century downwards. For this reason we welcome Pundit 
Yogesa Chandra S'astree's paper on the Kap section of the Varendra 
class of Brahmans, though short, as the beginning of an important 
line of research. 

Coming down to Mahommedan history, Mr. Beveridge has 
criticised General Maclagan's paper on the Jesuit Mission to the 
Emperor Akbar published in our Journal for 1896, p. 38, and a 
portion of Dr. Wise's paj^er on the " Bara Bhuyas of Eastern 
Bengal" published in our Journal for 1874. In the former the 
writer expatiated on certain chapters of the Ain-i-Akbari dealing 
with the position of Akbar as a founder of a religion ; and in the 
latter the author gave much valuable additional infoi/raation about 
Isa Khan, one of the twelve Bhuyas. Mr. W. Irvine's monogi^aph 
on the Later Mughals is continued. Mr. J. P. Panthome's paper 


Annual Report. [February, 1905. 

iaeaded " A Forgotten Citj " deals with. J^agarcliain, the halting-sta- 
tion or villa of the Emperor Akbar, a few miles from Agra, which 
rose to he a city in the early part of his reign but was lost sight of 
before his death, and can with difficulty be identified at the present 

" The Mints of the Mughal Emperors, " by Mr. Bui'n, gives a 
list of the mint towns of the Mu gh al Emperors arranged 
in alphabetical order and divided into chronological sections. 
Mirza Mehdy Khan criticised the translation of the Quatrains of 
Baba Tahir by Mr. Heron- Allen and gave an edition of these. Mr. 
H. H. JS^evill's paper on Mahals in Sarkar Lakhnau and Maulavi 
Abdul Wall's pa^oer on the Antiquity and Traditions of Shahzad- 
pui', throw some light on obscui^e points of Mohammedan history. 

Coming to modern History, Babu Gerindranath Dutt's history 
of the Hutwa Raj is an important contribution on the struggles 
which the English Goveriament had in the revenue settlement of 
the Provinces of Lower Bengal for 30 years or more from the 
date of the Diwani. When, writing in oui" Proceedings for 1888 
on the Dutch hatchments in Chinsura Chui^ch, Mr. Beames left some 
initials undeciphered. The late Dr. C. R. Wilson stxidied Dutch 
heraldry and identified these names. His paper is to be found in 
vol. LXXIII, K'o. 3. • , 

Of the linguistic papers the most important is that by Major 
P. R. T. Gurdon on the Morans, a tribe inhabiting the hills in the 
Assam valley. By a comparison of the words in their language 
with those of Kacharis, Bodos and Dimasas, Major Gurdon says 
that they are allied to the Kacharis. Babu Gerindranath Dutt's 
paper on the Bhojpuri dialects spoken in Saran is a revised edition 
of the notes supplied by him to the Linguistic Survey. 

Of the Tibetan papers, those by Mr. E. H. Walsh have already 
been noticed in the last Report. The only interesting additional 
paper received dui'ing the year under review is by Rev. A. H. 
Francke entitled " A Language Map of West Tibet with notes " 
jDrepared for the benefit of the students of his Ladaki Grammar. 

There has unfortunately been some irregularity in the issue 
of the Society's Journal, Part I, and it has now been decided 
to issue the Journals promptly, publishing such material as is 
available, and at least quarterly. 

Journal Part II. 

The past year has been one of great activity in the l*^atural 
History section of the Society, no less than six numbers of Part II 
of the Journal having been issued with 358 pages and nine illustra- 
tive plates, this quantity being more than three times as much as 
in the preceding year. This is due partly to the fact that some 
papers read during 1903 were published during the past year, and 
partly to the greater efforts that have been made to publish papers 

February, 1905.] Annual Beport. 

more rapidly has hitherto been done; hence only two papers 
read recently remained in hand at the end of the year. 

Botany has been specially well represented. The papers 
published include two important memoirs on " Materials for a Flora 
of the Malayan Peninsula " by Sii' Greorge King and Mr. J. S. 
Gamble, in which the natural orders Caprifoliaceee and Rubiaceee 
are dealt with ; Kos XXI to XXIV of the Xovicige Indict and three 
other papers describing new plants by Major D. Prain, I. M.S. ; 
two joint papers by Major Prain and Mr. I. H. Burkill on Dioscoreae 
or Yams ; and one by Mr. J. R. Drummond on a new Scirpus. 

The Zoological contributions include thi'ee papers on the life- 
history of certain insects of economic importance, by Mr. E. P. 
Stebbing, a pajDer on Additions to the Oriental Snakes at the Indian 
Museum by Mr. Xelson Annandale, and another by the same author 
(not yet published) on the Lizards of the Andamans. 

Among the other contributions of interest must be mentioned a 
series of four papers, illustrated by plates, on " Cyclones in the Bay 
of Bengal " and on " Himalayan Summer Storms" byMr. C. Little, 
and two by Mr. D. Hooper on the occurrence of Melanterite in 
Baluchistan and on Rusot, an ancient Eastern Medicine. 

Adopting a proposal made by Major Prain, I. M.S., the Council 
resolved to hasten tlae publication of Sir George King's " Materials 
for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula " by having it printed in 
London, and to issue it as an " Extra Number " of the Society's 
Joui'nal, Part II. 

Journal Part III. 

Four numbers have been issued, three containing supplements 
as well as long communications. The papers are of considerable ' 
importance, for they are concise statements by raen who have had 
opportunities of studying the less accessible Indian races or the 
archaeology of interesting localities. Mr. J. E. Friend- Pereira 
contributed an Essay on the septs of the Khonds and the customs 
which regulate intermarriage among them ; the Rev. E. M. Gordon 
and Major P. R. T. Gurdon have dealt, chiefly from a cultural 
standpoint, with primitive tribes in the Bilaspore district and in 
Assam re.spectively ; the Rev. P. O. Bodding and Mr. E. H. Walsh 
have described stone implements fi-om different parts of India ; and 
various authors have furnished shorter notes and papers on other 
points in ethnogi'aphy or sociology. The matter printed fills 77 
pages and is illusti'ated with four photographic plates. 

It has been decided that the subject of National Indian Hymns 
and Popular Chants might well be taken up by the members of 
the Society in connection with the Journal Part III. 


Ten copper coins and l-'^ silver coins have been presented 


Annual Report. [February, 1905. 

to tlie Society in 1904. Tlie copper coins belong to tlie following 
Patban Snltans of Delbi : — 

Jalakiddin Fii'oz Sbab ... ... 1 

' Ata'uddin Miibammad Sbab ... ... 1 

Mubammad ibn Tugblaq Sbab ... ... 1 

Firoz Sbab Tu gb laq ... ... 6 

„ witb Fatb Kban . . . ... 1 

Of tbe 13 silver coins 4 are coins of tbe East India Company 
struck in tbe name of Sbab ' A lam at tbe Mubammadabad-Benares 
Mint ; one belongs to tbe kings of Oudb, and tbe remaining eigbt 
are coins of tbe following Mu gb al Emperors : — 


Muhammad Sbab 
Ahmad Sbab 
' Alamgir II. 
Sbab ' Alam II. 

In accordance witb tbe Council order to lend to tbe Trustees 
of tbe Indian Museum as many of tbe Society's coins as may be 
required by tbem for tbe purpose of classification and exbibi- 
tion along witb tbe Museum coins, all tbe coins bave been made 
over to tbe Indian Museum for selection and for return of tbe 
remainder not required by tbem. 

In July 1904, tbe Council resolved to separate tbe Society's 
numismatic work from tbat of tbe Pbilological Secretary, and Mr. 
H. N'elson Wrigbt, I.C.S., was appointed Honorary Numismatist of 
tbe Society. 

Bibliotheca Indica. 

In tbe year 1903, tbirty-five fasciculi were publisbed — a 
larger number tban in any previous year. Duiing 1904, bowever, 
forty-two fasciculi bave been publisbed, sbowing an unpi-ecedented 
activity in tbe publication of tbe Bibliotbeca Indica. 

Tbe cost of printing tbese forty-two fasciculi is Rs. 1,076 
and tbe cost of editing Rs. 4,971 ; tbe average cost for eacb 
fasciciilus being Rs. 375. 

Tbese fasciculi contain twenty-five works, of wbicb two are in 
tbe Arabic-Persian and tbe rest in tbe Sanskrit series. According 
to resoKition of tbe Council a description is to be given in tbe annual 
report only of sucb works as are eitber commenced or ended. In 
tbe case of tbe first, tbe description serves as an introduction and in 
tbe case of tbe last as an advertisement. Tbe Arabic- Persian series 
contains translation of tbe Akbarnamab and Riyazu-s-Salatin. In 
tbe Sanskrit series too tbere are tbree Englisb translations, namely, 
Markandeya Purana, Tantra Vartika and Sloka Vartika. Tbe last 

. 18^ 

February, 1905.] Annual Report.' 

two are editions of Sanskrit works of rare value whicli have no 
ckance of being ptiblislied by private enterprise. Two of these 
belong to Jaina literature, namely, the Tattvarthadhigama Sutra 
and Upamitibhava-prapancakatha ; the first was composed by 
Umasvati Vacaka in the 1st Centnry A.D. at Patalipntra, and the 
second by Siddharsi, repnted to be the brother's son of the poet 
Magha, in the beginning of the 10th century. There are two 
Biiddhist works among these, namely, the Bodhicaryavatara by 
S'antiDevainthe 7th century, and the S'atasahasrika Prajnaj)ramita 
attributed to Nagarjuna, the founder or at least the first great 
writer of the Mahajana School, in the 2nd century A.D. Several 
other works are in the course of publication of which no mention 
is made here, since no fasciculi have been published during the 

Of the Brahmanic Sanskrit works two belong to the Orissa 
school of Smrti, two to the Bengal, one to the Bombay, and one 
to the Benares school ; one to the Ramanuja School of the Vedanta, 
one to the Sankara School, and to the Mimarhsa School. 

Of the works that have been completed, the Riyaz- us- Salatin 
belongs to the Arabic- Persian series. It is an English translation 
of a history of Bengal composed by G-hulam Husaiii Salim between 
1786 and 1789. The translation has been made by Maulavi Abdus 
Salam, M.A., of the Bengal Provincial Service, and he has elucidated 
it with ample footnotes and enriched it with an elaborate table of 
proper names. The Riyaz-lis-Salatin is the only comprehensive 
history of Bengal, and Stewart's History of Bengal is based upon 
it. Dr. Blochmann long ago strongly recommended that it should 
be translated, and the translation has now been accomplished. 

Since H. H. Wilson translated the Visnu Purana, no sustained 
effort was made to translate any other Purana till in 1884 Mr. Jus- 
tice Pargiter (now our President) undertook the translation of the 
Markandeya Pui^ana. Onerous official duties and other difficulties 
impeded the preparation of the work with the notes. The progress 
was slow, but the translation has at length been brought to a close. 
It is accompanied by a full index and a preface in which the trans- 
lator expresses the opinion that the Purana had its origin in the 
Narbada valley, and that parts of it may be as old as, if not older 
than, the Chi'istian ei^a. 

Godadhara Rajaguru, who flourished by the middle of the 
18th Century, was the spiritual guide of the GajajDati Rajas of 
Piu-i. He compiled a complete code of Hindu law and ritual for 
Orissa. As no Hindu work from. Orissa had ever been published,, 
the publication of this woik was thought desirable, and it was placed 
in the hands of Pandit Sada S'iva Migra, a well-known pandit of 
Orissa. The work consists of three volumes, of which the first has 
been completed with an elaborate index. 

Last year was notified the completion of the Varsakriya Kau- 
mudi, by Govindananda Kavikankanacarya ; and the other work 
by the same author, belonging to the same code of Hindu law and 


Annual Report. [February, 1905 

ritual, lias been completed fcbis year, namely tbe S'raddbakriya 
Kamnndi, by tlie same young editor Pandit Kamal Krsna Smrti- 
bhasana of Bliatpara. He bas added a full subject index of the work. 
The new works undertaken during the year are : — 
The Baudhayana S'rauta Sutra. Professor Hillebrandt of 
Breslau, the great authority on Vedic subjects, undertook the edi- 
tion of three Vedic woi'ks for the Bibliotheca Indica, namely, 
Saiikhayana, Baudhayana and Hiranya-Kesi's S'rauta Sutras. He 
completed the Sankhayana Sutra and transferred (with the consent 
of the Council) the editorship of Baudhayana's work to Dr. W. 
Caland of Utrecht. Dr. Caland has published two fasciculi of the 
work during the year under review. Baudhayana's School is still 
current in Southern India, and he seems to have flourished several 
centuries before Christ. 

The Balambhatti or Laksmi is a commentary on the Mitaksara, 
by Balambhatta Payagunda of Benares in the 18th century. It 
is an important work on the_ Hindu Law of the Benares school, 
and the Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya obtained the 
permission of the Council to edit it. But his numerous engage- 
ments afforded him little leisure, and the editorship was trans- 
ferred to Babu Govinda Das of Benares, who has published the 
first fasciculus during the year under review. 

The Caturvarga Cintamani, by Hemadri, the Minister of the 
Yadava Kings of Devagiri, about the middle of the 13th century, 
is an encyclopedic work on Hindu Laws and rituals of great value. 
As it quotes from a variety of Tyorks, the publication of the entire 
work was considered forty years ago to be of great impoi'tance, 
as giving the names of Sanskrit works existing before Hemadri's 
time. The woi'k is divided in parts or kandas, three of which have 
already been published during the last forty years. MSS. of the 
other parts not being procui^able, the publication was kept in abey- 
ance. During the past two years, however, the MS. of a fourth 
part, the Prayascitta-khanda, being available, the Council requested 
Pandit Pramatha ISTath Tarkabhusan, Sanskrit Professor in the 
Sanskrit College, Calcutta, to undertake the editing of it. He has 
issued three fasciculi of the work this year. 

The Vallala-carita purports to be biography of Vellala Sena, 
a great King of Bengal who reigned during the middle of the 12tli 
century. It was composed from old materials by Inanda Bhatta in 
the beginning of the 16th century at N'avadvipa. Several incom- 
plete and partial reprints of the work were published in the Bengali 
character in Calcutta, but no authentic MS. was forthcoming. Dur- 
ing the caste agitation that arose after the census of 1901, two 
atithentic MSS. of the work, were placed in the hands of Maha- 
mahopadhyaya Haraprasad Sastri, and the Council requested him 
to publish the work in Deva N"agari with an English translation and 
historical notes. The first fasciculus has been published containing 
the text only. The translation and notes are in the course of pre- 


February, 1905.] Annual Address. 

Search for Sanskrit MSS. 

Tliis department of the Society's work was, as in previous years, 
in the hands of the Joint Philological Secretary. He paid sevei-al 
visits to Benares and other places, and with the assistance of his 
travelKng pandits collected more than 1,200 MSS. and about 300 
notices of 5lSS. So much material has been collected that it is now 
possible to give a connected history of Hindu literature during the 
wholie of the IMohammadan period and to check in many important 
instances the statements of Mohammadan historians about the 
Hindus. A complete list of the names of the MSS. in the entire 
Grovei^nment collection, now amounting to nearly 7,000 MSS., has 
been prepared in alphabetical order for publication. The second 
volume of the second series of notices of Sanskrit MSS. has been 
published. The third volume has been printed, and the ISTepal 
Catalogue is in type ; and both will shortly be published. The 
foiu-th and fifth volume are ready in manuscript and will soon be 
sent to pi^ess. 

The President was empowered to apply to the Government 
of India for a special grant for the purchase of about 2,000 Jaina 
works in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Guzerati, Hindi, Marwari and other 
languages on behalf of the Government, if, on fui'ther examination 
of the manuscrijDts, he is assured that the collection is valuable 
enough to wairant such an ajDplication. The application has been 

The notices of Hindi manuscripts collected by the Society's 
agents duinng the year 1895 have been made over to the Nagaripra- 
charini Sabha of Benares for publication at the Society's cost. 

Search for Arabic and Persian Manuscripts. 

In answer to the representation made by the Society to the 
Government of India, in favour of a systematic search for Arabic 
and Persian MSS., the Government approved of the scheme and 
sanctioned an annual grant of Rs. 5,000 for a period of five years 
for its prosecution, and a further annual grant of Rs. 2,000 for the 
same pei-iod, for the purchase of manuscripts of exceptional value 
and interest. The search is in charge of Dr. Ross, and he has 
appointed two Travelling Maulavis and a Resident Maulavi to assist 
him in this work. 

The Report having been read and some copies having been 
distributed. The Hon'ble Mr. Pargiter, President, gave his An- 
nual Address. 

Annual Address, 1904. 

The Secretaries have laid before you their combined report 
setting out briefly the business that has been transacted by the 


Annual Address, [February, 1905 

Society or that has come before it during the past year, and it 
remains for me to offer some remarks on its affairs during the same 

The matter jthat engrossed the largest share of time has been 
the preparation of the new catalogue of the books in the Society's 
Library. The catalogue now in use was published twenty years 
ago, when the Society celebrated its centenary, and the need of a 
revised one has been felt for some years past. A new catalogue has 
been gradually compiled in manuscript, and there remained the 
arduous business of making a thorough revision of it. This has been 
carried through by the Library Committee with the help of the 
General Secretary, who, as a skilled librarian, was specially qualified 
to deal with it. The members of the Committee have given 
liberally of their time and have held many meetings to complete 
the revision ; and but for the care, and I may say devotion, which 
they and the Sec;L'etary have bestowed on it, it could not have been 
carried through with any expectation that the catalogue would 
be full, accurate and useful. In this matter two tasks called 
for special consideration — first, the revision of the Library itself 
and the separating out of books and pamphlets that are not needed 
by the Society ; and secondly, the framing of the entries in the 
most serviceable shape. 

A considerable quantity of publications had acctimulated 
which appeared to be either sujDerfluous or of too little use to the 
members, and it was desirable to xemove them because of the 
limited space and for economy. These were separated as the 
revision went on. The principles adopted were two, first, that 
the Library should aim at completeness in all publications 
relating to Asia in conformity with the Society's name and 
scope, whatever might be their character or value, official reports 
and publications being placed in a separate category ; and secondly, 
that the Library could not maintain works relating to other 
parts of the world except such as are of general interest and high 
reputation. Yet the process of exclusion was applied with so 
conservative a spirit that nothing was put out unless the members of 
the Committee were unanimous. A list of the works thus excluded 
was laid before the monthly meeting in June for general considera- 
tion, and has been passed without objection. These will be 
disposed of as mentioned in the Report. 

The second task dealt with the method of cataloguing the 
names of Oriental authors, and the Committee decided that no 
single method wa.s feasible, and that the most convenient course 
was that, while the names of authors now living or recently 
deceased should be spelt as the authors themselves Anglicized 
them, the names of all others should be transliterated correctly in 
the headings according to the system a,pproved by the Society. 

The catalogue is now in the press, and the Council trust that 
it will be as complete, accui'ate and useful as is possible in such an 
tindertaking. When it is published, members will be able to keep 


February, 1905.] Anmtal Address. 

tlieir copies correct up to date, since lists of tlie additions are piib- 
lished quarterly with the Proceedings. 

Another important matter was the part which the Society was 
able to take in contributing to the objects to be exhibited in the 
Victoria Memorial Hall. The Society's existence is nearly coeval 
with British rule in Bengal, and it has represented the linguistic, 
scientific and literary activity of this rule. It has numbered 
among its members, besides its founder, some of the most distin- 
guished men whose services have helped to make India what it is 
now, and it possesses unique memorials of them. The members 
resolved, with but little difference of opinion, to lend some of the 
most interesting of their treasures to the Trustees of the Memorial 
Hall to be exhibited there. The Society is gratified at this public 
I'ecognition of its achievements, and cannot but gain by the wider 
interest which the exhibition of these objects will arouse among 
those who will visit the Memorial. 

The collection of Oriental MSS. is an important branch of the 
Society's work. The Society has received during many years an 
annual grant from the Government for the systematic search after 
and the purchase of Sanskrit MSS. This is in the charge of 
the Joint Philological Secretary, Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 
S'astri. He has found and acquired a large number of valuable 
and interesting writings. No similar measures have hitherto been 
taken to collect Persian and Arabic MSS. from among the stores 
that exist in this countiy, except such as private persons have 
undertaken at times on their own behalf ; but diuing the past year 
the Grovernment of India has generously assigned a further annual 
grant in order that a systematic search may be made for those 
classes of writings, and that valuable MSS. may be bought and 
preserved here in the same way as Sanskiit MSS. This business 
has been placed in the hands of the present Philological Secretary, 
Dr. Ross, and he has been prosecuting an active search with the aid 
of maulavis during the last five months. He has discovered a 
number of private libraries that were not known to us before ; the 
works in them have been examined, and what has been already 
found offers sanguine expectations that the grant will enrich 
our collection with writings of the highest interest and value, 
especially for historical pui-poses. I may add that the recent 
expedition to Thibet has brought to light a quantity of Thibetan 
MSS. ; these have been placed temporarily in the Imperial Library 
here and are available for study. 

The Society has about 600 Jain manuscripts in its custody at 
present. These are not always easy to be obtained, because the 
Jains do not part with their wiutings readily. Mahamahopadhyaya 
Haraprasad Sastri has however recently learnt of a valuable col- 
lection of such manuscripts, comprising nearly two thousand works- 
or portions of works, and the owner, who is not a Jain, is willing to 
sell thom. It is very desirable that they should be secui'ed. An 
application has been made to the Government of India for special 


Annual Address. [February, 1905. 

aid towards their pnrcliase, and if tliey can he bouglit, tlie total 
collection of Jain manuscripts which will he in the Society's 
custody will be the finest in the world. 

These collections demand that the fullest use should be made of 
them, and one of the first duties will be to corapile descriptive 
catalogues of the Persian, Arabic and Jain manuscriiDts, as has been 
done for the Sanskrit manuscripts. In all this fresh work we must 
look more to our Indian members to prosecute the research neces- 
sary. Some use is made of these manuscripts by scholars in Europe, 
and by European scholars resident in this countiy ; but the number 
of the latter is very small and will probably be fewer in the futiu-e. 
Members of the Government Services can only give of the leisure, 
which they can spare from their ofiicial duties, towards qualifying 
themselves in Oriental learning and studying Oriental works ; and 
they are less able year by year to find leisure for such studies. Their 
ofiicial duties increase and become more exacting, and do not in any 
way conduce towards acquiring any thorough acquaintance with 
ancient learning. The two pursuits have been continually diverg- 
ing more and more markedly. Moreover, to add to the hesitation 
that besets Oriental study here, the standard of Oriental- attain- 
ments required rises with the additional knowledge that is con- 
tinually accumulated by scholars in Europe. These and other 
reasons deter members of those Services from attempting original 
research in these fields, and there are very few, if any, inducements. 
The opportunities therefore are all the ampler for Indian students, 
and a career of distinction is open to them, if they will carry on 
their investigations according to the standard of European scholar- 
ship. This is, no doubt, not a simple qualification, yet it is essen- 
tial ; and those of them are fortunate who can receive some part of 
their training from Eui'opean teachers. It is very much to be 
wished that more training of this kind should be available for them. 

The scientific side of the Society's work, on the other hand, 
should increase in the future. The Scientific Departraents of the 
Government have been strengthened. Among the members of 
those services there is no such disagreement between official duties 
and private pursuits ; but the two blend and strengthen each 
other, and scientific research and professional success go hand in 
hand. Eor scientific investigation, therefore, there are the most 
encouraging inducements. Moreover, as private enterprise develops 
the resources of the country, Science will be applied to those objects 
in larger measure, and the number of workers in scientific fields 
should steadily increase. The Society must hope that it will re- 
ceive the benefit of all such investigations in future, and that more 
scientific papers will be contributed to its Journal rather than 
communicated to the publications of the various Societies in 

A matter that concerns us closely is the style in which our 
Proceedings and Journal ai-e published. This is now under con- 
sideration. The pi-esent style is what was adopted many years ago, 


February, 1905.] Annual Address, 

and the Council desire to improve and probably enlarge these 
publications and add more illustrations, so as to suit the require- 
ments of the present day better. Efforts are also being made to 
issue our publications promptly, and the Council hope that mem- 
bers will contribute papers the' more readily in that the Journal 
will then supply them with a greater quantity of matter of varied 
interest. These modifications should tend to increase the sale of 
o\w publications in Europe ; and the Report mentions the change 
which has been made in the Society's agency in London to secui-e 
a readier, larger and more remunerative disposal. Our thanks are 
due to Mr. Macfarlane who arranged the new terms during his 
visit home on leave last year. 

Steady progress has been made in the publication of the Bib- 
liotheca Indica. Mr. Beveridge has finished his translation of the 
Akbarnama ; fresh work will be placed in his hands, and it is hoped 
arrangements may be made for additional works on the Persian and 
Ai'abic side, which has of late years rather given way to the Sans- 
krit side. This should be one of the first results, of the systematic 
search that (as I have mentioned) is being made for Persian and 
Arabic manuscripts. Among Sanskint writings the Society should, 
I think, pay more attention to varioiis old works in futui^e, which 
represent rather the general or popular side of literature. Arch- 
aeological discoveries in ancient countries have shewn that the 
accoimts handed down from ancient times are not as fictitious 
as was imagined formerly, but contain much substantial truth. This 
should be found true in India also. With regard to the Puranas, 
for instance, recent researches have indicated that they are more 
ancient than was conjectui'ed a generation ago. Professor Wilson 
estimated their age as lying between the eighth and thirteenth cen- 
tui'ies approximately, but it now seems that all of them were com- 
posed earlier, most of them befoi^e the seventh century, and some 
at least in the earliest centuries of the Christian era. Similarly the 
Tantras appear to be more ancient than was imagined, and a study 
of them will throw much needed light on a very wide and obscure 
though important subject, namely, on various phases of the popu- 
lar fonns of Hindu religion of modern times and of the present day. 
The Society might well turn part of its attention to these and 
other oHginal compositions rathei' than towards editing commen- 
taries, which are admittedly of comparatively modern origin. 

Much attention has been given to the Society's house, and 
various repairs and improvements have been caiuied out. Through 
the generosity of the Government of India the munificent sum of 
Rs. 10,000 was gi-anted for the further impi'ovement of this build- 
ing. Proposals and estimates have been drawn up and are now 
under considei-ation, and when tlie Council has decided' 'how the 
funds at its disposal can be best utilized, the alterations will be 
undertaken and should be finished this year. 

The valuable pictures which the Society possesses, either as its 
own or as Tr-ustee of the Home Bequest, required renovation. They 


Annual Address. ^February, 1905. 

liave been cleaned, re-stretcbed and varnisbed. Fresb frames were 
selected by the late President, tbe Hon. Mr. Bolton, in London, and 
bave recently arrived. Tbe pictures are now being placed in tbeir 
new frames and will be re-bnng, wben tbe repairs to tbe building 
are completed, and re-arranged so as to sbow to better advantage. 
Tbe expense bas been ■ great, but tbe renovation sbould suffice for 
many years. 

Tbe Report sbows tbat tbe list of tbe Society's members bas 
increased so as to stand now at a bigber number tban it bas ever 
recorded in tbe jDast. Tbis is of good aug-ury for tbe futui'e, and 
we trust tbat among tbe new members many will contiibute not 
only tbeir interest in tbe Society's business, but also tbe results 
of travels and inquiries. Tbe inquiries tbat were open to members 
in tbe Society's early days were many and wide, and offered all tbe 
attraction and interest tbat newly- discovered fields possess, where all 
information is welcome ; but tbe conditions of research bave greatly 
altered now. In tbe settled Provinces of India, no doubt, the bar- 
vest of investigation bas been freely reaped, and what more is to be 
gathered becomes rather the work of specialists and experts. The 
field of Indian investigation bas been suiweyed and described, and 
the work tbat remains is for those who can bring minds, unbui'- 
dened with other demands and replete with knowledge, to the eluci- 
dation of the problems and difficulties tbat have arisen out of tbe 
general sui^vey. Yet much valuable ethnological information still 
awaits tbe gathering among the ruder tribes, especially in the outly- 
ing Provinces. To members who bave such opportunities the 
ethnological side of the Society's researches offers ample scope for 
investigation, and if they will make careful and systematic notes 
about those tribes and their languages, customs and religion, they 
can supply facts of real interest and value, as regards both tbe early 
conditions of such tribes and also tbe changes that are being work- 
ed among thera by the influence of Hinduism. 

I will conclude by mentioning some matters of interest which 
lie outside the Society, but in which membei-s have taken or are 
taking a part. 

A Buddhist Sanski'it ApjDendix was compiled to Rai Sarat 
Chandra Das' Thibetan Dictionary under tbe auspices of the 
Government, and the Government bas recently placed it in tbe cap- 
able hands of M. de La Yallee Poussin in Belgium, in order tbat it 
may receive a finishing revision fi^om a European scholar. 

Tbe Ai^cbseolog'ical Department of Government bas published 
its first annual volume. It covers tbe whole gTound of such 
research and sets out most interesting discoveries with a wealth of 
detailed information. 

A book of great interest bas lately been published by Mr. Vin- 
cent Smith on the early history of India from B.C. 600 to tbe Mo- 
hammedan conquest. It brings the latest discoveries to elucidate 
that long and most important period, and will be of signal service to 
students in this country. Pi-of . Thibaut has published in the series 

February, 1905.] Annual Address. 

of Sacred Books of the East a translation of Ramanuja's great 
work, the g'ribliasya, whicli is a comnientaiy on the Vedanta Su- 
tras and is the standard book of the Vaisnavas of South India. Dr. 
Grierson has published two more parts of his nionumental work in 
the Linguistic Sui'vey of India. 

A Flora of the Pan jab is now under coinpilation, and the duty 
has been entrusted by the G-overnnaent to Mr. Drummond of the 
Civil Service. 

The Imperial Academy of Sciences of Vienna wished to obtain 
a record of Sanskrit recitation and music for the study of ancient 
texts, and Dr. Exner, who is now in India, succeeded in obtaining 
the best results that are possible in Calcutta with the aid of a pho- 
nograph, as selected passages were recited by the best qualified 

The Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society has just cele- . 
brated its centenaiy, and the Council arranged that three of our 
members should attend and offer it oui' congratulations. 

The President announced that the Scrutineers reported the 
result of the election of Officers and Members of Council to be as 
follows : — 

His Honor Sir A. H. L. Fraser, MA., LL.D., K.C.S.I. 


The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 

F.RA.S., F.R.S.E. 
T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
C. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S. (retired). 

Secretary and Treasurer. 

Honorary General Secretary : — J. Macfarlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : — The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.RA.S., F.R.S.E. 

.Additional Secretaries, 

Philological Secretary :— E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

Natural History Secretary : — Capt. L. Rogers, M.D., B.Sc, 

Antliropological Secretaly :-^N. Annandale, Esq., B.A. 
Joint Philological Secretary : — Mahamahopadhyaya Hara* 

prasad Shastri, M.A. 


General Meeting. [Felbruaiy, 1905. 

Other Members of Council. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.C.S. 

Kumar Ramessur MaliaL.. 

I. H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 

H. B. Kempthorne, Esq. 

W. D. Dods, Esq. 

The Hon. Mr. A. Earle, I.C.S. 

Lt.-Col. J. H. TuU Walsh, I.M.S. 

R. 0. Lees, Esq. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., P.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., P.R.I.B.A. 

The Meeting was then resolved into the Ordinary Greneral 

His Excellengy Lord Ourzon, Gt.M.S.I., G.M.I.E., Patron, 
in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Thirty-six presentations were announced. 

Mr. J. De Grey Downing and Captain Gr. W. Megaw, I. M.S., 
were ballotted for and elected Ordinary Members. 

It was announced that Mr. B. C. Sen and Rai Lakshisankar 
Misra Bahadur had expressed a wish to withdraw from the Society. 

The President announced that Mr. P. R. Bramley, Babu Gopal 
Chandra Chatterjee and Mr. Mahammad Rafiq elected member's of 
the Society on 3rd February, 1st June and 6th July 1904, respectively, 
not having paid their entrance fees, their election have become null 
and void under Rule 9, and that the election of Rev. S. Endle has 
been cancelled at his own request. 

.' The General Secretary exhibited two photographs of the 
stone image of Buddha forwarded by the Commissioner of the 
Chittagong Division, and read the following note on it prepared 
by Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana : — 

This image represents Buddha sitting on Padmasana or 
lotus-seat which is defined as a particular posture in religious 
meditation in which the devotee sits with the thighs crossed, with 
one hand resting on the left thigh, the other held up with the 
thumb bent towards the heart, and the eyes directed towards the 
tip of the nose. 

The image, which is ^ specimen of neither the Indo- Greek, 
Indo-Scythian or Dravidian sculpture, is the representation of an 
Arakanese Buddha which differs a little from the Buddhas of 
Burma proper. The image must have been prepared about the 
year 1560 A.D., when Chittagong was completely conquered by the 
Arakanese and was made a province' of Arakan. Chittagong 
remained a province of Arakan up to 1666 A.D., when it was 

February, 1905.] General Meeting. 

snatched away by the Mahomedans. The town was stormed and 
the Arakauese settlers driven out of Chifcfcagong. After the 
annexation of Arakan by the King of Burma, a large number 
of fresh Arakanese Buddhists immigrated into Cliittagong at the 
close of the 18th Century A.D. The Maghs that now live in 
Chitfcagong are the descendants of these last immigrants. They 
know nothing of this image and there is no local tradition about 
it. It was in fact prepared before their arrival in Chittagong, 
and before the storming of the city by the Mahomedans. 

According to the Burmese legends, in the reign of King 
Thirimegha in the middle of the 14th Century A.D., a canine 
tooth of Buddha was brought to Tsitkain. If Tsitkain is identi- 
fied with Chittagong (about which there is of course a grave 
doubt), then in some future time we may expect also to find in 
Chittagong the golden casket in which the precious tooth-relic 
was placed. 

Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana exhibited images of 
five of the sixteen famous Buddhist Mahasthavii^as i^ecovered from 






The Montlilj Greneral Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesda}-, the 1st March, 1905, at 9-15 p.m. 

C. W. McMiNN, Esq., I.C.S. (retired,) Vice-President, in the 

The following members were present : — 

Mr. IS". Annandale, Mx\ R. Burn, Babu Monmohan Chakra- 
varti, Mr. B L Chauduri, Rai Sarat Chandra Das Bahadur, 
Mr. J. N. Das Gupta, Mr. D. Hooper, Dr. W. C. Hossack, Dr. 
H. H. Mann, Capt. J. H. D. Megaw, Captain L. Rogers, I.M.S., 
Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastree, Babu Jogendra Nath Vidyabhusan, 
Pandit Satis Chandi^a Vidyabhushana, Mr. E. Yredenburg. 

Visitors : — Mr. D. MacDonald, Mr. S. C. Sanial, Babu Bra- 
jendra Kumar Seal. 

The minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

Eleven presentations were announced. 

Rev. A. Willifer Young, Mr. W. B Brown, Miss Cornelia 
Sorabjee, Babu Sasi Bhushan Bose, Mr. S. C. Sanial, and Babu 
Muralidhar Banerji, were ballotted for and elected Ordinary Mem- 

It was announced that Dr. A. E. Caddy had expressed a 
wish to Avithdraw from the Society. 

The Chairman announced that a second Elliott gold medal 
had been awarded to Babu Surendra Wath Maitra, M.A., for his 
essay entitled " On the Experimental Determination of the Elec- 
tro-chemical equivalent of Nickel," submitted in competition for the 
Elliott Prize for Scientific Research for 1904, under Rule Gr of 
notification in the Calcutta Gazette of the 28th December, 1892. 

The Greneral Secretary read the following report of the Sub- 
Committee appointed by Council to consider the style, paper 
and design of the Society's publications held on Wednesday, the 
22nd February, 1905, at 8 a.m. 

Resolved — 

1. The Committee is of opinion that by the establish- 
ment of a quarto publication for the larger memoirs, the 
residue of small papers can be conveniently published in a single 
Journal styled the " Journal and Proceedings " of the Society issued 
on the lines of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

2. That the paper most appropriate for use in all the Society's 
publications is that employed for the Quarterly Journal of the 
Geological Society, in which photo-blocks can be printed with 


Proceedings. [March, 1905.] 

fair clearness on a paper which is not inconveniently thick or 

3. The Committee after seeing representatives of Messrs. 
Thacker, Spink & Co., and the Baptist Mission Press, recommend 
the following estimate submitted by the latter : — 

Paper A. Rs. 3-8 per page for 8vo. 
, :■ „ C. „ 6-4 „ „ 4to. 

4. The Committee also recommend that the new paper and, 
as far as possible, the types should be employed for works here- 
after to be published in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

The question of improving the vernacular types used in this 
publication must be postponed, nothing better being available in 
India, but the Committee has reason to believe that improvements 
will shortly be eifected. 

5. The present Report is submitted to this Meeting , of 
Council in order that if it is adopted the new arrangements may 
apply to the publications of 1905. The preparation of a design for the 
new printed cover is still under consideration, but can be easily 
■completed before any new publications are issued. 

6. The Committee were further of opinion that select adver- 
tisements should appear in " Jotu-nal and Proceedings," as in the 
J.R.A.S., and that the arrangements for this purpose should be 
entrusted to Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Co., whose representative 
informed the Committee that they were ready to undertake the 
work and that the income to be derived from this source would 
probably recoup the Society for a very large proportion of the 
cost of the " Journal and Proceedings." It is suggested that these 
advertisements besides being a source of income would be of con- 
siderable practical use to members. 

7. To facilitate the system of publishing papers, and to avoid 
the delay often caused by reference to Council, in accordance with 
the standing regulations, the Committee z^ecommend that all 
.a;rrangements with regard to the publication of papers be made 
by a Standing Publication Committee, composed of the Editors 
of the Journal and Proceedings, and that this Committee be given 
the powers now resting with Council, except when the publication 
of a paper involves expenditure beyond the sanctioned grant. In 
such a case, the sanction of Council would be necessary before the 
printing of a paper. This change of regulation can be introduced, 
on resolution of the Council, by a single change in the wording 
of the'standingreg'^ulationsprintedinpp. 25 and 26 of the Rules, &c. 
•of the Society. 

0?- 8. The Committee recommend the restoration of the old 
practice of publishing in the Proceedings from their minutes, the 
list of members at each Meeting of Council as well as extracts 
Tf hen they appear to be of general interest. Such extracts might 
h6. first read at the General Meeting following the Meeting of 
QeiiqaciL ■.■■";:■: ;•,'; . ':. - .-, .. :\ \. ■:'' 


[March, 1905.] Proceedings. 

Orc/er.— That the recommendation of the Committee relating 
to the following matters be accepted : — 

( 1) Publication of a quarto series (2) Publication of a new 
sei'ies (8vo) containing the Journal and Proceedings combined. 
(3) Paper and Type to be iised. (4) Insertion of advertisements 
relating to books and scientific instruments. (5) Appointing 
Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Co. to secure advertisements. (6) Pub- 
lication of such resolutions of the Council, as the Council may 
determine, in the Proceedings. Circulate proposal about the ap- 
pointment of a Publication Committee and their jDOwers. 

Read the following extract from a programme from the 
Royal Academy of Sciences of Turin, announcing a prize : — 

The Royal Academy of Sciences of Turin announce a piize, 
•open to savants and inventors of all nations, to be given to that 
person who during the fotu" years 1903-06 shall, in the opinion of the 
Academy, have made the most striking or useful discovery, or have 
produced the most celebrated work in physical and experimental 
science, natui-al history, pure and applied mathematics, chemistry, 
physiology, and pathology, including geology, history, geography 
and statistics. The value of the prize is 9,600 francs. 

Anyone "^vishing to compete may apply, but the prize will be 
.awarded to the most worthy, though he may not have applied. 

The following papers were read :— 

1. Occurrence of the yenus Ajpus in Baluchistan.— By E. 
Veedenburg, Geological Survey of India. 

2. Tibet under the Tartar JEmperors of China. — By Rai Saeat 
Chaxdea Das Bahadur, CLE. 

This paper has been published in Journal Ptirt 1 for 1904. 

3. Pavana-dutam or Air-messenger, hy DhoyiJca, a Court poet of 
XiaTcsmanasena, King of Bengal, with an Appendix on the Sena 
Kings.— By Mojjmohan Chakeavaeti, M.A., M.R.A.S. 

4. JEarwigs of the Indian Museum. — By M. Bure. Communi- 
cated hy the Anthropological Secretary. 

This paper has been published in " Journal and Proceedings," 
1S\S., Vol. I, N"o. 1. 

5. The Hydra of the Calcutta Tanks. — By "N^LSOJi AlJNAN- 

6. The mmposition of the oil from Bir Bahoti or the ^^ Bains 
Insect '^ (Tromhidium grandissimum) . — By Ji. G. Hill, B.A. 

7. Contributions to Oriental Herpetology II. Notes on the 
Lizards in the Indian Museum with descriptio7is of New Forms and 
Lists of species recorded from British India and Ceylon and of spe- 
cimens cj)llected in Sinltip Island (East Sumatra) hy the late Pro- 
fessor Wood-Mason's Collector {Part I). — By Nelson Annandale, 


8. Customs in I he Trans-border Territories of the North- West 
F.nmtier P,rf>i:inre. — By H. A. Rose, I.C.S. 


Proceedings. [March, 1905. J 

9. The Agi-aharis of Sasaram. — By L. S. S. O'Malley, I.C.S. 
Commumcated by the Anthropological Secretary. 

These papers have been published in Journal, Part III, for 

10. Contributions to the Kanaicar folklore. — By Pandit Tika- 
eamJoshi. Communicated by Me. H. A. Rose. 

11. A revieiv of the first volurtie of the Archseological Bepo^-ts 
of the Governvient of Java. Illustrated by a collectioti of photo- 
graphs belonging to the reader of the paper. — By Father Dahlmann,. 
S.J. Communicated by the Philological Secretary. 


.r»r»,, BOTANICAL 

APRIL, 1905. Q^^„g„ 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 5th April, 1905, at 9-15 p.m. 

His Honour Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.C.S.I., 

President, in the chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Mr. N. Annandale, Mr. R. P. Ashton, Major W. J. Buchanan, 
I.M.S., Major W. J. Bythell, I.A., Babu Monmohan Chakravarti, 
Mr. B. L. Chaudhuri, Rai Sarat Chandra Das Bahadur, Mr. Hari 
Nath De, Mr. L. L. Termor, Rev. B. Francotte, S.J., Mr. N. L. 
Hallward, Mr. H. H. Hayden, Mr. D. Hooper, Dr. W. 0. Hossack, 
Mr. J. Macfarlane, Mr. C. W. McMinn, Kumar Satindradeb Rai, 
Captain L. Rogers, I.M.S., Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastree, 
Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, Mr. H. E. Stapleton, 
Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana. 

Visitors:— Mr. A. J. F. Blair, Mr. S. H. Browne, Mr. A. G. 
Fraser, Mr. E. H. Pascoe, Kumar Kshitendradeb Rai Mahasai, 
Kumar Manindradeb Rai Mahasai. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Eighty-three presentations were announced. 

Mr. J. M. Dunnett was ballotted for and elected an Ordinary 
Member of the Society. 

It was announced that Lt.-Col. H. T. S. Ramsden, I.A., had 
expressed a wish to withdraw from the Society. 

The General Secretary read the names of the following gentle- 
men who had been appointed to serve on the various Committees 
for the present year : — 

Finance and Visiting Committee — 

Mr. N. Annandale. 

Mr. W. K. Dods. 

The Hon. Mr. A. Earle. 

Mr. T. H. Holland. 

Mr. H. E. Kempthorne. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya. 

Captain L. Rogers. 

Dr. E. D. Ross. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri. 


Library Committee — 

Mr. Harinath De, 


Mr. H. H. Hayden. 




Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1905.] 

Mr. T. H. D. LaTouche. 

Mr. C. W. McMinn. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosli Mukliopadliyaya. 

Dr. E. D. Ross. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Stastri. 

Mr. E. Thornton. 

Philological Committee — 

Babn Muralidhar Banerjee. 

Babu Monmohan Chakravarti. 

Mr. Harinath De. 

Mr. E. A. Gait. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter. 

Dr. E. D. Ross. 

Pandit Satyavrata Samasrami. 

Pandit Togesa Chandra Sastree. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Chandra Kanta Tarkalankara. 

Dr. G. Thibaut. 

Babu I^agendra Nath Vasu. 

Mr. A. Venis. 

Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana. 

The proposed revision in Rules 5 and 7 of the Society's Rules, 
of which intimation had been given by circular to all resident 
members in accordance with Rule 64A, were brought up for dis- 

Mr. D. Hooper exhibited some peculiar knives from Nepal 
and Coorg. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Aniruddha Thera. — A learned Poli author of Southern India 
in the 12th Century A.B. — By Pandit Satis Chandra Yidyabhdsana. 

2. The Colouring Principle of the fioivers of Nyctanthes Arhor- 
tristis.—By E. G. Hill, B.A. 

3. On some Forms of the Kris hilt, ivith special reference to the 
Kris tadjong of the Sia')nese Malay States. With exhibition of speci- 
mens and draioings. — By N". Annandale, B.A. 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

4. The Monasteries of Tibet. — By Rai Sarat Chandra Das 
Bahadur, C.I.E. 

5. On the occurrence of the Fresh-water Worm Ghsetogaster in 
India, with notes on the habits of a species from Calcutta. — By N". 
Annandale, B.A. 

6. A letter from Mr. H. BeveridgetoBabu Girindra Nath Butt 
on his paper on the History of the Hutwa Haj. 

I am much obliged to you for the present of your History of 
the Hutwa Raj. I have read it with interest. The only point on 

April, 1905.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

which I am capable of commenting is that relating to the time of 
Akbar and his father. At page 4 you speak of the last of the Lodi 
kings falling into the hands of Baber, the exact fact being that he 
was killed in battle, and the battle of "Baksar" a little lower 
down is a slip for the battle of Chausa (on the other side of the 
Ganges). Your note at pages 48 and 49 on the Hutwa Raj in the 
Ain Akbari should rather be the Hutwa Raj in the Ain and 
the Akbarnama, for the chief references to Kalyanpore and its 
Zemindar are in the Akbarnama. Blochmann's notes to which 
you refer are derived from the Akbarnama, not from the Ain. 
Kalyanpore is twice mentioned in the Akbarnama vol. III. One 
reference is at page 370 which is that mentioned by you, though 
I do not think the original Persian quite warrants the statement 
that the imperialists drove Masum K. Faroukhudi over Kalyan- 
pore to Mahamedabad. The other reference is not mentioned by 
Blochmann, but is the moi"e important of the two, for there Abul 
Fazl refers to Saran and the Zemindar of Kalyanpore. ^ It occurs 
at page 397, Vol. Ill, of the Bib. Ind. ed. of the Akbarnama, line 
three from top. After mentioning the borders of Saran on the 
preceding page (396) it says that a rebel named Nur Mahammed 
tried to take refuge with " the Zemindar of Kalyanpore " and did 
not siTcceed. This reference is in the 28th year of Akbar's reign 
corresponding to 1582 or 1583 and so you will see that your date 
of 1600 for Raja Kalyan Mall is too late by about 20 years. The 
Koda 2 or Konah mentioned in Jarrett II, 156, just before Kalyan- 
pore is perhaps the Kuadi of your page 5. By the by, Masum K. 
Faroukhudi was afterwards secretly murdered by Akbar's orders. 

7. Festivals, Customs and Folklore of Gilgit.—By Munshi 
Ghdlam Mahomad. Communicated by the Anthropological Secretary. 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

1 " I am indebteil to the Asiatic Society's resident Moulvi for the follow- 
ing information from the Akbarnamah: — 

" Noor Muhammad, the out-law. When Khani Azam Mirza Kook took 
post aud reached the boundaries of Jaunpore, he received information that 
that out-law (Noor Muhammad) came from Bengal by the way of Tirhoot and 
made friendship with Khaja Abdul GafoorNagshbandi and disturbed the peace 
of the country and began to ravage the district of Saran, having settled at a 
distance of 24 miles from Tirhoot. Meanwhile the royal troops arrived at the 
bank of the Ganges and attempted to constrnct a bridge over it. Under- 
standing this the enemy tried to take shelter under the zamindar of Kalyan- 
pur but in vain. He was arrested at Chelaran (Champaran)." 

* There is no doubt that " Kodah (Gawa ? ) " of Jarrett is Kuadi. Most 
of the names of the Pergs. in Saran mentioned by Abul Fazl have been mis- 
read by Jarrett. As for their correct reading cf. my notes on the Verna- 
cnlar dialects of Saran in the Journal, of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Part I, 
No. 3, of 1897, pp. 194-195. 

G. N. DuTT. 



MAY, 1905. 



The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 3rd May, 1905, at 9-15 p.m. 

Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A,, in the chair. 

The following memlbers were present : — 

Dr. IS". Annandale, Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, Mr. L. 
L. Fermor, Mr. J. Macfarlane, Mr. F. C. Turner, Mr. E. Vreden- 

Visitor .—Mr. G. de P. Colter. 

The minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

Thirty-six presentations were announced. 

Babu Kashi Prasad Saha, Babu Hemendra Prasad Ghosha, 
Dr. A. J. Ollenbach, Mr. H. G. Graves, Babu Dwarkanath Ohakra- 
butti and Mr. T. W. Richardson were balloted for and elected Ordi- 
nary Members of the Society. 

It was announced that Mr. A. Tocher had expressed a wish 
to withdraw from the Society. 

The Chairman announced that Mr. H. E. Stapleton, Captain 
L. Rogers, I.M.S., Mr. H. H. Mann, Mr. D. Hooper and Mr. J. 
N. Das Gupta had been appointed to serve on the Library Com- 
mittee during the present year. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. The Emperor Babar. — By H. Bevebidgb, I.C.S. (retired.) 

2. Contributions to Oriental Herpetology III- — Notes on thg 
Oriental Lizards in the Indian Museum, with a List of the Species 
recorded from British India and Ceylon. Part 2. — By N"elson 
Annandale, B.A., D.Sc. 

3. Tibet, a dependency of Mongolia (1643-1716 A.D.) — By 
Rai Saeat Chandea Das, Bahadue, C.I.E. 

4. Sakvajna-mitra — A Tantrika Buddhist author of Kasmlra 
in the 8th Century A.I).— By Pandit Satis Chandea Yidyabhusana, 

5. The Similarity of the Tibetan Alphabet to the Kashgar 
Brahmi Alphabet. — By Rev. A. H. Feancke. 

6. A complete All-word Index to the Inscriptions of Asoha. — By 
Ganga Mohan Laskae, M.A. Communicated by the Philological 

CD The last two papers will be published in the Memoirs. 



Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1905.] 

7. Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula, No. 16. — By 
Sir Geokge King, K.C.I E., LL.D., F.R.S., late Superintendent 
of the Boy al Botanic Garden, Calcutta, and J. Sykbs Gamble, C.I.E., 
M.A. F.R.S., late of the Indian Forest Pepartment. 


The present contribution to these materials contains the ac- 
count of the genus Psychotria required to conclude the joint-account 
by the authors of the natural order Rubiaceas, commenced in part 
14 and continued in part 15 of this series. This account of Psy- 
chotria comprises descriptions of 26 completely represented and 3 
imperfectly known species ; of these the following 11 species, — Psy- 
chotria Ku7istleri King & Gamble, P. Scortechinii King & Gamble, 
P. pilulifera King & Gamble, P. Bidleyi King & Gamble, P. 
multicapitata King & Gamble, P. Birchiana King & Gamble, 
P. fulvoidea King & Gamble, P. Gurtisii King & Gamble, P. 
Wrayi King & Gamble, P. iniequalis King & Gamble, and P. 
condeiisa King & Gamble, are new to science. 

In addition, this fasciculus contains accounts, for which the 
authors are jointly responsible, of the three following natural orders : 
Campanulacese, 4 genera and 6 species, two of the species — Pentaph- 
raqma Scortechinii King & Gamble and P. Bidleyi King & Gamble, — 
being new ; Vacciniacese, 3 genera and 12 species, 5 of the species — 
Pentapterygium Scortechinii King & Gamble, and Vaccinium Scorte- 
chinii King & Gamble, V. glahrescens King & Gamble, V. viscifolium 
King & Gamble and V. Kunstleri King & Gamble, — being new ; 
and Ericacese, 5 genera and 17 species, 1 genus — Pernettyopsis King 
& Gamble, — and 7 species — Piplycosia erythrina King & Gamble, 
Rhododendron Wrayi King & Gamble, B. paucifiorum King & 
Gamble, B. perakense King & Gamble and B. dubium King & 
Gamble, with Pernettyopsis malayana King & Gamble, and P. 
suhglahra King & Gamble — being new to science. 

Two orders ; Valerianacem, 1 genus and 1 species ; also 
Gompositee, 23 genera and 31 species, hare been described by Sir 
G. King : four others ; Stylidese, 1 genus and 1 species ; Goodeno- 
viese, 1 genus and 1 species ; Fpacrideae, 1 genus and 1 species ; and 
Plumbaginex, 2 genera and 2 species, have been described by 
Mr. Gamble. These six orders contain no novelties. 

In addition to tlie foregoing, an account of the order Monotro- 
pese, 1 genus and species, has been provided by Lieut. -Gol. 
D. Prain, Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta ; 
while Mr. C. B. Clarke, P.R.S., formerly President of the Linnean 
Society, has prepared an account of the natural order Gentianacese, 
6 genera and 8 species, 1 genus — Microphium C. B. Clarke, — 
and 3 species, — Microphium pubescens Clarke, Gancora pentanthera 
Clarke, and Villarsia aurantiaca Ridley — being new to science. 

This paper will be issued as an extra number of the Society's 
Journal, Vol. LXXIIl, Part II., 1904. 


JUNE, 1905. 

The Montlily General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 7th June, 1905, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Rev. E. Francotte, S.J., in the chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Dr. K". Aunandale, Babu Dwarkanath Chaki'avarti, Mr. L. L. 
Fermor, Mr. D. Hooper, Dr. W. C. Hossack, Mr. J. Macfarlane, 
Mr. H. H. Mann, Major D. C. Phillott, I.A., Mr. R. R. Simpson, 
Mr. H. E. Stapleton, Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhueana, and 
Mr, E. Vredenbm^g. 

Visitms : — The Rev. L. Delaunoit, S.J., Mr. J. M. Mackren 
and Mr. E. Vieux. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Twenty-five presentations were announced. 

Pandit N"ava Kanta Kavibhushan was ballotted for and elect- 
ed an Ordinary Member of the Societj^ 

It was announced that the Hon. Mr. Justice J. G. Woodroffe, 
Mr. C. R. Mai-riott, and Captain Stuart Godfi'ey, I.A., had ex- 
pressed a A^-ish to withdraw from the Society. 

The General Secretary reported the death of Mr, H. W. Peal, 
an Ordinary ]\lember of the Society. 

The proposed revision in Rules 5 and 7 of the Society's 
Rules, of Avhich intimation had already been given by circular 
to all members, was brought up for final disposal. The votes 
of the members were laid on the table and the Chairman requested 
any Resident Members who had not expressed their opinion, to 
take the present opportunity of filling in voting papers. Five such 
papers were filled in, and with the 106 returned by members, 
were .scrutinized, the Chairman appointing Messrs. H. E. 

^Stapleton and L. L. Fermor to ])e Scrutineers. The Scrutineers 

oyeported as follows : — 










Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1905.] 

RULE 5. 

Present Role. 

Candidates for Ordinary 
MembersMp shall be proposed 

Mode of Election J ■% , -, 
of Ordinary seconded by 

Members. another, Ordi- 

nary Member. The name of the 
candidate, his proposer and 
seconder, shall be laid before a 
Meeting of the Council, and 
shall be read at the two Ordi- 
naiy General Meetings of the 
Society which next succeed such 
Meeting of the Council, and 
during the interval shall be sus- 
pended in the Society's Meeting- 
room. The candidate shall be 
ballotted for at the second of 
such Ordinary General Meet- 

Pkoposed Rule. 

Candidates for Ordinary 
Membership shall be proposed 

Mode of Election ^3^ o^^' ^"^^ 
of Ordinary seconded by 
Members. another, Ordi- 

nary Member. The name of 
the candidate, his proposer and 
seconder, shall be laid before a 
Meeting of the Council, and if 
approved, shall be recommended 
for election by ballot at the 
next Ordinary General Meeting 
of the Societ}^ The names of 
candidates recommended by the 
Council for election shall be' 
communicated to the Resident 
Members of the Society, with 
the usual notice of the General 
Meeting, and in case any five 
Ordinary Members consider it 
desirable, they will be at liberty 
to demand that the candidates' 
certificates be suspended in the 
Society's Meeting-room until 
the next following General Meet- 
ing, when the candidate shall be 
ballotted for. Any such de- 
mand for a postponement of 
election made under this rule 
must be made in writing, signed 
by at least five Ordinary Mem- 
bers, and presented at the Ordi- 
nary General Meeting before the 
proposed election takes place. 

RULE 7. 

Present Rule. 

Should there be no meeting 
dui-ing the Recess months of 
S e p t em b er 

Council empow- 
ered to elect 
Ordinary Mem- 
bers during the 

and October, 
the Council 
shall be em- 
powered to 
elect candidates for ordinary 

Proposed Role. 

Should there be no meeting 
during the Recess months of 
S ep t em be r 

Cotmcil empow- 
ered to elect 
Ordinary Mem- 
bers during the 

and October, 
the Council 
shall be em- 
powered to 
elect candidates for Ordinary 

'[June, 1905 1 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengc 

Membership, who shall have 
been dnlj proposed and second- 
ed at the Greneral Meeting of 
the Society in August, or whose 
names may be received as can- 
didates during the Recess. Such 
candidates shall be ballotted for 
at the Meeting of the Council 
next succeeding that at which 
their names and those of their 
proposers and seconders shall 
have been laid before the Coun- 
cil, and during the interval 
between the two meetings these 
names shall be suspended in the 
Society's Meeting-room, as pro- 
vided in Rule 5 ; and it shall be 
necessary for the due election of 
such candidates that not less 
than two-thirds of the Members 
of Council present at the meet- 
ing shall vote in their favour. 
Such elections shall be reported 
and confirmed at the first Gene- 
ral Meeting of the Society after 
the Recess. 

Membership whose names may 
be received as candidates during 
the Recess. Such candidates 
shall be ballotted for at the 
Meeting of the Council next 
succeeding that at which their 
names and those of their pro- 
posers and seconders shall have 
been laid before the Council ; 
and during the interval between 
the two raeetings these names 
shall be suspended in the 
Society's Meeting-room. It shall 
be necessary for the due elec- 
tion of such candidates that 
not less than two-thirds of the 
Members of Council present at 
the meeting shall vote in their 
favour. Such elections shall be 
reported and confirmed at the 
first General Meeting of the 
Society after the Recess. 

The following papers were read :■ — 

1. An Analysis of the Lanknvatara Sutra. — By Prop. Satis 
Chandra Yidtabhdsana, M.A. 

2. Note on a Bock Shrine in Loiver Siam. — By N. Annan- 
dale, B.A,, D.Sc, 

The paper will be published in the Memoiis. 

3. Religion and Gtistoms of the JJraons or Oraons. — By Rev. 
Father Dehon, S.J. Communicated by Mr. E. A. Gait, I.C S. 

The paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

4. Tibet under her Last Kings (1434-1642 A.D.). — By B.Ai Sarat 
€handra Das, Bahadur, CLE. 

5. Kote on a Decomposition Product of a Peculiar Variety of 
BundeVkhand Gneiss. — By C. A. Silberrad, B.A,, B.Sc, I.C.S. 



Annandale, Nelson. — Additions to the Collection of Oriental 
Snakes in the Indian Museum. Part 2. Specimens from the 
Andamans and Nicobars, Jour, and Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, 
Yol. I, No. 7, 1905, pp. 173-176. 

* Bistira andamanica, sp. n. Annandale, N , pp. 174-175. 
List of Snakes of the Andamans and Nicobars. Annandale, 

N., pp. 175-176. 
SiTTiotes woodmasoni, Sclater, belongs to the genus Oligodon. 

Annandale, N., p. 173. 
Tropidonotus nicoharensis, Sclater, note on the type specimen. 

Annandale, N., p. 174. 
TypMops hraminus (Daud.) recorded from the Andamans. 
Annandale, N., p. 173, 

JULY, 1905. QAI^DEN. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 5th July, 1905, at 9-15 p.m. 

His HojfODR Sir A. H. L. Frasee, M.A., LL.D,, K.C.S.I., 
President, in the Chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Dr. K". Annandale, Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, C.I.E., 
Mr. L. L. Fermor, Mr. D. Hooper, Mr K. ]^. Knox, Mr. J. 
Macfarlane, Dr. M. M. Masoom, Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., 
The Hon. Mr. A. Pedler, Major D. C. Pliillott, I. A., Captain L. 
Rogers, I.M.S., Mr. S. C, Sanial, Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 
Shastri, Mr. R. R. Simpson, Mr. G. H. Tipper, Pandit Satis Chandra 
Yidyabhiisana, Mr. E. Yredenhnrg, The Rev. A. W. Young. 

Visitors: — Mr. Hallowes, Capt W. B. Rennie, I.A. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Forty presentations were announced. 

Tt was announced that Mr. L. Morshead had expressed a wish 
to withdraw from the Society^ 

The General Secretary reported the death of Raja Jayakrishna 
Das, Bahadur, an Ordinary Member, and Dr. W. T. Blanford, 
F.R.S., an Honorary Member of the Society. 

Read abstracts from programmes from the following Con- 
gresses and Exhibition : — 

1. From Congres International d'Expansion Economique 
Mondiale, 1905. 

An International Congress of World-wide Economic Expan- 
sion ( Congres International d'Expansion Economique Mondiale) is 
to be held under the auspices of the Government of Belgium at 
Mons in September next (1) subscribe, (2) draw up a report, (3) 
send a delegate. The organisers suggest that the Society would 
be particularly interested in the section which relates to the follow- 
ing question : — 

Which are the best ways of booking observations in uncivilised 
regions in order to obtain scientific notions on the native, social 
life, and manners and customs, and raise them to a higher civiliza- 
tion ? 

2. From Congres International pour I'etude de la radiologic 
et de rionisation, liiege, 1905. 

<^ An International Congress for the Study of Radiology and 
Q^Ionisation is to be held under the auspices of the Government of 

I" 45 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1905.] 

Belgium at Liege in September next, in wliicli the Society is 
invited to participate. 

f•^'^ 3. From Indian Industrial and Agricultural Exhibition, 
Benares, 1905. 

A prospectus has been received of tlie Indian Industrial and 
Agricultural Exhibition to be held at Benares in connection with 
the next Indian IS^ational Congress. 

The President presented the Elliott gold medals and Ks. 75 in 
cash to each of the following gentlemen for their essays submitted 
in competition for the Elliott Prize for Scientific Research during 
1904 :— 

1. Babu Sarasi Lai Sarkar — for his essay entitled " On the 
ci-ystalline properties of a potassium copper ferro cyanide com- 
pound," Parts I & II. 

2. Babu Surendx'a Nath Maiti-a — for his essaj^ entitled " On 
the Experimental Determination of the Electro-chemical equi- 
valent of nickel." (With Diagrams.) 

The President announced : — 

1. That the Council had appointed Pandit Satis Chandra 
Vidyabliusana as a member of the Coancil. 

2. That Dr. Annandale had been appointed to serve on the 
Library Committee and Major D. C. Phillott, LA., had been re- 
elected a member of the Philological Commitee during the year. 

The Greneral Secretary reported the presentation of nine gold 
and three silver coins from the Bombay Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society forwarded with their letter dated 15th June, 1905. 

Mr. J. N. Das, projDOsed by Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 
Shastri, seconded by Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastree ; Mr. Edgar de 
Montford Humphries, I.C.S., proposed by Mr. R, Burn, seconded 
by Mr. J. Macfarlane ; Babu Amulyacharan Ghose Yidyabhushan, 
proposed by Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, seconded by 
Mr. J. Macfarlane ; Mr. Hem Chandra Goswami, proposed by 
Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastree, seconded by Mr J. Macfarlane ; 
Mr. J. A. Cunningham, B.A., proposed by Mr. F. Turner, seconded 
by Mr. G. W. Ktichler ; Mr. Jain Yaidya, proposed by Pandit Satis 
Chandra Vidyabhusana, seconded by Mr. J. Macfarlane ; Pandit 
Rajendra Nath Vidyabhusan, proposed by Mahamahopadhyaya 
Haraprasad Shastri, seconded by Babu Muralidhar Banerjee ; Babu 
Vanamali Chakravarti, proposed by Mahamahopadhyaya Hara- 
prasad Shastri, seconded by Babu Muralidhar Banerjee ; and 
Pandit Pramatha l^ath Tarkabhushan, proposed by Babu Murali- 
dhar Banerjee, seconded by Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 
Shastri, were ballotted for and elected Ordinary Members. 

The Philological Secretary exhibited a Tibetan Scroll for- 
warded by the Hon'ble Sir A. T. Arundel, and Pandit Satis 
Chandra Vidyabhusana read a note on it. 

The note will be published in the Memoirs, 

[July, 1905.] Proceedmys of the Asiatic Society of Benyal. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. The Gatholic Mission in Nepal and the Nepalese Autliorities 
{\Qth century), — By Father Felix. Gommumcated hy the Philo- 
logical Secretary. 

Tlie paper will not be pablished by the Society. 

2. Foior neio Barnacles froin the neighhoiirhood of Java, ivith 
Records of Indian Pedunculate Forms. — By N. Annandale, B.A., 
D.Sc, Deputy Superintendent, Indian Museum. 

The paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

3. Additions to the collection of Oriental Snakes in the Indian 
Museum, Part II. — Specimens from the Andamans and Nicohars. — By 
ISr. Annakdale, B.A., D.SiC., Deputy Superintendent, Pidian Mtiseum. 

4t. The Tibetan Version of the Pramanasamuccaya — the First 
Indian worh on Logic proper — brought from Tibet by the late Tibet 
Mission. — By Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A. 

The paper will be published in the Journal and Proceedings 
for Aug-ust, 1905. 

5. Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peyiiyisula, I^o. 17. — By 
SiK GboeCtE King, K.C.I.E., LL.D., F.R.S., late Superintendent of the 
Royal Botanic Garden, Galcutta, and J. S. Gamble, CLE., F.R.S., 
late of the Indian Forest Department. 


This contribution commences with l^atural Order Myrsineas 
and is continued by Sapotacese, Ebenacem, Styraceas and Oleacese. 
The draft of Ebenaceee was prepared by Sir George King, that of 
the other Orders by Mr. J. S. Gamble ; but the new species are 
given under their joint names. 

In the Natural Order Myrsineae 7 genera are described with 
80 species, of which the large genus Ardisia furnishes 47. The 
new species are 36 in number, viz., Meesa impressinervis a,ud pahangi- 
ana ; Myrsine perahensis ?ijid Wrayi; Embelia Scortechinii, angulosa, 
Ridleyi, and macrocarpa ; Labisia paucifolia and longistyla; Ardisia 
chrysophyllifolia, solanoides, fidva, lanJcawiensis, labisioefolia, 
montana, sinuata, platyclada, Kunstleri, Scortechinii, oblongifolia, 
tetrasepala, bifiora, tahanica, Wrayi, minor, perakensis, Meziana, 
Ridleyi, rosea, longipedunculata, Maingayi, thesefolia, and bambu- 
seto^-um; and Antistrophe caudata and Givrtisii. A Tenasserim novelty 
has also been described Etnbelia Gallatlyi. The working out of 
the Malay plants of this difficult Order has been rendered easier 
owing to the recent Monograph of the Order by Herr Cai'l Mez, 
in Englei-'s Pflanzenreich. 

In the interesting and important Natural Order Sapotacese 
there are 8 genera with 49 species, of which 25 are new, viz., 
Sideroxyhm Derryanum ; Isonandra perakensis and rufa ; Payena 
longepediceUata (Brace), Havilandi, sassilis, obtiLsifolia a,ndL selangor^ 
ica ; Bassia uristulata, Kinyiana (Brace), Kunstleri (Brace), 
penice'luta, Curtisii, laurijolia, rupicola, perakensis, Braceana, longi- 
styla, cnpjrau, penangiana, and erythrophylla ; Palaquium Ridleyi, 


[Jul J, 1905.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

onicropJiyllum, Herveyi and stellatum. ■ An Andaman Islands species 
tas also been included, Mimusops andamanensis. Some of the 
species, it will be noticed, bear the name given in the Calcutta 
Herbai'ium by Mr. L. R. Brace, forraerly Curator ; but he merely 
gave names without descriptions. 

In the almost equally important N'atural Order JEbenacese 
there are two genera with 42 species, of which 2i are new, viz., 
Maba Hierniana, venosa, olivacea, GlarJceana and perakensis ; Dios- 
pyros Wrayi, siob-rliomhoidea, duniosa, Scortechinii, Styraciformis, 
tristis, paucifiora, eUipsoidea, Wallichii, toposioides, bracMata, 
Kmzstleri, nutans, rejiexa, pe^iangiana, rufa, areolata, Gurtisii, and 

The Natural Order Styraceas gives two genei'a and 28 species, 
of which 25 belong to SympJocos. The new species are 8 in 
number, viz., Symplocos fulvosa, pulveridenta. rtionticola, Ridleyi, 
perakensis, Brandiana, penangiana. SccniecJiinii. As was the 
case with Myrsineae, so in Styracem also, the work has been facili- 
tated by the recently published Monograph by Herr Brand in 
Engler's PHanzenreicJi. 

In the Natural Order Oleaceseihere are 5 genera with 22 species, 
of which 9 are new. These are : Jasminum Wrayi, Gurtisii, 
longipetalum and Scwtechinii ; Osmantum Scortechinii ; Linociera 
paludosa and caudata ; and Olea platycarpa and ardisioides. 

In this part, therefore, are described 5 Natural Orders with 24 
genera and 221 species. The number of species new to science are 
115, and two new species have been also described from regions 
adjacent to that to which the work refers. 

The j)aper will be published in full as an Extra Number 
of the Journal and Proceedings. 




The Montlily General Meeting of the Society was held oij 
Wednesday, the 2nd Auo^ust, 1905, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Rev. E. Feancotte, S.J., in tlie chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Mr. J. Bathgate, Mr, L. L, Fermor, Babu Amulyacharan 
Ghosh Vidyabhushan, Mr, H. G. Graves, Mr, T, H, Holland, 
Mr. D, Hooper, Pandit Navakanta Kavibhnshana, Mr. J. Macfar- 
lane, Mr, H. H, Mann, Dr, M, M. Masoom, Major F, P. Maynard, 
I.M.S., Mr. G. E. Pilgrim, Captain L. Rogers, I.M.S., Dr. E. D. 
Ross, Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastree, Mahamahopadhyaya Hara- 
prasad Shastri, Mr. R. R. Simpson, Mr. H. E. Stapleton, Pandit 
Pramatha Wath Tarkabhushan, Mr. G. H. Tipper, Pandit Vana- 
mali Vedanta Tirtha, Pandit Jogendra Nath Vidyabhushan, 
Pandit Rajendra Nath Vidyabhushan, Pandit Satis Chandra 
Vidyabhushan, the Rev. A. W. Young. 

Visitors: — Babu Sarat Kumar Das, Mr. W. R. LeQuesne. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Fifty presentations were announced. 

It was announced that Major E. H. Brown, I.M.S., had ex 
pressed a wish to withdraw from the Society. 

The Chairman announced that Mr. H. E. Stapleton had been 
appointed to officiate as Anthropological Secretary of the Society 
during the absence of Dr. N. Annandale. 

The Chaii'man also announced that the following gentlemen 
being largely in arrears of subscription had been declared de- 
faulters and that their names would be posted up in accordance 
with Rule 38. 

Mr. R. G. Black. 

Babu Ramani Mohan Mai lick. 

Babu Jaladhi Ch. Mukerjee, 

With reference to the resolution of the Council regarding the 
rejection of certain books from the Society's library published in 
the Society's Proceedings for June, 1904, the Chairman announced 
that the Council had resolved that the Library Committee should 
settle the prices of books with authoi-ity to offer Government pub- 
lications to Government. 

The Chairman presented to Rai Sai^at Chandia Dass, Bahadur, 
C.I.E., a diploma from the Imperial Russian Archseological 
Society electing him a Foreign Corresponding Member. 

Sri Kripamaya Dev Anang Bhim Kesori Gajapati Maharaja, 
proposed by Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, seconded by 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1905.] 

Mr. J. Macfarlane; Lieut.-Col. C. P. Lukis, M.B., F.R.C.S., I.M.S. 
proposed by Captain L. Rogers, I.M.S., seconded by Captain 
J. W. Megaw, I.M.S. ; Captain D. McCay, M.B., I.M.S., proposed 
by Captain L. Rogers, I.M.S., seconded by Captain J. W. Megaw, 
I.M S. ; Lieut. C. A. Gronrlay, M.B., I.M.S., proposed by Captain 
L. Rogers, I.M.S., seconded by Captain, J. W. Megaw, I.M.S. ; 
Captain J. J. Urwin, M.B., I M.S., proposed by Captain L. Rogers, 
I.M.S., seconded by Captain J. W. Megaw, I.M S. ; Captain 
W. W. Clemesha, M.B., I.M.S., proposed by Captain L.Rogers, 
I.M.S., seconded by Captain J. W. Megaw, I.M.S. ; were ballotted 
for and elected Ordinary Members. 

Owing to non-receipt of tlie MS. of the paper entitled " The 
Tibetan version of the Pramanasamuccaya," by Prof. Satis 
Chandra Vidyabhiisana, read at the July General Meeting, the 
^aper is not published in the Journal and Proceedings for August 

The following papers were read : — 

1. A Tibetan Chart containing the charm of Vajrabhairava. — 
By Peop. Satis Chandra Vidtabhushan, M.A. 

The paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

2. History of Nyayasastra from Japanese sources. — By Maha- 


3. Notes concerning the people of Mtmgeli Tehsil, Bilaspore 
District. — By Rev. E. M. Cordon. Communicated hy the Anthro- 
pological Secretary. 

4. Amidets as Agents in the Preventio?i of Disease in Bengal. — 
Communicated hy Mr. A. N". Moberly, I.C.S., Superintendent of 
Uthnography, Bengal. 

The paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

5. A Short History of the house of Phagmodu, lohich rtded over 
Tibet on the decline of SaTcya for upivards of a century till 1482, 
A.D. — By Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, CLE. 

6. Additions to the Collection of Oriental SnaJces in the Indian 
Museum. Part 3. — By N. Annandale, B.A., D.Sc. 

7. The Kantabudiyas of Cnttack. — By Jamini Mohan Das. 
Communicated by the Anthropological Secretary. 

8. The Age of Jimuta Vahana. — By Pandit Pramatha K'ath 

The paper will be published in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

9. Sal-Ammoniac : a Study in Primitive Chemistry. — By H. E. 
Stapleton, B.A., B.Sc. 

The paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

10. Alchemical Equipment in the Eleventh Century, A.D. — 
By H, E. Stapleton and R. F, Azo. 

The paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

11. Note on the Bhotias of Almora and British Garhwal. — 
By C. A. Sherring, M.A., I.C.S. Communicated hy Mr. R. Burn, 

The paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

NOVEMBER, 1905. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 1st November 1905, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Hon. Mr Jcstece Asutosh Mukhapadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 
F.R.S E., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Dr. N" Annandale, Mr. I. H. Burkiil, Babu Manmohan 
Chaki-avarti, Mr. B, L. Chaudhuri, Mr. L. L. Fermor, The Rev. 
E. Francotte, S.J., Mr. H. G. Graves, Mr. D. Hooper, Mr. T. H. D. 
La Touche, Mr. J. Macfarlane, Major D. C. Fhillott, I.A., Mr. 
G. E. Pilgrim, Major L. Rogers, I.M.S., Mahamahapadhyaya 
Haraprasad Shastri, Mr. R. R. Simpson, Pandit Pramatha Nath 
Tarkabhushan, Pandit Vanamali Vedantatii-tha, Pandit Rajendra 
N'ath Vidyabhiisaaa Pandit Satis Chandra VidyabhCisana. 

Visitor -.—Mr. G. de P. Cotter. 

The minntes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

One hundred and sixty-eight presentations were announced. 

The Chairman announced : — 

1. That the Council had appointed Mr. H. E. Stapleton as a 
member of the Council in the place of Mr. R. O. Lees, resigned. 

2. That Dr. N. Annandale having returned to Calcutta had 
taken over charge of the duties of Anthropological Secretary from 
Mr. Stapleton. 

.3. That Mr. L. L. Fermor had been elected to serve on the 
Library Committee during the year. 

The Chairman also announced that in accoi"dance with Rule 38 
of the Society's Rules, the names of Mr. R. G. Black, Babu 
Ramani Mohan Mallick and Babu Jaladhi Chandr-a Mukerjee had 
been posted u.p as defaulting members since the last Meeting 
and were removed from the Members List. 

The Chairman also announced the following resolution of tlie 
Council regarding the submission of communications for publi- 
cation in the Society's ^''Journal and Proceedings'" and ''^Memoirs.'" 
" The attention of authors is drawn to Rule I of Regulations 
regarding the submission of communications for publication. No 
alteration or addition necessitating any considerable change of 
type may be made in proofs. Should any such alteration or 
addition be necessary, it must be added in a foot-note duly dated 
and initialed. 

Mr. L. S. O'Malley, I.C.S., proposed by the Hon. Mr. 

E. A. Gait, seconded by Mr. J. Macfarlane; Mr. A. M. T. 

iifcackson, I.C.S., proposed by the Hon. Mr. H. H. Risley, seconded 

^^- Mr. J. Macfarlane ; were ballotted for and elected Ordinary 

^9w embers. 




Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [November, 1905.] 

Dr. N. Annandale exhibited living specimens of the " Rains 
Insect" (Trombiditim grandissimutn) . 

The Anthropological Secretary exhibited weighing-beams of 
the " bismer " type from different parts of India. 

The following papers were i^ead : — 

1. Vidi/dpafi Thakur. — By G. A. Griekson, C.I.E., I.C.S. 

2. Some remarks on the Geology of the Gangetic Plain. — By 


3. The Nafaisu-l-Maasir. — By H, Beveridge, I.C.S. (retired). 

4. Notes on the Species, External Characters and Habits of the 
D II gong. — By K Annandale, B.A., D.Sc. 

5. Hedyotis sisaparensis, a hitherto iindescrihed Indian 
species. — By Captain A. T. Gage, LM.S. 

6. Result of the examination of the Nyaya Sutras of 
Gautama. — By Mahamahopadhtaya Harapeasad Shastri, M.A. 

The paper will be published in the ''''Journal and Proceedings^'' 
Vol. I, No. 10. 

7. Materials for a Flora nf the Malayan Peninsida. No. 18. — 
Bii Sir George King, K.C.I.E., LL.D., F.R.S., and J. S. Gamble, 
Esq., CLE., M.A., F.R.S. 


Owing to an unforeseen cause of delay, it has been found 
necessary to postpone the publication of the Natural Orders No 75 
Apocynaceae, No. 76 Asclepiadacese and No. 77 Loganiacese for 
a short while ; consequently the present part, No. 18 of the 
" Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula," contains the 
orders which succeed, viz., No. 79 Hydrophyllacese to No. 85 
Lentibulariacese inclusive, together with No. 87 Bignoniaceae and 
88 PedalinceSB. No. 78 Genfienacese has already appeared in part 
17, and No. 86 Gesneracese will have to come later on with the 
three orders above mentioned as having had to be postponed. 

The whole of the work or six out of the nine orders now 
presented : Gonvolvulacese, Solanacese, Scrophularinese, Orobanchaceee, 
JLentibulariacese, and Pedalinese has been done by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Prain, LM.S. ; that on the Boraqinece by Sir G. King ; and 
that on Hydrophyllacese and Bignoniaceae by Mr. Gamble. 

The nine orders include 53 genera and 150 species ; some of 
the species are now described for the first time. 

The paper will be jDublished in full in an Extra No. of the 
" Journal and Proceedings " for 1905. 

8, Some notes on dates of Subandhee and Dingnag. — By 
Mahamahopadhtaya Harapeasad Shastri, M.A. 

The paper will be published in the " Journal and Proceedings," 
Vol. I, No. 10. 





The Monthly Genei'al Meeting of the Society was held on_ 
Wednesday, the 6tli December 1905, at 9-15 f.M. 

The Hon'ble Mk. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhayya, M.A,, 
D.L., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present :— 

Dr, N". Annandale, Babix Muralidhar Banerjee, Major W. J. 
Buchanan, I. M.S., Mr. I. H. Burkill, Babu Monmohan Chakra- 
varti. Mr. B. L. Chandhuri, Mr. W. K. Dods, Mr. L. L. Fermor, 
Rev. E. Francotte, S.J., Mr. H. G. Graves, Mr. T. H. Holland, 
Mr. D. Hooper, Rev. E. Lafont, S.J., Mr. W. A. Lee, Mr. J. Macfar- 
lane, Mr. R. D. Mehta, Mr. J, R. Nicoll, Hon. Mr. Justice F. E. 
Pargiter, Mr. G. Pilgi-im, Hon. Mr. H, H. Risley, Major L. Rogers, 
I.M.S., Dr. E, D. Ross, Mr, C Saunders, Rai Ram Brahma 
Sanyal Bahadur, Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastree, Mahamaho- 
padhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, Babu Chandra Narain Singh, 
Mr. H. E. Stapleton, Pandit Vanamali Vedantatirtha, Babu 
Amulya Charan Vidyabhushan, Rev. A. W. Young. 

Visitors : — Mr. and Mrs. P. Buckland, Mr. J. C. Brown, Mr. 
J. M. Burjojee, Mr. Douglas H. Campbell, Babu Asutosh 
Chatterjee, Captain Coldstream, R.E., Dr. J. N. Cook, Mr. and 
Mrs. J. D. Guise, Mr. Holmes, Mrs. Kilburn, Colonel Macrae, 
Captain and Mrs. Murray, Mr. O'Kinealy, Mr. H. Pedler, 
Mr. W. H. Pickering, Mr. Pearre, Mr. J. Wilson, Mr. R. W. 
Williamson, and others. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Thirty-five presentations wei-e announced. 

The Chairman announced that Mr. I. H. Burkill had been 
re-elected a member of the Library Committee during the year. 

The General Secretary read the following resolutions of the 
Sub-Committee appointed by Council to frame new rules for lend- 
ing out manuscripts. 

Loans to India. 
Resolved : — 

1. No manuscript shall be lent out to any member or non- 
member without the recommendation of one of the Philological 

The loan of a manuscript or manuscripts to non-members 
must receive the sanction of Council in addition to the reeom- 
COmendation of the Philological Secretary. 

^ In the case of non-members a security may be demanded. 
' — 2. As a rule the number of manuscripts which a member is 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [December, 

entitled to borrow shall be limited to two, but this uum.ber may be 
exceeded on the recommendation of the Philological Committee. 

3. Every loan shall be reported to the Council. 

4. All manuscripts lent must be returned at the end of three 

5. With regard to Editors each individual case will be 
dealt with on its own merits. 

The conditions under which each editor may borrow manu- 
scripts will be forwarded with his letter of appointment. 

Loans to Eiirope. 

1. Loans cannot be made to private individuals but only to 
Coi'porate Bodies. 

2. Loans to Coi'porate Bodies in Europe must receive tlie 
sanction of the Council. 

3. Tlie loan is to be made in the first instance for six 
months only, and renewals of loan for periods of three months 

4. With each manuscript lent a form will be sent in 
duplicate, and three forms of application for renewal : one form will 
be retained by the borrower and the other duly signed by him 
returned to the Society. 

5. That the Corporate Body to whom the loan is made will 
not be at liberty to allow the manuscript to leave their premises. 

General Rules. 

6. Certain manuscript of special importance or rarity shall 
be placed by the Philological Secretaries in consultation on a 
reserve list. These manuscripts will be marked in the Library 
Catalogue with asterisks, and, as a general rule, shall not be lent 
out of the Society's rooms. 

7. It is, however, at the discretion of the Council, in very 
special cases, to sanction the loan of such manuscript. 

Form of Acknowledgment. 

We have to acknowledge receipt of No 

in good order and condition, to be held in trust for the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal and not to be removed from our premises. 

We hereby undertake either to return the said manuscript by 
the , (the date being si x months from the date of presum- 
able arrival) or to make a formal application for renewal of the loan 

fey the (five months from the time of presumable arrival), 

and we further undertake to return the manuscript in the same order 

and condition securely packed by insured parcel post by the 

if previous sanction to retain it for a further period has not been 
received by the 


1905.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Form of Application for Renewal. 

We have acknowledged the receipt of No on 

the The mamiscript has been used for months. 

The manuscript is wanted for a further period of three 
months, and we shall be obliged by the Society's sanction of this 

Mr. E. R. Watson, proposed by Mr, D. Hooper, seconded by 
Dr. N. Annandale ; Mohamed Hossain Khan Midhut, proposed by 
Dr. E. D. Ross, seconded by Mr. J, Macfarlane ; Mr. K. Marsden, 
proposed by Dr. E. D. Ross, seconded by Mr. J. Macfarlane ; 
Mr. J. Wilson, proposed by Mr. T, H. Holland, seconded by 
Dr. E. D. Ross ; were ballotted for and elected Ordinary Members. 

Dr. N. Annandale gave an exhibition illustrating the ^ise of 
the blow-gun in Southern India and Malaya. 

Mr. T. H. Holland gave a lecture on recent earthquakes in 
India (lantern demonstration). 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Earth Eating and the Earth-eating hahit in India. — By 
D. Hooper and H. H. Mann. 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

2. Formation of Neiv Castes. — By R. Burn, I.C.S. 

3. Notes on the Fauna of a Desert Tract in Southern India, 
I and II — By N. Annandale, D.Sc. 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

4. Ascaris halicoris Baird. — By Dr. v, Linstow. Com- 
municated hy N. Annandale. 

5. Anim,als in the Inscriptions of Piyadasi. — By Monsiohan 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 


JOUKN: AND PrOC: A. S. B. VoL: I, 1905. 


V. ,.r 


K.C. Chowdhiuy, AA. Pholo^riwiire, Sunrey (if India ODices, Cslcntta.l 



A.C. Chowdluuy, AjI 

J'liotogi'ayuro, Surviy of India Oftuuis, CalcnUa, Mily, IBOf.. 




JOURN. and Pmc. A. S. B. Vol. I, 1905. 

Plate IV. 

Num. Siipp. V 

JOURN. and Proc. A. S. B. Vol. I, 1905. 

Plate V. 










o^mm M 



Num. Supp. V. 

JOURN. and Proc, A. S. B. Vol. I, 1905. 

Plate VI 

Journ. and Proc. A.S.B., Vol. I, 1905. 

Plate VII. 

T*\.- ' ! ' > ' ". J '' ^""." ' " " i. M n m ' I s ' 

< ^ 

!,.. .-» 

Journ. and Proc. A.S.B., Vol. I, 1905. 

Plate VIM. 

U.L. = Upper Lip (Upper Jaw Pad). 

T. =Tusk. 

L.J. = Lower Jaw. 

Journ. and Proc. A.S.B., Vol. I, 1905. 

Plate IX. 

E. = Eye. 
N. = Nostt-i 

Journal and Proc.A S.B Vol,l.!905. 




Journ.& Proc. A. S.B.,Vol. 1,1905. 

G; "^ 

U y 


^^^<^' - ./ 



,:-vi"''^cSV-^ -'<« 

-j3P .^.„-_ — , 






V. LinstoA¥ del. 


Plate XL 

Y 7 




N . 






/ f 




\ """^^feft. 



^e#fp^^=^^>. \ ■'^'"-- ' '^ ;#■• 

< ">'-' 







Vol. I, No. 1. 





Issued June Zlst, 1905. 

List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 190S. 

President : 
H.H. Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.C.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A,, D.L., 

T. H. Holland, Esq., F.(3^.S., F.R.S. 
C. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S., (retired). 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary General Secretary : J. Macf arlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary: B. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

Natural History Secretary : Captain L. Rogers, M.D., B.Sc, 

Anl^nropological Secretary : N". Annandale, Esq., B.A., D.Sc. 
Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 

Other Members of Council : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.O.S. 

Kumar Ramessur Maliah. 

I. H. BurkiU, Esq., M.A. 

H. E. Kempthorne, Esq. 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

The Hon'ble Mr. A. Earle, I.C.S. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. TuU Walsh, I.M.S. 

R. O. Lees, Esq. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

E. Thoraton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 


The following new books have been added to the Library 
from January to April 1905. The continuations of all the serials 
and works in progress have been received. 

Abdul Walij Mmdavi. Ethnographical Notes on the Muhamma- 
dan Castes of Bengal. \_Bornhay, 1904.] 8°. 

Replanted froin the Journal of the Anthropological 
Society of Bombay, vol. VII. 

Presd.'by the Author. 

Abdur Rahman, H. {\^j*^\ [Almortaza or life of Hazrat 

Ali, the fourth Chalif, with a map of Arabia. In Urdu.] 
[Amritsar, 1901.] 8". 

. J^ J^ isiy- [Arabi Bol Ohal. Parts I— II. A 

Treatise on current Arabic dialect in Egypt and Syria. In 
Urdu.] [Amritsar, 1904] 8\ 

r. j3i"^' • [As-Siddiq or the life of Abu .Bakr, 

the Just, 1st Clialif, with a map of ancient Arabia. In Urdu.] 
[Amritsar 1901.] 8°, 

. ^suJtk^U^ . [Kitab tin Nahv. A Treatise on Arabic 

Syntax. In Urdu.] [Amritsar, 1903.] 8\ 
, (JyflJlkjlii'. [Kitab us Sarf. A Treatise on Arabic 

Etymology. In Urdu.] [Amritsar, 1904.] 8°. 

ix/olLst iib &«(ijAv», [Safaruamai Beladi Islaniai, Part I. 

In Urdu.] [Amritsar, 1905.] 8\ 

Presd. hy the Author. 

Abul FaZl Allami, Shaikh, (r) «^^ c^^l e^i^f . [Persian Ms. 
of Ain-i Akbciri. vol. II.] 8°. 

Presd. hy Syed Shamsul Huda, 

Ameghino, Floreutino. Paleontologia Argentina. 

La Plata, 1904. 8^ 

Presd. by the Universidad de la, Plata> 

Ananda Ranga Pillai. The Private Diary of Ananda Ranga 
Pillai, Dubasli to Joseph Francois Dupleix, Grovernor of 
Pondicherry. A record of matters political, historical, social, 
and personal, from 1736 to 1761. Translated from the 
Tamil... and edited by Sir J. F. Price... Assisted by K. Ranga- 
chari. vol, I, etc. Madras, 1904, etc., 8°. 

Presd. by the Government of Madras 

Dupleix and Labonrdonnais. Les Frau9ais dans I'lnde. 

... Extraits dn journal d'Anandarangappoulle... — 1736-1748. 
— Traduits dx\ tamoul.par J. Vinson. Paris, 1894. 8°. 

Presd. by H.H. the Maharaja of Tiff era. 

Arabian Night's Entertainments. The Book of the Thousand 
Nights and a Night. Translated from the Arabic by Captain 
Sir R. F. Burton. Reprinted from the original edition and 
edited by C. Smithers. A. Letchford. vols. I. 
and II. London, 1897. 8°. 

Presd. hy H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Archaeological Survey of India. Annual Report, 1902-03, etc. 
Galcutta, 1904, etc. 4°. 

Presd. by the Survey, 

Grener-al Index to the Reports of the Archaeological 

Survey of India, Volumes I to XXIII. Published under the 
superintendence of Major- General Sir A. Cunningham, by 
V. A. Smith. With a glossary and general Table of Contents. 

Calcutta, 1887. 8°. 

The Art-Journal. New Series, vol. VI, London, 1860. fol, 

Presd. by H.H, the Maharaja of Tippera, 

Atharva Veda Bhasya. The Atharva Veda Bhasya, ...Trans- 
lation and wit!) the Commentary in Sanskrit and Hindi by 
Giridhari Lala Shastri. Farruhhabad, [ ] 8\ 

Presd, hy the Translator. 

Avesta, Pahlavi and Ancient .Persian studies, in honour of the 
late Shams-ul-Ulama Dastur Peshotanji Behramji Sanjana. 
• First series, etc. Strassbury, 1904, etc. 8°. 

Presd. by the Trustees of the Parsee Panchayet, Bombay. 

Bernier, Fran9ois. Travels in the Mogul Empire, A.D, 1656- 
1668... A revised and improved edition based upon Irving 
Brock's translation by A. Constable, Westmmste7\ 1891. 8°. 

Fresd. hy H.H, the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Bernoulli, J. J. Die erhaltenen Darstellungen Alexanders des 
Grossen. Ein Nachtrag znr griecliischen Ikonograpliie. 
Miinchen, 1905. 8;. 

Beylie, De, General. Le Palais d'Angkor Yat, ancienne 
residence des rois Khmers. Hanoi, 1903. 8°. 

Bhatta, Braja Nath. Marichika, A gloss on Brambasutra... 
Edited by Ratna Gopal Bliatta. Ease. I, etc. 
Benares, 1905. etc. 8°. 

GhmcJcharnba Sanskrit Series, No. 86. 

Bhattamalla* Ikhyatacandrika. ...Edited by S. P. V. Ranga- 
nathasvami Ayyavaralugarn. Benares, 1904. 8°. 

GhoivJchamba Sanskrit Series, No. 82. 

Blagdon, Francis William. A Brief History of Ancient and 
Modern India from the earliest period of antiquity to the 
termination of the late Mahratta War. London, 1805. fol. 

Presd. by H.H. the Maharaja of Tipper a. 

Breslau. — Stadthihliotheh. Verzeichnis der arabischen, persis- 

chen, tiirkischen und hebraischen Handschriften der Stadt- 

bibliothek zu Breslau. Von C. Brockelmann. 
Breslau, 1903. 8°. 

British Museum, The Coins of the Moghul Emperors of Hindu- 
.stan...By S. Lane-Poole, Edited by R, S. Poole. 
Lmidrm, 1892. 8°. 

Presd. hy H.H. the Maharaja of Tipper a. 

Cacitari First and Second Reader. Shillong, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. hy the Govt, of Assam. 

(yAHE Town. — Geological Commission. Index to the Annual 
Reports... for the years 1896-1903, Compiled by E, H, L, 
Sfliwurz. Cape Town, 1904, S'', 

Presd. hy the Geological Commission/,, Cape Town, 

Castex, R. Le Peril japonais en Indo-Chine. Reflexions poli- 
tiqnes et militaires. Paris, [1904.] S*^. 

Chantepie de la Saussaye, P. D. Manuel d'histoire des reli- 
gions. Tradnit de r allemand, etc. Paris, 1904, 8°. 

CongrI's International db Botanique \ Vienne 1905. Texte 
synoptiqne des docnments destines a servir de base aux 
debats dti Congres International de IS'omenclatiire Botanique 
de Vienne 1905, presente au nom de la commission Interna- 
tionale de nomenclature botanique par J. Briquet. 
Berltn, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. hy the Gongress. 

Cordier, Hemn, Histoire des relations de la Chine avec les 
puissances occidentales, 1860-1902. 3 vols. 
Pans, 1901-1902. 8°. 

Ooyajee, J. C. Tbe Spirit of the Gathas, A lecture. 
[Bombay, .] 12°. 

The Oatha Society's Puhlications. No. 1. 

Presd. hy the Trustees of the Parsee Panchayet, Bombay. 

DeUSsen, Paul. Einnnerungen an Indien Mit , einer Karte,. 

16 Abbildungen und einem Anbange. — " On the Philosophy of 
the Vedanta in its relations to occidental Metaphysics." 
Kiel, Leipzig, 1905. 8°. 

Doumer, Paul. L'Indo-Chine fran9aise — Souvenirs. 
Paris, 1905. 4". 

D'Oyly, Sir Charles. Views of Calcutta and its environs, 
London, 1848. fol. 

Presd. hy H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Drahyayana. The Srauta-Sutra of Drahyayana with the Com- 
mentary of Dhanvin. Edited by J. N". Reuter. Part I, etc. 
Lofidon, 1904, etc. 4°. 
Reprinted from the ' Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicie.'" 

Presd. by Messrs. Luzac ^' Go. 

Duckworth, W. L. H. Morphology and Anthropology. A hand- 
hook for students, Gamhridge, 1904. 8°, 

Dupuy, J. 1'b, La Peste. llltude critifjno des moyens prophylacti- 
ques uctnels. Paris, 1904. 8°. 

Dutton, Clarence Edward. Earthquakes in the light of the New 
Seismology. London, 1904 8°. 

Encyclopedia Britannica. Tenth edition ... New volumes. (Maps 
—Index.) 11 vols. Edmburgh, 1902-03. 4°. 

Filchner, Wilhelm. Ein Ritt uber den Pamir. Berlin, 1903. 8°. 

Firdausi. Shah Nameh. Translated into Guzarati from 
Fii^dousi from the commencement up to the reign of King 
Minocheher, with an ajDpendix containing an account of the 
Kings according to the Avesta Pahlavi and other Persian books, 
by Jivanji Jamshedji Modi. [Bomhay'], 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the Trustees of the Parsee Panchayet, Bombay. 

Forrest, G-. W. A History of the Indian Mutiny. Reviewed and 
illustrated from original documents. 2 vols. 
Edinburgh, London, 1904, 8°. 

FoUCher, A. L'Art greco-bouddhique du Gandhara. Etude sur 
les origines de I'influence classique dans I'art bouddhique 
de rinde et de I'Extreme- Orient. Vol. 1, etc. 
Paris, 1905, etc. 8°. 

Publications de V^cole Frangaise d' Extreme- Orient, 

Etude sur I'iconographie bouddhique de I'lnde d'apres 

des textes inedits. Paris, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author, 

Gaillard, L. Nankin d'alors et d'aujourd 'liui. Apei-9u historique 
et geographique. Ghang-Hai, 1903. 8°. 
Varietes Sinologiques, No. 23. 

. Nankin port ouvert. Chang Hai, 1901. 8°. 

Varietes Sinologiques No. 18. 

Galpin, Stanley Leman. Cortois and Vilain. A study of the 
distinction made between them by the French and Proven9al 
poets of the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. A thesis, etc. 
Neio Haven, Conn. 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Yale University, 

A General History of Quadrupeds... The fourth edition. 
New-Gastle-ui)on-Tyne, 1800. 8°. 

Presd. by H.H. the Muhuruju of Tipifcra 



mounted Police Stations in the North- West territories. 
1904. S-sh. fol. 

Presd. by the Survey. 

Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire... Edited... with introduction, notes, appendices, 
and index, by J. B. Bury. 7 vols. London, 1900-1902. 8°. 

Griinwedel, Albert. Buddhist Art in India. Translated... by A. 
C. Gribson. Revised and enlarged by J. Burgess. 
Lo7ido7i, 1901. 8°. 

Presd. by H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Hseckel, Ernest. The Wonders of Life. A popular study of 
Biological Philosophy. ' Supplementary volume to " The Rid- 
dle of the Universe "...Translated by J. McCabe. 
London, 1904, 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Hamilton, Anthony. Memoirs of Count Grammont... Edited, 
with notes, by Sir Walter Scott. With portrait of the author 
and... other etchings by L. Boisson after original designs by 
C. Delort. Londo7i, 1896. 8°. 

Presd. by H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Harcourt, Lieut. A. The New Gruide to Delhi. Allahabad, 1866. 8°. 

Hava, Bev. Fr. J. Gr. Arabic- English Dictionary for the use of 

students. Beyrut, 1899. 8°. 

Havell, E. B. A Handbook to Agra and the Taj, Sikandra, Fateh- 
pui'-Sikri and the neighbourhood... With... illustrations, etc. 
London, 1904. 8''. 

Hazlitt, W. Carew. Faith and Folklore. A Dictionary of National 
Belief, Superstitions and Popular Customs, past and cuirent, 
Avith their classical and for-eign analogues, described and illus- 
trated, etc. 2 vols. London, 1905. 8°. 

Hedin, Sven. Scientific Results of a journey in Central Asia 
lb99-1902. Text, vol. 1, etc. Maps, vol. 1, etc. 
Stockholm, [1904, etc.] 4°. 

Herzog, Maximilian and others. I; Does Latent or Dormant 
Plague exist where the disease is endemic. By M. Herzog 
and 0. B. Hare, II. Broncho- Pnuemonia of Cattle: Its asso- 
ciation with B. Bovisepticns. By P. Gr. Woolley and W. 
Sorrell. III. Report one Pinto — Pano Blanco. By P. G. 
"Woolley. lY. ^N'otes on Analysis of the water from the 
Manila water-snpply. By C. L. Biss V. Pramboesia : Its 
occurrence in IN^atives of the Philippine Islands. By P. Gr. 
Woolley. Manila, 1904 8°. 

Presd. by the Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila. 

Hilal al-Sabi. The Historical Remains of Hilal al-vSabi. First 
part "of his Kitab al-wnzara. — Gotha Ms. 1756 — and Fragment of 
his History 389-393 A. H.— B. M. Ms., Add 19,360.— Edited 
with notes and glossary by H, F. Amedroz. Leyden, 1904. 8°. 

HirSCh J. Auctions-Catalog von griechischen nnd romischen 

Mnnzen schonster Ei-haltung. No. XII. Mtinchen, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the Publisher. 

Hirth, F . China and the Roman Orient : researches into their 
ancient and mediaeval relations as represented in old Chinese 
records. Leipsic, Mtmich, 1885. 8°. 

Hochreutiner, B. P. G. Plantse Bogorienses exsiccatse. Nov® vel 
minus Cognitge qufe in Horto Botanico coluntur. 
[Batavia,'] 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Buitenzorg. 

Huisman, M. La Belgique commerciale sous I'empereur Charles 
VI. La Compagnie d'Ostende. Etude historique de politi- 
que commerciale et coloniale. Bruxelles, Paris, 1902, 8°. 

Hunter, Sir "William "Wilson. A Brief History of the Indian 

Peoples... Twenty-third edition, e^o. Oa;/or(^, 1903. 8°. 

Ibu Thofail. Hayy Ben Yaqdhan. Roman philosophique d'Ibn 
Thofail. Texte arabe public d'apres un nouveau manuscrit 
avecles vari antes des anciens textes et traduction francaise par 
L. Gauthier. Alger, 1900. 8°. 

Jack, R. Logan. The Back Blocks of China. A narrative of 
experiences among the Chinese, Sifans, Lolos, Tibetanos 
Shans and Kachins between Shanghai and the Irrawadi 
London, 1904. 8°. 

Jackson, Sir Chai-les. A Vindication of the Marquis of Dnl- 

hoiisie's Indian administration. Londoti, 186^). 8°. 

JiMASP. Pahlavi, Pazend and Persian Texts with Giijarati trans- 
literation of the Pahlavi Jamaspi, English and Gujarati trans- 
lations with notes of the Pahlavi Jamaspi, Gnjarati translation 
of the Persian Jamaspi and English translation of the Pazend 
Jamaspi by Jivanji Jamshedji Modi. Bombay, 1903, 8°. 

Presd. by the Trustees of the Parsee Panchayet, Bombay, 

Janet, Cherles. Anatomie du gaster de la Myrmica Rubra, 

Paris, 1902. 8°. 

Essai sur la constitution morphologique de la tete 

de I'insecte. Paris, 1899. 8°, 

. Etudes sur les fourmis, les guepes et les abeilles. Note 

14, Rapports des animaux niymnecophiles avec les fourmis, 
Limoges, 1897. 8°. 

. Observations sur les guepes. Paris, 1903. 8°. 

. Sur les rapports des Lepismides myrmecophiles avec 

les fourmis. Paris, 1896. 8°. 

Extra-it des Comptes rendus hebdomada.ires des Seances 
de V Academic de Sciences. 

Presd. by the Atdhor. 

Jivanji Jamshedji Modi. The Ancient Iranians according to 
Herodotus and Strabo. A comparison with the Avesta and 
other Parsee books, Bombay, 1904, 8°. 

Presd. by the Trustees of the Parsee Panchayet, Bombay. 

Joret, Charles. Les Plantes dans I'antiquite "et au Moyen Sge. 
Histoire, usages et symbolisme, etc. Paris, 1904. 8''. 

Jumpt Captain R. Views in Calcutta. London, 1837. 4°. 

* - Presd. by H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Kittel, Lr. F. A Grammar of the Kannada language in English 
comprising the three dialects of the language — ancient, 
mediaeval and modern. Mangalore, 1903, 8°, 

Knighton, William, The Private Life of an Eastern King. 
Compiled for a member of the household of his late Majesty, 
Nussir-u-deen, King of Onde,...New edition, revised. 
Lfjndon, 1850, 8". 

Presd. by H.H. the Maharaja of Ti'ppera. 

Kumait. Die Hasimijjat des Kumait. Heraiisgegeben, iibersetzt 
und erlfiutert von J. Horovitz, Leiden, 1904. 8°. 

Lee-Warner, Sir William. The Life of the Marquis of Dalhousie. , 
2 vols. London, 1904. 8°. 

Lodgfe* Edmund. Portraits of Illustrious Personages of Great 
Britain... with biographical and historical memoirs of their 
lives and actions. Text, 4 vols. Plates, 1 vol. 
London, 1823-25. 4°. & fol. 

Presd. by H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Loti, Pierre, pseud, \_i.e. Julien Viaud]. Vers Ispahan. Cin- 
quieme edition. Paris, 1904. 8°. 

Liibke, -D;-. Wilhelm. Outlines of the History of Art... Edited, 
minutely revised and largely rewritten by R. Sturgis. 2 vols. 
London, 1904. 8°. 

Ludwig, Ernest. The Visit of the Teshoo Lama to Peking. Gh'ien 
Lung's Inscription. Translated by E. Ludwig. 
Peking, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the Translator. 

McCuUoch, J. R. A Treatise on the principles and practical 
influence of Taxation and the Fanding system. 
London, 1845. 8°. 

Presd. by H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Macgeorge, G. W. Ways and Works in India, being an account 
of the pulilic works in that country from the earliest times up 
to the present day. Westminster, 1894. 8°. 

McMinn, Charles W. Famine Truths,— Half Truths,— Untruths. 
Calcutta, 1902. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Malleson, Colonel G. B. The Decisive Battles of India from 1746 
to 1849 inclusive. With a portrait... a map, and... plans. Second 
edition, with an additional chapter. London, 1885. 8°. 

Presd. by H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Manusanhita or Institutes of Manu. Commented and edited l)y 
Pandit Gangadhur Kaviratna Kaviraj. 
[Baharampur, 1883.] 8°. 



Martin, Montgomery, The History, Antiquities, Topography, and 
Statistics of Eastern India ; comprising the districts of Behar, 
Shahabad, Bhagulpoor, G-oruckpoor, Dinajepoor, Purniya, 
Rungpoor and Assam, etc.. Vol. II. London, 1838. 8°. 

Presd. by H.H. the Maharaja of Ttppera. 

Meerwaldt, J. H. Haudleiding tot de beoefening der Bataksche 
Taal. Leiden, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the Directeur de V Enseignement des cultes et de V 
Industrie aux Indes neerlandaises. 

Morgan, J. de. Fonilles a Dahchour en 1894-1895. 
Vienne, 1903. fol. 

Nilakautha Yamivara. The Advaita Pari jatah... published by 
R. Shankar Wariyer. Bovibay, 1901. 8°. 

. ^t^^llUt;!^^, etc. [S'ri Soubhagya Lahari, S'ri 

Visnunavaratnastutih, Advaitakata Aryasati and S'ri Hari- 
bhaktimaranda Stuti.] Benares, 1902. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

O'Connor, V. C. Scott. The Silken East. A record of life and 
travel in Burma.... With... illustrations, etc. 2 vols. 
London, 1904. 8°' 

Oldham, C. P. The Sun and the Serpent. A contribution to the 
history of Serpent- Worship. London, 1905. 8'^. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Orloff, N. A, Die Eroberung der Mandschurei durch die Trans - 
baikal-Kasaken im Jahre 1900....Deutsch von Ullrich, etc. 
Strasshurg, 1904. 8°. 

Perrot, George and ChipieZ, Charles. A History of Art in Ancient 
Egypt Prom the Prench ... Illustrated with... engravings... 
and ...plates. Translated and edited by W. Armstrong. 2 
vols. London, 1883. 8°. 

. A History of Art in Chaldeea and Assyria. Prom the 

Prench . . . Illustrated with . . . engravings . , . and . . .plates. Trans- 
lated and edited by W. Armstrong. 2 vols. London, 1884. 8°. 

History of Art in Phoenicia and its dependencies. Prom 

the Prench ... Illustrated with ... engravings ... and ...plates. 
Translated and edited by W. Armstrong. 2 vols. 
London, 1885. 8°. 

Presd. hy H.H. the Maharaja of Ttppera. 


Petrie, W. M. Flinders. Methods and Aims in Arcli geology... with 
...illustrations. London, 1904. 8°. 

Pfeflfer, Br. W. The Physiology of Plants. A treatise upon the 
Metabolism and sources of energy in Plants ... second fully 
revised edition, translated and edited by A, J. Ewai't. With... 
illustrations. 2 vols. Oxford, 1900. 8°. 

PiaSSetsky, P. Russian Travellers in Mongolia and China... 

Translated by J. Gordon-Cumming. 2 vols. London, 1884. 8°. 

Piette, Edouard. Consequences des mouvements seismiques des 
regions polaires. Angers, 1902. 8°. 

. Etudes d'Ethnographie prehistorique : — VI. Notions 

complementaires sur I'Asylien. VII. Classification des 
sediments formes dans les cavernes pendant I'age du renne. 
Paris, 1904. 8°. 

Extra-it de " V Anthropologie" 
. Grravure du Mas d'Azil et stajtuettes de Menton. 

Paris, 1902. 8°. 

JExtrait des Bulletins et Memoires de la Societe 
d'' Anthropologie de Paris, 1902. 

Les Causes des grandes extensions glaciaires aux 

temps pleistocenes. Paris, 1902. 8°. 

Extrait des Bulletins et Memoires de la Societe 
d'' Anthropologie Paris, 1902. 

. Notice sur M. Edouard Piette. Vannes, 1903. 8°. 

. Sur une gravixre du mas-d'Azil. [Paris,] 1903. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author, 

Pit. Eenige proeven met phosphorzuur-bemesting. 
Batavia, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute, Buitenzorg. 

Police Commission. Report of the Indian Police Commission 
1902-03. With Resolution, Simla, 1903. 4°. 

Quiros, Pedro Fernandez de. The Voyages of Pedro Fernandez 
de Quiros, 1595 to 1606. Translated and edited by Sir C 
Markham. 2 vols. London, 1904. 8°. 

Hakluyt Society s Publications, Second series. No. 24. 

Presd. by, the Government of India, Home Deportment. 


Reinach, Solomon. La Collection Piette au musee de Saint- 
Germain. Parts, 1902, 8°. 

JExtrait de la Revue Archiologique. 

Presd, by the Author. 

Ribbe, Carl. Zwei Jahre tinter den Kannibalen der Salomo- 
Inseln. Reiseerlebnisse iind Schilderungen von Land nnd 
Leuten. Dresden-Blaseioitz, 1903. 8°. 

Rickards, R. Ladia ; or Facts submitted to illustrate tlie charac- 
ter and condition of the native inhabitants, with suggestions 
for reforming the present system of Government. Vol. I, 
Vol. II, Pts. 2-3. London, 1829. 8°. 

Presd. hy H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Ritchie, Leitch. Wanderings by the Seine, from Rouen to the 
Source... With... engravings from drawings by J. M. W. Tnrner. 
London, 1835. 8°. 

SaCCO, Federico. I MoUuschi dei terreni tei'ziarii del Piemonte 
e della Liguria, . . . Considerazioni generali. Indice generale 
dell'opera. Torino, 1904. 4°. 

Presd. hy the Author. 

Salt, Henry. Twenty-four views in St. Helena, the Cape, India, 
Ceylon, The Red Sea, Abyssinia and Egypt. From drawings 
by H. Salt. Text and plates. London, 1809, 1822. 4 & fol. 

Presd. hy H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Sankarananda, S'ri Brahmasutradipika... Edited by Rama Sastri 
Tailanga. Fasc. 1, etc. Benares, 1904, etc. 8°. 

Benares Sanskrit Series, No. 91. 

Schimper, Br. A. F. W. Plant- Geography upon a Physiological 
Basis... The authorised English translation by W. R. Fisher 
...Revised and edited by P. Groom. ..and I. B. Balfour. With 
...illustrations. Oxford, 1903. 8°. 

Scott, Bev. J. E. In Famine Land. Observations and experiences 
in India during the Great Drought of 1899-1900. 
New Yr/rk, London, 1904. 8°. 

Shakespeare, William, The Pictorial Edition of the works of 
Shakespeai'e. Edited by C. Knight. 8 vols. London, ( ). 8*^. 

Presd. hy H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 


Smith, Vincent A. The Early History of India from 600 B.C. to 
the Mnhamniadan Conquest, including the invasion of Alex- 
ander the Great. Oxford, 1904. 8°. 

Sorensen, S. An index to the names in the Mahabharata with 
short explanations and a Concordance to the Bombay and. 
Calcutta editions and P. C. Roy's translation. Pt. I, etc. 
London, 1904, etc. 4°. 

Spillmann, Joseph. Durch Asien. Ein Buch mit vielen Bildern 
fiir die Jugend...Zweite, vermehrte Auflage. 2 vols. 
Freiburg i. B., 1896, 98. 4°. 

Stein, M.A. Map showing portions of the territory of Khotan 
and adjoining regions... 1900-1901. ( ) [1904.] 8-sh. fol. 

Presd. hy the Author. 

Sand-Bui^ied Ruins of Khotan. Personal narrative of a 

journey of archaeological and geographical exploration in 
Chinese Turkestan. London, 1903. 8°. 

Stockholm. — Acaddmie Boyal Suedoise des Scienc-es, Les Prix Nobe 
en 1901. Stockholm, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the Academy. 

Strong', Richard P. Protective inoculation against Asiatic Chol- 
lera. — An experimental study, Manila, 1904, 8°. 

Bureau of Government Laboratoiies, Manila, No, 16. 

-Some Questions relating to Virulence of Micro-organisms, 

vT-th particular reference to their immunizing powers. 
Manilla, 1904. 8°. 

Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 21. 

Presd. by the Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila. 

Subha^ita-Samgraha. Edited by Cecil Bendall. Louvain 1905. 8°. 
Extrait du '■ Museon '■ Nouvelle Serie, IV-V. 

Presd. by the Editor. 

Tanteakalpadedmah. ths ^Wiifw: | [Tantrakalpadruma^^. Com- 
piled by Kila^Tamala Vandyopadhyaya and revised by Pandit 
Syama Charan Kaviratna. Parts 4, 6 and 7. 
Calcutta, Benares, 1900, 1903, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by Bahu Kalikrisna Banerjee. 


Vamb^ry, Ai^minius. The Story of my Struggles. The Memoirs 
of Arminius 2 vols. London, 1905^ 8°. 

Vansittart, Hemy. A T^arrative of the Ti^ansactions in Bengal, 
from the year 1760 to the year 1764 during the Grovernment 
of Mr. H. Vansittart. Published by himself. 3 vols. 
London, 1766. 8°. 

Presd. hy H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Venkatadhvari. . Laksmisahasra...with the commentary called 
Balabodhini by Srinivasa Pandit or Ravji Maharaja. Edited Rama S^stri Tailanga. fasc. 1. etc. 
Benares, 1904, etc. 8°. 

GhotoJchamha Sanskrit Series, No. 84. 

VieUX, E. F. The Manufacture of Pottery in India. 
Bombay, 1905. 8°. 

Reprinted from the '''' Lidian Textile Journal.^'' 

Presd. hy the Author. 

Virarajendra Wadiar, Baja. [Rubbing of an Inscription re- 
cording an Elephant hunt of Raja Virarajendra Wadiar, the 
ruler of Coorg from 1780-1809. With a translation.] fol. 

Presd. hy the Govt, of India, Home Dept. 

Voelcker, John Augustus. Repoi^t on the Improvement of Indian 
Agriculture. London, [1893.] 8°. 

Presd. hy H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Wetmore, Monroe Nichols. The Plan and scope of a Vergil 
Lexicon, with specimen articles. A thesis, etc. 
New Haven, Conn., 1904. 8°. 

Presd. hy the Yale University. 

Wherry, Wm. B. Some Observations on the Biology of the 
Cholera Spirillum. Manila, 1905. 8°. 

Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 19. 

Presd. hy the Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila. 

Wigman, H. J. Rorako — Ormogarpum Glabrum T. et B. var. 
Minahassana. Batavia, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Buitenzorg. 


Williams, H. W. Select views in Greece with classical illustra- 
tions. 2 vols, London, 1829. fol. 

Wilson, Professor. Scotland Illustrated in a series of eighty views 
from drawings by John C. Brown, William Brown, and other 
Scottish artists, with letter-press descriptions and an essay on 
the scenery of the Highlands. London, 1850. 8°. 

Presd. hy H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Wollaston, Arthur N. ' A Complete English-Persian Dictionary, 

etc. London, 1889. 4°. 

Wiistenfeld, Dr. Ferdinand. Vergleichungs-Tabellen der muham- 
madanischen und christlichen Zeitrechnung nach dem ersten 
Tage jedes muhammedanischen Monats berechnet und im 
Auftrage und auf Kosten der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft herausgegeben von Dr. F. Wiistenfeld. 
Leipzig, 1903. 4°. 

Wycherley, William. The Dramatic Works of Wycherley, Con- 
greve, Vanbrugh and Farquhar. With biographical and cri- 
tical notices by L. Hunt. A new edition. London, 1855. 8°. 

Presd. hy H.H. the Maharaja of Tippera. 

Zendavesta. The Pahlavi version of Tasna IX Edited with 
collation of MSS. A literal Translation into English,... notes 
and an introduction by Manekji Bamanji Davar. 
Leipzig, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. hy the Trustees of the Parsee Panchayet, Bombay. 


Asiatic Researches, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865 — 1904, (now amalgamated with Journal). 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Journal and Proceedings, [N. S-l Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Eeview, 1784—1883. 

Bibliotheea Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 
)tained by application to the Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(a) To be present and vote at all General Meetings which 
are held on the first Wednesday in each month, except 
in September and October. 

(h) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 

(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary General Meetings 

and to the grounds and public rooms of the Society 
during the hours when they are open to members. 

(d) To have personal access to the Library and other public 

rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(g) To fill any ofiice in the Society on being duly elected 



— • — 

Proceedings for January 19QS ... ... ... 1 

Four neiv Copper-Plate Charters of the Somavanisl Kings of 
KoSala {and Kataha ?). — By GtAnga Mohan Laskar, M.A. 1 




Vol. I, No. 2. 





Issued July I8tb, 1905. 

List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1905. 

President : 
H.H. Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.O.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosli Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L,, 

T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
C. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S., (retired). 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary Greneral Secretary : J. Macfarlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary : E. D.^Ross, Esq.-, Ph.D. 

Natural History Seci-etary : Captain L. Rogers, M.D., B.Sc, 

Anthropological Secretary: N^. Annandale, Esq., B.A., D.Sc. 
Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 

Other Members of Council : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.O.S. 

Kumar Ramessur Maliah. 

I. H. BurkiU, Esq., M.A. 

H. E. Kempthorne, Esq. 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

The Hon'ble Mr. A. Earle, I.C.S. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. TuU Walsh, I.M,S. 

R. 0. Lees, Esq. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhu§an.a, M.A. 




On the 31ST December, 1904, 




President : 
The Hon'ble Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter, B.A., LC.S. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 

M.A., D.L., F.E.S.E. 
Lieut.-Col. D. Prain, M.A., M.B., LL.D. 
T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.E.S. 

Secretary and Treasurer. 

Honorary General Secretary : J. Macfarlane, Esq. 
The Hon^ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A.;D.L., F.E.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries. 

Philological Secretary : T. Bloch, Esq., Ph.D. 
Natural History Secretary : Captain L. Eogers, 

M.D., B.Sc, I.M.S. 
Anthropological Secretary : E. D. Eoss, Esq., Ph.D. 
Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya 

Haraprasad Shastri, M.A. 

Other Members of Council. 

T. H. D. La Touche, Esq., B.A. 

Kumar Eamessur Maliah. 

Arnold Caddy, Esq., M.D., F.E.C.S. 

I. H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 

H. E. Kempthorne, Esq. 

C. Little, Esq., M.A.- 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

The Hon'ble Mr. A. Earle, LC.S. 

Lieut.-Col. J. H. Tull Walsh, IM.S. 

R. O. Lees, Esq. 


R. = Resident. 

N.R. = Non- Resident. 
L.M. = Life Member. 

A. = Absent. N. S. = Non- Subscribing , 
F,M. = Foreign Member. 

N.B, — Members who have changed their residence since the list was drawn 
up are requested to give intimation of such a change to the Honorary General 
Secretary, in order that the necessary alteration may be made in the subse- 
quent edition. Errors or omissions in the following list should also be com- 
municated to the Honorary General Secretary. 

Members who are about to leave India and do not intend to return are 
particularly requested to notify to the Honorary General Secretary whether 
it is their desire to continue Members of the Society; otherwise, in accord- 
ance with Rule 40 of the rules, their names will be removed from the list at 
the expiration of three years from the time of their leaving India. 

Date of Election. 

1903 M. 4. 

1894 Sept. 27. 

1895 May 1. 

1903 April 1. 

1901 Aug. 7. 

1904 Sept. 28. 
1888 April 4. 

1888 Feb. 1. 

1885 Mar. 4. 

1899 Jan. 4. 
1903 Oct. 28. 

1900 Aug. 1. 
1874 June 3. 







1893 Aug. 31. A. 

1884 Sept. 3. 
1904 Sept. 28. 
1904 Jan. 6. 
1904 July 6. 

1870 Feb. 2. 





Abdul Alim. Calcutta. 

Abdul Wali, Maulavie. BancM. 

Abdus Salam, Maulavie, M.A. Calcutta. 

Abul Aas, Maulavie Sayid, Rais and Zemindar. 

Adams, Margaret. Baptist Zenana Mission. 

Ahmad Hasain Khan, Munshi. Jhehcm. 
Ahmud, Shams-ul-ulama Maulavie, Arabic 

Professor, Presidency College. Calcutta. 
Alcock, Major Alfred William, m.b., ll.d., c.i.e,, 

p.R.s. Calcutta. 
Ali Bilgrami, Sayid, B.A., a.r.s.m., f.g.s. Hy- 
Ali Hussain Khan, Nawab. BJiopal. 
Allan, Dr. A. S., m.b. Calcutta. 
Allen, C. G-. H., i.c.s. Europe. 
Ameer Ali, m.a., c.i.e., Barrister-at-Law, 

Anderson, Major A. R. S., B.A., m.b., i.m.s. 

Anderson, J. A. Europe. 
Annandale, Nelson, b.a. Calcutta. 
Ashton, R. P. Calcutta. 
Aulad Hasan, Sayid. Dacca. 

L.M, Baden-Powell, 

! Ev/irope. 

Baden Henry, m.a., 



190l"jln. 2. 
1898 Xov. 2. 

1891 Mar. 4. 
1898 Aug. 3. 
1891 April 1. 
1900 Aug. 29. 

1896 Mar. 4. 
1869 Dec. 1. 

1885 N'ov. 4. 
1877 Jan. 17. 

1898 Mar. 2. 
1902 May 7. 

1894 Sept. 27, 
1898 May 4. 

1895 July 3. 

1876 Nov. 15 
1900 April 4. 
1898 Not. 2. 

1859 Aug. 3. 

1897 Feb. 3. 
1893 Feb. 1. 
1885 Mar. 4. 

1895 July 3. 
1890 July 2. 

1897 June 2. 
1895 Mar. 6. 

1880 Nov. 3. 

1895 April 3. 

1860 Mar. 7. . 

1900 Aug. 1. 

1901 Sept. 25 
1887 May 4. 

■ 1901 June 5. 

1896 Jan. 8. 
1900 May 2. 
1904 Aug. 3. 

1898 Sept. 30. 
1896 Jan. 8. 
1901 Jan. 2. 

A. ' Badshali, K. J., b.a., i.c.s. Europe. 
A. Bailey, The Revd. Thomas Grahame, M.A., B.D., 
I Europe . 
N.R. ! Baillie, D, 0., i.c.s. Ghaztpur. 
KR. i Bain, Lieut.-Ool. D. S. E., i.m.s. Mercara. 
N.R. j Baker, Edward Charles Stuart. Bihrugarh. 
R. I Baker, The Hon. Mr. E. N., c.s.i., i.c.s. 
I Calcutta. 
N.R. : Banerji, Satish Chandra, M.A, Allahabad. 
L.M. ' Barker, R. A., m.d. Europe. 

R. I Barman, Damudar Das. Calcutta. 
N.R. I Barman, H.H. The Maharaja Radha Kishor 

I Dev. Tipperah. 
N.'R. ' Barnes, Herbert Charles, i.c.s. SMllong. • 
R. I Bartlett, E. W. J. Calcutta. 
R. [ Basu, Nagendra Natha. Calcutta. 
R. Bathgate, J. Calcutta. 
L.M. Beatson-Bell, Nicholas Dodd, b.a., i.c.s. 

F.M. ! Beveridge, Henry, i.c.s. (retii^ed). Europe. 
N.R. I Bingley, Major A. H., i.a. Simla. 
A. Black, Robert Greenhill. Europe. 
L.M. : Blanford, William Thomas, ll.d,, a.r.s.m., 
F.G-.s., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., F.E.s. Europe. 
R. ; Bloch, Theodor, PH.D. Calcutta. 
N.R. Bodding, The Revd. P. 0. Bampore Saut. 
A. I Bolton, The Hon. Mr. Charles Walter, c.S.i., 
I I.c.s. Europe. 
N.R. I Bonham-Carter, Norman, i.c.s. Saran. ■ 
A. j Bonnerjee, Womes Chunder, Barrister-at-Law, 
I Middle Temple. Europe. 
N.R. , Bose, Annada Prasad, m.a. Jalpaiguri. 
R. I Bose, Jagadis Chandra, m.a.,, c.i.E., 

Bengal Education Service. Calcutta. 
R. Bose, Pramatha Nath,, p.g.s. Calcutta. 
N.R. Bourdillon, The Hon. tSir James Austin, k.c.i.e., 

c.s.i., I.c.s. Mysore. 
L.M. Brandis, Sir Dietrich, k.c.i.e., PH.D., p.l.s., p.e.s. 
R. Brown, Major E. Harold, m.d., i.m.s. Calcutta. 
R. Buchanan, Major W. J., i.m.s. Calcutta. 
R. Bural, Nobin Chand, Solicitor. Calcutta. 
R. Burkill, I. H., m.a, Calcutta. 
N.R. Bum, -Richard, i.c.s. Allahabad. 
N.R. I Butcher, Flora, m.d, Palwal. 
R. Bythell, Major, W. J,, r.e. Calcutta. 

R. Cable, Ernest. Calcutta. 

R. ; Caddy, Dr. Arnold. Calcutta. 

A. j Campbell, Duucaa, Europe. 

Date of Election. 

1901 Mar. 6. 
1895 July 3. 


1890 June 4. 


1901 June 5. 
1904 July 6. 

1902 Aug. 27. 
1893 Sept. 28. 



1902 April 2. 


1880 Aug. 26. 
1903 Aug. 26. 


1898 June 1. 
1876 Mar. 1. 
1901 June 5. 
1887 Aug. 25. 




1895 July 3. N.R 

1873 Dec. 3. 

1901 Aug. 28 

1903 Feb. 4. 
1865 June 7. 

1879 April 7. 

1900 July 4. 
1896 Mar. 4. 

1904 July 6. 
1904 Sept. 28. 
1903 June 3. 
1895 Sept. 19. 

1902 Mar. 5. 
1895 Dec. 4. 
1899 Aug. 30. 

1900 May 

1901 June 

1902 Feh. 
1898 Jan. 
1902 July 
1886 June 

1902 Jan. 8. 
1892 Sept. 22. 










Campbell, W. B. M., i.c.s. Nairn Tal. 
Carlyle, Tbe Hon. Mr. Robert Warrand, C.i.E., 

I.c.s. Calcutta. 
Chakravarti, Man Mohan, m.a., b.l. Deputy 

Magistrate. GMnsurah. 
Chapman, E. P., i.c.s. JEurope. 
Charles, A. P., i.C.S. Agra. 
Chaudhuri, A., Barrister-at-Law. Calcutta. 
Chaudhuri, Banawari Lala,, Edin. Gal- 

Chunder, Raj Chunder, Attorney-at-Law. 

Clerk, General Malcolm G. Europe. 
Copleston, The Right Revd. Dr. Reginald 

Stephen, d.d. Lord Bishop of Calcutta. 
Coidier, Dr. Palmyr. Europe. 
Crawford, James, B.A., l.c.S. Europe. 
Crawford, Major D. C, i.m.s. CMnsurah. 
Criper, William Risdon, F.c.s,, p.i.c, a.r.s.m. 

Cumming, John Grhest, i.c.s. Patna. 

Dames, Mansel Longworth, i.c.s. Europe. 

Das, Govinda. Benares. 

Das, Rai Bahadur Bhawan, m.a. Hoshiarpur. 

Das, Raja Jay Krishna, Bahadur, c.s.i. Mora- 

Das, Ram Saran, m.a., Secy., Oudh Commer- 
cial Bank, Limited. Fyzabad, Oudh. 

Das, Syam Sunder, b.a. Benares. 

D as- Gupta, Jogendra Nath, b.a., Barrister-at- 
Law Calcutta. 

De, Brajendra ISTath, m.a., i.c.s. Malda. 

DeCourcy, W. B. Cachar. 

De, Hari Nath, b.a. (Cantab). Dacca. 

De, Kiran Chandra, B.A., i.c.s. Faridpur. 

Deb, RajaBinoy Krishna, Bahadur. Calcutta. 

Delmerick, Chai'les Swift. Bareilly. 

Dev, Raj Kumar Satchidanand, Bahadur. 
Eeogarh, Sambulpur. 

Dev, Raja Satindra, Rai Mahesaya. Bansheria. 

Dey., Nundolal. Bankipore. 

Dixon, F. P. I.c.s. Chittagong. 

Dods, W. K. Calcutta. 

Doxey, F, Calcutta. 

Doyle, Patrick, c.e., f.r.a.s., p.r.s.e., p.g.s. 

Drummond, J. R., i.c.s. Calcutta. 

Drury, Major Francis James, m.b., i.m.s. Oal- 
Oittd. . • _ . 


Date of Election. 
1889 Jan. 2. 

1879 Feb. 5. 

1892 Jan. 6. 
1877 Aug. 30 
1900 April 4. 

1900 July 4. 

1901 June 5. 

1903 Oct. 28. 

1903 May 6. 

1900 Mar. 7. 

1900 Aug. 29. 

1901 Mar. 6. 

1904 Aug. 3. 
1894 Dec. 5. 
1898 Sept. 30. 

1902 April 2. 

1903 Mar. 4. 

1893 Jan. 11. 

1899 Aug. 
1902 June 
1889 Jan. 
1902 Feb. 
1889 Mar. 
1869 Feb. 
1897 Dec. 
1861 Feb. 









1897 July 
1876 Is^ov. 


1900 Dec. 5. 

1901 April 3. 
1898 June 1. 
1898 April 6. 

1898 Jan. 


1901 Mar. 


1892 Jan. 


























Dudgeon, Gerald Cecil, Holta Tea. Co., Ld. 

Dutbie, J. F., b.a., p.l.s. Europe. 
Dutt, Gerindra Natb. Hutiua. 
Dutt, Kedar JS'atb, Calcutta. 
Dyson, Major Herbert Jekyl, p.r.c.s., i.m.s. 


Earle, The Hon. Mr. A., i.c.s. Calcutta. 
Ede, Francis Joseph, C.B., a.m.i.c.e., f.g.s. 

SilcJiar, Gachar. 
Edelston, T. D. Calcutta. 
Edwards, Walter Noel. Sootea, A.ssam. 

Fanshawe, Sir Arthui^ Upton, c.s.i., k.c.i.e., 

I.C.S. Calcutta. 
Fanshawe, The Hon. Mr. H. C, c.s.i., i.c.s. 

Fei'gusson, J. C. Europe. 
Fermor, L. Leigh. Calcutta. 
Finn, Frank, b.a., f.z.s. Europe. 
Fii^minger, The Revd. Walter K., m.a. Gal- 
■ cutta. 
Fuller, The Hon'ble Mr. J. B., i.c.s. Shillong. 

Gage, Captain Andi^ew Thomas, m.a., m.b.,, 

F.L.S., I.M.S. Sihpur. 
Gait, Edward Albert, i.c.s. Europe. 
Garth, Dr. H. C. Calcutta. 
Ghaznavi, A. A. Mymensing . 
Ghose, Jogendi'a Chandi'a, M.A., b.l. Calcutta. 
Ghosh, Girish Chunder, Calcutta. 
Ghosha, Bhupendi^a Sri, b.a., b.l. Calcutta. 
Ghosha, Pratapa Chandra, b.a. Vindyachal. 
Godfrey, Captain Stuart, i.A. Europe. 
Godwin- Austen, Lieut. -Colonel H. H., p.r.s., 

F.z.s. , P.R.G.s. Europe. 
Grant, Captain J. W., i.M.s. Europe. 
Grierson, George Abraham, PH.D., c. I.E., i.C.s. 

Grieve, J. W. A. Kalimpong. 
Guha, Abhaya Sankara. Goalpara. 
Gupta, Bepin Behari. CuttacJc. 
Gupta, Krishna Govinda, i.c.s., Barrister-at- 

Law. Calcutta. 
Gui'don, Major P. R. T., i.A. Gauhati. 

Habibur Rahman Khan, Maulavie. BhiTiam- 

Haig, Major Wolseley:,. i.A. Berar. 

Date of Election. 

1904 Sept. 28 
1899 April 5. 
1884 Mar. 5. 

1897 Feb. 3. 

1904 June 1. 
1904 Dec. 7. 
1892 Aug. 3. 

1872 Dec. 5. 

1891 July 1. 

1898 Feb. 2. 
1884 Mar. 5. 

1901 Dec. 4. 

1873 Jan. 2. 
1890 Dec. 3. 

1866 Mar. 7. 

1903 Sept. 23. 

1904 Jan. 6. 

1899 April 5. 
1882 Mar. 1. 

1867 Dec. 4. 

1904 May 4. 
1896 Aug. 27. 
1896 July 1. 

1891^ Feb. 4. 

1899 Aug. 30. 

1902 Feb. 5. 
1904 Jan. 6. 
1902 Jan. 8. 
1887 May 4. 
1889 Mar. 6. 

1900 Sep. 19. 

1902 July 2. 


1889 Nov. 6. 


1904 July 6. 


1903 July 1. 


1900 May. 2. 


1902 Oct. 29. 


1889 Feb. 6. 





















Hall ward, N. L. Calcutta. 

Hare, Major E. C, i.M.s. Eiirope. 

Hassan Ali Qadr, Sir Sayid, Nawab Bahadur, 

K.c.i.E. Mtirshedabad. 
Hayden, H. H., b.a., b.e., f.g.s., Geological 

Survey of India. Calcutta. 
Hewett, J. F., i.c.s. (retired). Europe. 
Hill, E. Gr. Allaliabad. 
Hill, Samuel Charles, b.a., Etirope. 
Hoernle, Augustus Frederick Rudolf, PH.D., 

CLE. Europe. 
Holland, Thomas Henry, a.b.c.s., f.g.s., p.e.s., 
Director, Geological Survey of India. Calcutta. 
Hooper, David, F.C.s. Calcutta. \lad. 

Hooper, The Hon. Mr. John, b.a., i.c.s. Allaha- 
Hossack, Dr. W. 0. Calcutta. 
Houstoun, G. L., F.G.S., Europe. 
Hyde, The Revd. Henry Barry, M.A. Madras. 

Irvine, William, I.C.S. (retired). 
Ito, Professor C. Bombay. 

Jackson, V. H., m.a. Sihpur. 


Kempthorne, H. E. Calcutta. 

Kennedy, Pringle, M.A. Mozufferpore. 

King, Sir George, m.b., k.c.i.e., ll.d., f.l.s., 
F.R.S., I.M.s. (retired). Europe. 

Knox, K. N., I.c.s. Banda. 

Konstam, Edwin Max. Europe. 

Klichler, George William, M.A., Bengal Educa- 
tion Service. Calcutta. 

Kupper, Raja Lala Bunbehari. Burdwan. 

Lai, Dr. Mannu. Banda. 

Lai, Lala Shyam. Allahabad. 

Lai, Panna, m.a., Damoh. 

Lall, Parmeshwara. Europe. 

Lanman, Charles R. Europe. 

La Touche, Thomas Henry Digges, B.A., Geolo- 
gical Survey of India. Calcutta. 

Law, The Hon. Sir Edward F. G., k.c.m.g., 
c.s.l. Calcutta^ 

Leake, H. M. Saharanpur. 

Lee, W. A., f.R.m.s. • Europe. 

Lees, R. 0. Calcutta. 

Lefroy, Harold Maxwell. Mozufferpur. 

Leistikow, F. R. Europe. 

Lewes, A. H. Calcutta. [Europe, 

Little, Charles, m.a., Bengal Education Service 


Date of Election. 

1904 Od3. 31. 
1902 Jiily 2. 

1869 July 7. 

1870 April 7. 

1896 Mar. 4. 
1902 July 2. 

1901 Aug. 7. 

1893 Jan. 11. 

1891 Feb. 4. 

1902 April 2. 
1893 Aug. 31. 
1895 Aug. 29. 

1898 N'ov. 2, 
1889 Jan. 2. 

1901 June 5. 
1893 Mar. 1. 

1902 May. 7. 

1903 Aug. 5. 

1892 April 6. 
1901 Aug. 28. 

1899 Feb. 1. 

1899 Mar. 1. 

1895 July. 3. 
1886 Mar. 3. 

1900 Mar. 7. 
1900 Jan. 19. 
1884 ISTov. 5. 

1884 Sep. 3. 

1904 April 6. 
1898 April 6. 
1874 May. 6. 

1896 July. 1. 

1897 Jan. 
1901 Aug. i 
1897 Nov. 


1901 Aug. 7. 
1895 July 3. 
1898 May 4. 

1902 July 2. 

























Longe, Col. F. B., r.e. Galcutta. 

Luke, James. Galcutta. 

Lyall, Sii' Obarles James, m.a., k.C.S.i., 

LL.D., i.c.s. (retired). Europe. 
Lyman, B. Smith. Europe. 


MacBlaine, Frederick, i.c.s. Nadia. 
Macdonald, Dr. William Roy. Europe. 
Macfarlane, Jobn, Librarian, Imperial Libraiy. 

Maclagan, E. D., M.A., i.c.s. Galcutta. 
Macplierson, Duncan James, M.A., c.i.E., i.C.S, 

Maddox, Captain R. H., i.m.s. BancM. 
Mabatlia, Purmesliwar Xarain. Mozufferpore. 
Mahinud G-ilani, Sbamas-ul-Ulama Shaikh. 

Maitra, Akshaya'Kumar, B.A., b.l.- BajshaM. 
Maliah, Kumar Ramessui\ Howrah. 
Mann, H. H., Galcutta'. 
Marriott, Charles Richardson, i.c.s. Bliagul- 

Marshall, J. H. Simla. 

Masoom, Dr. Meerza Mohammad. Galcutta, 
Maynard, Major F. P., i.m.s. Barjeeling. 
McLeod, K^orman. Galcutta. 
McMahon, Major A. H., c.s.i., CLE., la. 

McMinn, C. W., B.A., I.C.S. (retired). Gomilla. 
Melitus, Paul Gregory, CLE., l.cs. Gatihati. 
Metha, Rustomjee Dhunjeebhoy, CLE. Gal- 
Meyer, William Stevenson, i.cs. Galcutta. 
Michie, Charles. Galcutta. 
Middlemiss, C..S., b.a, Greological Survey of 

India. Galcutta. 
Miles, William Harry. Galcutta. 
Miller, J. 0., i.cs. • Galcutta. . 
Milne, Captain C. J., i.m.s. PuruUa. 
Minchin, P. J. V. Europe. 
Misra, Rai Lakshmi Sanker, Bahadur. 

Misra, Tulsi Ram. Bareilly. 
Mitra, Kumar IS'arendra JSTath. Calcutta. 
Mitra, The Hon'ble Mr. Jiistice Saroda Charan, 

M.A., B.L. Galcutta. 
Molony, E., i.c.s. Ghazipur. 
Monohan, Francis John, i.cs. Shillong. 
Mookerjee, R. IS". Galciitta. 
Morshead, L. P., i.cs. Eiirope. 


Date of Election. 

1894 June 6. 

1904 Jan. 6. 
1902 April 2. 
1894 Aug. 30. 

1900 May 2. 

1899 Sept. 29. 
1886 May 5. 

1892 Dec. 7. 

1901 April 3. 
1901 June 5. 

1885 June 3. 

1904 Dec. 7. 
1901 Mar. 6. 

1900 Dec. 5. 
1889 Aug. 29. 
1892 Oct. 27. 
1885 Feb. 4. 

1899 Jan. 7. 

1900 Dec. 5. 

1900 Aug. 29. 
1880 Dec. 1. 
1887 July 6. 

1901 Jan. 2. 
1880 Aug. -4. 

1901 Aug. 28. 
1904 Aug. 3. 
1880 Jan. 7. 

'1901 June 5. 
1899 Aug.. 2. 

1902 Aug. 6. 
1873 Aug. 6. 

1888 June 6. 
1881 Aug. 25. 
1877 Aug. 1. 




















Muliamniad Shibli Xomani, Sliams-ul-Ulama 
Maulavie, Professor of Arabic in the Mubam- 
maclan Oriental College. Aligarli. 

Mukerjee, Harendra Krisbna, m.a. Calcutta. 

Mukerjee, Jaladbi Cbunder. Calcutta. 

Mukerjee, Sib IS'arayan. TJttarpara. 

Mukerji, P. B., Calcutta. 

Mukbarji, Jotindra Katb, b.a. Galcidta. 

Mukbopadhyaya, Tbe Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asu- 
tosb, M.A., D.L., P.E.A.S., P.R.s.E. Calcutta. 

Mukbopadbyaya, Pancbanana. Calcutta. 

MuUick, Pramatba Katb. Calcutta. 

MuUick, Ramani Moban. Meherpur. 

NaemwooUab, Maulavie, Deputy Magistrate. 

Natban, R., i.c.s. Calcutta. 
ISTevill, H. R., i.c.s. Naini Tal. 
KcoU, Jobn. Calcutta. 
Kmmo, John Duncan. Calcutta. 
Norvill, Dr. Prederic H. Europe. 
Nyayaratna, Mabamabopadhyaya Mabesa 

Chandra, C.i.E. Benares. 

O'Brien, P. H., i.c.S. Europe. 
O'Connor, Captain, W. P., E.A. Gyantse. 
O'Dwyer, Michael Francis, B.A., i.C.S. Europe. 
Oldham, R. D., a.r.s.m., p.g.s. Europe. 
Oung, Moung Hla. Calcutta. . 

Pande, Pandit Ramavatar, b.a., i.c.s. Hardoi. 
Pandia, Pandit Mohanlall Visbnulall, p.t.S., 

Panton, E. B. H., i.c.s. Bogra. 
Parasnis, D.B. Satara. 
Pargiter, The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Frederick 

Eden, b.a., i.C.S. Calcutta. 
Parsons, W. Calcutta. 
Peake, C. W., M.A., Bengal Education Service. 

Pealj H. W., F.E.s. Calcutta. 
Pedler, The Hon. Mr. Alexander, c.i.e., 

F.R.S., Director of Public Instmction, Bengal. 

Pennell, Aubray Pereival, b.a., Barrister-at- 

Law. Rangoon. 
Pereival, Hugh Melvile, m.a., Bengal Education 

Service. Calcutta. 
Peters, Lieut.-Colonel 0. T., m.b,, i.m.s. 


Date of Election. 

ISSolfov. 6. 


1904 June 1. 


1904 Mar. 4. 


1889 Mar. 6. 


1889 Mar. 6. 


1880 April 7. 


1895 Aug. 29. 


1901 June 5. 


1900 April 4. 


1898 Aug. 3. 


1904 Mar. 4. 


1890 Mar. 5. 


1887 May 4. 


1884 Mar. 5. 


1903 Mar. 4. 


1900 April 4. 


1900 Aug. 29. 


1901 Dec. 4. 


1889 June 5. 


1903 July 1. 


1896 Aug. 27. 


1899 June 7. 


1898 Mar. 2. 


1897 IsTov. 3. 


1902 Feb. 5. 


1900 Dec. 5. 


1893 Jan. 11. 


1902 Feb. 5. 


1900 Dec. 5. 


1901 Aug. 29. 


1885 April 1. 


1897 Dec. 1. 


1904 Jan. 6. 


1900 Mar. 7. 


1885 Feb. 4. 


1902 Dec. 3. 


Phillott, Major D. C, i.A. Noioshera. 

Pilgrim, Gr. Ellcock. Calcutta. 

Pim, Arthur W., i.c.S. Jhansi. 

Prain, Lieut.-Col. David, m.a.,m.b., ll.d., i.m.S., 

Superintendent, Royal Botanic Garden, 

Prasad, Hanuman, Raes and Zemindar. 


Natli, M.A., B.L. 


Bengal Educa- 

Rai, Bipina Chandra, b.l. 
Rai Chaudhery, Jatindra 

Rai, Lala Lajpat. Lahore. 
Raleigh, The Hon. Mr. T. 
Ram, Sita, m.a. Moradahad. 
Rapson, E. J. Europe. 
Ray, PrafuUa Chandra, 

tion Service. Europe. 
Ray, Prasanna Kumar, D.SC. (Lond. and 

Edin.), Bengal Education Service. Dacca. 
Risley, Herbert Hope, B.A., c.i.e., i.c.S. 

Rogers, Charles Grilbert, p.l.s., f.c.h., Indian 

Forest Department. Port Blair. 
Rogers, Captain Leonard, m.d.,, m.r.c.p., 

F.R.C.S., I.M.S. Calcutta. 
Rose, H. A., I.c.S. Lahore. 
Ross, E. Denison, PH.D. Calcutta. 
Roy, Maharaja Girjanath. Binagepur. 
Roy, Maharaja Jagadindra Nath, Bahadur. 


Samman, Herbert Frederick, i.c.s. Jessore. 

Sarkar, Chandra Kumar. Kowkamk. 

Sarkar, Jadu Nath. Bankipore. 

Saunders, C. Calcutta. 

Schulten, Dr. C. Calcutta. 

Schwaiger, Imre George. Delhi. 

Scindia, His Highness the Maharaja. Givalior. 

Sen, A. C, i.C.S. Bankura. 

Sen, Birendra Chandi'a, i.c.s. Dinajpur. 

Sen, Upendranath. Calcutta. 

Sen, Tadu Nath. Calcutta. 

Seth, Mesrovb , J. Calcutta. 

Sharman, Pandit Gulab Shankar Dev, P.T.s. 

Shastree, Pandit Togesha Chandra. Calcutta. 
Shastri, Mahamahopadhaya Haraprasad, m.a. 

Shastri, Harnarain. DelTyi. 


Date of Election. 

1902 Mar. 5. 

1903 April 1. 
1900 May 2. 
1899 May 3. 

1903 Aug. 26. 

1904 April 6. 
1904 June 1. 





1893 Mar. 1. 


1902 Sep. 24. 
1895 Aug. 29. 
1892 Mar. 2. 
1889 Aug. 29. 



1892 Aug. 3. 


1889 N'ov. 6. 


1894 Feb. 7. 


1901 Aug. 7. 
1904 Mar. 4. 
1894 July 4. 



1897 Jan. 6. 
1872 Aug. 5. 


1901 Dec. 4. 
1904 Sept. 28. 

1898 April 6. 
1901 Mar. 6. 
1891 Aug. 27. 
1895 July 5. 
1904 June 1. 

1899 Aug. 30. 






•1900 Aug. 29. 
1904 July 6. 
1904 Jan. 6. 


1868 June 3. 


1898 April 6. 
1904 July 6. 


1893 Aug. 31. 
1878 June 5. 


1904 May 4. 


Sliastri, Rajendi^a Chandra, m.a. Calcutta. 
Shaun, Montague Churcliill. Europe. 
Slirager, Adolphe. Calcutta. 
Silberrad, Clias. A., i.c.s. Banda. 
Simpson, J. Hope, i.c.s. AllaJiabad. 
Simpson, Maiirice George, m.i.e.b. Calcutta. 
Simpson, Robert Rowell, 

Singb, Mabaraja Kumara Sirdar Bbarat, 

I.c.s. Ghazipur. 
Singb, Kumar Birendi^a Chandra. Calcutta. 
Singh, Lachmi Nai'ayan, m.a., b.l. Calcutta. 
Singh, The Hon. Raja Ooday Pratab. Binga. 
Singh, H.H. The Maharaja Prabhu JSTarain, 

Bahadur. Benares. 
Singh, H.H. The Hon. Mahai-aja Pratap 

iJ^arain. Ajodhya, Ozidh. 
Singh, H.H. The Hon. Mahai-aja Ramesh- 

wara, Bahadur. JJarbhanga. 
Singh, H.H. Raja Vishwa N'ath, Bahadur, 

Chief of Chhatarpur. 
Singha, Chandra J^arayan. Calcutta. 
Singha Kumar Kamlananda. Sritiagar. 
Sinha, Kunwar Kushal Pal, m.a. Narld 

P.O., Agra District. 
Sircar, Amrita Lai, f.c.S. Calcutta. 
Skrefsrud, The Revd. Laurentius Olavi. 

Bampore Haut. 
Spooner, D. Brainerd. Burope. 
Stapleton, H. E. Calcutta. 
Stark, Herbert A., b.a. Cutiack. 
Stebbing, E. P. Dehra Bun. 
Stein, M. A., ph.d. Beshaivar. 
Steinberg, Alfred Frederick, i.c.s. Europe. 
Stephen, Hon'ble Mr. Justice, H. L. Calcutta. 
Stephen, St. John, b.a., ll.b. Bai-rister-at- 

Law. Calcutta. 
Stephenson, Captain John, i.M.s. 

Streatfeild, C. A. C, i.C.s. 
Stuart, Louis, i.c.s. Orai. 

Naini Tal. 


Tagore, The Hon. Maharaja Sir Jotendra 
Mohun, Bahadur, K.c.s.i. Calcutta. 

Tagore, Maharaja Prodyat Coomar. Calcutta. 

Talbot, Walter Stanley, i.c.s. Srinagar, 

Tate, G. P. Seistan. 

Temple, Colonel Sir Richard Carnac, Bart., 
C.I.E., I. A. Port Blair. 

Thanawala, Framjee Jamasjee. Bombay. 


Date of Election 

1875 J^ne *2. 

1898 Nov. 2. 
1847 June 2. 

1891 Aug. 27. 
1904 June 1. 

1899 Mar. 1. 
1861 June 5. 

1893 May 3, 





1898 Feb. 2. 
1900 Aug. 29. 
1890 Feb. 5. 




1902 May 7. 


1902 June 4. 


1901 Mar. 6. 

1894 Sept. 27. 

1902 Oct. 29. 




1901 Aug. 7. 

1900 Jan. 19. 

1901 June 5. 

1889 Nov. 6. 


1900 April 4. 


1865 May 3. 
1874 July 1. 
1902 April 2. 
1904 Mar. 4. 


1900 Dec. 5. 
1894 Sept. 27. 


1894 Aug. 30. 
1898 July 6. 


Thibaut, Dr. G., Muir Central College. 

Allahabad. * 

Thornton, Edward, p.r.i.b.a. Calcutta. 
Thuillier, Lieut.- Genl. Sir Henry Edward 

Landor, kt., c.S.i., f.e.S., r.A. Europe. 
Tliurston, Edgar. Europe. 
Tipper, George Howle£t, p.g.S; Calcutta. 
Toclier, A. Calcutta. 
Tremlett, James Dyer, M.A., l.C.S. (retired). 


Vanja, Raja Ram Chandra. Mayttrbhanga, 

Eistrict Balasore. 
Vasu, Amrita Lai. Calcutta. 
Vaugham, Major J. C, i.M.s.,' Europe. 
Venis, Arthur, M.A., Principal, Sanskrit 

College. Benares. 
Vidyabhushan, Jogendra Nath Sen. 

Vidyabhushan, Pandit Satis Chandra, M.A. 

Vogel, J. Ph., PH.D. Lahore. 
Vost, Major William, i.M.s. Muttra. 
Vredenburg, E. Calcutta. 

Walker, Dr. T. L. Europe. 

Wallace, David Robb. Calcutta. 

Walsh, E. H., i.c.s. Calcutta. 

Walsh, Lieut- Col. John Henry TuU, i.M.s. 

Walton, Captain Herbert James, m.b., p.e.c.S., 

I.M.s. Bombay. 
Waterhouse, Major-General James. Europe. 
Watt, Sir George, Kt., c.i.E. Europe. 
Wheeler, H., i.c.S. Europe. 
Wood, William Henry Arden, M.A., P.c.S. 

p.R.G.s. Calcutta. 
Woodman, H. C, i.c.s. Europe. 
Woodroffe, The Hon Mr. Justice John 

George, Barrister-at-Law. Calcutta. 
Wright, Henry Nelson, B.A., i.c.s. Allahabad. 
Wyness, James, c.e. Calcutta. 



Date ut' Election, i 

1884 Jan. 15. 
1884 Jan. 15. 
1884 Jan. 15. 
1884 Jan. 15. 

Dr. Ernst H^ckel, Professor in the University of 

Charles Meldrum, Esq., C.M.G., M.A., ll.d., p.r.A.S., 

F.R.s. ■ Mauritius. 
Professor A. H. Sayce, Professor of Comp. Philology. 

Professor Emile Senart, Member of the Institute of 

France. Paris. 


Date of Klection. 

1848 Feb. 2. 

1879 June 4. 

1879 June 4. 
1879 June 4. 
1881 Dec. 7. 

188.3 Feb. 7. 

1883 Feb. 7. 

1894 Mar. 7. 

1894 Mar. 7. 

1895 5. 

1895 June 5. 

1895 June 5. 

1896 Feb. 5. 

1896 Feb. 5. 

1896 Feb. 5. 
189'6 Feb. 5. 

1899 Feb. 1. 

1899 Dec. 6. 

1899 Dec. 6. 

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, a.C.s.i., C.B., m.d., d.c.l., 

LL.D., F.L.S., F.G.S., P.K.G.S., P.R.S. Berkshire. 
Dr.Albert Gilnther, M.A., m.d., ph.d., p.z.s., p.e.s. 

Dr. Jules Janssen. Paris. 
Professor P. Regnaud. Lyons. 
Lord Kelvin, G.c.v.o., D.C.L., ll.d., p.e.s.e., p.r.s. Glas- 

William Thomas Blanford,'Esq., ll.d., a.e.s.m., p.g.s., 

P.R.G.S., P.Z.S. , P.R.S. London. 
Alfred Russell Wallace, Esq., ll.d., d.c.l., p.l.s., 

P.Z.S., P.R.S. Dorset. 
Mahamahapadhyaya Chandra Kanta Tarkalankara. 

Professor Theodor N"oeldeke. Strasshurg. 
Lord Rayleigh, M.A., d.c.l.,, ll.d., ph.d., p.r.a.s., 

P.R.S. Witham, Essex. 
Lt.-Genl. Sir Richard Strachey, r.b., g.c.S.i., ll.d., 

P.R.G.S., P.G.S., P.L.S. , P.R.S. London. 
Charles H. Tawney, Esq., M.A., c.i.B. London. 
Lord Lister, P.R.C.S., d.c.l., m.d., ll.d.,, p.r.s. 

Sir Michael Foster, k.c.b., m.a., m.d., d.c.l., ll.d.,, P.L.S., P.R.S. Cambridge. 
Professor F. Kielhorn, ph.d., ci.e. Gottingen. 
Professor Charles Rockwell Lanman. Massachusetts, 

Dr. Augustus Frederick Rudolf Hoernle, ph.d., ci.e. 

Professor Edwin Ray Lankester, m.a., ll.d., p.r.s. 

Sir George King,, m.b., ll.d., p.l.s., p.r.s. 


Date of Election. 

1899 D^c. 6. 

1899 Dec. 6. 

1901 Mar. 6. 

1902 N"ov. 5. 
1904 Mar. 2. 
1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 July 2. 


Professor Edward Burnett Tylor, d.c.l., ll.d., f.e.S. 

Professor Edward Suess, P.H.D., For. Mem. R.s. 

Professor J. W. Judd, C.B., ll.d., f.r.s. London. 
Monsieur E>. Zeiller. Paris. 
Professor Heinrich Kern. Leiden. 
Professor Ramkrislma Gopal Bhandarkar, c,i.E. 

Professor M. J. DeGoeje. Leiden. 
Professor Ignaz Goldziher, Budapest. 
Sir Charles Lyall, m.a., k.C.S.i. London. 
Sir William Ramsay, PH.D., (Tiib.) ll. d., sc.d. (Dubl.) 

F.C.S., P.I.C. 

Dr. George Abraham Grierson, PH.D., CLE., i.c.s. 
• London. 


TJateoTEleetion . 

1874 April 

1875 Dec. 
1875 Dec. 
1882 June 

1884 Aug. 

1885 Dec. 

1886 Dec. 
1892 April 6 
1892 Dec. 7 
1899 April 5 
1899 April 5 
1899 l^ov. 1 
1902 June 4 

The Revd. E. Lafont, c.i.e., s.j. Calcutta. 

The Revd. J. D. Bate, m.e.a.s. Kent. 

Maulavie Abdul Hai. Calcutta. 

Herbert, Giles, Esq. Europe. 

F. Moore, Esq., p.l.^. Surrey. 

Dr. A. Fuhrer, Europe. 

Rai Bahadur Sarat Chandra Das, C.i.e. Calcutta, 

Pandit Satya Vrata Samasrami. Calcutta. 

Professor P. J. Briihl. Sibpur. 

Rai Ba^iadur Ram Brahma Sanyal. Calcutta. 

Pandit Visnu Prasad Raj Bhandari. Nepal. 

The Revd. E. Francotte, S.J. Calcutta. 

The Revd. A. H. Francke. Leh. 


* Bule 40. — After the lapse of three years from the date of a 
member leaving India, if no intimation of his wishes shall in the 
interval have been received by the Society, his name shall be re- 
moved from the List of Members. 

The following members will be removed from the next Mem- 
ber List of the Society under the operation of the above Rule : — 
Edwin Max Konstam, Esq. 
Michael Francis O'Dwyer, Esq., B.A., i.c.s. 
Alfred Fredei-ick Steinberg, Esq., i.cs, 



By Retirement. 

T. W. Aiuiold, Esq. 

The Hon. Dr. Gtu'udas Banerjee, d.l. 

Sir John Eliot, f.r.s. 

John Champion Faunthorpe, Esq., i.C.s. 

E. V. Gabriel, Esq., i.C.s. 

A. Garrett, Esq., i.C.S. 

Babn Roormall Goenka. 

The Hon. Mr. W. C. Macpherson, c.s.i., i.s.c. 

By Death. 
Ordinary Members. 

Dr. U. 0, Milker jee. , 

A. T. Pringle, Esq. 

Harjeebhoj Manickjee Rustomjee, Esq., c.i.B, 
Dr. MahendraM Sircar, m.d., C.i.B., d.l. 
Dr. Charles Robert Wilson, M.A., D. litt. 

Honorary Member. 
Dr. Otto yon Bohtlingk. 

Corresjponding Member. 
Dr. Emil Schlagintweit. 

By Removal. 

Under Rule 9, 

P. B. Bramley, Esq. 

Babu Gopal Chandra Chatterjee. 

Mahammad Rafiq, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. 

Under Rule 38. ^ 

Babu Manmatha ITath Chakravarti. 

Captain W. A. Cnppage, i.A. 

Rai Narsingh Chunder Dutt, Bahadur. 

B. Suryanaran Rao, Esq., B.A. 
Babu Purnendu Narayan Singh. 
Lala Shyam Sunder Srivastavya. 

Under "Rule 40. 

Dr. Frank Gerard Clemow, m.d., Edin. 
Sir Alfred W. Croft, M.A., k.c.i.e. 
Lieut. M. LI. Ferrar, i.A. 
A. J. Grant, Esq., l.C.S. 






Asiatic jSociety of Bengal 


THE YEAR 1904i 



Asiatic Society 


To Establishment. 

Rs. As. 


Rs. . 



Salaries ... ... ... 3,460 7 

Commission ... ... ... 375 11 

Pension ... ... ... 112 




3 10 

To Contingencies. 

Stationery ... .. ... 133 14 

Taxes ... ... ... 884 4 

Postage ... ... ... 566 13 

Freight ... ... ... 128 15 

Meeting , ... " ... ... 105 2 

Auditor's fee ""..'. ..." ... 100 

Insurance fee ... ... ... 312 8 

Electric Punkhas and Lights ... ... 218 

Repairs ... ... ... 2,686 4 

Petty repairs ... ... ... 28 15 

Building , ,,...... .... . ... 77 9. 

Miscellaneous.: .. .i - -... 459 4 









Books ... ... ... 2,135 4 

Binding ... ... ... 599 

Catalogue . >- ... - ... ... ' 81 • 1 

Cleaning, &c;, of Pictures .. ... 1,306 

Picture Frame (Freight and other charges) 566 4 
Furniture ... ... ... 353 5 







' To Publications.. . 

Journal, Part I ... * ... ' ;.. "1,436 14 
Journal, Parfc II ... ... ... 1,381 2 

Journal, Part III ... ... ... 854 10 

Proceedings ... ... ... 752 14 







To Printing charges of Circulars, Receipt-forms, &o. ... 
„ Personal Account (Writes-ofE and Miscellaneous) ... 

To Extraordinary Expenditure. 

Royal Society's Scientific Catalogue 




Total Rs. ' ... 




No. 1. 

of Bengal. 190^. 


Rs. As. P. Rg. As. P. 

By Balance from lasb Report ... ... ... 1,81,826 9 6 

By Cash Receipts. 

Publications sold for cash ... ... 790 6 8 

Interest oa Investments ... ... 6,786 8 

Rent of a Room on the Society's ground floor 730 

Allowance from Government of Bengal for 
the Publication of Anthropological and 

Cognate subjects ... ... .. 2,000 

Allowance from Govt, of Assam for Do. Do. 1,000 

Grant from Government of India for repair- 
ing the Society's building ... 10,000 

Miscellaneous ... ... ... 80 2 

21,387 8 

By Extraordinary Receipts. 

Subscriptions to Royal Society's Scientific 

Catalogue ... .... ... ... 5,352 4 6 

By Personal Account. 

Admission fees ... ... ... 1,088 

Subscriptions ... ... ... 8,704 

Sales on credit ... ... ... 348 8 

Miscellaneous ... ... ... 35 11 

10,176 3 

Total Hs, ... 2,18,742 1 8 

asutosh mukhopadhyay, 

Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society oj Bengal. 



Oriental Fiihlicatiorb Fund in Acot. 


To Cash Expenditure, 

Es. As. 


Es. As. 


Printing charges 


10,763 11 

Editing charges 

4,971 5 



1.4 12 10 



1"2 3 


114 12 


SI 11 



408 6 


Commission on collections 

17 9 



2 6 

17,904 10 


To Personal Account (Writes-off and Miscellaneous) 

103 2 


5,097 1 


Total Rs. 

23,104 13 


190 -i^^ SansPvvit Manuscript Fund in Acct. 


To Cash Expenditure, 

Es. As. 


Es. As. 



.*. .** 


Travelling charges ... 



Purchase of Manuscripts 



786 1 

3 11 

3,724 4 





345 14 


6,043 2 



Total Rs. 




9,621 2 



No. 2. 

with the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 190^. 


Es. As. P. Es. As. P. 
By Balance from last Eeporfc ... ... ... 11,241 3 8 

By Cash Eeceipts. 

Government Allowance ... ... 9,000 

Publications sold for cask ... ... 1,338 13 3 

Advances recovered ... ... 88 14 3 

. 10,427 11 6 

By Personai, Account, 

Sales on credit ... ... ... ... 1,435 14 6 

Total Es. ... 23,104 13 8 

AsuTOSH Mokhopadhyay, 

Honorary Treasurer , 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

No. 3. 

with the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1904-. 


Es. As. P, Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Report ... " ... ... 6,387 14 8 

By Cash Receipts. 

Government Allowance ... ... 3,200 

Pablications sold for cash ... ... 14 

3,201 4 

By Personai, Account. 

Sftleg on credit ... ... ... ... 32 

Total Rs. ... 9,621 2 8 


Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


190Jf. Arahic and Persian MSS. Fund in 


To Cash Expenditure. 

Es. As. 


Rs. As. 




265 15 



Purchase of Manuscripts 


Travelling charges ... 


175 15 

2 1 

189 8 

634 7 
6,365 8 



Total Rs. 






Rs. As. P. 

To Balance from last Report 

To Cash Expenditure. 

Advances for purchase of Sanskrit Manu- 
scripts, &c. 

To Asiatic Society .. ... ... 10,176 8 

,, Oriental Publication Fund ... ... 1,435 14 6 

,, Sanskrit Manuscript Fund ... ' ... 32 

Rs. As. P. 
7,794 5^ 2 

4,932 8 1 

11,644 1 6 

Total Rs. 

24,370 14 9 

No. 4. 

Acct. with the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

190 i. 

Government Allowance 


By Cash Receipts, 

Total Rs. 

Rs. As. P 



Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Societij of Bengal, 

No. B. 


By Cash Receipts 
,, Asiatic Society 
., Oriental Publication Fund 

By Balance. 

Due to the 

Due by the 







Members . . . 










Employes ... 














Rs. As. P, 

103 2 


Rs. As. P. 
18,660 11 11 

747 2 

Total Rs. 

4,963 10 
24,370 14 9 


Honorary Treasurer , 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 




To Balance from last Report .. 

Total Es. 

Value. Cost. 

Rs. As. P. Rs. - As. P. 

1,83,300 1,88,104 2 7 

14,000 13,848 6 10 

2,02,300 2,01,952 9 5 




Valu e. 


Value. j Cost. 


Total Cost. 

Asiatic Societv 

Rs. A. 



Es. A, 

1,48,143 6 
1,339 6 









A. P 
6 6 










6j 6 






To Pension 



Total Rs. 

Rs. As. P. 


1,455 11 10 

1,4^3 11 10 

No. 6. 

ment. 190J/^. 


Value. Cost. 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As, P. 

By Cash ... ... 4,000 3,994 6 3 

„ Balance ... ... ... 1,98,300 1,97,958 3 2 

Total Rs. ... 2,02,300 2,01,952 9 5 


Hony. Treasure}', 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

No. 7. 

Fund. 1904. 


Rs. As. P. 
By Balance from. last Report ... ... ... 1,434 11 10 

„ Interest on Investment ... .. ... 49 

Total Rs. ... ... 1,483 11 10 


Hony. Treasurer, 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 



To Balance from last Report 



To Asiatic Society ... 
,, Oriental Publication Fund 
,, Sanskrit Manuscript Fund 
„ Arabic and Persian Manuscript Fund 
„ Personal Account 
„ Investment 
„ Trust Fund 

Total Rs. 

Rs. As. P. 
26,739 5 2 
10,427 11 6 

3,201 4 

18,660 1) 11 

8,994 6 3 

Bs. As. P. 
4991 15 11 

70,072 6 10 
75,064 6 9 




To Cash ... 
,1 Investments 
„ Personal Account 

Rs. As. P. 

6,514 9 8 

1,97,958 3 2 

4,963 10 

Rs. As. P. 

2,09,435 13 8 

Total Rs. 

2,09,435 13 8 

We have examined the above Balance Sheet and the appended detailed 
aoco.ints with the books and vouchers presented to us, and certify that it is in 
accordance therewith, correctly setting forth the position of the Society as at 
the 31st December, 1904. 

• Calcutta, 
February 24:th, 1905. 

Meugens, King and Simson, 



No. 8. 





By Asiatic Society ... 
„ Oriental Publication Fund ... 
„ Sanscrit Manuscript Fund ... 
„ Arabic and Persian Manuscript Fund 
„ Personal Account 
,, Investment 
„ Trust Fund 

Rs. As. 

25,158 10 

17,904 10 

6,043 2 

634 7 

4,932 8 

13,848 6 




Rs. As. P. 
68,549 13 1 


. 6,514 9 8 

Total Rs. 

75,064 6 9 


Hony. Treasurer, 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

No. 9. 


By Asiatic Society ... 

,, Oriental Publication Fund ... 

,, Sanskrit Manuscript Fund ... 

,, Arabic and Persian Manuscript Fund 

„ Trust Fund 

Total Rs. 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

1,92,939 7 5 
5,097 1 3 
3,578 5 
6,365 8 9 
1,455 11 10 2,09,435 13 8 

2,09,435 13 8 

Asutosh Mukhopadhtay, 

Hony. Treasurer, 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


Asiatic Researches, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865 — 1904, (now amalgamated with Journal). 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

JoTimal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Journal and Proceedings, [N. 8.'] Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Review, 1784—1883. 

Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 
)btained by application to the Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(o) To be present and vote at all Greneral Meetings which 
are held on the first Wednesday in each month, except 
in September and October. 

(&) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 

(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary General Meetings 
and to the groujids and public rooms of the Society 
during the houi's when they are open to members. 

(rZ) To have personal access to the Library and other public 
rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To I'eceive gratis, copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(g) To fill any ofiice in the Society on being duly elected 



Proceedings for February 190^ ... ... ... 8 

Earwigs of the Indian Museum, with Descriptions of new 
species.— By Malcolm Burr, B.A., FL S , F.Gr.S., F.Z.S., 
P.E.S. Communicated hy N. Annandale ... ... 27 




Vol. I, No. 3. 





Issued August 12tb, 1905. 

List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 190S. 

President : 
His Honour Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.O.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 

T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
C. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S., (retired). 

Secretary and Treasurer :\ 

Honorary Greneral Secretary : J, Macfarlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : Tlie Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosli Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary: E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

Natural History Secretary : Captain L. Rogers, M.D., B.Sc, 

Anthropological Secretary: IT. Annandale, Esq., B.A., D.Sc. 
Joiat Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 

Other Members of Council : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice P. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.O.S. 

Kumar Ramessur Maliah. 

I. H. BurkiU, Esq., M.A. 

H. E. Kempthome, Esq. 

W. K. Dods, Esq.. 

The Hon'ble Mr. A. Earle, I.O.S. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. TuU Walsh, I.M.S. 

R. 0. Lees, Esq. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A, 

Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A. 


Asiatic Researches, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865 — 1904, (now[ amalgamated with Journal). 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Jotirnal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Jonrnal and Proceedings, [N. S-l Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Review, 1784—1883. 

Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 
ained by application to the Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(a) To be present and vote at all General Meetings which 

are held on the first Wednesday in each month, except 
in September and October. 

(b) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 


(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary General Meetings 

and to the grounds and public rooms of the Society 
during the hours when they are open to members. 

(d) To have personal access to the Library and other public 

rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 
{g) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 



Page. 1 
Proceedings for March 1906 ... ... ... 81 

Occurrence of the genus A^us in Baluchistan. — By E. Vebden- 

BUBG, Geological Survey of India ... ... 3-3 

A note on Haldyudha, the author of Brdhmanasarbasva.—By 
YoGBSA Chandra S'asteee ... ... ... 35 

Pavana-dutam, or Wind-Messenger, by Dhoyika, a court-poet of 
Laksmanasena, king of Bengal, with an Appendix on the 
Sena kings.— By Monmohan Chakravarti, M.A., M.R.A.S. 41 

The Hydra of the Calcutta Tanks. — By N"elson Annandale, 

B.A., Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Museum ... 72 

The Composition of the oil from Bir Bahoti or the " Bains- 
Insect," (Trombidium grandissimum). — By E. Gr. Hill, 
B.A., F.C.S. ... ... ... ... 74 

Contributions to Oriental Herpetology II. — Notes on the Oriental 
Lizards in the Indian Museum, with a List of the species 
recorded from British India and Ceylon. Part I. — By 
N'blson Atstnandale, B.A., Deputy Superintendent of the 
Indian Museum. (Witli 2 plates.) ... ... 81 

ArchseoloyiscJi Onderzoek op Java en Madura. I Beschrijving 
van de ruine bij de Tesa Toempang, genaamd Tj'andi 
Djago. Batavia, 1904. — By Father Dahlmann, S.J. 
Communicated by the Philological Secretary ... ... 94 




Vol. I, No. 4. 



ASIATIC society/ 57, PARK STREET. 


Issued 30th August, 1905. 

List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 190S. 

President : 
His Honour Sir A. H. L. Praser, M.A., LL.D., K.O.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosl. Muktopadhyaya, MA., D.L,, 
■ F.R.S.E. 
T. H. HoUand, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 

0. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S., (retired). 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary Greneral Secretary : J. Macfarlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosli Mukbopadliyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary: B. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

IS'atural History Secretary ; Captain L. Rogers, M.D., B.Sc, 

Anthropological Secretary: N". Annandale, Esq., B.A,, D.Sc. 
Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 

Other Mernbers of Council : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.C.S. 
Kumar Ramessur Maliah. 

1. H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 
H. E. Kempthome, Esq. 
W. K. Dods, Esq. 

The Hon'ble Mr. A. Earle, I.C.S. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. Tull Walsh, I.M.S. 

R. 0. Lees, Esq. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Pandit Satis Chandra Yidyabhusana, M.A. 


Asiatic Researclies, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, fig'' 5 — 1904, (now amalgamated with Journal). 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Journal and Proceedings, [N. 8.'] Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Review, 1784—1883. 

Bibliotteca Indie a, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by tbe Society can be 
obtained by application to tbe Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(a) To be present and vote at all Greneral Meetings wbich. 
are held on the first Wednesday in each, month, except 
in September and October. 

(h) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 

(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary General Meetings 

and to the grounds and public rooms of the Society 
during the hours when they are open to members. 

(d) To have personal access to the Library and other public 

rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(^) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 


Proceedings for April, 1905 ... ... ... 35 

Anuruddha Thera — a learned Pali author of Southern India in 
the 12th Century AD. — By Prop. Satis Chandra Vidya- 

BHUSANA, M.A. ... ... ... ... 99 

The Colouring Principle of the flowers of Nyctanthes Arhor-tris- 

tis.—By B. G. Hill, B.A. ... ... .102 

The Monasteries of Tibet. — By Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Baha- 
dur, CLE. ... ... ... ... 106 

Notes on an Indian Worm of the Genus Ghastogaster. — By Nel- 
son Annandale, B.A., D.Sc, Deputy Superintendent of 
the Indian Museum. (Witli one plate. ) ... ... 117 

Numismatic Supplement V. (With two plates.) ... 121 




Vol. I, No. 5. 





Issued 11th September, 1905. 

List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1905.! 

President : 
His Honour Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.O.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh. Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 

T. H. Holland, Esq., F.a.S., F.R.S. 
C. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S., (retired). 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary General Secretary : J. Macf arlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary : E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

^N'atural History Secretary : Captain L. Rogers, M.D., B.Sc, 

Anthropological Secretary : N". Annandale, Esq., B.A., D.Sc. 
Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 

Other Members of Council : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.O.S. 

Kumar Ramessur Maliah. 

I. H. BurMU, Esq., M.A. 

H. E. Kempthorne, Esq. 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

The Hon'ble Mr. A. Earle, I.C.S. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. TuU Walsh, I.M.S. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A. 

H. E. Stapleton, Esq., B.A., B.Sc. 


The following new books have been added to the Library 
from May to June 1905. 

Anavamadarsi Saggharaya. Daivajna Kamadhenn, a treatise 
on AstroIog7...Editedbythe Very Rev. 0. A. Seelakkhandha... 
and Seetarama Upadhyaya. Fasc. 1, etc. Benares, 1905, ei^c. 8°. 

Benares Sanshrit Series, No. 97. 

Aggira and others giiit5Tf ^l^: l [A collection of twenty- 
seven Smrtis of Arjgira... Edited by the Pandits of Ananda- 
^rama.] IPoona, 1905.] 8.° 

Aech^ology. Annual Report of the Director-Greiieral of Arch- 
aBology, 1903-04, Part I, etc. Calcutta, 1905, etc. fol. 

Presd. by the D irector-General of Archseology. 

Balaji Sitaram Kothare. Hindu Holidays, as originally con- 
tributed to " The Times of India." Bombay, 1904. 8°. 

Benares, — Sanskrit Gollege. List of Sanskrit, Jaina and Hindi 
Manuscripts purchased by order of Grovernment and deposit- 
ed in the Sanskrit College, Benares, during 1902. Nos. 6 & 7. 
Allahabad, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the Govt, of the United Provinces- 

BoABD OP Examiners. Catalogue of books in European Lan- 
guages in the Library of the Board of Examiners, late College 
of Fort William. Prepared under the superintendence of 
Lieut. -Col. Ranking. [With two indices.] 3 pts. 
Calcutta, 1903. 4°. 

Catalogue of books in Oriental Languages in the Library 

of the Board of Examiners, late College of Fort William. 
Prepared under the superintendence of Lieut.-Col. Ranking. 
[With two indices.] 3 pts. Calcutta, 1093. 4°. 

Presd. by the Board of Examiners, Fort William. 

Buenos Aires. Demografia. Ano 1901, etc. La Plata, 1904, etc. 8°. 
Presd. by the Direccion- General de Estadistica, Buenos Aires. 

Cotton, Julian James. List of inscriptions on Tombs or Monu- 
ments in Madras, possessing historical or archaeological in- 
terest. Madras, 1905. fol. 

Indian Monumental Inscriptions, vol. 3. 

Presd. hy the Government of Madras, 

Early Dutch and English Voyages to Spitsbergen in the seven- 
teenth centmy, including Hessell Gerritsz. " Histoire du 
Pays nomme Spitsberghe," 1613, translated into English B. H. Soulsby...and J. S. Van der Brugge. " Journael of 
Dagh Register " Amsterdam, 1634. Translated into English J. A. J. de Villiers... Edited with introductions and 
notes by Sir W. Martin Conway. London, 1904 8°. 

Eakhiyt Society's Publications, 2nd Series, iVo. 11. 

Presd. by the Govt, of India, Home Dept. 

Fauna op British India, including Ceylon and Burma... Butter- 
flies, Vol. I. by Lieut.-Col. C. T. Bingham. 
London, 1905. 8^ 

Presd. by the Govt, of Bengal. 

Haas, W. R. Tromp de. Uitkomsten van de aftappingsproeven 
met Hevea Brasiliensis in den Cultuurtuin te Tjikeumeuh 
gedaan gedurende de jaren 1900, t/m, 1904, etc. 
Batavia, 1905, etc. 8°. 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Buitenzorg.- 

Hakluyt Society. Prospectus and List of Members, 1904. 
London, [1905.] 8°. 

Presd. by the Govt, of India, Home Lept, 

Herzog, Maximilian. The Plague : Bacteriology, Morbid Ana- 
tomy, and Histopathology, including a consideration of in- 
sects as plague carriers. Manila, 1904. 8°. 

Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila, No. 23. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

Holdich, Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford. India... With maps 
and diagrams. London, 1904. 8°. 
Part of " The Regions of fhe World,'' edited by H. J. Mackinder. 

James, S. P. and Liston, W. Glen. A Monograph of the Anophe- 
les Mosquitoes of India, Calcutta, 1904. 4°. 

Kalidasa. Kalidasa's Abhijnanasliakuntalam. Translated in Eng- 
lish verse by Kalikes Bandyopadhyay, Calcutta, 1901c 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Koehler, R. and Vaney, C. An Account of the Deep- Sea Holo- 
thurioidae collected by the Royal Indian Marine Survey 
Ship Investigator. Calcutta, 1905. 4°. 

Presd. by the Indian Museum, 

Linguistic Suevey of India. Report on the Progress of the Lin- 
guistic Survey of India, presented to the Fourteenth Inter- 
national Congress of Orientalists. [By Dr. Gr. A. Grrierson.l 
[1905.] fol. 

Presd. by the Author, 

Manila. — Bureato of Forestry. Report of the Chief of the Bureau 
of Forestry of the Philippine Islands for the period from Sep- 
tember 1, 1903 to August 31, 1904. Manila, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Chief of the Bureau of Forestry, Manila, 

Mann, Harold H, Agriculture as a science. A lecture, etc, 
[ Calcutta, 1905.] 8°. 

Presd. by the Calcutta University Institute. 

Maxwell-Lefroy, H. The Dusky Cotton Bug. The Red Cotton 
Bug. The Cotton Leaf Hopper. The Success Knapsack 
Sprayer. The Six- Spotted Lady Bird Beetle. A Simple 
Spraying Apparatus. The Preservation of Seed from Insect 
Attacks. Rosin "Washes as Insecticides. Kerosene Emulsion. 
Crude Oil Emulsion. Lead Arseniate. 
[Bombay, Pusa, 1904-05.] 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Meldola, Raphael. The Chemical Synthesis of Vital Products 
and the inter-relations between organic compounds. 
London, 1904. 8°. 

Merrill, Elmer D. A Review of the identifications of the species 
described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas. Manila, 1905. 8°. 
Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila No. 27, 

Presd. by the Bureau, 
Moore, F. Lepidoptera Indica. 5 vols. London, 1890-93. 4°. 


ITevill, H. R. District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of 
Agra and Oudli, vol. xxxiv. Naini Tal, vol. xli. Hardoi, 
vol. xlviii. Bara-Banki. Allahabad, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the Government of India, Home Dept. 

S'aunak. The Brhad-devata attributed to S'aanaka. A summary 
of the deities and myths of the Rig-veda. Critically edited 
in the original Sanskrit with an introduction and seven appen- 
dices and translated into English with critical and illustrative 
notes by A. A. Macdonell. 2 pts. Cambridge, Mass. 1904. 8°. 

Harvard Oriental Series, vols. 5^6. 

Presd. by the Harvard University. 

^diddell, Lieut.-Gol. Jj. A.nstine. Lhasa and its Mysteries. With 
a record of the expedition of 1903-1904.. ..With. ..illustra- 
tions and maps. London, 1905. 8°. 

Wehrli, Hans J. Beitrag zur Ethnologic der Chingpaw (Kachin) 
von Ober-Burma. Leiden, 1904. 4°. 
Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographie Supplement zu Bd. XVI. 

Wherry, Wm. B. G-landers: Its diagnosis and prevention. 
Together with a report on two cases of human glanders occur- 
ring in Manila, and some notes on the Bacteriology and Poly- 
morphism of Bacterium Mallei. Manila, 1904. 8°. 
Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 24. 

Presd. by the Bti/reau. 


Asiatic Researches, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865—1904, (now amalgamated with Journal). 

Memoirs, Vol, 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904 

Journal and Proceedings, [N. 8.] Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Eeview, 1784—1883. 

Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 
obtained by application to the Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(a) To be present and vote at all General Meetings which 
are held on the first Wednesday in each month, except 
in September and October. 

(h) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 

(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary General Meetings 

and to the grounds and public rooms of the Society 
during the hours when they are open to members. 

(d) To have personal access to the Library and other public 

rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(g) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 



Proceedings for May, \^0h ... ... ... 39 

The Emperor Babar. — Bi/ H. BEVERiDaE, I.C.S. (retired.) ... 137 

Contributions to Oriental Herpetology III. — Notes on the 
Oriental Lizards in the Indian Museum, with a List of the 
Species recorded from British India and Ceylon. Part 2. 
— By Nelson Annandalb, B.A., (Oxon.), D.Sc. (Edin.), 
Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Museum ... 139 

Tibet, a dependency of Mongolia. — {1643-1716 J..D.) — By 

Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, CLE. ... 152 

Sarvajna-mitra — a Tantrika Buddhist author of KaSmlra 
in the 8th Century A.D. — By Prof. Satis Chandra 

VlDYABHUSANA, M.A. ... ... ... 156 




Vol. I, No. 6. 





Issued 4tb October, 1905. 

List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1905, 

President : 
His Honour Sir A. H. L. Eraser, M.A., LL.D., K.C.S.I, 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh. Mukliopadliyaya, M.A,, D.L., 

T. H. Holland, Esq., E.G.S., E.R.S. 
C. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S., (retired.) 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary Greneral Secretary : J. Macf arlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : Tlie Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosli Mukhopadliyaya, 
M.A., D.L., E.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary: E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

N'atural History Secretary : Captain L. Rogers, M.D., B.Sc, 

Anthropological Secretary: 'N. Annandale, Esq., B.A,, D.Sc. i 
Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 

Other Members of Gouncil : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice E. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.C.S. 

Kumar Ramessur Maliah. 

i: H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 

H. E. Kempthorne, Esq. 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

The Hon'ble Mr. A. Earle, I.C.S. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. TuU Walsh, I.M.S. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., P.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Pandit Satis Chandra Yidyabhusana, M.A. 

H. E. Stapleton, Esq., B.A., B.Sc. 


The folio wiug new books have been added to the Library from 
July to August, 1905. 

Annandale, Nelson. On Abnormal Ranid Larvse from ^^orth- 
Eastern India. London, 1905. 8°. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1903, Vol. L 

Presd. by the Aitthor. 

Bose, Chuni Lai, Bai. Combustion... An address, etc. 
Calcutta, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Calcutta University histitute. 

Cachari Primary Arithmetic. (Paiseb bauta sygang.) Part I, 
etc. Shillong, 1905, etc. 8°. 

Presd. by the Chief Commissioner of Assam. 

Chapman, Sydney J. The Lancashire Cotton Industry. A 
study in economic development. Manchester, 1904. 8°. 

Publications of the University of Manchester, Economic 
Series, No. 1. 

Presd. by the University. 

Colombo MusfiUM. Spolia Zeylanica. Vol. I, etc. 
Colombo, 1903, etc. 8°. 

Davenport, C. B. Statistical Methods with special reference to 
Biological variation... Second, revised edition. 
Neio York, 1904. 8°. 

Dercle, C. De la pratique de notre medecine chez les Ai'abes. 
Vocabulaire arabe-francais d'expressions medicales, etc. 
Alger, 1904. 8°. 

Eitel, Ernest J. Feng-Shui : or, the rudiments of Natural 
Science in China. Loudon, 1873. 8°. 

Freer, Paul C. Tlie preparation of Benzoyl- Acetyl Peroxide, and 
its use as an intestinal antiseptic in cholera and dysentery. 
Manila, 1904. 8°. 

Bureau of Goi:ernment Laboratories, Manila, No. 2. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

Haeckel, J^rnst. Uer Kamp am den Entwickelungs-Gedanken. 
IJrei Vortrage....Mit...Tafeln, e^c Berlin, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Hahn, Rev. Ferd. Kurukh Folklore in the original. Collected 
and transliterated bj Revd. F. Hahn. Galciitta, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Govern'ment of Bengal. 

Herzog, Maximilian. A Fatal infection by a hitherto undescrib- 
ed chroniogenic bacterium : Bacillus aureus foetidus, 
Manila, 1904 8°. 

Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 13. 

-The Plague : Bactei^ology, morbid anatomy, and liisto- 

pathology, etc. Manila, 1904. 8°. 

Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 23. 

Herzog", Maximilian, and others. I. Does Latent or dormant 
plague exist where the disease is endemic. By M. Herzog and 
C. B. Hare. II. Broncho-pneumonia of cattle : its associa- 
tion with B. Bovisepticus. By P. G. Woolley and W. Sorrell, 
III. Report on Pinto-Pafio Blanco. By P. Gr. Woolley. lY. 
IS'otes on analysis of the water from the Manila water siipply. 
By C. L. Bliss. V. Frambfesia : its occurrence in natives of 
the Philippine Islands. By P. G. Woolley. Manila, 1904. 8°. 
Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 20. 

Jobling', James W. an^d other.s. Texas fever in the Philippine 
Islands and the Far East. B^'^ J. W. Jobling... and P. Gr. 
Woolley... The Australian Tick — ^Boophilus atistralis Fuller — 
in the Philippine Islands. By C. S. Banks. 
Manila, 1904. 8°. 

Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 14. 

Jobling", James W. Preliminary Report on the study of Rinder- 
pest of cattle and carabaos in the Philippine Islands, 
Manila, 190.3. 8°. 

Bureau of Governtnent Laboratories, Manila, No. 4. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

Kalidasa. Kalidasa. A complete collection of the various read- 
ings of the Madras Manuscin'pts. By the Rev. T. Foulkes. 
3 vols. 3£adrus, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the Government of Madras. 

Kalisankara Siddhanta Vagisa. Krodapatfcrasangrahaor criti- 
cal notes on Anumanajagadisi, Pratyakshanunianagadadhari, 
Pratyakshanumanamathiiri, Vyutpathivada, Saktivada, Muk- 
tivada, Sabdasaktiprakasika and Kusumanjali... Edited by 
Pundit Vindhyesvariprasad Dvivedin...and Nyayacharya 
Vamacharana Bhattacharya. Fasc. I, etc. 
Benares, 1905, etc. 8°. 

Choivkhamba Hanskni Series, No, 90. 

Xirkby, William. Practical Presci'ibing and Dispensing for 
medical students. Manchester, 1904. 8°. 

P ahlications nf tlie University cr Manchester, Medical Series, 
Xo. 2. 

Presd. by the University. 

Landon, Perceval. Lhasa. An acconnb of the country and 
people of Central Tibet and of the progress of the Mission 
sent there by the English Government in the year 1903-04, 
etc. 2 vols. London, 1905. 8^. 

Xittle, A. G. Initia Operum Latinonxm quae saeculis xiii, xiv, 
XV, attribuuutur secundum ordinem alphabeti disposita. 
Manchester, 1904. 8°. 

Publications of the University of Manchester, Historical Series, 
No. 2. 

Presd. by the University. 

-Lorini, Eteocle. La Persia economica contemporanea e la sua 
questione monetaria. Roma, 1900. 8°. 

McGregor, Richard C. I. Birds from the Islands of Romblon, 
Sibuyan and Cresta De Gallo. II. Further ISTotes on birds 
from Ticao, Cuyo, Cnlion, Calayau, Lubang and Luzon. 
Manila, 1905. 8°. 

Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila, No 2d. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

Madras DrsTRiOT Gazetteers. Madras, I90i, etc. 8°. 

Presd. by the Government of Lidia, Home Department. 

Manila. — Bureau of Government Laboratories. I, Description of 
new buildings. By P. C. Freer. II. A Catalogue of the 
Library. By Mary Polk. Manila, 1905. 8°. 

Bureau of Government Labm-atories, Manila, No. 22. 

Report of the Superintendent of Government Laboratories 

in the Philippine Islands for the year ended September 1st, 

From Fourth Annual Report of the Philippine Commission. 

Third [<'\ Annual Report of the Superintendent of the 

Bureau of Government Laboratories for the period from Sep- 
tember Lst, 1903, to August 31st, 1904 [etc.]. 
Manila, 1905, etc. 8°. 

Presd by the Bureau. 

Merrill, Elmer D. A Dictionary of the plant names of the 
Philippine Islands. Manila, 1903. 8°. 

Bureait of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 8. . 

-A Review of the identifications of the species described 

in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas. Manila, 1905. 8°. 
Bureari of Government Lahorafories, Manila, No. 27. 

Musgrave, W. E. and Cleg"g, Moses T. Trypanosoma and 
Trypanosomiasis, with special reference to Snrrain the Philip- 
pine Islands. Manila, 1903. 8°. 

Bureau of Govern'ment Laboratories, Manila, No. 5. 

-Ft. I. Amebas : their cultivation and etiologic signifi- 

cance. By W. E. Mnsgrave and M T. Clegg. Pt. II. Treat- 
ment of intestinal Amebiasis — amebic dysentery — in the 
tropics. By W. E. Musgrave. Manila, 1904. 8°. 
Bureait of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 18. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

Nevill, H. R. Partabgarh. Allahabad, 1904. 8°. 

District Gazetteers of the United Province of Agra and Oudh, 

RaiBareli. Allahabad, 1905. 8°. 

District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 
Vols. XXXIX. 

Presd. by the Government of India, Home Department. 

Neville, Ralph. Garden Cities. A Warbnrton Lecture, etc, 
Manchester, 1904. 8°. 

Manchester University Lectures, No. 1. 

Presd, by the University. 

Nityasvarupa Brahmacari. ^^-^ f^if<^^'. [Parapaksa giri- 

bajrah by Nityasvarupa Brahmacari.] 
Brindavana, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Olufsen, 0. Through the unknown Pamirs, The second Danish 
Pamir Expedition 1898-90.... With maps and... illustrations. 
London, 1904. 8°. 

Owen's College, Mancliester. Historical Essays by Members of 
the Owen's College, Manchester, pixblished in commemoi'ation 
of its jubilee, 1851-1901. London, 1902. 8°. 

Studies from the Biological Laboratories. (Studies in 

Biology) etc. Yol. I, III, etc. Manchester, 1886, 1895, etc. 8°.- 

Studies from the Physical and Chemical Laboratories, 

etc. Yol. I, etc. Manchester, 1893, 8°. 

■Studies from the Physiological Laboratory, etc. Yol. I, efc. 

Manchester, 1891. 8° 

-Studies in Anatomy, etc. Yol. II, etc. 

Manchester, 1900, etc. S"" 

Presd. by the Victoria Universlti/ of Manchester. 

Penny, Z?er. Frank. The Church, in Madras, being the history 
of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India, 
Compnny in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeentli and 
eigliteenth centuries... With illustrations. London, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. hy the Government of Lidia, Home Department. - 

Rajaram Ramkrishna Bhagawat. An Attempt to analyse the 
Maha-Bharata — from the higher Brahminical standpoint. 
Bombay, 1905. 8°. 

Khordeh — Avesta searched. I. Mihr Yast — from the 

Brahminical standpoint. Bombay, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Readymoney, N"asarvanji Jivanji. A University for Research- 
Recoid and Instructions. I^ature-History Museum and des- 
criptive defining K'ature-History tables illustrated : or Nature- 
History Research thinking tables and investigating or sorting 
tables for sejiai-ating different subjects. Bombay, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Rivenburg", liev. S, W. Phrases in English and Angami Naga.^ 
Knhhna, Assam, 1905. 8°, 

Presd. by the Chief Commissioner (f Assam. 

Sherman, Penoyei L. The Gutta Perclia and Rubber of the 
Philippine Islands, Manila, 190o. 8°. 

MvreAiu of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 7. 

Presd. by the Bureau^ 


Smeeth, W. F. The Occurrence of Secondary Augite in the 
Kolar Schists. Bangalore, 1905. 8°. 

Mysore Geological Department, Bulletin, No. 8. 

Presd. by the Mysore Geological Department. 

Smith, W. Robertson. Lectures on the Religion of the Semites. 
First Series. The fundamental institutions ... New edition. 
London, 1901. 8°. 

Burnett Lectitres, 1888-89. 

Stebbing", E. P. A note upon the " Bee-Hole " borer of teak in 
Burma. Gcdcutta, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Strong', R. P. Preliminary Report of the appearance in the 
Islands of a disease clinically i-esembling glanders. 
Manila, 1904 8°. 

Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila, No 1. 

-Protective Inoculation against Asiatic Cholera — an experi- 

mental study. Manila, 1904. 8^^ 

Bureau of Governmeyit Laboratories, Manila, No 16. 

- — Some questions relating to virulence of micro-organisms, 

with particular reference to their immunizing powers, 
Manila, 1904. 8°. 

Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 21. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

SydOW, p. and H. Monographia Uredinearum sen specierum 
omnium ad hunc usque diem descriptio et adumbratio systera- 
atica. Vol. I, etc. Lipsiae, 1904, etc. 8°. 

Tait, James. Medieeval Manchester and the beginning of Lanca- 
shire. Manchester, 1904. 8°. 

Publicatio7is of the University of ManGhester, Historical Series, 
No 1. 

Presd. by the University. 

Vallabhacharya, Sri. Anu Bbashya, on Brahmasutra...With 
a commentary called Bhashya Prakasa by Goswami Sri 
Purushottfimjee Maharaj. Edited by Ratna Gopal Bhatta. 
Fasc. I, etc. Benares, 1906, etc. 8°. 

Benares Sanskrit Series, No. 99. 

Watson, C. C. Ajmer-Merwara. Text and Statistical tables. 
Ajmer, 1904. 8^' 

Rajputana District Gazetteers. 

Presd. by the Government of Lidia, Home Department. 

Wegener, Dr. Georg. Tibet uud die englisclie Expedition... Mit 
zwei Karten nnd aclit Vollbildern. Halle a.S., 1904. 8°. 

Weintz, H. J. Hossfeld's Japanese Grammar comprising a 
manual of tlie spoken language in tlie Roman character, etc. 
London, 1904 8°. 

Weismann, August. The Evolution Theory... Translated by J. A. 
Thomson... and M. R. Thomson. Illustrated. 2 vols. 
London, 1904. 8°. 

Wherry, William B. Glanders : its diagnosis and prevention, etc. 
Manila, 1904. 8°. 

Bureazt of Government Laboratories, Manilla, No. 24. 

Some observations on the biolog}' of the cholera spiril- 
lum. Manila, 1904. 8°. 

Bureau of Oovernment Laboratories, Manila, No. 19. 

WooUey, Paul G. Report on Bacillus violaceous \_sic^ Manilae : 
A pathogenic microorganism. Manila, 1904. 8°. 
Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila, No. 15. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

Wright, G. A. and Preston, 0. H. Handbook of Surgical 
Anatomy... Second edition. Manchester, 1905. 8°. 

Publications of the University of Manchester, Medical Series, 
No. 3. 

Presd. by the University. 

Wylie, A. IN'otes on Chinese literature : with introductory re- 
marks on the progressive dvancement of the art ; and a list 
of translations from the Chinese into various European lan- 
guages... New edition. Shanghai, 1901. 8°. 


Asiatic Eesearclies, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865—1904, (now amalgamated with Journal). 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Journal, 7ols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Jonmal and Proceedings, [N. S-l Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Eeview, 1784 — 1883. 

Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 
obtained by application to the Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(a) To be present and vote at all G-eneral Meetings which 
are held on the first Wednesday in each month, except 
in September and October. 

(o) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 

(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary General Meetings 
and to the grounds and public 'rooms of the Society 
during the hours when they are open to members. 

(<i) To have personal access to the Library and other public 
rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(^) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 



Proceedings for June, 1905 ... ... ••• ^1 

An Analysis of the Lanhovatara Sutra. — By Prop. Satis 

Chandka Vidyabhusana, M.A. ... ... ... 159 

Tibet under her last hmgs (1434-1642 A.D.)—% Rai Sakat 

Chandka Das, Bahadur, CLE. ... ... ... 165 

Note on a decomposition product of a peculiar variety of Bundel- 

khand gneiss.— By C. A. Silbbrrad, B.A., B.Sc, I.C.S... 168 




Vol. I, No. 7. 





Issued 4th October, 1905. 

■List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1905. 

President : 
His Honour Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.O.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents : 

'The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosli MuklLopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 

T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
€. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S., (retired.) 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary General Secretary : J. Macfarlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosli Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary: E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

N'atural Histoiy Secretary : Captain L. Rogers, M.D., B.Sc, 

Anthropological Secretary : N". Annandale, Esq., B.A., D.Sc. 
Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 

Other Memlers of Council : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.O.S. 

Kumar Ramessur Maliah. 

I. H. BurkiU, Esq., M.A. 

H. E. Kempthorne, Esq. * 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

The Hon'ble Mr. A. Earle, I.C.S. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. TuU Walsh, I.M.S. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. ^ 

B. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Pandit Satis Chandra Yidyabhusana, M.A. 

H. E. Stapleton, Esq., B.A., B.Sc. 



Asiatic Researclies, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865 — 1904, (now amalgamated with Journal). 

Memoii^s, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Jonmal and Proceedings, \_N. 8.'] Vol. 1, eic, 1905, etc. 

Centenary Review, 1784—1883. 

Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by tbe Society can be 
Dbtained by application to the Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(a) To be present and vote at all General Meetings wbich 
are held on the first Wednesday in each month, except 
in September and October. 

(6) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 

(c) To introduce visitors at. the Ordinary General Meetings 
and to the grounds and public rooms of the Society 
during the hours when they are open to members. 

(cZ) To have personal access to the Library and other public 
rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(g) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 



Proceedings for July, 1905 



Additions to the Collection of Oriental Snakes in the Indian _ 
Museum.— Part II. Specimens from the Andamans 
and Nicohars. — By ISTblson Annandale, B.A., D.Sc, 
Beauty Superintendent of the Indian Museum ... 173- 




Vol. I, No. 8. 



Issued 27th October, 1905. 

List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1905. 

President : 
His Honour Sir A. fi. L. Eraser, M.A., LL.D., K.O.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosli Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 

T. H. Holland, Esq., E.G.S., E.R.S. 
C. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S., (retired.) 

Secretary and Treasurer: 

Honorary Greneral Secretary: J. Macfarlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A., D.L., E.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary : E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

Natural History Secretary : Captain L. Rogers, M.D., B.Sc, 

Anthropological Secretary : ^N". Annandale, Esq., B.A., D.Sc, 
Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 

Other Members of Council : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice P. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.O.S. 

Kumar Ramessur Maliah. 

I. H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 

H. E. Kempthorne, Esq. 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

The Hon'ble Mr. A. Earle, I.C.S. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. Tull Walsh, I.M.S. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., P.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., P.R.I.B.A. 

Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A. 

H. E. Stapleton, Esq., B.A., B.Sc. 

Libra i\Y. 

The following new books have been added to the Library 
during September, 1905. 

Amira, Karl V. Konrad von Maurer. Gedachtnisrede, etc. 
Miinchen, 1903. 4°. 

Presd. hy the K. B. Ahademie der Wissenschaften zu Munchen, 

Baron, Kr, and Wissendorflf, H, Chansons nationales lalavien- 
nes. vol. I, etc. Mttati, 1894, etc. S°. 

Presd. hy the Acade'mte Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petershourg, 

Bolsche, Wilhelm. Die Abstammung des Menschen. Zwanzigste 

Auflage. Stuttgart, [1904.] 8°. 

Presd. hy '^ Kosmos, Gesellschaft der Naturfreunde,^' Stuttgart. 

BriggS, Ella Marion. The Life History of Case Bearers. 
BrooMyn, N.Y., 190b, etc 8°. 

Cold Spring Harhor Monographs. IV. 

Presd. hy the BrooMyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 

British Museum. — Natural History. Graide to the Gallery of 
Birds in the department of Zoology, etc. London, 1905. 4°. 

Presd. hy the Mtcseum^ 

Brussels. — Institut International de Bihliographie. Manuel du 
Repertoii^e bibliographique universel. 
[Bruxelles,'] 1905, 8°. 

Presd. by the Institut. 

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. Constitution 
and Bye-laws, etc. San Francisco, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. hy the Academy. 

Canada. — Department of the Interior. Relief map of tlie Dominion 
of Canada. 1904. 8. sh. fol. 

Presd. hy the Dejpartmenf. 

darvalho, Cyro Augusto de. Collection Cyro Angusto de Car- 
valho ; monnaies et medailles portugaises. [Sale catalogue.] 
Amsterdam, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by Herr J. ScJmlman. 

Conard, Henry S. The WaterlilieB. A monograph of the genus 
Nymphaea. [Baltimore,'] 1905. 4°. 

Presd. by the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

■Cotton, Julian James. List of Inscriptions on tombs or monu- 
ments in Madras, possessing historical or archaeological 
interest. Madras, 1905. 4°. 

Indian Monumental Inscriptions, vol. III. 

Presd. hy the Govt, of Madras. 

Curtiss, Samuel Ives. Primitive Semitic Religion to-day. A 
record of i^esearches, discoveries and studies in Syria, Palestine 
and the Sinaitic Peninsula. Chicago, 1902. 8°. 

Danzig. — Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Katalog der Bibliothek. 
etc. Heft I, etc. 

Danzig, 1904, etc. 8°. 

Presd, hy the Society, 

Dimon, Abigail Camp. The Mud Snail : Nassa obsoleta. 
Brooklyn, N.Y., 1905. 8°. 

Cold Spring Harbor Monographs. V. 

Presd. by the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 

English- Garo Dictioxiary by members of the Garo Mission of the 
American Baptist Missionary Union, Tura, Assam. [By 
M. C. Mason.] Shillong, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. hy the Chief Commissioner of Assam, 

Folkmar, Daniel. Album of Philippine Types... Christians and 
Moros... Eighty Plates, representing thirty-seven provinces 
and Islands. Prepared and published under the auspices of 
the Philippine Exposition Board by Daniel Folkmar. 
Manila, 1904. OU. fol. 

Presd. by the Philippine Govt.j Manila. 

Foster, J. E, Churchwarden's Accounts of St, Mary the Great , 
Cambridge, from 1504 to 1635. Edited by J. E. Foster. 
Cambridge, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Oamhridge Antiquarian Society, 

Frazer, J. G. Totemism. Edinburgh, 1887. 8°. 

Friedrich, Johann. Gedachtnisrede auf Karl Adolf von Cornelius* 
Milnchen, 1904. 4°, 

Heigel, K. Th. von. Zum Andenken an Karl von Zittel. 
Milnchen, 1904. 4°. 

Presd. by the K. B. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Milnchen, 

HtOOU-Chan. The Arakanese Calendar with the corresponding 
dates in Burmese and English, 1820-1918. Akyab, 1905. 4°. 

Presd. by the Author, 

Jyotis 'Chandra Bhattacherjee. ^l^t^rTtsr i [Lilavasana.] 
[Calcutta, 1905.] 8°. 

Presd. by the Aiithor, 

Kalecsinszky, Alexander V. tJber die Akkuraulation der Son- 
nenwarme in verschiedenen Fliissigkeiten. 
Leipzig, 1904. 8°. 

Sonderabdruck aus dem Mathematischen und Naturwissenschaftlichen 
Berichte aus Ungarn. XXI. 

Presd. by the Author, 

Krumbacher, K. Das Problem der neugriechischen Schrift- 
sprache. Milnchen, 190.3. 4°. 

Presd. by the K. B. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Milnchen, 


La Flotte, de. Essais historiques sur I'lnde, precedes d'un 
Journal de voyages at d'line description geographique de la 
cote de Coromandel. Paris, 1769. 12°. 

Meyer, M. Wilhelm. Weltschopfnng. Wie die Welt entstanden 

ist. Stuttgart, [1905 ?] 8°. 

• Wie kann die Welt einmal untergehen ? Stuttgart, [1905 ?] 8°. 

Presd. by " Kosmos, Gesellschaft der Naturfretmde,^' Stuttgart. 

Nyatabindtj. [Buddhist Text-book of Logic, composed by 
Darmkirta with a commentary thereto.] Nyayabindu-tika, 
[composed by Darmottar. Tibetan translation edited with 
introduction by F, I. Sherbolski.] Fasc. I. etc. 
St. Petershurg, 1904, etc. fol. 

Presd. hy the Academic Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg. 

Pringsheim, Alfred. Ueber Wert und angeblichen Unwert der 
Mathematik. Milnchen, 1904. 4°. 

Presd. by the K. B. Akade')me der Wissenschaften zu 

Smallwood, Mabel E. The Salt-Marsh Amphipod : Orchestia 

palustris. Brooklyn, N.Y., 1906. 8°. 
Gold Spring Harbor Monographs. III. 

Presd. by the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 

Wildeman, E. de. Mission Emile Laurent — 1903-1904 — . 

Enumeration des plantes recoltees par Emile Laurent avec la 
collaboration de M. Marcel Laurent pendant sa derniere mis- 
sion au Congo. Bruxelles, 1905. 4°. 

Presd, by the Congo State, 

WilleOCks, Sir William. The Nile in 1904, 
London, Neiv York, Cairo, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the Govt, of India, Home Dept, 

Wollaston, Ai-thur N. A complete English-Persian dictionary 
compiled from original sources. London, 1904. 4°. 

WooUey, Paul G. and Jobbing J. W. A Report on Hemor- 
rliagic Septicaemia in animals in the Philippine Islands. 
ManUa, 1904. 8°. 

Bureau of Government Lahoratories, Manila, No. 9. 

Presd. by the Bureau, 

ZartUSht-i-Bahram ben Pajdu. Le Livre de Zoroastre— 
Zaratnsht Njima — de Zartusht-i-Bahram Ben Pajdu^ 
pnhlie et traduit par F. Rosenberg. St. Petersbourg, 1904. 8°. 
Presd, by the Academie Imperiale des Sciences, St. Petersbourg. 

Zell, Th. 1st das Tier unverniinftig ? Neue Einblicke in die 
Tierseele. Stuttgart, [1903.] 8°. 

Presd. by " Kosmos, Gesellschaft der Naturfreunde,'" Stuttgart, 


Asiatic Researches, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839, 

Proceedings, 1865 — 1904, (now amalgamated with. Journal). 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Journal and Proceedings, [N. 8.1 Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Eeview, 1784—1883. 

Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 
(btained by application to the Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(a) To be present and vote at all General Meetings which 
are held on the first Wednesday in each month, except 
in September and October. 

(6) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 

(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary General Meetings 

and to the groxuids and public rooms of the Society 
during the hours when they are open to members. 

(d) To have personal access to the Library and other public 

rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(gr) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 



Proceedings for August, 1905 ... ... ... 49 

History of Nyayasdstra from Japanese Sources. — By Maha- 


Notes concerning the People of Mungeli Tahsil, Bilaspore Dis- 
trict. — By The Rev. E. M. Gordon, Communicated by 
the Anthropological Secretary (With. 1 plate) ... .181 

A short history of the House of Phagdu, which ruled over Tibet 
on the decline of Sakya till 1432 A.D. — By Rai .Sakat 
Chandra Das, Bahadur, CLE. ... ... 202 

Additions to the Gollection of Oriental Snakes in the Indian 
Museum. Part 3 (With 3 figures). — By N. Annandalb, 
B.A., D.Sc, Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Museum 208 

Note on the Kantabudiyas of Guttack. — By Jamini Mohan Das. 

Communicated by the Anthropological Secretary ... 215 




Vol. I, No. 9. 



Issued loth January, 1906. 

List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year I905« 

President : 
His Honour Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.O.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosli Mukhopa3Qiyaya, M.A., D.L., 

T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
C. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S., (retired.) 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary Greneral Secretary : J. Macfarlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary: E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

N'atural History Secretary : Captain L. Rogers, M.D., B.Sc, 

Anthropological Secretary : If. Annandale, Esq., B.A., D.Sc 
Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 
liTuniisniatic Secretary : H. N". Wright, Esq., I.O.S. 

Other Members of Council : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.C.S. 

Kumar Ramessur Maliah. 

I. H. BurMU, Esq., M.A. 

H. E. Kempthome, Esq. 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

The Hon'ble Mr. A. Earle, I.O.S. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. Tull Walsh, I.M.S. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S, 

E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Pandit Satis Chandra Yidyabhusana, M.A. 

H. E. Stapleton, Esq^ B.A., B.Sc. 


Asiatic Researches, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865—1904, (now amalgamated witli JoTimal). 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Jonmal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Journal and Proceedings, [N. £f.] Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Review, 1784 — 1883. 

Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 
obtained by application to the Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(a) To be present and vote at all General Meetings which 
are held on the first Wednesday in each month, except 
in September and October. 

(5) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 

(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary General Meetings 

and to the grounds and public rooms of the Society 
during the hours when they are open to members. 

(d) To have personal access to the Library and other public 

rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(gf) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 


—^ — 

.Proceedings for November, 1905. ... ... ... 51 

Bignaga and Ms Pramana-Snmuccaya. — By Satis Chandea 

ViDTABHUSANA, M.A. ... ... ... 217 

Vidyapati Thakur.—By G. A. GtEIBRSON, CLE., Ph.D. ... 228 

Same remarks on the Geology of the Gangetic Plain. — By 

E. MoLONY, I.C.S. (With one plate.) ... ...230' 

The Nafalsu-l-Mansir.—By H. Beveridge, I.O.S. (retired) ... 236 

Notes on the Species, External Characters and Bahits of the 

Dugong. — By !N. Annandalb, D.Sc. (Witli three plates.) 238 

Hedyotis sisaparensis, a hitherto undescribed Indian species. — 

% Captain A. T. G-agb, I.M.S. ... ... ... 244 




Vol. 1, No. lO. 



Issued 28th February, 1906. 

L-ist of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1905, 

President : 
His Honour Sir A. H. L. Eraser, M.A., LL.D., K.C.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M. A., D.L,, 

T. H. Holland, Esq., T.G.S., F;R.S. 
C. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S., (retired.) 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary General Seci-etary : J. Macf arlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh .Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary: E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

Natural History Secretary : Captain L. Rogers, M.D., B.Sc, 

Anthropological Secretary: N". Annandale, Esq., B.A., D.Sc. 
Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya llaraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 
Niimisniatic Secretary: H. 'N. Wright, Esq., I.C.S. 

Other Members of Council : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice P. E. Pargiter, B.A., I.C.S. 

Kumar Ramessiir Maliah. 

I. H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 

H. E. Kempthorne, Esq. 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

The Hon'ble Mr. A. Earle, I.C.S. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. TuU Walsh, I.M.S. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Pandit Satis Chandra Vidyabhnsaria, M.A. 

The following uew books have been added to the Library 
Irom October to December, 1905. 

Annandale, iSTelson, and Robinson, Herbert C. Fasciciili 
. Malayenses. Zoology. Part I., etc. Anthropology. Part T., 
etc. London, Neio York, Bombay, 1903, etc. 4°, 

Presd, by Dr. N. Annandale, 

Arnold, E. Vernon. Vedic Metre in its historical development. 
Cambridge, 1905. 8°. 

Batavia. — Department van Landbouto, Het bestellen van Katoen- 
zaden nit Amerika. Batavia, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Buitenzarg, 

Bell, C. A. Manual of Colloquial Tibetan. Galcutta, 1905, 8°. 

Bengal District Gazetteers. Calcutta, 1905, etc. 8°. 

Presd, by the Government of Benyal. 

Bhagavadgita, Die Bhagavadgita aus dem Sanskiit iibersetzt 
mit einer Einleitung iiber ihre urspriingliche Gestalt, ihre 
Lehren und ihr Alter von Richard Garbe. 
Leipzig, 1905. 8°. 

BlOChet, E. Etudes de grammaire pehlvie, Paris, [1902.] 8°. 

Bowrey, Thomas. A Geographical Account of Countries round 
the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679.... Edited by Lt.-Ool, Sir 
R. C. Temple. Cambridge, 1904, 8''. 

Hakliiyt Society's Ptihlications, 2nd Series, No. XIL 

Presd. by Government of India, Home Department. 

Bradley -Birt, P. B. The Story of an Indian Upland... With... 
illustrations and a map, etc. London, 1905. 8°. 

Butterworth, Alan, and Venugopaul Chetty, V. A Collection 
of the Inscriptions on Copper-plates anfl Stones in the jSTellore 
District. 3 pts. Madras, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Govt, of Madras, 

Caspar!. A Grammar of the Aiabic Language, translated from 
the German... and edited... by W, Wright. Third edition, 
revised by W. Robertson Smith and M. J. de Goeje. 2 vols. 

Gambridge, 1898. 8". 

Canada. — Dept of the Interior, Statistics of the Dominion of 
Canada, [With resource map.] lOftaica, 1905.] 8°. 

Presd. hif Depf. of the Interior, Canada. 

Collins, F. Howard. Author and Printer. A guide for authore, 
editors, printers, coi-rectors of the press, compositors, and 
typists ... Second impression. London, 1905. 8°. 

Copeland, Edwin Bingham. I. The Polypodiaceae of the Philip- 
pine Islands. II. New species of Edible Philippine Fungi. 
Manila, 1905. 8°. 

Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila, No. 28. 

Presd. hy the Bureau. 

Crawley, Ernest. The Mystic Rose. A study of primitive 
marriage. London, 1902. 8^, 

Dingelstedt, Victor. East and West. {^Edinburgh, 1905.] 8*. 
Reprinted from the Scottish Geographical Magazine. 

Presd. hy the Author. 

Doughty, Charles M. Travels in Arabia Deserta. 2 vols. 
Gambridge, 1888. 8°. 

ElphinstOne, Mountstuart. The History of India. The Hindu 
and Mahometan periods... With notes and additions by 
B. B. Cowell... Ninth Edition. London, 1905. S°. 

Foucher, A. Etude sur I'iconograpbie bouddhique de I'lndo 
d'apres des textes inedits. Pari$, 1905, 8**. 

BihliothSque de V^cole des Hautes etudes. Sciences SeUgieuses. 
Vol. 13, pt. 2. 

Giles, Herbert A. An Introduction to the history of Chinese 
Pictorial Art... With illustrations. Shanghai, 1905. S°. 

Gibson, Margai-et Dunlop. Catalogue of the Arabic MSS. in the 
Convent of S. Catharine on Mount Sinai. London, 1894, 8°. 

Studia Sinai fica, No. III. 


Glade, Alfredo F. Proyecto de una estacion de ses-uiida clase. 
La Plata, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the JJniversldad de La Plata. 

Glaser, Eduard. Suwa ' und al — 'Uzza und die altjemenischen 
Inschriften. Mimchen, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Gonzalez, Carlos. Proyecto de pixente de mamposteria. 
La Plata, 1904. 8*". 

Presd. by the JJniversidad^ de La Plata. 

Hertz, Gerald Berkeley. The Old Colonial .System. 
Manchester, 1905. 8°. 

Publications of the University of Manchester Historical Series, No. 3. 

Presd. by the University. 

Hosten, H. Dolmens et Cromlechs dans les Palnis. 
Bruxelles, 1905. 8°. 

Extrait des " Missions Beiges de la Compagnie de .Tesns.'' 

Presd. by the Author. 

Jong, S. W. K. de. Het Di'ogen van Cocabladeren. 
Batavia, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Saitenzerg. 

Krause, Ai'thm-. Die Pariavolkei- der Gegenwart. Inaugural — 
Dissertation, etc. Leipzig, 1903. 8°. 

Lawson, Sir Charles. Memories of Madras. London, 1905. 8". 

Lepesqueur, Parf ait- Charles. La France et le Siam. 
Paris, 1897. 8°. 

Presd. by the SocietS Academique hido-Chinoise de France. 

Le Strang'e, Gr. The Lands of the Eastern caliphate, Mesopo- 
tamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem Conquest to 
the time of Tirnur, Cambridge, 1905. 8°. 
Cambridge (reographical Series. 

Lewis, Gilbert N. I. Autocatalytic decomposition of Silver 
Oxide. II. Hydi-ation in Solution. Manila, 1905, 8°. 
Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila, No. 30. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

Lokacharya, Sri, aud Varadaguru, Sri, Tattvasekhara. By 
Sri Lokacharya. Edited by K, K. V. S A. Ramanuja Das 
of Kanchi and Tattvatrayacliulukasangralia by Kumara 
Vedantacliarya Sri Varadaguru, edited by Acharya Bhatta- 
natbaswamy, Benares, 1905. 8°. 

Benares Sanskrit Series, No. 106. 

Ldnnberg', Einar. Peter Artedi. A bi- centenary memoir written 
on behalf of the Swedish Royal Academy of Science... 
Translated by W. E. Harlock. Upsala, Stockholm, 1905. 8". 

Presd. by the Academy. 

Low, Lyman H. Collections Lyman H. Low, Jac N. van Grelder 
et d'un amateur anglais. Monnaies et medailles de I'Ameri- 
que, de I'Asie, de I'Afrique et de I'Australie. 

[Amsterdam., 1905.] 8°. 

Presd. by Herr J. Schulman. 

Malcolm, Napier. Five yeai^s in a Persian Town, 
Londmi, 1905. 8^^. 

Miguez, Adi'ian Pereyra. Proyecto de edificio para facultad de 
ingenieria. La Plata, 1904. 8°. 

Presd. by the TIniversidad de La Plata. 

Mirza Huseyn, of Eamaddn. The Tarikh-i-Jadid or new History 
of Mirza ' Ali Muhammad the Bab... Translated from the 
Persian... by Edward Gr. Browne. Gambridye, 1893. 8°. 

Mitra, Sarat Chandi'a. A few Bihai-i folklore parallels. The 
Singing games of Bihar. The Identity between a Panjabi 
and a Bengali accumulation droll. Note on a new type of 
Indian folktales, etc. Bombay, 1903. 8°. 

From the Journal of the A7ithropological Society of Bombay. 

An ancient Indian drama of the t^nth century A.D, 

[Calcutta, 1903.] 8°. 

Bihari life in Bihari nursery rhymes. 

[Calcutta, 1903.] 8°. 

. Bihari life in Bihari riddles. [Bombay, 1905.] 8"*. 

From the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. 

— . Further notes on Rain -compelling and Rain-stopping 

Charms. [Bombay, 1905.] 8". 

From the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay, 

Mitra, Sarat Chandrn. Note on Clav-eating as a racial chax-ac- 
teristic. [Bombay, 1905.] 8°. 

From the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. 

. Note on the Egyptian origin of an incident in Indian 

folktales. [Bombay, 1905.] 8°. 

From the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. 
On tlie Bihari custom of placing expiations on the 

crossways. [Calcutta 1905.] 8°. 

. Sun-worship in Bihar. [Calcutta, 1904.] 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Mul^ammad B. al-Hasan B. Isfandiyar. An abridged transla- 
tion of the History of Tabaristan..; based on the India Ofl&ce 
MS. compared with two MSS. in the British Museum, by 
Edward G. Browne. London, 1905. 8°. 
E. J. W. Gihb Memorial, Vol. II. 

.Presd. by Mr. Bernard Quarltch. 

Murray* John. A Handbook for Travellers in India, BuiTaa and 

Ceylon... Fifth edition. London, 1905. 8°. 

Nevill, H. R. Sitapur. Allahabad, 1905. S°. 

District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Otidh, 
Vol. XL. 

Presd. by the Government of India, Home Department. 

Nobel Foundation. Code of statutes. StocJcholm, 1901. 8°. 

Presd. by Kungl. Vetenshaps- ATcademie. 

RapsOD, E. J. Indian coins and seals. Ft. VI. 
[Londmi, 1905.] 8°. 

From the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, October 1905. 

. On the alphabet of the Kharosthe documents. 
Paris, 1905. S"". 
Extrait du tome I des Actes du XlVe Congres International 
des Orientalistes. 

Presd by the Author. 

Ramsay, W. Decomposition of water by radium. 

Upsala, Stockholm. 1905. 8°. 

Meddelanden frdn K, Vetenskupsahademiens Nobelinstitut Band /., 
No. 1. 

Presd. by the Academy. 

Vedavyasa, ^^^TPJI^ [The Yayupuranani,... Edited by Pandits 
of the Anandasrama Sabha.] Poona, 1905. 8°. 
Anandasrama Sanskrit Series, No. 49. 

Vinogradoflf, P. The Growth of the Manor. London, 1905. 8°. 

Warren, William F, Problems still unsolved in Indo-Aryan 

Cosmology. [Neiv Haven,'] 1905. 8°. 

From the Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 26. 

Presd. hy the Author. 

Wilken, JDr. G. A. Ueber das Haaropfer und einige andere 
Trauergebrauche bei den Volkern Indonesien's. 2 Heft. 

Avisferdam, J 886, 87. 8**. 

Separatahdruck von der " Revue Goloniale Internationale.''^ 

Wilkinson, E. J. Malay-English Dictionary. 
Singapore, 1901-03. " 4°. 

Withers, John William. Euclid's parallel Postulate : its nature, 
validity, and place in geometrical systems. 
Chicago, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. hy the Yale University. 


Asiatic Eesearclies, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865—1904, (now amalgamated with Jonrnal). 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1—73, 1832— 1904.'' 

Journal and Proceedings, [N. 8.'] Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Eeview, 1784 — 1883. 

Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 
btained by application to the Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(a) To be present and vote at all Genei^al Meetings which 
are held on the first Wednesday in each month, except 
in September and October. 

(6) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 

(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary General Meetings 
and to the grounds and public rooms of the Society 
during the hours when they are open to members. 

(rf) To have personal access to the Library and other public 
rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(j/) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 


Proceedings for December, 1905. ... ... ... 53 

An Examination of the Nyaya-Sidras. — By Hatiapkasad 

Sastri ... ... ... ... ... 245 

Optimism in Ancient Nyaya. — By Vanam&li VedantatIrtua ... 251 

Some notes on the dates of Suhandhu and Bin-nag a, — By Haua- 

PEASAD Sastei. ... ... ... ... 253 

Foo-mation of New Castes, — By R. Burn, I.C.S. ... ... 256 

Ascaris halicoris Bated. — By Dr. Y. Linstow. Commitnicated 

by N. ANNA^^DALE. (With one plate.) ... ... 258 

Nnmismatic Supplement VI. ... ... ... 261 

New York Botanical Garden Librar 

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