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Twenty-eight years ago I was a Heathen, and so were all the tribes of Canada West. When I 
was a lad, I never heard an Indian pray, as Christians pray, to the Great Being. Our people believed 
in the exisience of a Great Being, the Maker of all things ; but we thought that God was so very 
far away, that no human voice eould reach Him ; and, indeed, we all believed that God did not 
meddl« with the affairs of the children of men. 

I, as well as the people of my tribe, were very cruel and wicked, because there was no fear of God 
in our heart, and no fear of punishment ; but every man settles his own affairs by the force of his 
tomahawk; that is to say, by burying his tomahawk in the people's heads, and that ends all disputes. 
The Indians made their women do all their work, and the men did little or nothing, in heathen life 
The women made the wigwam, and removed it when necessary, carrying it on their backs ; and they 
chop the wood, and carry it home on their backs. They brought the venison home, when the deer 
is killed by their husband ; they dress the skins for their husband's clothes ; and make the coat% 
shirts, mocassins, which completes the Indian dress, as you now see in the picture. All was done 
by the women. Notwithstanding the poor women done all this, they got very little gratitude from 
their Heathen husbands. 

I will just relate to you one of my prayers in Heathen life. " O Grod, the Sun, I beseech you to 
hear my prayer, and to direct my steps through the woods in that direction where the deer is feedings 
thajL I may get near him, shoot him, and kill him, and have something to eat thereby." And this was 
all the prayer I ever made. There is nothing about soul-salvation in that prayer. Some pray for 
fish, or ducks, or rabbits, or whatever they wish to get 

At length the Missionary came, and began to preach about Christ, and how he died for me ; but 
I first said, '* No, that is the white man's God and white man's religion, and that God would not hav^^ 
anything to do with the Indians." But he assured me that God would save me, if I would believe on 
the Lord Jesus Christ ; and, as a proof, he read portions of Scripture to me, again and again. And 
then, at last, I began to think that he must be right, and I must be wrong, because he read the " book 
of God" (as we call the Bible) to me. Then I began to pray, for the first time, in English. I only 
then knew a few words. I said, << O God, be merciful to me, poor Indian boy, great sinner." And 
the word of God had now got hold of my heart, but it made me feel very sick in my heart. I went 
to bed, and I could not sleep, for my thoughts trouble me very much. Then I would pray the wordi 
over and over again, and got more and more sick in my heart. I was very sorry that Grod could not 
understand my Ojibway. I thought God could only understand English ; and when I was praying, 
tears came spontaneously from my eyes ; and I could not understand this, because I had been taught 
from infancy never | to weep. In this misery I passed three or four weeks. I then met with Peter 
Jones, who was converted a few months before me, and, to my surprise, I heard him return thanks^ 
at meal, in Ojibway. This was quite enough for me. I now saw that God could understand me ia 
my Ojibway, and therefore went far into the woods, and prayed, in the Ojibway tongue, to God, and 
say, <* O God, I was so ignorant and blind, that I did not koam that thou ooiHdst understand my 

Ojibway tongue ! Now, O God, I beseech thee to be gracious to me, a sinner ! Take away this 
sickness that I now feel in my heart ; for all my sins lay very heavy in my heart ! Send now thy 
Holy Spirit to come work in my heart ! Let the blood of Christ be now applied to my heart, that all 
my sins may depart I" Though I could now pray in this way in my native tongue, yet God did not 
seem to think it best to hear my prayers at this time, but loft me to pass many miserable nights. 
And I cried out again, " O God, I will not let thee alone ! I shall trouble thee with my prayers, till 
thou bless me !" And at last God heard my prayers, and he took away this heavy sickness of heart ; 
but not till many tears had been shed. And when this sickness was taken away from my heart, then 
I experienced another feeling, which was joy in the Holy Ghost, which was indeed full of glory. 
My tongue could not express the joy I then felt. I could say nothing but, " Happy, happy !" When 
I found this religion of Chri?t so sweet in the heart of man, I wanted all my people then to know of 
the great and true God ; but they all said. No : that I was wrong ; that I had been to the white 
roan's God, and not the Saviour of the Indians. But I said that God was the Saviour of all the 
nations of the earth ; for I know in my own heart what he has done for me : and what he has done 
for me, he can do for you. And they began to pray for mercy and the forgiveness of their sins ; 
and they praying in strong faith, many of them were converted ; and now at this time there are 
hundreds that are converted among the North American Indians. I was the first fruits of the Mis- 
sionary labours in my tribe. After I was converted I became a Prayer-leader, and afterwards, when 
the Indians were settled in houses, I became a Class-Leader, then a Local Preacher. 

When I was a Local Preacher, I used to preach very long, very hard, and very often. Onoe I 
had been preaching till eleven at night, to the converted Indians from Lake Simcoe, and was jivt 
finishing, when the Indians said, << When we were Heathen, we never gave up drinking the fire- 
waters the whole night; and why should we now go to bed? Why should we not go on singing and 
praising God till daylight?" I was young and full of spirits ; and though I had juit done preaehingy 
I began again, and preached a great part of the night. 

After their conversion, the Indians were settling in houses, and I built myself a large honse^ and 
then began to keep a store, and made a comfortable living by selling things ; but I wished to be a 
Missionary to the tribes of Indians who had not heard of the Gospel : and I ofiered myself for the 
Mission-work, and was accepted, sold off my store, and went as a Missionary. 

I have been a Missionary for sixteen years. Twelve years I have been to the far west, among th» 
Indians in the Hudson's Bay Territory. 

In the year 1842 I came to England, and was ordained in the Centenary-Hall ; and in 1843 wai 
sent back to the Hudson's Bay Territory. I cannot tell you about all the tribes of Indians that I have 
visited, it would take too long. I have preached to many poor Indians in their Heathen state, and 
they have become Christian. At Norway-House I first formed seven classes, and helped the IndiajM 
to build eleven houses ; kept school for children and married women. This mission is now one of 
the best in the Hudson's Bay Territory. There are more than three hundred hearers, fine chapel, and 
eighty children in the school. Since I have been in the Hudson's Bay Territory, there has been 
slow progress made among the Indians there. There have not been many converts ; but the Indians 
are not so wicked as they were. I am now going back, and my heart is altogether bent to go ta 
Hudson's Bay. 

Pbtbr Jacobs^ 



Tkursday^ May 6th, 1852. — ^This morning at 
ten o'clock I left this fine Wesleyan Mission at 
Eice Lake. The Indians of this mission are far 
advanced in civilization : they are all dressed 
like Europeans : on Sundays the congregation 
dress very well ; the women have fine gowns on, 
&C. ; and the blanket, which they formerly used 
as an article of dress is now seen no longer, but 
is exchanged for a shawl. There are choirs of 
Indians in the Churches who sing most delight- 
fully in time of divine service. There is another 
Wesleyan Mission, seven miles from this, which is 
in a high state of civilization : the Indians of that 
place have a large Academy, built of brick, where 
young people are taught to be of use as Mission- 
aries or Teachers in their country hereafter. The 
majority of these people are tee-totallers, — ^they 
take no wine or beer. The Rice Lake itself is 
one of the most beautiful lakes in Canada West: 
it is about thirty miles in length and three miles 
in breadth. In it wild rice grows, and conse- 
quently a great many wild ducks of all sorts fre- 
quent the lake. This is therefore a great sporting 
place for English gentlemen. In its waters abound 
muskinoonj, bahs, eels, and other soi*ts of fish 
that take the hook. The lake is an excellent 
place for angling and trolling : very often gentle- 
men come from Boston, New- York, and other 
cities to amuse themselves in angling and trolling 
for weeks together. Also in the forest abound 
deer, pheasants, and rabbits, which make good 
sport for a marksman. The land around this 
lake is of good quality and very richly timbered 
with all sorts of valuable timber; it is well settled 
by English farmers, many of whom are independ- 
ent gentlemen. On the noith side of this beauti- 
ful lake is an Indian village, which is situated on 
high banks. A beautiful scenery is presented to 
the traveller's eye fipom this village, and the whole 

length of the lake can be seen with one glance of 
the eye. The beautiful scenery that this lake pre- 
sents would afford abundant matter to the traveller 
for exercising his poetical powers. There are four 
little steamboats on the lake, which are employed 
in bringing goods from village to village, and ta- 
king in return cargoes of wheat and other grain 
from PeterboixDugh : some of them are also em- 
ployed in bringing boards for the American mar- 
ket: by this it may be seen that the country and 
the lake have great resources. 

At 12 o'clock we reached Harris's hotel, and 
lanSed there. Mr. Harris himself drove us in his 
carriage to Cobourg, which is 12 miles distant, ou 
the fine plank road. From Cold Springs to 
ColK)urg the country is very well settled, and 
many farmei-s live on the road. At 3 o'clock we 
arrived at the beautiful town of Cobourg; This 
beatiful town I cannot praise too highly : it is 
situated on elevated ground and is veiy healthy, 
for the inhabitants ai*e refreshed by every breeze 
of wind that blows on Lake Ontario. In this 
place are many fine Churches, belonging to dif- 
ferent denominations, and on the height of the 
bank at the north end of the town, stands con- 
spicuously, the beautiftil college called Victoria 
College, belonging to the great body of Wesleyaus, 
Within its walls at the present time are about ^0 
students. This excellent college has already pro- 
duced m?iny eminent men ; and God grant that 
it may produce more excellent statesmen and min- 
isters who shall be an honour to the Province. 
At 1 o'clock we started in a steamer for Toronto, 
attd arrived there during the night. 

Friday, 7th, 1852. — ^I went about from place 
to place, getting a few things for my use in my 
long voyagdj. The city of Toronto is one of the 

most splendid cities of Canada West; it is still 
rising and will continue to do so : the buildings 
are generally of brick. The principal street for- 
merfy was King Street, but there are now many 
other beautiful streets, especially Youge Street. 
There are many fine large wholesale stores, as 
well as many fine retail stores. In the city are 
four Wesleyan Churches, and a few small chapels 
in the vicinity of the City ; there aie also many 
churches of other denominations; there are two 
or three Colleges, and also Normal, Model and 
Common Schools. 

The land extending 100 miles around this City 
is excellent, rich, and well covered with valuable 
timber; the farmers that live here are as happy 
as princes. 

In the afternoon, at 2 o'clock, I met the Rev. 
Enoch Wood, and he gave me £25 in cash for 
my travelling expenses ; and after I received his 
blessing and prayers for my safety and preserva- 
tion in the journey, I parted with him. 

Saturday, ^th. — ^I was accompanied thus far 
by my wife Elizabeth, and my daughter Mary, 
and the little baby, and my brother-in-law, An- 
drew Anderson, and at 7 o'clock this morning, 
irfter commending each other to God's care, we 
parted. My wife and family then took a steamer 
for Cobourg and the Rice Lake. I myself went 
in the steamer for Niagara Falls, and the Lake 
Ontario being calm, we were soon over the Lake, 
and at 12 o'clock we arrived at the old English 
town of Niagara. On each side of the river there 
is a gan'ison, one belonging to the English and 
the other to the Americans. All the soil of the 
Niagara District is rich, and the timber is valuable 
that grows here, such as the black walnut and the 
cherry : when the black walnut is sawed into 
boards, it makes chests of drawers and tables, and 
beautiful doors for the houses of the rich ; and 
when cherry trees are sawn, the wood appears 
like Mahogany. There is the sugar maple, the 
beech, and the hickory, and also the sassafras^ 
which has a pleasant scent 

At 1 o'clock we arrrived at Queenston, and 
took the stages for the Falls, where we arrived 
soon after two o'clock. Here we spent two hours, 
and afterwards I went down to see the greatest 
Fall in the world. The cataract is indeed awfully 
grand; and it appeared to me as if an angry god 
was dwelling beneath it, for my whole frame 
shook as a leaf while I was viewing these mighty 
angry falls. Now it is no wonder that my fore- 
facers, in by-gone days should ofier up sacrifices 
at the ifoot of Uiese falls : they used to come and 
pray to the god of the fall to bless them in their 
hunt and to prolong their life and that of their 
children : for every Indian believed that a god 

dwelt under this mighty sheet of water; but lat- 
terly the Wesleyan Missionaries have taught them 
better things, and told them that no God dwdt 
there, but pointing up to heaven, directed them 
to pray to Him that dwells there. They now no 
longer come to pray to the god of the Fall, but 
are found daily on their knees at the foot of Ae 
cross of Christ praying tlirough Him that Gkxi 
might be merciful unto them sinners, and keep 
them in his own care. 

In conclusion, I would just say that English 
gentlemen and ladies would be well repaid if 
they would come and see the Falls of Niagam 
while they are in America. There are five or six 
lai'ge hotels by the Falls, some of which will con- 
tain about two hundred boarders : and there aie 
also hotels of smaller classes, so that a gentleman 
can be boarded at from one dollar to four dollars 
a day ; for these large hotels are as fashionable 
and as great as any of the &shionable hotels in 
the city of New- York. 

At 4 o'clock, took the railway cars, and reached 
Buffalo in a very short time. I passed over 
soil very rich and well timbered. The city of 
Buffalo is a very important and flourishing city ; it 
is situated at the foot of Lake Erie, and it has a 
very fine harbour, where all the western vessels 
and steamers come : more than a dozen steamers 
leave its wharves every day ; that is to say morn- 
ing and evening. The great Frie Canal ends 
here, and the New- York and Albany Iiaihx>ad 
ends here also ; and there are other railroads that 
end here. There is ^ railroad that comes firom 
the Southern States, and there is another that 
goes through the city of Cleveland and other ci- 
ties of the West to Cincinnati, so that the city of 
Buffalo is becoming an important city : it is a 
great city of business. The main street of Buffi^ 
lo is a beautiful street, and there are many fine 
buildings there, and many churches of dif- 
ferent denominations, three of which belong to 
the Episcopal Methodists. I put up at the Wes- 
tern Hotel. 

Sunday y 9tL — At 11 o'clock, I went to one 
of the Methodist chapels, and at 3 o'clock I went 
to the same chapel. At six o'clock in the even- 
ing I preached in the stone church called the 
Niagara church, to the edification of a large 
congregation. After divine service many of the 
principal men of the congi-egation gave me thanks 
for my preaching, and the Minister said to me 
that he had never heard an Indian preach like 
me, and that I was a great orator: however, I 
did not stand up to dispute with him, I just 
allowed him to teU his own opinions freely. It 
appears that two Sabbaths before this the Rev. 
Peter Jones preached in the same church, and th^ 

Minnter told me that the first part of my sermon 
was veiy much like his, 

Monday lOtk. — ^In the evenmg at 8 o'clock, 
after the railway cars came in from New-York 
and Albany, I went on board the Ocean steamer, 
which had about three hundred passengers — 
gentlemen and ladies. The steamers, especially 
the Mayflower J that run in connection with the 
railroads of the West,are most splendid and highly 
finished steamers ; their cabins are like palace- 
parlours. At 9 o'clock our Ocean began to move 
through fields of brdLen ice: I was very much 
afraid that her paddles would be broken ; however, 
we got through safely. The steamer then ran 
through the middle of Lake Erie all night and 
half a day without staying at any harbour, until 
we reached the city of Detroit, which is about 
800 miles. The passengers in the steamer were 
so numerous that they could hot all come to the 
first table. At meal times, some gentlemen, fear- 
ing that tliey could not come to the first table, 
practised this artifice. They generally took up a 
newspaper and began to read it^ in pretence of 
being deeply engaged in reading, and seated 
ihemselyes in front of the plates, and so be in 
readiness when the signal would be given, to take 
their seats at the table; but notwithstanding their 
acuteness they would sometimes lose their seats 
and plates in the following manner: The ladies 
(these lower angels) as every body knows, must 
nave their seats provided for them at all risks, as 
the waiters always informed the ladies first when 
. the meals were ready, and afterwards the gentle- 
,;Baen; btit sometimes a few of the ladies were a 
ftpr nodnutes too late; and a gentleman who had 
beett hitherto seated comfortably before a dish of 
some rich sort, hearing the approaching steps of 
a lady and the rustlfcg of a silk gown, jumps up 
on his two feet, and to show that he is a highly 
polished gentleman, he offers the lady his seat 
and walks away, as many do, grudgingly, to wait 
a long hour for the next table. But on these 
occasions, when I find myself seated so comfortably, 
I generally appear to be deaf to the sound of the 
approaching steps of these lower angels, and 
liasten to get some article on my plate and begin 
to eat a mouthful or two, that none of these beau- 
ties would desire to take my seat and plate. The 
victuals thatlay on the table were of all sorts, and 
the sweetmeats were too various to enumerate : 
all that I can say about them is that they were 
veiy fine, 

I know the shores of Lake Erie well on the 
British and American sides. They incline to be 
flat The soil is of clay, and some parts of it are 
sandy; but^ taking it altogether, both sides of 
the lake are good agricultural countries, and 

heavily timbered. In its forests, timber is found 
of all sorts. There are a few ports on the British, 
side, and small villages; but, on the American 
side, ports aie more numerous. There are even 
two or three cities. The city of Cleveland is the 
most beautifril cicy on Lake Erie. It is situated 
on a high bank, and has a fine view of Lake 
Erie. Canals and railroads come into this city 
from all parts of the country, as well as vessels 
and steamers. This city is doing a j^reat deal of 
business. There are other small cities on the 
shores of the lake, belonging to the Americans. 
The lake itself is very shallow, and, consequently, 
when the wind blows high it is very rough 
always. Its waters abound with white fiMi, 
salmon trout, and other fish. The best sorts of 
fish are the white fish and trout The entrance 
of Detroit River is garrisoned by the BritisL 
The village and the garrisoi^ are called Amherst- 
burgh. The scenery around this village is beau- 
tiful, and the countiy is level, and abounds with 
timber of all sorts. The whole length of Detroit 
Eiver is beautiful, and the country on each side of 
it is picturesque, especially the Canadian side. The 
only fault the country has, is, that it is too fiat, 
consequently there is a great deal of stagnant 
water, which makes it very unhealthy in the 
summer, and thus the people have the ague and 
the fever, which is very prevalent here in the 
summer season. The river is about 30 or 40 
miles in length, and is a beautiful river. Now 
comes the city of Detroit. It was formerly a 
French city, but now it belongs to the Americans, 
and is the capital of Michigan. It has many fine 
buildings and many fine streets. It is becoming 
very important, and is a great city of business in 
the west The railroad to Chicago begins here^ 
so that one going thither, might go by the rail- 
road, or around by the lakes in a steamer. The 
word Chicago is a corruptible form of the word 
Shekakong, which means the ** place of ashunk." 
Opposite Detroit is a little village called Sand- 
wich,^n the British side, where there is a British 
Post Office. The country around it appears to 
be a fine farming country ; all the ground in the 
District of Detroit is flat, and the land is well 
timbered with all sorts of timber, but it is a very 
bad country for the fever. If any pei-son wishes 
to catch it he may go there in summer. 

Wednesday \2th. Remained all day in the 
city, saw nothing worth relating ; but I shall 
relate the following circumstance. As I was 
passing one of the grog shops in the streets, I 
heard a man talk very roughly, and he swore to 
the master of the house that if he did not give 
him another glass of whiskey, he would lay him 
flat on the ground, in two seconds ; the land- 


lord replied " not a drop will you get." The tall 
Yankee that I now got a sight o^ cursed and 
swore at the master that if he did not give him 
another glass he would flatten him like a pancake 
in two seconds, at the same time showing "his 
fist now holding it near the end of the master^s 
nose. The tall Yankee then said " you are an 
nngrateful being, I have spent many dollars here^ 
and you wiU not give me another glass ;" the 
landlord then said " no." He was of very little 
stature, and the Yankee could have had no 
trouble in giving the landlord a good thrashing. 
However he was just going to pounce upon him 
when a servant man came out from one of the 
rooms, and said to the tall Yankee, " I guess you 
better walk out of this." The tall Yankee show- 
ed his fist again, and the servant by this time 
got hold of him by the collar, and dragged him 
out to the street and gave him a blow under the 
ear which stupified !he tall Yankee, and made 
him stand speechless far a long time. This was 
all that was done unto him, and he never spoke 
again, but quietly walked away. I think that the 
blow did him a great deal of good. 

Thursday \Zth. Before daylight our steamer 
London was ofl^ passed the httle Lake St. Clair, 
before I was from my cabin for breakfast. The 
Lake St. Clair is a small lake, of about 30 or 
more miles in circumference, all its banks are 
very low but the land is good and heavily tim- 
bered. There are many Sirms around the lake. 
The Si Clair river is a very fine river ; it has 
very fine banks, the land is good and possesses 
much valuable timber of all sorts. The only fault 
about the country farther back, is that it inclines 
to be swampy. In the interior, the inhabitants 
suffer very much in the summer from fever and 
ague. Thousands and I may say millions of all 
kinds of fish abound in the river, the fish are 
caught by means of the spear, the hook, the net, 
and seine. In the woods farther back from the 
river abound deer, bears, rabbits, elks, patridges, 
wild turkeys and other animals. The marshes 
abound with ducks. The St. Clair river is about 
60 miles in length, and it has many fine villages 
on each side of the river. Farmers settle on both 
sides. The east side belongs to the English, and 
the West to the Americans. The river runs from 
north to south. By the appearance of the houses 
the farmers are well oftl The whole of ths coun- 
try that I have now travelled over for 300 miles, 
is very good for wheat and other grain, wild and 
cultivated fruits of all sorts such as apples, 
peaches and plums; and there are also in some 
parts of the Western Province wild crab-apples. 
At the inlet. of the Eiver of St. Clair are two 
villages, the English village is called Port Sarnia, 

but the American village opposite is much larger 
than the English. On the Enghsh side adjoin- 
ing Port Sarnia, we have an Indian Wesleyan 
Mission ; as the steamboat went along close by 
the Indian Mission, I perceived that the Indians 
and their wives, and their children appeared to 
be well dressed. They were busily employed in 
their agricultural operations, and some of them 
were collecting wood for the steamboats. The 
Indians appear to be well off. I should have 
been glad to have spent a day with them. St. 
Clair village appears to be healthy as it is daily 
refreshed by the breezes that blow on Lake Huron. 
The clay of the land is mixed with sand. About 
a mile from this village, towards the lake, thero 
are beautiful sandy plains with a few oak trees 
standing here and there ; it would be an exc^ 
lent place for a gentleman to live in. At thd 
entrance of the river is a beautiful sandy beech 
where the fisherman catches thousands and thou- 
sands of white fish in the fall. On the east side 
of Lake Huron, that is toward the town Groderich 
and Saugeeng, I have travelled by land, and I 
found the soil very good. The trees that grow 
on it are the oak, beech, maple, pine and other 
trees, which make valuable timber This is a 
fine country for farmers. The country generally 
inclines to be flat, but on the American side 
which runs N. W, the land is excellent, and 
much heavy timber is obtained fi-om the land. 

At 6 o'clock in the evening we were fairly out 
to sea, and our steamer ran aU night. The night 
was very calm. 

Friday \4tth. Calm day. Oursteaupilr 
great progress. We saw the land all day jtwKj 
left at a distance. At 4 o'clock, w« were. 
Mackinaw, and met a heavy fog.. Mackinaw 
comes from an Indian word Meshenemahkenoong, 
the immense turtle. On account of the heavy 
fog our steamer lost its way and and was wander- 
ing about during the night 

Saturday 15th, 1852. When it became clear 
in the morning, we were near Mackinaw ; the 
passengers were glad that they did not run 
ashore during the night. Mackinaw is a high 
splendid island, many parts of it are more than 
100 feet high, and some parts are very precipi- 
tous. The top of the island is flat, and is good 
for farming. There is an American garrison 
on the summit. The town of Mackiiaw, lies io 
a bay at the foot of the high ground. The lower 
classes of the inhabitants of the islaad support 
themselves principally by fishing ; for white fish 
and salmon trout are caught here in great abun- 
dance in all seasons of the year, and especially in 
the fall. The town has a few stores and grog 


shops, and there is a new hotel at the Old 
Presbyterian Mission at the point There is a 
Romish Church h^e, and a Presbyterij^ Church.. 
Travellers when they are on the summit of the 
island have a most splendid view of the straits of 
Michigan, and the shores and islands on the 
West, and on the east side they have a fine view 
of Lake Huron and its islands. There is a 
breeze constantly passing and repassing over the 
idand. This is the place for invalids to come 
and improve their health. 

We were at this beautiful harbour for an hour, 
and the men took in their wood for the boat ; 
after this, we were off again for the Sault When 
we were about 8 miles from Mackinaw towards 
the east, we beheld a steamer in a bay in difficul- 
ty. Her bows were high and dry upon the 
Bandy beach ; she raised a signal of distress for 
our steamer, and when we arrived there most of 
the passengers and especially the females were 
crying. I do not suppose they knew why they 
cried. After a loss of time for an hour, the 
lAyndon Steamer got the other steamer off by the 
iise of her cable ropes and chains. The steamer 
had about 300 passengers; she was one of the 
large steamers. When they were off they gave 
our Captain three cheers. Poor fellows ! They 
then went away to Chic^igix It is said by the 
passengers that our Captain wHl get about four 
hundred dollars for his trouble^" 

At noon we rounded the detour on the west 
aide of Diummond's Island, which is about 30 
miles from Mackinaw and 40 miles from the 
Sauit. The islands now assume a different aspect 
fiom what we were accustomed to see of fine 
rkSb. lands. At this place wherever you direct 
your eye, you see the granite stones showing their 
tiaeth to you, and the timber that you see is 
gcrubby pine, poplar and white birch. I have 
travelled again and again, on the north shore of 
Lake Huron, and I am sorry to say, that the 
islands and the mainland on this side are nothing 
but barren rocks. Very little good soil if there 
is any, is found in the valleys. Manitoulin 
X^nds is the only exception to the ];)ad land, and 
it is only the soil on the east half side of 
the island which is good. Maple and other hard 
timber grow on this island. It is about 70 
xmles in length. The Church Missionary Society, 
and and the Romish Church, have Missions on 
the good part of the island. At the Church 
Mission in one of the bays of the island, are 
Government stores, and a Government Indian 
Agent resides here, who give annual presents to 
ike Indians who assemble in hundi-eds at this 
place. The Indians subsist by fishing in the 
Bummer, and procuring furs in the winter, which 
they give in exchange for clothing. We now 

passed on the south side of St. Joseph's Island, 
which is about 30 miles in length. Some parts 
of the soil are good, maple and other hard timber 
growing thereon ; but other parts ai-e rocky and 
mountainous. One Major Haines and some other 
gentlemen are trying to colonize the lands. The 
Indians say that the mountains of this Island have 
rich copper mines, but they do not show the 
veins of copper ore to the white man for fear of 
making the god of the copper mine angry, and thus 
losing their lives by it. The Indians are very 
superstitious respecting all mines, for they believe 
that there is a god over every mine. On one of 
the beautiful points of the Island there stands the 
remains of an old British fort : this must have 
been a fine place when the troops were here.-^ 
We now passed by many inferior Islands, and I 
found the country had a dismal appearance. At 
sunset we reached the Garden Eiver : and here 
the Wesleyans are forming an Indian mission, and 
there are already many htde houses on the banks 
and many Uttle gardens. I think in a few years 
this will be an important mission. About two or 
three miles back from the mission there are moun- 
taingus places jutting out their rugged peaks, 
which seem to defy the farmer, and say, " there 
is no farming here." 

At 9 o'clock] we anchored at the American 
town of St Mary's, which lies at the foot of the 
falls of Ae St. Mary's. TM new town of St. Ma- 
ry's is rising very hs>i and becoming important. 
It has improved very much since I was here in 
1836, as Missionary to the Sault Indians on the 
American side. I was glad to find many of my 
old converts here, and that they were still faithful, 
and serving the Lord their God. Their mission 
has been removed from the Sault to a place 10 
miles above it, where the Indians are now culti- 
vating the soil. The town of St. Mary's has a 
few large stores and many small ones, two fine 
hotels, and a few inns and small grog shops. The 
missionaries here are Episcopal Methodists, Bap- 
tists, and Romish priests. The American govern- 
ment are proposing to make a canal here, which 
will be about three quarters of a mile in length. 
The canal is to be 100 feet wide at the surface, 
75 at bottom, and 12 feet deep; there are to be ^ 
two locks, 325 feet in length and 15 feet in width. ■ 
The probable cost will be less than half a million 
of dollars. The rapids, or as it is called, the fall 
of St. Mary's, has a descent of 21 feet : canoes and 
boats can run down the rapids without any harm. 
The width of these rapids is nearly one mile ; — 
Near the foot of the fall there is an excellent 
fishery : Indians and half breeds scoop the finest 
white fish in all the seasons of the year. They 
are the most excellent fish in the country. O 
how I feasted on them while *I remained here. 

The Indians and half breeds make a great deal of 
money by their fish. The Hon. Hudeon's Bay 
Company hove an establiahmeat chi the other 
aide of lie river. One or two or mare steamera, 
as ncll as sailing veGsela, come here onoe every 
week, from Buflalo, Cleveland, Detroit, and Pene- 
tanguishine,orPenahtahwahngosheeng, the latter 
beini; an Indian word, meaning the tumbling 
Bandbanks. Our steamer London, landed here 
ISO passengers, and the majority of them have 
gone to the mines of Lake Superior. 

The population of those now engaged in the 
mmes of Lake Superior is 8000, and 1000 are in 
commercial busineaa. This is very well for Lake 

Sunday, 16th. — I went to hew the Episcopal 
clergyman Dr. Omeara preach this morning; ne 
lead hJB sermon, so and so. He Is rather defec- 
tive in his dehveiy. In the evening, I gave a 
diort exhortation to those who were present, in 
the same chapel. It rained very h^d in the 
evening, and the whole of the next day — that is 
the 17th— HO that I saw very little of Sault Ste. 
Marie that day. The Methodist clergyman of 
this place is a good man : he is the Superinten- 
dent of the Indian Missions in these parts. He 
was just now about to take a tour to visit his 
Missions on the southern shore of liake Superior, 
Fondulae, Sandy Lake, and Bed Lake. • 

Tvesday,18tk—Th% day was fine. I dined 
with John Johnston, Esq, and his lady, and I 
found them afiable and kind. This John John- 
ston is a son of the late great John Johnston of 
Saiit Ste. Marie. After dinner the Hudson's Bay 
canoes arrived. The number of men in the 
canoes was about 30; they had a young clerk 
with them named Mr. Taylor. 

Wednesday, 19tk. — At ten o'clock I left my 
hotel, at Sault Ste. Marie, and went over to the 
other side of the river to the Hudson's Bay House, 
and after being furnished with provisions, we were 
at the farther side of the Portage at 2 o'clock. 
The number of passengers now in the canoes, 
* excluding myself, was two, viz.; Fran<aB Enna- 
fdnger, Esq., Chief Trader, and young Mr, Taylor. 
The Canadians and Iriquois now pushed off and 
gave us some of their beautiful Canadian ' canoe 
songs. We encamped at a place about 15 miles 
from the Sault, called Point Pine. This was a 
fine encampment for ns. The soil of this place 
IS of light sand, and the timber is nothing but 
pine ; and indeed I may say here in my Journal — 
Farewell ye beautiful lands of Canada, we shall 
not see you for many a long day. 

Thuridai/, 20^— At 4 o'clock we started, and 
breakfasted at the Gros Cap, 18 miles from oui 
encampn^ent. It is the first point that projects 
out into the lake, and it has a beautiful moantaijl 
on it. Many gentlemen and ladies come here to 
the mountun to have a view of the ^lendid Lake 
Superior, and then return to their eastern homc& 
After breakfitst, the men pulled away across a 
loi^ travfeiae of Ifi miles, c^ed Gooley's Bay, 
and dined on an island in the tiaveise. Afl^ 
dinner we hoisted sail and sailed very well Oat 
day. At five o'clock we passed the Lake Supe- 
rior mines, and there we saw 20 or 80 houie^ 
one or two of which are very large houses. At 
1 o'clock we went in Montreal BJver, and encamp- 
ed in it We made about 60 miles this day. 
The face of the country is a mass of rocks; w« 
passed very littie good land to-day: at Gooley'B 
Bay we saw some good land, for tiiere are sugar 
maple trees growing there; and the Indiana of 
this part make a great deal <^ sugar in the spring. 
A great many fish are caught by the Indians 
here. They employ dlfierentways to take them, 
viz., by means (^ nets in the fell; and by spear- 
ing them and angling in the winter, in holes madB 
in the ice. 

Friday, 21st. — Windbound here till noon : wB 
found the time very long. The half day appear- 
ed to be as long as two daj^ The men wen 
grumbling and complaining, and they seemed to 
be the most miserable of all men. They were 
saying one to another about the guide : " Why 
not go at once !" But our guide was a trusty 
man, he would not let them go, untjl be thought 
it safe for them to go. Alter dinner, the guide 
gave the word to go; and in a few minutee we 
were again afloat on the lake, rolling up and 
down on its waves- When we got oflT about 15 
milee from our encampment, the sea and the wind 
began to rise higher and higher, and as the rocks 
of the mountains on land were VBtj steep, the sea 
dashed its waves against the rocks, and it became 
very rough. The canoe jumped so high and 
went down again on the water, that I was afraid 
something very serious would happen te the 
canoe. We were in this condition for half sa 
hour. The danger was very great; and I am not 
one of those cowards that are afrtud when there 
is a little ruffling in the waters; but I have been 
frequently called the brave voyager. As we were 
passing idong the rocks, one or two waves dashed 
in to our canoe, so that oue of the men was con- 
stantly bailing out the water; we were not in dan- 
ger of upsetting, but we were afraid that the bark 
at the bottom of the canoe would break, as it 
sometimes happens to tbe canoe in a heavy gala 
in this freeh water sea. We enoampedj for tbs 


evening near the mountains and point called by 
the Indians Nanahboshoo. We only made 35 
miles this day. The conversation this evening 
was about the danger of to-day. It appears that 
the men in the other canoes were as afi^d as our 
men ; our new hands, called Pork Eaters^.said they 
thought they would be drowned. It mustba 
lemembered that we had three canoes in all. 

There is a large stone here, near the Nanahbo- 
shoo mountains, which is very remarkable. The 
stone looks as if some man had sat on the rock 
and made an impreesipn on it, as one would on 
the snow in winter. This was not carved by any 
Indian, but it is very natural. The impression 
is very large, and is about six times as large as an 
impression made in the snow by a man. The 
Indians say that Nanahboshoo, a god, sat here 
long ago, and smoked, and that he left it for the 
west Every time the Indians pass here, they 
leave tobacco at the stone, that Nanahboshoo might 
smoke in his kingdom in the west ^ The Indians 
tell many traditions respecting Nanahboshoo, and 
of his wonderful deeds. About the mountain, 
there are many precious stones to be found, which 
the Indians collect and sell at Sault Ste. Marie. 

Saturday t ^2nd. — At one o'clock this morning 
our guide gave the command for embarking, and 
in a short time the men were again on the water. 
It was very calm, and we came on very well. At 
eight o'clock we arrived at Michipicoton, the Com- 
pany's Fort John Swanson, Esquire, the gentle- 
man in charge, is a very good man ; he gave us 
a very kind reception, and we took breakfast vnth 

All the coast that we made before breakfast, 
for 20 miles, isr of barren rocks : some of the 
mountains are almost perpendicular at the water's 
edge: some of them are more than 200 feet high. 
They are so high that they make the passengers 
neck quite tired by constantly looking up to the 
top of the mountain from the water's edge. 

Michipicoton river is found at the foot of a deep 
bay ; it is a beautiful place for a fort The whole 
bay or the mouth of the river is of dry sand. The 
surrounding hills and mountains are ban'en rocks. 

After breakfast we again started : we had beau- 
tiful calm weather. I know the men must have 
made more than 60 miles to-day. All the coast 
that we passed over to-day is barren. In the 
hills and valleys are found blue hucca berries, 
which are excellent for food : they are found in 
great abundance; but oftentimes bears are to be 
contended with before the berries are taken away, 
for they claim the sole right of the berries, and 
thus they become rather dangerous customers if 
any persons infringe on their rights. 

Sunday^ 23r(f.-7-This morning, at half-past 
three o'clock, before we could really finish saying 
our prayers, the guide had his canoes aheady on 
the water, and so we had to start off. In the 
evening, we encMnped at a place about one mile 
fronct Fort Pic. Our coast the whole day was of 
the same appearance as the day before: there 
were nothing but barren rocks and mountains. 

In the evening, Ahtikoos, a young Indian, 
belonging to the Wesleyans, and who was for- 
merly a member of Rev.Thos. Hurlburt's Church, 
of this place, came to see me. I asked him if he 
was still a Wesleyan, or if he had joined the 
Roman Catholics or not ; his answer was, that 
he was still a Wesleyan, and he intended never to 
be any but that I therefore gave him a good 
exhortation to feai* God and to love him, and if 
he did so, God would be gracious to him in his 
last days. He told me he had not the least doubt 
that the Indians at this place would embrace 
Christianity if a missionary came to reside among 
them. I told him the day may come when a 
Missionary shall come to see you. Ahtikoos 
could read the Indian translations he had with 
him, and the books the Eoman Catholics use. 
The Priest offered to baptize him, but he frankly 
refused, saying, he did not wish to be baptized 

Monday^ 2Uh, — At half-past three o'clock we 
were oflf again from Pic, after commending Ahti- 
koos to the care of God, and bidding him fare- 
well. We crossed two large traverses, the first 
was about 10 miles in width, and the second about 
8 miles. We then breakfasted, at a late hour, 
and after a delay of one hour we were ofi* agaio. 
We made about 20 miles since we started till we 
had breakfast. We passed a great many islands 
At one o'clock we dined on one of the islands, 
and after some delay, we went away again. In 
the evening we encamped on an island : made 60 
miles to-day. The coast and the islands we passed 
are barrel^ rocks. This is no place for farmersL 
Many excellent fish are caught along the coast, 
such as white fish, salmon trout, and sturgeon. 
The Indians catch them at all seasons of the year 
with nets, hooks, and spears. 

Tuesday^ 2bth, — A fine calm day : the men 
made very good progress. As we passed through 
one of the narrows Qiis evening, we saw a house 
that belonged to one of the Mining Company's 
men, who had now left it At 7 o'clock in the 
evening, we encamped on an island nearly oppo- 
site the Thunder Mountain.. We made about 60 
miles to-day. 


Wednesday^ 2%th. — At half-past tliree o'clock 
we left the island, and soon went round the Thun- 
der Mountain. The reason that it is called Thun- 
der Mountain, or Ahnemekee Wacheo, according 
to Ihe Indians, is, that the Indians originally 
believed that thunder used to come and lay her 
eggs on this mountain and hatch them : for the 
Indians believe that thunder is a large bird, pos- 
sessing great power. Mdny of the Indians to this 
day believe this still. The reason they thought so, 
and do think still, is founded upon what is as 
follows ; — ^When the canoes are passing and re- 
passing the large ti-averse, between the mountain 
and Fort William, there is generally thunder and 
fog upon the mountain. The Bay there is also 
called Thunder Bay. The Thunder Mountam is 
a long narrow i^iountain, more than 200 feet in 
height, that is, perpendicularly; and there is no 
access to the top of the mountain, unless that he 
who wishes to go, goes a long way on the north- 
eastern side of the mountain, and then he can 
reach the top by a vale at the bottom of the 
mountain. There are many beautiful islands in 
this bay that have large, towering mountains. 
These would make strong fortifications that would 
have command over the bay and the mouth of 
Fort William Eiver. But the mountains are all 
barren rocks. 

We breakfasted at one of the islands in the 
bay, and after breakfast, at 10 o'clock, we arrived 
at Fort William, at the mouth of Fort William 
River, where we were heartily received by Mr. 
and Mrs. McKennie. We made 20 miles this 
morning. At dinner we lay to and bore hard on 
the beautiful white fish on the table. We arose 
ixoTCL the table, remarking, that we had an excel- 
lent dinner. Mr. and Mrs. McKennie were indeed 
very kind to us, during the short time we were 
witii them : and we were perfectly welcome to 
take anything in the way of provisions, if we only 
asked for it. 

In the afternoon, young Mr. Taylor went off 
with 10 men in a light canoe to Red River. As 
Ml'. Francis Ermatinger was to take charge of 
this Fort, he remained here. I find Mr. Erma- 
tinger a very fine travelling companion. There 
is no home sickness where he is. We spent here 
a very pleasant evening with Mr. McKennie. 

Fort William is situated on beautiful ground. 
This fort was formerly one of the great forjs of 
the ^N'orth West Company. I was told that in 
the time of its glory, it was not uncommon to 
find a thousand men here belonging to the Com- 
pany. But its greatness is now fast diminishing. 

Fish are caught here in great abundance, at ^1 
the seasons of the year. Fort William has a fine 
view of the bay and the mountains. The whole 
country is surrounded by barren, rocky mountains ; 

and not only this part is rocky, but all the coast 
from Sault Ste. Mary. The canoe route from the 
Sault, in and out of the bays to Fort WiUiam, is 
about 300 miles. 

ThuTBday^ 21 tk. — At 10 o'clock we started 
from Fort William ; and a little way up the 
Fort William River there is a Roman Catholic 
mission, which we visited, where some of the 
Iroquois went, made signs of the cross, and said 
a few short prayers. The priest has gathered 
about 15 families of Indians; he speaks a little 
English and tolerably good Indian. He was 
busy in raising the frame of a chapel, aad will 
likely, in process of time, make a good mission 
of this ; though now newly established, but is 
getting on wonderfully, and the Indians are liv- 
ing in their wigwams. 

Having staid here a few minutes we proceeded 
on our voyage up against a strong current, and 
made about 21 miles this afternoon. The banks 
on each side of the river are high. The soil ap- 
pears tolerably good, well wooded, with heavy 
birch, poplar, elm, and pine. 1 think a farmer 
might make a living by cultivating these wild 
lands. This evening we bought 10 or 15 small 
sturgeon from the Indians, and in the hurry and 
bustie some we paid for and some not, as the In- 
dians were not satisfied with what we gave them, 
which was in Indian com, from 1 to 1^ pints peir 
sturgeon, I dare say from one to two pence. At 
supper time the men had a regular blow out on 
the sturgeon. We met with an Indian Chie^ 
who gave us very bad news of some of the Lao 
Lapluie Indians star\ang to death this spring. 
This Chief, Ah De Gonse, is one of the first In- 
dian orators in these parts, and can, without any 
apparent diflficulty, speak for hours together. 
This same Chief delivered a speech to his Excel- 
lency Sir George Simpson, in the spring of 1841, 
when some of the Officers and gentiemen accom- 
panying Sir George, admired the masterly man- 
ner of his address. 

Friday, 2Sth. — After an early breakfast, the 
men began to pole up against a strong current 
or rapid, some where about 15 miles in length. 
The banks of the river are high, dry and sandy. 
The principal timber being birch, poplar, and 
small stinted pine. The north bank is inclining 
to be like a prarie, where, in the month of July, 
an abundance of blue berries (wortleberries) a?*e to 
be found. I and eight men got out of the canoes and 
walked on the north bank of the river for the 
distance of some miles, and then got into the 
canoes again ; after an hour's paddling, we came 
to a place where the men were obliged to make a 
half portage by taking out part of the baggage, 


the current being too strong, so that when the 
canoe is thus discharged, the men pulled them by 
a cord hue about 30 fathoms long. After 
another hour's pull we came to a dead water, 
that is where the current was strong, and appar- 
ently no current at all. This was about two 
miles in length, and at the upper end of this we 
dined on a line open space or plain cleared by 
former fires. After this I and eight men crossed 
oyer to the south side of the river, and followed 
an Indian trail or path for about three miles, 
which brought us to the foot of the mountain 
Portage, and after waiting about 15 minutes the 
canoes arrived. We are now about 36 miles 
from Fort WiUiam. The stone composing this 
mountain is of the slate appearance ; the portage 
itself is about a mile in length. At this place is 
one of the grandest falls of water to be seen at 
any in all the many noble rivers of America, and 
is second in grandeur to the greatest of cataracts, 
that of Niagara. It is worth the while of any 
one passing by this portage to go and take a view 
of these grand falls of water. The next portage 
bein^ close at hand, and a little better than hsJf 
a mUe in length, and at the upper end of it we 
encamped for the night. Fort William River is 
scarcely at some places over a quarter of a 
mile in breadth* 

SaturdaT/y 2 9^^.-— After an early breakfast we 
started off again, and during the forenoon we 
made three half portages, that is, the men taking 
out part of the luggage, and then pulled up the 
canoes by lines, or pole up the rapids with the 
half-loaded canoes. The first r^ular portage we 
made to day was on an island, and about 500 
yards above this is another portage ; both are 
very short, and while the men were carrjnng the 
canoe over the portage one of the men fell down, 
did not break the canoe, but it fgdling upon him 
hurt him very much. It is not an uncommon 
accident for men carrying canoes to meet with 
such an accident as thiia ; some times it has hap 
pened that men have died by the hurt they re- 
ceived by falling down with the canoe. After 
dinner we made two or three half portages^ where 
the men hauled up the canoes with lines ; and 
In the evening made one regular portage, on an 
island, only about 15 rods long, and about half a 
8 mile from this made another ^ nule long, and 
here we encamped for the night. 

Sundayy 30^A.— Early this morning we were 
off again. Poor Christians we are I In an hour's 
time arrived at the dog portage ; here we met 
with Mrs. Ermetinger witnfive men, onebpy, and 
ft woman. She is on her way down to Fort 
William to meet her husband, who ia now in 

charge of that Establishment. They left the por- 
tage as we entered it, and we made this splendid 
portage in two hours' time, some say it is three 
miles long, and from the top of which you have 
a most splendid view of the surrounding country, 
and I tluok the height of this portage is more 
than 200 feet above water level. At the other 
end there is a fine lake called after the portage^ 
and here we had breakfast. The lands we passed 
from mountain portage to this are worth little 
or nothing for agricultural purposes, in fact they 
consist of high and barren rocks, covered with a 
few stinted pme, buxih and juniper ; and if it is 
not rocky it is swampy. We are now about 36 
miles from the mountain portage. 

The Dog Lake is a fine large lake; the part of 
it crossed by the canoes is about twelve miles, 
but the greater jiart of it extends to the north- 
ward at a great length, and an abundance offish 
is found in it ; of course its shores are rocks, and 
barren rocks ! 

We enter a narrow and serpentine river bear- 
ing the same name of the lake and portage, well 
timbered on both sides with large and tall cypress; 
the soil is of a light quick-sand, and I think, in 
some places it would bear cultivation ; might raise 
potatoes. The general appearance of the country 
through which the river runs, which is upwards 
of 40 miles, is a dismal waste howling desert ; 
no hard-wood of any description whatever. In 
the evening we encamped at the firat little rapid 
in this river. 

Monday, 3 1«/.— Early this morning we made 
the Httle portage, on which we encamped, and 
after a few more small poiiages we breakfasted* 
While the men wore busy with their breakfast, 
I found a large new axe, which I made a present 
of to the voyagers. At these small rapids the 
Indians make weirs and catch great quantities of 
fish, which they lay up for their winter provisions, 
very desirable at times, and after passing through 
a very narrow river, a little wider than the canoe, 
and having made two more little portages, came 
to the he«S waters of Lake Superior. At this 
place is a spring of cold water. We now come 
to a height of land, to a portage called the Prairie» 
which forms the dividi^ ridge between Canada 
and the Hudson's Bay ^^itories. This height 
of land is not, I dare say, much above 60 feet 
above water level, and is one of the best 
portages that we have as yet come to^ is fine, dry, 
and mostly plab, and s^bout three miles long ; 
at the commencement of this portage there is a 
small pond of fine cold water, and here we dmed. 
After dinner made this portage^ and came to a 
small marshy pond, crossing this we came to 
another porti^ of about a mile in lengthi to 


another lake again, three miles long, then entered 
into a small creek, and came to the swampy or 
savan portage. This is one of the worst portages 
on the whole water, it is a complete miry place, 
go down to the knees in mud, and I was obliged 
to pull off my shoes and walk over this abomina- 
ble portage barefooted; it is about two miles and 
a half long, at other end of which we encamped. 
The portage ought to be paved, as it was in the 
time of the West Company, and it would per^ 
haps cost some where about £80. The men 
finished making this portage at a late hour, and 
all very tired, so much so mat some of them laid 
down and slept, without taking their suppers, and 
grumbled a good deaL 

tTwne, IsL — ^The men having been wearied by 
the previous evening's struggle through the mud, 
we did not start till after breakfast, and descended 
the Savan River which is about 30 miles long, 
and now we are in the waters which flow down 
to the Hudson's Bay. To day we dined on one 
of the points of the lake called Thousand Island 
Lake, and the length of the lake passed by the 
canoes is about 25 miles, though the greater part 
lies on one side of the country. On leaving the 
lake we enter a portage which is a little over a 
mile in length, and this ought to be called the 
Thousand Island Lake Portage. The distance 
from the prairie or the height of land, to this, is 
about 63 miles. I would here say that this is 
my sixth trip through this wild route, so that I 
can very well calculate the distances of these lakes, 
rivers, and portages. 

Wednesday^ 2ncL — At three o'clock this morning 
we again started for our encampment, and passed 
through two small lakes, the length of both about 
12 miles — came to a poi-tage of about three quai> 
ters of a mile long, which is fine, and dry. We 
then came into a creek little wider than the 
breadth of the canoe; thence, entered and passed 
through a narrow lake of about three miles long, 
when we again entered a creek of about a mile 
in length ; we then came to another narrow 
lake eight miles long, at the end of this lake we 
breakfasted. Tliis lake is called by the Indians 
Win de goo oes de gouun. (The Cannibal's 
Head). After breakfast we passed through a 
chain of sman lakes, varying from two to hm 
miles in length, and we ran one short lapid in 
passing these lakes. We then came to the French 
portage, which is three miles long ; but the 
water being high in the creek we avoided th^ 
portage by going down in this small, but long, 
and tediously-long creek, called the French Biver, 
and made only one small portage, ^c, in the 
cteek, and is about seven miles long. At the 

outlet of this creek we dined. After dinner we 
passed through two small lakes, and then we 
came to the gahse gah ning, (the Pickerel 
fishery) so called, the pickerel being very numer- 
ous here in the spring. The length of this lake 
is 16 miles, and after passing about two-thirds of 
its length we encamped on an island. The appear- 
ance of the country we passed to-day is nothing 
worse nor better than the other parts already de- 
scribed, consisting of barren rocky hills, the hollows 
or valleys of dry sand, but bearing beautiful laige 
white and Norway pines, which could answer 
finely for building, such pine as I have seen in 
Canada, made into boards and frames of houses. 

Thursday. Srd — ^During past night it waa 
rather cold, and during this voyage we suflered a 
good deal from the cold weather, which generally 
happens when there is no appearance of rain. 
However we started at 3 o^clock, and in an hour 
and a half came to a portage which is a mile 
long, and ends into another lake about 4 miles 
in length) and at the other end of this lake we 
made another portage a mile in length, when we 
breakfasted. I here shot four partridges, and 
made our breakfast of them. After breakfast 
we crossed a lake about a mile long, and then 
went into a river of two miles in ]ength, which 
brought us into a long narrow lake of about 14 
miles long, at the end of which the men ran 
down very heavy rapids with lightening the 
canoes, and within a few hundred yard from this 
another portage, where the men took out part of 
the luggage, and then ran down the rapids. It 
is wonderftd how well these men manage to run 
down heavy rapids with their frail bark canoes. 

After this our way lay in a large river with a 
strong current, and many small rapids, which 
were in our favour. 

We dined at the outlet of this river; after this 
we passed a lake of seven miles long, and came 
to a portage, where the men ran their canoes 
down these rapids. These are the rapids where 
John Tanner was shot by an Indian, who was 
hired by his wife to kill him. Tanner, in the 
act of hauling up his canoe these rapids, was shot 
from a bush nard by, and fell into the water, and 
was then left for dead ; but T's days were not 
yet numbered, he came to, and fortunately, the 
next day, a Montreal canoe passed and picked 
him up. The same John Tanner was 30 years 
among the Indians, he had been taken by them 
when quite a child^ a captive. The people of 
the civilized world are acquainted with the narra- 
tive, published some ten or fift^n years ago, at 
New York, where he narrates the various inci- 
dents of his thirty yean captivity ; the work is 
▼eiy intereatii^. 


The river on which we are now going down is 
about ten miles long, with strong current, much 
to our advantage ; ailer having gone about two- 
thirds of this river, we made a portage on an 
island, called the Island Portage, about a quar- 
ter of a mile long. From the Thousand Island 
Lake Portage to this, is, I think, rightly calculat- 
ing the distances from one place to another, about 
131 miles, which wiU be observed is rather under 
the proper, or what may be called the real dis- 
tance. Late this aflemoon came to a lake called 
by the Indians, She gonne go que ming, (Pine 
Lake) and then went on wis lake for about 
eoght miles, and then encamped for the. night 

Friday^ 4tk Jtme, — ^We again suffered 
firom the cold during the past night, though 
it is now the 4th June. At three o'clock, we came 
off again from the encampment ;. after paddling 
about six miles through this lake, we entered the 
Macan River. The banks of the lake we have 
just passed are covered with large and tall white 
and Norway pines ; the same kind of timber has 
been seen plentiful during the two previous days' 
voyage. This country produces furs and skins 
for the traders, of the richest sort. 

After entering the river, about two miles dis- 
tance, we came to a portage a quarter of a mile 
in length. We then descended a wide river, 
and strong current favouring us. Having gone 
three miles further, we came to another portage, 
quarter of a mile in length, and after we had 
gone on 6 miles more, we breakfasted. Aft;er 
breakfast, and having gone about four miles, we 
came to a portage, quarter of a mile in length ; 
we then descended tbis river, whose strong cur- 
rent, can-ied us on with a good speed for about 
6 miles, and then arrived at rapids about a 
mile long. The men ran these rapids, and three 
miles further down this river, we came to another 

£»rtage or rapids, about a mile long. These are 
e rapids which are called by the Indians, Nah- 
maguun, where the Indians catch sturgeon and 
white ffsh in great abundance during the summer 
Beason. To-day saw the first Indian that I have 
aeen while travelling through this vast wilderness. 
He was a good distance o£^ so did not speak 
wiA him, and seven miles down this river we 
entered Nahma^un lake; as regards the soil 
akxDg this river, mere is nothing but rocks, and 
yery little timber of any kind that is valuable.— 
Tbe islands on the Namaguun possess good soil, 
fcr cultivation, and some of the Indian families 
liaTcraised a good quantity of potatoes, which 
Htyay barter to the traders for goods. After pas- 
tiag 14 miles on this lake, we arrived at the two 
pOftages ; these two portages are, each, half a mile 
M^ and a half a mile apart. The water 

being high, the men had«no trouble in making 
these portages. They had only to hand over the 
canoes a few paces of ground, on one of them, 
but the other was all under water, and passed 
over the ground where formerly the road was. 
1 have never seen the water so high, before, 
and here ^e dined, and the men gummed their 
canoes, being now to voyage on open water all 
the way to the Company's Establishment, at Lac 
la Pluie. I dare say, on rough guessing, it is 
about 70 miles from this to that Establishment 

After passing down the river, we soon came to 
the Kettle Rapids, so called, I suppose from the 
whirl-pools in these rapids ; here the Indians catch 
white fish in great abundance, by scooping them 
up from the eddies and whirlpools in these mpids. 
This they do during the whole summer season. 
This evening, at a very late hour, we reached the 
narrows of Qie Lac la Pluie, called by the Indians 
Wahbahsgahndugaung, and here we encamped 
for the night. 

Saturday, bth June. — Early, at three o'clock, 
we again left our encampment, and after pad- 
dhng till eight o'clock, we breakfasted at a place 
called the Grind Stone Narrows. After break- 
fast we proceeded on our way, about one o'clock 
we entered tha Lac la Pluie River. 

The Lac la Pluie is a large lake, and runs from 
N. West to a S, East direction, containing many 
islands well wooded with white and Sforway 
pines, and bounded vrith rocky and barren shores^ 
but white pine of no large size. 

At one o'clock we entered the Lac la Pluie 
river, and soon arrived at the Company's Fort ; 
being, as I think, one of the finest and the largest 
establishments the Hudson's Bay Company has, 
in this part of the country ; it is beautifully situ- 
ated below a large fall of waters, whose continu- 
ous din is ever heard by the people living here^ 
and below the Fort : tiiere is a fine view a long 
way down the river, and about a mile from the 
Company's present establishment, is to be seen 
some few vestiges of an old establishment, occu- 
pied in former days by the North West 
Company. There is not a building remains 
standing ; the traveller is only reminded 
that thero was once such a Company in existence, 
and that this place was occupied by them, — but 
their glory and the glory of their place is totally 
departed. The river which flows before the door 
of the present establishment, forms the boundary 
line which sq)arates the possessions of John BuU, 
from those oi his brother Jonathan. 

Sunday, Qtk, — ^There are not many people at 
the Fort at present Mr. Pether, a young derk 
m charge, and two women. RetxuKS£c&!^^*s^i^^^^^>^ 

Babbatli, I am sorry to say I had no congrega- 
tion to preach to, but in the erening I baptiaed 
one htt]e girl. The gentleman of the District 
had already gone with all hia men in boats down 
to York Factory, so that the eatabliBhment looked 
rather solitary. A person eotering the stores of 
this Fort can see in. fifteen aiinutea time more 
rich furs such as sable, silver, and black foxes, i&c. 
thanhewouldinSOyearsCimeinCanada. Young 
Ur. Pether was very kind to me while I remain- 
ed here. 

Mrmday, 7fA.— At 4 o'clock wo commenced 
our voyage down this beautiful river, which is 
estimated to he VO miles long. In the forenoon 
to-day paaaed three rivers flowing into this from 
the south, and at the junction of these rivers are 
Bpota of ground, which, I think, would be fine 
Htuations for mission stations, the soil being rich 
and climata favourable, snd therefore could raise 
wheat, barley and potatoes; wood for building 
purposes at hand, and there is also scrubby whito 
oak to be found at these places. 

We met with a good many canoes of Cree men 
who reside about the Company's Fort, and 
Indians, and not a few of them eipressed sorrow 
that I had not come to remain, and hoped that I 
would some day come again. About 12 o'clock 
we arrived at the Manito Eapids, where we found 
numerous tents of Indians who are now engaged 
in the sturgeon fishery, about 300 souls in all. 
These Indians ace taD, strong, and well built ; as 
B community, they are good and handsome look- 
ing; some of them who are good hunters, dress 
very weU, their faces well painted with red and 
other colours, feathers on their heads, silver 
ringlets about their armS) and earrings and other 
trimiets. The women also are well dressed, 
Boraething correjj)onding with the dress of their 
lords, excepting the feathers, but they wear about 
their necks brass wire which they consider a 
great ornament. Taking them as a community, 
Siey look well; and of course, as in all communi- 
ti^ there are some poor who are almost in a 
state of nudity. About the Manito Rapids would 
be a grand situation for a Misrion Station, where 
"Ux. Uason and myself once thought of estabiish- 
ing ; and the Indians and others oppoeinp th« 
project whidi, they said would entirely nun the 
sturgeon fishery here. And taking other 
things into eonfaderatioD, thoti|^ the place itself 
b good as can be found anywhere, but being fkr 
away from any sea port, or the civilifed world, 
whence things nece^aiy could be had, and the 
expense that would be increased in getting these 
things would be great, was thie c«tiae of our absa- 
doDiiv the iM9«ot> 

Since I was among this people, it appears a 
good many have died; a few by natural death 
but mostby starvation in the winter; for instftnc«v 
a femily seven in number were found dead just 
as they were sitting arouud their fire near Chas- 
t«Llain's Post, at the Lac du dois Blanc. 

After distributing some tobacco among these 
Indians, and the men having taken as much stur- 
geon, fresh and dried, as they wanted, we pushed 
off ftom them, and dined near the Long Sault. 
After dinner we put ashore again at the Long 
Saolf^ where there were soma more Indian^ but 
not 80 many as at the other place. Here also I 
gave some tobacco. On going o^ it was as much 
as I could do to prevent Es qua geaig, one of the 
principal Indians belonging to the river, from 
jumping into the canoe, Utat he might have som^ 
conversation with me, and to make me promise 
to coma back again and be a missionary among 
them. I was forcibly reminded of that passage 
of scripture, — " O hadst thou known even thou 
things which belong to thy peace; but now they 
are hid from thine eyas I" I did not receive him 
into the canoe. 

I may here remark that the Long Sault is one 
of those places on which I had my ^es when I 
was here before, to have a mission station, and 
this place is far better than even tiie Manito. 
This is upwards of a mile in extent; good land; 
and further down the river, for at least two milee, 
are ready cleared lands, rich soil, hay and grass 
for catrie. At night we encamped at the Rapid 
Rjver, so called from its having a fail of consider- 
able height as it enters the mun river. 

Tiuaday, %tk. — ^Head wind all day, and there- 
fore did not budge an iuch from our encampment 

Wednesday, 9<ft,— At peep of day we were off 
and breakfasted at the mouth of the river. As I 
have said before^ the banks of this river are good 
and capable of being cultivated ; but it has this 
drawback, — that a ridge of good land of the 
breadth of quarter of a mile extends along the 
length of the river, and further back are swamps. 
The wind still blowing, and direct ahead, we only 
came to the starting ;pace of the Grand Traverse 
of the Lake of the woods, and dined there. It is 
a kind of a stiait^ koA. about tax milee across, and 
in windy weather it baa generally a tery rough 
sea from the circumstmce of its being, shoal. It 
has been known, [n fimner days, in (he time <A 
the North West Company, when baric canoee 
were the only crafts m use, that people have 
thrown overboard their cargoes to save fhon- 
sdvet from perishing in the water. At night we 
reached the painted stone, so called, the IndiaoB 
iMving panted «Btona birO' TbeL^o of'tite 



liaiaiin lifni 11 I 


woodfi contains many Islands that might be culti- 
vated, but its main shores are rocks and swamps. 
The Indians on a small scale raise Indian com, 
pumpkins and potatoes. At the eastern extremity 
of the lake wild rice is to be found in great abun- 

Thursday^ \Qth, — Fine calm day ; at half- 
past three o'clock we reached the Rat Portage. 
The length of the Lake of the woods, from me 
mouth of Lake la Pluie to Rat Portage, which is 
considered the extremity of the Lake, is more than 
^0 miles. The Rat Portage itself is about half a 
mile long, and from the omer end of it we could 
see one of the out-posts of the Company, and on 
arriving there, fcnind Mr. James McKenzie in 
charge of the place, who gave us some potatoes, 
for which we thanked him, proceeded on our 
voyage, and encamped at Birch Point 

Friday^ 11<A— Early this m<Hiiing we started 
off with a strong current in our favour, and soon 
came to and ran down the Dalles. Here the men 
bought some sturgeon from the Indians. I also 
bought a young porcupine for my own breakfast 
I gave a little tobacco for it The flesh of this 
animal is excellent, and I shared it among a few 
of my choice friends, the Iroquois. AftCT breakfast 
the wind being strong and fair, and the current 
being strong, all in our favour, we hoisted sail, 
and soon passed through a chain of lakes ; and at 
half-past 10 o'clock arrived at the Grand discharge, 
the commencement of a succession of short porta- 
ges, the three principal of which are a quarter of 
a mile in length, and two or three more smaller 
ones, and all these lay within four miles of each 
other. At one o'clock, p. m., we arrived at the 
White Dog, where I met with Mr. Kennedy, who 
is in charge of a newly established Mission Sta- 
tion of the Church of England, and here we took 
our dinner. I here had a long conversation with 
the Indians on religious subjects. I was especially 
desirous to impress their minds on the happy re- 
sults of becommg christians in earnest, bringing 
as a proof of my renjarks, the happy condition 
of the Indians in Canada, who are christians, and 
are rapidly advancing in civilization. I told them 
that I had been over the great waters to England, 
and had seen the Great Female Chief eight 
times during my last visit They enquired how 
she lodked, I told them that she was very hand- 
some^ that she lived in house or castles like ihoun- 
tains, was surrounded by many great men, sol- 
diers, and great guns, so that none who intends 
evil to the great female Chief, can come near her. 
I told them also that England was a wonderful 
and a veiy rich country, everything wonderfid 
was there to be found, — steam bo^ and car- 

riages, wliich go by steam, running very fast on 
iron roads, and the whole land is filled with 
people like the multitudes of mosquitoes in their 
own country. 

On leaving them I distributed among them 
some tobacco and fish-hooks, as I have done 
among the other Indians I met with on my 
journey in these Territories. I had ^ large 
supply of fish-hooks given me by a young lady 
at Brooklyn, in New York, for to give away to 
the Indians, and may that young lady ever live 
before the Lord. 

The soil about the mission establishment is 
most excellent for cultivation, the climate being 
the same as the Red River settlement, and 
within the same latitude, and capable of raising 
wheat, bariey, oats, and Indian com, potatoes and 
other vegetables. This spot of good land con- 
tains about 400 or more acres, but the surrdund- 
ing country, as well as thiat we passed, is nothing 
but barren rocks and swamps. The distance from 
Rat Portage to this place (White Dog) is about 
50 miles. 

The wind still fair, so we hoisted sail, an^ 
having passed many a long turn in the river and 
lake we came to the Island'Portage, and, without 
ever stopping, we went down these fearful rapids, 
and in spite of what the men could do, the canoes 
were carried to the middle of the rapids and 
were whirled round for some minutes in the 
whirlpools, and every one thought our day wa« 
come, the men turned pale as death. I must 
say I was not a little frightened. After we got 
away and over the panic, there were two Irish- 
men close to me, they gave thanks to the 
Lord for our deliverance n-om suph imminent 
danger, and I secretly responded amen to what 
they said. After the men bailed out the water 
from the canoes which we shipped in the rapid% 
we hoisted sail again and sailed till dusk, and 
passed the Crook Lake, called by the Indians, the 
Orand Turru Having had fair wind and strong 
current in our favour during the whole of the 
day, I dare say we have made somewhere about 
80 miles. 

Saturday, I2tlu — Started at our usual hour, 8 
o'clock, we B6on arrived at the Chats du Jaque, 3 or 
4 hundred yards long, an4 without delaying in 
making this portage, we soon came to the two 
porta^ called Portage du Bois. The first of 
these IS a quarter of a niile long, and the other 
shorter, and another in sight which is onl^ a few 
100 yards long, at the lower end of which We 
breakfasted. About 10 o'clock we arrived at 
the Shive Falls. The name of these ori^mated 
from two IndiafiBlaYeB esciming from their cruel 
nowsteni, went down thjese tellMj and there peridi^ 


ed. The portage is Dearly half a mile long, after 
which we passed through a river with a strong 
current, and passed one small lake, and then came 
to the falls called Barrier, and soon passed this, 
and on we went with a good speed and passed 
two Uttle lakes, and dined near the Grand 
Bapids, and having passed two or three more 
little rapids, we came to the district of portages, 
7 in number, and all lay within seven miles of 
each other, and none exceeding a quarter of a 
mile in length, and they are most dangerous to 
approach either by a canoe or boat Having 
passed these safely, we came to the Wkite River, 
aiiid here we encamped for the night We had 
made about 60 miles to-day. 

Sunday 1 1 Sth. We descended the White River, 
whose current is strong and swift, and passii^ 
down, came to the Lake de Bonnet, after which 
we made two portages close together, and arrived 
at the Portage de Bonnet Here also is a spot of 
about 200 acres of oak land, fine grass growing 
for catde, but the surrounding land is worthless 
to far as agricultural purposes are concerned. — 
There maybe a few f ur-beadng animals found in it 
The portage itself is more than a mile long, and 
a small diS^mce below this, is another portage 
one quarter of a mile long; and passing this, we 
descended the river for about four miles^ and 
arrived at the portage called the Wkite Clay 
Portage. This is a very fine portage, a few oak 
trees aoout it, and having made anoUier four miles 
down the river, we came to the Silver Falls, with 
two portages over a quarter of a mile in length, 
and somewhere about 800 y^rds from each 
other. At the lower end of the last portage we 
dined, and after dinner we went on and leaving 
many ripples and rapids we arrived at the last 
portage in the Winipeg Biver, which is about a 
naif mile long; and going down in a strong 
current, and before coming in sight of the Com- 
pany's Fort, we came to a strong rapids called by 
we Indians Manito Bapids^ and the place, where 
ihey generally hold their manito feasts; and I 
dare say, by tne number of tents at a point close 
by, there were about 100 Indians assembled, and 
evidently by their dressy paints about their per- 
sons, and feathers about their heads^ they were 
at the annual ceremonies of their heathen woiship. 
We were in sight of Fort Alexander, when the 
people of the Fort saw us iixey hoisted up a flag, 
as they have done at the other Forts we passed, 
in honour of the jjpentlenuin whom they suppose a passenger m the canoes. We landed^ 
Uiie Fort at four o'olo^ at the n^ we came we 
must have made about fifty miles to-day. I was 
yfxr respectfully received by Mr. James Isbestei^ 
ajPost MasteriUi charge of this Estahlishipent.-^ 

Here I also met with Boderick McKenzie Escu 
a chief factor in the service of the Hudson s 
Bay Company, with his intelligent fiEunily. As 
the gentlemen and ladies of this Fort, understand 
the Ojibway tongue, I therefore prayed and 
preached in that language, and during my stay 
here I had prayers with people. 

On Monday morning early, the canoes in 
which I came thus far, went off for Norway 
House. I remained here for a couple of days^ in 
order to get a passage to the Bed Biver tiMB- 
ment, to see my son, who is at the collegiate 
school in that settlement 

In former daysy Fort Alexander was a codsh 
derable establishment, especially in the great 
object of its founders, namely, the getting of/urs 
and 9Hns, and it had also a large farm attached 
to it, or vestige of a lai^e farm. The peopte 
here may raise any quantity of wheat, barley, or 
any kind of grain and vegetables. The soil on 
both sides of the river being very good, and the 
climate being also favourable, any where about 
the precincts of this place, would be a fine place 
for a Mission Station, as there are Indians always 
about the place, and 1 also found the Indians 
noore favourable towards Christianity than they 
were when 1 used to be traveUing up and down 
among them. 

During my short stay here, Mr. McKenzie, 
kindly invited me to partake of the good things 
of his own table, which was loaded down with 
what was good. 

Wednesday, l%th, Eariy this morning I 
started off a in small canoe which I had hired on 
my own private account The distance from 
Fort Alexander to the upper Fort Gbrry, is about 
100 miles, which makes in all from Lac la Pluie 
to the upper Fort Garry over 400 miles. 

At 12 o'clock to-day, arrived at the iron wood 
point, which is a sort of a harbour for canoes to 
run into in bad "weather, and had to remain 
here during the whole afternoon, being wind 

Thursday, \7th. At 10 this morning, th^ 
wind abated, and at one o'clock reached the Big 
Stone Point Here unexpectedly, I met my som 
J?eter, in a small canoe on his way to Fort Alexr 
ander to meet me. . I thank the Lord for sparing 
the life of my son and iiiine, and permitted up 
once more to meet each other. Our meeting 
was therefore a joyful one. My pon and his 
crew consisted of one young Mr. McKenzie ^n^ 
three Indian boys ; their provisions, a piece oi 
bam, half a loaf of bi«ad| half pcmnd t6% <Hie 


pound sugar, ciach had atin tUp» they had a small 
kettley but no plate nor knife, and it was well 
for them that they had not to spend a night 
by themselves. They of course returned from 
here, and passed the Broken Head Biver, came 
to a point of marsh in the nieighborhood of the 
mouui of Red Biver, and encamped for the night 

Monday^ 2%th June. — Left the Gbrand Rapids, 
where my son and I boarded in a private house. 
Mr. and Mr& M. our hosts were very kind to us 
while we staid with them. 

Went then to Stone Fort, for my voyaging 
provisions, I was not a little disappointed when I 
could not get a pound of butter. I was grieved 
at the conduct of one, a Mr. Lane, a clerk; 
before ho came into the shop, I had got some 
biscuit and a ham, and evidently by his behaviour 
I would not have got these, had he been by 
when they were put down. I cannot believe that 
times m Red River are so hard as that a passer-by 
cannot get to purchase a pound of butter, for his 
\of9gl^. I am sure had J. Black, Esq., been here, 
be would have given every thing necessary ; he 
assured me on last Saturday that I would get 
any thing which I required at the Stone Fort, for 
my journey. When Mr^ Ross, (a retired chief 
&ctor) heard that I had been refused a pound 
of butter, he cheerfully, with his usual kindness, 
gave me two or three pounds from his own stock 
of butter, gratis. I owe this gentleman many 
dianko for kindness showB me and femily by 
him, when I was at Rossville, at the commence- 
ment of that miEBi<»i. M!ay he ever live before 
the Lord. 

At one o^clock we w^t down and hafi the 
pleasure of dinning with the Rev. Mr. and Mrs. 
Cockran, at the Indian Mission Station. Afler 
dinner I parted with my son, who is engaged 
with the Bishop of Rupert's Land to teach one of 
Ids principal schools, during the coming year. 
Having hired two men and a canoe, I maide a 
abut and only went to the mouth of the Red 

Taesday, 29fA«— At day-break some unknown 
evil minded Indian fired a gun through my tent 
wiik Aoi, the repent of the gun made me jump 
tipftom my bed, and Tasked my bowsman, if he 
bad killed a duck cft a goose, supposing that he 
must kwFe ftred at somieSiing of we kind ; but he 
asked tf I had killed anything by firing, he think- 
ing I was the person who had fired tibie gun^so 
near th^ tnt, as he was^ like mys^ asleep, but 
was only awakened by the report of the gdn. 
But on elBN^Edhaition 1 feund that five grams of 
Adi bad jUmai ibfottgh my tent I soppoae 

that the unknown enemy fired at the tent to 
frighten us away from our encampment, so that 
in the hurry of departing we might leave some- 
thing for him to pick up. I could not imagine 
that he intended to kill any of us, as he did not 
know who we were, not having seen any one 
during the previous evening. 

Wednesday^ SOth. — All day the wind being 
contrary we did not budge. 

Thursday^ Ist of Jtdy, — ^Fine and calm 
weather, made and passed the Grassy Narrows, 
and encamped near the Grind Stone Point, and 
must have made over 50 miles to day. A great 
deal. of the coast we passed to day has good soil 
which might be cultivated ; but no timber which 
may be used for building. - 

Friday^ 2nd — We sailed to the Grind Stone 
Point, here stopped an hour. The Point takes 
its name firom the quality of stone found about it; 
for miles alon^ this coast are quarries of exoell^t 

frind, and lime stone, which may answer for 
uildings, and I wonder that the inhabitants of 
Red River do not make use of it hr their stone 
buildings, as it is open water all the way, and 
may be boated to any part of the settlement 
Having staid here an hour, we sailed across the 
grand traverse of Lake Wenipeg, and landed on 
the north eastern coast. The coast extending 
&om Fort Alexander to the end of the lake is a 
mere desert The points of bare granite 
rock, and now and then you see a bay with a 
sandy beach, and its stinted timber and the- 
general appearance of the country, tell the sum- 
mer traveller that the winters in these r^ons* 
of country must be awfully severe. The lake- 
itself has an abundance of fish of excellent qua- 
lity, — ^white fish and sturgeon. The white fidi 
are the staple food of the inhabitants of these 
outK>f-the-way regions. The sturgeon of this- 
lake are superior to any which may be found in 
any part of the world. There are ^-bearing 
animJals to be found in its wild woods, both of a 
^mmon and rich sort This evening we en- 
camped at the Dog's Head 

Saturday, Sri. — ^Reached the Rabbit * Pokt, . 
in the forenoon, and were detained during the- 
rest of ihedayby contrary wind, and rain. 

Sunday^ Ath. — Being calm and fine, we went 
on aiid arrived at Bevdre^s River at 18'^o'oiiMk^ . 
where I was kindly received by Mr. Cunmiingfl^ a 
Post Master in charge. At 4 o'dock, we met 
together for religious worship, when I ite about 
giving out my text to pieadb,! asked Mr. Cum- 


ming in what language thev wished the sermon 
to be delivered, he said in ^Indian. The people 
paid very good attention to my discourse, and 
there were a goodly number of the pagan Indians 
present, and I sometimes aimed at their supersti- 
tious notions. They also paid good attention. 

My men preferring sleeping out, we went out 
of the bay and slept on a rocky island, on leaving 
the house Mr. Cummings he, like a good chi-istian, 
gave us a good large sturgeon, and some butter. 
May the good man never want butter in his 

Monday, 5th, — ^We are now about 150 miles 
firom the Red River, and we are yet to make 180 
to reach Rossville, and the lake itself is considered 
something over 200 miles. This evening we 
encamped at the Poplar Point, a long day's voy- 
age to day, 

Tuesday, 6^A— Head wind all day, and did 
not stir fix>m our encampment it is sickening 
to be so often wind-bound. 

Wednesday, ItL — Calm this morning, and in 
the afternoon fair wind getting up we soon hoisted 
sail and reached the Spider Islands, but too late 
to proceed on to the out-let of the Winnipeg, 
though it was within view. 

Thursday, 8th, — The wind being still fair, but 
rather too strong for our frail bark ; we however 
ventured and sailed over a very rough sea, our 
canoe now and then shipped some water, and 
one of us was constantly employed in bailing it 
out as iset as it came in. It required no small 
degree of courage to sail in such a craft as ours, 
no gentleman would risk any valuable property 
in these small canoes of birch bark, much less 
his life. On this voyage I had the management 
of the sail, being accustomed to voyage in the 
small canoes, knowing when to furl and unfurl the 
sail, and knowing too what a small canoe can 
bear. We at last entered a harbour, went ashore 
and got our breakfast The men were now 

Kaising the canoe, how bravelv it navigated the 
listerous Winepeg. But lifbng np my hand 
to heaven, saying, there is our guide and preserver ! 
the two men, being christians, understood my 
meaning, said nothing. Coming through 
the lake I killed many ducks and two geese, 
one was very fat, and while we were at breakfast 
there were many pelicans flying about us and 
some "were feeding in the bays, but having no 
caps for my ffun, they escaped unmolested. Be- 
ing now cakn, we proceeded through the Play 
Oreen Lake, and entered a river which brought 
Hfl to BoBsville. The appearanoe of the country 

is most dismal, though the summer has already 
set in, still the country is not divested of the effects 
of the intense cold winter, wliich generally con- 
tinues eight or nine months in this miserable re- 
gion. Barren rocks, here and there a small clus- 
ter of trees, willows, and a few stinted pine or fir 
dwarfted by the cold, which ever prevails here, 
and nothing to relieve the eye from the cheerless 
view before it. 

None but the worldling whose object is gain, 
an accumulation of wealth, could be a willing 
inhabitant of this inhospitable region, or he whose 
object is more exalted, and more noble than the 
former, namely the salvation of the aboriginal 
inhabitants of this waste howling desert, by the 
preaching of the (Jospel to them. 

At 6 o'clock, arrived at Norway House. This 
is one of the principal establishments of the 
Hudson's Bay Compay, in these parts, being 
central, and an inland depot, where all the 
brigades of the Northern Department, (except 
McKenzie's River,) meet on their way down to 
York Factory. 

G. Bamston, Esq., a Chief Factor, is in charge, 
who kindly received me on my arrival, and 
invited me to tea, which I readily accepted, and 
after which proceeded down to the RossviUe 
Mission Station, which is about one and a half 
miles below, where I found Mr. and Mrs. Maaon 
and family all well. I, just coming from Europe, 
and through Canada, they of course, expected 
every information relative to the civilized and 
christian world, and as a matter of course, I 
cheerfully gave them such information as I pos- 
sessed concerning men, with matters and things* 

Friday, 9th, — After breakfast and prayer, Mr. 
Mason and I went out to take a view of Uie Mis- 
sion buildings and premises, and also the Indian 
houses. The appearance of the whole Mission, is 
very pleasing. 

The Church is 30 h 60 feet long, with a stee- 
ple and bell, it has lately been weather boarded, 
and painted, both in and outmde, as well as the 
pews and free seats. It has a beautiftd appear- 
ance from a distance, and taking it all in all, I 
think it would not disgrace any country town 
in Canada. Leaving the Church, we went into th« 
large school house, well filled with day scholars; 
heard some of the leading classes say their lessons, 
who said them very well, and they sing well ; I 
am informyed by tibie sdliool-mastei:^ that wh^ 
they all attend, he has 74 boys and girls; there 
were about 50 present, the otibers being away 
with thdr parents in quest of food in these bard 

The neari; mission building we visited was, 
what Mr. Mason calls the Printing 0£Sc^ Tlus 


is a good house for tlie mission family to live in, 
being well built, weather boarded and painted, 
with a shingle roof, and inside is lined and paint- 
ed also, and in every respect well adapted for a 
good winter house in mese regions of ice and 
snow. The size of this house is 20 ft. wide by 36 
feet long, one of the rooms is occupied by the 
school-master; one part is used for tihe printing 
business ; and I must say, that the Rev. Mr. 
Mason and his colleague, Mr. Steinhauer, in this 
department, deserve commendation for their 
efforts to promote the knowledge of Christianity 
among the benighted, ignorant heathen of thw 
country, through the medium of the books they 
have printed. They have printed the Wesleyan 
Catechism, No. 1., an edition of hymns, part of 
the Sunday service of the Methodists, also the 
Wesleyan Discipline, and the Gospel of St. John 
The demand for these books, is so great, that 
they are not able to comply with those demands 
as fest as they could wish, their printing operations 
not being carried on so rapidly as those of the 
civilized world, for want of a better press, and 
other materials requisite, in order to carry on the 
business successfully, though hundreds of their 
printing have been issued, and these works have 
gone into those parts of the country where the 
missionary can never have access. • 

Respecting the Mission House, that after eleven 
years standing, it now i-equires a few repairs; the 
roofing being made of baik, which requires 
almost annual repair, which not a little in- 
creases the expenses of these missions, and were 
all the mission buildings weather boarded and 
roofed, then the expense of renewing the bark 
roofs and mudding the walls would in some 
degree lessen the expense incurred. After having 
viewed the Mission premises, we went to see the 
Indian houses, which I superintended in building 
eleven years ago ; some of them are still standing 
and inhabited by the same people ; they appear 
to be in tolerable good order yet ; but others 
have been pulled down and better houses built in 
their stead. 1 found also that another street has 
been made since, and of course the houses in this 
street are lately and better finished. 

The Mission potatoe fields, as well as those 
belonging to the Indians, are looking well, and no 
doubt will reap a good crop ; but no grain of any 
kind can grow to any maturity here, the climate 
being too rigorous. 

After passing and repassing the village we 
went into the house wherein I lived when I was 
at this station, which may now be called the 
school master's house, (should he have a family) 
it is natural and inviting to me, and is in a very 
good condition yet, notwithstanding elevai years 

Sunday 11th. — At 1 o'clock this morning, Mri 
Mason began reading the Sunday service of the 
Methodists, and a few of the Indians responded, . 
after the lessons, collects, and prayers, he then 
read a sermon translated into the Indian written 
in the syllabic character. He performed the 
whole of the service well, and read his sermon 
well ; but I am not a competent judge of this 
mixed language of Ojibway — Cree and Swampy. 
The Cree and Swampy are nearer kin to ea(3i 
other, than either to the noble and majestic Ojib- 
way; and that is the language I profess to 

We went over to the Company's Fort> where 
Mr. Mason read the English service, and after 
which I preached in English to a respectable 
congregation, who paid marked attention to my 
discourse. I trust some good has been done to 
the edification of some of mv hearers. The ser- 
vice being over, Mr. Bamston kindly invited us 
to dine with him. I find this gentleman is of 
high and polished education, and the best of all 
is, that he loves and fears God. 

At three o'clock this afternoon, we held 
another service in the mission church, which was 
quite full, as many of the Fort people came down 
to join our afternoon woi-ship. Mr. Mason read 
the hymns in the Cree. I prayed, and had a 
tolerable good time in preaching to my native 
brethren. Once or twice I reminded the con- 
gregation of the many precious seasons we had 
together in the house of God, eleven yeai's ago, 
and some of the old members caught the spirit of 
this, and I have reason to thank God that they 
were encouraged to go on their way rejoicing, 
and that they were edified. The men and women 
of this congi'egation were respectably clad, and 
sang well. The church, at both morning and 
afternoon service was well attended; and I am 
informed by Mr. Masson, that when the men 
belonging to this village, and passing brigades, 
stopping for the Sabbath, the church nt such 
times is crowded to overflowing, as it occurred 
again on the following Sunday. 

At seven o'clock we had a prayer-meetiug in 
the church, and many of those who prayed, refer- 
red to the good things they had heard during 
this Sabbath day. This is the process of Sunday 
labour which Mr. Masson has to go through 
every Sabbath day when there is no one to assist 
him. On reviewing the labours of this Sabbath, 
the appearance of the church and the congrega- 
tion of this mission alone, the zeal they manifested 
in flie house of God their Saviour, how I 
wished that some of the supporters of the cauFe 
of missions were eye-witnesses, I verily think 
that they would say they have not thrown away 
their money in vain, and would be impelled more 





than e^er to do more for the interest of the mis- 
sioDB in thoee temtories. On inquiry, I learned 
the number of members in society is 120, and 10 
on trial for membership. The whole number of 
people attadied to this station is about 300. 

Wedn£B8xty^ 14<A. — ^Having remained here to 
thiaday, and thmking that it was time for me to 
proceed on my jomney, I bought a small canoe 
and provifflons, and hired two men for my voyage 
down to Oxford Mission Station, and to York 
Factory. This evening I again preached to the 
congr^ation assembled for reli^ous worship. 

During my stay at this station, Mr. Masson 
and I had some consultation on the subject of the 
Sascatchwan Mission, read some letters received 
from the Indians in that quarter, who pressingly 
call for a missionary and teacher. We concluded, 
the least that can be done for the present^ was to 
occupy that station for two yeare longer, thinking 
that, in the mean time, something will be d(»ie 
for that and the other mission stations belonging 
to the Wesleyan Missionary Society in the Hud- 
son's Bay Territories. 

Benjamin Sinclair, a local preacher, with his 
family, agreed to go and occupy that station for 
the said term of two years, strictiiy instructing 
him not to incur any unnecessary expense. He 
has been there already, and inquiring of him as 
to the number of Indians who were desirous of 
bemg instructed in Christianity, he said ^ too 
many for me to tell you." I said that is well 
said, we will leave it there. This station is 
situated in a rich country of wild animals, such 
as bu^o, moose, deer, bears; ducks, and geese, 
and fish in abundance. In £act everything con- 
cerning that station is favourable. The soil and 
climate are such as will raise any kind of grain 
which any one may wish to raise. 

ThuT^dmf^ 15<A.— After breakfast, loaded our 
canoe. The men and women of the village came 
and bid me a farewell at my departure. Mr. 
Mason and men accompanied me for a consider- 
able distance down the lake, and we dined to- 
getlier; and, after we had a word of prayer, we 
parted. He went back to l^is station, and I pro- 
ceeded on to Jackson's Bay Mission Station. 
Having passed through rivers, lakes, and nine 
portages, we met with about 30 freighting boats 
from York Factory ; among them were the boats 
of my old acquaintance, Wm. Sinclair, Esquire. 
The Sabbath came as we entered the Oxford 
Lake, and laid by for the day. At 12 o'clock 
we had prayers : as there were only three of us, 
we dispensed with the routine of a regular service. 
The country we passed during the three days' 
voyage, is the same, only a little worse in appear- 

ance — ^ro<^ and swamps-— but they said it was 
the country for furs and skins^ to ennch the coffers 
of the ftir trade. 

Mondot^y l^tk, — ^At dght o'clock, arrived at 
the Jackson's Bay Mission Station, where I was 
welcomly received by Mr. Stetnhauer in diaige 
of the station, who^ with the people of his charge, 
were anxiously waiting for my arrival, but were 
quite disappointed when I informed them that I 
nad not come to stay. 

I found the mission pr^nises, which have been 
hurriedly put up, in such a state as would require 
not less than £50 to put them in a habitable and 
comfortable order. The evening after I arrived, 
I baptized an infant, which was supposed to be 
dying, but, since then, the infant hai been doing 

There are but a few Indians at the station at 
present Their men are employed in boating for 
the Company, and their &milies are at the Fort, 
where they are fed. Of course they will always 
be there on these conditions. One Indian house 
has been put up, and some more have cut and 
squared their timber ready for building their 
houses. When more houses are built, they will 
the mission station quite an improved ap- 

I find my friend, Mr. Stanhauer, who is 
labouring among this people under some disad- 
vantages; though I have not the least doubt 
that he is doing all in his power to promote the 
good cause here, and that there is some fruit of 
his, labour. He is teaching the school; preaches 
to the people in their own language, (he is an 
Ojibway by birth,) and also preaches at the 
Company's Fort, in English, for the benefit of 
the people in that establishment; and he is also 
engaged in the work of translating the Scriptures 
into the Cree. I say, therefore, that he is fully 
qualified, as far as these things go; nor can I 
doubt of other and higher qualifications indi^n- 
sably necessary for being fully enrolled in the 
order of the ministry. The people of his chaige 
see the necessity of having among them an or- 
dained missionary, who may have authority to 
marry, baptize them and their children. To 
further Mr. Steinhaiuer's usefulness, he ought to 
be fully set apart for the good work, and be 
ordained, which would enhance the prosperity of 
this mission station so long as he may be here. I 
hope, therefore, the day is not far distant when 
he will be fully set apart for the work of the 

Simday, 25M.^— Another Sabbath day has 
come, and we cheerfrilly comnaenced our work. 
At eight o'clock, there was a Sunday School. 


Though the number of scholarB was but few, yet 
it was pleasing to see how well they said their 
ks8cm% and repeated the greater part of the 
Wesieyan Catechism, No. 1 ; and they sang well. 
At 11 o'clock, we assembled together. Mr. 
Steii^ianerread the Sunday service of the Meth- 
odists and the lesson for the day, and I preached 
with eonsid^nble freedom. The small congr^a- 
tion wero deeply attentive, and I trust that some 
good has been e^ted, which will appear here- 
after. At three o'clock, Mr. Steinhauer preached; 
.and in the evening we had a prayer-meeting, 
when some <^ the jGidiahs prayed. 

The little potatoe-fidds of this mission station 
aie looking very well • The Oxford, or Holy 
Lake, as it is called in the map, is a fine large 
kke^ dear water. Fine trout are to be found in 
its waters, and the finest white fish in the country. 
It is interspersed with numerous islands, well 
wooded with good timber. Its main shores are 
high and rocky, and in some of its deep bays is 
pi^tty good soil to be found, but the climate 
being too severe for raising any kind of grain; 
but potatoes maybe matured at some seasons. 
These parts being what they call the lower coun- 
try! are rocky, but mostly swampy. However, 
about this lake there is a good desl of timber, the 
white or silver pine, which is sawn into boards, 
&xi^ for buildii^. 

, Friday Morning^ ZOth Jvly. — At four o'clock 
1 left the Jackson's Bay Mission Station, where I 
remained nearly two weeks, and have had 
ocular observation of what is going on at this 
mission station. The distance from the station 
to the Company's Establishment is full twenty 
miles, which is one of the disadvantages atten- 
dant upon this station, too far from the Fort. At 
about twelve o'clock, arrived at Oxford House, 
where I was received by Mr. Robertson, a Post 
Master, in charge of this place. The Sabbath 
being too close at hand, we determined to remain 
till Monday. There were a good number of 
Indians, and some having expressed their desire 
to have their children baptized, so when Sunday 
came there was a good congregatioD, when Mr. 
Mason preached in the morning, and baptized 
four children of a once most noted conjuror; and 
in the aflemoon we had another service, when 
the conjuror, his wife, and eldest son came and 
offered themselves for the rite of baptism to be 
administered to them, and ten children besides, 
so that something has been done to-day, and may 
God add his blessing ! Amen. 

Monday Morning^ 2nd Atiytist — ^We started 
from York Factory. The greater part of ihe 
day we weie going down in a circuitous river; 

ran many rapids or ripples of water, and onljf 
once lifted the canoes over a porti^ of about 
60 yards long, called the Trout FaU, and soon 
after this, entered Rice Lake, which is betweoi 
forty and fifty miles, and passing the lake 
again, entered many portages and running places, 
and came to the Swampy Lake, about twelve 
miles long; at the end of which is the begin- 
ning of rapids and portages to the Hill, from 
which the river takes its name, and passing the 
Hill, ^e came to the part of the river called the 
Still Water, which continues for a considerable 
distance, till within a short distance of the Rock 
— the last of the rapids are falls and portages, in 
the Hill River, whence commences a contmuous 
rapid going at the rate of eight or ten milies per 

From the Rock to York Factory is 100 miles, 
making, in aU, from Norway House to the Fac- 
tory, 450 miles. Meeting with no remarkable 
incident on the voyage down the Hill River, and 
going down lightly in a small eanoe, we of course 
went expeditiously; and, soon passing the Hill 
River, came to th^ junction with the Foxes River. 
Here the River becomes wider and deeper, and 
the current is somewhat smoother, but equally 
strong as the Hill River. After a few hours' 
passage down the Foxes River, we came to 
where it joins with a large nver, which they 
called Street River. Here the river is still wider 
at some places, a quarter or half a mile wide. It 
looks fine to a stranger. Its high clay bank, 
white as snow from a distance, a stranger would 
think that the land on the top of the banks was 
jQTood ; but no. It is one continuous swamp as 
far as the eye can reach — all barren— only here 
and there a small clusteir of stunted pine, and a 
few withered juniper, and, withal, this is the 
country of mosquitoes. The only pleasure which 
a traveller experiences along these rivers, through 
this swampy country, is to preserve himself as 
best he can, from being eaten up by these flies. 
In former days this was the country for the rein- 
deer; but they are very scarce now-a-days, so 
also are fur-bearing animals. 

The Steel River brought us to the end of our 
journey in this miserable country, and from 
whence I am to return. The country from Ox- 
ford House is much the same as other parts 
already described, but, perhaps, much worse for 
its dismal and desert-like appearance — swamps, 
lakes, creeks, and rivers; in fact there is more 
water than dry land: hence the multitude of 
mosquitoes, which increase the miseries of travel- 
ling in this countiy. 

On our 6th day from Oxford House, we ar- 
rived at the general dep6t, York Factory. Here 
I are eilensive ware-houses, wherein English goods 

are stored, imported from Esglaud, and are in- 
tended for the whole of the NotOiem Department 
of tie Hudson's Bay Territories; not (iat there 
is a factory at York where goods are manufac- 
tured, as people .would natiirally think by the 
word feetory. At the time lie ship arrives 
&om England, the place is quite lively, like some 
Beaporlfi in the ciTihzed world. 

At York Factory there are numerous nnall 
white whales, which come up the river to wharfe 
of the eetaMishmentB, and the people kill them to 
feed their dogs upon. Seals also are found here. 
The Polar bears are also very plentiful, and 
walruses along the coast from either of the Fac- 
tories. In the seasona of spring and autumn, it 
is said geese and ducks are verj- numerous, and 
the Company send out hunters in thoee seasons 
who kill them by hundreds, and then salt them, 
which they serve out as rations to their people. 
I have not seen any of lie Esquimaux here, but 
tbey are at Church Hill, where thej trade. This 
u an out port of York Factory, in the aoithem 
direction from the Factory. The Esquimeaux 
ate of a whit« complexion, and in tbeir mode of 
living, they are exceedingly filthy. Hone of this 
people trade at the Factory. 

On the arrival of Mr. Mason and myself at 
York Factory, we were kindly received by W. 
McTavish, Esq.; the Governor of the Fort We 
Btaid there a fortnight, and baptized over thirty 

persons; which number added to those bapt^ed 
at Oxford Mission, make over eiity. Let the 
friends of Missions rejoice ! even in the HudsoD 
Bay Territories, where the cause has to contend 
with opposing influcgoces, ezisljng, perhaps, no 
where else, it is progreesing. How attentive to 
the spoken word are tbe Indiiaus of these Terri- 
torie& In the congra^^ons there is no cough- 
ing, no gnng out ana in, no sneezing with a 
whoop t^t in Uie woods would make an Indian 
dodge behind a tree and look to his gun ; but 
every one is as quiet and still, as they would wish 
those to be to woom they themselves were speak- 
ing. Were gold as plenty as lead, a guinea would 
be of the same worth as a bullet, did it weigh as 
much. The people of Canada do not, nor the 
people of England, value the preached word as 
tbey should. Did they, as the Indians of Hud- 
son's Bay, heM a preacher, perhaps, only once a 
year, they woidd be quiet and stiU enough during 

After anxiously waiting for the arrival of the 
Hudson Bay Company's annual ship, the Prince 
Hupert, it arrived on the ISih of August, on 
Sabbath, after morning service. We expected the 
Rev, John Rjerson, and were much disappointed 
at not meetmghim. I received a letter fiom him, 
per shif^ in which he gave his reasons for not 
coming. I felt sorry that circumstances assumed 
such a form as to prevent him from following up 
the Society's plans. 


The following, the remainder of the Journal of my journey from the Hudson Bay Tei'ritories^ is 
written from memory, as the origmal papers were lost in Lake Winipeg. 

On Monday, the 16th, the Hudson's Bay Com- I 
pany's Express Canoe left for Canada. I applied 
for a passage, but was refused ; cojisequently had 
to get a private conveyance. I was, however, 
offered a passage to England in the Prince 

I had made arrangements with Mr. Mason, who 
had given his canoe and men, to convey Mr, 
Ryerson, at our own charge, to Norway House 
and Eed River; but these arrangements had to 
be set aside; and procuring provisions, &C., with 
all haste, in my own single caaoe, and with two 
men, I turned my face homeward. Even at the 
far end of a long journey thei'e is pleasure in 
going home- 
On the 16th, with the evening tide, which 
rises here ten or twelve feet, we left York Fac- 
tory. The tide bore us along over twelve miles. 
That night we slept on the beach. The night 
was cold, and accustomed, for some time past, to 
warm bed-rooms, I did not sleep much. 

I will describe our mode of travelling up York 
River. The men alternately towed the canoe by 
a thirty fathom cod line. The tow-path is not a 
planked one; rocks, stones, sand, and sometimes 
water breast high. Thus, for about a hundred 
miles, and with a strong current pulling the 
canoe the other way, we travelled up York River. 
I walked nearly all the way, and tu-ed enough I 
was when we got to the " Rock," which crosses 
the river like a mill-dam. 

At Fox River we came upon a flock of young 
wild geese. The geese could fly but a httle, and 
we had a " wild goose chase." Every man to his 
goose; in water and out of water^ through brushy 
over brier, heads up, heels up, every man to his 
goose! The banks of the River at this place 
are forty or fifty feet high, and in going down 
the River at this same place, in company wit^ 
Mr. Mason, we killed twenty geese. He was too 
stout to roll about the banks and bushes in chase, 
but perhaps did as much service to the common 
good, v^dth a canoe in the river, by picking up 
the dead as they rolled down the. steep bank. 
The proceeds of this chase were six geese in ex- 
cellent condition. 

The chase being ended, we were ready for 
hmch; so we set about it. A friend at the Fort 
had given me three bottles of ginger beer ; and as 
I felt somewhat thirsty from the excitement of 
the chase, my cook, John, set about drawing the 
cork of one of the bottles. He appeared to do it 
awkwardly, and as I was dubious of an explosion, 
I stopped him, saying, " Take care, John. Give 
it to me ! Take care ! !" Pulling a cork — ^that 
was nothing; John could do that; perhaps had 
done it too often : but John and my bows-man, an 
elderly man, now were good members of Norway 
House Mission, and showed themselves, during 
the time they were vrith me, to be consistent 
Christians. What made the drawing of this cork 
dangerous, John wished to know ? His curiosity 


was excited ; %iid, as I proceeded, he stood, with 
open eyes and mouth, looking over my shoulder. 
For, as mudi as I laughed during the goose chase, 
when I observed John, I felt incUned to laugh a 
little more. The confined Bee^Spirit in the bot- 
tle began to hiss, a thought crossed me, when 
away went the cork, with a pistol report, missing 
John's face by about an mch; but the beer, it 
went right in. Poor John, was as frightened as 
the geese were a few minutes before, blinded and 
roaring, attempted, with wide-^read fingers, to 
stop the current; and, not much accustomed to 
handling the bottle, either of beer or else, by 
the time I got my hand on its mouth, the con- 
tents were gone. John would not venture to the 
canoe, where the remaining bottles were, mitil 
he saw them carefully covered; and ever after 
avoided their corks presented, as he would the 
m'izzle of a loaded rme. 

As I have said before, the face of the country 
hereabouts is hilly, covered with marsh, and here 
and there, with low evergreens. This is the 
dominion of the rein-deer. 

Here begins an extensive beaver settlement 
It continues up this river for about sixty miles. 
When travelling with a row-boat, the noise 
frightens the beaver, and they dive under water; 
but, as we had a light canoe, we saw them at 
evening and at day-break, going to and returning 
from their work on shore. They sleep during 
day, and chop^ or gnaw during night They 
cut fix)m wands up to poles four inches through, 
and from one to two fathoms long. A large 
beaver will carry a stick I would not like to 
shoulder, for two or three hundred yards to the 
water, and then float it off to where he wants to 
take it The kinds of tree used are willow and 
poplar; the long leaf and the round lea( prefer- 
ing the latter. The Canada beavers, where the 
poplar is larger, lumber on a larger scale. They 
eut trees over a foot through; but, in that case, 
oirly the limbs are used. About two cords of 
wood serve Mr, Beaver and his family for the 
winter; but it is closer piled than the wood I 
have seen soLd to some of our citizens at five dol- 
lars a cord. A beaver's house is large enough to 
allow two men a comfortable sleeping room, and 
is very dean. It is built of sticks, stones, and 
mud ; and is well plastered outside and in. The 
trowel the beaver uses in plastering is his tail; 
a< the table it is considered a great delicacy. 
Their beds are made of chips, spht as fine as the 
brush of a wooden broom, and is put in one cor- 
ner, and kept clean and dry. After the bark is 
stripped — the only part the beaver uses as food— 
the stick is carried off a distance from the house. 
Many of our good housewives might be nothing 
the worse of readmg a little about the beaver. 

The .beaver in large rivers and lakes make no 
dams; they have water enough without; but in 
small creeks they dam up, and make abetter stop 
water than is done by many of our millers. The 

Elace where they build their dams is the most 
ibour-saving spot in the valley, and where the 
work will stand best The dam finished — not a 
drop of water escapes. This country abounds 
with beaver, and an Indian will kill upwards of 
three hundred in a season. The skin of the 
beaver is not worth as much now as it used to be, 
but their flesh is one of the main articles of food. 
We shot three in this settlement; and, as every 
voyager knows their flesh is good to eat, with the 
geese and the beaver we fared welL 

A few evenings after we left the " Rock," while 
the men were on before me <^ tracking," that is, 
towing the canoe as before desmbed, I observed 
behmd a rock in the river that which Itook to be 
a black fox. I stole upon it as quietly as possible, 
hoping to get a shot, but the animal saw. me, and 
wading to the shore, it turned out to be a bear, 
who had been a fishing. The bear is a great fish- 
erman. His mode of fishing is rather curious. 
He wades into a current^ and seating himself on 
his hams upright^ the water coming up to about 
his shoulders, he patiently waits until the little 
fishes come along, and, mistaking his black shaggy 
sides for a stone, rub themselves against him. 
He immediately seizes them, gives them a hip, 
and with his left paw tosses them over his left 
shoulder on to the shore. His left paw is the 
one always used for the tossing-ashore part of his 
fishing. It is feeling he uses, not sight The 
Indians say he catches sturgeon when spawning 
in shoal water — sometimes so shoal that their 
tails stick out; but the only fish I know of his 
being in the habit of catching are suckers: these 
in April and May, their spawning seasons, the 
bear make his daily food; breakfasting about 
eight, a.m.,.and making dinner and supper of one 
meal, about four, p. m. About thirty or forty 
suckers serve him. In the spawning months he 
oan catch that number in a few minutes. As 
soon as he has caught a sufiScient number, he 
retires to the beach, and r^;ales himself on the 
most delicate part of the fish, that part immedi- 
ately behind the gills, throwing the rest away. 
The Indians £requently shoot hmi when engaged 
in fishing. 

We now ^ made" as many portages as possible ; 
that is, got over them with ail speed. The por- 
tages on this route, are from a quarter of a mile 
to a mile, and over. Crossing a portage is a 
serious affair. S<»me of my readers may not know 
what a portage is. A portage is the land that 
divides lakes from lakes, and nvers from rivers, or 
the neck of a peninsula formed by the bend of 


a river, or the sweep <^ a lake, and the circuits 
Yoyagera have to make to avoid water&Us and 
nqpicU. To save time, canoe and every tbin^ 
ebe are carried on our shoulderB across these. A 
Bian is not required to cany more than ninety 
pounds doubled. Ninely pounds weight is called 
a " piece." Over every portage I carried my 
two ^ pieces^, and some notion of the toil may be 
had, when I say that the portages are crossed 

SoieraJly barefooted, and the paths are none of 
e smoothest We are forced to go barefooted, be- 
cause our feet are so frequently wet, that, did we 
wear boots, we would soon get so galled, that we 
probably would get so bad as to be unable to 
proceed. The ckm-shells on the beach wound 
the feet more than any thing else does. At Knee 
Lake the portages are nearly all over, and it gave 
us great pleasure to see its blue wat^ stretching 
out oefore us. In this lake we met thirty or forty 
of the Bed River boats, going their last trip this 
season, for thdr M go^ls, brought out by the 
Prince Rupert We spoke those we passed in 
day-light ; but, as we pulled night and day, we 
passed many at night There is pleasure in meeting 
with fellow creatures in the wilderness, even to 
tiiose who have passed much of their lives there 

At Oxford House, Mr. Robertson, the gentle- 
man in charge, received us kindly, and offered me 
any thing I wanted; but as I was well supplied 
ahready, I thanked him and accepted nothing. 

We feared head winds more than any thing 
else, and when weather served, or the sky wore a 
threatening appearance, vm pnlled all night: 
always next day we felt wearied and stupid. 
Thus we got to the head of Oxford Lake. We 
did not cdl at Jackson^s Bay Mission for the sake 
of time; it was late in the season, and we were 
going home. We pulled hard during the remain- 
der of the week, Uiat we might reach Norway 
House Mission to spend the Sabbath there. 
Saturday night came, and we expected to have 
got to the Mission for morning service, but we 
eoold not We then attempted to get in time 
for evening service, but the winds would not let 
us cross the lake; and although, for the greater 
pott of the day we were within sight of the Mis- 
non, we could not get there until ten o'clock, p.m. 
Un. Mason was in bed, and, not wishing to dirturb 
her, I went up to my own old habitation, stand- 
ing empty, and kindling a fire, lay down until 
morning. In the midst of friends I slept alone. 
I felt depressed ; there was a sadness, a feeling of 
coming evil upon me, and to pass the night alone 
in my old house, where every thing spoke of 
those now far, far from me, was my choice, for it 
accorded with my own feelings. 

( At day-light the Class-Leaders came to wekome 
me, and, while breakfast was getting ready, we 
had a good Prayer-meeting. Mrs. Mason paid 
us every attention. 

The whole of Monday, the 30th of August was 
spent in preparing for our voyage up Lake Wini- 
peg; gumming canoe, washinglinen, <Sz;c. 

On Tuesday, ten o'clock, a. m., the people as- 
sembled at our canoe, and we had a Prayer-meet- 
ing. Then parting with Mrs. Mason, and friends, 
we proceeded to Norway House, which is in sight 
of the Mission, and dined with the gentleman in 
charge. He was very kind to us, and gave me 
some things for the voyage. The afternoon was 
calm and beautiful, and, as we had had a good 
rest, and were apprehensive of head winds, we 
pulled all that night At sunrise next morning 
we attempted to land and breakfast, but the water 
was so shoal we could not, without having to wade 
a distance. The beach was of bright sand, and 
the sun was about two hours up when I saw an 
object moving on shore ; it appeared to be a man ; 
and as we neared it, it appeared to make gestures 
to us. We were wearied and hungry, bu^ never- 
theless, thinking the stranger was in danger, or 
suffering, we pulled on towards him. Judge of 
our surprise when we found him to be an enor- 
mous bear. He was seated on his hams; and 
what we thought his gestures, were his motions 
in raising himself on his hind legs to pull berries 
from a high bush, and with both his paws filled, 
sitting down again. Thus he continued, daintily 
enjoying his fresh fruit, in the position some of 
our lady's lap dogs are taught to assume, when 
asking a morsel from their mistress. On we 
pullea, and forgot our hunger and wearineas. 
The bear still continued breakfasting. We got 
as close in shore as the shoal water would permit, 
and John taking my gun, a double-barrel, leaped 
into the water and gamed the beach. Some dead 
brush-wood lay between John and the bear, hiding 
the bear from his sight From our position on 
shore, we could see both John and the bear. He 
now discovered us, and advanced toward us; and 
John, not seeing him for the dead brush, ran along 
the beach towards him. The weariness from 
pulling all night, and being so long without break- 
fast, and tiie reaction produced at seeing the bear, 
probably destroyed my presence of mind, for I 
remembered, only now, that the gun was loaded 
with heavy duck-shot only, and you might as well 
with peas meet a bear. John was in danger, and 
we strained at our paddles; but as the bear was 
a very large one, and we bad no other fire-arms 
than the gun John had, we would have been but 
poor help to John in the hug of a wounded bear. 
The bear was at the other side of the dry brush 
on the beach. John heard the dry branches 


cracking before the brute, and he dodged into a 
hollow, under a thick bush. The bear passed the 
diy brush, and was coursing along the sand, but 
as he passed by where John lay, bang ! went the 
gun. The bear was struck. We saw him leap 
through the smoke on to the very spot where we 
saw John last. We held om' breath ; but, instead 
of the cry of agony we expected, bang ! went the 
gun again ! John is not yet caught ! Our canoe 
rushed through the water. We might yet be in 
time ; but my paddle fell from my hand as I saw 
John pop head and shoulders above a bush, and 
with a shout, point to the side of the log he stood 
upon. " There he lies — dead enough !" We 
were indeed thankful to the Preserver ! The 
man who was somewhat scared at a corked bottle 
of ginger-beer could meet alone, with duck-shot 
only, a large, old bear, and kill him, too. 

Here I learned, for the first time, how to pre- 
serve meat, without salt, for a month, and have it 
then good and fresh as when killed. The men 
having to return to Norway House, their home, 
dug a hole in the swamp, about two and a half 
feet deep, put in the, bottom a few dry boughs, 
then, putting in the bear's skin and about half 
the meat, covered all up. When they returned 
they would take it home with them. We took 
about half the bear along with us — all the canoe 
would cany. 

We were now in Lake Winipeg. None of us 
will ever forget it. Again and again were we 
wind-bound at its many points, and several times 
were we neai*ly swamped. My depaitment of 
the labour was bailing; this I performed with a 
small kettle. No accident had ever occurred to 
me on the water, and apprehensive of delay per- 
.mitting the frost from the north to overtake us, 
we wer<-, perhaps, too venturesome. Dunng the 
6th and 7th of September, we were wind-bound. 
On the 8th the wind abated, and we again put 
out to the lake. The waves were high, but as the 
wind had gone down, we thought they also would 
fall. It was morning; we had not as yet taken 
breakfast, and were about an hour and a half 
from our encampment, doubling a point, when a' 
wave struck us and half filled the canoe. We 
ran into the bay, bailed out, and again turned to 
the lake. A point lay about a mile and a half 
ahead. Round this point and the wind would 
be almost fair. On we pulled, wet and cold. 
How uncertain is the future ! We were nearly 
two miles from shore when a wave struck us and 
over we went. When I rose to the surface, I 
found the canoe bottom up, and John astiide on 
its stern. I struck for the stem, and grasping it 
in my arms hung on. The old man, my bows- 
man, hung on somewhere about the midships. 
He had the worst hold of us three, and, from his 

being more frequently undcfr the waves than Johar 
or I, he would be the first to give out. I said to 
John, " We die now.*' " Yes," John replied, " we 
certainly die now." I advised the men not to 
attempt swimming to shore, as the water was so 
cold they would get faint and drown, but to hold 
on to the canoe and we would drift ashore some 
time. T'hey promised to do so. 

I now saw that the bows-man was getting ex- 
hausted; his efforts to resist and rise with the 
heave of the wave, appeared to be more and more 
feeble. I asked him if he were prepared to meet 
his God ? He said, " I have prayed to him lon^ 
long ago." He was ready to die. Both the men 
were good. Christians, members of the Norway 
House Mission. The old man's eyes were closing 
when John reached forward his hand, and taking 
him by the hair, at the risk of loosing his own 
hold, placed the old man's chin upon nis knee,' 
•and kept it there, thus keeping his mouth out of 
the water. We thought that the old man was 
dead; but John, a hero, would not let his head 
drop, determined if we should get to shore to 
bury his companion on the beach. 

I now felt getting weak, and that all hope was 
over. I committed my soul and my family to 
God. I told John that I felt I was drownmg, 
and that he must, if he could, save his own life. 
He replied that he had no wish to live ; if we 
were drowned that he would drown too. The 
poor fellow's heart was like to burst, not for him- 
self, but for the old man and me. When I thought 
of home, and the wants of the work, I did wish 
to Hve. If my work was done I would die, if 
not, all the water in the lake could not drown me. 
God's will be done; I was perfe<;tly resigned. I 
priayed, and as I prayed, suddenly hope of being 
saved, hitherto lost, filled my mind. I felt by an 
irresistable impression that we would not drown, 
that we would all be saved. Nothing, that I saw, 
had occurred to cause this, but I felt assured of its 
truth. The wind blew, the waves heaved, and 
we, like floating leaves, were tossed about as the 
storm willed. It was He who rules the winds, 
the waves, and the hearts and strength of men — 
from him did we get our hope, and our strength. 
I Mi so much revived that I began to paddle 
with my arm, and just as the waves threw a 
paddle almost into John's hand, the bows-man's 
eyes opened. I now felt merry, not that I could 
laugh, but very, very happy — thankfulness to 
God being the upmost feeling. 

We neared the shore, and several times I let 
my feet drop to sound ; but no bottom. Still we 
neared the diore, and again and again did I sound, 
and at last found the bottom, but a few yards 
from the beach. 


The old man was our first care — ^he could not 
walk upright. John and I returned to save the 
canoe, and on turning it up, found of all we had 
only my bedding. God was indeed good to us 
in this, for we would have suffered much from 
cold during night, had the bedding not been 
restored to us. We knelt down on the beach and 
returned Him thanks. We now felt ourselves so 
much exhausted that we had to lay down on the 
beach, wet and cold as we were, and rest 

We picked up a few things that came ashore, 
among others a bag of biscuit, and about four 
pounds of penecan. Our misfortune lost to me 
my double-barreled gun, all my clothing, money 
and the goods I had to pay my voyagers, amount- 
ing to over £80 sterling. 

We continued our voyage. The allowance of 
the three men were about two bites of penecan 
per day, and a little mush, which had once been 
biscuit; but I could eat nothing — my losses, and 
the shock I received from our danger, destroyed 
all sensation of hunger. 

In three days we arrived at Fort Alexander. 
The men did ample justice to whatever was set 
before them ; and, to confess the truth, the sym- 

pathy of kind friends, and plenty, brought back 
my own appetite with an edge I found difficulty 
in turning. 

We were kindly received by Mr. Isbister, the 
person in chorrge. I cannot say too much of the 
kindness of Mn*. W. Sinclair. Mr. W. Sinclair 
had a good stock, and his benevolent lady pressed 
me to take, without price, all that I needed for 
the remainder of my journey, I had often heard 
of her kindness; but never proved it until now. 
I accepted two shirts, one neck 'kerchief, and a 
few other things, and had to refuse her many, 
many offers, as I could not conscientiously take 
what I really did not want 

Here I paid to John and the bows-man their 
losses, caused by the upsetting of the carioe; and 
after prayer we parted, I might here say, that 
we had daily prayer through all the journey, and 
with the families of the various forts we called 
ai . I felt sorry to part with the men who had 
sen'ed me so faithfully, and so long. Here we 
parted; they to their homes, and me to my home. 
Home, thbugh it is a bark wig^sam, is a place to 
love I 




The Mission Village of Rossville, in the Hud- 
son's Bay Territories is situated about thiee miles 
from Norway-House, one of the principal trading 
establishments of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
at the northern end of Lake Winipeg. The 
Station was commenced in September, 1840, by 
the late Rev. James Evans. Having selected 
a site for the erection of Mission-premiseB and 
dwelling-houses for the native converts, he found 
the spot thickly covered with poplars and under- 
wood ; but, with the help of Peter Jacobs, the 
Native Teacher, aided by the Indians connected 
with the post, he soon succeeded in clearing the 
wilderness ; and before the winter set in, ten com- 
fortable houses had been raised, to which a mis-* 
sion house was added by the Honourable Com- 
pany. The Indians for whose benefit the Station 
was especially designed, are apart of the Swampy 
Cree tribe ; some of whom find permanent em- 
ployment as fishermen, boatmen, and labourers, 
In the service of the Company, while others pro- 
cure their subsistence by hunting the fur-bearing 
animals with which the country abounds, the 
skins of which they sell to the Company's agents. 

Four months previously to the commencement 
of the Station, the Rev. R. T* Rundle had arrived 
at the Norway-House on his way to the Sascat- 
chewan district : and while awaiting the arrival 
of Mr. Evans, to take chaige of the Mission, he 
opened his commission, by preaching in English 
to the Company's officers and clerks, and adcSess- 
ed the Indians through the medium of an inter* 
preteh On the fint occasioii of his proclaiming 

the Gospel to the Indians, about one hundred 
were present, who manifested great attention 
whilst he unfolded to them the plan of redeeming 
love. On that very day some of them applied 
to him for baptism ; but wishing to instruct them 
further in the things of God, he declined comply- 
ing with their request for a season. The Indians 
appeared to be a people prepared of the Lord. 
Donald Ross, Esq., the Company's officer, the 

gentleman after whom the village received itsname^ 
ad taken great pains in endeavors to civilize 
them ; and he had been evidently rendered very 
useful in preparing them to receive the word of 
truth. Before Mr. Evans reached the post, seye- 
ral of the Indians were under deep concern for 
the salvation of their immortal souls, and one, a 
female, had been made a happy behever in Jesus. 
The Indians now came from a distance to hear 
the word ; and it was no uncommon sight to 
see groups of penitents, of every age, weeping 
under the subduing influence of the Spirit's 
power. Being united in Church fellowship, the j 
steadily advanced in Christian knowledge and 
piety, and demonstrated to those around, that 
the grace of God can change the savage into a 
saint Simultaneously vriSi hislaboun in the 
formation of the village, the efforts of Mr. Evans 
were directed to the adoption of measures for the 
still further diffiision of Divine truth. Having 
invented syllabic characters, by which the reading 
of the Cree language might be greatly facilitate^ 
he succeeded, after encountering many difficulties, 
in catting punches, castbg type^ and printing, 



with his own hand, lesaon-books, hymna, and por- 
tions of the holjr Scriptures, <&c Many of the 
Indians and children quickly acquired die art of 
reading, and learned to sing with fluency our 
beautiful hymns. 

The summer of 184a was unfavourable to 
agricultural improvements ; but the religious 
state of the mission was encouraging. The num- 
ber of residents on the station increased ; and 
the school was in a prosperous state ; the average 
attendance being fifty-five.. The Company 
erected a school-house at the village, and the 
foundation for a chapel was commenced. 

The Bossville settlement consisted in the au- 
tumn 'of 1844 of thirty dwellinff-houses, a chapel 
in course of erection, a school-house, and work- 
shop. Industry advanced under the influence of 
Christianity ; the cultivation carried on by the 
inhabitants gave promise of a productive harvest 
of barley, turnips and potatoes, the only crops 
whicli the rigour of the climate permitted them 
to cultivate. The Mission-garden commenced in 
tlie spring, afforded a constant supply of fr^h 
vegetables for the families of the Missionaries 
during the summer, as well as store-potatoes for 
the long winter, and seed for the following spring, 
^lie gardens of the children in the sohool, Mr. 
JAs^n stated in a communication to the Commit- 
^ looked well, as also the gardens and fields of 
barley throughout the settlement. But, what 
was infinitely more important, the people ad- 
' vanced in spiritual attainments. Their regular 
attendance on the means of grace, their consistent 
behaviour, and the ardent desire they manifested 
for the salvation of their fellow-countrymen still 
jn heathen darkness, showed them to be possessed 
ijS those sacred principles which had made them 
new .creatures in Christ Jesus. 

The church, erected by the assistance of the 
Company, wjw opened for divine service in 1846, 
and improved the i^pearance of the village, as 
well as gready promoted the comfort of the Min- 
isters and worshippers. Being anxious to estab- 
Udi a Manuel-Labour School, Mr. Evans procured 
firom the Red River settlement, a female teacher 
to mstruct the girls in spinning ; and His Excel- 
lency, Sir George Simpson, me Governor of the 
Company's Territories, generously supplied eight- 
ty-eight pounds of wool, the first ever i{>un at 
Bossville. The summer and fall of this year 
were very favourable for the gardens, whicli 
produced nearly one thousand bimels of potatoes. 
fciey improved much in civilization. They were 
clean and neat in their persons, and their houses 
esMbited an air of comfort When assembled in 
the house of God on the Sabbath, the Missionary 
reported, their deportment and appearance are 
each tbat it would have been difficult to decide 

whether it was an assembly of whites, excepting 
for the deep brown colour of their skin. The 
power and presence of God were felt in the pub- 
lic ministrations of the sanctuary, as well as at 
prayer-meetings and more private means of grace ; 
and the church-members progressed in knowledge 
and holiness. The schools were in a flourishing 
state, and promised, at no distant period, to fur- 
nish native agents for employment on the Mis- 
sion. From Donald Ross, Esq^ the Missionaries 
received unremittiug kindness ; and the interests 
of the people were promoted by that gentleman 
to the utmost of his ability. A Mission-press 
was sent from England at the close of the year, 
much to the joy of the Missionaries, who had 
long and anxiously looked for such a means of 
carrying the light of the Gospel to the dark 
places surrounding them on every hand. 

The Indians on the Station were reported, in 
1846, to be persevering, generally in the paths 
of piety, and the work of God prospered. The 
school was in a promising state, and the progress 
of the youths and children was satisfactory to 
the Missionary, and did credit to the Teachers. 
The young females were advancing in the know- 
ledge of domestic duties. The female Teacher 
en^iged during the previous year had succeeded 
in teaching several of the girls to spin, and to 
knit stockmgs, gloves, and mittens, and to make 
straw hats and bonnets. 

Space does not permit that we should continue 
the history of the Station through successive years ; 
but its gratifying state at the present time is 
shown in the following extract of a communica- 
tion from the Rev. William Mason ; who writes 
under date of August 19th, 1852 : — 

Never were our Missions more prosperous, and 
never were our circumstances more calculated to 
inspire hope. We all feel encouraged, and, with 
renewed faith and trust in God our Saviour, are 
we determined to prosecute our work of mercy ; 
for the progress of our Missions is truly encour- 
aging. There is a gradual improvement going 
on in the experience and knowledge of Divine 
things in the members of Society. Their up- 
right and consistent conduct, their steadfastness 
and diligent attention to religious, and conscien- 
tious discharge of relative duties, both at home 
and when hunting, cannot fail in giving satisfac- 
tion and encouragement to all who take an inter- 
est in the spiritual and temporal welfyre of the 
poor aborigines of these extensive Territories. 

Heathenism has received its death blow, and 
falls before the power and influence of the Gospel. 
Priestly incantations and Indian juggling have 
ceased : the conjurors themselves are askinfffor 
bqydsm at the hands of the Miauonaries. Thd 



day before the arrival of the Rev. Peter Jacobs, I 
admitted into the \isible church of Christ five 
children of the Chief of a few remaining Pagans 
of Norway House. At Jackson Bay and Oxford- 
House we baptised thirty-four souls.* We have 
one hundred and twenty in Society at Ross-Ville, 
and ten on trial : the school is also prospering. 
Since the arrival of Mr. James Isbister, fi'om 
Nelson-River, (whose diligent and persevering 
application to the duties of iiis office I cannot 
but commend,) the children have made rapid pro- 
gress. There are seventy-four scholars, divided into 
ten classes, who are taught reading, writing, 
arithmetic, and singing. Many of l£e children 
love the school, and beg to remain at the village, 
when necessity compels their parents to leave, 
that they may go to school Their good conduct 
and regular attendance are truly pleasing, and we 
have every reason to hope that they will be a 
blessing to the land of their birth ; certain it is, 
they will be much more intelligent than their 
fathers ; but we never forget that grace- alone can 
renew the heart, and make them new creatures in 
Christ Jesus. 

Our church has undergone repairs. During 
the winter we sawed timber for weather board- 
ing, which was planed in the spring, and put up. 
The building now looks very well, and will last 
for years, as it has been painted both inside and 
out. Towards defraying the expenses incurred, 
I am glad to acknowledge the liberal contribu- 
tion of George Bamston, Esq., of £5 ; and also 
£2 for prizes to the school-children. The Chris- 
tian Indians gave three days' work each, and 
some are becoming quite expert joiners. 

A great stimulus was given to the children's 
progress in learning, and to the mission generally, 
by the interest which George Bamston, Esq., has 
taken in the prosperity of our cause, and by the 
very liberal contributions of some of the Honour- 

* More than eight hundred baptisms are registered on this 
Station rince the commeDceirent of the Mission in the year 

able Company's officers, — a list of which I now 
forward you for due insertion. (The transfers will 
appear in the Company's account next year.) 

Our operations in the printing department 
have been somewhat retarded by the want of a 
printer and an ink-ball ; yet notwithstanding, we 
managed to take off an edition of St John's 
Gospel, six copies of which I now forward you. 
This will be a great blessing to our Indians, 
especially when far away from their homes, and 
the appointed means of grace, endeavouring to 
obtain food, and clothing for their families by 
the only means these cold and desolate regions 
afibrd, namely, hunting. Our Indians are fond 
of reading, and highly value the books printed 
in the syllabic characters, a knowledge of which 
they soon acquire. This additional publication 
will be to them a rich mine of spiritual wealth, 
imparting light to their mtnds, consolation to their 
hearts, and will lead them to hope and prepare 
for a better and brighter world above. We need 
help in this department; for -we are quite out of 
our Hymn-BcK)k8, Prayer-Books, Catechisms, 
translations of which works are ready for a second 
and third edition. 

My own proper work, thank God, I have been 
enabled to perform during the past year without 
interniission : preaching once in English to the 
residents of the Company's Fort, Norway-House, 
and twice in Indian at Ross-Ville, every Sabbath. 
In both places the congregations are good, and 
the people give great attention to the word of 
life. Our school examination, conducted by 
George Bamston, Esq., was a very interesting 
occasion ; £10 in goods and provisions were 
distributed ; and truly sorry we were that Mr. 
Jacobs had not amved to enjoy the scene. 

I forward you, also, by this opportunity, two 
letters from the Sascatohewan, one from James 
Hope, and the other from Batosh ; the earnest 
and touching appeal for help I hope will be met 
by our Conference in Canada. Another priest 
has gone up there this summer. 


The followiag was omitted in printing the foregoing Journal. It should have been inserted on the 19th page. 

The omission is there indicated by the stars. 

When we camo to the mouth of the river, we 
had to pass through marshes about G miles long, 
before we arrived at the real banks of the river. 
Ducks are very numerous here during the summer 
season. Geese are only seen here in the spring 
iu large bands. About 8 miles from the moi^th 
of the river commences the Indian Settlement, 
which was founded by the Rev. William Coch- 
rane, one of the Missionaiies sent out to this coun- 
try by the Church Missionary Society. The 
wiiole Indian Settlement is about four miles in 
length, the upper part of which is settled by the 
Mu3C{iigoes, and the lower part by the Chippe- 
ways. The Muscaigoes occupy most of the ground^ 
and their Mission and Church look most beauti- 
ful. The houses are built ou both sides of the 
river. From the niouth of the river to the upper 
end of the Indian Settlement, there ai'e 12 miles, 
and from this to the Lower Fort Garry, are 6 
miles. This Fort belongs to the liudson^s Bay 
Company, All the houses ai-e built of stonti, 
and they are foitified by a stone wall around them, 
which is about 9 feet hiiyh. This would not stand 
well against a well disciplined army with cannon, 
for they could easily throw up temporary ladders 
and scale the walls. The banks where this Fort 
is situated, are the highest in the settlement, so 
there is no fear of a flood overflowing the banks. 
From this Fort to the White Horse Plain, which 
is about 48 miles distant, houses are to be seen 
all aloi^ the river, especially on the west side, — 
fine farms and excellent land are to be seen all 
the w^. The farmei-s here do not manure their 
fields; they say that if they would manure them 
the wheat would grow up into stalks, without any 
graui. This plainly shows the great richness of 
the soil. The soil of the whole country is of a 
dark loomy clay. On the west side of the river 
are prairies, extending many miles back, with 
veiy few trees and a Uttle scrubby oak and poplar. 
The prairies appear to the ti*aveller*s eye as an 
immense ocean. There is nothing to attract the 
attention of the eye. I believe that the whole 
prairie country for hundreds of miles towards the 
Hocky Mountains, is excellent soil and rich coun- 
try. In these prairies of the western world there 
18 rooni for a million or more of farmers — I mean 
the whole prairie country on the east side of the 
Rocky Mountains, where thousands of buffaloes 
rove on the British Territories, and more so on 
the American Territories. But there is no tim- 
ber to be found in the plains, and therefore if 
men would settle here, they would have to build 
their houses of brick. 

On the flats of Red River, from the Lower Fort 
■ Garry and upwards, grow large elm trees ; this is 
the only hard timber worth speaking of. The 
diistance between the Lower Fort Garry and 
the Upper Fort Garry is 18 miles. This Upper 
i'ort Gfarry is situated on the banks of the Assi- 
nibonie River, which falls into the Red River, 
imd is a much stronger fort than the other. All 
the houses are built of wood, except two, which. 
ire built of ston^. In the summer season th.Q 

k^jftsBW n^^a 

I 7 


.j.'i» -1 

Theie are four Churches in the whole settle- 
ment, belonging to the Church of England, the 
largest of which is St. Andrews, at tlie Grand 
Rapids. This is a be^tiful building of stone. 
Another chu?ch is about to te luilt by the 
Church Missionai-y Society oh the Assinibonie 
River ; and preparations fire made by the Pres- 
byterian commuiiity for erecting a church at the 
Frog Plain, which is about five miles below the 
Upper Fort Garry. Mr. Black, the Presbyterian 
clergyman, is an excellent man. it is not quite 
a year since he came to the settlement from 
Canada. There are five clergymen oi the Church 
of England and a Bishop named David Ander- 
son, who is a very good and kind man. He is 
doing all he can for the Indiahs; There is also a 
Roman Catholic Bishop and three oi four PriestSi 

Wlion I came to the settlement^ I found that 
there had been a flood this spring in the settle- 
ment. Nearly every day daring the flood, houses^ 
barns, <fec. were seen floating down tJie river fi^m 
the upper part of the settlement. The sight was 
really awful. The settlers were obliged to leave 
their houses and property iind tent out on the 
hills and mountains ai-ound themi Veiy much 
property was lost on the whole ; but only one hfe 
was lost, and this was the servant of the Bishop* 
It will be long before the inhabitants of the set- 
tlement are in the same condition as formerly* 
Timber is now very scarce, and it must be brought 
down from the Pembina, which is 60 miles from 
the settlement, before any houses are built. It is 
a great pity that the inhabitants of this place 
make not their houses of brick iustoad of wood, 
for they would stand much loi^ei', and the^ 
would be nearly as cheap as wood houses. Many 
of the inhabitants, however, on the lower part of 
the settlement, are now building stone houses. 
There are 17 wind mills and 2 water mills. 
There are 7 or 8 schools in the settlt^ment. The 
gentlemen and ladies that come to church, come 
in high style — ^that is, with their horses, and car- 
riages and buggies of the London make i dnd 
many of them came on horseback. Most of 
these gentlemen are those who retired from the 
service of the Hon. Hudson's Bay Company, for- 
merly called Chief Factors and Chief Traders. 
The Company have two laige stores in the set- 
tlement, one at the Upper Fort and one at the 
Lower Fort, where they have warehouses filled 
with all sorts of merchandise, and liquors of dif- 
ferent sorts. The wines are of the superior kind. 
The gentlemen of the Company hfive everything 
pretty much their own way. 

Formerly wild buflaloes used to be found in 
the woods at the mouth of Red River, and on the 
prairies along the River, but none are now to be 
found within 20 days' journey of the S. W. side 
of the Settlement, as they have been driven away 
and killed ; but moose aad x^Wsfcx ^sxfc'^S^\R»Hift^ 
\ found m \Jti^ ^oo\% %^ 'vJftfe \^Qxx\Xv ^\"'^^^:^^ 

'■ \