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OMDflU Ropiirt, Uny, ]h77, «ru1 BdUnu-Khmt fbr 1876 t 

Um of CoiiDfiit, <>Mi«tM, UjnDruy aii4 Uononiy Canvc ponding 

UcmbMi, tad FoLIowi ,. %w 

lift of PuLlk lutUmtiDTu, ^., ur whicli «<jiim <if (1i« ' J^mniKl ' uiil 

iDdlTldiula to vhim iho K^yal Pramlumi), Ac, hitra baan kVAriTdd ., tsxv 
PnMoUtioD or Gold Medals, ^ Olid 

tV.V. IV A<Hft4tt •*« «lOBe Ti Mt B m lbl* tnr tbff OHlevU af i^oIf mpflrlLv* p4p«m] 

1.— ^)o th« BoJiod Citic* in tht f^hiftinfc Satidt of Uh> Qn«t Di^wrt of 

GO^ By ^It 1\ LX^EJQl-AB KOBftVTii, K^C.HJ I 

3-— "nio Itwloo Kxpodltioa to tbo Aki and Famif. By IIqjvgrt 

JltOURU 11 

S.^Roccct jDnmoya ia Modftfcuciu-: dcicrlbcd by B«v. Jonru 

UnLUTB, i>.ii 47 

4< — Oa tbc DiBtrbutioQ vf 8&U iii Lh« Ocqaji, u iaiiic&t^ l)> tLn ^EnciAv 
OraTjty uf iLa W^L<ni, It/ J. Y. Q^CHAEirAli, CbcmbL uid Phy* 
tncml ia l\ic VhaiUri^cr F4X\nA\it*m 72 

S^^-Aarouat of tberundit'ii Juum^y iii GcvutTJbeL frmti [jib Jt; fjuUkh 
Id LhiA, 4ud uf Jii* Reliun tu JmiU vilfi Amuu. Dy OitpUiu iL 
TnriTKit ft'L 80 

4. — Iffots on the Dnki* «l York (Irtupk Iftir BriUlti, «uil Ntrv IrolAnd. 

Ry Kcff. 0. BfturfB ISr 

7. — Cobiu*] SftfnctTiiikT** Kxpivlirhn Eo ClilQh ^n }874-A- Abrklgrd 
akT\i[ ffthulDfrd froETi thv Ttiiuidn. Iiy r«|>t- K^ C. \i- Ci^irkie, n.i,, 
UtmUrr of ibv Oi^jgrajihicnl iSniii/iiy <if SU rul(nil»urg _ 150 

t. — Joiiroai of Bltoula from Jwk tu R*jnrilr Hy K- A. Pijotkk, B«fi0al 

€tTii acTffwc Untv>if , Ptfrti»ii fliilf T"ie^™pli8 IBB 

9_ — Jioia ou HoUvifl, to sccoTiipany Onninftl Mapi. By <J»>*'»b - 

Cu^HOi^n UcnTEEtA, l^otirod Comiuft^idt^r, a,x- -» ., .. ,. £01 

JIX'-KatO 00 wam9 of tho Phyaionl ivn<l < )i«]J<y iiMLt KontLtrtB of tlio 
Truvvnu], to uoorapony hik uow Mn|! oE thir 'I'mtKvnal lad 
fumuodinit TorrlloriffA. Jiy Fudjiilick Jkcc'R, rn.o.a 21? 


( ir ) 

11. — Tb« Dciaert of AUotmft (BoIiTi*). By Jootah HAHDora, a.lo.e, ,. 260 

12. — The Kingonl River, E«st AfricA. B; Fbedkbice Holuwood, 

ABaifltAnt-FoUtical Agent, ZaLzibax .. .. .. ., .. 253 

13.— Gewraphy and EMonrcei of Newfoimdluid, By Albiandeb 


14.- — lUport of t Jonrney acftma the laland of NewfoundlAfidp underlakeTi 
at the inBtauce of hia EiceUency Sir J. U. Glover, Trom the eouth- 
WMt ann of Green Bay, via Guld Cove in "WhTte Bay, to the eaat 
aim of BotinQ Bay. By Staff-ODOuaftiidflj- Obokub HoBiNeoN, Rjt. 27B 




1. MtcLLBBH .. ., Boath-EaHt MadagOBcar to/oce 47 

2. rt -■ .' WntMidagaKar 63 

3. ,, .. .. North Modagucar „ 67 

4. BuoHAiTAH .. Phywcal Map of World „ 73 

6. „ .. Section of Atlantic Ocean „ 79 

fl. „ ., Secaon of Pacific Ocean „ 81 

7. Thottbb .. .. Nain Singh's Ttoate in Great Tibet 87 

8. Flotib ,. .. Bouth-Eaat Feraia 189 

ft. MDerKES .. ., BoHti» , 201 

la Jeffb .. .. Trauavaal 217 

11. Habdiko ., .. Desert of Atacama (Bolivia) 251 

12. HoLHffOOD .. Eingani River „ 253 

13. HuBBiY „ .. Newfoundtand „ 267 

14. RoBiKBON .. „ Newfbnndtand 279 



Skxd at tub Assivciwary Mkktiso on the 2&rH Mat, 

The Counci] hav^ the pW&«ure or enbiDittin^ to the Fellowt 
tbe cujctom^y Aonual Itvrport ou tlie tbiauL-ial mid genvml 
(TumliLiou uftUd Society. 

3femWv. — Tbo ntim1>or of new Fellowf add^d to the toll of 
Ibe Suciety diLrin)!; tlio yoir oodisg April 30th is 202, l>uaiflcH 
oae Hooomry and two Honorary Correa ponding Membora, Jn 
jlke preTtoiis yenr (187.^-43)^ tlie niunber of new Ft^llotvn wim 
[s/m: iu I874-i, 294; aud in 1873^, 342. On thL^i,th*iHmnil, 
ili«re hare been reinoTed by doath ^^, by redigaation 43, aud 
by dtt£aiilt of suiacriptioD 45: making the n^t mr^roaeo 138. 
In Um year 1875-^ the net inc^reiwe wjis I4ft ; in 1874-5, 202 ; 
and in 1873-4, 177. The Scioiety h&a lust tdm by d^ufh 
4 IloiKirmry CcitTct<|>on<liug Membere. The tutal nuuibrt "f 
f clJowa (cxcluMvo of Honorary) on the lidt, A|)hl 3Utli, njta 
32&&, of whom 76t> wero Life Men^bora. 

Finanee$. — The total not income of the Society kr tlie 
lUumciiLl year ending Slet of Decomber. lS7l> (eiiolufiive i>f 
Wanc^; in hand and special Parliamentary grant), wa« 
86112. lU &2., of uhi^li 710^^ 11«. euDaiBted of tlie Hulwcrijt- 
tionit <»f Fcllovrn. Thefie aiui^uiiU cotapaie favuuxubly with 

tI V ■ ■ J^oyai GtOffraphicai Societi/, 

the aame ifl^B of preTione years : thua in 1 875 the income 
WM 793^ 13«. lOd., and subscriptions 6441?, 11*. In 1874, 
751U lU.^Oi, and 64251 Is. 6d, ; and in 1873, 6752i As. 4d. 

and 5^ Ids, &2. 

Tlw^'iet expenditure, as will be seen by the annexed 

Balance-sheet, was 6870Z. 138. It^ In the previous year it was 

568^. As. lOd, Fart of this increase is due to the greater 

''atntiunt spent on Kxpeditions, riz. 1054L 9s. as compared with 

:^ll. 3a Ad., and the rest chiefly to the greater cost of the 

.publications and maps. No mooey was inrested within the 


The Finance Committee of the Council have, as in former 
years, held their Monthly Keetings, supervising the accounts 
of the Society. The Annual Audit was held in April, the 
Auditors, whose eignatures are appended to the annexed 
Balance-sheet, being the Right Hon. Lord Cottesloe and Sir 
EawBon W, BawBOD, on behalf of the Council, and General 
Sir George Balfour, u.p^, and H. Jones Williams, Esq., on 
behalf of the Fellows. The thanks of the Council and of 
the Society at large are due to these gentlemen, for having 
freely devoted so much of their valuable time to this ardilous 






^^V^^ ittp^ of tlu Cauntii, ttil ■ 

W SrATncnct iIiohbik ihv IfRCRin-s kxid BxratvjTUM cf Uie Socittr Trwn H 

1 ilif Yflir It^-IF^ lo Hw 31*1 Dm. 1876. | 








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lb in Auwcuil of Mt^ ""'"'■■^ n.lW fl a 1837 ID 

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^H 2" Ir'"'"S?r.S UMigo i^fQ 1 gjjia ff 1 B80E a o 

Bftifi ID 

^V Kiptdlticdk ICHIl. Hr milolOT » 7 100.J 

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W Id t^fi ^jmHbI pATllk^ ms «.ll» 7 D IWKl 1 6 

M71 13 2 

I BHtaTT C^nmt f.r I'JXKV. ix;:< t.ti^i iti in '^n^ i » 

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TftTA :& $ 

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5»ta 4 10 

I 1 IbTtl 11.011 H » .. .. 

eaTo la i 

^^fc ttTATOOcn of ABTTft^-SlBt U«n 

mbDT. iSilS, ' 

Tn^liolfl H'loM', Killiuici. jlqJ Khimiluto, dHtlEnntod 

t t, d. 

f*.ifhjii:ircilM"iii:x.U&?1louiiiin<!UlirTCjj .,/ ^u.vw- u >• 

ItimUlHfDll* <L&.^— 

(lKi»iW«tcniB*UvBT4t pet CflniDobrntani ,,^^^ ,k „ 
Bft^ Clkvb BmwnI) ^ )Jsao 

|>*b.intur»S(iKik<MiJTt]iiii.iaDt»quwO '"^ " " 

Btpfk ,. ., 

Grciii li>dian Pmbnila IEbiIwa^ Oniutkiktecd 


jnnn n n 

&|«rC«DtCAptUJSt«k , ^ 

HjutJi Rtilkf^uar BlIU - .. IfiOO 

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TAtal .. ,. 8a, 586 3 1 

* Tbli iniin lodniln tim dpi^fllnl r&r1i«]n^»lAn| Hmiitof 3VM1I, lovftidatho 
^E|wiiK« ;rf Ui« C«jnciou Ej^pcuHloji, InuisfcrTfid iknior D«. UUt» 107G^ 


Uo^al Geographical Sociefy. 

P«WiWw«#.— The 4€th Yolumo of Hi^ 'Journal' riU be 
|>ul>liiji(?il durintr tbn prk»Qnt week, lh*5 issuo buvinp; be^n 
dekyM Uii* y^ur uwui^ to tUe neoeasity of iimludiD^ Colonrl 
C- G. GtinloTi's JEiiportjiiit Mnp of the (Mmiiection of the Nile 
with tliu Eqimtorjjil Liil^es nud hs iic€iiin]>aiiyiiig Paperi which 
wore |>r^.<<<?at<»ii hy its ftutlior aflrr the r^^t of ihe 'Journal' 
ViM ntkdy for pubH(<u1ion. Vrjiumc 20 of Iho 'Prooeedin^rB* 
ha« btM>n eouiploiad, aad ibr^e puiU of Volume 21 isao^d to 
till' Fi'llortfc, siiii^o ihe lust AiiuivtiHHiy. 

IMiHi^o^^ Aid Eirj>cdUiftn8.—^\^\f^ largn lun^kunt oxp(>ctf)d to 
bttObargod in thcpreai-Dt Bu]iui(te-si]vvl,<iniici:ou]]torL]OUtcuuut 
Cunnrj^nV Exj^itioQ, for which the Fellows w^-rt- prt-pared xsx 
\\Ukt yi*(U-'K K(i|K)rt, wmh Imppiljr rtihjced to modenitii pnifioitiotiH 
in con«tiqucnt ri of thi? Ubcmlity of Her Majesty's GoverDment, 
who soDctirimN] a ^nnt of ^(OIX)/. tuvardti the eJip'^neca of thie 
truly nfttJiTiul uniiortjihins- Tho sum paid out of the Society's 
fuuds on tbid nci^unt, ab will he seeiL by the BHUnrfr-tiboet, 
WMJ4 only IDM^ 9jr, Thrtri? ara KtHI f^tww.' okit^tfl riding bille 
which will a(~»pcar, it is uxpeeted, in tho iKJLt Dalauct-Hthect : 
and on tho crodit eidc^ aleot tbcr« iriU appoar the amount 
(4riOI,) produced by iho sale, n few weeks a^'o, of the sohooaer 
wbic^h brought Lieutenant Cameroo'i fuHowers from l^oe&dA to 

LitflXtry. — 739 books and pamphlet* hftTo booa added 
to tho library during tho post ycur, fj^tg (including all the 
p«imphlotr4) boin^ d<mAtioiiJt. and 201 purch^ed, Uesidee 
thew^, and without reottODtDg iie^'9p»ipnrH, 1214 separate pnrld 
or numbers of jKirioiiliL^K TmR^urtioriH, Iteporta, &a, hftvo 
been roceivod. 2Q wbolo volumea and 5& aeparato parts havr- 
boen obtaini>d by gift in, of towanl^, completion of doL^ctive 

Tt» addition to th« nnnif^roim pamphlets and small worke put 
iuto covera on the Society's premiA^. 313 Wuuiea huve hvon 
bound and 4i repaired during the poat year. 

Tho Bum of W^L 11^, '^d. hue bnon expended by tho Librftry 
CoBirDittd« in purchoMing books, and the further eum of 
114L Si. tii. in Lindiikg, 

Among the aoid import^at acccwioDB are i^UlchaLd a 

M^ert ^tAt (UtinaL fit 

Bingrtpkie nniverselli^ (45 voK^; t1i« vlidlo ot tlie |iDliltcii- 
t>o£i9 reflulun)? irom lb« \«jr»(-e or the AunLri&a fn^tti ffovara 
nmmi the twttJi (pK«vnt^ by ibo Ausl^iaBUuv^ramfiDt on tbo 
'i^vpUoalioo of Dr. K&rl von Soheraer) ; ^e compJetioD of tli9 
likfj works of tbo Suedi^b nrigftto i^t^MtM (|>r«<8eiited by tbe 
R. Su^lith Ac^emy of Scienomi); Gi^Liolia Viaggto iuiorno 
aJ Giobo delU Mftgt*i>U (pn^ftratod by the Author) ; a ollectioa 
of 17 AfntMin ^nuncun, clictionarieft. vid vfx-abuliiri«a, hy 
Cw9iitvT, Kirtll*\ Kmpf, ScIhSd, li*^ichardt, find otb«n (pre* 
ientod bj the Chnrr-)i MiisioDAry Society, tbroii^h & Hutobiuaoii, 
Kn<].) ; Mr. W. H. Hoop«r'» jirirnip ji>4tniulH of llm voyii^Mi nf 
liif? Hetia uii Gri^KT^ Ac^ id arar«h of li North-Wmt runruigrr 
ToLk (pnifiDted by W. K F. Hi^jpcT. l^^^q.); the 6 voIa. dow 
■pubUibttd of Uio IHb oditioD of tbe £u<*yclop/6dia Brifivnnt<*a 
[ftffOimtod by MeMJit. BUok and Ca) ; Pi«AiM*A Gc-c^radii Vwim 
Cbilff (iircjM-iiUfli by llin Oliilimi MiiiisUr, nt*r T. K, Wi-ir, 
'&iq.) ; Sir T, D. Fonty^b^a H4^fK>^t of the Miwiun to \Vkiind» 
in iB73, Hantcr** ntitj^lical uoc-ount of i!i-n^id m voL^,* 
XMUvni Peni^ odil^ f>y Sir F. Goltlnnu'l, imd Bufpow'a 
Ant^1liti««of KitthiHwnr imrl Kiii^hh (prriiuuid by H-M.89cre- 
t«ry i)f HtuU^ tW Indj/i, with mnny nther vnliinbln books »nd 
[;fapcr<); tbo Dttc dc Lujat^' Voyiigo d'Explo rutin™! ^h m*»r 
Kofio; fianerDft'* Nativfi rncon of tbe rncitio; iIk ufLntrcg 
TolUBiM of tbo CollocliOQ dfa Guldr)i<j4^uiiiio ; tbcr Zoolo|fy of 
thfi VojAgO of ibc Harrdd ; Wallut-it'K fi<*oj;rnphion] distri l>iit]on 
crfaDJDiftbi (pit9et)tcd by tin* Aiillior); IiodHgiLr/> VA Marufiori, 
16M (porttofiiod by CoL ti. E. Oborcb); tbe tmo tnTeU of 
OBpitftii>o Jobu Bmith, 163U /prr^cntcd by W. Ohandk«8. Kwf.^ ; 
thtt AiImw to CaiJUu<rd Voy^g^ k M«ro« ; tbi? LuokDon Alborii 
(prasecited by R Bickprv, Va^.) \ ibo completinff pam of 
mt i bdJ all vd. lu of TUi.^Iijh' 0^ci)?;j'Aphie Univerfielh 
(presootad by the Author) ; and two Albunis of photOfrapba of 
AdelAido (preaoiktod by ttio S. AuatroljaD Goveramcnt» por J. 
Boolhby, Eb^^-V 

Tbe whole ot tbe Libnry has dow been re-nrrarif^e'T and preu- 
niiirkiBd ; aud the room attonlud by tbe receully-adJr^d l>['r¥<Hi-3i 
will p«niut of additions, ut the prot^uut aremge xaX^, for two or 

A ««ond flUppleiDent^l Catalu^^ue, to indnde ftcquisilionf; 
£rom January, Ibil, to DeE^erubcr, ISTO, ifiolUBirely, is now iu 


conney of prepamtion, havinf^ bti«D otilhorizod by the OonncP 
00 the rwomui'^iniation r-f the Library Oominitt^e. 

TliB Lilimnr toniitniftiii to In* tihil-L eorihiilfed hj Follows of 
llib Society, private btudeEils, aullium, and ofCcers vf tho public 

iitt}h]i&>m. — TUa ocoeasiond to the Mop-iioom UolJectioQ 
ttineta thi> laiit AnuiT^reaty oompr'iec 3U1 Maps on 1420 tShdeU; 
5 Allai^s, oontainlng 73 AJap« ; of tliE-de 10 Mape acd 2 Atlasea 
are by purehaHB. 10 Iliaj^rama havi? bec^n roTist.ructed on th» 
eaifeblitOuuT^rit* aud 3 othere have b«en arldod by piin:]iaje. 

Amon;; tko mo^t iiuportant aoquifiitiouB are : — G02 8hetit£ of 
th6 OrdLaniie Hiirvey Maps of f>rea.t Bntbin, on various soalea; 
praiecilcid by t\i& Firet Oommisai'^tier of Workt^, tlirough MajoT- 
(ii^cml Crittn^nm, I>irin*l^>r. 7.1 British Aclmirnlty CbarU; 
pre^eiitod by tK«> l-nnljif^mmiuioiir^raof iLd AdminiUy, tbrougb 
CaptaiQ 1"% J^ KvM^ii. e.H., liydrographen 54 French Admirnliy 
Charta; proecnlci by llm iJopot JoaCnrtosrt PlfinscloUMiinne. 
32S SheoU of vnriiJiiw Irnliu Topo;;m(il]ipal Surteyy ; presnntod 
by H.M. Sm'.n'-iftry of Slj»t,<t for Irilia, tbrougii thi? IiuLia Offite. 
83 Sbe«t« of tbo Sf^zial-Earto der Ooatormcbi&ch'UiigariscbeD 
narohio. scolo rr+rr.^ 1 by piitchase. IS Kliceta of Trocitigs, 

, sont^d by OoloQol C G. (ioMon, of the Nil© between BerbcFi 

Khartum, t^nd the Yiotoria Nyiinza. Map« i&euod by General I 
StoDe<« C'iji»?f of ibe Gt-n^ml SiafT, Cuiro; prf-pflrKl by the 
UlG<]tta of tht? KbiriJiv^'a Hxpedluou to the Uppt^r Nile, iWfur 
and Abyaainia. 31 8b^la of Norwegian Mapa aad Charta; ■ 
prttsented by rin^itnt Gik>ppaphicjiie de la NorT^go. 7 Sht?et* 
of the Topoxrapbittil Survey tf Sw<>deu ; pmseDted by Colon')! 
V, von VT"gftuw*k, Dire-'t^>r, Map of E. (iil(«*s Exploration in I 
ATistmlia; ]>reiMrit;d in tbt*Siii"reyor*Gpucrul'H Oflii.w, A<icbii(le, 
and pn*8entrd by ILM. Sccri^tary of .^litc for tho Colonics. 
Maps ehowin^ k'rolc^or Nordonifki old's Tmeka on tho Koto 8oa 
an*! to the raouth of the Kiver Obi, in 1S70-6, Map of Bonkta, 
H^^rz&govina, Serria. and MoTitPupgrr*, r*n 12 Sheets. 8beeU 
f>f the Swdi^b (jkmlckf^ionl Survey; pvt-senttd by Otto Torell, 
Director, Miip» of tbe Stat** GeiJogical Survey of OtLliforuia; 
pT<-w>ntod by J, L). Whitnoy. Map lo dliiatrato the Hialory of 
th« Geography of Pern, prior to l-^'tS^ by Doo Antonio Koi- 
iQondJ. 3d Sbeetfi of tbo Topographical Atlas of Switzerland ; 

i-4MH>l^l by Coloiwl SiegfncKl, Ohjpf of Fed pi«l Survey, Be roe, 
Bttubrds Library Map vf I^udum, od !^4 8hi>elA; putchii«ed. 
Ue<Jof:k^I iUp of Jicwfoutidlttin.!, by Alexander XiirT&y, Hap 
ehowiDg th« itirectioii tmd probotle inteceity of the Winda ui 
the North AU&ntic O^^win, by Lieiit^naut L. ifranlt* FreiKiU 
Natj; presented by J. F. Immy, Ki^|. GetJa^io-itl Map of 
BcolUad by A. Geikl«, lij); preieuted by Mdwtfl. W. atid A. 
K. Johofitcai, PublitfbeTK UontBliwc, by £. Vioilet le Duo; 
puiduwd. Map of Persia, oompUed by Capt^ici ^t Juim, aB., 
oo 6 S&eeta. TkUp of Tuikutanaiid tbe adjoining Coojitriffl, by 
Colou^l J. ^ Wolkfir. n.E., 4 Slieeta. 3 t^rtri uf 8pnmt-r'a 
Atlfia of Mcdieviil Gc<*};rapby ; pretieiilcd by Juittuii IVitliGi, 
GoUm. UapA and PUoio;:n)phfl by U.& GuoJo^ic^Al and Uto- 
(^nphieal Survey of the Tt'pHii>ti<<fl ; proat^nu-d by Dr. F. V, 
Hayd^o, Director. Map of Kiiruift^n liii*»ia, t»c 12 Shwl*; 
jjun'bi-tMTi.L Native Jlnp of CbuiOHti Turkintni^; prt?wub^l by 
H. Kufdcb, Y^. %hwU of tliti T^jpoio'^tp^icol At1a« of Dim- 
marlc ; proseJital by the ItovuL L>ujiiflh Miiiietry of War, thrtniijli 
Couat voEk Bulov. Maps by Pr. Petemibiin from the Qeo^ra* 
phiaebe Uiu1i«iliiiig6^i. FliyHi(-4J uiid StiiiiiiUcal Ailtw uf the 
Gftnaau Eaipliv, PaK L i purthased. 

Of^aU to jTrtp^fcra, — lastimnonts httye bc«n lent in the past 
tvtci y«ara to the foUowiag travellers: — Mr. E. D. Youku. r.h», 
proceediitg to I^oke Xyassa to form n >rmionary Seltlemeut 
at UvJtig«4oiiia, a couuplele 8el of lii^lruineat^ ; amoutilio^r to 
9S£ 17<- Qd, Thf^ae bave now bcea tranafeired to Iho caiv of 
Dr- Janfeca SlcwarL in char[^»o of Ihat StatioD-^W. L, WAXiti, 
Biq^ F,a.O^ Vitat to loela&d, two anerviitis and one comp^As 
(pmmatlo); vaTaa 14i. — Capt Akmck Touku, HhH.r., Aroib 
R^H}Cii,SitiitJi8oiiud: one |K.>okrl c'bronomQter; builiiig-wjittfr 
a|^<U!alilfl; three B. P. thermometers; ose artitidd honzon 
aad m iDtfonnol bjirom^^r, t^th on C'apt 0. Uoorf^o d pattern ; 
Taloe^ «^— Mr. H. B. Cotterill, Visit to Lake Nyiwaa: ono 
pTLBKiatic compius; boUing-uater apparatus; aod tivo B. P. 
tWniomet«trH ; a wuU'.h by I)rx)ck; value^ 24f. — CitpL Au^iiN 
for^o, rt.^.R., Yoya^re up Smith Soimd to the Arctio Kx- 
pbrbg Expcditiou: a murourial barometer Capt C Ueorge'ft 
patteni; boiliDg-t^ttt'^r uppuratu^, aud two B. P. theiinometon ; 

xii Baport of CA0 CcmnciL 

a pocket chronometer; bottle of mercory; value, 29t — Hev, 
Q, W, Thombok, East Ooaat of Africa : boiling-water appa- 
ratus, and 2 B. P. thermometers ; value, 5t — Lieut C» CoH- 
ORETt, BJT., Paraguay, South America: a sextant, 6 in.; 
artificial horizon, large, Capt, 0. George's pattern ; value, Xbl. 

Report of the Owtdh 


^(QIQHr- 41 00 03 ARiO 

.«f«a ^ O H 9Q 

^*SS2 s S « S3 

r"^^ ^ n n so 


•« xa F<4 

- *^ S 

_ n ?* 



n r£ If) 
C^ c C4 











■— i-i " -H 





=^^j^:iB^i i:-' 

I .-^ a — 


1^41 roR. 

HIS &0TA1 mOlOCKSS the PniNC£ OK WALES, K.<1^ K.T., KJ«0X3, 

aid BOVAL nion;fEs$ the hukz of KuiNRut^^r, k,o,» k.t^ o^cal, t^ «& 


<CLnn'CJ> ian lUT. I>1T.| 

CoTtDi-ai, Th« Kffct Hnh, Un*. 

K,Ch„ Ik. 


II rjsjk., iBo, 

IUMQUII,aaBtabK.,Ktq.>(MI., F-IOn. H U^job, Kidiu^ H«i!it7, &q^ F.SJI, 
lElrmbrrs of ^.Bnncif, 

BaOWttCTE, Hon, G. C, 

iMnroH. Sir T. Fonrll, Pm*. ' 

PlMMTIE, Sir T- liouf^r-n K-OS.I., C.B, 
Okk», ItiM^tfi, Sir W. EI. fi„ K.C.8.I, 

RiciiABH, Admlnl Sir Q^om H^ C,B» 
ToLC, Culcwl BauJ^ CJL 




R l,M' r>arn f>jtroll.. f^TDTitrornf nnull. | H.lLlf. di? Puke orRilinlirtnEh 
H.U. Dum IMi I,, Liiuk: •'t iVitu^aL 

51. l^ttnbuTg. Ifomvj, 

11^ 1CI>S of ^vtdxi ui 


BjiLuli M, t:i]jc^D« lie. 

BuriAN, i>r, AdoLjilt .. ,. ..Bnman 

IlKiUJlBi^fl, I'mr, Hainnah .. ., IWrlin 
Hit 1*11 Ki*T KH, |>F, HfrmBnn, fiofft™ >jti» 
Cum. I'i'jC- I'lul H> '■ Gcii«*i 

d>iiA, Siifiiflr Cuidu, I? Vi» PffiviilcHit, 

Cniivn. HM F^vull*fv7 Atrbor liwA <<■ 

Andnit ., Llibn 

rxirhVITRM, Gut^nl L. .. .. ¥vuii» 
KlQAiiiCau, CAfomuuler JorgA Ctwir, 

Fdmkiuvhb^ t*nU P. W Kl*1 

FncuoxT, I'JaiiBil .. .. Mav Terfa 

<rUTor» Prf^r, i4^iJ,i Frlnivlaii* If fi* ■Irrtpv 
IfklrsLAb, Gi:Ltril .. -- .^ Vknuih 

H KLUKiiiLT, Gm. V. rant J^t- I'rt^rtburg 
llii4?kj(TicTTitii, tv. frnllnanU von, I'rv*, 
Imji, OtDemiij, ^ucoT '. ,> Vlmnii 
llflKHeH, l,« P»rfl 

JxTillcTI. CWf>ULD M . If .. I^1.M,» ^'ha Hwif «, 

K>:-4%'£l-LT, D. J. Kiq.p r.KAA. 
KiitAEAOr, F. >1. ^. .. ., .. Pjtrj* 
KiKL'KiiT, Dr. I[. ., -. .- .- Berlin 
LliL> Jm«(U ^Jtm Mtudd, Miciutoi 4>f lltn 

Cii\tm\t* - . . I If hon 

LisAin pBiliA ., AlfiUULlria 

Ltih*i Ailmitnl drnut F.U,, 31, reusnlurit 

$00, Df , . - , . . . I'lUi* 

MiiUA MiLcVH Kiikti. Hit RtHl3iO(rf» 

S'&iitl, CHrrnUpf C'rUtafaro, Co&trfcti flu 
Fmno««,d( PjwU^Nd. IKP.S ..Tonon 

Nouiiv-. Vk*-A^inii«l iLaran da 1« Itor'. 
pli<ra [r Pirw 

Ninun P&17H4, Hki EiullfOflT >■ CWro 

UlTUI &4ClKi;EI» E4UVII Vt, VdD Jir, 

Pauoo. liU ^xfrAUniTj Don VuoU rPir*. 

PniLim. iJf, llviiiiilv Aiiiinuilu ,. Chiti 
PuiTEli, HI* L-limLleutj CouLt^ 
KA-nigsroi, Dga AutooiDw .- .- Lima 
RlcilTUOrBH, Banm tob, (Pr«i; KvtllB 


iCUl-MiljlH Dr> E., For. 1I.L4, .. Pfuikfurt 

Ai^BnTin- ^fqiuli,. ., „ BuBHO* Ajrvi 
AJ?tiLtAKn, 1>T. KlH ¥0U. 

Wifliictr ^•ll>r■Ill .. VMu 

8f AKi-l T, Hrnrv M.> E«j. ■ 
aryM^.Trtn. (;/M, P, cWoflhtC«Mfil 

i'Ulf, KpiitiAn Ar»T., >> .. Odiv 

'rcvMiitmivr, &1, Pi«rrt 4i, I PEuv 

dwgh ZiLMVfl .. .,Flaniw» 

TbChUOi. Hat T. 7. TA .. .. VMnm 

Vxii>ii^t(r) PjiifHMir Anniniuji «, Potlh 

Vajixif^cixlos £ StLVA, 111, Alff^lo Gu. 

miiii d« ,. ., Rh>'J< J»i*ii4 

WilKrl.E'Hn, I.ViiL ri. ». Wbhrniflcm, U.H, 

WiiiLxitr. J. IXh Kfc|,[Sui*0*iHMfnr 

Call fuTP In :, OiiibrlU^ Sd unu^hu xti'^ U*;!^ 

Wii^iLtN, Count ,. .. ,- VWjuh 

ZlUULKU. M. J. U. .. >. WialertlLUT 


( »"! > 


113^ Am *■*« • jnvMHtf )Wr ■«« t«N Moyvw^ftf J^ ^ 




tm *Abtotl, Wd. ». IX, tiq. 

IM ArlttHl, IH-. Ilnvj, r.aA., o^.l, u.d. vt/orJ. 

if A. MiiU, f «g^ H Jj4 » - * ^ f dwi . IT. 
1174 l^lnd.Strlluit.ltfkf.Uvl., M^. f>;fa«riQfi. A'jrff^ ; oj ^«l«w«n (M. 

isn A^iu, W. J.. ^. CW* t;/ JTw^, (7. iT. /"ixitf t^ (V.. 15^ 4 131. ft«- 

IBM •Usi>foiUi.n'.F..Di|..r^^ r.wwinurt ngti. IWnr nraf ffmni^TrnlTffl, T" 

latt A:xlb, ftlj[bt tlui. bri uT, l.T- ffo^Sy-iulje^ CtiPtinkft^it!, JCemai'jtim, W, 

Itn AJUtn. fcoMtU, Eiq. 3«, Onqf tfja y gifr^, A. VT. 

im A«i«flt Cvlwd I^Iht^, /^«4 /irCi, If^!if*r, iWAft 

1«90 •A)NPuH^ Kifht Uu. Kul af> H, (froavtfiorffiar*! V.; QMK&JaOdrFi- 




Litt i>f Ft^icwt 4^f the 












p Aldom, Jonqtl* E. Ksq., a.*-, ni-D, SiIt^jz-Aow-i /l*y(«««. A'fKf. 
AMrtoh, CdjilAln [{*b«t [J., R.W. WindmiU-r^^y CrMjiiir*^ fi\trft\f. 
AleuQilor, Oeiidnl i\t iot. ?A^, K.CUA, r.n.iXi P.H,a.i:,» A^u. (14th figt-] 

Aloandu, W, t>q, Cmo/Mmn. Grindlay mvi Oe., hb, P^^Uatiuf^Uttrttt. 
ALffAodHivi^ Ci^ Carl. Qmof Matrt. Pmno, SSeu urul &;n> L3J>, CrvftAf^j 

Alfsfd, Uwii, E*!, 3, Littte Loue-ttme^ F.C, 
'AlllOD, JBBt\ l>|. Zlrt>inv4A<rff CM. A^^ J'orVf'i, S^W. 
M\nn, 0. W., E»q. Jifov i'di-n), T^^miffl, OHiddOt Cart ef Un^or Ajfhnjr, 

*Alti:run. John [)-. t^l- >09, Ifrnpiifftfi^^r^, IT.; /Tdrfrrr^Mi, Jfirfd/tfve;<1llf| 

AlL«i> a p. K., &•[„ H,M. Vict-Coutal. ^Au-y^iK. CbrvqT <?- 5. 4ltm^ M^. 

■Allu. Hurhcrt J., Rv|.JLM. (.Viiul. Chinkiimg. 10, TA# AWfliii, TMity. 
AllcD, JtfDei iVm, Bwi. 13, ir4i«fr£>fl-pi vf , ^, ;:', 
Allin, Jo*ftf*jrfiHnir. lf*i, IVoftJflrtH /"fmVw** r oncJ ilAtfft'' (^%(i, Oar/b^. 

vAkmnti, Emanutl i]*, K*^, II, M>l#-prtr4.ir0rffrtij, IK 

Alaloue, Jutiu, Hfi, IToifiTrrL-'-ciuE/, /'D''Ctf<^tfrn, X, 
•AiU W. J- t-iq. With^hy, Cr^ahnoliy AW ; and Th>Uc^td^hotiM CJufr, »■ 

Alivhut, Dr.. U.J.. r. n. imr. «. 0. rXJ httni^tntt. W. 
Amide-, VboHil, K*]., M.&, CaWUd-^OfW, (SfViJjp-*/[nvr. ^ni^iwlfr, Wl 
5e Abn, Cii|ft. L^ouul N«fjllu Fmlenck. TJu %d^, Nnu^viuCfii 

Ante«Ae|p, PrarewK Aurvuiuj^ r.n^AJi. 87, ^nv/itr-afrvirr, /Tyiir-jhirA. W, 

Abhi«), Jo^k^E<fr i. W. Kln^t Van. K«q, (Knigtit of th« Orfv«f th« Nvthnl 

Lian, ■bd Hii N'^thacliqil ViLJ-^ty'a Cniii^(3». fur the AuiLmli&it Celaid* 

A«nn« «a4 Oi. 1^7, L*MJtfiAoJi-itr,t<t. I^.G. 
AfiMU, J. ^, £«q. K. Jafm-9lrmit, AiSt!pli^ W.C. 
Ajkdflnou, Aim, Dmilop, U»ij. dfidii^i^ Ititi-nfiurith, ArjfyiiiJiire. 
AadfnAh, 4;«i,. K«^„ tWput* In^pvlAr-latnaml «r Arm/ UHpiUUi, CW 

JSr Oiark* JtGn^ and Co.t £Uv-f0r«frAJ, 3. W, 
Aitdcruu. Sir llcn^ L., CC^I. /IvFio-d^, ^,w: 
AnddrKU, Sir J>BCk 14, HWrtfvtrfdn-^HKfnf, IT. 
AMinan, Juw^ Ucq, L. ^^fa^^fDUrf. Olp, K.C. 

AaJtifeOn, Wu. J4k, liJHI. Stint S^w:i, Jit ichiuiay nmtFOa^Ttrmth.Q^t/' 
Nfffe, Cora <4 ^^'f^ AVuluff, II>^milUM orkf CU^ IT, M, Jifim't 

Jhif^i <Jt<:gr4iphiciit Sniffy* 


















Acilmi^ Jabn R, Fjq. 14» /fj^imsfDn^fiKri^ IT, 

ABdnn. Wm, b^^ ai^ Can of K Amtnmt, tCff^ ^TMWtiB-tW'tf'VM, 

AMfd, l^raf. I>- Tm ■.«.. r^n^i., &c> 4* Wtttntnvifr^ntb^a, AIT. ; 
AaMmi^, OkpL IL L., Rlfli Briffi>l^ ir/w 0aM, Jfm'kh, 

AkUhU, Wm. I-Kdk. -U ^. 3, ^Hri^iarwOdJ, J'blwv, K. IT. 

Anlt^Ckl't. JalibC^ K,lt. Smk^ CtiilttJ Striicr CM^ S.W. 
«Aida, RulwH K4nnl, l^i- il^f ^mALin<-\^«», ifucjhii.;Aau>«A#v. 
■AmklHd, ftrr. CIhIh JoIe(i, k.a., r.i.A. CnOeii Iltihxnirji Ctv^S^Vfl 

liliMliri: Kr Akcandor* R-o.d., i.L.I>„ r.rt-t.. tUtPctfir^Grtanl af tht Vtirj 

^ Ai««t1, TbK R., bv ^^ ^'■^ IWKim-«frM, S.C. 

AimnirtllL R.. Kig. C^^'Wti, VkCoria. Amtralia. Care of D. W, JTrillr, 

A/1lw%Ca|jUm WiUmm, ft.w- ii.MJi. *• V«T»-jn," /VimiiKfA, 

*A«koB,Cbv1ns &q. /WrM, IVU/c^, 
■AaM«, K J , E-1- CVcvn-fuirr, fXJ firiwNrJrtrl, JT.C 
*JUltm. CftpWn jamqrl T^irJ^i. T, pjlivi- n-^fimre, itrifffiitak, 
*A*liir«U, JiMii^lUn„li,j», r,n,B. LI, irn>cj4-«'r<rt, Bath. 
















Lixt of Felhje* of the 

loe*Mtln». iiiliii I'tllj't >C«q„ rji,i, i/disM'/i/iiM, tiHr Str*ioak$, 

AtkluHMi, WLIDiinH Htu\-. F-US., i&i!. 47. QotvJim^jbetfT, WjC 

Avt««, Cotoriff] llATjrr ll> Goilvtii ['Jllh I'oot. Bfrigul ffaff CDr|«). /MHd 

*15ibdi, Adminl Mr Oco,.0pUWr.n.i- lOtr.GAjruffrwvpfEjcf^/^iFfwi-*!.. 1f;j 

*l^aean, lira. Wabhlnulon. f Ji;, 1^7. Strand, WM. 
nllJ.n4^>■^clI, llciii^ W, S.. K^. 3, J*jj*ar^[»'Aliny*, Thmpls, K.C. 

fiiLllll*. Ui^r^im*! itl J'tlin (Itvnjftl SUIT Corp*). Cntf 4/ Jf^avj. 
fkuUK CipL VTm, iluolirr. 43, Aor/ofh^tfvnrv, IV. 
HO'BoUi, Sir Jnm™, Km. ■£. f'trk'tfcmir^^ tff-ujoc, 

•BJrtf , John. E-i- 
llAkflT, Hr ikm. Vhittt. PuliK, TR.*. tiiwtf<ird OrHtt^H. «r. Jir^N^fM >f&M, 
Bokar, Bfir- !«' Tnllnt HkhUb^ B., HitEt. Hiciuti^n, r*nif /rAni//unJ^ iJtrmt, 
Itflktr. reiaiHl T, !>, 4niiydii4 ATory Clu^, t*itt^rk9U^ t.W. 

*h>L^r. M^r W. T. ymfof fAii'rnf ^h-pim OuA, Jf. IP, 
nakDr-0»ii«U, a, Gbuiup, IChi. 40, Cadu^jii-/j^<icr» & IP. 

Bulfour, Fiudtrirh H«iry. K^j, Sfatftjlkai. CiV* e/ ff, ^aJ/&f^, ^t^, 

W.; ami Ortrrif'^ (7v^. Hi\itatf^ptar4 . "W, 
BtlfDUf, UfiUlu fictir^ N^ n-x. rmCof -^Vrncrau^, 7*dtf-ma^,ff,ff: 
BilftuF, Jolin, Kn, IS, Vttfw'i-^.ifB^^^.H'. 













Rc^ GeapTopAirttt Socfdy, 


iUU. Jd^ R*1., V.UL U^ SitttkwMfan^mt, ffM4 j:/M«tS««. 

BtrWf.Vm. TjifDlirtdffs t:<(|, cVMH>y tJfpLi /few «J JW«f> ^Mfa. / J^l . 

Bur«di A, B.I Ciq,, ■.«. 1, CViwraW-ttmiOf, i&vmr*-j>ar*, M W- 

Ouk^ FmdvSd IUfn**t 1^-t u.^a- (GorEmot dT BHtUk IliHtiqnt), CWv 
Buiov, PridHivk Thomm J-nlt. >uq. •!'<, knlimtLji^f^ S,\f, 

r&d BvTugtn, Ghtju, Vtv«l1^ K-P- lEi. iTtrtfOT'd-itrfrt, 11'. 

*BviBfhu-Wuil, Harta J., £*q.. lU,, rLj. (Uv UimaiIj'* li»p«Mr fff 

B*nvwt Jtikitk, K*|-i, rs^l. 17^ /7f jqqrvr- liwYicrt JiPj/mt'^^ark, jV^Wf 
BftFtow. Enil>ni ^'lat<ni, 1^. S'j'tvyltfSjBt Crptjitifii. 

ElBrliA, Dr. (Uo, Kinpbiu, /WWAi SrwrfJlvn. 

BtiM. M^ Ch K, Gir« ^ JT'VIp Crindhy mJ Ghi B^. i'^H^nwl^4tmf, 
BaUt. GsHml Uvuj, 0.0, 2, JEWmv^Aw, H^/dt^rk, It'. 























RttlAnit^fcYdrhaigti, Onrfv, Kni, }rali»fftm^\nil, Turk. 

rUTb>q, MpBi7 |t*WAr4, Kiq. Il, tttorvJalt-Ktf<i$. ff«Ub^ffi, IK f 

/iH«H- Gv!t<m Cf^ P^il-!^^ A IF. 
B«LUn» Johic El,. ]^. ^ JfoivlM-Unwv, fftaoltr^, JEffMr. 

■Qoylii,C*pL E W, II- Cirt itf T. ff, ^jylii, fi^-, ^C^ S, ;^dp«rJwU^^ 
Da^I;. U^-^Ica, John. ILC, <].:is OrcAuikv ^krtcy <^#i^t ^TU'MriipfM. 

iTwf » V IV. 

|40/nt^. lAijiiiin KHsuM. Trf^ja^^o^t, Khvit)/, fknlkais^im^ 
Both, W, J., ^. %A, A7v&i«nA-irrfpe, £,C. 

Don* On., faqH 6«rtUr)r Uo] Mjutov D«uiL XiW^, 

tittton^ dpt. Joljii, lilt Fofmri^flnifniWtfrt-ncr. B^ 
*B««albrl, WiUtam Vorrim Eh*- ''M-^^-i i" < >-. *^>^ JfWmn C^ £L IV. 

Dfiiiiaiuut. Jirliik Aa|[4 Ea|, 61, Liinct^tir-jaldt iV.f fltrf it'iMfcb d iiWiy^i 

mftiiirwnl, CimiTiuiiitfr LrHi A., ILV. 
^Bflumouli SpnwrHt. 1^. /Tvolwft, f^en, nor OttffJf^^nL 
*tkiiiiniciit, W«n(«urth B., lL»i{.i u.r. 144. /^icDiKf-'/^t W-; and 
park, H'cii^jfdJd. 

■UciwtoT, MichMil, Bwi^ 1l.l.a.«. Cirv 4^ J. J>. OwipMl, £r«^., S. 

zoo Bwxliy. Cupula G». ^. (a;ird Rf^initiit), jfmy ivd .Vvy HU^ S. IT, 
lUltb, llcnik, GK|t 13, t7/0iion^f^j>fii»,n^ j and Lt*JHtingtoH, 
•I^fltLvP, Ttfiiiuu, Kvl Af. Ai., Powr.strn€, W.; and IMUrtty^alSt til 

IWbTVAk.W.ll., Fjq, mirthtitr^foau, YToiAladM, S.W. 
BtiC^ri, Hw^AAminhl 0, Avpului. £ffylA-#fAt, ^^idmor*-wdt 


Ikttb, GcK HLlU*r, Kiiq« t^ar* 0/ 0a7< JToA/f, gtq, 300^ I4MJ 
iV^bia, TTmmu itirUl^*, Uq. ^b, tVu/J^reo^ Jf.C, 

E^yat Ck^frap^kal SoeUhf. 















no B*Il.ani>iiel»-E^. 4,J il li»toTw , Qiirftoy> ^/fcao^wtw; 
*Ddt, JoOiuii P^ luit. n,j«Mi9HH4mi, m 
IWI. Thmw, i:!.). 1 f, <^pft^fP*r4«^ J g iynfc c i J U H X tT. 
IkU. Wu. A.. SS'. ■^'- «-i^ J^*<» CUkMA^ OA. A. Jtm^i^lntty & C 
JtfJJ. Major «. K. i4ffmtmmf C m», S. W, 

Btino*, Ai£ht n«. Tkt Kul ^f, k.iMi.i>. <?«fwrhOP </ JVW Svidk IRifa*, 
B*a>biiiin» Hoon tL> £iq. lilV, A^ ^oad-tfrHfi IK 

Biniti, J. liudoD, Kv|., v.n. S'-^ CiTitJjt^yar*, If, 
Bow, J^, E«i. rrrmV'JWtiHr f7vi4<n^, j;#viA, TenkiUv. 

BHrUnr^ lfiijnr4lar#Hl A. OinBdrilt. JSaiH-auri, IToliiv'^'"- A«r''l ^^ 

ijo BcniA U. Uabt, Em^ Silcr<jK, tUtt Crai^ ^'<rti^ 

BtllniM, Alctndrr H.> Biq> C'ffpHv^* /TiUTtM-rQatf, Casper jfbnMod ^ 9*id 
1X3, Zrf«fanaaIMf*< S.C 

V40 Bipnri|>;toii. K'nrr'i'n'. IC*q. nvnrfaf^Jtww, Cat, J*, A'. 

'BMjt Edinrf, K^, OiFwt/ JdA« ^;4*y, E*/„ NaH^Jl, Titfrpoat, 
BbAoi^ lUnTd, fi*q., J.r. Can <tf Jf^^Fr, Kinj cti^ Ct?., CwnAJ/, ^,C7, 
BldoEitetli, 114 ViTjr Iter. EdvrnHr (M>,» iVftn of I'lchM. 7^« Iktmenj, 

*{SvtkmaTv, A. ^^ Ci^ht ir^k,^ rnji^T ^iip«ri]itci]it[it ol Uie AtnerJcu 5Iiihubi ol' 


Ligi cf FelloiM cf the 


UlJitulpli, aw. Tuurm^, 1^. 43, dn^xj^-tTrtn, ^hIV. 

l^tljulpli, Jukn, ^M, Sy>ctr%H^, 

Uiilwell, aiarl* Tull, En, rwri^fl-r-jTlw, fl.W, 

Bige*. Jm,, E^,, B,K, is, TAbrJoo-piiKP, 8. A>n(in^«9fi, 5, W. 

rtfilpy, John J., l{ar|», X.t).,^ Kfr, Qliyitn&^ear-ffluve, Tv lnwn-«fUdrtf , IT, 
ft*rflh, If. W., K*i^, BefiiriPf-inantrfftH, GroiKnoT^iintmii^ S^W. 

t«» Ii^nb, .lolm WlllfAnir e*q> P-, A>u /'/-WKPrtrAf, £,C. ; and ft7, OK«n^h*U 
ifvofv. TT, 
•BinhQ], OtpliirB.H.a. JMPAr Ovltm <M^ S.W. 

Hinlwm^l, Cw., thu., v.b-. C.AhI- indii] J/irnrum, &wf 4 JTrnt^ton, 51 (V. ; Mrf 

*Bl«hnftthrJin. Raorl Lnuii, E*q. IJ, Wpi*M ^wtffiy^r'^frt, W. 

I\inoken/umt ff.W, 
lUtkap, JioH, £»i. 11, J'«pUcm<%-^«, IT. 
llL-rhu^, JjiiiitA, Z^, -Fvrufww, £«v<lUlf^Ft^ 
J70 lii«fi4>p, Wrq. HtuTf, EC»i. 3, Print* of Wifa-teTaefi KemAvjUm-pvlaoOt tV. 

Bljia^, \ndrfW IT., 1^, 9!t, J^^ynf-drvui^ni, 0J»fCit, 

Bk^ Bfiqoi GoQ. R«U^ irfr^ut. J7Nr(f 4, Sttmw ; ttni Jwitar UmM Swvtt 

Dbi^'kt TlLumvi, IIa]., L^npFrlulrutliiiiL 1*, uid O. Stcani KAvigAlloQ CompUfV 

fikckio, Tbok. M,, K-i^ r4.A. Ch^in^-kffi School, ^rstharn, Ktwr, 
DLoi^v, W' GnUum. £>it,, Fir, p. 1 7, Stunftop^^^rttut^ Oiii»ffiiK. 

1=^1(1 kciman^ lUn 117, h*^. mnUvrfn, f . (V. 

H^at GH^gr<Tphip4t Saeitty. 














Wort. Ei^virit, Kkj., n,fj,^ r,iuu PA.A, JLfi. 4, i/'mcAmfirr^TvanL. ffl 
B4wnt. blwiH, ^.. CTt. SS, (7^ f^ft^toMlmC IT,; 4*4 «i, Aui d^ 

(WidOH, J'arit. 
Slw, WUkui W«4(«> l£*i. <hi;^ffJ^4,ff^4m'^r«aJ, ira^«»«f^7'A«HL 
BlniribBrx. G»rp'F., £kj. JfoiujflfA^Vwn, On(inriDH-r/rird:rM. Ifawfo-uJa) W 

*B1imt, Jiu-. Ewi, 

•Biml, Wiiff«l ^ F*l. Worth, TrBM^, AiAMT, 
■D«iliahua,_Cb*i <!■ la Bain. IC««1- ft'Af^nriMJ, tlMvfiirtl, 

Bduc, £L-Cn[cnd l^rvicii John, 4, jTrnvf AoiKfHffy, AFT. 
'BvIlco. Jotiu, £m). 10, Xmv; ^Ic^rt, ¥P.C 
jio tknpu, rr«T{ir- <:ffi, 1^. IS, StiwJt^^antaa, Ktwii^Uin-pnrk, IV. 

BeovHok, Jaw. Sir^, SL Sit'l^ MfrU^ttmt^ Can nf W. BeiHoa, Saq^ 22, 

Ikctar, Wn. Uv, £*q. II.U.M. i.'oQiiibl«, ;^«ii FnoftHh Cbrvqf JAhtj, 

Xmff md Cb^, -lA, i'MI-mtti, -SL VV. 
Boor, Ote. d ^, /mun^PUK:, (?rwT>4»ftft 5foJ^^fDin^toii, JTt 
Bwib, jDhb, Ek|, Jrumn^ C^^Ja;/, }:t4Ur. 

|lDrlB^ Ctpl. Jan. 3^ tji<*h-pJ/-u, //fii»*-jr*cn,, Saii^g^ W. 
GoBTj^o, That. J. Jr. Kiq. ir^l, BncktMch'Tinbl, T^tu&'pi^K X ^' 



Ziti cf FtSows iff tlte 






1 I WW 

I iiwn 


BOEintc. John, Kmi-. CtL 31, Aif^AmoiiJwMit ffiii/rua£n<. IT. 

UtfuvBift, r. P., &q. ,1S, flSt-thvt, J?jfjWpv-*v>*". »F. 

•buwrn, CbwlH i.'Jfcfli.tnphtf. Xi*;. CV<lf0jtaini4. Dtnt/rfivy, j^« Zmt/mi. 

•Buw*!!, Sir flmrf* Fi-^irunon, 0,ii,ll.i>.. k-Jh,i Hov^nwr f»r VlcttiH*. Oif* of 
^f^m. C^At. ftuUfi'Jpik itwf Ok, 4J, CAiV^^nDUk A- It'- ; nvifJ Ailitnaion 

Bows. Jolm. Kuf. H'lirn'n^'anp Z«iHifiUtu-f. 

Howksr, Jomv Hwy. £*i|. 2fa*y^v/LtfMf. ^(niU Afria, Oart 0/ Jforr*. A'l'i 

iSinrnn^NiniiLal, FUq. 1, Wmth^vntf'^fk. IT, 

■llnyil^ Kdin*H UruiMt C*r|.,r.f.i. 3li. dHW/ond^tgudinr, iJ[^Jf<^vj|r PT* 

Ikffd. NflMn. ^. a. OiiAni Jnn^B-ffur^, S.W. 

BoTTT, Gocq-gt rheli-, r«q. H. tTdiv^Vfrwflif. Vsiiii-h,% W, 

Boyl«, ttlduH ^'tcnri, K«i., cv.i., EnRiDnt in Cbl«f to ih? CoVFrbnHnl 

; (0 Bujmon. Aintimw P.. &q, AnnMiZT, ^'nof/iwitit, ^. n: 

*Bnt4il»Wf 5ur|E'-M'>j°' A- F. Mm^, Imlia. Cirj 0/ .Vwrfl, /JofJ ai4 C«^ 

B»nJ, Jamu Aln«wnrth, Kv|. IS, IFfyferi-g^rrdrntf fitrMtMf W. 

jVnni). Jjkri. ITy,. rj>L^ Pmldait of tlu OninEe Fm StoAo Repabllct 3> AlHok 

Bimalb. L>Th I?, r.ui, /Vwro- of ^u^tj, Oi^cuUii. On «/ IT. iT. JilM. 
JC^H^].^, WatfTii^'pia<v,tf.}V. 

R'VjqI Geoffrttpftirai Soeitt^^ 













*Bcw>lrTUi, Hj, P„ &L. gTffud&ftjft fiery, ITij^in. 
BrM^Entt^n^ Qm »/ JTam, A/dltpirf, M^mJ Jlteaa^V; ITjnM- 

Bnrbroekr. nUlp W«torD, AtaMmA QJtaial S^crtUrf, Of^M, Jfuin. 

*lbe4oa> Ctiiumr. n'ln. tloitv, n.M^ «.o.& It, Qimdr^^rttonig ^^tk i 4md 

Bridjp. Jdi0, Etq. li^tOtf-hm^ war IjPm, CKmUv^ 

J'fliiftr OtUAwIkH Oub* Kmf'^rtM, St. /«■»'*. 
Itrtrlcrr, Q^iUlD W. UtUi*, tu^ Am^ aui ytttpy CItA, 3.W. 

|IO*Brfp:tit,!<l]-rhul»T^r.iLXJU II. ^.^Aoy-tfj^uf, tfttmuMEd', J. IT. 
firiKhi. ItfTrf Arthur, &4. A^pH. JTrHffy .AfA, lAt^tyitL 
Aright, Jtmfii. Kvt.v.n. tv. IV«JMvfoiM|uv«, ninrfMAdtn. 
BncSi^%b^ili, Hv*- O. ABC JVh«m*>I9^ UaM<tJM, W. 

Brln», Cftlrrtiil I'mtrnr, R-R, <.T^., At-w. Iiuit ru, tr9..n., Kwrntlr* 
Eof^'iRv. Pnbjiub. Jrfnp/a4rf jVir^, >UAn«vn. Ji^. omlJi.Ii., and tMittd 

BrlCHV Capulo Llrvtmf, k-x ^ofdlrp-^rwar, ^ymAij^fo*, UiAbj ami lAuCnJ 

BriMvn, Rferr Fvi, iU]. G, Oteahairfpi*^ 8. W., and flS* <Mi f *g— Wf, Zn- 

•DMdmvwJ, J«s H-q„ n.A. SO, Darin^tr^ SwAtirjf^^w^ j nd jYnwM- 

VimUw, W»I»r, K*i- ^r*rf.'-AoMrf, Of^ff-CAvnr^ n^}St^pa-k^ W. 

Brwkff, CtfiniHr- A, T., n.w, J^*A^»x*l*, i/r»*kro', ^Jmortio, /«**«* 







•Brooki, Whi, CimlifTo, K^^., ii.I'h, »,a,, r4./>. Itc. b. gwpf <-gr-*^*Oftf, IT,; 

Bfown, E. A,. El*t. BMrioiv-rin- 7W*L 

4 10 Bnwfi, X E- E«r|, 00, Ciifvwwf rwt, JT.C^ ^ nwf Sivmlr^, A>itf . 

"Biuwn, JjLiiw ft.. Kt»i„ r.K.tJ<.ii., CupeahnGm, A4, Gir^riAanw^uiA JIT. IV, 

Bkvd, Jfc'boTE, Km}., K^, FILP^ r.L,l., &c. 31^ Om3^(»i^-r(»d^ Mbtrl- 
rj*fre, S. W, 

Urovn, WitllAm. F.a|, Qiinrr'/^/itil.finuti, ybn&ni^, JTAir 
*llixwDv, John ll„ K*i|, a{mtHi, ll^rjft-Jiill. Ch-Ufn/mn^ 

B^-vwnrnj;, Ci. F,, £iq. <7ur« t/ Ji»/jo £cuf mi, £jg., JTciuA^ii^.wTjir Ttntmfrn, 

Brulga, John, £h)„ h.i,o.e,, r.a.B, ^^A,Ote>tt <3evr^alr«et^ 3,Wi 

Ro^ GeOfp^hicai Sacifiy, 














hoiMwf, JiTbq, £ftj. 19, JBiurmt^ttvt*t Julhivnti, Etil MAtm^. rkkrth 
Cn qT ir«nu niiiftt^. Ph <Vaf. anJ O., »», lom^ani-^lrr^, S.C, 

Bu4d, J. PshUfr, Eaq. J nteJ<Bif«, mar Ahormii, 
*Bu1|[vr, U*iit,-C>^^oiu1 <3«rfi« ErDc-t, P.L.I,, T.iCA.,akl;^Ani^(,r«^ lOlkFooi), 
(;»rr iff Ji<wi. »'A«lV^y nih/ Oj^ I^C, I^mhMJniUin^ E.C 

Bulliapar. l^rr- K. Wui. Wuti^^t^tni't Ktaex- 
BttHodt. OfiUin Chiwl™ i„ n,*, i/urt»k«m, (Jyyty^hilU 
BuJIpqIl Kur. W(ri, T-, «,<!. Krn^iini/t^/fKj^iu^B, W, 
■Bua^iirjr^aJFCUrU Jvooi Fn, Bart-, r,[L,i. Kc«-k>fi'Wr, Jhirj a, i M w— Jt> 

bum*, UfiiL-OjIiKx] Q. F, Mit-QfflM.^.W. 

BurnvCi, Ja«. Cflnpton, E*q,, ir.o, JT, i^funv 4<;iMr«, fiV^dn^AkL 

*B«rus. JoUii. EiK|. Cdrf/f TTirmyVt (^ ^^rcAiiji?^, ff, ?, 
Bur«4l> CtKpiMia E., it.v, 0, Farhv^Uat, Lva:tr Nornvodt S.^ 



List of Feliows o/ths 


Bwk. CkpL Huna, DJ., iJ^Tii., r.M^ Uob. 1S0.L. OiforJ, 21, .4«l^y-pf4f^ 

4*0 Dutlir, £. Dnhiki, Kiq, QMgjstphieAi Ofptittirtpnt, Uf-tfiiK Jfuwinii. W.C. 
nuilcr. FfBuk HaIub, Ch|. J^r^Avui/, VViM£f/(r4£m<fijri, ■?, Ii: ; vtd H, ito 

Bullcr, Gaot^aCjvy, ^m{. fCivilS«r*in CommiMiaD), fi^ C«ivd»'rgip^ AH"*! 

BuiJet, Rpv, TliviiUft. mUrrAifC-A^nuH.t'VirriDiAm-yt 

|liijLl4ti» llcflrr Guluiiiii^ Vm\,, tt.A. AinV^ufBi tfmf )'«mfA. yrffoit, 
iWnrin, Itft^o H, 1*1. fffwvrjr, S/i'fHi(i(flirf», KC 
■Lull*'!!, Shr TlhiDir.' fovrll, Bill. U, Gi^tn^^tvrvrexmt.S^VT. itmi WMirw, 

ll/ki>v»U, Ur^f Jbib, Kb). (xrj^PurA, Vitnut J^^anat, mw' iWrw^, Jjm^, 

C«lT«n, rndfv^Gi Etit-i il^Ci 34, C^j>pf'' C?>»f4jvr-ajfvt'r, W, 
■Quuw runT^ Plwtranjw, Ka|. 3 uaJ t. tVmrrA<4£fr-rfr«ff^ri^dilV'i ^^ 

Ciimiirfw, Ui^ I)Qiiiild IL, B.A,, cjcn. ifijjfit, 
Cuitm, UnilXtviwEiJ Sir Budcaii Alc<)imd<i]t».c,JL 

Cmmmi, R. MT., tiAq, fi.O. Bftje 14TU, JV*in ror*. Ctre Qf Jfum, ^pmiU 
mJ Co,, St, Pfttr'0-<fkan&^, OortOi^l, S.C 
490 OcDffl'nD. Cqmairi Vcrucy UTrti. H.?ir| cu. 5h»vA4rn-v«MrT;^, S^miHUi, 
•CampUll, Allan, &q. JitH^Mn^ CUh^ Jfd/Aounv. 

iitifjion, a ^r. i anJ ^ArtJwm an^i ff. IV, 
UunplieLI, Uro. W,, tiq. '2'K i^ltcn't-jalfiijartt'-nt. A tf. 

■fiwf. IT. 
CirnplnllH Jumn, £if|. 17, Qtetti't-^AU, ff. tf. 


Rvy^ GMffraphicat Socictif* 



CwUdr, SuDCE«l UoTffi'H bq. U, KmtMtnvT, SiKm^, %\;C. 

■Cfeiiivfl], &twai<l II., &i. 7V;»ir. ir^ iZdrj^y, fWny| O^vJ nJ 
*OBrJ»*IJ, Hight Hon, Viimtnl, T4, *'*rfMi-i7iia-*, S.IT. 

CM W. 
CfePV^^UvOtfliUiil If. CI rt*!* r^'V -l/mo-r^ ^bHMAp«r(, 

(^Om, Jehu, iC>q, f«, A-«-/«a-njJ, -St. J^hU'v-vunl. XIT.; «id ^licf 

Lnfujciljra CoLiudl of Otn^d, JJiin«iAi. OttQV^ A'vitf jSetioKi. Curt v/ 
jr«n. Cir/^, JmM^ ttiil C^. V*, CVnA^f, Jt.C. 

■CWiUoQi JtfU WU«u, E»q., r-B»*.i rjA, fro. FVmAJi; Atrtf^ 

Cunc^, CamnudfT tU Hon. J^ i^. ?«. i^i^-Aoff, £^ H'. 

•Cut, Weh, W^id. Jt^i., H.^k II, /,«*^«t^TOf, I^, KK. 
Cuvr, l^tcur-Ojkxj?! Uuf b ItouhiiD- (Coldf iium Guiirdi). Qm^di' Hub, S. IT. ; 

Gtctu, Capluii Thbmu Tiipjivr, lUQ. Cdra a/ liaMru jET. ^. JThhj qmf Cff,, 

*Cir?v, Rtr. AllKd J„ d.d^. Muter oTPulitJch Caltvifd. l^utvicAj H.K 
C»hK Ai*I*»w, Caq. '^iJgnilwi gf CoulldH of lodlA). M, C/meTonJ-flj"*!^, 

Litt of FfUoiPS of the 













Utw, R> B*iB«4» Bi^« r-4.4. (/^^ a«i&; and i^in^nw^A^Ttw, JToriWr- 

)4o Colllij, EUimn!, K»q, Tar* f^ Meivi. Ecjat omi Cb, 5, J^-^w^J-sjUiir*, ill. 
Mary- Ajn, K.C.I "wt^. fttfreJ>My. 
C^re. Amos, E«]. (jn^r-Acwad. Ovmvftfff-riNjd; ^rUfrm-rttf, Swny, 
C^v^ ColonffL CdwthJ. ^<]ff tAdh Vmltd Srfvk* C/«5, tl, Si. /oHtV 

OiVt, Ctj>lfuti IjiurfiiH Treat H, £'TTJ^ibrtfj<*/if/rn-. A|V. 
CiT*. ItitStl. noil. SUjibiH, M-P, 3S» HV/iim-p^acff, <S. IV, 
Layff-HrDwri', K«t. J. tJftM^iynoaT^t, M'lilutime. 

OtMdwMi. J»«i 1^- /diw'im-rcfhf, /Why. 

CLiaJwitk. Jm>, O., C«q. 40. Uijittm-nt'n!, iSt. /oAaVhom^ ^^.TT. 

ffO'DiaJmer, dpi. ILflxiujiIiI fOOLki IbjjJ )£iltc«). J*i<«4jWur, jGTiiil FndSta, 

ChanpicD. John Fioiictt, 1^. ili^htimit Shrtutfmrjt, 

Ckn^vllct Cniiril rial*, 4, J^-tti^**"**, Sf, Jnmfi^s. fl.W. 
Chapmnu, Capl, B. F., c^a, fTxlriV^mr, HVm&Wm, A ff> 

ChumaeJt, Ririiad Stoplkn). Eai^., Pn.D., T.I.A. /UrtAsr fTorrJal dU, 

^ate, W. 
Qiaelttvn. Stmucl, Kv]. It. E\lmfvrJ'pJiifx, tivtriOol. 

['hpTvnrifi^ Anptiniiin I., IUt|. ^, (?ivZii-4trMC, Ijwn/Ut^^wtrt, H, IV.; oarf 

Clwfn^ CnpHlii Jim. F*.» jl*. 19. ^iJri^wn^arinu !fuH\ Ktiwii^fUm, W^ 
Chichntvr, Sir BnKv, Bnrti ^r-fwyfArt-oouFi^ ^amtCapit^ 

Cliitdrr*. JohaWaltiui)!!, Eb(|- C^rnf |f^-Ad/^, nror liaitauIcrM 


Ho^i Gtc^rvtftAicai SodHy. 

















Otriilte, UvArd Rirhml, t^. 
Chrblk, ;«BM AkuoiMl. Ztq. 

•CbirA, W. H., e*i, 
S Cbanhlll, Lord AIIVl-J Speaiur. 10, i:^v4d-^aU, A,Wt 

^ CUrlc. J. Ijul(»r. Caq. A. H'acntfiuftfr-RA'mVr«, Ti^urvwirftf. & tV,; otf 
CUrk. Vrtlliuu, L^, 

ClradCi r BufftM. Ea|- Aipitkhlu^<>se. 'I\tf%tiI'parA. If. 

GkiytBii, Otfit&in J«lm W, (1*14 i&tli ItoMv*), Ht /'pf>(HiaK-#f«df^, V, 

^Clfghoini, If U);h^ ttq.. ■,!!, Siranttlijft Si. A'*ilr4ii^M, 

a^hoiH. juJiB, £•%., «A4n Vi«.4., b^ 3, ^Kfi«-f if^Mi ^.r: 

O^nU, Kvtwt Q^rp, e^. «T, r>(«vr-i-jHirA-n»d[, £, 





ISM CIviian, Ldi^ gilirwd. Army m^ Satj/ Cluh, S. W^ 

HM C\W*t J^ti.AtohfU W^iffM, Hartford. 

1*154 ClowN. <]tnr^, F'flq. Ai^fT^rf^ie. .S7nrA/Jirc/-dfrdrt:, S,E.; €3ktn/^-* 

]8£4 &10 CWa, WilLimu, Eh], i:>^^^tf tvi, S^'Un/vfi^i tri. 6.B. '. CW>nf-< 

U6I Claw«, Wniivn Churtoi KaJ^hLr E:«l,. m^. J>h4f'iJ»fe, Slm/ 

S.E.i ttnJ SiU-bilon. ^jvttj/. 

in?* Cli>tt*Tlnifk, llobfrt, l'*l-- J-»"- S, QrftS Ovnf^had-pliV*, 1^, 

1S77 CauH, Jamvi. E*^. 41 nd tS, Xii/r-ttfrvrf, i^wMcp^ffuw, Wj 

IflTA CHMb fidrnqud, £pq. «, ^nAflT'rfrtfff, /'orrnnm-ff^uorv, IP, 

]B7a Cfrtib. Jiu. PnnrK K^q. H' /fmit'. TifnTtn^, DiFrm. 

1fl39 Cocluiui^ Emr.Aiimlml Utf Hon. A , ^Mt Jmilnr ^Ai«(»rf Semoe CM>^ S. 

1669 *C«<1(burB, CkpUifi Judhi Qt^rcv (tlth Et^mnDf). i^flw-, |-^ 

1«77 Ockhikni, J. P,, Kiq. TA* Mount. TWvj, ^^U ilmm, |H 

ieS2 CpddHvi. RLcbifti, K>i. CWuuf'-^mij'iu, 5iiri(A ATrntov^o^ ^- ^- 

ISHI 'Covkh^ Cfj^Uin G>ct^. 'J. BtJton^irdnM. Sonth Ktmmffttm^ H. W. 

167^ "CDi-Vf^ Alf> [reoa^, E*i, \ Radnor-fjmt, OrirmcHa^-t^wMie, tV. 

lea? Cacln. tntmi*! C. tjgL>n |;CDldiU-valB Cuanl*}. 7W>^»by*i- VhHH. Xttlt 

IWO Cocki, Mnjor OoUtloi YctIh, 15, ^etrk-itfttt, Oronmar^ipiarr, W, 

]H7a &4a*OH'k^ Thai. X Vprnun, 1^. 43. C^nn^-cron, 5. W, 

1A71 "CoiJiTliQm Aithuf , £t<i., M,4. L'tott Otiiv;*. 

1«73 'Oof, n«fp C C. High^etd, Mtm4e-iioi't. 

Il!l^7 VAflhlAh, i:riwjiTH, Ktf|, rKrwinj^ivr-fiffknn. '^Tii/t-tfiii^paaif, tT.C 

IflttI C»ji;htu], J-, Fihj,, Gn^P-tH'lltiiiil' fn ihn CfiTflrniHrq^ Baanot Atp-t4. 
if. (I. t'tjnU^ i:t.i.. fi. DvJtc^trtt*^ AdrlpM. IV.C 

IGAA Ctfkbntaj, RvNtuU CLiArlr* Li^wuiJ, Lol^L (M, i;*li,K^Aw, 5.W. 


Bcvfot GfiO<p^pM<ccX Sod^ty, 
















Cvlan. iTmrlM, K^. IM, Gfvat nuw^-T-wf. ff.l?. 
Oil**, JMBimJ^ ?M\. Srt, Jf^lGA-fl-'VdJ, ^OCffAt^J^ /mI». 
Coif*. Jnn., ^0;. JliifM^n^ J^wrty. 
*C>1Wli, W^itEiu. RhkAi^ Bh. (Vtcxirr^.Air. 
Collleptiud, Unl. W. Mia-egkt, ft. W. 

*Conk Cape. Qivlvriu W. pen? <0iJi llojvl Jlejlmtnl), Curr ^ Jt'ri. CU?u. 

CU«d1^ Ciptuh J f, R. /^fxini^'fiiu, Kmrrvrrt, Ot- Karryf - ai4 Jtmnf 
CU^oliowt, Sir Piltidt td. d** tix.. LUv. 3; Cv^VifmaJV-EMiMk T^nv'^t 
OalTill, WmiuD n.i 1^. (i^tinf. tMf. laJ, Amr> 

470 CnU, tinit B. A, 

OKtbiT. CoJnwl A. K, (Ofp^ocBmiKbinAT of AtuRl, GotJpA), Cdfc if 

0»ajp>Tfr, 1%BA. Rvi £«|. Gov «/ff. J. CVfl^w»t A'f^., (?dr/mtf«^ Cutfr- 

OodL lU ^W'. H'D-f Ic. Girff vf ifntrt. JWfn tiwf A., 12, Z*ad$*JuiU- 

Owm, £.C. 
Cm^ Uvat.-0°], A. C, h.K- i'/rmvi.^i. 
■C«ob<.E.W,G«]^ A.Ki .. t.Kfi., rA..K. r.t.t., rn,t^ Acn<1. IWH. ArL YnwL 


6)0 ChW, Join €«orp. Evq, S&, ^wli* /Wari, <^/il ^road^rf«e, E.C. 




Litt af F^U<nFt <f tkt 



















Coopflf, Coinoir. 1^, J» u.^. 

Coflpfff, Sir DbihH, ttj Z'* rBr*-ijiHvJiTLr, jr*FLiiiijiiwi.p»f«ifff K*. 
Ofiaptr, L^nl^Cal, Cdnni H.(rkivniiilJKrCuKrd«). 4U, Pjr^Fnjit^^wrv, 
Conpn. l.tBiii.-CDt, Jo*hii» Hh (Tih h'i«ill»rt)< DuiAo/tim, H^^**'. 
CcDpfi^t ^"°5 111 ^- BitUtitU-^fdl^ Nattwjkom. 
Ov>p*r, nMJJun WhlM, Fjvq. I)», liirfkiiUy^fpi>trw. W- 
C»U| Algffpon C« r, Kp),, 1.A, ficfi tnf Hwrnna 0^ S IT, 
•r«riLi, Vuv'^dmbrtl Ralwt, C.R. *< Bhokl," JtitUnu, fipuftinnpl/m. 
OafLau^CAvrord, riUfondJ HiEailfuii K*), ^^wB'ii' v-^^^f. J/Hftou:^ 
CopUr,(ttIiiiw&pr<j,G*ii, K if., it*., r.njL ViWJiurF/JodJj*^ ffnfrairi, MiidJ! 
700 Cipptvr. Sir Jotopli WillWi, BuU TrapvUirf CivJi^ P-iU^mai^ 3.W. 

Coiunr, WiUuai MmJ, liii^. iV-h-LvKn/t, X<mJtfiwwi/, fbro^rttf^ Afi 
CwDthvAiM, Ibv. T., u,&, /^tr, ^''W/A^marMp. 

hiU. S.^\ 

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Si. Gfrrfuiit, Purit, 

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Qv*p-r, llnij Aui:. jiLU. CWi. ru«(« IU«). CWv^ ibww. H'WIm^jI 
okT C<t, 41, Ov^y^frw, &ir. 

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•Crwmft, K«iwr.f, K*^.. It j, Trb. Coll, 0»mS. (Jaford oni Con^pk^ CW. 

;pO"Ci«fD^ Hicpi, Atlnlpbnt, K«|. Wba<nu*y<tflfii, TWra, 
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» W. : mt Sit. FHaet^i-^wrimK £ tl'. 

1*9 I 34E^C^<Jfa^ CbpCaia Ttkhard B^rblnii. fk.X (?Kii^bar7J#-i«tf, Ff^ rirMirv, 
OvIt.Col. A. A., Cit ONAinUofl^, At^A^mpron, 
C^vwr. Ch|]tjiw AFllitu T. (ASihl Ktumiciil); iVvrtc^A. 

;f<3*Cmilfr, Tbfik Mai,l#y, E*|^ h.a. f^^pm (Tftriafr fW^. Otf^rr^. 

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C«H, RiciurJ, ^., V.i.A, 13. 7iiF^rod4-fr>vW. I^nf/t/t-J r-f^art^ lV',C 


Ouba^ J. G«r»B ^. ^^ II.IK ^«^f Jtiatk Soeitly, Ihrnba^, 

Litt of Fefhtot of the 





















CudUETo. tfo^vr, £■■;. Id, QitftC$-y^\A. AIT, 

CunnlBghHUi, Juhu Wui.4 ICh^,, i^u.Kujjs'aOuUc^. &nurwtf-A0ui#, WX.; ohi' 

■CuD^nghjint. Gtfi, Sir A- T., Tj3,b, IhUM Strviv Clut, PalS-^naH, S. VT. 

CwiTJ", A, A, Hij. E«|.. cn. H.M.'n V)i»-Coniiil Ak», 

iJ'Aimciila, W. 15., Em. Il>, iJfetH-jmrk. ^uift, 

Dilf, ChitC JuiTIa Chu, P,h U.d, rPxaliloii, uf th« Aiardcui OcdgiapUdl 

PApIl, Sir lUbk >U>s. Oibam, Bdrt, The BUm^. t^nt\qvo^3l.B. 

*J>aiiir'1|, C^l]lKleL Ep f?t&Jui'*> Hatnihtm-ftV'tte, O^iSatn^ J/iiinpwft4rt i and Btat 
f'liJi't V'Hitfd .9tivn9 Civff. 14, Vt. J'tniea't-f/mtn. S. ^r, 

hHdga CltAy Foli-niif. !f. W. 
*l)qrwiP| CbivltA, ICfq.i >liA-, r,ttfii Durni^ BnkmJiamf X^nt, 
DHf«i]»r|, .Snmutl, 1^*4, CW« 0/ »- I>. Dannport, Kai. **, A- Jm^w- 
tt/wt. S. W. ; flnrf Wiwiimftnl, ■mi/- ^iWnirf^ #. A, 

Dtrldftp, Cain Juin, J^iiaton i/ipnn'-nWkf#, iVfiCMi^A^q ; «ni Oai^toi^ 0Wl^ 
riir»t. 8Lr R, H^ E.CJ.I.. rhlof CommUitaupr of Otidb, I.LukiHw. Clif« ^ 

Royitt Gt^rapkieni S*e%ety, 















EttTi^ Ib^I, Eii|„ ■!.*, 6, fi^f^j/V/rpiKA-unjW, Trvijite, B.C. 

DatIa. 8b Aihu FAOiiLa, [Ur(.,i.c.ii., r.oj.. til^.a.l J/Aflp«mn CM,&ir, ; 

*J]k«DaT. TlonUe, Guy i\ a, Bf^rflw-"i?«ai^, S, IP. ; and BDnMom-yrwr, 

AOL g,G. 
■fit L»>k), A.. Ka|. ?, >1<f*inyi>wirnn>Br. JinjhUn. 

'DifCiiijr, bhrwi VcTiivd, E*|, ^^i. JTmo^fffr-^rnvf. IP, 
Dadj, l^ufc AalliHj, iiiq. 7, CvmMU^Af^iidf, ViT. ; ani iWfujmoJ, 

*[>uV- ^'i.^^ Uf»- Bfl*^-^ IJrhrr, lUrUf, P.C LM>.,O^.U Va, 9l. JdnwV 

Dt 5«l4it Wnu '■!», }^- £>ciu/rv-aDiirf, Uif/iitfyi. 
WMtmiMite £oiJt, I, St. Jamn*t-t^iunit. 


Li$i <»/ FeUimt ef t?u 












107 » 


Drrtmn^ W. Cr>{>ii, E-f^.. tun. 4. Ji^< /puTHj-fAinn^tfri, /«iAikftaa-jrii^ 

*Vitaiukir^ Hif 1-nci« th* I>nk4 of, K,f:.. lL.i>., Ev.f.M.,, ^-h.A. Drtxttthi 
Dt WewJ«ir, Unit, Vnt^ G. f^kinpkminn. dr, V^ttortO-OMtt, S^W. 

*Jliokfit»>ni tnAPli Hanrj. Kir^., rxA, 11D, J5V. Oor^'f-njur*, PMH 

BfG'rm't-Jail. Htrtrat, tiiavcertf^Htr*. 
Dic-kinxfu, Thomn* B,, Eni- 1ft, fTA^iAmn-mw/, Ilrightun. 

■DipltHA, 0*dv, &^. S^#*4tvA4, CjfW fi/ Alii Krf^l/fuy/ fTdmi ^rvljtAitf. 
DiBl*, IVriiiirf, En., «f Alsi»Uiiy, 3. WT^rf^htit, W. 

rxlUci, Til* Hon. AniiiiT. i J,^. JWwiJiifMfr, 5 ir. 

Dim, LEeuk^^olDnfil JdJ^d, 

I>crti4ii. Gi^lil Hon. J«h'i C^orijr, H.V^ ft, .'^t^i'iu-t-jif'ice, ilit\/-rift WL 
Donu. Culmift Ju'in. c.u, V'frn^AuiuM, /^Iaiid'''iail, Ltt. 
l>or7]hr«lfir) IMJ«t Wm. CurLuI'm. Ifnt. 42, i^>^y#gb4Pf, IT. 

t)uriA, Viml^w Glaofrfnix Oenot. V/t^^ 9f Maart. A'k^tiaH(i, Oipt, and 
^4, SaUi^-^rtrl, StrV'td, WAI. 

H^yal Guvpapaieai Sprirtjr. 


















D»vn*r, KJc^hJ Ckr^ II"|- AJsW^-At^ufi Cn^tfiWH; JFlC 
Ip Pork air PmtAi Hvilne* <::* Birt, OiH w i^b ^m. K.C 

■Drsnm^iiil. Captain Alfr*4 M^nnrn, ^rw^nd JVdfy CM.AV. 
Dvivy, lUir-AJminJ Bttdb. 4, OjmAniijr-v^iuit CMf'nUfm. 

*I>UCit. m^t Had. Hufjr John, Kju-] of, T.R,«- U, IV«Mdn-«7iuinr, HC 
DkUvd, Jv-rpli llr^ £hj., iljt., DakniAMmr, Wat IHditf Do^M HatXtutt 

Doff. Vm. Firlft, E«4- {7iiir.iiJea. Curt c/ iTfttv. JiiAn Vtulfon tni Ca^ £4, 

Ihiwui, Wlllltri Altuiiilrr. Ta^, /fifrifv^AfrT^df^ i'lifioii-Jtf^ ibrnr Atim- 
Dimaa. W. IL 0>, Ei^. Sviattifio Hub, T, ^n(f-r«u<, n*. 




Xwf <*f I^eUows offitv 

















■Diinlop, II. H. WnllaK, Esq., o.D. (bdmn CirJ £«rn<*). ]3| Jtpuf-^vJliiw. 
■ITunmcir*. IU|ht Hon. Clwlc« Adolpliw Uumjr, £ul «f. bO, /VUmi- 

Dnmfbrd, Li«nt^ODkui«l A. V., ick> 

l>;kHL. ^Vljliam Alrion, lU^, (i^rovo^t of HnrnJlbtn). TAtf Orohari:. BmiH- 

ton, A. S. 
Dymcs* D«q1dL DmrlO, t»\. Wm^Jkim Cl't^, S.W.; ind'A, Minciim-tane, S.C 

gio K*rdl*f'WJIiiiot.MnJur-Q«i,t\H"^ IS. Wat CrnniBTWI-nwd, A IT, 

K^ttPf Cmmnr, Alfnd, n.N^ ^nui-^jiuf, Jftlimj, iwv Livirpool. 
KaXen^V. A-, r^. J/w fTitiHrjnf ^ C^uA. >4. JwkA'ihirrHt, J?.W. 

*KiU4m, H^iry WiIMaiu, Va<:\.. x.v. iH. /ViiHv'h^^iU, Uyitthp^h. S.W. 
•B^n, WUIifcm Mwiwu. b*q. Ifl. }\iiK9'^^^<iU. Utplc-potk, S. W, 

BUe, ndiiBiiil K. 

tluTT, lUfM Bon, Lord. 107, rcip4*(r«I, Qranmo^-9^iup0, W^f 

Ed[B*artJi, M. P., Kaif, (Btngot C'lTiJ iif rvio<«), Jrvfr^-nhnw*, ^wJ^v* S.E, 
f-rinwud-, .rdiij Thoi,, (C-n. OttnuttonJtpuu, I'nrf*;, nmr /'rtifi/TniW:, WoRmo»tf4« 

R^^ Gtogr^fMtal So^dy, 























U«iiipl». JiiOH L711U. tv\, I/oSnM^. S!im^tttm-kiti, SiTfVJ/, 

*IIlJr(, tlfQrj^f , Fjiq. JTnwt^ui^^r, Uyrv^vv. 

EBa^ MfT, Jnthi Stq. 33, /m^f n— flmjit;*, Bdj/tiddtcr. W. 
^ Ombann^ CdoiwE LaH. iTtiUf ^i^^. itnokvii, Jifrh : and 39, CkapH* 

WXkm^ Biijar Wm. K., 3Kth ]C«(T, Jr^y o^-J A'dPy C7uS, Mi£l-nd£; it. V, 

BILUA. wmiUD. Ch]. a. The Ltma. LaftAtr-t-rwO. JfWwM^, S, Vf. 
BiMl, UmI^ Tb4 Hon, V;JI«»ii FiUwllljuu 4V, ^ ^ i <yi— > , S.W.j and 

Etiii, f^r Lattuw II.. %.*tsA. CMiriD. Coundl of tibdla). 69, I>imr40j/-rud^. 

HO UEh, W. ^ H.. t*|. H^ld^mtt^, GlwMtvi Ontntat Cttb. W.; and 

tln^Jjih A^ Eiq. 

filnwlKWiHiaoi, C^, TV Laursia. Rkfirnond-Mtk 


Eka^i Jofl, Gr«n, Ewi. J/oWntJkfluw, JJj4>m-pMi*, Xnuih^toa, W. 

l.lUm. ai|iL FrtlBrldc. Qht tjf Jfwi. iL ^. I^^ and Co., iA, FothfoaH, 

fto Kl^. fahii |l*nrf Wptlmgljift fluhjiHi toTlia, Uarquin ut », /Vuud't^Mtf. 
ik^ir^f Auf £/y-tvf If//. >V>-iri-M't;jA . 
fisxtfj, John, &q. lAi, i>^fiaf^;/afi4-i»lttii, Artil4 JTartfiwi/. 







List (T PfJ^tM efthe 



RrHneiqUt rin„ taq., Mj', 16. ^/bay. II'. 
*EnVW, linn, Cl./^. M, f . ^/^t-fW^. A/Im, y, % 
Eff klnr. Ckudt J.. K«|. ( ttomUy Onl ^erv'ln). ST, ffrjrW^frwI, IT. ; d^l 

mirrlt^, 3. W. 

trtbt, Thoa. lA'n, Ek|,, ti.r, AUntn*^U, i>rrtv, 

99» CtiM. Cakiiul WillJUD tdwpi. ^i ^^vnow^^CrwE. 
£rj|pi. W. HrrhciU Kip. ^rdf iW«y, TWif, Jfiimt. 
Et*I^, l.itijE,->.->]nD't 'Itfirift I', 
■F.rtlp. Wllhim J., Kh;,, rji,&, HWnvJkitwr, nUfiM, iMfr i)«rK^. 

Kff9, KilVnrdJ-, K«l^ :fl^ Grimgt. .^^ptt Anion. Osf.w^ 

Fi(r, John, K*;. 50, i/jTnfcrt»n-*#rri«a, A. Jo^A^MnOif. -Y. IT 
FAlrfit, ^'diiUlEl ir*lffT. H.3. Army altit AV'tlT/ Huft, ;^, W. 

BtjytMl GfCfjTophicat So<itty. 





















hirfud.Tdw1ii,C>q..lf,D.(5iiff.llMaoMMX XiBtoa, Onfa. 

fO0O*ruiluvr» jtdmiml K. G., f,H, JTaj^oJ Kami Afiiyf, £rHini»ta|. 

r»%iiW» Wdlui, J^ Ckiv ^ J&ivt, AHbi, VMm «d Cb., »> JTiif 

•f^tnr. W. Jw.. Km|. k«, ^(y^' Ai^U^AtM, IT. 

FawiM^ CsfrUui tUiTftiil Btfjii, JI.4L 3, /i*j*-rt^iiifi-ttpnK!tf, TrK/HJimttiAy /Vion. 
runml, rnUHodi, ICvi.,hj>h Wt^r^Ut Ictai. LUtnrittaMrt. 

FtJh;G, WiJtkm, E*^., Jud., r-,xj<. CW« «/ ifrf. Jlf. i^ncA, I, Sifv^fitr^ 
■FVih^ J«lui. t*^., J. r. Cdf^ ^ JTmb^ &. ifuc^vfuf inj Son, if^^-yordflUi 


of F§Ilffrv of i} 




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nuwtlllun. The IIoa. C. W., h.f. tfrtoAi'* Oifr. A /c»m'h»«i«. A W. 

*FltCBbff. JaLn. Kwl^, cjl.i. fFcntumd. ChtMfitivat. 
Flernlnfj i^tnfiftnL. Esq., c.H.a,, r^a.a. Offaiu, Cvuiid; dW 1<^ JW*— ■ 

lOSoVlru^hvr, Thoma* Xnldfy. Kn^. Cnt^^ack^ f.irvAfuv. it'. 
*Fl»>nhd&, Lents E-q- H, ^'jJf*F^'fh*tr*ft. W. 

F<^q^.Gh,, KMr\. Orirmtal CMt. W. 

FoBD. J, M. y,, Cftj. CS«rx,-G<iiefBl)< Armjf utut A'aev '^- PaltfMtf, 5 IT. 

l«6oFgi>nJ, John BmDlvTi Evi^' Jf>yMiiV/i», Iif^tti/'^€\tt\. 

torbtt. A. Lll'iuii A., ^- Htk-liiTtnA'iirt C<utt. I. fiaifmt-Hrmt. ft. If. 

rorbfl, C^t. a J. K. BniUi, timr e/ J/4«r«. ^, S. Kmy md Co., 4fi, iWt 

II, tl^tnlit-^triVt, ^VftvAwvjA ; nn^f j^ivifl |.'J>i/>, l\rit*tftirifX. 
FuiWi. Griiei*! Jii'>.. CM. Inp^* A^a^mt f'ti-tt/fdm, Afte'thmahire [ ttmd Jfrvn, 

FOrUt and Co.. i2, UnJntifKiU-nIrvt^ f:.C. 
Foil**, Hiyflr JhOh (!,. h-k, Cj« of Jf^vr,, Grin^ and Ot.^ H, iW^kHimf- 

ti'Ml, S. yV. i und I *, St^ Jamea'p^q^art^ S. W, 

Rcyat G«OffrttpkimI Soeiffy, 












fotba, W, r,, f;s^, i«A-cuA9^AouH. iracApaGiLir.A; tvtdCmtkUm. 

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PM^ Ucuj QutlM, 1^, C.B. St. Arflhlitt'i* Vl'^ibMA, A Wl 

Fffrml, JuHiv Ch^' JVrumvi', X if, 

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*^vtmtmt, John, E*^. Oriirfiial C'«6> i/oRHf' ^/W^Vt H'. 
Hao*Pon(«r, KigU Uoo. W ilium C4vKnlr H.P. BUi i^xUftn-Biuiirf , f. If, ; anJ 

*ronw>if. linn, I)i>^]l>)i f. «, HmS^TiMtM^ ^^^tf^. W* 

ri)i4Vf UVfod, £iq,Jaii. XMUvwvod, OofMMiV^oai^ I/. 
Knslvr, Jtrnn* Mntnt. ftv|., MI.D., I'.rLC.P, f«.a.. Ac jVnw-aJ, -irtMi^ 
Bn^al. Cart vf Jvtph Ffto, £iq., Coilv^pton. Iftn^. 

FotUF, JC. H^ 1^. 4, St, Jmm't-fiaa/, QtauotUir, 
ugoTooL-E. A, Gnat, Eic^. Ton ^ ^£u. i>rt£Dn, Jji/h. BukmAtm, SmT. 
*F(Mrl«r, Jp T„ ^. 13, J^Win^h^n-'^ir, ^'djtf^Mrn^^r'Jt. W. 

TimlFr, IlivLm >'., &»|. k.jk, £0, C^ttn/UO^ M.G.i and TvtUnfiom, 

Pu, D, lllH,K*4.,C)>i'<£nG.4»iii0> wdtk. Paulo lUiEvaj, St. Toni^, Unui!. 
Girt if/ Q. it. IhUiar. £tVu ■ 1 1. G tt^MitfJit/mt^ OH VmMt-itrt^^ &'.C. 

P«, Ucbt. T' A^, tL3,B, Cm/Mftn,J{.A\Xmjiu^ Q).^*ft/,Ojft%MiIt£,C. 

ItcoFnals, CLorEn W., £«q. 

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LUt <!f F«ihw$ cf thi 


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•Fr-fOH Wmr^l-^n, I ft, Qnat CoUig*-4tr*^ J^. W. 
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Krj, K*iv, HrTiTy Jnhrit <S^, Tturkthiirt. 

Ftill'T, r>ini»ti< LU]- BrtaUan Sn'm-mrui /'a.'^nyiA Co.. 1, rjnnf nWM^Mtft 

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Tlm/iWm&v, Irutimit. 

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Hat/al GtoffTopHcal S>cMtff4 









(Iinlitfr. ChH , K*|. /^ I^vf^'p ^'«*^. Oj/»r<f. 
G>rilt»r,Cht]ii^irT,,Fjq. HM.^ OMxal, Xmnjclam, 0»m4. Cof^tfJi^m 

Outlier. Jolm Du&D. £■}. 
OsnVir, rnlrrtc Kiq, 

fl»br. CBtoQil J. C. Tffvrr of Lmh%, £.C 

C*^, Wm., F-*),, W,A,, Lr.Ek Jr(iilJr«Kiu*«^oe^, ifrimJay, JEnf. 

GIIki}. J4inp« Y„ K«|. Otp« ^ JTMirf. Wiliiapu and Xofffatt^ ffavtittO' 

Gil^ Rrtv. Weil. Tljroi^hilu. UA. iOiAff--f#^A. Oitfilrp^ 
*OilA«il, Rfw^Admii*] Elm Ri[1it IIuu. Ltf li. 9, tieir/anl^jtuiltmM, B. W. i ami 

*GilLttl, WilttuD. )Uq. 31, iItrtf>^nittrHt, Mijif^r, W. 

OnvD. A. Z. iV Viwri. AmpMA Z«« mi Cv.. las, FTw C-tCrr:J. /ir. 

VOL. XIAll. tf 







Zutf o/ Fellows qf the 



GlbUUoe- J, Bn Esq.. m.O. IT, /'tfm^rki/ffMi/Uiirf, IT, 

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»r» Kiuf. L II., ^. A'iUtftVf, t7^'«i«^. amwmr. 

W* tf loKnic li«c Cot«t#l Ed«*nJ K J^^^f LVjri X«-*^t aA ^>*'> 

IflO Si-K. IIfj.17^ Ejii. f,f. a^.CWiL'riJ/^fLC.,- ^^./^.t^V^di^^.Vr,; 

im *Ki^4i7. Vw^ &q. C»rwi^Mr%. JTitigihj, B^^tH, llbyMb<. 

:.'.! Km, f^n, E-^ v.^^^ S,M. A^-cl 4Ad CduuI Uimtnl. Z<ititPMr. 





Kk«bE. Aniritf lUU'T. tiq. C^ l/^JatuUyi'i. >V. 

KboUjii, timcnl tit, HiJi- Mt Wjjlivn T,. K^.D, Adfw^ftnirr, J^ IT. 
|0i| Kl>Dlrla^G«v((|^C«iq.,C,K. II. <t**n't-uorJ*f*^ flydt-pat^ fT. 

j:«v «ftd Ot^ 40. i'O-fluu. -I*, vr. 

KBfvh< Uuo, EAt. /np#rid jrvWQW CW«c«j, C^0U ; inJ 0, AfDiV-y*'<t 


1171 Kuruiikiu. AUul HiU (c(Ln AbEtL-ODnvIrtlitABr^. i^wn, Strmr. ImtU. 




l)4A*LiAin, >Ui,^ta- airlLvl'i't UkhoiiU je.c, c^.k^ J^my vrttl Jl^s Ct^,3.W. 



Liai of FeUows of tke 




















tuinf ^^'ot A^ £Ht. 3. St. reCcrWvtcJ^ CriiyJin. 

\-%ra\ LiDut. llonry, t.V, ff.M. JnJia Start J^tpftr^nnil. Srlf^f*** 

LtDiEik^t JiuiiiB, Ban. U Br^itnt^m-jjIfUit. £ryaBi£i*«^Hiri^ 1 
tjunoni, Jam™, Knj. *, Quvu^afnwf, Maijfmr, W. 
Ujni>LiiiJ4cli. OikcIai DIapj^, Etii. H'y cif /^fidun (TW. f.C 
I^nprtf, John, Ym\. Ifi, <Wubn-j^n. JV^PT. 
Uiii]»HfU, filr C. M'l Hut. 80, fulmwvivf:. 5. IK 

LnvfirnrOif , Fldwant. Eaq, I 

I^nluBr, Culuusl JiJiii. CthV*/ &/»!« CTb'i, S. If- | 

|^Lfjfhli», LiraL.'ra], Geenp Ariiold ^Bombnjr ^UJT Carpi), ^pvni>M4 

IktBifaaj Surrey, Hom^n. 
LB4ii[1iiai]. J. Kp, ^m. /CQi/\it ^oimJ Cvtlf^f, Oftmw^ 

»ir*i't, S. W. 
IjiTin. ilovph Stinrir], R*|. II. Wnr\r\^k~$ipMtf*t&.W. 
(7J0Ij»w, Goo,, Kiq, til, f>*/<wjj;r«*, rtX 

Uif. Jw^ F^, W4» Oa/flrtf<i(r»T(, W.C 

Ldwrrn^i^ A1*iviJ<Ep KAq. ^yJf-Apurtf, 7Aiiriou>rcuj/, FtantptUod, J'l' 

IjiffrrTiM, A. W-. K^iipjiin, 17, Tfittrfnui^iiNvl^ flampttnd^ AMf, 

LivpvDft'. ICfin. Jnlin llpntllnn. ^4, ff*nufort-<pr*tnM^ S. H' 
linrenw. Sir J-J-Tinvor, Rirl., MpP. », ArtKf*B-7a«f, Aff^; orvl 

Hat^at Gt^ffr^jAicai Soei^tf* 













Uvnuov W. F,. fjq, .V*ie C^A«nA« CM, J. IK 
UwUp WLllkfli. Ejq. at, ITdAjfrrt'frFoM. i^■AulA. A IT. 

*U;ird. fipuin Bronnlov VUtlrn (Jul VT«ir Intl* l^ft.). Jm^ ^Wvit 
■Cj*», Sir l-nlia a„ Knt. ^ffA, HVifrn JufmNj. Oi»v If C J. WfM. 

L«WDDlh, .^ndrvT Jima t., fiiq>^ /ttiiffr fViirof J^vtJc* C^Vab, ^. ft' 

Ufcnr, G- A., 1^. (r>^p«rA^Jb»W| i^itoii, A.^*-7r««t, />wAam. 

UdAH TMHok Co Fj^. ? . ^ oftd^^W, iVo<^:^^»"i, ^-Yae4«iH, .<;. tV. 
LKk^. C4;iT. Sin^rr TMtilolr Mntfkinl (KoTil SaTHl KtW^). 171, RlAt^ 

Livt AlUiUllv^. I A. nviAf^frm-ff-. JVofAc* iTflu^#ttfi /TFcwIfrtm, /^nnuAfrr. 
L«f^ JvIjd. Eiq< tfrMHfidr^&IV^rri IVHiAlrv-nRiEi, jtiKfCiV' ^>^* Kll. Il*|, IC?, XaiiaiaMr^ftf. Ill 
*tcM, LftulermiiL-Ci^ijuvl Nisidu, D.o.L. Atf^na*^ Ctub, S.W. 

L* renvn. W, li., Yaq^ ilk. 
*Ufc«T«. $k Jn^Q <inr^t ^Uw, W,^^ P.^L., F,«*tH ]<i ^^r^^ortfau. 


"Ic^Makan. Tnilf nek, Ciq, }\ Srrk$(fj/'SjHan. H". 
Laif|khBiip'f C«l- ifdiArim-^rcJurt; and riittdle^.K\U. /fitutlsy. 



££rf <ff Fdl^xcn of the 



I £76 




















34, JrwMMiuUtfrAad, J^^AAM f mtf 

Lt VtjK Cm. R«i;nriii, Kiq, 
fi<yt^ dub. s. v\r. 

J'jUinally 8. W. 

ItTTT. J. 0., Ili«|. 97, ^, Ontf»^>.«;winr. 3. W. 

Lsvarion, Cvor^ B, C, I£s4|, IB, Qi^vhJr&o^^ij^ <V«^vltl>f^«t«««^ S^W^ 

Levflriuri» fjcut. Julintt Jau., Itt. lA. Qunn^rry'pfiJ^ p, OuiiEci«ll-roaJ,&' 

Lcrie, NnQjiuiirL, Kaq. 44, CtnBlaf«t-Mtiii'at^ W. 

*LT«ln. C^jil. iliofuu H> (l^i;. ^tJilTCnrpi). 

t«vrlf, Jmp| FI*q., ILH. Caiftle Carrwt. drr^ok'iin-ffliaVMk, 
tt^KltfT. IE. C, M.l. A'vaUtflMVHlllOli.^.W, 

L^jrlBni, n. Vaiu. K^. I7h XlKhm^9-htt4<ilivgi AnriA, AiTw/fl?^. * 

Lidifirld, kLtht Ucn, Thnmu Ortre*, E*ri of. ffU^rnyA, £lt^ii/d«Arn 

LWiftrA. llinniM [.jIC)kIaii I'oni^t. Lord. t-itf^'pitfK 0)iAdit, AWy 

LJ!liii^E<Hi, Lpitfulwbutt F, 0. luon, h-v. G'rifj^mrrr-Avmr. Lwfkaii^ 

LiuiUi^, IE, H^milloh, V.k\. W^iXnu-^hAf, Jtry-nvlin-r^mfr^ 
L^aOmf, I All]. MX, 47, /frrjoi'jfrwf, l^mtrwr-iTiuPa^ IV. 

ami "2, flir fttfrt-^ir-Jntf, 5, W, 
iLriihriv, Murk Uhn, Kiq. 77, lMi^af*J*iJr. KX.; ^nd hWTii^j^la^t J 

LJha. Jopfph IVUT Cnhfii i3f, Ku|. Port t>\iViA. Jfmirfl^. 
I.j*(cr, |»» S.> R*!^ 7^ //«1A, Hamptt^ad, JV,K'. 

l^^oLlUi'v^iribii. Rhj, CjfkinfFM-AoiW. IVVor/tW, trti^vS. 

R&yal G«offraphic<d Soci^> 













Livenidgfi, Arohibald, E*q., r.a.L, be, Chtra of Maurt. TWbiirr and Co^ 57, 

Lad^atfhiUt E.C. 
Llo^, Capf, G. Heni^. Oare of Mairt^Jao, Jiipp and Qt^ 11^, FencW^A- 

ttrttt^ E.G. 
Uojd, Fnntai Ajlmcr, Eoq. 33^ Qutn'M'ttrract, f^nchley-Toad, N. W. 
*l>wjd|HoD. G*D. A. SydMStJ/. 3.W.; and 3, George-jfatd, Lombtird-st.,E,C. 
Lloyd, PcTciTHl, Eh^, 
*UoT^, W.^ £«|, ififOOd-AouM, WBdMtbary, gtagordahire. 

LIevUjh, Major Kiohud. Arm^ awf Savy auAi S. W. 

LludljD, Major WiUiua R., ila. Pf^movfA. 
*Lo1^ Johp, Eaq, 89, ^Lirm<gifc>n-itr«r, £'.£;. 

LoUcj, Jama U^an, Ecq., F.3J. b% CHatendon-r^ad, W. 

Loch, Haarj BraoghJUDt ^m^. Gowiment-funtv, Itk ^ Mim* 

Loch, John Charlea, Eaq. 57, J^oMancwd-rtwd, }F«i A'amngion, 1*^. 

Lo^ WlLbam Adrnm, Eaq, B, Gnitt Otoryntr^tt, Wtttmituter, B.W. 

Jjoik, Alfiwt G^ Efq. ffcwfan<f>r iftiytrwri, Bonthomptviu 

Locke, Jahn, £k|. 8:i, Adduon-road, KanDngton,, W^ 
iBTOLodJiut, WilliBDi, Eaq., r^-C.*. 67^ ^nnioi//e-fiBrjt, ^faeJ^Mljl^ B^, 

Lockhatt, Cipt^ Wm. £uph«i ALuuider. 
*Loder, Edmund Glln, Efq. 42, Qrottenar^q\tar6^ W. 

Lc^u, Sir T. Gilhruth, E.c.a.. H.i>. 40, Sydt-park-agu^ro, W. 

Lomofujaioff, U. Alalia da. AttUU-SK. Qtographicai Sooviif, St. PefirtbvTf. 
Can of Mhv3. Hamilton and Co-^ 32, Faternotter^nm, K.C- 

LondaaboTOuph, Wm. Henrj Fonatcr, Lord. 38, BerAtiey-fptart, W. 
■Long, G»r^ gaq., h.a. 1^, Jf^mf-PifAu, Port/^, OitcA^tMr. 

Long, Rtr, laJOft. 14, .SofiffrHry-j^iur^ Fieet-ttrMt, E.C^ 
*L«is, W. Bwatob, Eaq, 

LoBgbottom, A. P., Eaq^ c.^ 
lABoLoa^D, MajoT-GnuraL Henry Bdarard, C,B. 03, Xwufnorv-^o^i/'na, S. n'. ; 
and UnHfd Srrviot CVi«&, S. W. 

LoDgdaii, Sir J. R,, K.cHAi, tiWn-wnflU-Affntff, Trinidad. Care of Mr. J. 
P, MartiKaau, 13, Kmg'a-road, Hedford-rmOt W.C. 
•Loi^laj, Lu-CoL Gn>iB», ilk, SrooAia Clufi, St. JamtBMlrcHt S. W. 

LoD^man, Thoi,, Eaq, i*dt«nHHffr'rou, E.C, 
-LongiLafl; LieDt-Coland LlewalL^a Wood, ^tfcnn Qub, Faii-milt, S. W. 

Lonadalt, Arthur Pambarton, Eaq, 

Leaker, William Robart, Eiq. M^iboumt, Atatraiut. Otrt of Mr, A$hAtvtt, 
t, renc^un^Mtrtt B.C. 

Lord, W. Barry, Eaq, Vown^vM-kiU-cottagt, Hampttefid, K. W. 

Lome, Tha Uoat Hon. tba Marquia of, h.t., «.p. 1, Qn'SvenoT'CreKent. SL IV. 

Lort, WJlliui, E«q. Ffvik Qttch Sail, Ltaniiugan, Via Herriitu, Mtmtgi^merythire. 
rBgo^LothiiD, UjuiiicH Jdo., Eaq, Vt'oodcaU'park, BiackthieU, H.B. 

Lothian, Hat Hoiu Wjlliam Scbombai'g, Mhrquia of. 1^, Bntton-ttreei, IV. 


•L^ ^ F^ll&yjs of ih€ 
















f^vf, J, IT, 

LovTU, PliUUpi Cixb^, Ebi[- ZiKivmihfvAptiH, AijimnA^. iMghtan Himm 

L*w, Are*. F., E^. 31, trH«&«iiw^<mi^, W. 

L?». Chu.IL, Eft]. ilJFULhtBl,!,) \t, aWf-piaee^ OWuti, A.IT. 

LflirdfXi, Kit, iJtorft Ltouu. St. fjotvu-ituUa, /T'WiiMfl, MttUiMrx. 

I.ojJ, l,»ai. I,e*n VjTtjui (liii^ijultft 4.iifint4)H Ifi, Cffoiwaor-piflM, Al8 

Liurd, CvpUiu OlmrW Rtfvnn!, fLt. rnrf^mcuFA, 
Lurd, tfijor-nviipnit IL 0. A, A, Paiit-r^jnit. St. LtomirdjHJit'Sfiy 
Luani, Wm. Cluarl'^, K*q. LtatJif-KyiiM, Otrdi^: and ^tndirm Chth, J 
*Lub|iuck. Sir JfiJiu, Earl, M.l--. J^ l[,»,t &r. ffUjhH^m; EUvAmAdVl. iTrtt 

LuJIow, Krliinr John DftFlil. E&1, f\m 0/ ffM. Parry, A}'. fiT, Ol af^ 

JTtfJUilHFlM, IV. 

*1jjmp1ffi, l{«v. Ft C, u.A„ v.KA.». MiMiaJuaii, 
Liuh, Ilcifi, Sit lloUrt<^,<3. ^^Imvrat-hanMr^ AvvtM^r-Md, Jitymt'»-pork,2 

LuUi*^! ItflWrt Gporcn. F*|, Cart of Mft- /.ali^j. U, J^arin^^rMCfiri, A 
*Ld1lr>ll, lj*Ut. AUundir Fawnm (Oi«q. Giw4ii> iimrtU' Oufc, ;^iA 
5- 1^- ; owl ^'yur^;^. Nom^rwf. 

*L]rQ0h< Theinu Kvn. Cvq. 31. d^f'tl'tfifl-ffvoff. fSjittfytark, 

Eoifoi O^offraj^cai Socitii/. 

















MtnlaMM, Wm. M„ kwj. IS, ^brfcmr^piiv. & ir„- 4f»J SL Mariirt't, iWfA. 
UMd«ii>ll. 3ir RitUanl Ont*. K.c,Jtjii„ aik. AtJtmnnCia^, I*tii'tmil,S,W. 

fori /niAd 17, j£ CTut^ St. Jon#tV^ujr<. ^^tT. 
Mac^UiHi. DnalJ H,, Eaq. <l:l, J'lrrlkmJ'jttittx. W. 
UttOn^r, LitaL-CoLC, W, IS, /rtv-iyn-ilwa, S.W. 
V«Qnvcir, EhiooD. Ciq. ^Afluum d^it. ff. IT, 

IffOlb^wi*, Ckpt. O^ (7aUi U%Uu4m). ^h^l tt^ JlM*vy C!i*S, Pi^^ 
d:n\,- sikJ £'[uf /mAu {7H<f#if ^rrv^v ^'4^* S. i\\ 

MrtUlUj Jotlllt E«q.| J.r., H.I.CIL /Vncf^tflHf, 19, /*«T^/Y*«t W,Cm 


I'Kiwtrittj Cttil'. Si. Jfinur''v^, tf W. 
ld«Jiiv4r> Ut4iL-<ir4- Elliot (i^E>lli Geg&pi«i<0. U.S. ChJt.S.W. 

















>1i»:laiiiBt Murilvih 0., lUq.* of tMhvcv. 64«b, ^E«fiMdl 

MnoJrpKii. A'llldm Crkj^icn. E«i|., r^OA 31, OBfa-tfaoA-^liaf 

UkLmt, Air C«Dref, ii.C.M,4> F^ndaH-eoHrt^ UkhAtngiff, 

lljulurr. Aitditw. tsq. JTastj. Jftfcfw, IfocJiDiuJff. ob^ M^Bgrtgat, V7, 

Uvnitlkn. Afci.. E*^. lA, /fwl/onf-dfrffffr. Cnmr-^AiM, IT.CL 

Htituik. John. IChi. 0. /f^ttW^trJfHdi CUtj^^ 

V^VrjiTttr, AVi^ r>i|. 34i, lEi^i/i'nDrh^rvPi; /Tnrbwy. 

MaAlfih, I^umIiI A, L,. K>q» v.h. t> i,/iini«rt-Jfn-av« /'dim^mW Pixh, JSnttA 

db., iS, pAritinml-ttrMt. B, IF. 
HeJkrtiiiir, A]iiit„ Kh^., h.i'. Jt^ei<ih-\iXlt Bfit^f¥<u*, ffririon, ^-IT. 
VcArttaiir, Wiltlain. Uwj. K OataiJtr'^iOUMa. Rrittan^m^ S.W. 

U^Clintock. AdmtnJ Mr FriUkCtt L>/>juiM, t.H^ -it, Xnttn^ton^jaM. l*atM/t* 
geiti, W. I und tJnitr4 i^rtioi CUtt, S. W. 

*MoCliir*, Jnrph HfRrj-. Ktq. 9, RumforJ-jiitV-v, Ltwrptjvt. 

MoCiXlftoll, J-U_ &!»., tiiq,, C.B. a, lffaii-t-^>irj, tlWrofUfdr. F, IT. 

WcOs^. John, 1*1., a.ti. Junior V^ii^ Hrrt^ Olt^h, S.W* 
UcEvjiu, Jahb Tfiimii H,, Ijq. S. iJfim^c^v/HWfHii, Mvtiittij-MiS, IT, 
Viator^ UfMl. S^W. 

Hoyat Gf^ti^rapkirai SoeiHy^ 










*>UI*ir» W. O., E*e., dfi*. of Cft«fKAaM f^nl^K-iit Oigjci^in/, Jfdrfrw. 

M; JowVa^/iu^ 5. IT, 
iTaUibn, Cotwitl A. Oirv tf JTfVFy, tf. ^ JTow avi CO.. CoraMTL X.C. 

•ftwl. 1V,C, 
M'KhLi T^ lUc^t Ilea. S^r Jnhn, a.<^m tfrafri(rn,Mar Jli^ittt^iir^. 

*3(4T4(i. Culm A^V^^ Care uf Jf^. B. MaVtun, Stmamtk, AvtiMtJ. 

m-Atm. W^im; •!*{ Cvr AiiA/j T. ^, Cut, U. <^. ^aivi'f^/MV', 3.W» 
Hair, G. J» J., U^ rAA. 41. C>]W Bri/^f^vpr, ^iwri^^Mrr, If.C. 

•Mo^r, Ki^h^H Utorj. E*]., rj^. JMaif^ih c7>.i, H.W. ; and UriTiU 


•ll«lMlm» M*i>r I^Ka^l D«hU, H.Kh EJittvryi. 

*ltslln. CbM., Etq, jlvrlkf-<y]laf, W.C.i and t, QufffUhra'^Sm-ai-t, Aiyt- 
mUf. W. 

y^Ot rVpum J. /tptuiJr/. JiDpcriiJ MiuUiiFi4 Cualaniiv CiiiJiB. Jkmior tMtlt-l 
Stroia Chtb. & lY. 

Hun, IfLtllim. »«|. Wot^orH, AfwiF, 

IbmbcaUr, W<i>. D. MunUcn, DuIlc of. 1, QfMt SlfnK»p^4tmt, W.t dnJ 

Kami. H, Kiij. itA^Hr-Hhiniidiv, f,ir<; oMrf 13| Vyp^ SrvnFirkk-fUcv^ 
















Uuuun-Suttcin. Itun, tUA^n Htm;, t!, OnHMOffry j>r« jf. ICrv i^ ti i m* SiW^ 

*HuiifllJ, Captain A. L. /TyrfrniTroTjAi^iyflcv. J^bifrtinirk S, W, 
BUnl'll, Sir Jnhri Tin, C-unlif I'd!-r <vu/'» .^in-^^Fj^tyj, Jfnv A«f^, 
MnQtoll, ^'nlifr I^I^Lim-Ie liiirnhi, hji!}, lO^Uv'™! ^V«iP JElnfaiid. Can c/ 

MitntJet Whi. Julia. Kvf, JKure^itlf, /otcu/nH 

)04oMiknilt, r^w4nf DviiAcd, r>Mj.J],U. Cmvul, OiUiu- Otrt of Vettrt. Sh^^ti 

BUr5<"**.WimiinC,.E«ii. St. A^iWoj^ ff™«4iTl* ; dni ^^r ^'T>4fliV <la.J^W; 
UnifTiKhvk Jutiti "niumaiK f^. Curt vf AT'ft Jfar|rfcctU| ^ 

UirkhiRi. C»ftfAta Albtn. IfMliiiEi. H.H. Ut, £^WAl«-«f7iur«^ JUT. 
NarkliJkiii. C1riit''vi«J^?tt.^^&9)., r.ftJi S1,rKjEMeM4fW<VT. 

*JiliuftbiiL], J, Q. Dun, Z^. Birk=n»hiiP, ff'MiIfy, FuntWro'^HifiCM, fJantt. 

Hufektl, WniiOJu. !>j. 71, i/cni£rv(«fwvi£j; IF: 
*Mir<li«tl, Wllllari). G*i. ST. Svrfailhtiftti, Slrmd, W.C, 

WortUio, EdwflH, Eaq. IBS, /Tjfff-jJrM/, E.C. 

liuttn, C. n«uB, 1^^ Ifrtf-Ar/ruri, AW ^f/'iiuf, 

UMtlMf EllMl, Kfrj . Vin^Cuniml, AiruiM^. Ovt ^ W. 71 J/dr«fli. J^, 

*M«rtiii, lEkrtunl KiddiJplit Ka(|, Ciiftif«Ml, ^ic^Itjf^ 
lOtaHirtlD. Thomu. !>]. /fncAvNiori. HVjA^h, ivur ^r^Ac«n, 
VijtJd, Win. CDlfCUti, Cm|. 

Mjuna, fhitlfJi, A. J., Kiiti il, llfmvittr-cmcirit, Hf^-^mtk. W, 
UuDQ, Dr. ibunuo]. i\^ f'in«^^-cnrv«a. A'.C. 
Uufr, Chu. Hdklu, Etq, £urTvie^fwiuAviur, Of ImC hmt f7eclMMf, 

JMr,£vHAcin^ilrfBr.i;,C ' 

H&tfoi Gtc^pkUal Socirt*/, 












■JbUwA. Aloud*, Eiq., M.P. 5«, ^fM^-idrfrt. r^f^4mt. W.; aaf 

Kirtbfw.Ofuti DuiALtr, Kiq, OjrfqT if<Mr>.5o^rH^<Ainif 0^,^Li7«teV 
U«lJi««v, Wlllku. bq,, H.i, 40. It^Aofv^^M^ .A^rtfi^AM. 

Mat. Wm,, &^. ^. Utr)t Cay, ;r«it^p 

Mft^u, CjpfAJn Ktrhard CJurl?*, %^v., o.n, 101, ijn^rt't-ffotf. £, U' 
Miir«« 0»|t[4ia John PuEv. jlrmi/irAiiiV'ivy rMw^.tV. 
MafHC, Joba S , Y^,. l.r. A» ST. Junn'j-i^urw. MtifAMfr^ 

M/tMunm Cliib, f^\W, 


Zwf vf F^Jiff^t ffthB 





81« ZM»»^tf<f<iiiv 
Cbv </ ^, £, 

Uarowvibfr, Cdard r^r Willlrm T,»<3(vrr, «^0.i,, CkIL 

UviliiKii. CtrL Hod. FiiJ (SnU FiLdllv tinuii), <9iiv^' Q»A, fki»«wf, 

U<t)ivDD, (TapUin RoWt. 4*. (^flj^rfr'^^Mra, ^.T, 
'ACutai^iJgh, Kiifhl Hm. Jrtlin CKh*, fiM^^hArlor. ti\ mur-ttrMU ^-i ***'^ 

tltdclliton, rici^'Adfaiml &ir G. K. Broke, Bnrb. Shnhivnd'ptvk, ^ 
Siiffulhi aid :!i^ Ali'*if*"i9-otrrrt, W. 
•MblttUW. WjJtiHin lVil|infii, K*q, Junnr Oirlfirik riuh. PdiZ-maJf, J^.W. 
*Ukk^Jollll WtlJUni, £<i|,, Cfe. 14, AJdwrn-'v^ £ttiMif<;/tt>it^ W. 

^rUt\ LiPut.-CoJ, '5*miLA iMi rtir (iWml'Jiy ftaJT Cni|>*\ Pcaitkcd AftwL 
MHciTiii. Ojrii j/ iffim, A'mf/ jkI Ou,, 4a, FaU-nut!i. S.W. 

•MiLlcr, AJiuJriil Tliumu. Vntttd Stroke Cruh, 6. VT. 

*MLEli.John K„ li:*], JCinatnoi-iv^e, Tvitfidot Welti. 
MkLl«van], Victor, R«|., J^i*. ^ffiV V^. J?«ili>SfA, ff'of^Mto^HU^. 

Mtln*. AdmFnkl 8lr Alri,, Butt, 1, £dunJf»>4trv«£, A IP- r oarf 

jijoViln'T. Ilav, John, n.j. TAff Jf^^Ffi^jV, JVfi:rW'>iuf>i-7(*irvti'itf, Darfntifltvu. 

A?yili Ov^ffr^hi&X^ SocMff. 











IfoUiOQ. Alu^il«r rullEiuo* Eh|. 

lifrljMtu, Ut.< Vr.C. f t'i,i>itu*4fi\\iIn4tnoa.Kf*tinitvt, IP.; ^hT 

^■■vr ThiW 5<'i»c- tVitl, S- W. 
Von*/. M^or (itRM :KjMt (J^i^ SBbIT Cm^). tttadKan-fm^. ftttnftU ) 
amd Mrr of Kfur». H. S. A'^-j. i\ f>ii/-m^t!, K W. 
a^^oUuQl^u, Jm. U. V^ ^^ £U*«r.Vi(L lifidyuH, D»rKt, ami CAii^ OU^ S. IT, 
•lAeObfH*, iJiJt.-Ca^cmi) Hnrut. Ca, W^tti^iV^tm, A H^. 

MaiHl»,<l, P, X«|. Can a/ J. J. J^mtl, 1^4^.. 2t, fWrnm-jfrwl. ^,C. 
■Udcr, B-T AlUa P., V-4-, r.iLi-L ^- Cf^nnr't-cffv^r, ?Vimj. 

Hsn^ JiAn. Kii]. 30, Mari-taiu>. £.C 

*3J4uanl, UAjtir J. !•■ L* (It- UmI. Bf>g,\ itfutuif WuurF, Oi^ULViAiiniJ. Xetlyimriet, 
I jr«*iB fVapriHCy, Ckntftif Jfiwi. y^An OiiMlJiiiff anil iktiu, 13, /^ilvpi 

a«^ rci//-m«i?, A If. 
BoiluuJ. Lj»u;> tTcDry* Li» 1.3. AmiMont pMinattrr. Je.. frun^y. 

Harm. &]imd &, Etf|. KorKZrw/ fluA, /W^mJf, illV, y 9nd Poftlanwum, 

*|ldnl»a. Alf,. kjii^ la, C.iWtf-'h-Aa'W frntrf, >; IT. 
klordMb, CoW»] J. C. a C-nitgdAnioi CM, J'^i-mUt. S.'iV. 
HorrtHii. I'mnAA, U^. CWv v/ John UuAm, A'«j», t, /blfnAtfUV-ifdrd, 



Lfsi ef^«!hv^ ^'A# 













Mnsrrttio], Adaljiii, E#i, 

JtfcH«r, TCabert JaokH. £«i|. 4 1, ^n^/fW^fwrf , W^C^ 
tljo}Aimt. Mirom Tfrtlui, Kftj, FUrlim'UiKm'parli ; mid 11, JFMf*s#-tfn«f, 

■Ufiiltf, a W., e«^ M.A. Slw C^Utgr. 
MuillQ, Cbjuls i:dvuit £iq» MiutMitUiii' 
HuoUer. FfnUniiuJ, U^h, JIk^^ ^I'-u^ lUrmtcr of th* BoAmini Qbijjm. 

■Muir, Thoiuii*t E^i^, JfuJfliru h on J -4. rjr^/*rr*K*, Af/mTt-panl, if, IK. 

Muoar, Dtniil Luuii, fitq. CWv «/ ATottrt. BwOn. /taAfr,«tf (V. 48. Jta- 

UnnMT, Kid Kii>llmt7 Count (AmhAaHtdor of th«G4riiukQEviF<r*.) <ffi«uB 

■Muiq>i>Mit, Jehu Itp, Kv{. JMmior Cvitoik CiiJff S. Wi 

5, ft". 
*Vi]miT. JqSd. Jun,, Efi|. nO, ^l/Vrjurf'-if,, Wl; und A>r4fMd, IHntfHhi, 



Rcy^l Gco^aphical Socidty^ 




















Homir. VTMM^m T.ughua, fi«|,, H.m.L. i«. 4, li'<i<i>»Ti# o — wf, JT/^ 

Kt»Jit. r< VniUUkntlihHiiB* llv]., I)iitrif(eE>4|-L*w. Bl^ Coiiii^ Hiidrat. 

Jhfia, Cape. Ilea. <Jw, CWv «f J&htl {3r*idai|F skT C^» »&, i\uJi«n#iif- 

^us,CapuJ[i$irGtoisvS,|tjv,.«,CJ). 2^, A /*A£rCp'i-n»d, JrUrH^>■, 
y*tl, Cipt. WllJ)u>. Afmtf9m4S'»fv€^,Patl-m^,g.W. 

StbaiW <!»n:« nao/j, Uq. Wtz-j^"*^'' i^^pitat Bujfi Siikooi^ Itixtttr. 

W^i and JV^f^iLfy-^f. S^td^o-ti J'Wttt, JTurriM-i^iuJVfti. 
Sannuk, Gm. G., Etn- 73 ii»J 7^. CijmkiH. E.C. 

UloKtvUa, Wn., R«^. 11, Uiinf i>^i-t, Tmpit, S.C. 

NlilnlH, W^ Kvi, % Sk;rlfj/-nth^, fnufirtt'kW. tCuffAomfm. 

UMbImo, Sir CWIm, Pvl, i>.o.i.. n* f^-^n^. TttU^iise. DarU, K 

KlnlK Woh K-^i., K'4, lOT, ZMuiemv-roHi, .WCrWiy A^ 17. 
















S3 joMl«ola, Arthur Itobiil, Ktq. II, CnvraWoiei BimpHtadt^-W, 

Nil, Juhn H., ^:*|. '7, Lvtftlifrd tlrvit, S.C, 

•Mufloib, SAmirtX MitLihw », ^ 1^ Aiinmi/, Pitcidiiiy, HT.; a«i (MOtd 
S4rv£e4 CIub,a.W. 
Nqrnan,Ciipt-ai«l-*B- 13, KtTriAbra^^r^d^ Ut.S.K. 
Notrijijih I], J., Eliq, 4, //ufi^Mi-tfrfk^* C7n4m>ur'plaar, & W- 

NiirEhiiniT>^kri4l, .^i^^vrnoTL ri«Lir|{i^ Itutttcf. 'i, Grntrraur*plaf3t, &1T. 
Ndl-iul], ngui K»q., JiU*. 2, <?Jwi«rtfJ*--jf£'ttf. If^f-parif W, 

WuUiwu. llniijr WilWo, tjq. 1, Gr^t i/ift f^yftf Uf/A^tfwt, IV. 

OaEb. Wm, EJwuil, Ciq. 3fmi^<xrl4iip. fvit £#nI«. 

#/ AfnHT^, Sio'^^l and Sofuft Lin\rt%i:f PiMtitnry-lan*, JC,C 

Ogiirr, Cot. Tlku*, a:^, QrafUin^tfHi, /^^m/i^, IT.t (nf fftCAws Av^ 

Qldar, W^ A.iif-. E*q. CirW'4^F0n'fwJytf, IHchmond. 
OlilIiun.AiTgvia.UijorCi^. Vmcf Mtttri. Otvidiay lutTCj^ &&, /WVdiw^ 

QtLvvrj Ufvrp, Epq. Ttf| C?niotcAureA-&Hi/ffn^j:, JC^C^ 

Jtayaf Gtogrtxph\€td Sofuty* 









1 — : 

»MHtTW. U^ S. r.. im Di1c4d« LA. C»t of Mn, W, OOwm-, Jtwftyr 
nc*vr)r, ttvar. £ua, 

OniniuiD>7, IUj>r ^Jvin! Uow (Btfogil Miff ^^Vpa^ KFiMMUrfOfitfri 

U^fpir^W.i Old OwiiM Sr-Hc4 Ont^SM. 

OnHlbiHiL< Jabn Uarm-WAkh. Li>M. 28. StrUtry^^^^^ W. 
'OrairvJ. lieu; Ucrx^tvj. /'rEjUjA;tM.^rA, JlfdfH.AHl»-. 

Of ivl QHh r «l'Ao<*u, ^. M, irmiai^Mjait, S. W. 

*0«baiif, L(tut.-C^. Wtl|im}:I.l.>-, roiiiic-U A<jfM. HK^, S^ini, If^i^ 
tif^OAmntt Jv<K Smyth, y^.. jicii, //pii<A-Ahv, «Va|ii>fMi, BritM. 
€««tll. W^IJlm Cat(«tj, £«]. OrwnAriiJjc, KmU 

*OTVibnk. Bvw d«. /A»i!j-/rviv> ^* </ ifHari. Xfcf aW Ot^ A^^ 

Oiwfr^j.lL K., 1^, (MiviniCfTUSHTiot). 14, A. J«m'»vw«, i^ ST 
■Ottntonf* SuikucL, Lunl, ■,!.. «,iu. 3, Cvrtrn-ynntou, tf,ir,; aid 





H|«^Hc«T]P, Kiq- I>Mlfeic\c(mrru^ U.K. 

*Paliiiirr, t^pUlli Geof^fu. K7l. i^iJj^aM, Jlaieic't. Soibirghtkv^. 
■i>iLTfl«r. ii-inwt. Kvt- 














*Pirt-. H.R.H. !(■ ConM de, ^ 

PriHiK. CapUin A. I. MWrnjion-piaC*^ OviU/ord. V 

'Hiriiib, Gin. WoodbliLe. Kk). ObUPpy-AcHMH Sf. Ztonanla^m^Sn. 
•PurUh. C*pt. John E», iub», :i, ir>«ia*-j»JdM, l'>?faWi9-4ft^<(, S,W. 
*Piirlah, m Waxiblni. k.R.H.. T.BJe,. Air. C«'lrryA>iUbr. ^"V. fAmanf»tfi 

P*rliM. Sir Unity i^.. K.O.Ji., ILM. Minuter PicuipulonlUey. 4*., Jn Jipiui 
I'ftikliv Gfor^ Lfwks, llliq^ 23, T^jM^hVp H'. 

Pirlfliir. JfcL, £»q. Appi^'iodja. BaMlU>hw. JHfrmtArK^r, 

PuT^. EMwird. Kjq. 2^^. C<tndfJH-road. iS'.W. 

l'a*oii. CApUm Cnvf friM« IlMk f^rtof Mftirt. Cttt tyitd tJ>*d*f»wk,\^i 

VnUxnm, Jnljiit K"ijh W CtjUnvm-ttf^et. K.C. 

?AV*naOt Ju. WitBan, E«|. ^iV^joJ, IV^jtv^y, r/alSijutft C*^ US^l^ 

•Pntl-riun. Cnpt. Kiohi, IL Ttf /"nrl, fJoffi^ij/t'm^ 

Pitttivoq, J^ r^, 31, Sraad^trffi, B.C. 

FnuU J. B., K*q„ UP, 7^ ^^ttim, CtwibfrvfU. S.S. 

Puil, J»«p]i^ Eh]. Oi-m'^ttviit'AiuUi', Hfldf, /s/f «/ IW^J, 
riull. rt(il. W, »., R.N., ll.M. rriiuiiil. Tiir^ tftW. C'irV #/ jVm»v. Vr« 
irbf rn.» H. Cvtfinff^ritat. ^. IV, 

Trtiil-in, W. It,. \^.*\.. J1.4. ^. lAAwnrtMrieamfff. Bimt^tU^ 

Frtrcn. R/iUrt Chw.. Km^, U, Wa/5t*-t*r*dfl#, PKiilimiff^^fdtm, W. 

I^inr. Lidiit.'Col. (in. >1iiaiejr- iTul^ivIm '/fur>if .^trvirvCfub, M.Al J4 
fVBof*, S, TV. 



Jio^ OtograpMmi ScaNy, 














■PmI, Ovadn ynacU. £oitfd'fMat, CoMalfr, 
P<il, iB^t n-w. Sir RaUrt, ^■n..o.c,ii,. h.f, 4, WMttl^all-gtr^MA,S,W,t 

*F<]fUin. Hon Arthut L, SfcinflMr, i>«wi^ .4Wu, 

PfUj. C&I>L Nif haH W,, 7hiufy iTrnw, Tomr-hiB, £.C^ ; tmj ffiin§- 

Tmtiintkt. Kieht iron. <jfDrp n. C» liw^Kri. Urt of, WiU-mJurvt. Samarg ; 
dhf III, tii«^rii47ViH. i'vnlJ^. XW. 

PmUr. H. !>., E»^. IB, Ayli^ffioft-$t^l, S.W. 
*Fm4«r, Jiiba, Esq, 1«, JrAht;fvA-«IrT<',£.l1% 

Phpf^ HvD> Walter CffurlRUf. UW/Um CV»&, A' /mu4\ '*q*art, S. T. 

t]fOFWkiii«i WLJiiM^ Kk|. J;!0tin0> Af^iifte BtpttftUt, 
' fVnj, Hf Knklnt, MBaibtr of ibf L'QuniHt «1 JalkL -^il. JITiifai'jjiiiH, /f. W. 

. *t>T#rt, WilJimn. lUq. 

*J'ftJt4i1fK John. K^- 5(. <7ar47ni ^mv-h '^^ JuiJc/j; (X-f-n'-alL 
Vkiti; Uijur ACiftln^ VTth l^ffpin'iit. Jinmorrr^odgt, A'Auoytcn^nrJ, If. 

Pfasrurn. KabNri, E*i, WtHm/itm. ^'mta 2fa/dMC Onr a/ MfMr$. Se^ 

JltcPhkrrt, LiHt-><i«n, fir Arthur. G'U..B-d- (Got^mor of UflmilluO t^rr 
n/ U^MVM. >i, V. Amj .iiv; Ca, 4A, ^'dJ-mn/^, ^. K', ; ami K f'tJut UmM 

*FI»a4, Jola f^Auud^ Kv|., ll.i^, vaa^ rjiJk S, CyWficm-fvTuw* AtUr^- 
■l/wf . 5. IT 



Lt*t of FttiotM 4>f tlm 




I^Khmnn, ft..AitiiU»l An|iuli». SkM/itUt, MnAv^ tt^OV; ■* 

rbJllll*. TJiomM fituai, E«q. tff. Jforu** Soko/jt, &inuvw(r*rt. £iiili» 

Army imd H^ty CTui, S. W, ; and U. fCii'ffitrrM*^ Knrii^ton, W, 
FbJL^tw GdwuJ P.> K>i|-, >r,ir„ ll.l>» /W*, /KrvfrJK^ 

W, J 0*1 Dit»h*, Mny, Co^ Tyr\mt, Ireland 
* hckans^ John, Km^. 'J«. 4<{fjf>'iif/«r^-hi<jiHr» ZmiA. 

\'>t^ne. John Timhrtlt, R^q. 3, XUldU Trnpie^iaiu, TfitnpI*;Si, Aktamr^ 3tr^t 

Pigoct, Robl. Tun]*, luiq,, d,c.1- Jfflq«i^f>drl, In. Knt ; And 10, S^^tti-mitt-m- 
ttrttt, Sirtk^J. W.C. 

rigau, TbOBfU Dlftj. £jq> nWr-djfLjf , i*4ir-AaJt S. W. 

•pifc-d^, K. A- p„ 1^, nanfo^ Kt^t. 

*nu, Cl»(*amJr*hii W^TLic. Umitit StrHet Ctit.S.W. 

Pilk ijj jCtDL, Jimv, Kail, i^fuc^burn. 
*PJvi, C^aptnin I^nlfdnl T. T,, n,T,, itf,i-. i.muiS', Ktnfmoii4^r9m4, Cffr 

TmW £f*Wfif aM^, J. }\\ 
rtiMjr, Cl>]»«] Wlllbim, 30, Bt'^iottjf^-iHtm, W^ 

PTiyndr.LlBUl.-Col. [Ubnt Ucnbvri. H.B.M. CoiMur-Ofnaril. Stgitrt^ Cart 
*Vlitvat, John Ksirj, Lni. SV, rc^jt-e#r«<, itfT^nrt-^vJl, JT. IP. 

Hj^ G^r^tMcai Sodft)/, 















rnurf, ,< rt- 
Pvfil, I'njLi Emtl F. l[uK<% I'M. J/oiionfWfr, Ou/A>iiii-njfnf»n, A K*. 

PMla, C W^ tiq^ C.l. d™ </ W, T, /oof*, Ff^., ra.^ofwii. 
PKb,C*pt.Wiii.JnhbtXCK0UifU>3)i] FUfl>«>. »,f7niittffjp-f«iri. JWwiiUa. &£ 

'Porchrt, OiiiUlii Kdwin A., K.K. 00. CHturtr^ptitrt, ^. fT, 
*Paru). Wn, HirhJ , !"»),> h.ji. Tom^haiat, fAfV JVbrvaarf, Jf.r. 

lS<k<1, Air. Jnq,, ^Jq., H<4. I. ^V^ih/w^jWinr^ J^iumM'j /qq, n^^C. 
TwDdei, C&i'I'vn liOtuJiEt. Janior Uin'itJ Sftvkt C'^w^ 3,W,i luW i^rvmu* 
voul <h- Wajird. 

•FswfiL r, S.. E»q. 1, Cambt^tiQt^mfiiitc. Hvtie-j-irk, W, 

r*im, Bl, KkvdoD, 1^. J/f^WMi^ia^f, rntAi/. fi^MA tVa^n ; ami J^r^Al- 

FowiuU, J»lja rkJ>, En- 4^' nwmti-*rt,i^tt tv.C 

Pmitii^ Kd<rwU. K»q- Cor* qT 'f'*' ff- WuWw, 7^* iJ^fDr^, JUvutf'^-fiv' 

•rnvul, AiJinJT^ J. C. 

Prtot, F. Qh n^ E«i. L H«(-**r-f, r.C 

pjto,JtDi«OlHiff, F.H|. 14. CkmntftiiM, WX- 

Pnov^^r A(H ImivW'i, Bui. I^'innii itwJ Milttiir!, CivA^ FuroJiUff. H*. 

PnWivitflJLwjinl HluiHi, Kw], il•:.l^^lIw>lI fui tlie Tjuuikd Ttfnllufj, S.A.). Cr* 
of A, /VwAtiri/, t'»j.. SJ, Sfflfanf^fov^ W.C. 
*Prtdtrtt, Ror. rbrtuiu WilliAfFi, H.ih.> r->,A. 11, I'/pt'itt-UrrKt^ CWfnA^nf 


List of FtU&te* Pfi^ 















Friilmut, Culo^ul W. F.. Gunilmr SuflT CdiiB. Qirt vf i^Airj. JTAy jai Or.^ 

4\iWMfln/y, Art. 
PniiDt, Jiiha* [C«f|. Dtrvna'iirt Club, St. /.mr/t-titretl. S.W. 

•mnpip- ThifrfiM Teun^, K-i- Jtfforiti CbA, S.W. 

*Pnb*d^i FAw. AuiT'i t^iij.p D-OJii CofiijiiiiiioiiDr of £<ttlotaBnU in llu Poajaabh 

A'mftijfi^n; a-iJ t/n'Ud ^iffw< Hub. Pali-mai/, SL W. 

laamTfrnj, St. /(imu'a-fHiri, ^. IV, 
Pmjur. JuD„ £h|. CVpfJiwflJMMu^ Zviy iViH|0ii,2«afijaiirf11ti 

rw, Temple. S.C 
VtooUt. -^mupl, r.<^. (ETh^ IfjutrT) Sonugh Sftlteolj, ftu FvrTiudc, TribUiJ). 

V<ira of £. II, JVrpfwy, Afl^, 17, Hint-Hf*^, K.C. 
•Ppodgmt. Mwln, K«[- Tlie f^tvtorj/, A}/itt .•!lt ftter*s. tfffrts, 
Pr«tb«ll>^ C4p1. Viriitit^a*. (Wr Hi/ JfM«''f , (7r«iJ/4y nfid A., &5, JWiJ«awiii- 

ttttrU 5. ^ ,^ uiki JuTtior rkif <J SWnctf Out, S. W. 

rruuv, Q>w>]U Ulttoii, V.w\. yVttribvwiv-hwiM^ ShaJta/fVY'rvi^, J/ hut* 

Pfvut, Jehu Willltn. E«q., h.a. atA«uv#i C'^, £.n^f«li A'fOidB-. 

Riynr, Half, Jun. Ebta. iinminjt**'tiB«liy, $F#hii«^', tfffit, 

»450»KiijioE, r.bBiit.-fftlnn^lJ. Alilfrihirt'fark. Aitttrn/U't. Hani*. 

Pulkr, ArthdrCil«,K«^. .IM^Aim ChiA, 5. ^. ; >rrAi.r'i OM, AIT,; 

PkillmjiD, ElaAF/, C>q. *'yomafidsi," ^tta-road, HkhmvruL 
FulJrfioD, Jitn.. P»\. Grow tnd, CMtv(ek. 

Purdou, Ll#(if_ Georgfl FrrUsrtp, K-N, 

Quip. Unrd 0«DT|*, \h, BtljriiT*-tq\tart. S. W. 

Ao^V Gtioyrapftical Syocitijf, 







I Mi 
J 971 





lUddllTe. Sir J^irp^ P., tl«rt- 
*IU4rt«k, OrtunJJa .^504^, Urd. 30, i'^iriWiriDtw^Hiv^ )V« 

BHb i*liD. &B^rt S.d^ LL.U, J^ ^Jduo^jitrUH* 3inik, ffvitam^rtttut-rwd^ 
HtbliK Cbfftbv Jpbn. 1U3, OamSn^tkri, X. W. 

Iki.t, Pat^Ll, ^. IT, iI4rfnw-«7W4r#, f.TK 

BtaXnA. John. I^iq,, U,D- Tlu Orange, CMifrt', Amvy. 

buUH^ CAlaufl ChftiIcA, t-AA. ^r^'«f4dMi CM. 5. IP.; il^fiwlon, Bin»ii^/' 
Myaftiif tiHonft, W. H„ F^t Gtrf u/ ^ir C- ^Qryar and Ca^ iJi, CKarU^ 

RavUiu, Win. I>ji>mIi]>uu, ^^ U..k. IS. Z^WTwrrwr, lioj/dVr, IT, 
vftWBlliivo, H^'AfwralMr HnrjC. ■.□,*., DhG.i». UoD,, r.iLi« jEA«uriiffl 

















J no 




lU*venp Sir KnwBun Wid,^ ^.c.n.o.p i7<iu /^ytoA^Aviufi Wnt L 
Kaj, Ctorga H.. Ki^,, ■-!>. 

Ri«], <i«ii. J^hp Xlfn^Uib CVJO'tc. uf Ui? i;,£< if. Gmn\ Aikrr^^ 
fMhiftJ. f{. Mtln*. >lv|,, r.r.a, .V/jnu^^t/. .^r^fiy» tfimiiUiCi' / rCkni 

CVi**^ Jf. H*. ; and Jtatior Gtrlio^ CinK ^> W. 

KHd, Arnlnw Kotmu, Eik^ iar^rtfudd, J'jjff-jFTtfn, 2tt/;**Ao>». 
If 10*l(«hilA^ Uf4ire«, K«q. ^. ^^nf T<Ki-rr timr. K^C, 

•R«jJ, David. ^H 
Heid, L»k>rk ll„ Jiliq. i£A«i«m ChA, AW.; and 131. 

"Ri^ii, JunAi, ¥,$j\. 7, n'n>riitftfU-f£iitf-Ai>uiej, Smtlli KeniingSfm, Ii,Wt 

UvoiUrf, Jbo.. V.m\. 7'A# Onit^t, ffijhUi^alt^t.iUdt CtipAaifi'mm 
*I(<tuii(, Jotia KeiEli. £»q.» h.ji^ CumU £. £i^(i^^r'h-9^'W. & IV, 
KfnnlA. Jnhri Ttitmion, K*). 6, £iift iwfi'j^iviiH'p i^.V-j ^t4 7^ 

■Homvlck, dfliinl W. F-, R>1, Id. Cvn£irir^fv<"<^'»i Sttfutm, MR 
K«ut«r, iu]ju«, KiiroD <!«- iTAUiiid'dh-iM'iicw-yu'^'iv. IV. 
RrjimrlniD* Htluj Hiroli, lUq, AJtcnit, ntur TtUavrtii. Orfaniihirt, 

RJioiliit ArUiiiT John, ICiq. Yofk^Otn, iiondoit'rnafi, St. AITniht. 
ip'tfi? ^j£j4i|. (Xut nf Xmrt. Jat. ifvrrwori anf Cb., 4* A 
■RiAfdv-SMVn, Hajdf F. Igudo. r«<wr»afiH CMi, St. Jau^a^ S. ff 


Jim^ G^oyraphkai Sccidy. 
















irWi-JifjB, K^viB J.. E-l. tsa, i)»tM*wf, Jifflialdtfmjfin-v, W. 
Kti?h«rilBOD. W, Brawn, I1b|. i)ur/jfibq'pvr<(nry, UvrfntfAitfy^ Mtff^dt^t. 

Kvtlfll, LMuL H^ ^ HotloB (Vtd U*1tK^i«o eCXh UiS^X JI/sf^L 

t^4«TtplH^ Juliu, £m]. DnVft^ndije, if<iv>irJ-niuJ, forcif-Aiff, 

BAiT, CipulB CUr^ H-hfy. Junior (^t^M Brrtir-t OtA, 8. K 
ftJfVB, Uvt Hdii. n«o. FiviV ^r„ MnrqiiiviC, E^.»rJt.«. 1. Cvlpon^ttrdtnt. 
IJ5eRlEdd«, }t«v. G«r|a ^1, KUrbn 'Clk«i<laU la the FdnM), 

Rniwtfc W. C^ Kff^, lYw Ztaiawul^ Can ef lA^ tUmk ^ Nne Znimd, 

«0, Old Bmd-4tfmt, i:,C. 
(bWrWu, A. t^ Rts- M, Own^r-fa'«H 9^ V. 

Aabirttoo. Sir D, ttrootv, o.b.. IT,M. Coiml-CnifTil, JAiHT^Ah. Ciri o^ 
JhiH-f. H. S. Kimj Qr\d Ci... 'AS. r^r^AiTl, K.C 

J(to"Ki>b«tt0a. CinTiim Moofw. K*q, 31, r^iw/'nhf-ji^fniv. Hi/tU-ftwrk. W. 
•ftaWrUDit, Junta ybb*l,&q. TivlviiJi, J7«w/Md, Afrr^jr, 


Liu of Fsllfiwa efth§ 




H* f^rt qf lotriMi JUtf Aoe) Jtui rnO^^Mtf. 



Jtoblniknn, Oifiu ¥. C, a, 

KabbBUD. Sir IlcrrulsG. n„ a.cxA.t GfrTtntr if Ntv fintb WaIib. JflwFfc 

Hjil>inntt Jofn. K4|„ C,IL JV««*Ar /^vo, 

aobiiuco, J. H.. &q., I.L.O., rXA, S»t, »,«JL Uia. j)»«rJk-:4vv«<«, />#««Ur|b 

Rvbifwn, Wm., £>)., CM^ CblMHr-ffj]^. ^p W. 
■iSORiihtiuDn, Air W. a F-. K.cX^, aoranuir pf th- fitnuM AHIbovAU^ 
t'otoftn^njflc*, ^. IF, 

Wflt.CWjii, Elun. JuD. i^ptnmiB<3u[TVTor-<jenBjai,W,AiiiU»Ui>. Can^Jttt 

Bogai^ [MwBrd C^ Kaq. nnot CinAntia Aryhm^ ftotfotd. Baldnf^Jt. 
lUfOTH John T., Kh]p Simr'kiJi, ^chmh^ 

HoJIfl, lord. IfttHCriff'^^iit, itK^]f<iKN.H, 

KAnn, M, H«nniLnri von, LjMr^ik^Indijt^ f,ti-ilirttkf-r^%9rt, W^ 

JLdm, Dt. Doft Minuvl Cviuilm iIb h. ]I,ji.e. (Proflnaar of FMPMffcf; 

irhlvaiftitr of.Sui VnroM, LiniL) m>, r^uir^onf-Jtivitf, A^uhU-a^,, W.C 
IUm, UrDrf, K»^. S, T^^afA^yd'*. H^^pork, IK 
Riiie, H- C<Mpir, Eji.|,, k.h. /rn«;Mfi™i, JtT, H'. 

Rev, Ju, AbdttHb, £Uq, Wiiiuki^wiK Survtif, S.W^i and 11. BtlMmy* 

VfTfVf. If.C 
R«H, llvlUfM Uoa. Sir Jvfao, B^rt, cc.M.a. IB, Qbcm'j-^f, i/^ilf^wb, 


*lt4*, CL^uaal ^r Wm, ArjdemHi. Aliltimua. V.K.itA^ C^rltm CUb^ S,W, : 
SoHalhi!, L,, \it^, 10, Diiia/jtere-lDmKO, X.^'. 


Royal Gtogrttphieal Society. zcl 
















ihodBomj Okpt Om. Erwl Aigutuj, /br/o^AoiiH, Cranurff^rDA^ South £tr^ 

•BoMdill, C, S^ E»5, IS, ArAm-llr#0r. Mayfair, W. 

•flflnth. K. J^ Eiq., Mj., f.w, r.t^.H., &d. ^. Peiti't Cotttge, CtaaMdgt. 

RautJeil^ EdmoDd, £iq. 40, CiartHcarde'^ardMt, Baytuattr, W, 

Boqtledge, Thomu, Eaq. OofAw^, ^undarimd. 
*RdWj a. V. NuivD^ £sqp D^n^ardfT^ Vitagapatam, India, Cart (^ 

Jintrr. £vig and Co., G&, Oonthiil, E.G. 
*RoirUuidi, P«rcT J., £iq, /ndu-q^, S.W. 

Bovl«r, Giptun Q.t Rjf. 83, Cadogan-piaca, 8.W. 

Hnyiet CiipE. E, C^ &.H, Zl, Boyai-aBenM, B.W, 

Bockv, J. Aotboiir* £iq- fJocUfoiA, ^^. 
J6loRiidgc, Wm. Neviud, £tq. 17, £»CA Aid^cy-ffrMJ, W.; and Ethyl-iatcn, 

Rumbotd, Capt, H. E. W. 
'RiuiiboLd, Cbirls Jjuntti Aa^iutut, Eiq. &, Percival'trmict, Brightoti. 
Rumbold, Thomu Heorr, Esq. 38, SusMtx-iquartt Brighton. 
Eunlej, Major-G«net«l Rudak, 16, Eattm^terraci, Eaitrn-aijuan, 8. W. 
*Kiudea, Geo. W., Etq. Caro of MeM$rt, Aahion and Oo,, Crovn-wvl, Old 

Broad-atntt, E.C, 
*Kus4fU, Lord Arthur, H.P- 3, .Ami/f^-a^ifarf, IT. 
Riuaall, GeoT^ Esq., H.l. 7Jffv^*A/, «S«i£Aj|fJdi, Wandrmtrih; and 18> Ofd 

CSVoi^, at. Paafa, B.C. 
Bondl, JsmsH., Eh^. ^f. Jforj/'firarfeMoJ^cAufa, 4, Jt^7^b(tf-ltrHf,£l^ 
Jaiif Lmrpoot. 

RuH«l1» Right HDD. John, Eul, E.a,. T.BJI, 37, C?%fiA>it»^Aicf, S.fT.; Paa- 
frroif-AxJ^, AicAjBOAtf; Ji7iHiiZa»;fA'AouH, DAAuAin; Ahj 0drf-AvuH, noor 
CaU<md«r, N. B, 
ifiioRonU, Peter \.»E»]. 66, Oii«M«6anMijrA-t#ri-«^ ffj^^if^u^ 
•RujwU, Robert, Eiq. 43, AOMaarlt-Ortet, W. 
Ruuell, ThoDui, Eie|, Bamur*-hait, Svriigrfe%j flUcMf. 
Rcwdl, ThcpcDU, Eiq. 32, JtdiuAij/Xor^ju/ac»^niitni, W. 
RoHeli, Wm, Howmrd^ Esq., U^D, CaW£0n Ctut, S, W. 
*Ratiurrord, DftTid Gi%, Eaq- ^itirv^'AouM, ^orv«f-AiU, 
Ratherford, John, Esq. 2, OMotndiah-ptace, Cavenduh-lqvartt W. 
Ration, Albert 0., Eaq. 7, Haif-Mvm-ttrat, Wl 
RDtMfl, Johb, Esq. ATfuby IFiMf, 7jti>f4, rorjUAHT. 
Raiton, G«ptwD W. Fitzhtrbert, B-N. WfODnimiil-gardMayS.'W. 
i6so*Rrd«-,Admiml Al&«l P., H.U.S. <Aqdvaoui,' ChloL Corr d/ Adm^M/fy, 8.W. 
Bjdvr, Q., £iq. 

S«bcl, Enrttt E^ Eiq. 185, Maida-<a^t W, 


Lia <ff F&llota i^ the 


■I Vital*. 















St, Mbmt. Kit (inr* Tlw i>iikt of. /]«i(i«»if^<iri. Jntofdl A'oltti 

St. Clulf, Jtt)in, K«q- A'rv'Jon Vil^vurJ, tt'ijtofntife. ^^ 

?fi4«^ John, BtflJAr OUttr Ba«vchfiiiip CovnUy, R.E. C4r« of M^tan. A 
St. JoJifl, SpunHf, Vm\.. htiiitti kririift«r Tar Pmi. Oin* «/ /. A> 

Sdt*ld, Coloi.d J. 0- CK^M, lad«Q ton.-). 30, 31, Jant/^$irttt^ S.K 
Sdmap, dur]*! ^|vii«i-) Kmci, 

•3*11, Hturyj frjiif 'lif'^Mni^ ^flfiFtwnflutft, ^H 

Etthhnwe. liar, Einbcrl. M. JrJnitfi'*-fHir«uni>)/f, l^j( /*r**y> 

f«Ei:V[Hiri, Ttqr. t;>iwA]>J. 7%4 Tkunt/ff. //>/i ^uTfT nW; CM 

^]ip, .luhb Junin. E4|. i'liiJiiuriJnn^nij^^. Sixt/im-i. 

CtUieJ Seroipe Ouft, rall-T^ait. :i. ft', 
Sull. JchOi lUq. ^dcJurviV-AfjUH, Uftiltnglat^trJi, SI. ^^narrfmn- fl>a, 

and C^efvtttortf, 'i^f, Lrr^tArr'UV. liljfkfi/iat\ S-K- 
Sftivy«r, Calaaa] Lfhvrin ^UlJi LlrugMiL Guiinlh). VO, J^otaruU^^rdrnM^ Xl 



Boyal Geoffraphical Society^ iciiii 

















Sehflnkr, Edwird W. B^ E*]. 14» Pr^u^t-ffote, S^W. 
i67D5d»l6ckl, WHtiun P., E*q, 5A, Ofulvu-gardaiu, S.W. 

SebOot RcT. JuDS Prtdcrv^, Pafn^boiw, CAotAon, JHlNt. 

ScobcU, SudJord G«. T., £«4- i>0ipn-AiHCH, Bed MarUy, Qltmcttttr. 

SoueB, Qfdeoa C^, E^, 14* ffl^ Jdoid/t-a^nm, 8.W. 

SuU* Abnhuii Eiq. 13, ArffHAor-rDOt^ £^ip4r ilTDrtfaid, ^^. 

ficdlt, Admm, Eiq. 10, fnofcAAEJA^v&f, Con&tfriHj;. 

Seott, Aflhor, Eiq- ^oMdr^/J-pEirit, ^ftm, Bartta i and TVoH&rj' C^^ 

*Sfl0Cl, [>Dg«ld. E^. r^ Moorl/rndt^ Ktr^ai-^Bj JimcJi4ttv, 

Scott, Lord Etorj. 3, TAw^jtrHJ^ Park-laiu, W. 
*ScaU, Hercuhi, Esq, fro^WtoiH mot MoiUme, N. B. 
jfi«0*SoDtt^ JuMi BcDJunior Eaq. 32, CboJ Szc^ange, {Styt E,C, ; and Walthamttaa, 

Sou, Ji^ Cbvln A.r Esq. 6, CaAiW/f-jroff, £^AiCa-;janb, XTT- 

Boitt, CHpt. P. A-, ft-rr. Car* of W, T. LiitUfohiUj Etg., Bajfoi Ntwai 

Scmtton, Aienoder, E*], % Ui^er Si. JoAnVporA, Biackhtath, B^. 

jtoonll, <3»^E, ^q. 35, QroawBOr-placa, & IP. 

Scujght, Hugh Ford, Eaq, 7, £U^ /HiiHD#iiUtf, £.(7. 

SHT^t, Juiui, Eiq. 80, XaaajJtA--ja^, W, 

ScUDo, U^.-Gen. Lord, Z>3, jUbony, W. 

Schick, Jh. Bell, Eiq. 1 , ^. Ai*di^a-ptac«, Regtnf t-park, N, W. 

SKbohm, HcDiT, Esq, Rviiidgtt Shegietd. 

*St«lf, Cbarls, Esq,, Jan, 7, Ijunn'f-^atf-gardim, Bovtk Km^ngtoA, & H^. 
out/ Shsrvoodriodgf, lioUmifhataiMre. 
S^nve. C«pl. W, P., ;H.U. CouuI, SiodiMm. Ca-g of the Librarian^ 

*3croa^d, Chvln P^ Efq. Brnoet^f Liqvorpond^trHt, E,C, 

Serin, Glurls, E«q. 155, FnchvrcA-atreet, E.G. 

Sewell, Hfiirj, Eaq. 10, Upfi€r WMtbourM-ttrrvn^ W. 

Stwcll. SUpbea A„ E*i. C^y ^Ht, OM Brihui-sinet, E. C, 

SejinDDr, Alfred, £■!. 5, dtfaifrjt-W-flarJima, Mayfair, Wy 
•Sej-nwnr, AdMinl F. BMncJamp, c.b. AdiniraUif, WhUtht^t, 3. W. 

ScTmour, G«rgv, Eiq. 12, Lotoer P/tiUimore-piaa, Kijuington, W. 

•ShwivvLl, AdEoInl ^ Chulu F, A„ k.o.b., Jff<i.iffukAaiLt, Aftf/A^^om, 

*SludwfU, LLflut-ColaW Lawmoi. 
Sbanka, li^or JoKph G.. ojlui- J'/ynuutA, Dam. 
•SbM«, Suff-ComnuDder Juoej Uut«ri, BJJ. fitfoPwic-iftTflW, Xipwiwoml 

•Sb»r|h Colin Kimbw, E*q, 43, Tr*gmnt«r-road, Wut Bromptm, 3. W^ 
flfau^ CaptEla Cjril, 7» nHr^«-#jwir0, 5, W. 

Ligf o/Fflhm ofiht 













•f^h^i*. Wminm John* &q, 1, Vid«rHftf*rU WtMmMUr, g.W^i mti 

and Wmu, DmtOiH, Otagv, If.Z. Pf Mntn. Sm^^m Lm md Cim 

Shaw, JpbB l^pK Kiq. JjmBt^park^ J^4ffnA<oJL 
•Stitw, Rabm LV, )jq, (nrjit.h mm Cnnaimuirm^ lafti*. iV^M^ JiMi 

Khfphtrd. ChK H'ln , £ir)., m,a^ p.ul, TrQttinctiJf*, J^avtOomt. 

^^nn, J(ur|ih Nunii"]. 9ju\-t ^A.vTK^ HR.Th Ij^fim^J^btu, ij^ttn^rrtctmtt 
Shirley, Lkwfll H^ )Uq.. CV., itc K'itkMan C^^. fLW.; and 9, QuMi'f^^r*. 

SPJO'.^^IDIT^ William, Raq, QiJ. Iitltitr-fnir*i^<ififfm. UarentMJt-XtU. Jf^W^ 
hiilftfijr, Oipr. > not. W.. R-V. U, i^jjrtvirA-fw^, /-QiLvr Aunn>ul, £«JtL 
■Milt, Wm. Fb*niiinl. Riq- Ifi. ^#aujVf-^iinfMi, ^, IT. 


Jioyai ChoyrapMctti Scdety. 




*aHv RiAui Pnrttor, E«t„ c.jt. if4;'36jr^.U. JVi>«vSiy, 
ttvtdilf » J<*tph A„ E«i. 1 A0, Oybwr<> n ^ft Bg f, Ctaftti^-ptrK S' 

i;)«5M>, awry, E-^., Fl»-l-itjrjr«n, lujc, Jl,ny and y^vy €^S,W.i 9^ 

Htfw, Siir. Rdmrri Kvatj Vilnmrlnfr, Tkn iTiPf, ffrtunvnMtl, 

Snilkt *'M, r«t^, E«|„ HA.. J»r.. ke, «r«n4ar«<, !Wi-U^ HWjl 

■^ilh, ft, IUfT. Kbi, Tiyrtw^part. Mitl.ii^, ^, JllMMttf. 

•t«Mh, TbOIDK. E«4. 
fmtlli. KVit Hon. WlLllnm Hvatj, K.f, 1, IftfOf^parJi^nfit W. 

£hBjU. ^IJl»fD tlonnh Olrnn, t^ S4, i>«£ia«fV-rrf«amr, IT* 


L>*t of Ffiiowt of lh9 
















Herrfar^kiri j unJ J^r Priory, A«^aCf, ^wrry. 

Aomtnlllf, Ur. TlioaiiH, uUD, iTdiLiI^&rv-Atftf, WlhwAw, CfavUrr. 
AaoliW, WiJttiin J»mHiUi« Kin^, MimMitjoJtaut^ ff.C. 

fipcnx, Jbo. BvTEvrt IiIk^,, FpU^b,! Ac, ZV'Mtffvn-ikiUW, ^iWUff)rrtuV< '^<>*' 

S)4iK«r, Adninl iho llwip J, W, £. £, TiirfmdH-fff-Hj, M'. 
Spvnnr, VTtLtcr, tlB^. 28, tera/^ifttt. W. ; md OimaiIijA Db^ 3U7. Arfynf- 

*8{>o*4picf, Kplflnriiil-m, F--(|. Ml, AviiJM*-.*^*™**, Sh W; 

SjMHf, Opt, Kir^BfJ W, \ Om-iA-ifa-jJi^, fl*/jfW*jijiMrv, J", H; 
SltielrrEiill. Di, (!«□, F,.. I'liudpil of Emmm n '* Ruftl Nar«l BtublftkiUMl, 

*?tpUJiTi>odf, Witlfain, K«|, rpliAn 41, CrotiMOr-pUtce, g.W» 

flr^;* ttV;^t, JTmr, 

SMbfonl, £dwHnl, Eph. £fl, C!AaH^4rD<i, ^. W, 

StKulvr, Stiff-Coti'minikVr H-uiy, B_M, Jd/nintity S^ittty, itiibttMnn i 

Rfr}fa! f^ttiffrapiiftil Society. 









Mr. it. AAuddn, 2i. TkA'to^w^rfft. W. : iwf Cnited Strttta O^t, S-VK 

irmi TAf Xfmj^ Suminry, 
8>kJ, Vijar J. P,, ILL fC^nla. C<dt c/ (A0 QrimiiJ £timi, 4t\ TfBnJnttJk* 

SMI. Wlirtan Siniijt, Etq. r,\ L^ntAattr^nlt^ %(t*f4'>, IV. 

ttlHJ^ Jvw Dk^Mo, i:*!). //jr. Frw^ CWvU J^'^va. ir«4^, .^»rff, 


e«««^«, FCcbtrt A., £h|. 

AhhU Cv^hI T. It <i3uiiiU7 Aim;), rfjuv, Jf^Jn/nlkth. H'^Eu, 

J&UvmiL, Kar. |)r. Janwc Iirtf^ite. J/i'^^f. ^hiFA A/'^'t. ''■'^ 0/ 'foAf^t 



if/f df FfU<M» <3f the 









in A 









iBjo^tllwiil, a«rirr, Ebl,. H.O. MMivrvfl^ UiVinyten. CHriSjr, 
StlrHqf. Arthur P. O., £iq, GtMift^iivI Cjmbritfyf CMi. S.W» 
!tUr1(ii£, Oipt. PndidckH.. luir. Umitd StrfiiH Ci^ S,W. 

airlinj. Sir VTslinr, IWrl. SB. /VW«flH-f^»mw, H' 
fitjirkpr, Jolin PrklMiCT^ E«q, ftti, Oijitrtt'trrracrt ttjfirffir^. W^ 
*£foV»,V;«'Adinlr«t J^hn Utl. TK^Mrfiffrpio* av^&'.H'.^ tfBJf««cAwlV, 

■:Uui7. Iklwin. t>(t- "-''■ ^^* Wf^^l-nud^ Stn*e XiuUfUn. IT. 

Harln. Kit. Chultt F. b9. W.trvieJh4^wm. A H^ 
Sto«, On. Vh, fl^. Cwnt*i TWn, f7, Africa. 

CKfii'n«i, a; ^'. J find Jt4diit-4^ff ^. H*. 

l7nHiiniDr47WT, fK 
eiAMo, Hvr. V. D, J. Ths Vtcons*, KJktjUU, 

SLmUrr, Alfrrl, t)-^. &, //fnvc^-'-MiJt A'tfiW'A-f^, ££*. 

KtronsbtPfr. Ilj., Ko]., jufi. 

Stout, AlaauJur, ICb^. &< /^omj-f^bdrv, iLnn'nj&j*, Wt 

Bo^ Geographical Society, ztdx 

Sadder, l^nl- '^^t £oi^at<m-iqWin, S. W. 

SoJiTUf RcK^AdminU Sir ButholoEHFV J., a^n.j E.C-b, Bonmemoath. 

SnlliTU, St £dwd^ Bvt. 13, 0rr>tt«nor';>tacfr, 5. If''. 

SnUirao, Ciipl«n T, W^ B.S., CB. 
•SDMDMrhBjtt, WillEuu, fitq.. lf,D, Cmm-point, £tjJinff, W. 
aB9o5arrid^R«T.HeiirT Arthur DiJJoii* ic.i. 31^ ^tfntA-H^-ni, W. 

Snrtcst Colooe^ Cbulc* FnTJlIe. Chakatt-Aotue, Long DittM, Btrrty, 

Satkwrijud, Gex, Esq. Arhoretmn-vptare, ZVr6y, 
*SaUKriud, Gavgq QrUTllLv WiUiuo, Ihike of^ lj3., r^B-S' 3taff<)rd-hctm, 
St. Jamta'p-palacet 8. W. 

Satlwriud, RoUrt, £sq. ^Aon-riH, Avrvy. 

Sntho-UDdr Thumu, Etq. 60, Bedford-gardtnst CfiTnpdea-hilt, ^inaington, W, 

Sotton, John Maunvi, Esq. Silhan-haUj Nffaarkj NotU. 

SoiukU KiuQ (5e& of jApuwe LrgO' ^* JTmA^Jtn^^ri-r^drdifKf, W. 
390c6niD, Edwird, Eiq. 2Vh Cbunfin JfyfKn, Stot/aidj BaUhck. 

Sw»iMf Capt, Leopold Victor. 14, QMtn't^te, 3. T\'. 

Swaao, B<T. P, F., iLi. f rawdA^. Eatingvoid, Forii^irt. 

Swuuy, Aadrew, Ehj. SetrenaUt, Stnt. 

Swirt, Hon. K J. K Pretttna^ 5, ^/rica ; onr» c/ /. /. Frattj Etq., 24, 

"BwhtboED^ Commr. 5ir John, But., "Bji, CapAeat9% Ntaoaitia'Om- Tjfnf, 
Sjmt, Emj, Eiq, 60, Palaa-ffordtrn-Umcet Canpden-Mit, W. 
Sjuaondi, F., Eiq^, H.D. Btammmi-atreet, Ot^trrd, 

i»r*, IF. 

*57ng*p Co^ddbI UilUnglon H., E.E. United Servia Ciub, PoU^midU S. W. 
Sdunper, Ju. Wttki, £fq^ C.E., F.O.e. Aberyataytfi. 

1852 Tagirt, Courtiaur, E^. Reform Cl^, PatUmaU, S,W. 

li^ >9ToTHgart, Frucu, Esq. 199, CiUAi'^i^afff, S. W- ; ttnd OM Sneed-parh, ntar 

IBM T^tat» Edwud Q., Ehj. fh. d. (ImpniKl Chme« Ctutomi). Oiimi. Car; of 

J. J). CampbtU, Etq.t 8, Stor^'t-gate. S.W. 
IBST •Tait, Robart, E^, 14, Quetn AiwtneU TV. 

ISfil Tftlbot de UjkUliidef Junn Tmlbot. LortI, f.b.s. 15, Chesier^Id-Btrat, Koy- 

fair, W.; AtAemewn Club; artd Malahide Castle. Ci Dvblia, 
]«T7 Tubom, Gvtrgfi Goldie, Ew], Xatial and Military CVu4, PiocadUy, W. 

IMl TatIot^ ConunamieT A. Thiodu, i.H, (DlrKtor of Mnrine SuTvtja), CtlcutlO. 

Cart Qf ifwn. B. S. Sittg and Co., 05, ComJiiH, E.G. 
1173 T^flor, Chu-ltt, Eiq. ChvrchJvmte-KhwA, Ealing, W. 

1S75 I Tajbr, C. A., £tq. £0t^Afo4-/^a», Maidttont. 











i^joTiiyLor. II, L.. lU.). ^^/orm CM, S^W.i and 33, ^Uttavr^^im 
Ti^loe. 3. Biinki, F^- ^5^, Autt.n-F'^'in, E.G. ^H 

l'*ipkH', Jnhn, F^, I M, Fmr.hnrrA-HrrH. K-C. 
*Tli.jlcr, Jaha Iimfj*, JCh^,, H-H-M, Lniibb] tfi KunlihUa. Diarbtti 


Tiylnr. WiiLmm Hkliivd. Eiq.. Vtptiiy^wmimitrj^ 

TaLl'ii, CuiniRr, JtuE-rTAii. n.n. 14. A*fAivr-j>^irv, <>ni<o»-«7iW4, JLW' 
Tbiui-Ii:, Liout. Giu,, njf. 7i^ J^uoA, iwoi l/irMllvri 
Tvii|4lv. Sir ktc)wLn1. KX)Xl. 
Triii|ile-W«t, Col. T. 

TeanuiU Prorewr Jftinf*. HD, St^Md. W.C 

•ThutrhitfH <\»liin.fL 
TJioiuM, O, Eiq. 

IliLiiiuu, i. (L. Ulj., MjiIT -LuLri, Surg, Ca»ti*'fi%St, ^ufijuartt, S'tmiriiktt 
ThuJiLu, El. (j«jaiU it v., l^ljv^., k.A, V-j/ivf-nt-AavM. Jfai'Jd'tfrir, 

Thnruon^ JjimH (Jmunu, lUq,, PoriiiiiUflH CoimaL. ^. fttm'^^ka 

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United Set to! 0««Mci 

T«j of ih« T^TrltoitB 

AitCiiLuuiJui SEvelstf 


LLbnt-yorUiB Hi 

C ^^ ) 

TO wnmc 


LSSS.^'Bir. Rlobard Lander— T*onr Medal— for the discoTery of m* 
a^nnK cj] LTiv iUv^T ^i^ac or l^tiomL, fend itt oulUt ia tb« Uyxit (^ 

lew.— Captain Sir Jotm Ro&a^ ».»,— Bojal MwUl— r« dlKcvorr in 
1B3&— 'Sir Alexander Barnes— l^yal Medal— fcr iho mkTfgitlon of 

1S36.— Captain Sir GeoT^e Book, k^h.— Rof4l Hed«l— for tho Jieoo- 

vtry tf llip <ir'M Ki*lj Ki»M, and ite iutl^oii to Uic ua an tlio 

Arctic Coiul I'fAmoriL^ 

MsSl. — Captain XtoberL HtzRoy, u.s.— Hoyal Mcdil — for ItjB sonej 

IS3S. — Colonel Chesney, n.*, — Kornl Mo(S»l^fiTr the genen*! pon-lnflt of 

lb? "F.niLhmipi KiLfwiiticn" m IV^&S, lud lor ncnuBcnua lo th* 
p>*i57»|ihy of Syris, Mc'inpornm in, Tind tbfl Di»lta of Siuiftafl, 
U3&,— Mr< Thomoft Simpson— Foundcr'B Medal— for tliv dteooT«iy 
uid tJheiEig, in 1837 uid Ib<S@, of ikbout 300 mllcA of tbo Arctic 

•hUTM nf Alarriou 

Dr, Edward RilppoU— Patr^Tis Mpdal— fi>T hifl trarol* «nd 

15^0,— CoL H. C EawUn&on. t-i.o,— Fouudtr'n Mrikl— for hit tmvcU 
and posfiirdKia in f^iisiniia «riri PoniAn KunJijitiu. lUid for lie ligtt 
lUrowTA l»v liii^i o[i U.f roTiipiimliri.^ i:"0;^Aj4iY of Wiret^jru AtJa. 

Sir R H. Sctiomburgk— I'ttr^i/* Mc-Ul— fw his tjsvol* and 

rL'*(»rr:b<6 tin nil;; the yoiia Ib^S-fi in the colooy of Dritiali Gmdyftuii, 
ftsi ui tl>? fr^jiLtnot pota of South AmcnM* 
IMI.-^LIeat. Raper, n,B.— KnuicJrT* Mcdnl— for tba fn^blication of l»t 
Kt^rk uii ■ ?*aMi_'fl<ion nriii Nmiclul Astroflnmy/ 
LleaL JoJui Wood, J.;<-"Pi[»fiu"i M«kl — for bia anrrftj cf the 
ImihiB^ uM n«lihiivvry i»f llio ft-inrce of tho BiverOiws, 

JM2— CflpUXn Sir James Clark Robb, B.v.--FonDdoT'« Hcdil— for 

\,iH i\\*-.^\-i'iuM vi till? AnUKTic i.>cfffln. 
Bev. Dr. B. Robineon, i>f ^'-i*-- Vorlt— rotron'* Modal— for bis 

tMS—Mr Edward John Byre— Ftnimicr'B Medal— for hk tiplora- 

liMiA ix. AuBtmliJi. 
Licttt, J, P, A, Bymonda, ft-n.- riitron'ftMedal— fOTbloflurrer 
la Pilottiac, V)4 lovoU aorou Uju ctnmlry to tbe De^d Sn. 



Award of the Brnfol Premiums. 

]844.^Ur. W. J. Hamilton—Poandet'i Ue'Ul— &t fci« E««nrdi«i in 
ProL Adolph Ermfta— ratroD^ Medal— for hi* cxtcEuvve Qa>- 

1&45>. — Dr. Beke — Foum^or'A M»d^^fof his «itoiidiB^ nplontiODi to 

M. Cbarles Rltter — Palroa'a Mwlol — for hit InpcrUnt ^tc^r^ 

pbktij t*i>rk». 

1841.— Comit P, B, d6 Btrzeleck!^Fiicincl«r'a MrtUT^fbr Wxt niyilfw 
mtii>fift fl-Tid tliflf/iVrriM m iha Souih-KiWiefii jwininn of Amtrali*, 
Unii in Van HiJimpn'p T^and. 
Prof. A- Th. Middendorff— ruron'a M^al— for Wi citmBfrB 

f]i |>lunki.iuiJi( oitd dJDC'-ivciii^s lU Z>orllu:j[|i ui[l &uicrD SLboniL, 

1M7. — Oapt. Cburlee Sturt— FDiiiiilar'« Medal— Aar Mc vitrivDa md 

«xL?(jAivii i.Hi[Ji<>niti'>ns in Aiistralin, 
Dr. Ludwig Leichkardt— r^Ufn's McdiL— {br & jounwj p«r- 

foriuiKl fj-iiiji M'it[;i4ii I3ay to Port i^jutct^'b. 

IdiS. — sir James Brooke, Uajith of ^kiiuvk ut^l UcuranKif ^r L*liuw — 

Fournli'p"! M 'liil — for (aij {'X]>n<liuon to Bcnio. 

Captain Charles WiUtee. o.a.s. — Pniron'.i Med*J— f« hU 

Vojugc of Uiboovory IQ iho S, HomJaphtto Bud m itc AnloTcto 
HflKioUK, ID tlio yntn 1S3S-4S, 

ISIVh— Austen H, Layard, Lk^j., p.o.t, M.r,— Foowior'^lWal— forhic 

dl»ooviir)L'i' ul' till' E<:t)k;klEia <if Njuuvti)i, 

Boron Ch, HUgol — ^ntroi^'M Medal — Tor ^Is etplomttou of 
Ot^tniDfE^ r-Jul BiirroLimliiLi; (^uiitrL<«» eoitinmiiIca(«d m hit nork 

IflW^—CoL John Ch- FWmont— PfttronV M^dnl— Tor bJ« Aicoeviriil 

Duiudruiii hineuviric* Aud ABlmUhXiiionJ QUuf^nTloii*. 

The finp, iUvii* l.]Vf?-(i*n>iifc, of Kiilobau^—* ChroAtixgtUr W^icb — 
iat bi4 flnrnAqfiil ^ipUiJilJitni ni'Srtiilb A/TlfiO. 

ItlSl^^ l>r, GfolLOK WiiiLJX-ufFiiiShrKl— 25 Gcilof ba— /ur fak TrnvvU In AnbtL 

IeIoiuI of >'cir y*4Unrl> 

1I6S. — Dr. JObn Rae— iri^iJQit^r*^ y\vdai\ — for luK itiTvpy oT BoolLk An4 

uf tl]*; Cu:iii. o[ WoUiuton and VicUirii Ijinda, 

Captain Henry Straobej— I'airoa'fl Medal— fof Lia t>u«^ 

18G5,— Tlllr. Francis QattOQ — Fut]iider*H Mmlol — r<T him uplormCloiu la 

ConuDfijider Eh A, Inglefield, e.v.— P*trcin"ii Mi^UT — fuf Ms 
Burvcy ui Uit Cu^t* of Cnulu Bftv, SmitlL »Ld iAUi:uLUir Htiiiiiiljt. 

;$M.— Rear- Admiral William Henry Smyth— F'Jiin^Jnr'ii Medd— 

fur Ijis vjihijiiili' .>iLru v^ jii (Im MuiiTrirm^nttJi, 
CaptainKobcrt J. M> M'Clure, a.N.— PalruD'tMwli;— for U» 

1666.— The Eev. David LivintEstone, n.n., Ac.— P*trt)ix'» M«bl— 

fy: 1)1* Stimuli lie Kii|i|(irM]oijii iu Ccorrnl Ar'iicA. 

ilr- CiiAttLoo J, Afi^ciwiQB— d S<l vf Sn/tTfinf [utrui«bl«--<fcr lU 

IBSB^^vZlULhA Kent KAAO, vd- — FmirvWt MMaI— f^ hiA ^luoT(Ttr« 

C«T«nl J. If, CHTrtuTH, af l>i* Key*! Efl^rlufprt— a W»t<b xad ChuiB— 

^^HT- AuinutUB C^ Gr^jlOT7— (''^tinfliir'ft Uadol— for by uiilom- 

LUat^'Col. Andrew Scott Waufili, Rcnpnl Kncrini*™ — 

t'lLioEi^a MMul — Nif tHji rinsii Tri^in-fini»itri(.*ft! ^iirv-'y of luit^st- 

tfC6^ — Gftptalu Riuliaird CoIUnBoa, k.s.*-^PuuuJvi'» M«diil'— for hi* 
Ififia— Pro! AlexAodojr D«Jlafl Bachc, t^uTtcTinteodfut U. S* Coui 

S«)rv&7-^lVrua'A Moiol — Tor bi4 ritciuiito iSurvvyi uf AmoHcft, 

IS9l— Ctptaln fUChUti F. BtUtOQ — KoiindinV H<^n\ — fcir h^ii Kxplo- 
rn»:mi in hjmtura CVrfnl Affio*. 

Captain John FsLlllsfir^ratron's Medal — fiir hli exploKitiotii ic 

0»>r#rt<4 Iff ^lr .1. KntJilin, 

Cftptaln Sir F. Leopold MeClintock, its— Fntron^ Medul 

—fur hii I'lteovonoe m llio Arcllc Ke^^ionf- 

186L — Captain Jt>hn EUuuiiii£^ Spoke — I'^oundor"* Mokt— for tbo 

UiKovfiy or i\,it OrcsC Lftko Vioi^na NfUTiEHj I'liuiUrn Africa, Ac, 

Mir. JomL McLcdoaaU Stuart—rcLiroxi'i Motkl — fov ^ Ex|pb- 

nUiDQj in the ialfTior of AuEitrikiia. 

IfiaS^ — ^Hr., Robert CHam Burke— F<mDi3er'# Ucdol— br KU Expl> 

imua(i> in AuBliiLia. 
Oaptfdn ThomftB Blakiaton — Patron'a M<?dA| — fbf hin ourv^j 

Ur. Jotr* KiKii — {1 <^.«|it Wfil^jh — for hft Bprit4rii>ii» oouluot vkil« 

ISSS.o- Mr. Frank T. Gregory— Fuimrlc?r'« Mcd^i— for lu* <:xp1on4- 

Xnrti^ la Vit.vU.!a AuDliaLm. 

Mr. John Airowemith^ 1*111^11 a M«lnl— for the xcry importnut 
ter^cot fc« firu riTftil^rviI to GongrorliicBl Scijtuo:, 

Br. Wtu-TAH I.AKtpBD0bOVon— A GuJJ WatcLi- fgr ■ur:«eii*Ji(l £j|Jorji' 

tiou la AotlrtlLL 
Mr. Joii?E U'iCnfUT— « Gold Wvtch^ar iquuvifbl Riitlonliani id 

U54-«Cuilu]i J. A. Grant — Patroa's Medal — for biB joumoy from Zau- 
litsr HEu^e buUiru Kqiiuturui AUum ia Kg>ptt lu CuoipUJj witb 

BaTOB C. YOn der Cecken— FonndcT*H M^v^nl— for bji tvo 
tioompliloiLl ?iiir>cj¥ of the lolly Uoualains o[ Kilinut-njikio. 

E*t, W, niPWnD PilflrtATl^— tfc* iU&of S^Cuioe**— for tbc puTctu* 
0^* OmsiaEiwEflr ot viiitt TaaUmgrnil, i^ lu* A^Tutnnu Jonrsejr 
Id iuuI arn>iH ArabL;!. 

18t5^-Gaptein T. G. Uontgomerlo, n.v — FoundoT'c Mcdnl— forbU 


ex VIII 

Aboard qf th* Jk^al Fnmiumt, 

Ur. B. W. B&ker— Fstraa^ UoLi]— for hb nlivf oT CkpbL B^^km 
IV, A . ViMBinr— <ht mm of 40 rouadt-^H bti Tr4TKl« Ia Ccatrd 

iSfifl,— Dr, Thomas Thomson, «»- — Fcnndor^ H«tAl^^ldr bla R^ 

HArchi"! in ttis W<?ritoni Rimala^u Ma\ Thibet 
Mr. W. ChsmcUesd— P&iron A Mod^^ror kia Sarroj rf thu RiTw 

K. P- B. Ml Cui^ii.Lti— ihfl ram of 1I>0 Oidattia—for hli Ajinmdmlu] 

U0k>i4 Aiixiu;. Kf»jLijLi>— «G«ld Watch— for ku* CAplffraiLocw vtcr lla 

1 8S7.— Admiral Alexis Boulftltoff— FciuTiJrf'* M«1m1— ftir bcds^ ilie 
Dr. laaao I. Hayes— tHLmn's M^ltl^rnr Iim memonibl* cxpe- 

ItJftft, — Dr, Augaetus Pelennaim— FunTuJci** MfilflJ— for hi» Mutlow 
bud ^ri]it:litc7:i?d F-:fvi(.^j r^ 4 wTiler bud Oiirii i^rajiW in kdviutciai 
Gecvmi-iljifftl L4tii;Qi:'>- 
Mr. GerhEird Rohlfs — Palron's Modal— foe hia «tteOBiTo iod 
uiit^^flnnt t.rifcVi^U in tfi'. irilorloi of Northern AfnoL 

—fvT hia tvalti ■urr«v frfim Lita Mawowar l« Uuu, la Qr««l 

Ur. Ji>Nv Wii*}H— thfl Mttnof Pin PnvDd*— AirHiindAalHi] (»TTi|-eUUis 
ia Oeu^rairbr &( ihc f$ud?l)r «/ Aria tiuuibtlLrD, 

18094— Profeuor A. B, Nordenakiold — Fuuudtis ML-dal— for ihc 

Mra. Mary Somerville— Pitroo'ii M«W— Iq rwmniiiuu ufilM 
Abb AorJwn pul>luhjcd by her, whiok Lave lugctj bciidlud Qvoicn^ 
|ibical BcifDCe. 

Buifoot*' ?niRR Hbtiali: — 

Piloihidf rt«V'^'^V-^^" GnrTTBr, R^i^mU Srtho.l (Gold MvUIJ. 
QEO. Wm. Our, Rdfeull Sdi»t (KtgDi* ftTnlal^ 

Ur- JouK Ki[^nT^t]]« rubi vfFiTn Pouaib— fbnuocnafuJ vca&pctl- 
tiaa ib G?Q}!r4.f'!iT nt the ^Jalf «rAfU ot4La]DAll«a, 

ia7(X-'Liout«iiant Fras. Qamier (of iJi«^ Frmch ImpcrW NafyV— 
i'Mron'ft McOflJ'—rcir Llsaurvf/ oJ tho oouno of tLc xntti OMn^roaitJx 
Riiof during tho yCKn 1B&&-H. 
Mr« O00rf?e W. H&TWard— Fotindflf'>Med«l^FgrhUcz|JaTft> 

Jlfl HV. CblJJHi^ LtfUTpeu] i:a]]a|c (Qrnut M«]4t> 
MutTiK ^CT4nT4 RofHll Sobool (Bnfiuff UcditL), 

E[TtTi:*T[0N4l, ?AI1K : — 

Mr.TTEnii^fKiciuiLrCE-iniEii— ihafnni itTWt Panit^^lW ■!■»•» 


Award cf th* Jitf^al Premitum. 




Sir Roddriok L Murchiton, twl — Foiitidor'4 M«dA) — In 

rvcicvnk^*^J ■■' til*' Ait>tnr-ra c-n'i'rH lie liju rtiid«Ti?d to OtVgnphj 
Cm hi* merit in curyitig authUuilMaMofflijilcal AUftaaa. 

\ilold UodJ). 

RKHn, Niy^urm Aiutjc, LmrpoDl CdJaf* (Bronit Mtcijtl). 

Wjl OtzBuon CoLuiiaqooi>, LiT»HHjtfl Collet* (Bi^ftw MslalV 

lif. Joiifl AuuTHONii— lilt ■mn<if F]r# PuuinU— C^: »uc*M*ftiI CDD- 
pctlLiaA U {^CLPiE'^pl^r B^ ^* flvdrtj of Art* ct4nEUiitll[>D. 

Henry Yulo, r.*,— FuundftV McJal^for the fminwil 
bo Lu rDiJi3i.-r«i to GiM;tiki>l'T iu Uuj t'^bl k'niioii of tut 

Hr. Robert Berkeley 3h&w— Patron 'fkMfllbJ — fvir hw Ji:iL]mflT' 

in Kutem Tutkuliui, and for hin citvnn-vc s?n« of Aslronoaiiul 
•fid Uytmometriciil ObatmkiiottA, vhich la-n cn&blcd un i*> 6x tho 
ku^cilndc: of V vik^ml^ 4iicl hikK jEi'mi ub, r^'r tliv tiat limu, lutiift 

LkvL Q. C. UvvTicbA, i_h.— aOQld W«talt— bv btoBdrTBturQU4 J^umfj 

iQ Fau^in, Uiroiigh 9^(0 nklii of litdliidc, of *b»di 7^ ««r» pi*- 

TtodilT DbkaDfTD u Kiiroptuiv 
CuUn Hiircrt'— Uts tani of Tuvnl^-liR rdutida In ukncHvloit^'iuiit cf iJit 

bmI 41x1 ibUilf witli wLicb ■» jiv ^ai-ouod bUutLf, iW t HriE* vf 

jHTv, to Om KiplaMlbu fiffiDutJi-lArtcn Afric*. 

j!l|P«iaaf rJ«vi^]ply— fii. L&ra»lRlcv, Kion O^lWign (Udd Madil). 
A. Bs t^rTj-tvk, Llnrprrol Oolhe* (ttnrat MkIiI), 

W. C, Gn^iiiv, EltfD Coll>^(Urnnjv Utdd), 

BnocATTCDiAi. Pbiw;— ' 
ili.Ovft M. Tii(>Mift-Mii* iiUD of firn Psuxia— far niiraWiil c«K9- 
I«(iti4'ji Ju Gw^nt^Aiy at (be ti«ktj at Afli EumuAikiUp 

Mr. Ney EUaa— r'uuuJt'f** Mwbl—fcr liiH euryey of ihe Yellott 
Kiv^f uf Ctiiuft, in IBftB; iLud fi>t LU rcceot jounity llotw^h WwUan 

Ur. H- M. Stouley^roitcu*! Modal— ^fljr bii dhobi-cry ud rclzcf 
ctf Dr. Xinui£BtoDc. 

Uf« TliaUAi B&iBxB— * ^rvlJ Wolclk— far bit loo]£<«1ioT4d w^kw U 

Oifttfin C«^ACV-Hi Gdid WuUTh— fur liia dih^tniiv in th» Ari^lic 
^^•■f, iDil for hitlog cliLWUbiY igatfd thv Sp1ubii£qq u wvJL u lh« 
Hui« ZcmUft KrvLiph 

StDOOU* ] 'tazK UvOLi 1 — I 
A. T- SUTT. Uu.*«HV Colijffi b*ln»l (BronM Utid&t). 


Aie<trd t^tht Soytd Pt^mimmM. 

of iZlc \jv\\o Ihfcr. liT]^'uiiii tliif SjmIIi- wuhicru liimta of tl» Niu 
buib . and for hia ailmir^ihlL >r':frk. ' I'lir Ueut of Africa^' ia wlucfa 
Jio liM rrcoTiJwi thi- T«nilt5 nf iip rmvela, 

Colon«l P. BiSerton Warburton — r»tro»S MnJal— for bii 

jonrtity ncnuK cKn jifi-tttfiiirLj tinkjiowi) Wi^lcm Interlo* of Aii»- 
trnli* ^ /[LFm Alicr S[irjn^>, di^ tia« Uuv vf ^voilb^ tcLcgnpb, to iha 
W«vt Coorti ntftr Dc Ony Itiver. 

PAi/BBii Gt«fr*iphif.^UAna Wnrcur, Gfr of Lndvi St^wol (<inU 
PHtHUm Ciiu&LEiB Mojmuui:. Cilrmlt^ Cotlt^ ^Iml fBniui 

F9ti1*e.ti fJiTwrifpA^.— WiixT^H Hailut TuirTOris ^^'^™ ^^^*V** ^'*'*^ 
LioVrIh Jiaiu. Titj of rnnddn ^^ont (HrniB Midnl')^ 

187Sw^Lifiut. Weyprcoht — FoutkIit'i MciInl^Dr lub TX||lonit(<iiu ccil 

diHjjvcri*-? in tin.- nlKlk ixa t#rwwjn t^|iitKU<rK(Tj itud Kovs Znalik 

LleUL JuUU4 Payer— l^Uim'tt MwlnJ— r^jr hi* J^Hifocy •od cii- 

uid Norii ZcDkblb, 

wtitl* sugngfd ig tbt GjW TrkfaooatUitBl Suntjr cif India unbj CM 
I hmaln jJiK 

dcnoQi.«' PnizE Medaea:— < 

Wit. C. Ohauax. Stoti Oillvc* (firaiM Wtdsl). 

1976. — XiiOQt. V. LoVQtt Cunoroil. ilk — FoundoT-^s Mcdol-^for Va 
jourT;ty aoroo« Afncn fruoi Zunzibor tc Ufiiigiioia^ and Lib wiirvvj «l 

Mr< JotiD Forreat — J'tLtr^tnV \ln\nl — in ivnogiiifi»>ti of tho mtvIam 

tiotu m ^^cotom Auatrnlm. fluil L-:Hjjti<:mUy lor iiU aiia\uah^j aicOutvJ 
roiittf-ctitvfjy pfircwi tha lEtoflor Irom Muruhisoa illTor to the LiQ« of 
Ov(irlMij(i Blwinr 'reloprttph, 

PhV'i'^i tffwnij'Ar/, — JuHh WiLKiK, LlrEr]ml dUtgv (Gvld Medal), 
WA^Ticrt Nkw, DulrtKjft Cu1[f)L«; (Kjueik McJitlJ. 

W. Dd. \i. UiLNkB, Mulhoraii^li C^LI^j* ^S^ruHfv Vau!;. 

7. IL <]i^nva.L#, DwQ Cbouiir 5idiLUI IdUta-UaUJ). 
Oxrnni) Looal Exauinationb Pdtze Mftj>Ai4»^ 

JOVll WaUK, Literpont QnWf^ (SlItBr Mf^l^l^ 

Jt, v. Wakd, fLndgmtrlh GnmBur ?icbu] (Qd^rm HbiU), 

r.— Captain Sir George 8, Nare8,ii.w,, it,a».— Ki>undfr*» lf«d»1 

— for bifci/iUi; oominQudeil the AiotiC lixju-'diliiio of 1H7I^ 6, during 
wlijch the ttt|-4 Alii *lc<t^a-|4krtLtfl rwpeotivoly rcubi.^ a bf^cbcr 
JJorLUora Utiimlfl (iiAn bal pmvioiijsly bwti aUaiaDd, ind * BUfrc^ 
«*» aeeomil^flhttd i>f 300 niilen oi <\?asMLiw, finjinji; n prffrroarij 

of tJia t'Aotfmjffr liipeditioa. 

Award of tlu Royal fVmnumf . 


Tlie Pandit Nsdn Bin^— PAtnm'i Madat^for bii gr^t 
jaonkAyi and lurveyt in Tibet and ftlcuu; the Upper BrahmAputn, 
duriDg whicb he determmed the poaition of Lhi^ toA added 
l»r^7 to onr pontive knowledge of the Map of Asia. 

CifiUin A. H. UiEXHAk, iLS, — ■ Gold Wuicb — for hBring axDDunded 
til* NDrthanj TArUoa of ilnbv in ths Arctic Eipfdittoa of 1875-6, 
ud fbr hsTing plutvd th» UnioD Juk io 83° 2fy 2tt" N,, i bl^^bBt 
latitude tbu bad been niched bj mj pnrlDiu Ripedltioo, 

ScHODi*' PaiE< Mbdalb: — 
Pk^aicaJ Qeoffraphy^yr±i.rma. Mew, Dulwlab CAlUge (Quid lledal> 

Anvm Shtth Fujweb, Wlwbfvter ColL^ge (Broiue Uedal), 
iUttud' 6<nviTvpAy. — William Jour Newtov, LiTerpu] Cnllse 
(Gold Htdil). 
JOHH WQhIik, Lirerpool College (Bnw Medal). 

Cambbtdov Local ExunNA-noira Paira Hedau : — 
H, C. TxxFLBt Br^Un Grammar School fSUrer Uadal ibr PhTil^ 
Qeographj, tod Sirnr Medal for PcJjtkal GKgrapbj). 

OxroBD Local BxAMraATiONB Priee MbdaM: — 
JoBff Edward Llotd, Chatham Jiutitnta, Lirerpool (SilTer Medal> 
jAMfi EDwn Fonr, Otj Htddlc-ClaM School (Broue Medal), 

( cixUi ) 


OF Tax 


(Ai Ou Anniecrtary Afcctiufft Matf Kthf 18?7.) 


Tbs Fotmotfi's Mbpal wm Airard«d Ui CnptuD Sia Geobob S. Kabb^ 
tut., &jUB.r fill liHving cxjoiiuafidcd tlia Arctic FIxpedilinn uf 1 Jt75-0, 
dcriit^ whioh the nhifB ^ud olc^lgo-pArtiea rcepootively rea<?lied a 
higbw Northc^m latitn^o Ihjin hai! fjr&vioiisly bean nttftinw!, and 
ft nrraj irtts ouccojupliiilie^ of 300 oiilo* of ct^uHLne. bcmg a 
pmvioiasly uiUmbwii FoW Sea ; fttno fur Lis Geograg^liiiml tforvicoa 
is niEomuid of thu Chollcngn- Expnlitjon. Tbo Victcieu or Patbovt'ii 
limntt. io tUo Pundit Nain Singb, for hia grcAt joumoya ftud 
8m«js in Tibet nod along the Ufipor Bmhmiiputm, during which 
hb ha* detvmiiiied the position of Lhdso, Acd added Urgely to <mr 
pofitlve knowledge of tbe mAp of A&Ui. 

AddreAiing flrat CftlitBin Sir George Nftres, the rcEsiiVMT sjiolte 
aafidloiVB: — 

"Id delivering to yon the Fomider^A Modal of tho lUynX 
Qccgnphicol Sooioty, tite higb^Bt bonoTir it is ia th&ir power to 
bdfttow. I am diAcLjirgiD^ udo af iho moHt h|,^c«iL]u duties of tho 
lYOKidoiii of thi^ Society. 1 will only odd thut if« prituary object, 
which ia to entxiorago Gcogrnphioal Saienoe uiid Discovery, does not 
ezolldo a just appreoJAtion of tho many high qnnlitieB di^plnTCd 
in jtMt condnot of llie Arclic Expedition^ and withriut which th© 
rtvalfji AtLiiiinl ouald never ha^o been eeaored. Tbr? dlscuierLes 
nhich yoMy lind tbo ri9ici?rfi and moo under your command, modo of 
ftdrar^d PoUr lands, were due to tbt^ tmergy. pereeveroiice and 
flDduianco iDauifcBtod by all, osdcr hmdahipa and difficultioi of the 



Atv^nf fi/MetlaU. — Nartt, 

gTHveftt character. But espa^^ially do U^o Kwr&t novr Wbn t1i« 
worM ahow tho liolil auc] (»kilfiil tuftunor in vrbich tJio ohipA of 

lutttmlii yut nUaitivil. and iifuluibl^ poruuble ur;tlLiiuiU(TlU by kcd, 
and tbiiir Bftfe rotum homo from the h&SHirdo of icv^Httvigatiom of 
no ordtmuy charai-ff^r, nven for Arotin Bonn, with aII ajtpli&noea 
intact, Auil wJt^Kjiit HCCJdiMit to vcbh^Im or crow*. 

"^\ith i^'i^&rd to tho additioatt to ^mr Goof;TA]i}uo&l knowlftdg* 
niuile by >-<iu, they r^nnot be Imtter di:iM:rib(ii Ihnn in tli^ ufUdvl 
locgvage of the Lords (Jommisaioriora of tho Adoiirnlty when con- 
voying thoir np|>roTAl to you of iha oonduct of nil ongngetl in the 
lopovtADt aor^ioe, nliJcL is na rolloira :— 'm 

<**Notwit]iBlHrtdiDg, ho^4'over, that it waa tojinA iinpo«K{h1o w| 
tUo n] edging ptirticb to Jittfiin a miiL-h hight^r Intltude than that 
reached by Sir Edwurd Parry, Ihoftddilion to i^OKr^pbioal know*- 
ledge hu heen cGii£i(lr<nibTfi. The oonjeo^n ra1 Ojx^n ew to thA nordfl 
of iSmith SoQiidt and tho Ituid ftamoiod to be tKoro, Lavo hM& 
provM not lo &iii4t. Tha ooar^t liuc; of the northvniTnost lind y*t 
kuotru, adjojuiug the American corttI<ient, boa bncn auotinilely 
charted for 2;iO miIoA> Tbo north ooaet of Qrvmliind bm b««tt. 
vxAiiiiii«d Tor 30 inlldH, »nd trjiood bm fur lUi C&^kt Drltiuuiia in 
laL 82^ M' s., loug. ^8^ 38' v. Tbo wGBtdm iboK« «f Smitfi 
Sound haw bv4*n ouneoted in detail : and, iastly, the <^»T«rtion 
of the p-JMibiliiy of roaohiug tho PoTo by TVny of Smith Sovmd 
hiia bcon sot at rest, whiUl a higher latitude than any hil 
attained, vh. 63^ 20' 26". had bwn r^aoLtid.' " 


SiK GixJhGE NaHBS replied :■— 

"Mr^ PsneioEXT and Gentlemen: — It ia with much pride 
that I reoeiTo iLia gilt, aud 1 aoi-^pt it aa a token that The work t 
have puifuiiiiud ]i2t» ubtain^d the appiovid of bo diBtinguiHUDil and 
leading a body as tho Koyol Goographioal Society, The beetow-*! 
of fi-aoh a highly wiBhed-for honour U of itself ore of tho highfiKt 
reworda I conld poftfiiMy ever hav* foreseen for luy work, aod it 
entaild confciJerablo rot^ponfiibility for tho fntiiro; for if, bitboitOv 
I h&vo douo my atnKJht tj Jkdvduce our kuvjwludge of tho Gh^bo wo 
inhabits so, beroullor, it will bo my oadojivour tij boar worthily 
vary high diiitinclioTi which has now boon conferrnd upon mo." 


■ Coh^nel H. Ynle, c,n., then came forward tn reoeive the Bfeda 
oa behalf of the L'nndit Noin Slngb. Tho Pm^uiiEEtT illmmnil 
biin 04 foUowa; — 

Aieani of AffidaJs.~Sain Sttt^^h, 


*'Sirjrn Kftm SIngVg ftlwnnon frnm Ihiii country pivrlod** 
my Imruig tKv pl^&aim cf banLling to Iiim L& por*oD, thi4, Ih^ 
TlctoHi or rktrou'n MoIji), wkioh httA 1>«<?t) awnrded to him for 
^ {rc«t juDnJcj* kud vurvoya m TiU^t bud ulutj^ tlio U|»p«r 
Bnhmftpntrft, during nhi«h ha dotormincd the pwitioEiB of Lh&M^ 
ud aclilixl largL-ljr tu uur punitive kiio^lisd^ of tlic? u\*p uf Aula. 
I be^ to pUoo it in yoar charge for trau«irtiABioii to th<» PiiDdit, 

"I wiU mjrcclf Ebddroia a letter to tho Viceroy ia Indiai oUliog 
^Mt^oiivu to lhl«awanl of owtoC l\m two MixUli of llkv year, 
tta higb«st l^orjunr thia Sooi^ty oiiu cocf^r on any G«cgritpher, 
iloiKTaf diHtiTipiifl^itd by lii« W'TvIoeft to Gec^rapluoii] SoiunoA or 
UlcoTery. and. wiih a nqucsl that Hui KKCcUenoy will take auoh 
ck^ u lio cnny do«m boNt for iU pmiotiUtioD io Nun Singh. 

'' But, in tLo iii«axi tjmo, I woatd b«g yon, who vnro Uao find to 
prapoM thaC this Aledal tbonld he k> ooQforrod, and took ntch 
gcmariMii utd cumi^Hl iultin-nl in tL« rvoi^niliou hy tho t^ouwLy of 
Kftis SifiKh'n hifcii cUizun to tiut difltiuotioti, to OL>tiv<:y to him 
from mos iifl tho PrMidant nf the Koynl fif^^ftphiMLl 8<id<>ty, thck 
■RtuC»c4ioa t^ C<juucil Uttvo fi^U iit thui jnibUcly tmitliiu^ iboiv 
^S^ <^i«olatioa of the ijuble i^iitilitlra of loyalty, oouraga &nd 
vndsniKOt by Lho dispUy of wUiah m ou urdiuary dvgrDa ho 
ftohioTsd attcvcuM, and Vh14 onoLbJod to add oo hu-gcly to onr know- 
IwlgBof Uint poitioniif Aa]^ whioh tio Ki[ro[Mfiin ivmid nrplnm. I 
woald uk you tiUo Io aiLd that tho Counoil have not failod to »m 
tli4l h« hk» not wartci>i| na a mem Upogniiih^oftl automaton; and 
perfi^ly awftro that. uotwi[.hHl&udiug htj woii n aalivo of 
KDd familiar with Tibatnn dialects, bia jotim^ya were not 
•ocoKtpliiilicil vithiTUt pxnt peril to lifr;. I vruuld finally wftdi yoU 
to oOttvey to Kai'n ^Jinj^h^ who in iho p4:rformntict> of thcao dia^ 
tlDgntfilwl aATT^^^iiis hua KMlT'Areil qerEnii«t1y in h^^llh by the eitremci 
hAidaHipd attfinlin;; his jonrticys. thitt I trust tLi^ publio recog- 
ttitiovi of hift tuorilH UK a G^^gmphar ironx the Koyal Goographioal 
8oci0^, which in itn nwiuihi kimwn no dintiuntion of niilionality, 
race or orced, will bo & sourco of i-nlihroction to him in hii* ratir^ 
ni«it, <if whicJi Tiothint; <nn ever dt*pWo hiin^ to the *nd of a liF* 
1m ba4ld«Totcd to '^aithfiiUy Io tho puhlio acrvico and tho adTanci>* 
Bkttai of GfH-gnph^oal knowledge/' 

Ookmel TotA in ffp}f, e&id : — '^ 1 wita tilctiii ly aiirpriHt^ wh«n I 
mm aikod to officiato on thU oooa^i^n at th« rooipLent or tho Modat 
for Nnin BinKb* 'llv^ man who, beyond all othcm, ought to have 
OOVUpMd th^ |i«itibn i« Uwional Jttoatggnkeno, itnd I am aur<* 

CxxTi Award of GoU WtiOJi. — Markf^m. 

Uiat cothicg but i!l hcrklth could bchvo ciRi«od thftt j^ctotlomfta to 
Ik) nhmut on an cn^OAhii^n m ioCor^tiTig to him- Not <y^\j bad 
CoJon^ Moutgomori^ giveii Koia Siugli tlie moflC cawuitiiU port «f 
l^u tr&i&mg, bat he was hiioaalf one of the most diisti&gu titled 
lltuuiJaj'&iL explorer! aotl HtirvejoiB, and bud spent m ooitaulciaibla 
portion of hie lifo bt om alritrido <jf 16,000 i^i nbovo thQ sea, I ou 
utterly cQtnniwn to NaSn Singh, iwd 1 Hball therofore, bv tbi* 
loftvo of tlio SocL«tj, ouTatnUDicat^ the mtimuttoo of kle kftrUig 
been Afttlgned tlio MeJ&l through CoIoiil4 MontgomeHik Bui 
thongb 1 do iLOt know Nam Singb porDtmallj^, 1 Ichdw hU work, 
ftcd vun ufHrm that whut tho Prcflidont hoji anid aboat hin tM 
very jusU Hti ih not u ti:i|>i>graphi(Ntl antomjitoti, or mervl^ ooe 
of « grwit mTiltitude of uaUvo omploj6« with on iLrongo qnalifi- 
cQtton. Hi9 obaervntioDS tavo add^ a lorgor nmotint of impoitost 
kuunleilge lo the map uf Aniii tlirui tbuAO of any otbcr living mftn, 
uid lus jot;rniilB ibna an exooeitiugly ir]t«h]«Lmg book of Iravelo^ 
It hUI jhlTord me griiut pl(-asur« to taki^ »iepa for Ibu trinataiaaian 
of tl»9 Modal tlu\>i)gh uQ (jffid'il channel to tho Pundit." 

A Gold Watob. wltli au approprialo InBoription, wtw aIod pi^ 
mmtod to Captain A- n, Markham, a.N-, for ha^iiiF; comma&dod 
tbn NorUiem Divipion of fledges in the ATctio Kippdhtwi of 
1676-6, and fi>r haviug pUnfod tbo tin Jwi Jack iti BS^aO' 26" n^a 
bighor latilndti tJian had ever before b«en reached bjr any prevjon* 

ln delivering tho Watch, tho Pefstohmt aai4 : — 

"Captain Maeehim^ I Luto Tun^^h plea£iiT-e in pT4*e&tii^g to 
yoUi ia tlm imme uf the Ru^l Qeogiaphit^id SixiLoty, tbia Wati^h, in 
public rocoguilioiiof tbeir appreciatioa of tikc valuabU) •CTviootf joil 
ri^ndcrod in command of the Norl.bem DivisioD of Stodges in tte 
Arotiu Kxpcditioi^ of mT&-6. in tbo courec' of wbiob yon roftohol 
tbo hktitudo of ^ij'' 20' 26" N., the highest that had biyjii attuned by 
auj/ preriaiifi BipedlLion." 

Captain Marlhjiw replied: — 

**Mr. rrceidant and GoDtlemoTi: — I bava to oxprona nj f^ratobl 
thAnkfl for the high boiiour oonfi3rrod upon mo- Thongh I haw 
boon acloctcd ad tho r«oipierit of tho moro JfuUitaniial pari of iho 
honour, I know it will bo folt and appr«cia1od by mj oCiDpaiuo&ft, 
wiUioi&t wboin I aLould not have beon pluccd in Uio poMtiiv I bow 
oooupj. 1 f3i:kDUot help thinking also, that apart from tnj haring 
plantod the Uaiou Jack in tbo higlupit Nirrtliem LtJitndu tvI 
tQiLohed, I havo buec aelootod for this bonoar becauac I wn« the 


iWfc'c SehoM Prize McdaU. 


makn dtor of tbe oxtand^d ttod^i; putio* of tli« Erpoditioa. 
and lliat U u ah lui kiuiwlocl^Qnt i>n thn purt of tUn Rj>)^al Aeo^ni- 
phiad Bjooiety of tbo goognphioaJ Borvicos whiob tliovo pftnio4 

PUBLIC ftcnooLfi' vmm t^ikdaxs* 

The fi)Uowuig vnu Ibo awmnl of tho Biaminen for the pnwnl 

Pfh^h^il Ghogkai-jit. *7oM Jfwiflr — Wultor New, Dalwlcb 
College. Br&Hze Medal. - Arthur Siujth Flgwcr, WineliMki 
Oolloge. flMOttroAJf J(mJir>fif:i.^^o1uk Ohlennui, City of LMidon 
School ^ J, A- RoblriMon, Liv^qiixil CuUoge; FraLk SUntoo Cftr^j'. 
Bristol Gnmua&r ScbotjL 

f^yUTtCAL Qi:oQiunrT. /ri»U iSMoX. — WilliAm John Kfitrton, 
lutorpot^ Culkgo. -firvTUrf Jtf«rlut,^JoLu Wilkid> Liivrpixil Cutlv)^ 
Sm trn x^ JIbhKpiw<>, — Arthur iW<t KoiK'ViCity of Louden >^cbouJ; 
WmUm W>11iB Ord. Diilwiuli Collt^; t^mud FowW UUchwdl, 
Clifbou CoHoKO; Otorjco Arnold ToiakUiitoii, Uulo^bary Collc^o; 

iimtj Coiiburit Ooawiti, ciiftoft coiiogft 

Vr. Tiuscn Gatjooi wd it gmvo him miroh flivLsttra, on thin iw 
on numj |)T«viotui ooMaiona, t>) be ^blo to obbeito tho Sooioty of the 
pehUr apprnc^'jitim or thn Kinmuiiiti^mn. NuBrly all erf tlin mom 
impooluit lohoolm had at Oino timo or anoihnr nent oandldftKMi. 
£toa lud ^on no In^it tbATi 5 ^ut of iha 36 M«ilals thiLt had 
faitb«rto been adjticEgcd, aird 11 olLei kcLooIb lidd cocli contributi^d 
CO* or tnom &&m«« to tbo lint of Mi'dallists. Thcrt> wero at pTOAOut 
only two impoitvjt echwilfl which hod never ecnt a caniUdalo, 
Harrovr amd Kui-by. Many teetimonios had beeti home to *b.o 
grMt Bf^rrlcp rnidorrd to the c^uho of Ednratton hy thesG pTuu*a. 
lo ft OOAitmnicAtion to tho CLinfur^nuu of Head MELstt^re Lu1d last 
Chrlttmu, the It«v. Qcorg« Butler, th» Friocipal of Livorpcwl 
Collecet mI^ l^tf ''^'ub gr^tefu) for the itimuU* tliey uiTuidvd to 
tbs nuBtttn and hoyn* for tho boohn that wcro Enggtstod in 
dM jMirly pro^nimm«e^ kiA fi^r tliti a]ipoiDlnierit of KitamiQi^ra 
who bad bpoci&l knowledge of the oonntiy whoae gtographj 

■ The MfdU* offcrmd lij thfl flofifif fbr OpocropHyn thrrni!;h thn Oiroiii> itrp 
CUOBIPOK Lao4t ICaA«»A'noHt v4fd Avardchil foi (he VMr I^TH. m Intl.^wB;— 

H'Ttwrt Huknt iTanl, LW^ItrniiJllL Onmrnar ^Zionl (Tiolli for (leTitral OwPTAhM ). 
C^BWUMia (DfeEfDlmr), Sihm Mnditl { rijyiiiivl Gijiiirm]ihy> Stlvitr Mfdal (Wli- 
Utui Om^ttf^jX tfvtL to Ur Up Teuiiln, ItiJtLUluu (inKuuuf E^ijUwl 


i^HiV Schooli Priit M-rJcif. 


woe ihe s^ibject f^r thfi ytMt. InvitatidOB to compete were soot 
tn 51 j^t'liools, or Ihene n rwpcieiili'd, BH-nditii* 22 compclitoni 
in Physical Gc'^rftpLv, a>;d 20 in Politioal Ucogrnphy. The 
ModftUifttB were reported \>j the EviiTiiinf^rH to fnlly .Itfoerrft thsir 
rvHjrective IiououiB. and thoso wLo tiud r«i;«i<ic<l HouMiirablfT 
M«Dliciii, to bo M6ll entitled to tbut diHtincUOfU It bvl alt*-itj« 
iHMm ln]jit<l Uiiit Bomw ttf tlm very alJisl ymitta nt iLe Huhuuls 
would bo initK^ to Ukka m intorC)£;t in geography* nrul 1ii«ire 
won rmG r^niArkab]& proof thftt this hnd heea arcnmplinh^d, for 
Hi, McAlibtcr, tte 8«Qiur WrojigTor of C&iubridgo tLia jcftr, won 
tiA Gold Meii^l for FhysioAl OwigTuphy id 187 1 . He (Mr Gftlun) 
¥rtuto to oek lus GUEidid<^|>ii]!on whctljc^ tL« timr? ht» IW bprntcD 
OfX^^phyf in prCfpiKring to compelo for iho Blodalu, h&d oti Iho 
whole brwTi a b^ilp. a hindranco, nr of ti4> efFoci., in Kin ■Cftdtvniu) 
catooTh Ilia Teply witd full &f gtniltndo for the Vnofifa ho rcooivfd 
from that Houroe, and bin all^gianoa wne still alrong lo iIia Sn<!ieij 
for th<t cnoonrag&ment thisy Kad given tiim by tbeii award' 

Mr. K GUton then introdiiwd Mr, Waliwi Nevt, of Dalwidi 
Collf^e, to leoeive the Gold Mvdal PLyairal n^^ogmphy, NlAlin^ 
thut h(i ruobcd dooidcdty tivi^t «ti]<inj; thv ttindid»r«e> Lft*t year Iw 
cbtAined thir Bronze McdaT, and this ye^r the gen***] «^1» of faS» 
Auwerv WEts mich u would bare doii« credit to % mfttnro Bchclttn 

The PiERuuiicN r, in protecting the Mediil, aiud he wiu glad 1o 
tliut lliQ pjuiujbi» given by Ui. Now in lS76 IimS b««a mi 
J <uid amply t'ulliili>d. 



Ur> F. GxLTOK fisidL beror(5 introdutiDg the nuit in order ol 
merit whti wan U> receivo ths Ur^iuT^ M«mU1, he wifjiml tQ nxmll 
tho nemi^ry and service formerly rend crod to iheSc'ciety by Admint] 
Smyth, whodi&d Two! to yoarwago, fiill of yean and fcientitic hononr. 
and to whom was due juat onc^faalf of ihu ct^dit of Ui4 foimdAtioii 
of the tjouiuty. whii'h wub eistabJibhdd by tho combination of two 
oontemjionuy and indcpoudeiit ai:hemes, of one of which AdmimI 
Snjyth wofl the eolo originutor. Jt wrLs bo who revivod the doolining 
fortunoflcf ibt? Socuiy in 1840, whert i(i^ imQitmrb w«iodiiiiiniK)ii»g. 
it4) oxp^cLHt^e oicooduig its irjcoaie, ejid it wa£ doubtfni whether it 
would not entirely ooUupwe. In that criaia, Admirml Smiytb wv 
elected rrefiidentk ajidn tindor bis eftgaciLtna nrtd cn^rgctio xnidaDCt, 
now life WUB iufuaed into the docuying £^ooioty ; its icfluotkoe Uftdft 
itMdf more ^Idvly fcJt, its ntiTntx^ra r^ipidly increased, and iia 
T«)ionro<ia wore relalliehod en b, tinn Ibotiui;;. AocoTdiug to the 
r«)tonktod eKpn^arion of 8tr Kodenok Murchli^on, who wa« bia iv 
liibdiutc aucccwor in iho Chair, it wut U> Admiiul timyth thiit the 

PtiMU Scdcofi Priu MMah, 


ffnA fefcp wa4 duo lliat tpefl to if« ]»r«Mnt ^r^impttuuM coiulitMilt. 
Tf>c Bromae Mc^ollUt, ArUiar Bmyth Flower, of Winclje^Ur Colli^^tt, 
was tho gnndcnn M AdminU Smyth- 

Hio IVksIiKxT. iri jirfwralinj^ ill?* MihIaI, mliI it w«h ix^cvliAj-ly 
gnbliffiiq; to hitn to do 0c j i^n^ h<> wah qmlc o«riain timi ibo 
uwiner in vbich Iho qnp3tioa» hiid bi^du iitiiwicrrd wiu roflroljf an 
tDdicaHon c^ wh^t Mr. &in>t1i Flower wonid do themfUrr. 

Sir Kau^^X W, ICiTVBCW.ft* tljo Kxamiticr in Toliticol G<iO|;rcp]iy, 
aiujl lir vw VDi^muuHduA-jipaiuifKltluil hn hii luiltlin cjppnfinnil^ 
of k»trodncinf;Uio two bn^F ^ho bod fiinincd IhoBlcdhlflf^irr^lilicat 
Gtogmplij', raoTo Mqwvhily a« the Rriwiie H+ilUllst^ Jo^T^ WiTkit*, 
i;4invl tLo Gold MciLJ lut ytsxx fur Pliy»i«1 Oeogrnpliy. and mii 
k>» ooin|tt4ilcHr i« oloi* tKifl joar, tliuC tho pfep»ri l^Jid to bo kohod 
CbfpQ^ IvTHx". bcefonc it ccJiild Iw dt'cidrd wlunh mu tbo lt<wtr H(» 
bul lieaiTd thnU if it bftd not brcii fcr ihtt hoy** fttlcnlion liaviAf* 
liMu d«voted I0 otlior tviuainntionif. it woh \'<fry likfAy that ha 
wuqJi^ bavie i^on tho Geld McdJ^ At the vnmo Ume iL cnh«ii^d 
the wirit of Iho <^6)d HodfllUrt. thai tHi wftn a ^tpaf yonnp^r tlian 
Wilfctn, Tbr^ were liotb from tb» iuu» BOhool, LWerpool Cullogn, 

ThtfPMninxT kftnilc^ tlic Mf>dn]« to Sir It«wvrm W. Rnwuooi ibi^ 
trvnanUim to ibe rp«ipu:nt«. 

Til* Itoi- G- C. BhoWucK, ill nnnaundng llio n^it year"- »ulycct 
u '* llie Kill* RoNii, nod Ibiit part I'f Afrif^i wlildi lies Ur Iho 'Krtftt 
4if it," naiJ U^i'^ migbt bo cull^l Iho olnvic^ logicn oi Afrio% 
Ibr it WW The (illeMt^ aa \i cerlAinTy wah t1t« mott leceiti, iluld of 
AfricftQ jfcof^rapbical diocuvoij, U poEUfOvaad % »i|)ci:ial intoreat at 
jiicx'Til, Wi^nut* if tho gi-cfli Kilirmc* for tbu MyKlcmuiii? fixplcirtition 
I f AfrjcA uuw !;i ro]iLu;ti|r]utli>ij vliQuld \t*s c^Miicd ont. jt was 
ctriAJii iKnt ('U<T, if not inoro ronton to bo seUct^d, would paa» 
■rtOM tbat vfTty rr^t'm. 6u tlifil iii ibTs ii:iei?. jib ut tbu luat irt^o 
T«4te. tho CMfdidfttc^ for ttxo pri^x^ vl-otiM h^vo the natufaolicni i>X 
tc^Jin;; that tL<?j' wero following In Iho footstep* of tmvollwB who 
^rr^ ftCtnAUy i'UjcAiC"3 in mikiu^ Cc<'grq»Lj-, He wna qiiito iih:d 
tkul hy thtwcoonofrting gcogmijbkiil C'-Uicttfijii with gcO|pa|^hiral 
»Ep1oiBtn»], the Society wan trndirrirg ^kvI ncrvicHt f/i bath, iimI 
^M proraotirf ite ii:f cro*t* <ir general cdncntion- 


iSir ItAWBOSE W, ILl^v^s riivv U\ jnopoAo Uio Am^itdvnl 1Eii]«ih, of 
vliioli UutMlufi l^QQf^voii. ufiLfVTLDg bocii c^FOod tifK>u by tljo Joint 
Omuiiitt«« sppointttd by tho SjHvriiiKiwtpral MoMiug of M»»ch Tit Jr. 

VOL. Xhvii, i 

AHmalim cf the Be^iations. 

Ha wdlkaContJcilfoh iJjcrcvruK a grmt difOmilty lobnilmkv^ 
ond thAt thct problem of atijiTiD^ all tho roqnirotuoots of til 
li^Ttr&ordinAry M^tingw was nither bfljonii lh*iii ; tkwy wtft, 
t^on^foro, )iaj»py vLcu tlj« Juint Comaultve, appoiaiod ij tb» 
G«btmil Mot^tiD^. took tha rcipoDiiibility cff thoir bvula, ud il 
mui vniy MdiHlVoUiry tii bii ftliln to vtatA thftt Uin CnKunitlMi fcHi 
boon noauiuiona ft» to tbo rooonmccdfttiong to vhioh thoj LiJ 

TKo Motion \faa tluit lUo Bulwi under CluLptor V. of Scotfok 3 4 
tho KagulatKma bv rcpt^akKl, und tho fQUdwin}^ oiukotot] in their 
jil&oe ; — 


1, — Tha Of JlTtftiy HMtiDgB shitll b» kffld oa tho Evoaing* cf tltSMJ 
ftnd Fonrlh Mondiy of flvcry month durini; tboSkuion; txc «fti»er, Eff ^^^^ 
oxpodicnt by thti Couacll, Tho Chair tflintl Ur Uluii {jTvijiiitly m1 ILtVi^ 

&r— Fflltovft witJ >3A Kdmlttnl to tho MMting;!, on ftbowicg tbftir * Fcdn^ 
Tiakfft," whidb nill bo Eanc t^idl whckio ^bnriptuoifl atonot taamar,tf Bt 
coauQoDocmcat of each Bosaion. 

iS- — Vittkirs, if iotrudiic*! jKrsonalfy ty FcUovr*, oi by » Fdloir** ■[(*• 
Lnuufcrrwl Tur tbu uocoaiud. may bu ptunuL U iha 3twlJiit;i : such pdifli^ 
or introilucU'oa beiog liiuitcd to imv Vuitur uuly for each 7e3iOEV. 

4v—At the Oniiiiiiry Mevtln^, tho Or^r of EVocvedin^ mbUl btt M A* 

A, Tho MiDt!ti?i of tbo ]utl MooUn^ to b« icttJ, aaJ, ii' thcii occOMj 
' bo cot i^utttioLcd b; ths MoeLiu|^ lo bo ai|:uoS by ihc IVopitf' 

<tr Choinuim. 

H Th» L*r»Q(ia mitde to tho Sodtity KJur-c ilmir Imal MntiP^ to h 
inuonQLTsd, and thAckfl ordarol to bo roturaud* 

0. Xcw Fcllcvn tu be iutp>luc«d to the IVviJcnt or Cirklmfim ; mdl 

of IklJoi o( CftudLd«ioi to bo ULuuLiTK^xl, luid iwojiLioGJid^kaial 

I otber C^AUdldflld to 1h^ road. 

D. FnpaTK and ComroiiiilcMtionw lr:i Ihj r«ttd And diututcd. 

o,— At tbo Ordinary MccLiaj^n of tho 6<xi(?ty nothiug reUdu^ U^ lb 
lations or muuLgcmont Aballbo biuu^t forwiifd. But tho Mtrtau^Uoak 
iho Coiuiull t^nJA bo rin tho TnlirA xr rui^h MvL-lin^, and oitnea tbwifkl 
n^uy be r«d co th'.^ Mcotiog on tho roiiuij^iljoii ol uy KoUovr. 

6.— On «K4«oni of cxcoptJoiml lukTusf, tu bif ooliflcd iy tiie iVviidoU 
tho ]nx-oiH]iuA Mfctiuj^ of tho Stjotnty j^iuE i?uly lulrtrtind In tbo Ilally Nov< 
^prrs, urdiimry Tickvti; will not \h. nrniljild^ ; but oppliOfttioiii fron F^hm 
viM bv rvooLvcii at tbo Offiw of ^ Suuidty for Onion tii AAtummm 
Iboouelroo aud thoir friood», Ihi; uLtmUir of Vuitorv t> bo tvufai«d Bn 
JurtAuh foUi/w. t5u<jh apidiamu nhnir, Ln th« order in v^oh tb«y appli 


Murtstion <^ ihi Ji^ttintiom, 


Wtar Ibv than poliQcatioii, recvWc ordtn oT adiQLnlijn fi:rr themicflvt* ■! 
li«T t^tnAt la tW «nt« hi k|wr. Iiy ihfi CoitnoU, for Prllowv uid tlmlr 

h lUtJben of CounoU and ihsir rriL'tidftt ui<l Fiftj tiocnod twaii* fov 
Tti«n erf ditUucUiMi »liftU bv u i1l« tliifOttJ of tho PrailAfiit. 

ly oiBo to 4 Biu>aiama» d^cisioa to iiboli>ih tJio blue tick«t'bc< 
vUnh li4d bMn the olilef aknfiH» of ilio i^vIIh vrhSoh boil Imcq 
Ucfa oompUipgd o^and the icvult would be, not to caitAi! ilm' 
}nrtkgiu, of tiw FoUowi in muy wny, for tho/ would bo ftUoir^^ 
tu iuCiixliioo eacKi a frienA yet>anMy\ nnd, If aublilc themtelvoi' 
bftttBikd, 10 Ijuufur thrir tiokotn to a momivr of ihcir family, 
« Of ollwir [u-noun. Ho tliDught it mutt dvclivblo, ovm wHh 
^dtraob to tLc Ordinuiy Mcotil^pk. tbkt thi« oKaiDg« sKouU tako 
|htth ^thuogk tha fi«w Kutoii might ot influio L>v^rythi]ig thai 
tigbl Lv dmlrc^, iho UciLtl«iH lui^Iiln rc»l uuiitivd Lliut Uici Mxnii 
Vti<li bad iikfoi plooe on pr^ivi^iu uuc^iHioiitf W(;^lltd ncrer occur 
^(ti^ TLo Membi.-Ts cif tlu* <*oiiiii]itUfO tt|>poirital by tJ]» Ojttncjil 
^vt Bi««t uuioua iwd wiUm^ to do ovciylhiojf iJkoy |>o»ibly 
(wld to mofTt thn itt^cultioa: And tho f^trf^i that tht> OraiuDiltoQ 
Ui tttmn to n iiiukniiEicjnx r»ii<:1iiiiif>Ti vru fii liim, iMinumdly, 
jMificatioii for tho troiiblo ho had jcivon io ondcfl^'^iurtnx to bnti| 
i^t an •luniti-^ii \i\ Ihi* KhIa*. Ho f^lt ihjir the ft><tEcm (^fthO 
Gcttndttco hod bronght tho grent body of tJio Ktllown into nLnct 
W&ony urith th« Coaticilf vUon thoy so much nwpcGtJ>d. 

kir. A?(i>tE.«o> tvinUi.'d tu know wlM^ihca^ ibu uuk-rtM i^Hiicd lu thi> 
Vidlowft Jbr theniiridwi und Iboir friQt:idii oti irxtmordbuuy oooa^ 
■nawMild be vinmborod in tlu^ orditr in wbSoli ih(» bpp|jo«tioua 
*Bo Kfidoi and woold ropnxieiit nnmbored nctiUi in St Jjuae-s^ 


Mr. Jtirs onkuil if tlirr unmber uf licketA inued would ba limited 
tlUia ikunbor of Poata? 

The riuNiKM:ir, in rttiAy, Mid what uvra Hmlcmplutod by Ibo 
Cm&uUuj wua lliAi tickvto «hon]^) bit iunr^ ropricHonting tho 

Kj>i:r of ooaU avaiij^Mcs iitid ihow vEio nt^fill'xl foT tii^kutx oft 

^ftntiiaUTr had bwa imued wuuhl be tuld that tiicitj wiui nu mcnv' 

Ur, "WiLLUtf ITonua JiJm ^hT that or nny nrrAngAinfml u^hfi^h 
Mdsdcd Fellows from tbttie IixtiTturilitukry Mcctiu^ wu iivul- 
wUo, ho vnjuld, without aiiyd**iru to W iu (jpijonltion t<i tlio 
proputu the following amoudmciit. ~*Thut tliv propotiud 


ftcrafrtm ni 


uuw Rules abouli bo rufernnl Ifatt to Uio CouugII F*r coikiJc^h- 

)>r. A. I^uclfANA? aeoon^ed ti« ftmdtidnKint, nnd wnii FnpparloJ 
by Dr. Qlctt, wbo tbougbt tlmt fL« tftiLAtuig Ruloa n^uld wxirk 
B&ti»fa'>tonly if tboy wnro xcally <*iirri*U cul, 

f^Ir MoKJMUKr Wi:ru wiid no oiio li^d biMsti iriorrr nnxioiu ih%a 
Juiujwlf to in^iutaiu tlio ri^hU of tho PoUowa; but i( Uio vi^ws 
oicprcdBod by tlio mchvor of Ojo unenclmont nvrc opprowftd or, iho 
rooalt would bo tu uoludo btrbBScn «1toj^ccttci frcm thcao 

l*oTd Hoirairroif hnving appcaird t« tb« M^rnbir* fo pfir^i thn 
prO|>oM:rl tiow Rulea a fair trift]> anil nn amcniimci^l i>iop(Mctl by 
Mr. AnniCTi to tbo otloct " tlifct thoae Mtrfnbort at Extnoidinoiy 
M«yLri]|;». *vliu miglit- fiiil Ut obtain Hpiiuial UcfcnU, Khould !■ 
udtnitEcd after tlio Chnir bad booa t«kon, on pin>diiotioin <if tfa«ir 
nrdinary titifceW/' having hWt^n Ihiynigh f^r wn.nt of n nftcondmr, 

Ut, William Moi^nu J\me.V auicndm«ui was pyiU uvil negatived 
by II voQMiiltrublt) imijonty of lliu ^l4fH^ting. 

Tho l^Li^MiiK^r tbi>n]iiitlbDi:ii)ginal motion ^'Tbnltbf^ mtw Hults 
bo (idoptfld/ wbioh wiw carriwi, 

liord CorttsiJJK then moved that tbft wmtls '^ or m u^ai- tb* d»l« 
as maj be fbimd ccoTcmout" vhould bo addtd ti^ ibo ptwiit 
Bitl« I„ <:h*|>. V-. ficjction 1. 

'I1tn M4>i,iiii^ ivAA fi^o?itded by Sir ITK^rur TIjlWLT?(W:>(, and earned 
wi tlioa I oypoo i I i on. 

A voto of Uuuikti wiu iben moved by Mr. Axmfjwnv to Sir 
Mordnimt AVclb, and tho C^Jinmitl^o that nf«i«1cd hilti. tbr lb« 
K->u>]iitu>ii>i At which ibcy arrivod, 

rrnftAMTT Tiimna:! i' atiL'i>udud tlio Tkhiliuii, wbiub vjl*i u^«d it\ 

TUv Soratitiooni tbon tumoitncod the rcnull of tbo 1^11^ tbo 
CiMiiiRil"* lint bning doflftrorl duly clnf^M. 

TLi^ rRt»ii>K:fT tb^aiead tbo Aijuual AddruM aa iba I^igTCvaof 

On itn 0071 cluA ion, Ml. K Gai^fon }iEYr[Kibfv1 a voki (*r tb;inkii In 
th« riX'Atdcnt for hjfl oxcolli^nt Addrcaa* The Ftjlown vrojn grrtatly 
fndobuidii.t 8frUntherfori1 Alcock for ihe public spirit ho hadttiows 
it ocijiductiiig tbc affftirw of tbf Socioly. 

GoTiODil SiiuciJicf locondijd tho Motion, which w/is n^^cd Uk 

On ihr inotion vi Profowir TK?d>ANr. a vol« of thnnkri waa 
aooordud to tho rotirm^ Moinboi'u of Council, and Ibo Mtictiuj; tbon 

( cisKtii ) 




Mirtrvd at the AraiU-vrmri/ Me^iny en t/ic iSth Mmj^ 1*77. 
Br Slit RuniKiEFoitD Alcoce K.aii.p lix^u, i'tttiMi>KNT. 

Tllfi period wbic]! luui uUpnoJ mjilm? tLo ]iu<t Annivoniiu^ 
Mwlia^ of Uio Kiryal GiKigrapliio^l iSookly Awi^ botu uu ui^uauaDj 
evAjid^l one in many ru«poctt- Tli<> roluru '^f UioAictio Eipo- 
dition, i^iiiclily fiflT'»wirLg llmtfif lliv. OJUi^w^fr, aihI of OtnitLrort 
froia hi> laarrdlou* joiiruRj aciomCouIi'iU AfiioA, fricili>l ^r^nX 
iat0ro«E. tD i«t«fUi^0B proHootttcd io bucU widcty-aDporiitcd and 
Jitwraflod fiEt]4« of Geographical dltfoovery. The oom.inufHl dlgonfl- 
Moa ciT tJiu v^rloiu iMnlitiofifi of Muccofus And tUo MientiQi; ri>4iilt* 
of Arotio vxplvratioD, ui a)fio th« Meeting cf tho A&it^im (ioo< 
gTuphic&l Coikfitfotiou ib Brtift^la lost &ntii«aD» at Iho iiivittitjoti of 
ibv King cf tlio B«lgi«tu, :ir« Aviilenctea cf iififive 1nt*-r«it urhioT? 
cuLDot bil to twu: fralt ftt no diKluiit ^miiud* fu^d t^i |irL]mi>tu tbo 
oa1tir«Hctk cf Cco^n^piiy as i4 »cicincc in nlJ it« hrArrhuA* 

It ))u been tho endeavour of thu CounoU und mymir, durJiig thu 
pOfit jeaT» 14> clfAct MotnA of till? i>bji*(;ls glttnot?d at xn ttte last 
AiU)mt*My Addt-T>M of ti\y pied^ccBhtjr, Sti' Iltijry lUvrlmRcm, nit 
bfting tlMTD Uod4T ocTJ«ido ration, 1 olliidi* moro particuliuLy Io tbo 
i1«nrn to exUnd in a m^ra RtriolJy ((d»riti&; divoction tho rvige uf 
tbttGwgrajihiailf^noIoty'* wurkaTid infliunco. In pun«uiiiti« uf llitj 
platt akttckcd oat in my opciuiig Addjx^««, twci w\i of tWco Lculutca 
nwig^d lor thi« i^uebiooi ou rhyeicul Ucui;L-uphy in its higher ftcd 
lun *oi«nlit]c A^pectfl, hAvi> b^n nlveady dollv^rnd : tho nrni by 
G«im«l t!tncii€y, Ijuiiij^ an ''InUuduuliay LvcLuru uu Sui^ntiGc 
Gcofrapby;" ond tb© vtjoond by Dn Ou-ponl^- ua ^'Tho Tom- 

Sir RuTSERPORD AlcockV Addr^its, 
pcnitaro of Uio Docp-ootv Bottom, aud tho CcmctitiotK by which H is 

'Hid nJinuu of both thtuta ^cnilamtn woulil be a «iifficio>tt 
giuLnuitec uf ttc i;x(t«1]qiicw <;>f tlivir vfurk, aii3 it« atlft]ktati(>D to the 
ond iti viftw. 1 Rwy, liowovor, bo jjcruiittcd to Bar that nothing 
ooidd in my opiricat havo b«ttor ronlijKid fJii> mt«fiti'MM of tlio 
Ouuucil, ijT Iwtttir Munruil tho micre*to ol' Qettgr*tijliicftl Soieooo, 
tjilu-n i:i ltd IftTgest achm, ihan tLo udmirftblo Lcctnro vro lintoiicd 
to Tniin GcrionJ Stmoboj. T]ic> i^utlino it mppJicd of tho prhwffal 
Hoifrntifio AHpCL'ttf cf Oi^ograplrj, in relAtfun to Ua put liiaftory. voA 
tu tlie tcfiuouo*^ of Qi70t;ni]>h3Cftl cuuiitjc^iiB oti t!io human fACCs 
laft nothini; to bo dcflircdn Tlio prijkci|^uJ matl«TU tTiat fait withla 
Ibo tiLvs<i of Sc)(<nlitiic Gaogi-aphy W(ir<» all hiiccinftly tri4<«d tn 
thrlr riAtttml (irdnr Rnd «mn«flUcin; and with micIi di^miwi of 
GXponitioii and amuigcmoDt, tlml tbij ]3iotit rooi>Dditv facta tttd 
prindplua )cat muoh of thoir nnatlTBclivonf^e lo the immiliateA 

So, in lik«inann«r, Imny vpi)' thtit Dr. rnrpnutorV ruriew of aoTD9 
nf Ui« Duiii- Htrikicic iD^aouuca uf iho IcrmpciutEii'Q uf tlio D^p-AM 
Bottoiu. uid tho cundiliona l.v wtiicli it i« iktcnni&oit wU 
illcittatod thd Utility of i^ot limiting our Ti«w of ph) nioil «baD^«S 
to thti Aurfiic*) oTth* iMLTtb, nr t};u nuirr uhvii>iui forc^oii !» opunUkiB 
ujjoo cither the luicL or w»IcTh Wo wwo ehoivn tlmt, wliiU 
ox|>turiiig ttiu bottom cf iho gT<mt ocoan-bec^«, wo woro <i«Aliag wilJi 
nt loiut two-thin^H r^f tho mrrfncn of tbo lo^id i^niJit of the sl^^^l 
And aa traoinfi iho vorktiuoa iif tumpuratuiu arul ila dtslribnM^I 
at Yorionw di^ptbtt cwt tho whcdo ooouiio eoa-bod, wo wota lA. 
iCttlify (Studying on» of th» tnofit iniprjHAnt rf tUo ph^ical oMi> 
ditiotiM wbidi liffccl tlie ilUlnbuium cil~ uiuiiiit? imimnl lif« kjid lk« 
dii^ctiooi And force of ocean cuTrentn. 

Wo huvo yot the plooeun) of antigipatioc in regard to Iho ihM 
IxK!tTirfl, by T^Ir. WnIlfto», on "Th^ Comjiflifllivn Anlif^cltr o( 
C'^intlni^nU, oa indicated 1>y tbc DiHliiljulimi of reiving tiail nxUnct 
Animal p/' wbioh 1 hopo %tc aball h^^AV at tbo Ordinary UeeliDg' 
of the 25th of Jonts 

tn a fimilar npiril; nf imjiTdTt-mr-nt and progrea*. tho HonMO 
haviT at tUu inonjoikt unJor iHjTmldni Htirjti tijoTo-oi^aniMtioiicif tb^ 
Mjip Uopartmcnt, for vrhioh the rumenatioaof their CttratoTt Oafl* 
C Ooi'irgi.% aflc-r a tnithful nurvicL^of twenty yoan^alTotdMa faroUN 
abU* upportuiiUy. Th^y hav^r in v'mw tu mako tt not oiily mart 
coiijf let* and ToadJly aocouibliA but tu incroam it4 utiliry by giving 
locaiitioa for the luic of their Oio^fuus, whon required to iilottial* 

Sir RuTRRitFORO A1.0OCK s Atjdffsf^ 


Lochirai in tL« |ir<pvmc««, at a atiull fixc^l otoxgo. It nuy uivoItv 
Mone iacrcoocxl CAtebUBhmoaut und uorroipundiag oxpcns* ; but Um 
Society itt n'ob cncugh net to bfiitftto, if tlio/ can mo thoir wa^ to 
tJloiMtfii] apiJiuatiLiii uf tlinir fnndiL T^mding DiagnunK. tiu dutilt, 
«vpaac« tfacm to dauwigv* aitd tLc Society Ur tLt.' coat of their 
raaewd; but ^ oomparalivdly triflug cluago would probably 
ooTar tbEa «xpimiiDt whitn tho »rvi«* it will nitidcr to ihonta who 
voa^ AOl bftve oocwko for iLu muo Diiignmui mam ih^n oooct or 
twicc^ would b« ^ncat 

T^tving (nmi thiH nvpoct i^ our own progron, iho Report of the 
Cooiicil ufTunbi BtiUbiuiit pntC'f of tho innmiAing pronjjfiritj-. ftJiJ, I 
troat^of tlio UMfiilncrvB of iko SL^iotj. OitrMemborn and l»a)m« 
lUiioo incnaw) jour by year; and ao iurgi^ly t£ ngards the fint, 
tbHl it bai beoomo ft anbjact of ombanajvtaent on thiusA mm ouuft* 
nuoBi of cxtraordinai^ iiitiTrr-Hl — annh aa llm mtiirrj isf CjinictDn «ud 
Lbv Arctic JSip^tiooi—vrhon tho ^i^t body of FoUowu dt«in> to 
nttand tbo M«»tiD|;a. Some not mmatural diunati^faotion w«« folt 
«t tbd napiMbility of niAiiy. nn both l.hiw) ncvrwionH, ohtjuning 
Mftta; and a Spv4:ial MDolLug -was radltfd to coiuiiJor aod tvpoxi 
upon «ccdO Bceoluliona brought foiward by Sir Murduni^t ^Vullfl, 
wiih a Tiaw to romoTo Id tba fot'oro the cnnAci^ of cnmpUint. 
A]lbi/ig]i nomn ftppnitninco of iliacord lu mix midnt mtUnn^ lu tlio 
ducimioi^ the roBoh W.U the nppomtmcnt, with tlio full ocmonr- 
■Vioo of tho Couoi7ilr of ft Joint ComuiiUoo of lutjuiry; &nd lU 
alttln^ T iin gtad to taj-, worn n>art«i1 b^ tht* oinut pcrfivrt giJtid 
ff^liii^. and gn»t uufiniDiity n* Xo l.h*'< nbj<ujtA of the iuc|Uiry, Hit? 
ocv Xtegilatboa, tfuhmittod for your npprural at ihie Mooting, vcn 
OATtftiUy ojmdd^rod with tbu aiugltj otjjooC of prf^Tiding {<tr tho 
nmYcmi«nr» of th^ FoUow>i on all oapruilonii — otdmrtrj- nmi oitraor- 
diiiAiy — aod remedying wt fAr a* [Ki^wblo tho ovile hil.horto com' 
|>l^nicij of. AV'bcthcO' thc3' wiU, in practice, cSoot ihia end, or bo 
Aoro f ncovaful than various otboru ihax havo boou ikhxiudy triodi^ith 
ft aZniilar objuot, jsa quubtiou 011 whioti tbo O(jimor;l Mjarc«ly feol 
jnvtifiol in pronouncing uiy v«ty decided o^nion ; but thoy mw no 
ot^oction to thoir adoption aa n tontativo oonraD propovod by tho 
Joint CctncDitti:*) appohjtixl for thut purpow at the Spooiul Geni>ral 
Uwting of Miucb ^tU- BuiuQ uf Hm diniu'iilLitD eux% I ftuLr, lufeLuper- 
ablci and »0 rulen thftt can bo ddvWl will wKolly prevent inoon- 
Tomanco atid dutappotntjioont, when iho numboro to bo nooonx- 
nodatcd aro s> largp. Onn tn^ing diitngo in tbo fdanding mlc 
JeCnrmiabg tho day for thu Ajuuvpraary Mooting huo bixn pn^ 

pOBcd by tlio Council, tncn-lj to griard ai;:«fnst bving oom] 
boM it on a day inco&vociont to avwy 0119, such u Whit Hi 
or ftny olhni- pnlilitr )]fi1iiUy. Iliul nny diftcrvtiuutiry power hnea 
allowed, 1 nhouM hate dtrenc*! tho MeotiD^ OH tlui oocaaion Cw 
nrollLdr wouk, u>i tlio Wlritfluu LuliUuya ura atill unoxliaiurtcd. 

Bnforn l«rmknting th«h» |tiTliTi^fiLiLFy icmarlm, I miKt vvprvM m 
your IxiTmir, jd. nri-U nit on tIiaI of tlio OoancH anil uywlf, oui' 
vcrdjikl ttiAiikd to ihn Senate cl' tlii: Univurbtly of hobdoii fortlkO 
ci.intitiiift]io*j of tUo priv]kj;<9 thty bO HtK^nUly aoooi'd usof boldiog 
cur Mtki?r,Lit^ In thi^ cvn^tuo^ioiix Itftll. 

1 avlII now |ii<h;v4ii1 Iu llu iiiatlcja of moTO pormanciit intcrcet^ 
wLioij form (ho pr>^i>c]" ^ubioot of liiia Report And liiy first Julyt 
inaoconlauui^vithpaflt UbditiCJiiH and tlio uanul order of proot^dia^ 

Annivu^Jiry by ilitf dcatli of ajuny iliatinguiAbQU OMgnipkorv, ami 

fdltow'lubotiro:^ in tbU tigld. 


AMiirur, Sm Kuw*iaj Uki.cukh, K.<:.a.—By tho dt^tls *if Sir 
EdwarJ Bef ulii?!', un f he Ittli tif MurL^h, iu Lin TStTi ;v«r, ihuSiKii^ty 
hM 1o«l ODO of it» i>Mual JKtid ijJO«t ^listiiiguiahcd Folbwj, Ifo «■■ 
ono of II10 cri^innl mcitibom, of v^lKjm n<:iirccly tvFonty now rcioaiii. 

wbo joiut'd it on i\it foiniulioii in iS'AKt. 

of Geography, a« well 114 An [hcc^0DJ])lij<lLcd in&itcr In tbo kiiidiod 
«c)CDCo of llydrojpiphy. Ho wq* umotktinlLy a worker, A jitixiDAt 
<if iHuenofl fnjTn hiH tioybooi)» bti huB luft bin murk oti mu-riy hnmebc4i 
of iti aiiiS bU \vcjr1i:!f vtlll loiijf xui'vivu UiiU' Uutiy vrbo havtt 
prcwdcd him, niiA noitm wbo *till lomftiu, bftvo owtd, >ri gn->t 
itn.Tmun.% li> 1x!h ummpli* and tnrtroctlon ii;u<,*h of llw oininoQi.M to 
^IlIcIj tliuy iLiay ljavi> ntUiriLsl in jiLiblfc lif<^. It ik, liDwevtrr, lu bin 
Krvidw M A ^cogrftpbcr &ud c^plortr tkit we ciou£d9 outbuIvm in 
tbin briof rocord. 

R« Hnt brought bitafldf iiitu |mb]io noticM wbcn ho iwikii wllh 
ItuticLt^ji UB a lAtsnUuiLui aiij tiurvL'yur on board tic Bhaapm, in lier 
roynjco 10 tbu Pacific and T)cbrii]>; Strriitd, lu ttua Toyago, wluok 
extended ovor nearly f^^ur yt^itr*, Lietjtuiini Bololwr took % 
ftulive and imporiiLnt jitiTl, 

In ibe couiiruTulivuly impt-rfeoUy knuwn conditioo of tlio 
tki xh\t- p<?Hod, tho Uiiliep) jf u burv^yuig chip wuro cbiu^y odoSa 

OhUmrt/.Sir K Brkher. 


ur itUndrf w^ich war* r«IJon in witb, iimkiri|i^ mich ounoiry ux&mi- 
attioiis and B^trv«j« «■ timet woaM mlmlr. nf^ ^nd expun^nfc Trmn 
^ehttl* Maoj' trupi>ocie<i dwigcni mlikh iho imwutflinlioa of loDgi- 
tEiflij hud T(rp(«Uil ill Kvcr&l pcbitions, and which proved ft ecurto 
yf ifliialy nn^ jwTrpl«»itj to Iha ordimrj navigi^ioT-, 

la lKh wnjr tLo /lit«»?*i, ToatIei^ iIjo cofiAt uf America, viulrd tfio 

£^iBf,DiicI«,ji&d rLU-^ini ]»)nji«lfr, Ihc Intict col«lini4cd in conncclictfi 

^lhllw&it;linvof Uici/ovnf^; shci thciict; proceeded to lhflQ&mbl«r 

f^p, wliiiili worn surveyed hi conAlilenble ileUil ; Mi1»f4jiiont!y, 

to lunuy ol llt9 bv covaI iaLc4 of ToT jiwmU, vhm MVcraL n«w oncji 


fQ|[inihllQ6,ii1i«T9ftchf<3TQbiti, tUu[tTincifmlortb«8ocrI>>tyOrnttp. 

A^ remainliig n fi^w weeks Tioie, blIiv milled for B*?bniig StiKlU, 

l^tbo Stbdwioh InU4 tnd KttnitchHiki^ q portjon of Iwr captikiit'« 

imtnictkdu h^s'm^ Unil bUu vlioulJ puw tho MMtDcm of l^^^-S? m 

lUs ivgion m oidc^r to cooperaw wiiU Parry and FrJiuWlin. thon 

•sptoriag tJie Arclio Sraut, in m^ij fftlhur of tlieia should smwccei id 

•OGOBpluLiiif; tlio NoTih-W^a Paoueo. In July 182-!. tho »Uip 

nsKJud Koixolue Sound, whvn, witli thu a^fiitftHiicu of hc>r il&<jkv(l 

IxnttAwaTTcj of llt«oc««t Id iho Nurtli was '^tmrnoniwil, tho «bip 

IktrcIT rcadiioK » point vrLicb wui? namud Cupv T'liinlLljn h\ Tl^ T' 

V* loUlo^ bed licT bfirjce a f onitiQn couftidcrably further advaiiovd. 

FoiUil In tlicilr cipftfi'utioti yf mculitg ll'mnVlfi/* kriJ finrly. »1- 

llion^li iliv 1)oat Ifwl reuHieil wltMri 120 i)iile?< <»r ^if^ rartWt 

wwtem fHuitivu, iho i^J^^vvvi quilUd Bohn'ng Straiu m iho nitdjlo 

c»f Oolob«r, ftud rclirniod to rvkamo hor ■urvi^yittg dutk'£ iu tliQ 

Faeifio, aulil tlio timi? kIiouIi] ugbiii Imvtt conit^ rcji;iii1 Ut a *^*vciud 

AUi]|Qp4, During Lbiit Bm:oiid sLi^f; uf tho iru}i^o, tiuu FtaiiclACO, 

tlutfi nikdcr tho .Mo^icAD 6itfi:, wv viiitod and anrvcyod. From 

tbtooe Xhti ship prao««d«d af^uii to the SamlwioL fol^, »e!iioh{ii^ 

unmcotiufTdly furvArionM Ti.'|K^tti-i1 fftbiid^cjii tbuiMute, mid urrEwd 

at noDolulu Lu J&nuiiry 1827. E^ily in Marcli ato bono nway 

ACTQNi Uw P«oifiQ For Cbina, rectifying tlio poiitiona of nioh isUndn 

■a lay tttur bor c<jtmo. ^Iji^oo u'tm rou.i?hcMl :it A|.-ri[. Tltu 1'Uo 

Clmo Uks Hen? Hubp4-r^iieti[.|y virdt^d. uud eoiuu WDT<ka wtcv (juBhtvi 

ta nakia^ audk ulrH-^rvatiutid acid exaniirLnticms u woro paniblo in 

ttu liUlo-kniOini loc&lity, TOiMing Lhwco noHhward to Knintcli allelic 

K^rtaalxM Sotmd wtua agnin rcj^chr^d tin tbu ,^tii of Aii^n^t^ 1827. 

H«r» tlie dici^kcd Icnl wast pitipaivd for a m-ouLd vuyd^Q of cx- 

|4of»iic>L toUi^ NortL, and undor LiuuktiiubC JicJahor'a CL^Diniauil 

oxsxvjii Sir KcTnOECPOTlD Alcoce'j Addrvu* 

tfxariijudd tho «oiUit from Oliaiuieso Islftiitj to a podtion bejcmi! loy 
CbjiOp ft <)ipfiiiic« of bt^tween 300 And My(\ tnU™. Ou lila ratuni to 
Rofv^lnirr SciiinU, fifter ejtfKiiitTiiHng mnuj' liflkfl. Lift littlo vcvet 
wifl drivon on rhx^ie in a (tnJo of wiod> auatl tctolly ^rr«ke<l iMi 
CL^uiiiuo XUuid, ttira*>of hercmw b«iDg dro«pTwid. TIil* W^^$tm 
atrvi finatlv fjiiilUul IMHii}; SlrAitjt. »lt hojw of ullaiEiiDf ^ prilk' 
Cifoi] objptrt of licr inieiBiein. \iz. tho mcctia^ v^lii Frwiklui, being 
at Ml wad, AlliiT lovjoiting Calit'omiib and other purU tm th« 
Atncirican coMt, oho miinded Capn Hon), jaid returutMl to EngUtul 
inOutoW 182i<- 

l/icGiciiant ijclobcr hftriiiR boeu promotixl to tho mnk of Com* 
Tnnni^or in l&iy. wii* iii ISJU appoint*^ t> tho command of (hi- 
A'Uuii^ c'mjjl{)yi*<l ii] kiii'thj^h^ tho Wt^t Conut of Atnci ntti p^rtn 
yfllic MtMliLcniincAzi. Onot^f tho priuo]|uU fofttnroAcf h» Alricaa 
vFork wax tlko oioEso (unraiuEilioA of tho dftDgorniM alioalfi wbir-h «t- 
l(iBLil»iiin«T4t miWolTtho coamL in lhirnig1ilM>i]rhcud uf Kiif (IrHiidp. 
soiiUa of tlko GiunlAJt. Tb\« he effccUic] by coti^utg olT ft flo&tin|p 
triftngiiUiiuTi t>7 mcaw cf hie »bip, tlto Sawi toador, twodficlced 
boTf^ard loT^beftooo hnoy«,ft11of wlijctwi»TtinioaT«l iapoidtloB. 
umI llnm ftmird Hxnl ohjdfitu fmtn which tti vurrvctly deteaoiiw 
tim ptwitioi] of the fthoftK ihnd to orty out tho neceettuy MiuidnigCt 
Thoviolent >tnrf OQ tliTM i>art of tho Afrjou ooft8M9g«tl)0t vritk tbo 
hiihlilSly of tlio TuitivD tribvH, niDd«rod niirv^yitig not n litUv liariMi 
]]j(;iiAWulI lu hikKTLrduiui. Jiwha in thiH noij^hbaurht^ndtbnt OftpUin 
bk^riin;; «uli9oquoQt]y full a victim tu tho troochvry of the ii«tiTt«L 

Tho JKtmt wn*i onl0r«d to pun iho wiTii4.«r (if ISJti vilhin l1^ bar 
(if lh<T lli^nm HJvnr^ fttt thd pn>tjtrrion oritntUh intcmrifldnntigthB 
otnaslu between the p^ctiM of Duuih ]'ei3ro And Mi^net. Ueie 
CapUin Jfcloher loat no tipponvnity cf duitin^tirjuiig hiuuotf ; on 
ctkv ocoodoa bo opened a oc<iuriiiiimutW with iLv J^ig^flit^iB, bj 
whii-h iht> mcTcbftDtA liuiUti uud Thu nrjuadrun ont«ide wen; onftbleJ 
to <»i*tiun froph suppUoa, The J^lna*4 crew, morcoYcr, hftbitntUj 
miLimod Uio Bar boat vhii^b kopt up oommumoiitioa with tbo 
iV))L»f1r'iTi» iiTid whiUr L*xp<^«*Hl to thu dongor of tb<i Mirf tn<TottiMg 
lhi> Bai- iu luugh wmlUui', nut iuiin.-(iut-fjlly Ikcuaio a taivol far 
both tho ccDtending pjutie«- fioiug i:iu tho ftpot myMjIf u ondOT, 
the bcnogod, i can War pcmooal teatini<jny to the exoelbnt 
Mirvioo miitcTBd by (^pt«ia Bolehor and Uta tTVW duriog 
Iryiug peiioL 

On the miriug of Ihu idu^ a£ Opc>rto. Iho ^ina wont Tip 
UtdiWn'AQouitttud oiuoii^ oth«<r EMrvtutw Uiorv thoroogMy etrniaJurfj 

O^iuary.^Sir £\ ffelcJur. 


tlw Skciki Rodcn. MlUing Uio qaestion tJiftt tber^ ttm oaae, and not 
two. u hod bwo rttpcfrtAl, 

Ou tliL< piyii^-aff of th<i j^nii In ]>4«'^.^, (^jipfAiti UnUihi^r won 
ODpU>7e3 for SD»6 time on the miivry of the orMats cf tbo UciCc^l 
Kicgdam, prHncipiklljr iu tLf> InBh ChanaoL 

Wn next find biiu in cotnimoMl of A Sarv^fng RrpedttiDn, com- 
po«C<1 of Uie AiJf Aur ;uid SttttUn^, in the PnciJI& In lliis rojr^gvv 
liktt thoi of tli« .fifoMcm. it iru not contemplated that anj v^^/ 
««1en«T« ■ uT TO ^ - in g crpftrntiorw of a erTififciniTc* olivactfT cOTild bo 
rarrivd ont : nuitbur tia^ mutK nor ipJck of tiu; IWifid w^n: jTflt ripn 
for sijcb (>p«T9tioDa ; tlio gnat lAod^aurlci of tho picture, so 1i> 
f:p«*k, luid to bo tiiral J Mtebllnliod IWoro (ho doliuU oculil t>t< iilloil 
iv^ »pi) Hu til* voyitgA in qttos^riti wan jtrineipallx nr<-upocd in 
OftiTjing ulironomotnoiit «Iimtaui:ui tniwiMTU «Ii)d4int point*, &n4 
mMkiBjc vich uciiral^ vnrroyii oa time woiilit permit ortra m-m 
ftp IcH Hutiti^ tkTiiti in tho naif^libriiiTlLood oi ilif<ti^ principal nlftcioti*, 
TboA Hi Tniiaina, w}|[^m Cupmin llL?lc<)i[rr ajHtinirfl thn Donitnund uf 
iLo Bjcpcditian in JoJiunr/ lff37, a ourvoj vi-od uiado uf its luj und 
ii<i^9b4'UTLo<>], wL«» tlio two tmmJb ioiincdintcly proooodod t<> 
Sui BU* ill M^tii^f\ nmrly SCvQO milcM distant, itxnminicjc '^ '^^^ 
tho fniM of Itcalcjo and LiborUid ; tbcy tlion nln:rr.1i«vl OLitihu 
UiO FiCsEc to tUe 8ondwjcli lako, lL ftirttar dinUDcxi of nearly 
3V00 ttiJk«. In tliia mn CUrion I^Luid war vi«ited, nnd a oliuator 
of Mnnds trliich lifid biwn ivportftd lin1iTfl(^n ttio mmdijuiii of 130' 
uu] lOr;"^ IV. pmi\d not To vxiat. Uiq aniu wluoh hud been UDAm<y 
ow gft dly BOftrobcd for by thi; /"oitfc^m. 

Oe» tho 23rd of July tbo Ablpt «niTpd from iTi^ Sitnilwich T*1oit 
for i\\m Xi>iih, and n^i^hiil Vt'V% Kt~iboH« in Kiii); Willinm Sctiirul, 
lal. 60^ 30' K,, I^JiTihTd* tlic end <.T Aug^ixt. Tl)t< ptinciprkl objoot of 
tku> enuM Wfta to svttlo tbo diitoropandai: bvlwotm tho I<>iigitudo« 
of Coirk Mid Vftin^juvrt; and ti» dtrtiTi'iuinu tbt- pujiitiou /tinl Iieiglit 
«f ibtt groat f<nturc m tbo coAAt-raiigu uf Nuill^Wc«t AmcriOAt 
Uovnl fid HIjam. Tbo nooMb&ry fcniT^rya bavin^ lx>i>n complolod fivi' 
tho vooocnpliubmftnt of tbo»c^ objVtrtii, tlio Itumiin SHllom^iiL of 
fiitkawan nnxt Yiniied ; luid, ni'li^r udliiij; ut Noutk« 8uurid, in V&n' 
coiT«r Isbuid, to de1onniD« tLi; Iongitnd4>, tho «ktp« pi^ooccded to 
Son Fnuidi«o in Colifomia, vbiefa th«x rooobod on th4> lUth of 
(Vfjib(?r. Thiring tht^lt stay i\u\ret of nbonr. x nmnth, tlm Rtvnr 
Sftcnuucnto mui turvoycHl f<irad]«Uuooi;<r 150 tuil^.-ti ftvcn tbo nliipii* 
oacbfjrnge. Leuvinf; Sim Fnuicit>?^ the oud of Norombfrr, nml 
OJUUBJixiiig mtohlI poiliuu^ of ibo oout and inlands ndjacaiit, San 


8ar KuTHBPFoaD AlcookV Address, 

Ttliut viui agAirt reaobcil on thd 20Lb of December, 1fti17> The next 
iiuixatiiJit »tHg« on iJitt vojHj;« was CftJloo, whoro tbc Stitp^r 
amv«d in Juno 18^8. haviug iu tbo mo&n time riaitixL nud finr- 
vnj-e^l Acflptilots Iho GnJf of I'api^caj-o, Port Cnlebia, and Oxcm 

Artcr a. :cfit aI C^U&u, Uio CuaaI of ?crn w« •urr<»yod fw otoat 
60 miloA tg the Houth, wlicn tho nhipfi n^ain prc>oo«dixl nortb, uid, 
.iftcr Aeciiring obii«rviLtkiDB txX Payta, >Tid lOiikiiig eome ciciunltui* 
tionn iJi tb^ Quirof Guji^-ur[iiil, t1it>y iirr]v«il ht PfttLtLUJA in OctoboTi 
wJi«n} tho finit «tA^o of tho vnyft^u m&y bo wd to Lavo ended. 

Ity the ond of Uarch ISUtt, nuiAoyc woro oijmplol«<i of iba «Z- 
lonaivft Outfit of KonH»cn n.iid Nlcioyn in Cunlral ATuvri<«, u Wi^l m 
□r Tuelilu Nuevo anil B&ia nunda. ufLer whldi tite Saudvrich I«}m 
wore Jigftin vjtit<;d, wA tttou tho sLiptt inovod noTllicrly, repOAtatt^ 
to ft gront extent, tho cruied of Itil^T, verifying observations than 
i>liUiin4)d, jlhiI juMlu^ ta ilio wt^rk Tjy new FiurveyH. Hj Soptonlxira 
tho Bat and enlrauce <jf lie CultiiubEn Hiver Imd been »urr^rcd, 
and m raconn<jbeauao of Iho rivov mndo na high as Tort VlotoriA, th* 
chitif trudhig port of tlm IfiidHm** Rnv' Compmiy. ATc^r leaving 
tlio CuluLubia. lb? nbi[iK i^nHLwdwl io Sun Frandbco, and fnto 
thcnco oxftiniui.'d llio QobA of Cidifoinia, And snrvcvod iu 
[xirtA OH far lontj^ a> Capiiv St. LucOii, ih? entranc*o of tbo gnat 
At San BUn, wfatub wuk ivnuhcd in Dtto«uib«r lASf), ord«ia vrvftt 
Tocctvod tj rulmii 4u Eni^liuid by th« wt«lera rontc, thun oniik- 
plQtini; iha xavn^^^ by « ehcnmnavigAtion of tho globe, 

AcuLirdingly. on tho Int of J ah nary, l&iQ. tbu two veiiBvlA mrt bjI 
once mure liortraa tbv PiieiCo. Tba ulunibf lif Siwurm tuid Claiioo 
woi'o vitaUdt utid tboir puaitlona dtkrmiuL-d. I'bu Miin]iie«k« 
l«kndu were ivochod 1)^0 mulo n:oiilh, and Ibgn Ihoy p««4od OD 
to Bow laUilcl, a c<4jra] foriu^riou in tbu IngDuii* wLvi^ nil wettkv 
woro a^bni in tba opunition uf builni^ fur t^o vulcanic fonuatioo W 
whii^h ^li'-Jio i»dand« woro aitnpcritod to T<^^t> ?:^ub»o<jiii:ntly Tnhtli, 
and otlc^r of !lio Sudety IslnudB;^ woro vu:tod, and in ^tocennou 
Llio Frjinidly Group, the FijiH, N«w Htbridua, Now ii-trlnnd, and 
Now Uninfj^; at a[] <ff which obMtvatiotia woro made, end aucb 
■m-vcyii (w timo would Admit of. 

Tliu BihipK Ihon pii-aiml tlnuiigli Dampivr ^tiutt, cullrfd at Gitolo, 
Amboynn, Mwai»ui'. cind tuacUed Singapore in OcEobor of iho 
enino yciir< B4V(< OiptAin Llolchur loiiud ordorit toprooad ioun*- 
dintoly to Cbinu, mid for more than a year tho Sutphur and Starliuff 
tixdc un autixe port in tlitt hwLiliLiui with thaL uuunUy, making 


Olnimrif.^Sir £. BfUher. 


fooh SDTTOji AS wtJTC CMMmtifll 1o ^nnblci tbo flcoU ftiict th« hud 

Cbran In ui*t with Uie tt»t offritrt. utiil whititi tcnJfd timturiAlly to 
tlio <a[>itutitioD uf Cruifon,iinil tho ifuocc«fnl uhuiO of the campai^. 
Th« Sofj^Wr dno]!)- nirire^ in EngUi^il in July \M% >ftat % 
TOjB^ fixtMiding OTor liMlfi iliort of sovm yrara, Tor thnno 
tfcrrkcs Coaunutdcr Bcklicr jettircd Iiia pcnt-ratii;, woa numlHuted 
» Compttaloti of tho Bntli, and eliorlly Aitorwartix riii^ivcd ibu 
koocmr of KnighiKood- 

On tlio urrirlusiuf] uf ]iettuc? vrltli Clnnii, mhklt rcillowcd >3i<j)'t1y 
liflcT lb© SmiflMf't r«tum. it ww ^l^^cido(l t> commcuco a r<?gttUr 
«irT#y of tha OOUtfl, ports, fliid riT«r>, nnrth of CjLiit'>n ; MtiJ 
5^4rrnijFp a 2G-gnn frigttt*, wn* ])rpparci1 for ihis i*n'T<^>. J^ir 
Edwasd Be1i:3iet twing uiipointcd to tbn cumtnuid nf l^or in 
KovemW 194:^ Pt/1iti«cO oonBitUrnlt^w, h"wuTer. led to iL« Su^ma* 
rM^« >]>h&r» of acticoi bvmgKhiftvd to Bomcoacd 1b»n«tghboiiriii^ 
■Jaadii oT U10 Euitrm Artilnpukgu iiuitL to JjLpnt) — n uii fRoicnitly 
wido ItEcvt. cmbncing «a it did Homo 40 dft^rw of Intitnilc. 

TKd voMol ToaiCli«d hor «tAtion ia tho middle of tKi:i. und im- 
ni«diftt«Jy oommonood hur worlc iit fbi-* Sunwalc on tho w^s'- Hi4i» 
of Bomeix Her** ulio had tfo tuiHiorturitj tj giounJ tii a rvi:f. full 
over, tad aink iu thtf rivor; but by Iho iihtll and t-nergy oi bci- 
coptuift wii» niwid d^Din, aixd, with tlta lo>a of Iom thni^ a monthv 
time; imwMided ua bur tiiinioii, vix, tlu^ uxhniinitlion nf tb« ttail^^r* 
liilaiidi. tbo Hajico Sima i;rou]i out of Furmojtfk, Liixon. Mindora, 
uid Miivdiinaa of iho Philippino^; tho StUn IaI««, UvlobcH, bud 

At Iho oani'liinioii nf tljift fbogo of tha voy/igv, 8!r Eilviird 
BcMor bnviDg bf^cIl »^vorcly woundL^d in & boat «'nconnt;^r with 
Itw piriitic:^! pralilu cif GiloW, Tbo ehip retiimipd ti) i^]ngn|K>ri.', and 
*.fl/?r ft fthort ri»*t tbeti' rofniiiinl Let uiopUijmi'nt, rfTvinitinj; hoiiin 
rf iwr foTOcrtftatioutt, ox&miiiJiij; p1^^tion» of Looclnjix tto laland cf 
l)itolpv% Ui* KOMftii AtvHii'olflj;o, nnd Japftn ; frh<? n^furmtd lUunoo 
to ll>» UittdotM nnd Suln Snw. nnd conrfiid«J \\vr luboiim by mr- 
TejiBg ibo Dnrth'Vrwl co*urt of Bornto, frtiio tie island oF llihut< 
hmjiin, IB the Stnil of lUUW, to r^abiiun. Ibon jii*t l^ccoiuu a 
Brittah ponomion. Tho Samartmg was now ordcrod lionio, and 
mchrd F!nglAnd nn Ihc )4it duy uf 1317. 

Sir Edward ItolcLor'd next eiai>loyinriit nfloat vu in ooniiunnd uf 
«iQxp«dtlioQ titdio ATOticSfTdRinfcntchcf tho tRijiHingfbiimitiHtor 
birJ4^n Franklin. Thm flxprdiriijn^ poiihiisling of live \r>«>1s, Uit 
Sn^iutd lit Ai>ril lArj2, and on urrivul at Bwcboy ledand, in B«rjvw 


Sir KcraBiiroBD Axcoobl'* 

dtiitlt. A'JLfi vepuvtod into two diviflioDBk tb« quo pvoodfiding iiMl ; 
wnnl to MoUillo l»lftiid, vrUik £iir i^dword iJnuulf, n-ilb Lv*o bhi]>«^ 
OKftiidwl tlu> Wollii^gton CIil&uvI, und wiuturdj &t iU h»^ bi ^4 
inUt wtiit^b liu tiju»i^ NuHliuinWrlitiid 8uuiic1, m Ut. i€^ ^2 ». 
lu tbc tpriiig vr ldO:i ho pcmotiuUy cxpltjrod by plcd^otf W ibQ 
north, ditioovttrod and pvoiiUl]^ 4urv«yod North ComvRll 
77' SO' N., duid tho ftUttit wliiuh bvurs luv uamt* leading 
iutii JuuiH Suuud; v^Iiitu uLL«i' porlitvi Tium liifl bLipB diM^Vof*^' 
ttud <3i]>loTvd tht) uorlii ith{>LX>H of J^thuntt Ukud aiA MolviUo 
Ivtoftd; aod, crowing tho latlor, oomiDUo;Galcd wJiU the dlvi^ou 
uf tliu mpiJulroQ lEiidiT litM aecoudi CA^jlaiti Kt^lletl. A 
wii^ttr ^114 (lavicil ill Wvlljfi^toa ChaiiEioIt aud in tlio nntii 
13^4, Uicro Hoominji; n^ probability uf o^trlcutiut; Um frbi|3i^ 
llicni woro ulr4iul<Jii«d. the owwb roturabg civ*r tli© J<w U> Ikcoli^, 
-iKJaiid, wlituttu tliuy pivctwdod to Eiiglwidn Willi tliu \«j 
ulobvd ^ir Julw^rd llolchcr's ftctivo profouiotijvl cojocr; but ho 
(H>iiCijtuod to bo itTfilucd wijrkiug mu^mbur oi lUu und oihar kindr^il 
;:4(j4?iutioM. uttd biM uitUw »ud gifk^d luEiid wiui dtivott^ to iho |iuiwiit 
uud utiliivuii^u vf 4i;iuiUu uud kuuwJodgc up tc Uu> UtMt dajm of 

blH life. 

Ltird MiLJ'pn, — AmuupiL the F^lluwa uF nivits than LTdltuix 
dietin^i-iuu, r«iDOV«d by di^itlt dviriiig Ibo post your. 1 vOfEMfl U> hftv« 
tci t]ic:lmki tho oamo Lif V)8C0unl M^iltpn, who died in JunMry ImI, 
ut tlui early uffi of thirty-ci^ht. Lord Milton h»d Immo n trurdlur 
ftirm lijs yuiith up. rtnd, m apilc vf « doUcitto fi'4mo and frtfifuccil 
iUiic«i«, )i9 aiicooudij^l in 60coxapli«hin£ eu)i«taiktul ^ojpni^JuoU 
work uf ooukidisrnblv unpurtauiuo. Bin iiDi'vrtiiia health cnuipoUtd 
him lii mibk fn^U lifu iiiid vigour fnim timu to Umu iu •umn matia 
bnbciii^'iilimati;; und ftftvr nt^vurul juruncjii to Ibo Oontiaool, Aiul 
oao to IcoldQd ia mijl, ha croAtcd tho AtLmUo to XortJi AaMifiofei 
laid viKiii-Hl tliA rcgimm tii thi> went of tbn He'd Klvor iSQttlonitnt ia 
thu lliidwxi Bay Tcrritoridh Tho fuvoumtdo cflbut npcai hU hualik 
prvdiiL^^d liy tlic» iuvi^omtlug olimuto of tho Ifioit rUiii&, juid tko 
chiirm of tho wild lif<> tLor«, tnduoud l^urd ikjdtoii to return thaw 
thu fuUowiug y«ir, in ciiinpany with Dr. ClieiuJlo, wltli iho vi«w of 
miUUii^' a luoro cttct;flivo tujrh^jutiua uf [Jio Xoiti-Wrci T«rfllny. 
At tl*ftt tiiiio tho ^old-iikii^4« Ajt Cutibou, in British ColnmbiJ^ w»» 
uttruc-'Uiif; nntob uttontion. Mid tlio only prKctioublo r^kuto to t^n 
wu iho uitivtnuly uiicuil^mA one by Puiiuiui^) or the IhlUt len Jndl- 
Koot %.od iiLoro t«>iI^uiuo juurucy tbrou^li I'uitcd SluIco tuirituty by 

O^iitary^^I^d Miitm. 


Wtty of OJifianik. Ahbovfcb tbo rich mintikf: dijrtriotd oTBritudi 
GolumbiB Ik oJiumC la tha dirtct Imo ftcrcu tto oonttnDnt ihrtvngli 
Britutb Uirrilor^, lUo w#y vah Uutw! hy Ili9 ^uat cLuii; ut the 
Robk^ Houtlu^; iifid on Moh ndo of thd houd tan^ lay a wide 
ozteiBt ^ ntggod ouqiutj', covored vrith deim> foreHt, aud ifi grt^t 
[■It HjMiiiWed. IjOfd Milton and L'r. Cbeai^le di4;ariiiEikod Ui 
cui^ iha ntiampi to diAooror a ivuj tliroiifch iJiis difHcuU nnd 
tiftCklottn^Ou wfaJuli t^pq^ntt^^l tbo pUinn <if the tjtuikutchcwab 
from tli« fiuning distncu of British (^lumbin. imd Uiey ivt out on 
tba vxpodiliun in tUs xpriug uf 18fKl Xlm iiforjr uf UUh udveu- 
tUTOiu and IcniiKiiiio .ioumo>i fevAplucally roUtcd hy Lord Milton 
ftikd bii compa&inn in "Tli* ^onh'\VcD(t I'owitpi} by Land," is 
lirobiUT fumiliiir ta Tiunt uf i». PruviLlbd with very iiiiultquatu 
PMJuiocB fur Bucli u£i arjuoiu untlcTlakiiig. iLu ptiitv oiidan.Hl fre&i 
hnnUiipti arid privjilioos bofoTO thoy wcooodcd in forcing ihtit way 
by tbo Yolkjur Hoiid ur Lofttlier l^kiM. And thi;puf' b tbo Uo&co t':>L-wt 
of tbu Kiirtli TUtnuimoa Kivur, to lliti plumH ur Kauilocipi. Ttnd 
Lord Millon ctgoyed iho full vigour of JiculLb. hxn tJutcrpHfiiiit; 
vpirit wonJd LiiXii M fiim to f^vib/ta googTapUiiMl xcbOM^b. Bui 
thti notiwed circngth, which, in Biihoof lb hard«hip(^hoove^t1laT]y 
obtftuxd inj'Hi UiLA jciuTDuy, did uoi ctidiiro. After diu Upio uf n 
lew- yMn, bo w&a c«ii][^cUi-<d by ia^ouiitLf; illneiw To mi^ t)jv ^eiit 
in pArliuDOQt to wliich bo hud bi^aa olccicid uitor bin rolTiri^, A»d bti 
OBODinutu cmHutd tJiu AtUmir t^i NorUi A[iinH[:iK Thn liixt fnw 
joftn of bi« life be qwut diioHy ia the lii^blaudit ui Vii'gluia; 
»tunh)|: i4> Englaud, bowovur, abuTtly be&n) bi» Juatb tt tho 
ttmaonoeoi^rit vf lbt> i>r«4J)nt year, 

llw procli^ v^luLi iif !ji>rd kUillfru^s work Iiaa Imau wtill uliux^n 
by tolttoqucot evcrptB, Ilia Expeditiou wrvcd, porli^pn tuoio tbiui 
ftaythiof^olKe^lu tbraot |^iibl](jEitt<jutiiDn lo tbo imm«u£i>vHlcivcif tho 
Matb^rii |Wir|i*^n r.f f.hii TTndjirtii Voiy 'rorrSlnrii-a, und lo thu grvwt 
iBapiiTtiutCf cd i^t'kblUhiiL^ ri way i>f fioniitrimiiuitifiii bolwiuMi tlio 
latftem and wctftorn portiona uf britinh Nctrtti Amcrtva. TKid hiin 
bvtti followed by cb4» fttvjiiJhiiikin, by tbo DotnitiJOTi of Oaiiiidu, c^ 

tha IfttiljKia Itiy TrrriUiriiA ; utnl Miirn thiit W4a i-flr-jrbul, f^oiiijiltjlu 
>W«ys liftvc been carried out fifr ;i rood And railway aoi>JM tbu 
Koc^y UoQnt«iii« into Britiflb OoiumbjA. The«d %n»rlu buv^ in. 
d«»l.b«vii a^Tl»l1y oam]Donc<?d ; and ibd liiio (ihoHC^Q U frl^nriool 
«ilL tli&t fi^lfciwed by Lrird Milb>ii*ii Kxpfulitioii. Tbu ronio tn- 
Ttfbod by bi» fculy. ^ih •<> much toil and difficulty^ will bc]fL>io 
letg ouo|dvCc tbt» link vf oomwuatcucion ln^twei-ti tlte I'roi'itK:^^ of 


wuy tc/ the PaciSo through Brituili North AiufsricA. 

T^uis Awniim Iascas wn* tlie only inirvivitig km nf tha UU 
Mr. PhUip Litom, of Hatiobutcr, n j^uUonum wcti kauvm for hb 
lihf^rnL chariti^ei axid philAuthropy, Our doocaAod Affiocinto vu 
hoTii on tbo 22nd of Soptembor, ISil, bii3 at tlio timo of bU d<«lh 
wiifl only lwunlj*Cvw ywirs ofiigv. Ho viu cdumLtvt! At IJniviincljr 
0:»II(^ goLool, iiiOoworSti^ol, from ^vhidi 1;c pasaciL to Unirr?rut]r 
('ollfiffo, whnro ho nhowod a marknii tuflto for flcirnlifio niliJMte. 
!Io HlEtdicyl C'homiBtry uMtlor Ur. W illkiaiKon, nitil wan jin •pt «wl 
ubilfiil c^}i?riiii4»u!aliMU At « vory ctulj tigo lie ox|rrcwal « drauv 
tor n lifo of ndvcrittiro ; but M-^ [>nriM^tJ4 hj^trng d^stinod him br 
ooramorciol piir^iiitf, ho was urged Ut Ht him^lf for a bnaiDMs lfl«' 
lit M»n£jhr#itnr- HiW thimt for travH aiirl Kfiintvtiflr nnf nrpriw*, how* 
ever, provfiilcd ; and yn» incrMnod, lathcr than aUlcftd, by a trip 1o 
t^witKcrtund in If^TO, diinng which ho mndo nn timuiially npiH 
lUfdoril of Mont DUno^ Bnf^ro mcIIKti^ ^nvm fo hiiiEii«si. bo vuiM 
Iho Uiiitod Slntiv 1:1 1ST2 ^ and, iLftcr making tho onHnftry Umt 
through OonadA aiicl puri of tlio Eiutt^rn St^ltui, extended hU loar 
to tho " Far West,'" for lhi> purposo of H^^oitig thtf indiana irnd Hhoot- 
!ng 1iii1Tft1o«- By gffctd f*iTlimo )in mnt fif^Tirrfll MoCI^IIhti cu th# 
Pacific RailwAy, Vp-ho tntnt kindly (pivcf liim lettant of iQln>i!iict!on 
to II10 CoujmtuidanU cf tho rorf« iri tho Woat, and thoso offle«ra 
ftffordcil him tho opporrtiniticn ho required. H* *hot bull^to md 
ilitf^i iiL No1>rji«ka, grnxKlcd tlic Inilioii (^bicfs Ly hin tiickft of logipr* 
dciDaiD, in w'hJiIi h^ wipj u moat ekilfTil aiuafcur, urd tcttinicd tinum 
at tbo oud of I8T'i, iif[fir 11 most advcrLlunjtiH trip of four montht* 

Attljo fiommcucumcatcfthi? following yonrli^lijidthi? nriftforlunft 
to lc«r hii mrrivitii^ p4r«nt (hiA mottor), and Moa Aftor fell :nti> A 
delioato HtAtu cf heutth. for which ohan^ of uir and icono wvro 
on.Ter»i3. ITa nnlfic^tjul K^y^it ah Imn lipnlth rwutri^ mh\ vUHi:>3 at tbo 
«itd of 18T3. vrith A doctor u hiji GOtapanlon. H« did iiut on tlib 
occttaion thow aoy marked ftpinC of ^nloipriso ; bi* itftto of fae«l>li, 
and tTi4i ilom^tlr nfftifillrnii fri^m whlr^h ha T>ad srifTcrtd loi^orflvt 
pivoiinW llift df^iir** ii*y much nd venture- Ilowpvor, l|pt lln^rtiTiglily 
cuji>)-cd the Nilo ; and Kuat^n tifr, mt ho ofk-n ii tho oue, Cftat its 
/^iiniinir over him, And OH loAvirg Eg^'pl Lo do1<?rmiiiod, v^honcvm- 
ihn ftpportiiTiily iiffV-n^l, to irtnm unci neft nioTc of Uw country ojkd 
of 1I1C people, llin rotum to Knglnnd wju vlelayed by nu ntuioik of 



tfptxjiil fuTer. jiup[]i]Hi1 lo hnrn lnMin r^ngbt nt Nsplw, ilia huIhd' 

^uuni adoote of vrKidi k»tod fi>r m&ay lanittbii, during which t>in« 

b* drvotvd liiM«4f to lh« idiidy of noiciDaik H« oluilL^id Botanjr 

mtli ai^oifr. mtd nuido [Mnaidi^rahlo prop«vi in Utat ■nbjnat. Ha 

^ Kodied Cum]>4r*tjvo Aniili^niy, Zoolojcy, am] (itsiAo^y, uid 

fliiriag tiko whi>lv wmlor «bd fbJltfwing upriag lod ilm lite of ftn 

iitili^rijaH Btztrlant. F«*Ui^g DO w quail fl«d fi>r lh(t ^rcnt tn*k hf 

hU Mt Uiinn-ir in thn innnth nf Jtjiy 1J*7A. her «niioT]iiU'fl Uj lii» 

teiJj b» iulcutiutL to <loToi€i liiiu«?lf to A&inuk ftxplorftficm. tind 

^■Itfi hsd dotenainod b> Aituk out Uiv touroo ft&d llio ounnto of tbe 

Rnf* GutLgo. lIiA family iwvivnd thU intimulion with cliHmix/, 

fxlibi: BAWii lio wan uallttr^i bjr hi» youth Ami (xm^^tituiinu fuE 

«icluin*donA}titi^, Tho7«ddrc«Bod tiMiiuolvo« without dokj lo 

&r Hmry KftwU»i*ufi. oiir kto ProRidont, bAggiog him tu um hiN 

iiittinoo lo dotfT him Ctuui hj hA»rda«« «a oxfHaditioii ; but Sir 

lUftrr'^ o&do«vi;ttr« And Uio oJcjHa of ijtb«r inSitODtiAl frinnihi wtiro 

«l5ko nttvuliuf^- l!r. Lucai wai rMolvad to gcv ftnd orgmiU«d hiv 

£i|«dftiaD Inclvpondtintly of our ftoibty, Iln\*iTig lMM»tad ui- 

qoftiftlcd Ml iLv Qoj^tni'hkwl CongTvbB of T^xm id July 1876, 

*iUi Dr. Ivac^ti)(hi and Dr. Sohwoinfnith, ho oblA^nod vnliublo 

kdtka n^uding bia uqniptaunt And ronLtr from ihow trtt\«11ertf, 

II« Joft JjOiuluit un Uto 2ud of Sopt^mbor 187^, uiiil mwlv hU wny 

It CKLix>a wbot# ho rcvaoiaod Rorcral wcolo* loarmnx Ar*l>io, mi- 

p0a^ ■crrtnl*. uid nuLkin^* prc^snrotiucui for bis Exp^'Utiiji^. Ha 

«buiciid a AtiiiHii fh>iEi tlie KhisJivo, nfttrr n [lerw^unl luf^^rvivw. nt 

■IkkliftviraAEnoftt i^TMioiuly r«c«ivod. itiithoriiirLgbiralovQlifd niid 

IniftKidUn liar MOLirt: and from ftll quartern hu roouivcd iukmL- 

u» for lfa#k S**'^^ obJMTti \iv liKtl in vipw, H>i ti'4v»>l]»Mt by ^VHy fjf 

Socsa^imkim. lOid Barber to bharltiin, >vhuru hv ;irnvvd at the cud 

<f JaftUAry It<76- Ha ri^muinad for ntutrly throe m^nthtt In Kh»r- 

tm, ofgRRudtig bU l!jX[>i.H]itiu[]. nm) iimking prr|kir«iJonn fir ilin 

of DDvmJ. y OUY bo>oiL(l iLu Itmitti vt uivili^ittiuii. Dulnyn 

OOvurtttd i& oomi»niii<atiDK vilh C'olonvl Gordon, with wboau 

otily ecmld a iriivnlUr tiAocnd thfi Nile inro tho reiLtral 

AvriacwL All diiUcullin bnviug buau UTtrroome, iu Apiil Mf, 

ItttlJ I«ll KbttrtURi, «iid, Vkilh tlio UH-i^toncc of tho «lo«m-vvH9id 

^hy Colotkol GardoD, a«c«tidi>d the Whito Bivcr m far aa LArdo, 

vhvfv bn met Oolutinl Ciordou. It very noun b«('4iiui9 lipiuiiriiit thnt 

Mr: |]<cim'i Kxp^dilimi uiuld uoL «iioii^, Guluuf^l Gorduzi nbcjiviHl 

tt« ilud his^ucort wm too wonk anc4 too untniht worthy for htm tv 

ttniur* ta tb«f JujuthwiuO,«itberthruii|;U Albeit NyMitut ur through 



Sir Rttthbrford Aicock'* Mdnt*. 

RnoianyWn'ti rimrttTj. botwonn ttio Tjukiu VioWiria An4 Albert lO" 
^'vallgW1!!^ which jjUcjo Ur wuntctJ to make Uio tnie stAHia|C-pomtj 
f^r Lib [liDuov^rioe. Colonel Gordon puintod out Ut Uim Ihat if bol 
inrser^red in his Expoditton, vrith imch on ininiflliaiant «ioort, btt 
would be either in»s»Qn?d by hiaLilc ikuLLv«Ti.cir dnorlcd vr soul \»f 
hia own mou ; anil thai ho (Colunol Gordon) would not permit bin 
to go ou 1« oortuin dofttractioo- Kr. Lij(*« moirt nJnjiMlIy jkldod 
iu Umjiw arguumiitH, uud lati-r KubuiJUtfll luuitwdf «iin?(icfrvoilly to 
Colonel Gordott'e ju^vico. CoIjuoI tioxd«n*s mLvioq vai^if «t)U beat 
on A&iiWi axplontioA (ngainiit wbioh b« irtroiif;!}' diuua4ad lite 
bding uiilibl«d b/ luullh jiTtJ oui>HlituiioD), ti> rvfurn Id KlutrtQl 
Kill tl:tfno» p> ity way of Su«« to ZftnuW. thoro to onCAniBO lui 
Ripoditioni uiul mr^ko a frc«h ntort undor bottor %ii*pioo«, and in • 
]c«4 d«tit1ly uliT])ut». tu thoiM< 4K)vr<:(w when ha hoped to gAUi«^ Ikm^i 
[ftud h;jiiiuur. Mr. Liiceuii«vertbol«MAOOOiD|iftoi«iCo)one1GotilMiloi 
tbo Albert NyftTUEH, nrtd nuTigAicd tb« northom portion of tbo 
in tlio firat vUAoaboat ttvat Uuriolicd on iU wat4>rja. In Aogiul li 
Mr. r.iir^iLti t»m«d blft a(crp« noriliwAJtiii. iikltndinx in i^ny out Ui 
orticinAL Achotno of tbo explcimtion ot tbc Coo^o in tbo 
au|Ej^(»t«d by Co)on«] Gordon. Hi* h«tjlth bad «lT«adj nigti el , 
oonnldpraltly from fnvor, mml wben hn tnurhnd Khitrtiinij na 
4ih of ^ScpUuiber, hn wtA utkibUQ to wnik- l&docrl, tit m' 
irccka pruriwply h6 had bot^n othtriod on ftu ari)«tKrob bj h>N portcnbl 
During tbo mr>vilbs of S«plATn1x^r and Ootobar, Attack followed Al 
of fnvitr Ami dv)u>ntcry> Aiid. iittorly pi^ovtrmled bj tbvM Dli 
br ftt liuit wu fiompQlU-^d to givo up hinchonflbod voboono of AfnoMl 
oxpliDrDtiDii. lujd dot«nuin»d to Toiurn to Eiiglnnd- Tki« riMolvtioa] 
c«inft too Utn, On tbo 34itb of ilc!t<>hnr. ibon^h ilrmrlftilly 
hv w« unflfLficntly imptorcd in Btrenplh to hv mored fn?m 
tiini. IJo kft in ft dahabiuh «puoiulIy providod hy tba kii 
of fh« Kli«div4«. and nMclit<d Hvrbt^r on the 2nd of N'omnber. 
Ibeii, tMgfiT to rcAoh homo, bo|c^n tho d^iort jounto^ Ut 
wiiboitt waitrn}( to ro^niit bin vltvn^tb; ho crouNid tUodflMrt 
nix diiya, aud on the I8tb of November hft arn^cd at Suftkb 
\^bcTLbar i^xbunetivl bj tlj« f^tigno nf tbo jonrn^y, <fr aa a muU 
tbo di»«iuio. at f^unkim ho Jind on iiooocvion of illncwL Bo wa« 
An oxhaualvd ooTMJiiion piil on b<^Ard tho ^A< MamatMJk, bouid 
JeddiJi for 8u«a, and within twtilvo bourUt vix, oo tbo 2f>tb 
NoT««ubcr, b« died aaddonly. at tho onrly ago of tw«rQty-iW^ 
rcmiuoit wirTii Inndud al J^ldAh, aud iniuTred tn tho ^am^tory 
with TOUcli h(jno[ir arc) rmpocl. Ilia ainu wew noblii, hit 

Olntiuiry.—(hpi. J. K. Dn 



UI«iUe utd mo>t porMTcoitiit; bin MmsUfic qanlifi^alioa* wcro 
Mb«td»nU« i 1i« pouoaS«d gro^t wurmtb of heart attd mo«t p^cinl 
nAQitnni, «rb!rh friKlj>ar«»i Itltn to all wlin krt^w hlTn, hnt V lA^lre<t 
Uw ptiJBianl qualitiu ooooBaiy to t^njitUuto an Arricvui exjilorex. 

C^flKta JoBV Emriuk Davm, r.s.— Tim cudtlm At^%ih of Ihia 
IriAfV «k3 mIoqs oftcct h&s cftusod tW grcAtcttt griuf rnuun^t UU 
coBDcction* azid frictadii, rtmny of whooo, liko himMlf^ wove well 
biMfn In gvognk^hlf^al clroUN. 

n^Milvn;^ tLu b<jjvti.<6 ni 182d or 20, &uilaurT«d iu vHrjua8Mlii|» 
«n tbo 1'4«]fiQ uid WMt IndiA i:;taliouii. In \%^^ ho joined UMA. 
BiAd^. dtd«T tho latu Aidmlnl Fitirc*^. wUfcti mUpj Lo ttid to b» 
Ibo comiavDceiMirit of bittlilrtj-oiti jearh' ««rTi<« In tli^ MilontiAo 
bnttdb oTttiO Boyn] Na^j. WhiM in that »hip Ko WLBiEitod ia tfao 
nrvoy of the ocmU ol Chili uad Pnni. 

la t^39 hn w^# qf pnintcH^ »<(i(4ind m^^1«r of FT^M.S. TVrtcr, on thn 
SmLWti Gxpodition oonunftnJod bj tlio Uto Sir Jamoa C. ItoM, and 
tedo iht^ t<rfBf:t« to th» AaUrollo Togiott^ fulfilling tlw duti«ii 
<f mrroyoT u>d flrnaghimtnn to thri Dip4iditioTi. Qn hin ratum in 
1844 bevu pr^iaolcd, and ii|i|»iatc<l to Uiv aurrcy of tho Woat 
CoaM of Ireland, undt^r Oopfain G, A. Bedford (now Vico-Admiral) 
vWo b* Mrvod vtith gri**t Pivdit for ncArly l<>n yi;<ai^, pin-td iift(>r- 
tttnlii dm mirrny ofUiQ ^oulh fosmt of Kn^Uud ami tJmt of ihn 

In l>io <<fnng of I86*> lie ww dctnchod from hmno *onfi«> to 
tnaamfAny tho FfCt in bi^r Kx|)iyUticm tu diKcovrr tiditif^a nf Sir 
ioltti rnuilGlinV ahips, rQlurulDg to rurlloiid Eoada in NovqeuIkti- 
«f tho nnM j'Cftr, 8itico IhAt dato ho had boon cin|i|;jycd m h'avul 
Atitataiit in tholIydtograpliioOffiiMi of thi> Admimlly. During hit 
MTiftt ibero bi^ LHuiduutud a iwrlus of «xpvrltjje[it0 on tljHriiiutauUsni 
fivdoep-Mft pittpo«C8. which lt>ii t/j thcoo nnud ao miocfift'-fiilly in 
U.ILg. C^Unger in bor recent vojago of dincorory, and bo diivinod 
abo fnpirrreintTitA for hoiifidlag In ^ruJtt i^eptliH. 

H« wiA tho ir)T«:iitcrr of An improved AAtrcmomicrJ Mxleint, by 
vUeli, tbrough th^^ ndaptntion of o rulurumctur oiovotacut, a iwrica 
oTobtorvntiona olh ht^ tnndA wElliotit Ih^^ rrtv^vtdty of r^Rdirg-i>rrat 
ttfl thno of obacTTiug, and otbnr advnntagta. vvhicb mot Titb tijc 
tppro^oF the AAttcnoni«r R^ryuL He ulao oomplr^tud and pub- 
Sihod Aiiraith I'abW thiil hdd W«d commenced by tbd lai« StAlT- 
Oratinacder Bnrdwood, 

CapC&l& Dftria had onTy reUied ttom aotite tettioo about two 




Sir Rutherford Aloock*« Addrttt* 

uionthfl, having ecrvcd iu Hm Nftvy for iio«.r]y balf ft oontury. 
LAt[^rly ho Lad bc^n giving leotunui in vartona parte of England, 
oil Arctic EjqtloruHoiiA. dmi at lLi.« timirof hiK MuMen ^t^aXk waBoa- 
^a^ed to ^olivc^r one at Bnatol, for vrhicLi hv hod junt oompleUid 
dnwjugs and iliagrams^ 

WiLUAU BoLL-fcKUT, our latt> ^cial Aiucoiatov w&» bom id 11 
H,nf\ fit B.ii Bar}^ n^o imTi^rivl ItiIo Nci^rilifl^' piur^uiu. Ho 
^omc lime Chonucik] A^r^iHlAiit ti> Sir UuiDphry Dftvy, Mr. DisdJ* 
and Mr- £ unulfLy* bt tlkv Hoyol iuatLtnttao, and iDAd« ttomd orijcinft] 
dixt^jfcriuH in houE^ifi nvi*!. Put, uxvinj^ to tis fathor'd iffli«ticai of 
14irchLf>hh. and coDKeqnent inftliility in stt^nc] to lis firofm«^nii of 
medicine Ur, Ittiltoert wb* uunblc to oo&ti&Qo hin ooiuiocti'>n iritb 
t1ie Labor&tOT^' of ih« Rovtil liuititatton, And «M'i>|>t«d ui oflvr to 
g(> tr> r*ini AH ftfiuiyrr fln<l olipmiiit in tho »-in-v*iynf »rilT(*r mtrif*, 
Ilifi miliMiiiicnt (Kiccunta of tbo nilvor tninca of (lunEiUJAyA Ukd 
olhpr fnmouA mtnM of Iho Provinoo of Tanpacu. which bdtvD hoon 
ptililiahwl^ oonlAin muoh niaoful infiimmtion. 

WhiUt in WiTU, Mr. l^'jll/Miit iW'j(<m1 ji gja*i dwl ofhi* nttentitai 
to tLo ^Qo^r^phy. iCO'l^^y =^"^^ DAttiral Iiietor^ of the coimtry, and 
tVTUtOi iimiiy intOTf^fiting papon ou Thntn Allbjoolf, whioh b&vo Imw 
rftftd ami piihlUJicd Ij)' variuiiB SoiTlttiw. In 1827 tc m^idf^Bt ittm 
roquoAt of the IntcnJt'dtu CnwUllr* (^nftorivjtrdB PrMidcnt cf iVta), ft 
punroy uf tlio IVovInO'^ of Tarnpnca, and hi» " Ob9i>rv*at]oaH oa tbo 
O«0gnphy of SoitthDm Pom, including Snryey of th«i I'roviooft of 
TnmfiACii ni"l TtmUi tfii^liilu hy tliu C(i»iL oFUio Dwcrt of AtftniDn ** 
wera rvftd U^foro our Society in IS6I, Ho oJao publiaHcd nvoh 
UfelNil infornmtioQ rcg&rdinif ihv lutrntc' of «odii, nnd tho fonn&tion 
of ihn now Iwmoiti auid uiiiierali lu Pvru, Mr. HcillmTt wwi otio (^ 
iho first '* wLito" mm; who oiMsAcd t)io Dreort of AUcamft, oa;p1or-1 
ing th<* c<in"iry, nnd noarohiiij* for tho ruuteoric iron of AtAciftfnft. 

Kf^Tuming til Knj^1am].Mr.IV>llHi^rteiid*<uvuiire() to taakc amngft-l 
oicntn, niidcr tlio putmunKo of onr Society and of tlie GovcxrLmrnl,. 
to ux|>l>rfj iho Kii»t U*>ant of Afrioft from ZancibAr, Ut riiit 
K^A»a. and to aHOtfrfAln thn prnhnbilillfut of an Kxp«ditioii orM«i] 
tho Afi'icun Ci^nliuunt. li« vtaa, liowevor, uauhltf to gpt 
propoml« cniripd out. 

Id ia32-:i3 ho u(ii.v)mp»ni«d the Ute Sir John Millcy Dojl« 
FcFtu^l.ftTid tierved ah h vi>1iHiti:ror BiiHng IhiH tim» ha |j;ftt 
ths luat^rinln for hin publication on the ' W/irn of SucocMino 
PoHiigAl nnd 8pain from 1S26 IBiQ, oontftininf; an Aoc^ont of 

06ibtar^,— fFiUiam DoHaM. 


S*g* of Opono in 1t»3*i, and F?]itio«] and Mitibuy HenitnuKwooM.' 
Tor bU vtrvjcm hn Tw^MtA thit Wnr Medal, i^il wnn c^t^atAil n 
Kad^lit of tho Ordct of ihe Tovrni nixl Sward nf Ptulagiil, Ho votf 
nil»Dq«<mUy otigftged in WfliaUng tlie Uto Baron <lu Habcr in 
fiundA] tafttUtr* relating li> Bom OSiHoa snd lX>iu Migiiol, nnd 
noomd frou iLc hAod uf iXjin Mi^uol iho dooofiitiou i>r iLo Ordor 

On tb« abclintivD of I>um Mignri vid Dom CatIoh, Mr, ISolk«rt 
VMA to T«inui to fiiplrtr* ihn coimlry nii tn lU fltnmw fiir Kuro|H4ii 
VBpvtiuci, Abd d£ tl;Q Tw^iiQat of £LD,M. OtNiHul ftt GAlvcatun, Uo 
tuttiuod lliid mUrior uid ooft«ta, Aud mftdo K«poxU ibureoii, whioU 
■fra«i?nt to Uia Admirally, IIa aupplie-i nom** mtcreBtiTijf par*r« 
(D tba Inilifti] tribal uf T«x«d, vid uD tUo WUuiy nud uaLuntiliLtitory 
(f ibo Oattfttrjr, fbr ^ftriou^ tiodctiua ^cd piiblicMioba. But, owinjC 
to hU bvftltli being imp^r«d by jellow A.Dd intorntittoat Jovcrs, Lo 
nbffuud Ui Fbgtand. 

In 1843 Ur, Bollunt roccivt^d tlio Broujco ModAl of tlid Sijolutj' of 
irtofroca Uw huidit of the Prc»dcnt, tho UUf E'rinco Allioft, fur 
U* '* BMny on S»it, with ObmrrviktioiJic on Lho Origin of Ailt nnd 
&linc BodiW' Aiid giviiiL^ fiirilivr dutiuU of tL» uicxLnuMiblts 
fvntilicin of uLu<kto of (Loda ■^xioting iu I'om, nnd iQf>ra^tion 
otnr«rhijig A EibW lumvio ncjd mri|«ral. llo iLfturw&rdii r^lurnufl 
Iw r«fiL. Juul uiado Mime vnliiablu iuitiT]U&r]Eui ifciid clIuiL^lot^cnl 
PMVebcft iu N^w Gmiiikdn, t^ctiJLdor, Virxx, and Cbil«, nocoants of 
vUd^ wi(b lua ' UbrervntiouM on tho fru'lnuirial, JDCjmji and 
tfkw UuuameuUi of fVruvthn uutioui^/ witi«? ihiLIihIjuJ \)y Mvttint. 
TVtloier&Co- Sc^^nl intorf«tii^ pnp<rrn oa tlic gold ornniiicnto, 
pQfkvj, Joe,, duKKtvei^ by biiu in tlio nnuicnt ti*iuba of Ptini, vroro 
|nUbb(d t^ Ui^ ^>ocfAty L)f AntiqiiAiitu) in Li>D*lnn. SkTiil he pro* 
■n^ Up tbo BriUiih Munoum MT«rft] spccimoni, aiai>ngab t>tliois n 
tctiuc inwe tvpraccting tho bood of u <Jiuuc«o ICulor. 

Mr. BoIUmI wbs rcfqtTftited ti> exninlnd ihe ooftl inine« of Chilo, 
adlu K«|iorlNon tlm hnznti wcMt rciid in the Umvenpity of ^lUut^^o 
tt t^lo, nnd before lio KoytJ Gcci|;rupJuuaI bvt^icty in Loi^don. 
Nr tkin. nnd for Liu ni£vnToho» in Foiii, the Univeiuty of Suutiugo 
■hated Mm n mmspindhip M<inbrir. AfV^r remriining fiir botilo 
1^ £d Soath Amoricu, xiailing tho wbolo of the Wcat Coast, 
■nWDg tbo Andcn nud viHitii^^ tlu> AiK^nline li^publio, rarii^iiy, 
lii Ibo Bmiilfl, \tf ivtnmud to Knglftnd. 

A i0verT> illni^n Aud ruptutc^ of tUo lung* (luitij iuoftpujitutiid Uliu 
fiv nnj foHiict notiro Uf« ; lut up to tlio cicflo of kie ciir4>i>r ho tock 


Sir HvTQBIiVOnO Al.COGK*^ Aiidrett. 

t]]e grriidwt intnrrat in tho Sooietieiicif which ho wmt n Mi?fnlvc, and < 
ir\yia t:mc to tiruo pubUsheJ aocoiuita of Ha rwoarcliu* lor iho' 
Uoyal 0*>'JgrBp!jitvJ Jiociot^, tJio Ethdi^loglcuJ tiociuty, tli« SoJiioly 
of An1Iq(uu-t«M, tho Medjoo-Bouniciil 8o(!i<rt3;, tho Anthropnlojpoil 

SorJtly, ihft Socirity uf Liierjiturci, And fur Vftricjun iiubUoatioiuL 

ProfMnoT K. E. VOM BjiUt. — Tlui ctninont uvont, oqndLy 

of our Sociot^ u far back on mJS, ftbout ^vhic:^ titno ho 4oqmr«4 a 
high rvputjUJoii ft! u HL^ioiiliflu truvollar, hy hiM jiniriK.? Id Lhjil&nd 
ami Nuva ZL^(iib]u, vrLItU Uu uiiJuTtouk uui^vr Ui^ iiU»ijIoc« of tha 
Impcml Acttdomy of Soioooea of St- Potcrfttuijc- Hin fftmily oftuo. 
Qr^ujiJly froiu Hunovor ; iut ibt tho tlmo of 1ii> birth. En 1191, 
wen? wjUW jii EtithuniA, and it vvh« tiul uuiil 1834 L?i»t Vitii Baur<j 
tixJt ujk bin pormAUent residflncc in SL rciorsbiiin;. Ho Lft4 
t«oeivt.4- A modiodl eduM^tion, fir^t ftt IDorpat, und aft(<rtvnrdt it 
VJennth aiid ^Vurrliurg ; bit! hin tutuft indiitud bmi. an be |p«w Cci 
mnnlio^, Ig tlio study of Zoolog;^, and iu 1622 be wait ajj jKi'mtcd . 
Frofeseor of thnt floJcnoo at KtnugsbiTg, whoro ho ibnndod xh/t Wifw.^ 
^rietiofiZriologio:*! Mnwiim, TTis eminently native Tiiir*d pr«MTTtdi. 
him fmin a life of rontrAttcd «tudic» in a Mpn^ift] biniioh <'f tcieoooi , 
oikl he vru always tu tho furu tu uu cr^oDisM- or odmiDiatroknr itt 
all UiAt ootic^mnd tlw jnibjActii which hn ha<1 tttiidjt«J< t& 1h« 
Iui|iDrial Acadumy cif 8L P(ftoi>harg. ho flniL Mcrved M ^Hn^rilkif J 
&iid LibriiriajL; but hia ttclivlty wiu iif)<«r«rarEla dLvpl&yod IB ft] 
variety cf piitlic waya,— in ICiuGatioiuU f|Ti»Htign8, Univvncily ov^k- ' 
tiimitit)". Kinitiiry mattrn",un<t wiftirtli. HiKKxpi'ditifJij tnTjipUnd- 
ond NwA Ztujhla UkiIc pUc<t in IdDT. autl hti was Uu llnl ti> noksj 
Mtd brin^ home a ccHootioc of planU from thi> ULt«r xogicm, wb«n< 
bn Kpiant nix wivktf ill ciwidiiouH rflMia.rcb. In iho ynoiv 1851 fo 
lafid bo WUA viuplcjyr^d by tbi: Gfrvi:niiiibtil lU iutcnti^UE^ tbttl 
fijfliorii^ in tbo Yulf^ii and Cu^^ian. tho nxtull of which luisvioo itmJ 
IVlu ttuptirtaiit goographic^iU work in four vobimoH, with AUm^ P^^ 
\U)xi:i\ by bim nt St- IVlvrnbuig iu 19.'\7-9. On hiH rvlirwttHntJ 
fiuiu ili» Acudcuij iu 1601| bo w^ olcctt^ &n Iluiivrmy UttOibvtj 
Although Ibifi in not tba plaos lo ontor into d«tiuU Kg4>rding liU 
work HA u Biologist, his gre&t and Rpboiol nrrvicva to ftc»ii>0« kt iJ 
philoaophical thinker and worker In (bo ^iti^t aabj&olof cvoltitioti, 1 
muat bo montionod. In ooiLueotion with thui in»y b« dtod bid iia-j 

06tiu<try. — Van Uatr—'MurquU dtt Corr/jn^tt/'. <:U 

portAut work/ UfllHir E&tu'icki:diiiipigVflduu]iic»di9rTliiQn%' Au30B|f 
hm s«ognbf hic«l work* mvy bo dnumcrthUd bia Pj^pcr on 1h« d£K»A 
of IIm «aEtb't roUtion on tho «ro>ioA of rivor-ban):* — on inj^DiduM 
InfttW^ in vbicli the Luiid^incycjf rivi^rB ^i^Uklly lo hwimtu fmin a 

froTtd uul «xpUiocd— Aud tu« -w^jlL-lcDOwit 'Kupiadi-* Stndiea.' 
Co^^intly villi Cimiit vuti Il«lm«^nMr»> he hW «dit«(l Cut Inn^ 
xrioM of volumcfl oToTiKinJhl I^^civ on Uqau'Ui iicogmplij, eutidti^d 
*ltcfftriiflo znr K«mitiiiu ^t^t HTusiBch^n Utdcltod luid dor uugrain^ 
nukk iJludov Aftiirnv/ u ntjUI |iu1)liaiitkm vf gnnt viiluo Id i;ul>- 
(Apkicai utudiMiiA whlck exbcndod orer Uw yean Irom 1330 to 

Tha SUftqim rjK CoKrraiMnt.— TL1> mt^^rpiisitif; traT«]]or, w]i<.«o 

|nflMtuji> doftth at Cairo on tb^ 2Stb of Kcbruafy IcuU nt tlio Ofco 

oftLiH}- yMr«, exdt^d caTit^b public nifntDtinn nt Uie fifties wtui m 

FoUuw Lpf oiif Sgcio^, Laviug boua tlvoUid m ]87^> IlocummHuiwtl 

Jui career oa a tmvolUr by a tour, chiefly iimpircd by tbo kro of 

litvnturv amt tho oki>i9. in tb* SoMtb«vii Stutcfl ct Amorioa, 

^rllcnloily in Florliltk, of whii^h b« |Tu1}lwho«1 Mi ftiuumiig iii:i?:iitni 

la tko 'I'cTOr du Moudc/ It* 18T3, nctiiictod by the tlcairo of 

GcognpluoAt difcouvtjry, li^ unOvrtouk. with Kin ooUcngne, M. 

Uarclt^^ a niorA nnrton^ joitriK^y Ui ibo G^nh^it^n, and orgunUeil 

Uon AD £lx|JoditLon up tli^^ l£ivor Ogowi'-, which. Aouur^linj^ to tJiu 

nptaiot timdoj^ bui tialiv^jb, bud lU on^'in ic « laho m tho far 

istcnoj oC Aqnatoiiol AiTiou, IJic ui«aa« fbr tbis imfioHart 

jeunuiy werv ulTlaiiuul. M, tia Cmii^ii^giia BubM^qiient^y Kbitnl, kiy 

t3kQ sold of objuctt of KatiiVAl HUiory obUin«d by lataHoIf oiid Lis 

oi&fianioB' Arrivod at tbv Gabi>oD, thoy comiEionood tbclr honC'^ 

i»ni«y il£» tht>0|^u'L^ (>d t.1i>t Qih of jHTituiry 1974, and by the und 

d MuJcb ^ tlio fuini.' yvar !titd rtoobc^ tli« cuuilIi j' of llii.< uiuulbiil 

Oi^i^^k, atnbowbiob had not prcvioiiniy Ircfui Tihitod hj Kqropnuui, 

]|«i« at tba contlu«DV« of ihii Iviudo tkair party ^» attookod by 

ibk b<j«(iil« uid iiu[j1acftl»l« tiib^ and aftor ibff Iixa of many m«ri 

>Lt ih'^ Mlruf^gb) vhicb onniaod, thoy voro fmt^d lo Tctri>at« Tlio 

«Uvrviitiutifl mode during tiiu udvurituiouft vqiyu^* w^ro publinhcJ 

I7 U. d<L C'^nifil'^^ <in btti mtiim tn TiirLK, unfti-r tbe^ t)Ud of 

'L'Afi::|nG ^a*tomlo<— <Oabonai«, robouinpi, (lftlloi«; utOkanila,' 

lkuj;..>iii-iui, 0«yvU^" 1870. Abuul tboB*cuotiiiic>tiEi Bitpodilioii on' 

4Urg«r »o*l«, under tba IciidftriJiip fif M, dv JimtJ^ w** orgtntJMjd 

ib Toit^ fuf li^a uouliuuat^ja of tho lino of discoTwy opaneii iJ|i by 


Sit ItrraBBPORD Ai^ockV AJfinv, 

thin Antliufliw«ti(i ynmiff t.mvfllliir: Imt tliis imicti huiNiii-pJ st&kof 
Ilia liulth Ji'J oot ponnit Iiitn lo tak* part in it, and Kw ftceoptod 
Ih* cffur iriHdo to him l;r Dr. 8rhsvi mfurtlt nf Ihc fnmi nfifc^raurr 
to the 8noUt^ KLo^livmln Aa Giiygnyhiu, rvo(.-nlJ/ uiiU>klb1}ed In 
Odro, of wliioU Dr. 8cliweioftiT(lL irw tli^u Pro«id«iiit. 'Pbo 
diitioR <if thin po«ft1ion ho hftd AIM for about « ytmr, whtra b* 
diird, in coiu«<]iiQncQ of & wound r^coived in n dmi, on iIm 29tk 
t»f P*>bniary hnU 

^fov^iDVOR Fr«wi7»90O NllQl.*^1n tho niontli of MttToli liwvLdtrd 
nt Ronio ODO of oar Ho&onrj Oomvpondiii^ JloniW*, HDn»i|piof 
KnHJtxiwyi Nordi, for iiamo particiilarv of whono bio^^phj X MB 
JndvWil to hilt oM fttid intimal^^ frii^itdn HIh Exc»^11vnI7 ih^ 
Comiii«iidalurd CriHtororo Nvgri, ik\m un« of our JToiioniry Oor* 
TC«pondinic Morah<:TB^ und the die Tin gui shod Founder of Itio O^o- 
gr»phto«l SwiVlyof luly. Frano**t'0 Nunli wah bora «r a noble 
fiLmily ut Vttio'/ila, utmr O^nf^Haiu^ in tba pnivirice ^ TjwiNO, IB 
lUOe, Uo ont(?rod the occlcaiosticcd pffoTosBion, nnd ttwo dieiin- 
gaiflh«id bimHt'ir in JiU M»iilitfl by v<»iMAtiJilir of g^ninn mtttX a nic«t 
ndnntivn memory. During tb4> AuHlrinn dnmhiicin in YmiinliA nnd 
Lombordy, uiftnsr Itnlian ycntfen wcnl to atudy nt Vienna. Bfov- 
aignor NjLTclt lunonf^ tht^tn, ftnd K» wn« in the flupanor InAtitato of 
Thoology. fmijiijod by Josnph TI,, for tho tpitchmj; «f primofpU* 
nUkc uniform mid noblo in Ih^ mluuiLlon of ihu clor^, CriBtofnrro 
Nvgn WA« at tho uftmo time vittdying Iaw in Ibd Himi UiiW^iti^. 
A few yoftTH afUiTwnrdii bnth wcro nomjtintpd lo PrnrpHsomhlp« to 
Lho iTuivi«niity nf Tamils, — Nmrdi of OtJEnmon Lnw, mid Nvgii of 
Pcjiltioiil Scicmo^t Thej had lUroady botli of tli^xn etudioi Qeo* 
^ftpby at Vioniifl, and ccntiDiiod thair HtudiM at t^ndn^, aod both 
in Uim UHiluiml thuru un S(atititK-4. Tbu HuVDluliun uf IMS 
sopaiatod thcon, K«gri cauij^TiitiMl lo Tuiiu. Nardi rugiain*^ At 
l^mJna, whnQoo hf> r<rni(7Vod to Honi(> oh Auditor of thn Hota R<iroaiM 
fffr AuirtriA, Thnro Monjiigncir Nnrdi rnfld U* thp Aeoadomia Pon- 
lifioiji de' niiuvi Lifioei Hdvund gi^u^apldtrul papr^m crn iho African 
and Polar Exi^cdition^ And ci\ tht) Cmifto of t^io Chalintyer. Poll* 
ticH, howovor^ bad alrvady divnnod biiu from pon«ofMl and l^iM 
Mtiidi«t(, Ho wim onf* of tbi< mriit ind^^fnlfgablA. oam*Kt. and 
uvun Yiuleni deftMtdi^rB of Uio i-'adno df tho Popo ; Dinctar of iho 
■V«!W dolU VoritA' n#w*ipflp«r, and a fit-^ntfnt irav«ll«rto vwtrf 
pnit of Knpopo oTi Tnimkflii: imprwpd npon him or tindortakai) x*olnn- 
tarily. Thl* {tcncbidRd fiim froni thai rminunoe in goographical 


Olfitttary. —J^anii— Endtrly — Dliaiu. 


studm to which he might hdvn ȣpiroi^ trana hU genitu. hit cviliur^ 

Lta Ungiintiv ftLtttmrntmb^ untl his wldmpmTai ntiLtioiiii witli mvn 
of ic«nui)i|; to ovfiry i^mrl of £iitx>po Kod dtfowhortk. Fcr nfuij 
j««ra N&nii hud hc^n it motaber of numwnu si)i«Dtifl<r bo^iw, ftnd 

CDTOUJ, bttfing UooD ikuminat«4l " SvorrUry of tU« Oougttfga* 
KJOM d»i VoAoCft-j/' DA oQice whioh lutittlLy OpCCA Ui« Toud to tllAt 

If. m4jr ha uid iif N«nli thiit tir) ililTcrmDci.- in |H>1ttitu1 ainnhfTJM, 
eron ilio niort diAm^itrically oi:ipOBitQ. ctot inltirfprt^ with \n9 
*1IMJ0Vi uid uBi«4m r^r thoft« wboia ho lud onoa r*ckoDod iLmort^ 
hk old friMldiL 

Ckibus Evoxuer^ r.u,^— The kte Mr. ChmriM ICnddbjr wo8 th« 

vn of Mr. Sf^miiftl Knd^rh^, whorte iinnie waa fAiuilinr to nil ^^ru* 

Sittpbem Mme thirty vcai-a a|;o as the onteiptiniig tnci'chu&t wb^Mo 

vciHli^ COigtgMl in th« wLaIo fidhoiy of thd t^thom SvM, ULatIv 

■0 BQAfty iTJiiporUhnt d^voorehei^ in the AntArctio Ooenu, Aniong 

thctto diM»%vnu« wnN Ouit of tLo Aucldtnd leljiudji, »c)uUi of ^ow 

SMlvid, Bep>d« hf Capbiui Abnim Unatow in 1806, whilst i& com- 

Uftndof on#of tbik veaMln b«lnnging to (hn MititNn. Knrkrhy; nnd 

Mmio J«m After, Endorbj' Uaid, fiTttljtr to thu akL Out Uto 

AeoocAAtiv, VD vudWcdiiL^ to tho huflinoui with !ii« bTothor*, tuam- 

tsiiwd tb« r«piiUtion of tin houiu for ita ontight^bod caro of 

mntiflc iDlonMU; And it vtam iiiulcr hiK djru^ti'kii thul OttptAiii 

BiscOo dMOCYornlOrftWn L)!ind.Ai;d otlii^r puitionaof tlio Aiit«rctio 

OMttUMnti |irovioii« tj> tho voyojfo of ^ir JamoA Kow. Tho Anok- 

klbd iKUnchc wi.*re rv^ed to Momrx. Eiid«rby by Hvt M^tnfy'ii 

Go^eramvnl ua a ^vhuliiig bldtiuUi rvid fu IMf^ a wliAliiig e«lttbljith- 

Dlt«it WA^ foiiaoil ttii^rc nndrr th«ir aiiJ-picc^ ProvioiiM to thiti, 

kr, ChuloA Eudcrby pubtuhed a pamphlet on tho group^ undor 

the tfllo of *1'\m Ati^ltTid iKlntidN thi^iv CliniAt«>. Suil, und I'm* 

dnetiott*,' a work which ccmpHncA ocurly all that wn* k»own ^t 

te litno n^rdiiij^ tbu tvjjfloo. Mr. Kndurby icrvod on our Ooundl 

lolhi^ yttani 1^2^, And h|;«.in in \H4!^ diid 11447. Ifu dint on tho 

I1« of Auj^t iHHt. He wju i>uo of tbo oii^luat MaEnkti^ uf tho 

tbeibty, liATinic ontcroJ in iho yoar 18^0. 

Tho Bight Hon. SirDAVHt DfTNTAS.—Tbi* dittingnljihed TBW)-or, 
*ii»dl«i^ on the S1«t of Mnich lAPit« At hSii^ ri^idf^itL^e in thf T<>ijiple. 
tlvtyt took * dc«|> iatcroat in gcogrr^phicol studico. Ho waa for 


Bir Hu'raSroRD A teoo?" 

mskny ycox9 a Muiubci of l\i^ Cuuuuil of Uio TTuklujt Suct^tj* 
And wa« iuLtoJ-lj it« Trcndotit* Tho ddrnt eur\-n'mg ik^ of tia 
Ktu Mr. JninnB Diiud^ia. of Oohtt^vtyte, in Pi^thahirv, bg wiA 
bi-<ru ill ITfi'.^ Aiid vih^oHkil At Wf^^lEalikbCer 3(?iioijl uud Clui«t 
Cbuiuh, OxIbrU, where bo look hio degree at tlio ugo of twenty- 
<m«. lie viHg oAkU^d to tho lt«ir in 13^3, u&d luj^a Qu(>«o*8 OouiuaI 
in 18-10. in tha Ult<ir j«ar hit wjm da^^ted M«niboT uf PurluuuenL 
for SiLtLfirWdidLirc, and rcfJicacnicd th^t county Choaiiauoueily for 

tfi74S. Ho ^rnM Solicjlor-Gonor^l frcm ItMO to \M^.nMd Judgo- 
A4vu(Mto-GcuurK] fnnu 13-19 to 18:^2. Ho mim dcctud «> F^UoiW 
cf our !jooi«ty in 18j]. uul uorvcd on LhoCouuGil in ttoyoara 18^ 
ond 1864. 

CaptAln Stuitlt roiinnn, iun.^ The dcntk of thu odrcn- 
titrctUB ofTroer i^iid guriikl octeiiwiiru, aX thu compftntivL«ly t«rly d£b 
of forly-Bt'vi^n. wan ftOt an A>tMhma liwii liy tim numonnm circl* of 
fiicudi %vhr] K> HiKH/talucd bitn. lie waa a Mombor of our SocioQr 
Ainod IBtiO, u&d m l&SSaontributvd tin inturaitingfmpvr on a journey 
Itfl bud mudn tlin jirnv iviiih ymr n^iiii J ttic »<fi(>T(ffi i)f YoWcko Xiuy \n 
the lAland of Tvjwm— u pnpc-r wbJdi c^uiCtid an ijiiinjitiint dM^iiaom 
OD tho ocoadion of itn bci&i; read** oitd wa^ nftci^w-d^ piiblulicd in 
llie * Joui'D^)/ vol. XKivi. Cu]>tuiu Fi^rl^ea c^fiiiiieTicv]*! IiTm iivvfttf^ 
munrtl ciirci^r m a Mtdsbt^imKt^ iindur Sir tlvmujd ILitii^ on ih* 
Auiitr>Uuin Sutlon. Ho commttidctl a ^mbwLt ia the Bidtic duriof 
th6 Cnm^uu VV:kr, aad rbftvrwnT^H Hunt-i in tlio China War at 
lji«utt^tiaiit uomumndiiig the Al^erine. After tho coiicluvloii uf pcvioo 
vith Chiiin, bo hfld 0Ourccty rcucbcil huiTio wtioa tbo roxoaritablt 
€aiii[tiiign of GnHfaaldi in Sicily and Naplafi oictUid hui odvMLtuiMU 
ftud gtiiLtiiuuH a^'irlU iiud bo tlirow bim^vir with ardour uiU> tho 
daring opotatioiJi of thx^ r«voIutioiiiiTy cblufi Tlo pfirticjpalod ivi 
Ibo Gt«t DOtioa outnido Palunno, und wu tlio firet to etitor Xft|>)o«, 
anil lirhg 1j> Kih vhM Uiu Sntelli^-fuw llml th« Ifoyul InjUf^ liad 
OTACuatcd tho ciij. Tho^o dutaiK tbouglj tioL goo^iApbical, an» 
niM.'Ofliarj to rcpuai, iu order tu give an idea of tbo cbamotoi- and 
oar^ier uf The niur. KiJtrirnmg to bJrigknd, h« piiblTsbi-d an «ioeW 
1fijI (uxX'Uiit iif tlio GaTiltHlilifkii utkciipnii^ij in h ^olumu vfliii^li haii 
a conjiiderat>lo rudccm. lie aubM^nvntLy Tiidtod Iceland, Mid pab* 
luduM) an aoooiint of tin joumtjy ; afiur wh^ob bo ro-onten>d octiva 

'Prcioc^tiDpollbo Bayat Ucf«i«pliicidS«wtr,' wLa«p« Uft 

Mrvin aa GommanitAi- of tha Curtjue on thfr Rmr PlaUs r«tur»ins 
frocu ihla Cfuuw Jost m ljm» to nvi^tpt iJm rniiiiiuuid. under tlio Uu 
QipUin ±^tcT4rd UtWrn, of Cfno of the tohcU of tho KxpoililiOB 
Bqaipp^ for ihc i^rricc of tho limpoivr of CliiuA. During t^ 
Cml W^r in Anierioa Ld iHiumiarjdiHl u blijokiulu niti&t>r, arid pnp- 
foTBod vrgndcrfai fiaateof «kiU nx^d d*iuj|: In thu lutftrdous ocbool 
of v«tiiAa»hij>. Ttw> vrur ^tot, ho ODl«rod lht> tarrico of tbo tU-f&lttd 
UBUBiiTi«n )D M^Kioci; mid raturning to Euglnitd nfter tliv jwrild 
wdraffbrinsHof ihiftp«i]'od. ho«ctoff»ui tdOA,ciu«priv4to TMituiv 
«f'Jki« own to Coobia Cbin* uid Jopftn. Snbvoqncntly b« voa 
■Bgagvd In mf)irA>iH1« adveutnra fin O&lifumitt and NV^ailft, jLTVkl, 
Rbmiitis tn Ert^luid, di«d at liw n)«id«noe lu tho AlUuij, ou ili« 
I^lh of May, 137& 

fi«r J.W, KArB;F,K.a.— '!niw«iiiiii«iitc<iSa]&IiD UusIndiauBepnrt 
■wnt of our Gw«nin;eut wa^ bom in 1S14, Ibc leooad ton of Mr, 
CWUi K*yi>, foiraorly So^Jator to Uio Unul: of Englnrid. Hn wm 
«d«ciLt«lut Eton, wli(Tnr«hiTpi'(rt*tiJndlr>lLti llojul MililBryOtdlrgtt 
«t AdiliwxiiDbv, wUojf) Lo [uuwil tbioujfh ibo ntudiEM neoeaa^j to 
qnkU^ him for HiiliUr/ etrvico in Jndia, Ik' norvtd HuW-qui^Lly 
fur iMtn« yentn na nffit?rtr in tho Hcngal ArtiUoTjr ; bnl biR anilont 
bt« Cif litvrary pm^iuU led Uitu to rtiaisit bU ooinmbuion in ISil, 
Qui for wiuu yc4kr0 ho doroic^i biniKlf to litcrftturc. lu IS56 Lo 
entered tho hosxM Civil Scrvico of tho Kiut India Company, iind 
wiwu Uio £>Jvi'niuiout of Indiu wua LnfcimrvxrtJ to tbe Crtiwu, bu 
WM a|j|wLtJtcd tf^ Uto SocrvtoxyfJiip uf r^*> PobUcAl J>:(>fDtniiJML of 
tho Jndift (Mou, sucGociding in tbui pcit to Sir. Jobu Stuart MilL 
Tho TfApiuible ruatTtiunx i»r tliii of1!i*u lie fil1i<i] tvil.b mm^b oruclit, 
UAtil failing bittltb iJonipelW liJiu to ri»tij« ui 1374. IIq wub 
dtatod Knij^ht Commandar cf tbo Star of India in 1371, and 
elfvt^ a Fellow of tho Hoyil Sjuioly hi lSfl6. To tho fwuerul 
^tildjo bo «aa bvltur kuowu fur iiuuiuruub iui^uitaul limiano^l 
Ukd biofi^pbical vurlu relating to India whiclj tt^^vrud fjutti hi« 
foil, tlw iu<ii»t itnporUnt of wbbU were—" Tho Uiatory at Xho War 
m Afi^Mbihtan/ . ' 11i« lIlHWrj cf tlia AdiamiiitnLliim of Uw 
Em* India Cumpany/ 'Tii« Life> Mid CuiTti^poiidcnou of Lord 
UtfUwlft," A Uintory of tbo Indiau Mutiny,' 'TLc Lifo and Comj- 
ifnndHioa of Sir J^^hn Malcolm.' Ai^- lie was ^^IocI^mI a ItVllovr 
^«ui Sooicly iu Idfi:^, and died ou Uio 2diii of Julj )uL 

rrnffi— ir Wiijja.1I TTimira. — Wc hav7> ta regret Uie 1m, piucd 
Mr laat Obituary WAa wiittoQ. of tbi« looat induAtnona and leaiiied 

"VI JMi StmrorPonD Aucoce'* Ad^js, ^M 

Goograpbtr. wh^ 6i*^ o* tbo 21*t oF May, 1876, Ho wM for 
luftny j'oirni {^ix>r«t«or uf QflOfcTapliy itl Kla^a <]onvgo, ^xt^ rftKmlljr 
filled aUo iho poAt of Pi(ife4Bi>r of the vamo bnuaoh of kamiDK *t 
Qiiwu'iB ^^^(►.*^. To th* geucrtil publio ho wa* better knnwn sm 
thv auihitr uf riJTij'<ri)UB MhtdiuI^ on Iliu iiitbjocl wbtdi ho bmd 
Kn^o tboBtudy of liU Ufc^imd to tho compilntLCn md Mattinwi 
imp^'ovi>n:i4fiit of wbiofa, m bir-cvbivo cdilioDsi, ho dovctol M Um 
bvKt yt'tun nf hm bnril'ivr>rb:iug» vrt>)1-4p?nt lift?, Th4 amriiiDt of 
ro80Jirc1i nnd ptinAlftkiiig i«<|iiiied la tbo jirepaTctiOD of mtoh ■ 
'Work g» Jii« * Manual ci Griti^Ji Geography ' muBt h&TO bora truly 
prodigirn:!!. MauumIs coiupilvd with vo muob iiidtirtry «&d OOR* 
MtoutiuuAiiDiui iy>iiM mrt fful of Wing Apprvcittt^ by Iho publiOE 
they tkurcforo grailually toftdo their way into ei^mo of oiar bo«i 
public AehoolA, and new «dLtJuns weTx> rupoatwlly oallod Ibr^ npon 
(be Ivtl tjf whidj hn war wmldng at. '.'it* tim^ of hia dntth. ITin 
ibllowiug *ro tbo titleo of 6i>riio of ]u« chief wmkn : —^ Mnnodor'a 
TrwuraTy ofCoography;* 'Piinciplcd of Mntb^ioBUo&l Googf»plij' 
(184a): 'Manual <,t BiitL^b Ge^gmpby' (iH5l); ■ Mftntwtl of 
Enropi^ii QtogiapUy' (1851); ' Mjiitibil of Ooogrnphy, PbynicnL 
Industrinl, And Polidcal ' (166Q) ; * The 0€<.>gniphy of BritiBh ffi«- 
tnry" (ISfii^; 'TroftUao on the ronetnu'tion of M:ip»' (1^4)^ 
•Giifigrnphy b Kelalion fo nistory' (3870), Ao, 

The following Henihftra hav« be«n ftbo lest to tia by iWlh dnring 
Ibtt Jftar, miiDj of whom wore difltiu^uisbed In vorioiii yt&IIeb of 
Ilfo, flUhotn^h not kno«Ti tb Goosmpbcrfi : Colonol VL R. AddiMit, 
Sir A. Hunnunnkn, G. T, Bri^oking, R&v, J, Bror^lon, Fronds 
BucJih^y, Y^l-win Bn.wn, T- B. Balcnr. Edw. Beldam. Br. L- Op*. 
H. Copo. C, H. Cbambtra, E. Ouilinaon. J. Crowdj, Sir Ed*. 
Cu'^yngbiLtaet BtLrt,. J, Dickinnon, JI. J. Duiiell, F, S. Dtitton, 
J. Rdwnrd. 11. ViM, Col W- F. finnt, I, Get^fenbdrg, C^fit J. T. 
OiBunficjia, Uout'Ool. F. A» Guuld, W. K. Ilooluy, E. J, UuLoIiiai, 
A. Ji. Hikllonui, T. HttmiltOD, l\ D. Hadow. A. lieotor, T, A. Kjaor, 
Q, Etnriok, Dr. IL P. Linton, Dr. A. B. Mftokay, T. \\\ I.. Hbo1e««&, 
T, Mftlby. G, M*rhow»i, lirv, J. Oui^i^'^Nonlj, Cftpl, nidflnld. VV, 
I*hct|iei, |j, C. KivoDHhnvr. J, Kf^va,J,ltoynoldd, J. V. 6bjkw, AdmlrU 
l$wiubume. Sir ^\ tstiiNrt, I.ord Sandhurat, Lijrd Sxidoley, ftLi^jor P. 
Swnn, T-ioi]t,-Col G, Thompson. H, Thnrburn, C. Vorroy, T. Wilaoa^ 
W. 0. Woutworth, and H. Witito. 

Adotiraity Srirwj^- 


Additn bafl (m^tu m&ikvd bj Uto Tetnm to Knffl&nd Euid fhc cUtae 
of tvo Kxpoditiciu, wtuok luvo nndurcd iinpoirtAQt nerviDM for 

Tbe reraltH of the d«p-M» MplonnK \<iym^ of I!.M^ Ckili^mger, 
Mkd tlho Expoditioa for duooTeryftud rvBHiroh in tlic Arctio rcf^ioiu 
in iLUi'K «hipii Altrl Hud DMCOMry, bav« giv«n lYiuh impnlBe, fllid 
ncidirMl Ijug^ ]u1ditU)fLR» lo piovfrml brvnflhni rf Krinntlda intf|rilrjr, 
FWUior, tljv firvjfi:iMliJii*1 «kiU diaplajed by tbc leudcm ftnd crewe 

«ioiMlillnn«. Aad wirh pArlV^ol M^iirit^, wiU farm bright pHgrn in i1m 
anftlB <if our navnl lii^tcTf. 

Adnirml^ Survojv, botli at hoED« i^nd in onr CoUniofi, «ro «-ilU 
mnLminlftheijI 'fbrtf« ma^in^ Rl^adjr progrMB. Adilitionn to thn «ur- 
njitig ii>iipfM>f-WMr en foreign Hanni>u tiarn bn^n rnftdn by thft 
•ppro|vUtian of tli« «tcftia-corvc)tt« Futnt and 1L« tniUniE ftohoMkor 
AtarrUf ; liie f^>rrn«r for omployiii«nt 4l tbo c^iti^et in tbti H«d ±St« 
tTid OP 1I14 jt«nribft.r Coa*i, the AUirtitp fcir ilu> hj-drogrnjkhlo 
diiTc^paiQiit of thu Tiji graup pud its aoutitlcBK ixjiul noCr,. 

KotwithalAiidJEig tboic oidditiuTu to tbii aurircyLnf; force of tho 
nj4rof[r»phii? I>paTiin«Dt, U 1a focind dlfB<nilt to ki^'jr p^o^ with 
the fldtutfU mndc iti tho ioteratii uf aaiiiuuruT for trmttni< mim^yn, 
'bjtii in ^itcnoosi of impeTfectly-knowu owu^ia, wid fur grcotcr dctoiU 
1« tbon ftlnvdy aoonrat^ly cbartod. 

Adtv ^jA* U%iied /ITfiij/iiani.— StufT^plun pBrmmi, in fl.M.S. 

iWtipiBtf.lLEuiUf^ un^g-id oath«»L<.rabgruunilfcl>at»vuunyAninpQlli 

Ktftd* and Duvor^ ihi* included n rocsumi motion vf ihi>H<iwi^Lt and 

Gbctlo oiujui«lii. Frtim tho ooniinuouH moi/omnntjt of llio tauiU in 

Ibvo touidilJuN, fnHjtit*ut surveyb tiiv iHiujrod iii ihn mti^rf^^tn of 

dapping. Hi* abiwU at (ho «ntrA»^^o cf tho Hivur Ttamta liaro 

kUo t]f3d*rgoaft ftx&mtDftttcnii in oxtomtion of Cftpr&in CaIvoK^ fonaor 

Kn9f of W(i2-^* yhoa-liiLni Il.irbour bu iil*al«*ii rfrmirrcrycd. ' 

IzL ouQtiruintioEl from Urn prt^uoding J«iir, tha Kurvey of tlioSdwft/ 

Fblht ^om th* Br4 lo iho und of 1)10 navigntion At It<rwiicfi« ruitwhy 

Btidge^ Lna bv€n o^mplctfid hy titftfT-CumiiiacidcT J. Tl. Kvrr, aNKidtu^l 

^ NiTijc%lin£-Licut«rirLDt Lungdup. MaiktU chuifeA in tW ubiui- 

M^ and ahviiltf <*vei tbo wliolu arioii huvo takon pUo^ »tnco tlio 

i^ltaltj Survey f>f ih;u. TViib cIHo^ ]ib« uW cuixiplowd a 

■>:t(j uf St. Tudwnll Buy, » n«ighboiU'1ipod now reni]oi^ loura 

* Bf CiptAlnr J, U-Cvftu>,CM^iiu.jUy4rograph0torthft Admialty, 


Sir UrTHCHFORD Ai.cockV Addrett. 


AKHiUble for atelier 1)y tbe recent ftdmirable marking of I 
dtni|-«ra and af finMichon hy lighte and 1>ui>}«, nudor tbo dircotion ef 
thtf TriTiitj Corpontion. 

On die eiwt ooast. of SpntUad, the Iwr uf the River T*y bfw h«m 
tf3rvo3N)d in minut« dttaU by Btaf-C^mmAndor Gooriro BtAnloy, % 
necoMnty tiriitin]^ from clmtigua wMoli luiro takioD plaoo ttnoo fhe 
mirveys r.f l K3,i and t ftfifi. 

Id Ireland, ^tiifr-<'o]nD]andor null, with an MiidiUQt, Kmi Ijom 
onptfjud in aurv^tng tli6 iippt^r ptirt ^f t1i« Iti^^r Sbannon ^ora 
WplWley bridge, Limprinfc, to Cninn TKlnud. ^Ino^ thn Adrnmlty 
tinivoy of Ifi41, oliFtiigcn bnTo taken placo in tb*» b«i of Uuh river 
Tbo iiioi^oBDil drihUKht cf shipt Ti«jting Litnoriok «inc« tho optrning 
of tbo £oAting-doek bvsfEtrlheT rendered » r^^orveyon » Urge mmU 

M^iilfrr<<tnr'in and JM 5rrt. — f^oinn^anilor Wlmrfcn, laic of tbe 
Skoanrcim', in hia nowly-cotDfnisstonod ubip the Iaim, -n-iUi ft Btro&g 
fttetT r>r }rGung NurTwying ol^o(«ra, nrid AhKinteil bv ^tAir*CLiiEiiB>Ddffr 
MilUt^, n.^ijijir^1 iti th^pfLft AutunLEi ihn cxitniintrion iitdetui ol 
1 ho dcahnord frr^m tho DamiDttLL mouth of the biter llUo to V^jH 
Snid. and uUo r<s4i>unded that piirt of it« nppniftube* ft> eontinnalMKi 
■jfttiD Hurvejr i>f MmjcIi IST^, In corn pnriug tbe pnttontouiidlLLoatJ 
till* panic tta TO(knth wlihtbatoitcbartGdin l^fS» his found tli&t the 
nond-bjir* 4ra otiniddiirebly jmihed furwanl. but rct^iJntiif; mof« or 
liMw iif tbi!t fonru^r f>liA]>n iif Uait r|i'«'r'« Tricntth ; nni) tbiit ilivrvL (k nlft> 
A Mifc^it advance of tbo land. The niAAt of a vootot, irt^oked 4ttd ^ 
*imk on ihv' hJkr nhyni aeven ytATt kitil'^. i^ now oonaideimbly ntf|^^l 
tbe vfti«lem point of thn nvnr, nbnwing ati nniimially mjM ftitTmiCMH 
Ibo cooet. Captom WlaTtcm, however, ob«orvoe tlint lh& uiud-t»n 
AT-Q daily aliif>in^, and tbat it uprtib&blo an nnommlly heftvy wintM- 
galu iU!ty fri'iii tim<v tn ticnn wAiib awny llie ftofrtimnlAtiobe of raattj 
yeftni' Ajiotlicr intorratiiig fact U givnn by CapfAiu Wbttrton. At 
the time cf ih^ Fcvna viHit it wa* tbo period of hiKhcil Ntle. Tfco 
water lulling from the Damietm mi.>iilb in tht^iv »o olinr^^ed witb 
mattor Ibat it fnTma n Fpocios of bi'eab watcrr to tba*bnre to leewnril, 
the wind being compiirativcly pi^werlQim to raiao it into wtTait, and 
tlie sn-cll «eming i>om tbo itOTthward brin^ noaHy ontiroly killct) by 
it. Wb«Ti tbom wnp n hf^Airy nw^lt mf n h^igbt of t> ftKtt ItVta trough 
to aiitniait ouuido Ibe litio of Nile water, iojifdn llii« dirty uratcr, 
And eit Ibe bvir, no awsM t^t any kind waa viaible. Leoally, tkb It 
kaawn *tt iht* MisKin armson ; and ndvitnlaga ir thiMi rakon TouMih&r 
tnuliag-vtsfwlii ilubv lo tbi? hu\ iu uu moru witler tban they drmw. 

AJtmiralttf Sttrm/.i.^'Jtefi Stai^^CJiituu 


Willi rarercnco U> Fort Said, tb<? Himiintpa wero fnicil iiicrv 
utiilunD lliui th nay of Iho provic-ns varv^yn, I'hiB wn« iic<xmiit«d 
fnr \ty thn HHuwm of ihn yt^t. Frnvicmii iLnrvTyii bul Itorai tna/ln In^ 
Ibv vprinfi, before tbo meqculities Aooiin>d oat hy ihv wintcT fgnlva 
bad lin)4 to ootUo. Tbe shnro-lirio «t lk« v^i*t«jn broakwaUtr 
Iwd ftdvttiKOd lOA foot vincA Mbrcfa If^TA, an itit^imil of ninoTdvn 
novlkih Tho bIiotv to ibu rwi vt the oauU-ealittQuv^ and iii.^ai: tho 

PtaiKiii^ mto tbo Bod Soa, Ohptoia Ml^artrm defined xnoo of tbo 
«ttlyh]g duigum in Ui<» uul^bliuurli'jod uf tlin tiuakim IhIojiiIh 
tad tbo <>ppoftiU Anibian Cooat; rrtaic « Codfiloto «urvoy<'r tbo 
fvtt of JidiUh. And Uton CQiamoDcod tbo Burvoj" ^r tUo Hiuur>wii]i 
lAuinoL TbiM iiiKhore rotito on Mm* Afyicun 0{jh»I, baiwwu thu 
pantleb of ]£i^ ami 17^ h., U liliolj to bo of connidcrablo mli)«. 
[Tiidor-poiT«re<3 and unaM fttoua-VMAoIo oitpoHonoo diffioulty, 6ud 
of oi^iiTM do4«ntion. in tz^nkbp bcodwny of-ninat tho strung soutborly 
winrin whinh blow Ui tTiu fwutnl (jort <if i]i« iied ft» mmtli cjf l,ho 
tTib y. puallol duTUig tbt) winter nicnlbK lu the Muwwoh 
tiiUiitel idod«mf« wrndfl and »nootb vkntur aro ^zpAriotitwd; tbo 
Hfiom iflljuidft and hcudkancli on the fuuuge mtxitift vt (xmetAntLy 
f i gmri ag lncd-iTjarliEi> nnd Lliorc In ^ud^cngo Dcaily evcr>wbL-n^. 

JKnvVtaW. — AJtbongb a ekilfnl triftD|i:QUt£cn) htt^ boon cxouuted 
it> far baolc as ITMf by Iho w^Il^known Abbi> do bi Oulb), aiii) 
MRonta tnnpi! nf Uil^ lf^IhihI etLtl, tbu b^xLiu^^ruphid fuititrrfl of tbin 
tMlablo colgny lakyc bilborto bcon vor_v iiii|)urfci:tly roud^rud. Jt 
vu Aocotdin^]^ arranged, in tbo interoflts of toodotn navigaiJoiit 
tffti ft i^finoriLl pUu iif Ihe »br>r«m nVK^iibl lio fiu)ciili^l on tb<i Hn«1o nT 
OM htdi to lh« n»ntknl milc'— the aonndlngfl bdn^ earned vut Ui 
tb4 lOQ-fntbntOft* ccDlon]^Imi>— and tbat plaos uf tbc bnrboiirv ttbuuU 
ht BXidu ott aiiilabtu tcalM. 

S'aviiptiii^-Liuuuiiiftnl Co^Jan -rru sBlocUd Terr tbo dulj; anri 
Ik'cibctii'o and intflliffcut officer, w:tb Tcry Jimitcd ftpjilifin^ss, Lm 
re tbo fif»l ypar o(.im[ik*t-xl iho finm-y nf thpi »ln>rv« <?f tlio nortbom 
Ud uve {n3|i'>rUrit bjilf of thi; ihtiml, with itii apjiriAclLtiHi togatbor 
^'a Foffl Lotiia : and bus ciainiutd n\s\>, tu si7iuc extent, tbo Oiond 
I'^rt. L*«ub3nni]( Coglilan <!0Tit(^mpk1cH «>m}ik'tiug Iho nrrTico 
dint 1^ ibn rJriM^ of ilin pn^BoHt /iJ4\r 

iit^OB JrcJiijjfiajo aTi*i China. — 'I'he K<ta»tv. Commander Napiwr, 
▼jtii Liei vfficiorjt ntaff. hM bn^km grouTid on tbo nt^bcAid of 
Ulna, at Hait^n Slrait and its nrip^hb-^nThmd. Tht* chiof iiii^i<jii 
Df diU pulj' 11 tc oxnminc iu detail tbo aororal dAng«ra If ing olout 

Hr RirpHHiiTOBD^IcoCK s Addrest^ 

to the ihore, disi^ver^d since th*i ettTelknt preliiBiiiJiry Kunrojw of 
KcUott and CoUijinDD of iho Boyid Narj^ (lS40-G),bjr Ulo haggias 
of tlio Uttd rluriri(]; Ut>) struTi^;LL '^L' thu uortb-^aat Koonflooa of 
thft niini(iroiiii large at«Am<flhipa cmgagoil in tmdo b^twfwn th* 

I^or to taking up thU wcrk &t tbu Tjivoumblo fteMoai of 1^ 
yovp C^^mini^iidtir Napier dhaiIo au excolWnt faiir?oy of Ibsi Dindis^ 
Intuirle in Itfjilaocn ^trJtU. nml tho iuiricjiti? ciluuiitulA and iU^cliomgiM 
l>otweca the Urger Ulauda ani tbc nnunlaTid ; OMinrctiDg at tlio 
nniao time tlko luoaUxB of tho PtM'ak river with this imrvoy; further 
talking n Iliig of aciiTidiiign For tuk^gni^ih |iurpurHu hulwiwn I'onoug 

lliQ Natsau perfarmod, cu r^tc to llonfE Kottff, fcood mttUio im 
CAriuutk El^lTEkit hj' iu?ourjit«ly (iotemiininf; tbo poidtiun of »ovonl 
pruiiiiiit^iil lAleU ujfd dujgtiri* uii the Hunthiiij'ii liuiiU *jt ttiia liigb- 
w[h^ Ui ti^o China tfe/; ; addiDjg to tho nonnditt^ix, and clturltii^ oit^ 
laoro unknown rouk in iho lair-vay of nuviguLiciu vritli ofl littU M 
C foot itf vf*t^^^ over \U 

Soitth-Wf^ (hast of Korea oiui Jcpan, — Otiptun Si, Julm aad 
Lis cflc<itiva atiill* in H.BI.B. S^ltfia^ have boon on^pftftcd for tti>iD# 
time making uti eiHiiLination of, mid oouribcUiig trigoQomo^ncaUjr, 
tho mimy gruupe nf ialoud^ ext^wding fir nmwunl fium Uits •until- 
irr^Bt Gouet of Korcflk And Ijirig >tL tbu IIilo cf direct ec^i'COta.tnUDiofr' 
tian hotwecn Japan and th? uorthem porti of C'biniL. 

T)ctAi1i>d snrreys of JSTurriLy Sound and the MJiokau gi^up in Chii 
n.*gimi vtctv iitivlu. And iu Uio laUvr & gnud &ndioi^^ for uvudrrmio* 
WEod VfiVKola ntui found. Thin Iknvcn (iiihui^l by l.'ik|ttui» fit. JohA 
flftor hiin4(>1f) will in timo douhtluu prove nsoful to etorm-bound 
nonnvrtw Ifoi^, ha uu tbv luainluud, j^oo^rding to tiin rnmtr 
oxpurioDOO of tho ofBcom of tbo SifUiu, tho i^lAndiire (KoTe«>) 
dia|>lny^ unoociocDlcd dlaliko to tlie pr^cnco of tflruigvw, Rod it 
rnjuiruJ With lA<.iiatid f^rbGurttui-e toavuid opui rupturo inconyiikg 
uu( iho vieoful Mirvico of ohaidug the j^ioup. 

lliD ucrtheru pan of tbo Uc>to ibiondi — nc^tward of Nftjcs«ftl:i — 
Ofl alfl^ tho Kngn cbannpl thmiigb rb« oertiml |mt-t of tbo gronp^ 
lijivp Win *ui-vcycd in dctiul by tho Sitltria$ offik^rt- 

Scu!/ir\tndkind ttn'i Lchrtntvr. — Tbe InbonrB of L^afiT Comntuulctr 
Maxw^II And btA paHy, in tho hii^ f4l^avn'Tv«^el Gulnortf aro itill 
dividml hi^tWbon rinccntia hay in KintfoundUnd mid tb« K.E, 
Lahrador coaat, Tbu latCvrcun akno baciAminod in tho uiddlo 
of tho Hunuuer ssAton. Coiut details id oontin nation of fonow 

Admiroiitt Surwi/t.^AuiiraIta, 


work W oompM the tiuo, MpMiuUy tlie developnvtit of Pr«ach- 
a»n'« Riu3, u obuniuil of mueh vitiip. ro flin flKhin^ tloi^t. 

Tbo <*t]y uid Utcr pftrti of the hobmid havo booa apcut m 
«]uutiftg ibo ^V«flt count [>f i*]jjkc:eTiti& bay, >iid Ihu cxumLnalioii of 
aftv^tvl ofl^Iying fihciAl]?, t)i»H> proving ft Hoan^oof ^mlutmuftincnt to 
th« t«lccTQpbic «ab1o art&tigcmcuU, from thuir billicito uucetUiu 

JnMfMi.^Li«qt«naat Pullon, willi Lim amftJI |>a^Ji in ik fining 
W^MOaer, h^* cnmpbtcij ia otnitiiiuntion a izreditnlilc mirvrj^ of thn 
aoslli otMatof the Ulacd mduidod botwcoa Uilk nvcj a&4 Lnaoft 
posn^ wiUk the exttiuir^ off'lyin^ ^llnk vl Mjijuiliiig^, and blga 
eXACTiitod mrx euUrgi^d plan of ihcT R!nct lUvrr nnchorngot Thi« 
MMqpalio young cjfficer \a punliio^ bis BUit«j tDjiidJy to Iho ouii 
•sd of Um utan JL 

ffw^ Hu A M^^'rti* J , — Sf i ■ff> Prini mftftij^i* ArcitdttocOQ 1111(1 hu party 
ftra auwlily vrorldaif uloaig tho itibuKpiUblc^ Bbiim cif tUii mUinj-, 
uiut^nlftting Olid cbarliDKiutlelail ii« rugged niid brokcD fc4tur««. 
From &nui Kivor Mmcbvrard round (^^apc Locuwin, and thocot tO 
W«t Cipg Hnwr, nrair King Grorgo Sound, Ihc coMt-linn hiia boftik 
oompletod: ihoauubonigtB at Ki^HjiubAnaL Inj Jind in (tcoj(7Apbe 
Uj MUulod CTcr; U>p.ab«r v^ith UiO poAltiortn <if tbo dan^^roUB 
naft Bortbw&rd of Capo Xatumlnlc, «nd tho inuiinwrnblo outl^xtg 
hngjtn aft thr muoh-driiudcd tt)utUt> of Cupu huu^uwln, uucumtcdy 

Ilo flOTT^jiog ofhoera rvpoat Uiat from Capo Natiimlinto to Cup^ 
LMOwia thoni «ro tmlj a few xmlttirud Jtuttleru ; livtwran tbo ]mU 
lAucd ape ud Wwt Cvpo Homo tbo cuuDtry nirar tbi? o<jMt U 
(jiiite TuunliAbit^, boing alraoat ft continn^DA for«At, lo&dwing Uio 
'Mrrying out of tbo «nrvoy not cnly muat Ubo^'ioQu. bt;t otttoiling 
UfdjihipHtutd privttUouAvf au iuuibuuI cL^iiiok-j. Stuff-Cuuimandor 
ArtbdcAcoa &iijd Lij* [>utj dcaorvc juuoEi orodit for iLu eucrgj ftnd 
ttdnabco with wtudi th^y h^r^ uve^cioo no taany pby«ioal 
lhbelr«« ftnd ^iron ua &t tlio uiuo iIidg 8ccurflt4^ Hurvi-ya. 

SKtdh jlturmliA. — Suf-ConiTiiAbdcr Howard, witb twr> i^jivaI ajtslnl- 
uti, ID tbo birod Bcboi>ner fffotrict, h\M uovr ovmp[<>tcd in cou- 
^lUtion Ibo ooAat from Tape CatiifHtr\>phn to tbcr nort1i«ni Klwrot 
^Slrv«b}' l*j, witb UiC off-ljing sonndiiigft. 

IW brabcn ooa bwud of thin impuriunt cobuy ban Ihorofor^ 
(*ilb t^o oioq>t;oit of About 460 laWtA In tho iitiigbbonrboodof iho 
pm AtictfimaD Dight). w^v been ubartod in dolftil by Admii^lty 



Sii EuTiiUF.FOiu> Aloocr** AddJVt»~ 

Yifiorla, — The detailed «iirvf*y of Banltii Strait Iha bcxm oom*. 
:plot«d Ij StAff-CciLuirtfinilor IF. J. fjtAiilor, coidiall^ am*ted hy Iho 
ViutoriiLQ GovcrmucQt. In ndditiou, lar^^^avolQ AunroyB of Watct' 
liniiae ftncKort^ And tha Bajt of Firu <m tbo TiununUa orottt 
hixvu been cicoufj^. 

QnerjifliinJ- — The syrTcying partj under StafT-CouiiuAaiior Ucd- 
iv«U li(tv<T during lU« put jcar aurvu)'^ in compr«h«urr* dolldl 
tho FitrKoy river ft-oni ifs Hmward iipproiU"-hr* Ki thn ttiwn nS 
Hoclduinipton ; the ihoalci poHiuUsof tho Mury nv« bolgw 51»cy- 
boruUj^ht ovi>r wUicb drcdgLu;; uporutiona utu coTikniplatod j and 
ftlso the tanall Noo^a river iu Lamina bay, north of Brubane, in 

I'ij'i Ittandt.—LitiHii^jmnt \V. V. Moora, ia H.M/a »cli«ciO«r 
jlfomfy, hft« Uk^i ijp thv wur^ ^iiuong tiioe« JelandA in itucc«tdoti 
to FJnutfTtinnt Hjiw^on. EIIh early dutira W(*ni tfi «urvuy S&vu 
&tru bAjr in V&uuik Lovu, oh nUo N4ndl bay; boUi of lbea« lo- 
cttLitiuv liiiviug biMQ uauiud an favourable Vitvis fi>r Uw propoand 
iKiw capita] of tli* Coloity. It in now nndciiutood iha»5uvat»y, 
purvoyod by Licutnouut Duvrwu. ufTufrv Miimriin- udv«uUgu»« aiid 
thut tlio otpat of G ovcruiiKMit will bo rtMUOvcd UiitLcsr from 
Lev uka. 

LiDiituuunt MLinn? has lAmt cDiuplulud tha vxiktnintittart (if Kntidam 
laktid. oiid ita oboircliDg ftnd oatljing redJi cxtf^ndjug to Xorih 
rook on A«trolflbQ roof. 

J)rt^Se<t Ejylvria^ Esprdilitm. — In tbu Addri^s of lusl yrar it 
^ui a>inounix>d (Jiut lliu fJAa^ny^'vLkborrA wcii: drnwing to a doM^ 
iuid timt hiir Eimx'ol m Ktigland might bo daily oiip«c1cd. Ite 
iJiTJCPrtdicigH rtunr ibun broitRlit up lo Uid la-uutry of ibo nbip into 
tUo Soutli Atlantic Oix-ftD in Jnuiwity 1870, and Ibo uiliug fiwa 
U<>nto Vidoii U>wATdj tlio oad of Fobraary, to cconploto sootiuttol 
<i&>anic obiiorvatJonii acrma to Triutan do CimbiL 

111 vnlor to pitHi^rve a umiiimouii lecurd nf tbe piucccdiugv ha 
tbo«o oJraady rot^dorcd for tlio yc&rfi ]8Ti-4'<^-6, tho foUowiog 
jdcotoh vrill bring tUeso to tbeir tenniiiatton on the ftrtiTat of Uu* 
idkip lit Spiiiicwl, iu)d tbc }iiiyii]g-i}ir<jf ibti f?W^^iii]d dui[i*TnoD 
of bur iifGcotn und civiv in Jiiui- uf JiuL yisAr. 

Bot^cHjn Mguli^ Vido9 ntid 'i'riiitaii dA Cunba twolvo •ounding* 
witb BieHal lt*i[ijiura1UT«e were ^bUiuei ; tiuktrig, w&lb iJuilur ub^er^ 
vationain iLg tn^ck ofOctobor 1373, fiftoon dotoiuiiQAtiViUV in tlui 
Kotoroiting ivgion. in the vrotoin Lftlf of tUi« irovono — ga About 

Mmiratty Survfyt.^^* Cltallrn^rr' Kxfreditioit, cbili 

Uin :tTth pu^^ftt df Niuth laiiLiulc — Uin groatni di![^ w 2Q(H> 
ftttboms, uul a lottom tcmpcraturo obUiuod (31° to BV^S Fohr.) 
ooUeT tlum bKl Uiou foaud in tiny [■'^ ^ff tiio vovorai oc«Qlii, «a«pt 
in lb* fnmediai* iidiglibonrliuLMl of tlio AnUToda rvgloti*. Tho 
kInlDin nf mtor IwLow tlio t«iiijJonLinro of '^2\ further hml uit 
ttToni^ licif^t from (bo bottom of 2400 fcot. In tibi> vAAlem 
put of tho Inverse ih^depthi wer^ tkol lower, 171Ci futbonu being 
the l«4)Gt fdunf), thn botlom trmiwmtixtio in iliw ivtttkm ridng fh>m 
32*-8 to 34^7, 

Frotn Tiiffl&ii du Uitulu dovp wundiiifpt and tempenturoa wore 
obltifted onward to Atcersfoii, tnil thence to iLe tVjaator; ilieje 
-fOTWSit a junrlion vvilli Uio |xihiiicm fn 3** »., oTAutii^l IftTHTiiii^ 
the d««|i-0oa ttdulla of that time. Uctvcon tho above ocouiio 
Wajl^ th» lUptbn ^ftHed Irom 1*020 Tathom^ to th<> oumparATirelj 
4ii9l1o«v«r water, I24if fatJioma, and the bottom tGrnpcratiiTi^ vaa in 
tu> CUM «o low ofl 3A\ Approochiag tbc Eiiu^itai Uota Ajicetudoa, 
tbo dcpllL< iDcrcotKid to Ii35Q rmthomjii and the buCiom tompomlure 
faecane colder, it liariog been reconl&l an Iqw aa 32^-T, 

A unamary tif tho work doui; in IIjo AtUnlic Oocan tclU ua tliftt 

«cnA) U;m{«mtnr<« wori^ obtained at I'ib positiotw. S2 of whict 

^VoiD nortli a&d <^ ftouth of ibeF^uator. 'With tbeee incuMparaU^ 

PMiilttf, aided by the <Wp-»vi founding latHniifi of Ihn Gi^ruuiTi 

«bip<ir>wigkr OatiUe, oombinod ivitli those of corlior AiacricaTi aitd 

Cnf^uh narii^tore— oa ^m ttie vxirk of the VaJorow on hvr humc- 

>rard vojaigQ from ftlttiudaneo on tW jVro6o ahipi li> UuvU Strait — 

SufT-CointnenderTiiUir^, the Xarigatlng and Chief 8nrvo}-[iig fiffioer 

ftf the dudhnfj^, ]ut« roFkstructcd a diagram showing cb a &9«rGAtor*a 

diart the deep toaiiift of tho AtlLintki 0<]<»kn, together mth tuno 

actional djognuiiA of iitathermkl Unas frcna the ^nrface diivtiwardM, 

wvundty airaegeil In jat^idlon^K longitudinol, and dUf^cinu! dSrvc- 

tioni; thoeoi with a vulueblo moaograph on AUuctio Ocean tcin> 

pnrinro^ fona tho 7th numhw- of a neriea of Kctpofta on the 

{k^eugtr't prowedliigfl, printed hy tljft AUioirNlty during the 

^O/tgc for Imitud tlibtribattoii to Ican^ed Sociotipa uod ollwrc 

Bof<^ro oIoah^ tboi« brief re4X>rda of tbe CAoZteii^rr*« kbourjtf it 
(u^b<^ ef iiitfrcdt tu p]ii4:e a fovr utatiatioaL delaiLi before tbu Souiotj. 
^Yoje^ roaod tho world occTipicd ^ ycire unil 172 dayf^ The 
datneo tmreKod wju ti^^tUO milDH ; tho highest souThora latitude 
FB«diod^-ft region of iraber;^ and piL''k>i<<« — vra« ftA* 40' x,; and 
Mmg)] OHcj intricate t»«aii w<io travened, aind luida approaohcil 

/ 2 


Sir KiTTirKRFORt* Aixifxac'* Addr^n, 


wliioli wi?m anar'nly krown in iha nain^lor, to tho 
crodit of aU couoemcd tbo *hip not onoc tcnchod the ifroLind- 

To lotuni tu iho great objoot of thv VkaiU^cr'B voynge : Ibi*, u 
is Wall knowit, ttftji to irT«atig[ato tho pbjf^icAl nnd biplc^naJ oon- 
JiLiuttH of UiQ gtvat jcrtui lituiinn. At iutuTvula wi ncurlj' oiufiainA 
as circutnBtaiicirfi ptrmitt^d, througbout \he. n&3^<^^ inilc^n tr^YOTMd, 
862 obfforTiTig nUificaiH for tb««« purpMCS wero e»1nbluibdd. At 
moRt of l1icK» fil4i bnK, in fuHiHnn to tho determinHtim nf tbe deplb* 
aud lcin|}crdlLiruKt a HUnpti? of tbrr bottuiu-wckter was frocured for 
phjuiciJ and cJiciuicftl uxainiuAtroii ; a tnir siuii]>l<- of Iho botlMB- 
founa wju pmcttrcd ly motttiii of the drcdgo or tfJW-ncC; uid tliv 
fttiina uf Ibu aurfoc^ ajid cjf intDrucdSnto doplh* was rxwained hy 
tho u»o of Iho tow-not. 8p<*ct4kl CMC wu iakKH for tho piucrratioD 
oftlioBa record)!- The colLeoiion of invort^brat* uniinA]* in of ^rcftt 
Qxtnut; utid fmm Tnost cf tlio «praicn tming, it in utidetslDod, no* 
jeficnbcct— and from tbe great ptcalinrity of tbe dujtribiiiion of lb« 
&tinA of tbo doc'p flon — thija br^noh of inquir><, it ie oxpeotodt ^U 
jriold mc«t btnrcBf ingrwFulta. 

Tbo Eii^ccMiijy inroHiJgntiuDn, aud tbe prepantioQ of a BoknUfio 
account of iLo Toyd^*^, bnvu been cunfidud bj RDrMajoftty'tQovon^ 
iD^nt to FrofijfiKir Sir VVyTilic Thonmom, CbUf of th« Clviluui 
SclAntifin SiAff ijf (h^i Mipcditiinu Tbii iicticmntp anctttiniAicd I17 
Bit WyvUiOp wUl probably consiiit of a tetioi of voluiaest of ivbicb 
two will bo dcTokid \f> 0, gonoml dojicription of tiktj voyiL|^, witb vntth 
bydrogrnphienl tliitniU u mny bn tirrcuaty for tho cIoat ccmpto- 
beualoQ of the tiduiiUEo cjbflcrvMioniiiatid tu a fiill diBCuwioii oftbo 
gouorul rubtj^tfi, physical &iid biijlopcftl; 000 voJumo toconuin «a 
aoconctt of tho phyidciil ftod cbomical obwtivatioaHr VLlh a tjivoi&l 
diAcuuioii tbcit<m ; unci u ftiitl^er M^icui of volumo.4 (probably not 
l«ea Ibftu ai:t in untobct) coiit^uaing tt dotAilod dci^ntuit of ibo Cuuu, 
with pkt«e iliaatrating tho uado&cnbod or imporfoLtlf knova 

tfiK-cf^onifoWi — In itdditioD to niuoh uwful HydiOfEnpbio infor* 

tnalion v^ceived during the year from 4>£Ecflrii of tbi> Nary ia 
dilTeraut {mrta vf ibe wurld, sevend coinuiaiiding offlc^cm rf thn 
Morvantilo Msrii^o Lave conttibotcd lo our kuowifrJ^ uf tbn sboiiv 
of Cbinjh and Ja|w&. Ue»8t«- T. E Codcor, of tho Cbi&««p« ipiftboiht 
LityfFfng: J. 0> P'&Dd«T«d, of ttia Jap^ntuo GovoniiPMit «totnar 
ITwi^or; E. M. Kdtuood«v of tliri rouui»uW aud Omotal Can| 
tlMinei: JVa'tKoei; A&d («. U Aiadtnctit vf th« ntoua-^bij* 

Mmindbf ^uriv^J— jl/tnWAvnuirUp 


for (bcir ooDtrilmT.ioiin »pooin1 mrntkiii \ tboir labOTir* bftre 
1)Mo« <ir dTO, in ooanHi of pnbLicAtion. bir Alloii Vounj;, a&fl th«r 
4i!HijrJk of Ihff Arietic yacht PfiiiifAra, pxl^^flnd oiii' IcMnwIfldgn of 
tbo aliorctt Aud AnohoragtN at tli«» i>ntitU)co 0> SokttJ^ ^ound. 

Aaong «UiA «dclitj<P&a to ilydrT^^niphy- ia tbe put yoftr Jiaa 
been ibo ducoTorj in the Atlanlii;: Ocvtui of a comjutratividjr 
lUloiv bank of MiundlngK mrrciuiidcd by oQuia di>pthN, 130 tail«a 
to tiio w«etward of Cape ttt. ViD<«a', in S]xuii. 'i'tin wm effected 
ia tLa L^nited Stutoe abip G^^ary, Conin^udu Qonin^, vbilo 
fppirnl in ourying a tlnn of <1cnp.arA irrrtindingii, for ti-^logn^bic 
yorpoBO*. bctiraon Qilraltar aiid tbo Azotca. titomj weather 
■d tlift a4Tftnc-«d aMUon pMiTento) CummnnilDr Gorrinf^ from 
Kukinfc a fall ^laminatirm of \k» fibril nmn. 'rho Inut ilopth 
cUatDol b; tluH ofilcci' waa ^0 fatLoms ; but Iio wiu imprcmud mtb 
Ibe belief iliat eboalcr water would bo fmuid, and posiUy that 
^04» Diiglit^Bfft danf-^roUH to nnvigntiuQ. WiEJi llim iiiic«itaioty 
foidiiiff, OTvd thn bank l^ing m dirwf, triink batwenn Lintran 
•Bd Madeira^ tiie Aduiraliy cauaod mi extended cxaminatlijii in 
Harcdi of ihia jyttr to bo mode by U.M.S> Sai^tnU, Coninutador P. 
W.BgOTtoikk tba clospatch vnuiftl aitarliocl ta iho CImnTial Squadron. 
Thia offioer cUw^y ■onndcd die adnjalaroa by boata> fiadiag Dot Iom 
tbnn^O latlionu; tho&f£aint«,at ftuchor dnntii; tho ttEite of apritigv^ 
f^tind tbo tidfu Botting rugukriy to tho n^Hli-caat aud BOUth'Wcat 
at tbo lata of 1j niiln pL^r hour; sbuudutitn t?f fliiiii wo:v oaugbt. 
Tbo bbafw aod arta uf llie Wuk iitclndod iu da|'tba lou Uiaa 
too fathoni« JB noarlj dronlar, wilh a diameter ot about A milaa, 
nd in dtnatcd botwuii thu pFiriiltnln i)f .\^ 2^^ 7k\ and 36^ 34^ ir. 
Tbn ftli'xtltflt jutC, wilbiu tL« dvptha of J5 lo 30 fatbuinn, appear* 
lobe a naiTuvr ridjco 2 milcH in oxicni, runninji: nearly cajit and 
«M : Ijio )oa«t dopth of 110 Iftthoms bouig oonfinod t> n nmall patek 
in lit ;16^ ;il*" v„ and Wg, I T fliV »v. 

Tbo ooitiio of tho bolloui at depths Ion than 50 fulLuiuA waa 
ftnnd to ootuaM of rook and corallino mattor ; in doptbH cxoocdioj^ 
^ r«tho«aii, pobbiM, DonLllinn HubBttaTKni^ »h«U<, And aand. 

bojond tbo doptb of 100 fdtlioui)? iha euundiagd incn^nae rapidly. 
lkc4eptkof tOOO^thomh from ih^ ehoAl-fcroimd btibig nbont 6 
■doi in m nortbDrly diroctton: 6 miJea in a vuLitborly: 13 milon 
G« Uin wwLi^ard ; aud 11 ujUob tu tbtr LVLhlwutd. At 20 mihse 
Aabuit in a nt>Tlb-vr!»t«Tly diioction, 27^0 fatljome vtom fouui], 
^ ia a iir>rtb-cajtt«rly diro^Uon ItilO fathomv 
£k«aNiiry.^Tbo XotioMt in Marin^ni on Kubjuots of immcdiata 


Sir RuTRECrOftD AicoCK** Addrtst, 

intArrRf. mich aji ihn iniiiliilion nf rnw lightii or altonkHaiw in <dd-* 
«s|abTislic!d onr^s — nitnilftrlj ntao wUh biioya utd beuons— and 
OBpoDtftlly ihQ dJ««oT»riob of Tio«r rookft cr <UDgen, Miga^ «ftm«it 
fttt^ntion : lAT iif thuo notlt^Cii, and &:iO ccf«vo pngo* of now 1i jdnK 
grapbio iufonnntiiin of a tcsa »rgtnt natuiv, weiv ioBticd darin; t^ 

Fhro voInmnH of RuUng diroctiorift-'iQdluding tho nc^cond volant 
of th« 'McKHff^rmnran l*iUit;' ei nec^cnid i^liUcm of ' Dirt^tinnH fir 
iho DitrdAudl«a, Son uf jMarmem.and tLc Boaplicirtia;' aDCOo<l eM}tti<m 
ol 'WwitCcfwtofSoulland,' P;.rt H.; ftnd TLh iidition cf VoL. Lot 
tho ' Amtrtiliii Piroclcrj'," hivvn u.\%o bwm pnbliiihcd. 

Id iho obvt bnuicJi, 02 ncv cluirt^ hnvo boeu pabliidicd* and 

pK&Ud for Uio gonu-U publjc and for tho u«« oi tho Hojd X&vy. 

A&CTiC AntlO^f^-'T^r Expe3.Ultm of 187^6. — The clurf irrcaC ilk 
^oiuiootion with our Sc^i^ioti^ i-inco tUo Inet AnnivcrMry lil;v'li&^ lin>t 
nUclmibk'il 1y lK<tm thai-f-tniti al'thr A ratio Ktpi^dilion, iindi^rC'aplaiiv 

urbich luucmlJcd (o wclcoiuo iLo Comm»rt(3or and ofilccm of Ui6 
jll*rl ami IHjforrrj ; and wo have thin day "palod our approval of Uu^ 
guu^aplilcW work ucic'uiii|i11h]ie?J 1iy llio [ilKptUitioii. b,v cDnrifmnf 
on ita Itftdor 1]i« bigbc«t honour wo hara it in our power t<» bfat^w. 
iJ&Tinf^bomo tofitimenyin thl« ^nifbatiom&UD&rto thoToJnoof tlk«- 
TivtiltiBi B<.'bicTVcd» il will l« projwr in ihin jt^Kt'M to r«vii»w brieftjT 
tht< cotiuiK^tiun uf our Socictr witli ihit jj^mmL Expi^dtttcrni aad (*>- 
)ib<jw frotrt tbo c^pcctatLonn our C'oimc^il ntwnyn <4itciliJDod 4&d. 
dpne»s(cd, thrxl tbo objocU have bM.>Ti la b grcnT munsuiv* attAinod. 

Tim Counull Lav^j alMtkys iliuu^bL Ibut tliu ubjVL^lK uf Arctio 
cxploiikljou, )G thcflo dAj^, iiitt.7t bo io ftccitio uHcl'al ACkontifio 
TCimtti in Ucof^pby. by cocplcriog Iho O04Uldmofl, and atrorlAininff 
lJi« coiidiEiotiK i]f Innd tiiul sca withni tbi? unknowa aii?a loft im> 
«zplortdbyAll j^r<ivjoiL« Ei |K.^ditiou«. We Luvo alro dwult Bp^cudlj 
npOiQ tbo importanoo of encouraging & Apiritof mftridmo vnlcrpHsv* 
und of giving worthy oTopIoymout to tbo navy tti timo of poooa^^j^ 
tiuly titiliL>nii1 ubjt^tjL, and ouu wbioli, a.t Utu rcntzh pnivodn hud as- 
mtich inditc-DCoiti fumiin;;t2Lo drvJ>ii.iiiof BlAU-Huttni uh IboAcneatifia 
nmlti. It wjw with IhoKo viowH that i^horard Oi-bom, on tho 33td 
of January. 1305, rtstd bin Urtt Pji|Tcr 4t n Mooting of thd Sodat^^ 
<>n Iho fXplomticiti of tba Kot'[li Polzir HvrgiDtL. Tlin prDpciiml waa- 
t^ftt two atcamora ihi>nld bo dcnpatobcd to Smitli Sound ; Uutt o«»- 

ftrHtc ICipeditiaiK 


nbcMiM wiDtvr near Capo Ira^lU; Ih^t tho oth^x jiliouH pron np 
lL» vrr»tcTn ah^tv a« Tttx mm poviblv; Mud xhut m tbi Cjlluwiug 

And ftg^in, in hu Pspor ro^ April ^^nd, 1^72, h^ ftdvocTit«<l lli^ 
MiBift Kmtd ftod a AiinilBr plnn. 

IflOcmxequeucoDftljiHtjittcrrapor, aCommlttcowwDpptvmUalltj 
til* Cwuioit ^f Ibo G(Kig7i>pUi<^l ^kH^ii^ty to oonkiilor tho 1>c<1 wvodb 
flf bringing tli« inbiACt boforo the GovcmmcTit ; conftiatiitg of Sir 
Otorgv Ddi^l. Ai!mir>l ri>Uiiixc)i]. Ailmlrul Omiiumuoy, Ailiuinl 
Kk^nl«, Sir I.copoU Mf:C'Jiiitock, (nptati^ ghcrn^il 0»br>m, Ur. 
BM,Mr. ElQdlfty,andMr. 3Lukh«in. The Report of tliisOommitt^o 
TM iin&Qiukotulj ^lujiiml hy llu^ CuiiTKiil of t]i» Socioty, fill tlie 2*Hh 
orApri]»l$T2; and in tL«fipiin^or lfiT3— the lloyd rfociHy hftTJng 
ftonptod our uivititiDn to co-opciuto in thoco prvlitninari^s- n joint 
Conuniti^ of tlii» Kojrni Artd ciir own Society wad uppolnred &> 
pcptro A MemoTAGdam on iht ncicntilio roraltct to bo danced from 
tha proposed E:(pfdilion. TliisCommtt(«owai;coDipof«dof ihuHtnto 
Qcmbcn tut vat on thi- Ait-fk' Commitlr^o at 1672. fur Ihe Ouu* 

Kapliiad Soc^l-I/; and of Dr. Ilwkdr, Mr. Bcult, Mf. Prcstwich, 
^ Cfttp^ittcr, Dr. Allmtn, Mr. Kvarnt, General istmcfacj, nnd Ur. 
0r;gT]«oii^ fcr l\\e Knj-al S-ji'iuty. In llim M^^moTa^lll1lm, datwl 
June }S73, wkicU wuB wiilul^ dibtiibutul, LbvBck'iiliQL' robiilta wto 
Wy <li0Cume<d in a «cno« of paragnipbp famtHhcl bv I)r. floakcr. 
?wfMtor Allman, Mr rrcit«rich. GoticruL StriioUoy, and ProfcMor 
HffiHun ; wtiili! tlio ttrgittnviiU ik'Tivcil E'rum runiiiTr ripi-HeiKL* und 

[cuenU poli^ were b/ Sbenrd Oi»1>omi 

Od tho lot of Aiif^ht, 1^74, Sir llcrnry RawHnncm and AdtniraE 
Shertrd (Jabom, iK^oJuinfinnicd by Dr Hooker, b&d a vory unLiii' 
klurj tutin^iiii^' itjlii Mr, bihineli, and cm tbu ITlli of Nuvtriub*^ 
t2i« Pritso HxEiinter Addroj^icd hiA wcil-kaowc letter to ijir Ilonrj 
1UvtJn«on, OQUOUudng Oiat Hor TUaJf?Ht,v'« OLivonmieiit Lnd d^fcr- 
olfied to Uxe ii'> ilru^ In i^rgATtl^ng h HiutMt^ Evfit'i.] » Mou- 
lt i« imp>rUnt thnt thc^ obj?o1fl of the Gooio'.'^irbicAl Sciciotj in 
proMtng thi« nndortokin^ upon tho CJo^'omtnont Ahould bo kept in 
idnd- Tlio Coiiiicil, in u11 ilr* m»morKQ(l:K, ubhbiini-d T-oin Hutting 
ijt^ tbo attiiiiLiuuul of tbu lii^bent poMublo ii->it1ii}i ii lAtiUidu, and 
U Attempt Vi m&ch tho North 1\>1[>, ne tho mnin object of nn Arotio 
tvpodilion. llio object li«ld alt^AJtly in view wns tht> ox]itonitton 
of tbo lugoit &re& popMjbto of the unknown region froni a fix«d 
tee of opexttionn, in onlar 1o TCc:uro iiHcrLtl iioiditific rcnnltn. lli« 
KQUO ^TDOfttod wui to nuvigtte hUtng & coaHt-liue, lo iriolnJo Uia 


Sir HiTKiriiKOED Alcoci^'j* Addrw* 

powng of At Iriwt i>no ArntJt? wintor m the aishcimoH and to U>o1c to 
Blc4ge*trave1Tiiig oa the main indlncmcnl oF diMcoTcxy and cxp1i>n- 
tion. OjneoqTiontlj- tin* ^mitii Suuiid ry^t*? wm, for tbc at(A^ara«Dt 
of the tLhftve o^ject4 in ftcorrrdftnno with t)iMO ruW. tho bMt tfcat 
could bo 6(ili:oTod. 

The Aictio Expedition rvturred in Oclobor 1(^7^, ftflor hftviDS 
intoo»«d4d in oiOBfting tho thr«Hhold of tho trnknown itgion by ili« 
fimilh Snimd ruiitn, RjilftTiliKhiw? w Ihm« of iJiHrriitiuim boyuud it, ftod 
cxploix^d the iinlcsown am fru^m tho ba^e to the uEmc«t extent 
poAviblti with r.houicaiiAat Uiuir ijinpohal A^ fiLTM pcrpulor objeoli 
worn eonoonipii, thci AUrl hiiJ rcaehpd ihn bighiwt ntirib UtitoilB 
«*cr 4ibimud by UTiy vhiii ; nJic IjJid wbtctt^d fkrll^ot uorLb Cluffi ftsy 
•bip bad ptovi»n0t3r wititct^J, nnJ Cnplrao J^Urkh^m bud rcocbod 
83* 20' :!(5" N., ft |>omt nonror tho North Polo thifcu any huEoati bein^ 
bftd «i\or Iwn iMifcin?. 

Aa tvpiidb gco^Taphio&l diacctCT^ and rceoftrcli^ the rosnlta of 
th« Avctio Kxf^oJiiion nro recorded in tho cxbaiiKtivo ICcport of Sir 
fiworgtt NarcK, prcwTiti.'d to Prtrltnmciii, ami in the twa I^ipvn bo 
La» lodJ ut Mi?L^tiiij;H ^r tlio Sucioly, <ju Dt)i:tTiubL^r 12L1i. 1873. acid 
March 2«Eh, 1877. The P^u-Iiaiacotary R«port, togrtbor witb tbft 
copioiu ^oiails^ jllcBtrtLtod l>y cluirtu aud ikcU^ho*, rohitiii^ 10 
tbu hlc<l<^ jouru^yn. Ii^uvl-b iiutliiti^ Lo bu iliwjrt^d uu th« part of 
iLo gcogiaphor — nor, indvcd, of tho |:oiiPiftl rcftdor — on dcihC»iptito 
of diiooveriej^ tniuTo of advoncod Polar Undji, of tho oiunf^y, porM- 
T«*mnct*, Hiiil euilui^tio^ diKp1ayi<El In nflk'^rH unil itipii ml tliu Bcrcnl 
cxplorutioiio. froc|i]cnUy tmd<^^ dinScuItlca uiid liaidfliijie 
l^vovt chamtrUr. And oopcoiotly dn tbcAO I'ocordj j-how Ibo 
&nd Hkilful iTiuonor in whioh tho vliipn of tho Eii^nlitioo 
couductod — tho liMiilint: vohftlO 1o tlio Iji^chtnt laUtLic^o yvl at 
And probably pof Bibb of attuiomonl* by tcci — nnd their vafo r«tnr& 
hotno from tb« bajATda <>f ko navigation of no Cirdinaiy o]]<.raot«r, 
4TTftn fur Arotic hi^o^ with all applinnoM fntact, nnd wEtJiout acci- 
doot to v«bf^1b or crrowfl. It vru found tbftt the cout liaes b«ycdDd 
Ifvb«iion Uhaim^l lr«u<lvd awuy to WMt and nortb-oott, foroiin^ 
tbn nhnn-pii of A IVo7on PoTnr Soa, and fn^rn tbo luiM9 of opora^ 
liona for;ncd by tho Alcri in 62° 27' x. thi^ momb«n of ihe Ex- 
]H^litiuri cxi^ioinvd tb'.^ o^^ufifn fcr a diatunco of HOO tdlIc«. Alonf 
tho wbolo of thin distvincn tho tco of ttio Polar 8oa wan of Ui« lUB^ 
charaut«r. ItucxUto^ui) vra« im iinonpootcd »iid JroponnntdtxorevT, 
lliiii ice vaa found to bo fjom BO to lOO foot in ibicVn^t^ fbrwd 
\jf omtfnuaL additiooa ficm abov^ (duo to tho annual antm'&tb). 



AMU Ejrptditi^TL 


nkicli. Ljr Um inf^r^udng miporrnounibmt weight, b gTHrlnftHy «»n* 
Tcrtod Into anow-ice. Cotnplcto s^clioim oT Ihn hii^o luaancn forced 
npon til* dhottv w«rv ojircfiilly tn&cn, nod Ihey show Ih*? vay in 
vlitcli i\m vho1« 1* fonot^l, » well dm iu j^.*ftt ogi>. Thc*ik* mftt»B* 
l>id lieeii lirckoD olTfrtim tTio Ki^' Aoi^h <jr ki.', i^oil w<^rn gmunilcl 
ia froca 4 to 10 fiithom* alcnjC fho wholo cooeit, Tlic pruoro* of 
ttnnatiQo pf ih« tmoicnt ftovn r«t«m1>]t.<ii that ol' glaoifjre, and tho 
lUftfeFb llitiH gitrtuidrfl Iwt! \*iv*T\ ohifpp^ off IVoTn tln»Tn, Tlvry ia 
IM Wftx rfflcrallo tbc mcin pilT« ijf brokcu-Up liiiaiLmoGkji tLnt oro 
ofiflft found vn otber Arolio nborcH. Tlii>x ure, in fnct^ iooborgs 
WJnD oCffotn f^«gmf>nU of fc>ating glft«1<rr8. an^ bav^ tli«T«forrQ 
TBODirttil tlie appropriaU- rmm'i of Fu>k-bc]^j,i. 

Hi* ^<^, in Sf^ptcmbtT 1S75, tad tbus rvochod an inap<m^- 
InUti tfift of nriftliknt loe, intOTrpnlng boLwfVrn ihoiw Innolv nhnrM 
ud the NurLli !*citn. It in nnt» howcvi^r, ati» ^aiAt drngL'sfiHl mnan 
ft"Tcr la znolKjn, irliJcli would h^ro tcon th^ case if it bad b*oii 
&irm«d in ft flUgnAni and confined sea. On tbo oontrojy, it i« 
fubjr^Etfd to (uinitftl dismpticTTL, nnd 1o violent cmnmoiion during 
tke aQjaDucr [noufW Eitrl)- in July Ui« wW« muflfl ia in motion, 
4riwiQj b40kward» iwU forwrinla v^itli fbo wiudH ftMti onrront*, its 
auiii conno bfting towftrd* thn M«t. The flont grind againnt nach 
odjCT and »re broken hi ftngmtrntx, wbil*% wbHriovor tJm auguW 
«0TilOt« of anj of tbo floldt nicoC, thcro pools of water nro f-^rrord. 
T» B«pfombcT tho fn^at aolc iiiianil thom^ f^oc^lA and na[T'>w liin<iA 
lie froam ov«r with ioa thar bnnonioK abniit C fopt tbick during 
tbfl vrinlct, but mcrt^uu still ounlinucw, aud ridged of bamUiOuliB aro 
IbKrwa tip bcrliAfit.'n ili>> Hcjom. Tbo fltiUiioi>b (.f thf' pL>liir winlor 
d«« not prevail until kt* in Ootobor orlvovombor. Tbrn % ii*w 
Ivnuiktiun yf 100 (TifmmtfnasK^ and guea on for tHiten inontlw, wbiijb 
Ur fnunj tbaa ociuaterbidariocd tbo decay diirmg Ibe sunicucr. 

Snea ill tlio niLiurti ctr tTio gTMit Polftr Soa boyond iha channels 
WJing frwrn .Smttli S^nttTid, whiob wn< diHt^i^veroil by tbi> Aroito 
£>p«ditit>a of l975-i<j. It bi bo tuully OilTu[uiit from tlio Polatr 
p»i Biol with norlli of t!pit>^borgtftj. Hint, with a viow to that pro- 
diion vithoiTt ^hinh Pbykicftl Goography cunno- moko progri*w an 
ticittnueh il vv&k nucf^ruary tbitt Hucne dbtiuiTLivu lurm ibuuld be 
•P^Jiod to it. TliiB poHion of tbe Pillar Ocoau wtm tboreforo 
>uwd tbo FALJ37Cftwrtc Sb^, or Ma of ancient ico : 4 naniA whiob 
blinow bi*on AdufUHl by gEcrgnLphfrra, lioth in England antl on tb? 

Cueful and dtlitCOnt oleervfttlon fTirnishad ^mo dtda. by wbioh 


& jiiJgm^nt might bt formed of fhe prolioWe ^Tten! of thp Titlw 
ctjbtic Sea. It ia otrtdju llml loiiil wna nut uoar Vi the uoj-rh. 
bocmiBo hilU wGjv nAccndrd to b bcis^l^ of I rrOO fvct uud npworiU- 
on cWr dflV*. and tbt^ro avqb not il iiigii of land. Bui th«i9 un 
ciUier mniiiiltTutioriH utl h-uJiikg to tho aame ixindusion. Then 
are ito fliglil* of bi«l* to the north, whioh e«rUiiil)- ironld he tUc 
0000 if iktm waa lavtd ; and tho otilf livin;; Ihiag tliut vraa bcco on 
Iho PilaMorj'Ktit' S^a, hy tH© rorthfin dWUIon fif ule^gra, ms il 
)ittji> iDaw-huntJsg thai IjtiJ •Imjed &inn tho itcAront shore. 
FurtJier oridenco ia fnminhcd hy tho fact Uuii animal mnrioc tifo 
olmobt oou^CooztHt in tli« ioe'CavoTedFol&rSj>A. Tho PAlsr^o^rjitio 
8eft ic a kuex of w^Titudf^, 

Tho grtat t^tvut of thiaPoliir Ck-can lA iiMUtiicd on tli« abot^ 
gTOUtid«- ThcTC 19 aUo OTjdcTico that it ia a compnmtiTcl^r ^httllovr 
8^. Tb<i northern diviiiiijEi <if bIciIj^oie, at n dintnncv of IvTtj nlW 
frum tliu IttJid, fuujid huKoui lu (.iDly T^ fi4thL>nniL. and betwcwi 
tluit point «nd tlio«hori> eovoml hq^ ftoo-l-orgit wc^to ohMrvod, 
ajipHNintly rtniiig out of Ihft cctitrcs tif floei*, which wore ]»rohiMj 
ogrounJ. Aiicillinr iudioritiou of tl)u prcuciit i^iallwEiW* of tbp 
Pobr tJML iff tUfj giMiCT^il ic<t:nt uph<&Tal of tLiu udJAOCiit Uud. 
Drift wood wan found far iibovu uny point io wliich it could Imo^ 
bem ciirricid V ^i^'° ^^^ i<ruivr, ^^^^ 

As Ttgarda tie diHtrilution of land and Bta witliin the tmlcDOim 
fu^Qikt ftnil it» goroml IjydrogmflLy, tho diHOovoric^ of tho Sxfth 
didcm ATO imporl&nt. And it uKtrftlly hcpjionn tlmt when a ittw 
gvOgtapHic*! fftLft ia revealed, tbroLigh tho hihoura of »dostifio ex* 
plarore, it ia found th&t it harmoaieoa with other tsolatod ptMca of 
kuowlcdgo wbiob pIx^viouldy rtood akne, aa it wore, nnd woro not 
inIolli]^ibJ« vithuul it; iho gtingittphicitl ajid h>'drugruphin1 rwnlt» 
of tho Kxpcditioit oro iJmo ia<3at impurtAnt, beaidtv th«j liATe m 
praoticttl boikring on tho gcn^irul iL^ilcm of oovanio cnzTonta n&d ^f 
matnorology, and (Htuaoqiionlly furm jin uMvcnUal puTt of A TUl 
iirKolo. ^JtJioiit ft knowlcilgo of tLj fajdro^rftphj of tlio Pokx 
Jtfff^n^ lUL tijc gcnQiul thoonca cf oocanio catront* tntijit bo incoat- 
ploto; iind ArtliD rL'»^:iTch U. iheri'lorOi ncocasary tu h si;i(-noo whicb 
jj( of priR'tit^l utility. But the Ei;pi'djUuu Woughl humc uibcr i»- 
aultfi, whtch (iro ct-i'toinly not Icas intorci-ling than thoK diacovert** 
which iinmcdijiluly ooni^crn tho Gcographicftl Socioty. Among 
thM» tuajr he iiivtititfrird ttio^icjiiniii^tioo inlothn geolo^Soal fomui- 
titfu of tho nvholo oDo^t lino on tho wc^t aido of tho Soiilli &>uod 
cLonnoUfrom Capo bftbuUu to Cnpe Union, bb well nt of tho fchorv* 

Ar€tic Erpfvlitian. 


i3f iHd PoLlttMrptio Sm <m citb«r aide of RobcvcA CLauucl CoU 

Icctiow of iDcbi jui^ fiuniU wpro innrl(> nt «v«ry [H^int, inclmling & 

very complete Cppcr Silannxt «crir», «iiiil tho mcmuUm timeatono 

%htinj&ftd oonUoT Capo Jutcplt JflcDT^. Itut bj Tar tlio mci«t im- 

porlAnt ^oologieal diccovory vr&i ihftt r^lntlrig to th<« trxinirikCQ at 

bsriisfj cokl ia $2' ti., tknd tiio fonQf<r Aitetwlon of niiticcun vcgutj^ 

Cioo to thftt punLlcl- The Kipf^iition alM modo on cjchAoatiT^ 

wUMtion i>f the biologj? of » rcf-ioii previoiulj alincEt (mtinly 

unknown t;> BcSfmcfi: ibo rpglon ti^^rth of th« A3nd pantnc). «■ dii^ 

tn6Vut>^ ^^ tbo Arctic comiliiiM (o llio aoothvnutL TIl» 

vholtjIoniorUio nvw rc^;>ii ha« bcim broup^lxt. hom«: and il miiBt 

In reouaobar*^ ih^t m^^j^ro though thi« jUva ovrtainly ii« I>r. 

Hoq](M hu iJiowii tlLAt it fK)w«8W9( fqn^iLil Liit«ri«t lu (xv;iti^:li(jn 

«^lk the mnftrkAblo <UatnbQtioa of AmcuioAa and ^oanUittavioa 

jltiti. Hiq soology of tko novLj-diaoovertMl rogion hft* al«<y 

len itihnurtivnl^ pjtninlnfvl. nnd vf*rj pnmplnt^i collRntidtin muilv 

M FCg&rdA lauounAlib, Lirdji, fi«lic«, Jn»«ci4> litolliuc^, cnutavcu, 

oekiiuxtonnB, trnJ a ra^ Dumbor of microicopLo furnu, Xa phyaicA 

• «apl9l« 0ori«« of motoorologioal, ukagnetio, tidal and oihor 

(itMT«tion», coTuring » JvAr, hsb heen Uk«ii nt two sUtioiu. 

Ab n^irdii the conduct And mnrftjccrDcnt of the KxpoJition 
vTudi «M<ir^ thoou T&luaM« n^alta, Iho rnont oeh^MitUl object, uiil 
Afecnioliil tJ^H^ of ifx mirr^Ha, h iTit^ hltAlnmont of n pigqUutL tui ti 
W«of opcratjooflbeiyoiid Aitvliinicito^ijtcovcicd. To liaxc brougLt 
fc^p tliTOQgih tho difficult cbitnrttb luiulio); north fron Smith 
ionA, iLul 10 hftTc found wkiit4>r c(iinrtDr8 on tho open ftud cv- 
IomI ODttBlof thi; PftWM^ry^tLc fyt'jk. prutrciud only l^' pounded 
WWg a irhkb might at noy litno bo driven liighor up or *wfl]>t 
»»<y, wa« ill kUitU ck groat tiipoc**- >o t'thor Arciio tiJivi|ffttor 
«v fortvd bin dhipn ihrnngh wnch ohstnelrs, nfid bmiight Ui*;m 
■^vly book ag«m : and thlii 1^11Ab]!^^JmclLt of n buvo of op«ntioii« 
^ihin thi> iinkrioiA'£i tvgian oalL^d lL>rth till tW higliOMt fjuaUtioH 
cf k tomiiHifid^r^tricofl^Aiit wAlchfulntKJr^ grent ptoiiaeTtce of mind, 
npid jet cuitinu* dcciiioiii ami cim^nmianXe scaiiiiiiLnhip, 

X«t to iho cilabluhtncnt of ik bnae of cporatiotiH Iwyond «iy 
Fi^t pr«rioiDHly ricjKiL<HJ, tbo mobt iniporUut proparatioii Tor i>x- 
ploTRtion And dbooT^ry 1^ fll«iigi>ii U fhc; mBTiAgemfint nf ihn 
UpeditK>n during tli« lci^£ diiikijcfo of an Arctic wiiitor. and tko 
*iifit«iio&<« of tho hci^ItU and eijirirn of tho men. Tho difliculticiv 
fl) thu i90pKt. of tho KxpoJitEouof 1875-7C wi>r« greuT^r thiui ftAj 
wktluid pniTionHlj boeu oucnuBlMeili becaiiHc the wJntor wa» Uiio- 


Sir llrTIIKiiFonD ALCOt'K*^ Adtfrtss, 


InngeRt ATtA 1)i« raoHt spTpro, vv\ th» (onttnnoiiR riArVBAiit wva Uifl 
misfit prt^lon^d thckt, liivl ^vvt lioca cndnroil lu llio Arctic 1teg&oo>> 
Mt-rtovor, ,tho atoccco of tho Tranatng i^ppaT&tuis rfiiippli^ 10 
fbnner Eipedifione iacrooflod the difficulty of prpwrvinfjf hMlt}i, 
AVhfii tlirso special dtwtdvaTJla^s are oom*iiTprt>i1, lliv cifTortji of tl^ 
Gommftudiiig olficeaN of lie ]«to Expo^itioii to prcccrr^ iho health 
iL&d Iwcp np tho spirits cji the rocn [Lr<> rl^norTini; r>r high prti«L 
Wh^n ihfl tfrtn retn^neil, thf* «c>»*'me fi>r eTi-klriniiffir liy slndgoa 
woe irmlur&d- and cflrfy iu April 137S, iHLdcr tlifficultica, and 
rxpoAod to All oxtiGmity nf ooUI boyciii<l mtyrhing thftt had booD vx* 
jH.'rieii<^«l ill fonnor cxp^ititii^ne, thn nlrnlging pnrtiea ll^^t tlie i^Epi. 
Owing to tlie Aduiirally lofitraotionv, ib vtaa incumbtnt opon 
"Captam Kan^e to puhh Iii« principal purty tlno norlh orcr tbo 
l'Al»Ooryfl(ic SOft, witJi thfl ohjcot of Alt*i;ning tho Jjight-nt pcml 
iionhom IntJttidn. An thorn wfta nf> hinri, it wn* not 
ic lay out 3epfttJ. and nil nupplice, together with bo»b^ 
b<t dnig^c-d irn tlio vl«<TguB. The Adniirultr hod impiD M td upon 
Cnplnm Snren (pam, 15 of ■ iTujlnjctions ') that, in thn »b«i»n<w of 
uoDtiuuonv bni), sludge ImycHhig for fui}' t^niiAidor^ble dului0« 
hn& ncTcr been found pmcticaWc. Yot, in order to ftllam lb 
mnin <>bji!ct of the Admij-olty. the atfompt hod to ha roftdo. Tl» 
frtrlheat north hitherio rpaobotJ wna on ,liilj- 23rd, 182T, irlwii i 
Parry got to 82*^ 45' is^. ]R[jt> tJiis wiui during tttj cQEmntr. Mid fl 
tho wort wofi done withf>Tit tho ciKhiraitfC' of eerioTin bftrdshipi^ H 
silthmigh thp weights tj^ ha draag^fl ppf man W(*ro tptj- gnat* , 
)miu<:ly 208 lbs, riiptftm Murkham wud thn |iilm from I^tny ■ 
^ftor ho lj&d held it r>r noarl^r forly-nin© ytsars. Ori M*y 13lb, ■ 
] 875, h« i-eachod «:i° iJu^ 'J6 ' s., in th« ftioe of hirdjihipa a&d diS- 
rullioft WitUi-iUt ft purnlW in tbr nnnalii rf Arntin ii!rJg&ttn veiling 
Fiir ihlft ^rtut tiploil onr (Council Irnvc awaidcd liim, aa j'Oti liatc 
iilrcadj" lojimt^ « fipf^in] fonorary tc«timoniiO. 

Thrfv orhcr pclrndcii »l^d]^o p^nioH vr^ro orgnnm-d to ioevtft 
thu triiu ohjrctfl of tbo Bxji^itiun, {nan Lbi^ |K>i[]l ot view tf ottf 
Bocioly, naraoly, tho cilcnwit^n of gcogTapljical faiowlcdjrc- On© 
was to explore tbo unknown rogion to fho wimtwftrd of the bin of ■ 
o|H-rJitiuiifi to tht^ forUieflt poiiU nttaiimlilr; : Oi^ nr^oud wttn U> pirtii* I 
cb^twdkrd ftlon^ tbo ikorthoni <.-<mbi *.'t (jiT?CTdand ; And tli« Ulix^ 
woq to cxamitio tbo doop iDlot named ftftcr Lady l-'mtLklin, wfakb 
mut heliave^l to bo it litniit. All did thHr work admirably, nid 
fiiloiidod tlivir raploraliorm tu Tlie riliauHt liniit, iii two nad (MNW 
.^,l;»yo£id lli« utinojtt limit, of bnioAn vudurAnco, Thoy flillj, 


O^' and VetaMa Eipeditioiu^^RHman Kxptoruiwtifi, c]xxlli 

plo£0ljr, ADii vriih 1i«ri>ic MtMeruUon. rulfill«sd tlio objects wLu^li 
our Arotto Conuttitlco had prcooribcd, hy oxpl^nD^; thuX portion cf 
tbn nnkuowti rogbon BOoCi«Biblo by tbu Stoiib Sound rouU t<» ihii 
farAe»t extent. jiuMtltij ^illi tlivi ueaud ul Ibtiir dupoeij. 

Ayedfftow hike Obi and Fiwim.— AVitli rvi^ftrd to other poxU of 

Uw Arvbo reg)r>Dii> it U intgrciting t^ rccoid th<s oonnidanblo oddi* 

tiow Uiftt Latu tieeii iii:ido during ihe pamt wuan Ut ottr kviourlnl^ 

(f Uipo dtdatiM of Ukc Obi «nd Yeuiiaw, and Uic vi<»ft^twantL£ p»rU 

of (ka Kuft Smo, by U«nnika u&d tjwodiftli oxpiHiitioiut. The Juttor, 

«»der ike iMdendLi]! of tha f?ol«brJkl<»i1 Arrtfo KipTorcr, T>r. Kiii'- 

UiifkiiSlJ* ■uCficodc-3. oa in tho pr«vioa« »t]miiit:r. in iiM^unjc tlL« 

idxaaj ctf llio Ycniici Xbo (Jcmuin pftrt)*, connurtiiig of Mooaox 

Iteoh, Br^ku tn^l ZvH, 494|ui{if]i.d by i>t« Oornian Nortb PoIat Ez- 

pkffftUosL&aotv. ilvigW JtMjirwthvi ^-AAiuIiuitjciik of t^o Utlintue 

vpantio^ the hny of Kain froiu tbo J£iTor Obi. It bod been pri>- 

fxttily atfttfd by Oiptaio Wif^f^o, who hmt devoted bicinoU' wjtii 

p«t r>^l iind tntrepid&ty lo tbe fiiplorntion tit a tnulo-rouf^ by Ma 

B^lk* Obi, tlwt & pnolioAbJo road might bo fbnnd, by mcanii of ti [' 

lotofj ftTMUki, ooroiA thm nook of tucdi lbiieEaftt«m11j'fiKriliUtuig 

Ik* ap|«ottoh to the BuAi^An tTftdl&g cp&ti^ in North-WMt«ni 

tubvi^ Tbo eiploiihtion last MUnmcrby tL« Gctniuii m»j7iu aW-vi^- 

Qanted ku* boirorcr, act thJa nuittei ftt runt for ib« pjcc^tit. Dc- 

omiiitglk«Obi toObdo'sk, tbt^y umuIo a galtantattompt V> trav«no 

thaiHclt of lantJ snptTTir.Jng thai ptcrt of tlw rivor fWim Kani liny : 

fto MuU riTera were narigated, vitb much difEcnIty, to thoir Itoad* 

ivUn, ii&d »Lodj;i>8 woE-o (hon 4'mf<loyc«i in Inkvot^iu^ tho doaprt 

Tnodm ; bat ib*y wcro unablo fii readi the ehnrei of the hnj, vid 

*«te obliged to raluro. The canalMtlon of tlie istkiiiUA ilxny oou- 

iiikr impflMtioablo. 

Bl-»u4;« £irL0lUTlD5a.^Tbo htttruipts Id tinitQ Wcntcni Hibnriii 
vJIkBojropo by Um ¥uirt|caiion of tbo Glaci&l Oocttn fi>r!u on^of 
A* chief t^oicrnphirul uad«rtakin^K m linaeia during tho pMt 
jBir. But ailbinigb II10 a^^liitivvruHDtH of rEio Rtisriian eipl^ircriH, 
>■ weQ as tho«i> uf NordtDftklold uml Wiggiiu, vrill oarkli Baknco 
ly inaay YAluablc diecovcrio* and iutcrcetin^ comtnuuioBtiortB, it 
V^Qiibtfut wiictlier tliey will, at nil i^Tcuta for somo time to 
VMDt, bii ptiHlui:liv» uf nul adviiulngu to tho c>GU.ntry iUi-lf. 

&ad tluv ixt&j bo eiiiil with c<iual inttk of iho rocent niUtiLiui 
kle uBO W«8t«ni SiUshft and C'hini^ undvrUkon wjth tbo Tt«w 
it tttibUikibg cummi^roiul iiit^i'uijunie witli lli» inuor pmvmi.'i?ii 


Kr RlTTIIEnFOUD At^OCkV Addroji. 

of Ibo ColoatJu] Empin. TL^ Expedition of lieulviiutit-CtilutiFl 
fiMaoflikj loft KialthU ivilh 1h« purpo^r, ftinciijT^t t't^rnt, of 
«[ploriiig tLf> trade'routeif Tmiu the tcti-pUriUtioiiE to tho KuHJ«n 
froDtiRr on the HLick Irtiili. U suooeedeil in jbocoiispliKlkiiig itm 
tlifficult journoy* and pnooocdod fi'Oic KioUitiv to L'olEiD^. SbAO^uu, 
dii'l Katjkow, pftjuiiinij; thrciigli tlie Gioat Will by tho wiwUro- 
niont gitfi» and i^ttiTrinj: n^rtiM 3h[onga1m Ui tlifl /jiimn ilistrki. 
But wlictLt aliortly &rt4:i'wa]'ds, tk cVAvui, Wleti cliicdr iritb com 
foT the CliWiC*e troopa, •scortcd by eomo Cot«nok8, wafl d4«pAt<^Md 
ill ftecnrdnticc? wjlh tliu prtTTiiim of Tso, Gornraor cf tlio pmHnoM. 
uf SliciL-ai auil Kfux-flu, ihv Chiuvati Cit^vi-miiwut, in «jiitu vt lUi pn^ 
miqoft, and infinonood byiU Tumal aueploic^LS, Tt>fHxB9d tho Rusntt 
Tnon^bonts iLdmiKaion to tli9 prgriac^i of Inner Cblna. On thu 

ivticrp, ut all CTCrili», it luw not to compute vr'tth En;^1i«b f:ood& M 

3iit tho '^Uiuition of )a>^nft ft r&ilmAd to SiboHa bu nudo nior* ' 
progTMu, aud n \t]n< Htariii\^ frum Nijnj NurgriTodH *ni tbo Vulgl, 
io Tium^D, iin tlio Tura^ liu Iwc^j, m i^riiicipk'. r1toii3t*l cti. Wo 
ItAve noontly kamt, ttUo, that tho Kinporor luui finallv nnolionod 
"^ oonstraotJonorft line of milwiiy from OreabuT^ la T«Ahk«od^ 
jk giEfit wurk loB^ talkvd of, wbiclc, Ukiuf; a (;;tetiiU^nH ooimo lo 
uvuJd tbci fitcpi^Ct will oxU^nd to ci kn^th of rJOO luilcn. Ou i 
other hand, internul comiuTiiiUationt, vMvh ai tho co»«trai 
cf iimJa tiTcr tiiv oioimti&inii trfi tho fjonUcxK of QiinA mM^ 
pri>v[£ig tho uarigivbilify of i-tvt,-nt, ha'v« hitbcitn bucQ iinmncirwfu!, 
uwiug 1o i!jo want of tt-nfni<4l vn^Ln&^ra. It i«i to i\iit wuit «f 
tntiocfd HpociftHsts in nil hraiulii-K of indai^tT^, no Ifw liuui by tW 
Itagii number of lU coETict |Kjpul4lion, that thE> dcvclopmcait of po 
fi^h tL country ii& WvKtem ^ibt^rL-v Jinn b««n chiofly iHardod. 

WlU^ on tho snbjoot of Sibt^riu. 1 wonibl ndd a fovr ivtnvks 10 
thiMD wluch hava uppvurod in prt^vkiuet Addn;:»Auii* on th« Uto 
Mr. ChokanuH'Bkj'n I^ii>oditioii to tki> bofiinn of tho V«nuc« u>d 
LftOft rivers- Fnini n ftlcetoU of tho gftogrAphioAl Iftbonrs of tfala 
^iitcTprisiTig nnd giftt?d explorer, who wns minovod by divtii wUlo 
the rcsnlle of Lio three y<;ara' ttnvcla wcro fltill id coune cf pub* 
IJCAtion, 1 loftm that tho scienlifio resultt oooipriflOa in tbo tirot 
plooev ^^^ Mtronomiml, und 57 magnetic ol^sennitijms ; soiMndly. 1]i# 
cai'tograjiby of regions hitbfrti> (JomjiciEa-tivoly nuknovm, vix. Uin 
£T4»t loko eyatom bolwoo^ 67^ and 60° x, Ut.; tho bi|cbtuid«r ia- 
clndingpartaoFthebMJnKof tl)90IoDak,Vi1ci,N^)nyTDiigQdm, 

* Beo Tott. ilir. ill- nd ilti. ' J^onjtiJ «f lU Bojil Geofimphkol Sockt^J 

Jntiiim Sjir-wifg. 


StoHcfthjt. AtiipOiDf?tt ether fi«o^AT>bioal undortakii:^ 6f Ituau in 

AiH« 1 oui ovljr briefly Tcfur to Cnptnin P^vth^'ITii aAttpifiomlcBlAnd 

bifwoirjual vlxfeiratluun aloug t1i« ultb\ilu iui^1«n fioni Port 

ZftUtta to tbo Cbinoflo tavrt^ cif Giichon; FobmiD** oxplorfttdoni 

in tbe cOQtli-7ir««t ipum of ibc Alloi^ lu^d tb^ngicai atmind E<iM«; 

u>d KunUnku'a reocrTniiLiH&iincu i:i tb4i Pftmlr, wliero Sir T>i>ii]^lu 

F«Jiijth *nd bin |)Lkity hAva doao ff)ck food «emc« in the cauho 

of pogupbioJ roBoaroh and oxplomtion. l^Ktlj* 1 would mott- 

tlOB t^t Colons PrvjovaUky i* roport«d to hft-r^ succeed^ in 

ictcliiug txjt^-iior, and io \to eiplrvring tliT? uiouuUiua to tLt' ituoUi 

«f lliui Ukc- U iu ontidpAtud (hat bo ^^iU rotiirn ccu-ly in July, 

ml W9 may tbon look Cor «ono int|^rc«t)Ilf|f pAiiiouUra of ft region 

nunr b«foTQ Tidted hy mo^Km Kuroiwsn truvoller. 

Tko w«ll-kDOwt] plulologiBt, HunC&lry do M«o Korotlid, ii ol 
finttDnt tmvcllmK )n TurkUtiUi fcir tJio piirpoM^ of iu)thm|^clof^c?al 
itndiw. Mr. Vuivkoff h;iJt commTink^tod pftrlicnlnm at bik 1r«v<-U 
h Jik|.iiui in l&Td, (iijd Itli. UU&lukLu MakUy buu^la uioUior, «nd a 
Iflrt jpatAlmcnt of hi* hoEca on New (Juincn, 

Two itev Bcieaitidc^ EipoJiTicTUF^ uk ftl^ R Dolmur Morgmti (to 
""horn I Bia tDd«<ht«d f>ir t-luii ftotroiint of RiinHJftTi ExplcirnUon) 
ttbrtwrno, wi!) prcbahly nhorily be orgnnitcil by tha BuwUa 
Q«ognfAiiaAl Socbty: th4 firat, uutiur Mr. Muinuff, wiU btudy 
1^ Kioldi tribpd ItTlng t\n ihd Vilgiii : nni) fhn uyrnirl It int^tnl^it 
^ U|tkirD tho watcr-comoLUiiicaticpiie cf t^jbcu^i. vith tlio TJow cf 
■ifiOlttuiitig th« f&AKtbihty <A' opiMimg li Jinot watcrvuy botvrooa 
Sortli-Wutffim Chirm un'l !Rurop«Dn Riiuk by l^kif Haikal, the 
At^Cun^ Iho Ycawci, llio Kul, tlic^ Ob, onr! lit? fobol 

IlMj- — ifhd«anA<fiw)rt< — I1i« fint Koport <ir tbo u<iw Depaitmoai 
tf tuJUnBbriiw AnTTpynhwibcwn niibmitEnd byz.]uiRupfiTinter<1ont, 
CctnioiuideT A. D, l^jlor, Uto i.y^And baa been deemed uf aufficicnt 
^[viuLoo mat} 1llt4t<^et to wnrmnt iU lioing ro|>nn1«rl in this 
ttuUyas A Pflrliflmcniary r^pr. Tho Heport toodiea uptwi tha 
?Wo4 of nbmluto iunctivity in (Jowt'HtJttoyiiig whi<:b nnocorHltd 
tbAMition of Ihr? Indifta Navy in Ig^l, For ten yi>arii tha 
*Wa of the Moraditilo Mnrino fr«quonting tha fndiAn porU w^ro 
B^q^ntod by (lio diBTHtLtjimnncj^ nf tbcwe Ktureying operHtinna, 
•Wi bad l>oon cme of iLo i^hicf fimclidiLS of the Indian Nnvy. 
* 1671, Mr, Ck^onU K. AUrkhum, c.Ti,, our Soorolary, drew ibo 
ittaUkm of thfl Dtilcu of Argyll, thon Spctoutj of State for JnAik, 
^ ti« pmttipg need uf 5uaLc orgauixcd agency fur providing for 



Sii BuTHB&i 

:oCK*« Addr4a$m 

tlii« cdJ. Tlkc fuct wtui, tLat tjuco tit «iti:iit)Oti of tlie i&iT«^ 
Uion in apo, many of vbich daUd ErDm thirty to fi^ ycax% baok^. 
extToirdinbij chaai^a hod tuktn pluM in tLe configuimtiw of tlM' 
4X*a*l ; hglilA, Imriy*!, Ami Uyiixmn liml Vw^n orecliiil ; uid porta. 
iittio or no imprntADco then, hod bccomo rci;iiLaHv open t» 
iii«m&> 3Uny of tbo mrrojM of & o«uiiuy bcforo hod be«ti 
preHmEriiLty fHAmSnafforifl Tiot to W cirnpcir^l with the H] 
lio^id Nttvy »nrToje of the prtcont il«>, ciuricU out with «l«u^' 
boalfl and tramod oifii<ji^rtf. 

Aftur fcOCLO dftU}', thd Oo^yLnlmcnt fm^lly look up th^ (inration ift- 
1H7.'I, and r»qae<it«d tliAt (VimmeiiidiT Taj'I<ir *lioLild lio dcpulrJ t^ 
India to Adviso tbcm on tho mibjcct It wiu coi the l€th of July^ 
J 871» thut official BUMtiiJii yf%» given for th« Ibrmatfon of tli4 now 
l^pBrtm*^nt m1l«d *' Thn Mnrinc Riirvpy Dflpcirtmoni,'* Comtnaodcr 
K. B. Taylor, Lite t^.» wna oreated STiporinl^ndviit, ncd otz «xp0- 
rienood KmvigatJO^ Qftoora of th« Koyal Nuvj w«rrt> loot bjr tho 
Admiralty for nopvif*) undar hinu Itfaidea th™i.\ n fnw officooi 
the IJongEil aad I3oiuL»y MurLuSH woro «ugDgod iu Iadift,n>iiJ OW'' 
esperionoed ot^oiAl of tho Admimtty Hydrof^tnphio Oitics m* 
omatad Suponntondvot of tho Dmwiag and Cotupiliiig Branch. 

TIju chiof ftiirvc-ya eiecuied by tho now UepaitmeuL op lo 
ciid of 1S76 oompriue tbe followiog: — Kolnchol Harbonr and tha 
Enoiam Ifooki in Tiavancoro, Ooconoda Kiy and tLo lower pait oT' 
the Eooj^My FU\'«r, including ihe Jamwi and Miiry Hhualm, ibo- 
approachoa of the Ita^sooQ River, Akyab Port and FaJm PouI 
uiehorffgo. The Dupurin>eiit tiUHtaiiiad an unloTttinAto loa« hj Ika 
dfAth i>f one Mf it>i itiiyal Navy niirinyorH, Llditlt^n^tt C- 
a young oRlcor of proiuiac, and won of ^tafT-Ojixunandttr Oi 
ft^,, our Map Curator. Uering th^ aprioff of 18'G, CoAl 
Taylor inad^ a tour of Infipe^tlon along ihe BnrmoM coa*t, whi 
ri'»»1t«d ill th« dirtoftii^n of mnnyorrDrii in th« ^^ilating ofaaii^ and' 
\ik Q di;tcnuLnaiion to Kavc tho impoztaiit povt of Atnhont proptiriy 
surreyod at Iho carlitMit opporlnrity. A vainable liat of hgbl-hi 
and lighUvoftrmU nlnng thn nioMt of BHtUh India hav bcon conxralsft'' 
o& ibo model of tbo Admiralty Liftt; and Cojuuinudur TuylurVJ 
J)cpartiuont hub furthi^r provod tlH uBclulncra hy rcnd«rw|; adriot 
te Gov^rnmpnt on a variety of marine AXibjecle, 

ThoOroabTrigmjomotricul Survey of IndEaooniplHoddnring 
yaara IB7^-^ an out-turn of A\%'1 oqiinre niiloa, while an aroa 
iOHia 9410J H(]iiaTe mileg ws« covered by cocondory triongttli 
3500 Bquaie milea of it being closely covor«d with poiota Cor tlwl 

Indiaji Syrwy», 



lopogniphioBl Murrejcr. Topographical oporatiooa by tLo luu 
dfr|mnii»mti h^rtt boon irniduiTinl tn Drtini T>iTn, indiidltig Di# 
8aw^ik Elitl^. attl Jaunnar liiiwar, KattjwAi aikcl Qutcmt; and 
Iha U'M vcluD^'oi luii beoQ 1(H7 Ki|u&r« miloa on th& scnLo of 4 
inchfri to thfl >nLl«, uk4 3C2^ t^niiro milM on iW icflJe of 2 inolii* 
t4j tho nOe. Tbree vpamta aurvo^M baw lH«n l>roiight to cxjau* 
pletioni tiievo boioi; the Jodbpnr JrIertdion&) Acrictf of principiLL 
tri*tig)M on tb« naridUn f)S 73), mnniii^ ihrotjgh Ui« Jut^hpnr^ 
Jcnalmirond BitEctnir Suti-jiuf HujpuUiiiJiiiiiilTUiavnIpnr: ttotopo- 
fCT^pttji^ luTTttj <^thc btttulifuWiJIf^yof Dchr4 Dtm.icdcdiDi^ita 
omtlj'mgttihdiTiaion of JHuni^ar iiuw.'ir and Ikie Siwhltkh liiliis ; aiid 
tbtt C^i^loii Coasooiin^ S»rtOK, hy mi-anii of wticboon)pl«f;aiiNUy can 
VM1V ba intrcduciHl bclwcnii tbc SurrojB cif CV^lim anti Tnili^r and 
throiifEh ^icb tbo recent t^lo|pvpbiO tneaHTmiDCDtH in anitiii]^ 
ijkli% aadOrMCWicH loa^tadi&aUj tviU hnva apTtbliabcxl n timilar 
ODii]M9cliuaforCe>ii>Li. d|'inL-tevulliiigopef»lio[i8,Ui]uflj in Ciitch 
&Bd KaUjwar, hsi'm Iicgei carried over 1:2] Linoar milua, and throa 
etatiooA for tidu.1 cbicnrntiariH on tbo nortli iliuro of tlio Gulf of 
Kutc?li l^vi^ b^ipn f.-oiiiJL-cU<d by Ii^vsIh; tin* rvstilt of Ibo di.'tenDiDa> 
tlon baisg to iudioato liiAt ibe iu«ftn i«a-l«vv] atanila progivMivvly 
lil|[bor, la tbo tidal atatiuo i* rncoTad frooi tbo ojion-uuk fqrtbffr 
wp tiM Ga1£ Tlia nmul uulivity ^iuh bccrt abovii in tbE> compula* 
tioiui aftd pybLicatLUua of ibo DupArltiiLvif. ibo i^aurftl Uupuit of 
arUch b^a bo«m iamcd by Ur, J. B. N. Hcrnwcy, m.a^ r.itjt,, wbo 
oAcuitcd a« SttptrictctidMit duiiog ibo abtnoua on furlcHigb of 
Golond J. T. ^Vnlkvr. iw^ vjha 

lit cobocdioD tvitU tbo foTC^inK »bould bo mentioned tbo rotircH 
■»«iit fmn tbo •«rvitfa of Colucol T. ti> AIontgoisiiHi^, t.,^, t.vj,, 
Iftt* X>wpu^^Snparii-iterid*int of the Grwit 1'TlgnTiOTriPFrto«1 S«rv«y, 
wlu^ a*aGoldAI<dalIt»tof tbi» Soaiely, b^-t a f/cculiar c)aiuj«ti mur 
■oti-ftT Uolucel U«ntgoiu«n(.^'fl aorvioa in Iho Dupurtnicnf, Srara tbo 
Ifttfr of bu entry tboralnto tu 16^2. baa bcon otia of aigDol iiaaHil- 
BHa. Aiul bia biboura iu conui^cticin witb tbo auccioarBl trana- 
frantic^ osplontionN coudcotcd by nutivca Iw&od under bia oyo, 
v»Ul alwaja ba rmaiubar^d. 

Id ihn Indian Tcrpngraphiml StinriTyji ftccHon, nina pattina nrat* 
alworkdorifistbe y«ar l&7f<-T7. and & bigbly Hxti&faotorr ont-tutn 
of Id.lfJtt aqnara R)il«<» wag aobiev^d, tliit» baiug priDC^LpaJty uji tbe 
t-jMib acaW lVi> of tbc particH bn>ko gnniDd in tbo SUto of 
Mjvon^ vbcro acvaratu iorvoja bavi-< for mtw* i\intr. paat l)o<n 

Sir RnHERroRt^xcoGs'* A^rttM. 

Dcvd<!ii. Tbo Urge icductioEa whicli liAva been recently auic 
in thu Survey Ilepu-tni«iit h4vu alnriwly bv(;nn l<3 t*vd Uioir «0brt' 
in |irr|uinitions for tlie h1iK<tTpT.{oii of two topogi«|ihicQl partirA 
iliuiug UiQ prenirui ymr ; nhilo in Iho Kcrvcuue 8unroj bnVkcL, 
ol'fVQQ partiva inslca*! uf f^jurtccti Katl) bucu cmplojrcd dorilig tbo 
neAson 18T6-TT, wh^cli in just coming to 4a «ncL Tbo GovcrotocDt 
Lxiut^mplato ED thitt ni&nnuT to bnng iliu tiftfpiiTiiktcn of Uie wliufo 
t^urrey Dtpnrtmcut cvtj&tually down to 20 icetct^ cf 24 Ukluof 
mpccK par muniim. 

Ill tL» Compiltng ami l^ngriLving brAnchcs of tbir Sui^iejOl- 
0«QCT»rH olEtm pro]£rur» Iihb Ikt'*]] nuule in Uic prepuaUim of 
g«momI nuipk of JndU, tho l/on-^r TroTinccf, Bind^ Chidh Afid 
Aabqi. a mHp cif KulimhiKTmi, on iJin bc^Io of \fy mMm to wq 
iQcb, liAa btuu publibljod, ttud u uvw map of ibt* <;uuutnis Wtwnoa 
UlDdafftmi and tbc (.'«0piab Soa, on tbo ecalo of ^i miW lo a& tocfc, 
la under pTupiLrutit>n. TIil* iiativeH (>uiploye4J oa liiil-<'iobipg 
tinue lo pri.»gr4<»^ but ivqtiirfi tlie ix)n»tjiiit holji utid Kuperrijikni 
tbe European ^ta^, a ntulc of tbiogs wbiob cAiiaca great debij^ 
tho work of Ibv Uilcn 

atuiattntcd Ic 11, nnd tbo lotal ai-o« »iirTcyc<l wm ll.lT^ sq' 
nilea, on ccolvt^ vnryUig b«tweon 32 and 2 in^m to a mile. 
Stiflnuoiis frikdcAvonrii hnve becti miid^ to iifllin tlie naap* of tbo 
Bombay S«T.llerimut Stirvcyii for Inoijrpi>rAtL<in ui tir as pineibU 
tbo I'll pogTJiphi col SttrvoyubcoLd, but, up to tho proMnt. tJio rocvl 
bav« proved failurvHt owing lo tb'> gr^^t iiiacciirAoyof lj)« fbrmor. 

A Ttfry iuttfrBHtitig iiiclci-ni»ip1ia8 hf^D publlubL-d liy tfaoSn 
Ooaaitd of IndiA in bia Tleporti thowiDg the progicsA liilh^rto 
by tbe diffetont brnitcbvA uf tlio Survey DcpArtmobt towiudi 
COmplolJoik of Jk ftnii Hurrey of all tDdi&. Rnjpnta&a, Ktfjhat» 
NorT.fa-W^fil Provinn&fl, tbo Koukan^, luid tlie wbk>1« Soiuthon 
uf tbo poikia«aU arc o^xW conepicuoutily bla&k, but il lanM tlo4 
for^ton, that tLough not Bfriotly and Bcieritifio*lly AOOtmOe, A 
ali^fa of tbpw pTDvinn^fl art in eii^itoTioe, Indeed^ 1hf> ftCtiTit^ 
eiivr^y witb whicb Ihe unrrey cf our great IndiaL £m(iiiti 
bocm punbcd on fur many yofire by tiie pruvont aocomplidie4 
«rf tbo l^if^Ttniont, d«G«rTi?B tbe wami recognition of gocgnfdiiSM. 


nu]4tLibk>ji)iinii>yJDtoEadaksban,iEL mTQ^wMMOoidedfajiBy 

7hm*-Himah^<in Krpl^mtiotUM 


<koMKrr in the AJdffw for 1 672, hu Wa 6^111 «iij;af^] in XD^kinx » 
vttiiUr n«t6^uo'oy froui Kntiul lu Bokbaia. Ho toft ?«b»wur on 
tbe 19Ui or S^iUimbor, 1873, tvilh two uuiu^ULiiioua, tiuvulltn^ in 
thm duigaitfo of » PMrcbaitt. wjlU abuut JOU/. woj tli of mtt»Uo» oitd 
ftloib*. L«ftTiiig K»biiL on tho I^d of No<vaBibor« urtd crowing into 
BndftlDihan by the Sftr-ulnn}( V^w, about 12,000 rvttt above iIm »<««, 
liD airivod od tk« 19ih at Fabubad, the laoJoni capiUl of lUiLkk- 
aJiAa. ivbere be poABcd the w:ntcrp On tlio 1 Oxh of Apiil, l&T'i, ba 
Mt ont from KuiRAb«d with « stock of rfturrtu (an intoxickdi^g dm^ 
nuidp fVom ihn bcmp-fSowirr) f<»t luln, und n^jif b«l lh» k^ft bank uf 
tlw Ojciu, wbcro bv crtceud Hu: rivtr on a ruft lufula uf iiiflal^ 
■fciiu^ the BCr«&in L«i£ig 600 pacoa wido. TLo O^mh h«Tc aopantea 
A» dominioni of tho Atnir of Brikbam from thom of tbo Aiuir 
nf A%luuLi«lan. and fmm tbi^ point upAaidfl it m ^ufiullj 
IpkQwn lui Cbo Punjab. N«xt day Ibu Havildar arrived at Kobb» 
n irfly of ^'OU boUM*, wberv be remained unlil ibo 3&Tb of Hjbj?. 
Bi» tb«n naTatM ftlortg ibe rigbt hank of llir^ riTnr int^ pArWAiFr 
aail ATTlvid mt Kila Vuk GbuUni, tbe fiontlur villago of tlmt littlo 
at«te« on tbo &tli of July, Ho was told that, from ihia point, 
ono long iLij'a joiira by would bave broinght birn into Shlghnan; 
1>ot be waa nvnlWI by t\m mb^r of Dnrwav, unit ilt^laiiiin] itt ita 
i&icf town of Wanj for ihroowookfl. Ho was thtn told Uwt bo 
^w<hfild i>H b» uUcwwl to continue hiojuurnoy, but inn^t rfitum to 
Ko1a1>; ,ba onii»qnp.ntly v/attt bnrk to Fainibai). and ibenoii. bjr 
Balkh arid Bamiab, to Kabul* riToclutig IWuiwur Gti tbv lltb of 
JaiiaAry. 18T5. 

Aooibtfr fif thn tiativo cTplomrd, fTiiin^td by thn Trignnomolrical 
Barvoy l3f^mrtinfnlH a luitivn of TcKliawur, imrunmoil " thr> Mullnb,'* 
aooomfianiod tbe Harlldar ia far iw Julalabad, on bid outward 
J t HU Twy, H» is dttacribad u a woll-rduf^itt'id inuT\,i-lci1l«d in Ai-ub)0, 
t&d ablo, in bin Apar^ity of MitlUb, to tmvi^l nnciucj^iioncd in huoIi 
^OfCeronN d^Tii:U na Swat and CliitniU Ho left JaUlabwl on tbo 
2=- "lubor, 1 JJlTD, CToatod Uio Kabul Rjvor, uoc] prootwiod 

ttj^ . y of ibp Ktmar, of whi4:h he bas givrai n vrry vnlunble 

JafcripTinii Ho nrai'bsd CLiUul uu LLh Slat of iXifobflr, imMiog 
tkftWinterUiet^ On tbo»udof 5Urob bo *iotout fur Ibo Baroghil 
haa, whicb ie boliorod to bo tbo lowest doproasion in tbe ohnia 
UiAt nrpanilH Itidiu And AfgbaTiifltuii frurfi Nortbum Avia. Tbui 
|«Hi fonaa tbo wat^r-pariiug botwecn tbo Sarbtidd and Cbitral 
BWctv; Ibo Mnllah ororaod it, and ronobod Sartiodd, in WatEban, 
on th» Btb of M»y, 1874. Heihpn prooooflud over tboLittiftPamii 


Sir HuTaeapoKD Auxck'j A^^hea^. 

to TaahlEurELan and V&rk4uJ, >&d eo hy tho Kumkonim PMi 1^ Lth. 
He m«roIj nude 4^ routo-curray wxih oompaiiA, VPitbout ftttemptii^g 
ciliEErMitioDB fiir Inlitude or hotght jlIkivo iJi4> Hea,iLa ilcleciiofi WDitld 

Thcaj two joumoyis porfurmcd liy "the Hnrtldetr" ft»il **ll» 
MuUaU," were compkmunU of tbo work dcLioved hy O^ptftia IL 
TraUor,B,e., of Utt>OroatTrIgouaiui9trioal flurtgj'. nvlm ajcuynap^niwl 
tho Miefion of Sir Dou^Iils F.myth to KMb^ar iw (jtoognplwr. 
A fiw word« rvganliiig ika geogTuphica] work petfonfiod oa thm^ 
Kipei3ttioB bv CnjtljtiTi TrolU?rwiII bu naooroiuy iii ihiii pUre. On 
hill t>iitwurd journey he madtt bu islomuug buat-eipeditioxi oo 
fan^^nn^ Lako ia OoE^ber 1373, obtrunin^ Rounding of (lua 
«)i^vntL?cl ii1ic?i>t of witf(-r: und HiirvtrytMl tbo rontoa botwv«n Ladflk 
luid Eahlviii TurLikUii, Fri^ru Kjubj^AT bo uuUe itii|)vrtAfit ex- 
l^loraUon« to t}io north ha fur on Ihc Ctii^tyi' Ku). Ho tbea 
piooccdod on hiK imporlanl jouraoy, by way of TovbknrghAn, 
t(* lliu PttiLtti' SliL^pjte, wLrr« Ilu obt^Tit^d Pt uotii^^letu sol of oBtrtt- 
noioic^ obvorv&tLon^i oml vm ihu» enabled to lix tbe prlMd 
pi^tfitiont dong th^ Ilhl* of maiv^ with cousictcrL^Jo oooimej, 
III tliU jrjurnoy CApiafn Troitcr *^birf&il ficini KnAhgnr o«l 
17tli (jf MavoU, td74, Accoi;i[iau]til by Pr. StoUcikA, U19 
loKi'l, fMsicd thrgu;;b ToAUkurgbaii, acid Tooched Piuaj«h 
^Viikhati. II«ro bo d«vp&tc'bvd Li« hmUU&C, Abiul SubbtA, 
fiZ|iloi>j tho (A)iiiv4> of ihtu OxiiH fKiij LhiM ])^int in tbe dlnoUoa 
EoUb- ilo fallowed the river ibr 1)3 milcn to LihkAjliitD* 
taming northvurdd. lio ocnliau(.Hl bi« jcninify along Ibo Hto^ 
fur iii3]ki'1y too inileB. pniiaLiig ibmiigh i1l« diAtrfcTa of GhA 
61ij^hjirLij, ftbd fEosbnii — oQuiitrloa vrbicb huxxt Ijitbcilo bt«u kitoi 
to ua hardly own by uumo. Ho dveo" ibca tbo faiuona mby tain 
ttCil giVM niAny pavlioiil^a rotpectiitg ibo OOimtHos of Stii 
and Jtiitliui. Thu MuiLfihi Abiul Siibhjua vuoccodod m nuohbig 
fioint very near to that jvt vhioh the Uavildckr, comiiiK Ctcia ^liO 
dirooLJon, v^a^t oblt^fwl 10 tmn bicU, CnpUiin Trotter lofi £^j 
en the 26tb of April. 1S7(^, And marrbrd np t,hn nonhom braQcIl 
to tbo Giuikt Pnmif^, Tcaobing iho Wl^1l end of Wood** Ttcioi^ift 
tl)c ^nrco uf tbe Oxux. Captuiu Trutldr'n voluublo Keport 
thrown A flood of light on the g^^g^^P^J ^^ ^^ IVuuir ftud 
Kaat«in Tmkif-Ian, and it is grfttifyiug to find tbbl ]J« 
tion of tbo poeitiuu of tbo Viclorlu Lako u pmctittUy idoo 
with that '-■»r Lionteniint Wood- 

Tbo rcdtictinnN of tlio lutrunomiual t^bflarvationa and the 


TraAt'IIimahifdti K^Itivali&m, 



f«I*tkiiu od beiigiiU ir^re all mfldo in t]i« ofll<« of tbo Snpvr- 
■nUtidont of 11i« (f n»At TngoRomtilriai] Survrj-; jind, omi^igoLbcr 
Aa«lti^ ft titritm of moat v«laaUo tnAptt bus bv<:ti prepared. Tor 
Cttpttin TK4tor bad noL only workod out bi« own oUervalionip but 
liA«ft1«a rvdoccd tbcNA (<r ihn IfnviUUr nn^ Mnlkh, » well nst tlioao 
4lf tlw Pncdit, Koin Bin^h. wWo jvtmtL \'f.ry remtakMc jounwj 
iL^dgh Tibet cOTQWl for him iho P^troi^'a Hoj&l Mi.'duli whiob but 
b*aB iKIi day publicly awftniod, TIiom native oiplorois did good 
mtrnon in llio flald. hut, fi:ir tha rr^iiltinf; nnrmtiva* and nrnpi^ Oa> 
pwfdien 4re iadobud to Caption Trotter, ns ihey wen fin^ tlie tomjIU 
of foratr Jonm^y* by nattvo oxplorcra to Colonel Uontfj^morio. 

B«f[Ardiag Xoin EMogh, th^ mowt dintuiginHht^l of iheiff nt^tiTD 
«xplurcin,n]i uccount (irwioBc }»1«tl joumvy, fiom tbv jicu of OaptAin 
Trottor, «u nibd Iwfirc ufi ut our ImL H««tiDg, I niuy ^U iliat bid 
trfttoing A* ft UftvolUr And topogTApbor bftd «i1v&dod ovcrr thirty 
jF^mm^ His Srat cxpisriemio wih gaiaed it» th»? Ntrrii^u orthoso twu 

IS&C A&d 1867 ho won cmfbycd by tbc brotliorfl Sohlogintwoit, 
^vhikttliey wnto cDg»g4<d in tarryinj^ on ihoir nugnctia and otli*r 
oboerttttiooa in LojUkb and Ea^liuiir. After nomo youa' inlex'vftl, 
^tniag wlucb be vrui iwtifully oconpiud in cilu('uii(jn no ilood-mnetor 
of ftGotemmotit-flcJiool m bU nittiro duitriet of Milam in Kumaon, 
h» vna^m 164»3, takrti intci tbn (imi^loymiiit (iftlio Trigonumetdoftl 
t^arrey* at the iuatanco of Coloi^cl Waitc^r, and tt&inf?d ae an 
«bMrror for lopographio work in iho countrke boycnd flio J»di«A 
■froBtitr. Since tbi?n, ha hut oarripd out wilb ^atipnce, iDt»)Ii- 
fnKC» ud perfect tmcc^^w, ftnd at Uio peril gT bia lifo, ft noiatjor of 
iBfttriftnt Kipnlition^ 

In ]60A-66,bonuid<i hit first important QAtfiy in ^ixplaration l>yhl8 
«eIebnitod jonntry fruin tbuoapitui of Nupiil to Lbian: mnd thvncn 
lio flaoond^ tiLo wbolo oo^ra^ of tbo Groat Itivor of Ttbot to tbo 
MglOft of Uanvftrownr Lnkr, a KpntHj cf 10 dof^ri^QB in lon^iiiado, 
and bock tu lEjdi:L 'J'liungb Lhima bad liren reached two or tbroi* 
tiiiMft fti gml iut4*rTftbi. during iba tiro preoeding centanco, by 
Swopoan ttavollgni, nono of thoin yvcrtj praoliivd 0«opuphera, or 
liftd left tut any gMgntpbioal data : wbibit tbo value of tho obaor- 
Vfttioni by CLitiuae ur Tibulau tsmyitjyfH of the <fo9tiit PutliDrH, 
wbicb funnod the baniii of tbi« part of D'AnvIllo'i AtLm, baa 
^wuyi heivn Kubject to grc^t doubt. Nain Smgb'a doturrajnaticm ol^ 
tbetnio pMitionort)iHti.>'1itbrAtmlcLly,a4 wall ftA (lint of lr«A^proxi- 
niftt^ ftlUtudo abjvc Lbo sotv, nan tb^rdbro^ ptftctically. tli« ^t. 

cUxjcli' Sir RuTtiEKromj AloockV Addrf^s. 

hnit bcui3o« iiiia, hit olubi>T'iito routo-flarroj of now coa&Uy 
oxt«ni]od to S0I7M i'Ji-'O mtlw, Jiiii obMfrvatioiut for Uliludo fixi^il 
Lhttt ut 31 plutyiB, Jiiid thcue for lUtititdii gavu ihu bp^jruKiiLiAr^ 

boigiit of 33. lEo ItvugUl buck, id ailditiuu, « wj' uLtollt^oiit 
and intQnuting Diary, of wliiuh tko feubtrtanoo U givon by Colo&ol 
Mimtgomaric iu th<> :JtfLt) volume of our Sooioty*« * Jotjm*!,' Every 
liiouuA (if judguitut utiU uuEupuriiii>n Umt iwutd be ii^jrtioil rvnuJiv^ 
in ihowiu^ Ibibt tbo Puudit'^ ob^orvAtitjuii wcr& mopit «4u«ritl aud 
tnutwcirthy, thouj^b oti«a taftde* ui may bo oonaoivod, i;]idor cir* 
uumfltjiiiotw of eitrpiuo difRcitliy, ntid dtraining ingiMitiily to ubtAin 
upp<irttmity for tnitkiug tliom at all. 

For ihU gnukt jounioy uid iU roHoIU, tiio Pv&dit roodvod a 
Gold Waluh from o^r Socaoty in 180d. It ctmaot bo Mid th»t W 
na^ne bL-odiuu Jj^iiiuiui, for bui iiumci wah nuui^KirJly AupjrTtwttd, uid 
unknown till ri>c«utly, ort^ to gur Sooivty, But, under tbo titlo of 
**Tbo Ptindit," bi» nrpttlation «proad ovar flnropo. 

In I8ft7, Nab Sipgh< with two comnulnfi, iD&dc a Mcond valiuble 
joiuney on Ibo Tibutnn Plateau, in tlic vjuintty uf tbo bourcos vf 
tho Indus and SutLoj, and boy</nd tfaont. Of tJiie joan)oy> alno, tko 
nAirativu, publliliod in iko 39tb volumo of oiir Socioty'a ' Juurnal/ 
U) full uf itilerueiE. 

LofLving minor flarvio«« nncotiood, I paei on to tbo PnndiVs 
0^>wnirLg worlc tut xn explorer. IT^ving aooompanlcd hir D. 
Fonytb'ft MiHuiun lo Knihg^ir, in 1873, wiilionf Iiiiduij; (jpgor* 
tmuty for dotaobcd ruifilujfuivnl, un tbo jotuni of the party Uf 
Lodak bo vulnntOQr«d to {;o on o ficuh joumoy of Diploratiota- 
Thiif Jounioy, if rtoL qiiiro «o inipoHant Da tbat vrliirb chimed hia 
fIrKt fiuao, WAS o^ or 4 Utld uvoii ytt uiom iLTclnauii, and Um kiiuwn. 
HiB Tuubc lay frOTu Lob to LbiiA'L, l>y & line farther nurtk tiitin any 
pi'^riouely known, H&d, in fact, ncrosh thnt pavt oi thn bigh platoaa 
of Tibot which iv almoat a blank in uur nmp«. In tho ooutvo of hiii 
journey he diHCOvcrod au oxtouBive sodv* of lakoa und Tivora^ oa 
woll ah a v;k«t nu>wy rangt^ lo tlio north of tbo TiboUn oonrio of Lho 

lliv Ktity ut Lhuru waa out Hhurt by l^^CItm^tliIlc?cA of dnngor, and, 
after having d^^tcmxincd iho cuurao of tbu Brahmaputra to a point 
Tory mncb lowor than any that bod y<^t boon asuort»in(MJi bo Himok 
acrou thi? lUmjiliiya #>uthwirc1, qnd ont^rcd Aiwun by the Tawang 
raw. ^ mutts biihut to qui to uu«xplorod. 

Tho totttl Ivugth uf tkiii jouruoy ftxiin Ladak to tbo Arontior<po«t 
of Auun wu 131 J ndlr^, and abuat LZO^ miW of thiit Uy through 

Nm Ouvtm, 


forlotiliido ftik4 lotj^itmle vutt laoro ELumoroiu th&n OT^r. Tfcu« 
gnai «nd tinUomo foat Apparn lo liav^ clntutd iho rufidit'fl oaroer 

i» stelDcl to b« wurii i>ul« ami Iub ei^l imp^i-iud by protracted 
ecpcviuo oijd iucr^jwuit obMrviLtion, in thoM Jur^h chmatAs axui 
>t thiKo viut ullitndo*. Suoh Jin^ Iho aflitovcmi^Tita wliioh uar 

JStw GmstJL, — An iii]|>0Ttatit journey to tbo interior of N^w 
OviiMa liHH been perfui-utMl duitng the piuit ye^r hy dij^nor 
D'AlborliK, tbi» woJi-kitOfi'ii IloliAU uaturalifft wliviu lay prodoccdNor 
IMQtiouod in iho Uut Annivomaiy Addrocn oa hnviii); aocoiDpftiiH^d 
Jfr. M»o^Huti«k in thi? London Miuluiiury ^chsly't Bto^mT^rt im hiH 
"TOytgo up ihti T]y Rivi<r. Oil Iiia njtuiu fium lliat pivliiuiiiWj 
joitnicy, Sigaor i3'AIbcrtid visited New South Walop, ntxd was tlier» 
ftmitihcd. by tlte Hbvrulity of a numbur uf wcuitby r<^T(IeuU of 
S^Adj, witli tltt jiti>H[iHi>f umk^rlukiiig 4kf]r(.Wr«x|ilorHniin ofUiift' 
Krc>jLtc*t knovrnnTDrof New Guinea. A«nialJ*tofliii-Iauuob, a*mod 
lh« JVtfni, ufouly 12 Ions burthen. WBjr provided Toi- him, and Ica^in;; 
8>dn(?y im lliu !20f,1i of April, I87l3, lii.' L.:t}iiiirL«Ti4Wl Iiim HHi^Hur of th«t 
riwr tovftids the end of May. with a crovr^jf ten mon^ thicc oalf of 
ivbou wcru Euiopconfl. Tbo joum^y np the alnjam wtw ooniincod 
wEth vant»1 adv^ntnT^^ hut without KprIo(i8 ftd^id^nr, iinti] lh» 28 ih 
of June, by wbidj day be Imd nncibcd a print iii s. lat, >%^ 30' and 
I; loti|;. 1-lP ;(0'« about 500 milos IVuin tho moutli, follavring the 
wu)ijii)ga of tbL* tivot, a dLtUkiic«> fjLr ^loM'diiig tliut atlainird bj 
Ur, MjuifailanB in thn EU4^nyo^Dim in Tbo provioiifi >'<«r, wMfih vraa 
cnly ICOmilc*. At tho farthuAl poiat reached. Signoi D'AllH/rti* 
npOFlH tiiu li* ly Kivor to bo la eonio pEuc«e only 25 or 30 yordfl widOi 
md T0ry tdkallow ifi j^latoA ; indeecl, it was cvring io th& streatn In 
dfj weather boin^ tuo shallow fur bin little laiicch* which ro]Mvt- 
edly groimJcd on gmvdly bonkB, thvit bt viui furcL*^! tonbondou hio 
tiBt«ipri«o; hi* Inlontiou, At iilArlJng, hw^ing bton to em»i by land 
lu thu iippcmEo aoriham cdhxI cif tha inkrid, ^hlt^ld tho rivnr prov^ 
Ott-*i|Pftblo to a difltonoe of not moTo than 200 mile« from tho o<.>nflt. 
Tha navigability oeiu«d, bowov&r, at 4U<) mil&a from tbo iicitborn 
aido, and tli«l]uul journey had tobonbaDdonod. Tbo rapidity with 
wbicb the bright of tha wator n>»o aiul Cull. ai;i.-ordi(ig hh tlio 
weathOT waa tikiiiy or dry, tJioWB that the Iravollor could oot havo 
befn T»ry f^r from tbd sourcaa of th« xtrtHim ; and tho Hwiftruiu oO 


Sir RuniEEFOKD AlcockV Atitlrc$$^ 

t4> orrrrvoiQ^ in lit^ftEnmg i^Aiiwt it* Tbo anziotii^B and labcnr* of 
t\V3 nnv'i^ttou, ntid tte impanpiJililA HAtrnvr t^f IliA clcmvr fM'mt vliloh 
cEglliub tljc bank* of Ujla great nv*r, provoalud Siguur D'Alb^i'tU 
from ftdtiing fo Urgoly ■■»» hu Lml oxpuctj^l to hia nntunil hijrfory 

"CoIlcctloQ, and tho UiRJo cau&cs prav^niod hiu making an}- giyi^ra- 
phical namnaiinaiieB lioj'ond Uitt immediftta Lhu^Ett <if tli*> fttroAto. 
Ho ondcftvoiirod to gut vicvti of tho o^untty b;r aac<]nd>nK tho umaU 
flminonooj aoocjiiiblo fmtn tho h^nlu- but (it tho poiDt whi^ro ho 
tamed buck nu high lund \^?im in flight, tho hjghiwt hilla obmnrad 
ftronnd a^^TSgiiig valy fruiu 31)0 lu 40<> iWt. Dut lower down tho 
rivor bo diacornod lrt>m tho top of a hill, 2tQ foot high. Mono xttj 
high moUQtftiiu ui a diatanoG ^HtJnmtccl at fiO cr CO ^ilott, Aaftd* 
ttH LiLtivi? pupulaLluu iH luiictitml, Mr. MMTfarlaiie'n oxpoHonda 

■«pTto(iT« 10 hJLvo boon ooiiArmod. i^Nmcly^ thitt it h only tho brood 
roaohoA near tho motith of tho livor thitt nro at aII vroll peoplod. 
Beyond IDO m[1eH,r?Hliv» houKutand ii:iLm'if tteem tuhavebeon vnry 
rarely met with, «L(id tho aatlvoA Itl aliuo»t all cmi^« fomook their 

-botvoa or thoir viUagvit on tho dppronch of tho atmojfo vinlon. 

In Aprfl of last y^r, Mr. MoorkHane niiule an Intf>rwtlitg voyage 
in tho ^aafj<rre'tn eUrato^j' rrurn Poft ftforeaVy to Chkim Stroitn and 
Poawxiion Bay, iit tlio n>ath-oa>'tcni oxtromity of Now Uuinoa, and 

t&iLda fCTDo diaocivonM of Ulaiidx atid horbuura itx thift varied and 
plcture«f|ik» re<jirin, vhlch will form a T^luablo niLpploniefit to the 
roAnIt of Captain Moroahy'a mciDoraljIo' mirvcy, Tho 11ct> Ur. 
Lnwce, oa obBcrvant and voalona mombcr of tho London Husionary 

-Sorir^ry'i^ MiAtiioD. taknH nti nolivo part In llion^ ovplorAtlraii, 
vhich oTo being undortakfj^i with a viow of a^ocitftiiHOg tli« bot 
ttiUe f^r JUifidiOD ctationa in Now <Jttmoa. lie accornpctniod Mr, 
Maofiirlune To Cliina StruSfs. aniS h«« ttcitnily oommTitiknled an 
ucnnunt uf a »<Tih9cqupiit vltit io Point Hnoil, In tho imtghlxmrhood 
of which ho diioororcd a Eno river, !00 lo !fiO ynxda wide, which 
haa lUi aourco on tho alopvn cf Mount Aetivlaho. 

Ausnui-Lv,— Mv, Eni«4t Gilo», whf>scroniftr]cabloji?HTnoy tlumigh 
iha intcnur of Woetom Aufltralio, &iom caat to wc^nt, waA i-onordod 
in tlio la«t yoar'a Aildrcis^, bu« ftSnoa Mbt^cd up hU buco««« by t^- 
tniTpr*ing thU inh(>*inliihlo dtstort fwm w«8t to *m(. in ft inoro 
northerly lutitudo than hit protons rente. I^eaTiiifc tho coaafc 
At rhuiDpitrn Bay in Mart^h lH7ti, ho cKms^d iho watorehod of 
-this Kurchiauu tuid oihor rivers and tuidicil the Leud^watori of l^a 


AutiraiiiL — Xiirth Aswrica^ 


JUhbiuton ID alKml laL 24° fl^ wbmiea Ike etmok &orom tho dowH, 
yniag ft liltlo to thd mhUl of Lak* Amadciu, aiii roxdiittg th(» 
huv i^vxr^rlah^ tclui^niiih at lloiititO'lIalloran. His lIucuTiuftroli 
Imy <ni t}jo avota^ aUrLU u il^pw mul a-)i*lf to tlie north of 
iTomit'o loutov 

Kotru Atfuuc^t, — The mirvcryB iuiderUlc«i bj vonuiis offieUl 
do^kHmctitji of tlio Uftittr^i Sutc« o^rjiiano t-> ftflonl impoHAnt oon- 
Uibulic>ii« to oar fcnowlodj^tt of the gcogmphy of North AmoriiV : 
&ad. ill cuuuLVtiim with L]jn pun-ly geuf^mjilLitu] jturllouH of tliMn 
ttcplorftliciiia, a lA vf\<vc\al\j UL>ioworthj tluit TfutiAatkutic C!i>- 
T^nuacnt odviAont aru oonfLpiouonfl fortko breadth of thoit viawa 
ifi wlifatillEj mnttflra, tk< mcro tmngiilutijiTi and mtmituratlon op^m* 
tione fonnhnl » oimaU |iarl of tbo pub)ialu?il rotitlta, whIcL uiclndo 
arifpattl i'Ajinra hy competent authnnticA on the K^^^^KJ't r'^hc- 
oncology, TOetooTulogy, «lhnolog>\ philology, Eoolugy, and botany of 

Fn>fci>*or lUjilci^*« ]£c]'K>rb of hLAopi?Tfttio&A in Colorado, piibliiibcd 
diiHog Iho pnrt yean id probably tho moit cxhausliro of tbcito 
*!iiirv«y<. Tbi? oiiLiTe irir<!tiit of Colombo Iiuh novr br«Ti iiiuidi* by bi8 

p«nia^ Kod ihe altltudM CkoI cf iho bi;;1i««l poo^ cf Hva Kochy 
Uoniit&iiiA (Blonoo IVak, 14,4(11 fcot, boiiif; fotmd to ovorlop all 
thfl TfHX), Thi." topogrjipbic^l pnrtiou of Ibis Itoport U ooinp*ra- 
tiToly suisll : bill tbtj aixuiuuluT-lon of favl« iu e>«iy anc'illEtry 
breach of noioikCf^ ih, on tmual* aAt«nI>bmi;« ««p«<ially wb«n it in 
ma«mb«rv<l that iLl^ profiwdy-iUufitnto-l volume (of vome 5C0 
pi^t«) Eftbrit fj[ir* of u nerlfu bnut-d 6^ fiwl au crlrcuriistniiCA« will 
permit by the cifll^ of lUo Geological bil<1 QoiogyapJiiail t>uixcy. 
'Xha dop*rtino(it boji in odditiori piibUaheJ vni-iouB Bepiiralo part* 
of itn '' miHCftlUiieouK jMiblicAtionA," cant-timng Tnu<^1i lomi gnn- 
f^mphical mftttvr. ftiid of lU ' Oullettn,' of which tlie^oniuil volume 
itf »i>iV well adraaool; it hon also roo^ntly iwued ihf\}o thiok 
410, voliimM on Pbliuoiitulo^cal and Nfttiinl Hialory fiitbji^ctii fOQ- 
necUd v^ith the aiirvvv, niid ilH [Uiii^tratiul by vury iiumorotiH platnii 
«nd map^ Bc«ido* thoftc, tic spcdal norkof llicaurvoyhasrMultcd 
ita ft oon4Ld«n(bIo advuuoo in Ux*t progivas of tbo PhyKiual Atltte of 
Colorwlo, of which, aconnlbg to iha rmfciilnnt (if thn Ainf<rinftti 
OoO£Eni|jh)u%l Socioty, AbcotEi, oompiuing voine 70,000 n^uoio 
miloft, will bo iHsnod portly. 

In o»nci<;ctioR with tliAaft o|KirnliAiu, Pi-nfouior Powell hnn sur- 
veyed TOOO oquoru miloi of the ouat^ luid 4000 nquoro biiIob of the 

clifTJSvUi Sir Kl'llliniEOltD ALCOCk** A^ifre^s, I 

AOUth-wiwt uDd ■oiith-«tLbt of Utftb, i-«4v1ting in on VTCututu know-f 

lt}Ll|^ uf llitf buuill <;u|MibElilii'B cjf LlittL iliblrlut' fur u^rlc^Lunil JJiiT- 

po«cA,otfiug to Ulo «liglit luiu^ll, Aiulof iu ntJivr iiiurs proiuiaiuS 

Aimy. haa cuitliiiUL'ii lim tiuivtja^nvAt uf LLu lOGlL muvldwj]. 111 
Kovnda, Now Mexico, and Cjiiiforniji, tmv<irniDK 2^,000 Aqaoro 
mili^iB, of whidi 9tXlO w<iru in Ni^w M<Tiioo> iiouth*e&iit at Hnnta F£, 
HiH H|iei:ial aiiiii appt'nm to Imvu htsvti tlii^ iiive«ti[pklmii uf llic jirHi^ 

ticaUUty ufdivt^rtiu^ tbo ItivcrOk^loruloeou toimj;ait> tWdo«^jrt4 
Und* of Sputli-t^iut CttlifoniiA ; And ho Appoar» sati^iLod thnt ft' 
OEinul cLiitId In coDfltrufrFod by whtdi I6o0 tqimrn miltMi miild bo 

(li.lL'UHd, lliirttWEl utllUt Hllf-l^tH uf tUlH SlirttJ' llJlVO tlfrW \lGCtl iriBEiixI, 

on ih^rilos of 8 ojiloH aud 4 lail^e t^ tltt] Jncb, covoring u Wgo pArt 
of Nevada, UuK Ari«otia, Now Bfintiori, And Colorado. Liaat&nant 
WbfM^ltiV gent^ral Kf*]h>rt in uf el very cumproboniivD iknlTiro: nml 
Ld htia &W lAHUcd tvru tlii;;k 4(q. licputta un Uie gCKilogy and i;{H>logy 
of tho Mirv^y, with muri^ coloured pkto8^ m(i|M ftod |dxoto^:Tft]>li«- 

An atifMimto •uifoy of tho grcmt Xorth Amnriftan kh™ tinM bcfti> 
uurriud uu bj Geiii.'m] C. D, Com>iLuuk, ur the UTiItud SlrLteii Kn* 
ginoor Orpe; in tho coiirso of whioU the prctiiftO olcvaiiutiff of 
Ontftrio niid ICrU Iiavo bMn dodnod. Accumto positioiui tti^vo klsc> 
bwn det«rtniiidd for eacli of tliu Wral Tiidiiu] Ij^knds by tb« Hydru* 
graphic ]tiircftii ; thrr co««l »iirvey of itio Qalf of Mexico bft« beeod 
OonltikUbd ; aud ibe continQtituI irian^Uttoa hw boon fnubod muUl 
ward frc'tii Lho PnuiGo oojmt riiigi.i4 lu tbo Sit^n^ Nevada. 

Ia icfuiTiDg, however bj-icflj', ifj tlio (£i.K'^:ftpbical work of our 
I'laniatluntic brDlhroo, it muat be aoiuddorod a dttinjc opportumt^ 
to ofTur oi]r LinTi^mtMlntion* to t1i« Amerioun GoogmpLkal Sodet^, 
which, in i»rp<^»itiW ill 1B^2, biLMiUJW Hilly atUlncd ilMiQ^Jarliy; and 
tbo occoaion in tbo moro uppropHntc, up tbo (Society hu rcocntlj 
aoqtiiTvl n nc-w and ciommodio^^ bonio. for v-bbb it in iiidebled to- 
tliii [iiibliciitfiiriliird litwrHlity fiOoJiHTArtttnMttcTof Aiiu^'ioui oiUsf^nii. 
Under the abio direction of ita dialin^iihod rrrnidont, CKi«f 
JoatiOft XJulj, wboBo cloquenou nnd h^arllvlt nj^ui'd for our tavoutitu 
dd^Tioe cunnot TnW Ut hiKM> irtjirr-AJ^Ad li!g It^nr^rjt dnrETig hia lafe^ 
vihit to tbia <!ij|jalrj', lb<t Aim^iii'uu Gnograjjbii^l Society non 
nnmbortf nfiDPoUcwB^and po£«c«i>ua u ;;cO|^aphicol library of aomo 
10.000 Toliiint^a and a targ^ coUecrioii of Tnap. Sic, 

Gc>i^T"pb(oal upiratioua an a Iftrgn tcfihT biivif iHinn ongroned by 
tbo ±Stet» m Amviico ; h^it tho nnncrou* and voluaHo pftpfva CCik* 

jSitu^ America*' — Africa, nlxxxii 

tuned in tho 12 volumes of * Procecdiugs/ ' Bulletin^/ and ' Jour- 
luU ' issued b; the Society biqco 1852, bufficiently attest the vitality 
of Geography in the country at large. 

South Ahehica, — Four jtapcra deHcriptive of tnivol and research 

in ranote and little known paits of the interior of this continent 
liave been contribnted to the Society daring tho year. Two of 
iheee, vis., Mr Bigg- Wither, "On tho Valley of tho l^ibftEj-/ and 
Mr- "Wells, on his journey from tho liio St. Franeieco to the Upper 
TocB&tins, will appear in our* JotiniaV with original maps furnished 
by the authors. A thir<l paper, tontnining accountw of the remark- 
able jonmey of Mr- Alfrod Simson across the dense foro^ts of Eorudor, 
from the Paataza to the Napo, and of his voyage of 1200 milos up 
tlie Biver Fntumayo, will appear in the next number of our ' Pro- 
oeedings.* Tho fourth in entitled, *^ Notes on Bolivia, to accompany 
original maps preacnt<^d to the Royal Geographical Society," and is 
written by Mr. Mnsters, who di£tingiufr>hed himself a fow years ago 
by his adventnrouB journey throngli Patagonia. Alt thefio papers 
will aid materially in filling up the htil) riunierous gaps in our 
knowle^o of this great continent, nTid supplement tlio work that is 
being carried on by tlie different govemnients. 

Afuci. — Africa has been tho subject of diaeUBsiou at fonr ont of 
fifteen meetings held since oar last AnniveTsary. The following 
papers have beqn read on this inexhuuatible theme : — *' Tlie District 
of Ak^m, West Africa," by Caplain J, S. Hay; " Tho Khedive's 
Expeditions to tho Lake Districts, ^* by Colonel Gordon^ i;-e. ; 
Qeosi's *■ Circumnavigation of Alliort Nyanza ;" and *' The Living- 
vtonia Mission at Nyafisn,^' by Mr- Young; besides which nnmerouH 
umonncements have been made regarding other expeditjoTis. Wo 
liave also aeen, in the columns of the * Daily Telegraph,' tho graphic 
letters of Mr- Stanley, tho CoTrespoiidciit of thut Journal and of the 
* New York Herald/ in Central Afnca. 

Colond Gordon's Exjiediittms. — l"nder the instmctions and per- 
sonal Bupflrintendenoo of this officer, a complete scientific aurvey of 
the Nile has been mode, commencing at Khartum, and ending at 
a point 40 miles distant from the northern end of A'iotoria Nyanza— 
ft survey altogether of 1500 miles of river. ■ Three officers of our 
Boyol Engineers, with M. Geasj, Imve accomplished this, namely, 
Colonel Gerdon and Lieutenants Watson and Chippendoll. The 
■'Buds," course, current, width of the rivor— the rooks, rapids, and 


Bir KrTHBBi 

rocE'« Addrtti, 

n&tnre of tlic oounh; — havD been laid down n-iUi minqteneav 'bA 
tvo mWp», Dm the icudo vf :i£ miki io un iridi. have been pt«f41td 
fur oiir Suuwty from tlio urigtUAl ilrttwju^^n vf tlio ftbovo officeTrL 
ThoBO nanjw will remnin ah Ht4iiid*nl rcfcrcnc^cv. 

Kcimolo Qwui Iuib <*irciumEuivigiil<.*l tIio Albeit lAke wUb t^^ 
ii'LHi IjontM ktllt b> SanontTih BriiUjv>>« uml (iULmi It U> ho l^l miW 
from noith-cMt to Hoiitti-ffc«t, and fmoi 40 t^ i30 milv» ocTMa. 
l^avin^ Ihilli by boikt od tW Till ol' M^rob, l^TG. bo amved at Ui» 
mniitb of tlifi IrtkA fin tbn l^th of Mjinh, Thfl nlow pingrrw iif. 
tljiM pArtof tbu riviT b<; attribulod lociintrjiry wiudji, int^trmuuli raiu, 
ucd livorcurrmtff. Tliodufanuo is IGi mi\ctK o\od^ a daopt bi-oad, 
]mvjgi>b1<- riv^r^ oxoe&litig TCO jtirc^a iu coruln plar<'A, vhh a. larg^ 
jiopiiliLtiiJn And k i>ioduotivo cc'»iitry, on tbc wi»Lt?ra bnuk. Fruia 
iht madt'bW of hU flulicr-ngged boa'a b« (-bH^rTtd hilla und diffift 
in tli« ditttaijoo. On tlio «1iot«8 of tbo I>(ik«, fareaiR of Anibatch 
wnra of fV**qnpnf (tcctiTirTitiP, Tho pnop^^ on tlii^ Avistnm nbom 
wDi\> tM^l ffioudly, Miuiidiiit; tbi^ir ir&r-ilriit»a and oon^iug their 
property ]^wi%yi buwcvor, M. G^t*A ^vub ubTo 1o buld ucnvor^tio&d 
with ft fow nativf^p, tbo rctiutt cf which iMiinad to proT« tbnt hn It^ 
nocbcii tbc fartbov-t oxlreniity of Alliurt Ijiko, and ibnt ih^iti in iib 
rlvor feeding ita Boutborn txtrcmity. At tb^ tame time, tbe moim- 
tains wbich ho iftw cna oitb«r sidd of tbc Lak« appoar not la rai>«l at 
flit ftjLith <Mid, and tharu may vxUt h jULKHngu fur watar in tlinH>utli, 
tlnjtigU il tvns tiyl ubflurvcU, frciu itio iiiiautity uf timbiLtcb gri^wlnff 

M. Gftiiii rcnmintHl on thci l^iko from tbo I8i}i oT March till 
the cud of Aiiril ; b periud of tdutmy Qquinouti&l dayn, for hu u^* 
pcricnccd coTifltatit rain ajid hij^h wmdn. IIo baa provi^d withoolJ 
a doubt thiit tho Nilo dcHpandii from Vi^loria Kynnm, cnl«m thi 
Albert LilK^, aud ftona frvui Jl. At fuuil(?t'Ei luilui farllitT nui'lb. tu 
Diifli ; tbnfl st^ttrnK finally At rcat tfao qucatic^ of tb« direct 0311- 
ucotioin of thv >^ilo nitb lho«0 gT«ut Lakva. Thin (ju^^tian wa* 
1-^hly d]>tpiilHl by Dr. Subvrbiiifiirth (n^^e Pri»ddtfiit*M Acl^lniiM i^f 
laat y*>ar)i ulthoiiKb iitalutrihicd ly tbe 1a(« Captain Sjivko, and 
4.sjnfinuod by tiir i^amnol iSakcr. Froai tho flmallnoaii of h\s ewoi 
And 1l)€ imc«Hn]n cb^inot^r uf tfio p«t»pti?, M. GpEsi did not •aci 
ttic intmor of tbo country, neither could Lc clt*uly tAmfwrv (] 
etToaua flowing into Ibo Lake o& tbo ^afltorn and woitcm aboroi, 
hilt ha n^porlft kCVf^ral watarfallji nnd hnyn. vrh&n tbo ookniT ot tho 
vp^ttv tadicrhtod tbo pixiiliiiity of cunsidcniblv atrtamn;. 

Carlo Tiajs^a oocompauivd U, Gc4u troai Dufli to Albert Lakorj 

^frica^CoL G^rdotis Ejrp<i!itioiU. 


i& 1876, Uittaoa bo proot«d^ «!»« up the Is'il^ ^od vxamm«d the 
n«w I^Ico^ or bftc>-Vfti*r rtf ihe Kile, diioovered by Cobuel Long^ 
DCAi ATtdoU. TLis Lah aIdcc bocn vUitcd by Co^outl Goidou UIiq'- 
•olf, who h>A sli«tcbad iu ouflino, fl4 fftr &< ho obtiorvcd U, ou tJio 
imp pt«tientc<i to Uiu Society, which is pnbluJivd iti ihn pnuont 
volnuiuof thu * Joiuu&L' JtospooUnic othvt trjifcllom in tLm pnrt 
of Africa, I muj monti^n tho fcUoiting: Sij^nnr Mfinio, ftfti 
tfUtWvivirliig til piiah ztoiLtli to the ltiik<gga MiiiitLlnitin Juil n^tamod 
lo I^l't. Mr> Lqcm mtcmtcHl b'iAVuiirucirti!^ lo tbu Li^i^wateio 
of tho L'cnj^ froiu Gondokoro ; but iiovcro ilbciw proTontcJ Ihu 
Olid the uufuitiiTiJ^lt' trai-vlk-rilirHl on Lj« wuj to Kiiglimdj m I hfti 
tali oocaidoQ to feUta in thu Ohltiiury notion at tho iKimmetireruuiit 
of this Aldrem. Dr. BchriiitKcr (Eioui EScudi) bad viAitjL^ King 
M^tCttA of Uj^uida, WW woU rocoivcd, [Uid ccmfirmcd Iho prcriouii 
oImwi I a\ ton of Mr. Stiuil^y thmt ihu Kii^g wum fnrourftblo to 

Tho fUic^ivo of K|cfpt haft rocontly givoD 1o Coloitol Gordua 
■nprano ooramimd oror nU Ihu Soudnn. fi-om th<> locond cfttaroct. 
Including KliftrtutLi, to t1i>9 Kiinatfuial (\*;^iuti. with tho riew 
snppreniikg nlnTcnr ond d'^vclopinic all lawful comtnorco. Ilo 
hu appointed hitn to n^gotUto u piNicu botwcon £^t>ypt nnd 
AbyiuiniEt, JiTuI with Uith view Co!one1 G<^rdoti fi^i^ Ix-ert at Mmia 
vuiviUi Hr Buiuo tinio; but l)d« cbjcct lji r«( Jic-L»mpIiMh('d, omi vro 
bopo t> hcnr of hiB having tak«& up hin UoTcmorUoncnhdiip of 
oil tho SiMidan. 

General Stoiie, thochiof of tho gonor»l,iitafrot Cairo, hwUnd^ 
nportod to unx Society tho vonoiu rtcopnaitfanogo wliieh L»to betii 
mftdo i:iQdor his ordom iuid tbont* of Colonel Gordon in Kgrptian 
territory; tbo uifiht nt^lAhlo nf wbicb nm:^ — EDronn(kiBflnii('«iA ut 
couDtrya4jai«iLt toihv White NiU»b/<^;'loaol Long; Korilvfjiu, Ao., 
by Cdoncl Colston and Major i'oiuberton s Diirfur, J-'o,, by Colonol 
i'cidy. Botany of Kovdt'fjui and Djirfnr, by I3r, Pfund- Topography 
and ^aology, by Mr, A[itiiTicU -, bosiJuei vuri'cyti, Hoandin^, &.q,.^ by 
ikUtacro^u othor offioons of thrj Egvplian fltafTH 

nSr^rti'^'f KtptfflfJi'bii.— Thct Addr«Ks iif hint yi^r li<n Mr> StAiiToy 
to cj^kito the IIloq unkoowji »(jntlL'Wc»tciQ ooniur of Vluturia 
lAko, betwtGu the Eitangnio Qivor and «ri>rda£i'« ^~ultBh of Spobo* 
llij hoil dijtcovttred the SMmooyTi Rivei-, wMob wu« " odrutidord 
tha tmo unirt-'o of tha Nilo— tb^^t Ih, tbo iu>M wiilhi^in rL^odor 
uf Victori* NyauKu ;" hut hiA xtxcxii lottcm lufurm ca timt a atiU 
more iinporbut rivoi', tho abovo-nftmeil ** KiUii^ilr," uov olaima 

Sir Rtr 


thifli hofionr. Ut. £tanlo]r Ium Ti^ited tlw Albert L(ik«, and ckroum^ 
nftvigfttod Lake TangnnjAft. 

Between Jiily 18T0, ftiid ATigii«t IfiT^i, Mr. SlAnlo.v Iravor^pd liy 
■Wfttcr, or (m fix»t, ffom 1200 to ISOO inilca; i\\xi u) to fnv, lie mjbde 
about 4 milu« tlhilj, Indimivu of bulU, ivliicb ^h iimigti^lly fd^t 
tru^'eHiiig iti f.lie iiit^rinr of AfrlfA. Sinw hi* Icllflr of iho lAtJi 
of Mey, IdT!^* alluilc'l to in lut Adilnva, tho fcUoAint; Iuto 
baon pnblmhud, living dot»il(<d acoc>nii1s of the ci>iirtTii:>« ho 
Tias vU^f^ — Tlftlna 23th .Tnly, 1*475; iSth Angtisl, IfiTft; Iftth 
Januai>', 2Ctii Maicli, 2ltli Apiil, 7Ui, lOtti, and I3t1i August. 

PcK*cir*Vii Wtcm nro ilati^d dit Tullows:^ — I4lh ATigtint^ ]d75 ; I8tli 
April, !S7C» Ujiji, 2UiJul;^. 187^; 23i>i August. iSTfi- 

8taul«y'B lottor from tho lAknil of Biimbir«L, Victoriu Ny^Dca., 
^«iscriba£ to UK, with a map, tbo lontU-wc^tora oonxar of tho I^ko^ 
Il<*ra EU'iJ Hgurvd tliiifjr^'ii^Lil inl&udH, frum I lu 10 luilcw IVom fJie 
»lLiir« ; ftiiil tho lai^'it of thoin» niiiabir«li uiilI ITuucb. 12 [nilni ui 
JoDj^lh by 2 oT It in brcodtb. Two Knindia^ (ippoAT upuri tbij 
map, n«ar Alti^ IkLirttI; Uie one neil tim fchon^ in ]0<} ftsrt. ktuI 
tbo otW. 16 mil^ to tbo «r>atl]-cAat> \n 3(18 f«^: sLc^wia^ tJiat 
tliitf loko ifl navjKablo for any «ifaip lUloat. Having rctirntcd to b]> 
hftad-f|nju^r oninp kt Kfigehyi, bo nguin crowed in a north-wftBt^rly 
cliri'ctiuTi to DiiiJio, ill Ugaiidn Itiniluiyi luitl prut.'flejf.'il iiaffc?r a 
^'a[;.i»i]tt cecoit to oai'lorc the country bctwcoii the ]>&kL*& Victoria 
aiid Albert, Oil otiti->rii»g Uiiyoro torritoTy tho people* liiuiimlly 
won> not rrir<]i<1Ly 1o Wnf^niiilii wjKIEcrv, luid Mr. Stnnloy liftd r^o 
cipportuuity uf tiavijciitinff (ho Albvil Lake, ihir^iigb tbc timidity of 
Lis Wiitfdtidn, yha frj^rcd ihndcJiiic pfipnlfltiom of Wwiyoro. But lie 
xoachod ft buy cf Tb<? hakv. wbit'h hi; camHl " Hoatrioo;" and, oom- 
p<d1ed tu^lvu up nil Lo[Xt ofiksvii^aliiig it, lio turtJed \\\a alti-tttion 
to lliw •ontk, And after Kcrcrftl day* crowed tho Rivt-r Kitan^ule. 
for tho Arab nettluiui^iil ot ivulury, in Kornfpvtih. Mr. Sto^dey** 
opinion of tie Kilnngnk' Kagi^ni \» uji followK : — " Whilf^ «ipkiing 
tbi! Victuti* Ifld"-, I Aflt^trjd^ ii few miloa up tUo KugiTa, nnd wiw 
then Htnick vritb it« volume iind dcptb ; »o la^ich ao, &« to if^\ it 
n« tbi> principal ufiltittit of tb** Victorin Lnkc^. In crjitiiug ftoutJi, 
.And crnniti^ it at EiUngiilu, I nciundvd it, and f<iniid it 14 fiah'>EQt. 
or B4 feot deep, aiid 120 ynrdfl widen" Thia river will be rvcog* 
niocd sn Ibo nmo which was cronnd in 1$62 by C4hf>lHinA Spckc 
And Gmat, ntjtl whicb llity rL^jyiTtfd a« a majr«tio nttTigaUo 
rivtv fninj tliw Ak«ii)ttra Lbk^. -• 

Africa — Afr. Stanl^s £Tj)fffliticn. 


WIkil» nmlnr thr? kTnd Okrtt of King KucaBiiyikA,cf K&rBgweh, 
Ur. ^^t^cj' mftdo uiauy important jdiiniojv tu tlio vent luiU mjuUi 
of thu kin^om, vlniting ihtn pv^t Lukcr (JUtnot. and rcgiori of 
oonifi&l int>uiitJkUiK and kot-epxings, Mi dncriptkiiiH of whiah I 
miwt auik you 1o refhr to in biH gmphio lottun. ^r^ini h<>r^ Le 
tnTwwd 1^0 di«tnot« of W«Atcni Unyarawvu ; and w^ next finti 
Kim <iin tbo 27th fttny at Ujiji. Afl«r a fkirtnigbt's iLTTanging;, Ur. 
Stanley loft his huuv}' buggago in olinrgt.' vf r<x!4wk ou the )lt!i 
Jdxjo, aud |)tuLxiA!ul Uf cii<;uiuiihvj^al<j Ujit Tanganyika Lake fur 
fift^'-^^ic <3ajt. Ho catimatca tbc 1-ako to bo 8U0 nailoa in circum- 
IbiTOix, ofid 19 iqUl-h longer thriD Com>iuiiLd«r TiLTDordn ro(>koncd it. 
Tb^ Lukiign Cr««^k, of {'amcron, wiin i?XHiuiutid iluritif; fuur dn/H. 

TIjo 1jrok«n caue lu t^ b«d of tli« urcak dotiC'l«d ti^ Mr. Stauloy 
Uiat Any wator intjfit tlow into tho I^ake, and not out of it; and bo 
conitldun thit tho Luktigi4 hui never boon an outlut. a>id att not nt 
pnuuut uim, bat tliat it will b» Ute "waisto-pijw" uf Tati^pu:^ tka 
lit a r«w ;oor«, wLon tbo Lako bogine to ototAow. Ho IoIIa tm 
that Mr. OooIo^h idoa of thoro baing a connootion b«tvM<m Tan- 
pnyika a&d NyaH>uL Laktn U na alwiird ad LWirgvlOTJo Ijaviitg 
aoparalfd LlfMJiba fruiu Tanganyika, Bak«T baTing loairiod Ute 
Albctt and Tanganyika, or Spcko having mado an island cf It 
promomtOTy (Ubwari)- Mt, f?tjiiil<»y raieft* an ^Titfii-efiting qinwHoti 
aa to tLo itaiud and durivaLiun i?f Lhi; wi>rd Tihn^Au^ika, «Jh>'mg 
tbat trrivolUni have fallen into miatakce tlirough tho oiroumvtanco 
of thu namo uf tho coiiutry being applied to th«f Lako, Al Liotnba 
Ibw Lftku tH not calk-d Tan^ij ikw, or titv ttnft Tb(idi»nvAtion cf 
tho word, according to Mr. Stanley* i« ''Plain-like Luko;" bnt 
ibiv lit not accepted an tho trua ictorpu^tatiun, Nyika is nitod aa a 
proper Dams in A^ioa. and asportlcm ofon^^ ns Rnmanyika; aluo, 
it U apiiliod u(i Uiu imlito ivuiu* wo^t *»f Bidiniigo \'y lljo Rttv. 
T.Wakdicld naMtAu^nyik<:>, which undoubtedly iiDplio6ii*wmiijty 
ngion. It vigiufiaatbo floating watiM^plante, whioh prodaouodJMo 
ronlit — ^Ibe ■■9ingliiira"of Tndia, IVtjjxi anlmut; and fn>n: i.he fact 
that Ihin plant cxi'itji plentifully in A^ka, and that qiumtrtioa of 
floating vij^i>tatiun wotd tf^oii by tho lalo Dr- L\viTigHt(.it)« oppiMJto 
njiji. k may he tnkfin an ihn morn prohabln intirprntation of tho 
twofc namvly, fnim TfiT^njN, lo gutLur; ani! ifyilrt, (?) unfa: that 
£«, '' Tanganyika »" meaning " oolloctJou uf vrAt^r vo|;«tatioD." or 
*• Iho habitat <ji tLo wator tint" 

Mr. Stanley writftBof "my diwovory of thatinw lake and riror**' 
which ho vcntiirus 1o name tho " Aloxandra Lak& and Ftivor.'' Ho 


tolls lu thttt ** ho <:oii]d oot «eo this kk* ^m hk mount of obierTE< 
tixfii LucntifiC tho Mountainn of UgnfU intcnaijidid nil vidw of it; 
Lut hia guides upjAJstod Lini to uu(1erntaD[l tlit? pvaiti^u uf tUe Lokoi" 
Tiiifi vaEor, wty iiro tuLd, Ltu throd ouUvU— two tiowiug to tho «ast 
towards luUngnlo, and the third to ihn Rofjth, joining l)io Hii^tm 
lAke. which JK made 4.f> du<>hii]'gn to Luke 'IWgaii^ikn, Thiji 
roqitiroa iimpectioti, avIlicIi vfc \\v\m wUl irotrn b^ uiado \jy the 
Miuion party whi> hftvo prix^dit^led Ui Karugweb ; and if » rofar^nco 
tw nxaAit Ui 8[M^kn*ii mnp in vol. xxiiij. cif ihti 8Dci»ty'A 'Joiimul/ 
tJua Lak(^ Aki^nyzu^. whiob Hr. 3(au)<?y propcmoD U> uoiuq Alex* 
ftodu, will 1h> found Uid down ^7 biil«a by 44- Tho totid luugtli 
of tbiM rivor in 200 milm lutcordmg to Spiki>» und 310 rnibB, 
"Ukd porbi^ja ttft miU3y njoi^r/* AOoofding tu Mr. Stiudtij; while thn 

Olo other roniarTc regarding th« Kngcra. Mr. SConloy i«IUm that 
during LbodryHnuAcin iti»xrjudH iu vulumci tliit '^ Thiunoji Jiud f^iiVDm 
uuitod, Aud in 70t 80. wid 120 £aot iu depth, wllh a widUi of 150 U> 
2W ynrde ; vid, a« it poesoe through Iho shallow Lako Iiigvn, which 
U 5, 10, lutd 14 mikx in width, U Mthiain&d its di^^th of ^0 to 
flO fwu" But whcthtsr LhiH rivor, vr thu Sluiutw^u, «r any ulhtir 
riror flovriug into th£> Laho, le to ho coii«idcrod ft boiitoc* or tLoi — 
[itaong vo uumy, uid all »o dutjmt from thu NUt, — thu honour will 
bUU rbttmiEi with tb» pjuviil-uiotLtt Vif^tjnia. 

My cwn opinion on this suhjcct ia maob in ftcoori vitU tliat 
of a woll'infomicd writer in the ' Now Ycirk Sun ' of tho 1 5Ch of 
Mjirvh luBt. Jiiid I LiAiiiiot, pcrhnjiK, do batter tb^Ln ^juulu \\\» ^^urdti :-^ 
'* Hjbl Lu bhh vr^riJicd Cui^liuii. d^uko's doliuuLliuik of Lii» VicluriA 
Nj'oium, oiUy provoH tho oxoclloitt {(oographioikL i^uit* iichiorcd by 
tii»t ofli<wT; nud Mr. SliUuUy d>^av^vee wvoiy credit for tho minuU 
Hutvuy be liwt JUAd» of lh(^ Liikt^, 4vLiub c^iiiirmiid tbi^ aoijunbuy uf 
Ci^kplftin J^poko'< hypothou*. It i» ib pity bo should not Lavtr K^u 
oontaut to rent vpoin thoNO hiuieU. Inalwul of this, ho hna uuumod 
thiLtlf bi}4!jiu find out wbidi cf tho umueroUH tribTibiriH flowing 
into Uka Viotoiiu N^aja/^ ig tbo Jiir^iibt OLd luu^uaL. hv will bo 
ontitlod tj oUiui that u the ^iic. Fin^t, he found tho dhlznocyn, 
and tailed that tbo aouioo of tlie Iv'ilo. Unfurtctuatoly ho aftar- 
vruda ooue upon & mudt Intgier afSueut, oatltx) tha Kng&ru. which 
oDtin]T'«3Ltiiigaiihod tho Shiiiiooyii» ud th«u ho called dut tho 
Aloxuiidm Nilo. Hut tbi« rivor hud btion exjuomoJ ly Spoko acd 
Qrunt ; und It is u grun viDUtiuu uf ull etzquoli^ umon^ oiplnren 
fur u lujvr UAUiu to bu givui to it by tt j^tloiuiui vrho viubi tt 

A/rxea — Mr, Stani^y't Erpfdititm^ 


fifbMtt y«ttJS afror )t« fiivt dlfiotn^ry, ud uUIb iL lU« Akiaitdrk 
Xil^ in ordor Ibat^ ebould fc* crcr dUooror iln poui«o, }w mfcy eltosi 
Ut hAT9 diwyiVfiTod th>:«»oiLrQd of tim NiK In tht? tl»L plocv, it ia 
not U)0 Silu, Btij luon* than a frtnuam running intn Tjokn So^iorior 
cu> bo citllecl tlio SL Ijiiwrmm ; nnd in the not^ontl jilaon. if it wufl 
ih^ 2iib, ho hrut not diiKovcneil it. TKia ho fmnklj lulmita. Had 
1u nod Captnin S|^trk«'tt twol: ho ivoold lur« found tlk4t thnt i^ffitvr 
ftilly ft[iiT«Jj«hiH thn imjiortanoo nf tho Kag^m Klvnr m pfulmljly 
tho lorp^t Ailinont of tliuVJotorla Njaiiia; but ho judged, and 
jnd^ nghtly, that wUoro a hv$i<s lukc in fed by itiuidtfida of 
Mnaaht, Rnvnnil of irhlob u^ ne&ily of & vixo, tho Hvor thfet 
nnks out of lb in not iha wm* Hver a* wty on^ of tho«n Afilntiiittf. . . ■ 
Tho tnao NUo only boiJEin« when? U i>v^c» irom tho Lake.** 

'^Hr. SUnl^y would AUohftTofbiind, bod ho bad Cftpti^n SpeWo 
hi)ok with him, ihAt ho ftdviUKoa nothing new with rpgnrd Oi tho 
w&tcRib«I on tbo woit of ihu VStftOJ'ia N>aii^. Spcke lived for 
fOTOml u-gi>kD it fivmo&7iJco*s, olmoat tm the banks of tbo Kng^iira, 
and within 50 mlko of tbo LaJco vrhfoh Mr. Stiinloy nvver tftw, but 
of Tthicb IL jii»{> U givvTi In iht *'\\vn\]\\* :i» lliNii^b hi: hoi) dijt- 
covered it» And whuib, not having iliBCJ?oii:d, bo hai no ri;;bt to 
0411 ihtt ■ AloKujidm NyiLnzn-' Tbo propor namo of l^ii Uka I« 
Aki?nynra, nnA ft trt tu bu fbund tvn^fully di>Hno&t<ii1 in ox\a nf 
Spcko a amps, ' \\TiJit I muld uul hw*/ sayn itr. Sttinloy, * hoaanoo 
of tho moimUinfl of Ujcuf"* wiw Akonyum, bat my guidoB uenatod 
mo ixi tlnd^^kt^i^ld lolenbly woll tbo puaiticm <*f tbo lAke/ TTor*- 
tipon tifilftiiiift tbi* *ITi*rfi]d:' 'The grartd problem of tho gflogn^ 
^ool OTO, which inAy bo ^Jiid to havo connmoncod with tho doya of 
PtoUmy< hna bcon tbo diiioorory of tho Tsouroea of tho Nilo, To 
mAf It majij 0Ypbr«T8 haT-e ofiwyod »nd failed, lonYiiig to Hntiry 
U. Stanley lEio jxiliu cf ibu victor* tbc Kloiioan pv!2« of otiooefls 1 ' " 

Although I fJicuJd nat bavc cxpr^^iuod my^lt uxactly rn thoeo 
iCTlDfl^ I ocmottr in the juirti^ of tbc opimon hero giv^^n gf the vmnt 
of on^i^ftlity In ihvHO HO-vnllod i!Ci«OL>verf(Tfl, Tt tiLoiild, bowrrver, 
bo anid that sinco Sp<:kio hnd nr*nt Rave no nomat of ihyir own to 
oKhor Uko or rivor, but moTvly roOLTiJcii tho iinlivd tiftmes, the 
dnviftlion tnym gcxx^ Vixti^ and riEagB tit any later explomr— wbn ax 
rvK^^rda tho riroi' had ruully navij^iicil wome 100 milw of its oouno 

-lo give it ft namfi of fhiropoan ori^n in tiot wbfiUy without 
tontor JQEtlifii^atini]^ wbatovvr muy bi> »aid Luitotho lako whii^h 
be ordy took un nafEvo raport, and riover eaw. T may cuTe hero tho 
inoodent afTordod ly Speko biniMolf. wbo^ve tb« namo of Victoria 

ft 2 


Sir RuTHEBFORD AlcockV Ad^^S. 

to Uhke Ukerono : and, stilt hcatot the p<nat. that of Sir Surnt^l 
BiiW, whn nvnanvd the " Little Luta N'vlge " of Spoko, Uw Albert 

Mr. Stanley, when hia Iwt lotfor w« wnttcn, had boon sxtffrHci; 
aflflT hi* Inrg onilM, imd tho native* Awund bim wore dyiug of 
nniEilI'pijv, Jit this Tfttfl ftf forty In navaiiI,/ per day. But he was to 
loBTO on Iho 24tb of August hut* by «TQwng the Lake and mnkiiig 
for Kyangwo, Tboro ho vronW decide oa t> his ftituro rouio of 
iixplurxticm by pmofiedtcig to tho M'KiryAga ctinntty, whuru h» 
sxpvctul t4) fiml thd tmo h^Ail of tho Ritaogulu Kagera, or ho 
vronUt HjIIow tlio vight hbak of tho LmUabei to "uomo known 

Tnming to tho tnoro norlbom portion of Nile I-flnd^ wi> fin-J thdt 
Dr» P. A)ialiDnH>n, who, two ypjir* pfflviounly, hiul been LuUiuhii;^ 
with Rohlf^ hoi left Benwaef, Egypt, on tho ICtli of March, 1876, 
for Mf^inot-ol'Pttyam, *»d rfviebtKl Itiiuito, tho oapltnl of tho Oaxlfl 
PiiTVii, on tho l«l of April, rotrming by a now routes to the N{1(» 
at BEUiuUut, having cuiapletuEl l\ie Sorti of tho r^ion. and <)I»* 
oovi>roJ pljiut» in IIaL> oofiiii which wuro of Jxmoro Kaatoni habittOnd 
nut known to havo <iXLfit.etl thero. 

Dra. SohwHinfurlh luid Gii^oldt rfilunincl Iftut Mny fnnn a vmJt 
to tho dcfiort <Jountrioa to tho oist of the Nile, noJU" th« njon^iatcrio* 
of Sftji Antonio and St. Pauln Tlio fc»rnior Ijad botaninod and 
■tmlied tho geology of tho rGgion, anil the latttr had dctonuiiH'd 
th« jHjailiijiui of twt-tity ritntitiHH. 

Ntnfi JZuulev to Ctntrat Afriai.^On this ZniiKibhr aii^u of Africa 
([Tcat i<trido» oro boic^ made to open up tho mtorJor to oommoroo; 
but wo want tho country monj folly njrroyod boforo alatiug what 
pai'lif'iilur n>uti»i pini the bait. On thin mibjt^L T woiilil taU 
yanr att'^ntlon to tho tioollont paper by Mr. E. HLit'^ljiui^on {of 
tho t^hnroh Mindonary titwioty), publiithod in tlio 'Journal of tho 
Suuiflty of Aril/ March 30tb> I&TT- No donht there ia omplit 
rottju iiL riu uKtpQnaivH a region, frojn uurth Ic buliUi and frum «iis( 
to wont, for balf-ftHjoEOiL loutoa. Tho lino fVom Formosa Bay by 
tho RivoT DouA and HouTit KonU to Viotoria Nyansa would ro- 
oonimeitd iCvelf na ihf- nhorteit ti> thia gnat lako: but, till a 
AUrroy hoa been luado of it, y^o cannot any whether the country 
or tho inhnbitantn aro auoh tis to rentier audi n routo practioablo* 
Srir^ner cr ]tii^r. howt^Tcr, it mn«t bu one <if ila* printnpal iajxvh to 
1ho 1191th vnd of Vivturia Luke, Pruuovdiu^ furthu houth loU^u^ 

Xm Hcutn U> Cfntrcl AfrM. 


bM, a muta iiOMA hv^nj WDBtnrardii in the direction of tbft «o]3ULam 
Ood cf Lftkc ViohJntt ivguld luivo the ajvai^tttge of b«jug Uw 
abottwt t> ihifl anmod pcnat. lliui follow routiw to M*p»|>wat m 
adopted hv Mr. MnukAj and thi> iUv, Itoj^ar Prioo ; tho old tanin 
roftd to Uii^'jitivumbe. AW lhi« Koviiniu rmiti? itfHirt wliialj. ikt unt* 
hQodnxl miJi:» fioui tLu uuoat, tho Kc^v. Dt. bUcr^ luis |>Ui:^ a 
colocij of liburtitod «il*viMa4 An oxjpoHuioiit. Ia oODuoction with 
lliw, ft rwient vwit paid b>' i>r- Kirk, in H-M.S, Phiiotnfil, tt> thv 
cc&«t dittJJct bvtvru«u EilwA tuiil Cft^jv DdgadL». Iliu uiL JiutiuitAi)! 
b<aurut^ Itk a doApatcli, n <^j of wiilcli htm been Mjnt to n* i^y 
Luri3 l^QJ-by. Lbiif Mporit^nccd i>b«i>rvor tny% that u grMt «huige 
Lad UlcQU |i1pu;(t tdiuvc iSTi^ lu llm tmdu and ptuuiiU criLdiUoa of 
ttie TOf;ion. 'J*ho nluvi^tradi:, whicK formorl)' c<iiu»titiitcd almost 
the M^b t^'CXTHpalioii of cliiof-t vid merch^aU, liud ooumi], aiid in 
lu pUcv n hoftllliy find aiitivo cnmiDcicif in tho nntiiral girodnctx 
of tlio coimtry liod booomc idtuldUhcd. VVr Iriim &Iao frcm Dr. 
Kirk. Ui;bt Lupt. K1U&, Coiibul ut UuzAtLibiiiui-i is abgitt to tjaU 
ttf ni>nh«ni ODd of L«ki4 Ny%Ra^. \\k iha Zual^eKi ^^^d ihe^Mr^, 
uid tljuNcu to mturii Ur \hi> couAt uviitAnd, thiih Mip^/lj^inj^ the 
dodduAtum the caiplarutbn of tho noarcjit routo to the norihcna 
4&d of lljo IftkOk vbioU U dwelt upci) in Mr. Jainci HtuvctutonV 
rnccnt juunphlat^ *Noui< on iha (ViuntTy Iwitwiu^i:^ Kilwn And 
Tut^onyik^/ AIL thcao aro AdTAiioon towanU civiUtatiou, ftiul 
vo bAiL with plctmui'o tho ^vurihy c^fTorttt tbut tit& litiiit^ iiuiJg to 
catA^IUh A rrgiiUi' voiiti^ far cDiumnnLC'^tJon b^.twoc^n tlL« port of 
Kilwfk and tbc nuitli «nd of ^ja«M, ba it will bo an iudniiuDdcnit 
aoanfl of tnt&Hportfor ^ooda 1o tto aboro of tUi? Luke, and tivixt not 
fi]t«ri#i't» wJt)i, lut \?il] tiiicoi^ritgo. the tr«4i^ of Lhu P':?TULgiHt» &t 
QiiilllNiann ami othfir ponMulonfi un ttie coast. It is nli&a in c<m- 
tcoipl'itiun to DrJTTcj- & road oonnccting a depict at tto ngrtU end 
of Kyaana with tiio si»itb end of Tongonyika, where tho Loniiou 
Mittioiiary !xxH«ly propova tu funn a etbtloD in (junntK^t-ion with 
cUjrra ut Cjiji, ur mdIih* Mijuib BiilLtblii pW>f- Ftirlher nvutb atill. 
an utl«iapt will pTobAhly b« made to mirrof & direct line of comi- 
tsy, from aouth to north, from tho QoJd*fio1<U of the Trooa-Vaal 
to Dnywij flint*?. Tli^ Churo>i MUsIooaiy IsOLMt^ly urc trying U> roti' 
atrucLik rutd to M'pHpwu, Mud ^u uipiscL t^ bvm eiiiortly ihal diLur 
puH.Li^a hnvc bi>ou rnijoivcd by tho Kinjcb U*ti>«a of U^audn, aad 
Hiintaayibt of Kiiragwoh , Ouu purty lua already rcachod Kagi^hyi. 
(41 the iu>u[Jir<ni Hliort>fl of VlcUiriJi Nyuni^ik; on t\w otht^r hnnd, h 
iraU-tKiuippvd piirty cf tho Ixfudvik Muwivnary Sooioty lofi Ilu^ond 

cxcviii Sir Rutherfobd Alcock'j Adthett. 

mi tho l*lh cf April tjwt, *n nm^ Fur LnVft Tanganyika. tiA 
M'papura. Tto gwJ iwrvico rendored by tbo Kov. Kogor Price 
— in h&Tmg auooomfiilly ttMvollod ti> M'piipwa with four Imllocks 
for the parpoae of fiHO&rtdnin^ whether the route wm Bnitablo 
for the empJoymoQt *>{ thrao ahiuiaIb — is mosl cciuni<;u(5nhle : ho 
found hy actaal eipcrimuTit that il ^8 perfectly ftnai bio to tftke a 
Imllocle-wngon from the EnsterTk Seft-coimt ap to the CGnfwl risteaii, 
niiil tluit thnm in neitln^r junglo nor dwanip, bill nor tuefao-fly. Ic 
hinder such a oaune. This mftiks & now cm in AtrirAn travel ; for 
if the impcdtmoct of portera uaa bu got ovor by any means, wlie!l]t*r 
by 1iQl1o4rk-CHrt». or, wbtub we have more faith in, rjiin«lH na bewt* 
<»f burden^ wo shall ho independent of portort, wid be ohle to 
employ th<j mon in ctbcr wnya. 

Wo wnro n^joinniJ on tbo iftth of rebrunry last to lmv« Mr, E< P. 
Young onco more atnongnt na, nnd tc boar from bim an occonnt of 
hie Ut«At jouruAy to Atrioup Ud hau nuoobaefnlly entablinhcd th^ 
MiKiiioniuy parly, aent oint wilh splendid liberality by »hft Sooltleb 
Frett Cliurub MiflAitin t.\jmiu:tlec, at '' Livingstoiiia." on the nunth<mi 
jiborcfl tii NyoGba; osd boH been tJio firirl to Uunoh n r^tc<uner cJti 
the wotera of an African Uke. Aftor an abfi«nc9 of twt'nt}^icn% 
tuuntbB. lia hua reinrued, in nowieo Jinpairt'd in heiilth ur tinergy 
by thi> ^vork be performed. The ohiof intt'ioflt in \\\n joumoy to na 
Goographora is tbiht lh<« Lah^i ia fcninj to bo 100 milos longer tbiui 
Dr. LiviiigiitLine iupptned it lo bo- \V*i mny aim eoiig;raI.nlat« 
oiiitiuIveB (ju ILq fact that Mr. Young bun mudL* & Irmty between 
th« MakoloJi> and Iho Maviti, or Watnta of 8fx^ho. Tbo ktter aro 
a wuijdoring and plnnd^Qg aet of thievoG and mnrdor^rs, tvbo 
iau|^ aluug Lbt5 Nyansa Luke, cxtnud to Tanganyih^i, and Ijatd 
even otiJtflwd thit roub.' bi.ilwf'cu Unyanyembo and Ueni. They opo 
%\ety nnmeroun claas, of no particular moe; and if tbia oJtUnc» 
madu by Mr. Vonng holdn good, and weri? extended lo ihr^ni all, 
tndo tti^d thf> indnatry tf llie regular inhabiiuuba wonJd hare a 
hotter cbanro of tLiio<;oodtU|^. 

GfTfjian Eitp^itiime, — Dr, L&nit relniTi^d Ir* Hamburg from tbo 
Ogowoand (hiboun n^gion, Weel Africa, cm tbu 27lh uf Juunary 
Jaat, bia farthojit point Having been a waterfall beyond l,onjuoD 
the ttiTor ^uni, whcro bi« Btorc-n failed him. Tb<T Dwtora healTh 
bad inft'oPMl aeterely from drupsy. 

Dt, I'oggv foftuhed ILuubiirg on tbo samo date, having icad9 S 
ujoat QuouCflBful jcuiTity to Mriaumbe, tbi' oapitjil of tbo prcAont 
Aluat* I'ai^vo, tho suzerain of ibc Cufi^vibo. Ilia fartbi^^Kt point 

Africc^'Gtrman and Frtnch K^qrttiitiimM. cxdx 

wnB XiuWuntbi, and lio wonlil ItiLVn gnno U> tbo town of thv 
0>Mmbo bat wm prohibited, Bj fi-ATclUm^ witJi a native cor&irui 
be obtained ranch inforroaUou rogftrdiog tho countHo« betwepri 

««ctB And flftute, 1w«idcB gtttuis «xtvc& akullB of numcioiis rwxtf 
of Um ioUrior. Uiisunhbo, wbiob liod rL«v<>r Uitbro been viiit«d bf 
%nj tiplimr, Uo> mkny day*' joTimoy la ih« notib, &nd veal of 
ihaioroaV Um of nuinii. Dr. Poggo tliiakii iliat ilie Rivei KflSAi 
i« tbo main Cetdw c^f tlio CuDgo, and tUnt tbu LuoUba bolons* to 
ib«) OgowrA ijttem, but tbU id dixpntod by othor anthodtici, 

U«ir Eflwjinl Mnhr, who came to ICn^land tnat year, tiud k^lv 
proMtitftC \>i4i- AuiiivwBMiry Dioufir, 10 e&id ti bftvo dii^l uf f*Ter on 
Ibe 3CUx of NovcTohor, LS7d, &t MoUu^e. Tbero wu olno & riLmour 
of his ba\-hig boon poinoQetl, Init wo baxr* no furcicuUn att lu bin 
cAftot <lualL. llts liitd n^Achcr) 6l Van] tin l^uudu ud tko 2dtb 
of Aai;Uiit lost, uud left for Molenjo upon tbo let af 8i^tcniboi'. 

Turning to ibo blunl Coul of ATncu, -^^ Itarn that Ur, U. A> 
Pjw;b«r anil Herr A. DonhftT^lt (bti ©tiginoor) wara to ^mjcwil Uj 
Zftiiz-ib*:- Iwt I>flOcuiW, in the Lopo of wDouding riJbrr Llio Rivf r 
Dilhu ur i^B^, noui' Formcsft Bay, lUid pouotn^tm^ tnVl Konia 10 tho 
Victoria Likp. This in ono of lb© meet importnnt rouEe*, tii* pn^ 
viously atMUMl. iu Kvit AfrifiJi; and. If the puupLo iu ibo iitlorioi 
prove li^ivpiubltfs grcut rtuulte maj bo <jx|>ooti.^d frow cponinjc ^ 
tbi«. pc-rhaps Ibo muAt fv<rtdi^ rt?giou in Africa, being within tt 
decree ot !»(> of tbo Fjquuti^r. They are to inlnkduiru it iiuvirl iiiude 
cf ooiamuiiic&litjn— c«m?r-pigcQua. Hotr J. M. HildabnuidL aWf 
prCttoodit in thi« jotiruuy tj ibo Lake. 

Dr. Srvin von Bary roporta in D«can)b«r lajit, to tho GonnAn 
Afritxuj Sutiicrly, that ha waa on hin ^ffny to ■Tcbfrl Abaj^gur, 10 Ou? 
U'lurog country ; but m coEi^cqu^nco of diAturbanodtf tb?ro, be baa 
idtorod bin pL44u, ttiid purpL^Hurt i-Cf>4ubiDg Tiiabiiotoo by a mom 
KQtitbfiT'ly rrjute. The tnlesl acoonnt of the Doctor is that Ite hud 
rcttcbod tbo hot-bpiiug of Sebarburct, wbicli b 150 milrvi iiortb- 
w«8t of Qhat, 

Fi^^ntJi Kijiedilii^Hn, — 7*ii&EKp^diliou mid*r Lien tenant do Btn^za, 
of Iho Freijcb Navy, witb Dr. Ballay and M. MarcHe, nod acvouty 
Holdiere, intended to proceed fn>mtIio?cHt up tbe River O^w^, tnd 
on I ill tbuy rouchod the Albert Nyan&xor tbe Niaia-Niflm ooiintr^'. 
Dr. Baltay arrived At n point 2bO miles from Gaboon; but 
tbo jwrty bad »tjfli.m^ muub in tbo low of instruincnla by tb» 
apnotting of c&noca. Tlicni vraa n greater ciQiioyanoo ntill thiiii tliie : 

or Sir RuTSEnroRD Alcoce'« AMrm. ' V 

Mu^ thb« of 0H3-«bft were oot at itU inolinod to be frioadiy, kftTing 
liBid B wHoiii loUnnilersU Tiding with » previon* party of nijiliiiuri; 
»ud it WM dnultful wliullicr Jio frcwuit inrly could pri^^ \a 
tho intofior by this route, M, V. Lftritoaii, who hu<l mft^lc two 
journeys m th« nortk-w^nl t^i Afiicu, wiw apptimud by thn Fmnoh 
GiNigrKphiL'jLl S<:HTJ<<ty ki ixiitjrnj4iiil jlh t^x|Ktditio]> riuiu tlv* Modt* 
toiranHQ 1o AMini oq thi% GoM ('uojit Iwt <ln!y. Uo wuitld 
tftpLor^ tii» Jobol AhOiggAr in the TuArog cvunti^, luid \i»tt Tiv- 
burtotL The lat^»r. nciooiinU w«t« rflo^iT«il in Aprj)^ KtAtuig Lb^t M. 
La/Kcau nuulii hiv\A: BJpkf a for Tuat. inii Liio Wwl) M>'uL, uii lila 
way to tJ^c Ah»KXttt ui>untry, immodiat«ly uu riJL'oivjii;; Us iiup^lj««p 
Survey* of tlu> OuttJU of Soutlieru Tiwi* ar^d Tripoli, v'hbU nm 
i>ccupi(Sii liy trihi^ii wlio nru Htiil tu (ilttDflur boUi by »c« uiil Ivid, 
httvu WoD cumplotc<t by Captain Mouclicf, vf tko Ft4^aoh N&ry; 
ftnd Captaiit KunJoirt Uu( uomplctc<d \i\ii to^vUing of th« Tuni«iu> 
Shdttn, lanving no doubt tbikt Jin inlund IaIia inigbt bn fintnod to 
tUe HDUth'WtML uf Algcrin. 

llf^ian ^fpccJiJbjq. — The Mntquiv Antiaon And party baviug i«ft 
EuL'ope on t)Le 8tli of Apiil, I975| on un exploration of four ycum ti> 
t£u» cajiitAl <if S^hru, tuid thrmc? to tbo Eqiint4iriftl TAkna, hwl 
rottohed Licliii in tic kibgiJoiQ of Sho4« nlL safo and well, after, 
hovvver. having €huu|jui1 oAaatuBiiutJou Liutvtcuu Zcila cLiid tJunu, 
and •xperionc^it dlfBciililen in ciOHtingtlto HftWMli. TTfi anEionnly 
l^kod fbr t^u arrival gf CaptuiQ Martini vrilL lupplii^ Laforo pro- 
oatding fjurthor^ rind u» thts oQIcvr wod to L*> tKtuvtjr^d to ZciJu in 
tho IfjitiiLn rxirvntto Sf^lia Uvt Unrcb, we hopo tlio Mnrquis will 
uot Tin diilainnd in prfidcindicK ii[«n; \\\n yv^xy importft-nt journny t[> 
Victoiia Lakc« but, moaatimc, be Lad mot with a gUQ^fehot acoidcml. 

Pi/i-fUf/vcM Al^di/i£»rL.— Wu h^v^ ItttvJy baard thiit itui <^4>vcm- 
m«nl of Portu^l hava, wltli tbu uiotft «ii1igbt<<iL«d liberality, 
tciDiDding uri of l)j(L-ir foinim- glory in Geog-rapLy, vuttnl ths Bam of 
2O,00OJ, lowatdft <^x]>loLatii>n iii tbo iiitorior IVom their pomcamljuv 
oti boUi uOftBt«. anJ wo tliotr (j«o|{raphical {J,<:>iu- 
mlttee, an(l whIoouii' ib^^m in ihe field of ronuurob wid diiK-ovcry. 
Tlioy havip nulTu^vd h i^iiat Iobb iu the duuth, on Lbu Tth of 
Dooombcf loetf at Loaiida, of Bftion liaftli, whd wati engaged on 
a G^otogicftl and GvographioaL !:^UTvoy of AitgoU, 

1F««f Gmid, — M. M. J. B^iiiiat, a resident for mfiuy >eara in 
Wcfftnni Aftica, puTticulariy iu tJio Aabauti country- ^^^ ^'^^ boftl* 
aud twunty-MVon mon m\\ tbo Volta ICiver on tbv 7th of Docotnbcu' 
1675, and roaobed. partlj^ Ky wut^r aiid by kud, Sulaha, or Taiuha, 

Afrif^an I^rpiifraiion Fimd, 


oommATdnl cnpitiil of tho» pArbi; A towa ivLEob wM vnrr 
pi^niIoii« at irae tinnv but nrnv oonlainM uuly 18,000 liieopto, 
M,Boin»t fltfttM^thftt iho l^boUo Jfitfidfl, thariKh 25 r«t hi|;Ji, 

•Jid October. bRHAHM) thi> rlvirr riien r^O fout At tp^iiii ncimcjtt. 

W« iktvo 4lro*dy dliulod to tho iaUr*atiQ(- Paper of C«pUin 
J, H. Hftjr, who wad It to i3« liirt Jiiti^. od Iija T«Hi<!«iioft ior tljr#« 
immtliM ftt Eyohi, the cupiUI nf AV<"m, WmL Cotwt of Afrii-a. Tbe 
dbtriot lies betwonn G'^ and 7^ K. lat.» aii4 to \ho out of A^hauti- 
Tbo Ca|)tiun wu thore on duty ij^ardi&t; lh« I'rotcotorate, during 
ftiw between tho AAbaiiHa nnd PjcLtiViInfl. lowArdiithfl ondfiflBT^. 
^Novtmlwr, wbeii he ti Awarded tLe ruutu fium Acciii inland, it wob 
mud and water for day«, oiid min foil daily. On rcFi.obiDg tbo 
interior^ tlio fy>tictfy in monnuunoiiiL Tho |>cnpt<i tiva on tU^^ tJipii 
of ibejr liilla m Limetui ciTiuihlutdly cutic*!!!!!?!! by thi? iltfiaae |m- 
naMflal fi:irat ; but tLurt> io aljun dual food obtaii;alil«» ibo nml bdnK 
ifoh, And fi>ur rEvon rim tbrough tbi> country- I'be^ft are orly 
uiTi^tito for small boatc. and are brokeit by watoHuliii. Guld 
and timber vooiii to bo tbo riobo«t pri>lDct4 of tbia ro^on* 

AfRJCAN Kiru^itATiON PuMJx— HiLving now paiHed lU revlonr tlie 
vjuioaa AfniMi:i Et^loraUoLii, Briljab ftud ForoiffD, alioady coiU" 
pitted or iri projfrcfls duiinfi; tho poat yoAT, it only rcmaiaa for 
tzbe 1<> bring muTV especially under tbo imiioo of thin Meeting 
uid t1i0 Sdvittty, t}ju 4t>?|M wb&ch have liouu tttki-u aiturfi my oponinfr 
Addrtaa to glvo clTuo; to tbo douro of Uio Council to prcmoto, 
to tho eitoit of thoir powor, U^n contiauotm end ayitcnmtio oxpto- 
nitioii of Africa, and more utptclally <jf that lurgfj region t^tri<nr1irrg 
fit>r;i tbo Equalur to tliu Capo of Guud Hojjv. Aftur ibo Mocling 
of tbo C<>nforonoo at BniasoU In £JoptcuLl>nr H76, at tbo invitu- 
tlon cd" vbs King of tha BolgiauMn &iid fn>m tliat tJTD^, tbo itTibjert 
haa ungated tbo fietiDiM aCC'ikUc^n tif ilia Connci^ Tillable by tlie 
Charter cf tbo Society, nnd tho doolarod objocta of its confitttntion, 
to Hil«r npon any utidcrtakitig not atnoLly G«ogra];itiicMl. it WA» 
fntird iiiyiwiH^ibli' fk>r thi*rri fii t^ko [iaK to iha ttitur national Ot^u- 
ttiMtion inftu^iiratcJ ftt tbo DtUMoli C<Jikforenoo for mucb larB;cr 
cbjcobi* Tbey woro roluotaatlj, tboreforo, obligod to deoliiw 
Mterini^ Into tbo plans for affiliated luid iiifemafinnat InboTir in 
tbia Hi^ld, and to furm n feparalo Qjiuiuitleo, uuder iba tttio of an 
**A[rioati Exploratiotj Fund CommiUoo/' aoting und^r tho diroo- 
tlon of tho Couaoil, and inrf«p<-mltnt cf all Int^raalioDal or other 

Sir HuTHEBroRD Alcock*j AddrfSB. 


ABec«ifttiOTU o&d S<X)iotiofl wiUi niinilar oljc^U. iDdependent m &r 
08 llioir rtuponfiibilitj and fuctzon oro ccttcc^rtiod. th^y will mainUin 
A cCirrftflfHjniietioe, «.tnl oorJially oxrjjtfrHW' as fftr an thfl cnTiilitntioti 
of tho Rcp^mJ G«ographfrJLl ^:)Cii?ty wUl ndmil^ witli «ll <>tKar 
Sodotjca or bodica OQ^^nfcvHl in udyancinK African Kxplomtion, rwid 
rooro cvpooiully witli tho Intomutiouiil Cuuum<wioii ponnnnontly 
NilttDg In BmjsaU, 

TUd Ccpunail, uijiu/ktod with tlinsc j^otttimeitU, plAced tbem, 
U»p:othor with Iho objooU they propoaod to (WuompliEli, ou rooord 
in ft Mimito ccn«litritiii^ thd Conunitteo wbove Tefenvil In, nn^ 
ilrflniitg tli^ir pow<>r» aud the lintfep aiiaignt^l lo them. Skiving 
obtaincxi tha conaent cf His Royftl HighneeB the Friccti of Wolofl 
to juaooiute liifl HAino oa Patron, rliid Cummitti>o hnvu einoo t>oen 
mAtnHng i\\a\j pUn of opomtrons, nnd pT^i^iiiriiig ^ Sketch-map to 
ftOOiXcnpwiy a CiroiilAr, at^*^^^)$ ^ ^^^ ^•r:\M\y Ai^d 1v t]i« putillo 
for mpport find u^-npcmtion in tbc prc^ooutioTi of Mich oontinnona 
and «3'irt«miitio Kxplcrntioni in Afrim as they qtii sutiiified will bort 
advnnci* the G^ogtuphioal kn*>wlpdge 'f thewo r^^nim, himI, in th^ 
prapoition thcit it i« attAiiiod» will alio iuAt«riAlty tend (o promoto 
both iioinmftro« u&d civil iiuxtionH 

Thffl ClronUr, uid the proposed prooMdingt of tho Coniniiit«o, 
hnro nijvr rccoiTed the HADcUon of th« Couuoil, aad it will bu rt^r^ 
ahwliy circulated nraonK tho Follows, toKcthor with the cnjcioftl 
MJnLite; atud, in th>it rduipe, it is ibought the whoio vnbjc^t mfty bo 
bronght iHsfoje ih** pulilifi in a »ati*fHt'lury inauii<ir wilh a vitw to 
obtiijn tho n?c<^(unTj focdi, Greftt irtci^AU, bc*utoa ihoao of Ooo- 
gmphiual fcoiMif^ aw oonoctnod, if not icaoporably oonncotod with a 
wnwanftil p1^:«Mlnt,fon of the wotV now oonForcplotcd, and tho *mbjopt 
i» onr of tho inont imporliuit* both in & nalitiiuil and ph iUathrui|no 
■onnc, thftt con woU cnpific tho ^lympftthiofl and mttcntiou cf tliM 
8ocioly and iho ooniinniiity at large. ITniior theio Qironnutanoon 
the Omnr^il fwl (xnifld*Mit tlirtl tTio :ipi>Gid Ihi^y Kavo now willingly 
MDcrtionod will meet with a rmdy rcAponh? cvct a wli^u area, uqI 
limitod to tho United Kinj^dom. but including all <itiT Colonicn, ono 
ofwhfcib, hy nomenna tho Tonst, imporf ani, iji moro deeply in tarwrtod 
in tho piofft-cntiou of th^^^o Gcn^aphlt^al EiplimstluiiH tluui uny 
othor portion cf the Untiidi Umpiro. 

Chinsm Empm^ cciii 

CAmm Smpir^, — After the foregoing was mode ready for tiie 
preis, I received &om our Honorary Oorreeponding Member, Baroa 
Ton Biolithofen, tJie well-known geologist and traveller in China, a 
VKfpY of the fint Tolame of bis Tnagnifioent work, entitled * China, 
Ergelmiaae eigener Reiaeu und darauf gegriindeter Stndieu. Berlin, 
1877/ The Presidential AddresB for thia year would be very inoom- 
plfito witliout a brief notioe of this volume, forming, as it doeti, 
the ocanmenoement of what will nndoabtedly be one of tlie most 
complete works on a snbjeot of Special Geography which haa appeared 
inonrtime. The volnme, although only the introductory part of the 
work, fonos a handsome quarto of 760 pages, well niastiated by 
maps and diagramfl, and treats principally of the Geneial Qoc^raphy 
of Central Asia and China Proper, entering thoronghly into the 
finmution of the Bor&oe and the oauHes of the striking diversity 
between the central and outer regions, the nature of the " loess " 
whioh oovers nearly all Northern China, and is the oanse of its 
fertility, and other features of Physical Obography, The more 
detailed aooount of the author's investigations of the ooal-fields and 
geneial Qeology ia reserved for the subsequent volumes, three in 
number. The completed work will be aocompanied by an Atlas of 
44 m^s, oonstmoted by the autbor, who made this one of his chief 
teflki during his long journey throDgb the Chinese Provinces^ 


ftftVOlB TUB 



[Fouinro ToL. XLTII. op tqk Soonrrr'a Jotrasr^iu 
PUtLLIBHBIl Ma¥ 25tHj 167^.] 

I—On M« Bwrftfj Oitiet in the Shifting Sarfh of ike QretU 
S>e99ri ^/Q<li. By Sin T. Dou<ilas Forhtth, kj^b^l 

[AwJ, IfoviuDbbr l*ttli, IS76.] 

AuoNG th6 irifiny oWjectJ of iolerest whic'h fittra^Tted our 
ftturitWn during the Ute mifisicm to Kiuh^har, not tlie ica«t 
iQrHt*r<'«[[Tttt wiLA an inquiry re^rtljrig t^ shEl^inu^ wicdd of tbe 
I'rcAt Deport of irobi, and tno roportad &xi«tenco of aricicnt 
(•itii-M whirit hud liftfni bitrieJ in tht^ »ands ages ago, and wliudi 
are Do^v gradually o<jiuiE^ to ligbt. 

Wlicn Mr. .foliiMon ivliirnfil in lSf!i> to Indiri from hiTi vpn- 
turi^ioiiiii journov to KJiofati. h*i brougbt an &<<L'i>Lxut ui hU vielt 
to uu ii:Lci'.^nt L-ity not far froui Kirki, ^ml ^ve iuMXiUcn diBUiut 
froiH Khotan, wUi-'li bud t>een buried in tUo MiititU Icr o^ntiiri<'j^ 
Atid froEii wikioli ^old Olid sdicr aruameLt«, and eveu bri<:ks of 
t*-rt vrflrfl dnjT out. 

On tlii> cKTCimicpn nf the tirst miesiori ti> Tarkuud in A^D, 187Ut 
ve wen?i iiiiAhl* to ^;ilher niiidi infrirmafjun, und I trWfv«' 
Uiitt in Mr, T^hnw'fl bnoU^ * Trovoir^ in Hi^ti Turtnry,' an idliui^n 
Ut till? [lubjec't i* mwde. Tan Olmud, tlie energeiio t^ikli mer- 
ci^ant whitm Mr ^hiLw nic^nrjonH, anrl who ftccomj^anisrl me on 
binh my cxpr^dition^, told mt? that thiit exhurued W vf±9 to be 
fonnd in tlie Yarkund liaznar, but as our «tay in that city in 
1870 «a0 of very short duruticti, coid vro luui no opportimitj 
nf muvuig ubimt atid niaking iuqniriiw fur imrw^lvfs, »r n** 
triniod to lodm with vory y&^nc idoos on the fl^jbJ4>ot, On my 
irr^riH > i*!L lit 1H7!1. I deLennicfid !<» uDikit nutrr KivLri'ldnj^'' 
illi^iliriL<a, &iid lor thJH |.rurposu I eud(?&voured to L'ollutv all tbo 
iDfurmutioti ui>taiiukUt4 trom pubLiabed woik^, as woU a.j* Eroia 



S Fomnrru on llf JtnrirNl CittM in thf 

OrirmUl bonkx, nirli na MiV^eii HnidMr'a 'Tunklii Bn^hidi,' a 
valuabl<> copy of MhicH 1 |)iek<^d u^ m Kzj»lighiu-> I also 
coQMulU-d mhiny nfttiYos oF the <.^ouiLrr/. uiid irflirr aatlioritiea. 
Acd the lirHt of ilU jiutlioritie^ ^nque^tion^Uy is Cnlonet Ynlo, 
Net wily hiirt ihiH difitiiiguielied p*eograpLer, by hie laboriuua 
TOS«arobA0 and Irnoalatiniui, thrown & UoorL tif li^ht on tlie 
hitfbjry nti(] goL^jmphy <>r Cijntral Aaid, and giTen to tlm world 
so inntlFiHliiB comm*?Dtjfcry on tin? tmvitlfl n/ Manv> I'olo, and 
otIi<ir mcdioml oxplorers, hut 1 ^ludly taUv. Oiii op^^irluiiLty of 
ret^rrdiii^ llir tleoji i>btiVu(.ii^Tip uii<lt*r whirl i \n- pliioi'i.1 uiyNrlf rtud 
till tho inombrir? nJ* tho Mission to Kjir{h;^Lar, by tho vnlunblo 
hiDt/i aii'l ill for nml ion he i^tipplitd to uh i^rura timi? to ti:iif. To 
him I wes indebte^l for the lo»n of ft copy of Ki^niusat'fi * ILi^toiro 
do U Vill" do KhoUn," a moat tifl^^fiil work. Colonel Yule vtay 
JLUtIr remarks^ regarding thf? great V^netLnn traveller of the 
middles ftgcfl, tliftt all tho explorers of more modem limes liavo 
l»Mm. il limy Im saiil, with hhnUy n Jul of bvpf?i-[nilr% unly 
traveUi&£: in bJ8 fo^tatopj; moet cortLiuly illustrating; his 

It ia OEiIy (.roper tben to place Mamo Polo at the head of the 
list of aulboritics to wboro T shall refer Tho ^tb aod tbioo fol- 
lowing ohaptoTH i^fer to the country in whinh we are at preasot 
interoatcd, llischapter on Khotan 10 provokingly moa^riY% for 
tJuTr** in v«ry gritut mlirr™!. ntUr^liin^ to thi* pbw-f^ It h na|»- 

fOEwd bv fit>md tkidt tbiij oitv wae tbo limit of llariua'd cuiuquoat* 
have aifv*'ral (iHti.k And Jly^AJintino iHtinii wbivrh ncra ibuud in 
tho fuinB tjf th'j tiiiy n*»ar Kiriiu 

Wii know that in early a^a it wu inhabited bj Dolitical 
0xi1e^ from IbdiOr tbnt tbu Hickiiiru rvli^oti Hcmri}»lirrcf Lhuro; 
luid I Kave at>mr-- gold omauiuiita found there, wUicii are fiXACtljr 
tbf> tamiT a^ thniie worn by tbu Hiud<x» women nf thopreaMlt 
da^. In R£niusatW Hi«lory wu reail how fbu King of Kbotaa 
tojk an anity uorow ihe Hni>wy Mi>i]iilniii»i luul a1.tai:ke<i thu 
King of CjL'^hmiri and liow pmro wui; m.-uln hotwixru tliC two 
ciruntr'it'H, find iho rcaull wan ihal crj'Uuu Kahnux or Aiifrvtioi 
bronght lU^ Biiddhixt rslf^icjn inlo the ciQiintrT; J^ud in tb9 
' TiU'ihhi It&chidt' wo reail bow a Ohmtiim O.ULirt^ vriJc of 
Koshluk, niled in the land and made proselytes to Iter 

i will not enUrjpp* miw on tbw frnjiiniil Inlfrumnw in former 
a|;:es b(itwcM?n Kbotan and India, but I njaVi bovov^i horo 
<x>rro('t an rrrnnruiw imprnpMinn whicJi wa* ctinvoyixi lo tlw 
Momlera of the Uoyal Gt?o;rraphi^ Soeioiy at its liul Seflsion. 
A |;ood deal wa4 wid ro^ariiin^ the impouf;tmbIe barrier rtuvcd 
by tho HimtUiiyuM, irnd Colonel Monttfumvrio mud tluit tlid ofdy 
umy which \>VGt crossed wont iiom tLo iudidii aid« and nuvor 

Shiflin^ Sitvit of the Great Vtrwrt of Gobi. 


letornsd But, not to ref^r to iavasions of ODoiAit tioiM non- 
tMWftl b/B&aumt, Uinca Iliiidor, in bis ^TArikhi Rashi<li/ |nv«« 
grapMo deioHplionfl of an expeditjoii and^r Snliau Sh1*1 ami hiii 
Diinistor* Uir»b JlAitlfin trom iho Vtirkund aMi\ uhicb -vw vf^rv 
mM?fifi«ri]1, ftii'l tm i^M njrwl bi'twp^m l}if» >4u!"»iMr Pji» hnd the 
JKjLrakonim wq pa^^rl th-) waU wbich Wl bt^eu er^cU^l by the 
Rnjab of Niibfu Ut Iji 1p t> rr-Kiet tbe iuTaaiaoa of tbc Arinit^ of 
XJm>Uu and ViLrkund. 

Tbe 37tb rS/^jitcr of Marco Polo reUt^a to P^in. and it la 
^ridont tlmt ill U^t tiiiKr thn <Ttt^ c*aUod by ibnt Dumo vju in 
exi«M)iice. i'rom the g^rogmpijic«l dtittcnplion siveu by Colonel 
YuIr in \\\tk vnluablfi tu>tf-> oti tbm rhiijttor-. 1 4>ion3il »»y Omt 
Fniii or HmA nsust bo ideritii^ul witb Junu. CaloDtJ Yiil[?*« 
mnvk ri^gariliEt^r \\m J(>odi^iiet« of lacimlfi in the tovhnf of 
Ocntml Asju i>; doiibfIeB9 correct, but 1 rnrord tlii) fo/^t tbut tbe 
pTi!«eat mlttr of Kasliglinr pr"f*«i»eB 6j Hnfun^ n vi?ry Htrict cwk 
o^ morality. 1; iu pei.nliF^r of il« kiud, biTt it ig «uppoH«d U) be 
bvned 0& tUo KotclUi aud ^c^oordiug to the prnoliri; of orthodox 
Mrthomnii?f!8n«, anri Iip would be borrifled if Uo knew thai ibti 
unco mmihlati Tig rules c>f tbe ^\i\t\& wen? mippoKxi to provAil in 
hm eounlry. Our* of IiIk follrj^rpnt imoe, njH-iikiri); 1o iiiA lit no 
moa«iirDd tomm ngkhinHi thoSiiiasi ^d ho wr>i][J bavo ns rnxK-h 
pltfttf^unr uj nlayiai^' tv ^liiti jti an iiiliJi'), ;iitil bis luTi^ngv 
«<wld i«iuind one cf tlie aiiimoBity diHplayud by C&lbolicfi and 
Prot<»t«olB to each other in dayn not rery long gone by. 

Ai regards CharcbEin, or Charohaiid, y-'H gut fiome lnf*>rma- 
tion from porsons who ba^i beou tbero. It is a p)aco of some 
fniportiuuw ; aiid w<u< eihc^I ^w a p^mal aetilenient by tbe 
Ghui6«et aid ia now htld by u governor under thu ;V:n<*or of 
Ka^bghnr. It rnntfiiim wboat TiOJ bou)k^, >iitnat^1 um ibr 
bunktt uf two rivurtf. which uuit^i on iho phiia apU 1^o^r to 
Lska Lop> Tijti lo>tii is «ituatt-d ut the loot of a mountain 
to tbo touih, aud tlm river wliich flows hy it in itaid to come 
from Tibet, 

f'liplJiiD biw r^mark^d tlial the exa^'t geogrflphT<*ftl 
pt«ilioii of Chiirciifttid m not tiled with nny dcgrre of oer- 
tAkuty ; lilt it iH j>roh>dj[y ahotit e'^iiEdt^f^ril. rrtini Kiria ami 
Kurln, uul be ^^veti tbo miirohca tn>ia £bot&Q to Cbarchuid, 
vu Kiriii : — 

Kirm icClitfxihtnd 

4 iiiitreh«B = 104 mllpi. 
n niflnffiM = 2i*0 lit 300 mil™. 


384 Di 4D0 miln. 

Marco Polo dciaoriboe tho wbolu province ^ eaady, with 
^jaU and bitter tiiiirx ; but here and thrrif ihw wnt>?r in xwi^t. 
XluB ftgrees witb tbo iuformatloa vu obtLUUoU, wbick was 


FoBSTTH cn the Bieri^d CV'hV* iw th* 

thttt. brtwften €h»rohurul rtnl Lop, tliero nre oaa« inhere wan- 
rt^ncg tribM of Sokpos or KalmnVa, ream Ahniil witli fWir 
florlcH and hi^nin, 1 wiih inibrmcd that tfii: proKrnt Uovcmor 
of KholAik roift? hiTwti Stom Kuria direct in Rfteen ci^ys, a 
distjinco cf about 700 milt'*, 

T\w ■toriii* uM Uy Miuno P(ilt\ in luii .'Jilth fihunlfir. fiboat 
ehiftiDfif 0&Tida and ^truu^'e ikoi§es and demons, nivve bddii 
repeated by olhor tntvrllcre down »*> tlio prc'^iMit time* 
Calotiai Pr<>jevaUl<v, irk pp. 193 and 194 of bis interesting 
' 'rVaveJfl,' ciTca bid tei^timocy to tlic *nj»crfttitioiu* of the 
Dwuvt; aod I fitid, on nd'Tniw^ In my <lmry, lliat ibe wme 
atortoa w^tq recounted to mo lu Kaab^har, and i ahall bd able 
to show ihat ifinUT i« imnm tmlli in the jvpirt of tri*ji*iir<-« hnuj^ 
oxpoaed to view, 1 give t^ foUowi^jg from Colonel Preje- 
vahky's work: — 

'*'ute flutids ol' Kit^iijiclii ure a Bnoce«sion of bill^wk*^ ^^0, 50, 
rarely 100, fe't lil^b, lyru;; aid<* by sidi*, and roiupuntd of 
volfotv iqand, Tbi> uppor ntrutum of tlii^ eiind, Mvlu^n diirtiirlwd 
by the wind blovvin^ tm oitiier aide of tho hdL^ Jbrmft looso 
drifts, wliirb bave tli^ appearaiifre of finowrlrift^ 

*Tho effect of thwrtT b(irci yellow hillui'Us is mOBt drt^ary 
nod deptvafling wbcii vifti are Ainuii^ tbtni, nitd raii tm^ iLotblng 
Mit Ibe eky and th*^ mind \ not n plant, not an aninml is visible, 
with lh« amglc rxi-rplitm of tlii? yell owi?ii -grey IwarilB (Phty* 
ficMphatug ap,)» wh»oh trail ihoir bo^iies over the loose tioti, 
and iraik it wich the pattcriw of their tracks. A dull hcavi* 
new Of>{irt«s^ tbe neiiMOi In thin inanimate aea of ftand. No 
Bounda are heard, tot even the chirping of the crrasshoppor : thct 
wilriiniMif thrtoinl> Hiirrfnmdf* y<ni. ria womW ttmt th^ loml 
Monf:f4ild relalo eone miirvi^llons storiea about these frif^htful 
doecrts. Thoy tril ym thnt thin wa* tKo Kcno of tho prinripal 
eipl6itA of twu beiove — Gissar Gban and ChingLiz Kha n. 
JitiG tlioBo wQiTJorA foncht against tlto Chincac, and alow 
ntlfen nnnilM^rJii, wliose Iju-lifii Gin\ ouuiiimJ tin* wind to vnver 

h eand from tho dteert. To tbia day tho Monads relate 
with aopervtiHrinn t^wf^ how r.ries jtiid ^nmnn mny bo heard 
ill tlio eatide of Ku^UfM-In, whioh prot'uod fh-nn fho apirJts [>f tho 
deparii'd; and ttiut ewiy now aud then tho nitiilfl. which «tir 
up iho Kund, oxpuaa 10 view difT^ri-'iii tn-u^unm, sunh a^ t-tlver 
dinbea, wbidi. aiihoiigb conBpi^'Uoufi abovtj tbe mirfai^, umy not 
|je tal^<*n nwuy, iH^iiuur* ih'aUi would inimedi&tely ov«ir1ake the 
bold mou who vt^Iiirud to touch them." 

When 1 was at Peking la&t sprincr, I had the good 
foKuntt to niOf^L \Jr. HirftHi-hnoidnr, pJiyflU'ian t^i tho Riusion 
Lt-j^'aliou, HO itri^ijiplmhKd Clira^Hi? Hcbtdar, whusu NotcH oh 
OblAaao mediravol truTolliiiB to the west ooaiaia valuable 


SMJiitff SantU of the Grtd Dftert of Gobi. 5 

nilbnDation. Odd of these travc-llc-ra, Kin OhaD^haa, thoi 

' VVhoc\or LTtrw-'rt tLut |>bi% iti thti <Javtiiur.\ au*! in cietir 
WMilhiir (i>, nii|Kiuiil l4» ihn nmu, will ilir tbim f»ligi]««. iiml hU 
hcmsea &I90. OuJy vIku nUrUn^ in tlie urtruii^. imd truvt^Uiii^- 
tbo wluilo »i;?hl, Ih it po^^lbli* Ui reiich wiUer lUitl f'nM» t»i 
tfad noxt dfiv by ilckvii. AtW a vhurt hmV, wo «iAruid in tho 
oAemooiL Do OLir nnul vre saw tucjto tb&n a httudret] Btitkclhilla^ 
which ffMin^fl to fwim Hbt bi|^ K^ipn Jn ib" n\\t{>t of Uio «av<ut. 
Thi9 iMcxt ffnj, bfTtwi'rn ^ und 10 o^ol'jck in the nionitui;. 
«» readifd a town. W^ rUil Dot get tirei) trai^Jlin}; at nighi- 
timOa otily were nftAiii of b^in^ ctiormod by gobliiici m tlit 
dark. Ta prevent tlio chnrm!*, vw ruLbwl th« li«iuk of our 
Wsm with blood. Whmi tho miutA^r saw t\m (jporution, bo 
<m£leilr nod mid gcililitis iltw nviuy vthFii tbcj nit^c?t a K^iod 
man, &£ it is writtt^n in llie books- It does ool suit & 'L'aoiKt 
to <mtcr1ftin «ich ihoLightn." 

Ortp tiling 4tfik4j8 me &4 rem^rlcAble, tlat thon^'h, tta 1 h1)|>- 
posc, Miirco Polo vi^itod Kln>U[>, anil |Mi*#itd aJi>ii;^ the rood t« 
L(>Pf h** t\K>«hfri^ miMtLiciiiK tlit? rrpiirt uf biirifHl iriLie.i Ihiji>)^ 
ID diqUJUT^-tr, Mirza Uuidar, whtujjf two ceaturi^a al'tt^rwanU, 
ftllud(9 to thi-m ; Aitd vii^ Icjirn frtnji r!hiiiiMi> uTUhiirilir-N tliiit 
thdy were knumi u> hav« been buri^ inauy otsutiuiei l>d]oie 
Uaroo V<At>'9 time. 

, B^roro piKHmff io oihnr BUthoTitl^B. I mnv makt* a naark on 
OQ0 of Colonel Yuk''i» NoUa on thia '-huf'tor. Hoapeakaof Um 
rit.ii's nf Lfij" iiiid KhiiIc. TSut. tki* Kiink in, I ihiulc, prdUibly 
thti Kutuk ti)i:iitu'miLl hr AIu'Eo. iluidun The ui»rd m Punsiaii 

ia nritteii Xj". »"(! <t depend* on the dracritiral |wjiat* in tho 
middle Wller wLotlier it ia JjS (Kjituk) <ir jCif (Kank), In 

the copy of tho ■ Tiirikhi KanhidJ ' [ h&To it ia Katak, and \hi9 
Jbi f.h«* v*^r»io[j [ulii[itnd by l>r. Hellew. 

StJraa Hwidftr K'**^* ^i> (wpount oJ" the d<wtruotion 0/ this dty 
of E\Atnk. Acfxinling to hirn, tlip f'nl** irf Iho nlv hnd limj; 
bedn fori<flo«n la tho (zritdiml j^Jvano) of tho Buttd; uuH the 
Ptieftt of the city repeat^^lly wnnird bia audience, in the Friday 
fwrmonx, iiT thn imtHtudtn^ calanitiy; and finally, iir^iii^ liw 
danger imuuiicut, nc? informed hi* congi'eg;alit>ri of a Divmt- 
order to qint thp city, and tied Crotn ihiy coniirg wrath of God, 
Ho tbrn tonniilly bid them farewell from the pulpit, nnd forth- 
with Vj^i\\ liiM di'parturt? from ihf; doi>mi'il ubuiit*. He b^lL thn 
city, it would fct^m, in a violent flfttidstorm, and hurried away 
with hii fninily, uitd nurb ofTei.t^ iu* ho oimld vnity with thern- 
Aftor bd hnd goco some wnVt ond of hia oompenioiLi (lb« 
muessin, or cri<-r to prayer ot^tb« mosque) rcturaod to fotcb 

6 POQsmi on tk4 Buried Citiu in fA# 

«om^lliin^ left leliind, and took ibe opportunity to moHnt tlie 
uiinc^Ril, tmd, tor tii^ last liiuo, c^nnnt ttio nT<in:n^ r^iU to 
prap^i' frnm it* I'lWiTr. In df Hci-iiUJn^f lit* fuutid llii:* puiid hod 
flccuiuTiIjit^il so iki;;h up tUo doorway thnt it vine inqio^iil^Io tu 
op<iii it^ lit: ^ifutt\'t\u^jii\y liad to rc-TuiCfiinl tli-' I.^lt. mid 
throw luQiuiMI i'ri>m it on tlio Ktiiid, aud tlt^ii ^fT^ct hii« €MCHp«^ 
He r».^ji;mvd tlie SLeikL tit midDTghl, aod hi'-« import ^a^ tto 
ttliLrmiag, thiat tbtry «l] uroKu imd ruEU-'vrLv] tbeir di^fat^ saying 
" i}' is fiu^y irom tlie ivmtti of Cod/' 

Huc-h iff fhn sh^ry IcM by a piotm MiiliiiTnrririluii rc^nrdJiig 
the nvH eondi^qucncoj* of rcji^ctinc LhIflui. Btit a ^imiiiLr telo is 
UM liy li)u i'liiiifcse of aiiulfier town, at or n^ar Tiirtn^ wliitii 
wiut diictrot'cd in u Mimowhut trimiiur iiiUTiuf^r iu Uj6 joxtli cen- 
tury X.D.. Jti coUrt!?*|UcuM of tli« iie^'!<?ot uf tLe worthip of 
Buddlia. On thnt wcji^tbn^ it ii^ hhU]. liinl Xhaut wiiv ii vivl^DI 
Ijuniiranc for nix diifit, and uli tlic ncvculk ft tshottur vi aund foU 
and hiirieri at onw llie wbole city. 

From tlio inqninctf mode by Ih. Bcllcvr, and oLhiMt of our 
MJHsion. it apjjeare tliitt the Itir;^ town of Lop, mentioned by 
Marco I'olo, o^ifiU nolont>or ; but th^roaritnumbnrK of triLr-unap- 
liicat* and w^ttluiiifjitd )>]; iim UmicH uf tbfi imindij lul^^ luid 
xhk>ir oiianeotinp cLanneU, pprbap* tbere on» rs rnuny oa & 
ihoiisand houses or cniiipf^> Tbcw aio iiilinbilcii liy t^in^ilio* 
wbo emit^mied tb{>r& iLbout 160 yean sgo> Xtey ara looked 
upon with contempt by tiuc bciiovcr& n» only balf Jtiuwul' 
niuuA, The nbon^inMt nr<! df.'iu*rib<-d iu rtry v/ild pwipl^^ 
bla'.^k niL*ii »itb luu^' miLttod liair, nho ahun the sooidly of nmn- 
kinri aJid weiir idnthrA iiih,<)4- (:if lliit liark oi' a trro. Tim uliiiY m 
eallijd "luttV nijd IK thij librt^ ui a pluui <?albd 'Moka cbi^'ba/' 
vfiiich ^iow6 \i\[.'Ul\l'u]\y all cvvt i]ni inudy ^astOH boi'dc'rin^^ on 
th^* iuaf>(U<'S of I»rip, 

Kc^ardju^tbdjirfticiit coQditioD of tbo ancient citieB of Lop 
and RuTak,! will ]wny gWti uii vrxtriif't frnm tbi Report uf tlio 
Yarkuiul Mieeion. It la the t^tdtomuut oi^ a Kjr^huG of Kakahal, 
who had ImvfLh^d over Ha nnd KniL^uli during near!/ tUirtv 
yfiam« aud wiu in Pi-kin^ ut thrf tinut that tily vriu lakt^n by 
Ui« aiUrHl Frr-ui^b ami Kii^liaL ariutrn in l8(iU lie bud r^Mdud 
HA a «)i(>ph<^rd lor (bi-oe v^ars at ]jo\t iti^>\L lU.' ta%'H (pa^ 4&| : 
"Tberf! an^\ U'^dt^tt, two rttbcr coutitiir-n of ibeKuJmuk ultfo 
called Kok Nor. One U five days' journey north ort>nimrhlf 
mni the other vs beyond li^>p. Hvv dityK N>utb k>f KTii;hd. This 
Ijuit ia coTiljuauua wilJi CJiaidiiuj mi ilie east uf Kbiitiiii^ aud in 
it are Uic ruins of tieTeraJ awciont uitio*, of which noboily know* 
aiiytliini^. Tkn priuriiial uf tUi-an iii ^nlhrd Kuk Not. 'Kok 
Nor' moau8 * blue lak«/ and these sevemL countrids aru 90 
cftUod bccaoBo ibcy bfirc suck akcota of watar in di^JsTMib put9 

t S^fiSny SanJi efthff Grtuit D^iifTf fi/ CM. 7 

of tlieir inrfMce. Bui t1iE<se ruins of Hole Nor I myself fi»v« 
Bwn. They oro on tli« dowrt to the csat of tho Kmnic rain«, 
nrifl Orrif* drijh' j(iiirt)«v from I-wp in a wmth-ivtidt ilirrt-liuLi, 
flloiif* th« oourad of ttiG Khcititc Rivor The walls ato ftOAn 
rinibg iiIm>vi> tlio tcciU in vhiitl) tlic city in ccinf^^jil'Kl. 1 bure 
not ba(>o insHld the city, but I havp Koon iu v^uIIb dietinctly 
from tb(4 nandy ri^^cfi in the Ticisity. 1 naj afrdd to go 
ftintmpil th<T n;m« 1m4i*aii«u nf tlv* iMtp arcuml riiiii tlm vonom- 
0IL4 tn^vAH^ TLiid snakes in the fr^rdH. 1 wrm f^am^^d hbotit tbom 
for siiv*rr:il ilitVA nilb *i jutrty nf Lop riKpphfrivlH, wIki werr hi^ni 
paetiirmf; thoir cuttkv B^sidDs^ it m n notoriciUM lii<>t that 
people who do £0 among iht^ luiua ainioaL alw&y» die, becuuig 
tboy OAiuiot TVJUNt tbe temptetion to Ktonl tho ^Id uad proc^oiu 
things Btttrerl tbew. Yoa may doubt it, but evctybody here 
known what I flay U tni^, and ihare »r« hnndrnds of K)ilm«kA 
vlio have ^ne t<i thii t<Tn|>bj in the znidat of tb<?flTT rtiice to 
worship the go-l iherR, There is a temple in the centre of thn 
njm5, ami nx it i-^ tb<? fi^l^^ of a man. It id of thr; oatuml 
at^i^; tlie ft-aluns are i]ntm iif ix Knbnak, and ibe vtbole tif^ure 
is of a bright yi^Jlow ooioitr lUojrod on eholvesalL rourd tbo 
figuro arv pre«?imiv stonm and prnrLi of gn^at nivsc? and briiliancyi 
snd innomcrabfe yiTnbs, or in^ta of ^Id and silver. Nobody 
hM j>o»vcr to tftko away atiythina: from hero, Thii* ia all wdJ 
kuoua to tbo j.iM>iile of Lop. And lh«y tcfU of a Kulmak whi> 
once went to w.>r»iiip the pxl, and after finiebinp hi^ Bnlntation 
«n() ndnmtioiiH, Mi-ntn] twu yiimljM of gohl iti bin foli and wnnt 
away. Ho had not fyme very far vfhvn ha waa overpowered by 
m H**ep i»k^p^ and lay down on t.b** nwdnidii ii\ baTn it ont- On 
ftwaJiinj; hd di6<*overed that biavtoli^n Ireiisure was fronts though 
tlie fob «f bid dr^bil, or frock, vfa« as he had clueed lU 8o be 
WJ>nt liaok to tbo temple to get othars; but, to hifi astcninhmrnt, 
fmmd the rtry two he Uad taken retunicd to the crxt^ct wxjt 
frim whii^h h""T had removed them. Re was so frightened timt 
1m) prostrated himssif l>eforii the ffod, u,nd, conteaamg hin fault., 
Iiev^ed fur^iveiiex^ Tiie Jigute l^Kikfni bfrn^ji^uly on him and 
0B»UhI; and he hoarH » voico warn him a^^iuet sach «a<'.nlogc 
in future. He retiimpt] to Lop and kept liis story a si^cret tct 
a long lime, till a Lamma discovered nnd exposed bim, and be 
waa»o nahamrd that he left the country." 

Now, to come tij the manDer in wlitt-h the abifliug sands of 
the I *cBort have overwhelmed citi*-* and fertile couniry, I may 
gire nty own cxjiennm-e, Wbf-n I vns in Yarkuad, in Novtun* 
bar, 187*** 1 fiu* bla<.'k bricks of tcu, old and tauBty, oxposod for 
iaie in tlie 1>^LZJUkr, and v/itA Uthi tlmt they baj) rotne from 
Kbotau. Thi» etitfiulatod mv <7uriositVf and I muile inquiry of 
OUT frjeud the Dadkhwab lUtahaiuod lunua and id our escort, 

wlio professed igiiotrimse, allepln^ tlmt ilirv rt^re almoat ns 
Btr&Dge to the counuv fL« th^ ICnji^lijdh wi?re to ludiii iu ihd t'arly 
diL|^« of tbc Eo^t [iidia Conipatiy* 8|jU« tho Mibji-ct viah not 
lo»t ai^ht nf ; and ao^ cUy, ae ve wofd rJdjnc ovot tlio d^aort 
country bctwocn VnikuiKl and Yungi ili«4&rr 1 ^at U>ld that, ui 
a dwtii:me of lu-i* tlnvit' ji>iirui^y, UieriT wtm u vi*ry iitic-iL^nt city 
bunoi iu tlie gtvat dosorL Ob armul ut Kii^li^Uur 1 tti'lt^a- 
tnnriHl, LiifH wilJiout kocj^c^qi (of whicTh ntr;nt hor«uf('»r). l<> viHit 
KIioUlh. 1 ri^cuived pt'imJaaioiu ^owovur, to vinU tliu Kuin 
tikaht^daiL, or Oorduiu Pudaliah, ilirin^* of the luarlvn; aui 
whoD Mpuidin^ u ruliter drOEiry luoutl of C']ipo('tutittn at Ytiii^ 
liiwuLr, tvhtjtit the i*aiLy 1 bad deaputdied to ft'ukJiuti whiw oi^ii- 
pibd itilhmrTmuitiijI^rrgiiugcxplrimLjon, l^r. IVlttiu »iid I detrr- 
mini^i tu makti a liltle voviigii i>f UuoifYcry im uur iwu u^H^i>uut. 
UidJnf: tVir thm© lioiirrt in » minh-pftKt. direclioii frum T.ho 
I'ort of Yangi Hissur, throujcli u woii-^^LtitiTaU^d o^jmitry, to tbo 
villUifCQ uf SaigituQ, ttti Hudduuly vvni't» phm>^»il iiiU) an iirtrt uf 
the Great DeHort, Our routo Ihon Uy ov^r hilly ground and 
iTJilu pl^us. Hem Mid thi?rt» we Elll^v miuhU ivtJIft, i^i^v^mi ovor 
with uut8 to protect ibom from BHnd^turrus, Tho wati^r in all 
w&d very btwjiiisb. At imi^ wuU thoro iajla a tank aiid kind of 
bovpivt^, w]iera tlie uiaii in cliar^L^ fullf>»ui^ IIju luiuul iiuBUiuir 
oiEuo oat with u largo lor^f of 1>Iack brciul on a UnMoliiJt uad 
fjflVnul LIS lua. At ^ I^.M., ufter u ridit of S'v rniliiH. wr miitn ]ji 
ttj6 fihtme ot Hiizrat Ue^ojiu, the wife of Hujuau Bo;:Uui Khau, 
who va« ki]lL>^ nml buiird htiw JiikI aI'I^f tbn dtrleat of hvr 
hiubftnd'd aru^y. lu tUo iaidd]« of tb^ ^bivi^Dtb cctttury. Horo 
vra ft^uuJ a rogul&r hoHpioc, wub an iutjcr ooiut^ard aud four 
or tlvo ri>i>riu i'or llut b^^Kisr l'Ijuhi of pilj^rnms- Onlnido wi^ro 
cumerouei ruouu, iu a fipuL-i^ue courtyai'd, lur oumm^n lolk, and 
a 9opanit(i of Imiijxiw (lit tijii Hervuiifj^ r>f thi^ shrine. Thd 
sboikh, or lieud of the edtui>]iab.iucut> in tiliidi Mukao^xlj an old 
vuku of ei^hty-aevQu, very halo aod juvuil-luokiii^» Uo Mid \w 
bad novor bo<-& bayoui] tbe ji«ara»t \Ulu^e in bi>i tlfo, and thoro- 
fon.t could UDYUr Imve td«t«d a drop of^wert >^4ttir. Wo Immod 
that tliere wa* a \>uri*d rity, or nioro [>rohrtMv only a fort, not 
far olf, wiLicb bi4oa;;ud to Tokia JWbid. an 0jghiii chief, nud 
liitd hv^n de^trnyeil by Ai>bki] Khmx jiiore than 8<.»y y**aw ago. 
Starting next moniii;^' with Fpudun nsn\ pirkaxce, wo datormiiifid 
to wx* what ruitiama iif furuier uiviliHuUtm lmuM bii dug np; 
•ud, nftor a woary enircli, found br4>lcon pieoos of potEery, bit« 
of nrpptir, broken gloss and obiua^ and two roiiiH, unii of t^hich 
i% partly deeipberabJe. and ap])enr8 to bt-lou^* to an oitriy 
pftfod. The dHcovery of glasa ia romarkaUo, aa scarcely any 
u useil now'aH.Juy<« thert;, and tbu ait *j£ uakjug it soirtiu) to bo 
unknown in Kadhgbar, 

Shtfb'fiff Saiidt ofthf OrMt Oftrrt of CoH. 9 

We then roife in a nnrlherly dirwitinn to Oorrlum Pndiihfthi 
At Jint tho rood olopi^ down to a widn holltiv, viiioii dnuuA to 
tbe Bouth-eoat, luiJ lliero i\sm i;p tiie riiiga wlnt^li wti bttd 
cnwBod tlw dny before Jnplier up to tht:' iii>rrh-vrci)U On ihi> 
ir^ to tiii«rWO pfuncd a niimbnr of rtlmllow Uf^lU and huprHicid] 
«iA«nu OIL tha Bide« of tka road, in ull the u^aler tvu ko 
brMkbh tliiit ntOAt of oar luiliaD cattle rcrii^^it to <intik it. 
*" Print l1ielii|>o]' iht' ^M]gl^<]f rlnvand f^^niitil, U'litt'h litrt^ fnnn§ 
a high bDil broad bnnk " — I Am quoliu|- tiio d68i.riptii:Ji] given by 
my camp(tyn(m iU rmja^n^ Dr, Btdlew — " mn gnt ji gital vi^w of 
tbb De^rt a^^ay to \h^ i^iuit, for tlio rid^ ftoon bri?ak^ up and 
mbvidcQ! m tbftt directK^u to tbo Il-voI of tli^i pliin. Thir plain 
ilk tb&l diri>i^ii<iii jiruf'tit!:! u vikgl umJulnilrif; i^uTtuiv, drAJridJ by 
abftUow and voty wiJr- m^t^T-rati^. in wbit:b ta u thi(i growth of 
rttwisand nrngh Isiiuhe^ but no sign of running water. Bitt to 
the norlb it prutft-iiu il piTJoct txu oi loovo Baud, advanoiji? in 
rteguliu WEivr' lirm^ fn>m ncrt.b-w^t ta rionth-«AM(. Tbn Mini)* 
duauti an> mofiih from lU U) 'iij fvot laprbtbut aomo are »uen 
liko little liilK 'uU 100 f««e iii;cb, uud in mjuie bpou bjgher. 
!Fiioy cover thv piuin, of vih\A\ tbe h%rd olfty ia H^'n tH>iwueii 
thMT rows, with uumbi^rlf^u irbnuiK nf Inti or tbii-'c ur uioro 
tOQOtb^r in r lin?, An>1 follow in ««oce'*«iTe rows onp behind tb« 
OtEer, junt like thT> market b^ft by wAVc-rippErn i)n a sandy 
beMih, only on a biri^i^ AcfJe. Tuwunli the hiinih>ta><t iXi'i^** 
mnd-4uno« rJi pr^ncnt a st'^cp bnnh in the shnpo of a. creacenti 
tbu liofjifl ijf wliicli [(Ir>|n? fonvjtnlH nml dnwiiwnrtin in p<iiiiU4 to 
the f^nnd. Tiie horzLA £tnrl. from ih*^ hi^li control part of ih^ 
body of the nmsri^nr, whii^h, in Ihi? opposiln dir<'<iti£>E, tails lift' 
a loug alunt down to the pluin. Tliftfu dnnt-a oov^r the 

olc country lovroids tho north and noi-th-vie^ ae far ha tfic 
lye rnu nuiffi ; but towaiti^ the east U"'y rpjiwrt «t 4 or ii niib** 
o tht> rigihCof ourroa<], and bt^yond that duftauod u aoon tha 
undiiliiting siirlWi^e of the duaert. 

Trofli the ndgoupto thG&hrindit3oIf,fcnd next dayfor soino 
mjjei further, oui jialh wuiiod auion^-sl and \f\ei these Buud- 
kON. At nboiit 4 miios from the rid^'e wo pjv^ed n deserted 
ita|;e. half aubmeiged uudor the ft^lvaucin^ Hatida. One 
of th« pfiefltfl of Muxnr Jlnxrat Begiiin, who nns with ns an a 

S;ido, bold ua it va^ ci^lkil Langar Bnlghar Akhnnd, and Einid 
at it wiu built eighty yf^ara ago on an, at that timevot'^a 
30 in the sandd, but lind teen ab^ndoni^il einco thirty yeara, 
'inif tu tbn tfurrtFauhiug sandrt buvin^ swiilloHed up xXa poiirt 
and T\*^n over it8 roof. W& pot down to oxamine the |)]aoe, 
tuul found tU» W'lMid-Wfirk, tbt; 1iri>phiri-3(^ and jihrdvi^ la two 
rooms, andaleo a i^tirt of ib« roof in a periac-tly frebh and wuU- 
prcserved etatci ks it^ but juat vacatod. About iudX tbo buUdiu^ 

FOBdYTH on iht^ Ituritt! CiticA in rt* 

W0J9 buriocl under o diiiu-, ihft >and of wKich Etood above tHo 
trutijf it liMi lif-i^;Utiif Oor 8 fffrl; and «u tjwih Hide in lear 
were much ]oTt:or dunes, whoso ropiUr ortuccntic form wu* 
prdri't, und iiniiijimfl liy ntiy oWnHrtum. At om? Midr i>f the 
two roonii bmII uncovered. aii<i which fac^ ;o the eottth-ettitr 
W&8 another rr»om filled to the door with CKsd, which AocMOcd to 
hav© cruihi^d in ihc- rooJl 

" At Oordum I'lwishuh, whcr© wp holkd a day, vrc found eonn; 
teii^nieti1<0 iLctnnlly <HH?iifii('d whilt>t in cmir»t? of siilimurj^eiKjH; 
ftbnv'uig tlmt the ftrof^effi ie n^uallv a very gradual one. antil 
the sjinmetry of th<:i dtmp im fo hmkf^n by the ohMtnirting^ 
objaot that }Ui Whu mutemlfl Hubttide hy it eudden dlHSolution of 
il« Foitiponeni (j^Klciofl, and thue uvrrwiiclm the obitructicin. 
In thiM pttrlu^iihir in*hiTiri> u *^\imt\ of thn?o crtsoentit! dnmra 
mdfs by Aide had flilvaoced in a lint' ^u-toss ihu |diuu, till one of 
the outer crpsri^nfj? }iiul Htni^'k the walls of the cniirl, of thn 
tcncrmcntr and, frrowinf: up, htid in time OT0r-tcpp<-d, and tbon 
ove^flo^tf-fl zirid filled ifb Afet hy Itn iTomifal] ; wlijUt the uthiv 
(wo crefoonlft nt iX» i^JdiT, rontinui»i; thrir unoUlmntrd eoiiTf^ 
luaiiUainal their pr«iper fi>riii umnjurtHl. 'thr. [•^nm ruaw; 
which proppllfd ihero grndaally forward, also operated V> drive 
the Tciuuinditr of the hroki^n iUmt^ fmwtinl^ [in<i it would in 
Goniae of time not only bary the whole tenement, hut would 
ultimately pniw beyond it, and rcmimc its oH§:inal form on tho 
ct^jt-u M.\MWf. fnrUir^r (ui, in linn wifJi iJit* oilir-r two t-rf-iMH'jilrt of 
tnc chum ; t[»u8 Icuvta-; the toncmout more or lo^ uncoverod, 
till ilwfm ngain Milmit^rgnJ hy the m^xt following row of i^imiUr 

" Thceo sand-duDCH are formed by the action of the |)enod]GQl 
north and u<jrtfi-W4?H winiia, which lore blow oT«r ll»> phun 
peraut^utly during the spring months. And thc^ reiuton of their 

fjrogroMt ia this — Inal. tin<v funntMl. tlif wind drivrn forward th^ 
tKwe paiticlea on iU surface, so tlial Ibone ou tho aid«>a. whero 
ifjere is len^t remntHinyi. |irojeict> fortvArd^ in ihfi form of lonj^ 
hoTv^j whilst thoeo in ttic centre ridi> i>vi^r ctioJi crt.hnr till they 
pndoce the bigli ourrwl bunk between tht^ia ; and on heinji; 
propelled fftitl farUiiT, t\ify tuppk' over tht^ bank out of the 
influence of the wiud. hut ctubjo^t «ti)l to that of their gruvitj, 
which earri^fl them *Jnwn the rteep elope till they reach the 
ground. And this notit>n. contmiic^t for n IcDgth of timot is thn 
fWtiHO of the |;fHdnHl and Hymmetrical ntlviince of the dnnM. 
The rato of thrir proj^resg it if^ impossible to dotf>rmine, 06 it 
(]i-pr*ndH entirely on Uio vuTying ftiriv of th(^ pn»|if-IUiig piwer, 
the slope cf the laitd, and the obtitructions on iu Burliiee. Unt 
ibo plwmonicnon, aa we saw it aMnidly in couree of operatiou, 
€Jplftui« the manner in which the eitlea'of Lop, and K^tik, uid 

othfitv of 1hi» t«tTiton\ havo bet^omo o^rwbclmod in a flood or 
ttuiri Ami it fv>Tifirnj« tb^* v^'mr-ity iiT (hi» i4tjifi^m*>tjlfi mjulu hy 
the eHeptcrdfl who roam tbo datdrU, to ttio ofi»r-t Ihixi in Ui<«o 
eld nuAcd Hitc9 llit* hoiih<^« riow and tlieu ajtpear for fttrhile 
fjnna uudor the MLud, und ii^'wiu for Awhiti} dimipix^iir uiii^<Tr it. 
Tbo idea tbat the pnHrc.^ ijf biirU) i» veiy ^rmda^r, in atijqjirBted 
W tlir rv-rnurlcH mi(d<' l)y Mir/n Hnidni'. anrt of tha proUatulity 
Of this v« had a rematlcabk illuatruti>jn in the t^ncnK-nt mem- 
UnDnd shrTA, im hiIII mv^upied at Ooniiim f^'uilflhali. ^ong}i Iho 
couK Up t/} iltf i>-nin^!rih wm ftlr««idj fnll cif wnd from this 
dimo which hud hni^ktin <jver it.i wulU. ilud 1h« rtnirt in ihJH 
«aM b««n oa tbn oppfsife Bidt*, Aiii ch^ houa'^ hf^^n Ihe fir?t to 
poflft iiDde<r the ndYnJiang mtid, %i we sm* at. ihri Liuigiir Kiili^ittr 
Akhttnd, it is wu*y tc» fwrc*>ive how. on topplbi^ over iho front 
wftlld (if it did not friiddc:r;ly by iUi ndght CTUnh in the roof) it 
would 8}jiit lip th^ iinirjiieA in n livm^ ("inh. 

''Thi^i thin Actually did occur at Kat^k in moriT in«fAnco0 » 
ATifleiiumd hf the Hknlntiirvt uiid di*Biii^*ul<*d I^HhttH whirh ufp 
aiU oooadioualiy eeen in uiMtrth^d Lou4*.'e. with Ihoir apparel 
ami fiimituro itiUrt and LiniTijnrrfi^ ak ih Uj|d wil.h mtch n[>jmrriit 
trutli bj ihe shcfphcnifl who roam Ihut wmrt itl. thti rr(«rnt «liLy, 
The ehriro of Oonium J'adshah 10 it^if Lurie<l in tht^ rimid. arid 
poJtftuftOil with yaW luils murk th« *j«H at" l}ic» gmvp. But 
tli6 nouAOt^ry. and somo alin^housee around, arA litdt on «rmall 
<?tMir iipiUM>H <>n thn plutn, whirh Ttjifu^ur h^im nnd tlipn* AmnrT;r«t 
t^o bMpd of sariti, and form tis it wum httifw, niiinjui; in ihft 
direotion of the march of the sand-duiie<a, Hittoe of tho lur^er 
duiKH^ at th(^ ilistoiit-i? vt $lt(J or 4(H) yjirdfl t<^\ Via ohlirjiifily 
upon iho iuonaal«ry ; hut iii thf y frcem lo aiJvftTico l^erc at a 
very *low rnt'> — ^twj^lve ye-nrs hciving pnfflp^ »\t\i^t* th^ dur« 
broKc iato Uio I'ourt uf the ti>ueiD<^nt noi]lirm<?d wilhoiit hnring 
yet coropleT^ly tilled iiu arva, which is only 10 or 12 pa<*es 
mdc— thcf ixjnttdout truth of t^e vcnrmhlc «hoikh who p^<^91dofl 
uvt-r a may [inivB jUHtifif?d. ' Ths hlrwjiHl idiriti<^ hnj* survivwl 
the vi<-iaeitudW of oifjht (^ontime'a," he said, in ruply to our fore- 
boding of tho (j^oi^r tlireA telling its eilr^tent-fij 'aml^ pIcaAn 
God, It will survive 10 lUe end of the worldn' " 

I was Tcry anxions (Ulcr this to visit Khot^n nud examino 
thct ruinfi whitOi havd Ije^-n t'XpoMrtI in view, bat was iinablc» to 
carry out my project I. howoTor, wnt oue of the Pumlibs of 
whom an mnrh luis been hea.ri], to travi^l in tha^ dirfrtion, ard 
I «fupLoyixl olht-T truatwortliy men tn visit tho loi-ahty. Tho 
Tei4>al rvi|)orts ihoy bmiip^ht l>jirk. each imlepeikdeut of tho 
Othor, oontirmed all I liad hoard bofore, 

Tho iiiguiries of thij iVndit referrtd ehitfly to tho nrnt^-ai 
through Khotan to India, and, un fortunately, he did not direot 

15! FoiOTTH on tJi4 Buried Citift in Iftfl 

hie altenlion particakrly t> thcfto citi<?a. But ho brought me two 
Ggurcfr ^^bicL uere iV^uml m ifie Luii^ eity uc-^r Kim. thf^ one 
being uu i»LiL(^T t>l' limJtiliu, unci tlio *Jtli*r a cSjlv Iijjur*^ uf Ilunoo- 
mau, ibo luuaki^y^^^ixj. TJireit- lijicl uuly juat tr^i'U louiid, and it 
Wtu foTltnmtii thrtt ihoy ^Qf'ii It?!! into Ww Jmndji, fop ibf jiuum »ea! 
of a MjAljoi[im<^(U[i ici^ncu'Wt wgiilU lit*\t i'*>i3ffjt-u*d llmxa to 

rfjifly <li»*lnictioti. Anotiier man^ Itam Clmnil, wbtun I liflil 
_>i]tcil to visit K)iotnn, brciitglit mo ^w^ ^M liu^cur-rtAj^e and 
nos^jiujTti, tiUL-ljuaii[t< wciru in Uiu |iri?M?uL ilny by Hindoo w*>mcti; 
abo iom^ roitip. of wbii.'h the meet remftrkoblR Ant mi iron one/ 
apparently of ileruutiiKrlhriWlOrtKrkJuntcuf Dactriuin tliL'tiral 
cwmunr B,V-, aatl several gold coiiia cf the r-'ign (j1' CnnKlnnn II. 
aaii ro^finniiid, Jii^liniis, Antimachu^, and Thrudt^iMUfi. Auoord- 
ing to Hum CJiurul tlic* liui'W i^iiu'-t [irojter arc ut a diHt-unoo 
miuiy niuz\*Uc4 cftat of Khotao ; a diacuvery of burkd nim?< Ljks 
huwf<vrr, \ii.[e\y Lii*^n iojuIh ijnitd rlnw^ Ui Ilcki. Uitf cbiti city 
of Kliotafip at a dietouoo of 4 luilua to tUe Dorth-w^Bt* A <ruU^ 
Tfttor, thoikin^ In tie Mdx, wft» watering W i^rop, and found 
tho wftlcrr dmaj)|>e(ir irj u Iiolu which atwst>rled it entirely. Od 
digi^ing to €3iaujiiio tije liole. ho found a gold ornamcAl rcprcernt- 
ing lli« fignri* tttti cnjw. N^w« of thiii j-Jtu'lirci iho cum uf the 
l»ov<m(»r of KWttU, who ordartn] cicaTatiouB to bo made. a»d 
tfold utfi^uiii-nlA and e-mn* w€trt> found. Tu lhf\ immfli of April 
T^4t ithuut tho tjmo wltcn Hum Chuitd wu« tiiort^ a f^ld 
ortkamcnt ut^igliing nixmi IG lbs. svji£ lound. It w&» in tbo 
ahapi! uf ji Miiud vdiE^jT itnd bitd n dmiii /hlt^LcLcd to iL Bomour 
deckred It to bi^ a u'-'i^k-oriianiriil of the i^tvat AtraMub, und the 
liiidor HUH ^UHaivd to have hit npon the «|iot ^hrro Afnifiiub'a 
tfeaauro viaa buried. This, of c'oura<<, ia M pure roujt'Cturti, 
Hud Afrtuiinii, who waii fiitlieMn-law to CambyHpa IT., or-ctipieH 
ID all CVfilruI Aiijim h^^ciidg, tiio p\o^o InkiTn by AJosiaudsr the 
Gniat in AsirtUr Vi^fu Jury hialoiy, or King ArUjur m Kitgliali 
tttW t ho|>9 the time t8 not tar distant when a complete 
oxplornljuii vi Xhetm inl^ieE^tio^ ruiua will bring to lii^bt many 
more ireaaiirefl; and it ia not ouly in iho tieif^bbourhood of 
J^hotfin thjtt lbr*c inquines havo to bo modo. 

AcLTordiiii^ |j inrumittliou we piclcod up from triivtllt-ra, ftud 
coDfirmed by Syad Yaiii^b iibaiii thi-re 10 a mined city called 
Tiihhl'i-Tui'jLn, dttsti to iht^ city of Kiicfmr^ on n hill of iit&ro 
rock; tlio ruine arc* of caUk of a deep yiltow colour, quite ua- 
Ukvf nuything ou tlic hill ; tburu a^o bouidee a lui^e uumUtt of 

* I^vbably lb«ina«ol4Ci(Bo»iictuinttr luuTolo t« ttiQ o|i|nt> bat IL boa not 
jot Wo coinnLutidly dKiphefcd. Tbu AiLtiuiacliun i^ ulvul HQ it,o., itmL l]j« 
Mdoundoi yjtr a.i^ llio Uttto d^tifa nf iiuiJiihu b jir^'iiiuuno^d by <nmjaitoQt 
aDtharltia (o Iv ubauF Mio lOth ouutury. hi Lhkl tha tuLru^r^vtiov d tJiic Qtty m 
tho MObX mfl/ b« '^KW\ bl^iui SOU y4«r* h^ 

Shifting Scn^s t^lht Grtai Dfi^rt ofOM, 


caTo«, Cf3ccftrat*>rl for ro«irJoDoe. Tli« dtj is said to have psiatod 
prt<Tioii« Ui tW ilrttt rriiim-K* n04'TipFit.loTi, nncl to linvi- IfH-n fvm* 
anmf^d hy fire, owiiiff t*^ ihc* rufiwal i>f ita niler to adopt tho 
Kabomnkedaii fflitk About tij tubh. or t!0 uiiIm, tn tiio north 
of Xuefaar A Isrg*) idol iti SAid 1o exkt, nhioh in cut out of the 
fock. It L* 40 lo 50 kvt Ligb, biw 10 hetvU acd 70 hAiid*. 
nnd iu f'ftrvrif wilh tho tongue otifgide the month. TJv- moiin* 
tain behind tho Hoi is <-xrc^in£rly difliiTuU of aact^nt; c&mo 
slxiiind)^, but, (*wiog to the prot^^rtftui of the idol, ranDot be 
kiUod. ^omo very n>mnrkamn niins rtc Bairl to exiitt not for 
from Monil liij^hi. Svad Yakiih Khm [^hvi* U5 n di.'^rTifjliiJii uf 
thorn, hilt UTiforumnltly n'>t till AltJ?r Cnftnin JiilHiilpli had 
Tl»itt?d thf* vicirjity without being nwure of the jirixw ulninvt 
in his f^rasp. 

Not tixr from the pneeont ftfy of R&sh^r is the Kohnn ^hahr, 
or old rriiy, ivUioh ^viu4 d*4Htri>yKj uiany ci^ntiirien a;^o, yet the 
wall*, thoagh only biiilt of ean-dried bViclm. aro fltrtndin*. with 
llifj tidlai lit whiVh i.he mff.rrs wt*re iriHtfrtt*!) ** t'lr^nrly Ji*lliii^l 
ft3 if they hnd been ouly just iiaed, Th»y r^mmd^d me of the 
holes* UiOn r^rri in tlie rock^ od the O^niibti juft Imfotft »p* 
prOiUcMo^ thr? Iron Gntos. As all, or Dearly 9o, of the ediiCL*fl 
m OcaQtT&l Asia arc bnilt of eun-tinrd bricks, it m^y seom 
rMnurkuble tb»tl >u('h stnitrturei* Hhunld Mjrviv« throiij^fi m 
many agce, but the eztrome dryness of the oUmato aoconntH 
fnr this. When 1 was aLjiying at Yiin^ Hij*M»tr, l vuih'd the 
tOmb of Hu^^uix Bi:>^iru Khuu. It ie rdoountod ol tiirt tomb 
ho^ he hojJ eanied the croftn of nmrtyrdont by falliiii- in 
battb ngamet. the iiifidt^l ^ii^K ^^ Kbotuu, v/bosto fort, which 
etood tdoa^ by, Ue had destroye<l. I yf*:nt to ei?e the forty and 
foujkd not onlv pun of tin* woodwork in good ordt-r, hut even 
miktting wbioh h put under tfu; e[itthw[>rk of thfi oaro* of tlio 
inof WRfl sUil visible. Acrorxlicg fo thn datn nn the lomb, this 
fort must hnye bueii dftsttoyod upwards of 8lK) y^HW a^o. 

Alt iiiliTTi-Hting tpc-HiidU muy now he ji^ked: Whenf do LhffHri 
ids come from 'f It is a retHEirkahilo l:ict wt*!! supported by 
\m i^vidnnrn of tmr jvcn^s. as well «n by tht? ri<|iii[trs uf the 
'lolkAbttnau of the Muulry. tbar n\\ th^§e fiiind-hilU rnore in one 
direction, i.e., from north-west to south'Oft*!, [f 1 were 3peakintf 
of a Inwt of ftiUTifry eant of tlie Great I>e?ifrL of Qolii, tlia 
anawer of coarao would bo plnin ; but 1 mn spcokiti^ of the 
•TxtTrmtt wont ctirufT o( the Da^rrt, anil incirfovtr I will endeu- 
tour to d*at'ribe u *till niuro rviTmrkabl** oiroiinistaiiL-e* As we 
left Knui Shrthidiin an niir ri^inr.'i jounif^y Wf: took a westerly 
direction, nnd alter cro^^i^iii^' a. ^i-u of sand-hiHa fur j^omo miles 
tmae to oult[V0.ted ground* wJddi we ugziia cxchimg<-'d iot mud. 
JudgUDg from what we sivw, our theory wiib thnt tb&fe Hands ore 


U FoRBTTO tm ihf Buried Cfiiivs in tAe 

■Ugnulimlly iiuivitig nn, run] tin- jmrU no Raw mllivatej vill 
in t2aie be <>viir^«heli|]<?c], bud otlier purU now covered will b^ 
l&id bare. Bnt. following tiiU course hi mmo ntilca, vrc tihould 
hart come to tlit> Tiim SLau Bui^^e. Doeii oU Uiia sand conut 
from tlutt raji;;e ? Ouij iiJe& ataried ivoa (bat the juLiid com«H 
from tin* giXMt dc*n*rU in IttwHittii Siborin, over ihii Tiaii fiiitiu 
MouiiUmEt. AuolLi^r idtMi u ibut it la ruiW ia tho Dcf'ort of 
Ool>ij anri is cttrriod lij a current of air round, ihn Imjtlii uf 

XLe iUt'a iif tim HaiiU coming from tUft rmigi? wliioh irooic- 
diatoJv bounds tho Dt^sert f^oDuot be inaiut4Linrd, 1 tlunk. 
For ILcMiud in blo^v^i alnaya iuiuio dirediou, uiid Uit- (larticlca 
are very routh heavior tljaii the very lijie im^wlpfibic* tititi wlucU 
Gila tlic ntio^wi^ilic^n^ with a Iijlko as tlonso fis ti l^ondoii fu^, and 
vrhioh is doubtl*?^ raUed by tLe variouei giisu of vi\m\ from th» 
moimtuini^ on idl eido^. Tbc rhuty haac JiJb all ovor llii> iundi 
but is not mjIUcu^uLIv lliii^k L) Uirv liuildiii^ 

Tbe theory that too saaJ is Lfou^ht Uodi a desert in Unsflia 
U ilImo, I tliink, iinU^unbln. It would Ililvc tu pian i^vcr Iwi^k 
KuJ and other lukvs aud cultivated hud, which wo ki>ow aro 
not thu3 covered viith siuid. it wi^old. III tacU hare to mount 
liitfh in the heavi^'us, like it flock oi' ^evs^, till ii t»ru(«ed the 
loity Alai or Tiun *Shau Mouiitulud, uud thai altght ou Iho 
DiiHert of Gilhi, iniiul U^iiiff thus uttroi^LeJ to SAtid. 

Tlio third thoLiry, of & circulur ciureut of ait, aeoms mora 
probable. I Lavtt Nuen, on a small st-«h'r something ot' tho hRiun 
ftppoaoanoe on the elevatud phileuu, cniesm^ from tho Cliunf-- 
abea^iQo Valley to tlia houd of the Kaxaloieh Riv«r, nu liie [ur;;ti 
aoda «>r alkali plain, whirh th. in fad, Ih^ dric^d-np l^d of aa 
old lake, aud jk aurround«d by low hilla. Whi^n I Wfi» en* 
camped in a rnvire, ahoitt £ miles from this plain^ 1 observed 
about Ij VM. thut a donnc cloud ol white mjel rose from tko 
pluiiL A IochI diJ0t-Hlorui of u very dt^agrccahlr! t^hAratitar 
seomed to bo goin;; Km. iJut it did not spread, aad ut'^t uKimin^ 
whim we cioasui tln> isothi plaiu all wn* qiiii^t. Timards Mfter- 
nooD, however, a alorm similar to whtit wo hnd witnc«wd th^ 
day pievJoiLsiy come ou. and I believe «uc-h tttiirmti nm of djuly^ 
oecurreuce, except, (ATlLapM^ in winter, ^jme of my party, in 
^^^ croaaiDg tho plain, Cftfuc ucroea the rctnain.-! of tho auimols and 
^H 9ome oiinp urt.kl^, Um), mrtiailv buried, which. It wiu Maid, 
^^ had beea loat or left by Ad^Jpljo bohia^iutwcit in 1357. Now, 
r uhat I saw there on a small scule may lie going on, on n much 

I grander scale, in the lurge basin of th« 7)esert of Gobi, J in»j^ 

I mautiou here lhal,in cm^iiig from Surt FniittiiHco to New York, 

I I <;1>fii<r%'^d tli»it tho platemi between iha N<!V»du lUnf^e and 

^^ Uockjr M^^UQlaiDfi u ver^ aimilar m iU i«&Lurea tu {uru ijf 

SAiflinff S^tmdi tfthi Crf^ DrMtri of G^^i. IS 

Centriil Aiia^nnfl e«pooiBlly to tl>e hi^^h ro^oiui betu«<4>Ei tho 
KttiukojQiu uul YftrKUftd. 

1 luTfl amd Uiut &u utttiuLut vhmIf* Lit iei« tu jn^ h rlHit to 
KhotaD wiw uiuTicniiAiriiLt ai^a thU lead? mo to notioo th4 K- 
inttkfl of* irritcr in tiin Jul; nuEiiW of thr'Qiuirtrrl)/ J^ricw/ 
wboij^VM bis opioiao iJiat \\^\ the scrT^iJlAoee uifl re^Lnint to 
«hkui» under Uic^ giimr of ntt^^tinna, ib^^ Mii«r^ was subjected 
faw* reiutMi Butv^MKifuif)r uf tbi* iM^^'bntn)^, urvl Wl not timo 
b»on miAGoountabt^ lo«t, a mni^-h mori) taionatTo OKplomtion of 
ibiM uili-nwtiii^ (Mnmlrjr iiii|?;hl fiHvn btwn mwln. litfK nblit n> 
riower had pr\>bab)y Dot travelled in AaJAtie t^ountricfiT of bo 
nuiy IjftTo fbrgott4;n iii» knowledge i>f A«iatic chartu/Cf r. adiI Ijoa 
not 'velt;b«4i auilkseiiilv oar^fti)1y ibe itiapoudubiliti^s vli]<-h 
fetter tboM who IjfLvo tlio coitdnot of such &u cxpr^iiilioii aji L 
hid tbo bowuiT to i^oiitmiiiui. Rut am thr^ o|i]ni'irui he hn^ UirM 
ojrpraned bciTo t>eeK Bbareti by utbLiH "^bo, s\itb on im^^rfect 
luuiwliilgr w{ tbn whiiU rir:^iiiiiri(nnr^ cif rmr |xM]tinn, hnw 
<dift£Qii nl tbe Josh of aop^renUy trusy opfKrtunitics for arldin^ \a 
oar stock of L[LuwWi^e; 1 mft^r hoi^ aay a ft<w vtuj-<1s wbi<;li 
vdli parbftp* tbrow toma Jittbt ou tho ntat.T'*r, nnd ^xptuin whnt 
tfao nriewer eooftidert t^L« miAL-i'iJurilftble ucgH^enco uii itiy 
p»H- Hottr4)ver frir^nHly nn A*ifttio may be. he ih proverbiaJly 
mflpidooN ut^ t}io Ai^tionti of a\\ Eorcigiu^n. Mr^ ^Jla^T, to vrbom, 
aA the Quarterly Hevi(^w>^r juritly retiiarkfl. im duf< the hiMiour (if 
tfa»ltnt0QOComlui aitvATic'i into tbnt iong closed rountry»iL« ia 
duly nJoljad uibiH 'Ilit^h TpirLfiry. Vnrkitiid, uml Kft^h^ha^/utl 
JuterestitLif roconi of hu ai^lvenlurt^ and of diHicnltioA ovGirci>aia 
by A happy mixtun? of Wdiioju and diplonincy t^ith pnticnc^ 
Bod cood bnntoiiF, ^vo^ iudlaucoe of tb^ disappoinlriieutJi to 
vbicK ho was wibK^ctod, and h^y haa ort<^B rcooaiktcd to mu tbo 
nkuuMT 111 wliit^b hi> vfait UiUidiKtHl wiih i*i[M-(:tiitioD of immiv 
diate liberty of action; but aJwaya to bt> diaaptKmitiMl at lh<i 
maamt of fniitioiu During hiM Hrxt rixh in Vnrkitrid aiid 
KaabKbar h& waa kopt a priHoner inaido the four waJIa of hm 
bouM or ID tiifl ti-iLf, aud never entijivd the irity at all. Thia 
WM, bowttvvr, tt *»irc*uniat«ii«ij in no way Ij» bo w*imlrTi'il at, but 
wbe« ha reviwted tlie ouuulry aw lb*? Puiiik'/il A^;i^nt dcpalrd 
by tb« IndiEiTk OovnrtiiiiMr;t, and alW tin? rotiirn of our MiasioD, 
wbt^ htr roi^ht bu durv (>f tDJoyinjc tbo fruit of nowly c^ablUbcd 
r^ations with th^ Aio^ert I fully eipect^ that ht* would travel 
ub4>iLt tha country and aot^ompUnb %vhat wc? had left undone. 
Bui it ia a fact that Mr. Shaw rlid lutl f.\ttii miinr ihi? city nf 
Kaahi^har, alUKOiirh h^ refli<Jf^ for i>evt«rfLl montbg within a few 
miUw of tb(^ city. Ui? UnH mner \tcv.u inMt) it or brygnd Yniigi 
Sbabr, ibd old Chii]e«a ouart^r no^ oc/^upied by ibu Aiuctr, 
cad & miicfl distant fcooi uo city. Tbc rooioa be gftTo mo fbi 


16 FOBBTTH on thff Baried CUiet JIT the 

thie vfts tbat thongh h<^ doiibtlcra mi^ht baTf^ ineisc^ on g<^nfr 
tJiej-e, Ih' nlw*t*iijifO fnim ilciing *r rut of <li-fc»rf'n£*i' (o thf. ki^nwD 
or eujipoeed ktlin^'^ of lbs Amci.^r; and if in sn<rli a em&l] 
mnltfr li€» coMsidereii h \)f'Vi\fi to alMtHin iVoin rwrciniTiK nn 
KngU&timiin'a frojii'TiMity to Hatljify hi« ciiri()iiity, I fdt^l U)at I 
havQ a strong uutborily oo my mde^ Td aiiy or« iinacquAiuted 
with tlie charftcter ol thoiu) AiiftUOi thoir t^oniiucrt it atUia 
JDCxplicubEt^, ttad nioet trjinc to one's |Nilit'jic«, Mr. Shaw 
rvruiintA how thn YnrlciiTif] ot1T<^iAlB would onroA to hirn in hin 
conliutriiLtnt und prcifK>^(^ it visit to Xhn oily, or 1u »idic ^ardci'na 
in tlie utiJ^'liUuirlkoiii, and Ituvfii^ rxt-iletl Inn fxii'CitAtion to 
tho hiji^lLfu^t pitrK, aitil )mvtii;>; j^oDo eo f^r as tJi fix tbe time 
for ^oiug fmd all pnOiminiinm, t\wy uould miicr? Mrme bidden 
and JnHujw^rftW'? oljection* 1 fouud exactly th^ Raino prow«i 
adoptiMJ witii reicmicu U> myself. On the otM-A^ion of mv 6nt 
VISIT, to Yarkon^ iu 1^70, like Dadkliwah ni»i^ lite iiATialoffisr 
of perfect liberty of action, but waa wighTil^ cff-.Tided bec^iuee I 
(uok liim III hiA «on]. On tht* Mf^Hid vixilH. 1 urmiigtr'il Lliroi]]|f1i 
my friend 8vnd Viikiib Kh\\n for (M>m|>I«to libcTty to bv oocorded 
tn tlit^ mTmiunrn of tlui Miahioh Io mfttii /ihirnl niiyHberd wifJiin a 
day'^ Jotircey of out qui^rtc-rfl, Ic-avin^ ta'>r^ extr-uded escunioni 
to DC iDftttLT of freparali? an^uij foment. We bad iicrt been lodged 
in KnabgUar u wvok Mon^ wo cbtainod the mrmiwou of tho 
Amt^r to viflit the frontier fort of Ohakmak, Captain itiddnlpii 
waa allowpd to pjn f>ii nti pXi^Lituiou tn MF(ralUi>'hi. and wi «n<m 
as tlic) wc-utlior pirntitti-d we t^Mik a jtriinjcv up tovianla Ush 
Turfnik. Dirriui? th« «iiiit<T niiMjtliH very txtemlal joum^ya 
conid net \xt iinilrrlriU'^n ; hut I ynfi onnManllv ("oHMoltod aatomy 
wiBh(T«rc>ri«-ni3iu^ft I'aTtv (u Akin ami lo l^Hkoljuji^iui well oa to 
Kb<itan. The Ameer \oi«ntoi?rijii t> n^ak^* ufeo of Dr. 6to- 
]ilxka^« valuable E«c!r<ntilir kno^rlod^e* ntvl uSUT having; rooeired 
hiB report, or wpM^imeiia of ooul, oopiwr, and other oret, pro- 
posed that hf eliouhl be: ernt to < xamino th<^ mjiicfl. But ac iq 
Mr Sliau*a atss^ ho it nnJi in onrs : jiii.L at tlu* la«t, jnomBnt 
BomG oxcu^e w^h ranged, arid tlie cxpodiiioii bud to h\y postponed 
mtK dits. I find thai niifUhrr ^nnil Irjivclb-r (M, Pr^-jevjilnky) 
d^taita expt-ricnoe eiraijur to oura. and ooruplaiuH of bt^iiif da- 
toiacd jiiAt at the mom--Dt of de}iartnn.\ for r^n^iimA whion ha 
could oot diftoover ^iiher then or afUTward* : and Sohuylcr, in 
bis moat intore^tln*;; ivoik on 'Turkestan,' rot^rdn aintilar 
exjxirir'EKM'A, iind I nm iu'diniyl to think ibnh all Rurripeau 
iravell<^r« iu Central Asia urt* likely l« KulTor m th'j Batuc way 
until ihfy can diHccivrr th'- sei.'rel wliirh I he ri'vit'wernpparmtly 
[>c«aeiuiu lijr ovi-rcomiNj; thi'sn otntjwdcs Jlu* irL[M^ili>nt itmnj^y 
to ike ranuir by OiAvin-'i Uufduu^r* n^tly mjtiired eoiiAiderable 
Etegotiatton on my |>art ; and aflor it had ^larteti, ibo Amoer 

I^llCQCLL cn RtAiaian Kxptdxtivn to ihe Md ml Ihrntr* 17 

icatirord l*>rDC4ilit,aiidibnl »om© difficulty in reconcilmgttio 
AipMtr bj CuJoncI Oort^on jiron?cinin}f liU joiiniry. Mv n.]ipli- 
«ilioii to Ti^t Ktuituu, iifl^rr liaviii^ been Mnctioiiixl tmi ^vdry 
•nugovwtLt haviii;^ h-f-ii uwdc, wnx llimllv AhUv refused; and 
had Iirifti«t<i<l on hatiti^ m^ nwn n'ay, it h mo^ probuhlo tliat 
I tbould liuTe foijuil iiiMij|k(-tu1rii* cjtrEic-iiltinn put in my jiaibkaud 
it jji c^rlfliri tiint I ^lioiilil hnve Cx-tu&ed a breach in tbe rnendnblp 
it iiiki mv rbjrf^ tiiid dtJtv to i:y?iTif-nt. 

FoniVU it may be mkf that all tbU rnilr ^bowB lht?i bnllon^ 
DOM of %&<•' Ameer's pcrtornwiicc of frieDdahip ; and, in t'lwt, I 
bavn fKcfiii-nlly wnu tJilx uiyr^d im it pmnf "f thn wotUiltuKiieafl 
of any ti^ty of Jimity witli the rulora of ooijotriea ft;?F0d4 our 
bofdnr. But I inki^ U^Avn to differ witirvlv fhimi sncb (^inioiLf. 
Wo Guuun Judg© AeiatitM oa wo would fcuropGaud, lliey do 
Ikot understand expeditions condact«d for purely actccititic pnr- 
poaaa; uut iUay may bo axonA^i! for di^Iitcing lo vbow all tbeir 
nMorooaoTeu lo their moat TaluM Kuropt-AU frir^nila. 1 can- 
not tici Iwttrr thftn (UmHiiilM my Puprr by u r|r]ot;it]r>H fmin tb^ 
nnMHw ma<b by Uiv dt)tifi(]:iiiftbT.Kt Pre^idfrut of lht> Itoyal 
OoognphicaJ Bociely;^" We mii^t romplain that our rvptilA- 
tkm in tho Eaat tukcsn iu rompl<^ron from our conque^ita 
and pTO^reae iu India* the history of wbi-^h, Ui broad oath'no, 
nl Uitat^ 1ft parfoctly woll-hnown ii^ Cbitia. if not all i>vi^ Avtti. 
How wo bo^au by Afikin^ for a pririk-gif to IracK and cudod by 
nnni^xi:!^' pn>vitio«>a^ aftflr drsaHtrnns Whtb, If no aerret Wh/iU 
ever cxplunaliina or defence w& may baro t<^ offer n» to tho 
GMiaea of thin inevitubb aiWuiiri! tiiirn tiuiUng factorica to 
Kmpirv, wo con ecaT<'ely ospect any E&ftom eoi-^^ipi or peoplo 
tu ulladi nincli tTi^dit tij tlicm. Wr tiiuvl Ix^ content lo tmde 
nnd to nf'i^iJater weight^ with the boavy burden of distnisl 
a&d soApicjon* 

]]. The Bttauin Eir^diiioii to thf^ Ahi atid Pamr, 
By Kobkut MicEiBUi. 

ISwd, J*i>tt%ry MLli, UT7.J 

I'UB Uiutfian nimcTXAtion of Fei^annb, tho patrinioiiy of Dubftr, 
who vra4 lein^ of tViat coontry in tin.' nftc-t-iiih ri^nliiry, Icnovn 
aUo fia Ibo lato Kh^uuit of Kliokiind, ciato occasion to a «*:^rics 
ef militjiry p-xjMHlitiiuLK ngatnst Uie «u-i.%ill«^l unruly ^lameBti of 
the populfttioni Viz,, tho Kit^dnz. 

Tto Kifj^hiK an* n itfnai\t\ rittw, wbo may by courtesy bo 
caUod warLdzo only in f^m^i-iaon with tbo sedentary U^Wa. 
Tbc more b^lliooao aro the kij^-halu, anotlit^r wjirult^rin*,^ peo^e, 
whoiKci in11ui'nc(\ cndor v'tzkr^ of liiat rac€<r eeema to have been, 



MrCHtXL on iht Jtmiian ErpetifHon 

OB "the wbde, alwnve pHtJimoimt in tbe Khauat. Thicae two 
TftceB Dumlxr about 3iX^00O indivicliialB vitbin the Itioitd of 
Ft^^^nfth, tltc* Ki|><'linkH Uniag liirutiHl in tho nurtli-^MlAm 
portion of thtj Klituint, and llio Kirghiz dietributod both nortb 
and aoiith, perhafH twvtliirds of their u^^p'cgutr Wing (ilrr-vfu 
about tlin hij^h TnUc^yx tmtl ever tho tubl^-laudj ou the loutb, 
»<:tli>i]diijg arriKM the Ki^Ji lutitudinal laugeA cvea to the 

The KipcKake haTinjt been considerably reduced m numbers 
betvr^eD September, 1^74, and January. J875, when Kumnagwn, 
An<^i)aT], Anakaf, &iid cjth(?r p]aco« wcrn almoat whoUv burned, 
rr demolinhed LyithellA, vhile their LNjtintry was tnoroughly 
rwvf^|-od, it bcflimc in>oc«wty to tatni^ thf* waHd^trin^ floni* oriliu 
mifnlii^ *mt]i«ni conliiiefl of t!»^ Fer^'/inah A^fllie)', »»h[\ like 
mfittese ant^^ came and U'ent d<:'wii the valleye of tji^ Atai adiI 
orei the paivc? to thirir tiaknowQ pOAlarin^ gi^niuLi btrjoud, 
imying no hood to the fact that the nen authonties 1ooke<1 to 
Ut«D3 lor humble Bnbmisaion ntid for systematic tribute. Their 
TetirJti^ hubitK, thi-ii' siiiky diKpidttiun, tlieir r-XMJtfvHifAs^ their 
mde ftad extrava^nt notioiia of inkjffcnsivo indowiaidonw, woro 
t'Lrntiaij ti» rill tli*^^ ni'll'r,-<tJibU>^lLc4 iiifUiini:! nt militriry ni\n and 
nfii^&t- admitiUlralirjii : htTco the eeTera] expeditions to the 
Alai Mouut^iis iu the vtixly part of iho prr?«cat year, when tlio 
Eirgbfs wore taught *>iik* sevt-re li>«M>tift lii poUli[!al <»oonomy — 
hcjioo abo tbe acspatch of thfr three military eolumtu in July 
liwt to thi* iiplandii of tlio Alai lUid Pnmir, ovtT wlii^li the t^nU 
tikts cooraeo of tlie bomads wrvo ici focilitute eoromuaioation 
with Katbgar an tb«< eaMt> wjtit Kjirul'^ghia on tli« irrot, and 
^ith tfar) coantr^- at th^ «oiire<M of tbe Oxujs, and ftith Badakli* 
fihan, an iho Mjuth. 

How and v/lutn thc^ Kjrghk fix>ht i^tmo to ooonpy ihu groat 
t^Ie-lftiid eieparfttin^ EibHU'ru from AVontcru Aaia ia an un- 
ruTvlled tnysi^ry, Tfipir original migmtt^n from Ihn T)a-K*»m, 
or Dpi>or Yoniaaci Valley, in the Sayan Jklomitjuna, xa\iBt buvo 
l>€*n fffwlwl in very remote antiquity; and tli^y are probably 
tlio romnant* of tfin rao^t anciont ptroplc in tbc huloiy of 
Ontrnl AhJh. Acatrdlu^ to GhiuuHe aiithoHueB, quotea by 
tbow who bavo inqnirc^l into tht} origin of thi* p«>oEd0> tli«y 4r» , 
tho neraaina of the Hit^fu, iDPutioncd \jy Chinuoo chrociioletv of 
the fifth c^ntitry as tfie relics of a ooce Tttry ntuneronB and 

g)wcrt'ul nution, tniccd back to tbc seoocd ocmtory bolero 
hriit. Ill the Mh rentiiry we read of thflm Oi «Ke«l]eEil 
oarmra od tbo 3luEart }'ae& ; wo ^1^ad of Kir;;?hix elavei in tbo 
t!mo of tho lloxniin Em|ip-n>i Justiniun 11-/ who wnt tax 

* 01bboa'« * UoBElao aod J^iJl of xht> BocDftD £iapl]«,' vol. It. p. lOi. 


Cf ths Alai and Famr, 



emboaiy to ilw fir Etut, under tbc pnorcct ZeniArcbuj ; btii va 
abo r«ad of th6 KirgljtK hi tb^ tturt^ntU century u oompoung 
thfi YU^piord of ObiDgiz-KliAii'B great Uoneol army cf inviwioin. 
In tliv WTcnttvTitli o.r-Eitury tlif^y went Svnnid m Tc*rv ilitniiiibLal 
tui]&be» in tlic U^j^^r YoiiiHuti Valley by tUa KoeeiAti Ooeeaok% 
wW drcne th^ r>.-mAtri[[i^ tril»c« (>ul cf iLat country iq tliO 
|voce^ of ouu^tiiitf " Yfi.<fAk. "* Tbdr laoguAf^ i» Turkr witli 
an aduitxtOTi? i^f IV-r^Iuu. thi<>ugti coh&bitatioa with Ir&nioiu, 
who <vl one timo «4»tli(Hl iu tliu i>i<:itral p^jrlion nf itmcir Afcjfl. 
Fruoi tliitf it v»ivi coikdudtfd by sereraL Oriental «chijUn tEuLt 
their riHgin wa« Tiirlc ; but Klaproth almost wTAljlmli^tl it rut n 
fact tJut thr;y LhtIucj* tu tbc ludo-GormiLiuc liuniLy. 

Tlie cuuiitry whii.'L tlie vjirioui tribes or tliese Kir^liiz ocoupy 
i« a pRTt of tQflt porticulur rcgioik in Afia wliicli iit J<iu4t known 
to xieif tkui which Ja ihc»fuio cnlculnltnl to ntouM th« liTeiiaot 

TJniil recent times uothin(f but very vagiic nnJ confnain^ 
data and s^ioiitifle theory helped towarJa th^ deliiLeaticD of, the 
country north of thu ^Ttli piLmllcl to tbc IQlh, Iwtwocn tbo 
73rd and 7G{]i dtgnws uf Wj^iiuda Spuriona ocoountit uT 
trarel «id travcetied inctat had moAo oonfusjon oven woreo 

FTom north to south no known traveller be«idea Abdul 
Ucdjid (13^1) lioA Gwi crowed the Alai acd Pamir pUteftiu, 
excepting ferhapi an OL'oujtioual envoy from Kbokaiia to Cal- 
cntto- Ou the other hJknd, from ca^L and w^^»U it wo^ traTorsod 
to the i-ju-lirut tx^rioil (if oiir *^ni,i in tJti Miikllu A^r^,^ mid In 
(he be;;inaiiii; ol iKci jovL^QUicnth Of-nturyn l| In lt^35 Lit^nt'.'nAat 
Wood ii«ctn«wd to oju' tit' thi; 6inirti.« of i\w Oiii^ o[i llii.' Grv^at 
Southern I'lUuir. Colonol MLaLtgouiorio'd3ftVKi,]D ISCSjOrottAod 
the Little Tsuiir, which Ui3S to the «outh uf the tii^at J'uniir 
ftsd Wooi'ii Li&l{<', on hi* wby from Wuhhan to Yarkjuid* 
Li«utc-unnt Huyw^udn in tSG8^ woa tJio tirat ti> (rive un tbo out- 
line «f iu eastrrn rjiinpurUi. Far/ BnkHh, in ]S70, cTossed hy 
the Greut I'luntr U* ^^ikul and VorkAnd. 

The ujemhen af Sir ] ^uii^1a;i Foi>4ytli'ji misaJon to Yaikund in 
1673 «tcntl<Hl ihoir cxplgnuions Irgm tUo onst to oboulSiS' 5' N. 
hU-i and 71° 50' E. litn^. Tho Uu-^sj^u intlitiiry mjiodJtiou af 
IS'Q commc from the nartli, nttAiued very neiirly tbo oStJi 
pnnlloL The Ituwimitt have now canii><:'d on thft nhorcji of tho 
(Gr^at?) Kora-kul Lake ; passed by Abdni Medjjd; Ibey have 

t ViU -Juiunol of Boynl Gm^tupfilotl Soototj'tbi 1860, to], uort jxtiS 

^M.f hfkU tul Llil ms, (.»l<ni.l Yulti'A 'Kotoa,' »t fip. 173-t80 . md 5u IL 
K*«n»C*' *5[im[>^^ph on tiki; Okup/ «>, I6S-SI?- 

J Hwiii-!^ng •f"J rtnng'Ymi, A-H, filB: "umI HwFTi-Tii»Qg, k ti, 1)44, 

I JdAr?ol'd.\ V1V2. 

Bvav^iH Moov I(H& 

c 2 

ascertainerl very Approximeitoly the Mtoation of IaIc^ Hinng-ltiil ; 
au<i ffom tbe weat«ni side thev hAve liisuerneci tli-^ momtl&iiL'- 
ningft of fittip^iiilciifi nltttuiliT wKfch HA^rurnrd in 1$tS? oWrvo^, 
LiriU laid di^i^vit from the anett>^ U> wbi«li tlio incmbcn of the 
Yarkiuid misHiDti coiiicM>H} with the 1ta8eiar:B in uUFitniting n 
iici^M fur cxcocrfinK: --/MN.I foot, nnd winch it is now pijfntivoly 
nflt«rlrTl iri ti tnmdiunul iiiiij.:«^-'l Ue litiiiiir* uf Plolfinj's Geo- 
grflniiy, ihe Dolor, Bpint, or Holrir-tjigh of UmuboUt/ 

teeDth oeDlury by Sir llenry lUwlinson and by Cofonel Yule ; 
but tho range, it nould i^ppci^r mu^it be rc^mitted into tho 

It was llaron UumboldtV opinion that tho eoKnlfed Bolor 
MciuhIjiJms* nrro n connecting liuk h\ llit* ineridinmil KX>1rmr 
traceable ivora Ca^ Uomoriji lo iho Northem Oot^u; l>nc bo 
was five>aud-n-ba1t' degreea wrong in his rcckouin^, dirovTin^ 
bis "Bolor" a eouple of depreee weat even oi ArnmiioLthM 
trui^vene ran;;e, wliich tlie latter look from the * Apoci^pbat 
Travel*' recently disi-overed in the Foreign Oflire, 

Humboldt drew his contiiuitiua line of mounlAinei from tbe 
Hirtiitlfivm lo itin Thian-Slinn, in n dirr»?lioH fnim f.)s,k. to N.U.W. 
l'^>m tnr imjridiiin of Yiirkiimf this \a iniluinl tJu? direction of 
Lteat4-i]tuit ILi^wardV *' Kizyl-Y^L ilaiig*^;" tuid l1ii?( iti uh murb 
o watcishi^d botwt^jn Eu»lern itnd Wort^irn Turkoston a« the 
ridge wbidi the Pundit Manidiul haa ^ apprupntit^dy fermod 
tbe Pamir nug? ;"t Iji^t tlm IViitdit'^ mngo nms in a direotion 
from ftj^w. to v,Kx.; and token M!piLruf4?Iy itn^ior )t» diTtinctir^ 
name, it ini|^1tt itidre correctly be tiaid to buiiTid the Pamir 
titcppoej on the i?outh-caiit, Hayinvxd'« rnngc boing clearly their 
rftxtiTtL Htiiit Ui the? mirth- 

TLq name ''KiicylVart" doo« not, bowever^ eppdur to bo 
applicable to liayvrard * *' Meridional lUngo," ond woald seem 
propL-rty to fitlocb only to a i^d rid^j^-, and to a pu« in Ibu latr- 
ludiual Max Mountain^.^ vyhich Kcdchcoko has called tbe 
TraDS-Akis; allhtnijjli OnpliiitE Trolter mIsu cib^iTVc'S Lhut that is 
tho uam-j by wLioL the rango in queetiou i* kuown tu the Kufth- 

* Ndw hlHo man o]iaiao(il;r kn^vu uuJur tlw luuuo ot Bnni-i-DuDb. ttoD*- 
klod iuto'*ith>r of Ul<i wurM,'* kirJiuugb. rjikvu idioQinticalJ^p ii mifhl bo pcft 

iOftplalD TroHti tnltji ilitw Wrtloru bDnindarj tirHn* FiuufriU-ppDA. 
Habooied Zmia tcni ijrcrkoUBly ntakil iIiilI Ibii Kiivl-Vwl nuijiii fonatvi 
ihc pnndjdrii Ijouiiiinrv uf iLo Aid VnlJcj. *Klii:ii-Jk of llip JlDdDm Ulflaij cif 
TurVi-li rUinik^' Set Rutx'rt MontLE^^monvd 'iiuimrt i-ti th« Tjb4c and BUHUOW 
Of tb<j UoiiQlrimua tint N^irtb-Wtvl Ikmnilar^r Lif llhtiib India.' LiJioft^ 1S8X. 

te tfus Aloi tmd Dmir, 


' Rnjjort of tbe Yarkaod Mid^ioo/ uud in Colouol Goidou'a Look. 
iliAl r need not rccnpitiJntc hcr*^, aad ijijit^ OQou^h may bo 
gatherod to throw more ligbt on tho *iiI>jo(^t fMin tlio Ru^sdui 
«CcoDDt which follows. Tho I'aniir, ihs lium-i-Uama. or *' lUof 
of the WorM," H |>!ntfim .-f SOUO :« U>/)Ol) fi'ot uUitirl.^/ int-*r- 
9^Eod by Inrgo valieva and crovocti wiUi mount^Jn-nrnf:^!^ 
attniulni^ ljHgl»U of 2r%fKX» end 26.000 feel, and i^vliaps even 
t&cax% also occnw in tbc illuiitration of Ftobmy** (Icography, 
It wftfl hia tx>lintry of tlie Comedii? f to ivluali the? n]>j)nw:li vrua 
at that rAmoto Roman pfrrit^d »ihown to be only from tbo nortli. 

The dry miat notioeablft on tht? clflTBtfd Alni wid PamiT 
tAble-lftndp^ and alludM to in tbe Paper which will now follow, 
\9 a pcculiDf plienomonon which IiM never been pri>|>0Tly 
eluciihitcnL 1 nave lt«>ard it ^xplflined aa uttnbrilnbl<'< Xty a 
jy^^nbar c!octric condirii'-n of tho atmodphcTC, in which tbi: dis- 
infi?graliid |HirtJrl™ «f numlnluxt aw dmfin mswarili* during h 
ati11n(«e of tbe air until the attraction ooaae«^ when tlio 

iit c)cAr» by the tlurt fnllin^ and covering thf' snrfoco of tlio 
earth as with a carpet. It is mentiout^d by thr> RuattO-Groelc 
Danibc^ who, when in \arkond in 1TD5, observed in rcgi^rd 
lo it ; "TItn*tighr>ut iilTttiwt tliT? *iTitir« anturaii the afcy here is 
clouded. An incxplicaUo diisti brongbt &i) oiio Unuws wlion>- 
Tfow, fnlK Itkii riin, jind mak«'j< lljis nt^HKun vi-ry gloomy. It 
vtry frequently liappous," DuDibo^ oontinnea to soy, '*thol, 
owing ti> lieavy niolytorc, the air is IllLed with icddifili inaeL-tfl, 
which aro cullod KorlAt. It U vory auMom that tlioso nho are 
tiden ly it epicai* do^ttb. When tho said dual falU iustf'^d of 
nun Ihe inhabimnU know ihat the yoar W follow will bring 
abundfint hnrTtftt't ; but fihould ordinary rvln toll, thon it M 
takcrEi «H a Hiyii ihjit iIip M.'i;t year will be very unproductive; 
snd on such occow^rw oortain cuj7iomary proyona arc aoid. Tbo 
MiiJ iWt dran'i'iLdH ill amh deuHity ihat even tlitt Ht]n% myM am- 
sot penetrate it, and thU «om@timee continuefl eeven or ei^bt 
daya. This duxl la hi fine that it pendtrutcs tlii~otLgL ihu Ihu^ift 

'fb^ following rrport* of the r<^cent Rtiaaiau expedition wero 
writtf'n by Cn[jtiiiEi Koatenko, ijixigrupher lo fhtt detauh* 
ment; — 

* Hii' BAm-i-l>m]m i- i I-I3,t«0- 

t CinifflnrT Itlottinn Hr^ni Vifin XWhtv^'^fihiiX nip; *\( \l%^ V\ fllnjitrmta 

yuiiLr, CU. 1873. 


ITlc^ELX on the Russian ETjvditltn 

The AIM £^3e<2iti<mt M hy Mfjor-O^fm^ ShM^, /^ommanMng 
me Troo2>s in the FrrffamA Region, 1876.* 

1.— GcEcml Kaiifinanr» comiDanding tic forces in TbikcffUo, 

UQcIcr bis own commoikcj, ehonld advance to tho Alai, aod 
Tnjiri}i intn Uia vrry licjiri of ihe Mimmi.'r p»ifcliitie« of thL* 
Kir;>Viia, and bo denioDfitmto Uio feoeilility of coercing the 
nomads, Tlio dctAchmcat was rllviilcd mto tliice coluiaaa; 
ibd UtL-h-KurgjiD, Oeb, auJ Gulslut c*olumna; which weru to 
pn''cecd ly ftepiiralo roiit«a aad fonii a junction ou i!ie AlaL 

WliiUi purnuirjg a milifiir^' mltniniHtratiTe ohjpot, ihe cipe- 
diliotiitry torco at Uie trtime timc^ serTi«l strJciililic aim?, aiuce it 
virtilk'il cTJiintricR inlik whicli t.Tin ftirit f-f nn eiiuojitpil KnrripoATi 
liQ/t iiiTVXT lic^foiti pouc'trati^'d. Wp Imoxv that th<> Aim abutit 
iliJint<iialt*ly l>u tlie Pamir, (mti of llie Irahl Kiirmu \akTts uf tlie 
worM, anda fvaluro cf llie greatest in tvr^rt to every onligMoned 
mau. ofi to every geographer. In xUtw vf thin, th^ cxprditiou 
WAS fnrnished with a mUitary Ufpo^^pliioal party of ^igbt 

T]i4j atitroiioiiitorLl aitd bjtroiuetriui) lnhount Mere eatriut^j 
to the g€odoqist, \. IfoDedoHl Mr. \\\ Oshotiiu woft charged 
witli the mLliinil hJ.>iUjry dr*|inrttrj('nl, iiml T ww tfrnimiiuioatftl 
to etndy the ^tK^craphy and statistics of the region. 

On rrac^hing I crpuiidij Afi^ffiA' OiklioiiJii nn>) Boii^ilorr, 119 uoll 
aa ioviti*lf, were ordered to [roceed to CJulflha, wher^ wo wtre to 
atlacli oui'FelTCB to the colnn^u which \^6.i to be headed by tho 
<'oiii in antler uf the j'Tpi-dirion in person. This column wm^ li> 
take nic-iijaiDcararan roadpaatuag from Fcigaoah to Kaahgar, 
ovrr the Tervk-DrtVJtn. 

Wo arrived at Gnleha od the ISth (3Qth> July, finding thut 
the column had already ouan^hed ont towiinls Ki^yl-KurpLu^ 

Giilfiha ie the RuaBiiui iDost advanc<Hl outpost in Central 
Asia. In llm GiiTaha Valley, as thrvnglout ta© whole of iha 
mouDtainone zoue of IVrgjinah, rhe rains are as frtqu^nl aft tho 
vindp, Sikow falls ihickly Iw^ro ia the winter, aLd the frcjft« aro 
some times severe. 

The Uuldha river in in lloc^d in the moath of Juiuif whco it 
>2)reiuls very Aiilely, Had thi^m i» no pjiaviige lu^nno* it. Ordi- 
narily, tho principal arm of the GnUha is about 10 fatboma 
wide, nnd it miiy boormKwdjthijngh wilh w>me difficulty ; thcra 

a wooden bridge thrown over it to eaae tho t mo^port 


■ 'I>aiit1ali^d fkniC^ptvitL KmUnbn'i oonnmtiiiicaUoaA tiQtha'tnTkMft&n>M^ 

Nd, 200, N,>. ^lU Na. !mi. No, V3^, .So. !£Jt>, Nc Ml, «ud 21a. lAO to Ssptomb*!; 
OeUfhVT. nod XoFvmbcr, IiTti. 

to ih€ Mai and Pamir* 


BOkd thfi isolotion ofthti place fmm tlio popiiUtdd oett^», Culeha 
iM, in politit^ aB^ adminUtrfitive r^eppcls, a T^r^ mportant 
point. The Korrk-Kirchis »t>vr their wheat o&d htixUy nil 
arounil nulHlrn, rmd UiVa «)> th«it ijtiurivrs iu ita vicinity for 
tiM winter 

The bnl of till* Gulflhn rivcx is 4100 fw^ aWnr wii-lrvi^. 

W© ^rtod tip tho GiiUha valky on the 10th (31et) Jtily 
irUli n CDQvoy of Oosaacka* espectitg at Kizrl-KiirefUi to 
join tbe column whioh won adv&acing to ibv ^^la/i (Upper) 

Tbv ivmitI pimod nhwg ihe right Wnk of thci riv«r, o%'pr lli» 
slDpcsorthbliilld. OtvuHioimlly it rjLuuI(iaj;le4j|;ee,ofbuffici6Dt 
bnwitb, IiowvTer, to h>^ fiec- fp>m (lnL|^i.rr, excepting one plttoe^ 
whero, owing iu a lAntindip, thi> Jipn«^ liod to tread cardftllly. 

3Ia|oH>«ii6Xjd SkolWuf, in coEuruaciO of tho expedition, 
JoEiiod thti Oiilgha c*oIt]mn en ih^ 2Cih July ^6th Auguit) im<l 
OD the folli^wing day the trofipM advaaccHl to tue Aloi. 

Thii rolumn was compoBed of two oompsDiefl of ihrantrv, 
Olio dimioD of inoiintod rjll<^*, ono " Wftniii" of 0<jtwu:kii, witlj 
t«o Biountaiii gun»* a nx^ket i%iap&]iy, ami a coitipany of 

TIiu nwl Ifi^ndwl up thn OiilKhu i1iifil(% whw-li vtn* very much 
COmj'rrss^ by the mounlaios, £md trhicb was ouly iu |>art8 
[ODTcml withadcpoflit of soil brought down from tho mountnin-i, 
amd ginng birth liero anit thefe to a little vdrdtiK>. Solftary 

Ecimona of tho archa, or JuniparmpMudth^cHnut %vore obscrv- 
e on tlio mcMinldio ti}|K and in Uht holhiw^, whilst rows of 
tail paplara, of wiLloinfH, Iffuicblo buabi:6, Ac», oruaawmtod tho 
dfifilu briow, fnn^ing tho WnteroHH mid ronrilig torrent* 

Krora EJKyl-kTirgim tho road (■oDtiuu>-*cl to zigtiig iot tho 
Dkost part akmg iho hi^ti mouuUJu ledgt-f, Eiiid loighl haro had 
ehanufl (or th^i^e who wore fond af excitement. Tlio frail, 
^trtmWing bridgsA. sitq^fitulud over th<) niv^ipic«6, occaaioncd no 
BBft]] trapidtiUoii, atthon^li the men and horeort paK«M in «ingl9 
Sl^and at ft rcfpciztttil JiaUnr!© one frxn Iho othnr, 

Within 8 veratM of KiKyl-h'nr^in the Jetar^hment paaied 
A pkco called Yanp-Aryk/ wlKire, throo month» pr^Tioculy, 
GviieraJ Kkobtfltff had a aurioiu cn^i^riTnt?iit with tlu! Kara* 

For an extent of 8 versta from tho bridgo tho troop* bad to 
ecramble omr nn^)i» and aloni* mounldiu aidi-s, looting, however, 
only one pack-home, which tumbled tluwu a precipice. 

Witlin 7 T^rsiM of Sofl-Knrgjio, the riilW oi the Oulnha, 
wideiu^ and tho rood runs thruu^b mcrtdowe, or bctwocD 
boulders, and paruu^ti by («|]Aes of IaU poplare, in one of whiob. 

MiCEELL on the Rvman Exp/dilim 

witliin 2 veTsfs of Soll-Kurgwi, the detatrhraent hnll<?J for 
the night, after ft marah of 20 tqkU^ at Kiii&ntfia-Tugni. 

2,— On tbt> 2StU July (t>tli August], tbo dtlafliracnt coo* 
tintK'f) itK lujirch lo tb^i AUi, inftrclnng ail tJiu wwj t|]Tf>ufcli 
a nido i3e£li^. luid tii;.*oumori!i;j ijo difUcullie*, the only draw- 
backs boiDf Hits constant fords over tLe Gulflha. 

At tot UiU u'ulur iu thi> mftin diiiiuiftl wu« up to ilia Tcen*s 
vtiist$t but further ou it woa ieuM deep. Tbe GuUha was 
pi?rt!«|itJtiIy HinfLlh^r jdiov« (ho ixmilut'ijc© of thi* Ti^ri'k-Sii, 
Btrcamin;; duwu from tla- T^n;lc-U/LV«ii. 

Al.HoJi-luji^an, fl former KuKaii(ll'(>Ttj2veraf« from Kut&nhn- 
Tuj^, liiQ road divur^i-H to tlio Tt^k-DaTun (pu««)< The 
raouiitainfl which Hkirl fha Gitlalia d^filfi he^a to low ia 
b^iulit fnum Sofi-Kurgan, elthougji tho botUim of iLa vsllcy 
TiAibly riw-it, and at t-bcU jitc?p one? i» Led to expect &d opon 
oiiiuklry und a vioi* of ihe* Alni plat^an. 

The formiitJon of the tnountain» bcoomrJi EtDin<?^vhut difTcrobt. 
CIht, pniU'i|juUy red, and iiiixnl ui[h |iebbli^^ bet'omes the 
kaain^ vlimctit. Tho slopes are eoverwl with arcka, vhioli 
lUcreAiteia iii abuadiinco ru ttm ground iiaua. Id ihu hlt^uth 
Koknnd mountiuns the lowest Liroit of Iho orc^ 10 st itn «l6t»- 
tion of 5000 fcct> and tlio uppmno«t liictt oocun «l 10^000 
feet height. 

Allhoug:h thoarcAcircmiodBODCftt distance oftholir, yc*ii 
tlcHM not tLtfii^in thn .tue of th<T hitlvr, itnd Uu^ atehit forr'Sts of 
UeDtral A*ia beat but a faint roBembUmo^ to our Kuro|>can 

The defile tbrouj^h wbicli tlie d&rucbm<;t:t inarched resounded 
with the Toices of numerous birds, tho {■rcatett interest boing 
ftwalceuiidby ihc' call of a OL^rtalamountnia «iipo (iWorAyncAiw 
iHruthin^iu C^tQy}i nhich iB found in the Hiinalayiu and Tbiui 

Atnonf: quadruptidN along thid Uuo of march, tbo marmot was 
obfienMl uhuoF^t at «very sU'p, 

Tovrurdft the cad of the tirat march the <iota<'hmont is^inoi^;(Gd 
from thtf (lolBlm dellle, uad erourd ii auiilU mouiiUuu run^ of 
9oi\ chiy (Jtiayl-Kun, rod rauge), and halU^d for the aipht at the 
foot of It, by ihi? ninrgin of the (Julfihii ^jlh^v, to wbich the 
road a^in led. The camp vitm piidtK'd in a ptetureaque ftpoi, 
iJtcr a marcii of 2^ vor*ts. 

Ou the 23tii July (10th Auj;jnOf ll'e iimm fore* Htnirk ibi 
oarop (^n tho Kiiyl-Kuri, iLn<l followed Prince \Vit^eu»tein'a 
flying coIuiiLTi 1(1 tho Ai'chnl dcfllo. 

A stream runs through the deSle^ which finally iaXh into tho 

to the Alai artd Pamir* 


TT»is «!eflT^, or pUu, wa* inntt*\ ti h<^ tlip moBt piHurcw|ii« uf 
all Ujc glcns in tltirt iSouth Krikanii AlountAiiiti ; odJ it iDCiy bo 
here oljw:rvt^ tUia Uie umiinLiuPH miJ" valltva of th« Scmin^ 
Cdwiktk Kftton are incomparably nioro Tfiri^i:! ^tid EQoro l>eatiUriil 
thw thorn! of tlir riiiinliv now in r[([n)tt'U]n. 

B€«ida the archa^ iLu Arebiit . <leflte irae decoiBted vrilh 
nKodow-atveet AX\d moUDlJun-oflb, wilk a FpriDklJng of bircb, 
and with v»riouit ViwU rjf hrii*}ix^i>o<I. 

Tho Jlret b "veif^ ol' roud ^vor^ (cujid c««y, after which CQ&id 
llir pHWdTRrtlift AfvhjtttmmntiiinK,* a rontiiiuuttDiiiif Uu* AlitiM, 
This fun^ ia exeec-diDf^ly 6lt*p ; tlie creet of the pftw is <ni!y 
It Tcn-t fiTim lb*?- ffKit of Iho moontainK nnd 1500 fiict al>oTO 
it. AcconJb;:: to bcirow«irioal ai^a«ureuiL<ntr the aWltite 
height uf th^ ^JubA la 10,^00 fc^t. Tbo peaks od either sid^, 
t)V nvfiviin-mc^tit nitli i\w tfxtnnt, itttAin 11^,000 t^tU TIw 
path up to thf? pL-tf is vi.-ry ^vmdin;;. Many of Ih** horvej lo«t 
thiir fonlzrtg, Hud lumbled down tfao pn?dpicpif, but lb«ir yockn 
wtTO ni*ftrly all rfl(?ovcic<i.T 

The Taldyk Pa^s, further went. oTet which the Gutaba 
column lihoiild h/tvo pono, it^yordin^ to iho orijp&fll pliw^ i« 
couiderabiy 1cm Mn'p^ itnd trmy, thert7fc)n<, bci iuvtv eudjly 
ndftpttd for « carriac:e-road The deilaohmeiit was obligi^d to 
follow in Uif? wake of IVincc Wilgciistciti. 

A jDfi^iiiflceiit jmnomma o|3eiis to tb« view from th^ top of 
the po^ Iq the forcgron&d ia Iho Alai jxl&toan, bcyo&d it 
ri»e« tbo TrutiH*^^]m ninunljiiti rnngi?, ticrci-uiiig fn>ru HJgbt tlm 
lea^ kno^D portion of ih** Pamir- 

Tbe \nlh-y, or nitbt^r IIk- iiigli tjibh^-Uiul of tlw? Klxyl-f^u 
river, whioti ^tri^tdLt^d out befoiv mBj was frklited on ihe Ao\ii\i 
by A |TtU)d mountoiD cJiain, aiJow<-caiipcd throu^Eii-^ut its cutiio 
eitent. Almust imTnediately opporiui^ thu phu row; th» ]>L*jtk 
whkh tho lalo Mr- 1 edcbtDko calkd Knufujanu i'cak, in honour 
0[f thn fni»»*n»ir-gr"n*'ml of Tii»kf»nluo, 

The d<«cfriit imm Aroliat Pass to tho Kizyl-Su Volley la only 
about fi Ter»t8 (f\ niilcti) long. A ri^uJpt muH p^ir^dUl uilb the 
deillo through whicb lies the descent, rind the slojiei tux l>otb 
aiddsare cou:jplet«ly bare, whil^* un the otbt^i bsud tic Uitiutu 
and th« tirim of tbo valley are carpeted with & tall, tlm'U, and 
aaccultnt hium vuricgateil wjth flowers. 

The Kr3:y|.^?u Howa near the foot of ibe descent. The rivet 
vruida lEL II hrond bed mtaeurio^ one veifit acro38, end divided 
into Aeveml Hriii,>«^ At ibis time of the ytar ihe depth of 
vrMor m tho mom chaund is about ^S iacbcs. The \ttkUir is 


M^lCBEUi on t/tp Ruwtaa Expedition 

red (ki^jfl), from tbo clay which forms tlid bccl^ hnV it has a 
gtukj tJt«le nnd is potable- 
After fording the riTcr Iho <lct«chn]ciit prwecded ooross 
tliA Affti flteppe, which was thioikly i^oTdred with fenlhei^ 
grain ftrifl "kipet2," ivhich Intt^r, m food for horaes, is T^ry 
DO)iri>Jiiii^. Niimrmiu* tnu^« nhfiwp'l ihnt hirf;!* h^-nls <>f cattle 
hitfl pn^8^^bQt QD lirinj^cr^iilurewiiaobaorvabdd foracon^iilrr^ 
able dixtAiicc around. 

CroeBiiur •ome ciiirrow, dry (ronghs, the detaehmput c.imn fa 
A halt lor tbo nig:ht, &l a distance of ^J vcrp>t» from the Ki^1<- 
Sir. «n tluf bmik cTTAicmaU rivi-r culltnl tlift KiK?hk<?He-KiBvl-No, 
which is also red m colour. Tbo elovation of Cbo CTOuad ts 
dSOO fprt. It was a 7t»iy rold night ; tho llierraom'Ttc-r fVill below 
the free2iu^-iH>iiLt, axid a hoar froat lay ou tbo p;roiind. Wh«tt 
the ma roM, tlie Lliermonieter toao rapidlj with if, and by mid* 
day l!ie air was fitiite warm." 

On iLe nth ul Air^iist (N, S.) the dtlAchmuut marvhod in a 
«onth-eftBlprly rlirecfiori, to th© b^uin of t)ici Tmn»-jVUi r^tng^, 
where IVinco ^itgdxuAein'a flying oolumii wiu already occupy- 
ing a poMtiooi. 

Tho intf^rfoiin^ oonntry i» an iinitutatinu; vnllf^y, p<trC'^ptiUy 
niisn] IouhMh ihe TmiiB-AUi Mouutniiiflv Namiw fiirruwH, vuid 
of water, intoreect it in various dire^'tions, Nitrn^roiu? kindaof 
mn^hrooniA, Atith the t^JtainpignGO'j aro found in the thick, racf^ii- 
leut p^B^ and tLo^o are very tut^ in central Asia, for ihev do 
not obtain cither in tho Kirghiz etcppo or in tho KizybKum, 
nor are tli^y found in any of ihi* <»iIi<t Hl^pp*w of Turki^tan. 

Thie day*a mareh was one of 12 vcrata (8 milos) ; conso- 
qa&ntly liie biendlh of tlin Aim Plain, in tho fri^rtiini t.mvnrwd, 
19 17 verntd (II j milt^a). Tho ntxi nif^iit hnlt was jn the tub- 
alpinc r^ono of thir^ Tran«-Alais> where the dctachmout tramped 
With Ftinrc WltfjtMKfcifi'ii Goluniu, 

Q^ro Ucneral bkobelef receired th« elden of the Alat- 

On the 80th Jii]y(lUh Augiut) Prinoe Wit^nat^in wa« 
desjmtehe'l in advances His monnted infantry relnrned into 
camp, at 11 A.M. on th^ 1st (J3th) Angiji^t, from a position <m 
Kara^Knl Ijike, the pninie, w jh 30 hornentpu, having prL^CTslwl 
Btill farther, 

Thn ofHivra who rjiroe hai'k stntM thnt tho plutcau of thr: 
Kara-Kul was so muoh abore sf^lerel that many of the m»ix 
bled from tho now» whilo «ovi?Tal of them faints away. 

From the [MJNliioA ni thu \M*n f>f t)ie TnuiH-Alni range thfs 
troop of mounts infantry had marched about 27 veivle (X9 

* Wonn ddougf] Tor tba aflWin (n ivtjUn onl; tliBtr llnfin IWki. 

t^ th^ Aiai awt Pamir, 


mileii)^ 10 the stiiDMiJt of the pan. There U a iBDall Inlio 
boyoiid tho nn^, coJIcd KizyVKnl, vrhicii ia probably tho 
fcntn^ <»r ihft Ki^yl-Dnrtn, nii uiHiifiit of \\vf KiuJigar-niiri& 
Tke looftlity ia Blarilo, tbesurface beiry cither aallnft or a&nd — 

en^aturo utla vncoaotorea on the way, A *«atUri&fi: of ^i^nlio 
heme of tiio ^rkhnra* ((^t^t^ /'oft) vaa Uil* only eridence of lifo 
along (hi* Hii^ of ciiiintry, 

AKercroa^QD^aaocona rftnge of no^i^t^Otitud^. the detacb- 
mnni ''atim in n^ht of n large 1alc9, tile Kant-Kul, Iripg witliin 
65 vom^ (43 miles) of tho noKheni base of tho'Tmiut-Aliki 
MoimtainA. The [iTateau ui anrronnded ^ Itiuh, anowy mooD- 
toina. Tho waUst of tho lake va4 nxuro ; an i^aod vaivobttar- 
able tr; the middle. Th(^ bottom w^ found to bo mnddy ; tho 
furfju^e wnanlightly Fro7ei>. A ri v^r mnes from it fnanpa^t^Iy 
diroetion. toword^i KfLih^r, \vhirh, tkcconliiig to th^^ sutdr^, vitut 
only a leUurely ride offflx days distapL Tho flyinff coIiuuti 
found neither fodder norfnoi. 'Gcnotuily gpnaoliitigrt tho troclE 
inirMmMl un Uie IWifr Ih mud Id wmr an itAj>ni;I. (if Uic mimt 
cxtreino fttorility and dcdolatcuoas. givinj* cvidODOoof a mort 
rigoroiu cllmuto. 

fi.-*Oeoeml ^kobelef equipped a luouDtcd diviflion of rifles 
y/hkh iio de«putclioil Ut Priii<:e Witgi^iittU-in. who wtut Ml tli» 
Kara-Kill Lake, h mils tfugge6t«d thai 1 abould accompany 
ihJK flying (.robimii, wbi<»h ntHrli^J jin hniir nfJrr dip iwiif^ ot tho 
ord^r/ 'InotDcn took proriBioiia for hi x daya, and I pri>vidL*d 
jDyaelf nithonly thr- til nct^Bt i]eo^-K§arie8t»icn aawarLiiclolliin^ 
Iway ftor my honDU, and n enp^^ly of pTOTinovu. 

We marched out of c&mp nt £1 p.m., when it wan })itcl>'laTk. 
pn»9oding tlowlv and OAPemlly, nod principally tn^iitp; to tho 
mfitinct of llio non;r'« to pa/o nfcly ovtr the broken groiitii], 
and although the tVirrows ««re not deep, their marc^iiis were 
Lkc thosD of tiMure«, and tbo ground wa« also riddled by 
marniolA, A ««vu'ii Vfrvc^i' rMi- or^r the Aini pldteaa broiight 
oar troop to tho Kizvl-Vnrt dolilo in tho Tran^-Al^ MoimTain^p 
n^icli ii« fonnrni by u ^tnvLtii of tlir lutnic namn flcming la 
BeYoral branchefl tbriiuch ibe auutiiem partlons of (h^ detild 
in a smooth bod. so thickly studded with boulders that the 
honca had to tread with grant oireumKpoc^tion. Tnmin^ to th& 
[l6fl along an affluc&t of thomaJa stream, and proceeding up 
thfl wi'iitid <iT iipp<ir portion i>f fhr- linfihi, tho ohi*trii''ti"ii 
^uaed by thc«G bouldt^ra v-tui found to )>o dtill ^roator. Furtu- 

* 'nUi Ia UiA fonmlo; tho male U oilbvl gali^ or 'jhutj/t, uflonUn^ lo 

ritlt^ljfc howeter, Ibpf moon had risen before tlio troop hwl 
filed into Uiitf rocU-stroviii vnllcy. Tlu'fti^ picint'!! ura tUa uuiil 
impediments alaag tJiiH roui4<j mul trv^'t itie Kiuyl-VHrt T^m. 
Tbo top of tho pass la !^ vorets (17 milct) from t\ui rooutU of 
the i](;d!«. Thi; rmul be oullj tiituh uvuiliblij ]i>r wheeled 
cumages by reoioviug the Btoiies ^vliicli block up tbo bwL of tliA 
river L^tl cover (1»<t umuntaiu slopes. The dcfilo i.s pftTlica- 
Wly wild aud de^MUt^ mrjir ibi^ poaa. thc^ suDkcnil ox tthioh 
U at ni) elevation of 11,7<X* feet. From the pimtmit of 
tlitt [iHJUi* H virw is obtmmni of tbis Pamir gem^rnllv, Jind in 
prLiiiCLltir L>r tlio I'liiiiir A'A^fyojiA/ [cf tbo harc']. in tbi^ goutborii 
purll(jii lT »bkOi lie^ Kuhl-KuI T^uka A. Tmuei Df bara 
moutitaSiui, iuuw-cup])ud u»d othurwt&e, Am<1<-bin^ in variotu 
directioua, a]d<> open in the vidw, and tbe«e fiecni to bo 
JntetstH-Uid by moro ur Jew vidvj vulloyfl and gorgda as deDodod 
of vcgetftluA: oti tbc^ moimtaina tlunn^eUes. lie descent from 
lliti |tfua4 U Pasj- and eonveniwit, wn'J i» only 2 vitkL* lun^ 
when It brHilti on the yvlln bf-d vf i\ uountutii atrenna oalied 
Kanm-8ai (dry be^:!). by ttie Kur^'Kir^bii. Nolnithf<tiUiding 
thit< uppt^llution, a stri^am nma hr^ro in n djreelion couth from 
noriU, Fkiui tlie mdu of tbu I'umiT xht fiK>t of tho pa«a ia on 
*iii deration of 11,000 feet. Th* l«ingthy nnd wido b*l of Che 
Kurui*^i merg;c9 into the very icttg Zak roUoy, which extends 
from eiut to w«3t. 

The vnlioy widens to an extent of two 7cr*tfc Thfooghont 
itH eiLlinj t-xtrnt lliu btitioriL of tlm \nlliiy Ueuv^red ailfaer witli 
bouldors or with tt&mi, friablo anil Jirm. Tbo BorJG« of mouutuiui 
^iicluung thn volU^ydo mit nttfiin thu beis,<litt]f p(ir|ji:t.uiii auow ; 
they aro bare and rcetcy, and beiap; oompoted of arpiilnc^ufl 
a&ndittonc, nro wholly ooveied with dtinitts. At right anf:k0 
wiili this vulley tlio mouuudxit luv UroW-u by transverw 
valtcyft. Through tho brealc in tbc8d n^ountiina (I^.IHJU to 
lli.dOO ftel) ■iiiiWK"iip|M»d monntrunn urr vihibh* In ti^^bl and 
loft- Tho vallty i-xtL^udd 2U verata (i:* luiltsi) (jradnntly nsing 
to the <"iisl., teriHiniiring iu low ridgii-^of eo!JglomL'mti\ ilim? 
an^Icfvatiou of II.TUU fr^^^t Ja uttuincd. Prom th<; ^ummitof 
thifl pa^ tbo df AceiLt Ia ititu tbe holluw of tlie Karu-Kul Loloe, 
and tbe oyo tnkeA in thti wi<U buEin of thvi LJcit imeiroled by 
mountainj*. TbtHtj ni;>iir;taiim arc inucttly huow -clipped, especially 
l}jowo ciii t^tti vni^tj nnt] tc is on ly on ibe we«t anil nortli liidtw timt 
a break in tbo tmun'-tino MobflvrToble. The? napcctof tbe hollow, 
wilh tha l&rgd a/uru kkd and ilii tilevated i^iLanilTV i^ wry gnind. 

* Thv bomhs oT two ttuB-KirKl>Jfi aiDin uv nDtlMsblo ui Ihti ■tvnull. ihit 
UrKBii of irhirb id onrfMUi.DtcJ v,'iih ihu boTiid of ihjua and or ukboThit vnlli 
l«ll4nof cli>thingf Jilc, Sjvurol udoav pwiu uo vuiUlo oa «ao]i tUAoTtba poai, 

but Ul»o liu^y n» b> 1 moo TmL 

to fJU Mai awi Pitmir, 


Aftor a gmiuftl (descent of 12 v^rsts (8 milea) we oamo to a 
bftlt for th« nifrlit oc the bnnk of a xmiul stream Having into 
tt^<* lake nt B rli^once of 2 v^rst^ ttom lU mouth. 

Un tiio following: dflv. Aiignst an! fli>lh)» I undertook aa 
eipediliun U> tlir? inlniKt A rarwuli'milc fxirtiuii «f tlut IftUfi in 
orrQpiorl by islands and ii4H?kB of Inxid having tho apjx-itr'anot) 
of * lilgU longitiiLlinnl rigger iMU^nntrlin^ thi? Uko fnim narth 
to Bouth. Tbc litrj^flft of tno Ulauds adjoina to the uortli uhora, 
bcrn;j ocHinccted ^itli It hj a narrow ncok of Janil. liko a LritW, 
al>[>ti1 2^1J fuilioTiiiL loQ^. aiid about to rutbomx widoi» Xoia 
n(?ok ia coik?4idontbly nLised, irciti^ fonni^l of a eaod d«poKit 
hriHtgbt by Uu» pn-vnilitig iiorlJi wim]. The* iiilnml m S TOTsta 
long by 4 verald wido, and consiafg of snad btllockH covered 
with fra^euts nf micii-^^liiitt lik'^ llnllcned skulls. Lar^ 
n»jUH of tbtfi f:<'b)Mt prtijffl hvte nnd ihcni from tbi> tope of 
hiltoi^ks, Leiiig avi up ^oioat YT?rtii^A|ly. The billui^k^i rmr 
about 600 tt^ot or 700 f^^ot aIwvo tin? lijcr, fin that Wth sidea of 
tbt? lukf? iiTCT vi.iible from their tops; Tho fiurface of tlio inland 
IB sterile, wbicb r'^nrlers it quite nrifit for habitat fan by man ; 
yet men and bf^ft-it,-* cridontfy fro<[uonl it, for 1 diMorncd tho 
traoeii of meti anii Lcrsfv;^ nud a fresh liare^trai^k. A fjrvat 
quantity of aiUloi's of th« Oeia Fdi or arkbnra, vitb tbo fiknlU 
uftUcMr^nrLimnK \\\y ttrultt^rf-dnboilL ft^tinntrHi niglit pjiirn. Tbe 
narrow etrif^ of Jj^v land pr'jjpoiing inta Th» lake were in paria 
coTcrcd with rrrdum; fixmi ibfi qimnlity of fciitbcra nbonlr 
Urge fligbib of bird^, fiucb ns wild gee^io and dcckB, &» well M 
guib, evidently olig:lit hcrcp 

Tlw (limrnj'mim uf Lki* iKlaHd seem to be iiicreoj^ng, f«r tbcro 
would appear to bare boen lakce and boys oror BOmo of tbe low 
Un(3. 'Irir- unifnpr t>f ibr*r di'pfi-w<ir»nN U now covor^ii with 
i]jnpi««iiam, wiiob tbe siLnd bas iRit yet huJ timo to qo^^t^ luid 
wliich ;^li8^:Lfl |jdTEii'iillyto tbe oycs, like *ikfw\ A rude piercing 
wmd bl<]wi( iluily from X)x& uortli, k.'^nniiiy at 2 or S P-K. 
1 Mrer exporjoiKvd more TioJonl ^msIa. Tbe hard saudHtome 
p3LpQ0od U-i thn ttirnl it wtrcmgly rtfiWlt^d by it- Some (*f tbe 
rocks ure porftctly drilkd. bi suite iff tbe violent piatt of ^ind, 
I B0oeiDded to ibe top of the bighest (.-tevutiorj, and whs wt>lt 
rovanl^id for my painK. A tmLp;iiLlj(K'nt «rene opone<l to tbo view. 
The luouMliiiu (.-iielir seemed lo frpvin^ diit^^lly from cmt <if ibo 
wat^r, prrndEy loolclng nt iCa own roBcrtioD in tbe f^Ias^y lake 
wboso uliie vrnt^nt lave tbe feet of tlie btight^ In a dirrctioa.. 
due iouib, and in prolongation of tlie islnEid upon nbieb 1 atoodr 
thcro tttrotcbcd a nigh fond rid^c, «i'|>amtcd imin tbe ielanci by 
a vtrait 1 ven.! wifle and 5 yersifi in leiigtb, Tldx riJg« wiw at, 
OHO timo an island, but ie row a promontory. It appeared ti> 
KI9 that I >vaa in tlio centre vf a gigantic crater mlcd witli 

]tflcsl!LT,i on the Jtvitfan Erp&diTitm 


water. The aoow-wreatb of this crater was incomplete only 
&t one point ; but t\v3 hiataa woa made ap by fi zaoantam mcgo 
in ilu' f(irk-griiTin<l, 

UuriDc tl»«:W ( loth), 4th fl6tb), 6tli (17ih) of AiipBat, I and 
Colonel Jjebeder, of the Corpe of Topogmphtirs, intuh^ an rj|>|r> 
rntion of the Uko on tliree sitl^^, Gr^Iuiiol Labodof laaking 
a jiIhh of tUt* t'litim Ittiko, u.iid deti^r milling the soutTjem 
unexplored portion l>y mi^n^ of »iof«^«f. The Qon\}e\iTu.tioa of 
tho Ulcc woH in thia ^fle bud iiamu Being diridcd Ij th« 
AboTe-mentioDed ridgie^ the laVe wnalslsof lm>RhQPt* nf water 
C(L!<tcm and wtutcrn, ccnndctod by rocfuia of tbo stniil ubvftdy 
ullu<lf«d to. The leiifjth of the lake is 22 vemtt (from north to 
eoulh), and tho bri^adth. along a lino pusaitig Ibruugh the etruit, 
is 17 v(ttMt* (fpLim ftufl to weal). 

The Uko Ji^ not a nncl^ ootl^i,* but, on the other bai^d^ it 
rccoiTcs scvc^nl vErcams nwib^ fmm tbc nicantain«, aU of 
which ard fordiLbli?. The leko bad evidently ^xconited flome 
way up tbo tlat^^ through ivhicb thceo Timers nm, and in eomo 
phit^^rK tbu irmrgic of thfi lakt in It) ver^t* from the Uuh^a uftlie 
mountaiiL0r as en tho oaatoni side, <nhili^ in some thia is 
rciliir<'d to a, 4, Ekii<t 2 virrfEtK- Ori lh<f wi^vUtie nidi.^ tlir tnoun" 
ULLua ri^ from the water's odge, projeotia^ into tho lake in 
the flhape of capca. iJniDg to thia, one has to ascend and descend 
Ibi Mpunt, on tbo wi'ttvTQ tide, in order 1o piu« rcnud tho luUe. 
The opproacb to the Ulcc \a oa«y; tbo soil laBondy. Th* wat*>r 
is (^€r'i?<ling]y ciio1 juirl olrur, won wbt-n aj^itatod. To tbo 
tutt^ it !-■• tfoimrwh^it bitlf^r, so that, whi-n thirt*ty^ bor#<ti con 
Tory ^elE drink il. Thiro aio Ijmb in tijo hike, auiJ 1 ttaw many 
litlh' omm iu ihc? nhaU-iwu. The ^out niirabcr of wntcr-fowl 
skiiuiuui^ the Mirfitce also provea lli« preaem^w uf fi.^h m Uie 

Tlio flat beach alon^ the ooiirvo* of tho tribntaty sttctxme i« 
tOTere^l by a thiri brt nourwhirLg grass, which afTords cufUoic-nt 
if&ot ubnodant fuod for boasts 

It U thia gfiLAH tfiat f^ivce ptiAtiira^e to tbo herds nf th« 
nomods who fn>rfc titnn to l^mc visit tho laka AccordtJig to tL« 
imtii»r-i ur.tjtEht^d l« ihr- {^iihimn, »(>mo (if ibr Tdhkiliku, N»i- 
mans, and Taiti trib*?8C3f Kflrfl-Kirj^hia cnmp here. Bntdurinjj 
oiir stay ou tbo ihorcs of l^iira-Jiul we did not ace a uit^to aoul, 

* EhA'Ku] L»h«, vod, EmnUjr «|it«U>f ■ ^poHloaitfdioruiirmldc&hM 
DavbocsittvrcfM4.«Taaiiiaas lh«leMtkaoimpMafB«f ILlAwortii lnnJto- 
mno to Iho Eaa-Kii] lh«e» aM bftn ml; warmm. On P«t«iwn'« eifftlTfliit 
>n»ji, fltl«ob«d la ' F«dalLoatk(n* TMtaIV Ium-KcI IaIu ii ilmrs u fp'^"^x aa 
cmtk'l LnLo thtEMligV^DulB.iA, lo Uw wt. OokiDdyalc ludlnn lo tbe btllrf 
iJkai it liAi Ml DUtlfll li^ i\*\- Oidp. lA. t(> ihtt K«t. Tlictr on; s<M|Eni|itiuni iibo 
■oppQK Ibat Ui« Kara^Kql hiu twv otjilcUt fitc t4«t aud thu o4lfor h<bL. Ttw 

to Mtf J&o and J^mir, 


altboucli tli^ro woro iiiim«Toi» signs of m«ak ftml doi 
a&iI^^^ iiud Liu AaiM^, ur Uaikf bfuiid on tiicwa ftjK»U Ha£ uwd 
as fbrit, 

JDnriu}; {ha iayiht airnu hcpt^lmt at ntgKt tho ibcnngmettt 
1(41 to Vfn> (Cvut.). Wo ivtrd iuform«d ij the aatJTf« wb^ 
aoeompaniod u» that it rained vqtv rafelf in Iho bolbir of Ean^ 
Kill JjAkfi. wiiioh Hi^ 1 1,000 Unit uliov(t tK-iuli^vel. In tlw ■Dmmer 
timo raift g«ii<*TaUy resolvca lUcdT into enow p«>llvta. In tU« 
vtntvr, tlm Htiovr ivliiob fallH U gQn^nilly swiTpt mvmj bjr Uio 

A» aa lutcrcsting |i}irticul&r m i«fer«Dce to tlii« Inter. I ^ill 
dt* lutive leatiii^ouy tg tlio off- cl thai oin'W ii xvoek, on Fridava. 
tlif IcT':t of tLe Itiku ritttn* Tliii* ia not au iuipoMibilitVj nucl 1 
haA jtn r>[j|wrt unity of vonfying thy rtHtumcnt on llio KurH^Kulp 
fur tbe nrer by vrliioli vro C(uii[>vd rttpidly lUli>d on 'Xhursdiky 
ni^hl^ wti\ on tlie folluultj^ moriiLDg it wha iwoUeu tviicty u^ai 
at miicli wit dwelled on nny other duy. 

-Af noord^rhadbdenre^^ivod tor«tnnito th<»ALai,Iw]u 
attiUoriaied by Prinrc Witgrnst^^in io IcjkI an f xploricg patty lo 
Lftke Kiang-Kul.' iu tlie 8dry-Kol district, tonar^s the Kashgaf 
boaotbry. ThceituatioDof tlic hkcandof the divlnoiwim in a 
tnenmr^ known to tbu Priiico from tliu jki?ujUiiU ol ^ native nbo 
liAppmed at tho timo to bo with the main colonjo, so tkut 1 waa 
oblij^ to go nn wilhiiLit u gaidt*. rniyiHiuiifl vfniY. Udttrn Tur 
thtee dayii. Our lilUc |jurty eUrtod on tho 6tb (i^^h) Anipigt, 
at 1(f A.M., luaivbing along tho eaatom margin of I^ko 

Tho itud pjumd tiTcr u vJdd piain between tho margin of the 
laki: jind the haao of the snowy rang8 lk)rd4\rjng the lakv, Thii 
plain ivas from 5 to G vcrst^ ^Ld»>, but oontra<;ted at one point to 
wnjv 2 verets. 

Tlic eoifaoot for tho most ptut, ia friable, gaudy (from o luUino 
adilUXturp)^ mid rimer to the iiiirtmtaitiii U la of a SJiudHluiie 
fOTifiaticD, or eimply rooky. A creat number of little lakce, or 
IflfOODfL, sopnrated from th<} big Xiko by f^itiim of laud diflVring 
™n tho toil of tbo beach, confirm the belief iB tho rapid ex- 
iacoatioikoftheKunk-Kul. UikTingm&rchcdUlTcrsltf (It] miles), 
and crtHMcd K*vtiral mouolafii Htn-ama ruuuing bito tJia Kura* 
Kul, Fo halted for tho nii^lit in the mouth of a dctiio omitting 
tiup fit JiMe» streams 

On the 7th (IJltli) AogUBt, wo kept to the plain for 4 versta 
fnrth^^r. and tUt^n turiK^d itttt* Ahi-Wtal (ipE^cklird mare) defUe. 

* m^ma, or l^Aitfj, U a cmE fit Ihd lim* vooH v Hpoeiii^ Thii liaii^ U, noootdtag 
Io CblMAcT Ciordon, the Xbm (wu ■ BwT of Itiu 1^'0^IJ/ £). n9).—Zil. V.J 


[iCHELL an tfiffEvtticn Etjteifitimt 

Th© route Iftv upwards aloarj ite bed of ih^ rinilet, wU^ in 
ecmc jilftocH mn iitjUer^r>:iQncL Tte detlle. ^calt-^red with mord 
or les4 bi^ bonlHeM, htui aa vvt^u awM'nt, but th^ further w«t w^t 
tho more Hccp wajt tJio riAt*, At & diatdnci^ of t> vcriito (4 milciO 
fttim tJi4 euti'ARce into the fl^flte. we hUaiikhI the nuiniuit 
of tho pas^ which i» l!f,OUU fot't. TLo mmtntfiin ijjrlrg of tho 
lirfilr, JiA wrII kh llm itum. are cuiii|]0[M-U ol" wjit HiilwUmoe*, 
coverod in er^rv part with frAgmeote of fdiist, Durtof* the 
QflCcnt wo «iiw harrA. and on the crc«t of ihe licisht ruljoiiune 
th« top of th^ pns^ we observed a herd, oif ht head, of wjla 
f^at^. Wc aIwj *iiw funics Atirf crows. The view from the 
top iif th« piiru w«a Kuuiinr lo f.hnl fVoui ihe Humiiiit of llie 

A kI^'p Bwrntof 5 vrtrrt* hroiijfht us fliiwn into the vaMpy of 
the Oiioii Su River, at tbo point of the cc»nfluencc of its afflucDt, 
tljft IjK-M-Sa 

Xh9 wido (2 or 3 verftfl) valW of the Choc^Su,* ^xtandt 
frtjiii eoutliHaat to ui>rtb-M'c«t. 'the valley of tb& Ua-bet-Su, 
the rij^ht ofllticnt of thr Ohnn-Su, opfm* ]n;o th^ main vallpv at 
on oHuEi^^ ungle vrithin 20 ver^ta(l^ taUcv) nf thoT<f}lux ot^tbo 
Chtiii-»u ; Ro that the ronnfe of the ktler is at the iauie 
time n ootitiiiimtioa «!' th** Usfi-hol-Su. Lower down, tlio Chon* 
Bii UiniA abritpti), aiid fulla iaU> the ICauL-Kul at iu auullicra 

Aft^r Wtinj: hi thi^ point of the confluence of tbe Ds-bcI-Sn 
and CboQ-Su, we followed tip Iho eoiiret? of the tiret-named, 
going due caetp Having: the fhara^rlirr of all mountain etrcoDOA, 
Uiw'rivul«t ninHiL em/r^f iif tilonlSl verHU(203 mih^i) without 
fiUT deviation from it« original direotion. Id its Louver courae 
it IK very miirh ionfinMl hy uiiuiuUinmif im gr#-jit InMglit^ whirh 
niG oompoeed of r&d c*lay and couglom orate, the rood heiti;; oV 
fltractcd by boulder* and«ton{?.i; further on, tiowcvcr, the v&lloy 
opcnK ont to vidihs of 2 or 3 \enU, with a flat *mootb Rurfaoe, 
gRLdually ascending cfi^twardft. The niouutaiii chains to right 
and h'fl riKrtto200<l and ajOO fec-t n^Mivi'rlhH vnllr-y ; thcH.<-^ how- 
e?w, on the loft or »oiitb Bidobmni; thLMnoredevafisi, afluitiing 
to 15,0lX*iind 16,f>W)fiH'tnliL»vi'l.h(-lrvi*liir the tie**, Jt:nl *> rising 
beyond tlio anowdirto. The mountiuuH are eoinpt^ac-d of soft 
formtttiona, covered with fragmonLaof frcht&l, wLiidi;;litturiri tJia 
Hun. 'Vho derltvJt.irN are hare ojid vtorik, tm is nleo tho surfao^ 
of the Ux-bf?I-Su Valley, tim^ patches i;f ffm»s, in some plaoes 
very eacenleut nnd fi>fwiing, in'i^vr only on the baiiEu of thd Us- 
bcl'^u, nnd along the little streams pouring down tronn tho 
mounlaiiLH. It L* this veiTiure which eimllt^A thenumads to fbed 

Heauing "bf^rtvar" in thodulcctofUi? Kuv-Klf^liix, 

ft tk9 Aiai and i^JoaiV. 


Ibcjr CAttlc, aui wo saw trnoea of tEicir masogo fill the vray op 

which muf^ bt: Tjikc-c to rvpru»o}ii tho liicb road Crom the Alai 
by Kbj^-KuI to tW)'-Kul and to tbe Ka«bW conlinei- 

Tho moutttivjii nmp?si on cnthi>r M^ of tlio Ut'bol-Sn Vall8f 
ojiilEi »l tli« m>urci3i ijf tlrnt liver, and » form Uio Ui-bol PaMb 
aepnrattfi^ the bttsiD of ih^ ](arn-Knl from thut of thn Sriry-KoT, 
«&d gcncmll^ ffpcftldng From thi- mt-T/i forming theTunm-Iio]. 

Two rofljfuJfff^L'nt views are obtflfned from tSi? sntnTnil iifTTr-- 
bol Paw (TiSiJO feet ftln>vi* jvru-lovcl): one towanin tUe west, 
wttli ihiMmtiri) vHlley (tf th<- Ua-bi?l*Su rlearly dellLed, ahd of 
tbo loHvr oOGWeof tii*Clion-Su, t^immAttugwithn«QCw^;ftpped 
rang© of 1^000 l« IS.OOO Tx'L Lciglit, uml clo»ed as by a 
CftMi^lUtud wulL 

In front, toivarJn the Pftjtt, llr* the vallny (if ono of iLe sourc«4 
43f th$ Ra«ht5ar-nar[ft- Thie liij^U vallev, like tli« one wo had 
just tmTcr»r<i» i< ftl»c>5liirtcd by moimlaios of'no gre^t bcifiht; 
thoM on tbe tikIu or Boutb side being a^^iiiu higher than thoio 
on tlic left, luid in some part4 e^pncd ^itb raow. Thig viillcyt 
M long wiiv iibead, tt?emH luiTted ty ii j^md moiiTitain riiiijie^ 
riamg eoDs^dorably abovo tho finow Itmit., This is doubtli») tne 
nujgT! which in mrntumril \j\- CoWd Ynl**, in liia skfili^h of ibff 
peoi*rftphy imd history of the Bourcea of iho ATnU'Daria, and 
which K'tm» the wrtlertk boiindfiry of the rauiirpfateui],divi<liug 
it ttcm EjuWto TurkoKtan. UefL^rHng t^ Kr. Hny wanl, Colond 
Yule say* that tl»e jieaka of this r^ngo allain 20,000 to 23,0011 
ftfiet. tt vppenrv-d ro mrt Uiat, fhv^ ningp wfut miirh hi^biT tTiav 
M» would inipK', and that the peaks rino (o iib^iut 2^,1(00 or 
26,000 feef * The distance fmm Ufrbel Pa»i to thin mounf^'a 
muf^o 19 about ^i vcrntfl (53j mib^:^. Bevond it lies Kashp;ar 
(JO >rrj*tt (4() mill's) rarth«r. 31y view of tW high^simw-^tpprd 
faDj^o ^ttle« one of the tnoet imj>omnt fjuostionA relatinp^lo tha 
geography of Central iVria, tbat w, tb*? question of the eii:«tonco 
of a meridional range laid down by Huniboldt, and iiaoied b^ 
him iho Uolor ]yiouiitaiik». In rccoctt times Ka^an travellcri 
^^Tdasn^ Si'vertsoflfttiid Fwlelu^aVo fir?*!, end thim Eiiglisbmen— 
denied the esiit'-nw of tho above-mentioned mountaiu chain, 
Mtg^iing that the* Thiaii*8bnM and llinuJuynn *iyM''ni» rrnnMiHrtl 
to rt>rm the block which Hnicboldl look for a muridioiial raugo. 
It was the opinion of iho abi>rG*LUCQtLoiiGd Acicutiiic expbrei^ 

■h^v f)f thr Foimr frr « ir^TirronB motntoni TUgtv hattiir wen it ftom 
Ktuhjpwitlo l]J tli" iiiuuUi urMftidu wbun it wuuuvond wttb aituiv- 1 mur iM* 
CAEI1C0 fioiu tii« op^itr wie, (Kilbo Tli ClWI;)or Anf^wtiUid it loiiinMsnl uia 
vrita ltd emndcDT. — Kh^rAOi 


MiOHBLL ^n tJi€ JR^urian Bepedilim 


tjut the connection of the t^o gi^rejstie monnhun sj-rtent ■vr%R 
by mtWiiM of II w'riiui of rungKH iimiuly i^it^iKlinj; f n>m euut to 
wost. Fedcbonko, nho vudted tho (or^anati Valley, thn Alfti 
nVc»iiiitjLi[LK, :ltii1 til'' \]-''- I'hxiasM id 1K7], r»mr totLfMimcilusiiiu 
that tbcf c'cuAtruciiKEL ii tliti Pamir waa biidjI^ to tbat of the 
tTftctfl which be had ae^o. ty., that it vo£ coiupo9c<i of tatitudiiul 
nilUyn, Hkirtod by mountikitLM runuin^ paiulld, t^nd lie txtfitiTtfly 
diaput^ tho «xi3tenc« of m^ndlonal ranges. We aUaJl boo. by 
uiu by, tbut t1i4* ivinstni'.*tion of Thp Pamir w qiihji Eif juiotlirr 
Idnd, aud the moridi^mid mnp? lK>itoditL^ the Pumiroa theea«t 
I Mw u'ltli niy ou^n ey(« from the snnimit of the Ux-bel Psn. 
The dttcovf^ry ot tbi« rim^ in, at all «font«,An importanl ftcqai* 
sitiLiu to gLTJgrapluml siieiicp. U would Iw propi-r to give lliie 
raupe the nniae of "Ocnfltentice" in honour of tho nugiut 
pAtnm of ftcojkTihphiceJ noimce in Riimia. 

It wBfl nsc'ertaiiied, by inquiry, flmt llie dffitance from U&bel 
Pou to ti>o FttiaW lako of Itiao^-Kul v/a^ hM ta be 3 UA 
^24 vbn(t»±l€ iiilliw), mid fniin Ihi- lutloi' Ui Sury'lit^l. 1^ IskIi 
fl2 Tef6t«e8 luil^e). The name Sat^-KoJ,* moaning yclJow 
hnnt], iji rmifrrml on ji tocality imdudliif n Tulloy ami n rivrir. 
Nativ^fr assert that the rallffy U occupied by 9^ couBid^rah]* 
number of uomofis. Tbc fttivtim pouiiu^ dcwit eMtwatds tiom 
Uz-bvl Faait fa]]§ ia with imotUt^rMt tht Ibot of the ptuui, fonabff 
ft toloratlv large nvGr, which ia flaii~l to dew throuj^h Kiang-Kiu 
Tjnlc'f, mil) Ut run thriu^rt iiilo ihe KtwhEar dosimionn uikrlor ihr 
nomoofSajy Kol. TIuh, however, requite farther e^nlinnatiuu. 
Sti'ork^ly iw I (U'hiii.vl ti* |jush du to Sary-Iiol, f eoali] out ilo so 
i*jT lock cf piVYJ^jujtg, Aller epondttig thit nij^ht at tho foot cf 
the U^tcl VoM on the othor side ai tlic uutilow cjf tho KaAb^^ttr 
Riwir^l ri'SidvLHi on llio next dny lo r^tsim to Kam-KuU 

Ou the $th (l€th) of Au^iiel' wc n^cru^torl fji^bel I'ws «nd 
haltpd 4t tb(t Ktmrrvvi itf Uie UK-bel*8ii» where Mr. Donadorf, 
the Koodt^ti dr^tonaiiied ati aeti^norrical point 

III rvftT-ifico to tb» paHri, I lia\>i lo oh^ervt* t)iat, nlthoiigh 
it in Ligli^ it iit otuy cjf o^ocint. It ba« iho appooranoe of having 
h(^u Lewu vulf aii.l prcTfli-nU ntj diflu-ithy wthvr up <ir down, 
'^ LQ might crt>f** >t in a carriage. It ia composed of red clay, 
xai ^ith pebble-«(cue«. rrotn ^o bMCi to the top the 
itifllOOOieeC The adjeiiUAg poaki r«ach an oloratiou of 
\[) feet, m that tbcy rise only loOO fe«t Abero the aummit 
of tb^ piian. Small uln-uk* of snciw tit]" on the pi>aka. I may 

fenerally romark that, tLrougbuut tlm uit^nt of torrilyry wfaiCQ 
Iravir^oJ, thn Know-liuc on the north ia at 14,000 leet, and at 
i5,D(XI to 10,000 f^el on the WiUth, 

* " Uvd cf tliD McmniaEn.* fiMontincc ui fnLBTKJ Gontn). «bo dfrfTtt tt from 

tj tia Alai ttml PamiK 


Pivwng down thnt (kv alon^tite cotusg of lh«? U£-l«l*Si],lhe 
d«itac!Liii»iit Wiivl for tiin night uttho C!Oufliioncr> of thntHvubt 
irith tbo Clion-Sti, at Uw foot of tho Aln-batUl i*iw», juid lit tiio 
mniith of thi? tiniA Chnn-tSn Hnflk On tW ^li (^Ist) Aiigtut, 
vHtha rio^ to avoid the AIo-InuIxlI PAW.ircdMcnTiimdtort'tiini 
liuMmp on the K^ra-Kfil by way of ttie liltlt* Clioii-f^u defllf^ 
Here wf* fontid iho road inurh mom c<>rm>niont, find not iit all 
longer tJmn tlinl ovi^r lli« ptws. Allijimah tlim <Ieme brvire the 
niimf'pf Ch<in-8u, Tet lliG rivulot so t?aUed does not flow through 
it* At the same t'imc ibr pnw in tlic dclilc b hardly notirMcJo 
'^^n^ haa ovXj io giirmount a fiaw hilloeks. TLe month «>f the 
dtfik< into tho vftUoy of the Kara-Kid is but a bshaII hillock, 
opon which ftra Ifae tomU of tm> Kant-Kir^hii uinti. On 
enaorcincr from fbo dotilc w^r tiimod to the ri^ht, loaviuf* od our 
IcA tbr liigh ri>iid to HjidAklt^^hfLii, ThiUf thrrr niri thicc K^nds 
whirh <!oiiverge ftt tht- abuv^L-niC'iilkiiiod tomW, tik., ojw lo 
B4td<ikh«hatv oiifr lo Kokuiid (ovi:-: the Kisyt-Yart), laid the 
odiPT to Eaahgnr (ov(t tho lI:«-h4?U8u). UV rt-uohi^d tbr <!amp 
nt Knm^Kul at about 3 tm-. Aud oci tb« vamo duy started fortb« 
Alhl, wbi-ri*, on thp ni»it d»y, wi.- rHoitn-d iIki tnuin foivo of th* 
AUi column, f^uripm^' ikt Ansbu-lfukk tit tht; -totitlicrn biut<^ of 
llirr Alni raiKT-. within 20 vinrsTa (l^tj irnles) of Uie inoiith of the 
Kiayl-Yftrt dttik. 

lMi»c6 WiL^*?n.'<t(iiii bail iirfviuimly |«fised up tbw Cljou-Su 
Eivir in pTirmiit of AbdulWlJok, returtiing by way of th© 
'l^nyuk-t^it VtuKi, tbnt ij>, cnwng the emowy mng^. It ^vvs luoi^r* 
tJtinfHl, mi inquiry, that the AkiiU'niurj^hHb dowa £0 versta 
(53 m\\m) in a BoWJi-coat^rlj- direction on Ihc other side of lh« 

C, afl^r wliic^b tbtil rivc^ mi^rviM tin a widt* clevHt^l pUtt^ail 
m l^y the nftmc of Ak-Uut&T (whito irniro). The extent of 
tht<( pluti'fLU lA Kuid tri) Ikfi HO ^Ti'nt tlmt the inmiiilnin ran^im 
which flkirt it «© not viaibk from tho centre. It ie trar^vsed 
by u largo and vido river called the Jvalu-Darii^ and bf a rood 
l^in^lo luxKhgTir uid to Afghoubrtaii. 

^'hen 1 waa on lie I'annh, Eieu(eii*nt-C<Jonel Lebedof mAde- 
ft''(iemi*)inh1ntrnnntAl Kiirr<»y of the crrontid piuaiixl ovijr, and 
iDftppe-:) it on u wule of 2 yi-xt^a to tho mrJi. jUUici^thc^ he 
mnppctil liiOO square verata i>f country on the Tamir. VVti lULsned 
OTOr %hb moAt intcrcc^n^ luid lcn«t known portion of tlie ntoir 

Tho following ^n^ral obflcrvaiicDa tuny b« made on that por- 
tion of the Tjvnur ^ hich wc TWtcii 

Th^ Tran&-AU} Moutitaine, having tho app^aranoe of an 
iirttnonffic whitOKTcett^d wall, limit the Tiutiir on tho north. 
Beyoud tim lung^f tvxt^ridx n high \ui\(i gniduuUy ming tuwania 
tho centre. Ihis higli land is mter^^otcd in all directions by 

i> 1 


MicHELt cn the ItuAiian Ejf^dition 

raotmtam ranf^a^c, aomd of vthich ftr« eIlO^^M;apped &nd others not, 
but, j^eQeroUy ^^peakiuf^iUAiiDfir oiily a smaHi olevfilion aboTotl^e 
jijpininf: vulUviJ uod pljaniuHWc^H. Tliu plua<< luid vullcy«,or 
ln)llt>rt*i» Jo not fxtt!tiJ iu any trne pirlicular <l:rcf lion. auU in 
most CA^OB th^y nn? not wido Iwiy 2 or 3 vorat*) ; tlioy frftrjii^ntly 
turn off into rtni(* oprmin^*. TLu Tttllc'>%s rw vvrll ivn tlm inouii- 
tatn filcjpei, are tuire_ They Iibt^ nErilher trees, bru'httno*!, nor 
grosft 8mali ftttips or patohea of prtt?« ocour onlyfllcng lh« 
njjirni** "f (liB niiitLTitjiiii strennw, rtiid Uiw ^^hlw w in M*me pliic<<M 
ihick and succulent, aflonting food for tbo cattld of tli<« niMDadR. 

Thtt tTiminUiiiN be!n^ of it soft furtmitinn, iiU t.ln^ pa^Ai'A arv 
cocapamtivL^y h^vs aud easy. The atTt>aiiifi, pourinc; iawii from 
no grcfll iihiuiii^, offer no impeJitocnt. Ucncrfttly spcnking, 
t-ilA nmilM nil llir Pmnir ui-p Trry ('ii*y Inttll jHirU- FWjt"*'!'"' 
36 cither aaudy or etoiiy, argillaceous, aaiuly-s^^liaous or simply 
mliroitt, Tn t]i<«» jnirU wh^^ru tbi- HnliiLE'S bitvt^ giit dry, ihn 
f;rf>uiiii ifl corernd willi n thii^k layer of tuagno^ium, Vpbit^h 
glitters like wiitw. OpL-aMionally on© falls iu with wet places 
covered wiUi u thick but not bi^h grn^ and Hhur<Tftot>Vfr tho 
ground is soft cnuagh to retain iiupraasioua one may tiltt^no the 
triiplcs of' wild b<?;i8t9. Tbns we xitw tbo tracks of wiUl goat^ 
horaes, woItw, and dr^-r. Tli^rc lUud to bft h«ro au mnumrmblo 
quantity of arkharaq (0ms PgIi), but they aeem lo have been all 
di'BtTOTcl by tlic dtPtrao nmonc thorn in IH^D, oa mtxy be r,CTi- 
tludeJ from iliL' hbutidjuii^a of jiiuntMUNt htiuvy hiiran m-atft-rod 
ovortho ubolo lino of country which wo travcreod- We did not 
t>tHi h eiingli- liTf* 9H|>crrimri]. Jiiid ur>trvfTii thir inurka of cmn. I^ 
homa were alivays found with the akull. and no 0136 80eme to 
hjkV€ CTcr ficcn ihe rc«t of the earcoaf. 

Tber(> are neJlher bears, nor ti^OTi, nor vlld yoJu in the fMU^ 
tion of the Pnmir over irhich ^e paeeed * 

Tb" bini* nnti^r^l weru eagles, YiUnn, nxI-bnaVifl nxiwj*, and 
numeroua small spi^oiea. 

Notrtitbstiindjng the severity of tbo eliniaUr of Painir, tbo 
oounlry i« iubabitod by nomodis who ooni« in this Hummor froin 
Koflhgar. Shugnao, Kiimtcj^bin. and other places. Tbcywxiipy 
ihoinGelvcs exuhisivtly with fiiltlo-brt^e'lmg. 

The severity of ibe climate let tbe pr<--ftt<^ diHcomfort to maQ 
on tbr* P^irair. In tbf* sumtner the days are eictremely hot, 
hnd tlio nlgbts nrc cold. In thi? beginning; (U^>) of AiigiLst 
the tbernjomeler fell in the mankinds to 2^^ Fahr. ; ibe Clmn-Sn 
rividiTt, by whkU 1 poseod tbo night on the Sth (20tb) Au^iut, 

* CbloDol Yalr BlHtm tha oootniy.— Jra«eiBils> MhIiuudii^J Amlri atitfd that 
hAh bvwa eutod viid tincn naigml ovdt iho IWir, Ar:ODnlti^i£ to Oobaal 
QqrdoDitbo taimali C)f di« FiMdn w Orit JWl iW. Wcviq bn^JpoMJ^ Iju* 
Tvtf, te iB'kmoit '■■■'I ^K. SM-Eoofoftbtf Wctf]d,VlA^' ^^ 


tQ the AUi 4tnd Ptimir, 


fiojsetovArddthemoroinf;, tboioe bccomiuj-arftiEirterof an vash 
tkfck. In the winlcr the fioeU ace lV^a^fll^ ftud diivL* &vniy tfao 
DOmadi to thd valh'V!* h*>Iow. Th« wir»tt« blow ooiiMtAiilly^ but 
they vary in the vamufi vttllR,\-H ; the north wiud actuftUy Jook 
my bn^Hlh Jtwiiy vht^ 1 viaJtfxt the i^tnnd in llfi JjAko Kbtv 
KuL The mrt-ii«e§ of tUo ihtmc>5p]ii?ni ts uIho a itoutco of ^t*iht 
discomfitit on tJie Pamir, «'veii in a^tfiiEii^r, yet the storiee of it« 
injiirJiiits effects nn? eoimiwbnt cxngp-^mtc'd.* 

Doiihtltfti, rijl1-hliKii]Hil ritH>jt!e, mul tUcMe who jiru ai^ciustoui^ 
to liptntiioii^ hqnora, sre habt© to hlwdicg fr->m the no*^ or to 
rait;tuo«i; hut to the gcnrrulitv of people t)ifTOu!r inconveoieoce 
IB ngrvaler diOlcalty in hrealbiu^ and a stufflLe&e in the cii^i ; 
ycA one ciin gat nso'd to such an almosphcre. Rctiiminp frnm 
llie PjiiiLir lo ih(? Ahii^ thut ij, d^wt^umnj; from mi t.44-v^tiou of 
J \f)W cr Vi^Qm fL^ct to g50 J faet (the poattion at Archa-Bnlak), 
wtT f-xiH^ricufTiTi) gii'ttt ntliftf; it npjufiLnnl to iim thut vri? hiw) lust 
a load Ijom our ahoii!d6r« ; our breathinf* beoamo moid legulur, 
and WG felt generally iu better Apirita. 

The AUi, with it* thiek inU v^xwm^ roinhulic^ u» of onr batlvo 
m^JoivB, fieemed to m like a pai-adide^ Ni-arly the whole ex- 

lit of <*ni]ntnMm \hn \%x\ur which W(i vUitwI ii» roomed ovor by 

ira-Kir^hiz. thoii^'h rot in ^lat niimbcrB^ and oron thcM hid 
!Lv« from us in the RLOUDtaiii gcrgesw 

5. — Oil the 16th (2Sth) An^iet a nortion of tho Alai exp«- 

iditiouary forf^e, via., the mounted nlle^ and a rocket diTwioi), 

»rc moTOd from iht po&ition at Aroha-JJtilAli to the Jatc KokAn<I 

i, DanmuKTirffim jdi'ii-; the Kizyl-Su River. This HDudl <le» 

htDOnt, nui:i<:r Pfiiioo Witongtoin, marchcid all tlii> way olonp 

lir right \niXi\i of thr: Hi/yivSii, nhirtiug the siilu of tlif Alai 

bDpe^ whieli in uo purt rotLchod tho limit of euow, eo that these 

jn*~->untni[i5 may be said to attain .in clevAtion of about 10,000 to 

13,Suo W'L Tbo Tran«-Alai niiigt-,ou Uia oiher bimd- U mow- 

ipped tliroo^hout its whole extent; but this nmgo, whoa tlio 

dut»ichm«nt pa*se<!, un?? envelnpM in » dry mwf.t 

A itnintr wind, rftisiiii^ a bLinJiug sHjid, bli^w during tho two 

ivh" {UM\\ {2Silj) imd 17th (29tli} August) march fr>m Aroha- 

liilok to Dnruut-Ktii^o (J0^vorrts=41j3 mik»}. Tha »ind (« 

:* Wd T^'rc toM minv ivinidfirfd] Htorin b EcrlunJ Blvict Iho d[h:la of lUa 

ikUi»*|jla:n:. nirrl hutd OtlTUcd (o tain irlth lut a iiiip;ilT i^f tol-tfUDOatU, 
'Uriic. (X'Ui'tl Vuk Jibbib* uf thtaa HTocUi, and moDtioLn iLcra m tfao ttxam^n 
ofUiii wurcity of p>p[tliitUr(j on Uiu Piunif. lu m;^ ojiliiiun itm FiiHly 4if tJm 
•i|nutpli4rvtt rtr^t «i b^nmt > rlravlHirk ilh im^ llili L»ck uf fuvl ffv rHltln^ tlm biimri- 
» of tbr Innd. nm Lh<« i^aLd. 

^t Tluvc drj lokLi uEv a couiinmi phonouiQiion iu Kfjlumd nml oa tlio Fl»mli< 
ftrt f«c4abaQj Lf a cunmt of aii Is ad D|jiTferd dlrcottoo, wboo n ek- 
Ijr flbv lituL i« miiitd w!;i^li curpula tlio wUotc udgUljourlLixid. 


TkficuEtx tm f Atf Rtiuian Krpnfithn 

ftotaxlin^ wind in tlir Alul VnUey) wsa from tfao v«<t, tmd 
oomi&efiiM frbont luicldtbv. subsidio^ lato ul the w^uin^. TL«i 
cbsnicteroftlie Alai Vnllt-y gnvluiJly isbm^toffardjiMriiiil* 
Eatgon; it fi;Tikdualk cooiwoW by reeaon of tlir luwoivlying 
beignt of tfao A Ui rangt^; tbo gross bocoiDCit poorvr, and tlu> 
gnuid t*ovcred with frftgnK-ntM tif nuiJi tolling down fnim tiio 
nc»uiUin&. Witbiu 30 ver^td orUaraut-Kurgun tho "coioLlcr- 
fnrort'' of fhh Afni Moimrniiiiv liangw |]r<<4<i|iilciu>Jy over llic rivd' 
itaelf^ BO that tlic toad iukc^ oxez tUo moucitam, and ibon Xttm\s 
OT«f tho nibstdiATy eMTation of the Abi mngc Aii inau- 
morablo qiuifltity of boatOQ puthA tiMUfiiit t4> great mi£rftt4ou aiuI 

At Damut-KnrGfAn ihn bed of the Kizyl^Sa m itill more oud* 
fiuud by tho «ub-aJpiDO clcvntionw, 00 tbat tho T«^ey is not more 
tbun L vetHt in width. Brushwood, hovrov^, nmkiM ito fliBt 
ApH^omn^^ horo m tin? mcudowy iwirU. 

I>imiit*Kur)^ ia sittmUrd tm itm right hank of tho Kiisyl-Si^ 
At tho Tcrv moutli of the iBfAir&m dcHLo into tlie Alai Volley, 
iJuMUghwnidj ttitin thif DMruut-Sii. 

Oar detftcbtnent tcok up a pouclon h&lf 11 totvI Movs the 
JKoktnd-KiinrAii, on the right book of Ibo Ki/yl-JSu, tuid at on 
■^leviAtion of 7400 fetit ahuvc tbo lea-lavel* il&re il wan joini^ 
-OD tfio Hinio day tr Ueuenil ^^koholeT 

On iiiv. fiillowing d^y (l«tli {:M)ih) Angust) PriiiO« Witeon- 
«t«a WAS d4»patoht^ tij> tho Tus-AJtyn-Dain. id onlor to roduoo 
to oboclii.'uce tljo Itt'hkjiik Kiri^liiK* v^bo woidii m»t. jnti^^ut tbdia- 
jelT«« ia Ibc' coinman<lin^ onic^cr a11 thu timu he waa on (Im 
Alai. The rtiuCL< Uuk half n i.-oiu|fiiny uf moimtod rifloe, A&d a 
roc^ktft r]ivui<iiiH I weu ordered to join tb^ doliicbuiaiit, &a that 
ptttof tb«C(junLrv liwl ni>t been tiaiI^hI. Th« rood pottcd up 
ih9€DQnw of ibe f iiz-Allvi>Dara» which follons fk gmw^nd direo- 
tjom ftom aoatb to Donh.T 

The riTBT ran* through a ralltj- bewft bv uiuuulains, extending 
about 40 v9reU 027 milee) loD^^aiid from 1 vcT«t to '^ wnU wide, 
bnt mora opeji tOAardk Uici nuiutb. Tbo b>w«r part of tliia 
\idl<7 (10 t£i 12 Terete) id a favooril© haunt of ih& nomad*. Tbo 
gra« ia good and rich, ai^d tlie cluyey toil enables tho Kir;;hix 
tocnltiraCoit. ButUif=ygroft bftrltjyuioniT, wiiieh yields airt»-fold. 
Wbnat is not eowri, IxvaiiHW it )uw wot time to ripen, --now U-iiifi 
iLiiijdly niiluinil in bytlie m*inlhof Aiignsl, lnnmAll(;uantinea, 
whctat is fiowu on the Kixyi-^ti, nrar tbc UiuQUt-Jvnr^im. 

Tbo nunj/i"!* OLviipyiti;^' ihin ri*er nyHTi'iu Ltddn-; to the Itch- 
kilik tribt? of Kirgbnc, ot the Taiti and > aimaa bruacbe^, Tlioy 

* F«cIolutife>gav« Clio otontton u «180U foot, 

t Tht rivTir ii nllM 'Tva, tdUs tha qiunlM oT nok-mU about 10 vcitla fa«t«V 
Ibv AuatU dT Uia HTir- 


h th Ahi <wd I^antir, 


paw thfi mmiiMr at th« upper water?, but thcrir vintor ba1>ft^ 
tiODfir ^^ hctv; nnd litlli* mir.lnminw, nm milti-'nililit iit t]i« 
loircr oour«c of tlic Altvn-DoriL Not a unfile Jmt (yurf), bow 
«T«tr, w Mi<«ii daring tii« progress of oar ^tacliment; all the 
ncoudcU hftd eeeretcil tbomMlrce b Uu> goige*^ or ImcI lotirod to 

The rud up the Altjrn.l>Ar» follova th« ri^ht l»nk ftll t1i« 
v&T, bill Xin^Tn is n practiciilild vny aIocc the k-ft bftuk bs weU. 

tii«f Hvi^r u uot <Wp, iini) U fofdabSe at sJI aeuoBB of tbo 
^COr. It niDs cloeor to tb<i loft rbo;^ of nwqotatu^ iui4 ia not 
ar>i^ in mionr am the Kiajrl'^^Qi miu«hirh it fulliL Tb»iuo*m* 
tAJM on DOcU eidc, h^ro and th<m, ati4i& the liuit cf snow. 
TIin; nre baiv mid nxikv. bni mer^ vitli ihn vjUley m high 
hill?, ccmpotind, lu ]« ^enmiU^ tbi^ »■« ta tiie Kc»kand mona' 
Inici f^vf'triii, of Jiitrilu*. Tiieee bi^^H vodnWicu, or "eootilei^ 
ftirwai" aro m'LWtIv rL>\-*^rMl with M<nltu<«, whidi « H> Coveted 
bj the nooitt-l«. ^mc, bowe\«, aro p^Huaj ov «rrm wholly 
bar*, thus MpoBitij: their forinatLou ikAd Ru^nilhifE ooo of 
MortiiMt. Tbo rcrfiS along ibe Ah3m*]>ajm paai9 orn tliMv 
hllU ; but it ifl an vaaj road, oicept iu thiw^ patti whore tlio 
hUU abut on the twf. In mmt i3UM4 the tf«iek peMca otot 
ledgcH ttnd «Yer Bt«cp (iopei overlooking the riv«r. h one 

irfi place we lo»L u fiocw, which tumbleil, pack aad all, dowa 

YtiirhillA on thrriKhthandorcutenindeamleaipncjpilgi^. 
MOtli&t tho right b&nk of llie rtrer aflbrda ooro staca for the 
novmdnv A (,'real nnmber of p^Lthwdy? on tbtt H»fal)«ir wjlu«. 
to the aomber tjf peopl& atxd of <r«ttle fn^qoaiiog tbe ri^hi aUflL 

The rivor-Wl i* tilled with bonldcre, and b very nairov ud 
the«o bouldeni and atonf^sucrur nkijg iha wad, «ipecM4Jj ^ ^ 
uwnT oiMTB^ of Ibo rtioam. 

l^he hi»id-wfltrr »f tbis rivt-r i» rvaiatba»«mu» rw to 
anolhi^ etrcam fla«it4C in * rfiBtUolrioiIly (jp^^^/^^ *|^ 
Tht< Tet^Agar rtreamlot, folh^g from a w^tvHMl ooiiimit iu 
the left or wwiem mng^?, div^.i™ in«o twe d t bM» «/ tha 
Lnountain : wne tlowiag nwUiwaKb, wtiik itw lU .w-! 
wemionedTnz-Altp-Djira, an.) *e ettar jurfnt ^ «^ 

abaolatc h' i:.^ 





tf Pet^IVJ 

MiCHELL on tftt jRtiiHan Erpef^irion 

On t!mt day oiir dotaohment c^nipo'l on the Piiftt - A danM 
(Ofi, acooiiipnni<Mt hv Cii\d and dniupi nutdo ua isulTor much 
discomfort iliiriitg ttie iiij^ht. 

On tba 10th ct August tho ilctnchmcnt roa^tnod iU march 
before TUybreulc. 

At G A,M<, 80 sooQ a^ it Avae jiossibk to begin th^ ^urr'rjr, I 
rt«rti?il jniTCuing the coursis of llio Tcre-Agor. the vjiUoy of 
which <litfe» fa clmrjwtor from tLat of the Altyn-Dam inm>* 
irnirh only as the forolanti and '* countor-forcce" of the nui^* 
fonii u jilnin snrfnciT, oviT vthii'h the Ter»y-Agiir ^taiiiilet llowa 
lla^h vilh itdtaalu. 

Following the geutte di^LrUner of tlie (^uflle 5 yenste.tlirrtrwaui 
tumbk'B sheer intv Uio dcoj* ivnd dourly d^fiueJ valley of th« 
large 91uk-!^u IVtrfr. Tii« rJuw of tht^ Huk-8u Va.lJoy, and of 
tho g1ffanti4* Knowy rnn^B ologing it on tho soiuh, U th^ motft- 
boEuuiul lujil tho pra[itk«t Umt au lif imagined- Ttw picloro 
Jrt chftD^'pd ft^ by the wand of a niagiciflii, nnd ytni fitiddenlv 
behold a dcvp uiivity, in the chtpe of n leviathtin trou^'li, with 
u tmrfdi?!:^ at liottoukf t-nvon-d ftith roiildtti'A, thri.'Ugl\ 
whit^h 1hi> Muk-Su ruHhce b«4d]ong in innumonillD bmnf-'bvE. 
Tlie trou;;h Vies btilwi^rMi high, n>rkr, niid prcchiitoiLH numntaiua* 
thofio on tho Foutli heiQp; at the time oovereo with snow ov«r 
two'tliirdeL of tlioir height, St^vicm] pmks projott ffona this 
ranf^n, which iho ntLtives call Got, lOme of them attaining a 
h<;igi>t of ot [c4wl ifoXK)'^ i'ecU 'iVo (flaticra arc eLij^E>cndod from 
t\iv l(jp of (liin inoiiiLtaJn mug'', n'urliing lh« valley bujuw. 
Nciuorous milli'ivhito etrc-tiialol« pnj-L down undor tho ^lAciere. 
A tliird ghioU-ri-hngK Ui thunidcuf it short rauga which burdor» 
the valley on the ouaL 

The northern mtigo ha^ a height of from 14.000 to 15,00ft 
feet, beiijg covoryd witli sripw only in mrtR, It i« kyw ifb>dj> 
tiiftD tlic other, and a patlixvay h\A W^-n forim.'d oter it** 
oninihling Bid*'-, by whic-b F dtyiMvnd'^d into iIj© vallevoftho 
Muk-Sti, The iiorthL^rn et»:irij;e <if thu vaIK^v i'rotu ^h'ich tho 
jinth bi-gLa» lo di.-BCf:^nd is -OriOO fe^t atiovu iceu^Uver Thiv 
puth Jtigaa^a betwt^eu Urgrr at^jne* scattered ovor the d«tntii0> 
und is 4 ver^tH lung* Vegetaliuii tnvMni hi-m juid tb-n^ tin thtr 
d^livity, repr^eont^l by tho archa* and by a few Tery f>oor 
little bircti-tri'cft, 

Th<t IwttoTu of the Siulc-Sn viilley U not wholly eoverod with 
boulders. At the bassos of Iho aomiern range thete are stri-akft 
of lai}d overgroivn witli eojiMt^H of villriw, brier, atui oth*^r 
thickets. Theso eopsofi are irMpilM either by springs, orer- 
flowftoftho Aluk-Sotor byrillarrom tlio mountains, and um 

• Jiifl/p*™* J>■ftufO'^o^('rttl*. 

to tAc Ah\ and Pamir ^ 


oallttd " tugik" Th«j rtrotch at int^^rviiln of one vent or half 
s v(*rett and lufttnly alTord iho Karu-Kir;-ljiK (Jtolikiliks) thftt 

tfao oonrtto of the river fcir Kkmt 3 verdts urid mvr Trt^h troiCG^ 
of nom&ilie peopTe ; Liit theiae had heard of our approudi, and 
had witbdnLwn tow>iivi» Kftrat^^in. 

Tli« Muk'Sii i)( « Inj-^D Idily of wfttcr, and i»tiOt fonlaiblc 
Tbc b^>ad of the livti may be caid to k« at tbiy Kpot wbi^ro I 
cninc down ioto (he Tftth^y, tj^inc Ibrmrd by t^Jt* r<mtlu«icc of 
Bev^nil streams, vi/., ilie Sq1-8lu • tlj«> lurg-^^t of tliprn, which 
pierces through thc^ eoiitbom nxn^ (Uoii), nmi Aot-w in a 
uurtli-wtwtiM-ti <Iirivtini] ; Lin? Kntiudy, wIiuOj (Iihah wbsI ; the 
Saok't^at, which fdlJA into the Kuk-^u. boannz a coarAO toworcU 
tho wutli'tfr*! ; and finnlly, tin? nlKJV(^nn»iiti'inHl Trns-Agar. 
vhlcb eomea in from tltu iiurth. TIll* rallo^v of th^ Mnk-Sa 
extends from eoat to v«:«t, with a slight irjulhing (5'^}. 

ThtH tiiliftV|:ffi?«jrvr^ thu »Linv oWjwitt fyr 40 verfita (27 

ilea), aa faraa the HoJA-t-ab "' tUK^' ai'ti.r iwhicb it coDCract^ 
ud the road paaBOs: over thamfiimiJiinn:, wln-n' Un^ path, iirnrird- 
iug to tbc imtiritf, Ja not pmctioablo to hor«uini^n, on acoount 
of tbe bouldere. The river paaaefl into Kanitegliinr wbern it 
joins iLo Kinyl-Si), und coitibitic-i in furmmg tho Surkli^db 
iLftlueiit of ihc O^im. 

1 »m tlie fli¥t Knropoan who has obtained a Hght of tb^ 
fccftd'Wntf'rs «f the Muii-8u rirrr, Tho vnllrys of the Kit/ 1- 
'Bu and !\h]k-Sii uiv totally difTereni iik chflmct*?n Tin* tlrOT- 
fianicd rivor is much longer than tb<^ «ccoitr!i and H^bt up to 
tba Ka]-at4^ghiti ti-rntorici* it tluw* ibrDn;^!! a valley widr<Eiin]f 
out 2U vcrete (I3\ niiloi^) aud carpeted with ^ra«e oror ita 
whnV <?Kt(?nt. Tiii.n rivrr \* nnt dlH'4^ nni) ia Ibrclabln at atl 

?oinU afl for aa Darcitit'Kur^aQ ; L e»., thi'ouj!;hont a len^h of 
(K) vea^t* (07 mik*). The wutor ir* red in colour^ from iho 
jiA day in whu:U il ruiw. Tliu .Vidt-«u, on thd other hand, 
\ii\A iiol flu ^Ti'ikt II le*ij;tb ; but ia a lar;:ii body of water and is 
not fL>r<lMb)c. TiiR valley i^f IhiH rivcvr i« nuiob ciarruwiir 
(2 vc^rtttd wido), aitd 10 wnUt^J in by wild, alinoot precipitous 
iiio(iDT»in8; the iKJltcni i.*f tlie valley \» nin^tly covi-rr»l nith 
bculdoni; tJifj coloiir i}i tlio water is while-u]>ur)tio, from iIa 
)im« bed. Thr< butLjm uf thJrt valley at th^ tiijlut to which I 
dMCvnilod iw SlOi) f^^t abovo eea-lev^l, ft ifi ittl^^ult to dirtor- 
Juinr wl]i<]b of tho twrr rivcm Ji to be talteii a;? being the maiu 
head-»Ql^]' of ih'? Siirkh-AU It wtre, perh^p^^ inr>ro rr>rr<M.*t ity 
aintn tLat th« Kisyl-Sii and the .^l^k-i^ll cquail)^ combiuo 
witlib tliL' Kui-ati-^lliD t&rritorus!* lo form iba yTi*»t river whinh 
llowfl to tlio UZUSi 

■ '*8fcOpn>UMjAtomirtIonof*»6ii,"iriit*r, 


HlCSBUi tft the JiuMtan Sspfdition 

On ihiii ddv, 4lin 20lli Anga^t (1st Septemlwr) Uiy ilttUicli- 
meet rotunujd to Diiraiit-KnrgaPt whcrt> u doluf^u of rain f^ll 
kU night 

45,*-Oii the 24tli Aagiut (5th Septotnbcr) tiic whclo ai th« 
Aliii farciij vniM idovpJ town rein firoat KnrtLmuk. The vanguard, 
under OoloUioL I'nDcc l>LrL;;fCirouky, cumpoeod of throo ^otuios 
of Ciu«:i[tkH, II ismtjumy n(^ nxonnU%\ riH&i, iitid n roukt-t lultury, 
rtaitdd two hours 'm lidvancc^ ; tbi> iiiftkUtr)* aud lh£} traiD^ucdor 
PriDCft Witgiriistr-in nkoirhcri] at S A,M. 

Tbo roftd to Gmtvt Kunimnk (28 vet^t; == 19 injk'b) foUowa 
tie right bauk of ttie iiizyl-fiu. la tlie vicinily of L>Araut 
(2 venttrt IwW- Dar»»t-Kiirgan^ lh« vfttlc^ of itio Rt«yl*da 
njUTunt^ ujiU beivjincfi a miiuutatn defile, luid iha rood ^^dssea 
over Wges, here ftnd th^r^ bridged over, for ftbout om^Nlhird ijf 
u Tiiilo ; It wiiii fint in oHer ctt tne previous day by el port/ of 
Ha|HBin uuUer Li**iiLeiimiUO(>luuHj lie-^vy. 

As tlu^ro wu only thie ono narrow road over tho lodgat of 
tUa [icitheru range uf luiniuUkiiui jiljiitting tiii tlicr nver. tlid 
pro(mGS of the wholo detaolim^nt was nece^arily fiJow, renching 
tho wltiD^lacc lato in the evooiug. Although tho luon and 
bcnea fr^ueotly slipped over the eidea o( these ledg^ or 
comi<?C3, cnly one ftuitwal was iirccovorably lost 

Thv viiWny iif llift Ki/.yUSii fccnn Diimiit-KLirgiiii* lit OOD- 
aidorably narjon^T than iit tbo ui>p<^r portion of the rtream; 
yol it in iiowiiMi^ h'M tbcin ball' or ;wv>-tbiicU of a mil© 
wide. Where iha (louiitunm-aq} of thia moautaiu ou eidker 
side overltauga tho liver^ tho opposite udo of the TttUey ii 
open and Ihit. 

UetvMD thc60 oouaterscarps the road occasioDaUy leads 
down tn Uw river-side, where the soil i« oompOB^d nl drpfiml 
lyiug bfitwoon the bouLdoRi ^vhich an.- KUittor(*d about; this 
ground yields a bU<viil(^uL ami waviiw gruH6, an vtvW a« iiniflh- 
wood, nod ev«n Rznal)-8i£<id trcos, «ucu as willow, jiupW, drc, 
wliich form umbrugt^ns copses. The mcmt fertile portions of 
th« Kixyl-Sii valley Are at thecontlueneeof feedere. All them 
phioev uru occupied in the winter by tbo Jtirghiz^ and around 
their habitations tho soit u odl under oultivation ; ihey sow 
barloy, wheal, clover^ and oats. 

Tlif- tieldd am nenall^ irrigated hy nitviu}* of ('jinjiU. Wheii 
tve poaeed, l£4lh Auj^uat (Hh September), the ao^ni f>raBB 
hjid n<it iJI h*.'.v-n moan. ^*iK* grurttx^t fertility n in thn 
ktcaUtiea nrhero tUa Kok-Su falls into thu £lzvl-8u, and k is 

* ]bD]r>w thtft fort Uin Dubtl-Abl (AUd il^jip*) taar^ to ft lunnlnAllAn, tnd 

U the Aloi imd Pmuin 


bero ihtA tbo f^ateet number of nomad vrintor batiiUtJozia 

The mouniama on t1i& tijUl or uortL iido of itm Kkyl-Su 
yftllcyoTooiilj about TOJOfcotiiigh; those on Ui« Jeftoraouth 
aide are higlier, buL iKiitbrr of tbom attAin ibn iinow limit. 
Thoro are lorcst ^[TO^bs of arcAa on tho forciUods of tho mcun- 
bin^, aii^l thoffj arc deiusr on iha northern dopes of llio 
aoatbetiL raD^ 

From Dajant-Kurgan the Kizyl-So reeWTMia large quantity 
of Wttter from tbc mountainn, nud it U Dot fonlabiA UjIla^ tho 
mouth of thtj Kok*^u. 10 vci«<ta below I)ariLttt-Kiit;>ii. 

Tlw nvor nitis in n ii^n>3it mirnb^r of cbaanels^ the prindpiJ 
stre&m being 70 to 1U5 fb«t wide ; tho cnrrcnt u txcw^Un^Iy 

At Circut Jianticnk tlid vnllcy widons to about 2^ veratit 
(14 mill*), aiui cxIcmiIb Eu tlmt form for ubmit 7 vorata (4J 
mik«). ili?n? i.hQ olevation of the mountains U not eo groat. 
Tho rich mcfuJowii m thi* locjilily attmct ma-vu* cf Kifi^bis, 
whct^ victor quartets ar& scattered all over the place. The 
mcr U fringed with tr?ce> On Iho aouth-irefit the vnllejr b 
boundoJ by uiouoljiiiM *jf inotinwderablu height, tha paaa over 
them being viaiblo from Groat Karazauk* 

The detacbtiioiit took up n ]iii«iriL)ii wi i}n\ ha»^ at tlir»a 
mountains. Aooording tobaPumLhuul jiiL,L.u;umetit,tbt> Tallcy 
at thii place is ti900 feet abov« aevld^. 

7.w-0n the 2iHh Aoj^^t {lOth Septdmber), th« dstacliiDMit 
m&rolied tirwanln thr Kar^-Kn^yk P^iwt, pn routti lo VudiL 

The Gborteflt and most convement road from Karamok to 
Kokniid iicii up tho Koh-ft^u ICivcr fright nfflucnt of the KwyU 
SuJ. In order to vaivc the\alley uf the Kolt-Su from Kamuiutc, 
it 1* nocc^eary to traverse a paaa over tlio Gurundu Motiatains, 
ivliidt nni nf ii» ^rtrat bni|'ht> nad wbic-,h nr» n ^V}*^ **^ ^'" main 
Alai ranf^ The moat direct route into th^ Kok-Su Valldy* 
ovor Ibn (rurundu, is nWnt 11' vcrtts (12§ iiiik«], nf which 10 
ventd (tif inilo») aro taken op In tho a^'etit* the remaining 
9 TBiBta (0 mitea) beine; descent. The tirst road ciuqidncta over 
the tornicvvl bank fjf tVt KixvI-J^Ut which ia itndtT L'tilhvatioa 
for barli^ and whr^dt. and t&oti leiwla into Ibo wide Ujciiik6 
(ia^fHi!, thnmgh whlrb nin^ n Mn-fiin of th^ unme imrnL^, M]iiig 
into tho KJzyl'^u on tlio rij^bt A eories of KirgbU tvintor 
habitatioiia Atretobes throu|>li the defile, Notwlthbtauding the 
squalid aapoct of tlic^o hnbitntions, tho ovidouces of mim'a pra- 
sence ia ghwl^lemufr. 1 hud iievpr before seen so thif^k a clu*iter 
of Kirghiz huts ia one place, Uero the picture is wmU'Ilitihcd 
by ticHs of wheat, barley and luc€nie {djcaush?i<i), and each 


3rif:HELL Oil the Rttaian Erp&dtticn 

hut is distingui^ed by one, two, or tlii'ee w Ulow^T«e« or popUrv. 
iv]iii-}i iriviT liuMing tQjitpml. EiK'li ntt \»\\pa for roilingx, Jogn for 
doortt,ic Apeei' int^ uuy one of IIr^i; brvirlflimpreafieaoDOTery 

iminfully wilti tlir \vM':lie(iiie*s of Hhir^iz life : tht*y are more 
Lko ptp^ty<w tbun linbitHtione for n^iui; \\ui\ yot ii niffht of a 
Kirj^bk si'tUtmtut is n prreat relief to tlw pyci Wo aei* Jiew, 
at all ovcitt«, .-ill attempt to pn^ fri^m ti wanderinj^ liff> to a 
Hcttltfd fonn of exink'noi^. And nnytliing in the form oL a dwelLin;^ 
U plessin^ to beholfL I felt t.lie effect of this stronprly when, 
i\ii\iv ktandf^rmg pvcr the Alni and Fflinir rtcppcs for eix wcc^li*, 
J t^K^iiLii^-iMl my t'linij) lent foi- u full hiEt> or y^ttt, for two or 
thrc*- diiy« At Darant-Kairpmi- A yurt U ono groat rt^ 1o- 
vjLrd.H cLvilinnliu:] hi thirt roimLry; iL i^ miimyt mid ono may 
havd a tlr^ lit ]t« i^nd mak« it a warm dwollinf*, 

Xho pom over th(7 GumrLdu is not dii^citlt; tbe mountain!* 
are of soft formatJou, and iin» not atoep. The aamaiit of the 
paflB is at an elevation of Uf>01) feet. The descent t» ct^iially 
tiui Y ; but lh<? iMitl^im of thw di'filjr lioiiig choUeil with httin^ 
which haTo rolled dowii, tlie road pixAwa ortr a rug:gLHl surface. 
Thu tttrt'iLm fflUiij^ ii^to ihr Knh-Sii diaappe-nr» under th(9o pilcM 
of atouea and emerctitf only at iU niouth. 

X^hc Kok-Su Valley^ at tht? tioiut whti^ the stit'ao:i itAh into 
Str itt widu and fcrtilor but bianer up the rivor thi^ valh'y cooi* 
ttactfl. A little suBpeniiion-t ridge bdn^ tt orer 1o the Idft 
hrtTik, jind it thrm filcirts the rtrnara for th^ rr^t (?f the dii^tanci 
briii;ciiJiC ono to the Kjim-Knzyk, ono of ihr? prinrijial pr 
over thL* Alal Moiiulaiiiti, Tlie rltanu-tmsilc- featuio of the 
Kok-$u d(?Klc ia tho rocky crcet of tho .mni:ntain« on botU 
bided. The d^divItU^ of tiicsa munntuiiLt iite in timny places 
prodpitou^r nii<t the summits either oa^uiua the form of paaka 
<it ol rocky ridp* In jiomo placos, boHrTcr, the Toclcy 
declivities iner^e vvith softer Blopo^ covered with ardba forest^ 
in iwrao pLncx.« toicrnbly tlensc. idtlioiigti tl)c trw^ aro not of 
f^reut ui/e. The tniiikH of ihi^ nt^lui tirJuniiifrua fnti-iul/)''!tiMhhiufi 
are dietoitod, and frequently lirj ^or^ntJiiQ u,lon;r the ^-nound,* 

Pxoti^nling ^ii vi:i>U {'2{) uulc*?) tlimi^^jii tlir dHil*. wt; ('jimo 
to a halt for the ui;>hl at (he foot of Kura-Kozyk l^m*. wLen> 
the 0trcan> of that uuuo, TiiAhini^ donn from the sniumit, lallfl 
into thi> Ko1c-Se). Hurt, at a lioiuht of Dr>UO r<frt, nil vi^g<-tation 
ooasca so that both tho Uvttom ol the detilo und tho mounlain 
ibrttland aro quite bare. 

^.— On the follcwia^ d^iy, rtOth AuguM (1!di Septwabar)! 
advati{»Td at 8 A.M. lo Kut'U'K;L:cyk Vau. The path k$A» all 

* ■* In Tiulilntrnn ilbirlil t!u> junlnAf U of t ri«Tttia ojv.' 
of tLo World; 


to the Aldi aiid Pamir. 


tfw vnay "ver piliw of MtuueH vrJu^li liuve r»ll»ii fnim the nw-^ky 
B]4e« ol the Kara-K&syk defile. Theee etiloa oro pTOciMtoiu and 
grAik<1, Id Bomo piftcir* tliey ovtrhAn^' the patli. Tll'^ tonvot 
0wi>i>|)di with a tumultuous noise over die obitrut^tiDg boulders^ 
and Dear it« moxith it TaIU in pictim^^qiic roscadcs* The nild* 
nasi and impc^in^ j^'ramli^ur uf iho rtvimrv \\\ ibe 'Itfile iuureuA^ 
ii« om* aAocnda the covirad of the totrent- Tlic rocks ore stupor 
anil tlifl [N^ili* mon? p^iuff-*! ; tlif? jwUli, liowrvc]-, flom aot lea<l 
by auy danfforoilfl leS^^ lui ruus over a soft soil, Wilbiu 3 
Ter»tfl(2 duIqb) ofthesummit of tli« pA.*<« ihcr^ 'i« a ver>' aieop 
RK^oat to the top of the Toafu ridge, and the path ia zlg:ui^;^. 
Duriii;; my accent llio pasA was covered vritU ^uow irhlcli Uv on 
tJi^ mniintnin nidi** ll»r(^» (it four vrril* briow tllw cw-Jit. TU» 
rctlcctuin uf Iho ligfit wua bliudiiip. My liorw? continually 
clipped on the <]oTvri-lr<jd<lrii *jiow, yet I rem'h'-d lln* lop willioLit 
di«n30i:ntii]^'. For puok-nuimalf^ aiid fur wi^ak bi.irtit^s tliis pu^ 
ui AiDifiwhat diLQgcroitfl, as yiOA 6Tide[i>.<ed by tiiujiy :l cmuua 
lyiriff in the procipico)<. Tho numrnit cf tltn jHtu i^ at a Ueight 
of l2,0(Xft feet: tU« ti^^t ia very bturow, Havmjc tLe appearancs 
of a wall about 2>i inHifi^ tbtck. Jt iiformorl byafortofoponi'ng 
(oboiit 3o or 42 tcet widi^) U.'tircT^a u oooplc; of jioiiks clovoa 
iiilo a comb sbape. Tlie creiat of th^ 7*amA: lu die Afui mo^ 
furthor irost »« prtibably tho ntino, Uxrak mcnititi^ ct>nib-* 

Tbii KutU'Kn/.yk \vmr, lijLa mviveil iti iiujim frotn u bigb 
peak visible lo tbe Ipft, wbich, in eoine dpprep, beore n rewm- 
tlftoc* to Ik Make {katyh). Kam-Kasyk «ignifir-* black-sUko. 
The view from the top of the pa^ la very Btriking in its wild 
grandeur* A iwaa# of rocky ridgos nnd peaks seem to be 
crowfli^d to^tli^r ill th« greiLtt'Hl disiirder, rormiiij^ a reinatkuble 
pioturo of dreadful chaoa. ^onie of tticeo rid^oe aud poaks 
min^ lu it virrr% n Alimud of »ucin, vrlilcli ^Ivr^d hkaI |uuitbi)ly 
in the fltrn; llioee oo tLii> ncrtb were ofi yet free froio aaoWp 
aod wore a grcyivk or brown hue. 

Thd descent from the pa^^i wua more ^v^p even tban Lbe 
aaceiitt in conscqa^ikcc of wliick the path ou tbe ctlier aide bad 
moru liimiii{|;K^ Hr>rH.'j( mid trrnn tdJ^i und fidl, iitid thi; horw^ 
juan who foota it ia wise. The descout ia 2 venta (IJ mile); 
tlio fOfuI tlicii IrcuflH ov^r ioioreitAe hil1ix^k«, wliicL ai'e n^Tthing 
but tRTuendoud \nUA of tdoncit. Fnm under tho Itiat of 
thew atone piles iaaues a stream of unt^r, whicli furlker ou 
Ibrme t}io Sliati-i'Mjirdnn Kiv^r- Th? ebarai*terifiticit of tho 
dfrSldof tbid ri^-er are very much those of the bed of lie Kok-Su, 
already deacribed. The sides are rooky and proelpitou^, with 
A foreground of aoft undulations covered witti anha forcata 

* 'I'ho Djoiit direct fouto Tiou Forgaimh tij GhAroi iu UonkU^Liti liu* oTui tbo 
Tfenk, bitl Ibi* JJ u TUiy dtillcult pnw, 

4^ 'STlcmVL an Ruitian Rrptditi&ji to t^ Alai and Pbmtr. 

wliirrhnlrHrhfuraneiieiit ofSOvenits (f2^ luHes); tbcNRfnr«wtit 
Dro tol^irablv 4er^, but the tr«rM &m of smnlJ etatura Tho 
long IjiTliimiH nxilA ti^rci m raimy pIficifK rxpoHn(I>)U^nm]iL<^ {a geek 
for ^^metliiu? to >:-lnlDh nt. Aft^r the archa foresU thdra Ii • 
fltrotob of dccidtioiiB tree*, siicJi m bircii, wiJIow, barberrr. 
mnimliiiii-Mb, ami otber bruHliwoud, But all tbU uiulOTwood 
iiingoe only tbe bed of the riven 

III ibi^ tippr-r pifrl.Mia of tlit! ckiile Uur pnLli rniiA Along the 
Hffbt bauU of the nver^ tod then freqaently diiui|fc« sidofl, 
soiiiotimi^A <^vnn l^ing tn tbo bed iUvlf- It i» nn ««ftv path 01U7 
in tho upi^-r portion of tbd defile ; further on it mutt ovor nftrrow 
ledj^ OT ciiiiiihlijit^ iiiountain nties. 

I Imd to riili* vr^ry fiut iti onItT to ^ft^nfw tbe d&rknen in the 
dofilr, and to rc^aob Shab-i-MarduD, wbiob is coxuMdcrod to bo 
fiboQt45vprKU (^] mibiK) 1r»Tii the pvut. liegaivlless of thd 
TLorrowiK'Ss of thi^ path on th<^ ltidj;i>e aiid <romir;e3» I trottod my 
humtf at a gooil |Nice. Tho iittlo villa^^e uf S}mU-i*M^m]ni] wtw 
still LOYontfi diHt;int wbtm I w^m envelopofl m dnrknoB^. To 
mn tbistraa ^newtxp^vionee iu t1i« mouulains, Thi^ mourLtnm 
side se^TO^d moro prprnpiloun, thp prccifipe^g moro yflwniii;» and 
derpor. Tht? dnrknetM Wiut »o intense tlint 1 wiu obliged to 
trust to the in>itir>ct of my horns, until at lost, at 11 VJC^ t 
reached tho kiitbbikf wtioro, witli my travclliDg oommnions, 
I fimiid cjuartt-rn f^^r llie night hi a tf-h-Hbiip, or "phiii-kfijuiit." 

&hfLh*i-MimlanisvBl] known forlbe lovelineeaof Jtisitncbtica. 
It n<->th4 it; a prHty ^itrt nt thrt oprning of wrrvtrflj defiles^ audi 
an Jt la not nontined by bit-h raoimtfi.ii:B» the view £ry>m 8faiib4" 
Mrirdao i» chnrming wjd voricd. 

Thu 1>eauty of tiie »c&be m i-nhanpwl liv tlw* wiimntion temt 
to it by a 8C4Lttrrin^ cf baiulets and by Botrli find j^ardcit^ tn tho 
hollrivr [if the rivfit auil "ti tim nTumktinni!. it. may rot b? 
diiBoiilt to jmapne the effeci ]>rodu«>ed, oftcr jv loiij; aogourn in 
a wilflcmeM otrnjiied by noniadw «!one, by dj« ajqipot of thCa 
loTcly ttttlemont^ the boudos uf whii-h w^ro drowned in ft eca 
of ftardcnj, aborc which towered a ^rvtil namhvt uf tall ?(]]irvl 
jmpUrs^ whcwa hMuU «-?Hin liiddm in tlit* ("loud*- 

HAvinf^ ])aEecd a day at Sbnli-i'MarUaii, 1 Irjft on the M (13th) 
Bcpt^inUr for VailiL Tlin rond ic11ow« th«i left bank of the 
itrona. Tho mounlAiDS doc-rowo in itfipht very oonsidorably^ 
and thd dc^le is tolemblv nld**, A (^uitiuiiiiiiH [^bain <if bumU-i^ 
atfdtoh ^m ShaUH-MurtfiLii to Vndil Tit verst? = IG miles) in 
tJio faoUow ; tht-re is i^ break uniy within a iVw vnrwts nl" Vadi^ 
where tbe rockv motintninn r]me in, ai^d nhero tho tottii pateea 
OT*r broad U*dgua» it m a ourt-riiad all the way. At Vodit the 
TnouDtninsfall Awayotieh more, and the dt^filt coiaes to An end, 
80 that Vadil bloob the ontraaco. 

■^^ k J-y 


JduiyiKNR' Ji^vtnt Jmtm&ift in MttihgoKor, 


►Vftdil 19 in th* »r^Dah vallej', iinrl w the first populated 
nf lan^ dim^siobs vbiclt one arrives At f^ominc ftom 
It :a Aituatcid %X ti bdgbt cf IfUOO tcct, and lioa ciiiY>fxl^c>d 
in a nwM of luiumnt Aorl *)]fl<]j gantt-iEai At [iri<Niii)L Viuli) U 
iftthi) coDtre of tho CLomion district, ftooorduig to the now 
ftilittiiiislnitiTO mibdiTUQon of tlit^ Fcr^gnnnh vaJJ^y frinco its 
BXUi^iatioTL to tile Hossintk Kmpiro. 

Bum ' Uic UkiwUe lorl^d TaUc cf AitiluUs ;— 



IS H 200 




Anrhat I'ua , 

KaIUk^-I'Iiud on tint KIbvI-^U 
Moctli li KlJtil-YftrC ddflc <. 



AlJMl«ltalP»a ., .. -- 

CoaftaancD ct tlie Utt^bal^ati] 
mmI OLon-Sa <. p-I 

aiAt«i1 m l^« r*ip<<PH C^pt^in KnfllDvilcn rmijinfr it b> IOi9UO Ceol on Uia ni^itliorD 
dnrllfUln. und 1-^ 11^500. nrnvn IT.iKH). ft*rt on tbn mulbnrft. 

r«-1«l Pu-i 

nv.tafU*-h^lPBi« ,. „ 
PciajtLnii Ht Arnlu-DvUl 0&! 

lb' AUi J 


Git4| Rufomiih ,i .. — 
CiuruuiEu Pom » ., 

Sljuli-l'Mnnlmi VfTiimi 
VndiJ Tuwii „ 




ITT. — "Rut^i Juurn^i in Madaffo^^ar: described by B«v. 
Joseph Mullen n» d.d. 

DuHiNG iiiG paat iwci y^»rs> amoQ^ the joiim^^ya undBrtAkeii 
by ED^lish mis^ionancA in Mj^dii^iecar^ tire hare boon of un- 
uwud vn[MitUmvn. TIih> hiivt* beeu Ultrjfi dvitr rutimly new 
ClOiiiiJ ; they havd ooncemerl lo^^aiUie^ i''3»p$ctJQR which w« 
bad iko definite infortaAtAon, though it vfn^ zttMt\y dc»ii<:^J ; anA 
tlioir roiulU land botil to inoreEwe aiid r&ndt^r iiiciro d«lluito 
liid knowledge Focootiy obtainod of tho interior of 31ad;i|>;ksair> 
X propose to give a, bru;f outline of eaulj tif thewj J0L]ni4jV)t, ihud 
then sum up tho ooncluBione to whioh thoy leitd. 

1, Ikokgo IK Sotrn-EAST MxnAaA&CAR. 

The Bctslico Prorincc fonn« tiic southern portion of th^ 
i^^titrAl plBt€«bii ; and on \is e&^lem w)e ft ia bbnndod by the 
Uroat torcet and the sontborn extension of tbc broad terrace 


MtLLEsa 0)1 B«a\l JiMmctft in MaJtJ^of&ir. 

of Ankay. The forfst is in two Imet^ uid tbo sc«nciy it pre- 
KfMht \a Mimr (if till? (riH^Kt In Mail/tgJixi'Hr, Wlieu liaiiiiuii— 
aboul 1820 — ofter ntuch cbrtinalc fchtinff, ponqiicrnd tho 

the Mouib, u jtorliou of tho fore^it tribes Bi]cce8i4fi]ll5 lesistad 
him. Tho 'liDfllfia submitted, aucl in thi^ iortms* towa of 
AnibobiiHitngB Ibd PiiiiceiiK Itiiuvaiia now rulei as ^'overoor in 
the iidttJo ci tho (Jueciip E^uth of thcw TdnaU lives n hardy 
bntimh nf tln^ xnmr iriU^, thf? Tkl»rl^^ wlm hold jw»iuiWnn of 
un iinmc&M^ ieotated bill- riunug IW&iiia'a vars the j eiu- 
taineil 0Lf< sieeo <jf ci^f^t^nTi jtionthK, sad »ubmiQii«iiLlf another 
of tivclvo moQUiit; Mia ib c-itob coao reftist«Kl witn euoccws. ThtJ 
lloviU have neTer set fi>jt ou the Ikongo hill; tho Ikoogo 
hav(i a licap dislike to tlicio, nnil they nnuDtain ihoir libtfrty 
anii tittir isolation nitb ^f,'at tfjuaclty to tbU diiy. 

NAlurally this iwklion rats thf»m off finjni thi» improvEmiertt 
which ifl ijow ruptdly niittin); th<T Bctaileo ita woll as tlio Hova 
Ij-ibcv, Tht- Helf^ileti Mlwiou has bei'ii f«tabli«hed only ei^ht 
yponi, ond its m':mU?re havo bwn anxious to gnia nccew to 
tUi; Hdm^o pryple. After wemlJiig au'l receiving frirudly nir** 
iafi^, on October Ist, 1874, Mr. H. A Shaw, ihr? Siiperin- 
teuUc^t of tho Normal School in FLmamnt-oo, having rw:civod 
A dt>^it« invitation from the kijiff of JUooco, s^t *>iit to pay 
Mm a vifliti I'aaBiDg ImobAf^obo, tio roachod Mordkona oq tho 
4uutcrn rdgrmf i)ii4 jilutf^nu and rhtiin^cl thnGrml Fun^wL Of 
tliie Ur, ^baw saya : — *' This is certtiiiily the tliickoflt forost I 
liave been ifiUi iii ^^Imbiga-^iir, u^^d ij< oun cirntinumiH iiuws i?f 
tr«efi frt>m MorciJcuna (v\liif^h n-o left about niuft o"*^lock) lill wo 
OSOAtged at Aviary at tivc in it wo met no onci, nor did wo 
w# A eiiigle hciU94] of ciuy d^jko-iptton, oxoept jiut witbiti thtt 
t^ntrarice at the aouth-east uad of oux routi^. 1 saw no animals 
butbinU; llumgli th(*m wrr<t ovidi-tit tinirlis of gn^At nrimUtra 
of wild hoga; the turf baiiug been torn ut* in uiauy phi/x« by 
thes^ ammdfl if) tln-ir SH^irch for yniba nmi nmti. About hidf- 
>^'ay through tbi9 belt of forE^At ji pair of mDiirtntnii of Ftran;^ 
hhape rear their hfadn far aboTe ihtt HiirfMCitcjf thr (ibau* Tht^ro 
ie such reBemblarco helwtwn the two that it would b« difficult 
to disUugiiisli one from tho other. The nortbrrn Pidctf rise 
prBoipitoualy ftom the plain to the height of ]000 feet, the 
aontb and we*t sides ore covered with thick brufhwoo^L Oo 
iha ridj{e bt-t>vei^t] iht^&tB tw:j IiiIIn. ovt?r wliicb wi*i had Ut piitf, 
^^o hnd & splendid viow lo tho eoutb-caat. A deep valley lay 
brfoni ujs vith tin* hilN flying high on thn rppovii'i nid*-, all 
donsely covered ^ilh trees ; and frum nvar thu aumiait of one 
of thoxa a large stream cauic tumbling aikd loariu^ dowu into 
th$ valJty." Ho adds th^ folloiviug fa«t, vhich vitl remind ftii 

MOLLKBiti on Hefvtif Jtmr/im/s in Mnda^mcar^ 


indiau rBtideiit at llic juujiUw "f Ofj-lou:— -"AlHmt an honr 
heht^ vse wcro out or (Uo fuicH a sli^Iit eLoner oamo on, which 
broug:bt from the overhaiigtog leaver aT\d gras4 thoiiaamffl of 
mibijte l^eclidit. Tb^ ^rQtutiiru vt tinull* but able to ^lons&td 
iUcIf b> n^^Hy four timed ttii natural lenj-th. It k cvidontlf a 
leeoh, luul hhtit likf* on&; tJtfl men trora f<TmMy billen a^MJUt 
tbo logs and f<wt; on tht,* nrtiini jwirney I pii^ltori off thirty 
fmm my owi>, Injt ili»?y irluna laiwt tenar* lonely, aiiJ my anklca 
and feet wero covi^rcd with Mood, Tli" villi^ of Ariivy U 
plca»«.utty bitualM) uii tv siivd] rouutl hilluck, in n narrow 
pUfn, tnrroundod by hilla, well woodod t*> tbe top, Tlii^ 
moTinUiu oii thf! nniib is high, and tbo ae« is Tiaiblo ffoni its 

After bcine dctaiacd by the c^wtiiTi ntid th© ftuspi^ionn of 
ibc» Kill* anil biin ontini^tsHoritr Mr Slinw jvLiaed on muiiliwnni, 
and n^ach ArnbuhiUiTalatia at the foot of tb»j fortr<>fi« bill Ho 
waa triuil^'fl mutt kimlly ntkd hoKpiUihly. bill uua uurefully ntiA 
coasTaDtlv wutcbod. fJurinj: hU (lot-;atioa he t*pt liia oyea 
opG3>, ana obaervix] inatiy ibm^a of joterest. He tiayTt : — 

*Krom thi5 *ummtt ot a hi!l oxcrlooVing: AmbAhitAiriUna I 
obtained a (itxh! ri<?w of Ikon^ It conaUta of a long, flat- 
t^ppi'd hill, vnry pr^poipitoas cm all mAw, et^yr^taWy on iho 
wmtand mjrth, wh^iix: the facci of the clitVn uro perp»indii*iilar 
tniiRwsof smooth pronil*. The bill is about fiv»i miles lou(^. 
n&daboQt lUOUor ICOO foot above tlio IcvtO of the plain- Oa 
the »iiinmit I rinild w» Hvi'. Uiviu%, ihvi imt^ u> the souUk being 
ftppar«!ntly nearly ae Jarj^e oa Fiaiiaraate6a, \vith some good- 
SUud bouftOK^ Twfi utrr-aiiis of wnt^T l«ltr thf^ir nse near this 
aoniherii toni), und Go^v uli^nji; tha whole leni^b of thn IdH, 
de*ceiidiu^" in a *;lT>arly dtCaeJ oaacade, near thn northora 
^xtn^mUy. It u ynticipaWy owing to UiU fiicrt that the peopli* 
can effmjf nally Jc^iy all eic^e. aa they cau plant and »ovp as woll 
on lb(t top of thi» hill a4 in iho valToy, whiUt tlm imly ufiCL^ut U 
w narrow' iiud diAiciilt as to require: but few to f^ardit agninac 
an ah*iin7ti[i^ army. Diiriirg the time id ix^arn, luid wliRn they 
four titlhing', the^io towns aro not ccciipiod to any great ortont, 
the [leijple prrf^Tring to live iu l\m rJllu^efl on the plaia 

"Thty vomen hero (hoaa^s) cannot vcavc; and the only 
oovoring of thu poopb consist* of mat* and Wk beaten oat 
into a thin elieet Erery man traTelling for oven a thort 
diHlam'o is inv»rijih1y (irmr'rl with iin» or more S|>eun<," 

Mr. Shaw had at length a morft friondly K^ceplion from 
B*ilfriand?tiJ>fnua. tlif king of Ikungu, and \l wa* arrnrif^W that 
leacbc^rii ih<:ii]ld h<y M^at to inMLruct hi^ i>c?Dp1i^. In June 1S6^ 
Kr. 8baw tijok the teauhf^ra, and a^Ja vuited tiiv King and Lia 

vou 3xva E 


MtlXSNft 0n JRt^vni Jovmq^ tn 3ItMi*iffaKar, 

peoplo. '* Quite tajlj in tbi^ moniiD^ tbe Kiu;; come to my 
ttuil ivjtiiinil Any 9cflilipr« or fatldwers, nrul idiiypil rluitting tm 
dinoor-tiiQix Hd v^ mudi tilcuji<;<l with tfo tcaolien, uud 
hojicfl thfT/ woiild Hucn feel at lioine v^itli him aitd Lis Mubjecte. 
Ho would provi'h a hoimn for tLicm, thiid hijf r<^oplo lud n g r»»il 
to fitrouli tliL'iEi >iith rioc. Ht: t:a»iui[ii.-il witli juten^t all dia 
llii&gt I had brought with me. 31/ iron etrct{^hcr v-a< a i;T«nt 
m&rrel; toU^, bcddm^, bool^ compiuf.^, watcb and gim, &11 
CAni9 in for a cl<)ae InspectioD. ]\jh ri?qnesl8 were litniCed to 
an c>mpt^ bottle, 8omo scop, adt* bcod^, nnd porcumcoL oftps ; 
all of ^bic-h I ^uv^. in iidilUion Ut tLi< pioliu^A Hiid prdNuta 
proTulod by youiiK friomla la Gla«<^ow. llo th^n pr^sentod 
mo viib a Jiicld umi hi*, had u^^tl in iln^ wnT# niUi lii^ciitm. 
Tbia u oonBJdGred amcTijv them aa the ^;r^te«t b^Loiir and 
nmrk of cotilidcncc vrhich Le could giro to any oao not oC bil 
own tribfc" 

On hie return the Kiuf;: gave JUr. 8haw pem^ia^ioa (o tmTcl 
by Lbo wititbc^rn nwi], tw tlml Un iut» tlii^ wliclt? Ikongu iTOLiulrjr. 

^'Wo elept at th& <]iiimQi?<f iu thaictc^ oa Tuo^uy night* 
On Wrdoosdiiy morning wtr funinJ Un;t, lillJirnigii tbii ftmwt 
road \vm mucb gUorti.T, it vtm vary Hiwp, and ww jdmoet ono 
continual cliniU Od tbe top of ona Lilt u Li^ak in tbe Coreet 
pormitd a view the mo«t <xtc*ruiivc, if uut the taust nuignilloont, 
I baT& eTer ee^m- ilemg macli Ugber thau the foitrea», tiiis 
*;m^mri1 nt nnr fi>ot'; wliilrt for ituuiy, many inihiM tlio billfl 
imdulattd uwj^y to tlic oo^t, 1«.'rmimiting; in a uhitc midl, irkioli 
tbo giiidi.' «aid wafi tbe 6^a. He iuforuii.^fl us tlmt tjfi clear days 
tUo Khimmc^r of tbo Kun upon tbo wati>r made it eiuily di»- 
tiii-ijiliitlli'. At about noon we wt^ru unce more ainoug the 
brurtu -rii>dof ll)e lablo-land, and about ten milps from Ito- 
Ikidroa* near which wd staved tlid uulib. TliO Ifjlloning nigbt* 
liiiig after dajk, w? arrivea at borne.' 


2. Visit to thb Thaiu Tbibbs. 

Tli"5 Ibim tril>es wm? known to livo on tin.? r^nifli and nrjutb- 
wtjcit bordor* of tbo BetaUuo Froviiico. OoofltionaU^ BotsUeo 
auJ Dovas have found their way among thciu dufintr tbcso 
r^ctffit T^TH of p4fai7e; but tlidy have done «o in ^wtil ; and 
not Midom liara indiridudn from amon^ the Ibto paid rifflte 
to the dontJiern Betsileo towns, Mr Pilliin« nnd 1 uiw sueli 
mcu m the tu^n of AmbohiniundroJo. and wi> oonid not 
but be fitrutik by their rii<]i.' H|i|.>earHUL;r\ lhi.'ir uT^ooiitli itpeocb, 
and tho lumps irito wh^ih llieu' Imir wiut rolk^d. Tbti LogLiftb 
miMmtmariiut h^vfi ^ntdiially g(rt w*iiuauit4.'d wjtli ihnru; and 
the tribed hti\n learodd about the LngUaluneii that they won) 

McT-LK^ra ca BkciI J(Vimc^ii tri It^a^iEtecr. 


kinil, mTilil givn inrilu-iniT to Lh» V4v\i, nni3 mm* uiiuiAUi la 
toa<^h people aail iQukt> them irjso. Ooc^ods vera taken for 
adding mcfisagi-s ftud litUo prcacnta to tW IbarncbtcGi; anil 
At luiigtU mvitAtiouH viOTQ n.'coived aakloff tlio inLttloKariea to 
pay tbeai a riiit, W!ien tbo giound wm mfficiently prepared, 
jCaMTN. Sliftvr ]ind RiotxUtij <m Apnl ^\h lurt, <*onimt^n<!iHl 
liw^ir JDurttoyt and It^ft Aml^UimimJrfeo at Iho soath cod of tho 
Betsileo Provincid lu tJiter tTio llini lernlorjr, Trftvclling 
wotftwjtrd thoy cropwcd the rid^cc which briuiid^ t»u llio woat tho 
gretU. tice plaiu, luid aim* thti valley of the l\iuiandao, and 
cxtmo OQ tUi? 1}onl4.»r of tlio Iliam country at Tal^fji-baUb, a 
bold rook, (^00 fvct high nnd ntArlj p^rpfiudicuiar on tlio wutb 
sid?. Next claj' they passed throogti the noble gmnite mc^, 
Oftitcd Ajitdringitm, of which Ivjirav^Trinjk (*'thc pifowiiy") and 
Ktpaseha furm L^^jTidiilouuLH iji^ukn; atid vrere sLnirk with tJie 
^vondcrfid formes Iho fizc ami uiimlcr^ of thc^ ^[Tniiito massoo of 
ttbirh iht^ ridgii in cuutirtitu^il. ApiNimitly uu* raiif^ w liki^ 
IbetVr tha \ivn V^to, and ether m&esee of red cranite, in the 
,901:1^ of (he ulaDd. My coUoi^o aad I noted tho i-crnitod 
Anst of thia ridgti darius our vifiit ; but it was t<x> dUtant for 
do6o oxaminaticui- Still ffoiog weat aud south thrDUch tho 
uridl wikti^rcM) vttfh^y of I&dhuBiaibOt tJiey cniae to B^kikna. 
Ufaey aay of the <:^aiitry hero : 

"o&MMi/aun h «itijatod at the otittiuioeof an exteniiitv and 
nmarkably \vvti\ tnirt of country, oxtiinding 31) or iO nulcit 
aouth, and twice that. di»Uiii'ti east luid weat, Tlus plain i» somR- 
what liighor than tJie plain of T^i-duim-parfhy, in which is 
aituatod AmbuhimamlrcuiT. It is oxovmnJ and rv-croeaeti by a 
rjvrr, tlio M^iiarikhaka, whieb riaea to the easl of the rid^e east 
of BceiltiionfL, und ftftcr travcrsiog nearly Iho whole length of a 
valley tn n wf^tfrii dJ[i:-i*tjoiiT turai vi>u(li ; ihi^n c'uat to u pomt 
aa far at] itn own sources." Mr Shaw was told that tho stream 
doublod [>ii iLsrdr ii m-ituiiid tinio: but firjiiK^idipr rir*pf»rtj( thnt 
naar the foot of iTohlbo it cuto through tho gnuiito ridgi^ and 
becoiotfa idonti6cd » ith ilie M&nan^. Tbr* jriuU cjoedH fuitlter 
inquiry. Qodng furthor uoHt, through Ivily and Kivory, with 
their numerous cattle, Mofisra. Sh&vr auJ Uiunian 04itiio iut« th© 
vallej* uf ih.> Central Ibdia, with Ih6«y as lU chief town, ITiey 
dcecnbo it thus : — 

"Ili&y, B town of 220 honses, stands in the eeatro cf an 
axtcn^iTO valley, through which, from aonth to north, runs th& 
Bitot UiSsy, iu lU r-inirHtf t» tltn Tiiimiiticljlji. ThiH plain m 
ttooloaod with high hiiU, oajpeoially thoso tm tUo woat, wh<?r<^ wo 
noted two or ihrou of uaDadt^raUe height In ttev^/nd pFact^Ti tht- 
rivgr vproada out into largo ]ak<w or manlios purtinlly covered 
with riuh^s and roode, and formuig the homea of large iluoka 

Mdllenr im Rfirpnt Journfftfs in AlafloffOtcar. 



at wild {lijckit mill <itlu*r niM tnvsl. A.s fur a& i\ie eye mn rpiurh 
(» jourD&y of a day urnl a bulf) north axtd eoutU i^ an inltabitixl 
(oiititry rtintaiitiDg about *ixli:'eii vilhigi^ (kiwiia tli'.'y ar© 
<?alloti luiro), uit}j irom twelve lo Jilly houses A ti"K lir(>t 
ill one. Ipuiram^ua. tutht- buaih; and cr^^ ut Ibelilmiii^-Da. totbo 
ur>rt}L iSi-yond tliiH iliKtrict. to 1K41 «outh is a de«*rt, luiiiii*' 
habited, bctuoi-u tbreij and foiirdaya' jt>uniey hi bufftli. On 
tlii^ njjrtii i* thw wime, for b(»tweer fiie and two day>** journey ; 
and on the vve^t over tbroo dnyj?' jttnrQey ; vthiXp. en tlic cutft* 
tboijgb iKit strictly H wilderaaw^ tlnJte aie Lul very few i|i» 

'* We Hnyt over tljirty pntifntji iu the niariiing, sokjc <if wliom 
wJTrt Ihftra. In the afternoon two or tbree of the Ibara klDgv 
liad iirrivcd. and hcdHnfithat some foreigneis were in tbo towoi 
Uirv c^nie to mit m, I ringing n J»rff« praionl of food- Wo 
took thrt opportunity of speaking to tbom ftbout tho ignoranco 
iu whii:h IJiHV AvrcT livuig, Btid referred tbimi tii ibo nnnlilkm 
of tWr noighboure. tho Sctailoo, as compared wilb tbcm, Tbey 
touk our Ir-r.hirc in gimil jHiH, agrrM to what W4t Mtid, and 
expressed tlieir rvUUugnees to do wliat tbey could to briiu; 
about a better state of tbiiiga. Tlicse 'kiiiga* came from rit 
lages nortli and sontb of ltit)«y, uhero tht* innjor prul of tko 
population uiid'?r tiie governor lies, Bnt aa tUe largest tonii 
irouIjiiuH otily fii'ty L<inaf« ; nrtd nx ve found I'H iiLijiiirv ttuit ftinr 
I0 a house was n high avi^rugo, tbc* total immUir of inhabitaiila 
in the dij^trict cannot be more thiin 2000." Tfiuy aUc «hw the 
king of Ifaly, that port of tlio Ihtrti ooiinlry, ^vlnc-li Iti^ wo«t of 
the tkiee dava' deaerl. The euet i^LHilioii of laaly it ia imjXM- 
mblr> to doddo from tho Dativo doscnptinn. \\'4> only ktiow that 
on tho wn ita people ti»c tbo port of Salary, nt^a^ the rooutli of 
thfl Onilftby, itetiiming to the eastwaM, in tlie neighbanrbood 
<ff Ak(iraniiSnn,they powod one of thoso peculiar rot-lu, in which 
the gntvea of the kiiigH htivt ber-n heAu, Jil a giehL dlrttaui^e 
frona tW ground; thccofliaeare pldced in tho bacb port of llio 
crpvice, with the Bkulls of buUockK iu tlie foro pjirt. The rock 
ia called Trano-menau^' Bainigoriv&lo, and lias a greiit number 
of Iheae cretjce-totnba in it6 face. In regard to one special 
custom among thwe rude tribes^ they speiik a« fblloire :— 

''The style of bair-drcediag dlficrs eou«iderab1y from that of 
nnyoLkurlnbelliaveHeen. Oncen month, aar) in sime i^nsesmu'e 
in eis week^ tbe lair ia vaabod, aud then roll&d up into a groat 
number of kiiult<, nlwnyH rcmnd. and varying in ttzo fn>m that 
of a marblu to that of t^n uiiiij^o; thoAu kuitaro iKjinetioiOi made 
flat, Aitct being cai^fully rolled up aiid tied or ftewn^ 6M tbo 
ca«e may bo, ix is thicklv eoatod with beee-wax moltod ^ith fftt, 
BQ that yrhtn cold each xnob ia firmly comcutcd to tlucufc ftdjV 

ilvhhxxib on St!C€nl Jbunujfs in MadagaKor, 


c«zit to it) atkd all sppearaDce <jf iuir ie gooe. WhcD ftcilly 
done It lookit LIco lump* of ^y uUy aLook on Ui«lr beadi, ana 
mch of tiicm ^Iitik struck giv«8 back ft sound like atrikiog a 
|)ie*:u (if linni wihjJ." 

With fl ritw to vinit tlio Kontlurrn ildm, our Ivo travelloM 
rt^turHMl Jo tfie grniiilt^ riil^ of AjiiJririgilf»,iLiiiI awar tht^ inrrtli 
end of Utiit rjdgo tli^'y Kr^orn to kavp found on <fztuict crater ; in 
it< hoLow Lusiu itt-ru fcur lur^- nnd d^np holeH 14 feet acroMj 
with tliL* IxitUim luidiAtingiiieliiLble- I'nwing *ontIi, thpy (.'amo into 
the Toliey uf \ht^ AfE^nurdliakd, wIjicIl Mr. Hiiaw' nutJc^ ^ a 
Innwvt^nm.i Vftllf*y, ninuing across the islaud. I'Vorn thiK ptkinl 
he ^^*eut 0:1 ti> lirobtbc. 

Ivo1u^(^ 18 iini} of thtt woudemuf Stiuttiem Mada^'afic^r, nud 
i« wi^U Ictiown to it^ tcattcrcd people It is lui cnornLOii^ iso- 
lated iQouut^n, with u luvul tojj, «tjiiidii;g hi the ct?utn? ef » 
broAcl pJiLiD, beyond and apparently below th« AL^imr&hAku 
Valley, and fonuing tho nost terrace toward thfl south. "In 
ippearaiioo and character it lit llki) iho fortres^ro^^k of Ilccmgo^ 
but itft osccnt ia not £o difficult Liko Ikongo, it haa d luUo of 
spriu^ w*it<-r on il* snmmil, whkh ov*Tr[lows unil forms a con- 
eidorablo oasoado on ttiu northuru aido. This ^vod tl;o nativo 
ruler Hiid hJH ^eoplo iioio defeat when they were beKi^el by 
ti^e Hovui. 

"In this plain I fonDd the beat population [ Lava seen m 
the Ibam, Dtc town I ^Lept in, tvchimfLriitij^ luia fifty boiUH-K 
and iL fair population. The town ia tbe tajrket for tho Hoviijii 
bcyuud which they are not allowed to pass without apt^ciul per- 
tuifiHiou uf the kin^ of J4^at.VLnt^4iin[w tho tribo inhfibitiu^ tJiie 
part of the cciuiitry. There are hIx ct ei^ht other vHla^es 
iritbiii )mlf u day'fi journey, moatly on tho banks of tho river 
ftiie Alimirnluiku). Thi; IlHini rjmntry L-iUmdM nearly three 
fVys* journey farther south, but thsre u only a sparse popiilR- 
tion; it m callL^l a dcacrt, haTiEj^ villages luong tho route at 
dislancea of ahoot half u diiy'it journey apart. The general 
^arancc cif tho aouib country i» tlat, with a few iwlatcd 
bi"r« find tbiTfT; but tho gonprsi level is alxnit this rutme 
as tlmt of the Bct^iloa. 

'' T\ii^\'\^ wn# quite an eiiciCenient in the b)wn when I itrfived. 
Q\xwh wen? lircJt and thu poo]>Lo camu riuhin^ out en nuisio to 
floo tho En^lhghiuau- Mtiat uf tbcm had u^vur h^^a out of 
tUcir o^v1l province, nor Been a whitr Tn&n. They Ntopptjd itm 
Uit the ^al(? to ^Ldk thi.^ UHUjd qurstli^ns aE>nut tlio health of Her 
J^fnj^8ty> aud ihey aaid that the to^vn waa mine, 1 could g^> and 
choodo wlint houec 1 liked, and take whatever 1 wanted. Tboy 
found (Uti a ^^ hiiuae, and brought mt- And my bearers a 
I^OQtiful BUpj^y of pravuioAs, in ttio ehapo of an ox, a pig. 


MULLEK3 cn R&restt Javrnnfs in Madag^ttoor* 

fowU, rim, nod nmnioo, togetbor with drevrooiJ. Nftxt morning 
th^ cKtut^ hhfX omcmblcd, and m: icfotmod them of the object 
of our ooiniug." 

Both niGQii^ ttio SouihorD and Oentml Ibilru the way iviu 
pm|t»RHl lor lilt! cHUibliiihrar-nt of schools and for free intcr- 
coun^ nith oth^ parta of ttio coofitfy. 

In June and July laft, a visit was paid to SoutVEurt Mada* 
gaBcorbyMc^MBp t^ibrcc and direct, trtK-poiusyit)k rough tii« foresi 
Jit a in?w jmiiilj mil] triLVT^U'il <>vi'r a ^tl-uI iltnJ <if m?w grauDd. 
TiiroughoTit the jouraoy Miv Sibre© took careiul obaorvaticAU, 
from which ho hiu t'citiiitFUi'tril r ii3f^T> 'if tlm ri^Tifj^, ant? of tho 
counti^ aloug which hu i>a8a*>d. This luup huA bo<>n eabodJcd 
in thd gtitneral map of JUadogoHar. From it voIumioeitA 
jounui], I c«D only extract u fvw pcumgo* dvJcribing tho geo- 
^r&phy of ihb coimtry. ila geuoj^ appettrauoe, aud Lbu mAiui«r» 
of it-ft jieopltK 

J^lf^eara, 8ibivc and Strcitl csammuurcd the new portion of 
thmr jaura*-y &t the soiith-eaMt oomer of the DoZ«ild» Frovifkia, 
from tim hdi'lown 4;f Imahn/i^ny. In thrco hoars they cnterod 
Ibis fon^t, UJul travelltid UiruugU it di& eiiliro dny. Thry 
6»y, — 

" Notw]U»tAndi&g th<« dAngcr of looking: Alxrnt, rt >nM inn- 
poaiiMe to avoid i^mirinp; tho luintriftikQd of the vc;*QtAtioQ. 
Many of the trees were onormout<ly high, and bo buUire^od 
round th^nr truukti thai tlu^y vwru ofgr-fnt girth iit thn grrnmd. 
T]lo trccT-fcmB eocmcd especi&Uy iftrgo. with an Locaaual number 
of fninili; aJid tho i?ni4.>|ier bumlxHi foKliHim^} Iho litrg^ froM 
with its (JoUcato piniiatd lenv^a. It aoom hcc^uno oridunt that 
w(* wcin? tle»c*^iidiogf fliid that pretty lupidly. For a cun- 
sidiiirab)" dUt^uictT ^vc had a Htrcuui on \:>\\x Mi hund nhich 
roBfed aud fiJiimtd over h bUfjce^iou *^i rajjidd guing ti the 
aotlth-ea£t ; and every now and tli^n wq caught ghmpsM oftJio 
opciLin| in the vhx?od mwlo by tJiCr ftroam, prc«ontm|; iovclj 
blU of forest ecenpry in trcpicjd bimiriance. 

'^At balf-pivt liiir wc oioer^ tn>m the foit^t^ and cftmo 
down by n ^itt-t-p rtli|)|n?ry jihIIi lliruugli bimh imd jimglf. And 
now there opened b^tur^) ns on^ of tW ;;raiidesl sccuoa that can 
Lhi imn^ntt]. The priit<Ti|in] vnlley, duwu which no hod cotnCt 
Gpen<.<d into a ffreat lioilow or bay, tJirce or four uiiJue acTMt^ 
nnd more than ivncc as long, running into tho higher level of 
tlui country iHiin wliich Uf* hm) d<«L'end(9d, The hills, or 
rather vdgcfl of tho tipper icve). mc atee|)ly all round thia 
great bay, covered with myw\ to their summiCjt, which aro ^oia 


MpTXKNH vn lUveid Joumojs in Mtidiuratair. 


^00 to :)000 Heti aboT>? the valley. U«tweeii tWnt* L>ol<] Lead- 
Itundl wo couM count fmir or fire wntrrfjili*, two oflhttR] taJtiog 
in d lent; nbbou of fcimi ^cronil huuilrod f^rt down ptirpon* 
diciiUr far^ of roclc. ft^rtwei^ the opening points of Ujis 
Tallf^y coald be .-wen » compamtiTcly L?tcL unaxilAtin^ couDtry 
with patclu« of wDoii, aijrl tli^ wiiidJTLgH of tlie river M^titdEWUifi. 
On u grrnn bill on tltn Ttortli «ilo cf tbp nxUfj stood a ^roop of 
li0UM*a, wUieEi W(7 wi?n> ^Iuj] Ui hv.nt maa l\h\\i\rirtA. TniH bill 
we found was TOO foot above lb*> etr+\im at itp foot. The T&oftU 
«e«m a V€jr ffimpli^hwincti, kiodly net of folks, nml arc most 
ftidDdly. Our viaitoTB wero arejilly interested In our uatdi«^ 
compaavoe, ktiivc«^ pcnciK xc^, Aud f^aite ontcrcd into oar 
wUfsto gL4 to tutuw lbt*ir vktinlii fcjr vnriuim tbiugK. At lliU 
part of the ielaud tho hi^h intiTKir pleiti-'aii aoeEiLt to descond 
by i>nr git'jil >it*i) tij tbf- n^ixl^ plniiiA, ntUi^r iU»ii by twc\ ait> it 
doi» funhor uortli. XIi-j Htrt--aui at tJiC< fuut of ibis hill in ooly 
500 or G\)\) ir?ct ubovo the *ca; for we camo down 25^J0 feet 
yeirtordiiy : (njtl tbc? two lini-i of fortirt wbicli urt- crouztod fattlier 
north wht'u i^oinp to tho oast haw here umtcd bto one," 

** Stdttmtit^f JuTui I7ih. — Thii moniiiig vn> iK^nt dtjwD tho 
hill on wbEch tin: viJlftge u sitwted, croM^d tbu etroom, and 
afioendetl fur »om» distanoe 4m tike olbervde of tlio vidley, in 
crd<T to ffiftt ft f>oodrinw of tho difiVront gDrg<«iB und tbi--ir wut^rr- 
Udlk Muufitiii^ u f\niT cif iha luidu kills vnv Lad a ^uikI view of 
th.^ ohidf fall up a deep valley to the eontli, iiitd m> opt^ninc into 
tho main ntUcy a« not to be- vi«ibl« from lT6bitr6ittL 'Ikidi lA 
4Wrtaiii]y a mapjiiidc^rtt fs^ll of water. The valley is abont a 
Bculo indc by two or tbroo long; it endt in a sc-mioircubir wall 
of roclc rrowiif*(I by fnrivt, ^tiiiT iii~er tliiv tHJtirn nl ontA leap tlia 
Kivcr MfLtit&aana. Knowing the bcic1kt« of ^mo of tbo notch* 
Wiring biiU wi- Ji"^g<'d tbut tbi> full rmilil Bii>t Ut Inra tnan 
from iAiO to IjUO let-l m duplb. Tbon> w a lar;f& ho^y of wat^, 
and frouL tbo fuot risc^ a (joutinual cloud of «pnLy on c-ithc^r aid«^ 
liko Ninokcc, with a rcutr wbi^ rovctbomte^ up llio looky udes of 
(lie valley. W« were M>me tlircc or four miles distant, bat 
«T6n from thpTt^ it >viu n griuid Kigbt. 

"The l^teilco dittitrct is altogi-tlior broader than tb& Hota, 
and til'* i.^jiiHJHNLiitii] rharit'ew arc iiuiiienjus. Tbo thud tra tbry 
cbojigo into tvt ; thr n aih'^ tho A<?eoTjt«^ fiylbkblt'H bin a nu^ 
iMinud Hkt ^; tliti « iu pn^ntjuiiri and udvtiiba ct jjtaoe is 
oniittod ; «.«;*, izy ie t ; ixn^ ia ; aisa, ai'a, ^o. ; tbo tinal na ia 

out off; (r-<7,. Wo. o&, ovia, &c.: and v firquL-ntly becomes h» 
It »>oiu!j pr^jtiiible ihut tli^so shorter forma nro thti origioal 
forms of the words, (ind thnt tbc iioviv, from tlicir liking for 
MtroiLg con«u(iuiitH, liuvt^ mb-led tliti t*?riniiml na and (he middle % 
to atren^lion thi> eoiind. io tho flamo v^ay as thoy no^^ odd a 

MuLLKNS on Recent Journeys in Madagacar, 

tcrmmol na^ i^, orfra towards domo^l from for^jpi Eionrcet^ 
Beai'iles lliin, thero aii> u luiire uuiiiLer uf t^oiujili^U*!}' dUreri-ut 
worLla; r.g,, nil thi? IjoiiGcihtilu utem^iU, iu4 the Hco-mortAr, pof^lc, 
wlmjinviiig-fftH, wttler-pot^ dtiukipg-y^-jM-l, HpiM^v *ii'.j nrc I'^led 
bv <3ifferent names to thow nneii by tin? IJovas ; atd Mr, SliaWp 
of ttic Jtctfilco Missi'^Q, hn^ iiijv<l(^ n coUcction of itiJiny hui]<lrccl 
words peciiliar to the ftoiubern provinoe. 

'' The Tjiddlii (iiiUcr-t «ccni» to differ from tho Bctsiica in not 
rluingmp ihft final im inlo te; ^nt. Id agren witli It In [Inippin^ 
the bimi HfT, in the n&enl eoimd of the n> in tho elision of tho 
E in jiriiiioniis ftiid ntlvrrlw, nnd in rLiirigii^ n intn ft, Wii Luv*i 
obtam4.<d A nimiber of words peouliar to tfcii> TimdlEk, and thia 
morijiiig iwcertflJDcd mftrv porlicfibra aa to their cuatom*, 
Tlu-ir iiiimea fr*r tUft montlia ar? nil liiffertiU IVtim Ukw^ uiwd 
in lEoonDa, and are a^ follows : — 

1» Vi'luuu, 

:^. SkkHiar. 

Qp SAervnMiitiit 

2. Fa^afl, 

a SatfcTt 

10. YaUttVAtia. 

a Unkn. 

7, VdiroHia. 

\l. 7m\Q. 

4. ilbltin. 

6. fiuacuuiuy. 

IS. i\^^ 

They hrtv*' nonainos for the week-days, ajiil Indeed nodiviaion 
of time by r^vt^ns; but iho day* tbroucb tho ItiniLr moDthg oro 
lEniivm by twi'lvi< UiUuf^H, wmie ji|i|i1ied to two Jays, and cithnw 
to tbteo day« consec^iitiv^Iy. It le curious that these naities aie 
nearly i(Vufi«d witli the Hoya names for the monthn; three of 
iboni are unlocky tinies^ aEd chjldvec born on the*** dayg^ 
f:ight cjit cf rivrif montht arc kilW hv bein*; held with their 
fjiC4'S imniMrsfd in vrulvr in the aahiifii [>r winnowinjr-fii"- ^ 
tbal, o& an avomgc, mor^ than a i^uartcr of tbi> cliildrcu bc>rn 
are dcrtroyrd ! 

"Many of theae Tdnila odrry ^biDlda, which oro mada of a 
circulftT piece of tough wood, about 18 incbeA diamelei, and 
eoTOivd with itDdn*tti(vd bullock*]! bide. Tbev haxo n haiKlle 
eat cut of the ft>lid wood at the bock- Tno women in ibis. 
MAtitdnana Tmlloy cdrry a hruiil krifd or rliopper ninolc in 
their f^rdleSp resembling in ahapc a butebi?r'e( el<Mvcr, but with 
a abort round hardlp. Tliia is n»td for <:uttin;; up manioc and 
other rootii, and '\& called in Eomo parts Uitra, and in otherv 

Ab they proceeded towards the eoast, alon;^ the valley of the 
Matitinnna, tbry tnwspd from the diatncts buld by tiio Tanila. 
iut4> thoBo of the Taimtiro tiibea, 

" The country all nboat here is delightful : tlioto i» a great 
drrtl of w*md^ but much mitii Kjiace ; ibu hills anj low and! 
rounded in form; while behind us to Uio euet ia the lofty, 
deep blue, irri'^ulur imtlltio of thn higher platenn, with sotno 
prominent points lowcriufr above tiio re^t. Among thca4>, to the 


UtLLkSs OR Recent Journei^x in Mtjdcgiu^cr. 


iK^rthnon!, a loag lull itas polntect oat to ua aa thd tmoaDquorod 

" The rliroct distance fVom Ivoliltr<«a to tlie t^oast, &< tUit 
crow llJo«, i§ not more tEiati Ab miles. There ie but odo i^Toat 
Ht^p cto^iiwanlii fr-om lli» Lppcr iTili-Hur pIntLMii, uiui nut Iho, 
M IS tlio Cfuo fiinhcr nortb. From 3000 foct hi<^h at>oTo tbtj 
nen, tt JcM:t'itt i:^ mpi<ily nWr.^ to Win^v^n fiOO uiid TOO feet; 
and then there id a Icbji; oxteiit of uudalatinjc country, nith 
lew hilU nnd patches of wood extending for ^ lo 40 milm to 
the sea. The liilU ^rwitiaUv d*^crtusi> iii height and ihe forest 
hocomos thinner, nTitU ft>r tho lo&t fovr miloa there is an nlmost 
UirH arid il<"Uii li-veh" 

Atlbo Havft Fort of Amhihipfiiio theystavod a fow days, 
and Wr- Sihrtio look tho o(i|H)T-t unity to got O0Bn%'» of Ibe 
uei^fbbourintf \ilWwii, *' In ilw ttr ditftanoo to the we*t rose 
tlio long and lofty linu of thtf iuterior plateau ; but at no great 
diitaucu from whvni wo ilivctindod from it, it Kiukii abruptly 
tojtho plain; Cf>ufinmnt: Grandiditr** alttlumoil that at about 
thn Ijtlitudo fjf 2<1'^ s. tbo elevatj^d inti^rmr <:onn1,rv cjuimw, luid 
that from thcnoo to th<: m^a KouthnarU oi'o low alluvial phtina. 
There 10, however, orit* br<?ak; al a fi^n uiiW distance fr<^m 
tKo termination of tho plateau thcro i* n lofty dotaohud mcjun- 
tain. Ivohib^, which mu-tt be a cuagniilt^xint object when seen 
frotn only » few milea* dittanoo, as it is nearly aa hi^h ai tlko 
«lcvat(d Ubl^Iand. Pfom tUcaco there ar^ only a te* unim- 
portant hills to break the level line wliiob strptohei^ out of si^ht 
tar to the eouthwatd. On lay way to aud from the obitCfrviuf; 
^;ruiind wi^ p/iawd j;n-ftt numbi-m iind uinny vnn^Uee uf butter- 
flies in a fi:w miniiUa' rtdo through tho narrow Iiujcs. Jml^ug 
from xh'v^ ispeciiiioat an entomologist would liriJ a rich harveet 
ia the Taiia6to country." 

"In iho creuing, when talking with tbr people, w«7 were 
•urprUei to itnd Uiul wo wvre in one of the TtUag^ wlier^ the 
Ar*b iuflaonce ia aaid to boTO been very strong ia former 
Imf^, The p^'tple here at Tvitomaiina an- adlafl Zafin' 
Ilmhima (diacyuiWld «f Abnihain); arid liioy eay thoy luo 
'.Ti>Lvy miliitfe) ' (Liltoi^ellier Jews), and have many i^uatoui^ 
lUrivi^l from tho Jow«. But what t]i««o were we oould not 
ttw^iitain ; aud tlif m Li i-ertniiily uotbia^ iu the appearance of 
tho people. GTiher in colour or feature*, to dimiiiguifih tljem 
fruni thi> majority of Malagoffy. Tlicrcisno doubt, however, that 
tb^ An^s have at some forn^c^r timi^ had a i^^ttl 1*111 iml. hifrvt uEal 
on come other part^ of t^ south-east coovt, and to aome autall 
ia(«at taught tho n** of Anibia leltt-r*. ThiM proba)dy gjivo 
rise to ibo statement in aomo old works on &Iiwij*;;iiiH^ai that 
lilalngAjy wa« a dinleut of Ambic- An iiitelligent yuuDg maOv 

MoTLiAflV cm JUrvnt Journey itt Ma^c^txt^fir, 

who cuno with thn rjiinf iiuni Tvilo, c«,vf> m« a ginjitr vriUi uJI 
the Arabic elkLirLurlcTs and many of tno sylUbm doundsi with 
tl»«r cf^^ivul^■n^l in Mjilagu^y. II<* alxo tilicwftd iis ti juiprr 
wriKeu bv M. Or»THliJiL*r in 1870, and givt*u to him aa a 
cortitiLatL' tbiit tlie Karur bad copied f'or huu various extracts 
from nntivo Ambit*, boiikg of prnjcru, grn:<*nlfjgi««, %xm\ »r»rrfliy; 
and tliut bi^ (AL Uraiidididr) wafi trelJ aalia^^ with bia Zf>^ and 
lU3»umj^y, Wn rrir]i]in*f^ alxnit tlitt^Fi bcxiWfi, liul llicrr rnf^nind 
a p^d dual of U[]wiUinfEiit-M( to let ma Ictiow m;ytUin;; about 
them, fiT see tbem, Tbi? brxiKs uf hon-ery tbej sftid w©re 
burnt at tbt titncr fif iIki Imrnine of tbo idoln in hS69." 

FK*m Amb<»bt|ji'-Ho lln' imrLy jcmriitd mjutb. vvilb the tiew 
of viKiting thft Horn forta of Mabunianina, Ankdnuia and 
Voxigatndniiui. " AftfT pu.-c»ing (thr-y stay) tbrcugb u nnrrow 
belt of wood, wp came np to tt rii?g»> risirjff ni?arlv 500 fwt 
aboro tbo ncft-lcvol. n wfflBrtlcrablo hcigbi for tbic tlat vi^<m. 
Knim tbirt UvTH wan au rxienwT« vifw; aoU uri a pntuiiuttnt 
kill noarly duo Wf^t vra^ a oonspicuoits poiut, ivhioh the glaaa 
flhowcil phiiuly to W u hjfty Ktitpn-rtKiieil lapa^ witli n ^Jod 
ntrmber of houses cliiatered rooDd it. Thia wa8 tie Uora tyrt 
<ti MihamdnioA, then about VI or II miJcn <iiirt^ttt. Tho 
town ia wrongly plaoed ou GmadidierV akatati-ruap ol Mada^ 
gucar; ht^ fihofra Jt aa about 10 miles nearly duo south of 
AmbidiijM^nci, wh<-Ji<iu iIh t^ rfMy iibont '2I\ iiiiira luiutb-wiwi 
by wcaU But aa we bc^urU h£^ did not ;-4) lurtbti soath than 
Ainlxibiik^mo on tbiis [utrt nf llie ciM>'t| iii« iirt'orjiintion >va4 
fiiobubly di.'i'ived from tJio native:", and wju* oonaequuLitly vagua 
and Qiu-cliublo. 

"Tiiei i^iiict obi^dimico r^nilerod by tlio pnojjn to the? Hnra 
authority bdeiaa to rcndt^r any ha^ amount of force uu- 
rmraywiry. Nntwitbslji.niling tbis, lif*;\fVGrf tl>ere U ii greater 
diapLuy of Hova fxmor h<7rc than at any ptaoo wo bava l>ecn 
to yet, hot t^vtru i-X(-i.;pliTtf; FJou^uIkifi. Thu gatea are all 
^iutrd(^d, and tb^i dniiD bcaU at iM^f^nlnz' Uiuai ovwy momiEig 
and uiKbt. h\\i,f. iiiohI of Uu: Hova luiWtjt-qi and military posta 
all OTOT Mftdflgai*j*ar, tha four forts in thi» BoiJtb-Gafft*.>rn part 
of tbi? ij<]juid, Ambohip6ao, JUiibansiLfiitut, AnlcarAm. and 
Vangatndriiio, wer«> hufit at the olosa of tbo Arat Ba'l&ma'a 
roij*u, nr in thft onrly part of tlic firet llijiavaloua's, aoon after 
those un.'cnib^HM warn hy ivbii-.b wj lur^; « imriion tif M]ida|j[iiM%r 
waa brougbt under tbo antbority of tine aovt.'Toigna of li»ft*j»ft- 
Thc! Ehiva nilnrLflw ftr^i^jim grnnrilly fn br mild. [miT in BOmoCiW^ 
where the p;overnora are upright meu, th&ro appeara to bo no 
great jtrioTUit of opprcseion of ino conquered trioe^^ But theao 
latter bav<- by no means forgottac the criieltivii pracU««d br 
Uad&ma'a anc[i{aikav4Ioiiaa ;;;€iiar&la* Over largo di^ctSp all 

IfDIian Ai JUemt Jintm^ in Mart<i^a$eQn 


the male |>ofit]Uttoii wbosf! iie&flft wcro abore t})« ftrmnitfl of t!i0 
mililitiiT* were rothlessly shot dovn or speia^df and toe vrompn 
and c;liitdrrn Ulccti op flnvci^ i^o thnt & lareo ptvporbon of the 
filnvo |:ujiijlntiim *.\( Init-riim Are duM^eiKleiT from tke Tciiin^itJ, 
TaijULlcn, anJ other tribes on this Boiith'<^£isl coo^." 

At MulLttiELjLiiinn ihry myi — ^ Frgm fjur houan nt^ )i»v<t a 
pleasant and exUMiaivft pnipwl over a latgo extei^t of com- 
par^btircJ^ IctcJ ecuulry. Wo &ro novr on ilio samo paiftllel of 
latitudo Lta Iv^hibd, Ui^ T«iy lofty dctoched moanlain io tlte 
couth of tht> iuif^rkrr ptaWu. S^-uth of this, a very Jow Jmo of 
WiULr^whnt liii^lirr liLiid or hi'llu thun UtM giiirnil Ivivrl <kf tJm 
Taim6ro ooimtrv a^t^ma Vy ma tor a oonaiderabl© waj to tl*o 
Hputli. To thr> H(>ii(h-wr^t, ut |)erha|is 20 miles cliHtanti ie a 
ridge of iko ^OAt olcTAtictn, i-li'otching north and Miuth for ik 
few milea; but Ixfyond tliiM tuithing ap|Wttra to break the low 
lerel lin» of tbd plain. Th^ country t> tli^ neet of MiUuuni* 
nma 13 Df^arly bftro of woc>[l, but the nmiii tittr of ioittA Beenid 
|j> run fiHlorg the low <y>uDtry soiithimit] in the same g*iiieml 
Vtsm Ihftt it tollowe on tho cdgo of the iipjKT plotcoiL 'l>ibcs» 
of T^imin tnhtibtL Ihiit fcirfrit nviuii hjui it» Ixirdf-'nt, bji they 
da for 21K> Eailoe to the north cl this, and there soems a ooo* 
sidcibbltT jHipiiUtinn of Tninitrro to thn wrtvt of thm ploca; I 
notod the bcarmgv of at least t\veuty villac^ west of Mjlham^ 
nion. The great iLoaut^ of lii^hibo ts about £t€ dari' 
journey from here, »ad ojoimd it aru t^vo tritH?R uf TiiaJla 
c^Ucd Taivbuona and Ttiatinja; of theee a cliief culled Kaiti4by, 
of IX fk^raily named Z^Hmnn^ln, i* l^ing. Tho Hot«k giv« a bud 
account ol the^^ Tunilla, but thr> 'ftuiaoro told lu there viould 
]>0 no difilfully in f^'oiii^ amongst them. Thd tribe inluLbitiDg 
thii n(t]p;hboi:rhood i» cullod Ziilifioro, 

"We nnc^frlAiurd Hmt it uiuuulyA irnehV juomdy from Vaa- 
gfundiauotoTort Dauphin; chat th^rowerEiviiidg» and a Eurgo 
population nil along iho routo; and thnt tho Taipuka and 
Tangly tribea ware IVUmdly and aclmowlerjged the ilova 
aatbority. ESom^ if not all of tho people here, arc a BakAlirc^ 
(yj]«]iy Ihim thiT w«stt of th*' iKlimij and are called IViitiil&ElliA. 
l*cr my lln?y say *ifttf ; for ity, itchy ; for try, iri'fty, 4'c- 

Having reached Varigaintfririfj, ihuy i>bscn'p :-— " \V<^ wuro 
BUrfihaod at tho lar^c runbor of vill!agi<4 to bd aeen in every 
diri.'<',tJiTti in tliiH ut*i^|jlH>iirUuoU ; Uiey stand in groups of from 
two t^ half-S'doien in a tin? and (rlose together. It iroEild bo 
im intr^rr^ting i^xcnntlun t<> tnlce a ciuio» uiid OiSOOnd the stream 
ujt far ofi it is navigable, whii^h is for s>iVGmt days' joumeyp and 
80 pst into the interior of tho so^ithcm portion of MatliijEwt'Ar, 
a dutriut us yet p^rEeetly imkuo^n Li> Kui-o^xwns, and probubly 
to tho Hovas oa well. Except tbo Mi:ingi>r(>, tho Munan&v^-vi> 


MuLLANS Cn Rtcmi Jowtttyn {n MfuIofftlM-fir, 

ihe largest river on tUe eoitt i^OQst, ond rist>8 far in the iolmor 
bcyoml the line of forest* From all tLccoaut« tlicrc i» a IftrgOi 
jn/piita.(ioti (18 one pijcm fiirtbcr wf>*L Bf>lU ir^ (li*i south and' 
north of YaiigumdruUL> the t^oopl^ seem to bo divicic<l into 
triU^ vthn liv^ iin ihi-> huni^n of ihc diffrn^nt rivi^nc, iiml \\[ut m 
mfiDj- v9M'i ULTo oiilled ^ifltT th(? iiiuntjsi of these rivare; wbila 
thrro JA a tract of uniuhalfited liuid Lalfviiy bctfft>cn tiaoix 
coDsideruile mrtum." 

I'hroughout th^'ir jourtiej. und on tbetr returu, tliey speak r^- 
jK'ul^cJIy ul" \\i<} kiudnciw iuid Iicih[i1U»1 ity vhh whit^L tlicy wirw 
weJcoro-'d by thi^ir nulive frktidri. At Aiili^riiu^, Mr. E^ibr^o 
Nxy», '' The iliuiier was I iliiuk the longest, and et^ruinly wiw tho 
Doifiiest entorUintncnt at whteh I ImvQ ever ft£fiiiit<.^- About & 
score of tte itiSceiA were at tiw. table, anJ suTen of tlwi ladies. 
AfUfr u 3cnp criici? frcnn tbe pjutor, dinnor wos broiigbt Jn, Bnd 
t'onsifltcd <! thp follgwing ccnirera; l!*t,*nirry; 2iid. gooFi«<; 3rd, 
roB«t jiork; 4lb, rifgeoce and water-fowl ; 5th, fowl cntllf^ wid 
poiLc^hcii cgg«; (Jib, tcff causneea; 7Ui, Ufilcd tongue; 8th» 
Hardines; Otb, ]H}j;i* troUert; 10, fried baiiaii^is; 11tb« pan- 
cako«; 12th, manpiTmo; \3tU, dried bnnaiifxs ; and, IufI, ftft I 
Uiougbt everything must have been ncrvt^d, coino huuchca of 
rosrt^ef. Ail this was finished up with coffee. By taking a 
ooBKtAotly diminiBhiEg quanltty of coch di-nh I manikgoci to 
jippear to do jusliee to tU^m all. Claret went itbout very 
freely, and jit last somt.^ miidi etroDgcr liquor ; and liio hcaltba 
i)f ibti Qper^ii, ' OxjT Irierdu the two foreijfiiers,* fliL-ii lliont* of 
the Prime Mijuetoi, Chief Sccrttary and Chief Jud^-^^ wcro all 
i^nink twice ovor^ the (iuTcriior'a uotaing lust; all fulltiwud by 
tnttsieal fund drum) hoiionn. 

" Id desceniiDg the bill I noticed tbfit tho Tillages in thd 
neighbourhood of AnUdrflna vttn not no uumorous ua thoiiid 
nuroQudhg the other thren Hf^va forts in this jwirt of tho 
country; and the reasoD of tbU »n^mpd plain: Amhtthip^^cio^ 
M&hiiiEij^iuu, and Vim^raindnLnu un^ nitimt^d in the viiUeya ot] 
considerftble rivers vvlitleAitkaraiia ha?^ evidently been selected 
OH account of ibt strong situation, commanding a viow of an 
exlensJTe tract of eouNlry. 0>er a low range of hills to ikd 
wotft two promiuent rouncW JnounUtns are «oon ; on^ of tb^ee^' 
TsaonJD, it id rtaid, tH-c-npied oM Itniningory more tliiin ninfrj 
months in stlemptiDg U* take it. He did not eflect lliJa, but' 
ovcntunlly sricccetied in seltinc live to the town on it* Gnmmit. 
On the top Hud «loj)e4 uf Arik^raiui ztru large maAst*^ of vulrania 

"Wd iUT6 beep inttrroAted in finding that many vt our 

* lu upper poTtfoD U the SffwrdAuitui 

MnLtKSft on Itetvnt Jtntrnn/s vi ilftir/ft^fumr. 


Ijnnn^iv liuvfi mnt wTtli Ihnir rnUtivAN iti tliwrv noiuf. {imHtto^fS. 
Many of th^i tnothen w^t^^ brought u^ from tli^RC part« U4 
slards. whon cbildren, ia LlA^laiEiu^a cruel >var& The most re- 
markitblo i-tnnirnutant^t^ ns-E thnt fxir ooob disoGTcnid tliftt ona 
of the Govnruor** wives at Aidtiratia viha Uw motbtfre siati^n 
An(J Bt the snmo pUio^ another of our mpti frtiind that thccbief 
Ijcoplo t>t tlic Taifitka villiii:*^ wcro ]m niolhcr':< brftthfw. 

•' Wlii1t> taliinp niiT Uinrli in one- of tVe hmisefl w<* noli^^ecl 
tlto primitive! cljiJios and fi>i>orfl uhccI by tho pcoplo- Tho 
fi>niier ruMMint of n. inni'i- of (Im HtnJii;^'. luu^b leaf of Ulo 
pandnniip-tr^^, bero called findrana, find tiM le^'ea 

Tlii^ JEt douUW ovrr nt onr? nnd 50 m 1o i^tnin tioo :>t lioiiii 
Thd spoons Qiv piao<« c^f the l^af of tho travGlIer'B-U«>^, folded 
up so AS wwily to carry fooH to the month. Thi* pntidiinii!* bfts 
a fniit, \eI1ow ir ii-'b^ur, iiiid wiirit<tlii»g in ft^nqni iirnl aIka like 
a pine-applo without its tuft of Scuvoa, Wbcu dry. it ie trown 
111 nploiir, iinil catiTi hf^A^^o:!^ divi«ioD, i^ben sepji4^t4«l fmm 
the rest, ia like a tougli wooden peg,** 

At «tiTETi-a] poLut^ OL both the outward and the tdturn 
journeys, Meesrs. Sibreo and 8tr«»t obsorved m&WM of trap* 
rock, acoriu. lara stream?, and the like ; ood it is evident tbat 
tb*fc vnlciinic ervptiona Eri piilent in tho north Rn^l cetitrri of the 
iaimid liuvo tint boc:i n-uotiiig m its aoitthora difitrict'. 

"Mti three amall ravinea rnnning down to the shore there 
troro old biTft streams, some cut throUji:h by the ttctioii of water, 
and stretching out mUt the nca, i^aMain^ a vilUgn trailed 
L^harino, we presently <Amo to on extenstve laccon, eitendiag 
tjurthwiiTfi fur fuTir «r five inilea, and formud Ijy the lUver 
Itam[>bl0r before it reaches the Bee. This &|>poared to be the 
first (from tho south) of that reinarhiiblo BorJes of lagoouB 
bordi-TLMLf tliu rtbuie, and L'xU'iidiug, ^ith but hvf hreal^s, uj» 
far north aa iiiv^Ddroiia, rear Tamatavc, a distance of 2(S0 
inilruG, Along thti Hont)]i.^m side of thia luguon ore iniuuNi of 
lavn rookt aoqlo of it in ononnous blocks." 

JoonipyJiig along the w^-oCTwt, at length they reeehf J thtt 
Mannnjiira River, nenrly a mile wide. " iVe got eonoe* and 
ciotAcd at the bar ; and so. after dark, reached Ma^udfririo, od 
the n«rtbem bank of thr* river, ami clnse to tho sea- Thr^n ig 
no tuwa culled MAnanjArii, but this Miaiudrjtao la the lad^'M 
or port ; :vhile half a daj'n joTimry up thL» river is Itslalbdlca, 
tho Hova fort, nitli a Kovi^rnor. ThJs is the largest town wo 
had sHeu aiiiutf leaving Fiauar^uts^a. It haa au air uf ueattLesn 
not very common in this eountr}", and there are numbers of 
voll-built housHS standing in npadottj^ noiirt-yarda. T|]<t«o 
belong mostly to French traders^ of whoui there are no fovrcr 
than iovty residing here. A littJo way into tho town vo wen< 



JiAirnttfi in Mcf!affa»car. 

Biiet by ihe CommnndaQt, with \m ofttcere, ixtid ttio pastor, vsho 
gtTO U9 & kiod welcome, and Ic-<1 iid I') u ^od-aiawd boiu«.'' 

From tbiff poict they ascended tti4? iiver in cttno^ ti> ItBtt- 
tMka ani b^ood it ; and pocp^ing Ai&b6ditx&ii^Uj> uTid clioLb* 
i:^ the for««t-oov^Tc4 uafliiy by Aiid^Vaiia and tL<> Vtiltd/ of 
the KmiimjAra, they at lon^h rtracbcd Ambinhim^gu, tbd 
r-npilal cf III" Nurthfnt Tiirullii, nliitr« ihpy spmit Iwn lUys, 

"Tbc0O NortLem T^ad1a« vbo ctoknowled'^ liSv&ua as tbcirj 
chief, QUiaber ^bont COOO, and e&tcikd from acre to about tkred 
djiyj^ journey iiortbwjird*. Tho situation of iUIn tcwn vtrikos 
on*- 4-i^xotrediuijly pl^afaut, A coupliJ of hundred feet below, 
to the f7ii^ .in<l nortli, Howu tho Rivrr I^IAniLnilrfnna, jind tho 
fimTOUDdin^ LbIL« ou the fiiribtir tdde of tliia titn^Eim arc Jiboat 
th-B same h&if^lit itf the town, ami {iuf mostly covered watli 
bamboo. Thrco cir four intlc« to tbo wwt there t^oxns to bo ft- 
widn \jd1ey witL boftli tiud dwarf vegetatitm; but W^oud tlm 
iB*a bcld, preeminent ridge^ nmuLDg neiirly north &nd south, &nd 
dark Willi forftit; whil« hoyornl, to tlit> south-w-wt, ato lofty 
rauiit'> peaks ill the f&r distnuco, Eit tho edge of tho tfiblr-lono. 
Ambt^himBLD^n 10 aoio than 2UO0 I'cot above iho e«a-luveK" 

Fn>m thin nl^tfittot reatlcg-pbt^e, ihi' jotmioy to iho copila] 
Ttae e*isy. AJlor a long climb frooi An*b*^divoniimijrj% At thoi 
foot of H ^^>tty hill, Lb»y rcnt^h^id Ivohitr&ml>», 17riO iWt abovfr 
thd B«a, on the od^ of th€ inner fore«t uod rlutcou, find 
cocamandiog a mngnificont riew on etenr aid<*, Thi-nro n. tew. 
houn^' run brouj^hi ihi'm to lidudnn^ihy, on tbo high roaiu 
botweeu AnUtuVufirioa &ud Fian&rantfloa. ] 


Y<m |mrU nf Undii^iinc^r mv jhj lilLle Vnnwn ah lb^ wE<stdm 
difftrictd. All tho oast eide of tho islasid is un^lrr liova 
dumiuion, lOkd, being vrcll supplied with mn, hi i-oyvre\\ m\h 
iorvrifl. At menv porta co the coast French and Engliah 
tredea rmdG.andtbeTO h oonalant intorcuuri^ uitb thr inU^rior. 
Kot 80 vith ibi' Wf'nt, Hi'ro n'port hiu long epokeo of a broAd 
belt of Do-inaiiVliLzit^ with b^tilo ^ikuLva Uiboe od the 
farth'Tfiide, This ntikmiwn ngkm has now beon tiierced by 
Englmb truvollura; Hit v<iil hat* boon lifted, nnd wc know what 
tliJf hind OLiutniua. A ftw paragrupbn n-jl) nuHicH^ tn r^bibit th» 

A journey to the wtxi wna uuderfjiktrji by Mwspits, Sewell and 
PtckoH[^ill, in Jiioe, 1875, being oofnmeuoed from MAlmtsinjo, 
four days' dinUuicc iVom Ant^uibtinrlvo, aod ou tho edgo of the 
VoWmo regiou uwir LuVe llAsy. Tiiuy giiy; 

" WV Lad irareikd bat a fcwbouti^wt^t of HibatoigD befsie 




g T'lt^ifnpir'i 





/ M'inharivir 


1 1 



Mullens on HeLfttt Jounter^ im Mada^CMcar^ 


we \isvi nil Inutf of fiumnti luiLirntiimii, imi^i^ lient nrul Uivint a 
few huta close lo Urj-o cattle-fold^ imd a lUU© further «dJ, two 
mililAT; slAtioDA roi iVr from each other. Abont a da/e 
jouTcoy ftoro Mnhutaiiiio ire croasud Un> River SaWy, which is 
about lOU jnnffl trcaoi And tfaough shallow wbcs wc crossed 
It, nmft i^ontain n large body oT wnt^r in lln? nitny voaaoib 
Xhid hrer luay he regfuded as the oxtremo ircfltcrc liimt of 
IiDfirioA ; and IxTiwtt?!! it lUid tbo SukaUya Wvb ott ^il^&itivd 
tr(U!t of wiutlo laud, tibout aijc dajra* jountoy Aorosa. Tlic^ ^n^^tor 
port of iLm \wrtdtu i§ covered witb long grau, uud ^^uiuitit Ixi 
miicli unljko tbe prairiLii of Korlh AmcriciL Often tlis Iod^ 
graaa on uock mdo of tlie E^th gr«w quilo ovf-r it, mo that 
Dothing of it was sseo exi^^pt the part on which v:e wero 
trcTMUflg, and oftrn* tot% tbc gniaa wua ijuilc nbovo cor heads 
wli^n tcalkinv. I^Iiiliin^ wuy through thi>i j^nisH waa I'l^ry 
trying to tho FcoC of our bt:arcn, mod a f^ood deal dclajod iktvv 

''Aijout t^o days' journey fron^ I!Idhat«injo v& 7>3aobcd 
Tiujoiaadry. a amaU coiJitary ittiitign on the baoks of tbo 
Lnib^. Wo had stayed to Jiui^ at another Ptiil Mnaller 
fltalioil, TftiQJoariTO, two houra before. Both tbcGO places, but 
eapwiHlly Txitijondvo, inMdtt uii f^t*! vi;ry mUL-li for tht? poor 
people nho werL* condemned to live tiuffa They wore tnuncnrto 
rntUfvptfiii, With Li frw bmiHrji donnoclDd with liirm; iind tbe 
wholo w«ru Burroimdctl by a thick fonca of l>fiokl>* ppar. That 
at Tftiirjc^iirtvo vimt full twenty yaids in widili- Thert) vteift but 
twelTi'KoMi^^w lh«ro bi»*idcj< the Gorcruor; nobudy ^^oiild read ; 
and th«rc »tiomr?d t]uihiii<j to break the dreadful mourjtijjiy of 
th<^ livcfi. At TftTiiiDiLnury it was a ItCtlo b<*tt4>r 

" Ai^tnir6<tm^Lnil]cly Ifx^k Ud by gurpneo : it lit a largo tomi 
for Madiii{iuear, }i^vii)|j fruDi 1->0 tu 200 buiues in it- It ht 
thoroughly ieoUtod in the midst of tiu? wo^ ; bnt it i» a 
nLu[ipm|it pWn for almtul ull who tnivtl Uflwot-u laifrnan luid 
those parts in the wosl which aro subject to th& Hoyo^'* 

Starting from tbi* [wiot with pr^vUious for four clay«j Ifaey 

'^At rLOOQ vre reached anotbcr militaiy station, M^oratana. 
n*' wrntcdjoil juh iiny wc liad sson. T!n> liniiiuv thf-m wit^ the 
laat wc baw till thrte duya al^rw&rda vro looked n|Xiii iJie piain 
in wliirh AnkfivilTidra m silunt^i Tn wunn |MrtM of the '?xten- 
tivo vi^jfia Ehrou^h nhirh wt< truvoUod there un: grout nombcrs 
of wild L-attle, uud t*\ery dry aeoAoa cuaiiv of lh« Dativat (Itolb 
Hova and Sahnluva) aro cnf^o^rd in cutrbin^ aad taming th^m. 
On utir rcTldni jminiry vn^ nir^t n party uf nUnit 2(H^ mvt\ thus 
occupied. Tbt?y came from tho wonti^m part of our diatric^ 
and it wa£ intorastiLg to bo rccogni^oJ by tucm as ooi; ivho hod 


OixiiNfl on Etfrtnt Journeys in Midnf/fme^irr. 


!»reH(']i«i! in H villiigf* fn»m x^Jiioh uumy at lliriti tiuae. Oa a 
ew oceasiona wg mt<t vilh those wild cattle, but not oftoa. 
Two ar thrv-p timps also we tnf-t with Kinnr^-fowl, which started 
befort> us lilfo paririiJgGa, Th(' rtifid uH the »ray from MiiKat* 
srnjo had prcsciit^id few objects of intcreat- The lost momiajfa 
!nivr*l w^ut winif»whnt cx'.'ittag, as wr drrw m^nr to ihi? western 
limit of our jouraty aad aaw gliinpaa* low and then o( tUo 
lirtmd plnin in wlu**Ei Anknviiniim li.-^. Th<i dewmt iiilcj lUi* 
plain ttflft \OTy ett*|>, Tho tablo-Wd on whitjli we had been 
walking for flCTcral hoars appeared by oitr aoeroids to be on an 
Averagu about '2^t{)0 fi^ot nTx>ro th<? lev<?I of thd 3eu; but after 
we bfljd desoonddd tli« hiU audtome to the Btieanj at it« foot 
they pointrd to oiilv 400 feet above thi* sea-leveL 

•*TUt? MinniulKjfc), that ii^ww past thi^ town, id a really 
fne river, and as w© might snpfiose from the low |pvel nf thn 
plain, Ih^ro i^ but on© eHght impediment to the pascJu^e of 
bojttfl up the riyer fnim the Hoa to Aiikaiindn*. This iiupedi- 
ment is about a da^'« jonm^y to tho vr^t of Ankaviindni, 
where the river Cmdi lU i-xit fmni l]tvi pluin tJir^ngh ihr; high 
hills on !h« weatem side of it. Thi? proper uAme of Anka- 
vAndm IS Miidanarivo^ AnkaTandra being iho cajue of « riror 
whit'b rutia uluiie to it^ (luU fnim whieh itJi supply a? wutet b 
obliuticd. 'Vht town contains probably 03 largu a Ibuva popu- 
Ijilion HM Anb^in'mmmulfily, with |n'rbiipa hh cijual niimlir^r iif 
SakaldvA living in its inuncdmto vicinity, 

"Wr "Pt off to Andr^nonaTidrfana ^aiuttber nnlitaTV staUoa 
a Nliort day's jounw^y north of Aakav&Tidrji) on Si\tumay morn- 
ing. £^hortly after leaving the tomi.weeroa^c^d thti MiiuambiSlob 
II was at. Iffust. 150 yards acrnss, ami thi.Te wiis !inothi>r 100 
yardflof sand which ia covered in the rainy season. Thcjournty 
wrw a deli^^htful oncv Tho rrwul wns t^il'^rahly level, lesuUng 
us often throTigh park-HUo scw^nery very similar to purtn of llio 
TC&d between Tamatave aud Andovomiato. The gniw, lionave^ 
had none of llie freshness of that in tho east of Madngii^ar. 
The country here, and I imagine all west of the hilly country 
of Mindridrino nnd Vakinankftrfltm, eeems to be auite fnoa 
from the dviztW rains so conunrm in the east during tno wintcTj 
And thin hiw n ^r^at efTeet on the character of the vegetation. 
Th<T lillh' ^trcnme coming down from the hig^li land to tbo coat 
were all sklrlL-d with trees, of which a greiit iLumhiT vvn 
oleanders, and a atiU neater number were various Icinda of 
ncjicia*. Tht^ lamarind-ttrr,*, lnjM'f'Vrr, uttrnrtfil lay att^rnt-ioii 
more thnn any others by their rich foliage, iheir boantifiil form, 
and thf' ^nitcful whadc thoy furntshc-d. I measured one that 
eovcr-.-d a eivele of aiJxjul 30 yarda iii diumL'l<.T, and OnTe wrrro 
many whoac bmnchce extended over a apace of 20 yard.^ in width. 

Mi'LLENfi on Rf*cttit JounKyt in MadtitjatcaTm 


jaflioed onr ioiimey Bouih to IiaA-nandizEL Tlie ej^untrj'diiHiig 
'tito firet ^y » Journey waa Tcrv eimilar to that go the rcml to 
lAoftVtnouaiulrEnnu, cxct^jit jii^niriiM tliAL vrn niw itiurr* Stit^alfiv^ 
TtHo^es, But tbo scoond nrd third <iAya and the iint part of 
tlio fourth wrn^ Ennrf? nofirihniat^ \n>ih in ili nnd uur nirn tltna 
uny oilier porlioD of our joumty from firtt to Iual J should 
siipposLi that tLo plain of Ankav^dm is about 2U nulos actos^ 
but iborti nins alor*;i (bo aiiddlo i:>r il n mcgtf of vt-ry lou* 
bilU, hhich deem inofctly compri^^od of «:m<I, wjtli Urge uninber^ 
of qnariK »tid ofbr-r ]»i*lihTf« miitirli^d by iHh iU7t.ioii of wjttiir, iind 
Uiu wbolu thinly covered i^-ith Hhort gmss. Whut had hetM 
the previous sluto of fhis wide phiiii, and \nit\vr what circuiD- 
etonocfl tbo water hnd octod u|vm tbei« pebhloij (■'Vo couhl not 
wne the; tiJi;;Ut^At tmce of nhidla or farmer ^aimal life) vra otUm 
tnod to imnpinr, Will ponid com^ to no <*nochiHioiij* ; but the 
efl«ct of tU(^ pKUrlr^n im Ibc feet of our nu'it wa« nniaij^tAUublc, 
aiid two woftry days we spent in gettinff over thorn. Not that 
tbo wtiolo jrjumojf woe a wildcrnoes. Wo crossed n Iwgc rJTor, 
tbo Iloudy, whi<!h fomi* a vi?ry imjiorUnl. bruni-h of tbra 
U^amb^lo. and thia uas aurrouudod by luxuriant v4>p:)tatio]i ; 
lUkd at i\tt'- rJosfi <if the M.cmid dav's jnurnry form AnkavJUtdrn^ 
jtt*t ftfl tbo Bun wtia eottiu^ aui wliiJal aiill ot-ar thia rivGr, wft 
>vt>rt3 fur n nlulo quite at a loss to know how vtri i^ero to g^ 
Lhnjugh th« tall prickly n!<*dja, ivhiobT with u hiqiiII but d<?ep 
strfi&m of wator, soomod t ff^i^tually to Atop oar progreaa." 

After anothur wujiry journey (ivcr thi? utrmy pljiin, and fi£>n- 
tiuucd etmgglo with tiiti i^edi and nottlors Fhuy roached 
Tm^naudA^a, The river they foiiiKl L'jO feet lower than ihe 
3!ananih<>]o at Ankavrindrji ; but t!ie town h on » low liij!, and 
on ihi- Mtmv Irtvi-I aa lb** hitlrr. 

" On Monday we wiccnded j» bill to th© gonth of tho town, 
thftt wo alight bo ublo to so*- tlic large rjver wlilch ninfl to tl»o 
vre«l about a day's journey to Che Boutli. All th^ rivers froia 
the Sak&Vt ft ^ong way to the rorth of Itosy, to the Mauht, mi 
Iv^ riv^T which flow* ihrtmgli tlu- rcintjtry of thi> Ht-IhiKo^. 
tinife m om: j^reat river about 30 miliis to tho aoutb-wcfft of 
ilm^^Ddii/ji. After the junction of the SatAy with the Kil- 
■iunby thrrt; iw a very tino waterfrdl ar ninurkublo lupida, 
aLinmt due suuUi of ImiauuddeiL. AVe bad a ^reut desire io go 
and »o« the falli;, tut it wtjuhl haw kf^pt uis at It^ftKt thr^^^ duyi 
lonfftfr on our journey. Tbt* river th«re m calhsl Tnitifadn^ 
Sba, and the«o rapids must always preaeut iueuperahlA 
obMoclos ti> the navigation of the river turlhcr into the interior; 
but from thul poiut to the titiiwl, jjruhubly uboot 80 mih's, iher© 
aoeins to bo no impodimeat. Alf tbo natives who spcko of thU 

▼OL- xtvn. ir 

AG K[nJ,EKB on Recent Jffitrjttyg in Madaz/c^car^ ^^^H 

n\et seemeJ to tltink tliat tb^re vi^a nona otlier lil:A it for vffdth 
tbAd depth in MadagfisaiT. Fnxn the wattrfnll to ita juDction 
Willi the Kftiifa it is called the Mahnjilo, nfi^r flmt il is th« 
TsiribfUiim (tho river tliot cacnol In; fc^nlej). At llic^ moutJi i>f 
th« rivt*r i:i Uie largH luwu uf T^iiiiAoEtiHlrafuzAtirt, whero a . 
Freiick trodor, vlio goee amont; tlio nutivoe by tho luiine ofa 
Saiuauta^ has eslaMiiilicil liim^flf. Judginfj l>y Uu* r<r|iTjrU of 
tho nAtiTi*«, and by his l>oiD<:f Icrtown in all tlie country rounds 
ht- mu»t be cnirying on « lutec trndcn Arrmv Arab* also live 
tbere^ and Hahomeidus Uom th^ Jelanda rortli of MarlAgABoar 
\Vu nif^t one of thefle^ who bnd ccmc up tho »ircr in a caboe afl 
fur aa hi^ could r.m i\w tviLy lo Inij^nuruUM^ mid wiiN going a!xnit 
nmong 1]io Sakalava eclhii;; his goods, ilo oAaiirod ue that no 
rklnvra were bmiigbt to Tsmi^nEiiulnif(^r;aiia. 

"At Inijinaiidia/i Mr, PiLki>T'ft^ll wne onjruffod with thoniclc. 
Ho had beeit ao much dtHtiirbed at Atikavjliiiliu by thtfsa who 
w^mted iiit^diuint) Looming to )iTm ;(l uW hotirs uf Uio duy, that 
vlieueTer auy omae to him im !St:iiJay or JU'iidny, he eotit iheiu 
iLwny for the time, teiliug i>n?m ail to corae Ui Uim on 'I'liwday 
laomiiig. This eprctid thmugh the town, and a bircrc crowd' 
came to hini, whn kept hitn ouMly at wtirk from a little past 
■dglit till three. A wrh:f<'hcd idcn it garc of tho rtolc of many 
kii the Lowm Tin* p(ifirKc}lilii-m wei*? in a most dcplwrnbloiitftfii: 
ttioy wore badly fwl, badly dothi^d. and had b&en a^m and 
ueuu ill with the fcTcr pri^vftlottt during much nf the yt4^T in 

tfl««« low p]ti<!4.-&*' 

From thia poiitt a long a^ud wcart&oinc joai'uey of four days, 
lliroiigh tronhlescme gntss and t)Tub>r n \it;it ntjn, brought then 
Again to iho Handiid^uo, from whence tbc-y had set out, 

6, Tnuoron trk AuATivoro to Shiawaka West. 

A filth ioumey waa undcrlnlrcn in June \mi in aa entirely 
different dir<=H?tiou by Measra. Mosa and Lord, Those centle- 
men proecodod to tJio northward, to a point n(»t hitherto 
vi^ted by £lnglishmeu, and Llicii, Inniing roslt t!nli'n:il the 
E^ih^naka rroviuoe on it« weet tido- Thoy aleo passed OTor 
much new ground, iind have oddrd Taliiable contributioni to 
our previous lcTiowh-dy[o of NoHhei'u Madagiiacar. 

Thoy Rnt Yi^itod tfjo Andtivolo, which was carofally mapped 
l?y ibn Bi^v, J. 8ibree twi.i yeara agtj ; aud r*'*tf»d at AmWihu, ut 
wliioh town thu Gcvornor rcsidt^a Tho people of the district 
uro known an Olo-miliitj (blaok poo^lo); thfrv rcM^niblc; Uiu 
Sihfl&aka tribes, and thoir tradition u that tnvir forefathers 
were? hrf?ught hither duuDg hia v^aiH by ImpALuimoiina, aomc 
uiuvty y<:arit ago. The Ajiitivolo marks the iir!»t ga^Jit iJnll la 

McLLEsa 0n Becoit Jounujfs in Mada^oxar, 


tho grou&d on fho oortti Bid« of Iho rcntral pTateAV. "Tbo 
litgit ^niiiml u}iJ4<]i form* ibi fniithrxrn ItounHniy it in Ac't tlio 
northerti t'^rmiTiuticn of tho ^'iit iTticTin^k pUtc«ii, wluch, 
f^Kor nnr'«l. ^itth iil Ainlurbv^mni-b^to, anil east «t 
Aii;^va Tfin Aimtivolo i>\xin, i^htit in c:uL#% we«tt (uul loutH bv 
loft^ UilK t^-iti^iuU iiortUwnn.i, with ^ilt^^nidtLoiu of low ana 
riring: croTimi, At a mean elevation of from 3000 to 2300 feel 
Above the «i^a,A4 tut aiAmbbdiumottUno,!] TO dnj^'jonrniyawfty. 
I AloD^ th« whole exti^nt of this large dlfltrict, tbe soil ia of 
^MndTolluviiitn and ted porous clay, cA^ly disint^^t/^d bytho 
HJlptlim 'if LiinO cuhI rain. In utnuy jiWmh nii titjr jinimcy vn* 
' saw wholo hill-«i<lcs^ tbtit hod Ik^oq oat<>Ei ozLd wnshod avay by 
tliu Inipicnl t<)rfritl», Icirmiug jirrapirns of »otiiriUni*« 1I)IW) 
feet in dupth, imd cba«i&« in wbo«f^ abi.'lti:>r luxuriuut fk>r<?<etu 
trees iind a coug;BDial habitat, aod in nhicii irequecUy Urge 
htmh of cuttle nro fen«ud oil' And pn]t4>cttid from tlui wtnt«r> 
cold. The tending df kittle on a aomewhat Urger actt!o,aad 
Ihd ciillivAtioTi of ri<.'P, Btigar-cnTie nnd mitii^nhjiin (muninc), nu 
a donirivhut small ei^alo, form tho chiof ocoupattoiw of Uie 

rn^in^ over tho rough clay Hill? to ADdrfk-Tid^iko, crossiae 
the Miituiunni Uivrrr, Hate tn n i:miH pi cumin vxHjJnd Jiill onllca 
yohiUna ; and regtiii2 at the ^tiona of Aiidi'^ooTuiantra and 
'fsirabi&ratra, tvhich Griuididicr has placed on bin niup, thoy^ 
©ocamped ivl ilic fixii of on*j of the erotit IuUa of the iiorthorii 
difttrif^ts, the bill of V6onib6!ij'trfl, Mr. Moss says; '* its magniti- 
rii^nt, hlm'k, linsiJtii" mjis* hud Iwyp vUibli* fur iHM'i'nd ilnv*, iiiul 
now tfiwiToJ ^'mildly iiomo 2'JOO foet uhavt- th* plain. Arrived 
at it^ fcxitk ^iE- ItHcl a good view of this noltle iriDimtniD. Il« 
northf^m iront iij]|KfaTcd to ''Xt^nd about four mJlvic, pre^L^iitjag 
A blufT pri-'cipilouFt frn^L^ uf blui^k buAultii; roL^k. It ri^iBa abuut 
2tKJ0 foot from tho rall^'y, and iU siimrDit cati ^carcoly b» Iobs 
tbon 4500 feet aboro the sco. It» grrru^tnl npp^'jmuioo ro- 
•embles Table Younlaln at tie Cape of Gocd Hope. For 
thrco dayi? at lca.*t» on our further uorthcrB journey", it ^at etill 
thcT mwf ruimpic-iumji biiidmnrk, mid wc- nfterwiinlH k*?pt it in 
viow ior Bovcral daya lonjc^r cu our ciwlward cour^o to Am- 
pirafiLrav^la and AmbfttoDdra/Aha.'" 

At ?^ldiat<i(io^ a faw miloti beyond V^kunb^hilra, thbj oEi- 

ped on the hhukn of the ll^tsiwika, here become a cuttiiiiHr* 

d rir«r, ri^HJng Ambddjiitnf^ntaiu, odq of OfaDdidier'e 

, thcT AA'x-itdrd nti isoljiti^d motir, iM>nid 4iXK) it^ aboro 

!0OOf sma the next day reached the important Hova fort 

And giurison of Antongodrahoja. 

Ant4&hgiulnJi6ja Ik 'boaiitirid for situation.* It ntaciU on 
tlio very verge of the hi^jh tabk-land f>vtr which we luA Wi.'v^ 


MuiLCNH on B<cent Jbwnct/s in Mad(v^atcrir^ 

tr&v«Ilin^ for ihft loAt two clay*. AWit 4ir>0 fnrt above the 
sea^ it commands a rtuwt ma(^nill<^ent view cf the broad Taltey 
of the lUicpAi tho bit«boIttt> tho Ampanhibi, ariff the Mihn- 
j^mbft i)[] the tiiirtli, ua far its TratxiTijy- From Aiili>n^]dralkbj& 
thg gionnd dcsrcnide by a pronpitona path eomo 'JOtH> t>r mon> 
fefit tn t!in plniii bi'lt>w ; ftUrr wlirh n gojwi raail h-af]* liy wlst 
etagee, thret> daya'joufney ti> Tral>iJ»jy, and tht-nt'o to jrojan^i.** 
CloMto it> QEi the ca^lv is tbo peak of Nauiakin, imdor which 
pass into tbe pl^in ruusi. From its position on tlio old 
[gh road lo I^Iojan^d* aud at the edge of tho central plateau, 
it IS a pbice of i'^rmidrrabl^ imj>ortan(*e. Ite |>(*(ipl«» Jir© im- 
n^ally intelligent, and (at mure u^lvanct-M] tbmi tho ooonpanta 
of other TowiiK on thfi i^oiite. And the nifltling of ^ilk ilieFises, 
and iho drr<plov ofFnjndi haU in tUo liltlr? ftfflllcmcrit ^rharnh, 
V'tre JtaBorialetl with a fnir Jtuowlrd^H of ihn laU'iii hyirain, anJ 
a moat boRj^ilablo and kindly welcome to the fri(?nd» who had 
t'omc to inslnw'l thcin/' 

In pa^tGj* from Aiit^ii^odmbiSja to the Siliaualca country, tho 
travcllcni rdriccd their steps to Tinif^tay, aud thon went cost- 
ward. And it U a fa^^t to hti iiolt^fl, that oil tfio roiu! th<Ty kcjil 
asL^endinpr find then doaeendin*,cnMaini;Ui>lloviflandritlj-oaalteP' 
nalrly, KJiowing thai llipy wrrn mi thr ?iort)ii*m rdgn of tho- 
platt^au, and Ibal lh*> sandy tdav bad bftu waaliod out from 
Letueea ibf? ruiky lid^^ta on ^itieb it reat^t. The popuUtiou 
on tbo ronic tiu^y fitmd to ha SihinaUa, proving lliat thi* ompty 
dtfttfict biid ifleein^d ilH Binall suimly, not fnjiu the ccutro of 
tbe iahind, kit from tW coast-, Tlieir i^novanne was lament' 
alihs in tjjn cslromCp In thi^ village of Antrim pa ndiAno, Iho 
littli^ (jopnlation of 200 peu|jle, ineTudiuj; swural BuKb'ers, were 
t'^mficd at the sight of two Hvo Englishmen, and at onco ron 
It way. 

At Amparafaravolft Ihoy reettd with tho fino old Governor, 
an rxcelb-nt man in evi-ry way, and then prepH.K^d to crow tho 
Alaotra Lolc^. Alter uarrow pathu, awarap, and bog, Ib^y at 
length fniiod throe small canoes to carry them acj^^a the wator. 
" Choosinp ihe Irast leaky nf th^ fhreo fnr nnisplves, Mr. T^^inl 
and 1, and th« rtnTtrfi, Umiditd forth Into tlw? dim unknowu* 
But, alas I the craft, proved Tniseaworthy. An itnfi>rtiiRatfl 
rowcT bccamo <ippres^ea with a sense of hi» va^l riflponmbility, 
and loat liFH wits, .^nil therr? \Mi^ no Mr. PliiiiHuH ul hriad Ui pn>- 
tost af^ainet ovei'loading." Having found a largo cano^t At 
iVfjihakary, ia ItlhryeiimpftslcdlheirprrrilooH voyage: now along 
ra[>id narrow cfull<?y8, overarobed by the iulenntaaltle ao2i>ro; 
tlicu iato lA widf, ojien f^xjianso of black, flti]i;,'nant, weird-loolc- 
ingwa|L% abounding with epoeo0i!i>3 and wild fowl; tJieu np 
one or two rivers whoso strong current^t flowing iato tho 

MciXESiR on Recent Jmirnttjt in McdagoMoar^ 


AFnotni, mere thnn uncc ncfirly capaiKcil our kccllcm rcMol; 
lbf*rL into Lh» narrow gnlleys agntii, miIIi the rtisliea uTurlieml 

tfo d^n^d AS to rdsembid a dark tunnol ; end 8o on, until two 
kniirs Ekftcr dark; no^- lUi'l thca topclesslv ngmmid, onr bont> 
mail not darm^ to pat his foot ^voxi ouUiil« for f^air uf tbe 
crocodiica! Al XiviX^ however, between 8 cind 9 p.iL, wo J&ndod 
nl Anti»fiihjVo^ only <" experience during the night advi-nttireB 
^ imitjuQ 03 liftd bcfaUdn ua dtivice tho d^v. 

*' A xt.mngft, tiTJcjitiuy wirt of ft pTui'^ i« tliiH AnlkEiHiha Thu 
people nro KtK^rly htiatben, mid mim^cd thora hud ncrcr »ot 
eyes ou a i^lille iiini] before. Yet, (dd Putil nud Lis eoiiipaEioDs 
<»nco fouml ftftor n mcn'o nvcntfid *ii>fl dimuJtrom; voyiiirn thu^n 
om^) ' the l>arWfijiii"i showed u» du lillle kiiidtieKi,' We h^ 
brought iiothiTig with n>i tjut oiar Iwls end a fow candle^ all our 
food Eind ni:arly nil i>Lir mcii bciag on tho otber oidt* of tlic luke. 
So the people of the- house kindly gave m food, and lent hi their 
blflcic ^os>' potf to cook it in. And lh*^Ti, how thcj qiicstionrtl 
in« hImjuL my riii-uV Pfttr?ni Griudle ! ' W^ial ina ttf ' Wi/uld 
it hum f Of itfrf?* 'Did U nevir h^comiy »horti'rI' and soon. 
But iw w« jircjiari"! lo lii^ down on tuir strv'tdicnstomiuou* hintn 
fell from thti triaster atid uii^re^a uf tlici houuo aUout voaUivo or 
rat«. We. iu our turn, li'^gaD to a^k questions ; and were told 
tliiit tilt? rals c:inie np fnim tbi* luko by huTulr<Tdn, mid ovi'rmu 
and devoured eveiyibW iJittt ctttuo in Ibuir way. TUcu our 
luwt iind hostess mounted k heilsleail consisting of a nml <ir two 
rtviJn^C ^I>on oross-iiLQOcx of u'i>odf supported by polod rai^*d 
6 or (i iVet above lb-? ^ltJ^lTl^^. Ovei tlii^, aud KiiN|ieiid»vd ffoni 
thn r^ftcrft of thi^ roof, wu u rougli looUin^ /jo^, into which vur 
hust and Uin wife orepi, and tht-n they weit neeure for the night. 
Not 30 we; for I had not slept above an hmir, wKrh a flap 
agaJDJct my fai^c, and a micccwiion of most iinfarlhly noises. 
startled me, and I awoke to &id tbo room dark, the candle out* 
t« racing ever mc, and tho bouao all in a commotion. In- 
ixibb! m^ntnivii with wln^ wi-n? flapping nnd ll)in^ about in 
.11 direotiona. What could it be ? Atiothn- bang against my 
; nnd the rat*! venturing ijito fttill elcther prfniuiity^ nniM^d 
e to iitrikt* a match nnd li^hl th<* eitndle ugam. Away go the 
is by scort!s; up tUi? walla, along the flooro, into comers and 
1 of tho bol^fl in t\iQ roof. Brtt the rent disturbi^n of tlie 
c turnr^cl ont to be ik fltx'k of young goslings, who bad ro- 
ained qnietly roosting in a comer of t!ie voom until Uw pro* 
igcd glare of ti\y Price's Patent hud beguiled tl^om into 
alining it vtnn riiE>rMiri^. and tbf^n dL4i.riverii]g aflrr t\\{ that 
the Tiinii nary was but an intruder, they ono and all »ith whix! 
flap! iiad flutb?! wf-nt bolt tlirijnjh it, luu] inoj'l ulTccULilly put 
U out. I amtiscd mydulf tlirougb tbe niglit watchin|; therHtttAA 


TO MciAESfi OH JRctttU Ji/^mfyi in Ma^^c^c^r* V 

ToJightJDg tbo Cflndle m cfteu na it woa put out — occo^ohaUt 

wiiU'Tiing tJip nitji (*1iiuiin^ i:>no anotlicv ovi>r my rmcriartitkii a 
coudi; or tlin:^ or four ^o?Juipt, tnorfi l)luI(>»)jiUjcaL Ujuu tlu 
reat, iklko sttHjil close 1u iiia notte quietly Ajjt'L'iiluliij^' uii tho 
mutiiii tbut (ukine from thcnco; itnd then tW mtj? njnuJDu up 
and «Iv>viL tLe bn^ in wliich oui^ huBt lOtU liodtmu vc^ru taking 
th^ir rest* I Dijv^r spont mcJi a night UTcr«, even in Modft- 

Sacax, and I could not lidp rci^cdui^ tbat iuet mjch &» t]J« i» 
e daiJy life of tliesG poor people; th^y liuow Done better, 
and oro even contented ^^ith it. Id tio wet ectuaoci 1 was told, 
til** tf"itK!(HliUn t-^eu flud tlieJr Huy hito lliu very WtsiWt and 
Httfil lJ>e fowKnn^J tbo pcoplo vxit too lazy oud JndJ&brcsiLt to 

OtJicr joumcyA Iiatc bei^ imdcrtokcji nilLin tbo proriucoof 
luK^'imH ly Qlr, W. Johu>;ijn ; nnd u lai^ otnuuut uf nevr 
deiail Ltia Lm.-ll fcuUiered Vv liim for rendvnng the map cf tbo 
proviiiriMiioriM^K^rt. Qfr JobiiNon Ijujt vitjlltU (Uid qxhuuhuU 
the ^r-at UiU ol' AniWiimmiip'tTLi; tbu north und woflt flJJea of 
Lnli<*ltJi^; aad tlie V^HHyh uf Ank^^trji. HaaJso eiicceoded 
111 aaCv^uduu^ lour el' iht; prini^ijiul pi.t^ku of Ajiltunitni, tbo 
highest of fthidj he ju*]K*^d l'> It? ^1*^4 fwt uioYw Ihu sra, TLo 
vxtKuio can^ \iUb (^hi<'li Mr. Joltn^on observed, imparts to 
Kxt auggedtioun und correctious u vpccicLl vnluc. 


Thd concluaions to wliich the ficU gathered on the»o levoral 
jouiueya pcint may bo thus brieHy suuuncd up: — 

1. Sinco wucU new gi'ouud hiu bc^i'n vj«itud, oomi^idcinblo 
addiliona bare bc<:ii mado to our knowledge of tlie geojfraphy 
of MndagiiMMr, At iirvirrid pninu ibr iWi'ii of riftL^t knowleogO 
lia« hoijii ostended with oorrooUiuMi oulI euro. AVl;crc viuit cbnoui 
of hills oiico met tho ey*\ <ir li br^ad Iwiiren desert Btrt-lched 
out bt^forv tUj and wo could only long for 'i^aw opportuniticti of 
fiading what Uy hoyLJtid.--uiJW tht? iidge« liavci Oci^ crottaed, 
and the country h^-himl explored : the desert \\aA bcon pa««ed, 
uid the hjw country beyond him 1>etn duly Aurrcyed. In thi» 
way the Tb^r<t country, the SakaMva districts on the weet, 
nnd tbciloTQ territory on Iho &outh-cftst, hove bccu d<^«cribod» 
Tlko fiir<!Jit liHj* hpf'ii rrtiuk-d 1 iiivportanl points^ like Tv^!ii1>^ Lbl^ 
valloys of the Afatitannna, Mauanjaro. and Maiiftnaro, theooureo 
ol' tlic J^Iniiiii, \i'burtih61iitra, iiiid the AniEitixSlit) bnvo beeo cue- 
ccriBlully dLUTuiiLiod. A new edition of _lUt» liludugoccoi Ihlap 

2. Wo know with greater i^xnctnej^ tlie bound»ry-Iin€ gf tbjo 

Hin^LEXH tm Ittccnt Journey* in Aliutaff<ucar, 


groat «^Garai> which h» given rfi jl rrtiiA<Hl flatcAU to the ccntro 
(if Lite mIauJ wilh a lhbfi-1 i>L' ^iritnitivn riMsk, unil ii i*<)jbtt pliiU 
form amTDtmdin;* it on tLlmo^ ail »id&i. Th» ^ciss rid^ of 
Bongo hn\ti, wliicli marbA vi*Tjr dpniiipi:i1y the wc**'Crn jidge of 
iUe.* (^^I^t4<aij, Ih niOT^ cletirly knokvu. Tli« point wUf^ro lUti two 
grtuiito wiklls, wLicIl iipbttld iho torrTieofl on lhf» <^a£t ai<ie 
ofthAtMltuul i!ii(ilt'sc<f (uul l*wmii? yiu', i* belter dfiflii^wJ, Tho 
northoni lip of tlio s&mo fonpatioL, with iU high moor, luia 

'^. T!iri bniful loi-nurti of rod aondy oluy irMch BnrronndA Uu^. 

rTnulta ffulre oil uU sides, and foruia atj outer lerrai.-f, hIhiuL 
OO foci lower tbati tho *rrrntm! plaUwi, bin boon moro fnllT 
cAimuncd, and jIh uufnrtil» c^Luraclttr Imwu bt^tU^r ijudt-nttowi. 
H«ro, too, aa on the app<?T pl&t«aii, tbe eifoct^ of deniidatioQ, 
aipMiaUy by tho orditinry «^<<nt» of min, 9tormA, i^rcAios 
flood*, and warerftpouta, may be seen od ao ^-normoiui agiJol 
It ia to bo Motic^xi alao tbat« ds the ^acito wllHs on tbo eaat 
um lofty mill littltt brcik(?ti, ftxcii?pL iilonj^ Um trirmtrn nf Anhiy, 
tliia dcumiiilion hna bt.'<>D thrown to tho west and north, whcfo 
ih^ Ileteiljikii nml Tkc>pjt nvrrr* (*m fb" north and ncirth-woKl)^ 
and the Mtittiii^'rhinbihiini, imd Mamoky (on tbrt wukI), t^uthor 
iiitu themaeWes strtMrna of vaivr, ivbich nae *Yen on ibo very 
odao of tho eft8t<*rn grumtJi iiR»lC Onn ihing of irt'^reHt remains 
to Im L*3:amine<1i ^o tmvelW huA yet tliitcd ihotn^ Jocalitic* 
in wbii^h these important rivera leap over the outer edg? of the 
granito core of tho island on tothclo^ost tomw<.\ vrhich oxtond»^ 
lu thu sen*Ahore, 

4. Tha volcftoic cmpticin^ which W(irc known to havo bo<»n 
wiilr E^prrmJ, iifo ni)W s^vn io \iii\v. »^u-nil more widdy Ml; 
and their result* are traceable on the Booth-east coaat, in Iho 
Ib^ra country and in Voambilihitra. Few conniiies iu tho 
wovldf of »<) limilrd an area u'^ IVTadagusc^ari b^ar witnoiw to 
volcanip^ aoLiou ao enormous aa this. 

Nn jirtdiUon hns r»N-i>rilly br^n msufa tn niir knowledge of the 
aeoondary forinutionn in thc< dJHlrir<t around tho conjit 

*i, Duiing the pasi two ye^in* Ihe rnenibera of tht* Ttfirwion. 
havo paid grcnt atlcaTion U> t)to Mida^aiiy language, and have 
uommcucul tbf- tximpilatiou of a new and morn oomplotn Die-* 
tionary, A careful ezamitiaiion of Dnirr's Vocabulary ha» 
jdiowD ctofLrlv th(? MibiitAalial oucnc^ of tho language fpoken 
throughout tlit^ inland- More thui sixty per cent, of th^ words 
tttod by Dnn7'e .SdkaJav^s are virtually tho samo as thd Hfxva 
woidM of llio tnmn lUE^anfng in use nt iho prr^?u'nt time. Tbe 
strcELgth of tbe Mak^ elomont in the lancnaj^ im indispntabkn 
Then, oguin, iho AJVican dcmont Uivi not been fully exaniinef), 
but is Lo<H>iniDi|; moru doar. Tho Kov. "W. E. Oonsina eaya : '* 1 

72 Buchanan on the Di»iribniion of Salt in the Occcn^ 

bo\e been «sainmitig Bibljop Steerc-'a Kiewflbfij \"ooabDl»ry, 
and have mailefi list uf &l>out Hfty woiiif, vniong tlicm thr 
vordjf for bullock, goel, a^a, do^, ltolvxIiIc (nLtoba)^ foul, bnuiu, 
iox, abip. »caJofl,<iijiuu!*. dutee* tolMu^o ( word used oa 
the coftst), glim copal, dollar, hair-donar,4c., fnU*-, kaldry, wiper. 
h^m\ii of tIh<:io words orn of Arabic urij^in ; uud uliniwt all tho 
words 1 found were of llie class t.liat wonM rifltnrall^- 1m* rarriod 
by tr(id''ni\'iEiting the wcBtcrti con/^t Jt s(^eni3c<?rtuiulJiat thcirv 
hw* Imi^ been t!oniiui?r*'jal jtiti^rnjitrf^e behveea MaiUgajirar and 
SCnuzibar, Tbore is a quarter iri ZariaJbar colled BLidogoscnr- 
tiiwn, ibntigb wi pn'^i-iit ihi-ri- wmii to be but few MoIaj^UAy 
in tbe plfic^- Dr. Sfcero told %x\^ tbat tbd Malagasy ivcro 
Dntncd by. tbe Zajizibar people ' I^likai&lao,' or ('ockroncbct, 

frobubly because tbeybrotigbt llie MulagBsy (rookmucli wilb 
ticni* All tbcffl.', aud'kiiidrL'd iuatUT»» uic ecrtaiiily dcecrvitig 
(>f mutt'iitlinitiiHj tbrtTi MP bjiTe yj't giv*»n tbcm."* 

C. ill oil tliL' di[itri<!l6 caammcd^ tbo i^stitntilL^ provioualy formed 
of tbr po|ndw(i()ii ba8 Imd to lie flcrrionflly rediKi.'d, Wbclber 
union^ l}k» T^Tialn, tlie Ibnrn, or the Sak»ldvii£, tho populntiou 
haa be«n fcuud Xo be v^^ry ibm ; vjst areh* of territory are eecii 
to be ulmcNt empty, liut ariolbcr thirg has ulso been 
wilncseed. There Js in all directit>njf nn ciirtient desire for im- 
provoment. Wherever the !EiigliaL teacher goes, bis Tiflit is 
welcomed; bin words cf coun*d infuec new life; bis boclcfl aro 

fiurcbuaed ; bis ii^fistiiiil-tfiiebt?Ts uxi' n-iki-d fur. TJltIo pri.*gre*iM 
ms been made in regard to roods, and tbo c^:ln7Pnipnce6 of 
civiliBatlon ure not eu^erly tMiglil iLftcr, Tinie is wimted ior 
richt ideas to b!o«som a»tl triug forlU fruit. Bat the vidoo 
ortho futuro 18 bright ; ite inlerprotation is sure- 

IV-^On ihf. DiffrihiUiwt of SttU i« iha Ormn, n* indinated hy 
iho Sp^f^Jie (havifij of ifa Jfir/(^a'j». By J. Y. BtOHAM^ 
CbutntHt aud Pbyiaicist in the CliaUmf^^ Expedition. 

Diranjo tlic f'ruiNf' of tlii> ChfiJ7niff*^r 1 made a continuous an! 
extensive flvrkw nf obsorvHtiims ou tho Fpecific grovity of tbo 
HCik-WtttcT, with inslrunipiitrt couKtrurled under my own direiv 
tiouB, Olid ozdibrated by my^lf. Tbo ius^trnment u&ed for nil 
tbc dctcrmiualiuns was a {^Inss bydroinelcr, ircigbing IflO 0405 
gmtumcK, with Btom divided into JOO mUUmetre*^ aiD<I of iuch 

i '■ 


a$ irtdicatfd htf the ^Uffifc Grnvity of its Wat^t^ 78 

mlUirp Hint the diviilnfl portion (JOO mfllimelrw) haJ ft rcJume 
of 0'd607 oabic cf^nlinictrc. Tlic ccxrHic^ic^t of expansion of tbo 
inslrmzient t^a** cA|)(.-r!i]ieii1u]ly Jett^rminet) ; urn) w it was 
poMfbto on all oocaflioii; to rand, certainly to one division, und 
OD a1) onlirmr}- nrciuiiiTici io hiilf n cliiiMQiu tlm (If-lpniiiimttoiia 
nro to be fv^lied on to the ext-^ut of o in ihe ftfili def^imal piacfl, 
The wcipht ol'tho iDJtimniont coultl be inrn^ucd \ry uddidon of 
weigliLH on llir* t')[i irf tlif; iEtf<iu. 'Ilir* rF^vulls, ificnr depend on 
the (IctcrmiiiAtioua of tho n^iglit and volumo of the toetroiDGnt, 
wUii^fi wem riiudc vft.U tlm grryLtrKt cim'. Tlin KjHH-ifiCKniritit!H 
•o otwerved were reduced tii ihelr voluo ul 15'56^ C, by 
Hubbard'* Tallin of Dilrttttlion of 8ea-wftt**r,*ftiid I may Tn<intioii 
ttiat T fouud tbfr djitrt in ihi* tablo tonfirmtvl by »timi*roun 
obiaciTAtionfl ou (lie MLiutr wjiter at diJTereut tempertLturc<i under 
Ihe niiml f/ivoitrabl" cjrrumolflnr<'B. 'ilie wmV luloptrd hji* 
been the douaity of distilled wntcr «t 4° 0. In using the >Yord 
»[dl.n(!»i jw eijuivalent to specitlc gravity at standard toruperii- 
lure, wo ortj Jastilird hy tbo roB^arcbes of Gny Luswio and 
Enuan; at ibw n«nitj tinir? it mnst i»^ oljaerved that, ne only 
BUkko u*o of thh oquivfllonco botwocn very iiAtTOvr Lmiti 
(l-0S4-l-028\ tvitfiin wliirh it nndouUedly bold.-* witbout 
Meiitdbid ©rrofn A* in tlua Paper we are ocoTipi<?d more with 
tho rcUtirelhan with tie abaolute amount of aalt in diffi^rcnt 
pnrtfl of tiie ofian, il b :iot of much importnuce f^r us lo know 
what atndunt of wvit actually does correspond to n given «poeifio 
gravity; but it. mw-y b*i hem noted iLnl, aL'^ording lo Krmttn'Bi 
6laborat« inTesti^iitioiiei, tbe weight of salt in 1000 parte of 
miter pf difTercat qiecifle gravities is — 

Bp, iir*vity .. „ l-02fi 

1 asG 



BdLn, ^..-rmlUi* .. 33'7(U 

3» 040 



The souKeof tbf^ tutlU eaislin^ in sea-water ii roek-suWnneo 
which hfut bi^iL diafntegrated and decompi^Aod by atino»pherJo 
influences^ Tho ^Icbb^ cornponent« or prvKlucts cashed out 
bj' the rain, and collected in ihe streams and rivers, nre i^venlu. 
ii\j jK)ur*:d into the ncn. Hero tbe watf^r is nubji^ted to tho 
action of ibi- Klin and ^vlndit^ uhicli i^itiMt^K h tjevapjTnte. leaving 
thp salt* behind. A preat xpiantity of tho vapour h> fonued 
is rnrnod inUnd> and ftmdnnstHj nn tbe inounlttui»<, ftashiug out 
the rock and tAkto^ up a Iresh clm^^o of solid inattor nhich It 
bringi" d*tnn into the sea, wbieh is thus the greut receptacle of 
depnided laud. An w« know timt all rivers, at presenl, hold 
more or lea* solid mjittur iu solution, thi? sea must be continually 
Ijettmg Mller, nud niu<t havo been dcin^ ku idiioe Us ereatioii, 

• Mftiiry'* * Sailing Djr0«tt'>Ofl,' ifOl. i. p. 237. 

74 BvCJlA?aAN en t/te Dtttnffuttoji of S^t in the O^enn^ 


Althcuc*] tho ocren in tlmi? the rpccq>liU'fe of tlin ilminag*? nfall 
Iho lana, it 14 ir no iiir;^mK unifcrm iu ualtnoBS, atuI tho varia^ 
titiTi> lo wIiHrb 1 refer art* diiw (o tL« di^ti-erjt Miett<ort>1ogicttl 
coDcliti^ikEi wUcb QUain in tho diS^rent zonc^ of tho oarth. 

The <-au»« which nrr ^'fftTiitjTfi in iiltcring tl»r s^icicifio Jjravity 
of the sea are tlioe^ which iiilTiicmc^ the fonnatioii of rnponr nnd 
of ico; and ns these we foaijd at the auriiicc. il i."* thoix* thftt 
WP ohwrve the greatoat variaUoui iu )ialti:ti>!n- Tbe effect of 
fretsiD}* may bo taken to apply onlv to tUe polur regions, 
itetwm'n lh(*BB mi may iliritJn th<i guilK-S or thhl [lurt of it 
GOTcred \jy wa, into flvo KCiieet, uomi!)': two tcjrfee ponding 
to th«&reas of prevalence of tlid oorth-eHfjt ^nl the 80uth<<wit 
trodo-^'inflK, in wh]4.*h i^Taporatton gooH on nirtii^cljri luid q soue 
bntAF^u them corrotpoucliii? to tlir* M^nuturiiL] nalms, whero 
an jminciiiito amount of rnin InlU ; and t>vo to the north nml thc> 
couth of tlirf tr^wlc-vriiid difitrkt.^ ^ihr-ro on the whole thoro 18 
ft tolerable balance ^"etweer ruin and evtipopation. At both 
pales thcro aro arcM of concoDtmtioQ duo to tho fDnnation of 


Boforo pafctDg to tho eonddcmtiou of tho weU-markGd 
diflTenmct'^ of koJ^ws whi(*h nre wholly dntf to climHticr oaLifittfu 
it mnst be obsorvod tliut any agency whi(^h romovea Mlid 
luattei fiom tho vrater will alter iIm tipei-jfii! gravity. 

It] tho viiirtnity of thn nhore vro almoet invari&bly find n 
certain quantity ca carbonated* i:lilrily of lime, <l]jw>1vc<l in ih.f> 
WAt^r ; we &Lio obs^rvo I'mmeLse GiLantitiea of the same aub^ft^nco 
bciae abt^acti>d from tho wat^r hj Animals, and boing m^pamtod 
out in the forui of nhelL Out m mid'Ot^iran tKo (jumtity of 
corbotiato which cmi bo dotocted in tho niLttt la always eiceed- 
itijtly Kuinll, Olid I 1ihv*i rniinriifly ifXJiniinivl ivaterir which f-on* 
turned either none at all, or so Jittle i\jA to cludo tho-mL.<unB tieod 
for iti detection; thcro arc, howeverr immvuao uuial>era of 
airiniala seoretin^ calcarfouti i^omrings living in thc«o nntcm 
Whfn they Hie, tn«ir aheUs fcink to tJju Iwlloni, or iir<T diwKjh'ed 
licforw Uioy g(?t to tho bottorn, tburt relumiog eithor the urhole 
or a part of the carbonate to tho water irora which it had bcon 
tak^n. Wli*Te tlw conHitions ore such that the shelJa retich 
tho bottom, a deprvut Hill ix^ Ibrmcd whidi ^vill constitoto a 
(ronlianitl draui tm tlio wipfTly of carlx)iiftti.'a in tho wtitiT. In 
tbi? way the compodition of the wntor is olteroJ by pTeci[jitaUoii 
by organic agency. In thrj pnine »jty siluioUfl JepoBila «ro 
formed by unimala BeereliiiK aliciouK «U«loton*. Now thi» 
offcct. though producing in the courao of time rery iuiportaai 
HT^ota, dofn not hfTcLt th<i ^MiTu^Kisition of the %*^t(^r Bonwibly, 
because tho amount of earthy carbonute, or of wHca, whit^h can 
br hi^d in sulution jiL iiny ono time JB, although aufilcient for 

tu ivdioaivi £7 fA* Sfmd/c Gravity ofitt Wairfn. 7.5 

th9 iDpport of this ext^n&ivQ pivoes« of tr&DsnkigTation of 
nuDcnl tnattor, bo £mfil] oa &ot tfo&eibly to alTcct tlic 8]>cci1]c 
(^Yj(y of (Jkt wnliT ul ;ui)' out? tiniri: moroovf^r, Uk<?it3 very 
subftanooa. eilioa ^ud lurthy c^rbaiLatdB^ form izupi^ruot aolid 
UQ^rodionte in volution ic nvcr-wftti.^r : tlic »uppl>-, UiLK^furc, ii 
bouLfE ooutluuouely kopt up. 

At the sudiLue of tiid 6oa iu All latitudoa there Je a constant 
fiZoluDgu going nil |]ctwue:i itits ELLnittf])]i«ro ami the hl'IL. Tba 
§oa givtv up puTtiou^ of ita vrntur lis ^^aponr, and tie fttiu<:«phcro 
m iu Liim givE<J:> i^pporlinrLs of it^ VAjvutr iwwiiliT; iinil i'-limj|tj;K 
ILTG dry i>r moiut uoounliii^ lup tlio tulUEOO i^ iii fikvuur of iha 
0110 or otlior *Cv\ii uf iIiia bsL^hmi^t*, Weto t)it<n^ li> i?-J.trrvfilA m 
tiw utmcKphci'i? or thoi^coaik, Wi> slioiald have h <fr>n«iiuit liitUi* 
butjuu i>f luuisturo iti iXnx alt iiticl €cj[]cc;titrutiua uf the avo-watur 
d^pk^EKlj'ng oD tho toDip(?rature, subject t^ diurnal ^jm\ aniiiinl 
OficiiUtiotiH. Tills ^tationorj stntc of tJun^, hij^vrrvcn', id by no 
mearu what i& observed - boUi 3u tLo oeenn and the aimogpiiere 
Uieiio oro curronta of vast tiimcn«ion«t widdi tend on the ono 
build, by luc'nltHiii^' euiit^i^iilrjiliuii nud dduliitii, to lurreuKa tha 
variatioQs in dousity; JiDd oq tlio other liOLdi by ultimately 
toixing tlic ivaterv, lo limit tkc oiU^nt of tEic«r \uHur]i;>i»v. 

Tho same remarks ref^r in u f^reai meudure ob^ to alt^rationft 
produced by cbaiigoe from tbo H<|uid to tho eoUd «tatCi and 
t>ta^ v^rta, KtiJiJovttl of water, vtltutlior ju ico or vitpour, caiuos 
cOLCCJitraliou ; r&dtortbtiou of it caiuoEt dtlntiou. Wbttbcr tlte 
nunoval I* riLnwiI by i^rapoi'stion or con^drttfnn, it is localised 
90 ad tu produot: am^xti of oouisontratiun ao<I of dilutJoii, 

Tbe ci ui^ia of tbu CJMncnt/er bunted ihcK^f yi-uTH uud a bnlf, and 
thivcvouniof tbistimo worof^pontbotwi:oEimtj«.4(>'?i. uad 10" e.. 
and t^d'eforo tUo aujoiity uf our obHCrvatioiui afiply U* tlilj* 
iwion. Fioia tho siirfaoo obBervatioAs which ivere ]iia<Ie daily 
vra^u ai sea, a coU'Urcd nuip boa been coD«tnicIrd jn whiciL I 
h&Te also m^de use of Lenjts obaervationi with Kolzcbue, At 
thciirstglaLco at thi3<;hart thccoiucidcncoof the iLgionacf con- 
oentrutiun in tlif- >u-a »ilb thvsu ti{ tUr* Lra<livwlmltf in ibe atmo- 
robOToiaepparofU. Ou both sidea ofcochcf tboau ro^iouawe ae© 
toveoncvi^iUi&tionditDiiiisliand ['i\j^ inlntho.-«o of ilc-r.liloi) diliitioD- 
The polar eonoeuttation regiuiii^ whioli^ frijiii a priori c{>nsLdi>rA- 
Uoo», wo baTe concluded to exial, an* not abuwii by uiir ubM-rva- 
tiona^ bvcauao yve were only fgr a dbprt tJnu' iu nJ?ioii!7 nSectod 
by ice, SLd tbcu durbg the st^aBou when it wae lueltbi^. As tbo 
cuni'vgiitnitrati of iho sfln-wnter depcn^U nn tho climate to whfoh 
it u cxpoatjdf and tut tlmt in jtabject to certoiii variaU'itiia, eo the 
area^ occupied by the variuiiH I'mluiira on the iimp riiil bi* Kubjnct 
to owilLiitions, so that properly we slkoubi have cimilar charts 
for er«ry niontli of tho year; for tliiH piirpcwci, liowoiier, vm 

76 BucHJiNAK on t/ie DinHbtttion ofSiiit in the Octan, 

roqniro nmnv mora obsetTatlow thnn we at pr<?seDt posAcw. 
ThoB<? iiiiJ "lowti OB onr chfti-l will probacy rjot iTiffcr very 

ludiwite. To Uiko ouly oiio itinttuice. it is quite c^rUjJn that 
eqimtorial &r>^ of rlilntjoii will havv? a yeurly oscillaljon 
LpoTiding lo that of tlio i^qunlorinl rolmi; ill tho ^imtiirii 
too. wttn? fot oti^balf ol ttt- year a Jiy Irade-wmd U 
blowing, iLnd for the other a nicifit moiiKCon^ int^ »1u1'? of ibn 
at!i*-Wfttrr lUfty be CJtpetted to show ^-rvut vuriti-lionp, tvliicli, m 
f/ict, ftro bIiowd in a very markod maiin*^r in our oWrVTxtioas 
in the CtiiEi:! anH nr^iglibcumng aeoa, tvhirJi nc tnivcrvuri m one 
direelJoTi ut tlie t^iiil of tliif s.w, Mutnsuoii \vhi.'L tb<> wati^r v/ha 
oompitrattvfily fii?eb, and in tbo otlii?r dirortiOD aft^ tho K.E. 
monflooii, nr f.nio lrtiiU\ bttd bet^ii peraJsting for namn tian?, Thii 
avoro^ 8pcoifio gravity obeervcd iu t)ie Chinn ±^e& in tho 
bcgmniDg of November noa 101^518, and in the mootli of 
January it wab 102534. 

Taking our amface ab»f]]'vatiot]B, ho iind that in the North 
AtUiitio tlh? spet'ific gnmty inereases frum nil •iU\i"i up to a 
xaasiiaum about let. 22° N,» aud long, 40*" w. In tbja my 
own observatjoiia agree with tbone of Ll^dx and tbe GomiaTi 
nbip iiutzfflle. It i» an opinion^ Gxj>r«sacd by LctiK and by oth<Jr 
travel )ei^ mid im\iga tors that tlie bpei^iflc gravity of l}ie anrfaiea 
ivat«r of the N^rtli Arfimtif^ irf greater c>n the y,-{*si jind loet^ on 
tbc east side; und tbii* ojiiniijn is deriveil frurn a ^oi^aidumtioii 
of The observationB on outward-Wmd and bo me ward-bound 
iibips. The former keep doao tu the oastorn mnrpn of thi? 
North Alljintit--, whi-rejui the fatter keep well out, pasAih^ 
ufaalljr to tho westward of thd Af^n^a ; and it \& true tlmt tho 
Wftlcir in iJii* fv^rf of tlie Nortli Atlanlic, het»e*'n ihe n[irnll<dM 
of 1£^ and Z\f, IB doBfler thnn on the eaetem eide, but it is iiL^ 
dcDHSr thnn on the western side. 









ULuTMm. .. 





On Ilia outward voyage, F.eiiK's eoarae lay fijrl]ii>r lo tbe 
co£tvan1 tlian that of the VhoU^ngcr, and, conaequently, hr did 
not observe the name hi'gli *ji©rifiu gi"ft*-it.y. From the fuTiit^th 
lo tho cigbt^nth pnniUoIs liuobsprvationa show a rery contttar^t 
mean ftjiecifir ^mrity of 1U271)- In the ccntr© the two Ml* (tf 

<M iruiicaiffi Ity Hie Specific Gravity of it§ ^'aterw* 77 

oliJicrvntloikft Agr^e rery dottelj, ftiw! ia tho wrest -we Ii»Tft only 
tho one. 

A comparjitiTcly high specific piuvity prcvniU m the Atlontic 
lip tu vi^rj^ h\i:\i rKirlLum lallluilr^ I itiii imlt'Llr^d \o PnjfuHKjr 
Mohn of Cliri^liaaia ior & very odmiroblo Marios of ol^eorvB- 
lioTiH ninilt; iluri^ig Ihr Norniginn KxtMMlitifiii Ia.iI HuiuiUDr. 
A vorv uniform ipi^dflc i;r^vity of L'02l:>2 lo r0264 was mot 
^ilh Ictwcon 8Uctljiid fiud Iceland. Fnrtlicr to tbo west tlus 
wftmi Wilt wilier is dUpluced by tie col4 fh**li vater coming 
down frotn [rolar rcij-ion^ and ere^piag along tho Americ&n 
Auiri*. fiH thn K>-OB)fril ^'r!r>1d ahII" niiwti to c-ninpuniiively low 
llAlilud^. TliL- waU-.Ts tif the Gulf Stream Iwlon;- to ih-j wunn 
anil Bait wallers af llie Atlantic ; coiiBOfpitrntly. wIkii it is entered 
from lbo^\(?jitori!Kii3tL,T)oap[uir<:iit or QiurkLTcloluui^to VobearFvd 
in tlati colour^ tc;tu|)C!ititure, or suhiiefiet of tht) w^ter WEien^ 
bowerorf it le Appi-oached from tlie ellior »ide, as by elnpa 
loaTin^ AmcricAn port«j tho c-hangt: is \eiry rautked from tne 
ffraen, lurbid, cold and freab polar watergof the " ccild wall" to 
tho drrp lianipfircrt b[uc water* of the warmer oeca». The 
G\i\( StrfaiiL M'JLH f'Ttrssed lwi<*f!, oni^i* ijJT Saiiily lloi^k tVTid thu 
G<(Cond timo <i£r ILiUfaz. Tbo epocitlc gravity on tbo latter 
ocoojiion WiLJi 10271, which ia iilentii'id irith IIlo tiimn specific 

Eavily of th<i vvuttr dorived from all the cljaervatioL* mado 
t^oca St I'humas, W.I., Bermuda aiid the ABDrfB. 

Thju ucjuiituHal minima ob!*erv&J in iho ChalUnT^ woni 
I'Ol^GO iu 3"^ H, both outwurd and homowai-d, by L-'Eiu rQ2Cl id 
7' no' N, oiltwftrd, nnd 102575 in 2'' ^". bcmirwHrd-Unind, On 
iho outward rovuirc lio appours to havL* cro3d*?d two rtnrainr^ or 
layera of reniarHnbly freuh water, Be[JtkratL'<] hy n rjarr<tw stratum 
of water of the ordinary upocifiu* gravity of 102SJ, It 18 
wortby of re-mart, that ttlun>?v«r wa louub tUw rounU-r f^cpin* 
torifil ourRHiiiB, and we may inehido tUo Guinea Current amouf* 
them, wo find fresher and warmer water tliaji outsidi; of lhcni> 
On tlio outward voyu^L< tbo CliiiUenffer mailed along the ovfuatei 
from tbo moridiau of 14'^ w, to that of ^0" \v. in ihe course of 
tho soutli rf|iiatorial inirrent ; the spt'<?ififi gravity wiis fomid to 
rise from 1"U2(dO iu the cast to 1'026S in tbo woet, wliero the 
heavy water of tho mcui tb -fast tradL* wind region ua* cjoffied a« 
it entered the North Attuutit*. 

In tbtf Suuih Atlmilie we have as in the Xortb the mn^fimuui 
in th& heart of tho trade-wind re^on, but it U sLitiaU-d con- 
iiJcrably nearer the efjuulor ibttH U the Cftfio in thts NoriL It 
is alfto lower on the east wde thar it w oe tfie west ; the nbsolete 
maximum, however, is on the wcwt *ide, being l'U278i ofl' tbo 
Abrolhfi3 Islands, Tht? very hi^L *j>eL'ifit.' gnoity wbith waa 
ob*:rved on the BradUau coast from Cope tJt, Koquc to t.t?^ 

n BrcBASAS tfn t/tf Distrihntim of Salt in tfu; (h-fna, \ 

Abrolbge Islands is vcir remarkabIo,ciM)0idcrin«^ tlie Bize of th& 
rivi-j"H whinli rinj>t.y tliPidselvFs UiU^ Uh'- fH*'Mti in lliw neigh- 
bourhood. It i& no doubt ciplaia^i by lie potency' of tbo 
flau^-«ut trodo clnTing U^« wt^i^t conceotnitod by ils actioa 
oonvtuitly opunfit the Arueiiean Qoml, part of tho etroua 
goirf into the KorUiora Attantic aa er^natonal ciirn>T]1, ami 
pnrt nmnitif;^ ulong the Brnziliuii ccKii-'t m Brrmlian ctnr^t, 
currying itt flalttjeaa m fur ua llit mouili of tlm RiT«r Plate* 

yrnm Ibp liiHtiiHo <if llic Cfipti of Ci'iod Kope^ wh^ro the 
locar ftiirfrux t^jujdlic gravity is HJ^fil, it Udctciiimth rftpully, oud 
ljtTtwe6u40^ K. ainHK'^w, AveryuQiforni*t|vciflcgrkvitv of l-02i'^0 
is obgorvctl, wliarij thcitv is no pock-ioo in tho noiclibourbood. 
Ii^sbrO'i^H (lid noL uppear to jxfiect the w^ttfrr miioh, wLirh^ hcitig 
olvayd close upon 0^, had v<?ry Jittle mr?llinff power. Anioni^t 
r*ck'Jc€, however, tic mfTlting point of winch is conBiilcrably 
low^r ihun thLit of f>e«h water^ the ftoa nag, aa might bavi> bc'cn 
Ospcct^'d, colder and froBhor. In fad, scflr^mtLir i^ro ia u perfoct 
preaerviUivc, miil putiihly, olan. to some exti<nt: a rculomtive of 
trcsU-wator ice. llence iccbopgs. ofi long tis ihoy tcmbtn in 
Antartilic n^gioiiF, that is, amonget Hill-vratJ?i ine. hare little or 
no Kindctcoy t<f di!LTeaao in «io; vhtii ii molti^d by thofiiroct 
rji)'A uf the »ui] beinj; piobably much more thaji iimde up by 
tho t^nov, filling on tbr? Iojil It in truo fJmt out t^mp^ratw 
obwrvjilitjtja aliortcd (ho csiateacc td' wanner water bdc>w tbo 
8i3rraoe, and if-cbprgi ilonting with m\y pait of thciV m»^ m this 
artratum would havi? greater tendency to dccuy than tijoso 
"ilrawiiig leAi WAter." 

]n tho Pocitic tho (Jintnbution of tbo ealmity difforn ooa- 
rndf-ralily fnim that id the AtUntft:. Thr? luttrr ocvsnii \m 
divided eharpiy into tu'o hajdim of eonceatration correapODdinf; 
to the North and South Atlantic. In thn Pacific only the 
southcriL uoDcenlration area is well marl<uJ; iu iht uotilif^m 
part of the ocean i\w variationrt in tualinity are slight, aud tho 
tncai) Kaltiiew low. In riu purt. of the Nc>rtl3 Pjiciflr wiis ihp 
fipccdfie frraTily observod abovo 1*0265, whilo in tlie Boulhcm 
part* in thr ri^Eion of thf (nwli^-winil, it exfw^ls 1'027{\ and 
the moon epeoino pMvltv ia <>ompJirjttivivlv hi^h. 

The maumum in the North PflTific k liltiG44 iu lat, ,W 22' », 
and in th<T Kouth it I* I'Ol^Tl^ in PJ^^ Thi' tiqnatonn) minimum 
was l'D2485 in 7^~ 2G' N. Int. in th«* ronnttr oquatoricl f^nrrentit- 

If from Hong Kong there bi? dra^^n n. tangtut To the eaat 
cotisti ond Iroin Hadiua ojio to the west coast of AuatraUai a 
TO^on will be ior^losed vhich consiHlA of hitid and water in 
compamhic proportions. Many of tho islands are almost 
{rantiiiMitul lit si'/.ff riae lo a great lieif;h(, and Imnr f>n 
sorfaoa the most luxuriant vegetation of the world. The aeas 

^' 'f-.i ■ 



isuikaitd fty the SfVfci^ Gravity ef Hi JFafwA 

aid geiwnLnjr of K|^t ilopth, ftnd dnffolArly rounds off into 
vopiuvtc biTJD*. Th^. amount iff iipb<?av^ which wonlj bo 
required to tranarorm wliat ia nov a sea Ftiif!4i?d irJtb large and 
io^yinlnniis into a oeiitJii«nt incloninj; cxtc&Rivo luid dcop lakos, 
would by the tiiajoritv of ^j;8o1ogiat^ te oormiden^J quilt- iiiMt^rif- 
Gcant, Tho phyflioni conditioiu of tho«r> mocked Jabea aie 
iJau prciiliar, morr rnpnr^inlly lU n^gardn U'mprmturo, Tho 
BpociQc gravity of the water which iDfiy be looked oa &i ot uuo 
ecuoD foiming pfirl of tho Tncilic, and nt auoth^r as part of 
the Indiuii Oii^ciui, isi remarkably IJght; o&il the nmjKJii of 
this ia ciuHly fouud, Lyinf?, us those bi3^ do, od a&d b the 
immrdinlrt ii<ug)i};f)urhnfui nf tlio pcjiuiUir, ll"'j rv"fY'tv<i a large 
amomit of TLiin fuUinir ciireetly au tbeir ^rfaou, uud in ^uidition. 
the (Irainago of th^^ TAlands in tlieir neigh bourhooiL The nir 
oljie above them m ntway* m n ctAtf^ bordonng cjn mturation 
with uKiLiiiin?, ao Uint not^ItLKl^mdiu^ tho vory hi^H tempAi^ 
Ature freiuently altaindd hy thnir aurfiur-wtttrrs, tho aciount 
of ceocci^trotioD powible h very simaU. The pprdfio crarity of 
the greater part of thi« Bea U under l'0?.i5 ; ariii a targe area 
round tho uUnd» of Jaxn «r>d t>umatnt ivi undor i -U2>^i0. Water 
Md frcuh ikA t)iiH E« nevtfr mut tdse^vliere, ex^a[jt at the moulbu of 
rivers, or in tho Di?i;^bboiirhoo<l of mnltiiu; ive, aLtiioueih it ia of 
looal oct^iim^iico nftifr h<^avy rains in Lcir iTnunt^jrini rv^iotUi 
Tho aoltnofiH of theeo Boaa vari^ coneiderably at diOoront 
nftSOUBof the yoaj; at least in th? northern part of the Ohiiia 
8ia thii he romnrkably th« cose. Diii-iiig thc> prevuk^ncu of ttic 
aoiith-w«4t monsoon, which is a rt\'tting wind, the wat^r m^a 
observed lo havo a. maf<h loner s[>ecifii; grarity thnu daring the 
dry nortl^-cost roonaoon ; imd in theeo acaa tn^ro u a ruKclar 
armntd Aui and refine of waten* botvri*cn the eqriator and 
tonapomte r<i^on« — <t tid« of long ]>eriod duo to tlio viuds^ 
Thi9,e(Tei!t uf \hii tid^ id fiboH'u t>y ita olTt-c^L on t,lrE3 Ju|jau 
^trent, which varied much in p^wilion, rtr^^ngth and temper- 
mtoTc, and (louUb'Hs, alfio, in specific graTity, according to tho 
BMlboh of (he year. 

Is tho JndJaa Ocean wo have fcvf obscrvntions with delicate 
i]UtruiQi>iit«r but to JtidL'C iVom those of T^tiz and cIlh GaziHh^ 
the oonciiiitraliou area duo to tho gouth-cnet tm<le is not mote 
pronoiinc?>-d than in ihn AVrjl.-ru Pmifif:, nfth whl<rU nrnan iU 
watura huve a doublo eommuDicatioQH To the north of the line 
tho local iurtueuco of iho iinmcnw conlliic»t, which fornn lU 
northern bnundarr, n^ndor* th^r *tato of It* watera vwry different 
from what in fuund Hither iu tho f^orth Paoitic or North Atlautia 
It Appoare from the obsen-ationn whidi f hnve havn nble to con- 
fulft that t}]e water in coinpnrativoly ircAh all over ihm arcA i 
and tbii fact will have an important bearing on the €onditJO»« 

so Bttchasax C7t the Distribiilion of Suit in the Ocean^ V 

of the Itad Sea, whero evaporation t^kea |>)aco nith ?ucK energy 
that its wutefs aie tlio »Lili<^t tlat uccur ju aujr tiea iti Dee com* 
mtiiiicAtion with tlio m-rnn- 

Tin? vtrtiral lUfitnljulujfi uf (nvltiirw ia nhimn in llirt^'mmft of 
*eciions; oji^ Iw^ing aloiig n ni^riiiifui in the AtlnntSc, and 
^bother aluD^ a lutriiJmn in tht^ CciLtrdl Pnr^iii?. 
"The Atlantic Bcction {yide Dlu^rara) shows the diatribution of 
adtne^ along cl centrnl inetiiJian (26'^ to yO'^ \v, long.) from 32"^ ». 
lo 32° fl. lulitink'S by menus of p^ui-italine. liop*^ lh»? vr-rlicjil arr^a 
included beiug that between lh& surfaco and 2000 futliom^, vt 
tli<^ ImttT'in "hira; rt f)CCiiri't!ii iit ii !p->;i ilrjiLh iluxn 2000 fiithoTHS. 
Abovd ihis r^ectioQ h a diHgrarn roprL*fif>utmL; tlie djjftnbutium of 
fiiirface-sflllne&s along the same raendiaun Both of them aboiv 
ill 11 very iniirk'*'! vuy tbt? effe*^! of cliinaUi ou tbt^ wiltums of 
tho fica, not only at the surface whore ita cfioct is directly felt, 
hnt fTVi?n i!<m-ri ti tUi? IxitUim, at ivra or tlirL^i thtniKand fHlluinris, 
If wo oouaider the vertieftl w-^otion, %vo *oo tho lino of 1 1)270 
leaving tbci ^orraef^i in h° N. lat., reHchlug a majcimum di'itth of 
75 futnomN in lat^ l^T a., thon rii;iiig very gently till it orotm 
out 111 lat. 29" H, Ju Ibt Nurlb All/oitie it'leuvtsi the siurticr m 
14" lot, r^iM-'hes a muximtim dopth (if 'JOO (Hlhomji in 2^^ ?at, 
then gently rises und crops out probably aljoiit 40° Iftt, The 
area of eqitatoml dihition maybe eahl to extend from about 
&* s. io if* K. latp, but tim apeftitic gmvity, ospecJiUly of tho 
Mirfiit'e*val*rr. viiri*ia pipully, owing It* ihe viulciuie uf the 
eurrontai as "xll tm to iho annuil oaHlJation of the cqnaloriul 
rnin^-beltp The pqni-SftHtie line of l-02(!5 ia fouud in hit ft2" K, 
lit u (]t*f>th of To fathoiiiif, and einha to a iej^th of ICO fathottiH lu 
lat 17" y. It TaricB bat littlo io depth Jinli! the cqnator is 
urcww], when it ruturvea in latitude 3° sr. at a ilt?j>lh t>f TO 
fathoma, and crops out at the equator. It Icavce the durlhce 
in 7'* N., und ib'wvnils M^-alll!y till in hit. 32^ s. If hiu rrnwhw! 
a dopth of 450 fathome ; further north it no doubt rwurvt^ 
do^nwurrliLr for ht^h* wr find it sloning ilownwanis from ir>00 
fatboiUH in 32* N'. lo 2000 feuliom*. The e^^ui-ialiuu liucrof i'02CiO 
^itirti from a ikpth of ^50 fathoms iii Ul. G'i'' s., remains almost 
perfectly hori/oiitiJ with a ulight npwuni tendcney ns fur north 
U0 lat. 5 B., i^vhen it turn* do^vuwal■da, reciirvini; about kl. 21' K., 
nnrl rpachirg tho Wtoir, ir»00 fathomB, in Iff a. lat. It does 
rxot reach Ibo tmrfaoi^ at all in our dia^mm, tho ncarrirt np* 

froaHi to it. beJn^ a trini^h nf water under 1-02)11 tn^tAt^eii 
° and ty K lat- I have little doubt tlmt if our obaorvations 
bad fmabled us to carry our diagrjitii fnrthr.i- north, thr l'02Gr» 
line would havr been «een to have a glnirlat foL'Ui. Every cad 
iniHTt tircc-Bwaiily bu struck hy the simjlarit)' bet^vuea the flrp» of 
the e^ui-^ine and the isotbeTrual tines, \vhSeh du£0«ad In the 

tfU iiuiicatril hii the Specific Oramt^ vf its WitUrs. SI 

Ailautic from wuth to nortli (witbout, howcvert recurving in tho 

ii vfa cATuider only tiio «nl«r id tli<t iirrt 'JOO to '^W fathoms 
from tliQ rnirfsc^fi, wn ulMTrrc » vi^ry inark^xl grfi»-m1 \tiyi tti tlin 
dislribution of saltEnese;. In tho rogioDs vticr« the ^urfaco U 
undyrguing tleciiW iun\ i^niitiximM roiiciMilmlion. n* cvor)-- 
vrikioro wlwro it U uboiv 1'0270, tUo Bi>tfilk' j^nivity of \ho walor 
dMre&aeoad thocleptb incroo^oi; whil'.- ir the r^uAtorial rogtcmir 
wh^re the vvAcT suffers Tiiurkod tmd ironrinmniu <liIiitiL»i), tho 
etpcicilic gravily Unit iucrc^ikaeA v^ilh tliv Jeptb. iht utaximuni 
Wirg iTMiittEy Tii4ft W'ilJi lirtwc^im TiOund 1IK> fHthoTTis, uf'irr which 
it IViLI^'i^j 11ir> sumu law fts the wutur furtht^f «outh or north. 

The l^irillr tifLtfaii (vid^ Drngram) shows the verti<»l difltri- 
buticn cf snlttii'its Ic'tweea 38° K- ttiui -JU^ H. laU. alon^ ao rxfiproxi- 
nuitdy mei'MicJiial luie, piiaaiug ihrou^^h tht* IS^x:ieLy luA tiits 
Saodwioh lelnndr. ArciiniJ IIlo ^o^i^iy r>Uni]^ we bav^ the 
nltcst ^vntcr of ilir. IVitc; it b here only that tho »pedfiO 
pavily goes ahove rO270/an<l nowhere does it refioh l"0275- 
Tho groat bulk of the water is under J-02<Jl>: indoo^, id tho 
Korln Pru-uili'. llie qiinutlty of wtitvr witli h. Mrxvillr? gmvity iibuvA 
thid is fio BDiall that it wouUL h-we vory litlfe ofFoct ia tho de*^ 
tttrminntJori nf tho mrnii sjir-uiilc ^mvity of ihi; wnM.^r. In tl 
South Pacific tho etiui-salme line of 10230 leATi^* ih« ftiitfoji 
in LaL 34^ A., and d^ftc^nili jfhh coander&hle but deeivaaii 
rapidity nulil, in Ut. 2S° B., it atiuins u d^^pih of 220 Dili 
audit preiwrvr-aadcpth of about ^1)0 fathonu aa ttir oa iat. 4^fli 
wh«rfit It iW^i'Tiflis foriTiiiig u tongijcr tatf^ndiitg ui far a« ti'' n. 
Jftt. bolvreen ^00 and LOOU fatlioou; it <.*rop» out ugoiit at 
Burfaoe in IhI. 7^ H. In ihe North Ptu^iHr^ it reiicbea the eurfe 
in 23^ and »^^ K., attiiiiiiiif; a dt-^lh of 100 futhnmn in Int 2^^ S. 
The very low tiurfac^ Hpot^inc ^ruvlly ohaprvtfd in IaL W^ >'. m 
purely pi"i|M*riij^itil, lUid (io^s not afl^ct ihi? mean speciHo pra\ity 
of the vratr^r at thct povitiou at atl. An in iho Atlantic, tho 
miDJTDOTn epeoiflo gravity i» found usually at a depth of ubout 
!01W fathoms, bnt in thr; Pucilif; wc havo light Wftt^^r approach- 
ing tli^ uqiialur from both aJdeH, wbilitt In thd Ailuntlr.* ii or^f^urM 
in a marked dogrcio ocly fiX'in tho tiouth; and in the >Jorth 
Piicifii". by I'oiisnpiomM ina me/iu nprritir grafilT i* hiwor t.hnii 
in the eoulh, the contrary being ihe cd^e in the AMuutic. and 
DO dijubt the conligutatiou of tbcw tnxi occurs is the rhief 
Cuxme of thoir divdn^iiif; conditiona, ilie Norlb Potitic Uiiug 
a wid« opoa baytwh&roM tho Aorth Atlantic ia more Jtke a 

Jn ffonerol, then, it nill bo scon fVom those cUi^ramn that, us 
a rijb.\ thi^ hjn'cifir gnivity diEnuiiAh^'rt fiom the sitrfuoe ihiwn to 
a depth of 800 or IIXAJ mthciua, aud thon iiuTt^ascs towarda tho 


82 BuoiaXAS ^n lit Dis-trihtH^n af SaU in ihe Octui^ 

bottom, nh^re in tho Pacific a \efj uniform apecdfic f-ravHy of 
Viy^^'T {n 1 <)2^[t 18 found. J'he wuik^ rulnn in found tn ibe 
f^iith Atlantic, but it inoroiLio:t n^ 'nn go iir>rtii, uiid tliR lucAii 
^Otttrtd pfttritlr p-Avk.y in the Nurtli Alluiilii.' Jtil1t2(i]^ for 
BtfXliJi b<TLwooii HOW iind 31HJ(J fiLthomx, rin<l K'lftj:^^ b^^twooa 
S00l> UQil 40t)0 rathiimn. Tbo dCLti^o dtpJcUid h alorijj a 
central meniian; Doaret the westem «id<» »om«w]mt lighter 
WAtcr U met Milh at intormc^Hatc depths, but the diffi^rcrncij i* 
not sueli as to aher th& eh&raoter ol' ihs distiihation- la The 
trodo-njnd rcgiona Iho apccitic grarity docrem^^B £rom a moxi- 
lUJm flt tlm surf}ic^< Ui a lEiiuimuni at tih\.ml 1UI)0 fntboais, uid 
thoD slovrly iDoroueod fUj^ctiD. in the Tcp:ion5 of ttio oi^uatorial 
e^lm* Aiiil minA tJn^ H[Krc'Ll]r gr:iV]iy moat oummoiily JiK^rcuvm 
fVom a mmimum at the surfaoti to a maximum at a d^pth of 
from CO X<\ 150 fathom*, from which poi'ut dovrnWLrda, it follows 
the MEtiO law iw m Ujc imd^-wiDdB, The reiuon of tho *x- 
istcQco of the subeurfaf'o maxima U. 1 think, caedy explained 
by thf- fiu-l tfmt thii watiT ouiUMiiitrutr'J ou both Hidt^H ut* tbo 
oquator U drivt-a by th« wind towarda the equator, whero thero 
i» n cmijrtnDt wnijily ipf fresh wnt«r nf hfgli t"?m|>iimt"rr, bujirntll 
wliiL'b it h» forced to di^. If we utart ln>m thu doutoe ol the 
tradu-wijid we Hud, iliat while it is o^iioont rating tho sarfaiM^* 
waiur it j;i ilIwilvu l<>rciDg it furthor inti.) wurmcT latitiiduiEf where, 
owi]»g to the ride e( totupur&ture. the water, thougli it luta bcoomie 
fiHltpr, hiLH nt thi^ Hauw^ ttmEt lieromrr li^htitr. Ah i\m iNjimtor, 
however, i» u]>|>ri>acb<ici, thti rino of ti!in|toruture with docrv^iui; 
latitudf^ dimnii8]ii-H, and l.h<^ watt-r thuH hei^^mtii li^hli* to valx 
of il*eif, evrn nllhoiit;b it wero not riivoriTd i»v<r by tho tropiool 
loifis. A large i|imutity of wateir fonri-J iiDHliwarJn lowanla the 
equator pjiwes into the North Ailuniic, ovriuf^ to iho |Tr«|K)ti- 
derating fi>roe of th<? ^mtWast trader Ht^re it ffdlctwH tUe 
coureo of ih^ equatorial current into the Canbb*?an Sj-s, re- 
appeohng douhtJosQ antho Gulf titrrnm.nnd ultimntuly forming 
part of tite L^real, lake of wanu tiiid dfiiL^c? wafer wIiil-Ij forms 
the SwgaiWio S'.a; the oaiitiffurulion of iho North Atlantic 
bvxii^' [lUirU ax Ici afTonl no fnrjlity for nn txit luitmnt ut tW sur- 
face- Xho fjarjjafifio Sea, however, 18 bounded, indopondontly of 
loiid, by a comploto eont^s of twccntid winrU and currents 
wliieU coijai^ire iv keou weter, wldobliaa ocee got in, iVom oaaily 
gcttiiif; out a^diu. ijcin^ in the centre of tho Dorth-coet trAdi>- 
wind, tEm c vn|>omT.ion wh]c<h goca oti is very (^rvat, whilst at the 
aarao titue n not iufiL(:iuri<^uiit yearly oeeijlation of tem|»«ratijro 
trtkofl pWft, tlto two 4:4iu»i^ ccjrabmed niatinmlly a**ij»t4ng iho 
prejiuxatloa dowiiwurdi both of heiit and ^I'tueaa. and in 
point Lif fact wc Iknil tiiat in both tLt^se re»pecta the watonf of 
thlK region exceed these of any other pan of th<.' ocoixn. This 

OM indieaUd 6^ thu Specific Gratnly ofiU U'tUtrt, ^3 

i§ porticolArlr well shovm if wc compare tlio North Atlon^o 
with ihi? North Pttoi^c. The m^an speL-ifl? (fravity of tli^ 
Alitor at oO' 22' N- hi. and 154^ fjl" w. Jong., ns dotermificd 
frum obnf'rvBtioijn mjulr- nt imi diflTcriTiit ili'pthn on tlif 2lHt of 
July, 1876, vaa I'OtJMT, tho depth boiiuf L'i*50 fatfiomi?; at 
;2<r 2V W» lat, ftiid *W" 37' w, Iwnp. ihr niiuwi *jKiritir gnivity wiw 
1"02721, from (jltiftnutioQa at uino diJTi^rful dei>tha on the 3M 
of May, 1876, tii*< dcpiL boing 2700 fatln^m^ The meon tcm* 

SfrrolUMi of ihft wBt4>r wiwut thi> pMcifio ■tiitknv 2-9&^C (3T*3»r F,) 
ownUi27OO6>thofiiMvndAttht*AllHniif^on06O5 at-llWF,). 
If wo tnitii th" mpiiri tz-mppnitiTro of th** uxt^r cWu tji ir>0O 
fathonir*, we how f<»r Iho Pa-'ifif eolation 124* C. (30-63' F.). 
ftnd for tUp Atlnntio one 7-44" 0. (irwii^ K). From obwrr»- 
tJoa« mrtt^D in ttut ParoapinOy vta thid in 4K° x. Int. u mocta 
twnpt^i&ture do»u to irjQO Utliorasol Mir C\ (43 SI'' l-\> and la 
55* 40' V. kt. A me^Atx t^mparatunt down to th^ wuno di^plb of 
eiT'^C (43irF-J. It irwtbcrcftfte. m^vorywuy likely ibatft 
hi^h ^peciflo gravity prevailB alw d^vKtt to iKr hnitiim. Tn 
trrntin^ of tlm conrontrntkin of tlie North Atlantic it mutt bs 
remeiiirn-W llfnt that ofcari in llie rK'ijiiefit of all the briii© 
clinkiTiatntl friiira i\w McdiloiTftrOGn, whim> the ovoporation gow 
<Hi with Krml Tignur Nolrtitlwfjuuii[]g thn prt-at nupjjly <if 
fr^h crater from the numerous European riv@r« and th9 Ni1«, 
which m fcnrtnntly brting poured into if, and thi; min which 
&]1b en itself, there U a oousfant defiL^ieni.w in the amoirnt of 
Wfttcr pr^soiit in its basin, Thut this is ^o/ia ovidrnt from tho 
VfinU^iit't* iif u oori*<l)iiil jcillikw tlimiiifli thp StrnilHitf Ciibntlriir ut 
tho flfirfaoo nrd flouttit'ni eiifo, and <»'it[!ow at tho bottcin and 
iwrlhcni Hidt*, Dr. (^arpciutfr, in hi' rr-pfirt an thft wit^ntitii? 
TeaHkrohes in the ShMrwfiU-r, puinte out very ek*arly that tbonch 
both currontfl are affected hy the tidos^ bciu^, indeed, at cortAJti 
ticoM revet*fd in tht>ir dirtJ(*titni, Miill tlj« Ixdaaco it decidedly 
in favour of an iiifli.>w ef cuiU|iarAtivel>' frusL duHace-watcr, atid 
an i>iitl1owuf suit bcJtTi>tn-WHt"'r ; and lir rr»('ngniw*(l th*i pn^wiK^n 
of the hitter distiiu-tly at tht; hottom, iu a auandiu^f about 
45 ttt\\r» w.ft.w. of Cape St. VirifKNl, in liJOO ftithcim* Tho 
ffiiugto^ of (jurreiilfl of siith ■limiiUMioim with nuffincnt u<'cura<?y 
lo be able to i-atlmal^^. even apprjiiuialely. the amomit of vearly 
outflow from tho ModitormnrAii, >h a work invi>lring i;^>i>t labour 
and conataht obeervatioti thnnighoHl a whole? year; inoivover 
thu fnrtaMiirin^ of the direHioii and VF*loritV of anderH^airtinla 
18 fltUl uocom|>A&ird with diKirulty imd unnM^itnty. By com- 
bining, however, ohhierv lit ions ijf n|*iriJi(.: j^Tiivily wiiri the ourrf»ot 
meftwurDm^nt, Iho work is Bimpltlio^L .Snppoeine tho siarfaco 
liillovF to be th^fmiighly gnu^'f^l, ^i that Iht; KUppIy prr ntiiium 
of Atlontio water to xhxy MoJttermiiuan is aocuiat^ly knowu^ 

64 BvcHATlAK 4m the Di$trihudon of Salt in tlte Octan^ 

iukI lU ineau (ieiiALty (at consUQt t«tn petal tire) to be olao 
Icdqwd; \gX the ntf'uti arnsity of the outnQW''n'At«r ko oIao 
uHfu^daimul : tiirik if Uic MrHJik-rratEKuu \t \u a nl^ti? of vqiiili- 
Lrium, tlial ik lo Kiy* if it !« not wilting; Tip, as tiiui*h nnlt 
iDii^t couKi out [>f it nA ftkoji in; t>r. 1h<i Toiiinuvi uf tlio two 
curTHuUi iniiHt bo in the invt-me prD|>ort]i:iiv uf their meau srdtno 
coutODta, Ur. Carpcnlor gives llio spccitic gravities as 11J27 
iiiiii l'029j fUTTt^jHiiiOm^ lu 3fi3 wnl *S-8i^ |M*r im'uL Mnliikt? i^jii- 
ttnifi respectively. J3©nco tH(» vottinioe of the two currents 
miml U> ill thf^ pmncirtinn of fl3?Vl Ih U*,000; thai in, for cT^iy 
10,000 parts ^^f Atlantic watc^r ^DlerJug, 11^34: parts of Mt^terw 
tuucan water must gt> out, Icviving GC*J for the wat^r evaporetccl. 
Sir Jolin Hi-rw^ln^l, in Kin ' J*liysii'«I ("KHiijrapliy ' (ji. 20* *'f>"' 
aiders tbat, at'tor aJIowJq^ for the supply of frosu nuter by, 
rivnm »ml THin on tljrr KfA itu'If, Iht^ ^rnrly >TVU|K]mtimi in jmj 
jrrottt OA to remove annualiy 335 Ciabio miloa of water. With 
thin JaluQi tho proporlicm above gives 51)1^0 cubic milds as the 
onBuid iu^ow of Atlt»ntic wat^r, tiod -IGGT oubic milvN u^ the 
oiuiual ctutllow of Mciiilcrrancau vater. Tbc inflow w(ju1<J be 
providoil bv a im'jui iuiiiiieU lULJB^■rly Kttrfu'ii eurivint 5 miUfA 
wid>^ 120 iathoms deep, and tIovvu:i^ at the rale of 'JO xdiIca a 
da/' It IM proUiltlf^, IkcnvoviT, thjit Hr^rHofirl'K <ii4timaTe of tbe 
©vajxration ibt too liigb^ brvauBe wo kuotL- eow» from tlic* warli« of 
diB Diinul>e ComiaUftior. thai llio water fru|j[ilied by ibat river in 
at loast double wluit xviiM iudj!irn<!d fortlui Nilo, If we make th^ 
evitjHinitimi 3lJ0cubio tuile^. theUi'ptbof the iiifiov*ing ?vtr«i)im ia 
Whatever bo tiic acLual <Jiiiioneiui:£ of tJio ourrcnt» in ^iicstioat 
there i^an ba no doubt tliat there ia a resulULtit outflow uf verjr 
salt wator into tboNortbAttaiitiCi and thero ean also bono doiiH 
t}iKt it cimuibut^jfl iu aome de^ee tci Uie very bigU uprcilhi 
f^TAvity and aUo to the lemmtnaiire of tha deep water of that 
part of thr^ oi^an. In the ui^^mm giving n nn^idii^onl «eciion 
of the AtlaDtic, u'l? seo bow tb<? ('i;|T]i-fliitiite Hnen run u^i iuio itio 
North Atlantic, where- tliey curvr dcwnwurda and rutreal suutll- 
ward^, nearly all fbe lines following irL Lbe sdme wuv. There 
ure evident indieationtf of a locality soiaowhat fiirllier north 
than in lijubrriE^d :u Lbu diai^ramj where Lim s|ierjfli; gravity 
will bo the same, or very nearlv so, all the ivay down ; aitd it is 
probable that th*? Itncn of <'i\%nA saltness niU approacli IbiA spoL 
ir>m th-j north in somewhat the same way as they do from tho 
eoutli, coming dowuw^kr^lF;, ^uid rotiirnin^ nortJi at a greater 
dftpth. It in Vwxii ihat tht? ureatrr'st mixture of «nrfaoe and 
duvp -water takes place, iind it ls due in n great mnodure to 1b<k 
Kyxtiini afi cutiviv^Uoa i^ULiHed by pronoiirkctx] annual variatioii9 of 
totuperature ia a oomparativeJy dry atiuoapbore. 

«i huUcated It/ tlu ^jxiffic Grae!ty o/iU SFalert. 85 

Judging from thr* dliNf^rvAtinnii inmltt on luukrd thn Gitnnun 
sh]|>, ua^U^ tboh? &rd iiLdji^ftULine of ilio cxiritoTico of u BimilAr 
regicrn in tlrt^ indmn Ok>.-jtn* Tlic oWrrfttiona modo on the 

rifle ffruvJtyDf tbo lwitoni-vra1«rshovBa venr murkod cbaii«o 
It Ittiitudv 4^*^ & In 43^ 8. the specific gravity \a TCJ^jSj, 
tht- HFimttiu T cWrr^d ftll nrfr th^ Soulhem Ot'oan. In 42^ %^ 
howovcr, tkio Kpeeidc ^mvity ui 102617. uiifl incn^u.-tiM townrd« 
thn i^orlli, 1>eirkg as ^igli J^ li[«?0H2 rear MEiirriliiis, the f^urfaoe 
teinf: cinly l'Uiitj24 at tlif? ntirDr pbro. In w niinndin^ in ILflJD 
fatjiuuia jufft on* ilm A|fiilljtih buiiK, I uliherved a bottuni ajTMrific 

{nivity of I'ii'iOllt wliich <?onld onlv hax^ oomfi lrt>m tho 
ndJnn Oivjiii. Tli© siirfooe-walei" uf tlu!* <n'criu ih liot riTtEinrk- 
ablo for saUiiMs: itidoeH, in U>e oqiiatonal pnrt il is rery 
muoh belovr ihc avoni|:c: (jf J'ncitic rqiiotorial vmtcr. Thcio 
10, Ikciwever, cue T^^itin in tlie tiorllii^m jju^t oC iIiih uchmil, b 
wliioli concent mtion goca on witii sr^rj ffr-."ot vigour, namely, in 
tbe li^ ^t-Jt: mill jiinL jik tlm i!vn[Hitiili<iri uf llm vrntr-r in Llm 
MwliterraneaTi Tari^a th^ fpeoitio cravity of the deep water of 
tllT* North Atl/iniin, jio may thr KM Srji fuinffch rmirrntditi^d 
wsier to the depths of tliu IridJaii O^ean. An nhjixztiod luiglit 
hci ruined to this sonrce of tho lu-avy water cIibcito*! by lio 
GiASf^Ihf h^ivffivn Maunllan and Australin, than lUv fiict, thai 
tho temparatoTC of tho hoi lorn -wattjr wua not ubovo iho ncruia!. 
wih-rrM water roming from flm \tt;{\ Sua tniirt puiiir iho 
liidioEL Ociiau with a t^'mpt-raturi* 4>f 70* F. Tho effout of con- 
CeDtratiou in nLiMEig the tom])eialiire in the suhsurlhco* water ot 
tbi« ocaon b vtiy eviUimt ; in luf. 24° 41' .k. xha in(.-ait ic^mpcra- 
taro of thtt «atei down to UOO futhflcu* wa4 8" C. (4G-r i.) 

In ihfl VaHfic, an w& have seen, tho tunniial of crtn<^eniration 
which fcfi*^ Oh in the uortlicrik j)art is iaoi^cniticaut, ii circum* 
stance which ig due no doubt to th" opennewK of its basiii 
allowing tn-it inlorohan^o of wuter, titid to ihc foi^hlone^ of the 
iiurtli-i'uwt tiftdiat. Danng (>n(--liair of ih** ytiir Um, th*- stuil)!- 
we»t monHoon extenda over a great part ot the ocean, a^t'ling 
greatly to iha dihitiou of itn wjitrrnc Tho Ijutlnm-^nli-r, hiiw- 
9ver, )K)tb io the If orth and Soatb Pao;de> U of the same s[jeci6o 

From the alight aketch which baa been given of the diatrfbn* 
tion of apccitic gravity in tho ocean, it will be soon that it 
i]iijH-ndhi prim^ipaJly tm thr iilrrnrnts wUnrii ^^ii tu inakn thj? 
climate, and in pariieular on thu hutuKUty and rate of EDotion 
of thp ftif ; it th'*ref'"irft stnrdu in iutin)rttri mlniion with tho 
prevailiu;- winds : and, in fuet, if wo t^umpare our chart of 
specitic grarUies with one giving the isi-Uir-^nieiric ljnf«, woshall 
find tbat tho mniiinn of i.<onceittriiiian lii* in tW- iiortbrrti 
hetaieph&re to tht.- south-we^t, and in tho bouthtrn iiemis^ber« 


TnOTTETl'l Accimni cftke PtitidiCs Jo^Lrneij from 

to tbo nortb-wefit of l)m Wrooi^tric mniiina. The great 
evapotatiutf ptmur of U]<» trndo-winds c!f»ppndR en l1i« Uv.'\ tliat 
tlicy rttirl drj ui a cool T^yCxon^ and panv durin>: their coutse 
alwayn from floM*-r to hi^Iter r^gi'>nn ; so tlmt, hh llioy prof^^ivlj 
ftltLoQ|»b UkiiiK u^ iQun? luoiMtiirc, their cajiiicity (or Uikiiif- 
it ii|> conf.innnlly int-rpftMee, until ih© ©<]uator 14 ftpj)mni.*liiicl, 
whtrre tltu oEmn^o of ttTtnpcnUurc in i^light, and oviLpcrution 
c«ft«e« jiloii^' wicli Oin Atundiiieati of llie riiud. The we^teriy 
wiiitin of ih^ north and smith t«iirtpdmt« t^onia, which Uikc^ 
their rifle iii tlm ^anlcf rtrgioiui of bammf^uii? uinxiTaa, do not 
d^rclop fltiy ^pma^kabIe evti|>o rating; pi>wen becaiiHe. levelling 
fiOTu warmer to colrlor rrf lottN tlir^ ore vi^ry rapidly natumluU 
with miija(nn.\. In fniui« Uih vultiieAi of tlie wnter iit ftuy [i1ju« 
biioonu^ ultimately a fUEtL^tion of iho rofoiiro dryttcn ol tlie 
atOLOBtihtirt* In tlm hir^nlii.y ; th/U. is, the fiirtlipr Ihi- n.\r is te- 
tnovml from etitTirtUiou vilh iitoi§t\iro the ;:reaTor will l>« lU 
evrtpi>rfttiiig power, and, corsoqTKiitly, the more marked will 
b<3 lis effect in the re«ull&iit eallu^sa oi the wai*r €ipM&d to iw 
actioou Tho r€^ioii«, therefore, of high sp^itic gmvity of ocean 
ittater will (?oinruU witli thttiui of ht^Xx m rnoHplif rii.' <1ryu6S8, &iid 
ihofid of low Bfiocifio gTuviiy o\' Iho wftlt^r with thoBO of low 
atmuKplii'ri"^ flrtfif-ns. Tfiiw, in lrml*swiml n*gifmi> we fiuil 
the hi^be«t spcoitiL? f^mvity of the wator u»ocmt^ uith tho 
grratc-st d[yiii«8 of tlit> tar, and ni the re^ioD of the ctjuatorin] 
calvia we havo u low sp^critiL' ^^rnviiv ot tha waUft afiaoci^U'd 
with heary niu» aud a damp EituLoapbere. 

V. — Aoo&unt fif the FundiCa Jtmrnetf in Great Til^ from LtJi 
in Laddkh to LMsta, and of hi» M^um to India vii Assam. 
By Cupuin IL TftiyrxEH, luE. 

[Itmrl May Mth, ISTT] 

N&IK SiHOB, tho pxplcrrr who undortoob this jonmoy, i» tho 
oriE^iual Puodit whose journeT to IJi^i in M^itCt from K»t- 
mandhia, xhty capital of Nopal, wne di^sanlxyl at lou^L by 
TupUin Kfm]4ri>">r*rir, R,E„ iu llis Tij^unoiiielrical t?uney 
Ituporta for 18G(j^67p The Tundit hud boea in ihe Kcrvioo of llii 
bMtliei'8Sclili»j.'iiitwoit,'y WBrecttmius**^ inai-'iittiii nnd 
otbet soji'iitifiL' obwi-vationB in Ladikb and ^Knsbmir in iSiiG Bud 
ltio7 ; he waa eobaequently npoointed heod-mostcr in u Uovern- 
inftnt Verrnirnlur Jx^hiwii in liii* native district of Milam m 
Kiimooii, aod romaiik<iril in tho ij^duenttoii department iintit 
l^t>3, when, at tlte inr^tutici} uf Colouel J, T. talker, U.K., the 

1 ^.^=^-=^ 





r-^" \ 




Jjf/l to Lhdta, anil Hfturn to IntHa oiu Atxatai. 87 

Saperint^rideut of fche tir^at Trig^TDOtDetrieal Suttov, b& vras 
vrLt^tljiimi] f<;r cmfil'>vmifut u K TTBn»-ff€niii>r «-x|Uun^r, end 
duly trniued. From thai time t^j the proaent he hwj Iweu <wu- 
Btantly ^ngfL^eil either in cjirryin^ on r-ipKrmtirmff himwlf or 
in traiTiiiti; other nulivoa t^ full!>w in his tool6t0|ja» hi 1865-titS 
he mad^lhe faiiMvw jnumrj.HllNilrd Ui nfmvr, Imm KiUmaniUili 
to \A\ii/^ and thoQf'C to tlii> MtmciiiuJ^uiLr Leiko mid Imok to 
Iitdi£»' This «x|j|or(itToii i^urjicd for hitn the present of 4 
G'>ld Wftlch from th-j Koyal (ii.*rt^nphioid Sof^ii-ty of Lotidnn, 
*rhich uttrortuufttfily rf\\a tiiiliBcqutuuy alolen from him bv ouft 
of liifl cwD pupils. In 1H67 Iw* wpni In rhnigc of n parry of 
ncLtivc^, Qnd did oxotliotit Wrrvice in (^xjiloTiciu iiud HLirvtviuit 
tho h4<nd*wuteT8 cf t(« t^Qtlej nnd the IriiiuH Uiver>4.t hi i8T5 
he wfta ■lept;twl t^> necvmpihny Mr. (row Sir Dtrnffhwi Ftiniytb*« 
fiwt miwioii to VfttkauJ* but flljurlly utter tlie Mj-'*icjii left Lelk 
h© waa sent ba(?k to Imlio- Itj 1^73 lie was sctil under my owa 
ordcts with Sir DoheW Fornvtli'tf second minion to Yarkjiuif, 
in <ymD<^ttoji with which he dJd niu^h good serviot^^ Jn Jnly 
1874, Thile 1 wiks at Lch, aft«r the rotorn of iho MiraioD, th« 
I'lindit hnving vohmtucred to make a frwh eiplomtiuti, I viaM 
aQtUori&od byOolom:-] Walker, n.u,t to dospatoh him on n journey 
to Lhi'^ ni.>w \a \^ di'»Tnl>ed.t llm inNEruotioUfl W'rrr tit [>rf;<'<Trd 
by tt much more northerly route tliAn the one he had previoudl]{r 
fikllowed, ViQiw Lhii^ lio woa to «^dcavour to g<Tt fittochcd to 


* 0W ' JovELil Ro}^ OvognphEcAl Booiotf/ toI, uxtHI.. 1809, 

t Usm, Tol. mil, l6Ca. 

t IlkppcAn Ui*t QTci »iiuw tho«iDqiH»t of LadAkh Hmc 1^ ;rcuv ako lij tha 
0Jcpo€^ftlpa UikE^u Cb&DB, tb4 lUjA cf LbijD^ tl baa Ikou f uaiomKr^ f<>r Vk uitu» 
OHifVD to knt« lj^ For l.bilnonm \i\ evary thri^d vi^rw Thiit l«diT hu th» 
honnvy tf tt(> of I^wIiaK/ niikt biri'^Kinill/ i^iiuiif liMUftdlQff tfll'^iHUcirijidAkll* 
Tie PVW loKViM Leti in JilI> ai^d Aiikv»£. kihI [fro«vk wOutukti, Manwn^j 
WT, T^um. ADii Shi}cAlM tH> IJU«s vLcTG tifor f«ii«r»njr unit tU'> follo^lnr 
JviuihfT. Li?rjt;tLiurti.HJ lioltt WV mua tm lb* jounicr^ kt the ut-frvo Dki-MkfJ(>3 
pUflwi (or tliA f okt uf XnAtf. Tll« MBflmOl MRUtiUi «l LbAtti liil Juuatirjuly, 
■ml l^i'i; riitfirnii 1>7 tltc ■nmn rautti to l^h. vhlnh |ilana tbAy rinb^b irj Diwnmlhtr, 
f,fl.. itdvi ■» iilvHTiii!iii ijf ujjv hihJ It Lhlf yivfh 

Wtillr.' b TiU^liiii I<iitik)ry tUn cUntfirM Uircusb whidi Ihor Diftrcb v« btjoud 
t^ fiiruinli lEmiiiitnunlj' ^OA jiklfi for tEtp owneife «f nbcfobudlsD, u wolJ m 
■iipi>LiH and l>-''d far tb« tnvellpn, At tiLi quaaUtf rf anmhiiDdlH aent wltli 
thBcaniTbD rwlraUHUuttaefulJ BiiiDtuil Ibi «h]rh (firriBffCN ]> Hnttldhfld, tbi 
Loiididk Id duf b« raoelrea fnmi Ukc Tl1b>c** Ivt ^ibiKii m rfjMfe imiium «qiilnlwa| 
for t^jQ tiUHfirc' uf qbrnttifv uul miuin^iL At Uip lri>pc:]j^ iU^tn Lot liU guudi 

bJa i# nutiir-^lW v<']] nhia !*> nmkii ■ l^r[^ pn'lil nii r^m vuurnru. Ht^ i« pro*idad 
by ih« Kuhmir millmritin' Mnit> Anrtm^ vntti l;>,rHiLk fii^M*»' •viyriM *A 
^Uifl^ iilki. fhjiirEj. itcd nlThiii. Oii iim return Ii« if uiilhtIhI v> la; ^ci 
l^UH<ur)r UuuUq Iki: niikuuiit *}{ tin ailvftiii-c thai «nu luibLa (■/ biiu. TLik lie <!»•■ 
r^iiTi Uii- imiccrOa uf Ul(^ UiV» vuul, tan|iujiKe, nrjif lilvtr buJli(4J whirL h^ vbtnjui 
fniTii TibvC ill nxuLjujyu f^jr tlju wbfc« InkttQ (tmu Liiil*kb. 

8d TROTTtK'* Acemmt t>fiht Puntlifa J<mrninf/rM» ^^^m 

iLe caiavaii which proco?dtf thence eery thrcp year? to P(?k]0. 
If ht? tVik'd in iiccoiEipliubiug iLu, ho uaft to uudoLLvour to roiuro 
to ludia Ijy OTi od^lf^rly routo from Lhi^a, down tho CDurao of 
the* hmLmiipiitrs if poouoiUi*, 

On Ihc iSih of July, 1^73, tht* Pundit ADd bU compoiuons 
li^ftf LeiL Od the 2lMt they reftcbed T&iikii^, ihrea cEUkrcJiBs 
liirtlicr on; at Ohii^ra thu\ found a 4Dmmoi ODttainpinoDt of 
)iUe|]Ut7r<i?t. tlif last, iiJiabi(0iJ n^tti on tho road Lo Viikitui]. 

i rom Chapra they foUowwi lb# Chaui^clifliimo rorJt« to Yir* 
Icand, halting at tliokxit tjt tho l^nkiir arMurMmik La*(pB=nV 
On the foLfoninij day they cici^Heil The pa&4 (16.J20 f^^^igh)^ 
And tljca quittrd tbo Vi^rkixmi roiid and tiirnnd off to tW coAt ; 
oroned the Kiu 14, tiiiH hij^her tTibU tlie Miintimik. und I'll- 
Oamped for ihQ night at rao^iir Gou^ma, aftor a marcb of 

The Pundit wua oblitr^ to travel elowly, as the nhole of his 
worldly jK«ac»aion», inciiidinf^ t^iit, bedding, aud coitrnjiaaariat 
for llw vilntU |nirtv, had to be Ginried on the Lacks «f aheepi. 
it ia utoQJahiog what admirable l«aats of burden these aoimals 
msko in u jijwtonil wiuniry. Tlie Pundit Mjirtc'd with twrniy- 
MIX ftiiot!|> from Tankai. Of tboae Bomo were eAt<,'n on th*5 »i>aJ, 
ftome l.>ei'Aii»e ill nud wi*rn tftxi^huiig-w] for fn^Mb mit-H; Init four or 
tivo of i\n^ on^mrJ lut rt-nobcd LljaHu^ laviuf; in Iv^ tliun four 
lULMithrt [rari'ied Jonda uf from 20 to 25 Ibn, «aeb. over a di&i»lii'0 
of moro tban 10U<i iuIIqib. Tbron^hout tho joumfiy they Q«v«r 
m^mrtKl a itiu^lo ounce of food beyond what tlmy could luok up 
for thomaeWeB on the road and at the cnmpiii^.ground«L 

On the Iftfth of J u3y tkc pLrly dciicrudcHl tbc iitiXTam from tho 
KiTt Piw Li) Nrii;-n.t >l n-aiujj wlih-li Uikt^ lu imme fi^uii a large 
hf^aTt-ehapod mountain wiibh ovi^rhaiigri jt. On the foUowinff 
diLjT afL*'r drmvadiui; tbn B/vmp utri'iun (o Miiiuhil, ihey ivru'bi^d 
its point of junction ivith the Niupau etreAtu, up which th^y 
proecod<id m for an Xiigin Itjiwwng, nnroxintcring en nnUo a 
larpe patty of Tink^ vilkj^eM returning from Kudokh with wool 
auo mt. 

At the niinp wi*i^ n numU'r nf nien ('nllecrin^ saltpetre, who 
stated that tbo Jou^^pon or (Governor of Kudolch Jtad ordt-Tod 
thpm tfi [lay tbrir tiurw W lh<i imrrtut reiir in that iLrti<drt. It 
is obtaiucMl by dig^m;; up Iho »oil, whit^h ls jilai^c^d in bnMa 
veF<aeU; hot vater is rjouied over jt ; the water diaKi>lveti Llia 
fialt[>etre, and is tbon ai<CJiut"d off into ajiotfior vef^l ; afutr n 
time the watt^r cmAs and the Bultj^tre ia prt^t^tiituttHh ()jii> 
uiAJi can manufAoture a ah<?ep-]oad, or about SOlho. neight of 
salt|>etrc. in tlic s^intc uunibtr of Jays, 

* Ed ti tliB TibMOD vard (at Pfut. 

f ^Hig^ h«pfcrt; anl rt^ mouatikin. 

I^ft to LhatOy and B^ttm to India md Axsam. 



At Ni^ni HAwanff b tlbo boutidAry bL*twe^ii Tibet anJ 
J julj&kli ; * the right bcuik uf the etream belocga lo the latter 
tiud iht^ k-ft Lu&k l^i flui r4>niinr. A ilay'n Wl, vr^u inmir hrrm 
to rest tUe fih^^^, aud lb<> PuDdit made on exoimiou a few 
nnlf^s ii[i thii Kntftuig stn^iLM] to Uawnng YoLmA, n winter f^D- 
caicpmenl boloc^iu^ to T^kit£, In tUt* noij-bbciurhood of ti 
lavounte ei^Kiag-giuund, vrheiT?. madiitiirn To abuuriaattfLippliL-^ 
of inputs, tbere is nJsu — ii mrr Uiing in f-addkh — ii krgir ni]|iply 
of jUDgle wood4 

Ftikiii Nii'ig^ii. H1X gborl, mnrt^hrHi bronght oiir trAvellFtra to 
Ifoh. Tbo ooEUitry through wbic^h thf^y pMScd vrw almofct unin- 
habilf^d; a few MtliUrv Lt?uU liL'ljriglitj^ ti> Vob ^ditrjiliertiH Hiid 
a eiutrlu hrif. rtt Gonn ChrjvkL, ix^'iij^iod t>r a siaal) fr<;iiticr gu»i-d, 
were tiie onlj b«biutk?uh (ras.-^ e/i r<iide. 

[A» jin Ap^iiLiix is jfiveo, <l<?«onbiTig at coDsiJerable I^^npth 
eucli dar's marrli tbroupliout the whole of thn journey froia , 
LetK to Lb^8a and tijenoe on tn Liiiiia, it is uauec^ait^try b<?re to 
dvdoj-ibc Uie road in dotaiJ. ^laps of lhr» cotmtry about the 
I^iL^ii^ Lnkir* lip In wilhin a Ihw iniUw i>f Nob, liuv*? itlmady 
boon publiebed by the Ur^at Xrigonometnoa] Sorvoy Dej-iurt- 
ULeut ; Ihe riindil'i^ rcnitr fr'oni ihitt iHjitLt iit >b»A^li nn tla^ inup 
iic(*i)EiipAf)ying Ibis uarrjttive, wbi(-*h b&e bc-en carefully qoi\' 
atnictcd from tfie iViiidit'a ronle-suncy- based on his ftttj'ono*] 
tnical obsenatjoiu for laittudu Jkod hi« byjisomotric uUcorvntioDg 
for Lo%ht fil>ove sea-lovol.J 

N'ob \% a Kmnll vilhigp in Um Rtidolch rlintrir-f, C4mtftining 
about tweuty ktjta, built of eton<T9i cemented by Pmd It hna 
unuU piirniaDi^t popalalion, wlii^h u ij;creu8ed Inrgdy iii tlie 
wint&r nioutbft by numuroan Hbophord^ (vbo duHnu thv xuiucuir 
are Katteied iu toiib la twos and Uinjua iu wluitever {larld of 

" AnrorlJtig lo Wm Inijii^ nurrv-r tnapii,lbif IwunJiiry liii'i bi<tw<ai] Lndukb 
and TiTvTi ig n riwI il'*^! tn tlin^VTiift of ib^ Imp u ffivpn 1>y tliv riiiKFil. T\\w 
lalltf ilAtcfl Uiikt iLo -itzoain nf tho Xin^^ni Volte? vliloh I^uwir doniTiireinlii ■i'«T| 
Urn UurUl^D uf?^ ftoEU Uimdal t^i Uw k-liuftittkt'urt ^ tbi: Uuu buuiidiuy. Tbai 
uuc jcivFii oEi E^ic kuf^c)r m*^\', vJk. Uir w^lctthtii la lb«: v»t of (L« olAr^ 

lilt? iviimlry In th^' norOi i>f tli<> Vmiunfan IaIm in IMGX, Tlim aurvry MinancU in 
«1ttim n f^v TDil'v nf NditBod lin- dp-tDltii<if It £(!iiFnJl J urvA rcnat MtlHrAr^lunljr 
«ltU tlii.^ I'lkiitllt'ij roub: i^^rT fr«iia Liikiini; la T'l^dji oJllioufh tbtru t> tliid 

1 UTi<l<]riur<.'r<r<'Tji.^' ^t^ Ur, WnllitirM HkftpuC lliA Pimjabfln't Wrvlfiii TLmiliiyiii. 
irbidi UPoiupuuitM tiouvrvj (^uijUEiigbmu't wLhbiiu^va wi>rt '>n lAdukb. tb«| 

BDDtfi nf Nbnu ^b^i miiti^iiiliud t>? tbf fvu^ nf tbx Xi^f^Au or Cluiiii; 1 'nrtiiu flirifr 
ii ilioim bt ^f^ l>ouridBry. TLe lLuiii>c (or R»*vimiiz] f^rritnt vrhjch mtprv tho: 
nuUi TcLltr*5 DOrlb of Nlbaeui ■■ tEitffi flf^AD ** bcJ'^tiRinj; to Tjlict. Lput it Appr^Aii 
fron Uio tott of \Ut- I'oudlfp riKtrihtWu Ibftl 1^ oKwodcd tiia Uiwiif; rtrMm oDit 
tiaad thar* hut* hml & iTtai^iTi^iftniind IwlnngSa^titbapc'oploiir Tnrikid'. 

t Ihn voml in »f Ihiw tcmibi; fAingrM, villow ; iftu^^vi, p«udl OXUi; 
t0inn|iiJh«. ? UaUf Ul 


Tbotter** Accoiint of the Fu,ndi(s JouTneif fram 

tlio diNtriot pmM and water ore to b« found in iniffioient abnn- 
(JaiKJe for iLeir numeroua flwks of abetp imd jonta, 'i'ht^ chief 

waft at Uitf timo of the Punitit'tt vu:t al a oump called Pinp^ 
abiint lliree days' jouirn-y north-weflt from Noh, 

Tho Lliitnilm u itndi.T Llift immodiati) orient of tlu^ Jot^pon 
or Got^eriior nf Itndokhp tfliow jiiriftdifrtiaQ vxti^ridH oT«r thftt 
portioa of North -VVi?rttf*na Tibet which lip* to tbp nortli of 
bie ^itigh-^j Glut br&Qcii ^f tlic luduN ad for ijant oa iho Thgk 
Jiilnn^ eolo -fields. 

The Jonirpf^ f*f ItiidoUh i* in his turn mitKirdiruito ti> iho 
G&cuori ofii^riolfli, who has alai) tmdt-r hiH OTder>« the Jitu^poDfl 
of tlie lurgo districts of Ougi (I>ub&) and Puronfr, «8 vdtl ■• 

GirpDD t» under the immi>diato order of the Gy^l^o or lUjfh of 
I>hh«£L The office of G&jrpon i^ oidy Icnabk tor Thrr« ymns, 
and i« aiwayfc h«ld by a native of LL^, who U [ippointi^d ty 
tlio OyOilLo. Tii^ Joijgpoua ore oJao grnerally cbnngod ovcry 
three or tmir yeiirs. 

The pr&\'iti« of \V<wtcTTi 1hb<^l U frequently tenuf>d Nan 
Rhormuiii. The inhabitaDtn of iho Jjorditrrn porlicn, Lk, (1i«i 
difttrict Ihrongh wlucli thu Pimdit travi^llucl, arc oiklted Ly the 
aettJed poirul&tion l4j the auulh Vh&my&t or Chiint/jha, i.f. \ii&- 
rnlly Ain^A-rnffA. Bvthn inhftbiUtitAof Turkisfiinlhtrynrecfttlvd 
T^hlik, or moiintalnetfrrt, Tbr< Churtpiu enoaaDtend by tlio 
Fiindit W9re» contrar}' to the ^nei-ally received opinion of thefa» 
quitL^ inoH'i^ttsiv? t>ei?plc> of tho Matnc oin^M m the p4Hip|p of Ittidokh 
anU the iiinr^ oiviliKod dJFtini'tri further suuth.* They are aU 
IJuddhiBt^f but riGligioUB odificog ore scarce in tJiotr oonntry, 
Ou ib*^ PiiiuUtV nuitn ibruii^rh this tK>rtiini of Tib*-! b^ rnmo 
Across no Gon^or raoitast^ry, althoLi^b \m occaaionally encoun- 
tered Miiiiiii AJid €f\urtiin§,\ 

The road from Noh ekirU the Paa^on^ Luke, wbli?b at Noh 
i« joLDcd by o, strciain from tho ttortk-eoat, up vrhieh goes a good 
road to Kb'titau, vm? Pu1« and Kiriu. 

Tbe distanoe* to Khotaa by thia road is abtmt450 mao* F«- 
a dialjuicfl of 40 miles fratn Null k gradiudly rins^ to n briglit 

• J hupp ra jsrfl •nooimtamfl Chantp#f En ih^ Hitpuliii <ltii.rliit nf Ijiilnkh U\ th» 
wwt nf (JhtiH-H.^ Tilwl. TJiP lubllMtiJid uiisUim^rtf tln?*o wHJpki upjitikf to b&Jurt 
IJk (MMnM iifl tli^Miorili^mmii ^liin vho litv OTvr (lie bonWi 

t A cifcwiiTH ir r^Aif^jfi II ill flood hj OuimiaichAiD a« ■ " liik iwDptute" or 
"nfftvir? npoattnry." It ii k )<jnunMiil-4lupod luildlog OKol<U in tjnuuat af 
■r«iu of the hnly BnddhiL A mfni 1* hn i^blang liyloa u ^a af A^irm 4 cit ,S ( 
hSjfb lUhl fhim 10 ba \l ftet biavl, varrlit^ En liuif lb frnm 2Q f*«iL tn t\«Kt\y « 
uiilri. 1'ljar Am riitjr<i]^ Otfnpoard oT ilDnM »id Iv If dvinHod nut br nne bj 
IntvijUoiv tnuwinj^ by. On ttteli wbo* atoow it cuiifmUy lucnbod m ireU- 

Lih to LhtUoy end Eehim to India mA Auam. 


of l&,fiOO foet, and Uioa for ftbcut 160 mitc4 u tho crov ili^K, 
crosses, in a nortb-ea^lerly direction, a seri*^ of elevated plain* 
and riil^Yv, Ix-tVirp it (lefioenflit sotnnvitiAl siirlilrJily In iUk plains 
of Eiu(l4^m Titrkirttiii. Tbo awrvgo hf i^lit above »ea-1evi>l of 
tlw liahiDg'ptftppH OD the eli^vatetl plain to tho north of Noli in 
IG^OO fw^L* J'hiH viisl bighlj-^evatiMl plat««u over which the 
road paML'A ia tbo ca»t*m cmtmuntivu of the LiDg-zi Hiang and 
Akdu Chin plains, ivhioh lie at a similar, or in plaeod i^ven a 
Hghrr, iilrvatioa iMnt)orih*vtHrrr]vi?in>i<t,i<iTi fmin Nnh, hfftwrt-u 
the UhaEit^'obeumo Eivor and tho^vuou Luen B^in^'^, and baT© 
to be croAi^cd hv (he travfller who adupla the Eaetern (or Chan^ 
" eiiino) rutito' hutwi^u lA^h and Yarlcjind. To lie nonh of 
d Kiion Liion tlieie jb a rapid fall infu the plcdna of KaMcra 

ThLi Tibetan platan extends eastward, oh wg flhoU see in the 
cininni i>f ihJK tiartiLliv^, ha fnr aa the head-inat^tv of thr gn-at 
riTem vhich whlor ChiHFt,^n iact (nr a (liwtanc<^ of moTe than 
dOO milea to tin- Iknirlian l^uda SloUEituuin (suiith-vYt'ht of tho 
Eoko-rinr Lak^ on tha rc-nd ti^lw^tin LhtUa and R-kii])^ whtrre 
we Ettitt tmd, ai?c^j>iding to the Alhe Iliir and thti sttU luoro 
t9C«Dt rpwarches of ihe Knfieinn Cflplam PrejevaUki, a tahl.*- 
land nwnyr from M.UW to li>.WO feet olwre tho scu-iovel, 
above which tower i^tj^iitio «now-4yiverM] muuntuina, 

&«rai ciile« to the oast of Noh is (he cavtcnn termination of 
the atnim of Uikvit Vunmi U* \ih ns t\w Fan^^ong, but better 
known to the TiL^tang as the Chomo Gna Latinff Cho, whi<rbL» 
lit«^mnv iTit'^r|wiet'*d, roeaoM ■'Frniido nwri>w rrry long 
lift t'xtntiK- Iruj^tb Imm the w^t ^d at Lukong la 
y lOU uiihai Nvhili; the breadth probably no^shcre czc^da 

all or Htvrll,| 

At ila efu9tcni aitremily it is entered by a amaJI fttrcATn, 
S piicf« Itrntul Olid 1^ foot d<iep, ATthongh thBgrnftterportiim nf 
thia lakvha* hce^n pn^viousEly purveyed und dciwritied, ita oaeteru 
liuiit hafl tio^v btieu- iltttriuined tor the Jlmt time^ It i« a 
euriotu fael thtit iho wntor ut tho castera rxtri?niit.y ia sweet 
ftod good to dniik. while ih^a at iJj" ^v^ fnU la very brackisli. 
It hiu been eoni^lii9ive)y shown by Mnjor tJodwir-AiJxtca that 
thia hike onco tjpon a (iiac drained into tho ^byi^k, bnt at 

Ereiwnt it forrrs um mo&t western of a numerotii!! «>?irJe)cof inhind 
»kea with no ontlels^bich wc shall find aircti h for a coiitiidei- 
ttble iJjalujii'i* wft>M l\m Hlevu1j?d plattiHU of (jr^ntrul Tibet. 

• For '\tri»iU vf Ehln fmwl wt' Rflutn XIV. of flrolkni G fif Ofvi^mplili^iil 
AwoudU U> LliD ItfiujTl %M IbE ^iirT*j 0[«9iklii^ji tucaunpctiijij with tiin luiulga 

t Tbs d«ptb of thii Vvitpiig Lakif *t tu »«l end wid rvimd bj ■ouodiiii;* tltat 
1 made Id iViS Ui tw nuvlimv gmur tbiui 13LI f«tfL 

P2 Thotter'/ Jc^^nmi »fihe JPundiTt Jc*irfw/frcm 

JVoA to TTiok DaifniJ^^a. 

From Noh tho Fundit tailed on for many weary maralus 
OTcr tlii» Tibetan pUtf^an ; hi* road lay eastward along a. wid«, 
o|)efi. gTtii«iy vEiUt*y vjiryiTig in widlll frrjiu G tij 10 milefl^ 
bouodod on t.ho north end sn^uth by low graas-covoreil hills, 
tlimnj^h wKIrh (M<<Tuimnu1 npnmTi^ gnvt? n x'i«» »>f r^xlim^ave 
plains flireicliinf* away a« &i oa tijo eyo could reach. Iteyond 
tho liiIJa somevtimce appearml anon-^^apped mouataiDA. while 
on occasional iiUL>[>herd*K Unit iu tins fort^roimd, oud tlie freqaeot 
appBArckiico of Idrgo \i<inli of tvild usatis. fnit^lopc^ And gigantic 
Wild *liw>p," hL'lprd lo rrlicrc* thr luimc^hmy of iIid journey, tn 
ftlmost evurv duy'& mari-h lur^ ehfctd ol' wilUt wor*.* pa^^cd, 
(Z^'N'^rdly wlIi, hut oocjtsrniinllv fid hy fn-wh-wnl^^r hjtrinK'^ At 
th* UUL»r tlio IMndit und hi^ o*imimmuiw would fill ibeir wat*P- 
fikiiia.t ^ th^^y lately luia^v frum day to duy whether or no ihcj 
wiiuld bo ablo Cij obtuiik a ItorIi »upply oa the roud. HoT9 
than onto their aupplv tif Ihi* precwufl fluid was exhausted, 
itnd on i>ni» occnfttoii Inn whole party w^^rr nir}rp thiiii twenty 
hour^ wiibout frr*h wotcr. For futd, also a travGlltT'e noco*- 
hary, they w\-t? bfUirr off; the wrrfoia rir (hnig '>f the nuiucrou* 
llocLcti ol wibi uinmal« wrrc a nrvor'failinj: Moun^v of aupply* 
whilv t.H^f.tuiIi^ijidly. bjit rait^ly. Iirtrwood vah ubtuiiifd in coi^ 
Kid<irahlo quantiliaa Al Thaobftp Oho, n fn^sJi^wftt^r lak^, 
M'tlht dfiyj tti tho cAit of Xob, and tho 27tb lialtiuKi>i^« from 
J^h, a lnv^t* fltream Aowiug from ^om^ Bnow-ctirerixJ hilln to 
lh« nnrtb'O^t^t of the lake wn^ found to 1m; covered on both 
hn-inkH >vith a <]t<nHi- iart^ttt of vi jlKm. laiimvi^k, BJid i.»t]ii<r trees 
niid ^tirubs-t For the- tlrat thirtv mardv^s from Nob tlur h<i^ht« 
of llie chiiiping;-gnJUTjcU viiru'il ln*twct'ii 13,700 .iitd 15.001) f<?»?l, 
and for the met of the Joiunoy to Nanicho tbn ground na* 
Howewbat bigber» hot tbtrc ww no conj^idcmblo riae or fal! 
throiighont this portion of the Pundit'ft route. Tho large, flat, 
opc?n valley* traycreod by the I'uJidit. locally tormtni SoAg^^ 
ujijifHr til be mm'h of the same miiiirt^ jix ibr* Pff?i)fr> between 
iuietorn an^l Wt^stom Xarktetiti and tbo Jii^as\ of NortiiOTD 
Tjmlikh. TImw Sun^s of TiLiel^ hoHiiVcr, iv»uld x**rui to havft 
nvjre <d plain and leas of prooipitoua mountaina than either tho 
Pamirs or the Jilgaa. 

Tho road for tho first ten maTchc^M frotu Xolt pasaea through 
tho iiawouK Ghan^yma or NaHlttsm lUwang dJAlri^t, and ia 


LfA t^ Lftdia, cmd RHum to India v\& A4Mm^ 


nearly p&r&tk'l 10^ And north of, at & difitsnoe In placed of only 
o few fiiiW from* tUo route followed by jinotlifr Piindit on a 
fonrier uooa^iuu while ou hu way from Uudokh 1o ThoU Jaluu^ 
through itav^ang Lhi^ma or the Souihcm Jiawaug oiatrict, 
whi<:]L ia sepirated Jhmi ttud uurtlierii Dua b^ u iuw niitgi? uf 

Tho Pdiiillt px^inl ^ rmJe the; mU manhn of Kh»: Cli^k^ 
iiiid DakdciLg uLaki* from «iiich tlio people of the iturrouikdm^ 
coujxtry collect laico i^uantitiM of salt, wliich they curry for 
mJo l> LaiKUb. Qo ataU'i that the «alt forinw a L^m^t Iviug 
like a aheot of ico oo tlio eurfocc of tho mud. Th« £ul(-iei?l<era 
Fiink tliroiigh UiIh ctmit tin lli^fr {tnn< in rmii) imd w^tor, «nd 
rcmovo Hie fttUt, whicli tlioy sutocijueiilly vru^h, cl^^ou and dry 
iu tlio sun. 

At Chubuk iTtn^K or vtUage (14,100 foot abovo ffru-lovel) 
new two liuTA biuh of nood, and iu Hm tiei[^bhr>orliooi] mimi- 
twTiity t«mtj* of jiliopbctils were yinible. Hon> i1i<in» wora a fi^w 
ficldrt ivhore barley ifl grown, tite tir^t si;rii0 of cnliivation 
that hail boen efmi xinc^e leaving Nok Thr J'Timlit in t^f opinion 
tliat wun^ the coimtry more thickly pupulatotl, tlinro would be 
uo ilitlktilty in Ending plenty of ground Gl ftir oulLivution. 
The Cliotnrik inhabitant^ a|i[>L^r, howovor, to tmny bat Uttle tor 
gnin, and live a)uioat entirely ou manU milk, butlt^r nnil cUim^iw, 
theptviduce of thi^ir nunic-ntni ihicUj^ and herdn. One siie^p- 
loaili 20 Ib^u, oi' Hfjur, alRirda au nmj>k hnpply tor the cqd- 
auuipdon of eight or t^'n men for n roii}ile of luonlhst At the 
portnanont oumpj they hud lar^o i^aldrouK, f^rnrraliy made of 
itlone; in Lhttit* tliey ntted to make a \«<ry wenk «)iij>, into 
wkieh they throw a han<Kul of tlour. 'Tiii« eonstituied Ibv 
dinoLT for a lat^o jjarty. At thuir muvublt; canip:^ thoy i^.ifok 
in gmaller vessels miwie of «tone or copper (bolh of which urc 

iportod from Lmiiikh). All arliclos ol copjicr or iron Are vejy 
Loch valued, aud a ^mall axe of the Pundit'j, whieh hts Ufpt 
for the por-poec of I>reAkin^ up ice, be might at any time ha«« 
exi'liuiigr^'d for two or thrtt? Hbepp^ 

Tlie only articles thai thoao peoplo tfaemselvoA manufacture 
ar^ t«nt« and T<frv ctMirsc nuollen clothing. Thr foroter are 
black, and are made from yak's hair, tRid the latttr from tho 
fleeces of their Bhccjp, which eiUo produce the material fur 
making the? ba^ in which they toke salt for «a1e in Ladukh. 

Tbcir wealth cou&iata of their horgna, Hocks, and hordt*, iVotn 
the produtfflj; of whi<'h lliey are mainly F<umtiirtiij|; aIko in salt 
which tbo^ carry for ealo to Ladakh, and in return for which 
they ohlHin Hour, coppiiir, utomi v*-w-*U, nad hai-dware. ^fottt 
[amLhoe poAti^iiki a matotdock, ^eneratlv of Nepal manubelLiro, 
and the men of tho Kudokh district seldom move about without 

either a gun or ft bow aikd arrows, iti the uto of whioh latter 
Limy nm ucry i*x|>ei"l- Likn tliH inUnUianrA u? athei pans of 
Ceatr&l A^iOt thi?y fire their ^da ithilc lyin^ fit full (en;^h cd 
tlic ^rr'Hiid, thr hmikkIt* hfiiiig [Hij>(Mirtrtil ly h j"n.iu)i aUoUt ft 
foot lonp;, cenaraliy made of antelLpe-homs. Kwh j;tm hiu ft 
piece of Trhitc bunting atUchcd t-> the bum-l, whiofi ift tiius 
oonvcrted into ti flag, Gurifiowder U vory *oari.'e, und i« 
gCEOTally preserved m spociol occaaJona. 

The PnudiL atat«a IIiuTh mi n rnrtiu^r j»iini<^y, when he v»ltP<l 
a large fair ftt G&ilokh, the youbg men, who are nil i>x[x*rt 
horeetaeD, iirved to prRHin r<^ry sLircnvrulty iit ii lunrk while 
COiDg at full vpoed en boncbaek.* Eav/h couipeiitor eArrind 
Iwo guaa and a bow and arrovvs, and bavJug fiu-d off hia gun 
uiu^l to diat^hargp hti nrrovM, 

The Chaiugma arc koea in the pur^iiit of pt^m?, which Ui^y 
Itill in tjirg«» <]rintLL!ti<% partly viith tlrritrniH nad Lhjws alia 
arrows, but chiufly with a hiud of tmjj oiallod Redokh OhiimJ 
Tery iiDjilar in piinciple tu an Eiij;;li«h laMrup. It c«)tj»iwl9 
of a rW madi> of rupo* to whosu inner aurface are attaclied 
eListio aharp-poiuted elipa of wood converpiD;* towtirdjf tho 
centre of tli<T ring, where u epjioe iii li<-l't viif1u-ii<i)i]y Iniye to 
allow the paaaago ihrou^h it ol an uiiiiimrd fool, *^lnLdl brilr-^ 
ere dtig ia iha gittiitid m-ar th^^ vrAt**r which ihiT wihL itiiiiitabi 
arc kiiriWD to lro<|iii nt« Theee tmpn are plaoed at the top, 
hjildmi it[nix view by a cohering uf eartli> and altaclicd by a 
rtrong ropff, bI^q ooacealod from view, to n rtimt pt'^'* whieh is 
drivcrii into the ground at a coiisidprabl'* diHla-iJoe oft TW 
animals 0:1 their ^vny to the Wfttf<r pH8fl i^v^r t.hi't hnlra, aiid tlie 
weight of thu body drivr* tht? fciut through thn nuffi Oaco 
througb, it ii impossjllt" for the unimal Vj free his i*int from 
tho trap, and he fliien IiiIIa a victim ti» ttie 9»on] aiid apeaf of 
lht» huiiLer. whu lien (iiJiK^-iklud M]int?wheiti ill the UT-i^hhonrhood. 
Great nuiuWrtt of wild borwe, »he9p, and aiiU>lo|>^H nro killed 
in thia tiiiiiiiiDr. 

For ten man^lips from Ohabnk Zin:*n to Biwilc Cliakfl th» 
country wn« tininhEtbitr'd ; the road Uy over a pininway nimilnr 
to hliAt hud alreiidy been tmvenn<d bttu'<*i*(i Nob Liml Chnitiik, 
Tho Chanipnfl at tho Inttcr place iiad given 'lur Inivdh^r* 
grunral iiiHlriu'ticnm an U> ihf lim: tif nuul tu ht? ri^lhjwt^*] 1 bat it 
Appears that the la1t«r had diver^d too much to the rorih. and 
niiiwr] llm E>r]<.»nii»Tij<-iit i>f Ciurgrrthoh whieli tho Ptindit had 
heeu priivioubly tuld lay cm the ronle to Lh^^ and wbicli h^ 
had intended viaitii^i ba odo of h\M »tvanta bail a (rieod Uwro 

t LiumSiy aaimat-eakhar. 

Lsh tc Lhdia^ and Heturri (0 tmliti viat Aaam* 


through whoso mflucxico thov hoped to recoive odaieCanoo in 

tho Eb^FLiptL or Kampa district, reDownc*d (or the bad ehu^>iei<«r 
<>f its popuJalioD, and 011 ariivAl nl llis»ik Chaka {on the 2&tii of 
Au^up^t) mxi fj^ieaily iltHturb^ in luiud ul -wijiiii^ men Jiijproacli- 
isg tbcm frgm a diatoDce with yabt ajid |:>onic8> Not kno^nig 
what tu LxpuLl^ liD immefimtilv tMjmiriiliHj in tlji? tsirth liin 
ItLfltrumcinle, tUo fcroater part of hia dothee, and a few baga of 
gniii, luid ivmAinnd lu-liiud, vrhilo hn wtit iin two nf iiiK mj<n 
to rocoftiioitre find tuako incjUiKee. 

Tho vtinngoralottoiiateh turned or^t io bo nviideotfi of Gai^ 
^ethtjj, lit* pUco tho PuuJit WHH aiming ut rtaoldu^, mid wlnt'h 
Jay about « da^'e inttrch ti> llie aotith-»'cst of lli^ik Oiiiika, 
Oit tli(» IbUowing dny (An^ixt '^r>lh) tliL-y imvplh^il Inj^Khnr tfi 
tiKTgelhoL, whoro they found a hirg« eucami^iuent ai KhitM:pn,9, 
Aud had the good fortnae to cnL'ui^nT^r tho Jiiait thi^y hkul bi^eii 
loohiag for. It upputin tliat in yi-ar» ^^uo by tho PunJii'it 
KTvaul had fltruL'k up a great £i-ie<adship in Ladakh with a 
medical priLCtitioiirr, who nan now a man of au^nt nitlui-tjoo 
amongst tho Khftmuaa, It ^vna ui crd«r to Hnahim tiiut ihd 
Pundit h&d tom^.^d owik to ti^gf^thoh Whrtn foiitiHi ho did nnt 
douy hict uld frit^ud, hut, on thd (."Oiitmry, wua of tlio f^n^lctft 
afisiMtani.'&, as he ^hvo teitei'8 to the Putnlit for the (Ii/mho* 
or hoodmarL of GnrohuthuJ, nuolhur Eham|>a dinLrit^t aevornj 
mftralMM fVirllit^r tuutU 

The iChampas who inlmbit thwio two diBtrict* of Gargetbol 
and (JiiirGhL-'tticl cnuHt not he confounded with thtj Chaitg|HUi or 
Champa?, an entirely difter^ut r8c*> Tho KliimnHM originalt/ 
camo &om IIri country of l\him» whii^h lio* I':* tlie nrjrtti-east 
and UdUft tif Lhit«a-| 'T\xt*y tiiimher in Giirgethul abunt He««uty 
tont^ Avitb a popuktioD of d'XI or 7C!0 soiiU Id GarchothcA 
lli»r» ani nlicnit mir hnnditHl tenU. 

Tbtii^o KhaEupaa had migrated (root their oivn conntry (iioar 
Zillng^ to tlie 041*1 of tlio Ki»k^-aur Ijikc) abtiut twci»t>--flro 
yeart priur tu th« Pimdii*ii visit. They travelM viil LIj^ and 
the JliauflrtiitiW'ar Lake, noor which pUre they phiudcrrd a cani- 
vjin, anil ^tni with lh<Tif Inx^ty to tlif ir prc«nrit liiuLipiuy^yroundH, 
wLic^h. prior to that time, were uainhabitod. Soon ultor aotttiiif; 

" Gv^nf b thd Tlbotsii itrm fur ijmJiuftrL, uud atffdpartda I0 tbe l^Ukhi 

t Mr. IVDpr. thti mvullnr, !□ his ■tL<uii>L t'lHn-Kiiil thv l^iiikKiiilIrn Hlvpr 
rnup oo^aa n inlm siJJijI Jf/ui»rrii«. iflwwere »id tn h*To fariur^ljr «iaij;ri>U'il 
fnmi iJiD oci^iiirr %h>»»t ih*' Li'i^l-iraLan of tha [AWkJd^, It u, I ilionld tbioK 
UDl uBjMMjUu tuibt R UiTiprku AE»I KLiliatI* both ^Kima or tJia «uac ttnk 

I Atn>plitig lo ttjp Al'hr Hue, tlw ••ipn%\ it( ihn Kliifli dkilflot it Tti-tnuia or 

V^r^ thi^ W9ro onlled on by th^ Gftrnon of G&rtokh to pay 
tribut<i, whicb thoy now do miniiallT Xc uio i::ttettt of 5000 l^iik* 
lan^, or tankAft, f i>. about mpeei 2iW (200?.), or its eqnmlont 
in (Eol<l> gill * borac^ find cAtt]i>. ThiA tnbntc h peid in Gir- 
U>kh» ami A pufu-tritl |mjm»'ni (kuWfta* ^^mrta a crrUin 
imirninity from th^^irpoc^ttdillof^ being ini^mrod into. They 
jxwftr™ iVrgi- hriti\9 nf rattle, Ac* e«c6 li*lit hATiiig from 10 
To Gil ]ior»ta, &nd Stom 500 lo 2000 Ah^jy Ttidv d««puti>h 
armujiltj to a fair nt Giii>>ma, nc-fkr SE^irjn^ion'Ar, laige qunii- 
tiiirt of «liecp and ^oi^W wou). Milt, anil ^fild ; and, Aotwrdingio 
their o^vn ocVMiunt. wlton thoy bavo ticHhod th-yh meTCAhtile 
tmniucliniuit lhc?y wmd f>n tlir rIntJm, Af,, l.liiit t.htiy hnvii |nqr- 
ohoaed. undor tUo »eorl cf iho oRyr anl lees actiro momborA of 
t1v.' trfW, while ihr yoiin^ jfK'n hIjmT *»n wnnv mamitdiDg vit'or- 
vion, tb<T^iniiuiiDrvvhii*U uro jri-iiemlly imvelhnt, and RtruDgors 
lo Hit connlrr* Tho Kl^mpas aro m^II arioed with guafl and 
awoH«p w'hlca latl^r nn> <y>iifitiuitlr worn rvoil by boy*. 'Hio 
ni^cibbnxdA are uft^u handAomoly onuLnLCTitt*d ^tb |^Ld, tur- 
quoif;i?«, nnd rnral. 

Tlic tnpn arc (inf*, lar^c, brood-Tthoulder^ fi^llowa. Thoy 
wear, btit.h in anntrritr mid wiiifiT, jviflum ninde of she»*^i-^kiria, 
iho h»ir Iwirii* turnf^l irwnJo, Thiw» ootiUi aro wrom fih<jrt, <*x- 
Coifltni; til the kitf!t'rt Hily, and nr^ fai^t^riied rciiad tliti WJiLtt br 
a woollen pirdle, above whJoh th@ ooat h roomy nnd oapaeioiiJi, 
afi'oriling amplo «pac^ for the vlornerc of their gotMlii and chatt^Va 
wb«i Oh a journey. Tliov have felt hats, regeinblinf* in fthB|>o 
a broad-bmoniod Knglisn u*id4Hi%Ltiht and leather bod-ls with 
wooIIhh ti^w Ftnd |k(iii]liH) i*ii*n, TIji-v havn nii kalrim ibrfiwvij 
and thai ot tlie head h phiireil. Obuie^ fasbioD, into pif^tailck 
Tli0 womrn dniw trry mnrh a* iiu- niru^ but tln-ir jH»)iiir^ uro 
longer and leas roomy. They wear ruiiLd leather mips nod vt^ry 
long hair, to the plait« of which aro fastened long pendaiita 
neiiTly rpuf^hhif: thj^ ground, |jrofn*6ly onmniirntHL Siitrfly with 
silTor cy^ina, of which tho favourile is th** liritith rup^. Both 
tnr-n iitiO Winiit-n arr alwciyj* in thn middlff; thry ndn Urge^ 
powL^rfdi horeeB, ajid Uith flexes ar^ BkillUl n^Jirtu Tht^y nro 

Ct sportsmen, and kill Inrge quantitir*; of ^lue, chitdly wild 
et,aheep, and flulelope. They nth^r t^uiploy firvHiTnu or 
kill their prey with awordi nnd spears <nhen cuuf^ht in tlin 
Rt^dokh Chum tnip bt<for(^ d('*i(Tilh^il. Thi^ir cnpaeify foresting 
meat appuara lo be unbounded, tind they arc upp»rr:ntly natu* 
rally tfomt^ulint blcxidthinvtv. H'llhePnndit states, tbut on several 
oceasioua wht^ an uninud tmd bt^r^n killed, ho saw tho Khdmpa 
bo>6 kneel down and lii^k the blood olf the (ground. Thla fond* 

Lth to t^hdjutf end RHxtrn to India vi^ A*aam, 


xitusi fbr bloori woiild npnc nr to b« drririy] froma.HiUeiirliera^. 
as the food given to infants, wh^n their mt-thpr* otn no Inn^'er 
j^upport them, cioDsiaU, ia the rntiro nb^iiou of ^ram in tho 
cfjiiutry, nf poundinl [*lie-<<Hti miirj n\t wiOi bult«r miiJ blu<hi. 
'thiiy ftrf< of tho Biiddhiet rolipon. bnl their Ungudgr** '* <)nito 
cliJjTeret^t tf* that i^fotlir.r Ti1«tuiiAf* uni] uuly cue man uf tlje 
Puadifa party, who had reflid<>d some years nl Sininf;-fa (to tho 
ea^t of tlie Koko NuiJ, ww* nUc to undcratmid it tuid lo nmkc 
himself underslijod. 

iictwccn Gar^ctliol and tho Champa district of SlinnkhoTrOii 
i\iK wititi), is li [j1ai?f; L'lillitd O^-ghA, wh^-n? ii liir^n fair b EUiiiuttlljr 
held iQ July and Aaguat, 

On the i^9th of Augimt thr:^ Piindit retnriKid to Umik Clink^ 
vhera ht mw a. Iflrp:^ hard of Mnt/«, wild bot««a, fully 200 i& 
tiGmbfir, He contiaucd hia route over uninhnhit^d lerel plains, till 
thtf lift of Si^jJtember, wheu, ut n Pomp chHe^J Huhul Oho, bu met 
on th© road the Cumlo of tihrchuthol, a gtntk'ianii who «ae dia- 
tiEtgiiishnble from Iti^ fiillowifm^ in thut htt \\nr& n. jiPiJr iif golilf^n 
fittrnogs, of j^uh length ae to riBt en his bhouldcrB, The pr&- 
ientatioD of th« letter of iiii rodiiction from thefr medical friend 
Bt Gargethol securecl cur jMirty a civil rcoeplion. 

The folluMtiig uigbt there was a ahurp tro6t» the fimt agn of 
thft iipproHoh of winter. 
I Ou the tird of f>e|>ten)lier they reached the tilla^ of Maiip:o« 

^^b41)0 heivl-fjuart^rs of theGomho, nho hud p^ne ort uheiu] of iho 
^^^IrQTeUerg. The Pnndit pJiid him a rormu) visit in his tent — a 
W luiga oTie niada of vAk's Imir — and gi*vt? him n Ritiall preaent of 
I mndal-wood. The Pandit wos kindly tuoated, nnd on mti- 
I matirtg 1o the Gomho tlmt \\r nrui oti hiiN vray Ut vknii ncele- 
^^^ bra ted monastery near the Nurm.*ho Lake, Chiriu^OiiDdnk (tho 
^^PUombo] gflid he wa* hiitihcH'abtujl to move hi? civtiip ecTenil 
days' tnareh in tbut directiou. and prr:mor4ed that they shoidd 

f<.*rform the joarticy logctber, The FuDdit ^mt^fuily acquiesced. 
)ti ri'tiiraiug III hi» oHn t^iii, htr fitiiiid IiimHRlf LirHif^^ed by n 
boat of curious Khdupufl, who wtre all most ansioug to booome 

f(«wi»jmr» of tlip villous little arUt'Ii* of bwrtlwunf lir bud with 
im. bul ho reeuhitely refusal to part nitb anytbinp;. 
Amon^ other lisitor^ v^its au old mau named Sonant Darka, 
it>uiit eighly ^tars ofjige, ftiiutive Cif a eountr\' iitur l-ljiisu, who 
bad be^n Hviii^' us n st-rvdnt amon^ tho Khikm[i{;« lor several 
yrnn^ and hnr] ^^mdiinlly nreiitnnlatHef) ■ ^niod diuil of [jrcipt^rly. 
ihf Ptinditft \vIk'ii 1i(^ lound ihut this niou could Mp»ak f!:ood 

* Aorfiriling 1o ibi? Put^lrt mim; vord* otq iJi^iitlHii* bqt the affiud kud p4- 
Hif* ftiv Dibtiroty 4lv1f(irk>nt lo ibi><r of 1'ib«i 'I'h^ »>iJy ^lOiril hti iv^nIJ iwuilJn^L U 
tiLhI llir nflji Ttfu in lh« blgn or thi* liitrrrriguit'.'rk^ Tliin, nuritmalv, in ii\nnila/iX 
*iUi tba fiiiamvutlvt; In the Tiickl Iad^b^v ua apukm in KAebcur. and iBaj 
pnhiipii Indkaljj a wiu^jivu origin firr the tttu laoi^mcoA. 


TbottbbV JmioU ^fih* Altefi'<tf J^ttrncif fr^m 

XiWajir «DCcee<Jod in ««ciinng Lifi fri(^ndt<htp l>y tho present of ft 
iple of ct^moicD aewinp-reifMileSj ari<i otwineH from tiim ibu 
[lowing intarmaUon alxmt ibf iicJt;hi>trtmTic: ontntnca:^ 
Tlk(' tH^tru-'t li> Uie \Mri\i of 1 >ur-^t* uud riHrirlieifiol U n InrKQ 
uEiijfiaUtod plain, akUi^d Jung I'hdyii l^vl. mc^ininj:: litomflr 
" Ui'^(Ii**i^rtti(juiitry ID wbuhtlic ittUii-iranilariii huvt? wiLiiJcie'i, ' 
90 C4]lvd froEit ft Uaditi^tk tliat tno men of tbo±>banJib(jr t^muitry 
bftd, la&ny years previously, entered thu <lc««ri trnct Car tlio 
«flko of liuiiliug ; 13111, afU^T viuttdii^riiig alonl for a lengthettptl 
poriud, llioy boih died tiie*ro for want of water** Somn thirty 
dr forty years hefon tin? ]^nudit"K vr*it. mid pritir bt tht i^^-a- 
patioa of GaKlictbo! ty tlif Kbt^Lupa irib^ uho novr dnrvll 
lb(;r^> llmri^ ii«ed toh^ con^idm ablu lislBc bctfltni ttiv- bbn* 
fciUuu ol Nukohucfi: (n Auiriot tc th^ ea«t of GarcliethoL) 
and a. pJaoe c&Lled K^i Tbaii]>soiue 1±0 days' joumr-y to tiic 
NJI.W. of TJiuk Diitinikpiu To Kiri Tham inoreUnul* lived 
to cookie from Nurln, a flat* 8 ©r 10 dt^ya' journey off in tho 
Yirkin country, and the TiU^tanH tlwr^ to birtcr |fold 
lor grain and oott<iii clotliHL Tbc tradi^is from Nuria wore 
a |«op1ti whD lued tu ^tiave tlieir heAd^ (on vfhii^b Xiury vote 
largo Ibldorl <:'1otL8), and who U0(:d to cut tho lUroutH of »b«^p 
iuatmd of HtroiiifUa^ ihi^iu, na )« dtme in Noriliem Tibet* 
SoTiAro Varkti. aUo f*3rail6ct<?d a few wt>rc3*i of lh(*ir Uqruago, 
irlijch thn runilit, vrho hod only rcsct'titly rctumfxi froiu Vt^rkimd, 
at once roL*oi*riisfsi an Tiii'ki. The raid from Thok Haan^kpa 
u oaid totmvcri»c ior 2U dnys' journey cxlrn«Tf^plaiiiJt,aud tla<& 
£-nK4iieA II Hiii>wy rniiLCi-, ni lite foot of wlik^h Lie>4 Nuri Tliaru, 
^iarrd a coneidoTAll^ »trojua, tho only one oacoiitiioiy*d im tbn 
J0i]niL*y> flowN £j\iai ctwt in wcj^t.t Sonani hud lit hm youth 
tDnda tha journey savoral timea, but tJie road bad now heotx 

■ CurlMjily nnonirh. naothor fatidit on a fwtnfi c-iplnmtinn Irnmiitl IniolH- 

Sciitn-vt llm i?(jiiii-E]M.' vf iiJE iv^filiitrd c^FiLiLi]')' uiiU.ii Jiiij^ Fluvil Vuyii ia ihv 

t It j* i]i<iir thiil ^«tLui ■ittitnlii tir Yutkimi-I, am) it ]» Di«rt]r tqoiJIy ontaJit 
tUiit ViifU ift n pW^mlli-f) \Lir4 lit my miip of KuMti^m TurWiiUn, od UiadlrvrC 
md K^tiTLiTii klji^iiUL oil*! roLtl. £ flad In a uuiiiiiK^TiijL itnUi lii (njr poHmafon 
llijil trsti NniiFa. n fiLitLe iklrvnt vne mmob kr tbu ai*l uf fJaiiiuUxb, mid wlilfb is 
prububly iJuuliml with IJdni, k kaam h * pUituur c»|i"rt cf f^miu l^w^nla 
Tlbi'l. Krovi F>.>u!l]u^fl iiM<rrlptioii of CIm iowJ, uud tli" knowliil^i*' t-fkiit iu id<4f 
«AAlh''t n ]Bv>vy niiigi* In mUi lA Im oonllnri'iiKly vn-iMf n\ftijr, tl>f< roiui frnm 
Kirlfi lo CliUTL^hiLDiJ. 1 iafrr UihL Nlri TliUit uit7Ui>h(<B ■ paltian at Hvc fisot cf Urn 
uoHtncni (ivuLijiu£ riibh'p cif^ ^ Gnnt l^ibfiUji ^LkEail tonn-Tthal ■UliUuc to UiM 
licld Ipy Pcld and Sur^Ldk, udiI jirn^ablj Um apfirvxmmkly ^u IntilLHlp 3U'* kfy 
Inn^iliidv M*^. TLo ftroam mrulj'iiioJ pn^lmhlj nova luto tto flimt DoAtil, wtKi 
latij ^ytMihlj \v^ t]ii> Mmc llint piujb<> l>y CtiartliHni]. 

Jh/i TuJiilK muuUuEii tliAL u(ui}]iK*l tliP Aljmp fii Nurlhi^rn TIM Vfivi rntom 
y* jtlj Intjz-i LuJIn Mud ixi hnvii Ikvu Imul Tnim wrmr^ Ujnt tiwl Iitti bnn^gJtb lUuiiy 
yidfB 1>if<iru Itnm Knji 'Huru- Tliu lur£0-lihi]od tLccp, or * I>mi;ibb>'* It iLo 
tluiivnsl brc4d iu VArku^d. 


hth U> thdiOy and Rmim tc irnfift viil Auam. 


tIidmI rnrnt bvint Ihirty viMiTfLptlie refiM>n givpn bring I.1iuii4m?e 
Ihe dfpuovery of borftx, or mthcr sinoc loiiu hiiw bi^ccroo a eonrj 
-icicroble article of tra<ie Itrt^eeu TilM^t axiO lliiidLibUD* the' 
inhalriUiiU of Xukchkng now Qad a good murki^t for il in ihe 
Nftri KlturHum dbtrkt, irvta Hfhkh plwe they deriTo tboir 
Kuppltpx 4i1' ^min ifLstnnd of, lUi fornierlv, from TiirkiKUn.* 

^iiltoi J->iirku liuri Lilno <m one oocibuoQ, »>>mi; thirty yearu JigOi 
mjidi^ H jf:mrnr*y fiirm Thuk DHtir^jift to Ajaiii a cauntry about 
two moullid' juurbor in a n<»rtli-ca«torlv diicctuiri, Tuc to^\ 
\ny tljrou;>huul ovor nu eiU^mivrt \i\iLU\, tm Ur^^ uaouutaii 
lining wi»n, or Btreama aiH'onntere^l «i rtnttt. liriiikicg-wnto*' 
^rua obtuluf^d from a !<iirr<^)i[ii{}it of hidaH fn^^h'tvutix Iftkea^ 
m'lally su|»]jiie'i from raiu-wnitr. Shortlj' before renewing Uit 
AjiiD o(iiin(ry, tlic mail ti-nv*^r?ic3 o bai^ rockv ranee of inoun- 
tttiuK Ajnri tttirif wiui inliiLbici^'l bv tlti? Sj>kj>(} Eabiiiii^ks & 
Di/mikdic pa«lonil people who oUaiiietl grafu (m'c atui lloiir) 
iiiftu Lilt* [ici^hboiirluJDil ni Kiirku, Ji liri^r iTLijiinMr-j^ Kiul I^j bd 
t«n or CGieh'^dava* journey bi>yi>wl Uie anthem frontier of thoj 
Ajan country. Near Karha is a lai^re city called Kciko<], ihc 
rc6icleM?e of tbo Sokjiy Gyul|Hj, tk« rd«r of tW SoUj^o diatrivxs 
while Kork^i iit^M ctiilaiiLS several [»oiiaBleni'«. vnc of vrhich 
jrt lIih n'ldift'iji-p of ibr Ynn^'hnn ThimW (or RiiijrUK'ln?), llie 
Fpiiitunl lit'uJ oi tilt* fcH>k|JO Kuliiia^krt. Tbt- ruad jual dr;- 
HEilwd i* un\-i-r now Tnihln* iist* [.if, jiTolmbly for lh<^ unmo n»n«'U 
whiob lius lod to iLv aWtiduumftiit of t3»o boforo-tUL^anoiird 
XT>uto to Nai'i Tlidiii, jl4 nell un ttu AL^iMimt of i1i« liitticuhy of 
inauring a c^rlnin ];ijp|ily of wnl^r <^ routw; no oiio irould 
Tcntiuo to tm\i-l by it uutt^?^ afltr nn imutnially lieavy raiuy 
iH<ii>nn, Wo^hI And ^i\^ nr^^ »ni(i lo bo pUntifiiJ throiignotlt. 

Kark^t iH it mime utMiit wiiicfi 1 Imvc fiL>r EM:>mc time paflt* 
1>e'^u i>ji(leAV[ULriu^ to obtuiu aiitlieulic liifuniiatiui], but 1 rutl 
iardly VL-ulun^ to cUim nny groat eurccw in tbc nttompt. It 
ia fijHt ixit^rituiTit^i), uh I far iih I am uwam, by ^lajor Mout^ 
^om^rie, K.i:., in his diRCOstion of tbo wc-rk of the I'imdit who 
^ptonji) thi.- N'juudio l^.ikr in 1^^7'i- On tlii; prvM<nt occ^vmoq 
th^ I'undit )^ad hv^ea ayv'-ybWy iiiHiriK'tfd to make tiK^uiriefl 
«bout it. Ho «aw La Lbd^a some mon nlio ivcrc poirtrd tnit 
lo bi[ji Ai from Knrkit, tjdi, 4<i>ji])(T-E-(:kr]p1[-\ioiJHK llTir--l<ji»kiiig 
lucT, but unfortunately ha cuuli] n.ot itndvntnnd tbi-irlanpu^c*, 
uid liln j<Uy !n rJk&ni vnm m «iKJil tbut Ilit wiu (ijmb]c lo Itfuxn 
anyihing deGnit4> oboi3t them. 

Ik ccKlii. of CdIuiiuI Vulir'a juviiumiorj ubaj Id 'Oxtlmj wul tku Wuj ikllUcr/ 

Tfjotteu'* Artwunt o/the PaaJii't Jaaraey from 

Afl far M T c&n f^f1)<>r from inr^uiHi« mmle n.1 Yiirlcfuit! filial 
from the informatiot; coUccUnj i>y the Tundiu, K&rka is vitiint^u) 

Chit Kha, a largn vitUkgct Kituihtvd ou a rivor of the aamd Damo 
a few mu^ 1i<f« i*i Hiv iiorth-e»at of the Teii[::ri Nar or Nimcbo 
Jjkk^. At this villago it in mir) tymi two Tnii*\9 divr-rgc^ oua 1o 
Kfljkftt LAfliUQg in «i nortHh-wc5t«ly dirf^^Umi, and Iho otlior to 
Koko Nut, and P^kln in a nrirth-ptfu^rly cUrei-liiin- Tlu* imjmJ- 
tion of Karka thtis ohtitiaed wtml<l ii^n^u uppfoximaielv with 
an Jicf^tjiinl I ln'anl Prom i\ KnlintK'k lu Kdnh^fir, wli»*h InrntArl 
Kftrkifc tobout a fortiiighl''! jijiinioy to tfm Hiiilh-<M r ' L . \-.a 
Ijok ll |?r»ilmbly lir* witnewbere Iwlwwii JiU-kr- l,i ■ iliJ 
Koka Nur, and I think it not improbnble tlmi tin' mntry of 
.Kjnti to tlie south of it mav h'' ttio mmc aft lii* vvnintry of 
vVdj Si, which U lUfniioii^ l>y Uftpenfild in the Bu«&iuii 'I«- 
Tcsitift' UM a Cfiuntij' lying in a westerly diroctjon from tho 
Zaidan plain, tvliirh ih U> ihr. wmf- of K<ik» Niir" 

On th<' 4th tA Ht'|it<iinber thi.- Pimdit latt Mau^o. in compjtny 
wHh Souiini ]>arka, iinti tlir^ llomlMi Thiriiij^ Unndi;k, the 
boadmtxn of GiLn<b^, 1o|;i<lhr*r with th<iir Itock* artd hcrdjt; 
thf;rv wera about six teaUuf NonitulA initll. IV four Juya tbey 
kept company, advancing j«ltiwty at the rat© of abo«t i< miloa 
a day> It is th^ habit of thexo pf-nple, whf?ii thoy hnxv <tx- 
haustod tha paelura^f^ near any one onmp, to shift bodily to 
fresh gronnd; they woro nt*w on ono nftlioir ^•iiBtomnry movca. 
Oik the fourth iltiy tboy rt<u<;htHl Kf/Jn^, in the OH^hlxnirhiHMl 
of which place are voiy oxtcnsivo piiPluroF enfticiiMit for Ihe eub- 
si^tfric^ of the GduWh btrgc (Idckifiir n roiipb* nf montbn. 

Somo idea of the wealth of this people may ba inferred from 
the fact that Chinng Dimduk ww* him^lf the fortunate pii> 
priet^jrwfSW hortea. 400 yaks, an fl 2iJO0 vhM^n. OlhiT mora- 
tera of hia Iriix* woro aaid to be oven more WT.'aIthy than he. 

These Gun-he Khumiinis niinilH'rintf in ail nUmX 100 timtM, had 
only teen fiettl<'d in tho eoantry for about hvirt^t-n yoar*. TUoy 
are unc^<*r th** juri/nlict [on of tln^ <ivh1]h> of i^ha-iB, and are very 
much bf'tter off than thoir neij^nbcmrit tho Uar|E6 Kbimpaa 
(who aro tmdar lEudokb}* aa tkey only pay what muMt bo to 

* t ■! arxa time thnn^f^t thtti Kark& tni^hl iv mflralj a WTTHpLinn «( ttw 
wnH KalkiL. ntiil tlml thi^ Vanrhnn Tumi'tt nf KitrVn miglit in' ihf mmp indi* 
tkliinl AA nil' Kulhn Ynun linnjn (t/ HhitK). Ltir (inijcn Tamhi (<if II^^X 

Ovuttlry vlii'^li Itre nn (Jm triutliom wnfliti'P of ]?iUirkk Tt iL|r]irmn, liuwpti?, fiota 
n ildJj^ «f Mr, VawDtki'i Dotfli in the * lAvutk ' UmL I'r-^ ;■ H2A0 r^imtA (ruor* 
llihD '2Q[HI niUt^J rmrn l.tufli. Ui* nod fmo vhioh pU^ {Mmt* hy \kk CJliu %l«, 
Kiikn Nur, Hiid fliniit^'I'L TtiA lul-iiM<ntirni'-'1 pltu^rt U i huiL! mumlif* **■! of 
tivkii Ni;r «Dd 44 ImiK manlio mini at trrpi T^iuv InmiHfi «iid dklalKfea 
|JiCo it| t dunlE* l»y<m(l a tiuuht Uuht Kit^kn ajjiI Kklka Mv not jJuntkuL 

Lch to Lhdtei^ and Hctu-rn to Ijtdia ri4 Attain. 



them im j^litioTi nomimil tribute (in gold) of tJiQ-v^iie of about 
20?. This pold is obljiirLed «t ThoE DaurjiVtio,- u* tho l^n*t cf 
Giirchothol, In rxchitogc for iba produce of thoir ilo'Ad. nud for 
buntx, e\triiHivi3 Iii-Mm nf whmh r-xUr jht. Xoririg G^, vrhich 
wero i>a»wod by tb© Fuudlt tv* fwfri lo Kv2U)^. 

TIlo Paiiilil, np|>r?ntii to hftvp jiigratialoii bimwlf woet biio 
€**fifuJly with ihe Gombo CliriDir, for tluit tbicf very kinJly 
Qiado ArraDgcmcDtfl tbat be nUould travel ouwariitt wjtb >uo 
othf-T moil. ><or vim tj( of jl mercbiiiit from the itoij;bl<>a)-LooL! ^J* 
J^Lij-Atzi who were irjivuiluii: with si^mt? eprtru yuke in uUrAnoc 
i>f Uieif mttsfer frniti Thnk J/i.liinp to 8hi^!a^^ tliPSft rnen, for 
tboif own jabctd, wi.To only too L(bp[iy to travel w eom|4my »ith 
the Pundit imi] hiM ^ariy. 

From Kexitig eiL£twji^J for a ^ietanflo of SO iniLo«, np to Thok 
l)cmruki>a. tbe cotuitry woa Quitdmbiteii when ihe Piitidii |vm<0(! 
through it ; but it n oc^L^upied by the Kb^mDas of Cruvcii^ at 
ccruiit Beaaona nf tb(j ywir. Tbcro U canity] ^ raxing* and an 
alairjjlaikt snjiply of wai<>r ajid fuel (argola) throughout. Tht* 
road Ilea the whole way la ono of tbo firood opoii san^s Wforo 
di'ncrnbed, lyiEig^ helwi«t*rt rim^i'ii of billn ruiiiiinff (?hhL hikI v/t\tX. 
5outb of the Tashi Ubup Cho, tbf> goutborQ ninpco runa o'S in a 
pouth-raat direcltoij, rJMii^ nipidly \i\ hi^i^htj eukJ forming a 
tnas&tve ;»roup of aaow-coveryd p^'aka, ka[>wa as the ShyjUchi 
}iknQ Jiug, the pontiaus of several of vrhich were tixod by the 
Puiioir, ulthgugb ut ft duit^uco of from 30 to 40 miks Mouth of 
liitt ioud. 

Fnnn thi« Htinwy pi^>iip ftnww nnrthwardji & v^ry c^m^iirleP- 
aUl-' [itrriutn, tbf 8hval-rlni, wbicli was crossed by th<^ Pundit 
ill thrive separate lirauL-h^s, iionLere moro tbau a fo»>t in 
doptJi, but said to h^ pivvHnblo only witb v^ry t;reat dilHoulty 
dariug tbo fliHHb cau»ud by tlu? lueltiug of the kduw Iu tbc 
summor months, Thie strejim tloivH into th^i Tnnbi Bijup Lako^ 
>vlio»o soiitberu sliorr is about 2 miloii to tile north of tbo 
Puudil'a road. From ibe ea^t'-m €rid of ibc lak<? a atream 
iwuc8, whose waters arc eoid ullimatoly to dmin inlo tbo (Jhar- 
f;[iil Ijikc** from uhloh tht-y tniir^r^e uutlcr tbu iiuTU^ of lliif 
N4i£-chQ')khd itivc'r, and How euat^vard to tho villa^o of tho 
aaiii9 nunuT ithiidi ]ii.-« on lIjo i\iMi\\i'tn rcnid Ix^twrcu LboMi nnd 
PokiR> At the point wh&ro tbe 8hyal-chu wae pasaod by tlio 
Punditj his rood wa* croa*';d by another track going from 
MunuAitowar to NiU-chn-khi, ^vhich pa^>i south of the Taahi 
Uhup LakOk and tb^n follov^a ihrou^hout its cour»o tbo slrcaoi 
wliirh om4»rges fr*>tn thf wtnt <'nd of tin* lids'*, ami ilow» to tho 
Cbnrgut Lu^e and Jsdk^'hukbf;, Tbid r<^d is said to be por- 
fedty eiisy, and to abound with ^rast and water, but the coijiitry 
it jmi^s^ through is uninhabited ihroughouL 

102 Tm^rz^j-Aiv^mt iftht Ptatttit's .^wrveffipm^^^^^ 

The Pimd^^Av^o had bocn foiTwuracd that tlic in>i|rbl?oiiP- 
hood of tUu'.c'ib?«]iig of tlm two \U\tv of rood vus d iiotr:*rio4u 
plnce fi>r. iKj1ijl»»r», look th*> prrcniilion of pit<*?iittff bin camp 
2 mileft_off;ihe r->a<i. It is ttiiiti lliat the inidtom iif flia Kl]£ni|^ 
mUlK'.m ^ho itifi»flt tliitt roimtTT le t^ cwl ftt nip[Iil llio ropp* ffljjw 

Sorijufi flie Icut of flic; tmvrlVr, wh<»m tlioy h\\ upon luii cut 
ijtni <ihi!e attpniptin^ to esrape from the fo1d« oTnit tenr. 
/,"Tfc'JfiIo imdtT llir; immcfliolc prelection f)f lh(> Gomlw Chtrinff 
-ptfetTaiidit liad felt juvtly Mifc, biil hf» a|)[>earn, mil wllboiit 
'gp^ytl rflnsT^, to hnrn pfi^»H ppvoral «Wpf«»! nighU before ho 
V'^"«gai3 rvut^bed ifiliAintrd oiintry, 

\/^ Travotling ag a Limn, he liaJ affected ^eat rov^rtfi and 
', lhr<ni;;hoiit tlio joviriicv ho k<?pt hi;* njpr<^ji concv'alH Jjcrc fttid 
ib'.'re in the liioHt miiHtf-thi^-ftitV j^bm'}! inmpiiijihlf-. Tils rhii*f 
rcpa»il<>ry was ft vt^ry oUl and rixirccd po^l cnrricjl on the bock of 
A (IciEiktTv, tlmi ]\jv\ tu'vuMiimtiim] li'nn innn Um wei^t, uud ubtirli 
ftnimal, in conaeqneiioa of tho richer hd bnre, obtained ainon)*Ht 
oirr trnrrllrr* the imiiltriqnet of S^itkari Khiidnehit or Govcjd- 
moot Treasurer 

The [*undit reoobod the pold-fiflds at TLcib Daniikpa on the 
17tb of S^'ptnmlNTr, hiivmt; tnlit'Ti on lh^ Init'T mri of tho 
joumoy a aumtwhal dillio-iilt road oTt>r lulle. iti order to avoid 
fhi' pasiVr niniJ tii tbr wmth, wliii^h jiHtwi'n nntnd ih*^ fin-t uf the 
hill», but nbtrc ho thought ho vrug ruoro liUoly to mct>i with 
robbern* IIl* had now quitted tho Kliampa countrj luid had 
cntorod xlvi Naki'b^ug Pmirocl dintriot, in wbit^h ho pojw^ 
two or Xhr&Q abaiidoued gold-miaea betbi'd rt-^cUing Tltok 

Th-- Tundit foimd thut tho ^oM-fi^ldfl Jatbw poHir.n of 'Hl^t 
were of nmf h le&s inipnrtjinre Umti iho^o fin had vi^iti-'d ni Thi>k 
JAliing in Wf^sti^ra Tibrt ou A former exploration. At Thok 
Dfiurakpa the dl^'gers inor^tly ilwM in cuveb exravofed in ihe 
«arth. Th**fie hnbitntiotiM, whioh am lueollj tormtMi fhiikfl^ 
arc tbtrty-trto in nuuibL^r, and fx>utain from five to iwtntj- 
1!V6 indiyibjals in naHi, jicj^irding io t)i« wiialih of thn pro- 
prietor, v^bo do tM apjiour to iiolcct tht-ift buitdinffs frcm 
chtiicv. but rather Iroio orcfwt.v, eaii»it»fl by the proxtrntty of 
thti Kbampn robbers, whonu hutil of cutting down first the 
tpMt* and tlirm ilu- uwum^ liaa been alrcHiiy inefLtiuuiMi, Tijr-*o 
Qoder^in^uQd cavee ar« imtm^illy far more woare than teitt^ 
would he. nikd otiit man wiOl aniir^i rouM dufond ono iif tlirtn 
iLjjriiin^^t u ]urf^<> number of av^nilant^, I^sid^ tbdee oaves ihero 
wtre alao *oino BQTfn or eight t'-nt* belonging to iravelbng 
mi^rehuntti an<l ri'frent arrivMls. The dt^ger* wen? nni*tly 
Cbaik^aa from the KAkciidn? district to tbo cast nnd awttb- 
<TJtat 'jj* iho gold'Jluhbi; hut tbt-re >v'enT nino uthon trijni WosLnm 

X«iA ia I,hdsay ami Rftnm ta Irulia v£d Anam. 


Tibet and from JEinghcli^, n Itxrgii town <m tbo BruHuuipiUfi, 
tvc or ftis <U_V8 ^'t-et of ShJfjitEfi. 

Till? |irr»j>ri('* of i-m-h jthtikjin lijjvr* «lw» llw»ir own giiH-pil," 
in whiJi tlitv work (io lii* tLiv-tiiuo only), Oao ortwi> mon 
HUf ^iHicmlly *inipl(ivf»il jn t|iutrrjiiig llv «l^>nti in wliirL the 
gold ii fouQd. Tiitf' pi£r«ij or xtoii« ftro lilted np tn hx£V«ti tO' 
titc blink of the pit, And are there pounded into «niA]] frn^- 
trit^nU, whK'b iirn n«[>ijiiit4Ml tin n rrlotli, ivliprh IK nrrHi^jrwi on a 
slight fliopo and kept down by a number of Htciifra hu aft b> m^kt^ 
thr snrfmtt- unercnn \Vflf*r \a ihen rirnirt-d nrpr it-, and rj*rrff4 
away tbe lighter poriion nf tiio «'ib Wviri^ thfj p*]d ii» lhi> 
nnevcc i«coplaclea ib&t bare beeo iDiuio Jor it Tlii* bir^i^t 
"pifCt of ^d «een by the Piindit JLt iMurukpft wam »bnin ocio 
ounce iu u-ei^ht. 

UnforttinaiU'lv for the di^^era, wflt*?T w not found within ft 
milo of the ^Id-liifldfi, and hrw to ho biviiight thnt diiatAnrcf in 
KkinH on donkeya which are (*pi*i>ii(lly kept for the purpose,' 
ThcNT dnnkrvT^ vpore tho cnly mnmalp of tnc kind pcrn by Iho 
Puitdit U?(vvwji T.mliikh «nd l.liinui. Il Jip|*«Hin* tliHt ihi-y di* 
not etond tho cold well, and although iboit bodies wora cot^M' 
in profunion wiUi ih(< pan^ra or wihA, uhinh gmwx niuhrr thr- liuir 
of iiettrly kH AiJimau ici these Tery ccld and hiphly-elevated 
jfiZ^0Ji9, it was nlsvavf found necowarir at ni^ht to ellow thorn to 
tiikv rf^fu^t' in thf- jthufi^ir lnhiLbjti.<d by ih<?jr Diayt^^n. 

Unld'lindirig does not appear to be a vcn- lucj'illivo ooi*rtpfl- 
tjun. mid (illhougli tJir lux pnid bv th« digg*-!!* lo Uv Sarjifin 
m Gold Commifttficmft of L£iU<^ viau one »awAta (one-tifth iil 
nn oiitire) p-^r man ]ier annGm, is d<.^T]d<>]ly «][>u)), yot the 
profiU ni^-ar t<i bo bnt littlo moro tfaau u ne^essaty to ko^p 
body and aouI tOKi^thiM'. Aix.'ordini^ to the I'undit, tik) putonu 
iHtpiiliitiozi Are f«r more prcM{>nri)ii4 thnn 1b«- ^dd^lBSon, and 
lead a iniKh frorr, pli-Mant-rr. nud more independent fife 

The gold of Thnt Unuyikjtfi is wid t<i bf whiter and fif \t*;ilt'r 
qiiality thnn wbat ii^ found i'nrthir-r xvi^t. it ik, hovroirdrT nion 
JifTiciilt li> oblHin, ht^lb uti artonrU i>l' tbt* noil, or nttheJT TOClCp 
m whif^h jt is fcund boincr mtich teion* diRiciilt to bjvok up than 
the noJlrr mnl <tf Thf>k -liinri^, and on nromint of t)i« dtatauce 
from which water has to be hronght. Ai JAlung n Ktrputn niiw 
throngh tho gold-lirlds. Thr I'lmdit Ix-liov*** ^mt Ihrtpo are 
*normoo» ImeTji of land where gold ia to be obtaioed hy digginjr, 
but where iho abeo&w of water would nnder tho working of 
IhttiTi iinrvuiunerHtiTK 

TboXhok Daur^kpa And Thok Jaliing ^old-ficlde are under 

14 TEOTTKR'*^rrmniV^3Sr rtw/iV* Joartif^fiwn 

the K&tne Sarpoti who mak^'i the round of all th« Tibetau gold- 
ficidfl <»uc'* a vi^ftr to colkx^t the tAXce. 

It Willi])] nj>|i4*iir thnl Uitt iiti|AirtHii<miiid Vd1uf*of tlieTibHftn 
go1d-fioM» hftVG bocn couAidcrably overmted. Tho raiiiJit KtnUti^ 

<tftrrierl on in the ut'iglilxnuliood '*f Tiiok Jiliinj^, the only otIi*T 

Klid-ficld* now tx'iug >vc*rkoU ia NortlK^ru Tibet ur« at Thok 
tur^b|>a, und two utlier pla^Mt, uf «ven l^i-u loipcirTance, nt 
T^n^ Jung find Sark& ^b)ir, Exitii i>f which mc about *Jx liuyn' 
jiJtiniity Oirihi^r rn*L H(- iM'lii^<»« t.lml nnirly th« wholt? uf tlie 
l^old colloc'tmt in WedtLTU Tilxit thids ita vvay lo GdrT/>kh, und 
ultimnMy through tlio Huinnoui mernhaitlA U> Hindiiictaii. Hv 
eptimil^'fi ihti voliio of gold broiit^ht uil:luuUv iuto G^rlokh at 
about SO.^MJ mpeofl (or about 8000^. ^tt'lliug). 

Tho gtilcl-iliggoDi Hi I)ftiinikj)ft ilisjinite of most of their gold 
«itli<ir to lh« Klium]>aa uf Garchetliul ou tbe wosl, or the 
OhjimpaJK of NAkcl^ftng Pnn1<Kl oii th^ nant, in pxcKniign UiT llin 
produoLH of Uiotr burils and Hockd. Tho reet of the cold £s 
t»vk@[i hy m^rciiaDta who bring tc^a from Lha«a ujtil fn>ui 

A brick (parha) of lea. which neigha about five iwoods, and 
iti LhasM in worth »&y ^ven thilliiic;?, aod in LEiddkh tn-t-lvi^ 
ehjlliugs (ov more, ^^roniing ti> qii^Jity), sella at JJaurak|>u for 
one Air^tia of goki (oue-tirth of an ounce),* 

TJtok Daunikjtii to Lful»a. 

Till? Pnadit i^idy hjilted one dnv at (lie ^dd-fitlda aud con- 
tinued hifi Journey on the Ldth oi September. Hf^ routo laf 
over precisely the some kind of courtry thai h« had previously 
trftversed: it oio»ed several aiTE^auiK. all flowing; to the north^ 
and ultimately finding: their way iulo tho Nak-ohu-khi River. 
For the firat Lhne uiAri*hea the cTiniritry wax TinhdmhiU^d* but 
after leaving Lbimg Nakdo numbers of (Jhangpa tent* woro 
almost dftiiy s^cu from the lino of mnrrh. 

AlLluJugh tho plaiu be wus now traveisJc^ vaa moro than 
l€,Oi.*0 feet above the Ii^rel of iho sea, the Fcndit doea not 
appear to have sufieivd very mueh from the grtal elevation; 
the weather ivaa mUd. »nd hu i^peakj^ of tho wbolo of tho 
jouniey over the j^lains of Tibet aft a tlidightltil plE^usiire excar* 
nion, when compared with hi^ oxpancn^QH over the Karakorum 
and i:»th*<r pti^mew on the road from l>ih lo Yirkaud. Tho shoot* 

* At Tbok JAlnng on a r^ruoT onmIob Ito PofiitJl purcliodnl onv lola of 

bTt Krrfflikli •nrcn-ijfn Al 1 liok t>itiirthlr|u tJiu price ot tho fome aiDOimt of 
^pM would iaVB boon t.hout taattam rutiuu 

Ltii to Lhasa, and Rftum In Ituiia viat AtMm. 


of velvet turf coter^ with ooiinll«i* herds of &ut0lope must 
indecKl hnvn formnd a pleasant ontra^t nfter thu 4?^iuilJy 
elevEited hut h\^ak and immhikhll^^ii biu-o pkinn of Ling-ui 
Thiing HT\(\ Oij'un.r^ in Norilieni l^ad^kh. The I*nTiilit (who 
)H imiA ol' «ta^lAtil^i) aascrt^ tliut ou ono ocrcUMwi he fu-tuiiUy 
oomiW two thuuHAiid a»l4^1u|>Hii (cAo and gwa) which ri^^rtiblM 
iiittppc^mncoa rc^imontof eoldJora, vlth thoir horns ^liflt^ning 
in the nUii liku bjiy()Uol& Tht^ hi^riin frrqucraUy iuuuJ ly'og oa 
the ^roimd server) Wim in lieu of Kot-jw^s. 

In thn NiUiching Tontod (Nortbcni a.nd Southern) dintrint^ 
which ez lends far several uuiTohi^ii ea^t ofTbolc IJaui^kptt, therQi 
aro aUogetber tihoui a huDrlrcd and tifw iamilica of Doroadft 
all wrHuhy iu Jiurtft?**^ yikfl. ehetp nnd gtuiU. Thi"uM«hout 
Nakchang the eheop are very iurgo nQd stroaj:* and are almoat 
ajl hjjb k^n i^eciiliiirlly of tbia difjtrirt blonn, Umm In WenUim 
Tibet and m Lhi^a bein^' nearly all white. Ydlce are aaed 
almofrt excliimvoly oa bea^ of bunleii, aud ou one OLV4ieioii tho 
Pundit met a curamn with two huridied cf ih&to unimals 
cftrryiui: teit towania the weal. 

Niihrljjlug Pontiid iK iitiib^r an nflldal, a native tif thr noijtilry, 
tho Gar(juu Durjt^ FatitcliuJc, vrhcihn dignity is hercdiUry, He 
oollects the tribute for the Lb^ authorltJed aod rtault^ it to 
Soijn ^t^iifZi fii^hrr eaaU The tribute paid is almcet ciDtiruly 
ffhi ^clarifwd butu^r). 

The Ohitnjjpas '>t' Nakchftnir. who are nUo proniBcuouHly 
UiTtiitA n<'Tjnm t\iid Dt'jpas^ «nt-uk a Jjin^^uage which riill'crt^ but 
little i>om that oi' LhiUa, artd the Pundit had do difTiculiy in 
Cftrryiug on couronwfctici; wilb them. 

Irk the Sth luarah from Thuk Datir^kju the Pundit en- 
coiiutert-d a Lofiy ran^o of tnouataias which wos crc««ed by a 
high buL Piuy ihtsA Oidled Kdou^ 18J70 feet above rw^a-lr^vel. 
TJiie ruitge runs Aoulhward Aud L^ultuiuatea in 8ome uiiortuoua; 
peaks known by the name ot' Tar^^ot Lbi, iiom which extendi' 
(joatwttrd u suowv range, iiunj**ro[ie iwiikit iu which wert fiied, 
by the Pundit, aloti^ t^ length of loO miles, up to nhero iho 
runi^ t^ m a miiss ol peaks called G^y^Uhannan wbh-h 
ftlfio lio to iha south oi and veiy near the Pundit's rvAd. Xha 
highest of tbeae tiyakliarma {n^txkn wtL4 aAcerlained by iii»jv4»n.i* 
surnt' to h& 22,800 f f^t abov^ seadevel, aitd the Pundit valu 
mat«8 that the hlgbeat uf the l'4rgot pealu (which \nj too far 
oET tb^' road for vertical tneueuremL.<nt with a »extuDt) in nt ti'UJt 
2bi}0 fvet higher Ihau tht> highest of tho Gyahborma ^roup. 


li«^ ifubTinin^xl l>y Fi^pinmi^lnorkl infltiiurvniFiiti. 
i &itw>MPi 21,0lK) auti :^006 Cixl ia itiueruj <p- 129); ako 21,100 iMt tsa 


I^miifa Jottmetfjrom 

Tar^t Lli^ vu eeen fr*>ia the OijapU Pass &t a distance 
aver one Inindrod milwi^ nnd in boHi^vvci Tiy lliit i^]ndrt 10 ha 
b^eti the hi^^heat UKnjDtuJn aeeo hj bim ou Ula jcmrnoy. 

nf tb« BntomnpAtni nnd thfl Idkft country of Hor,* for the 
Pnudit wa8 informfvl xhttX to the of the rani^, riinnin 
parrel Icl Ui itf lit <i Inrifr rirrr, the DtiirLpbii, or HoUi Saii^^ 
wiiJL'li ultijtmlelv rlian>^'es lift voiirMi msti (luww ucirthw&KU ioto 
the Kyinng LoVe. 

The biglieet pnk of tlie T^r^cot Llii frroiip 1.1 call^^fl Tincot 
yo;> (or father), wbilo an fniomioun lake vhich li4>B at th« foot 
of itA northern slope iti callctt l>AnsTi( Yum (*vjnM\int;)i t 
two, Bcoon1iji{^ to lofTftl fnuiitJoo^ hk thn |irii]2;vtitlon of tho 
whole world.f Th^ fiiwrnit round tho mountflin and lako 
i-^im^miRd ipi » tTi^icimoii pil^rimnp:^ licit <nily for rht- i»?-o[ilrr of 
liie liop country, but for Ihtir more diatiiiffuishe*! eo-rehj^oni»ifl 
fiom lAxofvu t^imiUr circuit^^ ftrtf miulc rorjud ibo «&crr«d 
moLiutaiu of Kaili^* near the hTanu^arowjir Lake, 

The circuit rouud the toko alone oceupiec from oight to 
twelve davK, th« diHimire ht*in^ abtjtii 2{M) iniU**, l>tit the eoin- 
t^^e oirouil of lake t^nd moontiLin Uked up tif^arly a month. 
Thw cxmntry |«»*ipl*t lnii«vp thni if lhi»y ihukw th** romplnUft 
eircuil {(&mjett looully f^cm) onot*, Ihry will bo abdolred i^oiii 
oriiuary ftiu; foi a man lo le ck-auned (tuiu itiurdu-r rc(|uiTCS 
two kontM ; but if tlwf roTiTid it cumplolf*d thrice tiveti xh^ 
murder of n father or mother will be alcrned fon The Piiii<iit 
did not fifpl niii<*h ooirt1crtr>d 011 Wmiiig thqt thi« fx idl im* 
[iJioitly briiovi.'d by the country pi?Ofjle. 

The dwlpirt Burn Hindi II -^ thp l)4i)^-i'^ Vum and ao<illi<*r 
»m[itJ<*r take- to the? novtii ol tho ron-i \n oidlod Ndkrhdn^ tiEt>l>ci. 
It ia ettrluM^d by Miowy mcri]iila.iii>(» niid roiiliiiii*! xetei-.i! vtllri^u?*, 
l^ilkchinir, 'Lanf; Jung, KiAum, Ombc, ^^^ik nud CbiikRi; pncfa 
vitln]^ oontAind t^vf^nty or ihirtv hoiint-pi, built of rttonr, find 
gurToimded by riohly-fultivAt^d rtt?lda whi^h produce a pi-ofw- 
nion of Wri^y. Tho hjirvu^it wna not quite gathrrod in (>n the 
28th of ^otember, Ch& date of tiie Pundit'* arrival at Urobo, 
liw chief villuco of tlio dJBtri* t, 

Tlif r-iinU-mTrt vi this i"id!j?ftte<J Onilm plain iih-KhwhI liy 
ruountains, \vbieh in their turn Are gurrouuded by bcundl^sa 
I r2tcjit» of pdrtdrc land, is ft very curious fr-alurct. 

L The PiUidkt )iud not eeen ft sin^lo fitdd of ^rttln of any d^ 

■ acriplion iiuce leafing Clitibuk Zioga, thirty-five marcbea to th6 


1^ ecnrinl nujiiFuf thv clJitriol tlrough wUltli i!ig runJil bud Wn tm* 

f ftoSMOpoTFIij^lcy KiDg Jilng Mountuiu to iho voft iiioUtobc oiko«f 
tha dflugbton of tbii udiod. 

tA Iq I.MdM, CTtd H/tftm to Jndi^ via Anhttl 107 

UuiliH of tfic lake (chuc by Thtin^), tbo 
poriit*Tl (HiL to the Piin<hf* The (rVAlfio 

vfest, nor did tiA opLin iii«ot witb cTiltiTnticn until rofiohmg 
TiiJiing village, near Uia«ft. tiiirty-nint' nmrcln-H l"-i"nii OciiUi. 
Tin? bf'i^Lt tiC till? j>lufj ^U^^iiO r*tet above sea-ler^l) w noi l*ws 
tlian ihat of thi^ aurrouniliuK «>UDtrv. ftfuj allhou^li *r>ni^v^Jiftt 
|hi\4nfTtL<iL frimi the u'ind, it U no better cfT in this rwf<>rt than 
the diftUicl of Nrlkohda;; tiornnflk, which boHc^r* it on (li<' rrT*t, 
vrbich iv »\*ty Vt-rW wAton^r) niid liiis Atjpnr^nlJy a rHier soil, but 
it urartheK>Mii icUiU)' dcrvdi^i oi ciiliivAtion. 

According lo WaI irit^ljl^itj, Uie 0»i1m> iimntrv ww* orn?«' 
rpon a time thjrkly jiopuUt^cl nnd covered ^^ith vilfairrt!. Two" 
tiioHfHiud vt^ars rtgo il Mw»ifl t<> hnvi* bi?cn nded over by a very 
iMivvMrrul itiijii, the l-imiir Gyalpo, who resided in a fort called 
Kimig Juhgr, on tbc UuikHoVtrx 
niioH of uliieb were 

Limiir wna the niJcr over the whole ^»f the Hor countrv, nnd liia 
weaUb w*LH said lo be bomidtf-m. Amnngut otW rirln-w be won 
tti(? iio&^4^or of a ^Iden «adiile, nijd il t(jr<]uu]si> ua lai'i^ i\s » 
lEOiits liver. U^ vtas CTCrcome id battle Ly Digiing CbAnbo, 
ihe GyuitJO of Lhil^a, who, bowi^vn-r^ MI'/hI to' powti?JMTiinm*lf 'it 
111* saddle and tnrquoLAe. wMch werr^ f^a^rt into the raiddle of the 
hA^, wlitfm ilii'y ftr« unu^ In nTHftiii iif ilw prf^<ont dny, 

Tho i^Qdit is of qmibtt tlml tie IJanjrri Yum Cho. and Ibo 
KTTiallnr biWe of Tang dung fa Itie north, were fnrnifrly oon- 
iieL'itd toKetbt*r in ono viLct (^xpn&Eto of w«ior. I'hu IJdnjijTA 
lake ia exii now feo ]»rtcr?» und tlit^ ninJ tiorut-liiDt^B ruiat^a fench 
\ic]Ii>nt ifiivt-M, thut flif> pDndit <:!ompni'0« it to tti^ i^K^paii. TbfV 
iuJiaUtctnfri of th« Umbo or F^tidjo contitry, lu it m somettmoa 
CAUeH.idthotJgh Hp^nhinp the same Jangiiac? ns t^iQ otWr ChiuiK* 
pft»or L*oj:p[W who jivf? in other prtrta of Hor. riiiiouaJy <'iioni;n, 
have ei>:i8idt3r»1ilt* dlfTtirHiireA in tlir^ir i^li^miiA f-ercinoiiiala. 
ln«t(^^ of the wnfii well-bnonn Mnddbi^Iia lormnln, " Om m4ni 
jMuhni AitTw;/' ih*-y itj^rnhi! in tbt»ir prjjvr'r-wbcolH nnd <jm their 
mollis the words " Om m^i/^ rtiOifs mumdo." They iiioreovor 
twist their prft)'i;r-nhr<"is ir the rotcrw direction lo wbnt all 
other Buddbiau do, nnd in maklig; cirouftd round i^lij^ioru 
edifioea tboy travel from right to kft insteAd of frcm hit to 
Tt^ht, fta i* th«iinvariidjh* eiwtom itmon^t jdl other sefttf, 
Utb<]ra of their pefruliar eoot aro «iud to roaide m the KhEint 
ooninfiry futni of IJiAim, 

i'ho orif^in of the custom aroeo thiswiee. ^^leu SAkya Miini," 
t]i« great founder of Uuddhi^m in TJbet^ tirftt came to tito 
country, \\^ viae r^uWxxg nrsrir the J^unoii^ aacr^d Tnouuiain 
KaDai. N&rn l^ttirhdh, a native of Khini, having hcftrd 

• It if btiliDTvd tluit SiUi)iiMuui DcidJtui liLiLierlf uvvf irtnt io TiHc4. vbi«b 
VH ccUTnicd ta til? ^lU hy Ui<t miHki>Auru& Tbc mUivo &ud iuU«quc«l In' 
dttknw muil nfcr ta b3iim of ihas*. 

^ « ^^f 

108 TROTTEn'j AeeoUTit ofthi Pundits J^fumffj/ fr^n V 

mniours of hie anival, went on a ptlj^imft^ to ft^e him. 
Having arriied tlierc, bo fouod tb«t tbc devout trikyii Aa* 
conitUutly paiLfim^ liia lime iu clrcuni ambulating the hjuthI 
lUuuut. uud iLia at tcuclj n pnco that his woolrj-bc diifcipJo wiui 
ntmblfi to ovsrtnke hiin, iilibmifzl' ^>" fullu;vt<d Ijiiii round and 
round ior ficvtrul Jiirt-uite. Aa fr^ikyfi Miini followed tho ortli«d^ix 
cwnn^t* (nioviTiif \i\i'i ihi^ hiimlri of ii wjitrh), i\\n hTiUuiUi- iii<!U al 
Ijiit ntruuk Narii Piuudiuk tliat if he were K* Ko round in thai 
rtrvumu Jiioctioit bt* would «oon meet huu. TbiA be did, aud' 
neciiroH:! tin iQLi>rtfiow, aiid, subnet^nvntly l>ti<<oinitiK ^ fftvoiirite 
diticiple, be t<^ceive4 in cointaemoiatiou of lliia tyent, pcjmi»- 
ftion to foiiuil lim set^ wlio are n<iw kimnii m* " Ft?iTilH>»," 
who mftkcT tijuir rt;ligit>Li3 t.iin?ur1* and twittt thoir pmyiir-whocU 
iu tli^ cf|ijJOHit« difvt^tioji to tlittt ado^ilorJ by tbt- ortliudux 

Neur the ruititi iireviouwly iJluJad to on thd bfmlM of the 
lake is a Urfi4» n&uinil cuvorn, containing the iuiunwi of tbe 
jtnlm of N^ru Puui>Uuks hajid. It is an object of worship to 
the reoplu of the country. 

Ta\iv far qh hict Joamcy the Pundit states that a cart uti^rht 
he drive^i ul) the way from Noh without aDV re[.miid binii^ 
made to the roatl ; bm in cro^irg the range which louude on 
tile i^ani Iho IVmbo connlryj p«tli wan sleep aud difllijuiu 
There h on alternative road, however, lying to the* north, by 
which it is tmA a cart (ntppoetn^ there to be £urh u thlu^ in 
tlio country^ might eu^ily travel from Thok I)Huiiik|ttt to tliu 
Namcho Lake ^^ithout meetio^ u tflngJe oletacle en Touie. 

The eouiitry Lj th<s easst oj the Pemhu distriK ia cjf il pr©* 
ciaoly similai' nature to what the l^udU bad alroitiiy pnutd 
thn^ngh ou tlie tvest. It is iuJiiLbit^d il^ fur Ets \\if. Nauiihij 
Lake by paaioral Changuu nomads, who live mostly on iho 
produce of theii flocks aua herds. No grain nhatevei' is ^rown, 
hut large quaniiti(.'6 are imi^urted from the Sht^iLtz^' aud Lh^i 
dieitnctfl to the soutb. The inhabitants ai^ wi'Il o9. ii«» in 
addition to the pr*Mli]C€ of their flocks, they sell to thi* nitr- 
chaikta of tht^ south lutge qnnntitieB of salt, which IH obluiiu'd 
from iiumiTijj« ciiakm or ^alt lak*:^ wliir-}i lie ul fn»m t-t^ht tn 
to twelve day^' jouniey to ibo north of the Pnnitjt & loaJi, 

The I'ouiiiry is iinbdividtfd into dUtrjds.. <lesij.Tiated aurcc** 
eively from west to eaet NakcbiDc Gomnak, Niikthftiiu; l>dbA, 
Yikui N^orha, \kV\A Ta^rto, IM Tlierik, M Taliniba, and 
D^ Tukluitg, whiob latter li^ immedistvly le the north of tlie 
}4amcho Lake. Eftcli of the*e, as well as the diatncl <if Nak- 
chillis Oiiiho, b^^fort? dedi'nbf«d, litiM \\s own rult^r or /'i>i£, who 
decides the disputes of his tiubjeota, and collects Ihr r^j venue 
from tbem. The whole are »«iibordiuute to the two Jou^poub of 

7-tfA to Lhdsa, aiid Hrtnrti to Trufin vi6 Atsam^ 


Senjfl Jong, s. plftco of c^nflTderable importatice lying tu tii« 
CAAt of tlie Nakchftng D6bj^ rliBtrirl, and conUinin^ from eighty 
to a Lumlreil Iuhij^i-b^ Tliese Joiigjmns ar« (jfiiL-riais appointed 
from Tvbi^ and are changed eveTV ttro r>r throf^ yciir«. Their 
rhii^r buaitiess ujipvfure to lje to Lijllct'l tlir r<'v«uue and r^oiit it 
to Lhfisfu UH'I to act na a eon of ooart of itj^tH^al apiinst the 
drciiiioD^ of the hereditary Voi\$ who nib oht tV umalk^r divi* 
aiouft. 1 hi.\v do i\iA H^um l^i huve a very Jidirult tank, afi their 
cxpcutivo ^d odmiDiatrativc fuuctions arc carried out with tho 
nittijrlnni'i^ of twt* ur three writrre only, nnd u uouplw ijf iJtivitm 
jjvtmrds Bent from the Gyalpo*s fun?ea m Lhjiea. Tbe rovenue 
sent to TJiina efinsi»<tii nntin^ly of ^Ai 

Out of \)\'is mixl if^fliientml of the local Pona is the OarpoD 
Changba Gjalpoiwho resides at Kitmar in Ndkclian^ Gomuak; 
h<" fippeam to ox':Td»M uonidderablG influ^HH^ In the naigh- 
buurms^ diatricta, Uotb east and west : and when the Pundit wna 
ptiNMing thrrmgh, had collnflml a roiittiilonihh^ for<^*» of Chn.ngpaa 
arnied with ^ue and buws and urrow-t, with the object of eet- 
tiiiL^ a dispute (whldi was, however, «iit»cqiEcntly diplomatic^nlly 
armngcd) »iUi another chief, who lived aomd difitanco to thd 
eatit uf tht* Nu.mtiho Liike. 

A detailed neoount of the roiite follow^ appoara in the 
[fineniry whii^h aocoinpanies tliis Paper, but n hotter idea of 
the nature of the roimfry will jierhttpk* be oblniiied from tho 
nmp. The hdjrht of the plntean tiavcmed appears to vary bat 
little between tO.OOO uiid IG.OOIJ fet^t above ttie sea-leyHh Tho 
plain f]?, A« n nile, c»nlin«d between mountains whioh nm 
juirfillttl to fbe dinjction of the road, but a few trausvfra*? ridgfW 
i.4 oousiderable elevation are eroBaed tn rtfule. The draina(j^i> all 
tctid» to the north, the alreuma from ihe snov^y raiigti to tho 
aoiith tlndiu^ tht'ir wa^ ititu iiuiueroua large liikt-a, wiiirh iTithor 
lie in tho ^anga traversed by the Pundit* or are ecelue^ in 
Kimilnr lunf^v Id thn itorth. These lakrg are the fharju^itprlttia 
featntee of the oonntry, and the Pundit may well bo protid of tho 
rh'siMvery and siirvrj cf sncdi a nnTnen>i]i4 nod extensive ity^lem. 
Of tho whole eeries, eilondiug: from Noh to Lh&sn, tho only 
one that has hitherto been ksovrn to ^'eogtnphers h the Nfim 
Cho or TcTigri Niir nt the eiireute ejwt, which, although its 
position with re:;ard to Lhaaa wa** appiosimak^'ly known, and 
wiu niarkod an \Aie «M Ohiuepie mii{u^ yi^rt it iff only within tlio 
[u0t fi*w years thut its poeitiou and extent Lure been deter- 
mined with aujthiiig like aecuracy: lhia wufi dont* by anr)tplior 
Pundit, A pnpil of the riTtnmu tsxplflrer wboec discovorits I nm 
u^jw tclating. 

The largeeT of these newly-diacovered lakes, the Ddn^ Vijm 
Cho, is about 45 miles in length, by 'Jo in breadth at its n Jdrat 

110 TBOTTEh's AoKUJtt of the FanJtft Jinimey from ^ 

part; aaotlwi l&x^e lako, die E^firing Ch(\ is 40 mt1e« in 
loogtl> jiuJ from 8 to 12 jiono**, T}>e waiew of the former 
m-e aU^btlv bracldflb, but thi>»o of tlio Kv^uug C'ho. And nonrlr 
rtll the? Iu£<in 1*1 thi ru*t» nri) Ijcnntilully fr**b, am^ iw wi*ll hm 
Uio fttrtmuifl wUioh (ood Un-iii from ihe a^utb, couUau abun-lunc© 
of dab, imd oro coromd hy iiijTijui« uf HjM*fowL Unrnritiuitl^lf 
for UiooiSelToa, the ObobtrF'^ tiavn u projiidioa u^^ftiiul kUlibj; 
and «&tii)g either fiab or kjwl. 

On tbo Qcc4incn of tiie fonner <>xplorAUDn of tho Namoho 
Lake it vn* froz&o <trar, aud uHbouf-b i\vi Piiudit mAiid tUe 
COQ^l&te rinniit of tlie UUo, be niuf unitbln td di«*i>i-rr nny 
titrcom Aowinf; from it. On tbe ]ir(^*(cbt oi:i-aHiou, liowov<;r, our 
FuJiilil, bavJD^ vtBited it hi thn aiiliimri, before ita wateis vrvire 
frozi^a, tliKtiuctly traced & stream isBuuiff from iu north-wnvtem 
tAtriiiuity, aud flowiiijj in u weatorK dimitliuiiH Altbou^li, at 
tbe time h^ Raw il, tbo etrtinm wa« ti<^ more tban a r>»w To^t tn 
vridtb. tUr iraWcourm.' ^lu broeui und dccpt and ia the •umineo' 
monlLfi niti^ j^ive exit lo a lar^ river. 

It appear* that the drAinngc Irom noarlr all those likes iiad» 
iu wtiy lather iulo tiie Cburi^uL Cbo, 4 IiirgH Inku miM tu W 
twice the sT£9 cf any with wbicb wo atv at yot acquainted iq 
tlu'fVT parU, or bifntj lb» K^k<<diii-kb^, i>r H0I& Brut^'pL^ a Ihr^ 
ricerwhicli issuea from the Cbar^ut C bo and tlows 6a«tWEkr^. 
The wnitbcrn baakn of thia rtTor uro said to bo iabnhjted at 
certaiu Uiue« of ibi> year hy Ali«p]ii«rdfl frum Uie X>& NtQim 
district (north of D^ ObcrJk). The c^-unlry to the uortb of tho 
Nik-i-bn-klul tu ljfli*ivi'd Ui In* iiniuhabiii-d. 

The hir^'utt river oroasod by tiic l^uud^t iu this eer^tioa of Iu3 
travels wa* tho DlJInj^bIJ or TUiti S)*n^|H^>, which reepivM tUo 
draiuago of tbo eoutbora filopi'tt of tbt' Tar^irt GyalEbarnia tiui;;^ 
of EQoiiQtaiiia, aud flowa into the KyuitD^; OUoj forutiiig one of 
tho nuiueruas ^uTL-eft of the NAk-eha-klX 

llie eubscqucut courwof thiainet river, uf which tfome of the 
hcojl-uaters Imye now \if*'n itMci-t], iiiiifit» 1 fear, r^mniij a 
myaltry, Tbt^ aocouuL which wiia ;;ivL^n to the I'liiidit is inAoD- 
ai^tf^ul wilh th(t f'jti'jlirg kIwlh tif the ^o^rrapby of lhe» Ronnlry. 
ll lit to tbt^ ctfeci ihal niiw ^yiL-ijm\^ the village of Nik-crhu-kha 
(Na Ttehu of thv Ahli- II ii'), whiuh ih on Uie nmd bfLwtfen 
Lh&«a and tht» Kolc^i-rtur IjU;*-, ibn rivor flovs iu a soulh-eaet 
direction to Uhamd<] or Toiamilu, a uidUhnown pbicc on tbo 
road frctm Llidw to t!athanp (l^a) nn^ P^kiu, l'benc<.« it ifi said 
to flow snuth-cnet und cast tbiou^h AmHii to China* uodi-r iho 
iiiiNitv4 (if Mai.'hii mid Kuiikirn^. If thiM jtt.iLtiMurnL vri*r» ridijibh' 
it would provo tbo Nak-cbu-loid to bo a branoh of Iho fauioua 
Yii>i|^*L»(^*Kiait^ ; but aftt-i a vtTy nui^fiJ '■x/traitialion ui' 
whole of tbo data I pogaoss beartn;:; cu the «ukijeet, 1 have cciae 

Lth to LliAea at\d Katat^ji to Jtuiui viA Aaam. 


to thd ccnoluaioD that the o^idenoe in Jls faTour U not saf- 
^irntly stroug to jmtity my emteriiig iDto tbo subject at 

It appears on tijc whok^ not improhiabJQ that th»." first ifftrl of 
tliM Piindirrt afHU^m*?!!!! iiiuy l^ Pi*rr(?<Ti, vix, tfmt tlm Niik-iTho 
khd Kiv^r tlowa to TRiamdo; if eo, it bcare MiT^at^aaively tiia 
^JiunuM of I-ft-rhil, rxr-f-hii, ainJ Lniitliwirtg-Kiurtp, which, iu/nml- 
to mo4t m'-ck^ru iiuihontimi, ia aUurwurdM lcu.n>i'U a4 ihu 
Ctunlirja or AlekZioii^ UiTrir, 

if. howL*\'tr, Kliifiroili'n woU-ljiK)wn map it to be roliiw] on,* 
ti>o f^dk-cliQ-kh^ (>shoao Moqj^oI t'i^iiival<!nt> Kbxira-iisdi ia thera 
.^iven), cJtifW tint flow to Tti/inidn, biit fhrnu ihr* h^ttfl-tintfirs rf 
tho ^ou or Lt^u Kiiaj;, v^liioU we nrXT idiiAtifv mlh the ^alvfeen 
Bivpr, enl'^ring thi? Imlbti Oi;^an at Mrmlmoin. 

To »hovv tliu dt?l)<^ioDcy of corroot ctuta aboot th<-Ae uti^ijortit, 
I may note lliat tb^ man (iO[:i:im[mtiyii]|3; the Frenct editiun ai 
Huo'm U»k Hho%V)L thn Nn I'lt'hu liiKi-r lu flowing wMt into ^ 
Jan^e Jakf, ivhllt! TM^mcb) U not !<honu it^i on a ^Vl^^ at all ; biit 
on fliQ other harni from Hues own IptterjirPM vs ]f«ni thatt 
"Taamclo in protcctc^l by two nvcim, tho Dii-chu and tho 
Ofu-^m. vrhioh, nfter flawing ond to the «aat anri one tt> tiif> 
vroat of th« towD, nnilo od the south, and iorm tho Va-lon^- 
KUiijr4 «^hich trftTi^rnf?* ^ntni nLiitli Ut wmtli thti pniTijii-n i^f 
yunnac and Coohiu China, and tlnally throws it^^lf into tlit) 
COUna Swt." On lookint: fit clbcr map iinr a furthrr conliiiDn- 
tioD of Huc'm uLV^o^nt. 1 Wfis tiiu<.<h fiurpriat^ ai Sudiiig chut 
Keith Jolioafon in hia map of Uijina iii hie ' iUndy Kc»yal 
Allan' of ]S7I pliui4s TKiamdo on tko hiVid-wattim of thu 

Tlis gL^oeml IV'ntorvB of ihiv ground betwfwn lAi^ and 
Buthun^S as ehown on Kluproth'i map, aro fairly cooiiatMit 
villi the aijL-uuat given by lloc of h» jcnrn^ betvoou those 

Ona |>ic<'fl of tv>11i»t*Tml KCt^jjcraiihy broujjht h*:-k by tho 
Pundit appEMvr? to Rgrae ao well with KJaprolh't map, iJiat it 
sec]ii& doeirabh to reprodiic^ it 

The FutiiJit »taie«, '' A rmid paasea fVom tJit^ \ak-chij-kbd 
Tilla^ for six days" josinicy in a n*>nk-ini*t*!m, and thirt«9n 
days in au eoaLeni dirM^tiun, through tliti Uo-»u(J uountry to 

* in one imiwrUpit inflt/trvt *t InuC, vli. Iha ;d«utLty of the ^roM rivrt »uth 

f IVa4QI, voLa 

4 Id Klftpoth'A iniiii Uw Xnk-ohn b iiliovi; m ^ umtlrtm trlbEUvrj- of Uln KAh> 
C)ia-Ul4, rtdltiJiE i"t^> t^t^ IhUpt lirnr (imf LUlHlaiL t'cupJe. T^jq iiMltioai tu IbIi- 
1iide«ftheXik-flhu'kU Itinir b^nvh very ooulr wiUi Uu Pandll'« HtiBbklO u 

112 TitOTTKn'j Account of the Patuiift Jtntrnetf from 

J^Jcannk Sumdo, whero it cixsHra the Jbachu * River, which is 
300 jtnreB at'i'KiA, am] ivliidi in said tc j*.'m the NAk*cbLi*-khft 
Hivvr ni Tsinmdo ; from Jftkd tho road piisees east for luu diiVi 
t1irouj{li tijc Khuwi oomitrv, and fur fourt^^en davs thi-oiiph tte 
Cheki t-onntry. where the'nwd crosses a. river llowing *mith, 
thcj |}j-t;hii,t wlitch in n&id tf) Ijc Jnrger tUan the Bmiiruuj^utrii 
Itiver near Lhisa, or than the Gange** at Hardwar — ii ia cniHKed 
in boat^; atirr sixteen duyii in aueaHtCTiydJa^lionjuiothL'rlArfco 
river flowing south i« cruised, [ilsii cuUrd tlie .MiW-'lm ; % tntnty 
days' journey more id n south-eBst direcrtiOD, pn«8ing byChnng* 
tlintig, brtitgB the tmveller fo the Amdu <<<JuntrY tj n iilnoe 
called Clji?riug Chilehum on the banks of the Macbii luv^T, 
v/hirh rii'tei'Wfiidg Huws to (..Ijinji." 

U in f htFi Ar^ljii Hivor uiiiirh r|jH Ptindit be1iev6«, t^mmeoiiftZy 
1 think, to be the eamc as tho Ndk-cLu-kM, 

The Pundit took the eame roiJt« ulotig t)ie nortlirm rhtiTVi of 
tbe NAmcho Lake which was followed by hia predeeeo^or u% 1872, 
and wa* de^crilwd by Lieiit.-(.«K Moutgomcn'e in the Biirx^y 
reports for IS73-4-J From the eaat end of the loke low^ni 
Lbilsn the routes aic identical down tolhevillagoof Dam. FroEu 
l>jim, Natn Singh follc-wed Uw rive-rof tliesamenHmttina touUi* 
west dirtiCtiuii, imitoad of atrikiEg uoro^H tie hdU iv the eolith- 
eiwt, the direct miil^.' whi*;h was followed by the other Pundit- 
It wJia not till the 12th of Not^jdiUt that tht- Punitt qaittod 
the hi^'her table-] uutlH of Tibet* &nd, aftei i-rosAJii^ the liaktitik 
PiiHs, 17,S4U Icet ulnive aen-leve], dtiec'ijnded \n%ti tlio b<^d of the 
Tuluijg, au ulQiirDt of the riTer of Lhjisti, whtre t\>v thi? first 
limi^ for ^veral months h& fmind himni^lf At the i^omparaiiTely 
low elevation of 1^,IK}0 fed, from nhicli ei gteiwiy descent for 
five short march^ii brought, him to Lb^^ at an elevaiion of 
11^10 feet. Hi? pteasuie waA ^eat on reaching the l^^rifr 
vtJlBj* where be found cultivaLni) fields replw-ing pa^itiirta, iinil 
grain in abundance, vegetables, cJuitt^^ \\ and other liuiuiee U> 

• In tbtf tnnn thi* Sflmho, iJWnrudii Iho IWdio. jotim Ih* Clm-cba Rivw at 

t Tlw Dw«hti Gf K]it|jrutL'a iua[iH id^rHurlx Cliii Mo-cLu. a(>«rwnnl< tho 
YaloDcijiCH hid (hi> Tn-leliuiif , ujic uf Iht^ Ituuat LribuLiLrirh nf th(< Vnn^^tic Kinng, 

t tik-lliil tiy l£iu{jrotU tlm Brj-oliu, Ull- vrrliublr Viui|f't»>'li.jiiiit.-. Tliik iiht 
wuiTH PTtthiifd liL|^imr up by Uuo cm Jiim jfruriti'V in l-hi^^n wu oiillufl Mtii,L-is>iii-iinii 
tv *' tiarffirtim ivAti'm/* ll« Mmi^I rmirni ttfin^ Hn-ohu and LIa 'I'liirUn nuaut 

Kin-c/M-Mvt^ vir lover v*<h Vu ifotden raiui ; ■lill ]o^at in Uir pir>tir>iyt r^f Skd* 
oboMiit la lh« WoU'known l'c4f(}f'C«<iO'urk/ nr i^ifiu i2(ivT. Jl jr ibliM known i^i 
OhilHi *f Ibo Ta-Man^ ut Cratt Hirtr. ft wuh it* tbifl Mort-ntui ifaij LIi<lI Uuc 
fMixl « twrd of rui jiikt fr44b>n bunl In tlu* uw. Aftc^r * miiTMj tit' muh: Ll^ikTi 
!IQ0(» nllnt dorf rig wli lull k rr«viviv two trihiitiLnm ftvm tLc iu>rlLi,.*ck rn^t 
thrkfi lOUO milm in Inmtl^ it Tall* viin tliv Ydlow 8cfl, 

^ Aljp'm * Joqmiil [^}«] GcvffTribhirAl Society/ Tul. xlr^ 1375. 

II A kiDd of 

I^h to LAdtat antl Return to India vt'ti. Attam, IIS 

wbich he liad long been a strAn^-er. Oniiiiwrv (lattle end. 
clonlcovH DOW t'>^>k tti(«placR of yAlcftiLiainilk-«upplifrv and ht\i 
oi burJuru KowU ftfid pic* wtsro mrcn for ill© tir*t time elm 
buVLTig Luiiilkir Tiw mi>m (.'ividired ICo^hpiu it?pTiu:«ul tb 
Cbjui);priii, mid tliu PqtLiIit wu Iot>hing forwurd to a pluauol 

Bui uiifortiinfttc»I>" for bira tbn Approai^h of cirTJieation brcuffbt 
hiiu coufticltrnblf* anxiety. On nfiiritii' LIiAm he* bmnl a rHpiit 
tbjit it nti^ rnrrently eUt^d lli^ro tl^t tko En^li^b ai;ent vag] 
Cn bin WDj tlicrc frMHi Indiiv and th/il n dina /fJ« CtjiiuimAd 
wbohftd re«cerlly arriireii from IwMavid N*?|»4ti bad b^-^^ti arri-iTed 
iind krpt ID ci:»iitino(notit UDttL an interview with lhi> Cbinr^so 
Aruljiin biid onidib*d blui ta prora tbut }ifi u^n iioi thu muu tliuy 
wore in ecATcb of. 

Tbi? Pumlit, (jii hruiring ibi*^ balti^d a day nt T-avigHlonj^. and 
Beet one ol' hia owtx Borrauta (Nendak. a untive of Lli&w) on 
itboad to cngnge a room in a trarrlWs «orai» and lo iu<iniro 
wluflbcr uiiy nown hnd bwn te^^ived of ih.j earavnn from Lc^b- 
Tbo maa returned oiid n^portc'd tb»t itotLin^' U^td \mb\i hoiird oE 
It; tbi; following dity (ibo If^tb of N^wmUir} tbc l^utidit on> 
tt^rud libu-'iu. 

On tbe oocaftion of tbe Pimdit's finst rigit to LhfS^ bo r&- 
maicicd tbcri.^ tbn-c nmntliB, nnd wrotrt rt p^rfd dc-Kriirti^ra of ibo 
place- Ilia pres^Di ba^ty visit of two daya only had uot a^Mud 
lOOiireSHting store of information. Ho loft it on tho liOth 
of Novuitibi-T, at'tioTtijianJod bv hiit two A^rvants, Prior 19 
Btoftin^, Uo ciilkicted tto moat onlkynnd loast valuable artiolos 
of iiift prt>itorty» tii^d tbrm tip in an did blunki^t, mmfidlv iiorilHi 
tbo pr«-col» aud banded il ovor to thi? owner of bis Iodsio;C" 
bouaOr whom he iriformctl tliat bo mm goiTi^ on a pilj^rimago 
to a momft^tnry ton dav«* jonrnoy to tha north of Lhinaj wboiK« 
be expeoU^ to bo baclc in about a m'^ntb to riK^laim bia ^noja. 
He started acrnrdingly in tht* nftf^nuinn in a mirlbirly dippcs 
tiou, but a^ HJOu as «vuuJxi^' vami* vu bo wUouied round and 
ooinmtinced bta rotom |vim<.'y U^ ITindustin, 

Tbo liTvt iit^ht he ballc-d nt Kuuibu Ttuin;:, only 2 inil/^s 
latt t]f l,lia»i ; t]i«' foUoftio^ day ho reached Dbrjeu, a. Uf^unKh* 
inc town with a lurgo rnondfttory on the left bant of tUo l-bi^a 
Itivor. His roiitr? bjr the firvt eta^'O was aJong tbe bjgb*roiid 
to FMu. 

Fn)m Lh&sA to Pcbm tteri> are two icadi ; tho ooe g«»e^Iy 
UM^^d^ and whirb Ih bt?lie\'i-d to Lie open all the year irutnd, ^oes 
at firBt noarly duo oast from Lhasa to TsLamdo, tho capiial of 
tb<» KkiD (^oiinfry; it then takt^g a wJiilbrTly directmu utA 


in TKonTTt'ji Acatant iff the Pandit's J&urfiejfjrom ^ 

pa«9a» ihtciigli Vi or Bntliong nnJ tbc Chincic proviuco of 
oBe-cbu^n, eroisins tn route niiriterous Bnov*eoTeKd pft^c4 
lOroM tin> iflti^ce ^ich diTido the streams nhich rfeo id Tibet 
and flow ■oiilbtrftrd» rithtrr into ttio m<« or iuto tho grc^ui Kin- 
stu-Kianj-, aftCTwarda tho Yan^'tso-Kianfr, From Lbaja to 
IM^iii l>v lln,4 rnctn ifi 1^(1 mrrniin tNJiti'hRst, mul Lhit <IjHtAiioe 
about t^ifOO milca 

Tl;e otbcr or nartlicm route, whicli li gonorally pr^^furwd by 
travoller^ iij tbu* loi ««usc>u, in pr^^buUy viuiur, imJ tb<^f m 
much ieasBUOw encouQlared en roui^. Itgoe^tby f^^k-cliu-blii, 
and croMtt'S itin biTiuUmitere af thij Tn:ii;-I«9-Kmng, from wbich 
thore are two alt^rutitivo roude to tht* Kvki> Nur, Tlic-ncc Uio 
niarl ptt»44.-:« by Siuijtg-fii (Ziliiig) tn IVkiD. It wels followod by 
tlio Ablx: Hiio in bi& jounuj^ to Lbi'i^ft, imJ be v\» Q-Ukkhi dayv 
in rettdjiu|{ LliW from Na PUbu (N&k-tslm-kbi). Aurjth«r 
accoiiat |^iv(« u« Ndk-obu-khd m n'lxWuyn tUye' mnrch from 
Lbuut (^'(vcli uiLircb avcm^^tr^g proUibly uh\>ni 23 mile«. Th^ 
sam^ itin«>rflry" tfivea itirlv-tour tmu'che** of cimiUr length 
frum Nak-i^iiu-klia tu J^ako Kokc-uur, wb^joc piMitioni is ti<»w 
knonii vfilh tolemblu ai'CLintcv, ha h bas Leea rec-«»iitly vi«it«d 
by a RiJfHina oHiccr, CnptiLin rn>j<ivjilfikj. 

At DKejiyi Lba Puiidit ijuiiti^d ibe Ftkiii rtiftd^ and Lurutijg 
aoutb CToea^d bv t!ie Gokbiir Pw* (lC,fi'JO foot), the ranp<* that 
Ar^pnratCfttbc Ijlia^a Kivcr fi\jm tin BribtuAputra. TU^ pa« 
vns covered witb fresli sni^iw. Pram it h^ obtained a verj 
DXtcnnvQ viow, ciLbracinr the YaU t^Inmbo taoxry woks GO 
miW KOUtb-eaAt, and tbo NiujiiiUmu^U [Jt^aLs al a stUi grvaU*r 
dialaaco od tbo north-woel. 

0» tlu' 27lb iff KijvHra!iiT W'. rfjuHKHl llit? Rjiuin-ji'i nioua^lirry, 
vhiob lias on tbe ridit bank of a ^Tiiall tributury ol the Bmlaua- 
pihm about 2 itiiCc* boibro it lalbi into the great riTor. 

Tbo Sama-y*^ Gomba is a very oiicieut, famoiu, and boaulii^l 
moDOfltery, and u said to bavft boGb built by tbo Great ^kj4 
Aluui bimxelf. It fa tmrrouml^I by a wry bigb cln-ubtr itouo 
wall, 1^ milo in circumftTcooo, vitb i^vXes fociDir tlie hwr 
points of the conjpaM. <>ii thi!i top ol this nail tim Piiadit 
counted 1030 MartanS't made of burnt bri<?ka. Oiio xtry 
largo lahhartg or t^inplo oocupica tho ceutie of tba tmvlc«cct 
itpace, and is aurrouud<^I by four nuiJIor^ ihi^jgh Atilt ic-iy 
large, templee, >^hieh are placed half-way bt-tweru the- door* 

llio idols and iraaccB oontained in the«d t^mplea aro many 
of them of pure golii ricbly oroameDted ivilh vabiable clgllioi 

L«}i to LJid^Of and Return to India vi& Attorn* 


KrS \t^th* The cunil^icU^ and other «fv1oii:i^tioa] utcu&ib 
aro ut^Eirly nil miulu ttf ^^Ul Atiil HJlvrr. Tlie iiileni>ra of tlie 
(rtonn) wuHh of thew templ<?B w^^w* i^ovor^d with very Ijc.nutiful 
nritiiiK in nnijimuufi iliiiUi (HaiiAorlt) clut.rA'^tera, which the 
PunHit WAS abJe to decipher, aJthonch bo coiald not* uiutcreUuid 
thffir mcdm'iiE:. They arc Kitppotica to ho tlio handwriting of 
Sikv^ Miiui liiuLiieU, unJ are uhjt«bj of worship to all visitors to 
tlift moniMtory. 

Thia niunimt(Ty nWi rnntftiJiH thtr jfitnirttiV and ibe KunyutV, 
nr fMi«d books of Buddhu. Xho ktter ar4? lOJS in ntimtK-r. 

Trndilion mj-s lliot in th^^ rrJgn of Tnjnnij; Duncijak/ the 
(ryalpo i>f Lhdsa, tilt* ooutitTr ^'^ ^^iLhout /eligloa ikud nithout 
g;odA* DuiiDg hi« reigu H&kyu Miini VFon born in Jlindiisi&n, 
and mm« to Tibrt, and rtmiHi^l hi* tfAply OMnvurts wer«Gy£lpo 
Snmzeti, Uk eon. aad Biru tho gTandsiDn^ of Tnjiuig UiiDdjnlc. 
T]i«!Kr twn, m ^Limpitny wit}i SiLkyii Miiiil, mimiiMtirnil bi hijild 
th^ moiTuritci-v ut SumA-\t*; but wUal*^vei was raietid by day- 
wfl« tll^l}^^'ll dowu by ^vil Hpiritis at nighu At hi^t Sukya b^ 
thought htm of jinmmomiiL' frum KiodUEFlAu <iiie of hia Jtpjriiuol 
pupiU, Labbaii IWuii, who »va* very «blfii] ia tho mauaeo- 
ment of c^vil vpiHtA- Romm^ nnd ^nM ^>r4'Vi-Dti?f! ti> thfi Gytllpa^, 
to ifboEc, however, hcs rofiULKl to p&y M»y marks <*f reepofit. 
Thf> OvAlpi), mi(ifc<^i*h;it an^'PTi'^l, r^^moiiwtr^iU'd wiiJi him, wui^ip* 
upon tire iivacd from XjLLl>b(U>*!« iiiiiLi luid biiTtied Ujo Gyulpo's 
li6ad-<h-i^fta> T|iL< wir.-W) dt^uiouH weru slxiji ovei\^me ahd tbe 

moHiUtJ-rv uPilK Completr^ti <lu tliO lUi^OJW^i rif tit* Gyi,lp>, hj 

flou Itlni nbdiiraTnl. nnd wc^il t<> llinduHt^ as % reU^ 
mcDdicAnt* r^8i^mg his authority to >^kyi MAni. who U 
euppow<l to be ahru in ^c pcn»on of the Gcwu King-bucL^t or' 
Orand I.^ina of LhibiiL^t 

From S^ma-yo tho I'cndit travelled clown tbo courae of tha 
Br^iliitiLtpulrji f(ir two uinrrhTW^ iuu<sm^' several svirjiiH triljuUiriea 
d r^V'H. Hg oroiaei tho ^ithX river m a boat on the SOlh of 
NciTfmhf^r, In this ^lortion of its n:nirae it is known eith*?r as 
•*Taanpo'' or " ih* river/' or by the name of Tanijun Khi. 
At thui, now the low&st knova part of the course of tbo Brahma 
jjdtm iiiCintat Tih«t,lhe Pundit estimttteKthi- widihuf tlitt rivar 
at oOO yards. Tho Htreum ^vlh8 very alue;giah, ita cuircot near 

• Tlw wn of Oyii]p^ RrnnlHu w]io tm iht* boh tif Clvilj^o WJmtt, 
1 1^ t«<rm "Dotal l^iDiV \*j nta^^ti ihn UramI t^umn nf LnAv hftd afwayi 
twon knovn irs lu. rrorn tlui wrttfjin of Turnvr. W'w^ vid ntlim, ti cnrlmuily 
•anuiEb JkbHflutHJj uiiktiiiwii to Ww, ^uuiJit. Gcvk Itiu^-bm^lKJ, CJiUujlii Fhutrj[i|r» 
KBiwfipni Itiuit-bofik^ D[T> 111" 'iilfi uiiJiini li;r wlncli, AirufUJOK ^' ^*' ^tifi'lit, llio 
Qmuunu b Imoim in Til":!, ^imilntl y thir umnl EjUha af ShiffhUe^ ia knona 
to tba PuDrllL u l^iAOhhoD I, or lUoicn) iCjnjj-bix^d tmljwl of IihKu L^mba. lUo 


lie TflOTTBu'i Account oftht Pttndit'j Jourae\ffrom ^ 

ttin barks bcin^ no tnoro tban bvo>thirrle of a mile ficr hour,* 
lU (icptli vn\A riiwhrri' mnn* Unit 20 fi-ut.t 

Tho Talky throuRJi which tbe fiver flow* was hew mrorftl 
niPi'.A nm^Ks; on th<?< loft Imrk of tli«* HrPHtn nrv* ri utrc^tcJi of 
eand fully I) mili> ia broa^Jlb, thft wbiU» of wliii^h ie said to 
be imdor ^at^r in the mtjnllu of Miiv. Jimo> anfJ Jiily, during 
which fti^fUBon tho riv*r U mni*h flo'j-Ji-.X Uolli on ftct^otiut of the 
increaatt of water ftom the tlif^ii r^ptdlr melling snovrs, aft well 
tw I'rrfm tbft ruin vbirh falU in (^rmniilpriLliU mmntili^M fruiii 
April Id Juue. 'l'ht» riwr i* h<in> no lonB:or uaed for irrip:atioi>, 
u above Shl^itv^i, hnt nil ihe Rnialler iJln»im8 nbHi iuiio rmm 
tbo mcmiittiiEu on tbo north a&d Hotitli ur<> Uiicklj' bonier^ 

Tbe J'undii Ipft tb*» river noiar Ch^tiiiR, from whit^h pomt ho 
states lUt trf^n^^al connc itt vi.^iblc due i^uit Ebr a di^Auflce 
nf 30 mil©?, afwr whicb it enootiDtere a ratige of mcHinfjuiui 
which f-aus^ it to liivcrfrc in a ttoiith-pojttt^rjv direction. By 
taking' 1>t^jintig4 tu, nnd flxiujj: thi^ |ioriiLioiuf of, Hoirte t)tiHk«,on 
tliia sido of whu^b tlio river wm said to liow, ho doHnod tiio ooviao 
of tlie river aiijirnxinuklj ly W n vrrj I'oimidi-^iblci dwUiiii^ beloiT 
whcuf^ be flouted it The coureo of tbo river thus det^rmbftl 
irt very fnirly accordnnt with lliat sbo^vn on Dn HaMo'» map of 
Tibet- After Icavbfr Gvila, f hi* approximate position of wiiti-h 
is about l'6Q mik-s bolow L'h':^1^rkp, tbe rivci is said to flow for 
flftf*en (biyn' joum'»y tliroiigh tbi* Tir!i*-prO(bicmg oounlry of I-ho- 
kti^ro* repntcd to be uuder a roller wbo ie quite indopondfiit of 
tW liiiiwi aiit.horili'^>L Ttn iriliabifjinU tirr. Miid to carry oil 
trade with th^ poujtb of tbu Kumbo district, which Hqs b^tvdraL 
it and Lhasa* but tbi'V brxve no coin iikuuicat ion with tho people 
on thi-'ir»«iith, thr Sllla^Lh^i^tfl,A wiU mc^L' ( probably the |)eop1o 
who aro kaowii to us ad tbe ,M.iB}iiiiia) ^vho iahabit the country 
thniu^'b uhieb thp uf't^i rivrr flown In GyA (AHiutin). lu tliiu 
Lho-kbttio country l£e Brahmapiitni is said to be joinod hy two 
Inr^" rlvfire from llio iiorlb. 

The Pundit hart tliUM bi^oii nblo to throw a lilllo more liffbt 
on the h>w'er coursi* of |]it* Tmiiixi or Ibf- (Jre^at Itiv^r of Tibet. 
It U unn^v'nsflAry to foTiow Wilcox, Motitirnm^riuj and olhera, 
who ap|>ojtr in bnvc cittirly jirnvod that the Ttianpi> inunt bo tho 
Wj^ river wbieh, under the oameof nihonj^. eijterw Awtitmnrur 
Sudiyiv whore it 19 joined by tho BTchrutt-kTuid. Wo may, I 
think, f^iffly Htlmit ibai iliii* in tbe ean^: nml althou^b tiie name 

* Tbv Fuadli rouni] thut ■ plflcv of vivnl wh^ch he tbTPw In from th* lunk 

t Tb^ boka irtihih veto ciDluaL\L-b i>»i iu MUiitinc tbo b«tfl «or(}» mrr^ 
noararodbyd^ Fund It, and fuuuJ v> b^ 21 foci ia lenstli : tromiJLijhfl nti. 
nntM m Dtuiuinai d«jilh of 111 or 20 tivi. 

Lrh to fJidMa^ and Rftvm to Indin viA Atmm, H7 

Bnthm^piSlra is doubllefls dttHved frcirii the firuhma-kiSurl of Ibe 
Afdam valley, gcoarophors iwYc, in wrcsidcmtion of tho iridc-' 
knf>ttri [-Mltiliriiy iif LIhi n"tn<i nmlinm|niu"a, Ihi*iWw*-J it uii Ihe 
Taoupo, tUd tippor and mmX impt>rtAut source of the j^reat 

Choti^up 14 ft larj^a town on ibe ri^ifht bank of the Y^lnnp, h 
coDsiderablo aflhiont of tho Urobmaputm, onitx right bank. It 
contitiiiM two iurgu riioimt>(iTi(^M, in ^Aliit'ti rc^idi? 'UO L^miu. 
t'rom Chetitnp tfic ruridit's roail iny up tho Villunj-. throug'li a 
rHi Krul Irrlilci val)<-y, wiut^ii coutuinii iiuinc-miiK vjllcigeq ntiJ 
mo[iJLateriee sL^LLltereil about on both eiJ&a of tlio stream. Tbo 
country is very jfroiiuotirf^^ nud coDt«[Ds numerous fruitHreca, 
pnzidi>dUy apricots aEni pt^un; whout aud burloy m'e fibuai^antsJ 
&« well &£ pc&e, and niaay other kinda i)f Ti:gi.*tahleA. Tlierv id 
ffootl gTAvin^^ <»rv llie inoimliLhiii wHif<h tunlcr th« vidloy, but t1i(t 
bn^cil of t^ho(>p IS very etualL 

Prom CheUng to tlin l>ii]iitHhg pinin nt tbci hcnil of the 
valltiy lA 3(j milee. In cuiilitKHi to uumiitone Btaltured vilUi 
of ten or twelvi> Louacji eucti, the hir^e Iohua of Niiitt^ng tbill 
<^hnk}'ii Phutiin^ arrj piUHc^d en rov£<L Frgm the JJuTatJktig Ld 
^> tliu Kiirkfoi^ L^ the n^d Lr4VcniM for 1/j iiiila« ^ grissy 
pUt^ati hot.wwMi irj,000 nnil 16,000 f'rt ftlxn-iT Wfl-l«Tel. tlirongli 
whicb tl(>wt< n .itroatn vrhicb bUcun i1» riEto in tiprinj^, and nlti-* 
mainly lluiU iIh way Info thi* UiJihiiapiilrH bylo* Chetiiig, 
On thin clcvut^nl rcgi^^n. wbuih rxtcn^U for n cnnKidrrable die- 
tnnn* to thu Mrat, LUh I'mt'lit «f{ain ruux;d hJnihi-lf Hmon^wt t!u> 
l^oppnB or nomnd populjilion. It U by ih^ Karkarp Taesto the 
wjutrfi of tilt; plnin thnt tUt: main llitunUvau wntr.mhrnl Is 
croaaed. On reaching it th^ Tundit stAte^ tliat a ma^nillQ&Dt 
yIcw prcK'nt(^l itwdt Th<^ whole of tiio forrgroiind wiw occu- 
pied by fc^^nlly iJiidnULiiiv ^^raiiay pliiia^, over ivhieh, irii llig 
north-wcat, at a dietanto ot but a fow milrji, ri.?o tho very coU" 
>i[>i<Mi«"w group iff i^iioivy pi^iKn irniled Yain Shiuibn. Oihwr 
snowy jiieaka l>eyciud tho Urahmaj-^utra appeared toppm;;; tha 
plati^u lothfTDoith^ nbili^ f^a^X nud wrri and south alovij peaks 
row in e%wry direction^ hut ti ^Teal di^Uucea off. 

From the vratcr«lici;l, which ia lQ,21t> f^ct above sea-lereb t^o 
road to tbr> Ky^ Kyi lA >l P"^ bhuui 7ii milr^sd furtlter eouth, 
tTuvurwTA a biLrh undulnting plateau wkioL ia boundei on its west 
by a widl iiJLrktTd itiowy rulg^^whirh runM iintirly dii^ north and' 
rtimtb, iLnd i^uutihiuci nuuieroud ^lader>4. The <imiukgu vi thia 
rr>uijtry is most irregidixr. The Pundits road for ihe Tn^ti 
2^} milea from tlie i^aaMfoUoivod a alreum vvhit'LT undor tho name 
of Sikung ^^a[lt'po, ilowa for 40 mileti nearly ducf viuil, thruugli 
the Cbahuil c:iiiutn% and ultimati^ly turning south- east, ntasj 
nearly porolld to tlio uf per course of the JJmlimiiLpiitra, ^bich 

118 TaOTTEaV Ji:coaTd (flltf Parulifs Jounift/ ff<.^*t 

imi itissoid to joJniLiVssftin. After Ic/iTing the mftinRtrPom 
tbd road a^t-'onild n t^rum^h vMltfy foru disUTic^ of 20 mtlwto the 
Hcrasft L'ttM fl5,300 fctt), tiinl'tbcucd deaccud* inio n ntroam 
wKioh flo^^ ditt^ Hmilli fop 40 jiijU'h* ftmi aiilis'ijiu^miv, umler tfa© 
nami>of T^^^ ^ug-i:iiu, tukctf b WL^iilci-ly t-uur^c, a&d fiows round 
ihe Koiitheni t*xlreini[y cf ihe Finowy mnp*- vshirli lin* hmtx 

Tliat iiortioii <ff tlie plateau wliioU coataius Uie Jiead-wntcre 
of tho -Sikuiig Kivrr is from 15,(X»0 to 1 V'OO frot nbove ma- 
Jerel. It ifl u very lloiiriEiliing, ivcH'Cultivnled routitry, corefod 
witU nllm(?^>^l^ small villftg^a containing Kottlpd inhnbttfLHf*, 
who ftrc under the itnmcdiiit^^ nilr of tho Jungpon of Chohoil, 
H dUtricl. HJtualf \(twvr down tht- cmirRe of tbe Sjkiiii^ Uiver 

Tho rood it*oll aftor loflvii^g tho S^riim 1^ ffoo* n»*4irly du« 
aouLl), trroMiiig iu KuiTf<iuif>n iw?vt-rid ((|)ur^ irotu tb? v/t^t^m 
rftiig^*, »nt\ afror reachia™ the Kyi Kyi Pans inpidir dMcoadri 
iril<i the Obiilchrtng ('Shyn) voll<?y, which in crpwatod from that 
of the Tfiw^nj> by a very high ridgfl, whk<h is croe8«>rF by the 
Mila Khatotig. a pn«a which was corcicd with frr^h nnow. 

B**twi<t-ii Uki<Sikiing dntrirt nnil Cbiuiti Jon^. tht> UTimin^r 
rceidGDoo of tb<> Ti^iiip Joti*;poL, the coBntrv i* UDinhnbiliML 
Nenr Ihr firnUa PiiMs tlii^ Pundit, pniwr'd jl biW jiIhjiU G mil4*H 
lonj* by 4 bruud, oiitiryly Irozofi i>vei", but tt© waters of trbich 
ID tho fiummcr tiiouths doubtloM help to food tho T^wiing 
rtreuQ. South of rhin like tho toik! fnllowtd by thy Pttndit la 
joJoed by another wlJcb ccmefi from the Hor country and 

Chotia Jong is a plaou of' coi^stderable import^uic^. aud is a 
groal «xcbaj>^e mart where 8alt> wool, and Ikorax from che Her 
country; and tea, tine BJLks, wociUen cIoLliA, loathem boota, and 
ponies frum Lhfcia. ar« exdiajigei fur ike, spicks, dyea, (talUt^ 
nnd (Niar&e olothi^ * from As^ra. Of th^ua^ artirJcfl ricM) » % 
luoiiotxjly of the Lhasa Govenuiient, ftnd at Cliona Ji>np tbere 
U n De-bang (or rioe-houfie) in chsrffa of a Lhiva otlioial, the 
l)u-H<i»^ who purchases the whole of the rice that ia im- 
ported iVom A.-teaiii, Hiid at wliosti warbbouiiea only can nee be 
purolinwd cither ivholcwtlc or retail. 

ThJa itiarhet iniiHt be one of uonMhhimhfci un[xtr1iitL(n% and 
containa 300 or ^Ot> ahopa* Tlie Pundit is of opiiiioD that 
althotigh tho imix^it and eiport trade is not nearly »o finable 
e£ tbal [>f Ix'h {u\e fjri?iit *>xebanjjo mart for India a»d Euatem 
Tiirkiatin), yet th^it th^ iiumbL-*r of treidorn and aniniabi and 
mwn f'fnployed in CHrrj-iirg bjmU in Brmu-whiit h>rgc»r. Tho 
BierctanU who import the artroltiw frnni ^Vaeam are mostly 

* A kind <>i allk, juuonliaf^ la tho FoDilif , touid wtdi iu 2j—m bchI Uit-n Iu 

Lffh to Uidse, and Jirtitrn to India tlA Atsam. 119 

tuktivvM of Tanaii;^^ vUci nni ralli^i) Mtiniiptt; \nii ihn ^>udd 
impoi'toJ from Hot aie bio«;;lii iu by the Uu^'ptifl or CluDj^cai* 
Tiie gooJs Crom Lbaw are brought bj Lacrciioutf from ikat] 

Thoro i» froe Uado (with the e:icc^lioii of thfl rice monopoly 
befun.' mnutioiK'^)) U-twonn Hi^r, IJiftJiiL, nm\ CU^mri >liing; but 
en all i^oodtf to and frtini tiio mnitli u July vi lU piT eoul, ia 
lt!^iijd ftt ill".'' Chf-hh'tfifj or cuAtfim- house, niie long dayS nan'li 
to tbtf uoulli uf Chijuu Jong. AxTiiJi^r^imtriLti ara niuilo by th« col* 
lector of tuxvKi Ui4l uif^ruhoiils iihrtU iii>L have to |m^ UiUi waj«. 
Tiie tiuuut «n to the JongpoD, ftiiO aw remittal by him lo LhuL 

Tho tuaJ Irum CiiGDa Joiijf t^j Tnvrttii£Chuk]i]iii;.'ift cloMd \>f 
nnoiv fruri Jucaary co IMay or Jiioe. An altei'aalire mad liw 
duwn tlii^ Lhobm and up the Tft\vdiig rivcrv. 

I'hii^ ( 'LukLari^ u nut. uuly a ruitiuiud tHiunilnry, but se^airatesj 
tUo ifoiibpH country on tbi> north froni tho Alon^hnrl ili^fnot tO 
tbtj Huulli. Tlir J\liinhpn< uhfi iulijibit tliif Titwjia^ divnlTii't dilTt-T 
matwially iu buiLfUitgt^ dri'j^rt, mauiit^fti, and dfijH^arAnoo f^m 
thoioiiAbilAntJCpf TiU't, AuJ i^^tniibb^, accofdiii^ to the Pundit) 
in numv rtf|>i?cu tht* DUiiUrmn of tht? Bholiin touutrv on the west. 
liiMfta of aliomn^' tbi.<]r Luir 1*^ -^luvt U'lhW. ^nJ jiri'iitiging il^ 
In pUit< »u is: dont- in Titict. tlioy cut it lo jui <*vi^n hnj^lhull 
round tiitd hvaU- Ou thv t«p ot' it Iho" ^ixiar a srualJ ekuJI-cap 
iDude oitlitir of xvoollcn e)otb or felt. liiHlead of thr? lon^ goAva 
of Tibot, u »Uort c<mt id wi>rn« which only ro4k<£li(M U» tti^< kuue. 
Il is fiiatvned by a >vl>uJW girdlv, ui whidi in invariably fastcnod 
u Icng smi^ht knif«. 

With ti^e exception of a very large juiil imrKttiant monaflterf^ 
»t Tftw^ng^ the whole of the vjUiLi-^B in ibe TdviiiL> valli.<y nvv 
liudi^ the jnn»dictJCQ of the Jongpoa of Uhona Ji^ng. 

ThtH T^iw^Nfj^ nimimtif-rv Hf-niirt^fy ijid<^[K'iid(<Qt of tiie JoT»^>nR 
A&d of iho Lhittuh Uovernment. it oontiLins Gl'O l.ftmnif, and 
nlttuiugh nut owning mnrh lirnd \a ihtt imnirflbtft^ vic^mily i>f 
the monastwry, they oro (with the eiui*le exception of thevillnc^ 
of iSni^i Jong, nbicLi is & Jagir of the Ohonn Jougpon) the 
propriciura und rnlun ol tht vihiAt^ isnintry to the suuih of the 
rau^e of hiJla which eeparale* ihtf Tiwjiiig trcim tJ^o Dhirang 
vnJhfy ; th<'ir teiritorv pxteii^U ripht np i»> th<' BritUU fmntii^r 
neMr Udal^nri,wliioti latter plnco li kuuL pri^ to ltd occupation 
by the Bnti^b, lo have formed a portimt of \\\f Thv^iing/^r, 
^^'hicli nour inrluduft thei iJKimn^ unri i'tiutun^ vullevK. 

TliH ntliurH of Ui« TiUfin;;; diblrict ans mauBL'rtl'by a 5crt of 
parlinineiit tenne^l KafOr wijicb orii^mbl^n in pmtli<* to nianAge 
UinJiii^ns jiml to ailuiinir^t^r JLiatii'n. The KtUf* iK i^i.jmpL«ed 
entirely of L^inias, the chief omcials i>f the principal mooaiAery. 
Tbow compriw — 

120 TrottehV A^tni of the PttmUtt Jovntsy/nm 

Ifit. TItf* KaiLhu, whoKiT (]tiTy it. u t4) iiitnufh niid waintafn 

2ftil Tliff //uWttH, t*T u-achi?!', who is at tli<^ liond of tlic irdii- 
Cttttonul <utttLbiliKLinf'nt. 

5rd- Th« Odoiigi. fcnir or lire In numW, who look after tho 
n*vi»iiup*i iiTui gov^mmpnt of th*i ccuntiy. 

4ll», 'Vht- Nirimat^t Ner^^\\\m fimrtirfive in number; thc»D 
fWRiflt thp (.Selon^is in their variona dntie«. 

Tiio vlinLo of thcHT, t<>OTthcr vith a few of tho older Umiftfi, 
form the fwirlimrit-nt, hiLi] fmvp tbis enpnJiiie direelion of Bi!&nv. 
Clnimjinbi iittcndinp tlicir ^^onrt ^"^w^nt thoir mtitioDn foHed 
up It) k^ktUakti, i>r [tilk acunres, mid iirtwirul t? tueuiiKdirea with 
grent reven>iice, 

TIk?wc Tuivang LiLmos arc im indofcnd'^nt lot, urd are well 
armed vrii1i guu4, bowfl &ud airows, &o. In Dhireng Rnd iillrr 
piftcca Ihoy keep a ri^^iiiJar annfd forcf" of Jj^mnji to (^m^biif 
thmci in i'tj(»i iHit indy witli tli« iticl*-|jf-ndf*iit Duphltt^ J)uj}Ia, or 
Lhoha iriboa who mhabit tbo lo^or oourg^ of tho ChirAD jr rnll^y, 
and with whom tlurj havo fpvinput f'.-mU; but u1m» vUh the 
ueif^hLouriti^ £Liid more f»owt'rfid ocuntry of Bhot^n on tb9 
wost, tho vtiriovis du^ii<-t» of whkb, vhtD not ^a» is gon^rallir 
ihtf case) '?iigLi|:^'d in juIltluI hojtli]iti..n, wru alttiiyn readv to 
pidf a quurrt^l with tbr.' prujjle of Tiiv^n^', Tho village of 1/b, 
in the vnMi'y nbuvt ]lhirMn^'.iiprj«i»tiili) owv udotjhln ullfgiaiufn 
to botb Liuiiu« itud Dnjdika. The Puoilit on hi* warc^h down. 
iho vidl[»y wiw (tvt'rliikon by a paily of ^fteen or wxtm^ 
iheae Lholas^ vihn wi-rt? carryini; iiway imm I*ih (*omo mttid, 
ehe^p, and iii^jH whicli they had leceivtd aa ibeJt *ihaio of the 
tiibiit<», Hnd whkli tltpy w«rd talEin^r oflT to iht-ir o^^n rountf}' 
two dayn* journoy lo tho eaflt of Dli:njug, The l'und:l ^*aa 
mnoH struck with th^^ appparniroe of theno ttiph, and i^sn^mlly' 
nt)tt<u^d tbo i^normouH dcrotof^mt^nt of^ ihm Grtnaa rind the nilvoi 
of tijuir 1<^^^, whJi;h far ejiiwdud hi ni/e any he bnd p*?i"ii elae- 
^horn. They \^oro oy lindri<*B]-eihii|'cd hnis tnado of bamhws; 
thi^ir only garniriLt lAua a Lng bbmhrt foldcni ttomowlmt after 
ihfi fiwhion of a. Scott'h pioid, aod fii&t»>ni?<i round the waist hv a, 
cloth girdle, which is i:&f.d na a qnivr^r for Ihdr arrov^*. which^ 
all carry, ak well as a liow slung ov*.'r the left shoulder. Th( 
gpciat^r part of their arms a«d legs were bore, Thoy woro no 
Loolis but nrnanieutid rings cmdo «>f rujir witn? faatL^ar^c] rerv 
tightly both ou their wrista aud on tl}cir lof-s bulosv thv knoa 
They hftdhigh uhcok-boTH^H and rhiricwvlookiiig i-yis; wore tuy 
hair on ihoir lac^N, but allowed tliat on the licod to fcrow to « 

mcut ioilivlad (7 tsakjfc &luni upon tjjn LL(>ljo* ou u«t«iml ol tbcli Urctleicxu 

Lth to IJiatn, and Return to India vid Amam. 121 

great length ; llija was ilrawn togetlter l^huiJ iiiid theu allowed 
to buQ^ (jown. 

TtitT Pimdit rcr»i*lit?J Tilvfing on iJie 24t!i of Hii'pmlM^r, nrd 
wHj; dntniDod tti<<ri? till the ITlh of Febrnaryt httvici* btM.'ti uDubls 
tu K^t |Kfnui[(Mim Ir? jirocc^l tolbe eimth, U u]ip.*iini \\\i\X mrmo 
few ^<»are ago the Tiw4u^ Limns baicl reprefctruii-^il ti> ihd Lbisa 
oflirtnlK that ihoir Etibjocte sobered much lu |<ockot iiom tbo 
Jjh^n iiierrlwirilfi binng iiDow^d lo Irude diiftU willt Anuim, iLtid 
they at lest guccoodixl in ^'tttiitg an oidcr from l^h^ia that 
trHdentfrjun lhwljil;u*(?s!ini)lJ tiot bein'rmiflril ti> jiT<»rrp(l hcy<md 
thd limit of tbu Ckujiiu Joni^pou'e junDdictiuii, I'hu Tuvuutciuis 
hare thus succeeded iu litepiuip m tticir crwn Ljinda imarl^ Uio 
wholo of the trado villi A&^un, and they AvtitifTrmtJouliy piwcuC 
blJ Atraiigcre fi^om iiiwsbg through their coimtry. 

Ijj'ftving Tftwdng t»n tht 17lh cf hVbruary, the Pundit r^achM 
Q^IdLt^'un IU LEritiJi ti^rritory im the l.Ml«f Maioh, thr mwl bcingr 
oi't.oii ilrnp in snow, nhile friiir pa^OA had Xi\ be crmsedmroviifr;! 
<ii tlioBu tbo pji^i^a^o of the ^ai J4 jluiI tlio ^Mi-nrin La uerc ^ire- 
wbat dilliL-ull 1)11 airimuL of sriuw. Ddzulfl '>f lh« njail atf giviii 
in iho pHtidit's ititjorary at Iho end of the I'lipor. 

At OdiUgiin iLfT Pundit jnit hitUNdf iu armjmnrinilion vitli 
the AsBiatant Cotnciii^ioDer of tlie I)&rrarg di«triot. who kmdly 
ira^Eo all the necessary Drran^mcDt^ for for^\aidiii^ Kini to 
GjiuL^FJ^ wheot'e he »*unt by »L[«umvr to Calomtix, whteh jilauo 
ho reached on Ibo Utb of Alarch, 1^76. 

Befuro doBing thia Popor it moy hit wl-U to r^pajiitvilale tho 
chief n?8ult4 of the Piindit^a Ijutt t^xpliinitinn. 

In addition to tho f^'iicfral infonnatlou iioqnircfd, which hns 
beeu couiiEitmicat^d in the uan^atlve, the Puudit haa luadt; a 
T<»ry r»tttvfu! and vptl-piccnl^Ml roul« mrvt*y nf tlji> whole line 
<rf country travri^d. yik. 101^3 uiU'^s fnmi Luhimcr (wmt rnd of 
PanffoTig l>ake) t(\ ]>h^,aad liOH mib^n fcom 1 ^bilHa lo Odhlpuri, 
Of tliin tfitnj cji^^nco of Ivtli' inilcFi throughout vrhii-h his 
ruuiiiij;* arid hi-ttriugn wen? (larvfully retTutJi^iJ^ iilvmt 1300 miltM 
lio through country which hae nevor pi^vicitHly boen explored, 
Numi^nrutt Inkrts, uMnr.T of i*-iinniKiUtf %\t,r., aiid Mimr riviTH. haru 
been diseovurod; tho oxialeuce of a vast wiowy rantfe lyinjc; 

SATallcl to and iii^rth of tho DrabtDnpdtm JiiTcr ha? bncn ol>iir1y 
euiimvtmtc'cl, loiil tho iHudtioni of aeveral of its peakti hiivo 
bcon laid doi^n. aud thoir heights ftppmairiattly drtcrmincd- 

Thr- RnuhmwptHra h:i* btfn fLiIlowtHl fnr n dii^lniu'iT *jf M 
itbilt^ iu a j>ortJ^in of its course. SO iniK'e lowor down thau tho 
lowest poiot j>tt?vionftly dc-termined l mA as its ftpproxitnato 
<dirnc-tion for another JUU milt-s hju bovu laid dowii^ tJjo abAu* 
lately ludtnijwn i^urtitm of that ujiifhcy river'a course Qovr re- 

1^ TRnTTKB'^ Atemnt of the Ihindt/s Jotrrttfyfrtm 

mnining hu been Tcry Tratcriolly rcduccil- The roiit<* brtween' 
f.Kisa and A^tum riiii Tirtang, of wlii^b rioxt lo nolliing Uiul 
hitherto been kcowiu haa Lwen carefully t urvcjcd, find tins daUf 
iiianclit-K dnnnrilipil. 

A§ a framework fr^r thi^ mftji« no Ic^u thtin 273 double n1tituil«« 
uf ihp MiH rtii'1 Klftrn havi? h"»-n oli^Jf/nxnl with a (A^xtjHit for the 
detei-miiiuLion of libtitiul^, and tli« Hoao ncoord/inoe of tlwi 
TCMiiLu t^^ »t* Ajiil with tl(« uiamtitifj; of ttie nmle by th<^ pACn^CS 
and tearing^ prov« iaoN^DteetaUy tbe g^n^rtl A<«urftcy of 

TUg tempemturd cf bo)lin!» walcr iins been nlnBprv*^! nn n<*arli 
otety pftss and at ni^ftrly CA'rry cftinj>iiig- ground ('H"7 (ibfloir* 
tiouN in flTI). Hi^dJiig imivrially Loonr kiiuwltnlge of the phywcal 
uontcftTniLtion of tho r>>gioa. 

yreqQt?ai oW-r?ati<m* of llii* tpiiipi*r«.hirii cif Ui« mr and ihe 
<lir<»ctmn of iltd wind havo f^ivou tiB some further ftd«UihO& t/o 
tlio knowledge of th*:* TiWati cliiaale, 

Thf^ Pundit «iifi*fjK*d much in hiiilth during tiie Utt*r pcntioa 
of the jouinoy, and InV tvffi»igl»t liaa boeomo seri<>T»ly injured 
fmiu t-ijuKun* iiTid hiiH Wi-rk in moit trying^ t*Ilmnt.j.i* tlirfnjgh- 
ont A lonp acrica of vofttB. He ib now Ansioua to Ti:4iri» from 
jK-Livt! wiirk, nnd will pmlmbfy TTM?eivi^ h jrrant of kud in bis 
native <ji>untry; and tnus, hfivtnp ha|ipily wirvi\-<>d lb"? poriU 
and danj^em of tli« mud, it is bujjticl Lit< luJty H[)eiid th<^ dodiniDgJ 
\e&TA uf bJN lifo in comfcjTt, &nd 'E^itli a duG a]}pr<x^iatidQ ttf %h9 
liboralilj uf tht; H: UibIi GovtrumenL 

FnOM Leu to Non.—I}ietimcc 173 phIo*. 


1- JVTtir7«», 10 wiZeus.— Giiod mad up tlui Tudud laH&y. 
TllUg^ of Tikahi? oonUiu^ about (JOO tiiLabilanU. 

2, Cfiimra^ {htuihi 11,81)0 /M). 15 ni^>v,-»TTp t]ii< Indite 
valley for 10 milee; roud indifft-ronl; afttr It^mp: ll»o Indus 
tbi^ load goes up a wcli-culn\uti.d bruui b valley to thr? norrh. tOi 
Cbimray, a vdUge with about '>U0 inbablUmt^, Btfd i:auip] 

a Zinff-rMfheipht 15,780 /«f^), 8 mi74ar<— TTp iho «iUey for 
about 3 niik-a> untJl it fork* ; foad tlicn pABaes for 11 mile up 
the ea4tHur4.i Irrziaob 1o tb» villat^ of Snkti; l}eyi>nu ibU ttw 
aic^rnt ti> /inptal ia fltocp; no viilago; good camping-jp^ucd. 

* ILq ioMftptloA of the flnt viglit itik^^ Buu«b«ft f-n-, M far u ChAfn, ua 
InkaTi fmm Ibe hiutr»n pnHUhUil in tlm npjwuillt I« thu Ono^rmphirifll Chii]»i«T fn 
thK^cihimu of ni|ri]r1«iin Sir Onu^liu Fcirsylb'sUiflNLjuliiYAriciUKl And KOMghar, 

Lfh io Lhasdy and Rttrtm h India rtd Attain, 


At Zin^r^l t^o roads separate, oriG going OTor tbe Cban^ Ld 

latter roulo ia i^horlt-r by 6 miloa than by tlie f^rmtT. but his 
mom ilifticuh foi Irricn ftiiinmls, 

or tbo i^vo iiiJJuyiK Art tii<y but ntouy flr^ueut tf 2 milt^ to 

the u>p of ili4> IJiiHiig \A I'lWi (17,'lOil frel), A ivry grucluAl 
deeoeut of 4-iDUtvi. nflcir whigh ibo rood tunia atniptJy to iLo 
eMt. Ai TrirtlUik i^ a famuli lalce; tto vitiligo ; ^^^ cuittjiiW- 
CTCiuirL Thdii^'li tli'^ rmbl ovor tlic pfr»rt >n tii>t v<iry JntcTop, it )* 
dtfScult for Wde»J HuimulM im rtw^uat of tie Liudiir-^ uf tb<j 
riitid, which in iLtn^retrM^^lCi v^irdinethroiigh ro^'kAuiid LxjijU!c<nt. 

b. T^xiih^e (hevifht ]2fl)lf0 /l-iU), 14 wt'fw. — Durtii n vtilLjy t<»r 
6i milni of eaay ri.^vJ ; aoro** the siiouMer of a Inll ^iiilo a 
rolloy which dniin* int-j tbc Shyok Kiror) to Wcgo, n dtmaU 
viUii^ IB tho 'Vi\n\i»^ vjU]«y; uitoeud thft v^Ui^y tu tli^ lurgct 
TiUix^c of T&alvBt^ ; the rostdenco of tho IioodnLait of the dltlrict 
or ifir iuiiEj« ]itun<< ; Nii|iplif« of till iHirt* jmjtrunibU-. ]ti-lii]Lcl 
the village is ft \nll'-y up which riina lJii> road to the Kay L^. 

C» Chtikiii-ttivi}i^ 1 1 r/tHt'9. — Valh'j nWirc Tjtiinkv :uiij\jwji for 
6 mU<-% jiFid thru tiiniBi to tliti Mtmth rmd 0])tiiricut; 2 mih-tt 
fttrthcT on is Muj^Iib, a very siuaJi villa^; for 3 milca tho 
buttoTQ 4jf th't VAlI»y is a graaty 8wn.rii|>, thi'ii aarrou* f<ir 2 
miltc of ^iX'jitle asL't^Dt among rocky boLildetB. At Chuk&r* 
t^lili i« a smdl pond, eomelifiii3« dry in Rummgr; cuUTMn graM 
OD fartliLT ncdr of it 

7- Ltiktin'j [hvwhi 14,1 riO/™;), TJ »*i7«. — FivomilM up valley 
to nort.h-wrfli fiul of Frtnpi>nff LoUc; wntor^iJtj 2 mili.'ii duo 
liortli from <^nd i>r the lake to LiikuLg. whi^ris i» a eiuull |)at4:h 
of cultivntion with a stivam running into the Uko. 

8> Ch^qra {height \^X^\^fcei\^milm. — A summer pwtnro- 
ffrotmd of Tartard ; one or tvo stooe kuta ; gratis plentiful^ and 
fiih in the ^rcani. 

9, Clttcrkimff. t\ jrUIai^ — A niirreil rest-litiuj*e at twtt cjf lli« 
Lnolcar or Mihr-tiuiik La; roiul good up-^UeuJU all the way; 
^nwi* aitd fmrtj*i ni ramp. 

10, Pttriifur Gtrmjiwx {hoi^fd 17,670 fiet)^ 9 m«7c*. — Tho road 
ettaaca tbo wjt^i {which aejmTat^f^ tlio Lake Lukoug iiuiu»go 
ttt^Tti that of xhfi Oluuig Chi^rktiio Kiver) h\ thi^ Itanitnik Paiu 
(It^.il^O fcwt], and iiiBU-ud of foJlovting tliu l;&rkaud hjiito to 
ihii nhiuig niii^mii valhy, ihr* mnjl jimsiiun ovnr eli^VAU^d gntLitid 
to the c-a^ of thi> pi4,-«« into tho bi^wl of anothor rallcy whjch 
dmiiiM into ihrt Pait^mv l^ke ; the riKul tlit-ii i.'imwtpa bv ibu 
Kin La, a high ^piir from Un- main nuips and d^Bcomw to 
compb TbertT uaA huow in July lying on thu Jtuinruading hilltf, 
but none on iho paas itself. 

124 TfiOTTKu'a AcfXnirU of the Pundit's Joaraf^/nm V 

n, Nirtfjri or Sm^nak [k^^thi IS,25C fi^). 5 nii^— ^Bcad 
fuUoirs dou-n a targe atre/iui wliich iluwa to Pack^zong Lftke, oad 
in Buuiii]4--r U dtllicuU to crois« ; ^nuiK anil biirui ckl oarap. 

ll^- Nid'^u or Raiean^ Ytthtui {keujU 15jii>0/fiF/), 8 /j^iV^s,^ 

up a Lmudi vulky ilVuKuik) i^ontimia^ ttbmuiarico of i^ass 
mill janplt" W(*od. Tfip caniij ih at ihe jiiiiotlun of itiii^n BtfT^rna, 
and iJf ini this frontioT between La<ldkU iiiiij Tibi^U 

13, Kui^rfxi [Ixiitlu IG,O0O/fp/), 12 ahVcji.— CJwjJ road aioog 
T«uJ(iok fclri'njn, 'I'hre? tente of Nt*h eho|>bprd* at camiK 

14, GoHu, i> 7/m7«. — HiMul i^kuti[mit» iiji vallty, »ear tbe hcftd 
of whit'h two (MifleeH (17,;i00 t'^et and I. ,700 foct high rwspwc- 
livcly) bitvp Uj br crossed ; a iVonticr giirtni .-ttJvUoiiod hor«- 

15> Chnmn {htfl'jld iTj^SiO/cBfj, 1 1 rn»/m — Itond down Tttllifjr, 
n-Lidi r>|^ii'i)j» i&to a pa»&7 pUm. ^vcial i^pnngd near cnmp, 
from mIucIi a pliintiiiit suj^ply of giiud ilL-iakiug^ual^ u ob- 

16. Pai?. 15 wttlrtL— K»mH down valW. ft^veral «prjn^ nen 
c^mpn Pa/ ia on the mirtLuru bunk vt tbe Pangoii^ Lake, tld| 
Wrtter of which u bnickiftL, 

17. DlA^oNnh^ (height 14,020 /rt^J^S m«3iB,— ^^►ttJHkirtelb© 
nonbora o(ii;o of two suinJl Uktf^ Iho CLo Utiih and the Cho 
Nyah« tlitt wfit^r from whif.-l] tlowa wi«tuji.r<l iatu tlii^ Pinignug 
Lake tljroii^h adccpcbannuLaotinurG than ^OpH<)«» wjd^. The 
waVcr ia tUtf^e lakt^ ih t|uit»^ fiuHU. nail U uftoJ for drinkjog. 

18. Gi^nv/m {fi/7i^h( [li,'Jli\ ftx£), 13 i»r7fi*».^Good roud orfir 
a Hat ijiniii, pA^tinK nfHiut l^ uni& to the uoitU of the ]oke, 
nbich is hL*ry called Kudokh Oho, At H mib* ^KW*fi* tho 
viljuguof Noll, cojiUiaia^ about IT) buu!i(^!(. A vlruini froui 
l.ljf* iv^rt h-*]»nst, 40 pac-ea wide and 3 ft»Bt dtep, her** joim tb« 
Pang(>u^ Ijilio. Lp this arrcota is a ri»ad to Kl^^tria via Pold 
and Kim : 4^aiap hi-\oail thnrii«r; abiiiiJaaiwof gi^tsH, Vak>i' 
diui^ in ^reitt qiiaDtitio^ used a^ tiivl ; frppositd Gaagni a %trouiii 
AovA luto the Pau^oag Ijakc frum ItadL>kk. 

Nou TO TaoK Daurakpa, -Wfl^flnM 377 msfci- ^ 

1&, /K«^tf (/HVj/Zji 13,a<]0 /™0, 11 wm7«. — At 4i milfl 
from Gaaj^ra ia iho ternbation of the jieries of lakpB known 
to u» an l^»ii(f(Wiir, nrid to the nntii^ps of the country ea 
Cho Mo «>>« Jj^'|rp:pio.u ^^^il^,,^^^g l^^^^j 

LdJc4 vomftTi narrow* xery bug Luku J i 

1^ Uiot doE-^p cntora it at tlio ea^t end. From this point to 
Zjei^ tha wofi puA»i'h Jilon^ a bnmd nud nmrly Ir^vrl plniti 
about 3 iiiil^^ ID \^idlh, ajid buundt^d ou lutUj and south 
by graes-eoTeiTQd tDouulaitui. At camp wore four teats of 

Lffh to Lhdia, tmti Hchtm to India vtd Aitam. 125 

20. Khfii Ohafui {heiyht ia,<*»?0 /*rf). ft m#7-ffl— R/m4 non- 
tiniicA okmc; ^an^y vnlltry (looully tr<rroe<k ^n^ ) tii ^Minp, wbidi 
if* on UiH iiurtU Bi<Jr* ^f a. Uttll-vater laKe aUjot 7 mile* in irir- 
euinfi*r«noe. Wat^r from «prini*«, an^l many wilil kmi^. About 
•'» ]iii1<vi Houtli-r^ttit of the- liki^ is another niJt Inkti, (Im Diikilotjg 
Chttktt, 10 the ri'irth of whidi is it vety <x>napif^uous blitcfc sitmy 
moUDtftin calfod <>yfti I,* ^hirh tht? J'lindit n-iw infurnir^^ coii- 
tain« iminpniUK ohvi^h, iti whiclt are hlock^^ ofrntilal iSilkiLr) the 
eizo of a mnD. Thcw nrc olyocU of worebip to tho poopJo 
of Unj TirigljbimrlHUHL Fnmi Uiiw laimp & larj^a opi-u iulloy 
extt*nde in an aistoHv ^liroHion an iar as tbf eye can reach* 

iil- Lt*TWKfflti!mo {height 11,210 ^/r*rf), 15 mt7«i, — IWfi gt:>£>d 
ftnd CTtrr l^vol (.ilain. To tlie eouih e&veral imalj aah-lakoc iirc 
passed. Dung of i:attlc (fA**>) U!»cd for fi»el bere and ibroii^'h- 
Oiit tUo rent of tlir jourru^y to I^Jii^Jt, f-JUv^pt wIikpo cvt!jf*nA'JHi 
«|v-cifi'?il. TlifjTv arc v'arm gprinfri in the nctgli botjrhooJ, eaid 
to poi»t»s? mtilirinnl pn.iju'rlir.'H, wliidi iiHi frrijUrtiUsil in wiater 
by the sarrouodm^ i>opu latum, 

22, Bujmg {height H,2y0 fc^), H wiJ^w.— Bond conllmiea 
ftlonff ft level grna»y vuiU?y, vnryiuij fwpii <> to 10 miW in wjdlh^ 
fim] iMFUiiiJf^d on the Dortli and woulli by s^^y hi\W Cmup un 
north pdgrt of a froU-wHt'jr bike aWitr 10 mib^ in circurn- 
fcrfnc'ft. and teiinnttd by nutnormifl wild-low!. Tbu \i\ix\kf of 
tlie Iflk^ are co7i?rwl with sh*"!!!!. A MivaTn "oter* tbe i-asl end, 
and there is one ontb^t ut tlic opposite rnd of tbc lake tbnougb 
wlucrh u streaiu jiasst'M to the salt-water lake on tlit? whhI. A 
view oftb^ Ailing (ranLtn piiku waa olitAin^d front b»re, 

2n, O^ifiirul^ Zinnia (hfrifjld 11,400 /MJ, Ifi mi7o*,— Hoad con- 
tinuea alon^ oonrst? of *lrpam, whicb still rnns in a broad open 
Talley; at camp two ^smidl bfjM and four or Hvc t^-ntK, Two 
DiilL-B t<» tbi* uorili-vvt'st wrm anotlier •?iK.'»nr|>mtnt i.if rtft-'en ivnU, 

2i< iidfijni Vhumik (Artv/Ai Ifj^tW ^ftf), li mt/rs. — At 
31 rnib'S a n»uJ pjc^w o(T tu n HoutU-iiiiat OirKrliuii Uj TirijiHm and 
'i'nok Ji^Ilii];;;. So freeh t^at^r on this manrb or at i^anuj, wbioh 
ivaa in tha neigbbocirbofHl of tin cAtf-iiKivf* fnU-tn/tnih* Nnrtb of 
tko cftmp am Homo bare ped-oolouisjd mounlain^ aud tUe water 
and Bind uf tho njareh was of tho 3noi'> colour. a« also id tbe 
salt which in f^ttru^^fcd tb^'n^from, Anotbisr view of t>it' AInng 
(ifin^ )tt^)tH wuH ubtaiuc'd from tinre* 

25, Miiidiim Cliahi {lirifjhi 14,8(J0 /-d), 20 mtW — Road 
fin nnUEil. 

20. 3f>Wtfm (MJta. E<ut end^ 7 miZav. 

Ti, ThcuAap €ho [h^tfhl lo,13LJ /«fj, M fw'W— C«mft ftcroee 
frcflb water u)>out biLlT-way to cump. Tbe pl&ii; ftlang wLicli 

* Gjpi I = oouab? of inow. 

J26 TnOTTEnV Aec<n£nt of the Piijuiifs Joumcyfi^m 

tbe TOiui lies was oovcred with nntr^^oiu lorg^ herd* of kian^ 
oud rtnfdopf, which cshibjtcti btit Htlli' Icnr. ThjirliAp Ctio ifl 
a fni-iiii^viifiK'r lake. &tiil into it tlows a W^ ^re^Eji, wl)ii^h c'orDea 
from Dt rtiAfts of MJow-coTcr^d hills Ijifig to tiic north-<«i*t of tho 
lul((T. Thiic HVrfiniu ix bcirdon^ on iHilii HJiii** by ui eitonnvd 
jutiglc, caQtaiiiing wilioiff, tamarieb, and i>tUer troes and Bhmbfl. 
Mmtv wiM f1nw«tr« itr^cn iii fiiTI l»]if4ini. 

'^2^. TiuMnhap.—Jtiver-banlc. lOJ jf3i^^.— Jtoad along bank Of 
rlvcTt the nater of which ocoaj^icDali) dittoppeitrs urtiJcriiT'^iind 
nnd rtnji^K^nrm Icnvfrrduwo. Thht eli^ittu Howe in a ioutht^atft 

'2», r&ttmtt {MM 14,600 /«*), '2 mt?^— Si^vprnl mall 
lakt'^ toc^ost of rooJ; eaetof the cam]> is e( v^ry oxtebdive (<Luuj, 
f>%t«rrdLDK AM ''(■r an the pyiv nm [pjjHl. f4{>oc1 w&t«r at mntp 
from fpriDC*. FiieJ from dviiif: of w(l<J honios. 

30. C'lwdol Stin^fo (hci^jhi 14,5.")0 /erf*, Hi w^ifoa-— Camp ou. 
ntr^ftin 24 paw*es witl<» und '2 feet rlrpp, vitb «lup!giEb carront, 
NiTdr it. in Lilts t^iiaiig Cliika saluluki^, whi^it^ the Piiiidtt 
obspTVed qiiamitieH of bomx, which iV looally tcrmkid "bu!,*' 

3K J'ur<iwr ChdiM {height 14.1i7U /-rij, b'f inrffti.— Camp on 
Tiorth erlgi* uf lako; wijikI pleaiilnl: ^raKi* M<urt-e. 

Ki. Fur<M^ Vhaka^ 2narainp^ sm/^a.— Ciunp at *pring( imr- 
rniitidAd mi ull ftuhis ljy "hiil," • vhirli lies in buds I'nim 2 to 8 
OF 10 feot in depth, fnd wbioh, bein^ of a h^hl, loos^ ccn- 
•istenry, i^ivi^-* wnv tmder the weight nf in/in or Viciv^^ 

32(1. P^n^ JJAup [ht^'^hl 15^(j3i} feet). 13 mi7t».— Xo watwon 
TOdd, but abiind&nce of gra^. SpiiEi-;:» at camp and Tilctuin 
Mdnin; it in u fiiTurmto cainping-gniniid lyi' iIh' nmmij!* iu fhi? 
cold weather, but woe uniiihabited at tho |>cri(id of ibo Pondit'* 
viKit. A h*T^i^ pluiii extends njt^lurirlM fnnEt Mn r-jimping- 
pround. SevortU ^nowv pealiB vi^l>k' tciwiudc lh(> north. 

aa. /Z/iwit 67iiiJta (A^iV;A( ll^ilO /t-d). 12 7n^«.— Small aalt- 
liih«; rvmd an iwual over level ground. 

34. m^ik Ch6ka 2yid, 7 viUti. 

^i, Nimr-ho Chdka, {Jmiffht 14,000 fa^), 17 miTfti.— No driiih- 
bi^\vdtcT oil roi»d, but many frcfti-water spring tuid iibuudacicc 
of fire-trood nn&r rnmp; road peif^lly level. 

<^tl. Nirncho CiUfita, 5 mtfadL — Fuel, grnfe. and irator Iq 
aWidam-H; houth of lantp a tinouy range i& Yiaible nittulo^ 
enet and west. 

37. Ilitma Clto^ ihclghi 14,270 /*c^0- 12 Tj^^Tr*. — Several 
BoddMst Alaais, and two large iresli-wntvr lakes : no moonlnrns 
visible on the north, but an cilcneive level grasay plain studded 
with wild animals, exlemltng ait far as Lhe L-yi? (-ould reach. 

• InKMhiDlic:iLn«l"PiiU; 

It i» a Idud of boMx. 

Ltih to Lhasa^ and Btittm ta India v<d Amtmm 


35. Yugdr {hci^hi 11,160 /^), 16 7»t2c«.— Graas, foci, and 
watHr from n tiiitk wliii-h ih sujuJii-J bj- nLiii-walor oaly. This 
tauk drieJi np at cortftio time« o< the* ypftt. 

30. Ma^^o {krigkt 11,230 /fldf), di mtU— Sue teuU orUarch^ 
KMmpaa; ffrua plentlfu] ; c-ow-dung for fuel; water from a 
email stroom. 

40. TTonny? Cho. acmth bank ti (/i^V^f n.750/^^), 10} »*^^2i. 
— Twelve toot* of Kbampftft; wator from Pj>hTig8; grftss mid 

4J. Jahir or yafrfrf {height 13,770 fitf)^ 81 jniT^*-— Camp on 
Boutli baiik «f tkc Ntrring Clig Lakc^ Ion or twcKo tcnU of 
Kli^mpoa; H-ater ftton iiJriui>a; ^rk£d and fu^^l p]<^utifu^ 

42, Sakii [height 11,3^ fc-^), lUJ miiw^ — Water from 
■pringM; gnuiji Hud l'iii4 |ilfiitifiib 

43- K&siny or Phatutitf Yakdji {het^hi 14,C90 /tf*^), 6 snifai; — 
Walrr, iifn***, i»rid fiiM ; si^vi-c* nr ciglji Klijlmpi tr^nfu. 

14- Kydn^ dhiti CAii* (^^r/jAf ll.'^SO /^aij, JU miiw— Small 
tauk^ ^uod \vutt>r: ^TUf-i aiid I'uel pk?iitilLilH 

'{iK Joiri Mixrul [JteMt I5,70O /»fO? HJ wV/c*. — A email 
stream vf wutcrr at camp ; mtai and fuel pleutiful -, an old gold- 
mine at a diBtanw of fij milrjt 

16. ?<iritv/u;b (/»f<i/^ 11,810/^0* 13 mito.— Poon at &} miles 
at Thuk Alitor, an okl |<oliJ-mtntt nifh ao area of about cna 
iqiiato milu, Cnntp inhaljitnd during Ujo cold acaAon only; a 
lar|^ Hilukkr', mllud Tum^j Clio Oliaka, Hp^ to llit? ixfrtk-raKl, 
at a distance of ;i milt>n. l-ofty iiMjuntaina fUnrk) visible oa 
uoi'th, Diid a yt'TY liigL M^owy pt^tik c^lt^d t^hyalcM K&ig Jan^ 
vbible towards (ha south-^asl ; a l^^r^^ plain extends lo tb« ^a«f. 

47, ChwHff Ool^ (height 11,23U /t^). HH mt/r.^— The road 
ix 1im< eruAH*d by auoLhar track, wIiiHl leads from Mttuattirj\r»r 
to NaU chukhA and the K him country, 

4a Tfiok MirHhrrn QiMijht 14^.^0 /«/). 1ft mili'it.—Qt^w en 
r&ute tUi.- T'hyal CTin, a larco river whieb tiowa in llireeohauncls 
from a nia^ of snoiiy pcAKs aUIod Bhyalcbf Kang Jang, nboiit 
3D mikai «ouiU of tbo road. This river U traversed with gr<fnt 
di£jcultyin tbemimmer mcEiitbfl>atlhough nowhorp mor* Ihaun 
foot dfiTp at thf> timo of ibfi PiindiLV vimt; it llovrs into the 
Tiuhi Bbup Lake* ^hoeo Bouthom shore i? about 2 inilea north 
of tb^ roan. From tbrr luuti qwA of ihi^ Ink'' a utrivim \h Mild to 
isflnc toivardn NtvU-ohu^ Tho lake i« ubuut 13 luUos in ktigth 
by 8 mili^i lu breadth. 

49. TA^-t Daarai^ja {hdglt 15,2S0 /i<*(}, 12^ m^Ta*,— Rond 
muewbat \\\\\\ \ pa^ e» rcu/« the do^i't«d mine of Thok D»k- 
«liar. Ibd direct read frpm Shy^ Chu jinnaes ovei a 1^^] 

: Tlie ^iftpt Chii of lh« AU* Utio. 

128 TftOTTBftV Attc}urd <^thf. PandtCs Jcamrr/ fr^m 

pUin, tut tbc Fundit took a ditTiciilt and circuitous route over 
tlLi^tiiMi, monlor tonxiid n»bWr». A longmu^of rrrl-mlounid 

UiJla. ruimiHg oast u»d weet, Hob lo the north of the L-mup* 

ikiicJ t?nts of diifv'ern, Cltau^nk^ l>eljuginjr to tU« K&kobftDg 
IViilofi CUatigiuB country : grase. fuel, And water scarce. 

Thou DACB-^r\ to WesjA Joso. — DUianf« 2(>2 mV^j. 

no, y^Ue (hii^ht ir>,9{K* /«Y), lO mi^a*.— Ittoid levnl; w>f^n 
gra^ tui'l fbQrtdJ arid ■tuug). 

5J, i>wt«r K'^r/tf; [//ci>;*( KI^ODO /r^iy 12 rar7/a.— Pr^w a low 
paw, otherwiii^ tUd road ib let^^l — a^ usnal, pu£«iu^- over tm c-x- 

52. JJf'j^r \4'kt^}iulc ihfitfll lfiJ13t)/f^), U iwi/iw,— Cnmp on 
left biiuk of Chnziui SaDc:po^ d email river flowiQ^ e^i, 

riX Lfiun^ yakdo {}u!Ufht IiJ^HO JJ^i), U) mi/-w.— PjwwhI 
•cvorol OliAii^M tdota en ronfj. A lii^h enovry |>cnk, ciillod 
Vofigd Gradgri, viniMo over thi? plair to thn north-oftiit. A lur^ 
oncampfiient of ^iepliifr<U (12 tcuU) and retidunoe of a dtfltrict' 
ofRml atCobratiff; 2 mtlua from oauip a i-oml w s/ilct fo ^ 
frcio here ti> Niik-clLit-kliA (noriL ofljhiifia). ftiii«ranr^ot'at leABt 
(JiHJ lailfru, fttK-r a nc^^rly Itvel plnm, J'he road keeps in the 
&n^ of thp suroe stream tlm wholti way. 

54. hagu (hd^hi I&,y70/^), 8i mri«.— IW^d eoveral tooto 
ofMlieplii^nla; etiorinotifl LrrdnofHiiLi^lo^Jt? were seen fmin Om nitMl. 

bb, Qi/ru Eh'ini {height lJ,SlU^t^rf), Iti P3f7ffi.— Puastd tw 
rou£<r Uic Uigcban^ »Ti-ejtia, 20 ptKte ^ido and 1 foot in dc-pth, 
an itffliiorit of thn Chuzin, 

5(3. Garu-dotvf'kuTi^ {hf.ighi Wt.b''V) feet), \-\\ mikt. — Oariip 
near tk^ abaiidoiiecL gold-tleld of ChigimiiL Mater, grofic, and 
file! in abimilunrH^. 

ri7, JVtiwi Ghhidm<f (Jt^wht 15,720 /w^- l^i mflw— Knad 
aftceikds nitii an oasy Blope for 7 niil<u lo the EUIodj;; L& (licig^ht 
18,1 7U (ctii)t ui'tt^r croHiinL: whiirh it fL>lliiWK n Minan] wjiiorli ajI^ 
■vqiientl)' flows northwards to the Tani* Jtio^ Cho. Tiiwro wiw 
ii<j Haov* on thr pa-w, altliOU^K nnifli nuow vios lyins on Fcomc 
peiikfl to tlie Hortti, whiVli risu Uy a>i livtni^i,-^ liL'ij^'lit ijf 2 J,0<Al fwt," 
and which forma a portion of a lofty ransio wbich exii?n(]n ia a 
soiithsrly din«*U(Hi iu Uie wHHt of Uut lUrigru Ycim (Tho^ and 
culirbuit£« in Bome <iDorinoua peaks known as iko T^rjjfot Lh&, 
from wliich, againn a ^nouy niiigr ri|,iij(U oanLward for a d life 
tanee of 13^0 inilos. Th« poi^itions of many of tko T>nD<?ipa1 
peake in this latt^-r ran^o were tixod by tbo Pundit. Tno jmtgo 
Ooniectonn I'tid nt th^ OyiUdj^rnwt i^^jika at thti enst ^ad of too 

* Tlu Jimlf]« 4llilutleii uf nujiie t>1 tLnau |«ukfl itvit ratubfri] Vj IliO PundLl 
wtdk hi« MaUnl j tlMv height Lu bwa nu^^Jj 4vtormb*d tnggoomtlij^/. 

i^ii to Utdta^ and Retnm to Intlia vi& Atiam^ 


Kynring CImx Tlirt Ijighfid niuiintAin in i\\\A fVL>4ti>rri craup wfti 
betwaoD 21,001) iim) 22,000 f< tt tibovo »t>a-!c>vcl, q.\A tTic Tnnrlit 
estiiuat«B tW lioi^lit ot'tlie higLcAt of tli'^ TXi ;; iri u^iikA ul nWuL 
25,000 fcwt. 

68. rcffw Z*>(^fl or Oit^ (lici^fU 15,240 /cai), 12i jiiiUf.—A 
Ur^ villa^d oonuinitig a montiNtery and X*» hoitseg, enrroundod 
by cuItivAtion. Tkip watt tW firat timo tho Pmuiit had «c«ti 
m|fti4 of cu11ivatif>» sine*- letLvini^ Clmbitk Zlii^ (the 23rt 
hilling-f liicc). En<jrmrni5 liil;p& ^? north oi»l BOtitn of tlic road. 

:>:),— 'iVfrttwr^rit (Jisf^ht \lJ70fiet), 11 mZ/o..— HfTnwin- llm 
ntineoranoldgtniDfi fort,e:iM tobaTobeloa^Gdc^'iitiiritwapjololb^ 
It^d wliQ nt tlnvt tiiur ruleil over the wliole of tin- H'lr ci>imtrji 
Boad follo^^s the? nortLeni shove of the Ddii^ra Vum Cho. 

6A 2V** C/itika Ijardta, M milc9. — 'I'hcr roftd ftsccnda foi' Si milea 
to Uw* Xaithutjg Pllm ( I5J10 Wt) u[t II AtwjiiiiU irn?lirns ; nmd 

(Ilh Uuhidimj (}m.jhf Ul,mO/fl/d), f( mi/ejL— Cn»w Uh- Chi5kA 
Pa^ {1i5,^i> k^eti : ikgoeut 2 Tuilea; dc^econt 1o pla:a 1^ miJe. 
''Bcirer&l sLephcnU' t«QU soittcrod nlout iho Laukd ut i\n^ 
Duiiguho LaLce, ^vhioh li 2S miloit lon^ by 10 Iroiid. 
0£ ^^orai (fc«>ftf 15,320 /^i\ 12 m^da.— Five teuU c.f 
s)t«i>hortlH &t mmfh, Jinil t^ctr^'tut othuru pju^^^d en rouU; Urge 
floolcs ofribcepacnttcrud ov<-r tho plain, wliii^h o:^k'tiiUii9il!rit tit 
|8 tablr rruDi therinlliii Li\ (mardi i;i) lo the Ohji[il» Ph** (i>:4th 
tDorob), adUtunei» »!' otct IJLI xhlIcil U» brrndth from ncirth 
to Kiutb, uL ilH ivid^L purt. is liftlK lots iium 1)0 tuih'n. It 
IB a beautiful ju^uiv wnt4T«>d hy numoroim stroam^ and freah- 
vraXtn liilcvn, 
63, ffya^rfj} (W^ft/ 15^ft0 /^r), 10 nii/f*.— A RCNid road goei 
liom here to iShi^it*i5. Thv Hrnt ^wrtioai of tho road i* tliroi]g:h 
tho DuhiL L'omilrj, inli*ihit<«l by nfuniuK Bi-lwren ■l)<SU'i nnd 
the Uho-liki]] country ia a Ictty ran^ wliJch ia crossed by a 
higli pJtoi, tik tUif niirlh nf wliii'h iKthr tinUi Hilm^jhj, ^hiih IIown 
fiflgt and north -ouatj luid waaoroflsedby thoPuiidit in htsiQai^h, 
Beyond Iho lluta Sjingpo ii iho Olio country, whirh c.cMitftins 
many villagof^ and ivhon^ much barley and wHnat art* grown. 
Itoftd p^mat iivvr Id vol 
pliiin aDd ciawa Hvcml 
■tniiani. Updv Hnnvty 
|}tmkii TblWu Rom Ifao 

OS, iTyr* K'jii Ui\fk& {Ui^hi lUTtOftxt), 11 jjji^*.— Croa» «* 
rou// by t.hi* riifiptM Pii»s rl'V*^'* ''"'L> a titix^* whirh KqiumtM 
t^vd atreaiii* whidi How iiit** llio CliikntCho to tlio north of tUo 
road. OaDLp ul w«^d1. ^ari uf Kyj'trin^ Cbu. From thiti lake a 
rivi-r* flowti to tho Chikut Ciu>, 111 pacu« broad aad ovpr ^ li^ 

* TIm Pnndil voA ouo of Lis mon (urcHt U tu ordar to pA iU ^onoct 11mca»Ionj. 

130 TtOfTTtli'j AtcourU oftJtc PamliCs Journey f rem 

<Ie^|),bi]t with n «1ow correDt; tlie l^irg^ EitrTmn hitbetto met 
vitn on tlie jonrney, 

^% K^/^rinfi Vfio, 10 mild, — CoA^p on south edge of l&lco. 

70. DejiAik (fwi(fhf I 'lA^O ft^'t), 12 miifts. — Crofie* ^i rouW the 
Kikii liivcr, ro^^in^ from tlio aoiitb in thtoo ^hnnncU, uudb 
bnuLcb bnijig nh^\x\. 4(J [iai.*?a iii bmuliluLnil 1 fiuL Jii ilepLli; 
15 tejite o{ t&o Kulcohuug Dubu ut cuiiir, an<l a louse Wloagu^ 
to thi? Dobon. a hl^^ii official in Shig^t^u. 

south co^rc of tLo liv^rin^ Ctio- Cuuip on the hori^oraol the liiko. 

72. Dojatii yhrigh 15,380 _;^rf), llj nwVpK. — Camp nrar the 
cELet end uf tbo Kviiriti^ Ijike. 

73. Ss.-fj^ Jt>sit\h4^ii!hi V*S^TAff-d\%\ m.Vf^,— T!i<^ fir^t crjn- 
eiderablo Tilliix'> met Vith since If^avin;^ Tiinksa iu Ltnlildi, It 
coLtainA SO houtoA butlt of bricka iiud fttcue^, and IGO tents. 
It ii ono of tb{3 liLrgi::^ plruros in tho Hi>r t>rovin<'4\ Jtrnl ift thu 
i-eaidenco of Iwcj Jongpon irJliciaU ftuia IJiiUa, The district 
U Wittered by the Ihnnpho or Hold S^m^jH), svliicb ItitwK in tlirro 
(^baanoU, thv. lur^cst fif whif.'h w»a 7't j^itoru brciud uud 1} foot 
deep, 'lliora \a li> ('tjlti^iifiuii, f\w\\ liu" jMipiilatlitn, liko tbB 
gmtor part i^rilor.^cit thoir ei]pp!i<'K (it};rn.m ivmn thi<Siii;^tjeo 
and LlXiu diHtrid* f.<i the wmlb, Fitmi Seuji Jojjg loads gj> 
10 Sbi[^t:(^ And to Lhaed (<lii-eot). 

SkKJA Jo.vo to Lei.nsa.— J>(fl£a;icti 28^^ rraV'^. 

71> CAHp:/9 

(AeO^^ W,0&>/e<rt), 5 !../<«. 

T^ £a£Hr ur fifntrikvJ ( 

70. Itt^ 

15.700 „), 7J 

14.700 „ ), lOj 






15.300 „ ),ll 





JS,«Oh ).h 


hixinpnd Janij ^ 



lfl,:40 „>.14J 


JUA^ i>ciif7;-f 



l-'.fltO „ ), I3i 

1Z«W| JMJMi 

the mhk hitxavk\ 
tnluJJElrif l« thv 
StkipitK Ooran»> 

Tie ooUiiby It r«TOl 

4nd vc^U vatcfUt. 
Tim Puiulil 4iiLiu(v4 
13A ^lirplionl*' Ipata 


firb patttvo ksd^ 
niLh no otiiatiitton; 
aT»u1 too Afar^jfMMA' 


TIjfl alsUlat [a vnd^r 
the 0*rpoti of I>o- 

litiVi-riniif'iJl' Wii:<rr, 
j;tiu4 Hini furl eT«y- 
wJvir iit<>i4iful. All 

«h ruuli^ tfnw tj l»kca 

In thA north. 



Left to LhiUc^ OTbd Bdijtm U ImKn oia ,-UMm, 131 

«a l^w'f/oChuTnikfyt^M IbMO fid), IG miles— Ai\ Okihsi 
^'Www lln' Nak <'lni Rivr.^r^ whii'-h lliiw* wc^ntwiinl rnJin the 
^fimcho IjikdiutD flnothor larjjo lab? north of Lio;^»ia Jwng, 
fmm whi(*-h it in wviH lo Utme auiI flow Doitli 1o thi.* N(U( C'liu 
Khi" RiTt^r. Xh«^ bed of tho Nik Clii Eiv*r, wlero croiaedby 
ihc l^lIldi^ was lOU pacca wide and of j^rcut df ptii ; but tbo 
iK^liinl t-tn'Mm \\ii< not morf> limn <*n(iuj;li to turn unit mill. To 
tho Bumiuor mouths tlio rivobud is 8^ud t<i W filk-d ^itb a 
Tudnnt tnrrmU Camp on the nortlj^tij rdgr? of tie XAtiiclio vr 
Tengri Nur Ldlcc 

iu«f ilib hootn of 
ill. Jiiiraiiiii LaIui. 

Bl. JdiU>r Ovntb>i 

iJvUjKI f<M), 7 


9S. Jfbf ^u 

( „ V^MiQ ., >, J 


ML iMiMi 

C „ 13,«0 « ).10( 


tST^ Dn^mar ChuehOn 

( „ USftO , MG* 


riling OD 
nintb ««1jfi; vf rCniii< 

*ln^rih(?r»l« nixJ two 
hniiLiI mnmiitiTriai. 

86. Btufti K»rma (hsfffht 15.710/cW), IG^ miU^- At 3 uulea 
4)roBA^ th^ Xya Chii, a small river tlint Ho^a w^st luto the 
Nimcho I^kc; scvcr&l cnowy pcalu vUillc ttbout 'J5 tuUes to 
the oaAt of tlw piiul- 

81) G'oWun^ y^J-tv'wi (/*^-VA; UfilOfi^), 10 i^i^/^fl.— At I'i miles 
<*rtiw till* Dum Llijir^^mi ^or NjjirgiiEi] Piu« (li!,JI(J(l fi^i't) by mx 
■May road, wUbb, huwi^ver, for a mil* lay throut-b Ireshly-falieti 
SBon about. 1 fui>t in depth. 

the Dam plaiif, which ifl scattered over with housea iu twos and 

of yikL Through a ^ap in tli<; hilla to the; coaI of tlii« plitiii 
li»^ a mad whioli joiiH nt FlintKM Cliflkiiam (ft marclies from 
LliaM) the uararm^ route trc^m LbjUa ti> l\?kiii tit«i Takluu^ 
^Taluu);')^ jiiid Nuk-chLi^Ulitl. Fruiii Daru there in i% mora duv<;t 
road to Lbdan ifid Takluug thau tko ouo folloved by tho 

'■ 91. Ounho {height 14,340), lOJ mtZe^.— Koad lies parallel to 
Iho Dam Hivtr. At Chiubo thia river cliftii^^'* tlic direction 
of ita courwT and flowa through a gup ic ih^ bills to the aouth- 
«a0t of OhinW; through the same gixp ruiis a direct road to 

92- Camp oti httuJ: of Lhachu Bher^ SI miles — Koad pasBt^Jt up 
th\y Kindiui^ suUt^y, tbroirgh nhicb Wov/n tli(3 Llith.'-Lu, a river 
nhich flow* by ft circuitoos coutw to Lhmu Thcro aro sovoral 

* I^dk\oiLt>tl\ximTmtlt&rlAathi JkU, mouth. 


133 TKOTTEa** Jcvmmt of the Pundil's Jtmnicrf fr&m ^H 

softtter«d l^nnileU in tlo LbMchn vallAr, vrliicb U tto^unded on 
the Dorth by the Ninjiiitlmn^U snowv nio^miftiu*, at Ibe eoutbcm 
f<Kit of wliit-li In n tliirk b(»lt if If)w iViN'tt, 

licad oftho !Mi hi] viiKe}'. 

S<4. Jijiihw/ {htJt'/ht H,7W>/-v/), B mt7««.— Jtoud ]u« up ft 
ti-ibuUirv tif ilie Ll^diu. PtiHti pj» nFufrf tlit* AuiJtLl villace oC 

1)5. ¥vic*Goiiipna (hriykt UMO M\ Sj ina«ft— B[tUi.^ii 4 
and 5 luilEa of Wont to iho Bilknik Vans (17,^40 feet), Th« 
Urt part Tory rfcrp; rood good, and no Fiion»>uthd pAsa; rt,pid 
desrt.'CUt lu ("Eiin^^, 

W. Tufmiff Vin(^d {fwi^ld 13,02(J f'.et\ 7 mf7«.— Stoadj' 
dMCt!&t dtiwu-stmiin lo iho villngo of l>iiigA^ rrmtflift?ng n mo* 
nofitery and 20 hoaKi-s. Cultivatiua mot hero fortht* liret tjine 
fliDce Icayin" Ombo (5^th mRich fi-om Li^k^n 

&T. Fun^jwi- TO%e (/[riV;// J2/i.'^0 fvti), <li flw7o*,— Pftss« 

The diri?Gt road tn Lhi^n from Sougn Jong, in the ITor country, 
[mi^ee Uirouph Uhejca. 

fta 2V1?( F»7%*(feyif 12.510 /ep/). « mp?F«.— Rmd paAes 
ilirongh n wetl-cidtivfttrd and thiHsly inhabited conntrv- 

93. Siiihn VaUuff. fi w./7c?*, — Viuis Ki'vnrul Mrnrtll villofie?! «m 
r<yvt/^ Bfllw^en Nfti and Saibn y ntrenm eaters the l\]|iin|v 
valley from the vpkI, " Iriu;; dny's joiiniry «p wHirli lin* tlic 
larger monastery ol T«liin™ Chiirbu »or Chubuk) coataJni^g 

ICltJ. XfHi^7»?ow;i TflT/rt^^ {MjflU 12,100 /wi), mt7«^-Pta»i 
eevoral hnmk'U and i\n* mouaatr^ry of Kimuluog. \^'liicli <iQa- 
lainx alHJTit IIH) T-fiinn'i, nil IVimi the* Nnri nhnixiiiii iliKtricrt of 
Wc*fftem Tibel. 

ici. iivjjji (Acjyi; n^fiio/fro, M mifA 

Total Df^T^KcE. Lgh to LbA^a, 100£ n^Jlf^«. ^ 

LHAS4 to TawAng, — D{^i<rnce 213 mV/tB. 

1, Wtrjrit pToil:j^ H f;*j7c#. — Ko£lU Hofl Up lllfr LI JAM Kivi'r 

(Kfi5hii !^Bni»po) an'l paiis*;s ^i rcnti- suvifrftl viUagvfi. Dhejea 
itaelf containf!" about ^lOO h(*Ufle*) and a largu mcnartfrr wUhi 
300 Lamjw; lu^re ie ji larg^ fnrt on lirgh ground oiit*ir]e the 
town. Dbejen -long is the iirat halting^pkco cm tlic higb^rood 
to Peliin. 

iin iifPin^nt f»r titp Kfdni llhtM-. Tbi- latfnr part nf ihi? roacf 
occufipd by Do^'pofl: no cultivatioij, bnt nbunianc^ of junglo. 
fl. Camp vn south lidf <^ Ookhar lA, lOi Juiiit. — Rood gooJ,. 


Left to Lhti^Ct Q»\d Rfiwn to India nA A^tmti. 133 

bit fiscent -J uilliw to ttii^ (Miliar THda (lG,fi20 feet) Terr sleep; 
doMviLtoBfy. From thopjws. whicli is 0QthdwatmhddWw«en 
tbo Kiver.t Kiclti^ and HnJiiQnpiitnft, lli^re ih n. verr extouaive 
¥JHW embracing the Ninjinthaii^La p^aks (soiitli oi^the Nittn- 
cho Lak<r), ond d rcrv conspicuou* peak ncnrly dno north- about 
the fttiEiu ilHlttiica m, imtL the aame hejglit tut th^ Nitijintlianclft 
(*,*. ftboot ^ii4,'J(X)feot). Othor enowy poaks (tho Yala Siumbo) 
werrt vmllij tu tlM' hi>i]J1j-('^»>1. 

4. Sarfiftye Qojfthu (htt'^ht 11,430 /f^)» lOJ tnii^s, — A very 
iArfTR ariil anciejit luounstory, situato about ^ milcft to tb« tkortn 
ofth^T^jiia KbiorBmhmiipiitmEivt^r, Tho mud i* good, but 
clcopio saud, wliic-h ovcrlir^a ilic wholcofttic aiUTDUiiijing country. 

OVOT a eaudv plnm alonc^ic mfrlboru bunk of tbfi BnilittinputnL 

2 milov fn>m DWiulu, ia » frrry civi-r thf jjralinnutiulra. Tho 
fiver is fibuul 3r>Q yniilfl M-'rci»^,2(f feet In deptb. aua faa^ a very 
''I'^SS^'^'i ourivDt. Th^ ^30(1 liEiTo leav(« tti^ miiin valkj, nitd 
ffoea lip the brrujch vnll<*yof Vilung. Where ibr^Brabruflpitra 
Kirer wa? riiiiited, it trends da© east, a direi^tion whi*?li H 
roaiDtidns fcr about ^0 iiiiks, JtfU^r vbidi it turn^i ofV to the> 
flo«th-en»t- On-n'm;^ cnutafnH i'liH* hoiiRe^ and twu very largp 
larmaJttmes, which ;jriv*- ehotor to 7**0 l-ama^ 

7. >tWfr/i firOwJjK raJ'tfr/- (Act;/^ n,*E2[^yw/), "i milts.— 
Bead ^^d up tho Yi'duu;; valley, ^veml monasteiie? ard 
posted P/i rot(/0, trom ono of which, Tamtiik (iombo» a road 
jpA»B6B up-«Ery^um aud meeta, several marches farther en (at 
Tiagsbuh tb* IVindit'a liae of match. 'Ibia oitomfltivc roftd 
piujtvij tliroiigh im iiiiinhnUtM imvtcrn] rimiilry, 

8, Chiikijd Phutdjvf, 3| miwa>^A lai';;o town with a fortt 
AM hniifcPM, »nd ^ Inrgt* mrin:iK|t«ry ^TftWl^). Up (i> iiji* punt 
from Lhiua tin? road is tirvt-rLitf>. 

% Pirn IMvi, {hel'jlU ll.S^JO/trf), 9 wtfiw.— Road rtill up 
tho Yelling vaUey. Nitm<^ri)ug villages and monnM^^rlaK pamca 

10. KaiTrn'r LhW\any {h^ht 13,190/**f)> "^^i miTtf*— Up 
til" Vahiriij valley, trevcrnl i^mi^ll riUages pj»s3<sd fn rotUa. 

11. Di'dtHanif ^i^ujht lfi,02U f«tt\ (i miJ^—K lar^ rest- 
ho«flC, with good acconjtijodaticni for trav^llera, on th<T jJain 
whic'h fiimm tbu wnlrisbcd Uifwi^« tbe Viluiig iiud n morw 
eaat^ra tribuUiy of the Brahmapntra. Thig plain ^tak ^^uvcrtd 
with cattle, Lklthough tho rold waa vcty severe- Higb oiiowjr 
pL'ukfi to iho north and south-west of the oatop. 

VL Karhiimj Vilhx'if^. {height l5/iOCI/<Wj, 1»( mile^—X flmall 
vilbge on ft higbly-<df.'ViU(.'d phdii, whidi i>* snid to Ijt* oovered 
v'jth enow aiWi' J^uiuar}-. it wtia bitterly cold whea tho Pimdit 

TTW thcro (Dcccmler). altboagU tlicro was Uien no aacnron iho- 

13» Lli^h-ohtmff Viitay^. l^i iitt^— CruBSL>d on this day's 

ktt^i*, liJ.'iJU Jcsjt). Irgm vhicK d vctj' <?ommumliug viw uaa- 
obuiuei] iu ft tnulb-tuj*l ilinHiioii, 

1-1. Yiihi YiUa^jp {liQight VS,i'l\) fnid), 1 1 f f^ttTftf,— Dri^noikil llio 
etream fruiu tie jians, nmi c^ix-^tix'^iriU-anip o^i tlie hsljt bulk of 
the Siknng Hiv^r, wliieli flows ihrocgh n Ulgbly-eUTOted but 
tLicUly-iiiliikbital nii<l wdi-cuLtrntcd ^Wv\ (tho Ciia-liuil 
country)* Aud iiliiiiiiLli'Iy lirulsi iU ynxvy iii tFif- UuflU cimutry 
SdTCViil cou^pioiicjK? wiowy pook^ vbjbk oTor IIhj Cbtf-lmil i^Uiiic 

ID. Sa-ihi{ Yiihu)'^ {hi'Ujkt li22\)Ji'et)^ llj m/V^f, — IC'jsul H(?«. 
up tho Junibi Irancli ct^ tbc Sikung Itivcr ; load good Un-uugh 
scattered vUJugi n. Hot ^uringii ut cuii:]i ((enipemtiiiv ^V 
l*'aliTcnticit), a fow Imiuiri^d yards abovo wlijcb wcxo otLcr lioi 
Hpniigi: with H liiiiiCM-riLtiirif of ITo^, 

1^, 3ffnfV-^f7i, it milts. — \iitx ^ miW aaoetit by a ^ood 
roedp Inivojse Uir o miles Hti elevated era^sy plain, i^jldratioo 
l^.^fUQ f«ot, wbf^c It ijt taid thnt trdvrllf^rp 'dtdii |>oriih iroak- 
otild Hud «iLOW ; defend to tlid it-LOuu ^'drH-Yum Cho. ^vbtcb< 
is 6 miW in length by 4 in l>rea4tli. A Inrgr Cfiukh'in^ (or 
GoYcrikxarnt buugulow) at cnmpt in cbargo of wotdjiuuti irota 
Ddia^ Alany HLowypeaka visible to tliev^sttind 4i>iitfi-west^ 
^t tlii^cAmp'tlicnlUrnjitirc roaci (rtftgc7)iVi>m WtimLt'i ip mt-t;. 
tbi^ road 111 imirb ii»eiT by tiiiiicTs froTit tlu' Hur coitiitrv. 

17. G^nlxi Vilh'f^(h-i'jht lo,2^>0 /?'»^), 16 ?^iV/r*.— Komi pn»W** 
QVLT vr^^ cIc^VEtti^k lilt IiiIitaU) loved piainj covered willi freaU- 
snow to a coneideiable df^pUi. 

18, (TA^itf Jong Tqvm ilj j/^i/^^^. — A etrong stoDc fort, tlio- 
T<wid«u^L^ of two Jon^peu from LbiUa; about '-iW houfteft;, 
uumsrous hot sjirinpa ; snow on road, 

IJ*. MrWo MJhi^r/^^ inUf*. — Ton hmw^K 

2(1, Chyaifja Ktinnc [h'ujhl llJf^O /..ri), ij^ mik9. — Paaa l^ 
aniall luke, fi'om n liich a river ilows in a eouth-west tJirectiou to 

21, {^mlihiuy,^ mk-A. — Cfus* the KyaKvA I>iL The journey 
very laborious onafcouDtoftho deep saow lyiDgon the groiuiU^ 
lUiail goc"l. A tgll-hc*ij« at CLukban^, whcro taxca iim Idvi^d 
by tWe Lbdsa auihc'ritie?, 1 in lUoaftU exporU iind iroporliL 

22, i'itntj Kinufj, HJJ iflrVffl, — Croes tbc SLila Kbatong Pimv 
Hj2l0 fi?L*l, alter wLidi i?n>*s two ftjmw. Cjiinp iu iv furvat The 
^rbolo of tho country sciuth of tbc AUIa Kbt^ton^ Pa£A i« dodg- 
imtr^d Mmi^liiiit, anil is inbubiieil by n rixvi* ill' ju^tjib^ vrhuSK* 
knguogo diOere very conaiderably from timt ofLba^a. 


leh i& IMta^ and Rdum ta Mia ctif A^tam. 135 

2a 3Vir/^. (hfiijhi litil^ fr<:t\ 3 hjiTtj.— Roiwl ^Jcaccn'lB 

to Uio T;iwi"u>j^ River, flu.' v^li?\' of whk-li c^otiiairw numoronft vil- 
lu^^ and coudtitutcathctliatrict oftho iaoio naniQ. AtTiwang 
IM n Inrgft TiiotuuitfM'y iHititjiitiing /H>|} LiitmiM, U ix Kiirrmjmlml 
by tt foriifiod wolL 

From Ti'iuing tlioro uie tliri?p tiywU to HindtiBlAii'^ 
Iftt. TU« QOtft^ni roul^ iiVi i)i(> Sui Piu^ to Oi!iilgurj ; tbU is 
Uie roQta followed by the rumbt. 

2n*l- TluT mirUI !<? nmle I'/M Tl>€ Jlottn Chakjt\^x or Iron Bridg*, 
oud tlie ('Oitf^try ul' Hirustj^ (lx>Imi^'itig to Bbol^ii), 

SOimbft* nnri Tiulu Kurig. TLc two Iib4 roiitof cmcr^o (it 

TAwAXO TO Ol>ALOURI, — Dl'^O/Kir^ 07 mtfc*. 
*1A. Okar V^tt^e^'X vt&tt. — Hcud tlirt*U(5li<lc*(*p enow tijewboJe 

with obotJt iO hotirftr^Ji AiiH a lnrt«c ruimiixtcry. 

2G, Jawj-huit SaiiM (ft^ffht tiG&O feet), 3 mi&w.— Crofs by 
timber bri*!^^^ over tbo TAirAng Itjvor, which is n ropi*l *tre*iTn 
hIhiiiI 40 pjic^^H iii u' unU T* f(-r( in Oi-^ilb. 

27, Potuj Khnv^ YoKm'i.t 4 witea. — A steep bscphI (bf<"ii;ili 
hoaty enow th** whr>lp wnj{t'obnmryl, X^ass ucortbc ntci tbe 
larf^e villii^' of Junjf-liuii (300 houst^s), 

np Klijfbt muvtiL ahmgnimtlitJint biul iHTitn Im*-il1jmi ilnvrn tliniuj^h 
tery brftvy auaw, Uwfe jim;rIo on bL>th aidt'S of tho load, 

UOar this villn^tT iiml 1i>rt oJ' th« Mimi) nnmr*. Two miJefl of 
AMent tbrtio^b heavy mttw ti> Uio S^i IVm (14,2(10 faet), 
from whi-'h thfrt' i* «iid to be ft very OKtenwivo view; al tlao 
time: of the PLiiidit':! pJi-iNi^o it wjis unfottiinAtclv obticiinid by 
clouds. Four miW eontb of ttia pava is the 7i]loj^ of ^iiigi 
Jtmg, belonging to tho Chonn (or lUwflag) Joii^pon. Tlii^ 
Nnow nidy I'xUMuicd for 1^ mile buhiUi (ti' the pn*t^ aufl its 
dapfb vfOB Tory nincii loss than on tbc nortb, 

;^, Jy<ijJianff Village (hritjhi *M\OjWi), 11 w»?ffl,— The fwid 
poflous down tho l>lurjtnt; VaUt% iitar tin* nlr«am of tho mm© 
jifimr?. which t^kos iu liiso in the Sai biLlA on the north. Screml 
Jiii^o vilLagi^ mined ffr routrt. Nyungmii ($Ll houHi^ft), LUi (100 
ItOQ^ea). and Chopjauj- ( 100 lionsf*), 

31, Camp niirth of MciiM Pann, H miJft. — Very et^ep jwcent 

* J6kii Simljii i* ftitiLbtj^il nmrlfirjJnnntUjn o( tho Lliofart Add T^nUQiS ritcrs 
fj^ii U ib^f boumlDtj bt'tuooa T&wAiijc Ukd Bliotdo. 


TVOTTKB'' ^foppurf ^tSe Faadift Jmtrmi^ 

ndleya, l£e wntbeo slopes oC ihk raig« are oovf^m] wit£ 
CDORDou dcodu^tncL Pitf oi >vttf« the Tilbge of Dhirui^ 
conlairiic^ flliattt 250 Iioom B&d a fort or Urm'-k Be\rnil ctoffmrs 
hi^, tliQ rcaidoDCM) of two Jongpea, About *J5 miles down tSe 
HtRT ftnm Dhintng in X\\c bonuJuj cf tbe ioie]>«i»decit Uk6tn 
or IMphla* oottitry, 

31 FhOmm^ 8^uila ihd^lU ffifTO jM), 6 i^uIol— Four mUtt 
of fftoep aseient thro-J^Fh dt-odsr Const to the Hmda U (92M 
fe«tl l^ncrw was lyta^ aLcut 1 ibot de^ st the t<^ DMoes* 
to IBO PhQtung Rirer very tft«e|v iHpt<<nAl]T tho lomt^r pontioD 
DGii the Hrer; rood good. I'bat tho vUlagV of Pbului^ eon- 
tttlBBg about 150 bouses 

53. tvJdun^ Jmg {hm^ W¥>foet)t 9 mam.—Ciom tho rivw 
b> an excdlent woo(k--D bridge; aBceoA for S^voites to the 
TbQtimg U (7040 fi«t) \ cross it, fljid theo sscttd io Tttluf^ 
tiic; Bdmincr resadcDco of tvo Jongpen, vlio s|)«iid iho wumt 
months sit Kh^lal: 1'ssg, and AnatS i^or AmW) TiUn, nesr tbi» 
Britub frontier, 

54. KhuMk Tany {lufi^ dOOO/W^ 9 miIf».—A nltagf^ of 30 
houses. Tbo rood adoctids for 2 iint«s to the Chiino La (8170 
feet), from wtiirh U a i-otiimaailiiig liew urilm AtMiiu (iLuus to 
tbe ?outli, and from whiob the ]lr;il:imflp]itrfl Uirer is siid t<» to 
TwiWf in dear weatber. 

35. Ai>tr'l Td!a{fM'jhtGSO/pft), H miVei,— RoaddowD^reoo 
Dad tbrou^b tbick jungle the vUolc nnj. To th« vcfit of Uto 
rotu\ U ilin TiIlagT^ of Chingmi. Tli^i^ ririT Si rroftted no less 
tb«u firty-JiTc timed ou this march by teiupoiaiT brid^«twhieb 
itfn i^lijhnvM rarried nwny in ihp miiiKimil i>'|thxf'rd iti tb>* i*iil<1 
weoihf,*r/ Ib'i rood in cjuito imiinasiLblt' iu llio rainy soaaottt 
prior to nhlch the Tan^ug reftidcuts :*i \iaii Tsla rotiio to 
ibf^ir TiHiigrs to tJio north, la lli<f i^dd itt^aMm thero are about 
^00 tiriuporar/ ;>m9B-bui1t buLn at Amrd Tala, wbich is f^ thai 
tLmi' n trniit ronaeotrons for m^rchanu fnini Assam nrd T&ihbip. 

8li. UfWffuri or ir(fnr?/>tin(, 15 ft^iY^i— Kond carrl^ along 
the stresm to lU jittiotioii vllb tlie Saiigti Cliir ; tht* two til n^-nma 
form the Uliansiri Jliver. Tbc SaiiKti Hiv(=T la (^romwd by a 
vooden bridge, uf*nr whjr!i t* the fntiititi- Iwmeeii BritiaU aixl 
Tibetnn territory, 

OJiilpirt (A^() /fifl) 13 in tlie Dnrrrtng district of AaaHin, and ts 
Etbout ^'? mili^a from AlaugitldEU^ whence GauhAti can be r9*ohod 
by boat in 1} day. 

Total Djstahck. Lhasa Io OPALorrti, 310 miles. 


( "7 ) 


VI. — Ntit<£S oti, the Dtilie iff York Grtrnp, New Brltiiiitf itJbit Xcm 
Ti'dand. ily I£«v, G- Brow». 

1 AnnTVi':D at Tort Huntt^r, Huk^ of York Inland, on Aiigiirit 
ITilhr I87i>, in Ihu mitflinnary brj^ John HV^^y, iui<l left by xhn 
ttni6 vOMol on At3^ai;t Hlct, 1^<7'>. Ehirint^ llio months I 
Tdsided there we \^«ic in eoiialaut dmly cirmmuiiii-nLiun nillt 
HiO natircfl. ftnri tiy ^enm-limnoh fttjd wbale-boat miwJe many 
jovrnd^ to New frnlujitl and N«w Itribunj Tiailjng tlio pccpio 
and rendil^ for eome timd amongst tliem, 
Tbo £xpc^ition, which iviw ploccd under iiiy cliargc, was 

fociL^Cy, for tljc purpoae of ofitaUi^litn^ a mi^Joii in tho^ 
inJaTjU^S J^ iikiitid prnrtimMci ; niicl {in* lliJit ptjcLiffTti.'^ I was Jict'oin* 
panied by eight Fijian aiid two S*vmoaii native toocUerr!, wiUi 
iheir lAiTcs ^nd familirfi* 

Ott binding at Port H«iiter, a iUnftll lioufce waj* cut and 
erected by ihi crew of the misajou vessel and tJie teodiOA; 
coab and n UiW stou-n in^ro lundi^l, u-nd thrn tba Te8B«] sailed 
&r Sydney, k-avt[i^ uh a dniuU :<Uam'Ia(in<t]i und boat for 
flxploiiDg and vinltin^ the adjaci^iit isl^irulK. It IVirnied no part 
of tlio oripinol pfiui Uuit tlv? writor slinnJd rtunoin on the c^^'ip- 
tiud [ID tiLiiUiblr pnjvi?<!ou wna iimOi< fur KmOi piimiM'; liiit im 
arrival in the croup it, wne d9(?nied be*t for ei>me< tuiopt-an to 
T«main with tlic; tiJKhrr». Jlnd thit hvn folcBcun. some 
^pplief, iiores and inatrankent^, of wbi'cli we often felt the wanl^ 
would have been t/ik<<Tt with I1«. 

Buki* <»f York Ivljin'l, n£ h is iniproin-rly i^dTed on Uio ebartu, 
is rc'jdly a small jj^ruup of twelve isLuirla, Bt^vcii cf wbidi aTO 
^^ inWiiti^), Mnl^ndii, llie fiirlheat ishirid to tlm N,W,, li^-w in 
^■r4''-7 a. mtd ubuut 162^ or ld3^ r ton^ir- I l^ad tto cbtrt by mc 
^^V^m which tu obtain tbe correct longitLjde; but a eiiait wafl 
HH,propar4;d cluHng imr i^ideiifie m llie ^runp by* Mr. Blobm, and 
^ ' t»a£ forwarded by mo to lli*> Admiralty^ Midcnda w ftl*cmt 
I 2J milcu in h^nt^.h, and Js tbn liiffhowt land in ilin gnmp. It j< 

I wpamtt^d from the Duki' of Ycrk lednnd by a ohaiint.'l or lagoon 

I about a miV^ inn] Imlf fii nfilth. and !ivera"iii<^ fn.oii G hi 17 

R fnthoinH in drpth. Two xmall isinndr^, ridleii ilJaiil, hv off the 

N-H. eiiU'niir:«i to ibis hijjcmij, and ar« cailv bL-]TumletI fiiim eacli 
other and from the two larger ielandK of AlalcnJii and Dale of 
York by nnrrcw i3hannf.*!s- The Irtgonn thus fonnrd ia cntloti 
Port lerpnson. It 13 well ahellered and preleeted from alt 
pic^'ailiDg; wind?, TJjcro i^ anolLer cntranco to it irom tbo 
uwt aide, witJi gmid cb^mEiel for ships. Tha HoundiiiBK h.'twiMin 
Iho reef of Malrada faland and thu Btoall ifilond of Maiit were 

1S8 BrsowK ff Note* on the Duke ^ Vorh Crcap, ^M 

from <ii to 17 fatliom^ ftvfrnging 11 f-ilbciraa in the korboor* 
and tram 14 to 17 falboms at ihe ^vest eotmnoe. Ttieti^ is al0» 
9, gCKxi cIiAUEcI* with from 7 to 10 fallfom*, between tbc two 
ftiTJhll tHlnmlm nillfd Mniif* FiL<iwfH>i] tlio a.e. inlaTid of Mtijit 
and Diiko of York iakod tho chami^l is not moto thou 3- 
fathoini* (Icrjj, imd vcrv imnnw. 

TJio [iriiidpal jdbtij u i^rdlcd OuUe of York I»landi but the 
DaUre8 bavc no gencnU namo for tLo whole ulond, cncL dJstrici 
liuviiig iu 0"ii pwiiliar name. Thi* Port Iltinier nutivoR bar© 
adoj>lt(l lh<j uftiiio i>iiko of Vork, but tbey alao rt«tpicl ft to 
tlioiroAvi3 uiirliciiUr (ii^Trirt- Thi' iKbiml is ntinit 8 tniln* in 
Ifiifftb, uiiu olout & iiiiU^ ill widUi. A rt^foronw* to tbo diArt 
will show th»t Jit Wftttrhouj^^ Cuve imil nt Port llitntrr tho 
uloud IK voty imrrow, ami nutiv<T troditiciji u-^t^criii tbut thor^ 
WHM fciujiiiy n cbauuel iiito l*i>rl IV-rirUjiuii ut btitli ihetu^ 
^iLC9S; niifi Tnut tb^ hi;;b land %ti tbo tiortli-wtixt of Wat^Tthotifltf 
Ctivc-', luid tbiit Irc-tvrfrm it and Porl Hnnt'^r, weri^ ctLmtlft Uk6 
the two row called Maiit, but biglior nnf! Urgt»r, Tho triu1iti<m 
is probably ccrrt'ct, nn tbc: Un-J on Uith tlit-at: iatluaiwcs beox* 
DvideiK't* of troni[iiLruti\'elv r[?iM?iil furiuLitiim. 

At tho goutlt €Qti t>i bnkc ot York I^I^ldJ thoro ia another 
Inrgff biyiion. cdhHl PurL WpaIi-v, wliirli i* Umuvil by llio 
ialanda cuUvd Mauttfl, Utuan, Meoko, and Huulim. 'rh^i> lie 
oGTtbc K>iitb ciLd of the islanrl in o. MEnicirclcrOud ceicIcpo a Rn^ 
•he<Tl of wiit^^r, <^uit«> *h**Iterfd from nil wind*, wJtti good 
anchorage in ftlmoat every port of it» and having two safe and 
<'nwy cT[trujir<'s i^nvi nnd wcxr. 'I'hr cmiif^ni fintrancN." U bi'-iwvou 
Mufdim rind Mi^oLo ; the wv»t4:m one i;^ betwiren Jdauko fttid 
Duke of Voik IflUuiL De^itb of water in lagoon froci 6 to 1ft 
fathomH; viuidy bottom. 

All the ielajida h«va *luirQ or flinging rowC*, but these mreiy 
(rxtend tor tnoro than 100 vnrdH from the b^sch ; wlulvtoa 
many |mrlH of tin? kr;p* idtanu tbi" wiiti^r is quite deep to witliin 
a tow fent of th*> i^Wa, In Port Jluntor iho lar^e«t rdaa^ 
mislil be mt^rcd in smooth walrr h* ctu^ t^i the reef that ih 
short pljink iiloiie wonld be iieeii-ssiiry lo tiiubje anj* one to \tA^ 
from the phip to the ahorc. 

Tb« lidrH am visry irre^nlur, and si^eni to bo mur-h iiOTirtcMl 
by the proTailio^ wind and eurrento. A uhungo of wtud was ciu 
BOtno days ftufiicieut to counteract dmosl eutiiely the Ufiual ebb 
oflhi*li<i«, Thore b only oin> tido in lb<? twtutv-fonr liourfi* 
The dood tide in tJie channel between New Irylaud and Duke of 
Turk Ki<U t(i thu n<»rth nlung tho (."oimt vf tho ) ieland, and 
the obb to the aootb. 

Dnriiig iht\ wIki)^ of thp north-weHt monsoon^ or from 
Kovc*inber to the end of Apr-jl, tlio cnmont ia tho chabocl eeto 


iVVu? Jiritata^ cnti Ncv) ItrlanJ. 


alrviiglv lo tho aouih-oaal. UuriPi^ eome of thenf! rDOtitli0,ci|>r* 
ciuliy JiiiiDEir)' im<l Fr-l>rimryj it wim vnrv sfjini*: irnlni), uml 
the ohanutii bi?ti\uun Dake of York Gruiip und Ntiwlroload wh» 
covered tvilli titvs wIlicL, fram ibe uuiubor aiid aca of tbo 
barriAcJoA aJiKring t<j tboic, and tli(> iniEuititittH ol (*niBlaeGa lUid 
£ribcs in aiid alxjiit tUi-m. uuibt iiuveljv4>]) « Iciui? timu iu tlie 
Wttlir, Tim oiirrwit, I brliove, elinnjr" dnrii^p tlm M)«tU-oo»i 
moDsoou, OL-tlins noHli-wt^^it in tliut M^'iiMJiif but nt^t. ruiuiiii;: bO 
«lrtm;;lj" ml during; the norilj-wput n^otiftrmi, 

Xiiord arc fon pcrmnnont cpring^ on thf> Inr^ inlAiid, but on 
Makada tberL- Am M?^«rtii, one at leimt tif wldi?U ns^rbea tlie 6ra 
u ft KUuiU runniof; strG<ai7i» end bris been Jen;- nsdd l;- whnlinfi:-- 
VGB&ela H0 » wnti.riiig-HUilion. Wntrr mny Iw fomid mi iw 
bfttch b^Jow ht^h-warer mark at several pJaoee, but tlie only 
appoarttnc<^ of anything like ft iargo #pntiG^ or stnall ctrcam ou 
Duke <jf York Ldufid wax ubnerTcil tu vxpl-jrini^ tbe iul<^l ftotii 
Pofl WctJcy, wliicb wo wci^o not ubk to follow ti> it? bond, nor 
tu dtMTilx) \hv I'Jiiirxf of mvTurulf'fy, from liftviiig nn crmiifli-^-i^ 
ut tbe c^noo, Tlir> ialet ftooiDL'd to t^rmiDate in tbiolt niaQ- 
^ro^o MWiiinpti, with a szn^l Blr^iBni of fresb vmi^ inaing frmn 
It at low nutcr, 1 U<9 iiutiv^ howevLr, rvport anothor itreftra of 
gCKxl water a» iflsiiinff on Uie beach oiitwde ibo wc-^tern «iitraDGO 
to Port WruW, The inland* in tbw jjroiin r«nBi*t of cond 
limesloue, uaU riiic- ut mont ^>d^U^ abruptly Ifom the wal*?!" in 
«U'r]i jn^rjifjidiruliir clilYfi. TlieTrhnl*' <if ilm Tslnmls mv» lUriwIy 
Vroodcxl uiid very fcrtitc, Uioii^'}! tliu f^i u not ftt all deep. 

' On Now irolnnd wo vj«itrd nomn of thoTiilopwi on miuiy 
ilifTf-n^Lt o:^CA>LoD!s nnd ridiuined it lliit* urcoimt ejittindiii^ fnim 
Uetkk, near Caf>i* Ikiui^inville, on the oa^t constt to n p>t]it to 
tho noilii of C^po Gerry, on tlio wc«t cwmt. Tbw i» about ll^ih 
miles cf eout-]iiic\ i\\' aUo crossed tbe iMfind frcim weet to ea>ir. 
at ft point beuriu^ N.N.I'I Irom Uuko of \<yrk Ireland, rcftclrin^ 
tite obmI I'oiwt lit n plncr rnlli'ii Kiiddacdu ; llin i^knd urHerrit 
D^nySf bearing N»4w. ; aud ftnctlifir island, sappoEod to bo 
ooe of the Caen hlandn, bfrarin^ K. bj^V.^v. Tho Vio^i cooAi 
oonvUu of a maiintnJn mn^ hkih^ in luo-^t plae^ abniplly 
Itooi th« Wiusiu with jagged and broken peaks, and iotcTsc^rtcd 
with dopp !»ullie8 iin<"l mviiK'5, vhlrh seem to temiinuto m 
mauy in&i*incr?? iiiland at the tutilro of iho rtiugo, at tbc btse 
of at^ep poalu, en wliich thi> mnrliH nf taiidslijrt riri^ oltitiily 
Twible, Tbc mountains oro ull ulH woodod, and tbd ^uolo of 
tlid iMKUt f'^aniin^d wjuc u'ell uatered by nnmerous small 
etreame and rlvtrtj, the bed? of moMt of tliom i;liov-inj]^ tliat i& 
sc««ouB of flood lav^e bodicrt uf vtat^r find tlinir wiiy do^vn tbeni 
to Ihw mm. Thi^rc aro very few fringing or shore reefs on tbat 

140 Biiowsa AV« on (heGuHe of York Gnyup^ ^U 

part of the west coast examined hy m. In most purU tlin 
tX'iw'K ia formed of woUir-vorn nhm^le ur ^Tavel, broi];;l»t down 
hy fh<?< river* and hwn>f(l u|> by 111** swell from tli*> pn-voilmg 
trtwic-windB. In itatui placoa tho wiilcr ja quite dtap close 
iunliorti, iind wc) onuld niri-ly find ancbumge for more than & 
few boat-l^nii^t^B ftom the beach, 

Tho principal \ttir\- of tho rango fiftmin^d l>y iis i* fotmwl of 
ft " ccnn[)act light gw^y limestone, eooiewliat crvfetallm^, nc CTiml 
or fo^ild of any kind visible to Iho nakccl cvc,^' 

On New IrelaiJi] T ulilniut^d lUiDUi hiT^i.' t*iir\-tif\ fi^ureA. which 
ficomod to ua to bo ct»mpoflcd of chalk cr burnt coml litt*. 
Tiiry wtrte kopt hi ir, Inrgo lioiisr^ rnrlowrl i>ifh H'pil^, atid 
madd quite 'Mubii" to uotnt^ii and oLUdreiiT who woro not 
allowoa to go near tho place, or to look at tlio tigm'Cfl if CArried 
outride. Banow w<^r<^ ptrformLvJ in ibeir Iionour, but ihey dkl 
not appear to bt? objecbt of wonblp- Oonci?<rQiu^ the inaTorial 
i»f uhirli thi:y nn* roinjKifcriil, rmfpmor Livprsedg>! wntr?i4: — 

* The roHc from which the tii:nriM» bn>i%'ht thim Nrw Irdaii*! 
arocarvwl i^ a tnie chalk; iik <>oTiiiio8itti'ii it ivmsiMlH PAsonliJilly 
of OttJdum OfubozLAte, iit^d on i^-xrimimttinn tindertho ntiero^eopo 
it is eeeu to bo inu4t« itpalujont r3ic1u>fh^-lv of the shoik of 
fnnumemblo foraminifem, thoso of th^ well-tnown clohigfrlmi 
betnf; particularly abundant. By hni.-ihii]^ tiir cnnlk ur)»ler 
Wilier with a moderately bard tooth-brush or DHil-briuh. rtn]nfr> 
lott^numborsof thofllmW mJcrc^copic ^^bolla of these rliixo|>ods 
r^u be seen, even withitiit tliM aid of r Ihik, to at once stami out 
in bold relief, Un Ireatinp it with dilute hydrochloric acid, it 
JiHftoKfiH with ^^n^at (rlTorvcM^r-ncr, and Irnvr.Tt a nlight innulnbld 
r^sidii^ conBtstia;^ mainly of fillico* Under the micnwcope a 
few siliceous spicules of sponges, anil what is very like tho 
ti-oken Mifitulo of aii oceiulonal diatom, utG won milled vhh 
gmins of sand lu thiJ^ rcdiduep 

" lUnit inirntioiM, ill his work tm ' fWiiU niifl Coral InLmdH/ 
that the only kuown leriility for rluilic in l\n^ IV-itic id tho 
<*levftti.'d coihI r<?ef of Ojdiu, nenr HnTiolnhi ; bnt li** ntatea that 
Profeeaor Bailey foiimJ, on mtcroscoidi'al examination, no trace 
of foraminifeia or utlier ebarflett^riatie orf^mie l>uJif?M; lieiiQiv 
this limestone from Oahn is bv no ni<miu vi eo typical a chalk 
roi'k fls Ihtvl from Now Irelantl," 

Since subniittinf^ these specimena to ProfeMor Livenedffe, I 
liave reeeive^l sonio lulbrmatiou about the materia) ficm which 
lht*6o fij^wrrs ari3 t'orinf^ii, wbit'li, if [tro^*'d io ho rori"*'i't, will 
explain tbc pK-eeaceof thiaobalkon an island LikoXe^ Ireland. 
] am told by mv nativi? htd ftfjm ihf- Dnkn of Vork Gronp, 
who ia ^ith me, timt there is no re/^ar depoait of thfr chalk on 
<tho mainland, but that it is hoT9 np on the beach iu Urgu 

M'M^ BHtttinf Olid Nctf Tnh\n^^ 


bloclEn \\y thci liilrtl 

ourt)iquaki?> wbeik 

IhIi,i< jL miil rurvK theae fI^;iiteA from il, which lli'v afinruarJ* 
eoTl to otiier tnl>es. 

Tb» islmul U not \rtiU dFliDunt<Mi on irxiMtiD^ fjlinttN. Tim 
raiic:^ from Knlil (n.n.e, of Pott HontCT, Ihike of York Group) 
g^radufilly slui>c3 <lcwn to tbr nortJi, ornl when near Uape 
Givry is Qitir^ii n&rroivt-r thun di?Mrri1>e(l ot\ i]id dj^rt ; in fiint, 
lit a pluoc rnllofi Kunimut it i*i not, 1 bcHcro. moro than oae 
milft in wiOlli. To tlii' mtrih ol" Ohpi* Oiiry I.Ik? 1;i:»iI nwx 
A{*aiD Vdiy abruptly, and trends away to llie north-weatv 

On cxpeniDg ray intention to cross the inland* I was &troDgly 
udviHL-d by the ci»at nativea not to QUem|it it; »ud rtKKt ft-urfut 
at^oantn wer« given US of tbo forocity of the nativtn, and ttie 
rlitlionltii** Hud iluiijp'n *.l tli*T wiiy. 1 wjvt iivxiir4*d that the 
uaUvwa oil the oppuail(> aidi* of the uliuid would certainly attack 
nH, r»Trn if wi" E?staijieil thn Biwh trilwL T «iti inclined lo lipUe'Te 
tlmt^ Kiuu^h tijcy (lerlivinly ej(a^;:erfltcd tlio dnuijirH. ]>r<>ljnhly 
fruui H fiisinclmaliiiiii Ibrna to go to iiriyotLtirdi^Li'ii--f thtLii their 
o^ra, thoy thomselve^ ronlly bi'liovod la thi^in^ and thought it 
V'*ry iiiiwisK for ub to attempt ti> crosn to the oppoEuti; nidr.. 
Thov liv^ in mch constant iioi^ility to «flch oth^r nnd ara bo 
afmid of thu Biijib tnhus, tbut they thomjtclvt^ji mrcly go out 
of tlioif r<»apecLive rli^trictt, and would most cvrlamly expect to 
b>? attaoJc*:"'! by nny trib(i tlirough whose country xhvj abouM 
uTtninpt iit [i^-A- 

One of o»r toachera statioTJod at KaUl, failmg to tnduco any 
of tiu.' pi?r>|>lf tlnrro to po with him* wrut in rcFinpany with n 
mau who had Rome f&mily counectkiQ with «om^ ouo in th& 
interior nnd on tho opposite side, and on his return vo started* 
t)iir ivmpiinv <'(mKit>ti?tl of .7. Hotm;.%a mitPiinuTt fromtho mi«ion 
ve*«L'l. who lirt<! fitaye4l with me; W- HicSw, a UalfM^ast^ youup 
in>in irom Fiji : four Fijinn tiiKrhfw, and sewril Pii ko of Yorl" 
nitd Now Ireland natives Wc? tttart^d from Kalil nnd fclloivod 
up thf? Iji.'il iif the Matakiu River for sunu^ diMniice, and thi'U 
etnick acrrjffl tbo raajjo vrhiob ri^jria nbrnptiv from tho coasl. 
Thr? Uiii'^i* Wits vi-ry i^ai^h and hrokcni, ani ihe a»(?(int vury 
abrupt, ueceflBilatiDf; some ai-tnal clitnbin;^ in seToral places* 
Wo roftchcd ih*^ tabl<>^b]nd in about [*cvon Iiouit^ From the 
mountain scak' on a small poolcet rmoroid the highest elevation 
reached would b*i a little more than li^'W JVrt, 'L*hc rrwiiog on 
tlw \mtich Hits 2!i"f*5f aud th** 1ijw™l nwUnj? in ci'ojwtny wu* 
27*20. Alter reacbinK tho eitmmit of tho racgo we travoUcd 
along a prptt^ n.^gnlnr wib]«dand for «(noriil hunts, tbo rr.'ading^ 
of tbo anoroid only varying from 27 'SO lo 27" 1*5; and ttioft 
ve d«M:ended regiilarly through a country where tho road 


Biwivw** NjUs on the Da^e of VorA Grcnp, 

pa^se'l alieniaU'ly iLronfjli iJiicfc bnsb, and open land corered 
with thiclc hi;-li coarac gross. Tho IfUid on tlio oftrt lodo ooixsiato 
■crlJi^y <i( u '^ li^hti jjumus i^lny-iroloijn^d eoil, |in>brLb1y dvrriTinl 
mninly from tlio do com position of tho ti'acinicj" llimiRli in llie 
oimi «pnri^s till) cUv ^iroiiunl iu he, mnah st^QVr tLoa tiie «oil ia 
tue bU¥}i iinJ fur mintid. llie aaosnt ftom tlie coast » cincli 
mors ^^riLdiial ui: liii? eiut side tkon i( is on the ^tst. We 
fSperivriciiJ no ii]>|H]silio!L fmrn tho DftUves m the iulMor. or 
from lUoB(* oa tUu owit i^oast. but, on ttio contrary, hivl o mo*t 
rrkrnrlly n'U^'ntion by ibi'in, hikI *v<^m wi^ll aiuppJiud with Utw}* 
Wo rt^fJied Kiuiukitda on iha C'vejiiuj- of the t^iae dfir, ianving 
I)eou ubi)ut Im.'lv*' Lour* on i\uy wny. On (>iir way lutcic W(j «w 
mooro of tUo liiub pi^jili tlioii ii-« taw (ju our ;;oiufr over, Thuy 
Lfld b^urU ul' imr liail, ami ao vvoro luokin^ outfor Mon our 
ratiii'A. From tbo nutnbt^r of jidtilt rjiaiex \^v vuw, it wbt T«ry 
-CTirlcjit tlLat tbc interior in wi?U ^KjpulAtt^d, ^ome low attempts 
were nifidi? to stop cur wav, but o few smnll |iiT«4pnt4 spowUly 
roujovcd fill alj^trtclc^. \Vc 4;avr very fo^v birdf, lliougb vro 
beard tlii^ Iar^t> honLbtU st^vtim] naies. W^ bad tkbtuid&nt 
proo& of tho conniboJism of tho native?- hiono hon^o I counted 
tliirty-livr liiJiufiri Irnvrr jawlAUiita AU4|ir4Li]<'iI fuim lb<t rmften^ 
lUOBt of whiuh wero bUclEODod \\i\h amoke ; but 80Lao of them 
were qiiito clean, and had not been long thorc. A houian hand^ 
iituokc^dried, was hanging m the same honite ; and jaat uuU>d« 
i counted aovenly-sjx notchos in a coco-nnt irco. each notch of 
whiHi, tho nn,tivoR told lu, reprosenr^d » hiimiui body, "Abich 
iiad boc-n cooked and eutt^n there. Xht? name of tho clii4.-f vas 
So<^iiLa. wbidi meajirt *'Sniallifjg of," or h "Sn'onf^' Hinfll," &nd 
wuH ^ivi^n hira It'Otinco the smell of ouoh<<d ptrk, or hmnaii 
llufiJii MiiA tHuJ li> Inj ulvvnya pi^n^i^ived iu hiri lillu;^ 

A miinl fiiQ^iihir nnd l[irbar<»n« cti^^oni pis^vaiU hsre in tlm 
tr6atuie[it i>r tM>ine of I liu youn^ girU. Wbrn ubout nix or eight 
^I'Are of ago ihey aro taken to a ]arg<^ hous^, which fa wtdl 
ivncod ronnd, nnd made striHiy tnbn, lnj»id<; of tho house ara 
t% naiiiber- uf 0[>i]k-uI -dniirhireH, id^uut a<*V4?i] fiH*t iu br-ight, aiul 
flbont Icii Of ltt'(*lvo feet in cLrcTiujfoceQoo at ibo bottom and fiw 
aliOUE' ftmr frrt fmm llie j:routid, mKiti tiny lnjnT*iff to a point 
at tlie top. BO prosootJu^' eomethinj* liko tho appimriuico of 
lor^ caitdlo-cxtingni^hcrd- Thcso rooms or cages artr oiodouf 
the broad leavca of tb» pandauiis, wbinb itrc vown quito cI<m» 
together. BQ t^t no lu;ht and veiy little air can «uter. On 4;ne 
4iilt< i»f ail opi^niJig t\r dtwirwiiy, which la closed by a double doOiT 
■jf pldited cot!u-uut b?avi« and pondanna-leavea. Jn each of 
thffs^ c»gcs a young ^IH ie pWod wlien sho U about nix or 
vi^d yourA of a^o, and flhi? Iuin to rcniAin thcro iintil tho 
mamjiue aro fully dewloped, uheu she ia tukt>u out unci her 

Ncfc Britain aad Xctc IMmuK 


Trnrn«Re femtt i* celebrated. We were toU tlial thefts Ikjtim-h 
ATfl strictly **tahu;" but in uuruuo a foiv prr^nt); p^aiDad us 
Admittance:, nrd by a ityr mort* wo porsumJoil tha rhii'?to ftllow 
llio caf^PH to 1x1 np-iml. tlmf wo might kpp llio indrle oriboru, 
Thoit|:ti ttic^ old Awumn uho wan ^;nt for 1<i undo the faetcninca 
^VllH ut flrnt vt^ry uifuillijj^ t/) {Jo scu Aft«r a liitTe rnoria litllc, 
UiG chiot' nllow*^ tJi« RjrU lo como out to roccivo a fpwproectta 
of Wjiilfi vliicli I held out afl uu tuduoemt^ut U> tittm, and wc 
then Kiw th** inaido of iho Cfu^oe, of wKieli lliere \?ere thnse, 
<'acli containing u girl. About ttiree fftct fioin the ground there 
^vIi1l, in €]icli Mriicturo a ^malT stage of butnboo «»reet^, and on 
this the inninto hiul to fiit or crouch, as there v^aa not room la 
\\f^ *[imi\. Tht^rc w^ix iiulhin^ iii thi^ gu^h eti%'|)t iti>nii^ jotntfl 
of l)aml>oo, liJJcii with wat<*r, of whioh wp ^pore told tU& ^rl^ 
dranl( u lur^u qniuittty. Ttic iilirt^jtiphE^rc? iriKidiT w-^ia hot ami 
fttiilin;;, und it si?enia fo incredible that hiunau b^iii;^^ <»nH 
«Uhl foi iiny k-nglh of timo iri Mich pWc^i^ that it w'*ha only 
jifl^T rfTjRAtod ifiquiri*:-* that I could belie t6 i( to Kt a fu.*t. 
When tilt-' girla ^ot out to como for tho beads I bf^ld mit, the 
old woman nlio niu-adrd thi^m jiUivid jii<H^r« of bntnboo oti the 
ground for ihv^m to wulk upoia, aa lUeir iix^ mueil not touch llio 
ground ull tht* time tbt^y are in crnllni^in^ut. Wh'-Q \\ipy toltl 
na ihftt oni> of the (;irl«'Ua<i boou 40 eont^nt^d f«r mom than fivo 
ynms '»id Imd iievL^rbcen outride the hrjuaeduritr^' nW l\\<t^t ji^tnv, 
Icouid sphrerly <'rmUt iLi?, and it wa>* only flft^r 
r^poatdi m(|uirits ami ci-osj-quesUonini^H that I fouml thnt 
(Utfh was flcrnnllv Ihn rjs<*. Thr- r*m»iliiwiv<* t^stimonjr waft 
that they Jjtid liHhi'd tht; l^Uido tiv» dilT^^rcnt ac^nsont^, arid as 
wv know that fhaL annelid is ajily oLlaiuBil at iuter^la of 
Iwolve merithii, it wa< qtiito cortain tliftt iIh^t nioant tiro of out 
y<wni, und not li\u w^ivuiis of six muutbi cjich. Thfs girls ordy 
iSam^ out of \\v^m cac«e into tho largo houK«r ddoo a-day to w^i 
in a email wooden bowl plitccid near each doorway. I a«ked 
If thov never rJiod ditriog dieir con fin em en t : hut thd |H>of>Te 
aaid*'iio." Onn:4king again if tlicy wcro uot allowed outride ui 
camof ttieknesN, tln^y^iid, "No; that Mick or well tbny niui-'t Rtay 
thtjro until tJieir breasts wcro largo.** Tho cljtst girl, they 
tuld UA, would noon bu tnktrn out, but iho other poor litlte 
rfTnatures would havo a lon^jiime to tt^matu, Whffii wo con- 
Hiiicr tiiat these tlirec struuturcs were in&idc a houtQ with rbiiv?^! 

aicl««T Mandittf' ou ^udy boII. and surroundetl by a r«od fenoe, 
through wlucn very iitllo wind could paa% wo may (bnn sMae 
idea of the ^tuto of i\\^ aUttosphen; in^jdo of them j& each a 
latitude oa this. 

^Vhen we r-anie cutnde again, I mw some ^jrlH witb dc^^p 
friDg«a crossed over :hu breiL^ts and baelCf quite corertng 

144 ISnowx'* A'cj^j en tite Thiht ^ York Group, 

Uie iiinmmo*_ Tln'rw fnngiw Imvo lo Im» unni until the bi'aiat* 
ore iuUy dovclo^jod. Tbm cubIoid ie followod by thoao i^hoad 
pareDt« c-annotr or £t^ unwilling tO| l>rjir thr i?xpca9<> of tbo 
tbastit wlnrli tho otlior liarbAroiiH uuirUdn t-uUiiU. 

Th(f iiativeei tell me ihtit a amilfir custom, la ft modified 
form, pn'vailH alw on tho we*t uofust of New rri-Un^l, 

Uh Isfiiv liriloin I Imvt txAu:ini*(l ihe coBut from C.ipe Orford 
and Spacbas Bay to Cnpn I'lillisei; ilieii ronml ItinrK'h*^ Bay 
and ns lur aa i'urt W'i^Lmt, ut tli«^ lujuid cif a dixrfi buy, lUxrut 
20 miles tiiLsit of C3a|ie Lumbt-rt. Tlie const Trofu L'^jhj Orfrml 
to Capo I'ltlliscr prceonte no mmarlcnbLr fentun^f^ It eon^uts 
ijt a ]nvr moiLiilAiii mng(\ nAiiiL', ai^ hi Nn^v IrciUrid* abtttplly 
from th& beach- Tbe isltind is^liowevier, mnoli nider tboc Xew 
IrcTand. ond some lol'ty ccuk* nix; Tjsibb far inlaiuJ. Tho 
BLori> roefit are very siiiall, and in many places ar^ jiIfogC'lbi*r 
wautiug. tho vmitt boing quite dcop cloeo inshore. lilaDcho 
Buy hnM cviili'ixlly lnn"U Iniimil by tlir* uphf-aval uf tli« tbriN* 
volc&uio muiiiitaiiiB called Mother and Liau^fhtGra. Betwc«u 
tlie '' Motbi^r " mid thr' X-W. *' DaughtTT/' tln-ru i« s crater, wln'cb 
Ik of eouipumtivoly rooeiil on(*iii, and ia alill timouldoniig. It 
wofl, 1 believe, eeea ia action ly one of the early tui^i^^toia* 
Tbo bid(«' an3 still hut, iiud m mmiy pla^ua it is imp^^^bU to 
remaio for Auy lerglh of time. On the dnv we viailtil it tluu« 
Wii» a riood of ^moke iiiJiiiiiig rr4>m thn IhU.uim <if the critter n^ar 
t<; n brgo mass of sulphur. Ou the bc^iLoh there Jirr* liorLrnil 
spring of hot water. 1 ba<l uo thermometer ivitli me in OtA' 
boat, l]i:t imu^ine thut tbo b^impcmlure of eomo of tbo fij>nn;^ 
luu^t Iw ueju the boiling poJDi. i& il iv^ ijuite impovibb^ to 
beflf the hwiid m tbcm. Tbe wboto of the ooiaairy rouni:! 
Jilunclie Buy accmn to be Ibrmed of volcAniu Mh<A 

Fi>cd is plentiful in all the ifilaud*, hut tbo Duko of Vork 
HfttiTOB i«om to depend on tbc two largo isl&udn of Now 
Ttt^lmul mid New Uritaiii for tbt^ir ^iipplie^ of and yamL 
BantLuas, yams, t&To» en'oet potatoes, with tho fruit of PororEkl 
nuUbearin^ tiees, fumi llir* primdjml fotwl of tho people. Tfa» 
<*ucO'nnt pfllm ia plentiful m Bonic' pu"^3» but not neatly «o 
abundant as in Tonga and 8jimoa. Thib, buwr^ver, in niniply 
owing to the iudolciioc^ of tho nativee, &a the troo fruits vory 
wolL The niaiife'o is indigenous. The paiwiw buxbo^n retontly 
introduced and, aa ujfual, thrives well. The pine-a{>p1i^ but b1m> 
bc^u introduced, but Is not much mlucd. Pips and fovrle, tho 
nailTW tmy'r nem not iritriidir/ffd by ubiteH, a» tliuy wer^ in tbo 
illaads bttotQ any veseLds visited them. 

New Britain^ and AW Irthtud. 


Tht Poople of thR«o inliuidM aro rtry much alike* ttnd tird 
evidently of Papimn origin. Thf> men of l>uke of York Ormip 
arc nol so Hno n twr iu> tl»o«J of Now Irolftiid and New Jintmn. 
Tlivy vary Jn '^>luiir muuHwUrtt. but are [iriuci|iiJ]y uf u dark 
brown colour, with icatU'd, ciirly hair, whic'h varies from light 
hi dnrk bro'ktn i-o1uur. It foriUA nt-ruug inntU^d curln, euuI Uicyic 
llitiV dtifT^^n dnub with r^ pahtt and clay» aud oc^caflioIlally 
uitfk bEa^^k paint, TbrMiTorngOfltuturcof^o malosis&bout&foQt 
ti incUt-'Bi, tbuugb tuauy of th^ Nev Ireland men wttro over 6 feet 
iij bei^bt. They t^o kvell miLde, litbc, athlctic-loolcin^ meu, of 
KpAfiT bulk], viiry f«w mf them tieiiig itirtiiiml ti> ('<irjmli»Mr<*. 

The wouigh aro fjecerally of a fttuuted appoiirjwcc, *o:d are 
not ii4^rly so tall iw t)i« luiilrs. Tbej are rnarriei] very ij*irly, 
iL&d havo to bi>ar )l<^ary bur^kna whcm youu^, and tncM>, »i> 
iltmbt* account for tbiir stunt^^ gtxiwtL Some few of ihem 
liiivi> iJi'a^.-uit features, esp*?CLilly wben yoiing. They do most 
of tho iitid work aud all tuo (Xk>kiu^, 

At •Spar-ions Ray, on Nww BriTAin, I noticed a mnrkoil 
diForcrit^o in tho people. Tliey wiire mucii lighter in txflour 
ibau any we had Wfora seen in thuse ialaiidii; ilmv hujr aUo 
WflLB Blniighl4>r, and their wcapODS woro i-ory diffi>root; notably 
fmia Llicir nnin^ tli« Ur^*^ kvoodi^ii shield vvljjVh Ih uttktutAn on 
Nev Irdand, I>iiko of York, or the north end of New Britain. 
'Qitir laagnoffc, oho, wjl^ quite tmintrlli^ibb to nny of the 
uutivei fivtin iheite plat-ea : nor oortld any of lu wUa undL-ntood 
FijiaA. ^moau, and Tongncsd dotoct iwy resomblnuce to tm 
Kibitrnj Polyrriiuti ilialrti^t. Our vUit wjw, lio««vnr, n vrry 
hurried one. litflh men aud women wore a sliirht eovoriii;^, 
and the w<*mpii wvro ninob fini'-r llnin any wi* }iiui U^fnii? AN.'n, 
iLnd MOumed t^j occu^>y a bt-ttur BOi.Hiil [XJHition^ With thii 
4rlce{ition of the hoiiieu o( Meoko, a OEuall itdaud in the 
Ihjko cf York Group, Ibo womi^u on Ni^n Ireland, and th^ 
mi-n and womon ut iStHicIoiiA Hay. ttll the I3c{>ph^ are coiii|tletcIy 
naked. On all tho islntiiln th<' nalivPH nre nearly ainHvs it 
feud with vach other, and vory iow indoud evi-r go Eur froix 
ibi'^ir OAvn distnct>F, exce|it to a few villager vvith wliii-b tlic-y 
eelnblieh trading rrlutioos. The Duko of York pcoi^lo visit 
iicvrmi diiitrbtA In New Biit-aiu uud New Ireland in tbi-i vtny. 

They rarely move from llieir btinscs with^>iit arms; but ibey 
do not «ccrn to hnro adv r^sular system of warfarv, nor df they 
often meet In open flgbt, but de^iend prineifjally on 6ui-|>riji«WT 
eiirrounding and conquering etimor few of ih*--- enemy by ovcr- 
noivcriiijf numbers. 1 ln*ir iiHual anna am clubn, «|itnrit, h^mn- 
oav^kft. uiid jdiug^ und stonee. On New Untain atonf>hendvd 
cbibs aie nineh ii«ed. Thi?y ilo not us<r tin.^ In?w aud arrow. 

I'bi^ir bouEfcs art- low, miserable Luta. abuut i'i;fbi foot in 
ku-rb by live feet in width, and contain no main m ^\\\\\v\.xiXM 


H6 Brown* No<^ on iliff I>tike t>f York Group, 

of any deacriptioa. TherQ ib % an&ll fire-pIo<>« in tUc middle^, 
aod mc iDmAtefi li« on each nie ot it od a fow plaited cxwo* 
iuit»l«itvc!«, or a itmnW ^iocv ot board. Oa S*iw IrolAnd wti 
somf] kT;-e houuefl vrilh rttie«d aleepdns bsnch^^ round the 
in whioi^ t)ii> jonng tinmnrri^l to«ii i^ Out viltna;^ JirM- 
i^/t^itcz^ — The dioltHJttt apokun differ m -nidrly thai ii n&tiT« 
one diHtrJct oBti very rareiy underslttid thnt Hpok^ti by tli** 
^pJc of anotboT dwtriut only a vt^ ibw milr« nnny. TIm> 
|i;itagaH, hiAh in wunla mid irfiiiHlnu^tiuu, diiTtir muct from 
llio ftuQoan and Ton^ioso, ^rhicb may be ^^f^a^lod ^ tho 
iirpi<^ di;UTK:Lti of I'^ifltr-ni P<ilyii4?*i», I iiiri wi:ll iux|(]ULutttl 
vdth SflULoan, liavuig zefiided more than fourteen years in th&t 
group ; and 1 undoiatand Tejtgtmct and cen oUo speak Fninn 
witli n(»u*^ degree of fluenoy, uaring bet*D lately cumpeUed to 
»tudy thai lan^nio^ in order to bo able to commuoioato with 
our teaiOu'rw fmiii tbnf frrunp. 

In construction, llio kTi^agdspokec on tli^se islands is nL0T9 
likn t}io Fijiuii t^iinit tlje SniiioAii, o^po'^-ialiy with n^^iud tv tbo 
prominent affixes, which are net uwd in Samoa : e.g, — 




DiUf4 of fopK 







Ky frkth4<r. 

fi [mt tunb. 




"Vfliir ^Hlllnr, 

n liiii ijimn 



bm t>m>L 

Ilka ftiUmr- 

c> loniL binifL^ 



llOOO bjitlli 

Thes^pronoTniEiAlaAlKBsare continued in the dual, triad, and 
j^lnrpj number*. The triad number is fonitd in till tho dialocts 
fiero na jn Fijian, ^ut is watiting iii all i\w purely Kosttam Folf> 
ncfaian dialoctfi. 

1 hnrti Oft yai fimtid very few Enstcrn TolyneKinn wonl»s bot 
the few noticed oro interesting. 





"/ V«A, 






Umni (TDQf^muL Tt 





N\<v lErilain), 
C&l» in Mkorl. Xov 










lEulo (men nad 




UiiClVbCfti]. ■ 











tag4 (ToiigM). 





U£0 iTfiuBvi). M 

yja -~^Vo<tc1m froDCfuncod u r>ii tho Cobtbiont : g nomidcil u «^. 

New Britain ami Neuj Ireland^ 


Tho fow v^ordajust |;ivcn are fcpuad in manr other dJjUccu 
afEnMlBni Piilytitsia. Tb« Srimonn hna KiruiAy U^-ii tnilectvd 
for oonQpaneoD, bocauee it is the diUeot wiiii wiiioli I am mo*t 
familini. In Fijian, Sanioaii, ToogiifAe, \Uori, and all the 
lunpuigos in E^alem Polynoain, oi tlioaft calUsd tlie M&]aT<K 
I'olyne-sinn, with tbe exception* p«rliapH. of Itaiuuum, alt 
■Evlkbles und vords must md wttli a vowel ; but in tlnud iilands 
tlkid is not Iho oziso, and o^r tduohei^ huvo great tUfBculty in 
prnnmun'ing; iTiJiny of the wrnils, 

LiJco ^1 PupiiLitis, I Icilii^vo, the natiro* horo ccuut to flvd 
oaly, wbil«t till Eo&teni 1'olyiifj.iaiiai cimnt tu teu: e^, — 





















llmoill m^k r*. 



linunir uw ruvli. 



litnMilS an tulnrii. 



lifnivli mb wAtili. 



iininit, rir l;inB<ti ma timtdi. 





D tnei. 


D )ijn. 


c\ tnlu. 


<■ fjL 


n liuutn 


V ClliU, 


It lilin 




IJ ivjL* 


c Mihilu. 


^otiplc^ 1 




















But it 13 a sinp;ular fact that lq eoa&tiDg eouplof they count to 
tea (coniplcs), and the word* u^ed ore neatly tUe wnae aa t]L<'eo 
ii*;h1 ill E»uil4?ni Pulyceain, e.g. — , 

tlua U kai. 

« mi. Ti ruD, 

A Idlu^ U tut 

u vifc. lu mJ, 

I' liiflo. ti Uin. 

V viLn, Toa wIL 

<i w«1a. ti will. 

1 oiD eiif^aj^, 'witii Uie aBSjatAUuo of the toachere, in £i>rn)ins 
rocalmlariM of tho difTcnTnt dialects nnd have got iiiaa;^ vr»r<U 
from oJl tb4) ialand^ but somo further timt! and ^my aro 
rt«|uircd before dcc-idins; en tlie written forma I give example^ 
of a few' wordH, nbout. tliri pmnunciattciL of wltiih ihwo cmi bo 
no difflcHlty: — 














Ill 11 


l-iriR (Jnj> 




knta^- tmyx 

Fkw, cfc* 



lUbliLijc i,my). 




















J3B0W»'f No(t4 en tAe AiAtf of York Grcupi 










iD«llrt, w uIL 







To mm. 


To walk. 


Tc, bilk. 


l\i hnu. 


















lilt V a. 




dpi <|inD. thitbi), k^ra. 
ItJui, wan, 

Kunti. inlini 

r&ii-K, baboL 

krd an. lAU, 

kuUca. hL 

ko ko^L L 

1 cannot m yot tiod tho reciprocal fonu of tho verb whiob 
formit st> ]>roniinenl. a fKittiinf in Ensteni Polyrirjimn dUlocta. 
All v&rlB »eiMu to udmit of raatiy ftr^^nts, uiiJ iudoclioDti 
(«]H?cm1ty LD iUti pliinil fonn ; liut we hnvu not yot been able 
to reduce them to riiltr, 

Tlie jjowtr o/ th chiefi is very smoll indeed ; in fAct> lh«y 
f^iemto hav^ little i^r no »uTliority over tht people, oxt'^pt 00 far 
no tUe iio8ae»io]i tjf shell money eti&bleH thetu to puiohaae help 
to piim^h any iTLilividtial or cli^I.riot wfio Tnar liiivi? ifTt'iidoi) or 
injitrad them. Tbt.' runk, »o far ns wo know nt prcrtont, ii* not 
lit^ruJttary. Tfie rule Iteri* alfioftei^iiis U» Lt» " tli^ «i?lt'<!li[jn of Uw 
tittost and tlio euryiviLl of tlig atrongcet" Tlio man who has 
tiie mtwt shoLl money and is the best fighter ApptsiTEt to bo 
acknowledged chief. 

FolygiMDy is cxltn^ToIy i>racti&cdt the womon being bought 
with co^'i-Ie money. These aale4 ftj^ of\eii efleoted when tho 
party sold is yot quite ahttlt^ child. iDtliciBeca^oflslio romaiod 
With bflf par»uUi fur tiume yeani until the hu^bajiit wixhcH lior 
to (;o to hia houso. 

A »in£nlnr oiuitivm [iTcvaild hvte with rc^inl Ut tho nuas of 
m&uy ohiefa. About the time of Ibcir Attaiub^ tlifl flgo vf 
pnbertv tbcy aro taken into the btiah, where a largo house ift 
bidlt (oT thorn and tlieir attendants. Here ihty rt^main for 
»eveml moutha, and during Ibia timo tbey ari> well fed with 
jiork, turtle ^tiark^ and miythlttg tjltie ihtry pleaAr. Thpy ftte 
ihc<n iniliiitod into C4.<rtaiii oeromonic*^* ami nlW thia thoy 
H'^wv agiitD tuMto either pork, tiiftiv, or eliark dunog the 
I'cmidnder of th^ir lives. So ecriipuloua are they on this nuttor, 
that J havo knowu a youn^ man w ftaffer acat«ly irom huu^r 
rather thixn ©Ht a piece of taro which had been cookcJ in the 
same ovf^n with a piece of pork. 

Another popular iitHtJtiif.iim ig tlint of Duk Duk. Thifl Beenaa 
to bs the priviiugo of ohiola. Duk L>uk id a oioakod figurOi 

Neto Brifain, anri AW hefamL 


wliich w iQTeflt«l by the jieople wiili Aama terj- myiteriona 
|K)Wors» but y/ho-X Ihc-no t^m vee h&vo not as )^t found' out- It 
in A umiL ilri<wi-d in A very lu^h (^i^inical nijiMk, iiTid uitli IiIj* IithIit 
quite covered bv lar^^ leaf jpnlle& Some ^veekn ar^ &peut in 

Sn-nurMip Tiir tfic i-rrriiiotiits c^onnei'tffll wiUt ihU TifTuIr, Jiiid 
uriLL^ ull tlioBe <A'eeki ihe rondi and prouuds no&r tlin* Diik Dnk 
house nro tebu to »t) womeii and cbiMron. At sUt^d mtorvalfl 
ihf Diik BqU oom^ danr^iiif^ out nf tb^ bnnTi infcj tbf- vilbif^n 
s^^uarc, when nil w^^nieji and childrou tlcc out of hie wa,j, as bo 
hiiK tlrr jimilffgi^ t*i beiiUiig nr Blo&iug Lhi'm if Up mn dn wi. 
Af lor some weeka thero U a gr^l feaBti and all tlieso DuU Duk« 
exhibit tliPmBelvc*. Then one or two t»f the chiefs advance and 
chftllciif^o tlio crowd with speare, aud Ltum tiilco tla^ir «iand villi 
DUO of tbeiJiik Duks at one cud oftbe square, wUfi inrj^e sticks 
or rattuis in tb^-ir Imndit- Numliera of i\w prN>|tb* ihi-u njvb 
out one by ono dod rballeugo the chietj, and secin mi if about 
to dart tlit»ir npi-jirs sit them, and fben tbfly aUxip down in fronr 
of the old chief (or odu ot tbo Buk Duloi) who at once givoM 
Lliom a bard kAuvr with bid stick, or ratlau, over the hack. 
Somo of tbo blou'« iii.^med very h^uvy inJord, and miigt tmvtt 
<:jiiij*»nl tMiiitj piiiu to tliuse wlnj rtsiT^ivt-d tljuiii. Aft*^^ a jc^i^t 
niajiy had be<'ii hnnooripfl with tlu» olrl cbiern rattan, the 
ccrcmonic* vloju^d Jjy fcaMtiii(j lUid difltributinc ^hi-U iiionoy. 
All the people in Duke of York t-ronp, Nr?w Ireland, and 
Off Bhtatn, *io lar ama bavis bct^n, arc dividend into two 
rliiifJiii-t davt(r% iralleO, i«if|>fv:LJvely, Maraiiiara and Pikalaki, 
and the custom is that a Mammara lau;;: miLrrv a I'ikalaba, 
And vim vnmL U U c^innldcrcd to be a \i<ry vilt iWui}; Jndf^ if 
tUiM nil^ ii ever broken. Ju faot, there ^ere only Iwo infitanoes 
lun'WJi where two chi^frt on New Ir<jl*ind haii dared to disregard 
liiM proUihiTuju. The cliililreu ure ull *f( Ibt; wimi* {Am* wt tbt 
tBOtber, in all cttsc^ aud a^ thoy must ail marry into Ujo other 
Ha^t, irti^rmjirriagiw nrtt i\iiin m a i^ntJi. tm-imurrt prrVfUl^Td, 
thouffti i« addition to this tJiero are alao prohtbiti^ dt^'reea 9vcti 
between MnnmrnrH ariH Pikidaba. T\\r- \nu*\. eocii-nn1>f> and 
frtiit-U^Jirinj; truos algo in all diatricla aru a|i|*rtioned butwfien 
tlif-Ht) two diLSAed, Botliut on tbcdaaUtof tbc father, the t;bildrt)U 
in most cmjsph gn to th« ni'*tber'e villag<T, wUnrri abni« tlmy havo 
land <iT <^ll;o-nut(l. X ant iuciined at present t^ tbuik t^t thitt 
oustonir in somj? vurying forms |H*rhnpM, will Ixr found to ba 
ono of tho dii>itini^iinhin(^ luarka of Pupuua origin ; wbi]«t tbo 
■4^Li»ifuiu calltid Tjirua-na, or TaioafaQne iti Kuiioan, TiunaJiu 
in Toagflf aud \as\\ in Fijian, will hi- Ibnnd to bo tho disLiu- 
gnliliing iiiftrk pf what nte calltid tbe ^lulajd-PolytM^ian nu'crt. 
IbU la«t cufltom i(i that of attaching n semi-aaci'ed poijutiot: 
akiid giving peculiar priiilcgtv to tho ^«kT and eUtcr'a cluldreD. 

150 SosNorFsxi'* Ex^itMn ta Cf^ina hi 1S74-J, 

A large nnnklK-r of otij^U of iiatnrul lii^tor^' wwk ni1Tert«6. 
BpwriEUfua of tvliicli htiv*i in moRt cua^ he&n XTiiitsaiitXed to 
£uglfLiid for cxamiDatioa I liupft to rtdurn to ilm grcwip iif^xt 
jL-nr, Icjivirg Sydney pmUibly in April. 


VII. — Coltmil S&moffiJpij'* Ktjwiiiion fe China in 1 

[AbriAj^il Aril UlmlnbrJ frmn t^t: Hnminti. Irj^ Ontii. V- C. 1{. Cl-ull*, ■.!-, 

Fkom the time of tlio ctijuutm of trails in Ktildja ftnd 
Ohiig'ichftk, tbr Hiis«i&n QoTemmenl hfts tnmcd ^'flpociftfBtlcn- 
turn f» t)ie opt-nfng of frvMh mnrki^U for KuaHlaii enterpHi^v* 
in other pftrte of China* But the diHturiKKi Btat"? of ftfTftiw, fttKl 
fJir Ittck of inf<ir[]m1^>n with rrgnni to t'l" tnidinj; Uiwim in flu 
int€n<>r, did not pc^miit of txjiy 4tL<ei(iT0 m«-jLHart.^fl being adopted. 
At ihc comm or Clement cf 1874 it was hcwever, r^oKcd to 
equip ftn expeditions (I) fir t.hi pirprwo of oxplorinir » rcMui 
from the Zaisau Post, iii iLe Stmjpaltttiusk districl, to the »ont1i- 
wesl provinoes of Trana-mnral Cliinn; (2) to Tfi^Mirt npim ihrr 

SroipOf-ta of t^udc^ in (bifl iiir(*Hifm, and, if eutiafaetory, to 
priSfi at. which [li-int^ it wrtnlri bo «IpHirnlih» ia rxtMirh mn* 
pnlulcit and faotoritti, cr trading ji^(>ncicA; 'Liid {3) to oollect >3 
complete iuiLimiEition an |hhHslh[e coiiceniin^ tlio eo-ealled 
Dnn|?Ln movi>mpnt. with n view to (!(Tt<^rniininir tho ftitvre pdi* 
ticaJ fiite of tiie lot^Jiiitic^H invuln^d m Uift jrimirrtK^tioa. 

Thrt ccmmfind of this expeditioti was inlnwtod to Liitirt.- 
iAil. Hosnoffakyof tho Ui^ncm! Stiiff, Thft oth^-r memijoM irtte 
l^oolor Pittcet^ky, OaplJtin MatusofHUy as l^[iogrft[»hpr, Mr, 
Andrirfeky cf IrlciitsU^ a photo^rnpln^ a diinninun in tho 
ttfL-tmi^e. and three i]oijHri>inmip^i*iiH?d ulTirerii of CaAShcka. 

Tht>oofltof tb^^xp^dition waedpfrayed partly by lti€ GovCTn- 
ment and partly by arivate 8iib»!ri|iLioTi. 

On th© i2th of July, 1S74, tlie Expedition ppwed the frontier 
fit Kiakhtn and reached J'olon on tno llJth of August. From 
ihiH plui^e it pnM^fledf*d by aon to Htuikcivt', wlitnv it arriri<<l 
towards the end of October- 
Then L-ame tlit* kiiotiy qnt'-Hlion ivbHhcT tlin mfimliHW of ihn 
€X|)edition ahonJd proooed as private individuals^ or in an ofltcial 
capacily. Tho Utter ak^^rnativo was ultimat<'ly dr^ridi^d upon. 
It having hGGn ameed b«foTdhatid to follow the diac^oBAl 
leading to the rallcy of the Black Irtyah^ the KxpcditKin m 
wLoend^ tho HuD-ktang, at ih^s month of whtr>h rivfit li^a fl 
Han-kow> The river diatriet of Hon-ldari^ embraooa thr^^o of 
the richrtflt provint'i?H of Chinit — Hoo-pPl, Rhfrn^m, nui] Hii-nnn 
In i\\<i lowc^r part of Hoo-poi tho nvor M navigable for at^amors 


ScMfNOFi'fiicy'/ £rpt4!itiffn U> China in 1874-*^. IGl 

of 0[>iuuilprnb]4f draught lu coui^ \ti j^^ntla and Manble; 
thd ImidI» arc m^fiiL-tjmoa low and undy, MMnrtimeo elevated 
and argillaceous; inlfliiit nre se^r l^i?1ds of the cottati-plntii 
ttncL rioo, vith tin nnbrokrn r.^luiin of viilogviA ahiI fiiniifittiula 
nestling in tlie sliadtf irt tl^e willoir uitd c)'!iaua. Tlia uiafs of 
<hip?, IftTgff and email, plying: uiL^&^flaiitly to and En>, fproB tLo 
appmnvni^c; of it furml. nf iniiMt«. In iu mitlfllo rr^nnH^ tli« Hau- 
kiang pitrces the ran^e of tbe Oo-taE<«baii, rich in ooal-vmni'^ 
Hera tKo HTor hu fiumorooi rapids' At aiicb iiointa, althouicb 
the KtTQfttQ hiu a rapidity of d-o ievi per iteciiiiilt navTgatioii bv 
suiall ati^amcra ^ould be poasiblc if tho chunnol wcro mprovcd. 
In th» ifpiH^r jurtK (if tlic^ rivc-r tiarignttnn ht di^Vnlt^ uvrui^- 
to tliQ »l);<ht deiitUof water bad lb£i ftvquciit BuudboiLks. 

Further norttip tb^ UndHcop*' t.rliniig».'s ; thtr vanVty of vovne 
dittppeora: uo lougor itHucn th<M,lcpkntpalni or tbe^vct^iTONi 
tawi ; the cIhvpv htruta of l\t^ UJIU vxluUt th« Te^^fifAtioia of 
tho north. An^E fiMn i>f wfi^t ^^voniprcnd tlio bronid viiUer^ 
Th^ wholo of thii scclioo. fmm HAn-cmin^^'fnti t^ Ijjiu-^licjw-foo. 
averaging ri^iH) feet cf abRoioTe elevntion, pi^wnts »t hnot. nf 
moiiataiiin und hitU Icnowa by vancuji Iccnl namrts nnd K^^i^/^ 
birth to th« Han-kiati^, tht»Kia-lL]i-kiatiL!;,vlHeb L^ve>A itAwattrM 
to the Yang-Uo-kinn^, tho Poi-bo. und otl^or ]e«« importduat 
atrromv bi-lunpu^ t(> tin? nrrtrTn c^f thi- Qiiiui<;Ol^ Furtlier on, 
botw«en La&-i;Jtow-fix> uui An-ain-<rhow tho road pa»«efl along 
a Tui^^mtnin Tftllcy; on iho "id'.s arc soeii rich po^stntngcN allrtr- 
oatiug with barr^u upline Xtiunu ; to the lolt, th«i wait cf thi^ 
BOOw-clad rac^^i^ Non-el LfLU. and to tho right, tho aitd and nnkiHl 
topi iif lU uuttjuiv, ovi^t ub)L?h climbs thc^ bistorieiil "Vau-li- 
ohuii'CboQ," or t)ie H>,UUt* )i wall,' ViUafloa aro frcquont, 
but favr of tlicm Imvo «em]rd tlw Diingaii devastatioD; tonm» 
•wh\i:h. at c»u« titiio tlouriMbLd, liko tiuu-clian-foo, uo rodao«d 
to a h^ap of ruiiia; villH;.^e?i lire deaeited. tho lohabitaatA 
appoT^utly frMririf^ to leitvo Xh^ir bolos in tho moutitaitut and 
coma dowu U* the; rallryn, Thoir min^n- vtiA tvidii that bumaa 
Smh haa been tlieir chief means of £1lbsiI^ncc^ X)ctn4!fl1i4? 
a4ttnudtf, liko tbfi pi^ roam about in a wihl ntato and attack 
man, Htill, the priictmo iirder iji b^iiig slowly re-^atabliglifxi 
owing to the oiiorgy ot tho proeent Uovcrnor^Cionoml of tthan- 
uani, tho virf^roy o:~aII thii wpjir*'rn Imrdt^; iit tlif (ircsftnt limp 
tno t»niir9 road to Chnp^chak iaocoupiat^ by ;i contiTino«K fb^iti 
of post* ntid giuinls. In Loo*chow-fofj, tbi inlniicii^trit i, ■ ■ ijr; .■ 
of ShflD^Hni, Wo pnaat-d a month, onidviiii: lb'.' ^[■tuitsl fLn>.M[„ji: 
anti honpitality in tho houseof tho G< <\ * i ji <i i i i. noral Tw-tsuQ-toD. 

W<? mtiv nhnnrvf, gatwrally, thnt '*\ir triiitdition preeeiiltd nii 
unwonted appeannoo for Ohino- Along tlie roaJa lottorH Lad 

■ A Chipflio li ii ftbcnit miubJ to cintHtliijd of u EDgLioh lail^ 

152 SoBNOFFSKir'< Exj>tJiti4m to CSiitui in 1^"4-5» 

b<ieQ eent iniliOAting thri plnm^ wlu^iri! wn Vfi^m in lire-ukfiDtt, 
dino, Aod <lCGp ; tho troojM* antliontin-ts asxd fxi-ople catue out to 
meet lu ; the fortrvases )>e1olr>«il Toitfi sftlntr-s llir? townH nxire 
df^cornto^ v'itli tifif^^s and worr? iri^ht with illniuirutiiiiLa : tfiv 
uiuJutiility bf l.lit? ivdpb; nun sudi. that aygu llie Uiitgtu &ad 
ro&ds w^rV repBired. 

BrfoTC <iiiitling Ijun-clicw, TV-trtm-fan placed *t mr diiposftL 
a general, a poloii^i, u d i strict- go vernor. a ftub-district-govemor^ 
A Doii-comraieeioDCl ofliccr, fltd ft wl^iicr — in n wotti, n;prG«cn* 

Acooiupnny our R)arc)i and to do all in ttin'ir pi^ir^r for oe^ 

How IK l1ijj4 iUleDti<3n t» Iw rxj^bin^l ? — it inay W AAkM. 
Fii^t, and fcireiaost, out opi-u modo i>f Lrimnesa and tha frauk* 
neaa of our Tclotioas. Naturc hna endowed ttie Anatic mth a 
poeuliur aplitiidc fcr i^raft uud t;ubU*M'uji;(^, «o thai the cbauova 
of coDfemiifi^ wtUi hbi in thi-:nj urU would bo moat TiJio<niaI- 
Hpiv>nfllVp our ^inA reliitintid with tlm jiirt)mritip«- f^hiim 10 
ordiitarily crciiJit^ with bi.'m? tht^ inf^aruation of tdcdJ* tif ccn- 
trfiliJwtioD ; tut tl»is ih far frcmi Ijolng t.lie t'*we. Hero eitiy- 

of furmatit> in tlieir ^(!latio1l^ China calU to mind tb« fchauat«« 
of Aida« Orhorii wlierfi i\n> form of govommcut M founded oti 
Kimple family, j^atnarohdl prmoiplca, it caniiot b& <tlherw>*c 
Not only ar-? the viceroys rtml poverii ore-general of [irovinoM 
ncrfort mktnipfi, but every '^ ^loi^" or p^vcmor of a Kitb'ditthcta 
18 an iiiLjxjrtaut |N^rhij|ia}-e rii]]ahlti of inteqxisiikg every pOMible 
difficulty, 'io a compJaint in writing ho will alnavA roftly 
— for hnir hin liff: lififi Leen spent in actfliiriug the ^n^ ictfrca 
— but he will nevof coAdeac^jpcd to personal inouiri^B; foir 
ai it dor-a not bcliove the piiswint ''eon of hearmi ' to emerge 
from tho pnyrbiots cf bis paUe^, it would not be eoninM if fimt 
for loiral niacn^at^ to go on a tour of infection in thdir 
jirovimn'.^ Tln'Mi? were my jiereoiml obs^^n^ntiiujs, but muny 
olhor ijjfitanoofl tid^-ht bo fidducod. It is a woll-knoun fjiL't, that 
the C'hin"'j*o L'oionnni'Eit roiiM only i|nii'l it* intracUbU' m>ii, 
ih*^ renowui^d luiilt- vbo ravaf;ed tne China S«a«, by oroating 
him gi^ziei'al a^linrriil if thv Uc-^l't tbo famous Li-Uuii-tnii wu* 
at llm on ilk : l< 1 [li-.' rebel TavpLngi^und only aftttTwurde 
came i ^' r 1 > fli- aidti ^f tbt^ Co^Lrnmciit, He now ocrupics 
the imjhiMi. 1,1 ^nN^t of tJoveriiorJirnrrftl itt Cbi-li, uud tahee An 
aotiv<T pun in iiA administration- The Frt'nrh expedition ouljr 
&i:}iieved it* object by giving to the Governur-fJcneral «f 
Yuntton a rmetre of warliko biorea tor tbn Ktnwlc with ih0 
Venih^ La^tly, we brive u proinineut e^imuplc at liomr- It i» 
w^ll-known tJjst the Amnr oonntry w&< t^-edml by the local 
govcrnor-^cnnral, nnd the T^nn-I i-ainin fM;bvcqnontIy Ivgalisod 
a fact which was already a CL-cim pitched. The Kuittian lume 

80ilH>filKtV K^tp^idUim la Vkina in lJS7i-^ 153 

iiid£«d, is ID ^ood cdoiir ; whereas tho rctnetabrAnod of the irara 
with the Frrnr-h hjM thr- Knglish rtill lives in tlio mrnHn of iJic 
7i[Ltio!i ; neithor is the j^vil oiiur^d by the optum trade forgotten. 
Lastly, the firmngcn^cnts whicli 1 modo ^ilh Tso-tsun-tan for 
d(>livi*rjiig [iroviftjfm« ut Giichi>ji, and the gil\ji uf luohby for iLe 
poor, plsyed do jofii^'dcant rt^. 

A rniler frtiiu Aik^miL-rhnw tvr cnrat ihct Ktrjijx? fiver Diilun- 
tiir. beyoud which, as if hy cmgio, uU voffeuiioa oeoea*. We 
arc in Gobi. l$ut it in fiLr fri^m beia^ a wretched deserl, whora 
ootliiug hut privutioDH luid misents avuit lift. Wut^^r lte« idotco 
to the flurfoce. Neftr mcb Bpriogaiuid in the mouuUin Talleya 
jfl found unilorioot ^nim, not citily for fTnint^U hut for homui. In 
plaof^H u muiLtlt orv«|€latiOiU c^lcndH for a €oiiai<i«rubl« d»- 
lAnei?. dfTordiug bmw8mg ground for hf^rds tif nild nnimals, 
cami^lH, ojtuiui, Sec After eight dayu' nrnroh wo n^/tc^h tho fortilo 
OOMiH ijf Khnint, nud aiiother day uvor lite Larrtn phuns hnngfl 
n* in front of the Tian iShftD. the gt»y tops of ^^'luch liftvo bowi 
vifliLlr? -nimiT diMoncr hefore KhAmi. At Khami tlirr rood Ufur- 
caTf>«r 0D& branoh leads nloiig the south side of the Tian Shan to 
Tvrfiin and thcnc« to KiLthgar, whilo tho othur pa*#cs north to 
Barkiul. hv ii i'(imiigi*^wd ovt*T theTiJin Slnic. Frum Oarkiul 
tho rooda fork aj;:aiu : one brani^h to UliasLitAi, *JG days' joomoy ; 
Aikd tlw otitr:?, tluT iild wpll-mrvlr nwid h'JuJInjj^ to Gnrlirn. Rcfis 
are aevenUnos^' hnitichos; to Kiildjn. Chn^fnchiik, Koh<lo, and to 
the Zuiian l*ost — by ti i^uod post-toad ^k.tom iiiilun-lokiioi — atiH 
another Htmight aurtwH the desert, amid tho huuulit of nomad 

Oti tlii^ nth of Jannary, 1S75, the expHitfnr quitted Hhji- 
ko\v, and by Xha middUf of October w(> were at Zdisan, having 
tmTerwiI 270(J tnilt-s, uf whicli POO wero hy walfr, 160 with 
puok-onimnlfl, and tho romnindor, «.«. J70<) miles, in oorts. 

Tljb nuw nJiilf- IK »ihoilf.r than nil othuni leading fmiu 
Eiirtjpean Hnsi^ia to the interior of China ; it is available for 
ctizia ihronehout. ^rith tho ciCfption oi the UJO milf^s by pack-* 
animaJx; there ia an absence of natuml obstacles: thd road is 
Weliind hard, with ivaler ever7where> underfoot grass and fu«U 
the road tmvcrtr* pojjidoo*<lot*a!iti«i,and only for t^ight marchfxi 
JD Gobi is tboro no eedentary population, whilst by ovory other 
rOTitn tlmiLich Mcioj^jlm vro. UnTc Ut trt\\i-\ for a incmHi hfTt**ro 
ueetinfif a habitation; moreover, yarioua means of locon^otion 
^ifTci' — mnlc. cart, iir oainel — while on the other Mongoliau 
roads onti h restrii'ted oatclnsivily to eameU. 

Wo nill now compare the routes as n^rda the saving in 
diKtJLncf*. timo of trnnsport and Pipi>n«f, 

Aa iv^'ards distanG<\ The distance, any from Tiumcn lo 
TTaukow by Klnkhia and Tian-tsin U fMllO versls; by tlie 
westt^m roQtc, the distonco from Tmmon to lian-i^tvi^v^-C'VA S». 

154 SofisOFTflKt'j Eipetlittoii to Cft/sa in 1874-5. 

A7S^ TeraW, ftanaequently thf^re" is & Sdving of 2200 TontiV Of 

Ae iy*g(trtj» time of trAni<iport» the time bv tho old louto Jrom 
Tinmen to Kan-kow wa» 202 "lays* by Itio n*»w Tfndo in»n 
TiumcD to Han-chonp-foo it ie HO days^ 

As r*»gnnl* cost oi tranhjiiitf. it i« 9 r. flOk. per pood of S6 Ibfc 
cheaper Dv tlio n^w route* 

The following, then, u a summary of the ftdrftnlagffl of tbo 
nevr route, 

(1)- It pT^ecnt^sucba^TAntAgeatbatitbcopaMcof nocnpeling 
vith thu wen-n>iit«. 

[2), It leodfi to lociiliticii where our rcimufflAtwM www will 
have ati ttWiired sale: whtte we shall n?eeive in vx^hnngvt th« 

firodu^tA ntxHiwfiry lor (nirtif^lvci? at pricria oxc^^icijly favourabl^- 
Halh iH K.1IJ at 00 lo 100 mublr-H ihf. jiriav, wliilat in l*icL-t«iii 
ami Hanko^v it is ^Hingi^er^d powii)^ to give it for rr^t^LT mofie 
tbttu 7lJ; l<'a in obtoincti for 14 coprtks a rotiiid, whilst tho 
camo sort in Hankow sells for not less tlian X* tHiratekf; ■ 
rlmbarl]« which i^ pi]Tcha«<^ at Tien-t*in an J otiier porbt lor not ™ 
leea than 20 rnuUr*^ per piKv] (3r! Um, KngltKb), r^osta here 3 to 4 
roublo0; raw silk oftlie worat quaUiy ifl sold in Moscow for 200 
roabfru a piHul, nm\ In Fbin-^hrng-fiio tlie host, is 80 n*uW<«, 

(3J, By tho DOW routo tho t^v of manufacmred products 
will increase. 

(4). Tlio com paratT veil y ^mjUl dUbiir^mo&ts of eapital vMcK 
are uece^ftary, rjpi^ii a fifid to a eunaidorable number of traders. 

(5), After the tinit trials, Ihare ie no doubt thjtt it will bf> 
poasible io lower ^iMicmlly the? dutica on tea, Od it "wiU bo ob- 
tained at less expeitae, ain.1, couse^iueiilly, make it aw?iwible 
to the mafie of coneutncr«. 

The general *Iedm"tti>[iH fnim the reBiiTts of tha f^xpodlficm 
will have shown th<> reader that the diagonal Icadin;^ front the 
Tftllcy of the Irtynh to tho n">rtli-ni.'Bt provinocjn t*f Chttio^ 
truites all the conOitiona for being' th$ moat iraportant»rtery 
for tbo ttnilc between Kuada and Cliina. Compared with the 
Kinlchia rciute it has the advHiilnge of bemg tho nhorfi-r by 
liijQ niiloa, tiicrcby diniicisliin^ the tost of transport by about 
At ittT t'wl-., imil h'sKening Lbe Liinp ir which capitnl U loflfed 
Up, It is not a row lint^ : on the coi^tmry, tt is u very old oni?. 
After the mibjiigntitm of Turkestan ami oF THoiij^Tirhi, tht« su* 
called new line he<?jtine the chidf moans of coTnakunicalion of 
China with iho nenly-oc^c^uired porooBsifTnn in the iutenor ; 
trading eoU"3tes begsn to Eprirg up, exohange of proHuct* took 
place, roada wero optntf'l nj) L13 mucb aa poesiWe, and all went 
on smoothly until ine Mahcmniodiiu insurrection destroyed Uio 
existing onier of things, ^o otbor routo throug:h Mongolift 



iktHtifWVfiViv't Erjiffflition io China in 1874-S. 165 

could compete with it Tbtii KiiikJitii Ttmit — the beat of tho 

huve dC'valojHui pari pas&u with thnt lo^vii, to huvo *>iiUi%<=d witU 
it its best day* aud uow ia Oeettuf-J. ttmmmuUy* lo »ul»firvti ei- 
cIusiTdy tb& local intcrccta of t]nflt«m ^iborin. Tho IJJinxiitai 
route is often i-auvn^EiHi]. Wa ^ilidiild rEinork, tlLut nt ono oEid 
it wtsta on the important tcim of Hui-hua-clien, then i&l«reect4 
, Mongol m in u nortli-^'cr^t duvcticiD, by vray of Khcbdo and 
lUi, and i&^nes either into the Bukhtarniin liistHct and 
)iiiotinnlc, or filoTig tho valley of the Uhui intoLtiisk. Jlci- 
buarmjeii ]aa u» irnpcirtjinivt i>f ilm^f, Imt ntUiinr^d itn iireAniit 
iTftlopm^Dt owicf* to the increnBed ti&fiic U> Kiakhta wnw the 
Ix^jrAQ tu w.-jtd thirii b^fi Uiitht^^r; TTLJJi^ut/ii uml Kbubdo 
mib'tftrv Qolo[ii^>iA, witLout ^y future. Aji rooarda the etato 
iOF tbc rono, th'? Moii^oliaD jiurt p&£8efi ttTCQf;li deeert di^tct«r 
.ftiiidy uml piirilv wttlcfle!*, iijkI, in truth, is the ^^■<^Tvi c)f nW thu 
llongoimn roaJa ; wlilW tlio AltJii iHiiiiii jt mounuinotu rood, 
ill p1m<iv(^n i^ifHrnli for [uLck-aiiiniidH, nnd in any aw^ im<om- 
por&bly wor^^ tlmn tliut always prncticublQ rcmto along tlic ooursa 
of the litvfl), m\t[ which fr»m time imtntimorial htus served aa 
the hLitoriail rraul of nntiona; Inetlv', as ivgnnk it^ Icrnfrthr a 
siiupld el&tiCti a,i the umjj will ahuw tliat the ^ilijuulni cvule is 
thrltmgcr, just ft»<?K*fj- arc is longer than it? (.-herd. 

in ordc^r tlut tht? leader may tank*' his own dt^^tuctionQ iu» to 
t1iE^ advfintA^es or dj§adwin1agea of the difT^rent ront««, wo 
appond tlio following : — 

1. ]*IxLniil from tTi« route jonmnl i»f tJitr (^luiditiim (Boiite 
Ko, 1). 

2. JnfoniiAtirjn on th© fT>ut«a from Tekin lo Tliinkow, bj M- 
Andriefiky {Bont^s* 2, 3, and 4J. 

0. Two iont<:'S from Fan-clieD, on tho lower Han-kiangt 
through Si-on-ftH) U} I.ttu-'.-how-foo (Noe. ft and (i), 

4. Koi^teb (I) from Haii-ctong-foo lo Chiug-tu-foo, chief town 
of tl»e 8i-chiiftn |iroviDff?; luid (2\ two Kerunflnry ron^In frmn 
Hiw-chong-foo to Lun-chow-fuc (Nta 7, S. and U).' 

r>. Three roiiteb^ taken from tlie diary of Tvi-lio-cLow (trant^ 
l*t«d by tho ArpUitnandtilo Palladin^), who was pi'tit at tho 
commeucement cjf the ]iir>seiit century to KuUljn, wjtli ^IditJurml 
inforniAtion obtAire<l dorio;; the expediti*>n ; (]} a second road^ 
from Ac-an-chow thn>nghG«bi ti^Khami; cirid (2)frQDi Kli/unt 
throngh Tnrfan lo Uraatt«i, and thoDoe to Manaaa in KuldJA 
(^08. 10, 11, and 12). 

* TboK tJinc toiitcB PTo Di^t gi^^b in thu tnndftll^n, u thA7«mttln IttOa 

tplDrmaKKjn liri/iiiLfl the naiuii* of kULllnnd: maroaWf IIiqj^IiVo oain|iUoi1 fMB' 


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( 188 ) 


VlIL — Jounuti of a Bonte/r^m Jtuh io Eam^iir. By E. A, 
Floysr, Bengal Ciril Barviua Uhcot., Persian Oulf Tdo- 

TowAHim tbe olofle of llie ^enr 1675, 1 btgan (o f««1 Uiat b 
hard &Qd protracted fiervice iu tho Persian Qdf bad serioiuljr 
inJLiTHl my he^ilth. At Uut I fjiirty Kiicc-iitubed to niiin; tluiit 
two montKs' totdl lofd of ap|>i>Uto aud tiiability to eloep. 1 yffas 
reduced to but little over si'veii alutie in iveif;]it, and under 
tlicAe ciroudBtAnL^es T managed wiUi oii^naidcrabli^ diffi'^ulty to 
oluiu frgm Hi-r Majesty'* Ijoiermueut uue moiilhe aick I«ftr6» 
Toral cbftnge of serene and olimate vas imn^ratirclv npi*pmuy. 
1 ivclut dmoat direct &om the airk-bed to thfi oftmel-^ftddle attd 
marie (be following ji>ijnn?y» FrT ©leTi*ii days I ronid laWe 
nothirg but yolk of eg^ atiJ comers milk, after which I ftlonly 
imjiroved, aiid e\t^nLiialIy aur{]iii|tlUb*?il miin? lliau Ualf th» 
journey on loot, the better to itae my inslniraent«. 

wTitiiuarjf Sth, IS7&- — We inurcbed fruio Jask Trh-graph 
Station, n, 5S^ £., over a rocky barren pLnia. At 4 niilat 
roiwhed tho riJlaee of Yekhfini, 20 huts. (JJ milee orcr a low 
salUplain, t'ovared with ntuntal bijKhe^» brought as m BaUl, m 
a £7'aa«y, bushy hollow, iubabitod at this ecafion by Otuhdau 
vifmgera, Theiiut? our ronte Ip^iI ilIoii^ the saudy M^-n^hnr^ 
At 9 milee rounded spur of Ont^bdan hills, whii^h her^j rrujcct 
into the seix^ Va&icA the Oushd&n dnte-tiieeiG, n mile inlojid. 
At 12 milee, turned inland uofobK barren ^tpi^tre-^'roiim), and 
through sand-liilJs. At 16 milt^a date-trtcfi of ShariuiLh. Tbi-n< 
it here one goorl well. Prooeeded thnmgh fiand-hilK Bicdded 
with potto janglo, and aci-oas the duepauddrySliariuuh nullab. 
At 21 miles reat^hetl the dftle-treea of Vi^kdar; where there 
a few hut£, patcheB of wbeut,iuid wnUs. Over sikh^platEf^thinl 
covered witli ligid and botxart {SnIi':ontite) juugteH.. At 2r> 
mUm entered trees wluE^b fria;^e .Jo^a River ; and at 28 mile« 
the Uiver Jagiii, Bed of riv^r ^UO vanls iiide, chnnurl n*>ir 
iibont .*^00 yunlw; thick jnnglL'^ iu feriile silt on viest ftide, from 
which at tbia pUcci the riv^^r is receding, llnl^ si^Attered along 
bniik; i'nvfi plencif^jl ; sheep acarce; fodder, tirewijod aita 
water abuiidunt- 

i. — Hultei), ill. In p^eiiiij^ eriJhiied the river and cnniped 
m^ aalir<?n Itariap^ {Cahtroyis {jiymittea) trees. Tho liTer 
changiug its coiuse throitgh the soft taud very ru[ii(l]y, ftnd 
himvy avulunches of eand falling every five niinuleA; u^BJiT] 
iuo«quitoe3; amall cotton plantation?, staple very inferior. 

IWt, — Oeui'se E., ihruii^h the fringe of trees. At 8 milcft^ 
barren Balt-pliiin and low aand-hilLa ; at 18 miloa lnn;>e of tre«i; 
ftud at ^0, Otthrig Kiver. Dates^ uottim, c-owi, iitui iihof>pL 


Ploteb'* Jt>\trrwl of a RittU^fhirn JtiJik io Bamp^r, Ifift 

Wth. — Haltet], ill. Ititer-beJ fiOO yurda wi*3e ; cb&ntic) now 

12^4. — Course n, I'} point* P. At 4 mil^fl dry nTor^bec^. 
Ilaimani date-trees; fland-hillH. At 16 milen higti bfiikk^ cf 
flJiiD^le Qtid SiiHaich liiv^r,, fotlJcr, lirtiwoijd uLundnnt, 

IflM lukI \Mh. — VioleTLt fttorm ; rivt?r inipa^ialjla 

Jo<A,--(;roaflod8adAich iliror. Uodftboiit lOOyanla, ohnnnd 
ir>0 yurdfl. K^pt Ut south nf liillci, i>vl*t Itiw soudy pleun. At 
] I miles, Sarag. About 300 ooree of wheat and barley ; weUa, 
f.^di^r, ttaUTf and fii^^wood- 

\iSth. — Conrad e, 7 pumu s., over bi^li shiui>ly banks; rind 
at Ij iqiIq low broken hills. At 1<! mili?s tuishi; foddor and 
l1ri*vri>cHl ) water in \u-\\* IJmili* to nortb, 

17/A,— Course s. 10" w., htWrog for Karwaa diatriot. At 
S iDiti?:! cTfiMsed Fninll K»Uhi nullah, skirtiug Urge oron of low 
edltniud-hi1tB,<:ontabiii^ veinaof ^ypsuiiiToalled sliurs, covenail 
with bii^lit yellow ^iatk'lF<toii«k At 19 ukiles, Ejigh ah^ra and bolt 
of trees, f^iinn; n.n.w., oro^^ed Kurwiin Kiver I'bur lixtxtM, and 
at ^3 milea reaclcd JowUnt hiila, Wiiidiug amou^flt tlwue, 
crossed river twic? more. Bl^ full uf plab. At 23 miW 
Pil^dri, iJcd of riTcr hero ^OU yiirdd; obann^Ia numerouB 
andsiualU Water, foddt^r, aitd Hrewood abundant. 

Vith* — Oour^ K-K.w. MnTf^bod up vigbt bjuilc of Rnrttan 
HiTi?r,Aiid at l5 thiIc* reached a range ufbarreu bilU. !li>uinlrd 
the north-west end, and entered Tflnk tCiver, At 9 miles left 
jtt woendingngbtbank; Mi hatik hx^XniXiHi^ ]l^entf^red Trnk 
]{iver. and at 11 miles branched to rii^ht, down Poo1fi.1n nullab^ 
blading for Kobi t^ifiran. At 15 milca nscendcd Tcry strep 
dtTlllt>. viijder l>mw of Siltrnn, anil inade steep dew-eiit fuU* 
Oari Itiv-^r* After mnob rou^h travellin;:. at 1^ miles §triick 
8iLrtipi Itivpr, and Lmnju.^d jiiiLnn<^ low nliflr:* of riLrJQiLA culoum, 
from ohoculatti lo dull yellow, Hnoh ;^lrih (^t»n'ttfA (^fidmm)^ 
(lolson for L-amels ; fodder; firewoijd scarce; water in pools in 
rii-or-Ufd^ hero ub<mt lOU yurdu wiUi*. 

l*JfA. — Fullowed ISarlupi lii^'CTbr^twetn Ioiv*lillra. back(>d by 
bilU ahaiit ^00 fmt high, and nt 2 miW entered high shingly 
plutciiu. To th<» W.e,W. in the Uou Koh. ()4U0 feet higb, and 
whence flows the (Gou-rTg) (rabrig River To our right tha 
hlmniat parallel rang;ci; of Li^andi and Hh^rlUi abut upon the fiath. 
At 4 iiiilm, miiiid^d LurUi-went blitfT of Ligimdi^ iiud k«pt oji 
(or Shfttiki- Th<?^ are tvro gtrikinj; precipitoUB ningea, nboiit 
1600 fcv^t htgb, and iiniJaBsable tren for a man on fotit. exc.'pt 
ID a Tery few plftj?i?s. '\wy converge sharply towards tlie aoutb* 
ciLAt.andabittorlycold vnndcomcdown thogorgc. Pamedahut 
and a l!iH*k uf iilitHip. At 1 1 milna paji«eid l^^twiHin a bog-biu-lctil 
bill and the north-woet end ^ ShkriJci , vrhtob is marlcod by a 


190 Floteh'jl Jourmd o/a Saute /mm Jaak to Bompir. 1 

onricms (lutellatcd rock, BJncc^ entenn^ on plfiiQ, path bnd beca 
a grfl'iiial ascent^ and when cnt^inni^ tlip Jiimki, or wide PUiU 
wit got tolerably opt'n view, MQuntAinri ofrvrrj- coloori m^\ 
chooolat^ to aky-blntf, I/-aviii^thejiuH4.ive t'lit^rei] on n ^lighu 
dcflCGUt* the pround, oft<*n whitij with R^lt, protJucU^jj vorjtl 
hixurifint |iL4)i, nml <x:(<n*(tonJi1 'ii^ticlu At 13 milt^M Kudden!}' 
broke npoti ma^'nidc^nt viow of Ujdli^b V&Uey. , 

This valley wns ticro quite stroiglit for 4 cr 5 miles ; it wad 
about a nitle Lruid iVom top to l^\\ th^ hills alopm^c graduAlly^ 
flown to the lroa*l bolle of tAmarisk-buslicSt between wLidi nui 
l)Br< Hin[>f>tli dnrlc-lilni* nwr^ ut tliU ttinu H}H>ut 60 vatdfi broadfj 
with uu avoraje de|>ih of 2 foci and a velocity of a&oul h milw 
Fui liciir. Tilt' rivrr-lMfil was, in plncf^, lm'g<j sliirtgl^ and 
partly vortioul »truUi ul' bivrd biuo cluy. 

To tbe ri^ht of our critsaiug-pUoe the rirer ntsWfi 4lciini n 
ii&tttrfkl woir^ formtKL \>y ttio vr^rtionl projfwtion cf n Arfituin ol 
this cJfty, wiiicii ie idTnoaC of tho conawtency of rocJ*. Tlii* ri rin 
is Mid to l-e A peT^nnial iribntsiTy t>i t\\ti Ufiptli, whiob TeftohaiJ 
the vtiL AQino milt:^ Hontb-vik^t At i^ rnilc« eroAH^ GidloM 
Kiver, and turne^l eant t1iruLi|^h felci-p i^liHi-s fiod Ririd»lon« IiiUh. 
At m tnild*-, *?o>irFJ<? north nvor ^tiorally Wol brolccn rookr, 

mcbe€ thick and v^y purov not tibrotm bj; iiraal. In blue di«-^ 
tjtncc JSand-i-NUnc, tliroogli ivhkh >^nii6cli TikW U cut 

At 17 miles crc^efi tinimportAnt-lookinjj; nullah. Shlrin KuHtJ 
dftlft fiaid to rojvch tbc ^ra at SOm^ in mioy ^tatsti, and WvineJ 
Mlrt^i hill or f>iir Ii?lt> with luTgd niick ol' Am* «h4«p cropvun 
etunt^ l^tii (Ziif^rnr^rd spart^a) on iti? aid Mi w^ posadct. cS 
over rough ntckv pUin. At 20 laili^a eiiter«Til Hordin Valley, 
which wae in m'uny part^ while witJi suit* Fltth-froudji i foat 
long; road louglt and iiit^raccted by many blai^kidb, biUiiv^ 
walored creeks. At 23 miles struck the Tisgu Vulliry oppoait^j 
a larg© rectangular rock, bnlauc*^ ou the top of th^ riiff oik'^ 
thp ntlier gide^ undonlfed Kniisr liimfl. Pftsg^ Vnlioy I'a widw 
thtiiL Uidl^^U, bill hillf* oix uilhor riidc low, atid rivur b^io divided 
into thr^Li oliiuinulM, all hidden in tjirnnriKk and denii^ kilth andl 
hik (CTyruirftt^ irr^rt^ntTt^fn). CunifH!d here, tho usual haltituf-' 
plai-e lur ivimvttiift fn^ni Uiut to thf* Aeu-ruajil, Miioli jftr 
OiT glsh (oIoAndor, poi^onoiiK), vat^rr, fodder, ^wood abim^ 
da&t. Met here A carnvAu from Hint t4» Smiaich ; nine cBineu| 
dftoh ciLrryin^ t^n ba^ of dates. The Pfie^Jl is a purenniBl 
trJbnUry to tlie itapsh. 

20//*. — FollowT^3 rivfir-hed, whii*h, wJon after stiirtiiie, nmiv 
roffod to aboutkalf amili?. On cither aide brood, low hilbt auti 
sh1!r)ii ; bed full or gaz (UiTtuiriHk), pish (CfiajiuFropft IiiUhian<l)a 
UJid loQgluUK Atl|^ lude Btrnok Unj KnLlrQ&zi nuIUli, «trat4^ 

KiiOTEit'j Journal cf n R&itUfrom Jttsh h Bampiir, I&l 

mctaikftbly reeulur nnd p^Hfrnciiciilju- ; alfc-rnaWy R inohez« uf 
ftLfir iiiij<1, and 4 of chocrlote-colourwl Hnirdirtoiie. Etitftrini* 
tilt? KfllklA Diftrict we followoti nmftU str^-ftiri'lMjd for eh^rt dijf 
tJinrr-, iiiid Ittft it. oil rivht UinV ; mlw ln-re t4omr Hrimll brmm 
birdtw tho first animal lifo eooD «inc<) orktmn^^ the hilK At 
3 milw entprtvl Pil*gil Vulii*/. Vlvw mngiiiliopiit ; [naTii^D«>> 
iMMild^-mof (IeltLc ^^Ht i^nQ»on. fiod ptirple, iTiteTse<?W ivith a 
cetwork or white wavy \cm«, Iliilfl here rrt' Rvery colour <rf tlii 
rainbow, CroiMied Pi^& Kiver, and iY>unflm^ f-wt of njht-Iiflti'j 
Kulkli ITiil. r*ciw«*5 ri^er; pna^oH two largo sjjfiwwUitc 
boitlder< in tnid-rtrnHiii ; rheT liere iWP ff-i^f. widi^ witli uTeiagtf I 
doptb of It foot. Piumng tip Btf^cp d^lo, oaUoc) Itlda»6ft 
I>ArHg, VTA dFit^rf-fl a fu*A of hilJf^ uf mofft rich adjI vartt^tt^vl 
eolmire. At 1 miW yras^eiJ smaU Hrt'W Rurr, tm tho binka of 
whirh nrn Rftid lo be niAuy- amttll Hittlom^iit* ; fltiatn hrrn pr*r- 
pendiotU&r and ^^'n^', na if mntnrmi \uu\ \»^n moved about' 
when bftJf-coBsoli*3nl'Hl- At 6 mlU-.'* i^ai^ed ljfttn**Kn^ two of 
fojir oonieal tlint hills, cai!e<i Kalal .frtiitn ^ trun peak, ft Hdi 
blood coloar; h<>a'1mg for hi£^ ho^bckckcd bilb Biga F<i*Iit; 
rnnny i^nrmiiK Inlt ouiiioiil fmnkn^oafli^i'erl about. It/iandtng rnd 
of Sita PusLt wo ontorwJ wido vallov hill of trcos, acd crosi^d 
ihfi PtegA ItiT'-r nr-ar wlirrt? thr Sj^h Pinht stn-nm jofnp ir, 
P&izil rtTur-b<^J, 1% qiiartii'f of amilo wid^tOODtainodsmiill MTillrd 
patch uf wheat fiai four or five datc-ttfffs; own^irs probnbly 
t(«iiding th(»ir nheofi in aonuj plaoo when} tUo spring Tir^^tntioii 
VTM more akiuidaut 

Followed Si^ft PAflht fit.n'um 1 mili^, tboTi Oari RiTer, b^l 
whitf^ with tialt, nnd ftt 21 miJea rooched fttttli^m^iit ^^Mi 
DarAp (ilfifi ICivi^r lirilJow), Itivor dammerl, onri water Ifti in 
cfjiais, tlir^uph R<^hlA '>f b^iaim* c^tkanto tobacco, whoat, nnd dat*^- 
Smvr^- Uivt^r \n i)ert>[mtHl. aiid conlauis TftQ<^h iral^'r^niT^I ; 
eiriks, or nppor-stonpd huts, on tc»pfl of all mrroiitii^inff hiUe^ h- 
dic&t«* raauy niofiquiior*. tjcttlcniHut (*onlnini* Hyp rCTpcctAhl<j 
famitlei, of whom chief h 'Abd-nl-Kfidir, &1der brotlier of >lJr 
IMji of Bint, A corpulent, unhealthy iDtui> ^ho lias rciiigned 
biw r>UifTfiihip to ruMlioa1t> ht-r& Her^ ^oot] noil rcplnrr^K t]io 
shQr strata, and tho layers ore S inches thick to 2 inoh?^ of 
Kniidntoiirx. f^muliy still hJlly, but mun- cnim than brforf, anfl 
TiUiLf^^^R waittorod ftbont Paeeod tip brood, fiktnprly rivor-bodi 
tcATiug vilLigo of Dnsklr on our l^^fl^ ttAli Onddr on our right; 
uiid kondlttg f-ir Tarnm^jflg. Kivor very rapid, 60 feet brood-, 
with ftTeitt^i^e depth of 1 fijot, aaid to ori^natc in Uand-i-NllOf*. 
&n^ 10 »n ahnnnt ptprpnnial tribiitnry of the B«ip«h. 

Fftieed li-twrrr vilJo^'pi of Tamni pTig and Reodae ; all armmd 
aj%date Anil -ither trofs, liehJnd ivliich ar*.* barren liil Is. At 2+ 
milos a Fiun^ch xoadftrikewofTto the left, paal the Crnkanrifttr*- 

193 FlOVEA'a Jourjial of a RotiUfn/m JqaXl £a Bampiir, 1 

gniT«ti: all ilat^groiTtis in moNt eloTt^nly^ condition ; areryftinal] 
outlay woTiM inerea^ the prxluce by one quarter. At 28 mtlda 
rm^ii^r^il ]i]j[^T«iiuillR!rrrZjLiigiiEttu,a.Dit it;liiiimiU utLdt^rruiiaUbarmn 
biil I w^fttilior gloomy and tlkieatetiinj:; ; fodder, water plttHty- 

*2lst — liiky olouiis and steady, pouiiNg rain; nkftrcbftadcule^ 
into Bint, and ^^iLmixyi an shiixtfly '■^trnrnon fo wi^L of fort. 
Bint in a large village of about 7^)0 iiibabitaata, placed in the 
ceintre fif n icing y^tin of flul^'trees wliii^li friag»< the tnv^em 
bunk of thi> Kbwr -i-Bict, Tlio iJiHjplo aro supporlcd mainly bj 
tht*ir dates auil theproduoeof about 100 acresof i?rain onnja, in 
tho following ordor of their respective arfiis — Eo^diRh fiorso- 
hoanHf wbcat, me, Lail^ : a«iuaXl unujiljty yf jrjfaiuuuti tiibiic:on 
is grown; soilflStiflTbluodfty, re^ninngccnelant manure, which 
19 collccU'd in tlio Hpocc^ between the h<ni3f^a, irKicli aro laid dovm 
in gmi»-roots and rice-^t.raw for the purpose, Manufacturei : §k 
<5f>arBc wbito clotii from cotton grown near, shoce, beUs. buUct- 
IKiucbef", gaiizy ha ml kerchiefs for wmnfni, \na\\y i\yn\\ rid luid 
^i;rceu, aTid ombroidorod with Ho^^ ^Ik Ir^i'Uj^^bt from Maakat; 
Mid ^ilabornti'ly embroidered hkull-nmif, Coukjim aluo nrn mfidff 
from Uie blue clay of the GidJi^h. None of ihefti> tlim^ um of 
any voluo out of toeir owa countrr. except tho akuU-capa, wliich 
woni purchased cnge^ly by our <<juuel-mou at a dolUr mcIl 
Oov»r(icr, yiii EUju au enorgetlc^ baudsome young etcion of lui 
anciont fnmily. 81iiv«iinum^ri>Ti»iLnd kiell nirml for ; they doftll 
* tbo Held labour ; no " green " davcs, EogUxh opcnttionA on tho 
<waBt hELviii^^ jdmost put n ^tiip to imikortation, tuid d^mbleil lh« 
priceofthosotiowin tbct'oniitTy. Iteli^^ion nominally Snnni, bot 
rerdlv Soil. OtKxlmafljid aridachool; latter utfHudrd by t^cKo 
youtns^whof'aytrn dollars forbf^in^^tmight the Kur&u or fi^3L 

By aneroid tho ftpproximab^ elevation ia 20CI0 foot aboTO fho 
aea; tbe climAte in almost ErgliHh, but the aun iit noou in 
vcrj; poworful, and there arc Cfjneliint Kbo^crs of rain- Mir 
Hiji \% hHiid Co puy tlic rersiuii (li*teriiiiiHiit 200(J lotodiaa 
annually throu^ih tho Kban of Kiut^arkand. There is no 
rog;il1ar Irndc: after nn iinw^iinlly j^kjiI ytrar, vlieep and gbefl 
Are KUDetim^ sent to Maekat and Bjind^r Abl^ua in oxchango 
for Hon silk and piece ^oods. Tlie oiTinrit^iitA on thr vid\& itt 
Mlr^a house ai-e Knglisli boUks in oamelVhjiir network and 
Kuaaian brass roeowator rasea; iiia hookuti ii^ mado from an 
Eimliah ('Ut>*glu^ der^atitor. 

Ihc nu^-'kua of the vilhxgc consJsii of about wvonty cblong, 
ilat-nxjfrd, strougly-biitfl miid-ljiinjit?*i, tiKrcln^d ou the sideii of % 
steep hill, which is erownod by tlio large mud-fort. To the 
^veat ia a ruined ualurat vi&U, formed by a ^itnitum of haul yrlloir 
aandston<^ projecting from the siiiface. IVO yorda beyond thu 
IB «A adraiJC€d tower 40 feet high. 

Floyzr'j Journal flf a Rontcfrom Jtuk to Bampar, li)3 

Thef h(>ti^€ soatteied um^iogut tho ilate-grores tire for the 
most part tircuW, A^-emge diftiuetcr^ 20 ft-et; height, 7 foat; 
rtivi^rod by H strong, lig'*t. t](\mi*, 10 fpir-t. higli, fonm^l of a 
fromovrork of dute^Hticlw, thutohod uitli plSi *xivei*d with 
rupe-nettiDg. Cniiiela plentifti), larger than coaM CHinf<K but 
not proporUonntoljr more rndarin^t owing to tbi^r mom soo* 
culeiit food. 1>>TtktiyM few and Uear^ imjurted fii>m Oman; 
ono horse, wheep poor, cow* few. Fodder und Hrewood 4 milM 

The geniOTal topliTa of eoDvereaticn wbtp the tjr&QDV of the 
PfTninne, blood feade, and co&ddcnt cJtpoctoUon that Iho 
Ku^lirth are ihorlly g^itig Ui Inkn tlin <M>u[ilry, 

Monoy — doHi^ra. mpoee, kranfi, half-bions, and HrH^ gilk. 
Tlu: irn^tiou urrunij;niiKmtA »nf hml, w>mf: cru|Hi vithrrin^ 
while ollii^rs am drowniuj>. The rivt^r is tdd into four deldB 
pAr day, and e^ch landowner hasK) many ^tiinii»' according to 
Hid mtik, not t4Co<]rdmtf to hW ncmiige. 

22nd.— Halted, 

2Std, — T^ft tent, hnggugi^ (W-, in f-hnige of Mir BAji, nnd 
h&riDe obtained three otiOTmoua <^mQU, etortai at noou for 
IWidoh, &ccompani«fl by Balficb ^lervaot, And two camel-nen. 
Piercing nortli-oaj:t wind and driving tlGnt. We out oft a largo 
bend of the river through low barrtu bilU,aiid tht-u folloi^ed 
brond fihingly river<bod, ^tuddod with gnz. Mimy hi^fut of 
dead leavt^. to be u^tid liko tbr kik groaA-rootd fur colb^i^tJnf; 
iniihnre in the PtreGl«, At 15 TiiilpH i7i:ifD[ieUed to rAiop, being 
nnablu to drive mon any ftirtiivT rjn iKicoiint of excuaei^o cold. 
Fodder^ llretfood, jtud water, abiiiidunt throaghuut inarrJi, Gaz 
righaD GommoQcos horop from the fniit of wkich, alter a dry 
BCOMon* a mJiiubitf oil if eitrucled. Much truubla and cTon 
danger with oamels. who wen* all moles and mod with *' uiaat.^ 

24ft.— 'Morning icy cold. With mitch difficulty got men to 
proceed, DiBulbuted blankets, spare ahiHa, &c. 

Ourrouto [ay up the bod of the river. BotLictinLes in the Blream^ 
Kumttitnest nhmg biudcx of sind nnd ehiugle. At 5 milim w^ 
foirly entored tbo pnea at Oiri, a huge blood-red rock, auUer wliioh 
Wiwi a poloblan irt>ol, snid to iti very deep. The paw was very 
filll or wttU^r nuiiiiu^ Tory rapidly, and tho bf^l, which w tha 
only patit, bugiuit to oe blockm with biijge bouMerm. 

Al 8 milefi tha Hcemfry about tho KiiUl-i-Zangi U wildly 
bcnutiruh A oonfusiun ol hiIJa and rodu of erery imaf^jimble 
tolonr: bright red. burnt nmber, soft crimson Telvel, purple 
Tolvcl, »nouT-white, purplcd-jftcol, and all Hkadctt of green 
front ulive^lmurk Itj emeraid^ These were the mjiin eoUiur^ 
and they were brought cut by tbo rain with a riobiic>w atMl 
brillianry which defii^a deML'ripticn. 


194 Flotkk'j JiiurW itfa RouUfntm Jatk to Buiupir. 

At 10 miliw tltu rivrr tmuiplrUily Itlla ite bitd; un ^alUi Midn 
rbo Bteop hiUa: £o nt^e prof^r^ (t;eu<:-mUy agftiiut the raaluiis 
ifUEtuin, about 3 fret d<«p ; tlint k, \xfivtwQ mid oFer Uie hiwe 
bOTilden whiclL fill it, at>d Kiiin^l wluoli Uie eddks oxoftTftte du- 
figTMAUy deep aad anddeu huUow«; loarla of highvmtet on 
uppjirant lit 15 £oot nboro thu pn^ent lereL 

At 1& miles entered upnu a ntnught piece & quarter of & mile 
long, vfhirih wn« very dimi^nli^ tlie whole ralley bdDg flUed up 
u'^tS <;iii>nnouM rouiidt''! wliito btiiilcltrre. At l^ milcA wo pniiw 
tltrun^li Ihtr Hmiil-i-Nlla[^ jtiii^, ei puTpr^ni] k'ultir cliflT ov uut 
Jfift, and l^fly, broken clilVs on our ripht, Thi» iJand-i-NUae' Ifl 
IxMVK the l>a^UiJ)« uf tlic- itlmli; MckrjLTi hlh^:?, itod its KunmH 
is ftppTi^xiTnat^ly 33(>0 I'eet abov4» the sea. Exuerplof* from the 
dork mouth of the po«^ wc «kirtcd ttic Fan^k dat4>>tri>30 oa 
our tigfatn A aljort mile to the right, ronaaifis of a largts bl1» 
Htid to huT^i been destroyed hy tlio Afgh&iis. From the QOtth. 
^liglitly to left, comL^ n tribctUiry In thi^ Ftiiii Rtvit^ nboiit nnc»> 
fourth tho lattors volnmo. iCouuiiUxu- a tii;:h, dark-purplo bluff 
tin the nV^tt (^u which ivfut il hulhII i>iit dNuuiandiuply placed 
mud fortitiotiilou, we asceiidcd & Mt<-op hill, covurod irlui GtrotiW 
thatched hut^, lookiug Jiho KugliEdi wheatstaolup Ia odo of 
wliii^h we took up our r]uarl4»r«. 

Oa mostpointfl, what haa Ihsco utritten of Biut wll app!y to 
Fnu'^iTh, Tnr niHiQ ciilTuronr^tv^ jtr^ hh fijJloit'e^^FanOcli wheat 
nud datod uro of fiupi^nor (jujJity, atid pay for oxpoHjiti<:in io 
HTimll ijuiLJktitiea. Fan&f^h la on th*^ rua/l b^lweeu Kaxlikunl 
mid Butnpiir, b^tw^^eri %vhi('li n^oiFLlI trado gooi cph, MDhtcrabod 
iK^diiijf tobiiccu iu cxcluu^i! fur i^rAiE), CTwin^ to tiic; difljcult 
DaVuro of all th? roads from FaoOch, the c^mela theT« aro 
of ^TXiOt niEo. and ait«cdgt^ uf bviidcDa onniod by Fnu^WJi 
onmela are rife^ Tht^re is a more Fenian element in tbo 
ptacc, tho ninoK^in cryirg *^ Hiro namilz," and the rdigioii, 
ti^ougli uuiiiiitu.11^' Saiihl, In^Iu^ udiiUomtfKl HAIi wiUi n vtrutM 
pTC(iii(>ctio[i lor Ali. Tho c-hi>?r, C'hakar Khau, is a brother 
fif LLiisH^iu Khuo, of Kiuinorkuiu.1, ciud a IViendly tvlatkiii of Allr 
llaji- lie haa do fort. 

Found here admirable aiicota made in Uizak from Ditak 
cotton, wliich i^ «aid to bo «o Hul' thnt n linglo toed yiohls 
a fiattdfoL Tbe cold here, whar^ it fiMSM iMarlj trtxf 
night iu th'1 wiELti^r, i>i]tHiN the iikp of worsted glovM fta3 
cn<irmou:) lidt pocks, ^hicli am brou^'ht from Kunnaa, 

Faiiuoli is tiu< t^itrt'iue iiDrlLi'Tu limit for tiie geueiul em* 
plovm<iiit of donkoyij, exf;qiUn^ nmong th'^ JiUbari. 

WOs&>v but fi^H' BlaTrr/(,i]iiMt of Umui Apparently livinffOD tboJr 
vTorkinthofird^^lA. Thor^wasoaly ouo Tor^iaa slara. The mopio 
i}Hjkt of Kormau much as En^Liah pooMUtd speak of Lonoou. 


Floter'i Journal of a Rtfyue/rvm Jatk to Bampiir* 195 

8trcmf> oamelB moderatelv loaded^ &ad attdaded by oxponoaood 
BO^n, trctvc-rac tho FAnd^li toM nt this BOiMon. Dc&kevd larely 
Attempt it. Ml^d on fg^t mii^t strip to the ^rmpiiA. fa Ihf* 
flimmc^r tho pa«au coar* but ia olpr&y^BliapracticAblfjfijr whoulud 

4i6lA,--Cotd eitremop StArtod Jialf i^ii hour &ft«r soori^ 
fLfsooEDpaDind bv ubout twejtty moii unl b»yit mt^HLit/Hl uu 
donkfi/B, pr^riJod witb Ur;^ >uat bix^ for brio;^^ in j;;Taafl' 
roote for mMJuie* and ^ewoad. OjurAe north, over bnpkcu, 
n^, uad vbitid}' plaiii. P«Mod Fii Dulditl^i-Ali At 2 inito 
ire oraased broad nuIledivitlifiauUI Waakuh ftrcaJEu, i'liJI of pli^, 
ft Koft rush, Qftod for alftLmiBs-tDuts. 

At 8 milot wo entered ft brood dry iiulloh. full vf uUh. TbU 
is |J|9 sottherfi limit of pish. At 1) milt» we cleared the bills; 
b»ron> na wm ft doaort which, owing to mimg^ oxuctly iv 
sr«il>lrd iLe 8f^, A-'Tiitfi ibisi* 111 th« Mu6 dintaurti, w«rM tJjo 
enow-covert Ba9m&D ftnd TOiik ran(;*?e. Our cour9d hence 
wn?t ca3^ ftlon^ tho eo^tbem boundary of the dosort, over fUt 
EiftTuI and red ^rcivel, from the 8u^faT^e of ivhioh of^^iooally 
pix)traded a bug^? tliaty r3d*aLil-wbito bouWot. Tho vhilc wjib 
tUitily tfttidded with coM^^u |4p-tnswi> Tivid grt-ru ii;;ndL-huMha«, 
irui imi ishwamk. At 22 miles crossed the broad dry M^rgli 
jiiilUh. At 25 milp** n^i^icliiHl M(wk Hut^ii, PaMcil tbrougb 
tho town, croseiufi; a broad tivur-bed ftnd riUallow ch^uuul of ^ 
yards tvidth* and camped aiuoug Ioh', aiclvv hill* on oafit^^ni &id& 
Koddur and lir^jwihxl w*an*-<,'; waUt ubunifaiU. MiisU Hiitaa iji 
ft TJllAgo of AUmt oOO InhalttintH. etituaU'd h^jlt thi^ (%^tetii 
rnd of a itrip of 4Ut4-tr«M about 7 milf-^ !oug, xvLtrb Iringee 
tho 40QtiLi;ni bajik of CI tmull p[:ri:DniiiL ntruitoi. 'I'hiti river 
here uoiuea from the de«ert Ut iho iiorlhwuni. xuaX Homj^ suuth- 
cA«t, bnying ft susdv bod &tJO yardn vide, vrilh a cbaJinci at 
tUiH McjiMrnuf 20 yjinU in mdth, oiulAtLHiHrA^MdopLh of I fuoL 
The soil ie ^ood, btit there i« not much of It* I was told that 
rico, wkoftt, and boans vrcic ^toviu, bet raw nouo. Tbi; Gover- 
nor iB Hu^eiii Khdc, a r^Utiou of Mir llati, tha Chief of the 
J lilt tribe, who live^ at i^p, Tht; people appearod to bo oi 
thnv» olaiMfiv: vallow Puniaajt, wilddooking lAihini, Jind a 
tliird oJoM dF e<itiftT4Vta«f>dt bcftrdJoaa men, in Persian <\t^$* 
'Hiti kniffi worn hrn^ IH r-alh^l a kiU*[i I'ablirevlation of k4h rhlri, 
^rLiad-oulti^r). A thicik piet'O of wood apUt down to tviilan au 
inch of oue end id the handle. Tho bltide is 1^ fool loofi, 
fuvotud in tho contrct, having om? hjilf idjiirp Jtud the ntbur half 
invle intoo euw. Tho dlit^th io ^njiuruUy uiadr^ of muttiug. 
The fort is mnohdilapidateLi and lli»> town vtry dirty, Wheri^as 
Fanoc^b and Bmt r«ecinbtoi I'Jo^lidb cowyonU, tho manurv iu 
Mftak UAtftu L&d ao muuh the upptsr bund of the graj^^roota 

196 Flotbr'j Jtmmal t^a Hmtlf/rcmi Jiuk to Bampur^ 

and straw, tiint tlie ijlacQ Fe§«emblc<l a p]£;stye. The gniM-RwU 
aad firi^wtKxl, and afl burtU^nit, unt c^iirrii*"! on o«w* wtioii thoy 
(aa bt alTur^cd* olherwue cm lueii's backs; aiid vte laft UttJt* 
ohildrm carryiBg ^xtmordinary loads of flrctrood. Engaged 
an old man to take U!» from ncre to IJampiir and btu^k io 
t\vG duvH for one rnjjee; he to riui alt tl»& way. and to provi<le 
hi* own food. He wore a toofw l>«t strong wooUon bJonkot, 
of liig own iimnnfftcture. Tlio riviir*A'Hi*-f ia diiiikabV, hnl 

2(3(A. — Stari^rd an tour and a half beforo wnri*r, Ocmr» 
nortli-eaat. As on teavuig Fa&dcb, wo bad an eicort of ntuo 
and boys starting for grass-roots and fin^iFOOil Jl^rc, howtrY«r» 
tbey were tDGiintei] on cowa, wliosn *lnj«tlity, pnibHblVj iiaqiiIkI 
to |)r<:>diicc Ei difTiire&cfi betwoiin tho dinkcts of the Cho plocei^ 
llintl« ovrr hanl, gnivtlly, and siindy plain*, lliir»ly cnvcirod 
witli jiiiiclu. At 3 miles eroa»rd tb^ small River Jot, Qftwiii^ 
oaalward. Tir the »tfrl, at alxiut 3 milea' dUtanes, viete tiar 
lcwTiaigogBnpgitikitrmimdIa]idnjmd'i-EjL<;i. Ov^'iiciok L^amran 
of IUD6 ^ouktjn *:aiiTbf: tobacco from Moliferabad to Bainpftr. 

At 8mi]^»i,saw inbloti cEisrance to eastward tli*^ Litbiri mlb. 
fLnd at II mxha rrncbed t)io miai^mbly dr*«oliLto date-eroru of 
Manl. Ab(3i;t 2*10 date-lrew^ mostly d^ad or dying;, leaned id 
all dirrrtiona ov^-r a Wrrcn trnct covrrcl t.hi<^]ay witli n vbttc 
eftlorenceii.^e, bjtvnig tbt" taste of Mnir^ ™nliL-waI*-:\ Many In* 
mounds woro ecattorcd nboiil, from Ibccootrps of whioh trickled 
imuill black elreaiua of very clear, bitWr mit<;r. T\\c Durnrn 
of tbote trees only vieited them la the fruit season^ aod we 
could ceither get information t>or form conjecture' a« to iki* 
caoEt^ of tbeir wrttubed oouditiori. TW bitt<*r Bpritigw did not 
appear to havo broker out recently. Fresh wntcr is obtained 
b«re by fiomping it Imln In lb** wrt Ijlack annd. Tbn wat^Tr tbat 
fillers thf^ut-h mio it U drinkable for about two days, aad horo 
we filled wiifer-jdiin* for tho doscrt marcb. Much diflSculty tn 
get tlaj cainuU to driuk tbin water; bat a largo |>ack of tuid- 
c:rouae f]ockeij to the hole tko moment ve left it. ADOthor 
itule-grove, onlleil nnriabu<t, waa viflible about 4 miles lo the 
we^t. Said to coutaia yyt^Un and no ^x<^d inbabitanlA. 

At 15 mill's WH pH>wf>d between two low sandHtone h{Tlii, 
Dlrb^m and Kj^raJf, and thonco oatorcd A in-rv of cnormood 
hilln of hios^ huiid, very tlitrdy HliLddf^d with, ar thin H-ajHin, 
loafleBS potto-buabcB. At 10 xnilm crof^cd the low Jcing J& 
Hills, bilge rrnmdt:*d moiindBoffkerpciidiciibir 3dm1jx,a]lc-riiat«ly 
of brown aamlsTone and «artb, which were so re^vJar a* to {(ivo 
tho billd iMftHly tbt npponmtice of ploughed land. Tbc wluto 
siggichk biinchea. growing only iu the tarlh Umto, looked liko 
a fed crop. 




^tXffKia Jotintat of a Routt from JoAh iff BatnpOrt 197 

Tho two oetm«l-men, ubu were to^utlier mi tho bij2 cunol, 
Iittris ^toi>pi^<1 hchitui tenant brti.lliefavonrite cameUfoddGr; And 
tlio t^uiut', uj^xiom tij iiufurr; Uin nipivr, hf^rc prc»pcu9'^ to me 
privately to t^ke u^lvEiuti};*? of llit-'lr t^titiraiii^tr Ui fUL-n L^h.'^iuu 
Oit&tt, till; onlinury »t4ij^i^, aad to make at onoo for i^hkok- 
AasaDled f^ladl/, mxd we pretvcd mt il-l Imid lui wv) <muM ov«r 
Ibo Ik-hvj; sand. At 27 mdes tiulered a brood, dry nnlUh, and 
followed it for u iai\c, Icariag Mi;hbu Ghdh on oar right. 

Tt wiK<i u &ne, cold, brl^lit duy, und ibu tstimeb wltl^ in drel* 
rain order; wc moilo very g:ood LravolliDg ior Itf milo«, lut 
uusLrlj iu I fumld esEiiEmti', nml jiiKt /it fturiM^I. iuit-ndi<id n Urtiy 
«andhiM, find eaw tho wkiti.'' CampAr fort in th*} far nortb-eaet, 
Here wl<- c«iupei!, the nun Imvijig inutiiitv^d tJuro titin^js and 
(be camels giving fli^Toa of oxIiuuhUoii, ItwortpiUdi-dttrlcWfoTo 
s\'e hod a lire; bat we Lad brou^^bt our water atid food, and cot 
foitd«r on thi* way. T pji**ificHl ilir (■ainid-nifTti with a leg of 
miittoD and "chaff," but tJicy kii«w we wore aomowhero near 

ExoujiliUK whc'iv vfQ liad G:oao iMido to aroid LUc^han Cb6h, 
tho H tiol^ ijf t.4^day*A ru(it<^ had betu uloujf u weU-tiDiM^R [latb 
owr tho KUJ^thills, 

2flth. — After an iiilcniurly cold night, Ktjirti^c) au hour before 
mnritfo. Blight fro!^t» whitening tlie s^^anty epriiig v^gotiLticm 
tt'hich grew roTind t!ic roote of anil under tbo ulimlo of oadi 
f^a^ods pettobnjiii. Af^r 3 mWa* of heavy iEmdhilb we rea'^horl 
<*Cfihk4)K, Q pool of rainwater under a anmll hill, the or'^aflumnl 
rvjittri *tf wniiih^ricig I.rt*h*lrl^ nml thi- giim^nd i'liuipiTiji^-iilai^T for 
caravaii'i j;oIu- wmlh from Bumpar; the pool ib eaid to hoUl 
vktiirx threi' or four Tuonlbi*. 

At 6 aiilei^ the gandbill* «uJ, luid tho road divide one path 
going j;oith-<-a*t to Dampfir, aJid the other north to KAftitaabad, 
From a high sJimdbilt oa bouadiiTy, gnw a hroad bolt of trees 
lanmog through d^*?i1s in which the f^rts of Ka^imibad aiid 
Hftnipftr could 1* dihlingnisbed, the former t:'*?armg north, fhi? 
Jutti^r lif K, iiotui beuoo over stony )\i\]g nmi ehin^'ly plains. 
At 11 iiiilen the lOEul i'rum KiUiia^bml tu Irtfaka crovMtf. ours. 
Mot caraT^n, iourtcen donkoys conyio^ cmiu fitnn Bampttr. 
At lAmikfi vnfrnNl tho Mi <}f troi,% wluch c!^>ntilited motitly of 
tbroe kxwh of tamarisk aud kablr. 

At 17 luihtAt^ro^Aod a shallow nvcr* about lOyaida wide, with 
average depth of 1 foot. Course now nearly east tJiroiigh 
giionnd in prooc*s of cultivation, and inlcraccti-d by DumcroUfi, 
Croad, aad widl-kopl-iip irrignti<"i eannl*. Ai 21 tuibi4 de- 
scended steep path into Bamptir fort, and received qTiart4rTi 
from tho Govwnor'* ntajor-doinu. The good Porwijiu npolu<n here 
wa« very Rrflteltd after jo much of tbu nloreuly llelHeh dialect. 


Tho firt and small military i!&mj> at Bantptr are aboot 
4 Tailed frrim the lilla^ «rbich coitsist« of abont 200 riefr«tiaw 
liuU, iftracfglfng ftloQff the iiortl4-r& buak of tba rtfier, TW 
Lnhnbil^uitii of ttje«e huU aro thiefly emploTcd in Iho cultiw 
tion of the bind h^twci^m Ibi^ir viktngiv and tho f6H,ooi»irtn^ 
of DCfirif 1000 ncrco, Htc* f^«h1 ia sold to tbo fiuinen bf tbo 
PrTKiftTi Governor, who, nt harriwi-tim^, eiactaallWHl intereri. 
The c>op0 ar(r ^min and riec. Tbo mdaIa Cor utifTAtioa *n> 
4 fntfl wuln lunl ft feet dee|); on*! are lOuMly in g<^ repair. 
Tl>9 tr^H^ ard aJI i«ckl<«Rlf mutilate for fr^ivood. Both tbe 
soil atiil wrttcr ar<> very ^ood. ITie omlj niADubct«n-it wo ronM 
bear of were iMther fhrn^n, like thote in BinL Kverytbins 
S99morl broDght from Krrman, Almott tbo only <lrttii^bi 
unimtiffl wt«r& coui^ ; neillier <*tiTni«1« nor iU<iikeyT4 ikpEtfurHl, ajnl 
ahoep WOTO very scarce. The people epeak both PerBtan asd 

The fort ia in TMnaHniblt^ ^cod praiarration, and is mniMd 
by 200 artiilerj^meu luidef tW CotumaDdaDtr while 100 inCuktry 
arn tizirt^r tbo orders of thd Pentinn (vtiri^mor, Mina Hiiawiii 
Kbnn. The men 96am«l well carod for autl well fed, thonch 
we h^arrl triHny comriUinta of p*y in armntN, aimI, aTnen^ tht 
artillcryTOcii* of the nnnl^hip of haxin^ to tc<«i> honi«tf vitJHKit 
fo'ltfrr. There are nine irannon of fmna <! to 31K calibo^, wiUi 
bor^e for three of tbem, l^entenant Potting d«iMTibea th^ 
hill an ^'hirh thn fort ih built oh hrillow, bnL I ronld not ahtaia 
^rmiasion to i>nter ii, and obstn'i^d tbut even my sketehirifr it 
trom outetde eaiieeil »eiue tmeafiin^As. 1 ww no militarv dia- 
pluy whflt'^Ter, thou^jh I ItA'] hmird nl Fuii6eU of a miutarr 
baii-i. Tlir duMii IS wc-m nniRti with Kritleld mn^keis. ium 
thw Knglish pflwiirr wna xhn ciiuto of grrut envy, Uw Itpittrhia 
bomj: passwmatcdy fond of [>cwilor. 

Mirva IliiKwin Khan k Bubonlinate In the Wahll-al-Mnlk' at 
KennftD. Ho Viketi tribiifo fn>m all tbo B»tQrbbi i» br aa 
KaflaerkoijiJ, end nppeured nuxioiu to convey thi* impnuBcmn 
that he helrl nndiifputfid ma^t^rv oTitr all Bolorhistao. He 
ftpMam to have; niadE^ Mir Hnii, for tli» prctffmt, a i^orl of 
Bnbordmate aUv, and rsed him to pacify onarrels and oolWt 
rovmn<*. Tbo Khan give* ont f»mH to tbt? HclftchKandcxpoclA ' 
a large reluro, nhittcvur iho' !tf iLson. The Khan wrote mo a ■ 
firman to the peO|)le I mi^ht meet in tbe way, to prvo mo ^ 
evraytbing I might rprjnire.but 1 dwrtri>yr*l it in tli« [jrivcnc* 
of DiV eaniel'tii4.-i], ptnntin^ out that alter the ample bovpttalitT 
r hfui rtceiTod thruiifrlroul my journey it would bo ongraltral 
to u»e it. Tbe Iklnchl^ have a Tory strong f««Jing agjJnft th* 

28(ft. — Left BfiiBpflr at noon for Kastm&bad ; course west 


FlotikV Jcatmal tfa RcuUfnm Jatk io Bamp&r* ld9 


(Timnj^li l**^ tAmftriflb iinrl l'«Ktr fn^<u. At 10 milen entorfn) 

5[iinTitity of zabrrQ kjuraf; trc'r:<:, Ard drrivM At tbo rumort 
urt of KuriiiMbml. Bnt few [terttlf hlioiit. the plnCfi suffering 
frnm n vory h^vofc nttiirk eif Kmnll pooc« i»hich i1)i:inuw hod just 
eitijiiit'il ll]« LoitAn prnvidril for us W tbn ht-ud-innn, 

Violf^nt nf*nh wind from B^oi&n MounlaiDS, fijid cold durins 
night iutcnrv^ ()»vrn mtd donkcyn tmnacTcuJi here. Men mfl 
ueHna^ li&nd««.>ii]^ ckiAlcs from Klr^btir. 

2Vth~.—-Mf}Tnii\g frocsHTic imrd ; atmrkBphrro thick, diill vhito^ 
Cbnnw nonrly Bniith for (^t^Hlik^k. <)\rr lnun^Ji nuicI. 1\hi] Ht 
Ckehtcdk aorered with ibm i?*>, jtnd it froze hnnl till 2 ?,itf. 

At 28 mil«a cftmp^d nt Li^cbAn Cboh nftfx Trrv tAJit Mr. 
Here t^ere la a ounp of Jji&litirii. ibd BodiLniQ of Eeltchbtan, 
who 8old m fl fihoep, and ru«iftt«d At a wild dobauck od it and 
bntlfrrmilic. Mtn nil mrry u Mpinuing<TniLf^)iiQ(t MQolc In tli«-ir 
l^iee, oppoftito the "kfich," forminit a contrast to their wild 
loobii JLDfi tt^tre <<nnvnnut.ion. I'hi'V nf^mi n^kf^b OhAbfir in 
Ibotr wajD<l(Tmipi ; ihtij mtke eo&tVOiuir oloakd, ^nd subsist 
eutin:4y on Lb*.' j^imtuce i>f tbcir 9ocbB. 

VVuterhrirn m wellii,l>ri!<lcr ifoarunjaid onlvudApUvi foroamelB 
accu^tomt?dtoit; fir<^w<H>d Mwirue. Tbe vftllaBr* lli(? udy tbiogs 
tluit njBfk Ltcbdn Chah from Jiry oth<*r pari nf ibe ^nnrihills. 

«JM. — SlArted at iiunriic; poMcd Hock, WO smM »^rrp And 
floatt; OTerliHfk i^Hrnvdii^ mtn uf vbii^li luid Ut h*.} LfirtliariN, 
tiwieh looking: liho TijMX)iiDtry pcrsous; nomcn wcariztf^ malfl 
rlutbing; ir.n tn'tuui'' dtmVnyH t'lirrynig giUiLVhjiir tftnl^ jtiwl it 
few fciHa Hjrorul un^r b mile» of deeert- 

PAfifled tLrciU)>h Mfiak nct&n. and cotnpcd 5 miles beyond it» 
dUTving witti>r with on. Hoavy aow»ftlorm imtiiiii«jit. 

dut4 — At ftnnrise it y^ns stioviEiK &ud fiefrziug hard. A 
TioUrrt north wird bl^w, and tho wiiidwATil nidcv of tro^s ftod 
tttODoa wor« tbick with nmiw. I Khir<.rt4 uitb add, thongli 
clotlicd in flmmi'l 8liirt.. wnnllen 'H'Arciij^tui *' vaiMi^oMl, pib^L 
jacket, dnfinH drn^vcrs molcMkin^f aod Uitt^bootA. Witb tho 
Utniiwt diHinjll.y vrf y^}i iitir mi-u Lhniu^h in FiiUOclL Oijb innti 
loft bebind rt-^o]n<>d iis afterwards. 

PA, Iri.— WAtrrskin* fro»cn like Mtones. wid icieles 2 foot 
locf^ ban^iQf^ from ihem, \Valke<l through dat^^rovoa to 
mouth of paw, over wbicb banci a steamy rioiid from mimQrous 
wari[i HpHii^ pHH2t eiL4i(-r tu liiiM^iul tbuii io iuMH.^iid, tbu difli* 
oalt parte tncn boin^ p»8»>cd when the animols arc fresh, Tho 
«M)]purK of tbo hilb* l™t niiii-b of tbi-ir fuTtneT briJli«nr-y by Wing 
dry. To^^'arde uvoiiing rtachied my camp at Hint 


3rd.— I^oft nt 9 A.H. for Pdiagu. Followed our former rout«, 
and arrived at camp at »mideL 

200 Flovrr'x Jmmalo/a Rt/utf/ram Jtuk to IbanpMr. 

took the tao&t weeterly; courao cc«rJy aauttL At 6 inilea 
ciitrifii firitJ valk^y of (li<lkb liivi-r; fnflowt'd lliis for a milfv 
abd ii-t'iijK twu hulB olluitiuti dir«<"liotm fur rtnilo. I»ft bed of 
Utdk'h aud cr:«iitTd Ittrrtu fihingly jiUm ; Jittnd-;-yhariki vuille 
nlfuiil K inilfui to eHAt. I^inefCL'ti milos ovtf-r tiiU plnrti iq^iU4 
KihruD-i-Koh, nnd at 28 miles etit<.'rcii Hmali bruckuU ntiriot 
River; followed hetl of this li mile, aiirl i'otered Sadaich Ri*ior, 
and jit 30 miles cumpcd in ii* bed, ^Vatcr, fodder, fux^oud, 

at'illidfiul And «'XL-t4li.-iiL Tliia in him uf lUe ^rtit-riil lultiug* 

jiLices for caravan* takirif; tiic Sadoich ronto iip'CoUDtty front 
the i^oBft. OvL'rli>ok i-univ^ui uf :ii\ i'^uue^U, carrying mty 1m^ 
of dates from Bint for aali^ OQ ibe ixmnt^ 

5/^ — Course douth-iroat, and with tkc «XGcptiOD of three or 
four aaoenfa up the BUwp elifF ou one iid« or tbo otber, to oai 
off a larcfCT beod tlian usual, our luarcb to-day wu doim thfi 
lirdfif Ltu' Ulvj-r tSj^rlHidi. Tlir; river ljcr« U fiiUy twu^iw Isr^ 
a£ ivhon Jl rwvcliea iby *».% after iioesiug tLirough iho aaud atnp 
ixhm^ the (!i}iwt, Itfutto umiiciliiiip* lUrmgli rirh fl|>ring gr>M 
2 iv^l lu^li, HoiDutiiiK^M ovL'r ruu^'h shin^xl^st^iit^klyctaddcd wixh 
^ofi, uud frLTUitiuues dowu tin.- hrviul alialluw rirer il«^r. Tlw* 
Iwd niu ubput H mile wide, and tko riv^ir ran proUy n^gularlv 
from aide to sidr. mukiDj^ regular luiiiidi^ cxjrut nt. hach vom^T, 
or " kiich " WfiM well treed and ^rossj, ami woidd have mode an 
udmiriibk' nmiping-tilu^e tor auy one brmeitijK tkdr owd food. 

At ] mite letl Suaaioh Yulley, itp Hleep ueme on richt bauk; 
c^urao woi^t for "i milce ovor eijih'^ly pluin ; down dctUo into 
ralKry wliii-.h, from lop of clifT, ItHjked U?aul.ifully wor>dixl; 
croseed, and followed south bank for 3 mileia ; tb&n up sleep |jatb 
oTcr a Tcrr high kiich, and crossed river twice in qaiok succc«> 
biion, Fourth orossing dangerous, unless mada £n right p]aoi>; 
\cdep of rock elopes up under surfjux: of water from ooat bonk to 
nuddZb ijf mtreum, ninf end* fthniplly in 7 A-i^l cf water Fifth 
OToeeiuj^, nvcr runs ri^ht 4u;roda bed, U'E^b hULa on both nidt^. 

AfU-i ^\JL\h crn»»in^, uarron patv, l^igh tih^rs on nofth, Aud 
fiaudsiouG oikI fiharft on «outk. 

Eighth croaking, fronting; long Mw-bocked iaii£E^ foinDtaad to 
Im: thi* SOrag Hillj. 

Alter t<!uih cmt^Hin]? oaceod^d sleep ddfile on nortli Imiik, and 
ftmnd a native, hiintiTig iiKumlaiii-nneep, and engaged him ss 
l^idt\ Two mil.-A ovvr low bills. jLnu a^n entered valley; 
€ro««ed nvi.-r and turned up it 400 yards, ami e]iLere>i! hbiVrit. 
Wound umongst thorn for 2 tnilc^ and again ontcrod Sadftidi 
VaUr;y and Gtimpad. Water, Urowood, foddei, obuuiunt «iid 

fitt.'-Orowwd. the iWci wad i&v4ft wulk cout^o for eoutli «Dd 


I -^^ifljiij 


* .f. 




UtWElta' JC-cfies en BviUiot ta iM<tfmpany Qeigmal Mapt. SOI 

<rf GunlDt liilU Aftci tbirtocnth cro«ing, onr (ourae wag 
vesterl^. llituu>;h tHi K|]nri^ i;n««- At S mile* aacouJed tlw 
jSUvOp r^hl bank. *ijnl got a pruDci view of ih*? bri>iid Uue river 
truiaiii;: thmu^'li ^Tajivy, wdl-uixxicd bottom, iicmmeJ in on 
both sides bv Une hilla^ Ov<>tiook iH'o nieu witli cnmnU <-jiTry- 
tng pbh tc ibc coafft. AXk'r p«rtuie frcm ihom. thoy took tbo 
&{)riidi n>iile 1u ilip )i>rt, wo tMtfkmilng f»r Uie Gubrfg miitii 
witb indi^tiuct inetructioQSw Crossed « duaLl river, ptvbably 
till' llujiiiiiii, m\\\ nkirriTii l)u" lia^t* iif *niin* bifiy btllrt tu tUu w«ht 
of we- At 15 milues t"t*rod iiittii.?attT sb«jii; ut 18 mile*, pft»aud 
n anjoll oMia coulaiumj; tomt- irt-t^H iiud il liiit, Aud, by iii'^tnio 
tioDs, cruiiied ft ntucfp (Ivtilo, and fairW rmcrgud fri>m tlur hilU 
und campsd, Watt^r^ iiiilw tiortli^tipdry nulldli; Fodd«r, thocfi, 

AV© arc juhI under tbc Htiui Mountaian. T^^^v'j route wm 
exceedingly rungli intvidliu^ for t'tiuitlV fe*-!* and tlnTo in nt* 
T^Bti^ of a tntrlc ul'tor portittg witli t^ic !$u4lai{:b route, alou^:; 
wbicli yi*^ liad folt<>wed trot^bi nl" K'niiJiu ^tpmiui. 

7/A, — Wfl marc!ii?d over a saiidy plam itcro» tJio Gihbrii^ 
Bit'er, uud tejuitn^r] out- formirr roiiti?. At 15 mili-a ccuupedi 
St4irte<l fts ioon aa the mooci wu up, and, TlJiog steadily, at &2 
nulcfl r<'t4cbcd Jaek. 


Dt- — JTo/es o» Bolivui, tc aoayrflnpany C/wiiwf Mapt-* By 

QBORflK CllXWUKTII lliu^TEKS, llflLitvsd CulniniLllc1i?r, RJf. 

OvH of tbo luajtt known of iJio Soutb Ain^rican States wkich 
were formed after Xha £u&L overttirow of the Spanish Vic^ 
rogftl Government in 8outh Ainertm, h tho HvpuliliL- of BaUriu, 
occupyiut: t, vjwt iitid irtef;iiltir area in the inW^rior of tbc con- 
tint^nt, whirh, pi^Tions 1o ihe y^ar iJ^'i-'i, wjui Vrumn iw fTppfT 
Peru, The Knpnblioof Toru border* it on tlio wl^-iI, oulliri;; it oft 
from llic IV-illr n^ibiKin]. excepting a flinull of <^\iv^t t'Trri- 
tory thit>ug]i which tho Tropic of Ctipri^orn paisMgi. Tho Empirc- 
of Bratilp 1o tho ucutU and rjutl ; llif? Argeatlue Ci>nre(ieruliou 
to tho fonth ; and Chile to the BOTitb-wost, are it*i ironlvrminon* 
fi^ijchbour^ olthoagh the Wimdaries. puftAinji: throui^h miioh 
iJDF3(plored nnd almost nnknown territory, cmnot be iRid down 
with prcrisiou. Thus it occupies the centre, or, *» may hv 
£eru]»*d, tho hmrt of tho great (■oiitiiicat of South Ammca, 

* TheoHgtiul AUfi^ Ftuui vMcli lbs A«i'oiiif*B]^s Map tirfc bum rtdoflvl. 
hfeiTA boon pnv&lvd hy VctuoanAve Hmtitn lo th» Boootj-. Tbvjr wudrt ^ 
7 ■bvvt^ th« B^la Uuu£ 15 LD«l>Bt to tho dc^fov. 

203 Mitatbba' AVm on AWtna, io ofrouijtaHy OriyiitQl 

fmd inrilnA^n roat^bly 13' of lon^iti;^^ ftnd Kf of Uttimlfl. Thn 
nao^t important l<*rrilnri<"ii oi' tho ItoptibliG nrfi fvimprwcd in 
tlitf Altdp1flf:int^, (>r table-lHTid of the Andea, aiid tii>< spTini nnd 
valkys of llio l*]ostc^n CortlpriUn- Tho iraia«iL«n outlriitK 
^TvaiiJitiM ntid fnrfHt-lfUtd to tUt? iiortli and «iu«t ?u» chietly 
ipied by wild tribes cf IndiaTw, sod awftit the proirre^* of 
fntTito fbr drvclnpmrnt. After »<»m« Mmc »pent on th^ 
Picifto ooji^, dnriik^i; wVrh I rnade ft jonrn^' from VnldiviA Io 
Iho Kivfr Limny, in ViiTftg^ni^ with a view of rc4kchjn^ the 

Atli>nti(? tMiiwt Ipy n iir>w niuli^ I iviiH ludiiCffil tn xin'iU "iid iilli- 

matoly Tceido in, the nty o( Siicrv\ thf^ oiipital of li<Jivin. 
Xnf.nriilly (tminn^ rxnrt iiifi ^Jirialiixi n* to i\w gi^ojzTa\thy ind 
topoffrupny of my new residence, 1 speodily diaoor^^red that iho 
exUtiBg xDap« ot the country wero c^ceediDgiy inacciarftto and 
ittron)]n«l4). Al iJie samd tim« I vak forttittatA enough lo vae«t 
with an nblo (^ltiI eiigineer, Mf- MJuchin, holdin;; &q appoint- 
nipnt tjndpT thu 8tjir.B liovprnmi-ni, nnd Cnpljiin Ciltr'y^ iin 
oftieiJr of tht^ VniU^d 8titefl Ntivy, who wnj iolevet^t-'d la the 
pxploration of tht? paHti-i'ii froTili»'r t^rfit^iiy. Wo rofifCTHHl 
togiotbi-r, nod cti-'t^rmined, jia tar as f<^bb% to rectify the in* 
accniuciea and ermrH. Wt- cummtmed opc^rtttions with such 
inctnim^ntA us we poas*nigt(d. poadinff the arrival of othitn ftom 

The existing miips referred to were the Government Map of 
Bolivift (by OndnrTn and Mnjia), Pcntland's Lake Titiow^ and 
Hugo RecVs AhapUnirie of tliu Aiidt^c. TIib two liitl*?!- pr<»vef.i 
correct in the portion* that thf> auTb^>rB tboind?»lvo6 hmi mr- 
TByixt, but ooiktnio mnny ctroncMiut |iiwitiiain ^uid oltttiidr'ft. 
Captain Cilley waa an jnvaiitable enadjutor aa an acf^nrato 
astrtjnomica] ob*rrTcr, nnd also mpplied the pctfitionn Cff tbo 
city o( tfantft Cruz, and otl^i^ra io the east of the Ropubllt?, 
which woro Mibseqiicntly vmfit^d- 

We wprn iinrDHuniUi^y dcprivrd of bin Taluablo unrTioe* 
shortly all<r the oomme^ torn tut of the work, aaitl-heolth com- 
pelled him ('> rftiim to hia o"n coniitry. 

Tho nHtrniomirnl obaervations were neimtly tnken with a 
AexUnt oeudjTEg to 10" and a uit-rcunul arlincial boriioDt bj 
Mepere, Newton Brotbens ; bnt in ^om& Cflses iftifb a G^bch 
thccK^jJitP, by MfMrs. Tn>iig)it'>ii nnd Simms. 

A*trononiioal obperTntionH fiir !an'tiide and loui^if.iide have 
been tnlcon at nil the to^vnK, villng;c?i. and post-hoii»CB i^ibown on 
tho map, iitid ni ^hth? otheE' poJittii. 

The ktitTidoe rcHuIt pcnornlly from meridian ahitudos of 
a Cruci)^ a Cridauri, An^^n^]^, a TriangiLliX Aiutrikli)!, Vogv, 
Cofttot, Pollcii, Cenopus, Ao.,and ^vben auitablo, ofthoetm. 

The latitudes of a great number of jwintti. particularly of 


Idmuu' Xcfrt tm fiflh'ria^ to of^eompan^ Original Mapt. 5I0J1 

those oa ivbinh imnortniLt brftringn Hpprnfl, hire hct.n d^trr- 
mliv*d by three, as<{ oven four obBcrTa1ii>iifL 

The ftmgitndcii, from Sucre^ depimd g«DerAlty on clirono- 
niptfT time ligJifw, rh(T(*.l«il bj princatic coirkpuM beftring* (rf 
tlio mo^t coim^iicuoufl m^-iiiutam peakH; lut as ecTeral oftbc 
joiim4-y» wwn ramlri in n vptv ^hort time, th^ ml** of tIio ohrrK 
Dometer oouJd be clcady arrivini nt by noting its total altoro- 
tion im return* Ad eirelleiit watch c-lirononieter br Prodihliain 
Tod need, nnf) it in-M (mind by cxpirriciiCo that it« mta was 
more re^lm wlitri |rltiri-i) Irt^r^t-u tl]» fiildft ot' a nt^ ou tho 
paek-mttlolhAn when curried in the pocket. 

The }oii^'itiiiI<; at Jjt Pax ww n-ci^ntly detormiucd, ind^ 
^itrVfLiIy of tliid chronometer, by nieeuft of reappeitrancea of 
Ka 1 Mtcllito and lunar occulf attons ; tbc^c Jattcr obxoTTft^ 
tionfi* fis well aji thojto in Sucre, wum mndo Hfjlji a 3-inirIi 
l<do*OQpfi by 'J'roughtou and Sitiime, 

Tbe trinilingK nf llirt mhulx am laid dciwn frEJin i^mpua 
bearings taken ull uhrt;; tho diatan<.v beiii^r orri^^'d at, oa the 
plnicf^ ty e^lii[ja[it]g lie rnfe irf travelling' and noting tbe 
IJmes, and in tbe mountnincuK partu by Himplt^ eatiiration, 
A great niaoy of th«inU-i[iU'[l>iit<^ ptiiiitai^erf, hovtever. cheeked 
Ly cTfM6-hpnTinc« of the moet consj^iiniciii^ jroiintuinM, tbn jioaj* 
boua of nbichnad Iwcn proviotwlT dctrimiiicti T^ith caro. All 
IffiAringt vivr^ tsken with a S-iiidi prjeiziatio conipa** by 
Troiichton and Sitnmiu 

For i\\v bi-i(.dii, Muirn llir wia-lHwl n, 2\^x\ch ftuf^d 
baroBUt^ by U rait^bton an J Simme waa ori}*iuaLTy dependor) or, 
but frftrwiiriln, mijpHpvrtirg tlie nccumr^y <if it« icLdtLiatimici, niifi 
baviiij* eompK-d il wiih aovcral other anewiide, all of which 
caTo a more or lesa diferetLt rendm}^< Mr. Minchin ordered 
Ircim Mr, CiiM^IIa eomf« of hie W^iling-ptiint Ihi'rmoini'U'n*, 
Tht'pe refl<^iied him in th« yi?or 187J», trgtther «i(h ihcir 
(Xfrndions (ron the Kew ObwrvaTorv. He bsB hihoa t«krii 
obnon-ationj with Ihrm over a w\n^\^. of lOjUUO fcoti and ooed* 
pbNn^ \\i»5 reMillb wilL lbt« cinemfil n«din|;n. Iian eorrveled ibd 
obcetTAtione by tho lotTcr accordiuply. Not having liiul an 
oppc/ri unity of niiin^ Uij* IxjiliTig^jHnat tbt-nmimfter* below an 
fittitiidftof 5C^0O feet, be has not pVen ihe aneroid n>adiitgM 
tnoch bclovr thnt height, boin^ rnccrtaiti ns to their corrtol' 

In t'anta CruT! do la Bierm, the encroid showed ]^l> fcc^t 

ulifivrr lhr» (m*l<"ld. 

The altitudes by tho twilinp-poinl Ibermomet^r hare been 
culeubkted on ib^ (tnppontion tbai (he height aWv^ tbr Ptn. ift 
«qnaj to ^OxT, T being tho djfibroDOC of ti-mpcrature ind<w 
grees Fobienlieit betfreen tlm iiWrved boiling-poiiil aud *1V^. 

SOi Hi'KTftRs' t^ifits an BitHvid, to accompany Ori<fiitaI ^^tf^M 

The tcmpcrattiro of tbo air h««, however, been noted, in cue*) 
it lui^ht lio uilviuttiigpDiLHly «pt>1iml Ui tliQ cuhuUtluji. 

The tuagnotio vanntion in bii<,^ri» i6 very nearly 9" -i5 k., ani 
ill La Viu ihv. miiiui iif Jti^vi^rJ olMorvntiow f^nA ^ 3j b. The 
luore reotfut ob^ervaliocf for altJttide m^^ by Ur. Uinchm 
havo led him to a conclueiou, which I t^jvc in bis own vronin :— 
*' Oa my former mauK ibu«a wen^ oaltukl^ by iha formula 
il *x o^(J X T* wbich £ now find cItca >\ ry cnon^oas n:«ult« Jit 
UitVG iillihideK. Tlin pTf^flpnt ni^igbi> am vn\i'n\aUii l>)' ih» 
sv£U^Eu Tor builm^ water by Gii>ora work cc ibat sut:^ect, and 
tnr^ ftgi^e rr-iuArkjtlilv wtll with the exact buight of Lake 
Tilitmn, ^ i^ivia by llic milwuy luvulUii^ii.'^ 

To Mr. JJjuchia is cJuu thir merit of dmwln^ th<t mape, and, 
iufliTc^d, of tite greut<ir ptirt of ihe t^ork, tlur rcuulu iif which 
I f<}ol great pkseuro in ijnjot^ntbg ttj the lioyal Ueo^rapiiical 

It is not my inUmtion to dwoU tipon th« wau» or to iciri^ tbi^ 
t^cbiLiCJkl ddtailb of our ohsei^citiuiifi ^bich 1 hjiYd hutl tha 
houuur to f^tibmit to the Coimdf, Uit I nov/ okk attontion to n 
foir brief obsetvalioiis ciu the geta-rnl fcAtiire^ olini&le* re- 
ffnirc^H, &c., of the coantry, th^ reaiilte of thiM yeus* r^sHencu 
and ioiirncying;. 

yiy experit<n(^4^ were coDfined 1o the department vrhich 
include tbc groat tablo-Und o( tho Andce, and tho epuiB and 
viJlcyw (if thr? Kimlrrn 0>nlilUiriL Tli» mai-ilimn drtpi^ttafiit t>t 
Atactima, nhicb contzLUis Ihe only souporta of tho lUipublir, 
Oob^H, TocopilLi, Mejillouas aud Aiilofogiuta, may be regard^ 
merely a« an onnoixe iinimporLii^t, excvpt as a dnttnut njii 
rather iudcti:!fleiible outlet. TIiu disjjarliueiila of l*utuai, Onirv, 
La P»:e, Ojchjibamhu, Cliu<jiimi:ii und Turiju, cooapriNo tho trntii 
Bolivia, a country whic^U osin cADnot help comparing to n 
i{]gjLntiri SHit7.4'rliLnrL 'I'he eiicr^w^jon of smiw-clfuj p^nks riaiug 
TToiu IbrcAta or cultiraled thIIov:^ thu dt^p ruvitJCtf mih tUciv 
fouEniTig tnrr?rilM, aw} tht* vmhI \a]\vh and luj^^jona, alwavH racul 
ibu £iirop<THJi al^iuo country, olthgtigh tho foaturos of nataro 
are on a far graiidiir stealer, and somei^aL i.lniioId vf piuturesqQft 

It were indeed to be wished that the reK^mbtanco to Switzer- 
land oould be tru^ aa regards attaebmeait to order, c^yicblulu^ 
frocdonj and loyalty. 

Let me now pnNruttl l<j nketeb roughly tlif? Alfjiphinifu* i»f tliH 
Andvs, A portion of the oartb'a sui-faf^u 00 lut^rotitiu^ frum liic 
remarkablr ftjrnmtLOJi pri»enttng ^'ilthI hitbetio unaulvtrd 

The miUD dmin of tho CoidJUeLu o( llie AiiifcH divider iiitt* 
two tuiigtiJt ill about latitude 14" inciuth, which re-unite ia 

IfuVPms' Satfis tm Bofioia, to iiefcmpamj Original Maps. 205 

lalitaiJc 22° «aulb. Thnv twn gr«At chntnit, c)na running south- 
ward paralJol V* the Pacific Ooa&l, aud the tether tnrvln^ roaisf! 
In thn eFWt nr^A f.bfii K.w,, imnloiHt a lofty trijingnlar plateau, 
slrotoliinff Qoarly 500 inil^it from k.W, to p.Ib.^ with an Avojogc 
lireafltH of from ninety to a TinTittred miles. 

TKiM ^OAt tAble-liiud, tho ftvomgo clovfttion of which u 
IS.OOO (oet, is railed Uie AlUiplauiuJe of tlie Aiidm; it m only 
iuH<riftnbl9f whelber apptvHV*lio<l fmrn th© Pacific Coaet or from 
lite lowlands f>i Santa Cnij;* by |raasc«t Emrmounting hcighti of 
over 14,000 fe*»l. The C'ordilJnriifl of the Andefl ftppeftr to 
<liiDinisli io height liTwnrdiA the nouth, luid the Icvol of the 
j^julliera piirt.ion of tUe AII^L[i1aiii<rtK ih o^rliuiily 200 r>r f^CO fhrt 
below the northern ; bnt pmcticnlly, in thew CT(?al altitudes, 
.<(Lie-U (lifTetPiiGes uro fnupprc'eiablF'. (K the w^ill nf ii:ouTktainK 
that enclose the p!afeaii. ihd we«tem or coast rango 0>>rLtaiDs 
the Ifffty prnltflfif Tarom, II'.O^JO f^'Ot, Hnjamn, and Cosapn, and 
ID tlkd Rtitithf^m portion of the sam^ range several Aetix'e vol- 
c^nocd. in the ca^tom or inland rac^ wo have Borata, 
rtw-enlJy rnlrnlnUMl W Mr ftrinirhin, and TTIimnni. 

The drainfl<>[e of tno wot^ni side of tho Coodt Cordillera iit 
Cttrripd off by unmerous innigiiifir4vnt jitreiLms, noue of which 
aro of Any importance oxo^^pt the Loa, wluub forms tho 
boundary between Tera nnd Bolim; but the waters wludi flow 
trtitn the eastern tlopB or inner aids of lhf> *WhI Curdilli^ra, 
and those from ihe weateni side or inner sloiw of the ftji^tem 
ohuin, all ituw down to the crrat sy»t*m ol laki^Ji whir*h li© 
within tlio biuin of the Altuplanjoi4s vie., Titicaeih and Aulla^ 
^SA or Poojio, and farther Miuth (wma imnjenae tialinaa or satiua 

Tho waters of Lake Titicoco, whirh occnpy an areo of COO 
square mile?, are not altogether J.ioliri^n, as thn l^^innlary line 
of Pern cute ofT the nppt^r half of tho lake with the northom 
angl4^ of the Allaptanioie, This lake, for l^iller iufaruiatiou 
coneeming whieh 1 wonM refer to Mr. Markham, CB., has 
an outlet or desaguaJcnj^ ulucdi, flowing with ii currmt wf 
f^enerally about two mile^ per hour over a windtn;; oout^e of 
ni>4irly 2t10 inilep, emptier ilwlf into l^dko A«lla^'ix The 
River I>esagUQdero receive* the watern of the River Mauri, 
which i« fed by the mettin;> enowa of the Tacorn Itange, and 
dnrtn^ the rainy seuBon bringK ciinvri a largo rolume of wntr^ 
beaidt'A nimierons <ith(!r ttrtsinxH of minor imporlaace. Tho 
HfrWgnaflero itwlf enn only Iw rrojwral l^y KihIje or bitlHas; 
the mail) road from Lu J'ox to Tacnih in Peru id carried oror 
a pern^uiieiit bridge of bontH. Thna the T^ke Poop) or 
Anlb|;ai', the area of whieh at n roufrh eflliniat(^ is about 
400 Kjuara miles, reeeitm all the on;ri!ow of TitioacA, as 

2C€ itfusmss' Xi^lffi ^R Boli^a, 



well HA tbc« waters of tli^ Domoroue atitamfi that f\i>iv froin the 
Eutciii Ooniilloia and ttie ConHlkr^ dti l,o« VmWtM, two of 
wbicL, tiu Kirorv .^GAontj aiid ^urqu'^e, are CrequeDtly im- 
pocdftVk durmg tbe iuu>> scasaL. 1 nmr hero loruArk that 
many uf tlio MUjilli^Tr vtr<'ura»;,ii9<p<fiHLiUy tu Uel- i^uiulitxiurliotM] of 
llio diouU tuwu of Poopo arid tliL* poet-hoosc ol' Po^ua, are fed 
by Imiltik^ snringH, and timt iho miturv i^f Out Inkn nrn xlightly 
bifickiab oiid uavrhulMoLuc On thd otd mapf Uic» ia miulci'd 
afaoci>iid Dtioa^Liuleni ur uuUet frum Laku Aullaffaa towaida Uio 
^niflt Siitina^ ; but a fri<iact uf mino rodu nMiiul tlio uxtrctuity of 
Ulo lol^ti wLrrc litid ex\i cdiouU te, aud fuuud uotnce of tfao 

IV quc^lbu tmturally ariacM, Whtreaa ttu; luim^UM body of 
water abocutaaliiU^ by Lbe rainiAll and tbe melliiigaiovHortlio 

Eroat widl ot cor^lillira '^aci^Miti^ tbv^ ba^iu M^ Aitaplaaido 
art! u\f TL|jpLre.ut outUtt, ubut UM.Hiim?H uf ibc&£f aurjilud rtatt^ra ? 
X)i« ludmiu arHrm tliat th^ro u a wbirlpool or ^temLDfiaii 
outlut at iluf K>iitbi^ni extremity of tli':> lakc^ ivhrtico tSio nutor 
escape^ but m uhat direirtioa Ihoir tradition does net ^Etdtd. 
Oth?r« arc of opinion that tbo evaporatioD which ditlilhg tho 
\yiii(«r muiitb^ lA umljmbtf.-d]y very ^raal, ooii)pAtifltt«« br tli* 
vaut of aDcithcr outlets May it not bo poM»bIo that the WAleta 
iUtj^r iliniiigli tliu iHn] nf llit^ bd»T, fihd liml ihirir WHy to tho 
aurik)0 iti tbd immeuao evvarups and saliuaa whiob owt^r ud 
area folly cqtial to tba lake iteeli^ aodiuo then distributad aad 

tij^far aa kaown, tbe &bi-r«a of the lake are a lialltti*. except Ml 
tbe H(jntbcirxi «iad, unsit- thu d^boaohm^int of the !iivor Marqies, 
whoiv a spur of Ibo CorJitlctn iJl* Lo6 ]?'mik*s abutn on tho 
margin. In gwnumi thi> aliore b ovetOTown with beds of tba 
ruua caUcd "totorV* ^^^^ by tb^ ladiunji tuc tbatcbicg and 
fur the aiastniiitiou of baUaa. 1 learuL bom a unwL Inmb- 
xvortby mfonniLnt tbot tJui wiifitorn i^borc of tbti lake 18 ij»- 
bubiled by a miac^rable txibe of Alui-im ludiaaj, irli^ mny bo 
d^jwribed as alniwt niapbibioua, Uvia^ in wretched huts of 
totori^rood, aad vthor^ food con^i.^tf ^f iUh iitid roota. 

There ia a %mM ulatnl in tUt* 4>.tiiti^ ut' iha lukv, La lila dt> 
('aa^Ok wliicb baa b<x^n oo^^JidiouJlT u^d a^ a dopdt by a gooUe- 
niAU whu iuivu^aLimI Ibo Uku in a ilut-bi^lkiULnd bAWf, liiiilt for 
thfl purpoee of carrying pKtduc^. Should iilr. Yi:£oUam, tho 
iiiiUTTiirUJug North Amtru^u, wlio in at prwuut undeavDUriiig 
to oavi^att^ tlie De^j^ua<t^ro in }i\s ^Uam-bunoh, ftoocood in hifl 
aitcrpit{)e, iie wiijuiil have dii!ii:ulty iu tiading laudiog-phtikvt 
eieupt at tbc^ »uu(hi<ni L«xLn^uiitv- 

Tdc plnios that cstcud botsveoa tbo iadicui abort? ami tbo 
«pijrfl uf iht} Cordilltrra arir bxuLlly toriaed the plaiai» of Uniro* 

mmEB»' NoU't on Bclivui, to oxampany Original Maja, Jffl 

To tliCMt wbrj hfivc* pii«4r>t] tlin rti^Tii muWtiiickii which tuo- 
tAituto thd rcioii bota Potu»i or 8ucr>f. ih& tiiLini» b full of 
ple4kDRnt rec'^MociioTix ; ih^ rnrrn^hing MBrimtitjti of bi-^n^^ iiMn tci 
Imvn] cortJy luid ttwtt'tly (jToroIovuliuidflultiviitcd oouutryiUS ft 
oliun^'e from iMireii lieightaaiid (luepquebrAdAB.niuBtbo feUto be 
niiliiW'^ i'hit vK^w itcr%>M tbo ]ak« on it ticir* <luv i« mignifioAJit, 
Ul^ nmjw |HMko {>f Sttjouia luid other mixmUiitiH oi tbeooafltiantirB 
npprar TO rifle out of the t>1tii> waters of the Inhi^, ami towArr^ 
mid-dny iho mir^^t;^ with it« fitntuttitr imitiitiom» ot «lu^ oad 
bulMiri^ may be oeeii in mirvelloua perl'ectJOD. h ,', i | 

ThcM plotoft ikio oithor callivvtcd, mad yiolii socdcnptcf 
bjirlrj^ IHAnVint, i|I^Iiiua (h clFunrijituni nF tnillal), or auord 
f^ra^nj; for flooke of iiht^>>|>, h^rda of llarooet Ac, ubilo wild 
riciiun*, DSlriiihTHt m/'M iLiu-.k, aTid <ithnr wiKl iijvrl nbound. 

AmODg the most reiziiLrkAbld objeot^ in tlia pl&ina of Oruroy 
and mdeod throughout tho AltaplAnicic, luv the uumcroua 
Chu]j>aj» or aucieui buryui^-ikbuHv of tlie lodiotiA. Tbete are 
square bQildings of suu-dri^ bticka, fibout 10 foot in bcifrbt, 
itiul Q lifil iu]imn% having iim» 1nc)|t*b<ilff or vimiln'A' b>nhnig due 
C£ut ; thoy ooour itoinotuuuB uiif;ly juideoiiiijUiuedin;;n]Uf'«,hut 
do nol Appear to bu ptaoed id any regular form; 1 fii>]i]e»tly 
lutknd tho lodifrtii wn^thor th#y haoiv imytbiotf of Ihtir ori^'in, 
but invariftbly received the BUtae ttOHwer, Ui&t ibey vter^ " cuanet 
do lo ff«ntJl*«," OP ho;i9(»« of tho gentib's ; iuvAtiing by iliw trna 
thuir toircfathoTH prcviouft to the iutrodaotion of ClirialiaTiity. 1, 
howi^v^r, reniftrk(?d that tbi?sei diiilpa* are miir-b Tnoro ahiuidant 
ill tiiut pnrt of tbiT iHkUtitry whcrv tlio Ainaiira Indiatin prr^otnj^ 

uaUnJ, Tbrr Altuplarjirio iH uut hU uh ti^vel h8 llie pl^u^i uf 

Onuo ; in many (larte Lb^ii tf'^iJii^ » uiid«k»liii£ ftnd brokoti by 
mngn of low billsp Alon^tbnbjuMKif tUoiDouiiUuuKtluitLNmiid 
th& plains of Oniro, tlie traveller noticas a wbito mark about 14 
feet aboTo tbo plaiu, ivbidi Moms to denote an oacient vraler* 
l«rciL I WM a^ur«d hy an Ea^ti&h geologiat v^ith whom I 
examined it that tliis m^rk is a dtralHUoi of an appAvcnt corallitie 
fonniithm, nod txlemU Ut ihti n«^i^'hl>i)iirbiKii] nf I^ri T'ru, n ibs- 
taiK^o of over 2lXi mJl^. S|i(jciiu'-Mia of tbii foruiutiou wbiiih 1 
obtainoil have btreu iiiilurturjKluly lost in tTauMiii>o«iuii, but 
otbisrii iiro on tboir way to EuL:laod, tvUiob 1 shall HubmU for 
t.un^fiU exaruiiiatioti, I i>buuiii.-d eoiue ii»iil marine abella frum 
tlif* nvighbuuibood of tbU rook, whiuh I havo fortnnat^ly 

J'he ooDJeiTtnre forces iUelf upon me that the plateau of thd 
AltapUtiicio wnii at a pn:-hj«tonc jKitod tho bu^iti <if a Tut 
t^e^i of watT?r or iulauir h&a^ iirhiiJi tii aouio feiirful (.'iinvuIitloD 
of naturo burst its vay throu|;h the Kastem Oordilloro in tbd 
kxulit/ irbvrc now ataiidn tho dty ol* La IW. ilcro Ui» 

$08 StrsTEtts* JVaVj on Bolivia, to caomjyiny Ori^in^ Mapw. 

IrcmendfHia rift in tlie plain, tbo wat^wom clifla uhicb rise « 
tliouflftnd feet ^bovc tbo cit^ and iU ranxmnding Eubvirb, mg^^eeit- 
to atiT obedTver thht thin muKt liavo beon liu pUu^if of o^CApo 
I'lir Uiti vra1er» of the inli^nil #«d. of whirh tlje LaK«H Titiottca^ 
Aiillngas, anil th<! t^nt1i<'ni SuUruut nn* i}xv only remains. 

Inlf^rt^stm^ tis tbc AUai^liuiide may be uh a ^'v^^n~Apbic«] 
study, ftriri impnrtant nn ju'ootiui of jtA injn<*ral nealili, vhfch 
eauaod Hu^o Beck t^) dvnribo it ila a Idbl^ i>f silver vupportod 
hy pil!ar» i*r goU ; iIb iibief citJee of Uie Repubb'ir, »illi ihn 
oxc^ptjon ofOniro, iiro wtiintod at tbo foot of, or nmonj^vt, tbo 
siliura of ibc erwtera ebam «f Uip AiidrN^ Thia (ISslrict lOfiy be 
said lo contain tbe comnn»rciol, political and soctbI life of 
Bolivia. In tluA rat^i3 tlur titrr'atno riru? ^vhicb in & ^rtftl 
iTteasnre form Uii? head-wat^^t-a of fhi* twu f^real Hiit-rH Amaion 
and La Piota ; xUa afiltt^nts of tbo formrr m a nilo falJIn;; to 
ibn muiliuiinl, hnd tiro laltcir in n ■fuuLb-fiiat ur nvd ilirivtiri'D. 
Tbe watershed of tbo two rirere liee in the Ccrdillen ^tt^ Kpurv 
of thfi Crrrdillrm nmgii^ bcivreen Sah^ch in tijc ProTinca of 
TomiaEi, Dejfarlment of Chuauigaoa, and Lena* and LiticIkko 
in the IVovmco of Chiiyimla, DepartiiLcnt of fVrloai. 

Ti> i\tt^ iiTiH.h iinJ ehslwar*! thi> mimiitiiin Kpntv gni<lna]|y 
deoreww in hoi^^ht nntil they at lenrlh tcnniuate in thv trnpical 
mvntinfibH bonleriug iJie Bivers Hpni, Miimortj, Pilcomajo, 
Vormojo, &o. 

For iufonn&tion regArding tbebe latter mom imkiHJWu jmrto 
of Boli^'io, tthicli I did not tuyeolf visit, J wciiltl rcfi^r to 
GoloDd Giurrh. 

Aa n tiAttiml rt^«iilt of it« tropicnl pontton and crefit run^ of 
rlnvntinii, BoHvi/i pro*»f^nU ii Viiricty «f climate* wbicb can only 
be closHiried afs^r iho fashion of xhs couLlry ; uaina iMi HAtivo 
nomcnoUtarc, wo Iiavc, in tho valleys (tnd tfavruinahs bcIo\v tho 
altiluilt! of 9000 feet, tliu " Vul W nilli iU MilKliviHiiTm mrying 
from tropical below TOGO fi?Gt, ^Lfre eu^jiar-eane, coffot-, vuiiilla, 
cbirimoya^ cir cu^t^r(l-lLpplf^ ^c., grow, to Kubtropical Hherv 
orango?. Ttnes and mtiize tionrittb. Ascending l^cm 9000 feet 
to 1^,1100 the rc^on i» cnllcd '* Puna," wtucb may generally be 
[liMrribtd ail 1eiii|jt'Ftili.\ difTeriiif^ of oounu m iVt prodtt^ttv^ 
powers occording: to tbo hcigbt, but including all Knropeiia 
ixrudA untl fniitpi. 

Tho Cordillera inc^ludee tUe ft-i^id rcj^ion Irom 12,00t} feet, 
vhpfD bjLikiv* i>oIaUic:i and other roots chu he cultivated, and 
Iho "Cotdiflera Bmva" from 14,(lOU ffrot up to tbD region of 
perpetual anow, WiUjin tbe limit of Iho lultcr xour thft uidv 
vegetation fuuiifl efin>ist« oi a cojirse tiifteil graM, a &hrub 
knovn ae tola, and the rc^fiint^iuti bnl^mnlMX'k or yntcto. Id 
mme mere Mheltered gullies a f«w lonely ^arled treev called 

IfiTiTBtCS* Notff on Biitivia,to<iccmnpanij Original Maps. 209 

Keuiia are to be met wilh; one of llie>iu Lard> shrubs forniJi 
u Quirky] objc.^^'t uLi^vt^ lht> |uxss qC ChiilfkncaiLi nt ac iiltitudo of 
nearly 15,000 fc«t, Uie bigbeflt j>jiut of th^ roflfl from La Vaz to 
'IViiQ (Peni). When iravdlling within the won? of thp Otir* 
tlill^ra Brnvn I wdB oHcti stnicK wilii tlio rcM^mblaiLC<i of the 
siini^nmliug ni^enery to tlte lofty |)1fll^iix timt 1 Iraversed tn 
PftUgnnffi. Tho sflmo lurtc<l gmse i^n^\ eonrec «hn]b« fonnfid 
the vi*getiitiou, irbil^t to uijiki? iLi? ii^i-tiiblimt^t; viill Hiron^ttf 
^xuaavGs, pum&s^ ostnch^ and armadilloa were obeerr«d: it 
intly W{iiit<M] tlio Mookc from the Indian hnnting-fin» to ccm- 

Elete th^ illueion, vhich vtoi powerruUv aided &t tie catting 
losta ^'liicti forcibly repealled tho cold of tbc tfotithcrn Pompofi. 
Tlif tnivtllt^i- in Pikliviu matt L*? nrtipur*Kl tii wuffcr lOtJirnately 
from tho intenno tropicaL heat cf tlio volley, vitU its cbanc^o of 
ti*iii^t]i fr\rr, ftiid ilic^ (-^rhnnty of Wing 1nmir^Dtr<l by ihok- 
i^iiitcc«. vinL'bueiia, aiuidflita, Ae., uud tUc cutliug ot)ld vitid of 
tbc Coidillera, wltore at mid-duy tlie »uu hccicIica Iuli)> and 
jiflt*r niglitVrtU tlie tlitirmomfitfrr in p^rbnps several degr&eft 
below froeaog-poiot, wbilo by way of a change hd may bo 
OT^^rinlcen by n henvy fnll of enow. 

At Dtgbt he itil] burr to ]>iit up with oji tinfuminbcd oold 
rooni in & m'tt^rnhh; |Hmt-houHe<, where if he U bicky be inay 
cMniti a tow cgg« flnd a dieh of ■*c^Hp4'' to wum' his half* 
uliirvrtl frjiuie, 

!l ifi oft^ii difficnit to obtain enpplicB of proviaioLR, and they 
in«»t be tnhua withgiit oonfiiiltbig the owncrw, who c^n be pwd 
for iheni afterwards ; but on the other hand it niuat be stAtad 
that hi£:liway robbery ia nnkuown* and oven rich convoy* of 
hilvFT Ir^vt'l ihf TUouii1»in ruudft in tkofft^Tt tmf^^Ly^ Thi^cti hj« 
many roade in llolivia wbcre one cbange& ftoci "vuUcv" or 
tmipii'iil Ui frigid ^^iTtuinly <*nfft in ii d^iy** rtirtrf'b ; it w Kufhinont 
to oiie the road from Ornro vid Arque lo Capiuota ae an 
instance. LcAvin|[ Oruro and traversing the intermediate* plain, 
t)ie rofid piuwcii ovAr thtt liigb Oordillr'Tn of Tapft<>Ari nt an dtrva- 
lirjn of 11.500 feet, and gra^iuaUv deacenda, winding down the 
Kidi'ft fiftt Intig ravin**; litil*? by littlG, sbmba, Hrnt »itiinlcd then 
lar;^'r, grow by ILo side? of tbi> ninh--'tnM;'k% then a patch of 
barhiy or p(»talopft and a mole or two; tiien hj^h Ihiuvring 
fihrnbd^ c«ibu and other trccfl appc&r; until at len^E en tnrDing 
& corner, Arqut? i& aewn la tha JiMtance milling amon^^'st omnge, 
Hg aad otli«r trooa, surrounded by tnai/o pLanttttions, A let^pie 
or two further down the samrr rnvinr, bnnanrut ard other tropical 
tr^es come into fiif^hl^ and should tbe traveller follow the counc of 
the *treniii a oouplc of honrs* ride will bring hJic to aji intensely 
trciitiinil vallt-y wEart Migiir-cjinrt, ^l■(^, w cidlivHt^'d, 

VOL, XLVir, P 

I mufft otAf however^ leove the sobjeot of <r1tiiiatQ witlicnit 
montioniog onctlior cril to nhich the tmv^^ilcr i« oxponcd, 
oilbongh 1 fortuiittiely EtntT >*uffi?rffl fnjiii il iikyK'lt' vii., the 
ZoKM^ ot aa it la eotnetiroea tormod " J'aiia, ' ^l.ich m 
Dcvetdooed by the rarity uf th» Atmo«phcro un di^uig^^ of nllUailc 
The flTnptomft an fti^^^M* B^ TondtiAj^ A pi'isoo atUtcke') 
«h(}tila va f^Uag Uio Nfuptoms at onco ceaae walking, aoil sit 
down if on foot, or if luuuuted, dismcxtnt. A gocd ri'^mt^dy h, I 
belions to imeli amEaoiiia or garlic (Uie ludioDe eay to cat 
■now). Fatal caM« bave occnrre>l on Aovtmil itoiWwm rawing 
to pcmiPii.H Dot titoppiitg oil feeling thu fiymptoicA. Hulva and 
utLur baaflte of bunieii Milfer 6even*ly at timeB, ach) irjaay dift. 
Tho aeasoEU in tho parts of Boliviu through which 1 imwiled 
cr rn^ed b, an* cvt a rule very lua^ke/J ; rain btlla dtiriog the 
dommor motLlhs, viz., Ootober, November, Jantmry, Fi^bmorj, 
and Uorcb, whilst duriiL^' ttin n^mamdi^r, dry cloar weatlur 
prttrails, accouipauit^ by alrocg witids in the montlis of Angiiat 
and Sopkmbcr. At tbc break-up of thdMAaotiBi heavy thnQcJcr- 
tiimuiM <icn*;ir, iiiid iu>t ii yfjir paaiM without UrmtaM ur jianofis 
beiu); aLruck by Jichtuiog. lu tho mouth of March^ J>76, in 
Suoro(Ui*TCJipitftl) WiNWwrn? utrufk tlin.'onigh(>4 iu «iinc«-jeiioo, 
and oou»id«mblti damage don«. but fvrHuiat^y attended with 
litUfi loafi of h£t. When 1 tiually itartf^d irom Sucro with ray 
fjuL^ity fcT tho iMMut, aftt*r vm liud orOKikyI th6 Cuohiinayo, aud 
had juet couipktod thL- ofiu^ut <jf the mountaiu «u Ibe other 
skio, a h'torm wliic^h had livru lumblmg amovigst nh^t momitjiiPS 
jLuddcmly brokiT ovlt ua; L It't't tho l(vui<^ ^vith tho i^jiitloinen 
thnt liad at;i<rjii4iiiuit-il us finrn tTie nU'» and fitittiii|^ ^'\^vi to my 
hor^o, ^ilKipdd uu to ox'ortukij tho mutotimrv xvilh tho ba^ffn^, 
autl two hoiwiutiu tiuit were eaiTyiii^ the idiildr*-ii, iu ojiier lo 
nt the lattot wruppoci \\\> ami protocte<) from the pouiiiig min. 
Suddenly a vivid tlartii ;^r li^'httiiofi paued cloM in irout of my 
hoiso, and ihu ncit mororitt I rooe up to the mnJ«teeis and 
found that iwa hud lot^n knockod off thoir horsofli tho c^^ 

mon cairying tho ohildrcD woro fortunately a little ahead. aj»i 
Vfvttt not tiuifwu^ but iiiin i»uji [HU'Liully ilfuiti-nnd for uttiio timi*, 
and octmpLoined of hi« arm b&ing eii^btly partdymyl ; ho did uot 
n;covor toi Bcvoral Hftvs, Thi** diri»]on of tho Kaj-jiiA docs not 
apply to the 8anta Crae d^:* la -Siprra, and tbo- luvvljuidn tUruut^h 
-iVhicb thu livid and other tiiLiiitorica of thi* Amazuu &wl thfdr 
yitiy, where I um liwmrr^d tJmt ndn fullu cniiriHoij«ly id! tho 
year rvuiuh I ^vuuld tclor to Uolunol Churcli i'or lufommtiou 
M Ui tliia ftnd uthirr dt^taiU roj^ardictg that porliou ol lUe Itio 

MrffTEBfi* Notts on Botivint to accon^ati^ Oriffiaat Mapt, 211 

The mcM u)pcaT to be distributed more or hm through t^ 
ooimtrjf wscoardfiig to tliu elimtite«, for i^xuinplft, in tho v^f^n 
ih&TQ IS A liir^ adniiitnrL^ ofticj^ro l>I>j(xl. mixed deacandfLntif cf 
Imiiiini* iLtidumves librrii(*'cl jit. tJn^mbililidim'-iit <jrinilyjM*i»l<.'nc*, 
In tbo lomperat<3 r? gi<ia, QuirLuan InJiJiiw iijrpiTLLr to predomi- 
Dixiid^ aiid AimrtrL<f in ih'* fri^iiL A geueral laea i^rt'Taih ilmt 
tho QiiicLujiJd mluibit Ui<^ aouUi of cHn licfii3blic> niuf the Aiionttw 
Ibo uoi-tb, Hiid ift luutiiillj ime, but omsiil b« }uid iIuwk oa a 
nil<*. (n tlio tkK9rt of Atocaum thera ie y«t onotb^v ritco IcDCim 
:ui Abncaiur^nc^ wbii Apeikk a diflTcrcnt langitn^Q, wbiuhr howorcr, 
ia IW dyin^ out Theae Indifins ot^oiipy iTn^mAelves a ^e&i dcfll 
a« inulctccr« m tho cornriag Iziido between )'c>tou ainrl CtUania, 

The Qui<?Iiuiis and Antmna both riiu^iioiiti* tlct* eurji-lmf, jmd 
bavo otbor babits in common - both tfo&to pcnoiios and cooiso 
wu^llcn idotbx, itnj arc both inuatii^nl luid AiipeintilioiiM. 1u M 
tLo higbeBt jtomtB of tho posses, and wheri>vor a tniirdor baa 
bet<u eom&iitt(7;d» hoaps of BtoDca caUoH '*apachcta«'* (a word 
dorivi>r] from tbo imGi«ntgioddcBaPacbaoCiuiui4*)Aro |il[ic£!d,bnd 
t-nrh tudmc wbo pa^c^spitjoui hisjuic^ orcoca-ltuf.andaddti 
anocber stonn (jia u w^rt of tjflVria^ to tlio dwty or iq^irit), Tb© 
tvrj raced dirfcr in Un^m;;o and difli^ouJtion ; tho Quicbua h a 
liiiinblL^ civil, if EiotBerriliiindividiifu.wJko drinks bi^ohichaaud 
boaU hi« wife in poiu^ti aiid cfui^tnrrtu, but Ulo Aimanu arc moro 
iud'^iiKiiileiit, iosjittut* and bloin3iJiir4ty, Mid the*> !atli?r arft 
ujiii^ti oddiotGd to tb^ nm of ardimt spirit*, WhiUt on this 
subjcel it mi^bl l>c? worth vtulo to nif^ntium tbai in no other 
oountry diJ 1 ivitnee^ 90 nmrb ilrunkemie«0 amonix^ the lower 
cb&wea', both Indiana nmi hulf-bn;ede, MpceiaJly tbr btttcr. 1 
rarely an-iyt*'! flt a ^ni^ll lowii or inioe witlcjiU fiudiiig tht 
^rcal<-r part of thepopulotion tbo voraotDrlioaor. ThdludiEim 
are ^mnl] and mlflinlfr in jihrfnifjwr^ hut ara nr'tiir an<l miviblit of 
<>nt1tmu;C ^Ttmi {nii^u^. eiiie-.-iaJly in lonj; joumeya. T£*>y APe, 
\vbi?u »i>ber, » hitiW-wi 1 l.ii - I'nu.and cilboi bury tlii?ir carnrngfl 
or spend tiir'm in r^h, ; 1. .- i>t<^ which ure alwuyitiiiir'xciiwe for 
a. dolmnrh. Tin- (^uil-Wi Irnl.MM not situated ou tho btj;bwttya 
I fuuni to be rprr eiTil !"ni li< -jiLiLlo, nsrui^inUy when made 
awntr tbnt I wiw e» fort.'i^er- Tbcy ai veil on Uio Aimanu ari> 
divided inti* two ekaaeH^ ilArieikdii or Katati* [mUfuis who r^nt 
laLil. aarj arc fmbjcot to vork a Ofjrtum numbor of days ior 
priv«l*^jn"tMinH m tii*?ir laudlorda; itud Cuunmidadtw, urlmliaon 
III cuiiimunitica v'bo hav? topny irihnt*»lo thaOoTorninent from 
wljoirt they hold T}ioir Innd^nhich ihr-yworU in I'ommon, Thoift 
fndiiinit tipiM^ml tht^ir-jwfn al<^aldtl or mflftistr.Ue, whn re^ulaW* 
thfT pnrtltLuu ut urops and otbor »}uettiona. la somo ca tbttft 
conimt]:iitie« thuru uro xtill ih>ulo cuHouk uuitoinji, and J b«ili«v9 

r 3 

212 McjiiTicmi' yotes an Soiivjff, to trctvotf^jty Orwjitvil Ma^. 

tlmt t\\v Qtti|H]8 or V^tigimp:! of InoN ia i^ti)] iiri(lr-i>1<Kii1. Kor 
instonccv ttic Tndiata m tbo eumruunity itituatcd neftr PuaA, 
i'rovince of PotoBi, when a young (XJispl** are niHirierU bH wh- 
N^nlxf aoriLOthii]^ in kind lo niwt tho nowly -married couple, 
Fi>r lJ»e gieftter purl of tLi? cullivnlinu in JfcJivm, irrigatioo is 
neceflsary, ami tb€i Indmns ar« very <lexteroii8 in C'>niftru<:tbjf 
m cquMiA or nc^tirtltict:^ foT Uiis purjin.ip. Thry are rCTV nilloeut 
regarding their tiaditioos, also ab to -iii[>v'irig miiK'Ji, nltliongh 
iindonbt^y po«oB9od of tho eocKt of many rieb miDuml 

Tho population of BoliTia hn« boim computed At %^^f)(i% 
dlsttibiitc^d over im nnm of <'3,228 fU]ijaic I1^A^11^^> ttf v^Uioh 
two-Uiirrls live in Ite coonin' disirict^, and oiie-lhird in the 

TliL* Iiidlaiv mUubiianu Wl^ro mneh reduced in number in 
18G6, nhcii a fovor mgod amount tho i^lourod race- Straagt 
Ui say nu utlii^i-s yv\*n\ iittnrkird liy it, nitboiigh it U wv^ll kuovit 
liiat'lho indiane used every pcaaJLdc means to coDvey Uie 
eontagif.iii to the whiles. The rc^ultn of this cpidrmic ern i<liU 
ubaervubli* '\i\ many part* of the AltupliLuicio, which Uan never 
recovered the depojmlation of that pen<Hl, 

The chii^f cities «f tlio Bopiiblic, Altiiutpd as AlreiLdyr«morTf^ 
on Ute Euftlern (3<n-diil6ra, are. in llic dOiiTh Sucre', I'otorii, <^nti, 
Tupij^a and TuTiji; m thp nonh Iji Paz, Cochabimba and 
Onirfj; ftnnt^i Onjxduin Sierra licw to tbo«A0t, in the UwUtndtf- 
Burre, the otipj^il nf the Itf'puhlif^ waa fbit^ T&^nanied at thv 
establinhtnent of indcpcndfmoo after JSolivor'e famoiw ^myrtiH, 
Burrr, vi\u> hc<'ttmo Uio fir^t rrr^r-iilrnt of thit ihtw Rt-pubUc. 
It ct^mmonly, however, retains ita ancient and more eupbonioot 
name, ChnquiftnoA, fimnTd from Ihc tu»i Aimara worlw^ Chuuui 
(g;old), ebaea (bridge). TLe town wouhl apijeur, if not Actually 
to owe itiji ovigiiij l^> liovc hccn greatly indebted to the dJa* 
covfiry ami workhig of tlit? famtJiia minMc'of tho Cr^rro of Potoej, 
tbo wealthy vninere UBin^ it a» o pEaoe of report or rofago 
during thr ymter nionlh^, whon the dimnte of Pnioii become* 
inaiLfldmhly eotJ> (CliiMren fr^m^rnlly aro born dead or blind 
in rotovL) J Ik ihi? yeai ICOO ntj andibLihupiu: wiia created, 
and ihi.' Riml Audienda, i>r Suprrmo Ojiirt of JuMiee for tbd 
l^utb American Oolopiea. fixed thero under the nami* of 
8, Ar/.otiiHjquIu y Ke-iiL Aiidtmriu de la Plata y Cburctta^ 
Char(<a8 beinjj;i aoccrditip to Cortoti thc> hi^itorian, the naico of a 
ei>mimi[nly of rmli/m* eifsting prBvious to tht* Ine^i KrrtpirG^ 
Sr^veral collegee »erci fonndod at tb<T n^Lmo dale, aiui nntil iguito 
lately SucTo wo8 considered the Ki^at of b-anung in tSoiith 
America, and young mon froin all paita tlocked to h^ 


MuHTRits' AWj on Sittiviitt to atxotnpttfiif On^uiul Map9* S13 

nniverMty. At prenirnt tlio ri>UtTt^ imvci mmtli fiilleu otT, bat 
I b»li<»T9 the be«t odnoatioa Bolivia boasts luay )>9 obtninod 
there- fiucno i« the nv*iJcDi^ oi' the Aitthbi*bo|», the Hupr^me 
Court of Jufliie^, and the Presid^ni, vhou iimtn of roviiLutloii 
<lo not iicc^39sitato his «itA]ring at La Pan. The Uongrcsf also 
mfirtli uvtry two or fbrci^ yearn. Thw grutt Hight fur (i fomjc""''' 
is Nwsatra Sonora Jo Guadalupe, ar m plain torm» tbo imaj^ 
tii tlio Virgin Mnry, riohly ^(iornotl witli g^>M and prarlj? awA 
pTOoiona «toni?H, wbich aK valn^^d ot two mtlUon duljani. Th^ 
cu«todia OT ^ktc of tho catbodral ia also ver/ rich, ood tboro 
iiro luijio vi^ry tiou t«liflioii« polDtingtr KCiui«r ijf vliich aro 
attrJbutfi-^E t;» Hurillo. The upper class of peoi>Ii? ar« more 
aristr>cvatic in th<«ir idcaG, beff^r-miLnnorvd, bettor ilro«!0>(1, ivTid 
tLpcMiic ixjrcr S|iitTii^ti than in tiie nlhi^r oitirit of tbo li'Jiniblif', 
am], in t'm:t, (tiiiii ill ma^^t dI' t}te Hoiilb Ajuerlean townn. Tt is 
really quite a^tnnishin^ lo 51.'^ Ibi! c^od tiutc with wJiirb tho 
JfidirTjt tri ^iit<rHl Uxvix mit fur a bJL auJ it iiumt bi- hIhh liDriie 
in mind tbat most of tb^m mAke ch^ir om'H dreas^s^ ah tb«r« 
aro no millrmjr*. Th? men uol emploj'<*d ia tbo different 
roUTtA of jugtioo or in UoT^rnment otficee^ with the eiceprion of 
4WJ or three tttiuing proprietors, goncrally occnpy 
ihpmnelrps in f?oiTinn?rtn?, 

^ovonU of tho riohcdt mcrohanU ara oithcr foroij^nora ct 
direct dt-W-endttuU uf fitmigm-m, gi-m-mlly Frmj^Ji nr Spimisb 
Uflitquea. Amustitaentfi ari> ^luioat n</. Now aur) tbeu %n 
amaif^ur thatttricMl porforonauco takes plocD in aii old cbiircb 
that bus beeu converted iiito a thcutri?, but during tbo wholo 
of my it'sid^'iico no profeflaional company evi^r ;}erfi>rnic<b Uatls 
are ipvon wX, times by privnte persons, hut the rnloN of moumtug 
are so etrict, aiui the people so iutermiunoJ, that the doath of 
auj li?Hdi(jg meinW of eociely oflj^u put-^ a sinp |<> pri>[t']W3d 
^oiy. The Ulic^ pafe a ^^f\X deiJ of their timo in the 
4ibunTbe^ and tbe iiif?ii i^iUmr visit or nmkii up parties of 
rooambur or quadrjlll, the ^me of carda knovm atoonfr onr 
iuicwiton« iu xXxf. I&U Century, in tlit^ir uwu botuti^. At tiini^ 
when tbe Prosiriont is in ihe capital, th& regimental band iday« 
in the creniogj* on tho *■ INoisa.'* and on lare orrasioirs the Plo7a 
tH buurdiMl ntiiEid^ and bidbfl^htH or rather bull-Uiitinj^ lakes 
pl&co. In tho last that oerurrerj, two or three dnmken Indians 
nnd lialf'bri'i^lA (vho hitd trnhiliKc) DuUHi courage) were gored 
to death aniidat the exelainatlons of tbo epoet^tore. 

Tho cbolo or baJf-broeil raco (for no pure Indians T^iide in 
Snere) o<*ci]py tbomaelrei cblony in trude, tailoring and car- 
ITcmlvruii; hciu^ tbr?i most fa>x»urjte (there are alsi} [Vime ^hxI 
alTorsmichi;). Thoyan^oKii rulon[iur:bnioredocilo and lew tiir- 

214 Musters' Nt^t^ on BoiivM, Uf m^r^iptiny Ort^itAl Hojn> 

btiWt than Uii£ dAngctrnm eltrmont f^m*raUv J< in othor parts 
of llio Ht|)u!JiL\ biit ATv as unuftl vcrv druutf ii, immoial, and 
improTJilent, ll ik n provp-rli thron^li tbo lifpulJii* lluit n-vo- 
lutiou co&ai.4t^ in Suvro ^ «lktiitiiix v^^ in other pjtrt^ i>r 
thootlug. KaAt4^r we^Jt iu Siicro in a scime oii(« ol)sprtod 
nevci to bo foi^ctttoD. Tbo ammwoicQU of Uut hftlf-brMdii 
tuiif.nig on ciii« Aide i]i-i]ikmj% niuaiHL dxiefly ui 0(xiL-fighCiiif% 
Dattk-K^yals nith «l]n|Z^ fln<l cton^, playing fiYVS^ and an« or 
two otbcr ga&ic»> Tin* cUmah^ of Sucre is Ttry o^rmble; it 
oomM uud(?r tlu'-hitadof t^iik|jerAle,&]idefiJoyin[; the immediftio 
pruiJBiity of Vu]l<i.tlKinarki:l is well prOTiuofl with tropiciilfniii, 
il1w> \vi1h |nj|n(cji'[i iLud otlor Tr(p4:uih^s(, [trodm-tionf* iVum tlio 
immedmlo nei^Libombood. Potoai, situat^rd 60 mil^ distajit 
nnd U* tJL4t Kiv^ nnd nliout 42l)() fiW. Iiighrr Uwn tin? mpitoJ, in 
moDQoniblti for i1« lUKJotit hislor>', and the iuunomio woalik in 
tulver ore tfkk«D fLuiu it« Ceiio, estiotaled by Cortes lo l)aT« 
prodnct^tl uptvATiIx of i;2:^G,Ut}0,CO0 fiNfrling. It w «t proc*nt 

Jjicr paJmy dnys liont^Ced ovor 175,000, No fnly m BoUriit liv 
crcd HO miioJi LJtri>ijgL civii witr both pnwioiu to mid vnbte?^ 

eut to the (leolumtion of tndnpi-ndE'Uf e ; th» suburbs are & 
tDaS9 of ruin»> ^^alno tnc^niinicntf, howcn-flr, still rcmAio of Imt 
furuHir rit^icB^ wbldi njipcnr (u Oefy Infill litun ai»I iwtiiutum. 
Of theso the priricijiiid aro the roeervoire for snpplyinp n^ter to 
the Hty, nnd powi r to work the M;\Tnp niill^ tliirty-two in 
nimibe]^, cciiifttni<.'l«d at the oust ol thrco niillkou dolkr^ by tlLa 
t^paikifih GovcnitDoiit. Tho Jkliot. u stout* building. occapyiiL£ 
ar 4jntin' blrx^k in tli<^ c^ity, tin; b(Uin:« for which womdmggcd 
by oxtu from t]l£^ far diHtftnl woods ot Tucuman. coai^tnicted 
in ir>G2 At II i^wt of citf^r n niilbnn dolhirq. inid thfi Chiiroh of 
the Slutriie, which for itd p'juid ruic) Kimpt^ bc^mty i4 porlupi 
uiiMurpur«ed iu Si/utli Aniciiuji. 

Tho HmiiU l^iwn of Cimi, drpiirtmont of Oliaqufeo^iL, i% «Ltiuit«d 
iiboiit 100 luiltfl s. frtJlu Siicrr? iind SO luilcn fn>in VmU^i', it iB 
impoHfttit lor it« vineyariis, which mipply.the wLolo of tho soith 
cf tho llr^pub)ic with wino. Xupi^a aod Tarija are ctof^oly ooci- 
n64^ted bj- mei'canliloro!Qtioiiswitbthc»»eiglibouring Arg'entliMj 
ConfedciatioQ, end aro uctablo, Tho former for tJio rirh raiDes 
in Its ifiiMiiir.y and the lallt^r for its pnifuni Vfgirtotiim, U>Ivwm, 
and tho immeiifio foF>Jik lojiee discovLVcd thi-ro. 

SantAOru^^dehi t^k-rniMipplies cofloo, BUfL'ftT, lijliaccu, &c, for 
the production of wbit?lt itfi int^^u&ely tropiojil nlimnit? \^ admirably 
suited, to tho oth^i^ piirt of t^ie Ifepublic ; tho jHipiilutiijn hmxt 
been engaged in revcJutionary mw^mente during tbe In^t six 
iBc&tha, and by tbo latest udrtces^ order was not rostotcdi 


ThUl^Tlcus' If^ttm on Bolivia^ to 4if<f&n}pany Original M^^. 2\ 

Tb& thK« moRt thrivini* itii<3 populons citios firt> ^rlaiiilj 
tiiOM nilnnlpd ou thr li^^rtJi of thu Republic. La !*«, 
lying in a bnfriii alreadv desorlbed, coaliimt. it U aai<l, a 
popiilntitn of ^il.UOti, chtfly JndJons ftud haif-brocds of the 
Aimurti ra<r&, SitiinliH] v\<wt^ t» f^e Ti(]f<ac-», nml tommnui- 
catin^ u'Ltii the Pnno aad Molleiido railway by coacb ftnd 
riiwuirTtp it w vAvy of rifwiw tii frir^'ignetB, and the city i* |iro- 
groflairjg in spite of all obatadt^. It if tk» omponum of Wxi* 
cJiiDcbona-bark, vrhirrh tbe caeranlleras collect in tlie Ibrdfile of 
tho DuNUm «Ioi|»eH of i1j« Curdilk-nL T\x" olimntA koitMiiiO*! 
BO htiiltty tbal Chijiiir;& nud i'eni>iiiiis euffcrixiK from phtbini^ 
reaort fno thi« i^ity uu if tn it fULTtiiljiriiim, 'J*)ieT^ »n^ twn nr 
tiiree liotck. gt^od butliH* and pubfii? wolkft, mbiiLtAitiiM) vdxXi 
tiTiiim&l neatrri^M unJ^-r tlie cbargeof ^n Italinn. OtK-liaL<Htriba. 
lyiti^to thftcnatb^rvutof LitlWfttn l<>vnl of ^000 fo<^t, imiciTK n 
liwiiitiful i^liuiftiti- T!i« iub»biUiitlNr miiidwrmj^ 40,000, rbjrrty 
half-breeiieof Ibo Quirhim mce, are iiidiwtriotw anH Ibritinp, 
thoLigb n*Jt renowticd for bonr^ty nnd ■gbrir'ty. An cnUTprisini- 
Ameri'^aD Arm, Meflsrs. Havitaiid and K^yp have many veal's 
tQaintaiDod a line of coachce niniiiTLg ti> the tici§;hbonriD^ iowitn 
of Olt^A hud Anmi. nod lut iihiviI tUii ddvelopinAiit vf goad 
transport bae tcneAtod iho li>a«lity< 

t.lnir»> ill notnblf^ rbi*.'fly f^r thp rir'b inine8 in itj^ n<jigIiljoi3i" 
boikd. but i\\is tov'ii JiaJ muHi^m^mI ao mueJi in tbo van and 
numoraun levolntions tbat tbo pcptilation baA mAtcrially de* 

Time doc« not pormit mo to treat of the varitnie projeds 
which nrv nik foot for d^^v^opinc r<tiv in<«niis of <*otnin;iikK!ntioa 
£0 &«onttjJ to tUu pT(>KTi'e«* <)1 tlir; ooufitry; or of tLo ostivo 
itiiliiHtrferi, \^bioli. irme4<i], Houn.-^Ly deM^rve mM:itiiftr, ex'-i^pt tluit 
of mining, a subject too extensive to bo hondlod t»ti tbiit 
iKT4utiiin- Boliviii in a [iiimtry ^ilb n biiUiHiit paxL, aiul. if »hI1 
governed, a ppr^bably prosperous future. No i^ther slato in 
South AoicricA is endowed by nature with ecpial refli»JK!f^4, ai*d 
to ;iti]iiro tho^e flhe poueve^ u numorou^ population of iadnfi- 
trioue Indians, vvboeio labour at present is not tiimr^d to 
Kiiffioicnlly puid jif-fwtiut *iithtT for lli^^mneWe* or tbr*tr viwiuvts. 
liotli Quicbudd and Aimanin. undor ^ccoii admrni^rittioT), woulc) 
jirorn inrjilimblr* flithnr oa fniltivntxim or i"iinir>*. Jn bpir tropccjil 
vallcyn, (Xittoti, ^fffw, iiidi^>, tbf vautlla boan, lobft00H.i, su^rar^ 
caue, iiidiri-iubbi^r. diiut^beiia-Uirk. aud variola olber vntnablo 
veo^etablii pridnctiong exigl. Ln ma&y pluci^u tbe^ are not 
cnltivutod, fur tbo nimpk reason Ibat^ frum the ineffioiODC^ of 
the prf(4ent means of eommunioatton, markets a» utaocmiblo 
and machinery' cannot b« erected en the estatee. In the 

temp^ritft region vo Ihove nil Tl^iroptuiii fniilA and ccKcJ^ but 
the Indians, e«[iecia11y tho^e in ooni'tnir»itii?s *''* ^'^t j*nltivftl« ai 
tithe of tlm Ifimf ibftt thr7 miglit, owiii|j chKlljr to tUii rtipflcityJ 
of tlie curn-j id otv-Jt auJ L-Hjllwrtort* uf tnsi-K, j 

I hoaM iii ouo oaso of a, miiifitLifioeiit harvegt en iho froDtliN 
iif tlir PrdTiTLon ^f Olmijiiluini, >vIipm* l»ulf« <*n>j« were DoM 
&ven li&rvoM4.<(l, £is xhii owDor of fho o-^tate did rtot tbink Jtl 
would {«y to M^ud bis proiJucc to the cApitnl, nnd bt? bad ingJ 
milk on uic jir>|]<itty. | 

But tbd taiiiemi riches in UolJru nfo or ought to be her > 
jnAbutny -. gold, Httver, copper, tin, antimony, liivmutb, Al^^«^^iat 
over ftimoBtftll tho country, Th« wiiver-ores are wondorfnily 
ridi, It i» suffitTieot to uanie llie minea of Portugjilrtc iti 
OliJchftH, Lib Kiva in Pototii, Colquccbjicii nud Oruru. hH of 
which aiu (jrixluriitg ndily, yt^t il uil) ML-iirci>]y he credited tlut 
good nouov, i.9^, ^ood elGrlin^ coin^ doL^e uot exut in ihoj 
country. The truffle in niuh*J!i wiHj the Argentine provinces in 
bocomin^ enialler every year, chiefly o^viug to the faj-t tiiut thn 
importers cAzinot c:ct paid in atcrliog coin. The ntinl in Fotou 
i«orked by Hl<«iiiii-[Miw4ir, l« out of order, and the Govemmem 
bftvo not ^iftioient fuiHl« in tho exchoquor to put it \x> rifrhuji 
ftt I«jwl, MxA\ Ik tin* I'MmH*^ friv»?u; wben^ns thf^^ htvsv auiljcii'iit^ 
monoy to clothe und ^rm a mi>b of i^oldiere, uLo ecrvo morxiLjr ' 
for theatrical show and Ibr tb^ intiinidatioD of these who objecb 
to the pro£(?]it rule*. 

The real s«:ret of the poverty of Boliria Hea in thcrcvohi- 
tiouary spirit of th"|KvjplH,whiuljap|iettra to be cauatd partially 
by the y'-iira of civif war [jrcTious to Ihc War of Indcpcudt-nco. 
«iid prLrtiully in a Eovit orrhAiigii nml i^xriEr^mrnt. ri>Tnbmi?d widi 
tbo liict thut iTvcryhody ntintii u pottt iindtr Government^ and 
coDscqucLtly those out of i>o^ci are bitter onomic^ of tho 
vtislJDtf Giiviirnnjunt. Th" rtmrdy for Ihiii, iiidewl tlxL- attlidotu 
to rebellion, ii to bt< found aa ha^^ boun shown more especially 
in tho Argentine Conf^do ration, in inr^rtaised and swift meaiu of 
eominunicationr which would ulso afford ucoapation tor many 
idlers who nre loady to embrace auy i^pportuLitty of bettering 
thomeelvee by rcvolntion. 

Failing unch renit?diii! measiires, it appears more than pro- 
bable that fiooner or later tho lEepublic will ht' disint**qraf'«^ 
and ber territories parcelled out amnn^t tho nt-rglLbutjr u; 

C il7 ) 

,. — Noti9 on tome ^fiht Phj^ieal ami Of^^iraX FmUmm^ 
ifie TraMWUdt i^ iMwnp<iny hra nf^w Map o/dc Trarunsatil ^nd 

TliH now Mup of tho TrajiBiviui], comprlod by Uio writer on a 
^ca.1^ cif 1 : 1,850,000, oompri*^ nil tlio terrilory between 21.^ 
and ifU° s. lat and ^3* and -JH* h. long^ Ihiw inclniin^ tho 
^Hliii ^IJfu'Hrt anil ;i i^ihhI imrU^ui ol llitt MauIn^U tniiiritryr 
the wboltv of the n^w oolony of GrinimlfLnd West iDiamiCiEd 
FioliLi), tt Hiiiull <:i>riirrr of tlir f'jipn Oulrtny, t\w gn-iUcr pitut^ of 
UiQ Orange Frei> Statft and vi Coduto Lfuid, tie oolony of Natal 
down to Otirbau, and the whi>lo se^'coa^t from Uarbon to 
t^Angca T^ay, iucladtng lhi> Tiirritorieii <iccn|>it^cl hv l\u^ Zulu 
and Amaloiiga tnl>ea, ond a snidU poriiua ot tUd Portu|fueH<> 
poDKrusionH nn the t^vft OimAt. 

On tlie iiiuigjn of tlio Map arc initort/nl, vis^, a filan of tho 
(owiii4]iij.i of ro-loriJi, tlie neiil, of llit* Tr^uHvuHl (luvf nimt^ut ; 
in pinn of Locmmfo Marquee, tho soflpnrt of Pplflfjoa JI*y; a 
keoiiliiitmtion cif MaucliV Huulo ax iur il-* i^iinbriljy<% >vjtli n " Vibvr 
|0f the lluins " dUooverBd h\ him ' a Tabf<^ of DistuDuea through- 
out iho country, mostly token by trocbia meter ; and another^ 
Wiowirj^ ihe diJiiim^j^ imd allitudL-n of the projootM ritilway- 
Jini? from Dcliuroii Bay to thy^ Dn*kon§borff, 

Tilt'. iniMy^rn[\h\ of ilir Mh]5 \in% )ti\i-n rjtn-fitllv rompib'd fmrn 
tho osplunitiotifi ii M^udi, Ilohr itnd HUbuLT, baiaos, Erakiiie, 
C»tpt> I^Ef'^n. Hr. Ci:ih4fEi, &c.,and the routd-iDa|M and infi^rmaLton 
fiiniiKlKid by (JoL ('oJli>y tmd R. T, Hall, combined vrith my 
Oiwu {jlf^tr\utioijfi diirjtig fiileen yeara' reudt^ncti in Uin ci>untTy.* 
From tbG routesof thenniDfitoaxtrav«'Uer«who havo explorwl 
■tht? RU9tr-rn piirt, of Sonth Africa, tho iollowuig have bron cm- 
"bodied in the Mhji:— SV V. Er*kine. F.K-<i.rt,/ ISGS und 1^72; 
E. Mohr ai^d A. iiiit'Dcr. IH6C-it^70: Captain Elton. r.iut.4„ 
1870; C. MaiitK, 1^61*-I^;Tl ; T, Bninc^s v.ilh.h,, 187I-1S73; 
C. F. Ufibonio, 1872 : Dr. K. Cobon. 187i ; U->loaol Colley, 1876 ; 
ip- Hojjn, r.R.O.N», Iti73: Boine of which ap]>car f^r ibo finnt 
t]m& in a 31ap of South-c^ai^m Africa* 

TLq vroflli>ru |»irt(jf Uii-^TraEisvEml has been compiled according 
to tL(} i>&-ff]ki}t anil KD(Mt rclickbbi (jbHuTvatigiM of Eil^itrd 
iH(;hr, uf which ti lidt appcara in hid book rcoantly pulliihoi in 

■ .1 ri>srtt lluit Ur, Hnkii»'« lup of hli jannitjr to Unuilay in IHTl, hu Dot 


Jeffe'j iVofe* on ftfln* r/ tJte Phtfncal and 

Gernmny/whnhforOtnrv'iitml, mkrt1ifTrii,>tTKli<iixl(*rup»rUof llii^ 
IWifTTanl, the obsormtiQm of K^iich, Mf>od]e, Erskinr, C«|itatn 
Bftmlun, it.K., (Vc. liave beea H<loj>ti^1 ; thr* HMa-rnjiNl wn«t taken 
from Uie old map of J#ppo And yUti^DiYy^ To^oonstTticte^ wod 
nii^m<i&ted bj Di. I'elerruann m It^G^S, ootrecW by t!io ]At(;dt 
obAfirvutiOEii; oi DeUt^ ^*yj vhila n niimW nf oilier ni^i|w, 
ootnpilod aTid fiublbtlicMl by l>r. Pe!«rmanTi, have bftan vuod in 
tilt* JHjw jniMiratl<>D. 

Physical C*»N^cioiiATiox, 

dlr^a* — Acoorclm^lo n Frnigli plflnimdrloftl t!a]culattun of the 
now Mnpof tlie Transvaal, llie pret^ni terrifory oompriHen an aiv« 
of abf>ut I15,U(W Knglieh sqiTitro miles. Oamparwl with 
area of the utii^-libcinnug Sutnt, vlx. : 

Cape Colony . . . 195,S77 Englisli eqnftro mileo, 
Basiito Loijd . . . 8,4ol „ 

Cri(|Uu!uu<J\y<«t . 1C>'!2 „ 

Orange Free Stale. 42.477 „ 

NftUl 18,751 

it appe»^fllhntt^?T^an«vnal iflroarly twfvthird* Iho tm* of tli* 
Oape CoJfmy, and rcJtTly :ilP,OW eqiinrc miW lonror than 
BiiHiita ]iHiid, Grttjimlhtid Wesl, llip OmiigK Fn-r Hluti-, Anil 
Natal added to;rothi>r. 

Of Funjpiiftii 8iHl4^K| tb>^ Tmn^^jiHl in v«fy DmHy tim uxo at 
Gmit BriULiu and [Maud, and about tho flame «ixd ai tlie 
kingdom oritalv, 

Boundariex. — Thr^ tj»rritorv nf llio TranitTaal U wit unt<*fl betwocn 
22^ 16' and 28^20' s, kt. an'd 25' Itf or 26^ and 3ii" 1^ K- loiuf. 
On tlip tinrtli »iid mirt,li-we*t., the Limpopo or CmcfKlilrt ItU'Or 
dJTidvtft It from tbt? Mutubclu ociintry and Uatcben'e territory ; 
on ihtt t44il, tliit lA>boiiilMiMoiiiiljiirH 3e|iitrabi^ it from fli'^ I'oitQ* 
gQOM poffieHeionA, UmRJIa'e cotiniiy ot Cmfin, and the Amai^DOii 
tnbft; oa the KoutWri.Hr. it Ia U/undf^l by j^ululand and the 
coloDV of Nalal; on thi? south, iLe Vaal Hiv<»rnnd iU tribntiiy 
the Klip form the boundary between the TmnvvLtal and the 
Orange Frt^o State ; a^ the veslem and south-western bonndnrj^ 
th6'lranef%flalclair»aaliiir fi>rmed by tho Notimni Kivirr, thcaco 
to th*^ KmiyimniiHillKjKiul alonjr Ihr wt^f.i-ni Wiksof tfie Hurts 
River down to wliere It joins tliL* Vnal in Jat. 2'S* 2S' «- nnd 
long> 3i4'^ 42' n. Tliis InHude* a ronsiderAble aIW of country 

* Hi>h7. K„ - Xdfli dvu Vi^^lijrbfiLlli.^ d« Zuubcd; 2 tqU Bnh, 608 pcM; 

G&?lo^icai jFeaiuru <^ ih« T'rartm.'aaL 


in <iupato between tljc lute Kopublit^ and tbo British <i^)v«ni- 
menl, ftceordinsrio thp nwarrl of the lata Oov^rnor Kr^jji of 
Niitol^dulcd 17th ^1 Uct<i(>cr, 1871. The two iirw* with whioli 
tilt? TrunHvaml iitmirsi in (*uiil»i'l, iWH^uriliji)' It> ibis aviziMi aio 
^vt^n in U)c Mup ; but &« most of tli^ Jocatitke [noiUii:>L^<^ in tlio 
AWfiii] i:»nnr>t ln^ jLAiTr^rliitntttl rin iiny y\i\t\'is\u*A mcip, llio ddlutu- 
tioci of ttie bouutlikries must bo eonAiUt-red oaly approxtmiLl^. 

Tbcjfi^' line, tonain^ the cAAtcrn bouD<ifbr^ ot tlc^ t«TTitoi7 
itwanlod to tln> BuEi^viiikeUir Bandotj^, und Batlttpin trib^y 
coruEU^accs at tLc ^'otuani. and nii^a in a airaight lino U'r^irly 
ju^nT.liwitnl 1x\ Kiiiimlmlntra, ^r pomt vn'tnt^ tViJtUim'x^ In Ibif we:it 
of ZL-eiiiet (Marieo), and a I'uw iniloti norfli-wcat ci Bunrmana'^ 
Drift on tJir^ Mnti>]M !U\er : the iio«» dnn' etvii u> Monis^i lui okl 
iDfMion-«tutiou, ubciit 7 milt^ noulli of Zt!tJruwttiLourl£<t 0ouro«< 
of the Kloin Uanco Knet ; theuc« tho line runs in a sontli* 
w««C9rn iliiv^tton alon^ th*? vra^gon-rcad Wding tn T/itlitkruio 
tis far ikd Bnnrmann'^t iJrift; o^uii eoBt. oIoil): tli» Kjilopu liiver 
to its wmroe ; tlienei? sontU-^^aU pnat iJie sonr^'^ii of i3nrU Rivit, 
iK^ar LtchUinttnri; to a. point near Tnoiboah Sp niit ; und uguio 

0iDUtii-wu<l. l<i {ill? KfJurtWH of rlir^ MnkvrriFii SjiiitiU Or Poj^'oi^i. 

&&d clown this spruit to its janctian with the Viml. 

Thti Mefcmtl Una iRRiittimM nUiTc^. fi>nuing thit fwitiini iunin- 
dary of tlie new proviiic^d of Gnaitaland We«t, riuii M>ti!i 
l^mnli on the narttiern lank of tie Omo^ lliTtir, iOUth-eMt of 
Hopaiowfi, in a iiortU-t'n*loni dirtM^tJon to Diivid'* Griif> tjbflr 
thejunotiou of the Modderau^i lti«t Kivcw; from Unvid'aGmf 
in ;t northrrti liirtiHion to PiIll^M^^g on ttir* HiulhiTii bnnk of 
VuiJ llivtr o|>p>oeiirL* HoLrou; wnd frura Hatbcrj; ui^rtJi-wcfet 
iir u stt'aigikt liiiL> to a mmi north ol' hoetunp, ititiialtfd on ihf; 
Uorth'^'mtcirn bunk of Hnrt^ KJvitr, &c. Thcub) Hn«t waro pro* 
elftirnt^ bv t^jr ilenry B«rklv, Uoremor of tlio Cape Colony, 
on tho 27th (jf Oclobflr, 1*^71 ; but fl<>?ordiii^ to ibo azroement 
Itttf^Jy enti^rml into b«twnMi the ^xr\ of Cnmrtrvtrn nod iVoitident 
Brand, dated Loiidmn. L3tl>of July, 167l», the dispute^ a4 far aatiie 
dnim of the l"'ivc 8tAto to tho Diamond h'icl'is i9 cou?Gmrd» hait 
bi9t*a fluttHy M'ttled hv ihr! nduptim) of thi* lullnwtii^ Iitic. \]^ :^ 

"The frontier shall bo known anJ rfcopni^ad horcafWr by 
a line dmttn hum Tinma (Fimniain), juLwnijr tlinni^li Davtdn 
Graf (oloae above the jnncUiin of the Kiel and Modder lli^'er^), 
to the bi.iacoD filandjiig en Tarantaal Kop (and marked 1^ 
Bo Vdli^nt on th» map riffurrtd to htrmttUr) ; th('n<*** b]F a 
etnu£;ht line at ri^'Ut tkuy:iv& tu tb^^ lino from llavid'a Graf 1« 
thf< Hnmmit of Plufbirg, and from the |»oint "hcri> thfr two linrai 

Join tbcneo to tho Humimt of I'iatbtrg; thi'OL<u in a ^raigbt 
jne to the point marked ti on the said Jllf ap on tJie River Van], 

2S0 JufPET J NoUs on s&mv o/' ik^ Ph/acal ajtd 

ineludiafi; the whole of tli^ pla'/c tiKiwn jw Iho XKamcmd 

Tlitf i|iif'diuii witli llie TnuiHvaal re^rJing the tine from tlie 

Biinl lufiikcd U <'ii the VanI Hivcr ti* tim Hiirtc BiP(*r tad 
LK!iMLp, niul tlu^ Miikwiuii FpniiL line, I'Kiiiiiiijfl »tUi imflctUnL 
Th& Itvjjubliean Govo»ruiiiGiil repudiaied ilm ft\^mrd, an'l ilie 
SIUOQ lia» only been pfutially maintained by Qm-r^nior Barkly 
sIbco hli proelmnntiou of ISTI. Tu the menntirie, thi» Tnuw 
vaat Go7oniiiiL*iil Lua tblained cessions of the tomtory bdwijon 
KIuKv^iMi Spniit jkuil t\w PlutU'rg lim< TniTu llit? Diiraloug 
and Uatljipiu ltih<.% to whoio tht^ land waa ttwordod* 

Oil tbc t*«Mem b(>tmd;iry of the TmiiB^^wi^ it will b« atM^n thai 
l\i& territory of tluf AmucAEUtL triiv hoM boeu lEictcdKl in thft 

general bound^iry uf ih^ Tmc^vdjii, A treaty mlcrfd into 
otweoi) till; Late RepuUi<? and th& Amaswib^it «tii!i^s tlmt thi^ 
tribt referrt-d to, allhougb relatnirtg llw? " frt-a flud unliniitcd 
jxiHw^sion " of tlie lands aM^gnt'il to it, and freu jiirUditrtitiu 
ucoorling to iit* own lniv's> binds it^lf to bccomo " eubjoota and 
obeilient Hervunta'^ of iIil* TEtiii?>v>i:it- 

Acrxoxiing to a proclamaticn publiehod in tho * 8taatA Counnt' 
of the TransvuuL,^ the tini? dt'lluJng \hv tr7ri-it4irj ciHai^ued <0 
the Aniaflwaai Iribe (iti the trcsaty refi^Ti^d to) rxmit from x 
point below the lowor poort of Komati in the li*ibi>inbo Moiii^ 
taJnv, aouth-vrr^t uloag a, lUH-k of Govcmmeut farrT^K to tlw 
caetcrn lint? ti New Scotland, and uUnij; this and \.hc- '^ l^ndmn" 
Jinu aonlliward to a beaoon south of th** Mu:iuiin or Zi'iideiiftya 
Kiver; thence in n straight lino dnr eiwt to tbo north pomtof 
a hi I J railed Cmknakueni; theD(?e«'aKt hy north tolLifLoljoRiho 
Moutktainn, and nlong tbi^ mouataiti-riLngt^ uorihward to tlio 

With refiTenop lo ibo honndaty div-iding the 'i^rAnavaa! from 
^ulnJund, it nia-it be ^iVservcd tliat, arc<^rdin^ to thi^ old treatt^ 
ent*»rrtd into with tho ZaIm.J a great portion of Ziibilnnd, in- 
eluding t^, liticia IW. was cQde<l to the immigmnt f/jnuerit 
uud It wa8 litipnUlr^d thut tho t^ointlry should tiut b& oL^LrTiuied 
•t oace ; bat that certain tracla <tf Land ^ould bo bc^conc^u off 

Tfnfcty with Miuinii Rift Tuiiihnah^ ^irpi-i-iiir CliW nf thn KfimiiTiA nntiiini. 

~ CbhcllaLiB. titJi Diwunibur. Itn2. 'i'mity tvlth Mutiotc, E^up. Chict of tlw 
Danknif^ tinted UatjarU BUd. Ui Jul^. iSTlt. 'Vrvtly with ^UAtbooc Doi]^ 
ait»0jSapHCh^cfo1tb< Bntlnplni. Jakti UlIi l>cwmbfr, 1^3. 

t Tputy vJth L'mbauiUEil, chivi of Hm AffiMmoHJ IriLti At Lotltif lit Julj, 

I fiMTPniriwiil imllm of Artina Sfnlr t*wrptafy, ilktrd Prutorift, I7ll» Aiiinut, 

f TpmiUm nilti DingruD, Jnl PcLniArT, l»:iS. nuU l^JiU Ha^. IWU' Tn*ti«* 

Osolofficcl Fstiturfs of thn Trcnti^aal. 


d ocrpupioil from timo to tttn^, iL(?conIii>e to the* viah and 
f-^qiir*! of Xhf 'vjijqurrorw. Hut when, in aitrr ycnni, ft jilicc of 
ti!rniory, coEitftiuing some 40 Tariua of 15(XI acres oaeL, won 
" inspected " and bcncona dctiDcd, the ph^ont Zulu chief Ivot^h- 
wnyi) <li)b|iut»il lli« old treiiti^Jt, mid rolvdd objtjoiiuuft to tbu 
cciiif)Ution of the faxtnei 

An will Ix^ ^vn on thn M^ni, ttio Vm^* r^jttimU nloDg tll» 
Ijt)boniL>u MouritttWR, from vihc*v& iho Xapnta Eirer iMii«rg?» 
in liil. 1!6'' t50' s., to tlio Toaj^la, where thifl rivor bnmka 
through the I^obonibo ; Ihenc^ in n straight Iiu't ivo4i>«(>utU*wo9t 
to the hipliefft point <^f the iuuutiUiu tutllL-d ChocujSeua. or 
Znngin Nckt from t)iis p>int in a HriiitTi-wct^tom JjiectioD, 
cro-^ing the White Umvolasi to a liigh ruuf:^ called Nouto, or 
1iig[itiIi.E, to cf>rl4Lin beacons eri?ct€id in 18^4, aud alout^ the 
8oiith-m*Bt'-'irn side of As^f^ani'f Kloof to Ronrkr'v iJrtft, oa 
lh(^ JJufT^dci Uiv<!r, the Nntul b'^Liiidnrv^ 

The boumkrvdino snpftrating tli<> t'onnf^iipfi^* poaapSBiona on 
tho coflt ^-oaat from tht? FrHUfiviml, jw'rording l« thr tu-jity will 
Portugal,! bejijins or* the Lobombo Jtan^e, at the Maputa rirer ; 
thence nortbwnrd nlcm^ tho highest rid^ of thi« rnn^ to tho 
poort of ihti Koninti lliver, wUerij iIiia river flowa through tJw 
Lob«>iDbo ; tbcrjco north to Tokiono e Kop, on tbo north eido of 
Olifftiil* Ttiv4ir, l<j (he nrntr^t point uf Sf*rm di Chicnndo on 
lh<j Limvabu Kiv^sr; and from thiH point in a etrai^ht Imcr to 
the JTiiicliiju uf ihi; Vufuti (J.iiuYubii) with the liimpopa 

The louiidnrifia tif iho twc?Ivfl diiln*?ti* or provuii^fj* of th<^ 
TmunvtA} a|^icar for the fimt tiixj*^ in a pi.ihlishcd map, and 
may possibly not b<* quite correct, owing to ihn [1iEli(Mll;^ in 
o^rcrtaining ivomc of Iho plaooi mentioned in the |irO(.Linijitioas 
iiTii) inMp>^ defining the iineR, They an?, tJicreforp, subject to 
future correction* 

l^-fuH' [»iMiu|< im to miolh'^r siihjftd^ I may aa wrll mt-riticm 
here a eircumetuni^o in oonneoticm with the map published by 
lh^ writer aod Morcnsky in JStiy.wliich hu Intrly bt^n referred 
to iu Qi*rrain SootL Albican pitjit^rs, a^ an additional proof that 
the territory claimed by tho Cliiaf t>ekuWniii did aot belong 
U> th(f TmUKvaal, an tha map rvferriHl to ^^a Kiijiposoil t(\ 
exuludo it 

Ta compiUng tho map m l^fV^, Ihn writrr niniltf use of ft 
rou^b dketoh of the oafdvm part of tho country supplied to 
btm by Mr. Uereuaby, wbo was well anjuaiuttu] witli that 

■ Amirding In a t>toiT|ii(niiti<iii nf jirliiig prrviHi-nt JonJicf', 'JMh Mnv, iffT^. 
t Trail) *'tfiiflurliHl wUh Vi»<'oiiiiE rnipnt, JVlntin, KSlh Julf. IB*©; r»tl- 
£pduid cidiaatii^cl vn lUlh July, ItfTl, tbraii jovt. 


Jr.lTK'^ Ndf^ en Mtiie efthe n^*ic<tl and 


r^JMrict, and had rwodn^ for four younr oj m miAioiuurT m 
thi.- territory now claiuMl hy KekuKunL In tluA ftketcli a 
oqIoiii^J line waa tnerdy drawn to show the Utritor^ tbra 
occufii>rd by KrkLikiini^^ and cllii-r njitivo tribn^ in vhtch no 

wh'tUi KiATi iKiiA tlieli AOtUiLH) Mettled Thla liue HUft deRii«4 

in tlio rom but at the aam^i timo a straight lino duo Dortli 
froJli lJj» t)ntkt-np(lerg tu tlin ljjn|H}<H> wiih iiimrtntl Ui ii^w 
the ^«7i<rrci/ bouLdAry of the thett uHaayutwi territory of tlM 
Trt;ii»TW, In f<in>o of the majJN. cneiiivcd Mid colourwl in 
Eitropo, the iH^t'iDcntioned ar>rtliiv&r<l Luuudur^'-liuo a|ij>^aied, 
ivhil<i it ^os ocoittod in other copiffL A nuiubcr of luaptf, com- 
\)'iM hy Mnneh utid ulhi^rv ufliT 1?<(ES, ndntiiA'd riToni^(»iuljr Lho 
cobm^ lini^ d^linin;; tho abovTi-uii^titioaL'd ueaire JocaiioiiB as 
tliu gcnonil. hoiindftrv of thn TrnTtsviLiil^ niid thus a niislAko nai 
oouliDti43cl imtii Mr. MerojjJty Koiilk'd it in his miqt jjpbliab cd ,„ 
[&»t >ear. ^Hrf 

Hydboobapey. ^^^ 

ifiu^rs,— Tlie two ]}riudpuJ rivers fomiinp: the AOUlWrit «iuJ 
aouth-«*eet iiud nortbem aod north -ivtat houndari«ft cf iii« 
TrftixAVftnl nri» lhi> Ky <iRrl*?p or Vnn! River, and tbo CfWo- 
dilr, hfVtwanl^'i <-40loa th1^ Linifjopo. Uori, Bcrrope or Bonab^ 
Mitt, and Inhampoora. 'V\w Vnjil Iliver rigee in tiie I)i>tkei3- 
htrg Han^o to tho vn-^t <it' Nrw 8cc>tUnd. TLi> tnic mid cLicf 
Fii>iiri;t< uf tli!« rivrr vrjui fur rttJiciv vear^ the FtulJrvL uf dutputo 
Ixlwo^n iho Irausvftjtl and tho Urnn^o Fruo 8tat^, until finally 
n^rorrrd tii iind iIooidL-d by Uiti a#iinl i^f thi; bit«» (vovctrDor 
Keat« of XfitoL* Tho TiAnwanl claimed the Wil;*6 Kiver, t^o J 
mofft Bouthcm hmnch of the Vaal, ns tho bound^nr; and Iho fl 
I'reo State thti Likwn or Kapok Itiv«r, th& moiti ijortfi^rn bruunh " 
of tho Vaah (^ovornor Keatc cboeo iho Dicdium botweoo tko 
IwTj, nrd (ii^J'hin.d Guii§ \nfy, » *"i:ill livuh'.t, ri«mir on fJia 
uortbern i>xtrumil> of NaKil and Uowiiif* into tho hUv Jiivco 
to }ft^ tho boTindary Wtvp^Pim tho two Btati^a ; tl^'uce along tlia 
KJip Rivor to itji mnetion with tho Vaal. 

Jbrom tit? cuullut^uee of tb^ Kh'p Kirer vith tJie Likwa, cv 
KA|Yik, or Krom, which oaoli re(:!'dvo numorcus «inflU ]E^<rt]it^ 
ibo Vfud Uiver rcotivM tho foLlowiug tHhuturicfl. witbii tbe 
Trsiinvaal territory, fmn the nnnh : — Wiiterfa.ll, Knlk 8pruil, 
Ziiiltorboslmuid uml Kiip tiiviiv, Jfjot Spritit, Klond S]'riiitj 
En3E^l« .Spruit. Muci Hivttr with ]A}up Spruil. MjitrhaTiH S[iriiitf 
Kookoinocra Spniit, trcUovu Spruit, Yaor tUprnit, Matjc-e^ood 
&|iiiiilt Kli'p t^pniil^ iitian and With' 8pniit^ AIokivoKJ Sproii, 
Baniboee Spniit and Uarta liiver. 

■ Awul oi UeutAnuit-nitviiriJikr KuU\ cljited P. Alarlltlnir;, IQLh Pub. 

O90icffical FtatuTfis nftha TVanirvail. 


A luKfi plal^AU, whic-li int4*r8ecte thd* cviiutrv from wed to 
cfifit, cfliicd " Uqq^g VclJt," Ibi-Dw tLc imter!(iK"-tl of the rirow 
riJiiiiuig KoLitl Uj Uiii \\ud liud tmrih Lu iLti Crcx-iftiild and JJm- 

th<: rivoTi^ ninniiis wc«t in the Vmu nud Ltiiipo|>o And coitt tc 
Ddu^im Buy uuif the eeft^oasL 

TIl- LimpopD rise* on tbo hifrhJaiid in tttaiwmnA KniKtM 
nnrlli of \Vilttur*.-r* Kjiiul. fluWh llirom^lj Un* Mn^«lk*sU-n^ lUiige 
between Comzuoudo aud MozillkataNckd, and Jlo'AiDg^rst norlV 
wrnt, tVir-n Kurtli-eiisl, luid, luli*r, rjiuil ami lumEHh'rjuit, rcnrivra 
tlio ful!owin{^ Iributariee cai iw left b^Eik: — Ma^alK^a Kiver, 
Sterkbtcuoiji, Hex oud Efoud Kivcrs* Fiuuck S^ruil, MnricOt 
NotUAni, Serarume or Surfiaauer M&biUujjaj, Lcbauii, SeruU, 
Sbusbo. Subye, and Nuaot^ttfi; whiLo tbo Jokcdtrrv, lion^op^ 
Srtudj Apies, H&DHans nud I'bil, Vltoit Pfvirt, SsumI, iUraJjiUii^ 
Pougola or ^oud, ralulu, Jiylolruoru or StftpiUquvOji* Hout, T^ve^ 
LiDivubii ir I'^fiiri, uiul llnally, lh« OlifliiitH Rivrr, wkb iu 
numcixiug tribuluriuE', join tlio Limjiopo i>a iUi ri^U Uink.* 

On tbb i-uateiu aide uffljif Traii§viLuJ tLu Sabie, aud Oxocixlilo 
or Ingn'onya, &iiJ Iwrnnti or Umkomat'i Hivon mo in tli« 
Dnikr-tt^bujf; iltui}^i% Uifvi' lUrDiiKU Ibi* LLilj(jiubo,aQd ULitd bmro&d 
this nLngi? into cup nvc>r, rjilI«Ml ili^ Mftcice, Manhissa, Slaa- 
hico, Urucomo^iuii, UuikouKu^i, Ublvraadb» or King Gcorgc'a 
Uivi-r, fiuwiiig mtt> th*^ uortUeru part of Dela^oa Bay, uppoaita 

Tin Utiiln?lLH(i ur IJuiviilut rhmt* mmth of tliti Kuiiinjj, at a 
bcigbt of 430U f^t above tbe lev«[ of the f^i-a. It la called 
here tUc BIai W Umbclcvii, oiid, iiftor boin^ joinrcl by nrwcrnl 
atuidler sti^ocaa. it rec^if^ea ih^ While Ilmbt'lcisi trojp tho 
eouth. ^ovfA tbrougb tho Ijobombo nL»^c, \» joiuod by tlio 
Miilolbu from tlit- mjrUi, mid diM*iiibt)j|;bi-M iiiio Dflitguu Biiy, by 
ati iitncr lay cr ostuarv. called JJondAfi or l^nglibh Uivei. ur by 
tho Piirtueiipmt *^ Uki du Kcjii^ritii Hmiki/' ur ^ Kiu i1l« Loiimrifo 
Marqae&' It iti nJoufc Xha b&ak« of Uuci hvor {a& tthuvra m 
iLo niAp by a htoken biic) that tho £jit lajJ^ay txumediti^ tlie 
TmiiAixual with iLtJ cfuct ocm«t in pri>foiii*d to ha ocii«trurt<4^ 
Tbu Umhdu^i in uuvlijablff with llftt-huttou)cd buftta for aJjuut 
'20 miUtH I'k thiT KiMv kraal l^mdKU 

Xbc T4;iubt', lining lu tJic L^bombo Muuiitaiiuv, and di^ 
cbftrging it^lf sl^ni idIo llii? Knglisb Uiv«ir, close lo the 
UtDoifloai, ill likc^wiio navj^abtc for tdnjxxt 6U miles up to a 
puiut alKJUt 15 iuilL-3 dUULiit fmm bdil^haa (Euhli^ca'A) knuiL 
This riTfr is entirely within thg Portuguece terrilciy. 

* Krtl(iii« tUtrii tbi'Jiin<-tinn of Ibfj OlifnnU Idior *llh tho l.lnipitpi to bo ia 

221 Jkfpk'i J^'i <m tome ofthr nyHf4tt and 

Vfo niyv oome to lk^ TnitQ or MApnU Rivor, which hmi on 
Uio Now ScolUtwl 6cttl<nnrnt nt (in nllitude of 5^50 ioct 
Tho diffcmnt triVntaries of tliis t'w^t consist of the I.itti^ 
Uwilu, Iiupdoow, Grcftt Ui<mn, Urokompic^s UmkoDU or 
ABciignui, nntl UmUloim, aiiil, nflt-r Imvin^ pmr^ tlirough !h* 
J>iLhi-mbi>. thia iiDporl&nl river is joinwl l>y the* PongoTa, vnih 
all itiq iHhuUnnii mini tlu^ itml, Anuin^ ncirtli-nuL^ rnU^n 
tie leoiillmrn piirt of Dc-ljk^>«a Bt\y bs & Iftipjo mef^ n&vj-rablfi for 
tibdut f^O miles At ft diftflnct' of 18 milr« in1«ijd ihc uidtb gf 
thi« riTor iit RniJ to be I7(J0 ft^c*t, villi a ^effth of 60 iW» 
Rfiil ]4 feet title-water. ILigbor Tjp, nt ttio janctiju of tlifi 

dccpt nn<i TO }'Ardfl liTOud. Up t-j tliiei poijtt it u iiivigttbk 
with flut'bcilUirjiM hiMxU, Thv lalo Aleianiior McCorkinilale, 
CO ncll knonu for hu cDtorj>tit^< laid (mictjtt, intended to nuke 
ittR tif lh\K rivtir for tlie couvejauce of tJicrcbaiidide frain 
Delfif^ia Bay to thp I.obomW- Tifltond thin ilio goods were 
to Ixf talccn on li)* biilltick-iva^guu to I3eiby aud Hamilton. 

La the sonth-eart corner of tJio 'l>«nflvaal the Buffalo Itiv^r* 
^niptring itA'^lf intck the Tii;-rlu, lonati tho hN*uiidnry bctvcoa 
the IrmiiLviial iirtil NuIhI. TI^i' Slnii^v Surid, :iiiil f>k^d Kir^ft 
join tho Buffido fmm tlic north within the t'^rritory, 

fiaviptd/i^it/ oj* Jtrtirrs. — (H all th("i'ivi*rs drdiiiiigtlior-oimtfy 
to the wust of tlie I>rakon)ah oil* Itancp, none ar« ti |>T«toftt 
iLVfilklile for imTigatbn. Thf Vnnl Kivf-r nx>u1d, pcrbap^ he 
navigable during tbo rfiinv Ki^afton fit abort (liatanccit, wh^ro it 
paiiw tt oonudfirablo depth during ihc heavy Tains. L>i:t in iht 
dry ninter seoaon, UtnndN, ra|^idj( and tonnJl hdU wntiM render 
it ueelom m a channel for eommunic^atioik In Janouxy, 187], 
Mauffb made a royagn dowr i\n* Viud KiviT in a flat- bottomed 
buat, 10 foot long and 4 feet brood, frcxu ihti ji;ncti<]i) of Iha 
M"(ii Itirrr Ut liebroD, a distance of about HQO mili'a. In 
bin report to Dr. Potormnnn, pnllljiluH! in tho ' M JtihcJIunRon,* 
Haijch rvfi?rK in the fulluttiiii' trram io tho probability uf roJi* 
dorinff the Vaal Itiver nari^nblo : — 

" With rcfcrcnci^ to thf? iiniiortancc of the Viiol liivcr n» a 
ebannol of comtnunicalkon for lar^r boat^ and ifmiiU vtoameti^ 
in tho pr«aeDt state of the rir^^r it would bo imprcuriicalde, errwt 
vrith oonflidrrnhir bitfh ;i»ffr: but, iritli a Km;4ll {iirlbiy, the 
iiv^f niif:lit bo mmf ovailuhle for tticb voMt^K partly ty 
aviJtdint; the mpldn and OtUis r:&ti^idin£ mostly only a alunt 
dutfiDof-i by mf'una of canala ; ]farllv by eK^aiing ct^rtnin bnLDcliuv 
of (hi* livtr now fijlcit up with fDot'L^ stones and mck-i; iumI 
partly bv the rt'iimTnl of ilylcts runtiliig acrow tho river, and 
i)L' uiUow-^tuTiipn im|>r?d)n^ iU pa^a^t^. By thtvie tnoaDB m 
commuuieation by watt^r of nioro than 300 milea could be 


Occhffical Ffixtum ^Mc TraTim^aai* 


<0t^K!iahdd, mcltidUif: u diataiice of 80 mxlva, t^Tmiuatiac at 

Tilf»pnilu*f. whi"*!! rlop^ not want the altglitpst »lTc»mtiinu I rlu 
not liuubt tliat thiA Toad will hv itmda iiNo ot' with the ffrciwiag 
trallltr. T]ie Urge piiiiitlatiun atUJurteJ by tlie Dmiuond Fields 
will have to ho stjppliod by the TmnsvofJ with th<t jidc«^ary 
bread •Atui!'?t niid provi-iioiiH, nm\ ncr.nuily v ill demaod tha 
ftdnption of eurh niBoAfl of caninLiiiiicatioiL vlitcb could not be 
influemTd by limg-dckncf^ want of prurtriiro ^nd foni^ ftad 
other firawtaoka." 

Conpomiii:: tho Limpopo, which Maucli cov^escd twitr^ botwcon 
^V ftiu! 32^ of limgitiiUd, Im ulisHrves : — *'Tlic iiratriTr 1 I'Jiuie lu 
tfaie riT^r, ttiG more 1 ivtis disappointed reBpectiog lU qii&liti«.& 
liL^tc^ftd of n bnjrij]^ nnvii^Ablr, nml dcvrp rivt^r^ piunnblc with 
18 jrreat^^t lUlficultv, I VMtrceivod a tremendous daiid-Hver, 
yanii) braad, ot' wliicJi about 150 vnrdfl of the soutbom 
b&nU we» coTCrod witli IdicM^-dtwTp. riLpid-i'tiutiiu^ Hiiior, Tho 
rest ia coveted with doeji, ooarae aaud, or flpareiy-grofflio" i-cod- 
pra*i- TIji" luinhsi urn vi-ry low, unci th« iiciitlirni t-jiii iiAnlly 
bo difitbfjui^bcd from tho bod of Ibtf rivor.*" 

Wbcro bn crosaod, a little hijfher «pf in IWI, be reports the 
l>ed of tluf rivt-r only 2f>0 yixrdi biYjud^ and 3 Wt do«p. 

Ill July, 1870, Cjtptaiu Elluii mad© a ToyafCd down the 
LimiMijKj,' wirli tb" xiew of rlirt(?i>vrriii^ n nhortj^ route of piao- 
ticablii L'oiuimmiootioii, pjirlly by huiil. purtly by water, between 
tlt*» Tj»tin flTiil the ftwi-ri>?Lst. At. tbi> two afHiit^iilii of tlie 
Shiuilia, ^vhorc! Cuptain LIton Hnft loudii>l Ibo Limpopo, ho 
t«peak-H of it ha '*a \mm\. dtfHp stivaiii. about 200 yardH iu 
breadth." IT(j start^il on An^iist Irt^ ISTO, from tho confluoncu 
«f t!ie Sh;tHliti, ill u HiU-bcrtt united bo&t, l^t fei;t hfiiu;, <Kiui<truoti;d 
At ibo Tatin, und canioi overland to thj« point; but, aft^r a 
Toyit;^ of tiv<i day?, oTor a diitunoc of 8i> milryi. bi^ tnp was 
r4roii;rht lo a eiiddeu lenuinatiou at the falls of the* "Tolo 
iDic," where be narrowly oaoapcd heln^ cwcpt down tho foils. 
Kuobml thi< vlinrtt iit Hufrly, bvtt t]iH buaL vstw idtimaLidy 

down thi> obaeto and da^hod to pioooa on tho I'ocks. 

j^or a gmpiiTo <lt'«i'.ri|)tloD of (bci*»t mntgniiinml foils, di*- 

dovered by Captiuii Eltou on An^uvt 5th, 1870, we miwt reto 

to tbo 'Journal of thL* Ifoy^d Uco^apbicfL) Society ' mentioned 

al)Ove, From th<*H? U\]U Cnptum Ellon conliuuL'*! bis jt>urm?y 

^■On foot qIolc: thd btuikfl of tlio LlmpofK). as f^r a^ the junctJuu 

'<if ihii Iji^pHmlr or Obfanu Uivrr, wbcr« b<» Mi th*; LiiupojKj 

and fitruok off to Lonren^'o Mar(|iiu9, wbioh place bu roughed on 

»tiic 8th of S^pt^niber, 1870, in C'S^ daya (induding llj «lay» 

<lMierHi>bJFbl t^lcty or LondDD, Ulh Xovembcr, 1971- 



JeppB*« N(ft«t on Ktn* 6f U« Fh^ska} and 

for ^toppaf*)^), from the Tntin, hnvin^ travelled ove^ <i latdi of 
961) milo9t or 029 diroct grrgraphicnl mil'.vt. 

Tb^ ccmdadon Captain ELion b&s come to is. th&t tlte Xim* 
popa i« navig&bb up to tho conilncDCo ol^ thcr Limvnba (Pafiin)* 
dixUncET iti S^ iiiilf^if for «ri?iiini>r4 uf H^lit dmqgLL "I 
will undertake/' bo mys, " with alx moDths' prepatatioik, !»- 

JUtoou <Ia>-s, and c<mii'-'ot n'itU a wa?;>oti-riorid (or nith «amolt) 
vttl ZoTit[iaiiblirig to the Tati, a joumoy Tfhicli sbould be made 
OOfiil^ In tlEU'eii mom."* 

The lale Thomas Jtaines, who crossed tlie Limpopo higher up^ 
m Int 22^38' K,, Btid Inni^, 2*'^ 50" ic.f cn thn 30Ui (if October, 
]£71t nxAkca no n-marlc* rfj^ftrdin^; tho lUbvif^ability of tho 
mer^ hnt speaks of ib lu **& Acip T^ln'vtm, 1()0 yiurU hrosd, ao^ 
kn^e-doopt iIo^iti|^ nliout '2 knoU por hour, with HDud-hiiai:;! and 
islaudH, ujid a flL^umf lirinliT uf ibiiniH ini ejicli aide." 

Lak^ &r F<xn9, Salt-pans^ Hot Spfinyn, 4v, — Tho only ftoU 
I«H,<tiiii] (if unt<Tr \a thu IrmmvjLAl llin-t lUiiy U; lUntiiL^iijilit^l Ihm 
the numerous pana EUifi oaUed 4 Jak<^, is the go-culled " L«lIh» 
Cbriflflic," io tbo Ncv Hc<>lLand Settlement, not far from Klip- 
8t«nel, on the ht^h pULfeiLin wmie l^ mWm in cirv:ujnfen«iw» 
ana of coneidorable depth. But umall poolj of iralor, called 
"Pluu^*' Mm fiiund ikll iTvrT llt« nnmtrv, imd nrn ivuiimlwlf^ 
TBlnaMe during tlio wihier seasou on tli© ili-jh V^ldf and other 
piTtft scarce of wnt^n Thnrc nin TAliui*!^^ S^U^j^n* in now 
\ntrU of tho TninsYna! Miipplyin;; tht^ iuhhhw&iiU vilb thb 
neccasaiy commodity. Th^ priucipjLl ore ucnr I'trtona ; on the 
Vnni Hivor, nrur $c-}ioit]i Spruit and Hloi^uiUnf ; Jind alonj^ the 
bfuikd of tbo Harts BivcE. Of mineral Apitn^s we Had aomo in 
thei diKtrit-t of Uti^rlit nri thn Wliitn TtiviT, n nmM trilintitry of 
th& Ponj^lu. Tljoy Lxrt> milpUiiruoiu, imd miqi^ of tliL^ni Lavc a 
coneideraLle huat. TLcze u aUo a varm suliLe tjirJng tm iW 
AcMignai Rivor, a enJiI »u)p}tunKjuru Aprinu' on tlio lujutli-wd^t aide 
of MakatoesKup, utid anijIphui-iiLad t^^pid bdth near Doomliefg^ 
on tho Pjfan Kiver. 

Munch £^11^ mimo eulphureoits liot ^ring* clofO to tbo 
SHend^ Spnjit, nortli of New ^r^Dlfanrl, bitt the best known uo 
tho»o of tlio so-callod '* WarmUvi * in tho iliatrict of Wntcrbery, 
viKit^'d liy invnlidH fmru all [jurfs nf thu Tmiinvunl awl ih'Ij^i- 
bouriDg statoB. Tho foUowiug analysis, mado fnan a dm^tll 
^uautity of tlio watf^r inken to Gerninoyj vti* pfftrt^^l in the 

* Evldne tUflkl fan Ohptnia Eltoa u to tti^ uikTigiibiUtjr of Ihc Unafi 
wJIbo Kon Ifhii mwt on tut" Jciumof to UmviUV' 'J^i'n»>lc>f *ha 

f I hnvo Oftlltfid th« drift " HixiUa' DrifL " nn my tonp, M mj old Frilkd iv»a 1b« 
Ant who cruMird Uie Htur al Lhul pirticulcir s]»t. 

Gfv^'iyti FfatHTfs <f tha 'IhmmraaL 


IFitivemily of HeideJbors, and has been forvarde J to ua ttroiU'li 
Er. Cohen 1- *^ ^ 

" iVarrn Bit/h near Xr/hUroora. — The ytttU-r nimlysf*! Tir ^alUrj 
— tlii?iv> not being fiu]])ci<ait of it for makin'j an an&Ivflis for 
tmanCitt^ — [inivcd to \m similrir lo thti«j «f WiMhid^ (■n.*trmf 
iTjiftors, ItagttlK, and Boden-BadeD, lU& moat lenowried of tlii? 
Euro^tcan tfiMu, ivUiclt are n^tod for their grc^t fitcccsA in tbo 
nire of ^tit, rheumation, old sotl^ £)iini]yitiitf liprvuu^ deltlitv, 
errotida, tmd neglec1«d catarrh." 


J/bttnfui'rift. — Tno innp;C'« of mountiuns of tnccmsiderabld 
licijeht intersect tbp coimlry from wr^t lo rn>rth-*^flsl- Iho 
tumiljern rungr>. rjtlW KhkIiihl M4>4nituiiiB of Mu^hIu-m IV>rgf% 
strctchr-s from tboMarico Kivcr to JVctoria, nntl another citcniU 
from tilt? MiirH-n Xo Pold^ntt-^H Koji, in»rlh <ir Olifnnts Bivi-r, 
oondatin;? of dt^taehdil ran^^, known m the Witlbnt^in Bergr*, 
Unrikele cr Wnt^rberg ftEcJUntftiiiA, HongUp Mountnins ^Inka- 
poiifl Bfln^, Zebedeii'fl or Slrydpoort lierp*, and Maa^hbc^hi- 
mala l)er;;:e, ivliile a conlinUAtion of the Kathlaiatn Monulains 
or Pmk'^n* Bc^mcy *trRltOi<'.'i iilori;^' ihi* (-aiidmi lummlHry fmrn 
iiatd to Ihe OlilactB Kiver, also in ljroki?u and dotaobcd uioiin- 
Iwinw and mnf^fwi rjillfvl Vi-ntiitmO IVrgi% Itimflbor^, Slengtijiie*^ 
KonuiTi \lnzz'\ StL'^nhaiupa Bor^e, t^c This oons^idcrublo 
Bcuuulaiii-raii^i-^ attAiUB u,n ^titude of oOOO to OUOO fett inHimLO 
pealcH nf^r I.vdrtibiit^. It foniif iho tu^nuinntif^n of tli^ 
pIA1-.^tll or Um*^ Vvldl, which sloj-cfl jfra^iuitlK Jijwn 1u thi* 
in several dislmrt Iprrw^n, from whi'*b iinmrroiu rivers de- 
scend in lH?nntirol fullt atuI cnBoutt<-'ti to 1L« ferlito plaim b<^Io^^ 
Iiifhi* tttjiitberu |t:irU of tlieTmiHv^tal ti't*llrjd aomi^towrunc;e«tif 
hdUid the ^Ifik^a^i Itoi^'^, iTiLtji liaml, Motifltho>h Uund, and 
Zuikirlrtmli Ruad^ tirjir IfrwIrlbf-rK- Tin? WilwHltr* Hwnd forntx 
th« tc-rniiuutiou of the Hooge Voldt^ £tretehinj* orer the v^hijlo 
btvadth of \\w rminlry. Iti the district of Mari(X> wo find tfio 
Rnmuoon aud T^fbuauytiua lter|;o andI>iTai-i3Ioiintainjt,Dort]] 
of Knateiibar;; t]io Tilaiicla Bcrgr, nnd noifJi-ircst ol Lydecbur^ 
\\\vi T^ilti MnufilaiiiN, nn lb<' nurtli't-tL'ileni slojjt* uf wbirh Solcn- 
kutti'e BtriUk^^hold Ja aituatccJ, nbil? the cNti-ome north is c1o»ftd 
in hy thv RlaiiwtHTg i»tu1 ZfHitjHins Bi-rjjc, which Utlrr resell up 
to tbi> LJm|)opo in tbreo distinct mngoB of biU& Tbo 8pc- 
Innken, I^lutyatye'a B«]'g, and Arnrchisan Ran^n, belAveeu thu 
Zoutmnfi BiTgo and tho Ohfanu Kivor, txo ulvo diiitinct mnfv>9 
of bub, tliiidiiiK thd LigUuid fi'om ih^ large pliiiu» atretcliiii^ 
from tho Olil'ants liner far b^inil ihn Litnpojw. 
.4&i'6i^<9,— As it vrould ctcctd AtijKiTfluoiu to iiw&rt a table 



JepfeV Notn on tome cf iht PAifiifoI and 

giving aU l1)«' allitu^Vn marked nti Uii^ pitwent map, ir^f Hiilijtun 
tlur following only, ehoning iho hoi;;}it u1' tlio prin^ipjit mouii- 
tain4&ni1 pluirea uftlie Traui^vaal acci>nl]ii^ to the la.te^ ilata ;^ 

Table uliowiug tbe Heiobt of »>mo <4 tlbo PuurottAL 



MaurOi Brrg 


Sintakop .. .. .. 



Ultl* ITialii. >DUnn* at 

Muttoni WfVMldmoJU 

Ekhfiit pdbitor U<)cv> Vpldt J 
F>tw«co Prttork uxl Vjw] J 
BIfwr I 

RMhsT^ Diin. Viul Uivcr .. 

HolTotibrm - .. 

Wundcif^mtoiii » -^ >. 

I.Tdonbur^ -- .< .^ ,. 

i,im»o'« Drift. Vok] Uinr .. 


HiuUnitinr); .- 

lVr|xjkii(] HailwniT Tfirmiuiui 


Mifj™i JunntJnn .. 
Ifjjtiiiat pviut. |11iiawl»ff .. 
XdIuoiiI JuaptiuQ 
Hiicludt pi>ml, libJu[Aiii1 

KLL&p) ,. .. ..| 

Biii]i''4 Pnft, lfiriL()OpM 
l^ibvuilxj >1';iiuliLiivi, VaA 

btloDk Poorl -, h, H-f 
Mfiiv^^'d Linp^rrio Cr»eln;;,t 

1H7I i 

IjoboTuIn BlaijDlAiiiA l»1aw\ 
KujuaLi .. .- ,, „f 




Ujiilrj<?t LiHifiiburg .. 
Nfw Sf-rtJuiid .. .. 

Ditto .. ,. 

DfLUi .. .. 

Ui«lri<'t Waktaintmonk 

,, raklicfaltwiu 
,, TjTlunbiirff ,. 

,. pMlcJiUliitrcicqii 

DnJotn^hoTf .. . - 

Vuitu^Eiirw UiiiKiJEirjr 

DLftlfbt /finfpaiiJibrric 
F"rtH^<'<ii Itotifirlurj 






., Middi'Ibtirx ,, 5m 









T. Ifoioe*. 


T BuitMi. 
n. T. B«IL 

It T. llmlL 

C. Vnmh. 

n. T, iiah. 

<X MaimIl 

* AivuMlirif bi£rtlria'«. -tVKt, 


if^^tiflT-oA**' of Mavch^ Hithncr, Dr. Coiwn^ Dr. Eclvh^ <£v-> ^ 

no proper gctologitriil murrey of the coautiy, w a trWe, has tak^ 
plrit*-' aa yet, I can only giTe an oatlino of tbc obacTYAtioiw 
liitido Ly 3om<T of the tfarcllri^ miil cxptoix^rfl wbn linre reported 
ojj tlio geological features of ih^ regioju visitod by llicm. 

From Mfiiich wo obtained the first knowledge of tht^ gooli 

(tfciu^cul I'cafurM of thu Tr^tnrt^aaL 


of samo parts of tiio couutry. Wo haro to tliank Uim also for thd 
first ili«!iivPTy of \\\^ golil "t t.hi* Tjitin/ whidi c-riTftlivl ■<(> mm-li 

ef% thttt claw tied upuu ^ualWa^teru Africa. XVoai Kr. Ifubuei, 
u Gfirmftn ccoIo^LKt and iiLinin';<on£;inj»Lir, tho i>^>mpHiLi<;h of 
Edward Moin; we Imvo a ^oil kQo>ylotl;^ i.<f llti >*T?aWru jjor- 
tion of thn Transvfl-il lliroiigli wliich li<» travel Wi, wliiloto Or. F, 
Cohen, tl:e rMxiur-iit lithologUt, * i'rivat Dt>0(;jjl " iu tbc Uni- 
versity of lleidfilcrg, iiM- iW Hi>t kofivrled^e of tlio geoliwy of 
tie AUrubiut ?SU<1 nnd J^ydcnbnrt; fgrtiiLittou^;, euxl tlie pmmincTjt 
ftatliffB uf tli« nTgitid Imtwt'iaii Uie i/uld-fields and Dtlajfou Iluif. 
With tlie result of Mr £i I, Dunns and Br. Atheretoi^e'i; (;«o- 
logicft] oK^r^rvationK during thrir flying visits, 1 am, Qiiliajiptlyr 

Id tho ncc^UTit puUisliod of hia tfnvola during the vrnm 
1805-1872,1 iliimHi MpitU of tin- norlhi>rn filo|»* uf iIib'WII- 
waters Jffind I'Uiteau «M loiog formed of roclu bcJon^og to the 
Mbmatiund mr-EamoqiliiiT[H?rtoi)M. TlmMngalirci ISt^i'j^lii^ UtwwA 
to consist of i^hil* qunrfzil^ which oUftOf^oa between compact 
tind graoulnr tc^xtuie* Tho Mrikc of tho pnncipnJ stmto is from 
etidt to veil, wiili oi'^iuidorublo dip towards tlio BortJi, MflJieli 
found 1)0 tbfediJa. but niL-taJlift-Tous vcin^^ such as copper- 
pyrileai, und Ihiok Jayor* **r mtignrtk irfmor^'. In tin? nilU 
rangia lo^varda tliu tju»t of the KuatonbLir^- Flat, ho observed a 
iwrpLyritit? formntioTi and diorite, int'Tif-'f't*?"! with vrhitp M* 
epar aud Wli^grrr^n hombJcndc. t^poalEing of thu " Hii^hvuld/' 
be faneii'H, from *li|?bt imi»rtw»iouii oi ftrrna ou tJie fturface of the 
•nndgtonct-layi^rA near tho moutli of tho ZnikorUwlinuid Riror, 
tlmt wi* hitirr to dt> hiiru wIUj a roal-fonnation. TLr primilivo 
Tocfc 5hows it'Li'lf aa i^panito and gnoffta on tLe eaA^tn h<?[id8 of 
Uio Limporo iCiver. I'hcfl*^ nrc joined frocn tho north by rttcep- 
niiFted, rei]dish<4.'uluariid, >iilt<y-4hiiiin)^r, firtt>lv-!*tnilillt?if| luicar 
•chifitt coppod with cJay-sUto, but priiuiipally qunrt^cito and 
aaiidjr gmywutlie-BUit*?. Thiw* Kinr-rHiluriun nw-'k* tnay hw fed- 
lowod ae for Xa lUe ^eet as tho Marico DiBtrict, but thor? the 
tday-?diiti'* apiioir mm.^ii tliicki*n Graphitrt and xlnlt^ coii- 
tainin^ cryal^ilB tvl chia^tolito, are also well dtTolop^»d in aome 
placca. Abovo thia grayiracko fora^atioii is a layer of blucish 
ailicious UmFftlmLc^, of vjut <rKiJ»t]t und i<rinHidiTnhl4' thickni-Ai, 
kut througliout tiomoutal.ahowia;; thiiiaor and thicker atratd 
of ilark orNTnoL'y flint 

After dctfunbmg tho "cavo" at H'^ondorfontoin, ncur tho 
vourcca of the Mooi Ui>"er. «u l!i<* uiaiu road from Preti>ria la 

• On thi*SWth July, Itfl" 

230 .Teppe'* XokJ OH iame of the Fky^^ and V 

Polohcfstroomj 3Uaoh pontinues: "^Tliis limestone furmntjW 
vtUl'Ii I muat L\UL DevoiiLbii, citou{la a» fnr u* tlif? Higher 
Mtftii^ Dihtricl, <TV.*n lut far lu LuUiku (Kuminan) bevotid 
till? JUrttf liin-r; «uiin> ipurrt iif-t' nmt >\ilh pn ihr Mitldlo 
Jlnnr'n KiTer^fUKlac tli© jiinctinii <tf tU»' KcIiol^h Bpitiii with 

the ym\r 

South-east of Pct?ljefetroom tJiprt^ t« b nuign of »timll liilU 
c:»BnLgtiiig of ct ilAtk'^ruy or blat^k rock, conlaiuicj: whito 
KtTolil-?^ wliii?li mij^Ut Iht t^allcHl akiuy^iLiIoiJ porplijr)'- Withm 
tliia group is nn oM tnine in cJfty-sl«t'>, confining voriegMted 
roTj^H-f^iH-r*, Init liciWIy krtiwrt who have bt^en Uie minori. I& 
tills uei:;hbo[irhooil wi? also notic<> |5r*?»*TiBtt>ne for th© find liinv, 
cxtcn^ling f'ikr miittli'WrKt along thr ViutJ, incnjadiiii; gnulnaUy 
in thicliiit^Hi u>whit1» iIiT< ilimiioiidift^ivjuH re;>io[i, tiat rhanging 
aftt>rvTar(U in tcxtuvc, Btratitic^tion, und itcct^eory miu^nJa. 

Sir* HubnOT givofl ua the foljowinp^ p^lo^jical eynnpitifl of th9 
tdTitoTy<?inlored by him from rotchofrtroom to the T*tm in 

We must cftll this port of 8o«th Africa ecoIogioiMf poor* as 
it shovG fiiniialiiJii* whiV-h buve only umctri ftcirnTiEv- u^t^reait. 
Votoanic rocka are ci"l cttfitiri^tms "iu 6 litJiological point of 
vIl'W, mi>tn?nnrphi'^ roi?k« «s cvorywhcrc n rhi^rd fnnjlt, aial pour 
ia iUH>ftU miiiurali hosicJef; nnd tlto iaw «odime»1iLry rockft 
croppinjf up iu Uie uurlh iiniJ HJUlh ot"t!i« country ara Orati- 
tutu of fu«u[]j^, XMiat no can giiUuT frum the in('<«iupUit« 
aubfttrtttiitu is thd folluwiu^r: — 

The geological etniclure oau be deSncd lu a fov words: 
rotjnd ft p'rtiiitu eiiTC, the periphery of ^vhich dc»f» tjot appcnr 
to bo a Hiiiiplp ellipse, but a [aacy^Iiiubed cur^e, lies a tnautlo 
of motamoiTihic rwka, which bflVo bccTi frequently ftucttirod 
ami iuicrserliHl by Kref^nstoiifi ; ohh'.r w^liineuUny fi>ritt«l4ijitii 
jvpffear in one plaoo in \\\e eouib and af^aiu nn^or 20^ »?. ]at. 

TliL' granili- i* of miiiernhij?;!!-*!! Jiilci>>l otily in pUccn nhf^re 
it forms a eciircG variety \viiL iiIi^rL-J IVd^ite (dl the I.iaipo|n>) ; 
cv'orywUprc else it show^ it? normiLl covuposilion ; flf^li*coIoiired 
orLhoL'IaKe, coloitrhw* i^uiirt:!: uuJ bluck mica, tjowbt-re difitin- 
gtiiaiicd byoccessury minernlfl f«ith the esLccptJon of red cop^ker* 
qrvRlnlft wX l^ivi* farm on th't nfangwr), or by nurjiiliio vmn4. 

TiiQ metuinorLliit' rocks lorm a ^rcmt vui-toty ; i^Deiae, u'bitf^ 
fetonoj honihii.'iul^, rrrrngim>ii» Tuii^t-^Uti", I'lav-*!!"-!"'. rliUirito* 
fkito Bud ;^iiiiul;ir limiKtorio ; find fn^qai^ntly tht^y oontoiii 
utetiiUic miuorals iuotli^rplui.^!?, — ^hcre tliey appear no whero to 

Gtob^tcal F<^atumi cf I/k Trfijimaaf. 


4^onUiii iinporUtit metallic beck Of IhooldeAtaincti^tlkGm vd 
may fir»t intfiitiou tUr? gnd^c. lU nxU*n1. ih rirniiirkHlily limttf^d^ 
And it most be ^ppoaed that a g<iu<l imrt of it ntuat bare bi^eu 
«lr^Ktrovi>l n^am after being sbeLttercd. VVi) att^ tiad to bcLero 
thiB i^runi tlio numcTons gnMts-fniEimcnU apj>c4Lriiif; in tU« 
frraiiito of tho granite JiilU iieur Bliualum]; aud ou Uie Slaha- 
bL[>!(L TnnKitioiui of gncba jn tb» gT-aititii tliri>ujU gni^iiw* 
^raaito iniij be obaerved between Tali fuid f*Jia^iL Tho 
nbAfTn;*o (jf iDirft-«lntf>, *o often p^BTing (be ni**iiinWir h<»tww»n 
jrranlto and cluv-sluti^ in otljcr )>mct'5, U i-eiaurluiblo ; iLiy 
'jii:U'Uite reiul«riiig ri jrtouliur <;lmi-ai.'tej- tu a ]aiiJM.-a[X.' by its 
loiLgrngged maatiUiii riJgcws ns for inKtaD<?t?, xu^lt I'^jti^holJ^trvom 
aud JifuAenbnr^. oiigii^atui m^ duuliL frum enmlstuiif^ as cun bi« 
Mon fomotirOiM Irom iu trfusntioQB, but it ttbows ib^elf nawlierd 
a« the lut of a scries of tmnifonnatiQas irom gneiss, in vJiioh 
felr^gutr fin>l riiioa f;rH,r]iiu1ty rt't^erle. Tbj^ flamtttuui^s appear to 
OT<jrIap quartj&iij, &n>1 oa tho Limpopo rnlr ilo tbcy lio 
diiu^l va {{TELiuLiv Fi^rniiriniHiH mii'jioLlntu i>biiviH iUulT al Uid 
T'llia tm ft tcirmatioii overlyiu^ ohlcrilo-filate, and bdCtL>m9B 
interdicting rni it, appf^nr^ iik tlio Tiririty of uurifrnmii nttata. 
Thd cbloiite-^at<>a iiiow no Lransutioua m the foruiatioiui in 
ivhich tboy aio br^ijdod, but eUud naoonnoctcd cTor/wbcro: 
KUrlt iit tbo cans in tlid gitiniiM on tlu^ SIul^iu, und iht^aame £u 
tlio largoi- obiorit^-alate t^nim ou tbe Tatin, wbore quartziCo 
jLiiil KandKtf>Ev.u: foini thrir beHit, HrH ffTrnj^nu>iM nuau-Natjt ibo 
top layor. Ilia Kiit^'t^lAr-c'iyntikUiJio ^ancUtono, vbiah i» moi^ly 
itabedded iu UEetiimorpUii' nicks, tippeur^ ul^o in tJjc TiausToo]* 
1)Ut gLrei no olai?, and th>,T intiirf^j^t attuoliiid to it ou acuitULt of 
ita aou&»or/ minrrJA nLunl ti^maiii mioatlatit^d. Tbe lerelliug 
ulmoKph^ric intlnonce ha^ made tbo Eiirfnco wliero it cxopH up 
ftliuo^ oomplctoly f at» rciudcicd corupicuoutt by ft rcjftilAr oireti- 
uriiliila^u^ ooiitoar. 

Attliongb tho Enronston^ claim tlio attention of Xht ^oo* 
gmpUer, iiH f,li(-y fiirm ulioUi rliniTia itf inumitaintt nvat SUiJrtbung; 
an<i ItUi^t^Dliur^', and tbiu GiiaAtitute a <?on8idorablo portion of 
iht-- rr^ion iH^twcoii lV)lHiri>itro<jm and tbc- Inyuti, \cL Uiry are 
impfi-ttaiit ueitiiet to tha xaixir-Tal^t'^i nor tbi'j p:eologUt, as th^y 
coiuiint mostly of a compact congJomcrato of oli^odiLra ibnd 
LorBblE>iuk% and xaldom form varietM?^ in strati floiti on orttTXture. 
They appear to beloag to tbe i^uoous Toclis diBcovcred by 
Liviui^t(mn in Cmilrftl Africa, cjilled l^y biiii '"tun)" tir luwidtic? 
lock; tljeto tlw^y form igtii^otis dykw in tbo laref* central 
Aallf'y, ftbicb tiikf^ tlioj»ltt<.'« uf tiw origino) frf^^hvfjkt^r l>a«iii, 
but ilnjy tLVi^ i\\uXv ilitforont from tbo ffweoitouGa v>\dAi ba 
tiWrvwl bctwt'oa tlvi Victoria FalU and Tote, whoro they glaaj 
tliiy-»Uto (porceiUanit©)^ aad intersect coal-bwmng ^tini} ' 

near Chicora); tlie utmis ha n/hh the amy^aloid of tbe 
Ecgliltlu vrlLich idto crops up in tho grrnit ovnlriJ TftlJov meii- 
tiotied abuv^, and iif wiitvli 1 firuud a luxin-' ItortxoDUu bed m 
1hi» Pifimoiiii I'i^trict oo thf' Vnnl UiTi^r. 

ThtT t'ornmtiim nf tlic PilnufljilK^rg, which nvnrt cort*inly be 
reekoiu'd jtiiiong ttid grt^natoued ha an igneciuit l>e<I*rt]i>li, for 
it cijntnicm clay-flUtc and granite, not othcrvieo fouod in otber 
greojisl(>iii->i. (h-sftrv™ lh<! unHt Hltr*iili(in, 

Th^ s^dim^nt-ary roeke ftppear ior the fret tiino ia l^t 
S3^ 30' K ami kngr. 2i>' 10' K. Iwtwrm Ihr 8rR>nim<t <trul thf^ 
limpopo. They ftre tli^hily uph^^ved Bandstoiiea; thotr upfr 
cannot be prpporljr dctcnuincd on acr^ouct of tlio iini^erfectlj- 
lirotervi*-! irmriMulat of plrmta, Liii vtrry likely Uity iirlung to 
IIki Karoo formation. Tho eamo may bo aasmnod of tiie ratber 
briUTis h<}n;»mtnl[y-<tmliri<^il KAmMjiroK iti lal. 20'^ k., oad long, 
ai*^ E. which fthow iiotrificd wooda. Aw thi«e Utl«r p«rh4pA of 
tho samo ago as the saudttouea nhicb Lii iij^stouc found at 
Puii(^> Atidoiiu>,> i}at 'J' 40' s., lon^. IS' 30' E.|, At bloDoct tllD 
sfliuc altitude, ^Ik., 4000 fL-et, &>td in Khhkh ic found petrified 
palm*? UrtliuBi n«ir Trt^ (!at. l(i° 10' s., long. .13' 35' t) 
At an ultitiidL> of l^UO ket, v^hieli chow hctriKOUtal Uyen of 
coal roverwl by a simiA of petritled palmg and rotitfen*? 

Aa it id alwavft of intprt^at to ffi?|ian&lo tho igncoiuand the 
lueUmuirphiv ruckfl noc^firOiii^ tutJivtr luapix'tivif a^raaA fttraa 
it IK pOASiblt? to do fi^ I will tiol omit 1(> »ip<^-ify soi&ttof tbe 
LTuupH of Ua- fiiTiiiutiuT^s cxjstliig hf'lwrcii Puti^ucfitrooni aiid 
Inyatl ^eo far aa ihey cir? no :icknowleHp^d ecdimenUry roeki), 
to whieli a diScrcnt ngu may be ii*signi:<l :— 

1. The oldest fortiuLtiuTiti Hppear to b^ honiUt-ode^ gnebu uid 
gniiiitc-irbitcctoao, for they aro tho only tnctAnwrphic focks 
(exoi^pt the lattt-r^ whiirh ue^nirK at the Seruli Ui nlutrualt^ htym 
with to« firet niontioDod) whioh appear aa dykes in craiUtd. 

2. Voungt r than thrj;c ik Hnubtlc^B thr ffraQit^ at tL« MaQgnVy 
vbere it aaovr» stiau of hombkude, and tho granite At tho 
Mahalapsi, vhtfo il tbonv dyk^ of gaei«8. 

3. Nftxt foUowuiwIntidbd^niQatly colonml'iDartcit««(bLw^p 
grocn) which nowhere oecor cqcIomxI in ^'mnitc, but movtlr 
olwUfi thn 1att»r, lu^ for irtidmniw, at ItiLiniup]f>l>itn, vhi».-r a hlacK 
qurtut« torma Uie hi^jcnt iDoiuilttina in tbtr country, and «]«>- 
botveeo tht> Ktiiuahr Ujv«^r and Uie Shaahani ; 

4. Toungor than oU tho jirc^TJoiis wo mart claadfy tho fcmL 
Ptlandaber^ i^ineons rode, bhuwiug pnjtnisioDa uf cUy^nUle 
iind gmnite. as alio the gr^eoatones intersoctitig the grajutA 
at the Umpofio. Pcrhd^ vo muat add to them auo tKfr 
gv^ivtones penetrating the granite formations betireeu HaQ^«% 
ft»dlnkvc6i,andatthG Shaua&L Conccmiiig tho cla»&catioii 


Gml*>^ral FentiirtA ofthi TrarmQaL 


WI40 oaLv form eiippoeit 10110, a^ tbt^y iiliovr no protruHions, 
nnr WNU it (HB«il>l« for tim Iji (t(]Hf>rin 'fllir-thi*r Uir»y p*>Ttr(nitp 
tho motamorpbii; i-ck-U^ or nra tavercd l>v them. Their Jitlio- 
[itail aimilarily ftitluhe gr«<'D8tone* of IheOran;;"* Free Stats 
Natal, n'liich p^^ntrtrjit'j a tbou^iuidfuJd tbo [\nrof> firnift- 
tioiU rendera it very tikcrly tbht tht-y a!su bcluti^ to linn ludt 

D/, E_ Cohen thus reports on tlie geological fcflturee of th^ 
country near MjimbAs Stiid* and tkd region bctwoou Lydon- 
jburr wJid DfUtiuu Bay : — 
sJKiM^^ Stud* — Comin;; from Protoriu. after poffiing the 
" villngc of Pti(gict<:ra Rust (MHkapdt* PiJi.<rt), wc t-nUu' 
r^ion ol iin irnmHiac system ol luelotiiorphic *lut»\ Tho 
and Mtriko chttngG a good deal, as cannot be expected other* 
a ih contortod uTid tlvxurtM] 4iruta, Ijrit 4>n ti^c vhiUe a 
^Btriko from east to woit can be ubservi^d. Tlie atiala are very 
rfltmtp ^ ihc' di|>(pnin^ipii]Iy f*» the nnrib, but siiTiii.f(imi» lo tlir 
east or weal) varies btlweeu 3&^ nnd S9\ In pi>tro^m|.*bjo roU- 
tion theie forniutinr^ vary (.v^nsiilerably, iv* U thohUv tbf^ nuie 
in oompaGt rootumoq^hic ^^tratu. Amoit^ it iini-i(T« of formations 
we will iiieatitm IttlcoKe-dato, c!ilorjt<j-[ihite, ferniK'Uoiis mk-a- 
dotf, clny-t^Ule, lunphibole-fJata, l^x■kfi gimibir lo unndFtont*. 
ftod a rerjr tliiu-acterislic ro^^k-fonuulioii of gr^at t^xttnt. tb<t 
RO-CfttW calico-rock, formed by alternate biyers (if <iiMrtx unii 
Iron-ore. Thi? eopurnlo luycn oro loostly very tltiiti biit ut 
Yserbei'^ (Ii^OTibill}, tba top of wbieb prinrijially ru[LHl»tft of tbrn 
fonnfttion, tho iron-oroa incrtiLSo considombfy in eotnc part« tmd 
Uoworltcdby ttirnciliveft. They coimist prlncij^lly of bydrjttot>f 
ETOn ami lepidokrit^ which uiiDernU har^ ori^intiled very likely 
frmn magniHic iron. Here and ihep.^ bctvfocn the ^imi^ of the 
metamorphic fonuatijus appear iDMldk-tfminod dioritea with 

St obuloT' shaped oodute^. These are I itbo logically ao distirkctly 
ividiHl fniin the forircr tkit I must uinmdL-r ihi-m tDlnisivif 
dykee. Tho losiaof thesyaleraofraetaiuorphieslfttea islomiod 
OTgianit« which rlspt in jievcral sinjill hitla on the rwid from 
SentflHng to Z«bcddi'jt Kraal. I'he ^i^oiite Ib blueieh-gr&y, 
moftlly clofi^gmiDcd* and conAista of light felspar and qoorts;, 
aiul djirk magnOJitCin micn. DioriLoii elo-^ely r^Ht^mbling Old 
abotfr-muntioncd fippi^Ar also in tlie gianite iti the ahupo of 
dyk^» Kthisobservation i«mrrnnt, it would be » defined ptuol 

* 'X«iH« JiJir^urh fur Ubvuioeb, ^Dok-^ir iiiul PulffOulnlojirSrp' I97X. 
'UirthfliiunBcn nu Prvf, O. Leatkhara,' by Dr. P. Cnhva, itilod Pntoria, iGtii 


Jeppe'* Aofcj en SOrttC ffl 


cf tho mtnisiro cbarader or tho diorita* Tltis oldorgronilo 
inii?il not' \x- miHtikrn fnr riiirli ftrmulirmK wliii^li HunHirow 
adapt a atructure flimikr to frtamte. mid wliicli bciIoEp: totiia 
w^rios of (iKliuncrplijc mcfes. The fdaliw are disconl:intly orcr- 
Ia]rp«td by o very liatd nofl oompar-t Kindslon^ of great abtm- 
aiiof]t in tliL^ TrAusrftuI, ^vbidi. on account of LUi^Uftrt£>3ae appear- 
AiLOf*^ U mciHtJy tflk^n for i|UftrtvUiJ' Tlitu formjiliciD i« i^illod 
Lower IJcvonian on tU(> ni^wunt m*Lp of Pei^rutimii, but 1 do iwt 
liKiHT on wUfMi? nntlinntv. Tio^nvrir, I d" n<it rtfiiilii tJi^ w« 
have Iti <Io hrro witli viTty old rorEnHtk>ii--^ In lUo ^)Utti-W€0t -iij 
IblldWH liari] nliciiiTift liTnestoDB, ni?!] in }ayer4 and neslA of ^| 
(jUarta varieties 1'ho limoslono <ircrlayfl too iuuidiitoni>» waA " 
i^ aiuiilar to that fuuiad tm tJti^ Kaap (Oriqu/ilaud \Ve6t). la 
tluT south of tlio *rtaiisYaa)^ fonDAtiora ard aUo found wbfob 
o;:rco BO exrtctly with thi* limestone tlmt ono cna liardly donbt 
tl^jif K is lh» sam^ formstloD ; but as yet I hare not be^n aHq 
Ifi i?htnin n trtic notion of Iho nattrro of tho fttmtn fippcanng ia 

Until now only eiicb quarta-ropfe haro proved annforoili 
■tui (tppt-rir in tlir^ nmtinntjrphJi! i^hitf^ ; llir ntiiiiriouK tr<*lei In thv 
pinnite s&>ym to contain nof^old. There th^ <)aartZ'Fet^lk follow, 
where thf^j' cnu be ascorlaincd without doubt, tho strike of tho 
*Ut«, For till* n-aiitm tho}' t-xtoml ttiohiIj- from ^-iuit to w«L 
If tbosLilcv^ »tnkr.i loc^dllyuorth to aonfh, it ta tht^ tintf^ witii tfco 
quurt/ iiH nt Motit Miir*^ mnir i>rumhn« Si^vd. A vrry mti'rvNl- 
in-; fipot is 1o be found m the neighbourhood of EeretfJinfs^ 
Iloro an auriferous reef (Pigg'a Iteef) riin« h. 12 ; if ono foUoWB 
tlie reef to ili^ ficiitU, it diMipponrM KuddouW, and t}i« ilatat 
tlieti rtiik© i^iiit (o we^^lp I'uforlumitply the clue {aj^/^i^Airuf) ia 
rjilher instiffic^i^^t, ITie quartv ie vory cUangonVlu in it* out- 
ward ai>pei\ranct- ; ,Honictinie« Tcry roiupat't, clojft and cloan, 
ihpti i\u\ of fiivftii?s^ ea«ilv brokpu, antl rif'lily imhfdfied 
with iron'fixifJc-hy'lnitc; then agaitj, whit-^ arwi gr<-4iy jthiuin^ 
blur^infi-^iiy an'l o:Ia^y» SuTTit-ilmt's It e»Mitaiiifl nianv roclc- 
t^ncJofluroH (protrasJonB) aa ia the cam at Mont Iblank ISvon is 

* )&i Doilty BMEfltaDi to Prnf* Hitfkf'lyrjr. i:iv« Uic FtJlnviTk; fD|n>t on tha 

iwkip*almefWlOrvuFded toluui by Mr UiLiin:— 
*"* tkr^flinff^' Nnth timl Simlh t/j^- A duEtcdUr vUb much auj[lu. aiU Iltllo 

'^ ^ f>j^4i/'iM9,' KuM and nWf IV^ PjoIxui? i^icladcv borutitvb'U', mofli 

t Jn ttio 'Gon^Dottiv^D SkiKWii itni SUil-Oirt Afriba.' toa A UUhoor, iml^ 
lliib^ Ilk ' ri-lorniruin k II>«nj-r. MtUlLi<lhrn^<-n' tv 1^^, 1 hnvo |ofiik«a in 
^aIii fur Miy jifjtlr-mr^iL,* thniwEii^ b^ht on Ihf tisittini ihf thn Mrtla ii*ri.-iTWl h\ 
t1ubik<T «ixLu«i iiirliui.'il Uj clJii» Ui(i jiriliuiiiiilft in tlif TLottli uf iLt Trouimyd 
LiikiV^ tlic £i»rixj fotiuBitioij. iinilvT Trbii h ]»iplf< in Arriro nrr fnnd «f iijiiMplnj. 
4-i'aiy(h]TL]if tlinl 1» Qo(<|uiLi> di^ar ; the tA-mc cia lit1ii>1r)^»u ofloa aloM fomuktbtia 

[ Gtoioyxt7al Ff(U<i.rciM>f Vte Tfan»sa<d, 


<ni^ ftrid the anmc reef the physical properties of the ijiittrtj: aro 
not dilwaye tlio uimcii. Thd ftppoamiico of gi^lcl id als» dllVi^reDt 
in tbopIftCOfl vbcre It ia fouiad. Id ijuttc*n ei{c<if, ucor l^jcr^tolin^, 
p]ef'i-*('c»ntjiiiiii!p jluM Hrn n]>*»rviibli' willi (h«* niilii'^I i*y<'; mrtnfs 
arc quik' tovoroil wiiU lur^er cloaely-jjiued picas, Tliv pi>ld ia 
llii^ mm\i Miru Ui?ef ip« eprctid in eiirb lliifr pftrticlr^ tbttt it Js 

maclilnery ia culy esiwctcd iu aomo nioutks notning can bd 
said roguriltD|; tbi* yiofd. Tbi» informatitru obtuinM mj far bm 
bcoa gained fi\*ui picked a|>eciui!.ua, not fioiu any ttvetatf© 
Himpb^ tnb«n fmm tW main ivef, whi^'li i* sImujI 11 Vn:! tldtTK- 
Tbc firicrijicd <}iir\=tionn: Wilt tbi> rucl iDiuitUiin iUi niiulily 
lower iloiin? (iiid VVietli^r the ^pihJ in fimnd on the whola reef 
&s far M it is kn^^wti ti> cxl<ind (*boiil Ui mile*)? can only bo 
answered when tb<? niitiiii); {>|i4;iivtiii]U) uuvt^ mun^ ddvaucod.* 
At prcfii^iit the qnaH:( 19 only brou<;ttt to tho surface in two 
places, anJ the graitc^ dc-plh nmouuti to 30 feet IWifl^tbc 
g4"TH, I liftve found iron-pyTil-?*, copper-pynte^^maladiite, BilT^r- 
^liuico or rjckly Argcndfcraua ^cna, ond iKni-glanee in tho 
ijTmrUr l>i(C [Hily iu wuhII <pmiitiiiLW, 

AU%tinai fjM has fdso heen Ibund in the ncif^hbourbood of 
Kcrjftidinij; »ii<l Atjinibai* SIjieI to a. Kinnll t^xVnt^ Pi>r ri'JVVinA 
^splaiuecf by Dr, Cohexi ia iho publL^atiou leferrad to, Alluvial 
gold nill nr^vcr be fooud m thia iocnlity in payoblc ij^uantitics. 

The Btgiovt Ewfv^^A^ L^dtiibur^ arid Dela^oa Bifv. — In Dr, 
CobeD'a valaabl« And nodt iutorQatin^ work.t it will bo fuund 
thut hti divi^lr^s (If* trrribiry Ulur^iii T-yiliidutrg nnd Dolngoa 
IStiy into tbfi'o <IirtUuct pliLU-iLUX'turmi^ea ; tUi more so, be aaya, 
"us with tb« alteraliona in iho Icivl nm closely cfrmbiited 
diffuroiicuw in tbu irrigation, timber, fuuiiu, und gcolc^ool 

Tlinsn ibn^ pUteftux ard: — 

L TAtf i/'V/A MourUaitt Vonnlrtj bioki^ii by many rtiTitice and 
Tjil!<»vn E>elwei?n I,yik*nbni'g and the sleep rl<if;^e ile^so^ndinc; 
Z miiofl ca^t of Spii'zkop, in Btruijrht Vixit^ :iO mdcB brond. It 
contains an iinnipiiiio ri>rmtLliuii of [<lny--(fHli.'H vith stnitijied 
fiimdEt^^no icd<^, cappod boi@ and thcTii by dolomite ; it ia wild 
and bare of niXMt^ but ricli in ninuiii^ nutirr. Only in tho 

* 1 WB iitlu tu aUir buni Hint timw Dr^ Ouboib rbtldl KintiJiiiB^ luilAblo 

(T.^iLiiviny ; tt^t ibo ri-i</ ti4i>i poritd a vvrf |^<K'^ «ti(% i^^^^L tliut tJitf qtiottt U 

Tblt ylcU>Lai>.«iibui)ii'<nt]y to May, lATtt, hlmoflt vntlrrJj iviund, ftnd cnanat 
JLOW bo vorktil wiLU iii'illL,— Xtjvauilii'r, t^T. 

I bvre iu«li iNm flplilficIiJiiTii,' Jc^. Vun Df, >» t-jljtin. Ilniabufg, L. Fnr^lricliKin 

23G JeppbV Notc9 on gome oftfi€ i^^iVn/ and 

immediato vicinity of LvtUrtibura farm* nro »catt4>rod about ; 
the test oi Xh^ country' 18 totoUy d^^rlvd, or very partiaUy 

eosLem fili>)j(Mi ui the Lulxiuibo Muutilain^ ilivided tato foiir 
intcrmcdinto MU, Crystal iin^ ore iilmtwl tli« only loclo 
found lieif , (;ht«ily urtuiiti? : aiid tin IIip t^Ji^ilir-ni rili>|je, tuelapUyre 
ftTK? *|i]ftrt7-porphyry. A gr^nt pait of llii& trrriton" in vory 
rk'h in piiiir and mjghtv tror.^, nliicli mvuniidttt*: lii^ro aud 
there info a foreat. TheexiBtinj? waUr isiii>>stTyrunniiii^i be«id» 
.■ipniits nnd i^ztteM ujcn tb<<ro aio two oon»idcrabLc «lrt3»nui« tfao 
lii^>MiVM» or CnK?ij(Jil<" Kiver, uhi! Uiu Umkomad to paaa j 
BoyoQcTtho Irgwoiija,aoatt<3t^ branchr»of tlio Ainit^^vnei triW fl 
(?<v:npy thf* nnntplniii rjHintry ; t« thr? unrth-w^nt "f thU river ^ 
tliB oouiitrv iB quito uninhabited. TJio whok amue has itt tho 
direction of the rond a width of 7^ iu]lc& 

3. Tho Coatihin^s bftttt'**on iho Loboaibo Hoimta£iu a«d 
tho liidijiD Ucoau. Oulv iu the wi'^tem portiori appear low hilL- 
rmi^fi** i>f |ic*qiliyry lunl mi*liipliyn\ Too othc^rwj*? wry U-vol 
country ia covt'tod with UUiok,' miu^aliy soil (tht* turf of tho 
Troiifivnal bocr)^ in suine part« covei't.'d with r(x>?iit sua-ai&d- 
PuJms iippc'ar, which givo a tropiuul appouninut} to the vo^tft- 
tioii; uikd the uonntrv ]» luoueralvl^ btiidiied uitli trees of 
luiddLJng >;ix«f simtljir in chLLmct^r to th^' liiiKli WIdt on tli* 
lilevale X jjlataiu of the intt^rior of South Africa Very Jitdr 
gMue is met t^ith, and only Htanding tvatar (at \eott dumg 
tho winter). The .-(ciiboanL is tren^ frMu thti t^eUA. Tlio 
utmoHplierv ia very L-1i>3e, even lu wliit4<r, and tht? change h-j 
Jiocm folt after dtwconding tho Lobombo iUoimtains oalf * 
fow LuEidred i^elres hij^h. This lnHt Irniirc m alnrnt 39 milw 
^^^ brood, antl ie mostly inhabited by tho AiualoiL^a- 
^^H Fora detailed df^&cnftioii of ihcso different tcmc>cft I mnstj 

^H rofer th^ reftdor to tho v^otk publiahvd ]jy I>r. Ci>heiw 

f fro 

I 1.1 

I th< 

K cet 

■ Bli 

■ coi 

I ' 

Tla, K- Hoi-un's 7Wv*t?*,"— Tliti wpponnt of Dr. IMuVn 
from tho Diamond Fielda viu Christiana, AUrioo, aud Shoahoi^l 
Lo Lh;i Ziiiiihpjii,)LW f tr a* piihliftlinil,giviw otily n nittgli nkctch ct 
the jjeological Ibiiture* ol Iho rejriou travtnH?d by iiin). Con- 
cemiD^the »o-cail«d'* mijisof Moao^^nb/'ht-twLX-n (Jhristiaua a&i 
Bloomnof, irhiolt e*aiwed vonn) H7rt>ialion iit th<f timi.? of thrdr ds 
covcry. 1 find that Dr. Iloluh agrees with Dr- Cohen uud Mr. 
Dinin. u'ho visited th^ placo before him (the iorm^rr in Jiini 
1673). th&t the '^onuuncEitv found At thoaaltpjui,aiLpposcd to 

publtehvd ill <PclQnimm>*« (Tto^, MUUidluiigcUf' 18Ti!!| part r^ p. ITS, 

Gcohifical Featiir&i of the Thtmi^dat. 


tlio r^mnanU of old biiildinfEe, »r« Dct fomicd dj Immau hand, bat 
by aonic Btrftnea frcftk of nature." Ho g\ni$ no rMWTi for this 
ufMtTtiou as Vt. Culi^u doe« in a l^lt^r a4dn>tted to FtotffsaoT 
ijOonliArd, publishcJ in liormjiny,* He meDtions tlio dncovory 
of n vop|Ktr>miiit? Ht T^Iiitiutini Hprull; rHi iroii-xlutit be fotiud 
gJo&o totJio aouToce of tbo Mato)M>, one milo to the woat of JUoilo ; 
wliile iM niU) of t\iri " martt iiroJtirtivr- |i1rur^ ili oros" be njiint^S A 
certain ftirraoulbL^BouroeBof the Notuitni, Hosaji fi3rlli<>r: — 
*' My eifibiTatioiii in tlit* Diatrict of I^larica have coDrincod me 
that thi^ mii*t hi* tbo rl<?b«t diilri(?t of th^ TrauBvaul, Ufit ouly 
iu molalB. but also in rcgnrd to tho fertility of this soil; Iho 
whole rrgion c^tijoyM n hiiprru1njiiclEiii«T nfcjiringK nud ftpniiU, 
jiromitfin^ a Ivttt^r future tu this fiart of the country than all 
the tturiferoiifi wenlfcli of tlie otht'J distriots*" 

Dr> Holiih wii!( prtiveult.'d fi'om exploring tiio ^oM-iuiDo 
wbUb be knew l<i esUl in tbe i^waraber^ Uim^, but hi? h»w 
" qitartJi p<*ld, thn tatmo H'i in fuiind in Tntif" iu th? hnnd« lA n 
bocrlivinD; in that locality. Tli£s ffe'>lopicji] forniHlion of the 
Hush Veldt he describes a* eimihir ?o that found in other prt^of 
till? Tmnaviwil : vie, Kiuy liraeotonej foliipatic and quart* roclu, 
and rirh irou-nlate berU. In a few jdaC'^ th^ gmy liTni^tDm* 
sbfjff* en Iho snrfAoo, And thi> pwky partj; of tholowor hiile are 
orrrbiid wilb d:'Mji ri?d c|iiiirty, t?iU(t-r rirb iri*n-«nTid or whitii 
Ume-eand. In the nonhorn pdrte of the IJush Fold, in iho btxj 
of the BctchnAna Kiiniit, arr diirk-^lato bt^da licb H-ith mica, 
Tho iiami^ g-noias and granite rcick^ and alio very nob quarts 
with ^M-sTiitjing mioa, rc^ddi^b nin\/\ rich in different kinds of 
m4ttftl», mill r«d qnjLrti: rut^k.H, ar<» lo ho found on the* bnnkf of 
thu Groot Marico, north of the hw&h Veldt. Tho laet-meutioned 
rockif ajr\i alM> ffiiind aloit^' tht^ Tiiii]po;>Q Itivrr, covornd wiih red 

SinrtBic;, p«iv^JI>'. bard sandslone; thciso ognin, in many 
ac^uSt aii^ uvet'lappGd with Goft sandy flt<:me9^ Thc^ luio of 
sftUiAh ground, nr f^lt, oontafa£n^ riv«r-bcdA and unlfpans. is 
nothing biotl* ihau a couiinuattoa of tli& Hue bt'tweou UitrUttiina, 
Bloomhof, tbeSiinynnnii HillK^iiiid Midopo Kivcr, fmnmhencej 

hi believe, it ninn xV. to the KitUhari Det^eirt, and frotiL there 
N.K. to ilio Beroniine. The geolo^cal fornmtiojiA of sneb 
fdiicOf, whic;h e<^kntain rich lalt, iionsiit of veiy cofl, whtto (Kind- 
alonew. aud bku Ihal of Klamea fi^altpan, tvo beili of varLlcal 
and homontal tvhii» Knroo (JicJIm. 
In coiicln,<iion« we iviLl mention hertf^ that Dr. HLiliib clftimA 
to bave discovered an onttet of the Zonga Kivei- to the? 
BbiBA&, " whon itt watcm bocomo »iiJHc]i;Dtly hi^h," but this 
oittTatw^Qnd already friurked on some old ii\n\i», an, for in«tanc^9, 

■ 'NfaMJftbibuoh fur BliiHinJojfLtf; Jt«„ WZ; Uriufwi-aMvL. Di.O^WkV 

SSS Jeppe'# Kot^ en «in# nf the PAyrit^ and 

oa OBO bj- tlifl Ut« Mr. 


7lfi<2^iKi», |iiibLi«L9<l in tli^ *Tt* 

GoiA Cobalt, axd Leat* Mises op taf. TR\^svAAr^ 

Tbo knowledge of the cozv»IderabIr^ miueni wealth of tbr- 
TrftTiMvanI bocomen mopo ftn<! morn drvolopf*^ *!rvory day thron;:ti 
tbt^ pcir^ulilio reoenrclictf of Ir^wllmt t^xplo^in^ tuo country 
nil (HrectioTifl, an:<i the miuiii^ ojupmtious socOQeBfoUy 
on ht firci^cnt. ll^c^ priiKHirul miuor^Ll* IuiiikI oro gol<^ oopptrtJ 
Toail. t'olMiLt. iTon hiiLl L'oiit. 

(rof^.^Tho ^Kt tiwv« of ffold within tlio Limits tj tbd J 

sido of the OIICbhIs Kit^ n^r the MnrcbJBou llan^o, vubt<Mt ^ 
two }*car» Inter hy Hnlton. Un tho yj-it An^iM. JSTl, Jl 

iilcretclin:?. Utwccn JIftknpiui? I'oort fini Miir^^Siod, wbero 
mining;-o]ii*mt.iinjH wmv- cTijrir-O nn fc»r sfiuif- tim«. On ilie» 6l1i 
Februjii-yj Jb73, the first alluvial pold wua tlucorcrod near ^ 
tho Klyilo Itiver, in tho Dutrict t^ T^jdcDbnrp, by Uaanst ■ 

following tlie locality v^ab oflicidlly ]Trat:labuei1 ta & pnyaliU 
gotd-deldbyiho Trann'nnl fiovi^mm^iii, Sinr^ tlien^auriloronjc 
qiiurtE*roe& h&ro l«^n diaoovi^r^ in tlitVt-rt-nt pirts of tlw 
country, tiz.. In the l>isinVt. of \Vftt*?rWrff, on the farm *' BcflT'aU' 

{<iort" not t*tr from Nykln>r>m; nt lUniif«bank (Witnutoiv 
Uiid); mi tbo Cn»-ini]l<; River, i-«ilU of hydctibiir^ ; tn tlt^ 
.Vjnaswogi Country, not tar f^>]n tbo line of the projod^d 
milmiy which Lh la cunut-ct Debi^a Itay with y^tn heoUani); 
6t the sources of the Schoen i^^pniit, \h the District of Pc4cb«rf- 
Bti Don ; in the Uwar* Bor^ I^i$trict Marico; and in Jol^ 
1873, rLliuTud, gold vats fomid on tlio Iohh commonage of 

CappiT. — Siivi'mJ iif thi?\HriHir-t (ffiMkiuMT^jjiit, Elicit a? copper^ 

Slancrs c*oppcr-pyrite», an J varkpaled cuppcr-vn?, arc* f(»Lind in tiho 
iSvrcuT paiifr of the Transvaal^ paiiicularly in tho DistrJi't^ nf 
Lvduiiburg, ZoutpanalotL', rTctorJa, I£uMb*niurfrf nnd Marioo. 
Tne lattat di.HLyvtTif>a vo liave heard of arv til Itulinatu 8|injiL 
(Mjirtctt), and iiiL<4biT 10 inil^rc vii?^i nf Pilgrim's Itfft* AIJ 
of these up^x^ar to ho old HiarUii>gft. cxcuvatod to a depth 
of fioni 20 to 40 fent, jiralmhly \yy Kfilllii^, A vuni^ly uf (.■oi>jHrr 
omnmontst arc worn by tb^ mitivta m the northern parts of ibe 
TiunHvaul, niwle by thi'iiihelvtn; and wit hn\v- wwo lu^aLitif^l 
specimens of almost pure ore snielted into in^ts and bars by 
the naliTrct of Zou!|^insbi:rg. Koae of these mrncs have been 

{rt-oJo^ietii FiotuTtA fjf tftf ThrntraaL 



WoTfc^d hj white Iftboiir, and nothing cad therefor*? he said it*, 
to their prol>oblo value or vichl. Xho country round th* 
Kiifllr r-)iii*f PrtTnnibum, iiorLu of OUfniibi UlYer, ih hhhI tn Iro 
partJoularly rich in ccppor-ore*, 

LeatJ, — Ai\ JibdntUrid* of gnl^^tia 19 fontiil in nU pnrts of the 
TniiiHva^tj aud »ome of ii la nith&r argeniif^ntiu. tt ]» TouikI 
mostly in thi? l^i^tncts of Lydeubui^, Prctom, and Marir'>H 
In Itio latter JiaHct, miniug opemtioiift havo bcon cunicd <m 
for some time. 

Cnhfdt, — Cihnlt-glnncQ wii8 diw'DViirm! hy ]\fiut<'h in 1871» 
on the banka uf tho Sulonit Hivcr, i^ ataaW Aln-nm llowtng into 
the Oliffluta River, nt^rth of Middelbur^. ft is •mkX that lrfij<4>« 
hitvi' ftbo boon found in iifaiicop HiMtcrnburg, and Zoutiiauaber:^ 

Ircn, — All iho vaneliee of this oro^-iroa-glanco cUy, iron- 
fttoiv^ brown iron-ore, lungnclic iron, tVc— ^ire Ibimd in (he 
different pntta of the Traiitvtial ; hut the orea are only n*ed by 
tho niLtivra in ntAkin*; wcApona and oi^namcnts. Soiuo of Uio 
inm \n rfjim! iti qmility loth^ b»'nt Swedish, 

Ct^aL—Tho tiwivncQ of inimenso coul-boda mnst be oon- 
■iHpml tht^ pririL^jjiid we^ilth nf the TranevuuL The wholt* f>f 
tho Ktmth-c'iistorn piirt^ l>*>m Iho Xutal bouudjiry through Iho 
dibtii'^'t*! of iTtMJC'ht LUid WAkhentliuoiu, as f^r hfi Ntw ^uotlaud, 
and uroti higher u[\ ih tmo oxt<ED«ivi> conMold, bninirhing oH' 
to tbo ^ifbot an far ftd HIiifaiipi'a Krual, nenr tft Lucia ]^»*. 
Riid ij ihe north-west jLsfkr as Stwnk*)ol Spniit (abnnt r>7milc3 
BJL from I'n^torin), unJ <oiitli-wc«t, actum the* Bn^jilo ^md KJi[> 
Uiveni into Nalal iind ihe Oriicgft Free KLiit->. The Cf.iul nn tlit* 
Bcloia"* iJcry, hotwcon WakWwtroom Artd UtrrHiht>*'rrppini^ out 
on llir fm'n <if iIh* moUiitdiii Jii a hoiud of irmrfl than li) fset 
thickness, iaof very BiTp^ri<»rqaalit}% and is extensively used for 
tho houeebold ftnd nuithy ; n&d tu tho farmcr« liricg on tho 
elevated plat<»u at New Scotland, and along tho High Veldt, 
iwhcro wood is scarcp, it is almost Iho only fuoi Qsed, Van* 
€«min^ ih« niiiilitif'si of thm i-onl I'ltr Kt^^tn jmriMiwes^ \\t* 
eubjoin tho followiitg lieport of j\Ir. Wibk>n, tSupciintcudonl of 
(Jftfworkf^ CopetoWD, titkcii from n Ooloiiial pu]H-!f :— 

Tivn^w! CWi—MTp WjUoc. Sap«rtE]t«nJva( cf GAvmvrlui in Cap«toAii, 
hiCLB atul/«cd tiro umpkH^rTmnsvaAl wnl. On4«aiTLi)1a Ukcn dowstj^'* 
W&ttsnaayar Eit^ <ionHLuer* Ttr|' ^ood f(»t KM^maklni! fttid ^omMLo om, but not 
ai good M WolaL ooftl for aIcbid. Ilic other «ainp1o wai token dfivn I7 tho 
fniidcDt, u)d j'icldcd iu>Wthcm7U-20 I'cr unt carbon and oalj 7'^0 ^r 
o«iit uK vor/ atarly a^miUtias with the Wclah oad lioed oa ihc C™ 
I^n^Wa^ line, whkh yi^Ido ^I'O per uat. cAiboiv and E>'40 peroeaUufj. Mr^ 
WiWn is hii^kily nUntitsl with tJiJn mult, uid «i<n thtt "tht« «LtciiHiv0 tf^n- 
GmI MOUt oropp^ rot ■» A dott on tbo f»v «! n taountaiEi-rAnsv (in tho 
Ctro^t uibriet), vrtU uUfzoat*!; ^Ktt ^ grtatcc voUa U^ ^^a ^'a^ >^;da^u>i 

Jeppiv^ T^atft <m mjnF of the PfttfMc^ and 
gold or diamcitiil £eU. AW llmt is waat<d i# ao mj outlet «ad cbcjui tnn^ 


Tlie traveller poAeing through the UV&DaTotkl from tlie diunooi}* 
fifljtii 10 tbo ffciliMic^tilx hlong Ihi? ronin pD«(ul n>itt«, or froa 
PntoriA to N^ul, will Jiud the counUv rather pO(n-ljr wooded. 
<]t)ly paic)iei^ of tlui (^iiinniuii mimo«a-llii>rn^ apjiearing h^re and 
tht^rc lo brcuik th(? monotony ut tbv txtonnivt pUuiJt, JkJiit i& 
llir' [iiun< mrjiiiilHiiLOiiFi prtrU — 3l8iii-o^ iiort]i of Mft^Iitin B«!rgi^ 
Pretoria, miU IjVilenburg — tlie buKU b^HHn^u^ moro ^lonao. oad 
trtJitUiij-H Aoiuf- uuo timLi^r of couHJdemblo ai/v and vjlIqc 1& 
socD^ partn of the TtiiufiTnaJ, suth hk ITtrecht, nncl sU alour; t^e 
uirtcni slopes uf the JJrakeuabcix iton^a up to /outpaudlje^ 
ther@ ar^ foreBts of no mpBti extent or tricing Twie. tj»- 
fortiiniit4:Jy> not^iiii^ in dono to urrest their toW dc^trudion 
Hiid wH-utv lhi*ir j^iiirtUi in mrordHms with Uih iiniKnpleg of 
'toVQ^i ocoiiomy, ciilturo and administratioQ, practised in otbcr 

The "PoDgola Bush "covi^i^ahout OOOO acre^of land^aquArttr 
of which haA bcm reserved by Uovcruiccntfur raiLtruy purpooeft. 
But a larcre extent cjf woll*iimbur«d country bt-loiig* to private 
partteB, Tho valao of timber sawu m^y his estmJited ot WOOi 
\tk-x anniiinT but 1ridj1t< timt iiniotini in rutins of Frowing-ander^ 
wood haa boon dealioyod minuidly foi- wvoii vt prQ|>&r supers 
vufion.* In const^ipK-nn^ of tlii^ want^jii di^^tiuctioii nnd waOL^ 
thd buNh in Huid t<> be iK'urly ^vorki^d out, iind thg wood u 
'only obtained Idgh up on tho " kmu/t^ " Aud itnkt. 

\ys aro told that luere is a titin fonst jii: vet uiLtoucbed on 
liie Lobombo range of bills, i\h'.Te the I'uugoln Hivcr pttMe« 
thri^iigh tlitMnnuiLt4Uti. ItUcnlletl lb)ilr.tAkiilii by the Atii«- 
tongUf who livo iu that puit of tho country. There ia u 
eitensivo OotreniniGrit Du^li iu the dislnot uf|Huiiib«r^ 
IcTiowu under th^? name of " Hoiit Boeeb," whiclj cstentls for 
luiltB and imii'ft right into Malyiitvo'a C<]untry, Tbi^ liiober 
crcmg priudpaUy m the ravines ntd kloofs of iho hills, liko in 
Ndtal, and a sijli^ndidatream cf vrnler, eiUtcd " Brocdot !>troom/* 
capable of ^vorkiug a larce and powerful sav-iuiU^ ruDa througti 
the bnub, Thci-c is oaother cxCeueix-e " buah " where Sand Itivcr 
flows through ihe Zoutfianslier^^ MiJUiiUiJi-rungt?. 

The 8o-cuilcd *' Bu^b Veldt," etrotebinp over tlie whole breadth 
uf Ukj t^ouutry fruiii Jbitlcti to Lyd*^ubur^, iiortli of the 2dlh 
degree of latitude, aLut L^oDlaius aouio vjiluabi* timhor, bat of 

Gt^bffi^Gi Ffaturti of tfte TVcafvaaL 


firojillor growth itatl vala^, ench as the dJflTdr^Dt Acacift <pocic«, 
tlio iiO'^Kctihout or G»pc Rcocfi r^fvrsino), tli'? Ziiikf-rtHMili 
(Ppotefl), Kam^Idoom (Aeaola Gir^Ud*'^), fiinl niUTieraiTs sppciM 
of nrWfcsocnt shrubs, Th»? f/inricre iuhahiticg the eoufhrrn 
narl^ of clie Triuiitvital, j]ju1ic<tiliirly UiuMi living an t}i» Hli^li 
Veldt, are in tho Jiabil of moving- with their etock to tfc<» 
IJonli Vc'lrlL during the wintf^r r;fn;u>:ir wlirn^ tlti3 grnm lumjuan 
preoD, affording splendid pa*lur*iga for ^attto. 

The wniitoji u^j:o of aelting fii'e to the " veldt " at certain 
|jeri<xl« during tlj« wintor^iiioiitlui — n jirattioe which either 
totally dflfttroya or in^atly retards the growth of tusii and 
t,n*c-3^ whih? it don« not improve