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* # 

J U 11 N A ]. 






21 ^^^BO 

« • » 

• • • 

'• •• 
I- • • 
• • • • 

c • 

UxmoK : PBoiTCD BT w. CLcmuB Airx) amca, Dun ctbir, mamfomd wmar, 


( iii ) 


Conndl Report, Balance-Sheet for 1867, and Estimate for 1868 •• ▼ 

Libraiy ReguIationB xir 

last of Council, OfiBcers, Honoraiy and Honorary Corresponding 

Members, and Fellows xt 

last of Public tnstitutionsi &c., to which the Publications are presented Ixxxl 

Individuals to whom the Royal Premium has been awarded .. .. Ixxxiii 

Accessions to Library and Map-rooms, with Names of Donors .. Ixxxvii 

Instruments lent out. Presentation of Gold Medals .. .. cxxtI, cxxvii 

Anniversary Address, by Sir R. L Murchison .. cxxxiii 

CN3. Tbs Anthon an aloiw re^MiiiiblA far the oontenti of their xeipectlve pepen.] 


1.— The Portuguese Expeditions to Abyssinia in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, 
and Seventeenth Centuries. By C. B. Mabkhah, Esq., Secretary, 
Boyal Geographical Society 1 

2. — Geographical Results of the Abyssinian Expedition. By C. B. Mark- 
Aam, Esq., Secretary, Royal Geographical Society 12 

3. — Sketch of a Journey from Canton to Hankow. By Albxbt S. Biok- 
MORE, X.A 50 

4. — ^Account of Scientific Explorations in the Isthmus of Darien in the 
years 1861 and 1865. By M. Lucien db Puydt 69 

5.-^Report of the Livingstone Search Expedition. By E. D. Young, Esq., 
Leader of the Exp^tion Ill 

6. — On the Geography aod Mountain Passes of British Columbia in Con- 
nection wiUi an Overland Route. By A. Wajddinoton, Esq. .. 118 

7. — ^Report of a Route-Survey made by Pundit > , from Nepal to 

Lhasa, and thence through the Upper Valley of the Brahmaputra to 
its Source. By Captain T. G. Montgomebie, b.e., of the Great 
Trigonometrical Survey, in chaige of the Trans-Himalayan Survey 
Parties 129 

8.— A Journey from Norton Sound, Behring Sea, to Fort Youkon (Junc- 
tion of Porcupine and Youkon Rivers). By Frederick Whymper, 
Esq 219 

9. — On the Peninsula of Sinai. By the Rev. F. W. Holland, m.a., 

F.B.a.s 237 

a 2 


innrrrii task 

10.— A Tiat to the Noctk-Eftst Ccttst of liOicakr, ^utOK ^ Astnnm of 
1S6T, bj H.M^. (nnjKl, Ommjaiftkr W. Chookv bjk. ~ .. 258 

IL— Journal of a Toor in Annoiii, KnidBsaii, ud Upccr Meapolamn, with 
Xocea of Researches in the G^risun I>ft£b^ in ISt^ Br J. G. Taylor, 
HJL Consul £ur Kurdistan *.. .. ^ — - •• ^^ 

L2.— On the Gcaeraphr and Bec«nl Tokask EinijCMa of Ae SMdwich 
Uandff. Bt the Right Rer. T»»l&« Stalxt, olss Bsbop of 
Hooolnlu ." 361 

13.— Xoces on the Physical Gcographr, Clioca&e, azai Cafdfc£5ti« of Sooiefset 
mad the Cape York Feninsula, Austiala. Bt Dr. Aixxasdob RarraAY, 
3LD. (FAm X R3- * 3^^ 

14. — On the EleTadon of the 0>QntrT lienreen Bcshiie aai Tehenn. By 
Mjjoa O. iyr. JoHS I — - - *^^ 

15.— On the ConffiMDce of the Rivers yantarv> ani ApaiiEac^ in th e Hna nU 
Mocntain^ Bt Professor A>jtv>xio Ratmoxn, Hooorair Corwspood- 
ing Member, s.gj8w — •• •• ^^^ 

15.— The Jaxartes ^nr Syr-Daria, from Russzan Sv^cites^ ^ Rouxr Mkbxix, 
FJLGjS. .. ' .' ^29 

Lrhdl ^ ^ — ^ 4S0 


I. XaBOiAX AJbyascfttt. Chsc t* iLiifcrat .. — •• 1^ 

3. „ . A.^nft t* KiT«r T^khuy^ .. 25 

a. „ ,, ir^tkb^ I^kau. aad Ma«dak 35 

4. Bionncs C»toa t» B«Bkov ^ 

S.tePrTCT DuMi ^ 

<. Wai>oi3<>tos British O^^trnhn aad OtcsIiaI bale » 118 

7. llosT«ox£aiE Lkasa aad tae Bn&BDapatza 129 

*- Wktxpi^ AlMka 219 

*. CnxBO Ukcaior *58 

I>- Tatlok _ K;:i^iisua 281 

II. BiM»Qr B>30«xu: .. .. Suidvkh bbeli »1 

li. SATTaAT Norttk-E«st ATatxaha 370 

13. ^ Pkjvcal Chart. Attsttaha 880 

14. Sr.Joa^r Scctm. EcshiR w T«b«a 411 

IX RaOKiSDC BiTcr Mantaro 413 

luxvraATam to TsjWs Toar ia Annouft, &c^^->C«|w« tc lascriptMNK m Altars, 
Sabft. k£^ 2Si, ±i^ S^>. '29^, Si-O, ;^'l : Rcvna Miksaaae^ 302^ laKription 
«B Aidi cf Bnigt awv t&* * Gmnr Taxi So.- 314. 

%• A JCap to iHatnfe tbe E«r. Hr. &:£Lisd^s Memoir ca Sma >t Staalwni), ttd 
a Xa^ «f V^aCcra T^irkiacui ^t Am>«n»Dit&' to accvsipaaT Hr. MkbeiiV HcBMir oo 
the Jflxarva» fnald zrx ce fia abei in tiaw iir the pobUatktt of ^ prtseat Totame of 
loa ' J^crmM^' aad wsL a^for a toe aot. 

( V ) 

/ .• 

.• .• 

-• - -• 




The Council have again the pleasure of submitting a most satis- 
factory Report of the financial condition and general progress of 
the Society. 

Members. — Since the last Anniversary 190 Fellows have been 
elected, of whom two were Honorary Corresponding, and 19 
have paid their Life Compositions. Last year the number was 
only 147, three being Honorary Corresponding. The number 
lost by death is 41, by resignation 22, and 48 have been struck 
oflf the list for arrears of subscription : the net increase being 79, 
or 53 more than last year. Tiie present total number is 
21 50 Ordinary, and 72 Honorary and Honorary Corresponding 

A special Collector having been appointed towards the 
commencement of the last financial year, for the purpose of 
recovering long outstanding arrears of subscriptions, the Council 
have the satisfaction of reporting so far a successful result, the 
amount thus recovered being 4211. By the same means the 
Finance Committee have been able to ascertain the defaulters 
whose arrears are not expected to be made good, and to recom^ 
mend to the Council the enforcement of the rule providing for 
the exclusion of such from the List of Fellows. On the recom- 
mendation of the Auditors it has been decided to continue the 
employment of the special collector, on terms of commission 
varying according to the length of the arrears. The control and 

'Royal Geographical Society. 

examination of ilie subacriptioii accoiiots have Leen much facili- 
tated this year-by a complete tabulated list of the Fellows and 
- payments,- -prepared by the chief clerk according to a method 
l)ropoaed,liy- the Auditors in the previous year. 

Finanees. — The Balflnce-Sheet (Appendix A) exhibits a large 

inci^flse in the receipts over previous years, and a corresponding 

jfMtfe&se in the balance available for investment or grants iu 

. 'fflctherance of Geography. The receipts for the year (exclusive 

-.'■ilf the balant^e in hand) were 5462?. Ta. \\d. In 18GG they were 

V-508M. 8s. U., m 1865, imSL 8s. Zd., and in 1864, 4977?. 8s. U. 

'• The expenditure during the past year was 3943?. 17s. 4d. ; 

showing a decrease on the two previous years, the amount in 

1866 having been 4052?. 15b., and in 1865, 4307t is. 5d: 

in 1864 it was 3647?. la. lOd, Of the amount expended, 

193t lis. 2d. was for the promotion of expeditions. The 

excess of income over expenditure was 1621?. 13s. 8(?. ; and this 

has enabled the Council, on the recommendation of the Finance 

Committee, to invest a further 1000?. (in the India 5 per cent. 

Debentures). The total amount of the Funded Capital at the 

present date is 15,500?, 

The Council have to remind the Fellows of the ISociety that 
the whole of this sum will be required for the erection of a 
building for their use, the want of which is more and more felt 
as the Sooiety increases in numbers, and will shortly become 
still more urgent when we are deprived of the use of the Hall 
at Burlington House, where the evening meetings are (by per- 
mission) now held, and which is to bo pulled down, A special 
Committee cX the Council has already had this subject under 
their consideration, and a site for a building facing the new 
Thames Embankment has been promised by the Chief Com- 
m'saioner of Crown Lands. The first sketch-plan of a building 
made by Mr. James Fergusson includes rooms for the con- 
venient arrangement of the rapidly-increasing Map Collection 
and Library, as well as a large Hall for meetings, and Offices. 

The legacy of 4000?., mentioned in the Reports of the last 
two years as having been bequeathed to the Society by the late 
Benjamin Oliveira, Esq., is still under litigation. Progress has, 
however, been made towards a final decision, in jud;i;ment 
liaving been delivered against the claimants of tlie property 

Bepori qfthe Cauvcit. 


under a prior aetilement ; and the Council hare been enoouraged 
by theif leg^ adyisers to expect^ in course of time^ the receipt of 
a portion of the legacy. 

Statbxbnt 8liO¥riiig the Rbcbipt^ and Ex- 
PENDiTUBB of the Sooiety from the Year 
1848 to the 31pt Dm, 1867. 

STATEifKNT showing the Prognsfls 
of ike Intkstmsnts of the 
Society from the Year 1832 
to the 3l8t Dec. 1867. 





invented in 





of the 


' of 




rJMMmMm | ■W4HU 


Dec 31. 


£. «. d. 

^. 8. 


£. f. 


£. 8. d. 


a. d. 


686 10 5 

«. •* 

755 6 



3657 10 



778 8 

• • • • 

1098 7 






1036 10 5 

ti t* 

877 2 






]i056 11 8 

• 1 ^ 
•• •• 

906 14 


; 1835 




1220 8 4 

• • . • 

905 18 






1917 2 6 

• • • • 

1675 6 





2565 7 8 

. . . . 

2197 19 






2584 7 

. . . . 

2636 3 



4129 15 



8872 5 1 

533 10 

2814 8 



3788 10 



8142 13 4 


3480 19 







3089 15 1 

. . . . 

2944 13 






3471 11 8 


3423 3 



2219 18 6 


4 4 


6449 12 1 

466 17 


5406 3 



2219 18 6 


4 4 


4792 12 9 

1358 2 


3074 7 



2219 18 6 


4 4 


4659 7 9 

1889 7 


3095 19 



1933 1 


4 4 


fi256 9 3 

1837 10 

3655 4 

! 1847 

2133 1 


6 2 


4977 8 6 

1796 5 

3647 7 



1886 16 8 


1 16 


4905 8 3 

1041 5 

4807 4 



1886 16 a 


1 10 


5085 8 3 

1028 15 

4052 15 


1886 16 8 


1 10 


5162 7 11 



3943 17 



1886 16 8 


1 10 



1886 16 8 
1662 14 10 


1 10 

In 1856 a Treasor 
East African Exp 

f Grant of 1( 
edition receiye* 

)00{. for the 


1662 14 10 
1662 14 10 
2216 4 10 


In 1860 a Treaanr^ 

r Grant of 2i 

SOOI. for the 


2594 4 10 


East African $^ 







2594 4 10 

3544 4 10 

4011 2 4 

5369 4 10 

6758 12 4 

8596 2 4 

10365 7 4 

11406 12 4 

12485 7 4 

13464 7 10 












As in former years, the Finance Committee have held their 
monthly meetings and supervised the expenditure and receipts 

^ Of which 20002. ia India 5 per Cents., and lOOOJ. India 5 per Cent. Debentures. 


Royal Geographical Society. 

of tlie Society. The auditors appointed by tlie Council (whose 
mes are appended to balance-sheet, Ajipt-ndix A) have also 
ide their annual examination of the accounts, and testified 
their approval. The Council feel that the thanks of the 
Society generally are due to these able and experienced gentle- 
men, who devoted three days of their valuable time to the 
arduous labour of testing the accounts in detail. 

I''Mic^Jiions. — The 37th volume of the ' Journal ' was pub- 
lished at the end of April, and is now being delivered to Fellows 
who apply for their copies at the offices of the Society, The 
11th volume of the 'Proceedings' has also been published 
during the year, and two parts of volume 1 "I have been printed. 

The Indox to the third ten volumes of the ' Journal,' com- 
piled by Colonel H. Yule, has been printed and distributed 
since the last Report. 

Library. — The additions to the Library during the year 
amount to 1025 volumes of boots and pamphlets; of which 
190 were purchased, and the rest preaented or obtained in 
exchange for our own publications. 

Among the more important accessions may be mentioned the 
!Ostly illustrated worJts on Abyssinia, by Messrs. Ferret and 
Galinier, and M, Lefebre, complete, with Atlases and plates 
of Natural History; together with numerous other works, 
ancient and modem, relative to Abyssinia, the acquisition of 
which has rendered the Library exceedingly rich in this depart- 
ment. The sumptuous volume ' Plantse Tinneanse,' executed ae 
a memorial of the adventurous voyage of the Dutch ladies 
on the White Nile and Ghazal Kiver, is also amongst the 
acceasions, preeented by the originator of the work, our Associate 
Mr. J. A. Tinnc. 

Under the supervision of the Library Committee, which has 
held frequent meetings throughout the year, the Librarian 
has completed the arrangement of the books on the shelves, 
and madii progress in the compilation of a new Catalogue, 
wherein all works and imjioi-tant memoirs in Transactions and 
Periodicals will be classified according to countries and places. 
■When printed, and in the hands of Fellows and Students, this 
will be I'ound a most useful index to geographical literature. 

It is satisfactory to your Council to report that the Library 

lis I 


Report of the Council. ix 

lias been more used for the purpose of research than in former 
years. During the preliminary arrangements for the Abys- 
sinian campaign, the numerous books and drawings relating 
to Abyssinia possessed by the Society were lent for the use of 
the Topographical Department of the War OflSce, and the 
Director-General of that department has since expressed, in 
an official letter to the Librarian, his thanks for the assistance 
thus afforded. A similar letter was received also from the 
Director of the Army Medical Department, to which works 
were lent and aid rendered in procuring information regarding 
the climate and diseases of North-Eastem Africa. 

Map CoUedion, — The accessions to the Map Department 
during the year consist of 2380 sheets of Maps and Charts, 
5 Atlases, 12 Diagrams, and 50 Views. All have been mounted,, 
catalogued, and incorporated into the classified collection. 

The following are the most important accessions : — 

1350 Sheets of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain and 
Ireland. Presented by the Topographical Office through 
Sir Henry James, Director. 
109 Sheets of Admiralty Charts. Presented by the Admiralty 
through Captain G. H. Kichards, R.N., Hydrographer. 
309 Sheets of French Charts. Presented by the Depot de la 
18 Sheets of Cadastral Map of the Province of Madrid. Pre- 
sented by Don Juan de Villa Nova. 
Geological Map of Switzerland. Presented by M. J. M. 

Map of Alaska. Presented by the United States Naval 

Plans and Surveys of Nicaragua. Presented by J. CoUinson, 
Esq., c.E. 
6 Sheets of Map of Buenos Ayres. Presented by Don 

Saturnino Salas. 
2 Sheets of Boundary Survey Map of the United States. 
Presented by A. Campbell, Esq. 
Maps of British Columbia. Presented by A. Waddington, 

Catalogue of Maps. — Two copies of the ^Manuscript Catalogue 
of Maps, to the end of 18G7, have now been completed, and the 



Royal Geoffraphicai Societi/. 

aervioea of the extra aBsistant in tlie Map Uepartmont, engaged 
for this labour, dispensed with. The maps are classified accord- 
ing to countries and places, and great facility of reference is 
thereby attained, to the benefit of Fellows and the public 
who consult the collection. The question of printing the 
catalogue for distribution is under the consideration of the 

Grants to Travellers, — In tlie estimate for loBt year the sum 
of 200/, was given as the probable disbursement of the Society, 
on account of the Livingstone Search-Expedition under Mr. 
Young. The amount paid by the Society under this head is 
only 160/.— namely, 100/. as gratuity to Mr. Young; 50/., the 
same, to Mr. Keid, the mechanic who managed the steel boat ; 
sod 10/., for fishing and collecting apparatns, to Mr, Faulkner. 
All the other costs of the expedition were defrayed by Her 
Majesty's Government, 

The sums paid to Mr. Young and Mr, Eeid will appear in 
the accounts of tlie next financial year, and of the amount 
193/. lis, 2(i. for expeditions, entered in the present balance- 
sheet, 78/. 6b. 8d., salary to Mr, Beid, has since been refunded 
by the Admiralty, as will appear in the next balanoe-sheet. 
The balance, 115/. 48. 6d., is composed of the following grants : 
— 50/. to M. Giirhard Hohlfa, in aid of his journey from Tripoli 
to Lagos ; 7/. 7«, for instruments to Mr, E. Whyraper, Green- 
land Expedition ; 10/. to Mr. Faulkner, as above stated ; 13/, for 
instruments to Mr. IL Wliitely, South Peru; and 34/, 178. 6d. 
for instruments to the Kev. F, W. Holland, in aid of his Sinai 

Geographical Prizei. — During the present session the Council 
have had under their earnest consideration a proposal of Mr. 
Francis Galton, Vice-President, to encourage the study of 
geography in Great Britain by the offer, on the part of the 
Society, of prizes for competition in the pruicipal public schools. 
Already an annual prize of 5/., termed " Tlie Koyal Geographical 
Society's Priae," is granted by the Council, as they learn, with 
beneficial results, to the Society of Arts, and awarded at their 
annual examination. The principle and details of the extended 
proposal have been examined by a *n>ecial Committee, and on 

Report of the Council, xi 

their report the following course has been determined on by the 
Council : — 

1. To oflTer two medals of gold and two of bronze, of appro- 

priate size and design ; one of each to successful 
candidates in an annual examination, on subjects of 
Political Geography and Physical Geography respec- 
tively. The examination to take place in tne begin- 
ning of 1869, and to be repeated in each succeecGng 
year until further notice. 

2. To invite to jsompetition about twenty-three of the prin- 

cipal English public schools, and a proportionate number 
in other parts of the United Kingdom. The claims 
of other schools to be considered hereafter. The 
numbe? of candidates in each school to be confined 
within such limits as the Council may hereafter deter- 
8. The examination to be conducted by two Examiners 
engaged by the Societv, and to be carried out by 
sealed papers sent simultaneously to the schools. 

The Council will be prepared to issue full particulars of the 
proposed competition before the close of the session; mean- 
time they cite, to shew the connection between the present 
action of the Council and the n;ovement now taking place in 
public school education, the following passages from the recent 
Beports upon School Education :-^ 

**rrom the observations which we have made on the study 
of history and geography, it will appear that greater 
attention should in our opinion be paid to them than 
they now receive at schools. A taste for history may 
be gained at school ; the habit of reading intelligently 
should certainly be acquired there, and few books can 
be intelligently read without some study of history, 
and no history without geography." — Report of the 
Boyal Commimon on Public School Examination^ 1864, 
vol. i. p. 33, 

[Speaking of Natural Science], ** We cannot consider any 
scheme of education complete which omits a subject of 
such high importance. . . . The best starting- 
point would probably be found in the outlines of 
physical geography. This subject is already taught 
with much success in many elementary schools. . . . 
It has many points of connection with the other usual 
subjects of instruction." — Report of Schools Inquiry 
Commission, 1868, p. 34. 

Royal Geographical Society. 

*;k5^'Is^"2* I a 



■3 " O = = H 



E-C i ■ I 



R^ort qftht ComciL 

»illlS£§g i 







I « 5 I I I J W 

« I 5 1 1 , I •s 1 1^ 1= 
3 1 a a I II S I S^ -I 


Ifbrarg lEUpInUons. 

I. The Library will be open eveTy day in the week (Sundays 

excepted) from 10-30 in the morning to 4-30 in the rftenioon," 
exoopt on Kew-Year's Day, Good Friday to Easter Monday incln- 
sive, and ChriBtmae week ; and it will be closed one month in the 
year, in order to be thoroughly cleaned, viz. from the first to the 
last day of September. 

II. Every Fellow of the Society is entitled (subject to the Mules) to 
borrow as many as four volumes at one time. 

Ejcceptions : — 

1. Dictionaries, Encyclopredias, and other works of reference 

and coat. Minute Books, Manuscripts, Atlases, Books and 
Illustrations in loose sheeta. Drawings, Prints, and unbound 
Numbers of Feriodioat Works, mUess toith the special teritttn 
order of the President. 

2. Maps or Charts, uitiess ly specM sancHoa of the President and 


3. New Works before the expiration of a month after reception. 

III. The title of every Book, Pamphlet, Map, or Work of any 
kind lent, shall first be entered in the Library -register, with the 
borrower's signature, or aGcomi>anied by a separate note in his 

IV. No work of any kind can be retained longer than one month : 
but at the expiration of that period, or sooner, the same must be 
returned free of expense, and may then, upon re-eulri/, be again 
borrowed, provided that no application shall have been made in the 
mean time by any other Follow. 

V. In all CMOS a list of the Books, &c., or other property of the 
Society, in the possession of any Fellow, shall be sent in to the 
Secretary on or befora the Isf of July in each year. 

TI. In every case of loss or damage to any volume, or other 
property of the Society, the borrower shall make good the same. 

VII. No etrangor can be admitted to the Library except by the 
introduction of a Fellow, whose name, together with that of the 
Visitor, shall be inaerted in a Itook kept for that purpose. 

VIII. Fellows transgressing any of the above llcgulatlons will bo 
reported by the Secretary to the Council, who will take such steps 
as the case may require. 

By Order of the Council. 


• On Saturday tho Library ia cloeed at 2-30 p.m. 




( KLEGTED Vm MAY, 1868.) 


MoBCHisoii, Sir Boderidc T., BarL, k.c.Bm o.c.sI'.a., m.a.,, t.p.b.a., o.s., and 

L,8., Director^CJeneral of tiie Geological Sairey of Great Britain and Ireland, 

Thist. Brit ^ns., Hon. M6m. R.S. of Ed., r.i.a.. Foreign Member of the 

Academy of Sdenoes, PaHs. Mem. Acad. St. Petenborg, Berlin, 

Stockholm, Bmis^ and Copenhagen, Corr. Ins. Fr., &c. &c. 


Back* Vioe- Admiral Sir George, ikc«u» | Wauoh, Gen. Sir A. Scott, f.r.8. 
rjLS., &C. I Galton, Francis, Esq., m.a.,t.b.8.,&o. 


COCEB, Reginald T., Esq. 

HonoHTON, Lord. 

Tbbvsltam, Sir Walter C, Bart, &c 


BIaIlkhax, Clements R., Esq., v.8.a. | Major, Richard Henry, Esq., F.8.A. 

Jfoxtiga Ikfcretarp. 

Graham, Cyril C, Esq. 

iRtmbzxi of Council. 

Addington, Right Hon. H. U. 
ABBowsmTH, John, E8q.,r.B.A.s. 
Bakbb, Sir Samtiel W. 
BALfoUB, Maj.-Gen. G., B.A., c.b. 
BaooKiHG, Thomas H., Esq. 
OolUNSOK, Admiral R., c.b. 
pKBGuasoN, James, Esq., 
PiiiDLAT, A« G., Esq. 
Fbexantle, Rt.'Hon. Sir Thos. F., Bart. 
Fbebe, Sir H. Bartle, k.c.b. 
Imglkfield, Cftpt E. A., b.n., f.b.8. 

Jones, Capt Felix. 
Merivals, Herman, Esq., c.b. 
Nicholson, Sir Charles, Bart. 
OsBORN, Capt. Sherard, c.b., b.n. 
Rawlinson, M.-Gen. Sir Henry C., 


Richards, Capt. G. H., r.m. 
Right, Major-Gen. C. P. 
Thomson, Thomas, Elsq., m.d., f.b.s. 
Vebnet, Sir Harry, C, Bart., M.P. 
Wharncliffe, Lord. 

Messrs. Cocks, Biddulpb, and Co., 43, Cbaring-cross. 

Umi^Unt decrttarD anti ^tiitot of Craniefaction^, 

H. W. Bates, Esq. 

( Xvi ) 


1st January, 1869. 


H. I. M. Dom PisIjo ir., Emperor of Braiil. 
HIa MnJ«tf Uie King of SwedfQ aad Nor- 

His MnJMly the King nf tlio B^lppini. 
Hii Imperial Highneu tlie Ei-Graad Duke 
of Tuficujy. 

Hi« Imperial HIgliDMs tho firanJ Dnko 
t'onitantine, PtM. Imp. Geo. Soc of St. 

His Royal Highuea the Dulce of Edinbui^h. 

His Iniprial Kiglmesi limoil Tuba, Vlue- 
roj- of t^gypt. 


Abioh, Dr.WiUinm Hermann, St. Petsuburg 
Akkell, Gen. Carl, Topo. Corps of Sweden, 
Alueida, Dr. CiiQdiila Mendes de 
Back, CIict. de K. E., Mem. Imp. Acaid. oT 

Scien™ St. I'etersburg 

BALBt, M. EugiiDe de Milan 

BAsrutf, Dr. Adnlph Bremen 

liBRBBUOOEa, M, M Algiere 

BKBOiiAua, Piof. Hncricb .. .. Berlin 
BuRMEiETEB, Ur. Hermann, Buenoa Ayrea 

Ch*ix, Prof. Pad Genera 

COSIAO, Dm FranoKO .. Madrid 

Daha, Profcsior Jnows D., New Haren. 


D'AVEZAO.M. Pari* 

DuFODB, Gen., Director of the Topo. De- 
part., SwllicrUnd Cencrn 

DuTErniER, M. Henri .. .. Parit 

EUKEHBEBO, C. P., t'OT, M.R. and LB., 


Ehkah, Fraf. Adolph Berlin 

FAiDUKaBE, GtAi£nd L., Ginini Comman- 

dwtkBoM Algeiie 

FlOANiEaE, Command. JorgtfCiaar Liihon 
FOBcuHAJCMeu, Prtjf. P.W. .. Kiel 

KkeMoNT, Geiietil New York 

Gbinheu., Henry, Ewj. v.v. Geogr. foe. 

of New York 

QUTOT, Prot, LL.D., Princeton, Npw Jemey 
HAimnoEB, Dr, WilUam, V.P. Imp. Geop-. 

Socof Vienna 

Hansteik, Prof., For. M.R B. Cbriatniua 
HAZE1.1U8, M,-Gen. J. A., Cbiaf of tba 

Topo, Corps of Sne'Ioa ., Stodibolm 

Heluebsen, Col. P. .. St. Petenbln^ 
HiJOEL, Baron Cb. von .. .. Brunels 
Iruinqeq, limr-Admiral C. L. C, b.d.n., 
Janeen, Capt. M. K., O.B.N., Deirt, Holhmd 
JOCUHUS, Field llarshal Lieutenant Baron 
Kennellt, D. J. Eeq., F.R.A.S. 

Khanieof, M Paria 

Kiepert, Dr. H Berlin 

Leal, His Eiu. Souhor Fernando da Costa, 

Coiernor of Moiambii]ue 
Leal, Jose' da Silva Uendes, Minister ofthi 

LiHABT Paiha Aleiandrii 

I.iviNOSTONE, Darid, Esq., ¥.d., lud. 
LCTEE, Admiml K. B., Prai, of Iha Imp. 

Ai'ademy of Sdeacea .. St. Petersburg 
Macedo, J. J. da CoWa de .. .. Liibon 

Madoz, Don Paacuol Madrid 

Malte-BrUN, M. V. A., Sec. Geogr. Soc 

of Parii 

Maury, Commodore M. F. 

Neqhi, Chevalier Crlatoforo .. .. Turin 

pETEHHANN, Di. Augustos .. ,. Gotha 

I'lliLtPPi, Dr. Kodulfo Atmindo .. Cbili 
PL.ATKII, Hii Eicelteoey Count. 

List of Honorary Carrespondviff Members. xvii 

lUiilONDr , Don A ntonio Lima 

Raituzzi, Count Annibale .. .. Bologna 

ROppsll, Dr. E., For. M.LA .. Fhmkfbrt 

Salas, Don Satnmino, Prw. Topo. Depart., 
Argentine Kepab. .. .. Buenoa A jret 

SCHEDA, Herr Ton, Director of the Imp. 

Inat oflfilitarjGeogr Vienna 

ScREBZEB, Dr. Karl Ton .. •• Vienna 
SOLDAN, Don Marino Felipe Pas, Lima. 
SONKLAB, Lknt-CoL the GheT. de, 

Wiener, Neoatadt, Vienna 
SmuYXy Prof. Otto, In^ Obeerr. of 
Polkowa St. Petersburg 

Stdow, Lt.-CoU Emil von (Chief of the 
Geographical Department of the Staff of 
the Prussian Army), Befaren Strasse, 66, 


TCHIHATCHEF, M. Pierre de .. Paris 

Tscnuoi, Herr T. T, too .. .. Vienna 

Vander Maelen, Mr. Ph. .. Brussels 

Vernecil, M. E. de Paris 

ViLLAViCEKCiO, Dou Mnnud Guayaquil 

Wranoell, Admiral Baron, 

St Petersburg 

ZiEGLEB, M. J. M Winterthur 

Vol. xxxvfiT. 

( xviii ) 


( To 1st Januaey, 1869.) 

K.B. — Tho$e honing * preceding their names heme oompomdedfor life, 



1868 ♦Abbott, Wm., S. D., Esq. 28, Pembridge Crescent, W, 

1863 Ahdjf Rev. Albert, H.A. IMingdon End, Uxbridge, 

1860 A Beckett, Arthur M., Esq., Fjt.c.8.E. 

1851 Abinger, W. F. Scarlett, Lord, QuarcTs dub, S.W. 

1865 Abercrombj, Hon. J. 4th Battalion Rifle Brigade, Chester, 

1865 AchesoD, Frederick, Esq., O.E. 7, College-hUl, Highimry^park, North, K. 

1861 Acland, J. Barton Arundel, Ex^. Mount Peel, Canterbury^ New Zealand, Care 

of A, Mills, Esq^ 34, Hyde-park^ardens^ W, 

1853 Acland, Sir Peregrine Palmer F. P., Bart. Fairfield, Somerset, 

1830 * Acland, Sir Thomas Dyke, Bart., F.R.S. 34, Hyde-park-gardcns, W, ; and 

Killerton, Exeter, Devon, 

1867 10 Adair, CoL Alex. Sbaflo. 7, Audley'Square, W, 

1867 Adare, Vipoount. CleartoeU-cottrt, Coleford, Gloucestershire. 

1861 Addington, Right Hon. H. U. 78, Eaton-place, S, W, 

1862 Addison, Col. Thomas, O.B. 

1859 Ainslie, CoL H. Francis. Junior United Service Club, S.W.; and Burlington' 

chambers, 180, Piccadilly, W. 

1830 ♦ Ainsworth, W. F., Esq., f J.A. Bavenscourt-villa, New^road, Hammersmith, W, 

1859 Airlie, David Graham, Earl of. JTolly-lodge, Kensington, M\ 

1860 Aitchison, David, Esq. 180, PiccadUly, W. 

1830 *Albemarle, George Thomas, Earl of. 11, Orosvcnor-square, W,; QuiddenJiam* 

hall, Larlingford, Norfolk ; and Elvedon-hall, Suffolk, 
1862 Alcock, Sir Rutherford, K.C.B. Athenamm Club, S. W, 

1838 20*Aldam, William, Esq. Frickley-hall, near Doncaster, 
1865 Aldom, Joseph R. Esq., M.A., ph. db. Salway-house, Leyian, Essex* 

1857 Aldrich, Captain Robert D., R.N. Windmill-road, Croydon, Surrey, S. 

1830 Alexander, Colonel Sir Jas. Ed., ilcla, f.r.a,s., F.R.8.B., etc, 14th Regt« 

United Service Club, S. W. ; and Westerton-house, Bridge of Allan, N.B, 

1864 Allan, C. H., Esq. Lloyd^s, E,C, ; and^l. Park-street, Stoke Newington, N. 

1857 Allan, G. W., Esq. Moss Park, Toronto, Canada, Care of Gen, J, H, Lefroy^ 

B,A., Boyal Arsenal, Woolwich, S,E, 

Liti of Felhum oftlte Royal Gtographxcal Society. zix 


1858 AUtt, Jas^ Eiq. 122^ L0adenkalUtr99t, E.C. 

1887 Allen, Aldorman Wm. F. 6, PgUnham-ierrace^ ao/4k Kemi»gioih ^* 

1885 AUen, JamM PMroe, Esq. IS, Waterlothphce, 8.W: 

1854 AaoQoa, J. S., Eaq. 8, Jokn-tireet, Adelphi, W.C. 

1880 30 AwieHon, John Edmond, Eaq. Smlade Hauac, Taunton^ 8omer$d, 
1887 Andanoii, Sir Heniy L., K.C.B. India^ffictj S, W, 

1882 Andmoo, Jamea, Esq. 1, Smt^r-coiirt, OUy, EX. 

1881 Anderson, John, Esq. Messrs. W. R. Adamson and Co. Shanghai, Care of 

Metan, Jna. Burd and Co,, Hong Kong, Per Meetre, Adam, Thomaont and 
Co,, 48, Lime-street, E,C. 

1861 ^Anderson, Ck>L W., O.B. 19, Ghucester-equare, Hyde-park^ W. 

1868 Andenon, John, Esq. Coneervatioe C7ti6, 8,W» 

1868 Andenon, Joseph, Esq. 7, Qeeeland-^quaret Hyde-park, W. 

1858 ^Andrew, William P., Esq. 

1867 Andrews, G. H., Esq. The Cedars, New Brentford, 

1866 Andrews, John R., Esq. East-hill-house, Wimhledon, S,W, 

1868 40 Angas, George P., Esq. 72, Portland-road, Notting-hill, W, 

1861 .Annealej, Col. the Hon. Hugh, M.p. 25, Norfolk-street, Park-lane, W, 

I860 ^Anson, Sir John William Hamilton, Bait. 55, Portland-place, 8,W, ; and 

Sherley-houae, Croydon, 
1853 Ansted, Prof. D. T., M .a., f.r.8., etc. 33, Brunsvich-tqmre, W,C ; Athenamm 

CM), S. W. ; and Chateau Vieux, St, Leonard, BoiUogne-sw-Mer, 

1868 'Anstej, Cbisholm, Esq. 2, Phwden-buUdingSf Temple, E.C, 

1857 Anstruther, M.-Gcn. Philip, 03., Madras Artil. 

1864 Anstmther, Lieut R. L., Rifle Brigade. Montreal^ Canada, Care (f Lt.-Col. 

L, Anstrttther, HviUlesham-haU, Ipswich, 
1830 *Antrobas, Sir Edmund, Bart. 146, Piccadilly, W,; Lower CJieam, Epsom, 

Surrey; and Amesbwry, Wilts, 
1863 Arber, Edward, Esq., AJCC. Admiralty, W.C, ; Civil Service Club, S, W. 

1858 Arbuthnot, George, Esq. 23, Hyde-park-gardens, W, 
1863 5^ Arbuthnot, Lieut. George, B.H.A. Cowarth, Sunningdale, 
1850 Aroedeckne, Andrew, Esq. 35, Albemarle-street, W, 

Iggl Archer, Gmyes Thos., Esq. 1, Ennismore-place, Prince* s-gaie, S. W, 

1866 Aroonati, The Marquis Giarmmartino. dua Prini, Pisa, Care of Mr, Bernard 

Qmaritch, 15, Piccaditty, W, 

1855 ^Arden, Richard Edward, Esq. Sunbury-park, Middlesex, S. W, 

1858 *Aniiistead, Rer. Charles John, if.A., f.s.a. United University Club, S,W, ; 

National Club, S, W, ; and Withcall-rcctory, near Louth, Liiicolnsliirc, 

1863 Armitage, Edward, Esq. 3, Hall-road, St. John's-ulood, N. W. 

1867 Armitstead, Geo., Esq., M.P. Errol Park, Errol, X.B, 

1857 Armstrong, Alexander, Esq., M.D., lospector-GeueroI, R.N., F.R.C.P. Junior 

United Service Club, S, W. 
1830 *Arrowsmith, John, Esq., f,r.a.s. 35, Hereford-square, Old Brompton, S,W, 
1863 60 Arthur, Captain William, R.N. The Priory^ Leatherhead. 
1863 AflhbnrtoD, Alex. Hugh, Lord. 

XX List of Fellows of the 



1864 ^AshtoD, R. J. Esq. UaUm-cowrt^ Thr€adneedl€<treet, E.C' 

1853 . ^Aihwell, James, Esq., H.A., r.o.8. 

1851 Astlej, Fraods D. P., Esq., MJLI. 67, Eat<m^'§quar€f S,W. 
1830 ^Atkins, John Pdlj, Esq., F.8.A. HaUted-plaoif near Sevmioaki. 

1860 Attwell, Profenor Henry. Barnes^ S.W. 

1859 Aosten, Capt. Henry H. Godwin, 24th Foot, Trig. Sorrty, Panjab. Jvnkr 

Dhited Service Clvb^ S.W,; (md Chiiworth-mmor^ CMldford^ Surreif. 
1863 Austin, John G., Esq. 

1854 Ayrton, Aetoo S., Esq., 1C.P. 3, Eaeex-oourt, Tenqfhf E,C. 
1845 70*Ayrton, Frederick, Esq. 

1866 *Babington, William, Esq., 33, Ftdhamrplace^ MiUda-m, West, W.; and 

Bonny Biver, West Coast of Africa, 

1836 *Back, Admiral Sir Geo., D.C.L., f.b.8. \Q%QUmoe9ter^laceyPortvM%'9q,, If* 

1863 ^Backhouse, John Henry, Esq. Darlingim. 

1866 Baoon, Geo. Washington, Esq. ZZl, Strand, W,C. 

1864 Badger, Ber. Geo. P. 21, Leamington-road VOlas, Westboume'parkt W, 
1863 Bagoty Christopher N., Esq. Oriental C7ti6, W. 

1862 Bagot, Capt L. H. Care of C. S. Bagot, Esq,, 40, Chancery-iane, W.C. 

1859 Bailey, L. C, Esq., Staff Commander, B.K. Ibpogr<q>hical Department, 

NeW'Street, Spring^gardens, S, W, 

1857 BaiUie, UtioT John, Bengal Staff Corps. 22, Palace-gardens-terrace, Ken' 

sington, W, 

1862 8o Baniie, John B., Esq. Leys-castle, Inverness. 

1861 Baillie, WOliam Henry, Esq. 12, ChapeUetreet, Belgrave^square, 3, W, 
1 857 Baines, Thomas, Esq., 

1861 *Baker, John, Esq. 

1862 Baker, Capt Robert B. Oriental Club, ffanover-square, W. 

1865 Baker, Sir Samuel White, ffedenham-hall, Bungay, Norfolk } and 1 18, Belgrave" 

road, S.W, 

1855 Baker, Miyor Wm. T., 85th Regt. Junior United Service Oub, S.W.; and 

31, Grosvenor^place, Bath, 

18G1 Baldwin, William Charles, Esq. LeykauMcarage, Preston. , 

]861 Balfour, David, Esq. Balfour-castle, Kirkwall, N,B. 

1847 Balfour, M-. General George, h,a*, cd. 27, Oordon^streel, Oordon^square, 

W,C,; and Oriental Club, Hanoter'equare, W, 

1853 90 Balfour, John, Esq. New South Walesi and CoUnton, QueenaHand; 89, St. 
James* -street, S. W. 

1863 Balfour, John Osbom, Esq. 7, The Common, Woolwich. 
1863 Balfour, WUllam, Esq. Post-office, Deal, Kent. 

1860 BaU, John, Esq. Oxford and Cambridge Oub, S.W, 

1863 Bamforth, Rev. J., Principal of DoreUm College. Madrae* Care of MesSrS. 

Jackson, Wafford, and ffodder, 27, Paternoster-row, E.C. 

1852 Bancroa, Capt W. C, 16th Regt Aids de Camp and Military S^., 

King's Bouse, Jamaica ; McGregor and Co., Charles-street, S. W. 

Royal Geographical Society. xxi 


1862 Buikiy George F., Esq., Surgeon r.n. 

1858 Bannflmno, Sir Alexander, Bart. 46, Grosvenor-place, S.W. 

1868 Barber, Captain Harby, J. A. 55, Parliatnent Street, 8. W. 

1840 ^Bardaj, Arthur Kett, Esq., F.R.f. Park-str^t, SouVtwark, 8.E,j and 
Bwnf'hillt Dorking J Surrty. 

1863 roo Barford, A. H., Esq., m.a. 1, ComuHxlUerrace, Regents-park, X, W. 
1835 ^Baring, John, Esq. Oakwood, Chichester. ' 

1844 ^Baring, Thomaa, Esq., M.p. 41, Upper Gronenor-sireet, W, 

1862 Barlee, Frederick Palgrare, Eeq. Care of G, Laurence, Esq,, 12, Marlboro*- 

road, Lee, 8,E, Perth, Western Australia, 

1868 Barlow, Frederick Thomas Pratt, Esq. 26, Jiutland-gate, S, W. 

1864 Bamett, H. C, Esq. Care of Alex, Whj/tock, Esq,, 9, George-st,, Edinburgh, 

1858 Barrett, James, Esq. Lymnc-fioU, near Harrington, Cheshire. 

1859 Barrington, Lord, m.p. 19, Hertford-street, May fair, W. 

1867 Barrington Ward, Marcus J., Esq., f.l.8. Magdalene-hall^ Oxford. 


1833 Barrow, John, Esq., F.B.8., F.8.A. \1, Hanover-terrace^ Regent s-park^N.W* 

1863 no Bany, Alfred, Esq. 

1857 Bartholomew, John, Esq. 4, North-bridge, Edinburgh. 

1861 Bartlctt, Herbert Lewis, Esq. Union Club, S. W. 

1862 Barton, Alfred, Esq., M.p. Oriental Club, W, ; and Hampton Court. 

1864 Baseri, Capt. J. P., B.B. 100, Belgravc-road, 8. W. ; ' Messi-s, Grindlay 4r Co,, 

Parliament-street, 8, W. 

1837 ^Bateman, James, Esq., F.R.S., L.8. Knypersley-hall, Staffordshire, 
1859 Bateman, John F., Esq., C.E. 16, Great George-street, Westminster, 8.W. 

1866 Bates, Henry Walter, Esq., F.Z.8, 15, Whitehall-place, S.W. 

1866 Bateson, George, Esq. 45, Green-street, Park-lane, W, 

1866 Batten, John H,, Elsq. Alveme HiH, Penzance ; and Oriental Club, Hqnot^r- 

square, W. 
1864 120 Bax, Capt. Henry G. 2, Sussex-place, Hyde-park-gardens, W, 

1867 ♦Baxter, Sir David, Bart, Dundee ; 5, Moray-place, Edinburgh ; and Kiljnarcn- 

castle, Cupar, Fife, 

1867 Baxter, Richard, Esq. (Barrister-at-Law). 19, Leinster-gardens, Bayswater, W. 

1858 Baxendale, Joseph H., Esq. 78, Brook-street, W.; and Scott* s-bridge, near 

Rickmansworth, Herts, 

1867 Bayley, Chas. Jno., Esq., C.B., M.A. 51 , Victoria-road, Kensit\gton, W, 

1863 Bayley, H. Esq. Blackheath-park, Kent. 

1862 ^yly» Lleut-Col. John, R.E, Ordnance Survey Office; 131, St. George* s-road, 


1862 Baynes, Lieut-Col. R. Stuart Army and Naty dub, S.W, ; and 38, Jermyn- 

street, 8. W. 

1868 Baynton, Capt. Edward. Trafalgar Lodge, Shirley, Southamjr/ton. 
Iggg Beamish, Captain H. H., R.N. 9, Cadogan-place, S, W, 

1852 '3^ Beardmore, Nathaniel, Esq., c.E. 30, Great George-street, Westminster ^ 8, W, 
1858 Beaudefk, Aubrey de Vere, Esq. Ardglass, Co, Belfast^ 

xxii Lid of Fellows of the 

Y— ro>| 









Beaufort, William Morris, Esq., Bengal CItU Service. BwgaL 

Beaamont, John Aug., Esq. Wtm6^M2m^xirA-AotiM^ WiadMkmt S^W,; tmd 
50, Regent-aireei^ W, 

^Beaumont, Wentworth B., Esq., m.p. 144, PiooadiUy, W.; Bywell-haU, 
NieufoasHe-^gfKm'iyne ; and Bretton^^park, Wakefield, 

Beavan, Hugh J. C, Esq., t,a.bJa, 13, Blandford'tquare, Begenfi-parkt N. W.; 
4, Middle-4emple4ane, E,C. ; and Junior CarUan Clvh^ 8, W, 

Beazeley, Alexander, Esq., C.E. Engineertf Office, Trimt^house, E.C. 

Beazeley, Michael, Esq., m.t.ce. IHnity WorkSf Penzance, OomxoalL 

Bebb, Horatio, Esq, 13, Ohucester-place^W. ; and Leamington, 

Beckett, James F., Esq., Staff Commander, B.K., F.B.8.A. 6, Boyne'terraot, 
Notting-hillf W, Care of Captain George, 

140 Beckford, Francis L., Esq. Buxletf^odge, Esher, Surrey , 

^Bedford, CapL G, Augostns, R.N. 5, Ormond-terrace, Begent*8-park, N,Wm 

Beeton, Samuel Orcliart, Esq. 
*Begbie, James, Esq. 17» TrtnUysquare, Tower Hill, E.C. 

Begbie, Thomas Stirling, Esq. 4, Mansion-house-place, E.C, 

Beke, Charles Tilstone, Esq., pif. DR., F.8.A., &c. Bekedfowmc'housc, near 

Belcher, Rer. Brymer. St. GabrieVs, PinHico, 8. W. 

*Belcher, Vice-Adm. Sir Edward, K.C.B., f.r.a.8. 22a, Connmight-^quare, W, 

Beldam, Edw., Esq. Royston, Herts, 

Belmore, The Earl of. Dover-street, Piccadilly, W. 

i50*BelI, Charles, Esq., M.P. Richmond. 

*Bell, C. Dayidson, Esq., Sorreyor-General, Cape of Good Hope. Cape Toum, 
Care of the 8, A, Pub. Library, Cape Ibwn, Per Messrs. H. 8. King and Co. 

Bell, James Christian C, Esq. 42, Westboume-terrace, W. ; and 15, Angel- 
court, I%rogmorton^sireet, E.C. 

Bell, Wm. A., Esq. B.A., M.B., 18, Hereford-street, May Fair, W, 

Bellamy, Edward, Esq. 10, Duke-street, St, James's, 8.W. 
'Bennett, John Joseph, Esq., f.r.8. British Museum, W.C, 

Bennett, J. Risdon, Esq., M.D. 15, Phubury-square, E.C, 
'Benson, Robert, Esq. 16, Cranen^UUgardens, Bayswater, W. 
'Benson, William, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. 16, Craven^ill-gardens, Bayswater, W. 

Bentham, George, Esq., Pres. L.a. 25, Wilton-place, 8, W. 
160 Bentlej, George, Esq. Upton-park, Slough, 

Bentley, Richard, Esq. New Burlington-street, W, . 

Berens, H. Hulse, Esq. Sidcross, Foot's Cray, Kent. 

Berkley, Geoiige, Esq., O.E. 9, Victoria Chambers, Victoria-street, S. W. 

Bernard, P. N., Esq. 8, Finch-lane, E.C. 

Berridge, F., Esq. Winchester-house, Winchester-road, Adelaide-road, N.W. 

Berry, Josiah, Esq. 16, Regent-square, W.C, 

Best, William, Esq. 3, Belle-me-place, Southampton, 

Best, William John, Esq. 104, FraMin-ttreet, New York. 

Royal Geographical Society. xxiii 


















Bethune, Alexander M.» Esq. Otterbum, Hamlet^roadj Upper Korvcood; and 
122, ZeadmhaU-street, E.G. 

1 70*Bethane, R.-Adm. C. R. Drinkwater, o.B. 4, CromweU-rd., South Kensington, W. 

^Betta, E. L., Eaq. Preston^hall, Maidstone, Kent. 

Betta, John« Esq. 115, Strand, W.C. 

Bevan, William, Esq. 8, Cedan-road, Clapham-common, S» 

Bicker-Caarten, Peter, Esq. 30, Northumberland-place, Bayswater, W. 

Bicknell, Algernon S., Esq. 37, Onslow-sqmre, S. W, 

Bidder, G. I^irker, Esq., CE, 24, Ot, Georgest., S. W, ; and MUchatn, Surrey, S. 

Bid wall, Charles Toll,Esq. Qarriek Glvb, 35, Kvng'Bt.,CQcent Garden, W,C, ; and 
28, Grovoenor^,, Eaton-aq., 8. W. Care of John Bidwell, Etq^ Foreign Office. 

Bigge, Frederick W., Esq. DMenrhaU, Saffron Walden. 

Bigsby, John J., Esq., ICD. 89, Gloucester^hce, Poriman-sguare, W, 
t8o Birch, Augustus F., Esq., v.A. 

Birch, H. W., Esq. 46, Wetbeok'Street, Caoendishsquare, W. 

Birch, John William, Esq. 9», New Broadr$t., E.G.; and 11, Cacendish'Sq., W. 

Birch, Capt Thomas, r.n. United Service Club, S, W. 

^Birchill, Capt B. H. H. St. Stephen^ Bedfont, near Eounslmc. 

^BischoSsheim, Henri Louis, Esq. 7, Grafton^reet, New Bond-Street, TV. 

Bishop, George, Esq., f.b.a.8. Union Club, S,W.; and The Meadows, 
Twichenhcan, S.W, 

Bishop, James, Esq. 11, Portland-place, W. 

Bisson, Fredk. S. de Carteret, Esq. (Lieut R.i.M.). 70, Bemers-street, W. 

*Blaauw, William H., Esq., M. A., F.8.A., F.z.8. Beedilands, near Uckfield, Sussex, 
I90*BIack, Francis, Esq. 6, Northrbridge, Edinburgh, 

Black, Thomas, Esq., Superintendent P. and 0. Steam Navigation Company's 
Dockyard. Oriental-place, Souihamptom, 

Blackett, Henry, Esq. 13, Great Marlborough-street, W. 

Blackie, W. Graham, Esq., ph. db. 36, Frederiok-street, Glasgow, 
♦Blackney, William, Esq., B.N. Hydrographio-office, S.W. 
*Blackstone, Frederick Elliot, Esq., B.C.L. British Museum, W.C, 

Blaine, D. Roberton, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. 3, Paper-buildings, Temple, E,C, 
and 8, Sowthwick-place, Hyde-park-square, W, 

Blair, William Edward, Esq. 12, Greenrstreet, Grosvenor-square, 

Blake, Brig.-Gen., H. W. Maulmein, British Bttrmah. 
*Blake, Wolbiston, Esq. 8, Devonshire-place, W. 
lOO Blakdey, Capt. Alexr., B.A. 

Blakiston, Matthew, Esq. Mobberley, Knutsford, Cheshire, 

Blakiston, Captain Thomas, B.A. 28, WellingUm-ttreet, Woolwich, S.E. 

Bhmc, Henry, Esq., M.D., &c. 9, Bedford-street, Bedford-square, W.C. 
*Blanshard, Henry, Esq., F.R.A.8. 
♦Blanshard, Henry, Esq. 78, Westboume-terrace, W. ; and 53,Chancery-lane, W.C, 

Blanshard, Richard, Esq. Fairfield, Lymington, Hants. 

Blazall, Fras. H., Esq., M.D. Tendring, near Colchester, 

xxiv List of Fellows of the 


Elocuuo. I 

1854 Blencowe, W. Robert, Esq. The Hook, Lewes, 

1861 Blenkio, William, Esq. AdoBestone, Surrey. 

1839 3io*Blewitt, Octarian, Esq. 4, Adelpfii-terrace, Strand, W,C. 

1864- Blore, Edward, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.8.A., &c. 4, Manchester-eqvare, W. 

1 866 Blew, William Wootton, Esq. Care of Mrs, Evans, Belvedere^park, North Kent. 

1861 Bloxsome, Oswald, jun., Esq. Wherstead Park, Ipswich, Suffolk, , 
1837 •Bluut, Jos., Esq. 

1863 ♦Blunt, WUfred, Esq. 

1868 BIyth, Philip P., Esq. (J.p. for Middlesex). 53, Wimpole^rcety W. 

1858 Bohn, Henry G., Esq. York-st,, Covent'-garden, W,€, ; and Norlhrcnd-hoiac^ 
Twickenham, 8, W, 

1863 Boileao, Sir John P., Bart., F.B.S. 20, Upper Brook-street, W, 
1850 Bollaert, William, Esq. 21 A, Eanover^quare, W, 

1862 320 Bolton, Capt Francis John, 12th Regt Chatham, t 

1861 Bompas, George Coz, Esq. 15, Stanley^ardens, KensingUm^park, W. 

1864 Bone, John William, Esq., B.A., F.RJB.L., F.S.S. 42, Bedford-square, W.C. 
1861 Bonney, Charles, Esq. Adelaide, Australia, 

1858 Bonnor, George, Esq. 49, Pall'maU, S. W, ; and 2, BayswatcT'terr., KcnsingtiM' 

square, W, 

1865 Bonwick, James, Esq. St. KUda, Melbourne, Care of W, Beddow, Esq., t'2. 

South Audley-street, W. 

1866 Booker, Wm. Lane, Esq. Care of F, B. AbUm, Esq., Foreign Office. 

1859 Borough, Sir Edward, Bart. 4, Nassau-Street, Dublin. 
1845 *Borrer, Dawson, Esq. Altinont Ballon, Co. Carlow, Irelan'J, 
1856 *Botcherby, Blackctt, Esq., M.A. 48, Brompion-row, S. W. 
1858 330*Botterill, John, Esq. Uower^Hmk, Burley^road, Leeds, 

1860 Boustead, John, Esq. 34, Craoen-street, Strand, W.C. 

1866 *Boutcher, Emanuel, Esq. 12, Oxford-square, Hyde-park, W* 

1865 Bouverie, P. P., Esq. 32, Hill-street, Berkeley-square, W. 

1855 Bovet, Charles, Esq. 135, Camden-road, N.W. 

1867 Bo well, Wm., Esq., M.O.P. Gate-house Grammar-School, Hereford. 

1861 *Bowen, Charles Christopher, Esq. Christchxarch, Canterbury, New Zealand* 

Care of A. 0. Ottywell, Esq., 16, Charing^cross, 8. W. 

1854 *Bowen, Sir George Ferguson, K.O.M.a., if. A. Gotemor of New Zealand. 

1866 Bower, Anthony Maw, Esq. 8, Bochester-road, Camden-town, N.W. 

1862 Bowie, John, Esq. Conservative Club, S. W, 

1833 340 Bowles, Admiral Sir William, K.C.B. 8, Hill-street, Berkeley-squarr^ W. 

1868 Bowly, William, Esq. Cirencester, 

1856 Bowman, John, Esq. 9, King Williain'Street, E.C. 

1865 Bowring, John, Esq. Larkbeore, Exeter, 

1866 Bowring, Samuel, Esq. 1, Westboume-park, W. 

1868 Bowser, Alflred T., Esq. Cromwell-house, Hackney, N.E, 

1862 Boyce, Rev. W. B., Secretary to Wesleyan Missionary Society. 38, Milner^ 
square, Islington, N. ; and Wesleyan Mission House, Bishopsgate-street, E.C. 

Itoyal Geographical Society. xxv 

TevoT I 


1845 ♦Boyd, Edwai-d Lennox, E«i., P.8.A. 35, CleceUmd-square, I/ydc-park, W. 

1865 Boyle, Fretlerick, Esq. The Firs, Bebington, Ches/iire. 

1856 Boyne, G. HamUton-Ruuell, Viscoant. 22, Belgravc-square, S,W. ; BnmcC' 

peth'Castkf Durham ; and Burwarton-hallf Ludlotc, Salop, 

1851 250 Braoebridge, Charles Holte, Esq. Aikerttone, Wancick, 

1862 Bnithwaite, Isaac, Esq. 68, Old Broad^reet, E,C. 

1863 *'BramIey-MoQre, John, Esq. Langley-lodge, Gerrard's Cfoss, Bucks. 

1859 ^■Bi-and, James, Esq. 109, Fenchurch-^reet, £,C, 

18»8 Brand, Jas. Ains worth, Esq. 42, Momington-road, Regent* s-park, N, \V, 

1867 Brandis, Dr. D., t.ul Ditecior 0/ Forests, Cakvita. Care cf W. U, Alien, 

Esq., 13, Waterloo-place, S,W. 

1860 Brassey, T., Esq. 4, Great George^street, S. W, ; and 56, Lowndes-^uai'e, S. W. 

1859 Braybrooke, Philip Watson. Assistant Colonial Secretory, Ceylon. Messrs. 

Price and Co., Craven-street, 

1861 *Brenchley, Julius, Esq. Oxford and Cambridge Club, S. W.; and Milgatc, near 

Maidstone, Kent. 

1846 Brereton, Rer. 0. D., X.A. Little Massingham, Boughftm, Norfolk, 

1833 26o*Brereton, Rev. John, ll.d., F.8.A. Bedford. 

1834 •Breton, Wm. Henry, Esq., Commd. U.N., m.r.i. The Uectory, Chanmuth, Dorset. 

1862 Brett, Charles, Esq. 16, Pembridge-square, JJai/suatery W, 

1867 Bridge, John, Esq. Altrinchciin, Cheshire. 

1855 Bridges, Nathaniel, Esq. 

1852 • Brierly, Oswald W., Esq. 8, Lidlington-pL, Ilarringion-sq., ILimpsiCixd-rd., JN', >V. 
1865 Bi iggs, Major, J. P. Linthill, LiUiesleaf, Selkirk, X. B. 

1861 ♦Bright, Sir Charles T., f.ii.a.8. G, Westimnstei^liamhers, Victoria-street, S. W ; 

and 69, Lancaster-gate, W, 

1868 Bright, Henry Arthur, Esq. Fairfield, Liverpool, 

1860 Bright, James, Esq., M.D. 12, Wellington-sqttare, Cheltenham. 

1854 270 Brine, Major Frederic, R.K. k.t.s. Executive Engineer, Punjaub, Athenaeum Club, 
S. W. Army and Navy Club, S. W.; C<ire of Mrs. F. Brine, Edgcumbe, Torquay. 

1856 Brine, Commander Lindesay, E.N. Army and Navy Club, S, W, ; care of 

Messrs, Wocdh<:ad, 

1861 Bristowe, Henry Fox, Esq. 

1861 Broadwater, Robert, Esq. 3, BUliter-square, FencJiurch-street, E.C, 

1864 Brodie, G. S., Esq. 27, Pembridge-square, W. 

1861 Brodie, Walter, Esq. 13, Dekanere-terrace, Hyde-park, W, 

1861 Brodie, William, Esq. Eastbourne, Sussex, 

1863 ♦Brodrick, Hon. George C, Esq. 32a, Mount-street, W\ 

1864 •Brooke, Sir Victor A., Bail. Colebrooke-park, Co. Fermanagh, Ireland. 

1862 Brookes, Thomas, Esq. Mattock-lane, Ealing, W, 

1856 280* Brooking, George Thomas, Esq. 25, Sussex-gardens, Hyde-park, VT. 
1856 •Brooking, Marmaduke Hart, Esq. 11, Montagu-place, Br yanston -square, W. 

1843 ♦Brooking, Thomas Holdsworth, Esq, 15, New Broad-street, City, E.C; and 

5, Norfolk-crescent, Hyde-park, W, 

1863 ♦Broaghall, William, Esq. Broadwater, Down, Twibridge- Wells. 

xxvi List of Fellows of the 











Broughton, Jobn, Lord, O.C.B., V.A., F.B.8. 43, Berkeley^square, W, ; and 
Erlettok&-park, WeMtbury, Wilts. 

Brown, Col DUTid (Madras Staff Corps). 14, St, Jame^a^aquare, 8, W. 
^Brown, Daniel, Esq. 1^ Ebns, Larkhall-rite^ Clapham^ 8, 
Brown, Edwin, Esq., F.a.8. BurtcirHn^Trent. 
Brown, Geo. H. Wilaon, Esq. Victoria, Vancowoer Iskmd, British Columbia. 

Cars of H. C. Beeton, Esq,, 5, Bov^chwrchyard, E,C. 
Brown, James, Esq. Eossington, Yorkshire. 

2 90 Brown, Jas. P., Esq. Cooaes, Brazil. Care of Mr. C, Williams, 25, Poultry, E, (7. 

*Brown, James R., Esq., F.BJ.NJL. Copenhagen. 5, LanghmnrchaxpJberst 
Langham'-place, W. 

Brown, Rer. J. C, LI1.D., &c. Haddington, Scotland. 

*Brown, John Allen, Esq. The Laurels, The ffaeen, Ealing, W. 

Brown, Richard, Esq., c.E. 115, Lansdowne-road, Notttng-hiU, W. 

Brown, Robert, Esq. 4, Oladstone-terrace, Hope^park^ Edinburgh, 

*Brown, Samuel, Esq. 11, Lombard-^t,, E,C,; and The Elms, Larhhall^rise, 
Clapham, 8. 

*Brown, Thomas, Esq. 8, Hyde-park'terraoe, Hyde-park, W. 

Brown, William, Esq. Loafs-road, Clapham-park, 8, 

Browne, H. H., Esq. 70, Westboume-park'-villas, Harrow^,, Paddington, W, 
300 Browne, John Comber, Esq., Superintendent and Inspector of Government Schools. 
Port Louis, Mauritiva. 

Browne, John H., Esq. Port Oawler, 8. Australia. 
^Browne, Capt. Wade. 6, Charles-street, Berkeley-square, W. 

Browne, William J., Esq. Marston Lodge, Pitville, Cheltenham. 

Browning, H., Esq. 72,(7rofwnor-st., W, ; and Ampton-haU, Bury St.Edmundl's. 
^Browning, Thomas, Esq. 6, Whitehall, 8, W. 

Bruce, Henry Austin, Esq. Duffryn, Aherdare, Glamorganshire. 

Brunton, John, Esq., u.i.aE., F.a.8. 42, Blenheim-orescent, Notting-hiU, W. 

Bryant, Walter, Esq., M.D., f.b.0.8. 7, Bathurst-street, Hyde-park-gctrdens, W. 
*Bnchan, John Hitchcock, Esq. Ihe Grove, Hanwell, W. 

3 iO*Buocleach, his Grace the Duke of, K.a., f.r.8. Dalkeith Palace, near Edinburgh ; 

and Montagu-house, Whitehall, S.W. 

Buckland, Edward C, Esq. 36, Lansdoume-road, Nottvng-hUl, W. 

Budd, J. Palmer, Esq. Ynisydoren, near Swansea. 

♦Bull, William, Esq., F.US. King's-road, Chelsea, S,W. 

Buller, Sir Edward M., Bart., M.P. Old Palace-yard, S.W, ; and DiVwrn-hall, 
Cheadle, Staffs. 

♦Bulger, Capt, George Ernest, F.L.S., &c Care of Mr, Booth, 307, Begent-st,, W. 

Bullock, Commander Charles J., rjt. Hydrographic-office, S.W* 
♦Bollock, Rear-Admiral Frederick. Woolwich, S,E, 

Bullock, W. H., Esq. Grosvenor-hUl, Wimbledon, 8. W. 

♦Bunbury, Sir Charles James Fox, Bart. ; F Jt.s. Barton-hall, Bury St. Edmund's^ 
320 Banbury, E. H., Esq., m.a. 35^ St. Jameses-street, 8, W. 

Boyal Geographical Sociehj. 


Tmxid . 











Bandock, F^ Yjk{. Windham CM, 8, W. ; and 4, Radnor^l, QhuceMter-sq^ W. 
Boiget, William, Esq. Fdhard^ Co. Tipperary, 

Boiigess, James, Esq., M.B.AJB., Principal of Sir J. Jejeebhoy's Pance B. lostiiutioD. 
Homby-row, Bombay, Care of T, E, Qitteapie, Etq,, 31, Enex-^t., Strand, W.C, 
Bai^gojne, Capt. Hagh Talbot B.N., v.c. 8, OlouoetUr^ardens, Hyde-park, W, 
Burn, Bobert, Eiq. 5, CUfUm-place, Sussex-square, W, 

•Burni, John, Esq. 1, Park-Gardens, Qhsgow; and Castle Wemyss, by 
Greenock, N,B, 

*Biirr, Higfotd, Esq. 2Z^EaUm^laoe, S, W. ; and Aldermanstothcowi, Berkshire, 

Bantal, Capt. E., B.N. 6, Park-^otUas, Ixncer Norvoood, S, 

*Barton, Alfred, Esq. 36, Marina, St, Leonard's, 

330*Biirton, Dedmas, Esq., r,njs, 14, Sprtng^gardens, 8, W, ; and St, Leonard's'' 
cottage, Hastings, 

*BurtOD, Capt. Rickd. Fras., 18th Rcgt. Bombay N.I., H.B.M. Conaol at Santos, 
BraiU. 14, St, James* s-sq,^ 8.W. Care of B, ArundeU, Esq,, Admiralty, 
Somerset House, W.C, 

Bury, William Coatts, Yiscount. 48, Butland-gate, 8, W, 
Bosh, Bey. Robert Wbeler, if.A. 1 Mibter'Square, Islington, N, 
Bosk, William, Esq., V.C.P., Ac 28, Besiborough-gardens, S. W, 
Batlcr, Charles, Esq. 3, Oonnaught-place, Hyde-park, W, 
Bntler, E. Dmidas, Esq. Geographical Departntent, British Museum, W,C, 
♦Butler, Rev. Thomas. Rector of Langar, Nottinghamshire, 
♦Buxton, Chas., Esq., m.p. 7, Grosvenor-crescent, 8, W.; and Fax-warren, Sttrrey, 
♦Buxton, Sir Thomas Fowell, Bart. Brick-lane, N.E, 
340 Byass, Robert B., Esq. Melville-park, 7\mbridge Wells. 

Bythesea, Capt. J., bjt., v.O. 20, Grosvenor-place, Bath, Care of G, J, 
Noel, Esq., Admiralty, 8, W, 

♦Cabbell, B. B., Esq., M.A., r.R.8., F.8.A. 1, Brick-court, Temple, E.G. ; 52, 
Portland-place, W, ; and Aldwick, Sussex, 

Caldbeck, Capt. J. B. (P. and 0, Sup. at Aden). 17, West Mall, Clifton, and 
122, LeadenhaU-st., E.C, Care of Mrs, Caldbeck, 8, Oxford-road, Islington, N. 

♦Caldwell, Capt. Henry, b.n. H,M,8, ^Mersey* Portsmouth; and 3,Audley- 

Callaghan, Thos. F., Esq. Garriok Club, W.C, 
Calthorpe, the Hon. Augustus Gough. 33, Grosvenor-square, W, 

♦Calthorpe, F. H. Gough, Lord. 33, Grosvenor-square, W. 

Calvert, Frederic, Esq., Q.c. 5, Tinley-street, Park-lane, W, ; and 8, New 
square, Lincoln* s-inn, W.C. 

Cameron, Capt. Charles D, Care of E. Hertslet, Esq., Foreign-office, S. W, 
350 Cameron, Donald, Esq., M.p. Auchnacarry, Invemesshire, 

Cameron, Major-General Sir Duncan Alexander, r.e. c.b. New Zealand, 
Cameron, J., Esq. Singapore, Care of Messrs, H. S. King and Co. 
Cameron, R. W., Esq. Staten Island, New York, Care of Messrs. Brooks and 
Co., St, Peter^s-chambers, ComhiU, E.C. 

xxviii List of Fellows of the 


Taw of 


1861 I Campbell, Capt, Frederick, R.N, 12, Cvnnaughi-pLicc, Ifyde-park, W, 

1866 1 Campbell, George, Esq. 16, St, George s-rd^ PimKco, 8, W,; ondAihencenm CWt. 

1861 I Campbell, James, Esq. 158, Jtsgent-street, W.; and Thornton Steward, York. 

1844 I ^Campbell, James, Esq. Grove-Jicuse, Jlendon, Middlesex ; and 37, Seymour^ 
street, W. 

Campbell, James, Esq., Surgeon R.N. Bangkok, Siam. Care of Messrs. H, & 
King and Co, 

^Campbell, James, Esq., jun. ffamptoti'couri'grcen, S, W. 

1863 ' 360 Campbell, Jas. Duncan, Esq. Peking, Care of H, C, Batchelor, Esj,, 165, 
I Cannon-street, E.C, 

1857 . Camps, William, Esq., M.D. 40, Park»street, Grosvenor'Square, W, 

1866 , Canning, Sir Samuel, C.E. The Manor^iouse, Abbots Langley, nr, Waiford, Ilcrls^ 

1864 ! Cannon, John Wm., Esq. CoMik-arove, Taam, 
1857 '■ Cannon, Lieut.*General R. 10, Kensington-gardens-terrace, IF. 
1853 I ^Cardwell, Right Hon. Elwai-d, M.p. 74, Eaton-^uare, S.W. 

•Carew, R. Russell, Esq., J.p. Carpenders-park, Watford, Herts ; and Oriental 

Club, W, 
Cargill, John, Esq., Member of the L^islatire Assembly of New Zealand and 

Legislative Council of Otago. Dvmedin, Otago, New Zealand, 
•Cargill, Wm. W., Esq. 4, Connaught-place, Hyda-park, W, 
*CarmiGfaael, L. M., Esq., M.A., 5th Lancers, CcmUrhwry, Care of H, T, 

Clack, Esq*, 50, Leiceater-square, W, 

1865 370*Camegie, David, Esq. Eastbury, by Watford, Herts, 

1863 . Carnegie, Commander, the Hon. J., R.N. 26, Pall-Mall, S,W, 

1864 Carrington, R. C, Esq. Admiralty, S,W, 
1861 Carter, Captain Hugh Bonham, Coldstream Guards. Guards* Club, S.W.; ami 

1, Carlisle-place, Victoria-street, S,W. 


18^)8 Carter, Thomas Tupper, Esq., Lt. B.E. Care of Messrs, H, S, King and Cb.» 


1863 j 

45, Pall Mall, 

I860 Cartwright, Capt. Henry, F.8.A. BarbiGon-lodge, Gloucester, 

1857 ' Cartwright, Col. Henry, Grenadier Guards, M.P. 1, Tilney-street, Park-strcet 

j Grosvenor-square, W, 

I860 I *Carver, the Rev. Alfred J., D.D., Master of Dulwich College. Dulwich, S,E, 

Casella, Louis P., Esq. 23, Hattonrgarden, E, C, ; and South-grove, Higftgate, N, 

Cave, Amos, Esq. 109, New-road, Kenning ton-park, 8. ; and Bathbone-j^aot^ 
Oxford-street, W, 
380 Cave, Capt. Laurence Trent^ 75, Chester-square, W, 
Cave, Right Hon. Stephen, M.P. 35, Wilton-place, 8, W* 



Challis, John Henry, Esq. Beform Gub, 8, W, 

1865 Chambers, Charles Haroourt, Esq., x.4. 2, Chesham-place, S,W. 
1864 Chambers, David, Esq. Paternoster-row, E,C, 

1858 I Champion, John Francis, Esq. High-street, Shrewsbury, 

1866 ' *Chandless, Wm., Esq., B.A. 1, Gloucester-place, Portman 'square, W, 

1867 Chapman, James, Esq. Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope, 

Ruyal Geographical Society. 












^Chapman, Spencer, Esq. Soehamptonf S, W, 

Charlemonty Lord. Charlemont-hotuet Dubhn, 

390 Charnock, Richanl Stephen, Esq., pn.D'., F.S.A. 8, Oray^s-innsquare, W,C, ; cnul 
The Grove ^ ffftmmeremith, 

Cheadle, Walter, Esq., B Jk. , h.d. Camb. 2, Hyde-park'^lacey Otmberland-gatc, W* 
Chwtham, John Frederick, Esq. Eastvoood, Staleybridge. 
Cheshire, Edward, Esq. Ooruervatioe Chib, S. W, 
^Chesney, Major-General Francis Rawdon, B.A., D.C.L., F.R.8. Athenmtm Club, 

8» W, ; and BaUyardU, Down, Ireland, 
Chetwode, Angustus L., Esq. 7, Suffblk'Street, Patt-maU'€ast, S,\V.; and 

Chilton-houae, Ihame, Oxfordshire, 
Childers, Hugh C. E., Esq., M.p. 17, Prince' s-gardens, W. ; and Australia. 
Childers, John Walbanke, Esq. Cantley^hall, near Doncaster, 
^Chirnmo, Commr. William, R.N. Hydrographic^ffice, 8. W, 
♦Church, W. H., Esq. 
400 Chnrehill, Lord Alfred Spencer. 16, Rutland^ate^ S, W, 
Chnrchill, Charles, Esq. Weybridge-parky Surrey, 

Clarendon, George William, Earl of, K.G., O.C.B. 1, Orostenor'Crescent, S.W. 
The Grote, Watford, Berts; and ffindon, Wilts, 

Clark, Lieut. Alex. J. i^, St^ James* s^quare, 8,W, ; and Kvesirell-house, 
Maindee, Newport, Monmouthshire, 

♦Clark, Sir James, Bart., U.D., F.R.8. Bagshoi-park, Surrey, 
Clark, Latimer, Esq. 1, Victoria-street, Westminster y 8, W,; and Cairo, 
Clark, Wniiam, Esq. The Cedars, Sotdh Norwood, 
Clark, John Gilchrist, Esq. Speddock, Dumfries, Dumfriesshire, 
Clark, W, H., Esq. 6, Leinster'terrace, Ifyde-park, W, 
Clarke, Capt. A., R.E. Army and Navy Club, S.W, 
4lo*Clarke, Rev. W. B., M.A. St, Leonard's, Sydney, New South Wales, 3fissrs, 
Richardson, COrnhill, 
Clarke, Rev. W. Geo., m.a. Trinity College, Cambridge, 
Clarke, W., Esq. 3, Bosedale-terrace, Ladbroke-square, W, 
Claude, Eugfene, Esq. VUla Helvetia, Carlton-road, Tufnell-park, N, 

♦CUrering, Sir William Aloysius, Bart., m.a. United University Club, S, W, 
Axwell-park, near Gateshead ; and Greencroft, Durham, 

Clay, Sir Wm., Bart. 91, Eaton-square, S.W, 

Clayton, Capt. John W., late 15th Hussare. 14, Portman-square, W. 

Clayton, Sir W. R. ffarleyford. Great Marlow, Ducks, 

♦Cleghom, Hugh, Esq., M.D., Conservator of Forests. Madras, 

Clements, Rev. H. G. UniUd University Club, S. W. 

430 Clerk, Capt. Claude. Military Prison {Queen* s Bench) Southwark, S, 

Clermont, Thomas, Lord, Bavensdale-park, Netcry, Irckmd, 

♦Cleveland, His Grace the Duke of. Cleveland-house, ll^St, James* s-square, S, W, 

CliflToid, Sir Charles. Coldham-hall, Suffolk, 

Clifford, Charles Cavendish, Esq. House of Lords, S, W, 

XXX List of Fellows of tli0 















Clinton, Lord Edward. Army and Navy Club, 8, W. 

ClippertoD, Robert Charleiip Esq., H3.M. Consul, Kertch. Can tf T. 0. 
Staveley, Esq,, Foreign Ofice, S.W. 

Clive, Rev. Archer. Whitfield, Hereford, 
Qowes, E., Esq. Saliabury'Bquare, Fleet-Street, E.G. 

Clowes, QeorgSy Esq. Duke-street, Stamford^reet, Blachfriars, 8,E,; 
ChaHng-crosa, 8, TT. ; and 8urbiton, Surrey » 
430 Clowes, Rer. George, B.iu Surbiton, Surrey, 

Clowes, William, Esq. Duke-street, Stamford^reet, Blackfriars, S,E,; 

Charing-cross, 8.W, ; and 51, Qloucester-terrace, ffyde-park, W, 
Clowes, William Charles Knight, Esq., h.a. Duke^street, Stanford' street, 

Blackfriars, 8.E, ; and Surbiton, Surrey, 
Cobbold, John Chevalier, Esq. Atheneeum Club, 8. W. ; and Ipswich, Suffolk, 
^Cochrane, Capt. the Hon. A., B.N., CB. Junior United Service Club, 8,Wt 
Cockerton, Richard, Esq. 12, Petershamrterrace, South Kensington, W, 
Cockle, Captain George. 9, Boltonrgardens, South-Kensington, W, 
Cocks, Colonel C. Lygon, Coldstream Guards. Treverbyn* Vean, near Liskeard, 
Cocks, Bfajor Octayius Torke. 180, Piccadilly, W. 

*Cocks, Reginald Thbtlethwayte, Esq. 43, Charing-cross, S.W.; and 
22, Hertford-street, May-fair, W, 

440 Coghlan, Edward, Esq. Training-institution^ Gray's-inn^road, W,C, 

Coghlan, J., Esq., £ngr.-in-Chief to the Government. Buenos Ayres, Care €f 
Messrs, J, Fair and Co,, 4, East India-avenue, Leadenhallstreet, E,C» 

Coghlan, Major Gen. Sir William M., K.C.B., R.A. JRamsgate, Kent. 

Colchester, Reginald Charles Edward, Lord. AU Souk* College, Oxford, 

Colebrook, John, Esq, 15, St, Leonard' s-terrace, King^s-road, Chelsea, S^W, 

* Colebrooke, Sir Thomas Edward, Bart., F.B. A.8. 37, South-st,, Park-kme, W. 

Colebrooke, Lt.-General Sir Wm., R.A., M.O., C.B., K.H., F.B.A.8. Datchei, 
near Windsor ; and United Service Gub, 8, W, 

Coleman, Everard Home, Esq., F.B.A JB. Registry and Becord Office, Adeiasde" 
place, London-bridge, E,C, 

Cole, William H., Esq. 23, Portland-place, W, 

Coles, Charles, jun., Esq. 86, Great Ibwer-street, E,C. 

450*Collett, William Rickford, Esq. 

Collier, C. T., Esq. (Barrister of the Middle Temple). Cedar-villa^ Sutton, 

Surrey ; and Oriental Club, W, 
Collinson, Henrj, Esq. 17, Dcvonshire-placey Portland-place, W, 
Collinson, John, Esq., c.E. 9, Clarendon-gardens, Maida-htil, W, 

Collinson, Rear-Admiral Richard, c.b. Haven-lodge, Ealing, W, ; and United 

Service Club, 8, W. 
Collison, Francis, Esq. Heme-hill, Surrey, 8, ' 

Colnaghi, Dominic E., Esq. Care of F, B, Alston, Esq,, Foreign-office, S» W, 
Colquhoun, Sir Patrick, H.A. 

Colquhoan, Sir Robert G., K.c.B. 6, Ulster^terrace, Begent's'park, N^W, 
and 14, AriingUm-street, W. 


jRoyal Geographical Society. zxxi 








^ColTille, Charlei John, Lord. 42, Eaton-piace, 8. W. 

460 Golrm, Binnej J., Esq. 26, Ox/ord-^q%utr0, ffyde^parkf W, 

Colvin, Captain W. B. Shirley-ooUage, Croydon, 

Gombe^ Lieat. B. A. 

Combe, Thomas, Esq., ujl» Vnioenity Presa^ Oxford, 

Commerell, Commr. J. E., BJf., v.o. Aherhank, near Qotport, 

CoDder, John, Esq* EaWfrookd-house, New Wondsworth, S, W, 

Conej, Rev. T., i£.A« Chaplain to the Forces, Chatham, 

Constable, Capt Chas. Golding, ur. 68, HamiUoiUer.t 8t, John*»-u:ood, N.W, 

Cook, Edward, Esq. Kingstonron-Thames, 

Cook,H. EBq.,M.D., &C. (Care of Messrs. Forbes and Co.) 12, LeadenhaU-st.^E.C, 

470 Cooke, Lt.-Colonel A. C, r.e. Topographical Department, 4, New^treet, 
Spring-gardens, 8, W, 

^Cooke, E. W., Esq., A.R.A., F.B.8., f.ljs., F.Z.S., F.O.S., Aocad. Bell. Art. Venet, 
et Holm Soclus, Olen^Andred, Qroonibi-idge, Sussex, and Athencswn Chib^S, W. 

Cooke, John George, Esq. 18, Pelhamrplace, Brampton, S.W, 

Cooke, Rer. J. Hunt. VidoHarhoitse, Southaea, Eiants, 

Cooke, Nathaniel, Esq. 5, Ladbrooke^terrace, Notting-hiil^ W, 

Cooke, Robt. F., Esq. 50, Alhemarle-street, W. 

Cooke, William Henry, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. 4, Elm-court, Temple, E,C, 

Cooley, William Desborough, Esq. 136, Euston-road, N, W. 

Cooper, Sir Daniel. 20, Prince s^ardens, Ilgde-park, 3, W. 

Cooper, Lt.-Col. Edward, Grenadier Guards. 5, Bnjcmston-square, W, 

480 Cooper, Lt.-Col. Joshua H., 7th Fusiliers. Dunboden, MuBingar, 

Coote, Charles C, Esq, C4, Albany, W, ; and Mount- Coote, Limerick, Ireland. 

♦Coote, Captain Robert, R.N. Shales, Bittern, SoMampton, 

Cope, Walter, late H,M/s Charge d* Affaires at the Equador. 14, The Terrace, 
Cambertoell, S, 

Copley, Sir Joseph William, Bart. Sprotborough, Doncaster, 

Cork and Orrery, Earl of. 1, Graf ton-street, W, 

Cork, Nathaniel, Esq. 33, Cornhill, E.G.; and Ivy-lodge, 9, Wartptck-road, 
Upper Clapton. 

Comer, Wm. M., Esq. Cobden-Iumse, Leytonstone; and 104, Lcadenhall-st.y K.C. 
*Comish-Brown, Charles, Esq. 7, Lansdoume-place, Clifton, Bristol, 

Comthwaite, Rev. T., m.a. Forest, Walthamstow, 
490 Com well, James, Esq., Pii. dr. Trco'er-byn, Dartmouth-park, Forest-hill, 
♦Corrance, Frederick, Esq. Parkham-hall, Wtckham Market, Suffolk, 

Cory, Frederic C, Esq., m.d. 8, Nassau-place, Commercial-road^ S, 
♦Cosway, William Halliday, Esq. Oxford and Cambridge Club, S, W. 

Courtenay, L. W., Esq. British Post-office, Constantinople, Care of R, 

Wood, Esq., 139, Fleet-street, 
Cowan, John E., Esq. 58, Denbigh-street, S.W, 
Coward, William, Esq. 7, SoiUhsea-terrace, Southsca, Portsmouth, 
*Cowell, Major Sir J. C, K.C.B., R.E. Buckingham-palace, S. W, 

xxxii List of Fellows of the 

Imrot — — — 


1854 Cowley, Norman, Esq. 4, Montagvt^lacet Montagu-tquare, W. 

1862 Cowper, Sedgwick S., Esq. Messrs,!, Clinch and Son, AMwrch-lane, E.C, 

1862 500 Cox, Edward Wm., Esq., Barrister-at-Law, Recorder of Fafanouth. * LawTtmes* 
Office, 10, WeUingUm-st, Strand, W, C; and Moat-mnmt, Htgh-woodtMiddlesex. 

1865 Coyih, John S., Esq. LewinUhouse, St. Helen* s-place, E,C, 

1867 Crane, Leonaiil, Esq., ICD. 7, Albemarle-street, W, 

1857 Craufnrd, Lieut.-General James Robertaoa, Grenadier Guards. Ihxvellers'Clu , 

8, W, ; and 36, Prmoe^s-gardens, W, 
1848 Crawford, Robert Wigram, Esq., x.P. 71, Old Broad-^reet, EX, 

1866 Crawford, 0. J., Esq. AihenoBwn Chib,' 8,W. 

1861 Creswell, Rer. S. F., x.A. The Grammar School, Dartford, Korth Kent, 

1859 ^reyke, Capt. Richard Boynton, R.x. Ulverstone, Lancashire, 

1856 Croker, T. F. Dillon, Esq. 19, Pelham^lace, Brompton, S, W, 

1864 CroU, A. A., Esq., c.G. Southwood, Southwood-lane, Highgate, 

1868 510 Croll, Alex., Esq. Sttssex4u>usc, Tudor-road, Upper Norwood, 

1860 'Croskey, J. Rodney, Esq. S4, King WtiHam-street, E,C.; and Forest-hoUse, 

High Beech, Essex, 
I860 Crosse, the Rev. Thomas, D.C.L., M.R.A.S. Hastings, 

1862 Crossman, James Hiscntt, Esq. Rolh'park, Chigicell, Essex, 

1863 ^Crowder, Tlioa. Mosley, Esq., x.A. TliomUm-hall, Bedale, Yorkshire, 

1852 Crowdy, James, Esq. 11, Serjeant* s-inn, E,C, 

1859 ^^$ Richard, Esq., F.S.A. 13, Tavistock'^treet, Bedford-square, ^Y,C, 

1857 Camming, William Fallarton, Esq., h.d. Athenantm Club, S,W,; and 

Athol-^irescent, Edinburgh. 
1847 * Canard, Sir Edward, Bart. Care of Messrs, D, and C. Mac Tver, Liverpool, 

1860 Cunliffe, Roger, Esq. 24, Lombard-street, E, C. ; and 10, Queen* s-gtde, 

South Kensington, W. 

1864 520 Canningham, H. Esq. 

1853 Cunningham, John Wm., Esq., Sec. King's College. Somerset^house, IWCjand 
; Harrow, K.W^ 

1862 ^Cunynghame, Major-Gen, A. T., CD* Commanding Duhlin Division^ Boyal 

Barracks, Dublin, 

1865 Cure, Capel, Esq. 51, Grosvenor'street, W, 

1868 Currie, A. A. Hay, Esq., c.E. TJie Manor-house, Tunbridge'wells. 

1843 ^Corsetjee, Manodgee, Esq., F.R.8.N.A. Villa-Byculla, Bombay, 

1889 *Curtis, Timothy, Esq. 

1865 Curson, Hon. R. 24, Arlington-street, W, ; and Parham'^park, Stegning, Stisie • 
1867 Cuttance, John Fras. J., Esq. Cietdand-house, Qrcville-road, Kilbum, N*W, 


Dallas, A. G*, Esfq. 3G, Beaufori-gardens, ^V, 
530*Dalgety, Fred. G., Esq. 8, Hyde'park^tefracc, "W, 
D'Almeida, W. B., Esq. 19, Green-park, Bath. 
Dalrymple, Donald, Esq. Norwich. 
Dalrymple, Geo. Elphinstone, Esq. Ixtgie, Elpfiinstone, Aberdeenshire* 

Royal Geographical Society. xxxiii 












DaltoD, D. Foster Grant, Esq. ShanJuJwute, near Wmcoadon, 8<mer$et, 

Dalyell, Sir Robt. Alex. Osbom, Bart IfM.'s Consid at Jatsy ; and 120, 
Belgrav§-road, S. W, 

Dalziel, William R., Esq. 5, Qreaham-park, Brixton^ 8. 

Damer, Lt.-Col. Lionel S. Dawson. 2, Chapel-street, Orosvenor-equare, W, 

Durrall, John Bayly, Esq. 
*Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.R.8. 6, Queen Anne'8treet,Cavendieh-9guare, W» 
540 Dasent, John Bory, Esq. 22, WanoioA-road, Matda-hUl, W. 

Daries, R. H., Esq. 
*Davis, Alfred, Esq. Norfolk-hotel, Norfolk-square t Hyde-park, W, 

Davis, Edmand F., Esq. 6, Cork-street, Bond-street, W, 

Davis, Dr. Francis William, Surgeon R.N, H,M.S, * Alert f and Elm^lodge^ 
St. Ann'a-hUi, Wandsworth, 8, W. 

Davis, Frederick E., Esq. 20, Blandford-square, N. W. 

Dayis, Richard, Esq. 9, 8t. Helen* s-place, E.C. 

Davis, Staff-Commander John Edward, R.?r. Hydrographio^ffice, Admiralty, 8, W, 

Davis, Sir John Francis, Bart., k.c.b.,, f.b.s.n.a. Athenteum Club, 8, W. ; 
and Hollywood, near Bristol, 

^Dawnay, the Hon. Payan. Beninghorough-hall, Newton-upon-Ouse, Yorkshire, 
550 Debary, Rer. Thomas, h.a. 35, Mount-street, W, 

Debenham, William, Esq. 3, Porchester-square, Hyde-park, W, 

De Blaquiere, John, Lord. 9, Stratford-place, W, 

De Bourgho, T. J., Esq. 6, Charmg-cross, S. W. 

De Crespigny, Lieut. C, R.N. 

De Gex, William Francis, Esq. 25, Throgmorton-street, E,C, 

De Grey and Ripon, George Frederick Samuel, Earl. 1, Carlton-gardens, 8. W, ; 

and Studley Royai, Ripon, 
De Laski, A., Esq. 

Dell, William, Esq. Messrs Ccmbe, Del (field, and Co., Long Acre, 
Denham, Adm. Sir Henry Mangles, R.N., k.c.b. 21, Carlton-road, Maida-vale, W, 
560 Denisou, Alfred. Esq. 6, Albemarle-street, W. 

^Denison, Sir William Thomas, K.C.B., Lieut. -Col. R.E., f.r.8. Observatory ^ 

East Sheen. 
Denman, Rear-Admiral the Hon. Joseph. Commander-in-Chief, Pacific; and 
17, Eaton-terrace, S. W, 

•Derby, Edward Geoffrey, Earl of, P.C., 23, St, James* s-square, 8, W, ; 
and Knotosley-park, Prescott, Lancashire, 
De Salis, Col. Rodolph, C.B. 123, Pall-mall, S,W, 
♦Devaux, Alexander, Esq. 2, Avenue-road, Regent* s-park, N, W, 
•Devonshire, William Cavendish, Duke of, LL.D., D.C.L., M.A., F.R.8. Devonshire^ 
house, Piccadilly, W, ; and Hardwicke-hall, Derbyshire. 
Dew, Capt. Roderick, C.B., R.A. Army and Navy Cluh, S,W. ; and St. 

Jame^S'Street, S. W, 
Dick, A. H. Esq., m.a., l.l.b. Free Church Normal College, Glcisgow, 
Dick, Capt. Charles Cramond, Exeter, Devon. 


List of Fellmot of the 

j70*Didc, Fitiwilliam, Etq.. M.P. 20, Cwian-tlnrt, Magfair, W. 
Dick, Robert Karr, Ek|., Dengid Civil Scrricc Orimlal Chi, W. 
IKck, William Grcme, Emj. 29, LeinaUr-tquart, W. 
•DickenuQ, SebutiaiiSleiTart,Eiq.,ir.p.,BBn'iiter-at-Liiw. BrBvm'fhill,Slr<Md. 

"Diokinioii, Franca Hearj, Esq,, F.s.i, 119, 81, Gtorge'i-iquare, JSnIico, 
W. ; <mi Kingaaten-park, Somtrttt. 
DiGkinwn, JdIid, Giq„ r.R.S., r.a^ 39, U})ptr Brmk-itreet, W.; and 

AiAotVi-hill, ITcmtl-Hempitead. 
Dickimoii, John, E>q., jim. 3, Euex C</wt, Temple, E.C. ; and AbMet-hUl, 

Diction, A. Benson, Esq. i, Sea^-i'iaare, Lincoln'a-ina, W.C. 
Dlckion, Chnrla Hanmer, ICtq. H.B.U. Conita. Sikvm KM, Black S*a. Can 

Of I. ifiaray, Esq., ForeijTt-offic*, S. W. 
DicbcQ, Lieut.-Cnl. Lothiaa Sheffield. 10, StanAope-tsrrace, Hj)de-park, W. 
jBo Dieti, Bfraord, Esq., of Algoa Bay. 3, Donels'piare, W. 
Digbj, G, WingfifU, Esq. Sherbone-eattU, Dontt. 

Digbf, Lieat.-CDl. John Almenu. ChalmingtOK-hoiae, CattAxk, Dorciater. 
•Pilke, Sir Chmrlea Wenlworth, But. 76, aianneslral, S. W. 
■Dilke, Charles Weatworth, Ek)„ M.p. 76, SlaoBCttrttt, S. W. 
DiUon, the Hon. Arthur, 17, (7to>VM-ih-M(, IT. 

WiDKlale, J. C, E«q. SO, Consul, E.C; and hi, Cktuhnd-tquart, S.W. 
Dii, Thomas, Esq. \0, AmiceU-slrect, W.C. 

Dl>aa, LieuL-Colonel John. 10, Sii/Biour~iirtil, Porlman-iqvnrt. 
Dijon, W. Hepworth, Esq., f.h.a. C, St. James' i-iernme, Begent^i-pwi, N. W. 
;90 Dobie, Robert, Esq,,ii.D.,B.N. 7,BoiMihlon-pl.ABiplliill-iq.,Sanip>ieaitrd^S.}Y. 
Dodioo, John George, Esq., ji.p. 6, Seamort-^ao, Mayfcar, W. 
Domrille, Wllliim T., E<q., h.d., icx, Armn and Navy Club, S. W, ; Xarai 

Dockyard, Malta. 
Donald, James, Esq. 20, MeMtls-terrace, Edin/iurgh, 
Donae, John, Esq. Initoa, fforih Dtwn. 

Donm, Dr. John, P.s.A. 33, lansdome-road, Ifotting-hUI, Vf. 
Douglu, Jnniea A., Esq. 14, Porahtaler-aquare, W. 
Douglai, Capt. N. D. C. F. Gmrda' CIvb, 8. W. 
Daicr, John William, Esq. 152, Stanltystriet, Belgratia, S.W. 
Uojle, Sir Francb Hostingi C, Burt. CustomJioias, E.C. 
6oo*Dnu:h, Solomcn Moeei, Ear). r.ilA.S. 39, Eaa>liind-strtel, Fittroy-»q»an, W. 
Drew, Miyor H. U, St. Jamta'a-u/uare, B. W. ; Abroad. 
Ornmownd, E. A., Esq. 2, Bryaiulon-sqtiari, W. 

Dmmiooiid, LieuL-General John, T!ie Boyce, Bymock, GloacniertAirt, 
Dniry, Capt. IlTron. B.N. TAt Unitid Sa-eict Clab, S. W. 
Dablin, His Gnce the AKhbirthap of. Sablin. 
*Dd Cane, Major Francis, R.B. 64, Lovnides-tqaare, S.W, 
•Docie, Henrj John, Earl, t.r.s. 30, Frince'i-galt, S. W. 

Royal Geographical Society. 





1859 Duckworth, Uenry, Eaq. 2, Gambier-terrace, Lherpool, 

1860 *'Dafr, Hountstuart ^Iphinstone Gnat, Esq., ilp. 4, Qtueu*8-gaie-^€ardentt 

S<mth Kensington, W, 

1868 6 10 Duff, Wm. Pirie, Eaq. Calcutta, Care of Megars, John Watson, and Co,, 34, 
Fenchurch'Street, £.C, 

1857 ^Dufferin, Right Hon. Lord, K.P., K.C.B. Dafferin-lodge, Fitzroy-park, Highgate, N, 

1866 ^Dugdale, Captain Henrj Charles G. Merevale-hall, Aiherstone^ Warvjick, 

1867 *Dugdal«, John, Esq. 1, Hyde-park-gardens ; and Lltoyn, Hanfyllm, Oswestry, 

1868 Dunbar, John Samuel A., Esq. 28, Pembridge-crescent, Bayswoter^ W; and 

4, Barnard's 7»m, Holbom, 

1863 Dancsn, Capt. Frands, B.A., X.A., r.B.8. The Citadel, Plymouth. 

1861 * Duncan, George, Esq. 45, QordonFeqwxre^ W,C. 

1840 *Diindas, Right Hon. Sir David, Q.C. 13, Kin^^s-Bench-walk, Temple, E.C, ; 

and Ochtertyre, Stirling, 

I860 Dunell, Hei>rj James, Esq. 12, Hyde-park'Sqttare, TV. 

1859 ^Dunlop, R. H. Wallace, Esq., O.B., Indian Civil Serrice. Messrs. Chindlay and 

Co,, Parliament'Street. 

1860 620*Danmore, Charles Adolphos Murray, Earl of. 24, Carlton-house-terraee, 8.W. 

1868 Dunn, Capt. F. J. A. Poi-tiUon, 7bti/*s, France, and 4, Cambrian-grove, 

Onxvesend, E.C, 

1837 ^Dunraven, E^win Richard, Earl of, F.R.8. Adare-manor, Limerick ; and 

Dunraven-castle, Glamorganshire, 

1856 Duprat, Chevalier Alfredo. H.M,F, Arbitrator, Cape Town, Cape of Oood Hope, 

Care of Jas. Searight, Esq,, 7, Fast India Avenue, E.C, 

1852 D'Urban, M.-Gen. W. J. Deputy Quartermaster-General, Canada ; U, S, Club, 

8, W. ; and Newport, near Exeter, 

1865 Dutton, F. S., Esq. Reform Club, 8.W, ; and Adelaide, Australia. 
1868 Dutton, Frederick H., Esq. 45, Docer^reet, W, 

1867 Eadie, Robert, Esq. Blaydon-on-Tyne, Durham. 

1854 Eai-dley-Wilmot, Capt. A. P., R.N., c.B. Deptford Dockyard, E, 

1856 Eardley-Wilmot, Miyor-Gen. F., M.R.A. 22, Victoria-rd,, Clapham-common.S, W' 

1866 6^o Eardley-Wilmot, Sir John E. 3, Ehaston-place, Queen* s-gate, W. 

1865 Eassie, William, Esq., F.L.8., 5, Bath-inOas, The Park, Gloucester. 

1857 Eastwick, Captain W. J. 12, Leinster-terrace, Hyde-park, W, 

1863 Eaton, F. A., Esq. New University Club, St, Jameses-street, S.W, 

1862 'Eaton, H., Esq. 16, Prince* s-gate, Hyde-park, W. 

1862 ^Eaton, Henry William, Esq., M.P. 16, Prince* s-gate, Hyde-park, W. 

1864 ♦Eaton, William Meiiton, Esq., 16, Prince* s-gate, Hyde-park, W. 

1866 Eat well, Surgeon-Major W. C. B., m.d. 17, Kensington-parA'4errace, 

Notting-hUl, W. 

1861 Eber, General F. 33, St, James* s-square, 8, W, 

1862 Ebury, Lord, 107, Par* -5^^/, Grosvenor-square, W,; and Moor'park, HertK. 
1 862 640 Eden, Rear-Adm. Charles, c.B. 20, Wilton^lace, S. TV. 

1858 Edge, Rev. W. J., h.a. Benenden-^icarage, near Staplehurst, Kent, 

e 2 


Edgtwartli, H. P^ E<q., BEnO.C^. MnttrimJuKoe, Aiierly, S. 
'Edwird, Jsinn, Ehj. Sulruildery, bi/ Durtdtt, S.B. 
•EdwBrda, Tbomiu Dyer, Eiq. 5, ffi/dt-park-gile, Ktiaington, IF. 

Edwni^, G. T., Efiq., v.a. 60, Glowxster-teiraa, W. 
•Edwnrdi, Hbiit, Fiq. 53, Ba-htlt'j-sqwire, W. 

Edwank, MiijorJ. D.,n.e. United SirmBe Clnh.S.W. 3fcars.ff.S. King and Cii. 

Edwmda, Etev. A. T., K.*. 39, Upper Kaimnjtm-imt, S. 

Egvrton, CommanilFr Cbarti* Knndeil, R.N. 7, Sutlamt-yale, 8. W. 
650 Egerlon. Cdptnin the Hon. Kriucis. n.K., H.P. Sridgaeatcr-lioutt, 3.W.; 
and N.MjS. * SI. Giorge' 
"Kliier, G>arg«, Esq. Knod-natlte, A'jrMre. 

Elder. A. U, Eiq. C.n-lUlt-ho««, f/amjaltad. 

Elcy, Ch»rlB John, Esq. Old Bromplon, S. W. 

Eliiu, Key, Jun., linq. 6-t, Taeenai-tfraa. Bayticater, W. 

Elimbcirough, Edward, Earl of, O.C.n. Soathnm-hauti, near Oieltenham. 

Ellvrton, John L., E>q. 6, Conncnuiht-place, Buda-park, W. 

Elliot, G., E>q., H.P., C.E. The Hall, Hoaghton-ie-Sprmg, mar Fenee Haata, 

'Elliot, Cipt. L. R. La MmUeraye-tur-Seine, Seine Ivfineurt. Can of J.I,, 

F.Uiot. Esq., 10, a>HHa<Kj/U-placc, W. 
•Elliott, Ri!T. Cimtles Boiliaa, M.i., r.n.B. Tatlingitme, SrtfoH. 
3 Ellia, W. E. II., E>q. Jlaifeld-rectorj/, Oloiitattr; Oriental Cluli, W-i tmd 
BucuUa CliA, Bimbay. 
Ellii. C. U. Fiiirf.ii, Etq.. Ueiil. B.A. EkaAuryntat, Etex. 
ElphlimtSDe, Mnjor Hoovd C, R.E. BiUikinghan-palace, S. W. 
ElWn, Sir A. H.. B«rt. AHum/aun Clitb.S.W.i and Clictdoit-coarl, SomerttMirr. 
•Emanad, Harry, Etq. 8, Clarence-lemice, Segenft-park 'If.W. 
Emiuidfl, Jo»l, Eiq., r i.a, Sorfolk-tillt, LomdoviKTOad, XottingJiill, W. 
Enuli*, John, E*i. *7, Grat/'e-.nJ^, W.C. 
Eiiderbf, Charln, Ewj., F.R.a., r.l_S. 13, Oreal SI. Nelen't, E.C. 
Enfield, Edward, E«q.. T.S./,. 19, Clu^er-lfrract, ResenC'-pari, 2f.W. 
Engieheart, Gardner D., Esq. 1, Ealon-place-ioHth, B. W. 
6^o Eiikinc, Vicx-Admiml John EIphliiitonF, H.p., o.B. 'Edgar; 
I L, Alb'my, W., ond Cardrat,, SlirliHg, K. B. 

ae, G. V. M.. Etq. 29, Fark;treel, Oronmariquart, W. 
Kipiuaiw, llfljor .1. W., ISUi Kegt. Iteiin. Eichardioa, mui Co., ConAill. 
EriiM, Colonal William Edwjra. U, Great Cumiurland-ptaoe, Hyde-pwk, W. 
ma, V. J., Esq., StafT Cammander, ft.N,, P.RJ., 4, WcUinghn^ 

lerraee, CAarllim, BlackAealh, 
E»am, VitB-Adminil George. 1. Xeur^lrecl, S/in 

Englefield-yrim, Slaim,. 
ETana, Tho'. Vim„ Esq. 1, Dartiwath-tlieet, T 

Allmtret-Kall, Derby. 
E«>us W. Esq. 
Evons, W, Hnlierl, Epq. 32. Ucrlford-jtrrel . Uayfa, 


furdens, S.Vi 

Royal Geographical Society. xxxvii 

TavoT — 


1861 ETelyn* Lieat.-Colonel George P. 34, Onahw-^ardena, Brompton, S,W, 

1851 68o*£veljn, William J^ Esq., F.8.A. Evelyn Estate Office, Etelyii-^treet, Deptford, 

1830 *£Terett, James, Esq., F.8.A. 

1865 £?eritt, George A^ Elsq. Oakfield, MoseUy, near Birmingham. 
1859 Ew^art, William, Esq. 6, Cambridge-square^ W, 

1856 Ewing, J. D. Cram, Esq. 21, Birchin-lane, E.C, 

1857 Eyre, Edward J., Esq. 

1861 Eyre, George E., Esq. 59, Lowndessquare^ Brompton, 8, W, 

1856 Eyre, M.-Gen.Sir Viacent,c.B. Athenceum Club,S. W. ; and 3'i,Thurloe^.,8, W. 

1861 Fairbaim, William, Esq., O.E., F.B.8. Manchester, 

1856 Fairholme, George Koight, Esq. 

1866 690 Fairman, Edward St. John, Esq., F.a.s., &c. 874, Via Santa Maria, Pisa. 

Care of H, Fairnum, Esq, 

1838 Falconer, Thomas, Esq. Usk, Monmoutlishire, 

1868 Falconer, William, Esq. 23, Leadenhail-street, KC, ; and 42, ffiOdivp'rood, 

Camden New Town, N, 

1857 Falkland, Lucius Bentinck, Viscount. Skutterskelfe, Yorkshire. 
1855 *Fanshawe, Admiral E. G. 63, Eaton-square, S, W. 

1868 Farquharson, Lieut.-Col. G. M«B. Junior United Service Club, S. W, 

1863 ♦Farrer, W. Jas., Esq. 24, Bolton-street, Piccadilly, W. 

1864 Faulkner, Charles, Esq., F.S.A., F.a.s. Deddington, Oxon. 

1863 ♦Faunthorpe, Rev. J. P., b.a. Training-coUegey Battersea, 

1853 •Fayrer, Joseph, Esq., m.d. Calcutta. Care of General Spcns, 14, Drum^ 
mond-place, Edinburgh. 

1858 700 Fazakerley, J. N., Esq. 17, Montagu-street, Portman-square, TV. 
1866 Felkin, Wm., Esq., Jun., F.z.8. Beeston, near Nottingham. 

1864 Fergusson, J., Esq, 6, Gloucester-square, Hyde-park. 
1863 Fergusson, Alex., Esq. Champion-hill, Cambertrell, S. 
1840 ♦Fergusson, James, Esq., F.u.s. 20, Langham-place, TV. 
1863 Ferreira, Baron De. 12, Gloucester- Place, Portman-s(pxare, TV. 

1860 Ferro, Don Ramon de Silva. 

1865 Field, Hamilton, Esq. Thornton-road, Clapham-park. 
1830 Fiodlay, Alexander, Esq. Hayes, Kent, S.E. 

1844 Findlay, Alex. George, Esq. 53, Fleet-street, E.C. ; and Dulwich-xcood-parh, S. 

1862 710 Finnis, Thomas Quested, Esq., Alderman. Wanstead, Essex, N.E, 

1863 Fisher, John, Esq. QO, St, James" s-street, S.W, 

1859 Fisher, Robert, Esq. 

1857 ♦Fitzclarence, Commander the Hon. George, R.N. 

1863 Fitzgerald, J. F. V., Esq. 11, Chester-square, 5'. TV. 

1861 Fitzgerald, Captain Keane. 2, Portland-place, TV. 

1864 Fitz-Patrick, Lieut. Francis Skelton, 42nd Kegt. Madras Army. 

1859 ♦Fitz-Roy, George Henry, Esq. Downshire-house, Roehampton; mid Office of 
Maritime Customs, Shanghai, 

iirt of FeUincs of the 


FiUwilium, tha Hon. C. W., «.r. Bnoks' CM, St. James't^rtet, S. W, 
■KiUwilliiun, Willlnm Thomiu, Enri. i, Orvtuenar-aquait, W. ; and HVoliMrtiU I 
home, EoiherKam, Terialinr. 
lo'FiUwQliam, Wm. S, Edq, 28, Ornyfon-^ttore, Brompton, S.W. 

Fleming, G., E»q. Bi-o<npU}n Barrach, Oialhim. 
•Fleming, John, Esq. 18, Ltadenftaltslreet, E.C. 

Flfming, Rev. T, S. Biacot-ptacf, CAapellatcti-road, Lttds. 
*F1rn.jng, Rer. Fnnci. P. 

Fletcher, John Chxrln, Eiq. DaU-parH, Armdel; and Ealtm-piM, S. V 

Fletiher, Thomnii Keddey, Esq. Unha-dock, Limehouu, E, 

Flet^ier, Jnhn Thsniison. F^i. 15, Dpper Samilloitierraei, Ft. Jukn'i Wee^ J 


Flood, John EJwin, Eeq. 126, ffigh-itreet. Poplar, E. 

Flower, Copt, L. 19, Graut CoUege-itrett, S.W.; B.mstead, Sarrey; and f 
Qutta'i United Sereice Club, S. W. 
7)0 Folaf, Col, the Hod. SU George, C.B. 2i, Solton-tlrttt, W. 
Foord, John Bromley, fiiq. 32, Old Braad-strtet, K.C. 
Forbo, ComoiaDder Chiuln S., aj<. Aran "id Nitci/ CM, S. W. ; aad Cart \ 

of Maasn, HWAtwI. 
Forbe», C»pl. C. J. F. Smilh. 5, Halch-atrcet, Ci.ifiFi. 
Forbe*, Geo. fAtruti, V.tq. Unian CM, 3. W. ; 1 1, J/.VnKf-jdwrf, EdiiAHrgh ; 

Xew Cl«i. Edinbargh. 
Forbea, Lord, k.a. Casth Forbet, Ahtrdecnshire, 
Konter, Her. Chsrlei, B.D, Sliattd'^tciorg, Eaex, 
•Forrtcr, Wiliiim Kdwutl, Vm\. Buihy, near OtUy. 
Fonter, Hon. Anlhouy. NeinAam Orftnt/t, Winilvti, Dnrlirujton, ThirhaiH. 
FonTlh, T. Douglni, Em)., c.n. (B.C.S.) Commaaioner, Jatl<mdJlur, J'un>>i4. 
Cars of Xeurt. H, S. Exng and Co., 65, ComAiU, E.C, 
740 Fonjrlli, Wiiliam, Esq., M.p., Q.C. 61, Ratliad-gate, S. W. 

Fortracoe, Btght Hon. Chichester &, K.P. 7. Carltm-^ardm, S. W. 
•FoitoeiK, Hen, DodlBy ¥., it.V. 9, Btrtford-dreet, W. 
FMter, Cspt. W. J. Stahingdoa-ii'tue, Farekam, Hants. 
Foilor, Edmood, E^., Jun. 79, PorlidmcH-mad, Maida-taU, W. 
F<at«r, H. J., Eiq. 
■Fowler, J. T., Eiq. Gixernmmt fiitpectw of ScSools, Adyar, Madna, India. 

Cait 9f Bm. A, KT£son, National Saciett^s OS«x, Sinctaary, Weitmitata; 
•Fowler, Robert N., K«i., M.P., K.*, 50, ComJ\ill, E.C. ; nwf TbHimAnra, If. 
Pox, Arthur Doughu, li)*q., C.E, 1, Cissiam'place, Brifi/ilon ; and S, Xeie- 

ttreei, Sprmg-gardais, S. W. 
Foi, Lleut.-Coionel A. Lsne. 10, V[y>er PhUHmore-gnrims, Fsnrmgtut, W. 
So'For, LieoU-Genapid C, K. TymeOtr,- Clob, S.W.I and 1, Addia<m-n>ad. 
Kmsin'jion, W. 
Foi, D. H., E*q., Chief Engineer of tha Snntoi and St. Piulo riallwAf, £lt. 
Pmh, Braiil. 
•Foi, F. E. E-i) , B.*. Elmtteo, ToiUnJuym, IttdtlfescT. 

Royal Geographical Society. xxxix 











FoKf Samael Cnuie, Ecq. WoodfQrd^hom€t OranvSle-park, Bhokheath, B.E, 

^Fnnki, Aug. W., Ek|. 55, Upper Seymour^street, W. 

Franks, Charlci W., Esq. Looal Oovemmeni Act Office, 8, Rioknumd4errac€y 

FnMT, Edward John, Esq. (Solicitor). 1, Percy^viOaa, Caa^pden^iillf Ken- 
smgton^ W. 

Frasar, Capt H. A., us, 

Fraser, Thos., Esq. 

Fraser, Capt. T. Otago, New Zealand. 

760 Frater, Alexander, Esq. Canton, Care of Thomas Drater, JSeq,, National 

Provincial Bank of England^ Brecon, Wales, 
Freeman, Daniel Alex., Esq., Barrister-at-law. Plotoden-buildings, TempU, E.C, 
Freeman, Henrj, W., Esq. Junior Athencsum Club, S, W, 
Fremantla, Lieut.-CoL Arthor. Guards* Club, 8, W. 
Fremantle, Captain Edmnnd Bobol, R.N. 4, Upper Eccleston-^reet, S. W. 
FremanUe, Rt. Hon. Sir Thomas F., BarL 4, Upper Eccleston-street, 

Belgrave-square, S, W. 
Freme, Major James H. Wrentnall-house, Shropshire ; and Army and Nany 

Frere, Bartle John Laurie, Esq. 45, Bedford-square, W,C, 
♦Frere, George, Esq. Cape of Good Hope, Care of the Foreign Office, S, W. 
Frere, Sir H j. Bartle Edw., K.C.B., G.C. Star of India. 44, Princes-gardens, W. 
770 Frere, WiUiam Edw., Esq., f.r.a.8. The Rectory^ Bittony Gloucestershire, 
Frjer, William, Esq. 39, Marlborough-hill-gardens, St, John*s-voood, N, W, 
Fuidge, William, Esq. 5, Park-row, Bristol, 
Fusseir, Heir. J. G. Cunj. 16, Cadogan-place, S, W, 
Fyfe, Andrew, Esq., M.D. 112, Bromptonnroad, S.W, 
Fjnes Clinton, Rer. Charles J., m.a. 3, Montagu-place, Russell-square, W,C. ; 

and Cromwell, Notts, 
Fjtche, Colonel Albert Reform Club, S, W. 

^Gabrielli, Antolne, Esq. 6, Queen's-gate-terrace, Kensington, W. 
Gaisford, Thomas, Esq. Travellers* Club, S, W. 

Gallagher, John, Esq., M.D. Reform Club, S, W*; and 109, Westboume-terrace, W, 
78o*Gallowa7, John James, Esq. 

*Galton, Capt. Donglas, B.E. 12, Chester-street, Grosvenor-place, S, W, 

^Galton, Francis, Esq., M.A., F.R.8. 42, Rutland-gate, S. W, ; and 5, Bertie- 
terrace, Leamington, 

^Gammell, Major Andrew. Drumtochty, Kincardineshire, N,B, 
Garden, Robert Jones, Esq. 30, Cathcart-road, South Kensington, S.W, 
Gardner, Capt., G. H., r.n. Coast-Quard-office, Spring-gardens, S. W, 
Gardner, John Dunn, illsq. 19, Park-street, Park-lane, W, 
Gascoigoe, Frederic, Esq. Partington, Yorkshire, 

^Gassiot, John P., Jun., Esq. 6, Sussex-place, Regent* s-park, N, W. 

Litt of Fellows of the 


Gutrcll, Litut.-Col. Jamci E. (B. Sins' Coi-ju). Sarreaor-attitrart Ofit 

Ciilculta. Can of H. T. Qastnt!, Esq., Sa, LirKolni^m-fitlib, W.C. 

790*GatI}-, Cluil« H, K>q., m.i, FeBn-idge-pari, Katl Grmsliad.Sattex. 

•Ojwier, CoIohbI Ceorge, K.H. Unittd Service Club, S. W. ; 


George, Hev, H. B. Ki<b College, Oifenl. 

GertUnbcrg, laldore, Eiq. Slockleij-lviase, NoHh-gale, Regenl's-part, IT.W.'' 

■GiUDiui,Sill9 John, Esq., Aldennwi, 13, Upper Bedford-pi.. Rautll'tq., Wi 

•Gibb, George H»nder»ii, Esq., 13. PicCoria-ilrset, Weetminder 

•Gibb*. H. Hiiclii, Eaq. St. Dwulm't, Segenet-park, NAV. 

Gibion, Jobo.EM). 3, PiceaiUbj, Bradfoid, Yorkthire ; cmd 

Qray'i-im. Britith ComvU\U. Hankoic, C/fina. 
Gillenpic, Aluander, Esq. Heathfield, Wnlton-oit'Tliamcs, Surrey, 
*Ciil»pie, William, Esq. {of Thrbane-Znil). 46, Mehille-etrpet, EdaHmrgh. 
oo Gillespr, Tliomfls, Esq. Sftiion(-OTHr(, Philput-lane, E.C. 
•Gillett, Waiiain, Esq. 6£. ABumy, W 

•Gilletl, Alfial, Eiq. 113, riccadilly, W. ; and Baaburi,, Ojon. 
Gilliat, AllWd, Esq. Eitm-liouse, Bakop's Wa'lham, Hante. 
Gllliat, AlgerDon, Epq. Fa-nl.iU, near It'iWior; and T, NorfQlk-oretcmt, TK 
Gilliu, Robert, E'q., l'.k. Dantdin, Otago, Nea Zealaad. 
Gisboroe, Fred. N., Esq., Engineer aDil ElectiiciaD. 445, West Slra«d, W-C^, 
GlidJisb, Col. Willijun. Bycligea, Grtaeiend, 
Gladstone, G»i^, Em], Clapham-oonanon, S. 
GlaiLtooe, J. H., Esq., Ph.D. 17, Fembrid,je-lqMre, W. 
lo'GliidstiiBe, Robert Stuatt, tUq. 11, Nea Bmad-atreet, E.G. 
•Gladstone, ftllHam, Esq. 57i, Old Broad-ilrett, E.C. 
•GUdalone, W. K., Esq. 39<i, Old Boadslreet, W. ; and FitMm/-paf 
HigKgaU, If. 
Glucott, CoiDiniiader Adam Giakrd, R.K., Acting Coimnisnioaer on th« Tnrb 

Persian Frontier, ifeura. Chard, 3, OiffonTa Inn, Heet^treet, E.C. ^ 
GlsH, H. A., Esq. 4, Qray't-iniv-sqwre, W.C. 
Giefg. Rer. 0. R., d.A. Chaplain-Qeneral, Chileea-Koijiilal, S.W. 
Gltn, Jose[ih, Esq., Mem. Geogr. Sot, of BonibBj. Oriental Clah, W. 
GloTsr, Cornmr. John H„ B.N. Logos ; and Army and Nary Club, S.W. 
Glover, Robeit Reavelef, Esq. 30, O-tal Si. Helen't, E.C. 
Glyn, Capt H. Carr, B.S. 1, Eeelestmir-alriet, Belgrawaqaart, S.W. 
Blo-Glyn, Biclmni H., Esq, 10, King' e-Armt-yard, E.G.; and Oriental Ghb, SM 
Glyn, Sir Rkhaid George, Bnrt. Army and Navy Club. S.W. 
Goddard, James, Jun., Esq. 14, Mincing-lane, E.C. 
GoLlsmiJ, Sir Fmncii, Bart., it.p. Inner Cinle, Regetil'i-pari, N.W. 
GolJsmid, Lt.-Coloncl FredeHck John. Harrow-on-tU-hill ; Smthboroaj: 

Kent; and United Sereiee Ovb, S.W. 
Gold»mid, Julian, Esq. 48, Gronenorstreet. S.W. 
Gooch, Thomas Longridge, Esq, Team-lodge, Salticell, Qaleihead-ott-Tyne. 

Royal OtographicaJ Society. xli 


1804 Goodall, George, Esq. Mn$r$, Cox and Co., Craif$<ouri ; and Junior Carlton 

CM, W. 

1867 ^Goodenoogh, Fred. Addington, Esq. Cars of F. Jennings, Esq., 34, Ctumoti- 

street, E.C, 

1863 *Goodenough, Cbpt J. G., fUK. U. 3. aub, 3.W. Cars of Messrs. Stilvosll, 

22, Arundslstreet, Strand, W.C. 

1864 830*GoodeDoagh, Major W., A.A. Eoifol ArtiUery, JUdershot, 

1861 Gooldin. Joeeph« Eiiq. 48, Upper Hyde-park^ardens, W. 

1865 ^Gooldeo, Charley E$q. United University Club, S. W. 
1856 ^Gordon, Colonel the Hon. Alexander H., o.b. 

1854 Gordon, Harry George, Esq. 1, ClifUm-place, ffyde-park-gardenSf W.; and 

KUliechassi, Dunkeld, Perthshire. 
1856 Gordon, Admiral the Honourable John. 28, Queen Anne-street, W. 

1853 Gordon, Vice-Admiral Robert. United Service Club, 8. W. 

1853 Gore, Richard Thomas, .Esq. 6, Queen-'square, Bath. 

1866 Gore, Augostus F., Esq. Colonial Secretary, Barbadoes. Civil Service Club. S.W, 

1859 Gosling, Fred. SoUj, Esq. 18, New-Street, Spring-gardens, S. W. 

1862 840 Goss, Samoel Daj, Esq., M.D. 111, Kennington^park-road, S. 

1868 Googh, the Hon. George Stephen, F.L.S. Lough Cutra Castle, Gort,, Co. Galtoay. 
1835 Gould, Lieut.-Colonel Francis A. Buntingford, Herts, 

1846 Gould, John, Esq., F.B.8., F.L.8.. 26, Charlotte-street, Bedford-square, W.C. 

1865 Gowen, Colonel J. E. 

1867 Grabham, Michael, Esq., M.D. Madeira. Care of C. R. Blandy, Esq., 

25, Crutched Friars, E.C. 

1868 Graeme, H. M. S., Esq. Junior Athenaeum ; and East India U, S. Club, S. W. 
1858 Gi-aham, Cjril C, Esq. 9, Cleveland-row, St. James's, S. W. ; and Debroe-house, 

Watford, Herts. 
1868 Graham, Thomas Cuuinghame, Esq. Carlton Club, S. W; and Dunlop-ftouse, 

1861 Grant, Alexander, Esq. Oakfield-house, Homsey, N. 

1861 850 Grant, Daniel, Esq. 11, Warunck-road, Upper Clinton, N. 
1865 •Grant, Francis W., Esq. Army and Navy Club, S. W. 

1860 Grant, Major James A., c.B. E. India U. S. Club, S. W. ; and Dingwall^ Bos- 

shire, N.B. 

1862 Grant, Lieut J. M. (late 25th Reg.) Elands Port, Cape of Oood Hope. Care 

of Messrs. Ridgtoay and Sons, 2, Waterloo-place, S. W, 
1860 Grantham, Capt. James, B.E. Scaaby, Brigg, Lincolnshire ; and Boyal 

Engineer Office, Devonport, 

1867 Graves, Rev. John. Underbarrow Parsonage, Milnthorpe, Westmoreland. 

1830 ♦Gray, John Edw., Esq., PH. DR., P.R.8., z.s. and L.s. British Museum, 


1868 Gray, Lieut.-Col. William, M.r. 26, Prince" s-gardens, W.j and Darcy Levers 

Hall, near Bolton, 

1862 Greathed, Lieut. -Colonel Wilbwforce, W. H., C.B. 

1863 Greaves, Rev. Richard W. 1, Whitehall-gardens, W. 


I. ist of Fellmes of tlie ^^^H 

■ .'=:: 

■ U«l 

H 1830 

H 165T 


Unkm, a-b, S. W. 

■ ms 

Griig, W. R.. Ek)., Comptroller of H.M.S. SUtI<«.«r Offi«. WimStoim, S.lf. 

^ 1858 


•Gregory, Frucii Thomiu, Esq. Qmaahnd. 


•Gregory, Ism*, Etq. Chorltw-hall, Fictarin-pwh, MmckeOer. 


•Grellet, llearj Robert, Eeq. Savoje-gardena, Toa«r-\ia, E.C. 


Grenfell, Henry R., £«[., m.p. 15. St. JamesS-ptaBt. B. Vf. 


GrenftU, Piiacoe St. Leger, Eaq. Matttcg-hotae, S<eanMa. 



•GreiweU, Rev. Richard, a.x., F.R.S. 39, St. Gila, Oifurd. 


Crey, Ch»riM, Esq. 1 3. CarUoa-koatt-terraa,, S. W. 


Colmial Office. 



Qrium, Cbv\m. E«i. Abuamiria. Cart of John Balur, £»j, 8, CbaUoM, 

ConnoiMtrKf, E.C. 



Griffin, Jama, E«q. 2, farfem-pariBfe. SouUjni ,- and 7*« 2&rd, JorftM, 




Gtiffith, John, E«|. 16, FinAvry-place-south, E.C. 


880 Giiffiti, Sir RidiiuJ. 30, £oeiBi(on-Jii«o-e, 5. 17. 


Griffith, Richard Clewin, Eaj. 20, Go^ar-ttrttt, W.C. 


Griffith!. Captain A. G. P., 6ard Reg. (Miijor of BriE«d«, Gibiilliii). Cart oj 

E. S. Codd, Esq., 35, Crmn-ilreel, Strand, W.C. 



CrinnflU, C„ &^i. Bwlmglon-chin^rs, 180, Piccadiily. H'. 


Groavenor. Lord RliJiard, M.P. 33, Upptr Gron»i«-rt™rf, ff. 



Groneirai, Clinrlej Lewia, E>q. 16, Surrts-itrtd, Strand, W.C. 


21, J»S!'«-'™'. Campdm-m, W, 


•Suraey, John H.. E«q. JtfarWon, Totnt,. 


890 Gumey. Samuel, Eiq. 20, BafKrer-ttrrace, Kcgmt: i-pnrk, W. 


Giithrit, Jaiuea Alennder, Eiq. 30, PoriUxiKi-ptace, W. 


Gwyther. John H.. E*). St^uhu-cro/t, Lotcr Sydenham. 


Hadfield. Win,, Emi. U, /nccrt.eM-™,d, W. 


Hadley. Henry, Eeq.. M.D. SeeduM-d-lodjc, Baa's-hill, ChiUt<Aam. 










Royal Geographical Society. xliii 

Hadow, P. D., Esq. Sudbwy-priory, JUddOeiex, 

Haloombe, Rer. J. J. Charier'house, E,C, 

Hale, Warren S., Eaq., Aldtrman. 71, Qve4n-9trteU ChMpsidtf E,G, 

Halidajr, Iieat.-Coloiie! William Robert Umted Servhe Club, 8, W. 

Halifax, Viscoant^ O.C.B. 10, Belgrave-aquare^ S,W,; and Hickleton, 

9Co^Ha]kett, Rer. DunUr S. Littk BookKoMf Sutreff. 

^Halkett, Lieut Peter A., R.9. Wmdham Club, S. W. 

Hall, Charks Hall, Eaq. Park-itreet, Cirencester. 

Hall. Eenrf, Eeq. 109, Victona-sireei, S. W. 

Hall, Jamea Febbatt, Eaq. Fore^reet, Limehouee, E. 

Hall, Thomas F., Esq., F.OA 29, Warufiok'Square, S, W, 

Hall, Admiral Sir Williatn Hatcheaon, K.C.B., F.R.8. United Service Clvh^ 
8. W. ; and 48, FkiUimore^ardens, Kensington, W. 

Hallett^ Lieut Francis C. H^ R.H.A. Junior United Service Club, 8. W, 
Hallidaj, Sir Fred., K.aB. 14, Queen* s-gate-gardene. South Kensington, W, 
Halloran, Arthur B., Esq. Principal of the South Devon Collegiate School, 
Heavitree, Exeter, 
910 Hamilton, Archibald, Esq. South Barrow, Bromley, Kent, SJS, 
Hamilton, Rear-Admiral C. Baillie. 50, Warwick-aquare, S.W. 
Hamilton, Lord Claude, M.p. 19, Eaton^., 8, W. ; and Barons-court, Co, Tyrone, 
'Hamilton, Capt Henry G., B.lf. 71, Eccleston^tquare, 8, W, 
Hamilton, Col. Robert William, Grenadier Guards. 18, Ecclestonsquare, 8, W, 
Hamilton, R, Esq. Care of J, Forater Hamilton, Esq,, 32, New Broad-street, 

Hamilton, Terrick, Eaq. 121, Park-Street, Orosvenor-equare, W, 

Hamilton, Rear-Admiral W. A. Baillie. Macartney-house, Blaokheath, 8,E, 

♦Hand, Admiral George S., R.N., c.B. United Service Club, 8, W,; and H,M,S, 
* Victory.* 

♦Handley, Benjamin, Esq., Chandos-road, Stratford ; and Orcfion Club, Qrafton^ 
street, W, 

920 Hanham, Commr. T. B., R.N, Afaneton-house, near Blandford, Dorset, 
♦Hankej, Blake Alexander, Esq. 
Hankejr, Thomson, Esq. 45, Portland-place, W, 
♦Hanmer, Sir J., Bart., M.P., F.its. Hanmer-hall and Bettisfield-park^ Flintshire, 
'Hansard, Henry, Esq. 13, Great Queen-street, W.C, 
• Haroourt, Egerton V., Esq. Whitwell-hall, York, 
•Hai-die, Gavin, Esq. m, Piccadilly, W. 

Harding, Charles, Esq., F.R.8.L., F.S.8., F.A.S.L. Grafton Club, 10, Grafton- 
street, Piccadilly, W, 

Harding, J. J., E««q. 1, Bamsbwy-park, Islington, N, 

Hardinge, Capt E., R.N. 32, Hy de-par k-squote, W, 

930 Hardinge, Henry, Esq., m.d. 18, Graf ton-street. Bond-street, W, 

Hardman, William, Esq., M.A. Norbiton-hall^ Kingston-on-Thames, 



■ £7^'. 

■ 1864 

H«rdwick, B. Esq. 157, Finchurch-itreet, E.C. 

H 1855 

Uan-r^ ATChdncoD the Udd. C. A. 


and ilvMUr Flmipcterdiary. Lisatim EritatMiqut. Sirne. Mam. 




Utnit, George Frederick. E.q., H.i. Htrrmfcrk. MiddUux, S. W. 




Harri»n. Chu., E«q. LaavK-park. Sydenham ; and 3. Graat Tou>er->l., E.C. 


Blackburn LunaaMre. 


940 fUrrowbjr, Dudley, Earl of. Sa«dM-ho„ Lichfield i aruJ Norton, GhucestertUrt, 


•Hart. J. L., Esq. 20, Pembridgt-mjuar,, W. 


'Hartland, F. Duon, Eiq., 7j.i., Ac. Thi (X.*faoJj, Mur ChcHmhom. 


Haive;, Charlei, Esq. SatAgartoltags, Strtatham, S, 



Hurrj-, Jama. Ktq. (Solkilor). Eii-slrnt. Inmrcargill, BmOUmid, Sta 

Zeaiand. Can of tlw Bmh of Otago, Old Bruad-alreit, E.C. 


Harrej-, John, ii«q. /o*ir.« Sury, JO^Uiiiadt. 


Hwvej, John, Esq. 7 , JUmcmg^uM, E.C. 


HarTer, Bidiard M., E«i. Oxford and Cambridgt Club, S. W 



qjo Uarte;, Edwanl H. Ehj. SiU Croa Mo«M, Baairidgi, Isle of Wisht ; mi 

Carlloit Cl«i, S-W. 


Hawker, EdwiuTlJ., E«,. 81. C«dogm-placti, S.W. 


Hawkin., Frntd. BiHWt, E.q., M-O., 29, Vppir Barle-j-itreH, W. j imi 


Hawkiiu, Cxpt. Fmnk h'., u.N. Arms ""^ ^""H Cl<^' ^- ^- <^'^' "/ ^'i'"- 



•Hawioni. John, Esq, 


•Hawyni, Col. J. SuDimeriield, iwe. WoiAaich, S.E. 



Hawortfa, Frediirick, Esq. 


•Hay, Rair-AJminJ Sir J. C. Dnlrjmple, BbH., H.p., I-.R.8. 108. Si. tJ«wj^»- 



•Hay. Lord John. n.P. 15, Cromaaitr™/, SoM Ker^m/tm, W, . J 


960 Haj, Lord William. % CU»Uind.^u,, S.W. ,J 


H»y. Major W, E. 7, WeitmiiuUr Chamhm, Victoria-read, 8.W.1 MfM 

Qarrick Clttb, Garrici-street, W.C. , M 


Hayamaa. Jamei, E>q. BnrdeH-/iov3e, Bunbil-road, E. ^ H 


Uayunan, Da%'id, Eiq. Fo-taay Bouse, Wealon, Balh. jfl 



Headlam, Right Hon. Thos. E., H.P. 27, AAleypiaci, Viclorh-il'ett. S. tr.M 

Roycd Geographical Society. ziy 












Heathy J. Benj., Esq., F.R.8., F3.A., Consul for Sardinia. 31, Old Jewry, 

fieathcote, Charles George, Esq. 40, Pall-maS, 8.W. 

Heathfield, W. E., Esq. 20, King-street, St. Jamee's, S.W. 
Hector, Alexander, Esq. 6, StaTtley-garderu, BayswUer, W, 
970 Hector, James, Esq., m.d. Care cf E, Stanford, Esq, 

Henums, Geo. Willoughbj, Esq., o.E. Westmmster'OhamberSt Victoru^-et., 8, W, 
^Henderson, James, Esq. Littlewaod'park, Forbes^ Aberdeenshire, 
Henderson, John, Esq. Conservatwe Club, S, W, ; and Vcdparaiso, 

Henderson, Pati-ick, Esq. Care of Captain H. J, Strutt, Roycd Mail Steam 
Packet Company, Southampton, 

Henderson, R., Esq. 7, Ifincing-ktne, E.C, 

Henderson, William, Esq. 5, Stanhope-street, Hyde-park-gardens, W, 

^Heneage, Edward, Esq. Stages-end,. Hemel Hempstead, 

Henn, lier. J., b.a.. Head Master of the Manchester Commercial Schools. Old 
Trafford, Manchester, 

Hennessej, J. B. N., Esq. "ist Asst, Trig. Survey of India, Dehra in the Dhoon, 
N, W, Provinces, India, Care of Messrs. H. S, King, and Co. 

98o*Henrj, Wm. Chas., Esq., M.D., F.R3. Haffield, near Ledbury, Herefordshire. 
*Hentjr, Douglas, Esq. Chichester. 

Herbert, George, Esq., F.C.P. University School, near Nottingham. 
Herd, Captain D. J. 2, Norway-house, Limehouic% E. 

Hertslet, Edwai-d, Esq. Librarian, Foreign Office, S, W. i and Belle-vue-house, 

Richmond, S. W. 
Hessejr, James Aagustas, Esq. Manningford Bruce, Petcsey, Wilts. 
Hetigh, John, Esq. Ihnbridge-icells. 

^Heywood, James, Esq., F.R.8. Athemeum Club, S.W. ; and 26, Kensington^ 

palace-gardens, W, 
Hey worth, Capt. Lawrence, 4ih Royal Lancashire. Jun. United Service Club, S, W. 
Hickey, Edwin A., Esq. 29, King-street, St. James's, S.W. 
990 Hi^ins, Edmund Thomas, Em^., M.R.C.S. 9, Richmond- crescent, Bamsbury, N^ 
Hiley, Kev. W., ma. 3, Cambridge-gardens, Richmond-hill, S.W. 
Hill, Arthur Bowdler, Esq. South-road, Clapftam-park, Surrey, S. 
Hill, Berkeley, Esq. 14, Weymouth-street, Portland-place, W, 
Hill, O'Dell Travers, Esq. 1, Landsdovme-villas, Bridje-road West, Battersea, 

Hill, Lieut.-Colonel Stephen J. Care of Capt. E. Bamett, R.N., 14, Wohum- 

square, W. ; Army and Navy Club, S. W. ; and Governor of Antigua, 
Hill, Samuel S., Esq. Reform Club, S. W. ; and 37, Sackville-st., Piccadilly, W, 
Hilliard, Major George Towers, Madras Staff Corps. 11, Lansdowne-road, 

Kensington-park, Nutting-hill, W. 

Hinchliff, T. Woodbine, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. 64, Lincoln* s-inn-felds, W.C, 
Hind, Professor Henry Youle, M.A. Toronto. Canada West, 
lOOO^Hinde, Samuel Henry, Esq. Wind/uim Club, S. W, 

Lift of Fellows of the 





•Blndmuih, Frederick, Ew}. i, S«k Inn, Strand. W.C. 
Houv, Deu» John, Eaq. Royal Thamtt Tacht Clvb, Albnnarle-tbttt, W. 
Homo, Sanmel, Eeq., M.a. 1, Upptr Hydc-parli-alreet, W. 
Hobson, Stephen Jwies, Etq. 32, Nic/toltu-lane, Loinhard-ttrtel ; and 

Begmt' i-park-road, N.W. 
Motilw, Wm. Geo. Ed., Ek). Mailer of Qrtimmar School, Warvtich, near W^art, 
•HobhouK, Henry Willism, Esq, 2J, Cadogan-plact. 8.W. 
Hockly, John tlinett, E»]., It.H. Harbour Mul«r, Shanghu, and 

of the Yang-tae-Kiuig River. Cart of Mian. Wood/uud and Oa., Outri^ 
Cross, S. W, 
*Hadg«on, Arthur, £sq., SuperintmddHt of the Auitrhlian Agricultural Coxhjai, 
•Hodgson, Jstoes Stewart, Eiq. 8, 8t. ffelm's-place, E.C. 
lOIoHndgioa, Kirknun Daniel, Eiq. S, Si. Htlen'i-plaei, E.C. 
Hogg, Jwno, Eiq. 217. Ficoadilly, W. 

Hogg, John, Kcq., MJ., r.n.S., F.L.S., V.-Fi«i. Kojal Society «f Litmtanb 
&c. B,S{rgcmts'-mn, Temple, E.C. ; aad Norton-lioute.Stockton-vpan-Tia, 
Hdldich, Thos. Hungerroiil, Eiq., Lt. B.G. 4, Neio-Hrett, Spring-gardm*, B. W. 
Hde, Cturlw, Cm]. I,oui;i&orou(;A-^auis-aoA«iI, foil firiitDn. 5. 
•Holford, Robert S., E«q. Dorchesler-hoau, Park-lane, W, 
Hollind, Rer. Fred. Whitmore. 6, fortua-plae», Connn«ghl->q>iare, W. 
HolUnd, Sir BBar)-, Bert., «.»., r.n.t. 35, Lmvr Brook-sirttt, W. 
Holland, Colffliel James. Baut/isii^, The Park, Upper Konmrd, SJI. 
Halland, Loton, Eaq, 8, Quen'i-villat, Wiadtar, 
loioHoIlaod, Kobert, Esq. 8t:minore-hall, Greit Stanmore, MiddleMx. 

Holluid, Major T. J. Care of Col. Jiatland, Sovlhiide, The Pari, Ujfi 

'HolliugBVOrtli, John, Esq^ H.R.C.S. Maideiutone-hoiaf, Greenviieh, S.B. 

Holme, J. Wilson, Esq., M.A. Dotnuicocd, Btckmham, Kent, S,E. 
•Holme., Jama., E»q. 4, Hea Ormondstreet, QueeHiquare, W.C. 
•Uolroyd, Arthur Todd, Eiq., u.d., f.l.b. Aihena^m Club, 8. W. 
HolroyJ, Henry, E«q, Barriater-at-Law. 2, Elia-coart, Tmnple, E.C. 
"Holalein, The Marque* do Souia. iiiton. Care of Ifitsri. KraerUter nt 
Mieville, 12, Angtl-Court, E.C. 
Holt, V«ey, Eaq, 17, WMthalt-place, S.W. 
Homfray, William Henry, Esq. 6, Slort'fi-gate, B. IV'. 
lojoHoneywood, Robert, Esq. Manor-houee, WsiAertfield, Braltttree; ffiaitiM 
Cl«b, S. W. 
•Hood, Sir Alei. Adand, Bait. £1. Andrie't-park, Bridgeiaater, Somirta. 
Hood, Henry Schuback, Eh], War 0#cr, S.W.I and 10, £«nt>ivta»f*i> 

gardent, W. 
Hood, T. H. Cookbum, Vm\. Slaneridge, Bericiciahire. 
•Rood, William Charlea, Etq., M.D. BetkUkem Hospital, 8. 
'Hooker, Jo«ph, Eh|., b.D.. ».a.B., r.L.B., be. Director of tlui Boj/til Canlnu,Im. 
Hooper, Alf., E«q. Fairfield, Upper SydenAain ; and 30, MoorgaU-tlnel, E.C 

Rmfol Oeagraphuxd Society. 



1861 Hopcnft, O«orge, Ek). S, BiUUer-mpMxrg, E,C. 

1846 ^Uope, Alex. Jam«B B«re8fi>rd» Eiq. Arklow^howe, C<nmaugkt'pi<MC€, Hyd^'park, 

W, ; and Bedgefmry'park, Bunt-grttn^ Kent. 

1862 Hope, Capt C. Webkj, B.V. ff.MJ3, < BHak/ AudraUa ; Metsri, HcdlHt ^ Co. 
1868 io40Horton, James Afiicanos B., £aq.» lU)., <ec. Car€ of Sir John Eirkland, 17, 

WhitehaU'phcSt 8, W. 

1861 Hoskins, Capt. A. H., RJX, Army and Nceoy Gtdt, 8.W. Cart of JfMsrt. 

1859 Hoskjiis, Chandof Wren, Esq. Wraxhall-obbty, Warwick$kire» 

1853 HoaghtoD, Lord. 16, Upper^hrook-street, W,; The BaU^Bawtry } andFrygtan- 

hall, Ferrybndgtf Yorkthire, 

1856 HoTell, William Hilton, Esq. Ooulbum^ New South Walts. Care of Mr. W. 

ChcmberHn, 74, lUet-street, E,C. 
1864 Howell, W. G^ Esq. 

1853 Howard, Sir Ralph, Bart. 17, Belgrave^., S. W. ; and Bushy-park^ Wicklow. 

1857 Howard, Samuel Lloyd, Eiq. Goldings, Loughion^ Essex. 

1842 ^Habbard, J. GelUbrand, Eaq. 24, Princ^s-gaU^ Hyde-park, 8. W. 

1867 ^Hubbard, William Egei-ton, Esq. St. Leonard' stodge, Horsham. 

1867 io50*Habbard, William Egerton, Esq., Jan., R.A. St. Leonard's-lodge, Horsham. 

1857 Hughes, Capt. Sir Frederic. Ely-house, Wexford. 

1838 Hughes, William, Esq. 63, Oakky-square, St. Pancras, N.W. 

1838 *Hame, Edmund Kent, Esq. 

1860 *Hume, Hamilton, Esq. Cooma Toss, Nero South Wales. Care of Rev. A. 

Hume, 24, Fitzdarence-street, Liverpool. 

1861 Hunt, George S. Lennox, Esq., H.B.M. Consul, Pemambuco, 
1866 Hunt, Joseph, Esq. Cave-hou9e Uxbridge, Middlesex. 
1865 Hunt, Capt. Thomas, B.H.A. The Barracks, Maidstone. 

1868 Hunt, John Perdral, Esq., M j>. Great Ousebum, near York, Yorkshire. 

1857 Hunt, Zacharias Daniel, Esq. Aylesbury, 

1862 io6oHunter, Henry Lannoy, Esq. Beechrhill, Reading. 
1868 Hunter, Major Edward. Junior United Service Club, S. W. 

1864 Hutdiinson, Capt. R. R. 13, Holland-terrace, HoUand-road, Kensington, W. 

1858 Hutchinson, Thomas J., Esq., F.RJ5.L., f.ejb., F.A.S.L., H.B.M. Consul, Rosario, 
Argentine Republic. Care of J, B, Alston, Esq., Foreign-office. 

1860 *Hyde, Captain Samuel. 8, Billiter-square, E.C. 

1865 Iliingworth, Rer. Edward A. 3, Mecklenburg-street, W.C. 
1852 Iliingworth, Richard Stonhewer, Esq. 9, Norfolk-crescent, Hyds-park, W. 

1850 *Imray, James Frederick, Esq. 102, Minories, E. ; and Beckenham, Kent, S.E. 
1867 Ince, Joseph, Esq., P.L.8., &c., &c 26, St. George' s-place, Hyde-park-comer. 

1861 •Ingall, Samuel, Esq. Forest-hill, Kent, S.E. 
1860 I070lngilby, the Rev. Sir Henry John, Bart. Ripley-castle, Ripley, Yorkshire. 

1851 Inglefield, Captain Edward A., R,N., F.B.8. United Service CM), S.W. ; and 
10, Grove-end-road, St. John's Wood, N. W. 


^B 1S40 

L ist of Fellows of the ^^^^H 

Ingnm,, Hogho. F™di, .E«j. IfiB«ni.'(y CTuft, 5. W. 



B, Park-placc-wat, Sumlerland. 



•iDtkrp, Rer, Robert tlilJi. 8, Bom'a-place, Plyrnouth. 



•IrUj, Kwderidk W.,Esj. JUoiinm CT«i. «. IF. f 


•Irving, John, E«,. 



Irving, Thom«8, K»q, 16, Manpitlf-roid, Omonhurg, IT, 



Irwin, JniOM V. H. 8, D<ike-ilrett. St. JmMt'i, S. W. 





lOBoIiiiH, Fredmdt, Fjq., Ill, High llolborn, W.C. 



JnrkMn, Robert WhiJ. Esq. 28, tnitmcsaroad, ffyde-park, W. 



J.d»oii, William, E.q. 10, Slanifitld-slrtH, W. 



Jsmu, Colanrl Sir Henry, b.e„ t.r.b. Director of tht Ordrumcc Sareltt 


Stmt*. Willwm B«ville, Ehj. 13, Bhmjletd-nad, Uaida-liiU, W. 


Jsmiewo. Riclwrd Akiender, Esq., M.A. St. Uit't.Corh; and care Bf J. P. 

Watton. Etq., Lime-street, E.C. 


J»mie«ra, Uugh, E,q. Coz'i Hotel, Jermgo-itrart. S.W. 


■Jaqneg, LeoDnni, F^. Wenit/ridge-hoiae, Pantefrad, TirktMrt, 


•Jnrdme, Andrev, E«]. Zimnck-easlle, Stirling. 


l09O»jBrdine, Robert. Bq., b.p. CulU-iilA, laclerbg, K.B. 


Jmdine, Robert. Efq., n.*. Bengal Cl-b. CixkMa. C<Ar, of W. Jardini, EtJ^^ 

J. P.. Dunstable, Bed,. 

K 1857 

ItStitoa, mdbiai, E<q. Al, The Albany. W. 

H 186S 

Jeffnpi, 3. G.. E«q. S5. DtamiAire-pIace. W. 

■ 1860 

•Jejeebho)'. Sir J»DiMtjee, Bart. Bombai,. 

H 1854 

Jollicoe, Cli»rle«, E*,. 12, Ciwaii^-pfnce, W. 

H 185S 

Jencken, H. Diedrich, Eiq. 1, Brici-oouri, Temple, E.C. ; and 2, rork-ltrraet. 


H 1851 

Jenlcin*, C«pl. Griffilh. i.m., O.b. Eail India Club, St. Jamea^-iipiate, S. W, 


H I83T 

•Jenluru, R. Cutle, Eaj. Beackhy, Mar CTquion. 


•J«iBiog», WiUlem, Fjq„ M.i. 13. Victoria-ttreet, We,imimtfr, S.W. 


riooJeonjTi, KowUnd Formb., E«j. War Office, S.W. 


Jesiwpp, Rev. AuguMui, « *., Mend *liBl*r, Kiog Edft-ard VI. School. Xonndk 


•JeuU, HenT, Esq. /./oyif., .ff.C. 


■JejM, F. F., Esq. Castle-hill, Ealing, W. 

V 1817 

Johneon, Edmund Chsi.. Esq. 12. Wilton-itreet, Belgrace->q«are, S.W. 

H 1SS9 

•John»n, Heory, Eiq. 38, Crutchid-frian, E.C. 

H 1B54 

JohtuoD, John Hugh, Eeq. 

■ 1861 

JohBMn. William. Ek).. b.N. Jmior Carlton Chh, S.W. 



Royal Geographical Society. xlix 












Johnson, W. H^ Eiq., Civil Aniitnnt G. T. S. India. Dehra Dm, N.W. 
Provinc€8f India. 

Johnston, Alex. Keith, Esq., F.R.S.E., Hon. Mem. Berl. Ceog. Soc., &c. Mutxh' 
hail-park ; and 4, 8t, Andrew^quare, Edinburgh, 
ziioJohnBton, A. R., Esq., F.R.S. Athenmvm Ciub, S,W. 
Johnston, J. Brookef, Esq. 29, Lombard-ttreet, E, C, 

Johnstone, Colonel H. C. Murree, Punjab, India, Car€ of the United Sei-vioe 
Company, 9, Waterloo-place, S.W, 

* Johnstone, John, Esq. Castle nau^house, Ifotilake, S, W, 

Johnstone, Sir John V. 13., Dart., m.p., u.c.l. 34, L*eltjrare-sqnare, W» ; and 
HachnesS'hall, near Scarborotujh, 

Jones, Cnpt. Edward Monckton, 20th Rcgt. Adjutant, Staff Collcje, near Farn^ 

bora* Station, Hants, 
Jones, Capt. H. M., v.C. 

Jonei, Capt. Feliir. Fernsi(.k; Church-iV"l, WestoK-hill, Upper Xortcood, S, 
Jones, Lt.-Coloncl Jenkin, Royal Engineers. 1, Lennard-place, Cu'Ciis-road, St, 

Jo?m*s-Kood, iV. IV. ; and India. 
Jones, John, Esq. 338, Strand, }\\C. 
1 1 20 Jones, John Piyce, Esq. Grove-park School, Wrexham, 

Jones, Sir Willoughby, Bart. Cranmer-hall, FakenJiom, Norfolk. 
Jones, William J>., Esq. 2, Verulam-buildiitijs, Graijs-inn, W.C. 
•Jordan, Wm. I/?ighton, Esq. 1, Potris-sfjuare, Notting-hill, W, 
Joshua, Moss, Esq. 3felbotu'ne ; and 22, Clifton-gardens, Maida-hill, W. 
Joui-dain, Frederick John, Esq. 10, Austin-f-iars, E.C, 

Kay, David, Esq. 17, Ahingdon-tcrracc, Kensington, W, 
Kaye, J. W., Esq. India Office, S. W. 
Keate, R. W., Esq., Lieutenant-Governor, Tnnidad. 

Keating, Sir Henry Singer, Q.C., one of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, 
11, Princess-gardens, S, W, 
iijoKeene, Rev. C, E. Ruck. Sucynscambe-pwh, Henley-vpon-Thavies. 
Keir, Simon, Esq. Consercatice Club, S, W, 
♦Kellett, Rr.-Adm. Henry, c.B. Clonmel, Ireland. 
Kellie, Right. Hon. the Earl of. 28, Eaton-place, S. W, ; Curlton-Club and 

AUoa-park, Scotland. 
Kelly, William, Esq. I^yal Thames Yacht Clitb, 7, Albcmarlc-street, W. 
•Kemball, Col. Arnold Burrowes, c.B., Indian Army. H.M*s Consul-General, 
Bagdad ; and 6, Chester-place, Hyde-park, W. 
Kempster, J., Esq. 1, Portsmouth-place, Kenningion-lane, Surrey, S. 
Kennard, Ad;im Steinmetz, Esq. 7, Fenchurch-street, E,C. 
Kennard, Coleridge J., Esq. 14, Lombard-street, E,C. 
Kennard, Robert William, Esq. 37, Porchester-terrace, Hyde-park, W. 
ii4oKennedy, Edward Shirley, Esq. 

Kennedy, Rev. John, m.a. 4, Stepney -green, ZT, 

VOL. xxxvin. 

1 List of Fellows of the 


1863 Kerr, J. H^ Enq., lUN. Bydrographio-office, 8,W, 

1867 Kerr, Robt. M., Esq., (Judge of ilie City of London Court). 7, Chester-terrace 

Begent^-park, N. W, 

1864 Kerr, Lord Scbomberg. 15, Brutonstreetf W, 

1 862 Kershaw, Wm., Esq. 1 6, St, Mary Axe, E, C. ; and Suffolk-hdye, BriaOon^road, S, 

1859 Key, Admiral Astley Cooper, R.N., C.B. United Service Clvb, 8,W, 

1862 Key^ J. Binney, Esq. Oriental Club, W, 

1 857 Keysell, Francis P., Esq. Sycamore-villa, 35, Carlton-hill, St, John's-w>odf If. TV. 

1864 ♦Kiddle, W. W., Esq. East Dereham, Norfolk. 

1864 ii5oKimber, Dr. E. Murchison-home, Dulvoich, S,E. 

1846 King, Lieut-Colonel Edward R., 36th Kegt. Junior United Service Club, S.W. 

1866 King, John, Esq. Utishetts-hotise, Thames Ditton, Surrey. 

1861 King, Major W. Ross, Unatt., Fjs.A. Scot. Tertotcic, Kinellar, Aberdeenshire 

and Army and Navy Club, S. W. 

1868 Kingsley, Henry, Esq. Wargracc, Henley-on-Thames, Berks.; and Ganick 

Clitb, W.C. 

1 857 •Kinnaird, Hon. Arthur F., m.p. 2, Pall-mall-east, S. W. 

1867 Kinnaird, George William Fox, Lord, E.G. Bossie-priory, Inchture, If.B. ; amd 

33, Groscenor-strect, W. 

1860 Kinns, Samuel, Esq., ph. dr., f.ii.a.8. Hiylthury-ncw^ark College, If, 

1858 Kirk, John, Esq., m.d. 45, George-square, Edinburgh. 

1863 Kirke, John, Esq., Barrister. C, T/wrold, Esq., Welham, Betford, Notts. 

1861 ii6oKirkland, Sir John. 17, Whitehall-pL, 8. W.; and Foofs-cray-pl,, Kent, S,E, 

1868 Kisch, Daniel Montagu, Esq. 1, Devonsfdrc-place, Seven Sistert^-road, Upper 

Jlolloway, N, 

1866 ♦Kitson, James, Jun,, Esq. Hanover-square, Leeds. 

1868 Kitto, Richard L. Middleton, Esq. Church-hill-villa, Fnjerstown, Victoria, 


1835 •Kjaer, Thomas Andreas, Esq. Hjomct af Kongins Nyetow og Gathersgaden, Ko. 

26, Sd Sahl, Copenhagen. 

1867 Knight, Andrew Halley, Esq. 76, Westbonmc-tcrrace, Hyde-park, W, 

1862 Kuollys, Lieut.-General Sir William T., K.C.B., V.-Pres. Conndl of Mib'tary 

Education. Eaton-square, S. W. 

1867 Knox, Alex. A., Esq. 91, Victoria-street, Westminster, S.W. 

1861 Knox, Thomas G., Esq. India. Care of Messrs. H. S, King and Co., 45, 

Pall-mall, S.W, 

1 866 Kopach, Henry, Esq. Ciistirtn-house, S/tnwjhai, Care of H. C, Batchelor, Esq., 

155, Cannon-street, E.C. 
1861 ii7oKyd, Hayes, Esq., 1I.R.C.S. Wadebridge, Comtcall, 

1859 I^brow, Lieut.-Colonel Valentine H., F.8.A., P.O.S. Mitre-court-chambert, 

Temple, E.C. ; and Club-chambers, S. W. 

1 849 •Laffan, Capt. Robert Michael, r.e. Army and Navy Club, S. W. ; and Othami^ 

lodge, Kent. 

Soyal Oeegraphical Society. 

1B59 Lamb, Licat Utniy, i.v. JTJ(. India Slort D^arlment, Betrederfmnl, 

*Umbert, Alan, Eiq. Putiuy-htath, E. 11'. 
Lunbtrt, Chulo, E«]. 3, <iuy'.Ti'SU-t.d-]ili..f, Upper Thamet-ttrttt, E.C. 
lunbert, Wm. Bbke, Esq., c'.B. SI, Quwn Ame-atrttt, Oaeaditlt'tipiare, IV. 
Lunbert, Francii D,, Esq. 20, J}trotahire.phict, I'orOand-place, W, 

1864 Luaert, CtpL G. F. 20, AOtmutrte-ttniH W, 

1861 LunoDt, Jimea, Ksi., x.P. AiuvA'fim, <}rtfw>e\, K.IS. 

1868 IlBoUmpn;, Johs, Etq. 16, Ou'iiicni-i'/'i.i'r, iV.n' 

1865 Lmmpra/, Thomw, E«q. Warrior-lodji, The Grorf, Iftmmertmiih, W. 

1867 Lunpnf, Jonei, £(q., X.R., 67lh R«gl. Waterford. Irchiid. 

1864 LunpsoD, C. M., E(q. <ii, Qaem^tireet, Clieaptidc, E.C, 

1838 'Luce, John U«Drj, Esq., r.UI. n« IloImicooJ, Dorliins. 

1861 'L-ing, .\niltcn-, Eiq. Z>unmor(, ITitnltr-rner, Ifeie SoHthVTalet ; and Duaamre, 

Tfujumo'it/i, Deem. 
1S5S 'Langt, Daniel A., li«q. 21, Segad-tlitet, W. 

ISST loDgiasd), Jolin, £*q., Engincrr. Ifilboumt, Autlralii, 

1865 luglcf, Edward, Hkq. Wtll-haU, EltHam, Keat. 

1856 "Langler, John R., foq., n.A. WinUi/un Training College, WetimiKster ; and 
Gothic Villat, 3, Bridgt-raad Wet, BMteriea, S. \V. 

tI9t>»Larcom, Uaj.-GMieml Sir Thomas ALskew ^.fi., F.n.s, Ctulle, Dublin 
Lardner, Col. John, Uniird Serrice aiA, S.W. 

1839 Lamach, DonaKl, E«q. " Ecminjloit-pulace'gnnlcns, W. 
1854 I.atrobe, Cb. J., Ewj. i:l,ipham-hmie, iairej, i-nvtc: 
1846 ; "Uw, Hon. 11. Spencer, M.A. 40, Latm-pUce, S. IV. 

1830 i Uw, WilHnm J., Esq. 63, Upper SegmoHr-tlrrd, \V. ; ~i, iineo/nVina- 

fieldi, W.C. ; and 5, Siusex-iqiiare, SrightM. 
1861 ( Lawrence, Edwanl, Jaq. Beeclimiml, Aigbn-ih, I.irerpiu!. 

1868 Laurie, Juno K«q., 63, Old BroaJ-slrrd, E.C 

1H67 LB*«on, Wm., Eaq. 21, HVAaniflroci.- i Wum, A". 11'. 

1863 "Laj. Horatio, K. Ksq., Cornmiaionev of rowign CmWmj in Ciiina, 

1857 liooljiyard, AuitenH., Etq. U.P., D.O.L. SO, Piacadilly, W. 

1866 •fjijarJ, Lieuleuimt Brewnlow Villiers (Brd W luiia Etgt.) 39, Upptr Mounl- 

ttreet, DMhi, and Zone's Hotel, 1, SI Alban's-pl'ice S.W. 
1808 Laybonrne, Aiigiistinp, >>q. 9, Ki-ij-slreet. Einnlmrg-siuare, E.C: cad 

, Loiwihion. Es!Kj-. 

1863 j 'Leaf, Cliaa. J., tjq. Old-diange, E.C. ; an,l The Hytandf, Ko--:'ood, S. 
1861 •LeannoDth, Dr. John. GolMc-Mge, IJHcen'frO"d, Clai-hm-park. 

1866 Lebour, G. A., Eiq. 0, Addisim-ci-eKent, KeaiingtiM, 11'. 

1853 I "l.e Breton, Fnintis, Knq. ^l, Sotsex-plnce, J,'cgent's-park, X.W. 
1868 i I* Couteur, L(.-Coi. J. Halketl. !7, Chti-el-slrect, }l.-liir-rc-STiiii-e, S. 11', 

1865 1 I* Feuvr*, \V, H., K.-q.. C.K. U, Dovgalc-kW, C^imoH-atrret, E.C. 

1861 - I.ecliit, I'atricJi C, Kuq. 7, I'nlace-road, RuMpell-ptfk, Hirealh-mt, f, 

I8fiS iJloI.M, John, ijq, :*, Berkeb'g-cill:'^, I.o-jhboTO"gli-}KU I., f. 

Hi Lxit of Fellows of the 




1868 Lee, Sir Geo. Philip, Bart. 28, Bryanaton-tquare, W. 

1839 Lee, Thomas, Esq. JtoyallnstUution, Albemarle'$treet, W. 

1833 •Lefevre, Sir John Geor^ Shaw, M.A., D.c.u, P.R.8., Vice-chancellor of the 

Univertity of London. 18, Spring'gardenSf S. W. 

1853 Lefroy, General John Henry, R.A., F.R.8. Royal Arsenal^ Wodwich, S^, 

1862 Leggatt, Clement Davidson, Esq. 43, Itwemesa-ierrace, W, 

1861 Legh, Wm. John, Esq. 37, Lotondes-square, S. W. ; and Lyme-parkt Chethirt. 

1861 ^Lehmann, Frederick, Esq. 139, Wesihoume-terrace, W. 
1845 Leigh, John Studdy, Esq., F.a.8. 27, Leadenhall-street, E.C, 

1 863 Le Mesoiier, Henry P., Esq., C.E. Si, Martin% Guernsey, 
1863 i33oLe Messnrier, M.-Gen. A. P. 2, Stanhope-terrace, Eyde-park, W, 

1856 Leslie, the Hon. G. W. 4, ffarley^treet, W, 
1867 L*Estrange, Carleton, Esq. Carlton Club, S, W. 

1840 *Letts, Thomas, Esq. 8, Itoyal Exchange, E,C, 
1863 Lereaux, E. H., Esq. 25, The Cedare, Putney, S.W. 

1857 Leverson, George 6. C, Esq. 73, Olouoester^terrace, Hyde-park, W, 

1862 Leviclc, Joseph, Esq. 8, Great Winoheeter^reet, Old Broadretreet, E.C, 

1866 Levinge-Swift, Richard, Esq. Levinge'lodge, Richmond, Surrey, 

1859 Lerinsohn, Louis, Esq. Vemon-houee, Clarendon-Gardens, Matda-hill, W, 

1865 • L^yy, William Hanks, Esq. Institution of the Association for the Welfare of 

the Blind, 210, Oxford-street, W, 

1852 i33oLeycester, Captain Edmund M., Rji. 5, Donegal-terrace, Stoic, Devonport, 

1861 Ley land, Luke Swallow, Esq. The Leykmds, Hatfield, Doncaster, 

1859 Lichfield, Thomas Geoi-ge, Earl of. Shujhorough, Staffordshire, 

1856 Lilford, Thomas Lyttleton Powys, Lord. 10, Orostenor-place, W, 

1860 Lindsay, H. Hamilton, Esq. 

1857 Lindsay, Major-General the Hon. J., Grenadier Guards, n.p. 20, Portman' 

square, W, 

1867 ♦Lindsay, Col. Robert J. L., M.P., v.c. Lookinge-house, Wantage, Berks; and 

2, Carlton'^ardens, S, W. 

1855 ^Lindsay, Wm. S., Esq. Manor-house, Shepperton, Middlesex, 

1868 Linton, Robert P., Esq., Surg-Major. 14, St, James^square, S, W, 

1858 Lister, John, Esq. 

1866 z340Little, Archibald J., Esq. 34, Brook»street, Grosvenorsquare, W, 
1857 'Lloyd, George A., Esq. George-yard, Lombard-street, E.C, 

1863 Lloyd, Sir Thomas Davis, Bait. United University Club, S. W, ; and Bronu>ydd% 


1864 Lloyd, W., Esq. Moor-hall, near Sutton Coldfield. 
18C7 Lloyd, Rev. Wm. V., m.a. 16, Lancaster-gate, W, 

1861 Lluellyn, Capt. Richard. 20, Montagu-square, W, 

1868 Lobley, James L., Esq. 50, Lansdoume-road, Kensington-park, W. 

1863 Loch, George, Esq, 12, Alhemarle-street, W, 

1859 Loch, Henry Brougham, Esq. Government-house, Isle of Man, 
1861 Loch, John Charles, Esq. 12, Albemarle-street, W.; and Hong-Kong, 

Royal Geographical Society. 







1867 1 

















X25oLodi, William Adam, Esq. 8, Qreat George-strtet, Wettmimier, S,W, 

Locke, John, Esq. 83, Addison»roadf Kensington, W. 

Lockhart,.William, Esq., F.R.C.8. Park'Villas, GrantUU-parht lihcklieath, S,E, ; 
(Old China. 

Lockwood, James Alfred. United Artt Club, Hanoter •square, TT. 
*Logan, Sir William Edmond, P.B.8. Montreal, Canada, 

Loiidesborough,Wm. Henry Forester, Loni. Thomas^ s-hotel, 25, Berkeley-sq., If. 

Long, Geoi^ge, Esq., m.a. *12, Buckingham-street, Brighton, 
*Long, W. Beesion, Esq. 

Longden, Horrell D., Esq. 4, Ennismore-place, Ilyde-pv-k, S, U". 
*Looglej, Major George, r.e. 60, Prince" s-gatc, IV* 
Z26oLongman, Thos., Esq. Patemoster-row, E.C. ; and 8, Sussex-sq,, llyde'park, W, 

Longman, William, Esq. 36, Hyde-park-^quare, W. 

Lonsdale, Arthur Pemberton, Esq. 

Looker, William Robert, Esq. Melbourne, AusiraHa, Cure of Mr, Ashhu st, 
16, Bishopsgate-^reet'Within, E,C, 

Lorell, Capt. 6, GranDUle-park-villas, Blachheath, S.E, 

Lovett, Phillips Cosby, Esq. Lisoombe^,, Liscombe, Leighton Buzxatd, Bucks, 

Low, Alex. F., Esq. 84, Westboume'terracc, W. 

Low, Robert, Esq. 17, Wobum^quare, W.C. 

Low, S. P., Esq. 65, Parliament-street, S, W. 

Lowden, Rer, George Rouse. Brent-villa, Hanvcell, Middlesex, 
1270L0WC, Capt. W. Drurr. Myria, Beltws-y-Cocd^ JAanrwst, North Wales, 

Lowndes, E. C, Esq. 84, Eaton-place, S. W, 

Lowrj, Joseph Wilson, Esq. 45, Rohert-stieet, Hampstead-road, N, W, 

Loyd, Col. W. K. Union Club, S, W. 

Luard, Wni. Charles, Esq. Llandaff-housc, Cardiff; atid Athenamm Club, S,]\\ 

Luke, William, Esq., Bengal Civil Service. 93, Tnverncss-tcrr., Hyde-park, 11'. 

Lumsden, Rev. Robert Comyn, U.A. Cheadle, Manchester. 

Lush, Robert, Esq., Q.C. Balmoral-house, Atcnue-road, P.ejcnt* s-parh^ N, W, 

Lydall, J. H., Esq. 12, Southnmpton-buildinjSf Chtnccry-lane, W.C. 
♦Lyell, Sir Charles, Bart., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 73, Harley-st., Cavendish'^q., W, 
i28o*Lynch, Capt. H. Blosse, I.N., C.B., f.r.a.s. Athenaum Club, S,W, 

•Lynch, Thomas Kerr, Esq. 31, Clccehvid-square, Hyde-parh, W, 

Lyne, Francis, Esq. 


♦Macarthur, Major^Gen. Sii' Edward, k.c.b. 27, Pnnce's-gardens, tV* 
Macbraire, James, Esq. Broudmeadows, Berwick-on-Tireed. 
Macdonald, Chessborough C, Y^. 32, Bclsize-park, Ifampstead, N.W. 
Macdonnell, Sir Richard Graves, C.B., late Governor of S. Australia. 
Macfarlan, John G., Esq. Cij'.k'-viUi, Am:, 'ley-hill, Upprr Norwood. 


Mldis, Rer. M, Matele>l-raad, Birmingliam, 
MscGrcgor, C»pt. C. M. SMa. 
j]9oM*ckint4Mh, AlciaDiti^r Bi^dic, U^i. Orienlal Club, W. ; <md Damn, Setllimi. 
Madnloab, L[eut.-GenciH] A]«i, I'uhtr, SJl. 
'iitdatjn, Patrick, Kiq^ rje.A„ Off. Aisoc. IiuL Act. 
iUckaj. Dr. A. E., U.S. AdmiraUtj, ^ouitnct-hovir, W.C. 
1859 Muckn;, P*v AieiwiJer, A.M. flw Jf.msc, Rhj/nie, Aberdttiukirt. 

1859 •.Mackcan, Thos. W T..j:s<|. 24, Oj^font-s^uarc. //i/dc-pfirh, W. 

IWS Jloqktniio.Iiighl Hon. Holt, f,b.i A jIUnunini C(ui, & H'.; <atd 28, Wimiuli- 

liivrt, IV, 
Mackoiri*, Sir JsmM J. BandiU, Bart. Travtllen' CliJ>,3.W.; tutd SeatatU, 
Easclim.jk, Muuloc'i;/. S.B. 
•Msekeniie, Jsmo T., Eiq. 69, LombarJ-slrett, E.C. 
llickrniie, John H., Esq. ITii'/rngfon, CurJaltem, Surrq/. 
I30o»M»okeson, Edward, E«q. 59, jABCohi'a-mn-jielU, W.C. 
Mackjilop, Junes, Esq., F.R.AJ. 30, fflwsMtW/'-sjfWHT), "K', 
Mickinlay, John, Ek]., j.p., u.l.c.Bq Chief Eugiaver sod Inipector of VmHi- 
ncry, JLll. Doctjani, snd Siiirryor (olhe Tort, Bom buy. Can of ClUrltt 
Jlanafnifin, £»;., i, CambaraeUtteir-rood, Ktmiiaijtoa, S. 
Mai^kinlj, D., Esq. Ontntal Club, W. 

Uiickinaon,C. D., Eaq. Car(Bf3rt33r>.J.CIuiehandSan»,Sl,Jbeliuta-iaiu,E.C. 
Mackinnon, Laiilan, Esq. Menabills, Tar-Comvudl anJ Jlffdrm <yiA, 8,W. 
•JIackinnon, Wm. Alei., Etq., JI.P., F.S.S. 4, HijiU^parh-place, W. 
*Uackinoon, \V., Esq. 130, Ilopt'tlrect, Qhsffov. 
Shtiiirtiy M.-Gm. Elliot, esth Rgt. U.S. Club, S.W. ; and Tonghoo, BirmaA, 
Maclean, Willinm Crighton, Eiq., r.a.a. ">l,C<mpenloK»-pl., Great rarmmiti. 
I}ioMaeI.«af, Geoi^, Jlsq. Sj, jrude-p'ri^ardcnt, TV. 

Mnclougliliu, Dari'I, Esq., u.D., Member of Legion of tIon(mr,&c. 36, Br\daH' 

ttrtet, Bcrkelcj-vjaarc, W. 
Mnclure, Andrew, Eiq. ilaciare, MacdonaU, a/id Maegregor, 37, Walbivoi, E.C. 
Maclure, John William, l£^.]. F-Uf.ffnUI, wiv M>inc!ie»ter. 
Uac[nillan,Aloi.,Eiq. \(; Bcdwrd-sli; rt, Cot^mt-^nrdai. W.C. 
Mackmardo, G. \V., Esq. 7, Sta Bi-ond-slrtct, E.C. 
Macnab, John, Esq. I'indlater-todgt, Trinilij, luae Edinburgh. 
Sliiciiair, Geo. Eiq. Orlrnt-t Club, Sjiiaver-tquare ; 24, Kemim/tnB-gai'JaiM- 

M-I««rc, W. 
llaqihemin, ^VMIIam, Esq. a2, Laacialer-gale, W. 
1M5 •llaequfeH, James. Esq., K.C. Tower and Sword of Portugiil. 10, JIoTlflm-jtrrvl, 

A'naington, W. 

1864 I ijioMacnio, Culia W, E<q. On\-nlal CM, ilanoiter^giKTr, W, 
1305 \ ilnclasgart, Mnlcxilm, Esq. S-jdnty, !feiii£oaik Wain. 

IB«a I lleArthur, Alei., fiq. Bdleigh.iall, Brixtos-rite, Brixton, S. 

1«67 I JIi'Artliur, William, Esq. 1, Gai/ilcr-AouKt, Brixlu.i-ris-; S. 

IB(ii> I JIcClintoek,C:.rl. Pir Kraneia Leopold, IL,\. Cited Service Club, S.W. 

Royal Geographical Society. 














*AIcC<miiflU, \V. R., Esq., Barrister-aULaw. 12, Kiag's-bench^walk, E,C, ; arid 
Charlecille, Belfast, 

McCodi, John, Esq., u.D. Jwnior United Service Club, S,W. 

*H*Cliire, Captain Sir Robert J, le M., B^'. Ciiipperficldy Herts; and Athenceum 

McDonald, James, Esq. Oriental Club, Hanover-square, IV. 
VcEoen, D. P., Esq. 24, PemJbridge-square, Bayswatcr, W, 
733oMcEwan, James, Esq. 30, Holland-park, Kensington, \\\ 

McGregor, Duncan, Esq. Hoard of Trade, S, W, ; and Athenctum Club, S, W, 
McGregor, Duncan, Esq. ChjdC'phcc, Glasgow, 
*MclTor, W. G., Esq., Superintendent of Giinchona Plantations, Ootacamund, 
McKerrell, Robert, Esq. 45, InvernesS'icrracc, W. ; and Ma\wilius, 
McLean, Hon. John, Oamnru, -iVfo Zealand ; care of Mc»srs, Kcdfcra, AlcX" 
ander, and Co,, 3, Great Windiestcr-atrcct-huildings, E,C, 

McLean, Frank, Esq., M.^\., ai:. 23, Great Georgc-strvet, Westminster, S. W. 

M'Leod,\VaIter,Esq. Head Mttster of the llogal Jlilitary Asylum, Chelsea,S, W, 

McNair, Capt. John F. A., ii.A. 

M'Keil, The Right Hon. Sir John, o.c.R. Graiiton, near Edinfjurgh, 

i34oMait]and, Geo. Gammie, Esq. Shotocer-house, Wheatley, Oxon. 

*Major, Richard Henry, Esq., fj).a. British Museum, W.C, 

*Makini, Henry ¥,, Esq. 10, Prince of Wales-terrace, Kensingtofi-pidace, W., 
and JRefonn Club, H. W. 

Malbjr, John Walter, Esq. 15, liichmond-villas. Seven-sisters* -rd., Holloictiy, iV. 
*Ma]bj, Thomas, Esq. 2, Parh-cillas, Scrcn-sisters'-road, Holloway, K. 
*MalooIm, Capt. Edward Donald, k.e. CJuitham, 

Malcolm, Jas., Esq. 22, Prince* s-gate, Knightshri/ige, W. 
*MaIcolm, W. E., Esci. Burnfoot, Lang/mline, near Carlisle. 
•Mallet, Charles, Esq. Audit Office, WX\ ; and Delmmi, Hojnpsiead, ^\W. 
•Manchester, Rt. Rev. James Prince Loe, Li^llop of, F.R.S., &c. Athenawn 
Club,S,W.; and Sedgley-hall, Manchester, 
i35oMann, James Alexander, Ei:q., m.r.a.s. Kensington-palace, W, 

Mann, Robert James, Esq., m.d. 1, Donghts-ziUat, Surbiton-hill, and 15, 
Buckinghainrstreet, Stnvul, W.C, 

Manners, Geo., Esq., fjs.a. Lansdov^nc-ro'Hi, Civydvn, 

Sfnuners-Sutton, Graham, Esq., 7, Olouc€bier4erracc, Hyde-piwh, W, 

Manning, Fredeiick, Esq. Uyron-lodge, Leamington ; and 8, Dover-street, \V, 

*3Iansell, Commander A. L. H,M.S, * Hydra;* care of W, Blnckney, Esq., 
Hydrographic office, Admiralty, S. W, 

Mantel 1, Walter Baldock Durant, Etq. Wellington, Kew Zealand, Care of J.\ 
Stanford, Esq, 

Marlette, IVof. Alplion>o, m.a. 27, St, Stephens-square, Baysiratcr, W, 

Markhara, Clements Robert, Esq. India Office, S, W, ; and 21, Ecclcston-sq, S,W, 

Marlborough, George, Duke of. Blenficim, Woodstock, Cere of E, Stanford, Esq* 

1864 X36oManden, Rer. Canon J. H. Higher Broughton, Manchester, 

Lift If Fellow* tf the 

Uanh, Mallhsv Henrjt, Eaq. Oi^Ord imi OmMfr* CM, 3.W.; tmd 41, 

1863 Huitull, Capt J. 0. Doo. Highaood, Somuy, HampAirt. 

1864 Uanhall, Jmt.Gicth.EM]. Iltudii^; and MmtC<miili)it,JmbUtat. 
1662 UanUll, William, Kaq. i, Taper-hmldivg!, Inner Tfanpb, B.C. 

1859 'Hanhui), th« Hon. Robert The Mote, iiaHatoiu!, Kent. 

1957 Uanhmin, J. C., Eiq. 7, Xmnnj/oiv^jaJnce-^ari/nu. TV. 

Mnitliln, Cui]|«rmo V.. ^r, Con.-GcziFril UdIM Slitt«i of ColuaUi. 13, 

Orchardstrta, rortman^r/tiart, W. 
Martin, Frand* P. B., Eiq. 

Martin, Hcnrj, £sq Sauez-kaM, IHghiwyaev-pari, K. 
rj7o«Martin, RlclunlBiildiilph,Esq. Clare^iwd, BicUey, S.K. 
Martin, Thomaa, Esq. 5, Campton-terracf, A". 
Martin, Wm., Eiq. 37, Ctenfhnd-iqtinrc, Paddington, 11'. 
UaaiuTui, Wm. R., Eiq. 
*llatliw>n. Sir Jamea, BMt.,r.ft.i, 13, Cleteland-roa, S.W.; and JcAanjr, 
j Bonar-hridijc, SiiHiertiimh/iire, ^e. 

18j8 , Mithietan, Jomei Ewing, Etq. 77, Loaibard-ifreel, E,C, ; atid IS, <i»em'f 

gardetu, Bayneattr, W. 
1868 SlflVrngonlBlo, M. Lucm, Btlgran-maatiimi, ftronreaiir-gardiiu, AW., (mrf 

3tes)rs. KaUi, BnlJieri, 25, FmAary^rw, E. C. 
ISflO *MBiwdI, Sir Williun Stirling, Bart. 1^3, Parkslreel, Gnmmor-iJ,, W. 

Ma;, DaDi(lJohn,£aq.,K.K, Capeof GoodHopt. CarccfCattandLandentadi, 
1859 Majer, Joirph, E«q„ PJ.A. 68, Lord-slrctt, Littrpool. 

ijBoMajtn, WillianlS. F., Eiq, InterpreUrtoH.M CoUBulatf. Sha»g^. Oretf 
F. J. Angier, Eiq., 2, Gcoryc-yai-d, L«mbai-il-atreel,£.C. 
1867 Majliew, Ktv. Samuel Martin. 158, Xeio L'rnt-road, S. 

1882 llajne, Captain Richard Charlei, B.S. • Eclipse }' onrf 80, OMittr- 

iqnare, S. W. 
Majo, Oi|)t. Jolin Pole. Army and Xam/ CTui, 3. IF. 
Mnr-wD. J..I111 S., Em, (.1. P. for counlj of Lancashire), OakhiB, fbUov/IM, 

Sleade, the Hon. llobert Henrj-. Foreign Office, S. W. ; and 3, Belgraretq. S. W. 
•Med! jcntt, Lieut. Menyn D., R,N, Carcof ilessr!. ^'<ndhtad, 
•Meinirtihngen Daniel, Eaq. ].0,Movr<j,ite-stiect, E.C.i and 2i, Dtwnihirf 
place, Fortland-ptacc, W. 
Meller, Chailei Jamw, Eiq., M.c, 48, Qaeen Aaneslreet, CurouiM-ajiwre, W. 
illelTill, Col. Sir Polf-'t Melrill, Mil. Sec. to the Tiombnj Got. 27, Pabntinf 
tgiiare, Brighton. 
IJ9oM<Irill, Philip, Eiiq., f.r,*.s, Eths-hame, Loilwithiel, Comaall. 
Herewether, Col. William Lockjer, c.d, Karradiee. 
Jltixier. I^v J". J. EoKoell, W. 
18*3 •Uerirale, Herman, Esq., C.B., Under Bee. of State for India, India Offletf 

B.W.! and 26, Watboane-terrace, W. 
1866 Uewiler, Charlea A„ Esj. BarKtck, near Ttwa, Somertet. 

Royal Cfeographical Society. Ivii 


1867 Metcslfe, Frederic Morehoiue, Esq. Withecht Ccmbridgeshire. 

1837 *Mexboroagh, John Chas. Geo. Earl of. 33, Dover^treet, W. ; and Methiey- 
park, near Leeds, 

1865 *MicbeII, LieaL-CoIoDel J. E., B.H.A. Sy\card4odget Dorchester, 

1868 Michell, Robert, Esq. 6, Oxford-terrace, Hyde-park, W. 
1860 Michell, Thomas, Esq. St. Petersburg, 

1863 i4O0^Michie, A., Esq. 26, Austin-friars, E,C, 

1848 Middleton, Re&r-Admiral Sir G.N. Broke, Bart., H.M.S, < ffero,* Sheemess ; and 

Broke-hall, Suffolk. 

1868 *Mier8, Jno. William, Esq., c.E. 74, Addison-road, Kensington, W, 

1859 Hiland, John, Esq. Ciairville, Z^ansdown-^road, Wimbledon, 

1866 Hildmaj, Capt. Herbert St. John (Rifle Brigade). 19, Chartes-street, Berkeley-^ 

square, W. 
1866 Miles, John George, Esq. 4, Stationer^ ^hall'co^irt, Ludgate-hill, E,C, 

1860 Miles, Rer. R. Bingham, Notts, 

1861 Miller, George T., Esq. 59, Portland'place, W, 

1861 * Miller, Commander Henry Matthew, R.N. The Orove, Exeter ; and Juniof 

United Service Club, S.W, 

1853 ♦Miller, Capt. Thos., R.N. n,M,S, « Royal George ;' and United Service Club, S, W» 

1861 l4ioMilligan, Joseph, Esq. 15, Northwnberland^street, W,C, 
1857 Mills, Ai-thur, Esq. 34, Hyde^park-gardens, W, 

1863 ♦Mills, John K., Euq. Kingsvood-hdge, Tunbridge-tcctls, 

1864 Mills, Rer. John, 40, Lonsdale-squarc, X. 

1863 ! ♦Milton, Viscount, m.p. 4, Grosvenor-square, W, 

I860 I Milmau, Capt. Everard, Madras Horse Artillery, ft, Berkeley-squait, W, 

1866 Milne, Vice-Adml. Sir Alex., K.CB. United Service Club, S, ]V. 

1867 Milncr, Rer. John, b.a. Chaplain of HM,S, * Galatea.* 

1860 Mitchell, Capt. Alexander. 6, Great Stanhope-street, Park-lane, W. 

1862 ♦Mitchell, George, Esq. 22, Bolton-street, Piccadilly, W, 

1864 i42oMitchell, J. W., Esq. Mansfield, Woodhouse, Notts. 

1864 Mitchell, Thomas, Esq., c.E. Oldham, 

1859 ! Mitchell, Sir William. 6, Jfyde-park-gate, Kensington-gore, W, 

1865 i Mitchell, Wm. H., Esq. Junior Carlton Club, S.W. 

1851 ' ♦Mocatta, Frederick D., Esq. 35, Gloucester-place, Portman-sqiuire , W. 
1853 [ Moffatt, George, Esq. 103, Eaton-square, S. W, 

1868 Mofiitt, John, Esq. 5, Canning-place, South Kensington, W. 

1861 Mollison, Alexander FuUcrton, Esq. 10, Lansdowne-terrace, Notting-hill, W, 

1861 Money, Lieut.-Col. George Henr}'. 9, Berkeley-street, W. 
1842 ♦Montagu, Major Willoughby. Claphatn*common, S. 

1862 l430*Montague, Capt. Horace. 24, Chapel-street, Park-lane, W. 

1830 ■ ♦Montefiore, Sir Moses, Bart., P.U.S., f.k.s.n.a. 7, Grosvenor-gate, Park-lane, 

W. ; and East-cliff-lodge, Jiamsgate. 

1859 Montgomcrie, F. Butler, Esq. 2, Cleveland-row, St, James's, S,W.; and 

St, Leonard* s-on-Sea, 

lyiii List of FelbiM cf the 



1859 Montgomerie, Capt T. G., Engrs., 1st Assist Trig. Surrey, (kar^ of Uemru 

Alexander Fletcher ^ Co^ 10, King's-anw^ford, MoorgaU'§treet^ EX. 

1865 Montgomery, Sir Robert, K.C.B. 7, ComwaU-gardens, Queen'B-gatet W. 

1839 Moody, General K. C, B.E. Caynham^use^ near Ludlow, Shropshire, 

1857 *Moor, Rev. Allen P., M.A., f.r.a.8. Sub -Warden St. Avgwtme OofUget 


1863 Moore, H. Byron, Esq. Survey Office, MeJhoume, Australia. Care of Mr. 

Wadeson, 100, St, Martin* i-lane, 

1861 Moore, John Carrick, Esq. Corswall, Wijton^ire ; Geohgiaal Society, W.C; 

and 23, Boitonstrect, TV. 

1857 Moore, Major-General W. Y. VhUed Service Club, S, W. 

1863 i44oMore, R. Jasper, Esq. Linley-haii, Salop, 

1864 Morgan, D. L., Esq. HM.S. * EuryalusJ 

1861 Morgan, Junius Spenoer, Esq. 13, Prince* s^ate, Hyde-park, S, W. 

IgQX Morgan, William, Esq., R.N. 1, SusseX'place, Southsea, Hanti. 

1866 Blorland, Lieut. Henry, late LN. Assistant Dockmaster, ijc, Bombay, 
1839 *Morris, Charles, Esq. University Club, S, W. 

1868 Morris, Eugene, Esq. Birch\cood, SydcnJiam, Kent, 

1863 Morrison, Col. J. D. 7, Mbemarle-strect, TV. 

1868 Morrison, Martin C, Esq. 134, Shooter* s-hill-road, Blackheath, 

1867 Morrison, Pearson, Esq. Anfjlo-Italian Mining Co,, 52, Moorgatestrcet, E,C. ;* 

1865 i45oMorson, T., Esq. 124, Soutluimpton'row, Bussell-square, W.C, 

1 86 1 *Mouat, Frederick J., Esq., M.D., Surgeon-Major and Inspector-Genefal of Prisons, 

Bengal Army, &c AtJicnamm Club, S, TV. ; an^I 45, AnmdeUgardens, Kotting- 
hill, TV. Care of Messrs, A, C, Lepage ^ Co., 1, Whitefriarsstreet, Fleet- 
street, E.C, 
18C8 *Mounsey, Aug. Henry, t^q. British Legation, Fkrctice, Cure of F, B, Alston, 

Esq,, Foreign Office, S. TV. 

1858 Mudie, Charles Edward, Esq. 

1858 Mueller, Ferdinand, Esq., M.D., PH. DR. Director of the Botanical Gardenf, 

Melbourne, Care of Messrs. Ditlau and Co., 37, Soho-square, TV. 

1862 Muir, Fmnds, Esq., ll.d. 

1 855 Muir, Thomas, Esq. 24, Tork-terrace, Begenfs-park, N, TV. 

18^7 *Muir, Thomas, Esq., Jun. Madeira ; and 24, Fork-terrace, Begenl^s-park, K. W, 

1866 Mundella, A. J., Esq. Nottingham, 

1866 *Muix:hison, John H., Esq. Sifrbiton-hiU, Kingston'On' Thames ; and Junior 

Carlton Club, S, W, 

1859 <46oMurchison, Kenneth R., Eisq. Manor-house, Bathford, Bath, 

1830 *Murchison, Sir Roderick Impey, Bt., K.C.B., G.C3T.A., M.A., D.C.L., V.P.R.8., 

G.S., and L.S., Director-General of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Tnist. Brit. Mus., Hon. Mem. K.S. of Ed., R.I.A., Foreign Mem. of 
the Acudeniy of Sciences, Paris, Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, Berlin, Stockholm, 
Brussels, and Coi»enhagen, Corr, Ins. Fr., etc. etc, 16, Belgrave-^quare, S, W, 
and 28, Jermyn-sirect, S. W. 

ISr.l j ilurchison, Capt. R. M. Bath, 

— i- 

Itayal Geagrctphieal Society, lix 

1830 *Murdock, Thomaf W. C, Esq. 8, Park-Mtrett, Wettmiiuier, S. W\ ; and 

I Btoer-bank, Putney, S. W. 

1860 I Murray, George J^ Esq, Hook-cottage, Homdean ; and Jun, Carlton Club, S. TT. 

1868 *Murniy, Heory, Esq. Care of Messrs, Jardine, Mnthesi.'n, and Co,, Hong Kong, 

1844 ^Mnrray, James, Esq. Foreign Office, S, W. 

1830 Murray, John, Esq. 50, Albemarle-street, W, ; and Newstead, Wimbledon, S, TT'. 

1860 ♦Murray, Lt. W., 68th Beng. N. Inf., Topo. Assist. G. Trig. Surrey. Mnssoorie, 
India, Messrs, H, S, King and Co, 

1865 Mussy, H. G. de, Esq., M,D, 4, Cavcndish-place, W, 

1865 X47oNalnie, P. A., Esq. 2, Qrove-hUl, Camhervcell, S, 

1853 Napier, Maj.-General Geo. Thomas ConoUy, C.B. Jun, United Service Club, S, W, 

Care of Sir J, Kirkkmd, 

1868 Napier, cf Magdala, Lord, O.C.II. 49, Cleveland-square , S,}V, 

1861 Napier, William, Esq. 

1859 *Nasmyth, Capt. David J., 1st Assist, Trigonometrical Surrey, Bhooj, Bombay ; 

5, Charlotte-street, Edinburgh. 

1857 ♦Nesbitt, Henry, Esq. 6, The Terrace, SoutJi Hackney, K,E, 

1868 Newbatt, Benjamin, ILsq., F.s.s., etc, 7, Vicarage-gardens, Campdcn-hiH^ W, 

18G7 Newdigate, Lieut.-Col. Francis W. (Coldstream Guards). Bgrhlcy-lodge, Seed- 

Kood Forest, Burton-upon- Trent. 

1856 Newman, Thomas Holdsworth, Esq. 43, Grecn-strect, Gr06cenor-s(ptarc, W, 

1868 Nicol, Geo. William. Esq. Care of Messrs. Glyn, Mills, and Co,, 67, Lombard- 

street, E.G. 

1866 l48oNicol, James D., Esq., M.p. 13, Hyde-park-ierrace, Cumberland-gate, VT, 
1868 Nicol, William, Esq. 41, Victoria-street, and Favrsyde, Kcnneff, Kincnniine. 
1865 I •Nichols, Robert C, Esq. 5, Sussex-place, W. 

1 856 Nicholson, Sir Charles, Bart., d.c.l.. Chancellor of the University, Sydney. 20, 

Devonsliire-place, Portland-place, TV". 
1836 Nicolson, Rear- Admiral Sir Frederick Wm. Erskinc, Bart. 15, William-street, 


1864 Nisscn, H. A., Esq. Marh-lane, E,C, 

1858 Nix, John H., Esq. 11, Lombard-street, E.C. 

1861 ; Noel, the lion. Roden. 11, Ckandos-street, CavcndisJi-square, W,; and 

Exton-hall, OahJiam, Rnllandsliire. 

1857 j ♦Nolloth, Captain Matthew S., R.x. Hong-Kong; United Service Club, S,W, 
I and St. Mary^s-cottage, PeclJiam, Surrey, S.E, 

1865 Norman, H. J., Usq. 106, Fencfiurcft-strect, E.C. 

1 860 i49oNorris, Han y, \^^x. Colonial Office, S. W. ; and 4, Little St. James' s-street, S. ]V. 

1861 ' North, Alfi-cl, Esq. 20, Boynl Yvrk-crcsccnt, Clifton, BrUUl. 

1856 North, I'retloric, Esq., M.p. 3, Victoria-street, J ' iml ico, S.}V.; and Hastings- 

lodge, Hastings, 
1865 Nortliumberl.ind, Algernon Ge<'rgf', Duke of. SorVvuxberhnv^-ho'iae, S.W, 


List of FMowt oftlyB 











1861 I 
1855 I 

Notman, Heorj Wilkes, Eiq. 7, Qrtai MoHborough-sireet, W. 
Koone, Henrj, Esq. Conservative Chtb, 8. Wi 

^Oakelejr, R. Banner, Esq. KHmarwiaig, Inverary, Argyllshire, N3. 
O'Brien, James, Esq. 109, Belgrave-road, PimHco, 8.W. ; and Clare, Ireland. 
O'Callaghan, Chas., Esq., Staff Sorgeon, KUlamey, Ireland. 
O'Connor, Major-Genend Lake Smyth, C.B., late Governor of the Gambia. UJS, 
Clvb, S.W. 
iSOoOgilrie, Edward D., Esq. TtUgUlar, Clarence^ricer, Keva South Wales, Can 
of Messrs, Marryat and Sons, Lawrence Pauniney4ane, E,C, 
Ogilvy, Col. Thos. 23, Grafton-^ Piocadilly, W; and Euthven, Forfarsh„ K,B, 
Ogilvj, Thoe., Esq. 62, Prince' s-gate, Eyde-park, W, 
Ogle, John W., Esq., H.D. 13, Upper Brook-Street, W, 
Oldershaw, Capt. Robert Piggott 74, Warwick-square, Belgracenwid, 8.W, 
Oliphant, Laurence, Esq. Atheneeum Club, S, W, 
Olipbani-Ferguson, G. H., Esq. Broadfield-house, Carlisle, 

Oliver, Lieut. S. P., 12th Brigade R.A. 1, Buckingham-vUlat, Brockhursi- 
road, Gosport, Hants, 

*Ommannej, Adml. Erasmus, C.B., F.R.A.8. 6, Tallot-squaret ffyde-park, W, ; 
and United Service Chtb, S, W, 

^Ommanney, H. M.^ Esq. Blackheath, SS, 
i5ioO*Reily, E., Esq. 

Osbom, SirGeorge R., Bart. Travellers* Club, S, W, ; and Chicksand-priory, Bedi* 

Osbom, Samuel, Esq., M.D. 19, Manor^terrace, Brixton, S, 

Osbom, Capt. Sherard, R.N., C.B., Officier de Legion d'Honneur, etc. Athe* 

ncsum Club, S.W, ; and 119, Gloucester-terrace, W, 
Osborne, Lieut-Col. Willouglibj-. Political Agent, Bhopal, Schira, India, 
Oswell, William Cotton, Esq. 

Otway, Arthur John, Esq., M.P. Army and Navy Club, S, W, 
•Ouvry-Xorth, the Rev. J. East Acton, Middlesex, W, 

♦Overstone, Samuel, Lord, M*.A., it.Rj. 2, Carlton-gardens, S,W,; and 
Wickliani'park, Surrey, 

Owden, Thomas S. Esq, Mount-pleasant, PhUip-lane, Tottenham, 
i52oOwen, Capt. Chas. Lanyon (Adj. R. M. Light Inf., Portsmouth Division). 
Glendowan-lodge, Bury-road, Gosport, 
Owen, H. Bumard, Esq. 

•Oxford, Rt. Rev. Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of, P.Rjs., F.8.A. 26, PaU-maH, 
S. W, ; Citddesden^palace, Wheatley, Oxfordshire ; and Lavington, Sussex. 

Page, Thomas, Esq., c.t., J* .0.8, 3, Adelphi-ierrace, W.C; and Totcer Crcssyt 
Aubrey-road^ Baystcater, W, 

PakingtoD, Right Hon. Sir John Somerset, Bart., M.p. 41 1 Eaion'Square^ 

S. W. ; and Westwood-park, Droitwich, Worcestershire, 
Palmer, Major Edm., r.a. Boxhillf Pennycross, Plymouth, 

JtoyeU Cfeoffraphieal Society, 










1859 I 





*PkIiiier, Comnumder George, R.K. ff,MJ5. *Sosario,* Auitralia ; and Cacers, 
ffiMwiekf Boxburgihire, N.B, 

Palmer, Rer. Jordan, M.A., F.8.A., Chaplain to St. Ann's Royal Sodetj. StreathcmitS, 
* Palmer, Samnel, Eaq, 

*Papengoutli, Oswald C, Esq., C.E. 46, Huuett'Squard, W.O 
i536*Ptois, H.R.H. Le Comte de. daremont, 

Pkrish, Capt. A. Chiskhurst, Kent. 

*Pari8h,Capt. John E., R.N. Army and Naty Club, S, W. Care of Mmn, Stilvcell, 
^Parish, Sir Woodbine, X.C.H., F.R.8., 8cc, Quarry-house, St, Leonard M'OnrSea, 

Parker, Capt. Francis G. S., F.O.S,, A.I.C.E. Barracks^ Belfast. 

Parker, Robert Deane, Esq. Union dub, S. W. ; and Barham, Canterbury, 

Parkes, Sir Harry S.« C.B., &c. Oriental dub, W, ; and Athenceum Club, S. W. 

*Parkyns, Mansfield, Es<^., rj^js, Arthur* s Club, St, James* street, 8. W, ; and 
Woodborough'-hall, Southwell, 

Pastenr, Marc Henry, Esq. 38, Mincing-lane, E.C, 
Paterson, John, Esq. 19a Coleman-street, City, E.C, 
i54oPaton, Andrew A., Esq. H.B.M's V,-Consul, Missolonjhi, Greece, 
Pkttinson, J., Esq. 21, Bread-street, E.C. 
Paul, J. H., Esq., M.D. Can^ervcelUhouse, CamberxicelU S. 
Paul, Joseph, Esq. Ormonde^house, Byde, Isle of Wight, 
Payne, Captain J. Bertrand, M.R.i., f.k.s.L., Mem. Geogi-aph. Soc. of France. 
Conservative dub,S.W.; Boyal Thames Yacht Club, ^y. ; and Tempsford- 
house. The Grange, Brompton, W. 
♦Paynter, William, Esq., f.R.a.8. 21, Belgravc -square, S.W, ; and Cambomc' 

house, Richmond, Surrey, S. W, 
Peabody, George, Esq. 22, Old Broad-street, E.C, 
Peacock, George, Esq. Starcross, near Exeter, 

Pearse, Capt. R. B., R.y. Arthur's Cbib. Care of Messrs. Woodhead, 
Pearson, Fred., Efq. 13, Cleveland-square, W. 
15 50* Peckorer, Alexander, Esq. Wisbeach, 

•Peek, Henry William, Esq., m.p. Wimbledon-house, S. W. ^ 
Peel, Archibald, Esq. The Gencyn, Wrexham^ N. Wales. 

Peel, Sir Robert, Bart., M.P. 4, Whitehall-gardens, S,W.; and Drayion 
manor, Tamtcorth. 

♦Pender, John, Esq. 18, Arlingfon-streei, W. 

♦Pennant, Col. S. S. Douglas. Penrhyn-castle , Bangor, X.B. 

♦Penrhyn, Lord. Penrhyn-castle, Bangor. 

Percy, Major-General the Hon. Lord Henry M. (Guards). 40, Eaton-square, S. W. 

Pereira, Francisco E., Esq. Care of Messrs. Richardson, 13, Pall-mall. 

Perkes, Samuel, Esq., Inte Hon. E.I.C.S., Bombay, F.o.S., F.Z.8., M.S.A., &c. 
Belvedere-house, West Duhcich, S. 

15 60 Perkins, Frederick, Esq. Mayor of Southampton. 

Perkins, William, Esq. Rosario, Argentine Republic. Care of W. Bollaert, Esq, 

Perry, Sir Erskine, Member Indian Council. 3G, Eaton-place, S. W. 

Ixii List of Fellows of the 

Ynrof - ■ - ■■-■ — 


1859 Perry, William, Esq., H.B.M.'s Consul, Panama. AtJienaum Club, S,W. . 
1862 •Perry, William, Ekj. 9, Warwick-road, Upper Clapton, N,E. 

1862 Peter, John, Esq. 

1857 ♦Peters, William, Esq. 35, Nicholas-lane j Lombard-street, E.C, 

1860 Petherick, John, Esq. Henley-on-Thames. 

185iB Peto, Sir S. Morton, Bart. 12, Kensington-palace-gardens, W* 

1861 Petrie, Alexander S., Esq. 4, St. Mark'asquare, N. W, 

1860 15 70 Petrie, Captain Martin, 14th Regiment. Jfanover-lodge, Kensirtgton-park^W, 

1866 Pharazyn, Kobert, Esq. Wellington, New Zealand. Care of Messrs. Scales 

and JHogers, 24, Mark'lane, E,C, 

1867 Phayre, Col. Sir Arthur. East India United Service Club, S.W. 
1854- Phelps, William, Esq. 18, Montagu-place, JiusseU-square, W.C. 
18G'2 Phen^, John Samuel, Esq. 34, Oahleg-street, Chelsea, S.W. 
1860 Philip, Geprge, Esq. 32, Fleet-street, E.C. 

1865 Philipps, Edward B., Esq. lOo, Onslow -square, S.W. 

1857 Phillimore, Capt. Augustus, B.N. 25, Upper Berkcley-st., W.; and U.S. dyb, 


1859 Phillimore, Chas. Bagot, Esq. India Office, S. W.; and 25, Upper Berheley-st.^ W. 

1860 Phillimore, Wm. Brough, Esq., late Capt. Grenadier Guards. 5, John-street, 

Berkeley-square, W. 

1830 i58o*Phillipps, Sir Thomas, Bart., v. A., F.R.S., f.s.a. Middle-hill, Broadwiy, 

1854 PhiUips, Major-General Sir B. Travell. United Service Club, S. W. 
1856 Phillips, John, Esq., Solicitor. Hastings, 

1867 Pierce, Charles A., Esq. South Kensington Museum, W. 

1864 'Pigou, F. A. P., Esq. Dartford, Kent. 

1865 Pigou, Rev. F., M.A. 14, Suffolk-street, Pull-maU East, S. W. 

1861 Pike, Frederick, Esq. 44, Charing-cross, S. W. 

1852 ♦Pike, Comraander;JohnW.,R.N. 2Q, Old Burlington-street, W. ; Junior United 

Service Club, S.W. 

1855 Pilkington, James, Esq. Blackburn, 

1805 Pilkington, William, Esq. War-office. ' 

1852 i59o*Pim, Capt. Bedford C. T., R.N. Belsize-squarc, Uampstead, N.W.; and 
Senior and Junior United Service Club, S. W. 

1858 Pincott, James, Esq. Telham-house-school, Brixton-hill, S. 

1859 Pinncy, Colonel Willuun. 30, Berkeley-square, W. 

1867 Plant, Nathaniel, Esq. Hotel Exchange, Rio de Janeiro; and JJe Muntfort- 

housCy Leicester. 

1865 Player, John, Esq. 24, DucJiess-road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

1860 Playfair, Lieut.-Col. Robert Lambert. H.B.M. Consul-General, Algiers. Ctfre 

of E. Hertslet, Esq., Foreign-office. 

1866 Plowdcn, Charles, C, Esfj. lb, JTork-strect, Portman^uare, W. 
1 8r>8 Plowden, Trevor, Esq. 80, Ghuccstcr-ploce, Portman-square, W. 

1856 ♦Plowes, John Henry, Esq. 39, York-terrace, Begenfs-park, N,W. 

Royal Geographical Society. Ixiii 


1868 Plomberp, George F., Esq. 

1855 i6oo*PollexfeD, Capt. J. J. India. 

1866 *Pollington, Jno. Horace, Yiscouiit. 33, Docer-strecty W, 

1853 Pollock, General Sir George, G.CB. Ciapham-common, Surrey, S, 

1835 ^Ponsonby, Hon. Frederick G. B, 8, Mormt'Street, GrosvenoT'Squarc, W, 

1860 Pook, Captain John. 6, Coife*s-villas, Levciaham-hUlf S,E, 
1857 Pope, Captain Wm. Agnew. 12, Stanhope-phce, I/yde-park, W, 

1863 *Porcher, Commander Edwin A., U.N. 50, Montagu-sqHore, W» 

1853 Porter, Edwd., Esq. Athenctum Club, S.W,; and 26, Suffolk-street, Pall" 

mall, 8. W. 

1864 Portugal, Cher. Joaqnim de. 

1868 Potter, Archibald Gilchrist, Enq. ]Vvo(lham'lod(jef Jjavend^r-hill, Wnndsv:orth, 


1867 i6ioPotter, Wm. Henry, Esq. Dunadcn-lodge, Soummg, near Heading, 

1861 *Ponnden, Captain Lonsdale. Junior United Service Club, 8, W. ; and Brotcnf 

wood, Co. Wexford, 

1862 Porah, Rev. John V., ii.A. 11, Endaleighstrcet, W.C. 
1864 ^Powell, F. S., Esq. 1, Cambridge^quare, Hyde-park, W. 

1859 Power, E, Rawdon, Esq. Beyicood-lodge, Tenby, South Wales; and Civil 

Service Clul), 

1854 Power, John, Esq. 3, CoUege-tcrrace, Camhridge-road, Hammersmith, W , 

1854 Power, John Arthur, Esq., M.A., b.m. 52, Burton-crescent^ W.C. 

1868 Pownall, John Fisher, Esq. 63, Rvsi^cU-squarc, W. C. 
1864 Powys, Hon. C. J. F. 

1864 Powys, the Hon. E. R. 

1864 i62oPowys, Hon. Leopold. 17, MontagU'Street, Portman-square, W. 
1852 Price, James Glenie, Esq., Barrister-at-I^w. 14, Clement s-inn, W.C, 
1868 Price, Charles S., Esq. Bryn Dericen, Kcath, 

1860 *Prickett, Rev. Thomas William, H.A., F.8.A. 

1868 Prideaux, W., F. Esq., Bombay Staff Corps. 13, Atenne-road, BcgcnVs-pk., N. W. 

1865 •Pringle, A. Esq. Yair, Selkirk, N.B. 

1855 ♦Pringle, Thomas Young, Esq. Reform Club, S,W, 

1866 I *Prinsep, Edw. Aug., Esq., B.cs., Commissioner of Settlements in the Punjab, 
i Umritsur, Care of Messrs. //. S. Kiivj and Co., 65, Cornhill, E,C, 


1868 ' Pritchard, Lieut.-Col. Gordon Douglas, Chatham. 

1868 i Pryce, James E. Coulthurst, Esq. Conservator of Vie PoH of Bombay. 

1861 ! iSjo^Prodgerb, Rev. Edwin. The Rectory, Ayott St. Peter's, Herts. 

1852 Prout, John William, Esq., M.A., Barrister-at-Law. Athenaum Club, S. W, 

and Neasdon, Middlesex, N. W. 

1862 *Puget, Major J. 8<A Hussars, Hamilton, near Ghsjoi'-. 

1860 I Puller, Arthur Giles, Esq. Athenanim Club, S. W. ; Arthur's Club, S.W,; mul 

Toungsbury, Ware. 

1857 • Purcell, Edward, Esq., LL.d. 2, Maze-hill, Greewjcich, S.L. 

1865 ♦Pusey, Sidney E. Bouvcrie, Esq. 7, Green-street, Grosvenor'squarc^ W. 

Ixiv LUt of Fellows of the 


1867 Quin, Francis Beaufort Wyndliam, Esq. Wistansieick'house, near Market 
Drayton, Salop, 

1861 Quin, Lord George. 15, Bolgrav^'^qitare, S, W. 

1862 Quin, John Thos., Esq. Care of Mr. Lambsan, Epsom, 

1854 *Quin, Admiral Michael. Senior United Service Club, S.W.; and 18, Aibion- 

villas, Albion^roadf Islington, if. 

1868 l64oQnin, T. Francis Esq. 9, Grafton^mre, CUipham. 

1858 ♦Radstock, Gmrille Augustus, Lord, 30, Bryanston-square, W, 

1862 *Rac, James, Esq. 32, Phillimore-gardens, Kensiiigton, W. 
1853 Rae, John, Esq., M.d. 3fedical Club, 9, Spring-gardens. 
1867 Raleigh, Iter. A., d.d. Ai-ran-ho'ise, Iliglibury'iievc'park, 

1866 Ramsay, Alex., Jun., Esq. 45, Norland-sqiiwe, Notting-hill, W, 

1867 Ramsay, John, Esq. Islay, N.D. 

1851 ♦Ramsay, Rear-Admiral Wm., C.B., f,r.a.S. Junior United Service Club, S, W, ; 
and 23, Ainslie^place, Edinburgh, 

1866 ♦Ramsay, Admiral G. United Service Club, S.W. 

1867 ♦Ramsden, Richard, Esq., B.A. Camp-hill, Nuneaton, Warwickshire. 

1868 i65oRankin, William, Esq. Tiemaleague, Camdonagh, Donegal. 
1866 Ransom, Edwin, Esq. Kcmpstone, near Bedford. 

1864 Ranyard, A. C, Esq. 13, Uunter-street, W.C, 

1850 Ratcliff, Charles, Esq., F.8.A. National Club, S.W.; Edgbaston, Birmingham ; 
and Douming College, Cambridge. 

1861 Rate, Lachlan Macintosh, Esq. 9, South Audley-street, W. 

1846 Rarenshaw, E. C, Esq., u.k.a.8. Oriental Club, W. ; and 36, Eaion-^q., \\\ 

1859 Ravenstein, Ernest G., Esq. Topographical DepSt, Spring-gardens, 8. W. 

1865 Rawlings, Thos., Esq. 

1861 Rawlinson, Sir Christopher. Ham^hall, Upton-on-Sevem, United Unioersity 


1844 ♦Rawlinson, Maj.-General Sir Henry C, M.P., K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.g. Athenizum 

Club, S.W.; and 1, Hill-street, Berkeley •square, W. 

1838 i66oRawson, His Excellency Rawson Wro., C.B., Colonial Secretary. Bahamas, 

1866 Ray, W. H., Esq. Thorn-house, Ealing. 

1863 Reade, W. Winwoode, Esq. Conservative Club. 

1865 Redhead, R. Milne, Esq. Springfield, Seedley, Manchester; Conservative Club, 

S.W. ; and Junior Carlton Club, S.W. 

1868 ♦Redman, John, B., Esq., c.E. 6, Westminster-chambers, Victoria-street, S,W» 

1861 ♦Reid, David, Esq. 95, Piccadilly, W. 

1858 Rees, L. E. R., Esq, 43, Lime-street, E.C. 

1859 Reeve, John, Esq. Conservative Club, S.W, 

1866 ♦Rehden, George, Esq. 9, Great Tower-street, E.C. 

1856 Reid, Henry Stewart, Esq. Bengal Civil Service, Messrs. E. S. King and Co. 

1857 R«id, Lestock R„ Esq, Athenaum Club, S. W. ; and 122, Westboume^^r.^ W. 

Royal Geographical Society. Ixv 


1861 i67oB«id, William, Esq^ O.B. 27, Chalcot'taias, ff overstock-hill, N. W. 

1861 Reillj, Anthony Adams, Esq. Belmont, Mullingar, 

1830 ^Rennie, Sir John, C.B., P.K.8., P^.A. Care of ^ Bennie, Esq,, Mitrc-couH' 

chambers, Temple, W,C. 

1866 *Rainie, John Keith, Esq., m.a. Canib. 56, Gloucestei-terrace, Hyde- 

park, W, 

1834 ^Rennie, M. B., Esq., C.B. Care of James Hennie, Esq.,, 9, Afotcombe'sircci, 

Belgraoe^quaret 8, W. 

1864 itennie, W., Esq. 1^, ffyde-park>^quare, W. 

1830 ^Renwick, Lieutenant, B.£, 

1861 Renter, Julias, Esq. 1, Hoydl Exchange-luildings, H.C. 

1858 Reynardson, Henry Birch, Esq. Adwell, near Tetsworth, Oxfordshire, 

1867 ' Rhodes, Arthur John, Esq. - 1, Monmouth-road, Westbounie-groce, ^ays* 

water, W, 

1357 leSoRichards, Capt. Ceorge H., B.N., P.u.8. Admiralty, Whitehall, 8,W.; and 

12, Westboume-tenw^-road, IT. 
I860 Richards, the Rer. George, d.d. 

1868 Richards, Alfred, Esq. Lamb's-buUdings, Temple, JS.C. 

1864 Richarfson, P., Esq. Park-lodge, Blackheath-park. 

1859 Rickards, Edward Henry, Esq. 4, Connavght-place, ffyde-park, W. 

1862 Riddell, Henry P. A. Buchanan, Esq. The Palace, Maidstone, Kent, 

1865 ^Hideout, W. J., Esq. 51, Charles-street, Bcrheky-square, W, 
1864 Riaiey, p. H., Esq. 19, Blomfield-road, Maida-hiU, W. 
1864 Ridley, George, Esq. 2, Charles-street, Berkeley-square, W. 

1862 •Rigby, Major-General Christopher Palmer. Oriental Club, W,; and 14, 3/rtjis- 

field-street, W. 
1862 i69oRigby, Joseph D., Esq. JEsher, Surrey ; and Kew-green, Surrey, W. 
1868 Riley, Capt. Charles Henry. Junior United Service Club, S. W, 

1860 Rmtoul, Robert, Esq. Wmdham Club, S. W. 

1830 ♦Robe, Maj.-General Fred. Holt, C.B. United Service Club, S,W.; and 5, 

Palace-gardens-terrace, Kensington, W, 

1862 Roberts, Arthur, Esq. Ormond-house, A, Old Kent-road, S.E, 

1861 Robei-ts, Capt. E. Wynne. Junior Carlton Club, S,W,; and 18, Great Cumber^ 

land-street, Hyde-park, TV. 
1868 Roberts, Charles W., Esq. Penrith-house, Effra-road, Brixton, S, 

1864 Roberts, R. W., Esq., b.a. Treval, Torpoint, Comicail, 

1865 Robertson, A. Stuart, Esq., M.D. Horvnch, near Bolton, 

1860 Robertson, D. Brooke, Esq., H.B.M.'s Consul. Canton, H, S, King and Co. 

1861 1 700* Robertson, Graham Moore, Esq. 21, Cleveland-square, Hyde-park, W. 

1863 Robertson, R. B., Esq. H,M*s Legation, Tokahama, Japan, 

1830 ♦Robinson, Rear-Admiral Charles G. 12, Warviick-road, Maida-hiU, W, 

1859 Robinson, Lieut-Col. D. G., R.E., Director-Gen. of Telegraphs in Indin. 


1864 Robinson, H, 0., Eeq. 12, LeadenJirfU-street, E.C. ' 


Lid of Fellows oftlie 


BoWmou, Sir Hercules G. R. Qattnar of Ceylon, ifcairs. Buiiw/f, IT. 

Robinnn, J. R., Esq., f^Jl, Scot., r.R£.A- du Nonl, CopenlugeD, r.O.S. Edin. 

Mombre SoriSW JUiaUqne de Paris, &c South-Urraa, Deatbury. 
RoUiuon, Ur. Serjetnt. 8, Hiag'i-hiltKh-iBatk, Tinaple, B.C. ; and i3, JfwUn- 

burgh-lqvare, W.C. 
Robinion, Lieat-Cal. Sir John Stephen, Bart. Arthur't ChJi,a.W.; mdUi, 

Park-lane, W. 
liobinson, John, li<i, 23, Ahbey-gardens, St. JohCunod, N.W, 
lonobinaon, Tbos. F., Esq., F.L.a. 3, Derwmt'rd., Sooth Fmg«-pk., AnerUy. 
•Robiason, Capl. Walter K., E,N, 15, MonlpclIier-viUas, Brighten, 
*Kodd, Jame* RcDacIl, Kiq. 29, Bcaufori-gardcns, W, 
Roe, Capl. Jno. Seplimui, Survey ar-Geuernl, W.*AnitnlU. Mctiri. StOa^l, 

Amndet-ttrcet, Strand, W.C. 
Kogtra, John T., E»j. 38, Eccleston-aqaare, S.W. 
• Ri^el, Peter Mt Esq., ll,D.,F3.s. IB, Upptr Bedford-plact, Buaull-iq., "W.C. 
Rollo, Lord. 18, Upptr Syde-pari-gardens, W-l and Diimcrieff-caitit, 
Mogat. y.B. 

1863 R3nn, U. Hennaa von, 31, Ketuinslon-pari-gardem, W. 

1886 Rooke, Copt, W., k.a, Fomiosa, Lymingtm, Haatt, 

1834 "Roae, the Right Hen. Sir George, P.R.B., LL.I>. 4, Sydc-parh-gardens, W. ; md 

35, Soathamptim-lrultdiigi, Chaneery'tane, W.C. 
l7ioRose, Henrj', Esq. 8, Porehtilrr-agfiare, Bydt-patk, A'.Wl 

licae, Jai. AnderEon, Eiq. Wandtaorth, Sarriy, B. W. ,' and 1 1, Salubui^ 
.Ir«(, W.C. 
•Rose, Wm, A., tiq,, Aldermm. 63, Uj^r Tkamentreet, E.G.; and 
BefioM, Crawford, 
Row, B. R,, Eiq. Cart of the BadtenJiay Company, Siidson-bay-hoiar, Fe«- 

e/arch-itrtet, E.G. 
Bm, Wm. Andrew, Eiq, 7, AlbmuxrU-itretl, W. 
Roaiiler, Win„Eiq„ Sovth Lotulon Working Shn'sCoUcgt. Collmgaooi- 

J(p«»(, JS. ; and WJtUe-hill-hoiUf, Frimhy, Surrey. 
RoM-JehMon, H. C, Esq. 7, Albfmarle-street, W. 
•Roaodeil, C. S„ Esq. U, Piccadilhj, W. 

Roupell, Robert Priolo, Esq, ii.j., Q.c a5, AV?an<j. W. 
•Rom, Vice-Admiral the Hon. Henry John. 13, Bcriiliy.sqaare, W. 
17)oRonth, E. J, Ekj. 31. Ptte^t CoHtge, Cambri/ge. 

RowB, Sir Jo«hu», c.B., Ute Chief Juitiee of Jamaiai, 10, Qium Araie^rttl, 
CaiMndiiA-iqaare, W. 
■Rowlsndi, Percj J., E«|. India Officii, S. W. ; 24, Kotting-klU-ttrrtK*, TV. 
Bowler, Capl. C, R.N. 33. Cadogan-ptict. S.W. 
Ruoker, J. Aothonj, Etq. BlackAeatli. B.B. 
•Rumbold, Charie* James Aagnelns, Eiq. Doaning CoUcge, Cambridge; and 5, 
Perciiml-ttrnKe, Brighton. 
iiumbold, Thonua Benry, Esq, 


Soyal Oeograpkical SoeUty. 

Bonkr, ll^arianail Baodall, Vla-Pnddnl CbuikU ofUilitwr E 
11, CadogimflMi, B.W. 
ISM •Roaell, Jtrthnr John Edwud, Emi^ ilf. 3, Jii<U>y-«9H<r#, F. 

1S30 *Riuidl, J«M WiUi, Eaq., itjOj^ wjlS. 

1830 i74oRiiMll,Ji>bD, EuI,p.KJ. 3f OuA^ii-^M.&ir.; FfMlrftb-lD^*, AicV 
iK>md.3.W.i EtdtUigh-ye.,Dno»; and Gart-*o., ndir OaHoKdar.N.B. 
Riusell, Win. BonTBrd, E«i„ LL.D. 

KutherTaril, Johu, Ek]. 3, Givenduh-plac«, CatmiM-iqitiirt, W, 
•Rjdtr, Adminl, AIM P. Xr.S.CbA,B.W.imdLaumUtMtj/,t^ipingA<m. 
I^dn, a„ Bif. 10, JTti^i fMcA-Kutt, Tmipb, £.(7. 

1853 SMut, Umjor-Qmatl Edw., r.*., Pia. rx,, TJi.ij., tU, &e. 13, Jithles-placf, 

fletoria-MtrMt, Wntmiuln; 3. W. ; md Woolwich, S.E. 
18i7 St Anidi, Bl. Rer. Tlio9.TDirlcr Short, DinLop or. Palnce.St. J*<^, N. Wala. 

St.DiTi(ri,CeDnopTliirln]I, Buliop of. Abergwlly-palijce, Carmaiikm. 
1863 Si. OeoTgi, Hq.-Oan. J. IT, SMmd-gatt, S.W. 

ISee SU John, Litul. Oliver Bouchamp Coventry, B.E. JfirfiiMa/ CTut, S. W. 

1863 l7{0St. John R. H. St. ^di-ew, Esq., «Oth Rifles. 
1863 St. John, Spouar, Esq„ Chugd d'Afbiro, Port-au-Prince, HiiU. 25, Onm-tad- 

road, St. JvKn'fViood, N. W. 
1863 Sd^ Lknt. M. T, B-E. Th« Cruoenl, Rugby ; and Cherrapooajtt, Btngal. 

1867 &lktld. Colonel J. C, (H.II.I. Forccb). 29, S. J-'<"ies')-j(r«;, .". W. 

1868 8alla, J. dc. tng. fsJ^rOM JftBUioni, 0ronwiar.^anIrFU. 

18*5 •Sfllomom, Davi.i, Esq., M.P., Aldeiingn.F.R.i.S. U, Great Cmnberland-plnce, 

H^de-park, W. and Broam-hUl, near TunbriJge-uielli. 
*Sntt, Henry, Eiij 29, OortJon-Jiuacrf, W.C. 
IB61 Salting, Williiun Severin, Emj. 31, St. JanKt't-ltrtel, S.W. 

1861 *Suidb*ch, Win. Bobettjon, Esq. lO, Prmee'a-gdie, Hyde-park, S. W. 
1867 Suidaiun, DnvLd George, Esq., Cainhndge-hxisc, Pk-caitUij, W. 

1862 I jlSoSiuiiord, Major Henry Ayihford. 59. deslei-st-cet, Qrantjuir-place, W. ; and 
N'jniheiid-court, Wellington, Somereet. 

Sarel, Lient.-Coloncl H. A,, I7th Lmicers. Ai-inij and Kmy CI«b,8.W.; <fad 

1863 Sitfgood, F. J., Eoq. Moorgatt'ttrcetJMil^ngi, E.C. 
1860 Sutoris, Alft«d, Esq. AbboUsitood, Stoa-on-ilie-Wald. 
1B52 Ssnmarct, Captain I'homas, ILK. 7^ Kn, Jtrae'j. 

1866 Siandtn, Juntt E., Ehi., f.l.b., r.oJ., r.R.i.s. 9, /•»ij4m-y-circF(s ; anrf 

aranrille-parK BlaMeath, S.E. 
Ssorln, AJmiral E. Trini:e'a-g/iie, 3.W. 

Saifyer, Col. Chsrles, 6th Dragoon Onsrdi. 50, SWaex-iqaare, Kemp'loan, 

1863 Sijtr, CiLf Uia fititriiik. GibnUtar; and Manor-luuit,Ilichmoitd,S. ■ 

1838 S«rlett, Liont .-General the Hon. Sir J, York», l.c.B, Portmimth. 

■861 i77oScIudU7, Edwenl W. H., Eeq. 14, Prine^i-gale, S.W. 

Lilt of Fellom of the 

SooH, Ad»Di, Etq. 3, Bhmfield-creKenl, Walhowme-terrace, W. 
Seott, Arthur, Esq. Traetlhrt' Club, S.W. 
Soott, Loid Heniy. 3, Tibuy-ttreet, Part-lane, W. 
"Soott, Hercules, Esq. Brolherton, near Moittnae, S.B. 
Soott, Admird Sir Jaroei, k.o.b. Uniled Service Club, S. W. 
ScDtt, Jofan, Esq^ H.D. 

Scott, Willbm Cumin, E»q. MayfieM-house, Blaeihlat/l-parli. 
Scovell, Geor^, Esq. 34, arottemr-plncc, S. W. 
Scsright, Jnnus, I^. 80, £an«aitfr-<;ate, W. 
I78oSeaton, CoL the Bight Hon. Lord. D 3, Albany, W. 

•Sedgwick, tlie Bar. A., Woodwardian L«turer, u.A., F.n.S. Allifnirum a 
B. W. 1 and Cambridge. 
Seeniwn, BerllioliI, E»ii., rH. im., r.L.B. 57, Windior-raad, Holioica}/, X, 
Sendall, Walter T., Eaq., Inapeotor orScboo!) ia Cejlon. Colombo, Civil Strw 
Club, S.W. ' ', 

Sercombe, Edwin, Ksq. 43, BtDok-Hreel, GroirrBOr-eqaare, W. 
•Scrocold, Charles P., Esq. Breatry, LigMorpond-sireet, E.C, 
Serin, Charlei, Esq. 155, Feachitrch-elreet, E.C. 
Sejmour, Alfred, Esq., M.p, 47, Eatan-eiuare, S. W. 
Sojrnonr, Geoi^, E»q. 12, Suaiex-iqaare, Byde-parli, V?, 
Seymoar, Admiral Sir Geo. F., K.C.B., O.C.It. 115, Ealan-aqaare, S.\Y. 
i;9o'3ciinour,Henr7Danby,Eiq. 39, CJa^r Grorocmor-jircei, W. i Knaley-Uaul'M, 
WUta; and Q lailonbur;/, SamenetiAire, 
■Shodnell, Cnplnin Clinrles F. A., R.K., Co. ^03(u( Xatal Jtoipilal, Ilailffr,. 

*^h*dwel), LieuL- Colonel Lswrnice. 
*Shue, Juno Maiten, Esq., BJH. S,M.S. ' St. Georg/,' Portland, Dorsctthir*t 
Sharp, Henry T., E^j. 102, Piccadilly, W. 
Sbirp, Peter, Ewj. Oakfield, Ealing, W. 
•Sbaipe, William John, E«j, I, Yieloria-iirett, Weilmiwiier, , 

Jfimrwrf, Surrey, S. 
*Shiiw, John, Eeq. FiHcgand, Otago, Kem Zealand. 
Shaw, Jobu Ralph, Eiq- Artoice-parli, Birkenhead. 
Shm, Joliu, Eeq., W.n., Sar^eon B,il, 84, Blaci/riare-road, S. 
ieooSheffleld,GeorgeA. F.CEarlof. -iO, Porlland-pl..W.;andSlu:ffield-pi.,3iuaet. 
Shell, Mnjor-Q*n. Sir JuiUn, K.C.B. 13, Eatoniilace, Belgraee-tquan, S. W. 
•Shellej, Capt. G, Erne>t. 32, CSesAaai-phce, W, 
ShtpharJ, Chaa. Douglu, Esq., Surg. R.s. ll.if.3. • Frederici WiBiam,' Foynet, 

County LimericA. 
Shepherd, Chu. Wm., E«q., M.I., F.z.S. TrolleracUffe, MaiJalonc. 
Shepherd, Rev. Edwd. John, m.a. Tretterselife. Kent ; and AtlunueamCbOi, S. 
Shercr, General Sir George Mo/le. 91, Itnemetfroad, Hyde-Pari, IT. 
Sheridan, H, Brintlej, Esq, Sellejield-houie, Fareon'i-greeH, FuBiani, S4W, 
Sheridan, Ricbd. B., Esq.. u.p, 48, Cmivmor^laa, S.W. 

Boyal Geographical Society, Ixix 












Sherrin, Joseph Samael, Esq., LL.D., ph. dr. Leyioti^use, Leyton-crefcent; 
KeiUi8h4own, N.W. 
i8io*Sherwill, Lt-CoLW.S., f.g A Pro/, of Surveying, Civil Engr. CoUige, Calcutta ; 
and F^rth, NJS. 
^Shipley, Conway H., Esq. TtJrtfford Moors, WincheHer; and Army and N<it>y 

ShoU, Cluurlef, Esq., O.B. 
Showers, Li6iit«Ck>l. Charles S, 

Shnttleworth, Sir J. P, Kty, Bart. 38, .GloucestdT'Square, W,; and 
OdwtAorjhhall, Burnley, Lancashire, 

^ilfs, Fuedenc, Esq. 12, Cleveland-square , Bayswater, W, 

Silver, the Rer, Fred,, M.A., f.b.a.6, Norton-rectory, Market Drayton, Salop, 

^Silver, Stephen Win., Esq. 66, Comhill, E,C, ; and Notvood-lodge, Lover 
Norwood, 8, 

Sin), John Cojsgame, Esq. 13, Jonnes^street, Buokingham^ate, 8, W. 
Simmons, Edward R., Esq., Barrister-at-Law. 4, Hyde-park^gate, 8, W, 
i820^immons. Colonel JohnL. A., B.i^., O.b, H, B, M*s Consul, Warsaw; United 
Service aub, 8.W. 
Simons, Henrj H„ Esq. Tyersaff-crescent, Wood-road, Sydenham-hUl, S.E. 
Simpkinson, Lieut. Francis G., B.N. 55, Victorionstreet, Westminster, 8, W, 
Simpson, Frank, Esq. 17, Whitehall-place, S,W. 
Simpson, Henrj Bridgeman, Esq. 44, Upper Grosvenor-street, W 
Simpson, James, Esq., €.£.» F.a.8. 29, Great George-street, Westminster, 8. W, 
♦Simpson, Wm., Esq. 64, Lincoln' s-inn^fields, W,C, 

♦Sims, Richard Proctor, Esq., c*G« Matahar-hill, Bombay, Care of Messrs, 
Smith, Elder, and Co, 

Skelmersdale, Edward, Lord. Lattom-parh, Ormshirk, Lancashire. 

Skinner, John £, H., Esq. 3, Dr, Johnson*8-buildings, Temple, E,C, 

iSjoSkrine, Hj. D., Esq, Warleigh-manor, near Bath, 

Sladen, Rev. Edward Henry Mainwaring, Alton, near Marlborough, Wilis, 

Sligo, G. J. Browne, Marquis ot 14, Mansfield-street, W,; and Weslport, 
County Mayo, 

Smedley, Joseph V., Esq., M.A. Oxford and Cambridge Club, 8» W, 
♦Smith, Augustus Henry, Esq. Flexford-house, Guilc^ord, 
♦Smith-Bosanquet, Horace, Esq. Broxboume-borough, Hoddesdon. 

Smith, Dmmmond 8pencej>, Esq. 7, Mount-street, Berkeley-square, W, 

Smith, Edward, Esq. Windham Club, 8, W, 

Smith, Frederick, Esq. The Priory, Dudley, 

Smith, George, Esq. GHnton, near Market Deeping, Lincolnshire, 
i84oSmith, George R., Esq. 73, Eaton-Square, 8, W. ; and Telsden-park, Surrey, 

Smith, Guildford, Esq. 63, Charing-cross, 8, W, 

Smith, Jervoise, Esq. 47, Belgrave'Square, 8. W' 

Smith, John, Esq., Memh. Geograph. Soc. Bomhay. 27, Prince*s^ate, 8,W„ 

Smith, John Harrison, Esq. 49, Inverness-terrace, W, 

Smith, John Henry, Esq. 1 Lombard-st,, E,C. ; andPurley, Croydon, Surrey. 

Lilt of J^ellows of the 

Smith, J. Sidney, E>q., Bairutar-nt-Uw. Sidiuy-hdge, WimbM<in-oommM^,M 
•Smith. Jmeph TrarerB, Esq. 35, Throgmorlon-tlriel, E.C. 
•Smith, OcUviai Henry, Eiq. jaamcj-tan*, Weitmimlcr, S.W. 
Smith, CnpUio Philip, Grenndier Gamif. 
iB50*Smith, Thomni, Enj. 

•Smith, W. Cartlc, Esq. I, (ItwiciiUr-ieiracc, Begtiit'a-pari; N.W. 
Smith, Wm. Gr«gai7, Esq. Ifudson-bay Company, Ftnehurch^treet, E.C. 
Smith, William Henry, Eiq., M.P. 1, Hyde^fork-tlrtet, W, 
•Smyth, ReaivAdm. Willlim. Cart of Miitn. Child and Co., Tm^c^iai: 
•Smylhe, Colonel Willi am J., r.a. 

Snowdtui, Frwicii, Eiq., M.A. 1, Dr. Jofmain's-tniSdiagi, Tempi*, E.C. 
Salomoiui, Hon. Giv. Citieen Bold, W.C. ; ondjamaica. 
•Somen, Charlci, Ear!. 33, Prmafi-gaie, B. W. ; EoOnar-tattli, Hertford- 
$hirt i and The Priory, Senate, Surrey. 
Somtraet. Capt. LevMon E, H., TL.V. Cin of Meun. Chu'-d, 3, CliffonTt-im, 
l86o»Someii, Joseph, Esq, Ilumliaiod-lodgf, lWitirfjifoc(S-cenimon, 3.W, 

Sopwilh, Thoi,, Esq., H.i., C.E., w.B.s. 103, Victoria-itreef, Westminiter, S. W. 
•Solhebj, Lt.-Col. Vni. S., C.B., r.H.i.S. 100, Fari-lime, W. 
South, Jolm Flint, Eaj. BlaciAeath^park, S.E, 

Scoitheik, JWDM Camcgie, Ear] of. Kimaird-castle, Brechin, K.B. 
•Southej, Jus. Lowtber, Esq. Cart of Heart. Stiliccll, 
Spalding, Samuel, Esq. 7, Vjipcr Part-road, Soui/i Hamfatead. 
* Spencer-Bell, James, Esq. 1, Devmshire-place, Fcrtimul-phce, W. 
3pii«r, Edw«rd, Ejq. Highbwy-creacent, N. 

Spickemell, Dr. Geo. E., Principal of Eastman's Bajal Ksval EsUblishmeiit. 
Eaitem^parada, SemVaea. 
iSjoSpoflbrth, Markham, Esq. 3, Porcheiler-tsrrace, W. 

•Spottiswoode, William, Eiq., r,li.S. 50, Orostenrrr-plarc, S. W. 
•Sprall, Capt. Thos. A. B., B.K., c.B. JUoimt EpAraim, Tunhridgt^lceHf, It'eiU. 
Spruce, Richard, Esq., PH. DIt. Welhiint, Caiile Bomard, York. 
StaflbH, Edward W., Esq. Colonial Secretary of i'eni Zealand; eart tf 

Mr. J. S. Tyller, 19, Cattle-streel, Edinbwgh. 
Stale;, Dr. Thomas (Bishop of Honolulu). Upper Gore, Keiwinglon ; und 

Boaolulu. Baaaian lilands. 
Stanford, Edward, Esq. 6, Charing cross, 5. W. 

Stanhope, Philip Henry, Earl, Pres. Soc. of Antiquariej. 3, Oro»timoi'-jj/<H*f J 
AoiUM, Qnacenor-place, S. W. ; and Chevming, Sevtnoah, Kent. 
•Stanhope, Walter Spencer, Esq, Cannon-hall, Fai-nsley, TorkMra. 
Stanley, Edmund Hill, Esq. Cravtti-hotel, Strand, W.C. 
leBo'Stanlej, Edward Henry, Lord, u.P., D.O.L. S3, St. Jame^a-tquare, 8. W, 
Stanton, Geo., Esq. Caloa-hill, Shreietbury ; and Omiertatia Clab, S.W^ 
Stanton, Henry, Esq. 1, Sicer^itreet, ifyddletoiMquare, W.C. , 

Statham, John Lee, Esq. 60, Wimpoli-streel, W. i 

iZoyo/ Gm^grofMeal Society. Ixxi 









^Stetdij. If fl«» Etq. Old a$nAigford-haa, S^om. 
Stardey. MajoMJen. Sir.Charki, K.O.B. UfUUdSiniee CM, 8. W. 

StMUJ.P.,Etq.,UMft,B.B. Can <^Mmr$,Orindhv(md Co.! Junior DniUd 

Stod, Wniiam Strug, Eiq. 13, ZeadmtkaUsireH, B.C. 

•Sttphen, Sir Gfoig«. JM&omtm. Care of Mr. ff, W. Bavaueroft, 7, Oratft- 

StephMtoB, Sir R. XaodouOd, O.B. 72, Lanocuter-gate, W. ; and Etut-oottm, 

i890flteplMii«Ni, Heniy P^ Efq. S, 8t. Mary^axe, JE.C. 

Stqpaaj, A. K. Cowdl, Eiq. 6, St. George'94erraoe, KmgktOridg^, W. 

Stffriing, GoL 8b Anthony. Soi$a4odge, 8(mth-pkioe, KfUgkttbri^e, W, 

Steny, Hcnij, Kbq, 7,Paraff<m,8oMwark.8JB. 

Stofwi, Hnrj, Etq^ wjul. 4^ Ihrfalgatsqiiare, W»C. 

StoTWMn. ThmnM, Eiq^ V.8.A. 37, tapper Grotvenor^trui, W. 

Stevwfi fier. Dr. Jnmei. Zao$dab, AUo€, SotOh Africa. 
*St6inurl^ Ki^ J. H. M. Shaw, Royal Madras Engineen. 

SCirUng^QiptFredn1(^H.,B.y. H.M.8.* Hen>f€mdUidt6d89rvi09CMt,a.W. 

Stiriing, Sir Walter, Bar^ 36, Por<maii-«9iiafV, 17. 
i90oStirljDg, the Hon. Edward. 34, QueerC9-garden»^ ffyde-park. 

Stock. Thomas Oshome, Esq., M.P. 20, King'Sireet, St. James, 

Stocker, John Palmer, Esq. 93, Oxford-terrace, ffyd&iHxrk, W, 

^Stokes, Rear-Admiral John Lort. United Service Club, S, W, ; and ScotchweU^ 
Aaverfordieeet, Wales, 

Stone, DsTJd H., Esq., Alderman. Sydenham-hiU. S, 
^Stoiy, Edwhi, Eh|., ica. 30, Abnorah-road, DownhamHroad^ IsKngtim, N, 
StoThi, Ber. Charles F. 8, Ghrosoenor Mansions, Viotorichstreet, S, W, 
Strachey, Colonel Bidiard, R.E., f.r.8. 29, Lancaster-gate, Hyde-park, W, 
Strange, Lieut-Col. Alex. India Store Department, Bekedere-4d„ Lambeth, S, 
Strangford, Percy Ellen, Visooont. 58, Cumberland-street, W. 
T9ioStratford de Reddlfie, Stratford Canning, Viscount. 29, Orosvenor-s^tuare, tV, 
Stratoo, N. D. J., Esq. Aylestone, Leicester, 

Strickland, Edward, Esq^ CJB., Commissary-General. Halifax, Nona Scotia, 
Strode, Alf. Rowland Chetham, Esq. Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand, Care of 
J. G. Cooke, Esq,, 47, Moimt'sireet, Orosoenor-square, W, 

Strong, F. K., Esq,, k.h. Hamburg, Germany; %, St, Martin* s-place, S,W, 

Stnrtt, George H., Esq., f.b.aa Bridge-hill, Belper, 

Stratt, Captain Hammel Ingold, F.R.A.S. Boyal Mail Steam Packet Company, 

^Stmtt, Captain William. 26, Richmond-place, Southampton, 
^Stnselecki, Count P. E. de, C.B., F.R.S. 23, Savile-row, W, 
Stnart, Lieat-CoL J. F. D. Crichton. 25, WHton-cres,, Belgrave-sq,, S, W, 
i93oStalirt, Vice-chancellor Sir John. 11 and 12, Old-buildings, Lincoln' s-inn, W,C,; 
I 5, Queen's-^e, Hyde-park, W» ; and Grushemish, Isle of Skye, Invemesshire. 

List of FelloKs of the 

Stuart, Mjjar Robert. Jtmina, Albania, Care of Messrs. Buff, lianler, and 
Co., 52. Wigmutstnei, W. 
•dtiul, Cnpt. Ciiarles, F.L.J. Si, Kilmr.nJ'i, Ticiili, CluiUentam. 
Stutfiold, WilJlam, E»q. 15, Ln>\i!ei^terra<:e, Hydt-park, 11'. ; and It^lott- 

park, Catitriiari/. 
Smletlrf, Lord. 5, Seamore-fiaoe, CiotoiMlreet, W. 
Sullran, Rau--Adiiiiral DorlliDlanicw J.,, CB. 
Snlliran, Capt. T, W., c.B., tt.!t. Kbnplan, Wcli^Tpi, Ha-ti. 
Simidgi, Ror. Henry Arthur Dillon, M.A. 21, Beraerl-sircet, W, 
SuTlen, Cnpt. Cturloi Fi-evrite. Chakott-hiMii, Lang IHUm, Suirtg. 
•Sutherlnnd, George Gl-anvillo William, Duke of. Staffurd-houte. St. Jiona'i 
Palace, S.W. 
1930*Sutherlnnd, Robert, Esq, Carmona Sani, Dunoon, ArgyfeMrt, 
SWBDiy, Andrew, Esq. 38, Ccmnoa-street, E.O. 

'Sviabanic, Rnu^Adtnirsl Ch.irlvsB. Capheaton, near If«iei:aitle-vp<Hi-Tt/Hi, 
*Swiiibuni(^ Lieut. Sir John, Burt., R.t(. Capheatoii, A'dcoutb-cn- TyiM. 
Swinhoe, It., Esf].. H.B.M. Coctul, Farmosii. Care of Mewl. H. S. Sing and Of^ 
Sjkei, Cbristopher, Ewj., U.r. Sledmerc, ifaHoa. 
SjkM, CoiancI WiUiam Henrj-, H.I>., F.BJ., Hon. M.B.I.A. AllieHmmt CM>^ 

S.W.; and 47, Album-atreet, Hyde-park, W. 
Sjmonda, F., Esq., U.D. Beawnoat-atreet, Oxford. 
•Sjnge, Col. MillingloE H., n.E, Birmingham. 

Tignrt, Cotirtenay, Eiq. Eochleaia Point, Dtu-dliam Doan, linn 
i^^oTagart, Tmnoii, E»q. 31, Oamm-Si/I-jonljm, Hyde-park, W, 

Taiutor, Edward C, Efq. (Impl. ChiucH Cuitoms). rimtii'm CAi'm. Cort ^ 

//, C. Balclichr, Esq., 155, Connon-i(r««, £,C. 
T»it, F. U., Esq. 163, ^<i<;uKf«-r(Md, S. ; and Oriental C1h5, W. 
•Tnit, Eobert, Esq, U, Oiiem JnHM(r«i, IT. 
Talbot, Right Hon, Rlabard Gilbei-t. m, Chaler^qaare, S. W. ; and I 

ctoir, Kiagstoim, Counl-j Pablin, 
Talbot ds Uclohide, Jomea Talbot, Lord. ifalaJiide Caitla, Cq. AiAMi. 
Tijler, Joseph Walter, Esq. 
Taylor, Commander A. thiodas, i.N. 2, Ghuecster-tilloi, Upper SjUiUon 

SAootv'eJnll, S.E. 
Taylor, II, L„ Esq, Hffoim Clab, S.H'.; and 23, Fhillimore-gardtiu, 
lingloa, W. 

. Taylor, Her. Jm. Hudton, Singpo, China. Care of Mr. Dcrger, Sainl-hiH 
Eoii OrinsteaJ. ^ 

igjoTnylor, John, Ejq, 1, LendcnAall-street, B.C. 

'Tajlor, John Stapford, Esq., u,d, ], Spi-tngfield, St. Anne-street, Lin 
Taylor, foL R. C, H. \6, EaKai-piuil, S.W. ; a«d Carlton CliA, S.W. 
•Taylor, John George, E»q. M,B.M, Con»n\ in Ku-diitaa, Wmieir. 
T.ylor, W. B., Esq. 

Jtoyal Chographical Society. Ixxiii 















Teefdale, John M., Esq. £itham^u$e, Eltham, S.E, 
Tegg, Wm,, Esq, 13, Doughty-street, Meohknburg^mrc, IV.C. 
Temple, Sir Richard, B.c^.i, Oriental Qub, IF. 
TempletOD, Johq, Esq. 24, Budtje-rQw, E,C, 
Tennant, Professor James. 149, Strand, W.C. 
i96o^Thatcher, Colonel EJ.C. 

Theed, William S., Esq. 18, CaiHsle-terrace, Kensington, W. 

Thomas, Q„ Esq. 6, Queen^s-gatO'terrace, Hyde-park, W. 

Thomas, Henrj Harringtont Esq. Lansdowne'Cresoent, Bath, 

Thomas, J. R., Esq., Staff AssUt. Surg. Cas<Ar-At//, Fishguard, Panbrokesliire. 

Thomas, John Henwood, Esq. East India Dept^ Ouatonhhousfff E.V. 

Tbodlpson, William C*. Esq. 

Thomson, James, Esq. Dunstable^house, Richmond. 

Thornton, James Doncan, Esq., Portuguese CoosoL St, Feter^s^hambcrs, 

CornkiU, E,C, 
^Thomson, J. Tumbull, Esq., Chief Soirejor. Otago, New Zealand, 
I97oThomson, John, Esq. 4, Jfontague'Street, Edinburgh, Care of John Little, 
Esq,, 21, Camon^treet, E.G. 
^Thomson, Ronald Ferguson, Esq., 1st Attache to the Persian Mission. Care of 
F, B, Alston, Esq., Foreignroffice, S.W, 

^Thomson, Thomas, Esq., m,d.| r.its. Hope-house, Kew, W» 

Thomson, W. T., Esq. Arlan/nhouse, Kintvss, 
^Thome, Augustus, Esq. 4, Cullum*$treet, City, E,C. 

Tliomton, Edward, Esq., aB. Harrow, 

Thornton, Rer. Thomas Cooke, M.A., M.R.I. Brook-hall, near Weedom, 

Thorold, ReF. A. W, 16, Bedford^quare, W,C. 
Thorold, Henrj, Esq. Cuxtcold, Lincolnshire, 

Thorold, Alexandei- W, T, Grant, Es>q. Medsky, Great Grimshy, Lincolnshire, 
i98oThrupp, John, Esq. 

Thnillier, Lt.«Col. H. L., Sunrejor-Goneral of India. Cakvtta ; Messrs, Grindlay, 
and Co, Care of J, Walker, Esq., India Office, 

Thurbum, C. A., E(^. 29, Queensborough-terrace, Kensington-gardens, W, 
•Thurbum, Hugh, Esq. 108, Westhoume-terrace, W, 
Thurlow, the Hon. Thos. J. Hovell. British Etnbassy, Ihe Hague, Care of J, 
B, Alston, Esq,, Foreign Office, 8, W, 

Tillej, Henry Arthur, Esq. Hanwell, Middlesejs, 
^Tindal, Charles John, Esq. New South Wales, 
♦Tinne, John A., Esq, Briarley, Aighwih, near Liverpool, 

Todd, John, Esq. Sydney, Messrs, Bligh and Harbottie, 1 , Alderman-walk, E.C, 

Todd, Rev. John W. Tudor-hall, Forest-liiU, Sydenham, S, 
i990*Tomlin, George Taddy, Esq., F.8.A. Combe-house, Bartonfelds, Canterbury, 

Tomline, George, Esq. 1, Carlton-house-terrace, S, W, 
•Tooke, Arthur Wm., Esq., m.a. Pinner-hill-housc, near Watford, Middlesex, 

LUt of Fellows of the 

Tamncc, John, Eiq. 5, Chuttr-ptace, Bydt-pari-tqaan, W. 

Tarrens, Robert Riclurd., Esq. 2, Gloucester-place, Syde-park, W.j Wj 

The Cott, Bolm, near jUhbaHoa, South Drsm. 
TcwoMod, ComnuDder Jobii, B.x. Zona, Wciton-mper-Maiv. 
Towntoa, Wm. Pirkcr, Esq., b.a, Cantab. Care of Misi Toimtm, AdiJt 

r Lancaiter, 


•Towiy, Gwrge Edward, Esq. 
TowBon, J. Tbomiw, Esq. Secretary Local Marine Board, LiiserjMol, 
"Toyobw, Capt. Hy. Commanding tU East-India Ship ' Holspi 
Imemess-rond, Keasinglon-gardmi, W. 
jooo'Towr, ReT. H. K., B.l, Exeter College, Oxford, 
Tncj, At Hon. C. H. 11, George's-slrest, W. 
'Tnccn, Arch., Eiq. Aiilbon-road (oppoiiie the iVqptir-roud), Keneingtoa, W, 
Tremenlitere, Col. C.W., R.E. Ban^y. 

Tremlett, Bst. Frincu W., m.a. Beisite-pari, ffampettad, N.W. 
•Tnuch, Capt. the Hon. U Vote, H.E. 32, ffyde-parh-gardeiu, W.; and Ordiuinet 
Survey Offce, J-imliao, S. W. 
TrMtmil, Eier. Frederick, Slimnare-Billa, Beitlah-hiS, Upper Xiavtod, S. 
TrerelyiB, Sir Ch«rles Edward, K.O.B. 8, Oromenor-creiccnt, S.W, 
TrvreljTHti, eUr Wnller CalTerlf, Bart., u.l., r.a.i., r.L.8., P.B.8.t(.A., be. Mhe- 
mnm CliA, S.W. i WaUin^ton.Xorthumberlaad; aad Netliecombe, Somenet. 
Trimmer, Edmund, Etq, Care of Mtssn. Trimmer and Co., Sevi Cilf' 
ehantbert, Biihoptgate-street, E.G. 
jeioTrittoD, Joseph Herbert, Esq. 54, lonAard-aireet, E.C. 
Tijoa, Capt, George, R.N. Army and Sac<j Club, S.W, 
Tucketl. Fna. Foi, Ek). }>enchay, near Briiiol. 

4, MoHimer-strett, Cavendith-eqwire, 
28, Clntlaiid-gnrdeni, Ilyde-park, W 
|„ FJ.A. 80, Portland-place, W. 
Porthnd-plaee, W. 
Tumbull, George, E«i.,c.E., f.k.a.s. 23, Comwall-gardent, South 
•Tunibnll. Rer, Thofc Smilh, f.e.s. UnivtreUy Club, S. W. ; and Bli>field,2f»fliUi 
Turoer, Tho»., Esq. Quy'i Hcapilal, Soaihwark, S. 
lo2oT«eedie, Capt, Michael, R.A. Care of R. W. Taecdie, Esq., 5, Linooln'l 
■Tweutjm»D, A. C., E«q, TettenAall-aood, near Wolrerhampton, 
Twentyman, Wm. H., Esq. Manor-Aouae, 8t. Jo/m's-wood, N. W. 
•TwbcllOD, Hon, E. F, Eatland-gate, S. W. 
Twiw, Sir TraTCTi, c.O.L., P.BJ. 19, Park-lane, W. 
Twjford,C»pt.A. W., alstHiusars, Be/onn Chb. S.W. ; and Cotlutm-htmtei 

Caiham, Hants. 
Tyer, Edward, Esq., O.K., F.B.A.S. 15, Old-jeviry-chamliera, 1 
•Tyler, George, Esq. 2*, IIoBoreay-place, Holh/vay-rDad, N, 
TjUer, Capt, W. Fraser, Aldowrie, lavemesa. 

•Tucketl, Frederick, Esq. 
Tuckelt, rhillp D., Esq. 
Tudor, Edwicd Owen, Esq 
Tudor, Henry, Esq. 

Royal Oeographieal Society. Ixxv 













Underbill, Edward Bean, Eiq., LL.X). D€rwent-iQdg€, Thurhw-road, Uamp' 
stead, K.m 
sojoUnwin, Howard, Esq., C.E. 24, Bucklersbury, E,C, 

Unher, John, Esq. Arthir'9 Gub, 8t Jatne^s-^treet, 8. W. 
^(Jnelli, Theodoaiof, Esq. 

*Vacher, George, Esq. JTanor-AoiiM, Teddingt<m, 

♦Vander Byi, P. G., Esq., M.P. Care of Mr. H. Blyth, 17, Gracecfturch-st., E.Cb 

Tane, G., Esq. Ceylon, Messre. Price and Boustead. 
^Vaughan, James, Esq., F.R.C.8., Bombay Army. SuHth, Breoonehire. 

Vangban, J. D., Esq., Assist Res. Coondllor and Police Magistrate of Singapore. 
Care of J. Ttqip, Esq., 4, Lanca»ter-road, Nottrng^hiU, W. 

Vanx, William S. W., Esq., M.A., F.8.A. British Museum, W.C. 
^YaTasour, Sir Henry M., Bart 8, Upper Orosvenor^reet, W. 
304oVaTa8sear, James, Esq. Knockholt, near Sevenoaks, Kent. 

Venner, Capt Francis Jobn S. 42, CHoucester-place, Hyde-park, W. ; and Elm 

Bank, near Worcester, ' 
*yeieker, the Hon. H. P., llj>., H.M. Consul at Rio Grande do SuL 1, Port- 

mm-eqaare, W. 
Vemer, Edward Wingfield, Esq., m.p. 86, Eatan-square, 8, W, ; and Cook- abbey, 

Bray, Co, Wkkhw. 
*Vemey, Edmond H., Commr. R.N. 32, South^treet, Orosvenor'Square, W. 
•Vemer, M^jor Sir Harry C, Bart., M.P., f.b.a.6. Traveller!^ Club, S. W. ; 32, 

8otUh-street, QrosvenoT'Square, W, ; and CUtydon-house, Bucks. 
Yerrey, Charles, Esq. 
Yerulam, Jamec Walter, Earl of. Oorhambury, near St. Alban's ; Barry-hill, 

Surrey ; and Messing-haU, Essex. 
Yile, Thomas, Esq. 75, Oxford-terrace, W. 

Yinoent, Minos C.yEsq., c.E. lY-ankfort, Ohio, U.S„ and 337, Strand. 
205oYinoent, John, Esq. 4, Granville-park, Blackheath, S.E. 

Yines, William Reynolds, Esq., f.r.ajs. Care of R. P. Hollyer, Esq., 25, 
Douglas-road-north, Canonbury, N, ; and 4, Thavies-inn, Holhom^Ul, E.G. 

Yivian, Mi^r Quintos, late 8th Hussars. 17, Chesham-street, S, W, 

•Yyyyan, Sir Richard Rawlinson, Bart., F.R.8. I^elowarren, Cornwall. 

Wade, Mitchell B., Esq. 66, South John-street, Liverpool. 

Wade, R. B., Esq. 58, Upper Seymow^street, Portman square, W, 

Wade, Thos. F., Esq., as., H.B.M. Secretary of Legation. Pekin, China. 
•Wagstaff, William Racster, Esq., M.D., M.A. 

Waite, Henry, Esq. 3, Victoria-street, Pimlico, S, W, 
*Waite, ReT. John. Wesleyan Institution, King Tom*s Point, Sierra Leone, 
ao6oWake6eld, E. T., Esq. 40, Pembridge-villas, Bayswater, W. 

List of FelloKs of the 

Walker, Charln Henrj, Esq. 3,<Tacr, Ecading, 
Walker, Col. C. P. Besucbomp, an, 97, OmUiic-tquree.B.W.; a 

Service Ciit, S. W. 

Walker, Edward Heaiy, Esq., Vice-Consul at Tripoli. maUm-boKk, CkMler! 

•Walker, Fi^oderick John, Esq. Alitor Oil'jn, LlaiuJuisit, Cannar««a, Wale*; 

Wallcer, Janua, Eei)„ Haimging Biractor of tladrai Rnilwaj. 23, Oaiabrfi[ 

squart, H<jdt-pai-i, W. 

'Walker, Lt.-Col. James, Bombay Englaecn, Mnirte, nearEaaul Pmild, r<q| 

Cart of J. Wilier, Esq., India O^t. 

Walker, John, E<q„ Hjdrog. India Office. 9, CatiU-slral, ffoOom, W.Ci 

•Walker, John, Esq. 90, Porduulei-terract. W. 

•Walker, C.pUin John, H.M.'j 66l]i Foot. Broom-hill, Colchtater. 

07QWalkcr, lU B. N., Eiq. Cart of itr, BUasclt, 38, South C<xstU-tt., Lira-fat 

Walker, Kobeit, Eaq., K.D., A(«. Surg, ll.s, 4, Bcilfeld-plaiM, FortiM 

Wnlker, SjdnoT, E^. 
•Walker, T. K. W., Esq. 6, Sraek-rireet, BatA ; and AthoKc-m Club, B.Wi 
Walker, Caplnin William Harriion, H.c.a, 3, OloiKester-ltrract, TV.; 

Board of Ihnfc. S, W. 
Walker, Rev, Willigm. ar^mnarschool, Rattleij Castle, UptOn-on^eer», 
Walker, Rev. Willi^iiD Heory, u.A, Jitoioa-rtclory, ShipAam, SatfoUi. 
Walker, William, E=q., V.B.A. -18, HiUd-op-road, lyfaell-park, N. 
Walker, Alexander, E>q. Preston, EirlAean, near Damfrlet. 
Walklnihaw, Williiim. Esq. 74, LaiKiiatcr-gate, Uydt-park, W, 
loSoWallacs, Alfred ttuHell, Ek]. 9, St. MarJi'i-creicetil, Begenfi-parh, !f, W, 
Wallsw, l:er. Charles Hill, W.4. 3, Harley-place, aifUm, Brulol. 
Waller, Ber, Hoism. St. Jo\n\ Chatham. 
Waller, Sir Thoi. Wnthen, Bart. 16, Eatm-aqaare, S. B'. 
Waller, Major, George Honrr. 18, E,itou-3q»1re. S.W. 
Walllch, George C, Esq., M.d. 1 1, Earrs-ierrace, Eetuingiaa, W. 
Walmilej, Joibua, GoTcniniGiit Resident Agent. Ifatal. 
Walpole, Capt. the Hon. F„ H.P. Tractlteit' Club, S.W.; and Bahttlur, 

Aall, Long Straiton, Norfolk. 
Walpole, RU Hoo. Spencer, ll.P. Grafton-iirtd, W. ; and Haling, TT. 
Waller, Henry Krasor, Eiq. Papple'ciek'hall, near Xfotlingham. 
109oWjJlon, H. C, Esq., C,e. 28, SaTile-roic, W. 
Walton, J. W., Esq. 26, Sarile-roa, W. 
Walton, R. G., Eaq., o.B. 
•Ward, George, Esq, 
Ward, Admiral J. Hamiltoa. Oaifeld, Wimbledoit-parh, 3. W. 
Ward, Swinburne, Esq., Ci'il Commiasioner. Seychclle$ lalandt. 
Ward, Capl. the Hon, Wm, John, R.S. HJf. Ltgatim, ffu»AiNfl(mi, ' I 

i^the American Departmmi, Foreiga-opce, S.W. 
Wardlflw, Col. Robert, CD. UailcJ Scrtice Crub, S.W. 


Royal Geographical Society. Ixxvii 























Wardlaw, John, Esq. 57, Prince*9^ate, Kenaington, W. 
Wainer, E., £h|. 49, Oratvenor-place, 8, W, 

2iooWarre, Arthur B., £h|. 109, Onshw-aquare, S. W, 

Warren, Capt. Richard Pelham. Worting'housef Batingttoke, 

Waahboum, B^ Esq., if.D., &c. Eastgate-houae, Olouce8t€r, 

Waterbouse, Geoi|;e Marsden, Esq. Buckhursi, Wokingham^ Berks/are, 

Watkina, John, Esq., F.R.C.8., F.8.A. 2, FaUxm-'Sqwxret Aldersgatestreet^ E,C, 

Watoej, John, Esq. 16, LandoH'StreH, Fenckurch-^ract, E,C, 

Watoon, James, Esq. 24, Endsleigh-^treet, W,C, 

Watson, James, Eaq., Barrister-at-Law. 13, Circus, Bath, 

Watson, John Harrison, Esq. 28, Queen8borough't€rrace, Kensington^gardcntf W, 

Watson, Robert Spence, Esq. Mo9$ Croft, Qateshead-im'Tyne* 

2iioWatson, Robert, Esq. 

Watta, J. King, Esq. 8t, Ives, ffimtingdonshire, 

*Wangh,Miy.*<jeneral Sir Andrew Scott, Bengal Engineers} f.bjl, late Surreyor- 
General and Superintendent Great Trig. Surrej. Athetunan Clvb^ 8, W» } 
and 7, Petenham'terrace, Queen* a^ate-gardens. South Kensington, W. 
Waj, Arlhur, Esq. Ashton4odge, Ajshton, near Bristol. 

•Webb, Capt. Sydney. Oriental Club, Ilanover-square, TK ; and 24, IfancheS" 
ter-aquare, W. 

•Webb, William Frederick, Esq. Atmy and Kavy Club, S, W. 
Webb, Edward B., Esq., C.E., &c. 34, Great George-street, S.W. 
♦Webbir-Smitb, Colonel James, 95th Regiment. 14, Cambridge-square, }V, 
Webster, Alphonsus, Esq. 44, Mecklenburg-square, W,C, 
Webster, E., Esq. North-hdge, Ealing, W, 
2i3oWeb«ter, George, Esq., M.D. Dtdunch, S,E, 

Webstei', George, Esq. 40, Fin^mry-cwcus, E, C. 

Weguelin, Thomas Matthias, Esq., m.p. Peninsular and Oriental Steam Ifavi' 

gation Co,, Moorgatestreet, E,C, 
Weller, Edward, Esq. 34, Bed-Hon^squ^iref W,C. 

^Wellington, Arthur Richard, Duke of, Major-General, D.C.L. Apaley-houae, 
W, ; and Strath fieldsaye, Hampshire, 
Wells, Sir Mordaunt, late Chief Puisne Judge, Bengal. 107, Victona-a., S, W. 
Wells, William, Esq. 22, Bruton-street, W. ; and Redleaf, Penahurat, Kent: 
Welman, Chas., Esq. Nortorirmanor, Taunton, 
Wentworth, William Charles, Esq. Combe-lodge, Pangboume, Berks, 
West, Lieut.'^Colonel J. Temple. 

21 joWest, Rev, W, De Lancy, d.d,, Hertd Master, Grammar School. Brentvcood, 

•Westlake, John, Esq. 16, Oxford-square, TF. 

Westmacott, Arthur, Esq. Athencewn Club, StW, 

•Westminster, Richard, Marquis of. 33, Upper GroBvenor-itreet, W, ; Eaton" 
hall, Cheshire; and ifotcombe-house, Dorsetshire » 

Weston, Alex. Anderdon, Esq., M.A. 18, Rutland-gate, Hyde*park, S, ]V, 

List of Fellcncs of the 

WotwDod, John, E>q. 8 mi 9, QuMti-tlrttt-iitatt, SotOhvorMiriig*, KJB, 

Wetton, Champion, Esq. SotneriftJiai, Dorking. 
•Weyland, John, Esq., P.R.s. Woodntmg-haU, NnrfM. 

WhsmcIiSt, Lord. IS, Cu>'ion4tiv((, W. 

Whnrlon, Rer. J. C. WiUtjdm-tKoragt, N. W. 
J140Wheatlcy, G. W„ Esq. 150, Liadmhall-ilrtei, E.C. 

Whfelwright, Willimu, Esq. GloaceOer-lodge, Resmfs-parll, S. W. 
•Whinfield, Edward Wrey, Esq., n.i. Svuth Eliingtim^iearagt, Zouth. 
•Whiihaiv, James, Esq,, r.S.A. Oriental C!ub,'W. 

Whitaker, Thomiu Stsphen, Esq. Ectrtlior^-hall, East rurishire; and Cmh 

Whitbj, CapL Edwud, Ulc 3H Dragoon Guards. 

Whitby Rer. Thomas, k.a., &c. St. Joha'a^irrace, WoodAaae Moor, Zeedt, 
WhiU, Ailhur D., Eaq., V.D. 58, Chaneery-laat, W.C. 
Wliitc, LieuL Arlhur WellMley, E.*. Fmhaater, Islcef n'^ht. 
•White, Charles, Esq. ia,Lime->t,,E,C.;aiidSin\ajitl<l,tuarDarl/9rd,Kl»l. 
JlSoWhile, Henry, Esq. 5, Lancaster-gal^, Sy<le-park,W. 

White, Col. Henry Dalrymple, C.B. 3B, Lointdes-aqiiare, S. W. 

White, W, A„ Esq, Care of E. HcrisUt, Esq., Foreign Ogice, S.W. Ch3 

Service Cliib, S. W. 
White, William Foster, Esq. TVeojumr, St. Bartholomeic's Hospital, E.C, 
■While, Wm. O, Esq. 10, Lioie-streel, E.C. ; and Barrajield, near Dartford, 
Whitehouie, WillUin Mattliew Mills. Esq, *«, Ch^piiou^aet, Bayneater, (T. ; 

and Hardwicke-ionie, Stadiey, Wancicliilivv. 
Whitmore, Willistn, Esq. 28, Oxfordiqaare, W. ; and Btekmluim, Kent, SS. 
Whitty, John Irwine, Esq., D.O.L., L1,.D., M.i., c.E„ kc, 94, Loair Bagget- 
Mtrwi, Dublin ; Ricielitaion-liall, Co. Carhw ; and Froeideiice-eourl, Qaetn't 
Co., Ireland. 
Whimper, Edwnni, Esq. Tbvm'hmae, HasUmeit. 
Whjte, M. B., Esq, 115, St. Qeorge't Road, S.W. 
li6oWilkiiis, J. E., Esq. Odessa. 3. Bvasia. Cart of T. P. Coib, Esq., 9, CVutva- 
kill-gardent, E<jde-park, W. 
Wilhinson, AlFred, Esq. 14, Eloatton-placc, South Kenaington, W. 
•Wilkinson, Major A. Eartlield, B.A. Oudh Commisaioii, India ; and Army Dftd 

Navy Club, S.W. ' Proceedings' to 7, Cacendiiih.flace, Brighton, 
WllkiDMn, Frederick E., Esq., v.D. SydaAam, Kent, S.E. 
Wilkinson, Dr. G. 4, St. John'i-srood-nllas, St. John'i-aood, N, W, 
Wilkinson. J, J., Esq. 4, SI. John's-mxd-tiUas, St. John't-ieood, Jf.W, 
•Wilkinson, Sir John Gardntr, D.C.L., r.«.a. AtAemeum Club, S. W. 
Wilkinson, Thomas, Fjhj. Tamalarf, Madagascar, Cure of Mr. C. B, Watt. 

40, Eenahaa-streei, Liverpool. 
Wilkinun, James, J. Esq, 

Willcock, J, W., Eaq„ q.c. S, Slone-bHildings, lincoln's-iaa, W.C. ; imd 
Eotauttad, Avtnae-road, St. Jehn'i-^cood, S. W. 

Royal Geoffraphieal Society. Ixxix 











siTOWmiams, Frederick, G. A., Em}. ChapeMav-St LiiicM$4Mt W.C. 

Williams, Henry Jones, Esq. 10, ffereford-ttreet, Fark4ane, W; and 82, 
King WUliam^t.^ E.G. 

Williams, Hcnrj R., Esq. Board of Trade^ 8. W. 

Williams, Major-General Sir Wm. F., Bart., K.C.B., D.C.L., Commander-in* 
Chief, Canada. Army and Navy Cluh^S.W. 

Williams, W. Bhys, Esq., ICD. Royal Bethlehem HoapUal^ 3. 
^Williams, Michael, Esq. TreguHow^ Scorrier, Cornwall, 
^Williams, F. M., Esq. Ooonvrea, Penan, Arworthal, Cornwall* 

Willoughby; Henry W., Esq. 35, Montagv^equare, W. 

Wills, William Henry, Esq. (J. P. for city and county of Bristol). Hdwthomdenf 
(Xfton Down^ BristoL 

Wilson, Alexander, Esq. 24, Highhury-ptace^ N, 

3 i8o Wilson, Captahi Anthony. 55, Moorgate-street, E,C.; and 11, Chepstow* 
villaSp Bayswater, W, 

Wilson, E., Esq. Jlayee-place, Bromley, Kent, 

Wilson, Capt. J. C, R.N. Care of Meters, Woodhead and do, 
*WiIsoD, Robert Dobie, Esq. 15, Oreen^reet, Orosvenor-squaret W. 

Wilson, Captain Thomas, B.N. 

Wilson, Thomas, Esq. 12 1, Southgate^oad, K, 

Wiltehire, Rey. M. A., F.O.8., f.l.8. The Rectory, Bread-street-hili, L\C, 
♦Winch, W. Richard, Esq. Chislehurst, Kent. 

Windham, Capt. S. Smyth. 

Windus, Commander Alfred Tubb, I.N. 14, St. James^s-square, S, W» 
2 190 Wing, Commr. Arthur, B.N. Care of Messrs, Case and Loudensack, 

Wingate, T. F., Esq. 20, Doton-street, Piccadilly, W. 

Wingfield, Sir Charles John, m.p. Commissioner in Oude, 10, Great Cumber* 
land-street, Hyde-park, W, ; and Athenaum Clvb, S, W, 

Wodehouse, J. H., Esq., H.M.'s Commissioner and Consul-General for the 
Sandvirich Islands. Care of F, B. Alston, Esq., Foreign Office, 

Wolfe, Capt. William Maynard, R.A. Arts Club, ffanover-square, W. 
^Wolff, Sir Henry Drummoud, K.c.M.o. 15, Rutland-gate, S. W» ; and AthC' 
nanim Club, 8, W, 

Wood, Capt. John. Point-house, Blackheath ; and Oriental Club, W, 

Wood, Hy., Esq. 10, Cleveland-square, Hyde-park, W, 

Wood, Lient.-Colonel Wm., B.if. 4, Hyde-park'terrace, Cumberland-gate, W, 

♦Wood, Richard Henry, Esq., F.8.A. Crumpsall, near Manchester, 

330oWoodifield, Mathew, Esq., M.i.G.E. General Colonial Manager, Cape Copper 
Mining Co., Namaqualand, Cape of Good Hope, 

Woodhead, Captain H. J. Plumridge. 44, Charing-cross, S, W. 

Woods, Samuel, Esq. Mickleham, near Dorking, Surrey, 

Woolcott, Geo., Esq. 7, Palace-gardens-villas, Kensington, W, 

Woolrabe, F., Esq. Tasmania, 

Worms, George, Esq. 17, Park-cresoenif Portland'place, W* 

Ixits List of Fellows of the Ruyal Geographical Societ^.^ 


Warthington, Rer. Juna, D.D, 27, Jahn-ttrtct, Btdford-reie, W.C. 
WoTthiDgloii, J. Hall, Esq. Alloa-hill, Ojrlon, ntar BirimhtaJ. 
•Worthinpon, Richord, E«i. 7, Ckampioa-part, Jlenmari-Jiill, S. 
VfoMej, Rt-Hon. Ju. Swnrt.Q.c. 20, Berktlty-si}.,W.; andSietn, Sum;/, BS 
IlloWortJejr, the Hon. J. F. Stnart. 15, Canoa-ttreet, Mayfair, W. 
Wotton, Williun Q., Esq., h.d. 15, Oemcnh-inn, W.C, 
Wright, John, Esq., C.K., 7.8.*. 1 1 , Parli-it.,WcttmiMt>:r, S. W. ; aitd SoeietU 
•Wyici, Jama, K«q. Charing-a-osi, W.C. 
Wylde, W. H., Eiq. forji^ Office, 3. W. 
VTjWk, John William Shaw, Fiq., u.p. U,a.Jameifi-iqilirf,S,W.l mi 

•Wfthn, Georgp Edwnrd, lijiq. 22, Weilboume-laral:!; Ilyde-jiarfi, W. 

yroli, John, E«q„ LL.D. CUytan-placc, Pfukham, S.E. 

Yot^ Most RcT, William Thonuon, Arcbbiihap o(. BMopSthorpe, York. 

Yorke, I.i«Qt. -General Sir Charlei, R.c.B. 19, Soath-it., Ortunmor-t^iumii 
JllD'Yorke, Colonel Philip J., r.B.s. 89, Eaton-place, S. W. 

Tool, Jamei A.,£sq. TrardJoi-Atnur, CIopAamifiar^, S. 
■Young, Capt. Allen. Siscradalt, TkiehMhain, S. W. 
•Ynnng, Cli8rle» Baring. Esq. 4, tfi/de^pari-tcnac/, 11'. 

Tonng, Francis, Eeq. 10, Qiieen'a-roir, armx-iaaf, dmliavcll, S. 
•Voung, Gaorge Frederick, Ksq, ZinitiousB, E. 

Young, Sir Henry E. Foi , o.n, 77, Emt^tim-jai'dcnt-iqHare, W, 
•Young, Jjiraes, E»q. 

Young, Jamn, Esq. Lime-^eld, Wtii Caldtr, Midhthian. 

Toung, John, Esq., FJI.A. VatAragh-jiiids, Btacicheath. 
llJoYonng, Rer. R. H., r.A. 22, B<mth-ilre<!t, Durham; I, iliiwMll, Qroenirl 

ToDDg, Williint, E<q. 7, Vtrnon-plaee, Jiloaiia^mnj-aquirt, W.C. 

Ynle, CdL Henry, Bengal Engincen, Mturs. Grindlay f Cb., .55, TiirAuBw 
itrnt, B.W. 

Yule, Rev. J. W. AUxandria, E.jypl. 

)J4i'-'»«l'er, J, E., Ekj, 55, Padlinll-.^iJ, KcnWah Thuya, If.W. 

( Ixxxi ) 


[Those marked with an asterisk * reoeive the FlDceediaga only.] 


ADUOLAUtr (Ujdrogrftphic Office) 
AoRicnLTUBAL SociETT (Rojal) 
AmriQUARiKS, Sogiett op 
AnrniioPOLoaiQAL Society 
Abcbitects, Inst, of British (Royal) 


Asiatic Societt (Royal) 


AxHEHiEnM Club 

Bbitish Museum, Library of 

Cambridge University. The Library 

Colonial Office 

Dublin Trinity College Library 

Geo logical Society (Trin. Coll.) 

Edinburgh, Royal Society of 

jJ^nE Library of Advocates 

Education Department, Library of 
Engineers, Institution of Civil 
Etunological Society 
Foreign Officf., Library of 
Geological Society 
Geology, Museum of Practical 
Her Majesty the Queen, Library of 
Horticultural Society (Royal) 
Hudson Bay Company's Library 
India Office, Library of the 
Lancashire and Cheshire, IIistorig 

Society of 
LiNNEAN Society 


Liverpool Literary and Philosophi- 
cal Society 
• Mercantile Marine Asbo* 


*LoNDON Library, the 

Manchester Cbetham Library 

-^— ^-^— Free Library 

♦ Literary and Philo^ 


Newcastle-upon-Tyne Literary and 
Philosophical Institution 

Oxford, The Bodleian Library at 

♦ , Radcliffe Observatory 

*PosT Office Library and Literary 

Royal Artillery Institution, Wool- 
wich, S.E. 

Royal Dublin Society 

Royal Institution 


Salford Royal Museum and Library, 
Peel Park, Salford. 

Staff College, FARNBORoroii Station, 


Statistical Society 

Trade, Board of, Library op 

Travellers' Club 

United Service Institution (Royal) 

>Var Department, Topographical 

Zoological Society 


Athens . . 

Berlin . . 


Royal Acad, of Sciences 
University Library 
Academy of Sciences 
Geographical Society 
University Library 
Hydrographic Office 

— — ^— . Royal Danish Ordnance 


. Royal Society of Sciences 

. . of North- 
em Antiquaries 

Dijon Academic ucs Sciences, 

Arts et belles Lettres 
Geographical Society 
Statistical Society 
National Library of 
Ministry of the Interior 
Geographical Society 
Geographical Society of 
Society of Nat. History 

Dresden . 
Florence . 


<tENEVA . . 

•GOTHA . . - 

Hague (the) 

Halle and 

Jena . . . . 
Leipzig . . . 


Perthes, M. Justus 
Royal Institute for Geo- 
graphy and Ethnology 
of Nctherland India. 

German Oriental Society 

University of 

Verein von Freunden der 

Erdkunde zu 
Lisbon .... Royal Acad, of Sciences 

Madrid .... Acad, of Sciences 

Milan Lombardo-Venetolnstof 

Munich .... Bibliotheque Centrale 


.... Royal Library 

Paris Institut Imperial 

Academic des Sciences 

..... Annales de TAgriculture 

et des Regions Tropi- 

cales (Madinicr, M.) 

VOL. xxxvin. 


Ixxdi InstUutioru presented with * Journal ' and * Proceedings^ 

EUROPE— con<inti«rf. 

Paris Biblioth^ne Imp^riale 

D^pot de la Guerre 

D^t de U Marine 

■ Ministere de la Marine 

et des Colonies 

Societe Asiatique 

. SociM d'Ethnographie 

— ^— — ^— d'Encourage- 

ment pour TlnduBtrie 


de Geographie 

Pjcsm Hungarian Academy of 


*Praouk .... Bohemian. Boyal Mu- 

RoMB Accademia dei Lineei 

St. Petbssbdbo Imperial Academy of 


Imperial Geographical 





. BureaadelaBacherehfr 

G^Iogiqne de laSubde. 

. Royal Academy of 

• Sod^te des Sciences Na- 

. University Library 
. Roval Dutch Meteooro- 
logical Institute 

Venice Armenian Convent 14b. 

Yeuona . . . . < Italian Geographical 

Vienna .... Imperial Academy of 


.... Geographical 


Geological In- 

Zurich Society of Antlquariet 

of Naturalists 


BoxBAT .... Geographical Society 

.... Asiatic Society 

Caloutta . . . Asiatic Society of Ben^l 

. . . Geolog. Survey of India 

Calcotta . . . Public Library 
KuRBACHEE . . Gcn. Lib. and Museum 

Madras . . 
Shanghai . 
Singapore . 

Literary and Philotoph. 

Royal Aslatio Sodetr 
(North China Braneh) 

Journal of Indian Archi- 


Cairo Egyptian Society 

Cape Town . . The Public Library 


Albany . . . 
Boston . . . 

Brazil • . . 


Chile .... 
Mexico. . . . 

New Haven . 


New York . 

New York State Library 

American Society of Arts 
and Sciences 

Massachusetts State Li- 

Public Library 

Society of Nat. History 

Historical and Geo- 
graphical Institute of 

Academy of Sciences 

University of 

Geographical and Sta- 
tistical Society of 

Yale College Library 

Silliman*s Journal 

Geographical and Sta- 
tistical Society 

Philadelphia, Academy of Natural 


, American Philosophical 

-, Franklin Institute 
. . Library of the Parlia- 
ment of Canada 
. Department of Public In- 
struction for Upper 

, Canadian Institute of 

Washington . . Congress Library of 

. Smithsonian institutioB 

. National Observatory 

Worcester . . Antiquarian Society 

Quebec . 


Adelaide South Australian Institute. 

Melbourne Public Library. 

♦ .. ... Mining Department. 

♦Victoria .... Royal Society. 
New Zealand . . . Library of tlie House of Representatives. 
Sydney .... University Library. 
Tasmania Royiu Societ}'. 

( Ixxxiii ) 


18S1. — ^Mr. RicHABO Lakdeb, for the discovery of the coarse of the River 
Niger or Qaorra, and its outlet in the Gulf of Benin. 

1832. — ^Mr. John Biscoe, for the discovery of the land now named ''Enderby 
Land " and ** Graham Land," in zhe Antarctic Ocean. 

1833. — Captain Sir John Ross, R.N., for discovery in the Arctic Regiona of 

1834. — Sir Alxxakdkb Bubnbs, for the navigation of the River Indus, and 
a journey by Balkh and Bokhara, across Central Asia. 

1836. — Captain Sir Gboboe Back, b.n., for the discovery of the Great Fish 
River, and its navigation to the sea on the Arctic Coast of America. 

1836. — Captain Robert FitzRot, b.n., for the survey of the Shores of Pata- 
gonia, Chile, and Peru, in South America. 

1837. — Colonel Chesney, b.a., for the general conduct of the "Euphrates 
Expedition " in 1835-6, and for accessions to the geography of Syria, 
Mesopotamia, and the Delta of Susiana. 

1838. — ^Mr. Thomas Simpson — Founder's Medal — for the discovery and 
tracing, in 1837 and 1838, of about 300 miles of the Arctic shores of 

Dr. Edwabd Ruppell — Patron's Medal — for his travels and researches 

in Nubia, Kordofan, Arabia, and Abyssinia. 

1839. — Col. H. C. Rawlinson, e.i.c. — Founder's Medal — for his travels and 
researches in Susiana and Persian Kurdistan, and for the light thrown 
by him on the comparative geography of Western Asia. 

Sir R.' H. ScHOMBUBGK — Patron's Medal — for his travels and re- 
searches during the years 1835-9 in the colony of British Guayaua, 
and in the adjacent parts of South America. 

1840. — Lieut. Rapeb, b.n. — Founder's Medal — for the publication of his work 

on * Navigation and Nautical Astronomy.* 
Lieut. John Wood, i.n. — Patron's Medal — for his survey of the Indus, 

and re-discovery of the source of the River Oxus. 

1841. — Captain Sir James Clabk Ross, b.n. — Founder's Medal — for his dis- 
coveries in the Antarctic Ocean. 

Rev. Dr. E. Robinson, of New York — Patron's Medal — for his work 

entitled * Biblical Researches in Palestine.' 

1842. — ^Mr. Edwabd John Eybe — Founder's Medal — ^for his explorations in 

Lieut. J. F. A. Stmonds, b.e. — Patron's Medal — for his survey in 

Palestine, and levels across the country to the Dead Sea. 

1843. — ^Mr. W. J. Hamilton — Founder's Medal — for his researches in Asia 

Prof. Adolph Erman — Patron's Medal — for his extensive geographical 



Ixxxiv Award of the Royal Premiums. 

1844. — Dr. Beke — Founder's Medal — for his extensive explorations in 

M. Charles Ritteb — Patron's Medal — for his important geographical 


1845. — Count P. E. db Strzelecki — Founder's Medal — ^for his explorations 
and discoveries in the South-Eastem portion of Australia, and in 
Van Diemen's Land. 

Professor A. Th. Middendorff — Patron's Medal — for his extensive 

explorations and discoveries in Northern and Eastern Siberia. 

1846. — Captain Charles Sturt — Founder^s Medal — for his various and 

extensive explorations in Australia. 
Dr. LuDWiG Leichhardt — Patron's Medal — ^for a journey performed 

from Moreton Bav to Port Essington. 

1847. — Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak and Governor of Labuan — 

Founder's Medal — for his expedition to Borneo. 
Captain Charles Wilkes, u.8.n. — Patron's Medal — for his Voyage 

of Discoverv in the S. iiemisphero and in the Antarctic Regions, in 

the years 1838-42. 

1848. — Austen H. Latard, Esq., d.c.l. m.p. — ^Founder's Medal — for his 

contributions to Asiatic geoL^raphy, researches in Mesopotamia, and 

discoveries of the remains of Nineveh. 
Baron Ch. Huoel — Patron's Medal — for his explorations of Cashmere 

and surrounding countries, communicated in his work entitled 

* Kashmir und das Reich der Siek.' 

1849. — Col. John Cu. Fremont — Patron's Medal — for his successful explora- 
tions of the Rocky Mountains and California ; and for his numerous 
Discoveries and Astronomical Observations. 

The Rev. David Livingstone, of Kolobeng — a Chronometer Watch — 

for his successful explorations of South Africa. 

1850. — ^Dr. George Walijn, of Finland — 25 Guineas — for his Travels in 

Mr. 'I'homas Brunner — 25 Guineas — for his explorations in the 

Middle Island of New Zealand. 

1851. — ^Dr. John Rae — Founder's Medal — for his survey of Boothia and of 

the Coasts of Wollaston and Victoria Lauds. 
Captain Henry Strachey — Patron's Medal — for his Surveys in 

Western Tibet. 

1852. — Mr. Francis Galton — ^Founder's Medal — for his explorations in 

Southern Africa. 
Commander E. A. Inglefield, r.n. — Patron's Medal — for his Survey 

of the Coasts of Baffin Bay, Smith and Lancaster Sounds. 

1853. — Rear- Admiral W^illtam Henry Smyth — Fouuder's Medal — ^for his 
valuable Survevs in the Mediterranean. 

Captain Robert J. M. M*Ci.ure, r.n. — Patron's ^Icdal — for his dis- 
covery of the North- West Passage. 

1854, — The Rev. David Livingstone, m.d., etc. — Patron's Medal — ^for his 

Scientific Explorations in Central Africa. 
Mr. Charles J. Andersson — a Set of Surveying Instniments — for his 

Travels in South- Western Africa. 

1855. — ^Elisha Kent Kane, m.d. — Founder's Medal — for his discoveries in 
the Polar Regions. 

Award of the Royal Premiums, Ixxxv 

1855. — ^Heikbich Babth, phil. dr. — Patron's Medal — for his explorations in 

Central Africa. 
Corporal J. h\ Chuboh, of the Royal Engineers — a Watch and Chain 

— ^for his scientific observations while attached to the Mission in 

Central Africa. 

1856. — ^Mr. Augustus C. Gbegory — Founder's Medal — for his explorations 
in Western and Northern Australia. 

Lieut.-Col. Andrew Scott Waugh, Bengal Engineers — Patron's 

Medal — for the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India. 

1857. — Captain Richard Collikson, r.n. — Founder's Medal — for his Dis- 
coveries in the Arctic Regions. 

Prof. Alex. Dallas Bache, Superintendant U. S. Coast Survey — 

Patron's Medal — for his extensive Surveys of America. 

1858. — Captain Richard F. Burton — Founder's Medal — for his Explorations 

in Eastern Central Africa. 
Captain John Palliser — Patron's Medal — for his explorations in 

British North America and the Rocky Mountains. 
Mr. John Macdouall Stuart — a Gold Watch — for his Discoveries in 

South and Central Australia. 

1859. — ^Lady Franklin — Founder's Medal — in commemoration of the dis- 
coveries of Sir J. Franklin. 

■ Captain Sir F. Leopold McClintock, r.n. — Patron's Medal — for his 

Discoveries in the Arctic Regions. 

1860. — Captain John Banning Speke — Founder's Modal — for the Discovery 
of the Great Lake Victoria Nynnza, Eastern Africa, &c. 

Mr. John Macdouall Stuart — Patron's Medal — ^for his Explorations 

in the Interior of Australia. 

1861. — ^Mr. Robert 0*Hara Burke — Founder's Medal — for his Explorations 

in Australia. 
Captain Thomas Blakiston — Patron s Medal — for his survey of the 

River Yang-tsze-kiang. 
Mr. John King — ^a Gold Watch — for his meritorious conduct while 

attached to the Expedition under Mr. R. 0*Hara Burke. 

1862. — ^Mr. Frank T. Gregory — Founder's Medal — for his explorations in 
Western Australia. 

Mr. John Arrowsmith — Patron's Medal — for the very important ser- 
vices he has rendered to Geographical Science. 

Mr. William Landsborough — a Gold Watch — for successful Explora- 
tions in Australia. 

Mr. John M*Kinlat — a Gold Watch — for successful Explorations in 


Mr. Frederick Walker — a Gold Watch — for successful Explorations 

in Australia. 

1863. — Captain J. A. Grant — Patron's Medal — for his journey from Zanzi- 
Ixir across Eastern Equatorial Africa to Egypt, in company with 
Captain Speke. 

Baron C. von der decken — ^Founder's Medal — for his two Geo- 
graphical Surveys of the lofty Mountains of Kilima-njaro. 

Rev. W. Gifford Palgrave — the sum of 25 Guineas — for the purchase 

of a Chronometer or other Testimonial, for his adventurous Journey 
in and across Arabia. 

1864. — Captain F. G. Montgomerie, r.e. — Founder's Medal — for his Trigono- 
metrical Survey of North- West India. 

IxxxTi Award of the Royal Premiums. 

1864.— Mr. S. W. Bakeb— Patron's Medal— for his relief of Capis. Speke and 
Grants and his endeavour to complete the discoyeries of those 

Dr. A. Yamb&t — the sum of 40 Pounds — for his Travels in Central 


1865. — ^Dr. Thomas Thomson, h.d. — Fonndci's Medal— for his Researches in 

the Western Himalayas and Thibet 
Mr. W. Ghakdless — Patron's Medal — for his Survey of the River 

M. P. B. DU Chaillu — ^the sum of 100 Guineas — for his Astronomical 

Observations in the Interior of Western Equatorial Africa. 
Moola Abdul Medjid— a Gold Watch — for his Explorations over the 

Pamir Steppe, drc. 

1866. — ^Admiral Alexis Boutakoff — Founder's Medal — for being the first to 

launch and navigate ships in the Sea of Aral. 
■ Dr. Isaac I. Hayes — Patron's Medal — for his memorable expedition 

in 1860-61 towards the open Polar Sea. 

1867. — ^Dr. Augustus Petxbhann — Founder's Medal — for his zealous and 
enlightened services as a writer and cartographer in advancing Geo- 
graphical Science. 

Mr. Gerhard Rohlfs — Patron's Medal— for his extensive and im- 
portant travels in the interior of Northern Africa. 

The Pundit, employed by Captain T. G. Montgomerie — a Gold 

Watch — for his route survey from Lake Mansarowar to Lhasa, in 
Great Thibet. 

Mr. John Wilson — the sum of Five Pounds — for successful compe- 
tition in Geography at the Society of Arts examination. 


Fbom May 27tli, 1867, to May 27th, 1868. 

[ When London ia the place of publication, the word London is omitted,'] 

Titles of Books, Donors. 

Abbott," T. — Twenty Years' Meteorological Obsenrations at Hobart Town, 
Anstralia, &C. The Authob. 

Abbrbbath. — Ritzebiittel nnd Knxbaven S. M. Dbach, Esq. 

Abboobset Daumas and Bbown*s N.E. of Colony of Cape of Good Hope. 1846. 


Alijmma, Views in. 1867 Secbetabt foe War. 

Army Routes in, Maps War Office. 

Abjannian Papers, relating to Captives, 1866 . . Pabliamentabt Paper. 

APAMa, A. — ^Natural History of the Voyage of the Samarang, 1848. 

By Purchase. 

By Pcrchase. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 
The Publisher. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 
H. Brigos, Esq. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 
. . F. S. Button, Esq. 

The Author. 

The Author. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 
Captain C. G. Constable. 

By Purchase. 
.. S. M. Drach, Esq. 

The Author. 

The Author. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 


AddnDg F. Yon. — Kassland, 1700 

A0AS8IZ, L.— Brazil, 1868 

Anderson, J. — East Coast of Sumatra in 1823 
Andree, C. G. — Den Danske Gradmaaling. 18G7 

Ami>bo6, A. C. — Spain, 1860 .. 

Amgas, G. F. — ^Barossa Range in S. Australia. 1849 
Ambon's Voyage, from a Private Journal, 1744 
Amstted, D. J. — Transylvania, 1862 .. 
Apbl, F. H. — 3 Monate in Abyssinien. Zurich, 1866 
Australia. — Exploration of Northern Territory, 1867 
Baker, S. W.— Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia. 1867 
Bakewell, F. C— Figure of the Earth. 1867 
Ballhorn, F. — Grammatography. 1861 
Bancroft, E. — Guiana in South America. 17G9 
.Babatti, G. — Abyssinia. 1690 
Barnard, Lieut — Mozambique Channel 
Barros, J. DE, ET D. DE CouTo. — Da Asia. 1778 
Barrow, J.— Life of Sir F. Drake. 1843 

Voyages and Discoveries. 1745 

Bastian, a. — Reisen in Siam in 1863. Jena, 1867 

Cambodja. Jena, 18 S8 

Beaton, P. — Creoles and Coolies (Mauritius). 1859 
Bbke, C. T.— The British Captives in Abyssinia, 1867 
Belgii Coafederati Respublica. 1630 .. 
Belly, F. — L*Amdrique Centrale. 2 vols. 1867 

Ixxxviii Avccsaions to tlie Library 

Titles of Boohs. Danom, 

Bei.trame, G. — ^iVfrica Centralc. Verona, 1864. Itauan Gxogbapbical Societt. 

Benson, B. — Corsica in 1823 Bj Pdbchase. 

Bergeron, P.— Voyages dans les J 2-15 Siccles. La Ilaye, 1735 By Porcbase. 

Bergu, A.— Theory of Inandations ^y Pubchaoc. 

Besobrasof. — ' Acad. Imp. de St. Petcrsbourg/ toI. x. 

Besson. — Routier de L*Aastralie, aprbs C. B. Yule, r.x. 18G6. 

Minister of Maumx, Pabis. 

Bird, J. — Gujarat, from the Persian. 1835 .. .. .. By Pubcbaibe. 

BiscnoF, L. W. vox.— Die Gestalt der Erde, &c Munich. By Pcbcbase. 

Besultate dcs Becrutinmgs-Geschiifles. 1867. 

The AcTHOR. 

Blanc, L. G. — Natur und Geschichte der Erde. 1867. 

Die Erde uud ihrc Bewohner. Braunschweig, 1867. 

Dr. a. Lange of Leipkc. 

BoccARDo, G.— Fisica del Globo. Genova, 1868 .. The President. 

BoisGELiN, L. DE. — Ancient and Modem Malta. 2 vols. 1805. By Purchase. 

Bootan, Political Missions to.— A. Eden, 18u4. R. B. Pcmberton, 1837. Griffith's 
Journal and Account by Baboo Kishen Kant Bose. Calcutta, 1 865. 


BoswoRTH, J. — Germanic and Scandinavian Languages. 1836. By Purchase. 

Boyle, F. — Indian Tribes of Central America .. The Authob. 

Brevtin, W. and T. Harvey.— Jamaica in 1866. 1867 The Authors. 

British Guiana.— Contributions to Paris Universal Exhibition, 1866. 

Lord Strakgfobd. 

Brouguton, T. D. — Mahratta Camp in 1809. 1813 .. By Pubchasb. 

Brown, K. — On the Nature and Discoloration of Arctic Seas. 1867. 

The Author. 

Brcnn. — Colonies Italieus en Gayane. * Acad. Imp. de St. Petersbourg,' voL x. 

BuRDWooD, Captain.— Tide Tables for 1808. Captain G. H. Richards. 

Burgess, J. — Temple of Ajanta. Bombay, 1868 .. .. The Author. 

Busby, J. — New South Wales and New Zealand. 1832 .. By Purchase. 

Byron's Narrative. Loss of the Wager^ 1746. 1832 .. By Purchase. 

Camoens, Liisiad of. 12mo. .. .. .. .. S. M. Dracu, Esq. 

Capper, J.— British India. 1853 .. .. .. By Pluchase. 

Catrou, F. — Mogul Dynasty in India. 1820 .. By Purchase. 

Chalmer!]. — Origin of the Chinese .. .. * .. .. By Purchase. 

Chambeyron — Nouvelle Calcdonie (Instructions Nautiqucs). Frencu Marine. 

Chapman, J.— South Africa. 2 vols. 1808 .. .. By Purchase. 

Chahlevoix. — History of Paraguay. 1709 .. .. By Purchase. 

China. — Journal of the Shanghae Literary and Scientific Society, 1858. 

I>y Purchase. 

North, Journal of Branch of Asiatic Society .. By Purchase. 

Notes for Tourists in. Hong-Kong, 1 860 . . By Purchase. 

Chinese Miscellany. Shanghae, 1849 By Purchase. 

Repository, nearly complete .. By Purchase and Donations. 

Chodozo, L. — Pologne anciente et modcme. 1830 .. By Purchase. 

of tlie Royal Geographical Society. 


E. It Ravenbtein, Esq. 
The Author. 
S. M. Drach, Esq. 

By Pl7RCHAS£. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 


Titles of Boohs. 
Chubi, J. H.~Nile and the Desert. 1853 
CiAU)! A. — ^Port Said, Canal de Saez. 186S .. 
Clabks, J. — Chronology and Geography. Dublin, 1736. 

Cltdb, J.— School Geography. 1866 

Coke, £. J.— Lower Canada. 1832 

Cole, R. A. — Coorg Language and Grammar. 1867 
Colnmbiaxi Canal (Darien), Documents relating to. Paris, 1867. 
Constable, C. G. — Le Pilote du Golfc Persique. Paris, 1866. 


CoKWELL, E. A.— Inscribed Cromleac, county Meath, Ireland. 1867. 

The Author. 

CooKEt T. F. — Electric Telegraph, Documents relating to. 1868. The Author. 

CoBMEiLLSON, J. E. — The Temperature of the Sea near South Point of Africa. 
1868. Royal Meteoric Institute of the Netherlands. 

CoRTAMBERT, C, ct L. De Rosnt. — Cochin-Clilne. 1862. 

E. R. Ravenstein, Esq. 

COZ2XKA, J. — Abyssinie. Constantinople, 1867 .. .. Presented. 

Cbawfurd, J.— Narcotic Plants. 1867 The Author. 

Cuthbertson, J. — Cause of Tides. 1867 The Author. 

Dankosvtkt, G.— Die Griechcn und Slawen Sprachvenvandtc. 1828. 

S. M. Drach, Esq. 

Danube. — Embouchures dn. Galatz, 1867. 

Commission Europeenne du Danube. Leipzig. Folio. 

Secretary of Staix for Foreign Affairs. 

Oabwin, C. — Geology of the Voyage of the Beagle. 1 846. By Purchase. 

Dayis, 0. — Interoceanic Canals and liailroads. Washington, 18G6. 

The Secretary U.S. Navy. 

Datis, J. B.— Crania, Western Pacific. 18G7 J. Lajiprf.y, Esq. 

t)*AYEZAC. — Jomard's Monuments de la Geographic, 1842 U 1862. The Author. 

Delegorgue, A.— L'Afrique Australe. 2 vols. 1847 .. By Purchase. 

XhNi, T.— *' Sulla Vinicazione," &c. Milan, 1855. 

Royal Institution of Ix)Mbardy. 

A>bb8, A. — Hudson's Bay, &c. 1744 .. .. .. By Purchase. 

X>ooLiTrLE, J.— Social Life of the Chinese. New York, 1865. By Purchase. 

Douyille, J. B.— Voyage au Congo. Paris, 1832 .. ,.W. D. Cooley, Esq. 

X)ijfton, H. — Abyssinia, 1862-3. 1867 

l>u Halde. — Description of China, Tartary, Korea, &c. 1704. 
Dykes, J. W. B. — Salem, an Indian Collectorate. 1853 

Ellis, W. — Madagascar rcYisited. 1867 
Engel, C— National Music, &c. 1866 

Euphrates Railway. — Papers relating to. 1867 

Everest, R. — Norway, Lapland, and Sweden. 1829 

Fabri, J. E. — Abriss der Geographic. 1794 

Faidherbe. — Tombeaux Mdgalithiques de Koknia. Bone, 18G8. By Purchase. 

Falzon, G. B. — Diziooario Maltese Italiano. Malta, 1845 .. By Purcilvse. 

Payer, Dr.— Address to the Bengal Asiatic Society. 1868 .. Tlie Author. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 

The Author. 

W. P. Andrew, Esq. 

By Purchase. 
. S. M. Dracu, Esq. 


Accessions to tlie Library 

Titles of Books. 
Feabnside, W. G. — Tomblesoii*s Views of the Rhine. 1852. 

Febgubson, J.— Nineveh .. 

Febbet et Galinier. — Abyssinie. 1839 

FiGUiEB, B. — Les Vojftges de F. Mendez Pinto. Paris, 1645. 
Fixa>LAT, A. G. — Livingstone's Last Journey, &c 1867 .. 

South Pacific Sailing Directory. 1867 .. 

Forbes; J. D. — Glaciers chronologically arranged. 1859 .. 

FoRSTER,A. — South Australia. 1866 

Fbaas, O. — Aus dem Orient Stuttgart, 1867 

Fbitsch, K. v., G. Habtuno, and W. Reiss. — ^Tenerife. 1867. 


The AuTUOB. 




The Adthob. 
The AuTHOB. 


The AuTHOB. 
The AuTHOB. 


FuLLARTON, A. — Imperial Gazetteer and Atlas of England and Wales. 

The Adthob. 

Galinieb. See Febbet. 

Galton, F.— The Art of Travel. 1867 

Gaussin. — Annuaire des Marees dc Cotes de France. 

Gabdineb, A. F. — Indians of Chili. 1851 

Geobge, C. — ^Description of Double Sextant. 1867 


The AuTROB. 
The AuraoB. 


The AuTHOB. 

GiLUS, J. M. — Expedition to Southern Hemisphere. Washington, 1856. 

Sir W. Pabish. 

GoDET, J. L. — ^Bermuda. 1860 .. By Pubchabe. 

GoLNTTZ, A. — Compendium Gcographicum. 1634 .. .. By Pubcsasb. 

GoTEB, P. DE, and J. de Keyser. — Tartarie et Chine. Leyden, 1665. 

Bt Purchase. 

Grat, J. E. — Star-fishes. 1866 TheArrHOB. 

Gbasset, B. F. — Routier du Golfe du Mezique, &c Fbekcu Mabixe. 

Grogs. — Section Mainz der Karte des Grossh. Hessen. Darmstadt, 1867. 

L. EwAU). 

GRom, HuooNis. Respubliom Batavicie. 1632 .. .. By Pctbchase. 

Gbubeb, W. — Musculus epitrochles, &c. 

• Bursa Mucoeso cubitales. 

Die Brustdriise. 'Acad. Imp. de St. Petersbourg/ Vol. x. 

Guldbero, C. M., and P. Waage.— Fjerde Drifts Christiana. 1867. 

Univebsittt of Chbistxaka. 

GyllC, P. — De Constantinopoleos. 1632 By Pubchabe. 

Haast, J. — Head- waters of the Rakaia, New Zealand. 1867. 

Haensel, J. G. — Nicobar Islands. 1812 

Haigh, S. — Buenos Ayrcs, Chile, and Peru. 1331 

Hampton's * Polybius/ 3 vols. 1809 

Harkn'ess, IT. — Aboriginal Race of Neilgherry Hills. 1832 

Hawkshaw, J. — Venezuela. 1838 

Hector, J.— Coal of New Zealand. 1867 

G eological Survey of New Zealand 

Helmersen, G. von. — Asowsches Meer. 1867. 

St. Petersbourg Acad. Ixperiale. 
Helms, H.—Grunland. Leipzic. 1867 The Author. 

The AcTHOB. 
By Pubchabe. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 

The Author. 

The Autbob. 

oftltA Royal Geographical Society. xci 

TUUn of Boohs, Donofs, 

HelTetJomm Respablica, 1627. Hatav. By Pubchase. 

Hehhzbset. H. — ^Temperature of Atmosphere. Doblin, 1867. The President. 

Hectglui, Tu. YON. — Abyssinia in 1861 By Pobchase. 

HiGXflOM, W. C. — ^Tnict8 for Engiueers. 1866 The Adthob. 

Hiuop, 8. — Aboriginal Tribes of the Central Provinces. 1 866. 

Sir Stafford Northcx>te. 

Hiiiialayas ; Shooting in the, by F. M. 1854 By Purchase. 

by Mountaineer. 18G0 .. By Purchase. 

QiBiGH, A., and £. Plantamour. — Nivellement de Pr<5cision de la Suisse, 1867. 

Foreign Office. 

ffispania Commentarius, in 12mo. 1631 By Purchase. 

OCH8TETTER, F. TON. — ^New Zealand. Stutgart, 1867 .. The Author. 

HoGGyJ. — Inscriptions from the Hauran. 1859 .. The Author. 

Holm AN, J. — ^Travels in Europe. 1354 By Purchase. 

HooLT, T. — Nicol Bay, W. Australia. 1866 The Author. 

HomHKMANN, F. — L'Afrique Septentrionale. Paris, 1803. TV. D. Cooley, Esq. 

HoBTON, J. A. B.— Climate, &c.. West Coast of Africa. 1867. The Author. 

Hough, J. — ^Neilgherries of South India. 1829 By Purchase. 

Hue, M. — China and Thibet 1855 By Purchase. 

Hughes, R. £.— Cruises with the Baltic Fleet. 1855 By Purchase. 

W. — Treasury of Geography. 1867. 

Geography of British History. 1867. 

Manual of Geography. 18C6 .. .. .. Tlie Author. 

Physical Geography. 1868 .. Pudlishers. 

Hunt, C. C— East Side of West Australia. 1S66 .. The Author. 

Ides, E. Y. — Moscow to China. 1706 .. By Purchase. 

India. — ^N. W. Provinces' Revenue Reports. 1865 .. .. India Office. 

...... Collection of Early Travels in 16th and 17th Centuries. Calcutta, 1864. 

By Purchase. 

Jephson, S. M. — Brittany. 1859 .. .. By Purchase. 

Jkbtis, H. — Neilgherry Hills. 1834 By Purchase. 

Johnson, J. — ^The Oriental Voyager. 1807 .. .. By Purchase. 

Johnston A. Keith. — Handy Royal Atlas of Modem Geography. 18G8. 

The Author. 

Jordan, W. L.~ Vis Inertiaj. 1808 .. The Authob, 

Kjxn., Peter.— Travels in N. America. 1772 .. .. By Purchase. 

Kendall, G. W. — Prairies, Texas, and Santa Fc. 1845 .. By Purchase. 

Kennedy, W. — Second Voyage of the Prince Albert in search of Franklin. 1853. 

By Purchase. 

Kittlitz, F. H. von. — Vegetation of Pacific Islands, &c. .. By Purchase. 

Knolles, R. — Historic of the Turkes. 1606 .. .. By Purchase. 

Knox, R. — Ceylon. 1817; .. .. .. .. By Purchase. 

Koner, Dr.— Zcitschrift der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde. Berlin, 1SC6. 

The Author. 

Kotschy, T. — Der Nil, &c. Vienna, 1866 .. .. Williams and Norgate. 

xcu Accessions to tlie Library 

Titles of Bools, Donors. 

KowALEWsKT, A. — EDtwickeluDgsgeschlchtc dcr Rippenqnellen. 


Balansglossus. ' Acad. Imp. de St. Petersbourg/ VoL z. 

KuPFFEB, A. T.— L*Observatoire de Rossie. 1864. Russtan Goyebmheiit. 

KuBZ, S. — Vegetation of the Andaman Islands, Calcutta, 1868. 

T. Andebson, Esq. 

Lamprey, J. — ^Economy of Chinese Army. 1867 .. .. The AuTHDBrf 

Langlois, v.— La Cilicie. Paris, 1861 By Pubchask. 

Landor, E. W. — Adventures in the North of Europe. 1836. 2 toIs. 

S. M. Dbach, Esq. 

Labribe, M.— Sources de la Seine. Paris, 1868 .. Sir R. I. Mcrcbim>x. 

Lartet, E., and H. Christy. — Reliquss Aquitanis. Trustees of Mb. CHBisrr. 

Latham, R. G.— Celtic Nations. 1857 13y Pubchase. 

Latrobe, C. J. — Nicobar Islands. 1812 By Pubchabe. 

Layabd, E. L.— The Birds of South Africa. Cape Town, 1867. The Author. 

Le Blanc. — Voyages of. 1660 By Pubchabe. 

Le Bruyn, C— Collection of Travels. 1737 .. .. By Pubchabf. 

Le Fenre, Petit, Dillon and Vionaud. — Abyssinia, 1809-1845. By Pubchabe. 
Le Gras, a. — La Mer Mediterranee. Paris, 1866. 

Mer de Chine. Paris, 1867 .. .. .. The Author. 

Lees, W. N.— Tea Cultivation in E. Bengal. Calcutta, 1867. The Author. 

Lejean, M. G.— L'Abyssinle en 1868. Paris .. .. The Author. 

Light, IL— Travels in Nubia, &c. 1818 By Pubchabe. 

LiNKiEus.— Lachesis Lapponica. 1811 .. .. .. By Purchase. 

Lombard, II. C. — L'Education dcs Enfants. Geneve, 1867. The Authob. 

LucA, G. DE. — Carte Nautiche del Medio evo. Napoli, 1866. The Author. 
LuDOLFi, J. — Historia iEthiopica. FrancfUrti, 1681. 

English Translation, by J. P. Loudon, 1684. 

Commentarius ante hac editani. London, 1691. By Pubchabe. 

LuDWiG, R. — Karte des Grossh. Hess. Darmstadt, 1867, 

Geologische Skizze (Alzen). Darmstadt, 1867. 

Mittheilungen des Mit. Geol. Vereins (Alzen). L. Ewald. 

Lumley, J. S.— Report on Tea-trade of Russia. 1867 Fobeigm Office. 

Magqueen, J. — African Slave-trade. (Papers relating to.) 1867 The Author. 

Maclean, J.— Hudson Bay Territory. 1849 .. .. By Pubchase. 

Mailla, Ja. DE. Chine, 13 vols. 1777 By Purchase. 

Maitland.— Catacombs of Rome. 1846 .. By PLnacHASE. 

Major, R. H.— Life of Prince Henry of Portugal. 1868 .. The Author. 

Maldonado, F. de H. — Las Peregrinaciones de F. Mcndez Pinto. Madrid, 1627. 

By Pubchabe. 
Malte-Brun, V. A.— Gerhard Rohlfs, Voyage an Tou&t, &c. 1867. 

H. W. Bates, Esq. 

Mannert, K. — Germania .. .. .. .. .. By Purchase. 

Marcet, E. — Voyage li travers le Bush. Paris, 1868 .. The Pbesident. 

Mabgry, p. — Navigation Fran<jaises du 14 au 16 silKile. Paris, 1867. 

By Pubchabe, 

qfthe Royal Geographical Society, xciii 

Titlci of Boohs, Donors, 

Mabsh, G. P. — Man and Nature, 1864 By Purchase. 

.Maktix, B. M. — ^Hndflon Bay Territory and Vancoaver. 1849. 

£. n. IIav£N8T£in, Esq. 

MonuB, C. F. P. TON. — Ethnographie und Sprachenkunilc Amurikas. Leipzig, 
1867 .. .. .. .. .. .. The AuTuoii. 

Madcb, K. — SQd-AfKca. Mit Kartc. Gotha, 1867 .. A. Peteomann. 

Maull and Co. — Volame of Photographs of yarions Fellows of the Society. 

Messrs. Macll. 

Maubeb, F. — Die Nikobaren. 4 Maps. Berlin, 1867 By Purchasi:. 

Mai7BICe,T. — Indian Antiquities. 1796 By PuRcnASE. 

JCATBHiERa, DK. — Iter in Moschoviam, 1661 By Porchask. 

McKmiiAT. — Explorations in the Northern Territory of Australia. 

GovfSNOB or bouTH Australia. 

Shipwreck of the .. S. M. Drach, Esq. 

% J. L, C. P. VAN.— 5 Jaren in Japan, 1857-63 By Purchase. 

L, £. — Calabria in 1 860 By Purchase. 

F. Y Rotas.— El Norte de la America del Sur. 1866. The Author. 

r, E. H. — ^Tariffs of all Nations. 1860 .. .. By Purchase. 

MiOKAN, R. — Malabar and the Neilgherries. Bombay, 1864. By Purchase. 

KiLBT d'Aoust. — Mezique et TAm^riqae Central. 

Bull, de la Sue. Gicoo. de Paris. 

lilLiJB.A. — Colonical Constitutions. 1856 .. By Purchase. 

UmEBBOTZXEB. — ^Der Bari In Central Afrika. Brixcn, 1867 By Purchase. 

The Author, 

KonooiUEBiE, T. G. — ^Trans-Himalayan Explorations. Dehra Doon. 1807. 

The Ai TiioR. 

KomnoBB, Ladt J. — Private Journal, Egypt and Palestine. 1844. 

By Purchase. 

^fcUTX, A. VON.— Angular-Distanzen, &c. Tiflis, 18G7. 

•• ••• Der Ikwegungs-Mechauismus, &c. 1866. 

Vapeur d'Eau. Tiflis, 1867 .. The Author. 

llQUm, R. — ^Teutonic Names of Places ]U- Purchase. 

MoMTT, A. VON. — Orographische Metcorologie. Cottlugen, 18C7. The Author. 

^''n.F.— Universal Geography. 1804 .. .. Sir Ti. I. Murchison. 

SfoiUER, F.— Reise der O. F. Novara. 4to. Wien, 1S67 The Author. 

SfOHamoN, R. I.— Siluria. 1867 .. The Autkor. 

MuttAT, A. — Journal of Travel and Natural History By Purchase. 

J. W. H.— Discovery and Adventure in Africa. Ediiibur^'h, 1830. 

By Purchase. 

Ruuueencia Respublica. Amstelodami, 1634 .. By Purchase. 

JMiPiDyW.— Administration of Scinde. 1851 .. By Purchase. 

NaoBiy OusTOFORO. — Discorso, December, 1867 The Authoiu 

Keuxateb, G. — Meteorological Ob ervatious., 1838-63. 

The Author. 

KlCHOLAB, Sir H.— Chronology J ?y Purchase. 

ngsr Expedition Vocabulary. 1841 By rui!LGUA»&. 

xci? Accessions to tlie Library 

Titles of Books. Donors. 

Normandy, Joamal of a Residence in, from ' Ck>nstable'8 Miscellany.* 

S. M. DsACB, Eaq. 

Nile, its Source and Carrent. 1791 R. Bbiggs, Esq. 

Norway, Records and Statistics for 1865-66 .. .. CnnisTiANiA Unitexsitt. 

O'Bbikn, D.— Banking in Persia. 1868 The Aittbob. 

Ogle, N.— Western Australia. 1839 By Pdbchase. 

Oliphant, L. — Nepaul and Katmundu. 1852 By Pubchaie. 

Pacific Ocean, dangers in. 1866 Hydrouraphical Depart. U. & Navt. 

Packimgton, J. S.— Church in the Army. 1 808 .. .. The Authov. 

Paton, A. A.— Scrvia. 1845 By Fitbghabe. 

Peilr, J. B. — Talkoodars, Ahmedabad Zillah . . Bosibay Govt. Rbpcwt. 

Petrie, M. — Army of Great Britain, 1867 Sir Hbmbt Jameb 

Pennant, T.— Chester to London. 1811 By Pdbchabe. 

Peebt, a. — Ph^nom^es Volcaniqucs des Bes Alcutiennes, Alaska, et la C5te N. 
d*Am€rique. 1867. 

Tremblements de Terre en 1863-64. 1867 •• The Adthob. 

Perrt» £. — Languages of India. 1853 .. .. .. By Pubcbase. 

Petermann, a. — Der Englische Feldzug in Abessinien. Gotha, 1868. 

The AoTHOB. 
Peyton, J. L. — Adventures of my Grandfather. Virginia, 1867. 

Colonel Peytok. 

PiM, B. — ^The Negro and Jamaica. 1867 ' .. The Adthob. 

Plaktamour, E.—See Hirsch. 

PooocK, R. — ^Description of the East. 1743 .. By Pubcbabe. 

PoGsoN, W. R. — Boondelas. Calcutta, 1828 . . By Purchase. 

PoLi, B. — Inscgnamento del Economia, Politica o Sociale, in Inghilterra. Lom- 
bardy, 1867. / 

Applicatione agli Scienziate e Letterati Italiani. Lombardy, 1867. 


Poncet. — Ethiopia in 1698 and 1700 By Pubchase. 

Porter, R. K.— Georgia, Persia, &c. 1817. The Rev. T. C. THORifTOK. 

Portugallia, Commentarius. 12mo. Batav., 1641 .. .. By Purchase. 

Power, J. — Province of Sancto Domingo del Darien in 1734. 1867. 

The Tbansultob. 

Pratt, J. J. — ^South African Sheep-farming. 1867 Mr. "R*^**, 

Preussische Expedition nach Ost-Asien . . By Pubchase. 

Prinsep, II. T.— Tibet and Tartary. 1852 By Purchase. 

Quetelet, a. — Etoiles Filautes, 1867. Bmxelles. 

Statisque des Tailles humaines. Bruxelles. 

L'Age et TEtat Civil des Maries. Bruxelles. The Authob. 

Radde, G. — Kaukasuslander. Tiflis, 1866 .. .. The Authob. 

Raikes, C. — N. W. Provinces of India. 1852 By Pubchase. 

Raulin, V. — L'Isle de Crete. Paris, 18G7 By Purchase. 

IUynal. — East and West Indies. 1788 By Pubchase. 

Reeve, L. — ^Brittany. 1859 .. .. By Purchase. 

Renadot, E.— India and China in the Ninth Century. 1733. By Pubchase. 

of the Royal Geoffraphical Society^ 



By PuRCHAflE. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 

The President. 

S. M. Drach, Esq. 

Titles of Books. 

BENEXSy F. W. — Saline Springs of Nanheim 

BsimxE, Surgeon. — ^Bhotan and the Dooar War. 1866 

Bhodes, A. — Jerusalem as it is. 1865 

BoBDcsoN, E. — Geography of Holy Land. 1865 

BocHSTy A. Hericoust. — Adel et Choa. Paris, 1841 

BoQUETTE, Ds LA. — Humboldt Correspondence^ etc. * 

BosBKWALL, p. — Bemerkungen eines Russen. 1814 

BosSy Gaptain. — Journey on the Mecran Coast between Cape Jask and Gwadur. 
1867. The Commissioner of Scindb. 

Boas, J. — Appendix to the Second Voyage, 1829-33-35 .. By Purchase. 

Both, A. — Doldeohom und Weisse Frau. Coblenz, 1863 .. S. M. Drach, Esq. 

Boze; C. a.— La Cdte ouest de la Corca. 1866. Paris, 1867. 

Buasia. St. Petersburg in 1829-30 

Buna, sen Moscovia itcmque Tartaria. 1630 

BussELL, A. — Aleppo. 2 vols. 1794 

M. — Palestine. 1832 

SaTannah to Philadelphia and England. 179^ 

ScHMiBTSiEYER, P. — Chile and the Andes, iu 1820-21 

Scott, C. H.— Baltic and Black Seas. 1 854 

ScBOPE, G. P. — Volcanoes. 1825 

Shaw, B. — South Africa. 1840 

Shou., T. C— North- West Australia. 1867 

SiLTER, J. M. W. — Japanese Customs. 1867 

SiLTER, W. — Australian Guide 

Sinclair, C. — Shetland and the Shctlanders . . 

Smaixt, G. R. — Sydney Observatory Observations. 1867 .. 

Smith, C. J. — Statistics of Mysore. 1854 

W. H.— Canada, n.d 

E R. — Araucauian Indians of S. Chili. 1855 

W. — Voyage to Guinea. 1547 

Smithi, T. — De Republica Anglorum. Lug Batuvor. n.d. 

Smtth, W. H.— Sailors' Word-Book, revised by Sir E. Belcher. 

SoLTTKOFF, A. — Voyage dans L'ludc. Paris, 1851 .. 

Speke, J. H. — Memoir of, in * Bulletin de la Soci^te de Guographie,' 1864. 

Sporer. — Nova Zembla. 1867.. .. .• A. Peterhann, Esq. 

Sproat, G. M. — Scenes and Studies of Savage Life. 1868 .. The Author. 

St. John, H. K. — Life of C. Columbus, 1850 .. By Purchase. 

Stesnstrup, J. S. — Natural History and Mathematics. Copenhagen, 1867, 

Stefanof. — Ancylas Fluviatilis. * Acad. Imp. de St. Petersbourg/ vol. x. 

Steixthal, H.— Mande-Neger-Sprachen, Berlin, 1867 .. By Purchase. 

Stern, H, A. — The Falashas of Abyssinia. 1862 .. By Purchase. 

STRAHLEN'nEBG, P. J. VON. — Sibiricu und Grosse Tartarey, etc. Stockholii), 1730. 

By Purchase. 

Strangford, Viscountess. — Adriatic. Eastern Shores, in 1863. By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 
R. Briggs, Esq. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 

The Author. 

The Author. 

The Author. 
By Purchase. 

The Author. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 
By Purchase. 

xcvi Accessums to the Library 

Titles of Books, Donoru 

Steeet. — Indian and Colonial Directory. 1867-8 .. .. The PubLiISHEB. 

SusiNEu, C— Cession of Russian America to the United States. 1867. 

J. K NoUBSB, Esq. 

SuTCLiFFE, T. — Chile and Peru. 1822 to 1839 .. .. By Purchase. 

SwATNE, G. C. — Lake Victoria. 1868 The Pubusher. 

TABA8P.~(Lower Engadine) Mineral Waters. 1866 .. S. M. Drach, Esq. 

Taylor, R. — ^New Zealand. 1855 By Pcrchase. 

Thevenot. — Voyages. 2 vols. 1683 .. By Purchask. 

TaoEUMEL, G. VON. — Vilajet Bosnien Turkisch Croatien, etc. liVicn, 1867. 

By Phrchase. 

Thugs. Practices of the Thugs of India. 1837 .. .. By Purchase. 

Thurlow, I. J. H. — ^The Company and the Crown. 1867 .. The Author. 

Thrupp, J. F. — Ancient Jerusalem. 1855 By Purchase. 

TiNN^, J. A., and a. p. F. Tinne. — Plantse Tinneanae. Vienna, 1867. 

J. A. TiNKE, Esq. 

ToBLER, Titus. — Bibliographia Palestine. Leipzic . . The Author. 

Tod, J.— Travels in Western India. 4to. 1839 .. .. By Purchase. 

ToMBLESON. — The Rhine. „ „ 

TowNSEND, J. K. — l^cky Mountuns, to Columbia River. Philadelphia, 1839. 


TuoLLOPE, T. A. — Britanny By Purchase. 

Uhde, VON. — Rio Bravo del Norte. Heidelberg, 1861 .. The Author. 

United States Coast Survey. 10 vols. 4to R Rimber, Esq. 

Urquhart^ D. — ^Travels in Spain and Morocco. 18.')0 By Purchase. 

Valois, a. de. — Mexique, Havanc et Guatamala. 18G1 By Purchase. 

Varenio, B.— Gcographia Gencralis. Amstelodami, 1671 .. By Purchase. 

Vasco de Gam a. — ^Viagem Cabo da Boa Esperanza. Porto, 1838. By Purchase. 

Vatssieres, a. — Voyage en Abyssinie. 1857 .. W. D. Cooley, Esq. 

Venezuela, History of, with Notices of New Grenada and Equador. No n. or d. 

S. M. Drach, Esq. 

Vione, G. T. — Ghuzui, Kabul, and Afghanistan. 1848. F.. R. Ravensteik, Esq. 

Voyages formee dans les Provinces-Unies des Pays-Bas, qui ont scrvi h. rEtabliase- 
ment de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales. 12 vols. Rouen, 1 72.5. 

By Purchase* 
Wade, C M. — From Delhi to Peshawar and Cabul. 1839. 

E. R. Ravenstein, Esq. 
Wagge, V.See Guldberg. 

Walford, E.— Photographic Portraits The Author^ 

Webber, V. A.— Round Cape Horn. 1859 By Purchasf.^- 

Wey, W.— Jerusalem, 1458-62. St. James of Compostella, 1456. 2 vols. 1867. 


Whitfield, J.— Obras Publico do Brazil. 3 vols. 

River Parahyba do Sul. 

Rio Sao Francisco and Rio das Velhas. 

River Madeira. Rivers Purus, Hyupura, Araguaya, Paraliybai*^ 

Pomba, Madeira, and Soahy Explorations. 

Report on the Purus River and others. 

of the Royal Geographical Society. 


TUUi cf Books. Donors, 

1851 •• By Purchase. 

; DX. — Voyages par A. Olearins. Amsterdam, 1727. 

Voyages par J. A. de Mandelslo. Amsterdam, 1727. 

By Purchase* 

', 't. — ^TamataTe to the Capital (Madagascar). 1867. The Author. 

J. W.— The Middle Kmgdom (China). New York, 1848. 


By Purchase. 

IL— The Holy Gty. 1849 

r^ Jw — Round Scotland. 9 toIs. 
•••••••. B. A. — Mexico, Conquest of. 1859 

W. R. — Norway, Sweden, Denmark, &c. 182G 

^ WnRBy 0. T. — ^Bormah, in 1857 

i ^W&IWpe Naturalist's Club. 1867 

-Ahius Gludnosa. ' Acad. Imp. de St Petersbourg,* vol. z. 

Allen. — Korea in 1865 .. .. .. .. The Author. 

Fit— tMe Erd- und Himmelskunde. 28 vols. Gotha, 1800. By Pubchase. 

J. M. — L'Hypsom^trie de la Suisse. Translated by O. Bourrit 1867. 


By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 

Thos. BLASHUjy Esq. 

ri I 

Mi . 


K-.r, i, 

Ti .1 . 


Journal of Science and Arts. To date 



The Editors. 

The Editors. 

The Editors. 

The Institute of Actitaries. 

.... The Editors. 

^*ind(das). Augsburg Purchased. 

wBiofli>qoe UniTerselle et Rerue Suisse The Publishers. 

Bp|kl4kr.« The Publishers. 

QMIaa Journal of Industry, Science, and Art. The Canadian Institute. 

April MMonary Intelligencer. To date The Publishers. 

SMqgktlJoumal The Editor. 

, 4P!EhL de TAgriculture des Pays chauds. . . Chahber or Agriculture. 

^MuDimi's Nouvelles Annales des Voyages The Editor. 

Marine Magazine. To date The Editor. 

Bfmgaane Purchased. 

i*» Ldodon Journal of Arts and Sciences . . . . The Authors. 

iftM and Qberies on China and Japan IItrchased. 

iMMBm's Mittheilungen. Gotha M. Justus Perthes. 

mfu zxxviu. g 

xcviii Accessions to tlte Library 

Titles of Books, Donors 
Photographic Journal. 

Pablishers* Circular .. Pub( 

Quarterly Review ThcPuH 

Triibner's Literary Record .. .. Purc 

Wealeyan Missionary Notices .. The Pub 



Anthropological Review. To date. 8yo. The Anthbopoloqical S 

Archsologia : Proceedings and Transactions of the Archsological I 


HorologicalJoumaL Horological Instt 

Journal of the Photographic Society TheS 

Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnsean Society. To date. 


Journal of the Society of Arts Ths £ 

Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. The S 

Journal of the Royal United Service Institution .. The Insti 

Journal of the Statistical Society of London. To date The S 

Manchester Free Library Report. 

Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society . . . . The S 

Philosophical Society of Glasgow TheS 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. The S 

Proceedings of the Aborigines Protection Society .. The S 

Proceedings, &c., of Institution of Civil Engineers. The Instj 

Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophic Society of Liverpool. 


Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution .. The Insti 

Proceedings of the Royal Horticultural Society. To date. 8vo. 


Proceedings of the Royal Institution . . . . The Insti 

Proceedings of the Royal Society . . . . . . The S 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh .. The S 

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries . . . . The S 

Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, The S 

Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The A< 

Proceedings and Transactions of the Zoological Society. The i 

Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society .. .. The i 

Radcliffe Observatory •• .. The Radcufve Ti 

ofth$ Royal OeoffrapKical Society. xcix 

TUki. Dwort. 

Report of the (Committee of Conncil on Edacatlon .. The GoanciTTEE. 

Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

The Association. 

Sesuonal Papers of the Royal Institute of British Architects. 

The iNsnnrrE. 

Transactions of the Ethnological Society .. .. The Society. 

Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. 

The SodiiTT. 

Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Club ,. The Society. 

Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature. .. The Society. 

War Office Library Catalogue Index War Office. 


Aeaddmie dea Sciences de Dijon The Society. 

Annales Hydrographiques for 1866 .. Depabtment de la Mabine* 

Bulletin de la Soci^t^ d'Eocouragement pour Tlndustrie Nationale. 

Bulletin de la Soci^t^ de G^graphie .. .. The Society. 

Comptes Rendus de TAcad^mie des Sciences .. .. The Academy. 

Journal Asiatique de la Societe Asiatique, Paris. 

Rapport Annuel fait li la Society d'Ethnographie . . The Society. 

Revue Haritime et Coloniale. 1865. 

Mikist^re de la Marine et des Colonies. 

Abhandlungen der mathematisch-physikalischcn Classe, &c. 

Db. W. Koch. 

Abhandlungen zur Kunde des Morgenlandes. . . The Society. 

Akademie der Wissenschaft zu Miinchen .. .• The Academy. 

MittheilnngeB der Kaiserljch-Koniglichen geographischen Gesellschaft, 
von Foetoerle . . . . . . . . . . The Society. 

Monatsberichte der K. Akad. der Wissenschafteu zu Berlin. 

Physicalisch Okonomischen Geslleschaft zu Konigsberg The Society. 

Schriften der Uuiversitat zu Kiel .. .. .. The University. 

I^tzungsberichte der K. B. Akad. der Wisscnschaften zu Miinchen 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen MorgeDlundischen Gesellschaft. Leipzig. 

The Society. 

Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkund zu Berlin .. The Society. 

Zeitschrift der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaft fiir Meteorologie. 

Carl Jelinek. 


Annales Met corologiques. Bnixelles, 1867. 

Annuaire de rAcaddmie Hoyalc..*' .. .. ., The Academy. 

Bulletin de rAcad^mie Royale des Sciences, etc., Bnixelles. 

Bremen — 

Abhandlungen der Naturwissenscliaften, zu Bremen. 


o Accessions to the Library 

Titles. Donors. 

Frankfort on the Main — 

Beitrage zar Statistik der Stadt Fnnkfart am Main, tod der statistischen 
Abueilong des Vere'ms fdr Geographie and Statistik •• The Sogiett. 

Austria — 

JahrbUcher fur Meteorologie and Erdmagnetismus. .. Carl Jeuenrk. 

Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen geologischen Reichsanstalt Wien. 

Switzerland — 

Biblioth^ue Universelle et Bevue Suisse .. .. The Library. 

Geneva — 

Mdmoires de la Soci^t^ de Physique de Geneve . . The Societt* 

Le Globe : Journal Geographique de Geneve .. .. The Publisher. 


Nat. Gesellschaft zu Zurich TheSociett. 


Christiania Observatory Reports The Obsertatort. 

Fredrik's Universitets Reports. Christiania .. ,. The Universitt.. 

Jaarboek van de Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Amsterdam 


Bijdragen tot de Taal-land en Volkenkande Nederlandsch Indie 

Yerslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. 
Amsterdam .. .. The Acadkut. 

Nederlandsch Meteorologisch Jaarboek . . . . Observatory. 

Denitark — 

Forhandlingen og dets Medlemmers. Copenhagen .. The Society. 

Oversigt det Kongelige danske Videnskabemes Selskabs. Copenhagen. 

The Society.^ 

Italy — 

Atti del Reale Instituto Lombardo. Milan .. .. The Institute.- 
Memorie del Reale Instituto. Milan •• .. The Institute* 

Sicily — 

Atti della Academia di Sdenzi e Letter! di Palermo .. The Acadeut.-- 

Bulletin M^t^rologique. 

Meteorological Reports • The Observatory..^ 

Norway — 

Christiania meteorolsgiske jagllagelser .. Christiania Observatory^- 

Statistics and Reports, &c. •« .. Christiania University. 

Portugal — 

Boletin e Annacs do Conselho Ultramarino. 

The Royal Acad, of Sciences, Lisbon* 

qftlie Royal Geographical Society. 


TUle. Donors. 

e M^morias da Acaderaia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa, Classe dc 
Sciencias Moraes, Politicas e Bellas Lettras. .. Tbe Academy. 

Qmdro Elementar das RelacOes Politicas, &c., de Portagal. 

Acad, or Sciences, Lisbon, 

Anniles de rObserratoire central de Rossie . . . . The Obsebtatobt. 

Compte Renda de la Society Impenale Gcbgraphiqae de Russie. 

The Society. 

Melanges Physiqaes et Chimiques de'l'Acad. Imp^riale de St. Petersbourg. 

U^noires de TAcad. dc Sciences de St. Petersbonrg 

Proceedings and Transactions of the Russian Geographical Society. 

Annnario del Real Observatorio de Madrid .. .. The Obsebvatoby. 
Resnmen de las Actas dc la Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas. 

Almenach Nautico. Cadiz Dr. Daa y Vela. 

£1 Obsenrations de Marina The Obsebvatoby. 

toEDnn — 

Acta UniTersitatis Lundensis, etc The Ukivebsitt. 

Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar. To date. 4to. 
Stockholm The Academy, 


Bombay Meteorological Reports India OrncE. 

Ceylon Branch of Royal Asiatic Society . . The Society. 

Cluna Branch of Royal Asiatic Society. Shanghai . . The Society. 

Joamal of the East India Association The Association. 

Jonmalof the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal .. The Society. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Madras . . The Society. 
Madras Joninal of Literature and Science, 

Reports of Bombay Presidency India Office. 

Selections from the Records of the Government of India. India Office. 

North China Branch of Royal Asiatic Society .. The Society. 


Proceedings of the Meteorological Society of Mauritius. The Society. 

Bcrae Africaine. To date. La Societe Histobique Alg::bienne. 

TabU«nx de la Situation des Etablissemcnts Fran9ais dans I'Alg^rie. 

oii Accessions to tlie Library of the Royal Geoyrapfiical Sod 


Tales. Donors, 


Annales del Moseo Pablioo de Buenos Aires .. .. H. Bubmi 

Annual Report of the Trustees of the Museum of Comparative Zc 

The Trc 

Boletin de la Sociedad de Ciencias fisicas j Naturales de Caracas. 
Nos. 1-3 The So 

Boston Society of Natural History TheSc 

Journal of the Franklin Institute The Imsi 

Proceedings of the American Academy .. .. The Aci 

Proceedings of the American Geographical and Statistical Society c 
York The Sc 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

The Aci 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society .. The Sc 

Proceedings of the Essex Institute The Insi 

Reports of U.S. Sanitary Commission. Washington. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge . . . . The Inst 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.. .. The Inst 

Smithsonian Report. 8vo. The Insi 

The Canadian Naturalist and Geologist, with Proceedings of I 
History Society of Montreal The & 

Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

The Ac. 


Boletin de la Sociedad Mexicana The Si 


Sydney Meteorological Reports .. .. .. .. G. "W. Sw 

Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria .. .. The & 

Victoria Mining Reports . . .. .. .. Secretary of 


Fboh Mat 27th, 1867, to Mat 25th, 1868. 

lops, Charts, ^c. Donors, 

Hie Handy Boyal Atlas. B;^ A. K. Jonhston. Edinburgh, 1868. ContaiDing 
45 maps, with \lphabetical Index. The Author. 

Hand-Atlas iiber alle ^lieile dcr Erde and fiber das Weltgcbaade. Erste Ausgabe, 
1817. Jubel Asgabe, 1867, herausgegeben von Adolf Stieler. Gotha. 
Parts 2, 15, 16, 7, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25, containing 86 maps. 

Justus Per'fhes, Esq. 

Atlas to Fay^s Great Ouine of Geography for High Schools and Families, with a 
Text-Book. Berli, 1867. Bruno Hassknstexn, Esq. 

Imperial Atlas of Englan and Wales. Parts 6 and 7. By A. Fullarton and Co. 
Edinbargh, 1868. The Authoiis. 

AUgemeiner Missions-Atla, nach Original-Qaellen. Bearbeitet yon Dr. Ii. Grun- 
denna Prediger. G<ha, 1867. Parts 2 and 3. Africa. The Author. 

Hydrographie du ilaut SatPrancisco et da Bio das Velhas. Par Emm. Liais. 
Paris, 1865. 20 map with letterpress. By Purchase. 


Map of the World in Turkisl Character. Constructed and Photographed by His 
Excellency Ahmed Ve>k Eflfendy. The Author. 


^^'^der Arktischen and Antaitischen Rcgionen zur Uebersicht der Entdeckungs- 
geschichte. Von A. Permann. Gotha, 1868. Scale 1 inch = 9^, 

'^^t^ der Arktischen and Anta;tischen Begionen zur Uebersicht des geographi- 

schen Btandpunktes imi. 1865 der Meeresstrumungen, &c. Von A. 

• Peiermann. Gotha, 186: Scale 1 inch = 15^. The Author. 


Earopa. Von A. Petermn. Gotha, 1868. Scale 1 inch = 205 miles 
(geo). The Author. 

^UiTisH Isles — 

Ordnance Maps— 1 -inch see (Kingdom). 
England and Wcdes — 
Sheets 105 n.w. (Hills); andOG s.e. (Hills). 

Scotland — 
Sheet 23 and 24 (Hills). 

civ Accessions to the Map-Boom 

Maps, Charts, 4'C, Donors, 

Sheets IS, 27, and 129 (Hills.) 

OEa>NANCE Maps— €-iDch scale (Counties)— 

England and Wales — 

Co. Cumberland, Sheets 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 59, iO, 61, 62, 63, 
65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 12, 83, 85, 86, 
87, 88, and 90. 

Co. Northumberland, Sheets 81 and 32, 


Co. Perth, Sheets 34, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55,36, 57, 58, 60, 61, 
62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77,78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 
83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 96, 97, 102, 11', 113, and 121. 

Ordnance Maps — 26-inch scale (Parishes)— 
England and Wales, 

Cornwall, 19 sheets; .Cumberland, 16 sheets; Deonshire, 58 sheets; 
Essex, 72 sheets; Hampshire, 67 sheets; Her^brdshire, 12 sheets; 
Kent, 300 sheets; Lancashire, 8 sheets; Middles^, 23 sheets; Sorrey, 
26 sheets. 

Scotland — 

Aberdeenshire, 279 sheets; Argylcshire, 21 sheets 'Banffihire, 28 sheets; 
Buteshire, 52 sheets; Kincardineshire, 30 oeets; Perthshire, 249 

Ireland — 
Dublin, 46 sheets. 
Ordnance Maps — 5 and 10-feet scales (Towns)^ 

England and Wales — 

Chatham, 22 sheets; Romsey, 9 sheets; Tunbdge, 12 sheets; Tunbridge 
Wells, 22 sheets. 

- Scotland — 

Forfar, 9 sheets. 

Total 1475 sheets oOrdnance Survey. 

The Ordnance Sufey Office, Southaxpton* 
through S H. James, R.E., Director. 

London. — ^A new Map of Metropolitan Raways, Tramways, and Bfit- 
cellaneons Improvements deposited at :e Private Bill Office, Nov* 
30th, 1867, for Session 1868. By £d^ Stanford. London, 1868« 
Scale 3 inches = I mile (stat.) ' TheAuTHOB. 

Gebmaky — 

General — 

Karte von Deutschland. Von A. Stieler. otha, 1868. Scale 1 inch = 10 
miles (geo.). Parts 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and K^ontaining 19 maps. 

Justus Perthes, Esq. 

Bavabia — 

Topopjaphischer Atlas vom Konigreic^ Bayem, Three sheets ; vis., 
13, 108, and 109. Scale 1 inch = 0" miles fgeo.). 

The Bavarian Goyermxsnt. 

Greece — 

A Litho- Photographic impression of t) Diagram ** Island of Santorin," 

of tint Royal Geographical Society. CT 

MapSf Charts^ 4^, Donors. 

execated by a new System nf Lithographic PrintiDg, with five other 
Specimens. By Mr. K. Warner, of the llitho-Photographic Institute. 

Mr. R. Warner. 

Map of part of the Southern Gralans. By R. C. Nichols. Scale I inch = 1} 
mile (geo.). 

UB8IA — 

Ethnological Map of Bnssia in Europe. 1867. On 2 sheets. Scale 
1 inch = 1 degree. Sir R. I. Murchison, k.cb. 

S|pecialkarte Ton Nowaja-SemlE. Nach den Russischen Original-Karten 
zusammeugestellt. Von A. Petermann. Gotha, 1867. Scale I inch = 24 
miles (geo!) .. The Author. 

Topografia Catastral de Espalla Proviucia de Madrid. 

Partido Judicial Getafe. Ayuntamiento Titulcia. On 18 sheets, with Index 
and Triangulation. Scale 1 : 2000. 

Partido Judicial Getafe. Ayuntamiento Carabanchel Bajo. On 22 sheets, 
with Index and Triangulation. Scale 1 : 2000. 

Partido Judicial Alcala de Ilenares. Ayuntamiento Canillas. Scale 

Partido Judicial Alcala de Ilenares. Ayuntamiento Canillcjas. Scale 
1 : 20,000. 

Partido Judicial Colmenar Viejo. Ayuntamiento S. Sebastian de los Reyes. 
Scale 1 : 20,000. 

Partido Judicial Colmenar Viejo. Ayuntamiento Torrelodones. Scale 
1 : 20,000. 

Partido Judicial Getafe. Ayuntamiento Villayerde. Scale 1 : 20,000. 

Partido Judicial Navalcamero. Ayuntamiento Villanuevo de la Canada. 
Scale 1 : 20,000. 

Partido Judicial Nayalcomero. Ayuntamiento Arroyo-Molinos. Scale 
1 : 20,000. 

Partido Judicial Nayalcamero. Ayuntamiento Boadilla. Scale 1 : 20,000. 

Triangulacion Catastral de Conjunto. Provincia de Madrid. Scale 
1 : 200,000. 

Provincia de Madrid. Perimetros de los Terminos Municipales. Scale 
1 : 400,000. 

Proyincia de Madrid. Madrid y sus Contornos. Scale 1 : 100,000. 

Madrid. Parcelario Urbane. Hojas Kilom<5tricas a3, a4, b3, b4, b5, c3 y 
c4, Distrito de Buenavista. Manzauas, Nos. 329, 280 y 281. Scale 
1 : 1000. 

Madrid. Parcelario Urbano. Hojas Kilometricas u3 y d4. Distrito y 
Buenayista. Manzana No. 285. Scale, 1 : 500. 

Don Juan de Vila NoyA, Professor of 
Geography, Madrid. 
^^DEN — 

Topografiska Corpsens Karta ofyer Syerige. On 102 sheets. Scale 

1 inch = 1} mile (geo.). 
Two Sheets, yiz. : — 

V. O. 31 Upsala. 
I. V. 39 Halmstad. 
Two copies of each map. 

Major-Gencral J. A. Hazelius, 
Chief of the Royal Topographical Corps of Sweden. 

cyi Accessions to the Map-Boom 

Mapa, Charts^ 4c. Dcnors. 

Sveriges Geologittka Undersokning pi offentlig bekoetnad ntfSrd under- 
ledning af A. Erdxnann. 4 sheets, tIz. : — 
Sheet 22. Eriksberg. 
„ 23. Nykoping. 
„ 24. Turna. 
„ 25. Samsbolm. 

With 4 books of letterpress. Scale 1 iDch = 0*68 mile (geo.). 

Geological Society or Swedbk. 


Carte Gc'ologiqae de la Suisse de MM. B. Studer et A. Escher von der 
Linth. '2* Edition revne et corrig^ d*apres les publications rentes 
et les commaiii(^tion8 des Auteurs et de MM. v. Fritsch, Gilleron, 
Jaccard, Kaufmann, Mosch, liluUer, Stoppani, Tb^bald. Par Isidor 
Bachmanu. Winterthur, 1867. On 4 sheets. Scale I ioch = 8( 
miles (geo.) .. .. .. .. .. Prof. J. M. Zieoleb. 

Karte des Uuter-Engadius mit den nordlich, ostlich u. siidlicb angrenzen- 
den, Theilen von Vorarlberg, Tyrol und Yeltlin. Bearbeitet von J* 
M. Zicgler. Winterthur, 1867. On 2 sheets. Scale 1 inch =r 0*68 
mile (geo.) .. .. .. .. .. .. The Autuor* 



Compass Survey to illustrate the March of the Aden Field Force 1865-1866. 
Surveyed by Captaiu H. Pym and Lieutenants Jacob, Boileau, and 
Sorrel. Scale 2 miles = 1 inch. 

Chinese Tautary — 

Boute Survey from British India into Great Tibet through the Lhasa 
Territories and along the Upper Course of the Brahmaputra Eiver, or 

Nari-chu-saiig-po. Made by Pundit , and compiled from the 

original Materials by Capt. T. G. Montgomerie, ii.£., f.b.g.8., Great 
Trigonometrical Survey of India. Dehra Doou, 1867. Scale 1 inch = 
16 miles (geo.) 

Forschungcu und Aufnabmen zweier Punditen (Indischer Eingebomen) in 
Tibet, am Nari-tschu Sangpo oder obern Brahmaputra in Nepal und 
dem Himalaya 1865-67. Auf Grund der Karten und Berichte v.Capt 
T. G. Montgomerie, mit Zusatzen von A. Petermann. Gotha, 1868. 
Scale 1 inch = 27^ miles (geo.) .. .. A. Petebmamn, Esq. 

A Boad Map from Peking to Kiachta, cut on wood. To aid the funds of a 
Mission School at Peking, 1864. On 12 sheets. Scale 1 inch = 2*9 
miles (geo.) .. .. .. .. E. C. Bowra, Esq., 

Imperial Maritime Customs, Canton, China. 

China Pkopek — 

Map of the Sun-on District (Kwang-tunc Province), drawn from actual 
Observations made by an Italian Missionary of the Propaganda, in 
the course of his l*rofessional Labours during a Period of Four Years. 
Leipzig, 18G6. On 2 sheets. Scale 1 inch = 1} mile (geo.). 

J. L. SouTHEY, Esq., R.K. 
India — 

Map of India. By E. Weller. London, 1S68. Scale I inch = 130 miles 
(geo.) .. .. .. The Author. 

iffthi Itoyal Geographical Society. 

Moq)», Charts, ^. 
DitraiCT Maps of India (54 in No.), vix : — 



iyinrfa .. 

tcUy .. 




> • • • 

dm .. .. 
iipoor .. 

mtk .. .. 

Mnoor • 





jvee Nos. 1, 2, and 7 .. 


usee Nos. 3 and 4 

usee No. 4 

Diee No. 5 

naee Nos. 5 and G 
oaee No. U 

No. 15 

No. 24 


ion No. 1 

on No. 1 

ion No. 2 

nm Nos. 2 and 3 

(On No. 4 

mn No. 5 

Mm No. 6 

ion No. 9 

ion Nos. 10 and 11 .. 
Imlpoor No. 1 .. .. 
bnlpoor No. 2 . . i 

bnlpoor 5, 6, 7, and 12 
•bolpoor 13, 14, and 15 










pootana, 8 sheets 


ra and BomlMiy Road . . 


Capts. Wronghton and Fordyce .. 
Capt. Lawrence and Lieut Stephen 

Capt. IL Wroughton 

Lieuts. Abbott and Stephen . . 
Lients. Fraser and Ablwtt . . 
Lieats. Abbott and Stephen .. 

Major H. L. ThuillJer 

Capt. B. Browne 

Capt. W. Brown 

Capts. Bedford and Wrouffhton .. 
Capt. Bedford and Lieut. Fraser.. 

Lieut. S. A. Abbott 

Capt. R. Wroughton 

G. U. M. Alexander 

Lieot H. V.Stephen 

Capts. Lawrence and Wroughton 
Capts. Oliver, Simmonds, and Brown 

Lieut H. V. Stephen 

Capts. Simmonds and Brown 
Major H. L. Thuillier 



Lieut S. A. Abbott 
Major H. L. Thuillier 

Lieut.' S. A. Abbott 




Lieut. F. J. Burgess 



Capt. D. Vanrenen 



Capt. W. Brown 

Capt R. Wroughton .. 

Capt. B. Browne 

Capt. Brown and Lieut. Fraser 
Capt R. Wroughton .. 



Capts. Oliver and Simmonds 

Capt B. Browne 

Lieut H. L. Thuillier 

Major II. L. Thuillier 

Capt Abbott and LicMit. Fraser . . 
Lieut H. L. Thuillier 

Due. Scale* 

















839-40 I 

832-8 I 

859-GO I 

854-5 I 

859-60 ' 

853-4 ; 


859-60 . 








































































Major J. Baillte, Bengal Staff Corps. 

* Inches to a mile. 

cviii Accemans to the Map^Rocm 

Maps, Choi-ts, 4rc. Demon, 


Sammer Hoate fVom Leh (Ladak) to the Karakonun Pass. (JUS.) Compiled 
from the liecords of the Great Trigonometrical Sarrey of India by 
Capt. T. G. ^lontgomerie, ile. Scale 1 inch = 14 miles (geo.) 

Summer Bonte iirom the Karakoram Pass to the City of Tarkand. (JfiSL) 
Protracted from the Joamal of the Moonshee Mahamad-i-Hamid. 
By Capt T. G. Montgomeric. Scale 1 inch = 14 miles (geo.). 

The Adthoe. 

Japan — 

A Native Map of Japan, divided into provinces and coloured. 

Pebsia — 

Sketch showing the Route and Coast-line firom Mogoo Bay to the Town of 
Bunder-Abbass, including the Island of Kishm, 1864. Scale 1 inch s 

4} miles (geo.). 

Russia — 

Map of the Kirghiz-Steppe (regions of the Orenburg and Siberian Kir- 

fhizes) and of the Countries conterminous with the Central Ariatic 
Possessions in Russia. Copied from a Russian Map, published at St 
Petersburgh, by the Topographical Depot, War Office, London, 
1868. Scale 1 inch = 60 miles (geo.). 

Topographical Depot, War Office, 

through Sir U. James, R.S., Director. 

Map of the Kirghiz Steppe, including the regions of the Orenburg and 
Siberian Kirghizes and the Provinces of Semipalatinsk and Turkestan, 
with the conterminous portions of the Central Asiatic States. Printed 
in Russian with English Translation. Scale I inch = 58 miles (geo.). 

Die Seenbecken des Balchash und Ala-Kul in Inner-Aslen. Nach den 
neuesten Russischen Aufnahmen und Forschungen von Balkotr, 
Golubew u. A. zQsammeugestellt von A. Petermann. Gotha, 1868. 
Scale 1 inch = 35 miles (geo.) The Adthob. 

SlAM — 

Franzosische Aufnahme des Me-Khong, 1866-7, und Uebersicht der geo- 
graphischen Kenntniss von Hinterindien. 1 Januar, 1868. Von A, 
Petermann. Gotha, 1868. Scale 1 inch = 8} miles (geo.). 

The Author. 


Turkish Map of Asia Minor, in two parts. Constructed and Photographed 
by his Excellency Ahmed Vetyk Efifendy. Scale 1 inch = S24 miles 
(geo.) .. .. .. •. .. .. •. The Author. 

Map of part of Armenia, shewing Lake Van and surrounding country. 
By Major Frederick Millingen. 2 copies. Scale 1 inch = 9} miles 



Sketch of a Map to illustrate the Arab Geography of Negroland. By W. 
D. Cooley, Esq. London, 1841. Scale 1 inch = 150 miles (geo.). 

W. D. CooLET, Esq. • 

Uebersicht von Gerhard Rohlfs Reisen in Afrika, 1861-67. Von A. Peter- 
mann. Gotha, 1867. Scale 1 inch = 3^°. 

Map to accompany Gerhard Rohlfs Narrative of his last Journey. By A. 
Petermann. Gotha, 1868. Scale 1 inch = 48 miles (geo.). 

A. ra-ERXAMK, Esq. 

of the Royal Geographical Society. cix 

Map9t Charts f ^. Donon, 


Abyiniiia, Egypt, and the Red Sea. By James Wyld. London, 1867. 
2 copies, scale 1 inch = 96 miles (geo.) . . The Author. 

Phyto-geographische Karte des Nilgebietes and der Uferlander des Rothen 
Meeres nach alteren und neueren Qiiellen entworfen und gezeichnet 
Ton Dr. G. Schweinfurth, 1867. By A. Petermann. Gotha, 18G8. 
Scale 1 inch = 135 miles (geo.) Dr. A. Petebmann. 

Carte de I'lsthme de Snez. Dress^e sons la direction de M. Yoisin, Di- 
rectear-g^ne'ral des Traranx, et d'apr^s les operations de M. Larouse, 
Ing^nienr hydrographique. Paris, 186G. Scale 1 inch = 2f miles 
(geo.) Purchased. 

Carte de TAbyssinie, du pays des Galla, de Choa, et d'Ifat. Dress^ par 
MM. Combes et Tamisier. Dessiii^ par A. Vuillemin. Paris, 
1838. Scale 1 inch =32 miles (gea). 

Ethiopie. Carte No. 7. Gambo et Darrabe. Par Antoine d*Abbadie. Paris, 
1864. Scale 1 inch ^ 6^ miles (geo.;. 

Ethiopie, Carte No. 8. Caw et Rare. Par Antoine d'Abbadie. Paris, 
1864. Scale 1 inch = 6} miles (geo.). 

Ethiopie, Carte No. 9. Inarya et pays Hmithropes. Par Antoine d'Abbadie. 
Paris, 1862. Scale 1 inch = 6} miles (geo.). 

Ethiopie, Carte No. 10. Fronti^re Septentrionale dn Kafia. Par Antoine 
d Abbadie. Paris. 1862. Scale 1 inch = 6} miles (geo.). 

W. p. CooLEY, Esq. 

Abyssima and the Sonrces of the Nile from Seb Manstcr. a.d. 1550. 

Dr. J. MuRiE. 

Upper Nubia and Abyssinia. By A. Keith Johnston, p .b.s.e. Edinburgh, 
1867. Scale 1 inch = 39 miles (geo.) .. .. Purchased. 

Map of Abyssinia. By James Wyld. London, 1867. 2 copies. Scale 1 
inch = 29 miles (gea) .. .. .. .. The Author. 

Abyssinia. By Smith and Son. London, 1868. Scale 1 inch = 33^ miles 
(geo.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Authors. 

Map of Abyssinia, By Dr. Beke, 1866. E. Stanford. London, 1867. 
Scale 1 inch = 60 miles (geo.) . . . . . . E. Stanford, Esq. 

Route Maps of Abyssinia. Published by the Topographical Depot, War 
Office, uuder the superintendence of Sir H. Jumes, r.e. London, 
1867. Scale 1 inch= 8} miles (geo.). 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th editions. 

The Topographical Depot, War Office. 

Specialkarte vOn Nord-Abessinien. Von A. Petermann. Gotha, 1867. 
Scale 1 inch = ISf miles (geo.). 

Specialkarte des Nord-Abessinischen Gebirgslandes zwischen Massaua und 
Halav. Von A. Petermann. Gotha, 1867. Scale 1 inch = 4^ miles 

Specialkarte des Hochlandes von Abessinien zwischen Tekonda und 
Addigerat nach den Englischen Aufuahmen, Detailberichten und 
Co. Von A, Petermann. Gotha, 1868. 2 copies. Scale 1 inch 
= 4} miles (geo.). 

Die ersten Aufuahmen dcr Englischen Armee in Abessinien, 1867-1868. 
Uebersicht des voraussichtlichen Kriegsschauplatzes bis Magdala. 
Von A. Petermann. Gotha, 1868. Scale 1 inch = 13i miles (geo.). 

A. Petermann, Esq. 

Route Surveys in Abyssinia, commencing from the landing-place at 
Annesley Bay. Surveyed by the Quarter Master General's Depart- 
ment. Camp, Senaf^ 1868. Scale 1 inch = 4 miles. A photograph. 

ox Accessions to the Map'Boom 

Map^t Charts, ^e. JDonort^ 

Compass Sketch of the Country b^ the Koomayli and Hncldas Torrents to 
Senaf% and Tekoonda respectiTely. Col. B. Phayre. Malkatto. 1868. 
A tracing. Scale I inch = 4 miles (gea). 

Military Sketch of the Country between Annesley Bay and Senaf^ By 
James Wyld. London, 1868. Scale 1 inch = 5 miles. 

The Author. 

Map of part of Central Abyssinia, compiled from varioos Anthorities by 
the Topographical Depdt, War Office. London, 1868. Scale L 
inch = 10 miles (stat.). 

Through Sir £. Lugabd, War Office, Pall Mall. 

Originalkarte von Central-Abessinien. Zum grossen Theil nach nnpnbli— 
cirten Docamenten. Von A. Petermann. Gotha, 1868. Scade L 
inch = 14 miles (geo.) .. .. .. .. The Autbob. 

Two Maps of part of Abyssinia: — 

1. Adooa. Scale 1 : 200,000. 

2. Koarata and Goundet 1 : 200,000. 

ByG. Lejean. Paris, 1868 The Authob* 

Map of Sir S. W. Baker's Routes on the Nile IVibntaries of AbysBinJa. 
By £. Stanford. Loudon, 1867. Scale 1 inch = 45 miles (geo.) 

£. Stanford, Esq* 

Karte von Ost-Sudan, zur Uebersicht der Reisen yon Carl Graf Krockoir' 
von Wickerode, in den Jahren 1864 und 1865. Gezeichnet Tocm 
B. Hassenstein. Berlin, 1867. Scale 1 inch = 25 miles (geo.). 

Bbuno Hassenstein, Esq • 

MS. Map to illustrate the Explorations in Eastern Africa by Count Carl 
Krockow, 1864-65. Scale 1 inch = 14 miles (geo.). 

Sketch Map showing the Track of Mr. Young and party in search of Dr* 
Livingstone, 1867. Scale 1 inch = 10 miles (geo.). Mr. Young* 

Tracing of an original unpublished Map of a Journey fh>m the Orange 
River to the Zambesi in 1866. By Dr. Karl Mauch. With indica-* 
tions of the Gold Fields discovered by him in 1867. Scale 1 inch s 48^ 
miles (geo.) A. PETERXANNy Esq.- 

Southern — 

Das Capland nebst den Siid-Afrikanischen Freistaaten und dem Gebiet def 
llottentotten und Kaffem. By A. Petermann. Gotha, 1868. Scal^ 
1 inch = 68 miles (geo.) 

Uebersicht der trigonometrischen und nautischen Aufnahmen im Kap^"^ 
lande bis 1867. By A. Petermann. Gotha, 1868. Scale 1 inch = 2.*^^ 
miles (geo.) .. *. .. .* .* .. The Autbob.^^-' 



Chart of Herald Island, discovered by H.M.S. Herald, Capt Kellet 1849.«-«^ 

Chart showing the Track of Commander Moore in the Boats of H.M.S -^^ 
Plover, from Icy Cape to Dease lulet. July and August, I860. 

Chart of Herald Shoal, discovered by H.M.S. Herald, Capt. Kellett, S9tl^ 
August, 1849 .. .. .. .. .. Admired R. CoLLiNsoN*. 

liussian — 

North Western America, showing the Territory ceded by Rnssia to the 
United States. Compiled for the Department of State; B. Peircc, 
Superintendent. 1867. Scale 1 inch = 68^ miles (geo.). 

U.S. Naval Drpabtuent, through W. Faxon, Esq., Assist. Sec. 

of the Royal Geographical Society^ cxi 

Jfops, ChariSj ^c. Doncrt, 


Map of Brituh Colombia. Prepared under the Direction of Capt R. M. 
Parsons, B.E. New Westminster, 1863. Scale 1 inch = 17 miles 

Barometric Section fh>m the Golf of Georgia up the Fraser and Harrison 
Rivers, and dong the Waggon Road to Lake La Hache, 360 miles. 
From Observations made in September and October, 1863, by Capt. 
R. M. Parsons, b.e. New Westminster. 

Accompanied by an Abstract of Meteorolof^ical Observations and a 
Table of Latitudes and Longitudes .. Capt. R. M. Parsons, b.e. 

Map of the City of Victoria (Vancouver Island). Published by Alfred 
Waddington. San Francisco, 1863 .. .. The Author. 

Plan showing the Region explored by S. J. Dawson and his Pardr, between 
Fort William, Lake Superior, and the Great Saskatchewan Kiver, fh)m 
Ist August, 1857, to 1st November, 1858. Scale I inch = 10 miles. 

Map of Central North America, showing the proposed Railroads across 
the Continent in British and American Territories. By Edward 
Stanford. London, 1868. Scale 1 inch =100 miles (geo.). 

Alfred Waddinoton. Esq. 

TJhited States — 

A Photographic Copy of the General Map of the United States Boundary 
Survey. Compiled and drawn by Lemuel D. Williams, Thecdor 
Kolecki. and Edward Freyhold. Washington, 1866. On 2 sheets. 
Scale 1 inch = 15 miles (geo.). 

United States N.W. Boundary Commission, Washington, 
through Archibald Campbell, U.S. Commissioner. 

Karte vom westl. Theile der Verein. Staaten N.-Amerikas zur Uebersicht 
der ^rossen Eisenbahnbauten nach dem Pacific Ocean, der neuesten 
Temtorien und Aufnahmen von Hermann Berghaus. By A. Peter- 
mann. Gotha, 1S67. Scale 1 inch = 192 miles (geo.). 


Map of Colorado Territory. Paris, 1867. Scale 1 inch = 32 miles (geo.). 

Jack&on Barwise, Esq. 

Central-America u. die Antillen. By £. G. Ravenstein. London, 1865. 
Scale 1 inch = 110 miles (geo.) .. .. .. The Autdor. 

A Map of British Honduras. Compiled from Surveys by J. H. Faber, Esq., 
Crown Surveyor, E. L. Rhys, Esq., and others, and including the 
positions on and near the North-West Prettier, ascertained by Lieut. 
Abbs, R.N., in 1867. Scale 1 inch = b{ miles (geo.). Two copies. 

Sir F. Rogers, Under Secretary of State, Colonial Office. 

Tracing of part of the Province of Belize, showing the Course of the Prin- 
cipal Rivers. By Lieut. C. Abbs. Scale 1 inch = 4f miles (geo.). 

Admiral R. Collinson, r.n. 

Mapa de la Republica de Nicaragua levantado per orden de su exa. el 
Presidente C^apn. General Martinez bajo la iuspeccion del Conbul- 
General en Londres. Por Maximiliano de Sonnenstern. 1863. Scale 
1 inch = 8 miles (geo.). James L. Hart, Cousul-General, Nicaragua. 

The International Atlantic and Pacific Junction Railway, as projected by 
CapL Bedford Pim, r.n., 1866. Scale 1 inch = 16 miles (geo.). 

The Author. 

Plan showing the District Explored and Route Surveyed, &c., for an Inter- 
oceanic Railwajr. By John Collinson, Esq., c.e., f.r.o.s. 1863 and 
1867. Scale 1 mch = 500 feet The Author. 

cxii Accessions to the Map-JRaom 

MapSy Quxrts, 4'C. Donors, 

Trial Section across Nicaragua for an Interoceanic Railway. By John 
Collinson, ce., rjt.o.6. 1863 and 1867 .. •• The Author. 

South — 

General — 

Karte von SGd-America. By E. 6. Raxenstein. On two sheets. London, 
1866. Scale 1 inch = 165 miles (geo.) .. .. The Author. 

Argentine FepubUc — 

Nuevo Mapa de la Proyincias qne forman la Confederadon Argentina y de 
las Republicas Oriental del Uruguay, Paraguay, j Chile. Leyantado 
y corregido sobre los documentos mas autenticos, y modemos, y esplo- 
raciones bechas en estos ultimos anos. Paris, 1863. Scale 1 inch 
= 46 miles (geo.) .. .. .. .. .. Mr. Burgis. 

Originalkarte des nordwestlichen Theiles der Argentinischen Republik 
(Provinzen Tocuman und Catamarca) nach den Handzeichnongen 
und Beschreibungen von Prof. Dr. H. Burmeister. By A. Petermann. 
Gotha, 1868. Scale 1 inch = 16^ miles (geo.) .. The Author. 

Registro grafico de las propriedades rurales de la Proyincia de Buenos 
Ayres construido por el departamento topografico y publicado con 
autorizacion del Superior Gobiemo de la rroviDcia, 1864. By Satur- 
nino Solas, Mariano Moreno, German Kuhr, Pedro Benoit» Ygnacio 
Casagemas, and Antonio Malaver. On 6 sheets. Scale 1 inch = 6 miles 

(geo.) Mr. BuBOis. 

Brazil — 

Die Deutschen Colonien im Urwald der Brasilianischen Proyinz Rio Grande 
do Sul und Dr. R. Hensel's Reiseroute iiber die Serra Geral im Jahre 
1865. By B. Hassenstein. Berlin, 1867. Sode 1 inch = 14 miles 
(geo.) .. .. .. .. The Author. 

Aofnahme der FlUsse Puriis und Aquiry durch W. Chandless, 1864 und 
1865. Nach den Eogl. Originalkarten im Joum. R. G. S., yol. 36, 
zusammeogestellt von A. Petermann. Gotha, 1867. Scale 1 inch = 
50 miles (geo.) .. .. .. .. A. Petermann, Ksq. 

Map of the River Purds, from near its Source to its Mouth. By W. Chand- 
less, Esq. 1864, 1865. Ou 2 sheets MS. Scale 1 inch = 12 miles 


Map of the River Aquiry (an affluent of the Purds). By W. Chandless, 
Esq. 1865. Scale 1 inch = 12 miles (geo.) .. The Author. 

New Grenada — 

Sketch of a Map of the part of the Isthmus of Darien, explored in the years 
1861 and 1865. By M. Lucien de Puydt, MS., showing the line of pro- 
posed Canal . .' . . . . . . . . The Author. 

Map of the Province of Loreto (Peru). By Antonio Raimondy. Scale 
1 inch = 15 miles (geo.) .. .. .. .. W. Bolulert, £^. 

Section from Iquique on the Pacific, 20° 12' 30" s., 70° 9' 30" w., across the- 
Cordilleras and Great Saliuas to Potosi. Lat. 1 9° 36' s., long. 65° 20^ w. 
Scale (Ver) 1 inch = 1000 feet, (Hor) 1 inch = 2 miles. M& By 
William BoUaert, E^. .. .. The Author. 

Mapa del Camino de Hudnnco al Puerto General Prado. Levantado por 
A. Wertheman y aprobado por J. K. Tucker, Presidente de la Comisum 
hidrogrdfica del Amazonas, 1867. MS., with Section. 

Don M. Felipe Paz Soldak. 



Map of the Southern part of the Gnlf of Carpentaria* Scale 1 inch ~ 
2 miles. 

ofihiB Rcyal Geographical Society. cxiii 

ifqpy, Charts, ^o» Donort. 

M^ of the South-East part of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Scale 1 inch = 


Map showiDg linea of Electric Telegraph in the Colony of Queensland. 
1867. Scale 1 inch = 68 miles (geo,). 

Map of Country sorreyed by F. Walker and H. E. Yonng for Electric 
Telegraph Lines from Bowen (Port Denison) and Gardwell (Rocking- 
ham Bay) to Barke Town, Golf of Carpentaria. Also proposed Line 
from Ou-dwell, via Kennedy's Gap and Flinders Riyer, to Barke Town. 
1867. Scale 1 inch = 24 miles (geo.). 

Map of John McKinlay's Route across the Continent of Australia, fh>m 
Stackey's Crossing to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Compiled from Mr. 
McKinlay's Journal, in the Surveyor-General s Office, by W. G. Harris 
and R. J. Loveday. 1862. On 4 sheets. Scale 1 inch =13 miles 


Map of Landsborough's Route from Bowen Downs to Neelia Creek. MS. 

Plan of Sweer^s Island and Township, Parish of High Clere, County of 
Porchester. Scale 1 inch = 20 chains. 

Plan of the Town of Camanron (Sweer*s Island). MS. Scale 1 inch = 
8 chains. 

A Tracing of Annan River, to accompany Report. 

A Tracing of Endeavour River, lat. 15° 27J' s., long. 145' 10' 50" e. 

South — 

Entdeckungen von Warburton, Walder, Kramer und Meissel im Cooper- 
Delta (Central-Australien), 1866 and 1867. Von A. Petcrmann. 
Gotha, 1867. Scale 1 inch = 13i miles (geo.). 

Warburton's Entdeckung des Nordendes von Lake Eyre. 1866. Von A. 
Petermann. 1867. Scale 1 inch =16^ miles (geo.). 

Mclntyre's Reise in Central-Australien, 1865 and 1866. Von A. Petermann. 
Gotha, 1867. Scale 1 inch = 70 miles (geo.). A. Petermann, Esq. 


Map of part of the Northern Island of New Zealand, showing the Scene of 
the Military Operations of 1863-4. By the Topographical Dep6t, War 
Office. London, 1867. Scale I inch = 8| miles (geo.). 
Topographical Dep6t, War Office, 

through Col. Sir H. James, R.B., Director. 



Originalkarte der Canarischen Inseln Gomera, Hierro, Canaria. Nach den 
Messungen von K. v. Fritsch. Red. und arrangirt von A. Petermann. 
Gotha, 1867. Scale 1 inch = 3 miles (geo.) .. A. Petermann, Esq. 

t^niiAN — 

Map of the country 20 miles around Antananarivo (Madagascar). By James 
Sibree, junr. Scale 1 inch = 6 miles (geo.) , .. The Aothor. 


Map of Hawaiin Group or Sandwich Islands. By the United States Ex- 
ploring Expedition, 1844, corrected to February, 1867. Scale 1 inch 
= 16 miles (geo.) Alfred Waddincton, Esq. 


Accessions to t!te Map-Room 

Jl/aps, Cliarti, ijr. 

BRinsn Admibalty— 

2 The BriUsh iGlocdB. 
1179 Bristol Channel (Eaelimd, West Coast J. 
118S CnrdiffandPennrthHoadB, do, do. 
11S3 RcoGg River to Na^ Poiot, including Scorireallicr and Nuh 

Sands (Bristat Channel). 
U67 TreUod {Sheet 16), Wicklow to Dublin, 

No. 313 GrOQ Sound ci 

« (Balticl. 

) Mebediah to Ras MakhiibeE ITuniB). 
D FrsteUi Rocks to Mehediah ( do. ) 
3 Port of Alicante (Spain, East Coast). 

Bedton 6. 
No. 333 

Indian Harbonr (Labrador, North-East Coast). 
13 Anchorages on tie North-East Coast of Labrador. 
'.5 Indian "Hekle and Occasional Harbour, do. 
!6 Domino Run (Labrador, East Coast). 
!7 Deer and SI;. John's Harbour (Newfoundland), 
10 Cape Freels to Point Partridge, do, 
lO Wand of Fofio, do. 

13 Trinity Harbour to Cape Freels, do. 
i6 Cape Bonavista to Bay Bulls, do. 

9 Heart's Content and New Perljcan, do. 
Ifl Sambro Island to Cape Canso (.Nova Scolia). 
ID Cape Sabla to Sambro Island. do. 

!7 Salem, Marhlehead, and Beverley Ilarbonrs (United 
6 Golf of St. Lawrence and Newfonndland. 
9 Bull Arm (Trinity Bay), ilo. 

IB St. John's (Newfoundland) to HalifBJi. 

3 GuIfofParia (Trinidad Island). 

i7 St. Christopher, Nevis. &c. (West Indies). 

:8 East end of Toba^ Island do. 

•2 Carlisle Bay (Barbadoes) do, 

15 Tobago Island (West Indies). 

>6 Trinidad Island, do. 

18 Rockly Bay, Tobago Island (West Indies), 

1901 Anchorages between Cape Caution and Port Simpsi 

Slates). I 




qfthe Royal Geographical Society. cxv 

Mo^, Charts, ^. 

1928 IC^ie Caation to Port Simpson, including 
1928a|Heoate Strait (Britiih Colombia) 2 Sheets. 


Xo, 6 Soootra Island ( Afnca, East Coast). 
6a Gulf of Aden (Sheet 1). 
66 - — - — -— (Sheet 2). 
leet ' 
[[Sheet 3J 
15 Principal Harboors in the Bed Sea south of Jiddah. 
54 Darra Salaam, entrance (Africa, East Coast). 
596 Africa, General (Sheet 4). 

697 (Sheets). 

677 East Ooast of Madagascar. 

715 Island of Rodriguez^ or Diego Riaz (Indian Ocean). 
715 Amnhlla Bay (Red Sea). 
AnsieY Bay, do. 
Howakel nay, do. 
1223 Kowie River, entrance (Africa, South Coast). 
2082 Table Bay to Cape Agulhas, do. do. 
S088 Cape Agulhas to Mossel Bay, do. do. 
S084 Mossel Bay to Cape St Francis, do. do. 
2085 Cape St Francis to Great Fish Point, do. 
2095 Cape of Good Hope and adjacent Coasts. , 
2528 Red Sea. 

No. lOo North-East Coast of Arabia. 

35 Basidiih and its Approaches (Persian Gulf). 
68a Peak's Strait and Gulf of Manaar (Sheet 1). 
70a Bay of Bengal (Western Sheet). 

706 — (Eastern Sheet). 

738 West Coast of India (Sheet 4). 
748a Indian Ocean (Western Sheet). 
823 Gulf of Bengal (Sheet 7). 

1681 (Sheet 5). 

2056 Strait of Sunda. 

2737 India, West Ck>a8t (Viziadroog to Cochin). 

2837a 6 Persian Gulf (on 2 Sheets). 


No. 16 Hiogo and Oosaka (Japan). 

861 River Amur (Sheet 1). 

862 (Sheet 2). 

982 Harbours and Anchorages on the C!oaSt of Java. 

933 Batayia Roads (Java, North Coast). 

941a Eastern Archipelago (Sheet 1). 

941 • (Sheet 2). 

962 Ports in the Philippine Islands. 
1262 Chma, from Hong Kong to Liau Tung. 
1968 Formosa Island and Strait. 
2409 Tai-van, or Formosa, West Ck>ast. 
2454 Northern portion of the Island of Luzon. 
2578 Eastern part of the Sulu or Mindoro Sea. 
S660a China Sea» Southern portion (Sheet 1). 

2660 ■ (Sheet 2). 

2661a , Northern portion (Sheet 1). 

8661 ——--—-—-——-—— (Sheet 2). 
2875 Seto Uchi, or Inland Sea (Japan). 

A 2 

OTvi Accessions to the Map-Room 

Maps, Charts, 4-c. 
Saefimi 14. 

No. 75! Port Victoria (Sonth Aiutralial, 

1021 Port JaokBon to Port Stephens (Australia}. 
1D4S Cape Sti^wart to Port EsEingt.on (Australia]. 
1044 AulrBliH, North Coast (Sh«et 4). 
1(IS7 Liverpool River (Australia. North Coast). 
106B Moreton Bay to Sandy Cape, io. 
1707 Port Western (Victona), South Aiistralia. 
17S2 Port Adelaide ( AoEtralia, South Cosst). 
1948 Rockingham Bay to Palm Islaods (Auatralii). 
S119 Newcastle Harbour (New Sooth Wales). 
S141 Australia, East Coast (Sheet I). 
2389 St. Vincent and Spencer GulGi (South Anstralia). 
Seetlon 15. 

No. 39 Oparo Ilarhonr (Oparo). South Pacific. 
90 Middlelon Beef (South Pacific). 
iaS2MoaIa(F;]i Islands), South Pacific. 
1380 New Caledonia and New Hebrides (South Pacific). 
1384 Bishop Sound aod Wreck Hay (Loyalty Ulauds). 
2421 Tooga, or Friendly Islands (South Pacific). 
Total 116 Chnris. 

The Iljdrographic Office, Admiralty, 
through Capt. G. U. Hicrards, h.n., Hydrographer 


Danish Chart of the Kattegat 1807. 
Fbench (309 in number)— 

863 La Mer dee Indes (Carte IndcJi, No. 10}. 
963 Carte des Antilles, do. " '" 

1093 Ocean PaciUqac. No. 2. do. 

1095 , No. 4, do. 

118G M^diterrani^ Occidentale, do. 

12G5 OrientHle, : dOi' 

1437 L'Am^riqne Scptentrionale, do. 
1464 L'Oc^an Atlantique, do. 

aiS4 GoUcdu Mexique do, . . 

2182 CAte d'Eityple de Ras Alem Room h Aleiandrie (Mer Sledi' 

2153 Carle des Isles Tambelan (Mer de Chiue). 

2154 Carte Gi5D^rale du Golfe du Mexique. 
21B5 Carte des Passages aa Nord de Cubs. 

218G Carte de la Cute de Tcrru Fcrme dc Cutnana k Santa Marts 
(Mer des ADtilles}- 

2188 Plan de rentn.^ de la Bale de Peusacola fPloride), 

2189 Plan de la RiviSrc Saint Mare (Floride). " 

2190 Plan de la Port de Obock (Abyssinie). 

2191 Cane Ge'ne'rale de I'Oc&n Paeifique (Feuille 5). 

2192 Carte G^nerale de la Basse Cuchinchine et da Cambodgc, 

2193 Carte de la presqu'ile de I'lado-Chine depuis 1e Port de Qni- 

nhon dons la Mer de Chine jusqu'il I'entn^ de la Rivitre Ae 
Qang-kok dans le Golfe de Siam. 

2194 Plan dn Port de New Harbour (Singapourc). 

2195 Plan Ue la Rade de Singapoure (Mer de Chine). 

2197 Bale San Moon et Port Sheipoo (Cote Orientale de la Chine). 

2198 Port Namquttm (Cote Orientale dc la Chine). 

2199 Bale el Ante Samsah, do. do. 

2900 Port Tong Sang et Baie Hutan (C£le Orientale de la Chine). 
3201 Angleterre (OJte Sad), de Portland k Portsmooth. 








qfthe Bofol Cteographkal Society* 

aS08 Fton dn Loctnd^, entr^ de la Rivftre de la Pont I'Abbe 

(Cdtes Oocidfintalef do France). 
S804 Ane^eterre (Cftte Sod), de Beachy Head ii Soath Fordand. 
S905 Carte dee CMee Oocidentales d'Eoone et de la Cdte Nofd 

SS07 Angleterre (C6te Oaeft\ da Treroee Head an Canal de Bristol. 
2S08 C6te Occidentale de I'HindoQgtan et de Tile de Ceylan de 

Calient Ik Point des Galles, Dee Maldives (Mer des Indes). 
SS09 Sound de St. Georges, passe de TOaest (C6te de la Floride, Golfe 

dn Meziqne). 
3SI0 Sonnd de St Georges, passe du Milieu (C6te de la Floride, Golfe 

du Mesdque). 
SSll Plan du port et du Mouillage de Sues. 
2811 Carte des Atterages de San Franoisco (Oalifomie). 

2213 Am^que M^ridionale (Cdte Onest\ de Loboa de Afuera ii 


2214 Enti^ du Rio Grande duNord (Golfb du Mexique). 

2215 Entrfe de la RItI^ des Braios de Dies, Texas (Golfe du 


2216 Carte des Des Orcades et de la Cote Kord-est d*Ecoese. 

2217 Plan du Port de Bombay (Cdte Occidentale de I'lnde). 

2218 Angleterre, partie Sud^Onest du Cape liiard ii TroTose Head, 

lies SciUy. 

2219 Plan du Maroni de la Mana et d'une f^artie du terrain oompris 

entre ces deux fleuTes (Guyane Fran^aise). 

2220 Detroit de Jubal (Mer Rouge), lies et R^eifs d^Ashrafi, Port 

de Tur. 

2221 Port de Ting-Ha (Archipel des Chusan), C6te Orieutale de la 


2222 Plan du Fleuve Oyapock, depuis son Embouchure Jusqu'li Peni- 

tenceir de St. Georges (Guyane Fransaise). 
2228 Carte des atterages du Cap St. Jacques, partie compris entre la 
pointe K^ et le Cap St. Jacques (Basse Cochinchine). 

2224 Port Anglaise et Port Falmouth (He de Antigoa, Mer des 


2225 Angleterre (C6te Sud), de Portsmouth It Beachey Head. 

2226 Angleterrre (Cdte Sud), du Cap Lizard k Start Point. 

2227 Angleterre (C6te Sad), de Start Point & Portland. 

2228 Cours de la Loire (Feuille No. 2) du Migron K Paimbceaf, 
2230 Emboachure de la Loire. 

2281 Isles Pescadores (Canal de Formose), COte Orientale de la 

2232 Port de Chinchew etBaie Chimmo (C6te Orientale de la Chine). 

2233 Detroit de Hai-Tau (Cote Orientale de la Chine). 

2234 Baie Mirs (Cote Orientale de la Chine). 

2235 Riyi^re Min, depais son embouchure jusqulk Fu-Chau-Fu (Cdte 

Orientale de la Chine). 

2236 Baie d'Amoy et Baie Hoo-E-Tow, He Quemoy (Cote Orientale 

de la Chme). 

2237 He Namoa, entree de la Riyi^re Han et Port de Swatow, Baie 

Hope et Baie Hai Man (Cdte Orientale de la Chine). 

2238 Port d Amoy (Cdte Orientale de la Chine> 

2239 Atterages et entr(Se de la Riviere Min^ Riviere de Fu-Chau«fb 

(Cote Orientale de la Chine). 

2240 Atblit, autrefois Castellom Perecrinoram, C^rde (Kaisaryeh) { 

Jaffa, autrefois Jopp^ on Japno. Position probable du Port 
d'Yebnah (Cdte de Syrie). 

2241 Port de Point de Galle (lie de Ceylan). 

2242 Port de Trincomalee (He de Ceylan). 

2243 Carte du Bassin oriental de la Mer Mdditerran(^« 

Accessions to the Map-Room 


s, ic. 

iiU Checal Kintane (Giitc Orientnle da la Ohine). 

2245 Archipul des Chnsan (partic Sod), COte Orieotalc de la Chine. 

2246 Archipel des Chiuan (parlie Noril), C6le Orientale de la Chjiie. 

2247 Baia St. Andrd (COle de la Floridej, Golfe du Meziqae. 

224B lagmn! de Tenninos (enlree de Pnerlo Ri/nl), GoJfe du MeiiquCk 

2249 Cuto OccidcDlale de Borneo, lea Tambelau, et Ilea eDTironnaDtcs 

(Mer de Chine). 

2250 Bail! de Galveaton l,Teiiis, Golfe du Mi'xique), entt^e de Gil- 

2251 Carte des Coles d'Egyple et de Tripoli outre Has Alenl Boom 

et Dem&h, Marat Tcbrak, Fort Bnrdioh, Akabah Ea Sollonm, 

3252 Carte des Eatr^s des Golfei de Bolbnie et de Fiulande (Mer 

2253 Carte des Atterrages du Cap St, Jacques, parlie comprise entre 

Ic Cap Tiwan et les cmboueharea du Co-KhicD (Boue Coehin- 

2294 cote Occidcutate de rHiudoustaD de Bombay iL Calicut, Aicbipel 
des LsqiiediTus (Mer dts ludes). 

2255 Aden et Bales atlJBecQtcs (COte d'Arabie), Mouillnge d'Adeu. 

2256 Plan de la Bale de St. Viucenc (Nouvelle Caledoniel. 

2257 Eiviere Yung ou R'lviire de Ning-Po (Cole Orientale de Is 

Chine). Plan particuller de I'entr^e de la Rivil^rc Yung. 
aaSS Rode de Bevel (Gulfe de Finlande). 
2259 Port Baltic ou Rager Wik (Golfe de Finlandc). 
9360 Lea Auambas, les Natunas, et Ilea enrironnaiites (Mer dc 


3361 Detroit de Rhiu (Mer de Chine). 

3362 Carte de la Mer Arabique indiquaut lea Vents et les Couranls 

pendant la Mougeoq de S. O. 
3263 Croquia de la, Rade de Hodeidah (Cute de rYemea, Ambie). 
3364 Baie Sitia, Baie Grandee, Kalo Limniones, autrefois Kalo Lmine» 

(lie de Candie, Mer Medileiranee). 
2265 Ben-Ohazi (Cfile Nord d'Afrique). 

2268 Carte de la Cote de 8yrie comprise entre Saint Jean d'Acre el 

Ei Arish. 

2269 Port Ajas (ancicuDcmeut Aegae), Bade de Karadash (Ane 

3270 Baio de Si. Jean d'Aic (COte de Syric). 
2271 Baio Poro on Bale de Passage, Port Nicolo (He de Candie). 
3272 Cnrtc de la Cote de Cochinchine, eomprenant le Baie de Kiqnit, 

le Cap Batangan, et Polo Canton (Mer de Chine). 
2373 Carte dca C6tes Ae Proase et do Conrlande de Colbers b Libaa, 

comf>reDant file Bomholm et ta Cute de StiMe de I'lle 

Hand !i Ealmar. 
2271 Port cie Slo. Domingo (COlo Quest de Patagonle). 
3276 Plan dea Culao-Cham el de I'entrtfa de F^-Fo (COte de Coc]iio- 

chine, Mer de Chine). 
3376 Riirifere Dvina de la Rade a la Ville do Biga (Golfc de Bigg, 

Mer Baltique). 
2377 Carte de la Baie de Phan-Rang (C6te de CocMuchine, Mer d« 

3378 Plan de la Baie de Pban-rr (COte de Cochinchine, Mer de 

3279 Plan de la Baie d'Anana (Mer Noire, CUte d'Ade), 
2280 Plan de I'Anse de NoTorossiak, do. do. 

2881 Guolendjik, do. do. 

3284 - 



of the Royal CUographical Society. cxix 

S985 PbmdelaBaiedeTrebuoiide, (Mer Noire, C6te d'Asie). 

2S86 Platana, do. do. 

M87 Vona, do. do. 

8288 d'Ounieh, do. do. 

2289 de Samsoon, do. do. 

2290 Kerze', do. do. 

2291 d'Ak-LimaD, do. ^o. 

2293 4 d'Amastro, do. do. 

2294 de Kosloa, do. do. 

2295 Erekli (ancienne Heracl^), do. do. 

2296 Croquifl da Plan des Afflaents du Grande Baasam et d'ABsinie. 

2297 Baie de San Diego (Califomie). 

2298 Port! Conte et Alghero (Sardaigne). 

2299 Port Makry (anclennement Telmissns), Aue Mineare. 
2800 Carte particnlidre du Coors da Cambodge : — 

Fenille 6. Le Tien-Giang (Fleuye Ant^rieur), le Haa-Giang 
(Fleave Post^eore), entre Colao M&, Chaudoc, et le 
parallMe de Ck Sep. 
2301 Carte particuli^re da Coors de Cambodge : — 

Fenille 7. Le Tien-Giang (Flenve Ant^rieur), le Haa-Giang 
^leuTe Post^eor), entre les paralltles de Cap-Sep et de 
2802 Carte particoli^ da Gours da Cambodge : — 

Feuille 8. Le Tien-Giang (Fieure Ant^rieur), le Han-Giang 
(Fleare Post^rieor), entre le parall6le de Qi Leida, et 
Phnom-penh on Nam-Vang. Plan particulicr des Quatre 
Bras de Phnom-penh. 
2303. Carte de la Mer Baltiqae. 

2304 Portsmouth, Am^rique Septentrionale (C6tes Orientales). 

2305 Fiord de Christiania (Norw^ge). 

2306 Golfe de Siam (1« Feuille), Cote Oricntale, de la Pointe Camau 

k la Pointe Samit (Mer de Chine). 

2307 Golfe de Siam (2* Feuille), Cote Orientale, de la Pointe Samit 

au Cap Liant (Mer de Chine). 

2308 Golfe de Siam (3* Feuille), C6te Nord, et Cdte Occidentale de 

rile Co-Samit au Cap Lem Chong P'ra (Mer de Chine). 

2309 Golfe de Siam, Mouillage de Kamput. 

2310 , Rivi^e de Bang-Kok ou Menam-Chau-Phya, 

depuis la Barre jusques k Bang-Kok (Mer de Chine). 

2311 Golfe de Siam, Plans particulier de Centabum, Poulo-Waj ou 


2312 Port Saint-Thomas (lies Vierges), Mer des Antilles. 

2313 Carte des Cotes M^ridionales de Portugal et d'Espagne da Cap 

St. Vincent k Gibraltar. 

2314 Cote Occidentale de lllindoustan de Goa h Tlndus (Mer des 


2315 Cote de llnde et du Belouchistan, des Bouches de Tlndus h Ras- 

el-Hadd (Arabic): 

2316 Mer Adriatiquc (CCte Orientale), de Tile Meleda k Antavari. 

2317 Can^ de TArsa (Golfe de Quamero), Mer Adriatique. 

2318 Ancdne (Italic), Mer Adriatique. 

2319 Port de Swatow (entr^ de la Rivibre Han), Cote Orientale de la 


2320 Baie de Comau ou Leteu (C6te Quest de Patagonie). 

2321 Baie de Tictoc, do. do. 

2322 Baie de Reloncavi, do. do. 

2323 Port Pajjudo, Bales Hereon et Quintero (Chili). 

2324 Baie Coliumo, entree de la Rivi^e Maule (Chili). 

2325 Port San Pedro (He de Chiloe), Anse Sheep, Petit Anse (lie 

Huafo), Chili. 

Accessions to I fie Map- Room 

S3S6 Bale Pichidaiiqae, Baie Torlonlillo, Aiise MiftencUlo, fttde 

Liga« (Chill). 
2327 Kivibre de Moulmem (Galfe dc MorUlNUi), Goire da Bengale. 

Cute Oricntile. 
3328 Bivi^re dc Raneoon (Go]f« de Mortabui), Golfe da Bengnle, 

cote Orientate. 
S339 RiTibre de Cantun on Chou-Kiimg (l" Fenille), de I'lle Lankeel 

h rile Pottiuger (Cliine). 
3330 Riviere dc Canton ou Cliou-Kiang (S"- Fenille), del'Ue Pot- 

linEcr B Canton (Chine). 

2331 Croqnu de I'entn^ dn MoDillage de Doboy, Amfriqnc du Nord 

tCaic Est). 

2332 Croqnli da Mouillage de Todjourah (COts d'Abyuiaie). 

2333 Riviere BasEcin (Golfe du Bengale, Cute Onentale', Mer im 

S334 Plan de PertaU de Maamnsson, comprcuant la Sucdre et le 
CMteau (Cute Quest dc France). 

2335 Cute Orientsle de in Chine, partic comprise emre les lies Tni- 

Chow et rile Tung Ting. 

2336 Cdte Orientule de la Chine, pactie comprise entre file Tung 

Ying et les Ilea Ockseu. 

2337 Fort de Rockport (Hussachusetti), Am^rique Septentrionalc. 

2338 Phin des Hades de Hampton et de la UiviAre ^lliMbelh jusquli 

Norfolk (Virginie), Am^rique du Nord. 

2339 Itivi^re d'Aracan, Golfe du Bengnle (Cute Orientale), Mer des 

2310 Port de Gloucester (Cule Eb( do I'Amtfrique dq Nord. 

2311 Plan du Port de la Bode de Tuliconn (Golfe de Mmar), Mlt 

des Indes. 
234S Carte du Golfe de Bothnie (Partie Nord). 
23*3 (PartiaSud). 

2344 Rade et Port de Kaetelorizo, Bade de Kakava et eolrfe de Port 

TiistoiooB, entre'c S. O. de la Bode do Kakava, Croquii da 
Fort Genovese, Plan de Tekrova (BDcien rbuelis), Cutes de 
Caramanie, Mer Mediterranec. 

2345 EGky-Adalin (ancien Bid^, Croqais du Port Mclania, Croquii 

du Port Chelindreh (aDcien Celinderia), He et Port Cavt- 
liere, Agha-Iiman, Korghos Kalaler (Chateau de Kqrghta, 
Cfites de Caramanie), Mer Meditemuiife. 

2346 Cute d'llalie, de U Pee, MezEalioa i Itimini (Mer Adriatiqne). 
234T Baie Anna Pink (Archipel Chonos). Cute OueEt de Patagonie. 

2348 Baie de St. Andrd (C6(e Onest de PatOKonie). 

2349 Port Low (lies Gualecas), Cute Ouesi de Fatngonie. 

2SSD Bade de VsUenar (Archipel Chonos), Cote Ouvst de Palagonie. 

2351 Crique de Pili Palenn (Cote Ouest de Patagonie). 

2352 Mer Adriatiqae (Cote Orientalej, du Port Quieto k I'lle Aiinello 

(Golfe de Quarnero). 

2353 Carle dc I'lIe Gottland el dn Golfe de Riga (Mer Baltiqne). 

2354 Ports de Ipswich et AnoiEquaia (Massoclituetts (Cute Est de 

l-Am^nqne du Nord). 

2355 Croqnis dn Mouillage de la Extrimit^ Nord-Est dn Gatwt Kareb 

(Golfed' Aden). 
23.'i6 Cronuia de Mouillage S.S.E. de Table Cliff (CGle d'AbyMioie), 
Detroit de Babel Mandeb. 

2357 Havre de Cork (Irlaode, COte Sud). 

2358 Carte des Ciites Me'ridionales de France, partie comprise entre 

le Cap de Creox etCetle. 

2359 lUvi&re Mutlah (Golfe du Bengale, Cute Septentrionale), Mer 1 

rionale), Her I 

of the Royal Geographical Society, cxxi 

3862 Gdte Orientale de la Chine, jKirtie comprue entre les lies Saddle 
et lea lies Taichow. 

2364 C6te Orientale de la Chine, Emboachure da Yang-tze-Kiang et 

lies Saddle. 

2365 Cdte Orientale de la Chine, partie compriae entre lea lies Lamock 

et Hong^Konff. 

2366 C6tes de Golconde et de Coromandel, partie comprise entre la 

Bale Coringah et Madras (Golfe da Bengale). 

2367 Carte de la Mer da Nord et dea Cdtes dea Ilea Britanniqaes. 

2368 Iriande (C6te Sad-oaest) du Cap Clear 2i Blasket Island. 

2369 C6te de Coromandel, partie comprise entre Madras et la Pointe 

Calimere (Golfe du Bensale). 

2371 Carte de la C6te Orientale de Suede, de Carlskrona It Stockholm 

(Mer Bal.tique). 

2372 lie de Ceylan (Partie Sud), Mer des Indes. 

2373 Be de Ceylan (Partie Nord), D<<troit de Palk et Golfe de Manaar 

(Mer dea Indes). 

2374 (}6te d'Oriza et de Golconde, partie comprise entre les Roches 

Santipilly et la Pointe Divy (Golfe du Bengale). 

2375 C^e du Cap Henry au Port Great Egg (l<^ Feuille, Entr^ de 

la Bale Chesapeake), Cdtes Orientalea de I'Amerique Septen- 

2376 Carte da Cap Henry au port Great Egg (2«»« Feuille, Ck)ur8 

sap^rieur de la Chesapeake et Delaware), Cotes Orientales de 
TAm^rique Septentrionale. 

2377 Bassin d'Arcachon (C6te de France). 

2378 Be de Wight, Portsmouth et Southampton (chenal de Test) 

Angleterre, C6te M^ridionale. 

2379 He de Wight, Portsmouth et Southampton (chenal de I'ouest) 

Angleterre, Cote Meridionale. 

2380 Port de Smyrne (Mer Mediterran^e). 

2381 Plan de Tentrde de la Vilaine (CJote de France). 

2384 Carte des Approdies de la Bivi^re Derwent conduisant h Ho- 

bartown (Tasmanie). 

2385 Baies de la Trinity et de la Conception (Terre Neuve). 

2386 Plan des Sondes devant la Riviere de Cayenne. 

2387 Mer Adriatique (Cdte Orientale), d'Antivari il la Riviere Vojuza. 
2888 (Cdte d'ltalie), de Rimini ii la Pte. de la Maestra. 

2389 Port Cherso, Porto Re, Canal de Maltempo, Bale d'Unie, Port 

S. Pietro di Nembo (Mer Adriatique). 

2390 Canal et Detroit de Morter (Mer Adriatique). 

2391 Detroit de Spalatro, do. do. 

2392 Canal de Lesina, do. do. 

2393 Port San Giorgio, He Lissa, do. do. 

2394 Grande Baie, fie Curzola, do. do. 

2395 Canal de Curzola, do. do. 

2396 Ports Lago et Rosso, He Lagosta, do. 

2397 Port Palazzo, He Meleda, do. 

2398 Ports de Molonta, C6te de Dalmatie, do. 

2399 Baie d'Antivari, C6te d'Albanie, do. 

2400 Dulcigno, Cote d'Albanie, do. 

2401 Baie de Durazzo, Cdte d'Albanie, do. 

2402 Baie d'Aulona, Cdte d'Albanie, do. 

2403 Baie Simidsu, He de Nipon, Cote Sud (Japon). 

2404 Ports de Urakami et Oo-sima, He de Nipon, Cote Sud (Japon). 

2405 Port Blair, ancien Port Chattam (He Andaman). 

2406 Carte des D^troits de Singapour, Durian, Jombol et Rhio (Mer 

de Chine). 

2407 Port de Carrisal, Baie Chafieral, Herradura de Carrisal (COte du 


Aeeeaaiont to the Ma/f-Jtoom 

B408 Saiv La'raU, HwuUa|!e da Psin de Socrc, Fori Fluncnco, Port 

de Copiapo (C6U da ChiU). 
S40B Mer Adriitiqoc, CMe Orientsle de I'lle Aundlo & Port Pclei. 
3410 Ilada de Donea (AngWtcrrc. Cdw Sod-etlJ' 
9411 Fort d'tlohwlovu, Kivike Derwent (TiKinanie). 
2412 Porl de Portland (Msinp), Etnta Unie. 
S4I3 Voei del COtes de rAtudriqnc M^ridiooale {Fdrou), de la Baie 

de PiE«> k rEquahmr. 

3414 Bale Veudulout, Bade Bnllioiilaa (lie de Cejlao), Mcr dec Indes. 

341 5 Bale Dodandovre, Port de Colombo (Ue de Cejlsn), Uer dei 

£4le Plan de Tentroe de la liiTi^re Rio Grande do Norte (Br^aU). 
MIT Plan de la Barre d'Amara^ao (Bamt-Velha d'lgnirufa), Biniolie 

Orientate Uu Itio ParanshTba (Br&Ll). 
9418 Cnrte ponicutibre dc« Cule« du Bresil, poriie oomprite entr« Pile 

Santa Anna el la Barra Velha d'lguarufn. 
!419 Atlcragcs de Uanuihao [Cote du Bl^il). 
S430 Plan du r£»nuire fornie par Ic Don-noi eiitr« le bras de Saigon 

et le Soirap CocbincUine. 
3421 Carle del >enicc« h vapeur »iir les Cotes d'Eorope baign^ par 

I'Oc&n Atlaatiqur, la Mcr Aa Nord ct la Mer Baltique. 
3133 Carle des lerrices ii vapcur daos la M^temm^ la Her Noir^ 

el la Uer d'A^of. I 

3435 Carte des cerrices h vapour dans VOedDn Atlnntique. 
34B4 Carte del lerricet k -vapenr dans la Mer des Iiidea et la GraciK- 

2436 Plan du Port de Soutoa (Brciil). 

2426 Plan da Houilla^ de Bnsioa (Br<^sil). | 

2427 Irlande, C6le Sud, de Eioeale lleod h CaniBorc Poiut. 

3438 Carte particoliere da Cours du Cambodge (Feuille 2). Le Tien 
Giang (Fleuve ant&ienr) et Song Mitho (bra* du Milho entre 
le llach CahOQ et Culoo Lao). 

2429 Carte portieuliire du Coura du Cambodge (Fenille a). Le Tien | 

Giang ^Fleuve ante'rieur) entre Culno Lao, le bnw de Mjtho , 
et la poiute lud de Culoo Tcbouiu. 

2430 Cnrte pfttticuliere du Cours dn Cambodge [Feuille 4). Le Tien | 

Giang (Fleuve anl^rieur) enlie Culao-Mandao et la pointe i 

sud de Culao Taj. 
3431 Carte particiiliiire du Cours du Cambodge (Feuille G). Le Tien- 

Giang (Fleuve ant^rieur et le Huu Giang (Fleuve poEterienr], 

entre la pointe Sud de Culao-Tay te Viam-nao, Culao Ma et ' 

2433 Port do San Carlos de Aucud et Di^truit de Chacao (Chili), | 

Amoriquo du Sud. 
3433 Carte des llts Nicobor (Golfe du Bengale). 

3435 Irlnnde (COlu Sud) du Cop Clear i. Yougbiil Harbour, com- 

prenant le Hivre de Cork. 

3436 Du*iroit de Cheduba, Bade et Port de Ramree (Golfb da Bengale). 
S43T PUd dn Mooillage de Caiubriu (Bn^eil). 

3438 Baie Independencia (Ptfrouj. AmL-rique du Snd. 

3439 Pom de Sbd Nicolas et Sod Juau, Itade de Lotnas (Perou), 

Amdrlque du Sud. 
2440 Plan do MoBillage des lies du Salut (Guyane Francaist), 

3441 Bale Casiua, Baie Guarmey (P^rou), Amirique dn Sud. 

3442 Bue de Samanoo on Guambacbo, Baie Ferrol (P^roo), Am^^que 

du Sud. 
2443 Baie de Santa, Rade de Malabriga, Hade de Lambajeqae, Bade 

de Pacasmaj'o, liade de Huanchaco (Ptirou), Amdnqoe da 

3444 lie des Prioci's (Mit de Jlarmam). 

qfih$ Royal Oeoffrap/Ueal Society. cxziii 

S445 Pott d« Mmooih (Aajri«tem^ OAte Sod). 

S447 Ckrte d'Attarige dm OMm Ooddentalcf de France, oompienant 
lif CSfitei Snd-OMrtd'Aiigletem et d'lrlBndeet 1« C6tesNord 
ek Ooflit ^Emgne. 

9448 Bade de KMnd^&M Belligim oa Bale Bonge (He de Ceylan), 
Mer des Indoi, 

i450 Plan de la Bale de Kiel (Denmark). 

1451 Plan dn Port et de I'Entr^ de Nenttadt (Denmark). 

MU Pert de Kyonk-Ph^a (C6te d'Aracan). Golfe de Bengale. 

S458 Bet Coooe on Keehng (Mer des Indes). 

S454 Ovte dn Puiage Ja^irJaTi et des lies Baniak (C6te Onest de 

i4M Baie de Pooloo, Bade de Bencoolen^Cdte Quest de Sumatra). 

S406 Gap Blyen oa des Coorants (Celebes). 

8457 Plan da Fort d'Aiatu (Baie de Bahia de Todos os Santos! 

S458 Enti^ da P^nrt de Maranhfto {C6to de Brdhil). 

S460 Boyaame de CaaUMdge oa de Khmer (1«* Feoille) le men- 
Oianff fFleoYe antilriear) et le Haa Giang (Fleave post^ 
ricar), de Nam-Yang Ik Vam-Nao, le Camd de Yinh-The 
on d'Hatien, de Chaimoe an Golfe de Siam. 

8461 Boyanme de Cambodge oa de Khmer (8«** Feoille), le Cam- 
bodge (Fleave) de Phnom-Penh oa Nam-Yang aax Bapides 
de Sam-bor, le Tonly-Sap oa Song-di-bien-ho (bras da Lao 
de Phnom-Penh) an Oanman-Tien (Petit Lac). 

9468 Boyoome de Osmbodge oa de Khmer (3«* Feoille), les Lacs et 
le Tonly-Sap oa SoDgdi-bien-ho (bras da Lac), Tarroyo 
d'Angoor k I'arroyo de nathom-Bang. 

9463 Mad^, Porto Santo, Isles D^sertes (Oo^an Atlantiqae). 

8464 Coots de TElbe (1*^ Feoille), partie comprise entre Caxhaven 
et GlOckstadt (Mer da Noid). 

2465 Coors de TElbe (2«^ Femlle), partie comprise entre GlUckstadt 
et Hamboorg (Mer do Noi^. 

8466 Carte des Boaches da Gan^e gp»artie orientale), Rivitire Megna, 

Cdtes d'Aiacan et de Chittagong (Golfe do Bengale). 

8467 Plan da Mooillage et de TEntr^ de la Bivibre de Tatoia 

(Prorince de Maranhao, Br^il). 

8468 Carte do Golfe de Finlande (Mer Baltiqoe). 

8470 Portde la Care de I'Oaest et ses Enyirons (Recifs de laFloride), 

C6te Est de TAm^riqae Septentrionale. 

8471 Carte de la C6te de Coduncnine, partie comprise entre le Cap 

Padaran et la Pointe Kega. 

8473 Baie de Mobile (Golfe da Mexiqoe), C6te Orientale de I'Am^qae 


8474 Carte des Cdtes Meridionales de France, partie comprise entre 

Cette et Marseille. 

to Carte g6n^rale de la Basse Cochinchine et da Cambodge. 

8479 Carte de TEntr^ Sad da Canal Ste. Catherine, depais I'llha do 

Coral josqo'& N** S^* do Desterro (Br^). 

8480 Emboochure de TElbe (Mer da Nord). 

8481 Baie deSegoro-Wedie(C6te Sad deJa^a). 

8482 Baie Zand (Cdte Sad de Jaya). 
8488 Baie Winkoaps (C6te Sod de Java). 

2484 Baie de Par^Pard, Baie de Melassor, Bade de Balanipa 


2485 Baie Mamoodja, Bade de Pales, Bade Dangola, Bade de Mem- 

bora, Baie de Wani, Baie de Negri-Baroo (Celebes). 

Accessions to the Map-Room 

Maps, CAfrit, $0. Donori, 

5 Bade de Madiemi, Rade de PenamboatDg, Baic de T^nrani 
Bades de Tapalling el Kail (Celibes). 

Baie de Ssnca Poiira (lie Bavian on Lubeck), Mer de Java. 

1 Plan du Port de Calcombjan, lies et Detroit de Lagoond^ 

Plan de Hadja-Basaa, Carle des lies Zntphen (HoiindB oi 

Hop"!. Cflle Sud de Sumatra. 
a Baie Taliwang. Baie de Sumbawa, Bnie Sanie, Baie Bin* 

(SumbnwB). Bade de Potto, Baaee Terang et Barrie [ Flore*). 
3 Canal Orocotoa, Baie de Poulo Merak, Boie Peper (Cdle Ond 

de JaTa). 
i Mouillage de I^booan Amok et Adec Padaag, Bairs de BtO 

BadoDg et Piute Timor CC6te Sad-onest de llali). 

5 liade de Slmenajou (lie Poggy du Nonlj, liaie de Se-Labba (D 

de Si-Pora), De*iroii de &e-Cockup ou Sikakap (Ilea Poggy] 
lies k la Cote Ouest de Sumatra. ' 

6 Riviere de Tjitando depuii TEiabouctiure jusqu'k Kalie Poo) 

jaug, Entree de Tjilando, Cheual onlre la Bale Tjilaljal 
et la Kifiare Tjitando (au nord de I'lle Kam bangac), Baie 1 
PaQgoul, Baie de Patjitan, (C6le Sud de Java). I 

7 Bade dc Macauar (Cdte Quest de C^lebea). | 

5 Bade de Tjilaljap (Cdte Sad de Java). 

9 Entree de la BiTiire BeDJermassim, Detroit de Poolo-Lwt 
fBomtfo). ' 

Riviire Midiakkan od Koutie (Bomt^). 

1 Carte paniculiure du Conrs dn Cambodge (Feuille I), le Tiei 

Giaag (FlBBVe anliiriear). Song Mitbo (Basse Cochinchiiie i 
Cambodge). I 

6 Boie de Nangnmesiie (He de Sandal-wood), Port Cjma (Be * 

Botii), Port de Pouni-Poura (lie de Kisser), Bale de Dell 

Baie de Koapaiig (lie de Timor). ' 

Uef6i de la Mabine, Pak3 


Also 44 Photographi of Scenery in South Africa •• T. Baines, St 
\'iev of Ms^ala (from the Eail). From a copy fumiEbed b; Di*'^ 
Petermaun from an origlual Sketch by Tb. von Ileoglin. LitH 
graphed at the Topographical Depot, War Office. London, ISC 
Peoples .. .. .. TuPauBAPmcAi. Depot, Wab OFFii^t 

through Sir H. James, B.B., Dir«c« 

View of Herald Island diaco-rered by HMS. Hfrald, 17th August, 18*9- 

'I'hree skulches of ditto ditto : 

Viev of High Land seen from the Ticinity of "Herald Island," la 

August. 1849, supposed to be a continuation of Ibe Mounuuns seen ' 

the natives of '• Jakan" .. .. Admiral R. Coi-liiison, *> 

Sixteen Views in South Australia, vir. :— 

1, Lake Milller, looking East. ' 

a. Peculiar formation of Quartz Reefs, Ringslon Bange. 

3. Natives frightened near Mount Kingston, 

4. Lake Eyre from [lennit Hill, looking n.e. i 

5. Freeling Springs at the foot of Mouot Kingston. 

6. Native Mia Mia or Hut. . 

7. Davenport Range, from the highest point of Yoimghnsb^ 

Range. ' 

6. The Springs ef Hope. 


of the Royal Geographical Society. 


Jfdpt, Charts, ^. 


9. JetWBw Springs and Berefford Hill. 

10. EUxabeth Spnnn, looking North. 

11. Water-hole 3 miles m.b. of the Elixabetlu 
18. The Neales» looking East. 

18. Sandstone and Gypsnm Formation between Chambers Creek 
and Mount Hamilton. 

14. Collara Springs, looking North. 

15. The Hermit HiU, looking West. 

16. Desolation Camp, lookine West 

Sketched from nature by D. D. Herrgott Drawn by N. Chevalier. 

A bark canoe from Tierra del Fuego. Length 8^ feet, breadth 2 feet, 
depth 15 inches; with 3 paddles, 8 fishing spears, 2 baling buckets, 
and 1 fish basket .. .. .. Wiluau Robinson, Esq. 

Governor of the Falkland Islands. 

Ittdex-lfap of the Cartographical Plates contained in the Journals of the 
Royal Geographical Society of London. Vols. I. to XX., or 1831 to 
1850. ^ Bruno Hassenstein. Berlin, 1867. 

Index-lfap of the Plates contained in the Journals of the Koyal Geo- 
graplucal Society of London. Vols. XXI. to XXXVI., or 1851 to 
1866. By Bruno Hassenstein. Berlin, 1867 .. The Authob. 

Gang der mittleren ta^lichen Temperatur von December 1863 bb 

November 1865 (Switzerland^ 
ICttlere tagliche Barometerstanoe und Temperaturen. April and May, 

1867 (Switxerland) Prof. J. M. Ziboleb. 

( cxxvi ) 


la Ut. I. DuTCUi. 

UBuoraciUr, ' 

Brua SexMnt (Tt-lndi), vith Bilnr Arc, by rmnEblan ml Slmmi, 

BCnRutfriimed ArUndal HoTlEon, bj Tnu^loii oDd Glioins. 

Two BuniBeurg (UoudUIu), wlib hopco'ei Ima Oiueni, by Kawrnui. 

Tlie lite Dn. E. I. Ismia, h.d^ fjuu., it Ab«knU— 
Pocket Ctinmi]in(t«r, by BuTDUdiinil LnnL 
BMmnetFr (Uoontalb), by 'ProtigTiton ind SlDuai. 

Dr. D, LimnvinnE, lij>, rjLOA, Zombui, Eutem Afrla — 

Syks*! HypmiBiilrlEal Appmlua, No. I. with BWae Cue, by Casdl*. 
Stindart TtonBDioc — ■>•--— ■- n "- — 


HlmHtdc Ajiomtli Oum 

In Mirwn Cosw, „ 

IlneCus, . 

««,Bllv«iiiig.wlllileiilLcrSUngCue, . 

Da. D. Wmn, jijk, f.b.cul, Kasslm Aracrlcs, Dec 8, Hit— 
SviljinU * In- ndlnB, by Ouy. 
Aillfldal HoTlion, CIrculu, by Ouy. 

HusTulag Tape, il 
rrolnclor, Uom, drvolir. 
H. Wamii, Erq.,lnS(nitbPcni.Mutb9B, 1i 

Pocket Ai»ra!d, Ho, eg, gnulaatcd id is <ndi«^ dry. 
HypHnDetrlcBl Appimtiu. mil 3 BolUng-pulDl TluiiiiDiiiebli^ by Oi 

RCT, F. W. HoLLini. Elm), Jun 

HypflofDelJlciU AppanlQS. juiil 3 ' 

( czzTii ) 




{At the Anniversary Meeting^ May 25, 1868.) 

^^ Pounder's Gold Medal is awarded to Dr. Augustus Petermann, 
'or hig important serviees as a Writer and Cartographer in advancing 
^^ Science, and for his well-known publication the * Geographische 
^ttheilungen,' which for twelve years has greatly aided ttie pro- 
s'^ of Geography. The Patron's Gold Medal to M. Gerhard 
^HLFB, for his extensive travels in the interior of Northern AMca, 
*^d especially for the great journey in which he traversed the 
^ntinent from Tripoli to Lagos in the Gulf of Guinea. 

In presenting the Founder's Medal to Dr. Petermann, the President 
^^diessed him in the following words : — 

I)r. Petermann, — 

•* The terms of the award of a gold medal, as approved by the Council, 
^^ress in brief outline your deserts as a geographer. I need scarcely 
^7 that in this decision I heartily concur. The spirit and ability with 
^*iich you have so successfully conducted for the last twelve years 
^^ publication of the * Mittheilungen ' have called forth our entire 
approbation, and have aided the diffusion of a taste for scientific 
Spography throughout all civilised countries. For, whilst popula- 
^^^ing the science by the continuous issue of clear explanatory maps 
^^ highly interesting^memoirs, you have striven to give it a wider 
®^^ope, by connecting it with various collateral branches of know- 
*^dgo, thus rendering it a grand and comprehensive study. 

**The zeal you have displayed in promoting the researches of 
*^VeUers in distant lands, and the hearty manner in which you 
*^Ve appealed to the public for aid to enable them to carry out 
their plans, are well known to every reader of the * Mittheilungen.' 
^ proof of this commendable feature in your career, I may es- 
P^iaUy advert to your fostering care of Gerhard Bohlfe, your 
*>rother Medallist of this day, and your advocacy of the claims of 
varj Maucbi on whose adventurous travels in Southern Africa I 

cxxviii Sir Roderick I. MuucHisoN'i Address. 

am about to dwell in my Address, Tlie accnracy with which yon 
80 rapidly brought out the results of the receut British oxplonttioiu 
ia AbysBinia have been highly appreciated by us. 

" I must also specially advert to the steady enthusiaam with which 
you have laboured in the cause of North Polar exploration, until at 
length you have Bucceeded in exciting the maritime enterprise of 
your countrymen in this direction, and have, at your own risk and 
with your email means, actually raieed a sum sufficient to send » 
Norwegian yacht to the Noilh-eaat coast of Greenland. Your long- 
oontinued studies of Arctic and Antarctic Geography, — including 
highly instructive maps, representing the comparative amount of 
exploration towards either Pole, and the physical conditions which 
determine the currents and temperature of high latitudes, as bearing 
upon the routes to be followed in attempting to reach the North 
Pole, — I may truly say, give you another strong claim to onr 

"For these etihstantial reasons, I welcome you once more back to 
England, and have the sincercst pleasure in presenting you with 
the Founder's Medal." 

Again addressing Dr. Petermann, the recipient of the Patron's 
Medal on behalf of M. Gerhard Eohlfs, the Peesident thus spoke : — 

" In awarding the Patron's Gold Medal to your intrepid countrymaa. 
M. Gerhard Hohlfs, of Bremen, the Council and myself have been, 
moved by the self-eacrifiee and disinterestedness with which t 
young traveller applied himself to his task, as well as by the extent: 
and importance of the journeys he has accomplished. Commencing 
in 1861, Gerhard Hohlfs continued for five years exploring tha 
northern part of the African continent. His journeys in Moro< 
in 1863-4 are the most important that any European has perfonueda 
and, in crossing the Atlas southward to the oases of Tuat and 
Tidikelt, he reached a point farther than was attained by any of tha 
French explorers. On returning vid Ghadames and Tripoli, he mad9 
a short visit to Germany, and went back to Africa with the noblaa 
purpose of penetrating to Waday, to recover the lost papers o^ 
his unfortunate predecessor in bold adventure. Dr. Vogel. Entering 
at Tripoli he reached Kuka, on the shores of Lake Cbdd; whenoe* 

prevented by the Sultan of Waday from entering his territory, he> 

pushed southwards, and, reaching the Benuwe Itiver at its uppers 

course, followed it to the Niger, and travelled onward by land a 

the Yoriba country to Lagos in the Gulf of Guinea. All these great- 

Presentation of Royal Awarcb. cxxix 

undertakings were performed with means so slender as to excite 
admiration of the hardihood of the man who could undergo so much 
privation in the cause of science. In his great Morocco journey he 
trayelled for eighteen months at a cost of 80Z. Fortunately his 
patriotism and love of science carried him forward, and on his last 
expedition he was assisted by subscriptions raised in his native town 
of Bremen and in Berlin, as well as by a contribution of 100/. 
granted by our Society. Since his return the King of Prussia has 
acceded to his request, to send to the Sultan of Bornu, who pro- 
tected the traveller whilst in the region of Lako Chdd, a royal 
present, consisting of a new throne, a state-carnage, and a gold 

*' At the close of our last session, Gerhard Itohlfis visited England 
on his return from Africa, with his faithful Moorish attendant, and 
delighted us by his lively description of the wild countries he had 
trayersed, and the difficulties ho had surmounted. The scientific 
resnltH of his journeys have been elaborated by yourself, and pub- 
lished by you, together with the narrative of hia travels. 

'* A traveller so courageous and devoted has well earned this 
xnark of our approval; and it is with pride and pleasure that I 
^leliver to you, who have been his best supporter, the Patron's or 
"Victoria Medal, to be placed in his hands." 

Dr. Petermann, having received both medals, replied as follows : — 


Sir, — T receive these Medals with the deepest gratitude, lliere 

^3an be no higher reward to a devoted servant in Geographical 

'SScienc^, no better stimulus to further efforts, than this distinguished 

:^nark of approbation of the leading Geographical Society of the 


*• That I have come here to receive these Medals at your own 
lands, is a living proof how highly I value your approbation and 

** I consider, Sir, that I have done no more than my duty, in 
^endeavouring to add my mite to the stock of geugraphical know- 
ledge. As, nevertheless, you have done mo fiie great honour to 
Ixjstow on me your award, I must confess that 1 owe it in great 
"jxart to yourself and the Society. For, when I first came to Eng- 
land, 23 yeai"S ago, I experienced such kindness among my brother 
geographers in this countr}-, that I shall never forget it to the end 
^Df my me. And when aftonvards, 14 years ago, I followed a call 
Xo my own country, I tried to second your noble efforts, and to 
labour along with you as well as I could. In these endeavours I 
liave at all times been most kindly and liberally assisted by jour- 
-*5elf and many British geographers and British authorities all over 
"3trho world, while I have found in the enterprising geographical 

voj.. XXXVIII. i 

exxx Sir Boderick I. Mitrchison'* Address. 

establishment of Justus Perthes a suitable sphere of activity, and in 
my assistant and friend, Dr. Ernest Behm, a hearty co-operator 
in everything that tends to advance geographical knowledge. Ours 
is a laborious and tedious work : and, whilst you English are pre- 
eminently discovering and exploring in all quarters of the globe, we 
Germans chiefly try to make ourselves useful in the study at home, 
assisting to digest the information obtained. 

'* I accept with sincere pleasure the second Modal for my friend 
Gerhard Kohlfs, an honest and persevering traveller, who, kindly 
assisted by your Society, has done some good work. 

" In his name and my own I oiFer you. Sir, the Council, and the 
Members of this great Society, our sincercst thanks. At the same 
time I cannot but consider it as a national honour ; and I am snre- 
that millions of my countrymen will read with pleasure the kind 
words 3'ou have spoken on this occasion. 

** To receive these high rewards is a new proof that Science is 
not bounded by the limits of nations ; but that its cultivators all 
over the world are one united brotherhood. Geography is the 
most universal of human inquiries. They cannot make war, they 
cannot make peace without Ciccigraphers. They cannot build a 
railway or lay out a ship's track without maps or surveys, or have 
trade and commerce without geography ; our explorers must find 
out the gold-fields of the world; and not even a holiday-tour to 
Switzerland, or elsewhere, can be fully enjoyed without a good 
map. In fact. Geography is a great pioneer of culture and pro- 
gress ; and, moreover, the privations, hardships, and trials our 
travellers and explorers have to undergo, arc an excellent school for 
bringing out the good qualities and forming fine characters. 

" Having had the honour to bo a Member of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society for a quarter of a century, I have witnessed with 
great gratification and admiration its risi^, its prcKcnt eminent 
position, its prospering condition, and extensive influence; and, 
while it is a great happiness for me to be once more among you, 
my hope and great wisli is that the Society will advance ancl 
become more prosperous than ever." 

A Gold Watch, valno thirty guineas, awarded to the Pundit em- 
ployed by Captain Montgomerio, for his route-survey from Manasa- 
rowar to Lhasa in Great Thibet, was next presented to Lord 
Strangford on behalf of the Pundit, now in India. 

In presenting tlio watch, the President spoke as follows : — 

" My Loii]>, 

" I have sincere gmtification in placing in your hands this hand- 
some gold watch, which the Council have awarded to that skilful 
Pundit whose remarkable travels in Thibet will shortly be published 
in our Jounial. In requesting you, at the commencement of this 
day's proceedings, to receive this reward on behalf of the Pnnditr 

Presentation of Royal Awardtt. cxxxi 

your Lordiihip statod that Sir Henry Eawlinson was the most 
fitting person to perform this office, from having proposed the 
award in Conncil ; but wliether preference bhould bo given to your 
Lordshxpy to Sir Henry Bawlinson, or to Sir Andrew Scott Waugh, 
who was so long Director of the Great Trigonometrical Survey, 
I am sure you 'will, as a scholar and geographer, deeply versed in 
Asiatic subjects, willingly respond on behalf of the Pundit, and unite 
with us all in saying that there never was a gift more worthily ob- 
tained. I need not recapitulate all that the Fundit has done. He 
has laid down, in travelling from Nepaul to Lhasa, and along the 
great Thibetan road \o Lake Manasarowar, a route-survey of 1 200 
miles of country previously scientifically unexplored, and has taken, 
besides^ a measurement of the city of IJiasa. The details of his 
journey have been communicated to the Society, in the admirable 
report of Captain Montgomerie, to whom I beg you will convey 
our feelings of warm approbation of the skill and energy with 
which he is instructing these native explorers, and fitting them for 
important geographical discoveries." 

Lord Strangford replied : — 

" Mr. President, — You take me a little by surjmse in naming 
me as the deputy of the remarkable Pundit who is to receive this 
award of the Royal Geographical Society. The rightful sponsor 
of the Pundit is our titill more learned Pundit Sir Henry Raw- 
linson, on whoso suggestion the award was made. But as you 
have done mo the honour to choose me to speak vicariously, I 
need only say that 1 acknowledge with gratitude on his behalf 
the very high honour which you have done him. And in this I 
see a recognition not only of his services, but also, through him, of 
the common brotherhood and common intellectual capacity of 
natives of India with ourselves to share in our scientific honours. 
I am certain that the award -will bo duly appreciated at the pre- 
sent time, when the native public of India is being thoroughly 
educated to express its own wants and its own sentiments through 
the public press. It will rewound through the; length and the breadth 
of the land to the honour of the Society. I cannot leave the sub- 
ject without speaking in my own person in appreciation of the 
I^undit's merits, as shown in his great geographical achievement. 
It is not only that he, a native of the plains, has emulated the 
Alpine Club, by climbing to a height uf 15,000 feet, and showing 
wonderful endurance of Alpine hardships in journeying for two or 
three months along a plateau at this height, but also that he has 8ho^vn 
extraordinar}'^ tact, a wonderful power of conciliation and know- 
ledge of human nature, in overcoming so many political difficulties 
when accomplishing this rciilly remarkable task. Captain Montgo- 
merie conveys an adequate idea of the man and his work, by saying 

cxxxii Sir Bodebick L Mubchison'^ Addreu. 

how mnoh lie wishes the President and tbe Society could get a sight 
of this man, who has the power of making friends with every one he 
sees. He had shown himself a conscientious Geographer in taking 
such continual observations, which had been tested and verified by 
Captain Montgomerie himself, and in short he had proved himself 
in every way worthy of Captain Montgomerie's selection." 

Mr. Le Neve Foster, Secretary of the Society of Arts, then pre- 
sented to the President Mr. William John AVilsou, as the successfal 
Candidate of the present year for the Boyal Greographical Society's 
Prize of Five Pounds, in the Examinations conducted by the Society 
of Arts. In delivering the amount to Mr. Wilson, the President 
congratulated him on having being the first recipient of the Prize 
who had been publicly rewarded and honoured at the Anniversor}' 
Meeting of the Society. 

( cxxxiii ) 




Delivered at the Anniversary Meeting on the 2bth May^ 1868. 
By Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, Bart., k.cb., 



The tide of prosperity, which for some yeai-s has mai'ked the 
progress of the Royal Geographical Society, continues, I am happy 
to say, to flow on without symptoms of an ebb. Eejoicing as I 
do in our popularity and usefulness, it becomes me now to state, 
that I have seen with regret the great difficulties which have 
occurred in affording sitting room to our greatly-augmented num- 
bers, and the visitors who are introduced to our meetings. Com- 
plaints having proceeded from many of our old Associates as to the 
impossibility of finding places for themselves, the Council were under 
the necessity of devising a remedy, and the following arrangement 
has been made : — The large central portion of the hall will hence- 
forward be exclusively. occupi(;d by Fellows, the sides only being 
set apart for ladies and visitors. 

Though this plan is as good as present circumstances will admit, 
it is merely temporary ; for the wings of Burlington House, in one 
of which we have been pcnuitted to assemble, through the courtesy of 
the Iioyal Society and the University of London, are ere long to bo 
pulled down ; and when the new rooms of the Koyal Society are 
built, no one of them will be large enough to receive the audiences 
that attend our meetings. Kow, as under any circumstance we 
shall be compelled to raise a great edifice for ourselves, T have 
the pleasure to announce, tliat, ever mindful of the coming necessity, 
the Council have applied to the Chief Commissioner of Woods and 

cxxxiv Sir Bodebick I. Mubchison'^ Addbress. 

ForeBts, and obtained a promise that we shall be considered, on the 
allotment of the ground aboat to be cleared between Whitehall 
and the Thames. I tmst that an advantageous site may be ceded 
to ns, as the public body which, for the small sum of 500/. per 
annum granted to us by Parliament, keeps up for the use and con- 
sultation of the public a well-furnished Map Office. 

I may add that it is my hope that when, through the demolition 
of the building in which wo ai-e now assembled, we shall be obliged 
to seek for a temporary asylum whilst a large edifice is being 
raised out of our own funds, we may, upon application, be allowed 
to meet ad interim in the grand new hall of the University of 
London, now nearly finished, the Council of which body, in con- 
junction with the Ilo3ral Societ}^ has hitherto treated ns with so 
much consideration. 

lu the following revi«?w of the affairs of the Society, and the 
progress of Geography, during tho past year, I commence, as on 
previous occasions, with a notice of the career of the distinguished 
men lost to us by death, since the last anniversary'. 


Mr. William John' Hamilton. — By the decease of our former 
excellent President, Mr. W. J. Hamilton, Geography has lost an 
enlightened and zealous supporter, whilst I have to grieve for one 
of my best and most attached friends. Born in London (5th July, 
1805), his education was commenced at the Chai-ter House, and 
completed at Gottingcn, where he acc^uired tliat facility in German 
wldch was of great use to him in his subBoquent career. 

His first pursuit in public life w«as diplomacy. He was attached 
to the mission at Madrid in 1827, in 1829 was removed to Paris as 
an Attache to the Embassy, and subsequently became Precis Writer 
at the Foreign Office, imder the Earl of Aberdeen. In this com- 
mencement of an active life, he very naturally followed the steps of 
his eminent father, Mr. W. Hamilton, so long distinguished as a 
diplomatist, and not less so for his learning and that love of fine art 
which rcTidered him in his latter days one of the most efficient of the 
Trustees of the British Museum. On our part, also, we must never 
forget that IVlr. Hamilton, senior, was the first of our Presidents 
who delivered one of these Anniversary Addresses, which, since his 
time, have formed an integral and essential part of the volumes of 
uur Jouinal. As soon as the father perceived that his son had 

Obituary, — HamiltoiL cxxxv 

readied an age when his talents required to be directed to a special 
pursuit in Science, to be combined with Art, and which would 
elicit all his energy, ho requested me to attract William's attention 
to Gteology. In this way I had not only the satisfoctiuu of giving 
my friend his first lessons on geology in the field (anno 1 835), but 
4dBO of making him known to the accomplished naturalist, the late 
Hugh Strickland; and soon after was foi*med the scientific and 
^mtiqoarian project of these two fine young men, who embarked 
together with the noble intention of iiivcstiguting the Bosphorus 
<and Asia Minor. The son was thus cnablqd to gratify the wish 
of his parent in working out the comparative geography of these 
regions, whilst with his companion he was sure to unravel many 
phenomena in Natural History. 

\b respects Turkey in Euro^Ks Hamilton and ISti'ickland speedily 
threw a new light on the geological structure of the environs of 
Constantinople ; but their friendly partnership was soon dissolved, 
for Mr, Strickland was compelled to return home on family affairs. 

Left to himself, Mr. W. Hamilton carried out and completed that 
survey of Asia Minor, which, being published in 1842, justly 
obtained for him a high position among travellers, and elicited 
the warmest commendation of Baron A. voii Humboldt. No one 
indeed can peruse these volumes, or examine the map which accom- 
panies them, without being stnick with the varied qualifications 
which our deceased associate brought to bear, in illustrating the 
geography, both pliysimd and comparative, as well as the geolog}' of 
this remarkable region. More lecently, indeed, our Honorary 
Member, M. Pieno Tchihatehef, after several excursions in Asia 
Minor, has produced a more comi)lete map, particularly as regaids 
geology ; but still, I am sure that my eloquent Kussian friend w^ill 
unite with mo in admiring the jirevious etibrts of Hamilton. In 
iact, the minute notice of eveiy mile on his route, as noted in his 
Itinerary, the exact time of departure and arrival, the constant 
observation of each turn of the road with coujpass in hand, and the 
minutest notice of every natural feature, was an earnest of what 
this most persevering and conscientious man was destined to be 
through life. 

In the year 1843 Mr. Hamilton was honoured with the Founder's 
Medal of the Society fur these researches in Asia Minor ; and 
it is a remarkable fact that he and the lamented and excellent 
Admiral Smyth are the <^nly Presidents who, since the fuundation 

cxxxvi Sir Roderick I. Mubchisok'^ Address. 

of our Society, have received our Gold Medals for actual journeys 
and discoveries in geography. 

In the sister science of Geology Mr. Hamilton was distinguished, 
not only as a good sketcher and a clear writer, but also as having 
been so much looked up to by his associates, that having presided 
over the Geological Society from the years 1864 to 1856, he was 
again chosen President in 18G4, and served till 1866. Besides his 
Anniversary Addresses, which are models of accurate research, he 
had in previous years been of signal use to the Geological Society^ 
by acting as Secretary and Foreign Secretary. His great merits in 
all these capacities have, indeed, already had justice done to them 
by Mr. Warington Smyth, the late President of the Geological 

In the years 1837-41-42 and 1847, Mr. Hamilton acted as the 
President of this Society, and his Anniversary Addresses were dis- 
tinguished by the perspicuous observations with which they were 
filled, whilst it was his constant and earnest endeavour to improve 
and fix the principles and regulations by which we have ever since 
been governed. 

In his last Address, when speaking of the means by which the 
advancement of geographical science was to be best attained, — 
some persons being of opinion that we should confine ourselves 
entirely to purely scientific subjects, othora preferring descriptive 
travels and more amusing topics, — Mr. Hamilton very wisely con- 
demned such exclusive practice, and thus left it recorded : — " They 
whom I am now addressing will probably agree with me, that it is 
only by a complete union of scientific truth with popular interest, 
that we can hope to see the science of geography take that hold 
of the public mind in this countr}% which shall cnsui'e it the support 
necessary to secure its efiiciency and to maintain it in a healthful 
and powerful condition." 

This principle you well know, gentlemen, has ever guided me 
since I first presided over you ; and it is unquestionably through 
its steady application that our members have risen from 668, when 
Mr. Hamilton last presided, to our present potent cypher of 2150 

In a public capacity Mr. Hamilton represented the borough of 
Newport, in the Isle of ^Vight, in the Consci-vative interest, from 
1841 to 1847. In later years he devoted himself assiduously to the 
cultivation of several branches of geology, and by a patient study of 

Obituary. — Hamilton — Earl of Rosse. ' pxxxvii 

conchology became an adept in his acquaintance with all tertiary 
fosfiik, as testified by Tarions memoirs published in the Quarterly 
Journal of the Geological Society. 

As a President he was highly esteemed for the fidelit}^ urbanity, 
and integrity with which he discharged his duties, in the course of 
which he made many sincere friendships ; and I can truly testify 
that his death, which alas ! came upon him at much too early a 
period, was as deeply lamented by geologists and geographers as it 
was by a large body of private fi'ionds. In addition to his scientific 
parsnits, Mr. W. Hamilton was an excellent man of business, 
whether as member of Committees of the House of (.^ommons, or 
as Chairman of the Great India Peninsula Eailway Company, with 
which body he was connected from the year 1840 till his death on 
the 27ih June, 1867. 

He was twice married. By his first wife, Miss 3Iargaret Trotter, 
to whom he was united in 1832, he had one son, now Lieutenant- 
Colonel Robert Hamilton, of the Grenadier Guards. By his second 
^fe, the Hon. Miss Margaret Dillon, he has left three sons and 
four daughters, all surviving ; and who, with their excellent and 
Affectionate mother, deeply deplore their loss. 

Among the scientific distinctions of iMr. W. Hamilton, it is to bo 

*a.cted that he had not onl}' presided with credit over the Eoyal 

^Geographical and Geological Societies, but that he was also a Fellow 

^ the Royal Society, and a Honorary Member of vaiious Foreign 

cientific bodies. 

The Earl of Rosse. — By the death of this noLlenian, Science has 

n deprived of one of her most illustrious cultivators, — one ^vllc^ 

y his mai'^'clloiLS skill and perseverance, constructed a telescope of 

Tich power that he enabled to open out a long vista through 

lie distant heavens, and make observations of celestial bodies, of 

hich mankind had hitherto been entirely ignorant. By means 

f his gigantic instrument, astronomers have boon able to examine 

liose remote nebulous bodies which seem to bo in a transitionar^^ 

^!* tate, or as the germs of future planetary systems ; and thus we peer 

^3ito the innermost secrets of Natm*e, and aid is lent to the sister 

cience of Gcolog}^ by the light thrown on the subject of the origin 

the planet on whose surface we live. 

It would be presumptuous on my pai*t to attempt to do justice to 

"the sen'ices rendered by Lord Rosse to Asti'ononiy ; the more so as 

t.hey have been admirably expounded by the l^ev. Dr. Robinson, 

the celebrated astronomer, from whoso sketch of the career of his 

t^wxviii Sir Eodebick L Murchison'^ Address. 

lamented friend, in the Obituary of Fellows of the Bojal Sodety, I 
derive the following details : — 

William Parsons, third Earl of Bosse, was bom at York on the 
1 7th of June, 1800, of a family which had been settled in Ireland 
from the time of Elizabeth. lie was educated at home by a private 
tutor, and, when eighteen years old, entered Trinity College, Dublin* 
Although his career there was eminently successful, he did not gra- 
duate, but went to Oxford, where he entered Magdalen CollegB, 
and, on leaving the University, commenced public life as the repre- 
sentative of King's County in Parliament. His political career was 
intermitted at the end of eight years, in order that he might devote 
himself with more freedom to his favourite scientific pursuits, and 
discharge more completely the duties of a landed proprietor, which 
ho did most conscientiously. But, although kind and considerate as 
a landlord, he was not the less I'csolute in supporting the authority 
of law and putting down the murderous societies which were the 
ioiTor and curse of that part of Ireland. This, of course, made him 
a mark for the assassin. He knew his danger ; but the knowledge 
neither made him shrink from his duty, nor embittered his feelings 
against the misguided people who were conspiring against him* 
lliis continued until the time of the fieimine, which crushed under 
the weight of real miseiy the imaginary grievances of the agitators, 
and showed them who were their real friends. None stood the test 
better than Lord Kosso, who, during some yc^ii's, applied nearly all 
the in(X)mc of his Irish property to relieve the unhappy sufferers. 
This told on their hearts, and they thenceforwai-d became proud of 
his increasing fume, and regarded him as an honour to their nation. 
He was elected an Irish Representative Peer on the death of his 
father in 1841 ; and previously, in 1831, he had been appointed 
liOrd Lieutenant of his county. In 1836 he married Miss Field, a 
l>artner worthy of him, who sympathised in his pureuits, and even 
mastered enough of astronomy to help him in his calculations. 

Although most widely known as an astronomer, Lord Eosse was 
by no means exclusively devoted to this science. In fact, few minds 
of our day have grasped so wide a range of knowledge. He was 
skilled to an extraordinaiy degi'ce in mechanics, and applied his 
abilities, as is well known, with unusual patience and Buocess 
to experiments on the casting and polishing of metallic specula for 
the reflecting telescope. He was a good chemist, and would have 
attained a high possition as a civil engineer, if he had devoted him- 
.■>elf to this profession. He was also a master of political economy. 

Obituary. — Earl of Rosse, cxxxix 

sod devoted fior years much attention to tho great question of national 
•education, and the loss of his authority on that subject is deeply foil 
in Iieland at the present day. 

Independently of the great telescope at Parsoustown, constnicted 

by himselfy Lord RoBse*s chief titles to scientific fame are fumisliiHl 

by tlie memoirs he contributed to the Koyal Society, and ivhiclL 

vere published in their ' Transactions ' for 1840, 1850, and 1861. It 

would be foreign to my present purpose to detail the processes by 

whidi, through many years' well-directed labour, ho arrived at the 

completion of his i-enowued instrument. Snflice it to say, that his 

attenti o n was first directed to this subject in 1826, and it was not 

beCore 1845 that his efforts were crowned with success, and his 

nighty telescope so far oomplcte that ho wax enabled, on the l^Jth 

of Fefamazy in that year, to make, in company with his friend Sir 

Jtmee South, his fii'st observation of the celestial bodies. Since 

tben, however, ho contiimed to improve tlie instrument for many 


With all his scientific merit, the Earl of 1 losse was ^also a model 
aan in his social qualities; his conduct being guided by the higli- 
■eit moral principles, llioso who, like myself, wore atirncted to him 
by old personal friendship when visiting him at his seut in Ireland, 
tod seeing how he enjoyed the eompauioii.ship of his estimable 
ConntesB, and how wisely he instnicted his children, could not fail 
to love him as much for his kindhearteducss and simplicity rif 
character, as they admired him for his groat acquirements. It is, 
indeed, a sourco of the greatest satisfaction to the numerous friends 
of the late Earl, that he so brought up his sons that his successor 
lutt already, by new discoveries in astronomy, given us the assur- 
ance that he is a worthy inheritor of the name of liis illustrious 

Intimately deiKudent as Gcogi-aphers are \\\yon As-ti-onomers, I 
ftflect with some pride on the fact, that this eminent cultivator of 
the sister science was so long connecti-d witli our Society, having 
teen elected in 1844, on being introduced by myself; and I well 
know how warm was tho interest ho took in our prosperity. 

Lord Bosse was President of tlio lioyal So<;ioty from 1848 1o 
1854; and in 18<»2 was elected (/hanecllor of the University of 

HiH appearance promised a long life, but an accident, so 1 rifling 
that it was negleetcd till too late, broke down his strcnp:th and 
broiii^lit him to liis end. A slight sprain of the knee proilnced, after 

cxl Sir Roderick I. MubchisonV Address. 

some montlis, a tumour, which was ultimately removed by a severe 
operation, llio wound was slowly healing, but he sunk under the 
process ; and, on OctoLcr 31st last, ho died as he had lived, patient 
and uncomplaiuing under his long and acute suffering, gentle and 
considerate to all around him, and strong in Christian hope. 

Admiral liord Coix;iiF>>'rER. — By the decease of Lord Colchester, 
our Socle t>' has lost one of its most earnest supporters, who, having 
joined us in 1838, and having during many years assisted ns by his 
advice as member of the Council, was during the years 1846 and 
18-1-7 the President of our body. 

Jjord (^olcbester was bom in 1708, and educated at Westminster 
School. ITo entered the navy in 1811, and served successively on 
bouid the Becenge, Admiral the lion. A. Leggo, in the Mediterranean, 
the Bacchante, C'aptain lloste, in the Adriatic, and later, during the 
hostile operation s of the year 1 8 1 4, on the coast of America. Between 
these two periuds of service ho completed tlio theoretical part of his 
naval education at the Naval College at Portsmouth. In 1816 he 
joined the Alcestc, which conveyed Lord Amherst and his embasay 
to China. On arriving in that country he occupied a place in Lord 
Amherst's suite, and accompanied him to the palace of Yncn-men- 
yuen, near Tekin, since rendered famous by its destruction at the 
hands of the British troops in the lost war, and returned with the 
Ambassador through the inferior of China to Canton. He also drew 
the sketches cont^iined in the history of this embassy by Sir Henry 
Kllis. He was further employed in making a plan of the Eiver 
Yanj;-tszo-Kiang, nnd it was this acquaintance with the internal 
water-communications of this groat region which enabled him, as 
W(.' shall presently see, to render a gi-eat service to his country, by 
a plan which he communicated in 1 840 for tho invasion of China, 
an<l which was eventually adopted with most successful results by 
the IJarl of Ellenborough when (Jovernor- General of India. 

<.)btaining tho rank of Lieutenant in 1817, he again, in 1818, went 
to sea, on board tho Liffrij^ Captain the Hon. II. Duncan, and visited. 
tho West Indies, the lUiltic, and ^^lediterranean. On obtaining tho 
rank of Commander he was appointed to the Bacehorsc, and was in 
tht^ Levant during the Gi*eek war of independence. As Commander 
of the Cvhunhine he was, Knbscqiicntly, again in tho same part of tho 
world. During these cruises he made an examination of the harbours 
of the (hilf of Kololi^'thia, and in 1826 received his commission as 
Post-Captain. After tJie death of his father and his succession to the 
Peerage he was appointed to tho command of the Volage, and pro- 

Obituary. — Lord Calcliester. oxli 

eeeded to the South American station, whence ho made a voyage to 
Europe to oonyey the Emperor and Empress of Bi-azil to Cherbourg. 
On the completion of this daty he returned to his station and visited 
both the eastern and western coasts of South America, making an in- 
land jcnmey to Arequipa when off the coast of I'cru. Subseqnently, 
inring the Belgian revolution, the Vclage was despatched to the 
North Sea, and, on the surrender of the citadel of Antwerp, recalled 
home. With this dosed Lord Colchester's active service ; fur, 
having afterwards devoted himself to Parliamentary duties, he 
never again held a command afloat, and became in course of time 
an Admiral on the reserved list 

In his parliamentary career Lord Colchester consistently adhered 

to the Conservative interest, and spoke occasionally, fi-om his first 

Bsaion in 1833, both on naval and general topics. On the approach 

of the Chinese war in 1839 he drew up a plan, which he had long pre- 

noiQsIy conoeived, for intercepting the interior communications of the 

empizB Yfy sending a fleet up the Yang-tsze-Kiang. lie consulted 

on this subject the veteran C^hinese scholar Sir George Staunton, who 

itnmgly approved of it, and it was placed in the hands of Loi-d 

Palmerston, the Foreign Minister at that period ; but nothing beyond 

& preliminary survey of the mouth of the river was then undertaken, 

•lid it wa« reser\'ed for the new ministry', after the change of govem- 

nwnt in 1841, to profit by the suggestion. Lord Colchester's map 

of the Yang-tszc-Kiang, relating to the course of the river between 

the entrance of the Great Canal and Nankin, was engi-avcd by the 

Admiralty, and when Loi^d Ellenborough was appointed Governor - 

General of Lidia he sent reinforcements in March, 1842, to Sir 

•Bq^ Gough and Sir W. Parker, with orders at once to j^rocecd to 

sction on the Yang-tsze. The capture of Tching-Kiang-Foo, at the 

jnnction of the canal with the great river, closed the sti-uggle, and 

liord Colchester's claim to have aided in winning this triumph for 

lis country was fully recognised by the Govonior- General, who 

carried his suggestions into execution. 

On the formation of Lord Derby's first administmtion, in 1852, 
Lord Colchester was appointed to the united offices of Paymaster- 
General and Vice-President of the Board of Trade. In 18.')3 he 
received the honorary degree of d.c.l. from the University of Oxford, 
and in 1858, Lord Der])y being again Prime Minister, he was 
appointed to the office of Postmaster-General. He discharged the 
duties of that office with gioat industry ; but, unhai)pily, at this time 
his general health nnder^'ent a deterioi-ation, of wliich the principal 

exiii Sir EoDEBiCK I. Mubohison'^ Address. 

s}*inptom was a swelliDg of the log, from which he never oompletelj' 
recovered. He continued, however, to attend the House and exert 
himself in behalf of the various charitable institutions with which 
he was connected as Chairman, until I8669 when his health was 
further undormiued, and from Februaiy, 1867, to his death, which 
took place on the 18th of October last, he was almost entirely con- 
fined to his bed. 

Lord Colchester married in 1836 Elizabeth Susan, second daughter 
of tho first Lord EUenborough, by whom he had an only son, the 
resent Lord, who as one of our young associates is, I trust, des- 
tined to fill the post so worthily occupied by his excellent parent, 
whose modest and retiring manners, accomplishments and good 
sense, accompanied as these qualities were by the truest kindness 
and the highest sense of honour, endeared him to every one who 
knew him. 

The Bight Hon. Sir George Clerk. — By the death of this nsefbl 
and highly-rc8pected man, in his eighty-first year, I have lost a 
friend with whom I began life fifty-two years ago, and whose many 
good qualities I have never ceased to esteem during that long 

For many years ho was the representative in Parliament of his 
native county of Edinburgh, and he would doubtlessly have 
continued to enjoy that honour to the day of his death, had not 
the Keform Bill of 1832 entirely broken up the old social system 
on which Scotch societ}^ had been based for centuries. That 
Bill, which was a salutary reform in England, produced a complete 
revolution in Scotland, where up to that day landed proprietors 
only who were possessed of a certain rental returned the coanty 
member, who was thus chosen as the true representative of their 
broad acres. Such has been the change resulting from this Act, 
that the landed proprietors have to a very great extent lost their 
legitimate influence. But whilst Sir Geoi^ was ever a Conservative 
in politics and occupied several public offices of mark, he steadily 
supported Sir Eobcrt Peel when that great statesman felt it to bo 
his duty to abrogate the Com Laws. 

Among tho public offices he filled, Sir G. Clerk had been Seoietaiy 
of the Treasury, Vice-President of the Board of Trade, Master of the 
Mint, and for many years the so-called " Whip " of tho old Tory 
party in Parliament. 

Sir George Clerk was a true lover and patron of the Fine Arts, and 
was noted through life as a warm supporter of the Academy of Music 

Obihiarif. — Clerk — Mangles — Majendie. cxli i i 

and all good mnsical mectingB, as well as tbo supporter of many a 
promising proficient in the art. 

He was also much attached to our Science of Geography and its 
Natural History applications, having boon a Fellow of our body since 
our foundation, and having acted during the last six years of his 
well-spent career as President of the Zoological Socict}'. 

He married Miss Maria Law in 1810, and this very estimable 
lady, who bore him twelve children, predeceased him only by one 
year. He is succeeded by his eldest Kon, now Sir James Clerk. 

Captain James Manglms, k.k. — As one of the scientiRc officers of 
the Navy, Captain ]\Iangles well deserves to be favourably noticed on 
this occasion, particularly from tlie interest he had always taken, 
during a long life, in the advancement of geographical science. TTe 
entexed the Navy so long ago as the year 1800, and for several years 
nw mnch active service in various parts of the world, on board the 
Nareitmu, 32 guns, under (.*aptain Ross Donnelly. Subsequently, as 
Lientenant of the Penelope, he aided in the reduction of Martinique 
in February, 1809, and bore his share generally in the naval onter- 
prieee of those stirring times until 1815, when, having attained 
the rank of Commander, he retired on half- pay. 

I formed an acquaintance with Captain ]\Iangles as early as the 

year 1816, when he was travelling in Italy on his way to the Kast 

with his companion and brother officer, the Hon. C. L. Trby. ITic 

lesolts of their tour were published under the title of * Travels in 

f^ypt, Nnbia, Syria, and Asia Minor,' — a work that soon attaineil 

a wide popularity. Since then he devoted a groat portion of his 

time to tho study of Geogi-aphy and Hydrography, and published 

a€ intervals several treatises, which evince his zeal in the study 

of these sciences: such were his * Geography, Descriptive, Delinea- 

tive, and in Detail,' his • Illustrated Geography and Hydrography,' 

«nd others. He was elected Fellow of the Eoyal Society in 182.5, 

«nd was one of the earliest Members of our own bod}-, having 

lieen enrolled in 1830. His death took place on the 18th of Xovem- 

1oer last. 

Mr. Ashurst Majendie. — One of our original members, Mr. Ashurst 
^Majendie, tho proprietor of Castle Hedingham, in Essex, was a man 
txf considerable knowledge and of a very inquiring mind. To 
geographers he was chiefly known as the brother-in-law of I^ady 
IFranklin, and for the lively interest which he took in advocating, 
with myself and others, the search after the great Arctic hero. 

Mr. John Minet L\urjF., of Maxwclton House, Glencaim, was 

elxiv Sir Bodebick I. Muuchisom'^ Address. 

known as a profound historian. Ho formerly sat in Fai'liamont for 
Dover, and for Maid8tone. He was elected a Follow of the Boyal 
Geographical Society in 1861, and died on the 2oth of February, 
1868, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. 

Eev. Pierce Blttler. — By the death of the Eev. Pierce Butler, 
rector of Ulcombe, Kent, wc have lost, in the prime of life, an asso- 
ciate who was a tine Geographer at heart, and an experienced tra- 
Toiler, and who, for some months piior to his death, devoted a laxge 
share of his time and energies to a project for a survey of the penin- 
sula of Sinai, with a view to extending our knowledge of BiUioal 

Mr. Butler was bom in 1826, and was the third son of lientenant- 
General the Honourable Ileniy Edward Butler, and giundson of the 
third Earl of Cariick. Ho graduated at Trinity College, Gam- 
bridge, in 1848, and soon afterwards took holy orders. At the close 
of 1853, his eldest brother. Captain H. I. Butler, of the 55th Begi- 
uient, an officer of great ability and promise, received special leave 
of absence from Government for the purpose of exploring a por- 
tion of tho peninsula of Sinai, and, atti-acted by this opportunity of 
visiting, in his brother's company, a country in which from boyhood 
he had ever felt the deepest interest, !Mr. Butler resolved to go with 
him. Their preliminary researches led them to the conclusion that 
a careful survey and systematic examination were essential to the 
solution of the many interesting problems of the peninsula. This 
task had scarcely been commenced when news reached them of the 
outbreak of tlie war with liussia ; and ( *aptain Butler, obeying the 
call of duty, relinquished his interesting work, and sailed eastward 
from Alexandria in April, 1854, to join the expeditionaiy arm^. 
Mr. Butler, after vLsiting the Holy Land and Constantinople, re- 
turned, at the end of May, to England ; but the soldier-brother was 
destined never to follow him, for, ere the year was out, his friends 
at homo received the sad intelligence that he had fallen on the 
battle-field of Inkerinan, whilst serving on the Staflf of the First 
Division of tho army. On the 2l8t of tho preceding June, another 
gallant brother. Captain James Annar Butler, the intrepid "hero of 
Silisl.ria," had died of woimds received during that memorable siege 
— stnick down in the height of a career so brave and so distin- 
guished that tho 6on*ow his father and fncnds felt at his death was 
shared, as. Lord Hardinge feelingly expressed it, " by the countrj', 
the anny, and the Sovereign." 

Two noble brothers had thus fallen in their countrj-'s cause within 

Obituary. — Laurie — Butler. exlv 

the short 8paoe of five months ; and now, Pierco Butler himficif, 
animated by that chiyalrous spirit which was one of the finest traits 
of his character, determined to go out at once to Turkey, for the 
special puipose, amongst others, of volunteering his ministrations 
to the sick and woxmded soldiers of our army, in whatever sphere 
they might be most acceptable : he felt, indeed, that some such use- 
ful Christian service was the most fitting tribute he could offer to 
the memory of his lamented brothers. lie accordingly proceeded 
to Constantinople in December, 1 854, and shortly afterwards accepted 
the offer of an appointment as one of tlio chaplains to our army in the 
East. In discharging this voluntary duty his gentle, genial manners 
and amiable disposition won the hearts of officers and men; and 
those now living who were present with the Second Division in the 
camp before Sevastopol, must retain a clear and grateful recollec- 
tion of his ministrations. 

At the close of the Crimean war Mr. Butler resigned his^ ap- 
pointment as chaplain, and for the next five years was a constant 
traveller in America and in many parts of Europe. In 1861, he 
was presented to the rectory of Ul combo, near Staplehurst, a 
living in the patronage of his family, which he held until his 
death; and in the same year he luarried. In the retirement 
of a country life, the interest which his visit to the Desert of 
Sinai in 1854 had created was ever prominently before him, and 
to carry out, if possible, the work of survey and exploration in that 
region, which his gallant brother had been so reluctantly compelled 
to relinquish, was the one object which, of all others, he was most 
desirous to effect. Encouraged by the assistance which Government 
had afforded towards the recent survey of Jerusalem, he deter- 
mined last year to endeavour to obtain, from amongst his own 
relatives and friends, and other persons likely to take an interest 
in Biblical and geographical research, sufficient funds for a topo- 
graphical survey of at least the most interesting portions of the 
peninsula of Sinai ; and, if successful in this, to solicit the aid of 
Government in its execution. In a few weeks he had obtained 
so many liberal promises of support from noblemen and gentle- 
men interested in the subject as to justify him in laying his 
plan before the Secretary of State for AVar, Sir John Pakington 
readily lent his aid, and at once authorised Sir Henry James to un- 
dertake the superintendence of the Sinai survey, as he had* fonnerly 
done of the survey of Jemsalem, and to equip and send out an 

cxlvi Sir Roderick I. Murchisok'^ Address. 

officer and a small party of the Boyal Engineers, when the necessary 
funds should be forthcoming. Lord Stanley, as the head of the 
Foreign Office, also afforded the scheme every facility in hia powcr^ 
and Mr. Butler, confident then of ultimate success, prepared to pay 
a short visit at once to Egypt, with the view of making preparatory 
arrangements for the arrival and progress of the surveying l>arty, 
which it was proposed to despatch from this country in the coming 
autumn, and which he himself hoped to accompany. He had even 
taken his passage for Alexandria, and was actively preparing for 
departure, when severe illness overtook him ; and on the 8th of 
Fcbruaiy,— on the very day, and almost at the very hoar, on which 
he was to have started for Egypt, — he died at his home in Kent, ere 
he had quite completed his forty-second year. 

Mr. Butler's loss is mourned by many who valued and shared in 
his zeal for the cause of Biblical Geography, as well as by a larg6 
circle of personal friends, to whom he was endeared by the attributes of 
a truo and high-minded Christian gentleman, lliere is something 
touching and even mysterious in this histoiy of two brothers, both 
removed at a comparatively early age * hy death, when on the eve 
of canying out the project in which both felt so keen an interest, 
and which both strove so hard to accomplish. It is, however, ear- 
nestly to bo hoped that this useful undertaking will not be permitted 
to drop ; and Captain Palmer, of the Koyal Engineers, to whom had 
been entrusted the detailed work of the proposed survey, and to 
whom I am indebted for this hketch of Mr. Butler s career, informs 
me that there are many amongst Mr. Butler's friends who are most 
desirous to carry it to a successful termination. The Bev. George 
Williams, of King's College, Cambridge, and the Kev. F. W. Holland, 
already well known as a traveller in the Sinaitic peninsula, have 
both volunteered their aid and co-operation to push forward this 
work. It may be truly said that, whoever may henceforward be 
the active promoters of this enteiprise, and whatever may be the 
measure of ultimate success which awaits it, it is one with which 
most assuredly the name of Butler must ever be closely and honour- 
ably connected. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart.— By the decease of Sir Charles Lemon 
I have lost another old friend, who has left behind him a character 
which for high principles, benevolence, and friendliness, has never 

* Captain H. J. Butler also died in his 42nd year. 

Obituary. — Butler — Lemon. cxlvii 

"been snipassed. In a word, no man of my time ¥ras ever more 
generallj respected and beloved. 

He -was born in the year 1784, and dying on the 12th February 
of this year, was then consequently in his eighty-fourth year. 

In 1810 he married Lady Charlotte Strang ways, youngest daughter 
of the second Earl of llchetiter, by whom he had one son only. The 
fond parents having a presentiment that their boy might meet with 
his death on the water, selected Ilarrow School as the place of his 
education, because there was not, as at Eton and other places, a river 
near it. Yet, to their intense grief, the youth was there drowned 
in a pond ! and the shock was so gi-cat that tho affectionate mother 
never recovered from it 

Sir Charles Lemon was for many years the representative in Par- 
liament of his native county, Cornwall, and was ever a consistent 
snppoiier of the old Whig principles. As a magistrate and country 
geoEitloman he seized every opportunity of promoting works of use- 
fdlnesB and charity, and at his hospitable mansion of Carclew his 
fine social qualities were heartily appreciated by all those who, like 
myself, have passed enjoyable and pleasant days there. 

Sir Charles Lemon was much attached to Science, particularly to 
those branches of it which related to or improved the mining 
operations of his own county. In tho year 1846, being Presi- 
dent of the Eoyal Geological Society of Cornwall, he invited 
me, his guest, to attend an annivei-sury meeting of that body 
and say something which might give encouragement to the tin- 
miners, who were at the time in a suffering state, and many 
of them out of work. It was then, referring to what I had been 
speculating upon in our own Society and at other places in the 
two previous years, as to the auriferous (character of tho Australian 
rocks, when compared with those of the Ural Mountains, that I ven- 
tured to counsel these tin-miners to emigrate to Australia and dig 
for gold. Some of them took my advice, and in 1848 I was in pos- 
session of small specimens of gold ore sent home by them. Thereon 
I took more courage and warned Her Majesty's Government of the 
great event which was about to be fulfilled. I will only add that 
the so miscalled discovery of gold, t. e. the diggings on a profitable 
scale, were not opened out till 1851, and that my much earlier letter 
to the Colonial Secretary is piinted in the Blue Book on Gold. 

Sir Charles Lemon was elected into our Society in 1836 ; he 
was also a Fellow of the lioyal and Geological Societies, and the 
Presidents of these bodies will, I am sure, be as ready as myself 

cxlviii Sir Bodebiok L Mubchisok'^ Address. 

to testify to the high worth of so excellent and accomplifihed r 
man, and such a choice specimen of a thorough English gentle- 

Mr. John Crawfurd, f^r^s. — By the recent death of this enlightened 
and excellent man, on the 1 1th instant, I was plunged into a pro- 
found sorrow — a sorrow shared, I am sure, by everyone who knew^ 
him, and particularly by the Fellows of the Royal Geographical 
and Ethnological Societies, as well as the members of the Athenasum 

Bom in the island of Islay, in 1783, he was in his 85th year 
when he was most unexpectedly carried off by an attack of in- 
flammation of the lungs. For, although he had reached a ripe- 
old ago, he had preserved his habitual sound health, and had 
applied to the last the full vigour of his strong mind in so genial 
a manner, that ho occupied a position among us which was un- 
rivalled, and makes us all deeply sensible of the sad loss we have 

To attempt to do justice in this short notice to the various merits 
of John Crawfurd — whether as a great traveller, an accompl]8hed^ 
Oriental scholar, an able administrator, a sound geographer and 
ethnologist, and an accurate statist — is wholly beyond my power^ 
Few men, indeed, of this century have passed away whose deedr 
more imperatively call for a faithful and full biography. Earnestly 
hoping that such a work may be undertaken by some competent 
person among his numerous friends and admirers, I can only briefly 
advert to some salient points of character in the long, distinguished, 
and useful career of my lamented friend. 

Having studied medicine for three years at Edinburgh, he went 
to India in 1803, as an Assistant Surgeon in the Company's militaxy 
service, and was almost immediately immersed in active duties. 
Thus, he served under Lord Lake, when that General invaded 
the dominions of Scindia, and was also present at the siege of 
Delhi. In the foUowiug year he accompanied Colonel Monson's 
force in the advance to Ougain and in its retreat before Holkar's army ; 
and we have still happily among us a fresh and vigorous veteran 
Indian soldier — Colonel Sykes — who informs me that in February, 
1805, he knew Crawfurd when he was in medical charge of twelve 
companies of Sepoys in the beleaguered fortress of Bampoorsu 

After five years of service in the North-western Provinces of 
India, he was transferred to Penang, where he commenced those 
studies of the Malay languages and people which enabled him 

Obituary, — Crawfurd, cxlix 

-eventually to compose tliat remarkable work the * Malay Grammar 
«nd Dictionary.' In 1811 he was selected by Lord Minto to accom- 
|)any him in the great expedition which led to the conquest of Java. 
Hiere, as a diplomatist, he represented the Biitish GoTerament for 
nearly six years, during which he made extensive journeys and 
▼ojages, and amassed those diversified materials in Ethnology, 
Katoral Histoiy, and Geography, which, after his first return to 
England in 1817, he published in 1820 under the title of ' History of 
the Indian Archipelago.' 

Going back to India in 1821, he was appointed by the then 
GoYeznor- General, the Marquis of Ilastings, to the diplomatic 
miamon sent to Siam and Cochin China; and on this occasion 
lie obtained the highest credit from the Indian Government. It 
may be afiirmed, indeed, that during his Indian services all leading 
public men sought for his counsel and advice ; and I might enume- 
rate the names of a host of eminent authorities, including Colebroke, 
Hountstuart Mphinstone, and many others, who were his intimate 
fiends and correspondents. 

From 1823 to 1826, acting as Governor of Singapore, after the 
letirement of Sir Stamford Raffles, he became the second founder 
and wise administrator of that colony, which, through his sagacious 
atiangements with the neighbouring chiefs, was raised into the 
highly important position it has ever since maintained. 

In addition to the highly valuable commercial and other statistics 
registered by our deceased Fellow, in relation to which his name 
stands out in gazetteers throughout the world, he never neglected any 
Inanch of natui-al knowledge. Thus it was that, in his voyage up 
the In-awady to the capital of Ava, in 1820, he collected those fossil 
bones of Mastodon, large Tortoises, and Crocodilia, &c., which were 
described by Dr. Buckland and Mr. (Jlift, and which gave to the 
former the opportunity of generalising on the impoilant fact, that 
there existed in the Indian regions formations analogous to the 
tertiary and superficial deposits of Europe.* It was when these 
remarkable collections were the admiration of geologists, that I 
became better acquainted with Mr. Cia'svfurd ; and from that day, 
now forty-two years ago, oui* intimacy strengthened with each 
succeeding year. 

For some time, indeed, after his return from India, he was more 
immersed in political ^fiuirs than harmonised with my own special oc- 

• See 'Transactions of the Geological Society,* second scries, vol. ii. p. 377. 

cl Sir EODERIGK £. Murghison'^ Addre9$. 

cnpations. Thus, with bis large and liberal views on fbe subject of 
Free Trade, be took an active and influential part in tbe support 
of bis friend Mr. Joseph Hume, in breaking up tbe old commercial 
monopoly of tbe East India Company, and mainly helped to bring 
about that great fall in the price of tea, and other necessaries of 
life, which has proved such a blessing to the masses of the people. 
It is also known to me that Mr. Cobden highly estimated the 
efforts of Mr. Crawfurd in favour of Free Trade, particularly as 
shown in an article of the * Westminster Review ' of 1832. 

He made two efforts, shortly after the passing of the Befona 
Bill in 1832, to obtain a seat in the House of Commons for two 
Scottish places — Glasgow and tho Stirling burghs — but was unsuc- 
cessful. I have often rejoiced at these political failures ; for, from 
that moment tho strong mind and untiring energy of the man were 
devoted almost exclusively to his favourite topics of philolc^, 
ethnology, geography, and statistics; tho fruits of his laborious 
studies first appearing in the 'Malay Grammar and Dictionary/ 
tho preliminary Dissertation to which is a remarkable work in 
itself. Tracing the affinities of a vast number of the languages of 
the Indian Archipelago, and even in parts of the Pacific, to the 
Malay root, he ascribed this wide diffusion to the insular character 
of this vast region. His firat-rato merits as a philologer have 
indeed been canonized in tho writings of William von Humboldt in 
his great work ' tJber die Kawi-Sprache auf der Inseln Java.* In 
it the illustrious Prussian expressly stated, that without the valuable 
contributions of Mr. Crawfurd, he could never have succeeded iu 
mastering the Javanese and Kawi languages, and he expresses the 
very great obligations of his brother Alexander von Humboldt and 
himself for the highly valuable contributions of our deceased Asso- 
ciate. In 185G ho published his * Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian 
Islands and adjacent Countries,' which was in fact the completion aiid 
extension of his original work of 1820. This book, illustrated as it 
is with a most interesting map of the Asiatic Archipelago, is a 
striking specimen of tho great capacity of the author. In it we 
find condensed in an octavo of 459 pages a surprising amount of 
accurate geographical, ethnological, and statistical knowledge. 

First presiding over the Etlmological Society in 1861, ho con- 
tinued to be the life and soul of it to the day of his death. In 
feet, he gave to this body quite a now impetus, and astonished even 
his most intimate friends by his unceasing contributions on the pro- 
digious variety of subjects which he skilfully connected with his 

Obituary, — Crawfurd. di 

&voiirite Bcienoe. The mere enumeration of the titles of these me- 
moirs, as given in the appended footnote — all produced in seven or 
eight years — is a wonderful proof of the capacit}-, versatile power, 
and energy of an author who could bi ing out all these works between 
his seventy-eighth and eighty-fifth year.* Including his frequent 
ocmtribntions to reviews and weekly newsjiapers, particularly tlu* 
* Examiner/ Mr. Crawfiird has perhaps written more than it has boon 
given to any one author of this centuiy to accomplibh. I may here 
also observe, as a striking illustration of the logical accuracy of his 
thoughts and the strength of his memory, that his writings on the 
statistics of commerce, geography, philology and ethnology scarcely 
ever required a correction of his pen; fur they exhibit fewer 
erasures and alterations than are to be scon in the original manu- 
scripts of Walter Scott, or any other author, even of works of fiction. 

Personally I have to acknowledge with gratitude the contribu- 
tions he made to several of my Annivcrsar}' Addresses, whenever it 
fell to me to allude to India or its great Archipelago, and on this 
very occasion I am indebted to him for the article on Burmah. 

Yet, with all tliis incessant litorar}- labour, he found time to 
read extensively, and store up in his surprising memory all tho 
knowledge that ho had over acquired. ITo also found leisure to 
hold much social converse witli many friends, both young and old : 
and few of tho members of the Athenaeum Club will now enter 

• Ont of the thirty-oight memoirs contributed by Mr. Crawfunl to the * Joumal of the 
Ethnological ^Society/ I may mention the fullowing : — * On the Connexion between Kthnolojry 
Vld Physical Geog.nphy ;* * On Numer.tls as Kvidences ot'the Progress of Civilisation ; * * On 
the Antiquity of Man from the Kvi«ience of Language ;' * On the Commixture of the Iteces of 
Kan an alft^ting the Progress of Civili.sition ;' * On Colour ii> the test of the Unci's of Man ;' 
* On the Relation of the Domesticate*! Animals to Civilisation ;' *0n Language as a test of 
the Races of Man ;* * On Lyell's Antiquity of Man/ and * Huxley's Evidence on Man's Place 
in Nature ;* * On the Sources of Tin for Bronze Tools and Weapons of Antiquity ;* * On the 
•Qpposed Infecundity of IIum<ui Hybritls or Cros-«s ;* * Ou thtr supposwl Stos.e, Bronze, aiid 
Iron Ages of Society;* * On the so-called Celtic Languages in reference to the question of 
ttaces;' ' On Cannibalism in relation to Ethnology ;* * On the Physiuilaud Mental Charac- 
teristics of the Negro;* *0n the Origin and History of Written Language;' *0u the 
Ancient Hindu Snciiticial Bell found in the Northern Island of New Zealand ;'* On the 
InTentioD of Writing Materials in reference to Etiuiology;* * On Uie Migixition of Culti- 
vated Plants in reference to Ethnology;' *On Ca?<ir's Acx:ount of Britain and its Inhabi- 
tants ;* *0n the History and Mignition of Cultivated Plants;* * On the Dissemination of 
the Arabian Fina* and language ;' ' On the Migration and Cultivation of Macchariferous 
Plants ;' * On the Plui-ality of the Rnces of Man ;* * On the Animal and Vegetable Food of 
the Nations of Aiwti-alia in reference to their Social Position;' 'On the Classi Mention of the 
Races of Man ncconling to the fonn of the Skull ;* * On the History and Migration of Culti- 
vated Plants and on Condiments ;* * On tlie Antiqu ty of Man * ^second nn-nioir); * On the 
Ethnology of Abyssinia and adjacent Countries,' re<id Nov. 12, 18l>7. Since the contri- 
bution of the last of the>e memoirs to the volumes of the Ethnologiwd Society, Mr. Craw- 
ford hns read ceiliiiu others, including one on his obj'X-tions to the Darwinian thc<»ry, 
another on cotfee and otlier phnt", and has left sixteen other manuscii['t papers behind him. 

elii Sir Bodebick L Mubghison'^ Address. 

its great Yestibale, in whicli be was generally to be seen in tbe 
afternoon, without mournfully regretting tbe absence of the cheerful 
countenance and friendly grasp of the hand of dear John Crawford. 

Let me add that he was equally popular with the gentler sex, 
who could not fail to be attracted to him by his genial address and 
his happy and simple manner of conveying information. Well has 
it been said by an able ^vTiter in the *• Times ' * who commemorated 
his deeds, that " all the members of the Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Societies will miss the tall form of the evergreen veteraxi, who 
scarcely ever failed to take part in their discussions, and who, while 
stoutly maintaining his own views, showed a forbearance and courtesy 
which might well be imitated by all members of learned Societies." 

So deeply were his feelings and sympathies bound up with our 
meetings, which he so often enlivened by his good humoured criti- 
cisms and wise cautions, that during his last and fatal illness, when 
his mind was wandering, he was frequently speaking volubly as if 
he were addressing our Societ}% with kind allusions to his associates. 

As a Highlander, I am proud that Islay should have produced 
such a man as John Crawfurd ; and when his remains were con- 
signed to the grave on Monday last, it was a solace to my heart to 
see many true friends assembled to pay this last mark of respect 
to such a noble type of humanity. 

Mr. Crawfurd was first married to Miss Robertson, who, losing 
her health in India, was coming home with her child when the ship 
was lost and all hands perished. He married secondly in 1820 the 
beautiful Miss Horatia Perry, daughter of Mr. James Peny. She 
died in 1 855, leaving him one son, Oswald, now H. M. accomplished 
Consul at Oporto, and two daughters, Mrs. Mynors and Mrs. George 
Eamsay, to deplore the loss of the most affectionate of fathers. 

In addition to the men who have passed away, and of whom I 
have treated as being distinguished in Fcience and art or in the 
public service, are tlio following deceased Fellows : — 

Mr. T. H. Alsager; Mr. Arthur Anderdon; Lieutenant J. B. 
Bewsher ; Mr. Thomas Bigg ; Mr. J. W. Church ; Captain CresvTell, 
R.N. ; Mr. John J. Cowell ; Mr. AVilliam Thomas Hodgetts Chambers ; 
Dr. James French ; Mr, Charles Fraser ; Mr. J. L. Franklin ; Mr. 
Nathaniel Gould ; Mr. W. S. Ilarvcj ; Mr. Hobinson Hudson ; Mr. 
Andrew Henderson ; Mr. John Jcrdein ; Mr. Charles Kean, the 

♦ See •Times,' May 13, 1868. 

Admiralty Surveys — Home Coasts, * cliii 

celebrated aotor ; Mr. A. 0. Lloyd ; Colonel Thomas McGbiin ; 
Mr. Colin J. Mackenzie; Mr. H. H. Morris; Captain Bocbfort 
Magnire, bj^. ; Mr. Duncan Macpherson ; Sir Richard D.'Neave, 
Bart. ; Mr. James Price, m.d., (&c. ; Mr. William Eeed ; Mr. James 
<Smitli ; Mr. B. 8. Sutherland, r.n. ; Mr. John Scott ; Mr. William 
Soott ; Mr. William Silver ; Mr. Arthur Vardon ; Mr, J. E. W^orcester. 

Adm IBALTY Surveys.* — The Hydrogi-aphical Surveys of the Admi- 
ralty on the Coasts of the United Kingdom, in the Colonies, and in 
Foreign waters, have progressed during the past year fiivourably 
and Successfully ; and the Naval Officers employed in carrying them 
out have displayed their accustomed industry and ability, as will be 
seen by the following brief sketch of the result 

West Coast of England, — H.M.S. Lightning^ under Captain E. J. 
Bedford, with three assistants, has been employed in a rensurvey of 
{he upper portion of the Bristol Channel, from the termination of the 
Cardiff Survey of 1866-7 to the upper limit of King Roads, where 
many changes were found to have taken place in the bank-edges 
and shoals — so much so, as to require a re-buoj'age on the part of 
the Trinity Corporation. This survey having been completed, the 
Ughining has been laid up, and the force on the home coasts reduced 
ibr the present to one regular surveying- vessel. 

East Coast of England, — Staff-Commandor E. K. Calver, with two 
tssifitants, in the Porcupine, have continued their examination of last 
year on the Eastern Coast with a view to the correction and revision 
of the Charts and Sailing Directions. The Coast and Harbours 
ftoxD, the River Ilumber to the North Foreland have now been 
Hiiniitely examined. The entrance of Harwich Harbour, where 
improvements have been carried out to increase the depth, has been 
i'e-surveyed, and a new survey has been executed of the Suffolk 
Cloast from a little below Lowestoft to Oifordness. During the pro- 
gress of this latter work a discovery, interesting from its apparent 
Connexion with the Suffolk beaches, has been made, viz., the exist- 
ence of a tract of nine square miles of shingle a short distance in the 
ofiSng between Dunwich and Sizewcll, being of the same character 
as that of the beach, opaque flint, though more angular fi-om liaving 
been subjected to less attrition : this feature may be of interest to 
those who have made the origin and movement of sea-beaches the 
tjubject of their investigations. 

* Communicated by Captain Richards, r.n., f.u.s. 

cliv Sir BoDEBiOK L Murohison'i Address. 

Porfomott^^.— Staff-Commander D. Hall, with a Bteam-laundh and 
a small party consisting of a boat's crew, has been employed in the 
examination of the bar and shoals at the entrance of this important 
harbour. The entrance as far as Spithead, and westward beyond 
Stokes Bay, has been very closely and oarefally sonnded on a aoale 
of 24 inches to the mile ; and a re-survey of the harbour itself on a 
scale of GO inches to the mile has been commenced, which had be- 
come absolutely necessary in connexion with the extensive (Govern- 
ment works being carried out, and the dredging away of the banks 
in contemplation. 

Channel Islands. — Staff • Commander John Bichards, with one 
assistant, and with such means as the vessels employed in the 
fishery and pilotage establishments are able to afford, is still em- 
ployed in completing this intricate and very necessary survey. 
During the past year they have sur\'eyed the Ecrehos and Drouilles 
rocks and islets, together with the Ecreviere Bank, all of which fonn 
a continuous chain of dangers, 10 miles in length by 3 miles In 
width, lying nearly midway between Jersey and Cape Carteret, and 
which are necessarily included in the Admiralty Chart of Jersey, 
now in course of publication, on a scale of 4 inches to the mile. 

The spacious channel between this extensive line of reef and the 
island of Jersey has also been clotsely sounded, and many hidden 
dangers, hitherto unknown, have been discovered and placed on the 

Foreign Surveys. — Mediterranean, — Captain P. F. Shortland, with 
an able staff of assistants, in II.M.S. Hydra, was employed in the 
early part of the last season in surveying the southern and eastern 
shores of Sicily, carrying the soundings off to depths of 2000 
fathoms. Later in the year they were employed in sounding the 
Malta Channel ; and in September, in consequence of an imperative 
necessity for a knowledge of the depths between Bombay and the 
Bed Sea — in connexion with a Submarine Telegraph to India — 
the Hydra was detached from the Mediterranean for this purpose. 
She left Gibraltar in October, amply provided with all the necessary 
material, passed round the Cape of Good Hope, and reached Bombay 
in January ; and, by the month of March, Captain Shortland having 
boen greatly favoured by weather, most ably and successfully com- 
pleted this important service, having obtained positive depths, and 
brought up specimens of the bottom at short intervals in a direct 
line from Bombay to the Kooiia Mooria Isles, and thence to Aden. 

The Hydra is now making a few additional investigations of the 

Admiralty Surveys — Foreign Coasts, civ 

bottom in the Indian Ocean, and settling 8omo doubtful positions 
e» roiste to England, after five years' foreign service, and will bo 
replaced in the Mediterranean by the Newport, a small screw 
sorvejing-vessel, fitting out under Commander G. S. Nares. 

Strait ofMagdlan. — IT.M.S. Nassau, Captain R. C. Mayne, C.B., with 
several experienced assistants, has been employed in examining the 
approach to this strait, and its eastern portion, including the Yimt 
and Second Narrows as far as Cape Negro. Great progress has been 
made in this work under considerable difficulties of climate and 
almost constant gales of wind, rendering it a harassing and often 
hazardous service for boat-parties. The great changes, however, 
which have been found to have taken place since surveys of nearly 
forty years ago — and the necessity of meeting the increased require- 
ments of navigation, by this route to the Pacific, for large steam and 
iron-dad ships — are conclusive evidences of the usefalncss of this 
undertaking. Among other changes the SaiTnionto Bank, extending 
several miles off Cape Virgin, has undergone a material alteratioTi 
in its character ; and a pinnacle rock, witli only 3 feet of water on 
it, and which had been undetected in former surveys, has been dis- 
covered at a distance of two miles from the cape. 

C%tna Sea. — Staff-Commander J. W. Reed, in command of tlie 
Bifleman, and a not over-strong staff of assistants, have been indc- 
&tigable in their labours among the reefs in the China Sea during 
the past season. No loss than nine dangerous and extensive coral- 
feefe in the main route have been carefully examined, and added to 
the Chart immediately on their arrival at the Admiralty, as also the 
Sea-Horse Bank at the north-western end of the Palawan I*assage. 

The position of the doubtful " IIolmc*8 Shoal," in the fairway of 
that passage, has likewise been examined and found free from 
danger. A close and complete survey of Rhio Strait has been 
executed, and so far extended to the south as to include the islands 
of the Linga Archipelago, and the various elumnels leading to the 
IStrait of Durian, as far south as the Island of Missana. The South 
Channel into Peiiiing, which had undergone considerable changes 
has also been resurveyed. 

North China and Japan. — Commander E. W. Brooker, in IT.M.S. 
Sylvia, with a full staff of assistants, has during the past year been 
chiefly employed on the coasts of Formosa, of which, until now, our 
surveys have been of a fragmentary and imperfect character. 

The Sylvia, in addition to the survey of the coasts and ports of 
Formosa, has searched for, and pronounced not to exist, TIarp Island 

clvi Sir BoDEBTCK I. Murghison'^ Address. 

and Alceste Hook on its southern and eastern sides, and has settled 
the position of Botel, Tobago Island, not hitherto correctly placed in 
regard to Formosa. 

On the voyage to China, Commander Brooker visited the Anda- 
man Islands and Cocos Group, for the purpose of rectifying the 
geographical positions of certain points reported to be considerably 
in error, and which he accomplished. He then carried a line of 
soundings along the Coast of Martaban, through the Strait of 
Malacca, and up the China Sea, from Saigon to Hong Kong, with a 
view to the requirements of submarine telegraphy between Singa- 
pore and China. 

The Sylvia has also visited the Pratas Reef, as a preliminary step 
towards the lighting, by the Chinese Government, of that important 
position which has proved so fatal a danger to the navigation of the 
China Sea. 

A valuable report on the lighting of the Coast of China between 
Hong Eong and Shanghai has also been furnished by Commander 
Brooker, and there is reason to believe that the Chinese Govern- 
ment, with the able professional aid of its English agents and 
advisers, are about to take up this important matter in earnest. 

The Serpent^ Commander C. Bullock, has been usefully employed 
on the coast of Japan, examining the anchorages on the east and 
west coasts of Nipon, with a view to the selection of treaty ports. 
Commander Bullock has surveyed the ports of Hiogo and Odeaka 
in the Inland Sea, and Nanao Harbour on the west coast, and 
examined the entrance to Kagosima Gulf and the coast about Capo 
Chichakofif; and has been generally engaged in correcting errors, 
getting soundings, and adding to our as yet partial knowledge of 
the coasts of that extensive country. 

West Indies. — Staff-Commander John Parsons, with two assistants, 
is carrying on the suii'cy of the British West India Isles by means 
of small vessels or boats hired on tlio spot. Owing to the inex- 
pensive system pursued, the work necessarily progresses somewhat 
slowly ; but in no part of the world has more elaborate or more 
accurate and perfect work been performed than in this survey. 

A \ery complete Chart of the Island of Montserrat, closely 
sounded to the edge of the steep land which forms its base, has 
lately been received from Staff-Commander Pai-sons ; and an equally 
careful survey of the Island of Barbadoes has been now commenced. 
Some interruption to the survey has lately occuired, in order to 
make an examination of the various channels among the Virgin 

Admiralty Surveys — Foreign Coasts. clvii 

jBlands to asoertain whether any serious changes had resulted from 
the late earthquake disturbances, which appears from the report of 
StafiT-Commander Parsons, and other naval officers on the station, 
not to have been the case. 

The surveys necessary to arrive at a conclusion respecting the 
selection of a station for the West India Mail Service, in lieu of 
St Thomas, have also engaged the attention of our naval surveyors ; 
and up to the present moment they are still occupied on this 

It must not be omitted to mention that much valuable hydro- 
graphical information has been received from naval officers gene- 
rally, both on this and other stations during the past year. 

To Captain R. V. Hamilton, of H.M.S. Sphinx, especially, we are 
indebted for a dose examination of the channel between the Island 
of Santa Cruz and the Virgin Group subsequent to the late earth- 
quakes in that neighbourhood ; upon wliich occasion he obtained a 
aeries of deep soundings, which were very valuable, and furnished 
as well an interesting paper on the subject generally. 

Commander Charles Parry, of H.M.S. Cordelia, has also succeeded 
in obtaining deep soundings between Jamaica and Cuba. Informa- 
tion of this nature is always valuable, and especially at the present 
time, when it is likely to be turned to practical account by the con- 
nexion of Florida with the Southern Continent of America by means 
of the Telegraph Cable. 

2%c Oannei, Commander W. Chimmo, in addition to her duties as 
a ship of war on the A Vest India Station, has been principally 
occupied during the past season in continuing the survey of the 
Island of Trinidad and adjacent mainland, which important work 
will have been completed in a very perfect way by the middle of 
the present year. During the summer and autumn of 1867, the 
Oannet visited and explored a considerable stretch of the Labrador 
Coast, in the interest of the Fisheries ; the limits of this coast, 
hitherto very inaccurately laid down, were correctly determined, 
and several harbours and anchorages carefully surveyed, to tho 
great advantage of tho seafaring population of NewfoTindland, who 
annually resort to the fishing-grounds of Labrador. 

Newfoundland. — Staflf-Commander J. H. Kerr, with two assistants 
and a hired vessel, is steadily progressing with the coast survey of 
this colony. 

During tho summer of 1867 these officers rendered great assist- 
ance in procuring soundings and tracing out the best course for the 

olviii Sir Boderick I. Mubchison'^ Addreti. 

submarine cable between Placentia Bay at tlie south end of New- 
foundland, and Cape Breton, in Nova Scotia ; as also in ascertaining 
the position and assisting in the recovery of the Atlantic Gable 
eastward of Newfoundland. Subsequently the survey of the coast 
of Concepcion Bay and the examination of the dangerous rocky 
ground in the vicinity of Cape Freels and the off-lying islands was 
proceeded with. 

Bermudas, — The examination, which was undertaken principally 
with the view of discovering the exact capabilities of the numerous 
naiTOw openings through the reefs of this group, and ascertaining 
the depth of water over the reefs generally, has been completed, 
and the survey discontinued. 

British Columbia. — Mr. Pender, Navigating Lieutenant, and two 
assistants, have been employed iu continuing the survey of the 
inner ship-channels between Vancouver Island and the northern 
boundary of British North- West America near Fort Simpson. This 
work, which is essential to the safe navigation of a very intricate 
region, has progressed very satisfactorily, and, when completed, will 
be of great benefit to our ships of war and to the future commerce 
■of these colonies. 

(hpe of Good Hope, — This survey, which is being carried on 
principally by shore parties, aided by a ship of war when one can 
be spared by the ofBccr commanding the station, is under the chaige 
of Mr. W. E. Archdeacon, Navigating Lieutenant, and is now com- 
pleted as fax eastward as the Kei Kiver, after long and laborious 
operations extending over many years. The whole of the coast 
from the Cape of Good Hope almost to the Kei Eiver, a distance of 
500 miles, is now published for the use of the seaman on a fair 
navigating scale, together with plans of every anchorage which is 
available between Simon*s Bay and Natal. 

Australia. — Victoria, — The coast of this colony has been sur- 
veyed for some distance west of Capo Otway, with many additional 
souudings obtained off Ports Phillip and Western, and the survey is 
now being continued eastward between the latter port and Wilson 
Promontory. There has been some unavoidable delay in its pro- 
gress, owing to the illness of Commander Wilkinson, which terminated 
in the death of that lamented officer in December last; by which sad 
event the navy has lost a most able and zealous officer, and the sur- 
veying branch of it one whose whole professional life had been con- 
scientiously spent in its service. 

New South Wales, — Captain Sidney and his assistants have made 

Admiralti/ Surveys. — New Publications. clix 

titeir cnstomaiy good progress with the survey of the shores of this 
colony. The coast-line between Sydney and UlloduUa, a distance 
of 112 miles, has been completed, together with the ro-surveying of 
A greSLt part of Broken Bay, and a plan of Jcrvis Bay, 80 miles 
aouihward of Sydney. 

Somtk Auatralia. — Commander Ilutchinson and hiu two assistants 
kve been employed during the past season on the coasts of Yorko 
Peninsula, which separates the Gulfs of St Vincent and Spencer, 
mi whioh, with the surveys of the anchorages of Ports Adelaide 
iiii Glenelg, makes up an amount of coast-lino equal to about 160 

Queendtmd.^'Mx, Bed well and his assistant have completed an 
intfaie re-snrvey of Morcton Bay, which was much required; and 
ttqr have likewise completed the outer coast from Capo Moreton to 
Point Danger, — thus connecting the shores of the two colonies of 
Queensland and New South \N'alos. 

Bed Sea, — Consequent on the Abyssinian expedition, additions 
lave been made to our knowledge of the coasts and reefs of the Red 
Sea between Aden and Annesley Bay ; for, although no specially 
fitted sarveying-vcssel was available for this service, it has been 
dlly performed by Captain D. Biadshaw, of II. M.S. Star, who was 
*deoted for the duty from his special qualifications. 

The results of the labours of the Ilydiographical Department 
during the past year have consisted in the engraving and publica- 
"^iflu of 56 new charts, and the revision of a number of oiiginal 
and about 164,000 have been printed for the use of the naval 
and the public. 
Sailing Directions for the west coast of Scotland, coasts of France, 
, and Portugal, 2 volumes of the * China Sea DiixKjtory, New- 
^^wmdland, Labrador, the North Sea, and Australia,' have been pub- 
"'JAed, as well as the Annual Tables of Tides, Lights, &c. 

Njew Publications. — The Society^s * Journal,' vol. 37. — I have again 
^ congratulate the Society on the punctual issue of the annual 
*^oliime of our 'Journal ' before the period of tlie anniversar}', an 
admirable improvement on all antecedent pmctico, which is due 
Exclusively to the zealous and untiring labours of our able Assistant- 
Secretary, Mr. H. W. Bates. The principal subjects contained in 
the present volume are : — Mr. Johnson's ' Keport of his adventurous 
Journey across the Himalaya and the Ruen-lun to Rhotan ;* Dr. 
Hann • On tho Physical Geography and Climate of Natal,' — a truly 


philosopbical treatise on the snbjeot, and founded on original 
observations; Colonel Tremenbeere 'On tbe Physical Geography 
of tbe Lower Indus ;' Professor Eaimondi * On a Portion of the 
Provinoe of Carabaya in Southern Peru/ — an important contribu- 
tion to the geograpby of this interesting region; Admiral Boata- 
kofiTs Memoir *0n the Delta and Mouths of the Amu Daria;* 
Lieutenant Bewsber ' On the Eesults of bis Survey of a Portion of 
Mesopotamia, South and West of Baghdad ;* Mr. Fiudlay * On the 
last Journey of Dr. Livingstone,' — an able exposition of tbe geo- 
graphy of Central Africa, according to our present information^, 
tending to show that Lake Tanganyika may be the ultimate source 
of the Nile ; * Notes on Eastiem Persia and Western Belucbistan,' 
by Colonel Goldsmid; Kennedy's 'Heport on an Expedition into 
Laos and Cambodia in 1866 ;' Dr. Haast's ' Altitude Sections acrosa 
the New Zealand Alps of Canterbury Province;' and, lastly, Captain 
Godwin Austen * On the Pangong Lake District of Ladakh.' With 
the exception of the last-named, all these memoirs are accompanied 
by maps, mostly founded on original material supplied by the 
respective authors. On the geographical value of these memoirs it 
is needless for mo further to dilate, especially as most of them have 
been read and discussed at our evening meetings, copious reporta 
of which are published in our • Proceedings ;* but I may point out 
the large proportion which papers on physical geography, in this 
as in previous volumes, bear to those of mere description, as showing 
the importance we attach to the purely scientific aspects of our 

With regard to the numerous works published in various coun- 
tries on subjects relating to geography, it is not my purpose, as I 
have stated in previous years, to pass them all in review in my 
annual addresses. According to established custom, I limit myself to- 
a short notice of such as have fallen under my attention. Those 
who desire full information on current geographical literature will 
do well to consult that indispensible periodical, Petermann's • Gko- 
graphische Mittheilungen,' in which, from time to time, an article 
appears enumerating every work which has any bearing on geo- 
graphy, and arranged in classified order, according to countries. 

MajoT^s lAfe of Prince Henry, — I had occasion in my last year's 
Address to draw the attention of the Society to a. remarkable work elu- 
cidating the comparative geography of Asia, by our associate Colonel 
Henry Yule, entitled, * Cathay, and the Way Thither,' by which our 
acquaintance vdih the amount of knowledge of Eastern geography 

New Publications. clxi 

possessed by our ancestora was vastly increased. I have this year to 
speak of another work of a similar character, which has recently 
been prodnoed by our secretary, Mr. R. H. Major, in which a large 
number of entirely new points in the history of geographical dis- 
coYeiy have been successfully established. It is impossible to open 
this book, which bears the title of • The Life of Prince Henry of 
Portugal, sumamed the Navigator, and its Eesults,' without observing 
how great an amount of labour and patient research has been 
devoted to its preparation. Till comparatively recently the materials 
for such a work were not to be found in England ; but, by the careful 
study of authentic contemporary documents, Mr. Major has brought 
into prominent relief the name and life of one till now too little 
known, but to whom, in fact, was due the discovery, within one 
oentury, of half the world. And it is in this aspect that this work 
has so much interest for our Society, since Prince Henry himself 
was the centre and source of all that activity in geographical dis- 
covery which made that period so remarkable. 

Commencing with a description of the state of geographical know- 
ledge in Prince Henry's time, and of the vague notions which pre- 
vailed respecting those unexplored regions which were bathed by the 
waters of the Sea of Darkness, Mr. Major leads us on through years 
of costly failure to the story of those wonderful discoveries which were 
made under the auspices of Prince Henry himself. In this portion of 
the work alone we are presented with an abundance of new material 
in the history of geography. The discovery of the Coast of Africa, 
from Cape Bojador to SieiTa Leone, is given from the contemporary 
accounts of Azurara, Cadamosto, and Diogo Gomez; the first and 
last of which authors were previously unknown to English literature. 
Another original feature in the work is the circumstantial and con- 
clusive refutation of a variety of claims set up on behalf of Genoese, 
Catalans, and Frenchmen, to priority in discovery of the Coast of 
Guinea. AVith respect to the important groups of islands in the 
Atlantic, we now for the first time learn that the Azores and Madeu-a 
group were discovered so early as the beginning of the fifteenth 
centuiy by Genoese navigators in the service of Portugal, while for 
the Cape Verde Islands we are supplied with the name of an entirely 
new original discoverer, Diogo Gomez, in lieu of his supplanter, the 
Genoese Antonio de NoUi. The romantic story of the later acci- 
dental discovery of Madeira by the Englishman, Machin, which led 
to the exploration and colonisation of the island by TVince Henry's 
navigators, has now been definitely cleared from doubt, while the 

dxii Sir Bodebick L Mubghiboi^'^ Address. 

complete history of the colonifiatioii of the Azoree is for the fixst tine 
given in English. Still these are but incidents in oomparisoD. with 
the great *£e8ults' of the life of Frinoe Heniy, which it is the leal 
purpose of this comprehensiTe work to set forth. Within, the flmall 
compass of a single century from ihi^ rounding of Gape Bqjador, in 
1434^ we find more than one-half of the world opened up to man's 
knowledge by an unbroken chain of discovery, which origxiiaied in 
the genius and the efforts of this one man, whose name is all but 
unknown. The coasts of Africa visited — the Cape of Good Hope 
rounded — the New World disclosed — ^the seaway to India, the Mo- 
luccas and China laid open, the globe circumnavigated — and ]att» 
not least (for here I would take occasion to say that Mr. Mi^r has 
made this subject peculiarly his own), Australia discovered. ** Snbh 
were the stupendous results," to use Mr. Major's words, ^' of a gnat 
thought and of indomitable perseverance, in spite of twelve yean of 
costly failure and disheartening ridicule. Had that £ailnre ^SiA that 
ridicule produced on Prince Henry the effect which they oidinarily 
produce on other men, it is impossible to say what delays would have 
occurred before these mighty events would have been realised; fur 
it must be borne in mind that the ardour not only of his own sailon, 
but of surrounding nations, owed its impulse to this pertinaoity ef 
purpose in him." 

Keiih JdknslotCB New Adases, — Among the useful and imporimt 
cartographical publications brought out by our Associate Mr. A* 
ELeith Johnston, I have to mention the ' Handy Boyal Atlas,' pub- 
lished this year, as a reliable work, giving the most recent discoveries 
by our travellers in Central Africa and Asia^ and, for its siee and &na, 
easy to be consulted. I have also to notice with especial satiflifiiction 
the forthcoming issue by Mr. Johnston of a series of Elementazy 
Atlases of General, Physical, Historical, and Scriptural Geogxaphj, 
which, being sold at extremely low prices, will, it is hoped, diffoae 
very widely much useful knowledge. The same indefatigable 
author is also about to issue during the summer a complete 
series of Geographical Text-books, arranged on a new plan, and 
in a style calculated to attract students, at ihQ cost of a Hew penoe 
each. Each map will have an accompanying handbook, ao that 
the attention of the pupil or student will be limited to one sabject 
at a time. These cheap and good scientific publications coming 
out now, when the better instruction of the people is so mach 
advocated, cannot fail to be highly serviceable in popnhrinag the 
study of Geography. 

New Publications. clxiii 

Ohapman*$ Travda in South Africa. — ^Among recent publications, tlie 
xaxTative of Mr. James Chapman's Travels in South Africa, during a 
period of fifteen years, merits a commendatory notice on the part of 
geographerB and naturalists. The ground he travelled over lies 
between Natal on the south, and the Zambesi Siver on the north, 
and from the Limpopo on the cast, to Walvisch Bay on the west. 
Few persons occupied in trade as Mr. Chapman was could have 
given us such good sketches of the outlines of the countTy, and so 
many interesting details respecting the geology and botany of the 
wild regions he traversed. European readers may well be asto- 
nished to learn from Mr. Chapman, among the wonders of natural 
hifltoxy which he witnessed, that in one district he walked 1 inches 
deep in a body of locusts, which devoured a cornfield in two 
honiB. Many persons must doubtless be interested in the valu* 
able contributions in various branches of natural history, whilst 
some of the sketches of the gorgeous scenes at and aroimd the great 
Falls of the Zambesi, as executed by Mr. Baines, are telling adjuncts. 
I am pleased to see that the book has been well spoken of by 
able reviewers, one of whom, after recommending it to all who are 
interested in Africa, thus writes: — "As a traveller he has been 
adventurous and energetic, as a narrator truthful and modest ; and 
it must not be forgotten that to such men as Mr. Chapman the 
gratitude of mankind is due." * 

MtUingetCs Observations in Armenia and Kurdistan, — A work has 
recently appeared in Paris, and in the French language, which 
from its title would be supposed to be simply of historical and 
political interest, but which, in reality, contains a considerable 
amount of geographical information concerning parts of the 
Turkish empire of which very little is known. The work is en- 
titled * La Turquie sous la E^gne d' Abdul-Aziz,' and contains tfie 
experiences of the author, Mr. I^rederick Millingen, during three 
years* military service in the eastern part of Armenia, or northern 
Kurdistan. The numerous details gleaned by this intelligent ob- 
server concerning the tribes of Kurds in that region will prove 
interesting to the ethnologist ; and the map attached to the volume, 
in which the tract of country lying between the south-eastern 
shores of Lake Van and the Persian frontier is delineated, recom- 
mend the work to the notice of geographers. The chief utility of 
the map is, that the districts peopled by the different Kurdish 

♦ 'Spectator,' April 11, 1868, p. 444. 


clxiv Sir Boderigk I. Mubchison'x Address. 

tribea, together with the names of their nuineroiifi villageSi are laid 
down from the personal observations of the author. 

Comdissen's Treatise on the Temperahtre of the Sea off (he Oape of 
Oood Hope. — One of those memoirs on oceanic hydrography which 
are so important and valuable for the bearing they have on prac- 
tical seamanship, as well as on the generalizations of physical 
geography, has recently appeared in the publications of the Boyal 
Meteorological Institute of the Netherlands, from the pen of Captain 
J. E. Comelissen, of the Dutch Navy. The conclusions arrived at 
by the author— after tabulating the results of nearly thirty thonsand 
observations of the temperature of the sea, systematically made by 
Dutcl; shipmasters — are, that the warm Mozambique current spreads 
out towards the south of the Cape, and that the cold South polar 
current drives it towards the coiist of Africa, the two alternately en- 
croaching on each other^s domain ; and that the various positioiiBt 
during the year, of these oceanic streams are explicable only by 
the existence of a submarine reef or bank, between 26^ and 27^ 
E. longitude and between 37° and 38° s. latitude, having a gentle 
slope to the south, and a steep inclination on the north and nortk- 
eastern side. Similar observations have been made by English 
observers ; and, indeed, the memoir of Captain Comelissen should 
be studied in connexion with the important paper read before our 
own Society by Mr. Henry Toynbce, and published in the thirty- 
fifth volume of our Journal ; the merit of the Dutch memoir con- 
sisting in the co-ordination of a vast number of observations, made 
in all seasons, and recorded in the logs deposited by the intelligent 
seamen of that nation in the nautical department of the Dutcb 

Jordan*8 Vis Inertice in the Ocean. — Mr. Wm. Leighton Jordan, our 
Associate, has recently published a treatise on the action of vis 
inertiee in the ocean, a sequel to two former volumes on the ele- 
ments as alTccted by the motions of the earth. In this work Mr. 
Jordan advances a series of propositions, carefully arranged, and 
based on the assumption that the waters of the ocean are acted on 
by the axial and orbital motion of the earth in a different d^roe to- 
the solid matter of the globe ; and, by his deductions, he accounts 
for most of the well ascertained currents of the ocean, and also 
infers that others yet undetected exist, by which the known circu- 
lation of the entire mass of waters is maintained. It is a subject of 
great difficulty, and one on which we are entirely deficient in data 
whereon to form a theory based on facts. 

Europe — Spain. clxv 

EuBOPB. — ^^xitfi. — ^I am indebted to Don Francisco Coello, our able 

Honorary Corresponding Member at Madrid, for interesting details 

regarding the official surrejs. and the issue of Government maps in 

Spain, during the last year. In his communication ho laments, as 

all men of science must do, the partial suspension of the great 

cadastral survey of the country, of which he was the director, and 

wkioh. employed a largo staff of scientific men in working out, on a 

magnificent scale, the topography, hydrology, and geology of this 

DDperfectly known part of Europe. Even the results of the pre- 

luninary surveys of the basins of the Douro, the Tagus, and the 

Guadiana, although finished in the same form as the Memoirs on 

the Ebro * and Guadalc^ivir, which had previously attracted so 

much attention, have been suffered to remain unpublished. The 

only portion of this national work which lingers on is the survey 

by small parties of limited districts previously commenced, and the 

neighlxmrhoods of large towns. Since the suspension of geodetical 

operations, Don Francisco Coello informs me that the definitive 

Cilciilations have been completed on the meridian and parallel of 

Uadrid, and in other directions; and that the lines were being 

connected with the Portuguese triangulation on the one hand, and 

the French — at Biarritz — on the other. A lino of levels had also 

lieen oommenced, with a view to the accurate determination of the 

mltitnde of Madrid above the sea-level, which is still a matter of 

dispute, and, although this work has been stopped like the rest 

^ the survey, many important points in tho mountain-chains of 

"die Peninsula have been accui-ately measured. Thus it has been 

-Anally ascertained that the Peak of Mulhacen, in the Sierra Nevada, 

^ the highest point in Spain, being 11,423 feet high, and exceeding 

"^e Pic de Netliou, the highest point in the Spanish portion of the 

^^^^renees, which is only 11,1G8 feet. The altitudes of many other 

^nountains, exceeding 2000 metres (6501 feet), under the meridian 

-^ad parallel of Madrid, have been also determined with similar 


In oondusion, our Associate informs me that a number of new 
-^iharts of the Philippine Islands have been issued by the Hydro- 
^^raphical Depot of Madrid, and that the General Staff have pub- 
Uahed an Itinerary Map of Spain on a scale of y^xrliniij* ^^ twenty 
sheets ; copies of these maps are promised to our Society, and will 
le acceptable additions to our collection. 

♦ See Anniversary Address, 18G6, * Jounial/ vol. xxxvi., p. clxv. 

clxvi Sir BoDERiCK L Mubghison'^ Address. 

Switzerland. — ^According to a report communicated by our esteemed' 
Correspondent, Mons. J. M. Ziegler, the exact measnremeut or 
levels in Switzerland determined on as a consequence of Swiss 
X>articipation in the European Geodetical Congress, and entrusted 
to those able astronomers M. Hirsch of Neuchatel and M. Flanta- 
mour of Geneva, has made progress during the year 1867. By 
these operations all elevations, previously hjpsometrically deter- 
mined, Will be reviewed throughout Switzerland. So £ar the work, 
performed by Swiss surveyors has contrasted &vourably with that 
done in connexion with it by surrounding States, and has been 
complimented by the astronomer Hansen of Gotha, President of the 
Central Board. Probably as a consequence of the grandeur and 
interest of its natural phenomena, in few countries is the study or 
physical geography more cultivated than in Switzerland. Aa evi- . 
deuce of this, may be cited the number of maps and treatises which 
annually appear, relating to the different phases of this fruitful 
department of science. I am informed by M. Ziegler that, since the 
completion of the Federal Survey, the measurement of the Swiss 
glaciers was determined on ; and that the first series of the results 
(the work of M. Kindig) has been published, comprising the glaciers 
of South- Western Yalais. In connexion with this subject, and the 
conditions which influence the climate of their country, the Swiss 
Natural Science Society have offered a prize to encourage investi- 
gations concerning the warm southerly wind or Fohn. The same 
Society has a Meteorological Section, and it must be allowed that 
Switzerland offers many questions of interest to stimulate their 

Abctic Besearches. — ^Having participated during many years in- 
the efforts made by our Society to encourage Arctic exploration, it 
has been my pleasing duty, handed down to me by my eminent 
predecessor Sir John BaiTow, to welcome and encourage every pro- 
posal which has been brought before us, tending to add lustre to the 
fame that the British nation has achieved in ihe delineation of 
the geography of a region which we have almost made our own. 

For a number of years the hope was entertained that a passage 
between tho Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, useful in commerce, might 
be realised; but, though the honour of effecting a transit by sea 
and ice was first accomplished by Franklin, who sealed his success 
with his life, and shortly after by McClure, and though many of their 
brave associates, from the days of Parry to those of McClintock^ 

Arctic Besearchcs. clxyit 

hswe ezplomf and laid down the fonns of large islands constituting 
a large ar^pelago in these frozen climes, all hope of ever csta- 
Uishing a practicable sea-passage has vanished. For, hy onr 
we now know that, in any latitudes which we have 
Aed, the Arctic Sea is beset with islands, and the intensity of 
the eold thereby so much increased, that the narrow passages 
between fhem are necessarily frozen, and impassable to ships. 

Of late years, howoTer, our interest has been awakened to the 
aeconqiliBhment of another great Arctic desideratum, or that of 
reaching the North Pole itself. As British geographers, we natu- 
lally supported this project, in the consideration that the nation 
which had already added so much to our knowledge of these regions 
flhoald oiown the work, by determining whether an open 6eax)r land 
ensted at tiie Pole itself. The project was warmly supported by 
nologistsv botanists, meteorologists, and physicists; and, fortified by 
the support of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
this Society urged the Government to employ a small portion of our 
great maritime force in settling this important question. If the most 
stirring eloquence could have prevailed, the Memoir of that distin- 
guished Arctic explorer Sherard Osbom, read to us in 1865, should 
hare induced any Board of Admiralty to countenance the eflfort we 
called for. But our rulers paused, chiefly because we, the Geogra- 
phers, had not made up our^minds as to whether the British efibrts 
dioold be made by the way of Baffin's Bay and Smith Sound, or by 
Spitsbergen ; our associates being divided in opinion. And even in 
r^sid to the Spitzbergen route, some believed that the expedition 
ought to proceed between that island and Nova Zembla, and others 
preferred coasting along the east and north shores of Greenland. 
Hence the refusal of the Admiralty to sanction any expedition in 
1865, though Osbom bad clearly pointed out the small amount of 
exploration, comparatively speaking, which remained to be accom- 
plished in solving the desired problem. 

Beoently the subject — which, though dormant, has never been 
ahsn domed by us — has been revived with vigour in Germany, en- 
tirely through the energy and skill of our Medallist Dr. Petermann, 
who, warmly advocating the voyage by Spitzbergen, has at his 
own risk fitted out a Norwegian yacht of 80 tons, the Germania, 
commanded by Karl Koldewey, which sailed probably to-day from 
Bergen in Norway, and will proceed to lat. 74^" N., along the 
eastern coast of Greenland. The French, also, have been roused 
hy the appeal of a zealous young naval officer, Lieutenant Lam- 

clxviii Sir Bodebick I. Mubchison'« Address. 

bcrt, to fit out an expedition to enter the Arctic Seas by Beh* 
ring Stitdt ; and, finally, we Lave once more been stimulated by 
Sberard Osbom to go forward in tbo cause be bas so much at 
beart. Wbilst in bis last communication be gave many strong and 
good reasons for prefening, as boretofore, tbe route by Smitb 
Sound to any otber line, be is, I know, above all desirous tbat we 
sbould lie no longer on our oars, but tbat, at tbe latest in tbe 
ensuing year, wbicbever route may be preferred, sometbing should 
be done in reopening tbis fine scbool for tbe training of bardy and 
adventurous seamen. 

In bis last Memoir, Captain Sberard Osbom gives great credit to 
tbe views of Dr. Petermann, wbo bas indeed justly entitled bimself 
to our v&rmest acknowledgments for tbe sagacity and talent with 
wbicb bo long ago deduced tbe existence of tbose northern lands^ 
and laid them down in bis maps from tbe evidence of tbe Bussian 
explorers, and recently again examined by way of Bebring Strait. At 
tbe same time tbe results of tbe inquiries of tbe Swedish expedition 
at and around Spitzbergen are, as Osbom thinks, antagonistic to the 
success of any effort in tbat direction. 

Whilst such are the preparations and hopes in European coun- 
tries, a great amount of fresh knowledge has been obtained by 
our American kinsmen, wbo in their whaling-vessels have pushed 
their enterprise through Bebring Strait, far beyond the] land first 
sighted by Kellett, and beyond 73^ n. lat. have coasted extensiye 
high lands which lie off tbe coast of Siberia, from which they are, it 
is thought, separated by tbe sea first seen by Wrangell. Theee^ 
indeed, are great advances since the days when Collinson (whose 
discoveries in another direction bave never been surpassed) deter- 
mined the outline of tbe whole northern coast of America, and 
Kellett first saw Herald Island. 

One of these masters of American whalers — Captain Long — has 
communicated to tbe * Pacific Commercial Advertiser of Honolulu,* 
a report which, in giving a lively sketch of the progress of Arctio 
discovery from the days of Hudson and Frobisher, bas enunciated 
tbe opinion that, if ever a transit by water be made between the 
Eastern and Western Oceans, it will not be by lines hitherto tried, 
but by an enterprise directed from Bebring Strait. 

Looking to tbe fact that tbe Arctic Sea is boimded by North 
America, Greenland, Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla,[and Siberia, and 
tbat it is the recipient of tbe enormous bodies of water poured into 
it by many large rivers, he infers that the surplus must be mainly 

Arctic Researches. clxix 

disdiiarged either by Spitzbergen or by Smith Sound and Baffin's 
Bay. Now, all navigators who have endeavoured to get towards 
ihe Pole by these lines have, he says, always met with a powerful 
outflow of water transporting and moving out the ioo southward 
into the Atlantic. Thus it was that Parry, having proceeded 
with great perseverance in sledges 292 miles northwards, and 
having reached lat. 82^ 45', was only 172 miles from his starting- 
spoint, so steadily had the broken ice been carrying him and 
his party southwards by this great channel. Considering that 
the same outflow of water and ice has been met with by all ex- 
plorers to the north of Smith Sound, Captain Long maintains that 
Behring Strait stands in favourable contrast to the other open- 
ings into the region of the Polar Sea, and is the channel in which 
the effort should be made. lie affirms, from experience of whalers 
4nnoe 1847, that no gi-eat body of water finds its way south through 
Behring Strait ; and that, at least in the spring and summer, the 
coneDt is always found setting to the north, owing, as he infers, 
to the discharge of the rivers on the North American shore 
and that of the Anadyr on the Asiatic coast. He suggests, there- 
fore, that a strong vessel of from 200 to 300 tons' burthen, and 
provided with sufficient steam-power to get through temporary 
obstacles, should follow the Asiatic shore from Behiing Sti-ait as 
tar as Cape Kekurnai or Cape Schelagskoi. From some point 
between those capes the course would be to the north of the Laachoo 
lalandH, whence the course towards Spitzbergen or the Pole would 
be influenced by the currents proceeding from the great Siberian 
livers. If the vessel wore obstructed by ice to the north of these 
islands, the outflow current, though not so strong as immediately to the 
north of Spitzbergen or in Baffin's Bay, would, he thinks, eventually 
carry the ship through one of the channels into the Atlantic. 

Another route by which the voyage might, in the opinion of 
Captain Long, be accomplished, is', to proceed from Behring Strait 
to the mouth of the Lena, then directly north beyond Cape Sievero 
Yostoschni, and then westwards towards Spitzbergen. 

The letter of this experienced whaling captain is highly entitled 
to the notice of all persons interested in Arctic exploration, 
inasmuch as he assigns strong giounds for believing that hitherto 
we have been toiling like Sisyphus against natural obstacles ; he 
believes that notwithstanding a few minor difficulties on the Siberian 
coast, if we once get a stoat but small vessel into the current caused 
by the Yenissei and other great Siberian streams, that she would, 

cLoc Sib Roderick I. Mubchison'^ Address. 

if entangled in the pack, be nnqueationably carried forward intxy ib» 

Captain Long concludes that the passage from the Paoifio ia tb» 
Atlantic Ocean will eventually be accomplished from Behixs^ 
Strait by one of the two routes which he has indioated, and adds« 
*' I have as much faith in this as I have in any nncertam fofme 
event, and much more than I had fifteen years ago in the AtEaatkr 

Irrespective, however, of this possible but useless transit from 
the Pacific to the Atlantic, a fourth plan by which the North 
Pole may be reached has been recently brought under my nctiee 
by an experienced captain of a British whaler, David Gray, and 
which he thinks has many advantages over the three routes hj 
Smith Sound, Spitzbergen, or Behring Strait. Writing to me on 
the eve of his departure for his usual fishing-station, off the east 
coast of Greenland, he maintains from his long observations of the 
tides, the set of the currents, and the state of the ice in that region 
at various seasons of the year, that there will be little difficulty in 
carrying a vessel in a single season to a very high latUudey ifnoi to fftr 
Pole Uself, He proposes to take the ice at about 72^, where there isft. 
deep bight running towards Shannon Island, and thenoe he couH 
follow the continent of Greenland as long as it trended in tk» 
desired direction, and afterwards push through the loose iielcb 
of ice, which can be easily penetrated, as proved by Scoresiby, 
Clavering, and Sabine. 

This project is supported by numerous good observations ; saxKmg 
which the rarity of icebergs in those wide seas, probably affected 
by the warmth of the Gulf Stream, in comparison with their abund- 
ance in the narrow strait of Smith Sound, would seem to give to his 
route a decided advantage over that on the west coast of Greenland* 
Another advantage is, that the ice on the east coast is field or fie& 
ice, which is always in motion even in winter, as proved by siiipB 
that were beset as far north as 78^, being driven down during winter 
and autumn to Cape FarewelL Adducing other reasons for ppo^ 
ferring this route, Captain David Gray believes that an expedi- 
tion might reach Shannon Island in fourteen days, and would be in 
its field of operation six weeks sooner than if it were sent to Smith 
Sound ; and therefore that a vessel sailing in June would have before 
it for research the greater part of July, all August, and the htiT 
of September, in which time the object might be accomplished. 
Failing of this, and it being necessary to winter, there are> it la 

BritiMh North America. clxxi 

said, znanj bays and good harbours on the east coast of Green- 
land "whioh are available, where, according to the indications ob- 
aerved, there seems to exist an average amount of animal life 
oompared with other Arctic districts. I refer you to Captain 
David Gray's sensible letter on this subject, which will be pub- 
lished in onr 'Proceedings;' and in the mean time it is highly 
gratifying to know that the German, or, as it may be truly called, 
the Petermann Expedition, which is to sail to-day from Bergen, is 
about to proceed on the same line as that advocated by the expe- 
xienoed whaling commander Captain David Gray. 

Before I dismiss the subject of Arctic researches I must state that 
I haye recently been informed by Professor A. E. Nordenskiold, of 
Stockholm, that the Swedish Government are preparing to make, 
during the appix)aching summer, an attempt to advance into the 
Polar Sea beyond Spitzbergen. A powerful screw-steamer, expressly 
built fbr winter navigation, has been gianted for the purpose, and is 
to be provisioned for twelve months. Already the Swedish Govem- 
xnent have gained honour by their encouragement of successive ex- 
peditions to Spitzbergen for the measurement of an arc of the 
xneridian, and the scientific exploration of the islands, in which 
I^rofeBsor Nordenskiold took part ; that success may attend the pre- 
sent enterprise must be the prayer of all Geographers. 

BRiriSH North America. — In an able review of the Memoir read 
"by Mr. Alfred Waddington, during the present session, "On the 
I^hysioal Geography of British Columbia," Dr. Cheadle has recently 
^ven* us a very suggestive forecast of the probable future of our 
^orth American Colonies, if those on the Pacific, so rich in coal and 
^^old, be not speedily connected with those east of the Rocky Moun- 
"tains and with Canada. Coming from the fellow-traveller of Lord 
^Hilton, who three years ago called public attention to the important 
subject of a north-west passage by land, I am happy to see that Dr. 
Cheadle coincides with me in assigning gi-eat praise to Mr. Wad- 
dington, for the perseverance and intelligence with which he has 
promoted, at great pecuniary sacrifice, the exploration of British 
Columbia during many years, and for having been the first to indi- 
cate the best line of route between the Leatherhead Pass of the 
Socky Mountains (described by Dr. Rae, Lord Milton and Dr. 
Cheadle), and Bute Inlet on the Pacific. It is manifest that the 

* *Pall Mall Gazette,' April 15, 18G8, p. 3. 


clxxii Sir Boderick L Mubchison'^ Address. 

present isolation of the Pacific oolomes from, the rich conntries 
watered by the Saskatchewan and the Eed Eiver is greatly to be 
lamented, and it is evident that if British North America is to 
be preserved in its entirety, a strong imperial will must be exerted 
aiid considerable expenditure incurred in the constmction of lines 
of communication between our widely-separated provinces, whioh 
otherwise will be absorbed one by one by our energetic neighboars 
of the United States, commencing with the most readily accessible* 
the Bed Biver Settlement. 

Centbal America. — Isthmus of Darien. — Our attention has been 
directed, during the present session, to the ever-recurring and im- 
portant subject of new lines of transit and projects of ship-canals 
across the great American isthmus. At one of our evening meet- 
ingSy our enterprising associate, Mr. John GoUinson, gave us an inter- 
esting narrative of his preliminary survey (in which he was accom- 
panied by Lieutenant S. P. Oliver) across the unknown eastern part 
of Nicaragua, undertaken with a view to the selection of a line for 
a railway across the country, to terminate at Pim's Bay on the 
Atlantic side, and Bealejo on the Pacific, The highest point of 
the line surveyed was found to be only 748 feet above the level 
of the Atlantic, and 620 feet above that of Lake Nicaragua ; and the 
country, except for a few miles near the lake, was covered with 
the dense and lofty virgin-forest, which is characteristio of the 
lower levels in Tropical America. 

The most easterly part of the American isthmus — the Isthmus of 
Darien — is that which has always presented the greatest difficulties 
to the explorer. The terrible sufiferings of the survey-parties sent 
out to explore the line of the Savannah Biver and Port Esoooes, 
fourteen years ago, when several members of the expedition perished 
of hunger in the trackless forests, must still be fresh in the memory 
of many persons. Notwithstanding, however, the failure of all pre- 
vious attempts to cross the isthmus, M. Lucien de Puydt, under the 
auspices of the French Government, has devoted himself during 
the last few years to the examination of this difficult country. In 
1861 he explored the line of the Biver Lara and Chuqunaque, and 
penetrated as far as was possible by water towards the sources of 
the Biver Tuyra ; and believing that he then saw the chain of the 
Andes in that direction broken up into isolated hills, with two 
passes between them, revisited the district from the eastern or 
Atlantic side in 1865, and succeeded iu reaching one of these passes, 
which he declares to be not more than about 120 feet above the sea- 

South America. clxxiii 

lereL The district of M. do Puydt's lator exploration is one of the 
least known of the Isthmus of Darien, lying along the course and 
near the sources of the Tanela Kiver, which disembogues in the 
Gulf of Uraba. Although wo may regret the insufficiency of the 
obserrationB of altitudes taken by the traveller, — and he describes 
hiB exploration as only preliminary to a more perfect survey, — the 
Memoir communicated to us by M. de Fuydt must be admitted 
to contain much information on the geography, ethnology, and pro- 
dnetions of a region hitherto almost unknown. 

Before quitting the subject of the Isthmus of Darien, I have to 
record that a most useful volume on the subject of interoceanio 
tranBit has been published by Admiral Davis, of the National 
Observatory, Washington, which contains an outline of nearly 
all the various projects for connecting the two oceans, copiously 
illustrated by maps. 

South America. — Last year it was my pleasing duty to record the 
continuation of the important explorations of the Furus and its 
tributaries by our associate and medalist, Mr. Chandless, which 
added so much to our knowledge of South American geography. 
Although I have not, on the present occasion, to bring to your 
notice any fact of such striking interest as this, much has been 
done in the investigation of the other great rivers of the Amazons 
basin, chiefly through the Peruvians, who have lately made strenu- 
ous efforts to explore the rivers in their eastern territory, with the 
vie'w to the opening of new lines of communication. The reports 
of Peruvian officers engaged in these fluvial explorations have been 
published in the official Gazettes of Lima ; but have not, as far as I 
am aware, been translated into English, or made known to the 
acientific public in Europe. 

The expedition up the Ucayali and Pachitea rivers, which I 
noticed in my last year's Address as having succeeded in proving 
the navigability of these tributaries of the Amazons to within 325 
^niles of Lima, has been followed by a survey of the land-route 
"between ihe head of the navigation and the city of Huanuco, in the 
inhabited parts of Peru. A brief account of this survey has been 
sent to our Society by our Corresponding Member, Don M. Felipe 
Paz Soldan, accompanied by a tracing of the map of the route, which 
will be interesting to English geographers, delineating the unex- 
plored country into which our travellers Smith and liowe found it 
impossible to advance in 1834. The port which is to be the future 

clxxiy Sir Eoderick L Mubchison'^ Address. 

place of embarkation at the foot of the Andes, for the voyage to 
Europe vid the Amazons, has been named ** Puerto Qeneral Ftado ** 
after the President of Pern ; and is situated at the junction of the 
Eiver Mayro with the Palcazo, more than 3600 miles distant fix>m 
the Atlantic. The survey was executed by a Hydrographic Com- 
mission, under the direction of Admiral Tucker, a North-American 
naval officer, now in the Peruvian service ; and all the principal 
points on the line have been fixed by astronomical observation. 
Profile sections of the route accompany the map, and we are pro- 
mised a narrative of the expedition as soon as it is ready. 

Another important undertaking has been the exploration of the 
Eiver Javari in 1866, by a joint Frontier Commission of Pemvians 
and Brazilians. In all maps this tributary of the Amazons iB repre- 
sented as running from south to north, and it had been fixed upon 
in the last century as the boundary line, in this direction, between 
the colonial territories of Spain and Portugal ; but the result of the 
recent exploration has been to show that the general direction of 
the stream is for several himdred miles south-east to north-west, or 
nearly parallel to the Amazous, and that it has numerous abrupt 
windings. A report of the survey has been sent to us by Don 
Manuel R. Paz Soldan, nephew of our Lima correspondent, who 
was the Peruvian Commissioner ; but a great part of the journals 
and observations, as well as the instruments, were lost in a mur- 
derous afiray with the wild Indians of this dangerous region, — a 
hundred savages armed with bows and poisoned arrows having snd- 
dcnly attacked the party in a narrow part of the stream, walled-in 
by high forests, and killed the Brazilian Commissioner, besides 
wounding five others, including Seiior Paz Soldan himself. The 
expedition had thus to turn back, leaving their large vessel in the 
hands of the Indians, and escaping in a small boat. The author of 
the Report speaks of the wide extent of fertile country watered 
by the Javari and other rivers, still unknown, and likely long to 
remain so, on account of the ferocious nature of its inhabitants. ^ 

The River Morona, an affluent of the left bank of the Upper 
Amazons, near the limit of navigation, was explored last year bj 
the steamer Napo, under the command of Captain M. A. Yargas. 
The country on both sides of this little-known stream is scantily 
peopled by Indians, who obtain gold, for barter with white traders, 
with the greatest facility, by washing the sand of the beaches in the 
rudest manner. Captain Vargas observed the method of working, 
and obtained samples of the gold, which is of fine quality, and he 

Australia. cIxxy 

Hxmoludes hk interestizig report by expressing the opinion that the 
TillesTB of seyeral of these northern tributaries abound in gold, the 

•Mttch for which will soon attract a large population. 

Our indefatigable sBBOciate Professor Eaimondi continues without 
iaterraption his vsluable explorations of the Andean valleys of 
C!entnd Feni, and has recently examined the course of the Hiver 
Pulpesia, an affluent of the Apurimao, — a journey undertaken with a 
Tiew to ascertaining how feu: up the latter river was navigable. 
His memoir on this subject, which we have already received, like 
the previous one published in the last volume of our ' Journal,' 
Abounds in interesting observations not only of the topography, but 

^aIso of the physicsl geography and botany of this previously un- 
kaown district 

Jjk other parts of South America there is little to record, except 
ihat Captain Burton has recently returned to his Consulate at 
Ssntos, after « journey of seven months through the interior of 
Bzazil, and down the Eiver San Francisco. Ilis report of the jour- 
ney may be shortly expected, and, being from the pen of so experi- 
eiieed and able a traveller, it cannot but contain much that will be 
JMV aaid interesting. 

Australia. — The chief additions to our knowledge of Australian 
geography have been made, as in the previous year, by small expe- 
ditions from the outskirts of the populated districts, undertaken to 
-discover new lands suitable for settlement. In this way we are 
^imdaally becoming acquainted with the interior portions of Quecns- 
laftd and Western Australia. Under the enlightened encouragement 
•cf Governor Hampton, in the latter colony, much useful knowledge 
-of the country between Nickol Bay and the Tropic of Capricorn has 
heai obtained by parties imder the leadership of Mr. T. C. Shell, 
-who has established the identity of the Ashburton with the Curlew 
Biver, and discovered several new streams flowing towards Exmouth 

IMsooveries of some importance have been made in 18G7, in the 
iKni^hem territory belonging to the colony of South Australia. 
After the failure of the Adam Bay Settlement, the enterprising 
Crovemment of Adelaide despatched Captain Cadell in a steamer 
Jiamed the Eaglcj to explore the coast between the mouth of the 
Adelaide River and the Gulf of Carpentaria, previously imperfectly 
surveyed by Flinders and afterwards by Stokes, with a view to the 
disoovery of some better site for a settlement than Adam Bay. The 

clxxyi Sir Bodebick L Mubghison'^ Address. 

Eagle left Sydney on the 29th March, 1867, and on arriving at 
the Gulf of Carpentaria examined all the inlets, commencing from 
the west of the Queensland frontier. Proceeding northward along 
the western shores of the Gulf, Captain Cadell discovered, first, a 
moderate-sized river in lat. 14^ 27' ; afterwards, in lat. 12^ 33' and 
long. 136^ 55', another river flowing into a fine haven of some 50 
square miles' area ; and again, on the western side of the deep gulf 
in which lies Amhem's Bay, the mouths of three large rivers dis- 
emboguing in a deep bay, 20 miles in length by 10 in breadth, in 
a part of the coast hitherto represented on charts as dry land. 
Two of these rivers had 5 fathoms of water on the bar. The 
new bay was named Buckingham Bay, in honour of the Duke of 
Buckingham, the present Secretary of State for the Colonies. 
Another fine river was discovered about 30 miles to the eastward of 
the Liverpool, by Mr. H. B. 'Bristow, the chief officer in command 
of a boat-party. He proceeded 60 miles up the stream, and found 
the depth all that distance 4 fathoms, at low water, the width being 
200 yards; the entrance to the river is 2^ miles wide. Natives 
were numerous on the shores of the river ; and indeed the whole 
coast, which is fringed with islands, was found to be thickly inha- 
bited. As a result of this exploration, Captain Cadell gives the 
estuary of the Liverpool River as by far the best site fora settle- 
ment in this region. 

CenircU Asia and Western China, — ^For some years I have, in my 
Anniversary Addresses, directed attention to the grand and impas- 
sable mountain region lying between the Central Asiatic countries 
occupied by the Russians and our great Empire of India. In 
confirmation of the views I have entertained, I now refer yon 
to the able and sound views on this subject, which are contained 
in the article of the last number of the 'Edinburgh Review* 
headed •' Western China." In Eastern Turkistan, and in the great 
province of Yunan, the authority of the Chinese has been swept 
away, and the insurgent Mahomedans have established independ- 
ent governments. From Eastern Turkistan the insurrection has 
spread also over the provinces of Khansa and Shansi, and even in 
the Szechuen districts bordering on Thibet. So, in the expressive 
language of the writer, **we really have before us grounds to sur- 
mise that this remote part of the world may at present be the scene 
of a great Moslem revival." We learn from our Associate Colonel 
Yule, that, even in the 13th century, Marco Polo found in the chief 

Central Asia and JVestem Cldna. clxxvii 

city of Yunan, the westernmost province of China, a mixed assem- 
bkge of idolaters, Saracens, and Xestorian Christians; and the 
leoent rise and spread of the Mussulman clement is graphically told 
by the author of the article in question. By this last revolution, 
indeed, all the overland trade between British Burmah and China 
has been stopped, and some time must elapse before any commercial 
interoourse can be safely established with the new rulers. The great 
interest of the article I refer to consists in the condensed descrip- 
tion of the internecine conflicts between the former governors, 
the Chinese and the Mussulmeu, who have expelled them, and 
sahsequently of the frequent battles and disturbances of the latter 
among themselves, now that they are unquestioned masters of all 
Eastern Turkistan, including the cities of Yarkand, Eashgar, and 

The most important of the leaders of these Mussulmen is Yakoob 
Kooahb^ee of Khotan, now the ruler of all Eastern Turkistan, 
^th whom the adventurous explorer Johnson, of the Trigonome- 
trical Survey of India, came into communication, as recorded in our 

Although as anxious as any one to gain fresh geographical know- 
ledge, I dissent from the views of those of my contemporaries, who, 
overlooking all obstacles where British prestige and power are to be 
extended, have blamed Sir John Lawrence for having discoun- 
tenanced such excursions. I must record^ it as my opinion that the 
Governor-General of India has acted most wisely iu abstaining 
from intercourse with these bellicose and unsettled Free Lances 
beyond the British frontier, whether they lie in Affghanistan on the 
wort, or at Khotan and Eashgar on the north. At the same time, 
as President of this Society, I shall rejoice if the recommendation of 
the Expedition Committee of our Council be adopted, and that the 
-able young Indian officer, Lieut. Haj'ward, who has already pene- 
tnted in sporting excursions to the north of the Hindoo Rush, 
tbonld proceed, as an unauthorized individual, to the regions north 
-of tbat mountain range, and define the flanks of the Pamir steppe, 
tkoa clearing up some of the problems in the physical geography of 
Central Asia. 

"Baswrng during some years endeavoured to lead my associates to 
Miifve that the invasion of our Indian empire by Hussia was a 
aara ohimera and a political bugbear, so when I see a few thousand 
OonaokB gradually establishing order in \Vestem Turkistan, and 
gndnally gaining ground eastwards from the Syr Daria, I rejoice 

VOL, zxxym. m 

clxxviii Sir Bodebick L Mubchison'^ Address. 

to find that many of my countiTmen no longer look with appre- 
hension to their advances, but rather hail them as establishing 
settled government where all was previously chaos. In a word, the 
able reviewer to whom I have alluded, and who was for some time 
an efficient public servant in India, has thus written in regard to the 
grand and impassable moimtains which happily separate British 
India from Turkistan : — ^*' As for the security of the British empire, 
even the wildest of the Hussophobists has not yet conceived the 
possibility of an invasion by the way of Karakorum." And when 
we consider that the Eussian forces, which have now extended along 
the Syr Daria to Tashkend, do not exceed eight or ten thousand 
men in the remote provinces they have brought into order, and 
that they are separated from their great centre of supply by many 
wild and sterile countries, I trust we may hear no more of this 

British Burmah.* — I may now profitably call your attention to 
a region which has received less of the attention of geographers 
than it deserves, as will be at once seen in the following short 
statement which I obtained, a few days before his death, fix)m my 
friend Mr. John Crawfurd, who was personally well acquainted 
with a large portion of the country. This is that part of our vast 
Indian dominion which in official language is called British Burmah^ 
and on which admirable periodical reports have been made by the 
able men who have administered the government of this new country 
since the more important part of it came into our possession. These 
men are Sir Arthur Phayre, for many years the Chief Commissioner 
there, and at present his worthy successor Colonel A. Fytche. 
What has been accomplished in a few short years will appear from 
the following account of the present state of the province : — 

The territory is composed of the ancient divisions of Pegu in the 
centre, Arracan to the north, and Tenasserim to the south, and is 
wholly tropical, extending from about the eleventh to the twenty- 
first degree of latitude, and has a computed area of 90,000 square 
miles, which make it some GOOO square miles larger than Great 
Britain. The eastern shore of the Bay of Bengal, over a vast line 
of 900 miles, forms its western boundary ; and along this line there 
are, in contrast to the absence of harbours which characterises th& 

* This portion of my Address, the 'work of my deeply lamented friend Joha 
Crawford, is the last of the many proofs I had of his willing co-operation. 

British Burmah. cbmx 

western shore of the same bay, four good ones,- being the em- 
bouchures of as many rivers; one of which, the Irra^vad7, is 
navigable by steamers for 500 miles. 

We have in British Bnrmah a country in almost all respeoib 
widely differing from India, inhabited by a distinct race of men, 
differing from Hindus in language, in religion, and in manners; 
India is a thickly-peopled, and in many places even an over-peopled 
one, while Burmah is everywhere under-peopled. There is no room 
in India for that immigration which our territory in Trans-Gangetio 
India loudly invites. In 18G1-2, the population of British Burmah 
was 1,897,807, and in 1866-7, or in five years' time, it had increased 
to 2,330,453, or 23 per cent., arising for the most part from emi- 
gration from the misgoverned native provinces bordering on it. 
The great majority of the inhabitants are natives of the countiy, 
but we have in this population also about 100,000 Hindu and 
Mahomedan settlers from India, and above 10,000 settlers from 
China. In the last year of the Return, the numbers of immigrants 
amonnted to no fewer than 76,869. The ratio of population to land 
in British Hindustan ranges from 150 to 500 to every square mile; 
whereas, in our Trans-Gangetic province, it is little more than 25, 
or one-sixth of the lowest, and one-twentieth of the highest, density 
of India. As a resource for emigi-ation, then, Burmah is to India 
what America and Australia are to England. 

The two staple products of British Burmah point at the nature and 
quality of the country. They are rice and teak timber ; the first 
the main cereal everywhere of the tropics, and the last the only 
timber that equals, if it does not indeed excel, British oak. The 
export of rice, in 18G5-6, amounted to 6,089,700 cwt., of the local 
value of 1,825,209/. Of this com, British Burmah is the largest 
exporting countiy in the world — an advantage which it owes to the 
abundance and suitableness of its land, and the favourable nature 
of its climate, and more especially to the 10,000 square miles of 
alluvial soil which constitute the deltas of its great rivers. Before 
the British accession all export of rice was forbidden. 

The teak forests of British Burmah are by far the largest in 
India, but the supplies which we obtain from the foreign states 
of Bnrmah, Slam, and other countries, and which pass through our 
territory for a market, are still larger than our own. In 1865-6, 
14,000 logs of texik were imported from foreign countries, and 
24,178 loads, of the value of 144,540/., were exported chiefly to 
form the backing of English ** iron shields." 

• m 2 

clxxx Sir lloDEBiCK L MuBCHisON'f Address. 

Mr. Grawfurd added to his instraotive commentary on Biitish 
Burmah some valuable, and it seems to me well-founded, objections 
to the attempt to establish a railroad between Bangoon and the 
western Chinese province of Yunan. He showed that this pro- 
vince, the poorest of the empire, is almost entirely inhabited by 
Mahomedans who are now in insurrection ; and besides this there 
lies a vast country between British Burmah and the Chinese frontier, 
which is occupied by wild, lawless, and independent tribes. Hence 
it is that at the present day the raw silk from China, which fonnerly 
was brought overland, now comes to Rangoon much better and 
cheaper after it has gone over the China Sea, through the Straits of 
Malacca, and up the Bay of Bengal— a voyage of some 3000 miles. 

If, however, the project of a railroad frx)m Bangoon to China is 
not to be thought of, the local authorities of British Burmah, 
supported by the commercial community, have submitted to the 
Supreme Government of India the project of a guaranteed railroad, 
which, from its national, practical, and moderate character, is well 
entitled to favourable consideration. It is to be wholly within 
British territory, and to run over the most fertile and populous 
portion of the province, comprising a distance of 180 miles; one 
terminus being the port of Bangoon, a town of 70,000 inhabi- 
tants, and the other Prome, near our northern frx)ntier, a town 
with a population of 22,000. 

TJtibet and Lhasa, — We have received during the past year, 
through the enterprising but well-considered arrangements of 
Captain Montgomerie, who is now in executive charge of the Great 
Trigonometrical Survey of India, a most valuable accession to our 
knowledge of the geography of the Trans-Himalajran regions. This 
officer, finding it impossible to employ his English assistants, either 
with safety or advantage, beyond the dominions of our ally the 
Maharaja of Caslimire, proposed to educate intelligent natives for 
the purpose of extending exploration to the northward, and thus 
enlarging the scope of his survey. His proposal met with the ap- 
proval of the Government ; and, if we may judge from the success 
of the first two experiments that have been made, it is likely to 
lead to the most important results. 

At our last Anniversary it was announced to the Society that one 
of Captain Montgomerie's native assistants, a Mahometan who had 
acquired a competent knowledge of the use of scientific instruments, 
had penetrated from the Karakorum Pass to Yarkand, determining 
for the first time the true astronomical position of that town, and 

Tlilhd and Llm^'i. 


connecting it through a well-executed route-survey with our trigo- 
nometrical operations in Thibet. 1 have now to notice a still more 
important achievement, for which we are indebted to Captain Mont- 
gomerie's judicious encouragement of native talent, and which has 
attracted much attention both in India and England. The extensive 
plateau beyond the crests of the Himalaya, which stretches west and 
east from Mount Kailas and the Mansarowar Lake to Lhasa in Great 
Thibet, has never been visited by Moslem travellers ; and although, a 
century and a half ago, a Catholic missionary of the name of Hippolito 
Desideri did traverse the entire distance in his journey from Cashmire, 
via Ladakto Lhasa, he has left no information of any value with regard 
to the geography of the country. The interval, therefore, upon this 
line between the Mansarowar Lake and the great monastery of 
Teshii-Lumbd near Lhasa, which was visited by \N'an'en Hastings's 
envoys — ^Mr. Bogle and Major Turner — was regarded as a sort of 
Una incognita ; and was thus judged by Captain Montgomerie to be 
particularly deserving of his attention. He employed accordingly 
two brothers, intelligent young Brahmins, who liad been fully 
instructed in the use of surveying instniments, to explore this 
region. They proceeded from India by way of Nepaul, and, after 
numerous failures, one of the two succeeded in eluding the vigilance 
of the Thibetan officials, and obtaining access to the countr}'. With 
marvellous address and no little boldness and energy, this individual 
— now generally known as Captain Montgomerio*8 Rmdit — pene- 
trated from the Nci)aul frontier to the city of Lhasa, and subse- 
qnenUy returned from that city along the banks of the Bmhmaputra 
to the source of that river in the Mansarowar Lake ; from whence 
he crossed the HimaLiyas to the plains of India, leaving his brother, 
whom he had rejoined on the Indian frontier, to continue the survey 
from the lake to Ladak. 

Throughout this long tract, a distance of over 800 miles, we are now, 
therefore, in possession of a continuous route-survey, verified by astro- 
nomical observations, at a number of intermediate points, and rendered 
still more valuable by reliable information regarding the climatology 
and physical geography of this hitherto almost unknown region. 
That the Pundit, while maintaining his disguise, should have been 
able, amid a watchful and suspicious people, to keep upon so long a 
line a careful road-book with a full record of bearings and distances, 
and a very extensive register of observations, is certainly no ordi- 
nary feat ; and reflects infinite credit, not only on the individual 
employed, but on Captain Montgomerie's judgment in selecting 

dzzzii Sir Bodebick L MuBOHisoN'f Address. 

him for the duty. The Society will farther be glad to leam that 
the Conncil have awarded a Grold Watch of the Talue of 302. to the 
Pundit, in commemoration of his courage, ability, and address, and 
to mark their sense of the value of the services which he has ren- 
dared to Geography. 

■Goal and Gold of South-Eastern Africa. — The colony of Natal 
seems to be destined to rise into considerable importance, if the 
coal, which is there plentiful, particularly in its north-western 
parts, should be rendered useful by the construction of railroads to 
oonvey it from the interior to the towns of Pieter Maritzburg and 
Durban. I have reason to think that this coal was formed in Palaa- 
ozoio times, and is of the best quality. In order to determine its 
Bxtent and by what means it can be best worked and transported, 
il have, on being constdted, recommended Her Majesty's Govem- 
2nent to* send out a competent mining engineer to report upon the 
most ef&cient steps to be taken in order to work out this important 
problem ; for, independently of the establishment of local manu- 
£EU)tories which the possession of coal would bring about, the capa- 
bility of supplying our steam-vessels and packets with fuel upon 
the east coast of Africa would be a notable advantage. I have been 
much interested in ti*acing the various positions occupied by this 
iQoal upon the map of Natal, prepared by the colonial surveyor. 
Dr. Sutherland, as well as on a large map drawn out by our 
associate Dr. Mann, who so well represents the interests of this 
colony in Europe. 

The existence of another source of wealth in an adjacent region 
on 'the north-west, commonly known as the country of Mosilikatse, 
has recently thrown the colonists of Natal into a state of great 
excitement. In that part of the interior, to the north-west of the 
Transvaal Territory, hitherto chiefly noted for its ivory and ostrich 
feathers, gold has been discovered in considerable quantity. 

Mr. Carl Mauch, to whom wo are indebted for the realization of 
this &ct, and, of whom wo first heard through the newspapers 
of Natal and the Cape of Good Hope, has really proved himself to 
be an explorer of considerable merit, both as a geographer and a 
geologist. Having been in frequent conununication with our Medal- 
ist Dr. Petermann, I gather these data from a forthcoming number 
of the * Mittheilungen,' to which I have had access: — Leaving 
Trieste in 1863, he has been travelling in South Africa since 1865. 
Having traversed and examined the Transvaal Territory, of which 

Coal and Gold of South-Eastern Africa. clzxxiii 

lie constrnoted a map, he became acquainted with Mr. Hartley, 
an elephant-hnnter, who, in quest of ivory, had visited all the 
highest lands of the region which forms the broad-backed lofty 
watershed between the rivers Zambesi, on the north, and Lim- 
popo on the south. Being informed by Hartley of the existence 
in these high and rocky lands of the relics of ancient metalliferous 
excavations, Mr. Carl Mauch explored them, hammer in hand, and in 
two separate localities * — the one in s. lat. 20^ 40', and on an affluent 
of the Limpopo, the other on an affluent of the Zambesi, about 40 
miles south of Tete — ^he discovered rich auriferous white quartz- 
xooks, embayed in a variety of ancient crystalline rocks, whether 
hard slates (probably Silurian) or various igneous rocks, including 
a great predominance of granite and diorite. The loftiest part of 
this elevated tract being 7000 feet above the sea, and lying in s. lat. 
19^ 50' and e. loi^. 28° 35', presents in parts great accumulations of 
these broken masses of granite, to which my illustrious friend the 
late Leopold von Buch assigned the appropriate name of '* Felsen 
Meer," or a sea of rocks. Many travellers have too often erroneously 
•considered these to be boulders, whilst in fact they are simply the 
results of decomposition in situ, as seen in many granitic countries. 

The auriferous quartz-rock, which in places is still seen to 
rise a few feet above the surface, has, where rich in gold, been 
quarried down in open trenches to the depth of 6 feet or more. 
These works seem to have been abandoned simply from the influx 
of water, and in one spot the traveller detected the remains of 
■smelting operations with slag and scoria), the relics of lead-ore 
being also observable. 

Of the auriferous localities described by Mr. Mauch, that which 
lies to the north, on a tributary of the Zambesi, is the most sterile, 
and this fact explains why the Portuguese have never made much 
of it ; Dr. Livingstone having only spoken of small quantities of 
gold-dust beiig washed down in the rivers to the south of Tete. 

On the other hand, the existence of the rich tract on the river 
Thuti, or Tuti, an affluent of the Limpopo, and the proof of old 
works having been in operation there, greatly favours the suggestion 
I am about to offer that the Ophir of Solomon was probably near the 
mouth of that great stream. In the mean time the discoveries of Mr. 
Mauch have awakened the interest of many of the colonists of 

* In the original map of Mr. Mauch, which Dr. Pctcrmann has submitted to my 
inspection, a third and intermediate gold tract is laid down. 

clxxxiy Sir Bodebick I. Mubchison'^ Address^ 

Natal, and doubtless the tract, which seems to haTo been neglected 
for so many centuries, will be soon the scene of active operations of 
the miner.* 

As Mr. Mauch has visited the colony of Natal, where he was 
warmly received by our countrymen, and has had the opportunity of 
regulating his astronomical instruments by comparison with those 
of the Observatory of Pieter Maritzburg, I anticipate that he will 
largely and accurately extend our acquaintance with that great 
backbone of South Africa. I would add that, as the Council of onr 
Society did, by small advances of money, assist Gerhard Bohlfs in 
carrying out those researches in Northern Africa which have ob- 
tained for him one of our Gold Medals, so I venture to hope that 
they will approve my suggestion that Mr. Carl Mauch — who, nn- 
assisted by any Government, has been accomplishing such great 
results on the slenderest means (provided by partial subscriptioDS 
raised in Germany) — may receive at our hands such aid as will 
enable him to bring his labours to*a successful termination. 

This newly-discovered auriferous tract is, I may state, precisely 
in that position in which, as a geologist, I should have expected to 
find gold, i. e. in the elevated and ancient slaty quartzose rocks 
(probably Silurian), with granite and greenstone, which form the 
mountains, in s. lat. 21^, that constitute the watershed whence 
some streams, tributaries of the Zambesi, flow to the north, and 
others, tributaries of the Limpopo, to the south. From the well- 
known fact that some of the rivers of Afiica — partfcularly the 
Niger and its affluents — contain gold-dust, we may reasonably ex- 
pect that the other mountain -tracts from which they flow will even- 
tually prove to be as auriferous as the upper region of the Limpopa 
in the south-east of Africa ; and thus with the spread of enterprise 
the geological nuclei or back-bones of Africa may pr^ve remunera- 
tive to searchers for the precious metal. 

This discovery of gold leads us once more to consider a sug- 
gestion made to us two years ago by Mr. Geoige Thompson, 
namely, that the Ophir of Solomon might, after all, have beei» 
situated in the country of the Limpopo. He supported his view 

• Whilst I write I have received a pamphlet, entitled * The Gold^Fields of 
South Africa, and the Way to reach them</ in which the author, Mr. Bobert 
I^abbs, invites his countrymen and speculators to reach these gold-fields by wmy 
of Natal. I am indebted also to Mr. John Robinson, editor of the ' Natal Mercury,* 
for information regarding the gold discovery, which has naturally excited great 
expectations in that colony. In a recent letter, he states that a pioneer party,, 
under the guidance of Mr. Hartley, left Potchefstroom for the gold-fields on the 
1 3th March. 

Ophir of Solomon. clxxxv 

hy mentioning reoent reports bronglit by some missionaries of 
the existence on that stream of ruins of an ancient city. The 
diseoyeiy of gold will, I hope, lead to the opening out to us of 
a luge portion of the interior hitherto traversed only by an occa- 
siosial elephant-hunter. I trust, indeed, that the day is not distant 
when some adventurous explorer will make the boating-voyage 
fixim the interior by the Limpopo Eiver to its mouth, as sug- 
gested by my friend Mr. W. Webb, and thus escape the necessity 
of a land-journey which no traveller with oxen can hope to accom- 
plishy on account of the bites of the dreadful Tsetse fly, which 
infests that region. By such a boat-joumcy we should become 
acquainted with the whole course of this grand stream and its 
embouchure in the Indian Ocean, which has remained unknown 
to the present time. 

The Ophir of Scripture had from early times been supposed to 
lie somewhere on the south-east coast of Africa.* It was this 
belief that led the Portuguese to send expeditions soon after the 
voyage of Yasco de Gama, and subsequently to colonise largely in 
these latitudes ; the relics of churches built by tlio Jesuit fathers 
being, it is said, still to be traced. But, after all, the Portuguese 
were never successful in finding any great gold-field, owing pro- 
bably to their chief settlements being upon the Zambesi and to 
their having omitted to extend their researches southwards in the 

The question as to the real site of the Ophir of Solomon has long 
been a subject of dispute. My lamented friend the late Mr. John 
Crawfurd, President of the Ethnological Society, has in his ex- 
cellent work, * The Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands,' 
analysed with great perspicuity and much knowledge the various 
hypotheses which have been suggested, and has considered that Ophir 
cannot with any show of possibility be placed in any part of India 
where the great geographer Carl Kitter had supposed it to be. Quite 
agreeing with my eminent friend that all the commodities forming 
the expoi-ts from Ophir could not well have been the native products 
of one and the same place, and that Ophir may have been an empo- 
rium, we have yet to ascertain, by a proper survey, whether the site 
of such an important place of trade might not have been at or near 
the mouth of the great Limpopo Kiver which flows from the above- 

♦ See D'Anville's Disquisition on Ophir, • Mem. de I'Acad. des Sciences,' t. xxx. 
p. S3. 

clxxxyi Sir Kodebjok L MuBCHisON'f Address. 

mentioned gold mountains. Looking to the great objection to the 
h^^othesis of Ophir being in India, inasmach as the seamen of 
the days of Solomon could not have made such long voyages, the 
learned author of the article " Ophir/* in Smith's ' Dictionary of the 
Bible/ naturally preferred Arabia as the country in which Ophir 
was situated, both from its proximity to the Holy Land and as 
being within the bounds of the earliest navigators. Although I at 
one time thought that Arabia might possibly have been the au- 
riferous region in question, I abandoned that idea when I ascer- 
tained that the mineral structure of that peninsula was such as 
to render it most unlikely that at any time it could have yielded 
gold. The absence of rivers and seaports is also strongly against 
the Arabian hypothesis. 

Knowing, as we now do, from the structure of the adjacent 
countries, that the traders from Tarshish, whether Tyrians or Jews, 
could find no gold on either shore of the Bed Sea, they would 
naturally continue their coasting voyage along the east coast of 
Africa in their endeavour to find it. In doing so, we further know, 
both from the mineral structure of the region north of the equator 
and the &ct that the Jub, Ozy, and other streams which traverse the 
Somauli country, flow from tracts of sandstone and volcanic rocks, 
and bring down no gold-dust, that the old navigators could meet 
with no success in those parallels. Neither is the country between 
Zanzibar and the Zambesi auriferous. It is only on reaching the 
latitude of 21° s. that auriferous rocks occur in the mountains of 
the interior, in a region from which, as before said, the waters 
flow to the Zambesi on the north, but chiefly to the Limpopo on the 

I venture, therefore, to say, that of all the sites hitherto sug- 
gested, the region which feeds these streams was, according to our 
present knowledge, in all probability the source which supplied the 
ancient Ophir. I have before stated that this region, besides gold, 
is rich in ivory and ostrich feathers ; and if Hebrew scholars see 
no objection to the supposition that the Biblical writers might 
not clearly distinguish between the feathers of the peacock and 
those of the ostrich, another difficulty in choosing this South African 
site of Ophir vanishes. I would also add that parts of this region 
are specially rich in ebony — so rich indeed that, according to 
Livingstone, great profit might be obtained by bringing home 
cargoes of those valuable trees from the Eiver Eovuma. Now, may 
not these have been the famous almug-trees of which Solomon made 



pillars for the Ilouse of the Lord and the King's House, as well as 
barps and psalteries for the singers ? 

Mr. Crawfiird has very successfully shown that " sandal-wood/' as 
snggested by some writers, could not, from its diminutive size, have 
been the almug-tree ; and knowing, as we now do, the comparatively 
great size of the ebony and its beauty and tenacity, I suggest that 
this is a good additional reason for the adoption of the site I have 
suggested. However this may be, I earnestly hope that ere long 
the Limpopo and its branches may be well examined, if only with 
a view of ascertaining the tiiith of the rumour that extensive ruins 
of anoient buildings lie near them. 

Abyssixia. — At various periods since the foundation of this 
Society, our attention has been attracted to some part or other 
of this region, so diversified in physical features and so unlike 
other parts of the world in the character and condition of its 
inhabitants. At the opening of the present Session I congratulated 
you on having our interest in this remarkable country re-awakened 
by our able Secretary Mr. Clements Markham, who brought 
before us in a most telling manner the wonderful exploits of our 
precursors in bold adventure, the Portuguese, who carried out 
expeditions in that country during the fifteenth, sixteenth, and 
Mventeenth centuries. I also reminded you that, a quarter of a 
century ago, when I presided over yon, I put before you in a con- 
densed form all the sources of information we then possessed with 
T^ard to the country ; those comments being elicited by the then 
recent researches pf our Associate Dr. Beke, which we rewarded 
with our highest honour, for having, more tliim any of the travellers 
who had visited Abyssinia in the preceding forty years, added to 
our geographical acquaintance with it. During and since that time 
there has, indeed, existed between our countiymen and the French 
an honourable rivalry. Led on by the able and zealous brothers 
d'Abbadie, many of our opposite neighbours, including Combes and 
Tamissier, and many others, have distinguished themselves as Abys- 
sinian explorers. One of our own Fellows, Mr. Mansfield Parkyns, 
has also been much distinguished hy his labours in this wild field, 
and has led us to give entire credence to the narrative of the 
great traveller Bruce, which, when first told, was so much dis- 
credited. In my opening Address of the Session I also told you 
that Her Majesty's Government approved the suggestion which 

clxxxviii Sir Boderice L Mubchison'^ Address. 

I offered to them of employing a certain nmnber of men of science 
as attendants upon the military expedition about to proceed ; and 
you also know that, whilst the greater number of the gentlemen 
so employed accompanied the force from India, our Secretary 
Mr. Clements^ Markham went from England, as the Geographer of 
the Expedition. 

Confined as the advance of the British army has been to ther 
long and lofty mountain range which forms the eastern boundary 
of the Abyssinian plateau, geographers must still take much interest 
in that range in itself, seeing that it is the dominant and leading 
feature of the whole region, in being the **divortia aquaurm** 
between the Nile and the Mediterranean on the one hand and the 
Bed Sea and the Indian Ocean on the other. 

Ever with the advanced guard, and stationed for some time 
at Senaf^ before the general forward movement took place, Mr. 
Markham has been enabled to make many good observations ob 
latitudes and longitudes, the heights of the mountains and plateaus, 
and the character of the rocks. He has also given us, in two me- 
moirs which have been read to the Society, striking descriptions of 
the meteorology and natural sceneiy, as well as of the changes 
of vegetation at each varying altitude, in these highly-diversified 
highlands. A third memoir has been received, and a fourth is 
promised when the description of the country up to Mdgdala shall 
have been completed, and in this he will describe his entrance into 
M4gdala with the storming party, as I know by a letter he has 
wi'itten to me on his gallop homewards. Even on that eventful day 
the Geographer was at work, for he took two observations for lati- 
tude on the heights of Mdgdala. 

I have no hesitation in saying that, when they are put together, 
these memoirs of Mr. Markham will form as creditable a portion of 
the * Journal ' of the Society as it has ever contained ; and I there- 
fore feel satisfied that I did well in strongly recommending him 
to the Secretary for India as one well qualified to be the Geographer 
of the Abyssinian Expedition.* 

During the progress of this great enterprise, the various depart- 

* Whilst these sheets are passing throagh the press, our meeting of the 8th of 
June has taken place, and the Fellows have heard fh)ni Mr. Markham himself — 
happily returned from his honourable and successful mission — the interesting 
account of the line of march from Antalo southwards, and the Topography of 

Dcpcnilencc of Gvoffrapln/ on Gcolo^jf/. 


ments of the public service and public institutions have been well 
4nipplied with the best and most recent geographical information of 
this oonntry by the Topographical Department of the War Office, 
which has ussued at intervals successive editions of the h)ute-map and 
other maps of Abyssinia. The chief credit of this is duo to the 
promptitude and intelligence of Colonel A. C. Cooke, under whose 
•direct superintendence the maps, as well as the publication entitled 
* Bontes in Abyssinia,' and many engravings of scenery, have been 

Sympathising as I do with an eloquent writer in a recent number 
of an able periodical* in the astonishment he expresses at the 
Apathy with which many of our countrymen regard this expedition, 
I ask with him. When has Europe marched a scientifically-organised 
4unny into an unknown intertropical region, and urged it forward as 
we have done, for hundreds of miles over chain after chain of Alps 
4anid the grandest scenery ? and all to punish a dark king, of whom 
we only know that he was an able but unscrupulous tyrant who 
insnlted us by unjustly imprisoning our countrymen. This truly 
u a fine moral lesson which we have read to the world ; and 
aa, in addition, we reap good scientific data, the Abyssinian Expe- 
dition will be chronicled in the pages of history as more worthy 
of an admiring posterity than many a campaign in which greater 
political results have been obtained, after much bloodshed, but 
without the smallest addition to human knowledge. I may add the 
expression of my delight that the distinguished General who has 
accomplished these glorious results is a man of science, and is parti- 
<nilarly well versed in Geography. 

Dependence of Geoobapht on Geologt.— 2%e oldest Comparative 
Geography. — Having now touched upon some of the chief advances 
made by Geographers during the past year, I may briefly direct 
your attention to those subterranean phenomena by which the 
present outlines of sea and land have been mainly determined, 
and ask you not to rest satisfied with merely exploring and de- 
scribing distant and unknown coimtries, or in fixing latitudes and 
longitudes. I would incite you to increase the pleasure of your 
studies by endeavouring to trace, from ages long anterior to the 
creation of man, the various changes which the surface has under- 
gone before the present contours of land and water were attained, 

* < 

Spectator,' April 18, 1868, p. 456. 

cxc Sir BoDEBiCK I. Mubohison'^ Address. 

and to ascertain by what natural agencies such outlines have been 
successively brought about. If it be said that this is entering' 
into purely gedlogical questions, my answer is, that, as a weather- 
beaten explorer of the rocks, it is my pleasing duty to revert to my 
old love, and to stimulate you to ponder on the grand series of pre- 
historic events by which the present relations of land and sea have 
been realised. 

Possessing no distinct evidence to show us what were the earliest 
conditions of the planet, whilst (according to general belief) it was 
passing from a molten mass into a solid spheroid, and seeing that, 
at the beginning of the geological record, we are as much lost in 
obscurity as the astronomer who peers into the remotest nebulae, 
the geologist explains to us, after fair search and inquiry, what 
were for the most part the aqueous, if not the hydrographical, con* 
ditions at the time when the oldest strata were deposited. He has 
so worked out the order in which the stony tablets forming the 
crust of the earth lie upon each other, containing within them 
the records of the earliest as well as of all succeeding living things, 
that he has at last developed the history of former life, from that 
beginning when only the lowest invertebrate creatures lived in the 
sea, and were buried in the first-formed marine sediments, through 
an ascending order of creations, until the human period was attained. 

Leaving those records of successive creations to the paleeon- 
tologist, the physical geographer may unite with the geologist in 
the endeavour to elucidate the changes of the surface, as due to 
each great perturbation which the crust of the earth has undergone. 
In short, the ups and downs of the geologist are the fxmdamental 
data on which our present geographical features mainly depend. 

It has been ascertained that life was first breathed into the waters 
in the form of marine invertebrate creatures of the lowest class 
called Foraminifera. We have learned, indeed, that the mud and 
sediment of those earliest seas, in which only such animals (and pro- 
bably seaweeds) lived, were subsequently transformed into those 
crystalline gneissic rocks which constitute the basement of the Lau- 
rentian system of North America and the fundamental gneiss of 
North Britain and Bohemia. 

The succeeding period, as proved by fossil remains in the lower 
stages of the Silurian rocks, was one in which a variety of marine 
animals, %,€, of shell -fish, crustaceans, and mollusks, began to abound, 
though these invertebrates are wholly dissimilar in species from any 
known in the present era. 

Dependence of Geography on Creology. cxci 

During all these long early periods we have scarcely any proofs 
of the eidstence of lands ; and, tbougli some terra firma must have 
existed to afford materials for the accumulations of the sea-beds, 
we have every reason to believe that there were then no lofty 
mountains. In other words, it is supposed that the seas then occu- 
pied enormously wide spaces, and also that a much more uniform 
temperature and climate prevailed in both hemispheres than at 
present, judging from the fact that the fossil remains found in tbese 
ancient strata have a common /ocies, though found in regions widely 
remote from each other. 

For a very long time, then, wo may infer that, in the absence of 
high lands, nothing approaching to the present physical outlines 
of the sur&ce existed. As time rolled on, this ancient fauna was 
lAi|;6ly increased by the creation of many new marine animals ; but 
during all the immensely long older Silurian era the seas were un- 
oooupied by a single fish, or, in other words, by any animal having a 
vertebrate column or backbone. The first fishes suddenly appeared 
towards the close of the long Silurian epoch,* and, judging from the 
structure of the deposits, this particular period was one of long-con- 
tinued quiescence. And yet this earliest kind of vertebrate animal, 
whose bones assure us that it is the prototype of the human 
skeleton, is distinct from and unconnected with all the other 
marine animals which lived before and with it. Thus, these first 
fishes are as clear a manifestation of creative power as any of those 
other proofs which are offered to us, ajs we mount up through the 
overlying formations, and continue our inquiry until we reach the 
recent superficial deposits. 

It was at about the period when fishes appeared that wo have 
the first proofs of the existence of dry lands, in the remnants of 
some curious land-plants; and then, indeed, it is clear that the earth's 
outline was becoming more diversified. But still we are without 
evidence that any great rivers then flowed from mountains. In 
the mean time, however, various outbursts of igneous rocks, whether 
porphyries, greenstones, basalts, <&;c., had been penetrating the 
surfisfcce, and had therefore added much to the materials out of 
which all marine deposits might be formed ; doubtless these opera- 
tions considerably changed the outline, and thus began the first 
approaches towards the present features of the earth, and the diver- 
sified relations of land and water. 

♦ See ' Siluria,' 4th Edition, p. 477. 

cxcii Sir Bodebice I. Mubchison'^ Address. 

In subsequent ages fresh accumulations were added to the crust of 
the globe, and, in tracing these upwards, the geologist has demon* 
strated that he meets successively with races of higher organisation ; 
so that, having passed through the successive additions of lizards and 
warm-blooded quadrupeds to all that pre-existed, he finds relics of 
the human race in the uppermost of all these accumulations, and 
lying above those of all other kinds of animals. During this incal- 
culably long time the face of the globe underwent numberless 
changes, most of which were due either to contractions ot the crust, 
or to the expansion of internal heat and gases, producing great folds, 
crumplings, downcasts, and breaks in the outer layers of the earth. 
In some regions the strata, raised from sea-bottoms into lands and 
hills, were by that action of internal heat folded over into a midti* 
tude of convolutions. Occasionally these folds wei-e broken athwart, 
leaving the great solutions of their continuity which are called 

Now, whether by such convolutions, or by the more complex 
action of innumerable fractures, such deposits were affected, I 
maintain that liiey then had impressed upon them certain great 
outlines, which, much as they have been since modified by atmos- 
pheric and diurnal action, still constitute in many tracts the 
chief drainage lines of the several continents and islands which 
geographers have to examine. In estimating the various pertur- 
bations of terrestrial masses, whether by upheaval or depression, 
of which geology affords evidence from the earliest period up to 
historic days, my belief is, that to one or other of these movements 
we can in many cases trace the origin of those valleys, deep lakes, 
gorges, and river-courses, which it is the province of the geo- 
grapher to describe. 

In illustration of these views, I may say that there are many 
mountain tracts, such as the Central Highlands of Scotland, lai^ge 
parts of Scandinavia, and the Ural Mountains, in which there is 
dear evidence that rocks of very high antiquity occupied their 
relative positions, and had deep depressions across them, at the times 
when such main outlines were originally determined. I believe, 
that in many cases the watercourses which still flow in the valleys 
took their direction then, and have ever since continued to aot; 
necessarily deepening their beds in the highly inclined or moun- 
tainous parts, whilst encumbering the lower countries with their 
d^ris and silt. 

Hence I infer that there are regions in which these old and pris- 

Dependence of Geography on Oeob>gy\ 


tine deprenions liave remained to this day as the prominent features 
which determined, and still maintain,* the main lines along which 
atmospheric action, snow, and ice, and water, would necessarily 
•xert the greatest influence in eroding the rocks. 

There are, however, many tracts, such as parts of England, wherein 
great masses of secondary and tertiary rocks have been successively 
aceumulated, and have covered over the ancient rocks ; and in stich 
districts the aboriginal linos impressed upon the older rocks have been 
hidden. The Alps— particularly the Western Alps — afford illustra- 
tions of both these phenomena ; for there we can see tracts where 
the old rocks exhibit the original features of elevation, fracture, 
depression, and convolution ; whilst, in other parts, we note how such 
pristine features have been obscured by the subsequent accumula- 
tion of younger deposits. Again, we have in that chain tlie clearest 
proof that it underwent great upheavals by one of the very 
latest geological movements, at which time some of the young^est 
formations on its flanks were raised into the highest pinnacles of 
the chain, having often undergone such intense metamorphism 
that the latest of them have assumed the mineral aspect of the 
oldest rocks. Yet through all this chaotic assemblage the skilful 
geolojgist can often trace to one or other of the great movements 
which the masses have undergone the dominant causes which have 
led to the existing drainage of these mountains. 

True it is that glaciers and melting snows have through long 
ages widened gorges and ravines, and have worn away large por- 
tions of the mountain sides, but they have not, in my opinion, 
really originated the great valleys in and along which the glaciers 
have advanced. 

Looking at the surface of the globe in this aspect, the geologist is 
but the physical geographer of former periods, and he ascertains 
beyond all doubt that, when the tertiary periods were completed, 
and long anterior to the creation of man, the hills and valleys of all 
continents and islands had, to a very great extent, assumed their 
present outlines — such outlines having been mainly due to sub* 
terranean action, followed at intervals by powerful denudations. 

Having laboured through many a year in the endeavour to esta- 
blish certain well-known land, sea, and river marks, in geological 

* This view has been ably sustained by the Duke of Argyll, as refrards the 
i^rffyllshire hiffhlands, in a masterly memoir, rtcently read before the Geological 
Society of London. , 



cxciy Sir BODiJ^cnc L MuBCfiiBON'^ Addrea. 

Boienoe, I have made these obserVatiotiB to inoite all trayellaFB never 
to negleot the observation of these ancient phenolnena, upon which 
the basis of physical geography resti^ By connecting them further 
with the various proofs of the eruption of tliose igneous rocks which 
form such a large portion of our subsoil, they will in all their 
excursions have an additional stimulus to look to the foimdationa 
of our science ; and, if imbued with the love of nature, they may, 
like the illustrious Humboldt, combine such knowledge of the earth 
on which they tread with all the existing wonders of animal and 
vegetable life which characterize its various zones of altitude and 

Livingstone's Progress in South Africa. — Glorious indeed have 
been the tidings which we have received since the last Anni- 
versary, in relation to the great South African traveller. It was 
then my duty to recapitulate my reasons for the utter disbelief 
I entertained of the truth of the story of his death, so generally 
believed, and I added other indications to prove the falsehood of the 
Johanna men. I also dwelt with satisfaction and gratitude on 
the support which Her Majesty's Government had afforded to the 
Council and myself in sending out a boat expedition by the Zambesi 
and Shir^ rivers to the Lake Nyassa, to ascertain the truth, 
llejoiced indeed did I feel when that expedition returned precisely 
at the time calculated, bearing the joyful intelligence, that not only 
had Livingstone not been killed at or near to Lake Nyassa, but that, 
accompanied by bis nine trusty negroes (six of them ohriKtianised 
lads from Nassick near Bomlmy), he had passed on for many days' 
march into the interior. My anticipations as to the falsehood of 
the Johanna men having been thus realised, I felt certain that, if 
his usually robust health continued, we should not be long without 
obtaining that intelligence from himself which has since come, and 
filled the country with gladness. 

Few can realise the anxiety I felt until the gallant and skilful 
Mr. E. D. Young brought us the first happy news ; for I well knew 
how many chances of failure hung in suspense over that expedi« 
tion. The boat was constructed of thirty-eight pieces of elastic 
steel, which had to be put together and taken to pieces three times 
after it reached the mouth of the Zambesi ; to be carried past the 
great rapids and falls of the Shire for 40 miles on the baokB of 
negroes ; again broken up on returning, and again put together to 

Progress of Dr. LivingsUms* cxcv 

desoesd the Zambesiy where the party were to be picked up by a 
cruising ship of war at a time duly calculated I Pondering on all 
these ohanoee, I was too well aware that, if through any aooident — 
such as the loss or fracture of a single piece of the steel boat, the 
insubardination of the black crews which were to man the boats, 
the sickness of any one of the party — the expedition returned without 
results, that I should have incurred much blame, and the scheme 
would have been stigmatised as the Utopian Living8tone Search. 
fThxough the admirable conduct, however, of Mr. Young and his 
assooiates, the truth was ascertained ; and from that moment I had 
Bot the smallest misgiving as to the future travels of my dear friend 
in the interior. 

Not dwelling on what Livingstone has already accomplished, for 
luB letters have recently been laid before you, we may now speculate 
on his future steps, and if we form a right estimation of the course 
he is now following out, wo may not unreasonably calculate the 
period of his return hom^ At the date of his last letters, — 2nd 
February, 1867, — the great traveller was at Bemba, lat 10^ lO'a; and 
at that time all the problems respecting the outflow or inflow of the 
great Lake Tanganyika, about 200 miles to the north of hiH position, 
had yet to be determined. He had, indeed, to asceilain whether 
that vast body of fresh water, about 300 miles in lengthy and the 
oenti*al part of which only was known to Burton and iSpeke, was fed 
by waters flowing into it at its southern end, or sent o£f a river 
or rivers to the south-west. Now, this point, I have no doubt, he 
will have completely ascertained ; for as by the last accounts brought 
by the Arabs he was at Ujiji, which lies in the central part of the 
eastern shore of Tanganyika, in the middle of October, so we know 
that he had eight months to settle that important question. 

If it should transpire that he found no outflow to the south-west 
(and we know that there is nothing of the sort to the east), then the 
great mass of fresh water must have an outlet either to the west at 
a more northern paiallol, or there must bo an opening in the moun- 
tains at its northern extremity, by which the waters of the Tan- 
ganyika flow into those of the Albert Nyanza of Baker. If the first 
of these hypotheses prove true, and, the Tanganyika being found 
shut in on the north, a great stream should be discovered flowing 
from it to the west or south-west, why then my dauntless friend 
may follow that course of water across an entirely unknown region of 
Africa, and emerge on the west coast either by the settlements on 

n 2 

cxcvi Sir BoDisRIok L MuBGrnBON*^ Address. 

the Congo* or by the territory of the Portngneee, io which he pene- 
trated in his first grand travels across South Africa. In this case a 
very long time, perhaps eighteen months, may elapse, during which 
we shall be held in anxious suspense. 

' On the other hand, if the view of Mr. Findlay be sustained, — 
that a water-communication exists between Tanganyika and Albert 
^yanza, — we can much more readily estimate the probable period of 
his return. In this event, the great physical problem of the true 
watershed of South Africa and the ultimate southern water-basin of 
the Nile will have been determined ; and in touching the south end 
of the Lake Albert Nyanza, Livingstone will have, in fact, reached 
the known waters of the Nile. 

If such be the case, opinions are various as to the course he would 
next follow : some persons believing that he would push on north* 
wards, knd, traversing Equatorial Africa, would endeavour to reach 
Gondokoro, and so descend the Nile to its mouth. For my ovm part,- 
I have already expressed the opinion that, having once determined 
the great gegraphical problem which he went out to solve, it is more 
probable that he would turn to the east coast and find his way to 
Zanzibar, by a route to the north of that traversed by Burton and 
Speke. Should such have been his decision, there is nothing unrea- 
isonable in the hope of seeing him home in the autumn. If, how- 
ever, he should be led, through his unrivalled intrepidity and self- 
confidence, to navigate the huge long sheet of water the Albert 
Nyanza, and thence endeavour to reach Gondokoro and descend the 
Nile to its mouth, I give you the following estimate of Sir Samuel 
Baker, as prepared at my request : — 

" If Livingstone," says Sir Samuel, '' were to reach the north end 
of the Lake Tanganyika by the end of November, he would have 
fine weather until the 15th February, and might reach the south 
end of the Albert Nyanza by the end of December ; and, if all went 
well and canoes were obtained, he might reach Magungo or the 

* According to the map of Duarte hopez, published in 1591, in Pigafetta'a 
' History of C^ngo,' and copied by many of the atlas makers of the sixteenth aiid 
seventeenth centuries, the Congo RiTer flowed out of a great lake in Central 
Africa, corresponding pretty well in position with Lake Tanganyika. Lopes 
gleaned his information daring his residence on the Congo from 1578 to 1587. 
See Mr. B. H. Major's Paper on Pigafetta*s map of Africa, in our ' Proceedinga,* 
vol. xi. p. 246. My attention has been recently again called to this subject of the 
equatorial lakes, as represented in the old atlases, by the Kev. P. H. Waddell of 
Glasgour, who has described to me a map of this kind given in a miniature 
Italian atlas of the sixteenth century. 

Progress of Dr^ Livingstone, cxcvii 

Kile jimotion in one month, or by the Ist of rebruary. Now, if 
the Arabs should have established a depdt since I left Magungo, 
they would receive him. The Arab traders quit their dep6ts annually 
in March, to deliver their ivory, &o. ; and if the traveller should 
arriye among them before the 15th March, they would take him on 
to Oondokoro. All the boats that descend the Kile leave Gondokoro 
for Khartum at latest on the 15th April, and if tbe Arabs receive 
Livingstone before that time, they will bring him to Khartum 
about the end of May. The post from Khartum reaches Alexandria 
in about twenty-five days, and therefore if the great traveller should 
have to keep this line and reach Gondokoro and Khartum, we 
should hear from himself by the end of June, if he is to appear this 
year tid the Nile. In tbat case he might be in England in August. 
On the other hand, if, having taken this line, Livingstone misses 
the Arabs, he will have the greatest difficulty in reaching Gondo- 
kon> ; and again, if he should not attain that part till after April, 
there will be no boats to bring him down the Nile to Khartum 
before April, 1869. 

«It is impossible," Sir Samuel adds, "to foresee the difficulties 
that may occur between the north limit of Tanganyika and the 
nearest Arab station ; but should all go smoothly (which is seldom 
the case in Africa), it is possible, but not probable, that he might 
reach Gondokoro in April, J 868. Since I left, tlirce years ago, the 
Arabs may have extended their journeys far south, and if so, they 
will materially assist Livingstone and save him from the aunuy- 
ance and delays that we suffered in Kamrasi's countiy." 

In anticipation of news from Livingstone himself, I have thus put 
his case before the Society, according as he may follow one of the 
three routes I have indicated ; and my hearers must see that much 
doubt must attach to the adoption of any decided conclusion as to 
the period of his return to England ; for, even if he should attempt 
to return by the Nile, we see, from Sir Samuel Baker's explanations, 
how many fortuniite contingencies nniht combine to enable him 
to reach England soon. But whether, after determining the tnie 
watershed of South Africa, he should emerge by Zanzibar or by 
the mouth of the Nile, or deflecting from either of those courses, 
for the reason above assigned, he should reach the Congo or the 
Portuguese settlements on the west, liivingstone will have so 
vastly added to his fame, that he must unquestionably be pro- 
nounced the greatest of all African explorers. Jn any case, 1 trust 
that, looking to his long and devoted services, and that he Las 

cxcyiii Sir Bqdbbick L Mdbchi8<UE}'« Address. 

been aoting as her Majesty's Consul and accredited as such to all tlie 
Chie£s of the Interior of Afirici^ the Government will think it due to 
so illustrious a traveller, so zealous a missionary, and so faithful a 
9ervant, Xo grant him an adeqiiate pension for life^ as w^ll as some 
sqitable honour of the Crown. 

Conclusion. — Beverting, Gentlemen, in conclusion, to the expres- 
sions I used in commencing the Address, on the very prosperous 
condition of our Society, and returning you my heartiest thanlcs for 
the kind continuance of the support you have invariably afforded 
me in my endeavours to do my duty, I must repeat what I have 
said on former occasions, that you should have selected a younger 
man to fill the distinguished post which I have so long occupied. 

Since, however, you are pleased to keep me in office daring 
another year, I can honestly say that I am as wam^ly devoted to 
your cause as ever \ and that, notwithstanding my advancing years, 
J will still strive to be worthy of the confidence you continue to 
repose in your veteran leader. 





[FoBMiMG Vol. XXXVIII. of the Society's Joubnal. 
Published Mat 5th, 18G9.] 

L — The Portuguese Expeditions to Ahyssinia in the Fifteenth^ 
Siideenth, and Seventeenth Centuries. By C. B. Markham, 
Esq., Secretary, Royal Geographical Society. 

Jiecul, November 11, 1867. 

It has been the oecasional practice of the Council to select 
papers for reading at the evening meetings which cast a glance 
at the course of geographical discovery in earlier times, in 
some particular region which happens to be engaging the 
special attention of the Society and the public. Thus, when 
the persistent lab(mrs of the Kiissians caused the geography of 
Central Asia to form a prominent feature in the proceedings 
of last session, the retrosi)ect of former travels over that inte- 
resting region, which was furnished by the learned paper of 
Colonel Yule, proved a most opportune and acceptable supple- 
ment to the communications of modern travellei-s, and gave rise 
to leading comment^iries of our President in his two last 
addresses. Tlie expedition into Abyssinia, and the determina- 
tion of the Government that no op[>ortunity shall be neglected 
of collecting fresh information in tlie various branches of science 
in that country, will naturally draw the attention of the Society 
to those Africiin highlands during the ensuing session. It has 
therefore been thought that we might not be unprofitnbly occu- 
pied for about half an hour during our first meeting in glancing 
over the early labours of Portuguese explorers in the empire of 
Prester John. 

Portugal, during a century and a half, was a hero nation. 
She took tlie lead in all great enterprises, her sons made the 

Jower of the little kingdom felt on every coast from Brazil to 
apan, and her poet worthily sang their famous and immortal 


2 Markham on Portuguese Ex/xditioTis to Ahijisinia. 

deeds. To Portugal all our knowledge of Abysainia is due 
previous to the lime of Bruce. 

Ab soon as the aspirutiona of Prince Henry had been fulfilled 
by the discovery of the Cape by Bartholomew Dias, in the year 
1487, King John JI. saw the impoi'tance of collecting informa- 
tion in the Eaat with reference to the Doasibility of turning the 
rii'li trade of the Indies into the new cnaanel; and he was also 
anxions to discover the dominions of the Christian ruler, called 
Prester John, who had been reported by the Venetian Marco 
Polo to reign in the far east. Two Portuguese, named Alfonso 
de Payva and Pedro de Covilham, were selected for this service. 
After a long joumer through the east, Payva died at Cairo; but 
Covilham, bavinj; heard that a Christian ruler reigned in the 
mountain of Ethiopia, and having gained no tidings of any 
other Christian king during all his wanderings, naturally con- 
cluded that the Ethiopian potentate was he for whom he had so 
long sought in vain. So, in pursuance of bis instructiouB, and 
undeterred by the dangers of the journey, he penetrated into 
AbTe«inia, and presented himself at the court of the N^ds, 
which was then in the soulbem province of Shoa, in the year 
149a He delivered the King of Portugal's letter to Prester 
John to the Negis Alexander; but he was detained by tbit 
Prince and bis successors, and was never allowed to leave the 
country. Covilham, as a young man, had distinguished himself 
both in the war nitb Spain and in Morocco, and was an officer 
of capacity and great courage. He married in Abyssinia, ob- 
tained influence at Court, and survived for many years ; for ha 
was still living when the Portuguese Embassy arrived in 1520. 
It is matter fur regret that there should be no work by a luon 
who must have acquired so intimate a knowledge of the country 
and people. He may be destribed as the theoretical discoverer 
of the Cai>e of Good Hope, for before the return of Bartholomew 
Uias from his great discovery, he had sent to King John a letter, 
stating that sliijis sailing down the coast of Guinea might be 
sure of reiu^hing the termination of the Continent by persisting 
in a southward course, and when they reached the Eastt^m 
Ocean they were to enquire for the Island of the Moon (Mad^ 

In 1507 Labna Dengel ("riV^^in's tncente"), or David, 
ascended the throne of Ethiopia, with tlie title of WandgSegged 
(•' Precious gem "), He was very young, and bis graudmotlier 
Helena uiisuined tlie regency. Hearing of the great power of 
the King of Portugal from Covilham, she sent an Armenian, 
named Alatihew, with a letter from the Negts David to King 
Manuel, who was well received at Lisbon ; and a rel urn KmbasHy 
was despatched under Duarte Galvano, a distinguished but aged 

Habkham an Portuguese Expeditions to Abyssinia, 8 

diplomatist, who died on the vojago. But the advisability of 
opening a communication with Abyssinia was not lost sight of 
by the Portuguese Viceroy at 6oa, and the death of Galvano 
onbr delayed the despatch of an embassy. 

In April, 1520, the Portuguese Viceroy led a fleet into the 
Bed Sea to attack the Turks, taking Matthew, the Armenian, 
with him. He anchored at Massowa, where he saw the Baliar- 
Ndgash, or Abyssinian Governor of the province, bordering on 
tiie sea, and some monks from the convent of Bisan in the 
adjacent mountains. This intercourse led the Viceroy to decide 
upon sendine an embassy to the Ncgiis of Abyssinia. The 
leading memoers of the mission were Dom Bodriguez de Lima, 
a haughty, quick-tempered young officer; Father Francisco 
Alvarez, a priest, whose quaint narrative is the earliest^ and not 
the least interesting account we possess of Abyssinia ; and Joiio 
Bermndez, the Secretary, a bold and intriguing man, who was 
much mixed up with the subsequent history of the country. 

The routes by wliich former travellers have entered the high- 
lands of Abyssinia from the sea-coast have now become exceed- 
ingly interesting with reference to the advance of the expe- 
ditionary force. The Portuguese Embaasy of 1520 went first to 
the monustery of Bisan, on the seaward slope of tlio Taranta 
Hoan tains, and crossing that range arrived at the town of Barua 
or Debaroa (Dobarwa), on the eastern bank of the Kiver Mareb, 
which was then the capital of the province ruled over by the 
Bahar-Ndffosh, or Lord of the Sea. Tlie Mareb separated this 
province from Tigre. Debaroa and Bistm have disappeared from 
modem maps ; but Bruce mentions that the road by Dobarwa 
was better than the one he took by Dixa. The route of the 
Portuguese Embassy seems to be nearly the same as that by 
Kiaquor, which Dr. Beke describes as a gradual and easy road, 
well watered, and occupying two days and a half. 

The Embassy did not reaoh the Court of the Negus, which 
was then encamped on the nortliern frontier of Shoa, until 
October, taking very much the same route as that which was 
travelled over by Krapf in 1842. The Portuguese, after leaving 
Debaroa, crossed the Mareb to Axum, and went thence through 
the district of Angot, by Lalibela and the famous rock of Geshen, 
where the Abyssinian princes were imprisoned, to the court of 
the Negus David, in the province of Fatigar. The embassy was 
detained for six years in Abyssinia, during which time Father 
Alvarez had an excellent opiK)rtunity of acquiring a knowledge of 
the country and of the manners of the people. In 1526, Don 
Rodriguez da Lima and his suite were dismissed with a letter to 
the King of Portugal, and was accompanied by a learned Abys- 

B 2 

4 Mahkham on Portuguese Ex}ieditiont to Al>t/ssinia. 

sinian named Zapaza-Ab. But Bermudez, the secretary and 
phvsiciai), was detained by the Negns. 

'rhe narrative of Father Alvarez forms a folio Tolnme, which 
■waa published at Lisbon in 1540, and there is a copy in the 
British Muaenm. Kaiiiusio gives an Italian version, and a 
French one was printed at Antwei-p in 155y. The indefatigable 
Hakluyt obtained an English tratislation, which is one of the 
guaintest and most pleasant bits of reading in the ' Pilgrims ' of 
Pu roll as. 

Soon after the departure of (he Portngiiese emliasay a seriea 
of formidable invasions commenced from the south. Armies <^ 
Moh am medians, inhabiting the country of Adel and Hurrur, kept 
pouring into Abyssinia, and, althoufih fi-cqiiently defeated, their 
incursions did not cease. Between 1.'528 and 1540 these MoorB, 
led by the famous General Mohammed Graprn, or the left- 
handed, overran the whole country, until the Negiis David was 
obliged to seek refuge on the almost inaccessible mountjiin of 
Damo, in Tigre, where he died in 15-10. His widow, who waa 
at Damo, assumed the regency, while his son and successor 
Claudiua, then only eighteen, had taken refuge in a fastness of 

In this deplorable state of affairs David had resolved to seek 
aid from the Portugiiese, and, the better to ensure their support, 
he embraced the llomiiih faith. The physician Bermudez, wnom 
he had detained in Abyssinia, was ordained by the Abyssinian 
patriarch or Abiina Mark, and nominated as bia successor; and 
was sent first to Itome for confirmation from Pope I'aul III,, 
where he wrived in 1538; and thence to Lisbon, to request 
military assistance for his master, the Ncgns David, from the 
King of Portugal. 

The Portuguese were invited to interfere actively in the affaire 
of Abyssinia ; and the praspect of thus carving out an empire 
was assuredly most tempting. Here was a Cfaristian people 
persecuted and weil-nigh overwhelmed by the followers of the 
false prophet, crying to their co-religionists to save them. Here 
WHS the tamed kingdom of Prcster John waiting for Portuguese 
occupation ; a country rich in minei-als and in Hocks and lu-rtls ; 
a mountain-land within the tropics, potisessing a healthful, 
temperate climate, and holding within its valleys the lakes and 
eiiridiing affluents of the mighty Nile; a lofty region, which 
was believed theu, as it is known now to be, if in good hands, 
the key to equatorial Africa. The King of Purtngal did not 
hesitate, and Bermudez was despatched to Uoa with orders to 
the Viceroy to send an exiiedition to assist the Negus of Abya- 

Markham on Portuguese Expeditions to Abyssinia. 5 

In 1541 the Portiignese Viceroy, Don Estevan da Gama, 
entered the Bed Sea, and anchored at I^fassowa, where the 
small expeditionary force was lauded. Tliis is the only time 
that a European armed force has invaded Abyssinia, and its 
operations possess a peculiar interest now that another Euro{)ean 
force is about to land at the same port, after a lapse of 326 
yean. But there is this difference in the circumstances. The 
t^ortugaese came to a friendly country, invited by its king, to 
assist in driving out an invader. The English are alK>ut to invade 
an enemy's country, to force him to liberate ca{)tives who have 
been treacherously seized and imprisoned. Yet the Abyssinians 
cannot treat their enemies worse than they treated their friends 
and deliverers. 

The Viceroy gave the command of the expedition to his 
brother Dom Cnstofero da Gama, a brave and enterprising 
officer, and a worthy son of the great discoverer of the Cape ; 
but hasty and impetuous, and deficient in coolness and fore- 
thoufi;ht He was accompanied by the Patriarch Bermudez, and 
the iorce consisted of 450 Portuguese musketeers and 6 small 
field-pieces. The expedition started from Massowa on July 9th, 
1541, and, marching into the interior, halted at some brackish 
wells till the afternoon of the next day on account of the in- 
tense heat. They continued their march for six days, suffering 
much from the want of water and the means of carriage ; for 
they only had a few camels and mules which carried the artil- 
lery. At many places, where the ground was rocky, the camels 
became useless, and the men had to carry the burdens on tlieir 
own backs. Dom Cristofero, like a true captain, was the first 
to take his share of this work, which, although almost intolerable 
to the men, was thus made to appear ligliter. At the end of 
seven days the party arrived at so steep a mountain that it took 
them the whole day to reach the summit Here the Portuguese 
rested, with the pleasant view of the wide and beautiful Abys- 
sinian plains spread out before them, and refreshed by the 
breeze and the delicious springs that descended from the moun- 
tains. They rested a few days at a church which had been 
rained by the Moors, and here they were met by the Abyssinians, 
who welcomed them as deliverers, and furnished them with 
assistance and provisions. Da Gama took the same route in 
ascending from the coast as had been followed by the embassy 
of Kodriguez da Lima, and reached Debaroa, where he united 
his forc*es with those of the Bahar-N4gash. Here he was joined 
by the Queen Mother. 

Mohammed Gragn, the terrible Moorish general, was in the 
province of Tigre, prepared to dispute the advance of the Portu- 
guese with 1000 horse, 5000 foot, 50 Turkish miwketeers, and 

6 MabkHAM on Portuguese Expeditions to Abyssinia. 

Bome artillery. I>a Gama's army consisted of 450 Portngueae 
musk steel's, and about 12,000 Abysciutans budly armed with 
epeare and shields. On the whole, tbey were fnirly matched ; 
but the dash and cnerg;y of Da Oama at first carried all before 
him. He took the hitherto impregnable mountain-fortrese of 
Amba Zanet by storm, aiid during April, 1542, defeated Mo- 
hammed Gragn in two pitched battles and drove him into 
another fastneas, whence he sent to implore assintunce from one 
of tlie Turkish pashas on tlie Arabian coast. Mtiiiuwiiile 1)» 
Gama crossed the great river Takkazye, and eiii'prised tlie famona 
hill-fortress known as the Jew's Amba, which waa garrisoned 
by Moors and is perched in the most inaccessible part of tbo 
mountainous district of Semyeu. 

This brilliant career of victory was Bhoit-lived, Dnrijig the 
winter Mohammed Gragn received reinlbrcementa from Arabia, 
and on August 28tli, 154;^, he offered battle to the allied army. 
The action commenced with a cannonade which lasted for some 
hours. Then the Portuguese made repeated gallant charges, 
but were as often repulsed ; and, finally the Moors advanced in 
force, and the rout of the allies was completed. Badly wounded 
and cruelly mortified by his defeat, the gallant Da Gama was 
with dilGculty prevailed upon by the Queen Motlier and the 
Patriarch Bermudez to accompany them in their fliglit. Ber- 
uudez himself relates tlie subseijuent events. He says tliat on 
reaching a deep river Da Gama positively refused to go any 
further, and that they were obliged to leave him behind. There 
is, however, something suspicious in all this ; and I am inclined 
to doubt whether Bermudes, who tells his own story, ia quite 
clean-handed. It is true that Da Gama had captured a beautiful 
girl onUieMoimtain of the Jews, to whom be was much attached, 
and it is possible tliat he may have stayed behiud in ihe hope of 
finding her among the fugitives. But, be tliis how it may, it ia 
certain that the Portuguese general was captnred by the Moors, 
brutally treated by tha savage Mohammed Gragn, and be- 
headed. Thus ended the romantic career of the noble and 
chivalrous knight Dom Cristofero da Gama. 

Only 300 Portugueae, out of the 450 who had landed at 
Masfiowa, escaped from tliis fatal buttle. Dom Alfonso da 
Caldeira was chosen as their leader, and they retreated, with 
the Queen and the Patriareh, to the Jew's Mountain in tha 
province of Serayen, where they were joined by the young Ncgna 
Claudius. They proved of the greatest service to the Ahyasiniaa 
cause. In the following February a great battle was fought 
between the Abyssiniaus and Moors on the plains of Dembea, 
which was decided by the gallant conduct of the Poituguese, 
and in which Mohammed Grugn himself was shot by a mus- 

IiLlbkham an Partufftiese Expeditions to Abyssinia. 7 

keteer named Pedro Leon, who thus avenged the death of his 
beloTed commander. In a subsequent battle Claudius, with the 
help of his Portuguese, defeated and killed the Ein^ of Adcl, 
whofle wife was given as a reward to Arias Diaz, the Portngiiese 
leader. The NegAs was eyentually slain in a battle with the 
Mohammedans of Adel, led by a chief named Noor, in March, 
1559y and his body-guard of 18 Portuguese were killed to a 
man in their gallant attempt to defend him. Yet the Portu- 
guese were treated with the basest ingratitude. Some of them 
settled in Tigre, and others in tlie province of Godjam. Thev 
married natives, and Dr. Beke tells us that to this day their 
descendants are called Francis at Kameo and in its vicinity.* 

The Jesuits who accompanied and followed Bermudez into 
the country fixed their head-quarters at Fremona, in Tigrfe, 
where they erected a church and a fortified convent These 
buildings were on the top of a high hill, in the centre of a large 
plain, on one side of which stands Adowa. Bruce visited the 
ruins, and describes them as consisting of stone walls 25 feet 
high, with towers in the flanks and angles. Here the Jesuit 
mission was established for many years, undergoing numerous 
vicissitudes of good and evil fortune, until it was finally expelled. 
The place was originally called Mai-goga, which Bruce interprets 
as the ** River of Owls." The name Fremona was given to the 
convent in honour of Fruraentius, the apostle of Abyssinia, who 
was consecrated the first Patriarch or Abuna by 8t. Athanasins 
in 330 A.D. The Jesuits at Fremona worked hard at the Geez 
and Amharic languages, studied the old Ethiopic chronicles of 
Axnm, and collected material for the early nistorv of Abys- 
sinia, some of which, especially the account of the mvasion of 
Yaman by King Caleb, is corroborated by Greek and Moham- 
medan writers. The Jesuits also made numerous futile attempts 
to fix the latitude of Fremona with an astrolabe, always being 
more than 30 miles out in their reckoning. 

But, as missionaries, the Portuguese Jesuits in Abyssinia 
were eminently unsuccessful. The people preferred their own 
traditional form of Christianity, hated innovation, and insisted 
upon having a Coptic, not a Romish, Abuna. Indeed, with 
such a man as Bermudez success was impossible. He was proud, 
vkdent, and insolent ; burnt women for witchcraft ; treated the 
native priesthocxl with contempt ; and rendered himself odious 
to aU elasses. At last, he went po far as to excommunicate the 
l^egus, who ordered him to retire to a distant convent for the 
remainder of his life, and sent for a new Abuna from Alexandria. 
Bermudez with difficulty escaped to Fremona, where he was 

♦ •Journal/ 1844, vol. xiv. p. 26. 

8 MaRKHAM on Portuguese Expeditions to Abyssinia. 

concealed for a luug time, aiid eventually suenked out of the 
country by way of Debaroa and Massowa. TLe ex-Patriarch 
reached Lisbon iu safety, after a residence in Abyssinia of up- 
wards of thirty yeai-s. His narrative was [mblJBhed at Lisbon in 
15()5. There is a copy in tlie Britis)! Museum, and an English 
version is given in the second volume of Purchas'a ' Pilj^rima.' 
This work is the best authority for tlie famous espedilion of 
Cristofero da Gama, as it is written by an eye-witness of the 
scenes it describes. 

In 1556 Don Nunez da Barreto, accompanied by a learned 
Spanish priest named Andres de Oviedo, was sent out to succeed 
Bernindez as Patriarch of Elhiopia. He died at Goa in 1562 ; 
but Oviedo reai'hed Massowa, and was for many years chief of 
the Jesuits at Fremona. But the mission was neglected and 
oppressed, though not actually expelled, by the snccessora of 
Claudius, and Oviedo died at Fremona, in great povei-ty, in tha 
year 1577. An account of Oviedo's proceedings, and of those 
of his brotlier missionaries, is given in Purchaa, 

At about this time, apparently in 1572, the Turks seized npon 
Mtissowa and other ports on the coast, which they have held ever 
since : so that the AbysHinian title of Bahar-Nagash, or Lord of 
the Sea, from thenceforth became emply and vain. 

In the besfiuning of the next century Father Francisco Paez 
arrived at Fremona, who was by far the ablest European tltat 
has as yet resided in Abyssinia. He added to great tact and 
judgraentj and an extraordinary power of influencing the minda 
of tul classes of men among whom he was thrown, an amount of 
ability which enabled hira to succeed in nearly everything lie 
undertook, from turning a stone ori'h to ruling the heart of a 
king ; and a quickness of apprehension, which amounted lo 
genius. This remarkable man was wrecked at Dhariur, and 
remained a prisoner in Ha<lramaut and Yanian for seven weary 
years. But at length he reached Fremona, and in 1604 was 
preeeuted at the Court of the Negus, whose name was Socinioa 
or Onag ISegged, 

The presence of such a man as Paez soon made itself felt.. 
The Jesuit mission rose into high favour, and both the Negus 
and his brother Sella Christos embraced the Komish faith. Tuia 

I gave rise lo a rebellion, headed by the Coptic Abuua Peter, who 
was killed in a battle fought amongst the mountains of Semyen; 
when the insurgents were entirely defeated. The rebel cavalry 
were seized with a panic, could not stop themselves, and 600 
men and horses galloped over a precipice, and plunged into » 
frightful abyss. One of the Portuguese, named Manuel Gonzale% 
who ha<l been canied away with the flying crowd, let go hia 
biidle as his horse was falling through the air, caught the branch 


MARKHAM an Portugitese Expeditions to Abyssinia. 9 

of a tree on which he spent the night, and scrambled safely out 
next morning. The representation of this memorable cata- 
strophe, in the Latin folio edition of Ludolf s *■ Ethiopia,' is one of 
the most stupendous prints that artist ever engraved. 

After the battle the Negus Socinios crossed the pass of 
Lamalmon, which is so graphically described by Bruce, and was 
crowned at Axum, by the new Abuna, on March 23rd, 1609. 
Faez accompanied him, and continued to reside at his court. 
But the Komish and Ethiopic priests nourished a deadly hatred 
against each other. The people of course sided with their 
countrymen, while the Negus upheld the Portuguese. The 
AbClna and the Jesuits thundered excommunications against 
each other, while nobles and people petitioned the Negus 
against innovations. 

While Paez lived, these disputes were kept within bounds. 
Bat the most lasting memorials of his genius are to be found in 
the ruins of churches, palaces, and bridges, erected under his 
superintendence. His most famous work was the palace on the 
peninsula of Gorgora, at the north-western comer of the great 
lake of Dembea. Here he found a good quarry of white stone. 
He taught the workmen how to cut and lay the stones, using 
clay instead of mortar ; and eventually he completed an edifice 
for the Negus, containing a grand hall and a chamber with a 
staircase in the centre, leading to an upi>er story whence there 
was a magnificent view of the lake. He placed a spring-lock 
on this door, a precaution which on one occasion saved the life 
of the Negus, when the Abuna and some nobles had conspired 
to kill him. Paez also built a church at Gorgora, another very 
fine one supported by Ionic columns on the plain of Dembea ; 
and he probably rebuilt the famous church of Martola Mariam 
in Godjam, which is described by Dr. Beke. A bridge near 
Gondar and another across the Abai are also probably due to 
Father Paez. It is a proof of the stiffnecked savagery of the 
Abyssinians that, with all these models under their very noses^ 
they should still worship in churches and live in huts of which a 
W^ Coast negro would be ashamed. 

Paez is said to have visited the source of the Abai or Blue 
Nile in 1618 ; but Bruce maintains that the account of this visit 
in the MS. of Paez, quoted by Kircher, was a modem interpo- 

It was certainly through the influence of Paez that the Negus 
was induced to make a public profession of the Komish faith 
at Foggera, near the eastern shores of the great lake of Dembea, 
in 1622. The good Father died soon afterwards at Gorgora, 
after a residem^e of nineteen years in Abyssinia. He left a nar- 
rative of his labours, of which there were many copies in tho 

I^Iaukhau on Portuguese Expeditions to Abyssinia. 

Jesuit colleges; but unfortunately it is not yet in an aoceasible 
furm, (ind awaits the attention of tlie Hakluyt Swiety. Unice 
says that it I'orras two tlick octavo volumes, and that he saw 
three copies in Italy. There is one in the British Museum. 

la the very year tliat Paez died, Father Manuel d'Almeyda 
arrived ut Massowa. His route into the interior waa by the high 
land of Asmara and Deharoa (both which places are marked on 
the map of Ferret and Galinier, as well as the convent of Bisan) 
to Fremona ; whence he proceeded to the ramp of the Negus at 
Dancaz in Dembea, He afterwards travelled over moat parts of 
Abyssinia, and his annual letters were published at Home in 
lli2l>. Extniots fi-om some of them oie given by Tellaz, in his 
' History of Ethiopia.' 

On the death of Paez, the Negua ia said to have applied to 
the Pope for a new Patriarch, and Father Alfonso Mendiez waf* 
sent out in 1624, accompanied by several Jesuit priests, amon^ 
whom was Fatiier Geronimo Lolw. They landed at Belool or 
Baylur, on the coast inhabited by the Uankali tribes, and ap- 
proached the highlands of Abyssinia hy a route which has only 
once been traversed by a Enro[>ean since their time. Mr. Coffin, 
the companion of Salt and Pieroe, limded at HanfiJa in 1810, 
and reached Clielicut by following the okl route of Fathers 
Mendez and Lobo across the salt-desert. 

The Jesuits crossed this scorching desert in the month of 
June, and Lobo describes their Buft'eriuga and hardships in most 
piteous terms ; but tliey eventually reached the convent of 
Freinona in safety. Lobo waa employed to search for the 
remains of Cristofero da Gama, which were sent to Goa for 
interment. This Jesuit remained in charge of the mission at 
Fremona for some years, and was afterwords ordered by hia 
superiors to Damot, and cro^ied the Abai by jumping from rock 
to Focic, at a point which was afterwards called " tlie paasage of 
Father Geronimo." Bruc« is very angry with poor Lobo, Bs ha 
also is with Puez. for having described the sources of the Ahai 
or Blue Nile, which he considers as his own exclusive property. 
From Damot, Lolio was ordered to return to Tigre, and he ro- 
muined at Fremona until the expulsion of the JcHuits, 

There were, at this time, as many as nineteen Jesuits in 
Abyssinia, with churches and convents, while the Patiiardi 
Alfonso Mendi'z had unlimited influence over the Ne";us. But 
they were unii'ersalJy detested by the people ; as the Negiia 
grew old their power waned, and, when he died on September 
Itith, 1633, it sank for ever. His sou and successor i acilidiu 
shared the feeling of the people, and resolved to put an end to 
the intrusion of these foreign priests. Inimediiitely on hia 
occcasiun the Patriarch M.endez was ordered to leave his Court, 

Markham on Portuguese Expeditions to Ahyssinicu 11 

and retire to the convent of Fremona. 8oon afterwards he and 
all his Jesuits were handed over to the tender mercies of the 
Turks, who sent them to the Pasha of Suakin ; and, after a 
long imprisonment, they were at length ransomed, and allowed 
to ffiul for the Portuguese settlements of the coast of India. 

The narrative of the Patriarch Mendez was published in 
French, at Lille, in 1633; but the original is not known to 
exist. That of Father Lobo is well known. It was published 
at Coimbra in 1659, translated into French by Le Grand in 
1728, and the English version of 1735 was the first Uterary 
attempt of Dr. Samuel Johnson. 

General histories of the Portuguese connexion with Abyssinia 
were written by the Jesuit Balthazar Tellez, and by the German 
Ludolf ; while the work of Father Luis Ureta, published at 
Valencia in 1610, is more scarce and less trustworthy. 

The connexion of the Portuguese with Abyssinia, which 
extended over a period of a century and a half, is as import- 
ant to the comparative geographer as it is interesting to the 
student of history. The limits of this paper render it impossible 
to dwell at any length upon the geographical results of their 
explorations. I have merely endeavoured to point out the 
sources of information respecting this earlier period of European 
intercourse with Abyssinia ; and to give a general idea of the 
routes taken and the ground covered by the Portuguese ex- 
plorers. In ascending to the highlands from the shores of the 
Bed Sea, they all, with a single exception, appear to have landed 
at Massowa, and reached their head-quarters near Axum, by way 
of the convent of Bisan, Asmara, and Debaroa. But Mendez 
and Lobo struck out a new route for themselves. Landing at 
Beilul, far to the south, they marched through the Dankali 
country and the desert of salt, and reached Fremona by way of 
Senafe. Mr. Coffin alone, among modern travellers, has followed 
the enterprising fathers in this route. The old road of the 
Greek settlers, from Adulis to Axum, which is said to be the best 
of alU and the modem route of Halai and Dixa, appear to have 
been altogether neglected in the period of Portuguese intercourse 
with Abyssinia. 

After reaching the highlands, the different Portuguese ex- 
plorers, at one time or another, traversed the country in all 
directions. Alvarez, with the mission of Bodriguez da Lima, went 
south from Axum by the route afterwards taken by Dr. Krapf, 
and which would lead direct to Magdala. Da Gama and Ber^ 
mudez, with their armed force, marched over Tigre and Sameu 
in every direction ; while Paez and Almeida, Mendez and Lobo, 
became well acquainted with all the districts round the Dembea 
Lake, ajid with the provinces of Godjam and Damot 

12 Markham ok tite Geographical Results 

Before the Jesaits were expelled from Abyssinia, the glory of 
Portugal had come to an end. But tliis Ahyssinian episode is 
not the least interesting portion of that brilliant history of Por- 
tuguese heroism which naa been sung by Camoens. "At the 
proudest moment of that brief and glorious period," says Schlegel, 
"a great national song broke forth like the dying notes of the 
fabled swan, a dirge for the departed hero-nation." 

From the espubion of the Portuguese in 1633 to the arrival 
of Bruce in 1770, Abyssinia was, with the single exception of 
the physician Poucets visit in 1699, closed and unknown to 
Europeans. The labours of mora recent explorers, since Bnice'g 
time, have been admirably sketched up to Ib4i3, by our President, 
Sir Roderick I. Murohison, in his Anniversary Address of 1844^ 
Numerous travellers have crossed the country since then ; mifr 
sionaries, sjiortsmen, and consuls, and now there is every proba- 
bility that this most interesting region will, at least lor a time, 
be more completely opened up than has ever been the ciise Hioca 
the time of the Portuguese. 

II. — Geographical Results of the Ahysaiiiian ExpedHion. By 
C. B. Markham, Esq., Secretary, Koyal Geographical 


(.Head, PebruuT 3i, 1S6S, and June 8, IS68.) 

I. — Coast Plain boond Mulkctto. 

Seiisf&. Decembn- Slit, 1867. 
The proceedings of the reconnoitring party under Ckilonel 
(now Br ij^adier- General) Merewether, Colonel Phayre (Quarter- 
master-General), and Colonel Wilkins, R.E., have extended 
over tlie months of October, November, and December, and tho 
arrival of the Commander-in-Chief may be considered to hav9 
brougiit their preliminary labours to an end. This then is an 
opportune time for taking stock of the geographical result* of 
the first three months of tlie Abyssinian expedition. 

The reconnoitring party have explored the sea-coast from 
Mulkutto to Hawaldl Bay, examined and surveyed two possea np 
the mountains to the Abyssinian table-land — mdeed, they may 
be said to have discovered that leading to Senale — and recon- 
noitred about 50 miles of the table-land itself. My own work 
has hitherto been conHned to the plain round Mulkittto, the pasa 
np to the Abyssinian plateau, and the neighbourhood of Senate. 

The point of disembarkation in Annesley Bay is a few ywda 
south of the place where the dry bed of the Budas reai-heu tile 
sea ; and it is the nearest point on the coast to the foot of the 

11 111 


of the Abyssinian Expedition. 13 

monntains — the distance being about 10 miles. The site of 
the encampment is called Mulkutto, from a well of that name^ 
about a mile from the shore. I found the latitude by meridian 
altitudes of Capdla and Sirius to be 15® 15' 51", n. ; the longi- 
tude by a chronometer observation of the Navigating Lieutenant 
of H.M.S. Satdlite, 39^ 46' 15", b. 

The sea is very shallow for some distance from the shore, and 
the spring tides rise so as to cover a considerable area of the 
low land which, near the beach, has a slope of a1x>ut 1 in 400. 
The ordinary rise and fall of the tide is 4 feet 6 inches. 

The plain looks green from the anchorage, and when it is 
clear there is a magnificent view of the Abyssinian Alps, the 
passes clearing them laterally from north to south, so that 
the ridges appear to rise one above the other in a succession of 
waves. But on lauding all illusion to which the green appear- 
ance of the land may have given rise is at once dissipated. A 
sandy plain, overlying clay, extends from the sea shore to the 
mountains, which is interaected by dry beds of torrents, and 
overgrown with such plants as salicornia, acacia, and calotropis. 
There are also tufts of coarse grass in patches. 

The shores of Annesley Bay, or more properly Ghubbet 
Dacnoo, were, as is well known, the point whence the Greeks, in 
the days of the Ptolemies, carried on a thriving trade with 
Axum, by way of Degonta ; while the Portuguese and modern 
travellers have recently taken the route by Massowa. The 
ancient Greek city of Adulis, the emporium of this trade, was 
close to the shore ; but the ruins are now at a distance of 4 
miles on the left bank of the Hadas. On a few mounds con- 
cealed by salicornia bushes, there are broken pieces of fluted 
columns, capitals, and other fragments of a very dark-coloured 
volcanic stone. But a great wealth of antiquarian treasure may 
be concealed under the mounds, and Dr. Lumsdaine, after making 
a very slight excavation, found the bronze balance and chain of 
a pair of scales ; an appropriate first discovery in the ruins of a 

ffreat commercial city. The modern village of Zulla is at a 
ittle distance on the right bank of the Hadas. 

The Shohos, who inhabit this plain, are a black race, with 
rather woolly hair, and small boned ; but with regular, and in 
most instances even handsome features. They wear a cotton 
cloth round the middle, and a cloak of the same material, the 
head and feet bare, and are always armed with a curved sword, 
worn on the right side, spear, club, and leathern shield. They 
cultivate a Wiile jowarreSj and have cattle of a very diminutive 
breed, asses, goats, and sheep. Their huts are scattered over 
the plain ; while their burial places are extensive, and appear 
to be used by the people for a considerable distance around 

14 MarkHAM on the GfOt/raphicai Jies7ihs 

thom — there beiug only two between the coast and the entranca 
to tlie Stiiiafe — uue of them close to the ruins of Adulia. 
The mode of eepiiltiire ia peculiar. The graves are marked by 
oblong heaps of stones, uita upright slabs at each end. A hole 
is dug about 6 feet deep, at toe bottom of which a email cave 
is excavated for the rccoption of the body. The tomb is then 
closed with stones, and the hole leading to it is filled up. 

The plain round Mulkiitto ftbomids in game, — antelopes, 
gazelles (Beni Israel), hares, bustards, and spur fowl ; and during 
the rains the game is said to be still more plentiful. The coast 
rains usually commence in December, but there is no great fell ; 
and this year, beyond one drizzling morning, on the 15th, there 
has been no rain up to the end of the month. At Mulkutto 
the thermometer ranges, in the day time, from 84° to 90°, from 
December l'2th to 18ih. 


Colonel Merewether and the reconnoitring party left Iklulkutto 
for Hawakil Bay on the 21st of October, and returned on the 
SOth. The road leads for thu first 15 miles along the shore of 
Annesley Bay; and at the ninth mile, where the bills come 
close to the beach, are the hot salt springs of Atofeh. Thence 
to Arafali, at the head of Annesley Bay, the road is over a 
narrow plain, less than a mile broad, crossing snmll beds of 
torrents. Arafali is a village consisting of a few grass huts 
belonging to the Kas-^nnio tribe, who are engaged in the salt 
trade from a small lake on the Bure I'eninsnla. There ia an 
outpost of 100 Egyptian troops from Massowa, in an entrenched 
position, near the village. Good water is found by digging, 
and there are several wells. Close to the sea there is an extinct 
volcano with a double crater, lUO feet deep and .300 across; and 
scoria and pumice are scattered over the plain. From Arafali 
onwards volcanic action is apparent in every direction. 

Prom Arafali to Booeah (the next haltiiig-(>hM'e) tlie distance 
I found to be 21 miles, thence to Mabileh, 25, and thence to 

Ilamote 10. After leaving Arafali the way leads over a plain 
culled Wongurboo for 3J miles, where ostriches and antelopes 
were seen. Another plain follows, 5 miles in extent, called 

Uallatee, which is intersected by many dry beds of toiTeuts, 
and overgrown with tamarisk and acacia. After crossing the 
Gallatee plain the road leads lor 'i miles along the bed of a torrent, 
and then up a rugged path to a plateau called Dlian, covered 
witli loose stones, A descent of 200 feet brought them to the 
Uharowlee Itiver bed, where there was a well of very fair water, 
and to the eastward Ihey could see a high hill called Alut, 

cf the Abyssinian Expedition. 15 

which was said by the natives to be an active volcano, and to 
be Rctuadlv smoking on the other side. 

From llamote the way leads over irregular stony ground, with 
high hills on either side, to the low land through which the river 
Bagolay flows, in an alluvial plain coveretl with salicomia 
bushes and coarse tufts of grass. The Ragolay was found to 
be at this point a clear nmuing stream of excellent water. 
Here they saw traces of wild elephants. From this point the 
party followed the doNvnward course of the Hagolay, crossing 
the river forty-eight times, to a place called Ijower Kagolay, a 
distance of 14 miles. Lower Bagolay was found to be 193 feet 
below the level of the sea. 

The Ragolay ravine belongs to the Belessua branch of the 
Afar tribe ; and at Lower liagolay the chiefs came in to pay 
their respects to Colonel Merewether. The people were very 
friendly, but the Chiefs explained that they had little control 
over them, and that it was necessary for a man to have mur- 
dered or mutilated some one before he could obtain the hand 
of a woman of the tribe. Strict orders were, therefore, issued 
against straggling. 

After leaving Lower Kagolay the party came to the extreme 
nortliem limit of the great salt plain, which extended to the 
south as far as the eye could reach. The ground was white with 
incrustations of salt. 

From Ragolay, thoir southern limit, the party was returning 
north-east towards Hawakil Bay ; 30 miles to wells at Gairse 
Loyola (195 feet above the sea), and 19 more to Rasa, a village 
on the shores of the bay, opposite the island of Boka. From 
Rasa they returned to Annesley Bay in a steamer. 

The temperature during the journey ranged from 101° to 

The whole of this region has been under the influence of vol- 
canic action, the evidence of which was observed at every turn. 
But the most valuable discovery that was made was the nature 
of the Ragolay River svstem. It was ascertained that the 
eastern drainage of the whole of the Abyssinian watershed from 
Senafe to Atsbi (called on the maps Atebidera) consisted of 
tributaries of the Ragolay River. Tliese two places are about 
70 geographical miles from each other. The River Mena (called 
Mai Muna on the maps) receives the drainage of Senate and 
other plains, and forms the Endayly river, which falls into the 
liagolay. Further south the river, called Ouret on the maps, 
receiving streams from the beautiful vale of Omfeito, and from 
other valleys nearly to Atigerat, flows past the mountain of 
Gondagonda, and forms tlie River Lasguddy, another tributary 
of the Ragolay. Still further south, between Atigerat and 

16 Markham on the Geographical Results 

Atabi, two other rivers — the Gnrsiif and Gabala — receive the 
drainage of the eastern slopes of the Abysainian Alps, and like- 
wise go to swell the Kagolay. 

Thus the Ragolay is an important river-system ; and at the 
point where tlie reconnoitring party reaclieil its banks it was 
a perennial nmning sfream, in spite of thirsty sand and a 
scorching aun. Afterwards, in flowing towards the sea, it de- 
BCends into a depression 193 feet below the sea-level, which was 
probably caused by some violent volcanic action ; and its waters 
are finally dissipated by evaporation under the intense heat of a 
scorching sun, and by absorption in the sand. 

To the southward of Atsbi the streams flowing to the east 
appear to be lost in the great salt plain, which may he looked 
upon as occupying the place of a vast lake without an outlet. 
Such a lake would, under similar circumstances, no donbt exist 
jn a less burning climate ; but here the intense heat of the sun 
gives rise to such nipid evaporation that no moisture remains, 
except a swamp here and tiiere, etnd the ground is left with 
an incrustation oi' salt. 

Opportunities will be taken, during the march of the field 
force along the watershed from Senafe to Atsbi, of completing 
the examination of the tributaries of the Riigolay to the east- 
ward ; and possibly, if any of the ravines through which they 
flow afford tolerable roads, it may be defUJed advisable to open 
another line of commuuicatiou by the liagolay to the sea at 
Hawakil Bay. 

HL — The Tekonda Pass. 

The most important duty of the reconnoitring party, under 
Colonel Jrerewether, was to discover the best a]jproacli from 
the coast to the Abyssinian tahle-land; and the Jirst that was 
examined was the gorge through which the Itiver Hadas flows, 
called the Tekonda Pass, from the village at itu summit. The 
gorge of the River Alliguddy, which miites with the Hadas in 
the plain, is said to form an excellent pass, but it emerges on 
the table-land too far to the north; the Alliguddy flowing west 
and east, while the Hadas comes Irum the south. 

IV.— The SenafI: Pass. 

The Senafe Pass wua fii'st discovered and examined by Colonel 
Merewetlicr and the reconnoitring party early in November ; 
and they finally led the advanced brigade up it, and encamped 
at Senafe, on the Abyssinian table-land, between the Ist and 
6th of Heceiuber. I went up the pass with JSir Charlt-s Staveley 
and his Stuff between the 20tli and liSud of December. 

of tike Abyssinian Expedition, 17 

* Eomayliy at the entrance of the Senafe Pass, is 10 miles 
6 forlongs s., 76° w., from the camp at Mulkutto. Here the 
dry bed of the Nebhaguddy torrent, which flows down the pass, 
debouches on the plain, and the drainage-line passes on towards 
the sea, some miles to the southward of the bed of the Hadas. 
Komayli is 433 feet above the level of the sea, and here there 
are abundant supplies of good water from wells. 

The road enters the pass immediately on leaving Komayli, 
and winds up the dry bed of the Nebhaguddy to Lower Sooroo, 
a distance of 8 miles. In several places the alluvial deix)sit 
brought down by the torrent was from 10 to even 20 feet thick. 
The pass winds very much, and is narrow, while the gneiss 
mountains rise up perpendicularly on either side. In this part 
the vegetation is like that of tne coast plain — acacias, with 
a few c»lotropis trees. At the end of 8 miles the narrow part of 
the pass is reached, at a place called Lower Sooroo, where the 
runiung water which flows from Upper Sooroo, a distance of 
4 miles, is lost. The volcanic action which has disturbed the 
whole of this region, is very distinctly visible in this pass. At 
Lower Sooroo the gneiss cliffs are perpendicular on the western 
side; and in one place a vertical cracK, some 5 feet in width, is 
filled in with a black volcanic rock. The eye is caught by it at 
once, and it looks like a broad black mark painted on the face 
of the clifl^, from the summit to the base. At Lower Sooroo the 
road turns sharp to the right, and enters a very narrow pass at 
Middle Sooroo, not more than 50 to 100 feet across, with cliffs 
on either side rising to a height of upwards of a thousand feet, 
while the pass is blocked up by ^gantic boulders of gneiss, 
heaped together in wild confusion iox a distance of 250 yards. 
The scenery here is magnificent. At Upper Sooroo, which is 
12 miles and 2 furlongs from Komayli, the pass opens again, and 
the water is excellent and plentiful. The total length of the 
running stream, from its source to where it disappears at Lower 
Sooroo, is 4 miles. 

I found the boiling point at Upper Sooroo to be 207*50°, and 
the aneroid showed 27*61 inches, which gives an elevation above 
the sea of about 2520 feet. The latitude by meridian altitude 
of ^Capdla was 15° 1' 52" n. 

We left Upper Sooroo in the night, and got over the first 
10 miles before dawn ; but I was informed that, at a distance of 
8 miles, there was water up a ravine called Barutguddy (2640 
feet above the sea), and again at another place called Sonakte, 
2 miles further on (3234 feet above the sea). Between Upper 
Sooroo and Banitguddy there are t\yo tributary torrents on the 
right hand side of the pass, and on the same side, a little beyond 


18 Markham (Wi the Geographical Resuhs 

Sonakte, the bed of tlie Miidhullo torrent forms a difficult com- 
municatioii between the Senafe and Tekonda passes. 

Near Sonakte the gneiss ceases, and a dark, schistose, raeta- 
morphie rock, with strata throwTi up at angles of upwards of 70'^, 
takes its place, apparently overlying it. It was observable that, 
whenever there was running water, the strata were nearly hori- 
zontal and but slightly tilted, while the waterless tracts were met 
with where the strata were tilted at great angles. At a distance 
of 12 miles 5 furlongs from Upper Sooroo, at a place called 
Maiyen, a well has been dug, and a mile further on the pass 
opens out, and there is a plain which the reconnoitring Mrty 
named after a bevy of guinea-fowl they put np there. Here 
the first kol-quaU, or candelabra-trees (Euphorbia), which are 
described in such enthusiastic terms by Bruce, are met with. 
Their upright branches, clustering close together, of a bright 
Arauearia green, certainly have a very fine effect amongst the 
brushwood. There are also large bwls of aloes on the plain. 
To the right a view of the plateau of Abyssinia, with scarped 
cliffs, apparently only distant about 4 miles, is obtained through 
an opening in the clifis. 

Further on the scenery in the pass becomes very fine, the 
cliffs higher, with peaked mountains towering up behind them, 
and the vegetation richer and more varied. The strata of the 
schistose roeks are here not only tilted at great angles, but 
crumpled into irregular waves, and where there are veins of 
quartz, the two kinds of rock are torn away, leaving gaping 
cracks and fissiires. Very fine fi'ces of the fig tribe, peepal, 
banyan, and sycamore figs grow in this part of the goi^e, with 
the feathery tamaric, tamannds, jujub-trees, and an undergrowtli 
of mimosa, lobelia, and solanum. The pa^s winds in and oat 
amonst the mountains, and at one lovely spot the cliSs approach 
within 40 feet, while the foliage of 4 or 5 venerable banyan-trees 
overshadows the road. In some places there was a perfect 
plague of locusts, which rose from tno ground in myriads as wo 
approached, their innumerable wines making a loud crackling 
noise. Monkeys are numerous in the pass, and the carcasses of 
many dead mules have attracted a host of obscene vultures. 

The distance from Maiyen wells to the next water at lUha- 
guddy is l(i miles, 3 furlongs; but there is a little water aft^^r 
rains at a place called Henderta, only 11 miles from Maiyen. 
The whole distance from Upper Sooroo to Raha-guddy is an 
excellent natural road with an easy gradient, but at Ilaha- 
guddy it an;ain narrows, and some laoour is required to make 
it passable for wheeled tratSc. 

At Eaha-guddy, where there is a good supply of running 

of the Ahymnian Expedition. 19 

irater, the flora becomes more alpine. There is turf by the 
•road side, tall, handsome, juniper pines, wild olives, several 
mimbsaB, peepul, banyan, and sycamore, figs, kol-qualls, jujub- 
trees, an evergreen bush with a sweetly scented flower {Myrsine 
Africoma), lobelia, solanum, and wild thyme, while a graceful 
clematis climbs over the trees. I climbed to the top of a hill 
above Raha-guddy, with Sir Charles Staveley, and obtained a 
gplendid view. To the south and west is the edge of the 
Abyssinian table-land, running in almost a straight line, with 
flcaiped sides of white sandstone. The mountain ridges or 

2uis> between which the passes wind, appear to run on from 
e toble-land at right angles, but afterwards turning to the 
north, and throwinff up peaks here and there. They then wind 
away in a northerly direction, but very tortuously, with deep 
juvines between them. It appeared, from our point of view, as 
if thare was a deep natural trench between these mountain 
spniB and the ascent of the table-land. 

I found the boiling point at Eaha-guddy to be 200-80, and 
the aneroid showed 23*84, which makes the elevation above the 
flea about 6300 feet. The latitude by meridian altitude of 
^CapeOa 14° 45' 52" n. Temperature at 11 p.m. 59° Fahr. 

Senaf(§, on the Abyssinian table-land, is 8 miles from Baha- 
gaddy, 5 to the foot of the ascent, 1^ the ascent, and 1^ across 
flie plateau. The length of the gorge, from Komayli to the 
foot of the ascent to Senafe, is thus nearlv 46 miles. The 
ascent up the sloping rocky side of a hill is by no means diffi- 
cult; and the plateau of Abyssinia is thus reached. I have 
been in the Alps and Pyrenees, have walked or ridden up nearly 
every pass in the Western Ghauts of India from Bombay to 
CSape Comorin, and know most of the passes in the Peruvian 
Andes, and I confidently affirm that in none of these ranges is 
there any natural openmg which is so easily accessible as that 
from Komayli to the highlands of Abyssinia. One peculiar 
feature in these Abyssinian mountains is that the passes leading 
through them have easier gradients, and are altogether more 
readily surmounted than those of almost any other mountain 
jange in the world.* 

The reconnoitring party have gone over the ground, on the 
table-land, between Senafe and Tekonda, a distance of about 9 
miles, and have thus connected their surveys of the two passes. 
Parties of sappers, and a Belooch regiment, are at work on the 
narrow parts of the Senafe Pass, at middle Sooroo and Baha- 
and very soon there will be a good road throughout, 
ne separating the region of mountain and coast rains is at 

* The Bolan Pass is perhaps as easy. 

c 2 


20 MAnKHAM on the Geographical Results 

or near Upper Sooroo. Alwve that line tlie Leavv rains of the 
Abyssinian liigblanda begin to fall in June, and it is appre- 
hended that the swollen torrent irill then render the gorge 
impassable. But the area of drainage aput-ars to me to be too 
small to justify this apprehension, while tne growth of treoa in 
the torrent bed seems to indicate that such floods are at least 
not of annual occurrence. The Senaf^ Pass is flanked by the 
Tekonda Pass on one side, and by another ravine on the other, 
so that the side drainage is eonfined to the rain-fall on the 
almost perpendicular sides of the banking hills. Nor is there a 
larger area of drainage from the^lateau, as the streams at Senafe 
and its vicinity go to swell the Eagolay system. If floods occur 
at all they must be merely tlje rush of surface drainage over a 
comparatively small area, after some exceptionally heavy lall, 
and must be sudden and of very short duration — the water 
rushing rapidly down the goi^e. However all this remains to 
be proved. 

V. — SENAFfi. 

The camp at Senafe is pitched on a plain surrounded on every 
side but the south-west by an amphitheatre of sandstone hills 
and rocks. This sandstone seems to overlie the metaraorphie 
rocks in the pass, and I am informed that all the table hills 
towards the south and west are of the same formation. 

I found the boiling jioint at Senafe to be 198'00°, and the 
aneroid showed 22'5f) inches, giving the elevation above the sea 
at 8332 feet. The latitude by meridian altitudes of the Sun 
and •Gapdla 41° 14' 52" N., and the longitude by D. H. Z9-ZV e. 
All the longitudes will be accurately fixed as soon as the electric 
telegraph is brought up to Senafe.* At this time of year the 
sky 18 usually cloudless, except at dawn when the fleecy mists 
roll up the passes ; and the sun is hot during the day, the tem- 
perature ranging from 68" to 78°; but the bright starry nights 
are cold, the minimum descending as low as 45 . 

The plain is covered with grass or stubble barley fields, and 
dotted with stunted juniper pine, with thyme, and other bushes. 
The head of the pass ia a mile and a half over the plain, a few 

fioints to the eastward of north, and nearly due north is the 
ofty scarped hill called Arabi Teleeki. I climbed to the summit 
to get a round of angles, and found the boiling point to be 
ISB'OS", the aneroid showing 21'60 inches, which gives an 
elevation of 8561 feet above the sea, and 1097 above the camp. 
A ridge covered with fiowering bushes, the pretty Myrsine being 

rtuDslel; there woj not lime Id fix the iDngitudei by li'legmpb, Bud it 

of the Abyssinian Expedition. 21 

most common, extends from Arabi Teleeki until it bears n.w. 
by W. from the camp, where there is an opening — ^the beetling 
cufis of the Adana rock rising up on the otuer side. Here, at a 
spot where wild thyme and Myrsine bushes cluster round mighty 
boulders of rock, with intervals of soft turf, there is a wide view 
over the valley of the Hames to the north-west, with flat-topped 
mountains rising one above the other, in the far distance. 

The village of Senafe is at the foot of the grand mass of 
sandstone rock about half a mile north-west of the camp, called 
Amba-Adana. It consists of about a dozen houses built of rough 
stones and mud, with flat roofs — branches being placed in rows 
across the beams, and covered with mud. Broken jars plastered 
into the roof, serve as chimneys. The outer door, very roughly 
formed, with wooden posts and lintel, leads into a large outer 
hall, the roof of which is formed of timber pillars. This serves 
as a stable for cattle and goats, while a mud platform, along one 
side, is the sleeping place for servants and guests. Doors 
lead from this hall into two much smaller chambers, occupied 
hj the family. The population of Senafe is about 240. The 
iimabitants are all Monammedans ; an upright people with ^ood 
features, but with very black complexions and woolly hair done 
in plaits. The women are filthily dirty, wearing a leathern 
petticoat and mantle, and necklaces of beads. The dress of the 
men differs from that of the Shohos in having cotton drawers — 
their arms are the same. 

Senaf(§ is the last Mohammedan village, all beyond in this 
province of Shamazano are Christian. 

VL — The Kegion around Senaf^ 

Camp, Senafd, January 22nd, 1868. 

The long detention of the Abyssinian expedition at Senafe 
has afforded occasion for a more detailed examination of tlie 
immediate neighbourhood of the British camp there than is 
usually possible for a traveller in passing through a new 
oount^. The region thus thrown open to geographical research 
comprises the southern portion of the great Tigre province of 
AkuJa-Guzay. I propose to submit a sketch of the physical 
geography of this region, which is speciallv interesting from 
its containing the base of operations of the British force, on the 
Abyssinian plateau. 

The southern half of Akula-Guzay (comprising the districts 
of Shumazano, Wudukalee, Tserena, and Gula Mukado) consists 
of plateau at a general elevation of 8000 feet above the sea, 
with occasional peaks and ridges rising to a height of 9000 feet 
and upwards ; of wide valleys surrounded by these plateaux at a 

22 Markham on the Geographical Eesulls 

height of 7000 feet; and of deep ravines and river basins 
elevated from COOO to 4500 feet above the sen. 

The plateaus stretch from north to south along the main line 
of the Abyssinian alps, and form their summit ridge ; and they 
also extend over a considerable area to the westward, dividing 
the valleys from each other. In describing the passes leading 
from the plateaux to the sea-coaaf, I mentioned that the lower 
rocks were gneiss ; above which came a mica schist, with veins 
of quartz, tilted at an angle of at least 70° ; and that the 
schistose rock was overlaid unconformably by a deposit of 
sandstone. The plateaus, which I am now endeavouring to 
describe, are composed of sandstone overlying the same tuted 
strata as are visible in the pass ; and they present a veir 
remarkable appearance when viewed from the vallej^ whica 
they enclose. Their summiti form a perfectly straight level 
line, and their sides, from the top to a depth of 50 to 100 feet; 
are scarped sandstone clifi's, but below these cliffs the schist 
rocks, more or less disintegrated at tlie surface, form hill sides 
which slope down more gradually to the valleys. Several flat- 
topped peaks rise from the plateaux, the most remarkable of 
which are Arabi Teleeki (two miles north of the camp at 
Senaf^), which I fouud to be 9000 feet above the sea ; Gonzobo, 
some miles to the westward of Senafe, and Sowayra aboat 
7i miles to the eastward. I was unable to effect the ascent of 
Gonzobo owing to the disturbed state of the country in that 
direction ; but I made a successful expedition to the summit of 
Mount Spwayra, under the guidance of a chief of the Gaso 
BhohoB. Sowayra consists of a range of lofty sandstone cliEb 
on the vei^o of the plateau overloiiing the Seuafe Pass, and 
from one point we could see the tents of the Belooch regiment 
at Baha-gnddy in the pass below. We had to select the loftiest 
part of the ridge for ascent, and, after a hard climb over 
projecting rocks and along narrow shelves, we reached the 
summit. Here I found two small rocky table-lands, divided by 
a slight depression, and I proceeded to observe, the altitude on 
each, with the following results : — 

Mount Sowayra. No. 1 : — 

Boiling pobt 195'Oa'^ 

Aneroid 20-8G inches. 

Height 10,828 feet. 

Mount Sowayra, No. 2 ; — 

Boiling point 196° 

Aneroid 20-80 iuchea. 

Height 10,350 feet. 

The sandstone of Mount SowajTa is much stained with iron, 
and near the summit I came upon some thin flakes of lime. 

of the Abyssinian Erp^dition. 23 

The plateau, from which Sowayra rises, is intersected by deep 
wld glens overgrown with juniper ; the drainage flowing to the 
Shumazano yalley and away from the Senate Pass. But, in 
January, the torrent beds are all dry, and only in one place did 
we find a few pools of stagnant water. 

The second great feature in this region is the valleys which 
are surrounded by the loftier plateaux. The chief of these is 
that of Shumazano, 7000 feet above tiie sea, and about 5 miles 
long by 4; at the north-east comer of which is the British 
camp, pitched under the grand sandstone peaks and precipices 
of SenafS.* The edges of the tilted strata of the schist rock, 
at an angle of 70° from north-west to south-east, crop out in 
every direction over the valley with veins of quartz. The 
shallow soil is composed of the disintegrated rock, and is 
oovered with stones and pebbles of white quartz. Here and 
there the rock rises up and forms isolated conical hills, upon 
which the villages are built; but wherever these hills rise 
dbove a certain height, as in the case of the lofty peak of Saim 
at the western end of the valley, the summits are capped with 
sandstone. This upper sandstone deposit has thus been washed 
away in the valleys, until the schist which underlies it is 
exposed, while it remains to cover the plateaux and cap the 
isolated peaks which rise from the valleys. The schist is first 
met with in the Senafe Pass, at an elevation of 3000 feet, and it 
is overlaid by the sandstone at about 7000 feet, so that the 
perpendicular depth of this formation must be about 4000 feet. 
Considering the angle at which the schistose strata are tilted, 
and the ease with which water can penetrate down them, owing 
partly to the frequently recurring veins of quartz, 1 should be 
inclined to think that no water would be found except at 
enormous depths below the surface. Thus the whole distance 
from Earaguddy to Maiyen well (in tlie Senafe Pass) is devoid 
of water, while at the latter place, and at Upper Sooroo, in the 
neighbourhood of which points the schist rock rests upon 
the gneiss, fresh water appears again. The Shumazano valley 
is watered by surface drainage. The population of the 16 
villages in this valley, including Senafe, is about 5000 souls ; 

* Dr. Beke states that there was a Greek station at Senafe', but I have searched 
and inquired in yain for any ruins. The name bears out the tradition of the 
inhabitants of the viUage, that it was founded by people coming from Sana, in 
Yemen, 400 years ago. When General Merewetber, and the reconnoitring party, 
ascended the high plateau near Tekonda, called Koheito, they found ruined walls 
and columns on Mount Tsaro, the highest part. This, it seems probable, and not 
Senafe, was the position of the Greek depot, on the verge of the Abyssinian 
plateau. The way to it, from Adulis, was probably by the Senafe Pass, as far as 
the Mudhnllo Torrent, and then by that torrent bed, which leads direct to Tsaro, 
and on to Tekonda and Axum. 


24 Markham on the Geographical Results 

and tlie extent to wliieli their rosourcea are bping drawn upon 
by tbe English Commissariat may be imagined when, from 
Janiiaiy lat to 15th, 00,000 lbs. of barley and 200,000 lbs. of 
grass have been purchased. It is true that some of this comes 
from the neighbouring valley of Mai Mena. The Mai Mena, in 
its general leatures, reserablea the Shumazano valley — except 
that, oQ its western side, there are long, deep, and very 
picturesque gorges witli perennial streams of delicious water 
forming deep pools amongst the giant boulders of sandstone. 
This difference may be caused by the increasing rainfall in the 
rainy season as we advance westward. 

The third great feature in the region, the geography of which 
I am describing, is the deep ravines and river beds, which cany 
off the drainage on tlie one hand to the Hiver Mareb and on the 
other to the coast of the Ked Sea. The valley of the Mena was 
explored for some distance by Captain Pottinger of the Quarter- 
master General's Department, in the beginning of the present 
month. He ascertained that tbe Mena flowed into the Endayly, 
a princii>al afQuent of the Eagolay, but the complete exploration 
of tliia river system was prevented by his small party being 
stopped by a truculent tribe of Shohos (the Hazo). The Hagir 
gorge conducts the drainage of the Shumazano valley and 
surrounding plateaux to the Bagolay, while the steep northern 
slopes drain mto the Senafe Pass. But the deepest aud grandest 
gorge is that of the llamas, in tbe Mareb Itiver system, imme- 
aiatelv to the westward of Senafc. The Senate rocks rise from 
the plain on their eastern sides, but to the westward they tower 
over a rapid declivity which descends to the Hamas gorge. 
This declivity is entirely of schistose rock, the Senafe cliffs 
above alone being of sandstone. But it is cut up by deep 
watercourses which are filled with gigantic masses of sandstone 
hurled from the cliffs above. TIjese boulders fonn deep caves, 
the lurking places of panthers and hyanas, I know not whether 
to give the palm to tho view looking down from the Seuaf^ 
clifis over the Hamas gorge, with the wild masses of mountains 
beyond, bounded by the dim outline of the peaks near Adowa ; 
or to the view upwards from tbe gorge, with the fantastic peaks 
and dizzy precipices, and the crowds of lordly eagles and more 
humble kites wheeling in circles above them. I found tbe 
elevation of the Hamas gorge, just at the foot of the declivity, 
to be 5850 feet above the sea, or 1600 below 8enafe. There is 
no water in tbe Hamas at this season, hut, in the rainy season, 
it drains into the Tsorena, a tributary of tbe Bellesa, which is 
an affluent of the Mareb. 

One of the most interesting points for observation in this 
alpme region is the character of tne vegetation with reference to 


of the Abyssinian Expedition. 


osones of elevation, from the Hamas gor^e at about 6000 to the top 
of Sowayra at 10,300 feet — a perpendicular height of more than 
4000 feet. On tJie summit and slopes of Sowayra the ^ora is of 
a thoroughly temperate, and even English character. The only 
tree is the juniper, while the most common plants are lavender, 
wild thyme, dog rose, violets, cowslips, and compositae. The 
sandstone plateaux have the same ^ora, but on the lower slopes 
of the hills bounding the valleys it is enriched by many trees 
imd shrubs of a warmer clime. Italian here mingles with 
English vegetation. In the lovely gorge of Baraka, on the 
western side of the Mai Mena valley, which is rendered sacred 
by the shrine and church of the Abyssinian saint Eomanos and 
his fellow martyrs, masses of maiden hair fern droop over the 
dear pools of water, and the undergrowth consists of a Myrsine, 
a large lobelia, and solanum. At this elevation the vegetation 
Bkin to that of the Bombay ghauts commences. Huge and 
venerable dahro trees (the represertative of the Indian banyan) 
grow near the villages, and afford shelter for flocks of pigeons ; 
and tamarinds, mimosse, jujub, and oleander trees appear m the 
ravines. But the English types, so plentiful round Mount 
Sowayra, do not descend lower than Kaha-guddy — 6000 feet 
above the sea — and they disappear altogether in the Hamas 

S^rge, where there is nothing out aca(?ias and mimosae. Thus 
e temperate flora may be said to extend over a zone from 
10,000 to 6000 feet above the sea, the sub-tropical from 6000 to 
3000, and the dry tropical coast vegetation from 3000 to the 
£ea. The open elevated valleys are, as a rule, bare of trees, 
the dahros and acacias only occurring in sheltered places near 
the villages, although the loftier plateaux are pretty thickly 
covered with low juniper trees overgrown with clematis. 

A series of meteorological observations carried on during only 
one month can give no idea of the climate ; but it appears that 
the cold nights and warm cloudless days of the dry season are 
sacceededy from May to September, by rains more or less heavy, 
which convert the dry pastures into swamps, and fill the water- 
courses with torrents. The water, however, for the most part, 
rushes rapidly off in surface drainage. The prevailing wind, in 
December and January, at Senafe, is easterly. 

VII. — Senaf£ to Antalo. 

Camp at Baya, near Ant&lo, February 24th, 1868. 

The country between Senafe and Antalo forms the watershed 
^f the river flowing off to the Red Sea coast, on the one hand, 
and of the feeders of the Mareb and the Nile on the other. The 

26 jMarkham on tlie Geographical Results 

distance between the two places by the road is 120 miles — the 
route taken by the British army beinij as follows : — 

8en&f^ lo Barakit 

,, Goooa-goona 


Si'oafc III Mai-mnsrsb 

, , FoQida 

, , Khnnabur 

, , Adigerat 


Adigerat to Mai Waliii 

, , Adabagi 


Adabagi to DoBgolo 

',', bAlMakika W '.'. '.. 

Enderta — 

Mai-Uakdaa to Dolo 


.. Afgul 

, , Anililn (camp aa Bnja tTiTer.l 
1 miles S. of town) .. ' 

5.25 W. 
i E*| W. 

In my prerious paper I described the region round Senafe, 
including the valley of the Upper Mena, and the romantic glen 
of Baralca. On the southern side of the Mena a lofty cham of 
mountains rises up very abruptly, and forms the water-Bhe<I. 
I'iie road aacends to the wide plain of GulJaba, on their western* 
flank, from a beautiful little valley enclosed between precipitous 
cliffs, where a bright stream falls from a height of 150 feet into 
a copse of scented shruhs, inigates an expanse of barley cultiva- 
tion at the village of Goona-goona, and empties itselt into the 
Mena. At this point the schistose rocks entirely disappear 
from the surface, and nothing but sandstone is seen as far as 

At Goona-goonn (2 p.m.) :— 

Boiling point lOS'S" 

Aneroid 22*74 inches. 

Temperature 79° 

Height above sea 8227 feef. 

From the plain of Gullaba there is a fine view of the Adowa 

* Smighl, troTa point to point. 

of the Ahymnian Expedition. 27 

moiintaiBS to the westward, and of the well-defined peaks round 
8enaf(S to the north. The plain is covered with long tufts of 
crass and myrsine bushes, and abounds in game, hares, spur- 
K>wl, and quail. At the southern end of the plain there is a 
depression forming a narrow ridge, which is the exact water-shed 
of the country, the drainage on one side going to the Mareb, and 
on the other to the Ragolay, within a few feet of each other. 
The eastern streams stiU flow to the Mena ; and, looking down 
the valley of Mai Musrub, the deep gorge of the Wudharsha 
stream could be seen beyond, with the overhanging cliffs which 
bound it overlapping each other far away into the eastern 
distance. High above all towers the flat-topped amha of Debra 
Matso, the stronghold of the Sabagadis family. A few miles 
farther on the high scarped mountain of Focada intersects the 
plateau, and the road is taken round its western end, on the very 
edge of the cliffs, whence there is a most remarkable view, whicn 
at one glance furnishes a good idea of the physical features of 
thispart of Abyssinia, 

Tne spectator, standing at the foot of the Focada moimtain, 
and lookmg to the westward, has before him, at his own level, 
an apparently interminable plateau with peaks and hills, such 
as that of Focada, rising out of it. But the plateau is also 
deeply cut into by valleys of considerable width and great 
depth. From his very feet the hills descend, first as perpen- 
dicular cliffs, and then with sloping sides oversown with trees ; 
and far below there is the fertile valley of Mareta, with its 
villages and green crops. But the most remarkable feature of 
the landscape remains to be described. Just as peaks rise from 
the surface of the plateau, so hills rise up out of the valleys, 
with sides exactly like those descending from the plateau, and 
with flat-topped summits corresponding exactly with the plateau- 
leveL One of these valley hills is the famous aniiha of Debra 
Pamo, famous in the history of the Portuguese expedition of 
Cristofero da Gama. The general effect is most striking; 
it gives the idea of a dead level plain which had been cut into 
by floods forming ravines and valleys, but leaving portions of 
the plateau in their midst as islands, just as navvies leave earth 
pillars to measure the depth of their excavations. 

After rounding the Focada mountain the road crosses a grassy 
rJain,. and begins to skirt the eastern side of the watershea. 
Here an important knot of mountains begins to rise from the 
plateau, which ends in an abrupt wall about 20 miles further 
south. It is called the Harat range, and is one of the chief 
mountain roots (stock-gebirge) of Tigre; as its western half 
forms the dividing point of the waters flowing to the Mareb on 

28 Markham on the Geographical Results 

the north, and the Nile oii the south. I have ooly seen its 
eastern aud southera sides. 

Just beyond Focada, and at the commencement of the Harat 
hills a Uttle stream, called Kai Korkos, pom« over a cliff 
into a thickly wotKled raTine, the view from the top extending 
iar away over hills and valleys to the eastward. Four miles 
further on is the steep descent of Khursabur, and another live 
miles in an easterly direction completes the march to Adigerat." 
The Harat hills increase in elevation to the southward — and 
Adigerat, a. ruined and half deserted town, with a large church 
and ruined palace to tell the tale of former prosperity — nestles 
at the foot of the Aloquor and Undale peaks, which are upwards 
of 11,000 ieet above the sea. 

The Khursabur ridge, an eastern spur of the Harat, separates 
the eastern di'ainage, the streams to the north of it being 
tributaries of the Mena, while to the south the water converges 
to form the Ouret. The Mena is a tributary of the Endayly, 
and the Ouret of the Lasguddy, botli main tributaries of the 
Kagolay. The fertile plain of Adigerat is, strictly speaking, a 
wi(& terrace at the foot of the lofty Harat mountains, whence 
deep ravines lead off the drainage to the Ouret valley. At the 
same time there are abrupt scarped ridges of sandstone on its 
eastern aide, which are cut through at intervals to allow the 
escape of the Harat drainage. 1 made the following observa- 
tions at Adigerat (6 p.m.) : — 

Boiling point 197'9° 

Aneroid 22'27 incheii. 

TetDparaturB 61° 

Height above tlie sea 8686 feet. 

Latitude by meridian altitude of .. .. 14° 16' 26" s. 

Variation and deviation by azimuth obaervationB 9° 11' W. 

Longitude by D. B. (diatancea chained) .. .. 39° 35' 30'' b. 

Tlie vegetation of Adigerat is much the same as at Senaf^ 
but water is more, abundant, and where the springs issue from 
the bills there are wooded glens containing many tall trees, 
most of them belonging to the fig tribe. The kol-qualls attain 
to a great height, there are thickets of jessamine and dog-roses, 
and the plain is covered with an aloe having a bright orange 
flower, the same, M. Munzinger informs me, as is known m 
medicine by the name of the Socotrine aloe. 

To the eastward of the Adigerat plain the gromid is broken 
up into profound ravines sloping off to the eastward, with their 
scarped sides sometimes forming magnificent cliffs, and ter- 

* The capital of the province of Agamd, and ancc Ibe favourite resideDCe of 
Sabaglidis, who wbs ruler of Tigrt from 18ia lo 1831. 

vf the Abyssinian Expedition. 29 

minating in ambas, or natural fortresses — a country well adapted 
for the wild lives led by the turbulent and usually outlawed 
musketeers of Agame. In the Ouret ravine the rock underlying 
the sandstone crops out, and appears to be a coarse granite, with 
▼eins of quartz. The sandstone is very fuU of iron, and, for the 
imrpose of testing the deviation of the compass, I took a careful 
bearing of a tent in camp from the top of an amba called Seban- 
bat-fSEttasso, and another from the tent to the amba. The dif- 
ference between the two bearings was 3°. From the above 
amba there is a distant view of the lofty peak of Goonda-goonda 
to the eastward, round which the Lasguddy river is said to flow;, 
and beyond it the mountains rapidly slope away into the coast 
country of the Sholios. 

There is a very curious formation a few miles south of 
Adigerat, which is worthy of mention. A conical hill rises out 
of the plain, and on the summit there is a mass of very coarse* 
grained sandstone, forming two rough columns and a lintel. The 
doorway thus formed is perfect ; at a distance it might easily be 
mistaken for the work of man, but on a nearer approach its mas- 
sive jwoportions, and the fact that the door-posts are a part of the 
hill itseu, show that nature alone could have been the workman. 

At the southern end of the plain of Adigerat, four miles south 
of the town, a ridge jutting out from the Harat range separates 
it from a ravine converging to the Ouret, there is yet another 
ravine belonging to the eastern drainage system, and then a 
steep rocky ascent leads to the summit of a lidge at the extreme 
south-east angle of the Harat mountains, which forms the 
dividing line between the Nile and the Kagolay. High above, 
on the right, rise the beetling cliflFs of the Harat, but away ta 
the south-west, as far as the eye can reach, is the rich plain 
of Haramat, traversed by springs which go to swell the Atbara^ 
the main fertilizing tributary oi the Nile. 

As the sun was setting we descended the opposite or southern 
side of the ridge, passed through the gloomy grove of kol-qualls 
surrounding the ruined church of St. Mary's; and, when our 
horses' feet sunk in some black mud by the side of a thicket of 
dog-roses and jessamines, we realized the fact that at last we 
were in the basin of the Nile. That swampy ground was the 
'source of the Mai Wahiz ("running water'), a feeder of 
the Geba, which is one of the main tributaries of the Takkazye. 
We had reason to remember our first night in the Nile basin, 
for the baggage mules were benighted, ana we passed the m'ght, 
a very cold one, round a camp fire, without tents or beds. 

Our camp was at Argutti,* four miles south of the ridge 

* Argatti is a very fine tree {Celastrus Senegalensis), but there are none at this 
place. Lucas a non lucendo. 


J80 MaKEHAM on the Geographical Results 

(which is called Adaga-Hamas, because a market is held there 
every Thursday) ; and at daylight, ou the morning of February 
13th, I took the following observations : — 

Arguttd (6-13 a.m.) :— 

Boiling point lB(!-9° 

Aneroid Sl'86 inclicE. 

Temperature 43" 

Height above tho sea 0930 fee(. 

Deviation and variation liy amplitudu 8° 'IV w. 

The important mountain-knot of Harat ends abruptly at a 
point about 8 miles south of Adigerat, and from Aigutti, which 
18 about 4 mileg south of that point, they appear like a mighty 
■wall rising suddenly from the plain of Haramat — bold sandstone 
cliffs, with flat tops, surmounted here and there by truncated 
cones, and the higher pt-aks, such as Aloquor and Undale (over 
Adigerat), in tho interior of the mountain-knot, rising above 
them. The most conspicuous of these lofty flat-topped cones ia 
the famous Amba Tsion, the great fortress of Haramat, forming 
the extreme south-west angle of the Harat Range, and bearing 
s. 88° w. from Argutti. For many and many a mile to the 
southward it forms a noble landmark. 

The plain of Haramat is boimded on the north hy the Harat 
Kange, On the east there is a lino of sandstone flat-topped bills, 
extending for some miles to the southward, and sinking into the 
plain in a succession of wide terraces, broken by steep ravinea 
which are well wooded, with rich pasture and arable land at 
their bases. Here most of the villages are built, and it is ob- 
servable that at this point the houses cease to be square and 
flat-roofed, as in Shumazano, and are circular, with pointed 
thatched roots — losing the Arab and having more of the African 

At the southern end of the plain of Haramat, whjcli is rich 
in cattle and grain, there are a series of undulating hills, with 
valleys between. That of Adahagi (" Sheep Village 'j is 14 miles 
aoiitli of Argutti : — 
Aiiabagi (1 p.w.) : — 

lioilin^ point IST'TS" 

Aneroid 22'14 inclies. 

Tempemhire 72° 

Height abovo sea 8781 Tect. 

About two miles beyond Adabagi there is a long and steep 
descent to Dongolo and the valley of the Grenfel, and here tho 
slate-rock again appears, which I had not seen since leaving 
the Shumazano district, where it underlies flie sandstone, and 
appears in all directions on the surface of the plain. At this 
pomt the character of the country entirely changes, so that the 

of the Abyssinian Expedition. 31 

eoontry between Senafe and Antalo is divided into two distinct 
regions at the descent of Dongolo, one upwards of 8000 feet 
aboYO the sea, with the vegetation of the temperate zone ; the 
other little over 7000 feet above the sea, witn the dry semi- 
tropical flora of the upper Bombay Ghauts, but much poorer and 
scantier. In both the plains are l^re of trees, and the vegetation 
only becomes rich in tne sheltered glens ; in both the mountain- 
pes^ and plateaux rise high above the average level, and many 
plants are, of course, common to both. 

The scenery on the Dongolo descent and in the Genfel valley 
is exceedingly beautiful. On the right there is a glorious mass 
of veddish sandstone cliff, and the lower hills are covered with 
that mimosa with the crimson pod which glistens under the rays 
of the sun (common also at Kaharguddy, in the SenafiS Pass), 
with myrsine, and the Coma Arereh, now leafless and covered 
with bright yellow flowers. A broad running stream flows 
through the valley, bordered by a kind of asclepiad with milky 

S'ce, leaves like an oleander, and milk-white woolly flowers, 
sre and there venerable dalu'o trees afford a grateful shade, 
under their wide- spreading branches. The road crosses the 
Genfel Kiver, a tributary of the Geba, and enters upon a vast 
plain covered with stunted acacias, which, if it were not for a 
fragrant labiate plant interspersed among them, would remind 
one of the country round Mulkutto. This lower region abounds 
in camels of a strong active breed. The road to Atsbi, the great 
salt-market, branches off just beyond Adabagi, and the camels, 
brought up with salt by the Taltals, are driven to the westward 
to feed upon the acacias, many finding their way into the pos- 
session of the natives, between Dongolo and Antalo. The Mo- 
hammedans especially, of whom there are not a few, and who are 
all traders, are great o^vne^s of camels. 

Agula is in a valley, 7 miles south of Dongolo, running east 
and west, with a fine stream of water flowing through it — also a 
tributary of the Geba. The liills on either side, imUke all those 
to the northward, are low and round, and are composed of lime- 
stone full of fossil-shells and encrinites. From the hills to the 
westward there is a fine view of tliis valley, with the winding 
course of the brook marked by a bright green belt : — 

At Agula (5 P.M.) : — 

Boiling point 2001° 

Aneroid 23*39 inches. 

Temperature 75° 

Height above sea 7209 feet. 

Var., &c., by Azimuth 12° w. 

Lat. mer. alt. * Sirius obtained, but not very satisfactory, as the sky 
"was cloudy. 


^ Hahkhau on the Geographical Results 

Tlie road from A^ula to Dolo, a distance of 15 miles to the 
southward, is over ttree ranges of limestone IiIUh, from 500 to 
800 feet high, with interrening valleys. From the last ascent 
there is a magnificent view down the wide gorge to the westward, 
with a series of diBtinctly-marked terrace-lines round the hUls. 
At the summit I obtained a bearing of tlv? Aloquor Peak, tower- 
ing above the southern front of tne Harat Kange in the blue 
northern distance. This peak is immediately above Adigemt. 
At the same time I got another bearing of Amba Aradom, a hill 
just over Antalo, to the south. The Dolo ravine, running from 
east to west, opens upon the plain of Gembela, whit^h appeared 
to be covered with green crops, rich pasture, and villages : — 
At Do!o Camp (8 a.m.):— 

Boiling point IWH" 

Aneroid 23 inches. 

Temperature 39° 

Height above sen. 7585 feet. 

From Dolo there is a goal road over a grassy plain for 
D miles, to a place called Haik-hallat, which is separated lix)m 
the vast plain to the south of Aalalo by a chain of hills, of 
which Amba Aradom, the hill immediately above Antaio, forms 
the nucleus. The drainage of the Haik-hallat Plain flows down 
the valley to the westward, and irrigatea the fields and gardens. 
of Ghelicut. This town is far and away tlje most pleasant and 
picturesque that we have yet seen in Abyssinia. It is in a valley 
on the northern side of the Amba Aradom Mountains. The 
valley is abundantly watered, and numerous channels are led 
away to irrigate the fields, Chelicut was founded by Kas Walda 
8elassye, the friend of the Englishmen Salt and Pierce. Its 
church, dedicated to the Trinity, is surrounded by superb jimiper 
trees of great height ; two glorious dahros, where the elders of 
the town arbitrate, spread a wide shade over a strip of soft turf, 
bordered by a running stream, and all the bouses are surrounded 
by gardens of Chile pepper and groves of trees. There are 
several plantain-trees in the town, and one peach-tree. 

Chelicut is a few miles north-east of Antaio, on the opposite 
siJo of the hills : — 

CheUcutni-30 A.M.):— 

Boiling point 200'2" 

Aneroid 23-26 inches. 

Thermometer G9° 

Height above sea 7375 feet. 

Antaio is the ruins of a large town on a high plateau, just 
under the southern face of the rocky peak, called Amba Aradom.* 

* I found the height of Aniha Aradom to be 10,240 feet. 

of the Ahijssinuui ExjicdituyU. 3»> 

The circular huts of stone and mud are mostly unroofed and 
deserted, and the great palace of Bas Walda Selassye is an utter 
ruin ; but there are still eight churches round the place, with 
their pleasant groyes of trees : — 


Boiling point 198-2° 

Aneroid 22*30 inclies. 

Thermometer 76° 

Height above sea 8432 feet. 

From the foot^ of these heights, on which Antalo is built, an 
enormous undulating plain stretches away to the southward, 
covered with long grass and large stones. It is bounded on the 
south by a plateau, beyond which there is the fine range of the 
Wadjerat Mountains, and in that direction is the road onwards 
to Lake Ashangi. A river, called the Buya, with its tributary 
streams, waters this dreary plain; and the campt has been 
formed on a stony knoll, about 200 yards from the stream and 
8 miles from the town of Antalo : — 

At Buya Camp (5 p.m.) : — 

Boiling point 200-2 

Aneroid 2.3*20 inches. 

Temperature 74° 

Height above sea 7261 feet. 

Nearly on a level with Chelicut. 

Variation, &c., (by Azimuth) .. .. f»° 8' w. 
Latitude (mer. alt. O) 13° 14' 2" N. 

The climate of the region between Senafe and Antalo is, at 
this season of the year, the most delightful in the world. The 
heat of the sun, wnich is never oppressive, is tempered by light 
clouds and fresh breezes, and the nights are deliciously cool. On 
the plain south of Antalo there is generally a strong Avind from 
tbe eastward, commencing about noon and dying away at sunset. 
Meanwhile heavy clouds, with thunder and lightning, gather 
about the mountains, where it often rains, and twice we have had 
heavy night-showers over the camp. 

In conclusion, it will be well to make a few observations 
respecting the resources of the country on the line of march. 
Of butcher's meat and ghee there is an ample supply everywhere. 
The supplies of grain vary in amount at the different points on 
the march ; but the commissariat oflBcers have never failed to 
obtain large quantities at every market where time has been 

* Taken in Kas Walda Selassye's adrasht or reception hall. 

i* Called Baya Camp. The river flows away to the westward in the direction 
of the Solowa Province, and eventually to the Takkazyb. All this part of the 
War-Office map ii very incorrect. Very few of the names on it are recognizable 
by the natives. 



34 Markham oh the Geographical Seaalls 

given io allow the people in the neighbourhood to become 
aware of our wants, and of the prices paid. 8alt is, of course, 
to be obtained in any quantity from Atsbi, and througliout 
the country grass is abundant. These are the only absolute 
necessaries for a march on Mugdala, and of these the grain alone 
is insufficient in quantity for a force of 2000 men. All the 
people between Senaffi and Antalo came forward eagerly to carry 
bags of flour and grain for the English, From Senafe they 
agreed to carry bags (weighing tiO ibs.) on their bullocks, to be 
paid one and a half dollar for each, on delivery at Adigerat. 
At the latter place they entered still more readily into the 
agreement, brought all available means of transport to bear — 
bullocks, donkeys, wives and daughters — and in two days de- 
livered upwards of 63,000 lbs. at Agula. The Muhammedans 
of Agula were equally ready with their camels and donkeys, and 
similar arrangements will bo made onwards from Autalo. Great 
numbers of strong little mules are to be purchased along the 
line of march. The road at this season, is excellent nearly the 
whole way, and the few places which presented any difficulty for 
laden baggage animals and the mules carrying the Armstrong 
battery were made practicable in a couple of days by a small 
pioneer force one march ahead. 

The region which I have thus briefly endeavoured to describe 
is one wtaeh contains many of the sources of the Atbara, the 
chief fertilising tributary of the Nile, aa well as those of the 
Mareb, and its most marked features are the great mountain- 
knot of Harat, parting the drainage of the Nile and Mareb, and 
the sudden depression at Dongolo, which separates it into two 
distinct divisions aa regards clmiafc and vegetation. It is also 
interesting as containing all the sources of the liagolay system of 
rivers on the Eed Sea side of the Abyssinian Alps. In my first 
paper I gave some account of Colonel Merewether's expedition 
from Miilkntto, the results of which were the exploration of tte 
Bagolay Valley on the coast, until the river was lost in a depres- 
sion fer below the sea level, and the collection of valuable- 
information respecting its affluents. I now beg to draw attention 
to the labours of M. Munziuger (our Considar jigent at Massowa, 
at present accompanying this force,} in the same direction. 
Last autumn he landed at Hanfilo, crossed the great salt plain 
to Ala, within a short distance of Atsbi (Atebidera), then 
marched northwards, discovered the River Eogolay, and went on 
by land to Zulla. The difficulties and hardships ho encountertid 
in these fearful marches would liave daunted most men, whilst 
his Report adds much to our knowledge of this previously 
unknown bat most remarkable region. M. Munzinger has also 
eollected and made available a large quantity of data for cor- 





English Miles 

O 1 

f -t 

» 4. S 



t*tl» RUli-%Sf,mm 

hji»\u^saL for du>] 

of the Abyssinian Expedition. 35 

rectly mapping Bogoe, Sarawe, and indeed all the noilhem 
frontier lands of Abyssinia. His invaluable services to this ex- 
pedition will doubtless be rewarded by the (xovemment ; but as 
a contributor to geographical knowledge, and as an explorer, I 
yenture to submit that AL Munzinger fully deserves the honour 
of election as an Honorary Corresponding Member of the Royal 
GSeogtaphical Society, 

Ylll. — The Eegion between Antalo and the Beshilo, 
AND THE Topography op MAgdala. 

May, 1868. 

The country between Antalo and Mdgdala is a mountainous 
region entirely composed of volcanic rocKs, but it is divided into 
two very distinct parts by the river Takkazye. That to the north 
18 an elevated ridge, crossed by several lofty ranges of moun- 
tains. That to the south is a plateau of still greater height cut 
hsf ravines of enormous depth. The former contains the sources 
of the Tellare, a chief affluent of the Takkazye, and those of the 
Takkazye itself. The latter is drained by the principal affluents 
of the Blue Nile. The volcanic region commences beyond the 
valley of Musgi, immediately to the southward of the plain of 
Antalo. From Senafe te Antalo the rocks are almost all 
aqueous or metamorphic, with a few trachytic and basaltic 
boulders on the surface ; to the southward of Antalo there is a 
complete change, and this change is not confined to the geo- 
logical features of the country. The scenery becomes grander, 
the vegetation more varied and more abimdant, and the supply 
of water more plentiful. 

The magnetic courses and distances (chained) of the stations 
between ^talo and Magdala are given m the Table overleaf. 

The plain of Antalo is bounded on the south by the deep 
valley of the Musgi, beyond which is the mountain range of 
Wadjerat, towering up into peaks, such as Alaji, which attain a 
lieight of 10,000 feet above the sea. The peculiar feature of the 
^hole region, which I shall endeavour to acscribe, is that, while 
the backoone of the mountain system runs north and south, with 
feunage to the east and west, it is crossed by ranges of great 
^kvation running across it in the direction of the drainage and 
<lividing it into sections. Thus the Wadjerat moimtains rise 
^p as a great southern barrier separating the dreary plains 
^Und Antalo from the rich valleys of the volcanic formation. 

On the other side of the Wadjerat mountains is the valley of 
Atala, There are two ravines running up through the northern 
feces of this transverse range, and leading south to Atala. One 
Well to the south-east is called Gurub-dekdek, and the road up 

d 2 

BujliCamp(Aiiiab)tO- | o Wllni.ifnt.Vu.ta. 

i. Moigi 9. 5lE 

2. AmliaAlnji S. It E 

3. Attia , S. 13j V 

i. Aybtt I S, iOJ W 

5. AmlaFtrrali S. laj W 

6. Belago S. 4 W 

7. Mokhan B. IJ E 

8. Haya I S. 51 E 

S, Top if Ashangi Pass , S. asj W 

10. AjDi Mai S. SB H 

11. tiurderof AEhangi Lake i S. 36 V 

12. Mes-igiCa S. 2} E 

13. Womberat Plaleaii I S. 21 H 

M. Ut I S. 60 H 

15, DafatPnis S. 56i n 

IB. Awn-galla S. 11 W 

17. Ayo I S, 23iT( 

13. Dildiand MMgarAmba , a 23 j U 

la. Camp on the Tellftrt ' S. 

20. Wondsj P»ES I S. 17 V 

21. Takkazfu 8.23 V 

22. Gubla-medor B. 19 E 

23. TopofSanlara Pues i S, auj E 

24. Suntara S. 

25. Ga»o a 64 W 

26. Abdakom < S. 59 1* 

27. Ynseodyi; S. 34 H 

28. B«t-bar I S. 68* W 

29. Bedof Jim RiTer S.46|n 

.^0. Tekrena Water (on DaUnla) .. .. S. 1 E 

31. Headof BeshitoPass I S. 5B E 

as. Miigdnla S. SSi E 

it leads by a place called Blesno to Atala. The other runs 
straiglit 01- nearly due south, and wa.s the one selected for the 
march of the English troops. It is called Bet Alayra, and 
forms a very beautiful gorge. A noisy stream tlows down the 
gorge to join the Mtisgi, and irrigates a succession of barley crops 
grown on carefully-levelled terraces, which rise one above the 
other up the ravine. Above them the gorge is full of fine trees 
— tall acacias, myrsine, figs of various species, and a very pretty 
crotalaria. The rood olten crosses the stream, and at some 
points passes along a ridge above it, with the tops of the trees 
rising from the bottom just to a level with the traveller's eya 
At one place the mountain sides recede, there is a stretch of 


of the Ahyasiniaii Exjiedilion. 37 

relvety tnrf, ami the brook is overshadowed by wide-spreading 
»illow-trees. This is the baltiug-place of Mesbek ; and Tiere tlie 
fflteep ascent to the saddle of Aloji commences, with the lofty 
called Amba Alaji on the right and the cone-shaped 
tain top of Yumasa on fhe left. The aides of the mouu- 
■■taiD are well clothed with juniper and roac-trees, and there is a 
gigantic thistle 12 to 14 feet high. We found the saddle, by a 
comparison of aneroid and barometet observations, to bo 9700 
feet above the sea. The Amba rises up on the right some 800 
feet higher, ending in a steep grassy peak, with scarped preci- 
pices just below. Here, on a rooky shelf, there are fave or six 
Doases with thatched roofs, almost overhanging the pass, the 
impregnable abode of the cliief of Wadjerat. The descent into 
tiie Atala valley is not bo long, and there are terraces at 
intervals, but the crest of the pass is 2800 feet above the camp 
in^-OTOund at Atala. 

Xbe Atala valley is nan'ow, ninning south-east to north-west, 
with a plentiful stream flowing through it, in the direction of 
the low land of Bora to tlie westward, to join the Takkazye. The 
range to the south derives its name from a high peak called 
Bota, and separates the valley of Atala fi-om that of Ayba. 
Beyond the Ayba valley there is another transverse range — that 
of Ferrah, also named after a mountain mass rising np on the 
right of the road. This Amba-Ferrah is a succession of grand 

firecipices — a glorious mass of rock, not terminating in a peak 
ike Alaji, but in angular walls of rock, with bright green steeps 
and ledges uitersectmg them. It rises up immediately on the 
right of the pass, wliich winds up tlie shelving hills down which 
a bright stream flows into the Ayba valley. The hills are 
covered with juniper bushes, and the hollows are golden with a 
pretty St.-Johu's-wort, which here first makes its appearance. 
On this pass, too, the hogoa tree was first seen. Large boulders 
(-•overed with moss are scattered over the gross, and here and 
there thickets of wild roses scent tie air, growing with a bright 
purple indigo and a crotahiria. The gigantic thistle rises above 
all, and on the Idgher slopes there is a heath with a white 
flower. A long descent, broken by two broad terraces, leads 
down from the saddle of Ferrah into the valley of Doha. The 
first terrace is called Belago, and is covered with irrigated 
barley crops; the drainage being westward to the Bora low 
land. The height of thu Ferrali puss above the Doha valley is 
upwards of 2000 feet 

From the Ferrah-Amba there is a range of mountains running 
north and south, and forming a distinctly-marked watershed, as 
lar as Ashangi ; the Doha and Mokhan valleys, through which 
the road passes, being on theii eastern sides, and the drainage 

38 MaRKHAM on tlie Geographieal Results 

of tliese Talleya being to the east. There ai'e five conapicuous 
peaks on this longitudinal range, commencinf^ from Ferrah, 
namely, the Ferxim-Amba itself, Afaji, Taahefti, Bokero, and 
Barenea. There are deep craclrs round the base of Al'aji, which 
are said to have been caused by the earthquakes in lS6i, and 
the natives assert that these earthquakes also caused great 
changes in the water system of the Doha valley, some springs 
di'ying up and others appearing. The mountain sides which 
slope do\\Ti from Ifelago to I'obA are covered with trees and 
flowering bushes, and the scenery becomes very beautiful. The 
valley is covered witli coppices and open grass-fields, and near 
its centre a conical hill rises up, crowned by the fenced village 
of Ajiera, Along the foot of the western mountains the gronnd 
is cut deep by well-wooded ravines. The ridges and hollows 
are covered with juniper-trees, above which rise, here and there, 
the tall stems and spreading branches of the umbrella-shaped 
acacia. A low saddle leads from the Doha into the equally 
well-wooded vale of Makhan, Here clumps of tall junipers are 
scattered over the grassy glades and knolls, and in the bottoms, 
near the brook w^iich flows off to the eastward, there are 
thickets of khadoo, fig, brambles, wild roses, jasmine, and 
clematis. The round hills, dividing the two valleys to the east, 
are crowned with villages of circular huts, fenced round with 
thick hedges of kol-qnoll. 

The lower country to tho eastward of this alpine region, from 
Ant&to to the Takkazye, is occupied by lawless tribes of Moham- 
medan Azebo Gallaa. From the summits of all the passes, 
looking to the eastward, we could see the same broad valley, 
apparently extending north and south, for upwards of 200 
miles, and receiving all tho eastern drainage from the Abyssinian 
alps. Beyond it, in the far eastern distance, were ranges of 
mountains rising one above tlie other ; and the valley itself 
ap[ieared to be covered with jungle, and to have a river rmming 
through it. In this country, still entirely unknown to Europeans, 
dwell those incorrigible robbers and murderers, the Azebo 
Gallas, who profess Mohammedanism, and make incessant raids 
on the Christian inhabitants of the highlands. Hence the thick 
kol-quall fences round all the villages, which are usually perched 
on isolated hills. 

The mountainous country between Mukban and the basin of 
Lake Ashangi, about 1-4 miles across, is well wooded, the hill- 
sides being covered with junipers as taJl as Scotcli iirs, flowering 
St.-John's-wort growing as trees, and a heath with a white 
flower, in the form of a bush, sometimes 30 to 40 feet high. 
The drainage is still to the eastward, and lofty peaks shut out 
the view to the west. The view from the aoufliern edge of tbis 

of the Abyssinian Expedition. 39 

liighland is magnificent Far below lies the bright blue lake 
of Ashangi, bordered by a richly cultivated pmin, and sur- 
rounded by mountains on every side. To the westward this 
mountain Sarrier is very high, but to the east the hills are com- 
paratively low, and appear to slope away rapidly, on their 
eastern sides, to the valley of the brallas, which is at a much 
lower elevation. Thus the landscape presents the curious eflfect of 
an Alpine lake surrounded by mountains and without an outlet^ 
Iving on the edge of a vast extent of country at a much lower 

The basin of Lake Ashangi is a fiat plain with the sheet of 
water occupying its southern lialf. On tlie north side there is 
rich pasture for cattle, and much wheat and barley cultivation ; 
the fields being artificially levelled in terraces, ana extending in 
steps far up the skirts of the hills. The villages are perched up 
on the tops of conical hills or high on the sides of tne western 
mountains, and at sunset the cattle and labourers may be seen 
winding their way up the steep paths in all directions. Bound 
the north end of the lake there are deep fissures fuU of soft 
mud and quicksands, which are excessively dangerous. These 
fissures are said by the people to have been formed by the 
earthquake of 1854. 

The lake of Ashangi is 4 miles long by about 3 broad, and 
about 8000 feet above the level of the sea. I found the latitude 
by meridian altitude of *Duni€ to be 12° 36' 40" N. It furnishes 
one of the very rare examples of a freshwater lake without any 
apparent outlet, the water probably escaping at some point on 
the eastern side by percolation. The surrounding mountains are 
all volcanic. 

On the western side there is only a strip of land about 
200 yards wide between the mountains and the shores of the 
lake, and at one point a promontorv descends abruptly into 
the water, with a broad sheet of wavmg com extending along 
its northern base. Myriads of geese, ducks, cootes, and curlew 
frequent the lake or wade amongst the reeds in the treacherous 
mud on its shores. At the south end there is a break in the 
mountains, and a gradual ascent leads to the plain of Wofela. 
To the south the mountains forming the high table-land of 
Womberat rise abruptly from the Wofela plain, and the jagged 
volcanic peaks to the westward are a continuation of the range 
which bounds the Ashangi basin. At the south-west angle of 
the plain, where this range approaches the Womberat moun- 
tains, there is a gap, or rather low saddle, clothed Avith tail 
juniper trees, forming a shady grove ; on the other side of which 
a long valley runs westward, having mountains on either side, 
deeply scored with torrent-beds. A lofty mountain peak rises 




40 MaRKUAM on the Geograpkieal Results 

over the valley some miles do^vn, and I eot a view of a very 
rugged country far to the westward, at a lower elevation, pra- 
haxAy part of the Wag province. 

The road leads up a wild gorge to the Womberat plateau, 
and tlien by a long descent to the Valley of Lat This high- 
land sends its drainage to the Galla country, passing round to 
the easferii side of ; so that from Lat onwards to the 
Takkazj'fe, all the streams again become fountains of the Nile. 
From Womberat there are distant views of the Galla country 
to the eastward, while far away to the s,s.e. is the mysterioua 
plain of Zobul, concerning which there are many traditions. It 
18 said that, in ages long gone by, there was a Christian king- 
dom in Zobul, that old churchea are still standing there, that 
the bells are heard ringing from afar, but that no man dares to 
approach them, because spirits guard those holy places. 

Lat is a narrow valley, fertile and well watered, whose river 

!H)urs over a precipice and joins a tributary of the Tellarfe 
lowing away to swell the Takka^ye. South of the Lat Valley 
the Da&t mountain range crosses the line of the watershed, 
and about 1(5 miles further south (as the crow flies) is the still 
loftier parallel range of Abuya-mMer, which forms the northern 
bound^^ of the valley of the Taktain'^. The intervening country, 
being a portion of the Lasta Province, is very mountainons, and 
contains the sources of the Kiver) Tellare, one of the principal 
affluents of the Takkazye. 

The Dafat mountains are covered with compositEe, labiate 
shrubs, white heather, roses, jaasmine, clematis, juniper, and St.- 
John's-wort. The St.-John's-wort (hyperieum) grows as a large 
tree, the trunk of one of them being 18 inches in diameter, and 
they arc one mass of bright orange flowers. The Dafat Pass 
was 9820 teet above the sea. 

This part of the Lasta district is broken up into a succession 
of mountain spurs and deep ravines ; but it is well watered and 
fertile, and there are no scarped cliffs or perpendicular gorges, 
so that the difficulties of tne road are insignificant. The 
scenery is very tine, and there is much cultivation in terraces 
up the mountain sides. At tbe foot of the long ascent of the 
A^uya-meder mountains, by the Wondaj Pass, flows the River 
Tellare through a rocky goi^e, and the clear water daahes 
noisOy over liuge boulders. Here the camp of Dildi was 
formed, on the north side of the river, with the peak of Gubarji 
towering over thf^ nearer mountains to the south-east, and the 
lofty slopes of Aboya-meder brilliantly green with barley crops 
to tne south-west. The country is well wooded, and a rippling 
stream flows down every valley. The Tellare, at this point, 
which is within 4 or 5 miles of its source, is never more than 

of the Abyssinian Ej-jiedition. 41 

I 10 feet across at this seasou, but it is evidently a mighty torrent 

in the rains. The whole bed, covered with large watei^wom 

bonlders, averages a width of 20 yards, and m places the 

I rodiing water waahes a wall of alluvial soil, with large round 

) fltones embedded in it, which is from 4 to 6 feet thick. 

The ascent up the Abuya-mcder mountains, from Dildi on 

I the banks of the Tellare, to the summit of the Wandaj Pass, la 

I 7 miles lon^; Dildi being 7400 and Wandaj 10,500 feet abtivo 

) the level of the sea. Thus Waodaj is the highest point on tho 

|- rood between yenaft; and M^gdala. The sides of the Abuya- 

meder mountains, though very steep, are cultivated, and many 

villages are within sight from the road. Small rills and brooks 

irrigate the land, flowing over batiks of soft turf and white 

clover, or dropping down cliffs of black rock shaded by juniper, 

with masses of orange aloe flowers raising their long spikes 

above the bushes below. From the summit of the pass there is 

a glorious vif w of the Bafat range to the north, with a sea of 

mountain jjeaks intervening; of the great Azebo Galla Valley 

I to the east, and of the Takkazje Valley — with the straight line 

' of the Wudeia plateau — to the south. 

The Abuya-moder Mountains separate the valleys of tho 
I Tellare and Takkazye, tho source of the former river being on 
I their northern, and that of the latter on their southern mce. 
The streams flowing down the deep ravines to the south unite 
and form the Takkazye. The most distant source is some 10 
miles away due east in Angot ; but the 'Ayn Takkazyfe, the foun- 
tain of tradition, is close at hand, at the foot of a peak called 
'Ayn Kirkum, and this stream has the honour of oeing con- 
sidered the sonrc« of the great fertilising tributary of the Nile, 
because Menilek, son of the Queen of Sheba, is said to have 
struck a rock there, and caused the water to well forth. Old 
Tellez correctly describes the 'Ayn Takkazye ravine as a place 
where three several springs gosh out violently within a stone's 
throw of one another. They are shatled by a grove of kosso 
and juniper trees, aurtoiuiding a Christian church. The next 
ravine, on the southern b1oi>o of the Abuya-meder range to the 
westward, is called Marora ; and then comes that which runs 
south from the Wandaj Pass, known sn the Briganut-wanz." 
Still going westward, and divided by a mountain spur from the 
former, is the Sohona-wuns, commencing at the foot of a lofty 
peak called Zugagisi. The Rigach-wanz joms the Sohona, and 
still further west is tho Mal-wanz, passing between Lalibela, the 
capital of Lasta, and Sagubnaf, where the camp of Gobazye 
was long pitched. Tho streams flowing down these ravines 

42 Maekham on the Geographical Results 

unite to form the Kiver Takkazye, uhicli flows from cast to west 
in a deep valley. All the ravines are bright green with irri- 
gated wheat and barley crops, while here and there a village is 
perched upon the overnanging hills, with a clump of trees con- 
cealing a church close by. 

South of the Takkitzyfe the nature of the countiy entirely 
changes. Hitherto wo had passed over a broken mountainous 
region, where lofty ridges alternated with deep ravines. But 
from the Wandaj Pass, looldiig across tlio Taklvazye Valley, we 
got the first view of the Wadela plateau, a mighty wall, 2600 
feet high, rising abruptly from the valley, and ending in a level 
summit at an elevation nearly equal to that of the Wondaj Pass 

I found the bed of the Takkazye to be about 8000, and the 
summit of the pass up to the Wadfla plateau 10,400 feet above 
the sea, by obscr^'ations of the boiling point and aneroid. At 
this season it is but a small stream, easily crossed dry-shod, by 
jumping from stone to stone ; but the extent of the river-bed 
showed what it was during the rainy season, even at this short 
distance from its source. 

The plateau of Wadela is bounded on the north by the valley of 
the Takkazye, on the south-east by the Jitta, and on the north- 
west by the Tchetch6o, the two latter rivets falling into the 
Beshilo ; and its average level is some 2000 feet above them. 
The north-eastern half is comiKsed of trachyte, with beds of 
black tourmaline and amygdaloidal trap, and consists of a suc- 
ceasion of rolling hills and valleys, with occasional ridges of 
scarped rock; streams flowing to the Jitta, and swampy pools in 
the low ground. With the exception of clumps of kosso and 
other trees round the churches, Wadela is without either trees 
or shrubs, the hills being covered with grass and small wild 
herbs, the most common of which is a bright yellow composita. 
The scenery is wild and desolate, not unlike that of the interior 
of the Orkney Islands. The south-western half of Wadela is 
composed of columnar basalt, and is more level and fertile. 
Extensive tracts are under wheat and barley cultivation, and 
there are largo flocks of sheep and goats and herds of cattle, 
besides horses and a,?ses. The people weave woollen and cotton 
cloths, the wool being raised on the plateau, and the cotton im- 
ported from the Yadjow Galla country to the eastward. 

The north-eastern part of Wadela is about 10,400 feet above 
tlie sea, but towards the Jitta ravine it is not more than 9100. 
The English troops, after crossing the Takkazye and reaching the 
plateau of Wadela, instead of marching direct on Magdala by 
Kosso Amba, turned oflT in a south-west direction in order to 
rea^h the great road made by King Theodore across the Jitta 

qfthe Abt/ssinian Expedition* 43 

layine, from the Wadela to the Talanta plateau. A large part 
of the length of Wadela was thus traversed, from Santam, near 
the point where the Takkaz}'e was* crossed, to Bet-hor at the 
edge of the descent to the Jitta, a distance of 34 miles. The 
first stage, &om Santara to Gaso, is 9 miles, and at Gaso the 
trachyte formation ends, and the basalt commences. From 
Gaso to Abdakom, the next stage, is a distance of 15 miles oyer 
a well watered grassy country, with much com cultivation and 
many villages. From Abdakom to Yasendye* is 2 J miles, 
and &om Yasendye to Bet-hor 5^ miles. 

The Jitta Eiver separates the Wadela plateau from that of 
Dalanta. The height of these table-lands above the level 
of the sea, along the line where the Jitta divides them, is the 
same — about 9200 feet — and it is evident that they were once a 
single mass of columnar basalt But, in the course of ages, the 
Jitta has cut its way doiini for a depth of 3500 feet, carrying 
millions and millions of tons of earth and rock away, to fertilise 
the delta of the Nile, and forming a ravine of extraordinary 
size, which, had it not been for King Theodore's marvellous 
road, would have been the most formidable obstacle on the line 
of march from the coast to Magdala. I found the height of the 
plateaux to be 9200 feet, and the bed of the Jitta 5720 feet above 
the sea, so that the depth of the ravine is 3480 feet. The 
northern side of the gorge has a scarped wall of basalt at its 
summit, with beds of white clay intruding, in patches, and 
numerous lumps of a prase opal. The sides of the ravine have 
a parched arid look, the only vegetation being kol-qualb and 
acacias. There are terraces of broken ground about half-way 
up, on either side, corresponding with each other as regards 
height above the river-bed, and showing, beyond doubt, that 
this deep gorge has been formed by the gradual action of water, 
over a long course of ages. The descent of 3480 feet, by 
Theodore's trace, is performed along a distance of 4 miles and 
6 furlongs, the widtn of the river-bed is 200 yards, and the 
ascent to the Dalanta plateau is 3 miles and 2 furlongs in 
length. The bed of the river is covered with lar^e water-worn 
stones, but, in the dry season, the water is only m pools com- 
municating by percolation. Some fine dahro trees grow at the 
edge of the river-bed. 

The Dalanta plateau is a mass of columnar basalt between 
the rivers Jitta and Beshilo, with its surface upwards of 9000 
feet above the level of the sea. To the south-west it is bounded 
by a gorge or depression, which separates it from the Daunt 
plateau, the latter extending to the point where the two rivers 

* Yasendye m :an8 Uterally " of the wheat " — the wheat district. 





44 Harkham on lite Geographical Results 

unite. Tho Bouthem part of Dalaitta ia about 5 miles across, 
but it becomes broa<ler to the nortb-east, the distance between 
the rivers increasing as their sources are approached. Talanta 
is a flat plain, quite treeless, except the clumps round a few 
churches, and with a rich black soil seTeral leet thick, save 
where the streams have worn it away and laid bare the pentagon- 
shaped tops of tho basalt columns. From most points of view 
the scarped sides of the Dannt plateau and of the Jitta and 
Beshilo ravines are just visible at the edges of the plain. The 
flora, at this high elevation, is veiy Engfisb, consisting of dog- 
roses, nettle, yellow and purple compoaitas, clover, and plantain. 
From the edge of the plateau, looking 8. 30^ e. over the Beshilo 
ravine, there is a view of the heights forming the Magdala 
system, and of what at first sight appears to be a confused mass 
of brown, forbidding mountains, piled one over the other, from 
the banks of the Beshilo ; but on a closer inspection it all be- 
comes clear. Tho ravine of the Beshilo is even deeper than 
that of tho Jitta, the bed of the river being only 5638 feet above 
the sea, and the rivor itself was up to the horses' girths, being 
far the largest volume of water that has been met with in anjr 
stream on the line of march. The length of the descent is 
4 miles 4 furlongs, and the width of the river bed 113 yards. 
Near the fop the sides are perpendicular, and at the base of the 
cliS"8 the hugo boulders of cominnar basalt which had broken 
off, were exactly like bundles of tree-stema. Beds of clay were 
here and there intruded in the basalt. The vegetation of the 
Beshilo gorge consists of kol-qualls, a eclastrua, a myrtacea, and 
some fine umbrella-shaped acacias; but the dark-coloured rock 
and brown dried-up grass give a sombre effect to the scene, 
which is scarcely relieved by the scattered trees. Two miles to 
the east of the noint where King Theodore's road begins to de- 
scend the Beshilo ravine, the uniformity of the basalt wall, 
which forms the side of Dalanta, is broken by a ravine con- 
taining a little stream called the Berberi-waha (" Pepper-water "), 
which falls into tho Beshilo. The narrow ridge tnus separated 
from the Dalanta plateau by the ravine of the Berberi-waha on 
one side, and by tliat of the BeshOo on the other, consists of 
three peaks, forming a)»6ag, or natural fortresses, called Amba 
Jioheit, Amba Nebiet, and Constantina : two held by the Cliria- 
tian chief of Dalanta, and one by the Mahommedan WoUo 
Gallae, whose territory lies to the eastward of the Beshilo. 
With this exception, the north-west side of the Beshilo ravine 
consists of a mighty basalt wall, 3500 leet high, broken by one 
or two irregular terraces. But on the south-east the onginal 
basaltic wall is now cut deeply by ravines and gorges, which 
leave ieolated peaks and plateaux between them ; and a detailed 



of the Abyssinian Expedition. 45 

' descHptioii of this region will comprise an acfoimt of the topo- 
gnphy of Magdala and its vicinity. 

The lofty plateaux of Tuntix and Ambalii-sieda, on the east 
side of the Beehilo, which correspond with tlint of Dalanta on 
the west side, recede for a distance of miles in some places, 
the intervening country being broken up by niriues and gorges. 
Two of these ravines, of immense depth, are divided from each 
other at their heads by a series of ridges and terraces called 
Thaddat, Koiakor, and Sangallat, which form a sort of irregular 
rocky isthmus, uniting the table-land of Tanta with M^dala. 
The ravine to the east is called the Valley of Menchura, and 
enters the Beshilo Talley between scarped cliffs. That to 
the west is the Valley of Klllkula, ana is of much greater 
length, entering the Beshilo ravine at a very acute angle far to 
the westward. The Magdala system, or knot of mountains, rises 
up between the Menchura and li^ulkula ravines ; the sides to 
the east and west being steep and precipitous, and nearly 3000 
feet high. Slagdala itself is a mass of columnar basalt, with 
scarped perpendicular sides, and with a plateau on the top 
about 2 miles long by half a mile across. It is 9050 feet above 
the level of the sea, and tbus a few feet lower than the Talanta 
''|ilateau. At its south-east end there is a louver terrace, which 
19 approachetl from Tanta by a pass, called the KaflSr-bir, where 
there was a fortified gate. At the northern end was the gate 
called the Koket-bir, whence a steep descent of nearly 500 
feet leads down to the saddle of Islamgye, The Magdala system 
consists of the plateau of Magdala itself, the peak of Selassye, 
and the plateau of Fala ; the three heights being connected by 
saddles at lower elevations. Between Slagdala and Selassye is 
the saddle of Islamgye, furlongs in length : a flat plain, on 
which the camp of King Teodoros was pitched, with perpen- 
dicular cliffs on either side, whence the mountain-sides slope 
rapidly down to tlie Menchura and Killkula valleys. Selaseye 
is a mountain terminating in a sharp peak, or rather short 
ridge, !*200 feet above the sea. It is composed of trachyte 
of a light colour, and is named after a church dedicated to 
the Trinity (Selassye), with a clump of tall trees round it on 
the outer slope. Helassye and Fala are connected by a saddle 
some hundred feet below the level of Islamgye, which is ap- 
proached from it by a rocky zigzag path ; and Fala, like Mig- 
dala, is a flat-topped mass of bas^t. But these three heights 
of Slagdala, Selassye, and Fala are not in a line ; they form an 
angle of which Selassye is the apex, and Magdala and Fala the 
two legs. The leg from Selassye, along Islamgye, to the end of 
Mdgdala, has the deep ravines of Menchuni and Kulkula, one 
on eitiier side ; while tnat from Selaasyi; to Fiila faces the broken 

46 Maekham on the Geographical Results 

conutry towards the Besbilo. Thus, in approaching from the 
Besliilo, Selasaye, fala (and the saddle connecting them), alono 
are visible; while Magdala and the Islamg)-^ saddle are con- 
cealed by the higher ground of Selasaye and its encircling 
ridges. On the plateau of Magdala itself there is no water ; 
but there are several weUa on Islamgj-b, one in the rear of 
Fala, and another, called Shamba-koch, in the Kulkiila ravine. 
The portion of the Magdala system which is visible from the 
Talauta plateau, and which faces to the north and west, is the 
mountain-side which is crowned by the Selassj'e peak at one 
end, and the Fala plateau at the ouier. At the foot of Fala is 
the small plain of Arogjx, 1 mile and 3 furlongs across, with a 
gradual slope of 440 feet, and 1140 feet below theFSla plateau. 
There is a spring, furnishing a limited supply of water, on 
Arogj'e, which is dotted with thickets of myrsine, crotolaria, kol- 
quallB, and the large labiate bush called icheiidog. A ravine, 
with the sides clothed with bushes, mnning down from the Fala 
saddle, and uniting with another defile which bounds Arogj'e to 
the north-west, forms the head of the Valley of Wark-waha 
(" Golden Water "). Other ravines, from east and west, converge 
upon it. The Wark-waha, at this season a waterless valley, 
runs down to the Beshilo, and joins that gorge between the 
Killkula and the Menehura; the distance from the Beshilo 
river, up the Wark-waha, to the head of the delile opening 
on the Arogye plain being 4 miles and 3 furlongs. Beyond 
(north-west of) Arogj'e, and across the deGle, there is a steep 
ascent of 460 feet to the loftier height of Aficho, where the 
British camp was pitclied at an elevation of 7900 feet above 
the level of the sea. Towards the Beshilo the Aficho heights 
sink into those of Gimbaji, which descend abruptly to the 
Beshilo ravine and form its southern wall. Ravines run off from 
the Aficho and Gfimbaji highlands to the Kulkula on one side, 
and the Wark-waha valley on the other. To the eastward, the 
high broken country between the Wark-waha and Menehura 

I valleys, and extending from the foot of Selassye to the Beshilo, 
is cafietl Ncft. 
I found the latitude of Aficho, by meridian altitude of the 
star Dvhhe, to be 11° Ii2' 7" N. 
It will be seen from this description that the Magdala district, 
with reference to the Dalanta plateau, is not, properly speaking, 
a mountainous region, but that it is simply a portion of the 
great basaltic mass wliich has been cut up and furrowed by 
the action of water during many ages. Magdala and Fala are 
isolated bits of the original plateau, and are at nearly the some 
height above the sea as the table-lands of Tanta and Dalanta, of 
which they appear once to have formed a part. The lofty range 

of the Abyssinian Expedition. 47 

of mountains in the Worro7Haimanot country, visible far to the 
eastward, seem to account for the cutting up of the country 
between Tanta and the Beshilo ; while the deep drains formed 
by the rivers to the east and west ha^e protected the plateaux 
of Dalanta and Wadela from further denudation. The scenery 
of this wild country, where the forces of nature appear to have 
been at work ffraaually, but with such tremendous eflTect, is 
most striking. Looking from the heights of Magdala, the lofty 
lidges and profound ravines would appear very grand in their 
apparently wild confusion, were it not that the view is always 
bounded by the straight basaltic wall of Dalanta, which rises 
above them all, and has the eflTect of dwarfing everything below 
it. The drainage of Magdala and Tanta, and of the Wadela, 
Talanta, and Daunt plateaux, unite to form the Beshilo, which 
is one of the principal affluents of the Blue Nile. 

The climate of the region between Antalo and Mdgdala was, 
durine the time that I was in it — from March 12th to April 28th 
— ^he^thy and agreeable : the hot sun being tempered by cool 
winds during the day, and the nights being cold. From March 
12th to 24tn there was not a drop of rain ; but in the evening 
of the latter day a heavy thunder-storm broke over the camp at 
Dildi, with rain lasting from 6 to 9 p.m. On the 25th there was a 
shower in the evening ; and on the 26th, towards evening and 
during part of the night, there were storms of hail and rain, 
with thunder,' on the Wandaj pass. The Wadela plateau was 
excessively cold, with ice formmg in the night, and the grass 
being covered with hoar-frost in the mornings. The minimum 
registered was 17° Fahr. The diflference in temperature between 
the Wadela and Dalanta plateaux was very observable, the latter 
being much warmer. This may probably be accounted for by 
the deep warm ravines of the Jitta and Beshilo, which flant 
Dalanta on either side, while the Wadela plateau only has the 
Jitta ravine on one side, while it is much nearer to the cold 
rain-belt of the Abuya-meder mountains. From the 3rd to the 
15th of April there were thunderstorms every day, with heavy 
rain, generally but not always commencing at about four in 
the afiernoon, and lasting until two or three hours after simset. 
On the 6th, a fearful stonn of hail, thunder, and lightning 
burst over the Dalanta plateau, with hailstones of enormous 
size. After the 15th these rains ceased, and there was fine 
weather for nearly a month, although occasional local thunder- 
showers occurred further north, round Adigcrat and Senafe. 
These rains never began until late in the afternoon, and, if the 
marches had been properly an-anged, the troops need never 
have felt any inconvenience or discomfort from them. From 
the middle of March to the middle of April it rained on eighteen 


48 Mareham on the GeograiMcal Remits 

days out of the thirty, the rain always coming with wind from 
the eoBt; but this wet weather in the early spring has nothing to 
do with the true rainy eeaaon, which commences in the middle 
of June. While on the subject of meteorology, I must not forget 
to mention a curious phenomenon which occurred on the 13th 
of April, the day of the capture of Mdgdala. Early in the 
forenoon a dark-brown circle appeared round the sun, like a 
blister, about 15" in radius ; light clouds passed and repassed 
over it, but it did not disappear until the usual rain-storm came 
up from the eastward late in the afternoon. Walda Gabir, the 
King's Talet, informed me that Theodore saw it when he came 
out of Ilia tent that morning, and that ho remarked that it was 
an omen of bloodshed. 

The region which I trayersed, with the expeditionary field 
force, from the sea-coast to Magdala — a distance of more than 
300 miles — is one of considerable geographical interest; and 
the operations of the expedition have added much to our know- 
ledge. On the coast the great system of eastern drainage com- 
prised in the Eagolay and its tributaries has been discovered ; 
and old Father Lobo s story of one of the pleasantest rivers in 
the world, with sweet herls growing along its banks, flowing 
tlirough a country which had always hitherto been believed to 
consist of a salt desert, has thus been explained. The remark- 
able passes from the coast to the highlands of Abyssinia have 
been thoroughly explored ; the mountain chains forming the 
watershed of a vast region have been examined; and the nu- 
merous sources of the great fertilising tiibutariea of the Nile 
have been accurately surveyed. Besides the observations which 
I have taken, that most zealous and indefatigable of Quarter- 
master-Generals, Colonel Phayre, has completed a rough, but 
at the same time a most useiul survey of the whole country 
that has been traversocl. Dr. Cooke, in spite of severe illness, 
which would have disabled a less zealous inquirer, has done 
much valuable meteorological work; and the officers of the 
Indian Trigonometrical Survey have completed the mapping of 
the eastern portion of the Abyssinian highlands. The Trigono- 
metrical Survey staff consists of Lieutenants Carter, Uummler, 
and Holdich, tul of the Boyal Engineers, ^h assistants, and 
provided with five chronometers, an S-inch transit theodolite, 
and three GJ-incb theodolites. They have measured bases at 
Komayli, Senafe, Antalo, and Ashangi ; have made a survey ex- 
tending for 15 miles on either side of the road, with more distant 
points intersected, as far as Ashangi; and Lieutenant Carter 
has carried on a route-survey as far as Mdgdala with theodo- 
lite and plane table. Tliey have taken vertical angles thraughout 
for a section of the country ; luivo made numerous astronomical 

of the Abyssinian Expedition. ^^ 

observatioBS for latitude and longitude at each station; and 
from Antalo to the coast the longitudes will be still more accu- 
rately fixed by means of the electric telegraph. 

But, important as the geographical results of the Abyssinian 
expedition have been, ovr science is not the only one that will 
be enriched by it. Mr. Blandford, who, from his intimate know- 
ledge of the analogous formations in the Deccan, was peculiarly 
well qualified for the work, has found the geology of this part of 
Abyssinia to be exceedingly interesting : so interesting, indeed, 
that he resolved to be amongst the last to quit Abyssim'an soil. 
Mr. Blandford has also added to our knowledge of the zoology 
of the country, has made a large collection, and has ascertained 
the existence of four distinct zones into which the fauna is 
divided : one on the coast, the second in the SenafS pass, the 
third on the highlands, and a fourth on the lofty basaltic plateaux. 
Mr. Jesse, who was sent out by the Zoological Society, and 
several officers, have also made large collections of skins, both 
of birds and mammals. The botany, though very interesting, 
had already been thoroughly worked up by M. Schimper, the 
Nestor of King Theodore s captives. The country on the line 
of march also presents many points of antiquarian interest. 
The ruins of the Greek emporium at Adulis, on the coast, and 
of Koheito, at the head of the Degonta pass, offer a field of 
research of no common interest to the archaeologist, as throwing 
light on the ancient intercourse between the Axumite kingdom 
and the Egypt of the Ptolemies. The cave church at Dongolo, 
the curious ruin at Agula, and the famous caverns of Lalibela, 
illustrate the later period, when one of the most ancient Christian 
churches was established in Abyssinia. Nor can it bo said that 
nothing of antiquarian value was to be obtained worth taking 
away, when several thousand manuscript parchment folios were 
found in the library of King Theodore, and a golden chalice 
belonging to Seltan Segged, a king who flourished in the six- 
teenth century, was amongst the plunder of Mdrgdala. 

The main objects of the Abyssinian expedition have been 
gained, and this is not the place either to discuss their im- 
portance, or the question whether other more lasting results 
might or ought to have been secured by its means. The men 
of science who accompanied the expedition have not returned 
empty-handed, and there are few regions on the globe where so 
much could be found to repay inquiry. 


ni. — Sketch of a Jouniei/ from Canton to Hankow. By ALBERT 


Read, December 9. 1868. 

On the 7(Ii of August, 1866, I left Canton with Mr. C. L. 

Weed, photographer at Hong Koug, and Rev. Mr. Kevin, of 

Canton, on a journey into the interior of China. 

Our course, at Brat, waa westward for about 60 miles to the 
bead of the great delta of the Sikiang, whose low, fertile 
fields Bpread out widely along the river-banks and support a 
most dense population. 

Along the Mrdera of these low lands rise serrated mountains 
— some peaks attaining an elevation of 1500 to 2OO0 feet, their 
sharp ridges and projecting spurs coming out in strong relief 
on account of the scanty vegetation on their sides. This 
nakedness is a universal chara<?teriatic of the mountain scenery 
in China, but it is not the fault of the soil or the climate, for 
wherever the little pines ai-e allowed to rise they show a 
vigorous growth. With proper care and labour the thousand 
htU'^des m China might yield an abundance of timber, and 
the miserable mud houses of the poorer classes be replaced by 
neat structures of wood. But in regard to tho low lands, it 
seems scarcely possible that they could be made to yield more 
than already raised — two full crops being obtained in nearly 
Bveiy part of the empire. 

The continued fertility of these lands is due, no doubt, 
chiefly to two causes ; first, the Chinese are very careful to save 
everything that can possibly serve for manure, in »ome places 
even to the hair they shave from their heads ; and, secondly, 
these low hintls are all, or very nearly all, subject to floods, at 
least once a year, and a deposit of fino mud is thus spread out 
over them, just as in the valley of the Nile. 

Following up the Sikiaug through a deep pass in the first 
mountain range we came to the city of Shauliing, where the 
Viceroy of Kwangtung and Kwangsi resided when the Portu- 
guese first appeared off' the coast. About two miles behind it rise 
tiie " Marble Kocks " or " Seven Stars," Hke dark, sharp needles 
out of the low, green plain. Mr. Neviu and I measured theii 
height with au aneroid narometer, and found them to range from 
150 to 300 feet above the plain, thongli they had been usually 
estimated at twice that heignt. 

The rock is a highly crystalline limestone of a dark blue 
colour on the weathered surfaces and of a rusty iron tinge where 
large fragments have been lately detached ; the whole traversed 
in every direction with milk-white veins and completely " ^ 

• * t 

- I 




BiCKMOBE'f Sketch of a Journey from Canton to Hankow. 51 

by joints and seams. Over their whole surface they are extremely 
longh and jagged, and furrowed into perpendiciilar grooves, 
worn by the small streams that pour down their sides m every 
slight shower. They form as striking objects in the level 
plain as the " Little Orphan " does in the waters of the Yangtse, 
and, like it, have groups of little temples in the natural mches 
in their sides. Larger temples are ranged at their feet ; and 
one which we entered contained in the principal hall three great 
images of bronze, 6 or 7 feet high. In anotner room I noticed 
«n idol with six arms. The whole building was going rapidly 
to decay, and it was only after much searching that we succeedecl 
in finoing two poor monks preparing a scanty meal in the 
lefectory — ^the last place they were willing to desert in the 
whole temple. 

Climbing up a steep, narrow stairway, that rises diagonally 

.across the face of the precipice, we reached a second temple 
perched high in a little nook. Along a part of this stairway 
a rude, heavy chain was fastened to the mountain side, that the 
timid and weary might help themselves onward to the temples 
above ; and many must have been the pilgrims that ascended 
this difficult way, if we are to jud^e from the depth of the places 
their feet have worn in the solid rock. The entrance to the 
temple was through a crazy gateway or portal of loosened 
lirieks, which threatened to fall and immolate to its heatlien 
god the first person who should set foot within it. This temple, 
we were informed, was built some 200 years ago when Shanking 
was a great and flourishing city, but now the poor priests can 
scarcely beg enough from the people to supply their immediate 
necessities, and their once splendid temples are rapidly becom- 
ing merely heaps of ruins. Here, as is frequently foimd in 
masses of limestone, are several caves. We entered one of a 
bell shape. Its floor was mostly covered with water, and 
a bridge led us to a platform at the farther end. As we were 
crossing this Stygian stream we were saluted with a fierce 
barking, and indeed we did seem to be approaching the regions 
over which Cerberus presides, but no other charm was necessary 

i, for us to safely pass these canine guardians than a show of our 
canes. Many tablets have been cut in the rock, and along a 
stairway that led us to a picturesque temple, where the cave 
opens to the sky on the opposite side. 

During these excursions in the vicinity of Shanking both of 
my companions became quite ill from the excessive heat, the 
thermometer in the shade at noon rising to 98° Fahr., and at 
my urgent solicitation they concluded to return and let mo 
continue on alone. 

E 2 

52 Bickmore's Slietck of a Journey from 

On the second day, from Sliaukiug. I came to the " Coeb'a 
Comb Rock," a huge wall or dyke of black crj^stalline marble, 
with a crest so jagpied that the Dame the Gliinese have given 
it accurately describes it. North-west from this, in a small 
plain, is a conical hill also of limestone. Its whole interior 
has been washed, and forma a much grander cave than the one 
we had previously visited in one of the " Seven Stars." All 
these rocks have the same mineralogical characters, and probably 
belong to the same geological period. 

Crossing the river from Cock's Comb Kock we came to a 
small village, and anchored for the night astern a small gun- 
boat. On consulting my chart I found "a favourite resort 
for robbers " written around the next bend, about half-a-mile 
up the stream ; but I believed we must be safe with a gunboat 
so near, and taking care that my revolver was in prime order, 
.ind that a heavy sword was within my grasp, I laid down deter- 
mined to sleep despite a continual din of tam-tams, and the 
most extravagant crying, and shrieking, and groaning of some 
women who were bewailing the death of some relative or 
friend. Late in the night the watch on the gunboat began 
calling out loudly ; then my boy, who was interpreter and only 
companion, joined in the shouting ; and though the stranger boat 
had approached so near that I could hear the splashing of their 
oars, yet there was no reply. The next instant the gunner fired 
Ilia cannon, and at once they replied in the meekest tone& 
Our would-he robbers had that time mistaken their prey. This 
is but an illustration of the noises and alarms that occurred 
I'reqnently all the way to Hankow. 

As we slowly ascended the river by dint of poling, tracking, 
and sailing, I had good opportunities to collect specimens of 
the rocks and ascertain the dip and strike of the strata. In 
a week I reached Wuchau. the last missionary outpost in this 
direction. There 1 met the Rev. Mr. Graves, of Canton, and 
induced him to go with me up the River Kweikong, or Cassia 
River, to Kweilin, the capital of the province of Kwangsi. 

It is so dangerous ascending tliis river, on a^'count of 
robbers, that boats only leave Wuchan when several are ready 
to go, and can keep together and afford each other mutual 
assistance in case of an attack. As an additional protection, 
the Mandarin offered to send a small gunboat along with us ; 
but only one policeman made his appearance, and he carried no 
iirms — a fair illustration of the way Chinese ofBciala keep their 

The boats on this river are quite different from those seen at 
Canton. They have flat bottoms, and curve up high at tho 

Canton to Hankow, 53 

bow and stern, that tbe helmsman and a man on the highest 
part forward may see some distance ahead and escape the 
Tocks when they come down with tiie rapid current. 

The principal article carried up tliis river in these boats 
['is salt, and, as the Govcrntnent monopolises the manufacture 
^ this necessary article, and ta^es ana retaxes it at the most 
exorhitant rates, the boatmen improve every possible oppor- 
tunity to smuggle it from place to place into the interior. 
"We therefore made a special a^eement that not a particle 
ihoiald be brought on board, and were not a little astounded 
afterwards to find the captain trying to hide some among 
[CUT baggage. We very plainly informed him if it was left 
were it would go overbcMird, and finally, as near as I could 
ascertain, he bought a permit for a part and smuggled through 
the rest. 

This smuggling and cheating the Government is ao common 
tiiat I was repeattnlly assured that the Mandarin boata, which 
are not liable to be searched, from the fact that tliey carry 
officiaU, never go up or down this river without improving 
every such opportunity to evade the Custom dues. Every day 
or two we came to a small house with two poles in front bearing 
lai^ triangular flags; and there we were obliged to atop and 
allow the boat to be searched by fierce-looking fellows, each 
armed with a long stick pointed with iron. The privilege of 
oollecting taxes at every place in tbe interior being given in 
reality to the liigbest bidder, he has no scruples to reimburse 
himself and leave a good surplus. In this way the people are 
"squeezed" until their discoutent ripens into open rebellion. 
When an official is appointed over a city, or district, or province, 
he receives no instructions how he must act, except to govern 
flnccesafully ; and to govern with success in China, meaus to 
extort the last cash possible from the people and yet not press 
them into open revolt. At Wuchau I waa credibly informed 
that between that city and Canton, a distance of 200 miles, 
there were no less than ten places where duties are levied. With 
Buch strictures in the great arteries of her trade all rapid progresa 
in China is beyond hope. 

Ascending this river is little else than dragging a boat up one 
continued series of rapids, and though ours drew but & or G 
inchee, it seemed sometimes that the boatmen would not be able 
to get her along any farther. This shows how shallow the water 
is at that season of the year, and also the unfortunate fact that 
steamers can never be used on the river. The boatmen at 
Wuchau reckon on fourteen days to reach Kweilin and four to 

Tor the tirst 100 miles we piissed only small scattered villages, 




54 Bickmoee'* Sketch of a Journey from 

each having on the top of the highost hill near it a fort where 
they keep their exti-a rice and clothing ; for every village pillages 
every other village, and all that pass, whenever they dare. 
These fortified hill-tops reminded us of the pictures of the middle 
ages, given us by historians ; but these people are subject to even 
less law and order than those of those early times, for here 
each man seoms grasping for himself, and there they did 
acknowledge an allegiance to some lord and obeyed his com- 

As an illustration of the complete state of anarchy that 
obtains throughout this whole region, I may state that on our 
third day from Wuchau we met a large Mandarin boat that bad 
been robbed of everything tlie first night after leaving Kweilin 
— ^the officiah even not being able to escape the hands of theae 
desperate thieves. 

As we passed on from place to place, the Mandarins were all 
very kind to us, but kept asking how we could dare to como 
away there so far into the interior, that only one foreigner had 
ever been before, and who, as they said, though he escaped 
alive through Kwangsi, was murdered by the people of Hunan. 
They referred to an eccentric genius who did reach Hankow, 
but was stripped even of bis elothing. 

Beyond tne city of Chauping the country becomes some- 
what more cultivated, yet it is sparsely peopled, and there is so 
need that a single man should leave China in order to find m 
plenty of good land to cultivate. 

The river here flows through deep passes ; and we entered onc^ 
called the Forest Pass, as the bright day was darkening into 
twilight. The rock was a hard, silicious grit, and sharp peaha 
rose up to a height of 1600 or 1700 feet. Like the fiunona 
Shaukmg Pass, this is also a cleft in a mountain rangc^ bnt 
while that is about 600 yards wide this is only from 50 to 150; 
and as we sailed along under these high overhanging precipices 
the scenic effect was far grander than anything else I enjoyed 
in China. As night overtook us while yet in Vie deep pass, wo 
moored our boat to some huge rocks by the steep Ijank, and then 
climbed to the edge of a neighboiu'ing ridge and wuted to see 
the full moon, whose soft light was just brightening the eastern 
sky. And when her silver disk rose over the high jagged peak^ 
and threw their long, pointed shadows do^vu the steep-aided paa^ 
we had before us such a view as a lover of crayon sketches 
might well roam the whole world over to enjoy. 

As we approached Pinglo, a city of the first rank, a high 
range of needle-shaped peaks stretehed across the river from the 
east to the west. They were composed of the same dark-blue^ 
highly crystalline limestone, traversed with white veins, that 

Comtcn to Hankow. 55 

had been previoudy noticed in the " Seven Stars " at Shanking, 
and at " Cock's Comb Bock " on the Sikiang. Here a pass gave 
a section shomn^ this limestone apparently resting on the grits 
and slates previously mentioned. In the shady places were 
large quantities of a beautiful blue convolvulus in full bloom, 
of the same species as specimens Mr. Graves bad frequently 
found in the limestone caves near Shanking. 

Our daily routine was to walk in the forenoon until the sun 
got high, and again in the afternoon, until the boat reached a 
safe anchorage ; Mr. Graves gathering plants and sketching a 
map of the river, and the writer coUecting specimens of the 
rocks, ascertaining the dip of the strata and the direction of the 
elevations — details too numerous to be given in this paper. 

On the evening after leaving Pinglo we were following the 
river-bank as it bent roimd a high bluflf, when we suddenlv 
found ourselves on the edge of a valley some ten miles broad, 
and extending to the right and left farther than we could see. 
In every direction it was perfectly bristling with sharp peaks of 
limestone. The strata of this limestone were nearly horizontal, 
and once the whole valley was filled with solid rock, which in 
the course of ages has been worn by running streams into deep 
channels, that have kept widening until only sharp peaks are 

From a single position on the low river-bank I counted 192 
separate peaks. The highest rose, I judge, to a height of 
1200 feet above the plain, but even this did not represent the 
whole depth of the deposit On the low land they were culti- 
vating rice, indigo, peanuts, sugarcane, millet, and cotton, and 
their light-green colours contrasted sharply with the dark rocks 
rising abruptly from the level plain, and made the whole view 
the most peculiar and most picturesque seen on the journey. 
Similar views are given in Sir Koderick Murchison's *Eu8Sia 
and the Ural Mountains,' and in ' Atkinson's Travels,' of the 
scenery among the contorted and fractured Devonian limestones 
on the banks of the Tchussovaya, on the western flanks of the 
Ural ; and it is probably to this same Devonian period that these 
limestones and those previously mentioned belong. 

On passing out of this marble region a section was found a 
little above the market-place, Hiogping, where the limestone 
was seen resting — conformably, as near as I could judge — on 
the grits that at Kokhan had been found, in turn, resting on 

Nearer Kweilin the country is more' open, and better culti- 
vated, and large water-wheels, 20 or 30 feet in diameter, are 
frequently seen along the river-banks, wherever the ranids are 
strong enough to keep them moving. Pieces of bamboo are 

56 BickmOHe's Stieick of a Journey from 

fastened diagonally to tbe rim, and bring up tlio water, ponvirg 
it into a trough as tbey reach the highest point, and begin to 
descend on the revolving wheel. 

A small pagoda perched on the top of a ragged rock, and a 
high bill througli which had teen chiseled a huge hole, were 
pointed out by our boatmen as indications that we were nearing 
the capital of the prorince of Kwangsi. 

Instead of being situated on the west side of a considerable 
lake, as represented on tlie latest maps, we found it on the west 
side of the river, which in the rainy season probably overflows 
its low banks, and thus gives rise to the mistake. 

The walls of the city are of blocks of limestone, neatly out, 
and above a parapet of bricks. 

We carefully closed our boat, to prevent any one from seeing 
OS, and in the evening rowed »ip to the city. I at once des- 
patched my boy to the Yamun, to show my pass from the Vice- 
roy at Canton, and ask for chairs, and policemen to protect me 
to the next city ; for Mr. Graves was then to return, and I must 
make ray way as best I could for 800 miles farther, unable to 
speak six words of the language myself, and witli no other inter- 
preter or companion than a boy from Canton. 

All arrangemeuts could not "be made till the next day ; mean- 
while we kept out of sight, but in some way they found we had 
come, and early the next morning all the streets, house-tops, and 
boats near ns were packed with people, anxious to get a sight at 
the foreigners. At first we tried to avoid them by moving from 
place to place, darting hither and thither like a bird trying to 
escape from a hawk ; but we met a crowd everywhere, and con- 
cluded the best way was to go out on the front part of the boat, 
and exhibit ourselves by turns to the curious public. When one 
throng had satiated their curiosity they generally left us, but 
they were immediately replaced by one still larger, until it 
seemed as if all the Chinamen south of the Great Wall had 
come out to gaze at us. In the midst of this tumult my boy 
arrived from the Yamun, and stated all was readv, and the Man- 
darin said that if I was going to Hankow, I should depart at once, 
for the whole city had been set into a perfect /wrorc by a pro- 
clamation from the gentry, and he feared we should be attacked 
by 80 many he might not be able to defend us — a statement we 
well knew was only too true. 

Mr. Graves kindly translated the proclamation for me as 
follows : — 


" It lias already heen determined htf eomtnon consent thai if any 
one has anyihiiip to do with the imps, or rents them a house or 
any other dwelUng-^liiee, his house and his famihj-^wellinff shall 


Canton to Hankojc, 

_e immediaidy hurnt to the ground, and his wltde family, male 
E^md female, <M and young, sJiall he at once put to death. 

•' By Okdeh of the Whole Provincial City." 

But despite this Ibrmiclabli? threat, I determined to wntinue 

I to posh my way through to Himkow. or periah in tlie attempt. 

A ereat crowd gathered on the shoro where I landed, and the 

<l»ys Booted and Buouted, hut I could not understaLd what they 

iBUd, and only hurried on my choir coolies through the suhurbs, 

fhich were everywhere perfectly tlirouged. Two or three times 
feared they would hlock up the street before me, and thtis 
Btop me completely, but they seemed to Iiave a suspicious respect 
&r "the barbarian," and allowed me to pass. When we came to 
the chiel" gate, and were entering the city, some officials stopped 
aay chair, and drew me into their office from the press of the 
iirowd, while they were telling my coolies to take me round the 
aty, and not through it. And to increase thisilangerous delay, 
one of my chair coolies ran away, and it was a long time before 
another could be found ; hut I finally continued on between the 
city wall and the river, until we came to a high rock, round 
wmch we were ferried in a boat, and once more I was freed from 
my tormentors. It was certainly with no email delight that I 
walked, aud was thus able to hurry on my chaii^bearers, and 
■ith all possible haste quit this city of destruction. Night, 
* ■ever, ovfertook us when wo were only five miles away, and 
two policemen guarding us selected an inn in a little village, 
rhere we took lodgings for the night* 
After such a tempest it was so pleasant to be allowed to rest 
few moments in peace, and I considered myself so safe from 
ly harm that I was tempted to wander out a little way into a 
r^Kighbouring field, to note by the aid of an azimuth compass the 
^direction of the valley we were to travel in on the morrow, and 
'^\e form of the mountains on either side. 

Wliile I was absorbed in the beautiful view before me, a man 
Jsssed by and glanced suspiciously at the open compass, so I 
shot it up and went back to rest. But a preaeutiment that all 
my troubles were not passed kept mo awake till late in the 
evening, when suddenly the whole village began to resound with 
" heavy beating of gongs, and immediately came a great rabble 
saring torches, and shouting out, "Kill him I kill hivi!! kill the 
hite devil ! ! ! " I plainly saw — mean cowards that they were 
— that they had come to rob me and then kill me, and I feared 
the worst ; but my two policemen were faithful, for they knew 
they would be sure to lose their heads if I came to any harm, 
and it should be reported to Peking. They therefore showed 
the ringleader my pass from his own mandarin, and assured 


58 Biokmoke's Sketch of a Joui-ney from 

them all that if they injured me in the least the mandarin would 
behead them to a roan, and destroy every house in the place ; 
and, after much loud and angry disputing, they offered to leave 
me, on condition tliat I should go on at the earliest dawn. The 
only crime alleged against me was that one of their numher had 
seen me with a mysterious instrument ohserving the mountains 
and valleys, and that they were all satisfied 1 had come to carry 
away the liidden treasures they are confident their land pos- 
sessed. All through this region, and indeed I may say all over 
China, whenever tney saw me breaking the rocks, they at once 
concluded I must be searching for gold, or silver, or precious 
gems. Another popular notion is that a foreigner who has blue 
eyes eertiiinly has the clairvoyant power of seeing straight 
through any quantity of solid rock. 

Se^t. Zrd. — At daylight wc started up the valley to the north- 
east, the general direction of the Kweikong above Kweilin. The 
road, or, more properly, path, was only 3 or 4 feet wide, and paved 
with blocks of limestone or cobble-stone from the ueiifhbouring 
river. Great numbers of coolies were passing to and fro, this 
being one of the four great highways between the southern part 
of the empire and tho valley of the Yangtse. The others are 
(1) that from the province of Kwantung, over the Great Meiling 
Pass, into the province of Kiangsi, and down the Kan Biver to 
the Poyang Lake ; (2), another also up the Pohkiang, or North 
River, to Snaachau, and in a north-west direction, up a small 
stream to Lo-chang, and over the Lesser Meiling Pass to Cliing, 
and down a small river to Hangchau in Hunan ; and (3), ODd 
from Yunnan, the capital of the province of that name, to Kwei- 
yang, the capital of Kweichau, and tiience down the Wu to tiie 

At 10 a.m., the road came to a small tributary of the Kweikong, 
coming in from a range of high mountains on the north-west. 
On each side of this stream there had once been a large fiieht 
of marble steps, nicely cut, and carefully laid up ; but now t£ey 
are all falling apart, and the whole work going to decay, the 
amount of travel at present not being sufficient even to keep 
them in repair ; and such was the condition of all the publio 
works throughout that region. 

Crossing to the opposite bank, we came to a small square 
tower, and near it were two iron pillars, surmounted by a liurge 
ornamental cap. Around each was an iron ring, to which were 
attached a senes of huge chains, large enough for a sea junk. 
The people said they were to fasten robbers to — perhaps the 
Miautse, who live in the neighbouring mountains to the north 
and north-west, and are said to come down frequently and 
plunder the smaller villages in the neighbourhood. 

Canton to Hankow. 59 

Bat notwithstanding this great show of absolute power, these 
Hiautse have to this day maintained an unintemipt^ indepen- 
dence, — a proof of the weakness of the Chinese Government in 
every dynasty. 

At 2 P.M., stopped to lunch at a little inn. The policemen 
insisted on my going into a small room, and remaining there out 
of sight till we were ready to start again ; and after that, all the 
way to Hankow, I was so closely attended and so strictly 
guarded, that I found myself really a prisoner. I could not 
make long detours to the right or left as we passed objects of 
much interest ; yet I can scarcely complain, for such measures 
were undoubtedly necessary for my safety. My compass I car- 
ried under my vest, and I looked at it only when we were at 
some distance from any village, and the road was clear of coolies, 
yet even my boy thought it was his duty to frequently remind 
me of the trouble it had just caused us ; and besides, when I 
used it often, my policemen, with whom it was absolutely neces- 
aaiy for me to keep on good terms, plainly manifested a suspicion 
that I was a spy. Yet, as we followed along near the Kweikong; 
and crossed two of its tributaries, and the main stream itself, I 
was able to complete Mr. Graves' map across the watershed with 
considerable accuracy, and thus solve one of the queries I pro- 
posed to myself on leaving Canton, namely — Is tnere a water 
communication between the valley of the Siang and that of the 

2 P.M. — Came to Ling-sun, a hien city, 60 li (20 miles) from • 

A sickening sensation closely akin to fear came over me as 
I entered its gate and thought how I had been treated at the 
last city ; but the officials at the Yamun seemed to regard me 
with pity rather than hate, and I tried to return their kindness 
by pronouncing as well as I could the names of the chief places 
along my route, and marking out a rude map on the wall, and 
thus giving them some idea of where I had come from and where 
I wanted to go. But the policemen feared a mob might gather 
again, and led me away to a dirty inn, where every room was 
fall but one, and on one of the two beds in that an old opium- 
smoker lay stretched out, nearly stupified with his favourite 
drug. The room was properly more of a dungeon than a guest 
chamber. A single piece of glass in the roof, which was little 
higher than our heads, admitted all the light we were suffered 
to enjoy. But my companion, at least, seemed bhssfully in- 
different to the inconveniences of our prison, and no doubt was 
imagining himself floating on clouds in the high air, or in some 
richly gilded barge gliding down Lethe's stream, whose waters 
he had ceitainly drunk to satiety. Several small boys climbed 


CO BickmOre's Sketch of a Jonrnei/ from 

up the partitions to peep over and steal a view at the odd 
personage inside, but I had become accustomed to such rude- 

After three hours more we continued on, and passed out at 
the eastern gate. The whole city is one lieap of ruins, and 
there are scarcely enough houses left to line the sinp^le main 
street, so complete is the destruction made by the Taipiugs. In 
fact, all the way from Shauking I had come almost exactly in 
the ti-ack of those rebels, and their hordes were composed of 
just such murderers and robhera as I found there. Their leader 
was undoubtedly stimulated to his undertaking by chagrin at 
not being able to pass the government exammation ; and it 
would be strange if a man whose prime motive was to take 
revenge on his government should care much about elevating 
his countrymen. It is true he and his confederates were 
friendly to foreigners, and invited them to take part with them 
in trying to drive out the Manchus ; hut I believe it was only 
because they were weak and needed assistance, and that, if they 
had once gained the supreme authority, they would have been 
as hostile to foreigners as the present dynasty, and a proof 
of this is the reserved manner of their chief as soon as he had 
taken Nanking, and believed the whole empire within his grasp. 
This territory where the " Great Peace," rebellion starte-d, and 
the territory, too, that they held the longest, is the most 
despoiled, the most dangerous, and the most unpromising of any 
I have seen in China, and it has been my privilege to travel 
over a very large [lart of the empire, llcvolution after revolu- 
tion has swept back and forth over flip whole length and 
breadth of Chma, until her soil has reddened in every part with 
the blood of tens, nay hundreds of millions of her people, and 
yet she remains just where she was two thousand years ago, 
simply because all these movements have been originated by 
men like the Taipings, whose only aim was to obtain the throne, 
or to plunder, or to avenge personal wrongs, and not by men 
who were filled with a lofty ambition to henefit their native 
land, and who were willing and desirous, if need be, to sacrifice 
their lives and ail they possessed for the attainment of such 
a noble end. 

The plain surrounding Ling-sun appeared very fertile, and 
was perfectly dotted with hvrge stacks of rice, which the farmers 
were just gathering. 

A walk of 35 li brought ua to Tai-ung-gong, a small 
village on the Kweikong or Cassia lliver, for the water still 
flows slowly towards Kweilin, Before we reached it we crossed 
ft small stream flowing into the Kweikong from the north. 
There we saw many rafts of bamboos to be floated down to 

Canton to Hanhoic. 

Kweilin and Wticbaii. In its bed I noticed pebbles of granite 
and porphyry, but nil tbe rocka seen i» situ were the cominon 
eilicjous grits. The valley here is nearly filled with Bmall hills, 
but in this place only. Among them I gathered a beautiful 
blue-bell, much like that found on our hill sides in New 
^England. A kind of blackberry that grew in the old ruina by 
the road side was just ripening, and the opening of the astcre 
also heralded the coming of autumn, as at home, 

I had chosen just the right time for this journey, for there 

^19 much less danger of being robbed and murdered when it 
jn harvest time, and the people are not suffering from want of 
The neit day we travelled 55 li to the district city, Hingon. 
The water here flows to the north, and tlie watershed is a few 
li to the south-west, but a canal connects the Kweikong and tbe 
Siang, which has been made in the following manner. The 
east and west chain of mountains, in some parts called tbe 
Heiling Range, and in others the Nanling Range, is hero com- 
posed of separate ranges, which, instead of extending east and 
west, run parallel to each other in a direction N. CO^ e. and 


The Kweikong takes its rise near the northern end of one 
illey, while the source of the Siang is at the southern end of 
'&e adjoining valley, and for some distance these streams have 
their channels nearly parallel to each other while they flow in 
^ppoaie directions. It was only necessary to make a canal 
between the two, at right angles to their courses, and the com- 
munication was complete. This was done near the source of 
the Kweikong, for previously only a very slight elevation pre- 
vented the water at that place from flowing into the Siang. 

But this canal can only be used during the rainy season, and 
then not for boats drawing more than 2 feet. The water is kept 
in the canals by building dams across them wlierever a rapid 
would occur, and allowing the water to escape only through 

tA small gap deep enough for a single boat to pass over. If 
fliere were large reservoirs along tnis part of the canal to 
feceive the surplus water during the wet season, andpour it out 
during the dry season, boats could pass to and from Kweilin and 
Sinchau throughout the year. But the chief difficulty is not 
near the watershed, whicli is really on a plateau, but in the 
many strong and dangerous rapids that occur all the way down 
the Cassia River from Kweilin to Wuchau on the one side, and 
from Hingan down the Siang to Yunchau on the other. To 
improve the navigation of these livers to a satisfactory degree 
would, I believe, prove nearly a& costly as building a railroad. 

82 Bickmohe's Shetch of a Journey from 

without offering only a part of the great advantages of the 
latter for the future development of the adjacent connf ry. 

Hingan we found in tlie aime ominous condition as Ling-eun. 
For the whole distance the stream was so low, that we were 
continually thumping, bumping, and grating over the rooka and 
coarse shingle, CRpeciaUy in the gnpa in tlie dams. These dams 
occnrred every one or two li. I'hey are made with a gap for 
the boats by one bank, and by the other a sluice-way, where aa 
many as ten huge water-wheels were sometimes seen one behind 
the other. It seemed that there were many more rapids in the 
14 leagues from Taukatae to Sinchau, than in 16 leagues from 
Kweilin toward Wuchau on tie other side of the watershed. 

Through the province of Kwangsi one or two policemen 
attended us from one city to the nest, carryinga large letter from 
their Mandarin, informing the people we were travelling with 
the permission of the Government, and requesting them not to 
trouble or annoy ns in any way. When we reac-hed the city 
before us, tliis paper was signed by the Mandarin and retumea 
to the policemen, as a proof they had fully performed their 
duty and were free from any farther responsibility. But in 
Hunan I was always accompanied by one civil Mandann and 
one policeman, and for most of the way by a military Mandarin, 
and from two to four soldiers besides— a guard no larger than 
the sequel proved I needi>d. So far as my experience extended, 
these people certainly sustained their unenviable reputation 
of being the most lawless and the most ojienly hostile to 
foreigners of those of any province in the empire. 

Sinchau is the chief city in this region, aud appeared nearly 
AS large as Wuchau, yet it is not seen even on the best maps. 
Again, all this area for 100 li farther dotvn the Stang is in tJie 
province of Ewangsi, and not in the province of Hunan, as the 
maps represent it. 

At this city my boy and boatmen purchased some fosal 
hrachiopoda in the market, and on enquiring carefully I found 
they came from the foot of a waterfall some 93 li distant among 
the hills, and were gathered by the boys and brought to market 
to sell as curiosities. They call them "hawks" from the curved 
part near the hinge. A Mandarin afterwards fully confirmed 
this account of them. They are probably of the Devonian 
period, and undoubtedly came from tlio limestones already 
mentioned as resting on grits and slates, which again rest on 

At tbe boundary of the province dark shales appeared for the 
first time, and probably belong to the coal rocks. 

All the way from Shaukiny to this point the whole country. 

^^^^^^^^ Canton to Hankow. 

^^■Vlong the route we had come, is one uninterrupted mass of hilla , 

^H £ere the valley of the Sieing bc^gins to widen. 

^H i In eight days from Siiicbau we reached Kiyan^ which is 
sitnated on the river-bank, and not some distance oack of it, 
as given on the maps. 

Below this city the whole country becomes thickly populated 
and well cultivated, and the temples outside the cities which 
were all destroyed by the Taipings appeared everywhere newly 
boilt, and contrasting favourably with the ominous condition of 
such buildings in every other part of the empire, and indicating 
the high prosperity of the people by whose contributions they 
are bmlt. They are bo numerous, and form such a prominent 
feature in every scene along the Siang, that Hunan may properly 
be styled the ])roviiice of temples, and t!ie stroughold of 

Eight or ten li below Kiyang, in one place on the right bank, 
limeetone strata were seen resting unconformably on other 
limestone strata, as if the upper layers belong to a different 
formation. The lower limestone had the jointed and fissured 
appearance of that previously seen resting on the grits and 
ahtes. 84 li below Kiyang, at the village of Pin-cha-boo, we 
jiassed a hill of limestone, interstratified with coal. They were 
'quarrying the limestone, and using the coal obtained at the 
Bune time, to bum it to Hme. Dip of these strata 40° to the 
north, and a little farther in that direction came red sandstone, 
witli similar dip of 15° to 20°. 

Septemher ItiiA. Stopped for the night at a little village 165 li 
.above Haugchau. As we arrived after dark no one saw me, and 
$. woB left unmolested. All the evening there was even more 
loud talking and disputing than I had been aecustomed to hear, 
and the whole village appeared to have indulged rather freely 
in samshoo. 

Before we pushed off to anchor, as usual, in the stream, my 
aervant asked the Mandarin if he would like to tflke a walk 

» along the frout street, but he only shook liis head in an ominous 
manner, and replied "they are all mflians there." About 
10 o'clock very loud and excited talking and disputing began 
on the bank near us, and soon one of the numlwr commenced 
acreamiug and groaning, as if he had received his death wound. 
Immediately his murilerersj brought liim down the bank, put 
^^ him into a small boat, and paddled by us out into the stream, 
^K tiieir victim all the time groiiniog more and more fceblv, 
^^m' and evidently dying. My servant, who had been carefully 
^H vatchiug and listening, said these men had first robbed him, 
^H and when he cried for help they bad stabbenl him, and they 


were just then finishing their work by sinking him in the river. 
I found we Iiad thus run directly into a iiest of the assaaains 
that prowl through the country, but I trusted no one had seen 
me, for that was my only ehance of escaping the same fate. 
There was nothing I could do but keep perfectly quiet, so as 
not to attract their attention, and have tne boat start as soon as 
it should be light enough for us to avoid the rocks in the rapids. 
I opened the hd of my revolver box, and determined when the 
event came to sell my life as dearly as I could ; but after 
listening for many long, lonely hours, I finally fell asleep, 
and when I awoke again we were quietly iioatiug down the 
rapid stream, and this village of robbei-s was far out of sight 
behind us. 

We soon passed Siehang 145 li above Hangchau. This is th© 
principal coal mine on the Siang, and some fifty boats wer& 
then loading for places down that river and along the Yangtse, 
Here a fine section was obtained, showing that the coal-hedB 
rest on limestone, which is also the case in Szchuen, near 
Peking, and probably in every part of the empire where both 

As we were but six miles from the village where the murder 
just described had occurred, the civil Mandarin sent to protect 
rae, declared he would not allow me to land and examine the 
mines for a moment, and I could therefore only not© what was 
to bo seen from the river as we passed. " ITie mines " that thus 
came in view were nothing more than deep pits in the sides 
of the hills, and consequently only " surface coals " are obtained. 
It is probably to be expected that better coal would occur below 
the water-level, but aa soon as they come to water they are 
obliged to give up working a mine for want of proper pumping 
apparatus. The best coal in China therefore remains to bo 
taken out. The engineers in the steamers on the Yangtso 
assure me it has improved very decidedly in quality since the 
tirst was brought to them ; but I doubt whether it will ever 
equal the best coals of England or America. 

Hangchau is the great de[)6t for coal in Hunan, and the 
military Mandarin who accompanied mo trora that city to 
Changsha, the capital of the province, stated that coal is also 
mined at Kweiyang and Saiyang (see Ur. Williams' map of 
China), and at Siunwa, on Taz' Kiaug, It probably occurs, 
therefore, everywhere beneath the red sandstone that covers 
the wide plains in this province, but it is only mined where it 
out^-rops on the borders of those plains. 

From this village of Siehang, in Hunan, to Moiikden, north 
of the Gulf of Liantung, there is a continued series of coal- 


Canton to Hankow. 

micea on the flanks of tho elevations that form the western 
border of the Great Plain, and the wide diBtribution of such a 
mineral promises well fur the future deyelopment of China. 

The most important plat-e for trade in Hunan ia Siangtau, 
90 li south of Changsha. All the boats that come down the 
numerous branches of the Siiing make this the point of 
rendezvous, and there is water enough for small steamers from 
Hankow unless a shallow ocours where this river empties into 
the Tuugting Lake. That place I passed by night, and had ito 
opportunity of examining. 

. At Siangyin we found there was such a great flood in the 
valley of the Yangtse that we were already on the border of 
the lake, though, aceording to the map, it ought to have been 
dry land for 20 miles farther. 

When we readied the lake a heavy northerly wind had been 
blowing for six or seven days, and few or no boats had cros8r::d 
it durmg that lime. A southerly breeze then set in, and all the 
boatfi that had been harbouring in the many creeks and bavs 
came out on to the lake ; and at sunrise I enjoyed a view oul y 
to be seen in this land whose population is numbered by tho 
hundred miUion. As far as the eye could see before us and be- 
hind us and for several miles on either side the surface of the 
lake was perfectly feathered with white sails, some in sunshine, 
Bonie in shadow, and some in the dim distance apparently gliding 
a thin film of air over the water. Twice I counted nearly 44U 
,la iu sight at one time, and with the aid of my field glass 
,y 100 more could he distinguished. Many were loaded with 

, many with coal, and many were just swimming along under 
huge deck loads of round timber. This shows Uie amount of 
carrying trade between Siangtau with Changsha, and Yohchau, 
and Hankow, and other cities down the Yangtse. It also indi- 
cates that Siangtau is the most important city up the Yangtse 
that is not yet open to foreign trade. 

This lake is very shallow along its eastern side and probably 
over its whole area, and its basin ia merely the lowest part 
in the great depression that forms the valley of the Siang. It 
is rapidly filling up with the sediment brought down the Kiang 
And the Yangtse. 

The Poyang Lake is of the same character. It has been 
noticed that each has near it a group of high mountains. This 
is only another way of stating that where there has been an 
unusual elevation there has hecn a corresponding depression 
near it. 

Below Yohchau a number of lakes occur, which Pere Hue 
describes as abounding in floating islands, where the people aro 
' liged to hve because the surrounding country is so over-popu- 


9S BifKMOiiE's Sketch of a Journey from 

lated ; but I saw none, and others who had been to and fro orer 
most of this area assured me they had never seen anything of 
the kind. 

Od. bth. — After 60 days of continned travelling I reached 
Hankow, the distance by the route I had chosen being abont 
1200 miles. 

For 35 days I had lived like a common coolie, as I had only 
one man to carry my own and my servant's clothing during the 
land journey, and wliat food we should want for two or three 
days, for we expected to be able to get nothing to eat near 
Kweilin after the gentry had published such a proclamation. 
Frequently, for nearly half a day at a time, while we were 
waiting for the mandarins at the cities, I had to he among the 
cargo with a straw mat over me, fearfully cramped, yet not 
able to stir, that I might thus escape a repetition of what had 
occurred at Kweilin. The mandarma never seemed contented 
until they had packed rae away in that fashion. Tet they were 
always very kind, and for some distance they came to call on 
me and ho satisfied that a foreigner had really come up into 
their country. At Tohchau the Mandarin would not bebeve I 
had come from Canton, and even had the impoliteness to say it 
was much more probable I had come up the Yangtse from 
Shanghai or Hankow, until he had seen the seal of the Viceroy 
of Kwangtung and Kwangsi. 

Besides learning someiuing of the physical geography of this 
unknown part of the empire, this journey was undertaken with 
the hope of being able to trace the succession of the geoli^cal 
formations of that region. In a country where there are no 
railroads or great excavations, perhaps the channels of the 
rivers afford ono of the best opportunities for this purpose ; and 
as the water was everywhere very low, it was only necessary 
to float along in a boat near the banks and the strata eould be 
examined and followed continuously for miles. Sections were pen- 
cilled at the most interesting pointe, and they show the succession 
in the territory through which we came to lie— jffirsi and /oicesf, 
granite ; on which rests, Becondhj, a thick formation of grUa and 
aaies. On these rest, thirdly, old limestones, probably of the 
Devonian period ; and these are covered, fourthly, by another 
series of limestone strata of the same age as the eoai rocks ; and 
ffihiy, tliese later limestones and coal beds are covere<l in turn 
l^ red sandstone. 

The route taken from Canton to Hankow is the one proposed 
for a railroad between those cities on account of the large trade 
between Canton and Wuchau ; but I suggest that possibly & 
more desirable route may be from Canton up the North Riwer 
to Shaucliau, and thence along a small stream in a north- 


Canton to Hanhow. 67 

r westerly direction to LoucLeiing, and over the '" Lesaer Meiling 
piPass" to Cliiiig and down a brajich of the Siaug to Hangohau, 
provided this pass is not so high as to make deep cuttings or 
tiumelliiig necessary. All such difficulty would certainly be 
avoided by extending the line as proposetl southerly from Hang- 
chan to Kweilin and Wuchau ; and in proof of this 1 may statu 
that if I had left Canton in the mtny season 1 could have gone 
by this route all the way round to Shanghai in one and the mine 
boat. The season in which I came was not only a " dry season." 
but admitted by all to be a remarkably dry season ; and yet ii' 
I the gentry of Kweilin had not prevented me from getting a 
[ boat at that city, I could then have continued on to Ling-sun, 
and when I reached Tai-ung-gong, only 35 li (11 miles) further, 
I foQnd Bome boatmen pushing their boats along to Kingan, 
but not as fast as I could go by land. From Hankow to Canton, 
via Eweilin, there is no physical feature whatever that will 
render the construction of a railroad a work of any greater 
difficulty than in any very hilly country ; but there is very little 
trade between Hangcbau and Kweilin, and Kweilin and "Wuchau, 
while there appears to bo very considerable trade between 
Hangcbau and the province of Kwangtung by'tho route I suggest. 
■ This way over the Lesser Moiling Pass was the one in which all 
P"iiie teas fixjm the province of Hunan and Kweicliau were trans- 
ported to Canton when that was the only open port ; and when 
I was at Hangi^hau the mandarins and boatmen all agreed that 
all their trade at present with the province of Kwangtung was 
carried in this old channel, which, as they said, would have 
taken mc but half as long as the one I had preferred that I 
might see a new part of the empire. They also affirmed that 
there was no water communication between the source of the 
branch of the Siang nearChing and the source of the bi'auch of the 
North River at Loucheung on the southern side of the watershed. 
While there are immense quantities of goods to be trans- 
ported in every direction, and such natural facilities for building 
a railroad, great obstacles to such a work will be found in the 
bitter hostility of the people to all foreigners, and in their super- 
stitious fears — "Fringshui" — that any high building or exca- 
vation " will afi'fct the winds and rain," aad deluge theii- crops with 
floods or parch tliem with heat. The prevalence of tliis belief 
among the Chinese, and the extent to which it influences their 
actions, ia most surprising. All over the empire deserted 
I quarries of limestone and sandstone are seen, and lead and other 
[■ mines, except coal, are generally not worked. On inquiring 
I the cause of this, the invajiable reply ia, " It has been closed by 
I order of the Emperor ;" but in pressing the matter further, I 
have found, in every case except one, that this imjierial edict 

p 2 


68 Dickmore'* Skadi of a Journey from Ciinloii to Hankow. 

was made in this way : — When a man commeuces an excavation, 
tbe surroundinp; comimmity draw up a petition tliat tliis man 
should not l)e allowed to ruin their crops. It is then banded lo 
the emperor, who, not dariug to oppose the will of the majority, in 
a condesceuding manner orders the petition to be granted, and 
thus, while he plays the part of the absolute monarcli, he ia 
really a supple slave. And this shows how much protection a 
railroad company or a telegraph company ought to expert, and 
how much they would certainly find in the present Government. 
Again, the great nurabera who are now dependent on the carry- 
ing trade for a livelihood would be likely to interfere with any 
such work, and perhaps destroy it altogether when they found 
it taking away their only means of supporting themselves. The 
argument that such people would find plenty of employment in 
building the road aud taking care of it is jiartly met, at least, 
by the fact that the Chinese are slow to change their habits, 
and the boat people generally dislike to live on the land, much 
less to work on it. 

We therefore come to ihe conclusion that there is no encou- 
ragement for either foreign or native capitalists to attempt to 
build a railroad in that land until the Government will not only 
freely give permission for such .1 work, but also can and wul 
guarantee to protect the road, or fully make up any damage 
me people may do to it. When this happy day for China 
arrives, it is as certain that railroads there will pay as that mer- 
chants now find it profitable to run steamers ou tlie Yangtse and 
Canton rivers and along the sea coast. 

Besides the water communication between the valley of the 
Sikiang and the Tangtse described above, it has been supposed 
that another might be found by following up the Sikiang mrcctly 
west through the whole province of Kwangsi to Sz'ching, thence 
north-westerly to HiDgi and N^aungau in Kweicliau, and theui/e 
northerly to some branch of the Wu Kiver near Kweihwa or 
Ngauahun, and bo down to the Yangtse. At first 1 proposed 
taking this route, but decided on the one chosen on accoimt of 
its bemg that proposed for n luilroad, and because it was nearer 
the seaboard and therefore more immediately interesting. 

The topography of Hunan and the eastern part of Kwangsi 
being now (juito well known, it remains for some one to fake this 
second route, and give us detinite information concerning the 
geography and geology of the western part of Kivaugsi ana the 
province of Kweichau. Such a journey will also greatly add to 
our present knowledge of the wide ramifications of the rivers 
and canals in China, the completeness of her internal water- 
communications being the next wonder to the immense numbers 
of her population. 


( 69 ) 



^H IV. — Aecounl of Scfieniifie Exphraiume in the Isthmus of Darien 
^H f'n ihe years 1861 anc2 1865. By M. Litcien de PL'vor. 

^^B Scad, Jauuarj 13, 1868. 

^^ 'ThBRE is a portion of South America but little known even to 
tho Bcienti6c world, yet admirably situated between tlie Equator 
and the Tropic of Cancer, batlied by two oceans, teeming in 
mitierals and rich varieties of the animal and vegetable king- 
doms, and endowed by nature with convenient porta and road- 
steads, as well as with important rivers and spacious lakes. 
This portion is the American Isthmus — that immense neck of 
land which scpamtes the two Americas, borderin|:; Mexico on 
the north, and the United States of Colombia on the south, and 
comprising the five republics of Central America. 

This paucity of knowledge, however, ia not to be attributed 
to want of enterprise with reference to that comparatively vast 
territory ; for ever since the commencement of the sixteenth 
eentory its soil has been trodden alternately by illustrions 
navigators, celebrated captains, bold and reckless adventurers, 
QnasBuming colonists, ana ambitious conquerors, as well as by 
intrepid scientific explorers, more or less influenced by the desire 
lof opening out fresh prospects for the progress of humanity; 
tat, nnfortunately, national rivalry, petty jealousies, and more 
especially the indifl'erence or incredulity of the uneducated 
masses of society, have paralysed the efforts of the hai-dy pioneers 
of civilisation. 

The history of the discoveries and explorations in that part, 
trma. 1501 to a more modem period, is too well known to the 
learned world to need any circumstantial ac-count from me ; but 
it may be merely observed that to the nineteenth century 
almoBt exclusively belongs the honour of sending forth expedi* 
tions thereto, with a view to general civilisation; whereas at 
anterior periods the chief incentives to those perilous under- 
takings were traceable to the love of conquest, the thirst of gold, 
and uie hope of pillage. All honour, then, to the nations of 
onr own times ! All honour to France, England, the United States 
of North America, and Holland, not forgetting certain other 
countries; each having labom'ed to prepare the "highway" of 
future times, and with the aid of science to penetrate — what the 
first Spanish conquerors emphatically called—" the secret of the 

At the southernmost portion of the American Isthmus stretches 
forth a narrow neck of land, generally known as the Isthmus of 
Panama, but more properly divisible into two distinct sections : 
one under the above name, and the other under that of Uarien. 


70 De TdSDT'j Scientific Exjiloralions 

The latter, to which I propose to devote more espooial iitteiition, 
is intersected by large rivers, the piincipal one being the Tuyra, 
which flows into the Gulf San Miguel (St. Michael) oa the Pacific^ 
and its more important tributaries the Congo, the Savannah, 
the Chucunaque, and others.* 

I traversed and explored the territory of Darien on two 
different occasions (in 1S61 and 1865), with the view of deter^ 
mining the least elevut^d passage over the Cordillera, or 
mount ain-cliain, which borders it on the Atlantic side, as well 
as of tracing the most practical course for a large ehip-canal, 
. destined to unite the two oceans, either direct from sea to sea, 
or by turning to account the various water-ways of the two 

I have now the honour of laying before the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, whilst soliciting tSe indulgence of its dis- 
tinguished members, the scientJtic observations which, more 
especially in a geographical point of view, 1 had the opportunity 
of making in the above-named corner of the eai-th ; one so little 
known even in our own day, and yet the one which William 
Paterson in a spirit of prophecy termed the " Key of the World." 

Towards the commencement of the year ISfJl I penetrated 
into the Isthmus of Darien, ascending the Tnyra, with the inten- 
tion of examining the routes followed by Captain Prevost, of Hie 
British Navy, and Lieutenant Strain, of the United States, as 
well as the one mentioned by Dr. Cullen, and found practicable 
by Messrs. Gisbome and Forde. All these explorers were under 
the necessity of foUowing, or crossing at times, the highway (rf 
communication which was opened in 1785 by Don Andres de 
Arisa, viz., from Puerto Escoces (" Scotch Port '), on the Atlantic, 
to Puerto del Principe, on the right bank of the Savannah. 
That route was completely finished when Don Manuel de Milla 
Santa Ella visited it in 1788.t 

I had purchased at Panama a small schooner, called the Mer- 
cediia, in which, at the head of twenty-seven men, I ascended 
the Savannah as far as the mouth of the River Lara, where I 

? itched my first camp, that being the very spot where Captain 
'revost's companions so miscraoly perished. By means of 

* Aa B geographical diTision, the Isthmtu of Darien iliauld be bounded on Uh 
Bouth by 7° .ts' N, Int., from (be extremity of the Bay of Candeluria to Point 
Gamchiiie ; but tbe orob^drngrepbifsl divition h betier definiHl by the limit l>° SO', 
If the Niquo chain coniiouea from the Gulf of Urobs lo the finy of Aguaaate, 
thereby forming the gmnd division bet veen the two important bBsins of the Alrato 
ai d the Tvyra. 

T In 1S6S I foand nud copied at the Bogota Library, the MS. of Don Andrea de 
Aritn, lo vbicb there was a map of Darien allacbed, and which bore the title of 
-ComeutOB sobre la rica j fenilisiraa Proviniria del Darien— Sanu Matia la 
Antigua del Darren,' April 5, ! 774. The informalion aci^uired by Ibis nrit 
rise to the road in question. 

j'« the Isthmus of Darien. 


[ I easily reached a poiut in the Eio Lara, where the 
gtrong tide of the Pacific ia still perceptible, and, after a long 
passage through vii^in forests, I arrived eomewhat higher up 
tiiaa the confluence of the Hio de la Paz and the CJiucunaque. 
Ti was there I became thoroughly impressed with the conviction 
of the impossibility of laying down a canal between the Bay of 
Caledonia and the Eiver Sarannah, unless by means of numerous 
alnices, wliich, however, could only be fed by the upper waters 
doling the rainy season. The mountain, named "Loma de- 
nada,' once passed, the country became gradually more elo- 
fated towards the Atlantic, as far as the lofty chain of the 
Cordilleras of San Bias, which borders the above-named bay. 

It was evident that the information given by Dr. Cullen was 
completely incorrect, and that he had not traversed the interior 
of the country. In fact, I fully ascertained that such was the 
case when I reached the hospitable dwelling of Messrs. Nelson 
and Ossack in the village of Chepigana, on the left bank of the 
Tnvra, that being the house in which Dr. Cullen states he lived, 
and firom which, as he alleges, he set out on that hunting expe- 
ditioa which conducted him, through level savannahs, to the 
dtoies of the Atlantic. I was assured by Messrs. Nelson and 
Osttck that they had never seen nor heard of Ihr. Cullen except at 

One point remained to be determined, viz., how far we should 
admit in the alleged height of 152 metres, which served as the 
basiB of a number of pl^s for constructing a canal, and wliich it 
was stated was the height of a gorge at the sources of the 
Bio Scuardi, near the Bay of Caledonia. That height, it was 
affinned, had been carefully measure'! by Colonel Augustin 
Oodazzi, of the New Grenada Engineers ; but all my inquiries 
fn the subject when I returned to Eiiropo proved of no avail, 
and it was only on my second visit to Bogota in 1866, that I 
^Bcoyered, amongst the numerous maps and documents of the 
^beerratory, a large MS. map of the Isthmus of Panama, 

iwn up by the above-named Colonel. The following is an 

Sources of the Aglftsialque (Atlantic) 591 

Road do. do. 274 

Small ciiaia of the Bio Sostirdi 300 

Good of S.-mrdi (village) 152 

Hoiid of Sucubti (village) 274 

It is clear, therefore, that there has been a regretable co&- 
iamm with reference to the 152 metres in question, which were 
nren as the height of the least elevated pass in this mountain- 
^—^^aiB, whereas oy the word "road" {"camino" in Spanish), 



73' De I'itydt's Scimlijic Ei-plorations 

of the sea) of the routes ltalf-v:ay or so np the hills, and followingf 
the windings of the declivities leading from one Tillage to 

All this waB fully ronfirmed by fresh proofs ; for one of my 
countrj'men, wlio is settled in Colombia, made me a present of 
a map entirely in the hand\mting of Ck)lonel Codozzi, and simed* 
by him, under date March 31, 1S54; and in that map, which 
has Bpecial reference to the explorations of Captain Prevost and 
Messrs. Strain, Gisbome, and St. John, the heights are thus givea 
in English feet : — 


UeLwecD the sources of the Asnati (a TDinor tribntarj' o! Uie (1340 

Cbucunaque, Pacific) and tlioso of the Aglaainiquo .. ,, (1940 

Small claim of Sasardi 1010 

Between the sources of the Aglatomatu (Atlantic) and tliose of 

the Siiculiti (ft tributary of the Chuciuiaquc, Pacific) ,. 1276 
Itoad of Sasardi (village) 500 

The obserrationa I had made with reference to that proposeii 
line of canalisation— which up to that time was regarded with 
80 much favour — were consequently confirmed ; and thence- 
fbrtli, ceasing my investigations in that direction, I considered 
that the vast valley, traversed by the immense lliver Tuyra, 
which is so far np a tidal one, might aUbid in its eastern portion 
the means of easy commmiicatiou with the aniall valleys which 
are bathed by the rivers that flow into the Atlantic, on the 
western side of the Gulf of Uraba, Thereupon I ascended that 
river, penetrating into the streams which i'eed it in its upper 
course ; such aa the Capoti, tho Pucro, and the Paya ; and after 
numerous difficulties and trials — which, however, were happily 
vanquished — 1 came to the conclusion that, on that side alone, 
the elevation of tho Cordillera was sufficiently low, or else the 
rents in the mountain-chain sufficiently deep, for the con- 
struction of a navigable water-way suitable I'or all kinds of 
vessels of whatever tonnage. 

I was sufficiently familiar with the orography of the Isthmus 
of Darien to remark not only the diminished elevation of the 
mountain chains, in proportion as they approached the Choco 
or the mouths of the Atrato, but obo their frequent divisions 
into nearly isolated peaks or mamelons. Moreover, the double 
and broad cordillera in the Isthmus of Panama, parallel to the 
coast of San Bias, became a simple one, forming only one con- 
tinuons but still thick line, after leaving the sources of the 
Chueunaque. Then descending towards the south-west on 
leaving Cape Tibu/ron, that chain narrows and falls, forming 
the Sierra or rUge of Niqve, subdivided on the north, under the 
name of Sierra de Eslola, and on the south, under that of Sierra 
de Mali. Subsequently one meets still with some isolated 2>eake', 

in t/ie Isthmus of Darien. 

fcut the previously mentioned continuous chttin is replaced by 
moand-like formations, in the midst of which flow the waters of 
tiie Atrato and of other less important rivers. 

»I shall return hereafter to the topography proper of the ex- 
tremity of the Gulf of Uraba. 
In this quarter I continued until the month of June, 1861, 
zealously persevering in my researches and investigations, 
meeting with an hospitable reception in all the villages, con- 
t^ous to the Tuvra — such as Las Palmas, Chepigana, Santa 
Suria la Keale, Sloliueca, and Pinogana — and fiving on a 
friendly footing with the Paya Indians, one of whom, who spoke 
Spanish, acted as my interpreter during the greater portion of 
my wanderings. So far, then, I was iu a favourable position for 

I prosecuting my design, but the majority of the men in my 
aervice were sorely fatigued with the rough life of the woods, to 
Vhich may be added the discomfort of the heavy rains which 
|R^Tail in this latitude, when the sun enters the Tropic of 
I waa then obliged to terminate tlie expedition for the time 
'I>eiiig, and to return to Europe, in order to submit to scientific 
men the results of mv iii'st researches, as well as the deductions 
I felt justified in matting, with reference to the junction of the 
two oceans, by a maritime canal. 

Four years were iu that way devoted to various kinds of 
labour. I consulted all the authors who had written on the 
subject, analysed the works of eminent engineers of various 
nations, and closely examined every production bearing on the 
American Isthmus, from the plan of canalisation by tlie Coatzor 
eoateos in the Tehuantepec, up to the one carried into execution, 
at the Raspadnra, by the parish priest of Novita (Choco). 
Thus assisted by the scientific attainments of my courageous 
predecessors, I resolved to explore the Darien anew — but this 
time on the Atlantic side, and in tliat way to penetrate to the 
boundary of my former travels in 1861. 

Meanwhile " Tiie Colombian Canal International Company " 
had been formed in Paris, under the auspices, and with the 
coHDperation of a number of eminent, learned, and honourable 
gentlemen. It will be sufficient to make mention here of the 
two engineers itIio, so soon as a definitive plan shall have been 
determined on, will give their valuable aid to thu work, vnz., 
Mongol Bey, who drew up the Suez Canal plan, and Mr. 
Maclean, President of the Society of Civil Engineers, London. 

I set off again in December, 1864, and organised my expedi- 
tion at Carthagena, procuring the assistance of fourteen choice 
men. And here I may be allowed, were it only in grateful 
recognition of ser\ ices rendered, to make mention of three of 

7# De Pdvdt's Scientijic Explorations 

the number, coimtrj-men of my own, who afforded me many 
proofs of devoted zeal, gallantly braved fati;'ue and fever 
and encountered all the risks of the expedition, which was solely 
based on my own researches and statements, and one in which 
my only guides, in a country unknown even to ita nearest 
neighbours, were my maps and my compass: the three com- 
pamons in question were Mougel Bey, junior, engineer, and 
Messrs. Tnicoon and Decurey, inhabi^nts of Carthagena, who 
were induced by tho grandeur of the undertaking to share my 
hazards and perils. 

Havingmadea journey to Bogota, I was not able to commence 
my new explorations before the28thof June, 18G5; on v\hichday 
I set sail from Carthagena in an old halandra, called the Es^eranza, 
a sort of one-masted decked barge of 30 tons, without any keel 
— the only craft I could procure in that port. Coasting along 
by Morosquillo and the Sinii, but only in the day-time, on 
account of the defective condition of my vessel, — to say nothing 
of the dry or moist whiilwinds which olew almost every night 
from the south — I doubled Poiiit Caribana (where I was nearly 
wrecked on the Lavadera Rock) as well as Point AguUa, and 
entered the Gulf of Uraba. 

On tho 7th of July I aiiived at Tisisi — a small village 
situate at the mouth and on the left bank of the river Turbo. 
As the part of the country I proposed reaching was compara- 
tively so near, I had indulged in the hope of being able to 
procure some intelligence respecting it, from the inhabitants of 
the place just named, iiarticularly from ilr. Charles Dean, a 
British subject, who kindly received me ; but, although the point 
at which I wished to touch was only some 19 or 20 miles 
distant by water, I could not, unfortunately, obtain the desired 
information. On the contrary, every one vied in dissuading mo 
trom tlie attempt to penetrate into a district inhabited by 
" Indies bravos," under the leadership of a treacherous cacique, 
well known for his enmity to all foreigners. I was told taat 
none hut Indians of the same race could ascend their rivers, 
much less enter their villages, without running the risk of being 
put to death. Moreover — and this was of importance — every 
one affirmed that the river I was in quest of, in that directicm, 
viz., the Tauela, did not evon exist, and that the only " river " j 
known under that name was one of the thirteen mouths of the 
Atrato— the Boca de Tarena. Nevertheless, I relied so much 
on my former researches respecting tho Isthmus of Uarien, that 
I persisted in my project, and ordered the owner of the craft 
to obey my instructions and proceed on the appointed coutse, 
without any further observations. 

I left Pieisi on the 10th of July, at 7 A.M., Tinder a stiff breeze 


171 the lithmus of Darien. 

il)le<l Point Kevesa, passed at some distance the Atrato, 
ssing two of its mouths (the Boca Grande and the Boca 
IXsTeDa) — which were so miieh blocked up by the alluvia of the 
'rims that there was not sufficient water for the Indian canoes; 
.•ad at 1 P.M., cast anchor in the western extremity of tlie 
finlf of Uraba, some '1 miles from tho coast, and in 6-tatboni 

At that short distance, and in a s.8,w. direction — the one in 
which I expected to discover the mouth of the Tanela — the 
coast, viewed through a spy-glass, presented but one continuous 
net-work of mangroves, sheltered behind a bar which was 
capoeed to ail the fiuy of the waves. To the west arose a 
chain of sniall mountains, sloping do\vn to the sea and termi- 
nating, to the south, in the Peak of Tarena, and, to the north, 
in the Peak of Gandi. To tho north, the islands of Tarena, 
Tatumate, and Tambor, were embosomed on the sea — the last- 
named one being lost in the horizon, above Puerto Escondido, 
Opposite the Tutumate Isles, and on the brink of the shore, are 
fottP fishermens' huts, which form' the so-called village of Tutu- 
mate. _ I ordered the largest of my three canoes to be launched, 
and, accompanied by M. Mougel, junior, M. Truchon, and four 
rowers, all well armed, made right ahead for the bar, which we 
aooceeded in passing over in safety, and found ourselves, all at 
ooce, in a small tranquil creek, at the extremity of which we 
pcroeived the mouth of the Tanela, some 20 metres wide, and so 
well-concealed as to be completely invisible from outside the 
bar ; continuing my reconnoitring, I entered the river to the 
extent of 5 or fj miles, in order to note its various aspects, 

The Tanela is 'S fatlioms deep at its outlet, and IJ some 
6 miles up — that distance being the farthest extent of the es- 
ploiatioQ on the 10th of July ; at which time, however, the river 
wBB not supplied with its average volume of water. For the 
a^aoB of about 3 miles, it takes a s.s.e. inland course, exhibiting 
in its axis the Peak of Tarena ; it then iuclines more and more 
towards the south, the S.S.W. and the south-west until it resumes 
ito general direction, viz., W-S-W., which — with the exception of 
ftninerons bends — it maintains up to the point of junction of two 
biwicheB, one of which descends from the Sierra do Estola in 
a more northerly course, whilst the other rises between the 
connter-forts of the Sierra de Mali, in a more southern one. 

Contrary to tlie delineation on the maps, the Tanela has but 
one outlet into the soa ; but it is evident, from the appearance of 
the spot, that there were formerly two, if not more. At somo 
remote period it must have debouched direct into tho gulf, 
idiilfit following its general direction from w.s,w. to E.M.E. ; and 
4t that epoch the River Atrato had only one rast estuary, situate 


76 1*E Puydt'j Scicnfifie Exploration 

at the extremity of the Bay of Candelaria, at the base of the- 
counter-forts of the Choc'o Mountaius, aud ut the rear of the 
present mouth of the Suriquilla, The immense alluvial deposit* 
of the Atrato have, by degrees, filled up the entire extremity of 
the gulf, covering it with flat shores, which produce only man- 
groves, and which, as now seen, are intersected by numerous 
canals, more or less navigable. 

Tiio Suriquilla, Tigre, Arquia, and other lagoons or marshes 
have likewise sprung up from those alluvial formations. To the 
like cause must be attributed the impediments to the direct 
course of the Tanela — obstacles which compelled it to deflect 
more and more towards the north, and to assume its present 
'lirection, whilst foiTuing two or more mouths. The extension 
of the sandbanks has, however, effaced all traces of the more 
eastern mouth, so that only one now remains. That theory is. 
confirmed by ocular inspection. Li effect, on ascending the 
Tanela some 3 miles, one finds it flowing through an entirely 
Hat, muddy, and slimy country (covered with mangroves), ana 
maintaining an uninterrupted counection with the banks of the 
Atrato, It is only after the Tanela takes a westerly course 
that its bed becomes sandy, pebbly, and stony : the river is 
then in its ancient bed. 

Before penetrating further into the country and advancing 
towards the Cordillera, I was desirous of recoanoitring the river 
as high up as possible, and, above all, of sounding the disposition 
of the Indians of Tanela, who had been described as so hostile. 
I wished also to determine the exact site of that village. 
Accordingly, on the 11th of July, accompanied by Messrs. 
Mougel and Truchou, as well as by a young native of Piaisi, 
whom Mr. Charles Dean had given me as an interpreter, I 
reascended the Tanela, and found that, higher up than the point 
1 had attained the preceding day, the river still niuintaiued an 
average breadth of 20 metres, covered with water ; but not 
unfrequently its bed was 100 metres or more across, and was 
formed of rocks and fragments of trachytes, dolomites, gneiss, 
and porphyrj', dry to view. 

I drew near a rancho ; but altliough it was uninhabited, I 
found under it two slightly-made boats, called cuyucos, and 
perceived also another untenanted rancho, surrouuded with 

On the llith inst., after having come in sight of other ranehos 
and plantations of bananas, cocoas, and the Dioacorea radix, 1 
arrived, about half-past 4 p.m., at the confluence of the two 
branches already mentioned. From the sea up to this spot, I 
counted 17 rapids or " leaps," but of little incline or height. 
These were easily passed over, with the aid of cordage or a polCr 

^H faeavilj 
^f anmiUD 

in the Isthmus of Dari'en. 



-fthbongb I must not forget to mentiou that my cauoe wo: 

heaTiiy luden — containiag not only nine men, but provisions, 

ammunition, bedding, and other articlea. At the junction in 

question is a rapid with an incline of about I'fiO metre, and 

somewhat more difficult to cross. It may be observed that tln' 

fiomber of rapids here set down is not given as the absolute one : 

for a few inches more or less of water cause them to disappeai' 

l^and re-appear, [larticularly up the windings of the river — the- 

I ipebbles Being washed down by tlie currents and storm-floods. 

J I left the smaller and far less important branch on the left. 

■\SQd entered the northern one, whereon I considered it moro 

l-probable the village of Tanela would be found. Its India;: 

■.uhabitants, I felt assured, were skilful navigators, as the ron- 

I'struction of their cayucos was perfect in their way. At the 

f iinonth of the river I saw five or sis of these admirably-shiped 

i, cut out of single trunks of trees, the natives meddng use 

■.«f Uiem even for turtle-flshing out at sea, 

A little above the junction of the two streams I came on t mag- 
ificent and spacious rancfio, entirely of bamboo (Bavihuso arun- 
macea), and of excellent construction. The roof was formed 
of palm-leaves, artistically juxtaposed and interwoven, and the 
dwelling itself was surrounded by plantations of banana and 
•eooo-aut trees, as well as by flowers of various kinds. Up to 
that time I had not encountered a single human being; but, on 
the other hand, I had at various times discovered unmistakable 
Intoea of the presence of man, near the abandonee ramhos — for 
example, ashes still warm, fruit recently cut, footsteps, &c. I 
may here add that I had given the strictest orders to respect 
property and not to take anything wliatever belonging to tlie 

After resting and sleeping tranquilly in tlie rajicho, we cou- 

. 4inued on our way. Our measures of precaution were found 

I onnecessary, and that night also was passed in cornplete seciu-ity. 

' On the 13th it was impossible to leave at an early hour, for 

■the nortliem branch of the river had become so swollen during 

the storm, which broke out in the course of the night, that tlie 

navigation was impeded. It may be stated here that, up to the 

village of Tanela, I counted eight rapids, all of greater extent 

than those previously met with, on the lower courao. It was 

■evident that this northern branch took its source in a mucli 

more mountainous district, one, moreover, with a vaster plateau. 

As for the southern branch, it was not affected by the storm, 

but remained unchanged in appearance. 

It was not before a quarter past 5 p.m. that we perceived 
the village of Tanela to our left, on the right bank of the river, 
"le inhabitants being assembled on the margin. Boon afterwards 

78 De Pdtdt'* Scieiitijlc Explorations ^^1 

a light mahogany canoe, with three men, pushed off towards us. 
One of them was Nusalileli, the cacique of Tanela, who gave na 
a very kind reception, and insisted upon our slpeping in the 
village. Accordingly we proceeded there, and were most hofl- 
pitaHy entertained; but I was unable to obtain any information 
respecting the interior of the country, the frequented roads, or 
the position of certain points. The faet was that, despite the 
perfectly good understanding between us, the Indian was of too 
listnistful a character to furnish me with the details I so much 
^.eahed to procure. 

The 14tli, at lialf-past U, I took my leave of tlie ludiane of 
Ttnela, who treated us with every mark of friendship, refuaing 
ou: ofier of remnneration for their hospitality. It is true that, 
wift reference to my propoeed exploration, I was not any better 
informed than previously to this visit ; but of one thing I became 
eertiin, that, by acting with great prudence, I should have 
nothing to fear from these natives, wbikt fully conscious that I 
could expect no assistance on their part. 

At a quarter past 3, the same day, I again reached the 
sea, after an easy descent of eight hours and a half, exclusive cf 
some short stoppages for meals. 

My plan vas now fully determined on, viz., to land the pro- 
visions and ill the maUriel ; to reascend the Tanela, as far as 
the confluence of the two branches ; to erect a rancho near that 
spot, as a bacis of operations, and thence open a route through 
the vii^in forest, compass in hand, and following the direction of 
the southern branch, which I considered would lead me to the 
Blopes on the Pacific side by one of the transversal gorges or 
raUeys of the Cordillera. 

The eseciitidu of this plan was at once commenced ; but unfor- 
tunately the large canoe, with M. Truchon and six men, was 
upset wnilst crossing the bar, and a whirlwind which rose at the 
same time compelled me to weigh anchor and take moorings 
on the opposite coast of Caiman. This untoward event, which, 
however, did not involve any loss of life, necessitated the division 
of the expeditionary party into three companies. I landed 
Messrs. Mougel and Decurey, with four men, and then sailed 
for Pisisi, where I found M. Truchon and his crew all safe, but 
wholly destitute, as everything on hoard of the eanoe had been 
lost. Finally, after many fatigues and contrarieties, I anchored 
on the 23rd at the same spot, opposite the Tanela, and on the 
next day we all landed, with our stores. 

Keing under the apprehension that the ten men in my service, 
eight of whom were negroes or mulattos, would make an attempt 
to return so soon as they came in view of the Indians, of whom 
they stend in dread, I took every precaution against their escape ; 


in the Isthmus of Darien. 79 

and accordingly, immediately on our landing, I signalled tlie 
owner of our craft to hoist sau, move off to a distance from shore, 
uid proceed towards Pisisi, it being understood between him and 
me tnat he was not to return before September. My men were 
in consternation at his departure ; but nought remained for them 
bnt to march forward ana do their duty. 

Whilst I was making all necessary scientific observations, 
during my upward course on the Tanela, M. Trncbon preceded 
me on the voyage and had a rancho constructed on the right 
bank, about 150 metres lower down than the confluence of the 
two Iwanchea of the river, below the Grand Kapid. The Tanela 
Indians kindlv assisted him in the construction. Wo were on 
an excellent looting with them ; and here I may state, once for 
■U, that we continued so during the entire exploration. 

On the 3rd of August all our preparations for a settlement 
were terminated, and we were euablea to commence our labours 
for opening the line. The same day nineteen tatooed and armed 
Indians, of the villages of Cuti and Arquia, paid us a visit, and 
eodeavoured by all Mnds of mendacious statements, as well as by 
a description of the various pei-ils that awaited us. to dissuado 
OS &om proceeding any further up the country. I told them, 
'however, in a conciliatory but firm manner, that I had fully made 
-lip my mind on the subject, so that ell their efforts proved un- 
availmg, and theri'upon they withdrew. 

The next day I had a road cleared m a westerly direction, 
making allowance for the magnetic deviation of the spot (S'' e.}. 
On the 5th I traced the site of a new ranclw, which was not 
definitively occupied before the 1 7th, as the brunch of the Tanela, 
which we followed up, had not suflicient depth of water to float 
ihe eanoes when laden, so that all the materials had to be carried 
on men's backs. 

On the loth I received a visit from Paacnal, the chief cacique 
of the Indian confederation of the Caribbees-Ounas, and whose 
residence is at Arquia. Ho was accompanied by thirty-three 
men, armed as for war, and tatooed with the reddish-yellow juice 
«f the amotto plant. He also advised me not to push my re- 
searches further ; in fact, every word of his pirtook of falsehood 
and duplicity, and it was only after an interview of three hours 
tiiat he became couvinced I would only yield to force, and accepted 
the hospitality of my rancho in Indian fashion, that is to say, by 
drinking with me the rhicha-, a beverage made from Indian com. 
He then left, but returned to take his leave of me before pro- 
ceeding on his way back to Arquia. This second time he was 
accompanied by forty men, but in more pacific guise. Although 
still as distrustful as before, and still as much disposed to mislead 


"80 De Puydt's Scientific Exphratiom 

me with respeot to auy information regaiiiing the countrj', be 
made some protestations of friendBhip before liis departure, 

During all this time the labours of exploration eontiuued 
unabated, but some of my workmen had an attack of fever, pro- 
duced by over-fatigue. M. Moii^el, junior, haying imprudently 
exposed himself, fell seriously ill, and beraime so weak that he 
was unable to render me those professional services on which I 
had relied for establishing, by positive data, the result of my 
exploration, M. Truchon himself, despite all the energy of his 
character, was compelled to seek repose for a time in order to 
recruit his strength, exhausted as it was by his too great ardour 
in the cause. 

On the 2l8t of August I quitted the line which had been 
opened out in the westerly direction, but which, however, was 
actively prosecuted in my absence, and proceeded towards the 
N.N.W., in order to ascertain the exact nature of the upper course 
of the northern branch, which flows, as already stated, in iront 
of Tanelo. After crossing several small mountain chains, sepa- 
rated by valleys radiating around a central summit, I reached 
the hank of the river and found that my conjectures were correct. 

Of a far larger volume of water than the southern branch, the 
northern one was rapid in its course, confined by steep banks, 
obstructed by large blocks of rock, which were at times dislodged 
by the force of the current, and characterised here and there by 
falls or leaps of 2, 3, or 4 metres, jVs the waters were so mach 
swollen by a storm that I was compelled, with the two men who 
accompanied me, to pass the m'ght on the bank, I concluded 
that file river received the torrents of rain-wafer which descended 
from the broad and elevated table-lands of the Sierra de Estoln, 
where it takes its rise. Very different, as already observed, was 
the case with regard to the southern branch, for on one occasion 
there was scarcely a rise of a few centimetres, after the rain had 
fallen in torrents during fourteen consecutive hours. 

On the 23rd and 24tn of August I reconnoitred the course of 
the southern branch as far as the slopes of the Mali, and through 
some open vistas along the course of the river. I was enabled, 
by clinabing up trees or neighbouring hills, to see with my own 
eyes that the two summits of the Mali and the Estola sank down, 
as it were, to an abrupt and rapid dechvity, leaving a breach 
between them in the shape of a V, beyond which nothing further 
was discernible on the horizon. Nearly or quite up to my knees 
in water during several days — sometimes, however, hardly up to 
the ankle — I examined all tbe approaches and all the sinuosities 
of the ground, and felt sure that I was on the right way — the 
great desideratum. 

in the Isthmus of Darien. 

RI rectified the curves of the road which had been opened, and 
the 25th of August M. Decurey and myself toot an affec- 
uunate leave of our friends, appointing tlie end of the month for 
oar return, and arranging that, in case of any untoward event, 
M. Truchon should take the command of the expedition and 
endeavour to bring boek the remainder in safety. We two then 
proceeded on our explorations, accompanied by five devoted men, 
who carried our hammocks as well as provisions for fivo days. 

ThuB we set off into the unknown wilds, certain to meet with 
&eeh difficulties, perhaps to perish. At best, we might be com- 
pelled to return by the Pacific slope, either by Paya, if wo 
oeBcended the river of that name, or by Tapalisa, if we tbllowed 
the Puero, or else by the Capeti and the Tuyra, for aU three 
liverB have their sources in the same neighbourhood and in proxi- 
mity to the Mali and Eatola aierraa. Nothing, however, of all 
this happened, and, as will be seen, it pleased Providence to 

B restore us safely to the friends we had left behind. 
' I caused a small rancho to be erected at the foot of the Mali, 
Bud on the morning of the 27th doubled a buttress of the latter, 
^rhilst following a 8.8. w. direction ; then turning w. by J n. I 
reached its summit, some 400 metres above the level of the plain. 
On the Pacific side the descent is almost perpendicular, and con- 
sequently dangerous, the sierra forming, as it were, a wall, from 
the top of which one perceives immense wooded savannahs, 
mtered by the Tuyra and its tributaries. From out that ocean 
of verdure emerge the peaks and summits of the hilly chain 
vhich follows the course of the Chucunaque, and which, in undu- 
lating forms, die away in the distance, enveloped in a blueish 
tint, and taking a direction from north to south and from n.n.w. 

It was clear, therefore, that we had reached the last limit of 
the chain which separates the two slopes on that point ; but the 
question still remained whether, at the base of this same peak 
of the Mali, we should find the Tanela unchanged in respect of 
its incline and current. A branch of that chain advanced towards 
the west and plunged almost perpendicularly in the direction of 
the gorge; but the eye was hinited in its range by a luxuriant 
and gigantic vegetation, nor — for the same reason — could the ear 
catch uie least sound announcing a water-course, even if there 
were KD.J fells. 

Creeping on all fours, sometimes sliding on our backs, at others 
with our faces to the earth, and here and there lost for a while 
amidst the ferns and tufted plants, we happily accomplished our 
perilous descent, with a grateful sense of Providential preser- 

At one end of a little savannah I came again on the Tanela, 

VOL, 3UtXVlIl. 


■Sa I>E Pdtdt'« Scientific Explorations 

bnt found its volume of water considerably diminished. It Waa 
taking a zigzag courae between the slopes of the two sierras in 
altemfttely a west and south direction, so that the direction given 
to the passage in tlie Cordillera was south-west. In this latter 
direction I continuedj accompanied by M. Decurey, sometimes 
in the water, at others half-way up the declivities ; the result 
being that, in a short time, we were again presented with the 
same spectacle we had witnessed &om the summit of the Mali. 
The view was an unbounded one, the already-mentioned plains 
of the Darien stretching out to a remote distance, without any 
impediment. The Tanela itself had dwindled down to a smau 
stream, fed here and there, on the right and left, by some de- 
scending brooks, furtively making their way under the grasses, 
the mosses, and the stones. 

It was evident tliat we bad attained the culminating point — 
the very threshold of the division of the two slopes, and, at the 
same time, the spot where the Nique chain was at its lowest 
point of depresaion. I thereupon drew up a circumstantial 
account of this latter exploration, ns was the case with regard 
to the other operations, and we returned to our raneKo. I 
considered it, however, advisable to make our way back along 
the course of the Tanela, so that I might be certain, once for 
all, that the deviations we had made, in order to ascsnd the 
Mali, had not removed us from the route I was in quest of. 

On the evening of the 28th we had the pleasure of rejoining 
our friends ; and we all indulged in a holiday in coramemoration 
of this felicitous termination of a diflicult enterprise, which so 
maay persons, including not a few who were competent to form 
an opinion, had deemed impracticable. From that date up to 
the 3rd of September, when we left for Carthagena, nothing 
worthy of note occurred. 

It may, however, be stated here that, on descending the 
Tanela, I made a series of observations on the speed of itfl 
current at all points of its course. I am aware that those 
observations cannot possibly lead to any positive deductions 
with regard to the facility of constructing a maritime canal 
through the Isthmus, or dispense with the necessity of a survey ; 
but such as they are they were submitted to an engineer, who 
based bis calculations thereon, as follows : — The height of the 
"threshold of division," or level summit resulting from the 
incline of the Tanela, as calculated by the speed of its waters, 
is found to be 30 metres, 79 centimetres — this same threshold 
not being more than five miles in length. 

From the insufficiency, however, of the details fiirnished, I 
have grounds not only for tbinking thot the above figures are 
below the standard, but for expressing the opinion that the 

w tlie Isthmus of Darien. SB 

leigfat above tlie level of the sea is from 40 to 45 mbtrea. This, 
'len, would be the most depressed point of the Cordillera, at 
« practicable site for opening a canal, mth easy issttes into the 
w oceans. 

. With regard to the employment of a barometer as a Bub- 
)itat« for levelling, I am convinced, by my ovra experience, 
_hat it would only lead one into a labyrinth of errors. The 
boghts to be measured ore, comparatively, so low, the climate 
80 moist, the electric tension so strong, and the variations of 
atmospheric pressure so abiupt, that, independently of the 
absence of special experimental tables of correction for those 
regions, as well as through some other causes, the use of the 
ba^meter would he a matter of very great difticulty, without 
any but exceedingly doubtful results. In fact Mr. Guyot, Pro- 
{bbbot of Physical Geography at New Jersey (United States), was 
obliged, as he himself told me, to dispense with that mode of 
|- measuring heights, whilst making observations in intertropical 
^^limates, more particularly with respect to the lesser altitudes. 
■ I have now to state tliat, as I was charged with a scientific 
pBUEsion by the Minister of Public Instruction, I collected, 
dorine my journey, as many facts as possible, likely to hear on 
the subject of such a mission. I may add also that, during my 
exploration of the eastern coast of Darien, I sent one of the 
companions of my journey of 1861 to complete the observations 
previously made, in order that it might oe seen whether the 
zesults were in accordance with those already obtained. 

I shall now treat of the Isthmus of Darien in a point of view 
which may, possibly, be deemed the most interesting for the 
Eoyal Geographical Society, and shall group together the facts 
arrived at dunng my two explorations, 

I have already pointed out tlie limits of Darien, and de- 
scribed the large river which crosses it nearly from east to 
west, after a lengthy course from south-west to north-east. The 
tide of the Pacific finds ita way very high up the Tuyra and its 
tributary streams, and is perceptible three miles above Pino- 
gana, fineen above Yavisa on llie Chucunaque, and six above 
the mouth of the Eio Lara which falls into the Savannah. The 
Tuyra is of considerable depth, particularly as far up as Santa 
jlaria La Reale, and its feeders are botli numerous and impor- 
tant on both banks ; but as existing maps are very incomplete 
as to those points, more especially beyond Pinogana, I shall 
endeavour to supplement them by means of the notes taken 
during my journeys. From Pinogana to Paya, its tiubutaries 
are: — 

Ist. Tlie AruBa or Aiuja, on the left bank. 


De Puydt's Scienlijic Explorations 

2nd. The Yape, on the right bank. Above the latter river, 
the Tuyra is still from 90 to 100 metres broad, and from 3 to 
3 "50 in depth, io an average volume of water. 

3rd. The Capeti, on the right bank, 20 to 25 mefres at the 
mouth: this is the route followed by the Spaniards in their 
contests with the Darien Indians. It flows between the Tape 
and the Pucro, parallel to those two rivers and its sources, like 
the Pucro and the Paya are in the open gorge between the 
Sierraa of Estola and Mali. 

4tb. The Cupe, on the left bank. Beyond this river the 
Tuyra is only 30 metres broad. 

5th. The 'Margarita, on the left bank, a small rivulet. 

6th. The Soto Caballo, on the right bank, small. 

7th. The Tuluagua, on the right bank, 

8th. A nameless stream, on the left bank. 

9th. The Piedro or Rio de Piedraa, on the left bank. 

10th, Tlie Pucro, on the right bank, 30 to 35 metres at its 
mouth. The village of the like name no longer exists. This' 
river formerly afforded the means of communication — B6 is the 
case now with regard to the Capeti and Paya respectively — 
between the two slopes of the great mountain chain. 

11th. The Mallakanti, on the left bank. 

llith. The Paka, on the left bank. 

13th. The Kuriako, on the riglit bank. 

14th. The Inaganayua, on the left bank, 

15th. The Piriako, on the left bank. 

16th. Tlie Pita, on the right bank. 

17th. The Tikurtikinti, on the right bank. 

18th, The Paya, on the right bank. 

Up to the vUlage of Paya, which is on its right bank, this* 
lastruamed river receives not less than twenty-two tributaries, 
all the names of which I have obtained — thti principal, how- 
ever, being the Abchueldotogo, the Muyaco, the Abchueltnmati, 
the Espinoso, the Paluti, the Biagnal, the Palludi, and the Mucha- 
gambi. Opposite the village the Paya is still 30 metres broad. 

I have already spoken of the chain of the Cordilleras border-- 
ing on the Atlantic. This chain, after leaving Cape Tihuron, 
dimmishes both in breadth and height, and becomes broken np 
into various masses of greater or less importance. It is in 
that respect that the maps are completely m error, local obser- 
vation having set aside the assertion — based on an existing fact, 
but not sufficiently explained — ikai three small conseeviim 
chains and parallel mountains separate the Western SavanTtaht 
from the easfej-n eliore of the Isthmus, and are connected by lateraT 

in the Isthmus of Darien. 85 

This 19 true — ^biit what is the relative situatioa of those 
b minor chains ? Do they preseut, as asserted, that insurmount- 
Lable obstacle which has beeu made the basis of so much opposi- 
r tion to the proposed caoalizatiou by the lower Darieu ? 
To those questions I offer the following replies : — 
Taking Cape Tiburon as its startiug-point, the Cordillera is 
r^vided into throe chains, the highest of which is the Sierra de 
I JSstola, that is to say, the most westerly one. This chain 
[. .contiQues in an uninterrupted line, gives rise to some streamlets, 
slffpee down abruptly and profoundly in the Ticinity of the 
■ aoorces of the Tanela (Atlantic) and of the Capeti, Pucro, Paya, 
and Mast^i (Pacific), and then rises again under the name of 
Sierra de Mali, thus extending the grand Nique chain as far as 
the Bay of Aguacate, on the Pacific, 

The second chain diverges from Point Miel (Cape Tiburon), 
follows the coast, which it often borders perpendicularly, opens 
out and divides into mamelons, so as to afford passages for some 
insignificant brooks, slopes down to a considerable depth, 
thereby forming the fine port knoivn as Puerto Eacondido,* and 
then abruptly t<.'rminatfis in the Peak of Tarena, which is partly 
Borrounded by the Tanela. 

The third of the above-mentioned chains leaves Cape Tiburon 
f coot, plunges into the sea, which it coasts, and only emerges 
from the waves to exhibit the summits called, resi>ectively, 
the Tonel, Piton, Bolanderos, Tambor, Tutnmate, and Tarena 
tales ; three of which (the Bolanderos and the lastr-uamed two) 
Me composed of petty groups of conic islets, of small extent, 
with perpendicular jiartitions or side-walls, around which are 
ads anchorages, from 20 to 40 fathoms in depth. I have 
anchored in, respectively, 9 and 13 fathoms water, within a 
ilone'i throw of one of toe Tumate, and also one of the Tarena 

Of these three minor chains, tlie Estola is the highest, one of 
its Bummits (Peak Gundi) being 700 metres, and another (Peak 
Estola) 500, above the level of the sea ; next comes the second 
small chain which borders the coast, and is only of the average 
height of 120 metres; and last of all, the suh-inarine one, rising 
out of the waters some 30, 40, or 50 metres. 

These chains are intersected by parallel valleys. The firet 
one, between tlie Sierra de Estola and the coast chain, is but of 
inconsiderable altitude above the level of the sea, and ia bathed 
by a small river which rises on the declivity of the Peak of 
Tarena, and fiows into the Puerto Escondido ; and the second 


68 De Potdt's Sctentific Explorations 

one, between the coast and the islea, is easily discoverable in 
depths of 10, 20, and even 30 tathoms of water. The Puerto- 
Eficondido is, throughout ite extent, trom 15 to 44 fathoms in 
deptb, with a slimy and pebbly bottom. 

It is unnecessary to point out to those whom I have now the 
honour of addressing tne deductions to be drawn from this 
orographic and hydrogmphical nature of thiuM, with reference 
to the facility of laying down a canal in this direction. I may 
be allowed merely to add here — in order to avoid the necessity 
of reverting to the Gulf of IJraba — that, in consequence of 
several accidental occurrences during my explorations, I felt 
bound to traverse it several times, in various directions, more 
particularly on the following lines : — From Pisisi to the Tarena 
Isles ; from the Tarena Isles to Point Caiman ; from Point 
Caiman to the Tutumates; from Puerto Escondido to the 
anchorage opposite the Tanela ; and from Point Aguila to 
Fbisi ; and I mvariably found a minimum depth of 10 fathoms 
up to within two miles of the eastern coast of the Gulf and of 
the line of the northern mouths of the Atrato, and of more than 
20 to 45 on all the other points. 

1 had no means at hand for taking deeper soundings. 

The climate of the Isthmus is, in general, healthy. As the 
country, which is but of limited breadth, is situate betiveen two- 
oceans and furrowed by numerous broad water-courses, with 
mountains either of no great altitude or else isolated, the 
breezes from the opposite shores have sufficieut scope for dis- 
persing any miasma that miglit arise from that decay and 
fermentation of vegetable matter, which are chiefly observable 
after the rainy season. 

On the western course, in the plains on the Darien side, the 
rainy season, properly so called, commences towards the Ist of 
June and terminates about the middle of September; the dry 
season lasts from the 15th of November to tlie Ist of April — 
the intermediate periods constituting two mixed, Tariable- 
seasons, altematijig oetween fine weather and intermittent rtuna. 

On the Uraba Gulf side, that is to say, on the Atlantic slope, 
the rainy season is of later arrival and shorter duration — the 
Tariable seasons, as well as the dry one, extending over a 
longer period. 

Storms are of frequent occurrence throughout the lathmns, 
particularly in the rainy season, and they rage with a futy 
cnknown to our latitudes, bursting forth witu scarcely any 
warning, and abating with the like mpidity. 

The lowlands contiguous to the coasts, and more particularly 
Buch as are of slimy alluvium formation, are unhealthy and' 

in the Isthmus of Darien. 87 

unizibabitabley both on account of their humidity and the 
presence of myriads of mosquitos and sand-flies, which would 
render a residence insupportable. Very different, however, is 
the case some little distance inland — ^the nature of the soil 
and the excellence of tlie water rendering the interior of the 
oonntry very salubrious. 

Durmg my two explorations I always found that the cases of 
fever — ^intermittent, but never miasmatic or marsh fever — which 
broke out amongst the men who accompanied me, were trace- 
able to imprudences of one kind or the other, such as over- 
bafhing, too prolonged expo.^ure to the sun, the absence of 
woollen clothes on the upper parts of the body, or some excess 
in ffttigue or drink. 

The soil of the Isthmus is distinguished by those pecu- 
liarities whiclL belong to lands of upheaval, and which appertain 
almost exclusively to that period of transition which onginated 
—what were formerly called — the primitive formations; as 
finr secondary strata, very few are discernible. Grenerally covered 
with a layer of humuSj not unfrequently of considerable thick- 
ness, the sub-soil is composed of granitic, porphyritic and 
trachytic rocks ; of dolerites, quartz-like gneiss, pegmatites and 
siliceo-aluminous earths. The most prevalent rock on the 
Pacific side is argillaceous schist, which is always more or less 
decomposed, and often found in a state of transition to pure 
day. Something similar may be said with regard to the peg- 
matites, which are so far altered as to pass into Kaolin or 
porcelain clay. 

I consider that the Isthmus of Darien was the point whereon 
the nucleus of vibration of that vast upheaval was established, 
which elevated from the depths of the earth the immense chains 
of the Cordilleras to the north, and of the Andes to the south ; 
and if that hypothesis be correct, the inconsiderable altitude of 
the mountains on that point would be attributable to the quasi- 
immobility of the nucleus itself. 

At some subsequent period must have occurred another local 
phenomenon, caused, no doubt, by the shock of a violent current 
extending from the west to the east, breaking and dissevering 
the already formed Cordillera, and scattering some of its rem- 
nants into the depths of the Gulf of Uraba, or massing them 
on its shores. 

Evidence of all this may be easily deduced from the present 
appearance of the district between the Cordillera and the Gulf, 
no true regular rocky foundation or couche, nor any rocks 
superposed in straight or inclined layers being discoverable in 
any part. Nought, in fact, is to be seen but a conglomeration 


De Puydx'* Scienlijtc Explorations 

of blocltB of all kinds of shapes worn away by attrition, rounded 
off here and there, and scattered pell-mell either on the surface 
of the soil or in the soil itself. These enoi-mous blocks, which 
are principally met with near the sierras, were formerly em- 
bedded in the earth ; but at present they are held captive, as it 
were, between the roots of some patriarchal trees, and kept 
fixed in the soil by the vigour of such vceetation. The 
water-courses, rains, and storms have laid bare tnose blocks, by 
carrying off the lighter remains which surroimded them, so tliat 
they are now visible on the spots where they were formerly 
hurled by one of those convulsions of our globe. It will be 
seen, therefore, that those blocks are, so to say, erratic — 
rolled-down frappients, belonging to ancient alluvia, and not 
to be conlbunded with similar specimens of more modem 
formations. These siiecial charactetiatics were discovered by 
exploring the bed of the Tanela, particularly in its upper course. 
I may here refer to my minemogical collection, in order to 
show how rich, in that respect, is the subsoil of the Isthmus. 
I shall, in the first place, make mention of coal (which to my 
own knowledge exists on two points), and of cinnalwr and quick- 
silver in the Estola Sierra, as well as of silver, oxydised tin, 
&c. ; and express the belief that, judging by the similarity of 
the soil in some places to that of the famous miues of Muzo 
(Colombia), which I have visited, emeralds are very likely to 
be found in the Isthmus. As for gold, it is on record that the 
Spaniards greatly enriched themselves by working mines of 
that precious metal in the Uarien, and I am enabled to state 
positively that almost all the rivers — particularly on the Pacific 
slope — waft down either gold-sands or gold agglomerations of 
larger or smaller size. 

It would be impossible to avoid repetition in treating of the 
hitherto unknown natural vegetable wealth of the Darien soil, 
all that is wanting being labour and means of transport 

Certain trees, such as the Mora, the Mahogany, the Ceiba, 
tic, attain to gigantic proportions, both as to length and diameter. 
I have seen a canoe, of 25 tons, which was entirely scooped out 
of the trunk of one tree. Amongst the trees serviceable for 
building purposes may be also mentioned the Gayac, tlie Iron- 
wood, the Cabbage, the Ebony, the Ked Mai^rove (Ehizophora 
Mangle), the Nispero (Mespilus milgaris), the Espave, the BongOi 
the Oorotu, the Bed and White Cedars, &c., for the most part 
incorruptible in water, and impervious to insects. The two 
slopes produce also immense quantities of the Hevea, which yields 
caoutehouc, the Tagua or Vegetable-ivory tree, the Corozo 
Palm, which furnishes an excellent oil for commercial purposes. 




in tlie Isthmus of Darien. 89 

the Gojpaifera officinalis, from which the Balsam of Copaiba flows, 
the Myroxylou, whence the Balm of Tolu is derived, and other 
Talnable trees. 

Amongst the productions used for tinctures, I may cite the 
Pemambuco, the Logwood-tree (H^maioxylon camp&!}tianum), 
the Amotto, the Sumach, the Phytolacca, &c. ; and, anionget 
those employed by cabinet makers, the Mahogany, the Bois de 
Perdrix (Purtridge wood), and various others. 

Were the Isthmus more populous, or inhabited by a less 
aluggish race, the naturally fertile land along its shores and 
rivere would be rendered highly productive. In fact, the soil 
IB foound in the extreme, and the few plants which are known 
to commerce, and which I found growing wild, or in some widely 
apart plantations, were wonderfully developed. The soil is 
pecoliarly suitable for the cottou-tree, more especially the 
variety known as Long-silk Georgian, as well as for cacao and 
coffee trees, sugar-canes, ricinus, tobacco, indigo, vanilla, sarsa- 
pfti^llft, rice, potatoes, maize, &c. 

I shall pass over the medicinal productions, as well as those 
innumeraSla flowers which charm as much by the magnificence 
of their forms and the brilliancy of their colours, as by their 
delicions perfumes. Amongst the former, however, may be 
just mentioned — 1st. the Cedion, the fruit of which contams a 
filial of unequal bitterness, which proves to be a sovereign 
zranedy iu fevers Uiat have resisted quinine and anti-toxica ; 
jt is also of great cfflciency in cases of bites by venomous ser- 
pents ; and, 2nd, the Guaco or Huaco, wliich, together with the 
plants called "Yerbas de ligatura," is also successfully em- 
ployed in similar cases, whether arising from poisonous reptiles 
or luaects. 

Throughout the entire Isthmus, no horse, ox, cow, or goat is 
to be met with, — the only domestic animals possessed by the 
inhabitants of the two slopes being dogs, pigs, cocks, and hens. 

Amongst the wild animals affording food for man, mav be 
ennmerated the tapir, the wild-boar, the wild pig, two kinds of 
peocaries, the roebuck, the agouti, the paca, and the black 
nowling-ape, the latter being considered a delicacy by the 
inhabitants ; amongst the birds, the hocco, the penelope, the 
pheasant, the partridge, the pigeon, various kinds of ducks, 
the wood-hen, snipe, &c. ; amongst reptiles, the sea and land 
tortoise, and the iguane, the flesh of the latter being delicate 
and succulent ; and, finally, amongst the fish and mollusca, the 
bagre, the sabalo, the corvina, the dab or flounder, the dorado, 
sea and mangrove oysters, Venus shell-fish, tellinea, donacea. 
And other ^^-fish. 


90 Dk Puydt's Scieiaijic Explorations 

The forests are the resorta of aumeroiis carnivorous animals, 
such as the ja^iar, the puma, tiger-cat (with another species 
called the Ocelot), and other quadrupeds of the mammalia 
class; the ra<:oon, the large and small ant-eater, the armadillo, 
the sloth, and a host of monkej-s of the Sapajon tribe, in- 
habiting the interior of the woods, and filling them, nig-ht 
and day, with their cries and yells. Tbe carnivorous species 
find abundant and easy prey amongst the peccaries and wild 

Eigs which Bwarm on the Isthmus, but vfhich, so [far fi^^m 
emg dangerous to man, rapidly flee at his approacL The 
same may he said of the numerous species of serpents with 
fangs, which at sunrise betake themselves to humid thickets, 
where they remain all day, only quitting their retreats during the 
ni^ht. The most common are the rattle-snake, the bejuco, the 
bejuquillo, the mapana, the trigonocephalus, " Lance-iron," and 
the long adder ; and amongst the non-poisonous kinds, the hoa- 
constridor and the hoa, canina {Qalliee : " hoa chasseur " ). 

The aiUgaior sclerous abounds in the slimy water-ways, parti- 
cularly on the Pacific slope, as well as in the liiver Tuyra, 
and iguanas, lizards, "dragons," basilisks, and chameleons are 
found perching on the trees. The existence in America of the 
last-named little animal was long denied ; but I once held a 
female chameleon in my hand, and tor some time observed 
her whilst bearing her young one on her back, keeping it up 
by intertwining their two tails. Unfortunately being suddenly 
overtaken by the waters, after a violent storm, 1 was obliged to 
abandon this carious specimen of natural history, in order to 
save my life. 

The forests and the savannahs teem with myriads of birds 
and butterflies, of brilliant and variegated colours. Every 
moment bauds of aras, gnacamayas, and other parrots, are seen 
on the wing, toucans, blue and wliite herons, tabirs — the deadly 
foes of reptiles — agaimes (the guardians of the poultry-yard), 
colibris, bird-flies, tangaras, and kingfishers, spring emulonaly 
from tree to tree or from flower to flower, whilst the white or 
black pelicans are seen catching fish in the alime of the lagoons. 

A curious tish is found in the liiver Tuyra, viz., the "runcador," 
first mentioned by Herrera, in his ' History of the West Indies.' 
It is endowed with voice, which resembles the roaring from afar 
of a young bull, and which causes a vibration of the waters. 
I was greatly surjtrised on hearing it, for the first time, whilst 
descending the river. 

It now only remains to cast a rapid glance at the present 
inhabitants of the Darien, who are but bttle known, and 
respecting whom so much incorrect information has been given 

in the Isthmus of Darien. 


in variouB small publications. I shall premise by a brief retro- 
spect at the former state of tbat fine country, to wbicli, on 
account of its great natural wealth, tlie Spaniards gave, at the 
commencement of the sixteenth century> under the governorship 
of Diego de Niciiosa, the title of " Golden Castille." 

It vslS in loOl that Bodrigo fiostidas, of Beville, whilst 
following «p the discoveries made on the Colombian continent 
by Olonzo de Ojeda, proceeded along the coasts of Gaira, Mag- 
dalena, and Oarthageno, penetrated into the gulfs of Sinu and 
Uraba, and doubled Cape Tiburon as for as Port del Eetrete — 
the furthest point reached by the army that followed Christo- 
pher Columbus, who himseli descended from Cape Gracias a 
Dios in a westerly direction, Bastidas was accompanied by 
Joan de la Cosa, — a celebrated and skilful mariner, who acted 
as pilot. 

Nothwithstanding the resistance of the Cacique Cemaco, the 
towns of San Sebastian and Santa Maria el Antigua were 
fbonded by Enciso, and that of Agla by Vasco NuHez oe Balboa, 
who had to carry on a contest with the Cacique Tnmaco,* It 
was during the expedition which this great captain (who perished 
BO deplorably) made in the direction of the Atrato, that he 
discovered the vast ocean to which, in 1516, after having crossed 
tike Isthmus, he gave the name of " Pacific." 

The chief object of his firat expedition was to seize on the 
immense treasures in the Temple of Dobaiba, and on the 

temple itself, which, it wf 
iucmsted with pearls 

a, 1 


I covered with gold and 
Even to this day 

there exists ii tradition respecting Dobaiba, but as yet there 
has been no possibility of obtoinmg any positive information 
regarding that wondrous edifice. 

At the time of the conquest of Darien, the country was 
covered with numerous and well-peopled villages. The innabit- 
ants belonged to the Carribbee race, divided into tribes, the 
TOiucipal being the Mandinghese, Chucunaquese, Dariena, 
Cnnas, Anachocunas, &c. On the eastern shore of the Gulf 
of Uraba dwelt the immense but now nearly exterminated 
tribe of the Caimans, — only a few remnants of the persecutions 
of the Spaniards having taken refuge in the Choco Mountains, 
where they are still found. 

The conquerors had but one object in view, and but one 
incentive, viz., by all possible means to get hold of the entire 
wealth of the country. Everything disappeared beneath the 
footsteps of the invaders, and in a snort time Spain was under 


, 52 De PcYDT's Scientific Exphraiions 

the Deeesaity of Laving recourse to colonisation and tlie infamous 
system of slavery, in order to repeople a territory where she 
Had left nought but ruiuB. 

Matters, in a certain sense, progressed very rapidly. The 
search after gold was ardently resumed, particularly at Caua, 
and on the rivers Merea and Cuque. In fact, Don Juan de 
TJlloa states that, in 1716, there were not less than thirty or forty 
floui'ishing cities, towns, and villages on the soil of that fine 

By the year 1790 all that prosperity had ceased. Thirty 
shafts that had been BUiik for working the gold-mines were 
closed up ; the surviving Indians, in alliance with adventurers 
of all nations, had forced the Spaniards to sign the treaty of 
peace of Ascension Isle (June 9, 1787), and to demolish the forts 
they had erected, as well as to withdraw their military posfn. 
Hven the route opened by Don Andres de Atisa very soon dis- 
appeared amidst the luxuriant vegetation of the Inter- tropica. 
In fine, the only vestiges at present of Spanish domination are 
the ruins of a few forl« ; for example, at £scuchadero, on the lefit 
hank of the Tuyra, opposite the mouth of the Chucunaque, and 
at Santa Maria la Beale and Agla. 

The Dariens, as well as the Anacliacnnas, have either totally 
disappeared or been absorbed in other tribes ; the remnants of 
the Chueunaquese who in 1861 dwelt on the banks of the river 
which bears their name, and who hovered about my raneho, have 
gone up towards the north ; the Mandinghese occupy the coast 
as far as the Bay of Caledonia, and the Cunas have established 
themselves on the shores of the Gulf of Uraha, near the outlets 
of the Atrato. It must be, however, slated that, in the interior 
of the eountiT, more particidarly to the south of the River Tuyra, 
there are stQl some small Indian villages belonging, I think, to 
the tribe of the Dariens, such as Sambu, Tucuti, &c. 

I set down the entire population of the Isthmus of Darien at 
5000 souls, at least, inclusive of the Indians of whom I have 
just spoken, as well as of the negroes and mulattos who inhabit 
the villages of Yaviza, Las Palmas, Chepigana, Sant^ Maria, 
Molineca, Pinogana, and some isolated huts on the banks or in 
the vicinity of the Tuyra — in all which places there is not a 
single Itidian. In fact, all their inhabitants are either pure or 
mixed blacks, scarcely two or Uiree Mestizos (issue of whites and 
Indians), or ^nitos (issue of Indians and negroes) being met with. 

I lay some stress on this point, because every traveller is 
beard speaking of the " Indians " of the Tuyra villages, whereas 
only Spanish is spoken therein, the Cuna and Darien dialects 
being totally unknown, 

A small trade is carried on by all those villages with Panama, 



171 the Isthmus of Darien. Q3 

by means of some Europeans, or of a few natives, owners of large 
canoes whifh, altliousl' without keels, traverse the Gulf of San 
Miguel and tliat of Panama, creeping along the coast, and only 
navigating by day. The principal articles of commerce are: 
caoutchouc (which the inhabitants commenced exporting some 
four years ago), tagua or vegetable ivory, bananas, pine-apples, 
timber, either square or sawn into planks, dried meat called 
taaajo, and small quantities of some other objects, such as vanilla, 
balsam of Tolu, and sarsaparilla. These articles they exchange 
with middle-men, who not unfrequently have beforehand, and, 
at enormous prices, sold to the producers such goods as cottons, 
handkerchiefs, jewellery, firearms, powder, household utensils, 
Offvardienie or brandy, and anisado — produced by distilling the 
juice of the sugai^canes with various plants. 

In consequence of these advances in kiml and sometimes in 
money, on tne part of the middle-men, nearly all the inhabitants 
of these parts incur considerable debts, in payment of which they 
have to collect the goods required from tliem, under penalty of 
imprisonment and the cepo (or stocks) — that is to say, a very 
leary piece of wood enclosing the foot of the defaulter, just 
above the ankle. The inconceivable idleness of these people 
prevents them from emancipating themselves from these pecu- 
niary burdens, by transacting their own business without agents ; 
and their tendency to dnmkenness and debauchery causes them 
to submit, without a murmur, to their fate, for the sake of mo- 
mentary gratifications. 

Their dwellings are, in general, uncleanly and void of the 
most necessary domestic objects. They are constructed with 
tnmks of trees, connected by bamboos, which are planted in the 
earth or placed cross-wise, and the roof is covered with leaves of 
the macaw-tree. Amidst these villages, and on the humid 
ground, are seen, pell-mell, pigs, dogs, poultry, and naked chil- 
dren. As for the men and women, they exhibit a certain degree 
of luxury and are often somewhat coquettish in dress, particu- 
larly on holidays and at evening dances, as I was enabled to 
observe on the occasionof two balls given to me at Santa Maria, 
in the house of an inhabitant named Candelario. 

Hunting and fishing aiford abundance of food, and in addition 
the inhabitants have rice (which constitutes their principal nou- 
rishment), potatoes, ignames, and fruit of various kinds. Their 
arms are the gun and the machete (a sort of sabre), but they are 
wholly unacquainted with the use of the bow and arrow. Their 
boats, which are wholly made out of the trunks of trees, are not 
BO elegant in form or so neatly finished off as those of the Indians 
on the Atlantic slope, but they are paddled with sufficient skill. 
Their language is exclusively Spanish. So far, however, as 



De PuTDTj Scicntijic Explorations 


tlio inhabitonta of the village of Pinogaiia are concerned, the 
foregoing observations with reference to the part, of the Isthmus 
in question are susceptible of some modifications, for their man- 
ners and habits are somewhat influenced by the proximity of 
the Indian villaces of Paya and Tnpahsa, situate on the same 
slope, and by their frequent intercourse with the Cunas, In 
fact, the houses are better constructed and cleaner, some having 
even a rather elegant appearance. The men display a little 
more activity, and the \isitor perceives, to some slight extent, 
that he is on the verge of another state of society. 

To conclude the remarks regarding tlie Pacific slope, I may 
state that Catholicism is the religion of the country, but raily 
nominally. There is — or, at least, there ought to be — a pari^ 
priest at Yavisa, the chief place of the province of Darien ; there 
IS one at Chepigana or at Santa Maria, in the bishopric of 
Panama; but unfortunately these clergymen show the worst 
of examples to their fiock, as I found to be the case in 1861, and 
thus contribute not a little to the general immorality. In fapt) 
there are still entire families who know nothing of the religious 
ceremony of marriage or of baptism. 

Let us now pass beyond the Cordillera, and enter into the 
territory of the Carribbees-Cunaa. The political organisation of 
the Indians is recognised by the Republic of the United States 
of Colombia, and the Governor of Quibdo, province of Choco, has 
authorised, under the name of " Confederation of the Indiana of 
the San Bias Coast," the imion, under a Cacique or Great 
Captain, of the various tribes and villages which are scattered 
along the coast, from San Bias Point to the cstrcmity of the 
Gulf of Uraba and aa far as the mouths of the Atrato. 

The Indians are completely ignorant of the form of govem- 
mt- nt of the territory on which they are living, and " Bolivar " 
is the only name that has remained in the memory of their 
elders, whilst the sole reminiscence of their subjection of old is 
their traditional hatred of the Spaniards. 

The Colombian Government declares and states in writing 
that it tolerates the Indians, whilst the latter call themselves the 
masters of the eoU. The authority of the Cacio'i^ is absolute, 
and neither he nor his people arp cnlij.>rt in i ,i-, imjipst, or 

military sen-ice. When affairs nl' .- !!.■, ■ : ■■'-■ to bo 

discussed, he convenes a coumil . - .uch of 

whom presides over a local couin'il, . . i i iilors. 

Mndisns in general of thi < 
retiiscd to subi' ; 
L other localities 


^V7e»r, bill 
^^B and com 
^f War of 

in the Iithmits of Danen, 

but Tivlio is Btill in tbe vigour of hpaltli. He is a cunning 
and courageous man, who formerly served under liolivar, in the 
War of Independence. The following are the names of those 
six villages : — ^Arquia, the chief [ilace of the Indian Confedera- 
tion, and the residence of the Great Cacique; Cuti and Cuque, — 
all three being situate on the rivers of the Bame names, and 
Thich are tributaries or 8ul>tribularies of tbe Atrato ; Tanela, 
Paya, and Tapalisa, also constructed on the banks of similarly 
named etreama — the Tapalisa being a feeder to the Pucro, which 
forms a junction with the Tuyra. The four villages first named 
are on the eastern, and the two others on the western slope of 
the Cordillera ; all six being connected by easy and direct roads, 
which I have very frequently traversed during my explorations. 
I am not exactly acquainted with the number of their inhabit- 
ants ; but I know that Piiscual is at the head of some 400 or 
50O warriors. I ran only speak positively of Paya and Tanela ; 
but, &om tbe exact nature of the details furnished me, I believe 
that the following particulEirs wiU, with some slight variations, 
apply also to the other villages, and it will be remembered that, 
in my two interviews with the above-named cacique, be was 
accompanied by men from tbe six localities. 

The villages of the Cnnas are well situate, being built on the 
banks of rivers ; and the houses are spacious, elegant, and con- 
structed with admirable skill and attention to details. Many of 
them have an open bamboo flooring, 2 metres from the ground, 
and are thus preserved from the humidity of the soil and the 
eSects of the rain ; the pillars, supporting the entire construc- 
tion, are made of bamboos of 25 to 30 centimetres diameter, 
or of bard and carefully prepared timber. Covered with palm or 
macaw loaves, they thoroughly withstand the inclemencies of 
the weather, and are sometimes built on so extensive a scal^ 
that they contain not less than fifty, sixty, or even eighty ham- 
mocks. The firearms, and fishing and hunting implements, 
which are placed in recesses in the shape of loftd, are very care- 
fuUy made and always kept ready for use. 

The Cunas are of middling out robust stature, with large 
shoulders, narrow waists, well-tumed arms and aukles, and small 
feet. Their skin borders on a clear brownish red — the young 
women and children being of a somewhat more subdued hue. 
Their hair — which is black, smooth, and very abundant — is worn 
long, except at Tanela, where the married women cut it short ; 
thus presenting a striking contrast with the long hair of the 
men, which is sometimes left floating about their shoulders, and 
at other times twisted round the head, and raised over one ear, 
in a species of top-knot, fastened by a long triangular comb, 
made of the core of the palm-tree, and ornamented with original 


De Pctdt's Scientijic Explorations 

designs, executed with bark and vegetable fibres. The men. 
have no beards. 

Contrary f o the disposition of the inliabitants of the banks of 
the Tuyra, of whom I have already spoken, the Indiana here 
referred to are sober, patient, industrious, faithful, courageous, 
and very gentle towards any one who has gained their confi- 
dence. Strange to say, they refrain from brandy, mm, anwado, 
wine, and, in iact, every fermented liqnor, except chicha, which 
they themselves make from maize-seed and the juice of tha 
sugar-cane. And here I may state, but with no slight r^ug- 
nance, that this chicha ia made in the following manner: — Some 
old women, squatting around an empty gouril, munch and chew 
the maize-seea, and then expectorate it into that reeeptaele until 
the latter is filled ; the product is then left to ferment, and it 
serves as the chief ingredient of the chicha. This I saw done, 
and I was obliged to pai'take of the beverage ! 

Theft is altogether unknown amongst the Cunas. Their 
curiosity, which often partakes of tlie infantine, leads them to 
examine very minutely any object they may see for the first 
time ; they will cautiously touch it, inquire tor what purpose it 
is employed, and then put it back in its place ; but all this 
without any excitement or indiscretion, The ranches I had 
constructed were often left untended, and completely abandoned 
to the good faith of the Iniiians, and we never missrf the slight- 
est article either of provisions or ammunition. 

It must not be thought, however, that it is unnecessary to act 
with great prudence in their regard, for the Cunas are exceed- 
ingly distrustful, and the surest way of gaining no information 
from them is to ask for it, particularly with any air of eagerness. 
Although I was on very intimate terms with Nusalileli, the 
Cacique of Tanela, and acquainted with certain Indian rallying 
or " association " signs, which enabled me to place myself more 
promptly on a good footing with them, he never fully opened 
his mind to me on certain points, or with reference to certain 

They arc, however, a hospitable race ; and although idolaters, 
believing in the supernatural potency of the grotesque fetishes 
suspended in their houses, bowing reverentially to grossly formed 
figures, and holding certain trees as sacred, they, nevertheless, 
acknowledge a Supreme Celestial Power, whence the Good and 
the Beautiful emanate. It was with an air of profound rever- 
ence that Nusalileli raised his eyes towards heaven, on refusing 
the presents I offered in return for his hospitality, and exclaim- 
ing, " The great God on high commands his children to receive 
kindly the guests he sends to them." 

Despite these good traita in their character, they are terrible 

in the Isthmus of Danen. 07 

Enemies ; whon sumraoned to arms, slirinking from no danger, 
and, from their agility, skill in handling weapons, and thorough 
knowledge of the thousand artifices of forest warfare, capable of 
resolutely opposing any attempt on their independence, or any 
violation of tueir customs and manners. 

Certain crimes — or offences deemed such by their laws — are 
ponishable with death ; for example, that penalty was inflicted 
on a man who had aided in the accouchement of a woman, whose 
life was in imminent danger ; on anotlier occasion, a female, who 
had become insane, was hung from a tree and burned ; and the 
Indian who acted as my interpreter in 1S61 would have been 
put to death for having wished to serve me in the like capacity 
m 1865 without the authorisation of the Cacique, had not mj' 
nlterior relations with Pascual procured his pardon. 

The Cunas wear drawers extending to the knee, and lea\-iiig 
the upper part of the body uncovered; but some have a species 
of short, loose smock-frock, or else a shirt of European shape. 
The head is generally bare, but at times enveloped in a narrow 
girth called in their language a "counter-poison," about two 
centimetres in width and two or three metres in length. It 
is made of the fibres or barks of certain plants, with which they 
ftlone are acquainted. When bitten in tlio forests by a serpent 
or a scorpion, or any other venomous animal — for example, a 
mygale — rtlie Indian fastens a ligature around the wound, with 
the band or fillet in question, and pursues his Journey without 
loong his strength or feeling the effects of the poison, though he 
may nave to walk some three or four hours before reaching his 
Tillage. On arriving there, ho receives the necessary attend- 
ance, and, generally speaking, the wound is promptly and radi- 
cally cured. It is, however, quite certain that the poison of the 
Bejuquillo and the Coral serpent is so active that the ordinarj- 
ligature is often found ineSective, when no other succour is at 
hand ; and the patient dies in less than a couple of hours, amidst 
frightfiil sufferings, swollen, tumefied, and covered with san- 
guineous spots. On the other hand, whilst I was at the emerald 
mines of Muzo, I witnessed some extraordinary and almost in- 
credible cures, effected by the use of those herbal ligatures — 
Ycrixu de ligatura. 

The women wear short-sleeved chenuses, descending to tht- 
knees, and such ornaments as necklaces composed of the teeth 
of animals (tigers or caimans), or of coloured seeds. At Tanelii 
I saw many with broad gold or silver rings through the nasal 
partition, and hanging down as far as the chin. Some of the 
Indian women are pretty, and all admirably well formed. Both 
male and female always go hare-footed. It may be stated here 
that on high holidays the Cunas wear drawers or large girdles 




W De Puydt's Sdetdijic Explorations 

made of the plumage of birds, as well as a sort of cap covered 
with plumage and surmounted by long red, blue, greeu or yellow 
feathers, plucked from the tails of the aras. I have in my pos- 
session one of these head-dresses, which came from Faya, and 
whioh is about 62 centimetres in height. 

The weapons most in use are bows and arrows of varionB 
kinds, suitable for hunting or fishing, and adapted to each 
species of prey. They also employ the lance, and all carry a 
heavy machete, a species of carefully-polished sword-knife, having 
a short, obtuse and broad blade, with a strong haft This weapon 
serves for a hatchet, a tomahawk, and a sabre. The arrows are 
formed of thin and light, but solid reeds, hardened at the fire 
and bearded, and with palm-wood points. ITie lances are either 
of cut flint or of iron. Moreover, almost every Indian possesses 
a gun, and displays remarkable dexterity in its use as well as in 
tlmt of his bow and arrows, but they are all very saving of their 
powder and ammunition, reserving their flrc-arma ior grand 
occasions. When the Cacique Pascual came to my rancho, on 
the 10th of August, 1865, mtk hia sons — for such the term he 
bestows on those subject to his authority — they were all armed 
with the macltete, which they call the mtUa, and some of them 
had guns, whilst the others oarriea bows and arrows and 

I have never remarked that their arrows were poisoned, 
nor did those they gave me bear any marks of ever having 
been tampered with in that way. This forbearance on their 
part is certainly not attributable to any ignorance of the 
vegetable poisons and antidotes of their country. 

On grand occasions they tatoo their faces and busts with 
rocon. The tatooing of the Confederation of the Cunas consists 
of a transversal streak firom one cheek-bone to the other, and 
across the noso, and of other lines descending perpendicularly 
on the cheeks as far as the corners of the moutn, ana intersected 

by small horizontal streaks. The number and position of the 
lines serve to distinguish the inhabitants of the respective 

Polygamy is allowed amougst tlie Cunas, and they may 
have as many wives as they nave respectively plantations to 
superintend. One of the wives devotes special attention to 
household afi^airs, cooking and attendance to the children; 
another to the bananas and maize; a third to the cultivation of 
the cocoa-tree, &c, &c. Poscual himself has four wives, but I 
believe he is the only one with so many. 

The sole occupations of the men are hunting, fishing, making 
arms, and eonstnicting cayucos (canoes) and houses. The other 
labours are performed by the women with patience and reaig- 

in the Isthmus of Darien. 99 

nation, but not to the exclusion of pleasure or gaiety, as may be 
seen in the nightly dances. 

I have already stated that the Cunas, like all the Caribbean 
race, are skilful navigators. In fact, they yenture in their light 
canoes, under a heavy sail, into the Gulf of Uraba, for tortoise- 
fishing, and with the view of exchanging their products either 
with tiie Indians of San Bias or with the canoe-men who ascend 
the Atrato. The Cunas trafiSc in cacao, tapir-flesh, venisou, 
dried pork {tamjo), and lard, contained in pig-^ts, receiving in 
exchange fire-arins, powder, shot, and various domestic utensils 
— ^nearly all these objects being of English manufacture when 
they arrive by the Atrato, and American when sent from San 
Bias or the neighbouring coasts. 

It has been already steted that there is not a single Indian in 
the villages on the Tuyra, and it may be added here that the 
six villages of the Cunas do not contain a single inhabitant of 
white^ bbck, or mulatto breed. 

Pascual, who was formerly a slave amongst the Spaniards, is 
the only one who speaks fluently and understands well the 
Spanish language. A few others are acquainted with several 
words, but I only met with one individual who could utter 
a little English, and his pronunciation was horribly beul. 

The language of the Cunas is soft and sonorous. The syllables 
are composed of one or two vowels, or of one or two consonants, 
as in vtu (canoe), tumati (great), ambe (ten), chipuatia (white), 
ehule (not, nothing), and huishi (thou knowest, dost thou know ?) 
The accentuation of certain words is marked by a guttural 
articulation. Their power of computation does not exceed 
number 20. 

I trust the day is not far distant when this rich and interesting 
country will be better known, and when the investigations of 
science will elicit new facts and lead to fresh discoveries. Once 
the Isthmus is opened, by means of a maritime canal, to the 
navigation of the world, with the flags of every commercial 
nation floating in unison, and with swift steamers cleaving the 
waters of the Tuyra, the Darien — that " key of the world," as 
Paterson calls it, that " threshold of the gate of communication 
between the two oceans," as the illustrious Humboldt describes 
it — will become the converging point for the commercial and 
industrial enterprise of the various peoples of the earth. 

H 2 

De Pdydt'* Scientific Explorafiont 




Monkey (geoeric tenn) 


Cat (generic tenn of Jifferent sorta of 


Curasaow Birds (Oux alcctor ; Omtix 

Tecxaii (Dimtylai) 

To go hunting for Peccari 



Penelope, Meleagris (Birds, (^allinaceouB) 

Poultiy, Fowl, Hen 

Turtle (of Sea), Tortoise-aheil ., .. 


To go fishing Sttbalo .. 

There via» no fish on the coast ., 

To calch (in the inLsning of liunting 
or fishing). 

Cow; Heifvr 

Good or whip the ox with Ihc work- 
men (impentiro). 



Nnsalilcli's Mother 




Daughter; young girl 

A young boy, a youth 

A little hoy or girl, a child 

A Man 

Men, individuals 

Howmanyraenor inhabitants arc there 
in Turbo? 

A Negress; a black man 


A good, or clever seaioan 

The head 


To work 

To make water 


Vara(Spaniah measure ; 80 centimSlres) 

Water, river, rivulet 

Cayuco, canoe, small boat, pirt^e 

Can yon kw a sail? 

ySou maque nae. 





Mila. ' 

Mila maquo nac. 

Td (?) mala mila nica 

Moll 1 Moli totogua. 

MoU totogua eti roochigoa pa U 

nae or Shi laque. 

NuEulilcti nana. 

Tnle. I 

Picua tule Turbo i>o laquesa? 

Tule rati. 


Mia Cantiqui. 









Ulmola maqueti pc huishi? 

in the Isthmus of Darien. 101 

Vocabulary, etc., of the Cuna Lanouaoe — cdniivju^. 

Hato yoa seen a canoe on the coast? .. 
Is there water in the river? 

Look to the canoes ! 

How many are they ? (the canoes) 

Are they all lashed? 

Th^ are all lashed ; or yes 

Axe they leaky ? 

Do yoa know how to build a canoe or 


A paddle, an oar 

Take care of the paddles 


Champan (great canoe covered with a. 

tent of leaves and branches). 

Broken, parted 



Blue (clear) 




Fat, big, voluminous 

Thin, lean 


little, short 

New, fresh 

Old, worn out 


Savoury, pleasing to the taste 

A bad, a ¥ncked man 

Very bad, very wicked 

Idle, coward, weak 

Joetf is veiy idle, cowardly, or weak .. 
Do not send Lazaro, because he is 

too idle. 


My, mine 

Your, yours 

I, me 

You, thou, thee 




Noon, the middle of the day 





Banana (ripe fruit) 

Banana tree 

Are the banana trees good ? 

Coma -•'-.- ^ 
(proDoimoed as in Sptuli^;' 

Opo ulu pe taquesa ? 


U'lu taquel '- ^-'\ 

Ulu picua mai ? 


Etine pela ar4e, 

Tinica? .. 

Uiu shapetl shique pe huishi? 


Gam^ pe hue taque. 
Opo ulu p nae ! 
Ulu chuigua. 



Bati pi. 

Molarati. . .... 










Naper tag legue. 

Nugue.tag legue. 

U'rrue tule. 

Urrud toga. 


Jose hiiie toga. 

Lazaro.nate.huie toga nonigui chule. 


Ann cati. 

Pe cati. 






Tata yorcua. 



Pana. . 



Machi cana. 

Machi cana no eti ? 

102 ■,'^? Ppibts Scientific Exploratiom 


Qtve bBiiBiiDS lo the cow 

Carry" -this ripe bsmana to onr friend 
.■.''Icuacunapoleli (namo of an Indiau of 
. •./Taaela). 

; ••pb* with the workmen (tbc boys) (o 
' *, " clean, to weed banana trees. 

',; • Cacao 

'• Cacao tree 

Have the cacao trees fruit? are they 

be&ring cacao? 
Calebnsh (fniit of the Creacentia Cujete) 

Coco not ; coco tree 

Indian cotd, maize 

Give maize to the poultry 

"Will you have Bome bread? 


Sargaparilla (plant) (Smilta: sareajiariSa) 



Can you drink milk? ■ 



Do you eat meat? 

Catch a ben i 

Broth I 

Meat, food 

To eat (verb) I 

What bave they given you lo eat? .. I 

What bave yon eaten? | 

India-rubber i 

Tobacco, cigar 

Bring tobacco „ ,. 

Go to the house of X ... to boy tobncco 

Poreat or wood 

Are you going to the forest? ., .. | 
House, habitation (raccho, Spanish) ,. i 
Go to Olocunalileli's house (name of an ! 

Indian of Arquia). 
To-day 3'ou depart from my house, you 

bad, wicked boy. 
Room (interior division of a house) ,. 


Assist John in cleaning the patio (in- 
terior yard of a house). 

Assist Pedro in enclosing the poultry- 

Clothes, vestment, linen 

Put on your new clothes 

Pull off your old vestment 

Give your dirty linen to be washed ., 
Breeches, pantaloons 

Moli maclii cuno pe shunate. 

Ai Icuacunapaleli matun shuuate. 

Machigua tiile pe nate mncbi emie. 



Cbiagaa cana chiagua nica? c 

cbiagua cann chiagua taqueaa? 

Ocobo J ocobo cana. 

Pe cdlin C]a. cune, 
Matu I* t^ii ? 
Aro (from the Spanish oiym!). 



Moli nilu lie cope huishi ? 

Moli nuu. 

Sana cune pe huisbi ? 

Calin pe maquc^ or dtlin pe cm. 

Tule po mas ci 
Y|>i pe cune? 

Huila pe sba 

X . . . neca hu£la pe ni 


Cbapul pe nae ? 

Olocunalileli n 

Penate cmis, neca angate ani urmt' 

Cape neca. 
John purgaua emie, 

Pedro chuara ciine. 


Mola pini cae. 

Mola cherele ohica, 

Pe mola she puna mola emiapsi 

Carson (perversion of the SpamAl 
word CaUtm'). ' 

tit the Isthmus ofDarieru 


YooABULABT, ETO^ OF THE CuNA Lanouaqe — continued. 


King the blanket 

Keckdoth, cravat, a piece of cloth round 

the neck. 
A piece of cbth round the head • . 

Bibbon with stripes 


TiJce away your gun 

Bo you know how to shoot (with a gun)? 

To shoot (with a gun) 



Prime (of a gun) 


Where is the axe? 

TTo coif to open, to break 

Take the axe, and go with Juan to cut 



Luge knife, hanger (Spanish, Navaja) 


Oauldron, large boiling-pot 



Seat, chair, bench 

To sit down, to sit 

Trunk, box 

Dish, plate 



Keep, take care of the calabash in your 
' room. 
Wash this porringer, this vessel .. 

Wash this dish .. 

Tube, pipe, a stalk of a pipe 

Briiu; a sack, a bag 

Hu(m, very much 

Few, a few, very few 

Knough • 

Soon, instantly 

Qui(^y, fast 


No, nothing, not 

Who? What? Whom? 

Have you banana ? 

Have you seen? 

Where is he? Where is it? 

To shut 

Shut the door 

What is it? What is there? .. .. 
To put out, to pull off 


(pronounced as In Spaniih). 

Yuvaleti, yocala. 

Mol guaguachichiti pe she. 

Mol tucalchichigua. 


Mol ileletL 

Quinqui shique. 

Quinqui shique pe shunate. 

Quinqui ^le pe huishi? 





Acan, a(»na. 



Acdn shique, Juan, pe nate sho 


Estm capegua. 
Tco, yco. 
N^rpa tupa. 
Gape n^ n6ga shunate. 

Murrucua urtalegua cae emigue. 

Naala urtalegua cae emigue. 


Saco (Spanish) cuena pe she. 






£c (nasal). 


I])i, ypi. 

Mnchi nica? 

Pe taquesa ? 



Guanabcaca yaetique. 

Ipi gua? 


104 Be Puidt's SdeiUific Explorations 

Vocabulary, etc., of tub Odna Lanqfagb — continued. 

To take 

To lee, to perctiiTe 

Or, cither 

Are yoa well? How do you do? 

I am well 

And yon too, are joti well ? How are 


To bnve, to possess 

What have you ? What doyou posaess? 

Have you seen Paactial ? (Name of the 
Grand Caciqne of the Confederation of 
the six vill^es of Indians — Cunas). 

Have yon seen him ? or Have you seen 
them ? Yoii have seen him or tbem. 

I have seen him or them 


Tell, tell him, tell them 

Tell him to come 

What does he say? What do you say ? 
Say to Olanqnileli. (Name of an Indian 
of Tanela.) 

To know 

Do yon know it, or that? 

I know, I know it 

I do not know 

1 know no more, or nothing more 

To will; I will 

I order yon, I enjoin you to tell the 

Capitan Fascnal, &c. 
Iwillnot? (tt docs not please me.) .. 
Will you ? Does it please yon ? .. .. 

To Ko, to set out 

Go (imporativo) 

When do you depart? 

When shall you return? 


To take, to take awny, to carry away.. 

Take that away 

Bring what they have given to you .. 

Do not sit down here 

It ia ended; there is none, there is no 

Silver (the metal, not tnotiey) 
Who has given yon the silver? .. 
Whence have you obtained that silver? 
I'o whom have yon given the silver? .. 
Give mt- the silver immediately ! 

NuhuBti ? 

Nuhueti (understood, A'nn): 

Pe nuhuo iiiogn? 

Aon nuhue mosa. 


Ypi pc nica? 

Pascual pc tHqueaa? 

Pe taquesa, 

Ann taqueaa. 


Pe ehogue. 

Taoigui pe shogue, or neoe pe' 

Ygui shogne ? Ypi shogue ? 
Olanquileli pe shogue. 

Yti (le huishi? 

Ann huish chulo (ellision in the 


Tegui ; Ann te^i. 
Capitan Pascual ani carta shogUc pe 

lahe ga, &c, 
Ann tegui chule. 
Pe tegui ? 

Pe nae. | 

Yucu, or Sann pe nae? 
Tucu, or Sann pe nintgui ? 
Ninigui ' 

Pc ahuna. 

Tiile tegui pe she. 
Yti ball chicue chiile. 


Penki mania toga ipi noga? 
Mania toga pe ulugua togua eate ? 
Ique noga ohichigua penqui n 
EniLSciia m&nia angati pea sobandft- 

tit the Jsihmus of Darien. 


VooABULABT, ETC., OF THE CuKA Lakouaoe — continued. 



(prooomioed as In Spanish). 


PaiD, sorrow 

What ails you ? 

Are you sick? 

Medicine, remedy 


Bring me some fire, or a light 

Bring nearer the fire-bran(£ 

AUe .. 

The truth 


Nun maquo. 

Ipi pe nun maque ? 

U'a cai pe nica? 

Yua sae. 


Sho she taque, or Sho taqne pe she. 

Sho pe taque nae, or Sho pe maqueti. 




1. Kuasak. 

8. Pavaga. 

15. EakataL 

2. Pagua. 

9. Pakevake. 

16. Rakanerkua. 

3. Pa. 

10. Amb^. 

17. Eakakugul^ 

4. Pake. 

11. I^uisak. 

18. Kakapava. 

5. Atal. 

12. Ejikapagua. 

19. Eakapakeva. 

6. Nerkua. 

13. Kakapa. 

20. Ambetulevua, or 

7. Kugulc. 

14. Kakapake. 




OF Dabien, in 1861. By M. Luoien de Puydt. 

A FEW further details regarding my expedition of 1861 are necessary, espe* 
dally as erroneous statements have been published, mthout my consent, 
r^rding it. 

I was commissioned in 1861 to undertake a scientific exploration to Darien, 
by a French company, founded by M. Paul Koger. This society collapsed ia 
1862, and M. Roger died in June, 1867. 

Messrs. Mellet (Engineer of Fonts et Chauss^es) and Gustavo de Champe- 
ville (Civil Engineer) were to accompany me. These, with five other persons 
(who, I may say in passing, were utterly useless), composed my stafif. At the 
last moment M. Mellet broke his engagement, and I left on the 17th February, 
1861, with my six other companions. 

Whilst making arrangements for the expedition at Panama, M. Roger for- 
warded to me, by the packet of the 2nd March, M. Hilarion Bourdiol, for- 
merly student at one of the schools of Arts et Mdtiers. This gentleman had,, 
according to instructions received from M. Roger, assumed the title of engineer 
in chief, and was to have under him M. de Champeville, but still subject to my 
immediate control. Although fitted by his youth, health, and courage, for the 
undertaking, he had not the special education fitting him for an engineer, nor 
had he other scientific acquirements. 

On the 21st of April, 1861, the expedition, composed of 27 persons, cm- 

106 De Puydt'* Seieiaific Explorations 

balked on bonrd a vessel of 30 tons, which I had purchased, and, piloted by 
Captain N^ro, wo visited many villages cm the borders of the river Tnyra, 
and disembarked on the left bank of the Savaoa, immediately below the junc- 
tion of tbo liio Lars. 

On the 22nd, 1 fixed with Messrs. Bourdiol and de Champcville the direc- 
tion they Bhould follow to reach the right bank of the Chncuuaque, bdow 
the Biver Paz, which is one of its affluents on the right. The angle deter- 
mined on was 57° a. ; but in taking into account the magnetic variation of 
the place (8°), the route to cross the forest would become altered to an angle 

Obliged to attend single-handed to the multitudinous dehtils of the expedi- 
tion, and being myself occupied in sdentific studies, it was impossible for mo 
to see to every detail, and nnmerons mistakes were commitled, either in the 
determination of the various angles of the lino ur in the heights, during a 
route of 18,550 mitres (20,288 yards, or llj miles). It followed that the 
note-book of M. Bourdio! gave far result an angle of 61° instead of 49°, and 
nevertheloM the route followed made an angle of 46°. It boppened, in con- 
sequence of this error, that he arrived on the bajiks of the Bio de la Fax, above 
its confiucncc with the Chucunsque, and not on the right bank of the Cfaiicu- 
naque, below the point where it receives the Rio de la I'az, which should 
have been the case had the angle of 49° been kept to. 

I again turned to the Hiver Tuyra, the object which I had chiefly in view. 
The direction of this vast stream running from east to west, the elbow which 
it forms at a little distance from the Gulf of Uraba, on the Atkntic aide, and 
the direction of three of ila affluents, the Capeti, the Puoro, and the Paya, 
whose aourcea, near to each other, lie in the lotvest port of the Cordillera of 
Niqnc (Sierra de Mali and de Esltila), the accounts of the inhabitantB of the 
iathmus, the writings of Paterson and other explorers, led me (o believe that 
the only passage for an oceanic canal, without locks or with few only, ought to 
be found in this direction. 

The northern lino to Caledonian Bay, by the Savannah Eiver, waa foond 
to be quite impracticable by our expedition, and the want of success of ray 
predecessors was made iotelli^ble. 

I re-ascended the Tuyra, visited its upper affluents of the right bank, and, 
after finding wy favourable opinion justified by the aspect of the localities, 
and gathering valuable information, I left to rejoin the expedition up the Lara. 
On approaching the place, one of my people met me with the following letter 
from M. Bourdiol : — 

" Bancho No. 6, May 31rt, 1861. 

" We arrived here yesterday evening, in spite of the bad weather, and with 
the water up tu our breasts, at the junction of the Rio de la Paz and of the 
Cbucuuaquc. As it is now necessary to agree on what reroftina to be done, I 
beg yon to rejoin os at thi* lancho, that we may consider the mutter. 

*'M. UB PtJYDT, 

" Chef de FExp^ilion du Darini.' 

I was very doubtful on the subject of this letter, this being the third time 
fliat M. Bourdiol bad announced lo me the discovery of the Chucunaque, and 
it might not be the lost ; for the expedition had never attained the banka of 
the Cbucunaque, being still on the left bank of the La Paz, and yet M. Bonr-' 
diol persevered in the mistake. Thus, on the 30th of May, M, Bourdiol was 
doubly and completely misled. He had lost himself in the midst of inundated 
grounds and narrow valleys, and did not know bow to extricate himselt 

I resumed Iha command of the labourers, turned to the right, and continued 
opening the road. It was not until June the 2nd, at 3 in the afternoon, after 

n the Jst/imus of Darieil. 107 

1 tlie right bask of the 

which he had often ascended and descended. 

Enquiries made Hbove and below added nothing to onr knowledge, of any 
nee; and 1 caused the date aud the Dames of myself and two engineers to be 
cot npon a large tree ; and having drawn up a report, I gave orders to retain 
to the Savannali, where our vessel (the Menxdita) was anchored. 

On the 2nd Juno, one of the party, Thomas Fellow, an intelligent English- 
man, climbed a lofty tree, and, guided by the oomi^asB, saw to the eiast the 
Iioma Dceeada Hill, situated in the delU formed by the meeting of the Sucubti 
and the Chucunaquo, the course of this latter river being indicated by the tall 
trees which border its banks and the ground rising by degrees towanjs ite 
boundary at about 18 miles' distance to the north-east, the chain of the Cor- 
dilleias of Caledonia Bay showing a bluish continnous Imo on the horizon. 

I returned to France, where I devoted much time and attention to the pre- 
paration of another expedition for 1865, bringing to bear upon the study in 
hand the g;reat experience acqnired in 1861 ; my intention in this new under- 
' taking being to discover some lower passage m the Cordillera between &e 
source of the Taw-'lii to tlie cast and ttiat of the Paya, of the Capcti, of the 
Pucro, and of the Tapalisa, to the west of the mouiilains. 

Whatever may have been said, written, or published by M. Bourdiol, or by 
olhera, in France or abroad, reapecting the expedition to Darisn in 1861, I 
regard it as a strict duty to conceal nothing of the results, favourable or un- 
DiToorable, Science neither admits romance nor equiooque, still less untruth. 
I believe the results of my journey have been to expose the erroneous assertions 
of Messrs. Cullen, Gisbom, Airiau, Goger, Bourdiol, and others, on the sup- 
posed extraordinary facility of the passage from the one ocean to the other by the 
Una of the Savannah and Caledonia Day. This lineof communication between 
the Beas ought to be completely abandoned, as it offers no mode of establishing 
the only inter-oceanic canal that modem science would admit of, that is, suit- 
' able (or navigation for large ships, and with two to four locks at most. 

I have obtained fresh knowledge of the ort^rapby and hydrography of the 
natetn portion of the Lower Darien, in the neighbourhood of Choot, relating 
to thBOToning of such a canal to unite the Gulf of Uraba with the deep waters 
of the Hiver Tuyro, where it bends into the Gulf of San Miguel. 

Besides tbis, our expedition has made scientific observations of various kinds, 
Ji geography, natural history in its different branches, ethnology, geology, 
hydrography of the interior and of the coast, orography, and so forth, moat of 
which have not yet been published, but having an imjKirtant bearing on the 
fiittira canal. 

H, Bourdiol was never in command of a Darie^ expedition, and his pub- 
lished accounts are borrowed from the works of his proleccssors and contem- 
poraries, or are only the fruit of his own Imagination. He was occupied only 
during 43 days in levelling sod surveying, undcrmy direction, from the Lara to 
the Ia Pai, a distance of 111 miles. tA. Felix Belly is therefore mistaken* in 
saying that the exploration of M. Bourdiol lasted three years. Roir-Admiral 
Davis, of the United States Kavy, has fallen into a similar error in his ' Report 
CQ Interoceanic Canals and Bnilways,' in speaking of M. Airiau and of M. A, 
Anthoine de Gogorza, neither of whom ever set foot upon the land of Darien, 
and also in speaking of M. Bourdiol as the leader of an expedition. Admiral 
Davis makes a mistake also in dates. It was In 1861, and not In 1864, that 

* la his work 'A traven I'Amifriqae Centrale. le Nicaragua, et 1e Canal Inter- 
occanique, par Felix Belly.' 

108 De Pdtdt'* Sdenlific Exploration* 

M. Bourdiul was atUcbcd to the expedition which I eommandtd. The expe- 
dition never Lad any fears of wild Indians, for tlie siinplo reason that do snch 
Indians were found between the Guir of S&n Miguel and the Chucuuaque ; tho 
inhabiUnta of the villi^cs are all, without exception, blacks, mulattoea, quad- 
rrwns, or whites. Of these my crew was composed. The oipcdition oi 1861 
was daily supplied with provisions by tho abtmdanec of gami^, and the region 
afTorda an ineichauatihlc supply ; so that, beyond the rains and the fatigue 
altcodiug such journeys, there really was no ohibc for eompkint on the score 
of want of food, as we even had a surplus. Intermittent fever alone was the 
cause of anxiety on the score of health ; with this exception, tho condition of 
tho expeditiun was excellent. 

I may add that I have now before mo the note-books of M. Bourdiol, con- 
taining all the observations of heights by levelling ; and the result does not 
give mora than from 52 to 55 feet of elevation, where Moritz Wagner had 
found 138 feet in the SBmc place. M. Bonnliol, in his ohimerical project for a 
canal, conceived in Paris in 1862, had laid down 144 feet — a figure not result- 
ins from hia labours, but from the data of the eminent Bavarian geographer. 

In concluding this statement, I may stato that in 1861 I forwarded to M. 
Boger, on my return to Pftris, a complete record of my observations on all the 
BcienliSc points of the expedition which occupied me in Darien. This record 
has become, 1 cannot tell tor what reason, the property of M. Bourdiol; and I 
was much surprised, during ray absence from Enro[ie in my second expedition 
of 1864-5, to find that M. Bourdiol had laid before the Geographical Socielj 
of raris my lawful property, and secured for himself the credit of work to wbicb 
I bad the sole claim. 


Note on Don Akdbes de Aafzi's Map of SonxH Dabibn (1774). 
Ik May, 1868, I discovered in the PubUc Library at Bogota (ColumWa) a 
MS. with tho following title : — 

'ComcntoB sobre la rica i fertilisima Proviucia do el Darien, en fecha i 
dirijidoa de Santa Maria !n Antigua de el Darien, el 5 de Abril, 1774, pot el 
8Dr. Don Andres de Arizft a ei Exiuo. Virrei.' * 


■ tbllowi 

■ vm 

" Capitulo : Uc Tall de la Provincin de Sa. Maria la Antigua de Dariei^ 
arreglado S.\ Mapa que le dirigid al Einio. SDr. Virrei en fecha del 5 de Abril, 

Tho map in question had been torn out of the MS., and, despite all my 
efforts, I could not at the lime discover where it had been taken to. 

During my second visit, however, to Bogota, in 1866, I saw it accidentally 
in the hands of a person who refused my offer of purchase, but allowed me to 
take a copy — the one which, in strict conformity with the original, I now 
present to the Eoyal Geographical Society of London.J 

Briefly, the more interesting and important portions of the contents are the 
following : — 

■Santa Ouz de Cann, which, in the year 1712, was set fire to. 

• Manuel de Gairrioi, Viceroy from ITTB to 1 

t Monogram of Andres de Arlss. 

; Now in the Map CoUectiuB of the Society. 

in tlie Isthmus of Darien. 



nniclBt the slaughter or tho inhabilanla, liy 80 Frenclimen and 300 of the Gulf 
Vidians, under the command of Charles Tibou : — 

TiTita, a fortified Tillage, on the Chuciuaque 1 Dumberof inbabitaDta.. ITU 
SSAta Maria la Reale ; fortified, and Gituate at the mouth of the Pirr^ .. 180 

CauB, fortified; on the river of the like name 26 

Chepigana, fortified 

TJchiehe 117 

I^nogaiia ISO 

, lloliueca ItO 

TDcnti 168 

I4L Bbna, on the river Tsfecua ; much gold 

Ifidian ViStgei. — Coqso, Balsas, AcauU, Paya, YaTisa, Samhu, Pirrf, Matu- 
masanti, Taptmaco, aod Tupisa. 

Gold Mines in the Province. — Trocooao, Sabaloa, Tayecua, Nuaagauti, 
Arquiati, KusiiBuiiaqui, Acanalscuati, Bogrc, Marea, Balsas. Cana or Espiritu 
8aiiUt,IUode Plajon, Sucubti, Civque (mouths of the Atrato), and Mali, situate 
on BD arm of thu Pucro. 

Biven. — The Chucunaque, which opens out a communication with the 
north, by means of the Rtvers Tupisa and Glandi, aa well as of the Turganti 
and tho Chueti. 

He Tuyra, a very oonaidorable and broad river, easily noTigable up lo the 
mouth of the Pucro. It takes its rise from tho Choc6, near the Bourcc of the 
Atiato ; it is a tidal river up to a little distance above Fino[»ua. 

Amongst its tributaries are two rivers affording easy access to the Northern 
Sea. One is the so-called Sio Pucro, llie sources of which are near the Itio 
'Tarena, not iivr from the marshes of Zataouilla, Tfglas, &c The ]Asaage is 
ttoodo in sii days, in canoes. The other is the Paya, affording greater faciiitiL-s 

c tike journey, its volume of water being more confidetablc. 

The Mali i^ierra, which has to be passed on cither of the two routes, ia the 

]y point by which the Gulf of Urabo, itf envirotia, &c., can be reached. 

As an addendum to this notice, I may remarh that my two explorations of 
fhe Darien, respectively in 18G1 and 1SG5, and more especioUy in the latter 
yeAT, resulted m the discovery, on the 2Tth of August, 18Q5, of a very low or 
snnken passage in the Mali Cordillera, between tie sources of the Tanela 
(Tareua) on tho Atlantic slope, and those of tho Pucro, of its tributary the 
Tapaliaa, of the Faya and of the Capeti, on the Pacific side. This is the point 
■ot which such precise mention is made in Don Andres dc ArWs report. 


Nora OH THE Map or Dakien, bt the Coi^mbiah EKaiKEER, M. Aoustin 
CoDAzzi, dated the 31st March, 1854. 

This niap, which was drawn up expressly to illustrate the routes taken by 
Messrs. PriSvoat, Gisbome, and Strain, completely differs — singularly enough — 
from M. Codazzi's other maps of the Isthmnses of Panamii, Itorien, and Choco, 
»n4 also, amongst others, from the one published by Dr. Kiepert of Berlin. 

All the points on this map * are placed 30, 31, 32, and 33 minutes more to 
the south than their real situations, and — what is still more singuhr — the Iclt 
part of the map, which is devoted to Mr. Giabome's plan of canalization, 
presents the same differences iti latitude with respect to the right side, ot 

110 Dk Puidt's Scieati/tc Explorations in the Isthmus of Darien- 

which it is merely a detail. It is the latter aide which (in that respect uuly) 
is in occordiLiice with tlie othor maps of Codazzi. 

In U. Morits Wagner's excellent map of Dariun, aa well ae in Dr. 
Kiepert's, the sources of the Chucuuaque are placed— and oorrectly bo — not 
far from those of the Bayano or Chepo, and on the alope of the Tico Pit- 
gandi — which is at an elevation of 400 metres, or about 1300 English feet. 
M. CodazzL, on the right Bide of hia map, m:tkes the Chucunaque extend its 
course far too much to tlie north-west ; whilst, on the left awie, lie brings that 
course to an abrupt termination, and placea the suuroes of the river under 
77" SO" w. longitude (from Greenwich), instead of under 78° 13', more or less. 
In like manner, the sources of the Bayano are represented by him to be so far 
cost as TU°- moreover be alters the ct>urae of the A^iasiniqul^ — describing it aa 
traversing the Cordillera under the novel name of Hio Caledonia — and introduces 
certain changes into tlie entire mass of the Cordilleras, being thus in complete 
contnidiotion with himself, on one and the same sheet of i«|ier. 

The publication of this map would be merely a matter of curloeity, as bat 
little credence is to he atlachcn to such a production ; at the same time, how- 
ever, the publication would serve as a warning to avoid mailing use of it with 
regard to the history of Daricn. This map may be taken aa evident proof of a 
pre-conceived and pre-arrmiged plan, on the part of M. CodazBi, to uphold the 
statements of Mr. Giabome, and — what is more to be r^rettcd — to get forto 
the possibility of making a certain wonderful canal, without sluices, straight 
as an arrow, and passing through wholly fiat savannas, from one ocean to the 
other. This is the canal of which bird's-eye views were published by Dr. 
CuUen, and, after him, by the pretentious Mr. Airinu. 

All these localities were visited by me in 18fil, during the us])edition, of 
which a narrative has been prcsciite*! to the Society. I had previously disci>- 
vered that rising groimd, 240 feet above the level of the aeo, separated the 
valley of the Savannah from that of the Chucunaq^ue. I also found an eleva- 
tion of 144 feet above Lbe level of the Kig de la Paz, some two miles from its 
mouth in the Cliucunaque, and yet this is the elevation which, according to 
Mr. Airiau, was to be traversed by a canal without sluices, and on a level bed I 
Moreover, to the nofth~eASt and east arose before me the chain of the Cordil- 
leras, which give rise to the liivers Mortl, Sucubtj, Asnati, and Napearti, 
tributariea and suUtributarics of the Chucunaquo, on its left bank. 

This part of Darien inspired M. Bourdio! (the young surveyor who was nnder 
my orders in 1861) with another singular project, to whicli he gave publicity, 
viz., a canal with fourteen sluices, a tunnel through the Cordilleras, feeding- 
canals, Ac. It is true he knew nothing more of the nature of the ground than 
waa communicated to him by one of my labourers, who, perched u]>on a tree, 
caught sight of the locality in questiou, some 18 or 20 miles distant. We wen) 
at the time (June 2, 1861) on the right bank of the Bio de U Paz; yet M. 
Bourdiol did not hesitate to draw up a map of Darien, which differed in Mo 
not only from those of Coda^zi, Kiepert, and Wagner, but — what no one will 
be astonished to hear — from all other ma);is in existence. 

The original of the present map is now in my possession. It was given to 
me, in Colombia, by a friend of the late Colonel Agustln Codazsi, of Uiu 
Colombian Engineer Corpa. 

No other copy, I believe, exists ; »o that, even on that score alone, the map 
in question may be conndered lobe interesting in a geographical point of view; 
whilst it would be of service in any discussions relative lo ' ...■--•■ 

an inter-oceanic canal through the latlunus of Darien. 

TouNG'i Report of the Livingatone Search Ej:pedUion. Ill 

V. — Report of the Liviiiffstme Search Expedition. By E. D, 
YouKG, Esq., Leader of the Expedition. 

Stall, January 27, 1868. 

To Sir Roderick Murchison, Bart, k.c.b., &c 

Sir, — I have tho honour to lay before you a brief outline of 

tiie proceeilings of the Expedition under my command, sent out 

I to Africa by the Royal Geographical Society for the purpose of 

[ iBoertainiug the truth or falsehood of the reported death of Dr. 

I Liringstone. I am happy to inform you that our efforts have 

beea crowned ^vith success, and I have satisfactory evidence 

that Dr. Livingstone ivaa not mtirdered by the llizitu, nor by 

any other tribe, at the place named by the Johanna men, but 

had gone on in safety far beyond. I have also satisfactory 

evidence that the Johanna men deserted shortly after leaving 

Marengs, returning by the same route as they had gone. 

But I must first begin the narrative irom. the time of our 
landing at the mouth of the Zambesi. Immediately on landing 
I succeeded in getting a negro crew to take the boats up as far 
u Shupanga, where I arrived on the 2nd of August, I at once 
engaged a fresh crew to go on to Chibisa, and the next day 
BUvted for Senna. Arrived there on the tith ; found the 
Portnguese authorities very obliging ; made what arrangements 
were thought necessary, and proceeded on the next day. I 
learned from the Portuguese that the Alizitu were in full force 
on the Shire, and were threatening Chibisa, so I arranged with 
the authorities at Senna to send on to me at Chibisa (should 
I require them) 100 men, fearing, as the Jlizitu were there, I 
should not be able to get the Makololo to accompany me. 

We arrived at Chibisa on the 17th, and found that the 
reports about the Mizitu having been there were quite true, 
and that they had been down in force to the left bank, robbing 
and burning the houses, murdering some of the people they 
caught, and taking others prisoners. The Makololo put off in 
c&noea from the opposite uank and shot three of them. Of 
course I was quite unprepared to meet the Mizitu in this part 
of the country. 

The Makololo, as well aa the people who were of the old 
mission party, received us gladly. I requested the Makololo to 
attend tne next morning, which they did, when I acquainted 
them with the object of my mission. They agreed to accom- 
pany me on certain conditions, which I agreed to. One was 
I that I should leave some ammunition hehmd with those that 
Ixemained, so that should the Mizitu attempt to cross the river 

^m that 1 shou 
^■xemained, s 



112 Yonso's Report of the Livingstone Search Expedition. 

below the Cataracte tliey would be well able to encounter them. 
AJter arrangements had been completed, we started on the 19th 
for the Cataracts ; arrived the same day, and at once began 
taking the boat to pieces. Hitherto all had gone on well, but 
no sooner had we got the boat to pieces, and everything was 
ready for the journey overland, than fresh reports about the 
Mizitu reeiched the Makololo, which very much daunted them, 
and had also a tendency to lower our spirita, for without their 
help we could do nothing, as it was not only their help that we 
required, but also that of their people, they being the chiefa 
of the country round about. After a good deal of persuasion 
the whole affair was settled to our satisfaction, and on the 
evening of the 23rd the Makololo appeared in force with about 
150 men. 

We started next morning with the boat, provisions, luggt^, 
&c^ making in all 180 loads. The men worked well, and we 
arrived with everything in good order at Pomfmida, above the 
Cataracts, in four and a half days. The heat during the 
jonmey was excessive, even for Africa. We at once commenced 
rebuilaing (ho boat, and everything ajipeared to be going on 
well when fresh reports reached us about the Mizitu. We were 
visited by some of the Ajawa cbiels who had been driven out of 
their own country, and were obliged to cross the river to save 
themselves from Doing murdered. There was an encampment, 
close by the place where we were building the boat, of about 
200 Ajawa, tlie sole survivors of the once powerful ]>eopIe under 
the chief Joey. 

Every day fresh reports reached us, and the Makololo wanted 
to return home, which of course I could not consent to. At 
tbis place we first heard from a native of a white man having 
passed through Maponda at the south end of Lake Nyassa. 
He stated that he liad seen him, and gave a description of his 
dress, &c. 

Launched the boat ou the 30th, and started up the river next 
morning. The Makololo not working well, aDif making every 
excuse, not being well, &c., thinking perhaps we would turn 
back. Tiiey stated that the rbk was too great, that there was 
little chance of our ever returning, but aa they had gone so far 
they would go on and die with us ; of course all was agreed to. 
As we proceeded on we found vast immbers of Ajawas and 
Machinkas on the left bank, living in temporary huts, who had 
retreated before the overwhelming numbers of Mizitu. Reached 
the small lake ramalombe on the evening of the Oth of 

During our passage up the river heard several reports that a 
white man a twelvemouth before had stopped at Mapouda for 


Search Expedition. 

some time, having crossed from the opposite aide, and that after 
resting there aome time he )iad gone on in a westerly direction. 
I now felt almost convinced that it muat have been Livingstone, 
but I almost feared to stop there, for I felt certain had the 
Uakololo been satisfied that it was him they would have gone 
no farther; for my agreement with them was, that as soon as 
we had aatiafactory evidence that the Doctor had gone on in 
Bafety, or that he had been killed in the way described by the 
Johanna men, I would return with them immediately. But 
now, as it appeared that he had passed over the south end of 
Nyafisa instead of the north, I wanted to find out where he had 
firet struck the lake. The Makololo stated that they were 
certain that if a white man had been killed, or had died within 
a month's journey of where we were, we should certainly have 
heard of it before we got thus far. 

The nest morning crossed the Pamalombe, but could not 
find a passage into Maponda, owing to the quantity of rushes 
and grass, and it blowing very hard at tlje time we made for 
the rivet. Here again we met great numbers of natives, who 
appeared very hostile. They lined the banks with their guns, 
ana demanded that we should come into them. The Makololo 
appeared very much afraid, so I laid the boat to, to await the 
approach of two armed canoes that bad shoved off from the 
shore. I soon made matters right with them, ami shortly 
afterwards entered Lake Nyasaa, and slept the first uight on 
the Hock Boasuam. 

Started the nest morning with a fine breeze for the east side 
of the lake, steering as near as possible for the Arab crossing- 
place, as laid down by Livingstone. We had not run more 
than two hours before a heavy gale began to blow, and for three 
hours we had to run along the coast to try and find shelter, but 
the rocks and breakers met us at every hand. This proved the 
finishing stroke to the Makololos' courage, who all laid down at 
the bottom of the boat to die, and although the boat was 
constantly shipping heavy seas, they refused to bale out the 
water. The steel boat behaved well, but was tar too deep for 
the stormy Lake Nyassa. At length, after three hours' weary 
watcliing, we succeeded in finding a sheltered spot where we 
sb^ped to dry our Ldothes. Only one native appeared at this 
place, who when he saw us first was much frightfined; but 
as soon as we stated we were English be willingly came 
towards us. He told us an Englishman had passed through liis 
village a year ago, and that he had come from the .^rab settle- 
ment, and bad gone south to Maponda. Started again for the 
former place, but found the distance too great to reach before 


114 YoxiNC'* Rejiort of the Livingstone Search Expedition. 

dark ; put into a small sandy bay, where we found some natives 

I must here remark that at any place, on first visiting it, no 
one was allowed by me to get out of the boat, except myself, 
Mr. Faulkner, and the interpreter. I soon got into conTCrBation 
with these men, when they spoke of a white man who had been 
there, without being asked. They stated that he had first 
made that place coming from Makata, had stopped nine or ten 
days to rest, and then went north to the Arab settlement to try 
and get them to tarry him and his party across the lake, but 
after waiting there some time he returned, making his way 
south for M^ata. They described his dress, what luggage he 
had, imitated him taking sights, and sleeping under a mosqnito 
curtain, and stated that he had a dog with him named Chetane. 
They said the head-man of the carriers was named Moosa ; two 
of the boys spoke the Ajawa and Mananja language, and were 
named Juma and "Wako. They told us what barter goods he 
traded witli ; on being shown an album with numbers of 
likenesses, they at once recognised the one of Livin^toneL 
That there were nine of Moosa s countrymen with him, who did 
not speak either the Ajawa or Mananja language. He did not 
buy slaves or ivory ; he had come to see the country. Besides 
numerous other things that left no doubt on my mind that it 
was Livingstone. 

Next day we arrived at the Arab settlement, where we were 
received kindly, and found all that I had beard before was quite 
correct. Livingstone waited at this place nine or ten days for 
•the Arab boat, which did not arrive, so he started south again, 
and they traced him aa far as Maponda. I visited the house 
Livingstone lived in during his stay, and I purchased a few 
articles (all English make) that he had traded with, such as 
small round loofeing-gl asses, a knife, razor, iron spoons, &c. Of. 
course most of the calicoes, &e., were already worn out, but the 
chief still possessed an Indian manufactured scarf that Living' 
stone had presented to him on leaving, I sent two of the mtwt 
trustworthy Makololo with my ever faithful interpreter (whom 
I brought from the Cape) on the road to Maknta to see if that 
was the road he had come, while we again went south, making 
short marches inland, to try and find the route the Johanna 
men took in going back, as they had not visited this place or 
the last, yie obtained other trifling articles in the shape of 
barter goods, and while waiting for the return of the Makololo 
obtained from a chief further south an English Common Prayer 
Book, which he stated had been left behind by the Englishman 
in the house he had slept at. 

Young's Report oflkc Limngstotte Search Expedition. 115 

On tbe 13tli the searchiDg party returned, having gone two 
days' march on the road to Makata. Livingstone had come 
that way. They brought back some glasses, Gah-hookH, &c., 
that he had traded with. They would have gone further, but 
irere ill-treated by some of the natives and driven hack ; their 
reason for so doing, they said, was that the Englishman had 
brought fighting into the country, for the Mizitn bad been 
killing their people ever since he left. 

Sept. 14(A. — Started for the opposite side of the lake ; made 
for Chinsamba's. Although we started with little or no wind, 
it again blew a gale before we reached the opposite shore. We 
found that Chinaamba had been killed some time since, and 
nothing remained of his village. Skeletons now met our eyes 
in great numbers, whenever we landed along this aide. Saw 
several natives the first day, both Ajawas and Mananja ; and 
those who hod not EOen the white man further south had heard 
of him, but not in a single instance was he spoken of aa being 
I wished to learn, by coming over this side, in what 
ion be had gone after leaving Maponda. We ha«l not 
?«roeHed long when wo saw a man who had helped to carry the 
Englishman s luggage for two days; he described him as before. 
This man had been living inland some distance, but had been 
driven out by the Ajawa. He pointed in a north-westerly 
direction, and stiited it was five days' journey off, which, of 
coarse, would ho very much more from Marenga. 

Our progress south was slow, owing to the heavy gales of 
wind. On our way we met several who had seen the English- 
man, and more than one had helped to carry his luggage from 
village to village, and there was not in all their reports the 
slightest variation. They were not all from the same place, 
but they all maintained that he had gone on in a north- 
westerly direction towards the Loangwa. These natives were 
full of complaints about their neighbours, and would only hare 
been too ready to inform against each other if Livingstone had 
come to an untimely end at either of their hands, and they all 
maintained that the Mizitu had never been in that part of the 

Sej>t. 19fA.— Reached Marenga. Seeing the boat approach 
the shore they lined the beach with their guns, &c. ; but, as 
soon as we told them we were English, they laid their arms 
down and welcomed us. I at once asked to see Marenga, when 
I was conducted up to his house by one of his wives. Marenga 
i-tished towards me, and, seizing me by the hand, shook it 
heartily, saying, " Where have you come from, and where is 
your brother that was here last year?" and as soon as I told 
him I had come to follow him, he began and told me all he 



116 ToUNO's Report of the Lhiingstone Search Expedition. 

knew of him. He said he had come there from Maponda, had 
stopped there two days ; he was Terj- kind to him, making him 
presents, &C. J and he in return gave him what food he required. 
LivingBtone gave him medicine, which was done up in doaes ; 
the papers he used formed part of a 'Nautical Almanack' 
for the year 1866. He lont Livingstone four canoea to take 
himself and luggage across the marsh, while the Johanna men 
carried the remainder round. He had seen him before ; he 
said he saw him when he was up here with a boat a long time 
ago. He traced Lim a month's journey off, giving the names 
of the places in the same order as 1 had previously heard. He 
waa quite willing to give me any guides to go to Maksuro, or 
where it once was ; but he stated, as I had previously heard, 
that Maksuro had been driven out and killed by tlie Ajawa and 
his people almost anniliilated: as also had C6<3rno, two days' 
journey beyond. Marenga stated that the Johanna men 
returned aft#r being absent two days. They gave as their 
reason for returning that they had merely agreed with Livings 
atone to take bis goods as far only as they liked. The head- 
man stated that he had been in that direction before with him 
and had met the Mizitu, and that they were going no farther. 
To prove their independence they passed themselves off as 
Arabs. Marenga gave them food, and they slept there one 
night and then set out for Maponda. 

Marenga is a Babisa, and rales over a populous district ; he 
made us a present of a bullock and as much native food for our 
crew as we required, and he invited us to remain a long time. 
He has a great number of wives — I and Mr, Faulkner being 
introduced to forty, who were all sitting round him. 

Having satisfieil myself thus far, I asked bim if he thought it 
possible that Livingstone could have died a month's journey off, 
and he not know it ? He at once said Ko, and had he died 
three months off he should have heard of it; but as soon as I 
told him 1 had heard that the Mizitu had killed him not far 
distant, he laughed, and said he told me he was going the way 
to avoid them, and that the Mizitu had never been in that part 
of the country described by the Johanna men. 

Marenga then sent for a man who had gone five days' journey 
with him, and when he returned the Jolinnna men had gone 
back. 1 had previously heard the same account from the same 

The Makololo now got very impatient to return home, and 
nothing was talked of day or night but the Mizitu. They 
stated that they liad fulfilled their engagement, but I very 
much wished to trj- and get to the north end of the lake. But 
they would not listen to it. No inducement I could offer 

Young'j Report oftlw Lidiigstone Search E^-pediCion. 117 

would persuade them to go; so there was no alteruative but 
to go raund to Mapouda, get what informatioQ I could, and 

Marenga was Ml of compkiuts about his neighbours, and 
what be wished for more than anything else was medicine for 
his guns, so that if the Ajawas came to fight him his shot would 
kill Borae one every time they were fired. We, being satisfied 
that Livingstone had pone on in safety, started on the 20th for 
Uaponda, calling at the several places along the coast to gain 
what information I could ; but all I obtained only went to 
confirm what I had previously heard. 

Arrived at Maponda on the 25tb. The chief himself wa.s not 
at home, having gone on a trading expedition, leaving his 
I mother to act during his absence. Immediately on arrival I 
I sent a messenger to acquaint her of our arrival and my wish to 
I see her. She soon came, with a train of followers, bringing us 
presents of native food and beer. She stated that an English- 
man had been tliere a year before, had stopped three weeks to 
rest his party, and then left for Jlurenga, stopped there a day 
or two, and tlien left to go to the Loangwa, calling at Maksura, 
C66rao, &c. One of the boys was left behind here, being 
onable to travel, having very bad feet and legs, but had now 
quite recovered and had gone with Maponda. She stated that 
the Englishman had left a paper with him, but that he had 
taken it with him on the jouniey. She brought some books 
belonging to him, one of which had his name on (" Wakitane, 
from Dr. Wilson, Dec, 1864," &c.}, which she allowed me to 
take. The Johanna men retumeil this way, stopped one day, 
and proceeded on. She swore, in the presence of us all, that 
Maponda did not take away their guns, neither did any of the 
party die there. She stated that the Englishman was great 
friends with her son, and that if any one had molested him 
(even Marenga, as strong as he was) he would have gone to war 
with him. The old lady laughed at the idea of Livingstone 
Laving been killed by the Mizitu. Jllr. Faulkner questioned 
her regarding the havildar. She gave a de-scription of a man 
with straight black hair, with the ton of his head shaved, &c. 
Mr. Faulkner states it answers the description of the Indian 
veiy well. Marenga also told us the same, and I felt convinced 
had he died there we should have heard it from some of the 
numbers I questioned on the subject. 

The Makololo now told me that if I intended going into the 
lake again, they were not going with me; and, being entirely 
dependent on these men, thai'e was no alternative but to return 
and to get their aid in carryiug the boat back. So, having got 
all the news I could at Maponda, I decided on going to Mc^ata ; 

118 WadDINGTON on ike Geography and 

but althoiigli I offered a larga amount for a guide, do one- 
would attempt to cross the river. They stated that Makata 
had taken to the mountainB for fear of the Mizitu, and they 
were afraid of being cut off. 

Started for the Cataracts on the 27th. Found the same 
state of things along the river as on coming np. Arrived at 
the Cataracts on the 2nd of October, and commenced taking" 
the boat to pieces. Meanwhile we heard from Chibisa that the 
road was clear, and that the Mizitu had made Chore, not far 
from the lower Shire, their head-quarters. 

Od. 8fA.— Started for Chibiea with the boat, luggage, &c. ; 
where we arrived on the 12th. We found the boats safe, and 
the men left with them in Terv fair health. Again bnilt the 
steel boat, and while there repaired the graves of the late mia- 
sionaries who died there. 

22nd. — Sfatrted from Chibisa, 

26(A. — Arrived at the Ruo, stopped and repaired the grave' 
of the late Bisbop Mackenzie. Arrived at the Kongone on the 
llth of November, but on our way down we visited Senna. 

H.M.S. Racoon arrived on the 2nd of December. 

Arrived at the Cajie on the evening of the 17th. 

Embarked on board the mail-st«amer on the 10th. 

In conclusion, I mast again state that this is but a brief out- \ 
line of our proceedings. 1 should have liked to have done 
more by going to the north end of the lake, but was prevented 
by circumstances unforeseen when I left England; for, had the 
Mizitu not threatened Chibisi, I should have nad little difficulty 
in getting the Makololo to accompany me. Under the eircum- Jl 
stances, 1 hope that what baa been done will meet with your ' 
approval, as well as that of the Koyal Geographical Society, 
I have the honour to be, Sir, your very odedient servant, 
E. D. Totrao. 

VI. — On the Geography and Mountain FoBses of British 
Columbia in Connection ivith an Overland Uoute. By 
A. Waddington, Esq. 

Bfad. MarcliS, 186S. 

The possibility of opening a direct and avEiilable communication, 
between the Canatias and the I'acitic, through British North 
America and the Itocky Mountains, has been for many years w 
subject of discussion, and even of doubt. True, the portion west 


I 4 

J ' 



of Lake Superior was thorougbly explored for tliis purpose as 
far as the Red Kiver Settlement and the lower end of the Great 
Saskatchewan in 1857-8, at the expense and by order of the 
Canadian Government, and the explorations of Palliser, Hector, 
Blakieton, Sulhvan, and others, liave made ns acquainted with 
the main features of the Saskatchewan territory, and, to a 
certain extent, with some of the passes through the Rocky 
Mountains. But the difficulties of connecting an overland rail- 
way with the Pacific through British Columbia were not gene- 
rally known, nor have the geographical features of the country 
west of the Rocky Mountains ever been laid before the public 

The chief object of the present paper is, therefore, to collect 
and embody what I have learnt respecting them, so as to supply 
this deficiency, and furnish such details as were still wanting. 
The writer has spent over five years in studying them, and has 
laid out considerable sums in equipping and sending out ex- 
ploring parties in all directions under reliable engineers, or 
conducted by himself; and the result has been the discovery, 
after much uncertainty and ejcpense, of a feasible route for a 
railroad through the Cascade Range, followed by tlie survey, 
and partial opening of 222 miles of road, through an entirely 
nnknoxvn country, from the coast to the raouth of Quesnelle 
River, and which must necessarily form the first link in any 
future overland route. From this point (whence a road leads to 
the Cariboo Gold-mines in the neighbourhood) the Upper Fraaer 
is navigable for ateam-boats for 280 miles farther up to the 
^ijeather," or " Yellow Head Pass," through the Rocky Moun- 
■kiDs, and shortly after their watershed forms the limit of the 

f The colony of British Columbia is to a great extent occupied 
Dy two ranges of mountains, running n.n.W., but gradually 
diverging from each other towards the north, where they enclose 
a vast plain, of which more will be said hereafter. That on the 
east aide bears the name of the Rocky Mountains, and the other 
that of the Cascade or Coast Range. They have one feature in 
common, which is that their eastern edge rises in both cases 
abruptly from an elevated plain ; and in the Rocky Jironntains 
the highest crest or ridge is also on that side ; whereas the 
descent on the western slope, though greater, is extended over a 
wider distance, and therefore in general more moderate. 

The Main crest of the Hooky Mountains, several of the peaks 
of wliich rise to a height of 16,000 feet, forma the eastern limit 
of the colony, and tuns from its south-^ast corner at the 
boundary line ui a n.n.w. direction to beyond the northern limit 
of the colony, in Lat. 60^. I say the main crest, because what 
generally bears the name of the Rocky Mountuins is composed 


"Waddisgtos oh the Geography •and 



in British Columbiit of tliree distinct ranges, divided from each 
other by rivers and deep depressiona, and having each its own 
ci'est or ridge. Of these tlie two western ones, though leas 
elevated, are chiefly composed of metamorphic I'ocks, and there- 
fore, generally speaking, more distorted and abrupt than the 
rounded and granitic peaks and domes of the main crest. The 
whole forms a triple fence as it were to the colony, or one vast 
sea of mouutaiiis, averaging from 150 to 16U miles wide. 

The Middle range, which, as before said, is somewhat lower 
than the main one, and which takes the names of the Purcell, 
Selkirk, and Malton ranges successively, is separated &om the 
main ridge by the Kootanie River, the Upper Columbia, the 
Canoe River, and the Upper Fraser ; and presents one uninter- 
rupted line of mountains, some of them 12,00U feet high, for 
24fl miles, from the Boundary-line to the great bend of the 
Columbia, in 52° n. Lat. Tbe Columbia River hei-e runs towards 
the north, and, after separating the above middle or Selkirk 
Range from the Rocky Mountains proper, cuts through it at the 
Big Bend, and. turning south, again separates it in its downward 
course from the third or more westerly range. But the travel- 
lers who have discovered the different passes (such as they are 
in this latitude) through the Rocky Mountains, were unable to 
push thoir explorations furtlier than this eastern or up^r por^ 
tion of the Columbia, excepting near the boundary-hue; 80 
that neither the middle range nor the western one, which were 
perhaps supposed, as being less elevated, to present less diffi- 
culties, had been hitherto examined. In consequence, however, 
of the gold discoveries at Kootanie and the Big Bend, or in con- 
nection with them, they were carefully explored last year; but 
no practicable pass could be discovered through tiie Selkirk 
Range, which thus presents an impenetrable barrier for a rail- 
road hi that direction. 

The Tliird, or more westerly range, is the least elevated of the 
three, though still ranging from 4000 to 8000 feet high. South 
of Fort Shepherd and the Boundary Line, whei-e it forms eleven 
sharp ridges running north and south, it bears tlie name of the 
Kuispelm Mountains, and further north of the Snowy Mountains 
or Gold Range. The Bald Mountains in Cariboo, GOOO to 8000 
feet high, are also a continuation of this range, which, aft«r 
crossing the Fraser below Fort George, lowers towards the 
north, and takes the name of the Peak Mountains. The only 
good pass from the Columbia through this third range is to tbe 
south end of Sooshwap Lake, and was discovered last year by 
Mr. Moberly, the Government Engineer at Eagle Creek, in 
Lat. 50° 5(i'. An important feature in both the uoiddle and 
western ranges juat described is their gradual depression north of 

t Mountain Paises of British Columbia. 121 1 

riboo, to where the Upper Fraser, after separating the middle I 

ige from tlie Kocky Moimtaina to tlii.- oast, abandons ite north- 
ntsterly course, aud makes a circular sweep through the depres- 
sion from east to west, and then south to below Fort George. 
This depression forms a large tract of level flat couotry, on eacli, 
bat more particularly on the south, side of the Fraser; and as 
■ tile country and climate are both well adapted for settlements 
^nfiers every inducement and facility (if, indeed, it be not the 
^noly pass) for a future railroad through these two ranges of 
"■ ihe Bocky Mountains. 

The Cascade Ka.nge forms the Coast-line of the colony, 
which it follows from near the mouth of the Fraser into the 
Russian (now American) territory. Its average width is about 
110 miles, and it may also be considered as a sea of moun- 
tains, some of which attain, if they do not exceed, a height of 
10,000 feet. Its crest, starting from Mount Baker, a few 
miles south of the Boundary Line, passes a little north of 
the head of Jervis Inlet, some 25 miles north of the head 
of Bute Inlet, '22 mites east of the head of North Bentinck 
Arm, and crosses Gardener's Channel about 20 miles west of 
^ute head. From Mount Baker the Cascade Kange throws out 
^fil spar east and north in the direction of the Great Okanagan 
^Hake and Fort Kamloops, so as nearly ta join the Gold liange ; 
and it entirely envelopes the Fraser from a little above Harrison 
River (55 miles above New Westminster), up to its junction 
with the Thompson at Lytton, and even a few miles beyond, on 
both rivers. But the most nigged portion in this direction lies 
^^letween Yale and Lytton, where mountain succeeds mountain, 
^Euid where tboi^e along the river present the most formidable 
^Ri^iect; bluft' after blufi' of solid perpendicular granite, inter- 
tmngled with steep slides of rolling rock, washed by a deep 
impetuous stream and 1500 to 2000 feet high. In short, not 
only has this portion of the Fraser valley been declared utterly 
impracticable for a raifroad by Major Pope and other competent 
authorities, but it is so lenced in with mountains, that there 
eoTild be no reasonable way of getting at it with a railroad if it 
were. It is over these mountains that the present waggon-road 
passes at an elevation, in one place for nearly 40 miles, of 
3600 feet above the sea : the only road to the Cariboo mines 
and the north of the colony, and, considering circumstances, a 
lasting monument of Sir James Douglas's energetic and provident 
administration. Unfortunately the difficulties (as may be seen 
in Milton and Cheadle's ' North- West Passage,' p. 356, wliere 
there is a good sketch of one of them) were Alpine. Many 
places are moat dangerous, the endless ascents and descents 
£itiguing and laborious in the extreme ; and as the sharp turn- 

122 Waddinqton on the Geography and 

ings, besides many other portions, have had to be built up on 
cribs or cross timbers, which will very soon rot, the repairs will 
form a heavy charge on the Colony. 

So that, supposing the diffieiiltiea of the Rocky HoimtainB 
to be got over, the Cascade Kange still intercepts all com- 
munication by railroad between the eastern parts of the Colony 
and New Westminster. To say nothing of the uttor worth- 
lessness of the country to be traversed, amounting to 450 miles 
out of the 600 from its eastern limit by Howse Pass. Add 
to this that the navigation across the Gulf of Georgia, and 
at the entrance to the Fraaer, by a narrow intricate chaune], 
through shifting sands, full five miles long, is both difficult and 
dangerous, and that the river itself ia frequently frozen up in 
winter for long periods, and it will be evident to every impartial 
mind that New Westminster, with its 700 or 800 inhabitants, 
con never become the terminus of an overland railway to con- 
nect witli Victoria and the ocean. 

Further north along the coast there are numerous inlets which 
penetrate into the Cascade range, but the greater part terminate 
abruptly, like the fiords in Norway, or are too distant ; ot like 
Gardener's Channel, Dean's Casal, or the Skeena, are too far to 
the north-west to be available for any present communication 
with the mines or the interior. There are, however, two excep- 
tions: the North Bentinek Aim, by Milbank Soimd, in lat 
52° 13', and Bute Inlet, opposite Vancouver Island, with a safe 
and easy inland communication by steam to Victoria, distant 
185 nautical miles. Both these inlets terminate in a valley of 
some extent ; and aa attempts have been made to open both 
of them, it becomes necessary to explain why the wnter gaTe 
a decided preference to Bute Inlet for a waggon-road, tmd 
a fortiori for a railroad, over Bentinek Arm or any other Hna. 

Superiority of the Bute Inlet Route. — The advantages of the 
Bute Inlet route consist in its central position, fine town-sits 
and harbour, or rather ita two harbours, accessible at all seasons 
of the year, its easy and safe connection with Victoria and the 
ocean, and the proximity of the coal mines at Nanaimo. The 
port of New Westminster, on the contrary, is difficult of aeceea, 

LIU consequence of its constantly-shifting sandbanks, and closed, 
as aforesaid, by ice during 2 and even occasionally 3 and 3^ 
months in the winter. 
The harbour at Bella Coola, on the Bentinek Arm Trail (the 
only other feasible route to tlie mines), is situated 435 miles 
further to the north, and has been pronounced to be totally un- 
worthy, presenting no shelter, no good anchorage, no good 
landing-place, but a vast mud flat, with a mile of swamp, inter- 



quote the words of Lieutenant Palmer, of the Royal Enginet 
in his ofBeial report on the Eentinck Arm Trail, " A large flat 
ehoal, extending across the head of the Arm, composed of block 
fetid mud, supporting a rank vegetation, bare at low spring 
tides for about 700 yards from high water n:tark, and covered at 
high tide with from 1 to 8 feet of water, and at a distance of 800 
ytuds from shore terminating abruptly in a steep shelving bant, 
on which soundings rapidly increase to 40 and soon 70 fathoms." 
The whole is, moreover, subject to violent winds and powerful tides. 

On the Euto Inlet rout* the snow, owing to its more moderate 
elevation, and its more southern latitude and aspsct, melts fully 
8 weeks sooner than on the Bentinck Arm Trail ; and the road 
is dry, entirely exempt from snow slides, and level the whole 
way through : unlike the endless mountains on the Fraser 
lonte, or the steep unavoidable ascent from the sea, and nu- 
merous swamps by that of Bentinck Arm. The Bute Inlet Trail 
evtt through tne Cascade Mountains by a deep valley studded 
with rich bottoms, affording plentiful pasture and rising imper- 
ceptibly for 80 miles, when it nearly attains its greatest heiglit 
(2500 feet), from which point fotward in the plain it was free 
,iroin snow for 25 miles in February, 1862. The Bentinck Arm 
'"*»il, on the contrary, is obliged to cUnJ} over the range, owing 

tiie valley, when 35 miles from the inlet, turning abruptly to 
the B.S.E., and running longitudinally with the range, instead of 
catting through it ; so that the trail on leaving it attains in 
a very few miles from that point a height of 3840 feet, as will 
be better shown by the following table, compiled from Lieut. 
Ealmer'a rejjort : — 



Vlom the iiilel to ShUuuht, al (he turn 1 
ofthsTBlte; I 

TbeoM to Cokelin, " b; a Dairow 
gor^ hemmeil in b; stevp and 
CODtillDODg eli& " J 

From Cokelin (o the GrenC Sli<li> .. 

FTDm theGrcBl Slide lo the Precipice 

Or, lappoeing il possible to equalise j 
thcM gndea (a thing nexx lo im- 
pisctieable). we should have . . | 


"After which the trail continues to rise graiinally. the soil 

" imiug shallow and meagre, tbe vegetation thinni!r and inferior, 

SO miles more, till it crosses the summit range at an altitude 

4360 feet," — (Lieut. Palmer's report) And it then only enters 



12-t Waddington on. the Geograjiliy and 

ou eoo(i Boil some 20 miles before crossing the Bute Inlet Trail 
at Benchee Lake ; whereas, along tlie latter line, the bunch graes 
peculiar to the country flouriahcB over thousands of acres. 

Finally, the distance from Bute Inlet to the mouth of Ques- 
nelle River is fully 25 mOea less than hy the Bentinck Arm 
Trail, and not much more than half that from New Westmineter 
^22 against 393), besides having no portages or mountains ; 
thus presenting an open communication during the whole winter 
which exists on neither of the other routes ; and a diminution 
of nearly one half in the time and cost of conveyance, as com- 
pared witli that by the Fraser. Lieut. Palmer, in his report, 
admits " the geographical advantages of the Bute Inlet route 
over the others." 

Another item in favour of the Bute Inlet route is its great 
strategical security in case of any difficulties with our American 
neighbours. The Fraser River, from Fort Hope downwards, 
runs for 80 miles parallel to tlie boundary line, and at a distance 
varying from G to 12 miles from that frontier, whilst the only 
road from New Westminster to Hope and the interior has be^i 
constructed between them ; so that a detachment of a few hun- 
dred men could at almost any point intercept all communication, 
and litemlly starve out the whole colony. The Bute Inlet route, 
on the contrary, would be perfectly safe, and its approaches im- 

General Features of the Grouiid over which the Railroad wovHd 
•pass from Bide Inlet to the Mmilh of Quesndle River. — ^The 
valley of the Homatlico River, which falls info Bute Inlet, pre- 
sents a deep cut or fissure through the Cascade MountainB, 
vorj'ing from 3 miles to less than a quarter of a mile in width, 
is 84 miles in length, and rises imperceptibly to a height of 2400 
feet or more above the sea, at the point where it enters on the 
plain beyond the momitains. For the first 31 miles, up to the 
canyon, or defile, the bed of the valley is composed of diluvial 
soil, consisting of a sandy' clay or loam, and forming a hard dry 
bottom. The canyon itself is exactly IJ mile in length. Beyond 
the canyon the valley again forms and opens for about 6 miles, 
the soil partaking of the nature of the rocks from which it is 
derived, and becoming more gravelly, and of a reddish cast. 
The river after this is again confined to a narrow bed, but the 
country is more open, and the road passes for 6 other miles near 
the river along the foot of the mountains, until the valley once 
more opens and recovers its flat level aspect, which it mamtains 
up to the plain. 

The mountainous region thus travei-sed is composed, for the 
first 40 miles, up to the neighbourhood of Tiedeman'a Glacier, 
of brittle quartzose granite, nard to drill, but yielding easily to 

Mountain Passes of British Columbia. 125 

the blast. The rock then becomes more feldspathic, and con- 
tains more hornblende, the former element decomposing into a 
reddish-white, greasy clay. This continues until a short dis- 
tance below the First Lake, where the granite ceases, and is 
replaced for six or eight miles by a clay-slate of variegated 
colours, bearing the marks of igneous action. This slaty zone 
is supposed to be auriferous, and is in all probability a con- 
tinuation of the Bridge Biver dig^ngs. It is followed by beds 
of stratified granite, of apparently more modem origin, and 
which are intersected here and there for a short distance by 
▼eins of augitic rock, varying from 6 inches to 2 feet in thick- 
ness. The valley now opens more and more, till at a distance 
of 84 miles from the inlet the mountains cease abruptly, and 
the road enters on the plain beyond. 

The rise in the valley, though apparently uniform, presents 
considerable variations. Thus, the canyon presents a rise in 30^ 
-miles of only 860 feet above the sea. The river then becomes 
much more rapid, and gives for the next 13 miles an ascent pro- 
bably of 780 feet, after which for 40 miles and up to Fifth Lake, 
the rise diminishes to 630 feet, beyond which there is a sharp 
ascent for a couple of miles more of, say, 150 feet, when the 
summit, or watershed, is attained. 

We shall thus have the following gradients : — 

Feet Feet 

Rise 865 in 30i miles = 28-36 per mUe, or 1 in 186-2 

„ = 60-00 „ „ 1 „ 88*0 

„ = 15-76 „ „ 1 „ 335-2 

„ = 75-00 „ „ 1 „ 70-4 

„ 780 
„ 630 
„ 150 

,. 13 
„ 40 
„ 2 

Total.. 2425 

The above figures must of course be considered as only ap* 

The plain consists of a deep sedimentary soil, watered by 
numerous lakes and small streams, and varied by occasiontu 
elevations formed of sandstone belonging probably to the lower 
series of the chalk formation, and apparently owing their up- 
heaval to plutonic action, which has nardened or calcined the 
rock. They form here and there conical elevations, varying from 
500 to 800 feet in height. Such, for instance, are Mount Palmer, 
to the north of Benchee Lake, and several others that figure on 
my map. These elevations, and the low spurs or ranges of hills 
that accompany them, necessitate but few deviations from the 
straight line, and the plain in general offers every facility for 
the establishment of a railroad. Towards the mouth oi the 
Quesnelle there is a gradual descent for some miles, but un- 
attended by any difficulty ; and at the terminus on the banks of 
the Fraser there exists a rich plateau of cultivatable soil. 

[26 WaddenOTON on the Geography and 

Agricultural Resources on ilie Line. — Tiie valley above de- 
sfribed is in general heavily timbered, but studded, ae aforesaid, 
with rich bottoms, capable of producitig any kind of crops, and 
oEferine open spots for small farms. The plain itself (the only 
one in British Columbia of any extent) has been admired by all 
who have seen it, on account of its vast pasturages and park-like 
scenery. Its width, where it is crossed by the Bute Inlet trail, 
is about 120 miles, and it stretches from the neighbourhood of 
Lake Kamloopa and the south-west end of the Great Qiiesnelle 
Lake across the Fraser, in a n.n.w. direction more than 300 • 
miles to tlie Skeena, beyond which river it Las not been ex- 
plored. It contains milhons of acres of good ground, and some 
of the best along the proposed route, where large tracts of laud 
are sure to bo taken up as soon as the first communications are 
established. Some objections have been made to its elevation, 
which averages about 2500 feet above the sea in tbe southern 
part, tbough gradually lowering towards the Skeena, wliere the 
climate in consequence becomes considerably milder. But this 
makes it none the less valuable for grazing purposes, which will 
be by far the most profitable branch of farming in the coontry 
when there are means of conveyance. At present, the cattle con- 
sumed in Cariboo are driven overland some 500 or 600 miles 
from Washington territory. 

Cereals can also be cultivated with success, as is fully proved 
by the following list, showing some of the crops which were 
raised last season on the Fraser route, together with the corre- 
sponding latitudes and altitudes : — 

LsLN. AlUlude. 
Deep Creek .. SB'IT' 2255 100 acreti of oala. 
WiUiam's Lake 52°13' 2135 200 „ <«ls, Wley ftad wheat 
CutoffVuUcy 5V°10 2973 200 „ tata, barley, potatoes, 

axiA a little wheat. 
Mt. Corcwall SIW 1508 70 „ oata, barley, and 300 

bushels of wheat. 

But the above localities are all to the cast of the Fraser, and 
it must be borne in mind that as the isotliermal lines approach 
the Pacific they extend diagonally towards the north, in the 
proportion of about i" of latitude to 2° of longitude. Thus at 
Benchee Lake, on the Chilcoatcn Plain, in the same latitude aa 
William's Lake, and rather more elevated, but 2° more (o the 
west, and therefore very probably identical in climate, I saw in 
the autumn of 1863 a small crop wf oats, barley, and turnipB, 
which Mr. Manning had raised on trial, and which had perfectly 
succeeded ; whilst some potatoes, which had been placed in an 
exposed situation to the south, had been frost-bitten. The 
Indian horses pass the winter out of doors, without fodder or 
stabling — tbe best proof that the winters are not very severe. 

Mountain Passes of British Columbia. 


The superiority of the Bute Inlet route (the only one which 
opens a communication available for a railroad with this mag- 
nificent plain) being thus proved, it remains to say a few woros 
on the different passes which have been explored through the 
Rocky Mountains, on British territory, leavmg out the Atha- 
basca Pass by Peace Eiver, in lat 56° 28', as bemg too fer north 
for present purposes : — 

Naxbs of thx Pasbes. 




1. TeUow Head Pass, from the Athabasca to the 
Upper Fraser (Rae) 

S. Howie Pass, from Deer River, by Blaeberry 
^Ter to the Upper Columbia 

S. Kieking Horse Pass, by Bow River and Kicking 
Horse River, to the Upper Ck>lumbia (Sullivan; 

4. Yermillion Pass, from the South Saskatchewan, 

W Fort Bow (4100 feet), to the Kootanie 
(Hector) ) 

5. Kananaskis Pass, from Fort Bow, by Pamsayj 

lUver, to the Kootanie (with a short tunnel} 

4600 feet) (PaUiser) ) 

€. Crow's Nest Pass, by Crow River to the Kootanie 

7. British Kootanie Pass, by Railway River to the) 

Kootanie (Blakiston) j 

8. Red Stone Creek, or Boundary Pass, fromj 

Waterton River to the Kootanie (partly on>j 
American ground) (Blakiston) ji 




















• • 


With the exception of the Yellow Head Pass in the above 
table, which is comparatively straight and short, and the three 
last, which are tolerably so, but too near the Boundary line to 
be available ; the four others describe the most circuitous routes, 
among a labyrinth of glaciers, and mountains covered with per- 
petual snow. Besides which, the approach to them over the 
plain by the South Saskatchewan is for nearly 100 miles through 
an arid, sandy, treeless district, forming the northern limit of 
the great American Desert; instead of the rich fertile belt 
<irained by the north branch, which is also the more consider- 
able one of the two. And it is in the very latitude of this belt 
that the great barrier of the Eocky Mountains is cleft asunder, 
so that the road runs along this fertile zone in a direct line up 
to the lowest and easiest Pass, as to a natural gateway lead- 
ing to the Pacific. But we have already seen that all the 
southern passes (and Captain Palliser wishe^i it to be distinctly 
understood that he considered these as far from being the best 
that could be discovered) are intercepted further west by the 
Selkirk range, which presents an impenetrable barrier, and 

128 WaddisgTON on the Geographi/, S,-c., of British Columbia. 

renders them so far next to useleaa. When, therefore, we con- 
sider their relative altitude, their necessarily precipitous nature, 
and the great depth of anow (27 feet or more), under which 
they lie buried during eight months of the year, there can be 
no hesitation (and such, indeed, is now the general opinion) in 
regarding the Yellow Head Pass through the Bocky Mountains, 
with its easy gradients and low elevation, as the only feasible 
one for a railroad. But the same has been shown with respect 
to the Upper Fraser, and the Bute Inlet valley, through the 
Cascade range. It is therefore clearly demonstrated that these 
passes, which connect naturally with each other, offer the best 
and, indeed, the only really practicable line for a railway to the 
Pacific through British Columbia. 

I shall conclude with a few lines on the urgency of a direct 
communication between the Canadas and the Pacific through 
British territory — a fact which ia becoming every day more 
and more evident. In a political point of view, and as & 
natural consequence of the late confederation, it would contri- 
bute essentially to its prosperity ; for so long as there is no 
Overland route, any commimication with BritisE Columbia must 
remain a myth and the Red River Settlement continue isolated, 
instead of becoming a valuable annex to the Union. At pre- 
sent England has no other communication with the Pacific out 
by New York and San Francisco ; and in case of war with the 
United States the only possible postal line would bo through 
her own territory across the Ilocky Mountains; wliereas by 
opening an overland communication immediately, a mail service 
would oe established forthwith, not only to British Columbia 
and Vancouver Island, but before long to Australia and Asia. 
In the United States the Central Pacific liailroad passes over 
what is commonly called the great American Desert, a vast 
tract of country destitute of wood and water, dry, barren, and 
unfit for the habitation of man ; yet in spite of this drawback, 
and though San Francisco possesses no coal for steamboat pur- 
poses, it is progressing rapidly, and the time is not far distant 
when it will oe opened. Passengers, mails, and the lighter, 
costlier kinds of goods will pass over it; it is calculated to 
divert a great part of the trade of China and Japan from the 
Old to the New World, and if we do not wake up we shall 
bitterly regret the lost opportunity, and an important traffic, 
which mignt so easily pass over our own territory, and which, 
from our position, ought naturally to belong to us. 


lIosTGOMEitiE's Seport of a Roate-Survei/ to Lhasa. 

VII. — Report of a Rouie-Survey made hij I'undit " ,froin 

^L Nepal to LJiasa, and tlience through ilie Upper Vallejf of the 
^H Brahmaputra to its Source. By Captain T. G. Montgomerie, 
^B' ILE., of the Great Trigouometrical Snrvcy, in charge of the 
^^Klrans-Himalayan Survey pR,rties. 
^^^ Bead, March 33, 18fi8. 

^'Exploration beyond the frontiers of British India has, for 
many years, mado but little comparative progress, and (as far aa 
Europeans have been concerned) has been confined to points 
not many marches beyond the border. 

A European, even if <iisguiaed, attracts attent ion when travel- 
ling among Asiatics, and Es presence, if detected, is now-a-daya 
often apt to lead to outrage. The difficulty of redressing such 
outrages, and various other causes, has, for the present, all but 
put ft stop to exploration by Europeans. On the other hand, 
Asiatics, the subjects of the British Government, aro known to 
travel freely without molestation in countries far beyond the 
British frontier ; they constantly pass to and fro between India 
and Central Asia, and also between India and Tibet, for trading 
and other purposes, without exciting any suspicion. 

In 1861 it was consequently proposed to take advantage of 
this facility possessed by Asiatics, and to employ them on ex- 
plorations beyond the frontier. The government of India 
approved of the prajeet, and agreed to support it liberally. 

With a view to carrj- out the above. Colonel Walker, the 
superintendent of the Great Trigonometrical Survey, engaged 
two Fundits, British subjects, from one of the upper valleys of 
the Himalayas. These men were recommended by Major 
Smyth, of the Educational Department, as likely to have great 
facility in travelling through various parts of Tibet, their countrj-- 
men having always been granted by the Chinese authorities the 
privilege of travelling and trading in Nari-Khorsum, the upper 
basin of the Sutlej. Such promising recruits having been 
secured, they were at once sent to the head-quarters of the 
Great Trigonometrical Survey, in order to be trained for Trans- 
Himalayan exploration. 

On Colonel Walker's departure tor England, these Pundits 
were put under Captain Montgomerie, who completed theii' 
training. They wore found to be very intelligent, and rapidly 
learnt the use of the sextant, compass, &c., and before long 
recognized all the larger stars without any difBculty. Their 

• The two Poniiiis being still employed on explorations, Ibei 
obviouE resBous, omiKed. 

VOL, sxxvin. 


130 MontgOMEEIE's Report of a Route-Surve-/ 

work, from actual practice, having been found to be satis- 
factory, Oftptain Montgomerle directed them to make a ronto 
Burvey from the Mansarowar lake to Lhasa, along the great 
road that was known to exist between Gartokh and Lnasa.. 
From Lhasa they were directed to return by a more noFtberly 
route to Mansarowar. The route to Lhasa was selected by 
Captain Montgomerie, because it was known, from natJva 
information, to be practicable as far as the road itself waft 
concerned. If explored it was likely to define the whole <!OurM 
of the great river known to flow irom near the Mansarowac 
late to beyond Lhasa. Hitherto the sole point on the appei 
course of this great river, the position of which was known witlL 
any certainty, was a point near Teshooloomboo, or Shigatze, act 
determined by Captain Turner in 1783. The position of Lbauk 
the capital of Great Tibet, was, moreover, only a matter <■ 
ffuess, the most probable determination liaving been derive 
from native information as to the marches between Turner^ 
Teshooloomboo and Lhasa. In fact the rontf from the Monsfr^ 
rowar lake to Lhasa, an estimated distance of 7 or 800 mife% 
was alone a capital field for exploration. 

An attempt was made by the Pimdits to advance direct from, 
Eumaon, ind Mansarowar to Lhasa, but they did not find it 
practicable. Whilst in Kumaon they came across some Britidi. 
Bubjectfi, Bhotiyas, who had been robbed whilst trading in ths. 
Chinese territories, near Gartokh, These Bhotiyas thought 
that, if the matter was properly represented, they inight get 
redress from the Lhasa Government, and hearing that via 
Pundits were going to Lhasa, asked them to be their agents, 
(vakeels), in order to recover what they could. The Pundite 
consented, and one of them returned to Captain Montgomerie 
for fresh instructions. The attempt by the Mansarowar lake 
having failed, it appeared to Captain Montgomerie that the 
host chance of reaching Lhasa would be through Nepal, as the 
Nepalese Government has always maintained relations of some 
kind with the Government of Lhasa. Traders from Nepal, 
moreover, were known to ^■isit Lhaaa, and Lhasa traders to 
visit Nepal. 

Captain Montgomerie thought that the wish to recover 
money for the Bhotiyas of Eumaon would afford a plausible 
excuse for the Pundits journey to Lhasa, an excuse the Nepal- 
ese would thoroughly .understand, and he trusted the frequent 
intercourse with Lhasa would eventually afford the Fundits a 
good opportunity of travelling to that place in company with 
traders or others. 

The Pundits were consequently ordc^red to go to Eathmundd, 
and from thence to try and make their way to the great road 

ad I 

front Nepal to Lhasa. 131 

between tlie Mansarowar and Lhasa. Their inetrumeDtal 
equipment consisted of two large sextants," two box sextants, 
prismatic and pocket compiisses, thermometers for observing 
temperature of air and of boiling water, pocket chronomettir, 
and common watch, with apparatus, the latter reduced as much 
u possible. 

The Pundits started from Dehra, reached Moradabad on the 
12th January, and Bareilly on the ^Si-d January, 1865. At 
Bareilly they took latitude observatiouB, and commenced their 
route-fiurvey. They crossed the Nepalese frontier at Nepid- 
ganj, Jung Bahadur's new town, and from thence went by the 
Cbeesaghurri road to Kathmaudu, reacliing the latter place ou 
the 7th JIarch, 1865. 

In Katbmandu they made inquiries on all sides as to the 

best route to Lhasa ; they found that the direct one by Kuti (or 

Nilum), across the Dingri plain (or Tingri Maidan, as it is 

called), was likely to be very difficult, if not impassable, owing 

to the snow at that early season (March, April). They conse- 

quently determiued to try the route by Kiron^, a small town in 

I tne Lhasa territoiy, as that route was said to be passable 

I earlier than the Kiiti route. Having made their arrange- 

I menta, the Pundits startod full of hope on the 20th March, 

I 1865, accompanied by four men, whom they had hired as 


On the 2Gth they reached Medangpodo village, and here 
I they changed their mode of dress to ooe better known to the 
I |)eople of Lhasa. They also gave out that they were BiBahiri8,t 
I and wore going to buy horses, ut the same time to do homage 
I at the Lhasa slirine. The character of Bisahiris was assumed, 
I because they knew that those pcopio had from time immemorial 
I been privileged to travel in the Lhasa territory without ques- 
[ tion. On the 28th March they reached the neighbourhoM of 

Eirong, but, much to tlicir disappointment, thoy were stopped 
by the Chinese officials, who questioned them as to the object 
of their journey, and searched their baggage. Fortunately tlie 

instruments (which had been ingeniously secreted in a false 

compartmeut of a box) escaped detection ; but still, though 

nothmg suspicious was secu, tne plausible reasons given for the 

journey did not satisfy the jealousy of the Chinese authorities. 

In spite of everything urged, they were not allowed to pass 

' Until a reference had been made to the Kirong governor. The 

I Kirong governor seems at once to have noted the weak points 

lof their story, and having pointed them out with inexorable 

132 Montqomerie's RrpoH of a Route- Saix-eij 

logic, declined to let them puBs on any consideration; tliey 
were therefore reluctantly iorced to retrace their steps to 
Sliabrii. At Shabru the wily Pundit managed to persuade it 
high official that they were no impostors, and induced hiui, 
moreover, to certily that in a letter to the Kirong goTernor. 
Armed with this letter they returned towards Kirone with. 
hopes of better luck, and no doubt, under ordinary circum- 
stances, would have succeeded; but on the road they fortu- 
nately discovered that the Kirong governor was an individual 
who bad known the Pundit's bi-other personally when he was 
chief of Taglakote near Mansarowar ; hia brother had in &ct 
been frequently in close and friendly relations with him. This 
at once put a stop to all hopes of his advancing by the Kirong 
route, as the governor well knew he was no Bisahiri. The 
other Pundit thought of proceeding by himself, but, being able 
to devise no feaaibTa method, he gave up the idea, and the party 
consequently marched back, reaching Kathmandu on the lOtn 
April. Here they made fresh inqniriea as to some more 
promising way of gettino: to Lhasa. At last they heard of two 
opportunities, the first uy accompanying the camp of a new 
agent (vakeel) that Jung Bahadur was about to send to Lhasa, 
and the second by accompanying a Bhot merchant. In order 
to increase their chances of success, they decided tliat one 
should go with the Nepal agent, and the other with the mer- 
cliant The vakeel at first agreed to take one of them with 
him, but ultimately refused. 

Failing with the vakeel, it was impossible for the Pnndit, 
who was known to the Kirong governor, to go with the Bhot 
mei'chaat, as he intended to take the Kirong route ; he conse- 
quently decided to try a more circuitous route by Muktindth, 
but in this he failed, owing, awording to his own account, to 
loss of healtJi and the unsafe state of the roads, but, no doubt, 
in a great measure due to liis own want of determination. 
After a long jouraey through the upper ^rts of the Nepal 
territory, he returned to British territory. The account of nis 
proceedings is referred to separately. The other Pundit, at 
lirst, was not much more successful with the merchant than his 
brother had been with the vakeel. The merchant, Dawa 
Nangal, promised to take the Pundit to Lhasa, and on the 
strength of that proceeded to borrow money from him. The 
merchant, however, put off starting from day to day, and even- 
tually the Pimdit had to start with one of the merchant's 
servants, the merchant himself promising to follow in a few 
days. The Pimdit assumed the dress of a Ladiki. and, to 
complete his disguise, added a pig-tail to his head. This 
change was made, because he was afraid that the Kirong 

from Nepal to Lhasa. 133 

ofBcials, who stopped him the fii-at time, might recognize 
him again. 

Starting on the Srd June with one servant and Dawa 
Nangat's man, ho reached Shabru on the 20th of June, having 
been delayed six days by a bad attack of fevet. At Shabiu lie 
was kindly ree^ived by Dawa Kangal's family, but Dawa Nungal 
himself never made his appearance, and it became evident that 
ho did not intend to keep his promise. In his perplexity the 
Pundit appealed to Dawa Nangal's unLde, and tola him how he 
had been treatefl. The uncle, a man of some authority, said he 
sympathized with him, and gave him a pass to Kirong, and a 
letter to Dawa Nangal'a brother, who had just returned to 
Kirong from Lhasa. In the letter he mentioned that the 
Pundit's claim against Dawa Naugai was iuat, and, in conse- 
quence, requested him to arrange for the t'undit'a journey to 
Lhasa, and, if necessary, to stand security for him. 

Starting on the 6th July with one of the uncle's serrants, 
the Pundit managed to make his way into Kirong. Here he 
tbund Dawa Nangal's brother, by name Chdng Chu. Chung 
*"-'hu, on hearing the stato of the case, promised to assist the 
i'undit on to LUaaa, but refused to pay bis brother's debt. 
Chung Chii proved himself a better man than hia brother, for, 
though permission to travel by the direct route was refused, he 
ultimately succeeded in getting the Pundit permission to travel 
onwai'ds; by this means he reached Tadiim monastery, a well- 
known halting-place on the great road between Lhasa and 
Gartokh. Starting on tlie 13th August from Kirong, he 
reached Lue on the 23rd. From Kathmandu up to this point 
vegetation and jungle had been abundant, but, beyond, the 
mountains were throughout bare, and all but barren. 

On the 24th August the Pundit joined a large trading party, 
travelling via Tadiim to Mansarowar, and was allowed to 
accompany them. On the 30th he reached Tolla Labrong, 
and there first caught sight of the great river" that flows 
towards Lhasa. His first acquaintance with this river was 
calculated to inspire him with respect for it, as three men were 
drowned in front of him by the swampiug of a fenr boat. 
Alarmed by this occurrence the party marched a short distance 
farther up the river to a better ferry, by which they crossed in 
safety to the Tadiim monastery on the 6th of September, At 
Tadum the Pnndit feigned sickness, as a reason for not going 
on to Mansarowar, and he was accordingly left behind. Con- 
tinuing to feign illness, he at last founa an admirable oppor- 
tunity of going to Lliasa, viz., by accomjianying a Ladak 


134 Montqomebie'j Report of a Roule-Survei/ 

merchant in tlie employ of the Kaahmir Maharaja, who was that 
year going to Lhasa, and was to pass through Tftdiim. On the 
2nd of October the merchant's head man, Chiring Nirpal, 
arrived, and on hearing the Pundjt'e story at once consented to 
take him on to Lhasa. Starting on the next morning with the 
Ladaki camp, he marched eastwards along the great rood, 
reaching the town of Sarkajong on the 8th October. So far 
eveiything had gone smoothly, but here the inquiries made by 
tlie authorities rather alarmed the Pundit, and as his funds, 
owing to the great delay.s, had begun to run short, the two 
combined made him very uneasy. However, he manfolly 
resolved to continue his journey. He became a great favoimte 
with Chiring Nirpal and the whole of the Ladaki camp. On 
the 19th October tliey reached Ealang. From Tadiim to thiB 
point no cultivation was seen, but here there was a little, and a 
few willow trees, and onwards to Lhasa cultivation was met 
with nearly every day. 

On the 22nd October the party reached the town of Jan- 
glache, with a fort and fine monastery on the Narichii," the 
great river first met with near Talla Labrong, From this pcant 
people and goods are frequently transported by boats to nhig- 
atze, 5 days march (85 miles) lower down the river. Most of 
the Pundit's companions went by boat, but he having to survey, 
count paces, &c., went by land. On the 29th October ttey 
reached Digarcba, or Shigatze, a large town on the Penan- 
angchii Kiver near its junction with the great Narichii Biver. 
At Sbigdtae Chirung I^irpal had to wait for bis master, the 
head mercliant, called Lopchak. The Pundit consequently 
remained in that town till the 22nd of December. The Lop- 
chak, who arrived on the 16th November, saw no objection to 
the Pundit continuing with the party, and, moreover, promised 
to assist him at Lhasa. Whilst at Shigatze the Pundit and bis 
companions remained in a large sort of caravanserai called 
Kunkhang. The only incident during their long stay there was 
a visit that he and the Ladakis paid to the great Tashilumbo 
monastery. This monastery lies about half-a-mde south-west 
of the city, and is the same as that visited and fully described 
by Turner. The Pundit would rather not have paid the Lama 
a visit, hut he thought it imprudent to refuse, and therefore 
joined the I^ddkis, who were going to pay their reepeeta to 
liini. The Pundit confesses that, though personally a follower 
of Bi'ahma, the proposed visit rather irightened him, as, accor- 
ding to the religion of his ancestors, who were Eudhists, the 
Lama ought to linow the secrets of all hearts. However, 

• The Brahmapufra Riier. 

from Nepal to Lhasa. 

{mtting a bold face on the matter, lie went, and was mat-U 
relieved to find that the Lama, a boy of 11, only asked hiia 
three simple questions, and was, according to the Puudit, 
nothing more than an ordinary child, and did not evince any 
«stra intelligence. At Shiedtze tlie Pundit took to teaching 
^{epalese Ehopkeepera the Hindce method of calculation, and 
thereby earned a few rupees. 

The great road, which had hitherto been more or less dose to 
the great Narichij Kiver, irom Shagat^e goea considerably south 
of tiat river. On the 25th December they reached the lai^e 
-town of Gyangze, on the Penanangchu Eiver, which was then 
£t)zen hara enough to bear men. Crossing the lofly Kbarula 
jnoimtains they arrived on the Slat December at Nang-ganche- 
jong, a village on the Yamdokcho Lake, with the usual fort on 
A small hill. For two days the Pundit coasted along the Great 
•Tamdokcho Lake " On the second day he nearly fell a prey 
to a band of robbers, but, being on horseback,! he managed to 
»ip^ and on the 2nd January reached Demalung, a village at 
B northern angle of the lake. From Demalang the lake was 
^^ m to stretch some 20 miles to the south-east. The Pundit 
^Btimated the cii'cumference of the lake to be 45 miles, but, as 
br aa he saw, it was only 2 to 3 miles in width. He was 
formed that the lake encircled a large island, wliich rises into 
w rounded hills 20U0 or 3000 feet above the surface of the lake. 
tChese hills were covered with grass up to the top. Betweon 
the hills and the margin of the lake several villages and a 
hite monastery were visible on the island. The viUi^ers keep 
p their communicatiou with the mainland by means of boats. 
e Pundit was told that the lake had no outlet, but as he says 
B water was perfectly fresh, tliat jh probably a mistake ; if so, 
die Pundit thmks the outlet may bo on the eastern side, where 
the mountains appeared to be not quite so high aa those on the 
■other sides. The evidence as to the lake encircling a very 
large island is unanimous. Almost all former maps, whether 
derived from the Chinese majjs made by the Lama?, or from 
native information collected in Hindustan, agree in giving the 
island a very large area, as compared with the lake in which it 
stands. This is, however, a very curlons topographical feature, 
and as no similar case is known to exist elsewhere, it might 
perhaps be rash to take it for granted until some reliable 
person has actually made the circuit of the lake. Meantime 
||4he Pundit's survey goes a considerable way to confia-m the 

t With refennee to tbii, Ihe Fnadit on being qaegiipDed said that the paces of 
tUi portioa. nsd of oae or two other putt, were couiited on his retoni jaoinej. 

136 Montgojierie's Report of a Roufe-Sun-et/ 

received theory. The lake, from the Pimdit's observetion^ 
appears to be about 13,500 feet above the sea ; it contaiiw 
quantiticB of fish. The water was very clear, and said to bo 
Tery deep. 

The ieland in the centre nmst rise to 16,000 feet abore the 
sea, an altitude at which coarse grass is fouud in most parts of 

From the basin of the Yamdokebo Late the party ciTMsed 
over the Khembiila mountains by a bi^Ii pass, reaching ths 
great Naricliu (the Brahmaputra) at Khambabarche; from 
thence they descended the river in boats to Chusul vilJag©. 
Near Chusul they again left the great river, and ascending ita 
tributary, the Kichu Sangpo or Lhasa Eiver, in a north-easterly 
direction reached Lhasa on the 10th of January, 1866. 

The Pundit took up his abode in a sort of caravanserai with ft 
very long name, belonging to the Tashilumbo monastery ; he 
hired two rooms that he thought well suited for taking observsr 
tions of stars, &c., without being noticed. Here he remained 
till the 21st of April, 1866. On one occasion he paid a viait to 
the Goldan monastery, two marches up tlie great road to CluDa, 
which runs from Lhasa in a north-easterly direction. He also 
attempted to go down the Brahmaputra, but was told that it 
was impossible without a well-armed party of a dozen at least 
His funds' being low, he was obliged to give up the idea, and 
indeed, judging from all accounts, doubted if he could have 
done it with funds. The Pundit's account of the city of Lhasft 
agrees, in the main, with what has been written in Messrs. Hue 
and Gabet's book as to that extraordinary capital, which tha 
Pundit found to be about 11,400 feet above the sea. He parti- 
cularly dwells upon the great number, size, and magnificence of 
the various monasteries, and the vast number of monks, &a, 
serving in them. 

He had an interview with the Grand Lama, whom he de- 
scribes as a fair and handsome boy of thirteen years of ^e. 
The Lama was seated on a throne 6 feet high, and on a lower 
throne to his right was seated his chief minister, the Gyalbo* 
or Potolah Kflja, aa he is called by the Newar people, Tha 
Gyolbo is evidently the actual ruler of Lliasa, under the Chinese 
amb^n or resident, the Grand Lama being a puppet in the 
liands of the Gyalbos. 

It is curious that the few times these Great Lamas have been 
seen by reliable people, they have been always found to ba 
small boys, or fair, effeminate-looking young men. Moorcroft 
remarks on the emasculated appearance given to them in all 

Jrotn ^epal to Lhasa. 

the pictures of them that he saw during his _jounier to Gartokh, 
and the same may be remarked on the pictures of Lamas in the 
mimasteries of Ladak, M, Hup says that the Delai Lama at 
Jjhaaa, during their visit in 1846, was nine years of age, and 
had been Grand Lama for only six years, so tliat he must have 
transmigrated once, at any rate, between that time and the 
Pundit's visit in 1866, possihly oftener, as M. Hue says that, 
during the time one Nomekhan or Gyalbo was in office, " three 
Buccessive Delai Lamas had died very soon after reaching the 
age of majority." Turner found the Grand Toshilumbo Lama 
quite a child in 1783. From the above it would appear that 
the poor Lamas are made to go through their transmigrations 
very rapidly, the inter^'als being probably in inverse proportion 
to the amount of ti'ouble they give to the Gyalbo. If the 
Pundit is right in saying that the Lamas are only allowed to 
transmigrate thirteen times, and the present Delai Lama is in 
his thirteenth body, some changes may be expected before very 
long in the Lhasa Government. Ihe Pundit gives a very 
curious account of the festival observed at Lhasa on and after 
their new year's day- 
Having been so long away, the Pundit's funds had arrived at 
a very low ebb, and he was obliged to make his livelihood by 
teaching Nepalese merchants the Hindee method of accounts. 
By this means he got a little more money, but the merchants, 
not being quite so liberal as those of Shigatze, cliiefly remune- 
rated him by small presents of butter and food, on which he 
managed to subsist. During his stay in Lhasa the Pundit 
seems to have been unmolested, and his account of himself was 
onlyonce called in question. On that occasion two Mahomedans 
of Kashmiri descent managed to penetrate his disguise, and 
made him confess his secret. However they kept it faithfully, 
and assisted tue poor Pundit with a small loan, on the security 
of his watch. On another occasion the Pundit was surprised to 
see the Kirong eovemor in the streets of Lhasa. This was the 
same official that had made so much difSculty about letting him 
para Kirong; and as the Pundit had (through Chung Chu) 
agreed to forfeit his life if, after passing Kirong, he went to 
Lttasa, his alarm may easily he imagined. Just about the same 
time the Pundit saw the summary way in which treachery was 
dealt with in Lhasa: A Cliinanian, who had raised a quarrel 
between two monasteries, wa,i taken out and beheaded without 
the slightest compunction. All these things combined alarmed 
the Pundit so much that he changed his residence, and from 
that time seldom appeared in public. 

Early in April the Pundit heard that his Ladaki friends were 
about to return to Ladak witli the tea, Ac, that they had pur- 


138 MoSTGOMEBlEi Report of a Route-Survey 

chased. He fortliivith waited on the Lopchak, and was, mncH 
to hia delight, not only allowed to return with him, but was 
told that lie would be well cared for, and his expenses paid en 
route, and that they need not be repaid till he reached Man- 
sarowar. The Pundit, in fact, was a favourito with all who 
came in contact with him. 

On the 2Ist April be left Lhasa with the Ladald party, and 
marching back by the creat road as before, reached Tad^m 
monastery on the 1st of June. 

From Tadiim ho followed the great road to Monsarowar, 
passing ovev a very elevated tract of country from 14,000 to 
16,000 feet above the sea, inhabited solely by nomadic people, 
who possess large flocks and herds of sheep, goats, and yaks. 
On the road his servant fell ill, but his Ladaki companions 
assisted him in his work, and he was able to carry it on. 
Crossing the Mariain-La mountains, the watershed between the 
Brahmaputra and the Sutlej, he reached Darchan, between the 
Mansarowar and the Itakas Til, on the 17th of Juno. Here be 
met a trader from British territory who knew him, and at once 
enabled him to pay all bis debts, except the loan on his watcb, 
which was in the bauds of one of the Laddkis. He asked his 
friends to leave the watch at Gartokh till ho redeemed it. 

At Darchan the Pundit and his Ladaki companions parted 
with mutual regret, the Ladakis going north towards Gartokh, 
and the Pundit marching towards the nearest pass to the 
British territory, accompanied by two sons of the man who had 
paid his debts. 

The Pundit's servant, a faithful man from Zaskar in Lodak, 
who had stuck to him throughout the journey, being ill, re- 
mained behind. He answered as a sort of security for the 
Pundit, who promised to send for him, and at the same time to 
pay all the money that had been advanced. Leaving Darchan 
on tlie 20th June, the Pundit reached Tbajung on the 23rd, 
and here he was much astouished to find even the low hills 
covered with snow in a way he had never seen before. The 
fact being that he was approaching the outer Himalayan chain, 
and the ground ho was on (though lower than much of the 
country he had crossed earlier in the season) was close enough 
to the outer range to get the full benefit of the moisture from 
the Hindustan side. The snow rendered the route he meant to 
take impracticable, and he had to make a great detour. After 
an adventure with the Bhotiyas, from whom he escaped with 
difficulty, he finally crossed the Himalayan range on the 26th 
June, and thence descended into British territory after an 
absence of eighteen months. As soon after his arrival aa 
possible, the Pundit sent back two men to Darchan, with money 

from, Nepal to Lhasa. 

to pay his debts, and directions to bring back his servant. This 
waa done, and the servant arrived all safe, and in good health. 

The Pundit met his brother, who failing to make his way to 
Lhasa, had returned by a lower road through the Kepalcso 
territory. This brother had been told to penetrate into Tibet, 
nod, if possible, to assist the Pundit. Tiie snow had however 
prevented him fi-om starting. He was now, at the Pundit's 
request, sent to Gartokh to redeem the watch, and to carry on 
a route-survey to that place. The Pundit handed over his 
sextant, and told him to connect his route with the point where 
the Bhotiyas had made the Pundit leave off. The brother 
succeeded in reaching Gartokh, redeemed the watch, and after 
making a route-survey from the British territories to Gartokh 
and back, he rejoined tho Pundit, and they both reached the 
Head-Quarters of the Survey on the 27th of October, 18C6. 

During the regular survey of Laddk, Captain Montgomerio 
liad noticed that the Tibetans always made use of the rosary 
and prayer-wheel,' he conaequeiitly recommended the Pundit 
to carry both with him, partly because tlie character of a 
Budhist was tho most appropriate to assume in Tibet, but, still 
more, because it was thought that tlieso ritualistic instruments 
would (with a little adaptation) form very useful adjuncts in 
■carrying on the route-survey. 

It was necessary that the Pundit should be able to take his 
'■compass hearings unobserved, and also that, when counting his 
'j^paces, he should not be interrupted by having to answer ques- 
'..iiouB, The Pundit found the beat way of effecting those objects 
■•waa to march separate with his servant either behmd or in front 
■^f the rest of tho camp. It was of course not always possible 
\4o effect this, nor could strangers be altogether avoided. When- 
•flvet people did come up to the Pundit, the sight of his prayer- 
Jirheel was generally sufficient to prevent them from adc&essing 
jiim. When he saw any one approachin", ho at once began to 
vhirl his prayer-wheel round, and as all good Eudhists whilst 
doing that are supposed to be absorbed in religious contempla- 
tion, he was veiT seldom interrupted. 

The prayer-wheel consists of a hollow cylindrical copper box, 
which revolves round it spindle, one end of which forms the 
handle. The cylinder is turned by means of a piece of copper 
attached by a strinfj. A sliglit twist of the band makes the 
cylinder revolve, and each revolution represents one repetition 
of the prayer, which is written on a scroll kept inside the 

'linder.t The prayer-wheels are of aU sizes, from that of a 

140 iroNTtiOMERlE's RepoH of a Route-Survey "^^H 

large barrel downwards; but those carried in the Iiaiid aro 
generally 4 or 6 inches in height by about 3 inches in diameter, 
with a handle projecting about 4 inches below the bottom of the 
cylinder. The one used by the Pundit was an ordinary hand 
one, but instead of earrj'ing a paper scroll with tlie usual Budhist 
prayer " Om maui padmi horn," the cylinder had inside it lone 
slips of paper, for the purpose of recording the bearings ana 
number of paces, &c. The top of the cylinder was made looee 
enough to aliow the paper to be taken out when required. 

'ITie rosary, which ought to have lOS beads, was made of 100 
beads, every tenth bead being much larger than the othera. 
The small beads were made of a red composition to imitate 
coral, the large ones of the dark corrugated seed of the udrGs. 
The rosary was carried in the left sleeve ; at every hundredth 
pace a bead waa dropped, and each large bead dropped, con- 
seqnently, represented 1000 paces. With bis prayer-wheel" 
and rosary the Pundit always managed in one way or another 
to take hia bearings and to count his paces. 

The latitude observations were a greater difficulty than the 
ronte-snr\'ey. The Pundit required to observe unseen by any 
one except his servant; however, with bis assistance, and by 
means of various pretences, the Pundit did manage to observe at 
thirty-one different places. His observations for latitude were 
all taken with a large sextant, by Elliot, of 6-ineh radios, 
reading to ten seconds. The Pundit was supplied with a dark 
glass artificial horizon, but Captain Montgomerie finding that it 
waa far from satisfactory, ordered the Pundit not to uee it, 
unless he found it impossible to use quicksilver. A shallow 
wooden trough witli a spout waa made I'or the quicksilver, bat 
as anything in the shape of a glass cover could not be earned, 
the Pundit was directed to protect his quicksilver from tis 
wind as he best could, by sinkiug it in the ground, &c. The 
Pundit had invested in a wooden bowl,t such as is carried at 
the waist by all Bhotiyas. This bowl is used by the Bhotiyas 
for drinking purposes; in it they put their water, tea, brotfar 
and spirits, and m it they make their stirabout with dry flow 
and water, when tbey see no chance of getting anything oetter. 
The Pundit, in addition, found tbis bowl answer capitally for 

* Th« Puiulil found this pnijer-vbeel free of all exBDiinaliou by cu^tom-lionM 
ur other officiala. In order to lake full adTiiiiUgB of this Im man ily, several ooppar 
prijei^wbeeU hnve been made up iu the G. T. S. workshop, fitted for rrmpiiwui. 
Ac. ; these will be dc^scribed hereafter. 

t The TibelanB are very curious as lo tlie»e drintitig bowli or cups ; Ihej IW 
tokde hy hollowmg oal a piece of hard wood, Ihoie made from knots of treM being 
more espeuially Talued. A good bowl is often bound with silver. The wood ftom 
which lliey are made does not grow in Tlbtt, and l)ie cups conaeqiiently sell fcr 
large amoucts. 

from Nepal to Lhasa. 


"iis quicksilver, as ita deep sides prevented tlio wind Iroin acting 
leadily on tlie eurfaue. Quiekaifver is a difficult thing to carry, 
hai the Pundit managed to carry his safely nearly all the way 
io Lhasa, by pntting some into a cocoa-nut, and by carrying a 
■jeserve in cowrie shells closed with wax. At Piahtejong howe\'er 
ihe whole of his quicksilver escaped by some accident; fortu- 
aately he was not far from Lhasa, where he was able to purchase 
more. The whole of Lis altitudes were taken with the quick- 

Reading the sextant at night without exciting remark was 
by no means easy. At first a common bulIWye lantern 
answered capitally, but it was seen and admired by some of the 
carious ofBcials at the Tadum monastery, and the Puadit, who 
said he had brought it for sale, was forced to part, with it, in 
otAsT to avoid suspicion. From Tadiim onwards a common oil 
■wick was the only thing to be got. Tho wind often prevented 
the nae of it, ana, as it was dimcult to hide, the Pundit was at 
some of the smaller places obliged to take his night observation, 
and then put his instrument carefully by, and not read it till 
the next morning ; but at most places, including all the more 
Unportant ones, he was able to read his instrument immediately 
.i^tsT taking his observations. 

The results of tlio expedition delivered at the Head-Quarters 
consist of — 

Is/. — A great number of meridian altitudes of the sun and 
gtara, taken for latitude at tliirty-one different points, including 
a number of observations at Lhasa, Tashilumbo, and other 
unportant places. 

2nd. — An elaborate route-survey, extending over 1200 miles. 
defining the road from Kathmandu to Tadum, and the whole of 
the Great Tibetan road from Lhasa to Gartokh, fixing generally 
the whole course of the great Brahmaputra Kiver from its 
.■ource near Mansarowar to the point where it is joined by the 
stream on which Lhasa stands. 

'Ard. — Observations of tlie temperature of the air and boiling 
water, by which the height of thirty-three points have been 
^temuned, also a still greater number of observations of tem- 
jperature, taken at Shigatze, Lhasa, &c., giving some idea of the 
climate of those places. 

Aih. — Notes as to what was seen, and as to the information 
^gathered during the expedition. 

The latitude observations were taken with a large sextant of 
6-inch radius, and have been reduced in the Great Trigono- 
metrical Survey Computing Office. There is no doubt but that 
^■.the Pundit is a most excellent and trustworthy observer. In 
^wEtrder to see this, it is only necessary to look at the accompany- 

142 MONTQOMERls'i Report of a Route- Survey 

ing list, vide Appendix. At any one point the results deduced 
from a variety ol stare differ irUer se so very little, that it is not 
too much to say that the mean must be true within a limit of a 

The merits of the route-survey are more difficult to decide 
upon, but the means of testing the work are not wanting. The 
bearings from point to point were observed with a compaas, and 
the number of paces between were counted. From the DearingB 
and number of paces there was no difficulty in computing the 
latitude and departure in paces, or the number of paces that the 
route had advanced in latitude, and also in longitude. In order 
to determine the value of the pace, there was first the latitudes 
derived from the astronomical obser\'ations determined during 
the route-survey, and second the latitudes and longitudes of 
Kathmandil, of the Mansarowar Lake, of places in Kumaon, and, 
lastly, the longitudes which Turner determined by his route- 
survey running nearly due north from the Churaulari Peak. 
Turner's route forms a most important check upon the Pundit's 
work, and prevents any accumulation of error which might 
occur in a route-surrey carried over such a great space as 9 
degrees of longitude. As far as the longitudes are concerned, 
that of Kathmandu, which has hitherto been accepted as ap- 
proximately correct, was not found to be quite in accordance 
with the data forthcoming. It was conBec{uently necessary to 
re- determine the longitude. 

"* Colonel Crawford's Trigonometrical Survey and map un- 
doubtedly still supply the most reliable data available as to the 
position of Kathmandil, though his observations were made as 
far back as the year 1802. 

No member of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India has 
hitherto been allowed to use a surveying instrument in Nepal, 
but, by means of stations in British territory, a number of peaks 
have been accurately determined to the north of the Nepal 
valley. Several of these peaks have fortunately' proved to be 
identical with those determined by Crawford. 
Crawfonl'B Mount Daibun, 

Now, on page 264 of London edilJcoi of vol. 
Crawford's disUncs of 
Mount Daibun (or SXV. G. T. 9.) from Kathamndft U given as 35^ geo. milu. 
Do. of D (or XXI. „ ) „ „ 4a „ 

Taking the Great Trigonometrical Survey positionB of the 
above points, we find that the distances given above intersect in 

from Nepal to Lhasa. 143 

pointa varying in longitude from 85^ 16i'to8r>'' 19', and varying 
in latitude from 27 42' to 27" ^3'. According to Crawford's 
map* the Daibun peak liea 25° E. of north from Kathmandfl; 
that bearing with the distance given above, viz., 35 } geographical 
miles, would put Kathmandii in latitude 27° 43', longitude 85° 
16J'. Crawford's latitude of Kathmaudd by astronomical 
obaervatione t is 27° 42'. From the above it has been con- 
cluded that Kathmandii is in N. lat, 27° 42J', and e, long. 8.0° 
17' 45". 

It ia greatly to bo regretted that the Messrs. Schlagintweit 
did not finally determine the lougitnde of Kathmandfl in 1857, 
when they received permission to use their instruments in the 
Kepal valley. The longitude might have been determined with 
indi^utable accuracy by the simplo expedient of observing the 
ozimath of one or more of the Great Trigonometrical Survey 
peaks north of Kathmandfi. The Messrs. Schlagintweit state 
that they saw these peaks, and recognised them as those fixed 
by the Great Trigonometrical Survey ; it is consequently all the 
more difficult to iraa^ne why this great opportunity was lost. 
Their longitude of Kathmandft was determined by a chronometer, 
but as the time depends upon a single day's set of altitudes 
taken too near to the meridian, it cannot be accepted as con- 
clusive, but, iis far as their observations can be relied on, 
they tend to confirm the longitude} adopted above, viz., 85° 
17' 45". 

The longitudes of the pointa in Kumaon have been derived 
from the Stracheys' map§, and are known from the adjacent 
Great Trigonometrical Survey peahs to be correct within a very 
small limit.. The longitude of Gyangze-jong (or .Thansu-jong) 
has been taken from 'fumer's survey of the road from Bhootan 
to Tibet, made in 1783. Turner's longitude of the Chumul&ri 
peak is 89° 18', the Great Trigonometrical Survey longitude 
being 89° 18' 43". This coincidence no doubt is fortuitous, as 
there ia an error of 11' in the longitude of the origin of his 
survey; however it may have happened. Turner's longitudes 
up to Chumularf seem to be correct, for Captain Godwin-Austen, 
■whilst surveying in Bhootan, ascertained that the village of 
Phiri, close to the ChumulM, is very nearly in the longitude 
ascribed to it by Turner. Turner moreover puts Taasisudon in 
longitude 8(1° 41', and Captain Austen in 89° 40'. 

It may consequently be assumed that the longitude of 

• A MB. map in the G. T. Sorvey Office, 

t See p. U5, vol. xii., ' Asiatic ReEenrches,' London edit. 

t The Sehlagiutweit'B kngitade of Kathaumda, In tcrinii uf tlie G. T. Survey, is 


I Cooipilcd ill llie Surveyor General's Office, Cnlcuttn, April, 1850, 

144 Montgomerie's Report of a Route-Survey 

Turaer's route near the Chumularf jieak is nearly correct 
From tlie neighbourhood of the Ciiumiiltirl to Jhausu-joug, 
Tomer's route rung nearly due north, and therefore any error in 
hia eatimiite of distances would have a very small effect on the 
longitude. This is fortunate, as it is not known how Turaer 
measured bis distances, though he specially states that he took 
bearings with a compass. The distance between Chnmulari and 
Jhansa-jong is only about 80 miles, and as the bearing is so 
northerly (Viz., 20° E. of N.)i it ni^y he concluded that any 
error in the distance has had but small effect on the longitude. 
The longitude of Gyangze haa therefore been assumed &om 
Turner to he 89° 31'. Turner observed the latitude at Tae^- 
lumbo (Shigatze), and made it 2\P 4' 20", the Pundit makes it 
29° 16' 32". Turner's latitude of Chumulaii is 28° 5', the Great 
Trigonometrical Survey latitu^le is 27° 50'. Turner very poB- 
sibly was not accustomed to take latitudes, and as the Surveyor 
(Lieutenant S. Davis^ sent with liim was not allowed to go 
beyond Tassisudou, it is not to be wondered that there are 
differences in his latitudes. The comparison of several latitudes 
now well-known, tend to show that the semi-diameter of the sun 
may have been omitted by Turner, as his observations were to 
the SUQ only. 

The Pundit's observations at Shigatze extend over many 
days, and include thirteen ob8er>'ation8 to the buo and a variety 
of southern stars, as well as to the pole star. The latitudes 
derived from these observations agree capitally iiiier se. The 
Pundit was thoroughly practised in the method of taking lati- 
tudes, and as his determinations of many well-known points, 
such as Bareilly, Moradabad, Ac, have proved to be correct 
with only a pair of observations, tliere can be no doubt about 
accepting his latitude of Shigatze, where he took so many. 
The Pundit followed the same river as Turner for 50 mius 
between Gyangze and Shigatze. They agree in making the 
bearing between those places 62° west of north. The bends of 
the river as given by them agree in a general way, but the 
distance by Turner is 39 miles, and by the Pundit 46 miles. 
As the former appears to have only estimated his distances by 

Fiess, while the latter paced them carefully, the result by the 
undit has been adopted as the most correct. 
In a route-survey, where bearings, distances, and latitudes 
only are available, it is obvious that a route running meridian- 
ally is the moat easily checked. Unfortunately in this route- 
Biurey the only part that runs very iavourahly is that from 
Kathmandii to 'fadum, where there is a difference of latitude of 
118' to a difference of longitude of only 75'. The length of 
the pace derived from the difference of latitude is 2-6074 feet, 

■^ from Nepal to Lhasa. 145 

■or 31 inches. The remainder of the route from the Manaarowar 
to Gyangze runs so nearly east and (rest that the differences of 
latitudes between the various points are too small to give a 
.zeliable value for the pace, but, as far as they go, these 
differences indicate a longer pace than that derived from Kath- 
imandfl to Tadum. The direction of the route not being favour- 
able for determining the pace from the latitudes, recourse has 
been had to the known differences of longitude between 
■ Kumaon, Kathmandfl, and Gyangze, derived as above. The 
fdifference of longitude between Kathmandil and Kumaon makes 
,tiie length of the Pundit's 2-53 feet, or 30 inches. The dif- 
ference between Kathmandil and Gyangze makes the length 
rotthe Pundit's pace to be 2'75 feet, or 33 inches. 

The route between Kathraandfl and Knraaon taken by the 
.Pundit is the worst part of the whole of his route. It crosses 
,tbe Himalayas twice, and also several high passes, and the road 
'On the Cis-Himalayan side is paiiicularly rough and rocky, with 
.great ascents and descents. It was consequently to be expected 
that his pace would be somewhat shorter than on the route 
"letween Tadiim and Gyangze, which runs the whole distance 
jfcy the easiest slopes possible, without crossing a single steep 

etea. The Pundit's pace, as derived from his own difference of 
titnde between Kathmandii and Tadiim, is 2'61 feet, or 31 
[inches. If this pace were adopted between Hathmandd and 
'Eumaon, the difference of longitude between the two woidd 
1)6 only 13' larger than the assumed difference, or in 320' 
(5° 20*) only a discrepancy at the rate of 4 per cent. If this 
Bame pace were used between Tadiim and Gyangze the difference 
trf longitude would he 17' less than the assumed difference, viz., 
'828' (5" '/a'), or a discrepancy at the rate of only 5 per cent. 

The two lengths of the pace, derived from the difference of 
^longitude, agreeing so closely with that derived from the 
iPundit's difference of latitude between Nepal snd Tadiim, the 
one being slightly shorter in the roughest ground, and the other 
.slightly longer in the easiest ground, it seems reasonable to 
'floncluae tliat the lengths of pace derived from the longitudes 
j«pe quite in accordance with all that is known of the route. 
I^Fhe Pundit was practised to walk 2000 paces in a mile, or say 
It pace of 31^ inches, ami he has certainly adhered very closely 
to it. From Gyangze to Lhasa the road is very similar to that 
■between Taduiu and Gyangze, and the same value of piice, viz., 
S*74" has been used. This gives a difference of longitude of 

* The dire«liun uf Ihc rond lielwoen Plabujoug aud LLau ii ralher more 
faTOnnible fur miikiog uae of ibe Puuilit's Jmitudi^g. ir uslsI tbry would give a 
^ce of -J en I'cei, a proof (hot the pace was looRer than i*lween Todum and 
KathumiiilQ. This pace n-ould put Lhsi'a iu longitude 91'^ 3' 3fi". 

146 Montgomerie's Report of a Route-Surveij 

V 28' 7". The Tundit's latitude of Lhasa is derived from 
twenty separate observations to the t>un and stare. It is probably 
within half a minute of the correct value. From the above it 
is concluded that Lhasa is in north latitude :29° 39' 17", and 
east longitude 90° 59' 43". 

Between the Mansarowar lake and Lhasa the Pundit travelled 
by the great road called the Jong-lam " (or Whor-lam), by 
means of which the Chiaeae officials keep up their communica- 
tions for 800 miles along the top of the Himalayan range from 
Lhasa, north of Assam, to Gartokh, north-east of Simla. A 
separate memorandum is given hereafter as to the stages, &c., 
on thb extraordinary road. Starting from Gartokh on the 
Indus, at 15,500 feet above the sea, the road crosses the fiaiUs 
range by a very high pass, descends to about 15,000 feet in Narl 
Ehorsum, the upper basin of the Sutlej, and then coasting 
along the Itakas Tal, the Mansarowar, and another long lake, 
rises gradually to the 5Iariham-la pass, the waterehed between 
the Sutlej and Brahmaputra, 15,500 feet above the se^. 
From the Mariham-Ia the road descends gradually, following 
close to the north of the main source of the Brahmaputra, and 
within sight of the gigantic glaciers, which give rise to that 
great river. At about 50 miles from its source the road is for 
the first time actually on the river, but from that point to 
Tadiim it adheres very closely to tlie left bank. Juat before 
reaching Tadum the road crosses a great tributary, little inferior 
to the main river itself. The Tadum monastery is about 1^200 
feet above the sea. 

From Tadiim, the road follows down the Brahmaputra, some- 
times close to it, sometimes several miles from it, but at 80 miles 
east of Taddm the road leaves the river, and crossing some 
higher ground, descends into the valley of the Raka San^po 
river, which is a great tributary of the Brahmaputra ; leaving 
the Hokas valley, the road crosses over the mountains, and 
again reaches the Brahmaputra at about 180 miles below 
l/adiim. About 10 miles lower tlie road changes from the left 
bank to the right bank, travellera having to cross the great ri?OT 
by ferry-boats near the town of Janglaihe. Below Janglache, 
the road follows the river closely to a little below its junction 
with the Baka Sangpo. From that point the road runs some 
10 miles south of the river, crossing the mountains to the la^e 
town of Shigatze, 11,800 feet above the sea. From Shigatse 
the road runs considerably south of the river, it ascends the 
Peuanangcbu river, and crossuig the Kharola pass, 17,000 feet 
above the sea, descends into the basin of the Yamdokcho lake. 

* Lini mi'auE ruaJ iu the Tibelau larguoge. 


from Nepal to Lhasa. 1-17 

Tor two long stages the road nins along tliis great lake, wliicli 
18 13,700 feet above the sea, then rising sharply, crosses the 
lofty Khatnba-la pass, and deflcends to the Brahmaputra again, 
now only 11,400 feet above the sea. Following the great river 
for one stage more, the road (which has hitherto been running 
.liom west to east) here leaves the Brahmaputra, and ascends ite 
■tributary, the Kichu Sangpo, in a north-easterly direction for 
three stages more to Lhasa, which is 11,700 leet above the 
«ea. The total distance is about 800 miles from G-artokh to 

This long line of road is generally well-defined, though it is 
■not a made road, in the European sense of the word. The 
-natural slopes over which the road is carried are however 
wonderfully easy. The Tibetans have, as a rule, simply had to 
■dear away the loose stones, and only in three or four plains, for 
-a few miles, has anything in the way of making a road been 

In maoy parts there appears to have been considerable danger 
■of losing the road in the open stretches of the table-land, the 
whole surface looking very much like a road ; but this danger is 
guarded against by the frequent erection of piles of stones, 
'Surmounted with Hags on sticks, &c. These piles, called lapcha 
by the Tibetans, were found exceedingly handy for the survey ; 
■the quick eye of the Pundit generally caught the forward pile, 
and even if be did not, he was sure to see t]ie one behind, and 
in this way generally secured a capital object on which to 
take hie compass bearings. The Tibetans look upon these piles 
partly as guide posts, and partly as objects of veneration ; 
traveUers generally contribute a stone to them as they pass, or 
if very devout ana generous, add a piece of rag; consequently, 
<in a well-used road, these piles grow to a great size, and form 
-conspicuous objects in the landscape. Over the table-land the 
road is broad and wide enough to allow several travellers to 
go abreast ; in the rougher portions the road generally consists 
of two or three narrow paths, the width worn by horses, yaks, 
men, &e., following one anotlier. In two or three places these 
dwindle down to a single track, but are always passable by a 
horseman, and, indeed, only in one place, near Phuncholiug, 
is there any difficulty about laden animals. A man on horse- 
back need never dismount between Lhasa and Gartokh, except 
to ciOBB the rivers. 

The road is, in foc-t, a ^^'oQderf^^lly well-maintained one, con- 
sidering the very elevated and desolate mountains over which it 
is carried. Between Lhasa and Gartokh there ore 22 staging 

? laces, called Tarjums, where the baggage animals are changed, 
heao Tarjums are from 20 to 70 miles apart ; at each, shelter 
L 2 

148 MOSTGOMERIE* Report of a Route-Survey 

is to be had, and efficient arrangements are organised for for- 
warding officials and messengers. The Tarjiims generally CJDnaiat 
of a house, or houses, made with sun-dried bricks. The larger 
Tarjnms are capable of holding 150 to 200 men at a time, out 
aomt' of the smaller can only hold a dozen people; in the latter 
case, further accommodation ia provided by tents. At six 
Tarjums tents only are forthcoming. Each Tarjum is in charge 
of an official, called Tarjumpa, who is obliged to have horses, 
yaks, and coolies in attendance whenever notice is received of 
the approach of a Lhasa official. From ten to fifteen horses, 
and as many men, are always in attendance night and day. 
Horses and beasts of burden (yaks in the higher ground, donkeys 
in the lower) are forthcoming in great numbers when requirea ; 
they are supplied by the nomadic tribes, whose camps are 
pitched near the halting houses. 

Though the iron rule of the Lhasa authorities keeps this 
high road in order, the difficulties and hardships of the Pundit's 
march along it cannot be fully realized, without bearing in 
mind the great elevation at whjcn the road is carried. Between 
the Mansarowar lake and the Tadiim monastery the average 
height of the road above the sea must be over 15,000 feet, or 
about the height of Mont Blanc. Between Tadam and Lhasa 
its average height is 13,500 feet; and only for one st^e does 
the road descend ao low as 11,000 feet, whilst on several passes 
it rises to more than 16,000 feet above the sea. Ordinary 
travellers with laden animals make two to five marches between 
the staging-houaos, and only special messengers go from one 
staging-house to another without halting. Between the staging- 
houses the Pundit had to sleep in a rude tent that freely 
admitted the biting Tibetan wind, and on some occasions be had 
to sleep in the open air. 

Bearing in mind that the greater part of this march was 
made in mid-winter, it will be allowed that the Pundit has per- 
formed a feat of which a native of Hindustan, or of any other 
country, may well be proud. Notwithstanding the desolate 
track tney crossed, the camp was not altogether without ereatare 
comforts. The yaks and donkies carried a good supply of 
ordinary necessaries, such as grain, barley-meal, tea. butter, &c,, 
and sheep and goats were generally procurable at the halting 
places. A never failing supply of fuel, though not of the 
pleasantest kind, was generally forthcoming from the argols or 
dried dung of the baggage animals, each camp being supposed 
to leave behind at least as many argols as it burns. At most of 
the baiting places there is generally a very large accumulation. 

Between the Mansarowar and Sarkajong nothing in the shape 
of spirita was to be had, but to the eastward of the latter 

from Nepal to Lliasa. 

place a liquor made from barley could generally be got in every 
villaga This liquor, called chimg, varies iu Btrength, according 
to the season of the year, beiug in summer something like sour 
beer, and in the winter approximating closely in taste and 
strength to the strongest of smoked whiatey. The good-natured 
Tibetans are constantly brewing chung, and they never begrudge 
anyone a drink. Tliirsty travellere, on reaching a village, soon 
find out where a fresh brew has been made ; their drinking cups 
are always handy in their belt^ and they seldom fail to get 
them filled at least once. The Pundit stoutly denied that tnia 
custom tended to drunkenness among Iiis Tibetan friends ; and 
it must be allowed that in Laclak, where the same custom 
prevails, the people never appeared to be much the worse for it; 
guides had however to be rather closely watched, if tlio march 
took them through many villages, as tbey seldom failed to pull 
out their cup at each one. 

A good deal of fruit is said to be produced on the banks of 
the Brahmaputra, between Shigatze and Chushul. The Pundit 
■only saw it in a dried state. 

Wlien marching along the great road, the Pundit and his 
companions rose very early ; before starting they sometimes 
made a brew* of tea, and another brew was always made about 
the middle of the mareh, or a mess of stirabout (suttee) t was 
made in their cupa, with barley-meal and wat«r. On arriving 
at the end of a march they generally hod some more tea at 
once, to stave off the cravings of hunger, until something more 
substantial was got ready, in the shape of cakc« and meat, if the 
latter was available. Their marches generally occupied them 
from dawn till 2 or 3 p.m., but sometimes they did not reach 
their camping ground till quito late in the evening. On the 
march they were often passed and met by special messengers, 
riding along as hard as they could go. The Pundit said these 
men always looked haggard and worn. They have to ride the 
whole distance continuously, without stopping either by night 
or day, except to eat food and change horses. In order to 
make, sure .that they never take off their clothes, the breast 
fastening of their over-coat is sealed, and no one is allowed to 
break the seal, except the ofBeial to whom the messenger is 
eent. The Pundit says he saw several of the messengers arrive 
at the end of their 800 miles ride. Their i'aces wore cracked, 
their eyes blood-shot and simken, and their bodies eaten by lice 

* The TibelauB Etew Ihelr Ub with water, mi-al, anil butter ; the tea-leaves are 

t A TibelttD always carriee meal with him, and makes Buttoo wheueTtr he fetis 

K Froi 

^M leem a 

H 'The 

Mostgomebie's Report of a Soute-Survet/ 

into large raws, the latter they attributed to not being allowed 
to take off their elothes. 

It IB difficult to imagine why the Lhasa authorities are so 
very particular as to tho rapid transmission of official messages, 
but it seems to be a principle that is acted upon throughout the 
Chinese empire, as one of the means of government. Ordinary 
letters have a feather attached to them, and this simple addition 
is sufficient to carry a letter from Lhasa to Gartokh, 8U0 mile^ 
in little over thirty days. A messenger arriving at a village 
with such a letter is at once relieved by another, who takes it 
on to the next village. This system was frequently made use 
of by the Surveyors in Ladak and Little Tibefr and it generally 
answered well. 

If any very special message is in preparation, and if time 
permits, an ordinary messenger is sent ahead to give notice. 
Food is then kept ready, and the special messenger oaly 
remains at each staging-house long enough to eat his food, 
and then starts again on a &esh horse. He rides on day 
and night, as fast as the horses can carry him. The road 
tlu'oughout can be ridden over at night; if there is no 
moon the bright starlight* of Tibet gives sufficient light. 
Tibet is rarely troubled by dark nights ; but, io case it 
should be cloudy, or that a horso should break down, two 
mounted men always accompany the messenger. These men 
are changed at every stage, and are thoroughly acquainted with 
their own piece of road. Each of these two men has, at Icaflt, 
two spare horses attached behind the horse he is mounted. If 
any horse get^ tired it is changed at once, and left on the road, 
to be picked up on the return of the men to their own homes. 
By this means the messenger makes great progiess where the 
road is good, and is never stopped altogether, even in the rougher 
portion. A special messenger does the 800 miles in twenty-two 
davs on the average, occasionally in two or three davs less, but 
only on very urgent occasions. The Pundit made fifty-one 
marches between Lhitsa and the Mansarowar liake, and his^ 
brother makes out the remaining distance to Gartokh sevea 
marches more, or, in all, fifty-eight marches. The Pundit found 
very few of the marches short, while a great many were very 
toi^ and tedious. 

Little idea of the general aspect of the country which the 
road traversed coukl be given by the Pundit, 

From the Mansarowar Lake to Tadllm (140 miles) glacieiB 
always to have been visible to the soutli, but nothing very 

• The Etarllght in Tibel, us in all very elevated regions, a partisulBrly bright. 

■ high was 
f nortli aii< 

from Nepal to Lliasa. 151 

high was seen to the nortli ; for the next 70 miles the mountainfi 
north and south seem to have been lower, but further eastward 
a very high snowy range was visible to the north," running for 
120 miles parallel to the Baka Songpo Kiver. Prom Janglacbe 
to Gyangze the Puudit seems to have seen nothing high, but he 
notices a very large glacier between the Fenanang valley and 
the Yamdokcho Lake. 

From the lofty Ehamba-k Pass the Pundit got a capital 
view. Looking south he could see over the island in the Yam- 
dokcho Lake, and made out a very high range to the south of 
the lake ; the mountains to the east of the lake did not appear 
to be quite so high. Ijooking north the Pundit had a c-lear 
view over the Brahmaputra, nut all tlie mountains in that 
direction were, comparatively spooking, low, and in no way 

About Lhasa no very high mountains were seen, and tliose 
Tisible appeared to he all about the same altitude. Hardly any 
anew was visible from the city, even in winter. From the 
Uansarowar to Halung, 400 miles, there were no villages, and 
no cultivation of any land. The mountains had a very desolate 
appearance, but still numerous large camps of black tents, and 
^ousanda of sheep, goats, and yaks were seen. The fact being 
that the mountain sides, though looking so arid and brown, do 
produce a very nourislung coarse grass. 

To the eastward of Kalung, cultivation and trees were seen 
every day near the villages. Near the Yamdokcho Lake the 
lower mountains seem to have had a better covering of grass. 
The Pundit mentions the island in the Yamdokcho as being very 
■well grassed up to the summit, which must be 16,000 or 17,000 
feet aoove the sea. This extra amount of grass may be due to a 
larger fall of rain, as the Pundit was informed that the rains 
were heavy during July and August. 

As a rule, the Pundit's view from the road does not seem to 
have been very extensive, for although the mountains on either 
wde were comparatively low, they generally hid the distant 

The only geological fact elicited is that the low range to the 
east of the Lhasa Kiver was composed of sandstone. According 
to the Pundit, this sandstone was very like that of the SiwAlik 
range at the southern foot of the Himalayas. 

The probability of this is perhaps increased by the fact that 
fossil bones are plentiful in the Lhasa district. They are sup- 
posed to possess great healing properties when applied to wounds, 

• Willi ■ tety high pjsk bI iis wcBtem ettreniilj, called Hwlciang. A Ttry 
liieb peak wu also miiiced to tbe sooth between the Raka and Brahmaputis 

152 Moktoomeeie's Report of a Mouie-Survey 

&C; in a jpowdered state. The Pundit saw quantities of fossils 
exposed ior sale in the Lhasa bazaar. The people there call 
them Diig-nipa, or lightning bones. One fossil particularly 
struck tlie Pundit ; it consisttS of a skull which was about 2^ feet 
long, and IJ feet broad. The jaws were elongated, but the 
points had bi;en broken off. The mountains crossed were 
generally rounded with easy slopes. The roundness o£ those on 
the Yamdokcho Island seems to have been very remarkable; 
this general roundness and easiness of slope probably points to 
fonner glacier or ice action. 

Besides the Yamdokcho, a good many smaller lakes were 
seen, and two much larger ones were heard of. Those seen by 
the Pundit were all at about 14,000 feet above the sea. There 
are hardly any lakes in the lower Himalayas; the few that 
exist being all at, or below, 6,000 feet, but from about 14,000 to 
15,000 feet lakes and tarns are particularly numerous.* Thia 
may be another evidence of former ice action. 

Whilst the Pundit was at Shig&tze and Lhasa, he took a 
series of thermometer observations to determine the temperature 
of the air. During November, at ShigAtze, the thermometer 
always fell during the night below the freezing point, even inside 
a house. The lowest temperature recorded was 25", and during 
the day the temperature hardly ever rose to 50'^, At Lhaaa, in 
February, the thermometer generally fell below 32° during the 
night, aud the lowest observed temperature wu8,t 26° ; dotiitg 
the day it seldom rose to 45°. During the whole time the 
Pundit was in the Lhasa territory, from September to the end 
of June, it never rained, and snow only lell once whilst he was 
on the march, and twice whilst in Lhasa. 

The snow-fall at ShigAtze was said to be never more than 
12 inches ; but the cold in the open air must have been intense, 
as the water of running streams freezes if the current is not 
very strong. A good deal of rain falls during July and August 
about Sbigatze, and there is said to be a little ugbtning and 
tliunder, but the Piindit does not recollect seeing the one or 
hearing the other whilst he was in the Lhasa territory. The 
wind throughout Tibet is generally very strong on the table- 
lands, but at Siiig&tze aud Lhasa it does not seem to have been 
in any way remarkable. The sky during the winter seems to 
have been generally clear. 

The Pundit's heights were all determined thermometricdiy, 
that is, by observing the temperature of boiling water. The 

■ Tbere are no lakes known in the Himalajiu higher Ihui IG.OOO feet bat 
possibly one of those heard of by the Pocdit may torn oat ta be a little higher. 
f iDside a. house. 

from Nepal to Lhasa. 153 

lieight of Eathmandu, thus determined, agrees very closely with 
that deduced from other sources ; the thermometer used there, 
and at Muktindth, returned in safety, and was afterwards boiled 
at a trigonometrical station. It was found to agree with the 
observations taken before the Pundit went to Eathmandu. 
This thermometer was handed over to the Pundit's brother. 

The Pundit took another thermometer with him to Lhasa, 
and, with it, all his higher points were determined. This latter 
was unfortunately broken near the end of the Pundit's march. 
There has, consequently, been no means of finding out whether 
it had altered in any way during the journey, nor any oppor- 
iiunity of testing it at known altitudes. If it had come oack 
safely, there would have been no diflBculty in having it boiled at 
trigonometrical stations of all heights, up to the highest visited 
by the Pundit. This thermometer was boiled at Almorah 
before the Pundit started, and with that observation as a zero, 
the heights of Lhasa, &c., have been computed out. 

The neight of Darchan, a little above the Mansarowar Lake, 
computed out in this way, is found to be 14,489 feet above 
the sea. The Mansarowar Lake, as derived from Captain H. 
Strachey's thermometrical observations, is 14,877* feet, or taking 
^ mean between his height of the Mansarowar and Bakas Tfl 
lakes it is about 15,000 feet. A result 400 or 500 feet higher 
than the Pundit's height. It may consequently be concluded 
that the Pundit's heights are not in excess. 

With reference to the spelling of the name of the capital of 
Tibet^ Lhasa has been adopted, as that agrees best with the 
Pundit's pronunciation of the word. He says the word means 
God's abode, from Lha, a God, and Sa, a place. 

It may be remarked that more bearmgs to distant peaks 
would have been a great addition to the Pundit's route-survey, 
but the recognising of distant peaks from dilBTerent points of 
view is a difficult matter, and only to be accomplished after 
much practice. The Pundit's next survey will, no doubt, be 
much improved in this respect. On the whole, the work 
now reported on has been well done, and the results are 
highly creditable to the Pundit. 

* Mansarowar, 1 75 feet abo^e lake, air 46^ boiling point 186*0 
RakasTai, „ „ 54° „ „ 186-0 

Petoragurh, 5,590 above sea, „ 64° „ „ 202*5 

154 Montgomekie's Report of a Route-Survey 

Exirach from a Diary Irept hy Pundtt , during his Joumeg 

from Nepal to LJiasa, and from Lhasa through tlie Upper 
YaMeii of the Brahmaputra (o the Sowrce of thai River near 
the Manmrowar Lahe. 




Having made our preliminary arraagements, I started &om 
Nepal on the 20th Marehj 1865, accompanied by my brother 
and four private servants. We arrived at niglit-fall at Azidpur 
village, on the Lhas£ road. 

Jmreh 2l8l. — Crossed over tbo Nilkant hills, and arrived at 

22nd. — Aft^r travelling all day, I arrived in the evening on 
the bank of the Bitrdwati stream, 

23rd. — I arrived at Ilamchi village, and took obseryatioos for 
latitude, and thermometrical observations. 

24.(h. — Arrived at Nilklang halting-place. 

25lh. — Arrived at ShAbro village, situated near the junction 
of the streams Gandak and Lendichu, and took observations for 
latitude. This is a customs' post., where all goods are taxed, and. 
travellers have to pay a toll of 4 annas each ; we paid Bs. 1-8 
for our party. 

2Gth. — Arrived at Medongpodo village, where we altered onr 
mode of dress, adopting a mode familiar to the iuhabitanta of 
Lhdsd, in order to preclude any suspicion as to the object of our 

27ih. — Arrived about noon at Temuri4 Bhansilr (a Nepoleee 
thannah and customs' post), where the ofGcials forced us to 
undergo a strict examination. Our boxes and baggage verci 
closely searched, but they failed to discover our instrument^ 
which were hid in a secret compartment of a box ; they, how- 
ever, compelled us to pay a toll of lis. 4, after examining oni 
purwanahs. We then proceeded on our way. and by night-&U 
arrived at Baswdgarhi, a fort built by Jung ISahadoor in 1S55» 
during a war between him and the LhtUa rajah. This fort is 
situated near the junction of the Gandak and Lendichu streams^ 
the latter forming the boundary between the Nepal and Lhib4 
territories. A stone bears a Chinese inscription mentioning 
this fact. I here took observations for latitude, and thermo- 
metrical observations. 

2?ih. — I arrived at noon on tlie left bank of the Gandak at 
Pem^esii, halting-place, near a thannah of the Kirong district. 
We were here stopped, and interrogated as to who we were, and 
as to the object of our visit. Our answer was that we were 
Bisahiris,* and the object of our visit was to purchase horses, 

8 tbc priTiUge of 


from Nepalto Lhasa. 155 

itiitl also to pay our homage at the shrine of the Lhdsd divinity. 
On heariug tliia, they told us that we must be detained til! the 
Kirong governor gave lis his sanction to pass; and, acting up to 
their decision, they sent word to Kirong, meanwliile searching 
our boxes, &c. ; but the same good fortune attending us, they 
failed to discover the secret recesses where our instruments were 
hidden ; they, however, made us pay a toll of Rs. 5 for myself 
and party. Aft^r detaining u.s the whole of the next day, the 
29th, and a portion of the 30th, the expected answer from 
the Kirong governor arrived, and was read to us. It stated that 
we were hirbidden to continue our route by Kirong, because 
this was not the ordinary route from KdthmAndii to LhisA, the 

S roper route being vi& Nflam or Kiiti, and, had we been 
isabiris, the route we should have taken was via Mansarowar, 
and not this, Seeing such a decided prohibition set against our 
continuing our onward march by Kirong, I demanded back the 
toll which had been imposed on ua, uut a portion only of 
the Rs. 5 was returned. With heavy hearts and gloomy tbre- 
bodings as to the ultimate success of oar enterprise, we made a 
detour to Easwiijrarbi. 

Z\et. — WelettRaswAgdrhifort early this morning, and arrived 
at night-fall at Shdbro. Here I was again questioned why I had 
returned, when I bad told them on leaving the place on the first 
occasion that 1 waa going on to Lhdsd. I told them how it was 
that, after travelling up to PeuiAnesa unmolested, our further 
march was prohibited by the police at that thannah. They 
suggested to me that if I laio my complaint before another 
official, who lived some miles away, and who was in favour with 
the Potolah rajah (the Lh&sii Lama'a diwan), I might perhaps 
get a passport to Lha^ through bis intercession. 

Acting up to this suggestion, I proceeded early the following 
morning to visit this official, and told him all that I had men- 
tioned to tbe police at Pemanesi, and also exhibited to him the 
passports that I had in my possession. He listened to me with 
great attention, and evidently believed my statements. After a 
long pause be wrote a letter to the Kirong governor (Jongpon), 
stating that I was no impostor, but that my real object in wish- 
ing to visit Lba^a was for the purpose of purchasing horses, to 
visit the shrine of the Lhfei divinity, and to recover certain 
sums of money due to me by some of tbe Lhasa residents. I 
succeeded completely in imposing upon this official, and elicited 
from bim a promise that no one should now impede me. After 
making him a present of a few trifles, such as a pair of spec- 
tacles, a bos of matches, &c,, I withdrew to Sbabro village, in- 
tending to start the following morning towards Kirong, armed 
with the letter. 

156 Mostoomerie's Beport of a Route-Survey 

April 2nd. — Startiue early from Shdbro, w6 arrived at noon 
at a Berai called Dongknang ; here we were accidentally informed 
by some travellers t^at the Kii'ong governor {Jongpon) was the 
individual who had in previous years been the governor of 
Purang TagU Kote, and the chief official at one time of Gar- 
tokh. This deprived ua of all hope of being able to proceed 
onwards, for this chief of Kirong was personally well acquainted 
with my brother, and had we proceeded, even with such in- 
fluential support as the letter mentioned above was likely to 
give, yet the recognition of my brother by the Kirong governor 
(which was certain to happen) would have prevented mm from 
having any confidence in us, and would thus have thwarted our 
enterprise at the outset. My brother had very frequently (only 
a few years previous) been brought in close and friendly contact 
with the governor, and he well knew that we were no Bisahiria. 
I then planned that my brother and three servants should return 
and stay at Nepal, till such time as the melting of the anow 
would render the road to Lhasa, via. Nilam or K6ti, practicable 
for travellers, while I, with one servant, should proceed by 
Kirong ; but, after matui-e consideration, we abandoned thia 
plan, because, with but one servant, I might liuve fallen an easy 
irey to thieves. Accordingly, we retiaced our steps, and on the 
'th April arrived at Khincliat bazar, situated on the bank of 
Tirsuli river. Here, thinking that our number (six) might 
create suspicion, I discharged two of our servants, who knew but 
little of the Tibetan language. I made over to them the papers 
and work already finished, with instructions to deposit them in. 
a safe place till my return. We ourselves mai"ehing back, ar- 
rived at the Batar bazar by nightfall. Resuming our march 
the next morning, we arrived at Kathmandfi on April 10th, 

I was already acquainted with a resident of Kathmandfi, and 
with his aid I took up my residence there, waiting till such time 
as the melting of the snow might render the road to Lbas^ via 
Nilam or Kiiti, practicable to travellers. Meanwhile, I mada 
the acquaintance of all who I thought might enable me to com- 
pass my object, collecting as much information as to the road to 
Lb^, the state of the ctiuntry,, as I could, without creating 
auspicioi). My iriend promised to accompany me to Lhasa as 
my servant, on a pay of 25 rupees per month. I thought he 
would be useful, as he had travelled the road, and was well 
known all along it, but when the time came he failed me. 

Another resident of Kathmandfi told me that it was fruitless 
to imagine that I could ever reach Lliajra, for although I had 
tried only one of the two roads, i.e., the one by Kirong, and had 
to return, yet there was less chance of success in reaching my 


from Nepal to 1 


rdeatination by the other, viz., by Nflam or K6ti, for the antho- 
[■ rities on this road were much strieter than those 1 had met with 
on the KirODg road. He iuformed me that if I was not per- 
eonally known to the (Jongpong) chief ofBcial at Nflam, he 
would on no account give me permisBion to travel to Lhisfi, as 
he was forced to give Becurity for the good conduct of those he 
passes. With the best intentions, he advised me to give up all 
thought of seeing Lhasa, telling me that even if I should be 
fortunate enough to pass through Nilam, yet a higher and 
stricter official, residing at Dhiugri Ghangd* (Tingri Maidan), 
vould requii-e better and stronger reasons before allowing me t» 
•go to Lhasa, Suffering from anxiety, and losing nearly all hope 
■<rf ever accomplishing my design, I determined to overcome my 
■despondence, and malie one eftort more. With this view I daily 
-went about the city questioning all who were going to Lhasa, 
tot none would allow me to accompany them. At last I met 
irith an apparently rich man on the eve of travelling to Lhasa, 
:H)d did all I could in my power to gain his confidence. When 
I thought I had partially succeeded, I asked him if he would 
allow me to accompany him, and he said he would have no 
objection. I then made him take an oath not to desert me on 
the road. I advised him not to travel by Kirong. Ho, how- 
ever, told me that he was well known by the authorities on the 
Kirong road, and that his house wjis not far from Kirong, so that 
there was no cause of fear. Thinking that tliis man, Dawa 
Kangat, was really as honest and honourable as he appeared to 
be, r lent him Re. 100, a sum which he promised faitnfully to 
return on our arrival at Lhasa. At that time I heard that Jung 
.Bithadoor intended to send another vakeel to Lhasa, in place of 
the one already there, and 1 was told that this would be the 
best opportunity nfi'orded of getting to Lba'-a. We then decided 
that my brother, who was likely to be recognised by the Kirong 
official, had better accompany this vakeel, who was about to 
proceed by the Nilam road, wnile I was to travel by the Kirong 
road with the Bhotiya, Dawa Nangal. Thinking that, if I waa 
unfortunate enough not to reach Lhasa, my brother might be 
more successful, and vice versa. 

»We consequently divided the money in my possession, and I 
pade over a few of the instruments to him, retaining the better 
^■ervant of the two for myself. I then removed to the dwelling 
of DawA Nangal, and, preparatory to starting, altered my dress 
to one adopted by tlie Ladakis, and added a tail of hair to the 

* Tlie Ghoorkhas sufTereii their fiml MqU at (be banila of Ihe Tibt^Uins on (he 
Tingri Maidso in 1792. Kfitj and Eeveral oilier frontier posts of Nepnl were laken 
from the GhnorkbaB in L'ODsequeiice, and lliu Lb^& bouudur; wits carried cod- 
■idenbly to the eouth. 

158 MONTGOMERrE'j Jtcpoti of a Roate-Surveij 

back of my head. All my arrangements being completed, _ 
requested Dawd Nangal to delay no longer. \Vhereupoti he 
advised me to start, in the company of one of bis men, and pro 
mised to join me, either on the road, or at Sbabro Tillage, ai 
work was likely to detain him for four or five days at K&tii- 
jn^ndiL We started from Kathraanda on the night of the Sid 
June, 1865, and arrived, after travelling for 4 miles, at a Tillage 
named Dharamtalli. 

Eesuming our march the following morning, we arrived at 
Basuata Pawa. On the 5th we arrived at Sundriphedi. On 
the 6th we halted at Tirsuli bridge. On the 7th arrived on the 
bank of the Bitrawati stream. On the 8th at Dhebuug F&W& 
On the 9Ui we continued our stay at Dhebmig Pawa, in con^ 
sequence of rain. On the 10th we arrived at Eekuti yillage. 
On the 11th we halted. From this village, all the way to Bil»- 
wdgarhi, the inhabitants of the country are Bhotiyas. On th« 
I2Ui we arrived at Garrang village. 13th, at Df^glang, where 
I fell ill with fever, aud continued there in that state for fl days. 
On the 20th, after my recovery, we marched to Shabro Tillage. 
Here the servant of DawA Nangal, who accompanied me tlina 
far, mentioned to Dawd Nangal's family that I was a friend (rf 
Dawa's, and that it was the request of the latter that they should 
show me kindness. I was hospitably received and lodged, but 
after some days I began to feel uneasy at Dawa Nangal's long 
delay. I mentioned my anxiety to bis family, and, in com- 
pliance nith my request, they scut a messenger, asking thfl 
cause of the delay. Dawa's answer was that press of work waald 
keep him stdl longer at KathmdndQ, but tliat he might be ex- 

Ected at Shabro within 10 or 12 daya I now concluded tliat 
tw& intended to play me some trick, and this suspicion gave 
me great anxiety, and induced me to visit DawA's uncle ; he waa 
the chief person of Sbdbro village, and possessed great inflneaosb. 
I asked his advice as to what was to be done in my perplex^, 
for to return to Kdtbmdndfi was not my intention, and to pro- 
ceed onwnrd to Lhdsd waa not in my power, in eonsequenoa of 
the prohibition of the road uSicials. He said he felt for me, and 
would give me a passport to Kivong, aa also a letter to I)awi 
Nangal's brother, who had just returned from Lhdsd to Kirong, 
and who being a just and good mau, would return me the vaaaef 
lent to his brother, and also arrange for my safe journey to 
Lh^sd. Acting up to his promise, he gave me a passport to 
Kirong, and the letter to Dawd's brother. He stated in his 
letter that I was an honest man, going to Lhdsa on commiaaioB 
for the purchase of horses, and that my claim of Rs. 100 against 
his brother was just, also mentioning that he would stand 
security for my good conduct to Lhas^ and requesting him to 

159 I 

from Nepal to Lhasa. 

terange for my journey to tliat place, and if the Kirong officials 
Isequired it, even to stand security for me. 
■ Starting on tlie 6th July, accompanied by a relative of the 
vSh&bro official, 1 reach Terauria. On the 7th I arrived at Pe- 
ananes^, where, as on the first occasion, the officials attempted to 
stop me, but the person who accompanied me from bhihro 
ix^ened the way, and in the evening of this same day we arrived 
,t Kirong. 

Kirong is a small town, possessing from 15 to 20 shops (some 
;ept by Nepalese and some by Bhotiyas, who sell a variety of 
larticles). Kirong has a fort and a good-sized temple. Ite popu- 
ulation is estimated at from 8000 to 4000 souls. Itice is im- 
isorted, and salt exported. Three crops are raised annually. 
rWheat and barley are sown in October, and ripen in June. 
B^Jiother description of barley, called Ne, is sown Jn July, and 
aniens in October, and two other trains {called in these parts 
^mpar and 8arso) are sown in May, and ripen in September. 
kA. number of edible herbs are cultivated. On arriving at Kirong 
X lost no time in seeing DawA Nangal's brother, by name Chflng 
"Ohfl, and after offering a few trifling presents, explained my 
ifnisiness with him. He promised me tnat all in his power would 
ha done to enable me to travel onwai-ds to Lhasii, but, as regarded 
l^e money, he could not refund it, as his brother was a bad man, 
id it was not his intention to pay his debts. For four days 
!ter this interview, the chief official (Jon;2;pong) was busy, and 
)uld not attend to my affairs ; but on the flfth day I obtained 
hearing from him, and urged my request to be permitted to 
Bvel on. He told me, with all my strong recommendations, 
Sie would not wait a moment longer to grant me leave to travel, 
^iwd there not been a higher official than him atDhingri Ghaiiga 
hirho might object, but that he would send word to the chief 
IbfScial at that place (8 days' journey distant), and if be granted 
«DT request, no further obstacle would present itself to my tra- 
velling to LhasA. He also mentioned that the only thing he 
Ibond not right was, that no Bisahiri travelled by this road at 
" is time of the year, and this might be one of the reasons which 
ight induce the chief official at Dhingri GhangA to negative 
my request. A messenger was sent bearing a Tetter from the 
Kirong to the Dhingri Ghang& official; and after 15 or 16 
days, on the '26th July, the answer was received. The Kirong 
cfQcial was oRlered to send me back to Nepal, and on no account 
to allow me to travel on towards Lhisfi, for had I been going to 
Lh&s4 for horses I would not have taken this ronte, and, had I 
been a Bisahiri, the route to Lbdsa I should have adopted was 
_ by Mans&rowar, and not this. On hearing the decision of the 
Lj)hingri Gfaang^ chief, 1 implored the Kirong chief to permit me 

IGO MONTQOMERIE* Report of a Soute-Survey 

to travel to Pati Nubi-i, to see my countrymon, via 'LirSdi 
Tumbii moimtaiii and Kadaug-Chtiin, but be nesitated, and said 
that should he permit me to go there, and should I thence pro- 
ceed on to Lhasd, and the news of my arrival at the latter phioa 
reach the ears of the Dliingri Ghanga chief, then lie would 
forfeit his all, and perhaps be murdered, for disobeying orderat 
he, however, sent a man with a letter, urging this fresh request 
of mine, to the Dliingri Ghangd chief. The messenger was^ 
despatched on the 29th of July, and returned on August 10th, 
bearing the order from tlie Dhiupri Ghanga chief to make me 
give security for my good conduct, before I was permitted t^ 
travel to Pati Nubri. On learning this, I returned to Sbabro 
village, and with a great deal of persuasion and many entreatieB- 
induced the chief of the village, Chung Chu, to enter into 
security for me. The wording and sense of the security wa^ 
that should I, on being permitted to travel to Pati Nubri, break 
through my promise not to visit Lhasa within this year, then h(^ 
Chflng Chu, would submit to the heaviest penalty which the 
Potolah rajah might think iit to impose on him. Chflng Chfl, 
after doing this much for me, made me give him a declaration 
to the eHect that, should I be found ia Lhasa within this year, 
then it would be at the penalty of the loss of my life. This de- 
claration was written out by the Kirong official, and I subscribed 
my name and seal to the document. This did not a[^>ear 
entirely to allay the suspicion of the Kirong oflicial, and to guard 
i^inst any wrong-doing on my part, he directed that I oaould 
be accompanied by his men from stage to stage, and they were 
ordered to bring back a letter from me on my arrival at Pati 

August 13th. — I left Kirong, and arrived at Kakmi village. 
14th. — Arrived at Thotang village, and halted there the following' 
day. \&h. — Arrived at Niin village. 17th. — Crossed Li,~J^ 
Tumba, and arrived at Kolurig Chuksa. ISih. — Arrived at 
Joilka-hil village. 19th. — Arrived at Chart an-Phuk-khar village. 
'20th. — Arrived half-way up La-Chum u-pbur-phur mountais. 
21st. — Arrived at a halting-place; the road to this place from 
the last was very bad. Tradition has it that a priest rose to 
heaven on wings from the top of this mountain ; hence its name. 
22nd. — Arrived at Namdul village, where I met Chfimik Dfirji, 
the brother of the man who I said lived at Pati Nubri, and to 
whom I told the Kirong chief I intended gomg. 2drd. — AtLoe 

24iA. — At Babuk village, where I saw Thele, from whom'the 
messengers carried back the letter, aa ordered by the Kinmg' 
officiaL At this place a plant called Nirbisi, or Jadwar, grows 
wild very abundantly; its root is held in very great esteem 

from Nepal to L/iasa. 


rifcrougliout India, as possessing great healing power when applied 

I io cuts, Bears, bites of venomous serpents and insects. Babuk is 

I .A large mart for the exchange of goods; Ehotiyas from all parta 

I frequent it. Salt, wool, felt, and borax are 'brought herefrom 

k Tibet, prior to heing carried into Nepal and adjacent territories, 

Awhile tobacco, rice, grain, cloth, copper-plates, &c., are brought 

t^m Nepal, prior to being carriea into Tibet, to Tadnm, Niku, 

ISapchau, Liibrang, and all other lai^ places. From Kath- 

l^ln&ndil to Lue village jungle and forest_,was generally abundant. 

. but at this place there was none visible, and hence to Lh^ the 

mountain sides were very bare and rocky. I learnt that on the 

25th August, Biro Thele Durcha, with a large party, and a great 

number of yaks (about 200) laden with goods, intended to start 

from this place towards Tadum. Having told these people (hat 

1 1 was a Bisahiri (a countryman of theirs), I was held m great 

•&vour with all, and consequently received no opposition to my 

pVifihto accompany them : we accordingly started, and arrived 

In the evening at Gata Satang camp. 

26/^ — We crossed the G-ala mountain, which forms tlie boun- 
fdary between the Lhasa and Gurkha territories, where I took 
.tfiermometrical observations, and after passing Sang-jomba 
Tillage, we arrived by evening at Somuath camp. 

27(A.— Crossed Giiola mountain, and arrived at Baro Uhuksum 
9smp. 2S(A. — Halted at Bilro Dhuksum. 29ik. — Arrived at 
Zingra grazing-^ronnd, at that time covered with herds tended 
ty men. 30fA.— Arrived at TalUi Labrang. 31si.— Halted at 
,^alla Labrang. 

September Id, — Arrived at Yakau. 2nd. — Arrived on right 
bank of Brahmaputra Eiver, atEela monastery. 3rd. — Arrived 
,st Muna Ghat on bank of river, where boats formed of a frarae- 
vork of wood, covered with leather, convey people and goods 
acroBS ; on this occasion the boat was lost, with three people, in 
Bay presence, and so I returned to Kau, ith. — Arrived at Jang- 
tiia grasdng-ground. 5tk. — Arrived on right bank of Brahma- 
■ putra at Likche monastery, situated on a low hill. 6ih. — Crossed 
. the river by ferry at Likche, and arrived at Tadum monastery. 
I was frequently asked who I was by the inhabitants, and I 
always said that I was a Bisahiri merchant, called KhUmfi in 
these parts, and had purchased a quantity of Nirbisi* root at 
Pati Nubri and Muktinath, which I had sent on to Mansarowar 
by another route, and had come here merely to worship. The 
inhabitants told me that the road from hence to Lhasa was in- 
fested by thieves and dacoits, and that a journey by a small 
party was attended with great danger. 



1G2 MoNTGOMElilE's Jlejwrl of a Route-Survey 

The Mabarajiili of Kashmir sends a mereliant with a great 
quantity of goods to Lhasa once in two years. Hearing that be 
was to be sent this year, it occurred to me that I Imd better try 
to accompany his party. The merchant sent ia called Lopchak, 
and, by the orders of the Lhiisa rajah, ia shown great attention, 
and treated with £;reat distinction, as he passes Eilong the road. 
The rajah of Lhasa sends a mcrcbaut, called Jang Uhongpon, 
into LadAk once a year. 

On the 8th of September, a traveller came into Tadiim from 
Gartokb, and on questiomng him I was delighted to hear that 
the merchant (Lopchak) would bt' here within thirty days. I 
accordingly rented a house, and made up my mind to wait, and 
to avoid suspicion pretended that illness prevented me from 
joining the party on their way to Mansarowar. Grain and food 
generally, being imported, are very dear. Grain is not raised 
at all at this place. Taddm possesses a large monastery, am- 
rounded by S or H poat-houaes (Tarjams). At this place there 
are very extensive plains, stretching to the east 7 miles, and in 
width about 4, to the west 15 miles, by about 15 in breadth. 

October 2nd. — The merchant's head man, named Chiiing 
Niirpal, accompanied by about 12 men and 70 laden yaks, came 
into Tadiim this day. On hie arrival I sent for him, and made 
friends with him. I told him what I bad already told all at Urn 
place, and asked bin> to let me accompany him to Lhaa4, as the 
season had advanced, and to return to Mansarowar was nearly 
impossible. He, without hesitation, acceded to my request, and 
so wo started the following day. 3rd. — Arrived at Thukn 

4tk. — Arrived at Siri Kirpo camp. 5/A. — Arrived at Nikn 
Taijam, whero Ohiring Nurpal dismissed the coolies &om 
Tadtim, and engi^ed fresh men. *Mh. — Arrived at Jagung camp. 
7th. — After crossing a large river called Charta S^ngpo, we a> 
rived at Jalfing camp. 

8th. — Marching along the bank of the Chdba Chli liiver, we 
arrived at Sarbd-jong town. This place is presided over by two 
officials (Jongpons), residing at Sar-jong and Nub-jong, who 
questioned Chiring Nurpal as to who I and my servants wcta 
He told them that we were his countrymen and servants. 
Nothing more was said by them on liearing this, but I was very 
much troubled in mind, thinking that, should I be discovered at 
Lhasa, I would to a certainty forfeit my life ; and another sub- 
ject was a source of great uneasiness to me, viz.. that I was fast 
exhausting my funds. I, however, determined to accomplisb 
my design of seeing Lhasa. I continued my route^urvey, and 
took observations for latitude at favourable moments, wherevOT 
I could. Gram is not raised at Sarkd-jong, but is brought here 

from Nepal to Lhata. 


all the way frotu Kirong jiud Jonka-jong. Chiring Nurpal was 
vorv kind to me, and I, in return, told him that when we got 
liauK to Mansarowar, he need only ask me for whatever he wishrd 
to have it granted. Coolies were changed at Sarka-iong. 9th. 
— Arriyed at Nagnling camp. 10(A, — Arrived at CLomflknli 
Tarjam ; coolies and yaks were changed. Halted on 11th. 12(A. 
— Arrived at Tarchunk camp. \Zth. — Arrived at Nangba Yako 
camp. 14(A. — Arrived at Kiiin camp, \~iih. — Arrived at Saiig- 
Song Gyado Tarjam, a mud house, where coolies and yaks were 
changed. \Gth. — Arrived at Ge camp. 17(A. — Arrived at 
8ang-Sang Eau Tfujam, a mud Louse ; there is, besides the 
above, one other house of mud, belonging to a jemadar ; coolies 
and yaks were changed. 18(A. — Arrived at Kukap camp. 19(A. 
— Arrived at Rdlimg camp. Cultivation is seen from this place 
onwards, and willow trees make their appearance here also. 
From Tadiim to this place there are no signs of cultivation, and 
the population is very scanty. 

Wtfi — Arrived at Nabring Khaka Tarjam, to the north-west 
of which place lies a lake 8 miles .long and 3 miles in breadth. 
On the bank of the lake, and north-east of this village, is 
situated Nabring village, niled by a Jongpon (an ofScial). The 
yaks between Nabring and Lh^ are very small, and the goods 
(which &om Tadiim had been carried on large yaks) were at 
Kdbring transferred to asses. 

21irf. — After passing a small lake called Ldug-cho-Gonok, we 
arrived at Barkhd village. The water of this lake is very salt, 
and is reported to be 162 feet in depth. The length of this lake 
is 4 miles, and breadth 2 miles. 

22nd. — After crossing the Brahmaputra by ferry, we arrived 
at Jauglache town, which has a very fine monastery, and a 
strongly built fort, situated on the top of a small hill. They 
call a fort in tliose parts khar. 

A number of shops ore kept by Nepalese. I was informed 
that the Kirong and Dhingri Ghanga road passes through this 
place. We halted here on the 23rd, when we were joined by a 
second portion of the Ladak merchant's men and yaks (l(l5) 
con voying goods. 

24M. — Continued our stay at Janglilclie town. From this 
town to Shigitze city goods and men arc frefjuently transported 
by boats covered with leather, the river bemg wide and navi- 
gable ; but we preferred going overland, and so continued our 

2:>th. — Arrived at Tasbiling village. 26(A. — Arrived at 
Phimcholing village, which is ruled by a Jongpon. There is a 
very well-built monasterv in this village, At this village the 

M 2 

164 HIOKTGOMEBiE'a Report of a Route-Surveij 

river is spanned by a bridge, formed of iron chain and rope, 
called chalioam. 

27/A.— Arrived at Jilong village. 28tt. — Arrived at Cbaferi 

2S}ih. — Arrived at Digarcha, or Shigatze, city. We took up 
oar quarters at a serai (called Kunkbang in these parts), built 
by the government. At north-west end of the city, on a low 
bill, stands a strong fort, called Gang Mir Jong, which, as tra- 
dition baa it, was built by a Deo. To the south-west of the city 
stands a verv well-built monastery, called Tashilumbo, surrounded 
by a wall about one mile in circamferenee. Numerous booses 
and temples rise within tliis enclosure ; four of the larcer temples 
among ttiese are superior to the rest, and have gilded spires. 

The idols in these temples are studded with precious stones, 
gold, and silver. There are 330() priests in this monastery, the 
chief being the Great Lama, called Panjan Ringbo-Che, con- 
sidered throughout Tibet as an incarnation of the Deity, who 
can read the thoughts of men, and who is supposed never to 

We formed a small party and on the 1st of November went 
to do homage to Panjau Kiugbo-Che, and were conducted into 
the presence of a boy eleven years old, seated on a high throne 
covered with rich siiks. He was surrounded by a number of 
priests, standing in reverential attitudes, and bearing the insi^a 
of their calhng. We uncovered our heads and made a low 
obeisance, and uien presented an offering of pieces of silk. Panjan 
Ringbo-Che then placed his hands on each of our heads and 
beckoned to his priest to have us seated. Up to this time he had 
preserved a profound silence, but, on seeing that we were seated, 
put us only three questions (as he is wont to do to every worship- 
per), viz., "Is your king well?" "Is your country prosperinjjr" 
and '■ Are you in good health ?" The priest then placed a small 
strip of silk round each of our necks, and from a silver kettle 
poured a little tea into our cups, and then dismissed us. 

The city of Digarcha is three-quarters of a mile in length and 
half a mile in breadth. North-east of the city, distant three- 
quarters of a mile, situated on the left bank of the Pendnangchfi 
stream stands a monastery, called Eongkaling, in the centre of 
a garden. A market (bazar) is daily held on the space called 
Thorn, between the city and the Tashilumbo monastery, where 
every saleable article is exposed throughout tlie day, the vendora 
retiring to their homes in the evening. 

The population of the city is estimated at !>000 souls, exclusive 
of the 3300 priests. The earth here is rich and yields fine crops 
of grain. The city is ruled by two Depons, one residing at 

from Nepal to Lham. 

Kiiiiak village, and the other at Rimu village; but two Jongpons 
(inferior officeraj are obliged to take up quarters in the city. 

A force, conaistiriD; of 100 Chinese anil 400 Bhotiya soiiliers, 
is quartered here. To the south of the city, and difitant about 
15 miles, is situated a hill called Mao-mi, where gold is said 
to be found ; but a strict order prohibita the people from work- 
ing it. 

Aovemier \fith. — The Kasiitnir Maharajah's merchant,* for 
whom we were waiting, came in on tliis day, and I waited on liim 
with a few presents, requesting to be permitted to accompany 
liis men, as I had done from Tadiim. I told him the story of 
my illness, and how it was that I came with his servants. He 
saw no objection to my coutiuuiu;^ with liis men, and promised 
to assist me at Lhasi. I took star observations for latitude at 
this place as oftun as I could. 

'ZatK — The Jy'epalese agent (vakeel) at LhisA, who wns recalled 
by Jung Bahadoor, arrived at DiparehA city on this day, and I 
was sorry not \m discover my brotlier among liis followers, 

December 22nd. — Left Digarchi city and marched to Gi^g 
Tillage. 23rd. — Arrived at Penajong town, governed by a Jong- 
Bon, who resides in the fort. 2-Uh. — Arrived at Tikehe village. 
^loQi. — We arrived at Gyangze city, which is about the size of 
Digarcha, and has a fort on a low liill in tlie heart of the city, 
■and also a lai^e gilded temple. The city is ruled by a Uepon, 
assisted by two Jongpons. 

A force, consisting of oO Chinese and 200 Bhotiya soldiers, is 

Quartered here. The boundary between the LhusA and Loh 
Bhootan) territories is three days' journey from Gyangze. Hioe 
iBnd tobacco are imported from Bhootau, while wheat, flour, 
barley, oil, radish, peas, ghee, produced in the placo, are sold 
very cheap. Very fine crops are raised here, although it a])peared 
to me to be higher above the sea level than either Digarcha or 
Lhasd. The following are the names of three different descrip- 
tione of woollen cloth manufactured in this city, for which it la 
famous, viz., getha, nambu, chnktu, purik nambu, this last being 
very superior. It is also the seat of the manufacture of a kind 
of small bell, called yarka, with which they adorn their horses. 
To the Bouth-west, north-west, and south-east of the city are 
.plains stretching from 6 to 10 miles, through which the Pe- 
nanaugchii stream flows. At this time of the year the river 
becomes frozen, and men pass over on foot. We started from 
hence on the 28th. 28iA.— Arrived at Gobzi village. 2!l/ft.— 
Arrived at Balimg vdlage. 30/A. — After crossing Kharold Moun- 
tain we arrived at Zara halting place. Z\^. — Arrived at Nan- 

166 MoNTGOMElilE's Report of a Route-Survey 

ganch&-jong, n, village on the Tamdobelio Lako, with a fort on a 
email bill. 

Janxutry 1st, 1866, — Arrived iit Piahtejong, on the bank of 
the Yamdokclio Lake. Its small fort is situated so close to the 
lake that the water washes ita walls. 

2nd. — Marching along the bank of Yamdokcho Lake we came 
upon a bond of rohhcra. One of them took hold of my horse's 
bridle and told me to dismount. Through fear, I was on the 
point of resigning my horse to bim, when a Mabommedan who 
accompanied me raistjd his whip ; whereupon the robber drew ft 
loug sabre and rushed ou the Jfahommedan. Tailing adToats^e 
of tnis favourable moment I whipped my own horse forward, snd 
as the robbers could not catch us they fired on ua, but witiiout 
effect, and we arrived at Denialung village all safe. 

The Yamdokcho Lake from this point stretches to south-east 
about 20 miles, and then turus west. The breadth of this lake 
varies from 2 to 3 miles, and it is said to be very deep. In the 
centre of the lake stauds a hill, at the foot of which are situated 
a number of villogoa The cireuraferenco of the lake is about 
45 miles ; it is crossed in wicker boats covered with leather. We 
halted at Demalung this day, the 3rd, to procure yaks and 

Ath. — After crossing Khamhald Mountain wo arrived at 
Kharaba-Barchi village, situated on the right bank of the Brah- 
maputra River, and taking boat from hence we were rowed down 
the stream to Chusul village, passing Chaksam Chori Tillage, 
which is situated on the right bank of the river, at foot of hiU, 
and alongside an old bridge (formed of iron chain and rope), 
which, owing (o its insecurity, is seldom or never used, the ferries 
being preferable. 

The Khambala mountain forms the boundary between the two 
districts Oo and Chang, from Khambala west to Kala Mountain 
being the Chang, and from Kbambdla east to Chari being Hba 
Oo district. Chusul Jong is ruled by a Jongpon, On thelMmk 
of the river, situated on a low hill, stands a fort. We stayed 
here three days. 

8tt. — Arrived at Chabouang village. 

9(A. — Marching along the right oank of the Kichu Sanspo 
River we arrivea at Netang village. The Kichu Sangpo Kiver 
comes from the direction of Lhaj^a, and falls into the Brahma- 
putra at Chusul village. The Brahmaputra from thence flows 

10(/(, — Wo arrived this day at Lhasa, and soon aftej my 
arrival I engaged two rooms in a building, called Dhiki Babdan 
Tasbilumbo-gi-Khan Sumba. One of the rooms was well adapted 
for taking my star observations from within. I had been hea» 

from. Nepal to LhoKi. 


H «onie ten days when the Lopchiik's men, my late companions, 
W told me they were going to visit the Groldan monastery, and 
asked me to go with them. I accordingly left Lhasa in their 
company on the 21st, and arrived at Sara monastery, distant 
some 3 miles only from LLasd, at the foot of the Tatiphu Moon- 
tain. The circumference of this mountain is little more than 
1 mile. Kumerous temples, with o^ilded spires, and of all sizes, 
are seen in the incloaure. The idols witnin are studded with 
gold, silver, and precious stones. They differ in size and hideons- 
ness, some having horns, but the limbs and lower portion of the 
figures are generally those of men. I was informed that there 
were 5500 priests iu this monastery. 

22nd. — Starting this morning from Para, wo arrived late in 
tile evening at Dak Yarpa monastery, situated half way up a 
lull. Many temples are to be seen here also, although the 
suimber of priests is not more than a dozen. 

23r(i. — Arrived at Bom toil. 

24/%. — After crossing the Kichu stream we arrived at Goldan 
asonastery, situated on the summit of a low hilL The circum- 
ference of this monastery is about throe-quarters of a mile. 
There are numerous well-built temples, with idols much the 

ne as those at Sard, It is reported to be a very wealthy 
Aionastery, and is occupied by 33(H) priests. 

^(h. — Returning to Lhasa we arrived at Nangi'd village. 

26iA. — Reached Lhisa. It was my wish now to follow the 
'eonrse of the Brahmaputm River, hut I was informed that, 
unless I went with a well-armed party of at least a dozen, it 
wonld be dangerous to proceed. 

The city of Lhi^d is circular, with a circumference of 2^ miles. 
■In the centre of the city stands a very large temple, called by 
' three different names, viz., Mac hind ranath, Jo, and Phobpoehen- 
gra. The idols in it are richly inlaid with gold and precious 
stones. This temple is surrounded by bazars and shops, Kept by 
Iihdsa, Kashmiii, LadAki, Azimabad, and Nepalese merchants, a 
number of whom are Mahommodaus. Chinese tradesmen ore 
namerous hero also. 

The city stands in a tolerably level plain surrounded by moun- 
tains, the level or open ground extending about 6 miles on the 
■east, 7 on the west, 4 on the south, and 3 on the north. At the 
northern end of the city there are two monasteries, called Milril 
and Rdmoche. At the north-west comer stands the Chumuling 
monastery ; at the west end the Tankyaling monastery. The 
monastery called Kontyaling is about 1 mile west of the city, at 
the foot of a low isolated hill called Chdpochi, which has a house 
on its summit. About three-quarters of a mile west of the 
E^oche monastery there is. on a low hill, a VMg,6 asA &\.to"o^ 

1G8 Montcjomerie's Report of a Ronte-Survey 

tort called Potolah, wliich is the reBidence of the Lama Gftr^ 
who is also called Ge«'arJng-bo-che, his head minister being 
generally called Kajah. The fort is 1^ mile in circumference 
aud 300 feet above the surrounding level ; steps lead up to ths 
fort on every side. The villajre .TiS lies under the fort. Four 
miles west of the city stands the Debang monastery, at the foot 
of a hill ; it is occupied by 7700 priests, who are ueld in great 
veneration by all classes ot the Lhasa people. South of the city 
and distant 3 miles (beyond the Kichu Sangpo River), is sitoated 
the Chochuline monastery. I accompanied the Ladak merchant, 
called Lopchak, on the 7th of February, to pay homage to the 
Gewariug-bo-che (the Great Lama of Tibet) in tlie fort, ascending 
by the southern steps. A priest came out to receive us, and we 
were conducted into the presence of the Gewaring-bo-che, a fiur 
and handsome boy of about tldrteen years, seated on a throne 
6 feet high, attemled by two of the higliest priests, each holding 
a bundle of peacock feathers. To the riglit of this btw, and 
seated on a throne 3 feet high, was tlie Rajah Gyalbo-Kiuro- 
Gyago, his minister. Numbers of priests in reverential attitudes 
were standing at a respectful distance from them. We were 
ordered to be seated, and after making offerings of silks, sweety 
and money, the Lama GUrfl put us three questions, placing his 
hand on each of our heads ; " Is your king well ?" " Does your 
country prosper?" and" Areyouingoodhealtli?" Wewereliieu 
served with tea, which some drank and others poured on tlieir 
heads, and after having a strip of silk, with a knot in it, placed 
by the priests round each of our necks, we were dismissed, bat 
many were invited to inspect the curiosities that were to be seen 
in tho fort. The walls and ceilings of all the chief houses in the 
fort, and all the temples that contained images of gold, were 
covered with rich silks. 

The Lama Gflni is the chief of all Tibet, but he does not iiit«- 
fere with state business. He is looked upon as the guardian 
divinity, and is supposed never tti tlie, but transmigrates into 
anybody he pleases. The dead body from which the Lomi 
Girfl's soul has departed is placed in a gold coffin studded with 
the finest gems, and kept in the temple with the greatest caie. 
The belief of the ]ieople is that the soul of one Lama Gflrn is 
privileged to transmigrate thirteen times, Tlie present Limi 
Giiru is now in his thirteenth transmigration. Churtans are 
placed over the coffins containing the Lamas' bodies, and it is 
said that these dead bodies diminish in size, \vhile the hair and 
nails grow. 

The rajah, or gyalbo, is nest to the Lama Gilrii in mnk; 
below him there are four ministers, called kaskak, who conduct 
all state business, under his orders. The Chinese vakeel at 

fiom Nepal to Lhasa. 169 

Lha^B, who is called ambau, lias the power of reporting; against 
either the rajah or the four ministers to the King of China, and, 
if necessary, can have them removed from office. 

The general belief of all the Tibetans is, that no sooner is the 
Liima Gurt bom than he speaks, and all withered plants and 
trees about his birthplace at once begin to bear green leaves. 
The moment news gets to the Lha^ court of such an occurrence, 
then the four jniuisters repair to the house in order to ascertain 
the truth by the following method : — Articles of all descriptions 
are placed before the child, and he is requested to tell which 
belonged to the late Lama Giini, and which did not. Should 
he be able \a select from the articles put before him such of 
those that belonged to the Lama Guru, then lie is pronounced 
to be no impostor, and is forthwith carried away to the fort of 
Fotolah and placed upon the throne as Ldm4 Gurft. 

The Mahommedans of Lhasa gave me the following account 
as to the selection of the future Lama G'irfl : — From the day of 
the death of a Lama GGi-fi aU male births are recorded by the 
Lamas about the city, and the ministers are secretly informed 
of them. Names are given to the children, and on the thirtieth 
day after the decease ot a Lama Gurfl slips of paper, each bearing 
the name of a child bom within the month, are placed in a 
vessel ; the cliief of the four ministers then draws out one of the 
slips with a pair of pincers, and which ever child's name that 
bears, he is pronounced to be the future Lama Guru. He is 
then taught all that is required of him by the priests, and when 
they think he has come to years of discretion, the previously 
narrated ceremony of the choosing of articles is conducted. The 
people of Lhasa are kept in the dark as to this method of adopting 
a Lama Gftrfl. The Lha^ people are, by strangers, supposed to 
adopt a Lama Gurfl, in order to prevent the government of the 
country from falling entirely into the hands of the Chinese. 

Of all the monasteries in these parts, the largest, apparently, 
are Sdra, Debaug, Goldau, &c., and occupied likewise by, the 
largest number of priests ; but in forhier days the monasteries 
held in greatest esteem were Kontyahng, Tankyaling, Chumu- 
ling, and Chochuling ; and on the death of the Potoldh rajaJi 
the successor was chosen from one of these four monasteries, 
vhile now he is chosen from the Bebang monastery only. The 
reason that the Potolab rajah is not selected from one of the 
four monasteries, but only from Debang, is because, not very 
long ago, Sati Safade, allied with the Debang priests (7700), 
and also with tho people, and aided by the Cliinese vakeel, 
managed to remove the then reigning rajah, Gyalbo Riting, 
from the throne and drove him to Pekin, where he died shortly 

170 3Ioktgomeiiie'« Rej>ort of a Route-SuTvetj 

after. PdtA Salddfi then assumed the ]K>sition of rajali, and 
ever since the recognised heir to the Potohlh throne baa been 
the head Ldma of the Debang monaatery. 

Three days' journey (36 miles) east of Lhasa, situated on tlie 
left bank of the Brahmaputra Itiver, stands a monastery called 
S^me, the seat of the Jam Eajah, who is believed to possess the 
power and authority to punish or reward the souls of departed 
men. The state treasury of Lha^a is also at this place. Same, 
and, on the occasion of war, the four ministers repair thither, 
and, after a h'ttle ceremony, receive the amount they solicit, 
with an injunction to return the eanio within a certain period. 
Within 40 miles east of Same monastery, and on the right bank 
of the Brahmaputra, is situated Chotang city, rivalling in nie 
the city of Digarclia. The Brahmaputra Eiver flows from hence 
in an easterly direction for a distance of 120 miles, and tiien 
flows due south. 

I observed tliat there was hut little order and justice to be 
seen in Iihasd. 

The uew year of this people commences with the new moon, 
Mipearinffon or about the 15tb of February ; they call it Lobsar. 
On New Year's eve an order from the court goes round to have 
every house in the city cleaned ; the houses are swept and whita- 
vrasbed and the streets are cleaned. On the day following each 
household displays as many flags, &c., from the housetop as it' 
can aflbrd. Throughout the day and night singing, danciDgt 
and drinking are kept up. On the second day of their new yew 
all the people of the city assemble before the Potolah fort to 
witness the following feat, performed generally by two men: — 
A strong rope is fastened from the fort walla to strong rivetfl in 
the ground, 100 yards distant from the base of tho fort. The 
two unfortunate men then have to slide down this rope, which 
very often proves fatal to them ; should they, however, sorvire, 
they are rewarded by the court The Lama Gfli-ft is always* 
witness of the performance fi'om the fort. 

From tho commencement of the new year, whoever paya the 
highest sum is considered the judge of the rajah's court, and fiir 
twenty-three days he exercises his authority in the most ariii>- 
trary manner possible, for his oi^ii benefit, as all fines, Sec, are hifl 
by the purchase. The purchaser of such authority must be cme 
01 the 7700 priests attached to tho Debang monastery ; the sno- 
cessful priest is called Jalno, and announces the fact throi^ 
the streets of Lhasd in person, bearing a silver stick. 

The priests attached to all the temples and monasteries in 
tile neighbourhood assemble in tho fort, and offer homage. 
This assembling of the priests is called llolun Chumho, and the 

liolidays go by the same name. The Jalno's men are now seen 
to go about the streets and places, in order to discover any con- 
dnct in the inhabitants that may be tbund fault with. Every 
house is taxed in Lh4ea at this period, and the slightest fault is 
pnnifihed with the greatest severity by fines. This severity of 
the Jalno drives all the working olasses out of the city, till the 
twenty-tliree days are over. The profit gained by the Jalno is 
about ten times the purchase-money. During the twenty-three 
days all the priests of the neighbourhood congregate at the Ma- 
cbindranath temple, and perform religious ceremonies. On the 
fifteenth day of the new year all the prieste, assembling about 
tfachindranilth temple, display hundrecls of idols in form of men, 
^animals, trees, &&, and throughout the niglit bum torches, 
■which illuminate the city to a great distance. The day on 
irhich the authority of the Jalno ceases the rajah's troops parade 
lihroagh the streets, and proclaim that the power of the rajah has 
•gain been assumed by him. Twenty-four days after the Jalno 
'Ceaaes to have authonty, he again assumes it, and acts in the 
flame arbitrary manner as on the iirst occasion for ten days, after 
which authority is once more assumed by the rajah. These ten 
•days are called Chokchut Molam. 

On the first day the I^aui^ all assemble, as before, at Ma- 
4diiudr&nath temple, and, after a religious ceremony, invoke the 
i<a8Bietance of their deities to prevent sickness, &c., among the 
h i>eopla, and, as a peace-offering, sacrifice one man. The man is 
UBot killed purposely, but the ceremony he undergoes often 
-proves fatEil. Grain is thrown against his head, and his face is 
|Hinted half white, half black. 

On the tenth day of this vacation, all the troops quartered at 
Xih^ march to the temple, and form line before it. The victim, 
who has his face painted, is then brought forth from the temple, 
and receives small donations from all the populace assembled. 
.He then throws the dice with the Jalno, and if the latter loses 
it is said to forebode great evil, and if not, and the Jalno wins, 
then it is believed that the victim, who is to bear the sina of 
'all the inhabitants of Lhasa, has been permitted by the gods to 
do so. He is then marched to the walls of the city, followed 
^br the whole populace and troops, hooting and shouting, and 
[/'discharging volleys after liim. When he is driven outaide the 
■city, then people return, and the victim is carried to the S&me 
monastery. Should he die shortly after this the people sav it 
is an auspicious sign, ai\d if not, he is kept a prisoner at Same 
monastety for the term of a whole year, after which he is 
released, and is allowed to return to Lhdsa. 

LThe day following the baoishment of the man to Same, all 

172 MoNTftOMEitiE* Beport of a Route- Snrvei/ 

tlie state jewels, gold and silver plate, itc, aro brouglit out 
from the fort, and carried through the streetfi of IJiasa, pro- 
tected by the troops armed, and I'ollowed by thousands of spec- 
tators. Towards evening everything ia taken hack to the tort,, 
and kept as before. The day following, immense images of tbe- 
gods (formed of variegated paper, on wooden frame-work) are 
dragged by men through the city, protected by armed troops. 
About noon the whole populace, great and small, assemble oa 
the plain north of the city, and publicly carouse, race, and 
practise with tlie gun at targets. I was informed that the 
Molam Chambo and Chokchut Molam vacations, with all the 
religious ceremonies and observances, were instituted from time 
immemorial, but that the business of putting to the bieheet bid 
the powers of sole and chief magistrate dates from tne teath 
transmigration of the soul of the present Lama Gvlru. 

One crop only is raised here in the year. Seed is sown in 
April, and the crop cut in September. The grains raised are 
Sua, Ne, Do, Doo Sanma, Youkar (barley, another description 
of barley, wheat, another kind of wheat, peas, and mustard). 
Radish, carrots, onions, potatoes, beans, garlic, and various 
other edibles are cultivated. There are two kinds of trees, 
coiled Changma and Jawar, but tljey are not indigenous, and 
are only to be seen in gardens. There is no junt^le hereabout^ 
and, excepting one thorny bush called Sia, the hills are abso- 
lutely barren, 

A very few of the rich men's houses are built of brick and. 
stone, all others are of mud. Some few are built of sun-dried- 
bricks. The manufactures of Lhasa are woollen cloths, felt, &c^ 
The cattle of Lhasa are cows, sheep, goats, yaks, horses, a^ea, 
&c. ; pigs and dogs are also i-eared, the latter being a veiT Wg 
animal ; there are quantities of domestic cats, mostly hiaak, 
and a few white and red. Fowls, pigeous, kites, crows, duck% 
and pheasants, together with a variety of small bu-da, are very 
numerous. Snakes, reptiles, scorpions, &c„ are not known. 

The water supply of Lhasa is from wells, and a tax of two' 
annas on every house is imposed monthly on the inhabitants fi>r 
the use of the wells. 

During the month of December merchants from ell parts 
bring their merchandise here (fioin China, Tartary, Darchandfl^ 
Chando, Kham, Tawang, Bhutan, Sikkim, Nepal, Darjiling, 
Azimabad, and Ladak). From China, silks of all varietiei^ 
carpets, and chinaware. From Jiliiig, in Tartary, is broaght 
gold-lace, silk, precious gems, carpets of a superior manufactore^ 
horse-saddles, and a very large kind of Dumba sheep, also 
valuable horses. From Darchando immense quantities of teft 

frum Nejial to Lhasa. 

^Darcbando is said to be situated nortli-east of Lhasa, and to be 
distant two months' journey). From Chaudo city, in the Kham 
territory, an enormous quantity of the musk perfume is brought, 
which eventually finds its way to Europe, through Nepal. 
Rice, and other grain that is foreign to Lhasa, is brought from 
Tawang, in Bhotan. From Sikkim, rice and tobacco ; and 
from Nepal, Darjiling, and Azimabad, broad-cloth, Bilks, satins, 
.nddles, precious stones, coral, pearls, sugar, spices, and a variety 
of Indian commodities. Charas and saBron (kesar) come from 
Xadak and Kashmir. The merchants who come in December 
,ve in March, before the setting in of the rains render the 
rivers impassable. The inhabitants use ornaments of coral, 
|iearle, and precious stones, aud oceasionally of gold and silver, 
-which are more especially worn by women on their hetids. 
-Ooata lined with the skins of sheep are generally worn. 

During the month of December, at night« and early in the 
anomings, the mercury in the thermometer sank below 32° 
iftnd during the days never rose over 40° to 45°, The river 
Kichu was frozen at that time of the year and water kept in 
jtbe warmest parts of a house froze, and burst the vessels hold- 

The chief divinity worshipped in this part is Budh. 

The food of the inhabitants consists chiefly of salted butter, 

^iea, mutton, beef, pork, and fowls. Rice is not much eaten, 

^^■flWing to its high price, and because it is considered a fruitful 

jntirce of disease. Other edibles, such as wheat, barley, and 

'Idtchen produce, &c., are cheap. 

The current coin of the country is a silver piece called Nak- 
tang, two and a half of which pieces being the equivalent of 
one rupee. The silver pieces are cut into either halves, or into 
three pieces, the half pieces are called Chikyah, and one-third 
of the Naktang is ca,lled Karma, and two-thirds of the Naktang 
piece called Shokang or Miscal. There is also a large lump of 
alver, bearing the seal of the Chinese Emperor, the value of 
which is equal to 333 Naktangs, called Dojali or Kuras. 

To the north-east of Lb^, distant about one month's jour- 
^ney, tJiere is a country called Kbam or Nyahrong. Thousands 
.of ^e inhabitants of this country annually pay Lhasa a visit, 
^^.WJme under the plea of wishing to worship, while others come 
■with the ostensible reason of trading, but al! really come with 
jthe object of robbing and stealing whatever they can. These 
people are hold in terror by all the peaceable inhabitants 
of the Lhdsa territory, who have named them Golok Kbamba. 
Highway robbery and murder are perpetrated by them without 
compunction. They appear to be exempt from the wrath or 


MoNTGOMEKIeV Report of a Route-Sarvey 


puuisliment of the Lhasa cliiefe. Tlie Uiasa government never 
takes notice of any complainta brought against this maraud- 
ing tribe, and the reason I heard for this silence was that the 
LuBS^ vakeel mth goverumont merchandize, on liis aiiTniivl 
jomney to Pekin, has to pass through the territory appertaining 
to this tribe, and to insure a safe journey for these the goveiD- 
ment connives at the mischief done by them in the Lhas^ terri- 
tory. Another reason I heard was, that in case of a war, this 
Ehamba tribe would render good sei-vicc. 

North of Lhdsa, and four miles distant, is situated a long hiU, 
stretching from east to west> repoi'ted to contain immense 
quantities of silver; but a government order prohibits any 
one from working the metal. The government itself refoseft 
to work the metal, for the general belief is that the country 
will be 'impoverished, and the men will degenerate, sliould the 
metal be worked. 

A Chinaman, not many years ago, worked a lai'ge quantity 
of silver here, but intimation was given to the government of 
the fact, and the man was seized, and sent to Pekin, where his 
bands were cut off. The name given to this hill is Toti-phn. 
On the summit of this bill is a spring, and a large flat alao of 
stone called Darga, the seat of the Mahommedan Pir. Another 
large slab of stone close to this is called Ja Nawnj ; it bears the 
impression of a large hand, said to be the hand of a Hahomedao 
rir, who lived here in fonner days. The Mabomedans of 
Lbd^a resort to this place to worship. It is also reported and 
believed that gold exists in tlie Toti-pbu bill, and near &© 
monasteries Bebang and Eamocbe, but it is not worked. Crold 
is, however, worketl to a very slight extent near the monas- 
teries by the priests, but should they, in their search, discover a 
nugget of large size it is immediately replaced in the earth, 
under the impression that the largo nuggets have life, and 
germinate iu time, producing the small lumps, which they ore 
jirivileged to search for. 

To the north-east of Lhasa, and one and a half mcmth's 
journey from it, at Sarka or Thok, gold is extracted in large 
quantities, there being no prohibition as to working it, This 
gold is carried to Lhasa, Gartokb, and Digarcha. In this coun- 
try no grain is raised near Sarka, the gold-diggers barter the 
metal for grain, &c., brought by merchants. 

The strength of the standing force in Lh^sd is 1000 Bhotiys 
and fJOO Chinese soldiers, armed ;witb long flint guns, and of 
iate seven small pieces of ordnance have been introdured. 
During the war between the Goorkbas and the Lhasa govern- 
ment, m 1854, an order was given for a census of the inhabit- 

from Nepal t/? Lhasa. 175 

ants, and, exclusive of the militaxy and priests, Lhasa was found 
to contain 900U women and 6000 men. The roaaon of tliia pre- 
ponderance of females over the males is easily aceoiinU'd for in 
consequence of the large number of males who become priests, 
who are compelled to vow celibacy. 

The Nepalese residents of Lhasa, though believing in the 
same divinity, Budh, as the Lh&si people, yet differ from them 
in many minor points. Another reason of the scanty popula- 
tion of Lhasa is traced to the custom of one family, consisting 
say of four or five males, who cohabit with one woman. 

Kegarding the disposal of their dead, the Lbaisd people of the 
poorer classes bind the corpses tightly with rope, and place 
them erect against the inner walls of their iiouses for two or 
three days, miile the richer and well-to-do cltisses detain tlie 
corpses in their houses for a length of fourteen days; uftt-r 
which time priests are invited, who pretend to read fiiim thoir 
ritual the manner in which these corpses are predestined to be 
disposed of. Sometimes their decision is to cut the corpse into 
pieces, and scatter the fragments to the birds and Leasts of 
poy, and sometimes to bury them. The reason assigned by 
them for detaining the bodies springs from the belief tltat they 
may become demons if disposed of without the blessings of the 

The inhabitants of Lh4s4 report that the ready cash possessed 
by the government of Lhasa, and deposited in tne Potoldh foii, 
equals, if not exceeds, the wealth of tne whole world ; but I was 
of a contrary opinion, as I learnt that, during the war between 
LhiBsd and the Uoorklias in 1854, the Lhdsa government had to 
bring two lacs of rupees from Sdme monastery, to conduct the 

Having made such a long stay in Lha;ia, I had completely 
exbansted my funds, and was driven to teach some Mepalese mer- 
cliants a little Hindee calculation for my support, since I could 
get no credit in the placo, and no opportunity to return to 
Nepal offered itself. I was one day questioned as to who I 
was by two Mahommedan merchants of Lhdsa, who appeared to 
be of a better class than the generahty of the people. I told 
them (as I had told every one who asked me the same ques- 
tion) that I was a Bisahiri, but they contradicted me familiarly, 
and said that I, they were convinced, was no Bisahiri, and at 
last they forced me to confess the truth, but solemnly swore to 
secrecy. By this confession of mine I was enabled to borrow 
of them a sum of money, on pledging my watch, and after 
borrowing another small sum, I made up my mind to stai-t from 
Lhasa by the first opportunity that presented itself. 

176 MontgomerieV Report of a Boute-Surveij 

I was at about tliis time very much alarmed by seeing the' 
Kirong Joncpon in the streets of Lhasa one day ; ami I waa 
still niore alarmed on seeing the summary manner in whioh 
treachery in these parts was dealt with, in the person of a 
Chinaman, who had eeditiously raised a quarrel between the 
priests of the Sara and Debaog monasteries. He was (on tJxe 
receipt of an order from Pekin to kill him) brought out befcHV 
the whole of the people, and beheaded with very little hesitation. 
Owing to my alarm, I changed my residence, "and seldom' 
appeared in public again. 

At this time I leumt that the Ladak merchant, with whose 
servants I had travelled hither, waa sending his party back to 
Ladak with large quantities of tea, &c., that he had purchased. 
Hearing this, 1 went to see him, and after making a lew pr^ 
Bents, preferred my request to be allowed to return to my owo 
country along with his party. Ho assented, and ordered that 
I should be well provided for, giving his servants injunction to 
reoeive^from me all that I might owe him on our arrival at; 

AvrQ 2Xsi. — Left Lhasa <'arly tiiis morning, and arrived at eva;' 
at Netang village. '22nd, — Arrived at Chusul. 23rd. — ^Arrived'i 
at Eamba Barclii village. 2ith. — Crossed Khambala monntaii^.. 
and arrived at Piate Jong village. 26(k. — Arrived at Han*- 
ganche village. 26ih. — Crossed Kharoht mountain, and arrived ' 
at Ralung village. 27iJi. — Arrived at Gyangze city; baited 
here the 28th. 2yiA.— Arrived at Takcho village. SOtk.-— 
Arrived at Pena Jong villuge. 

May lat. — Arrived at Slugatze city ; made a stay of six dayf 
here, while collecting provisions for the road. 8th. — Letti, 
Digarcha in the mormng, and arrived at Natang villaga- 
Qtk. — Arrived at Sabgeding village. lOU. — Arrived at ^&A 
village. IIM. — Arrived at Tamcheding village. 12th, — Ar- 
rived at Phnucholing village. I3th. — Arrived at Ch^dong 
village. 14th. — Arrived at JangUche town ; halted here one 
day, seeking provisions for the road as far as Mansarow. 
Wth. — Crossea the Brahmaputra river, and arrived atSingilung 
village. 17Ch. — Arrived at Lharcha village. ISth. — Arrives 
at Gnabring Thaka Tarjam. IQtk. — Arrived at foot of Bign 
Tapjang monastery, situateti on a hill, 20th. — Arrived at Sai^ 
Bang-Kao Tarjam ; halted here one day. 22nd. — iVrrived at 
Ge camp. 23rd. — Arrived at Sang-Sang-Giado Tarjam. 24(A. 
— Arrived at Gfiangba-Yako camp. 2bth. — Arrived at Bakha 
Thaaang Tarjam. 2Gth, — Arrived at Chomukula Tarjam. 
27(A. — Arrived at camp near Gyacho Jheel. 28th. — Arrived 
-at Sarka Jong. 29th. — Ai-rived at Tagung camp. SOtk — At- 

from Nepal to L/iasa. 177 

I rived at Srikarpo camp, ai^r passing Niku Tarjam. 31st. — 
Arrived at Tliakii camp. 

June 1st. — Arrived at Tadura monastery. 2nii, — Left Tadiiiii, 
and after crossing Chachu stream, arrived at Birmalimg camp, 
on the left bank of the Bralimaputra. The Brahmaputra river 
is called by the people in these parts by three names, 'J'amjan 
Khamba, Machang, and Gnaricliii Sangpo. '6rd. — Arrived 
at Tuiu camp. 4th. — Arrived at Dhuksum Tarjam; sheep, 
goats, yaks, and horses are seen in large numbers here ; salt, 
which is got from Chaba, is bartered here for grain, brought 
from Muktinath and Jumla, this place producing no grain, 
5M. — Arrived at Deniar camp. Gth. — Arrived at Lahro 
camp, 7th- — Arrived at 'I'hamznng Tarjam ; sheep, goats, 
yaks, &c., are seen here in largo numbers, and salt ia bartered 
lor grain brought from Jumla; halted here one day. 9(A. — 
Arrived at Tha Ehabjor; my servant Iiere fell ill, and I was 
compelled to ask the assistance of my Ladaki companions 
for the prosecution of my work. lOih. — Arrived at Gyamzar 
camp; halted here one day. 12th. — Ci-oasedMariam La moun- 
tain, and arrived at Ugro Tarjam, situated near Gunkyud-cho 
litke; this lake is about 10 miles in length and 2 miles in 
breadth, 13th. — Arrived at Nukclie camp. 14M. — Arrived at 
Thokchan Taijam, on the right bank of Some Chu stream ; 
halted here one day. IGth. — Arrived at Samia Unia camp, 
distant half a mile from bank of Mansarowar lake. 17th. — 
Left tiarnia Unia camp this morning, and travelling fast arrived 
at Darcban, a large village. Here I met Supia Shopol, an 
inhabitant of the Eumaon district, through whose assistance I 
was enabled to discharge my debts, which bad been accumulat- 
ing since I left Lhasa. The party whom I had accompanied 
hither went on to Gartokh, wtiile I, in company with two of 
Supia'fl sous, started for Ivumaon, I left my servant, who was 
ailmg, at Darcban, as a security for the fiilfllment of ray pro- 
mise to return and pay Supra all he bad lent me. The wateh 
I, however, could not redeem, but told the men who had posses- 
sion of it to leave it at Gartokh, and that I would send the 
money to redeem it. Wtk. — Left Darcban this morning, and 
amved at a camp, name not ascertained. 2lei. — Arrived at 
Gyanima camp. During the rains Darcban and this place are 
resorted to by mimy traders, who come here to dispose of their 
merchandize. 22nd. — Arrived on the right bank of Ciiu Nago 
stream. 23rd. — Arrived at Thazang camp, and waa surprised 
to see the low hills in the vicinity covered with snow, in a 
way I had never seen before. The road over Kongribingri 
mountain was covered with snow, and rendered quite imprac- 


178 Mo-NTGOMebie's Report of a Eoute-Sunxy 

ticablp, tloJs caused me to journey on to Niti, but even tliia road 
waa so much covered with snow, that, on crossing over a hill, 
I accidentally slipped, and tho thermometer I was carrying fell 
and broke, I left Tbazang this same day, and arrived at Ship 
camp. 2it!i. — Arrived at Nubchang camp, on bank of Sikcha 
stream. '25th. — The Sikchu stream was not fordable, so I 
travelled alongside it till we arrived at Dougpu village ; there I 
was asked who I was ; I answered that 1 was a Bhotiya, like them- 
selves; but they refused to let mo pass unless I showed them 
my authority for travelling thither. They told me if I had 
come from Tagla-Kote, as I said, to produce the passport of the 
Jongpon residing there. I told them I was on my way to Niti, 
but this did not satisfy them ; and so they told me I must ba 
detained till they had reported, and got back word from the 
Daba Jongpon, I was told that whenever the passes weis 
opened news of the fact was sent officially to every village, and 
that none of the passes were yet open, hence their suspicion of 
me. On seeing their determination to stop my further progresa, 
I told them that I had a passport from the Jongpon of Tagla- 
Kote, but had forgotten, and left it at Darchan, and, if they 
would not let me pass on, I would return to Darchan. They 
then informed me that they would allow me to return to Dar- 
chan, but could, on no account, let me pass for Niti, and witli 
this, I returned three miles by the Darchan road, and struck 
out by a jungle-path over hills, &c., and arrived at night at 
Lamlung camp. From Dongpu to this place I was unable to 
continue my route-survey. 

26th. — AJrived at Lapthal camp. Here I saw four Bhotiya 
soldiers, who were sent here to stop the progress of Mjajor 
Brereton. They questioned mo aa to who I was, where I had 
come from, and whither I was going ; my answer to them 
was that I had come from Niti, knowing this would not excite 
suspicion. This village is on the extreme border of the tiiiei 
territory. 27th. — Arrived at Khingur camp, where I met 
Major Brereton's camp. I halted here a portion of the next 
day, and was very kindly treated by Major Brereton. 2&h. — 
Arrived at Topi Dhunga camp, where 1 left my servants, in 
consequence of one of them having been taken suddenly ilL 
29th. — Crossed Utdhura or Untadbura pass, and thence made 
my way, through Kumaon and Gurhwnl, to Masuri. My ser- 
vant Chumbal, whom I had left at Darchan, rejoined me on the 
road, having quite recovered from his illness. 

My brother, who had returned to the British territory some 
time before me, had been instructed to cross the passes, in order 
to assiat me. I gave him my sextant, and told him to carry a 

from Nepal to L/umu 


routenstirvey back to Dongpu (where I was forced to leave off), 
and thence to carry on the route-survey to Gartokh, in order to 
fix that place, and at the same time to redeem my watch, which 
the Laddkis had left there for me. My brother was successful 
in both these objects. 

N 2 

1 .0 M_.^...«„. g 


Obbbbvationb fob L.^titttdb taken in 









Jail. 13.. 

10 5 

Mar£d»bHd city, Atai mohatla, oo 
the home of Jan Iti. 

a C. Mr«. 



„ 13.. 

II 40 


a C. Hiiio. 



,. 33.. 

8 32 50 

Bardlly dty, on the western part 
ID leru. 

B Orionia. 


.. 33- 

16 34 50 





,, 24.. 
,, 38.. 

10 4e 52 
8 2 3 


a C. Miao. 

8 OrioniB, 


March 7- 

9 35 5 
13 18 


KhatmandQ city, on left bank of 
bridge, iu SLr«i. 

a C. HaJ. 


m ' 

.. 18.. 

12 51 


W 10 

,, 23., 

G 32 32 

lUmchi village, on the road. 

B C. Mino. 




,, 23.. 

8 IT 42 





., 25.. 

8 10 12 

ShabnF, outEide the Tillage, on the 
bank of a small nadi. 



,, 27.. 


Baswitgarlif, on tlie riglit bank of 
the Lenciichii. on the bonndary 
line between Nepal and Tibet 

. C Mino. 



,. 27.. 

8 31 


a Hydw. 


July 30.. 


Kirodg city, on Chang-chil's hoiue. 

a PiB. Aoa. 



.. 31-. 

a ao 




Aug. 31.. 

12 45 

Talli Lhilbroiig, near Dofig. 

. Pis. Am. 


,. 31.. 

IS 10 30 





from Nepal to Lkata. 

-WITH AN Elliott G-dtoh R&dids Sextant, No. 44. 

DcFUble AlUtalr. 






89 18 (> 
133 25 50 

+ 30" 

!8 49 27 
28 51 8 


50 IB 

Thii latitude station !i aboQt 1 \' s. 

to G. T. Survey the kutcherry is 
in lat, 28" 51' I'', long. 78=4a'3G". 

IM 3-2 
53 57 10 

i34 as SO 


28 22 36 

28 21 17 
28 22 16 

1 28 

22 3 

Tbii; latitnile tlation is about 20" s. 
of Baliadnr UaaVt houE^, and 
nearly in the same longitude. By 
G. T. Survey, Bahador Singh a 
house is in lat 28'= 22' 9". long. 
79=' 26' 38". 

107 34 10 

91 13 30 

S7 51 29 

27 51 37 


51 33 

This point ia mnth the Eame as the 
G. T. Surrey point in latitude, and 
about Te. of the said G. T. Sur- 
vey point. The G. T, Survey 

27^52' 55", long. 79° 57' 16^ but 
the point itaelfcsnnot be exactly 
identified. The Imitude given by 
the Pundit agrees with some of 
the G. T. Survey value*. 

52 36 30 

27 41 11 


41 38 

Thia point U rather more tlutn a 
mile 8. of the British lieiidency. 

53 37 30 

27 41 44 


135 5 50 

28 1 1 


107 « 50 

28 2 4 


1 33 

107 32 10 

■■ =» »" 


9 S4 

134 34 40 

28 16 3S 


16 32 

107 18 

£8 16 28 


S8 S7 6 

87 44 10 


60 53 30 

' 29 14 B 


13 31 

61 13 4U 

29 12 31 


V 182 'Mohtqojserie' s Eeport of a Rovie- Survey ^^^^M 

Obsebtattohs for Latitude taken in 

Nepal, Tibbt, ^M 

No. of 







Sept. 9.. 




■ " 

,, 11.. 

48 30 


r « 

,, 13.. 

11 44 


a PiB. Am. 


.. ai.. 





,, 21.. 

13 30 



m " 

., 2!.. 

13 20 


1 " 

,, 24.. 




1 " 

,, 25.. 





.. 2T.. 

IC 36 


B OrioniB. 

1 " 

., 39.. 

12 3S 



1 " 

,. 30.. 

83 40 



■ >. 

Oct 2.. 

S3 41 



.. 10- 


ChomflktilB Tarjurn, Post Office. 



,, IS.. 

9 10 

Ssng-wng-giBdo Tnijum. 

B Pia. Aus. 


., 17.. 

15 45 

SBng-Sang-Kati Tarjum. 

fl Ononis. 



.. 19.. 

n 15 

Balang village, in llie honse of 




,, 20., 

15 40 

NabriDg-Kliu-Kha Tarjum. 



,. 23.. 

9 20 

Janglacbe ciiy. in the Gii Khnng 
of Chinese offioisle). 

a Pis. Aus. 


,, 3S.. 

16 44 

Twliilingh village, in the honae of 

$ Orionis. 



,, 27.. 

11 SS 

JUongb yUlage, in the GifL Khniig 



,, 29.. 

15 50 

Shig&Ue, or Etigarchii, cily , in the 
Kun KbDBg (bmldiDg for Ihe 
accummoilalion of Cbinese Offi- 

P Orionis. 


>. ai.. 

17 25 30 


a G Msj. 



Nor. 3.. 

15 6 


B Orionis. 



.. 4.. 









" "- 

11 10 



" i 



from Nepal to Lhasa, 
WITH AN Elliott 6-ikoh Badius Sextant, No. 44 — continued. 


Doable Altitude. 

o t ti 

131 50 lU 

130 17 40 

60 3 

122 35 20 

62 7 20 

62 7 10 

120 16 

119 29 10 

103 58 30 

62 8 

115 35 10 

lU 2 10 

61 32 40 

60 19 40 

104 26 

61 28 20 
104 45 30 

61 3 30 

104 36 10 

61 14 40 

104 45 20 


88 23 40 

104 44 10 

Index Error. 


11 30 

• • 


34 30 

• • 


2 40 

• • 

+ 30 



O t u 

29 39 30 

29 40 15 
29 39 26 

29 39 56 
29 38 29 
29 38 25 
29 39 26 
29 39 27 
29 39 25 

29 38 52 
29 39 31 
29 39 28 
29 21 17 
29 30 59 

29 25 39 

29 19 10 

29 15 55 

29 8 59 

29 20 34 

29 12 20 
29 16 1 

29 16 32 

16 36 

16 40 
16 49 
16 20 



O i II 


29 39 21 

29 21 17 

29 30 59 

29 25 39 

29 19 10 

29 15 55 

29 8 59 

29 20 34 

29 12 20 

i 29 16 32 


Watch moved back 48m. 30s, al 
the observation. 

Watch was all right. 

Watch was 35 m. &8t. 

H 18+ Montgomerib'j Report of a Roide-Surveij 


Obbbevatiokb toe LATrruDC taken is Nepal, Tibet. 4c, 







Not. 14.. 

13 46 

Shigrtme, or Digaroba, city, in the 
Ktin Khang (buildrng for ibe 




fi Ori0l.l«. 




,, 16., 






,, 17.. 






,. 17., 

9 48 





.. 18.. 

9 40 



,, 21.. 



a C. Maj. 


Dec. 23.. 

12 30 

Peoijong, io the Gia Khang. 



,. 21.. 

12 23 

GjaSgie city, near the fort, in the 
'koS Kh.i. 


.. 29.. 

10 45 

Gobji villnge, in the Kim Khing. 

3 0riom>. 


JllQ. 1.. 

10 3.1 

FfBtciang village, near the fort, on 
the bank of a Email lake named 


„ IS.. 

17 30 

Lh£i£city, near the temple of Jil 

Kabdan Tiuhilumbo-gi-lChiiig- 
9omb&, (new house called Dhiki 
Kabdau, the property of Taehi- 
lumbo temple). 




., 13.. 

17 ao 




.. 14.. 

9 27 


3 Orionit. 



,. 15.. 

9 25 



,. 16.. 

9 SO 


.. 1 


.. 17.. 





,. 17.. 

9 25 


e Orion is. 


,. 19.. 

9 15 



,. 20.. 





,, S6.. 

16 55 





>. 87,. 






.. as.. 




., 39.. 







from Nepal to Lhata. 
I Eluott 6-inoh Badiub Skztant, No. 44 — eontimiei. 

UUtndb St^. ladei Krtar. 

l'itlu>d«. LaUtndH. 

3S 10 
5 ' 

41 SO I 

58 40 





34 1 






17 ' 


SS 1 


38 ij 

Observation dooblful. Waieh slop- 
ped OQ ISlh, and wu reguUled 
and made (a ran on I4tll, I'-i p.m. 

Observation lalieii very coi-reclly. 
Watch kept correct time. 

' SB 10 37 
I 28 Sfi 37 

S9 10 37 

aa 56 37 

as 38 









ObBcrvation taken -very corrtcll 

i ObservBlioQ laken correctly. 

I Altitude doubtfal. 
No doubt, and taken correctl}*. 

186 Montoomerie's Report of a RoiUe-Suney 

Obbbrvationb fob Latitudk taken m NkfjU., Tibet, i 

Lbnla city, nesr the temple of JQ 
or Machanilraiiiitfa, in Dhiki 
Rabdon Tashilumbo-gi-KhUDK- 
S(>mba,(iiew house callMl Dbiki 
Rflbilaii, the property ofTaihi- 
lumbo temple). 

J&n. 31.. 

MMch 3.. 

8 10 

10 ' 


Gy^nim£ Mandi 
SaakUDhilru ,. 


Kap kot litlnge, near a bangaloi 



a Pis. Am. 

B Orioiui, 


a Pit. Aim. 
a Fit. Ad*. 

Bogo^ipokhar, in the school 



KsntlreiioD, near the bungalow .. 
ChiphiJghit village, near Ibe bun- 
Paori village. ii 



from Nepal to Lhasa. 
I AN Elliott 6-ikoh Badius Sextant, No. 44 — conHnued. 




iDdez Error. 




1 u 

23 20 

• • 

+ 30" 

O t i* 

39 35 


t u 

• • 

Seen on meridian, but doabtftil. 

85 30 
47 50 

26 20 

86 20 

39 12 

39 29 

39 34 
39 51 

• • 

• • 

• • 

Watch stopped, time was taken by 

Watch iras set at 12 o'clock noon, 
observation taken correctly. 

Observation taken correctly. 

86 30 


86 80 
44 30 

39 43 
31 28 


• • 


No watch, time taken by snpposition. 


• • / 

30 49 14 


49 14 


20 50 

— r 10" 

30 4 56 

I 30 

5 19 


42 20 

30 5 41 


• • 


81 10 

29 57 11 


57 11 


48 40 

29 51 8 

• • 



15 40 

29 37 32 


• ■ 
37 32 


• • 

29 37 32 

■ • 


46 50 
1 50 

29 44 54 

29 14 28 


• • 

• • 



29 47 21 


47 21 


81 20 

29 59 43 


59 43 


27 40 

30 1 29 


1 29 


15 10 

30 7 53 


7 53 


11 40 

30 9 31 


9 31 



HohtgoicebibV Beport of a Route-Survey 


QBSiByATioHS lOB Latitubi takut nr Nxpaxii Tibb;! 




OD MoildilB. 






Oct. 17.. 

Sri-nagar city 




.. 17.. 






., 18.. 

8 45 


a Pis. Ana. 



.. 19.. 





.» 28.. 

8 45 

Jolingh Tillage, in the yard of 
Kalmn, lamindar. 

a Pis. Ana . 



.» 25.. 

8 45 

DhanoltS, near the bungalow 



Sept. 5.. 


Gartokh, on parade ground . . 



t • o .. 

• • 




»» 10.. 

• • 

Dongpft Tillage, in the house of 
Chikpi^ Darkia. 



.* 11.. 

• • 

Nagbo village 


from Nepal to Lhasa, 


AN Elliott 6-inoh Badius Sextant, No. 44 — ecnlinued. 

■lopable Altitude. 


Lidex Error. 




O 1 II 

101 49 30 

- 7' 10" 

O 1 II 

30 13 52 

O 1 II 

• • 

No watch, time taken by supposition. 

63 21 40 

11 51 

• • 


69 4 20 

IS 17 

30 13 10 


100 22 30 

13 38 



58 41 30 

30 24 38 

30 24 38 


58 39 

30 25 49 

30 25 49 


55 57 10 

—2' 30" 

31 44 14 

31 44 14 


56 11 30 

31 37 5 

31 37 5 


57 9 10 

31 8 12 

31 8 12 


57 11 

31 7 17 

31 7 17 



Montgohbrie'^ Report of a Boui&'Survey 

Obsbbtationb of tbm 







June 8