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Just pubUahed, in Two Volumes royed 800.,/aQ-iound eloA, mth ddbortUe 
heraldic hoardsyjprice £1 le. 

The Historical Atlas. 

VOL. I. 




148 pages. 



Ungland (Britannia), 

nnder the 

2. Bootland, nnder the Bomans. 

3. Qallia (Boman Period). 

4. England (Saxon Period). 

5. Scotland (Saxon Period). 

{France, North Part (Saxon-Norman 
Ireland (Tndor Period). 

7. England, and part of Scotland (Nor- 

man and Plantagenet Period). 

8. Eorope (Norman and Plantagenet 


9. Europe, during the time of the 


10. France (Norman to Tudor Period, 

illuatrating the French and 
English Wars). 

11. England, and part of ScoUand 

(York and Lancaster Period). 

12. England (Tudor Period). 

13. ^Europe, during the time of the 

14. / Befoimation. 

15. Scotland (Tudor Period). 

16. England (Stuart Period). 

17. Scotland (Stuart Period). 

18. Ireland (Stuart and Brunswick 



19.\Eurq)e (1600 to 1714), including 

20. / Thirty Years' War. 

21. World, showing DisooTerics from 

XV. to XVI. CJentury. 

22. England (Brunswick Period). 

r Europe, from 1715 to 1830, illns- 

23. trating the Ware of the French 

24. Revolution, and Wars of Na- 

25. Scotland (Brunswick Period). 

26. North America, illustrating the 

Conquest of Canada and the War 
of Independence. 

27. Europe (Central), at the height of 

Napoleon's power, 1812. 

28. Indian Empire, from its foundation 

in 1757 to 1870. 

29. Part of Buasia, to illustrate the 

Crimean War and the operations 
in the Baltia 

30. Central Europe, illustrating late 

Continental Wars, 1848-71, in- 
cluding recent changes on 

81. World, showing British Posses- 

sions and Dependencies. 

82. Turkish Empire (1877 to 1878). 

33. Turkey in Europe, Cyprus, etc. 


34. Europe in 1878. 

Index to Geographical Names. 





^'^ gnuni, 8 ft, by 2 ft., boldly eieoutoJ, with Descnptioat, » 




These Dliutratioiii tuve bean designed aa an effective means of Imparting 
knowledge througli tbe medium of the eye. aided by suitable oolouring, 
and tbe clear descriptions aooompanylng them. For their msrlt and utility 
several Prize Medals have been awarded 

THE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENCE, illnstrated and sxplained. on a 
Scrla of Elgbt Sheeta, MOh Shoot (liEe, I ft. by t ft) preientii^ a Byoopsia of the Bdenoe Ulas- 
trated :— 1. L*w« ot Uatt«r Mid Motion ; 3. Ueobimlail Pomn : S. HydnxUtio* : i. Uydrmollca ; 
(. Poemntttiot ; I. Optloi ; 7, BloBtrldty ; 8. MigTwUmL All ooionnd, 3a ti. mob ; or oiaonted oa 
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X DiBf^ramg of tbe foUowizm Sctenca, with Deicriptiona, lenderini; thdr Prlociplc* and Phenomeua 
eaay of ootnprebctxioii. ASTKOKOMT, t». in ooTcr, or 16t. mnnntoti. OeOLOOT, lOt. Gd., and 18t. 
PuTBiCALOBoaRAPirT, ta.,and Its. BOTAXT, M., and ISa. CaKiiiKTHr,9s.,aod]ta. ErEHOLOOY. 
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BDglne; }. High PnaniTa En^kio; t. LocomotlTO Engtne; 4. Marine Knt^liMS ; A. Uarice Screw 
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Molv : 90. The Boromctor and Ita Uie* ; 31. MalUog anil Dretrlnf!' ; 32. Uanafaotare of Olaaa ; 13. 
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A \PTy plea»ltig nnd InitnicUTe. ASTHONOMV, ISa. PUTfSlCAI. OBOORAPHT, 13«. NATUKiJ, 

Philosophy, 10*. ed. 



Map. 6. B0TA>-iaAL Map. t. ZooutaiCAi. Map. C^ionred and Moaoted. (i«e 4 tu 8 1b. by S ft, 

4 8TR0N0MTCAL GEOGRAPHY. A scries of Coloured Dingrania 

^ IIIostratiTe of the Celcrttal Si^here, Eartb'i position in spooa. Metbodi of aiocrtalniug tin 
Latitude and Loni^tode, iio. Slza, 4 ft. 8 by 9 ft. He. mooutcd. 

yiEW OF NATURE IN ALL CLIMATES. A Coloared Tableau, 

< 6 ft. Id leogtb, repnseotlos tbn Tarlona ClimaUs of the Globe, vitfa thdr caose, tbe range of 
Organic Life, bo, trom tba Eqimtor to tba Polar Ciiolo, With Deacrlption. In oorer, 4i. 6d. ; 
mounted, 7*. 8d. 


' tire View of tbe Chief Monntalss of the World, with ranee of Orpinio Life in « rertlcal direction. 
An admired Tabkaa, full of Interert. Tbe 6beet coloured, with dc»orljiti<in, 4i. ed ; moanloi, 6a. 


" bog the Amtngement. of the Btrata, and tbe Bel&tlona of the Tariooj Rocki to each other. Thi^ 
Bectioa la abont O ft. in length. ColoDred, vith DoacripUon by Frofcator Mania, Sa. ; moontcd, 7s. 6d. 

GEOLOGICAL CHART (Professor Mobhib). Showing the Order 
«<r BocceMlon of tbe Btratifled Bocb, with their Mineral Character!, CbaractcrUUo Foeaila, Vmn 
tn tbe Arti, 8ic Coloured, aize 3 ft. by 3 ft., in cover, Ss. ; monntfd, 4a. Od. 


V7 OBOLOaiCAL ATI.A8 OP ORKAT BlUTAls, from tbe Gorenimeut SorTBy, tte^ lOt. 6d. 
Oeolooigal Map or Eholavd, Walks, and Soirrn Bcon.AND. Monoteri on roltem, loib 
OEOtOOlCAL Hap op tub EXVIROMB op LoNUON, with Xotca. Mounted in ous. 4a. Sd, 
UBART OP DKITKBSAI. HISTORY, full <^ Uittoiieal /^formation. 'Ja. Cd.; moanted, 8a. 
CHART OP 1 ns BOVERKIQNH OP Eh'nr.AND, from the Nonnao OociqiHit, Sa. M. : momibid, 4a. U. 
UKlTKRSAt. ATlJiS OP BciKKCS, wHb 400 CuLjureU Maps and tUnatntioos, 10s. 6d. 
Map op TBI BlVKR TBAllKii, from Ita Sooroa Co London BrUlge; scale, 1 lu. to a mile. 4b. 6d. 
Foruua DIAORAKB OP BCUQIca, Mapa, TraaapsLnaicica, Itc. Abont sixty Taiioaa, la. wdi. A 
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1- faOHOOLS. Giving In pure Sponlih the best Oeueral and Baiantiflo Knovrlsd^ ol Uia present day 
nhti KognrlnKi. luiud at a eluap ratt. 

A Detffriptive Catalogue fr« on application. 
' L0ND02^: JAMES REY.NOLDS & SONS, 374, 8TR.\ND. 



VOYAGE OF THE VEGA. By Adolf Eiuk Nobdknski5ld. 

Willi Uluaratlunj. Me4iqm 8to. [SAon<y, 


4]r Hoam SrKSci Watson. Witli M .[unJ lllintniiloiu. avo. [Stuirtly. 

ISLAND LIFE ; or, the Phenomena of Insular Faunas and 

Fk>r«». with tUflr i/jia»t», icKrluillni; «ii i-rtlrc Rcvmiiu of tix'' J'njblom if Ucologiail Cllnitttp*. B/ 
ALfact) Ru"»{.L WaiX4<'B. Willi lliu tr«tii)ii» ami Mujo. McJium Hvo. [fikurtli/. 

THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO ; the Land of the Oran-Utan 

mhI tbc Bird of Paraalse. A Narrative oi trovrl, witb Studies ot Man vi<l Nator?. Dy the uiue 
Aa(b»r. Sixth Killllaa. Wltb Ma^ft and numcrons lUoitratfoas. Cniwn gvo. 7i. 6't 

ISMAILIa : a Narrative of the Expedition to Central Africa 

for the .Sipptfwloii nf tlip Sltvr Trad)*. org«nlsm1 by I-mall. Khrdivc "f Ki^-pt. Witb I'urlralU. 
Mafii, aii<] DuoitTotu Jllustia'luns. New and CUiapc'r KdlUuQ. Oniwu 8vu. <><. 


ANfl Ktl'l-OaAflON OF THE XILK SOUIlCEi Fouctb Edition. Mapi and UluiUaiion*. 
Cruwn iM,, III. 


.'^VViiRii HUNTKItS OK lilt: lUUHAN AKARS. Wiib Ut\» and IlluAraiioiu. FifUi 
bcllion. Clown h\o. 0$. 

CYPRUS AS I SAW IT IN 1879. With Frontispiece. 


1858-79. 8vo. 


Wiih Map«anil uuiurroa* IliiioiruiuMi-.. I6i. 

CHINA: a History of the Laws, Manners, and Customs of 

the People. Itf tbo Vrn. J. H. t<nAr. Aich-leacgn of Iluos Koob. Swond t^llUoa. Witti 151] 
JUn^traUous by Chlncae .\rlUis. 'i vaU., Hvo. 331. 

PERU : Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land 

• f III? tatu: \W K. 0. 8<](riaii. M. A., K.8.A., l«lc U. S. Cvmmicaiuiirr to feni. bfcond Kdiilou, 
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AT LAST : A Christmas in the West Indies. By Charlks 

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( »i ) 



CouQcil Beport, May, 187U, and Balance-Sheet for 1878 t 

List of Council, Officers, Honorary and Honorary Corresponding 

Members, and Fellows xvit 

List of Public Institutions, &c., to which copies of the ' Journal ' and 

' Proceedings * are presented cxvii 

Individuals to whom the Royal Premiums, &c., have been awarded .. cxx 

[K.B. The Aatbon are alone responsible for the contents of their respective paper*.] 


1. — Itineraries of the Second Khedivial Expedition : Memoir explaining 
the New Map of Midian made by the Egyptian StafT-ofQcers. By 
Richard F. Bubtom 1 

2. — A Visit to Lissa and Pelagosa. By R. F. Bubtos 151 

3. — An Account of the Country traversed by the Second Column of the 
Tal— Cho'tia'li Field Force in the Spring of 1879. By Lieut. 
R. C. Temple, f.b.o.8., m.b.a.8,, &c., Bengal Stafif Corps ; lately 
attached to the 1st Goorkha Light Infantry 190 

4. — The Modifications of the External Aspects of Organic Nature pro- 
duced by Man's Interference, By Professor George RoLiiESTos, 
F.B.8., Oxford 320 

5. — Notes upon some Astronomical Observations made in Kordofan and 
I^rfur. By Major H. G. Pbout, Corps of Engineers, Egyptian 
General Staff 392 

<3. — Zeno's Frislanda is Iceland and not the Fa3roes. By Admiral 

Ibmimoeb 398 

7. Zeno*s Frislanda is not Iceland, but the Fieroes ; an Answer to 

Admiral Irminger. By R. H. Majob, f.s.a., Secretary b.g.b. .. 412 

a 2 

( iv ) 


8. — ^Approximate Determioation of Positions in South- Western China. 

By Gr. CoLBOBNE Baber 421 




L BuBTOH .. .. Land of Uidian iofuce 1 

2. Tejiplk .. .. Tal—Cho'tia'li Route, from Candahar to India „ 191 

3. Pbout .. .. Eordoian and Darfur „ 393 

4. Ibmikgeb .. Iceland „ ZW 

1879. **\- 

Bead at the Anniyersabt Meeting on the 26th May. 

The Council have the pleasure of laying before the Fellows 
the customary Annual Beport on the financial and general 
condition of the Society : — 

Members. — The number of Fellows elected during the past 
year (ending April 30th, 1879) was 170, besides two Honorary 
Corresponding Members. In the previous year, 1877-8, the 
total elections of Fellows numbered 187. In 1876-7 the 
number was 292, and in 1875-6, 266. The losses in the past 
year have been, by death 80, by resignation 54, and by default 
of subscription 34, making the net increase for the year, two. 
In the year 1877-8 the net increase was 49 ; in 1876-7, 138 ; 
in 1875-0, 149 ; and in 1874-5, 202. The Society has also lost 
by death three Honorary Corresponding Members. 

Finance. — As will be seen by the annexed Balance Sheet, 
the total net income for the financial year ending 31st De- 
cember, 1878 (exclusive of balance in hand), was 8124Z. 10*., of 
which 6017Z. consisted of entrance fees and subscriptions of 
Fellows. In the previous year, 1877, the total net income was 
7950/. Is. lid., and the amount of subscriptions, &c., 6099?.; 
in 1876, 8611/. 11«. 8d. and .7109/. lU. The amount of total 
net income just stated for the past year included a legacy of 
540/. from the late Admiral Sir George Back. A legacy of 
500/. formed also part of the stated income for 1877. 

The net expenditure for the past year (exclusive of invest- 
ments and balance in hand) was 6361/1 9s. Qd. ; which includes 

fTi ■'-.' '"'Royal Geographical Society. 

a grant oC.fiQW. to the A f dam Exploration FiuiJ. TLe net 
expenditJj'ro^m 1877 was 51140/. 17a-. Ik/.; in 187(), 0870/. IS,*. Id., 
and in ISTS, 508.1/. As. \{\il The sujii uf ^JOOOZ. was invested in 

^ConsoIJS dnrlug the ycur, 
^Ije Finance Committee of the Council have held, as usual, 
lylorilhly MeeLiugs during the year, supervising the accounts of 
tlijc -.Society. Tht- Annual Audit was held on the IGth of April 
•■."last, the Auditors heing, on behalf of the Council, Sir Uawson 

■ W. Kawaon and Sir Ilcnry Burkly ; and on behalf of .the 

■ Fellows at large^ Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., and S, P. Low, 
I Esq. Tho cordial thanks of the Council and Fellows are due 

to these gentlemen for having freely devoted their valu;il>le 
time to this important task. At the end of their hibours the 
Auditors drew up tho following Report to tlie Council : — 

** The Auditors appointed for the examination of the Accounts 
" of the Koyal Geographical Society for the year ending 31st 
" December, 1878, beg to report that they have examined the 
" Balance Sheet submitted to them, and compared it with tlie 
" Cash Book, Bankers' Book, Petty Cash Book, and other books 
" of account kept by the Society, and have verified the Balance 
" in the Bankers' Pjiss Book, checked the entries in the Cash 
*' Book, and examined all the voucliers for payments made, ami 
" that they have found the same to be correctly stated, and 
" Buflficiently vouched. 

*• They have also bar! produced to them a letter from the 
" Chief Accountant of the Bank of England, and from Messrs. 
" Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Bankers, showing that the folhiw- 
*' ing investmenta were standing to tho credit of the Society on 
" the 31st December, 1878 :— 

£ t. (T. 
" India 't per cent. Stock . . . . . . , . . . lOtiO 

" Great Western Eailway A\ per cent. Debenturo 

♦' Stock . . . . 1800 a 

" London and North-Westem Railway 4 per cent, 

" Debenture Stock lOOCt 

" North-Eaatem Railway 4 per cent. Debenture 

" Stock . . . . . . 4000 (> 

" Great Indian Peninsula Railway Guaranteed 

" 5 per cent. Capital Stock 40OO 





Report of the Council. vii 


" Ittarch Exchequer Bills 1000 

" Caledonian Railway 4 per cent. Preference 

" Stock, No. 1 2000 

" Consols (Lambert Donation) 52b* 

« Consols '3142 15 10 

" The Subscription Kegister, showing the sums payable by 
" the Fellows of the Society, has been duly kept up, and the 
** arrears outstanding at the close of the year were 1517/. Of 
" this amount the sum of 192Z. is irrecoverable, and the Auditors 
*' include the balance of 1325/. in the assets of the Society as 
" worth 612/. 10«. 

** The Investments and Assets of the Society on the 31st 
" December, 1878, exclusive of the Map Collection and Library, 
« amounted to 37,101/. 16^. 9d. 

*' The Auditors have much pleasure in certifying that the 
" accounts, books, and vouchers have been so kept as to render 
" their duties much lighter than usual, and they feel bound to 
" record their appreciation of the great assistance they received 
" from the Chief Accountant. 

" Rawson W. Rawson, 
"Henry Barkly, V j /7v 

« Charles Nicholson, ' ^«^«°**^- 
« S. P. Low, 

« 2l8t April, 1879." 


Royal Geographical Society. 




£ (. d. 

£ •. <L 


IC 7 1 

Balance in Bankers' hands Slat Deo. 1877'! 2 240 17 
Cdedocting Cheque not presented) / ' 

Ditto Aocoontant's 

Subteriptioiu .*— > 
For the current year .. 
Paid in advance 

Entrtmee Fees 

Life Compontiotu 

Subtcriptiofu jmi in emt 

Legacy bj Admiral Sir Geoi^ge Back .. .. 

Parliamentary Grant 

Jtoyal Premium 

Amt 0/ £%op and Cellars 

PMieatione, Sale of, and AdTertiBements .. 

Dividends .- — 

North-Eastem BaUway 4 per Cent. Debenture\ 
Stock 10002./ 

India 5 per Cent. Stock lOOOZ. 

Oreat Indian Peninsula Bailway 5 per Cent.\ 
Stock 4000L/ 

Great Western Bailway 4} per CenL\{ 
Debenture Stock 1800L/I 

London and North- Western Bail way 4 per\| 
Cent Debenture Stock 10002./ 

Exchequer Bills lOOOZ. 

Caledonian Bailway 4 per Cent Preference"! 
Stock, No, 1 20001./ 

Consols 36692. 2«. 2d 

2,257 4 1 







74 2 



52 10 


196 5 8 

39 8 


49 3 


236 3 


75 7 


39 8 


24 12 

78 15 


CI 13 


604 12 4 

£10,381 14 1. 


Report of the Council. 





£oiiw:— Taxes and Inaaranoes, Bepairs, Im-j 
proTements and FDrnitnre, Coalf Gas and> 
Watar-rates, &C. ) 

Ofiee : — Salaries and Gratuities, Stationery and) 
Printing, Postages and Parcels, &c / 

Xi^rary .-—Salaries, Books, ftc. 

Map-Boom : — Salaries and Gratuities, ka. 

MeeOngt , 

Sdentifie Purpotet Chrant : — Lecturers* Fee$, die. 

JfoZnb and other awards 

PublieaUoiu: — ^Printing Journal and Pruoeed-l 
ings, liaps and Illnstarations, ftc / 

Payment in error returned 

Eiqpeditiotu: — 
Donation to the African Exploration Fund . 

JnoetfoieHte:— Furchaseof 8142Z.152. lOd. Consols 

Bdlanee in Bankers' hands Slst Dec. 1878^ 
(excluding draft not presented) / 

Do. Accountant's Do. 

£ «. 


' £ >, d. 

502 8 5 

1,712 18 

503 2 8 
858 15 7 

.. .. 

285 6 
106 12 

1,742 12 8 


.. - 


999 13 

20 11 


1,020 4 7 

£10,381 14 1 

^vdiUd andfamd eomct, (A« 16M day </ AprO, 1879. RAWSON W. BAWSON, 1 

CHA8. NICHOLSON, I .^{i,^ 
S. H. LOW, I ■^*^"^- 


Royal Gcoffraphical Society. 

Statbmekt showing the Ehjktpts and ExpENDiroaE of the Society from 
the Year 1848 to the Slat Dec., 187S. 

In 1856 ft Treasury Grant of 
moot, for tbo East African 
Expedition recciTed. 

In 1 860 a Treasury Grant of 
25001. for tlic East African 
Expedition received. 

In 18G9 Legacy of Mr. 
Bcujnroin Oliveini, 1500/. 
17«. 1(/. 

In 1870 Legacy of Mr. Al- 
fred Davis, 1800^ 

In 1871 Legacy of Sir Ro- 
derick Murchison, 1000/. 

In 1872 Amount of Sir. 
Jumcs Yoang'd Gmnt for 
the livingatono Congo 
Expedition, 2000f, 

In 1874 Amount of 5tr, 
Jiimcs Young'* Gmnt for 
the Livingntono Congo 
Expedition, 104H. 14». 

In 187G Special Parlia- 
luentary Grant of 3000/. 
towatdii the Expenses of 
tbo CamcroD Expedition. 

In 1877 Donatinn of 5001. hj 
Mr. C. J. Lambert in car- 
rying Out the provisions of 
hid futher'a will. 

In 1878 Legncy of Adiioirul 
Sir George Back, 510/. 



vrilhin the 



Inrcsted in 



iDTcsted ia 

Foods; actDii! 


£ 5. 





£ ». tt. 


696 10 



755 6 1 


778 3 


1098 7 6 


10.36 10 



877 2 10 


1056 11 



906 14 7 

1852 ' 

1220 3 


, , 

995 13 1 


1917 2 


^ , 

1675 6 {> 


2565 7 


, , 

2197 19 3 


2584 7 

, , 

2636 3 I 


8372 5 




2814 8 1 


8142 13 



34S0 19 9 


3089 15 


, , 


2944 13 6 


3471 11 



3423 3 9 


6440 12 


460 17 


5406 3 7 


4792 12 





3074 7 4 


4659 7 





3095 19 4- 


5256 9 




8655 4 


4977 8 




3647 7 10 


4905 8 




4307 4 5 


.1085 8 




4052 15 


5462 7 11 


3943 17 4 


5't91 4 





4156 17 10 


6S5S) 10 



4C4G S 


8042 6 




3845 10 t} 


6637 3 



372G 4 4 


8119 7 





5871 13 2 


7761 18 





6697 12 6 


ST-^a 'y 



7876 2 3 


7934 15 





5683 4 10 


ll,«ll 11 


. , 

, , 

6870 13 1 


7950 1 




8940 17 11* 


8121 10 



6301 9 6 

• TJiis sum iticluik-i the Special Parliatnontary Gmnt transferred to 
Camtrou E.X[i«litiou Fund in Feljruiirj-, 1877. 

Report of the Council. xi 

STATEMENT OF ASSETS— Slst December, 1878. 

Freehold House, Fittings, and Faniitnie, estimated I ' 

(exclusive of Map Collections and library in- > .. 20,000 

sored for 10,0001) ) 

InTestments (amount of Stock), as detailed in the\ , . ^«> „ „ 

above Beport of the Auditors / " i3,*o«' ^ ^ 

Anears due on December SI, 1878 .. £1517 
Less, irrecoTerable .. .. 192 


Estimated at .. 612 10 

Balance at Bank 999 13 

„ in Accountant's hands 20 II 7 

1,020 4 7 

Totul £37,101 IG 1> 

PuUicafions. — A new form of publication of the * Proceedings ' 
of the Society was commenced in January of the present year, 
the old * Proceedings ' terminating with the 22nd volume. The 
new series is a monthly publication, containing besides the 
chronicle of the proceedings of the Evening Meetings, numerous 
maps and a record of Geographical events throughout the 
world, together with notices of new books and maps published 
in various countries. The numbers have hitherto been issued 
with punctuality on the 1st of each month, and at the end of 
the year the twelve parts will form a large volume, a complete 
Index being issued as soon as practicable after the last number. 
Although attended by a considerably increased expense, the 
Council have felt assured from the commencement that the 
new publication would meet with the warm approval of the 
Fellows. The expense is counterbalanced to a larger extent 
than was originally estimated, by receipts from advertise- 
ments and from sales to the public, upwards of 800 copies 
being subscribed for by persons who are not Fellows of the 

Expeditions ; Grants of Instruments to Travellers. — ^A second 
grant of 500Z. was made during the year 1878 to the African 
Exploration Fund. — ^Instruments at a total cost of 357Z. 18*. 
have been supplied to travellers as follows : — Mr. Keith 
Johnston (for the East African Expedition of the African 

Exploratiou Fund), a complete set, value 170Z. ; 3Ir. Henry 
Forbes (for liis journey to Celebes), iustrumeuts, to the value 
of 07. ; Bfr. Simons (for the Exploratiou of the Sierra Nevada 
of Sautft Martba), iustrumeuts, to the value of 1 "j/. ; J[r. Comber 
{Expeditiou to tbo Cougo), iustrurucuts, to the value of r>7Z. ; 
1)t. Mullens (for Luke Tanganyika)^ iustrumeuts, to the value 
of 101/. ; Captiu'u A. H. Markham, r.n. (voyage to Nov* Zemblu), 
instruments, value 5/, IS*. The iustruraents lent to Mr. Craven 
(I'^ust Africa) iiud Lieut. Cougreve (Paraguay) have been re- 
turned into store, on the termination of the journeys of these 

Annual Grant for Scientific PurjKtses. — The science lectures 
appointed by the Committee charged by the Council with the 
admiuiiitratiou of the annual grant of MOl. for scientific 
purposes, have been continued during the past year ; but only 
a l>ortion of the grant, viz. 1 75?., was expeudcHl. The following 
gentlemen were cliosen to deliver the three lectures for the 
Session 1878-9 : — Professor A. Geikie, subject, ' Geographical 
Evolution ' ; Professor Bolleeton, subject, ' The Mmlifications of 
the External Aspects of Organic Nature produced by ]\fan'B 
Interference'; and J. liall, F.iis., subject, ' The Flora of the 
European Alps and its connection with that of other regions of 
the Earth.' Tlic largo MS. Map of Equatorial xVfrica, with 
Bibliographical list of authorities, the compilation of which was 
outnisted by the Committee to the well-known geographer, 
Mr, Raven"»tein, is milking steady progress. 

Library. — U41 books aud pamphlets have beeu added to the 
Library during the past year ; 473 (including aU the pamphlets) 
being donations, and IGS purchased. Besides these, and 
without reckoning such publication* of general interest as the 
' Athenajum,' «fec., 1102 separate parts or numbers of periodicals, 
* Transactions,' iVc, have been received (including those obtained 
by gift in or towards completion of defective series), many of 
ivhich complete annual or other volumes. 

136 pamphlets and small works have been put into covers on 
the Society's premises, and 263 volumes have been bound 
during the past year. 


Report of the Council. xiii 

The sniu of 136/. ITs. 5<2. has been expended in purchasing 
books, and the farther sum of 87/. 0«. Qd, in binding. 

Among the more important accessions are: — Qaimard's 

* Voyage en Laponie ' and * Voyage en Island * ; and Du Petit 
Thouars's 'Voyage de la Venus,' with Atlases complete ; Btosset's 

* Description' and * Histoire de la Georgie' ; Texier's * Description 
de TAnndnie ' ; Cartas de Indias (presented by the Conde de 
Toreno, through H.E. the Spanish Minister); Vander Aa's 
Collection of Sea and Land Journeys in the East and West 
Indies, in Dutch, 27 vols, (presented by C. R. Markham, Esq.) ; 
Juan and XJlloa's * Observaciones Astronomicas y Phisicas ' (pre- 
sented by J. P. Gassiot, Esq.) ; Sir J. Maimdevile's * Voiage ' ; 
G^rritsz's * Detectio Freti Hudsoni ' ; Bruce's * Annals of the 
East India Company*; Heeren's Political and other Works; 
the continuation of Burgess's ' Archaeological Survey of Western 
India,' and Bice's ' Mysore and Coorg,' with many other official 
publications referring to India (presented by Her Majesty's 
Secretary of State for India) ; * Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 9th 
edition, vols. viii. and ix. (presented by Messrs. A. and C. 
Black) ; ' (Eavres de Champlain,' by Laverdiere ; Wild's * At 
Anchor * (presented by Messrs. Marcus Ward and Co.) ; a 
collection of the chief works referring to Arctic Voyages (pre- 
sented by the Rev. H. Back) ; a collection of Dutch writings by 
Professor Veth on the Indian Archipelago (presented by the 
Author;, per P. Bicker-Caarten, Esq.) ; a collection of Geo- 
graphical Addresses by the late Sir Roderick Murchison 
(presented by Kenneth Murchison, Esq.); Kanitz's *Donau- 
Bulgarien ' ; Paz Soldan's * Diccionario Geografico del Peru,' 
with various writings on South America, by VicuHa-Mackenna, 
Baimondy, &c. (presented by SeHor M. F. Paz Soldan) ; the 
completion of Sir H. Lefroy's * Memorials of the Bermudas ' 
(presented by the Author, per Messrs. Longman) ; Fouque's 
' Santorin et ses Eruptions * ; Thomson's * Through Cyprus with 
the Camera ' ; the current reports and other publications of the 
U.S. Geographical Survey under Professor F. V. Hayden (pre- 
sented by him) ; various publications of the Egyptian General 
Staff (presented by General Stone) ; the continuation of the 
Memoirs and other publications of the Geological Survey of 
India (presented by the Indian Government, per Dr. Oldham) ; 

the continuation of vol. iii. and the whole of vol. iv. of Eeclus's 
Geographie Universelle (presented by the Author) ; and all 
as yet published of St. Martin's ' Guographio Universelle.' 

The Library continues to be much consulted by Fellows of 
the Society and officers of public departments. Reference is 
also constantly being made to it by students, authors, and 
artists connected with publishing establishments. 

Majp-Room. — The revision of the classified Register of Maps, 
and the preparation of an alphabetical catalogue of all the 3Iaps 
in the Society's Collection, with an index of authors, were 
tlecided upon at the Council Meeting of June 3rd, 1878 ; since 
which time considerable progress has been made in this work, 
and the new catalogue is being pre]>ared with a view to 
its being subsequently printed. 

The Coimcil have voted 50/. per annum, for four years, to 
be expondoil in putting the bituliugs of the Society's Atlases in 
good order, and the shelves on which the Atlases are kept have 
been covere<l with sliding sashes for their better preservation. 

Tlie ofler of Messrs. Limd and Bloekley, to provide the Maj)- 
Room with a Synchronizing time current has been accepted 
by the Council, and an hourly mean time current is now 
received in the Map-lloom. A case containing a set of 
traveller's instruments (such as the Society recommend) has 
been placed in the Map-Koom. 

Great interest has been evinced by the Fellows of the Society 
and the general publie in the Maps of the Seat of War in 
Afghanistan and South East Africa. Public officers, students, 
and the public have made frequent use of the Blaps in the 
Society's (Collection. The large Maps have been lent during the 
year, for the purjMjse of ilhistrating many Geographical lectures 
in different parts of the kingdom. 

The accessions to the Map-Room Collection since last 
Anniversary comprise 408 3Iaps and Charts on 1426 Sheets; 
24 Atlases containing 790 Sheets ; and 132 Photographs. Of 
these 50 Maps and 4 Atlases have been purchased. 5 new 
Diagrams (Cyprus, South East Africa, Soutliern IJsambara, 
part of Midiau, Cameroons Mountains, and Lake Nyassa) have 
been constructed on the establishment, and several others have 


Report of the Council. 


>eea corrected. Three large diagrams (Afghanistan, Africa, and 
Asia) have been purchased. The accessions of the presunt year 
are in excess of those oF last year by 17 Maps und 19 Atlases 
on 564 Sheets. 

Among the most imiwrtant additions to the ]\rap-Room 
are : — 308 Sheeta of the Ordnance Survey of the British Isles on 
I various scales (presented by the First Commissioner of Works, 
through the Director-General of the Ordnance Survey). 201 
Charts of the British Admiralty, 1 Atlas of Index Charts,and an 
! Atlas of Pilot Charts for the Atlantic Ocean (presented by the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admirnlty, through the Hydro- 
pmpher). 95 French Admiralty Charts (presented by the 
I Dep6t des Cartes et Plans de la Marine). 4 Sheets of United 
' States Charts, and an Atlas of Meteorological Charts of the 
Pacific (presented by Captain S. K. Franklin, U.S.N., Hydro- 
grapher to the Bureau of Navigation). 178 Sheets of the 
various Indian Government Surveys (presented by Her 
j\[ajesty's Secretary of State for India, through the India 
Office). 47 Sheets of Maps, including 21 Sheets of Major 
Wilson's Map of Afghanistan (presented by the Quartermaster- 
General). 12 Sheets of the Topographischer Atlas der 
Schweiz (presented by the Chief of the Federal Survey, 
Berne). 1 Atlas over Kongeriget Denmark (presented by 
Rear- Admiral C. Irmiuger), 5 Sheets of the Kaart over 
Jydland (presented by H,E. the Danish Minister), Geological 
and Topographical Atla« accompanying the Keport of the 
Geological Expedition of the Fortieth l*arallel, U.S.A. (presented 
by Clarence King, u.s., Geologist-io-charge). Geological and 
Geographical Atlas of Colorado, and an Atlas of the Geological 
Survey of Wisconsin (presented by Dr. S. V. Hayden). Map of 
the Turkestan Military Province, constructed by the Turkestan 
Military Topographical Department. Map showing tlie Ex- 
plorations of H, M. Stanley (presented by Edward Weller, 
JBsq.) Map of Madagascar (presented by Dr. Mullens). 
16 Sheets of MS. Tracings of the Nile Surveys (presented by 
General Stone). Adolf Stieler's Hand Atlas, Parts i. and ir. 
new edition (presented by Herr Justus Perthes). 15 Sheets of 
Maps, including two General Slaps of Australia, and four of 
the Colony of Victoria (presented by the Honourable Graham 

xvi Royal Geographical Society. 

Berry, Premier of Victoria). 1 Atlas of the Soutbem portion of P 
the Province of South Australia (presented by Sir A. Blyth). I 
120 Photographs taken in Damaraland and East Namaqualand, 
by Mr. W. C. Palgrave (presented by Sir Henry Barkly). A 
MS. llDtp of the Nile between Assouan and Wady Haifa (pre- 
sented by G. Kilgour, Esq.) 40 Sheets of the Special-Earte 
der K. n. Osterreichisch-IFngarischen Monarchie. 17 Sheets 
of Norwegian Surveys (presented by Lieut.-Colonel Sejersted). 
17 Sheets of French Grovemment Survey (presented by the 
D^p6t de la Guerre). 







(ELECTKD 3UT MAT. 1880.) 
Abcrdabe, The Right Hon. Lord. 

Galtos, F., E«q., F.RJ3. 
Rawuhson, Major-Gen. Sir Heuy C. 
K.C.U., F.R^. 

Aux>CK, Sir Rntherfbrd, K.C.B. 
Bamclt, Sir H,, G.C.M.G., K.C.B. 
Ellis, Sir Barrow H., K.C.S.I. 
Etasb, Capt. F. J., R.N., C.B., F.R.S. 


CkMXB, Reginald T., Ewj. 


HoiTQHTOM, Lord, D.C.L., F.RJS. | LOBBOCK, Sir J., Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 


MaBSHAM, Clements R., E«q., C.B., F.R.S. || MaJOB, Richard Henrj, Em)., F.S. 
^foreign Secrttaig.— Rcbsell, Lord Arthur, M.P. 

Prmbcrs of (Dotmcil. 

Ball, John, Esq., F.R.S. 
BarrON, Sir T. Fowell, Bart. 
CuST, Robert Needham, Esq. 
FsBaDgaOK, Jamee, Esq., F.R.S. 
FOBSTTH, Sir T. Douglas, K.C.S.I., C.B. 
Fbeshfield, Douglas W., Esq. 
Goownr-AuBTEK, Lieut.-CoIonel H. H., 

LaoaHTOK, J. K., Esq. 
Lbfbot. Gen. Sir J.H., R.A., K.C.M.G., 

Mbbewether, Col. Sir W. L., K.C.S.I.,C.B. 
MiLHE, Admiral Sir Alex., Bart, G.C.B. 

Naees, Capt. Sir G. S., RJT., K.C.B. 
OmiAMNET, Admiral Sir Erasmus, C.B., 

Pellt, Col. Sir Lewis, E.C.B., E.CJ3.I. 
Reat, Lord. 

RiQBT, Migoi^eneral C. P. 
Silteb, S. W., Esq. 
Stbachet, Lient.-Gen. R., R.E., C.S.I., 

Temple. Sir Richard, Bart., G.C.S.I. 
Thdillieb, Lienb-Gen. Sir H. E. L,, 

R.A., CSJ., F.R.S. 
Vebhbt, Sir H. C, Bart., M.P. 

^mtisat SmxtBis uvUi (BltUor of Snrasactions.— bates, h. w., Esq., F.L.S. 

C^f Clerk TXtlii ^Otmtant.— Jokes, £. Duffield, Esq., M.A. 

librarian.— Rte, e. c, Esq., F.Z.S. 

SP^ap Cttrator.— €OLES, John, Esq., F.R.G.S. 
}^mhtX9,—Mttm. COOXB, BiDSULPH and Co., 43. Charing Cross. 

H. I. M. Dom Pelro 11., Emperor of Bmxil. 
H.M. Dora Luir I., King of Portugal. 
II.M. Leopold II., King or the Bi'lgimis. 
H.I.H. the (iraud Unite Constaiitine, I'res. 

of the Imperial Geogroptviuii] Society of 

tit. retersburg. 


Abich, Dr. Win. HermaDn, St. Fet«rsburg 
ALMEIDA, Dr. Candido ilendea de., 51. Eugfene do Paria 

Uastian, I'r. Adolph Iin»in«n 

HtiROilAUS, l^rof, Heinnth .. .. llerlin 
liuiiMKisrEa, Dr. HerniiLnn, DueniM Ayin 

Chaix, Prof. Paul Geiievn 

COELLO, Don Kranciaoo .. .. Bladrid 
C'OliA, Signer Guido, 17 Via Pi-ovidenu, 

CORVO, Hia Excellency Seahor Joa& de 

AndrAde .. .. .. .. Lisbon 

Dana, Profeaior Jamea D., New iisTcn, 

DovRriUEB, M. Henri .. .. Paris 

Faidhrrbe, General L France 

KiQAM^RE, CocnmaDder Jorge' Cemr, 



Fremont, General. 

GiOLlOLi, ProC.CavaliereEjirico H., Florence 
Gordon, Colonel C. G., r.k„ c.u. 
GoTOT, IVof.,LL.D., Prinoclon, New.Ieisev 
IIauslad, General .. .. .. Vienon 

Ha YUEN, Dr. F. V Wn*biiiglou 

HocilSTETTER, Dr. Ferdinand toji. Pies, 

imp. Geo^ntph. Society of .. Vientu 

Irminokr, Ucas'AdmiriJ C. L. C, r.d.k., 


Jaksex, Captain M. H., D.n.N., The Hngniv 


KENNELLT. D. J. Esq., F.R.A.8. 

KiEPERT, Dr. H. .. .. .. .. B«rliD 

Lkal, JoMi d» Silra Mendas, Portu{raea« 

Sig. .. Piirit 

LiNAHT, PaUw Aleiaodria 

LtJTKE, Admiral Count K.B.. St. Petersburg 
Malte-Bron, M. V. A., Hon. Sec. Geogr. 

Soc. of Paris 

MlBZA Malooh KhaW, His Eicelleary. 

Kbort, Chevalier Cristoforo, (Joutiiula San 

Fraoceso) di Paola, Ko. II , P. 3 Torino 
NoRDESSKtOLn, Raron A. E. .Stockholm 
NoiTHY, \'Jee-Admiral Baron dc la Iton- 

ciiii", le .. .. Paris 

NuUAit PACitA, His EicellencT .. Cairo 
OaTiU< Sacxek, HaroD Fr. von der, 

.St. Petcnbtti^ 
Paz Soldan, Don Maiimo Keli|>e Lima 
PiiiUPiT, Dr. Uodulfo Ammnil" ,. Chili 
Platen, His Escelleucj Count. 
Kaeiavd, Alfred (Pres. Geogr. Soc. Mv- 

Raimo.ndi, Don Antonio .. ., .. Lima 
llictmiOFEN, Baion von (Piej. Derlin 

Geog. Soc.) 
RtlKPELL, Dr. E., For. M.L.B. ..Frankfort 
Salas, Don 8aturnino, Pre*. Topogr. Vt- 

part., Argeoliue [{epublic, Buenos Ayrea 

SciiEBZER, Dr. Karl too. 

ScnUTLKB, ElJOENE, Sec, v. i>, Legntion, 


SoMtLAR, M»jor-General the Cher, dc, 

Wiener NeLisladt Vienna 

Stanley, Henry M., Enq. 

Stone, Gen. C M. P„ Chief of the General 

Stuff, Egyptian Army Cairo 

Stkuve, Prof. Otto .. St. Petersburg 
TciiniATCHEf, M. Pierre de .. Florence 
TsciiODi, Herr T. T. von .. .. Vinoa 
Vamdsry, Professor Arminius .. Peath 
Vasooncellos e Silta, Dr. Alfre<1o Cari- 

miro de Kio de Janeiro 

Veth, Professor (Pres, of tlie Dutch 

Gro^ph, Soc.) I.eyden 

Wheeler, Lieut. G. M. Waahingtoo, U.S. 

Whitney, J. D., F.8<|. (SUte GeoiogiM for 


WiLCZEK, Count Vienna 

Ziegler, M. J. M. .. .. .. IWlo 

( XIX ) 


(July 1880.) 


Prbb. =: presoit or post President. 

C = present or past member of ConnciL 

e - Gold Medal. 

C = Testimonial of any other description. 
= School prize medal. 

p = anthor of a Paper published in the ' Journal,' or ' Proceedings ' of the Society. 

* = Life Compounder. 



1851 i 

1878 , 
1861 I 

1873 1 


Abbott, Major-General Saunders. 2, Peters/tain-tcrrace, Queen' it-gate, S. W. 

Abbott,* William, Esq. 10, Tok«nh<nue-t/ard, E.G. 

Abbott,* Wm. S. D., Esq. 

Abdy, Rer. Albert, H.A. St. Martin's, Stamford; and United University Cl>d>, S. W. 

Aberdare, Right Hon. Lord, f.b.8. 1 , Queen' s-gate, S. W, ; and Dvffryn, Aber- 

dare, Olamorganshire. 
Abinger, W. F. Scarlett, Lord. Guards' Club, S.W. 
Abrahams, Isi-ael, Esq. 56, Suasell-square, W.C. 
Acheson, Frederick, Esq., C.E. Woodm Bridge, Co. Wicklouf. 
Adand, Rer. Chas. Lanrford. Jioyal Orammar-scliool, Colchester. 
Adand, Dr. Henry, r.R.S., D.C.L., m.d, Oxford. 
Adand, J. Barton Arundel, Esq. Mount Feel, Canterbury, New Zealand. Care 

of A. Mills, Esq^ 34, Hyde-park-gardens, W. 
Adand, Sir Thos. Dyke, Bai-t., h.p. Killerion, Exeter ; and Athenwum Club. 
Adand, Dentenant \V. A. Dyke, e-n. Care of Dr. H. Acland, Oxford. 
Adams, Fras. 0., F<sq., C.B. (Secretary of Embassy). Paris. 
Adderley, Augustus J., Esq. 46, Park-street, Grosvenor -square, W. 
Adeane, Capt. E. S., E.S. 28, Eaton-place, S. W. 
Adkins, Thomas, Esq. Bishopton, Stratford-on-Avon. 
Adye, Lieut.-General Sir J. M., k.c.b. Boyal Military Academy, Woolwich. 
Agar, A. P., Esq. Care of Messrs. Grindlay and Co., 55, Parliament-street, S. 11'. 
Ainsworth,*W. F., Egq.,FJ.A. Ravenscourt-villa,New-road, Hammersmith, It'. 
Aird, David Alfred, Esq. 2, Sussex-gardens, W. ; and 7, Fig-tree-ct., Temple, F.C. 
Airlie, Right Hon. Earl of, K.T. 36, Cheshtm-place, S. W. 
Aitchison, David, Esq. 5, Pemhridgc-square, Baysicatcr, W. 

23 c 






Aitk*n, RoKsclI, E»q, 36, Gnat Qeorge-street, S.W. 


Albemarle,* Right Hon. Eurl of. 29J, Gronmor-aquare, W,; Quiddenham- 
hall, Larlingford, Norfolk ; cmd Elvtdon-hall, Suffolk. 



S. W. ; and AthctKium Club, S. W. i 


.\ldani,* William, Esq. Frichlty-hall, near Doncoiter, ^^M 



Aldom. Joseph R. Esq., lf.A., PH.D. Salvay-htMatt Leylon, Euex. ^^| 


Aldrk'h, Cftptjiiij Robert D., R.N. TTiWrniVf-ronJ, Croydon, Surrey. 



Aleacaiider, General Sir Jas. KJ., K.C.L.S., F.U.AJ3., r.E.S.u:., &.c. (14th Regt.> 
CTnited Service CM, S. W. ; and Wetterton-hoHK, Bridge of Allan, X. B. 


Alexander, W., Esq. i 



Alesandenon, Capu Carl. 25, Camden-strtet, N. W. 


Alford, Lewis, Esq. 79, Gloucester'terixux, Hyde-park, VT. 


Alford,* Robert G.. Esq. ffong Kong. Care of Rn. J. G. Alford, The Old 
Deanery, Collegt-graen., Briitol, 


Altoon,* Jame*, E*}. Devonthire Club, St. James's, S.W. 


Allan, G. W., E»q. Moss Park, Toronto, Canada. Care of Major Aybner, 50, 

Jermyn-street, S. W. 


Allcroft,* John D., Ejq. 108, Lancaster-gate, W.; ffariington, Middlfscz; and 
Stokeaay, SAropsltire. 


Allen, C. F. R., Esq., H.M. Vioe-Coiua], Stuinghai. Cart o/ G. B. Allen, Esq., 

4, Paptr-baildings, Temple, E.C. 


Allen, C. H.. Esq. 1, Weit-hill, IlujhqaU, 



kWm,* Herbert J., Esq., H.M. Consul, Chinkiang. 10, The Korton, Tenby. 


Allen, John. Seymour, Esq. Woodfeld, Pembroke ; and Balliol College, Oxford. 


Almnck, Edward, Esq. King's College Hospital, Lincoln' i-inn, W.C. 


Almedo,* Emanuel de, Esq, \\, Hyde-park-gardens, \V. ^^m 
Algtooe, John, Esq. Western-road, Fortls-green, K. ^l^^l 



Alt,* W. J„ Esq. 3, Holhnd-park-gwrdens, W. ; and T/mlched House Clvth, 
St. James' t-ttreet, 8, W. 


Alucliul, Dr., U.A., F. It. HIST. 8. 9, Old Band-street, W. 


Ambler, Vincent, Esq., h.d. Colcille-ftouse, ColvUk-square, Bayswder, IV. 


Ames, Capt. Lionel Neville Frcderidc. 77i0 Hyde, Harpenden. 


Ameunej, Professor Antoniiis, r.R.A.B. 87, Seymour-strtet, Hyde-jMrh, W. 


Amherst, W. A. Tjssen, Esq., m.p. Dcdlmgton4iall, Norfolk ; and Brook-atrecl, W. 


A noons, J. S., Esq. 8, John^street, Adelphi, W.C. 


Anderson, Alex. Dunlop, Esq. Ardsheal, Ballachulii/i, Argyleshire. ^_ 


Anderson, Geo., Esq., Deputy Inspector-General of Annj Hospitals ^""^^l 
Sii' Charles iPGrigor and Co., Charles-street, S. W. ^^M 


Anderson, Sir Jnmes. 16, Warring ton-crescent, W. ^^H 



Anderson, James, Esq. ^^^| 


Anderson, R., F.s\. 58, Lombard-street, E.C. ; and Hankow, China. ^^f 



Anderson, Cnpi. S., U.K., c.SLO. Bone-Guards, Whitehati, S.W. ; and yuniiorj 
United Service Clu>>, S.W. J 


Royal Geographical Society. 


1870 ' 






1858 ! 








1863 ! 

1867 • 

1857 , 



1876 , 

1863 ; 
1879 r 





1877 ! 

Andenon, Wm. Jas., Eeq. Sana Souci, Newlands, near Cape Toum, Cape of Oood 

Hope. Care of Meatrt. Sinclair, Hamilton and Co., 17, St. Helen't-place, 

Andenon, General W. W. 18, Eaton-rite, Eating, W. 
Andrew, Capt. Chaa. W. 286, Keimingion'^park-raiul, 8.E. 
Andrew,* William P., E«q. 2fl, Bnjanston-sqiiarc, W. 
Andrewa, G. H., Ewj. The Cedars, New Brentford. 
Andrewa, John R., Esq. 14, Bnjiinston'iqfirire, W. 
Andrtws, Thomas R., Esq., J.P. 36, Devonshire-place, W, 
Andrews, Wm., Esq., c.E. Care of E. Andrewe, Esq., Strand'On-the-Giten^ 

CMswick, Middlesex. 
Angaa, George F., Esq. 48, Mrland-iqiwre, BoUand-park, W. 
Angier, F. J., Esq. 79, Gmotvhurch'sired, E.C. 
Annesley, A. A., Esq. (H.M. (.Consul At M€vmion'), Care of W, B. Barrett, 

Esq., 88, LansdowiUi-road, Ifottin^-Aill, Tf! 
Ameli, Msartce^ Esq. Hanvver-sqiKire Club, Sanoeer-square, W. 
Anfted, Geoi-g« L., Esq. Coquimbo, CkUi. Care of H. Q. Botesell, Esq., Z9, 

King-street, Chet^pside, E.C. 
Anstejr, George A., Esq. Windham Club, 8. W. 

Antrim,* Wm. Roodal McDonnell, Earl of. Olenarm-oastle, Lame, Co. Antriat. 
Arbothoot, George, Esq. 23, ffyde-park-gftrd^s, W, 
Arbathnot, ljeut.-Col. George, E.U.A. S, iSBft^raus-pfacc, S. W. 
Arbathnot, H u gh I,., Esq . 6 9, jETo ton-sqtitff-e, S, W. 
Arbnthnot, William R., Esq. Flaitf-Aatch, East Orinstcud. 
AnhiiM, Wm, Fredk. A., Esq. 3, Amershmn-road Putiiey, S. W. 
Ardagh, Hnjor John C, C.B., R,e, Junior Uniied Sercice Club, S,\V. 
Arden,* Richard Edward, Esq. East Burnhatn-fiouse, BuckinghamiAire. 
ArmistKid,* l:ev Charles John, H.A.F.S.A., Utiited UnioertU;/ Club, S.W. 
Armitage, Edward, Esq. 3, HaU-road, St. Joftn's-irood, N. W. 
Annitstead,* George, Esq., m.p. Krfohpurk^ Errol, 2*'. B. 
Armstrong, Sir Alexander, K.C.B., LUd., F.R.S,, Diiectar-Geueml of the Narj- 

iS&lical rk'jBituietit, 2d, Albany, W. and Junior United Senice Club, S.W. 
Arnold, Edwin, Esq., C.8.I. ' Daily Telegraph O^ce, Fleet-street, E.C. 
Amot, Hon. David. Esidaie, Albunia, Griqvaland Wesl, Care of Messrs. 

mn'ie |- JhtmeSj Mildmaij'-chiimbers, 82, Bishopegate-street-tcithm, E.C. 
ArrowjmiUi, IE,, Esq. Chiltem, Victoria, Australia. Care of D. W. Kettle, 

Esq., 53, Fleet-strrtt, E.C. 
Arthur, Captain William, R.N. British Legation, Washington. 
ArtiEgstall, Geo,, Esq., J.P. Latchford-house, Warrington. 
Arundel, John Thomas, Esq. Care of Messrs. Houlder and Co., 146, Leadenlutll- 

street, E.C. 
Ashbee, Edmund Wm., Esq., faa. 17, Momington-crescent, Eegent's-parkr 

Ashley, Hon. Cecil. 24, Groscenor-square, W. 

91 C 2 



List of Fellowt of the ^^H 



Ajihton,* Chu'Ies, Eix\. Delrow, Wat/ord. J 


A»hton,» H. J., Esq. Crotnn-court, Old Broad-ttreet, E.G. M 


Aibton,* CtpUin Samuel Tudor. 7, Faimeira-aquare, Brighton. ^^| 


Ashwelt,* James, Esq., U.A., F.a.s. 11, Broch-atrwt, Bath. ^H 


Atkint,* John Pellj, Eiq., f.s.a. Bahted-plaee, near SmmuiaJit. ^^^ 


Atkin»on, Alntnti, E«q. ^^1 


Atkinson, E. T., Accoantanfc^eneral. Allahabad, N.W.P., India. Cora of \ 
Miss Atkinson, 44, Church-road, St. Leonarda-on-Sea. 1 



Atkbuon. Willinm, Esq.. r.L.s., &c. 47, Gi>rdon-sqvare, W.G. ^^m 


AtlM, CbaHcs, Eiq. The Park, Ealing, W. ^^| 


AttweO, Professor Henry. Burws, S. W. ^^^ 



Auslcn, Colonel Henry H. Godwin (24th Foot, B«iigal Staff Corps). Junior J 
Umted Servict Cl«b, S. W. J 


Aurtin, John G., Esq. 71. Ilarcowrt-ttrrace, S.W. J 


Ayliaer,* G. P. V.. E«q. Walworth-cajtU, Darlington. ^^1 


Ayrton, Right Hou. Acton S. J, Cowrtfield-g^irdsna, S.W. ^^M 


Baber, E. Colborne, Enq., H.M. Cons. Sen-., China. Care of Foreiijn-cfficc, S, W. 


Babington,* William, Esq. 7, LtfamiHgton-villan, Avion. 


Backler,* Hy. McL., Ewj. Vtmon-lumse, Lordihifh-lane, Duiwich, S.E. 


B»coii.» Geo. Washington. Esq. 127, Strand, W.C. 



Badger, Her. G«o. P. 21, Leamingtoiirroad-inllai, Weitbour7ic-p(trk, W. 


Bailey, Capl. F., R.E, Dehra DitH. ^ 


Bailie, Alex. Cumming, Esq. Sorreyor-Genonil. DiamotuI Fields. ^H 


Baillie,* Kar. Lieut. Cha». W. Cart of the Hydrographio-office, Adtniro^^ 
S.W. 1 


B«illie» Major-Genenil John (Bengal Staff Coi-ps)- Care of Mesirs. Grin^oA 
and Co., J'artiaiiicnt-street, S. W. 1 


Baillle, Capt. Wm. Muut*r. 43, Jforfolk-tquare, W. 1 


Bain, A. J. G.. E<iq. Ulaimaim, BMenabwijh, If. B. ^^fl 


Bain, David, Esq. St. Bridal Schools, Gretfilrget, Liverpool. ^^^| 


Bain,* Sir James, Knt. 2, Park-terrace, Glcugoto. ^^^M 


Baines, W. Mortimer. Esq. Bell-hall. York. ^^M 


Baker, Edwin, Esq. Bruce-castle, Tottenham. ^^^^M 


Bakar,* Geoi^ Eaq. 66, Mark-lane, E.G. ; and Sncue^rook, ^^^H 


B«k«r,* John. Eiq. ^H 



Baker, Sir Sam. White, Pasha, F.a^. Sandford Orleigh, nr. Nmcton Abbot, Devnlum 


Baker, Hev. Sir Talbot Haatings B., Bart. Baitxton, near Blandford, Dorset. 1 


Baker, Colonel T. D., C.B. Army and Xavy Club, Pall-mall, S. 11', 1 


Baker, Rcr. Wm. 4, Claplon-siuare, Hackney, ^^^^M 



Baker,* Major W. T. Junior United Service Cltib, S. W, ^^^| 


BaUwin, A. Chas., Esq. ^^^H 
128 ^H 


Royal Creographical Society. 






1 1869 



: 1870 

; 1863 








j 1873 

I 1875 

i 1859 

I 1867 







Balfonr, Colonel David. B<dfmtr-ecutle, Kirkwcdl, N. B, 
Balfoar, Frederick Henrj, Esq. Shcaighai, 

Balfour, Gen. Sir George, R.A., s.c.B., h.p. 6, Ckvekmd-garderu, Hyde-park, 
W. ; tmd Oriented Club, Banover-aquare, W. 

Balfour, Jobn, Eaq. 13, Queen' a-gate-plaoe, S.W. 

Ball, Arthur Edmund, Eaq. Tyne-vUla, TV Platt-Jield, Putney, S'.W.fOnd 7 
and 8, Honey-lane-market, Cheapaide, E.C. 

Ball, John, Eiq., r.B.8. 10, Sottthwett-gardens, South Keneiiigton. 

Ball, John B., Esq. CariOtrooke-lodge, St. J<An'»-road East, Putney, S.W. 

Balls, W. H., Esq. 20, Anerley-road, Aneriey, S.E. 

Bancroft, CoL W. C. (16th R^). Barraakn, Fulwood, Preston, LancasJiire. 

Bandini, His Highness Prince Giastiniani. Pome. Care of Messrs, Baring 
Brothers attd Co., 8, Bishopsgate-street-within, E.C. 

Banks, Henry B., Esq. 2, Bue Beavaxdlet, Baore. 

Barber, Elijah, Esq. 50, Ella-street, Leeds. 

Barber, Wm. Cambridge, Esq. Crossley Orphan Some and S<Aool, SavUe-park, 

Barbour, W. Bojie, Esq. Springvale, Hilton-lane, Prestwich, near Manchester. 

Bardiard, Francis, Esq. Horsted-place, Uckfield. 

Barclay,* Charles Arthur, Esq. Hutfield-court, Nutjield, Surrey. 

Barelaj, Hugh G., Esq. Ihorpe, Norwich. 

Baiday, Wm. L., Esq., B.A. The Briars, Beigate, Surrey. 

Barford, A. H., Esq., H.A. 1, ComioaU-terrace, Begenfs-park, X. W. 

Baring,* John, Esq. Oakwood, Chichester. 

Barkly, Sir Henry, O.C.M.O., k.cb. 1, Bina-gardens, South Kensington, 

j Barlee, Frederick Palgrave, Esq., CM.G. (^Gowmor of British Honduras). Care 
I of O. Lawrence, Esq., 12, Marlhorough-road, Lee, 8JE, 
I Barlow, Frederick Thomas Pratt, Esq. 26, Rutland-gate, S. W. 
I Barnes, Robert, Esq., II.D. 15, Harley-street, W. 

Bams,* John W., Esq. 18, Clarendon-place, Citadel-road, Plymouth, Devon. 
\ BaiT, Edward G., Esq. 76, Holland-park, W. ; and 36, Mark-lane, E.C. 
, Barrett, Benjamin, Esq. Albert-cottage, Framlingham, Suffolk. 
I Barrett, Howard, Esq., M.R.C.8. 3, Tooistock-square, W.C. 
'■ Barrington, George, Viscount, K.P. 19, Hertford-street, W. 

Barnngton>Ward,* Mark J., Esq., H.A., r.Lja. (Her Majesty's Inspector of 
Schools). Salwarpe-end, Droitwich ; and United University Club, S. W, 

Barrow, John, Esq., F.B.8., F.S.A. 17, Hanover-terrace, Regent' s-park, 

Barrow, Reuben Vincent, Esq. Sydney-lodge, Croydon. 

Barrow, Samuel, Esq.. jnn. Lome-house, Red-hill, Surrey. 

Barry, Alfred, Esq. St. Bride's Office, 33, Mark-lane, E.C. 

Bartholomew, John, Esq. 17, Chambers' -street, Edinburgh. 

Bartlett, Edward J., Esq. St. Helen's, Cazenoce-road, Stamford-hill. 


List of Fellows of the ^^| 





Burton, Alfred, Ei>q^ ii.D. Orimtal Club, W. ; and My»kyns, Ticehtirst, Eairk- 1 
hurst. 1 


B»rtrnm,» Lient. George W., r.e. Bockltvtds, Tunbridge'tccllt. 1 


Bateinaii,»Jaine«, Esq., F.U.S., F.L.s. 9, Uyde-park-fjaU South, S. W. ^^1 


BaUmon, John, Ea^. ^^H 


Batcman, John F., Esq., O.K., r.R.8. I6,0reat George-ttreet, Watmiutrr; 

S. W. 


Bates. Major C. E. Care of Mean. Ormihi/ and Co., 55, PaHiamentstiwt, 


BatiM, General Sir Hen 17, 2, Sussex-place, Hyde-park, W. 


Data, Rev. J. C, The Vicarnge, Castleton, near Manchetter, ^^™ 


Batewn-d«-Yiirljui^b, Geoi-ge, Eitq. HesliTigton-iiall, I'ork. ^^^H 


Batlejr, George, Esq. Fcrii-lHink, near Ilastinijs. ^^^M 


Bntt, Edward W.. Esq. 20, Great Wincf tester-street, E.C, ^^^ 


Batten, Henry Howard, Esq. 11, Scarsdale-vUlas, Kensington, W.j aiKf 1 
Junior Carlton Ciub, Patl-imlt, S. W. J 


BatUo. John U., Esq. 5, Afansten-terrace, Heavitree, Exeter. 1 


Baxeodnlc, Joseph H., l]a^. WorpUsdon, GuUdford. ^^1 


Uaxt«r, William f^lwin, Esq. 7, Chwnjh-roic, Stoke Newin/jton, N. ^^^k 


Boyley, H., Esq. Peninsutur and Oriental Co., Leadenhatt-slreet, E.C. 1 


Baylls,' Mftjor E. W. D. Guildford-villa, HUborough-crescent, Southsca, Uauis. J 


Bayly, Maj.-Gen. John, u.E., o.B. 68, PalmersUm-place, Edinburgh. 1 



Biiyn**,* A. Henry, Esq. 19, Castle-streai, Holbom, E.C, ^^H 


Bayuea, DontilJ, Esq., M.D. \h, Bridge-street, Canterlmrii. ^^| 


Baynea,* Wm. Wilberforee, Esq., D.L. Campbelton'houae, Croydon, ^^| 


BajntoD, Captain Edwnrd. Trqfnigar-lodge, Shirley, Southampton. ^^H 


Beach, SV. J., Etq. 50, Chun^-road, Kichmond. ^H 


Bcall, Geo., Esq., Secretary Local Murine Board. Liverpool, ^^H 


BwnJraoi*, N'athnniel St. B., Esq. 30, Great George-street, S.W. ^^| 


Bwtoii, Capl. John. 13, Palace-gardens-terraoe, W. 1 


Beaufort,* William Morris, Esq., r.&.xJS., r.t..s., fas. 18, Piccadilly, W, ^J 


BeauinoDt, A. R. de^ Esq. 19, St. John's-park, Uigligale, if, ^H 


Beautnont, ComniAnder Lewis A., B.K. JI.M.8. •' Excellent," Porttmouth. ^^M 


Beaumont,* Somerset, Esq. ffurstoote, Shere, near Guildford. ^^H 


Beiumont,* Wentworth IV, Esq., m.p. 144, Piccadilly, W. 


Eeavaii, Lieut. Ilegiaald. Messrs. Grindlay and Co., 55, Partiammtt-^treetf 


Beuelfy,* Michael, Esq., m.i.c.e. Care of J. D. Campbell, Esq., 8, Store:/'*- 
gate, S.W. 


Bcadej, Uajor Geo. G. (Hrtiil Regiment). Army and Kavy Club, S. W. 


Bebb, Homtio, ISaq. Mamliead, Exetei: 


BMher, Henry C. W., Esq. Lnndon. Canada West. Care of Mc^or J. -^i^^fl 
Wood, 11, Prince's-sgwtre, Baysteater. ^^H 

loo J 

Royal Geoyraphical Society. 



Bective,* Thomas, Eu-1 of, m.p. Uhderley-hall, Kirkby Lotudale, Watmoreland, 

Bedbrook, W. H, Esq. Blenheim-house, Wimbledon, S.W. 

Bach, Geo. MttUer, Esq. Care of George KoMe, Esq., 100, LetUhaU-road, 

BigUe,* James, Esq. 2, Eaat-Indiaf^f)emte, Leadenhall-street, B.C. 
Begbie, Thomas Stirling, Esq. 36, Wallbrook, E.G. 

Belcher, Rer. Biymer. St. GabrieVs ; and 32, Warwick-tqiutre, Pimlico, S. W. 
Bell, H. Doaglas, Esq. 6, Marie-terrace, Eaateliff, Folkestone. 
Bdl,* Joshna P., Esq. 

Bell, Thomas, Esq. 15, Upper-park-road, Haeerstook-hUI, N. W. 
Bell, Wm. A., Esq., B.A., M.D. New Unitersity Clvb, St, Jamet't-streel, 

Bell, Major W. M. 40, PaU-mall, S. W. 
Bell, William Moore, Esq. 37, Charterhouse-square, B.C. 
Bellamy, Edward, Esq. 14, Buckimiham-street, Adelphi, W.C, 
Bellrille. Rev. Alfred. 20, Pennrroad-mllas, HoUoway, N. 
Belroore, Right Hon. The Earl of, 95, Eaton-place, S. W. 
B«ijamin, Horace B., Esq. 169, New Bond-street, W. 
Benjamin, Joseph, Elsq. 

Bennett, J. lUsdon, Esq., UJ> 23, Cavendish-square, W, 
Benson,* William, Esq. Langtons, Alresford, Hants. 
Bentham, George, Esq., Pi-es. L.s. 25, Wilton-place, 8. W. 
Bentley, George, Esq. Upton-park, Slough. 
Benyon,* Wm. H., Esq. West-lodge, liipon. 
Berens, U. Hulse, Esq. Sidcross, Foot's Cray, Kent. 
Bernard, P. N., Esq, 37, Connaught-square, Hyde-park, W. 
Bemays, Louis A., Esq. Care of A. FitsGibbon, Esq., The Rookery, Stanmore, 

Berridge,* Robert, Esq. 15, Highhwy-grotie, N. 
Berryman, Edwin W., Esq. 27, Leadenhall-street, E.G. 
BertLon, Peter Hy., Esq. 20, Margaret-street, Cavendish-square, W, 
Best, Coromr. Jno. Chas. PUts-yn- Vivod, Llangollen. 
Bethune, Alexander M., Esq. Otterbum, Hamlet-road, Upper Norwood; and 

122. Leadenhall-street, E.G. 
Bethnne,* Adm. C. R. Drinkwater, c.B. 4, Queenaberry-place, S. W. 
Betts, John, Esq. 21, Freegrove-road, Camden-road, N. 
Beran, William, Esq. 12, Bolton-gardens, South Kensington, S. W. 
Beriogton, Henry Geo., Esq. Ferndale-house, Lee, SiE. 
Bevington, Herbeit S., Esq., B.A. Femdale-liouse, Lee, S.E. 
Bianchi, The Marchese. Padova, Veneto, Italy ; and Hanover-square Club, W. 
Bibby,* Edward, Esq. Care of John Bibby, Esq.\ Hart-hUl, Liverpool, 
Biclcer-Caarten, Peter, Esq., Corr. Mem. and Agent Geogr. Soc. of the Nether* 

lands. 30, Northumberland-place, Bayswater, W. 




List of Fellows of tlte ^^^^^^^^H 



Bickers, Edward. Esq., J.p. Care of Mesirs, King and Co., Com/iiil, E,C. 1 


Bickerstajr, W. M., Esq., J.P. 13, Highbury-terrace, N. J 


Bickersteth, The Very Re\-. Edwtml, D.D., Dean of LiohHelJ. The Dcantf^^^ 
Lichfield. ^H 

' 1879 

Bickford-Stnith,* W., Ejq. Trevarno, ITelston^ Oormcall. ^H 



Bickmore,* A. S., £«]., m.*., ini.D., Superintendent of the Aneiicati MuMum i^^ 
Natoral Hiutory. Central-park, Neu> York. 1 


Bicknell, Algernon S., Ewj. 23, Onshvc-garderu, South Kensijujton. 1 


Bidder, B. P., Esq., jj.i.c.e., &c. Dcecfi-fmise, Loutfhton, Essex. ^^M 


Biddulpb, Geo. Tonraax, Esq. 43, Charinff-croti, S.W. ^^H 


BiJdulph, Joho, Esq. Swansea, ^^H 


Biddulph,* M.-ijor-Geuei-nl Sir H., k.c.h.o. Gooemor of Cj/prui. ^^H 


Bidwell, ChiuW lull, Esq. roreijn-<jfficei, S.W. ^^H 


Bigge, Frederick \V., Esq. Wavendon-lioust, Wobum.^ ^^| 


Biggs, C. H. Walker, E&q. 7, Freelandt-rood, Bromlty, Kent. ^^| 


Biggs, Jas., Esq., R.1I. 15, Thurloc-jUace, S.W. ^^M 



Btgg-Wither,» T. P., Enq., C.K. Belmont-lod-je, Wray-park, Heigaie. ^^| 


Bigaby, John J., E»q., M.D., F.R.S. 89, Gloucester-place, PoHman-tqtuMre, W^^l 


Birch, John WUliam, Esq. 27, Cavendish-aquare, W. 1 


Birchill.* Cnptain B. H. H. Junior Carlton Club, S.W, 1 


Bird,* Rkhjird, Etq. Jloit-house, Fulham, S,W. ^^ 


Bird, Thomnii, Eiiq. 36, Brook-street, W. ^^M 


Birdwood, Geo., Esq., M.D., C.S.I. Acton, W. ^^H 


Birkbeck, Edw., Esq., V.p. JJorttead-hall, Norviieh. ^^M 


Birka, Harry William, Esq. \6l, Brecknock-road, Tufnell-park, N.W. ^^M 


BiMihoff»heiin,* Henri Louis, Esq. 75, South Audley-street, W. ^^^ 


Bishop, George, Esq.. F.R.A.8. Union Club, S.W.; and The MaaJort, j 
l\ciekenham, S. W. J 


Bishop, James, Esq. .J 


Bishop, James, Est]. JTar court-house, Leytonstone. ^^H 


Biahop, Wm. Henry, Esq. Culterdtn^loJge, WHls. ^^M 


fiisson, Cnpt. Frederick S. de Cartent, 70, Bemert-street, W. ^^| 


Black, Andiew H., Eaq. Kingston, Qlatgoa. ^^| 


Blade,* Francia, E$q, G, Nort/i-briJge, Edinburgh. ^^H 


BUck, Mnjor Geo. Robt Stewart, lioreth, Harroui; and Junior UniUd Strtief 
CliA, Char lea-street, 8. W.' 


Blackie, W. Gi»han», Eaq,, ph.d. 17, Stanhope-street, Glasgow. 


BInnkBtoDt,* Frederick Elliot, Esq., D.C.L. 2, Caroline-street, Bedford-squjrtf 


Blagden, Rohert, Ejq. Junior Carlton Club, Pall-mall, S. W. 


Blaine, Heniy, E«q. 1 1, Qledhou-gardens, South Kensington, S. W. 


Blair, Major H. F., R.E. 1, Clarendon-place, Hyde-park-tjardens, W. 


Blake, Brig.^en. H. W. \{>, Stanhcpestrett, Ugde-park-gardens, S.W. 

a76 H 

Royal Geographical Socitiy. 














6. p. 

Biake,* H. Wolkston, Eaq., r.tus. 8, Devonshire-place, W. 

Blakemore, Ramsey, Esq. Woodlcmda, GkM«hurtt, Kent. 

Blakenej,* William, Esq., B.N. Secretary to Hydngrapkie-office, S.W. 

Blakeney, Captain W. A. F. 

BlakistOD, Matthew, Esq. 18, Wilton-creKent, 8. K. 

Blaidston, Captain Thomas, K.A. 18, ViVUm-crescent, 8. W. 

Blmc, Henry, Esq., H.D., tie. Care of Mesara. H. 8. King and Co., 45, 

PaU^mall, 8. W. 
Blanford,* W. T., Esq., F.a.S. Oeologioal Survey-office, Calcutta, Care of Meesrt. 

TriSmer and Co., Ludgate-hiU, E.C; and Arte Ctvb, Hanotxr-aquare, W. 
Blanshard, Richard, Eaq. Fairfield, Lymmgton, ilanta. 
Blewitt,* Octavian, Esq. 10, John^reet, Strand, W.C. 
Blount, Edward, Esq., C.B. 28, Old Burlingtoa-atreet, W.; and 61, Hue de 

Oourcellea, Paris. 
Blow, William Wootton, Eaq. Oak-lodje,J{yden'3-road, Walton-on-Thamea. 
Blomberg, George F., Esq. Manafield-houae, Clifton-gardens, Ifaida-vale, W. 
Blundell,* Charles Weld, Esq. Ince, Blundell-hall, Great Croaby; and Brookis 

Blunt,* Job., Esq. 
Blunt,* Wilfrid S., Esq. Crabhet-park, Crawley, Suaaex ; and 10, Jamea-atrect, 

Blyth, Sir Arthur, K.c.H.o. (Agent-Gen., South Auatralia'). 51, Linden-gardena, 

Kensington, W. 
Blyth, Henry, Esq. 53, Wimpole-atreet, W. 
Blyth, Philip P., Esq., j.p. 53, Wimpole-atreet, W. 
Bodenham,* Cbas de la Barre, Esq. Bothenoaa, Hereford, 
Bohn, Henry G., Esq. 18, ffenrietta-atreet, Covent-garden, W.C; and Korth- 

end-houae, Twickenham. 
Boileau, Colonel G. W. Stanfield-hall, Wymondhcan. 
BoIt(»,* John, Esq. 13, Long Acre, W.C. 

Bompas, George Cox, Esq. 15, Stanley-gardena, KenaingUmrpark, W. 
Bonney, Charles, Esq. Adelaide, Auatralia. 
Bonnor, George, Esq. 49, Pall-mall, S. W. ; and 2, Bayawater-terrace, Ken- 

aington-aquare, W. 
Bonwick, James, Esq. 2, Balmoral-terrace, Acton, W. 
Booker, Wm. Lane, Esq. (H.B.M. CoDsulate, jS^an Francia<xt). Care of Mcaara. 

King and Co., 45, Pall-mall, S.W. 
Boor, Geo. C, Esq. Leonard-houae, Green-lanes, Stoke-Nevoington, N, 
Booth,* Sir Henry Gore, Bart. Lisaadell, Sligo. 

Booth, Ste{^en, Esq. 18, Blomjield-atreet, Upper Weatbouma-terrace, W. 
Borlaae, Capt Jno. 2, Upton-tfUlaa, ffavan-green, Ealing, W. 
Boiman, Allan W., Esq. Oloucaster-kouae, Lime-grooe, Uxbridge-road, W. 
Borrer,* Dawson, Esq. Altmont Ballon, Co. Carlow, Ireland. 
I Bote,* William, Esq. Whitehall-yard, Woodford, Esaex. 





r List of Fellow* of the ^^^^^^^^^^| 

Bourne, Gen., Esq. Brifbane, Queensland. Care of Mr. John Taylor, 110, 

FencliUrch-atreet, E.C. 


Qtfume, Jobo, Esq., c.e. 21, Biditnond-road, Saytwattr, W. 


Boump, Robovt, Esq., j.p. Gra/ton-tiutnor, Bromtgrme. 


Bousfield. Williajn, Esq., M.A. 33, Stanhope-gardm, Quem't-gale, S.W. 


Bou.stead, John, E»q. 34, Craven-<ttreet, Strand, W.C. ^^H 


Boulcher,* Emanuel, E.'tq. 12, Oxford-vpiare, Hyde-park, W. ^^H 


Bourerie, P. P., Eiq. 32, Hill-ttreet, Berkeiey-sqitare, H'. ^^M 


Bowden, A., ¥m\. Badcliffe Observatonj, Ox/urd. ^^H 


Bowell, llev. Wm. C/ianJos-fiouse, Hereford, ^^H 


Bowen,* Ctuorleu Christopher, Esq. Cfuistchurch, Cantsrbury, Ken Zealand. ' 
Care of Messrs. H. S. Kiiuj and Co., 65, ComJiilt, E.C. 



B«wet>,* Sir Georg« Ferguwin, O.C.M.O., m.a. (Corcfmor of Maurilitts). Can of 
Meaari. Cochs, BidduJph and Co., 43, Chariiuj-cros% S.W. ; and Athmmm 
CtHb, Pall-mall, S. W. 


Bowen,* OipUin Alexander. Care of Messrs. Fr<xaer and Co., Penang. ^^M 


Bowes, John. Esq, Warrington. Lancashire, ^^H 


Bowie, John, Esq. CmservaUce Club, 8. W. ^^\ 


BowkcTt JartiM Henry, Esq. Basutoland, Smth Afrioa. Care of Mfttsra, King 1 

ar>dCo.,ComhUl,E.C. 1 


Bowie*, John, Esq. Landport, Portsmmith, ^^^J 


Dowly, WilUnm, Esq. Cirencester, ^^^^M 


Oowman, Wm., Vjiq., F.n.a. 5, CUfford-street, W. ^^^^H 


Dowring, John Cliarles, E«q, Forest-farm, Windsor Forest, ji^^^^l 

1 Still 

Bowring, Sikmuel, E<q. 1, Westbounu-park, W. ^^^^H 


Bowser, Alfred T., Esq. Simnyeide, KenninghaU-road, Upper Clapton, ^^^^H 


Boyd,* Edward Le&nox, Esq., F.S.A. 3,^, Cleveland-square, ffyde-park, W. 1 


Boyd, Nclwm, Es(}. 7, Westminster'-chambers, S. W. ^J 


Boyd, Dr. R. Sotdhall-park, Middkttx. ^H 


Boyd, Wiilfam, Esq., M.A.,, F.8.I., &c. Peterhead, Aberdeenshire. 


Boyer, Geoi-ge Phelpn, Esi^. 8, Wanciek-creKent, Maida-hill, W. 


Boyle:, Kichard Vican, Esq., cs.i. (Engineer in Chief to the GovpiTUnent 
RjulwBjs and Telefjnifibf Japan), Care of Messrs. Qrindlay and Co.f 

55, Parliament-street, S. W. 


Doyson, Ambrose P., Esq. East-JiUl, Waadsuforth, S.W, 


Brwlfield, Johu Linden, Esq., M.i,.*. Cape Colony. Care of Messrs. A. White 

and Co., 17, Dloomfield-street, B.C. 


Biadshaw,* Siirg.-Mnjor A. F. Simla, India. Care of Messrs. Holt and 0*., 

17, Whitehall-place, S.W. ^M 


Bmgge,* William, Esq., c.E. Shirle-hill, Hamstoad-road, Birtmnffham, ^| 


Braithwnit«, Ismi:, Esq. 27, Austin Friars, E.C. 


Braithwaite, Stejiheo Nelson, Esq. 73, Qloucesler'place, PorimaHS>jiiitie, W. j 
and 25, Ttirfyjmorton-ntrect, E.C. 


Bnunley-Mooic,* Joliii, Esq. Langlcy-M<je, Gerrard'i-croas, Bucks. 



Royal Geographical Society. 






1875 i 




1876 j 
1876 { 
1867 { 



1876 \ 


1852 I P* 


1861 i P* 


1860 I 

1876 ' 

1854 I 


Brand,* Jama, Esq. 109, Fenchureh^rtet, E.C. 

Brand,* James, Esq. Bedford-hiU, BaUum} and 37, Neva Broad ttreet, 

Brand, Jno. H7., Esq. President of the Orange Free State Republic, S. Africa. 

Care of Henry Blyth, Eaq., 53, Wimpole -street, W. 
Braoder, Captain William M. (24th Foot). Army and Navy Club, Pail'mall, S. W. 
Brandis, Dr. D., Director of Eoresta, Oaleutta. Care of W. H. Men, 

Esq., 13, Waterloo-place, S.W. 
Brandon, David, Esq. 24, Berkeley-square, W. 
Brandreth, Edward Lyall, Esq. 32, Elvaston^place, Queen's-gate, S. W. 
Brandreth,* Hy. P., Esq. StandishHreetory, Wigan, Lanoashire. 
Branson, W. Powell, Esq. 23, Rectory-grove, Clapham, S. W. ; and 155, Fen- 

church-street, E.C. 
Brass, Emil, Esq. Care of Messrs. Blatzpiel, Stamp and Heaoook, 38, Knight- 

rider-street. Queen Victoria-strett, E.C. 
Bnusey,* Thos., Esq., if .p. 24, Park-lane, W. ; and Normanhitrst-oomi, Battle. 
Bray, Joseph, Esq., O.E. 
Brayfarooke, Philip Watson. Studley, Bishop's Down Park, Ttmbridge 

WVU. * 

Bracza, Pierre S a Tat y i a n de. Paris. 
Brent, Algernon, Esq. Audit-office, Somerstt-^otue, W.C. 
Breton,* Commr. Wm. Henry, R.N., F.0.8. 15, Camden-crescent, Bath ; and 

lie Beoiory, Quxrmoath, Dorset. 
Brett, Right Hon. Sir W. Baliol, Knt. 6, Ennismore-gardens, Prince' s-gate, S. W. 
Bridal, Walter Geo., Esq. 46, Fentiman-road, Clapham-road, S.W. 
Bridge, John, Esq. Heatley-house, Beatley, near Warrington. 
Bridgeman, Granville, Esq. Holme-lodge, Bdlham-road, Upper Tooting; and 

Junior Conservative Clvb, King-street, St. James's. 
Bridger, R. Lowther, Esq. New Univenity Club, St. James' s-street, S.W. 
Bridger, Captain W. Milton, St. Stephen's Club, Westminster, S. W. 
Bridges, Nathaniel, Esq. Blaekheath-park, S.E. 
Bridge*,* Commander W. B., r.n. H.M.S. " Wolverine," Australia. Care of 

Messrs. J. W. Bridges and Sons, 5a, Wamford-court, E.C. 
Bridgford, Major Sidney Thomas, r.u.a. Army atid Navy Club, PaU-mall, S. W. 
Brierly,* Oswald W., Esq. 38, AmpthUl-square, N. W. 
Briggs, Colonel J. P. Bonjedieard-house, Jedburgh. 
Bright,* Sir Charles T., F.E.A.8. 20, Bolton-gardens, S. W. 
Bright, Henry Arthur, Esq. Ashfield, Knotty Ash, Liverpool. 
Bright, James, Esq., M.D. 6, Holyrood-place, Plymouth. 
Bright-Smith, Rev. G. Aug. Buscot-lodge, Maida-hill, W. 
Brine, Colonel Frederic, R.E., k.t.s., Assoc. Inst. C.B., F.z.8. 45, Vicioria- 

street; Army and Navy, Athenaum, and United Service Clubs, S.W.; and 

Garrick Club, W.C. 
Brine, Captain Lindesay, R.N. Boldre-house, Lymington, Hants; and United 

Service Club, S. W. 



List of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^^^H 


Bfistowf, Henry Foi, Esq. 22, Old-$quare, Lincoln's-inn, W.C. ^^H 


Broftdmend,* Jjis. B., E»q., B.a. , 27, Wtinckk-aquare, S.W. ^^^ 


Brodie, Walter, Esq. Ortett-Aouie, Oi-aett-tetracet Hyde-park, \V. ^^| 


Brodie, WilUatn, Esq. Eastbourne, Suaux. ^^% 


Bm-liibb, Willinm Adams, Emj. Care of Rtv. W. K. SrodrMf St. ifartm's J 
Church, liriijhton. 1 



Brodrick,* Th« Hon. George C. 32a, Mount-ttreet, W. ^J 


Brogden, James, Caq. ^^H 


Brooke, Commr. A. T., R.:«. Ashbrooke, BrooHnro', Litnas/iea, Ireland. ^^H 


Brooke. Ckas., Enq. {Eajah of Saravak). ^H 


Brooke, Cipt. Charles K. (tSth Regiment). 3, Qordon-tqwtre, W.C. ; and Army 
and Xary Club, Pall-mall, S. W. 


Brooke,* Sir Victor A., Burt. Colcbnoke-park, Co. F&rmanagh, Inland, 


Brooke, Capt. W. Saurin (Bctig. Staff Corps). 


Brookes, Ciifford J., Etq. Ttie Grange, Nightingale-lane, Clapham-common, S. W. 


Brooking,* Slannaduke Hart, Esq. 11, Montagu-place, Montarjus-iuare, W. 


Brooks, Joseph, Esq. Survey-office, Adelaide, South Australia. Care of J/csiri. 
Johnrm and Archer, 147, Fcnchurch-stre«t, E.G. 


Brooks, Robert Aleiaoder, Ecq. Coniercatioe Club, St. James s-ttreet, S. W. 


Brooks,* \Vm. Cnnliflc, Esq., M.J'., m.a., r.S.A., &c. 5, Orosvenor-fquare, TV. ; 
BarloiD-hall, near Manchester; and Forest of Olen-Tanar, Aboi/ne, Aber- 


Broughall,* William, Esq. 8, Great Winchester-ttreet-biiildings, E.C. ^_ 


Brown, Cluu-les Georgp, Esq. Orpington, Kent. ^^H 


Browi),* Daniel, Esq. ^^^^H 


Brown, Colonel D«vid (Madnu Staff Corps). India. ^^^^B 


Brown, E. A,, Esq, Burton-on- Trent. 



Brown, Rer. Ciieorg^. Care of the Wcsleyan Missionary Society, 17, Biihopt- 
gate-atreel -within, E.C. 


Brown, Henry IJowlnud, Esq, 56, Lincoln's-inn-Ji^ds, W.C. ; and Oxley-grwe, 


Brown, J. B. Esq. 90, Canmm-strect, E.C; and Bromley, Kent. 


Brown • Jnme* R., Esq., f.r,8.s.a., Copnihngm. 14, Hilldrojt-roiid, Camden- 


Brown," John Allen, Esq. DaMieell-lodge, Kent-gardens, Ealing, TV. 


Brown, Richnrd, Esq., C.e. 115, Lansdoune-road, Notting-hill, W. 



Brown, Robert, Esq., 11.A,, PII.D., F.L.S., &c. 26, Guilford-road, Albert- 
square, S. W. 


Brown,* Thomas, Esq. 8, Uyda-pari-terrace, Hyde-park, W. 


Brown,* Rev, Thoe. E. Clifton-college, Bristol. i 


Brown, Williun, Esq. Quarry-hiU-house, Tonbridge, KcTtt, ^^^ 


Brown, William, Esq. Thllington-park-college, Hollowiy, N, ^^fl 


Browne, Capf. Eilmund C. Cireof T. D. Sullivan, Esq., Royal United Serrlet J 
Inat, Whitehall-yard, 8.W. ^^ 

411 ^^^M 

Royal Geogrc^hical Society, 











C. C. 

Browne,* CapUin E. P. Wade. Care of Colonel Hall, Ueighington, Darlington. 

Browne, H. H., Esq. Mw-clotef Sinfield, Bracknell. 

Browne,* John H., Esq. Lauritton, Sollington-park, St. LeonanTs-onSea. 

Browne, Samnel Wooloott, Ecq. 58, Porchester-terrace, Hyde-park, \V. 

Browne, Walter Raleigh, Esq., aE. 38, Belgraoe-raod, S.W. 

Browne, Rer. W. E. West WalUm, Wi^ieach. 

Browne, William J. Esq. 7i, Gloucester-road, South Kensington, S. W. 

Browning, G. P., Eaq. The ChAlet, Kingswood, Dulteichtoood-park, S.E. 

Browning, H., Eaq. 73, Orosvenor^treet, Grosvenor-iquare, W.; and Old 

Wardenrpark, Biggleswade. 
Browning,* Thomas, Esq. 6, Wutehall, S. W. 
Bnmton, John, Esq., 11.1.0.E., r.o.s. 13a, Oreat Qeorge-street, 8. W. 
Brunton, R, H., Esq., y.OA, &c (Young's Paraffine L^ht Co.). Bathgate, 

Brjans, Capt. James W. 10, Ingles-park-road, Foihestone. 
Bryant, Walter, Esq., x.d., F.R.C3. 23a, Sussex-square, Hyde-park-gardens, W. 
Bnodench,* His Grace the Dolce of, K.a., f.r.8. Daikeith-paiace, near Edinburgh ; 

and Montagu-house, WhOehaH, S. W. 
Buchanan, B. Dmilop, Esq. 50, Old Broad-street, E.C. 
Badianan,* Thos. Rybam, Esq. All Sovlf College, Oxford. 
Buckley, John, Eaq. 16, Jolimont-street, Jolimont, East Melbourne, Victoria. 

Care of Messrs. Daigety, Da Croz, and Co., 52, Lombard-street, E.C. 
Bw^ley, John, Esq. ITte Academy, Weaver-view, Winsfurd, Cheshire. 
Budd, J. Palmer, Esq. Tnisdaren, near Swansea. 
Bulger,* Lieut-Colonel George Ernest, F.L.8., F.M.S., CMjz.s., &c. (late 10th Foot). 

Care of Messrs. Wheatley and Co., 156, Leadenhall-street, E.C. 
Bull,* William, Esq., King's-road, Chelsea, S. W. 
Boiler, Sir Edward M., Bart., K.p. Dilhom-hall, Cheadle, Staffordshire. 
Buller, Walter L., Esq., C.U.a., F.L.S. 7, Westminster-chambers, l^oria-st., S. W. 
Bullinger, Rev. E. Wm. Walthamstow, Essex. 
Bullock, Captain Charles J., r.n. Foroshi-house, Woolwich. 
Bulwer, Major-Generol E. G., c.B. 6, ifontagu-square, W. 
Bunbury,* Sir Charles James Fox, Bart.,F.B.S. Barton-hall, Bury St. EdmunuTs. 
Bunbury, E. H., Esq., m.a. 35, St. James' s-street, 8. W. 
Bnndock, F., Esq. Buckland-abbey, Horrabridge, 8. Devon. 
Burgefli,* James, Esq., 11.R.A.S. (Archaeological Reporter, &c., to Government, 

Bombay). 8, Merohistoti-terrace, Edinburgh. Care of Messrs. TrQbner and 

Co., Ludgate-hiU, E.C. 
Burgoyne, John, Esq. Woodthorpe, Stoneb ridge-park, WillesJen. 
Burke,* Samuel Constantine, Esq. 21, Leinster-square, Bayswater, W. 
Bum-Blyth, Robert, Esq. 5, Clifton-place, Sussex-square, W. 
Bume, Colouel Sir Owen F., K.c.s.i., CLE. India-office, 8. W. ; and Heatherha* 

Burnett, Jas. Compton, Esq., m.d, 4, Harley-pUxce, Uarley-strcet, W. 



Lita of Feilowa of the ^^^^^^^^| 




Bnrn#y, Commr, Ch«s., K.N., Sup^ninU'ndent Greenwich Hospital Scho6lt,a!^^^^ 


Bums/ John, Esq. Castle Wemya, by Greenock, X. B. 1 


Burr,* lligford, Es<i. 23, Eaton-plane, S. W. ; ami Aldemuatot^-eourt, Berkshire. 1 


Burstal, Captain E., R.N. 9. Park-villcu, Lover I^onoood, SJE. ^^M 


Burt, Chorlet, E*q. Hill-side-hnuse, RicKmomd, Surrey. ^^H 


Burt, Frederick, Esq. 71-2, ComAill, E.C.; and Woodstock, Crescent-nnti^^ 
Crouch End. 1 


Burton,* DecimuK, Esq., r.K.8. Ij Olowoester-houtes, GlonKester-orescent^ W, 1 


(5. ]\ 

Burton,* Capt. lUihard Fras., H.U.M. Consul. Trieite ; and Athenceum Ct»l>. ^J 


Bush, Her. I'obcrt Wheler, M.A. 29. Miltter~a(]uare, Islington, If. ^^H 


Biuhell, Dr. Nathaniel. Basa High-school, near Bury, Lcmcaihire. ^^^H 



Bushell, S. W., E»q., M.D. Care of R. Mailteat, Esq., Biekley, Kent. ^H 


Buak, Capt. Hans, D.L., I.L.D., P.H.S., Hod. D.c.L. Oxfonl. 21, Ashhy'plact, 

S. W. ; and United University Club. 


Busk, William, Esq., U.C.f., tic. 28, BeashorOvbj?i^ardens, S. W. 


Hussell, l!eT. James. Lit, Jnstitut, Breidenstcin, Grcnchen (/.'f. .So/oMnm), 


butter, Charles, Esq. 3, Connetught-place, Hyde-park, W. 


Butler, E. Dnndaii, K*q. Geographical Department, British Mtuetim, W.C. 


Butler, Frank Hedges, Esq. Hollywood, Wimbledoti-park, S. W, ; ami 14, Nevs 
Bwlitujton-slrcet, W. 



Butler, George Grey. Ea]. 257, Brompton-roaJ, S.W. 


BuUei* Lieut.-Colouel HeniT Thomas. 66, Prince' a-gate, 3. W. ^^J 


Butler, Rev. Thomas. Wilder hope-house, Shrewsbury. ^^H 


Butler, Lient-Coluiiel W. F. (69th Hagimeot). 3, Tregunterroad, S. W, ^^M 


Biprton, Francis \V., Esq., M.f. 15, Eaton-plaoe, S. W. ^^H 


Buxton, Henry EdmuiiJ, Es-j., ii.A. Bunk-house, Great Varmouth, Norfolk. 


Buit<:.n,* John H., Esq. llreirery, SpiteUfields, E.C. 



Bujtion,* Sir Tliomns Fowell, Bnrt. 14, Qrost:«nor-cr«3(xnt,S.W. ; and Warlie*, 

Waitham-nUiey, Essex. 


Calthorpe, The Hon. Augustus Cough. 63, Itulland-gaie, S. W. ^^H 

* 1855 

Calthorpe,* F. H. Gough, Lord. 33, Groirenor-square, W, ^^| 


Calvert, Frederic, Esq., Q.C. 38, Upper Grovcenor-street, W. ^^| 


Cama,* DorabJM Pestronjee, Esq. 3 and 4, Winchetter-ttrtet'huildinijs, E^C. 


Cameron, Donald, Esq., M.P. Avcknaoarr^j, Intemess-shire. 


Cameron, >tajor Donnld R., n.A., c.»,G. Matta. Care of Messrs, Co* and Co., 
Craig's-cwrt, S. W. 


Cameron, Lient.-General Sir Duncan Alexnnder,a.c.B. 



CRmeron, J., Esq. 


Cemeron, Italph Abercrombie, Esq. 3, Oranvilk-phtce, BlackUath ; and Juaier 
Carlton Ckb, W. ^M 

^ 1 

Royal Geographical Society. 













S. p. 

Cuneron, R. W., Esq. Clifton, Staten Island, New Tark. Car« of Messrs. 
Brooks and Co., St. Peter' s-Otambers, ComhUl, E.C. 

Cameron, Commr. Vemey Lorett, B.N., C.B. Shoreham-vicarage, Sevenodks. 

Campbell,* Allan, Eiq. Melbourne Club, Melbourne. 

Cunpbell, C. H., Esq. 64 Cromieell-road, S.W. 

Campbell, Sir George, K.c.s.1., m.p., d.c.l. 13, ComwaU-gardens, South Ken- 
smgton, 8. W. ; and Atkenaum Club, S. W. 

Campbell, Geo. W., Esq. 22, Queen' s^ate-gardens, S.W. 

Campbell,* James, Esq. Park-farm, Hendon, Middlesex; and 37, Seymour- 
street, W. 

Campbdl, James, Esq. 17, Queen's-gate, S. W. 

Campbell, James, Esq., Surgeon R.N. The Grange, ChigweOrrmo, N.E. 

Campbell,* James, Esq., jim. Cawley-priory, Chichester. 

Campbell,* James Duncan, Esq. Peking. 8, Storey' s-gate, St. James's-pai-k, 

Campbell, Robert, Esq., J.p. Buscot-park, Lechlade, Gloucestershire. 
Campbell, Robert, Esq. Lednock-bai^ Comrie, Perthshire. 
Ounpbell, William, Esq. Care of Mr. Provan, 69, St. Vincent-square, Glasgow. 
Campbell-Johnston, A. 1\., Esq., F.R.S. 84, St. Georges-square, S.W. 
Campion, Frank, Esq. The Mount, Duffield-road, Derby. 
Candler, Samuel Horace, Esq., B.A., LL.B. 23, Essex-street, Strand, W.C. 
Cannii^ Sir Samuel, C.E. 6, Horbury-road, Notting-hill, W. 
Gannon,* John Wm., Esq. Castle-grove, l\iam. 
Cantlejr, Nathaniel, Esq. Botanical Gardens, Pamplemousses, Mauritius. Care 

of W. Coghill, Esq., Police Magistrate, Thurso, Caithness. 
Capper, Robert, Esq. Swansea-harbour, Swansea. 

Cardi, Cbas. Napoleon de, Esq. 78, Tower-buildings, Water-street, Liverpool. 
Cardwell,* Edwai-U H., Esq. Ilillside, West Ilorsley, Surrey; Oxford and 

Cambridge and Garrick Clubs. 
Cardwell,* Right Hon. Viscount. 74, Eaton-square, S.W. 
Carew,* R. Russell, Esq., J.p. Carpenders-park, Watford, Herts ; and Oriental 

Chb, W. 
Carey, Lieutenant H. C. (late i.N.). Alma-road, Southport. 
Cartj, John James, Esq. Jndore, Central India. Care of Messrs. H. S. 

King and Co., Comhill, E.C. 
Carey, Rev. Tupper. Fifield, Bavant, Salisbury ; and 15, Hyde-park-gardens, W. 
Gaifrae, John, Esq. 28, Norfdk-road, St. John's-wood, N.W.; and Junior 

Conservative Club, King-street, St. James's. 
Cargill, John, Esq. Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand, Care of Messrs. Cargill, 

Joachim and Co., 1, Great Winchester-street, E.C, 
Cargill,* Wm. W., Esq. Lancaster-lodge, Campden-house-road, W. 
Carillon,* John Wilson, Esq., F.S.A., F.S.8., &c. WormhUl, Buxton. 
Carlingfind, Right Hon. Lord. 7, Carlton-gardens, S. W. 
Carlisle, A. D., Esq. Haileybury-collcge, Hertford. 






List ofFelJovDs of the ^^^^^^^H 

Cnrmichael,* Capf. L. M„ M.A. (.ith Ijinecrt). Athenmim Club. PaU-maJl, S. W. f 

and 17, \\e$t Cromwell-road, S. W. 


Carn^e,* Duvid, Esq. Eattbbiry, by Watford, Herti. J 


Carnegie, CoraRiandei- the Hon. J., R.N. 26, Pall-mall, 8. W. J 


Carr,* \Vm. Wnrd, Esq., M.n, 6, Lee-Umne, Lte, 8.E. ^^| 


Carr-Gomm, F. Culling:, Esq. 10, Nete-atrtet, Bpriruf-gardent, S. W. ^^ 


Carter, Lieut.-CoIcinHl Hugh Boahani- (Coldstream Guards). GmnU' Club, S. W.j 
and 51, Victoria-street, S. W. 


Carter, Mnjor Thomas Tupper, K.E, Care of MItttrt, H. S, King and Co., 
45, rail-mail. 


Carter, Theo<lore, K»q. Mapperley-house, Bumt-ash-hUl, Lee, S.E. 


Cartwright, Col. Henry (Grenadier Guardii), ¥.P. Eijdon-hall, Banbury, 


Cartwright, William, Fisq. Can of Office of Chincae Customs, 8, Storey' a-gate, 
St. Jamea'a-park, S. W. 


Carver,* Kev. Miv^l .t., D.D., Miwter of Dutwich College. IhiUich, S.E. 


Caabcrd-liotelef, Commr. \S. J., R.x. The Elms, Taplotc ; and Xaval ttHd 
Military Ciuh, I'iccadUly, W. 


Casella, Louis P., Esq. 147, HotbornJnrt, E.G. ; and Sovth-grove, HigltQitte, If. 


Caaselt, Andrew, Esq. (Member of Council of India). 51, Clneland-^tare, 
Hyde-park, W. 


Caaiiaai, Chaa. Joaeph, Esq. 12, Oeorge-strcet, Portman-square, W, 


Catea, Arthur, K»i\. 7. WMehall-yard, 8. W. ^^M 


Oatbcart, Mnjor Anitrew. 16, Grosvenor-street, W. ^^^M 


CatoD, R. I!c<lntr.inl, Usq., i-.s.A. Unioit Clvb; and Binbrook-Jiottse, Marhti- 
liasen, Lincolnshire, 


Cattlej, Edward, V.v\. 98, Doter-roiid, Folkestone, Kent; and St. Petcrdmrg, 


Caudwell,* J., Esq. Spenoer-park, Wandsvorth-common, S. W. 


CaTS, Amos, Esij. G rote-house, Cromwell-road, Brixtvn-rise, Svrrey. 


Care, Colonel Edward. East India United Service Clvb, 14, St. Jamet't- 
agiiorv, S, W. 


Care, Captain Laurence Trent. 13, Loumdes-aquare, S.W. 


CaTe-Browne, Rev. J. Detling-vicarage, Maidstone. ^_ 



Cnjriej, Dr. Henr^. 3, All Saints' -road, Qifton, Bi-istol. ^^M 


Chad wick, Jeiae, Eiq. London-road, Derby. ^^H 


Chadwitik, .Ido. 0., Eaq. ^Q, DoUon-road, SU John'a-vood, N.W. ^^H 


ChalHn, John Henry, Eiq. Reform Club, S. W. ^H 


Chalmer,* Capt, Reginald (60th Royal Kifles). Peshatour, East Indies. ^B 


Chamberlaiiie-Bey, Cliarle* de T. 31, St. Charlea'a-tquarr, N. Ken»i»gionj W. 


Champain, Major J. U. Bateman, b.e. Chiaholm-hdge, Queen's-road, liick- 


Champion, John Fmncis, Esq. Iligh-street, Shreirsbnry. 


Chumpnejr, Chas. E., lisq. Bank rteld, Halifax. i 



Chandlflsa,* WiUiam, Esq. 5, Poriman-ttreet, Oxford-street, W. ^| 


Chajielle, Count de la. \, Rue Godat de Mauroi, Paris. ^^| 

L 1 

Royal Gtograpkical Society, 









Chapman, Liettt.-Col. E. F^ r.a. FairMma, Wimbledon, S. W. 

Chapoun,* Spencer, Esq. Soehan^don, S. W. 

Charlemont, Right Hon. The Earl of, K.P. 1, Matufield-street, W. 

Oiamock, Richard Stephen, Esq., pild., rjB.A. Jwuor Oarrkk Ctvb, 

AMphvierraoe, W.C. 
Chater, Geo., janr., Esq. 41, Porehegtersqucure, Byde-parkf W, 
CSiatwood, Samnel, Esq. 5, Wentworth-place, Bolton. 
ChauTin, George Ton, Esq. 100, Qreaham-houae, Old Broad-atreet, E.C, 
Cheadle, Walter B., Esq., B.A., 1(.d. Camb. 2, Hyde-park-plaoe, Cumb«rland- 

gate, W. 
Cbeetham, Samoel, Esq. II, Bvmiford-plaoe, Lwerpool, 
Cheshire, Edward, Esq. 3, Vanbrugh-park, Blackheath, 8.E, ; and Contervatite 

Chetwode, Angnstiu L., Esq. 3, (^arle$'$tregt, Lovmdet-tqvare, 8. W. ; and 

C^Stoa-kouie, Utame, Oxfordthire, 
Chcjne, Captain Jno. P., jus. 1, Westgate-terraex, W. Brompton, S.W. 
Chichester, Sir Bmoe, Bart. Arlington-coitrt, Barnstaple, 
Childers, Right Hon. Hugh C. E., H.p. 17, Prmce's-garden$, S. W. 
Childen, John Walbanke, Esq. Cantley-hall, near Doncatter. 
Clulds, Capt. Geo. Conlaon (Acting Col. Secy., Accra). II, Finsbwry-phce 

South, E.C. 
Chinuno,* Captain William, B.K, Westdowne, Weymouth. 
Chinnock, Frederick George, Esq. 86, ComuiaU-gardem, Queen's-gate, 8. W. 
Chimside, Andrew, Esq. Care of Messrs. Dalgety, Du Croz and Co., 52, 

Lombard-street, E.C. 
Cholmley,* Harrj Walter, Esq. Hoxosham, near York. 
Christie, Edward Richard, Esq. 
Christie, James Alexander, Esq. Plymouth. 
Christie, T. Beath, Esq., K.D. Ealing. 
Christj,* Thomas, Esq. Malvem^hovae, Sydenham, 8E. 
Church, Capt. Edw. John, ii.N. Bayat Naval Coliege, Greenwich. 
Church, Colonel Geo. Earl. Care of W. W. Wynne, Esq., 40, Chancery-lane, E.C. 
Church,* W. H., Esq. 

Churchill, Lord Alfred Spencer. 16, Rutland-gate, S. W. 
ChnrdiiU, Charles, Esq. Weyhridge-park, Surrey. 
Clapton, Edward, Esq., H.D., &o. St. Thomases-street, Southmtrk, S.E. 
Clark, Lieut. Alex. J. 33, Springfield-road, St. John's-wood, N.W. : fwl 

14, St. James' t-square, 8. W. 
Clark, Charles, Esq. 20, Belmont-park, Lee, Kent, S.E. 
Clark, George Thomas, Esq. Dowlais-house, Dowlais. 
Clark, Sir John, Bart. Tillypronie, Tarland, Aberdeenshire. 
Clark, John Gilchrist, Esq. Speddock, Dumfries, Dumfriesshire. 
Clark, J. Latimer, Esq. 5, Westminster-c/uimbers, Victoria-street, S. W. : and 

Beechmont, Dulwich, S.E. 

587 a 


Lixi of Fellows of the ^^M 

Taw or 


awk, >I«l«o, Eaq. Cart of Frmcltco Tbmme, Biq., 4, Jeffnyt-^jmrtf 
St. Mary -axe, K.C. 


CUrk,* Mftthew E., Eiq. 18, OrancUk-place, Portman-ifjMare, W, 


Clark, Robert, Iwq. 40, Chepstoie-vilht, Daysicuter, W. .^ 


Clark, SUplieo, Etq. I, Luvmdcr-viila, Wood-§treet, Bamtt. ^^M 



Ctark, Willlftm, £jq. ^H 


Chrlc, W. H., h:ii|. 6, LeinsUr-terraee, Hyda-park, W, ^^| 


Clark-Kennedfj* Capt. Alrxnmler W. M.,, (Lite Colibtreun Giunh). 
Quatdi' Club, PaU-maU, S. IV'. 


Clarke, Areliib«tld Hy., lisq. Sotah-hill, Puigittou, Dtwn. 


Clarke, Col. Sir A., B.K., K.C.M.O. Arm;/ and Xaty Club, B.W. 



Clarice, Major F. C. H., n.A, c.m.o. Adatr-KouM, St. JatMt'»-tqwr«, S.W. 


CUrke, Josepb, Erq. North-hill-vUh, Highgatc^ N. ^^H 


ClAUion, Charlec, Esq. 100, Fmohwi^strwt, E.C. ^^f 


Clayton, Cnptnin John W. (l*t« IStli Hussars). \^, Portmansqitart, W, | 


Cleghon:,* Hugh, Esq., K.D. Stratithy, 81. Andrew's. ^^M 



Clegbom. John, Esq., U.S.8., U.S.A., ite. 3, Spring-<jardmt, S.W. ^^M 


Clement, Mnjor Reynold Allcyoe. Datchet, Bucks. '^^1 


Clements, Rer. H. G. Vicara<je, Sidmouth ; and Unittd Unheraily Club, S, W, J 


Clements, Robert Georg*, Eiwj. 97, Victoria-park-road, E, I^H 


P- ' 

Clerk, Cnptoiii Clnude. Hyderabad, E. Indies, ^^^M 


Clermont, Thomas, Lord. 35, HUl-slreet, Berkeley-tgmrt, W.; md '^'■^^1 
dah-park, Newry. ^^1 


Clereland,* His Grace tBe Duke of. CIevel<md-/M\ue, 17, St. Jcatm'i-*qwir4, J 

S.W. jim 


Clifford, Sir Charles. Hatherton-hall, Cannock, Stafordihire. ^^M 


Clifford, Charles Cavendish, Esq., k.p. House of Lords, S. W. ^H 


Cliffonl, Henry, Esq., G.E. 1, Lansdoien-plaae, Blackhtatik, S.E. ^^| 


Clinton, Lord Eiiward. Amy and Naty Clvb, S. W. ^^M 


Clirehugh, W. P., Esq. 14, Ladbroke-terroM, Xotting-kill. 


Clive, Colonel Edward H. (Grenadier Guards). 15, Ennisiitorc-ifardtns, Princ/*- 
,jaU, S. W. 


Clowes, E., Esq. Salisbury-squart, Ftmt'ttreet, E.C. 


Clow«, Capt. Frederic (30th RegimtBt). 61, Qlcmccstc-.Urntce, Hyde-park, W. 


Clowes, George, Eaq. Duke-ttrett, Stamford-atrMtt S.E.; Oiaring-ore*$f, 
S. W. ; and Swbitan. Surrey. 


Clowes, William, Esq. 51, Glauccster'terrace, Hyde-park, W. 


Clowes, William Charles Knight, Eaq., M.A. DHhe-strtet, Stamford 'itrtti,^ 
S.E. ; and SHrbiton, Surrey. 


Coard. Philip Aldridge, Esq. 13, St. Mark't-sqwxre, Sixndringham-rood, Wtst 
Haoknty, E. 


Cootc, James, E«q. 41 amd 42, Luk-atrect, Leicestcr-tqiuvx, W.C; and 
Chard, Somersetshire, 


bmites, EdraunJ, Esq, 8, Daker-itivd, Portman-sqiuu-e, W, 

6ji jj 


Rcyai O«ographicdl Society. 












Ctmim, Walter Sw, Esq. 2, Mcdvem-vilhu, Btlgraee-road, Bath. 

Cobb. Jub Francis, Esq. The Brake, Torquay, Dewn. 

Cbbbold, John Cheralier, Esq. Athenaum Club, 8. W. ; mtd Ip$wioh, Suffolk. 

Oochrane, Bear-Admind the Hon. A., c.b. Junior United Senioe CM, 8.W, 

Cochrane,* Kenneth. Esq. Elmbank, Oakuhith, N. B. 

Cock, Edward, Esq. Eingtton-on~Iltamea. 

Cockbom,* Major James George (6th R^meat). Braoondale, Norioich 

Cockerton, Richard, Esq. Cornwall-gardens, South Keneiiigton, S. W 

Cockle,* Captain George. 9, BoUon-gardena, South Kentington, 8. W. 

Cocks,* Alf. Heneage, Esq. Thames Bank, Great Marlow, Bucks. 

Cocks, Colonel C. Lygon (Coldstream Goards). li^everbyo'Vean, Liikeard, 

Cocks, Major Octayios Torke. 86, Parh-street, Qroavewr-square, W. 
Cocks,* Ranald Thistlethwajte, Esq. 43, Charing-cross, S. W. } and 

29, Stanhope-gardens, South Kensington, S. W. 
Cocks,* Thos. S. Vernon, Esq. 43, Chariitg-oross, S. W. 
Cockahott,* Arthur, Esq., ila. Eton College. 
Codringtoi, General Sir William, g.c.b. 110, EatoU'^juare, S. W. 
Coe,* Rev. C. C. SighfiOd, BoUon-le-Moors. 
Cog^ilan, Edward, Esq. l\raining-instUution, Gray'a^nn-road, W.C, 
Co^ilan, J., Esq. (E^gr.-in-Chief to the Government, Buenos Ayres). Care of 

H. C. Forde, Esq., 6, Duke-etreet, Adelphi, W.C. 
Coj^ilan,* Sta£r.>Commr. Jas. £., rjt. Care of Hgdrographie-office, Admirvdtgy 

S. W. ; and East India United Service Club, St. James' s-square, S. W. 
Colchester, Reginald Charles Edward, Lord. Kidbrooke, East Grinstead. 
Cole, Alfred Clapton, Esq. 64, Portland-place, W. 
Cole, Geo. Ralph Fitz-Rojr, Esq. Queen Annel's-mansionj Westmijuter, S.W.^ 

and Wanderers^ and South American Clubs, S. W. 
Cole, William H., Esq. 64, Portland-place, W. 

Cole, Wm. Hammond, Esq. Great Plumstead, near Norwich, Norfolk. 
Coletwook, John, Esq. 17, Walton^lace, Chelsea, S. W. 

Colebrooke,* Sir Thomas Edward, Bart., Ii.p., F.B.A.8. 37, South-street, Park- 
lane, W. 
Coleman, Everard Home, Esq., F.R.A.S. Registry and Record Office, 82, 

BatinghaU-street, E.C. 
Colca, Charles, Esq. 86, Great Tower-street, E.C. 
Coles, James, Esq. 26, Maloem-road, Beeston-tuU, Leeds. 
Coles, Jno., Esq. Mitdusm, Surrey. 
Collett,* William Rkkford, Esq. Carlton Clvb, S.W. • 
Collingwood, Lieat W. India^ffke, S. W. 
Collins, Wm., Esq. 3, Park-terrace East, Glasgow. 
CoUinson, John, Esq., C.E. 13, Palace-gate, W. 

Collinaon, yioe>Admiral Sir Richard, k.c.b. Haven-lodge, Ealing, W'.; atxt 
United Service Club, 8. W. 

6S8 d t 


List of Fellovcs of thB ^^^^^^^^H 



CollU,* Capt. GusUvtti W. Berry (6th Rojal Regimnt). BarUm-terracet 

Daalith, Dmon, 


Colomb, Captaia J. C. R. DrovanqniMM, Kenmnre, Co. Kerry; and Junior 
United Service Club, S. W. 


Colqulitoun, Sir Patrick M. d«^ q.c„ LUd, 2, King's- Bgitch-aatk, Tempk, E.G. 



Col»ill, Surg.-MBJor Wiltiam H., Ind. Array, BagfuLtd, Turkish Arabiti, Care 
of Messrs. Gellatltf, Hankey and Co., 51, PalUmaU, 8.W. 


ColTille,* liight Hon. Lord. 42, Ealm-place, 8. W. J 


Colvin, BinDf J., Eiq. 17, Elvaston-ptace, Q\uen'a-giite, S.W. ^^J 


Colrin, CapUin W. B. (Royal Fusiliers;, ^^M 


Combe, Lieut, B, A. 


Comber, Colonel A. K. ( rt^p.-Commluioner of Assam, Ooalpara). Cart of 
Messrs . Woodhead and Co., 44, Charing-crost, S.W, 



Comber,* Rev. T. J. Care of A. If. Baipnes, Esj., 19, Castk-tlreet, Botbon, 


Commerell, Admiral Sir J, E , v.c, K.c.n. 


Congr«T«, Ch»s. R., E»q. Care of R. J, Omgme, Esq,, Qir/»i»"w*i Cistt*" 
DwgUts, N. B. 


Conlan, Geo. Nugent, Esq. Titdi-houK, Kingstown, Co. IhMin. j 


Ceode, Sir .lohn, Knt., c.i:. 35, Xorfolk-ixjiiare, Hyde-park, W. ^H 

1872 1 

Cook,' F. L., Esq. 24, JTyde-parh-gardens, W. ^^^ 


I'. 1 

Cook, H., Esq., M.D., &c. ^^M 


Cooke, Lieut. -Col. A. C, n.E. Ordntinae-hotue, Soutfutrnpton, ^^H 


Cooke, Jolin George, Esq. ^^^| 


Cooke. Robt. F., E«q. 50, Alhemarle-streH, W, ^^| 


Cooke, Willljim Heary, E»q„ Q.c. 42, Wimpole-street, W. ^^| 


Cooke, Cipt. W. S. (22nd Regiroeot). Malta. ^H 


Cookson,* F„ Eskj. 35, Grand Parade, Brighton. ^^1 



Cooley, William Desborough, Esq. 55, Croiendah-road, Camden-tovm, ll.W, J 


Cooling, Eulnrin, Esq. Mile Ash, Derby. I 


Coombe, Edward, Esq. 25, Tlte Terrace, GreenhUhe, Kent. ^J 


Cooper, Alfred, E»q. 9, Henrietta-street, OavemUah-aquare, W. ^^M 


Cooper, Commr. B. J., R,N. ^^M 


Cooper, Charles E., E«q. Obtervatory-Kouie, Kingsdown, Bristol. ^H 


Cooper, Sir Daniel, 6, De \'cre-gardcns, Kensington-palace, W. 


Cooper, Lieut.-Col. Edward H. {Grenadier Guards). 42, Porlman-Sqruare, W. 


Cooper, Lient,-Col. Joshua H. (7lh Fuiiliers). Dvaiboden, MuUingar. J 


Cooper, Percy H., Esq. Bulliretl-halt, Nottingham, ^^J 


Cooper, William White, Esq. 19, Berkeley-square, W. ^^M 


Coote, Algernon C, P., Esq., u.\. L<furel-hdje, Bamet, ^^H 


Coote,* Vice>Adrairnl Robert, c.B. '^Shales," Bitterne, Sovthatr^on. ^^H 


Coplaud-Crawford, FitxgerolJ Haniltoii, Esq. SudbHry-lodge, Harrow, | 


Copland-Crawrord, General R, F., R.&., f.o.b. Svdbury-Mge, Harrow, JAddZfl 

69S ^J 


Botfol Oeoffraphieal Society, 





1860 i 



































Coplej, Sir JoMph William, Bart. Tiraeellerf aiA, Pail-maU, 8. W. 
Cork, Nathaniel, Eaq. Ontaul-lunM, Sutton, Surrty. 

Comer, William Mm*!, Eaq. " Smnynde," 1 9, LmtgUm^nM, Upper Sydenham. 
Comwell, James, E*}., ph.d. Pwbrook, Crescent-wcod-nad, Sydnham- 

Corscaden, John F., Esq. 24, SbOand-park, W. 

C<n7, FmJeric C E«q., m.d; PoHlcmd-tUk^ BtKihunt^iU, Euex; and 

Sauau^actf Ooatmercial-rcad, E. 
CoewD, Capt. Znjiliua Albert de. Fyi-arnft-hoiW!, Chertaey, Surrey. 
CtHoa,* Bnrpoiic Pyrav/t-houst. Cherttey, Surrey ; and 38, But St. Doming, 

3t, ffermflin, Paris, 
Coiter. GuiUaoiDe F., E*q. 11, Park-cre$eent, Begenet-park, N. W. 
Cmwst,* Winrnm Halliday, Eaq. 

Cotes worth, Wm., Eaq. QKBdenknmees, BoxbwghMhire, N. B. 
Cottarill, ReT. G. E. 5. Arlington^Oai, Brighton. 
Cotterill, H. B., Eaq., b.a. 10, S<;hii:ehet-ttrm!ie, Dreadm. 
Cottwiw, Right Hon. Lord. 20, Eaton-place, S.W. ; and Swanboume, Window, 

Cottrill, Kolm-t AitV«l, Eiiq. Sptith&rw-grtme, Suiilmry, Middlesex. 
Couch, Rij^t Hon. Sir Richard, KiaU 25, Lindm-j^r^ma, B<^/$water-road, W. 
Courtenaj, J. Irjing, Esq. 3, Pbucdm-buiUings, Tempie,E.C, 
Courtney,* Heaty NichoU^ Esq., b.a. % Little SU>nhope>^treet, Muyfair, W.; 

tmd National Ulabf Whitthall-gardena, 8. W. 
CorlogtoD. R«T. W., Vicar of St. Luke'a. The Vioarage, Brampton, S. W. 
Coward, Dr. John W. S. Care of Messrs. Hollams, Son and Covard, Mincing. 

lane, E.C. 

Coward, Willwra, Eaq. 41, Pen^yHeem-road, S. Kensington, S. W. 
Cowdl,* Lieat.-Col. Sir J. C, r.k., k.c.u, BucHdngham-paiaee, S. H'. 
Cowley, Norman, Esq. 4, Montagu-piaci, Montagu-equare, W. 
Cowper, Henry Ang. (CoiuQl-GeaenJ at Cuba). Care of Messrs. Woodhead 

and Co., 44, C/uirintj'Cross, S.W. 
Cox, Slajor-Geaeml Jshn William, c.B. ffuntlfy-lodge. Queen* s-place, Southsea. 
Coioo, Samuel Bailey, Esq., Usworth'hall, Durham. 
Coyah, John S., Eaq. 21, Linden gardens, W. 
Cracroft,* Bernard, E*|., m.a. Tnn. Coll. Camb. Oxford and Cambridge Club, 

S.W. ; and 1, Stanf mi-row, Scuth A'ensit^ton, S. W. 
Cragoe,* Thos. Adolphus, Esq. Wocdbtiry-rUla, Jhtro. 
Crane, Leonaitl, E«q. u.D, 7, Albemarle-strcet, W. 
CnoAird, George Ponwnby, Esq. Buenos Ayres; and Thxetilerf Club, S. W. 
Craafiird, Lieut.-Geiversl James Robertson (Grenadier Guards) Traeellers' Club, 

8. W. ; and 36, Pritus^s-gardms, S. W. * 

CraTcn, Alfred, Eiq, Bro&h/ield-hoHse, Folkestone. 
Crawford, Robtrt Wigrsni, Esq. 11, Wanoick-square, & W. 
Crawford, Major^Genend S. Wyiie. Union Club, New York. 


List of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^^^H 


Crawk-y, Wm. Joliti Chetwode, Esq., LUa, F,G.S., &c 3, Ely-place, Dublin. 

187 3 

Cneswell. Alf. Aug,, Esq. 12, Segent's-park-road, JV.W. 


Ci-Mwell, RsT, Samuel Francis, D.D., F.K.AJ. Northrtppt^reclonj, Norvkh, 


Cn«re, Hugo Harpur, Esq. CM«-abbcy, b«rhyshire. 


Creyke,* Captain Itkbard BoTntoo, B.N. Grint/Urpe-hall, FU«y, TorkAire. 


Ciitpc, James, Esq. Ixatherhead. ^h 


Croker, T. K. DilloD, Esq. 19, Pelham-plaoe, Brompton, S, W. ^^| 


Croll, Col. A. A., C.E., F.aj., NeUierUnds. Oranard-lod'je, lioeftampton. 1 


Croll, A lei., Esq. Mavi$4ank, Orange-road, Upper Norwood, ^^J 


Croakef ,* J. R»iD«]r, Esq. 9, Portidovm-road, Maida-wile, W. ^^| 


CroeM, Captain Arthur T. (52Dd Regimeut). Alderahot. ^^^ 


CraMaum, Junes Hi scutt, E*q. Zl, Ciirxon-atrcet, J^fay/nir, W. ^^H 


CroKtnan, Lieut-Colonel W,, R.E., c.M.a. 30, Jfarcourt-ttrraee, BedcUife- 
tqmre. S. W. 


CraUierB,Wni. Edmund, Esq. 47, VMoria-aitrctt, Belfast; and BotcaiiXiMniU, 


Crowder,* Tho^ Mosley, Esq., K.A. Corpus Christi ColUye, Oxford. 


Crowp, Frondo, E^„ IX.D. 22, \Ve$tboume-park-r<xid, V>'. ^h 
Cruikshank, Dotutld, Eiq. Bmcontfield CM, BaU-mall, S. \V. ^H 



Cull, Richiird, Esq., fj.a. 12, Taviatockstreet, Bedfordsquarf, W.C. 


Cummiog, Chas, Lennox B., Esq. (Mndni» Ciril S«n'ice). Care of Mcurt, 
Forfm, Foi-bet and Co., 9, Kity WHliam-atreat, E.G.. 


Cummiug, Uilliaiu FiillAitoo, Esq.* m.d. Athenmtm Club, S.^V. ; and 
KinelUm, Edinburgh. 


Conha, J. G(»w>n da, Esq., U.D. Boyal Asiatic Socitty, Bombay, 


CuuJifli", Itoger, HJsq. 10, Qu^en's^gate, S. W. 


Ctinninghnrn, John Wm., Esq., Sec King's College. Sonurtet-houK, W.C. ; amd 


Cuaynghanw,* Gen. Sir A. T., o.cj. 10, Eaton-terrace, Eaton-iquare, S.W. 


Culling, Rfv. J. Jas. Cara of Sir Bryan Bobinton, 9, Gordon-place, Campdetk- ' 
hill, Kensington, U'. 


Currie, Donald, Esq., c.Ji.c, M.P. 13, ffyde-parh-place, W. 


Cnrrie, RiUkea, Esq. Jlinley, Uampthire. ] 


Canetjee,» Manockje*, E«(., r.s.8.M.A. Villa-BycuHa, Bombay. ^^M 


Curtb,* Timothy, Esq. ^^M 



Cost, Robt. N««dhani, Esq. 64. 81, Georg^t-tquare, S.W. .^^^ 


Cuttance, John' Fnw. J., Esq. Cleveland-house, OreviHe-road, Kilbttm^t 
N.W. 1 


CMmikow, C«s«r, Esq. 29, Mincing-lane, E.G. 1 

751 ^J 

Bcyal Geograpkhal Society. 












C. p. 

Dukm, Arthur Ja&, Eiq. 

Dde, L a ngham, E<q. Dept. of Public Edvoatm, Cape Zbtcn. Care o/Mmn. 
King and Co., Cornhill, E.G. 

Dalgety,* Fred. G., E»q. 16, Hyde-park-Urrace, W. 

Dallas, Sir Geo. £., Bart. Foreign-<^ffice, Douming-ttreet, S.W, 

D' Almeida, W. B., E«q. 19, Oreen-park, Bath. 

Da]t<m, Charles, Esq. Percy-house, Tmckenham^park, S. W. 

Oaltoo, D. Foster Grant, Esq. 8hank»-hoiue, near Witcanton, Somenet. 

Dalton, HajoT^eneral Edw. T., CAi. Queen Anm/^a-manaiaM, 8.W. 

Daly, Chief Justioe Chas. P., ll.d. (President of the American Geognrpliical 
Sodatjr, New York). 84, Clinton-place, New Fork. 

Dalyeli, Sir Robert Alexander Osbom, Bart. Traveller^ Club, PaU-mall, 

Ikniell,* Colonel E. Staines. HamUton-houae, Odiham, Hampthire; and East 
/ndui United Service Club, 14, St. James'tsquare, S. W. 

Danaon, William, Esq. 2, Eton-road, Haterttock-hUl, N. W. 

Darbishire, Godfrey, Esq. Victoria-park, Manchester. 

Darroch, Geo. Edw., Esq. 40, Stanhope-gardens, S. W. ; and Oxford and Cam- 
bridge Club, Pall-mall, S.W. 

Darwin,* Charles, Esq., X.A., F.R.8. Down, BeckenJuan, Kent. 

Darenport, Samuel, Esq. Care of H, D. Davenport, Esq., The Orange, Ealing, 
W. ; and Beaumont, near Adelaide, S. A. 

Daries, Rev. Edw. Aug. Shady-tree-house, Middleton, Lancashire. 

Daries, Sir R. H., K.cs.i. Care of Messrs. Twining, 215, Strand, W.C. 

DaTies, Rer. R. V. Foithfull. Trinity-college. Eastbourne. 

Daries,* Robert E., Esq., J.p. Cos/iam-house, East Coshain, Hants. 

Daries, W. Hy. Esq. 51, Tregunter-road, South Kensington, S.W. ^ 

Daris, Rer. Charles. 10, Cromwell-street, Gloucester. 

Daris, Edmund F., Esq. 

Daris, Frederick £., Esq. 20, Blandford'Sq^tare, N. W. 

Daris,* Commr. Hugh, R.K. Army and Kavy Club, Pall-mall. 

Daris, Israel, Esq., m.a. C, King's-Bench-walk, Temple, E.C. 

Daris, Sir John Francis, Bart., K.C.B., I-.B.S., f.e.S.n.a. Atkenavm Club, S.W. ; 
and Hollywood, near Bristol. 

Dawes, Edwyn, Esq. Heathjield-lodge, SurbHon. 

Dawnay,* The Hon. Guy C. 8, Belgrave-square, S.W.; and Bookham-grove, 
Leatherkead. ' 

Dawnay,* The Hon. Payan. Beninghorough - hall, Newton -vqpon- (hue, 

Dawson, Lieut. Llewellyn S., Bjr, Hydrc graphic-office. Admiralty, S.W. 

Day, Freiterick, Esq. South Molton, North Devon. 

Daymond, Rer. Charles, M.A., Principal of St. Peter's College, Peter- 

Dean, F. J., Esq. Sutton-place, Sutton-at-Bone, near Dartford. 



Liit of Fellow* of the 











































Deone, Lieut-Colonel Bonu-. 81, Dcnbijh-slreet, Belgrate-road, S.W. 

D«*de, Joho Richard, Esq. Care of Messrs. H. S. King and Co., PaU-maU, 

S. W. 
Hetary, Her. TJiorawi, M.A. Alhencewn Club, Pall-mall, 8, W. 
Debenham, Willifun, Ecq. 41, Grom-tnd'road, Si, John's-tnood, N, W. 
De BtaqHiire, Capt. Lord, R-X. Scicntifio Clvb, 7, Savik-rovo, W. ; and Spring- 

fild, Crawley, Sussex, 
I)e Bourgbo, Thomas J., Eiq. 161, Brtcknock-nad, Tufticlt-parkt N, W. 
De Cretcpigny, Aug. C, Eaq. London and County Club, Langham-place, W. 
De Crrspigtir. Lieut C^ ii.N. Care of Messrs. King and Co., c>5, CornAill, E, 
DekcjKT,* P., Etq. Chatham-hovse, Orove-road, Ciapham-park. 
Dt L«iki,* A., Esq. 2, Adelaide-oretoent, Brighton. 
De LeoD, Dr. Haoanel. 26, Redclifft^ardent, West Brampton, S,W. 
Detmege, Antliony A., E»q. 17, St. Jlelen's-ptace, E.C. 
Deaham, Vioc-A>lm. Sir Henry Mangles, r.R.8. 21, Cartlon-road, MaSAt'tdk, W, 
Denison, Alfred, Eim|. 6, AUtemarle^street, W. 
Denman, Hon. Geo. 11, Palace-gate, Kensington, W. 
HtDBj,* £<iwnrd llaynard, Eaq. 55, Manchester-street, W. 
Detinj, Thoraaa Anthony, Esq. 7, Cwnaught-phoe, VK; and BwdingtcooJ, 

Dent,* Alfred, Esq. 29, Chesham-slreet, S. W. 
Dent, Cliuton T., Eaq, 29, Chcsham-street, S.W. 
Dent,* Edward, Eiq. Femacres, Palmer, near Slough, Bueki. 
Dentry, James, Esq. T7te College, Margate, 
Derby,* Right Hon. Edward Henry, Earl of, P.C., LL.D., D.C.U 23, St. Jtunes'^ 

tquart, 8. W, ; and Knowsky-park, Prescot, Lancashire. 
Deny, Fradericic, Esq. 31, Upper Uocktey-street, Birmingham, 
De RiccI, UoD. Ju. H., Chief Justice and Preaident LegisUtive Council, Bahaauu, 

Care of the Coloni,d Office, S. \V. 
De Salit, Wm, Fiine, Esq. Dawtei/'COurt, Uxhridge, 
Dennond, Rer. H. M. Egan. 31, Beltiie-park, X',W,; and London ami 

We^minster Bank, I, St, James's-square. 
Deras, Thonuis, E»q. Mount Ararat, Wimbledon, 
Derereiu, W. Coi>e, Esq., n.N. The Anchorage, Chislehvrst. 
De Vitre, Rev. George, U.A. Keep Hatch, WohiDgham, Berks. 
Derooshire,* Hi* Grace the Duke of, K.<i., i.L.t)., D.C.L., r.R.8. Dnonihirt 

house, PiccadUly, W. ; and Bardwicke-hall. Derbiishirc. 
De WeMlow, Lieut. Prai. G. Simpkiiuon. 67, Vtctoria-slreet, S. W. 
Dewdncy, George, Esq., B.A. Btlle-nu, Chepstou. 
DhnlMp^iogh, Hit HighneM the Maharaja. Elvedon-kaU, ntar Tftet/ord. 
Dibdin, Charlea, EUq. 62, Torrington-equare, W.C, 
Dibdin, Robert W., Esq. 62, Ibrrington-sqxiare, W.C, 
Dick, Captain Charte* Cramcnd, St. Stephens Clvb, Westminster, S. W. 
Dick,' FlUwilliaiD, Esq. 20, Cureon^treet, Matjfair, W. 



Boyal Geogntphieal Society, 





1854 ! 
1876 ' 
1870 ! 
1876 1 
1873 1 





Didc, Robert Kwr, Eaq. (Bengal Ciril Senrice). Oriental Chb, W. 
Diddnson,* Frands Heniy, Em}., tj.a. 121, St. George'$-iquare, Pinilico, 

8. W. ; and Ki»giM$t<m-park, Somerset. 
Diddnson, Thomas B., Esq. 19, Chethamrroad, Brighton, 
Didcson, A. Sanson, Esq. 12, Old-»qtiarg, LiMooht't-im, W.C. 
Diduoa, John, Eaq. Seyrout. Care of 0. C. Shaw, Eaq., Ut^on Bank cf 

London, 2, Prinoea-ttreet, E.C. 
Dickson,* Oscar, Esq. StoekMm, Care of Messrs, Dickson Bros., 6, Moorgate- 

street, E.C. 
Diets, Bernard, Esq., of Algoa Bay. 3, Dorset-square, W. 
Digbj, G. Wingfidd, Eaq. Sfterbome-castle, Dorset. 

Digby, Lieat.-Cdonel John Almeroos. Ckabnington-house, Cattstock, Dorchester, 
Dilke,* Sir Charles Wentworth, Bart, M.p. 76, Sloanestreet, S. W. 
IMllon, Viscount. 113, Victoria-street, S.W. 

Dfanmer, Augustus Henry, Esq. Ormonde-house, Byde, Isle of Wight. 
Dimsdale, Joseph C, Eaq. 50, Comhill, E.C. 
Dineen, Thonoas, Esq. 17, Queen^treel, Leeds, Yorkshire, 
Dirett, Edwd. Ross, Esq. Beform Club, S.W. 
DixoD,* James, Esq., Jan. Kingswood, Clapham-park ; and 81, QraoechuriJi' 

street, E.C. 
Dix<m, John, Esq., C.K. Chouhra, Surbiton, 
DizoB, Joseph, Esq. HilUbn;f-hall, Sheffield. 
Dobaon, George, Esq. Oakfield, Bomilly-road, Cardiff. 
Dodd, Jno., Esq. Tamswi, Formosa. 
Dodson,* Geo. Edward, Esq. Ravensknotole, Anerley, S,E. 
Dodson, Right Uaa. John George, m.f. 6, Seamore-place, Mayfair, W. 
Doran, Colonel John, c.n. Percy-house, Leyland-road, Lee. 
Dorchester, Dudley Wm. Cnrleton, Lord. 42, Berkeley-square, W. 
Dwe, Henry J., Esq. 38, Bruton-ttreet, W. 
Doria, Harchese Giaoomo. Oenoa. Care of Messrs. Kirkland, Cope and Co., 

23, Saliabury-Hreet, Strand, W.C. 
Donglas, John, Esq. 
Douglas, Hon. J. 
Douglas, Captain Neil D. Cecil F. 1, Morpeth-terrace, Victoria-street, S. W, ; 

and Guards' Club, S.W. 
Douglas, Lieat.-General Sir Percy, Bart. Henlade-house, Tatmton, Somerset. 
Doughu, SUwart, Esq. Oriented aub, W. 
Douglas,* W. D. U., Esq. Or<Aardton, Castle Douglas, N. B. 
Douglas, William, Esq., M.n. Care of James Ogston, Esq., Messrs. D. and C. 

Mcltet's, 8, Water-street, Liverpool. 
Dovling, Edward Samud, Esq. 14, ffoUand-villas-road, Kensington, W. 
Down, J. H. Langdon, Esq., I1.0. 39, Welbech-street, W. ; and Xormantfield, 

Hampton Wick. 
Downer, lUdiard Clarke, Esq. Falcon-house, Gough-square, E.C. 



Litt of Fellows oftlie ^^^^^^^^^H 



Dowson ,♦ Pliilip Septimus, Ewj, Cardiff, South Waits. 


Dojle, Sir Francis IIa.<tingst C, Hurt, Cuatom-koatt, E.C, 


Drew,* Frederic, Kuq. Et<m College, Windtor. ^^H 


Dnijtt. ThM. Wjard, f^q. 66, Chariwj-eroas, S.W. ^^H 


Dnimmond,* CNptAiD Alfred Miioncni. Army and Naty Clvb, S. W. ^^H 


Di-umiDoad, G. A^ ILsq. Cadlunda, near Soutltampton. ^^^M 


Drury, Vice-Adralr»l Dyron. 4, Cam/jridge-vilias, CMietiham, ^^H 


Diyland, William, Esq. 38, Brooi-atreei, Grosrenor-sqwtre, ^f. ^^H 


Du Can*,* Mnjor Fraiicit, R.E. 2, /fardwick-f^id, Eastfjourne, Sutter. ^^f 



Ducie,' Right Hon. Ilenrf Joba, Enrl of, F.B,8. 16, Portman-squart.W. 


Duckham, Joseph Hy., Esq., U.S., Dockmaster, West India Docks, Liaultontd 
Entrance, E. 


Du Faar, Eccleston, Esq. Sydney, Xcw South Wales. Care of ilin Da Faur, 
74, Lantdowiu-road, Keiuington-pork, W, 



Duff,' Kight Hon. Mountetuart Klphinstone Grnut, M.P. Tork-Aoiue, Taiekm- 


Bate, Wm. Piiie, E»q. Cedcutta. Care of Messrs. JqIm WaUon and Co., 34, 
Fencfiurch-sireet, E.C. 



DulTerin,* Kight Hon. Frcdk. Temple Hamilton-Blaclcvrood, Earl of, K.P., GX.11.6., 
ILO.B., F.R.B. Clandeboye, near Belfast, Ireland. 


Dagdale,* Captain Henry Charles G. Meretalc-liall, Atherstcne, Waneiok. 


Dugdala,* John, E»q. 1, Hyde-park-gardens ; and Lltcyn, Llanfyllin, Otteutry. 


Dunbar, John Samuel A., Elsq. 3, Edith-villas, W. Kensington, 


Dancaa, Major Fraiicu, R.A., U.A., D.C.L., LL.D. Soientifio Clvb, 7, Sofik' 
row, W. 


Dtincan,» George, F.sq. 45, Gordon-*quare, W.C. 


Dattcaii, John, Esq. 


Duncan, William Aleiander, E»q, Herbert-terrace, Fallovfield, near Uan- 


Duncan, W. H. G., Esq. Cor* of Meurt. Anderson Brothers, 16, Philpot-tans^ 


Dunkley, Wm. W., Esq., «.D. FJethill, Coventry; and 7, Weslminslfr- 
chambers, rictoria-strret, S.W. 


Dunlop, Alexander Milne, Esq. 3, OU Palnce-yard, Westminster, S.W. 


Dnnlop, Hamilton Gnint, Esq. 11, Rockstone-place, Southampton; and Junior 
Carlton CliA, S.W. 


Dunlop,* R. H. Wallace, Esq., C.B. (Indian Cirll Service). 12, Kenl-tjardent, 
Castle-hill, Enling. 


Dnnmore,* Highl Hon. Charle* Adolphus Murray, Earl of. 109, Crntnieett- 
road, W. 


Dunn, John M ., Esq. 30, Claverion-strret, St. George" s-square, 8. W, ^^— 


Dunn, Wm., Eiq. 95, Biskopsgate-atreet-itilhin, E.C ^^H 


DnnniTen, Right Hon. Wyndhara Thos., Earl of, CoonAe-wood, Kingaton^^M 
Thames. 1 


DoDitone. J. John, Esq. 6, Brighto*r4»rrao«, Govon, Glasgow. 1 


L .1 

Royal Geographieal Society. 








Daprat, Le Vioointe. Qmsal-Q^ttiral da Portugal, 10, 8t. Mary-Axe, B.C. 
Darhara, Edward, Esq. Oitif'house, Little Ghetter, near Derby, 
Dathie, C^ W. H., sa. 

Datton,* Frederick H., Eiq. Palace-hotel, Bwshmghamrgate, 8.W. 
Dyuon, John Saoford, Esq. 12, Boecobel-gardena, Jf.W. 
Dykaa, William AUton, Esq. (Provost of Hamilton). The OrclMrd, Hamil- 
ton, N.B. 
Djrmes, Daniel David, Esq. Windham Club, 8. W. 

Earie, Arthor, Esq. Childwatt-kdje, Waeertree, near Liverpool; and Wind- 
ham Clvb, S: W. 

East, George, Esq., F.z.8. 25, Hyde-park-phee, W. 

Easton, Edward, Esq., c.E. 7, Delakay-street, Westnunater, S.W. 

Eastwick, Edward B., Esq., F.a.8. 54, Hogarth-road, 8. Kensington, 8. W. 

Easiwick, Captain W. J. 12, Leinster-gardens, Hyde-park, W, 

Eaton, Commr. Alfred, S.N. Brook-house, Melling, near Liverpool. 

2a,Um,* Henrf William, Esq., x.p. 16, Prince'e-gate, Hyde-park, 8. W. 

Eaton,* William Heriton, Esq. 16, Prince't-gate, Hyde-park, 8. W. 

Eatwdl, Surgeon-Major W. C. B., m.d. 69, Inverness-terrace, W. 

Ebden, Alfred, Esq. Care of James 8earight, Esq. 7, East India-avenue, E.C. 

Ebden,* Charles J., Esq., b.a. Coghurst-hall, Hastings. 

Eber, General F. 

Ebury, Right Hon. Lord. 107, Park-street, Orosvenor-square, W.; and 
Moor-park, Herts. 

Eden, C. H., Esq. 16, Warrcick-square, S.W. 

Eitsi, Ber. Robert, Hotel Beau Rivage, Ouchy, Switzerland. 

Edge, Ker. W. J., 1I.A. Combe-Martin-hause, Upper Tooting, 8. W. 

Edgeworth, M. P., Esq. (Bengal Civil Service). Maatrwv-hause, Anerley, S.E. 

Edwardes,* Thomas Djer, Esq. 5, Hyde-park-gate, Eensington, W. 

Edwardes,* Thomas Dyer, Esq., jun. 5, Hyde-park-gate, Kensington, W. 

Edwards, Rev. A. T., u,A. 39, U}y>er Kennington-lane, 8.E. 

Edwards, G. T., Esq., M.A. 7, Queensborowgh-terrace, Kensington-gardens, 

Edwards,* Henry, Esq., m.p. 53, Berkeley-square, W. 

Edwards, James Lyon, Esq, Holmxcood, Kingston-hill, Surrey. 

Edwards, Colonel J. B., B.E., c.B. United Service Club, S.W. ; and ShorncUffe 
Camp, Kent, 

Egnton, Rear-Admiral the Hon. Francis, X.P, Devonshire-house, W. 

Elder, A. L., Eaq. Campden-house, Kensington, W. ^ 

Elder/ Geoi^e, Esq. Knock-castle, Ayrshire, 

LU^ Fellows of tfi€ ^^^^^^^^^^^B 



Elder. Sir Thomas. BirkijaU; Adelaide, S. Australia. Care »/ A. L, Elder, 1 
Esq., Ciunpden-hDwe, Keiisinfftvn, W, I 


EJcf, OiArles John, Esq. b, Pelftam-place, Ketufltgton, S.W. ^^d 


6. p. 

Ellas, Ney, juD., Esq. 33, Inr>emeas-terract, Bayswater, W. ^^^ 


Ellenborongh, ColoDel Loni. ITolly Spring, Bracknell, Berks ; and 44, Eat^- 
place, 8. W, 


BUei, JamiHon, Esq. Wimbtcdim-commoii, 8.W. 


Elles, Li«ut,-Col. Wm. K., C.n. Narse GiUirds, War-cffice, rail-mail, S.W. 


Elliot,* Colonel Ch«., C.n. WaUrimjbury, Maidstone, Kent. 


Klliot, G., Esq., C.K. The hall, Houghton-ie-Spring, necur Fence Bousa, 



Elliot,* Capt. L. R. Zi MnUlorai/e-eur'Seine, Seine Jnferieitre, Care of J, L, 
EOiot, Esq., (74, Albany, W. 


ElUol, Willimn, Esq. Care of Dr. Elliot, 93, Denm trk-Aill, S.E. 


Elliot, Lieut The Hon, Williani FitJwilliwD. 48, Eaion-sqtiare, S. W. ; md 
Minto-houu, Httxcick, N. B. 



Ellia, Sir Barrow H., K.C.S.I. (Mem. Council of India), 69, Crom\BtU-rwid„ 
S. W. ; and Indv-i-offict, S. W. 


Ellis, Hon. Ert-lfn H. Raleigh Club, Regent-street, S.W, 


Ellis, Philip, Esq, Wilfurdijrove, Nottingham. 


Ellis, W. E. H., Ek], Hasfield-rectory, W, ; and Oriental CM, Glouoetier 
Bi/CHlla Oub, Bombay, 


Ellis, Walter L. J., Esq. 7, Brunsicick-place, Regenf^parh, N. W. 


Elmslie, Jbs. A., E»q. Crosoalt-Mije, Bedford, 


Elphinstone, Msjor Sir Howard C, r.c, R.E., KX.B., C.U.O. Buckingham-pttlai r, 


Elsej, Joo, Green, Esq. Aforant-houst, Addison-road, Xensington, W. ^^ 


Elwell, W. R. G., Esq. BatKutst-lodge, Spring-grme, Islexoorth. ^H 


Elf. John Henry Welliti;;tmi Grahnin Lofttw, Blnrquis of. 9, Prince's-^l^ 
S, W.; and Ely-caftte, Fermanagh. 

J 877 

Emery, John, E«q. J 5, Dugnall-park-vUlas, South Korunod. 


Enctand, Capt. W. G.. r.x. St. George' s-lodge, Ealing, W. ; and UniUd Sercio* 
Clvb, Fali-mall, S. W. 


Englcheart, GardMr D., £«q. Duchy of Lancaster Office, Lancaattr-pttet, 



Erringlon. Geo., Esq., M.P. 16, Alhan<j, W. ^J 


Erskine,* Hon. Chns. H. S. Alloa-park, Alloa, A. B. ^^M 


Eiikine, Claude J„ Esq. (Bombay Civil Service). 87, BarUy-itrnt, W. i^^ 
Athenctwn Club, S. W, ^^ 



Erakine, Admiral John Elphinstoae. I L, Albany, W. ; and Zoc/ifflk/,1 
Stirling, N. B. I 


F*nntt, T, H. S., Esq. 38, Bnmpton-creKent, S, W. 1 


EsmeaJe,* G. M. M., Esq. 50, Park-street, Qrostenor-sqytare, W. ^^m 


Estoclet, Alphotts?, Esq. St, Manfs-cottege, ffaiiorer-pai-k, Peckhatn. ^^H 

* I87i 

Evana,* B. Hill, Esq. Devonshire-chambtrs, 17, Bishopsgate-ieithotU, RC 1 

. g 

L M 

Jioyal Geographical Society. 









€t. p. 

Etboi,* Edwsrd Biekerton, Etq. WhMovrns-AaU, tuar Worcesttr. 
Ema, Edward Prichard, Esq. 21, Primme-hiU-^roadj Begmft-park, N. W. 
Etiu, Colonel E. L. U. EaH India United Service Club, 14, St. Jamet's' 

tquare, S. W. 
Erana, Ckptain F. J. 0., R.K., aiL, F.BJ., F.R.AA Hydrographiooffice, Ad- 

mindty, S.W. 
EnoM, Thoi. Wm, Esq., us. Atteatree-iaUf Derhy. 
Etnh,* W., Eiq. 

Eraaa, Colonel William Edwyn. 55, Seymam-ttreet, Portman-tjuare, W. 
Erana, W. Heritert, Esq. Forde Abbey, Ckardt Sonet. 
Erdjm, Lieat.-Colonel George P. ffariley-memor, Dartford, Kent. 
Erdyn,* William J., Eaq^ TJt.x. Wotton-houte, WUUm, near Dorking. 
BTeratt,* Jamca, Esq., r.8.A. 
Eforitt, George A^ Eeq, Knowle-hall, Warmckihire. 
EtiU, William, Eeq. Claeertonr-house, Worcester-park, Surrey. 
Ewart, John, Esq. 46, Longridge-road, Hart't-court, S.W. 
Ewing, J. D. Cnun, Esq. FencAvrch-aeenve, City, E.G. 
Ejre, Edward J^ Eeq. The Orange, Steeple Aeton, Oxford. 
Ejn, George E., Eiq. 59, Lovndee-tquare, Brompton, S, W. 
Eyre, Major-Gen. Sir Vincent, K.OJ.I. Athenamm Club, S.W. 

Fagan, Capt C. S. F., B.i(.L.i. South Barracks, Wahner, Kent. 

Fair, John, Esq. 50, Hamilton4errace, St. John'neood, N. W. 

Fairbridge, Charles, Esq. Care of Ree. J. S. Itat, Balscott, near Banbury. 

Fairfax, Captain Henry, B.N. Army and Navy Club, 8. W. 

Fairholme, George Kn^(ht, Esq. Care of Mr. Bidgway, 169, Piccadilly, W. 

Fairland, Edwin, Esq., M.o. (Surg. 21st Hussars). Lueknow, Oude. 

Falconer, Thomas, Esq. U»k, Monmouthshire. 

Falkland, Right Hon. Lucius Bentinck, Viscount. Skutterskelfe, Yorkshire, 

Vaae, Edward, Esq. 14, St. Jameis'Square, S. W. 

Fane, Henry Prinsep, Esq. Fulbeck-hall, Orantham. 

Fane, Wm. Dashwood, Esq. Melboume-hall, near Derby. 

Fanahawc,* Admiral E. G., c.b. Portsmouth. 

Farler, Ven. Archdeacon J. P. Magila, Zanzibar. Care of Messrs. 0. C. Scrutton 

and Co., St. Dunstan's-house, Idol-lane, E.C. 
Fanner, Edmund, Esq. 10, Southwick-plaee, Hyde-parh-square, W. 
Farmer, James, Esq. 6, Porchester-gate, Kensington-gardens, W. 
Farquhar, Walter, Esq. Care of Messrs. Forbes, Forbes and Co., 9, King 

WiUiam-street, E.C. 
Farquharson,* Major-Gen. G. M«B. Breda by Alford, Aberdeenshire; and 

United Service Club, Pall-maU, S.W. 



List of Fellows of the ^^M 

TWkT of 


Fairer, Hy. Richd., Esq. 46, fdfon-pbcv^ S.W.j and Green HammcrUM-hdl, 


F«rr«r,» W. Jm., Esq. 18, Upper Brooirttreet, W. 


FanuuiA, Minra lahim. (Teheran.) Care of Messrs, Grindh'j atui Co., 
55, Fariiaaient-street, S.W. 


Faulkner, Joseph, Esq. 101, Asylum-road, S.E. ^^J 


Faunthorpe,* Kev. J. P., u.A. WJiUelands Trainmg-coilege, Chelsea^ ^^M 


Kawcett, Captain K<iwtiiil Uoytl, Mji, 3, Dampark-terrace, Teignntouth, -DitiffU 


FnwKsett, Frederick, Esq,, M.u. WesUjate, Louth, Lincoljuhire. ^ 


Fayrer,* Sui-geon-General Sir Joaepb, K.C.s.i., m.d. 16, OrantilU-place, Port- 
jiiat^-square, W. 


Feiliien, Cnpt. Hy. WemvN, R.A. Soppijnden, Burwask, Sussex. 


FeilJeu,* Lieut.-Col. 0. B. (7«lli Highlanders). 7, Sassex^ardcHS, Hijde-parh, W. 


Fclkin, Robert W., Esq. Etmjle-iutase, Fcnnfields, Wuioerhumplon. 


FelkiD, William, £m]., jun^ r.zji. Care of Mrs. H. Davmm, 8, Slrat/ord- 
square, Nottingham, ^^^ 


Feiiner, Willinto A., Esq, ^^H 


Fitet, Chiirjes Jnniesj Esq. 49, Edith road. West Kensinifton, W. J^^| 


Fei^piBon, Jdo., Esq. 10, Stapte-inn, W.C. ^^^H 



Fergusaon,* Jamea, Esq., P.K.8., D.C.L. 20, Lanijham-place, W. 1 


Fergusson, Hight Hon. Sir Jnmes, Bai-t,, K.C.U.Q. £ilkerran, Mai/bole, N, C ^J 


Ferris, Colonel W. Spiller. \, St. Michaers-gardens^ NoUing-ltiU,8.W. ^H 


Featiag, Major lioberl, R.E. South Kensington Miiseum, S.W. ^^| 


Few, Robert Hamilton, Esq. Souihiry-ij range, Litajjield-road, WimbMoH. ^^M 


Fielilen, Joslnia, Esq., ii.p. Nutfidd-priorf/, L'edhill, Surrey. ^^M 


Fielding, Cliailfs, Esq. 9, Cullum-atreei, E,C. ; and T «ru/am C/tt& «^^| 


Figgis,* Snmuel, Esq. Tlu) Lawn, \0h, Tulse-hUt, S.W. '^^M 


Finch, Jonndab, Esq. AJma-Awse, Willetden. < ^^^M 


Findlay, John, Esq. 24, Pr.itt'9-roail, Clapton-park, E. ^^^| 


Finky, Colonel J. B. ^imr// CM, 316, Regent-street, W. • 


Finn, Alexander, E«q. Teher(m. Care of Messrs. 1/khie, Jiormtm and Cff.f 
Waterho-pLtce, S. W. 


Firti, Fras. Helme, Eaq. 25, Cockspur-street, S. W. 


Firth,* John, Eaq., J. P. Care of Messrs. R. Buckland twd Son, llop-ijardtnf, 
St. Martin's-tane, W.C. 


Fitch, Frederitk, E»4., F.R.M.S. Hadleigh-house, Birfhburij^netc-park, N. 


Fit»-Adain,* John T., Esq. 5, rhillinwre-gardens, Kensington, W. 


Fitzclarence,* Commander tlie Hon. George, n.K. I, Wancick'Square, S.W. ^^ 


Fitzgerald, A., Esq. Verulitm Club, 54, St. James's-street, S.W. ^^M 


Fttzgemld, G. V. S., £<.q, India-office, S.W. • ^^| 


Fitigerald, Captain Keane. ' ^^^| 


FiU-Gerald, H, U. Penrose, Esq. 110, Ealon-nptare, S. W. ^| 


FitJ!-Jame«, Fnmk, Esq., c.E. Benares, Care of W. Whiteky, Esq., Wttt^ 1 
boumt-jrote, Baysusaler. 1 

I0J9 ^^J 

Roytd Geographical Society. 


Tar of 










£r. p. 

Fits Roy,* Opt. Bob. (yBrMH, bj(. Uitited Service CM, PaUtnall. 
Fitxwilliam, The Hon. C. W., M.p. Brooks's Club, St. JameiTtstreet, S. W. 
FitswiUiam,* Williui Thonus, Earl. 4, Grosvettor-square, W. i and Wenbeorth' 

home, Botherkam, Yorkshire. 
Flemii^, 6., Eeq. Cathoart-lodge, l)/rvhitt-road, St. John's, 8.E. 
Fleming,* John, Esq., cs.i. Wych Elm4odge, Cottege-road, Dulvcich. 
Fleming, Swidfbrd, Esq., C.H.a., F.O.S. Ottawa, Canada, 
Fleming, Bev. T. S. I^ Vicarage, St. Clements, Leeds. 
Flerayng,* Rev. Francis P. Sgor Bheann, near Dtmoon, Argyleshire. 
Fletcher, Thomaa Keddey, Esq. Unionrdoek, Zimehouse, E. 
Fletcher, W. Henry, Esq. Park-4odge, Blackheath-park, SJE. 
Flint, Montague J. M., Esq. Sutherhnd-house, Gunnenimry. 
Flocraheim,* Lonis, Esq. 11, Byde-park-street, W. 
Florence, Ernest Badinius, Esq. 9, Prince' s^ate, Hyde-park, S.W.; and 

5, Pump-court, Temple, E.C. 
Floyer, Ernest A., Esq. Care of Mrs. Flayer, 7, The Terrace, Putney, S.W. 
Foggo, Gee, Esq. Oriental Otib, W. 

Fogo, J. M. S., Esq. (Soig.-General). Army and Navy Clvlb, Pall-mall, 8.W. 
Foley, Lieat.-Gen. the Hon. St. George, c.B. 24, BoltOHrstreet, W. 
Foljambe,* Cecil G. S., Esq., u.r. Cockglode, Ollerton, Neitark. 
Folkard, A., Esq. Thatehed-House Gub, St. James' s-street, S,W. 
Follett, Charles John, Esq. 19, Queen' s-gaU, 8.W. ! 

Foord, John Bromley, Esq. May-viUa, Bexley-heath. ' 

Foot,* Capt. C.E., B.W. Care of Messrs. Woodhead and HOdtysth, 44, daring' 

cross, S.W. ; and United Service Club, Pall-mall, S.W. 
Forbes, A. Litton A., Esq. 53, Margaret-street, Cavendish-square, W. 
Forbes, Geo. Edward, Esq. New Club, Edinburgh, 
Forbes, General Jno., o.B. Invereman, Strathdon, Aberdeenshire; and Messrs, 

Ibrbes and Co., 25, Coekspur-street, S. W. 
Forbes, Major Jno. G., n.E. Care of Messrs. Orindlay and Co., 55, Parliament- 
street, S. W. ; and U, St. James's-square, S. W. 
Forbes, J. S., Esq. London, Chatham ^ Dover Railway Office, Vktoria-stat., S, W. 
Forbes, Lord, U.A. Castle Forbes, Aberdeenshire. 
Forbes, W. ¥„ E^. Loch-cote -house, Bathgate, N. B. ; and Castleton. 
Forbea-Mitdiell, J., Esq. Thainstone, Kintone, Aberdeenshire, N. B. 
Ford, Major-General Bamett (late Governor of the Andaman Isli^ids). 31, 

Queen^orough-terrace, Hyde-park, W. 
Fold,* Francis Clare, Esq., C.B., C.m.g. 

Forde, Henry Charles, Esq., C.E. St. Brendan's, Wimbledon, S. W. 
Forkmg,* Major-General J. G. R. (Madras Staff Corps). Chartered Mercantile 

Bank, 65, Old Broad-street, E.C. 
Forrest,* Alex, Esq., Surrey Department of Perth, Western Australia. 
Forrest, James, Esq. Kirriemuir, N. B. 
Forrest,* Jno., Esq. Perth, Western Australia. 

LiMt of FellowM of tiS^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



toruman, Commr. 0. A. (Consul for P«>rtupil). PotMhefstrvom, jyannaai 
Bepublic, S. Africa. Care of Vicomte Duprat, 10, St. Mary-Axe, E.C. 


Foreter, Hoo. Aothoiiy. 5, AngU*«a-terrac«, St. Ltonardt-ott-Sea, 


ForaUr,* John, Esq, Oriental Club, Bamner-mjuan, W. 


Fcirtt«r,* Riglit Hon. William Edward, m.p, 80, Ecclestm-sqwtre, 8,W.; and 
Bwriey, near Otley. 



Forsyth, Sir T. DougUs, E.C.S.I., C,B. 76,]On»tovc-gardefu, S. Kensington, S. W. 


ForsfCli, William, Em|., M.P., q.C. 61, Rutland-gate, S. W. 


ForteKue,* Hon. Dudley F. 9, ffertford-dreet, May/air, W. 


Foss, Edn-ard U'illi.-iin, Esq. Frentham-Zuntie, Croydon. ^^^M 


Foster, Major-(jeiieml Charles, C,B. 7, Montagu- s/juare, W. ^^^| 


Fostor, Edmond, Esq., jun. loO, Lexham-road, CromKeU-rwid,W, ^^^| 


Foster, Non-is T„ Esq, Adolaide-atrect, Vauxhall, Birmingham, ^^^| 


Fostir, n. G., Esq. 4, St. Jainea' s-place, Gloucester. ^^H 


Foulkes, Rer. John, Bangalore. Care of Messr$. Orindlay and Co., 55, Par- 
Itamentttreet, S. W. 


Fowler, A, Grant, Esq. Care of Alex. Denoon, E$q., Beckenham, Kent. 


Fowler,* J, T„ Esq. Care of Rev. A. WiUrn, M.A,^ National Societi/s Dep6t, 
Sanctuary, Wettminater, S. W. 


Fowler,* John, Esq., C.E. Thomwood-iodge, Campden-hUl, W, ^_ 


Fowler,* Robert N., Esq., K.P., U.A. 50, Comhill, E.G.; and Tottmkaiti^^^ 


Fox, D, If., Esq,, Chief Eng. Saatosand St. PaulQ Railway, 8t. Panh, BnuST 
Caro of G. If. Ilittier, Eiq., Ill, Gresliaiifhoute, Old Broad-ttreet, E.C. 


Vol.* Fraoi-ia E., Esq., B.A. Uplands, Tamerton Foliot, Plymouth. 


Fox, Francis Wm„ Esq, Dmomhire C/ui, St. Jameia-itreet, 8.W. 


Foi. Lieut, T. A., tt.N,R. Care of Messrs. U. S. King and Co., 65, ConSm, 


Francis, Fi-ederick, Esq. iQ, Courtfield-gardent, Sauih Ken»ngtm, S.W, 


Fninlcg,* Aug. W., E^. 103, Victorvt-atreet, 8.W. ^H 


Franks, Charles W., Esq, ^^H 


Fmser, CapUin H. A., l.N. Zanzibar. 


Fraaer, Jm. Grant, E«q., C.e. 9, Great Queen-Street, Wettminster, S.W. 


Frwer, Captain T. Care of Messrs. Orindlay and Co., 55, Parliament-stroetj 


Fm.Ur, Alex., Esq. H.M. Consul, Tamtuy, Formosa. Care of James FixUcr, 

Esq., Tovn'house, Aberdeen. 


Vmxtr, John, Esq. Sydney, Nete So^k Wedes ; and T2, Cbrnhilf, E C. 


Fredrichsen, Aug. Daniel, Esq. St. Huberts^ Eayne-road, BechenXj^^M 


Ffwiand, H, W., Esq, ChicAester; and Atkenaum Cliib, Pall-mall. ^H 


Pre«liog, Sir Sonford, K.C.M.G. (Governor of the Gold Coast Colony). 2, T'yeydl^l 
terrace, Clifton, near Bristol, 1 


Freeman. Henry W„ Esq, Thirlestaine-hall, Cheltenham. 1 


Fieke, Thoma* George, Esq. 1, CromvelUiuuses, Kensington^ S.W. ^M 





















Royal Geographical Society. li 

Fiemantle, Captain Hon. Edmund Robert, B.x., C.B., c.u.6. 20, Eatonr-place, 

Frere, Lieut. Bartle C. A. Care of Messrs. Cox and Co., Crau/»-cavrt, S.W. 
Frere, Bartle John Laurie, £aq. 45, Bedford^uare, W.C. 
Frere, Bight Hon. Sir Hj. Bai-tle Edw., Bart., P.O., O.C.B., O.C.8.I., D.C.L. 

Athenaim Club, PaU Mall. 
Freshfidd,* Douglas W., Eaq. KiJbrooke-park, East Orinatead ; 6, Stanhope- 
gardens, S. Kensington, S. W. ; and United Unioersity Club, S. W. 
Freahfield,* W. Dawes, Eaq. 64, Westhoume-terrace, W. 
Frewen, Bichard, Esq. Care of Messrs. Castle and Lamb, Fleet-street, E.C. 
Frith, Rer. William. 3, Brunswick-villas, Cambridge-road, Tumham-green. 
Fry,* Frederick Morris, Esq. 14, Montague-street, Butsell-square, W.C. 
Fry, Rer. Henry John. 57, Vincent-square, S. W. 
Fuidge, William, Esq. 5, Fark-roa, Bristol. 
Fuller, Thomas, Esq. Trayton-house, Bicftmond-hill ; and United University 

aub, S. W. 
Fussell, Rer. J. G. Cnny. 30, Pembridge-gardens, Bayswater, W. ; and 

XUoskehane-castle, Templeinore, Ireland. 
Fyfe, Andrew, Esq., M.D. 112, Brompton-road, S.W. 
Fynney, F. B., Esq. Maritzburg, NataL Care of B. J. Mann, Esq., 5, Kings- 

domk'XnUas, Wandsvcorth-comman, S. W. 
Fytche, Lieut-General Albert, cs.i. Pyrgo-park, Havering-atte-Boicer, near 

Bomford, Essex; and Reform Club, S. W 

Gabrielli,* Antoine, Esq. 21, Queen' s-gate-terrace, Kensington, S.W. 

Gahan, C. F., E^q. Royal Naval Hospital, Qreat Yannouth. 

Gahan, Frederick, Esq., CE. Maherabeg, Donegal, Ireland; and Irish Church 

(Sub, Dublin. 
Gatbraith, James W., Esq. Care of Messrs. Patrick Henderson and Co., St., Glasgow. 
Galbraith, Wm. Robert, Esq., CE. 91, Finchley-road, N. W. 
Gale, Henry, Esq., CE. Care of Mr. A. S. Twyford, 5, Southampton-street, 

Bloom^mry, W.C. 
Galloway,* John James, Esq. 

Galsworthy, Frederick Thomas, Esq. 8, Queen's-gate, Hyde-park, S. W. 
Galsworthy, Robt. Herbert, Esq. 61, Gloucester-place, Portman-square, W. 
Galton,* Captain Douglas, r.e. 12, (duster-street, Oroavenor-place, S. W. 
Galton,* Francis, Esq., m.a., f.b.8. 42, Rutland-gate^ S.W.; and 

Athenaum CliA, S.W. 
Galton, Theodore Howard, Eaq. Hadtor-house, Droitwich, 
Gammell,* Major Andrew. Drumtochty, Kincardineshire, N. B. 
Gardiner, Chas., Esq. The Temple, Coring, Oxford. 

1140 Q 




^^^V List of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^^^M 


Gardiner,* H. J., Esq. Huntmead, EUham, S.E. 



Gardner, Christopher T., Ya(\. (H.lf. Cotustil, Kiungchota, China). Cart of Joi$t 
Gardner, E»q., SabiaO'i-iodje, Eoehampton-loM. 


Gaitliwr, Reuv-AilmirBl G. H. Woodside, EUhatn. 


Gardner, Henry Dent, Esq. 25, Northbnok'road, Lee. ^^| 


Gardner, John Dunn, E*q. ^^H 


Garragh, Lon], 31, Portman'iqwve, W. V^H 


Gascoigne, Frederic, Esq. 


Giiskin, Iler. .loaeph. Chateau. Belle Assise, Boulogite-sui^Mer. Care of 
J. H. Oaaltm, Eiq., Ifoine-office. Whaehall, S. HI 


G«»iot," John P.. jiin., K»q. The Culixrs, Ciirthahon, Suneij. 


ijiiBtrell, Lieut.-CoL .Umts E. (B«nj;. SUflCorps). 7, LaiudoKne-rd., Wimbledon, 


Gattr,* Chorte* H., K«q^ M.A. Fetbridge-jiftrk, East Grintte(td,Suitex. 


riaviii. John, Esq. 27, Leadenhall-street, E.G. ^j 


(Tnwl«r. Colonel J. C. Towr of London, E.G. ^^| 


fiiiyfcr, Win., E«q., U.A., LL.O. Middle-<las$-schoftl, DronJfy, Kent. ^^M 


Gedgc, Sidney, E«q. Mitchamnliall, Mitchnm, ^^H 


Geiijei,* Jno. Lewis, E»q, 75, Onsba-gardenn, South Kensington, S.W. ^^m 


Gell, Hcv, A, Hamilton, ¥.A. 4i, Enlon-square, S.W. J 


OellRtlj,* Kdwnit), Kaq. Uplands, Sydenham. ^^H 


George, Kev. H. B. N'eto College, Oxford. ^^| 


Ghewj,* Albert Brovra, E»q., c.EU ^^M 


Gibb,* George Heiiderwjn, Esq. l'^,Vict'Jria-3lre«t, Westminiter, S.W. 


Gibbons,* Chas. Cockbum, Esq. (H.M. Vice-Consul, Ponce, Portu Rico). Care 
(if Messrs, Wood/ieaJ and Co., 4-4, Charini; -cross, S. W. 



GiUis,* H, Hiiclts, Esq. SI. Dunatan's, Jifgnifs-park, A.W. 


GlbUs, James, Eiq,, cs.i. 42, Lonf/riJije-romd, South Kennmjton, S. W. 


GibU, Jno. Dixon, E»q. Consenatioe Club, St. James's, S. W, 


Gibson, Jiune» Y„ Esq. Care of Messrs. ]Yilliame and Jforgate, Hmrietlw- 
street, Coeent-Oarden, W.C. 


G. |«. 

Gilci, Ernest, Esq. Care of 0. A. Gill, Esq., Clarmmt, Stwlley-park, Mtt- 
bourne, Victoria. J^H 


Giles, Rev. Win. TlieophUu.«, h.a. NetheHeUjh, Chester. ^^^ 


Gilford," Rear-Admiml the Right Hon, Lord. 8, Hereford-<jardens, W. f ^H 
Admrcdty, Whitehall, S. W. ^^ 



Gill, CapUinW. J., iue. 1, Edinhwrqh-mnnsians, ViotoriO'Street } ami JiMiiarl 
United Service Club, Charles-street, S.W. 1 


GiUeiple,* WUliam, Esq. {of Torbane-IM). 46. Melnlle^treet, Edinburgh, J 


GiUctt,* Alfi^, £tq. ^H 


Gilletl," William, E«q. 6, William-street, Lomdes-sqvare, S, W. ^H 


Gilllat, Algernon, Esq. 7, Lancaster^ate, W. 


Gillies.* Robert, Ewj., C.K. Care of JUessrs. Reilh and Wdkie, Ihrnedin, 
Oiatjo, A'. Z, Per Messrs. Sampson Low and Co., 188, Fleet-street, E.C, 


Gilnun,* Ellis, Esq. BcrAcle^/'mansiMs, 64, Seifmour-streel^ W, 

L J 

Royal Geographical Society. 





Gisborae, Thomas Matthew, £iq. 4, Upper St. QermakCa, Blackheath, S.E. 

Gladctone, George, Eaq. 31, Ventttor.mlUu, CltftonmUe, Brighton. 

Gladstone, J. H., Eaq., PBJ>. 17, J>embridge-$qiiar€, W. 

Gladstone,* Robert Stuart, Esq. Windham Clvb, S. W. 

GlanriUe, SUraiiiu Goring, Esq. Stafford-villaa, Lewiaham High-road, S.E. 

Glass, H. A., Esq. St. KUda, Vanbntgh-park, Blackheath, S.E. 

Glass, James George Henr^, Esq. 28, London-street, Edinburgh. Care of 
Meaere. H. 8. King and Co., 45, PaU-maU, 8. W. 

Glen, Joseph, Esq., Mem. Geogr. Soe. of Bombay. Oriental Club, W. 

OloTcr,* G. B., Esq. 8, Store/a-i/ate, 8. W. 

I Glorer, Capt. Sir John H., R.N., O.CH.o. 27, Bury-atre^, St. Jamea'a, S.W. 
I Glorer, Robert Reavelef, Esq. 22, Great St. Helen's, E.C. 
I Glcver, Colonel T. G., R.E. Banoood, Heraham, near EAer, Surrey. 
: Glyn, Sir Richard Geoi^, Bart. Army and Navy Club, S.W. 
\ Goad, Thomas William, Esq. Care of Messrs, Coutta and Co., Strand, W.C. 

Godman,* F. Da Cane, Esq. 10, Chandoastreei, Cavendiah'aquare, W.; and 
Chad Okeford-houae, Blandford. 

Goldsmid, Bartle, Esq. 16, Queer^-gate-terrace, 8. W . 
C. p. I Goldsmid, Maj.-Gen, Sir Frederic John, k.c.s.1., C.IK 3, Observatory-atenue, 
EenaingUm; and United Service Clttb. S.W. 

Goldsmid, Sir Julian, Bui. 105, PiocadMy, W. 

Goldsmith, Staff-CommaDder W. B., b.n.. Royal Yacht < STfin,' Portsmouth. 

Goldsarorthy, B. Tuckfield, Esq., O.H.O. Army and Navy Club. 

Gooch, Thomas Longridge, Esq. Team-lodge, Saltwelif Qateahead-on^Tyne. 

Goodall, Abraham, Esq., F.B.C.8., Inspector-General of HosjMtals (Eietii'ed List), 
4, Eloaston-place, QueetCs-gate, S. W. 

Goodall, George, Esq. Junior Carlton Chib, S. W. 

Goodenoagh,* Colonel \V. H., r.a. 49, Weymouth-street, Portland-place, W. 

Goodhart,* Joseph Henry, Esq. Manor-house, Tooting, Surrey. 

Goodinge, Jaa. W., Esq. 18, Aldersgatestreet, E.C. 
I Goodliffe, Fras. Gimber, Esq, Cape of Good Hope. 
j Goodliffe,* Henry, Esq. Junior Athenaeum Clvb, W. ; and Admiralty, S. W. 

Goodman, Alfred Wm., Esq. Heath-house, Belvedere, Kent. 
i Goodwin,* William, Esq. 

Goolden,* Charles, Esq. United University Club, S. W, 

Goolden, Joseph, Esq. 18, Lancaster-gate, W. 

Gordon,* General the Hon. Sir Alexander H., K.C.B., M.i*. 50, Queen's-gate- 
gardens, South Kensington, S. W. 

Gordon, Major Edwaixl Smith, R.A. Royal Carriage Department, Royal 
Arsenal, Woolvnch ; and Naval and Military Club, Piccadilly, W. 

Gordon, Rev. Geo. Maxwell. Care of Major Gordon, r.a., Woolicich. 
I Gordon, J. Kewall, Esq. Morro Velho, Minaa Geraea, BraxU; and 49, George- 
I atreet, Portman-square, W. 
; Gordon, Bobt, Esq., C.B. Care of Mr. D. Kutt, 270, Strand, W.C. 

"'3 e % 



List of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^^^^^^M 


Qordon, RumcII Mannem, Esq. Cttre of Mtttrt, SobarU, LMxi and Co., 15, 
Lombard'itreet. E.C. 


Gor«, Colonel Augustus F. Care of Mettrt. Hallett Md Co., 7, St. i/iirtrnV 
place, W.C. 


Gore, Richard Thorofts, E»q. 6, Qutet^^qtiare, Path. 


Gore, Lieut. St. fleorge C, b.e. Care of Masrs. Grindiay and Co., 55, 
FarlianuiU-strect, S. W. 


Goren, James Newton, E«q. 6, Slone-iuildiiufs, Liutaln't^nn, W.C. i 


Gosling, Fred. Solly, Esq. 20. Spring-gardens, S. W. J 


Gotto, Hjr. Jcalcin, Esq. Croft-iod'je, Highgate-nad, ti. W. ^H 


Gough, Hugh, Viccount, F.L.S. Lovtgh Cvtra Cattle, Oort, Co. Oalway. ^^M 


Gould,* Abraham, Esq. Someraet-lodge, l\l, Adelaide-mul, N.W. ^^H 


Gould, Rev. Jns. Aubrej. L 4, Albany, W. ^* 


Gould, John, Esq., F.R.S., P.L.s. 26, Charlotte-st,, Bedford-aquare, W,C. 


Gmbham, Michael, E*i., u.i). 


Graeme. H. M. S., Esq. Care of Mean. Orindtay and Co., 55, Partiament- 
ttreet, S. W. 


Graham, Aoircw, Esq. (Stftff Surg. tt.N,). Army and Navy Club, S. W. ^_ 



Graham, Cjrit C, Esq., O.M.O. ^^M 


Graham,* H. R., Esq. 8, Ihjde-jMrk-sqmre, 8. W. ^H 


Grntuim, J. C. W. Paul, E*q. Brooks's Club, St. .lames' S'Street, S.W. ^^| 



(Jraham,* Jame». Esq. Hicjhwood-honue, Kingston, Surrey. 


Graham, James Kenrj Stuart, Esq. 1, Belgrave-road, Shepherd's-buah, W, 


Graham, Robert Geo., Exq. St. Alban*, Hamptcmron-Tliitiaea. 


Graham,* Thomas Cuiiinghame, Esq. Carlton Club, 3.W.; and Dw\lop-h<mt*, 


Grant,* AndreK-, Ek[. Invennay-houae, Bridge of Earn, N. B. ^^H 



Grant,* C. Mit4;hel], Esq. ^H 


Grant, Daniel, Esq., H.r. 12, Clevcland-gardetu, Hydo-park, \V, ^^| 


Grant,* Francis W., Esq. AO, Pall-mall, S.W. ^^ 


ffi. C. p. 

Grant, Lieut.-Col. James A., C.n., CS.X., P.R.8. E. India U. 8, Club, S. Wl ; 1 
1S», Upper- Grosvenor-street, W. ; and llousghUl, N,tim, N. B. 


• •iTuit, Jno., Esq. Qrampianrlodge, Putney, 


Grant, Lieut. John i]acpherson^(92nd Highlanders). The Castle, Ballindalloch, 


Grant, W. J. A., Esq. ffHUidon, Oollunpton. 


GratUn. Edmund A., Esq. (H. M. Consul, Antwerp). Scientific Cfufc, Saiil*- 
rtw. IF. 


Gray, Andrew, Esq. 


Gray,* ArehiUlil, Esq. 37, Holland-park, W. ; and 13, Austin Friars, E.C. 


Gray. Matthew, Esq. St. John's-park, Blackheath, S.E. 


Gray,* Matthew Hamilton, Esq. Si. Johns-park, Blackheath, S.E. ^ 


(^ray, Koberl Ksiye, Esq. St, John'i-park, Blackheath, S.E. ^^^ 


Gnj, Lieut,-ColoDel WiUiam. Ihrley-hall, Beading. ^^^H 


Royal Gec^aphical Society. 






1872 ' 
1857 ■■ 












Greavea, Iter. Richard W. 1, WhUekaU-gardeni, S. W. 

Green, Geo. P. E., Esq. 100, Qoicerstreet, Bedford-square, W.C. 

Green, J<Mq>h E., Esq. 12a, Myddelton-^quare, B.C. 

Green, Colonel Malcolm, C.u. 78, St. Qeorge't-road, S. W, 

Green, Samuel, Etq. Wardletcorth, RochdaU. 

Green, Rev. W., H.a. Chaplain to the Tower of London, 

Green, M^or-General Sir W, H. R., K.C.8.I., C.B. 93, Belgrave-road, S. W. 

Greene, Thomas Parnell, Esq. Poulton^ouae, Hampton, Middlesex, 

Greenfield, Thomas Cballen, Esq. Perq/-Aouae, Canning-road, Croyd<M. 

Greoifield,* W. B., Esq. 35, Olouoester-sqvare, Hyde-park, W, ; and Union 

Clvb, S. W. 
Greenup, W. Thomas, Esq. The Leys, Cambridge. 
Gregory,* Sir Augustas Charles. Surveyor-General, Brisbane, Queensland, 

Gregory, Charles Hutton, Esq., c.E. I, Delahay-street, Westminster, S. W. 
Gwgorj,* Francis Thomas, Esq. Queensland. 
Gregson, Geoi^e, Esq. 63, Harley-street, Catendish-square, W, 
Grellet,* Henry Robert, Esq. Care of M. Miaa, Esq., 41, Crutched Friars, 

Grenfell, Henry R., Esq.,if.p. St. Jameia-place, S. W. 
Grenrel),* Rer. Richard, V.A., F.B.S. 39, St. Giles' s-ttreet, Oxford. 
Grey, Albert, Esq., Bji. Dorchester-louse, S. W. 
Grey, Charles, Esq. Th» Cottage, Staines. 
Grey,* Sir George, K.C.B. 

Grieraon, Charles, Esq. Care of Messrs. Hamilton and Co., 32, Paternoster- 
row, E.C. 

Grienon, J., Esq., H.M. Consul, Coquimbo. Care of Mrs. G. J. Cruikshank, 
Clair-vina, Saughtree, Dumfries. 

Griesbach, C. L., Esq. Care of Messrs. H. S. King and Co., 65, Comhill, 

Griffin, Colonel James T. Seaton-house, Adamson-road, N. W. 

Griffin, John, Esq. Dunster-house, Mincing-lane, E.C. 

Griffith,* Daniel Clevin, Esq. 20, Gower-street, W.C. 

Griffiths, Arthur Edward, Esq. 25, Talbot-square, Hyde-park, W, 

Griffiths, Rer. John, U.A. Belton-rectory, Grantham. 

Grindrod, R. B., Esq., m.d., ll.d., f.1,.8., &c. Townsend-house, Malvern. 

Grinlinton, J. J., Esq. Colombo, Ceylon. Care of Edicard Woods, Esq., OX., 
3, Great George-street, S. W. 

Grosrenor, Lord Richard, m.p. 12, Upper Brook-street, Bond-street, W. 

Grove, George, Esq. Lower Sydenham, S.E. 

Grover,* Major George Edward, B.E. 28, Collingham-place, Cromwell-road, 

Guillemard, F. H. H., Esq. Eltham, Kent. 

Goinee, William Bernard, Esq. 7, New-inn, Strand, W.C. 



Vlut of ' 


Lilt of Fellows of the ^^M 


Gaianets, Cecil, Eiq. Venilam dub, St. James's, 8.W. 


Gunn, Arthur, Esq. 4, Oak-villas, ffampstead, JV.TT. 


Guanell, Ciiptnin Edinumi H., R.N. Armtf ami A'oty Club, S.W. ; vmJ 
21, Argj/ll'tvad, Catnpden-hai, W. 


Gurney,* John II., E»q. North Iiepp», Sorwioh. 


fi limey, Samuel, Esq. 2(i, Hanoter-tfrr ace. Regent s-parh, X.W. ^^H 


Gwynne, Fms. A., Esq. \b, Bwry-street, St. James's, S.W. ^^H 


Gwynne,* .Inmes Eglinton A., Esq., c.K., F.s.A,, J.p.,&c. 97, HarUy-slreet, W.i 1 
and Cliff-hoiise, Dovercouit, Essex. 1 


Gwynne, Samuel G., Eiq. S/unil'/iUI-coilege, Cannock, Stafford. 1 


" 4 


Hulicht, Claudius Eilwnrd, E$q. 23, Tttrfrness-tert^ce, Baysvattr, W. ^^M 


llwlwen, John Henrj-, Ea^. Park-road, Wandstcorth. ^^H 


Haggaid,* Edward, E»q. S. Orent Cumb^-land-place, W. ^^H 


Haines, C. Hcniy, Esq., K.D. t, ScMth-terrace, Cork. 


Hairby, Edward, Efq, 22, Vicloria-txllas, King EdwarcTs-road, S. Baokneif. 



Hale. Ker. Edward, M.A. Eton College, and United University C/m6, S.W. 


Httlford, F. B., Esq. 26, Cleceland-gardats, Hyde-park, W. 


Halifiut, lUght Hon. Viscount, G.C.B. 10, Bel^jroM^tqwire, S.W.; and 
Hickleton, Torkshire. 


Holkett,* Rev. Puabar S. LittU Bookhom, Smrty. 


Haikett,* Commnuder Peter A., RJt. 


Hall, Alex. Lyon», Esq. LyoiuKourt, Ladhroko-road, Holland-park, W. 


Hall, Ed. Alg., Eaq. 131, Piccadilly, W, ^H 
Hall,' James MitcAlester, E»q. Kilkaii-house, Tayinloan, Anjyleshire. ^^ 



Hall, JamM Tebbutt, E«q. Eastcot-lodge, Cktvcndish-road, BrotidtAury, N.W. 


Uall, Admiral Robert, C.B. 38, Craven-hiU-gardens, W. ; and Admiralty, 


Hall, Russell King, Esq. 6, Elgin-road, Kemingtm, W. 


Hal), Thomas V., Em^,, f.cs. EJittgkam-house, near Ltaiherkead. 


H»U, Wm. Ed., Esq, Care of Hon. Sir W. S. Grove, 115, Harlty-st^tet, W. 


Halligey,* Kev. John Thos. FreiJk. 23, Bclmont-road, Exeter. 


Hallowes, Frndcia, Esq. 7, Savilc-row, W. 


HalpiD.* Capt. K. C. 38, Old Broad-slreet, E.C. 


Hamilton," Lieut. Andrew (I02ud Itegiment). Tlie House of Falkland, Fifsf 
and Naval and Military Club. W. 

1316 J 


Royal Geographical Society, 












Hamilton, Archibsld, Eiq. South Barrow, Bromley, Kent. 

Hamilton, ChariM Edward, Esq. Aptky-house, WMtchurch, Monmouth. 

Hamilton, Loi-d Clande. 83, Portland-place, W.; and Barons-cowrt, Co. 

Hamiltoq, Jao. 0. C., Esq. 54, Eaton-place, S. W. 
Hamilton, Admiral Richnrd Veer. AJmiralty Office, Queemtown. 
Hamilton, Col. Bohtn Wm. (Grenadier (Joardb). Ouardt? <3u6, Pall-mall, S.W. 
Hamilton, Rowland, Esq. Oricnt'il Hi A, W. 

H^unilton, Walter, Esq. 21, Magdalen-ierrace, 8t. Leonard" a-on-Sea. 
Hamilton, Rear-Admiral W. A. Baillie. Macartney-houae, Blackheath, S.E. 
HaroiBofld,* Nnvig.-Lieut. G. C, Bjr. Care of the Hydrographic-ogke, Ad- 
miralty, S.W. 
Hammond, H. Alfred, Esq. Aldenham^hotue, S»i»iton-hiU, 8.W.; and Royal 

Ex'.hfm^e^ E.G. 
Hanbury, R. W., Esq., if j>. Jlam-haU, AsMioume, Derbyahure, 
Hancodr, E. H., Esq. Leigh-villa, The Avenue, SutHion. 
Hand,* Admiral Gforge S., C.B. U. S. Club, S.W. 
Haadlfy,* Benjamin, Esq, 5G, ElaivUroad, LcwTuter-ftili, 8.W. 
Ilandky, CaptAia Francis (late I.N.). Brighton Club, 55, Old Steine, Brighton. 
Hanham, Sir Jno. A., Bart. 55, WUton-road, S.W..; and Dean's-court, 

Wimbome, Dorset. 
Hanham, Commr. T. B., B.K. Mantton-houee, near Blandford, Doriet. 
Hankey,* Blake Alexander, Esq. 

HatJcey, Iteginald, Esq. 71, Chester-square, S.W. ; and Ar^ur's Club, S.W. 
Hruikfy,* lEodolph Alexander, Esq. 54, Warwick-square, S.W. 
Hankey, Thomson, Esq. 59, Portland-place, W. 
Hanmer,* Lord, F.n.s. 59, Eaton-place, S.W.; and Hanmer-haU and Bcttea- 

fieid-park, Flintshire. 
Hanmer,* Philip, Esq., b.a. Chrietchurch, Nev Zealand. 
Hansard,* Henry, Esq. 13, Great Qacea-sirtet, W.C. 
HsuBop, R, B., Bsq,,H.A, St,Saeiour's Qrammar-school, Southaark, S.E. ; and 

Surrey CtmiOy Cliib, Brixton, S. W. 
Hajpourt,* E^rton V., Esq, Whitir^U-hatl, Fork. 
Hardie,* GaTin, Esq. 5, Queen-street, Mayfair, W. 
Harding, Major Charles. Orafton Club, 10, Qraftonrttreet, Piccadilly, If. 
Harding, J. J., Esq. 1, Esmthunj-park, hlotgton, N. 
Hare, ETan Herring, Esq. St, Jofin'a-prtcincis, Putttey, S.W. 
Harford, Ufvi. 1 leafy Charles (99th Regiment). 
Hargravc,* Joseph, Esq. Fort Garry, Wmnipeg; Manaoba, Canada. Care of 

the Hudson's Bay Company, 1, Lime-street, E.C. 
HargTciiYes, Wtlliam, Esq. 

Harley, Colonel R. W., c.B., c.M.e. Junior United Service Club, S.W. 
Harper, J. A. W., Esq. 9, Cairqfden-house-road, S. W. 
Harris, Edw„ Esq. Bydal-viUa, Zongtcn-groce, Upper Sydenham. 

Y«ftr of 


List ofFelhtDs of the^^^^^^^^^^^^M 




IlArrU, Admiral th« Hon. Sir E. A. J., (H.B.M. Envoy Extraoniinary ' 
<ui<l Uioiiter t'leni^leDtiary, TfteJfajue, Holland). Mcssra.Woodhead and Co. 


Harris, Capt. Henry, }l.c.S. Sh, Glow:etter't«mKe, Hyde-park, IV. J 


Harris,* Ttiwxlore, Esq. The Cedars, Leighton Biutard. J 


HoiTtMa, Charl««, Esq. 3, Oreat Ibuw-streel, E.C. ^^H 


Hanuon, Ciwrle«, Etq. 10, Lanoaater^ate, W. ^^H 


Horriwn, Wm. Artiiur, Etq. 27, Wesley-street, Waterloo, Liverpool. ^^M 



Harrowby, Right Hou. Dudley, Earl of, F.RA Sandon-henue, Lichfield; am^^m 
Norton, Gloucestershire. J 


Hart, Heory Neville, Esq. 107, Harley-street, W. | 


Hiirt, JarriM, Esq. Winslow-house, South Nonoood. ^^m 


Hurt,* J. L., Eiq. 20, Pembridgt-sqvare, W. ^| 


Hart, Lionel, Esq. Care of Mettrs, Samuel Dohree and Co.^ 6, TokenhiM^^% 
yard, E.C. 


Hwl, Montagu P., Esq. 14, St. Geonjc's-t'jwire, S. W. 


Httrttand,* F. Dixon-, i-jq., M.P., F.B.A., &c. 14, Chcaham-place.S. W. ; and the 
Oaklanda, near Cheltenham. 


Hartley, Sir Chas, Aug., P.B.S.E., &o. 26, Pall-maU, S.W.; and Reform 
CM, PalUmall, S. W. 


Hartnell, I!ev. Bedford, M.A. Clifton-college, Bristol. 


Harvey, Alcjc. S., Esq. 9, HaV^erley-grovt, Weslhourne-grooe, W. 


Harvey,* Sir Gi«r]e«, Bart Rainthorpe-hall, I^ng Stratton. -^^M 


\ Harvey, Charlet, Esq. Raihgar-cottage, Streatham, S. W. ^^H 


Hmrey, James, E»q. E*h-*treet, TmgrcargUl, Southland, Nevi Zealand. Care 1 

«/ the Colonial Bank of Ntte Ztatand, 1 3, ifooiyatestrtet, B.C. j 


1 H»n'«7, John, Esq. 1 


; Hiu-rej-, l;icluird M., Esq. \S, Devonahire-etreet, Portland-place, W. j^H 


; Harvey,* Wm. C, Etq. City Liberal Club, Walbrook, E.C. ^| 


Harvie,* Edgar Christmai, E«q. CUy of London Club, Old Broad-street, 1 
E.C. ^J 


Harwood, S., Esq. namillon-home, Leamington. ^^^^ 


Harwood,* William, Esq. 31. Lombard-street, E.C. ^^^^ 


Haskm, Aug. Fred., Esq. 14, Lavm-road, Haverstoch-liill, N.W. ^^^^| 


Hatliertoii, Lord. Teddesley-park, Penkrxdge, Staffordshire. ^^H 


Uavilland, Rcr. C. R. d^. Iter, near Uxbridge, Bucks, ^^^ 


Hawker, Edward J., Esq. 37, Cadogan-place, S. W. 


Hawker, Geo. C, E»q, Can of A. Scott, Esq., Messrs. W. Jackson and Co., 
6} Austin Friars, E.C. 


Envkintk, Alf. Tcrapleton, Esq. 35, ^ftring-gardens, S.W. 


Hawkins,* John, Esq. 


Hawkins,* Lieut.-<Jeii. J.Summerfield, n.E. St, Leonards, St.James's'rd., Malvern. 


Hawkins, ReT. Joshua. The A'est, Hoviard-road, South Norwood. 


Hawkins, ReT. W. Bentijiok L., r.BJ. 33, Bryanston-aquare, W. 


ll.iwkslinir,' Sii Jolin, c.r., r.iw. 33, Great Oeorgc-itreet, S.W. ^^M 

1389 ^M 

I J 

Aoycd GeoffraphictU Society, 












Hawkslej, Thomas, Esq., o.e. 14, PhUlimon-gardms, KmringUm, W. 
Hazell, E. Nelson, Esq., f.o j., Netherlands. Lewgar$, Kittg^ry, Middleaex. 
Haj, Andrew, Esq. Oriental CM, Hanoversquart, W. ; cmd Bombay, 
Hay,* Bear-Admiral Lord John, M.p., C.B. Falmer-plaoe, Slough. 
Haj,* Rear-Admiral Sir J. C. Dalrymple, Bart., C.B., r.B.s. 108, St. 

Otorg^a-aquare, S. W. ; U. S. Club, S.W. { Jhmragit, Olenluce ; and Harrow- 

<M-th«-kill, N.W. 
Haj, Gapt. J. S. (Inspector-General of Houssa Forces). Cape Coaat Cattle. 

Care of Sir Hector Hay, Bart., 2, Carlitle-plaoe, Viotoria-etreet, S. W. 
B»Y, Jno. Ogilry, Esq. AAycA, Arrakan, India. 
Haydon, G. H., Esq. Bethlehem Hospital, S.E. 
Etjet, A. A., Jan.,' Esq. 
Hayes,* Henry, Esq. Exeter Ccilege, Oxford. 
Haynes, Stanley L., Esq., m.d. Malvernrlink, Worcestershire. 
Haysman, James, Esq. Bwrgess-hSI, Fmehley-road, N.W. 
Head, Geo. T., Esq. East-ctiff-house Orammar-school, Margate. 
Head, Henry, Esq. Stamford-hUl, N. 
Head, John Merrick, Esq. Belle^vue, Reigate, Surrey. 
Headley, Robert, Esq. 44, Walham-grove, S.W. 
Heane,* Lieut. James L., Alte Burg, bei Aerzen, Prov. Hannover. 
Heathfield, W. E., Esq. 30, King-street, St. James's. 
Beaton, John, Esq. Qarden-villa, Dodvoorth, near Bamsley. 
Hearen, Rev. Charles^ M.A,. l%e Vicarage, Horley, Banbury ; and Beacvns/ield 

Clvb, Cattle-street, Birmingham. 
Hector, James, Esq., F.E.8., H.D. Care of Agent-Qeneral for New Zealand, 7, 

Westminster-chambers, Victoria-street, S.W. 
Hederstedt, Henry Burdett, Esq., c.E. 72, Lancaster-gate, W. 
Heeley, W. E., Esq. Cktre of S. S. Geard and Son, 3, Guildhall-chambers, 

Batbttghattstreet, E.C. 
Hegan,» Chas. John, Esq. Oxford and Cambridge CIvh, Pall-mall, S. W. 
Heinemann, N., Esq., PH.D. 80, Uj^r Gloucester-place, Portman-square, W. 
Helme,* Richard, Esq. Walthamstow, Essex, 
Henderson,* 0., Esq., H.D., F.L3. Care of Messrs. King and Co., Pall-mall, 

Henderson, Henry, Esq. 24, Huntley-road, Elm-park, Liverpool, 
Henderson, John, Esq. 2, Arlington-street, Piccadilly, W. 
Henderson, Lient.-C!olonel K. G. Care of Sir C. M'Origor, Bart., and Co., 

25, Charles-street, S.W.; and Naval and M^itary Club, Piccadilly, W. 
Hendeiaon, Patrick, Esq. Care of George Reid, Esq., 11, Crooked-lane, 

Henderson,* P. L., Esq. 14, Fenchurch-street, E.C. 
Henei^, Charles, Esq. St. Jame^s Club, Piccadilly, W. 
Hennessey, J. B. N., Esq. (1st Atst. T^ig. Survey of India). Dehra Dhoon. Car 

of Messrs. H, 8, King and G>., Comlull, E.C. 


^ ^ 3^^B^^^9^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^| 


Lixt of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^^H 


Hmriques, Alfred G., Esq. 96, Glouceittr-terraat, IJyde-jxirh, W. 


Henry,* \Ym. Clina., Esq., M.O.. JJn^tlJ, tteur Letlbwy^ Herefordskve. 


Henty," Douglw, Esq. Cfiichetitr. 


Herbert, Chvles E., Esq. 


Herbert, Homce Aug., Esq. Care of Mesata. H. S. King ^ Co., 43, PaU-mall, 


Merries, Edward, Esq., aB. Athmaum Club, Pall-mall, 8. TV'. 


Hcrtilet, Sii» Edward, en. Librarian, Foreigri-c^e, S.W.; and Betie^ntf- 
hotue, ladammd. 


Hertslct, Geo. Thoi., Esq. Lord Chambeilain's'afficc, St. Jamafs-palaoe, 
S. W. 


Herrey, Lord Francis, m.p. 3, Spriag-gardtM, 8. W. 


Herx,» Dr. Comclins. San Francisco. Care of W. F. A. Archibald, Ftq.^ 
2, TempU-tjarden$, E.G. 


Hctherington. J. Newby, E«q. 62, IIarley-str«ett W. 


Heugh, John, Esq. 110, Cannon-strtet, E.C. ^J 


Hewitt, Richard, Esq. Eimfeld, Ether, Surrey, ^^| 


Heywood,* James, Esq., F.R.S. Athcnxum Club, S.W. ; and 26, Kenthgm^ 
palace-gardens, W. 


Heywood, Samnel, Esq. 171, StanliOj>f -street, Ilainpsttad-road, N.W. 


Key woilh. Liecit.-Col. Liwrence. IViji'/i Fnirr, near Iftuipori, Montnouthahire. 


Iliukie, CXuiiel, E»q. 23, Queen Anms't-ffite, S.W. 


Hicks, Alfred, Esq. 74, Oreut RuMll-ttrtet, W.C. ^J 


Iliggiiu, Edinond Thomas, Esq., 1I.R.C.S. 13, Dloomtbvry-ttrtet, E.C. W^M 


Hight, Copt. Edward. Care of Messrs. F. Green and Co., 112, /VncAu>^^ 
street, E.C. 1 


Hill, Arlliur Bowdler, Esq. Sotdh-road, Clap/^am-park, Surrey, S. W. j 


Hill, CI emeu t L., iisq. Foreign-office, S. W. ^^J 


Hill, Fretlcrick, Esq. Ilantston, Bedford-park, W. Cnffdon. j^j^H 



Hill, Henry, Esq. 122, LeadenkuU-street, E.C, ^^^ 


Hill, Capt. Juo.. B.E. {SunMy of India). Calcutta ; and Artny and Navy Club^ 
S. W. 


Hill, Samuel Thonua, Esq. Mile End Commerdal-ichooU, Stepney-green, E, 


Hill, Colonel Sir Stephen J., k.c.m.o.. c.d. Arm^j and Naxy CM, S.W.; 
and Drosford, Bishop's Waltfi'im, Hants, 


Hills, MsjoT-Geueral Jamc*, v.c, n. a., c.b. Care of Massrt. H. 3. Kimj and Co.^ 



Hiochliff. T. Woovlbine, E*i. 64. Lincoln' s-inn-fields, W.C. 


Hinde,* Samuel Henry, £«]. Ifimttam Chtb, 8. W. 


HlppUlev, Alfred Edward, Esq. 8, Store ij's-<jate, S. W. ; and ITtatehed-ffim* 
Club,' St. Jatnes'sstrect, S. W. 


Hirst, William Henry, Esq. 103, Mottratn-road, Staleybridge, Cheshirt. 


Hirth,* Dr. F. Imperial Maritime Cvstoms, China } and 8, Slcreif t-gatt, 

14S6 J 


Royal Geographical Society. 


Tar of 




I 1872 
! 1864 




HndMn,* John, Esq. Clyda-houae, Redhai, Surrey. 

Haggins, Hiutings Charles, Esq. 1], Kxldare-fjardem, W. 

HughM, A. \V., Esq, Care of F. P. Baher, Esq., 4, Bmd-court, Walhrook, B.C. 

Hughes, Captain Sir Frederic. Pole, Hole, Wexford. 

Hughes, J. Wm., Esq. Bangor, CamarwRshire. 

Hoghei, James, Esq. 328, Camden-road, N. 

Hughes, Joseph, Esq. Lamboum-lodge, South-vale, Upper Noricood, S.E. 

Hughes, Pringle, Esq. Middleton-hall, Wooler, Northumberland. 

Hughes,* Thomas Franc's, Esq. Chinese Maritime Customs, 8, Storey' s-gaie, S. W 

Hughes, Capt. W. Gwjmne. 14, Si. Jame^a-square, 8. W. 

Hughes-Hallett, Major. Junior United Service Club, S.W. 

HiUl, Staff-Comm, Thos. A., B.H. Noo Wook, Wimbledon, S.W. 

Hume,* Edmund Kent, Esq. 

Hume, Lieut-Colonel Gustarus. 115, St. Oeorge's-square, S.W, 

Hunt, John, Esq. 22, Lancaater-gate, ITyde-park, W. 

Hunt, W. G. Francis, Esq., Kji. 8, Duke-street, St. James's ; and Naval and 

Military (Sub, Piccadilly, W. 
Hunt, William Thomas, Esq. 1, Pemhridge-villas, Bayswater, W. 
Hunter, Major F. M. (Bombay Staff Corps). Aden. 60, South-street, St. Andrew's, 

Fifeshire, Care of Messrs. H. S. King and Co., Comhill, E.G. 
Hunter, John, Esq. 9, Nevs-square, Lincoln' s-inn, W.C. 

Hunter, Capt. J. Edward, R.N. Wenslcy-rectory, Bedall, Yorks ; and United 
Service Club, Pall-mall, S.W. 

Hunter, Colonel Mmitgomery (Bengal Staff Corps). DeOii. 

Hunter, William Ley land, Esq. 26, jMrkhall-rise, S. W. 

Hunter, W. W., Esq., B.A., LL.D., C.i.E. 9, Douglas-crescent, Edinburgh. 

Huntingford,* Lieut. G., k.n. Ellacombe, Cleveland, Somerset. 

Husband, John, Esq. QoulUm-road, Clapton, 

Hnson-More, James, Esq., MU. 2, Brook-street, Cheetham, Manchester. 

Hntdiins, F. Leigh, Esq. 22, Queen' s-gardens, Hyde-park, 8. W. 

Hutchinson,* Colonel Alexr. Hadden, R.A., F.0.8. TetAy, 8, Wales. 

Hutchinson, Edward, Esq. 8, Sumner-place, South Kensington, 8. W. 

Hutchinson, Capt. R. R. Verulam Ctub, 54, St. James' s-street, 8. W. 

Hutchison, John W., Esq. Balinaghie, Castle Douglas, N. B. ; and Conservatice 
Club, S.W. 

Hutton,* Charles W. C, Esq. Belair, Duiwick, S.E. 

Button, Wilb'am Pepperrell, Esq, Kitnberley, Griquakmd West. 

Huxley, Prof. T. H,, f.r.8. 4, Marlborough-place, St. John's-wood, N, W. ; and 
28, Jermyn-street, S.W. 

Hyde,* Captain Samuel. 

Hyndman, Hy. Mayers, Esq. 10, Devonshire-street, Portland-place, W. 



List of Fellows oftlia ^^^^^^^^^| 



Ibrahim, Helmy, P«uh». 3, Champiun-terrace, fferiert-roadf PlvauLead. 


llliiigworlh, lUchard Slonhcw«r, Esq, ?, Norfotk-cresctnt, Hudt-park, W, 


liuraf ,* Jamef Fi-e(lrrick» Km). 89. Minorits, E. ; and Beckmham, Kent. 


loot, Thomas Henry, Esq,, P.Z.S. Elth<nn-loJ<je, 191, JfuAfa-cofc, N. W. 


Ingnll,* Samuel, E-iq. Farait-liiU, Kent, S.fJ. 


ffi. C. p. 

Ingleti«ld, Admiral Sir Cdward A., CO., f.r^. United Service Ciub, S. iV. f uud 
99. Qu«en's-gat«t S. W. 


I&glis, Colooel T., R.F,. ], TaVjot-ptace, Dlackheath. 


lagraai, tlughes Francis, Esq. Vnivertity Clvl>, S. W. 


Innkip,* Cnpt. G. H., k.n. 1, ffuntiacmnbe-place, ^'orth^■roaJ, Plymouth. 


Inskip,* Iter. Robert Mills. o.B. 1, ffmtuoombe-ptaoe, Nort/t-roadf Ptsfmoutk. 


luveraritf, Geo., Esq. 13, Slanhope-(jarden$, S.W. 


Irvine, Jntncs, Esq. 13, Deciinshira-road , Claughton, ChetKire. 


Ir\ing,* Juliu, Esq, 

180 1 

Irwin, jAines V. H.. F-^. 13. n»utridge-tUlaa, St. John'i-textd, X,W. ,^^ 


hbister. William, Exq. 56. Ludgatt'hUl, E.G. ^H 


Isnaoou,* F. Wootlon, Esq. \h1, Harley-strtet, "W. ^^^ 


Jack, R, L., E$q. ^H 


Jackson, F. U. Wanl, Fjiq. 9, AlbitM-iireet, Hyde-park, W. ^^M 


Jrurksoii, Henry, E>q., Lieut, late tjs. (Chief Surreyor of the Prorfnoe ofl 

Wellingtoa). H'ew Zealand. 1 


Jackson,* James, Esq.* 13, Acfnu4i du Bait de Boulojtm, Paris. 1 


JackaoD, Richd. Belgrare, Esq. 10, Leonw-d-place, Keiitington, W. .^J 


Jnikson. liobart Waixl, Eaq. 13l>, fticerneu-terrace, Hyde-park, W. ^^| 


Jidcson, Thoi. Haghes, E«^. Manor-house, Birkenhead. ^^H 


Jackson, William, Esq, 44, Purtiand -place, W. ^^M 


Jackson, Wm, Cha«„ Y.m\. 9, BaMfnAitry, E.C. 1 


Jnoomb, Thomas, jun., Esq. WoodcnJ, Holiirtgton, St. Letmarda-on-Sea. ^^M 


Jagg, Eer. F. Charles. Luddmham-rectory, Fatersham, Kent. ^^M 


Jngo,* Lieut.-Coloiiel Joha. Penang. Care of Mettrt, Ob^ and Co.» CraifS^ 

ouurt, S. W. 


Jama:, John 0. N., Esq, Siircei/or-Oettcral's Office, Calcullu. 


James, Walter Knight, Esq. Normal CvUege, Colombo, Ceylon; and 22, 
Pelham-street, yottin>jltam. 


James, William Monis, Em). 8, L\jndhurd-road, Hainpalead, K.W. 


Jaiuieson, Capt. A. Wm, (*th N. I., Lucknow, Upper India). OakftUt, near Bath. 


Jamicson, Hugh, Ksq. Junior Carlton Club, S.W. 


Janrrin, A. F., I'>i. 40. Pall-mall, S. W. 


Japp, Alexander Hay, Esq, 13, Albiou-gquare, Dahton, 

i6oo 1 











Bot/al Geoffraphieal Society, 


8C. p. 

Jiiques,* Leoiuurd, Eaq. Wentbridge-hoiue, PonUfract, Torkikii-e. 

Jardine,* Andrew, £«q. Lcmrick-cattle, Stirliiuj, 

Jardine,* Robert, E«q., M.P. Caatlemilk, Lockerby, N. B, 

Jardine,* Robert, Esq. 21, Queensbury-place, South KeiuimjUm, S.W. 

Jarrad, Lieut. F. W., R.M. Care of Edw. M. Soe, Etq^ Royal Hospital 

Schoolt, Greenwich. 
Jetkei^ Rer. Jiimes. 54, Argyll-road, Kensington, W. 
Jeffery, William Jamn, Esq, Grammar School, Bideford, Devon. 
Jeffirevs, J. Gwyn, Esq., ll.d., f.RJ. Ware-priory, Herts. 
I Jefiries, Wm. H., Esq. Ill, Southgate-road, Islington, N, 
Jeffis Richard, Esq. 244, Eegent-street, W. 
Jellicoe, Charles, Esq. 12, Catendish-pkKe,W. 
Jenkins,* R. Castle, Esq. Beachky, near Chepstoui. 

Jenkins, Commander R. P., R.N. 2, CambriJge-villaa, Oakfield-road, Croydon. 
Jenkiuson, Edward, Esq. Admiralty, 8. W. ; and East India United Service 

Cbib, St. James's-sjuare, S, W. 
Jenkinstm,* H. Irwin, Esq. Keswick, Cumberland, 
Jeniungs, Samuel, jun., Esq. 58, Granville-park, Blackheath. 
Jennings,* William, Esq., M.A^. 13, Victoria-street, Westminster, S.W. 
Jephson, Mountney, Esq. Garrick Club, Garrick-street, W.C. 
Jephson, N. A., Esq. 66, Portadmcn-road, Maida-vale, W. ; and County Club, 

44, Albemarle-strcet, W. 
iefi^, Le Cheralier Fred. Care of S. W. Silver, Esq., 4, Sun-court, ConAill, 


Jermyn, Rowland Formby, Esq. War-office, S.W. 
Jerrois, Major-Gcneral Sir \V. Drummond, G.C.u.O., C.B. {Governor of South 

Jervis, Theodore, Esq. 66, Denbigh-street, S. W. 
Jessop, Captain Thomas. Honlcy, Huddersfield. 
Jeula,* Henry, Esq. Lloyd's, E.C. 
Jeune, Fras. H., Esq. 140, CromweU-road, S. W. 
Jinman, George, Esq. 110, CoMwn-street, E.C. 
Joaquim, J. P., Esq. Care of W. B, D" Almeida, Esq., 2, Pwnp-court, Middle- 

Temple, E.C. 
Jocelyn, Hon. W. Nassau. Care of Foreign-office, S. W. 
Johns, Edward Wildy, Esq. 41, Petherton-road, Highbury, N. 
J<dinson, F. Bulkeley, Esq. 5, The Mount, St. Leonards-on-Sea ; and Devon- 
shire Club, St. Jame^s-street, S. W. 
Johnson, Joseph, Esq. 89, Carletotk-road, TufneU-park, N. 
Johnson, Murray, Esq. 20, Austin Friars, E.C. 
Johnson, W. H., Esq. (CiTil Assistant G. T. S. India). 
Johnston,* A., Ebq. 6, Paternoster-buildings, E.C. 

Johnston, Andrew C, Esq. (Surgeon, r.n.), ii,k.q.c.f. Salen, Loch Sunart, 
Fort William, N. B. 




^^^^B List of Fellows of f he ^^^^^^^^^H 


Johnston, Chas. Edwd., Esq. 10, Hyde-park-gate, Kenslm^iony S.W. 


Johiulou, Geo., Esq., m.d. 15, St. Stephm't-grem, LHiJblm. 


Johttston/ Capt. H. B. United Senict Club, Dublin ; and Jmior Carlton Clu\ 
PaU-maU, i". W. 


Jobnttoa, J. Brookes, Esq. 


JohnstoD, Robert, E«q. WoodlandSf MoniBtowHf Dublin. 


Johiuton, T. B.. Eiq., F.n.8,E. 16, So»ih St, Andrtic-atreet, Edinburgh. 


Johnstone, General H. C, CD., F.n.A.s. Huttcn-lodge, Aldridije-road, West' 
boum«-park, W. 


Johnstone,* John, Etq. Castelnau-hmiw, Mortlake, S, W. 


JoliMtone, \V. Wood*, E«j., M.D. 44, Prince i-»quare, W. 


Jolley, Rev. William Rowc, u.a,. Moo. Chapluin to the Qaeeii. St. John'i 
Parsonage, Birkenhead. 


Joaeu, Arthur W., Esq. 10, Eattm-tquare, S.W. . 


Jones Edwin, iiJu}. Fairlea, Bassett, Svuthttrnpton, ^^H 


Jones, Hugh H,, Esq. Larkhill, Liverpool, ^^^M 


Jones, CapL H. M., v.C. Care of Mesjre^ Bicker* and Son, 1, Leiceetcr-square, 


Jon«», Lient.-G«uenil Jenkin, r.e. " Woodjiide," St. Belene, Ore, U>»tinjt, 


Jone», John, Esq. ZZ%, Strand, W.C. 


Jones, Stafl^omraander Jno., r.n. The Bine Bell, Wehhpool, MontgcmtryAirt, 


JooeSj John James, Esq. Behjrade-fmute, MeijneU-road, South Hackney, E. 


Jones Major R. Owen, R.K. Ordnance Svrvey-offke, 46, St. George' s-road, S. W, 


Jones,* R. T., Esq. 1 , St. Alban't-rotid, ffighgate-hill. K. 


Jones,* Thomas M. Rymer, Esq., C.E., Japan, Care of T. R. Jonet, Eiq^ 
62, Cornvall-road, Westbourne-park, W. 


Jone*, Rev. W. Taylor, mjl. The College, Sgdenkam. 


Jones, Walter Evans, Em). ffanoter'squnre Club. W. ^^M 


Joues, Sir WlUoughby, &.-irt. Cranmer-hall, FakenJt'nn, Norfolk. ^^H 


Jones, Winslow, Vjst\, Devon and Exeter fnstitulion, Exeter. ^^M 


Jones, W. J. Esq. Buckingham, ^^H 


Jopp, Capt. A. Abercrorabie, H.B. 18, Tregunter-road, South Ketuington, S. W. 


Jonlan, Her. Jowpli. 65, MaryOH-road, Charltou, S.E. 


JonJon,* Wm. Leighton, Esq. Cilre of Dr. lVt///ioA, 3, ChriatcAurch-rO'td, 


Eoupell-park, Brixton, S. W. 


Joshua,* Moss, Esq. Biahopehalt, BUiingdm. 


J©yner,* Henry Datson, Esq., c.e. Yamato YatJuki, Tokei, Japan. Care of 
H. S. J. Joyner, Eeg., Korthtcick-houee, Harrow. 


Joyner, Robert B«tson, Esq. Care of H. S, J, Joyncr, Esq., Northteick-hviiH, 


jope,* Jno., Esq. Lloyd's, E,C. 

Royal Geographical Society. 













Kane, Dr. Ustthew, M.D. Lcmheme, KingOon-hai. 

Kme, Dr. WUluun. Cart of M. Kane, Etq., M.D., Lankenui, Kingiton-hill. 
Kantiow, Admiral H. P. de. 1, Obtgrtatory^ardewt, CatnpdcnJuK-rvati, W. 
KwTiUi, Frank Oscir, E»q. Oakhurat, The Knoll, Beckenham, Kent. 
KaTaaagii, T. (■'rank P,, Eaq. 

Kaj, Darid, E»q. 19, Upper MilUmf/rt^Jace, KentingUm, W. 
Kaj", H. C, Esq. 11, Dvrhimv'VUhM, Kentmglon^ W. 
Kcane, Richard F., Esq., c.e. Berrihcen'hoate, Cafpoquin, Ireland. 
Keating, Right Hon. Sir Henry Sitig«r. 1 , PritK^s-gardeHs, S. W. 
Keeling, Frederic John, Esq. St. Mary'*-terreiee, Colchester. 
Kaghtltj,* Alfred D,, Esq. Mitnthorpe, Penrith, Westmoreland. 
Kdr, Campbell M., Esq. Oriental Club, ffanover-square, W. 
Keir, Jno. Lindesajr, Esq. Fordlands, Bideford. 
K«r, Simon, Esq. Conservative Club, S. W. 

Kell, Robert, Esq. 53, DevmiAire-street, W. ; and Wanderers' Club, 

Kellner, Sir George, K.C.H.O. Oriental Club, ITanotxr-square, W. 

Kemball,* Geaeral Sir Arnold Burrowes, K.C.B., K.C.8.I. United Sercice CM, 

S.W.; and 79, Queen's-gate, S.W. 
Kemp, Geo. L., Esq., Calcutta. Care of Messrs. H. 8. King end Co., 65, 

Conhia, E.C. 
Kemp, Rer. Henry William, b.a. The Charter-house, Bull. 
KempBter, J., Esq. 1, PoHsmO'tth-plnce, Kmnimjttia'lane, Surrey, S.E. 
Kendall, James, Esq. 16, Park-nfud, Wtiwhtrort/Komitvin, ■:>'■ 
Kennard, Adam Steinroetz, Esq. Crawl^t/^oart, Winchester. 
Kennard, James, ICsq. Morton-house, Middleton, Lancashire. 
Kennaway,* Sir John H., Bart., M.p. Fscot, Ottenj St. Mary, Deem. 
Kennedy, John, Esq. 13, Brooklyn-road, Shepherd' s-bush, W. 
Kennedy, Rer. John, mjl. 27, Stepney-green, E. 
Kennedy, Renr-Admiral Jno. Jas., c.b. 39, Onslow-square, S. W. ; and United 

Service Club, Pall-mall, S. W. 
Kennion, Rer. George Wyndham, b.a. All Sainttt -vicarage, Bradford, Vur/ishire. 
Kent, Fras. A., Esq. Kesgrate-hail, Suffolk. 
Kerr, Alexander, Esq., Wellington, New Zealand. Care of Xonnan S. Kerr, 

Eiq., M.D., 42, Grove-road, St. /oAn'j-wow/, N. W. 
Kerr, MaJDr-General Lord Mark, C.B. 
Kettle,* Daniel W., Esq. Hayes-common, Beckenham; and .53, Fleet-street, 

Key, Admiral Sir Astley Cooper, k.c.b. 5, Cranley-place, S.W.; and United 

Service Club, PaO^mdi, S. W. 
Keyaell, Francis P Esq. Grove-house, Cheshunt. 
Kiddle,* Staff-Commr. W. W., R.K. 70, Upper Leeson-street, Dublin, 
Kilgour, Geo., Esq. 
Kilham, Thomas, Esq. Upper Qrosvenor-road, Tunbridge Wells, 

1706 ^ 


1 Ixviii 


Lilt of Fellowa of the ^^| 



KilUm, Fninl:, Ewj. T.^nnmUh, Nooa Sootin. Cire of Sfemt. T. C. Jone$ 

and Co^ 20, Chapel-ttn-ct, Liteipool, 


Kimber, Dr. E. 13, Park-viilni, ShtphtnTt-bush, M*. 


Kimberley, Itight Hon. The Earl of. 35, Lotendei-aquiife, S.W, ; otid Kimbaicy- 
houM, W;i»tOndhavi, Norfolk, 


Kiiicaid, Thomas, E«{. 9, Lantdovin-cmceat, Gtaagaw. 


Kidg, Edwnrd, Fjq. 1, Ehaaion-place, Quean' »-gaU, i'. IV. 


King, E. H., Esq. Killcott, Godalitiing, Surrey. ^^^1 


King, Junes, Esq. 12, Clarewmt-Urracc, Olaagow. ^^H 


Iviog, Johu, E«q. Compionrfield-pluce, GuiUford, Siirrtn. 


King, Hon. J. P. Locke. 38, Dover-ttrcet, IF.; and Livoklandt, near 
Wejfiridije, Surrey. 


King, Joseph, Esq. Arktrrijht-ivid, Uampstc<idf N. W. 


Kingsley,* Maurice, E»q, Eiigitteer'a Office, Oawego, State of New York, U.S.A. 


KiiinninJ,' Arthur V., Lord, 2, Pal[-mall Ectt, S. W. 


Kiiitore, Eml of. Guthrie Castle, Arbroiith ; atul Carlton Club, Patl-maU, 3. If. 


Kirby, VVilUiun, E«[. 18, John-Street, Weit-cliff, W7ii"% Yorhihire. 


c. r- z. 

Ivirk, Joliii, Esi). it.D., C.U.G. (H.M. Agent and Consul Geneial, ZamSxir). 


Iviike, John, t:*i. Oriental Cluh, W. 


KirklinJ, Major-Cen. John A. Vesey. Wfster Fordel, Milnathovl, K, U, 


Kisch, Dauiul Montagu, Esq. l.S, Westboume-park-temtce, \V. ^^B 


Kit<ili««er, Lieut. H. H. ^H 


IviUon,* Jame-i, jiin., E&q. Spring-lank, ITeudtajley, J.eeiU. ^^H 


Kitto, liidiard L. AliiMlelon, Esq. Preston-loJffc, Prettonpans, N.B, ^^H 


Knight. Andrew Haltey, Esq. G.2, Hotland-jMirk, W. ^^| 


Knight, Wni. Duncan, Esq. Atxninij-kotue, Greenhitl-park, ffttmpstead. ^^H 


Knolly*, Cienflml Kt liou. Sir William T., K.C.B. Blounfg-court, Jfenk:/-on-f 
Thames. 1 


Knolly.^ Li«ut..Cd. W. W. (93rd Hightawlert). 102, Jfelijrme-road, S. W. 1 


Kiiowles, George, E»q., c.e. Piltiter-fiousi', Billiter-xlrt'el, K.C. J^^M 


Knox, Alex. A., Esq. 91, Victoria-Btreet, }\'ettminitfr, S.W. ^^H 


Knox, Sir Thomai G., k.c.m.o. (ll.M. Consul GcDcrai, Siam). C^re of Mestn. 
U. S. King inul Co., 45, PaU-vutll, S. fl'. 


Koppel, S., E«q. 



Kop«ch, Henry, Esq. Imperial Maritime Customs, China ; and 8, Stoney'n-gale, 
S. \V. 


Kuraalkur, Abdul Hakk (Extra Asj>ist. -Commissioner, Basim, Berar, India). 


Kyd, Haye». Esq., u.ii.c.s. WadcbHJije, Cvmicall, 


Kynnstori, Rer. Herbert. MontpeUier4ud<je, Cheltenham. ^^^| 
'739 1 

Royal Geograpldcal Society. 

















1859 I 

1856 I 

1871 I 

1876 1 



1859 i 

1870 1 

1870 I 



1846 1 

Labrow, Lieat.-Colonel Valentine H., rMJL., tjOA Mitre'COurt-chamhtri, 

nng>le, E.C.; md CttA-ehamben, S.W. 
Laffim,* Maj.-Gen. Sir Robert Michael, R.K^ Army and Navy Club, 8, TV,^ 

LaioM, Alfred W., Eiq. Tha Elms, Ealton. 

Laing, Arthur, Eaq. 29, Mincing-lane, E.G. 

Laiog, John William, Esq. Mayo Cottege, Ajmere, BajpAtana ; and New Uni- 
verrity Club, St. James' s-streel, 8. W. 

Laing, Joseph, Esq, 17, Castelnau^Uas, Barnes, 8. W, 

Laing, Robert A., Esq. 3, 8t, Petei^s-road, Croydon, 

Laing, Seton, Esq. 3, Obtervatory-gardens, Campdej^-AUl, Kensington, W. ; and 
Xeform Club, Fall-mall, S.W. 

L'Aker, John, Esq. Bever-lodge, Maidstone. 

Lamb, Hon. Edward William. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 

Lamb, Lieat. Henry, i.H. ff.M. India Store Department, Betvedere-roiJ, 
Lambeth, S.E. 

Lambert,* Alan, Esq. ffeath-lodge. Putney-heath, S. W. 

Lambert,* C. J., Esq. 1, Crosby-square, E.C. 

Lambert,* Ck>wley, Esq. New University Club, St. Jameis-street, 8. W. 

Lambert, Rev. Frederick Charles, 62, St. Andrew-street, Cambridge. 

Laming, James, Esq. 1, Bryanston-place, W. 

Lamont, James, Esq. 4, Queen-street, Mayfair, W. 

Lamploagh, Charles Edward, Esq. City of London Club, E.C. 

Lampray, John, Esq. 1 6, Ccmden-sqaare, N. W. 
I Lampson, Sir C. M., Bart. 80, Eaton-square, S. W. 

Lange,* Sir Daniel A. Lanehurst, Albourne, Sussex. 
I Langler,* John R., Esq., b.a. Droxholme, Tliurlovo-hill, Lower Noi-woo-l, S.E. 

Langworthy, Edward M., Esq. Geys-house, Hohjport, Maidenhead. 
■ Lansdell,* Rev. Henry. The Grove, Blackheath, S.E. 

Lardner, Colonel John. United Service Club, S. W. 

Large, Robert Eramott, Esq. The Elms, Portsmouth-road, Sarbiton; and 13, 
South-square, Grai/s-inn, W.C. 

Laraach, Donald, Esq. 21, Kensington-palace-gardens, W. 

Lasseter, Frederic, Esq. 5, Porchester-gate, Hyde-park, W. 

Laughton, Lieut.-Col. George Arnold (Bombay Staff Coi-ps), Supeiintendeat 
Bombay Survey, Bombay. 

Laughton, J. K., £lsq. Royal Naval College, Greenwich. 
\ Laurie,* Peter Geo., Esq. 9, ArunJel-gardens, Kensington-park, W. ; SuUiam- 
[ stead Abbots, near Beading, Berks ; and Thatched- House Club, St. James'a- 
I street, S. W. 

' Lavies, Joseph Samuel, Esq. 96, St, George' s-road, S. W. 
; Law, Geo., Esq. 544, Oxford-street, W.C. 
> Law,* Hon. H. Spencer, m.a. 36, Eccleston-square, S. W, 
j Law, Jas, Esq, 544, Oxford-street, W.C. 
j Lawes,* Robert Murray, Esq. 9, Clarges-streei, Puxadilly, W. 

1775 j >-i 




List of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^H 



Lnwc8, Rev. William Geoigi». 3, Donnington-road, Heading. 1 


Lawrence, Alcinnder, Esq. Clijde-hi/uise, Tfiurlow-road, Hmnpstead, X. W, ; iijw/ 
11, Great mnchtater-strett, E.C. 


Liwrence, A. M., Esq., jun. 17, Thwlow-roai, Hampstead, N.W. ^^^ 


Lawre:ic«, Fred. W., KIsq. Oahhiijh, Bechen)^m, Kent, ^^H 


Lavmoe, Lord. M, lic(tvfort-(jardent, S. W. 


Lawrence, Sir J. J.Trevor, linrt., m.p. 9, Prince't-gatu, S.W. ; and But-ford- 
lodge, Dorking, Swrei/. 


L»wi-«iice,* Philip Heury, E»q. 3. Stone-huUdlngi, Limxln'i-inn, W.C. ^J 


Lawrence, W. F., Esq. New Vniversitij Club, S. W. ^^| 


Lawrie, James, E»q. 63, Uld BroaJ-atreet, E.C, ^^M 


Lawson, William, Ksq. 21, Wal)iam-<froce,Ftaham,S.W. ^H| 


Lajtton, Wm. Kr«<lk., Esq., F.8.A. 4, EsseX'Cowt, Middle-temple, E,C.; amt 
Beaconsfeld Club, Pall-mall, S. W. 


Lay,* Horatio N., Esq., c.n. Rumleigh, Tatutock, Devon. 


«. C. p. 

Layard, Right Hon. .Sir Austen H..c.n,u., D.c.L. Athenteum Club, PuW-wdV, 


Layord, CapL Urownlow E. J{orfielil-bfirr,iclii, Bristol. 


Layard,* Coptaiu Brownlow Viiliei-» (;iid \Ve»t India Regt.). Junior United- 
Service Club; and 38, Upper Mutint-ttreet, DMin. 


Leaf,* Charles J., Esq. C, Sussax-place, L'e;]ent's-parh, A\ 0' 


Leake,* Sir Luke S., Knt. Perth, Western A^itlralia. Care of C. J. iTui*- 
vrright, Ei^., EliiJturst, East End. Fincftiey, A'. 


t^red, Jno,, Esq. 12, Old Burlington-street. W. 


LearmoDth, Andrew James L., Esq. Junior United Seri:ke Ciuh, S.W. ^^^t 


lj»3rmoatb, Tims. Liringstotic, Esq. 4.5, Gloacater-gardens, W. ^^H 


Leaver, J. Criitoplier, Esq., Kostheme-house, Ccutlenau, Btirnes, Surrey, 


Lebour, G. A., Eaq., M.A., F.0.3. College of Phytical Science, Ne\ecaatle-<m- 


\jt Breton,* Fmncia, Esq. 21, Stuaex-place, Begeni's-park, S. W. 


Lfckie, Patrick C, Esq. 7, Pitlnce-road, Boupell-park, Streatluim, S. W. 


Lecky, Capt. Sqtiire Thornton Stratfoi-d (Royal Narsil lte»«rve}. Fvrest-Edgty 
Smay, near Lyinimjton, Jliimpshire. 


Le Cite, Henry, Esq. 107, St. Oeorge's-S'jwtre, S.W. 


Lea, Rev. Albert. Silk-hall, Tuckhdee, near Dariccn, Lancashire. ^— 


Lee, John, Esq. Orosvenor-eotlage, VertaiJlei-road, Anerley, S.E. ^^H 


Lee, John Dankin, Esiq, The Oaks, Belvedere-park. ^^^| 


Leeman, Georgf, Esq. 7 , Dean's yard, Weslmiinter, S.W, ^^^M 


Lees, lei Cameron, Esq., CM. 0. \9, Pembroke-road, Ken»in;jtom, 11". 1 


l.«es, Eli, E«i. 102, L<incaster-gaie, W. ^J 


Lees, Lieut. Hasliogs I.owley, it.M. H,M.S. 'Cambridge,' Plifntouth. ^^M 


Le«s,* Lieutenaiit-Colonel Ndsmiu, d.C.L. Athenamm CM, S. \V, ^^M 


Lees, Robert Wilson, ICaq. ^^H 


Le F<urre, W. H., Esq., c.n, ^^M 

I8ii ^H 

Rotfol Geograpliieal Society. 









1877 j 
1869 I 

1879 I 
1872 I 
1852 ' 
1876 I 

1878 i 


C. p. 

Lefroy, Anthonf O'Gitkdy, E»q., CM.o. Care of Mr. T. M. C. Vigo, 19, 

AbckurcA-latu, B.C. 
Lefroj, Genentl Sir John Henry, R.A., k.c.m.o., r.Rj., &c 82, QrumU-gate, 

S.W.I oidAaeHmun CM, S.W. 
L^iatt, Clement DaridioD, Eiq. I, Finner's-oourt, Old Broad-ttreet, B.C. 
Legfa, Willuun John, E«q^ m.p. 38, Belgrave-^quan, S.W. ; and Lyme-parh, 

Lchnumn,* Frederick, Ecq. 15, Berkeley-tquan, W. 
Leigh, John Studdj, Esq., w.aja. 107, ffereford-road, Baytvater, W. 
Leigh, Roger, E«q. Barham-court, near Maidstene, Kent. 
Ldghton, ThomM, Esq. The Limes, Wed Brixton, S.W. 
LeUeeoi-ier.HenryP., Esq.,GJ.i.,c.K. 2l,^anley-cresoent,Kensington-park, W. 
Lepper, Chu. H., Esq. Rookvoood, Bradford, Yorkshire. 
Le Pays, Geo. Renatus, Esq. 7, PorUand-terrace, Begenfs-park, N. W. 
Lceslie, Ralph, Esq. Trinidad. 
L'Estrange, Carleton. Esq. Carlton Club, 8. W. 
Letfabridge, Edwin B., Esq. 42, G^eman-street, Brighton. 
Letts, Thomas, Esq. 72, Queen Vidoria-itreet, E.C. 
Lever, J. 0., Esq, M.P. 97, St. Oeorge's-equare, 8. W. 
LeTcrson, George B. C, Esq. 18, Queensberry-place, Cromwell-road, S.W. 
Lertnoo, Lieut. Julian Jno., ile. 18, Queenaberry-place, Cromwell-road, S. W. 
Lereion, Edward J^ Esq. Cluny, Cretcent-teood-road, Sydenham-Jiill, 8.K. 
Leri, Professor Leone, F.8.A., &c. 19, Richmond-cretcent, Bam^ury, N.; and 

6, Crovn Office-row, Temple, E.C. 
Levin, Nathaniel, Esq. 44, Cleveland-square, W, 
[.evinDohn, Louis, Esq. Vemon-house, Chrendon-gardens, Maida-hUl, W. 
Levy, B. W., Esq. 19, St. Helen's-place, E.C. 

Lewin,* Frederick Dealtry, Esq. Morelands, St. John's-park, Blackheath, S.E. 
Lewin, F. Geo., E«q. 4, Lombardian-villas, St. Mary's-road, Peckham, S.E. 
Lewin,* Col. Thomas H. (Beng. Staflf Corps). Oarden-comer-house, Chelsea 

Embankment, S. W. 
l^wis,* Edwd. Wm., Esq. Beaudesert, Leighton Buzzard. 
Lewis, Francis T., Esq. 

Lewis, Jos., Esq., R.N. 25, Duke-street, Orosvenor-square, W. 
Lewis, Rev. R. C, U.k. Streathamrcommon, S. W. 

Leycester, Captain Edmund M.. R.M. White-place, near Maidenhead, Berks. 
Leyland, R. Watts, Esq. 17u Exchange-buildings North, Liverpool. 
Lichfield, Right Hon. Thomas George, Earl of. Shugborough, Staffordshire, 
Lienhardt, Chas. Eugene, Esq. 4, East India-atenue, E.C. 
Lilford,ThomasLyttletonPowjs,Lord. Lilford-park, Oundle, Northamptonshire, 
Lillingstoo, Lieutenant F. G. Innes, r.n. CoUlemore-house, Loohalsh, Boss-sliire. 
Lindley,* Robert Searles, Esq., as. 29, Blittersdorffs-platz, FratUtfort-on' 

Lindsay, H. Hamilton, Esq. 14, Windham-plai^, Bryanston-tquare. 




List of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^^^M 


LindMf, Loid, Uj-. 47, Brook-itrett, Grcnenor-vptan, W. 


VmAuLj* Colonel Bolwrt J. L., V.C., M.p. iMckinge-houK, Wantage, Berkt , 
and ■!, Curlton-gardens, S. W. 


Liodsey , Mark John, Esq. 32, Ludgate-fiill, E. C, ; and Bumi-nstt-lane, Lee, KmC 


Lisui, Joseph Isiiao Coh«n tie, Esq. Port Louie, MnttritittS. 


Llater, liaac S., Ebq. The Heath, Hampsleuil, N. \V. 


Little, Archilmlii J., Esq. Shanghai ; and 18, Pafhttreet, Gromenor^tquart, W, ' 


Little, Simon, Esq. Calantra-hotisa, Wexford, Irehind. 1 


Ltttledale, Clement St. George, Eiq. JJighJield, near Liverpool, ^^J 


Littleton, Th« Hot]. Henry S. Teddexletj, PmArtd<fe, Staffonbhtre. ^^M 


Littleton, Hon. Wm. K. ^^ 


LiversiJge, Archibald, Esq., 7.0.B kc Ciire of Messrt. TiSlmer mid Co., &7, 1 
Ludijatc-hill, E.G. d 


Lloyd, Alfied, Esq. Push-lane, Camon-ttreH, B.C. i 


Lloyd, Capt. C. Henry. Care of M«Mtra, Jno. Jupp and Co., 113, Fettchnrch' 
street, E.C. 


Uiijil, Fmnci* Aylmcr, Esq. 2, Saint Charlet-sqnare, Nottmg-hill, W, 


Lloyd,* Hon. Geo. A. Sydney, N. S.W,; and 3, Geortje-yard, Lomhard- street, 


Lloyd,* Percy, Esq. Gardcn-cottaife, Lo'cer SoncooJ, S. W. | 


Lloyd,* W., Eeq. M'jood-housc, Wcdneslmry, Staffordshire. J 



Lloyd, Ilev. William V., M.a. g^^B 


Lluellyn, Major Uicluu-d. Army and Navy CM, S, W. ^^^H 


Lluellyn, Major VVtlliam R., S.A. Plytaouth. ' ^^M 


Lobb,*John, Esq. Dursley-villa, 16, Cramleij-foad, Victoria-park, E. ^^B 


Lobky, Jameii Logan, Esq., New AUwmmm Club, Suffoik-itreet, Pall mall, . 
S. W. 


Loch, Henry Brougham, Eaq. Gotemmeni-houte, Isle of Man. 


Loch, William Adam, Ii*q. 42, Bedcliffe-<}(u-deni, S. W. 


Lock, Alfred G., Efq. 89, Mostyn-roaJ, Brixton, S.W, ; and Roaelandi, Jtilt' 

brook, Southampton. 


Locke, John, Esq. SI), Addison-road, Kensington, W, ^^H 



Lockhai-t, Willi-ira, Esq,, F.R.C.8. 67, GranvUle-park, Blackheath, S.E. ^H 


Lockhart, Cnptdii Wtn. Stephen Alexander. j^^H 


Loder,* Edmund Gilc«, Esq. 42, Qrosvenor-tqnare, W. |^^| 


Loewe, Siegmnnd, Esq. 3, OakUy-road, Suuthgatn-road, N. ^^^H 


Lognn, .Sir T. G.-ilbwith, K.C.B., M.D. 40, Hyde-purk-square, W. ^^k 


LomooosaofT, M. Alexis de. Astiat.'Sec. Geographical Sooiety, St. Pcttnbiirff»M 
Care of Messrs. Hamilton and Co., 32, Paternoster-row, E.C. 1 


LondesborouphfWm. Henry Forester, Lord. 'Ah, BerkcJey-sqvare, W. ^^B 


Long, Rcr. James. 14, Salisfmry-tqvutre, Fleet-street, E.C. ^^| 


Long,* W. Bi'wton, Esq. ^^1 


Longden, Mnjor-Gencrnl Henry Edward, c.u. 44, Lovser Leesonstreet, JfiA»m 
tin ; and United Service Cluh, S, W. 1 

J885 ^^ 


Boyal Geoffraphical Society, 










LoDgden, Sir J. K, K.c.M.a. OooermnetU'hmiae, Trinidad. Care of Mr, J, 

P. Mwrtmeau, 36, ThedxMs^roady Bedford-row, W.C. 
LoagUj,* Lt^>>l. George, B.s. Care of If. Lonjlei/, Esq., 8, Lowndes-street, 

Longnun, Charles J., Esq. 39, Patemoster'rotOf E.G. 
LoDgsUfi^* Lkat-Colonel JUewellTu Wood. Ridgelands, Wmhkcbm. 
Lonsdale, Arthur Pembertoo, Esq. 
Looker, William Robert, Esq. Melbourne, Auttraiia. Care of Mr. Ashhiu-st, 

9, FeM^uirch-areet, B.C. 
Lord, W. Barry, Esq. Downshire^ill-cottage, Sampttead, j\'. W. 
Lome, The Most Hon. the Marqais of, K.t. Canada. 

Lort, William, Esq. Firon Ooch Satt, Llardlugan, Vid Berriew, Montgomenjsliire. 
Lothian,* Maoiice Jno., Esq. Wooda>te-^park, BlackahieU, N. B. 
Lothian, Most Hon. William Schomberg, Marquis of. Nev^ttle-dljbey, Dal' 

Louis, Julian A. H., Esq. Wincheater-rMtage, Chancellor-road, West Duhcich. 
lorett, Lieut. -Colonel Beresford, B.E. The Rectory, Pickweil, Oakham. 
Lovett, Phillips Cosby, Esq. Liscond>e-fiouse, Liaoombe, Leigfdon Buzzard, 
Low, Alex. F., Esq. 84, Westbourne-terrace, W. 
Low, Cbas. R., Esq. (Lieut, late l.N.) 82, Eliham-road, Kensingtm, W. 
Low, S. Pn Esq. 55, Parliament-street, S. W. 
Lowden, Rev. George Rouse. St. Leonard-viUa, HanweU, Middlesex. 
Lowe, Captain W. Drury. 19, Portman-aquare, W. 
Lowenstein, C, Esq. Loughborough Oraminar School, Lotighborough, Lclcccter' 

Lowther,* Capt. Marcus, R.N. j[h>mton, JSyde, 

Loyd, Lieut. Lewis Vivian (Grenadier Guards). 16, Grosvenor-place, S.W. 
Luard, Captain Charles Edward, r.k. Portsmouth, 
Luard, Major-General K. G. A. 8, Albert-villas, Clifton, Bristol, 
Luard, Wm. Charles, Esq. Uandaff-house, Card&ff ; and Athencsum Club, S. W. 
Lubbodc,* Sir John, Bart, u.p. F.R.8., &c. High-elms, Beckenham, Kent. 
Lucas, Alfred Walter, Esq. Queen'a-park, Chester. 
Lucas,* Arthur, Esq., c.E. 15, George-street, Hanover-square, W. 
Luck, F. G., Esq. Tlie Olives, Wadhurst, Sussex. 
Lock, Harry Courtenay, Esq. 138, Stamford-street, S.E. 
Luckman, Alfred, Esq. 
Lndlow, Edgar John David, Esq. Care of Geo. Perry, Esq., 67, Charlciiood- 

street, St. Oeorg^a-road, S.W. 
Lugard, General Right Hon. Sir Edward, o.cb. 10, Albert-place, Victoria-road, 

Kensington, W. 
Lnmaden,* Colonel Sir P. S., k.c.b., c.b.i. (Quartermaster-General, Bengal Army). 

UniUd Service Club, Pall-mall, S. W. 
Lumsden,* Rev. R. C, V.A., f.b.a.8. Maidenhead. 
Lush, Hon. Sir Robert, Q.c. Balmoral-house, Avenue-road, Regent' s-park, N. W. 


ITa&r of 

List of Fellows of the ^^^^B 



LushiagtoD-Tilion,* Rer. W. R. Tilacm Maith, m.a. Oxford and Cambridge 
Club, S. W. ; Cansertatice CMj, S. W. ; and Strethm Manor, hie of Ely. 


Lutley, Itobert George, E«q. Care of Mn. Lutlnj, 11, Daring-cretcoit, ExeUr. 


Luttrell,* Lieut, Alexander Fowiiea (Gren, Guards). Guardi Club, Pall-mall, 
S.W.; and Dunster-castk, Somerset, 


Lycett, SU- Frsnci*, K.cb. 18, Hijhburifgrore, Highbury, A', J^J 


Lydali, J. H., Esq. 12, Southarnpton-buildings, Chancerylane, W.C. J^^k 


Ljrilgate, Bobert, Esq. Upper Sc/tool, PecUam, S.E. ^^M 


Ljdghie, Wm., £«q. The Castle School, Guildford. ^^M 


Lye, John Gaunt, E*q. H, Eenaington-gale, Hyde-park-south, W. ^^H 


Lyell, Fwnds H., Esq. St. Heliers, Bickley, Kent. ^H 



Lynch," Thunuu Kerr, Eitq. 31, Cleveland-square, Hyde-park, W. ^^M 


Lyne, Knincis, Esq. 5, Seayrave^laee, PiUvUle, Cheltenham. ^^H 


Lyne, l!obt. E., Em. Royal Dublin Society, Dublin. ^^H 


Lyioiu, General Sir Daniel, k.c.d. 9'.', St- Gemy^s-aquare, S. W. ^H 


Maberlcy, Alf. Wm., E«q.,c.E, ExeUr-hall, Strand, W.C. ^^| 


MacalisUr,* James, £«{. 95, Bithopigate-ttreet-vfithia, E.C. ^^H 


Uacftulay, Jame«, E«q. 7, Albemarlt-aireet, ^V, ^^H 


UAcbraire, James, Esq. Broadmeadows, BerwicA-on-TiceeJ. ^^H 


Mnodona, G. da Laudre, (Ltq. nUbre-home, West Kirl/y, CheMte. ^^H 


MociJounld,* J Ames, Esq. 17, Kuasell-squai-e, W.C, ^^H 


MaodoQflId, Goloael John (Beng. SUff Corps). Care of Messrs. Oriudi'ay and 
Co., 55, I'arliumcnt-street, S. W, 


MaodoimM, Wiltinm, Esq. Yokohama, Japan. 


MuodwwlJ, W. C. R., CD. UniUd SerxUse Clu!>, Pali-tnalt, S. W. 


Mnodonald, Wm. M., Esq. St. Martin's, Perth, 



Macdonnell, Sir Richard Grave*. K.c.m.O., CD. Athenceum Club, Pall-mall, 8.W, 


MacCu-lao, John G., Esq. The Tower, Richmond-bridge. 


Mntifkrlane, DoimM, Esq., k.d. 17, Westboume-park, W. ; and East India 
PI S. Club. St. James's-tqvare, S. W. 


Hacfarlane, Donald H., Esq.. u.p. 62, Porlland-phoe, W. 


MaoGregor, Alex., Enq., c.E. 6, Charles-street, Serkeley-gqvare, W. ^^M 


Mat€regor, Li«ut..C«l. C. JI., CD. ^1 


MacGregor, Duncan, E&q. Athentsum Club, S. W. 


MacGregor," John, Esq., M.A. 7, Vanbntgh-park East, Blackhsatk ; and Athcnmmn. 

CM, S. W. 


Macinlyre, ColoDel Donsld, v.c. Eaut India United Service Clwb, 14, St. James'i- 
square, S.W, 


Madntyre,* Patrick, Esq., f.s.A. 1, Maida-vale, W. 


Mndmy. Rev. AleianJor, lud. Proepeet-honue, Orote-roaJ, Ventnor, lite e^ 

I9$5 ^^ 


Royal Geoffraphical Society, 











Mackaj, Nerile F., Esq. 3, Salter*s-hall-couri, Cannon-itreet, E.C. 
Madcelvie, Jm. Tsiinodc, Esq. 21, Vkioria-at., S. W.; and 7, AOemarle^U ^'' 
Mackenzie, Capt. Colin (78th Highlanders). Naval and Military Club, Fioca- 

day, W. 
Mackenzie,* Colin, Esq. Care of Mestrs, J. BramHey-Moore and Co., Liverpool. 
Mackenzie,* James T., Esq. Hatchford, Cdbham, Surrey. 
Mackenzie, William, Esq., K.D., c.B. 2, Olouceeter-houaea, Oloucetter-creacent, 

8.W. ; and East India United Seroioe Club, S.W. 
Mackeson,* Edward, Esq. 13, Hyde-park-aquare, W. 
Mackinlaj, D., Esq. Oriental Club, W. 

Macldnlaj, John, Esq., J.P., m.i.g.e. Percy-houte, 15, Percy-drcua, W.C. 
Mackinnon,* Rer. Donald Dimsdale, h.a. A'ew Univertity Club, St. Jamea's- 

atreet, SW.; and 8, Montagnstreet, Portman-equare, W. 
Mackinnon,* W., Esq. Tarbert, Lochfyne, Argyleakbre ; and 7, Lothbury, E.C, 
Mackintosh, Alex, Esq. 9, Talbot-sqmire, Hyde-Park, W. 
Mackintosh, Alexander Brodie, Esq. Oriental Club, W. ; and Dunoon, Scotland. 
Mackirdy, Gen. ElUot (69th Regiment). U. S. Club, S. W. 
Macklej, Thomas Cole, Esq. 12, Mark-lane, E.C. 
Maclagan,Gen. Robert, U.E. 37, Lexham-gardena, Kenaingtan, W. 
Maclaine, Murdoch G., Esq., of Lochbny. Oban, Scotland. 
Maclean, William Crighton, Esq., r.o.s. 31, Cait^)erdown-place, Oreat Yarmouth, 
MacLeajr, Sir George, K.C.M.O. PendeU-oourt, Bletchingley. 
Madure, Andrew, Esq. Meaara. Maclwe, Macdonald, and Macgregor, 97, 

Queen Victoria-atreet, E.C. 
Madura, John William, Esq. 4, St. Jame^s^lace, S.W.; and Tlie Home, 

Whalky-range, Manchester. 

MacMahon, Colonel Charles. Marlow-road, Kenaington, W. 

Macmillan, Alex., Esq. 1, Bedford-atreet, Covent-garden, W.C. 

MacHurdo, Lieut.-General, C.B. 36, Queen'a-gate-terrace, South Kensington. 

Macnab, Duncan Macpherson, Esq. Umon Club, S. W. 

Macnamara, Surg.-Maj. F. N., M.D. (Indian Armj). 28, Palace-gardena-terraoc, 11'. 

Macndll, Duncan, Esq. 7, Lothbury, E.C. 

Mactnrk, John, Esq. 8, Hillhead-gardens, Qlaagow. 

McAlister, Alex., Esq. 242, Hicftmond-road, Hackney. 

McAlpin, Donald A. L., Esq., r.k. I, Llanion-terrace, Pembroke Zhck, South 

McAlpin, Kenneth W, 

HcAndrew, Maj.-Gen. G. (Bengal Staff Corps). 

Co., 55, Parliament-street, S. W. 
McArthnr, Alex., Esq., h.p. Raleigh-hall, Brixton-rise, Brixton, S.W, 
McArthnr, William, Esq., M.p. 1, Gwydyr-houaes, BrietoTi-riae, S.W. 
MoCall, John, Esq. Cxre of J. Walker, Esq., 351, Brixton-road, S.W. 
MoOarthjr, Desmond, E«q. Lagoa, West Coast of Africa. 
199 1 

A. G., Esq. Llanion-terrace, Pembroke-dock, South 
Care of Messrs. Grindlay and 


List of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^^^| 

T«kr of 



McCktchie, H, P*rket>, E<q. j^M 


McClean, Her. D. Stuart. Norwcod-rectori/, SoutMl, Middieux. ^^M 


M'Clejin, Frank, Esq., M.A., C.E. Femcliffe, Tur^ndge Wells. 1 



M'Clintock, Admirnl Sir Frmicb Leopold, f.K.S. United Serviot Club, S.W, 1 


M'Clintock, Cnpt. William, R.S. Ordnanix Factory, Enficld-lock, Middletex. J 


McClure,* Joseph Henry, E»q. Bcacoruficld Club, Poll-nialt, S. IF. ^^J 


McConnell, Jas. Edw., Ksq., C.E. 2, Dean'g-jfard, WettmiTulur, S.W. ^^M 


McConnell,* W. R., Esq. 12, Kmg't-Bench^Kcili, Temple, E.C.; and duirlnilU, 



McCosh, JohD, Esq., M.D. Jioiior United Service Club, S.W. 


McEuen, D. P., Esq. 24, Pembridgesquare, BayitBaier, W. 


M<:Rwin, John Thomas H., E»q. Care of W. T. Ogdetk, Esq., Ca, Austin 
Friars, B.C. 


lIcGuvio, Alan Lawrie, £s<]|. Cordon-lodge, Wanttead; and 2, Bartfe-yard, 
Viotoria-street, S.W. 


McGregor, Duncan, E»q. Chjde-flace, Olaagoto. ^^ 
McGrigor, Alezander Dennett, ISitq. 19, Woodiide-terraee, GlatQwa. ^^H 
Ucllwrnith, Robert, Esq. 45, Bedford-gardens, Campden-hill, W. 




Mcllwr.iith, ThuDiiis, E>q. Queensland, Care of Mcisn. McItxraUh, ilcEndutn 
and Co., 34, LcadcnfutU-nlreet, B.C. 


MeKenna, I.eopoM, Esq. BavenibourM'park, CatfordJiridge, 8.E. 


&IcKerlie, P. H., Esq., FJB.A. Scot., ijc. 26, PetiJbridge-tillat, Baysumtor, TV. 


McLean,* Hon. John. Oamaru, New Zealand. Can of Afetsrs. Rtdftm^ 
Alexander, and Co., 3, Great Witichester-street-buildingii, E.C, 


McLean,* Robert AlUin, Esq,, r.8.8. Dmrt-houee, The Atenve, EltlMin-road, 
Lee, S.E. 


McMahou, Colonel A. Care of Messrs. ff. S. King and Co,, CwnAtf/, E.C. 


McMftster, James, E«q. 1, Stanhope-gardens, Qwen't-gate, S. W. 


McNair, Major Jobn F. A., R.A., c.M.G. Care of Messrs. Codd and Co., 
■6b, Craven-street, W.C. 



M*Neil, The Right Hon. Sir John, O.C.b. Bwnhead, Lihertan, Edinburgh. 


McNeill, Colonel J. C, V.C, C.b. United Semice Cluh, Pall-mall, S.W. 


McVean,* Colin A., Esq., Care of Bev. D. McVean, Bunestan, Scotland. 


Madan, liev. J. R. 


Moj^rith, Colonel John R. (Madrw Artillery. Bet). Murhill, near Bradfwd- 
on-At^n, Wilts; and East India U. 8. Club, 14, St. Jamei's-square, S.W. 


Uair, G. J. J., Eskj.. f.b.a. 41, Upper Btdfard-jOaoe, Bussell-square, W.C. 


Maitkod, Rev. A. Gray. Woodford, Esttx. 



Major,* Richard Henry, Esq., F.8.A. Atheneeum Ctnb, S.W.; and British 
Museum, W.C. 


Makins,* Henry F., Esq. 8, Palace-gate, Kensington, W. ; and Eeform CM, S. W, 


Blalby, John Walter, E»q. 135, Seven-sisters' -road, IloUowag, K. 


Malcolm,* Major Edward Donald, R.E. Clifton-house, I'ork. 


Malcolm,* W. £„ Esq. Bumfoot, Langholme, near Carlish. ^^^| 

20 16 ^^H 

Royal Geographical Soci^y. 











C. p. 

Haldol, B. Jno., Esq. 14, Oreat Conm-street, Bussell-aquare, W.C. 
Malleson, Colonel G. B. 27, West CromveU-road, 8. KensiHgton, 8. W. 
Mallet,* Chas., E»q. Audit-cffice, W.C; md 7, Qtuembn'-terrace, Bayt- 

waUr, W. 
Maltby, F. Cecil, £aq. Ihatched-House ChA, St. Jatnet't^reet. 
Man,* Edward Horace, Esq. Fort Blair, Andaman Iilanda. 
Han, M^.-Gen. Henry (Madras Staff Corps). 2, Palace-road, Sarbiton. 
Han, Captain J. Alezando- (Imperial Haritime Cnstoms, China). Junjpr Unitfl 

Service Club, 8. W. 
Man, Captain William. Woodbridge, Suffolk. 
Han, William, Esq. Woodford, Eiaex. 
Mann, H., Esq. Belgrave-^mantions, 8, W. 
Mann, James Alexander, Esq., M.R.A.S. 
Uann, Robert James, Esq., H.D. 5, Kingsdown-villas, Wandawwi/i-comnum, 

Mann, Ber. Thomas. Sunnyside, Troubridge, W^ts. 
Uanners, George, Esq., fj9.a. Lansdovme-road, Croydon. 
Maaoers-Sutton, Hon. Robert Henrj. 12,, S. Ketismgton, S. W. 
Mansell,* Captain A. L. Chalus, Eubcea, Greece. 
Mantell, Sir John lies. County Folice-cowt, Strangeways, Manchester. 
Mantell, Walter Baldock Dorant, Esq. Wellington, New Zealand. Care of 

A. J. Woodhouse, Esq., 1, Hanoter-tquare, W. 
Mantle, Wm. John, Esq. 7%« Orove, Lincoln. 
March, Edward Bernard, Esq. (H.M. Consul, Callao). Care of Messrs. King and 

Co., Ah,.Pall-maU, 8. W. 
Margetts, William G., Esq. 29, Charleville-road, West Kensington, S. W, ; and 

St. Stephen's Qub, S. W. 
Morgoschis, John Thomas, Esq. Cure of Mrs. MargSscftis, Brodic^iila, 

Marjoribanks, Edw., Esq., si.P. 134, Ptccadilly, W, 
Markham, Captain Albert Hastings, k,n, 21, Eccleston-^quare, S.W. 
Markham, Clements Robert, C.B., f.r.8. 21, Eccleston-sqtiare, S.W.; and 

Athenceum Club, S.W. 
Marsh, Capt. H. C Care of Messrs. H. 8. King and Co., 65, Cornhill, E.C. 
Manth, Matthew Henrj, Esq. 

Marshall,* Alfired, Esq. Laurel-hank, Waltftatnstow, Essex. 
Marshall, Horace Brooks, Esq. CliftonHcilla, Brixton. 
Marshall,* J. G. Don, Esq. Eurst-lodge, Tvcyford, Berks. 
Marshall, John, Esq. Auckland-lodge, iiueen's-road, Richmond. 
Marshall,* William, Esq. 37, Norfolk-street, Strand, W.C. 
Marsham,* The Hon. Robeit. 5, Chesterfield-street, Mayfair, W. 
Marston, Edward, Esq. 188, Fleet-street, E.C. 
Marten, Chas. Henry, Esq. Combe-lodge, Blackheath, S.E. 
Marten, C. Rous, Esq. Wellington, New Zealand, 



Liat of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^^^M 



Marten, Elliott, Esq. (Vice-Con»Ql, Sarawak). Cart of W. T. JIarten, Etq., 
30, Great St. Helm' 9, R.C. 


Martin, Henry, Ekj. S'lssfX'/iOMe, Highbury-ngre-park, K, 


Martin,* RicharJ Eiddulph, Y.s(\., M,P. Chislehurtt. ^^ 


Martin, ThoniM, Esq. Betchvood, Wthdean, near Brujhto*. ^^H 


Miivm, Lieat. A. H., r.e. 52, RuueU-»quare. W.C. ^H 


Masoo, Dr. Samuel. 44, Finafturyctnctu, E.C, ^^H 


Master, Cbas. Hoikiiu, E»q. BarroxB^rem-lioutt^ OxUd, near Goditone, ^^ 
Surrey. 1 


UMtcmvin, Edward. Eaq. -30, ThreadneedU-4treet, B.C. ; and 27, Ctemmff 
Imu, Lombard-ttreet, E.C. 


Mtutermon, Edward, jun^ Ecq. 57}, Old Broad-tt., E.C. ; and W'aHha»\$tow. 


Mathenon,' Alexander, Esq., M.p. 38, S<mtk-Ure<t, Park-lane, W. ; and 
Ardroti-castle, Ross-ihire, N. B, 


Mutheson,* Hugh Mackay, Esq. 3. Lombard-street, E.C. 


Mathews, Chas. Edward, Esq, Oakgate, Autjustui-roaJ, EJgbatton, BirminU' 
ham ; and Art* Club. W. 


Mathews, Gerrais K., £m). Instov, Xurl/t Devon. 


Mathews, Williani, Esq. Jl.A. 60, J/aHtome-roaJ, Birmingham. 


MitJiiF'on, Jnme* Ewicg, Esq. 77, Lombard-street, E.C. ; <tnd HVrf-ZiciM- 
ludije, Ilampftead, N. \V. 


Jlntuiin, Win. Henry, Esq., CD. 5, Courtjield^ardent, South Sauiuj/tvn, 

S. IV. 


Mnude, Colonel 0. A. Royal Mates, Pimlioo, S, W. 

J 875 

MftudsUy, Atho], Esq. 


Mauley Geo. Norrnoij, Esq, 1, Hare-court, Temple, E.G.; and Unitertity Club^ 

s. \y. 


Klntwell, John, Esq. Lichfield'houu, Richmond. 


Mjiswell, Major Hubert James. 35, Thurhe-square, S. W. 



May, .stnlT-Comrar. Daniel John, k.n. Care 0/ Messri. Caaa and Lovdenaaek, 
I, Javici-itreet, Adelphi, W.C. 


May, Kev. J, C, Sierra Leone. Care uf J. R. Liinjier, Esq., lirnxholme, 
Thurhir-hill, Loicer Sfoncood, S.E. 


May, Wm., Esq. St. Mary Cratj, Kent. 


MHycr, Jo»rph, Esq., r.8.A. 68, Lord-street, Liverpool. 



Mayne, Renr^AdmJml Richard Charles, O.B. 101, Qtteen'e^ie, S.W. ^^H 


Mayo, C«]>Uin John Pole. Army and A'avy Clult, S. W. ^^M 


MaysoD, John S., Esq., J.P. 5, St. Jamea't-ttjvare, Manchester, ^^H 


Meode. The Hon. Robert Henry. Colonial-office, S.W.; and 32, Belgr^tM^ 
square, S. W. 


Meadows, Dr. AHVeiU 27, Gcorye-street, Ilanover-sqwtre, \Y. 


Meakin, Edw. E., E«q. RosenfeU, Red-hill, Surrey ; and 22, FenehurcK-stixel, 


Means. Rev. Dr. J. 0. (Secretary of American Bo ml ofForeigu Missions). Beaoaa- 
street, Boston, U.S.A. 

1094 ^J 


Roycd Geographical Society. 





1874 I 
1877 , 

1875 j 
1868 I 


1871 : 





1863 I 

1873 : 

1848 I 

1870 I 
1872 ' 

1876 \ 




I Measom, George Samuel, E«q. St. Margaret's, TuickenAam. 
p. I Medhnwt, Sir Walter H., Knt. AtJuncnm Clvb, S. W. 

I MedljrcoU,* Commander Merrjm B., R.N. Care of Messrt. Woodhead and Co. 

44, Charmg-cnu, S.W. 
^eiggi,* John G., Esq. 19, Oreat Winchester-street, E.C. 
' Heinertshi^n,* Daniel, Eiq. 10, RutUmd-gate, S.W. 
Melrill, Major-Generml Sir Peter Helrill. 27, Palmeira-square, Brighton. 
I Melvili, Philip, Enq., r.K.A.8. Ethy-house, Lostmthiel, Cornwall. 
' Mendel, Samuel, Esq. Chislehurst, JCent. 
Menzies, Jas. Irvine, Esq. 76, Stamford-street, S.E. 
Mercer, Thomas, Esq. Uxbridge. 
C. Merewefher, Colonel Sir William Lockyer, K.C.8.I., C.B. 31, Linden-gardens, 
Kensington, W. ; and India-office, 8. W. 
Merritt,* Douglas, Esq. Leaoote, Ehinebech, New York. Care of H. L. 

Sherlock and Sons, 9, Canning-place, Liverpool. 
Messiter, Charles A., Esq, Barieick-hovse, near Yeor>3, Somerset. 
Messum, Josiah Toung, Esq., r.n., F.R.a.8. (Controller of H.M.'s Packet 
Services). Oeneral Post-office, E.C; and Bedford-vUla, Sydenham-road, 
I Croydon. 

Metcalfe, Frederic Morehonse, Esq. Wisbech, Cambridgeshire. 
Methuen, Capt. Hon. Paul (Scots Fusilier Guards). Ouards' Club, Pall-mall, 
■j 8.W. 

I Mathven, Captain Robert. 54, Scarsdale-villas, Kensington, W. 
Mexborongh,* Right Hon. John Chas. Geo., Earl of. 33, Dover-street, W. ; and 

Methley-park, near Leeds. 
Michell,* General J. E., R.H.A. Care of Mrs, Bus<A, 45, South Audlcy- 

street, W. 
Michell, R. H., Esq. 130, T/te Grove, Hammersmith. 
Michie,* A., Esq. 1, Jeffreys-square, St. Mary Axe, E.C. 
Michie, Sir Archibald, Q.C., K.c.M.a. 8, Victoria-chambers, Victorui- street, S. W. ; 

and Reform Club, S. W. 
Middleton, Rear-Admiral Sir G. N. Broke, Bart. ShnAland-park, Necdliam, 

Suffolk ; and 35, Alhemarlc-street, W. 
Midwinter,* William Colpoys, E»q. Junior Carlton Club, Pall-mall, S. W. 
Miers,* John William, Esq., C.E. 74, Addison-road, Kensington, W. 
Miles, Capt. H. S. G. (108th Regiment). Naval and Military Club, Piccadilly, W. 
Miles, Lient.-Col. Samuel Barrett (Bombay Staff Corps), H.M. Consul-GenemI, 

Baghdad. Care of Mrs. Miles, 8, Edgar-road, Winchester. 
Miller, Chas. A. D., Esq. Sherbrooke-lodge, Brixton, S.W. 
Miller, Rear-Admiral David. United Service Club, Pall-mall, S.W. 
Miller,* Captain Henry Matthew, tt.X. United Service Club, S.W^., and Fern- 
side, Sevenoaks. 
Miller, Robert Montgomeiie, Esq. Ctdverden-grote, Tunbridge Wells. 
Miller,* Admiral Thomas. United Service Club, S. W. 
Miiligan, Joseph, Esq. 6, Craven-street, Strand, W.C. 



Li'at of FeUoxrs of the ^^^^^^^^^| 

Tear of 


Hills, Arthur, E^i. 34, I{ijde-[jark-g<irdens, W, 


Mills Capt. Charles, C.M.O. Cape Toum ; and Wandern'g Cltib, PalUMxH, S. W, 


MilU, Frederick Churles, Esq. Oxfoi-J and Cavihriclge Clu^ S.W.} and 106, 
Jermijn-ntratt, S. W. 


Mills. Jno. ElSioit, Etq. Care of W. II. Plaiater, Enq., Tht Sycamorn, High- 
road, Tollenham. 


MiUward, Victor, Esq., j,t». Fair Vieir, SeddUch, Wctnxstershire. 


Milman, Ueut.-Col. Everanl S., Go^-emor H.M.'« Priuon, Hollowaij, N. 



Milne, Admintl Sir Alei., Bart., g.c.b. 1, Lowtuks-itreel, S. IV'. ; and 
Inveretk, Husselburjfi. 


Mibe, J. V^ E«q, Henley •tiovae, Mortimer-road, KUhttm, N. W. 


Miltier, Rer. John, BJL The Rtetonj, MiddletQn-in-T«e»dale, Darlingtotu 


Mitchell, Willinm Aug., Esq. Botcoltel, Park-place, Leyion. 


Slitfovil^ Col. Juo. Philip Osboldeiton. Mitford Castle, iforpeth, Nartkiunltcr- 
land ; and .irmy and A'avy Club, S, W, 


Mobcrly, )lnjor-Geneial Fr&iieu John, n.K. 50, Sut/ierlaHd'gardena, Barrov 
road, W, 


MocatU,* Frederiek E)., Esq. 9. Connaught-place, W. ^^ 



MolTat,* Kev. Dr. Robert. Park-cottaijc, lAngh, Tunbridge, Kent. ^H 


Moffat, Roht. Jno., Esq. Oreat SMford, Cttmhridijeithire. ^^^k 


Slol«j-n», Mrtjor T. A. de, r.a, .'^3, Seymowr-atreH, Portman-sqUMV, Wi ^^| 


Miiller, Ole Peter, I-iq. 15, The Terrace, Blackheath. ^H 


Sloloney, Ciipt. A. C, Care of Messrs. Cox and Co., Craiift-oourt, S, W. ^^H 


Mol)-Deui, Major W, C. F. Zrd Brvjade Office, Aldsrdwt ; and Junior United 
Service Club, S. W, 


Moncta, \)oa Ponipeio, C.E. 


Moncj, Lioutonant-Coloiiel Gcmnl Noel (Pien; StalT Corp«). Stodhanp-park, 
Petersfield. Care of Messrs. If, S. Kimj and Co., 65, ComJiill, E.C. 


Montagu, Jno. M. P., Esq. Dotcne-luiH, Bridpnrt, Dorset, atui Union Ctitb, S. W. 


M«jtagu«,» Lieul.-Coloiiel Horace. 6a, W^tterloo-place, S. W. 


Muut«fiorr, Jacob, Esq. 35, Jfyde-park-tqwuv, W. 


Motitcfiore,* .Sir Mose«, Bart., F.ii.s., F.R.S.S.A, 7, Grostienor-yate, Park-lme, 
W.; and East-cliff -lodtje, iiainsijate. 


Mont'^mery, Jno. B. H., Esq. 33, Mount-street, Grastenor -square, W, 


Montgomery, Percy Hugh Seymour, Esq. Grcj Abbey, Ireland. 


MoiitRomery, Robert Mortimer, Esq. :i, Porohester-plaoe, Oxf»rd-aquar«, W, 


Moutgomery, Sir Robert, g.O^.i., E.c.n, 7, Cornicalt-jardens, Queen's-<jate, S, Vl'. 


Moodie, G. P. H«q, Care of J. J. Pratt, Es<].. 79, Quecii-ttreet, Cheapside, E.C- 


Moody, General 11. C, R.K. Caynham-ftoiise, near LtMjtr, ,vhro]»/iire. 


Moor,* Rev. Atlcu P., m.a., F.n.A.s. St. Clement' s^icar aye, Ti-mto. 


Moore, Adolphus W., Elaq. India-office, S.W. 


Moore, John Cardcfc. E.^q., F.a.5. Co'skoH, Wigtanahire ; and 113, Eaton' 
square, S. W. 


Moore, John, Esq. 

ai6j ^J 

Royal Creographieal Society. 








Moore,* Joacph, Esq. Sydal'mmmt, Champianrhill. 

Mooriiead, A. B., Esq. 8, Si^m/s-gals^ S.W. 

Monnt, John H., Eaq., o.E. 10, Victoria'tg/race, Weymouth. 

Morant,* Mnjor J. L. L. (R. If ad. Eng.). Mountttvutri, Ootacamund, NcUgkerriei, 

Madras Fraidenoy, Care of ifestrs, John Oladding amd Sons, 28a, Pater^ 

noster-roif, E.C, 
Mgre, K. Jit3per, Es]. Linley-haU, Sahp. 

Uor^n* Delmnr, £iq. 15, £oland-gardgna, South Kensington, S. W. 
Morgan, D. L„ Esq. (Deputy Inspecto^^eneraI, R.N.). 
Morgan, Junius Speocer, Esq. 13, Prince' s-gate, Hyde-park, S. W. 
Morltmii,* Lieut. "Rtarj, late LN. 
Marris,* Cbnrlei, Esq. 

Morris, Edw. Ellis, Esq. Care of H. Morris, Esq., Eastcote-house, St. Johns- 
park, £lackheath, S.E. 
Morris, Edward F. Esq. Wanderers' Club, Pall-mall, 8. W. ; and Pontamman, 

Cross Inn, Carmarthenshire. 
Morrison,* Alf., Esq. 16, Carlton-house4errace, S. W. 
Morrison, Colonel J. C. D. United Service Club, Pall-mall, S.W. 
Morrison, Penrson, Esq. Care of John Hockin, Esq., 8, Tohmhouae-yard, 

iMJJmrij, E^C. 
Morsoa, Thotime, Esq. 124, Soutlian^cm-row, Russell-Square, W.C. 
Mortimore, Foster, Esq. 78, Scclestm-s^tare, S. W. 
Mosenthal, Adolph, Esq. 23, Ftmbridiie-ajsuiir, W. 
Moser, Robert James. Esq. 45, Bedjord-square, W.C, 
Moses, Marcus Tertius, Esq. Eberton-Leison-park ; and II, Eustace-street, 

Mott, F. T., Esq. 1, De Montfort-street, Leicester. 
Mott, ilarcus William, Esq. Oriental Club, Jlanover-sqwire, W. 
Moudt,* Frederick J Esq., m.u. (Surgeon-Major and Inspector-General of Prisons, 

Bengal Army, &c.). \'2, Durham-villas, Kensington, W,; and Atlienacum Club, 

Moansey,* Aug. Henry, Esq. (British Legation, Yedo.) Care of It. II. Mounsey, 

Esq., Castle-street, Carlisle. 
ISIowatt,* Jitmes, 1^., M.A. 5, Kotting-hill-square, 11'.; and Caius College, 

Moxon, Henry James, Esq. 9, Compton-terrace, Hijhhary, K. 
Mozley,* H. W., Esq., M.A. Eton College. 
Mudie, Char](>£ KJvciirJ, Esq. Muswell-hill. 
Muelter, Sir Ferdinand, e.o.m.g., m.d., ph.d. Director of the Botanical Gardens, 

Melbourne. Care of Messrs. Dulau and Co., 37, Soho-square, W. 
MnggBritJge, W. H. Ei»q, Jiai/iurst, BsvQnshire'road, Wandsworth-road, S.W. 
Muir,* Hugh B., Esq. 26, Old Broad-strett, B.C. 

Muir,* Thomas, Esq. Madeira ; and 24, }%rk-t<irrace. Regent' s-park, N. W. 
Mullens,* Josiah, Esq. 34, Hunter-street Sydney, New South Wales. Care 

of Messrs. Browne, 263, Metropolitan Market, E.C. 

















JIulliner, Robt. Bouwrie, Esq. GtHKe-houte, Oroce-pa/h. Chisirici. 

Munro, Dr. U , Fark-lane, W. 

Munster, His Excellency Count (Am'twasador of the Gerni&n Empire). 

Embassy, 9, Cio-Uon-housc-terrace, S. W. 
Mnnton, Fraods Kerridge, £»]. Gtouveater-house, Slcn^ridge-park, Willctdfn, 

Mutxihison,* John H., E<q. Jnnior Carlton CM, S. W. 

Murehison. Kenneth R., Esq. 24, Chapel-street, Park4aru, W. ; and Bmokf' 

hwst. East Orinstead, Sussex. 
Munlodi,* Sir Thomas W. Clinton, K.C.M.G. 8, Park-street, Westminster, 

S. \V. ; anJSS, St. George' s-sqmre, S.W. 
Murray, A. H. Hullam, Esq.. b.a. 50, Alhemarle-ttreet, W. 
M urmy,* G. S. D., Esq. 118, Pall-maH, S. W. 
Murruy,* Henry, Esq. Garrich Club, Gar rick-street, W.C. 
Murray, John, Esq. 50, Albemarle-street, }V. ; and Neurstead, WiiMeduii, 

Murray,* John, juo., Esq. 50, Albemarle-street, W. ; atsd Neicstead, WimbieduH, 

Mmmy, Lieut. John Geo., k.a. Lisnamavdre, Crossdoney, Ireland. 
Murray, T. DouglM, Esq. 34, Portland-place, W. 
Mormy,' Miijor W, G, (Beng. Stuff Corpn). Care of Messrs. Sctcetl ait«f 

Croictker, 18, Cockspur-street, S.W.; and Portigliolo, AJaccio, Corika. 
Marniy, William Vaughan, Esq.,, tm. 4, Weatbourne-oretcenl, JI\/de- 

park, W, 

Care of M. Xagasaki, Esq., 9, Kensimjton-park-^rdns., W. 
Esq. Care of M. Sagasaki, Esq., 9, Kensington-park- 

Care of .}fessrs. 

NagnobA, M. J., E>q. 
NahiBhimn,* N. H., 

gardens, IF. 
Nainie, P. A., Eh). 2, Grove-hill, Catnbervell, S.E. 
Napier cf Magdalu, Rt. Hon. Lord, SX.D., G.CB.t., r.K.S. 

CotUts and Co., Strand. 
Napiei-, Miijoi- Hon. Geo. 21, Orottenor-street, W. 
N'apier, Willinm, Esq, 

NatTx, Cnptniii f^ir George S., n.2«., k.cb. 23, St, Phi^'s-road, Surbiion. 
Needh*ni, S. H., Esq., P.O.S. 5, Mecklenburg-street, Meoklenburg-square, 

Nelson, George Henry, E«q. Wyggeston's llospUat Soys' School^ Leicester. 
Xesbitt,* Henr)-, Euq. 12, Victoria-tillas, Kilbum, S. TV. 
Neebitt, William, Esq. Junior Carlton Club, Pall-mall, S.W. 
XeriUe^ lJettt.-Col. Edward. 0, Bolton-gardms, South Kensington, S.W 

Hot/al Geoyraphical Society, 















Toil. XLIX 

Newall, Uqor-Generel David J. F. Beldorme-toicer, Ryde, Isle of Wi'jht. 

Newall, Wm. Johnstone, E«q. 6, South-street, Park'Uxne, W. 

Xewbott, Benjamin, Esq., VAS., &c. 7, Vicarage-gardens, ,Cnmp<icn- 
hitt, W. 

Newby, Edwin H., Esq. Cluaham^lfuildings, New-bridga-street, E.C. 

Newdigate, Lieut-Col. Francis W. (Coldstream Guards). 26, SeyTnour-street, 
W. } and Byrkky-lodge, Needicood Forest, Bwton-upon-Tretd. 

Newman, Geo. G., Esq, 75 and 76, Comhill, E.C. 

Newman, Thomas Holdsworth, Esq. 9, Gt. Cumberland-place, Hyde-park, 

Newton, Alfred P., Esq. 15, Sheffield-gardens, Campden-hill, W. 

Newton, Wm., Esq. II, Mitre-court, Temple, E.C. 

Nicholaa, W., Esq. The Drive, Walthamstow. 

Nicholl, Henry John, Esq. 16, Hyde-park-gate, W. 

Ni«shol»,» Robert C, Esq. 5, Sussex-place, W. 

Nicholson, Sir Charles, Bart., D.C.L. T/us Grange, Totteridge, Herts, X. 

Nicholson, Robert, Esq. Loan End-house, Sorham, near Bcnoick-on-TueeJ, 

Niool, Geo. Wm., Esq. 312, South, S. W. 

Nicol,* Robert, Esq. Seform Club, S. W. ; and Westminster-palace-hotel, 

NicoUe, Wm., Esq, M.A. 107, Lansdowne-road, Xotting-hin, W. 

Niools, Arthur Robert, Esq. 11, Church-row, Hampstead, N. W. 

Nieolsan, Vice-Admiral Sir Frederick Wm. Erskine, Bart., CB. 15, William- 
street, Lowndes-square, S. W. 

Nightingale, Percy, Esq. 29, St. James*-road, Tunbrijge-wiells. 

Nix, John H., Esq. 77, Lombard-street, E.C. 

Noldwritt,* Jno. Spencer, Esq. 44, BenhUl-road, Brunsvnck-square, Cain- 
herwll, 8JS. 

NoUoth,* Admiral Matthew S. A \2, Albany, Piccadilly, W.; and United 
Service Club, S. W. 

Norman, Capt. Charles B. 

Norman, H. J., Esq. 4, Halkin-street, Grosvenor-place, S. W, 

Norman, Lieut-General Sir H. W., E.c.B. 27, Lexham-gardens, Cromwell-road, 

Normandy, Franlc, Esq. 

Norria, Charles, Esq. 124, Wood-street, E.C; and Marischal-road, Lee, 

Nonia, Harry, Esq. 38, St. James' s-place, S. W. 

Norrji, John, Esq. Tanshelf -house, Pontefract. 

North, Alfred, Esq. 23, LaJisdowne-crescent, N<riting-hill, W. 

Northbrook,* Thos. Geo. Baring, Eail of, o.c.S.i., d.c.l., &c., &c. 4, Hamilton- 
place, W. ; and Brooks's Club, St. James' s-street, S, W. 

Northumberland, Algernon George, Duke of. 2, Grosvenor-place, S. W. 

5356 ,, 



w ^^^^H 

List of Fellows of (he ^^^^^^^^^H 


Kortan, Geo., Emi., m.a. 22, Great Oeorge-drwt, S. W. 


Norton, Henry Turtoii, Esq., M.A. 33, ConncaU-fjardnu, Qnttn't-gate, S.W, 


Notman, Henry Wilkes, K«q. Choimlty-hdge, Wat-<fnJ, Kilbum, N. W. 


""""'* """'■ t 



Oftke*, William John, Esq. 54, Leren-ttrett, WestmuutfT'road, Liverpool. 


Dates, Wtn. Edward, Esq, Mfantcoodskle, neat Leedt. 


Ogilrie. Edward D, E«q. Tid^iUar, Clartnce-riter, New SouUi Wales. 


Ogilvi«, G«). M., Esq. 14, St. James's-square, S.W.; and Raleigh Cluh, 
liegent-itreet, S. W. 


O'HaJlomn, Jobejih Sylvester, E«q. \, WJiitehall-gardenB, S.W. ^^ 


O'Kwffe,* Commr, YelTerlon, r.n. 14, Aving ton-grove, Penge, S.£. ^^M 


Older, W. Aug.. Esq. Carrifigton-lodge, Richmond. 


Oldershnw, Cupl. Kobert Piggott. St. Leonard' t-lodge, Bedford-park, CrvydoH. 


Oldhani, Surgeon-Major C. F. Care of Meters. Qrindlay and Co., 55, Parliainent- 
ttrwt, S. W. 


Oldham, Henry, Esq., M.D. 4, CavertdieA-place, W, 



Oliphnnt, Laurence, Eoq. Atherutum Club, S.W. ^^J 


OliTer, George, Esq. 10, Mincing-lane, E.C. ^^^^ 



Oliver, Capt. S. P., a.A. 2, Euttem-vUUu, Anglesey, Gotport, Hants; 4^^| 
Scientific Club, 7, S,tvile-rov!, W. ^^ 


Olsen, Ote Theodor, Esq. 40, Cktihorix-road, GtimAy. 1 


Oninianney, Major E4lward Lacon (Bengal .Staff Corp*). WoodsilU-liovae^ 
Shooter' s-hill-road, BUickhaatk, S.E. 



Ommanney,* Admiral .Sir Erasmus, CD., r.R.s., f.ila.S. The Totctr», 
I'armoiUh, Isle of Wight ; and United Service Club, S.W. 


Ormnthwaite, John Benii- Walsh, Lord. 2&, BerJceleysijnare, W. 


Ormeiod,* Hoiiry Mere, Esq. BroaghtoH-park, Manchester. 


Oxpen, F. H. S., Esq. Barkly, Grigualand West ; care of Messrs, Satitge ami 
Hill, Pattnersion-bvildingt, Bisfi^piyate-street, E.C. 


Omed, Chaa. F. d'Angera, Esq. 4, Albert-mansions, Viuloria-sireet, S. W. 


Osboro, Sir George K., Bart. Travellers' CM, S. W.; and Chiokiand-priorji, 


Osboriie,* Lieut.-Col. Willoujfliby (Political Agent, BItopal, Scftira, India). 


Osbonme, Jno. Smyth, Esj., jun. Heat/i-houte, Stapleton, Bristol. 



Otwell, William Cotton, Ekj. Groombridge, Kent, 



Otter, Baron Fnsderic voa (Minister of Marine), Care of Mr. Thortten iVor- 
denfelt, 1, St. Swithin'slane, E.C. 


Overall, Wro. Henry, Estj., F.s.A. Guildhall, E.C, 


Orerbeck,* Baron dc. Honj-Kong, Care of Messrs, Sing and Co., Bb^ 
Comlull, E.C. 

»37 ^J 


Roycd Geographical Society, 











C p. 

C. p. 

Orentone,* Samuel, Lord, U.a., h.RJ. 2, Curlton-gardens, S.W.; and 

Wickham-pari, Surrey. 
OxaihaiD, Edward Larington, Esq. Nutcomhe'hovtaef Weyhridge, Surrey. 
Oxley, Fredk^ Esq. 23, Obucester-creKetU, Hyde-park, W. 
Owden, Sir Thomas S., Knt. Mouni-phaaant, PkUip-Ume, ToUmJum, 

Packe, William, Eaq. 1, Cavendish-square, W. 

Pkiddoii,* Jno., Esq. BarUy, Oriqualand West. Care of Metsrs, Savage and 

Mil, Pabnenton^ntildings, Bishopsgatestreet, B.C. 
Page, George Gordon, Esq., c.E. 4, Great Jamga-^reet, Orai^S'inn, W.C. 
Page, Henry, Esq. Jhdwich-common, S.E. 
Page, Wn). Irring, Esq. Wimbledon-common, 8. W. 
Paine, Geo. Wm., Esq. Cotsioold-lodge, Farqulutr-road, Dulmch-vmod-park, 

Upper Norwood. 
Palgrave, Vf. QiSord, Esq. Care of Messrs. H. S. King and Co., Comhill, B.C. 
Pallett,* Kobt. Hy. Chas., Esq. Theydon-hall, TKeydon Bois, Essex. 
Palmer, Charles James, Esq. 5, MomingUm-viUas, Wanstead-park, 
Palmer, George, Esq. 58, Ebury-street, S. W. 
Palmer,* Captain George, B.K. Midgard, Hawick, Boaebttrghshire. 
Pklmer,* John Linton, Esq., Surg. R.K. 24, Rock-park, Rockferry, Cheshire. 
Palmer, Rer. Joseph, B.A., &c. Wells, Somerset. 
Palmer, J. Horsley, Esq. 56, Cromwell-road, QueerCs-gate, S. W. 
Palmer,* Samuel, Esq. 

Palmer,* T. G. A., Esq. 5, Paper-buildings, Inner Temple, B.C. 
Pannel, Charles S., Esq. WaitonAodge, Torquay. 
Papengouth,* Oswald C, Esq., c.E. Care of W. Homibrook, Esq., 6, Regent's- 

square, W.C. 
Paris,* H.R.H. le Comte de. 

Pimsb,* Chas. Woodbine, Esq. Quarry-house, St. Leonards-on-Sea, 
Parish,* Admiral John E., R.N. 6, Bina-gardens, S. W. 
Parish,* Sir Woodbine, K.C.H., r.R.S., &c. Quarry-house, St. Leonards-o^-Sea. 
Park, Abraham, Esq. Warrington-terrace, Ashton-under-Lyne ; and Morning- 

dale-house, Renfrewshire, N. B. 
Park, James Dickson, Esq. 48, Queen' s-gate-gardens. South Kensington, S.W. 
Parker, Capt. Frands G. S. (54th Kegiment), r.O 8., A.I.CB. Westbere- 

house. Slurry, near Canterbury. 
Parker,* Honourable Francis. 94, Eaton-square, S.W. ; and 9, King's-Bench- 

walk, TempU, E.C. 
Parker, James, Esq. Care of Messrs. H. 8. King and Co., 45, Pall-mall, S.W. 
Parkes, Sir Barry S., K.C.B. (H.M. Minister Plenipotentiary, &c., in Japany. 

61, Rutland-gate, S.W. 
Parkin, George Lewis, Eaq. 22, Park-lane, W. 

33» g 1 


Lisf of Fellowt of the ^^^^^^^^^H 




Parkin, Thomiu, Etq., v.A. 39, Boulevard ffauumanti, Parit. Care of Ber. 
' Jolm Piirkiti, ffttlton-ricarage, Hastingi. 


0. J.. 

Parkyns,* Mftiufield, Esq., F.Z.8. Arthurs Clvb, St. Jame$'i-street, S. W. | 


Parluie, Ju., Esq. Appleby -lodiie, Jiiisholme, Manc/tetter. J 


Paj-r, Comnmader Alfred A. Chaw, r.n. Powya-lodge, BiMey, Kent. ^^| 


Pan7, Edward, Esq. 290. Catnden-road, X. IK ^H 



Parry,* Francu, Esq. 2, SUnhope-gaardent, Cromteell-road, S.W. ^^| 


Paimos, Philip, Esq. 2, Cli/dc-villaa, Croxted-road, DulwicA. ^^^ 


I'uco, CapUin Crawford, r.n. Care of Messrs. Case and Loudensack, 1,/anfiB 
street, Adelphi, W.C. ^H 


Pass, Eliiu A. d«, Esq. 7%e Lodge, Bemhrldge, Isle of Wight. ^^| 


Pasteur, Mam Menry, Esq. 38, Mincing-lane, E.C. ^^H 


Paler«oo, Jolin, Esq. 7 and 8, AustraHan-avenue, E.C. ^^1 


I'atteiison, Jas. Wilson, Esq. lioseland, Waverlcy, Baltimore Co., U,S,A. Cure ] 
of Messrs. Brown, S/iiplcy and Co., Lot/ibw;/, E.C. 1 


Pattenon, Wylea, Esq. 28, Gloucesler-place, Ifyde-park, W. ^J 


Patterson, Maj..Gen. Wm. Tboa. Laird. 6, Spring-gardens, S. W. ^H 


PattinaoQ, J., Esq. 21, Bread-street, E.C. ^H 


I'aul, J. H., Esq., U.D. The Terrace, Cambeneell, S.E, ^H 


Pauli.Cart. W. B., R.N. (U.M. CoMul, Porto liioo). Care of Mesira. WoodheS^ 

and Co., 44, Cfiaring-cross, S, W. 


Paulion, W. H., Eiq., B.A. St. Lawrence-viaarage, Bamsgate. 


I'aztoii, Robert Clias., Esq. 24, Stafford-terrace, Phillimore-gardeni, W, 


Payne, Lieut.-Col. Geo. Ma^sey. East India United Service Club, 14, St. James's- 
square, 8. W. 


Paynter,* Willinm, Esq., r,R.A.8. 21, Belgrate-sqvuire, S.W,; and Cajnbome- 
hmse, Richmond, Surrey. ^^M 


Peacock, George, Esq, Starcrots, tuar Exeter. ^^H 


I'eal, Snmuel E„ Esq. Care of S. E. Peal, Esj., K-rnAwit, Mattock-hmt, 1 

EaliiKj, W. 1 


Penrcj, .losepli, Esq. XTl , Englefield-rood, Ialinot<m, K. ■ 


Pearson, Arthur A., Esq. Coloniai-offioe, 8. W. ^^J 


Pechey, J. T. Pi-imrose, Esq. Leytonstone, Essex. ^^H 


I'cckover,* Alexander, Esq., r.L.8. Wisbech, ■ 


Pedder, W. G., Esq. 25, St. Stephen' s-sqtuire, W. ; and India^office, S. IV. ^J 


Peek,* Cutli bert E., Esq, II iiixbledon-l^ouse, S. W. ^M 


Peek,* Sir Henry William, Bart.. v.P. Wimbledon-hoiw, S. W. ^H 


Peel,* Captain Franci*. Boxted-hoiue, Colchester. ^^H 


Peel, Right Hon. Sir Robert, Bart., «.c.n. 4, Wliitchall-jiinleHS, S. W. ; 
urtJ l>raijton-inanor, Tamtcorth. 


I'elham,* lion. Arthur L. Stanmer, J^res, Sunex. 



Pelly,* Colouel Sir Lewis, K.c.n., K.C.8.I. Athenaum CM, Pall-mall, S. W. 


Pelly, Capt. Richard W., R.Jf. I^inity Hone, Tavier-hiU, E.C, ; and IMne- 

croft, WaUhainatavs, E, 

1155 1 

Royal Geograpkical Society. 





', 1879 

i 1866 

\ 1867 

:j 1862 

' 1879 


; 1878 

i "^ 

I ism 



Pembroke, Right Hon. George R. C. Herbert, Earl of. Wiltott-Iwuse, Sitliabury ; 

and 10, Vktoria-aquare, Pimlico, S. W. 
Pender, StaflMJomm. D., B.lf. Admiralty, Whitehall; and Eaquimalt, Thnmton' 

Mil, mnMedon, 8.W. 
Pender, H. D., E«). 18, ArlingUm-ttreet, S. W. 
Pender,* John, Esq. 18, Arlington-street, S. W. 
Pengelly, Thonuu, E«q. Bodriggy-villa, Hayle, Cornwall. 
Pennant,* Colonel S. S. Douglas, Penrhyn-cattle, Bangor, 
Penrhjn,* Lord. Penrhyn-caatle, Bangor. 

Pepjs, Hon. Walter Courtenay. Windham Club, St. James's-tquare, S. W. 
Pereira, Franciico E., Esq. 

Perkins, William, Esq. Rosario, Argentine Republic. 
Perry, Right Rev. Charles, 32, Avenue-road, -V. W. 
Ptrrj, Sir Erskine (Member of the Council of India). M, Eaton-plaee, 

Perry, Gerald R., Esq. BritiaA Consulate, Cadiz, 
Petch, Richd., Esq. 16, Wes&oume-park, Hyde-park, W. 
Peters,* William, Esq. 
Petherick,* Edward Augustus, Esq. 56, Geneva-road, Brixton, S, 11'.; awf 17, 

Warwick-aguare, E.C, 
Petherick,* John, Esq. 66, Tavistock-crescent, Westbowme-jtark, \V. 
Petler, Naval Lieut Eaton W., R.y. Calcutta. 
Petter, G. Wm., Esq. Streatham-grove, S.W. 
Pharasyn, Robert, Esq. Wellington, New Zealand. Care of Messrs, Scale 

and Rogers, 9, Fenchurch-street, E.C. 
Phayre, Lieut-Gen. Sir Arthur, C.B., K.C.8.I. Care of Messrs, H, S, King 

and Co., 45, Pall-mall, S.W,; and East India United Service Club, 

Phen^,* John Samuel, Esq., I.L.D., y.s.A., F.a.S. 5, Carlton-terrace, Oakley 

street, S. W. 
Phibbs, Owen, Esq. Care of W. Phxtbs, Esq., Seafield, Co, Sligo, Ireland. 
Philbiick,* Frederick Adolphus, Esq. Lamb-buildings, Temple, E.C. 
Philip, Geoi^e, Esq. 32, Fleet-street, E.C. 
Philippe, Herbert Rees, Esq. India-office, S, W. 
Philippe, Sutherland Rees-, Esq., M.D. Wonford-house, Exeter. 
Phillimore, Rear- Admiral Augustus, ShedfielJ, Fareham, Hants; and India 

United Sereice Club, S. W. 
Phillimore, Charles Bagot, Esq. Hurley Manor-house, Great Marlow; and 

Indithcffice, S. W. 
Phillimore, Rear- Admiral Henry B., C.B. 
Phillimore, Captain William Brough (Grenadier Guards). 7, Hyde-park' 

gardens, W. 
Phillip*, Edw. Ang., Esq. 
Phillips, Geo. Esq. (H.M. Consul, Kiukiang"), Care of Jno. Marsh, Esq., 29, 

High-street, Maidstone. 



L iat of Fellowt of the ^^M 



I'hiliips, Noblet, E*|. 31, Cambridge-gardens, NoUing-hill, W. ] 


Phillips, Thonans Eraest, Esq. St. Mary's School, Seymour-atreet. Kuiioii- ] 
*quare, N.W. 


l*hillin«-Woll«y, C. L., Y.v\. Morgan-halt, Fairfonl, Ol<Mce$teriMre. 


['hilp.Cnpt.Fiiu. Lamb ([{ojnl Scots Gray*). Pendoggett, Ttmsbury, near But h ; 
atid Armtj and Kavy Clnb, S, W. 


Philpott, Edward P.. Esq., M.D., LL.D. Poole, Doraetthire. 


PhlpMn-WybninU, Capt Temple Leighton, J.r. Dunlow, Moy, Co, T)/n»u; 


Pickering.* Joha, E«i. The AbwUe, Mount Preaton, Leeds. 


I'ickersgill, VVm. Cnnliffe, Fsq. 58, Primce'a-gaU, S.W, 


I'iei-ce, Edwin, Esq. Gwadur, Pei-sian Gnlf. Core of Metsrt. King and Co., , 
fl5, Cornhill, E.G. 


Pierce, John Timbrell, Esq. 3, Middle TempMaw, Temple ; FrettOM, Danbwri}, 
Chelmsford ; and Reform. Club, S. W. 


Pieiw, Josinh, Etsq. 1 2, Beaufort-gitrdent, BrompUm-rond, S. W, 


I'igott, Halt. Tiirtlp, Eiq., DXI.U Manor-park, Lee, Kent; and 86, JoutAomptoM- 

ati-eet, St,-and, W.C. ^_ 


Pigott, Tboinn» Dighj, Eoq. 5, Ovingtm-gardena, S. \V. ^^M 


I'igou,* F. A. P., Esq. Dartford, Kent. ^^M 


Pike.* Captiin John W., r.n. 1 16, Bblland-nad, Kensington, W. ^H 


PllkiDston, James, Esq. Bltickbum, 



Pirn.* CnptAtn IJedford C. '1'., r.». Leaaide, Kingavcccd-road, Ujtper JW- 
wood, S.K.; 2, Crown-office-row, Temple, E.C.; and Senior and Junior 
United Service Cluba, S. W. 


Piniblett, liev. Jiune*. 26, Qreat Avenhain-atreet, Prtiton. 


Piue, Sit B«iijiit»in, k.C.m.o. Orient<jl Club, Ilanover-ajuare, W. ^^M 


Pinney, Colouel William. 30, Berkeley-square, W. ^^M 


Pirkit, Albert £., Eiq. Penlee, Richmond, Surrey. ^^| 


I'trkis, Fnsdk. E., h.k. I'enlee, Richmond, Surrey. ^^H 



I'itrann, C. E., E«q. milside, GuiUforJ. ^^M 


PUuter, W, H., Esq,, M.R.C.8., &c. Tottenham, Middlesex. ^^M 


Piatt, Colonel Chu. Rowley. 4, Solton-atreet, Piccadilly, W, ^^H 


Player, John, E«q. 22, Carpenter-road, Edgbatton, Birmingham. 



E'lsyfkii-, Lieut.-Col. Robeit l.ambert (H.B.M. Couaul-GenerB), Algieri), Care 
of Messrs. ff. S. King and Co., 45. PaH-m>dl, S. W, 


Plow den, Trevor, Esq. {H. B. M.'« Consul-General, Bagdad. Turkish Ambia). 


PIriwes,* John Henry, Esq. 39, Fork-terrace, Hegentt-park, K, W. 


Plunked Hon. Francis. Tracellera Club, Pall-mall, S. W. ; and care of FortiifH- 

office, S.W. 


Plankett,* Cupt Geo.T., R.E. Chatham. Care o/Mettra. Cox and Co., Craiff'^m. 
court. S. W. 


PoUnd,* Jno., Esq. Eliot-vale-IuMae, Blaoklmath. 


PolUrd, Henry Thos., Etq. 4, Threadneedte-atreet, B.C. ^J 

34JI ^^ 


Roy<d Geographical Society. 








PoUezfen,* Captain J. J. India. 

Pollington,* John Horace, Vucount. 8, Johnstraet, Berkeley-Square, W. 

PooMnby,* The Hon. Frederick G. B. 3, Mount-itrett, 6ro$r)enor'4quare, W. 

Poole, Major Wm. John E. (60th Bojal Rifles). Southamptm. 

Pope, Captain Wm. Agnew. Union Club, TVafalgarsquare, S.W. 

Porgei,* Theodore, Esq. 11, £ue Montalivet, Paris. 

Portal,* Wm. Richd., Esq., h.a. Tmge-houie, Lou>er Norwood, S.E. 

Porter, Henry, Eaq. 181, Strand, W.C. 

Potter, Richard, Eaq. Stcmdisk-house, Stonehouae, OUmcttUnhirt. 

Potter, ReT. Wm. Enurald-hiU, near MettxmrM. 

Potter, Wm. H., Eaq. Care of 0. T. White, Esq., Kixrara, Toottng'Common. 

Pounden,* Captain Lonadale. Junior United Service Club, S. W. ; and Browns- 

wood, Co. Wexford. 
Povah, Rer. John Y., H.A. 11, Dawson-place, Pemhridge-square, W. 
Powell, Frederick, Eaq. The School-house, Bahewell, Derbyshire. 
Powell,* F. S., E«q. 1, Cambridge-square, Hyde-park, W. 
Power, E. Rawdon, Esq. Heywood-lodge, Tenby, South Wales ,* attd Xhatcfied- 

Bouse Club, S.W. 
Pownall, John Fish, Esq. 63, Russell-square, W.C. 
Powys, The Hon. Leopold. 16, Queensbery-place, S.W. 
Prance^* Reginald H., Esq. Frognal, Hampstead. 
Prater, Lieut. Charles Golding, B.N. Kincora, Torquay. 

Preedj, Col. H. William. The Chantry, Fladbury, near Pershore, Worcesterthuv. 
Prevost,* Admiral J. C. 44, South Eaton-place, S. W, 
Price, Charles S., Esq. Bryn Dervcen, Neath. 
Price, F. G. H., Esq. 1, FUet-street, E.G. 

Price, James, Esq. 53, Reddiffe-gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 
Price, James Glenie, Esq. 14, Clements-inn, W.C. 
Price,* J. M., Esq., aE. 

Price, Sir Rose Lambert, Bart. Naval and Military Chib, PiocadUly, W. 
Price, Thomas Phillips, Elsq. TrUey-court, Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, 
Prickett,* Rev. Thomas William, U.A., f.s.a. 11, Lypialt-terrace, Cheltenham; 

and United University Club, Pall-mall East, S. W. 
Prideauz, Colonel W. F., Bombay Staff Cor]>8. 2, SicUaw-terrace, Bognor, Sussex. 
Pridham, Wm. J., E^. St. James' s-school, Teignmouth, Devon. 
Prince, John, Eaq. Devonshire Club, St. James' s-street, S, W. 
Prince, John Sampson, Esq. 34, Craoen-liill-gardens, Eyde-park, W, 
Pringle,* A., Esq. Tair, Selkirk, N. B. 
Pringle, Edw. Hamilton, Esq. Care of Messrs. Wheatley mid Co., 156, 

Leadenhall-street, E.C. ; and Scientific Club, 7, Savile-row, W. 
Pringle, Major Sir Norman Wm. Drummond, Bart. (38th Regiment). Malta. 
Pringle,* Thomas Young, Esq. Reform Club, S. W. 
Prinsep,* Edw. Aug., Esq., B.CJ. (Commissioner of Settlements in the Panjaub, 

UmriUur). Care of Messrs. H. S. King and Co., 65, OamAiK, E.C. 




Liri of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^^^^| 


Pritohard, Lieut.-CoI. Gordon Dougliv, B.E. Montagve-nad, Itichmond; and 
United Sereke Club, Pall-mall, 3. W. 


Probyn, Jlaj.-Owieral Sir Kghton JIacoaaghten, V.C, K.CAU, C.B. The Oc^dm- 
majiiicns, Queen Annes-{iate, S. W. 


Procter, Juo., Esq. Croinwtll-hotiac^ Lonj PratUm, Leed* ; and 2, Crcvtuffic^ 
row. Temple, E.G. 


Proctor, Samuel, Eiq. (Hen<l Slj>st«r, Borough Schools, Sao Fernando, Trinidady. 
Care of E. 11. Pennen, Esq., 17, Lime-itreet, E.C. ^h 


Proctor-Sims,* Hichard, lLn\., c.k. (Kxfc, Engineer, Bhowouggar, JTattytKB*)^^! 
Care of J. S. Manning, Esq., 7, Weatnunater^lian^ra^ S. W. ^^H 


Prodgen .♦JiilwlD, E»q. 27i« Rectory, Atfott St. Peter'e, HerU. ^^^ 


Proth«ro«, Cnpt. Montague. Care of Meatra. Grindlay and Co., 5b, Parltamm^^^ 
Bireei, 8, W. ; and Junior United Service Cluh, S. W. ^1 


Prothenw, P17W, Eaq. Gothk-cottaije, Adelaide-road, S»rf»t(m. 


imitk, VV, 


Prout, John Willtara, Esq., M.A. Athenamm Club, S.W. ; and I^eaadom, 
MiddUsei, N. W. 


Prycc, Cnpt. Chas. L. (Sopt. lionrd of Tmde). •• T)ie Park," Hull.. ^^1 


Pry or, Kev. J no. Kade. Bennington-rectory, Stevenage, Herts, ^^H 


Puckk, Major-Gcnend Jame*. 2, The Terrace, Church-road, Upper Koncood. 1 


Puget,* Li«ut,-CoItiiielJ, 8, Cambridge-gate, Begent'i-park, A',W. ^^M 


PulMton, John H.» Etq. 2, Dank-buildingi, Princei-etrect, E.C, ^^H 


Puller. Arthur Gileii, K«j. Atherueum. Club, S.W. ; Arthur's Chib, S.W.; ani 1 
i'oungsbury. Ware. 1 


Pullinau, Henry, E«q. "Normandy," Kev-road, Pichmond. 1 


Pullinan, Jno.. Ym], Grme-end, Chisvick. ^^M 


Pun<r«r, Wm. B., Etq. ^^H 


Purdon, Lieut. George Frederic, R.N. Tinenara, Kitlaloe, Co. Ctare. ^^M 


Pusey,* Sidney E. Bouverie, Esq. ^^H 


Pycroft, Sir Thomaa, K.C.8.I. 17, Clereland-gardent, Hyde-park, \V. ^^| 


Quin» Lord George. \b, Belgrave-ntjwire, S.W. ^^^ 


Quin, Geo., Esq. Woroe*ter, Capc'tovn. Core of Aftasri. White and Nobnra 1 
20, Mildmay- chamber I, Biahopagate-street-withiH, E.C. 1 


Quin, John ThonMtf, Esq. Care of Mr. Jno. B. WUliama, 101, Highbury- 1 
hiti, N. J 


liadctiffV, Sir Jotrph P., Bait Budding park, Enarrahorough. ^^^^M 


Ri«d>tock,* Gninrille AuguMun, Lord. East She^, S.W. ^^^^H 


Kac, Ed Will (i, Ktq. Bed-court, Dirkfnhcod. |^^^^| 

3488 ~^H 


Royal Geographical Soeidy. 












€1. C. ^ 

€r. p. 

Rae, Henry, Esq. 15, Okl-tquare, Lincoln' s-inn, W.C.; and Oxford and Cum- 
bridge Club. Pall-matt, 3. W. 

Rm,* James, Esq. 32, Phillimore-gardens, Kensingtm, W. 

Bae, John, Esq., M.D., LUD., F.R.S. 4, Addiaon-gardena South, SoUand-vOlat- 
road, Kensington, TV. 

Raikes, Francis Wm., Esq. Junior Carlton Club. 

Ralli, Eusti-atiuit, Esq. 93, Lancaster-gate, W. 

lUlli, Pandeli, Esq. . 17, Belgrave-square, S. W. 

ISamUut, John, Esq., M.D. The Grange, Qodatone, Surrey. 

Ramsay, Alex., Esq. Kilmorey-hdge, Caitlebar, Ealing, W. 

Ramsay, John, Esq. lalay, N. B, 

Ramsay, Major John. Stralooh, Aberdeenshire. 

Ramsdeu, Sir James, Knt Barrwo<n-Fumes$. 

Ramsden,* lUchard, Esq., B.A. 

Randell,* Rev. Thomas, b.a. 28, Friar's Entry, Oxford. 

Randolph, Vice-Admiral George G., c.b. 70, Brunsicici-place, Brighton; and 
Unitad Service Club, Pall-mcUl, 8. W. 

Rankin, Capt. Fras. W. Worcester-park, Surrey. 

Rankin, Lionel Kentish, Esq. Norihicick-villa, Clifton. 

Rankin, William, Esq. Tiemaleague, Camdonagh, Donegal. 

Raaiom,* Edwin, Esq. Kempstone, near Bedford, 

Rapier, Richard C. Esq., C.E. 5, Westminster-chambers, S. W. 

Rassam, Hormozd, Esq. Nineveh-house, Spring-grove, Isleworth. 

Ratdiff, Colonel Charles, F.8.A. Athenceum Club, S. W. ; Edybaston, Birming- 
ham ; and Downing College, Cambridge. 

KmU, Lachlan Macintosh, Esq. 9, South Audley-atreet, W. 

Rarenscroft, W. H., Esq. Care of Sir C. M'Grigor and Co., 25, Charles- 
street, St. James' s-aquare, S. W. 

Ravenstein, Ernest G., Esq. Alpha-cottage, Lorn-road, Brixton, S. W. 

Rawlings, H. D., Esq., P.Q.8 , Netherlands. Chnlk-hill, Kingsbury, K W. 

Rawlins, William Donaldson, Esq., m.a. 4, Wimpole-street, Cavendish- 
square, W. 

Rawlinaon, Sir Christopher. 89, Eaton-square, S. W. ; and The Lawn, 

Kawlinson,* Major>General Sir Henry C, K.c.u., O.C.L., ll.d., f.R.8. Athenteum 
Club, 8. W.; and 21, Charles-street, Berkeley-sqiuire, W. 

Rawson, Christopher, Esq. KingMorpe, Castle-road, Soiithsea, Hants. 

Rawion, Philip, Esq. Woodfturst, Crawley, Sussex. 

Rawson, Sir Rawson Wm., k.c.m.q., c.u. Drayton-hoiae, West Drayton, 

liawson, Lieut. Wyatt, tux. Kingsthorpe, Castle-road, Sout/isea, Hants. 

Ray, Major Alfred William. 27le Lodge, Brixton-oval, S. W. 

Ray, Surgeon-General George H., x.D. Hamam-chambers, 76, Jermyn-s^eet, 



Li»t of Fellows of the ^^| 



RjiyJeigh,* Loi-d. Terling-plaoe, Witham, Eaex. 1 


Read, Frederick, Etq. 45, Letmtcf'tquare, W. ' 


Read, F. W. C, E«q. 17, Colcherne-roiid, S. Kantingtm, S. W. 


Head, Gen. John Meredith (Mioitter of the U.S. in Greece). Atltciu. Care of 
li. F, Stevens, Etq., 4, Trafatgar-sqitare, S. W. 


Rear, Loiil. 0, Great Stanhope-street, \V. 


Redhead, H. ^[ilne, Ksq., F.L.8. Springfield, Seedley, ManohaUr; Cmtenatie* 
Club, S.W. ; and Junior Carlton Chib, S.W, 


Redman,* John B„ Esq., c.E. 7, I.UlU Queen^trett, Weetmituter, S.W. 


Reed, Andrew Holmes, Esq. Strat/iem, AmAurst-park, Stamford-hill. 


Reed, John ^^'i)liaIn, Esq. 27, Clarenccstreet, hlington, y. ^^H 
Rehden,* George, Esq. 15, Richmond-terrac«, Clapham'road, S. W. '^^H 



Bind, Alexander, Esq. Georgetoten, British Guiana. Care of the Cotmlal 
L'ank, 8, Bishopsgale-streei, E.C. 


Reid,» DnvJd, E»q. 


Reilly, Anthony Adanu, Esq. 1, Paper-buildiHgt, Tetnple, E.C: <tnd OMri^ 
broohf, Del'jany, Ireland. ^^| 


R^«,* Jaraea, Esq. 7, Cromicell-road-hoiiset, Souih Kan$iiujton, 8,W. ^^M 


Remfry, Frederick Ernest, Esq. Firsleigh, Torquay. ^^H 


Renifrj, Jdo., Esq, The Grange, Sightingale-lafie, Clapham-common, S, W. 


Kennie,* John Keilh. Esq., m.a. Camb. 2, EcckHon'syuare, S.W. 


Kennie, Joho Thomson, Esq. 6, Eatt India^oenru, E.C; and Deenwunt' 
houte, Aberdeen, 


Rennie,* M. B., Esq., c.z. Care of Jamet Rennie, Etq., 9, Motcoiftb-^ireftf, 

Belgrave-aqitare, S. IV. 1 


Rennie, W., Esq. 6, Great Cumberland-place, W. ^J 


Rnniihaw, Chos. B., E5q. Eldtrtlie, Renfrewshire, N. B. ^^| 


Renwick,* Genei-al VV. F., n.E. 21, Dauett-road, Notling-hill, W. ^^| 


[tenter, Julias, Baron de. Keixaington-palace-gardent, W. ^^H 


Reynardaon, Henry Birch, Esq. Adteell, near Teteworth, Oxfordshire. 


Reynolds. VVilliam Henry, Esq. Care of Messrs. King and Co., 65, ComhiU, E.C, 


Ethodes, Arthur John, Esq. Sunnyside, St. Albans, 


Rhodes, Hon. Wm. Barnard (Mem. Li^is. CooDcil, New Zealand). WelUtiQtoti^ 
New Zealand. Care of Messrs, Jas. Morrison and Co., 4, Fenchurch'St., E.C, 


Ricardo-Searer,* Major F. Ignncio. Consereaiive Club, St, James's^ 8. W. 


Rice, Wm., Esq. 


Richards, Alfi'ed, Esq. Tetckesbury-lodge, Forest-hilt. 


Richanls, Cnpt. F. W., R.S., c.B. United Scrcice Club ; and H.M.S, * Deuaio' 
turn.' Channel Sijuadron, 



Richards, Adiniiitl Sir Georg* H., C.B., fM.s, VimcowrrJu>fue, Fornt-hill, S.S, 


Richards, M. \V., E*q. Shore-road, S. Ilachiey, E. 


RtchardMn, Edwin J., Esq. 28, IMke-street, Manchester-square, W. 


Richardson, F., Esq. Juniper-hall, Mickte/tam, Dorking, ^t 


Richca,* Arthur, Esq. Brunswick College Schfiol, Leamtngton. ^^M 

3S58 ^H 


Royal Geograpldcal Society. 











Bider, T. F., E«q. 25itf Grova, Ck^p/utm-road, S. W. 

Riddell, Lieat. H. S. Hatton (2Dd BrvtLilLo» Wih Rifles). Afeervt. 

Rideal, John, £«q. Deoon-lodge, Mayov!~road, Foreii'hiU. 

BU^tij, John Ambroae, Esq. Foundatbm School, Beverley, 

fOUey, F. H., Esq. 

Rkllej, George, E«q. 2, Charles'Street, Berkeley-square, W. 

Ridpath, Junes Lionel, Esq. 2)0oo»4a«on, Wimbledon^parL 

Ridpath, Thomas Alex., Esq. 9, Eelsize^pafk, Sampstead. 

I^igh/,* Mujor-Geoera] CSiristopher Palmer. Oriental Clvb, W.; and 14, Man*- 

fieU-atreet, W. 
Mej, Captain Charles Henry. Junior United Service Club, 8. W. 
Himnwl, Eug^ns, Esq. Strand, W.C. 
Rintottl, Robert, Esq. Windham Club, S. W. 
RipoD, Atofit Hon, Geo. Fredk. Sam., Marqais of, K.a„ F.B.8. 1, Carlton-gcarJens, 

8. W. ; and Studley Boyal, Ripon. 
Ritchie, Her. George St. Martin (Chaplain to the Forces). 
Rivers, MajoivGen. Pitt 19, Pen-y-icti-n-Foad, South Kensington, 3.W. 
Robarts, H. C, Esq. 41, Z<mmdes-iqvare, S. W. 
Roberts, Rer. Chas. M. The Oramjuar-sch&ot, Monmouth. 
Roberts,* Charles W., Esq. Penrith-house, Effra-road, Brixton, 8. W. 
Itoberts, W. C, Esq. New Zealand. 
Robertson, A. D., Esq. 53, Qveen's-gate, S. W. 
Robertson, Sir D. Brooke, c.b. AtAencsttm Club, S. W. 
Robertson, 1>, 1. U., Esq. 174, Chatham'Street, Falkner-square, Liverpool. 
Robertson,* Graham Moore, Esq. 21, Cleveland-square, Hyde-park, W. 
Robertson,* Henry, Esq., ii.p. 13, Lancaster-gate, W. ; and Pali-hall, Corwcn, 

a\' Wales. 
KoiKTbtati,* Jivmes Nisbet, Esq. Fewlands, Banstead, Surrey. 
Robertson, R. B., Esq. (H.M. Canaul, i'okahama, Japan). 
Robertson, M^r Wheatley. 35, Qv4sen'»-gnrdens^ W. 

fobiD,* Charles Jimvrin, Esq. United Uainersity Club, Pall-mall East, S.W. 
RobiosoD, Alfred, Esq. Elm~baf»&, Jlwklcrsficld. 

Robin»on,* Arthur M., Esq. 32, Bmonshire-road, Claughton, Birkenhead, 
Robinson, Capt. F. C. B., R.K. Care of London Joint Slock Bank, Pall-mall, S. W. 
Robinson, Henry, Esq., m.LC.e., f.O.S. 7, Westminster-chambers, S.W. 
Robinson, Sir Hercules G. R., g.c.h.o. Messrs. Burnett, 17, Surrey-street, 

Robinson, James, Esq. Bulwich-college, Dulwich. 
Robinson, John, Esq. Care of Messrs. Street and Co., 30, Comhill, E.C. 
Robinson, John, Esq., C.E. Kingscote, East Grinstead. 
RobinKm, J. R., Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. Scot., F.0.8. Edin. 597, Weitgate, Devs- 

Robinson, Colonel Sir John Stephen, Bart Arthur's Club, S.W. 
Robinson, Mr. Seijeant (B.C.). 43, Meeklei^mrgh-square, W.C, 



List of Felloti's of the ^^^^^^^^^H 


Robinson, Vincent Joseph, Esq. 34, Wi^yimtuth-strcet, TA'. 


Robinson,* Captain Waller ¥., B.S. Cure of Dr. Addison, 10, Albert-mad 


Robinsou, Wm., Esq., CM.a. Colonial-cffice, 8. W. 


li«»on. Sir W. C. F., K.c.u.o., Governor of W. Anstralio. Ccwt of Cobmiut- 
ofice, S. W. 


Koclicr,* Einile, Esq. 8, Storey' t-gate, St. Jameift-park, S. W. 


Roch(.-i;t«)', [tight Her. A. W. Tborold, Bithop of. Sehdon-park, Coydon; cmJ 
At/icncnm Chtb, 8,W. 


RoJd,* Jame* Eenaell, E«q. 20, Btta^ort-gardent, S.^V. 


Rodil, W. Henry, Esq, Ltakinuiick, Peiuance, 


Rogers, Major Ebeocier, G ailing-house. Great Che«tham-street, Manchester, 


Rogers, Edvsad C, Esq. Thrtt Ccmtia Asylum, StUfold, Baldock. ^H 


Roger*, John T., Esq. River-hill, Stvenoaka. ^^H 


Rogenton, Geo. KusselJ, Es(i., F.B.A,8. Beech-cottage, Calderttone'road, Allerton, 1 
•MOT Literpool. J 


Rollo, Lor.i. fhinwrieff-castle, Moffat, N. D. 1 



Rooke, Mnjor W„ r.a. Fortnosa, Lyminglon, Hants, ^^H 


Hooks, G«o. Arthur, Esq. \2, Bloomsbury-aquare, W.C. ^^H 


Ro«e, Henry, E»q. 8, Porchester-tqwire, Hyde-park, W. ^^H 


Rose, H. Cooper, E»q., m.d. ffampstead. A'. W. ^^ 


Rose, Ju. Anderson, En], Wandsworth, Storiiy, 8.W.; and 11, SaliiiM'^j- 
street, W.C. 


Rose, The Right Hon. Sir John. Burt., K.c.M.a. 18, Quenfi-giie, Jfyik- 
park, S. IV. 


liojie,* Colonel Sir Win, Anderson, AldermaD, F.IU,L. Carlton CV«6, S.W.; 
66, Upper Thames-street, E.C. ; and Upper Tooting, S. W. 


Kosenthil, Alfred Ephmim, Esq. Care of J. D. Bosenthal, Esq., 10, Suffolk- 
street, Dublin. 


Rosenthal, L,, Esq. 10, Delamere-terrace, N.W. 



Ross, Lieiit.-ail. E. C. Care of Messrs. Qnndlay and Co., bb. Parliament- 
street, 8. M'. 


Rom, Capt, Geo, Ernest Auguftu*. Forfar-house, Cromieell-road, South Ken- 
sington, 8. W. 


Rost of BUdensburg,* Lieut. Johu. c.o. 27, Wesibaume-ptaoe, Eaton-sqitarst 


lioM, Rer, Geo. Gonld, 8t. Andrew's College, QrahamstoMm, 


Roundelt,* C. S„ E»q., H.p. 16, Cursonrstreet, Mayfair, W. 


Routh*, E. J,. Esq., M.A., P.R.S., F.R.A.S., fcc. St. Peter's College, CanAridgt. 


Itoutledge, Etlmuud, Esq. 40, CUinricarde-gardens, Baysicater, W, 


Routledge, ThomM. Esq. Claxheugh, Sunderland. 


Row,* A. V. Nursing, Esq. Daba-garden, Vitagapatam, India, Care of 
Messrs. King and Co., 65, Comhill, E.C. 


Rowlands* Percy J., Esq. In<iia-office, S.W. ^^^ 


Rowley, CaptAin C, R.M. i\ Cadogan-place, S.W. ^^^H 

Royal Geographical Society. 










Rojds,* Geroent M., Esq^ J.P. QremkiU, Bochdala, Lancashire. 

Rocker, J. Anthony, Esq. Blackheath, 8JE. 

Radge, Wm. Newland, Esq. 17, S(ndh Avdley-ttrtet, W. ; and EthyNaan, 

Torquay, Devon, 
Rambold,* Charles James Augustus, Esq. 5, Percivai-terraoe, Brighton. 
Rumbold, Capt. H. E, W. Junior United Service Club, Charkt-strett, 8.W. 
Rambold, Thomas Henry, Esq. 38, Sustexsquare, Brighton. 
Romley, Irlajor-General Randal. 16, Eaton-terraoe, Eaton-square, 8. W. 
Rasden,* Geo. W., Esq. Care of R. B. Ottley, Esq., 39, Ladbrohe-square, W. 
Russell,* Lord Arthur, x.P. 2, Audley-square, W. 
Russell, George, Esq., h.a. Vitwfield, Southfiekb, Wandsteorthi and 16, Old 

Change, St. PauTa, E.C. 
RusadI, Peter N., Esq. Junior Carlton Club, Pall^mcdl, S.W. 
Russell,* Robert, Esq. 42, An>emarle-street, W. 
Russell, Thomas, Esq. Baremere-hall, ffurstgreen, Sussex. 
Russdl, Thomas, Esq. 22, Eenaington-palace^ardena, W. 
Kiissell, Wm. Howard, Esq., ll.d. Carlton Club, 8. W. 
Rutherford,* David Grelg, Esq. Care (/ Bev. P. Rutherford, 34, Grey-street, 

Park-grove-place, Glasgow, 
Rutherford, John, Esq. 2, Cavendish-place, Cavendish-square, W. 
Rutson, Albert 0., Esq. 7, Half-Moon^street, W. 
Rntson, John, Esq. Newby Wiske, Thirsk, Yorkshire, 
Ruxton, Captain W. Fitzherbert, R.N. 41, Cornwall-gardens, S, W, 
iJyder,* Admiral Alfi-ed P. Admraltij-house, Portsmouth, 
Ryder, G., Esq. 

Sabel, Ernest E., Esq. 185, Maida-tah, W, 

Sabine, Lieut-General Sir Edw., R.A., K.C.B., F.R.A.8., &c. 13, Ashley-ploc;, 

Victoria-street, Westminster, S, W. 
Sadgrore, Arthur William, Esq. 64, Mark-lane, E.C. ; and Elt/iam, Kent, 
St. Albans, His Gi-ace The Duke of. Bestwood-park, Arnold, Notts, 
St. Clair, John, Esq. Newton Stewart, Wtgtonshire. 
St. Jean, Le Vicomte Ernest de Satg& Makem Wells ; and Junior Athenaum 

St John, Major Oliver Benucharap Coventry, R.E., c.s.i. (H.M. ConsiJ, 

Asterabad), Care of Messrs. II, S. King and Co., 65, Comhill, E.C, 
St. John, Spenser, Esq., British ilinistei- I'ur Peru. 150, Cambridge-sti'eet, 

Piirdico, S. W. 
Sale, Captain M. T., R.E. 6, Albemarlc-street, W, 

Salkeld, Colonel J. C. (H.M. Indian Forces). 29, St, James' s-street, S, W. 
Salles, J. de, Esq. 59. Stanfiope-gardens, South Kensington, S, W, 
Salmood,* Robert, Esq. 




List of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


S»]oraoo»,* Sir Da^-id, Bart. Sroovt-hUI, Tmbrid<je Welh; and 46, Ufpcr 
Berktley^treet, W. 

1 18R3 

Salt,* Henry, Esq. Egremont, Bournemouth. 


Selthonae, Kev. Robert. St, Jamea's-parsottage, Wsit Derby. . 


Saodbftch,* Wro. KobcH«>», Esq. 10, Prmot^a-gatt, Hyde-parh, S. W. ^H 


Snudeman, CAptaiu [)arid George. ^^^ 


Saademan,* Kleetwood, Esq. 15, Hyde-park-gardens, W. 


SwuiersM, Rev. Edwai'd. 2%* Vkarage, High Hurst Wood, Vckfeld 



Sinderaon,* T. U-.^EBq., c.B. 65, Wmp<Je-etr«!t, W. 


SAtidiknds, John Alejander, Esq. 


Sanford,* Lieut.-Colonel George Edwanl L. S. Qmritrmaaler-GeneroTs-ofict, 
Fort William, Calcutta. 


Sanford, Lieut. -Colcuiel Henry Ay»hrord. 29, ChcMttr^trtet, Grotvmor-piact, 
S. W. ; and Nynehead-couri, Wellington, Scmertcl. 


Sanford, W. Ayshford, Emj., f.r,3. Nynehead-cowt, WeUington, Somen^, 


Sapp. John Joine*, £^. Fahnerston-roud, Soutliaea. 



Sarel, Majnr-Grneral H. A., C.B., Rolleshy-hall, Great Yarvvinth ; and Unittd 
Service C7u6, Pali-inatl, S.W. 


Sarll, John, Eaq. Beautxn'r-houte, ffMngton-park, St. Leonardt-on-Sca. 


Sartorii, Alfred, Ekj. AbboHttcood, StouHm-the-Wotd. 


Sautnarez, Heiu>Adintral Thoraaa, c.u. The Fire, Jersey. ^^H 


Sumider*, Fnu., Esq. 6, LitnetijrOM, Leteisham, S.E. ^^^M 


Saunder«, Ifoward, Esq. 7, Budnor-place, Gloucestcr-tquare, W. 


Sounder*, James Ebenexer, Esq., F.L.8., T.QS., r.S.A.E, 9, Fintbury-circut ; 
and CMtistone, 36, Ue-lcrra>ie, BlackhtatA, &j:. 


Saurin, Dudley E., Esq, 37. Prince' s-gate, S. W. 


Sarory, Major H. B. Navai and Military Club, Piccadilly, W. 


Sawyer, Majnr-Geneml Charles (6tbjDnigooii Guards). 20, Botand-gardene, S.W. 


Schafer,* Wm, Kredk,, E»q, Lydetep-hmue Highgate, K. 


Schalcfa, Vernon Itotlulph, Esq. 29, DorteUtijuare, N. W. 


Scluff, Alfred G., Esq. Santandrea, Cranford, near Ilomelov, MiddUux. 


Scholfield, William F., Eeq. 55, Onsloto-gardens, S.W. 


Sohon, lieT. Jame* Fr<^erick. Palm-hotue, Chatham, Kent. ^^H 


Sclater, P. L., Eiq., F.n,8. 11, Hanorer^siptare, W. ^^H 


Scobell, Sandford Geo. T., Esq. Doien-houte, Bed MarUy, Glouceiter. ^H 


Sconce, Gideon C, Esq. 14, St. Jame^s-iquare, S. W. ^^H 


Scott, Abraham, Esq. ^^^| 


Scott, Adam, Esq. 10, Knatchbull-road, Cambericell. ^^H 


Scott, Arthur, Esq. Botherfietd-park, Alton, Hants; and Traicllerif (^^| 
S.W. ^H 


Seott, Sir A . D., Bart. 97, Eaton-iquare, S. W. ^| 


Scott, • Dugald, Esq. The Moorlands. Kersal-edge, Manchester. ^H 


Scott, Miyor-General Edw. W. 33, Brunsicick-gardens, Camjiden-hiJl, W, ^^m 

2701 1 


Royal Geographical Society. 





Soott, Lord Henry. 3, TUney-ttnet, Park-lane, W. 

Scott,* Herculec, Esq. Brothertm, near MontroM, N. B. 

Soott,* Junes Benjamin, Esq. 32, Coal Exchange, City, E.C. ; and Walthcmxtow, 

Soott, John Charles A., Esq. 6, Cambridge-gate, Begenfa-park, N.W. 

Soott, Capt. P. A., R.H. Care of W. T. Littlejohns, Esq., Boyal Xaval 

CoO^e, Greenwich, S.E. 
Soott, Wm., Esq. 6, Chepstouh-place, Baysicater. 
Scmtton, Alexander, Esq, 2, Upper St. Johns-park, Blaokheath, S.E. 
ScoTsll, George, Esq. 25, Qrosvenor-place, S. W, 
Searight, Hugh Ford, Esq. 7, East India-avenue, E.C. 
Searight, James, Esq. 80, Lancaster-gate, W. 
Seaton, George, Esq. East London Water-wyrka, Old Ford, E. 
Seaton, Maj.-Gen. Lord. i>3, Albany, W. 
Sedgwick, Jno. Bell, Esq. 1, St. Andreu^s-place, Regent' »-park, N.W. 

Scebohm, Henry, Esq. 6, Tenterden-street, Hanover-square, W. 

Sedey, Harry G., Esq., F.L.8., F.G.8., &c. 61, Adelaide-road, N. W. 

Seely,* Charles, Esq., jnn., H.p. 7, Queen's-gate-gardens, South Kensington, 
8. W. ; and Sherteood-lodge, Nottinghamshire. 

SegiaTe, Capt. W. F. (H.M. Consul, StodUu^m). 

Serooold,* Charles P., Esq. Brewery, Liqvorpond-street, E.C. 

Serem, H. Augustus, Esq. 9, EarTs-cowt-square, & W. 

Serin, Charles, Esq. 155, Fenahurch-street, E.C. 

Sewell, Stephen A., Esq. .56, Kensington-gardent-square, W. 

Seymour, Alfred, Esq. 5, Chesterfield-gardens, May/air, W. 

Seymonr,* Admiral Sir F. Beauchamp, k.cb. 

Seymour,* Majoi^eneral W. H., C.B. United Service Club, PaU-mall, S. W. 

Shadwell,* Admiral Sir Charles F. A., K.C.B., F.B.8. Meadmo-bank, Melksltam, 

Shadwell,* Lieut-Colonel Lafrrence. 

Shanks, Major Joseph G., B.11.L.1. Plymouth, Deton. 

Share,* Staff-Commander James Masters, fua. Mvtley-park, near Plymaeih, 

Sharp,* Colin Kimfaer, Esq. Belgrave-mansions, Grosvenor-gardens, S. W. 

Sharp, Captain Cyril. 7, Ihurloe- square, S. W. 

Sharp, Henry T., Esq. 8, Park-lane, Mayfmr, W. 

Sharpe,* William Jdin, Esq. 

Shaw, C. Bousfield, Esq. 25, Charles-street, St. Jame^s ; and 2, Esses<owt, 

Shaw, Geo., Esq. 7, Garrick-street, W.C.; and Oakwood-house, Bostrevor, 

Shaw,* John, Esq. Finegand, Otago, New Zealand. Care of Messrs, Beith 
and WWeie, Dunedin, Otago, N.Z. Per Messrs. San^son Low and Co., 
188, Fleet-street, E^). 

Shaw, John Ralph, Esq. Arrowe-park, Birkenhead. 


Lht of Fellows^^h^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^M 

T«*r of 




Shnvr, W. Otho Nicbolns, Eaq. J 


Sheaa, Arthur Willmm Chules, Eaq. 18, Fituburif-circM, E.C. 1 


Shcamie,* EdwKid, Esq. 94, Jlegent't'park-road, N. W, i^^H 


Shelley, Edward, Ew}. Avington, Winehester. ^^H 


Shelkj,* Cai>Uiu G. Eruest. ^2, CheaJtam-place.S.W. ^^M 


Shepherd, Chaa. Wm., E»q., U.A., F^.s. Trotter icligty Maidstone. ^^^ 


Shepherd, jHtne*, Esq. \\i, LcMOOMttr-gate, W. ^^| 


Sliepherd, dipt. Willian), R.E. Brompton^rracka, Chnttuim. ^^H 


.Sheridnn, H. lirinAley, K«q., M.P. 6, (kUville-gardens, KenaingUm-pfirk, W, ^^H 


Sheridan, Iliclidrd B., Esq. 119, Grosvenor-phce, S.W. 


Sherrin, Joseph Samuel, Esq., Ui.d., i>h.d. St. John'a-oottege, Tafnett-park, N. 


Shtllinglaw, John Joseph, Esq. Melbourne, Victoria. Care of Cashel Jloey, Eeq,, 
o^cf of Aijent-Oeneml of Victoria, 8, WeitmintteT'chtin^n, S,\Y. J 


.Shipley,* Conway M., Esq. Twyford-tnoors, Winchester. 1 


Shirl«y, Lionel H.. Esq., C.E., ic. Windham Club, 8.W.; and iO, Great 1 
Georijfitreei, S. \V. J 


Shoolhred,* Junies, Eiiq. .18, Lancasier-gate, Hyde-park, W. 1 


Short, Robert, Ejq. Duf/iton-Iodge, Hujhhury'newpark, N. ^^1 


.Shuter,* Willmm, Eiiq. 66, Beleize-park-gardens, Ewoerttodt-hiU, N,W, ^^| 


Sibley,* George, Esq., C-E. The Mount, WTiilehiJI, Caterhcim, Surrey. 1 



Sibree, Rer. JamcB. Otre of T. II. Richardson, Esq., Vork-villa, WeHhail-nc^^ 
Lordth'p-lanc, Dulurujh, S.E. ^^H 


.Stduey, Capt. Kreil. W., r.n. ^^M 


Silb,* Wm. Dernai-d, Esq. ^^M 


SilUer, John, Esq. 4, Cronucell-houaes, South Kensington, S.W. ^^H 


SilvB,* Frederic, Esq. 97, Westboume-terraoe, hyd<hpark, W. ^^^ 


Silver, the Kev, Fred., m,a., F.R.A.S., p.oji., f.l.s. Beetory, Norton-iH-ITaIe», 
Market Driiyton, Salop, 



Silver,* Stephen Wm., E«q, 66, Cornhill, E.C. ; and 3, Fork-gate, Begent't- 
park, N. W. 


Sim, Lieut-Colonel Edward CoysgarDe, B.E. Vmted Seniee Clvb, Pall-matt. 


Simmons, Edw. R., Esq. NevUl-houte, Belgrave-terrace, Brighton. 


Simmons,* General Sir Jolin L. A., r.e., q.c.b. 36, ComttaU-gardent, 
Kensington, S. W. 


SinKHW, Henry M., Esq. Ty«rtaU-cre$cent, Wood-road, SydenA»m-)till, 



Simpson, Arthur T., E*q., C.E. 5i, St. George' gtquare, S.W. 


SimpaoD, Fmnk, Esq. ^^^^^| 



Simp!M>n,* Williiim. Esq. 04, Lincoln' a-inn-flelde, W.C. ^^^^H 


Siimon,* Alfre<l, Esq. 4, Fuirlie-place, Calcutiu. ^^^^H 


Singleton, Ju. Edw„ Esq. ;U», Lord-street, Bwrow-in-F\imea. ^^^^^ 


Skelmei^idale, Right Hon. Edward, Lord. Lathom-park, OmiMkir/:, Latua- J 
Mre. 1 

277' ^1 

L J 

Royal Geographical Society. 











1869 : 

1809 I 


Skertdily, Joseph A^ Esq. 189, Qlenarm-rwtd, Cltq>ton-park, E. 

Skilbeck, Jno. Hj., Esq. The IfoUiea, Snar^j^roo^, Leyionstone, E, 

Skinner, John E. H., Esq. 3, Dr. Johnson't-buHdings, Temple, E.C. 

Skrine, Henry D., Esq. Warleijh'-manor, near Bath, 

Slade, Henrj, Ks<|., Fleet-Sutgeoa, R.rr. Army and A'avy Club, S.W.; and 

Hoffsi Western Tacht Clab, Phjmotdh. 
Sladen, Col. E. B. Care of Messrs. Orindlay and Co., 55, Parliament-street, 

Sladen, Rev. Edward Henry Mainwaring. 2%e Core, Bournemouth. 
Sjmie, Sir John (Chief Justice, Bong-Kong), 45, Abingdon-villas, Kensington, W. 
Smedley, Jowph V Esq., m,a, Oxford and Cambridge Club, 8. W. ; and 34, 

St. Georf/e's-road, Kittmm. 
3m«tbam, JaliD Oftbome, Esq. Kin^s Lynn, 2forfolk. 
Smith, Alfred John, Esq. 94, Lamdoiene-riyid, South Lambeth, S.W. 
ftinith,* Augustus Henry, Esq. The Midge, Bittenu;, Southampton. 
Smith ,♦ B. Ldgh, Esq., M.A. Oxford and Cambridge Club, Pall-mall, S. W. 
Smith, Bridgman, Esq. 27, Lloyd-square, W.C. 
Smith, Mftjor C, B, Kuan, C.8.I. (H.M Consul, Miiscaf), 14, St. James's-square, 

3. W. Care of Messrs, King and Co., Comhill, E.C. 
Smith, Edward, Esq. Windham Club, S. W. 
Smith, E. Louis T., Esq. RichnKmii-hovK, S<mnsh>a!, 
Smith, F. Porter, Esq., m.b. Skepion Mallet, Somersetshire. 
Smith,* George, Esq., ll.d. Serampnre-heiiK, Napier-road, Edinburgh. 
Smith, Geo. Feredaj, Esq., M.A., J.P., &c. Grotehurst, Tutibridge Wells. 
SmiUi, Griffiths, Esq. 7 E-rtiiileigh-slri'H, Tavistock-sqvare, W.C. 
Smith, Guildford, Esq. 63, Charing-cross, S. W. 

Smith, Jenroise, Esq. 47, Beigrate-stjntire^ S, W, » 

Smith, J. L. Clifford, Esq. 9, Amifand-parh-roiid, Tuickenham, 
Smith, John, Esq. Oravel-mount, Betford, Notts. 
Smith,* Joseph Trayers, Esq. 25, Throgmorton-street, E.C. 
Smith, Colonel Philip (Grenadier Guards). 6, James-street, BuckingJuim-gatc, 

Smith,* R. Barr, Esq. Torrens-park, Adelaide, S. Australia. 
Smith,* Major Robert M., r.e. Teheran. 
Smith, Rupert, Esq. Highfield, West Bromtcich. 
Smith,* Thomas, Esq. 

Smith,* W. Castle, Esq. 1, Oloucester-terrace, Eegent's-park, N. W. 
Smith, Right Hon. William Henry, M.p. 2, Hyde-park-street, W. 
Smith, Wm. Hy., Esq. Care of Messrs, Allan Bros, and Co., James-street, 

Smith, William Howarth Glynn, Esq. 46, Parliament-street, S.W. 
SmJth-Busunquet,* Horace, Esq. 38, Queen's-gate, South Kensington, S, W. 
Smyth, Colonel Edmund. Welwyn-grange, Herts, 
Smyth,* Warington, Esq., F.K.S. 5, Imerness-terracc, W. 

zZio \x 


List of Fellows of the ^^^^^^^^^| 



) B60 

Srortlie,* Lieut .-General WilliBtn J., r.a., T.Vls. Atfienirum Clvb, S,W. 


Snoake, William, K,m{. 20, Northamptott-park, Cunonbury, N, 


Solbe, Kdvrard, Ewj. Broomfield, Fraeland-rwvi, Bromley, Kent, 


Solomon, C. E-lwarJ, Esq. Gire of Metirs. While and Holmetf 20, Mildinay- 
chainbert, Diihopsgale-etrett, E,C. 


Solomons,* Hon. George. Jamaica. 



Somers,* IJight Hon. Churl.>s, Earl. 4, Cheslerfkld-gofdma, W,; Eadnor- 
caatie, Herefurdihire ; mid The Priory, Reigate, Surrey, 


.Somerset, Capt. LercEoii E. H., B.Ii. Care of ifcurs, Cftard, 3, Cl^ord't-inn, 1 
FUet-itreet, E.C. 


Svm«rviile, Dr. Tbomax, ll.d. HawthomrhaU, WUmilcWy ChetMre.'' 


Soulsbj, WiUiain jKineson, E»q. Uantion-AtMse, E.C. 



Southwk, Jamn Ctrnegie, Earl of, K.T. JiinnairJ-oaitle, Breehin, X.B. 


Souilier,* Jnmea Lowther, Esq, II.M.S. ' Crocodile' Porttmmtth, 



S|«lt{iu^. Mnjior M. <104th Re^ment). ^^H 


S[>!il>ling, .Samuel, Ecq. South Darenth, Kmi. ^^H 


Spdrrow, Wiltfum, E*]. AU>n>jht<m-haH, Skrevisimiy, 


Silence. Jno. Berger, E»q., r.0.8., tec. Erlington-houx, WhaHey-rnnjt, Man- 


Sl«ncer, Admiral the Hon. J. W. S. 5, PoHman-atreet, W. 


Spencer, Waller, Ebij, GrovC'^nd-lodge, ffiijhriate-road, N.W. J 


Spice, Robert Paulson, Esq. 21, Parliament-street, S.W. ^^M 


Sp|c«r, Edwvixl, Esq. 19, A^ew Bridge-street, E.C, ^^H 


Spioer, Jas., Esq, The Harts, Woodford, Esmx, ^H 


Spicer, Cnpt, Richard W. 3, Chefhain-place, Beltprave-tquare, S. T1 . 


Spiokernell, Dr. Geo, E„ Piincipal of Eiutman's Royal EsUblUhmt'Ot, 
Eaatcm-parude, Southiea, 


SpiUlf, John Henry, tJiq. 9, Orange-nad, Canonb\iry, N. 



.Spottwtt'oode,* WilliBm, Esq, P.R.8. 41, Grotvenor-place, S,W, 



Spralt,* ReKr-Admirnl Thos. A. B., C.B., r.R.6. Clare-lodge, Kevill-park, Tm- 
briJije Wells, Kent. 



Spruce, Kichanl, Esq., PH.D. Coney sthorpe, Malton, Vorkt/iire. 


Spuhler, Lieut. Frucoii Alphooie. Care of li. Martineau, Esq,, 37, Regent's' 
park-road. N.W. 


Square, William, E«q., r.E.C.S. 22, Portland-square, Ptyvumtk. 1 


Stafford, Cromartie Lev«8oD-Gower, Marqiiii of, K.T. Stafford-houie, St, famnUp | 
8. W. ; and Dunrobin-castle, Oohpie, Sutherlandihire. J 


Stanford, Edward, Esq. bb, Charing-crou, S.W. 1 


Stanford,* Edward, Esq., Jan. 17, Spring -gardens, S. W, ^^^| 


Staiihoj*,* Walter Spencer, Esq. Cannon-hall, Barmley, TorieMre. ^^| 


Stanley, Stail-ComnuuidiT Henry J., R.N. Admiralty Survey, MeOtOUrtu; tutn 
Hydrographic-o^ice, Admiralty, S. W. I 


Stanley," Walmsley, Eaq., C.E. Albert-houu, Wett End, EaKer, Surrey. 1 


Stanton, Charles llolbrow, Eitq. 65, Bedcliffe-gardens, S.W. ^^M 



Royal Geographicgl Society. 











Staoton,* Edv. Wm., Esq., M.A. 5, Veruhm^MOdingt, Oray't-iM, W.Ot 

Steaton, Georgs, E»q. Coim-kia, Sftrewtbury : fmd Conaenatiw Gub, 

Staijc, Wm. Smvj, Eiq. Bydal^lodge, New-parkHrqtd, Brixtm-hUl. 

Starling, Jonph, E«q. Btreaford-iodge, Dykt-road,, Brighton. 

Stareley, Major-Goi. Sir Charles, k.c.b. United Service Club, S.W. 

Stavelfjr,* Mijw. &iq. Old ^eningford-AaU, Sipon. 

Stebbtng, Edward Charles, Esq. NaUonal Dt^t Office, 19, Old Jewry, B.C. ; and 
The A^ent, Sunbury. 

Stednutn, John, Esq. 4, Thomhill-equare, N. 

Steel, Major-General James A. 73, CqmbriJge-terrace, Hyde-parh, W. 

St«el, Major J. P., B.E. Simia. Care of the Oriental Bank,AO, Utreadneedle- 
ttreet, E.C. 

Sied, WiUiam Sttpag, Esq. 65, Lcmoatter-gate, Hyde-park, W. 

Steele, James Dickson, Esq. H.M. Female Convict Priton, Woking, Stirrey, 

Stein, Hon. Robert. Port Louis, Mauritius. Care of Meatrt. Stein, and Co, 
22, BaeinghalMreet, E.C. 

Stenning, Charles, Esq. 3, Upper HamiltoR'terrace, Jf.W. 

Stephen, St. John, Esq. 16, Colmlle-terrace, Bayswater, W. 

Stephens, Daniel Woolcott, Esq. Truby-house, Woodford, E. 

Stephens, Harold, Esq. Finchley, N.W. 

Stephens,* Henrj Charles, Esq. Avenue-house, Finchley, N. ; and Scientific CM, 
Savile-rov, W. 

Stephens,* Thonias Wall, Esq. 112, Queen's-gate, South Kensington, S.W. 

Stephenson, Jno. Hunter, Esq. 3, Newman' s-court, Comhill, E.C. 

Stephenson, Sir H. Macdonald, C.E. 72, Lancaster-gate, W. ; and East-cottage, 

Stepney, A. K. Cowell, Esq. 6, St. Qeorge's-place, Knightshridge, S. W. 

Stemdale, Robei-t A., Esq. 

Steuart, Colonel T. K. (Bombay Army). 31, Linden-gardens, Notting-hill, W. 

SUnrens, George Richard, Esq. Kurraljeen, Hong Kong. 

Stevens, S. W., Elsq. Oioucester-house, Highgate. 

Steroison, Capt. Geo. St. Claire. Waterden-Toad, Guildford. 

Stevenson,* James, Esq. Broomfield, Largs, N. B. 

Stewai-d, Major Edward H., R.E. War-office, Whitehall, S. W. 

Stewart, Major C. E. (Bengal Staff Corps). 51, Redcliffe-square, S. W. 

Stewart, Gilbert McLeod, Esq. Palace-chambers, St. Stephen's, S. W. 

Stewart, H., Esq. 39, Bruton-street, W. 

Stewart,* Major Herbert (3rd Dragoon Guards). Binficld-house, Bracknell. 

Stewart, Rev. Dr. James. Looedale, Alice, South Africa. Care of Robert 

Young, Esq., Offices of the Free Cliurch of Scotland, Edinburgh. 
Stewart,* Major J. H. M. Shaw (Royal Madras Engineers). 
Stewart, Robert, Esq. Port Elizabeth, Cape of Good Hope. Care of the 
Standard Bank, 10, Clement' s-lane, Lon^>ard-streel, E.C. 




List of Fellows of the ^H^^^^^^f 


Stewirt,* Robert, E»q. 


Stewart, Admiral Sir Win. Houston, K.CA 50, W<meick-tqvarCt S.W., mi 
Admiralty, S.W. 


StUwell, Henry. Esq., M.D. Moarcnjt, n<Hi»gtm, Uxbridge. ^^J 


Stitw«tl, James, Eiq. Victoria-park, Doner. ^^H 


Stirling, Arthtir V. G., Esq. Oxford and Cambridge CVufr, £. W. ^^M 


Stirling,* J. Carohn, E»q. 79J Oracechurck^ired, E.C, ^^M 


SU'rling, Sir Walter. Bart. 36, Portmm-tquare, W. ^^M 


Stock, CoUiufd J<>«*ph, Enq, 2\, Orovfroad, Eigkgate-foad, N.W. ^H 


Stock, Eugene, Etq. 12, Miiner- tquant, N. ; and^Church Missionartf Socielt/f 
Salisbury-square, E.C. 


Stocker, John Palmer, Enq, 93, Oxford-terrace, Hyde-park, W. 


Stockley, Henry Curti*. Esq. 78, Gordon-road, Clapham, S. W. 



Stokea,* Vice-Admiral John Lort. United Service Club, S. W. ; and Sootchvellf 
Haverfordicest, Wales, 


Stonf, Dttviil H., E^m^., AldeiTnaa. 7, BwsklerAury, E.C. ^— 



Stone, Octaviua C, Ecq. Stofuygate-grotx, Leicester. ^^H 


Story,* Edwin, E«q., u.A. 88, Oldjieid-road, Stoke Jfevitigton, N. ^H 


Stott,* Rer. S.%ninel Walter, B.A. York. ^^| 


Stovin, Rev. Cluirlea F. 59, Warvick-s<tMare, S. W. ^^| 


Stow, Geo. W., E«q. Qveen't Tovcn, S. Africa, ^^1 


C. |.. 

Strachey, Slnjnr-GencTRl lUcbard. R.&., O.S.I., r.HJi. Stmeey-house, Clapham- 
common, S. W. ; and India-office, S. W. 


Stratford, Martin, Esq. 


Stratfonl de RcdcliflV, Right Hon. Stratford Canning, Viscount, K.O., G.C.B. 
Frant-court, Titnbnd/je Weils. 


Stratoii, Rev. N, D, J, The Vicarage, Wakefield. 


Sti-aube, Albert A. L., E«q. 63, Soutli-hill-park, Uamptlcad, N, W. ^_ 


.Street,* E<lmiind, Esq. Mill field- lane, Highgaie-rist, N. ^^| 


Streeler, Alfred, Enq. Fir-vithi, Cheetnut-grote, New Maiden, Surrey. ^^t 


Streeter,* Edwin William, Etq. The Mount, Primrose-hill- road, X.W.; and 
Catlit-oourt, St. Pcter'a, Kent. 


Strirkland. Sir Edward, K.C.B., Commiisary-General. Care of Sir Choi. S, 
APGrigor, Bart., and Co., 25, Charles-street, St. James'e-square, S.W. 


Strode,* Alf. Rowland Chetbain, Ecq. Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand, 


Strong, Alfred, E«q. 7, Bwlington-ro>id, St. Stephen' a-square, Bayswater, W. 


Strutt, George H., K»q„ r.n.A.S. Bridge-kill, Belper. 


Stuart, AU'iiiudw, Esq, fridge-place, I/urst-green, Sussex, 


Stuart, I.ieut.-Gen. Chnrlea. Hohurne, Christchurch, Hants, 


Stuart, Lieut.-Col. J. F. D. Crichton. 25, Witton-crtscent, Belgrave-tqtmt, 


Stuart,* James Molin, Ecq. OaA«n«/iaw, Upper Norwood. 


Stuart,* Colonel S. William. Temps ford- hall, Sand^ : and 36, Bill-ttreet, W. 


StuLba,* Samnel, E»'\. 263, Hatnpsiead-road^ Mornington-Cretcmtf N, W. 

,., . 

Royal Geographical Society. 









Sturgeon, Wentworth, Esq. Cocoa Tree Club, Si. Janus's-ttreet, S.W. 

Stumian, Rev. M. C. T. 64, Talfourd-road, Ca/nbencell, 8.E. 

Start, Henry, Esq., jun. 1 19, ffolloMd-rwid, Kensington, W. 

Styan, Arthur, Eiq., r.S.A. 28, Norfolk-cretcent, Hyde-park, W. 

Suche, Df. George, f.L.b, 

Sudeley, Lord. Toddington-park, Wmchoombe, QUmcesienhire. 

Suliran, Kear-Admiral Sir IWtlioiuitiew J R.K., k.CB. Bournemouth. 

SulliTan, Sir Edw., Bart. 37 Primxi-^n^e, 8. W. 

SulliTan, Henr-Admiral Sir F. VV k.c.m., cilg. 

Sum tntihaj-w,* William Eiiq„M,D, Holton, Burwash, Sussex, 

Surridge, Ker. Ifftiry Arthur Dillon, M.A. Bowdon, Altrmcham. 

»urtac«, C^lciDcl Charles Freville. Chakott-kouse, Long Dilton, Surrey. 

Sutlierland, Geo., Esq. Aj-boretvm-squore, Berbi/. 

^DtherLiuii!,* Gearv« Granville William, Duke of, K.6., F.R.8. Stafford-house, 

Bi. Jamgf'f-piiltKi!', S. W. 
Sutherland, Robert, Esq. Egham-rise, Surrej/, 
Sutherland, Thonuu, Esq. Bute-house, 167, Crom'cell-road, S. W. 
Sutton, John Manners, Esq. Kilham-hall, Newark, Notts. 
Sutton, Martin J., Ksij. liathtrlan'fs, Whiltfi/, ittsadiwj. 
Swain, Edward, Esq. Hiree Cauntiei Astfhtmt Stotfdd, Baldock. 
Swaine, Capt. Leopold \ ictor, 1 4, Qveeiih-ijute, S. \V. 
Swann, Iter. P. P., h.a. Braudsby, Easingieold, Yorkshire. 
Swanzy, Francis, Esq. 122, Cftnnofi-stmt, £.C. 
Swart, Hon. N. J. R. Care of J. J. Pratt, Esq., 79, Queen-street, Cheapside, 

Swinburne,* Comnir. Sir John, Bart., B.N. Capheaton, Newcastle-on- Tyne. 
Syme, Heniy, Esq. 9, The Drive, Ifot^, Brighton. 
Symonds, F., Esq., M.D. lie'iumiml-street, Oxford. 

Synge,* Colonel Millington H., r.e. United Service Club, Pall-mall, S.W. 
Salumper, Jas. Weeks, Esq., C.E., F.0.8. Aberystwyth. 

Tagart, Courtenay, Esq. Btform Club, Pall-mall, S.W. 

Tagart, Francis, Esq. 199, Queen's-gate, S.W.; and Old Sneed-park, near 

Tait, Matthew, Esq. Heaton, Bradford, Yorkshire. 

Tait,* Robert, Esq. 14, Queen Anne-street, W. 

Tadcetniira, Kiugo, 16, l/onglonijrote, Sydt^ihata, S.E. 

Talbot de Malahide, James Talbot, Lord, P.Et.s. 15, Chesterfield-street, May- 
fair, W. ; Athenaeum Club; and ifittahide Cattle, Co. Dublin. 

Taubman, George Goldie, Esq. Naval and Military Club, Piccadily, W. 

Tayler, Frank, Esq. 156, Leadenhall-street, E.C. 




List of Fellows of the ^^^k 



Taylor, Commander A. I>un<lii8, i.n. (Director of Marine Survey*), CaUutta. j 
Core of Meun. U. S. King and Co., lib, Comhiil, E.C. 1 


Taylor, Charlea, Esq. Ealmg-coOtgt, Ealing, W. J 


Taylor, C. A.. Em). Ihtcnltam Market. Narfolk. ^J 


Taylor, Rev. Charles Parbutt. Setemtide, Maiaemare, Gloucester. ^^H 


Taylor, Fras. Clement, Esq. Sunwierleate, East Harptree, near Bristol. ^^^M 


Taylor, George N., tlsq. The Mount, Sunning-hill, Staines. ^^H 


Taylor. H. L., E»q. Heform Club, 8.W.; and 23, PMtlimore-gardent^ 
Kensington, W. 


Taylor, J. Banks, E«q. 25, Austin Friars, E.G. 


Taylor, Rct, Jas, HndsoD. 6, Pyrland-road, Xemngton-green, N, 


Taylor,* John, Esq. The Rocks, Bath; and Booth-hall, BlaoUey, Lanca- 


Taylor, John, E«q. 110, Fenchurch-street, E.C. 


Taylor* John Feuton, Fj<j. 20, Kev-ttrtet, Spring-gardenM, S.W. 


Taylor,* John Stopford, Esq., M.D. 2, Millbank-terrace, Anfield-road, 


Taylor, Lieut.-Gen. R. C. H., c.B. 16, Ealon-plaae, 5.1V.; and Carltm GtA, 


Taylor, Thomas, Esq. Aston liwrnnt, Tilsirvrth, Oxfordshire, 


Taylor, William Hichanl, Esq., Deputy-Commiawry, 


T(?lfer, Commander Buchaa, lUi., rjB.A. 14, Sumner-place, Onalo»-aquare, 



Temfle, Lient Geo. T., B.N. The Kash, near Worcester. 


Temple, Li«ut. R. C, B.8.C. Ferozepore, Panjab; The Nash, near Worceittrf 
and Natal and Military Club, Piccadilly. 



Temple, Sir Richard, EarL, G.CA.l., CLE, The Nashy near Wurcesifr ; ittd 
AtAenaiini Club, S.W. 


Temple- W«k, Col. T. 


Tcmpteton, John, Esq. 24, Budge-ivw, E.C. ^^M 



TennaDt, ProfcMor Jame*. 149, Strand, W.C. ^^H 


Terrero, Maximo, Esq. 88, Belsize-jxtrk-gardens, N.W, ^^^^H 


Thatcher,* Colonel ^^^^B 


Thomaa, Cha». Evan, Esq. 98, Queen'e-g<ae, S. W. 


Thomas, James Lewis, Esq., rji.A, War-office, Forte-Guards ; 26, Otoucester- 
utreet, Warwick-square, S.W. ; and Thatched- House Club, St. Jamcs's-street, 


Thomas, John Henwood, Esq. East India Dept., Custotn-house, E.C. 


Thomas, J. R.. F^., Staff Assist. Surg. Castle-hill, Fishguard, PembrokesJtirt. 


Thomas, R. Gerard de V„ Esq., M.A. Eyhome-house, Maidstone, ^— 
riwmtu, Wesley Hy., Esq. The Mount, Steepfiill, Ventmr. ^H 
Thomasson, E. S. Esq. " OliAe" Sieel-woris, Shefield. ^^1 



I 1876 

l horopson, Major H. (Bengal Staff Corps), Care of Messrs. OHndlay and Co., J 
ba. Parliament-street, S.W. 1 

3986 1 

L J 

Royal Geoyrapkical Society. 












Thompson,* Henry Yatea, Esq. 26a, Bryantton-sqttarc, W. 

Thompson, Thomat, Enq. (H.M. Vic«-Consul, Delagoa Bay). 

ThomBon, Colonel George Cadogan. 21, Jlotland'park-gardeiu, Uxbridg«-road 
Baytioater, W, 

ThoDMoa, James, Esq. Hevsill, Haxckhwnt, Etnt. 

Thomson, James Duncan, Esq. (Portuguese Consnl). St. Peter' a-ehctmben, 
ComhOl, E.G. 

Thomson, John, Esq. 12, Elgm-gardens, Fffra-road, Brieton, S.W. 

Thomson,* J. TombuU, Esq. (SuiTeyor-General of New Zealand). WeUmgton, 
New Zealand. 

Thomson,* Ronald Ferguson, Esq. 

Thomson, W. T., Esq. 

Thome,* Augustus, Esq. Belgrate-manskms, Onavenor-gardena, S.W. 

Thomtull, Capt Jas. Alfred. Bradbourtu-mllas, Buahey-hill, Camberwell. 

Thornton, Edward, Esq., C.B. Bank-house, Windsor. 

Thornton, Rev. Thomas Cooke, M.A., m.R.i.a. Brock-haU, near We«don, 

Thorold, Alexander W. T. Grant, Enq. 3, Oroscenor-gardens, S. W. 

Thorpe, Geo., Esq. 20, Eastcheap, E.C. 

Thorpe, Wm. Geo., Esq., F.o.S. Gloitcester-house, LarkhaH-rise, S.W.; and 
Itprton'a^uae, Ipplepen, Newton Abbot, Devon. 

Thring, Sir Henry, E.C.B. 2, New-street, Spring-gardens, 3. W. 

Thnillier, Lieut.-Gen. Sir H. L., c.S.i., F.B.8. 32, Cambridge-terrace, Hyde- 
park, W. 

Thuillier, Major Henry R., k.e. 8, Montagu-terrace, Friai'a-ttile-road, Rich- 
mond, S.W. 

Thurbum,* C. A., Esq. 16, Kensingtonrpark-gardens, Notting-hUl, W. 

Thurlow, The Right Hon. Lord. Bunphail, Forres, N. B. 

Thwaites, Capt. Joseph. 5, Washington-terrace, Southampton. 

Tietkins, W. H., Esq. Kiwuxird-castle, Brechin, Forfarshire. 

Tillbrook, Rev. W. John. Comberton, near Cambridge. 

Tighe, Col. Fred. 2%e Priory, Christchurch, Hants. 

Tinunins, Samuel, Esq., J.P., F.S.A., &c. Elvetham-lodge, Birmingham. 

Tinline, George, Esq. 17, Princ^s-sguare, Bayswater, W. 

Tinntf,* J. Ernest, Esq. Briarley, Aijburth, near Liverpool. 

Tinn^* John A., Esq. Briarley, Aigburth, near Liverpool. 

Tipping, George B.,Esq. Coombe-lodge, Kingston-hill, Surrey, 

Tizard, Staff-Commander T. H., R.N, ffydrographic-office, Admiralty, S, W, 

Todd, Arthur, Esq. 125, Triton VUle-road, Sandymount, Dvblin. 

Todd, George, Esq. Auckland-lodge, Blackheath, S.E. 

Todd, Rer. John W., d.d. Tudor-hall, Foreit-hUl, Sydenham, S.E. 

Tokoogawa,* lyesato. 16, Longton-grove, Sydenham, S.E. 

Toogood, Octavius, Esq. 73, Comuall-gardens, South Kensington, S.W. ; and 
Conservative Club, St. James's-street, S. W. 


List of Fellows of the ^^^^^^H 




Tomlin, John Uewitt, Esq,. Weiley-terrace, DrainJeij, Leeds. 1 


Tomline, George, £«q. 1 , Carlton-kousc-terrace, S. Tl'. 1 


Tomliiuon, Jolin, K»q, Malpas, Cfieshire. ^^f 


Tomlinson, Walter, Esq.. D.A. 3, Richinoiui'terracs, Whitehall, S. W. ^H 


TomJiMon,' \V. E. M., Esq., M^. 3, Eiahmond-terraoe, Whitehall, S.W.; and 

Athenaeum Clvb, S.W. 


Torrens. Sir Robert Richard, 12, Chater-place, W.; and Wtf Coti, 

Hdm, Mor A^bvrlim, S<mth Dewm. 


1 Torry,* Lieut. Harold J. B. Banover-square Club, W. 


TiMswIll, CRpt. Robert George Davi*. Ginterbttry, Neto Zeatatul. Care of 
Vicomta />i(/wa<, 10, St. Mary Axe, E.G. 


TowDfhend, Capt F. French (ixA Life Gnitrds). Arthw't Clvb, St. Jameft' 
street, 3, W. ^j 


Townshend, Cnpt. John, a,N. 2, Femside'VtVat, New WandnrortA. ^^M 


Tnwry,* George Edward. Eiiq. ^^H 


Towse, John Wrcncli, Esq. Fishmongers' -hall, London-bridffe, F.C ^^H 


Towson, J. 'rhoni(L<>, E>q. 47. Upper J'ariiaiiumt-street, Lirtrpool. ^^^k 



Tojnbee,* Capt. Uoiry. 1*2, Upper Westlourne-UiTace, IV. ^^| 


Towr,* Iter. U. F., Mm. ExeUr College, Oxford. ^^M 


Travers,* Arch., Esq. 28a, Adkiison-roaJ, KensiiujtoH, W, ^^1 


Trnvers, Lieut. -Gen. Jametf, v.c. Care of Jkletsra. King and Co., 65, Corahill, 


Tremlett, R«v. Francis W., m.a., d.c.l, ph.d. Belsiie-park, Eampstead, 


Tremlett, Rear-Adroirnl FmnciscoS. Belle Vae, Tunhrldge Wells. 


Tneach,* Major the Hon, Le Peer, U.E. 3, Jfyds'parh-yarderu, W.; md 
Ordaanae Sturey-oftce, Pia^ioo, S. W. 


Tiestrail. Iter. Frederick. St. Johk't-'road, Neteport, Isle of Wi>jht. 


Tt«uenf«ld, Richard von F., Eaq. 12, Queen Annt^s-gate, Westminstei; 


Trerelyan, Sir Charle* Edward, Bart. K.C.B. 8, Grosveaor-cresceHt, S. W. 


Trimmer, EdniuDd, Esq. 75, Camhridge-ierrace, Hyde-park, W. ^^B 


Triiider, Uj. Wtn., Esq. 135, ffarley-street, W. ^H 


Trilton, Joseph Herb«?rl, Esq. 54, Lombard-street, E.C. ^^1 


Trivett, Captaiu JuJm Fredk., R.N.R. The Homestead, Hackney-common^ J 


Trollop«, Anthcny, K«q. .S9, Montagve-tqwtre, W.C. ^^H 


Trotter,* CoutU, Eiq. Athenamm C7w6, Pall-rmll, S. W. 


tf ■ P- 

Trotter, Major Henry, ii.e. Care of Messrs. Bichaidson and Co., 13, Pall-mallf 


Trotter, CaptAin J. Moubray. Cora of Messrs, Huldanes and Brookman, 17, 
Charlotte^treet, KditAnrgh. 


Trotter," William. Esq. U, Hertford-street, Mayfair, W. 


Trutch, J. W., Esq., c.M.G. Vktona, British Columbia. Can of Sank of 1 

Uritish Coiumbia, 28, ComhUl, E.G. 1 



Royal Geographical Society. 


Tnron, Obtain George, S.K., c.b. 5, Eaton-place, S. W. ; and Army and Naey 

Tackett, Fnmds Fox, Esq. Frenchay, near Bristol, 
Tuckett, Philip D., E«q. 8otitAu>ood4awn, Highgate, N. 
Tudor, Edward Owen, Esq., r3.A. 1, Portugal-street, Orosoenor-square, W. 
Tudor, Henry, Esq. 12, Portland^lace, W. 
Tufnell, Wm, Esq. «, Eaton-aqvare, S.W.; and Satfield-place, Hatfield- 

Tumbnll, George, Esq.,c.E., f.r.a.s. RoiehiU, Abbots Langley, Herts. 
Tumbnll,* Walter, Esiq. MowU Henley, Sydenham-hill, S.E. 
Turner, Lieat.-General Henrj Blois (Bomb. Eng.). 131, Harley-street, W. 
Turner, H. G., Esq. (Madras Civil Service). 14, St. Jame^s-sqvare, S. W. 
Turner, Jos. Edward, Esq. SO, King-street, Cheapside, E.C. 
Turner, Thomas, E»i. 36, Harley-street, W. 

Turtou, Lieut. W. H., bl.e. Care of Mrs. Hughes, Devonia, Lordship-lane, S.E. 
Tweedie, Major Michael, B.A. 101, Belgrave-road, S, W.; and Army and Xavy 

CUvb, S.W. 
Tweeddale, The Most Hon. The Marquis of. 25, St. Jameis-place, S. W. 
Twentyman,* A. C, Esq. Castlecroft, near WolverAatigpton. 
Twentyman, William H., Esq. Eatenstcorth, St. John's-wood-park, N. W. 
Twiss, Sir Travers, D.C.L., F.R.8. 3, Paper-buildings, Temple, E.C. 
Twite, Charles, Esq. Castle-house, St. Agnes, Scorrier, CorweaU. 
Twyfbrd, Captain A. W., 21st Hussars. Governor, York Castle. 
Tyer, Edward, Esq., C.E., f.r.a J. 4, Old-street, OosweU-road, E.C. 
Tyler,* George, Esq. 24, HoUoaay-place, HMnoay-road, N. 
Tyler, W, James, Esq. 106, Cannon-street, E.C. 




Ullyett, Henry, Esq., B.8C. Dover-road, Folkestone. 

(Jnderiiil], Edward Bean, Esq., LL.D. Derwent-lodge, Thurlow-road, Hamp' 

stead, N.W. 
Unwin, Howard, Esq., c.e. Oxford-court, 109a, Cannon-street, E.C. 

Vacher,* R. P^ Esq. Oak-hill, Surbiton. 
Vacher,* Geoi^e, Esq. Oak-hill, Swbiton. 
Vallentin,* James R., Esq. 55, Cowoross, E.C. 
Valentine, William J., Esq. 

Van Campen, Samuel Richai-d, Esq. 137, East 2lst Street, Gramercy-park, New 
Fork, D.8. 




List of Fellows of the ^^^^H 



Vwder By],* Y. G., E.-^. 


Vanrenm, Lient.-Col. Adrian ]>ney» (Bengal SUflT Corps). 24, Zanx/oicM-road, 
Notting-hiU. W. 


Vuis-Agnew, Robert, Esq. Carlton Club, S.W.; and Barnbamak, WigtM^ 
ihire, N. B. 


Viaghan, Right ReT. Herbert (Bi«hop of Salford). Bithop'i-htme, Salford. 


Vaughan,* James, Esq., F.R.O.S. Buitth, Breoonahire. 


Vaute, Richiird, Vm[. Durban, Natal. Care of Matrs. Wkiki and Eolmti, 20, 
MUdmay-chnmhcrs, BitKnpsgate-slrwt, E.C, 


Varasour,* Sir Henry M., Bart. 8, Upper Grosvenor -street, W, 


Vavaaaeur, Janjes, E«q. EnockhoU, near Setenoakt, Kent. 


Venables, Gilbert, Esq., B.A, 1, Adain-sireet, Adelphi, W.C. 


Vereker, Lieut-Col. the Hon. Charles Sm/th. Junhr United Sereioe CM, 



Vereker,* The Hon. H. P. ll.d. (H.M. ComuI at Charante). 1, Portman- 
square, W. 


Vemer, Kdword WingfieW, Ejsq,, T^^e Aike, Bray, Ireland. 


Veniey,* Conimr. Edmotid H., R.N. Ehuuiva, Bat\gor, North Wales. 



Vcmey,* Sir Harry C, Bart., UJf., r.B.A.S, Travellers* Club, S.W. ; and 
Ckiydon-houae, BueiM. 


Verulam, Right Hon. James Walter, Earl of, Gorluunburtf, near St, Albanii 

BarrifkiU. Surrey ; and Messimj'fuill, Essex. 


Vickens, Jiunes Muscliamp, lisq. Mitcham-groee, MitcJUon. 


Vincent,* Cnpt, Chaa (kte I.N.). 3, Shrewsbvry-road, WeslhovrM-park, W. 


Vincwit, John, Esq. 2, Uttier-terrace, Regent' t-parh, N.W. 


Vincent,* M. C, Esq., Professor of Economic Geology luid Metallurgy; ItUiptCtor 
of Mines, &c. Cincinnati, U. S. ; and 127, Strand, W.C. 


Vine, Stafr-Comra. Wui. W., R.N. Care of Messrs. Hallett and Co., St. Marlin't- 
place, W. 


Vine*, William Reynold*, E«q., F.11.AJ. Care of Sydnej/ H. Vmes^ Esq., 
Ckriifs College, Cambridge. 


Viney, Rev. Josiah, Femuood, Highgate, N. 


Virion, Hon. H. Crespigny, c.B. Foreign-ogioe, 8,W. 


Vivian, M^yor Qainto*. 17, Cheiham-sireet, Belgrave-sqvart, S.W. 


Vivian, C*pt Ralph. 24, Orosrenor^street, W. 


Vyse, GrifHu William, Esq. Allison-groce, Dvlm<A, SJ!. 


Wade, R, B., E«q. 13, Seijtnour- street, Portman-sqiiare, W. 


Wade, Sir Thos. K., K.C.b., H.B.M. Minister Plenipolentiarj-, Knroy Extn^ 
ordinary, and Superintendent of Trade. Peking, China. Oarw of R. B. 
Wade, Esq., 13, Stj/mour-street, Portman-sqwue, W, 

Ji'4 1 

Royal Geographical Society. cix 

Wadhom,* Edward, Esq., j.p. MUwood Dallm, Lcmauhire. 

Wagner,* Henry, Esq., v.a. 13, Salf-Moon^reet, PicoadUly, W. 

Wagstaff,* William Bacster, Baron, h.d., h.a. 

Wainwright, Chas. Jas., Esq. £lmhur8t. East End, FinchUy, N.; and 251, 
HighHcibom, W.C. 

Wainwright, Lieut. Laurence A. Bervnok-Basset'Victtraga, Swmdon, Wilts. 

Waite,* Ber. John. 

Waklej, Thoa. Finsbury Septimus, Esq., C.K. OoUege-terraoe, Guernsey. 

Walbuni, Edmund, Esq., u.a,. Principal of Groerenor College. 366, Brixton' 
road, 8.W. 

Walkem, Hon. Geo. Anthonj. Victoria, British ColuaMa. 

Walker,* Albeit, Esq. AucUand Club, New Zealand. 

Walker, Capt Arthur Campbell (Royal Bodj Guard). Army and Navy Club, 
FaU-^nall, 8.W. 

Walker, Uajor-General C. P. Beaachamp, c.B. 97, OniJow^uare, S.W.; 
md United Service Club, 8.W. 

Walker, Edward Henry, Enq. (H.M. Consul at Conmnd), Care of Messrs. 
Drummond, Charing-cross. 

Walker, Colonel Forestier W. E., C.B. The Manor-house, Bushey, Kent ; and 
Guardif Gub, Pall-mall, S.W. 

Walker,* Frederick John, Esq. 27ie Priory, Bathwick, Bath. 

Walker, Capt. J. Campbell (Madras Staff Corps). Care of Messrs, Orindlay 
and Co., 55, Parliament-street, 8. W. 

Walker,* Major^General James T., C.B., r.B.8., Royal Engineers (Supt. Gt. Trig. 
Surrey of India). I>ehra Boon, India. Care of Messrs. H. 8. King and Co., 
65, Comhill, B.C. 

Walker, John, Esq. 351, Brixton-road. 8. W. 

yfsHlur,* John, Esq. 

Walker,* Lient.-Colonel John (H.M.'s 66th Foot). Broom-hill, Colchester. 

Walker,* Capt. J. B. Care of Messrs. Elder, Dempster, and Co., 48, Castle- 
street, Liverpool; and Old Calabar, near Bonny, West Africa. 

Walker, R. B. N., Esq. Wanderers^ Club, PalWmall, 8.W. 

Walker, Robert, Esq. 39, LouAard-street, E.C. 

Walker, Rer. William. 8chool-house, Beading. 

Walker, William, Esq., F.8.A. 48, BUldrop-road, TitfneU-park, N. 

Walker, W. Fi-edk., Esq. Moore-park^llas, Walham-green, 8.W. 

Walkinshaw, William, Esq. Hartley-grange, Winchfield, Hants. 

Wallace,* Alfred Russel, Esq. Waldron-edge, Duj^s-MU, Croydon. 

Wallace, Rev. Charles Hill, M.A. 3, Harley-place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Waller, Gerald, Esq. Hoe-street, Waltluimstow, Essex. 

Waller, Rer. Horace. Ihe Bectory, Tioyvoell-by-Thrapston, Northampton- 

Wallich, George C.,Esq., H.D. 8\ointon, 3, Christchurch-road, Eoupell-park, 
Brixton, 8. W. 

Wallroth,* Chas. Henry, Esq. Woodelyffe, Chislehurst. 



Yoar or 



WalU, WJUiain, Esq. 2, Belhaven-ttrrace, Glasgote. 


Wnlpole, Limt. Kol»ert Homcf, it.N. Bainthorpe, near Noneieh ; and 4, Dean' 
street, Park-hne, W. 



Walpole, IlL Hon. Si«m«r, si.r., F.n.s. 109, Eaton-aqyuire, S.W. 


Walrofld, Sir .1. W., Bajt. 54, Grosoenorstreet, W. 


Walter, Capt. Fred. Edw., R.H.A. St, George's Banach, Bermuda. 


Walter, Henry Fnier, Esq. Papple\eick-hiiil, near Nottingham, 


Waltham,* Edward, Esq. Watcom(hhoase, St. Annt^s-placsj Streatham-hitl, | 
S. W. J 


Walton, J. W., Eiiq. 41, Great Marlborough-street, W. ^^M 
Walton, R. G., Esq., C.E. Butnbay. ^IH 



Ward, Chnrlei, Esq. Neiecastle, Natal, South Africa, Care of Dr. JL Bum, 1 
Bletxhcim-lodge, Turnham-green, W. J 


Ward,* Christopher, Esq, Saville-place, Halifax, 


Ward,* George, Esq. 


Ward, John, Esq. Lenox-vak, Belfast. Care of J. A. Eoae, Esq., 11, 

&ilisbu>-!/-street. Strand, W.C. 



ji. Ward, Cajitain the Hon, Wm. John, R.H., A.D.C. 44, Charimj-croas, S. W'. 


Waiilcn, Edmund M., Esq. Wyberlije, Bturgesa-hUl, Sussex, 


Waidliiw, .liihn, I"^. 44, Prince' s-gatdens, Hyde-park, S. W. 

, 187S 

Warner, Rev. Geo. Townscnd. Nenton-colleje, S. Devon. 


Wni-ner,* J. H. B., Esq. Quorn-Iiall, Lottghboroujh ; and (ksuervotm Club, 

s. vr. 


Warrand, Colonel W. E.. r.e. The BuglU, Inverness, 


Warre, Rev. Edmond, M.A. Eton College, 


Want-, IJent.-Genei-al H. J„ c.n. 



Warren, [jVut.-Col, Clutrles, r,e., c,».o. Brompton4'it racks, Chut/uim. 


Warren, Charles, Esq. 17, Hanover-street, Peckiuim, S,E, 


1 Warren, Miij«r Kichaj-d Pdhanx. Wurtiruj-houaef Basittgstolie. 


Wnterfield,* 0. C., Esq. Temple-grove, East Sheen. 


1 Wnterhousc, George Marsden, E«q. Cure of Messis. iIonv>nn and Co,, 4, Fern" 

church-street, B.C. 


Waterbouae,* Sfajor Jaa., Bengal SUfT Corps (Anistant Surrejror-Genvnd of 

India). Sunxyor-QeMraPt-office, CalcrUta. Care of Messrs. TriUma- and 

Co.. 59, Ludgate-hill, E.G.; and 40, ffamiUon-terrace, KW. 


Watei?, J. H. Ernest, Esq. 


Waters. T. J., Esq. 


Wntherston, Rer. Jno. Dnndns. V'e Lecturer's House, Mon$nouth. 


Watney, John, Esq. 4, Ironmonger- lane, E.G. 



Watson, Capt. Chns. Moore, R.E. 25, Fitttcilliam^laoe, Dublin. 


Wataon, Jninea. Esq. 24, Endsleigh-street, W.C. 


Watson, James, Esq. Langleg^house, Langley, Bucks. 


1 WatMii, Sir Jnines. 9, Woodside-terraot, Ohugow. 1 

]<8} 1 


Royal Geographical Society, 



Wataon, James L., Esq. KUlinghall, Sipiey^ Yorkshire. 

Wataon, Joo. Gibson, Esq. 20, Clanricarde^ardens, Hyde-park, W. 

Watson, John Harrison, Esq. 28, Queenaborough'terrace, Kensingtonrgardem, 'W, 

Watson, Lieut. Joseph, R.H.B. 22, BancrofUroad, Mile-endrroad, E. 

Watson, Kobert, Esq. Fcdcott-house, Nortk-hiU, Highgatt, N. 

Watson, Robert Spoice, Esq. Most Croft, Qateshead-on-Tyne, 

Watson, Tbos., Esq. (Portuguese Vice-consul, Cape To\Bn). Care of J. R. 
Thomaon and Co., St. Peter' s-chambers, E.C. 

Watson,* William, Esq., F.lf.s. Care of Capt. Inglis, 8, Water-street^ Liverpool. 

Watson, Wm. Livingstone, Esq. Oriental Club, Hanover-square, W, 
' Watt, Robert, Esq., C.E. AsMeij'avenue. Belfast. 
I Watts, Rev. Arthur. Training-college, Durham. 
; Watts, H. Cecil, Esq. Lindfield-house, Lindfield, Surrey. 
I Watts, John, Esq. Eastington-house, Stonehouse, GloucestershUe. 
I Waugh, Fras. Gledstanes, Esq., M.A. Oxford and Cambridge Club, Fall-mall, 
I S.W. 

j Wavell, Lieut-Col. A. H. 102, Piccadilly, W. 

. Waveney, Lord, 7.R.8., &c. 7, Audky-square, W. ; and Flixton^tt, ffarieston, 
I Webb, Geo. P., Ek}. Junior Athenaum Club, PiccadOly, W. 

Webb, Captain H. G. Norton-barracks, Worcester; and Army and Navy Clvb, 

Webb, J. C, Esq., M.D. 42, Lcmer Belgrave-street, 8. W. 

Webb, Locock, Esq., Q.C. 1, Hanover-terrace, Notting-hUl, W. 

Webb,* Capt. Sydney. Riversdale, Twickenham. 

Webb,* William Frederick, Esq. Newsiead Abbey, Notts ; and Army and Navy 
Club. Pall-mall, S.W. 

Webster, Alphonsas, Esq. 44, Mechlenburgh-sqiMre, W.C. 

Webster. George, Esq. 

Webster, James Hume, Esq. 14, Chapel-street, Park-lane, W, 

Webster, Robert G., Esq. Library-chambers, Garden-court, Temple, E.C. 

Wedd, George, Esq. .51, Queen' s-gardens, Hyde-park, S.W. 

Weedow, Joseph, Esq. Damlioll Grammar-school, Winsford, Ches/iire. 

Weguelin, Thomas Matthias, Esq., M.P. 57^, Old Broad-street, E.C. 
I Wdse, Jno., Esq. 103, St. George' s-road, Pimlico, S. W. 
I Weiss, Foveaux, Esq. 33, Chester-terrace, Regent' s-park, N. W. 
I Weiss, Hubert Foreauz, Esq. 33, Chester-terrace, Regent' s-park, N. W. 
. Welby, Reginald Earle, Esq. 95, Jennyn-street, S. W. 

VVeller, Edward, Esq. 34, Red-lion-square, W.C. 

Welling*, Henry, Esq. 

Wellington,* Arthur Richard, Duke of, Major-General, K.O., D.C.L. Apsley- 
house, W. ; and Strathjieldsuyc, Hampshire. 

Wells,* Arthur, Esq. Nottingham. 

Wells, Sir Mordaunt, late Chief Puisne Judge, Bengal. 4, Victoria-sirjct, 




Lia of Fellows oftlie ^^^^^^^^^^H 



West, linymond, Esq. (Bomb, Civ, Sei-vice). 1 


Wwt, Williftra Nowell. Esq. ;(0, Montvju-itreet. RvmelUqwire. W.C, J 


Westeodju-p, Cliaj le* U., Eiq. 1 9. Stantei)-crescent, Ketuingion, W, ri^H 


Western, W. T., Esq. 11, MotUatfue-viUas, iCichinond. ^^H 


Weslgarth, Win., E«q. 10, Bolton^janleiu, South Kenttngton, S.W. ^H 


Wcatlakc,* John, Ksq. lU, Oxford-sqiMre, W. ^^^| 


Westniiu-iitt, At'Lhur, Ecq. AthtnoBom Club, S.W. ^^| 


Wfttttnacott, E. Vctev, Esq. Haddmham^ Ely. ^^| 


WestoD, Alet. Auderdoii, Esq., K.A. 74, Queen't^att, S.W, ^^H 


W«stwood, John, Esq. ^^^H 


Weylaiid,* John, E»q., r.R.8. WoodfUing-hall, Norfolk, ^^H 


Whalley, Daiiiel, Esq. 62, nreadneedU-strMt, B.C. ^^^ 



VVhimidiffe, Right Hon. The Ei\rl of. 15, C»rion-s<r«f, W. 


Wharton, Kec. J. C. Junior Atlktnaeum Club, FiceadUhj, W. 


Wharton, Kobeit, E*]. Hurley, Great iiarlow, Bucks. 


Whartott,* CDtmni. Win. Jm. Ll..yd, u.N. If. M.S. ' faun.' 


Wlieatlej-, G. W., Esq. 156, Ltadenliall-street, E.C. 


Wheeler,* ICdwaid, Esq. Care of A. "Wheeler, Esq., Worcester-park'-houie, Swveif, 


Wheeler, Stephen, Esq. AUatmhad, Care of Mettra. Allen, Brother* and Co., 
12, Albion-place, london-uiall, E.C 


Whichelow, Ker. James .Shenrcr. 13, Gorecretccnt, Victori(hpark, If. 


Whinfield,* Edward Wrey, E«q., B.a. Secem-gramje, Woroetter. 


WhiUker, Thomas Stejitien, Esq. Evei-thorpe-haU, East VorfuMn; attd Cb»< 
scrmtict Ctitb, S. YV. 


Vn>itby, Ret. Tliomos, M.A., Sec. Christ Chwvh-vicaro'je, Plymouth. 


Whit*. Arthur D., Esq., M.D. 56, Chancer^i-lane, W.C. 


White, .Augustus, Esq. " Whitetille" Fortis-green, Finchlet/, N. 


White. Krancis W., Esq. Hankow, Chinn. Care of If. C. Batchelor, Esq., 
110, Cannm-strett, E.C. 


White, Uer. G. Cosby. Newland, near Halvem. 


White. Geo. V„ Esq. 1, Porchester.'jale, llijde-park, W, 


White, Henry. Esq., F.a.A., J. P. 96, Queen' »-gate, Hyde-park, S.W. ; and 
The Lodije, nUiiagdon-heath, near Uxbridge, 


White, Jas. Thoa., Esq. 4, Clarmdon-phce, Hijde-p'trk, S.W. 


White, Owen, W„ Esq. Pie>sfielJ, South Streatham, 


White, Kdbert, Esq. " WhitevUle" Forlie-green, FincIUey, If. ; and JftUmgr- 
diamfiers, 8J, Bishopsgate-itreei, E.C. 


White, r;obert Owen. Esq, The Priory, Lexrialum, S.E. 


While, W. A., E»q.,c.B., H.M. Minister, Bucharest. Care of G. C. Bowtmi^ 
Esq., Librarian's Dept., Foreign-office, S. W. 


White,* Wm. 0„ Esq. 10, Limc-st., E.C. ; and Bamsfield, near Dartfard, Knit. 


Whit4!heiid,* Chas., Esq., f.s.a. Banninj-Iiouae, Maidstone. 


Whitehead. Colonel P. George. 14. Eetn Cavendish-street, W, 


Whitfori, John, Esq. 21, Alfved-Hred, Liverpool. 


u J 

JRoyal GeographicaJ Society. 





Whitmee, Rev. S. J. 11 , Leintter'sqware, Ratkmiatas, J>Mi%, 

Whittingham, W. B., Esq. North View, The Driw, Walthamstow; emd 

91, Qracechvrch-atreet, E.C. 
Wbymper, Edward, Esq. Town-houae, ffaslemere. 
Whyte, Jas., Esq. 

Whjtt, Ebenoter, Esq. The Orote, Higigate, N. 
Whjtt, P. Falconer, Esq. The Grope, Higbgate, IT. 
Wickenden,* Geo. Thos., Esq., f.z.8. 9, ComKoll-residenoes, York-gate, N.W. ; 

and Hanover-equare Club, W. 
Wiggins,* Joseph, Esq. 4, The Elme, Sunderland. 
Wild, Dr. John James. 21, ffayter-road, Brixton, S. W. 
Wilder, Frederick, Esq. Furley-haU, Sending. 
Wilkins, J. E., Esq. 4, Paper-buildings, Inner Temple, E.C. 
Wilkinson,* Major A. Eaatfield, B.A.. Oiidh Commission, India ; 7, Cavendis/i' 

place, Brighton; and Army and Navy Club, 8. W. 
Wilkinson, Edw., Esq. 10 Neva-square, Lincoln' a-iun, W.C. 
Wilkinson, Dr. G. 4, 8t. John'a-vood-vilUta, St. John's-*Dood, N. W. 
Wilkinson, Capt. J. Fenwick. 2, Wilton^vUlas, Codrington-road, Bamsgate, 
Wilkinson, J. J., Esq. 3, Victoria- street, Westminster, 8. W, 
Wilkinson, John Sheldon, Esq. 4, St. James' s-place, 8. W. 
Wilkinson, Joseph, Esq. York. 
Wilkinson, Col. Joaiah. Ilighgate, N. 

Wilks, Ezra Tompkins, Esq. Mayfield-road, Dalston ; and 6, Coal-exchange, E.C. 
Willans,* John Anderson, Esq. 6, Vincent-square, Westminster, 8. W, 
Willana, William Henrj, Esq. 23, Holland-park, W. 
Willcock, J. W., Esq., q.C, Woodside-house, New-haw, Weybridge, Surrey. 
Williams, Chailes, lisq. 22, Bedford-street, Covent-garden, W.C. 
Williams, Conyngbam 0., Esq. New Leeds-college, Leeds. 
Williams, David, Esq. Pateleij-bridge, near Leeds, Yorkshire. 
Williams, Frederick G. A., Esq. Chapel-stairs, Lincoln' s-iim, W.C. 
Williams, Henry Jones, Esq. 12, Hereford-gardens, Park-lane, W.; and 82, 

King William-street, E.C. 
Williams, Henry R., Esq. 183, Camden-road, N.W. 
Williams, John, Esq. 
Williams, John Robert, Esq. Junior Carlton Clvb ; and Fir-grove, Bront- 

borough, Cheshire. 
Williams,* Michael, Esq. Tregullow, Scorrier, Comwail. 
Williams,* Montague, Esq. Woolkmd, Blandford, Dorset. 
Williams, Sparks H., Esq., F.s.^ 8, Holland-road, Kensington, W. 
Williams, Rev. Wjitkin Herbert. Vicar of Bodelwgddan, nr. St. Asaph, N. Wales. 
Williams, Major-General Sir Wm. F., Bart., O.C.B., d.C.L. Army and Navy 

Club, 8. W. 
Williams, W. Rhys, Esq., M.D. Boyal Bethlehem Hospital, S.E. 
Willis, Chas. E., Esq. 14, John-street, Mayfai>; W. 





List of Fellows of ihe ^^^^^^^^^H 


Willis,' Mnjor-Gencral G. H. S., c.n. United Stnice Clvb, PM-mall, S. W. 


Witloughby, Henry W., Esq. 32. Montoffu^-iquare, W. 


Wilis, Peler Turner. 2, mttle, Wood-ttreet, E.G. 


Wills, William Henry, Eiq,, m.p„ j.p, FroijnaUriie, Bampttead, KW.; and 
Hawthomdm, Clifton Do\en, Bristol, 


VVIlmot, AIm. E»q., j.p. Port Eldnhcth, Aljoa Bay, S. A. Care of Ji. White, 
Eaij,, Mildntay-dumlxira, 82, Biahopagate-street-within, E.C, 


WIIkoo, Alexiuider, Eeq. Qatewick-hovac, Deckenhcan, 


Wilson,* Capt. Chai. P. Marine Deparltnent, Board of Trade, St. Katharhu'i 
Dock-hmae, Toirer-hill, E. 


Wilson, Kev. Chnrlcs Thomns. Pavmfiam, Bedford, 


C. 1.. 

Wilson, Lieut-Col. Charles William, C.n., RE. 5, Lanadowne-terrace, EodwtH, 


Wilson, £dw. D, J., Esq., U.A., in:. Airlie-huuse, CamherwM-grott, S.E, 



Wilson,* Dr. John Smith. 3, Woodberry^illaaj Seven Sitters'-nad, St. Ann »- 
road, Siamford-hill. 


Wilson, Majcr-Geueral J. 14, 5*. Jameit t-aqvare, S.W. 


Wilson, Kobert B. W., Esq. 


Wilson,* Eolart Dabie, Esq. 15, Green-^traet, Groaoenor-iquare, W, 


Wilson, Samuel King. Esq. 3. Portland-terrace, Segent't-park, N.W. 


Wilson,* Sir Samuel. Melbourne, 


Wilson,* Arlmiral Thomas, 4, Royal York-crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 

1 1872 

Wilson, WiUiana Tliomns, Esq, Veutz, near Cologne. 


Wiltshire. Kev, Thomas, M.A„ F.O.S., F.L.s. 25, Granville-park, Lewiiham, S.E. 


Winch.* W. Hichnrd, E*q. North Mi/tmnit-park, ffatjield. 


Winchester, C. A., Esq. Oriental Club, W. 


Winchwter. The Most Hon. the .MwquU of. iK, Albany, TV.; and Ampwi St. 

Miiry'a, Andocer. 


Windraro, JAine«, Esq. 


Wingate, J. F., Esq, 18, Allnon-street, ffyde-park-stputre, W, 


Wiuser, Tiiotnns Boormau, Esq. Shooter'a-hilt-road, Blackheath, S.E. 

1 1870 

Wiseman, Captain Sir Wm.. Bart., R.N. Care of Meaan. Caae and Zoudenanelty 
1, Jamea-ftreet, Adelphi, W,C. 


Wodehouse, H. E^, Esq. Jlam-hill, Worcester, 


Wodchouse, J. H., Esq. (Il.M.'s Commissioner and CoD)iul-Geaeral for the 
Sjnd'cich latanda). 


WodehouM, His Exoelteucy Sir Philip, k.c.b. {Governor of Bombay). Qiteen 
Afuta'a-maitaitina, S. W. 


Wolff,* Sir Henry Drummoud, O.CM.o., «.P. Athenaitm Club, W. 


WolMley, Lieui.-rienerrtl Sir O.-truet J., o.c.x.o., E.c.B. AthenoHm Club, S.W. 


Wonnacott, Jno., Esq., r.c.s. Sx, Wadhtitn.houae, Liakeard. 


Wood, Captain Alexander (BomliAy SufT Corps). Uealh-lodije, Ahbey-\r\Kjd, 
Kent; and 14, St. Jatnea'a-square, S, W. 


Wood, Chas. M,ilcolm, E<q. HeatK-lod'je, Abbey-icood, Kent; and Jnnioe 

.llhintiuiH Club, .^■. ir. 

>ut 1 


( cxvii ) 


[Thow mutad wtth an wterfak * nc«lv« ihm lYnrwrltiji onlj.] 



A.OMIKALTT (Uydrognphie Office) 
A.aRico(.TOsAL SociETT (lloyal) 
AjrraBOPOLooicAi. iMmroTB 
Antiqdabibs, Socibtt op 
Architbcts, I21ST. OP BsiTiSH (Boyal) 
Abts, Sociktt or 
Asiatic Societt (Boy*!) 


ATHEHiBOit Club 

BRirroL MoBBCM ard Library 

BsiTua MusBOM, Library of 

—^—^-^— , Map Departmett 

CAMDRioaB nmoN Societt 


BoTAL Geouxsicaii Societt 

(Trin, CoU.) 
EDiHBORoa, RotalSocibtt op 

, The Library op Advocates 
— — , BoTAL Gbouxsical Societt 


EitoiHEERs, Irstitdtiom op Civil 
Exeter, Albert Memorial Museum 


Geouxsical Societt 
Geoloot, Mosbum op Practical 
Glasooit, Natural HmoRr Societt of 
, PaiLOiOPHiCAL Societt (Cob- 

FORATiOR Galleries) 
Horticultural Societt (Royal) 
HoDsoif's Bat Company's Librart 
Hull Literart axo Philosopbicai. 

India Office, Librart op the 
IirrELLioENCB Bbahch, Q.M.G.'s De- 

Lahcasuirb akd Cdesribe, Historic 

Societt of 
LimiEAM Societt 


Liverpool Lreeabt anu Phiumopui* 



Mahcmesteb, CarmAM's Librabt 
— ^— — — Fbbb Libbart 

Metborolooical OmcB 


Philosophical Iiistitiitior 
OxFOBD, The Boolbiar Libbabt 

• , Radclifpb Obsebvatobt 

vPosT-OppicB Librart abd Litebart 

BoYAL Artillebt iMSTmmOB, Wooip 


■ Librart, Woolvicb 

Royal Colonial Irstitotb 

RoTAL Dublin Societt 

RoTAL Enoimebbs' Libraries (6 eo^es) 

Care of War Office, Whitehall, S. W. 
RoTAL Institutiom 


Salpord Rotal Museum ard Librart, 

Peel Park, Salpord. 
Scottish Meteorological Societt 
Societt of Biblical ABCR.«OLoaY 
Sooth Kersinoton Museum, Eouca- 


Staff College, FAR!<BORonaH Statiok, 

Statistical Societt 
Trade, Board of, Librart of 
Travellers' Club 
UinTED Service iRSTrruTion (Royal) 
Universitt of London, Lirrabt ofthe 
ViCTORLA Institute, 10, Adelphi terrace, 

Zoological Societt 



Athens . 
Berlu . 

AardrijkBkandig Genoot- 

, K. Akademie van Weten- 

. Soci^te de Geographie 
, University Library 
. K. Preussisehe Akademie 

der Wissensohaften 
. Gesellschaft fUr Erd- 


Bordeaux . SocietedeGrebgraphieCom- 

Bremen . . . Geographische Gesellschaft 
Brussels . . Aoademie Rovale des 

Sciences de Belgiqne 
. . . Sooi^te Beige de G^ 

Bucbabest . Sooietatea Oeografica Bo- 

i 1 

CXTiii Itutitutions presented with ' Journal ' and • Proceedings* 

'EUROPE— continued. 

CnHiariAitiA . 


Darmstadt . 
Dijon . . 




Goto A 
Uaqde (tug) 


Hai.i.b(an di:r 

Salle) . . , 

Uamburo . . . 


Leipzig .... 
LiaaoH . . . . 

•LroHi. . . 
Madrid. . 

MAIt|EIl.I.Ea . 

3iii.A!r . . . , 
MuMicu . . . 


K. Norske Frederilu 

Ilydrcigraphlc Office 
Dbnske Gradmji&lini; 
K. DanHke Vldcnskaber- 

nen Selitkab 
K. Nordislt Oldskrift- 

Vcreiii fiir Erdkund« 
Acftdemie de« Sciences, 

Arta ct BclloB-Lcttrei 
Statistical Society 
Vtrfiii fur <Jeo({rarhio 
Suciele de Gengraphie 
Socierc de PJiyiique- ct 

d'bliHtoiro iiaturolle 
Miueo Civico di Storia 

Jiutuf Perth et' geogra- 

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Mr. Richard Lander — Royal Medal— for the discovery of the 
a>uisB of the Kiver Niger or Quorra, and ita outlet in the Gulf of 
Mr. John Biscoe — Royal Medal — for the discovery of the land 
now named "Euderhy Land" and "Graham Land, in the Ant- 
arctic Ocean. 
Captain Sir John Ross, b.n.— Royal Medal— for discovery in 

the Arctic llesions of America. 
•Sir Alexander Bumes — Ro3-aI Medal — for the navigation of 
the Itlver Indus, and a junmey hy Uiilkh and Bokhara acro^B 
Cent ml Asiii. 
•Captain Sir George Back, b.n.— Royal Medal — for iho disco- 
very of the GrenL Stiver, and its navigation to the 84ai on the 
Arctic Coast of Anienca. 
'Captain Robert FitzRoy, ilk. — Royal Medal — for the survey 

of ihu Sliort'8 of ratnguiiia, Chile, and Pcni. 
•Colonel Chesney, r.a. — Hoyal Mwlal — for the general conduct ol 
the "Euphrates Expedition" in 1835-0, ntnl for accessions to the 
pL-o'^raphy of Sj'ria, Me80|>otamia, and the Delta of Susiana. 
Mr. Thomas Simpson— Founders Medal — for the discoverj 
and tracin<!, in 1H37 and 1838, of about 300 miles of the Arctic 
shores nf America. 
Dr. Edward Rlippell — Patron's Medal — for hia travels and 

researches iu Nubi.i, Kordofan, Arabia, and AbysMinia. 
Col. H. C. Rawlinson, E.t.c. — Founder's Medal — for his travoU 
and researches in Susiaua and Persian Kurdistan, and for the light 
thrown by him on the comparative geofirapby of Western Asia. 
Sir R. H. Schomburgk— Patron's Medal — for hts trnvdB and 
researches dnriuj; the years 1835-9 in the colony of British Guayaua, 
and in the .adjacent part* of South America. 
1841. — Lieut. Raper, r.n. — Founder *a Modal — for the jiuhlication of his 
vv'ork on * Naviiintion and Nautical Actronnmy." 
Lieut. John Wood, i-x. — Patron's Medal — for hia rorvey of the 
Indus, and rL'-dtscovcry of the source of the River Oxua. 
1842. — Captain Sir James Clark Ross, b.n. — Founder's Medal — for 
his discovt-rifs in the Antarctic Ocean. 
Rev. Dr. E. Robinson, of New York — Patron's Medal — for his 
work entitled ' Biblical liescarchea in Palestine.' 
1843.— Mr. Edward John Eyre— Founder's Metlal — for his explora- 
tions in Australia. 
Lieut. J, P. A. Symonds, h.b. — Patron's Medal— for his survey 
in Palestine, and levels acrosti the ormntry to the Dead Sea. 







Award of the Royal Premiums, 


1844. — Mr. W. J. Hamilton — Pounder'* Medal— for hU rcsesrcheB in 
Asia Minor. 
Prof. Adolph Ennan — Patron's Medal — for hi« extensive goo> 

graphical labours. 

1845. — Dr. Beke — Founder's Medal ^^ for his extenaive explorations in 

M. Charles Ritter — Patron's Medal — for bis important gec^gra- 
phical workii. 

1846.— Count P. E. de Strzelecki — Founder's Medal — for his explo- 
rations and discoveries in the bouth-Eoatern portion of Australia, 
and in Van Diemen'a Land. 
Prof. A. Til. Middendorff— Fatron'a Medal — for his extensive 

explorations and ai.'^covericH in Northern and Eastern Siberia. 

1847. — CapL Charles Sturt — Founder's Medal — for his varions and 
extensive i'xpluratktus in Australia. 
Dr. Ludwig Leichhardt — Patron's Medal — for a journey per- 
formed from jM(jretoQ Bay to Port E88!n<j;ton. 

1848. — Sir James Brooke, llajah of Sarawak and Governor of Labuan — 

Founder's Medial — tor his pxpedition to Borneo. 
Captain Charles Wilkes, u.8.n. — Patron's Medal — for liis 
Voyii^if of liiscovery in tiio S. Hemisphere and in the Antarctic 
Kcgions, in the years 1838-42. 

1849.— Austen H. Layard, Esq., d.o.l. m.p. — Founder's Meikl— for his 
oiiUributiuriH to Asiatic geography, reseaicbes in Mesopotamia, and 
discoveries of the remiiias of Nineveh. 
Baron Ch. Hugel — I'ntroa's Medal — for his expirations of 
Cufihincru and aurrnimdtnj; countries, communicated in his work 
entitled ' Kashmir uml das Reich der Siek.* 

1850. — CoL John Ch. Prfimont— Patron's Medal— for his successful 
explorations of the Kocky Muuntaiiis and California j and for his 
nunieroua Di-saiveries ami Astronomical Observations. 

The Rgv. David Livisqstone, of Kolobenp — a Chronometer Watch — 

for his successfal explor<ttion!i of Suuth Africa. 

Dr. GeoROG Walun, of Finland — 25 Guineas — for hii TrareU in Arabia. 
Mr. Thomas Urukxer — 25 Guineas — for his exploratiosi in the MiJdU 
Island of New Zealand. 



-Dr. John Rae— Foumlcr's Medal — for his survey of Boothia and 

of the Ct^j«t.<« of Wollaston and Victoria Lands. 
Captain Henry Strachey— Patron's Medal— for his Surveys 
in Western Tibet. 

1853. — Mr. Francis Gal ton— Founder's Medal — for his explorations in 
Southern AfricJi. 
Commander E. A. Inglefield, r.n. — Patron's Medal — for his 
Survey of the L'oasts of Batlin Bay, Suiitii and Lancaster Sounds. 

1864.— Rear-Admiral William Henry Smyth— Founder's Medal — 
for his valualijc Surveys in the Mediterranean. 
Captain Robert J. M. M'Clure, b.».— Patron's Medal— for his 
discovery of this North-West'^e. 

1865.— The Rev. David Livingstone, m.d., «Src.— Patron's Medal— 
for his Scientific K.xpJoratidtis in Central Africa. 

Mr. Chaeles J. Andehsson — a Set of SurreyiDg InBtraments^for his 
Travel* in South-Westem Africa. 


18o6.' — Eliaha Kent Kane, m.d. — Fouader's Medal — for his diaooreriM 

in the I'otar li<:'j:i(iTis. 
Heinrich Barth, full. db. — Patron's Medal — for bU exploratiotM 
in CV^mral Afrio. 

Cor|itiriil J, F, Church, of the Royal Engineers — »W»tch and Chain — 
foe lii.i icientilk obserratioas wliilr attached to the Mumuji id Central 

l.M*,7. — Mr. Augustus C. Gretfory — Founder's Medal — for his explora- 
litiiis ill Western and XurifuTii Aiihti-alta. 
Lieut - Col. Andrew Scott Waugh, Bengal Kn^ineers — 
i';itrt.m's Medal — for the Great Tiigononictricat Survey of India. 

18.>S. — Captain RichEird Collinson, k.n. — Founder's Modal — for his 
Disctivories in tiie Arctic l!eai"-'i)s. 

lb5S. — Prof. Alexander Dallas Bache, Superinteadent U. 8. Coast 
Survey — I'atrou's Meilal — lor his cxttfiijivo Surveys of America. 

1859. — Captain Richard F, Burton — Founder's Medal — for his ExpJo- 
i-aiioiiB iit Kasterii Oiitnil Africa. 
Captain John Palliser — I'iUron's Medal — for his txplorationR in 
lintish Xuith America and tliu Ivccky Mouutaiiis. 

Mr. Joiix MAcnoUAt.L Stdaht — a Gold Watch — for hij Ducovcrics in 
South and Central Au»tnilia. 

1860. — Lady Franklin — l'\>uuilur*8 Modal — in commemoiation of the dis- 
c<>verie8 nf Sir .1. Franklin, 

Captain Sir F. Leopold McGlintock, b.k. — Patron's Medal 
— for his Disooveries in the Arctic llegions. 

18»»1,— Captain John Hanning Speke— I'oundcr's Medal— for the 

iMsciivm" of tlie tireat Lal.i- Vii:titri:i Kyaiiza, K:i8t<'m Africa, &c. 
Mr. John Macdouall Stuart— Patron's Medal — for his Esplo 
nitiiHi^ in tli(> Interior of AuKtinlin. 

1^02.— Mr. Robert O'Hara Burke— Founder's Medal— for his Explo- 
nitioii'. in Aii-^tnitiji. 
Captain Thomas Blakiston — Patron's Medal — for his eurvey 

of tlie Kivor'-kiaii;i. 

ilr. Jijiis KisG — a Gold Walth — for hU meritortous conduct while 
fittaolied to the Exjiedition uuder Mr. R. O'Hnrn Uurke. 
18G3.— Mr. Prank T. Gregory— Founder's Medal — for his explorn- 
tiuus in Western Anstrnlia. 
Mr. John Arrowsmith— Patron's Medal — for the very important 
services he lias rendered to Geographical Science. 

Mr. WiLLlAK LANWDOHO0GH— n Gold Watch— for «aoce«sftil Eiplora- 

tioni in Australia. 
Mr. John M'Kinlay — a Gold Watch — for snccftssful Eiplorationa in 

Mr. KRKDKaicfC WA.LKER — ^aGold Watch — for soeceasful Explorations 
in Aii>trnlin. 

18G4. — Captain J. A. Grant— Patron's Medal — for his journey from Zan- 
ziUir Bcms* Kastern Equatorial Africa to Egjpt, in comixiny with 
Captain Six'kc. 
Baron C. von der Decken— Founder's Medal — for bin two 
tii-osrapliical Snrvey«of the lolty Movtntnins of Kilima-niaro. 

Ucv. \V. GiFFORD Palgravk — the sum t«f 2.'^^ Guinea*— for the pnrchaM 
of :i Chronometer or other Testimonial, for his eJrentaroaa Joamey 
in iin'l ncrusa Arabia. 

ISGT},— Captain T. Q. Montgomerie, r.k. — Founders Modal— for hi* 
'rrijronoTiittrical Survey ol Nurth-West India. 

Award of the Boj/al Premiums. cxxiii 

Mr. S. W. Baker— Patron's Medal— for bis relief of Gapts. Speke 
and Grant, and bis endeavour to complete tbe discoveries of those 

Dr. A. VJbsBixt — the Bum of 40 Ponnds — for his Traveli in Central 

1866.— Dr. Thomas Thomson, m.d. — Founder's Medal — for his Ee- 
searches in the Western Himalayas and Thibet. 
Mr. W. ChandleSB— Patron's Medal — for his Survey of tbe Biver 

M. P. B. no CHAILL0 — the sum of 100 Goineas— for his Astronomical 

Observations in the Interior of Western Equatorial Africa. 
MooLA AnouL Medjid — a Gold Watch — for his Explorations over the 
Pamir Steppe, &c. 

1867.— Admiral Alexis Bontakoflf— Founder's Medal— for being the 
first to launch and navigate ships in the Sea of Aral. 
Dr. Isaac L Hayes— Patron's Medal — for his memorable expe- 
dition in 1860-61 towards the open Polar Sea. 

18(>8.— Dr. AagOStUS Fetermann — Founder's Medal — for bis zealous 
and enlightened services as a writer and cartographer in advancing 
Geograpltical Science. 
Mr. Gerhard Rohlfs— Patron's Medal— for his extensive and 
important travels in the interior of Northern Africa. 

The Poxorr employed by Captain T. G. Montgomerie — a Gold Watch 
— for his route surrey from Lake Manaarowar to Lhasa, in Great 
EoocATioNAii Prize: — 
Mr. JoHX Wilson — the sum of Five Pounds — for successful competition 
in Geography at the Society of Arts examination. 

1869.— Professor A. E. Nordenskiold- Founder's Medal— for the 
leading part he took in the recent Swedish Expeditions in tbe North 
Polar Region. 
Mrs. Mary Somerville — Patron's Medal — in recognition of the 
able works published by her, which have largely benefited Geogra- 
phical Science. 

Schools' Prize Medals : — 
Political Geography. — Hr. G. Richuond, Liverpool College (Gold Medal), 
Jas. Dearden Wilde, Manchester Grammar School (Bronze Medal) 
Physica! Geography. — Wu. Grumdv, Rossall School (Gold Medal). 
Geo. Wm. Gent, Rossall School (Bronze Medal). 

Educational Prize ; — 
Mr. John Kidney — the sum of Five Pounds — for successful competi- 
tion in Geography at the Society of Arts examination. 

1870.— Lientenant Pras. Gamier (of the French Imperial Navy) — 
Patron's Medal — lor his survey of the course of the great (Cambodian 
River during the years 1866-8. 
Mr. George W. Hayward — Founder's Medal — For his explora- 
tions in Eastern Turkistan. 

ScnooLs' Prize Medat^s: — 
Political Geography.— Geo. Wh. Gent, Rossall School (Gold Medal). 

Jas. Hr. Collins, Liverpool College (Bronze Medal). 
Physical Geography. — Geo. Gret Botler, Liverpool College (Gold 
Martin Stewart, Rossall School (Bronze Medal). 
Educational Prize : — 
Mr. Thomas Richard Clarke — the sum of Five Ponnds — for success- 
ful competition in Geography at the Society of Arts examination. 

Award of the Royal Premiums. 

1871.— Sir Roderick L MurcMson, Bart. — Founder'a Medal — in 
recognition ol' the ennnoDt services lie has rendered to Geography 
fhinn^ hia lont; connection with the Society. 
A. Keith. Johnston, li-.u. — Pution'a Medal — for his long-con- 

tiiuiLil and 8ucci'ssr«l services in advi^iicinp Geography, and especially 
fur his merit ia «»rrying out hia scheme of Physical AlUses. 

Schools' Prizk Mepals: — 
Politicnl GfiMjriip/tt/.— Geo. Hoqbex, Univemity School, Nottiagham 
(Gold Medal)." 

RiCHD. Navloa Arkle, Liverpool College (Bronze Medal). 
Phytical Otography. — Dadiel McALin'Kit, Lirerjiool Institute (Gold 

Wm. OtiRSitOM COLI.INOWOOO, lirerpool College (Bronze Medal). 
Educational Prize: — 

Mr. John Aiuistrono — the «um of Five Ponnds — for successful com- 
petition in Geography at the Society of Arts cxnintnatioD. 

1872. — Colonel Henry Ynle, c.u. — Founder'H Medal — for the eminent 
M'rvice« hes liaii rendered to Geography in the publication of his 
three great works, 'A Mission to the Court of Ava," Cathay, and 
the Way Thitiier,' and * M.arco Polo.' 
Mr. Roioert Berkeley Shaw— Pa iron's Med nl — for his Joumeys 
in East'Cra Tiirkistau, and for hia extciiKivc series of Aatronomical 
and Hypsomctricd Uliservations, which have enabled ns to fix the 
longitude of Yarkand, and have given ns, for the first tiine, the basis 
of a new delineation of the countries lietween Lch and Ka.nhgar. 

Li«ut. G. C. Mdsteks, ELN. — a Gold Walch — for lits adrenturoiis Journey 
in Patagonia, through 9iI0 miles of latitude, ol which THO were pre- 
Tioudy unknown ta Euro{«ans, 
Kaill Mauch — the turn «f Twentj-fiTe Pounds in ncknowledgment of the 
■cal and nhility with which lie hni devoted himself, fur a aeriea vf 
year*, to the Eiploration of South-Eastern AfiJL'a, 

BcHooLB* Prize Medais: — 
Phytical Geography. — S. E. Si-ri.\o Rice, Eton College (Gold Medal). 

A. S. Bdtler, Liverpool Collesie (Brunze Medal). 
Political Qeoijraphy. — W. G. CoLLlWowooD, Liverpool CoUm (Gold 
W. C. Graham, Eton CoUe^ (Dranxe Medal). 

Edtjcationau Prize; — 
Mr. Geo. M. Thomas — the sum of Five Pounds— for snccesaful com* 
petition in Geography at the Society of Arli Eiamination. 

IBTS.^Mr. Ney Elias— Founder s Medal — for hia survey of the Yellow 
Hivcr of China, in 1868 j and for his recent journey through Western 
Mr. H. M. Stanley— Patron's Medal— for hia discovery and relief 
of Dr. Livingstone. 

Mr. Thomas Uaixks — a Gold Watch — for bii long-coDtiuued serrices to 
GeogTaphr, nnd especially for his joumeyi in Soulh-Western and 
South-Eostem Africa. 
Captain CAKLStN — a Gold Watcli — for his discoveries in the Arctic 
Seas, and for having drcumnavigatcd the Spitsbergen aa well as the 
Nova Zembla groups. 

Schools' Prize MEDAiii : — 
Physical Geography. — W. C. Hii>80N. Liverpool College (Gold Medal), 

W. A, KoRH^:s, Winchester Collefce (Uron« WediJ). 
Political Geography.— &. E. .SpltlSO TUcE, Eton College (Gold Sledal). 

A. T. KUTT, University College School (bronze Medal). 


Award of the Royal Premiwm, cxzv 

1874.— Dr. Qeortf Schweinfarth— Founder's Medal— for his discovenr 
of the Uelle Biver, heyond the South-western limits of the Nife 
hasin ; and for his admirable work, * The Heart of Africa,* in whidi 
he has recorded the results of his travels. 
Colonel F. Egerton Warbnrton — Patron's Medal— for his 
journey across the previously nnknown Western Interior of Aus- 
tralia ; from Alice Springs, on the line of overland telegraph, to the 
West Ckiast near De Grey Biver. 

Schools* Pbize Medals : — 
Fhytical Qeography. — Louis Westoh, City of London School (Gold 
Fbancis Cuables MOStaque, UniTcrrity College School (Bronse 
Politioal Qeography.— 'VvLUiM Habbt Titbtoh, Clifton College, Bristol 
(Gold Medal). 
Lionel Jacob, City of London School (Bronze Medal). 

1875. — Lieut. Weyprecht — ^Founder's Medal — for his explorations and 
discoveries in the Arctic Sea between Spitzbergeu and Nova 
Lieut. JtlliUB Payer — Patron's Medal — for his journey and dis- 
coveries along the coast of Franz-Josefs Land, between tipitzbergen 
and Nova Zembla. 

W. H. Johnson — Gold Watch — for wrvices rendered to Geography 
while engaged in the Gi«at Trigonometrical Surrey of India among the 

Schools' Pbize Medals : — 
Physical Geography. — Henbt Alexanoeb Miebs, Eton Coll^ (Gold 
Abchibald Edwabd Gabrod, Marlborough College (Bronze Medal). 
PolUical Geography. — Sidney H. B. Sacndebs, Dulwich College (Gold 
Wm. C. Grahah, Eton College (Bronze Medal). 

1876. — Lieut. V. Lovett Cameron^ b.n. — Founder's Medal — for his 
journey across Africa from Zanzibar to Benguela, and his survey of 
tlie Southern half of Lake Tangacyika. 
Mr. John Forrest — Patron's Medal — in recognition of the services 
to Geographical Science rendered by his numerous successful explora- 
tions and route-surveys in Western Australia. 

Schools' Pbize Medals :— 
Physical Geography. — John Wilkif, Lirerpool College (Gold Medal). 

Walteb New, Dulwich CoUege (bronze Medal). 
Political Geography. — TuoMAS Knox, Haileybnry College (Gold Medal). 

W. M. H. MiLNKB, Marlborough College (Bronze Meikl). 

Cahbbidos Local Examinations Pbize Medal : — 
F. H. Glanvill, Devon County School (Silrer Medal).; 

OxFOBD Local Examinations Pbize Medals : — 
John Wilkie, LiTerpool College (Silver Medal). 
H. M. Wabd, Bridgnorth Grammar School (Bronze Medal). 

1877. — Captain Sir George S. Naree, b.n., k.c.b. — Founder's Medal 
— for having commanded the Arctic Expedition of 1875-6; also 
for his Geographical services in command of the Challenger Expe- 

cxxvi Award of the Royal Prcmnwis. 

The Pxmdit Nain Singh— Putron's Metkl— for hU great 

jounicys siml surveys in Tibet and along the lT))per BrahniEjtutra, 
during which he (ietermitied the position of Lhdsa, and added 
liir^ely to our poeifcive knowledge of the Map of Asia, 

CiipUiii A. H. Markiiam, r.m. — a Gald Watch — for haring commMKied 
the Nortliers Din«ion of sledges io the Arctic E«p»dition of 1875-6, 
ADd for hrtvitig planted the Union Jacic in 83*^ 20' 2(J'' N., a higher 
latitude tluiD had been reached by any previous Ejpedition. 

Bcnoou' Pbizk Medals: — 
Phyiicul Qtograpkii. — ^Walter New, Dnlwidi College (Gold Mednl). 

ARfiiun .Smyth Flower, Winchester College (Hronzo Metkl). 
PoliiicAil Geograph'/. — William John Newton, Liverpool College 
(Gold Mediil'j. 
JOJIS WlUtiE, LireijKiol College (Bronze Sled^I). 

Cambridue Lopai. Examination's Prize Mkdals: — 
II. C, TsarLE, UrigflitoTi Gmmnuir iikjhool (Silver Medal for Physical 
Guogmphy, and SiIvlt Meilal lor I'olitical Geography). 

Oxford Local Examinations Prize Mebai^: — 
John ItiDWARD Llovd, Cliflihnm Institute. Liverpool (Silver Mednl). 
Jaues Epwik Fortt, City Middle-Clius School (BroDse Mednl). 

1678. — Baron P. von Richthofen — Founder's Medal — f<ir his exten- 
sive travels niid scioiuilic txj»li>i!Uioiis in China ; also for his great 
work in which the materials aecumnlatcd during Ida long journeys 
arc clahoratfd with reraarkahli^ lucidity and complctencsa. 
Captain Henry Ttotter, R.E.— Patron's Medal— for his ser- 
vicfs t") tij-iijiiraphy, in havins conductecl the Survey operations of 
th« Ititt- Jlissioii to Easteni Turkistau. under Sir Douglas Forsyth, 
wliicli nsiiltfd in the connwtion of the Trigonometrical Survey of 
India with Ilussian SiirvL-ys from Siberia; a:id for Imviag further 
greatly improved the tnap of Central Asia, 

Scnooi-s' Prize MEnAi.s: — 
flnjukiit Geo^rapkii. — WiLUAU JoitN Newton, Lirerpool College 
(Gold Medah' 
Ciikistophcr JfouwBev Wrtsos, Clidon Collejje (Sjirer Wednl). 
PoiUioal Oeoipnphij. — William Wallack Ord, Dulwicli College (Gold 
George Abxulo Tomkinson, Haileybury College (Silver Metbl'). 

CASiBacDGE Local Examinations Pbizk Medals: — 

I'. W. KvA»8, Cardiff (Silver Mednl for Physical Geography). 

.1. IIaVHES, West Auckland (Silver Medivl tor rolitical Geography). 

( 'XFORD Local Examinations Prize Mkdai^ ;— 

AHTJiiR Edwin Kci.TA!UCK, North London Colkge fuhcKil (Silver Medal). 
Fbkoluick William Ku.LETT, KingAwoodand WoodhouM Gtore School 
(Bionze Mednl). 

1870.- Colonel N. Prejevalsky— Patron's Medjil— for his Buocessire 

Exijwlitions, route-burveya, in the years 1870-3 to Mongolia and the 
high plateau of Northern Tibet — unexplored country; also fi>r his 
jouniey from Kulja to Lob-Nor in 1876-7, and fm' his published 
narratives of his travels. 


Award of the Royal Premium*. cxzvii 

Captain W. J. Gill, B.E.— Founder'* Medal— for the important 
Geographical work along the northern frontier of Persia in 1873, 
and in Western China and Tihet in 1877 ; and especially for the 
traverse-sorvey made by him during the latter journey, and the 
▼ery complete maps of his route. 

Schools' Prize Medaxs : — 
Phytkal Qaography. — Matthew Geoboe Gbant, Liverpool College 
(Gold Medal). 
Frank Taylor Suarpe, LiTerpool College (Sllrrr Medal). 
Politioal Geography. — David Bowie, Dnlwich College (Gold Medal). 
Clacob L. Bicknell, Harrow Sdiool (Silrer Medal). 

Cambridge Local Examtsatioxs Prize Medals: — 

J. R. Davis (Silver Medal for Phywcal Ge<5gmphf). 

Mias Helen Jones (Silver Medal for Political Geography). 

Oxford Local Exahu;ations Prize Medals: — 

Allan Danson Riobt, Liverpool College ^Silver Medal). 

Ernest Edward Kellett, Kingswood Sdiool, Bath (Bronze Medal). 

1880.— Lieut. A. Louis Palander— Founder's Medal— for his services 
in connection with the Swedish Arctic Expedition, under Prof. A. E. 
Nordenskibld, in the Vega in 1878-9. 

Ernest Giles — Patron's Medal— for his explorations and surveys 
in AustrRlia in 1872-6. 

Bishop Crowther — Gold Watch— in recognition of his services 
to Geography on the River Niger. 

£. H. Bunbury— Vote of Thanks hy the Council in acknowledg- 
ment of the value of his ' History of Ancient Geography.' 

Schools' Prize Medals : — 
Physical Geographi/. — David Bowie, Dulwich College (Gold Medal). 

Albert Lewis Huhphries, Liverpool College (Silver Medal). 
Political Geography.— Fa,SDKRiC& James Naylob, Dulwich College 
(Gold Medal). 
Theodore Brooks, London International College (Silver Medal). 

Cambridge Local Examimatioks Prize: Medals : — 

Miss A. S. Westbury (Silver Medal for Physioil Geography). 
W, Hornby (Silver Medal for Political Geography). 








[Published Septembkb 2Ot0, 1880.] 

I. — Itineraries of the Second Khedivial EzpedUion: Memoir 
explaining the New Map of Midian made hy the Egyptian 
^ff-officers. By Kichard F. Burton. 

[With Map.*] 

** Tanta ad pericala et impendia satis fuit causa sperare qnod cuperent.'* — 
Pliny, 'Nat. Hist.' xxxiii. 21, 

Part I. 

The Betwm to North Midian, and Cruise in the Chdf El ^Ahdbak. 

Introductory Bemarks. — In the following pages I offer to 
the Royal Geographical Society the Route-book and Itineraries 
of the Expedition of 1877-78, in its threefold division, which 
formed our second journey to Midian ; and here it is proposed 
to dwell especially upon the lines of road ; the positions, the 
geography of the country ; and, briefly, upon all that constitutes 

{)ure topography. Thus the present Journals will serve as 
etter-press to the map drawn up from the flying surveys of the 
three Egyptian Staff-officers who were detailed by the Khediv 
of Egypt to lay down the limits of His Highness's eastern- 
most provinces. The papers, therefore, will in no wise assume 
the character of a popular volume. 

A popular account of the First Khedivial Expedition has 
already appeared in ' The Gold Mines of Midian,' &c. (London : 
C. Kegan Paul and Co., 1878). The ethnological information, 
such as descriptions of the tribes collected by the second, 
has been reserved for future publication ; the notes upon the 
little collection of antiquities and human crania have been 

♦ From ' The Laud of Midian (Revisited),' C. Keg-xn Paul and Co., 1879. 

2 Burton'* Itineraries cjmeSecond Expedition xnto 

forwarded to the Anthropological Institute ; and the coins of 
Blidian to the Ilfiyal Asiatic Society. * Th6 Laud of Midiau 
(Revisited),' my last two volumes (Loudon : C Kegau Paul & Co., 
1879), contain a relation historiqite, a, general account of our 
last journey, witliout, however, entering into scientific notices 
or topographical details. 

A nd, first, a few observations upon the country which haa, I 
may say, been explored by the two Khedivial Expeditions of 
1877 and of 1877-78. 

The Land of Midian is by no means one of the now numerous 
" geographical expressions. ' The present tenants of the soil 
give a precise and practical definition of its limits. Their 

" Arz Madyan " (^,j^< ^ \) extends from El-'Akabah north 

(Raper : n. lat. 29° 28') to El-Muwaylah, with its Wady, El-Surr 
(X. lat. 27" 40'), a total latitudinal length of 108 direct geo- 
graphical miles.* South of this line, the seaboard of north- 
western Arabia, as far as El-Hijaz, has no generic name. Tho 
Bedawin are contented with such vague terms, derived from 
some striking feature, as " The Lauds of Ziba," of "Wady 
Salma/' of ''Wady Daraah," of "■ El -Wijh,"— to denote the 
tract lying between the parallels of El-Muwaylah and of Wady 

Hamz (^^.rk,*^) in N. lat. 25*' 55' 5". Thus the north-south 

length of the southern moiety would be 105 direct geagraphical 
miles, or a little less than tiie northern ; and the grand total 
would be 213 miles. 

The breadth of this oaetermnoat province of Egypt is the 
distance from tho sea to the maritime moinitains. Li 
■" Madyan " (proper), the extremes would bo 24 and 35 miles. 
For the southern half these distances may be doubled. The 
Bedawin are here again definitive in their limits: all the 
" Tihamah," or lowlands and their ranges, belong to Egyj)t ; 
east of it, the Daulat Sham, the "Govornment of Syria" 
claims possession. 

I have taken tho liberty of calling the whole tract Midiau : 
the land above El-Muwaylah (Madyan proper) I would term 
« North Blidiaii," and that below it " South Midian." In the 
days of the ancient Midianites the frontiers were so elastic 
that at times, but only temporarily, they embraced Sinai, and 
ivero pushed forward even into Central Palestine. Moreover, 

• L«t me prote«t at once ngaraat tho oflsertion contained in on nble review of 
" The Oold Mines " (' Pall-Malt Gnzctto,' June 7, 1878). Tho writer makes nncicitt 
Million "ixtend from tho north of Lhc Ambic tiulf (El-'Akultiih ? ) nuil Arat)ia 
Felix (which? of tho clasaica or of the u»oilcm8?)to tho {>luius of Mouh" — 
exactly where, if it ever did, it aaguredly does not now extend. 

Bdrton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Rlidian. 3 

I would prolong the limits eastward as far as tlio Damaaciis« 
Medinah road of Sultan f^ulayman the Magnificent. This would 
be politically and ethnologically correct. With the exception of 
the Ma'azah country, the whole region l>elong9 to Egypt ; and all 
the tribes, formerly Nabathojan and now more or less Egypto- 
Arab, never question the rights of His Highness the Viceroy, 
who garrisons tlve seaboard lorts. Of the other points, historical 
and geographical, I am not so sure. My learned friend, Aloys 
Sprenger, remarks : " Let mo observe that your extending the 
name * Slidian * over the whole country, as far south as the 
dominions of the Porte, ajtpears to me an innovation, by which 
tl»e identity of the race along the shore of the Gulf of 'Akabah, 
and of the coast down to Wajh and Hawra, is prejudged* 
Would it not be better to leave Midian whore it always has 
been, and to consider Bada * the centre of Thamuditis, as it 
vras in the time of Pliny and Ptolemy, and as it continued to be 
nntil the Balee (IJaliyy), and other Qodha'a (Kudd'a) tribes, came 
from Sonthem Arabia, and exterminated the Tbamudites?" 

This is, doubtlatss, a valid objection ; its only weak point is 
that it goes too far back. We cannot bo Conservatives in 
geography, nor attach mucli importance, in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, to a race, the Beni Tamud, which had wholly disappeared 
before the seventh. On the whole, it still appears to me that 
by adopting my innovation we gain more tlian we lose ; but 
tlie question must be left to a higher tribunal, the geographical 

In our days two great Sultanis (" highways ") bound Madyan 
the less and Midian the greater. The western, followed by the 
Hajj el-Misri (Egyptian caravan), dates from the age of 
Sultan Selim Khan (ob. A.D. 1520), El-Fatih, or the Conqueror, 
who, before making over the province to the later Mumliik 
Beys, levelled the rocks, cut through ridges, laid out the track, 
dug wells, and defended the line by forts. Before that time 
the road lay, tor convenience of water, to the east or inland ; 
it was, in fact, the old Nabatbaian highway which, according to 
8trabo, connected the southemmost port, Leukfe Eome, with 
the western capital, Petra, Farther east, and far beyond the 
double chain of maritime mountuina, runs the highway followed 
by the Hajj el-Shami (Syrian or Damascus caravan), which 
seta out from Constantinople, musters at Damascus, and repre- 
sents the puissance of th«!^ Porte, According to the Akhbdr 
el-Duwal (* Notices of Kingdoms' t) by Ahmed el-Dimisldd 

• See chap. IT. of the • Land of Midian (Eeviaited) ; ' and Part HI. sivt. 3 of 
this puper. 

t Not " tilling.* of climip:os nf frirtDDCs,*' aa interprclod in tlio ' Journul of tbo 
Aajrul Ueo^mpUical Society,' vol. xx. p. 31S». 

B 2 

4 BuRTOK** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

(finished a.h. 1008 = a.d. 1599), the successor of Sultan Selim L, 
Sultaa Sulyman Ivlian (ob. 15GG) laid out this road, built tho 
castle of Tabiikj nud placed there a guard of twenty jauissuries 
to protect the spring from the Bedawin. On both these maia 
lines water is procurable at almost every station, and to them 
military expeaitions are perforce limited. The parallelogram 
between the two, varying in breadth, according to Wallin, from 
90 to 120 miles (direct and geographical), is irregularly supplietl 
with fountains, wells and rain-pits, which can always be filled 
up and rendered useless by the Bedawin. 

I now proceed without further preamble to our march. 
I. Departure of the Expedition. — On Wednesday, December 
19, 1877, the second Khedivial Expedition to the mines of 
Midian Innded from Ilis Highness s gunboat the Mukhhir 
(Capt. Mohammed Siraj), at a gap, called a port., in the reef of 
EI-Muwaylab (v. lat. 2T :J9', aud e. long. 35° 28'), This fort 
and station of the Egytian na|j ("Pilgrim caravan") was de- 
scribed some 31 years ago by that excellent Arabist, the late 
Dr. George Aug. Wallin; he travelled in 1847-48, and he pub- 
lished in tho ' Journal ' of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. 
xr., 1850. As will he seen, he is in error when " finding no 
mention made of Muweileh (El-Muwaylah) in Arabic manu- 
scripts, nor any traces or traditions among the existing gene- 
ration in the land, pointing to a high antiquity," he professes 
himself *' inclined to consider it a town of modern origin " (loe. 
cit. p. 300). Equally mistaken, I bolieve, was tho learned 
Vincent (Periplus, &C.), who attempts to identify it with the 
great naval and commercial station of Leuke K6me, a term 
applicable to almost any settlement on this coralline coast. 
The "White Village," however, lies, as will be seen, much 
farther south. 

Before leaving tho coast I must briefly introduce the second 
Khedivial Expedition to tho reader. The personnel, not 
including the Commander, was composed of eight Europeans : 
M. George Marie (engineer) ; Mr. uharles Clarke, Telegraph. 
Engineer (commissariat officer) ; M. Lacaze (aHist and ])hoto- 
grapher); Mr. David Duguid (chief engineer of the gunboat), 
temporarily attached to us; and Jllr, Philipin (smith), with 
three Greeks — at least two too many : — Anton (dragoman), 
Giorgi (cook), and Petros (waiter). There were five Egyptian 
officers — Ahmed Kaptan Musjdlam, Commander Egyptian 
navy (astronomical observer) ; and two on the staff {Arhan- 
Marh) ; Lieutenant Amir, who had accompanied tho first 
Khecfivial Expedition, and Lieutenant Yusuf Taufik (mupj)eri 
and surveyors) ; Darwaysh Effendi, Lieutenant in the Piyadah 
(line), commanded the escort; and sub-Lieut. Mohammed 


BuRTOX* Itinerariea of the Second Expedition into Midian. 5 

Faraliat> the Ma'adanjiyah and Haggarah (sap[er8, mmere and 

The mea were three privates of the staff, including AH 
'Brahim, a hard-working and valuable servant; and Yiisef el- 
Fazi, his mate, a quartermaster, lent by the gunboat; the latter 
was generally useful as uti English sailor. The escort, under 
an Egyptian sergeant and four corporals, was coin[>osed mostly 
of emancipated negroes, with a few Sudanis <-ollected from 
every tribe in the Ijfu^iti of the Upper Nile. These men were 
armed, with Remington?, except the trumpeter, who carried a 
navy Colt; and they numbered twenty-five, not including the 
pistoleer or the Buluk-amin (writer). I alsu engaged five 
Bash-Buzuks from tlie little garrison of El-Miiwaylau, because 
the irregulars are familiar with the country, and friendly with 
the Bedawin. The sappers, miners and quarrymen, who were 
unarmed, amounted to thirty-three, without reckoning the 
sergeant, the corporal and the carpenter. Tims the total was 
sixty-five men, or seventy, including officers. 

The Ras el-Kafilah, or commander of the caravan, was the 
Sayyid 'Abd el-Rahim, who escorted us during; the first journey ; 
and he generally had with him, besides my oUi friend, Haji 
Wali of Zagazig, three Bedawi Shayks ; for escort and 
service the latter received each au honorarium of one dollar 
per diem. The camp-followera were few : a iSais or groom, who 
superintended the care of our ten mules; AH Mullah, a Barbari, 
servant to Ilaji Wali; Ilusayn (reninahj a boy who waited 
upon Lieutenant Yusuf; and "Ilamai]," an itinerant coffee- 
vendor, who attached himaelf to us at El-Muuaylah. 1 hardly 
need notice the cameleers and tlieir varlL49, who were always 
being changed. 

The transport difficulties were increased by the rivalry of 
the two tribes that contended for the hnnrmr and profit of 
fleecing us. The first were the Beni 'Ukbih, or "Sous of the 
Heel," who claim, after Arab fashion, the land on which the 
fort El-Muwaylah is built. Their Sliaykh. Hasun ibn Sallnx 
el-'Ukbi, who had been honoured with an order from the 
Government of the Viceroy, declared himself willing to supply 
any number of camels at the rate of 1 dollar a-liead for the 
four very short marches between EI-Muwuyluh and the Jebel 
el-Abyaz, my present objective. But a former einployot 'Abd 
el-Nabi of the Tagaygat clan of the great Huwaytat tribe, 
refused to march with t!ie Beni 'Ukbah ; demanded a third 
more pay; and, professing readiness to carry me and mine 
gratis, would not move under 1 dollar 25 cents. In April 
1877 he had proved himself a manner of noble savage, a good 
man and true. But my kiudness had spoilt him; and the 

G Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

only remedy was to send him about his business as soon a»' 

It is usual in Arabia to engage camels by the stage, not by 
the day. For instance, tlie pilgrims pay accordiu^ to tariffj 
1 dollar per long march of 12 huur;^, and tiio same is the hire I 
for a dromedary post. But this would have been hardly foirj 
to the Arabs, when we intended to make weekly and evedj 
longer halts. At last I agreed to hire each camel for 5 piastres' 
on idle and ten on working days : the piastre being assumed at 
9'7"2U = 1 sovereign. 

II, Itinerary from El-Muwaylah to Magliair Sliumjh. — Decern 
her 20ih, 1877. — The day was spent in starting a dromedary-| 
post, in housing and ticketing our stores entrusted to a maga-^ 
zine-man at the Fort of El-Jduwaylah, and in settling various 

I)ec. 2l3i. — The large, straggling and most disorderly cara- 
van, carrjing 20 tents and 50 large boxes, required about 
80 animals, without counting a certain number of dromedaries] 
(Hijn) for riding purposes. The hali-loads. brought up the 
total to 106; and the greedy drivers demanded pay for 120. 
It would irk the reader to recount the normal troubles of such i 
marches. fcJuflSce it to say that the men were as wild and un-j 
manageable as their beasts ; that the latter were half-starved ; j 
that nothing could be worse lliaa their gear, and that thef 
caravan for the first four days was the most disorderly mobj 
that I have yet seen. Of course it gradually improved, and at] 
last we could load in fifteen minutes; this day the prucesS' 
had wasted five hours. 

The trumpet sounded the " General " at 3 A.M., and tha 
start took place sometime about 8 A.M. We marched past thtf-j 
old tomb of Sluiykh Abdullah by the way of the Egyptian] 
pilgrimage along the sbore. After 2 hours the road forks; t 
wanted to take tho left, but was led to the right: despite my 
express orders to encamp for the night near the seashore ruins' 
of Tiryam, we were guided to its nakhil or ixdmetwn, distant 
1 hour 30 minutes walk up tho valley, and described during 
my first expedition.* There is nothing Arabs and Egyptians^ 
will not do in order to pitch tent as near water as they safel] 
can. Tho broad dusty track, laid out by camels* feet, sub-J 
tended the long projection Has Wady Tiryam (Lead of the 
Tiryam Valley), shown in the Ad. Chart : it rests upon a base 
of knobby hilts and hillocks from 50 to 150 feet high, dirty- 
yellow grit of modern formation, scattered with sand and 
metalled with rusty ironstone, which here and there appears 

•The Gold Uinefl of Midian,'p. 272. 


in blotches. Despite the heavy rains of December 9-10, 1877, 
the land was utterly dried up : we saw a single troop of 
l^azelless, a few sea-fowl, nnd a little loug-eared hare lite a 
lejwride, now in the British Museum. Tlie hardy thonis, 
acacias and mimosas ; the juicy salsolac^ie and su.x'die, sali- 
comifiB (jjer/oliata), and Bcelhnlhvis {quadra ff onus) ; thecentawrea 
and the Statice pruinosa, or Bea-lavender, were the only vegeta- 
tion which liad resisted tlie long droup;ht. Beyond the point 
we turned abruptly towanls the sea, thus taking 5 to do the 
work of 3 hours. The distance by the Ad. Ctiart is 11 direct 
geographical miles : \vo estimated our detour at 15^ slat. ; 
and the odometer, an Austrian messrad or wheel (Willmann, 
Wien), which lost no time in breaking down, sbowed 22 kilom. 
70() metres. Most of the instrument?, I must here explain, were 
bought at Cairo, which appears to be the general receptacle of 
European rubbish, all sold at double the Paris prices. Con- 
sequently tliey were as useless as they were costly. The mercu- 
rial barometer (Elliutt Bros. 24) lent to ua by General Stone 
(Pasha), Chief of the Staff, Cairo, when opened contained 
amalgam, not mercury ; the harotneire aneroide was found in 
its box with the chain-hook broken ; the maxima and minima 
thermometers were absolute trash, and the two watches, 
" Dents " made nt Ueneva, presently refused to go. ' Fortunately 
I had my little travelling set by Casella; aud even his 
maxima and minima were too delicate to resist camel-jolting. 
General Purdy Pasha of the Egyptian Staff, who remained 
upwards of two years surveying Dar For, found, after many 
a trial, that chrouomelera in those countries travelled best in 
panniers on donkey-backs. In India we sling them, Banghy- 
ushion, over men's shouUlei-s; but hero and in Africa, the 
patient coolie's [tlaco is taken by a rough aud reckless article, 
utterly unworthy to be trusted with anything more delicate 
than a cooking-pot. 

Lee. 227id. — Of the three first marches I have little to say : 
they are already described in ' The Gold Mines of Midian. * 
We spent the early morning in digging at the small s<|Uare 
fort which occupies rising grouud on the left j<uv of the Wady 
Tiryam, and which protected the townlet to the north. These 
ruins, like most others in Midinn, are denoted by pottery, coarse 
and fine, which may be of any age, and by scatters of blue- 
green glass, thick and thin : the latter is comparatively modem, 
and very different from the almost decomposed fragments, 
iridescent with damp, which are found below ground. The 

* For the futoie I aWll c&ll it vol. i., and my seoond work voU. ii. ftod iii. 

8 BubtonV Itineraries of theSecoTuI Erpedition into Midian. 

tliggings showed stony substructures, but their produce did 
not explain whether the enceiute is old or medieval, one of the 
fortlets thrown up to defend the Hajj route. 

Tho Expedition left Tiryam at noon, following the Pilgrim- 
Irack, and, after 35 miles, passed on the right a low range of 

Bandstono-hillB, the Jebel Eazi ( J^ ) : the broad-mouthed 

Fiumara of the same name supplies, near the sea, a pit of 
sweet water. As usual along I lie whole foastof Madytm (north 
Midian, or MiiUan Propoi), except in one place where the 
mountains fall sheer into the Gulf of 'Akabah, the surface 
shows much more Wady-Iand than divide, and some of the former, 

like the "VYady Garagarah (j ^^^ ^* are of great width, 
measured by miles. Wady Sharnia appeared from afar black 
with thorn-trees and 'Abal ( \ _> )t {Suaeda montica?), a salt-bush 

eaten by camels. AH these settlements being apparently laid out 
upon oue plan, maritime " residences " for the rich, and inland 
quarters near sweet water for the slave-miners : 1 hoped to find 
ruins at the i?haruitt Valley-mouth distant 7 to 8 winding miles 
from tho date-grove at the gorge. Accordingly, the Shaykhs were 
directed to muich towards the shore. As yesterday they had dis- 
obeyed, so to-day they obeyed orders, much to our detriment; 
and, after a lung and weary round, when already nearingour des- 
tination, they all assured rae that there were no remains on the 
seaboard. I .sent MM. Clarke and Duguid to ascertain tlie truth, 
and they found only a lino of high loose «indy dunes. If the 
Sharmaites built anywhere on the coast, it must have been on the 
south-eastern side of tlie great 'Ayuiinah JJay, the place called>'bat Sharnia, provided with a brackish ttell, and some two 
huurs' distant from sweet water. The march tu tiie *' nakhil," 
or Date and Dora-grove of iSharma, which does not appear 
in the Admiralty Chart, occupied 4 hours, 3 hours being the 
number assigned to the pilgrims. The distance, assuming 
the nndes to walk 3i^ stat. miles lor the first half and 3 for the 
second, would represent 13 stat. miles. 

Bee. 2drd, — We set out late this morning in consequence of a 
visit to the foot-hills behind the sea-clitf, which showed a pmall 
outcrop of copper. The swampy Wady Shiirma, whose gap is 
about ^rds of a mile wide, cannot be ascended by camels; and 
the same is tho case with the Wadya 'Aynuiiah and Maknd. On 

• Plural of "Jftrjiir," n lurjre, bullcy or big-Mlied pamel. 

t '^'Abal " iu daasicul Amliic means a plant with gleoder eprigs, twisted or im- 
bricated k'BTes, " AMI " is the mouDtain-roso, egluatino or »wett-brixir : ocooid- 
iog to tome, the rod of Moses vas au " abalah." 

BuBTOJj'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

the return march, Mr. Clarke and Lieut. Amir went directly 
down the gorge, finding, after 20 miles ride, an S-ahaped 
channel, with water at the head, risinf» from under tlie rock, and 
producing a fetid growth of sedge and the rushes called El- 

Kasbdi, f \ ..^* ) i^Arundo do^iax) and El-Birdi (a flag). Farther 

down, the line is choked with palm-trees and their dry fronds. 
The travellers came in, after half an hour's wade, wet through, 
and dragging their dromedaries, which had much trouble to 
follow them. Perhaps tho most effective of JM. Lacaze's 
sketches, and certainly those most admired at the little exhibi- 
tion which was opened at the Ilippodrooie, Cairo, was the 
water-scenery of Wady Sharma. It was a surprise to all, and 
a practical rout of all preconceived ideas upon the subject of 
arid Arabia. 

There are two camel-roads from Sharma to the Jebel el- 
Abyaz, the focus and centre of the quartzose outcrop in this 
part of Midian. The southern was inspected by M. Philipin ; 
it runs over parti-coloured hills, black and white, rod and 
green ; about hidf-way is a well, but the total distance measures 
t> instead of 4 hours' march. Tlve northern and best road, 
which wo now took for the second time, crosses the two bi-anches 
of the Sharma water, ascends the right bank, and loaves to the 
left an ancient Bedawi cemetery, with the ruins of a heptangular 
demilune, possibly intended, like those above Wady liryam, to 
defend the western approach. Flying surveys of the lower 
and the upper fort were made by Lieuts. Amir and Yusuf, 
wJio alone are responsible for their correctness. The former 
measured in circumference 20S5 yards {not several kiloms., 
vol. i. p. 2(i.9). The north-east part of the enceinlo showed 
signs of metal-working, and here desultory digging yielded 
ashes, charcoal, and broken pottery. 

After 35 minutes* riding along the seaward face of the coral- 
line herge which forms tho old coast-line, and which from afar 
looks regular as artificial earthworks, we turned to the right 
through a " Bab," or gate, measuring 70-80 yards {not " 200 
metres "), cut by a torrent which evidently has not flowed for 
years. Once it must have dischargeil into the splen^lid Bay of 
'Ayminah, which, nameless and placeless on the chart, was so 
scandalously libelled by the Greek Agatharkides, as preserved 
in Dio<lorus Siculus and Photius.* The western spit is called 
El-MaUdhah (•' of the salinas "), salt being still washed there. 
The anchorage behind it is the Musaybat Sharma. By this 

10 Burton V Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

way, doubtless, ancient Sharma commmiicated with the G&d 

(^\jj^)* or Marsa Khuraybeb, under the eastern spit, before 

noticed as the maritime settlemeat of *Ayuunah. It is open 
only between the west and the north-west ; here, too, reefs and 
shoals allow only a narrow passage, but admit the largest craft. 
Its breadth across tbo mouth measuros over 3 miles, and the 
depth inland, useful for refuge, is very nearly *2 miles. When 
the silver-ores of the country about the Jebel el-Abyaz shall 
be exported, this fine port will be the terminus of the tramway. 
The depth may average 10 fathoms; and our Sambulc, El- 
Musahhii (Rais liamazau), a native boat of 50 tons, which acted 
tender to the Miikhbir, rode in perfect safety dose to the shore 
of the Musaybat Sbarma. 

The tram should be simple and economical, like "The 
Economical," proposed by Mr. Russell Shaw, or " The Pioneer," 
invented by IVlr. John L. Haddaii, M.Inst.C.E. It must be able to 
turn sharp curves and follow the valley-lino now to be described. 
We wound up the gut, whoso bright yellow sands were set off 
by the bouudiug hills and hillocks of gloomy bottle-grefu por- 
phyritic trap which, throughout this part uf Midian, cuts through 
every kind of rock, quartz-veins included. After an hour aud a 
half 8 ride, ruddy porphyritic trap and pink grits, an old de- 
composition, begin to prevail, and give a somewhat livelier 
aspect. In places there are outbreaks of syeuite-like granite, 
rich in orthose aud poor in mica. Here is " El-Muhasir,"! a long 
oval basin measuriug some 5j^ bv 1:1^ miles, between north-son tii 
(160°-340" mag.) and east-west (30" -250°). It is the head of t ho 
Wady Sharma proper ; and the tail of the Wady el-Maka'dah 

(i>jotL<)» "^^ ^^'^ sitting-place"). At this point both water- 
courses anastomose with the Wady Umm Niran and the Wady 
'Ayniinah ; in fact the whole country is a network of theso 
fiumaras and nullahs, dried-up river-fissures, watercourses, and 
torrent-beds. The cumpass showed the head of El-MtUlah at 
250' (mag.), and that of Shanna, distinguished by a long line 
of i-eddish sand, bearing IGO"^ (mag.). Here vegetation— 
Artemisia, CaiJbeja, Centaurea, &c. — was more abundaut, aud 
we found a small flock of sheep and goats, the Bedawi in 
charge asking Cairo prices, $3.50 for a mere lamb. 

From El-Muhtisir we entered the Wady el-Jfaka'dah that 
leads to our destination. Now the light-red and dork-greeu 

* " Jttdd ** wonid meaA land or palm-groToa worth ao mucL. " Jiiddah " u the 
beftten part of a ronJ or u hif;h rond. 

t Meaning •' the U-aiegcT," or one that sarrounds. 



sides, often clift'y, of the great Wady are varied by grey granites 
of fine and coarse elements, profusely streaked with white 
quartzose veins; whilst the " liard heads " and bonlders, in and 
near the bed, are weathered iiitoqimint shapes of skidls, human 
and bestial. On the left bank whs El-Dabbah, a remarkable 
rock, looking like a mined tower. We observed that the 
hillocks beyond the right bank shoAved sundry onterops of 
snowy quartz, and a lump rose in the valley-side aL»out an hour 
from our destination. The Bedawin caU this rock Mani • 

(• yxit hence the Jebel " Marwah," near Meccah, and the famous 

old Marwah gold-mine, which we shall inspect at the end of the 
journey. The whole formation, of which the Jebel el-Abyaz is 
thepivot, must be wiled the Jibal el-Bayza (White Mountains). 
The heat of the sim became troublesome, where the abrupt 
bends and the long legs of the Wady excluded the sea-breeze 
so pleasant near the mouth. The ride, however, was cheered by 
the noble background of the jiicture, the Jebel Urnub.t This 
sharp-edged main wall is cap2>ed with what w© called "the 
Pinnacles," fiuger-liko projections, finials to a huge slab, with 
an eastern face absolutely perpendicular, and measuring by the 
eye at least 1000 feet. South of it appears a great nick, the 
Wady Siniakh (of 8umach ?), with its huge valley seaming the 
plain ; and yet farther south are " the Buttresses," three enor- 
mous flying ares-boidanis, with capped heads like logan-stones ; 
they seem to support tlie rampai-t, and make a splendid show. 
The Wady was bare of grtiss, which does not begin to clothe the 
ground till February. In one place the rain had formed a 
Teinlet in the lowest part of the sole, and everywhere the sand 
was damp a few feet below the surface. Uad I received the 
Norton's Abyssinian pumps applied for at Cairo» wo doubtless 
should have struck water; two pits (> feet deep yielded no 
results, and yet in most Wadys a tenacious clay, well fitted for 
building purposes, underlies the sands. After 4 hours' rido 
(=12 stat. miles), we camped upon our old ground at the head of 
the Wady el-Maka'dah, i:>U0-900 feet above sea-level, the mean 
of 19 aner. obs. (Dee. 23-30) giving 29-10 for the alt. of the 
camp. We are now on the north-eastern face of the Jebel 
el-Aoyaz, or ** White Mountain," described in my first volume 

• ♦* Mftrw " (Arabic and Poraian), according to the dictionary, is a spccioB of 
hard white flint full of fire. The form " murnat " applies to a aingle piece ; it is 
alao the name of u hill in Mecouh. 

t All the Bedawin thoa pronamtce thia niune ; but it may be a oomiption. 

Araab (wJ jU ^^ Arabic In a here or a loag-tail&d field-moiue: and these trivial 

tonoB ore popularly appliwl to tlie largest natural fomif). So Camarones, " the 
Shrimp tuounLain of old, tbo " Tbeon Oobetna," in West Africa. 

12 BunTON'i Itinerarieji of the Second Erpedition into Midian, 

(chftp, via.). Its distance from the port, with a most liberal 
allowance, would not exceed 14 stat. miles. 

We staved six days (December 24 to December 30, 1877), 
at the Jebel el-Abyaz, and water was a serious difficalty for a 
caravan numbering a hundred mouths, all included except the 
mules. None was procurable nearer than the great Fiumara 
Simakh ; an hour and a halfs march for camelB. The gorge 

is called EI-Asaybah (a^^^U* ' the rhumbs to it from camp 

were 120^ 90°, and 20°, with a short climb to 120'' (all mag.). 
Under the circuriistauces the supply, merely raiu-water, was so 
scarce that we could not wash our specimens before returning 
to Wady Shiirma. Flocks of sheep and goats suggested that 
there were pools or springs nearer camp ; but if so the secret 
was well kept. At this season the Bedawin content tlvemselvea 
with " Themail," temporary deposits formed by the showers ; 
and, moreover^ like tiie North American " Indians " of the 
Far West, they cunningly hide their treasure. The very 
cljildren instinctively affect ignorance of water. The reader, 
however, must not confound with the true Bedawin these ignoble 
half-Fellahs, these ''jumpers of wulls" {Nuttdt el-Jtayt.) 

The scarcity of water, so common in mining regions, should 
present no difficulties at a distance of 14 miles from the sea. 
The poorer ores i;ould be washed in situ by the criUes 
a grilles jiltrantes (MM. Iluet et Geyler), which uses the same 
fluid Hgain and again (pp. 3178—382 ' Geologie Appliouee,* by 
M.Amedee Burat: Paris, Gamier, 1870); while t!ie richer, that 
are worth transport, could be " tram'd " down to the sea. 

The delay gave us time to correct the errors of our flying 
visit, aud to collect the quantities of specimens required by 
H. IL the Viceroy. The Jebel el-Abyaz, a saddle-back with 
pommel and crupper disposed east-west, is 250 feet (not 
metres), above our tents at tlie foot ; the anernid below, showed 
29-10, and above, 28-85 (to 28-90), diff. 0-25. The vein of 
orgeutiferou.i, cupriferous, and titaniferous iron, forming a con- 
spicuous black notidi on the western side, does not bifurcate, as 
we supposed, in the interior ; the fork which appears in the 
hinder part is of green purjihyritic triip, heavy and also appa- 
rently metalliferous, when in contact with the granite. Tnia 
Grand Filon, as we had called it, was analysed at Cairo by 
M. Gastinel-Bey ; and the results per cent., were — 

(Titaniferoas) iron , 8G'50 

Silica .. .. 10-10 

Copper 3-40 (2 i percent) 

And Bilver-p^, that is from 10^. 10«, to 12/. jwr ton. 

* " IsuU,h," ia Arabic, would meou fiJUag a well or elstem. 


Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 13 

The Jebel el-Abyaz, the type of the many detached forraa- 
tioDs scattered over the slopes between the sea and the Ghats 
(maritime mountains of Jlidian), k composed of coarse grey 
granite, everywhere t-ut by jUons and filds, primary and 
secondary, of amorphous quartz, with a brilliant snow-whit© 
fracture, varying from a thread to many yards in thickness. 

Standing upon tlie crest, which runs west-east and then 
bends southwards^ you see five dykes or outcrops of dull-^reeii 
porphyritic trap to the east and one to the west, cutthig right 
through the hill from north to south ; and showing upon their 
decayed crests concentric circles like ropy lava, Tlie sand- 
stones of the middle height aro superficially revetted with 
iron; and about the base fragments of hard felspathie stone 
and lithographic culcaires are rich in dendrites. 

The complication of the country is everywhere so great that 
each day brought its novelty ; and months would be required 
to exhaust the study. As the subject is rather geological and 
mineralngical than geographical, I sliall not attempt a detailed 
notice, but simply extract from my diary notices of the minerals 
observed at the " White Mountain.*' 

Christmas Day. — Carbonate of manganese ; quadrangular 
crystals of carbonate of lime ; copper-ore from the hillocks to 
north and south-east of camp. 

Dec. 2Gth. — Ahmed El-'Ukbi brought in fine specimens of iron- 
ore (hematite) from between the Jebel cl-Abyaz and the Wady 
Gharr or Upper Wady Sharmn. M. Philipin also collected at 
the head of the Wady Simukh a heavy» course, black sand, par- 
tially crystalline with yellow-brown quartzose fragments. Our 
engineer vaiidy attempted to analyse the metallic residue. We 
aftenvards found it in almost every Fiumnnt-niouth, between 
the coast-raage and the sea; and running north as far as El- 
'Akabah, whilst, witli tew exceptions, all our washings of red 
earth, chloritic sand and bruised conglomerate, supplied this 
and nothing else. It is equally abundant, they say, in Africa, 
opposite Arabia. We could only suspect that it was the produce 
of the granites and syenites, especially the former. Colonel 
W. A. lioss {author of ' I'yrology ) presently determined by the 
magnet and blowpipe that the mineral is iserine, or magnetic 
ilmonite (titauiferous ironsand), containing about 88 per 
cent, of iron (magnetic and sewpiioxides), with 11 per cent, 
titanic acid. Other assaycrs have susjyected a trace of lead. 

Dec. 21th was a day of discovery. We all mounted mule to 
inspect the site whence some specimens of pavonine quartz ha<l 

come into camp. Following the Wady 'Efriya (\j Jlc)* roun-i 
• " Ifnynlj ' means a lioa'a mane, a cock'a hackles, or o bad violent man. 

14 BuKToyi^slttneranesqfthe 

Expedition into 

tbe north and east of tlie Jebel el-Abyaz, and leavinj? to the 
left the Jebelayn, or " twin-peaks " of grey quartz, which bear 
from the pivot 71* and 96'^ (™ag.), we fell into the great Wady 
Siniakb, that drains the gap or cut between "the Pinnacles ' 
and " the Buttresses " of the Urnub Kange. After riding some 
2 miles to the south-east (123''-129° mag.) wo hit upon two 
wall-like fragments of dark, dusty, iridescent and metallic 
quartz, emerging from the plain, and bearing 324*^ from each 
other, that is north-south — an important point according to 
some miners — with 3G^ of westing. The dip was western, 
15°-20°. These are the conditions whinli, I believe, Australia 
loves, and which enabled Ballarat to make her fortune. The 
veins break out of the normal grey granite dyked by porphyry ; 
and even superficial specimens show a fine coppery and pavo- 
nine lustre. Half a mile beyond it lie two other Jiloris, the last 
bearing 307"^ from the Jebel el-Abyaz, 317^ from the two wall- 
like fragments, and 224'^ from the Jebelayn (ull mag.). These 
outcrops suggest that the whole plain is xmderlaid by qiiartzose 
dykes and veins. On fiur returu to Sharma, M. Marie took from 
one of the geodes a pinch of dust weighing about half a gramme 
( = 7| grains), and cupelled a bright pin's-head not less than 
two centigrammes. Incontinently pronounced to be silver, it 
might have been antimony or some similar base metal. On 
the other hand, the silver discovered in the Grand Filon by so 
careful an experimenter as Grastinel-Bey ; and the fact that we 
are here on im same line of outcrop, and at a horizon at least 
."jOO feet lower, are distinctly reassuring. These considerations 
induced me to call the vein Filon Husntjn, after the Prince who 
had 80 greatly favoured the Expedition. 

At this centre wo had apparently hit upon the Negros, or 
quartzose formations in which silver appears as a sulphure; 
and in the geodes we had found the Colorado^, or argillaceous 
deposits that produce the metal in the form of chlorure, 
bromure and iodure. Such is the distribution of silver in 
Mexico, according to M. Guillemin, C.E., in his comfte rendu to 
the Exposition of 18(57.* The former is everywhere found in 
Midian, but it would require shaft-sinking for several hundreds 
of feet. Here and there the accidental exposure of the veins 
at a plane far lower than our means and appliances could 
roach, showed the extent and quality of the outcrop. Below 
the iridescent rock I should expect to find virgin silver in the 

* This u qaotcd (p. 229) by M. Ame'dee Barat (sklreody noticed) : the latter, 
however, places Mexico in FAmMque du Sud. The voluuo is n uaefal vade- 
mecnm, although old-fushioiuMj, and even obsolete, in ccrtmn detail^ For 
inst&QOe, Uie " frust of the tiirlh ;" Iho great " oontrul fire ;" and the gmnitcfl 
bcin;;: the base upon which the stratft were Inid down ; consequently, the earliest 
o£ ali rocks, whea la many pkccd they are the laost modem. 

BcrTON'* Itinerartes of the Second Expedition into Midian, 15 

arborescent shape. Above its level, as on the summit of the 
Jebel el-Abyaz and generally in the "Mani" hills and hillocks 
of Midian, the quartz is comparatively barren, showing gpecks 
of copper, crystala of iron pyrites in little blocks, and dark 
dots of various metals that still await tinulysis, 

Dec. ISih. — MM. Marie, Clarke, and Philipin rode on drome» 
daries 10 miles north to near the foot of the Jebel Zahd; the 
only ores brought back wero iron and nianj^anese. 

I at once suspected and afterwards ascertained that the 
quartz of the Jibal el-Bay24, the collective name of this out- 
crop, is not a local peculiarity, but that it eYsrywbore bursts 
the maritime plain and the foothills of the Ghats or coast- 
range. And here we have a solid square of 12 (4 x 3) miles, 
where the quartz appears in hills and hillocks, whilst the plain 
is probably underlaid by veiuH and veinlets of tlie same metal. 
The "Mani" accompanied lis to oiir farthermost southern 
point, where we found undoubted proofs that the iridescent 
variety had been carefully worked by the old miners. 

The health of the Expedition became seriously affected by 
tent-life; by the variations of temperature, ranging between 
92^^ during daytime and 45'' (F.) at night, GO'' being often a 
piercing cold in the desert; by the excessive diyneas of 
800-900 feet above sea-level ; and, perhaps, by the water 
charged with mineral matter. The officers who visited the 
Wadys at the foot of the main chain complained of being 
frozen when exposed to the wild gusts which poured down the 
gullies. As soon, therefore, as we had finished collecting 
specimens (Im. 50x2m. xlm. = 4 tons) from the Jebel 
el-Abyaz, and the same quantity from the Fihii Htisayn, we 
left this tine mineral tract. We reached the mouth of the 
fcjharma Valley on December 30. 

The Expedition remained at SharraA during the week ending 
with January 7, 1878. Our work chiefly consisted of washing 
the black, red and yellow sands in a rough trough; camels 
were sent to bring down the metal from the Jebel el-Abyaz ; 
and we made frequent excursions into the interior, everywhere 
finding »i«fjr)-o-quartz and traces of copper, raw aud worked. 

On New Year's Day Lieut. Amir, with our guide Shaykh 
Furayj and some soldiers and quarrymen as escort, set out on 
dromedaries to survey the line of route abutting upon a mountain 
of "Marii" (quartz), of which we had heard at the Jebel el- 
Abyaz. The way ran to the south of the swamp that forms 
the Sharma "Bab," and the Wady proved to have four distinct 

names: Sbarmd, near the sea; Gharr or Ghurr,* ( ^) also 


16 Bdbton'j Itinerariet of the Second Expedition into Midtan, 

el-Daum from itg "Theban palms," on the meridian of tlie 
Wbite Mountain, and Uraub (of the hare?), where the pin- 
nacled and buttressed ranges allow it passage; while the whole 
is called El-'Arar, after a sub-tribe of tlie Beni 'Ukbah, its 
former owners.* Higher still, the Fiumara becomea the 

Wady el-'Ahx3 ( ^£J^^:)' ^''^^ under this name drains the hills 

below the western Hisma (\ ^ .^ . ^ ) : it ie then a mere gorge 

with ronds-points — wide bulgings in the bed. 

Travelling 7 hours at the rate of 3 miles each, with a long 
leg in an eastern direction, Lieut. Amir and his men camped, 
about 4 P.M., in a Fiumara, the Sayl Wady Nakhlah. The 
upper bed is said to boast of palms, thorn-trees, and grass ; 
tlie little party had water in barrels, but they were incom- 
moded, despite a largo lire, by tlio intense and bitter cold, 
while the boisterous wind blow down their tent. Five hours' 
niareh on the next day Hnished the mountain-j>ass ; and, turn- 
ing to the E.S.E., the path placed them at El-Jalid (of ''strug- 
gling, " of "overloading"! where stood their destination, the 
"Maru." This was a solitary long-oval, four or five times 
larger than the Jebel el-Abyaz ; audi of the same formation, as 
the speeimens of quartz and grey granite showed. It had 
a broken outline, with four great steps or dykes which had 
apparently been worked. Here tire inland parallel range was 
seen for the first time. Tbe Bedawiu as well as the citizens 
make a distinction between the .Fibal el-Tihamah, the splendid 
range towering above the coast ; and the Jibdl el-Shafah 

( ao * )t or Lip Mountains — not El-Shifah ( " Ili *. ) of healing 

— which lie behind and east of them. In the valleys at the 
base, and spread over tlie land general ly, was found a heavy 
yellow sand, calcareous and full of silex, which the people 
called "Awwal Hisma," or the beginning of thellisma. This 
discovery prolongs the visible quartz formation to 2^25 direct 
miles soutli-east of the main outcrop. 

flaring cut their shoes in securing specimens, the party 
remounted ; and, taking a Hue parallel to the furraer march, 
more southerly and more direct, they rode in two hours and a 
half to a Bughoz or ("gap") called El-IIallikah.t the Huleika 
of Walliii's map. Here water was wanting, and all went 
supperless to roost. In the Wady Urnub the Ma azah, of the 

♦ See cbap, vi. of my vol. iL 

t Alwayu i»o jironouurud : in classical Arabic Slufab (plur. Slu'ftlb) w a, lip, 
Sliifa ih healing;, im«l Hliifii'flli iotcrcossion. 

J "Halik" Jtiny Ik- ili-rivod froiu " H;ilk," tlie natno of a moilicinBl tree, or 
fix)ai " Hulk," the fauces, uarrowa. " Uulujluih " vrowU lio tlic tlini. form. 

Bdrton'^ Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 17 

clan Salfmat, received the (strangers with outward kindness, 
inwardly grumbling at their spying the land; and especially 
welcomed Shaykli Furayj, who, being a brave soldier, is alsn 
noted as a peace-maker. All the men were armed like, aud 
wore the same dress as, the Hiiwaytat; also breeding camels 
and asses, they are not "Cow- Arabs." 

About three hours (=11 miles) from Sharma camp the 
guide pointed out in the Wady Kiitiyah some pyramids of 
sand: the Bedawin call them Goz el-hannan (meaning butte)* 
and declare that wht-u the Hay caravan posses, or rather used 
to pass that way before a,d. 1520, a Naubah or orchestra would 
sound loud within its bowels: the same is said tjf other plf.c^i, 
especially of a stony buttress near the glorious .Sharr. The 
legend remiuds us of the Jobel el-Nakus or BeU-Mountain in 
the Sinaitic peninsula; not to mention the roaring of ihc Irish 
Lia Fail ("' Stone of Destiny "); the Reg-i-rowan of Afghanistan ; 
and many similar phenomena. As the Arabs perform vi.sjtation 
and sacrifice lambs to the '* Moaning-heap,' the superstition 
probably dates from ancient and pagan times.f Ruins are 
reported to exist on the Jebel-Fas (of the hatchet), the southern 
boundary of the Uruub Valley ; and I was told by some Arab, 
whose name has escaped me, of a dolmen, mounted upon three 
supports, lying farther south, on the Jebel el-Harb. Ijirut. 
Amir also brought copper-ore from the Wady Urnub ; and 
from the Ras Wady el-Mukhbir specimens of a metal which 
the Arabs declare serves them as kohl, stibium or collyrium. 
It proved to be not antimtvny but iron. The latter is every- 
where abundant, despite the tradition of the classics ;J even the 
carbonate of lime was found, here and elsewhere, inriltrated 
with carbonate of iron. 

At Sharmd I resolved upon dividing the camp ; and leaving 
there Lieut. Yusuf, MM. Duguid and I'hilipin, the dragoman 
and the waiter. Tho quarrymen and miners were charged 
with washing the several earths and sands, with hunting for 
specimens, and with transporting sundry tons of the black sand 
to the Sambuk stationed at the Musuybat Sharma. This done, 
they were to rejoin us at the next pilgrim station, Maghair 

Jamuity 7th, 1878. — A walk of 2 hours 40 minutes (=7 miles) 
northwards, by the Hajj road, and mostly along the shores of 
the glorious bay,§ transferred us to well-remembered 'Ayuimah. 

* " Eanz." here pronounced goz, ia a round hoap, Iiiil or high tract of sand, 
t See my toI. i. p. 182, for the heathen ftme and its healing waters, 
i Vol. i. p. 258, note J. 

§ Borckhardtand Riippell, in part followod by Beke (' Sinni in Arabia.' London : 
Triibner, 1878), wxito Aiyiinali, Aiuno and Ayoun, idl iiici.rrect. The 'Sailing 

18 Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Ejrjieditton into ]\Iidtan. 

In places tlie sea wAahed over slabs of the fine old conglomerates 
whicli, in this country, line the jawfi and solos, the banks and 
sides, of all the greater Wndys : it is the Portuguese CascaJho, 
a puddinp; of pebbles, M'ater-rolled stones of eveiy size tmd 
kind, basalt alone excepted, compacted by a hard silicious 
paste, which is, in the Brazil, pounded for met«l. In front ex- 
tended far ijito the blue sea a long yellow point, Ras Jiyal 

or "circumambnlation" ( Vl^^.), pronounced "Giyal," where 

we heard of palms and brftckish water. It was afterwards 
visited by Lieut. Yusnf. W*^ then turned to the right, crossed 
the dark-brown foot-hills of the ttid coast, and presently saw 
the grey-green palms, and the " gate " of 'Ayminah, light 
yellow with corallinp. The whole distance from El-Muwaylali 
to 'Ayminah is covered by tho llnj^j-caravan at one heat in 
12 hours : the pilgrims start about 2 P.M., and they reach the 
camping-ground early next morning. 

Jan. iifh. — We gave one day to working and inspecling a vein, 
Jebel el-Fayniz ("turquoise hill"), us the Arabs ciilled it; of 
whose copper silicates, promising specimens were brought by a 
Bedawi, 'Ayd of the Tagaygut-Huwaytat clan. Ahmed Kaplan 
presently visited it, and found the site 3 miles from camp, and 
bearing 102° (mag.). He crossed the Uram Niriin Valley, 
the general recipient of Nulhihs on this line, and made three 
legs, 1, to 135° (1 mile); 2, to ISU" (imile); and 3, to 145" 
(Ih mile), ending at the site called Jebel el-Fara' ("of 
climbing "). This hill, bearing the chr}'socol]a,* is bounded 
southwards by the Wady el-Fara', and north by the 
Wadya Marikhah f and Umm Niran. It is an oval about 
120 feet high, and 1920 yards in diameter from N.N.w. to 
8.S.E. I afterwards despatched Lieut. Yusuf to make a detailed 
survey of the spot ; and otlier particulars will be given 
further on. 

Jan. 0th. — We left 'Ayminah at 6.45 A,Br. by the Hajj route 
winding between the old sea-cliffs and the shore. After one hour 
(=3 miles) we took a short cut, turning to the right up the 

Wady el-Mukhassib (i»-v»iaj^-c) (" the fruitful or rich "), whose 
few yards of *' wa'r," or strong ground, render it unfit for the 

Directionfi of tlie Rod Sea* (p. 136). repetkting Welletcd, gives the right deUila. 
X>r. Beke'a idiclek (p. 327 j makes the tenU far t«) urorninint a feature . and dws 
not pre»erve the chanictoristic formB of iLe moantuiiis in tlie ijnokpoiniJ. 

* The chr^aocoUa of tho ancieuta is, striotty BjiettkiDg, a airlxiautc (not a 
eiljeate) of copper. 

t "Markb. here ffeneially pronounceii mardhli, is given in tlio dictionaries 
as s " kind of Arabian tico Vhicb emita fire vhea rubbod by another, called 

Burton^** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

Takhtrawan (" litter ") and heavily-laden animals. Ou the left 
stands the quarry-hill of the some name, and further north its 
" hamirah/' or red attachment. Higher up, the gorge is of 
loose sand; the walls are grey granite and green porphyritic 
trap ; and water must be near, as we found Arab tents at the 
head. \\c then issued into the open, and came upon tLo 
great caravan track, which, running in a general north direction, 
is distinctively marked by wavy parallel lines of white sand in 
the brown-black metal overlying it. 

The view was now familiar. Fronting us the northern horizon 

disclosed the wcll^remembered forms of fayyib Ism* ("good in 

.Dame "), backed by the far grander Mazhafen.t rising abrupt from 

[the Gulf of 'Akabah, and both trending inland towards their 

lighest points. This mountain apparently is llie Jebel Suwckhed 

f Dr. Beke's map. To the north he places a Jebel Tannin, whose 

le was not heard ; it belongs to the days of Robinson, and 

the caiion-like gulch identifies it with the Jebel Tayyib Ism 

of the Arabs.l On our right swelled the unnicturesque 

Ljnetalliferous heap of chocolate-coloured Jebel Zahd ('• of devo- 

"tion "), whose " nick," or Brcche de Roland, seems to show from 

every angle. Behind it, the second distance consists of some 

pale-blue forms, the Jebel cl-Lauz (Almond Mountain), evidently 

the "Tayyibat Ism" of the Admiralty Chart: it is said to take 

its name from the trees growing, we were told, high up in the 

'clefts and valleys ; § they are probably bitter, like those which 

flourish in iroal> and at 8t. Catherine's, 8inai. Between the 

Lauz and the Jebel Muniah (" the exalted "), its northern pro- 

llongation, is the Sha'ab Ilurub (,__»-^_), where the clan 

Amirat (sing. Amf rf) camps and finds water some 2 hours' march 

from the road. The regular cone, El Makla (^Lii^), ends 

the prospect to the north-east — I could not find the meaning 
of the word. || To the west, marked by the chaos of mountains 
composing Sinai, rose the azure middle knob of thrco-hea<led 

"Tayyibiit Ism " in my first volume was a mistoke : purists, like mir friend 
»Fhnykl] Furayj, avoid it. Tht^rc is n Nakb-Tayyibat el-Ism fnrtlier south, and in 
I -the fiuLityrah province of Egypt Lt u. hill ;and villago ?) entitlud Tayyibut el-Ism, 
fiom ita cxoellont air. 

t Probably ao-called because it "yazhaf" ((..ji^-jj), i.e. advances gradually 

ftipon the sen. 

X Pee vol. i. p. 329. 

§ Conceniiiig thaao nlmonda, sec 'Notea on a Collection of PInuta trnnsmittiHl 
Pby Lieut. J. 11. WelUtwi' By John Liudley, E*i., r.^.^., &c. Appendix, 
vol. ii., Wellstcd'a 'Travels in Arabia.' 

I Makli (^ULo ) ligulflca the rougel, harhone, or red mullet. 

c 2 

20 Bdrton'j Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian, 

Tiran IjilanJ ; the broken crests of the " Ked Hills " behind 

Makna, and the dark peaks of the Kalb (t^^Jj) el-Nakhlah : 

the two latter look like reefs or islands of blitck and purple 
hue swimming in a eea of gref-nish-yellow secondaries, earbo- 
natps and sulphates of lime, t^ypsum and coralline. 

Passing El-8uwayr ("the Httle wall"), a flat where canap the 
Magtirabi pilgrims, we entered the Wady el-5Iarakh, one of the 
many of that name, derived from a plant loved by camels This 
watercourse is an old friend that drains the seaward face of 
El-Zahd, or 'Ayniinah Mountain, and whit'h joins the Finmara 
of Magliair Shu'ayb. The mules' hoofs, piercing the supertieial 
sand, showed bri«;ht red earth, which is supposed to come from 
the Hisma, We saw on the left a knot of low ruddy hills, the 

Turab el-'Usaylah ( a\_^.^.j-. ).* It is so-called from a ghadirf 

" hollow," where the sinking of water produces a bald ppot, 
circled by shnihhy trees, suhcutaceous and metal-green, eaten 
by camels but rejected by our mules. Here, again, where 
muddy patches curb the ground, the pump would have done 
good service. For this Ijalf-niarch of 4 hours ( = 11 stat. miles) we 
cari'ied water, and as there was no drink, so there was no game. 
Jan. lOih. — At 6.15 a.m. we attacked the last and lonper 
part of the second Hajj stage from E!-Muwaylali. Crf)S.«ing the 
Wady El-Koz after 1 h. 15. m. (=*^| miles), we passed on the left 
a low, chocolate-coloured block, Umm Kujaym ("mother of the 
little stone-heap"), which is the true half-way station. Our 
Arabs, bent upon converting a two days' march into tliree days' 
work, punished us by grazing their camels on the road, and by 
not arriving till the evening. As before, there was no pame till 
we approacheil the springs, but a clump of large tamarisks and 
iv&ks {Oa2)fans spinosa) on the right, and a huge sainur acacia 
(luffa uriffvig, Forsk.) on the left, looked well ciipable of shel- 
tering it. We now began clearly to see our destination, palms 
and tufty trees at the mouth of a masked Wady running between 
a background of reddish-brown rock, the foot-hilts and sub- 
ranges of the grand block El-Zatiah (jj\^, ''of the camcFs 

nosebag ") to the north, and a foreground of pale-yelh>w, 
barren gypsum, apparently tongue-shaped. Above the latter 
towered two quoins of ruddy material, '' El-Shigdawayn '' f 

(/j->5fcX:5^^)» which others called " Umm Jarfayn." 

• 'Asul in lilt iliclioimrteB ia explninetl aa a tree wLich purgeF cnmels, the 
rho<l<i<1aphno liiurt'l roae, oI<jander). ForskSI ('Flora JEgyjito-Arab.,' pj). cxiv. 
and llOj applii tt it to tlj<^ Ocymujn MrpyUifiAium. 

t TLt> siligiikr ojijit'toni to be S'higd, •jnonjnMma with "Sliilik " (j_jLi fiMure, 

Hl'utonV Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 21 

After ail bout's halt iu a cool breeze under a thorny tree, we 

pnsaud the Ghadir, or bas'm, El-Nukrab (^ Jjj), " the hollow "). 

Resembling that of El-'Usavlub, it is one of tlif round sinks so 
coniuiuu ill Arabia, with a bright green growth of grass and 
ehrubs springing from a soil superficially red. Thence, leaving 

on the left the TJmm Gaf4 ('ui}), the " Mother of the Neck- 
nape"),* a tall cliff of dull brown, with a white gypseous scar 
uiKjn the cheek, we fell into the Wady 'Afal (*■ of the rupture " ?). 
This is the Fiumara of Maghair .Siui'uyb, which rolls a torrent 
once iu every ten years or so to tlie sea between Ras Jiyal and 
'Ayuiiiidh Bay. At the mouth is the M'inat El-'Ay'anat 

(cjULj:» " of the look-out "). This little i)ort for " Sambiiks," 
was afterwards surveyed by Lieut, Yusuf. We hit it at a bend 
some 220 yards wide, called Ariz ( ^ ^) el-Sidrah, or 

"Broad of the Jujube," from one of the splendid secular trees 
which characterise tliis part of Midian. 

Uere we found both banks of the Fiumara lined with courses 
of rough stone, mostly rounded boulders. These arc evidently 
the ruins of the water conduits whiob served to feed the ricn 
growth of the lower valley. Then the vegetation of the gorge- 
mouth developed itsolf to date-trees aud dauma, tamarisks, and 
salsolacete, especially the 'Abal-bush, out of whieli scuttled a 
troop of startled gazelles. We turned the right-hand jamb of 
the "gate," and found ourselves at the water and camping- 
ground of Maghair Shu'ayb. The march had occupied tl hours, 
wljikt tlie caravan took t*^, and we set down the distance at 18 
miles (sUit.) or 29 IVom 'Aymiiiah. 

The ancient Ptoli'meiau cltv of MaSi'a/ia belongs rather to 
the domain of architecture and archa?ology than of geography ; 
and I have elsewhere published a full description of the ruins.f 
It is described by Kiippell (Dr. Eduitrd) * Reisen in Nubien' &c., 
Frankfurt am Muin, 1?<29. He gives it, however, only a couple 
of pages (pp. 219, 387), and an illustnttion of two catacomb 
facades (p. 220). The true latitude would be 28^ 28', and thus 
the old Alexandrian geographer is not far wrong with hts 
28' 15'. As regards the name Miigliair, "caves," i.e. catacombs 
of Shu'ayb, i.e. Jethro; it must not be put in the singular 

^roviee, alsio the must piTHiiineiit purt of n mountain) ; the thial would be '' Bhik- 
kayo," but the BecLiwin convert it to 8bigdaWBya. Such, ut luoiit, iu tUe only 
cxplaoatioQ whlclt I could ubLuiu. Uuuu Jarfaya would meao " mother of tho 
two ledges.'* 

* A name p\7en to tiilla and mouutaina with loDg aloping baclu. 

^ Vol. ii. chap. lii. 

22 Burton'* Itineraries of t fie Second Expedition into Midian. 

" Urajrliarut ; " * nor is there any cave in which that holy man 
who, l3eda\vi-like, had his beat between 3Iakua and this place, 
was wont to pray. Tiie oataeombs are also called in local dialect 
Bihiin, or " doors." Wellsted ('Arabia,' vol. ii. p. 123) hud not 
visited the place when he wrote " at Maiuirehi Shoaib, and at 
Beden, the former estimated at oj, the latter 7^ hours' journey 
(from Makna), there are other ruins," Beden (an " ibex ") is an 
error originally made by Eiippell for Ead'a, an " innovation," a 
"novelty," because a Maglirabi pilgrim here dug a now well. 

Wady el-Bad'a ( -, ^xj ) is the name of the short section of the 

Wady 'Afdl occupied by the palm-groves. The Jihan-numa 
(p. 541) of Haji Khalifah, a^/'fus liatib Chelebj, who died in a.H. 
1068 = A.D. 1658, thus notices it: " Maghair Shu'aylt.f There 
is sweet water in its pits, a palm-grove, and many athl (tamar- 
isks) and mukl, or daum-trees, like those that grow near the 
River Nile, There are here also inscribed tablets (Kmvtmt = 
tdkak) on which the names of kinps are engraved." + 

The ruins of Bladiama mav be aivided into four main blocks, 
two on each side of the I^^iumara. Uppermost, on the left 
bank, appears to be a fortified hauteviUe on the Jebel el-Safrd,§ 
a double tjuoiu of coralline and gypsum striking to the north. 
Before the western ilank wixs brf>ken down by time, tho 
buildings, as in the Syrian town of Safct, ran up the slope, 
forming steps, descended the now precipitous eastern flank, and 
covered the gorge between the " Yellow Hill " and its neighbour. 
Foundations of houses run along the low level of the left bank 
for about jfrds of a mile ; a number of yawning graves are sunk 
in the gypsum, and the remains include furnaces and a smelting 
place. The only sign of st^mding buildings — all the rest being 
mere basements — are a lloslem fort, two largo Sdkiyahs (or 
•* draw wells "), a conduit of coarse grit, and a fine Hauz 
("cistern") of cut sandstone. The group is called Bir el- 
Sa'fdani, from its builder; and the tradition of the Arabs, here 
very much at fault, tleclares this to be the old original settle- 
ment, before the " innovating " spring Avas discovered by the 
Maghrabi magician. 

On the right " Jarf," or raised bank of the valley, are the 
foundations of a large town, built mostly of gypsum, which has 
turned snow-white with age. Hence scattered ruin-heaps run 

* This iniEtiLke has hvcu niado throughout my firet voluiae, and it ia copied In 
Dr. Beie's * Sinai in Arabia.' 

t See ' Haji Khalifah's Roate of the Pilgrims,' at the end of thi« paper. 

i Oiily three of tbo oatacombB bore i1l^<(.■ription8, vliioh appeared to be Nabat 
(NuhathicaD) : sqoeezGa wcro uiadi- from boUi. 

§ Thia in the general native name for the tight yt'Ilow coralline and g3fpBiun : 
opposed to the Jlamni or UamimL, the re<i porphyries, syenltea and Iropu. 

i Burton** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 23 

some 2 miles down strejtm. They are isolated by the lateral 
txirrenta which, no longer under man's control, swoop down to 
the main Wady 'Afal. In the hollows formed by the vagaries 
of the bed antiquities are sometimes picked upj stone weapons, 
coins of gold, silver and copper, bits of metal, steatite pots, 
mortars, grinding stones, glass and pottery, beads and similar 
articles. The three lateral gullies which fall into the right 
bunk contain tho catacoiabs that have given the place its 
modern name — tiiey were first visited by Kiippell (1822). The 
** Tombs of the Kings " * are in No. 111. valley ; above it is the 
diff-top called the " Traying-place of 8hu'ayb." Here the 
aneroid (corrected) stood at 28'94, while it was 29'40 below, 
(diff. 0-4G0). Yubu* island bore 173' and Shu'shii' 19G° 30', 
•while the campiug ground lay at 45" 30' (all magnetic). In a 
fourth gully, somewhat further down, are specimens of inferior 
art in a ruinous state. 

III. From Maghdir ShiCayh to Makna. — During our fortnight's 
halt at Slaghair 8hu'ayb we failed to make arrangements for 
viaiting the Hisiua ; but reeonnaissixncea were pushed to the 
neighbouring mountains. On Jauiiury 17, the Egyptian Staff- 
officers rode up the Wady 'Afal aud, within a distance of 3 miles, 
they found two mining establishments. The broken white 
quartz, scattered round the furnace, argued that the rock could 
not be far distant. On Monday, January 21, M. Marie and 
Lieutenant Amir set out to explore a '* White Mountain " of 
which I had heard chance reports. Leaving the Wady 'Afal to 
the right or o^st, they skirted to the left, after 1 mile, the Jebel 
ol-fc>al'ra. or (northcru) ''gypsum mountaiu," which bisects the bed 
of the Wady Makna ; and fur 2 miles they struck northwards 

with 5" of westing (mag.) up the Wady el-Kharik ( . o »ik.}.t 

whose bed had already begun to bcEir grass. The route then 
ascended the Wady iSabil ("of the path"), a Fiumara about 
one-tliinl of a mile broad, bounded by low hills : after a total 
of 3 miles large rocks appeared on tho left bank ; the Samur 
thorn bcciiiue common, and the herbaceous growth more luxu- 
riant. Alter lialf a mile riding to 345" (mag.) they changed 
rhumb to 5' west (mag.), where small hills again bounded the 

Wady. Presently (1^ mile) the Wady Umm 'Arkubt {^^^ ^ ' ) 

— • V-- ' , 

• The nnme ia oar own. For u description of Ihem aee ' The Land of Slidion 

(Reviaitt'd;,' vol. i. rhnp. iii. 

t '* Kbarit " in Arabic is a word of mnny m«ining8 — " loTel g^roimd growing 

Tegetation :'' a " cold wind,'' a " slinllow canal amongst trees," and "thcextmrnity 

of a Talley opening out." 

J A narrow mountain-pass, or n track winding through a valley. The cliuiHical 

form in " 'Urkub," and its general me-aning id tho Tendon Achillea. 

24 BtTBTOn's Itineraries of the Second Erpedition into Midian. 

fell ill from the east ; and opposite to it, or westward, the Wady 
Sabil forked. Another mile and a third ended the latter ; and 
the travellers attacked the divide over the Jibal el-Sabil. 
Crossing a small watert'ourse trending east-west, they entered 

a plain bounded by the Jibdl el-Kuraybeh ( a . > s^). *' of 

ploughed land " ; * and, after { a mile bending west (mag.), 
they entered an ugly Nakb or rocky pass, running, with many 
angles and zigzags, due north for about a 1| mile. On this 
line there is no other road ; camels can manage it only with 
half-loads; and even mules found it difficult. U'Jie gut abutted 
upon the Wady Murakh (or Marakh) ; this Nullah runs from 
north-east to south-west, and falls into the 'Akabah Gulf near 
the well-known mountain, Tayyib Ism. The line is easier; 
and, when the White Mountain comes to be worked from Makna, 
there will be fewer diflficulties of transport. After \ of a mile 
the direction changed to north-east (60' mag.); and after 
another mile, making a total of 9 miles (3 hours) in a general 
northern direction, tbey came upon the wis^hed-for " Mount 
Marii." It was backed by the tall, dark and dome-shajied Jebel 

Zanah ( jij\^) the " Dhana " which, together with the " Djebel 

Hesma," were seen by Burckhardt as he travelled down the 
Wa-ly 'Arabah en route to Suez. Nearly visible from Maghair 
Shu'ayb, thia remarkable block appeared to me the tallest that 
we had yet seen : with its eastern prolongation the Lauz, it 
is probably the "Tayyibat Ism" of the Admiralty Chart. 
About 10^ (mag.) west, near the Sharaf Taur t el-Hisma (the 
height of the inaccessible side of the Hismd), stood the Jebel 
el-Muk. Thus they had crossed three several ranges; the 
Sabil, the Kuraybah and the Murakh, all outliers of tlie great 

'J'he Wddya—Jtuvii fluvia geniti — already waxing green, 
supplied a quantity of trees, shrubs, and plants. Two are not 
eaten by camels : — 

1. El-Kay il ( Ij ) or Hay I {Mrua Javanica). 

2. El-Mashtah ( aU * ^ ), the "Comb" (Oleome ckrysantha), 

whose juice is applied to snake-bites. 

The 18 cliief kinds, mostly perennials, and all used as fodder, 
are: — 

• Others railed it Kabaydah (af the " little liver "). 

t TLia word (jfcj) ia generally known in the souao indlcalcd. The root 
vouM bo Tarn = "it Lccamo roiscrl nr Bprend," 


Burton** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 25 

1. El-Lussak ( " \ ^ J ) or Caidheja adherens (For$Jc<ilia Una- 

eissima, Linu.); not to bo confounded with El-Lusaf f^^^a-^J), 

the only plant {Cajmiris spinosa) whose fleshy leiives in bright- 
green tufts veil theuald and ghastly gypsum, 1 brought home 
speciinena of its gourd-like fruit and its fat foliage. 

2. Abu (or E1-) Zafrah (^v jilj) ; in the dictionaries it is ex- 

J)lalned aa a ** biting plant, good for warts and ulcers." Here it ia 
Iphiona scabra. 

3. El-'Aushaz (♦*4x.)i properly written *Auaaj (Lycium 


4. El-Natash. 

6. El-Sill ( L^) ; in the dictionaries the " name of a herb.** 

6. El-Zanaban (Reseda eati^eena). 

7. El-Girzi ( ^s ysJ > *^^ "Gurdhi shrub— a Resedaeea 

(pchradsfiushaccJiah's)" of Schweinfurth{?) and the * Athenaeum,' 
July 6, 1878. 

8. El-Bayaz (^L>). 

9. El-Shauk ( :^ ), a generic term for thistles, applied 

especially to the Shauk el-Jemel or camel-thorn {Blepharis 
&ialis, the Echinops sphairocephahs of Forsk.). 

10. El-Siyal ; tne well-known Acacia Siyal. 

11. El-Shnuhat (\^^ . A 1. " a tree whence bows are made," 

often mistaken by us for the 'Arak (Capparis). 

12. El-Yesar or Yesur [Moringa. aptera), a tree resembling 
the athl or tamarisk. 

13. El-Warak. 

11. El-Zaytah (jcj* )> a iavantJuZa, with pretty blue flower, 
giving no sign of oil (Zayt). 

15. Kabul ( V> V* Ptdicaria undulata, a clirysanthemum 

with a yellow flower, much relished by camels both in Egypt 
and in Midiun. I carried back four bottles full, two preserved 
iu oil, with the hope of bringing out an "■ Essence of Midian." 

16. El-Sakrau l^\ Xij\, or Saykrau / \ C^ , ). said to in- 

* Fi>rbk4rs * Fion ^gypto-Arab„' p. IxxiT., girOB Babad .Xji = -OupA^almum 

26 BtntTON'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

toxicate thoso who eat it; the JJyoscyamus ^tuiUtta of L. 

I crmlil not 8oe the flower. In Efrypt the word is applied to 
the Phjsalis somnifera ; in Ambia to the Ht/oscyamus datura. 
The word is identical with tlie Sekheraa (a kind of mallow), 
noted by Professor I'alnier in the ' Sinaitic Teninsula ' (vol, i. 
p. 23) : this certainly would have nothing intoxicating in it 
save the name. 

17. El-Kaysaniyyeh ( . -'' Lry* ,)- 'ised by women as a yellow 

dye for woollen stuffs ; and 

18, El-Kallum ( Jjj), a prime favourite with camels. 

The " White Mountain " under Zaiiah, risinp; about 1000 feet 
above S. L., and 100 over its surrounding valleys, commands a 
fine view of the sea as far as 'Ayniiiiah. It is a long oval witli 
the major axis disposed to ISfj" (mag.) : the circumforenco may 
be 400 feet, and the regularity of its contour is broken to the 


south. The surrounding 

ts and Wadys, often glittering 

with mica, contain smaller veins : the travellers brought home 
specimens of orthose adhering to quartz and mica, flashing in^ 
tne sun, from the eastern side of the Wliite Mountain. The. 
quartz was sparkling and snowy, like that about Sharm^ ; the 
country, however, 8U|q)lit'8 all kinds of varieties, waxy, amor- 
phous, crystalline, opatjue aud hyaline, amethystine, smoky and 
ribbed (jjetrosilex) ; heut-altered and chalky, pink, yellow, and 
slate-coloured; one piece showed a curious tranBitimi from the 
opaque to the transparent " rock crystal," easily mistaken for^ 
glass. The engineer thought that this time he had struck 
gold ; aud a speck was the result of using mercury. But I 
was haunted with fear aud dread of the pyrites, or " crow gold," 
which hns played so many notable tricks on travellers ; and, 
after a few days, the ttirnishing of the speck justified my 

At Maghair Shu'ayb the camp had been much exercised by 
Bedawiu reports of the Avondere ibimd in the lands to the north 
and the north-east. On January 24 I ordered a Tuyyiirah, or 
flying-coravan uf dromedaries, guided by 'Bmhiui bin IVIakbiU, 
the Amrani-Huwaytdt, who had come into camp \vith his brother 
Khizr, chief Sluiykh of the clan. Mr. Clarke and the two 
Staff-lieutenants were directed to ride to El-Kijm (the " stone- 
heap"), the next station of the pilgrim-ciiravan ; and to bring 
k sKetohes of a Hajar Jfasdud * (a " stone set in anotLor ") from 


the Wady Zarafah (^j^ «s)» ^^'^ *^^ •*• tablet adorned with a 
dragon and other animals. Starting at 7.45 a.m., they rode up 

Literally, " shut, corke<l, plugged." 

Burton's Itineraries of the SccoTtd Expedition into Midian. 27 


the Wady 'Afal, passing, after 3 miles, the furnace and the two 
t3 uf ruins before mentioned, and covering a total of G miles 
1 hour 45 minutes. This was not fast work ; the Bedawin 
object to pushing their dromedaries beyond 'A^-A miles an hoar 
during the starving season ; and they are right : I have seen 
many falls, the result of mero weakness after trotting a few yards. 
Red conglomerate appeared on both sides of tho bod. The 
travellers passed the Wady el-Tawileh (" Long Vale ") on the 
right hand; and at 9.i3L) a.m. tliey came upon the ruins of a 
boulder-built atelier, with what appeared to be a Burj (•' tower "), 

and a Fiskiyydh (" tank ") called " IgAr Muds " ( \ ^ L?;^). 

After the delay necessary for sketching and surveying, the 
party remoimted, and rode up the Wady, bending from north- 
east to north : at 10.50 a.m. they reached the mouth of the 
Wady Kuliil, where the aneroid showed an altitude of 1*200 
feet (28-80). They had now made 10;} miles (Mr. Clarke 
boldly said 12) in 3 hours, halts not included ; and they were 
unpleasantly surprised when asked '* why they had not brought 
their tents ? " It was then explained to them that they were 
still one hour short of the half-way point to El-E.ijm ; whilst 
the dragon inscription could not be reached under a "^vhole day. 
Totally unprepared for a wintry night in the open at such an 
nltituile, they returned re infedd; Khizr and 'Urahim iucon- 
tinently disappeared, and we desisted from reconnaissances to 
the north of Maglntir Shu'ayb. 

Jayi. 2iith. — At 7 a.m. we left JVtaghair Shu'ayb and took the 
road to Maknd, along the fme valley of that name. At 7.45 a.m. 
the mule-riders crossed the low stony divide separating the Wady 
'Afal from the Wady Makna ;* of old culled Wady " Madyan." 
The valley, here very well define<I, winds left or west of the 
well-known ridge Umm Kida el-8ainra. ** Brown" aa the 
name denotes, is a lump of chocolate-coloured carbonate of 
lime, the weather-gashes disclosing upper white strata (gyp- 
sum) : and below them, red rock, probably grit upthrust by 
the plutonic formations. In this region Kl-Safrii is the generic 
name of the yellow formations (coralline and gypsum) ; El- 
Hamra, Hamfrah or Humayrah of detached ruddy hills, and 

El-Ash'hab (femin. Shidiba — \ ,« . ). of the grey or ash- 

*■ The word ( [jji^ ) mconiDg a place where ihe aun ubinca not, ends with an 

Alif, and was ado|ited from the Arabic by Ptolemy. It Tras first •written with 
an Ayn by the learned Burckhardt, who Beldom makes anch mistakes. Thu hard 

Kit (o) pronounced with a "g" (in gorgu) by tlie Arabs, oocoimls for tho 

popular form " Mugna ," and, worse still, " Mugaah " as on the Admiralty Chart 

28 Burton'5 Itineraries of the Second Erjicdition into Midian. 

coloured as granite. On the rifjbt bank we eaw the gape 
of the important Wady Sukkeh. At 10.10 A.M., after 3 hour8 = 
8 miles, we halted for rest under a bay or hollow in the 

cliff-wall called El-Humayrah ( y .^^ ). where the strata of 

pebbles reminded me of those which in Brazil accompaQy the 

K^^snming our route at noon we entered a sensational gorge : 
its tall walls, larap-black and blood-red, are called the 'Alidayn, 
or two slaves. After one hour and a half we issued from the 
gully and recognised the coast features. On our right (north) 
was t!ie gypsum mound Raghainat-el-Margas, forming the 
staple of the gate ; whilst to the south was the Kughaymah (or 
"little gypsum-hill") amongst the Jibiil el-llamra.* At 
2 P.M. we tumed to the right of the 'Wady, whose broad bed 
is made impracticable, near its "gate," by rocks and palm- 
forest. Here we inspected the Musallat Mtisa (oratory of 
Muses), and at 2.30 p.m., after a spell of 2 h. 30 m. = 7 miles, 
we sightt'd 

•' The shifting waste of diin-hluo hrine 
And fading olive hyaline." 

The camp was pitched upon our old gi-ound. The total of 
this march had been 5 h. 30 m. = 17^ miles. I have described 
it at full length in Chapter V. 'The Land of Midian (Re- 
visited)'; and the western section between the sea and the 
"Red Hills " in ' The Gold Mines of Midian.' T 

The statioua on our northern liuo of march were: — 

1. El-Muwiijiah to Wady Tiryam .. 5 hours. =: I5i miles. 

2. ToSharaia 4 „ „ 13 „ 

3. „ the Jebcl el-Abyaz 4 „ „ 12 „ 

4. „ SlinTmi (return) , 4 „ „ 12 „ 

i5. „ 'Aynunah 2h. 40m.„ 7 „ 

6. „ El-Usaylah 4 „ „ 11 „ 

7. „ Mftgliair Shu'ayb 6 „ „ IB „ 

8. „ Makni 5h. 30m. „ 17J „ 

Total 35 hours ,,106 „ 

Thus the average rate of progress would be 3 miles an hour, 
halts not inrluded. 

At Makna we were pleased to meet the gunboat Miikhbir 
and the Sambuk, carrying our stores and rations for the men 
and mules. I found the place charming, and stayed there a 
week (January 25th — Febuary 2ud) to explore its mineral 

• gee vol. i. p. 349. 

t In thi^ vol. i , p. 335, 1 made the distance " seven hours by dromedary or tea 
by oaiutl = 25 imlii».'' 

Eurton'x Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian, 29 

wealtb, by far the most important we liad yet seen. It is the 
very place for a mining settlement: with plenty of wood, 
and water snificient for washing oiy^s as well as for cultivation ; 
with regular winds blowing strongly from north and south ; a 
rise of the tide about iive feet high — this forre cnuld easily bo 
applied to boats as on the Danube and the Adige — and a port 
open only to the west. The harbour, deserihed in my 
first volume, has two natuml piers partly worked by the 
ancients: protected by hills in front and behind, it is safe from 
the northern and southern gales ; and it would easily be defended 
against the rare but dangerous Gharbis (westers). 

The delay again euabled us to correct the errors of our flying 
survey, and to make a careful reconnaissance of the neighbour- 
hood. «. For the first time 1 heard the term Jebel el-Fahisat* 
applied to the dwarf metalliferous range subtending the shore: 
it had been miscalled in vol. i- I was also puzzled by tlie 
presence of porous basalt whicli had supplied the first Expedition 
with a veinlet of natural " electron ' — gold and silver mixed. 
Completely wanting in tlie Wady Makna, it appears in scatters 
along the shore to the north. Our guide, Shaykh Furayj, 
knew nothing nearer than the Ilarrah or volcanic tract bound- 
ing the Hisma on the east. This was going too far, at least 
five days' journey; and broken querns "t were found in the 
haute vUle uf Makna. Moreover during hist spring 1 had heard 
of raininjj ruins in the mountain TayyiU Ism. 

Accordingly, on January 27th, Lieut. Amir was des- 
patched northwards witfi a small dromedary-caravan under 
Shaykh Furayj. He wound along the .shore where the weathered 
coiallines, grit.^, and limestones, form the quaintest features, 
giant pixies and mushrooms, columns and ruined castles. After 

an hour's ride he crossed the Wady Halifah (joLJl^)» ^^ 

tall and well-defined banks of this broad valley, which 
drains the northern ilank of the Rughatnat Makna, are of sand- 
stone-2;rit, imbedding a whole geological museum. The line 
is said to supply brackish water? none was seen, but there are 
dute-trecs in the sole, wldlst others cling to the steep banks,^ 
About one mile beyond it is the Wady el-Duwaymah (" of the 
little Daum-tree "), with a clump of the Crueifera Thekiica close 

" The root appears to be " fahia" — bcUy, tripe, ponch. 

t Only one «liapo was found ; the " pot-quern" of the British lalea ie appBiimtly 
unknown in Midian, 

I After this point all the information \a Iwrrowed fri3m Lieut. Amir's jtkctchea 
and route-book : of cour.te I am not unswcruWc for their corrcetneas. Wo had 
inten<led to Iniid at El-Uiikl and to inspect the line, but the heavy weather ia 
the (iulf of 'Akaboh inter{>o»ed ita veto. 

30 Burton'* Itineraries of ttie Second Expedition into MJdian, 

to the sea. Another mile and a third led to the Wady Abi 

Nakhlah, owning a single burnt or blasted date-tree, and a 
little beyond it the coast bends from 25° to 30° (both mag.). 

The fourth " Nullah," \N'ady KaBarah (^ LcJ " l>eing sbort "), 

distant about a mile, shows in two places ranges of stones 
which beiir the semblance of ruins. On the right or east 
rose the Itght-colonred Jebel Sukk, which is seen from the 
heights above Makna ; and on the southern bank of the Wady 
Sukk (" the closed road "), wbich drains it to the sea, appeared 
a hill of porous basalt, bore called b)' the Arabs Hajar el- 
HarraL. The specimens brought home, if they be hond fide, 
prove that volcanic outbreaks, detuched, sporadic, and un- 
expected, occur in Midian, as in the limestones of Syria and 
Palestine, even near the shore. It would be interesting to 
ascertain their eonntction with the great volcanic lines in the 
interior, the Uauriin and the Harrah. 

Crossing the Wady Sukk, the travellers liad on the right 
hand the Jebel Tayyib Ism. From our camp this chocolate- 
coloured mass, studded with small peaks, appears a southern 
outlier of the great blue wall EI-Ma^hafeh, bounding the 
northern horizon. For a short distance a bad, rough path leads 
along the " Good Name " — no one ean explain the cause of its 
being so-called — and then the clifls fall sheer into the sea, 
explaining why the caravans never travel that wav. Thus 
compelled, the track bends inland to 65'^ (iniig-) ^^^ enters a 
Nakb or pass, a gash conspicuous from the gulf, an immense 
canon or couloir, looking as if emptied of its dyke or vein. 
Curious to say, its south-western prolongation cuts the cliffs near 
Marsa Dahab in the so-called Sinaitic peninsuht. The southern 
mouth bears signs of habitation : a parallelognim of stones, 120 
paces by 91, has been partially buried by a landslip ; and 
there are remnants of a dam measuring over a hundred yards in 
length. About 300 yards higher up, water appears in abund- 
ance ; and 25 to 30 palms grow on both sides. Here, however, 
is not a trace of man ; the winter-torrents must be dangerous ; 
and there is hardly any grass for sheep. The gorge now 
becomes very wild ; the pass narrows from 50 paces to 10, and 
in one nlace a loaded camel could hardly squeeze through ; 
whilst tlie clifl'-wallsof red and grey granite (?) tower some 2UO0 
feet above the path. The same altitude is given by l>r. Beke 
(p. 533) ; but be did not remark the prolongation of the couloir 
in the eastern rim of the Sinaitic peninsula, Water, which as 
usual sinks in the sand, is abundant enough in three other 
spots to supply a large caravan; and two more date-clumps 

•Burton** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 31 

■were passed — hence, if all here told be true, the "Nakhil 
Tawio Ism " reported to me last spring.* 

I'he total ride occnpied 5 Jiours (= 16 miles). 8till the tall 
blue range peaking to the oftst, and throwing out a long western 
slope to the eea, was far off. The caraTan had not covered 
more than half the distance to the Bii* ol-Mashi, where a small 

Marsa, or anchorage-ground, called El-Suwayhil ( W^^)? 

the " Little Shore," opens to the noilh of the Mazhafeh block. 
From this " Well of the Walker " a pass leads to the Wady 
Marsha : in it we had been told of extensive ruins and Bibdti 
(" doors " or catiicombs), but tbe whole was inveuliou. Our 
Sayyid bad ridden througb it eii route from Maghair Shu'ayb 
to El-Hakl, and found notliing. 

The second excursion took place on Monday, Jan. 28. The 
son of one of the guides, Gabr " Kazi of the Arabs," bad brought 
in fine specimens of quartz from the eastern liills, and offered 
himself as a guide. At 7.1a Mr. Clarke and Lieut. Yusuf set 
out to collect exact details of the find. They walked up the 
Wady Makua, hauling their mules after them ; here the low- 
level fountain 'Ayn el-Fara'i j breaks out from lj<jth banks, 
unites in a single stream, flowing under the tall right side of 
carbonate of lime, now bare, then capped by conglomerate, forms 
deep pools among buge boulders of grey granite, and finally 
siuKs before reaching the shore. Higher up the side is a second 

water, 'Ayn el-I'anah ( jj [^^ " of spying "), springing from 

the sands under the date-trees that line the right and left 
flanks. Apparently it is tlie drainage of a gypsum "hat" 

called El-Kulayb (c^) ; and, above the " httle dog," the 

right bank is occupied by a " Goz," or inclined sheet of 
pure, loose, and rippled sand. Opposite these two features the 
left bank of the Wady Makoa receives the "torrent of the 
Quartz Mountains," concerning which more will be said ; and 
higher up, the huge watercouree known as Wady el-Kharaj X 
(o/w Akhraj), threads the gypsum cliffs. It rises in the south 

near Umm Giyal, and drains the Kkaht or Klwhai ( i" .L ) 

lands, meaning a low place or plain where trees are beaten for 

Leaving the Wady el-liharaj to the right, and still striking up 
the Wady Makna, the travellers, marching towards the "lied 

• VoL i. chap. xii. f Fara'f would mcnn " derivative " or •* desccndlDg." 

{ Mcauing " a mixture of black aad white," 

32 BrmTON'* Itin/raries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

Hills," reached tLo Wady Mab ug (oblique or crooked valUy) 
Doeutioned in my first vohime.' This large feature, draining a 
mountain of the same name, is said to supply bitter water. A 
bottleful had been brought to us with much ceremony, and 
tliose who tasted it were uncertain whether the flavour was sul- 
phureous or ammoniacul. Wishing to have some report about 
it, I had directed the explorers to ride up the sandy bed till 
they found the spring. Presently, leaving their nuiles, they 
turned off i^harp to tlie right, descended a steep ineline, and. 
suddenly entered a chasm in the rocks which here rise about 
200 feet high. After a total of two hours' walk and ride, they 
came upon n. pool of rain-water, some 4 to 5 inches deep ; it 
was evidently visited by many animals, camels included, and 
hence its peculiar flavour. 

They then retraced their steps, crossed the Wady lyiab'tig, and 
going north came upon the " Marii." This network of quartz- 
veins in sandstone grit (?) was found in the Jibal Umm Lasaf. 
The block lies behind or east of the Jibal el-Hamrd, the Red 
Hills to which tlie first exjiedition had been altraeted by the 
two pale leprous patches, the Rxujiuujmeh, or smaller g)'pseous 
forraations.t No. 2 excursion was interesting : it proved that 
tlie " white stone" is found to the east as well as the south of 

A Bedawi named Jazi had brought us fine specimens of brim- 
stone, pure crystals adhering to the gypsum, and possibly formed 
by decomposition of the sulphate of lime. If this be the case 
we may expect te find the niincrul generally diffused throughout 
the Secondary formation. Naturally it will be richer in some 
idnces and in others poorer. Further investigation in Midiau 
mtrodueed ua to two other depohits; making a total of three, 
without incluJing one heard of in Northern Sinai, and thus 
rivalling, if not excelling, the riches of the opposite African 
shore. I need hardly dwell upon the importance of a brimstone 
much resembling that of Sicily : its price seems steadily to 
rise, and it is held to bo worth importing from distant Iceland. 
Strange to say, the Bedawin of ]\Iidian buy their suiplmr frum 
the •' Barr el-'Ajam " (Egypt), and thus the diggings will be 
found virgin. 

On our lirst visit, we had heard of a Jehel el-KihrH (*' sulphur 
hill ") on the road from Makna to 'Ayniinah, but there was no 
one to show (he place. This time 1 was more fortunate. On 
the morning of Jan. 26th a caravan of four camels, for the 
two quarrymen and the guide, set ofl* with their sacks and tools. 
They did not return till the morning of the third day, having 

• P. 851. 

t ToJ. i. p, 349. 

lost the road. Of course they could not ascertain the extent 
of the suljihur deposit, but tliey brougrht buck rieh specimens, 
whicli determined me to iiave tiie place surveyed, 'i'iiis giivo 
abundant troable, as will appear in duo time; the second 
attempt was a dead failure, and it was not till February l8th 
that 1 could obtain a satisfactory jdaa of tlic jdace. 

Meanwhile we were working hai-d at the discoveiy of the 
iiorthoru nuircli. A full account of oar ludicrous disappoint- 
ment h;i3 been given in the ' Land of Midiau (Revisited).' 
Suttice it here to say that a quartz vein emerging from and 
in close coatact with the green and red porpliyritie traps and 

plutonic outcrops of the Jebel el-Fahisat (^-^ i\*. ,'-<;^) yielded 

to the rudest cupellatiou some 2S per (lent. of metal, whicrh 
proved, however, to be iron not silver. But the block contains 
other ores; and it is in the most favourable condition for 
working: water and wood abound; the winds and tides are 
regular euough for mills, the distance of the quartz crest is 
hardly two miles from the little port, and a ht/t-hahn, or air- 
tramway, would discharge the ore into the ship's hold. In my 
lirst vohmie (cliap. xii.) I have incorrectly railed the "Jebel el- 
Fahisat," confounding it with a small red hill to the north uf 
our camp, El-Muzaydni, and this also is an error for El-Muzeudi 

( -^j -J -l U. The fonner, a long dark block running parallel 

with the shore, is flanked to the east by the Secondary 
formations, the Jebel el-Khuraj and others; beyond them, hoiv- 
ever, lies the similar plutonic formation, the Kalb el-Nakluh; 
and, still farther east, anotlier rises — the great maritime ivall 
of the Jibul el-Tihamah. The Fahisat seems to abound in ull 
manner of metals. The quartz form pushes northward veins 
distinctly cupriferous^ imbedded in grey granite. To the east 
of the block, distant about a mile, a|)peured tine micaceous 
iron, and more green quartz, of which a third deposit was 
found within a mile farther south. On the day before we left 
Makna (February 2). the Arabs brought in heavy masses of 
purple-black metalliferous rock scattered over the southeni 
gorges and valleys, while others dechvred that they could point 
out a rein in situ. Finally, red marUs in the stones suggested 

Jan. 26th. — At 11 p.m. set in a furious norther, locally 

called El-Ayli ( \J\), the 'Akabab - Aylah wind; whose 

efi'ects have been well described in Wellsted'a second volume. 
The storm began with a rush and a roar; tlie gravel striliing 
VOL. :;i.ix. n 

34 Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Alidian. 

tlie canvas sounded like heavy rain-drops, and it instantly 
levelled the two large tents. This gale makes the nir excep- 
tionally cold and niw before dawn ; it appears to abate between 
noon and sunset ; it either iiicrenses or lessens in turbulence 
with moonrise, and it usually lasts from three to seven days. 
The {riinboat Mukhhir fjot up steam by way of precaution ; but 
she rode out the 8torin in safety, as the northern reef and the 
heodhmd l\as el-'L'arah (the " surrouuder ") form a complete 
defence against " El-Ayli," whilst the natural pier to the 
south would have protected her from the Azyab.* 

It would have been fur different had the storm veered to 
the west and the terrible Gharbi set iu. The port of Makna, 
described in my first volume, can hardly bo called safe; on 
the other hand, its bottom has not been surveyed, and a simple 
breakwater — bundles of tree-trunks clamped with iron bamls, 
connected by strong rings and staples, and made fast to the 
bottom — would convert it into a dock. At any rate, on the 
opposite Sinaitic shore, at the distance of 13 knots, there is, as 
will appear, an admirable harbour of refiif:^e. 

The three normal days of El-Ayli had come and gone ; the 
storm continued ; yet the cloud-veil lifted, and the mountains 
of Sinai and Midian, which before had been hidden as if by a 
London fog, again stood out in sharp and steely blue. The 
sea, paved with dark slate, and dometl with an awning of 
milky-white clouds, patched here and there with rags and 
slireJs of black nimbus-mist tluxt poured westward from the 
Suez Gulf, showed us how ugly the '* Birkat'Akabah "can look. 
Meanwhile I boated ofl" to the MuMibir all the specimens 
brought down by the Expedition, and drew up instructions for 
Lieutfuant Yusuf und M. I'hilipin, 

At last, about midnight (Feb. '2), the tempestuous northerly 
gale, which had now lasted four days and four nights, ceased 
nlmost suddenly. The change was bailed with general joy. 
The travellers looked forward to ending their peregrinations ; 
while the voyagers, myself included, hoped safely to circum- 
navigate the Gulf el-'Akabah, and to trace, as correctly as 
possible, the extent, the trend and the puissance of the quarta 
formations. I have reason to think that large bands of " Mani " 
vein the " Old Red " of Petra, and that they may possibly extend, 
tmdcr the waters of 'Akabah, into the peninsula called .Sinai. 

IV. Bound the 'Akabah Gidf to El-MuwatdaL—Feb. 3rd.— 
Nothing becomes Makna better than the view on leaving it;t 

* In clasaical Arabic "Azyab" means calamity, a south wind or a sotith-oostert 
t In ' The Land of Midian (Reviaited),' a foil description of tlie scenery ia 
given in chap. \'ii. 

Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 35 

nor is there any better place for stadying the general aspect 
of the great gypsum formation. The Secondaries, before being 
upthnist, pierced and isolated by the later plutonic rocks, 
especially porphyritic trap, once extended over the whole 
region ; and formed dry land where sea and reefs now are. 
Here we see them in the whole segment of the circle, trending 
from El-]MiiW(iylah thronifh the scatter of ishuids to Makua, 
and thence to the north-eastern base of the Sioaitic peninsula. 
Thus the Gulf El-'Akabah, a depression probably caused by 
the upheaval of the igneous mountains, was in early ages a 
■VBSt level plain with broken platforms of gypsum, crossing 
diagonally from north-west to south-east, the northern third of 
the great inlet. M. Jilario (Keport) assigus four several epochs 
to the coast of Midian: 1. The primary, when the earth's 
surface, affected by secular cooling and eontraetiou, assumed ita 
present shape. 2. Secondary, sulphates and carbonates of lime, 
gypsum, chalk, plaster of Paris, marble and alabaster, rising to 
a maximum (?) of 120U feet above the surface. 3. Plutonic 
injections of red felsite, jasper and green porphyritic trap in 
solid masses and veins of all sizes cutting througa the granites 
and syenites ; and lastly, 4. The comparatively recent upheaval 
of the Ghats or coast ranges. 

In this part of my paper I shall dwell chiefly upon the 
changes to be made in the Admiralty Chart (Red Sea, Sbeet 1). 
It is incorrect to the last degree \ especially ujron the Siuaitic 
side, and its erroi-s have extensively infected popular works. 
The coast line peems to have been laid down from a Hying 
fturrey ; of course tlxe names are all wrong ; and, worst of all, 
the barbotirs are cither unmarked or wrongly marked. The 
naval oflicer, Ahmed Kaptan, who had been sent with us to 
take astro nymitial observations, unfortunately fell so ill that he 
was compelled to lay up. A correct survey of both cotists will 
bo a »iiie qua non when the mines an^- worked. 

At 9 A.M., after a long delay in fishing up the anchor, and 
in persuading the rotten old boiler to work, we stood over for 
theSinaitic shore, distant IS railed (direr-;! geog.); and we made 
Id three hours the Mai"sa or M'inat el-JJahab, the "golden 
anchorage " or " port of gold." This name is applied by the 
pilots, as by Burckhardt, only to the mouth of the Wady el- 
l)ahab, which above its gate becomes Wady el-Ghayh, draining 
the eastern flank of the so-called I\lount Sinai. It is a 
shallow sag, with a central line of [mlms, the usual branch 
huts inland, and wells of brackish water: it is afl'ected by 
. mftriners during southerly gales, because it is protected by a 
projection and a ledge of reef. Eiippell calls it " Minna;" he 
was then a sucking Arabist ; but his map, all things considered, 

D 1 

36 Burton '« Itineraries of tfie Second Expedition into Midian. 

is wonderfully correct. What the chart calls " Dabnh, gcKjd 
anchorage, sheltered from all winds," is known to all as M'inat 

Ginili ( Al^*** 80 called after the black mountain of 

}iorpl)yriti(! ti'ap rising ahnjptly behind it This dock ia 
defendf^l to seawards by a " sandy nook," a spit, curling like 
a shepherd's crook, that sweeps round from the east U> the 
Bouth-west, giving shtdter to tlie many Sambuks which frequent 
it during thc5 season wlum pearl-oysters are fished. All alou*]j 
this coast simikr coralliuu reefs serve to build the bvnd ; they 
are gradually covered with conglomerate, and converted into 
terra Jirma by the rubbish shot and shunted from the wady 
months — a process still actively carried on. 

Feb. 4if/t. — We set out northwards at 7 a.m., when an Azyab, or 
southerly wind, threatened a blow. After steaming two hours 

( = 7 knots) we landed a party at the Wady Umayyid ( ^y ^p 

" of the little pil!ar ") to inspect certain patches of whitish stone, 
of which a specimen had appeared above the black porphyritic 
gorge in the Jebel el-Uindi. Already in the Wady el-Dahab 
we had found watf-r-rolU'd pebbles of quartz, including the 
crystallised and the green or copper-stained; but not the 
immense variety common to the Arabian side ; nor could any 
veins be traced in the rocks. A fragment of liuiestonc, witii 
sharp angles, showed that its origin could not be fur distant 
The Bedawin, like those about the Cair^'ue pyramids, ignore 
the Midianite terms '' Marii " uuJ " ^larwah," t culling the rock 
Sntcan, properly speaking syenite, but popularly aj)plied to 
any hard stone, especially silex. Water-rolh^d fragmcnls were 
again found in this large Wady Umayyid, which extends a whole 
day inland ; but the white sheets^ flecking thu hills here and 
elsewhere, proved to be light-coloured chlorites and serpentines. 
From the mouth of the ]\[arsa el-E)ahab (proper) to tho 
Wady Wati'r (" of thu llill-truck "), the maritime range of Sinai 
is known as the Jebel e!-8amghi. And now the errors of the 
chart amaze us. The Ras "Arser," — what a name for a 

headland! — should be Htm Kusayr ( ^^j> ^ tlie small fort. 

"Cosseir"); moreover, it wholly wants that safe-looking land- 
locked nook to its north. The reality, a trifling projection, 
which is passed without remark, is backed by a mere rent in 
the hills, a short broad Fiujuara, called Umm ei-Afa'i (the 
" Mother i>f Vipers "). Bi.-yond it we passed at 12.30 P.M. 
(3 hours 20 minutes = 12 miles) a yellowish little buttress, the 

* From Juniia, boiug huuciibackecl, gibboue, 

t Si'ti put i, sect. iL 


Bttbton'^ Itineraries of the Second Exjtcditton into Midian. 37 

Tarayf el-Rih ("Little Facer of tlio Wind"), and ODother 
similar bluff lump of rook, whieli ako breaks the line. The 
larger of these two features is tho third and siMitbeminost 
projection of the western shore seen from the northern end 
of the Gulf. 

About 2 P.M. we were abreast of the line of palms, and the 

deserted huts which form the southern Nuwaybi' (•„, -, i ^Qt 

meaning tho little Naba' {" Spring "), Biirpkbnrdt (' Arabia,' 
p, 516) writes "Noweyba," without bis usual accuracy. Evi- 
dently this is the phice which the chart, callitis: it " Wasit," 
thrusts some 10 miles south of its sinjijlo " Nawibi ; " and 
where it shows an anchorage (/) of 12 fathoms, defended on 
the north by a projection of the coast. The water-pits and 
date-trees owe their being to the anast-omosis of two ivell- 
defined sandy Wadyp, issuing from their resjiwtivo gorges, the 
northern and the southern Wady el-Sa\leh. 1 he Jebel el-Su'deh, 
separating the two like a wedge, shows at its seaward base 
blots of manve-red <>\'orlyiiig dead-white clay (?). They extend 
along the left baidc of tho valley to the north as far as the 
foothills facing the shore. These are the first indications of 
the Secondary formation in " Sinai " ; farther north they 
appeared in force. 

After passing the southern Nuwaybi' we doubled a long 
sandspit, projecting far eastward, with a line of light-azuro 
wat^T, showing shallows at the apex. It protects from the south 
a fine deep buy, which is also well sheltered from the north by 
several lines of shallows. The loose sands, spn^ati over the 
reef, are so light and subtle that they are moved by every stray 
breath of wind. They liim the groimd, and liide the hills like 
a dust-storm in Sind. As usual in 'Akabah Gulf, tho water is 
so deep that a ship may ride within a few yards uf tho shore. 

This anchorage is called by the pilots "VVasit (Isu^liy the 

** Middle"), and it occupies the sontbern half of the bay; the 
northern moiety, witli its little creek and line of palms, being 
called the " Upper Nuwaybi'." The vegetation is fed by the 

large Wady MuzajTig (^(j ^ l^),* which vomits an exceptional 

mass of arenaceous matter to tho nortli. Tho chart places tho 
anchorage (10 fathoms) south of the main projection, when it 
lies on tlie other side. Wellsted (ii. laO) imperfectly describes 
'' Naweibi," one of his stations, as " a narrow slip of land 

• For Miizoyrij (short Towel), dim. of Mftzraj, to c. form of Zwj, « tumoU. 
Qoiao of horav'S. 


38 Rtthton'* IHnerariest of the Secovd ETpedi'tion into Midian. 

covered with date-trees. Beyoud this the country rises with 
a gradual sandy slope to the uistunce of 2 miles, wliea it meeta 
the lower undulations of the mountains." 

About Wasit thu palms are scattered, and the large saud- 
monnds threaten lo bury them ; already aeveral are waist-deep 
in it. Behind the hay, and distinctly visible from the other 

side of the Guli', is a great gash, the Wady Watir ( Ai.) ;* 

by which Syrian and other Christian pilgrims to Sinai make 
the monastery, Kiunding on camels the danf^erous northern 
third of El-'Aikabah. Tliis valley reeeives from the south, and 
distant one day's march, the Wady el-Hazrah (Hazeroth),t " the 
most beautiful and romantic landscape in the Desert" (Palmer). 
Prom the north it ia fed hy the Wady el-'Ayn, which can be 
reached in half a day ; at least so said the guide, Mabrilk ibn 
Suiayyira, the Muzayni, whom we had shipped at the last 
laudinjr-place. I was careful to check his information concern- 
ing the coast by making general inqoiries, and he was not found 
wanting. These valleys arc imperfectly shoivn in the chart ; 
bettor by Professor Palmer (' Desert of the Exodus '), who 
visited and described them. 

Anclioriiig under the Wasit sand-heaps at 3.30 p.m. (G hours 
30 minutes = t]0 miles), we made certain that the "Nawibi" of 
the chart utterly wants the cover of the northern sandspit, 
which, as has been said, Hes south of it. The Bedawin of all 
this coast are of the Muzayni tribe, a miserably poor and 
wretched, degi-aded lot. They live, like savages, on lish 
and Hh»'ll-tish, use catamarans of untrimmed palni-truuks ; 
drink briickish water, and sleep under the trees rather than 
repair the huts. Of coursi^ thoy are desperate beggars, as 
they are greedy,' idle, ami worthless. The twtt nieu and three 
women, who were waiting upon their few camels — no sheep 
were to he Irad — refused, without initiatory " bakhshish," to tell 
the site of ceilain rains in their hilLs, concerning which they 
discoursed or romancerl. JrJeyond Nuwaybi' to EI-'Akabah there 
is absolutely no population on the " iSinaitie " shore. 

Fth. ^tth. — At 6.30 A.M. we stood eastwards, to avoid the 

♦ "A iieeosKiiry " (tLiii;;) : " vvjitiru.t" woulil im-an a iniumiT, tnodit or woy, 
t The Itev. Mr. Hollaiiil (Pupur at i\w BrUi*h Aswwiiitiini mfeliuj; of 1878). 
•who biid walkc<] from W, Watir to R<w Moliaramed. disputes tho idftitity of 
Hozeroth and W. cl-HuzniL (of tliu "pursuer," or of "settled ubodea"). 
Ifo dcK.-8 not " believe it poaaiblo for tbi' lar^o Lost of tlie iHnioliteH to have 
travf>lk'd this way." The fuiiie may I'ti siiid of tiliuoat tliu wholn xoato during the 
lilxtxiiiii und tike wiuiderings : on tlie oue Imiid iha iigureij ((iO(J,OUU men, &c.) are 
amenoble to n very largo reduction. If two inilUrms of souls aro to trBVul 
through a desert without nturvution they (ravel by a. luimole, jiotbing Iuhs; aud 
it muttera nought whether tlie ro«ul f)e " piwisible '* or not. Hhould ruusson Iw 
lulmitted, wo rwluce at oacu tliu two millionii to twenty tlnjaeaQd. 

Burton'a Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Afidian, 39 

northern reefs and shallows, which had defended us during 
the night, and we passed the northern Nuwaybi', the little 
creek to the north-west of Wasit. From this {wint to the 
Gult-hetid a continuous Hue of shoal-water, subtcmding the 
coast, and coinpelliuj; ships to stand comparatively far out, is 
rightly set down on the chart. Presently the western seaboard 
entirely changed its dull, desolate, monotonous aspect. The 
view becjime essentially "Siuaitic," and unlike auytluu<^ I had 
seen, save and except only Iceland — to compare tAVO extremes 
that attempt to meet. The eye rests upon a screen showing 
one or more jilanes of bare and barren njcky walls and peaks, 
dim-brown and lifjlit-yeliow, contrasting strongly witn the 
bright bine sea. Its charms aro not those of the horizonless 
golden Desert ; of the fertile valley, of the fair iield. Neither 
stream nor forest diversifies it : " The tints aro thost; of sun- 
light on the i-olonied stones, and the outlines are the contours 
of tlie ro<.*k8." In the lowlands, and forming small sea-facing 
bliifl^, gleam rainbow lines, red and yellow, nianvo, purple and 
dull-white clays, the Brazilian Taua ; while inland, parallel 
with the shore, and peering above the granites, the syenites, 
and the porpliyries of the coast, rise the pale forms of the 
" Sinaitic " Shafah, the " Lip Mountains.'' Tlie name, unknown 
to the chart, is given to that section of the Eastern (" t^iunitic") 
Ghats which, begiiuiing at Wady Watir, passing the Jibal el-Sam- 
ghi northwards to the llajj-road, and even beyond El-'Akabah. 
The naked, squalid, ghastly hues, and the peculiar quoin- 
ahapes, at once disclosed the familiar Secondary fonuation of 
Miaianitish Makna. The guide called this ?ypsum by its Ara- 
bian name, EKt^ham* in opposition to El-Hazb, the sandstones. 
The latter word is explained further on. 1 was not surprised when 
shown a Jebel el-Kibrit, a taller form than its neighboure. It 
is probable that the brimstone deposits, like the copper silicate 
and the turquoises of Ziba, rounding the head of El-'Akabah, ran 
down the Arabian shore parallel with the African seaboard. 

After 1 hour (= 3^ knots) we passed the utiiraportant Has 
el-Mttlihah {*' 8alt-head "), sheltering to the north a little creek, 
and forming the southern buttress of a short, broad valley; up 
the latter, after an hour's walk, palms and a well of brackish 
water are said to be fouml. This is })robably the '■■ Amhaid," a 
name unknown to the pilots, which the chart places some five 
miles north of its " Nawibi." At 9 a.m., after 2 hours 50 
minutes from Wasit ( = *'^ knots by dead reckoning), we passed 
Bas el-Ramlah, the '* Sand'head " (not Abu Eamkh), a ruddy- 

* Bagbdm in oloasic Arabic means eoft aoil mixed witU tuind ; Ruklidni ie the 
muciu of ttUceiJ. 

40 Burton'.? Itineraries of the Second Fxjiedition into Midiatt. 

faced bluff with a cmvat of loose drift, covering the neck and 
making this second great projection from the western shore 
equally conspieuoua from the north, the south, and the western 
siaes. * Behind it lies the Wady Suwayr, which leads dii'ectly 
up to the Sulphur Mountain. 

Beyond the *Sand-head the '* Sinaitic " flank shows a novel 

formation, the hills of Abn Mogbra {] Ji^).* The word in 

Egypt means a ruddy or ochre colour ; it is especially applied 
to the horizontal bauds of red paint which alternate with white 
circles in the mosques and minarets of older Cairo — survivals 
of the brick courses still used to bind the stones. Abii 
Moghra is a wall of broken crests, red as tiles, and looking as 
if built up. Giude Mnbnik compared this " Hazb " f, w'ith the 
Hisma rof-ks, which are nothing but New Red Sandstone. A 
tall quoin of gypseous matter shows where the Egyptian Hajj- 
caravan, after rounding on retuni the northern end of the gulf, 
nighta at the 'Akabat el-JIisriyveli or Egyptian steep. This 
gap in the western wall of the Wady el-'Arabah is so called to 
distinguish it from the 'Akabat el-Shilmivyeh (Syrian steep), a 
similar formation on the Uaniascus-Medinah road, t»(> miles 
farther east, described by Burekhardt (Appendix III, ' Travels 
in Arabia,' " The H ad j -route from Damascus to Mekka"). The 
2sakb or Pass used to be dreaded by camel-riders before it 
! was repaired by Abbas Pasha. The Princess-mother of the 
first Khcdiv wjis the traditional " Pasha " who first mnde 
the pilgrimage in a carriage; but, according to accinints, tlm 
vehicle in many places was carried upon men's shoulders. f The 
Bedawin deny that the town "jVkabat-Aylali (Ehith) and the 
Gulf el-'Akabah t^ke their name from this feature : the words 
mean, they say, that the Red Sea "heels" (Ya'kkab el-Bahr), 
that is, comes to an end. 

Ahead of us, on the western coast, we saw upon the chart, 
exactly what is not in nature. The northern horizon, by no 
means a straight and almost unbroken line, is buuntled by a 
long white gypseous projection, the Ras el-Talxd»ah, which some 
call Tabakah and others Tabah. It completely hideu the Gulf- 


* From Magbor, a dark opaque rcddiah ooloor. 

t In classical Arabic Hazb ( , n tri^^ wonid be the plural of Hazbat, a rangs of 

mountains or hilLt, a Li^li steep, isolated ridge or cone, or a larpj projectinp rock. 
Here il weiun t«i be appliwl tn tlio n»d and ruddy sondHtonea fiuzaybat (Hudiiy- 
bat, Iho diminutive fomij muanii a " hiliot'k" in " Sinai " as well as in Midian. 

t A careful descTiption of the linw ia given iu Dr. fioke'a rotum journey fram 
"Sinai in Arabia." Tlio veteran travclltT and Lia ooinpaniou, tiowever, paid no 
attoution to Uio antiquitios on litlior >»ide of lUeni.und they passed by El-HawduH 
("* The BuiaH ") witbont even int^uiring tlie mt«niog n.f tlio word. 

BuBTON** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into J^Iidiatt. 41 

head ; and to the south of it projects a smaller point, also white 
and gypseous, known as El-Tuwaybah, the "little Tabah." 
There was scanty sign of the *' White C'ape," which on the chart 
is no cape at all. except a brown heatiland — perhups it may 
gleam bright in the sun — forming a eballuw bay, bounded north 
of the Ras el-Tabehah. 'Akabah ttuvn now appeare ofif tho star- 
board bow in the nsual phuj^e of a long line of pnhns. The 
guide gave tho nanieJelje! and Watly Unina el-Hay3'ah (*' Mother 
of the Snake ") to a heap and a watercourse on the left shore. At 

11.30 we steamed by the Wady El-Mukabbilah (^J^Ji^)? 

whose broad shunt is literally garnished with thorn-trees, and 
whose Ras or headland lurnis the fir-it great projection of the 
western coast as viewed from the northern Gulf-end. 

At 12,30 P.M. (0 hours = 22^ knots) we aTichored in the deep, 
narrow channel separating the "8inaitic" mainland from the 
northern one of tlie two island-^ in the 'Akubah Gulf, Strange 
to say, neitlier uf thcni appears in Keith Joiniston's folio. 
This scrap of rock is known to tho maps as Jezimt Fara'im, 
possibly from Senaferu of the First Dynasty, who conquered 
Mafkadand — the Cnuntry of the Turf|uoise — or ''Sinai"; and 
the moderns still preserve the Pharaohnic tradition. The vulgar 
term is Jebel el-Kahi'h, "Fort-liill;" Burckhardt {' Arabia,' 

y. 511) calls it Koreye ; Schubert, Kurayyah ; and Arconati, 
ezirat el-Qoreieh, evidently all corruptions of Kala'li. Schubeit 
also would here phiee mysterious Eziougeber. Riippell, who 
first Tisited El-' Akabah town, wliich many others, liurckhnrdt 
included, had faili^d to reacli, v^ivea '' Enirag," doubtless for 
Marakh, the name of a large Fiiunara on the western mainland, 
lying a short distance to the south. Beke (p. 350) has a fair 
sketch of his " Jesirat Fir'on," and quotes the Sailing Directions, 
which here may be trusted. I need not repeat my long de- 
scription of this lump of granite and its Mosfemised Crusading 
castJe; the latter possibly built upon older foundations.* 

Feh.G, — x\. day occupitiil in tinkering our tubes, and in survey- 
ing the castle, Avhich is much more ruinous than whcji sketched 
by Riippell in 1822. Wellstal's short description (' Arabia,' 
vol. ih chap, ix.) is still correet, as it was in 1838. 

Feb. 7. — We got up steam at 9.15 A.m. without an accident — 
very unusual ! Running up the deep, narrow channel, which 
must ho an excellent harlx>ur of refuge in the wildest weather, 
we rounded the nortliern end of the islet-rock. On the shore 
to port were the Tuway hali and the Tabehah Points ; the latter is 
faced by Daum-palms, and up its bed are said to be water and 

* See 'Tho Land of Midiaa (Bevisited),' okap. vii. 

42 BUBTON** Itineraries of the Second E.rpf>dition iido Midian. 

date-clumps. Then came the broad mouth of the Wady el-Misri 

(Egyptian valley), at whoso hRud is the Nakb el-'Akabah. This 
is the Wady el-Musry uf \\ni chart, which Beke (p. -^(50) has 
called the Wady el-Mahascrat — raeaniDc; of '* hemmiupj in," 
or "driving into a comer" (p. 491). Tn its liraestone holes he 
found reason to identify it with thcExodieal statiou Pi-ha-hiroth, 
or "entrance to the eaverna," Wo thence .struck across the 
Gulf-end, and at 10.50 A.M. {— 1 hour 3.5 minutes = 7 miles), 
we ancliored in twelve fathoms water off the Fort el 'Akabah. 

Mr. John Milne, k.g.s, (p. 5:17, Geological Notes, &c., 
Appendix to Dr. Beke's * Sinai in Arabia '), Ims the follow- 
ing: remurkii upon the subject of a canal between 'Akabah 
and tLe Dead hsea. "Should this ancient Gulf be restored 
(vvliich would apparently be an eni^rinecring work far less 
difficult than the recently-constructed treneh between Suez 
and Port tSaid), Jerusalem, Damascus (?), and other Syrian 
t^iwnR wouhl again be in commuiiiratioii with the Indian 
Ocean, and ileets like those of Suluinon {]) might, ply up and 
down the now entirely deserted Gulf of Akaba," Does this 
savaut reflect that he simply proposes to swamp the whole lower 
Jordan? to bring Tiberias iind its hike about ti20 feet below the 
sea surface ? in fact to over\s-helm half the " Huly J^and " in a 
nineteenth-century deluj^e ? 

The rest (»f the day was passed iu receiving visits from 
the oiticials, including Mohammed bin J^d el-'Aluwi (of the 
'Alawiyyan-lluwaytat) who styles himself *" Shaykh of El- 
'Akabah," and whose tribe is recognised as the lawful owners of 
the laud upon which Sultan Selirn Khun el-Fiitih (the Con- 
queror) built his ibrt. Uuder his guidance we taudrd at the 
mouth of the bay, where ruins still show the site of ancient 
Elath, the port of the Nabathiean capital, Petra, distant up the 
Wady ol-*Arabah only two days of dromedury-riding. The 
people declare that the old city extended all round the Gulf- 
head front north-west to north-east, where the modern settle- 
ment lies. Linant and Laboi-de (' Voyage de i'Arabie Petree, 
&c.,' Paris, 183H) confine it to the western shore, and, like 
Schubert, place Eziongeber facing it. Amongst the tumuli we 
found scoria;, old and new, showing that metal was also worked 
here ; and a fine specimen of " Maf ka " or copper-silicate from 

the " Sinaitic" Wady Raddadi ( ^-^^^ ,) suggests the kind of 

ore treated by the Mutakaddimin, or " IMen of Old." 

And now to tell the tale of the *' true Mount Sinai." On the 
eastern shore of the gull, south of the town, the two-fold chain 
** Jebel el-Sharaf," uuder whose jagged crests the Hajj-Caravan 
weuds its painful way to avoid the mountains Tayyil* Ism and 

Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 43 

El-Mazboi'eh, that sit with their feet in the sea, sweeps round 
from 8.S.E, to N.N.w. and c;oah)sce8 into a single range. This 

line, the Jfbdl el-Shura' ( - \ *_}, the Mount Seir (the 

Rugged) of Hebrew Writ, trending iiortliwards, presently 
becomes the huge eastern wall of the \V' ady el-'Arabali. A little 
beyond EI-*Akubah, and draining through the settlement, is 

the Wady el-Yitm ( ^^)' a corruption of " Yatm " or " Yutm " 

(solitude, orphanage, separation), which allows easy access 
to the Hisma. Burckhardt, usually so correct ill his names, 

first miscalled it (^\ . ^^L) "Ithm" ('Arabia,' p. 511), and 

described it as " leafling eastwards towards Nedgod." Walkn, 
as will appear further on, preferred " Wadi Lithin," another 
evident error. Its right-hand buttress, the Jebtd el-Yitm, forms 
the apex of this part of the chain. It is a remarkable fpiiture, 
not only for its height, commanding, they say, ft view of Mounts 
Tor (" Sinai ") and Ilor (Aaron's lomb), but also for its threefold 
finial of domes and pinnacles. Hence the Bfidawin, who always 
Bttach some modern legend to places wliich strikti the eye, 
jdimb it at certain times and make sacrifice at the tomb of an 
obsc^ure sunton, Shaykh Bnkir (" wiio rises betimes "). 

" Hither," said Mohumraed bm Jad, " came an old man and a 
young man, in a steamer belonging to H.M. the Kbediv. The 
former told the Arabs that in his books the Jebol •■l-Yitni was 
called in his books the Jebel el-Xiir, or the Mountiiiii of Light, 
and the latter climbeil to the mountain-top. After which thoy 
posted away." 

1 quite agree with my lamented friend, Dr. Beke, that we 
have still to find the " true Mount Sinai." If anything of the 
kind exists, it is probably some mount or hill in the Nejeb 
(Negeb), the south country of the days of Abraham or still 
farther south, near the base of the Sinaitic Peninsula, the desert 
calk'd, by moderns, after the " Wandfrings."* The pro- 
loundest Egyptologist of our day, Dr. Heinrich Brugsoh-Bey, 
observes that the recognised site lies south of, and far from the 
line taken by the Bene Israel; and that the papyri show no 
regular route leading anywhere iu thnt direction. Many, also, 
have remarked that the Sinai of the Exodus is a single isolated 
mountain or hilknotone projection from a long range of heights. 
I would further suggest tliat the beat proof of how empirical is 
the present identification will be founrf in the fact that neither 
the old Israelites nor the modern Jews have ever visited, or 

• See note at the end of this section. 

jUBTOnV Tiinsraries of the Second Erpedition into Midian, 

now make pilf;rimu2:e to, tlie spot which ought to be one of 
their Lolieat ot " Holy Places." It is evident that Jebel Serbul 
dates its honours only from the earlier ages of Koptic 
Christianity (fourth wntury) ; whilst its Greek riyal Jehel 
Miisa, the moutitidn uf Mosps (the Bishop?) is even younger. 
The :i[»ptMil to tnulitinn must he viiiu when the oriler nf eiie- 
cession luul "uiii^ratiou of holy places" is: 1. J. Serial (Copts, 
IJurckhardt, Lepsius) ; 2. J. Miisi'i (Greeks, Helena, Justinian) ; 
n. J. Kateriim (Biippell ILtth eentury) ; 4- J. Safsafah (Robin- 
son, tlitto). The Great Law-giver prohahly marehed his few 
familiw of fn;ritive slaves over the phiius of El-Tih north nf 
the so-ealli'd 8inai, and up AVady Yitui to tlie Nejeb or south 
country, in small divisions Idee tliose of a modern Bedawi 
tribe ; and wo knoiv from the latest surveys that the land, now 
u fiery ami frozen wilderness, w»is once comparatively well 
supplied with vvt)od and water. Dr. Bcke is right in denying 
that the 'Olouutaiu of the Law" is the site at present chosen 
for it, hut I caunot believe that he has found it in the Jebel 
ol-Yitm near 'Akabah. 

A few words concerning this Yitm, Walliu's " Wadi Lithm."* 
He makes it a cross valley opening through the maritime 
chain at about S hours = 24 miles, north of E1-' Akabah: the 
mouth is hardly a mile north of the fort, and the distance 
to the h(Mid in the llisuiii. is two t.hoit stages. He is right in 
stating that the mountuiii-range from the Yitm to -Syria, 
fornaing the eastern wall of the valley El-'Arabah, is universally 
known as the Jebel £l-J^liara; the 8a'ar of the hieroglyphs 
and the JFoDot Seir of tiie Hebrews. But he is wrong in 
supposing (p. 'AiH')) thu coast lowlands of jVCadyan Proper (north 
Hidian) to be '' knewn l>y ui> other name tlian that of El-Sahil," 
the shore. All the Ik-dnwin use tlie term "Tiliainat Madyan," 
The former word nuians a country enclosed by mountains, and 
geuerully with an uidiealthy and oppressive climate; while 
TahamJih, in these lands at least, is a modifir-ation confined to 
the Ulaazah tribe. In the Kannis, of Firozabadi (nat. A.D, i:l28, 
ob. A.D. 1414), "'iahnia" or '" Tuliiimuh '' is translated "land 
sloping towards the sea," opposed to "Tihiimah," or lowland in 
general. Th<> word therefore is classical, and Wallin seems not 
to knew that when the Hedawi of Taif tohl him the inhabitants 
call "Tiljiiinah " what other Arabs call *' Ilijdz " the inl'ormant 
alluded to the "Tihamat el-Hejaz," or maritime lowland of tbo 

El Madaini informs us that the whole mountain-chain, ex- 
tending JVinu Yemen idong tlie Bed Sea to }>yria, in fact the 
western Gliats of Atubia, is called El-llejaz. Tlie term ailopted 


• See ' Journel Roynl Geograpliicat Soowty,' vol. x.\., 1850. pp. 302. 30G. 

Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 45 

by Goli'ns (Notse; p. 98); by Niebiilu- (Description, &c., p. 
160); and by Caussin de Perceval {Essai mr ruistoire, ^c) ; 
is utteiiy luikiiuwu to modern Arab usage. Similarly Ibn 
Ayas names the range " El-Shera " through its whole extent. 
Wallin may be right in making the eastern boundary of El- 
Hejiiz a lino drawn from Tuif, via El-Medinah, to El-IIijr (or 
rather the Wady Hamz) ; but he is wrong, at least regarding 
present cu-stoni, to exelude I'roiu it tht? twu lirst-nauied towns. 
Aguio \lv is mistaken when he asserts "if the line be continued 
northwards from El-Hijax, alung the course of the eastern 
parts of the Shefah chain as far as Wadl Ijithm (Yitm), it will 
mark the eastern limit of the land to which the Bedawin now 
give the name of El-Talianitih." The Bedawin draw the Hue 
carefully between the Shafah and the maritime range; and thus 
the sequel from the Coast eastward would be ; — 

1. El-Sahil, or El-Tihamah, the coast plain. 

2. .Tibal .jl-Tihamah, the "Ghats." 

3. Kl-8haJal(, boundtiig the Tihilmah to the east. 

4. El-Hismd, the eluvated strip of sandstone plain. 

5. El-Harrah, the line of plulonic action. 

Finally Wallin is quite right when he asserts that El-Hejaz, 
El-Tihiimah and El-Shura "were originally specific names for 
differ<nit parts of this region, and that they have been extended 
by dilferent authors to the whole of it." 

Whilst we examined the Fort, Mr. Clarke and Ali Mario 
busied themselves with buying up such st<.ires as El-'Akubah 
contains. I also made arrangements for u <lromedary-post, and 
MTOte oflicially to Prince llusayn requesting that 11.11. would 
exchange the Mukhhir for a steamer less likely to druwi» herself. 
Moreover the delay at Maghair iShu'ayb bad exliaiisted our 
resources ; and the Expedition urgently wanted a mouth s 
additioual rations for men and beasts. The ap[tiication was, it 
will be seen, granted in the most gracious nmnner; and the 
orders were carried out with as little deluy as possible. Messrs. 
Voltera Brothers were also punctual and satisfactory in for- 
warding another instalment of necessaries and comforts. For 
this postal service and by way of propitiatory gitts Shaykb 
Mohammed received !^1U, of which ip'J. were probably disbursed ; 
consequently we parted fast friends, ho giving me an especial 
invitation to his house in the Hisma, and I accepting it 
with the firm intention of visiting hun as soon as can be 
managed. The officials of the Fort, who stayed with us to the 
last, were profuse in kind expressions ; and in little gifts which, 
as usual, cost us double their ^vorth. 

I now resolved upon hastening back, with all speed, to El- 

46 liURTON'^ Itineraries of the Second ETjmUtion into Midian. 

Muwaylah, tinishing by the wav our hitherto successful task of 
qnartz-prospectiug on the 'Akabah Gulf. We had already twee 
heeu prevented by circumstance's from visiting the Hisma, and I 
was detennined to devote all our energies to the exploration. 

Feb. Sih. — The morning was floudy, misty, rainy : to the 
north-west and south-west we saw — rare thing in arid Arabia — 
two rainbows at one time. We set oiT, at 7.30 a.m., along the 
Mjuuntain-wall of El-8harii, which, alter about three railed, trends 
away to the south-east ; tlius difiering from the 8inailic side 
where the roek-curtuin liugs the shore. The interval is a 
broad and sandy tilope, here and there streaked with dark ridges 
extending from tbe Gulf to the highlands. For the " elevated 
stony plain grudiially rising from tlie sea" of the chart, read — 
•' sandy ledge and occasional outcrops of rock, cut by a network 
of huge W'adys which unite near the shore, declining from the 
Jebel fl-Sbarii, and from those of EI-Tihamah." Evidently 
the highlands aro primitive, but a wliito and jiurplc patch seen 
from alar suggests a remnant of the Secondary. 

After 2 hours 45 minutes, steaming at the rate of 4h knots 
an hour, we ran (10.30 a.m,) into the fine-looking but open 

and treacherous bay of Hagoul (Hakl Ij^ ).* 13 direct 

geographical miles from El-'Akabah. This is the ^AyKoKij, 
which rtoh^my (vi. 7. 2) places amongst his oppida mediter- 
ranean in N. lat. 28^ 45' (true 29° 13'), between Madiama 
(MaSu//ia) or Ulaghair Shu'ayb, iu N. lat. 28° 15' (true 28'' 28'), 
and MuKva, the modern Makna or Madyan, in 38° 45' (true 
28*" 24'). We had lieard of ruins iu this place, and a '' written 
stone" to the south; but we could hardly expect anything 
more int*?resting than at El-'Akabah ; and the M-idchhir was so 
handled that she appeared to have every chance of scraping 
acquaintance with the reefs and shores. I therefore ordered 
the »>arobuk to touch at Makna, and to embark the specimens 
left by Lieut. Yusuf on the shore ; whilst the steamer continued 
her voyage southward. 

The Arabian coast-line is here simpler than that of Sinai, 
and, consequently, the chart had a better chance in all things 
" barring " philology. A rounded projection separates El-Hakl 

from tLe Mai'si'i ei-Humayzuh ( a J^ .^^ ). so called from a 

grass eaten by animals, and not to he couibunded with Humayz 

( 1 -1'^) > the Egyptian form of fiummaz { ^\ . ^)> wild 

florrel. It is entitled El-Kabir (the Great), in order to dia- 

* In Arabic the word moans rich arablt land, or tilling the land — lienoe the 
corrupted Greelc '' Anmilf ." 

Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. Al 

tingiiish it from anotlier feature to the south. Thti broad 
month of the Wady shows two lines of palms, one near the 
right bonk, uud the other iu the middle, where the froud-huts 
stand. After 6 J miles from El-Hakl, and nearly 20 from 
El-'Akabah, we steamed along the islet El-Humayzah, which the 
siirveyore have ahoniiiiably perverted to "Omeider:" from it 
the lias el-Kamlah beara 273' (mag.). 

South of tlie islet, and separated by a point of yellow sand, 
is an «?xteasive inlet, the Ghabbat Humayzah : it is not on the 
chart, although Wellsted (ii. 138) speaks of the "capacious 
bay of Goohut HomaJdah " The black trap hills of the shore 
here form a broken circle, wdiieh, on the up-voyage, we had 
taken for a volcanic crater ; and the valleys of the Arabian 
interior seemed from the ship to run 110" (mag.) ; * whilst those 
of Sinai trend to 1;J0 . Beyond this outbreak, again, two wady- 
mouths form shelters for native craft; and innumerable dry 
Finmaras meet and intertwine, dotting the sand with shrubs, 
whilst a mass of reefs outlies the shore. By day this Sahil 
("shore-traet") is dr}', dusty, and ghmng enough; only for a 
few minutes at even-tide it becomes a beautiful 8j>ectaele, an 
enchanted scene, when the setting sun stripes it with broad 
bars of purple and gold. Farther south, as wo approach tho 

Slace of the Bir el-Mashi (" Well of the Walker "), where a 
esert-track leads to the Wady Marsha, the hills become smaller, 
and, approaching tlie sea, directly discharge into it their 
rubbish. Tlie next feature is tho grand massif, the Jebel el- 
Mazhafeh, whose length is appunmtly disposed perpendicular to 
the coast-line. Its Hve blocks, becoming taller and larger as 
they run iuland, •■iilminate in a topmost pinnacle to the east: 
the lower cliffs fall clear into the sea, forming quaint black 
gorges and ugly caverns, like those which break the precipices 
of the Northern Ocean. 

We passed an ugly night, onr third since leaving Suez, and, 
of these, two were, under the circtirastances, really risky. At 
4 P.M., the norJher again began to show its nasty tenijuT, and, 
about an hour aiterwards, the speed was reduced from 4J to 
3 knots, lest we should reach the Bughaz, or Straits of the 
'Akabah Gulf, Ijefore dawn. At 7.30 p.m., we could see, under 
a moon :»pproaching iier first quarter, the Smvayhil (" Little 
Shore "). and its ancliorage-ground, in the sund-tract vomited 
by the Wady that divides Tayyib Ism from El-Mazhafeh. Finally 
about midnight it was necessary to turn the gun-boat's head 
northwards, in order to ride out the furious gale- 

the gnii 
J"), but 

tain of Gr»pe8 "), rnit wh coiilf) not lay dnvm its adte. 

48 Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

Ffcl). 9tk. — Despite the storaiy weather, we passed safely out 
of the 'Akahiih gate, and atiehored under the southern side of 
the Tiraii Islaml. 

Feb. liUh. — We examiDcd Tirsin Island : a ver)' curious 

Feh. llfh. — After Ihe narrowest possible espnpo from ship- 
wrwk, wo run into the line natural hurlx)ur of Sinafir Island. 

Feb. 12/'//. — Th<.' gale coutiuuitiir, we s1iu:k to Simitir. 

Feb, 13f//,— We ran i'roni Sinallr to El-Mnwayluh, 50 knotSj 
and 5 to G more to our old unfhorajjp, the Shartu Yuliarr, a total of 
10 hrs. Concerninrj these five days nothing more need be said ; 
the events were personal ; my little geography was done, and 
the return is described, at full length, in my last volume. 

Our journey through North Jliihan ('.Miidyan Proper) had 
lasted f>4 days (Dcceml.ier IS), 1877, and Felmiary 13, 1878). 
During nearly two months the Expt- fiition had coven-d only 106 
miles of ground ; this, however, does not include the various 
by-trips made by the members, which would more than double 
thn total, nor the cruise round the villainous Meer-biiseii. of 
'Akabah, The number of camels varied from 10-1 to 60, and 
the total hire, including " bakhshish," amoniiteil, accoriling to 
Mr. C Ularke, our muuagiug luau, to a total of 3l\iL 148. od. 

Note on tiie "True Mount Sinai." 

After these pages were written, I rend extracts from an 
interesting paper published in the Jewish Monatschrifi for 
August 1878. Dr. Graetz, the author, li«.s attempted to deter- 
mine the site of Sinai and Uoreb by argiimenta j>urlly Biblical 
and partly topographical. He observes that the texts (Deut. 
xxxiii. 2; Judges v. 4-5; and Hiibak. iii. 3) distinctly point to 
i>eir, or Edom, rather tluin to the peninsula now called Sinai ; 
uls<^i that the first of tlie stuttons after leaving " Mount 8inai " 
was the wilderness of Paiuti, in which lay Kadesh (Deut. xxxiif. 
2). The Hebrews, when asking leave of the Pharaoh to go 
and worshij) theii- God, specified three days as the length of 
the journey. Dr. Graetz fixes the "Mountain of Law" on 
Jebel 'Aniif, '* which out-toiis all the other mountains of the 
neighbourhood : it is surrounded by table-hiud, and there are 
traces of the Ibnced inclosures of a primitive people, probably 
the Amalekites" (Palmer), No wells were found, so that the 
Israelites at the neighbouring llephidim might easily sufiTer 
from thirst. In Judges v. the poet speaks of Sinai as if it 
were known — "This" (or yonder) -Sinai." The prophet 


See 'The Laud uf Mldinn (l(ovij»iU'i!),' uhHji. viii, 

is represented as readily reaching it from Beersheba 
and Kadesh. I>r. GvixetT. makes the Yunim Suf (Sea of Weeds 
or papyri), not Sirbouis (Brug^ch), nor 'Aliabab (lioke), but the 
Timsah water or the Bitter Lakes, in early ages the undlonbted 
head of the Gulf of Suez; and thus his Exodus would lie to 
the N.N.E, of Egypt, The wbole paper should be read, as 
the author inn^eniously accounts for tne topographical errors of 
Biblical students which have lasted for bo many generations. 
The subject has been exhaustively treated in ' The Hebrew 
lligratioti from Egypt' (London, Triibner, 1879). A good 
Tesult to be expected from these various opinions is that 
presently " Mount Sinai " will disappear into that region of 
myths, the land of Meru and Olympus and Meroe, from which 
it emerged during the first centuries following the rise of 

Part U. 
TJie March through Eastern or Central Midian. 

1. Work in and around El-Muwaylah. — At Eblluwaylah, 
where the Expedition found itself onee ninrn united, I lost no 
time in receiving the reports of Lieut. Yusuf, M. Philipin and 
Shaykh Furayj, concerning the soutliern Jebcl el-Kibrit, and 
their march from Makna. Tlioir details of tlio Sulphur Hill are 
not worth chronicling, but tho itinerary is. 

About 8 A.M. (Feb. (J) the camp set out from tlie old town of 
"Madyan," with all the Shaykbs whose presence was tifljrially 
required by tlie Ha[j-caravau at the I'ort. A total of 34 
camels was charged for, if not employed. Tho line led up the 
Wady Makna, before described, and presently struck the Wady 

Mu'aytan ( A^jc^) between the Jebel el-Mab'iig east, and 

the Fabisat Rock on the other side. In tho flanks of the 
latter, as has been said, they found fine micaceous iron, and two 
deposits of green " marii," showing copper. The quartz, 
indeed, lasted the whole way to the Soufriere; and hills of 
white gypsum were seen all along the road. After a total of 
2^ miles they struck the great Wady el-Kharaj, before men- 
tioned as bounding the Fabisat block to the east. At 9.17 A.M., 
after a total of 3f miles, they left it on the north, and turned into 

a branch, the Bark el-Jemel ( \ ^-ciU ^ j), or " Surprise of 

the Camel." A few minutes more led them to the Wady and 
Jebel el-Ivish, alii Kiahuh (" of the Feather," here not an unusual 


50 BdetonV Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

name) : it is a collection of various-coloured liillocks described 
as plutonic, risinjG^ out of the Secondaries: possibly it may be 
88 rich as the Faliissit, After 1 hour ( = 2| miles) up the Bfsh 
valley, they left the caravan to take the direct road to 

'Ayminah, ascended the Wady Musayr ( ^^ ^.^). and again 

turned off into a branch Shn'b, or Nakb. This ugly, narrow pass 
placed them at their destination aboiit l.UO p.m., having tra- 
velled 4 hours 20 minutes (-9 miles). 

They ascended the bill after tithering their animals so 
badly that Furayfs dromedary broke loose, and 3[. Philipin's 
mule at once followed its example. Specimens were nur- 
riedly collected, and the inspection lasted only ten minutes. 
They then left the place at 2 p.m., and hastened to follow the 
caravan, fearing^ not to catch it bi-fove nightfall. Pureuing 
their way up the Wady Musayr, whose head was reached in 
an hour, they crossed a broad Fiumarn, the Wady el-Wagab 

(i__^ ), numing south-west to the sea. Then passing over 

to Wadv Nakhil, and other beds, they camped at G P.M. in the 
Wady Abii Zufrah ("of theZafrah plant " = Iphiona iwahra). 
On the next day (Feb. 7) they feil into the Wady Jiyal 

( U ^>s^ , that is, " of Circumambulating "), a kind of sink, whose 

pahn-grounds extend about a quarter of a mile, and whose wells 
and rain-pools are too brackish to drink. 11 J miles distant 
from 'Aynunah, it looks from that station like a long, thin 
tongue of sand. This is the Brumien el-Gear, which Euppell 
(p. 231) places 4 stuiule (?.s.w. of his Thai Beden. Thence they 
passed into the Wady 'Afal, whoso af<|uaintanco we had made 
at Mnghair Shu'ayb; and, after marching over a low, sandy, 
and nul!ah-cut maritime plain, they struck the Hajj road. 
'Ayniinah was made in 4 haurs 40 minutes, a total of 9 hours 
from lilakna. The general diroi-tion of the march lay to the 
B.s.K., and the vSulphur Ilill w<\s to the west of it. 

This work was very <-arelessly done. Ten minutes do not 
suffice for a detailed plan. Moreover, I learned nothing con- 
cerning the extent of the deposit ; the existence of wood and 
water ; the distance from the coast ; and the best harbour of 
exp-irt. I also wanted sj>eeiniens from the Jebol el-Fayniz, the 
so-called turquoise-hill, to which a flying visit had been made 
by Commander Ahmed during our northern march; so Lieut. 
Yusuf was again sent northwards, with orders to bring home 
careful ly-drawn maps, plans, and sketche:?. His party, cou- 
sisting of three soldiers, three quarrymen, an Arab guide, 
Jazi, and eight cnmels, left El-Muwayluh early on Feb. 18, 


BdbT0N*5 Itineraries of (lie Second Expedition into Alidian. 51 

and ia 11 hours reached the .Tebel oLFara', or northern 
" Turquoise "-hill of the Arabs. He there passed a day, sprang 
two mines, made a plan of the diggings, and generally eonlimied 
the report of Ahmed Kuptan, except that no signs of work were 
found. These veinlets, scattered at uncertain intervals in 
the rockj confirm tbe idea that the material is silicate of copper, 
certainly very rich, as some epecimens, when tested, yielded 
40 per cent. ; but probably limited in extent. Finally, two 
camel-loads (four sacks) of the malachite-like rock were sent 
under the charge of a soldier to the Fort el-Muwaylah. It 
ia possibly the "Snianigdus Cyprius" which Thoophrastiis 
mentions as being found ia the copper-mines of our latest 
acquisition, Cyprus. 

On the next day (Feb. 21) Lieut Tusuf struck the Wady 
'Aynooah after 2^- miles; and, turning to tlie left, or west, of 
a straight line drawn thence to Makna, entered a country new 
to travellers. Leaving to the right the Wady Mukhassab 

( i^^^^ i^), and its llamirah or red hill, be crossed the 
plain subtending the seaboard, here a succession of broad 
watercourses, the Wudys El-Huraybah i^Jb)' "^^ ^« ^"^^ 
War," Dakk el-'Erin ( .,jt]\ ;3), the " Pounding of cooked 
Meat," and Abii Kusaybah ( a ■■,^< ). "of the Reedlet." Ho 
found the great Wady 'Afal disem boguing into a portlet, the M'inat 
el-'Ayanat (,^\j\_^), "of springs," useful to Sanibuks; it has 

a sickle-shapxl natural breakwater like that of Siuaitic 
Ginai, curving from west to south, and resembling the 
curious features so common on the north-western coast of 
Iceland. He then crossed the Wadys Giyal (Jiyiil), before 

described, the Zaramah (^^ ^), " of the Lavender," the Abu 
Zufrah (^v ^), "of the Iphiona," and the 'Ishsh ; nighting at 

the latter after a march of 7 hours 40 miuutes ( = 23 miles). 
On the next day (Feb. 27) the travellers, starting early. 

crossed the Wadys Sanam i V. ) el-Hamar, and Wagab 

(Wajb), about which is the oft-mentioned Klinht or grazing- 
gTOuncl. From the last-named watercourse they entered a 
detile, devious, barren and rocky ; the diflieulties of the camels, 
however. lasted only for about 10 minutes, and the impedi- 
ments were easily removed by the soldiers and the miners. 
An hour of this pass placed hini at the Jebel el-Kibn't after a 

E 2 

52 Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

march of 5 hours 35 miautes (= 16f miles). The total distance 
from 'Aynunah was thus 39f miles in 11 hours 15 minutes, 
which appears to me excessive. 

Lieut. I usufa two joumala, checking each other, his survey 
and his specimens eaublo me t^D describe this Soitfriere with 
more or less accuracy. The hill is a long oval of 440 yards 
(east-west) by a maximum of 200 (north-soutli) : the first plan 
gave it a diameter of only 130-1 GO yards. It extends, how- 
ever, branches in all directions; the mineral was also found in 
a rounded pifon, a knob in tlie Wady Musayr attached to the 
north-eastern side. The flattened dome is 50 fiO feet hijsrh, 
and tlie 2«<o« 110. The metal, imdei'lying a dark crust, 5 or 
inches thick, appears like regular crystals and amorphous 
fragments of pure brimstone in the chalky sulphate of lime. 
This gypsum was ascertained to extend all over the adjacent 
hills; and the important point, which now remains for de- 
termination, is whether sulphur-veins can bo f<jund diffused 
throughout this non-plutonic formation. No blasting was liere 
required ; the soft rocks yielded readily to the pick. 

Lieut. Ynsuf fixed his position by climbing the adjacent 
hilla Thence Sinafir ♦ bore 190", and Shu'shu' • 150^ (both 
mftOTetic). Greater elevations to the west shut out the view 
of lofty Tin'tn, and even of the iSinaitic rauge ; but he had 
roasou to think that the sea-shore to the south lay at a distance 
oi only 3-4 miles (geographical). The nearest water reported 
to bo in the Wady el-Nakliil to the north-east, was at 2 nours' 
march (=5 miles) with loaded camels. 

On Feb. 23 the party set out for the M'inat Hamdaa 

( . i^iX*^.)) b'"^8 between Makna and Dabbah : the distance is 

9 miles; and 35 minutes were occupied in threading an ngly 
rocky pass. The cove is a port for ^ambuks; defended, like, 
the roadstead of " Madyau-town," by high ground to the 
north. Thence the road led southwards along the shore for 
1 hour 5 minutes ( = 3^ miles) to Sharm Dabbah, the "Sharm 
Dhaba, goo<l anchorage," of the chart. Possibly one of the 
many excellent pjrts mentioned by Procopius,! it is now 
barren and broken by masses of reels and shoals. The head 

receives the Wady SLa'ab el-Gann ( ,\mj), "Watercourse of the 

Ravine of the Jinns," flowing from a haunted hill of red stone, 
near which no Arab dares to sleep. From that point the travel- 

• In Arabic "Suuifir" would be " pure" or '■ unmiiod" ; but I prefer referrinr 
tbe name to Pbaraoh Sesoferu. Sbu'ahu' ia npitareatly corrupted from Sba'aLa , 
tbe "long (tttl&udj." 

t See vol. i. p, 323. 

Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian, 53 

lera struck south-east for 9^ miiea to Ghubbat Suwayhil, the 
"Gulf of the little Shore," Tliis roadstead, also useful only 
to small native craft, lies eastward of the lonj^ point, Kas 
fcshaykii Ilamid, the " Ras Fartak " of the chart, which forms 
the Arabian staplo of the 'Akabah " gate," and whore the coast- 
line of north Midiau bends at a right an^Ie eastward. Adjoin- 
ing it to the east, and eeparated by a long thin spit, ie the 
Ghubbat el-Wagab (Wajb), the mouth of a watercourse simi- 
larly named: it is also known to the Katirah, or smaller 
vessels, smd about a mile up its bed, which comes from the 
north-east, there is a well of potable water (?). According to 
Jazi, the guide, this " ghubbat, ' distant only 4--5 hours of slow 
marching from the Sulphur llill, would bo tho properest place 
for shipping produce. Such details will prove useful when 
the Eulphur-mines of nortli fliidian shall be ripe for working. 

From the Ghubbat cl-Wagab the track, easy travelling over 
flat ground, strikes to the uorth-east ; and, after 14^ miles, joins 
the 'AjTuinah Suhani or highway. On February 2dth, at the 
end of nine days' work, Lieut. Yusuf returned to EI-3Iuwaylah 
with two eacks of sulphur-bearing chalk, justifying his former 
report. As will appear, the main body of the Expedition was 
still travelling through the interior. Having halted for rest at 
El-Musvaylab, he rejoined us on the route from Ziba; and I 
again found occupation for him. 

At the Sharm Yabarr, immediately upon our happy return 
(February 18th), preparations began for a march to the Hisina. 
'I'his word, which will often recur, in pure Arabic ends witli 
** Ya-alif," and means a plain in the desert whose mountains are 
rarely free from dust. The Shaykhs and the carael-men, how- 
ever, dreading a rough reception from their hereditary foes, 
the Beni Ma'azah, threw in my way a variety of small obstacles, 
which were not removed without time and trouble. Meanwhile 
we carefully examined our harbour of refuge. In its northern 
feeder the Wady el-Harr (" hot Water-course "), of which possibly 
Ydbdrr is a corruption, we were shown some fine specimens of 
oligistic iron and admirably treated modern (?) slags : evidently 
some gypsy-like atelier must once have worked here. The 
obsidian also has apparently been subjected to artificial heat ; 
and a splinter of it contains a faHldte of free copper, Tw« 
beds of oysters were discovered ; and, armed with tnis know- 
ledge, we afterwards found them in every bay. A small col- 
lection has been thrown by my gallant and lamented friend the 
late Admiral McKillop (Pasha) into the port of Alexandria, 
where, let us hope, they will become the parents of a fine large 
family of " natives." 

1 now applied myself to working the central Jebel el-Kibrit, 


54 BtrRTON'-i Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Altdian^ 

which had been superficially explored by the first Xhedivial 
Expedition. The shortest cut from the " dock-harbour " lies 
up the southern Wady Harr. An important divide separates 

it from the Wady Jemayyis ( 


),* over which winds the 

broad track of the Pilgrim-c-aravan. Thia watercourse ends, 
like most of its neighbours, in a reef-barred creek of lapis- 
lanuli coloured sea-water. Tbencc the track fell into the Wady 

Khirgeh {.Xji^^^}, where we found large blocks of the hydrous 

silicate, a Berpentiue coloiii'ed deep olive-green. It passed 
forwai'd into the Wady el-Bayza ('* White Nullah "), which turns 
abruptly westward, and enters a second reef-closed biglit: thia 
valley was gay with the light-green foliage of the 'Amk ; and 
Already tender floweret.s were beginning to sprout from the 
sands. Lastly, after 1 hour 15 minutes of sharp walking, we 
entered the broad Wady el-KibHt, wliich comes from the south- 
east, and whose bed supplies drinkable water at no great 
distance. It rounds the Sulphur Hill to the south-cast ; and 
feeds the Wady el-Jibbah, itself a feeder of the Sharm Jibbah. 
In my first volume I erroueously wrote " Jubbab," like the 
" Joobbah " of the chart. 

This central " Suljthur Hill " is an isolated knob rising 
abruptly from wady-ground ; measuring in height some 240 
feet (aneroid below, 30' 14, and on top, 29-iJO) ; and about 960 
yards in diameter, not including a tail of four vertebrEc which 
sets off from north-west to soutli-east. Viewed from the north, 
it is, as the Egyptian officers remarked, a regular Haravi 
^Pyramid), with a imiform capping of precipitous rock. It 
oiners essentially from the otht!r two deposits, the northeru 
near Makna, and the suutheni near El-Wijh, in being plutonic 
and not sedimentary; and yet there is a mound of gypsum 
to the south-eiist. The altered condition of the granite, the 
greenstones and other adjacent rocks, suggests that it may be 
an igneous vein thrown westward by the great volcanic line, 
El-Harrah. In parts it is a conglomerate, where a quantity 
of quartz takes the place of chalk and plaster. Other deposits 
are iron-stained, and have the ajtpearauce of decompused iron. 
pyrites, an ore which abounds in the neighbourhood. Usually 
the yield wears the normal brimstoTie-yelluw ; yet some of the 
beds show the deep ochreous red, so common iu the solfataras of 
Iceland, and supposed to be the result of molecular change, 
perhaps of longer exposure to the atmosphere. At Cairo I have 


From Jams, a kind of plunt. 

Botiton'* Itineraries oft/ie Second Expedition into Midian. 55 

heard of botli varieties being fouud in tlie old sea-clifT, the 
Jebel Muknttam. 

M. Philipiu and a small party, one sergeant and nine quarry- 
men, were directed to sink wells, 40 feet deep, round the 
Eyramid, wherever surface indications suggested : old ex{>erieuce 
ad taught me that snch depth is necessary to strike brimstone- 
beda like those of Sicily- The borings brought up sulplnir 
from 4(3 feet ; six more were pierced, but they yielded 
nothing. During his sixteeu working-days he sank five pits 
in and around the pyramid ; the northern tuost shaft, halfway 
up the hill, also gave crystals of the purest sulphur. And if 
the depth be not great, the surface extent is. The pyramid 
evidently forms the apex of a large vein trending north-south. 
The field consists of this cone and its dependencies, especially 
the yellow cliffy to the north and the south, facing, in the 
latter Jirection, a large j)laiii cut by the Wady el-Kibrit ; while 
a vein of the red variety, nearly .3 miles long by 25—30 inches 
broad, lies to the south-east near the gypsum-hill. The 
latter, again, yielded the crystalliaed salt which so often ac- 
companies sulphur t the Bodawin brought in small specimens 
of rock-crystal and fragments of neyro-quortz, apparently rich 
in metal, I'rom the hill-masses to the east and south. 

Feb. 11 th. — At o P.M. we left the gunboat MaJchhir for 
the camp at El-Muwa_vlah. The path from Sharm Yabiirr, now 
well-trodden, crosses a sandy plateau, metalled with the usual 
dark stones and silexes of the Desert. The horizontal lines of 
the wady buttresses argue submergence, emergence, and, l.-istly, 
the cutting out and fasliioniiig of the torrents. The plain is 
deeply gashed by twt) short, broud and sandy gullies ; where 
cliQ's of coralline and sfindstone-couglonieratc*, resting upon 
unsolid foundations, oiten cave in. The Hajj mad, running 
farther east, heads tJiese ugly nullahs. The third valley is 
the great \Vady .Surr ('* making glad "), the de facto southern 
frontier of "Madyan Proper" (North Midian) : we shall trace 
it to its head in the Hi^mn. Here, near the mouth, it is at 
least a mile and a hijt' broad; the torrent, which flows only 
after the heaviest rains, swings to the southern bank away from 
the palm-orchai-ds. On the right side are the gtu'den-plots of 
vegelatioD, and the tobacco cultivated by the garrison. 

Feb. lS//i.— We visited and planned the ruins called Abu 

Hanawit (kj-W).' of the "Father of (dwelling) Walls," 

described in * Tho Laud of Midian (Revisited).' These remains, 

• I presTune tho word to be a local and peculiar plural of " HiUt," trhich gene- 
nlly forms " llUdu " and " Hiynt." 


and the vestiges of furnaces lying near tlio north-eastern tower 
of the Fort, prove that, despite Wallin (p. 300), EI-Muwaylali 
is an ancient Bettlt-nicut. Possibly it is the "Itttto*? Kw/ii;, tlie 
Horse Village {and fort?) which I'tolemv {VI. vii.) places in 
N. lat. 2fr 40' {true 27" 39'); whilst his ''Itttto? opo<: wonld be 
the glorious Sharr, to which ho almost correctly assigns K. lat. 
27" 20'. Wo vainly asked, however, about the Wady Maktub, 
the written or inscribed valley, placed by Kiippell two days east 
of El-Muwaylah. 

JI. In fJie Eisind. — The exploring party was now ready for the 
most serious part of its undeilaking, a journey to the eastern 
regions, where the comparatively quiet and submissive tribes, 
subject to Egypt, encounter the robber-races that levy tribute 
from, instead of payjjig tribute to, the equally despotic and 
detestable Turkish Government of Syria. The expedition was. 
divided into four. As has been said, Lieut. Yusuf was sent 
north and M. Philipiu wiis stationed south ; while the Greek 
dragoman and hi.s a.ssistant remained as n^agazine-raen at th& 
Fort el-Muwnylaii : here also were left bphind the sick officers- 
and men. The main body consisted of Mr. Clarke, MM. Marie 
and Lacaze, Ahmed Kaptiin, and Lieut, Amir; of two sergeants 
commandmg the ritlemen (Eemingtuns), with an equal number 
of quarrymen ; the whole escorted by the Sayyid and by the 
three salaried isliaykhs, including our friend Furayj. Thia 
reduced the number of camels to sixty-one, and greatly facili- 
tated marching. 

Feb, lfl<?i,— At G.30 a.m. we left El-Muwaylah, riding up 
the Wady Surr, and 1 hour 15 minutes (=3 miles) led uft 
past the Abu llawiiwit ruins before mentioned. After travel- 
ling a total of 2 hours 45 minutes we found the Wady Burr 
becoming the gorge of the normal type ; it is walled by old 
conglomerates of large elements forming dwarf preci pices, some 
40 feet high; and it receives a multitude of sandy influents,, 
many reported to contuin drinkable wrater. The principal 
features with name.s on the right bank arc ; the Sha'ab el-Jeoel 

^oilih (^^iJ^^), a nullah about a quarter-mile broad ; the Jebel- 

el-Najil(, Ij^nj);* the Wady UmmShek/ik(;\Jij^), or "Mother 
of Clefts," and the Wady Umm Muzayrikat ( (jj\3 ^ • <), dis- 
tant about 2 miles from the Najil. The left bank showed the 
Wady and Jebel Zalilattah (*0cl:5^-o)> *^^ Jebel el-Hummah 

Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 57 

(a ^^), " of great beat," and tlie red pile of Jebel Sraysarab, 

whose watercourse also feeds the Surr. After 3 hours 15 
mioutes (= C very slow miles) of actual tnarchiog and much 
dismoiintiDg, we halted for rest and refloctiou at a loug piece 
of water in the section of the Surr wliich receives the Wady 
el-Najil. TLe pits proved that the sands rest upon tlie usual 
tenacious clay ; hesides flocks of sheep and goats, game — bare 
and partridge — was found ; and a thorn-tree on the upper 
heights, instead of in the valley, was a pleasant and unusual 

We resumed the way about noon, remarking that the cha- 
racteristic trap and porjihyries now formed in the granite 
great veins, which dwarfed by comparison thuBe of the quartz ; 
whilst the sole was scattered with bard water-rolled serpentines 
and felspars, whose dovc-coloured surfaces showed silver-white 
fibrils. Riding another hour (=4 miles) to the eastward— ft 
total of 4 hours 15 minutes (^ 10 miles) — we suddenly saw our 
tents pitched in a widening of the Surr bed kuoi^n as El-Safh 
fthe level of) Jebel-Maluyh : the latter word is the Doric 
Bedawi form of '' Blulib," a hill which we shall afterwanls visit. 
The wide and almost circular btisin receives and collects the 
produce of many large nullahs. To the north is the Wady el- 

Guwaymarah dy^Ji)', to the north-east the Wady "Ma- 

layh;" to the east the upper course of the Wady Surr, and to 
the south-east the Wady iiusayb. The Surr gurgc here shows 
gloomy and precipitous walls of dark and polished trap, con- 
trasting strongly with the glaring yellow sole of stone, gravel, 
and sand ; and, about a mile up it, drinkable water and palm- 
bush appear. The Wady Kusayb was reported, falsely as we 
afterwards found, to contain '• Hawawit " (rains).* 

Feb. 20lA. — Yesterday wo had come out of our way to inspect 
the Surr, that is, we Lad travelled eastward instead of north- 
eastward. ConsequeiUly the whole of this march was northerly, 
in order to strike the main commercial road connecting EI- 
Muwaylah with Tabiik.f From the sea-board the Surr, which 
drains the northern and eii-stern flanks of the Shdrr mountain- 
block, appears the directest lino into the interior; we shall 
Eresontly see the reason why the devious upper line is preferred 
y the trader. 

The usual road lies up the Wady Guwayraarali, whose eastern 
bank shows extensive gneiss and schistose formations. From 
this point the little detached rock, Umm Jedayl, with grey 

* March H proved that tlie informnnta hod drawn upon tlieir fancies, 
t Vol. i. chilli. *• 

58 Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midiaju 

granites gleaming white over tlie dark-red and brown foot-hills, 
assumes the shape of a saddle-back : its crupper was pointed 

out to us as the site of a ruined citj> " El-Khulasah " ( jl- . /^I^ ).* 

After walking about half uii hour, wo turned eastward into the 
Wady el-lihulasah, whoso vegetation was charming alter the 
sterility of the coast. Our guide led us towards the Sharr, 
that is, with our backs turned to this day's cauiping-ground ; 
and, when we had walked 1 hour oO minutes (=4^ miles), 
he confessed that El-Khulasah was unknown to him. He added 
that the site of auotlier ruin, Ei-Zubayyib, was about 2 miles 
distant, a little beyond a bright red peak " Aba '1-bat id " on 
the left bank of the Khulasuh Fiumara. The Bedawin of 
Midiau universally use the ftccusative (Aba) wlien others would 
prefer the nominative, Abii: apparently this change takes 
place before the article as "Aba 'I-Mani;" not when it is 
absent, as in " Abii Hawavnt." 

Mr. Clarke rode off with the guide ; and, instead of hugging 
Aba '1-barid, behind which a short watero<jui'se was the 
straightest way, ho stmck to tlio right of tbe Khulasah, 
crossed a rough divide, and fell, after riding some C instead of 
2 miles, into the upper section of the Wady Surr. On its right 
bank he found the ruins which we shall presently visit, t 

Meanwhile we retraced our steps dowu the Wady, whose 
Jebel (El-Khulasah) lay now to our left. The lower valley 
shows a few broken walls, old Arab graves, and other signs of 
ancient habitation ; but I am convinced that, despite all our 
exertions, we missed the ruins whleli lay Bomewliere in the 
neighbourhood. Presently on our left tlio Wiidy K hind rah leaves 
the Wady Kuwaymarah, and falls iuto the seu 1 mile north of 
" Shaykh Abdullah," patron saint of El-Muwaylah. To the 
right lay the western foot-hills of the Umni Jedayl, especially 
the Jebel ol-Ramzah, with its red crest and veins. The path 
ran over granitic gravel, strewed with quartz, whole and broKen, 
like the land about the Jebel el-Abyaz ; much of it seemed to 

come from the Wady Umm Jedayl el-Atshau ( \ z-)^^ ). the 

" Thirsty," as opposed to EUKawivan, the " Oowiug." We 
advanced to a fine valley, the Sayl Wady el-Jimm ; and now I 

learnt, for the first time, that El-Jimm { ^-^^ is the name 

not of a height, but of a Shu'b or gully in which water collects 
(x-*j3^L>)' I" "^y ^^^' i-. t^hap. v., where occur several differences 

• The celebrated idol of tlie Aden Arabs was called El-Khalasat. 
t See part ii. sioct. v., Murch 1.^. 

of nomenclatare, the Jcbel el-Jimm was mentioned as the 
mountain of the truncated tower, when the latter is a mere 

saddle-back in the Dibbagh (^3) block. The Wady « Zojeh " 

(p. 128) should be Wady Klishahriyyah. As regards the names 
"Fara' el-Samglii "' and "Abu Zayn" (ibid.), I could learn 
nothing : in p. 129, tiie dome-capped rock is wrongly called 
" Abu Zayn,' instead of Jebel Harh. For the latter, «liich is 
ignored (note, p. 128), see chap, xiii., ' The Laud of Midian 
(Bevisited).' " Sadr," also, is made a mountain, instead of a 
great wady. 

The Eastern Ghats now show a break in the line of axis 
separating the Umm Jedayl from its northern neighbour, the 
tower'd Dibbagh. It is generally known as the Wady Kh'shab- 

riyyah (^ \ ^.>^.L ). after its Jebel of the same name, a 

remarkable peak which it drains to the "Wady Sadr. The valley, 
apparently a fine road, is, they say, closed to camels by Wa'r, 
or stony ground; of its ruins we shall presently hear more.f 

W^e drank the Avater of the Sha'b Eidayh {^^^ X The total 

march occupied 4 hours (= 10|- miles), and the rhumbs were 
north, north-east, west, and again north. 

Feb. 2\st. — We set out at G.30 a.m. across the broad Sayl 
(torrent-bed) towards a bay in the mountains bearing n.n.W. 
This is the mouth of the Wady Zamuirah, which, after running 2-3 
miles falls into the Wady Tiryam. -:Vfter walking 30 minutes we 

entered its eastern branch, the Wady el-Liw<5wi {^^S),X the 

« Weiwi " of Wallin (p. 30-1). We passed east of the Jebel of 
the same name; and a short cut, the 81ni'b el-Li wewi, led over 
a groat northern bend in the bed. The path was uild riding and 
very winding, at times turning almost due east when our general 
direction was n.n.e. Ketui-uing to the Wady Liwewi, and ascend- 
ing it for a few yards, we began the second short cut of 5U minutes 
to save a 2 hours' bend ; tlie deep drops, and the narrow gutters 
in the quartz-veined granite, compelled even the Shaj'khs to 
dismount from their dromedaries during the descent. This 

section is called the Wa'r el-Ga'gah («i^js-ot^)§ cdio-& Sa- 

wawin, the latter also the name of a valley farther on. 
After a ride of 3 hours 10 minutes (= y miles), we baited 

* See, however, part iL sect v. 

t Part ii. sect. v. 

j Liiwii vould ineno winding (b rnlli'j). 

§ In pure Arabic Jn'js' would be rough groand, a bad defile. 

Burton'* Itineraries oftlte Second Expedition into Midian. 

at the conjunction of the Wady Liwewi with the Sadr (the chief 
or pre-eminent). The latter is the upper course of the Wady 
Tiryam, and we shall follow it to its head. The Wudys Kahlah 
ancl Zamahrah, which, during our first journey, had hcen 
described lo us as the main passes over the eastern range, 
pnjved to be mere secondary branches lying north of the Wady 
Sadr. \V''alltn, whose line was a little north of ours, calls the 
first " El-Kahale " (i.e. of the Echiutn or borage-plant), and 
traveUed up it, for 1 hour 20 minutes ; its north-eastern pro- 
longation, " ^Vl-HuleikS, " (El-Hulaykah, tbe "Little shaven "), 
separates the Fas and the Harb blocks ; and I heard also of a 
Nakb el-Hulaykah. 

At the junction of the Liwewi-Sadr we were joined by the 
caravan, which had made three long legs, to north, to north- 
east, and to east. We now struck up the W'ady Sadr, a scene 
wild and weird enough for Scotland or Scandiuavia. Ou the 
right or southern bank towers the great Ilarb mass, whoso 
dome, single when sighted from the west, hero shows three 
several heads. Opposite it, at the northernmost end of the 
Dibbagh block, rises the huge tower conspicuous from the sea- 
board : a little farther eastward, it will prove to bo the 
monstrous pommel of a dwarf saddle-back. As it has apparently 
no name, we called it the " Burj Jebel Dibbagh." 

The Wady Sadr was deserted nf man, altliough the Ma azah are 
not far off. The Beni 'Ukbuh had temporarily abandoned these 
grazing grounds for the Surr, Passing the Sha'b Turbau, a 
cleft in the Dibbagh, said to contain rain-water, after another 
hour ( = .1 miles), and a total of 4 hours lU minutes { = 11 miles), 
we halted for the night at the mouth of the Sayl el-Nagwah 

{it^:^iS), of " High Ground." This torrent-bed lies at the foot 

of the granite block, an outlier of the Dibbagh, similarly 
named (from tanning?). Its gap, the Sha'b el-Murayfaf, 
supplied us with tolerable rain-water. The sole of the Sadr 
was parti-coloured. The sands of the deeper line to the right 
are tinctured coo! green by the degradation of the porphyritic 
traps, here towering in the largest masses yet seen ; whilst the 
gravel of the left bank looks warm with red grit and syenitic 

Feb. 22nd.— \Vo left the NaOT-ah at 7 a.m., and passed on 
the right a granite outcrop in the wady-bed, a reduced copy of 
the "Burj." After an hour's slow walk ( = 2^ miles), we were 
led, dismounted, to a rock-spur projected northwards from the 
left or southern bank. It separates two adjacent " Sayls," mere 
bays in the Dibbagh block, the western Sha'b Burayrig 
(Burarayg ?), from tlie Eastern Sayl Umm I^aban : they front 

Bdrton'* Itineraries of the Second Erpedition into Mulian. 

the Sha'b el-Nararali (of the " she Leopard ") on the northern 
bank, a Hue which is said to contain water and palms. Upon 
the rock-spur we found spalled quartz, traces of a zigzag road, 
jvnd signs of an atelier ; but the settlement, if there ever was 
one, hatl entirely disappeared. 

Reauraing our ride, we dismounted after 1 hour 15 minutes 
( = 4 miles) at the half-way JIahattah (halting-place), a rond- 
point in the Wady 8adr, marked from afar by a tall blue 

pyramid, the Jebel el-Ga'lah (jjjts^).* We spent some time 

examining this interesting bulge. Here the Jibiil el-Til»Amah 
end, and the eastern parallel range, the .Jilwl el-Shafalr, begin. 
The former belong to the Huwaytat and to Egypt : the latter 
to the Ma'azah and Syria. The Irontier is well defined by two 
large watercourses, running ne^irly on a meridian, and both 
finding the main drain, the great Sadr-Tiryam. Tlie northern 
branch, Wa*ly Sawadah, divides tlie granitic group from the 

porphyritic Jebel Sawidah; the southern, Wady Aylan ( ^W' 

separates the Dibbagh from the Jebel Avian. 

The rest of our march eastwards will now lie through the 
Shafah liange. It resembles, on the whole, the Tiljamah 
Ghats ; but it wants their charms. The granites which farther 
west pierced the traps, Wallin's " dark brown sandstone " 
(p. 305), now appear only at intervals. This I urn told is the 
case throughout the northern prolongation of the '* Lip Itange :" 
for instance, in the Wady branch separating Jebel Urnub from 
its southern neighbour, the Jebel Fas; and in the Wadv el- 
Halaykah, the watercourse immediately south, feeding the Wady 
el-Kahlah. In the southern "Shafah" we saw it for ourselves. 
At the same time there is no distinct separation, no wide plain, 
between the two parallel ranges, the maritime and the inland. 
They are topographical continuations of each other. 

At the halting-place, we first made acquaintance with the 
Ma'dzah, and the meeting was decidedly uuplea.sant. About 
11 A.M. wo remounted, crossed a Wa'r to save time, and again 
fell into the upper Wady Sadr. Here the right bank receives the 
Wady Sawawin (Suwaywin), draining the eastern mountains. 
Wallin (p. 305) ascended its " difficult track," and found it 
encumbered with huge stones and detritus from the adjacent 
blocks. Its pass, the "very steep defile," Nakb el-Sav\iwin, 
placed him at Wady Rawiyan, beyond the crest of the Ilisma 

From the right bank of the Sadr, the branch Wady Sahliilah 

* Ga'Iab moans cither u worthless palia-trec, wboae Crait CftQBot be plucked, 
or a young palm-bUoot. 



(tOiijL-o) ^^"^ to the Wady and Jebel Gahil (JaLd, 

Struggling"), the quartz-region before explored by Lieut. 
Amir. AVe followed various beads to the south and the south- 
east, with a general south-south-eastern direction, the Jibal 

'Azzazah {y\ * r,) being on our right. The plains were scat- 
tered with women tending aheep and goats ; the former bare 
a fine "tog," and sell tor §3;^. At last we came to another 
Wa'r, and, on the right side of the rooky tongue, where the 
nortliern face falls pretty stifl3y into the valley, we found a pot- 
hole of rain-water rejoicing in the grand name "Muwah (for 
Miyt(h) el-Rikab" — ^the " Waters of the Caravan." 

After a second spell of 2 hours ( = 7 miles), and a total of 
5 hours 15 minutes ( = 13^ miles), we again camped in the Sadr 
Valley. Tho altitude was about 3200 feet (auer. 27-80) ; and, 
thougli tho thermometer showed UC (F.) at 5 P.M., fires inside 
as well as outside the mess-tent were required. A wester 
(sea-breeze), deflected by the ravines to a norther, was blowing 
hard ; and in tliese regions, as in the far north of Europe, wind 
makes all the difference of temperature. During the evening 
we were visited by the Ma'azah Bedawin of a neighbouring 
encampment : they began to notice stolen camels, and to 
wrangle over past times — auotlier bad sign. 

Fei. 2'3rd, — Setting out at 0.45 on a splendidly clear 
morning, when the towering heads of ilarb an<l fJibbagh 
looked only a few furlongs away from us, we imprudently 
preceded as usuah the escort ; an excessive timidity on the 
part of our men had made us rash. "Walking 30 minutes 
( = 1§ mile) we passed some black tents on tho loft bank, and 
the Ma'azah, at once lighting their matchlocks, maimed a 
rocky narrow in the upper bed, and set up their war-song. 
We were advised to halt till our soldiers and Arabs came up 
with a run, and then it tunied out that "tliere had been some 
mistake." But as the women, children, and animals remained 
in the tents instead of flying to tho hillK, I felt convinced that 
tho demonstration had been ordered from head-quarters, with 
the object of infusing into our spirits a wholesome awe. I 
ended by taking a Ghafir, or ''guide," and both parties went 
their ways rejoicing. 

The upper Sadr, winding through the usual red and green 
lulls, showed a much finer vegetation, the eftVict of inereewing 
altitude. The chief |>lants were the thorny Kidad (Astragalus 
ForsMhlit) ; the purple huglose, El-Kuhh'i {Eehium) ; the Jarad 
thorn, the wild hyacinth; Lavandula, t:?alvin. Verbena, lleseda 
{canescensf), Tribulus (teirestris), and the red and yellow 


BtTBTON'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 63 

Bromus grass; with tlie familiar Cassia (Senna), Artemisia 
and Cncumis (Colocynthua) ; the Genista, or broom, Katama (B. 
BcUama),* and the Cytisus, vnth. goUk'H bloom. Presently it 
opened upon a large basin, the Ifas (head) Wady Sadr : this 
is the second Arab stage from El-Muwaylah. In iront of ujs 
the Jibal Sadr extended far to the right and left, a alight 
depression showing the Khuraytat, or Pass, wbich was to be 
ascended on the morrow. To the left (north) appeared the 
Jebel and AV^ady el-Safra, discharging a quantity of (jjUartz and 
syenite. At the mouth of this " yellow " watercourse stood 
a knob of hill, the Jebel, concerning which the wildest tales, 
golden gleam by day, and fire by night, had been told to us. 

We reached our tents in 3 hours ( = 9 miles), travelling gene- 
rally to the E.S.E., and found them pitched below the Jebel 

Kibar ( A^), whose Sha'b lay to the sonth. From this 

point the Harb apex bore 303°, the Dibbagh 285^ and the 
Sahhdrah, a blue peak visible from the sea, 274'' (all mag.). 
We were remounting to ascend a neighbouring hill which 
commands a prospect of the Ilisma plateau, when we sighted 
from afar the Maazah chiefs riding in to meet us. They num- 
bered five, viz., the head-Shaykh, Mohammed bin 'Atiyyuh ; 
his son Salira; his brother, the wrinkled Sagr (Sakr); and his 
two nephews, 'Ali and 'Abayd. Everything went off well at 
the formal reception, and they agreed to escort us up the Pass 
on the morrow. The aneroid showed a height of 3000 feet 
(2ii"91, the mean of three obs.), and the violent wind at mid- 
night sank the mercury to 38^ (F.). It wtis intensely cold. 

Feb, 24ith. — Overcoming the last objeetions of our uidiitppy 
Huwaytat, who felt themselves lieing led into the lion's den, 
we struck tents and set out at 7.15 A.M. About 1 hour 
( = li mile), over rough and rocky ground, leads to the 

northern pass, called Khuraytat el-Hisma, or El-Jils ( ^^j^)? 

JuU meaning in classical Arabic " a higli hill, a hani imd 
broken surface." Thus it is distinguisheiifrom the Khuraytat 
el-Ziba (the " Ziba-pass "), because leading to that port ; ulias 
Khuraytat el-Tehiimah, the ila'azi pronunciation of "Tiha- 
mah." This was remarked by Wallin (j). 305), who wrote 

The zigzag path now ascends a ladder of rocks, following the 
line of a mountain torrent, the natural pass, crossing its bed 
from left to right; and again from right to left. It is the 
nidest of eomicJies, worn by the feet of man and beast, and 

• Tbia Dame for the Spartiam ia puis Hebrew (On*l). 

64 Bcrton'j Itineraries of the Second Ejqmlition into Midian. 

broken by ugly abrupt turns. The absolute height was about 
450 feet (aner. 2(j*70- 20-25), the length half a mile, and the 
general direction lay, like the day's march, due east (mag.). 
The ground, composed mainly of irregular rock-steps, offers 
little difficulty to horse and mule ; but it was a marvel to me 
how the laden camels ascended and descended without acci- 

We halted on the Saf h el-Nakb, the " Level (summit) of the 
Piiss," to await the caravan, an<l to prospect the surrounding 
novelties. Heaps of dark trap dotted the lip, like old graves; 

many stones were inscribed with Wusiim (^-^,), or tribal 

marks; and two detached pebbles bore | H ^"^ V L which 
looked exceedingly like Europe. Some of the piles were 
capped with suowy lumps of quartz, to serve as memorials, 
a common practice iu these regions. We picked up copper- 
stained quartz, like that of 'Ayuiiuah ; fine Hpccimens of iron 
and dove-coloured serpentine, witli silvery threads and streaks. 

We then ascended the Jebel el-Khuraytah, a trap hillock 
some 120 feet high, and had a fine vie^v westward through the 
inverted arch formed by the two staples of the Pass, and down 
the long valley (Sadr) which had given us passage. Hence the 
Harb dome bore 3(.KJ\ the Dibbagh apex 280", the Umra Jedayl 
268'', and the middle fcsharr 240" (all mag.). The eastern faces 
of these coast giants appear well above the Shafah range, and 
our attitude, some 3800 feet, gave us, to a cei-tain extent, 
a measure of their grand proportions. Down the Sadr the 
eye distinguishes a dozen distances, whose several planes are 
defined by all the shades of colour that the most varied vege- 
tation can show. And hero I must delay for a time, to explain 
the change of scone and region. 

We now stand upon the westernmost edge of the great cen- 
ti-al Arabian plateau known as El-Nojd, the higliland, opposed 
to El-Tihainali, the lowland, regions. In Africa we shoula call it 
the '' true," subtending the " false " coa.'it ; beautiful Dahome 
compared with liideous Lagos. The Arabian geographers justly 
observe that the valleys of the Tihiiinah descend westward to 
the sea, whilst those of the Nejd drain eastwards to inner 
Ajabia. Again they distinguish tlio flora. The former pro- 
duces the Mimosa iSamur)* the Acacia (A. gnmuiifera), and 
the Tamarisk {ABalX)^ whereas the latter grows the "shrub 
called GhadA." 

• The botanists have adopted tiie pluml of the " Samanit " na a singulnr. 

t Mr. AyrUiii, in hia notes in ' Wallin' (ji. 306), tranBlotes "Asftl" (A till) by 
"tmeciea.or Acacia." The Aiab namo of the Tamanx orienUiiit ia puro 
Hebrew (70K). 

Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 65 

This upland, runuing parallf-'l with the Lip-ranf:e and with 
the maritime Ghat", is the far-famed Hisma. It probably 
represents a remnant of the old terrace which, like the secondary 
gypseous formation, has lieen torn to pieces by the volcanic 
region to the east, and by tlie plutonio upheavals to the west. 
The length may be 170 miles, the northern limit is either close 
to, or a little south of, Fort Ma an ; * and we shall see the 
southern terminus of the Hisma proper shar]»ly defined on a 
parallel with the central Shavr, but not extending, as we had 
been told, to the latitude of El-Wijh. The latter, however, 
would not be far out, if tho *' Jaww"t lie coiisideroil, as certain 
of the Bedawiu say, a cotitinuatiun of tho Hisum, under auotlier 
name. An inaccessible fortress to the south, it is approached 
on the south-west by difiicult passes, easily defended against 
man and beast. Farther north, however, the Wadys 'Afal 
(about El-Sharaf), El-Hakl (Hagnl).andEl-Titm, near i:i-'Aka- 
bah, are easy lines without War (stony ground), or Nakb 

The Hisma material is a loose modern sandstone, showing 
eveiy hue between blood-red, rose-pink and dead, dull white : 
again and again fragments had been pointed out to us in 
ruined biiildiiiga and in tho remains of hand-mills and nib- 
stones near the coast. Possibly the tnie coal-measures may 
underlie it, especially if the rocks east of Petra be, as some 
travellers state, a region of the Old, not of tho New Red. 
According to my informants, it has no hills of quartz, a rock 
which appears everywhere except in tho Hisma ; nor should I 
expect the region to be metalliferous. 

On the summit of the trap-hillock Jebel el-Khuraytat, the 
southern jamb of the Khuraytat gate, we found a ruined 
" Burj," measuring 40 feet in diameter. This commanding 
site gives a splendid and striking view. After hard, dry iiving 
on grizly mountain and unlovely wady, tho fine open plain, 
slightly concave in the centre, was a delightful change of diet 
to the eye — the first enjoyable seustitiou of the kind since we 
had gazed lovingly upon the broad bosom of the Wady el- 
'Arabah. Tho general appearance is tiiat of Eastern Syria, 
especially the Haurau. At tho present sexison all is a sheet 
of pinkish-red, which in March will turn to lively green. On 

* As ho3 been shown, tho Betlowi Slmykh of El-'Aknbfth pliiccd tho northern 
limit ono march soatli of El-M«'ati (tLo Waters), while Wallin (p. 308) makes it 
huBil at that Btttlfimt'nt and ciidi iit Taljiik, ia tbo souUj. His words nre, '*Tho 
JiL&l el-Harrah advances in a nnrth-eastcrly dircctiun, till it gnkdualiy aiokti 
into irrcgolor hillookB in the neighbourhrxHl of Tabiik." 

t Meaning air, sky, low gr^juiid, or open space : it \« also an equivalent of tho 
old term Yeinuninh. which coinpiiuhvudud El-Nejd, El-Tihumah, Bolirajn, and 
Oimin ; in fai:t, Nortlicru Arubia. 

VOL. xi.ix. r 


66 Buhton's Itineraries of flte Second Expedition into Midian. 

this parallel the diameter does not exceed a day's marcli, bat we 
mo- it broadening to tbe north. Looking in that direction, over 
the ghioniy nietallt'd porjiliyritic slopes u[ioq wliirli we stand, 
the frhuice extends to a sen-horizon, while the Sfvcrwl plains 
below it are dotted with iiills and hill-ranges, white, r(.!(.l, and 
black: all are distance-dwarfed to the size of thinjldes and 
pincnshions. The guides especially pointed out the ridge 
El-Mukaykam, a red block upon red sands, and a far-famed 
rendezvous for raid and rnxzia. Nearer, the dark lumps of 
El-Kliayrani rise from a similar surface ; nearer still lie the two 
white dot-!, El-Kakhatuatayn (thf* '* Two Vultures "), and nearest 
is the ruddy ridge, " Jebel " and " Jils el-Kavviyan,'' con- 
taiuiiijsr, they say, niins and inscriptions, of which Wallin did 
not even hear. 

The eastern versant of the Hisma is marked by long chap- 
lets of tree and slirub, disposed along: the solrafje of the water* 
courses ; and the latter are pitt<<l with wells built up after the 
fashion of the Bedawin. In this rlninili the horizon is bounded 
by El-Ilarrali, the volcanic region, whose black, porous lavas 
and himey combed basalts, often charged with wuito zeolite, 
ere still brought down even to the coast, where they serve as 
mortars and haml-raills. The profile is a long, straight, and 
Tegulur line, as if formed under wiiter, capped here and there 
by a tiny liend lik«.' the .Syrian "Kulayb Hanrtiu." Its jiet-uliar 
doreum makes it distinguisliuble from afar, and we could easily 
trace it I'rom the upper heights of tlie Sharr. It is evidently 
a section of the mighty plutonic outbreak, which has done 
so much to change the aspect of tbe parallel Midian sea- 
board. AValliu's account of it (pp. 307-309) is contined to 
th<! place whei'e he crossed the luva-flood. I believe him to 
be wrong where he tells us {\^. 3UU) that the southern boundary 
oi" the ilismti plain, is " liirmed by the steep front of a 
lateral chfuu of hills {El JIarruh) which branches out at an 
acute angle from tbe Shafah chain." The two formations — 
Shafah and Harrah — are palpably and completely distinct. 
Again he says, "From the acute angle, named a!-Zawii6 
(El-Zuwiyub, the Curnfr),* thus formwl between tbe iSbafah 
chain and its lateral branch of Jlnrril, the land of al-ilisma 
gradually oj^ens out into an extensive plain." But the Hismii 
extends iar southwards, forming the *' Jaww," and the Harrah 
even further. Finally, he lenders " El- Harrah," which, in 
Arabic, always applies to a burnt region, by " red-coloured 

The Bedawin far more reasonably declare that tins Harrah 

* Also mcAniog a cell. 'Hie " JilxLI cl-Zdvijah " vill b» noticed furtliar on. 

Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 67 

is not a mere patch, as it appears in Wallin's map. My worthy 
predecessor made it a narrow oblijn;^ not exceeding 60 njiles 
(N. lat. 27°-28"), and disposed diajronally from north-west to 
south-east ; wliile (p. 323) he considers it " as a rhomboid, with 
its angles facing the four cardinal points." According to the 
people^ it is a region at least as large as the Jlisma: and it 
extends southwards, not only to the parallel of El-Medinah, 
but to the neiglibourhood of Yambii (V). Tho upper region 
has two great divisions ; the Hurrat-Hisma, or The Harrah }iar 
excellence, whieh belongs to the ^la'iizah, and which extends 

southwards through El-iSulaysilah as far as tho Jaww (.^ )• 

This latter region, a tract of yellow sand, dotted with rudrly 
hills, apparently, I have said, a prolongation of the Hiiima, 

separates it from the Harrat el-'Awayras: ( ^ ^j^), in which 

the Jeljel ol-Muharrak lies." The line of vulcanism is con- 
tinued south by tho Harrat cI-Mushrif (P. N. of a man) ; by 

the Harrat Sutiih ( .••. .^J Jayda;t and, finally, by the Harrat 

el-Buhayr ( «c:l)). The latter rises close behind the shore at 

El-Haura, where it is in the same latitude as El-Medinah, 
and where we shall presently sight it. There is gi-eat intprest 
and a genuine importance in this large ot)a3t-snbtending 
eruptive range, whoso eastern coimterslope demands ciirelul 
stuay. The " Jaww " has not yet been visited by Europeans ; 
but tiie country, lying through the lands of the j)eac«ful Baliyy, 
ofiera no difficulties. 

Sweeping the glance round to south, we see the southern 
head of the " Jilsayn," two tall mountains of horizontal strata, 
with ironstone in harder lines and tinial blotrks. This is the 
Jils el-Daim," so distiuf^uished from tlje lujrthern Jils cl- 
Hawiyau. The lower ed<ie of the Hismii cliffs rises in red and 
quoin-like masses, the Jibal el-Zuwiyah ; and then fulls suddenly, 
with a succession of great breaks, into the sub-maritime levels. 
During our next ten days' travel we sliall be almost in con- 
tinuous sight of its southern ramparts and buttresses. Far 
over tho precipices stretch the low yellow iiantis of tho Kahabah 

{,i^^,j^ ), alias the Wady Damah; and behiud it towers the 

♦ For notices of this " Burnt Mountain," bo well-known at El-Wijh, we ' Tiie 
Land of jlidittn (Revisited),' ebftp. xviii. 

t Sutiili Jaydii would mean tbc '* flats of tho fine-neckai' (womnn, maro 

F 2 

skyblue mountain-blockj, which takes its name from the ruins of 
Sha^hab and Sliuw&k. 

When the caravan reached the pass-summit, we accompanied 
it to the nearest camping-groaml, ;i.boiit 30 uiinutos (=1 mile) 
from the Col ; and thus giving the day a total of 2 hours 
( = 3 miles). It lies to the west of the red Jits el-Rawiyan, and 
is supplied with excellent drinking-water by the Miyah el- 
Jedayd, lying about 1000 yards to the south-east. On the other 
baud, fuel, here a necessary of life, was wanting, nor could the 
camels find forage. Luckily for ourselves, we bad camped upon 
the very edge of the Hisma ; and the Ma'azah Sbaykhs showed 
much disappointment at our not making their quarters on the 
far side. 

In the evening matters assumed a threatening aspect. It 
was rumoured that the Ma'azah, refusing to allow the Huwayti 
camels to cany us, had sent messengers to collect tbeir own 
animals ; and this of course was interpreted to mean a gathering 
of the tribe. Besides the want of fuel and fodder, the Shaykhs 
and their followers were eating us uji, and began to debate 
wbetber they should cbarge us as blackmail for fi^e-passage 
$100 or $200 per diem. And, worst of all, quarrels about the 
past were begin inng amongst the camel-men. 

I was sorely disappointed for more reasons than one. The 
cbief object of this march was to investigate the inland depth 
of the metalliferous deposits ; their extent from west to east ; 
and our only chance of finding a virgin California wttuld be in 
the unknown tracts lying to the east of the " Ilarrahs," More- 
over, all manner of arcLiuological remains were rei>orted ; the 
Jils el-Rawiyau famed for " Hawawii f the ruins of El-Buafi 
almost in sight ; and Karayya, on the Damascus road, which 
Wallin (p. 316) was unable to visit. Lastly, wlien too late to 
inspect the place, I secured a fragmentary Nabathajan inscrip- 
tion finely cut in soft white sandstone, loo bad to have every 
object thwarted by the exorbitant demands of a handful of 
tbieves I 

Yet a retreat was, under the circumstances, necessary. I 
will not trouble tlio reader with my reasons; he will readily 
believe that none but the most urgent compelled me to take 
such a step. 

Feb. 25th began with a violent discussion, which ended 
with my Laving to pay at the rate of ^100 per diem — $200 
into the bands of the Shaykh, Mohammed bin "Atiyyah. After 
this avanie, we were escorted with due civility by our plun- 
derers. We reached tbe foot of the Kliuraytat el-Jils in 
26 minutes, and, after a short delay to collect tlie caravan, we 

BuRTOJ^^« Itineraries oft/ie Second Expedition into Midian, 

began to tlesi'oinl the Southern Col, the Khuraytat el-Zibi. 
Here the watershed of the Wady Surr (of El-H[uwaylah) heads ; 
and merchants object to its shorter line because their camels 
must eliinb two ladders of rock instead of one. Tlie descent 
was much longer, and but little less troublesome than its nor- 
thern neighbom* ; tlie formation was the same, and 45 minutes 
placed us in a sandy gully that presently widened to a big 

valley, the \\'ady Dahal ( V^^i j o^ the " Water-holes ") or Wady 

el-Khuraytat. W^e reached the camping-place at 12.30 r.M., 
and laid down the march from the summit of the Northern 
Col at 3} miles. 

That night was passed at some distance l:>elnw the water of 
the AVady Uahal. The place is known as the Jayb el-Khuraytat 
("Collar of the Col "). The term "Jayb," meaning a broader 
and larger feature than a wadv, and in pure Arabic (lenoting the 
entrance inio a countiy, is locally applied to two places only; 
the other is the Jayb el-Srt'Uiw«ah, which we shall presently 
visit. A\'p are now about 35^ direct geographical miles from 
El-Muwaylah, east with a trifle of northing ; a march of 12 hours 
for dromedaries. Thus the distance from the Port to the 
Hisma wonld measure by this road a little under 4U miles. 

III. To the ruins of ShaflJuih and Shtiwdk — We have now left 
the region explored by Eurofjeans, andour line, to the south and 
the south-east, will lie over new ground. The laud in front of 
us is no longer " JIadyan" : we are entering the South Midian, 
which will extend to El-IIejaz, of which, according to some of 
the Arabian geographers, it forms a part, 

Feb. 2(ith. — We set out at 0.15 A.M., down the W^adya Daluil 

and Aflau ( . ^\^ P. X. of man), and made a considerable 

round between s.s.e. and s.e. to avoid the stone-torrents dis- 
chai'ged by the valleys and gorges of the Shninh liange ou 

our left hand. On the right (west) rose the Jebel Sula (ni^) 

and other outliers of the Tihamah Mountains, above whose 
nearer heights towered the pale peaks of the Sharr. Between 
the two is a network of nullahs, the upper branches of the 

Wady Sa'liiwwah (o Ax,^)' 'I'liis well-wooded Fiumara runs 

nearly southwards, passes along the mountain of the same name, 

and feeds the great Wady Dam ah (^^^3). 

At 9 A.M. we leit the Sa'luwwah, and turned abruptly east- 
ward up the W^ady el-Sulaysalah, whose head, draining the 
Hisma, falls sharply from the Sliafah Ilange. The ground is 

70 Eurton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

still tliat of the plateau, red sand with blocks of ruddy grit; 
aiid, aocordinfc to Shaykli Furayj, it forms the south-westera 
limit of the Harrah. The surface is honoycoiubed into man- 
traps by grouiid-rats and lizards. The former, called Girdi 

(iC^ ^), in classical Arabic "Jirdanu" ( .,^^), means a 

groiind-rat or field-mouse. Like the Jerboa it must be noo- 
tunial, for we never saw during the day a live sfiecimen. 

We then ascended the rough and roi-ky divide known as the 
Tala't Majra lluways^ " Rise of the Watershed of llnvvays." 

The MidJaaite Bedawin pronounce Majra \\ ^s-K^> literally, a 

place of flowing, a watershed (wasserscheide), u versant, as if 

it were written Maghriik \^Si^^)\ hut the latter is not 

known to the dictionaries. Prof. Palmer (' Desert of the Exod.' 
Appendix E) translates the Siuaitie " Magnih, or Majiah," by 
"a hollow or depression in wiiich rain-water collects." He 
also finds in the Nejeb (Negeh) a Jchal Magruh ; the Rev. 
William Holland writes " Jebal Mugrah, never before pene- 
trated by travellers, and far from correctly laid down in the 
map " (Brit. Ass., Aug. 15, 1878). My learned friend Spreuger 
thinks that the two words, Jlf«;'m and ii/n^'i<A, may be identical; 
but as Arabic dictionaries are, at the best, imperfect, he advises 
me to write the word as it is pronounced. 

On the right of the track lies the ugly tormented ridge El- 

Euways \^,^,^^J ; to the left the queer isolated lump Jebel 

el-Muraytbah ( ij^ ^), of the " Sweet Well "). • The latter, 

grey granite of coarse elements, has upraised and imbedded ia 
its substance the more ancient traps ; in its turn it has been 
cut by long horizuntal dykes of the hardest quadrangular 
basalt. After this point the rcgiilar granite sequence dis- 
appears, nor will it again become visible till we reach Shaghab 
(March 2). 

As yet we had only ridden 4 hours (=11 miles), and we had 
remounted, after noon, for a long *ipell, when the cry arose 
that the " Water of El-Muraytljali " was dried up. It is not a 
rain-pool, but a spring rising slowly in the sand-sluflnig of three 
fissures in the granite, lyin^ parallel with oae another, and at 
diflerent levels. The highest and principal crevice, easily 
cleared out, produced a supply potable but slightly sulphurous 


♦ lUrtahab ia a sweet (wfll) lying between *aline (springs). If written witk 
the firat " t " the word would mean " of the little steps." 

Burton'j Itineraries of the Second Ejcpcdition into Midiari, 71 

and chalybeate. The delay, however, brought this day's work 
to a close. The Shnykhs will now tight hai-d for 4-hour 

Our evening was cheered by the sight of the Hismd. We 
forgot the hut unlively march, the thirsty mules, and the insect 
world that persecuted us, in I he presence of the weird and 
fascinating a8[)ect of tlie southern plateau-wall rising opposite 
the camp, and distant alwut a mile from the dnl! drab-coloui'ed 
basin El-Mugnih. Baaed upon miglity and massive formations 
of brown and green trap, the undulating junction bein^ well 
defined by a horizontal white line, the capping of sandotone 
rises regular, as if laid in coursos, with a huge rampart, the 

Taur ( X') el-Shafah, or *' inaccessible (part) of the Lip 

Range," falling perpendicular upon the natural sIoj>n of its 
glacis. Farther eastward the continuity of the coping is broken 

by what the Bedawiu here call El-Giragir ( ^ y^)' ^® 

most rcTnarkable of castellations. As we progress south-east- 
ward, we shall find them (.mrving frum north-east to south-east, 
in a manner of scorpion's tail, with dctaclipd vertebrre, torn and 
wasted by the adjacent plutouic rocks. Viewed from the west, 
the Girugir look Uke rud reefs and islets rising above the great 
gloom V waves of trap and porphyry ; and in places they are 
backed by the horizontal lines, lavas and basalts, of the straight- 
backed Harrah. From the Diimuh wat<'rcour3e the castled 
crags appear art-like enough to suggest haunted ground, a 
glimiTse of the citv of Brass built somewhere hereabouts by tha 
olden king, Shaddad ibn 'Ad. 

Fti), 21ih. — At A.Tir. we began the march by striking east* 
ward over the rim of the dull basin. Here is an old made road, 
a cornice about 1^ mile long, cut in the stony Iknks of a hill 
whose head projects southwards into the broad Wady Hujayl 

( V..^^, "the Little Partridge"). The latter seems to drain 

inland ; presently it Iw^nds round by the cast, and feeds the 
main artery, ^V'ady Damali. Ruin must have fallen, for we 

found many plants flowering, especially the Hargul ( Va^ .^ )i 

a Bhazya (stricta), which tills the air with its lavish fragrance, 
and the distafl-liko " Masuur " (Fuiif^us melitc)m$. or Gynomo- 
rt'ttm coccineum). of wliitdi the Arabs " cook broad." Yellow is 
the prevailing tint of the vegetation throughout Miiliun, often 

* Jurijir would mean Doiiily rasliiiig water, from Jarjor, a word aimilar to our 
" gurgle." 

suffgestiiig the careless wheat-fields of England, in which " abil- 
locK," called wild musturd, abounds; and here we miss the 
lovely anemoneSj the papuvers, and the mauve and white cycla- 
mens of Syria. Future collectors of botany are warned that 
the vegetable follows the rule of the mineral kingdom : every 
march exliibits something new, and he who neglects to gather 
specimens in one valley, will often miss them in its neighiwurs. 
A denser line of trees down the Wady Hujayl showed the water 

of Amdan ( .^\j^^\), which others called "Mfddn;"* represented 

to be 6 hours distant from our last camp, it was passed after 
1 honr 30 minutes. To the lei't, and facing us, rose the GIragir» 
all decayed Hisnia, blurred and broken by the morning mist. 
Presently turaing to the south-Oiist, we struck across a second 

wild divide intu the Wady el-Anlish / jix\ \), another feeder 

of the Wady Ddmah nnining southwards. Like yesterday, the 
loose red sand i>^ Ilisniil-groundj and it is scattered with blocks 
of the Harrah-lava. The walls are burnished fclsite and green 
porphyritic trap, a barren ugly formation which will hauut us 
for several marches. 

After riding 4 hours (=12 miles) we halted in a short 
"Watercourse, the Wady el-Giragir. Hero we could prospect the 
northern basin of \\n'^ great Wady Damah, whose plain in 
also known ha EJ-lIahabah, the ojien (abode) — the Rahab or 
Rehoboth ("Spaces") of the Hebrews^ the' TrXareJa of the 
Greeks. In Arabic it applies esjiecially to valleys over whose 
every part water flows. Damah is probably a corruption of 
Daama, the liole of the jerboa, or the tield-mouse. Tliis 
notable feature. Jnmed as an Arabian Arkadia, is a " Haddii- 
dah," or frontier <ltvidc, whii-li in days of yore separated 
the " 'Ukbiy vah " ('Ukbi-laud) to the north from the " Cala- 
wiyyah " (liali-land) south. The latter tribe still claim it as 
a northern limit. The author of the ' Masiilik el-Absar-ii 
Manmlik el-Amsar't (the ' I'utlis of Clear-seeing in the Domi- 
nions of Cities') says, "Their abodes are now in Damu, which 
is the land between the Uyiia el-Ivftj>ab ('Aynunah) and El- 
Akra, at the mouth of the Mazfk (defile>." Now, however, 
the intrusive lluwaytat have pushed their way far beyond 
this bourne. The actual owners, tbe Sulaymiyyin, the 8ulay- 
mat, the Jernfiu, and other Hnwayti tribes, are a less turbulent 
rae<i than the nortiiems, because they are safe from the bandit 
Ma'azah and they live in the presence of their brethreu. Tha 

• In Arnbic " iuinii<ljin " means iurfacc-watcr. 

t Tlie worJt if (Abil'l 'Abbus ShiLiib el-Din) Alimed iba Yahyi in the earlj 
pari of the foiuteentli ccntiirj- (nat. a. u. 700, ob, liS), 



Burton'* Itineraries of tJie Second Expedition into Midian. 

Damah head is a great bay in the Jlisma-wall to the east, and 
below Ziba we sliall steam across its nioulh. The valley is 
equally abnndiiut in herds of camels, Hocks, and vegetation ; 
in places it is, adorned by trcc-cluiups and a thin open forest. 
The broad hwse sole of ruddy sand is fearlully burrowed and 
honeycombed; and, like its sister the Wady Saclr, it is exposed 

to the frequent assaults of the Zauba'h (^oo** )*» ^^ dust- 

" devil." That it is plentifully supplied with water, wc learn 
from the birds which muster in force : the Caravane, or " kuock- 
kneed plover;" the Egyptian liakham (NeopJiron pei'enopterus) ; 
the lovely little "Simoird" (Nedarintu Ose^v) ; the brown 
swallow of the A'iie banks, and flights of ravens {Ghurab el- 
Bayn), highly intelligent animals which are as destructive as 

We rode on for 1 hour 4.5 minutes ( = 5 miles) and a total 
of 5 hours 45 minutes { = 17 luiles) ; crossed the '' Thalweg " of 
the Damah, and camped on its !et"t bank, near the Jebel el- 
Balawi. The water known as Mayet el-Jibsiyl (" of the Hil- 
lock ") lay about 30 miimtes ahead in a lone rocky snout. 
Betore sleeping we were visited by an old Bedawiyyah 
(woman), who brought a goat for sale ; she had a long tale to 
tell of neighbouring ruins, especially a well witli steps, into 
which the Arabs had descended some seven Karnat ("stattires," 
i,e. fathoms). Presently they found liouses in the galleries nt 
the bottom and fled in terror. The legend is common throngh- 
out Midian ; but we could not trace its origin, 

Feb. 2Sfh. — Lieut. Amir was sent to sketch and survey the 
reported remains, under the guidance of a Sulavmi Bedawi, 
Said ibn Zayfulhih, who, according to his own account, must 
have been a centagennrian. He named the ruins Dar 
('* house ")f or Divar ('' houses "), El-Na.sara ; that is, of the 
Nabathfeans. The former term "of the Nazarenes" is herv^ 
retained by popular tradition, while the Nabat are clean 
forgotten : the same is the case in th^ Sinuitic Peninsula which 
Dr. Beke calls of Pharan, Biding south-west down the Daraah, 

the party came upon the 'Ayn el-Bada' (rtX))* ^ spriog' 

in a stone- revetted well (?) near the left bank. The strew of 
broken quartz arouud it showed an atelier; and specimens 
of scattereil fragments, glass and pottery, were added to the 
collection. The settlement-ruins, which the guide called El- 
Kantarah (the " Bridge " or the " Arch "), lay farther down, 

* The olHssical teim U Abil (or Umm) Zauba'at, "Father (or mother) of (Iho 
demon) Znuba'uh." 

Bubton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

upon a southern iufluent of the main line of draiuaf^e : they 
were divided into two blocks, one larjjer than the other. 
Lieut. Amir tiien jmsheil forward by ft direct road lying west 
of that taken by the caravan. The latter travelled up the 

broad open sole of the Wady Shebaykah (uiC*.ii' ^^ ^''"3 " Little 

Net"), which gives its name toanadjoiniiij,' mountain : it is the 
recipient of the Wady Shuwak. The longer road was good, 
but it occupied the camels 12 hours. 

liy way of exercttation, ive had all laid dovru from Arab 
information the bay of iSliaghab and SImwuk ;' and nothing 
could be more ineuugruourf when the sketch-muiis came to be 
compared. This arose from the route foLlowinf; the three sides 
of a long parallelof^rani, whose fouiili is ljii?ed upuii the Wady 
Ddmah, causing considerable complication. And, the " ex- 
cursus" ended, we were all convinced that we had made much 
southing, whereas our farthest point was not more than five 
miles below the parallel of Ziha (n. kit. 27° 2U'). 

Lcavii>g the great valley at G A.M., we struck up a southern 
influent, the Wady iSiiuwak. On the rocky ground of the left 
bank we passed circles of stones {Hu/rah, '' Water-pits "?) and 
skirted the low tongue of rock whose folds had .supplied us 
yesterday with drink. Our course zigzagged to the south-east 
over ground alternately sandy aud stony : east of it rose the 

mountains Abu Shimin ( , \'. *, of the " Wild Leek"), and 

Fujaymah (a ^^.-^t*^ ; and west the Jebel Sula' (jtLo)t Ei- 

After 3 hours' marcliing ( = 6 miles) we turned up a branch 
watercourse on the Wady yimwak's left bank ; a " short cut " 
Rensibly avoided by the caravan. The gorge showed at once a 
total change of formation. Crvstallised lime, clays of variegated 
Lues, and large-stoned conglomerates compacted by a hard 
siliceous paste of dark mauve, as if they contained manganese, 
painted in fresco, the sides and the floor. Apparently this 
gully is a favourite with birds. For the tirst time in Midian 
we saw the partridge, called here, as in Sinai, "Sbinnar" 

\ \. » =Caccabis): the noble species {C. mdanocephala)^ 

common in Abyssinia, is nearly as large as a pheasant, and 
tastes much like the immigrant from Phasis. Besides this, 

• The latter tenn^ from which Ptolemy borrowed hia " StJaka,' ia connected 
•with Hhakf, i.e., tall, loftv (mountain). " Shtigbnl) " w« sliiiU see was formerly 
" Sbaghbd." 

t Sulla' would mean a broad bard stone, or a piaco pruducing no verdure. 

Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 75 

were the qaail, the Ilajl (Hey's or desert partridgi?. Ammoperdrix 
heyi); the ringdove, the turtle and the fierce little butcher- 

Farther on, the patli, strikiiii}^; over broken divides and long 
tracta of stony 2;i'ound, beciime rough riding. It is flanked by 
the usual mehmcholy monotonous hills of reddish folsite and 
greenish trap, whose mouldering, slaty and schist-like edges, 
ia plai-es stand upright. Uj>ou the summit ut' the last Col 
nppt>ared the ruins of some work, a largo s<jaare of boulder- 
stones. After 4 hours' riding ( = 10 slow miles), in a general 
south-eastern direction, hiy mapped before lis the pink sands, 
the Daum-trees and fan-palm bush ; the arboreous Asclepias 
(YA-lJshT = C(iUofrojn3 procera), and the secular jujubes of 
iiir Wady Shuwjik. It is backed by the Jebel el-»5ani' 

(nj\^^), the "Mountain of the Maker" (or artificer); that 

is, the blacksmith. The name derives from a traditional 
brother of Weyland Smith, who lived and shod animals there 
in the olden time, possibly iHjfore the sixteenth century, when 
the maritime road was laid out. The block is split into twin 

the higher, and 


heads, El-Naghar ( «^) being the higher, 

east of its neiglibour El-Niujhaijr. 'i'iie peaks arc excellent 
landmarks, seen fur many a mile ; and the Bedawiu declare 
that there is a furnace near the summit. 

Shuwak ( s^fci) which, by Lieut Amir's dead reckoning, 

lies in n. lat. 27'^ 15', can be no other than the 'S.oaKa placed 
by rtolomy (VI. viL) in N. lat. 20" 1;3'. If this be so, we must 
add an average 1° to his latitudes, which elsewhere, also, appear 
too low. This addition would give : — 

Hippus Vicus (I'tol. 20^ 40) 2V 40', the exact latitude of 

Phoenfkon Vicus (Ptol. 26° 20') 2T 20'. the latitude of 

861ma (Ptol. 26°) 27° 20', the Mediterranean village on the 
Wady Sahna (?). 

Bada (Ptol. Badais, 25" 30') 26" 45' 30". 

Marwah, or Aba 'l-JIani (Ptol. 3l6ehuura, 24'' 30') 26° 10'. 

There is nothing violent in this change. On the East 
African coast Ptoiemys Aronmta Promuntorium, which can 
only be Jard Hah'ui, or " Guardafui," is placed Ijetween N. lat. 
5^ and 7', wherens it lies in N. lut. 11° 41' 4". 

According to iSjtrenger (' Alt. Geog.', p. 25), Sdaka and Badais 

76 BuilTON'i Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

do not fit into any of the Alexandrian's routes ; and were con- 
nected only witb their ports Khaunathos (Mjirmah ?) and 
PLoenikon Vicus (Ziba ?). But both these cities represented 
important stations, both of agriculture and of mineral industry, 
on the Nabathman overland between Leuke Kome and Petra, 
a line kept up by the Moslems till Sultan Selim's route 
superseded it. 

I will here describe only the site of Shuwak, consigning to 
another place* details concerning its ruins, a subject not 
strictly gfOf^rapliicah It lies upon a long narrow riverine 
island, iu the broad sandy wady of the same name. The 
*' Thalweg " has «.'vidently shifted again and again ; now it 
hugs the left baak under the Jebel el-Siuii', whilst a smaller 
branch, on the northern side, is subtended by the stony divide 
which we have just crossed. At the city the trend of the 
valley is from north-east to pouth-west, and the altitude is 
about 170U feet (ancr. 28-28, the mean of G obs.). The head 
still shows the sandstone castcllatioiLS of the Hismil, Looking' 
dowTi stream, beyond the low dark hills that divide the basin 
from the adjoining southern wady, we see the tall grey heads 

of Jebel ZiglAb {^\^-), and of the Shahbd Giimirab 
(i y^l^. L-ft-i;)' the " ashen-coloured (peak) of Jamirah/' the 

P. N. of a valley. Both gleam white by the side of the gloomy 
traps; and they mark the granitic redon, lying south and 
seaward of the more modern plutonic rocks. 

At Shuwak we allowed our camels, but not ourselves, a day 
of rest. The ruins are in the usual melancholy state, much 
like the broken heaps and cairns which are found in the Nejeb 
or " South Country." Traces of solid wails, forming huge 
parullelograrae, are divided by tumuli of loose friable soil 
efflorescing with salt— the mmintures of what arc seen at 
Babylon, Nineveh and Troy. The arrangements for smelting, 
and for wuter-sufiplyj furnaces, wells and cisterns, b<«rrage8 and 
aqueducts, apjiear to have been ou a large scale. One conduit, 
built of untrimmed stone, ami channelled with rougli cement 
overlying a finer concrete, can be traced for a mile and a 
quarter along the left bank. Tlie circular furnaces, measuring 
some 2 feet iu diameter, were built of lire-brick; and uf the 
Hisma sandstone, which moulds itself into a natural open 
lateritimn. We dug into several of them, but so carcfid had 
been the workmen, or perhaps the " treasure-seeker,'* that not the 
smallest bit of metal remained — nothing was found save ashes. 

■ Tlifi lymd uf MidioQ (Beviaited)/ dutp, xi. 

Burton** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 77 

pottery auid stones. Perhaps our most interesting discovery 
was of the catacombs, proviug a civilisation enalof^ous to that 
of Maghair Shu'ayb, but ruflor far, because more distant from 
the ethnic centre. 

We left Shuwak considerably perplexed by what it had 
shown us. The city proper is 1^ mile long; and it could 
hai-dly liave lodged less than 20,000 to 25,000 souls. The 
evidences of immense labour were the more surprising when 
compared with the utter absence of what we c&\\ civilisation. 
Not a coin, not even a bit of glass, had been picked up. Tho 
Greek and Latin inscriptiuns of the Hauranic cities declare 
their origin. These Midianitiah rains, absolutely analphabetic, 
refuse a single hint concerning tho mysterious race wliieh here 
lived and worked, and worked so nobly. Again, who were the 
3Ios]ems who succeeded them in a later day, when the Hajj- 
Caravan, some 3^ centuries ago, ceased to march by this road ? 
How is it that the annalists say nothing of them ? that not a 
ve-stige of tradition remains concerning any race save tho 
Nazarene ? 

March 2nd. — From 8huwak to the Wady Damah are two 
roads. The direct turns to the north-west ; the other, which 
passes tho ruins of El-Sliag!iab, forms two legs, due south and 
suuth-west. Setting out, at 6 a.m., down the left or southern 
side of the Shuwak Valley, we passed some immense basements 
of constructions lying alxjut a mile below our camp ; the total 
length could not have been loss than 4 miles. One is a wall 
of over 1000 yards, ending in what appears to be a square 
cistern, 48 paces each way. On the east rose the Jebel 

el-Wasaydah (^j^,), fronting the Jebel el-Wasayddt 
icJ^^^- We then left the Shuwak Valley to the right, 

and stnick over a rough and stony divide, with a narrow pass 
formed by the Jebel Hashim on the north, and the Jebel Ghurab 
on the south. The pass was marked by Bedawi tombs, garnished 
with the usual rags and tatters. Beyond the pas.'-", quartz once 
more appeared in large quantities. 

After marching 2 hours ( = 7 miles) we saw uniform heaps 
to the left; and another 30 minutes showed us a range of 
boulder-circled pits on the right; their clay soles were of 

brighter green, and the Arabs called them Hufrah (3 ij^), 

the "artificial," opposed to Temdil el-md ( \j\^), "natural 

water-holes." We are now in another hydrographic basin ; the 
southenimost yet visited. This Wady el-Shnghab flows south- 

78 Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Afidian. 

westward to the Wady Aznab (the "fat"), whose embouchure 
we Bhnll pass on the way southwards. 

After a total of 3 hours ( = 10 miles), we sighted the large 

and important remaius of Shaghab ( ^_^^W * ) . It is probably 

inclurled by Ptolemy under the name Softkai and it is evi- 
dently the Shughbii, whitib tiie j^en^rnipher Yakut (iii. 302) 
places one day's journey from BitiM. Tlie ruins of iShajibab are 
Itiu'It upon moro foninlicated ground than those of Shuwalc. 
Tht; Wady Shaghab, tiowing southwards, here spreads out into 
a broad bulge or basin ; it contains rude Arab wolls ; and its 
characteristic rock is the ranuve-eoloured conglomerate before 
notit'fid. Looking down-stream wo see a " gate," formed by the 
moeting of two rocky tougue-ti[»s, both showing large works: 
beyood thesis ]iarro>is nothing is visible. The mass of the 
city lays on the left bank, where a high and artififial-Iooking 
remblai of earth masks the mouth of an influent from the east, 

the Wady el-Aslah {^\), or of the "Kali Plant," which, with 

the Wady 8hagbab, feeds the Aznab. It drains the Jebels Aslah 
and Ziglab, the cones of pnl^ granite visible from 8hnwak ; and 
the old SL'ttloment stood a cheval upon its broad lower course. 
Slightly east of north the twin peaks Naghar and NughajT, 
combining to foiTu the " Mouutain of tiie Maker/' tower profiled 
in the shape of a huge pyramid. A little north of west springs, 
also in profile, the great ShdiT of Kl-j\luwaylflh ; no longer a 
ridge, but a tall and portly blwk. Lastly, a re;;u]ar ascent, the 
]\lugrah el-Waghir (of " Fretting '") fronts the eity, sloping up to 
the W'.N.W. ; and disclosing a view of the Jibal el-Tihuuiah. This 
broad incline was, three centuries ago, the route of the Hajj- 

The ruins, which are not a quarter the size of Shuwak, 
show the usual succession of huge parallelograma. The only 
peculiarity is one of the mf.ny aqutiducts which, after Greek, 
as opposed to Roman fashion, has been run underground to 
pierce a hdlock. Near the remains of a fort (V) wo found heaps 
of hind-sholls : they are rare in this i-egion, and durmg our 
four months' march \\c secured only two species. Shaghab 
removed some of the difficulties which had perplexed us at 
Shuwak and elsewhere. In tlie northern country signs of 
nietal-wt)rking, which was mostly confined to the wadys, have 
been generally obliterated, either washed away or sanded 
over. Here the industry revealed itself without mistake. The 
furnaces were few ; but around each ai*e long heaps of neffro 
and copper-green quartz, freshly fractured ; while broken hand- 


Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 79 

mills of bosttlt ami lava, different from tlio nib-stoues and the 
mortiirs of softer subst-ance, told their own tale. 

At Shaghab tlien, the nietAlliferous rock, brouj!:ht from the 
adjiicent njountains, was crushed aud probably ti-uu.sported for 
washing and roasting to Shuwak, wheie water, tlie priiue 
necessary, abounded. If in early days the two or rather tliree 
settlements formed one, their sontli end would have been the 
bead-qnarters of the wealtliier classes. Henco the Bedawin 
always give it precedence—" Shaglutb wa Shuwak." Moreover, 
we remarked a better style of buihling iu the former ; aud we 
picked up glass as well as pottery. 

The glass fragments found in Midinn generally are of two 
distinct kinds. The modern is the thick buttle-green and 
Llueish materia! wJiich Hebron still produces. The aneicut, 

Srocured by digging, is so much degraded by daujp that iri- 
escence has supplanted the original texture. Amongst the 
Greeks of the classical age there were many varieties of colour. 
The doep-grecn or black-brown were made from tiie obsidians 
of Thera, Mylos, &'c., treated with soda, potash and oxide of 
lead to make it flow readily. The opaque yellow was abiiwina 
mixed with iron oxide; and oxide of copper or, possibly, mala- 
chite, was ailded to form the blue variety. 

IV. The return to El-Mumujlah via Ziba. — Leaving liient. 
Amir to map and plan the ruina, we followed the caravan up 
the Magrah el-Waghir, the long divide whose film of forest- 
trees, each separated by a few yards from its neighbour, some- 
what reminded me of tlie Anti-Libanus about El-Kuaaytanih. 
Theref liowever, thick-leaved terebinths and holm-oaks, here 
thorny acacias and mimo&is form the staple. On our right 

stood the dull bare block Jebel Muwayrib (i^^ yj^^) l aud, 
farther north, the Jibdl Abu Tinah (Ai^,"of clay"). Behind 
these two the tall Jebel Tulayh i,„^ of the "little Talh- 

thorn**) buttressed the right (northern) bank of the Wady 
Damah ; awl, still farther, stainetl faint blue by distatire, rose the 
familiar Tilmmah range, a ridge now broken into half-a-dozcn 
blocks. About the third mile we passeil, on the left, rutn.s of long 
walls, memorial stones, and signs of Arab " Wasm." 1 had 
ordered the camp to be pitched upon the Tuwayl el-8uk; 
despite which, in 1 hour 15 minutes ( = 4 miles), and a total of 
4 horn's 15 minutes ( = 14 miles), we found the tents standing 
some 3 miles short of it, on a bleak ugly aud waterless ridge of 

the W6ghir (^1,)- The Shayks swore by Allah that tliis 


80 Burton'« Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

the Jebek el War, Haraymal ( \_^ 

was the veritable Tuwayl; and a Bedawi, who knew where 
water lay in the neighbourhood, refused to show it without the 
preliminary " bakhsliisli." 

March 3rd. — At <i A.M. wo spt out down the ri«;ht bank of the 
Wady el-KhaiulakJ, which runs north with westinjsr. lieyond 
its depression lay the foot-hilts of gloomy trap leading to the 

Jebel el-Raydan ( , 3 Jo , ) ! t^*' litter is a typical granitic form, 

n short dcmipique-saddlo with inward3-.sloping pommel. Tho 
Tiiwayl el-Suk shows mHhing but an open and windy flat, 
where the Hajj-Caravan used to camp ; the Hamra el-Tuwayl, 
an adjoining ridge, is scattered with spalled quartz, " Wasm," 
and uiemorial stones. Here the principal formation is the 
mauve-coloured conglomerate. 

Begiuuing from the suuth, the left bank is composed of 

,^ , 80 called from the 

Teganum, a perfumed shrub), Marwuh aud El-Khandaki. Ou 
the right or east the broad valley is bounded by the Jebels el- 

Zama (L^, of " being thirsty"), Umm Kamaya* i^^.^ ), and 


After riding 2 hours 30 minutes (= 9 miles) to the north, 
with westing (300^ mag:.), we came unexpectedly upon a large 
and curious ruin backed by the Wiuly Damuh ; f a pair of 
parallel walls, sumo <*15 feet apart, and about 1000 yards in 
length, formed the chief feature. For want of a better name 
I called this old settlement Khart'ihdt (ruins of) el-Khandaki, 
and greatly regretted that we had not time enough to march 
down (he whole line of the Damah. 

Half an hour more placed us at the junction of the Wadys 
el-Kliauduki aud Damah. Here is a well, the " Bir," or 

"Mayet" el-Nabi' (^j!j)i ^^^ "Bursting or Overflowing"; 

and the" Hufruhs"of the Arabs everywhere supply sweet water. 
The characteristic vegetation is the hardy tiimarisk, whoso 
grey-green clumps shelter goats, sheep and camels. Our 
mules now revel on green-meat ; Aristida -grass, Panicum, 
liordeum (^murinum), and Bromus of several varieties. lu front 

rise the twin granite-peaks of the Jebel Mutadan ( l^xi^, 

* The dim. form of Binu, a tree and n kind of forage eaton by camels. Laaa 
{tub voce") describes it fla roacmbling a dwiuf totnarisk. Like tho Ghoza plant, it 
is ii^ed for makitig ulknli. 

t Seo ' The Land of Midian (Revisited),' chap. xii. 

Burton'* Itineraries of the SecoJid Expedition into Midian. 81 

i.c. "near or adjaceDt "), one with a stepped side like a pynimiil 
lacking its casing. Thty are separated from the Wady Damali 
by a rougli and stOTiy divide ; and ruins with fnrnaces are 
reported to l»e found in tlieir wady, vvliich feeds the great 
"Wady 'Amiid. From the sea they also show two ridges of grey- 
white granite. 

At 11 A.M., after riding 5 hours (=16 to 17 miles), we halted 

near a water called El-Ziyayh ( ^ ^ . ) : slightly brackish, hut 

much relished by our animals. It lies opposite the Jebel Tulayh 
on the north bunk. We then resumed our way towards a lone 

peak, the IiLhang (-xLs*.) el-Karin — these South Midian 

names have a truly barbarous twang. Sundry bends in the bed 
occupied 1 hour ( = 3 miles). We then left the Wady Dumah, 

and turned up a short broad Fiumara, the Khuraym ( • ^} 

el-Asirah. The W^ady Sa'Iuwwah to the left showed a barley- 
field, the proi)erty of some excejutionally industrious Bedawi of 
the Jerafiu-PIuwaytat clan. On our riglit rose a block of 
syenite ruddy with orthose ; the surface was formed by rounded 
lumps and twisted finials. We rode two more hours ( = fj miles), 
a total of 7 hours ( = 22 miles), much to the disgust of tho 
camel-men ; and lastly we camped at the Jayb el-Sa'liiw^vah, 

also known as El-Kutnyyifah (tSoLAsJ')- 1 "^'"^ P*'"* ^^ *^^ 
divide is near a fold in the syenitic mountain, the Sha'b el- 
Burayrfj (,,,(0,jp)' whoso stony flanks supply fresh rain- 
water from the rock. 

In the western hills that bound the broad slope, the remains 
of a made road lead to an aielier, where large quantities of 
quartz had been broken in situ. Some specimens wore a light 
bluish tinge, as if stained by cobalt, a metal found in several 
slags; and there were veins of amethystine quartz-crystals 
nestling in their agaty beds : the engineer suspected that they 
were coloured by chlorure of silver (?). The jxlons and jUets cut 
the granite in all directions ; and the 6ery action of frequent 
trap-dykes had torn the grouud-stono to tatters. Here a 
Bedawi hud volunteered a grand account of ruins and iuscrip- 

* Ebnnn, in tLe dictionary, is the brow or projectiag Bammit of a mountain i 
the Arabs of Midian boeui to denote by it a hollow, or cavity, 
t Meaning the " littlo Katifiib," tuantle or foldod garment 



tions to be seeu on our nest day's march. We took aluindatit 
truuble to visit ail tho places, and found simply nothing. The 
guides also reported, when too late, tliat to the w.s.w. of El- 
Kuta^Tifah lies a Nakb called Aba "1-Marwali, the " Father 
of Quartz," whose waters flow via the Mutadiia to the Wady 
'Am lid. 

March Ath. — From this divide two roads lead to the ruins 
of Umm Amil. One goes direct, crossing an ugly pass; the 
other avoids it by a couBiderable detour, via the circuitous 

\yady Iluwaya d^ ,, >. ). At G a.m. we struck westwards down 

a slope some 5 miles long; and then Jtscended a wady bounded 
on either side by a cons]>icuous red hill. A few minutes led us 
up tho Fiumiira, whoso bfd, cmnberfd witli boulders, had cut 
deep below the stiff clayey Jarf (" raised banks ") : the ascent 
presently placed us on a broad open pJain, some 2100 feet 
above the sea-level (aner. 28 "85), and forming a water-parting. 
On the left a square stone work seemed to have been intended 
lor defence. 

A few fiu'Iongs down the broad and smooth ^Vady Ruvvays 
Ijrought us to a halt near a large nfdier on tho left side. 
Its sole i>of'uliarity was the beauty of the Imiidmills, made of 
the hardest and finest grey granite?. We tlien struck over a 
stony divide to the left, separating tho Wadys Iluwaya and 
Umm Amil. Here lay signs of another Mashghal (atelier). 
In front rose a fine landmark, the Khnrm (top) e!-Badarf)'^'ah 

(*)0 kX*i\ A »ik,)- A tolerable track led to the summit of the 
-J ' i ^^ 

Col at 9.45 A.M. ; and a vile descent presently landed us in the 
Wady Umm Amil. The left bank of the hideous narrow gorge 
showed a lino of water-pits, attributed to the Mutakaddimin — 
the ancients. Crossing the torrent^gully, we left on ita right 
bank tho foundations of large works. After a total ride of 
4 houre (= 13 miles), and a morning spent in chasing the wild- 
goose, we halted opposite three coutbless heaps of rolled stones, 
surrounded by fine quartz. This " town*' had been grandiosely 
described to the tirst Expedition by the citizens of Ziba, who 
declared the distance to be 4 hours instead of 7 hours 30 
minutes. The Bedawin, on the other han<l, assured us that the 
stages, Shaghab — Umm Amil and Umm Amil — Ziba, were the 
same measure ; when the former occupied 12 hours 15 ininutes, 
and the latter 7 hours ^0 minutes. Ihe iSuyyid suggested that 
the name " Mother of the (fellow) Workman ' is a corruption of 
Mu'amil (one who laljoura with others). I would also conjecture 

Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

that here the slave-minera were stationed ; olrl Ziba being the 
masters' abode. At the const-town we found some specimens of 
fine and heavy red copper, which had been dug out of a ruined 
furnace in Umm AmiL 

At noon we rode down the ugly rocky watereoiirse. both of 
Avhose banks showed long lines of razed and broken building. 
Presently, crossing a divide marked by two stonedxeaps, we 
fell into the broader but equally unpicturcsque Wady 8almd 

(IJl-j)-* It lies in about the parallel of Ziba (n. lat. 27° 20'); 

and we must add 1^ 20', instead of 1', if we would connect it with 
Ptolemy's Mesogaian Kutfirj, tMillcd ^a\^a (VI. vii.). Wady 
Salma is the smalleKt, and the northernmost of the three basins 
which we have just visited ; the central being the Wady 
Damah, and the southern Wady 81iaghal*-Asliih-Aznab. 

We presently passed on the left b;ink the delxjuchure of the 
Wady llitways. After a hot ride of 1 hour 45 minutes ( = 6 miles), 
and a total of 5 hours 4.j minutes (= U> miles), down the dull 
line, we camped on the iloor of fine Siinds, hemmed in by tall 
musses of monotonous trap. The adjacent scatter of Arab wells 

in the bed is known as the Ma el-Badi'ah (josjJO the "Water 

of Wonders "). I carefully asked aljout ruiua in tho neighbour- 
hood, and we climbed the torrent-sides io command a bird's-eye 
view of the adjacent liill-chaos. According to the guides, there 
are no remains of the "old ones" nearer tlian those uf Umm 

March 5th. — Wo set out at 5.45 a.m. down the Wady Sabn4; 
and half an hour showed us its lower course constricted to 
a mere gorge by two opposite rocks. On the left bank lies a 
group of Arab graves, which may have taken the place of 
Rome ancient atelier. The right bank here receives the Wady 
Haraimil, as the broad-apeakmg Bedawin pronoimce *' Haray- 

mal ( \l ^ the " Little Peganum) ;*' and we struck up the 

Shatiu {^^J^j^)f el-Hnraymal, or (Water?) parting of the 

Haraymal. Then we fell into the Wady Aba Kikavy (of Wells), J 
remarkable only for the quantity of its brackish water. 
Below, it takes tho name of Wady Kifafi (not Kafafa), and dis- 
charges into the sea north of the Wady Salma (Ad. Chart, 

* Balma (codiDC viib tbe Ya-aliO i<i tlio aotno of ft tribe, b \roman, and a 
tnouittain, also of the south wind. 

t Shikjtn, the root, loeans opfio^ition ; hcacc 8hHyt£n = Satan. 

I Raki'y, Id pure Arabic, the plur. of Kakiyat, a (cluan) 'woU or water-pit. 

a 2 

84 BlTtTON'a Itineraries of the SecoJid Expedition into MIdian. 

27° 18'). It has been erroneously connected with the latter, as 
in Niebuhr's " Sulina ukesale," which Spreiiger (p. 24) forrects 
to Selma \va Kiifafa.* A third divide to the north led along 
the eastern flank of the Jebel Ahii Rish, whii-h is visible from 
the otKng ; and, reaching the Ool, we saw the lied Sea about 

The track then deso&nds into the Wady Sidrah (of the Single 
Lotus-tree), whose lol't bank is Jbrmed by the HalVa Ziba, the 
"yellow (hill) of ZiUl," a name which well describes its citron- 
coloured complexion. Here we fosind only blue tpiart^ stained 
with carbonate of copper. The " Ytxiloy ol tlie (one) ZizyphuB," 
after narro^ving to a stony gate, suddenly flarea out as it falls 
into the Wady Ziba ; and we reached the far-famed wells after 
4 hours (=11 miles). In my vol. i. p. 31J7, 1 confounded the 
" Sultan's Wells," the Birket, and the " Euntich's Grave,'' in one 
glorious blunder.! The Hat surrounding the cove-head is 
remarkably well grown with the two common varieties of palras, 
the Date and the Dunm: it still deBervea the title "Plioenikon 
Konie." I have already protested (vol. i. chap, xi.) against the 
derivation of the word, and the identilication with '* Jlippos," pro- 
posed by my learni'<l fi-icnd Spreuger {" Alt. Gcog.', p. 24), His 
theorv was probably suggested by Yakut (iii. 4(34), who writes 
Dhablja, and places the post 70 miles from Bada. The people 

universally spell the word with a zad ( \ ,^ ) ; and never with a 

za (ij) which would make it signify *' gazelles ;" and lastly, the 

terminal aspirate (tv*/. Zibdh) is unknown to tlieni. Older 
names are Bir el-Sultdni, and Kabr el-Tuwiislu', for which see 
the Haji's route. The single well of Sultan Selim (?) has now 
grown to four, alt large and stone-lined. 

We found the best pitcliing-ground to be on the site of old 
Zib;i, a strip of sand sheltered by the tall soa-elin', and forming 
the northern shorts of the inner cove, behind the new town. 
Hero the stones, buried for ages under the sand, are now dug^ 
up to build its successor. This second visit made me think 
better of the settlement, and of the harbour, concerning which 
VVellstcd (ii. 181) wrote, *' At Sherm Dhoba the anchorage is 
small and inconvenient, and could only be made available for 
boats or small vessels." Dredging the sandbar, and cutting the 
soft sandstone, will give excellent shelter and, some say, a depth 

* For the derivation of the name see the Houtc-liuc of iraji Khalifalk at the 
end ol' tbU paper. 

t See * Thu Land of Midioa (BeTiaited),' chap, zii,, and the Boute-line at the 
end of this paper. 

Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 85 

of 17 fathoms. The settlement is far superior, especially as 
regards potable water, to El-^[uwaylali ; it exports charcoal in 
large quantities, and it drives a thriving business witli the 
Bedanin. There are beginnings of a pier, and a mosque is 
building. The fish is excellent and abundant ; lobsters are 
caught by night near the reefs, and oysters iu the buy when the 
tide is out» Shoes are to bo bought : * as at El-'Akabah, 
"Hashish" may Iw found in any quantity, but no " 'Knki ;" and 
yet one of the chief traders is a Copt, who finds it convenient to 
become a Moslem. 

Some of our first inquiries were concerning the Jebel el- 
Fayruz (*' Turquoise hill''). I had seen during our provions 
expedition a splendid s{>ecimeu of this gem ; and all the coast- 
people described the lapis Pharanites of ZiIki as the Ijest they 
Knew. The immediate result of qnestioning wsis a general 
denial that anything of the kind existed. Fnrayj, however, 
engaged as guide an old Cedawi, Sulaym el-^fakrati ; and his 
aon was sent on to gather all the " Fayniz " he could find. 
Here also we collected notices concerning the ruin " £1- 
M jirmah," which has been identiOed with ihe 'VavvdOov Kwfirj 
placed by Ptolemy in n. lat. 25^ 40'. The site is said to l>e a 
branch valley of the Wady Azlam, the first of the three pilgrim- 
marches between Zibsi and El-W'ijh. This watercourse shows, 
above the modern Uajj-station, the ruins of a fort built by 
8ultan Selim. Wellstod also mentions (ii. 183) a castle lying 
three miles inland. The {)eopIe describe Jljirmah as an ancient 
gold mine (?) ; and the house-foundations anri a " well with 
steps " still, they say, remain. Our day of rest (llarch 6) 
ended at 7 p.m. with a heavy storm of wind and rain from 
the north. 

March 1th. — The caravan marched straight northwards along 
the shore, by tJie Ilajj-road, to its eauiping-grouud in 2 houra 
{=5 miles). Meimwhile M. Marie and I, ae(!on)[)anied by 
Furayj and the old Bedawi, set off for the tiuvjuoise-mine. At 
6 A.M., crossing the broad pilgrim-track, we struck eastward at 
» place where the seconflary gypsTini subtends the coralline 
Jblaise. After 45 minutes we traversed the Wady Zahakan. 

( . ilSCs-^)' ^^6 southernmost pass over the Slnirr (proper) ; and 

presently we ascended a brancli that falls into the right bank. 
As we advanced it became a rock-walled stone-soled tunnel, 
very interesting after such dull tlat breadths as the Wady 
Salma. The overfulb of rock, and tho thorn-treee, which iu 

* B6C ' The Land of Midian (Revisited;,' chap. xii. 

86 Burton'* Itineraries of the Secortd Expedition into Midiaji. 

places occupy singly the whole had, nerfissitnted, a» usual in 
such narrows, frequent zigzags up and (luwn tho rooky bunks. 
Altera nmuber of divides, we entered the W'ady Hashsliah. witle 
and good for riding ; and, at 8.30 A.M., we passed into tJw Wady 
Umra Jirmah. 

Here immense quantities of broken quartz, distinguished by its 
pretty pink colour, denoted the Mashghal (atelier). The rock 
appeared in large ramifications, mostly striking east-west, and 
in little 'pitons dotting the wady's sole and sides. After another 
half-houl- we dismounted at the watershed of the Wady el- 

Ghal ( Vvi),* where the greybeard guide lost no time in losing 

his head. The Jebel el-Glial, whoso folds fall into its watetv 
course, is a dettiched block rising nearly due south nf southern 
" Sljarp Peak " in tho Admirahy Chart ; while the mouth of tho 
Ghal Cove, breaking tho soa-elilT, bears 270'^ (uiig-) from the 
summit. It lies 3 hours {= 1(J miles) n.n.e. of Ziba, and it 
rises 350 feet above the sea-level (aner. 29 "75). The mass is 
composed of porphyritic trap, and of the hardest felspars, veined 
with chocolate-coloured granite, the latter being the true 

fangue. We failed to find the precious stone, and accordingly 
determined upon another attempt. 

After buikliug a " stone man " on the finial of the Jebel el- 
Ghtil, wo reraounted and struck seawards. Some ugly divides 
led us, in half an hour, to a broad Fiuraara well-grown with 
palm-buBli, the veritable Wady el-Ghal. From this point a total 
of 1 hour 1.") minutes ( = 4 miles) to the west, and a grand total 
of 4 hours ir> minutes ( = 14 miles), placed us in camp. It had 
been pitched at tho Mahattat el-Ghul, on the nortli bank, 
where the " winter-torrent," falling into the sea, has cut a cove 
in the cliff. 

Here the best of news awaited us. Lieut. Yusid", who this 
morning had rejoined the Expedition, reported that all my 
requests had been granted; that our friend the Sinnm- was 
to take tho place of the lively Mukhhir, and that ratious and 
stores were on the way. I felt truly grateful to his Highness 
and to tho Prince Minister for the gracious interest they had 
taken in tho Expedition. 

During the day a Jerafin Bedawi, Selim ibn Musallim, 
brought in scorim of copper and iron ; and, on the morrow, I 
sent him as guide to Lieut. Yusui^ with an escort of two 
soldiers and eight quarrymeu on seven camels. After three 

* Oh&ll me&n^ thtf gi-ound producing the thorny Salam-troe ; it is also a namo 
of the targe Ambiao lizard. 

Bubton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 87 

days' fibsence (March 8-10), the officer rejoined us and reported 
as follows : — 

T/eaving the Mahattat el-Ghal, he struck up its watercourse, 
and then turned suuthwards into the long^ Wady Unim Jirmah. 
A ride of 7.J miles ( = 5;i direct) placed him upon the Jebel 
el-Fayriiz, a rounded eniiuencki ot no great heiji^ht, showing 
many signs of work, especially 3 or 4 cuttings some '2U inches 

Here a Lilloek to the north-west supplied the scoriae before 
mentioned, Lieut. Yusuf blasted the chocolate-coloured quart- 
zoso rock in four places, tilled as many sacks, and made the pil- 
grim-road in the Wady cl-llu'arrash (^a jt.^), leaving to the 

left its red block, the " Hamra el-Mu'arrash." flia specimens 
were very satisfactory, except to the learned geologists of the 
citadel, Cairo, m ho pronounced them to be carbonate of copper. 
They evidently ignored the difference between silicates and 

I made many inquiries, but could hear nothing, of the 
" Jamast." Tlio dictionaries describe it as a blue gem 
(turquoise (?) Ibimd near El-Medinah. It is made into cups 
(for Raki), which "have the singular property of preventing 
those who drink out of them from being intoxicated, and also 
of causing pleasant dreams," Meninski (sui voce) writes 
Gemset, makes the colour violet or red, and derives it from 
diggings distant three marches from the city of the Apostle. 

March i<th. — Our t^outhern journey ended with a dull ride 
along the Haj_j-road northwards. Passing the creek, Abii Sharir, 
which, like many upon tliis coixst, is rendered futile by a wall of 
coral-reef, we threaded a long Hat, and in 2 hours ( = 7 milesj 
we entered a valley where the Secondary formation again sbowea 
its debris. Hero is the Manattat el-Husaa (the " Stallion's 
Leap"), a large boulder showing hoof-prints. The horse, '' El- 
Ma«hhur," lived in the Days of Ignorance, others add when the 
Beni 'Ukbah were warring with the Baliyj'. It torajiorarily 
saved its master's life by alighting upon this boulder, «hich 
then fillf d the pass. A similar story Mill be found in Palmer's 
' Desert of the Exodus ' (p. 42) ; and both show that a noble 
breed has existed where nothing but a donkey can now live. 
Perhaps, also, the Midianite tradition may descend from a 
source which, still older, named tho"l7r7ro? Kotfitj. 

We then fell into the Wady Jibbah, passed the JL-bel cl-Ivibrit, 
examiuml M. Philiptn's work, and, led over a vile and very 
long *' short-cut," found ourselves once more on board the 

88 Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Erpcdition into Midian. 

4 li. 15 111, 

= 10 slow miles 


= 104 „ 

4 li. m m. 

= 11 „ 

5 h. 15 m. 

= 13i „ 


=* 9i „ 

1 h. 30 m. 

= 3 „ 

2 h- 15 m. 

= 5i „ 


^11 „ 

5 h. 45 xa. 

= 17 „ 

4 b. 

= 10 „ 

4 h. 15 m 

= 14 „ 


= 22 „ 

5 h. 45 ro 

= 19 „ 


= 11 „ 

4 h. 15 m. 

= U „ 

4 h. 15 m. 

= 16i „ 

67 h. 40 m. 

= 1971 » 

The following is a synopsis of stations and dates : — 

1. Fcl), UK El-Miiwnykh to the Safh .. 

2. „ 20. To the Hayl Wady cl-Jimm 

3. „ 21. „ El-Nagwah 

4. „ 22. „ MiyAh el-Rik4b .. .. 

5. „ 23. „ Itas W.idy .. .. 
: 6. „ 24. Up tbc Pa«H to the Hisiui .. 

7. „ 25. To the Jayh el-Kburaytat .. 

8. „ 26. „ the MiijiA el-Ruways 

9. „ 27. „ Wady Ddniah 

10. „ 28. „ Kuiijs of tShiiwak 

11. Mar. 2. „ Phai;hab and Magrdh cl-Waghir 

12. „ 3. „ El-Kut!iyyifiib 

13. „ 4. „ Umm Ainil and Ma cl-Baili'kh 

14. „ 5. „ Zib4 , 

15. „ 7. „ J. and W. El-GhAl 

16. „ 8. „ Sharm Ydbarr , 

Grand total .. 

Here my distances are somewhat understated, as they would 
give a rate of less than 3 miles (statute) per hour. Lieut. 
x\jniir'8 estimates (222 miles), laid down upon the map, repre- 
sent a fraction more. 

V. Ascent of the Shurr Mountain. — For long months the Jebel 
Shdrr, the grand block which baciis El-^ruwajlah, liad haunted 
118, starting up iinexpcctedly in all tlirections with its towering 
heads, that sbiftod shape and colour from every angle and 
with each successive cliango of weather. We could hardly 
leave unexplored the classical " Hippos Mens," the Moslem 8 
El'Isht'trah (the " Landmark ")j and the " Bullock's lloms" of 
the prosaic British navi_s;ator (L-win, 1777); while the few 
vacant days, caused by the non-arrival of the SinnAr, offered 
an excellent opportunity far studying the "Alpine ranges" of 
Sfaritime Ulidiau. Niebuhr (Flora /Eiji/pt.-Arahica) justly says 
of this coast farther south, "Altitudiue prodigiosa et prse- 
mpta eminent montes, liaud pauci sublimern atniosphecra) regi- 
onera attigentes .... liceat montes istos Alj'es nominare vel 
cum Alpibiis conferrc." Bo it so! but, hh Sir Frederick 
Henniker remarked, they are " Alps unclothed." 

The atony height-* beyond El-^^uwaylal^ contain, they said, 
wells and water in abundance, Avitb palms, remains of furnaces, 
and other attractions. Every gun was brought into requisition 
by tales of leopards and ibex, the latter attaining the size of 
bullocks (!), and ncrasionally iiudini^ their way to the Fort. 
1 was anxious to collect specimens of botany and natural history 
from an altitude hitherto unreached by jiny traveller in this 
part of Western Arabia, and, lastly, there was geography as 
well as mineraloL'v to he done. 


The Hydrographic Chart gives the mountain a nQaximum of 
9000 feet, evidently a clerical error often repented. Really 
thejse Admiralty gentlomeu are too incurious ! Their careless- 
uesa has im[X)8ed upon so careful a workman as the late 
Lieut. Raper, p. 527, * The Practice of Navigation,' sixth edi- 
tion. Wellstetf, who surveyed the Sharr, observes (ii. 176), 
"The height of the moat elevated peak was found to be 
6500 feet, and it obtained from us the appellation of " l^Iovvilahh 
High Peak," whereas there are native names for every hend. 
We had been couvincL'd that the smaller is the correct measure 
by our view from the Hisma plateau, 3S00 feet above sea-level. 
Again, the form, t!ie size, and the inclination of this noble 
massif are wrongly laid down by the Hydrographers. It is a 
compact bk)ck, everywhere rising abruptly from low and sandy 
watercourses, and comjtletely detached from its neighbours by 
the broad wadys, the Surr to the north, and southwards the 
fiuTvayd and the Zabakan. The huge long-oval prism measures 
19^ miles by [y ( = 97^ square milea of area), and its lay is 
320" (ma^.), thua deHocted 40" westward of the magnetic 
north. The general appearance, seen in profile from the west, 
is a central apex, with Iwn others on each side, tossed, as it 
were, to the north and south, and turning their backs upon one 

Moreover, the chart assigns to its "Mount Jlowilah" only 
two great culmiimtions — " Sharp Peak, 6330 feet," to the nortli, 
and "High Peak, 9000/' south of it Some careless coufusiou 
has also introduced a second *' Sharp Peak " much farther 
north, with exactly the same altitude (6330 feet) : the latter is 

probably the Jebel el-Sbati ( A^tl;), in the Urnub block. 

The surveyors doubtless found difficulty in obtaining the Be- 
dawi names for the several features, which are unluiown to the 
citizens of the coast, but they might ciisily have consulted the 
only authorities, the .1 eratin-Huwaytat, who graze their flocks 
and herds on and around the mountain. As usual in Arabia, 
the four several main " horns " are called after the Fiumaras 
that drain them. The northernmost is the Abu Gusayb 

(Kusayb), or Raa el-Gusayb f: . ^'iy the "Little Beed," 

a unity composed of a single block and of three knobs in a 
knot. The tallest of the Tatter, especially when viewed from 
Che south, resembles an erect and retlexed thumb; hence our 

'* Sharp Peak." Follows Umm el-Funit (i?. ^), the "Mother 

of Plenty" (or "Superiority"), a mural crest, a rjuoin-shaped 
vail, clitliug to the south. The face, perpendicular where it 


90 Bdrton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

looks seawnrds, bears a succession of sears, upright gashes, the 
work of wind and weather; and the body which supports it is a 
slope disposed at tlie natural angle. An " inuoiniuatus/' with 
the semblance of a similar quoin, is separated by a deep Col, 
apparently a torrent-bed, from a huge Beco de papagaio, — the 
"Jrarrot's Bill," so common in the Brazil. Tliis is the Abu 

Shenazir ( SI-. v.)/ orShaykhaiiib ( (^j 'j;^:; . ^* ,). the "Father 

of Columns,"! the " High Peak " of the Ad. Chart. It is the 
most remiirkiible tVature of the sea-fa<^e, even wLon it conceals 
the puif of towering pillars that show consspicuously to the 
north uud south. From the beak-shaped apex the range 
begins to decline and fall to the south. There is little to 
notice in the fourth horn, whose unimportant items, the Ras 

Lahyanah (^'u:^ij),t the Jebel Malih, and the Umm Gisr 

( ^..^ ), end the wall. Each baa ita huge white wady, 

striping the country in alternation with the normal dark-broivn 
divides, and trending coastwards in the usual network.^ 

The materia! of the four crests is the onlinary grey granite, 
lumpy masses of immense size, rounded ofl* by scaling and 
degradatiou ; all chasms and naked columns. Here and there 
a sheet burnished by tlie action of catiiracts, and a slide 
trickling with water, unseen in the shade, and flashing like 
crystal m the sun, broidc its uniformity. The gi-anite, however, 
is a mere mask or excrescence, being everywhere based upon, 
and bucked by, the red felsite and the green plutonic traps 
which have enveloped it. And the prism has no easy sIoi>e, 
eastward or inland, as a first glance suggests : nor is it 
the sea-wall of a great plateau. It fails almost as abniptly 
to the east as to the west ; the country behind it being a per- 
spective of high and low hills, lines of dark rock divided from 
one another by wadys of exaggerated «ize. Only one of these 

minor heights, the Jebel el-Sahb^rah (^ \.;s;Uw)j looks down 

uix>n the sea, rising between the Dibbagh-Kh'shabriyyah block 
to the north, and the Sharr to the south. Beyond the broken 
eastern ground the ruddy Ilisma and the gloomy Harrah form 
the fitting horizon. 

The following section will treat mainly of the routes along 

* " Bhanzarat " in dictionary Arabia means ruggednesa, or the being rti^ed. 

t And. as if two natiica did mot Builico, it has n tliird, Bat el-Uuxtays ( . 
of the ■' Little Cistern "). \>JP^.i=*^ 

X Lihyiin la ii f,iilly, gutter, or furrow ma^le by n torrent. 

§ On tho return march (March 18th) wo crossed the Wadys Umm Giir 
MaliL, Lidtyaaah, Cayza, and Umuiayyaz el-Bayza. 

IiuHTON'i» Itineraries of the Second Erpedition into Midian. 91 

and around the Sharr. I have pubh'shed elsewhere * a descrip- 
tioa of the Monarch of Midianite mountains in his picturesque 

MarchVdth. — The camels came late from El-Muwaylah ; and it 
was nearly 9 a.m. iKjfore we left the Miikhhii\ landed at the head 
of Sharm Yiiharr, and marched up the slinrt AA' ady Harr. TLis 
watercom-se drains the tallcHt ol the hillucky siil>-ntnge:^, the 
red rock " llamra el-Maysarah " (** of the Jlaysar plant "?) Our 
guides, two sturdy mountaineers of the JeniJin-Iliiwaytat, then 
atmek eastward over a short divide to the Wady Sanawiyyah. 
It ia a vulgar valley witli a novelty, the Tamrat Faraj. This 
buttress of brick-coloured boulders, blocking the riglit bank, 
has or is saitl to have the meninonic property of emitting 

sounds — yarinn ( .,^) is the JJedawi word. The valley -sides 

of dark trap are striped with white veins of heat-altered 
argile, the sole with black magnetic sand ; and patches of the 

bed were buttercup yellow with the dandelion ( \ . ), the 

Cytisiifl and the '' Zaram " \^^ = Panicum turgidum)y 

loved by camels. Their jaundiced hue contrasted vividly with 
the purple and mauve blossoms of the bugloss (El-Kahla 

\^^\ the blue flowerets of the lavandula (El-Zayti) and 
the delicate green of the useless asphodel (El-Borag ^ . o) 

"which now gave an aspect of verdure to the slopes. Although 
the rise was inconsiderable, the importance of the vegetation 
palpably decreased as we advanced inland. 

In 1 houi* 30 minutes ( = 4 miles), we reached the wady- 
bead, and wjisted a couple of hours (10,15 a.m. — 12.30 p.m.) 
awaiting the caravan. The path then struck over a stony 
waterparting, with the " Hamra " to the left or north ; and, on 
the other side, the familiar Jebel el-Mu'arrash. The latter ends 

in an isolated peak, Jebel Gharghur ( ,J; ^) ; which, on our 

retm-n, was mistaken for the Sulphur Hill of Jibbah. We then 
renewed acquaintance with the Wady el-Dayzii (" White 
'Nullah"); hero it is a long, broad and tree-dotted bed, glaring 
withal, imd subtending this section of the Sharr's sea-faciug 
base. We reached, after 1 hour 15 m inutes ^ = 4 miles) and a total 
of 2 J hours ( =8 miles), the Jibal ol-Kawaim, or *' The Per]ipn- 
diculars," one of the features which the Bedawin picturesquely 

• * The Land of Midimi (Kevisitetl),' clmp. xiii. 

&2 Burton** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

call the AvJdd el-Sharr ('* Sons of the Sharr "). The three 
heatls project westwards from the Uinni Fuiut Peak, and then 
trendiug northwards, form a picturesque lateral valley known 
US Wady el-Kaiinnli, The profile of No. 3 peak, the Kaimat Abii 
lit'tki', Hhows a snub-nosed face in a judicial wig. The Wew was 
charming ; especially so long aa lasted " The pathos of the 

Our catupiiig-r!;round was the Safli el-Sharr (" Plain of the 
Shan* ") ; and the lateial valley was strewed with quartzes, 
white, pink and deep-slaty blue, which the guides derivfd from 
a " Jebt'l cl-Miiru." The night wiis still and warmed by the 
radiatjou of heat from the huge ruck-runge behind us. Dew 
fell like thin rain ; we now remarked this meteor for the first 
time; and the guides declared that this efl'ect of humid at- 
mosphere would last during the next three mouths. Wallin, 
writing from the Hisma, in February (2t3th, 184r&), notices the 
nightly dew, wliieh he had obs<-n-VHd in the deserts near the 
Nile, and (m the lied Sea coast, but never iu Arabia* Thus he 
explatus the instances of chest disease which, very rare amongst 
the Bedavvjn of the interior, are found on the north-western 
e<lee of El-Nejd, 

march l\th. — At G a.m. we ascended, by a long leg to the 
south-east, the Wady el-Kaimah in search of the Quartz Hill. 
An abrupt furn to the north-east thcuoe h'd over rough ground, 
the lower folds of the Umra Funit, where a great gnuiite gorge, 
the Nukb Abu Sha'r, ran up to a fleprefiHinn in tho dorsum, an 
apparently practicable Col. Suddenly the rocks assumed the 
strangest hues and forms. The qmirt/,, sluty-blue and black 
below, was here spotted and streaked with u dull dead while, 
as though stained by the droppings of luyrJad binls : there it 
lay veined and marbled with the most vivid of rainbow-colours, 
reds and purples, green.s and yellowK. Evident signs of work 
were remarked in a made mad, runniJig up to the "Jebel 
el-Maru " (pru])er), whose strike is 38'^ (tnag.), and whose dip 
is westward. I have elsewhere t described this aretCt thie 
cockscomb of snowy quartz, some GO feet high by 45 of basal 

lleturning to our old camping-ground, having ridden 3 hours 
30 minutes ( = 9 niilps), we crossed a divide to the Wady el- 
IWdlihah (the "Salt Valley"); and another to the Wady el- 
Kusayb, where a few formless heaps represented the ruins Bo 
grandly reported to us (February 19th). AVe encamped after 
1 hour clO minutes ( = 4^ luilos), making a total of 5 hours 

* He ulludcs to hk first joarney (IS45), from the loutberD extremity of the 
Dciid Sift to tlio Jebel Sbniiiiiuir. 
t • Tlio Land of Midian (Uevisited),* chap. xiU. 

Burton'/s Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 03 

( = 13^ miles), on a "8afh," the hiprh bouldery bank of tlie 
Wady Snrr, where it receives the W'ndy el-Kuswb ; and we 
passed the greater part of the night battling with the warm, 
gusty and violent north-easter. 

March loth. — Sending the caravan up tlio Wady Surr, we 
set out at 6 a.m. up the "Wady '' Alalayh " (Jralih), the north- 
eastern branch fulling into the rond 2>oiHt' whero we had nif^hted 
on February 10th. Passing u few Arab tents, we Ldimbed 
across country to the Jebel Mah'h, of whose inf^tallic wealth I 
had received notable reports ; and from which accordingly 1 
expected mighty little. We found literally nothing ; but a 
few days afterwards, splendid sjM.'cimens ot cast copper were 
brought from it by a Bedawin. In the wady below is a large 
puddle of brackish water: hence probably the nunu' — ''salt" 
(Malih) not "pleasant" (Malih) valley. The element here is 
abundant, the thrust of a stick in the sands of there-entering 
angles is followed by the reappearance of stured*up rain. It 
may also have been called after the Malih plant {Lindenhergia 

Eesuming our ride up the wady-bed, and crossing a divide 
to the Wady Daumah (of the "one Daum "), we drugged our 
mules down the precipitous left hank, a ladder of rock and 
boulder, and presently found ourselves in the upper Wady Surr. 
!Broad and well-grown Avith vegetation, fan-palm and thonis, 
it definej^, sharply as a knife-cut, the northernmost outlines of 
the mighly ISharr; whose apex, E!-Kusayb, towered above our 
heads. Farther on we came upon what seemed to bo a ilowing 
stream : the guides, however, declared that it rolls nothing but 
rain, being bone-dry in summer. There the rocky bed made a 
sharp turn from east to south ; and its *' gate " opened upon 
another " broad," formed by the meeting of four wadys. Alter 
riding 3 hours ( = 7 miles) wo dismounted to inspect the rude 
ruins of El-Zebayyib whieli Imd been visited by Mr. Clarke.* 

This site is interesting, and yet, curioius to say, it shows no 
signs of water nor of pahii plantations. Here the Wady JSurr, 
sweeping from the south and bending abruptly to the west or 
seaward, receives a northern influent, the short watercourse 
draining the ruddy Aba 'l-burid peak. The ruins stand a cheva? 
npon another and eastern feeder, the Wady Zubayyib. Nearly 
opposite it, the Shiirr bhjck is broken by the Sha'b Makhul, 
the eastern versaut of the Nakb Abu Sha'r ; but instead of the 
fairy wall of creamy and snowy quartz, there is a corresponding 
crest of gloomy black plutonic matter, ugly and repelling as 
gnome-land. The Bedawin distinguish between the eastern and 

• See, ante, p, 58, and * The Land of Miilitto (Revisited),' chap. x. 

JuBTOX * Itinrraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

western faces of the sarae block, and also between the wadys 
of the scarp and the counterscarp : for instance, the oriental 

front of the Ras el-Kusayb is called Alni Kurayg (^.^ C/- This 

is nataral, as the formations, often of a totally difierent ma- 
terial, show contraatinn; features. 

Still ascending the Wady Surr, we passed on the right bank the 

Wady el-Hamah (a.^'l:s;0\)» which receives the Wudy KL'shab- 

riyyah before noticed. The latter, bifurcating in the upper bed, 
drains the Dihbagh and the Umm Jedayl blnck.-i, and in the 
fork lie, we were told, the ruins of El-Fara', some 5 hours' 
inarch from this section of the Wady Surr. The ward means 
*' the upper part of a valley ;" and hence possibly the mysterious 
" Fara' el-Samghi" which appears in my vol. i. p. 129. After 
marching 1 hour (=3 railce) more, and a total of 4 hours 
30 minutes (= 1 IJ^ miles), the guides made us camp at the foot 
of the ascent to bo attacked next morning They declared 
that the Sha'bs (Cols) generally cannot be climbed, even by 
the Arabs ; I have reason to believe the reverse. Our ground 

was called Safhat el-Wu'ayrat ^^^ t-^5)' **°^ ^^^^ ^''^^^ Wa'r," 

from a slaty schistose-trap hill on the eastern bank of the 
Wady Surr: here also stood a "Mashghal" where copper was 
worked. Ureat excitement at night, when the Bcdawiu brought 
us in live specimens of that metal, incontinently declared to 
be gold ! 

March IGth. — At 6 a,m. we attacked the Sharr, in a general 
direction from north to south. On the left bank of the water- 
course rises a porphyritic block; an easy slope, dotted here and 
there with natural pilings of black rock, which look almost 
artificial. The sum nut is a horizontal crest, a broken wall, 
above which, on a more distant plane, rise the Shendzir, or 
" Pins," the two granite columns which an: visible as far as the 
Sharr itself. This lower block is bounded, north and south, by 
gorges, fissures that date from the birth of the mountain. In 
the former direction yawns tlie ♦Sha'b, technically called the 

Eushih ( . *■ ) Ahi TiTMZtb (^^^ l'.\^ ). " Droppings of the 

Father of the Tanzub tree " (Sodada deeidua). Southwards 
the Sha'b Umm Kharjah ( ^k,^^ \^ ) defines the outlier. 

The ascent of this foot-hill occupied three very slow hours, 
and at 9 a.m. we stood 3200 feet above the sea-level (aner. 26*79). 

Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Mitlian. 95 

The only semblance of a climb was at the crest-wall of brown, 
burnished imd quartzless traps. What most struck me was the 
increased initiortaiioc ol" tho vopjetation, evidently the result of 
more rahi^ dew and cloud-shade. Here, besides Rumex and 
Turcueacum, appeared the strong-smelliog Ferula, the Sarh 

(^ ,^)>* attaining the stature of a tree, and the homely 
hawthorn ( ^^ wC. Cratoetpis). The Arab word ckissically means 

the cypress or the juuiper-tree ; in Jeremiah, where it occurs twice 
(xvii. 6 and xlviii. 6), the Eng. version renders it by " heath." 
It is now generally translated " savin " [Junij^rus Sahina), 
a shndt whose jnirple berries have a .strong turpentine flavour. 
The wliole of the upper granite must have grown, in sheltered 

places, fine junipers, locally called StbiiaA (jt,^^.,,^^^); the few 

that now remain are as thick as a man's liody. There are 
some signs of the ibis, hyaena and leopard ; of the eagle and 
the 8plendid caccabis (El-Shinuar)^ of white and yellow but- 
terflies, of ladybird-like Bavzahf of the wild bee and of the 
common housefly ; the latter is very abimdant in Midian, even 
when " organic matter " is apparently wanting. 

The summit of the outlier is an inverted arcli, with a hill, 
or rather a tall and knobby outcrop of rock, springing from 
either flank uf the horizontal key. The inland (east) view was a 
panorama of the region over which we had travelleiJ, a network 
of little chains, mostly nmning parallel with the Great Range ; 
and separated from it by lateral, oblique, and perpendicular 
wadys. Some of these torrent-beds were yellow, others pink, 
and others faint, sickly green, with decomposed trap : all 
carried a fair growth of thorn-trees — acacias and mimosas. 
High over and beyond the Monarch of the Shafah Mountains, 
Jeliel Sahharah, whose blue poll shows far out at sea, ran the 
red levels of the llisma, backed at a greater elevation by the 
straight lines of the black Harrah. The whole Tihainah range, 
now so familiar to us, assumed a novel expression. The staple 
material proved to be bltx'ks and crests of grumte protruding 
from the younger plutunics, whicli enfolded and enveloped their 
bases and bucks. The solitary exception was the dwarf Umm 
Jedayl, a heap composed only of grey granite. The Jebel Kli'sha- 
briyyah, in the Dibbugh Block, attracted every eye ; the head 
was supported by a nock swathed as with sm old-fashioned 

Where the outlier-top is tolerably level, the shepherds had 

• The pure Arabic " Sarli " means tall, largo trees, eapecklljr thuoe free from 


96 Bueton'j jmntfTonV* ^the Second Expedition into Mtdian. 

built small hollow piles of dn' stone, in which the newly- 
yeaned are sheltered from the rude blasts. The view westwards, 
or towards the sea wliich is not seen, almost justifies by its 

Feculiarity the wild tales of the Bodawin. Our platform is, as 
suspected, cut oil' from the hij^lier plane by a dividing;-g(irge 
some 300 feet deep, but it is bridged over by a ridge. Beyond 
it rises the great granite mask forming the apex, Down the 
northern sheet-rocks trickled a thin stream that caught the sun ; 
and thus the ravine is well supplied with water h\ two places. 
South of it lies a tempting Cul with a slope, upparently easy, 
which sepamtes a dull mass of granite on the right trom a 
peculiar formation to the left. Tiie latter is a dome of grey 
granite, smooth, polished, and sliitpery, evidently impleasant 
climbing ; and from its landward shipe rise abrupt, as if hand- 
built, two isolated gigantic "Pins," which can hardly measure 
less than 400 feet. They are the remains of a sharp granitic 
comb, whose apex was onee the Parrot's Beak, The mass, 
formerly mammilated, has been broken to denticulations by 
the destruction of the softer strata: already the lower crest, 
bounding the 8ha*b Umm Kbargah, shows perpendicular 
slicings, which will form a new range of pillars when theso 
huge columns shall have been gnawed away by the tooth 
of time. 

MM. Clarke, Lacaze, and Philtpin, set out at 11 A.M., with 
n small party of quarrvmeii, to climb the Col, and lost no ti«no 
in falling asunder. TLe latter made straight for *' The Pins," 
and, reaching a clump of smull junipers, was arrested by a 
herffschnmde which divides this second outlier from the apes of 
the Sliarr — the Dome and the Parrot's Beak. Consequently he 
beat a retreat and returned to us after 3 hours 30 minutes of 
exceedingly thirsty work. The Egyptians, of course, shirked, 
enjoyed a sound sleeji, and sauntered back, declaring that 
they had missed the " Effn-mdis." M, Philipin brought with him 
an ibex-liorn still stained with blood, and a brancfi oi' juniper, 
straight enough to make an excellent walking-stick. 

The other two struck across the valley, and at once breasted 
the couloir leading to the Col. They found more climbing than 
they expected, and reached the summit, visible from our halting- 
place, in 2 hours. Here they also were summarily stopped by 
a crevasse shedding seawards and landwards. Unfortunately 
they went without an aneroid. The time employed would give 
about 2O00 feet; and thus their highest point could hardly 
be less than 5200 ffot. Allowing another thousand for the 
apex, which they could not reach, the altitude of the Sharr 
would be between COOO and 6500 feet. They came back at 
4 P.M., triumphant with the spoils of travel— a venomous snake 

Burton'* Itineraries of tlic Second Expedition into Midian. 

found basking near a trioklo of water* juuiper-leaves anJ berries 
which seiT6 to ideritii'y the species ; a small helix picked up 
near the summit, aiul sundry Alpine plants. Before the glootna 
of night had set in we had descended, and were once more in 
the tents. 

March \lth.—y^e left Ei-Wu'ayrah at 6J5 a.m., riding, still 
southwards, up the Wady Suit. TIh; stony broken surface now 
showed that wn were fust approiichinjr its head. Beyond the 
Umiu Khargali gorge, in the western block, rises the tall Itas 
el-Kukabiyyali, and beyond it is a ravino in which palms and 
water are reported. The o])posite (east) side is a monotonous 
trap-curtuin, whose chief prnjectious are the Jebels el-Wu'ayrah, 

el-Mu'fn, and JShahitah (a^>i.^ \ * )■ A little beyond the 

latter debouches the Darb el-Kufl (** Road of Caravans"), alias 
EI-Ashan'f ('*uf the Sherifs"), a winding gap, the old line of 
the Egyptian Pilgrims, by which the Beduwin still wend their 
way to Suez. The broad mouth was dotted with old graves, 
with quartz-capped memoriid cairns, and with blocks bearing 
tribal marks. 

After 2 hours HO minutes ( = 7 miles), we sighted the head 
of the Wady Surr proper, a cluinning halting-place. Here the 
amount of green surface, tlie number of birds, and the open 
forest of thom-trees, argue that water is not far off. Our Arabs 
determined to waste the rest of the day \ but we pushed them 
on, and follovred iit 11 a.m. 

The track led up a short, broad wady, separating the soutlieru- 
most counterforts of the SLiarr from the north end of the .Jebel 
el-Ghurab. This "Raven flluuntain" is a line of similar but lower 
formation, wliicb virtually 2)rnking3 the great " Landmnrk." 
Farther south lies, they say, a facile pass up the Wady Oujah 

( i^^^ J ), an influent of the Wady Zahakan, near Ziba. The Col 

el-Kuwayd \„^^), appeared one of the easiest we bail yet 

seen, and we reached the summit in 40 minutes. The seaward 
slope is a large outcrop of quartz in s//u, a dull, dead, chalky-white 
variety, looking as if heat-altered and mixed with clay. The 
rock-ladder, leading to the lower \\'ady Kuwavd, which has an 
upper branch similarly named, offered no difficulty, and its height 
proved to be 470 feet (aner. 28-13-28-50). Having marched 
1 hour 15 minutes ( = 2 miles), or a total of 3 hours 45 minutes 
( = J> miles), we found tiio caravan camped at the nearest ix>ol, 
19i miles (dir, geog.) from our destination. An ugly Kham- 
sin, togetlier with the heat of the enclosed valley, made sleeping 
well-nigh impossible. This Sciiocco is locally called El-Du/un, 




98 Bubton':? Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

in full Duftm elSuray^d (of the Pleiades) : in classical Arabic, 
as far as the tlietioimries f:;o, Dufun would derive from a root 
meaning simply " burying." 

MarcJi ISfL — We began our only long ride at 4-20 A-M., and 
finished the monotonous W:uly Kuwayd, whicli mouths upon 
the rolling ground falling coaatwards. The track then struck 
to the north-west, across, and sometimes down, the network of 
watercourses that subtends the south-western Sharr ; their unin- 
teresting names have ab-eady been mentioned. After a total 
march of 7 hours { = 22 miles), we debouched upon our old 
Sharm, which showed, for the first time since its creation, two 
wur-steamers with their "tender," the Sambuk. We were 
delighted to tread once more the quarter-deck of the corvette 
Sinn/ir (Capt. Hasan Bey), and all felt truly thankful to the 
Viceroy and the Prince who had bo promptly and so con- 
siderately supplied my various requisitions. 

This march round the 8harr hud lasted six days (Jlarch 13- 
March 18), The distance covered from the ship and back was 
in ruund numbers Go miles : Lieut. Amir's map prolonged the 
figure to 5!)|, The following is a list of stations and date^s: — 

1. March 13. Shann Ydhilrr to the Eawaim .. 2 h. 45 ro. = 8 miles. 

2. „ 14. To the Wttdy Surr 1 h. 30 m. = 41 „ 

3. „ 15. Sftflmt d-Wu'ayroh 4h. 30 m. = 111 n 

4. „ 17. To iho Wady el-Kuwayd .. ., 3h. 45in. = 9 „ 

5. „ 1«. „ Sharm YAhirr 7h. 10ra, = 22 „ 

Totals .. .. 19h. 40m. = 55 „ 

The distances are probably too short, and Lieut, Amir's total, 
5f)§, must be preferred, giving an average of a small fmetion 
under 3 (stat.) miles [ler hour. 

Our journey through Eastern or Central Midian thus lasted 
18 days (Feb. liJ-March .s), including the halts (March 1 
and 6). It concluded with an excursion of a short week 
(March 13-18) io the apex of the country, the great Sharr. 
Despite forcibly slow marches at the beginning, we covered in 
round numbers, according to my route-book, 107^ miles ; Lieutw 
Amir*8 map gives a linear length of 222 miles, not including 
the ofisets. The second part represents 55 miles, besides the 
ascent of the mountain to a height of about 5000 feet. The 
mapper also increased this figure to 59^ ; and thus the route- 
lino shows a grand total of 252j^ to 281^ statute miles. The 
camels engaged Jroui Sliayhks 'Alayan and Hasan numbered 
61, and the hire was 1-17?. (is. 6c?., without inclmling either 40Z. 
of which we were plundered by the Beni Ma'azah, or the cost of 
ascending tlie Sharr. The latter item (40/.) would raise the 
grand total to 187?. Q». 6(1 


This soiitliern journey proved by far the most interesting of 
the three. Tbe refjion difters essentially from the northern, 
wliieh had oeciipiod two months, mostly wasted. Had we 
known what we do now, I should have begun with tbe end ; 
and should huve devoted to it the greater part of our time. 
The whole eastern countcrslone of tlie outliers, projecting from 
the Gbsit section kuowu as tuo Jibal Tihamat Balawiyyah, is 
one vast outcrop of quartz. The parallelogram between n. kt. 

26'° 0', including the mouth of the Wady Hamz ( A ^«^)« and 

3J. lat. 27'' 0', which runs some miles north of the Bada plain, 
would form a Soutliern Grant sufBeiently large to be divided 
and subdivided as soon as judged advisable. 

The characteristics of North Midiau (Madyau proper) are 
its argentiferous, and especially its cupriferous ores. South 
Midian worked chiefly gold and silver, both metals being 
mentioned by the meflireval Arab geographers. Spangles of 
gold were noticed by the Expedition in the rosy micaceous 
schistfi veining the quartz, and in the chalcedony-agate which 
parts the granite frota tlie gneisa. The argentiferoua Neffro- 
quartz everywhere abounds, and Bada showed strews of spalled 
*' Marii," each fragment containing its block of lead almost 
pure. Saltpetre is plentiful, and a third sulphur-hill rises from 
tlie maritime plain north of the Wady Hamz. 

I. Cruise io El-Wijh; March 21st. — At Sharm Yaharr two days 
were employed in settling for post services, and in preparing for 
our march. The whole Expedition, except only the sick left 
at El-Muwaylali, was now bound southwards, "the Sayyid and 
Shaykh Furayj accepted formal invitations to accompany us, 
and the Bsish-BuKuks, Bukhayt and Husayn, were shipped as 
their henchmen ; wliitst a score of soldiers and quarrymen 
represented the escort and the working hands. 

At G.30 A.M. the Sinndr, dashing into the dark and slaty sea, 
tumbled by two days of equinoctial weather, stood to the south- 
east. The Sharr loomed largo tlirough the mist, and the air 
was 80 damp that our dry and wet bulbs showed a diftevence of 
only 4^-5'', We noted the Eas el-Mu'arrjish (not ^laharash as 
the Ad. Chart has it), and the lias Abu Shiirirah (not Abvr 
sharirah)^ mere san<ly points with little projections of profile. 
After the gap of the Wtwly el-Ghal, we passed, at 10 a.m., Ziba 
with its dumpy tower. The high coralliQe bank, which forms 
the "Bab," runs some distance down shore, allowing passage to 
our ugly old friend, the Wady Salmd. Beyond that point the 

H 2 

100 Burton'* Itineraries ofiJve Secotul Expedition into JUtdian. 

Wady9Rank( ij , "of turbid Water "), 'Amud (^.^1:1 "of 

the Pillar "), ami El-lJuLarali, none of them found on the chart, 
meander in usual Arabian fashion over all the land. 

Off the northerD Wudy 'Amud,* the recipient of the Aba 
Marwah gorge,! and by far the most important of these 
features, lay two Sarabuks at anchor, and a long line of vegeta- 
tion decks the shore. I cannot help suspecting that it is the 

Wady 'Aunid ( ^x-J-j::) of geographers, a name utterly unknown 

to the Arabs of those parts. El-Tdrisi can hardly be mistaken 
when he says (iii. p. ^) "Theu> utter 'Akabat-Aylii, you eome to 
El-'Aiinid, a liavon with notable water ; and fronting it is the 
island EJ-Naman (read Ku'man), 10 miles from the shore," 
El-Mukaddasi adds (i. p. 101), " El-'Aiiuid lies on the coast of 

Korh ( , *}>)>+ ^6ar Hijr, a flourishing city, producing much 

honey and possessing a fine port." Can Hijr here lie Hajar, 
"the Village," the port of Strabo's Egra, the modern Wijh, 

and Korh the great Wady liurr ( j) to the south of it? 

Sprenger (Alt. Geog. p. 24), induced it seems by the similarity 
of sound, would derive the 'VawaBav KtatiJ} (Rhaunathi ricufl), 
whicli Ptolemy places in N. lat. 25' 40', from 'Aiitifd, justly 
observing that the Arabs often interchange the *Ayn and the 
Ghayn (Gluiunid^ Rhaunathus), while the Latins convert the 
hitter to "It," as "Razzia" for Ghazweh. Yet it is my belief 
that the true ^^'ady 'Aunid is the Wudy 'Uwayidd. farther south.§ 
Below the Wady 'Aiinid, the Wady Dtltimh, halt\vay to the 

Wady Azlam, falls into the sea north of Abii JIasarib (^_* \ .. ^ 

** of Pastures "), which the Ad. Chart calls Massahrib, and 
Sprenger Mazarib. This lung thin point, aceording to my 
frieud, represents the \ipa6vvr}<jo<; "Axpa (Chersmesi extrema) 
■which Ptolemy places "jpc" the parallel of Khaunathus. Here 
the coast-range, Jibul Tibaniat Calawiyyah, now distinguished 
as the mountains of the lowlands of the JJaliyy-land, begins to 
recede from the sea, and becomes mere hills and hillocks ; yet 

• Thoro is a soutbeni Wady 'Amud, distinguished na the 'Amild Zafar / • •\ 
yihoao blue LIIIh we Bhall seu from SIiotdj Dumoyghah. \J**^/i 

i Seo Pnrt II. SGcl. iv, 

X " Kurlj" with tUo short vowel would incftu water gushing fmm a well. 

§ Seo Fart II. 8ccl.iii. The 'Ayii ia tlit^ llch. Oin, and the Ghoyn is not foaiKi 
in that dtaluct; licuoo "Oreb"(a luvcu) bocomcv in Arabic ''Uburib," aud eo 


Bukton'^ Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Afidian. 

the contiuuity of the cbaiu is never completely tjcoken. At 
noon we slipiwd iato the rtmnnel, about 1^ (n</f.' 10 nor GO) 
mile broad, between the mninlaiul and the islet kiloiTn tis the 
Jebel Nu'nifin ; eimilarty, Hiussiuii, island, is called Jq.\>61, a hill, 
and never Jezirat, an island. This fcuture has a Vofig lean 
tail, a Bandy flat which projects far to the iiurth-west several 
parallel lines of rainbow-green reef. It first ajipears ^a^'a 
narrow depressed quoin, 3 to 4 miles long by 1 broad ; its. 
Jebel 18 composed of two dwarf hillocks, one rounded, the otlyei","- 
flattened. lloth rise a little above the dorsum of desert-like-; 
material : yellow sandstones and corallines, whose ctark-metalled 
snrfiice is dotted witli shrubs. We did not, however, find the' 
Nu'man plant {Eujihorbia retusa\ which is supposed to have 
given it a name. The rock gains height to the south-east, /'I 

and forms four blufls with horizontal iuul jnirallel stratification, 
mueh worked by wind and water. Two fine bays, faring the 
mainland, afforc! excellent anchorage. The northern showed 
a Sumbuk hauled down for cleaning, a fishing-eanoe lurking 
near the shore, and Arab tents on the plateau behind. The 
other, adjoining it to the south, is of larger size, not a littlo 
resembling Sinafir : at its bottom, behind the sands, rises a rod 
piton, possibly the core of the islet, with a fiidal rock not unlike, 
from our rfLnge of view, a gigantic " Krupp." 

During the return emise we landed upon Nu'man, and 
examined it carefully. like the Dalmatian Arehijteiago, it 
was once mainland, probably separated by the process that 
raised the maritime mnge. The rolling sandy platform and the 
dwarf wadys are strewn witl^ trap and quartz, which were never 
prodticed in siiti, on this bit of rock. During spring-tide the 
Hnwaytilt transport their fiocks in the light craft called 
" Kati'raLs," and keep them wliile the pastures last. We made 
extensive inquiries-, but we heard of no ruins ; and yet Sprenger 
wouhl here locate the 'Ytfiayevov; w)o-o? {Tinrngenia insuJa) of 
Ptolemy. If such be the ciise, either the Alexandrian or his 
manuscripts must greatly err. He places the bank in N. lat. 
25"^ 45', whereas its centre lies in N. lat. 27' 5', a diflerence of 
1° 25'. His GO miles of tlistance from the coast, evidently tiic 
blunder of a copyist, must also be reduced to a maximum of 

Passing the W'ady Surayya, and another old friend, the 
Aslah-Aznab, down head we had ridden to Shaghab, we 
croBsed at 2 p.m. the mouth of the Wady Azlaiu ("of the Moun- 
tain Goat"), the " Ezlam " wliich Wellsted (ii. 183) unduly niakea 
the southern frontier of the Huwaytat, ami the northern limit of 
the Baliyy tribes. Here the Jibal el-AzIani trending from the 
north-east, abut upon, and run parallel with, the sea, i3eyond 


BuetonV "ptntfrariw of the Second Expedition into Midian, 

them lies tlve-^tarm Jezai ( \ i^, not Jizzeh nor Jezzay), a 

white gap -in the line of dark-brown trap hills. Then comes 

the similar" mouth of the ouce-populous Wady Dukliaa (of 

"(SmoljfeT), faced by o large sphiy of tree-grown sand; on the 

opposttfi*'Atricau shore the name always denotes places where 

firr<iace8 have been at work. Follow tbo coast-ishinda of 

]y^ars& Zubayduh (not Zehaider), connected by fords with the 

jftlijjr-e. Here the sea is bordered by the red-yellow coast range, 

,», Whose fretted sky dine of peaks and cones, "horses" and 

'•^liogs'-backs/' are cut by deep wadys, and drained by dark 

,*,"'* gates." The background is a long regular curtain vf black 

'• hills, whose white sheets and veins may be granites and quarts. 

We then passed the little creek Mfnat el-Marrah, one of the 

many openings grown with vegetation; here the ruins El* 

Nabagah (I j^'y ** of the Single Lote-tree "), are spoken of. At 
4 P.M. we doubled the Ras Lebayyiz ( L\t not LehayJiad), 

a long flat tongue projecting well from the coast-range and 
defending its valley, wbich lies to the south. In the Far'tit 
(" upper part "), some five hours' mareli from the mouth, lie 
important remains of the '• Mutiikaddimin," tall furnaces and 
scorije ; an *' irregular" militimt at El-Wijh confirmed this 
report. Tlie Wady Lebayyiz nearly fronts the Nabakiyyah 
Island, a more raised reef, with the sea breaking around it : 
here lay two fishing KatiVahB, hunting mother-of-pearl. The 
Shakk el-'Abd (" 8hivi/s Cleft ") is another small Miiiat (refuge- 
harbour), a break in the shore between the lias Lebayyiz and 

the Has Salbah (()t_Jj, not TelbaJi)^ And now the coast-range 

retreats far to the east, while it5 continuity is completely broken 
up into a multitude of dwarf cones^ 

The next important feature is the Wady Salbah, also lying 
south of its headland : we shall have much to say concerning 
its inland continuation, the Wady Nejd. On the dark bills of 
Salbah, the gloomy range ahead of us, appear the granito 
peaks and " pins " of Jebel Libu, gleaming white imd pale iu 
the livid half-light of a cloudy sunset. After 12 hours' steam- 
ing over 70-72 knots of reefy sea, we run carefully into the 
Sharm Dumayghuh, which my 'rilgrimago' (I. xi.) called 
Damghab, one error amongst many rectified in my last volumes.* 
This lake-like, land-locked cove is by far the best of the nmny 
good dock-harbours which break the Midian coast. 

I resolved to pass a day iu surveying the port; the Hydro- 

» ■ I ;..• Luii.l ..r Mi«li:i'i i,!! v i,:U(3),' chap. liv. 


'« Itineraries of the ISeeond Exp&lition into Mulian, 103 

i^'raphers give plans of Yahdrr and Jibbab, ignoring one iax 
more innwrtant. Distant only 30 miles of easy and safe coast- 
ing navigation, it is the harbour for the pilgrim-ships which 
El-Wijh endangers. The work of the P^gyptinn officers shows 
on the map an oval, about 1 knot in length, disjiosed north- 
west to south-fast, witii four bulgis on the northern shore: the 
breadth tuav be 1200 yards. It appears to be the embouchure 
of the Wady Dumayghab, which falls into its head, and which, 
in the days of forest-^, must have rolled a large stream. The 
entrance is defendetl by a feature common on this coast, a 
natural breakwater, denoted by a dot upon the chart; it 
measures 340 yards by half that width, and it may be the 
remains of the coralline bod in which the torrent carved out 
the port. The northern inlet is a mere ford of green water ; 
the Bouthem, 25 fathoms deep, has 160 fathoms of clear way 
between the reef and shallows of either side. The bay shoals 
to the south-east, and the best anchorage for ships lies to the 
north-west, almost touching land : a reef or rock is reported to 
be in the mi<ldle ground, and native craft usually make fast 
to a lumpy natural mole of sandstone north of the entrance. 

AVe landed to iusnect the countrvi whii.'h belongs, not to the 
Juhaynah, but to the Baliyy, mixed with a few Kura'an-Hu- 
waytit and Kaiaizah-Hutaym. Most ot the shells were broken, 
not including, liow ever, tSic oysters ; and the usual eight-ribbed 
turtle appeared tn be comuHja. i\r. Laaize ]»icked up, on the 
northern sartds, a large old bleached skull, which went into my 
collection. We failed to find any neighbouring burial-place: 
striking, however, inland, towards tiie " Fort (Ruin) " of the 
Chart, we came upon an old cemetery to the north of ttie bay, 
and conchi'Jed that the graves had originateil the mistake. 

The Jibal el-8albah, and its wadys to the cast, showed the 
familiar low-level conglomerntes, and quartz-spumed high ranges 
of dark traps. The month of the iiorthern gorge is blocked uy 
a vein of (inely-cry&ttdlised carbonate of lime, with an astrin- 
gent taste, possibly resulting from the presence of alumina. 
Signs of Arabs appeared everywhere, but we were unable to 
ascertain the extent or even the existence of water, an im- 
portant consideration if this is to become the port of El-Wijh. 
The Ilajj-road, running some miles inland, isduubtless supplied 
with the necessary, and these Bcdawiu could hardly live without 
it. Shaykh Furayj pointed out to us, far in the north, the 
blue peaks of the 'Amiid Zafar, in whose bi^anch-wady stand the 
ruins of M'jirmah. The day ended with a sudden trembling of 
the ship, as if straining at anchor ; the apparent direction of 
this earthipwke, or rather waterquake, was from north to south, 
time 9.10 p.m., and duration 20". According to the Arabs, the 

ruotiou is not uncommon in jridiaii, especially about the vernal 
equinox: on the present occasion it ended the spell of damp and 
siiltr}' weather, which began on March Ki, and which may have 
been connected with it. 

March 23rd. — The soundings were not fiuislied before 7.40 
A.M., when the old corvette resumed her rolling, rollicking way 
gonthwivrd ; ns usual, she was without ballast. After steaming 
1 hour ( = 7 tniles) we sighted the green mouth of the Wady 
'Antixr, in whose Istabl, or upper valley-course, the pilgrims 
camp. It drains a small inland range to the nort!i-east; this 
feature bore 80^ (mag.) when we were 2 miles south of Dumay- 
gliah, and it was then hidden by the taller block to seaward. 
The Ad. Chart, besides confounding the two, lias applied 
" Istabl " to the height instead of the hollow. Jebel Libn, 
vulgb " Libin," suggests grey granite and white quartz ; hence, 
j)rnljnbly, the name, identical with Lebanon and Libanus, the 
" Ulilk-mountuin." The Bedawin have, doubtless, their own 
terms for every feature: the citizens divide it into two, El-Ali 
(the "upper ") being its southern, and El-Asfal (the "lower") 
its northern section. It is a little brother of the Shdrr, measur- 
ing 3733 instead of 6000-6500 feet. We first see from the 
north a solid block, capped with a raural crown of three peaks. 
When abreast of ua, the range becomes a tall and fisstired wall, 
perpendicular to the west : it reposes ujjon a base which slopes 
at the angle of rest; and it fails into the sniidy environing 
wady. To complete the resemblanrc, even the queer "pins" 
are not wonting. It is said to abound in water ; and a Nakhil 
("date-grove") is described as growing near the summit. The 
tribe which owns the most of it, the despised Ilutaym, claims 
the negro hero, roet and lover, 'Autar, as one of their ancestors 
— hence, probablv, his connection witli the adjoining mountain 
and "the Stal)le.''' 

I will hero briefly consider the Rtatus and the relations which 
this block bears to the western Ghiits of Northern Arabia. The 
" Jebol Libu" is the great feature of the Tibamat Balawiyvahi 
for many days it will appear to follow us, and thi.s is the proper 
place for assigning its site and status to it. We have prospected 
about El-'Akabah, the northern head of the Cihats or coast- 
ranges, the wangle chain of Jebel Sliara, the " fSa'ar of the tribes 
of the Shasu" (IJedawi)* in the papyri ; and the Hebrew Mount 
Soir, the *' rough " or " rugged." Farther south we have noted 
how this tall eastern bulwark of the great Wady el-'Arabah, 
bifurcates, forming the Sliafah chain to the east ; and westward 
of it, in Madyan Proper, the Jibal el-Tihamah, of which the 

• See Doy vol. L chap. vii. 

Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 105 

yiiatr is perhajM! tli<? culmination. We hare noted the accidents 
of (he latter as far as Duraay';ha!i Cove ; and now we descry in 
the offing the misty and distanci'-dttarfetii forms of the Jebel el- 
Ward, the Jibal el-Safhah Ki^yii^), the two blocks south of 

the Wady Ham z, known as theJibilayn el-Riil, and their neio:h- 
bours, still in the Tiliiimat Bahiwiyyah. Lastly we sliall sight 
behind El-Hanra the AbuGhurayr,* and a number of detached 
blocks which, like the former, are laid down, but not named, in 
the Admiralty Charts. 

Beyond El-Haura the chain still stretches southwards its 
mighty links with smaller connections. The first is the bold 
range Jebel Hailwah, the '' Yambo Hills " of the British sailor, 
rising some 6000 feet high, and lying 35 miles behind the new 
port.t Passing it to left on the El-Medinab route, I heard the 
fables which imposed upon Abyssinian Biuce ; *' all sorts of 
Arabian fruits grow in perfection on the summits of these hills; 
it is the paradise of tlie people of Yenbo, those of any substance 
having country bouses there;" and so forth. This was hardly 

Erobable in Bruce 's day, and is now impossible: the mountain is 
eld by the Beni Harb, a most turbulent tribe, for which see my 
• Pilgrimu"©,' vol. i, pp. ^G4-5. Their head-shavkh Sa'd the 
Robber, who still flourished in 1853, is dead, and 1ms been suc- 
ceeded by one of his sous, Shaykli Hudayfah, who is even worse 
than the sire. Between these ill-famed haunts of the Beni 
Harb and Jiddah rises the Jebel ^ubh, which llaper (p. 527) 
calls Jebi'l 8oubah, It is *' a mountain remarkable fur its 
imignitude and elevation " (4500 feet), inhabited by the Beni 
fSubh, a tightiug clan of the " Sons of Battle." 

The largest links of these west Arabian Ghilts are composed 
of white-grey granite, veined and striped with quartz; and they 
are subtended inland by the porphyritic traps of the Jib^l 
el-Shafah, which we shall now trace in the parallel of El-Hamz, 
the end of Egypt. 1 cannot, however, agree with Wcllsted 
(ii. 242, 3) that the ridges increase in height, as they recede 
from the sea; or that tJie veins of quartz run horizontally 
through the '* dark granite." The greater altitudes (3000-6000 
feet), visible from an offing at 40-70 miles, are connected by 
minor heights : some of them, however, are considerable, and 
hero and there they break into detached pyramids. All are 
maritime, now walling the shores, like the Tayyib Ism and 

* Perfaapa from Gliuroynl, the nnme of nn Rromatic plant, 

t The md being the clasaical 'lo^^fa «w^tt {Jmnhia rieiti), now YamW el- 
Nnkhil ("Spring of the Palm-tK'u"), in Ptoleroy's tirae a sf u-i>ort, nt presfenl 
15 nnlcin to tlie rKU-lli-caHt (n. Int. 24- 12' 3?) of llic ni'ulfm town in s. iut. 
24° Ti' 30*' (WeJlsted, u. 220). Acconling to the AtiiLtt it lica G Loan* murcU from 
(liu acsL 


lOB Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

Mazliafeli, then shearing away from it, as about the Eal, where 
a broad " false coast " lias been built by Time, 

These western Ghats, then, run down either in single or 
in double lines the whole length of occidental Arabia, and 
meeting a similar and equally important eastern line they 
form a mighty nucleus, the mountains of El-Yeraen. After 
carefully insjiectiug, atid making (^lose inquiries concerning, a 
section of some 506 miles, I cannot but tliink that the mines of 

1)reciou8 ore, mentioned by tlie medieval Arabian geographers,* 
ay in offsets from the flanks either of the monntniiis or the inland 
chain ; that is, ttiey are either on the Tibamali, the coast low- 
lands, or in El-Neju, the highland plateau of the interior. 

What complicates the ground is the long line of volcanic 
action which, forming the eastern troutier of the plutonic granites 
and of the modern grits, may put forth veins extending even to 
the shores of the G-ulf of 'Akabah and the Ked iSea.f The length, 
known to me by inquiry, would be about three degrees between 
N. lat. 28' and 2rf, the latter being the parallel of El-Mediiiah : 
others make them extend to near Yunibn in N. lat. 24" 5'. They 
may stretch i'ar to the nortli,and ('onnipct, aft has been suggested, 
viiih the Syrian centres of eruption, discovered by the Palestine 
Exploratiou. I have already explained % how and why we were 
unable to visit the " Harrah," lying east of the Hisnia; but 
we repeatetlly sighted its outlines and I determined that its lay 
is from north-west to south-east. Farther south, as will 1)6 
Been at El-Ilauni, the vertehrfn curve seawards or to the south- 
west, and socra to mingle with the main range, the mountains 
of the TihamatrJahaniyyah, of the Juhayui. Thus the for- 
mation assumes an importance which Inis never yet been attri- 
buted to it, and the tive several " Harrahs," reported to me by 
the Bedawin, must be studied in connection with tlie minera- 
logical deposits of the chains adjoining them. It must not be 
forgotten tliat a fragment of porous basidt picked up by the first 
Expedition near ]\lakna yielded n small button of go!d.§ 

Dreadfully r^dled the Sinnar before the long heavy swell 
from the nortb-west. It was a bad time off the l>abbat (" high 
land ") |l ol-Marga'h (" of Ilefuge," not lias Mar<jah) ; a little 
relief, Jiowever, was felt when running down the channel 

between the mainland and the reef Kata' cl-Iias (, ^\ S\ *.U ■ ) ' 
LJ*'^ W 

• See my vol. i. cbap. ix. 

t ' The Land of Miaimi (Rcvkited),' obap. vi., deaoribcs one of theac Bponulic (?) 
outcrops ncflr Tnvyib I»m ; and chRp. Ix. notices the upparently volcanic sulpbur- 
monat near El-Muwaylah. 

J Vol. ii. clmp. X. § See my vol. i. diap. xii. 

11 Dttbbat properly means n sand-hill or heap. 


Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Mulian. 107 

the chart does not name it, but notes " j^ood anchorage on the 
east side of these shoals." The long, 4(jw island of Ilaykliah 

(j'^^:\j , "the loose or straddling"), to the w.s.w. of El-Wijh, 

may protect the port in that direction, and fonn, as Wellsted 
says (ii. 185), an " excellent mark for entering," but it did us no 
good. The nuisance returned in force as, doubling the Kaa 

Muraybit ^ \^^ > ^, not Marahnt\ we sighted El-Wijh. The 

gape of its wady is backed by the Haniirat, or " Red Range," 
and fronted by its two towers, the round Eurj and the cubical 
lighthouse. And we were quiet once more when the Sinndr, 
at 1*2.15 P.M., having covered lier 30 miles in 4 hours 30 
minutes, cast anchor in the usual place, south-east of the 
northern jaw. The log showed a tot^»l of 102 miles between 
the Sharnis Yiih/irr and El-Wijh, or 107 from tlie latter to 

El-Wijh,* meaning the "Face," an abbreviative form of El- 
Wijh el-Bahr (the "Face of the Sea "), lies in N. lat. 2fi^- 14'. 
It is eviilently an old site, although the ruins have been buried 
under generations of modem huihliugs; Sprenger (p. 21) holds 
it to be the seaport of " Egra, a village in the territory of 
Obodas," a corruption of the Arabic El-Hajar, the town or 
townlet. Hence, according to Strabo (xvi. cap. iv. § 24) ^'Elius 
Gallus embarked his baffled troops for Myus ilonnue.f Pliny 
(vi. 32) also mentions the " Tamudwi, with their towns of 
Domata and llegra, and the town of Badanatha." It is generally 
remarked that "Egra" does not appear in Ptolemy's lists, yet 
one of the best texts (Carolus F. A. Nobbe, Lipsiio, 1843) reads 
"Erypa, instead of the Nogran (Nejran), which Bilibnldns 
Pirckheymenis (Lugdimi, mdxxxv) and others jtlaced in 
N. lat, 26° 0'. Sprenger formerly believed El-'Amiid to be 
Strabo's " Egra," the haven for the northern ; as El-FIanra was 
for the southern, and El-Wijii fur the central regions. 

I have no intention again ix) describe El-Wijh, J except as a 

?[narantine station coTuiocted with the Pilgrimage-Caravan. 
t has been admirably ailapted to such purposes, after laying 
out much money in a lighthouse, a masonry landing-pier, 
doctors' quarters, guard-houses, bake-houses, and an establish- 
ment for condensing water. It has been abolished, very 
unwisely, raethiuks, in favour of "Tor Harbour." Tlie latter, 
inhabited by a ring of thievish Syro-Greek traders, backed by 

• In clfueical Ambic Waih is a face, and Wfjii a side. 

t See my vol. i. chap. viii. 

J S4S0 ' The Loud of Midian (BoTiaited),' chap. xiv. 

108 Bdrton'8 Tttncraries of the Second Erpcdition into Midian, 

a wretched samly wild, comfortless onougli to make the 
healthiest lose health, 'is — worst of all — bo near Suez that 
infection can travel easily. A wealthy pilgrim has only to 
pay a few gold pieces ; hig escape to the mountains is winked 
sit, and thence he travels or voyages comfortably to Suez and 
Cairo. Even without each irregularities, the transmission of 
contaminated clothing or other articles would suffice to spread 
<!]iukT!i, typhus and small-pox. Tor is, in fact, an excellent 
medium for focussing, anti for propagating contagious disease; 
and its vicinity to Kgypt, and consequently to Europe, demands 
that it should at once be aliolished. 

The objections to El-Wijh are two, both equally invalid. 
The port is dangerous during westerly winds; aiul pilgrim-ships 
Lank their fires ever ready to put to sea. True ; but, as has 
biicn shown, Sliarni Pumayghab, the best of its kind, lies only 
30 knots to the north. The second, the want of water, or of 
good water, is even less cogent. The sL'ahfnird widls supply 
the poorer classes and animals ; and we shall presently see the 
Fort wells, which in their day have watered from 20,000 to 
30,000 thirsty men and beasts. So far from the condensers 
being a faiiuro, the tank still holds 20 tuns of distilled water, 
allhuugh it gives drink to some thirty mouths composing 
the establisliment- Finally the tanks of the old paddle-wheel 
steamer, moored off the town, have done goo<l ^vork, and are 
ready to do it again. 

Thus the expense of laying out tho quarantine ground at 
Fl-\Vijh hits been pitifully wasted. That, however, is a very 
small matter; tho neglect of choosing a projtor position is 
serious, even dangerous. Unlike Tor, nothing can Le healthier 
or freer from fever than the Pilgrims' Plateau. From El-Wijh. 
too, escape is hojM?!ef;s ; if a pilgrim left the caravan a Bedawi 
bullet would soon persuade liim to stop. Here, then, should 
be the first long halt for the " comnronnsed " travelling north- 
wards. When contagious disease bas completely disajvpcared, 
the second precautionary stoppage might be either at Tor or, 
better still, at the 'Uyiiu Mu^a (Moses' Wells) near Suez ; where 
sanitary conditions are far more favourable, and where supplies, 
including medical comforts, would be cheaper as well as more 
abundant. Briefly, it is my conviction tnat, under present 
circumstances, " Tor " is a standing danger, not only to Egypt, 
but to universal Europe, and that its only remedy would l>o 

II. T(f the ^So^(thern Sttlphtir Jlill and Crum to EI-Haitrd. — At 
El-Wijb I again divided the party. MM. Marie and Phib'pin, 
with Lieut. Yusuf as surveyor, were directed to march south- 
wards to inspect a sulphur-bill, and to report upon the "Wady 

Burton** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

Ilamz and a ruiu near its bauks. Meanwhile the rest of us 
would proceed in the Sinmr to El-Haura, a roundabout cruise 
of 100 miles or so southwards. 

There is no need to describe "M. ^larie's march, which covered 
ground afterwards travelled over by the united Expedition. 
He was successful in disooverinj; the sulphur-hill, tho third now 
kuown upon the Mi<lian c<jast. Alter ridiug 5 hours 40 minutes 
(=17 miles), the jmrty reached the base of the Tuwayyil 
el-Kibiit, the *' Jjittle loivg (Ridf^e) of Brimstone." It appears 
from alar a reddish pymmid, rising about 2 miles inland of a 
fine inlet, which is anid to be sate navigation. Thus far it 
resembles the Jibbah fiud ; on the other hand, it is not plutonic 
but chalky, like those of jMaktiii and "Sinai," the crystals being 
similarly diflused throup;hunt the matrix. 

The travellers slept at the base of the " Tuwayyil." Next 
morning M. I'hilipin proceeded to collect specimens of the 
sulphur and chalcedony-agate strewed over the filuin. HI. Marie 
ana Lieut. Yusuf rode on to the banks of the Wady Hamz, and 
in S hours ( = miles) they eamo upon the ruins of a Gasr 
(" CAStle ") that uiiexpoetedly turned up trumps. I had care- 
lessly written for them the name of a niiu which all believed 
wouUl prove to lie one of the normal barbarivus, " Hawawit." 
They brouji'ht Imck specimens of civilised architecture; and 
these at once determined one of the objectives of our next 
journey. On Marcli 2iSth the party returned to El-Wijh in the 
nishest of spirits, after a successful trip of more tlmii 5U miles. 

Meanwhile I steamed southwards, aci-ompanied by the rest 
of the party, itirluding the Sayyid. Furayj and Jtuhiinimed 
Shahaduh, ex-wakil ('' agent ") of the Fort el-Wijh, a prosperous 
merchant much trusted by the Bedawin. He brought with 
him, by way of (Ihafi'r, or '• guide," one R/ijih ibn 'Avid of the 
Fawd 'idah-Juhaynah; and tlie feliuw was not a good specimen 
of his ill-favoureil anrl ill-famed tribe. 

March 2Uh, — We sot out at 4.30 p.m.; find steamed due west 
till we hatl rounded the northern end of Hay k hah Island. Wo 
then went to the south-west and passed to port the white rocks 
of Mardiinah island,* capping the ugly reefs and shoals that 
forbid ships to hug this section of the snore. The patch fronts 
the headland llus ol-Ma'allah, where, as at El-'Akabah and 
Makna, 8weet water springs from the salt sea-sands — a freak 
of drainage so common on the dismal Somali coast. We then 
ran along the Sharm Hahhdn (not '*Abban"), and the Ras 

Munaybarah (^ -1 -^ ) ; and before nightfall we had sighted 

Mftzdtiu ia the dictionaries u a kiud of waap. 

110 BunTOK'jT la^^K^ofthe Second Expedition into Midian, 

18 Kurknmah \c..^^\ which Keith Johnston ^vrites "Ras 

Ghiirlcuma." This yellow point, so called from its " curcuma " 
(turmeric, saffTOn, diosoorides), here faces the islet-tomb of 

Shaykh Alarbat (^-j ^), not " Shaykh Hasan e\-Mardb%t 

(' Pilgrimage,' I. xi.), nor Morcihii (Wellsted, ii. 183). Upon 
this part of the shore, I was afterwards told, are extensive 
ruins, not visited by Europeans on account of the dangerous 
Jiihaynah. The south-eastern background is formed by tall 
and misty highland blocks, the Ghats of the Tihamiit-Jahaniy- 
yah. Morthernmost, and prolouging the Libn, runs the regular 
wall of the Jebel el- Ward ; then rise the peaks and pinnacles of 
the Jibal el-Safhali ; and, lastly, the twin massifs, El-Kal. Faint 

Wesemblances of these features sprawl, like huge caterpillars, 
over the Adniiralty Chart, but all sprawl nnuamed. 

March 25ih. — The consequence of yawing aud of running 
naif-speed by night was that we reaehed Jebel Ilassani just 
before noou, instead of at 8 a.m. The island is a long yellow- 
white ridge, a lump of coraliine 400 feet high, bare and water- 
less; yet at certain seasons it feeds the liedawi flocks. 
Buttressed and bluff to the south-west, whcuce the strongest 

rjwinds blow, it is prolonged by a Hat spit to tlie south-east, and 
by a long tail of two vertebne trending north-west. Thus it 
gives safe shelter to Arab barques, as notieed in my ' Pilgrimage ' 
(I. xi.), whore, however, it is erroneuusly called " Jebel Hasan." 
Its parallel is a few miles north of the •' D.-edalus Light " 
(n. lat. 24' 55' 30") to the west; and it lies n little south of 

'El-Haunt on the coast (n. lat. 25' H'), mid of El-Medinali, 
distant about 130 direct miles in the interior. If Ptolemy's 
latitudes ai-e to be consulted, J. Hassani will be the "Island 
of Timagines " in n. lat. 25" 40' ; while the Chersoneeus Point 
(also in N. lat. 25^' 40'), " Jambia," being in N. lat. 24' 12', would 

Loe represented by the important and well-marked projection 
of "Abu Madd" ("Father of the Flux" or high title), which 
intercepts the view to tho south. 

Kouudiug the southern spit we turned to north-east and by 
east, and passed, with a minimum of 7 fathoms under keel, 

between J. Hassani and the flat Utnm Sahr ( ^jr^LM*) ; this 

" Libnah " of Wellsted (ii. 195) i.s a sandbank hardly visible 
from the shore, and deserves its name, " Mother of Deception." 
Here lies the only good approach to the suline and spacious 
bay, on which was built the southernmost Nabatheean port- 
town; all the others either renuire skilful pilots, or they are 
t sealed by reefs and shoals. ^V ith the blue aud regular-lined 


Bcbton's Itineraries of the Secoiul Expedition into Midian. Ill 

curtain, Abii '1-Gburayr ( ^ ^), in front, stretching down 

coast to Ras Abii Madd, we bent gradually round to the 
north-east and east. We then loft to starboard tko Buttlement 

El-Amlij („*A^U/ & scatter of the usual dull, durk-brown 

huts. We ran for aafety \^ mile north of the exposed Raa 
el-Hauva; and at 1.30 p.m (=21 houra) the /Smnar anchored, 
in 9 fathoms, under the protecting Bhallows Kata 'at El-Wazamah 

El-Haura is not found either in the charts or in Ptolemy's 
and Spreuger's maps. It lies in n. lat. 25" 6', about the same 
parallel as EI-Medinah ; and in e. long. (Gr.) 37' 13' 3U". 
For these observations, which were taken by Nasir Effendi 
Ahmed, First Lieutenant of the Sinmh; I am not auswerable, 
although the latitude cannot be far out. Thus the latitudinal 
distance between El-Haura and Ei-Wijli (n. lat 26' 14') would 
be 68 geographical miles. Wellsted (ii. 195) heard of, but 
never saw its ruins. He greatly errs when he makes this 
station, or its neighbourhood, the frontier of tbe "Bili" and 
the " Joheinah": tbis line, jxs has been seen, lies nearly 50 geo- 
graphical miles farther north. He also translates the word 
(ii. 461) *' the bright-eyed girl," instead of the White (Village), 
AUrus Vicui. He ignores, again, its other name Dar el-ishrin 
('"No. XX. Station"), so called because tbe Cairo caravan 
ionnerly reached it in a score of days, now reduced to nineteen. 

According to fcspreuger. the White Village, or Castle, was a 
Nabathjean, not a Tharaudite port. Here ^lius Gallus dis- 
embarked his troops from Egypt. Strabo (xvi. cap. 4, § 24) 
shows that Acvkt) KWfir} was the starting-place of the caravans 
which, before the Nile-route to Alexandria was o]>ened, carried 
the merchandise of India and of south Arabia to Petra. Thence 
the imports were passed on to Pbceuicia and Egypt, and these 
pages nave shown why the journey would be preferred to tbe 
voyage northwards. He is contirraed by the Periplua (cap. six.), 
"from the Port and the Castellum of Leuke Eome, a road 
leads to Petra, the capital of the Malicha (El-Malik), King of 
the Nabathjeans ; it also serves as an emporium to those \vho 
bring wares in smaller ships from Arabia. For the latter 
reason, a Perceptor, or Toll-taker, who levies 25 per 100 ad 
'?;a/ore»i, and a Hekatontarchus (centuriim) are there stationed." 
As the Nabata^ were vassals of Home, and the whole region 
had been ceded to the Komans (Byzantines) by a chief of the 

112 Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedilion into Midiart. 

Beni Kuda' tribe, this Yuzboshi, ov military commandant, was 
probably a Roman. 

El-Eaura, like most of the old coast-settlements, shows two 
"quarters," a liarbour-towii, and what may bo called a country 
town. The latter is built upon a long tongue of land backinj;^ 
the slope of the sea-cliflT, and attached to the low whitish 
hillocks rising down south ; it is now a luxuriant orchard of 
emerald pulms forminp; three large patches. Behind it swells 
a dorsum of golden-yellow sand, an<l the horizon is closed by 
ranges of bills and highlands, red and white, blue and black. 
The region is far more riant und ameue than that higher up 
coast; and the whole shore-litie seems to be broken with 
verdant valleys. The Wndy el-'Ayn with its many branches 
beautifies the north ; aad, in the southern part, the Wady el- 

Daghaybij {^j,,^^ij )* supplies water between its two paps. 

Before the evening we landed at a shallow bay bearing: 
30° (mag.) from the corvette's anchorage. A few yards walk 

iuland led to the imimportiknt Wady el-Saranah ( jL'.^.J.t drain- 
ing low hills of the same name. The loose sand is everywhere 
strewed with bits of light porous basalt, which comes from 

the Harrat el-Buhayr ( -s4j)» a bluff quoin to the north-west. 

About El-Faurd, I have said, the volcanic formations, some 
60 miles inland on the parallel of El-Muwaylah, approach the 

We were g^iiiled to the ruins by the shouts of sundrj- Arabs 
defending their harvest against a dangerous eaetny, the birds : 
— rattles and scarecrows were anything but scarce. Apparently 
the sand contains some fertilising matter. A field of dry and 
stunted Dukhn (Holms Dochna), or small millet, nearly covers 
the site of the old CastiUum, whose outline, nearly buried 
under the drift of a^es, we could slill trace. There are two 
elevations, eastern and western ; and a third lies to the north, 
on the right side of the W^ady Samnah. Scatters of the usual 
fragments !ay around, and the rooks of white coralline explained 
the old name — "Whitby." The Bedawin preserve the tradition 
that this was the most important part of the settlement, which 
extended nearly 4 miles southwaros. The dwarf valley-mouth 
is still a roadstead, where two small craft were anchored ; and 
here, doubtless, was the hive-coraer allotted to the community's 

• Diiglibujut uiLuiiii tiriving to tvater every day. 

t Suiunah, the gmina of u sluub like pepper, made into a &tteiung medicine 
Tor women. 

Bu nTON'jf Itineraries of ttie Secoiul Expedition into Midian. 113 

March 2Qtk. — We set out shortly after dawn, with a strong 
parly of marines, to visit tho south end of Leuko Korne. A 
mile's row to 127' (mag-) lainled us at a mudera ruio, the work 
of a Yambn' merchant wlio hail liere failed to establish a store. 
Thence a few minutes' walking over loose sand, led to the Hay- 
road ; it is pavDil, like the shore, with, natural slabs and ledges 
of soft raodem sandstone, which, being foot-worn, makes good 
"metal." The broad highway, seattered with quartz and basalt, 
greenstone and serjientine, crossed a branc}i of tlic Wady el-'Ayu, 
whose rich anrl saltish sand grow "Duklm" and the Nilotic 
Haifa-grass {Ci/nosurini diirus), tamarisk-thieket and tufts of 
fan-palm. On its left bank a lamp-blaek vein of naked basalt, 
capped by jagged blocks, ran down to the sea and formed a 
conspicuous buttress. The guides spoke of a similar volcanic 
outcrop above Point Abvi Madd, and of a third close tu Yanibii' 

A slow hour showed u.s the Hret ruins; wall-bases built with 
fine cement crowning the siunmit of a dwarf mound to the left 
of the road. We then entered the palm-orchards fenced with 
thorn, tamped earth and dry stone : young trees had been 
planted; and Dukhn-fields gave an agricultural touch to the 

scene. The high-road path to the Wady Uatira {\ ^ -^), where 

the caravan camps; it still shows all the requisites of an 
"eligible position.' a quarter iuhabttod by rich citizens. 

At the third or southern palm-patch we found remnants of 
the only pnblte works still visible. This Karfz, or underground 
aqueduct, conducted towards tlie sea the drainage of the 

Jebel Turham ( ^ J), a round knob shown on the Ad. Chart ; 

which bears 121^ (niag.) from the conduit-Lead. The line 
has long ago been broken down by the Arabs; tlie 'Avn 
(" fountain ") may be seen issuing from a dark cavern of white 
coralline ; it then hides itself beneath several pittiugs that 
represent the old Najwah (air-holes) ; and, after Auwing under 
sundry natural arches, the remains of the conduit-ceiling, it 
emerges in a deep fissure of siiline stone. Fruin this part of its 
banks we picked np fair specimens of saltpetre. The lower 
course, abounding in water-beetles and chokeu with weeds, ends 
in a shallow pool grateful to birds. 

The tuibulent Jnhaynali were mostly in the upper country ; 
a few wretched fellows, however, assembled and began to 
squabble ulxiut the right of leading strangers into our country 
(hildd-nd). They and the guides gave us discouraging details 
concerning a ruin represented to lie aome hours ofl", in the 


114 Bukton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian, 

nearest of the southern Ilarrahs. According to them the Kasr 
el-Bint (" Maiden's Palace ") was in the same condition as El- 
Haum; showing only a single pillar, j>erhaps the " Columns " 
to which Wellsted alludes. The young person whose Tague 
name it bears was a sister of the well-known Warakat iba 




the former settled 



mainland, while the brother built a corresponding castle upon 
Jebel Hassani. Neither hero nor elsewhere could I leorfi any- 
thing concerning the human skeleton which Ibn Mujawar, some 
000 years ago, found imbedded in a rock near the sea-shore. 

A few words concerning the "Harrahs" of this part of 
Arabia. The author of the Kitab Futuh el-Uuklan ('The Con- 
quests of El-Isliim ') states that the land>i known to Arabia as 
Ef-IIarrah are eight; of these he and Ibn Klmldun (El-'Ibar) 
mention two — 1. Harrat Beni Sulaym. from a tribe now van- 
ished; nnd, 2, the Harrat el-Niir, lying between Tayma and the 
Wady fd-Kuni (the Wady Hamz 7). The learned Dr. Wetzstein, 
in the Appendix to his * Reisebericht,' tSrc./ records a conversa- 
tion with A. von Humboldt and Carl liitter (April 1859), respect- 
ing the specimens wliich he had brongiit from the classical 
Trachoniti?. Their fresh texture and appearance led tlio latter 
to question whether the latest eruptions of the Harrat Eiijil, as 
it is called from a neighbouring wady, may not have taken 
place during the historic period, and ho referred to I'salm xviii. 
as seeming to note the occurrence, during David's reign, of such 
a phenomenon in or near Palestine. Humboldt deemed it pro- 
baole that the Koranic legend (cap. cv.) of the Abyssinians 
under Abraham being destroyed by a shower of stones baked in 
h(dl-firc, referred, not to small-pox.t as is generally supposed, 
but Ui an actual volcanic eruption in Arabia. 

" With what interest would that great man liave learned," 
writes Wetzstein, ** that as I was turning t»ver the leaves of 
Yakut's ' Geographical Lexicon,' I foTmd no less than 28 differ- 
ent volcanic regions between Haui an and 1 >al> el- ■\Iandeb known 
to tho Arabians!" J^ater still Dr. Otto Ijoth published an 
elaborate paper " On the Volcanic. Regions (Ilarras) of Arabia, 
according to Yakut," in wliich these eruptions are nearly all 
identified and described. 

* This ifl the volnnse wbich I havo tntnsLat^d. See also Dr. Bt^ke's rApera in 
the • Atheiiwiim ' (Felt. 8th ntiJ l5Ui, 1873), his 'Mount Biiiiii a Volcano,' 
{pafllm); and hia ' Siiini in Arabia,' p. 5il5. 

t ThcTo are, as fbr ita w(> know, two great centres wbencc this foul disraec 
ffprcB<l. Tho castcni ia Mongoliiui-China, which retains trailitioiis of it iu 
n.o. 11*22 ; tho western, i a tt-r Ironical Africa: from tlie latter it ia supposed to 
have invaded Europe in tlie sixth century. 

Bchton'* Itineraries of tite Second Expedition into Midian. 1 1") 

" Among the immerous volcanoes thii8 found to exist within 
the Arabian r«?iiinsuhi," remarks Dr. Bcke, " the only one 
ref'ordecl as havinp: been in activity within tho historic period is 
the Harrat el-Nar* (Fire llarrah). situate to the north-east of 
3[«Hlina, in the neij^hbonrhood of Ivliaibur (Khaybar), in about 
*2Q° 30' N, lat. and 40" k. long. ; which, beinj:^ traditionally said 
to have befn in an active state six centuries before Mohammed, 
had actually an eruption in the time of the Prophet's successor, 
Omai". To the north-west of this * i'ire-IIarra' lies that known 
as the ' Harra of (the tribe ot) Udhra ' (El-Azra) ; again to the 
north of this is * Harra of Tahiik,' so calied from the station of 
that name on the Uadj road from Damaseus to ilekka, the 
position of which is in about 28" 15' n. lat. and 37" e. lonji;., and 
beyond this last, farther to tlio north, and consequently between 
it and the norlhernmust Hurra of the Ivadjil, or Traehoiiitis, is 
the Harra Karljla.f ... Its desiguatioD, which means • rougb,' 
' pathless/ seems to indicate its peculiarly rugged suri'ace, and 
to lead to the inference tbat it is an immense field of lava." 

Hence my lato friend coticluded that his " true Mount Sinai " 
was the focus and origin of this volcanic region ; and that the 
latter was the '"great and terrible wilderness " (Deut, i. 19) 
through which tlie children of Israel were led on their way to 
mysterious ** Kadesh-barnea." Thus, too, he explained the 
"pillar of cloud bv dav " and the " pillar of fire by night '' 
(Exod. xiii. 20). 

Il<vtnrniug along the shore, we embarked and bade aditu to 
Leukt! Kome. 1'he old corvette made the usual semicircle, l>ut 
the sea had subsided to a dead calm, and we reached El-AV'ijh 
in 18 hours 1;"} minutes. 

HI. The March to the Gold Mines. — The preliminaries of our 
journey were soon settled at El-\Vijh ; and the Baliyy tribe 
made no dilliotdtios. We were to be escorted by old ISiiaykh 
3lohamraed 'Afuan, his son Sulaymau, his two nephews, 
Hammad and Naji, his factotum, the mulatto Abdullah, and his 
wakil ('• agent ") the big bhick slave, Abdullah Muhaninied. 
The immediate objective of this, our last march, was the Bada 
plain and the Mochoura of the ancients, the mediieval Marwah 
or m Marwah. I also determined to visit a traditional coal- 
mine ; and, linally, to return to Kl-Wijh vui the Wady Hamz, 
inspecting both it and the ruins first sighted by MM. Marie and 
Phi I i pin. 

March 29. — At 1.45 p.m. we left El-Wijh, with 58 camels, of 
%vhich 7 were intended to carry water — as will be seen, they 

• Sc« Wallin, p. 327. 

t Rajlii in Arabic rocRns rcmgh and stouy jsn^and = TraohomUa. Rrijil ia a 
well-girt wiilktr. 

I 2 

116 Burton** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

were necessary. The afternoou was liot ami unpleasant ; iu 
later March the Harwa el-'U\vwali,* a violent sand-raising 
norther, sets in and lasts a fortnight. It is succeedotl (early 
April) by the calms El-Ni'aml" the Blessings "), which, divided 
into tSie Greater and the Less, last 40 days. Then the summer. 
From the raised and metalled bank where the Burj stands, we 
rodo down to the broad mouth of the Wudy el-Wijh, draining 
the low, blue-brown hills that form the eastern horizon. Ou 

our left opened the dull eniboucliure of ^^'ady Mansa (U©^^) : 

and to tlje right lay el-Mellahah, the Salina, distant about a 
mile from the (own. It is an oval of some 180U yards from 
north to south ; uud tlie banks are padded with brown slush 
frosted white, which in some places "boffs" men and aasea. 
Beyond it are sparkling, glittering, dazzling blocks of pure 
crystallised salt, and the open water in the middle is tenanted 
by wild-fowl. At the lower or northern end, a short divide 
separates it from the sea, whieh during westerly gales runs 
far inland : it would he easy to open a regular channel between 
the harbour and its saltern. The head is formed by the large 
Wady Hurrah, whoso many feeders at times discharge heavy 
torreutj!i. The walls of the valley-mouth are marked, somewhat 
like the Wady llarr, with caverned and corniced dill's of snow- 
white, canary-yellow, and rose-pink corallines. 

Ascending the Wady el- Wijh, we left to the right the two brack- 
ish pits or vrells, Bir el-Isma'it and El-Sannusi (. . » ^- ). 

which supply the poor of the port. After 1 hour 15 minutes, 
we pissed tlirougli a " gate " formed by the " Hamirat-Wijb," 
the Red Hill, noticed when we approached the town. Here 
the gypsum, white ami black, ruddy and mauve, overlies rounded 
masses of gmnite ; and the Secondary formation is succeeded by 
the usual red felsites and green traps — a coj)y of the Wady .Sadr 
in the northern Shafali range. A fine vein of sugary quartz 
also trended north-south. After 1 hour 45 minutes ( = G miles), 
■we suddenly sighted the inland furt, whose littered environs 
show the camping-grcmnd of the Pilgrim-Oaravan. Here we 
were welcomed by its commander, Lieut. Nassiir Ahmed, whose 
garrison, lo regulars, looks clean and healthy, and who keep» 
his castle iu excellent order. It is the usual square, straight- 
curtained work of solid masonry with a circular bastion at each 
angle. The northeni face is subtended by 3 large cisterns, 
all streugthetied at the inner angles by the stepped buttresses. 

* 'A w wii in Arabic is tlio name of the thir teenth mannion of Uie mooD, or I 
live elais in Virgo. 

Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Kj-j>editioii into Midian. 117 

first noticed among the ruins of Jlnpflmir SIm'ayb. TUe only 
object af interest in the fort is the inscription uith au illegible 
• liite, bearing the nunie ot" Ahme*l ibn Tuyliin, who tbunflod his 
dynflsty in a.d. 868. This is another proof tlmt the Mamhik 
8oIilans were lords of the soil, and that Sontli IMidian wan, even 
in tlie ninth etntury, a dejientlency of J'^pjypt. 

Up the valley, mid iiorth-east of the Fort, lie Iho palm-]>lan- 
tations, the kitchen-gardens, and the ikr-famed wells of El-Wijh. 
The sandy bed, disposed east-west, is streaked, dotted, and 
barred with outcrops and walls of the hardest green stone ; and 
those disposed nortfi-sonth mnst arrest, like dykes, the sub- 
tprrnnean flow. Of the six niftsonry-revettcd pits four, including 
El-Tuwilah, the deepest, supply bnu^kish wati-r, and the same is 
the case with a fifth inside the Fort. Tlie sweet wells are 
the Jiir el-Za'faraniyynh ('' of iSaftron "). and its eastern neigh- 
bour EI-'Ajwah (the " Date-paste "). The latter measures 4-5 
fi^thoms, and water appears under a boulder in situ, projecting 
from the southern side. Higlier up the wady, a reef is labo- 
riously scraped with Uedawi " W'usum '" and with Moslem 
inscriptions oompuratively modern. Jlernabouts, and to the 
north-east of the Fort, we picked u})Dld and well-treated scoria-, 
suggesting a more ancient settlement. Perhaps it was the 
hx'ale preferred by the owners of the slaves, who worked the 
inner mines hidden from view and from the sea-breezo by the 

Marrh ^Oth.— We set out at 't.-'JO in disorderly "starting" style; 
itnd struck up the A\ady el-Wijh, which miw bewmcs narrow 
and gorge-like, with wells and water-pils, oM and new, dotting 
the sole. Half an hour's walk led to the fumous " written rock," 
which none of our guides seemed to know. \\' ellsted (li. 18!t) 
erroneously calls the place ** Wadt-l-Moyah " f Sfayah), the name 
of a feature farther south. Moreover, he has copied the scrawls 
with a carelessness so prodigious, massing, in a single woodcut 
(p. 189), what covers many square feet of stone, that we failed 
at first to recognise his original. I deeply regret having re- 
published this rubbish in 'The Gold Mines,' A'c, p. 213. We 
(M, Lacaze and I) drew the inscriptions and the rnde pictures 
Jis carefully as we could ; and the former, on April lU, wa.s sent 
back to jihotograph them. 

Presently leaving the Wady el-Wijh, which extends for some 
2 hours eastward, we struck rs.e. up the left bank of the Wady 

Zurayb (^^j ■ , of the " little Sheepfold"). This ugly rocky 

torrent presently abuts upon an undulating plateau with 1o\t 
rises, almost bare of trees, bone-dry and utterly waterless. 
Raise it from 500 to DOUO feet, and it would be the model of a 

118 Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Alidiuji, 

Peruvian cerro. The raaterial, poq>byritie trap, everywhere 
showed scatters ami lurpe veins of quartz, mostly rnnnrnfr 
jiorth-south : large trtniehes. dug by the ancients ; and small 
cairns, modern work, were also pointed out to us. Crossing tbo 

heads of the Wadys el-'Araylcalt (^_^jij - )* and Fishayk 
( ■; ..'■ » ). Avo fell into the Wady Umm el-Kariiyat (** Mother of 

the Villages"), also called Uram Kanlyat ("Mother of Villages"). 
Kar ("town") appears in the classics, at least if " Car-thago " 
be conipoimded of it ; aiul Kuryat, or Kiryat (y)lur. Kura and 
Kaniyat) is still used throughout Egypt and .Syria, or, rather, 
wherever Arabic is spoken. 

This wady begins, as is hero the rule, with a gravelly bed ; 
it tlien breakti into ugly rocky drops and overralls; and, tiually, 
the mouth becomes a miitured copy, on a larger settle, of its 
head. Immense blocks of <]iiarlz garnish its liase at the left 
bonk. Presently a great white heaj), some 200 feet high, 
capped and strewn with snowy boulders, rose above us ; and in 
the watercourse at our feet lay the dark oblongs denoting the 
house-foundations of porphyritie walls. We had reached the 
celebrated Unim ol-Kaiuvat, little expecting to finish the 4 miles' 
march of tlie guid<>s in 'Z hours l.'j minutes ( = <i| niilfs). 

The .Tebel el-Mani (cpiurtz-hili) showed, tor the first time 
during the whole joiiniey, signs of systematic an«l eivilis<:-fl 
work, shafts and air-iiolts, tunnels and galleries. The labour 
suggested Pliny ('Nat. Mist.,' xxxiii. 20), "Tertia ratio oiiern 
vicerit pigantuni. Cuiiiculi« (gjiUcriefi, tunnels) per magna 
spatiaactis, c^ivanttir numtcs ad lucernarum liiniimi," &c. Instead 
of being a regxdin* riMUid-headed ooncj like the Jebel el-Abyaz, 
for instance, the samniit is distinctly eraterij'orm, the apex 
having *' caved in," or rather, having been carded off bodily to 
be worked. iVe^ro-quartz was abundant, but we came to the 
conclusion tlnit the rock mostly tri;ated was, like that of 
Shuwak, a very mauve-coloun d schist, with a deep-red fracture 
and pleasing tender coloui's before they are oxygen-turoished. 
It abounds in mica which, silvery as tisb-scales, overspreads it 
in patches ; and the precious metal had probably been sought 
in the veinlets between the schist and its quaitz-walling. Two 
pieces sliowed specks, or rather j^iUetks, lightly nnd loosely 
adhering to the " Uliini" — so liglitly, indeed, that they fell off 
when careloi-sly pocketed. 

Leaving the mining details for another plftce,t I will notice 

* It would bo the dinimatire of TTrkab, ^bich means bcaidea the tendon 
Achilles, r windiTig track tlirough a tqUov. or « narrow muuDluiii-pnBS. , 
t !?e<} 'Tlie LoTiil of Jlidiau {Kcusitcd),' uhiip. xvi. 

BtTRTOK'i Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 119 

the topographical details of the " Mother of the Villages." A 
view from the sumniit of the decapitated, honeycombed tnoxind 
gave us at once the measure of the past work, and a most 
encouraging; prospect for the future. All around us lay a true 
qnartz-regiou. The main kill projects a small southern spur, 
also showing traces of the miner ; and tlte same is the case 
with the quartz-veined block of green trap to the south-west. 
There are detached white-yellow pitons to the north-east, the aj\d the south ; wliilst a promising hillock is appended to 
the north of the main outcrop. All have rounded conical 
summits and smooth sides, arguing that tUey are yet virgin ; 
and here, perhaps. I should prefer to begin operations. 

This Jebel el-Mani rises from the left bank of the wady, 
whose short gravelly reach is disposed north-west-south-east. 
The ruitis, in n. lat. 26^ 13',* lie upon a fork whore two gorges, 
ruiming to the east and the north-east, both fall into the 

(northern) Wady el-Khaur ( ^, " of the low ground ") : our ca- 
ravan ascended this line to-day, and to-morrow we shall descend 
it. The remains on the upper or eastern brandi-valJey show 
what kind of work Avas done, by a number of grinding imple- 
ments — the common Mahrdkuh (ji^\^u-c) ^^ rubstone, and 

the handmill, large andsmall, coarse and fine, all violently broken. 
In the south-western, which is the main vjxlley, are the prin- 
cipal ruins, forming a rude ]inrn]]e]ogram, disposed nortb-cast- 
south-weat. The ground-plan presents the usuiil formless heaps, 
squares and oblongs of stones and pebbles ; and the general 
appearance is that of an ergastidum. Here perhaps the rock 
was crushed and smelted, especially that which was not worth 
sending down the wady, to be worked by water whore the inland 
fort now lies. 

Dnring the day Lieut. Amir, guided by Niiji, set out to 
inspect sonxe rains to the south-west (2!0' mag.). After a 
mile's ride, rep(irt«'d to bo a dozen, !ie fuuml a long-mouthed 
pit sunk some 4 fathoms in the trap hill-skipe. Eastward of it, 

and at the head of the Wady Shuwaytanah (jciajt-t;' ^^® 

" Devilling "), lay a square ruin like a small ** Mashghal." Here 
also were three stones^ scribbled in a modem Ivufic with pious 
formnhe. The southern Wady cl-Kbaur was alterwards visited 
on April 9,t 
I lost all patience with Wellsted, whose blunders became 

• The ohserrations are nil bv ALmed KapUn. 
t Bee Part III. sect. vi. 

Burton'* Itineraria of the Second Expedition into 

infxfusable. He niftkes (ii. 185) the inland fort "about three 
miles in the interior," wliereiis tho distunce is double. At 
{>. 187 it becomes " five miles Irom the anchorage." He reaches 
thcae ruins after 10 miles from the Fort, whilst they lie 12 to 13 
miles iVom El-Wijh. He calls the porpbyritic trap "dark gra- 
nite," notioiiifr " the thin and shining white veins, which run either 
vortically or <liaf;onaUy between the masses." But the gmnd 
quartz-formation is clianged to " limestone." He descends the 
•' caves" with ropes and lights ; and lie fails to understand that 
they are mining' sliafts and tunnels. The Ad. Chart, just as 
bad, after correctly placing the inhiiid fort 6| miles from the 
anchorage, thrusts the mine lOj miles eastwards from the Fort., 
when tlie latter distance is about the same as the farmer. 
Moreover the ruins are laid down a little to the north, whereas 
they lie ono mile south of the latitude of El-Wljh. It ignores 
the porpbyritic sub-range, in whidi the '' Mother of the 
Villages" lies; and it brings close to the east the tall peaks 
of the Tihamat Balawiyyah, which, from this point, rise like 
azure shadows on the far horizon. Lastly it corrupts Umm 
el-Kaniyat to " Fayrabat." 

In Hitter's 'Erdkunde' (von Asieu, Edit, of 1847, West 
Asien, IV. Abtheihmg, § 78, vol. iii. jip. 27G-277) I find that 
the celebrated French Arabist, Fnlgence Fresuel, afterwards 
Consul de Franco at Jeddidi, visited '* Wed jh-Albahr (Wijh el- 
Hahr), on April 28, 1S44, long enough after WelLsted to have 
read his work.* Accompanied by the tShaykh ot" the "Beli" 
(Bidiyy), whom Rittcr calls "Bily," a man who had guideil 
Wellsted (?), be visited tJio ruins miscalled in the Admi- 
ralty Cliart " Fayrabat " (our Umm el-lvaraviit). Fresnel 
calls them Umm Foukhayyerat, which again he holdsi to be an 
inveraion, more Arahico, for Uhoufayijtmt ("excavations"), a 
dintinutive form of "Hafirat." He also calls the valley Wady 
Fushaygh, the diminutive of Fnshagh, a mistletoe-like plant 
which acts parasite to the mimosa. The Shaykh, who, like 
other Bedawin, feared evil spirits, asstired him that tho English- 
man had descended the mine, and had carried oft" a human skull 
wrapped up in a cloth. All were careful before going down to 
show conteniiit for the ghosts by spitting over the left shoulder. 
Fresnel did not remark any signs of architecture, or of ruins, 
nor was a single hewn stone found near these caA'es (mines) ; but 
he observed the normal fragments of coarse glass like that of 
our bottles, and tho many slags (>«chlacl-cu), which seemed to 
show that here had been some mining-huts. 

* C»r1c88 " Blemoir,*' * Proceedings Bombmv Oeograjiliical Society.' Bomb«v, 
1837. Wellsted'a visit was in 1838. 


In the Wady Zarayb (pv Az-Zourayb), not far from the Hajj- 
station, Fresnel found the inscriptions which, I have shown, 
Wellsted places in the AVady el-Moyuli, and Hitter seems 
(p, 277) to be puzzled by this difference of uiimest. Ho locates 
them together upon a naturul slab of rock extending 40 to 5U 
paces ; they are either roughly scratched in or cut into the 
"granite" by hard stones like quartz. The characters number- 
ing from 3, 4, to 12. refer apparently to one subject; some are 
disposed in straight perpendicular lines, or, where the rock 
did not give space, obliquely, and even horizontally, ranged one 
under the other. In the setection copied by Fresnel. each row 
separated by lines is complete in itself:* the whole is accompani^xl 
by rude figures with horned beasts, as gazelle and ibex, like 
those brought from Sinai by Niebuhr (vol. i. Plate L.). The 
traveller seems to have thought that the characters are old- 
Phteuician or Nabathaean, He returned to El-\\'ijh without 
going farther inland. 

March 31sf. — We sot out, at 5.10 a.m., in puffs of a warm 
wind that promii!ed three days of the '' Dufnii ■" and, leaving El- 
Karayat by the upper (east) valley, fell into and descendetl its 
recipient the Wady el-Khaur el-Shimali (of the north). On the 
right bank of this broad Fiumara rose the lesser *' Mount of 
Quartz;" and for the next 2 hours ( = 7 miles) we saw on both 
sides immense veins and outcrops of " Maru." Presently these 
made way for a yellow-white heat-altered clay, often revetted 
with iron. The hills on either side of the valley form no 
regubr line ; they are detached pyramids of black, red, and 
rusty traps, here and there eliffing, as if in presence of the sea. 
With our advance the vegetation improved; the trees were no 
longer bhick and leaf-stripped, and the familtnr growths pre- 
sently reappeared. Shepherds' tents and flocks showed that 
water was not far oft'; and the young Baliyy women seemed to 
have no fear of the w hite face. 

After a slow dull ride we crossed the head of our ugly 
acquaintance W'ady Zurayb, did the same to the Tala' el-Nimr, 
and entered the Wady el-Kubbah (" of the Uome "), which finds 

its way through the Wady Za'im {^\\) to the sea. Before us 

rose a grizly black saddle-back ; and upon its tall northern end, 
the pommel, stands the promised "cupola." Eouuding the 
block to the north, we followed the wady to the Mtiyat el- 
Kubbah, water-pits in the sand, whose produce had been truly 
reported to be salt, scanty and stinking. The path then turned 

• Under B, Fresnel gives the only two-UnfJ porpendiculaT inscription : Ihoso 
labelled A aud O nre taken by WvllsttKL 

122 Bukton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian, 

up a short broad brancb-valley, runuiiig south-north, and 
entering the left bank of the main line: a few yards then 
brought us to a halt at the mines of El-Kubbah ; and our 
niorniug'g ridr liiid histed 4 hours (=13 miles). 

The ruins lie in the uneven quartzose basin at the head of 
their iiullali, and the only pccuharity of tlie place is a broken- 
down tSiikiyah (" dra\v-\vell ") with a basin of weathered alabaster. 
The rocks here worked were apparently the iV<v/ro-t[uartz and 
the rosy micaceous schist. Meanwhile the juniors ascended 
the Kubbah-hill (aner. 'JO •34) about 120 feet above the sole 
(aner. 29 •4t?). Tho "dome" was notliiug Ijut a trimcated 
circle of wall, porphyry and cement, just large enough to hold 
u man ; and adjoiuiug it was a rock-cut pit, some 15 feet deep. 
These look-out places are peculiarly Arab. 

The caravan was sent forward to reach the only good water 
reported to be distant. We followed it, and, after half an hour, 
were led out of the Wady ol-Kubbali, whose head, nur proper line, 
lies to the north, with an eastern influent, the Wady el-Dasnah 

(«\lJjj ^^ "little water"). Here we found the tents pitched 

near a large pit> the Mayat el-Dasnah, which lies in n, lat, 
2(1' 23'. Our afternoon's ride was of 4.") minutes (=2^ miles); 
and the tot^l was 4 hours 45 minutes (=15^ miles), another 
duy nearly half wasted. 

Aiyril \st. — The pn>verbial Fools'-day was a second that 
<les<n-ved marking with a white stone. AVe set out at 5.10 A.M.» 
exjiecting to make the Umm Gezaz pits; but Inckily I had 
ordered the water-camels to be loaded. From the \\ ady el- 
Basuah we struck north, over the rim of low trap-hill, by a 
short cut, evidr-ntly artificial, and regained the Wady el-Kubbah. 
In 1 hour ( = 4 miles) wo reached its head, a fine round plain 
Komt' 2 miles across ; girt with red, green and black In'ghlands. 
it was a replica of the iSadr basin. There was even a Khurtiytah 
at the northern end, but this Col is a mere " bogus" pass, not 
leading to a raised plateau. 

An easy metalled [)ath crossed a shallow prism, and presently 

fell into the feeding-basin of Wady Musayrih (^.j^ . ^. ^ ). The 

latter led, by an ugly little gorge, to the broadest Fiumara we 
had yet seen, the Wady Sirr ( .),* which, though far from its 

mouth, took us 45 minutes ( = nearly 3 miles) to cross. We 
are now in the hydrographic area of the Wady Nejd, which was 

BuBTON'jf Jtineraries of the Second Expedition into Alidinn. 123 

confounded by AVallin with the Wndy Hamz some 40 milea to the 
south. Numbering influents by the dozen, it falls into the Wady 

iSalbah (^v^) ^^^^' ^^harm Dumayghab. The guides call this 

Sirr " Asl el-Balnwiyyuh " (the old borne of the Baliyy tribe). 
The view from its bed is varied ajid oxtt-nsive. Westward lievS- 
the Tihamat iSnlani'yyah, the equivalent of the Gbata of North 
JVIidiuii between El-Zahd and El-Slui'rr ; the items are the little 
Jebel 'An till- and the big Jebcl Libu. In front ( east) rise the pde- 
blue heights bordering the Wady Nejd to tlie north-west, and 

apparently connected with the Jebelayn el-Jayy ( -vO^ )' ^"^^ ^^ 

tlie north (30'^ mag.). To the north-east the view is closed by 
the lumpy Jebel el Kurr (the Qorh of Arabian geographers?), 
followed sontliwarth by tiie \\'ar<l and tlie Suf hah. For the last 
18 miles wo had seen no quartz, but now the Sirr-solo appeared 
streaked with snow ; the stones aro nio:^tly water-rolled, the dis- 
charge of the watercourses. The ground was uui)lea5antly pitted 
and holed ; and the camels, weakened by semi-starvation and 
the south-wester, kept tlieir leg*! Avith difficulty. 

Presently we stnuk up a short divide beyond the far bank of 
the Wady MiiT. It is strewn with glittering mica-schist that 
takes the form of rotten woiid, and with purple-blue ehiy-slates, 
looking as if they liad been worked. A countersloi^ of the 
same material plaeed us in the Wudy Rubayyigli (" the little 
Itabigh." the ** luxuriant in herbage," or ''a green-grown 
spring "), a short broad branch draining to the Wady Sirr. IIiTe 
large outcrops of quartz mingled with the clay-slate. A few 
yards farther, it abutted upon a small gravelly basin, with 
mins and a huge white reef of " 3Ia:-u/' which caused a ])reci- 
pitate dismounting. We had marched only 4 hours ( = 13 
miles), and the Arabs congratulated iis upon reaching a part of 
their country absolutely unvisited by Europeans. 

The site of our tind uas the water-parting of the Wady Eubay- 
yigh with the Wady Kabjgh, both feeders of the Wady Sirr — this 
to the north, thut to the south. The ruins are knovvn as Umm el- 

Ilarjib (, ;\ ^^) J in classical Ambic this would mean "Mother 

of the War," of Desolation ; but the Arabs seem to understand 
by it '' Mother of Nutoriety." They are the usual basements, 
almost bmied and swept away, occupying an utterly waterless 
basin, that lies west of the White Reef, Manx Rnbuyyigh. Tliey 
bear neiirly north of Uuim el-Karayat, in N. lat. 20" 33' 30" ; 
and the altitude, by a mean of three observations, is upwards 
of 1000 feet above the sea-level (aner. 28-92). 

At Umm el-Harab we see, fur the first time, an open mine 


124 BoBTON*j9 Itineraries of the Second Expedition into 3Iidinn. 

wientifipally Avorked by the men of olJ. I must again quote 
Pliny (loe. cit,), whose valuable chapter is an epitome of Roman 
mine-cnift : " Kelinquimtur itaque ioruiues (aruhes) crebri mou- 
tibns sustinrnclis," &c. The workmen ehoso a pear-shaped 
quartz-reef, the upper dome exposed, the couvergin;^ s^lopes set 
in green trap to the east, aad the invisible stalk extendiniij 
downwards, probably deep into earth's bowels. They began by 
sinkinfr, as we see from certain rounded apertures, a line of 
shafts striking N.N.E. (45''-30^ mag.) to s.s.w., across the summit, 
which may measure 120 yards. The intervening sections of 
the roof are now brolcen away ; and a great yawning crevasse in 
the hilltop, a saddle-back of bare cream-coloured rock, gives it 
the semblance of a comb or rresting-reef. For the details of 
the work ; for the use of fire and water, which here took the 
place of the classic vinegar ; and for the fine granite mills here 
used, the reader is referred to another volume. * 

In tho evening we ascended the porphyrittn hills to the north 
of the little camping-basin, and found the heights striped by 
two large vertical bands of quartz. The eastern bad a north- 
east-south-west strike (45" mag.), like tho Jebel el-Mani ; the 
western ran east-west with a dip to south. From the summit 
we could also see that the quartz mountain, as usual an 
exaggerated vein, was hemmed in on both sides by outcrops 
and nills of trtip, black, green, and yellow, which culminated 

eastwards in the Jebel el-Giuiib (^_j^ ^). We had a fine view of 

the Wady Eabigh, and of our next day's march towards the Shafah 
mountains : tho former was white with quartz, as if hail-strewn. 

Far beyond its right bank rose an Ash'hab ( ^_<i * \). ash- 
coloured, or "grey-head," which apparently promised quart- 
zose gi-anite — it will prove an iraj>ortant feature. Before 
sleeping, I despatched to El-Wijh two boxes of micaceous 
sehist, and two bags of quartz, lends for a pair of camels. 

IV. To EI'Badii. — Alter tho exciting R-ones of the last two 
days we shall have some dull riding, and consequently, 1 fear, 
dull writing. 

April 2nd. — At 5,10 A.M. we set off afoot down the rough 
lino of the little watercourse draining the " llarii Rubayvigh" 
to the Wady Rabigh. Wo then crossed ttie latter, anotfier of 
tlie short l>ruad valleys which distinguish this aeettou nf South 
3Iidian, The bed-sides, especially the right, showed heaps and 
mounds of snowy quartz, with glittering crowns of roclc and 
boulders, veins in the grey granites, whose large coarse ele- 

BcBTOx'i Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 125 

ments htid been decomposed by weather. The aspect wa« 
]ieiL'uli(ir; tliey seemed ti) pour from the dark rocky masses 
bordering the bed, and they looked like Got. (" saiid-henps ") 
banked up by the wind. We then entered a lateral valley, 

Kkurni (^\o\e oi) el-Maluish (/*\,^Uc) ; and a short divide led 

to El-J3ahrab (^ ^^o)» * basin feeding the Wady Sirr. 

Then began a long up-slopc, with a longer counter-slope, the 

Wady Mulaybij („>(_*Juc)> ^^'^^i'-li gave us a prospect of Jebel 

Raydan, with its familiar head and dorsum. The watercoui'se, 
after forming a " round jwint," narrows to a gut, and presently 

debouches upon the broad Wady el-Gbami's ( - ,g.)- We 

crossed the latter diagonally, and fell into the equally wide 

Wady Aba '1-Gezaz (■ \*j); the name, probably a corruption 

of Zujaj ( \_a^' ), would mean " Father of Glass," either 

from the ruins on its bank, or from the strews of quarts. This 
tributary of the Wad}' Sirr reminded us of tlie ]>amah, with its 
fine vegetation of fan-palm, Daum-trees, asclepias, tamarisk, 
and wild castor-plant, whose use is unknown. Yet the Arabs 
complained that their camels found no forage. Water wells up 
abundantly from a dozen shallow pits, old or now, in the sand 
of the S(juthern (left) bank. Here the flow is arrested by a tall 
rocky buttress, 

Eliding our short march of 4 hours (=12^ miles) we camped 
to await the caravan, which had gone round by the Wady 
llabigh, and for the benefit of the mappers. This place forms 
an excellent connecting-link between north and south. In the 
former din'ctiou we see the ZigljJb-block of JSbagLab bearing 
nearly north (350'' mag.), and the adjoining Jebel el-Aslali, 
also a blue cone on the horizon, about 352" : to south-east lies 

the Jebel el-Kurr ( ^), along which we shall travel. ^H 

In the evening we found an atelitr adjoining our camp, ' 
but apparently unknown to the guides, and we called it 
" Masbgal Abii 'l-Gezaz. " The site is the slope of a trap-hill 
facing the Wady el-Ghamis and the "■ mesopotamian " plain 
below. Both highlands and lowlands are white-patched with 
mounds, veins, jmd scatters of quartz. This great line of valley 
was probably occupied along i<s whole length by many a settle- 
ment, whose very names are unknown. The same was remarked 


12G Bueton's Itineraries of the Second £xj)edttion into Midian. 

of the Wady Damah. Here we are about a day and a half-s 
march from the sen. 

April ^rd. — At 5 a.m. we struck up the Wady Aba '1-Gezdz, 
loose sandy soil, so honoycninbcd that noither man uor beast 
could tread with safety. Auiiual life wus unusually abundant, 
wolf, hare, porcupiuo and hedgehog ; hawks', owls, and crows ; 
pigfeona and ringdoves, swifts and swallows; the water-wagtail 
uud the mero})s ; the hoopoe and the butfber-bird. Charred 
circlets in the sand sliowed where alkali had been burnt for 
shipping at El-AV'ijh. 

After 1 hour ,'>0 minutes (=5 nules> the *' Father of Glass " 
changed his name to Ahil Daumnh ("Father of the single 
Daum-palm "). Porphyritic trap lay on both sides of us. To 

the right rose the Jebel 'Ukbul f \o j-A. whose grey head 

(El-Ash'hab) we had seen yesterday; tlie four cones forming 
the south-western vim of the Bada. saucer are known as El- 
'Akdbil. Below those blocks tho wady-sides are cut into 
buttresses of yellow clay, powdered with iSabkh, or impure salt. 
The water, when there is any, swings under the Id't bank, and 
forms two ]iriiicipal pools or holes. The Bodawin, failing to 
make us halt, declared that the pits had btifu buried, hut the 
escort soon found them out. The Arab over loves the night 
journey, enabling the camel to work in the cool hours, and to 
graze during the day: moreover both wild men and citizens 
are equally fond of "sitting up" and talking iuterminablo 

"shop." The Mahattat (c-A2l>^w«) el-'Orban, " the halting- 
place of the Arabs," is determined by water and forage, so as 
to vary from 5 to 25 miles. Consequently the Baliyy would 
reduce our stages to four hours a day, and they hate the 
regularity of our work. 

Hitherto we had been marching south of east. Presently, 

where the pretty green Wudys el-Sunim (|*i)j— j) and el- 

Marwdt fall into the left bank, we turned a corner, and saw 
before us (north) the great plain EI-Bada. It is backed 
by a curtju'n so tall that wo seemed, b)^ a common optical 
delusion, to be deseeniling, when wo wore really rising rapidly. 
The black range, EI-'Alcabil, had projtxted a, loop of some 
10 miles to be rounded, whereas a short cut across it would 
not have exceeded three. And now the wady abruptly 
changed formation, the red and green traps of the right side at 
once made way for grey and quartz-veined granites wcatherefl 
to the quaintest forms. The basin is soled with sides comfort- 
ably metalled, and with falls of sand unpleasantly loose and 

BuRTOJJi Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian, 127 

honeycombeiJ. After a total of 4 houra 45 minutes (= IG miles) 
we dismounted at the celebrated palm-grove of El-Badu (^ jo)* 

The next day was devoted to inspertin;:^ tho Biijat-Bada (the 
**wide plain of Brt<la"), as this cboive siti' is distinguished by 
the BedawiTi. It fultila all the comlitions required by the 
centre and head-quarters of Tharauditis. The position, topo- 
OTaphically speiiking, is a bul}2;e in the Wady Nejd, bet'ore it 
becomes the \Vady Abii Daumah, between theShafah Mo«mti>in8 
to the east, and tho Tihamah range seawards. The latitude 
(Ahmed Kaptan's observation of Polaris) is 2GM5';30", Ptolemy 
being as usual low (n. lat. 2.j' 30"): thus it is 0' 31' 3U" 
north of El-Wijh. From a little way south of our camping- 
ground the Jebel Ziglab bears 32", and the Aslah cone 30' (botli 
mag,). It lies, therefore, south of Shuwak, with a little westing, 
and Yakut (iii. 302) makes it one day's march from '' Shaghba" 
(Shaghab). The altitude is upwards of 1200 feet above the 
sea (aner. 28*72, the mean of six obs.). The size of the oval 
is about 9 miles (statute) from north to south, by 12, an area 
of some 108 sqmire miles. The general aspect of the plain 
suggests that of El-Hawra. The growth is richer than the 
northern, but not eciual to that of the southern country. The 
ruins belong to the Bfagh^ir Shu'ayb categor}', and the people 
compare the "Hawawit" with those of Maduiu Sulili. Such is 
the great station on the Nabatha3an highway between Leuke 
Kome and Petra ; the commercial and industriah the agricul- 
tural and mineral centre which the Greeks called Be^aw, and 
the Kouians Baihmatha. In the days wli(:'n the Hajif -Caravan 
used to descend tho Wadys Nejil and the " Father of dlass," it 
was known to Arab geographers as the Bjulti Ya'kub, that now 
forgotten patriarch being supposed to have visited it from 
Egypt or Syria. 

The Biijat Bacia is fioored with grey granite, underlying 
a modern sandstone, which, not mxlike cural-rag, served for 
building purposes. Through this crust outcrop curious hillocks, 
or rather piles of hard, dark-rod and iron-revetted rock, with a 
white or a rusty fracture. They form the characteristic features 
of the basin. Tbe lower levels are furrowed, as usual, with thin 
threads of sand by the rain-torrents discharged from the 
mountains. The Shafah curtain to the north breaks into a 
number of peaks named after their ^vadys. Beginning from 

west are Jebels Sehayyir ( ^<< ^..J. 'Unka ( lu'.- ,theGriflin\ 

Marnkh (P. K of shrub), Genayy ( •^), El-Hazzah C^^s^). 
El-Madhanah (jCjbji^)* Buza'mah (:. ^^,^ \ ), and Umuwah 


130 BuetON'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

a Pool of Bethesda for suffering Arab humanity. Shaykh 
'Afniin, whose tents are pitched one day aliead of us, confirmed 
these statements, adding that the Shafah Mountains are a mere 
ridge, not the seaward walk of a plateau ; and that the land 
east of them is exactly that which we have already traversed. 
He spoke of brimstone being picked up on the hill-flauks, 
and he had heard of El-Kobl (Stibium or Collyrium) being 
found about El-Muharrak. At Waily Aba 'I-Gezil/, Mohammed 
destroyed all our surviving hopes by picking up a black stone 
which, he said, Avaa the object of our search. Schist Mith a 
natural fracture not unlike coal, and weathered into tlie 
semblance of wood, it unfortunately did not contain an atom 
of bitumen. I have too much faith in Arab acumen to reject 
the lesson. 

April 5th, — At 4.45 A.M. we took the track which crosses the 
Biijat Bada to the south-east. Fctr a few yards it is vilely i"at- 
eateu ; presently it issued upon stony ground ; and, after 
1 hoiu" 15 minutes (= 4 miles), it enlcrcdtbe Wady el-Marwat. 
a vulgar gorge, broad, rough, and uupicturesque, marked by a 

round head to the north. Jebel Wasil ( V-c\,), "that joins or 

connects." The sole shows several dry-stone piles, ruins of 
*' boxes " in which the Arab traveller passes the night, wliilst 
his camels are tethered outside. Crossing the mouth of the 
Wady Nakib e!-'Arus, which drains thf hill of the same uame, to 
the Wady el-Marwat. we entered the upper course of the latter. 
After a total ride of 3 houi"s 45 minutes ( = 11 miles), we reached 
its head, a "Khuraytah" rising some 2100 feet above the sea- 
level. " Marwat," as the Baliyy called it, shows worked veins 
of snowy quartz, a few ruins which supplied me with a Kutic 
inscription, and a fine reef uf '" Mani," b feet wide, and trending 
332° (mag.). 

From the Col two i-oads lead to our nigh ting-place. Ee- 
jecting, on account of our unshod mules, the short cut to the 
right, reported as rough and stony, we followed tholong slope that 

led to the Wady Zikah (jjl.^), and eventually to the Wady 

el-Kurr, draining the block of that name to the Wady el-Miyah. 
Despite the many Zawabahs (dust-devils) we pushed on for 
another 1 hour 30 minutes { = 'ik miles), and a total of 
5 hours 15 minutes (= 15J miles), before halting to break our 
fast. Resuming the way after the usual hour, we rode down 
the valley, meeting only a few men driving asses; and pre- 
sently we sighted the gnmd '• Gate " of the reach, here running 
north-south. The material is porphyritic trap, red, green, 
yellow, and white, with argi]c, almost enveloping the rounded 

Burton** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into 3Iidian. 120 

Huzaybat ( 1 . ,.^i» . or isolated liillock). On tlie plain to 

its north ore niins, probably of a work intended to defend the 
eastern approach, »nd to the Bouth appear the usual signs oran 

To conclude- The beautiful Eiijat, IJada has, according to 
the Baliyy, seen worse days. About tvventy years ago, how- 
ever, the wells wore reopened, nn<l tlio dat'-trees were replanted. 
As for its future, we may safely predict that, unless occupied 
by a civilised people, the fair basin will again come to grief. 
Nothing would be easier than to rebuild the town and to pre- 
pare tlie ]ilain for cultivatiou, but destruction is more in the 
liedawi line. 

V. To Marivfif and the Wadtj JIamz. — Before leaving EI- 
Bada I was canful to make all manner of inquiries coucerning 
8toue-coal ; and the guides confirmed the suspicions which bad 
long suggested theniselveg. It is an old story. El-Mukaddnsi 
(p. 103) liivs tlio following passiige unconnected with tbosc 
which ])recede and follow it. *" A tire arose between P^l-SIarvvat, 
and EMTaura; and it burned even as oimrcoal {cl-fahm) hwrw^y 
Proj". Sprenger— who, by-the-by, lirst brought to light the flLS. 
published by Prof, de Goeje in bis ' Bibliotheca Geograpbarmu 
Arabicorutu' — probably read "and it ftbe stone) burnt^d ai 
charcoal bui-us;" suggesting that the nouses and huts were 
built, of some inflamraable material, like the bituminous schihit 
of the Brazil ; and that the Arabs were surprised to see thf?m 
taking fire. Evidently, however, the text refers to an eruption 
in one of the uutny volcanic districts {^Harrahs). My learned 
friend writes to me iu June 13, 1877, *' it is likely that west of 
Marwa. on the way to Ilawrd (which lies ou the seashore), coal 
is found. I confess that the proiipect of diseoveriug much coal 
in Arabia does uot appear to rae very great; still it woidil be 
worth while to make inquiries." Subsequently (December 8, 
J877) he gave up all hopes of the pure mineral; but he still 
clove to inflammable matter. 

At El-Wijb, I consulted the VVakil Jlohammed Shahddah. 
In past times he bad sent for a camel-load of the stuff; but, ho 
declared, it would not take lire, lie then travelled in person 
to the Jfbel el-Muharrak (" burnt iMouutaiu '*), whicli he places 
5 short marches iuland from El-Buda, and behind its northern 
curtain, the Jibal el-Shafah. According to him, El-Muharrak 
is part of the great Horrali; and El-Jaww, which stretches 
north (?) of it, is a prolongation of the Hisma plateau, here 
belonging to the Baliyy. The mountain is tall and black ; 
near its summit lies the Bir el-8hiia (" Well of Healing "), a 
pit of cold sulphur-water, excellent for the eyes and generally 


132 Bukton'5 Itineraries oftJua Secoiul Expedition into Midian. 

Leaving tho curious wLito divide, wo file into the Wady 
Gamimh {^ ^W)> with the dwarf range of the same name ou 

the rii^ht buuk ; it i.s also an influent of the Wady el-Miydh. 
After 1 hour 45 minutes (=4 miles), we halted for rest, resum- 
ing our march at 11.45 a.m. down the bed. A short divide then 
placed us iu the Wady Saniacl, which belongs to the same basin. 
The Shaykha t!ieu led us over another water-parting to the 
Wady el-'Laylab, uhieh drains both the Sliafah and tlu> Tihamah 
ranges : the Jinu lies too far east ; we should liave followed the 

western Wady cl-Tufayyah (jt^^ji^),* in which ruins are said ta 

exist. However, we had no reason to repent. Hilla of " Mani" 
now appeared ou either side, creamy-coated cones each capped 
by its own sparkle, whoso brilliancy was set oflf by the gloomy 
traps which they sheeted aud tupped. In some places the 
material may have been the usual hard, wliite, heat-altered 
clay ; but the valley-sole showed only pure quartz. The 
heiglit of several hills was nearly double that of the northern 
Jebel el-Abyaz, and the reef-crests were apparently unwnrked. 
We rode on for 2 hours (=6 miles), making a total for that 
day of 7 hours (=18 miles), when we were begged to halt in 
the broad, open, aud waterless Wady Laylah. 

April 1th. — At 5 a.m. we resumed our way up the Wady 
Laylab, which here makes a largo bend to the north, whereas 
our direction was to the south-west. Having heard of a short 
cut to the west, a eontinuatiou of the Wady Tufayyali Hue, I 
set out ou foot in the iattej direction ; Abdullah, the Mulatto, 
shouted ■' Wa'r" ('Ware rocks !); but this was " crying wolf" 
for the second time. After a steep descent, without difficulty 

to loaded camels, we hit the little Wady Zuraydlm ( .jo • )> * 

feeder of the Wady Laylab. Here the line forks. I tried the 
southern section or up-stream, which would indeed have been a 
short cut : unfortunately it ended in a wall of rock, the Sha'ab 
Abu Siyal, A water-pool explained the meaning of the broad 
footpath which had deceived mo. After losing 10 minutes, w© 
retraced our stops, and, following tlio northern fork, at G.30 A.M. 
(1 hour 30 minutes = miles), we regained the \\'a(Iy el-Laylah 
in time to see the caravan, which had taken the longer line, 
pass in review before ua. 

At this point the Wady el-Laylah changes name to the Wadv 
el-Bu-kah (" of the Tank ") ; and we shall follow its course till 

* Tlie clasaical Tufynli ia n " mulignant ecrpent, marked on the back with two 
black lines," 

Bubton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 133 

received into the mighty arms of the "Wady Hamz, some 3 miles 
from the sea. This upper part commands fine views of the 

Jibal el-Safhah (A-<i,Q^^).the " Mountains of the Plain," so-called 

from their rising suddenly out of a dead level. Seen beyond 
the dull traps that hem in our wady, the noble blocks, espe- 
cially the lower features, the mere foothills, assume every 
quaintest variety of hue and form. The fa^vn-grey ground- 
colour of the granite, here shining as if polished by "slickensides," 
there dull and roughened by the rude ungentle touch of Time, 
is a neutral tint that takes every glazing with which sun and 
moon, mist and cloud paint the world. Changeable as the 
chameleon's, the coating is never the same for two brief hours. 
The protean shape, seen in profile and foreshortened, from the 
north or south, appears as blocks bristling with "pins" and 
points, chimney-tops, horns, and beaks. Viewed from the 
east the range splits into a double line, whose ranks have never 
been " dressed " nor sized ; whilst a diagonal prospect so alters 
their features that they seem to belong to another range. 

After much time wasted in ascertaining the names of the 
several items, I give them as they were told to me, declining, 
however, to answer for their correctness. The principal blocks 
number three ; the two first are in the Saf hah and the third 
lies south of it. 

1. The Jebel el- Ward, a white-streaked and regular wall 
visible from the sea. It is separated by a broad valley from 
its southern neighbour ; and its outliers are the pale-white and 

jagged Jebel 'Afayr ( ^x) * ^^^ *^® ^^^S ^^^ lumpy, low 
and dark Jebel Tufayyah. 

2. The GJialab (^J^) or Ughlub, a monstrous " Parrot's 
Beak" of granite, continued by a long dorsum to the south. 
Its four outliers are the Jebel Natash ( /■••.\ ).t perpendicular 
buttresses pressed tightly together ; the Tala 't Muhajjah 
i^i^ssAj^ C-'Jtiis)' * broken saddle-back with two monstrous 
towers; the Jebel Umm el-Natakah (^j j^O , all blocks and 
blocklets, bristling like the fretful porcupine ; and lastly, the 
Jebel el-Khausilah (aJuj ^ii.)* ^^ appearance thoroughly archi- 

* El-Ufayr was the name of the ass ridden by Mohammed, 
t The dictionaries explain Natash as tlio •' herb gromwell." 

134 BurtonV Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

3. The Jihilayn el-Rdl are separated from the Khaiisilah by 
the AVady Haraz ; tlieso two conical peaks aro divided and 

drained by the broad AYady el-Sula' (^i^^^), down which the 

E^7)tian Hajj, returning northwards from ]']1-Medinah, de- 
boiicncs upon the TOaritiine pkin uf iSouth Ulidian. 

Presently falls in a remarkable influent iVom the left or 

east, the Wady el-Nabi' (nj\j), g^ai-nished with a long line 

of Daum-palma, and the main lino benda from north-east to 
sonth-west. After riding about 3 liours 30 minutes (=8 miles) 
we reached the BJrkah, where the great wady narrows and 
forms a river-like run about 1^ mile long. The large blue- 
green pool on the rip:ht side is act in dense beds ol nishes, 
which shelter a variety of water-fuwl ; about the run are 
dwarf enclosures where even water-raolons have bef^n sown. 
Whilst the camels drank, we halted ibr a few uiiuut<.'S under 
the masses of trap which widl in the loft bunk ; and then we 
pressed forwards down-stream, following the tlireads of fluid. 
Farther on was another liu<! '' Gate," whose right jamb was the 
Jibai el-Tibgh, fronting the AVady M'jirmah. The narrows 
showed two Arab wells; and there was no break in the con- 
tinuity of the quartz. ITaving; travelled down sundry bends, 
■Re halted uadar the usual thorn at 11 A.M.; thus ending a 
second stage of 2 hours (=6 miles), llere a fine Cerastes was 
brought to me. 

The hshaykhs were anxious to push on for another 30 minutes 
to a rain-pool which they reported in the ravine Sha'b el-Kahafah 

{^9J^> ; but we had been told of another in the Sha'b el- 

Harr, which might serve our photographer. The result is 
curious, showing how jenlously water-secrets are kept in these 
lauds. The next thing I heard was that the water had waxed 
salt, then it had dried uji ; and, lastly, it was in the best 

Eossible condition, the truth beiug ihat there ivas none at all. 
'onsequently we were oliliged to send back four camels and 
two men from our next camping-ground to the Sha'b el- 
, Kahafah. Kesuming the road at 2.30 p.m., we entered the 
western Wady el-Birkah, wliich here, finally, becomes the 

Wady el-'Ajaj ( \^^i " of Dust "). In 2 hours 15 minutes 

( = 6 miles), and a total of 7 hours 35 minutes ( = 20 miles), we 
camped at a noble reach and enjoyed a glorious night. 

April Sth, — There were tliflferences of opinion concerning the 
stage ahead. Lieut. Amir's map made it 11 geographical miles 

Burton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 135 

long; the Arabs said 4 hours; the Frenchmen 10 hours, 
and the moderates 6 hours — even they were 45 minutes too 
dow. Setting out late, at 5 a.m., delayed by the Shaykhs and 
too much whisky, we reached in 30 minutes a lower and a 
larger bulge of the bed, whose water is 'known as Mdyat el- 

Badi'ah (<)jtjjO. ^^^ " Wonderful "). At G a.m. (1 hour=3i 

miles) we ended the hilly encasement of the Wady with 

El-Adra (\ j^, the " Rainy "), a red hutte to the left, and, 

on the right, a quartz-veined green knob, the J. el-Yakhmiim 
{^».^^\j)' Though 400 feet above sea-level, the land com- 
mands no sea-view, and yet there is nothing monotonous in it. 
To the south lies the boundary line Ras Kurkumah (•* Turmeric 
Head ") ; the Jebel el-Birakh rises to the left beyond the raised 
bank of the great Wady Hamz, which, sweeping with a mighty 
curve from north-east to west, stretches across our path. 
Knobby hills are scattered over the plain; and on our right 

appears the Jebel el-Juwayy / ^^\ the " unwholesome "), 

a black mound with white-sided and scarred head, whose 
peculiar shape — a crest upon a slope — represents once more 
the familiar Secondary formation of north-western Arabia. 
Thus the gypsum has been traced from the Sinaitic shore 
as far south as the Wady Hamz,'and doubtless it does not end 

At 7.35 A.M. (2 hours 35 minutes = 8 miles) we crossed a 
winding, broad and spreading track, the upper road by which 
the Egyptian " Mahmal " passes, when returning via the 
Wady Hamz from El-Medinah. A few yards farther on showed 
us a similar line, the route taken by the caravan when going 
to Meccah via Yambii'. The two meet in the Wady Wafdiyyan 

(<XjjJ.),* to the north-east of the site which we shall visit 


A little past 10 a.m. (5 hours 15 minutes=16i miles), we 
crossed the deepest vein of the Wady Hamz, and reached the 
Gasr (" Palace ") of Gurayyim Sa'id — Sa'id the Brave. 

Our march to the farthermost southern point of Egypt-land 
had lasted 11 days (March 29-April 8) without includ- 
ing the single halt (April 4), and the two days* march re- 

' Wafcl " is the summit of a sandy hill. 

136 Bdrton'* Itineraries of the SecoTid Erpcdition into Midian. 

tinning to El-WijU. The following is a list of stations and 
iliitt'S : — 

i. March 2i). El-Wij)i to Inland Fort 1 h. 4ym. = 6 mil«. 

:i. „ 30. To Uinm el-Kanlyat 2h. iom. = 6} „ 

U. „ 'i\. „ Mayat t'l-I>a8iiiih 4h. 4om. = 15^ „ 

4. April 1. „ Umm el-Uftr.ib 4h. Oni. = 13 „ 

5, „ 2. „ AM'l-GosLiiz 4h. Om. = 12| „ 

0. „ 3. „ El-Ba.W 4h.45ui. =^ 1<; „ 

„ 4. Halt i\t El-Badil. 

7. r >• 5. To Marwat and 'Ayn el-Kurr .. 7 b. m. = '1% „ 

ti. „ 6. „ Wady Liiylah .. 7 h. Om. = IS „ 

y. „ 7. „ Wady ol-'Ajaj 7 h. Sfi m. = 20 „ 

10. „ 8. „ tbc (Wady Hntnz) .. .. 5h. l.o in. = 104 „ 

Totals ,. .. 4S h. 20 m. = li4i „ 

VI. Tlie Palace of Saul the Brave ; The Mine of « Martvah"— 
For architectural details concerning the " Gasr," I must refer 
my readei-8 to auotlu-r place.* Here its gcograpliieal position 
only will bo iloseribf il. 

The site of this classical bnihling, the sole remnant of its 
kind found during tho four months of exploration, lies in 
N. lat. 25" 55' 15" (xVhmocl Knptaii's solar ouservation) ; and 
the centre of the " Libn " hlot-k bears from it 3^0" (mag.). It 
stands upon the very edge of tho Wady llamz's left bunk, a 
clifilet Fome 2'> feet high, sloping iahiml, with the usual dark 
metal disposed upon hiose yellow sand. Thus it commands a 
glorious view of the tree-gruuii valley, or rather valleys, be- 
neath it; and of the picturesque peaks of tho Tihamat 
Balawfyyali in the buckgrcniud. The distance from the sea 
is now a little over three miles — in ancient days it may have 
been much less. 

The condition of the digging proves that the remains have 
not long been ojwned : the fialiyy state less than Lalf-a-century 
ago, but exactly when, or by whom, are details apparently 
luiknown to them. Before that time tho locale must have 
shown a mere tumulus, a nmund somewhat larger than the 
mauy which pimple tho raised valley-bank liehiud the building. 
As at Uriconium, a wall is said to have projected above ground; 
this may have suggested excavation, besides supplying material 
for the Bodawi cemetery to the suutL-west. The torrent-wators 
have swept away the whole of the northern enceinte, and the 
treasure-seeker has left his mark upon the interior. Columns, 
and pilasters, and cut stones, morticed and bevelled, have been 
iiurled into the wady below ; the large pavement-alabs have 

* Boo ',Tho Lftod of Midian (Kerisited),' obap. xix. 

Bdrton'j Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

been torn up and tossed to a chaos ; and the restless drifting 
of the loose desert-sand will soon bury it once more. The 
result of all this ruthlfss ruin wjis simply nil ; the imaginative 
Naji declared that a "stone-dog" had been found, but what 
bad become of it nobody knew. 

The " Palace " is a Eomiin building of late style, but whether 
Nymphseura or Ileroon, temple or tomb, we had no means of 
ascertaining. It must Lave been a bright and briliiant bit of 
Colouring in its best days : hence possibly the local tradition 
that the stone sweats oil. The Ualiyy declare that the quarries 
are still open at Abu Makharir under the hills embosoming 
Abd *1-Marii : the whulo ruin, froru pavement to coping, a 
square of 27 feet, is of alabaster, plain white, and streaked 
with ruddy, mauve and dark tints, whose mottling gives the 
effect of marble. Although the JMeccan Ka'bah is, as its name 
denotes, a cube, the workmanship of this square box is too care- 
ful to suggest either Arab or !Nnbathiean origin. Perhaps an 
investigation of the ruins ut lias Kurkuuiah, and the remains 
of Madain Siilib may throw some light ujiun the mystery. At 
present 1 can only suggest that it is a Kau<i or shrine, evidently 
a remnant of the days when the liomans held the whole 
country as far south as E!-llaura. 

The town probably stood on the left bank of the Wady Hamz, 
to judge from tlie many mounds which rise behind the "Gasr." 
I opened one of these lumidi, and found the interior traversed 
by a crumbling wall of cut alabaster — regular excavation may 
some day yield important result-^. A Bedawi cemetery, adorned 
Avith tilt; mutilated spoils of the classical building, adjoins it, 
and here we picked up two imperfect skulls and four fragments. 
Kot a word of inscription, not a mason's mark was to be found, 
A little to the south-west lies a manner of ossuary, a tumulus 
slightly raised above the wavy level, and showing a central pit 
choked with camels' bones. This is a memorial of a certain 

Sa'id, sumamed El-Gurayyim ( ;), a word derived from the 

root Garam (Karam), i,e. " having an insatiable appetite for a 
flesh diet;" the vulgar understand by it a stout fellow, a brave 

fighter. At first I thought it was derived from Jarim ( • -^), 

a large-bodied man, but no one wrote it after that fashion. This 
negro was promised Ids owner's daughter in marriage byway of* 
reward for some doughty deed ; when diftaculties w^re made he 
carried oft' the girl, and built this " Palace" by way of a home. 
He scaudabsed the neighbourhood, however, by plundering the 


138 Burton'^ Itinci'aries of the Second Expedition into Midian, 

herds and eating a camel every day, till at last he was slain by 
the Ibliowers of Diys'ib ibu Ghauim, one of the notables celebrated 
in a romance callct! ' Sirat Abu Zayd.' * 

Aiyril *Mh. — On tho finest possible morninjr, when the world 
was uU abhxze with living light jwnd rosy llame, we walked 
down the immense watercourse known universally in these parts 

as the Wady Hamz ( A.^^)- The root has a signification 

of " sourness," and gives origin to such biancboa as Humayzah 
("Sorrel") and so forth. The watercourse, which has already 
been mentioned as the southern frontier of ICgj'ptian Midian, 
and the northern limit of the Ottoman Hejaz, is the most 
notable feature of its kind upon the north-western Arabian 
shore. Yet Spronger clean ignores the name, although he 
mentions its branches ; and, of course, it is utterly neglected by 
the Admiralty Chart. Wallin has unjustifiably described and 
inscribed it " Wady Nejtl/' t confusing it, as we have seen^ 
with a northern basin, whose mouth the tSalbah (Thalb^h) we 
passed before reaching Sliarm Dumayghah. His account of it 
([)p. 1121-23) is marvelluurt, but excusable because he derives it 
from the Bedawin. In place ho describes it as a "large 
valley which, continuing in a south-Civsterly direction, descends 
towards the interior of Arabia," in fact iluvviug upwards. 
Secondly he rejKtrts it as "descending in a "lirectiou to Wegh 
(El-Wijh), and in another towards Mediu a," thus half flowing 
one way and half another; pnidently ailding, "not liaving 
visited tlnit part myself, I cannot accurately define its course." 
He also makes it " run along the southern si<ie of the Harrah 
Mountains," which extend nearly a hundred miles to the south ; 
and he depicts "Al-(iuww" (El-Jaww) as an "extensive plain 
of satid like the Hisma" (true), but also "the southern and 
almost only inhabitable part of the Harrah " — confusing a 
sandy with a volcanic tract. Afterwards ho determines the 
AVady el-Kuru, concerning which Arab geographei's give such 
discrepant acconuts, to be a valley " whose mouth is at Ei-Wijh 
and its head at El-Hijr;" and such garbled description can 
apply only to tlic Wady el-Hamz. 

This niaio approach to the Arabian intf-rior is not a fissure, 
like tbe vulgar wady, but rather a broad campo opening to the 
north-east, where the maritime chain breaks to tlie north and 
soutli of it. Distant one long or two short marches from El- 

* For fi u&dly superficial accouot of the latter eee Lane's * Modem Egyptians,* 
III. chnp. xxL 

t Ikaitlua oiur Wady NejJ. DiiickliBicIt (p. 418, ' Travels in Syria,' 4-c.) describes 
a nortliern feature of tbe sftnic name near Shobak. Tlie term is common enough 
in Axftbiiv, Uiinuing tlie " wutcrcoursf tUat drains the Ntjd or uplands." 


Wijh, its mouth is in N. Int. 25° 55', mid it is said to head 
fifteen days inknd, in fju.-t In-yuud El-^IediJiah, from which it 
curves with a south-westeiiy beml. It receives a multitude of 
important secondary valleys. Amongst them is the Wady el- 
'Uwaynid, universally so pronounced, I cannot help thinking 
that this is El-'Atiufd of El-'JIukaddasi, which El-Idrisf (er- 
roneously ?) throws into the sea opposite Nu'inan Island. If 
ray conjecture prove true, we then have a reason why this im- 
portant lino has been inexplicably neglected. •' El-'Uwaynid " 
13 not an un(;ommon name in this part of Arabia. Wallin 
(p. 311) describes a "Wadi 'Uwoinid" which deboudies upon 
th',^ Hisma plain: here he found sundry inscriptions (see my 

Vol. I. p. 210). Another branch is the Wady el-Is (, ,..^), 

Sprenger's " Al-'Y? " (pp. 28-20), which he calls "a valley in 
the Juhaynah couutry," and makes the northern bouudaiy of 
that tribe. The wttrd is written with a " Sin " and not with a 

'SSad " ( .!•. ). and pronounced like "Greece" without the 

Gr. Klingt fiir den Freniden Ayz, says Sprenger (p. 154), 
speaking to the German stranger. He mentions two others of 
the same name, one in the yambii' country, not far from the 
lied Sea, and connected by history with t!ie Apostle of Allah ; 
and the second (No. 3) in the Lands of the Sulaym above 

Ethnologically considered, the lower Wady Hamz is now the 
Bouthem bnundary of the Balawiyyah (Baliyy t'ountry), and the 
northern limit of the Jabaniyyah or Juhaynah-land, the latter 
popularly doscribeil as stretching rlown const to Wady Burmah, 
one march beyond Yambii' (V). Higher up it belongs to the 
"Alaydan-'Aiiezahs under Shaykh MutUik — these were the 
Be<ltt\vin who, duriug our stay at the port, brought their 
caravHD to El-Wijh. Jioth tribes are uusale, and they will wax 
worse as they go south. Yet there is no difficulty in travelling 
up the Hamz, at least for those who c:m aftord money and 
time to engage the escort of Shaykh Muthik. A deluy of 
twelve days to a fortnight would be necessary, and common 
prudence would suggest the normal precaution of detaining one 
of his Alaydiuis as hostage in the seaboard settlement, Wallin 
docs not mention this clan ; be writes only the Wuld Sulaymau ; 
the lii.shr and the Wuld 'Ali; who, with their chief sept, the 
Beni \\'ahab, occupy the country between Ilijr, Tabiik, 'I'aymd 
and Khayltar. ^Vater is to h*^ found almost the whole way,* 

and the usual provisions ai'e to be bought at certain places. 


* From '11a to Taymiii, meaning a M^litude or deaert, 2J days in a north- 
etistcrly diicctton, there is said to be no water, except in rain-pools mid cistema. 


140 BunTOH'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Alidian, 

The following notes iipou the ruins of the Wady Hamz were 
supplied to me by the lialiyy Bedawin, and the citizens of El- 
W'ijlj. Six stages up the "luwer valley, whose direction lies 

nearly north-oast, lead to El-'rid(N\^),WalIin'8 "Ela," Niebuhr's 

'Ola, and Burckhardt's El 011a. TLe place, which belongs to the 
'i\_uezahs, is described as resenabling Tabiik on a small scale, 
many of the pouplo being mulattos wlio trade with El-Wijh, 
El-]iledinah, and Yaiiibu'. According to Ahmed el-lHmishkf 
(Akhhar eI-J)unal, the "Notices of Kingdoms,"* finished in 
A.H. 1U08 = A.D. l.'JJijl), it is a village im the Syrian pilgrim- 
road, five days' march from El-3Iedinah, and situate in a wady 
possessing date-plantations, and a spring of running water. 
Now, however, the highway runs about (i hours ( = 18 miles) 
to the north-east of tlie settlement. Bnrckhardt {loc. cit.^ 
Appendix iii. p. IJ(JO) notices only " its rivulet and agreeable 
gardens of fruit-trees," 

From El-'Ilil a short day to the north, with easting, places 
the traveller at E[-IIijr on Madaiu (not Madyan nor Mediuat) 
tSalih, the fourth pilgrim-station from Tabiik. The site of tho 
city is described to be somewhat oft' tin? main valley, which is 
heio broken by a"Nnkb " (?); and those who have visited kith, 
4loeliire that it exactly resembles Nnbatha?un Magli^ir i^hu'ayb 
in I'Stcnsive ruins and catacombs covering tlie hill-sides. The 
naine Madaiu (** cities") is a plural of Midyan, more commonly 
Muilmali- not a dual as some travellers make it; and it re- 
miuds us of the title given by Mesopotamiau Arabs to the twin 
settlements Madiiin el-Kisra (the cities of Chosroes), Seleucia 
and Ctesipbon on Ti;j;ris' banks. 

Ali^o called El-Hijr, this city is made by Spreuger (p. 20) the 
cupiliil of "i'hanuulitis. The latter province was the head- 
quarters of the giant race called the '* Sous of Anak " (Joshua 
xi. 21); the Thamudeid and Thamud/e of Agarthfirkidea and 
Dioilorus; the Tamudiei of Pliny; the Tbamydita; of I'tolemy, 
and the Arabian Tamiid (Than>iid) who, extinct before the origin 
of El-Islam, occupied tho seaboard between El-Muvvaylah and 
El-Wijh. Their great centre wa^^, I have shown, the plain 
El-Baila, and they were destroyed by a mysterious and terrible 
vox h-om heaven, the Belh-Kol of the Hebrews, after sinfully 
slaughtering the miraculously-produced camel of E!-Salih,t the 
lughteous Prophet ( Koran, cap. vii.). The exploration of 'SSalih's 

• In the "Note* to Dr. WaUin'« Boute in North Anihia." ' Journol R. G. S.' 
vol. XX. p. H-13, the title is tninslatcd ' Thr History of the C!iatigi?s fif Fortune.' 

t Pfof. Pahner (Joe. cit. p. 5!i)** fancies,' and with cunaidt'inlilu power of fancy, 
that "wo may recognise in tbo tradition '^of the she-cumfl pnxiuivil from tho 
rock) a diatortid nukiuiaccnce of Itio hbtory of tlio Ii«rLioltti:ili law-givc-r Limaclf." 

BurtonV Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian, 141 

cities " will bo valuable if it lead to the collection of inscriptions 
BTifiii'iently numerous tfi fletermine wb^lher the Taraiid wore 
£domites or kin to the Edomites ; also, wliich of the two races 
is the more ancient, the llorites of Idiimsea, or the Horites of 

Between the " Palace" and the sea, tho Wady Hamz is liberally 
supplied with water: the whole vein [Thalweg) subtending the 
left bank would yield to tupping. Tlio well " EI-Kusayr/' jnst 
below the ruin, contained till late years a large quantity: about 
half a mile to the westward is, or rather was, a saltish " Hiifrah " 
surrounded by four sweet pits. Almost all are now dry and 
filled up with fuel. A sharp walk of 45 minutes leads to the 

Bir el-Gurnah (j^ 'iV or "Well of the Comer," in a district 

of the same name lyinp: between the ruin and the shore. It is 
a great gash in the sandy bod ; the taste of the turbid produce 
is distinctly sulphurous ; and my old white mule stedfastly re- 
fused to touch it. The distinct voice of the lied Sea told ua 
that its shores were not more than a mile distant. 

From the well wo struck north-rjast over the Sabkhah, or 
salt maritime plain, white with efliorescence ; grey where dry, 
and chocolate-coloured where damp. Hard on our right was 

the well-wooded Wady el-Ziihayr ( g_ , ^^ ), which flows to the 

sea united with its northern neighbour Wady el-Marrah. To 
the left was a sand-strip profusely ^'rown with the piidv and white 
fiea-lavendor (Skdice), and with clumps of the salsolaceous tree, 
enjoyed by camels : the Arabs call it Shord, or Ishrirah 

(^ . *\); and here, like the African mangrove, it forms 

regular " forests of the sea." We then entered the fine Wady 

Umm Gilifayn ( ^.^y y^ ). which rises from the seaward 

base of the Aba 'l-Marii hills and Idlloeks; and whose mouth 
has a good Marsa (anchorage-place) for native craft. North 
of it, and about 2 miles uiland, rises the Tuwayyil el-Kibrit, 
the third or southern sulphur-hill before alluded to.* The 
Secondary formations and the conglomerates of the adjoining 
cliffs and hills take all shades of colour, marvellous to behold 
wlien the mirage raises to giant heights the coast-banks patched 
with pink, red, mauve, and dark brown. Here, too, are the 
quarries of mottled alabaster which yielded material for the 
" Palace." jVmong the many thorn-trees of the wady we saw 
Bereral small troops of gazelles. 

• Part 111. sect. ii. 

After riding 2 Lours 40 mmutcs ( = 8 miles), we entered a 
safe gor^e, rlniiniujr a dull-looking uupromising block, the hills 
of Aba l-Marii. A\^g at once found in situ cbalcedony-agate 
■which strews the seaboard flat. The veins, varying in thick- 
ness from an inch to several feet, and mostly striking east-west, 
overlie the grey granite and underlie the supcriicial strata of 
schistose gneiss. The latter, comprising the greater jiart of 
these hilts, is striped and banded yellow and dark brown ; and, 
in places, it looks exactly like rotten wood. A small specimen 
of chalcedony in my private collection was examined at Trieste, 
and contained dendritic gold, visible to the naked eye. Un- 
fortunately M. Marie, the engineer, had neglected this most 
important rock ; and onlv a few ounces of it, instead of as 
many tons, were brought back for assay. 

A short and easy ascent led to a little counterslope, the 

Magrah Mujayrah ( ^ ^_ J^ ., ^ ^ Ju<i)> whose whitening sides 

announced quartz. We rode down towards a granitic island 
where the bed months into the broad Wady Hismah ( \^. ,^)i 

a feeder of the Wady 'Argah («it.^ ^)- Here after 3 hours 

10 minutes ( = 10 miles) from the well, Nagi, the guide, who 
thus far liad been very misty in the matter of direction, sud- 
denly halted, and pointing to the left bank of the "Magrah," 
exclaimed in his showman style, " Behold Aba 'l-Marii I" (the 
" Father of Quartz"). It was another surprise and our last, this 
snowy reef with jagged crest, at least 500 yards long, forming 
the finest display of an exposed Jilo7i we had yet seen ; but the 
first glance told us that it had been worked. 

• The caravan did not come in till very late : the guides 
having taken the wrong pass down the Wady Mismfxh. My first 
step was to cimucct our site with the Uniui cl-Kurayiit ; and 
at 11. Ho A.M. Lieut*. Amir and Yusuf were despatched on 
dromedaries under charge of 'Abilulluh the mulatto. They rode 
down the Wady Misraab lor a few yards, to the mouths of the 

Wady [Musjiymit " Khuwaysbab ( ^> ^^ ;^ ij;,.^^-**--^) ^^^ ^® 

Wady Musaymit el-'Atd, till they entered the Wady el-'Argah 
ruiming ' nearly north (330^ mag.). On its left bank they 
found a large vein of quartz ; and in a total of 1 hour 30 
minutes '( = 6 miles) they reached the ruins of the Mjini el- 
Khaur el-Kibli. also on the loft side. This dependency of 
TJmm el-Karayat bears nearly due south (340° mag.) from the 

• Otbera prauoonce the word ** Muaaymiyyut ." 

Burton's Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Mid tan. 143 

pit and walls visited by Lieut. Amir on March 30tli ; the in- 
terval between tiie two being about 4 miles. Lying to the 
N.N.w. of our camp, the atelier showed two larger lieaps of 
quartz to the north and tf) the south-etist of the irregular 
triangle of ruins, whose blunted apex faced north. To the 

south-east an irregular Fahr (^•^), or pit, in the Mard« 

leads to a number of Httle tunnels and naileries. 

When the violent dusty wester, a sea-breeze which had nearly 
blown down our big tent, and which made tiie vegetsition look 
dead as chaff and timber, bad somewbat subsided, wc sidlied 
forth to study the quartz-reef. It is the normal v<;m, in grey 
granite, ninning south-north, and falling, in the latter direction, 
to the valley-plain. Here is a email wiiite outlier, where the 
quarrymen were ordered to spring a couple of " lagham " 
(mines) ; but the snowy stone looks barren. Proceeding north- 
wards the vein disappears below tbe surface, rising in Jilds 
upon the farther side of the W. Mismah. 'j'he dip is to the 
east, where a huge strew of ore-mass and rubbish covers the 
slope that serves as baa© to the porpemlicular reef. The Negro- 
quartz, which must have formed half the thickness, had been 
carried bodily away : if anything has been left for [losterity it 
lies below ground. Not the least curious part of this outcrop 
is the black thread of iron silicate which, broken in places, 
subtends it to the east. Some specimens have goodos yiehling 
brown powder, and venous cavities lined with botryoidal quartz 
of amethystine tinge. In other parts of the hills we found, 
running along the (inartz, double as well as single lines of this 
material, which looked uncommonly like clay. 

Continuiug our walk up the " Magrah," we hit upon a 
variety of quartz-veins, showing the same strike as the monster 
below. Returning to camp we ascended the Wady Mismah to 
the east, and inspected the ruins of a large settlement, which 
extended right across the big Fiumara, and up a minor feature 
on the southern or left bank. As the guides seemed to ignore 
its existence, I took the liberty ot naming it " Khariibat Aba 
'l-Marii" ; and next morning the two Lieutenants were left to 
survey it. Some of the niins are on a large scale ; and one 
square measured 20 yards. Here the solo peculiarity was the 
careful mining of a granitic hill on the southern bank. The 
whole vein of negro and white quartz had been cut out on the 
northern, southern, and western flanks, .suggesting the idea 
of catacombs ; farther west another excavation i»f the same 
kind of rock was probably tbe town-quarry. Again, do^Mi the 
watercourse a .clump of smaller remains is reported on the left 


144 Burton** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

Here I would place the Moyoypa (Mdelmura), which Ptolemy 
locates in n. lat. 24^ 30' instead of about N. lat. 20" ; and here, 
assuredly, is the famous miue railed by the medifeval Arab 
geographers, EI-I\Iarwah or Zii 'i-^farwah. P'rom EI-]\Iiikad- 
dasi* (vol. i. p. 101) we learn *' between Yambii' and EI- 
Marwab are mines of gold." He adds in his Itinerary (I. 107) 
tlie followinw' roiite-clirections. "And thou takost from El- 
Badrt to El- Yatnbu 2 Ktai^es ; thenee to the Ras el'-Ayu (?) % 
1 stage : again to the Ma'dan (the Mine, i.e. of Culd) 1 staire : 
and lastly to El-JMarwah 2 stages. And tijou takest from El-Badr 

to El- Jar § I stage, thence to El-Jahfah (jsji^^A.'') ^^ to ^l- 

Yamhii' 2 stages each. And thou takest from El-Jiddah 
(Jeddah) to El-Jar or to El-Siu-rayu (?) 4 stages each. And 
tliou takest from El-Yasrib (Jatiippa, now El-Medinah) to 
Kl-Suwaydiyyah (?) or to Ratn el-Xakhil (?) 2 stages each ; 
and from El-Suwaydiyyah to El-Marwah are equal distance 
{i.e. 4 marches) ; and from the Batu el-Nakhil to the mine of 
silver, a similar distance. And if thou seek the Jiiddat Misr,|| 

then take from El-Marwah to El-SukyaH ( l ,o^ H ; and 

thence to Badii Ya'kiib 3 marches ;** and thence to El- 

'Aum'd (oJjfci:)tt 1 march." Hence Spreuger would place 

'An 1-]\rarwah "four days from El-Hijr on the western road to 
Medina ;" alluding to the western lino from Syria, now disused. 

It ran between the Wady el-Kura ( ^ ^), that is, El-Hijr, alias 

Madain Siilih and El-Medtnah. The modem line of El-Hijr 
runs farther east, about 15 miles from Khaybar. 

We have now seen, lying within short distances, three several 
quartz-fields known as : L Marwah, i.e. the single bit or hill of 
*• Maru " (quartz). 2. Marwdt (in the plural), the places of 
"i^Iaru," and 3. AM 1-Marii the "Father of Jlani^' ; not to 

* Tho passage v,aa copied for mo by my learned friend the Aulio Oouudllor, 
Bitter Alfred von Kretni'x. 

t EI-Badr. meaning the " fnll moon," is a common nRme of Arab si^ttlementa. 
Thftt in the tejtt liea on the western or maritime roftd between Mcccah and Kl- 
Medinah; it is oelebratod for the Apostolic battle which took place tbero in 

A.H. 2. 

X TliG namos marked with interrogutions are unknown to the Arabs whom I 
consulted : they are [irolably obsolete. 

§ Identified by Niebuhr and Wellstctl with certain ruina sontb of Yambif. 
See ' The Land of Midinii (EoTieiteil),' chap. iv. 

II Mianing the straight [mtb, the highway to Egypt or Cairo, via Suez and the 
old railway line. 

% Elaewhtre called Sokyat-Yezfd, a name now forgotten. 

** As has been eaid, tho Patriarch has fallen into oblivion. See part III. Bcct iv. 

ft See part III, sect. i. 


BCBTON** Itineraries of the Second Expedition into 3Iidian. 145 

speak of a Nahh Aim Marwali furtlior north, or of a multitude 
of outcrops locally termed "Jebcd el-Ma rii": "Jeltel el-Abyaz/' 
and so forth. The conolusioa forced itself upon me that the cele» 
brated Arab gold mine, El-B[ar\vah or Zu 1 -Marwali, apj)lied to 
a whole district in Houth Midian ; and then came to denote the 
chief place and centre of work. To judge from the extent 
of the ruins and the signs of labourj this focus was at Umm 
el-Kaniyat, the '' Mother of the Villaj^es," which, as has been 
shown, is surrounded by a multitude of miner-towns and ateliers. 
And the produce of the "diggings" would naturally gravitate 
to El-Bada, the great commercial station upon the Kabathroan 
" overland " and highway. 

Thas El-Marwah would signify the **Hill of Mani" or 
** Quartz-land "; even as Opliir means " Red-land." A re- 
viewer of my first book on Miuiau objects to the latter derivation, 
"as Seetzeu, among others, has conclusively shown that Ophir, 
the tnie translation of wliich is * Riches/ is to bo loolced for in 
SonthcTn Arabia," I question the "true translation"; and, 
whilst owniog that one of the many Ophirs, or Red-lands, lay 
in the modern Yemen, somewhere between Sheba (Saba) and 
Ilavilah (Khauldn), I see no reason for concluding that this 
was the only Ophir. Had it been a single large emporium ou 
the Red Sea, which collected the produce of Arabia and the 
exports of India and of West Africa, the traditional site could 
hardly have escaped the notice of the enquiring Ai-abian geo- 
graphers- The ruins of the port would have remained, and wo 
should not be compelled theoretically to postulate its existeuee. 

VIL Return to El-Wijh. — We had done our work, "and 
now the bills stretch home." Nothing rctnained but to escape 
as quickly as possible from the ugly Wady Mismah, with its 
violent dusty gale, and its blinding glare, reflected and re- 
verberated by the snowy quartz. The last of our marches 
was on : — 

April 10. — The camelmen, reckless of orders, began to load 
and shp away shortly after midnight ; even the bugler sonnded 
the reveilU of his own accord. M&I. Liieaze and Philipin were 
sent by the round road, via the inland fort, which adiled 1 hour 
30 minutes to thL^ir hibonr ; a guide was directed to accompany 
them, but all shirked the task. Even the mules, now become 
terribly intelligent, seemed to guess that they were going home- 
wards. In fact it was a general sauve qui pent. The caravan 
had been marching only 13 days, and yet it was like a herd of 
asses returning to the stall and stable. ' Setting out at 445 a.m., 
we took the medial lino between the inland route and the 
iSecondaries and the conglomerates of the coast, where I^icut. 
Yusuf had surveyed the route. Descending the Wadya Mismali 



146 Bubton'* Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Alidian. 

and Musayinit, after 1 hour 15 minutes ( = 5 miles), we crossed 
the bead of the Wady el-'Argnh. Lower down this bed, and on the 
north-east side of a hill fueiiiy the valtey, the detachment under 
M. Marie had come upon a rock scrawled over with the normal 
religious formulm in a comparatively modem Arabic character. 
The inscriptions lie at some distance to the left of the shore- 
road and to the right of the pilgrira-lagh way, thus showing that 
minerfi, not passing travellers, have here left their marK. I 
did not think them worth a visit. 

We now traversed the mid-viilleyf, whose upper courses had 
become familiar to us : here the exceedingly broad beds were 
divided by the usual long lines and waves of Nature-metalled 
ground. The line was one mass of quartz in veins and scatters 
proceeding from the hills to the right and left. The principal 

lieighta ore the Jebels Ei-Misayk ( i^<C .. ^ ), " of hard waterless 
ground;" El-Fishaykh ( y * u ) : El-KLardwah GJ^); and 

El-Hashiraah further east. In fact the whole world was 
white as we had seen it at the " Divide of the Ram ;" and it 
surprised not a little those who, haring travelled along the 
coast, never suspected the existence of quartz. Presently on 
our left rose the Hamfrat Htibbdn,* a Mismar (*' nail "), as the 
Arabs call theso detached laioba. According to Lieut. Yusuf^s 
plan it gives birth to the Wadys Habban, Habibayn, Abii 
Markhah, Abii Mardkhah and Abu Ytibit. To the north-east of 
this red hutte are the Jebel and Wady E!-Kurr,'the latter an old 
acquaintance. Then come successively the Wady Uabibayn 

(/.t-ww-*a»)j ^vhich anastomoses with the Wady Abd Markhal^ 

(*!s^ ^) ; the small Abii Yabit \^J^j\j) j and another familiar 

form, the huge Wady El-Miyah, whicb has a brackish well near 
the sea. 

Presently appeared on the left the second of the Hamfrahs, a 
granite mass somewhat resembling those which we had noticed 
m the Wady El-Wijh ; it is distinguished as the " Hamirat el- 

Nabwah" (^^*); we then suddenly began to tread upon the 

Secondary formation of the shore-Hne. After quitting the Wady 

el-Mukhayt Oa^^]^), and leanug eastward the third *'Ha- 

mi'rab," El-Snrrah (^ ^), we entered the great Wady Surrah. 

* WoUsteil (ii. 1D4) speaks of Iho "Shivrni 'AVbdn (for Udbbtin) as a good and 
innd-locktHl oDchorugo for tLroo or ibur vesauls, lying oaat of Murduimh Island. 

BoRTON'a Itineraries of the Second Expedition into Midian. 

This feature is described by the Arabs as draininfj thellainiratayn, 
or "Two Reds" (Nos. 2 and 3). Its proper and direct month 

would be the WadyEl-Ga'h(j^!3 = Kah, /.e. the hall) ; but it 

winds northwards and forms the Mellahah, or Salina. 

Our last stage ended Impjnly. At 10.15 a.m., after riding 
5 hours 30 minutes (= 17 miles), we found ourselves once more 
upon the seaboaixl. Onr kind host, Captain Hasan Bey, com- 
manding the Sinndr, came out to meet us in his gig. The 
quarter-deck was dressed with flaga as for a ball ; and, before 
twelve l>ells had struck, we had applied ourselves to an excellent 
breakfast iu the gunroom of our old lodgings. 

We had left the Sliarm Yiiharr on March 21, and returned to 
it on April 13, a total of 34 days. The actual march through 
South Hiidian, which had lasted 13 days (March 29-ApTil 10), 
described a semicircle with El-Wijh about the middle of the 
chord. The length is represented by 170 miles iu round 
numbers; as usual, this does not include the various offsets and 
the by'paths explored by the merabers ; nor do the voyages to 
El-Wijh and El-Haura, going and coming, figure in the hne of 
route. The number of camels varied from 58 to 64, when 
specimens were forwarded to the harbour town. The expendi- 
ture amounted to 92?. I'Sa., including pay and " backhshish " to 
the Baliyy Shaykhs. 


I shall hurry over our last proceedings in Arabia, which have 
no geogi'apbical interest. We tarried at El-Wiih long enough 
to pay our debts and sliip the men, mules, and the material 
collected on the southern march. The venerable 'Afndn and 
his Baliyy were not difficult to deal with ; and they went their 
way homewards fully contente<l We exchanged a friendly 
adieu, or rather an aw revolr, with our travelling companion 
^Mohammed Shabadah, ex-Wakil of El-Wijh ; and I expressed 
my sincere hopes to find him, at no distant time, Grovernor 
of the restored Quarantine Station. 

On the morning of April 12 we set out early, and passed the 
night in one of the snug bays of Jebel Nu'man. The next day 

E laced ns at Sharm YaLuirr, where the process of general distri- 
ution happily ended. Shuykh Furay] at once set out to rejoin 
liis tribe up the country ; while the Sayyid 'Abd el-Rahim 
gallantly stayed with us till the end. These men had become 
friends ; and our sorrow at parting with them was softened only 
by the ]5rosi)ects of presently seeing them again. 

The Expedition in its urgent desire to return northwards was 
not seconded by weather. Despite an ugly gale, the Sinmr 

L 2 

boldly attempted giving; tlie slip to Arabiii, on April 16 ; but 
she was beaten back before she roacbed El-lluwaylab. ^Vfter 
another stormy day, we nf^am got up steam, and, lighting hard. 
aL'ainst adverse winds and waves, we reached Suez on April 20. 
The followin",' list of stations between El-'xVkabah and El- 
llaura, our fxirthest northern and southern paints, is taken 
from the 'lloute of the Pilgrims from Cairo to Jleccah,' p. 541 
of the Jihan-nnma, or Spentlum Mundi. The author was Haji 
KhuliTah, wliom Joseph Hammer ('Aneient Alphabets,' &c., 
I.omloii, Nicol, ISUlJ) eulls " Chalabizaade Ha<lshi (Hiiji) Khalfa, 
encyelopa'dist and biblio^jrapber." He is also known as Katib 
Chelebi. He died a.h. 10G8 (= a.d. ItJoS) ; Fliigel adds ia 
the month of September.' The chief interest of his itinerary 
is that it describes the modem line laid out by 8ultan Selim. 
The older route lay further east and inland ; passing via the 
Ixoz el-IIannan, Zebayyib (AVady Surr) Tuwayl el-Suk and the 
ruins of Shuwak and Shaghab. 

" Sat'h el-'Akabah (the plain, or the summit of the ascent ), 
i.e. the 'Akabah (ascent) of Allah (Ay lab), where there was 
aiieiently a larc;e town, now in ruins. In a low place near it 
there is a well lined with stone, tiie water of which is sweet, in 
a palm-grove. Ttie Arabs settled there are those of Howeiit^t 
(Hu way tat).'' 

'■The next station oompletes the first quarter of this route.' 
Its water is sweet and plentiful. It (i.e. the road) all passes 
alonpj the sea-shore. On the left* side is Mount Tor, stretching 
out for a space of several miles in extent. In the latter part of 
it there are two descents and narrow gorges (boghaz), in which 
are pits with wells of sweet water. Thence there is au ascent 
to the :— 

" Dhahr himar {" Ass's Back "), a rocky acclivity.'' Thence 

" Jurfeiu (« the two Gullies ")} Thence to :— 

" Sherfclii Beni 'Atiyeb (" the Turret or Watch-tower of the 
Children of 'Atiyeb"), where there is much wood.' Thence 

* The tranBlatioii ia taken from Lieut. WtUsted (toI. ii., Appendix). The few 
notes with numerals are my own. 

* Tiie " plain " uiludeB to the head of iLu pass ; wliereoa th© ruined town is at 
the luoutb of tbo valley bul<;w. Thv "luw ploco" i^s the site of the present 
Bfitlemcnt. Pee ' Tbo Laud of Midian (Ruviaited),' eLa[i. vii. 

* I.e., from Cairo to Meccali. 

* That is, going from Mecwh to Cairo. 

' So colled firom a rise in the eoath. Tho modern station id £l-ilagal (Hakl). 
tl»e Ancale of Ptnlpmy. Sec chap. viit. loc. cit. 

* " Rather the " two Iiigh uullfth-bunka ; " tho place ia generally called Umm 

' '* Shamf Bcni 'Atiyynb," Ibat ia the bigb-placo of the tribe now called tbo 


Burton's Itineraries of the Secoiul Expedition into Midian. 149 

•* Maililt (" the salt Slonf»h "), between two moiiQtains. Here 
is the pcrmanont nliodr^ fit' the Beni Ldni," Theiife to : — 

" Magliiirehi Sho'tiib (the Ciivo of Sho'aib, fiither-iii-law of 
Moses). There is sweet water ia its pits, a palm-grove, and 
many ethl (tamarisk) and mnkl (or iliira) " trees like those that 
frtow near the river Nilo.^'' There are here also inscribed tablets 
(alwiih = rock-fares) on which the names of ancient kings are 
engraven. Theiiee to: — 

" Kabr-el-tawdshi (" the Eunuch's Grave ")." Thence to : — 

" 'Uyuu Kasab ('' Keed Springs ''). It is a watery, rushy, and 
excessively hot valley (waJi). In summer-time many persons 
die there sndiJenly.^^ The grave of the chjhlren of Abraham, 
near the sea there, is a place of pilgrimage (ziyareh). Thenco 

"Sherra ("a Creek ") near the sea ; on the left of it there is 
a mountaifi cullerl Ishiireh (" the Mark ").'^ Thence to : — 

" Slowilahh, on the seashore : there is water, but it is ran- 
cid.'* Thence to : — 

*' Dar Kait-Bi'd (Kait Bai's House), so named from that 
sultan having stopped there wlien jieribrming the pilgrimage ; 
before tliat they used to stop at Bsitn Kibrit (" Sulphur Belly ").^'^ 
a narrow, stony place. Thence to : — 

Beni Ma'iizah. The site is impiilarly knowra hs El-Bharaf. Caravans bait ut 
El-Kijm, the " Heap of Btonc^," iibuiit I hour 30 niiniitea to the aoiith, mid timl 
water The 'liatatice to Magbiiir Shu'ayh ia thti iiormul ntngo of 12 alow hours. 

* The iiume " Mnlliif is unknown, ftntl tin; Ftt-ni Liim of Miilinn snrvivu only 
uil» pruTt-rb Kati'ftt Iteoi' Liiiu (the " Cutting off of Iho Ueui Liim "), said wIimi ii 
thing id dean pone. 'I'he trik-, however, in still great and iwfferful in Jltaopo- 
tutnia between Bagluhkl untl the Pereina Gulf. 

• Cfucifera Thehaica, or bifurcAte piilm, the Palnia Thebaiea of the ancienfa. 

'• Alaghiiir is u plural, " caves" (cntacomba). " Mukl " («'-''. bdellium- tree) ia 
a wonj unknown to the modern Midiuuites, who eat iho fruit (Wajjul = Wajnl) of 
ll>e Pulmn or Cruciffra Thebaicji. Thia fan-palm, when young and busby, is cnllod 

Satir ( ,fc<«?)- Id I'll*; Soudan it is one of the inobt neeful of gfrowths, and aupjilic* 

everything from tnudals to diiiiking-cups. 

" The Eunuch's ^rave ia still eeon ut the head of the Zib& Core. Bee chap. xif. 
of the ' Land of Midian (Ktvinitod).* 

'- This deacriptioii of 'Ayniinah m not borno ont by the ocwmnts of the Bodawin, 
who Ixitli its water and its air. Tlio viHitatiuii-pWo tn<<ntion(.>d in the text 
ifi wholly forgotten, and tho nojirest s[K3t held holy by thy Araba ia the Goz el- 
IIiinniLiii ( the " Moaning Sandhcuj) ") onst of Sharmi. Sec chap. ii. hic- cit. Either 
oiiti or b«jth of them may Iiqvo inlitritcd the honours of the aneiout pilgiinaage to 
the '' G«d» of the Grovo " (* The Gold Mines of Midian,' p. IH2). 

" The Wady and its ruins are called Sharmri, an Arabic word showins; that 
the claMiical name ia forgutttu. TJie '^ Aloniitaiti I.^hurah " ia the modern Hhtirr. 
tfee chup. xiil. 

" Ilciid " unwholesome," fever-breeding. 

" The meniory of the Circjuiaiun Maiuliik Fuldan, El-A.4iraf Abii'l-Niisr KiLi'd 
Bey td-Ziihiri, wlio, ufter a successful cnuiimign the Tujks, made ptaco 
with them in a.u. H'JO-91, is now forgotten. The "Sul]iliur-belly," which sliouhl 
be rendertti "hollow ln-lov* the sulphur-cone," is our "Sulphur-hill " (Tuwtivyil 
cl-Kibnt), ut the head of the Jibbuh Creek, whtro the earavaa uuw encumjjs. 



Expedition into 

'< Kabr Sheikh el-Kefafi. Sheikh el-KefaS having been killed 
by a 8|)ear, was buried there, and his grave i;j a place of pilgrim- 
age. '° Thence to : — 

" Azlam (a very smooth Arrow). The second quarter [of the 
whole distance] a salt, marshy place^ without any herbage, and 
having water which is stilt. Jii the midst of these mountains 
there is a desert plain (Sahra). Mecca senna is found here.^^ 
Thence to : — 

" Siraak (Sumach), also called Eakhanin ;^* it is a valley (wadi) 
in which there are many thoros. After passing it is : — 

"Istabl 'Antar (Antar's Stable), an open plain umtmg the 
inountaJua, where Arak [Salnadora Persiea] is found, and on 
the borders of it there is 8wcet water,^^ Thence to : — 

'• Shereubeh (the thick-pawed Lion),'" a mouutam cape. 
Thence to : — 

" Wejh (the Fact?) a valley (wadi), in which there are wells 
of sweet water. They were reae\ved by Ibrahim rashd, in the 
year 1)30 (a.d. 1524), and ai'o supplied by rain and torrents.^* 
Thence to: — 

'* Bir-el-Kurawi (" Villagers' Well). Thence to :— 

"Harireh ('milk Porridge '). Tlience to : — 

" Haurd (' the black-eyed Girl ')," where there is water, but 
it is bitter." 

" Soe chap. lii. ' Midian (EeviMiteiij.' Tho tomb still axisU between Wady 
Kifrtfuli (NortJi) tiriil W. Helinii (South). 

" From Zibii (Eunucli's Tomb) tlie firBt mnrch is to the Wady Azlam, where a 
ruinol fort aad two weila of bniokiali wnkT aro found. See chap. xiv. 

>* I^Iity bo the Wady Duklito, or Abii Dukh^, wbidi ooutuins ruinn. Bee 
ohnp. xiv. 

" The sccouil rampinp-plaee' from Zilri. Tl»it> " wady " dmiita the little Jcbel 
'Antur, a ruiigc rising north of tlio gri-rit Jcbcl Libiii (or Libit), and it is toippoeed 
to be tlic «ile uf the aucii'ut Khauiiuthoe. Far the errurs uf the Admiralty Chart 
BOO chAi>. xir. 

»" Humnynit el-Bhununijah (the " Rwl Ilills uf Shurumbdh ") is tlio iiflmc of 
certaiu wuterk'«8 hillocks sooth of El-Wijb| here called Wejh. 

*• Bee oliap. xvi. 

** I cannot uiidtrafand why Prof. Pulmcr (' Do^^rt of the Exrxlus,' p. 319) eaya 
that ** Kl-lhiuni " in tliu Negoh had " sdme euch priuiiiry si{fiiilk"iitiou aa City of 
Ct*tertn>. Tlie word, whioh ia tho feiuinino of Ahwar, siiiiply tnoatu " Pikgos 
Albu.i." Whilhy. Tho Wady el-'Ayn, ia which the caravan camps, flupplies 
exooUcut water. 

Note. — The map which aoooinpanieR this paper hoa been reduced from the 
origianl drnwiug exeeuted by the oflicers of tlio Egyptian Gcneml Stuff cnguged 
In tho Survoy of tlie cjuntry ; hut it will \w nntici'd that it diflVrs very ranterially 
in Bcvcrul ]dacca from Captain liiirton's Dnrralivc, besidcH l<«ing detlcicut iu 
marking many prominent Caatuiea which he deacribea. — W. J. T. 

Pakt I. — Lisaa. 

Issk of the classical, Lissa of our modern day, to the hia- 

torian. perhaps, the most iniportiint, wliilo phyfiiojilly one of the 
smallest, itud the westernmost, that is the furthest from land, 
of all the main features formiug the Dalmatiati Archipelago, 
had again and again tantalised me with a distant view. From 
south as well as from north I had sighted the tall *' Monte 
Hum" projecting two tongues ejistward and westward; the 
former long, the latter short, and both outlined in regidar series 
of gentle ('unvexe.s and concaves, domes and breaks, with the 
last and lowest sinking below the blue Dalmatian Sea. 

Three years, iiowever, passed before September 1876 af- 
fordal me tiie opportunity of inspecting the new Vice-Con- 
sulate, and the graveyard of our gallant countrymen who fell 
iu the naval action of 1811. Jly excellent friend M. Alber, 
Kitter von Ghinstiitten, President uf the Maritime Government 
at Trieste, an ofjii-ial whose name will ever be remembered on 
the Istrian and Dalmatian shores, was sendiug the I. 1{. S. S. 
La Pelagosa (Captains Liisina and Zudenigo) with a "Col- 
laudo " or coiumissiou to audit the accounts of a uew light- 
house; and, as visits to isolated ronks liave tlieir dithculties in 
these seas, 1 felt grateful for bis permissi<.>n to Ibrm one of 
the party. It consisted of the Councillor Klose ; Cuv. Pietro 
Accerboai, I. R. Inspector of Lighthouses on the Austrian 
Littoral, and Hcrr Oheringenieur Richard Hani.sch, the Govern- 
ment Engineer of the works : with the contractors M. Antonio 
Topich and Itis eldest sou JI. Serafino. The " iScietititic Com- 
mission " was composed of Dr. Carlo de Marchesetti, Custos 
of the Civic Museum, Trieste; and Sig. Michele iStossich, a 
student of Natural History, son of the respected Professor of 
Botany at the Scuole Reali iu the capital of the "Coast- 

On Sept. 22, shortly after midday, when every item of 
nature looked its best and brightest, from the clear green of 
the shal.jW watem to the deep blue of the sky, we ran past 
the two sun-bleached rock-lumpSi known as the "Manzetti" 
(bull-calves), and presently found ourselves in the uiagniticent 
Porto di San Giorgio di Lissji. where an Englishinun still feels 
at home, and where English feeling is wanner than in many 
of our colonies. The liarbuur is one of the U^st in the region 
of admirable " Zutluchthafens," landlocked and free from rocks 
and shoals; easy of access, and extending about one mile deep 
by half that average breadth. 



BuBTON*s Visit to Lissa and Pelagosa. 

Ou tlie seftward brow of the nnrtli-western ridge that bcauds 
the bay, rises Fort Bcnting* (Bentinck), an artless round 
1 tower, lately repaired and resembling its neighbour. Fort 
Robertson; both remind us of the engineer's maxim, "small 
work, bad work." The latter leada down to the larger square 
del'eiice, called by the people Forte di S. Giorgio, and by us 
Fort York ; it now serves as a Ciiatello d'acqua (water reservoir) ; 
and it can cross fire witli Fort Smith upon the other side of 
the harbour-mouth. The Forto veramente teatrale (t'ortis) is 
defended to the n.n.w. by a natural breakwater, the Sooglio 
"Oste" or "(Jsti," in which we recognise (Commodore Sir 
"William) "Boste IsIaLni;"t tho bare and glaring Lit of lime- 
stone has chauged its two old Intteries and its ruined barracks 
for a trim, new green-capped lighthouse4 Complete defence 
against the sea is secured by a i-onky prong projecting from 
the eastern jaw of tJie harbour. Here Fort Schmidt (Smith), 
backed by Fort Wellington on the ridge-to]i, the most elevated 
of the three martcllo- towers built by the English, crosses fire 
with Yoti York, and witli two more modem batteries, tiw 
Seppurinas (Znparinivs), upper and lower ; the former generally 
known as La Munula, after a former Governor-Genend of the 
Dalmatian Kingdum. Lis^^a, condemned by the Eeichs Befesti- 
mings Commission of 1870, was formerly defended by alHiut a 
hundred guns ; all were removed in 1873, and the works aro 
made over to a ftnv care-takers. 

It ia almost incredible that this western ''Cavalier" of the 
bastion of Central Dalmatia between the Rivers Kerka and 
Narenta; this natnrnl fortress, distant only 150 direct geo- 
graphical miles from Poht, and 130 from Cattaro, communding 
the weiiteru terminus of the 3Ioatar-Serajewo-Nisch-Adrianople- 
Stambul Line, the inner navigation-canals of the kingdom; 
and, itklocd, ihu middle section of tliu AdrJatie Gulf should 
thus be abaudoned. Despite the exiimple of the English, who, 
in" 1810, thoroughly appreciated its value, the opinion of 
Tegetthoff hns })revatlet]. The " Austrian Nelson " held that 
the isolated work must fall unless jtrotected by a fleet, and, 
therefore, that the latter deserved all his care. tJnder present 
circunislanees the peril of inviting hostile occupation is recog- 
nised, and Austria j^roiJOses to convert Lissa into a fortress of 
tlie second rank, with a circidar tramway ; platforms for guns 

• T quote from thf latetst Austrian lijrdrojjmpliic jUBp, 'Kiitrti'iilund, Liaso, 
No. 19, tlw HclniiraMo work of my friend the Fregatteu Kuiiiliiii, T. Oeaterreioher, 
AufudhmB-Direftor im Johr. 1869. 

t Ttjnru is imotlier " Hnstn Island "' near the Tierra del Fuego. 

% Not tu be confourrded witli tlie outer lightkousu, irliich we sball pass on oui 
way to Polagosa Island. 

Burton's Visit to Lissa and Pelagosa. 



and mortars at the cnicial jwints, and a cistern at each front. 
The whole would be supported by a coast-guard of 7 or 8 
monitors stationed in Port kS. Giorgio ; and in these days torpe- 
do8 will not be forgotten.* 

As we steam onwartis we leave to starboard the " Porto 
Inglese," covered by its own batteries, and marked by a small 
white-washed coal depot. The south-wast end of the port 
known as the " .Sttiuza " {8tatio„ i. e. vavalis) forms a " Rlon- 
dracchio," dock or inner Imrbour, protected by a sjiit jutting from 
the western jaw, the Point of J^. Girolamo. And hero we anchor 
ofi* Lis!?a, the city whose age has not yet reached the fourth 
century. It is a long narrow lino occupying a ledge faced by the 
atill waters, and backed by hills rising some 300 to 700 feet; 
the latter are here fawn-grey with stone-heaps collected to 
clear the ground; there dark with the scrub of myrtle, janij^er 
and terebinth ; aud everywhere dotted with patches of the 
carob {CeratontK siliqua), whose deep metallic green is lit up 
at this season by points of burning red.t The place, like all 
the picturesque island-settlements of its date, wears a distinctly 
Venetian aspect ; we see the ex-Queen of the 8ea in its many- 
gabled houses of stone and litiic, capped with rusty tiled rools; 
its small barretl windows and its huge balc<:tnies supported by 
proportionate corbels : a few of the J'ufades are tinted red, but 
the blues and yellows of the Dalmatian mainland ajipear not 
to be in vogue. 

Lissa city falls distinctly into three parts. The easternmost 
is the Kut, angle or corner,| which some derive from an English 
name — Coutts. It o<jntaius the Palazzo of (he old Venetian 
Counts Gariboldi, and the lodgings of the English governor 
are still shown: here too is the solid steeple oi' 8, L'ipriano, 
which, from a lishermau's cliapel built in the thirteenth or 
fourteenth century, became the point of attraction for the new 
settlement. '\\\f; Cuukovica gorge, descending from the Alti- 
piano, or plateau of the islana, and crossed by a solid single- 
arched causeway (P^t od Cuukovica), separates the Kut suburb 
from the main body, whicli bears the name of Laha, or the 
Bay. The latter hegins with the Batteria Madonna, so called 
from the parocbial church whose skeleton belfry suggests peril 

Two excellent jiapera by Colonel M- 

-, on tho ' StmtegUclio Bcdeutung 
von LIkbo,' appeaivHl in the ' FeuiUetoti of the Trieater Z«ituug,' Dtccuilii'T 5-6, 

t The Algorrobo, or Joliaiininbrod, fui the Germiin tiieori«t boldly calls it, ia 
about to ba planted in ludiii, where, ii' it flouriiih oa iu Syria, it will bu a Yaluublu 

X Compare the Sonsk. ^7, to moke rtookcd. 

of earthquakes : this open work, together with the Wellington 
Martello,* did considerable damage to the Italian ironmds, 
Formidable, San Martino and Cuateljidardo, armed with 300- 
pounders, and compelled them (u retire. The Madonna is now 
fronted by a shady Marine Promenade; the normal yellow 
yanita (liculth-ollice), bearing the brilliant Austro-Hnngarian 
flag, laces the dwarf Mole j and the neat Marina or fjuay of 
cut stone is broken witli hmding-steps, and garnished with 
cannon to make fast hawsers; the guns of Dubonrdieu'e ship 
La Favoriie having thus been utilised. This broad and open 
esplanade, the glory of Dalmatian towns, forms a cnrious 
contrast with the single longitudinal alley-street and the cross 
lanes which certainly were not built to accommodate the coach 
and four. The Liika ends at its Castello, a sturdy three- 
storied square tower with two angle-turrets or 8eutry-lx>xes 
projecting froin the battleniented parapet: once useful to keep 
Saracen and Turkish niratt a at bay, it is separated hv a wide, 
clear space frum tliu Mala Buuda (Bauda Piccola). 'l\m west- 
end occupies the buttom of t lie bay: its main features are the 
Chapel of Santo Spirit), the old Government House now 
occupied by iti* owner ; tlie furogrouiul of boats in the caiilkers' 
hands, and the backgrnuud of tenements creeping up the 
Bandarica hill. Ijeyond the western suburb begins the ajiti- 
quariun interest of the bay; the Gradiua, or old town (Issa), 
which we sludl presently inspect. The island of Lissa, the 
Via of the Slavs,! is so rarely mentioned in later works of 
English travel that, before proceeding to its antiquities, I aak 
leave for a few lines upon its tojtography and its annals. - It is 
the westernmost of the great gi'oiip wliich. disposed almost 
upon a parallel, cuds the Dahnathin xVrchipehigo to liie situth; 
tlie latitude of the a]K'X is ^. 4'.f V 4:3" ; its long. E. (Gr.) 
IG' U' 54"; it lits 12 direct geographical miles to tlie south- 
west of Lesina, city and island ; otj from the Dalmatian con- 
tinent, and do from Monte Gargano- The leugtli from east to 
west is miles; the muximum breadth 4, and the circum- 
ference about 2'3. The disttibiuinji is into the " Cemcinde *' 
,(^Communes) Lissa or Vis, and Comisa or Koniiza, uhnse head- 
quarters are united by a good roud, easily covered in 2 hours. 
The former contains ii540 souls, of whom 31)13 occupy the 
town ;X and the whole island is rated at 8000 : there is a single 

• Armed ■willi three (:0-|x>utidt'rs aiifl onn SO-ponndcr mortar. 

t VU would menti a hi.-i>^lit or a ui>>iiiit:iin-top: it ia aaotLor iuatiuico of the 
corioii» fni-itity witli wiiiclx the Slavs corrupt clasBiciil tt-rms, retaining tba 
general form of the origixiul and uddin;: h lucuning of their own. 

J The pt'i.plc, always npt to cxaggcrftte in these inntt^rs, pn-fer 4500 for the 
capital. I liorriiw my fif;urcii from tlio ' AllcrhochBto KuisiirreUf ' Ac, Vieunot 
1875, by ii)y IcajTved friend. Dr. (.rrofegaor) Franz Coglicviua of Chprso. 

Burton'* Visit to Lissa and Fdagosa. 

Volkschule (Scnola Provinciale) and a Kuiatstatiou (Carate- 
Station) at Lissa city. 

The shape of tlie island is a long parallelogram witli two 
breaksj the Porto di S. Giorgio on the eastern short side, and 
the Vallone di Comi'sa, contained between two long prongs 
stretching duo west and south-west (mag,) The outcp walls are 
stony ridges rising ironi 470 to BIO feet above sea-level and 
declining qnaquaversally to the lertile plateau which, averaging 
400 feet high, forms the body of the i&land ; the valleys are 
rich, but the uphiuds in geneml want water. The necessary is 
poorly supplied by a cistern ; the single spring near Comisa is 
reported to be brackish. The apex is " Monte Hum,* a bald 
and flattened cone, numbering 1868 (Austrian) feet, on the 
soullx-west of the itihmd. 

The history of Lissa has hardly been treated as it deserves. 
About the middle of the last century a litorato belonginf; to 
the now extinct house of Caramaueo (Slavice Karamanovieh) 
made extensive studies. He fell into bad odour for jiroving, 
in a learned dissertation, that the relics of Saint Domnius at 
Spalato have no just title to honour; and his manuscripts are 
DOW, I am told, scattered amongst the descendants of his tellow- 
citizens. In 1772 the Abatts Fortist seems to have found the 
Weather too liot fur studying the Yestiijj )niserahili, whilst he 
notices at Zara (I, i. § 5, p. 17) three Greek tables from the 
island, apj>areutly part of a Fesphisraa, Avith fragments of 
the senators' subscriptions. Notes have also been published 
by Major Cataliutch, of Zara, in his ' Storiii della Dalmazia,' 
and by Professor Weber; but I was unable to lind their works. 
The readiest source of information is the * Munuale del Regno 
di Dalmazia,' annually published, since 1871, by tSigiior Luigi 
Maschek4 Councillor tu tlie Luogotenenza of Zara. He borrows 
lar«^ely from the ' Prusfietto Chroiiologico della Storia della 
Dalmazia,' and Irom vol. i. of the ' Memoria sulla Dalniuzia,' 
by the Aw. V, Lugo. His historical and ebitisticul thitails 
concerning the coast and the archipelago will be valued and 
acknowledged whi.^n the increased visits of strangers from the 
North shall call for a * Handbook of Dalmatia.' Finally, I am 

* "Mouto Hum" and our "Mouat Hum" are pleonasms. "Uuiu," literally 
a Lillock, ftiul utidcrstooil as Sommila, is a geiierio nnmo with (.ho Mlyriaii 
Blavs, tm Monto Magm'ioro witli the Italinua. Thus, llicro is a ''Hum*' in f^iib- 
vioneillo, Let>iniL, Lagustu, Braz/a, Muiiteiie^Tti, uiid other udjoiuiiig |jl*e< 8 Tho 
mlgnr somttimca pronounco tho word like " (ihiini," with thu Arahic "Ghayu." 

t 1 have uotic*d his uu-ritorious labuura (Viaggio in Daliiiazin) in my jmjitT 
on the ' Long Wall of Salona,' 4c^ Aiitiiiop. lu^t., 1875. Ho vroa translated 
into English and printed by J. RobBon, MDCCLXXVII., in a folio of 584 pagea; 
with the map and illuutrtitiouaof tho original, ami like it, witliout an index. Tho 
pagca ia the test refer to the Venotian folio of 3IL1CCLXXIV. 

X In my paper on * Baloiia ' (£>. 2Tli), tho Damo wa/i iaiii[>riuted M(t»cheU. 


assured that the Abate D. Apollonio Zanello, of Bergamascan 
family, now of Lissis, a good Latin and Greek scholar, aud a 
diligent student, wlioso fortuuo allows him to exchange paro- 
cLial for literary labour, is preparing an exhaustive history of 
the classical island. 

The glorious harbour of refuge, the amenity of the cliniate, 
and the fertility of the soil, nmst have attracted immigrants to 
Lissa before the dawu of history. Signor Lugo shows that a 
colony of Pelasgi, or Archaic Greeks, I'rom iEgeim Issa, or 
Isse * (Lesbos), lirst occupied and named the island in memory 
of their old homes. Presently uniting with the Liburnians, the 
most posverful tribe of the "northern mainland, f anil associating 
with the Etruscans of Adria, they called that part of the 
Adriatic the Libumian Sea. Its autouomy was subverted by 
the Tyrants of Syracuse. About U.c, 402 Diooysius the Elder 
occupied it by a colony, and gave it a place in authentic 
history. Between b.c, 384 and 380 these newcomeVs threw off 
the yoke of the old country ; and. aided by tlie Issan", defeated 
the lllyrians, especially the Arditei, whom Strabo § (vii. 5) calls 
Vardan, aud Ptolemy (ii. 10, § 8) OvapBatoi; and sliortly after- 
wards they founded Epetium {hod. Stobrez), Tragurium (Trau), 
and Lissus (Alessio), on the mainlnnd. Uuring the First 
Punic Wiir Duillius gained his naval victory with the assistance 
of the Liburnhms and of the " Lembi Issaici," manned by a 
brave and hardy race of seamen, by no means extinct. In 
B.C. 240 Agron, son of Pleuratus, king of the Illyrians, and his 
allies the Liburnians, successfully opposed the Is^a-i of Tragu- 
rium and Ejietiiim, who attempted to annex the bro4\d lands 
boundctl by the Titius Kiver {hod. Kerka) to the north, and by 
the Tihinis (Cettina, or Rivt-r of Almissa) to the soutli. He 
was, however, unable to subjugate the island which the Pomans, 
after conqueiiirg Sicily, in token of gratitude, had taken under 
their protection (B.C. 242). 

In B.C. 22!) Issa was blockaded by the fleet of Teuta, widow 
of Agron, whn governed in the name of her stepson, Piunes, 
a minor; and, ten years afterwards, it was occupied by Ueme- 

* Stmbo, j. 3. LobIxjs aflerAK^arda tonic the n&ma of Mitylftio from its chief 
city, iind retains the word in b comipted form. Tlie oldest name tliUB appears in 
Lycopliroa (CufBaadrn, 219-20) : — 

'itTirtf fvTtvacu tucfitiir woBTD'i'Djy. 
Thus rendered by Job. S<?aliger : — 

Atqne utinaui in Isaa te (Prylin) Camillns ineulii 
Nun pnxTeassfct, hostinin nojtrutn clucem. 
Bee vol, iii. p. 1129. Miiller, Lipsiw. MDCCCXL 

t Iviburnia I'Cj^an i^t the Arwia; flurneu (hod. Arsa) of Istria, Qud ended wi 
the Rivtr Tiliiis, now tins Kerka of Sctn-nifo. 

trins, Tyrant of Pharos, acting in the name of the Dlyrian 
queen.* When the latter, beaten by the Great Eepublie, 
became a suitor for peace (n.c. 2}d), the Issaji wore freed from 
paying tribute to her. They again assisted Itomo in her 
struggle witik Philip of Macedon, son of Uometrius (n.c. 200- 
197); and, as her friends and allies they retained their auto- 
nomy, despite the efforts of Gentius, the last king of lllyris,t 
who, in B.C. 167, after a month's war, surrendered himself to 
the all-absiirbing llepublic., the city, was an important 
place in the days of Csesar, and at that time, as now, the i.sland 
had two principal settlements; one bearing its name, and the 
other called "Meo," wliieh is probably rejvresented by the 
modern Comisa. Finally, in a.d. 42, M. Furius Camilhis 
Scribonianus, proclaimed Imperator by the Dalmatians in 
opposition to Oiaiidius, but disowned by the legionaries whom 
he commanded, took refnge in Issii, where he was killed hy the 
soldier Vohiginins, in the arma of Claudia his wife.J For 
many a generatiou after that event Issa almost disappears 
froni history. 

This active alh'ance with the Romans, and perhaps her 
excellent growths of wine, recommended Issa to the notice of 
the classical poets and geographers. Scylax Caryandensis 
(filth century u.C.) mentions "lo-o-o i/f/o-o? koI TroA-ft? *EXXe- 
vlBc^ avrai. after <t>dpo<; (cap. x.xiii.). ApoUonius Rhodius 
(^ Af>yovavTiKa}if A, ;'>G3-5) writes : — 

Tiis 8' diTfkfinov oaai RA;^oiit( irapoi6tv 
'K^fiTjt 7r\r)0otrra M0v(ivi&is tlv dXi i^coi 
Icrtrii rr AvarKfXaios^ re cat Ififprfj Dtriyfia. 

* The four prinoijMil epoolis of Isaan and Liaaan hiatorj, aro — 
Ist. The blotkaJu by Quteu Teuta (b,c. ^29). 
2mi. Tbc occapation by Di;inetrius of Pharoa (B.a 219). 
3rd. The oocufmtioa by Englaad after Uie cxpulaioQ of tho French (a.d. 

4th. The attack of tho ItalinD fleet, which ended in the naval victory of 
Austria (Jidy 20, 18GG). 
t The hiBtorinn Mr, E. A. Freeman, has adopted tho general opinion thnt the 
lUyriana are represented by the jpeople of Albatiin, " one of those iil-fated 
portions nf earth," saye Amokl, " which, though placed in imiiiodiate contact with 
civilisation, hnj» remained perpetually barburiua." 

J It is said that iiia sepulebre wiw found iii 1710 ; but 1 failed to procure any 
information nbout it. 

§ In my paper on 'Solona' (p. 280), I have mcutioued the nstml interpretation 
of At/(rK<'\afios. But may not IIih epithet ''hanh-Bounding" better apply to the 
neighbouring Island of Pfdago^a, whotKa roaring and spouting cav*m8 resemble 
those of MfKirri {hod. Mi-ledflj? The latter have been the subject of n modem 
vohitin', ' Bt'rioht iiber das DetonationB Ph'iDomen anf dcr Insel Mtleda,' &c., 
Ton I'niil Purtach, Wien, Heubner, 1826. In pp. 101-102 the learned author 
quotoB fifteen publicationB upfm the enhject : he approves of Horr Littrow, and 
he ia aevoro apon Herr Stcrlin. Finally, he adopts the " Einsturz-Hypotesic," 
rooks falling m tho hollow LowoU of the earth, ae the general cau«e of the 
my&terioua Bounds. 

158 Burton's Visit to Lissa end Pelagosa. 


Scymnus Chios (Bret century B.C.), in his Tlepit'iyrja-n} (413-14), 
makes it the hegemon of the Illyrian Archipelago: — 

N^troc icaT avrovs 6 tariv Itr<ra Xryofiivt] 
'SvpaKoiriuv f^ovira rfjv njroiKiav, 

Strabo (ii. 5 and vii. 7) places it correctly, and mentions its 
colony, Tragiirium. Not so Poraponiu.s Mela (ii. 7, Mediter- 
rfuiei Maris InBulae), who, nearly a century after the geographer 
of Fontus, throws the iVrchinelai^o into complete and inex- 
tricahlo confusion,* Pliny (S'at. Hist. iii. 2(5, &c.) correctly 
places Issa opposite the mouth of the Iinler, or River of Salona, 
and mentions the Issaei and. the Epetinea, "nations inhabiting 
the islantls, the former having tho rights of liomun citizens." 
In Ptolemy (ii. 1(3, § 14) wc have the following table of lougi- 
tades and latitudes : — 

Tfj a AaA/MiTif I'^croi irapditfiv rat 
Itrmt Kal ir<{X«f . . . Long. Jlji y (4*_'^ 20') . . Lat. Py (43° 15'). 
Tpayovpwv k. ir. . . „ Jiy (4ct'^) . . „ /ai^ a' ^ (42^ 4o ). 

*a/ufl K.TT „ hy ('^3'') . . „ ?^ y (42^ bOf). 

YiopKovpa fj fifKatm . „ Jld (44') . . „ Jkt a 6 (41^ 45'). 

MtXtrtpf) vfitTot . . „ "jld <r' (44'' lO") . . „ fiay' (41' SC), 

Here his latitudes are tolerably correct ; whilst he phices 
Trieste (Tergestum Colonia) in n, lat. 44^ 55', or nearly one 
degree too far south. Issa holds high rank in Agathemerus 
(^' AyadTjfiipov TTJ? T€coypcuf>ia<; uTroTinrwcrej? iv iirno^^. 
Hndsun's Geog. Script. Gr. Minores), who during our third 
century made in two books extracts ifroni Ptolemy and earlier 
writers. His words are EtVt Se Kal iv t«5 'ASpw. i>ri<TOL irapa 
Tqv 'IWt/p^a, o)U itn<rr}p,6r€po<; \o-<rr}., koi 17 MeX,a(.^ V^opKvpa, 
Kal ^dpo^, nal MeXl-n), q>v ayuout ra<; Trepifiirpovs BIBA. A'. 
ir€<f). €, p. 15G, Xv\XoyT)<;, &c., by the Brothers Zozimas, Vienna, 


Issa, I have said, t almost disapi>ears from history after the 
death of Scribonianus. She was alternately Romau, Byzantine, 
and autonomous. As Salona and the lowland cities of Dalmatin, 
the extensive commerce and navigation of the Archipelago 
must have snflfered severely from the invasions of barbarous 

* I[is order, or rather disorder, is Apenros (Ossero, Obeirao, Liustn lelAud), 
Dy8Colndo»(Liiw»? Pelagnwa? Brezza?); Af*yTti8(Unie? Pago? oomporu 8lrabo 
ii. 5),IjBia; Pityia (PityTuta or Porti3 Tolon, Suiito Andrea?): Hyurift (?), tlio 
Bleotridm (cf. Pliny, iii. 3<1: wLiJo Blrabo. v. 1, donius thi'ir existciicMi nff the 
month of tho Po) ; Nip^ra Corcyro (Cuziola); Tragurium (Trau); iJioniediii 
^Ihe Tromiti) ; (E«triu (?) ; Suoa (Bttaeno, SoaIdo, Biuonn or Basso off titc coast 
of Albania) ; and. finnUy, returning ttom south to north, rharoa (Lcsina), which is 
described as " adjoining Brundusium even a« another (of the same name) lloa 
near Alexandria." 

t Thoae notes on the history of Liasa In tho dark ages aro taknn bodily from 
M. Maachftk ({oc, cU,). 

Lonles, the Ostrogoths (a. D. 393), and the Visogoths (a.d. 395); 
and, pei-hapa, not less from the m^e of monachiHrn introducer! 
by tho example of Saint Jerome (ob. a.d. 420) the Dalmatian. 
About A.D. 449, the Bosuiac Slavs, driven by the Huns 
westward from the Danube, occupied the isliind ; hence the 
Slav iniieiTation of the present race. They were followed 
by another " Tempest of the Tribes," as Jomandes calls it ; 
incursions of the Vandals, the »Sarmatse (a.d. 457), the Suevi, 
tJie Heruli, the Avars (a.d. 010), and the Croato-Serb!=i in 
AJ). G4(,). About the middle of the seventh century, the island, 
now Slavic, belonged to the empire of the East, as the Teutons 
to that of the West ; and the cession of Dalmatia, by Carolus 
Magnus, to Byzantium in A.D. 808 confirmed its position. 

But darker days were in store for it, and nothing can be 
more dreary or monotonous than its history : indeed the same 
may be said of mediaeval Dalmatia in general. Between 
A.D. 837-8C4, the iNarentnn pirates became tho pest of the 
Adriatic : they made themselves the Maximi Ven^toruui emnli ; 
they did muck harm to tot popuUs Sclavonic nosirie, and they 
retained possossion of the islands for a century. In a.d. 867 
came the Saracens, then apparently in league with their follow 

In the tenth century Venice determined to crush her piratical 
enemies, and bo^r Admiral, Bragadin, recovered Lissa from the 
Narentans (a.d. 996). Probably at this time, its darkest hour, 
the classical city became a ruin, and the inhabitants exchanged 
the coast for the interior, where they occupied detached villages. 
In A.D. 1075, the Doge Domenieo Silvio utterly destroyed tho 
Normanno-Narentan fleet, with all their works and establish- 
ments upon our island. About the same time Zvonimir- 
Demetrius, King of Croatia, permitted Lisfsa, like Brazza aud 
Lesina, freely to trade with his dominions. Venice, all 
powerful in a.d. 1143, allowed in a.d. 1184 her rival Eagusa to 
supplant her in the protectortite of the i3land,and, in a.d. 1242, 
the Commune of Lesina began to exercise a jurisdiction which 
lasted till late years. In 1278 (April 1), Lissa and Lesina, 
suffering from the pirates of Almissa, applie<i once more to 
Venice, who incontinently occupied the two : each was ruled by 
its own Provveditore, suujett to the Provveditore Generale of 

The descendants of the old Isstei, driven from the dangerous 
coast to the interior, held in the fifteenth century their capital 
at Velo-SeJo,* the Great Village, in contradistinction to the 

* In BuBsia we find the same word, as in T3arkoo-8«Io. But the northern 
dialect, whose ncccnts, irregularly <ibtribnt"?d, form one of its diGSinilties, places 
the ictna on tho ultimate vowel (Selo^, wtulei the lUyrians and tlie 81oTcnc«, 

minor settlements. Lpng south of the new city» and north of 
a line upland plateau rich in vines, it appears ujwn llie map as 
Sventinovich, a mere corruption of Svettinj, the P. N. of the 
present proprietors, who* iu Dahuatia aa in Istria, often give 
names to the viihxjres. The only roinnant of this rustic capital 
is the chapel of the Gospa od Veloga (La Madonna del Villngio 
Grande). VrIo-ScIo waa destroyed in a.d. 1483, hy Ferdinand 
of Naples, and again in a.d. 1571, by the Catalonians and the 
Turks, under Sultan Sulaymau III. The people have preserved 
the memory of the Ottoman liaid in their ''Pisma" or songs 
accompanied by the single-stringed " gviale" or the three-stringed 
" Lira. ' As these hereditary legends are fast fading into 
oblivion, I may be allowed to quote a specimen. 

Kukuriku Velo-Selo ; 

Do tri danka no veselo ; 

Doci Turci, Katalaui, 

Oatadeto svi pokhini. 

These rhymed hectasyllabtcs* may thus be rendered : — 

Aroiisc tlice, Old-Town ! 
WitLiii three (l.iys, to thy sorrow, 
Come the Turks ami the Catalins. 
All (of you) will be massacred. 

'' The song, which has some eighty stanzas, and which shows 
undying hate of the Turk, refers to the " atrocities " of the day 
when, after vainly attaclcing Cuzzola Island, on the Fete of the 
Assumption (xVugust 15, N.S.), 1571, the barbarians, headed by 
their Capodan, "Uluzali," fell upon Lissa, whose two wealthy 
and popiuous burghs were entirely unprepared ; and slaughtereil 
the inhabitants of Velo-Selo, The words are supposed to be 
.spoken hy a cock which, standing upon the belfrj'-top of the 
Miulouna Chapel, vainly warned the citizens of the horrors 
which awaited them. 

The well-known volume of the Abate Kacio Miosic (Razgovor 
Ugodni Narodu Slovinskoga, &c. Po Fra And. Kaficher Mios- 
sichiu : U Dubrovniku. Po Pet. Franeu Martecchini, Edit. 
of Kagusa, 1 vol. folio, 1801), also recounts, p. 177, the glorious 
defence of the Cuzzolans and of their leader Pomenic. The 
following three stanzas refer to Lissa ; and the old etymology 
is preserved : — 

Zajceedri novenselli Tiirzi 
Katalani nevinji Ajdnzci 
Prija zozeh k' Visu dojalrisce 
Tcr bo2ato sello porahisce 

jjosaiUy ftffcctod by tbe Italians, preftr aa a rule Hip penultimate (8€lo). Tbii» 
our captain's nnme is Lilsina in 81av, LuBiiiu in Italinn. 

• Whereas tbe old heroic songs of tbo MorlakB arc mostly in blank decn- 

BuBTON'tf Tisit to Ltssa and Pdagosa. 1 C 1 

Issikowe maloh i velliko 
Jer 96 turkom modadoiice uikko 
Eakoaeje onda rauellilo 
Ni danasse nijo naaellilo 

Tub bih turkom pozlnchienn Bada 
Pak odoBce de Htarogagrada 
(Jtide ttirci mallo zndobisce 
Vedi Varbofiku sello jxjrobisco 

Thus translated by Sig. Serafino Topicb, to whose kindness I 
owe the loan of the volume. 

Discontented went off the Turks, (and) 
The Catalans, faitliless Hayduks (i>. bandits) : 
Before daybreak at Vis (i.«. Lissa) they arrived, 
That wealthy HCttlement eackiug. 

They cut to pieces sniall and great (».e. young and old), 

These Ix'ing wholly unprc|iared ; 

Th« masssacre was so complete 

Tlmt, antil this day, it (the town) has not been ro-pcopled. 

There the Turk* collected enormous booty, (and) 
Thence they went to Citta Vccclkia (Stara-^rad in Lesina) ; 
Where the Turks littk aiuld rob. 
Yet they plundered Verboska village. 

Shortly after this last event, tlie Lissans returned to the sea- 
l)oard, and built the Borgo, which has, therefore, no pretensions 
to antiquity. 

In the early years of the present centurj', when Europe had 
not renounced giving " letters of marque and reprisal," the re^ 
strictions to which foreign trade was subjeck-d by Napoleon 1. 
produced an immense contraband along the Dalmatian coast 
iind Arcliipelugo. Lissa, then autonomuus, ouce more became 
the favourite rendezvous of privateera who differed little 
from pirates, and was partisdly occupied by Ku^sia. The 
demand for British produce and the central position of the 
island invited England to muke it the centre of her naval and 
roinniercial operations in tlie Adriatic. She delcated the 
French squadron on March 13, 1811, and, on April 25 of 
the next year, she took permauent i>osses.siun, establishiug at 
the same time a local legislative body. On July 13, 1815, 
the English cvaiMiatcd Lissa and the other islands, and, on the 
general Peace, these passed under the dominion of Austria, 
who, in 1848, abuliftihcd th« invidious jurisiliction of Lesina. 
Finally the Ituliun Hwt attacked the island on July 18, 1866, 
an<l two days afterwards was decisively defeated. 

The actual trade of Lissa is chiefly contained in wine-growing 
and tishing. During my visit the city was literally red with 
tlie blood of the grape, even us Lesina was slippery with oil in 
December, 1874. The island maintains the celebrity of which 


162 Buhton's Visit to Lissa and Pelagosa. 

Atliena3us (Deip. 1) speaks in the third century, 'Ev Se "Ictrfi 
rtj Korb. Tov ^Aopiau injay ^ Aya6ap'^iSr)<; <fKurl olvov 'yiveo'dac, ov 
•Tract crir/Kpiv6fi€vou KaXXio) €vpic7Kea6ai ; and which was 
asserted by placing the grape-buuch upon the coins, Fortis 
(1772), opining thut the wiue non i> fjrurt eosa, attributed its 
ueficiences to rude workmanship, or to the disappcmrance of the 
ancient growth. If this be true, the island has progressed of 
late. Her produce is now esteemed, and, whilst want of rain 
reduces the growth of grain to a fortnight's supply aud causes 
cereals to be brought from Carauiania aod the Black Sea — no 
easy matter in 1876* — a fair average season, yields from 70,000 
to 80,000 barrels. ^ 

The vines are trimmed short and supjwrted by forked sticks. 
Throughout the Mediterranean regions, the old home of Bucchus, 
a glance at a vineyard, its stakes and its espaliers, tells the 
observant traveller where he is. The plant will outlast, in 
exceptional cases, the centur)', but the usual limits of its life 
are twenty-five to thirty years. The invasions of the Oidium 
have been met by the sulphur cure :t here the peasants, a 
frugal and hardworking race, eagerly adopt the innovations 
which benefit them, whereas their congeners of Istria and 
Caniiola do not; and there is a noticeable developraeut since 
the Islanders were freed from the government of rival Lesina. 
This superior intelligence of the peasantry explains the com- 
nijinding position of their bit of island, in the days of old, when 
their colonies of Tragurium and Epetiura were equally famous 
for their wines. 

The grape is of eight chief kinds. The fa/iile lyritmeris is the 
Vngava, a name of uncertain origin, well known t-o the other 
islands. This white berry ripens — or, rather, is gathered — in 
mid-August; it is delicate and liable to injury, and, being 
dried before crushing, the Eimer or Oma (=56 to 68 litres) 
of yield diminishes, in the process of manufacture, to some 
9 l>occali (40=1 Orna); hence many proprietors have given 
up making it4 This wine when kejit for four or five years is 
of superior quality. Next is the Rukalac, also a small sweet 
white grape, yielding the *' ^Huscato," or Muscadel \ and ranking 
third is the Cerljenak, a red seed. Good average wines are 
made of the wliite Balbut, the Kersticevica, the Biela Loza 
aud the Palarusa. The cheapest is the Plavae, a dark purple 

• Tho oloiinK of thn Blaok Stia ports will i>ro1»a)ily drive tlie txade to the 
Unitc<l Stiitos. Tlie briwl is the worst article on LIbsii iBlurid. 

t The Islnndere have not yet had au opportunity of experimenting upon tho 
lalost treatment by "mnndic wnter," the vitriolic supply of pyritic minoa. 

J Thu aamo is the csso with the " Rofosoo d' Isolu, whit-h nijuirca tho g^ropo 
to <lry, and all the atalks to be removed : heni-e a couaidembtc diminution. 

berry, more pleasing to the eye than to the palate. The peasants 
of the interior still trample their produce ; the city uses the 
newest presses, and M. Sorufiiio Tupick has fttintied cenolo|^' in 
the well-known establishment of Messrs. Clossmanii and Co., 

Vine-growing is the work of veterans and eineriti, whu thus 
employ the year: in September and Oetober eomes the Vin- 
deramia (Vendange), when eveiy able-bodied adult is engaged 
in carrying his harvest ; and, at this season, five Jiorins 
a-day will hardly bribe a guide to leave his work. The younger 
men willingly engage as sailors, ospeoially between November 
and Miiy : many have made long voyages, and not a few have 
learnt Euglish and other foreign tongues. Fishing, which is 
secondary only to wine-makincr, employs the months of April 
and May, October and Noveml>er. The principal yield is the 
Sardella (Clupea, or Ahjsa aardina), of which during a dark 
summery night 00,000, 100,000, and even 150,000 head have 
been taken by a single boat. A poor year proiUiees from S 100 
to 15,000 barrels, each weighing between 1>Q and 100 fimti 
(1-2 lb. avoir.); in 1875 the yield was about 25,000. The 
other species are the Orate (Sixirus aurata), and the Dontali 
(Dentex vulgaris) which, caught in Aviuter, used to be prepared 
with gelatine for the Venetian market ; the Sgombri {Scomber 
scomhn(s), and the Branzino (Lnhrax liiptis), which is cauglit 
even in jiort. As usual oflf Dalmatia and letria, the Astice 
(Ho»iarm vulgaris) is superb ; the poorest meat is the liasa 
\Riija, or R. davatu), caught with tho rarrangala, or long line, 
carrying 20D to 4U0 hooks. The nets are of two kinds : " La 
Tratta" requires three smacks, one leading with a light in 
the bows, and the others following with the net. I suggested 
for economy of fuel the trial of whito-painted boards used by 
the Chinese on moonlit nights. " I/a Voiga," a Dalmatian, 
not an Istritui, term, is worked by a single craft with a crew 
of five, and only in tho dark. Essentially a rete d'imhrocco, 
in Avhich fish enmesh themselves, and a SardelUera (used to 
catch sardines and anchovies), it is composed of spedoui, or 
square pieces, increased to as many as sixteen if the fish be in 
largo shoals, and the depth is regulated according to require- 

M. Antonio Topieh has received a medal from tho World's 
Fair of Vienna for his preserved sardines, anchovies and 
mackerels ; Bpecimens have also been sent to the Exhibition of 

* Details concerniaj the Istrian fiaheriea will be fuiind in " Im Pi-scn lunpo Jo 
Coate Augtro-Ungariche," &c.), Memnrift del CudUj Antonio Mnruzzi, lluma, 187:H), 
a largo brochuro. Tla* industry iu Ii'uliiiHtia alBo bug produced ii liUlo volume 
published during tho WellausBtellucg of Vienna (IST.S). 

M 2 

164 BurtonV Visit to Lissa and Pelagosa. 

Philadelphia. He salts tliem to a certain extent, and then 
cures tliem with the finest oils: they are packed in tins made 
upon the island, with labels from \ ieniia. A century ap;o the 
main difficulties were the scarcity and the high price of salt: 
the necessities of the Aiistro-Hiitigaritm Empire, like those of 
India, [lerpetiiate the obsolete and unuorthy gabclie; but the 
fisluTUieii are favuured by Gdvemment, when they buy at 
Spalato the produce of the Istrian Ssilinus of Capodistria and 
Pisano. The general evil, here and in every item of the 
Dalmatian Archipelago, ia the deficiency of communication : 
Lis^a lies umler the shadow of a great monopoly, and is limited 
to a single steamer-visit {ler week. Hence the abundant use of 
the telegraph, whirh is, however, Bomewhat like living on 
extract of meat instead of breed. Nor can the Islanders be 
held wholly faultless ; they will not litdp themselves — they 
will call upon Hercules, the Government. Pulitics run high, 
and are aggravated bysueh retrogratle wJ/'ho or pig-tail (Ultra- 
montane) prints as the 'Avveiiire' of Spalato, a peculiarly 
vicious specimen. Loi-al quarrels are fierce : it is popularly 
Srtid that two Dalmatiiins cannot live together in a town without 
a quarrel ; and yet I know of no race w hich to the stranger 
appears so genial and so synipathelic. 

As the excellent vine is utterly neglected at Cherso, so at 
Lissa the olive does not prosper; and many declare that, like 
the date-palm and the cocoa, Bacchus and Minerva do not 
cohabit comforttihly, as the " lamentable epitaph " says : 
" Non lieno convoniunt, nee uii4 in )»fJc raorantur." 

Fortis found a small trade in fruits of sorts ; apples and pears, 
oranges and agrumi (lemons), melons and water-melons, figs 
and j)runes, almonds, uiulberries, and cantbs : these are now 
Iwirely sufficient for local consumption. The honey is excel- 
lent, flespite a treatment worthy of prehistoric days; but it is 
produced in small quantitiea The wool is poor, and the women 
use it in making maglie or cahe (breeches). The only impor- 
tant form of "la petite Industrie " is now rosemary-oil, of which 
the ] feasants annually retort some 20,000 funti (1-2 lb.), each 
worth from IHJ soldi to nearly a florin. AMien the steamers 
touch at Lestna the pjvssengers are offered small flasks of this 
essence, coating 20 soldi.* 

We ctinnot, I have said, expect io find ancient buildings at 
Ijissa. In the hack-streets Ixddnd the British Vice-Consulate 
you are shown the Popina-Kuca.t the Popt-'s Houses, where 

• The other curioeitr of IjfBimi ia a kin<l nf tiM^o mftrlc of nloe-flbTa 
f Popina, tbi< local mi«proiiutuniilioti lor I'lipinn, feni. uf Pnpin, adj. Pttixil. 
Ktiii, jil. of Kiicn, a liouse. lleucelLe two heretical lUissum sectd, the Popovciua 

Burton's Visit to Lissa and Pelagosa. 

Alexander III., when travelling from Rome, was received by 
Kaineriiis, ArehUisliojv of Spaliito. The little row of throe old 
teuenients is now tpuanteti by a Couiisa fuiiiily ot" the working 
classes, niclcnamed by the people Muljat-Popiui — Muljat the 
Papals. After lonvinjT^ the island I heard of a *• Phojuician 
tablet" built np in the hunse-wall of a certain Sig. Rendich, at 
the comer of the Piazza Opatia. The tlruwju_t^ s.-nt to nie by 
M, Serafina Topi^'h shows a shiehi-ibniied liehl, 45 ceutimctres 
long by 35 biodd, with a palm hearing fine Itranches on each 
side, and flanked by *' Phceuician letters."' JMost renders will 
agree with me tiiat the figures are more probably the armorial 
badges of some barouiul house, 

Th^' ruins of the classical town opposite Liasa, which we shall 
presently visit, huve ]»rovC(i, like Aipiileja, a mine of antiquities. 
Here was exhumed the beautilnl specimen of CI reek art, the 
tombstone uhieh attracts every eye in the ^Museum of Sjialato. 
According to 1). Aiiollonto Zanella, it was one of 17 ranged in 
two tiers, upper and louer. The local eolleetions are all 
private, and it is rcgretable that the Lissaiis have not set apart 
a ro<»m or two for their :uiti<piities, which lose half their value 
by trauspurtntiou. The city boasts of a reading-room, and a 
raap-rooni ; but the Mn&eo, though often proposed, luis still to 
be established. 

At the British Yice-Consulate an upjier room has been filled 
with the finds from Pelagosa, which will be noticed when we 
visit the islamJ. The articles from old Issa are a massive semi- 
circle of terra-cottii, like the upper vault of an arch; a corner- 
stone, probably of a tomb, with tive eoloiiiiettos and six gutta& 
below; and a fiuo cotta njedalliou sliowiug the head apparently 
of a Juno in high relief. The Kevcrend, summoned to Zara 
immediately after our arrival, could not show us his collection : 
the only items wo saw were four noble specimens of the black 
and coloured ware usually called " Etruscau," cenochoei of 
claret-jug shape, the handles ending above in animals' heads. 
The Po<Iusta. Cav, I'ietro de Dujimi, an ohl and famous Lissan 
family, exhibited a large quantity of pottery, none equal, how- 
ever, to those of the Abate; .sundry ettins ot IxoOian emjjerors, 
and a few islanders. The moneys of the Issad are mentioned 
by Fortis (ii. § 5, p. 164). In his day, however, only two types 
were known, one with an amphora ami the other with a goat on 
the reverse, the obverse of botli showing a hehneted head of 
Pallas facing dexterwise. The Biblioteea Patria of Zara • in- 

(witli prii'Btji) nnd the Beapopovifina (without priestis), iw ojiposed to the Yeress, 
or imre whisinatii^s. 

• P. 173, Prtntwl at Znrft in l.<<63. TI«enotir(-s dl' the coins nre by Dr. George 
Pollich, tmder the librarians SS. J. DanUo uml .1. Uuglich. 

166 Bcbton'* Visit to Lissa and Pelagosa. 

forms us tliat some COO specimens, between Greek and Itoman, 
had been found : amongst tlicm ei^^ht types, varying in diameter 
from O'Olo to 0*023, dcnati-d those of Issa. In most of them 
the obverse varies in minor points; one has a bunch of 
grapes, and the reverse with a horse pacing to the right, and 
the legend l£. The reverses of the rest show the stag, standing 
or conrunt to right, or the goat standing and facing dcxterwise. 
We were told uf a coin bearing a galley, but 1 can find no 
notice of it in books ; perhaps it was struck to commemorate 
some Roman victory. 

There is a grand ossuarium* of full size, and the tinest glass, 
with scanty iridescence, which had been found in a pot and stone. The lachrymals are numerous, and the 
flasklet of blue glass, with a Jlednsa's head standing in high 
relief, on both sides of the k>wer and somewhat compressed 
bulges, is of admirable manufacture. Another gem is a ring of 
pure gold, plain and twisted above, a shape which might be 
found to-day : it was taken with sundry coins from an ordinary 
terra-cotta vase. In tlie fafade of the Podesta's house are set 
two Greek inscriptions rudely executed. 

Dr. de Dojimi, the eldest son of the family, who had travelled 
as far as Baghdad, accompanied us to the westerumost point of 
the Ijunda PiccoJa, where the antiquarian interest of Lissa 
begins. Here the open phwc, bounded northwards by vineyards 
and kitchen-gardens, licars amongst the Slav pcjpulation the 
names of Mrtvila,t dead man's ground, or itrabiscie, the 
graves; and here, to the south of the classical city, lay tho 
cemetery, as was usual in Dalmatia. It extends to the foot of 
the bulge still known as the Gradina (old town), a lump of 
limestone rock,t thinly covered with fertile hnmus, divided oft' 
Iby dry walls, and grov\u with many vines and a few carobs. In 
a garden belonging to tho Podesia we were shown a standing 
pillar, with a Greelc insoiption not easy to decipher; two frag- 
ments of Latin inscriptions on broken slabs, and a large statue 
of white marble, whose head had apparently been borrowed 
from another. 

The English visitor to Lissa will probably inspect the Ceme- 
tery at the root of tho rocky headland crowned by Fort Smith, 
where lie the furty-five utlicers and men § killed in action on 

* Many of tlieso uma still c?ontainc^d bones almost consumed by the fire. 

t Ftin. plnr. of Mrtvilo, from M&rti or Mieti, to die. In the Slovene dJaI«ct. 
fiirlluT nniUi, Mi'itvih* would aigiiify " li-thurgy," or tileb|)y t.k'kn«t«8. So Grab U 
a gnive, and timtijiy, or firuhljc. u gniv<'_var<i. 

J Tlic lii'sl mujia and jdniis liithi-rUi j>ubti»hed depress the Gradina in fiiTOur 
of tlie Bnudarico, tlie inoro aiibatarttinl I'future to the west. 

§ A Inige i>ro]virti">n to tliu wounded, who numbered 145 (James), or about 
1 to 4, nhowing the scvcrilj of the btniggle. 

March 13, 1811. Sig. Antouio Topicli, one of the principal 
citizens on the islann, has ior years kept the graveyard in 
excellent condition, solely at his own expense. These memories 
of English prowess are often lucally preserved, when at home, 
where men have other things to think of, they fall into 
oblivion. I i-ejoice to add that in 1875 her Majesty's Foreign 
Office appointed the generous islander British Viee-Consul for 

The Cemetery, which is not noticed by Wilkinson (1848), nor 
by Ncale (18(31), is reached by boat in a few minutes from the 
city. It ia marked by the litth^ chapel of Saint George and 
the ruins of a battery. At the entrance of the masonry en- 
ceinte are two inscriptions on slabs of white marble. That to 
the left tells us " I freddi avanzi rpii sepolti sono dei Britanni 
Eroi die in mare perirono della patria in dilesa e in onore del 
Trono," The other, in Enpclish, evidently cut at Lissa, bears 
the date MDCCcxv. The gate Iea*is to a central walk, metalle<i 
with pi-bbles, ami bordered with the luxuriant and gmceful 
American aloe. The first monument erected over officers and 
men l>ears inscriptions which date Feb. 22, 1812 ; in the centre 
of the walk lies a flat slab, preserving the name '* Honourable 
Charles Anson," — his grandson, now in the Besika Bay fleet, 
lately placed on it a wreath of immortelles, — and easternmost, 
a pedestal, without date or legend, bears a scalloped cap aome- 
M'hat like the funereal Turkish turban. Near the south-west 
corner, three heaps of earth cover the remains of sixteen 
Austrian artillerymen and infantry : they were killed on July 19, 
1860^ the day before the sec'ond naval battle of Lissa, by the 
explosion of the jxtwder- magazine in Fort Smith,* under 
the fire of four Italian ironclads, before the latter wore com- 

Eelled to retire by the Madonna Battery near the head of the 
Mv first visit to Lissa ended (Sept. 27) with a walk to the 
Gradad, on the northern coast, about the middle of its length. 
Guided by Sig. Serafino Topich, we passed through the Banda 
Piccola suburb, remarking that, as usual in Dalmatia, many of 
the houses are approached by Hights of steps. Traversing the 
Grabiscie, or Grave Valley, now well grown with grapes, we 
struck tJie Dol,t a longitudinal depression, which divines the 
island into two systems of highlands, the southern half being 
the more important. It presently becomes the Samogor, trons- 

• Captain Brackenbiiry, in his nble sketch of the action ('The Times,* 
August 14, 1866), calls tl»is work by its Italian mime of S. Giorgio. 

t Meaning a tbUcj in geneml : the diminutive ia Dolina, a pretty word exten- 
sively used. 

lated " bosco isolate," * and under the naine of Valledi Koslrina 
it unites mth tlie Vallone mid Port of Comisa, distant aboat 
11 miles to the west. Intliis direction the depression gradually 
rises some hundred feet towards the northern foot-hills of 
" 3[onte Hum," and the inverted ogive is protected hy Fort 
Maximilian, at the heginaing of the inrliued plane, nhich falls 
tovvnrds the Western Sea. Tlie princifia! ivild growth of the 
soil, whinh is reddish like that of Lstria, is the Agave Americana : 
its leathery ekin, well provided with stomata, enables it, like 
the cactus of Africa, to live almost by breathing, to resist 
the most powerful suns, and to Hoiirish upon tiie barren rock. 
This is the Maguey which supjdies Mexico with the fermented 
pulque and the distilled mezcal. It thrives gloriously in it« 
ishmd home, whilst iu India it loses its qiialities, its beauty, and 
its majesty. The earobs had been frost-bitten. The average 
maximuui of cohl is O' (K. =32' F.). but in liS75-76 the 
temperaturo fell, I wjis assured, to -(i>\ aiul even - 7^ = (F, 
18 '50" and 16-25°). 

The peasauts were busy driving nudes, ponies and asses, 
laden with large skin-bags containing gra[ies partially crushed 
for closer packing; and all were exceptionally civil. The 
women wear sjuhtr-hutj^, home-made of straw, and trim their 
hair in a single flat curl on each temple, suggesting the English 
" aggravator." Their husbands, especially when belonging to 
the Slav or national party, afiect red caps, and the peculiar 
Montenegrin " fez " is not wholly absent. Hard work and 
harder fare have the usual eflfect: the good Mate (Matthew) 
Radissio, who accompanies us, is only fifty-two, and looks 
seventy. Hn quotes the proverb, "Acqiia fa male e vino fa 
cantare ; ' but his untimely old age, poor fellow, owes less to 
excess than to want of it. 

In the Samogor we saw the inland powder-magazine, at which 
many an Italian shell had been vainly directed. Most of 
Persano's officers Iiad served in the Austrian navy, and they 
well knew where to shoot. From that point vve turned north- 
west, and followed the rough foot-track winding up the lateral 
valley Drascovea. The total of an hour placed us at Zapakli- 
niea,t where, according to local tradition, lay the city of Teuto, 
widow of Agron, who is known to every Lissan as Kraljica 
Otaka> Queen of the West (i'),! and suggests the curious ques- 

* From Raiuo. nlono (eoluB?), nnd Gom. n hill or an upland wood, tlie Spnnisli 
Montu. Ill 81ovL'ue Biimo would iiicftn self, e.g. '* snmoljubac," a «4f-lovcr. nii 

t Pronounced Ziipiikllnltdn. Some dorivo tliB word from Kojutti, to dig, grub : 
oUktb tmni<lat« it, at the iiUlc jiitch (>piiio hill). I'likliU wuuld nieuu to tipply 
Pttkliua or pitch: Fuklft is Hull. In fact tho etymology in iluhions. 

J The people tniuslivte tlie w ord Qiiul-u of the I'jist, which is Istok (Isitok) 

Burton** Visit to Lissa and Pelagota. 

tion whether Teura is a corruption of Otaka, or vice versa.* 
The historians of Rome tell ns only tliat the first Illyrian war 
was caused by the unrepressed piracy of her subjects ; that she 
"vaiuly attaelied Issa (B.C. "229 ). which had placed itself under 
the^gis of the great licpublic ; that she assassinated one of the 
two brother-ambassadors sent by the Romans, and that sundry 
defeats compelled her to buy peace («.c. 227-28) at the cost of 
paying tributCj and of yielding ber tleet, together with the 
greater part of her dominions. lint we are nowhere told that 
tbe gallant Queen ever dwelt at Isaa. 

Nothing can be ninre charming than the site of Zapaklinica. 
The city, now a succrssion of small vineyards parted by dry 
walls, rose at the iiead i>f a slope gently falling towards the 
deep blue waters on tbe north-west. Ejistwanl, ur tu its right, 
swells tbe bush-clad masiy'if ai V^issokaglavica : t it is iVunted on 
the west by tbe " Kompris," banded with naked rock, and by 
the " Smokvaglava '' or Figs' Head — Kaas el-Tiu — similar in 

opposed to Otok, the wc«t. Poaaibly ToTitn may hnve been a royal tillc, not ft 
nanie, for we find tlie first wife of Agron calkil Trittuta. 

• Fortifi, when discussing the ori^n of tbe Morlulu (vol. i. c. 2, p. 45), a<lfluce» 
the following 2U namca of towns, triboa, au<i persons, from the cluR'tioftl historiniis 
and prove thnt the Slav tongue was ^jioken in Istria and Dalinntin 
dnritg Unman domination; Prvnimn (P. N. of City. Keltic ?), Ahmm; {Iwd. 
Albona, oertftitdy Keltic l ; Senia (SetioncB?); Jadera (corrupted from Dindora or 
V. v.); liaiaiuuiii ; Stluiii ; Uncuna ; BUmora uud Ztvjora (lx)th aiguiflcunt in 
Shiv) ; Trisltitui ; Ciahnu ; Oehra : Carjialiiif; Pleurtitiu ; Agron; '/'euca (sic) ; 
Dtirdani ; TribdUi ; GrtthH (Bipnifica.nt in Slav) ; and I'iruttx. He notes thrw 
Gredf aimihirities, evitkntly borrowed, viz., Spugga {(nt6yyot) ; trapeza (jpdwt^a, 
like Sau&krit) ; and KiilruLi (KaOtSpa) : and ho miglit btivc luldcd GidjKid, from 
AfcnrJri;!. He gives 12 Lntin R-aerablauccs : 8aZbun (Sabuinm); Knin ct Klin 
(cnneuo, a wedge) ; Plaro ; flaTraa) ; Slap (lapsua aipia.', waterfall) ; Vino (viuum) ; 
Capii (caput; tiogtui (ruj^uida, dew); L(pU) (li'pidus) ; Zlip (liiipus); Spartn 
(aporta) ; Slirinje (dcriniuui) ; and Lu(j (bici't')- H'' quotes alse 12 Italian forms, 
besides 10 Venetian wonls, which ore evidently borrowed from the Wends, viz.: 
Ahbajare (oblajati), to bark; Stutlujiare («vla^iti), to strip of baggage; Harare 
(vacarate or variti), to clrn^t; TarUujlvxre (turlati), to sstutter; Amnuittare, to 
kill, from M05 (muc), u sword, and its derivationti, Ma^'ati (maijiti ', to fight, fence, 
pnt to the sword ; Jlieco (sricbian), rich ; Tutza (yaesa) ; Coppa (Kiippa; : Danza 
(tan/ii); Bi$dto, an eel. the eomiuou term \xi Istrian Ituiiun, from bixati, to run 
awiiy; liraro! (Pnivo ! siino sig.); Jiriga (briga), a cpmrrul. Ho eiidj* the list 
with 13 English fdroilarities ; Stina, Bt'ine ; Maif, lucnt ; McJ, moikd, honey ; Brate, 
brother; S^^^tra, sl»ter ; Sin, son; Smite, gun; Smule (glass, mule?); Mlike, milk, 
Sniii. snow ; Voda, water ; Grab, grave ; and Sreltm, silver. 

lie also anticipates tlie learned Mr. Wward A. Freeman in noting (i. 2, p. 47^ 
tliat the Daeians spoke a Slav tongue. As regards tbe v<x'ables quoted above, if 
the old Illyrian be represented by modem Aliianian, it probably had Indo-Euro- 
jioin, anil especially Keltic iitliuitieH, and tliUsi we may cxpluin the remarkabie 
family likentsa. It is much to be widlitd that tliese words should be examined 
by Keltic scholars. Finally, though the Bubjcet is far too esk-nsive for anything 
Ijeyond mere mention, I would express my surjirise at the modem theory of 
Schleicher and otljers cmicerniug the eoinpararivf; antiquity of the Slav honily of 
languages, than which nothing can bo uiofe Siiubkritio than Sanidcrit itself. 

t In Il«.lifln rendered '* piccola testn altn," Jdgli little head, from Viaok, tall, and 
Glavicn, dim. of QlavB, a head, u hotidland, und frj fcirtli. 



BuETON** Visit to Lissa and Pelagosa. 

form, bnt somewhat greener. In front lies the Porto Grada6, 
an irregular triangle of clear bine water, edged and scalloped 
with leek-green, forming a natural " Maiidracchio," or dock : 
the cove is parted liv a promoiitttry with outlying ixicklet, from 
its western neighbour Porto (Jhiave. Kegular excavations 
have not yet been made at Zapaklinica, but many remnants 
of antiquity thence liud their way to the city. 
Enjoying the cool prospect of the waves below, 

** A bowery hollow crowned by summer aea," 

a hu\\\ fit for Venus Anndyomenp, we wound along the western 
Hhouldor of the Vi.>*sokiiglavica by uu elementary track through 
the luxuriant senii-trnpical Jfere we remarked the 
Terebinth, the ]M}Ttle, the Arbutus, and the Arum ; the Phillyrea 
{nudia) and the "Divlja Masliua," or wild tdive; the pretty 
heath [Erica mnliijlora), and the lentisk. which supplies the 
^lilastikhe of Chios, the only ishin<l now producing the noble 
gum on a large pcale ; the Juniper of the two normal species, 
especially the J. vuicroearpa, with edible berries ; and the pine 
(P. marithna), which towers over the humble growths. 

After thirty minutes' walk we struck the nrckof the Isthmus 
that forms the eastern pier of Porte (j radar ; and we rested at 
the Taddeina-gradja, a line of low cattle-sheds roofed as usual 
here with Zimble or slabs of fissile ]irae<tune: the place takes 
its name from the family that owns it. Thence we proceeded 
to tiie headland still called tiradaoski-nit* or " old town point "; 

|, tphere the castle of Queen Teuta is placed by local tradition, 
ind where she buried, before lier flight, the treasure vainly 

f'feought by a host of gold-liiinter^. The greater length of the 
little peninsula stretches to the north-west., and is cliff-bound 
and precipitous everywhere save towards Porte Gradac on this 
south-westem side. The easy slope shows two modern cisterns. 
The lerre pleine bears evident signs of levelling, and the thin- 
ness of the soil, whi(;h is not worth ploughing, lias preserved it 
from disturbance. The circuit has been walled wherever acceas 
was possible: in most parts the foundation is level with the 
ground ; but at the neck there is a tall mound of debris which 
might prove productive. Across the narrowest part stands a 
fragment of wall, 15 metres long by 2-30 high and O'SO thick: 
the cement contains water-rolled pebbles as lar -^ -''- - nrlg: 
this defence, which, at Lissa, was described to al, 

may have been built by the Venetians or even Ux t'^ .'>lavs, 
possibly on an older base. The jioint com^ .v 

* E&t. mcnninp; a bc« 
niiiritiuic Dalmatia. 

fxkj [toint, 1* 

Ab in 

of the beautiful islands and highlands of middle Dalmatia, 
disposed iu suocessive vanishing tiers of white limestone, dyed 
azure by the limpid air; utid to thu west over the deep-blue 
sea, and distant sume 33 miles, lies the Poiuo-rock,* exactly 
imitating a shi[i under full press of cnnvas— the tradition is 
that duruig some war it was cannonaded by mistake. 

From this commanding ground we could sight the spot 
where the Ee d' Italia underlies 200 fathoms of water. The 
second battle of Lissa was fought on July 20th, 1866, about 
]0 miles north of the harbour. 

"We returned to the city by a shorter cut along the eastern 
flank of the ''high little head"; in full sight of the Canalo 
di Lissa, where the Embatte or sea-breeze was creeping 
down from the north, ruffling the waters into a deeper 
blue, while t!ie smooth nznre slept near the shore. Every 
bit of plain and hollow Inul been turned into a vineyard : 
houses were scattered here and there, and the peasantry of 
both sexes and all ages were merrily gathering their grape- 
clusters. The panoramic view of Port Saint George and of 
Lissa City, failed by its purjjle bay, and backed by its stony 
and bushy hills, was as pretty a sight as man would wish 
to see. 

A third rough foot-path debc»ufhe<l upon the venerable 
Gradinn, the classituil old town. The site is a bulge of ground 
rising to tlie north-east of the Mrtvila flat, and connected by 
a gentle t.lope with the higher hills behind on to the north. 
It is separated by the covtt known as the Porto Inglese from 
a similar hillock to the nortli-eaat : here they say appeared a 
Latin inscription locally believed to " commemorate the defeat 
of Queen Teuta by a Roman ceiiturion."t It was published by 
Moromsen (I. 177) luckily before the stone, which measured 
80 centimetres by 50, was broken and built up in the nearest 

* In Bl:\v J;ibuka (Yabuka\ also meaning an apple. An attempt was made to 
aacend it, in the epring of 1S76. by Herr Spreitzt-nlioffer, on employ^ of Govern- 
ment at Viennn, acoonipoiiied by Sig. Seraflnu Topicb : the weather was eo bod that 
the oxplon'ra could not even land. 

t I could col jimcuri'.tHtlK'r iit T<is^a <ir at Trieste, a ropy of Mommseu's Corpns 
lusrrip. Lnt. The lollowiog trantHriiition was kindly forwarded to mo by D. 
ApolloDii>ZuiiL'Ilii. >v)iu docliiroii Ihut it vtta foaud (1859) iu the Qradina upon the 
property bearing iiia fmnily name : — 

Q. Nvsacatvs. q. r. tel (velina) 
mrva. leg. patbo». 


BE. »VA. PEUVK. coEii. (curavit) 


Sig. Ljubio has nlso publibibod it in the Fasc. xxxi. of 'Bdd Jagoslavenko 
Akademije ' (Agr-aui, ls75), ia which ho attempts to complvte l^he rarius uf the 
Ptuiion, LogatcH or Licitteuuiiti! who governed Dalmatia in the Roman days. 



Bdrton'* Visit to Lissa and Pelagosa. 

Martelio-tower, shortly before the affair of 1866. Since the 
historian's visit, some 14 years ago, the work of cicstnictiou 
wns continned ; and the remains of tlie Kuman hypucauet in 
the Podesta'n projierfy have been burii^d. The ground, which 
doubtless still covers many a rclie of old Issa, is broken by 
loose walls ioi-ming terraces for the vine : it has, I have said, 
been a mine of j>lunder for collectors; and the rains still wash 
from it coins in quantities, rings and scraps of corroded metal, 
Cotti of all kinds and the normal cubes of coarse mosaic. 
The nnly sign of actual excavation appeared in a cistern, re- 
vetted witii the Unest lime-cenicnt : the ctmtents were brown 
earth and dusty dobri-s mixed with broken p<jttery. The foun- 
datiuns of the old walls in situ are easily recognised Ly the size 
and cutting of the stones : in sundry places the natural rock 
has been trimmed nnd squared ; and the superincumbent 
masoury evidently bekmgs to a later date. The lowest level 
was occupied, according to local legend, by the Forum : here 
the inscriptiuu was Imuul, and here a worked monolith is an 
undoubted remnant of antiquity. 

The whole sea-face of the Gradiua is fronted Ly a modern 
dry wall, within whicli are the walls of the older enceinte. To 
the north-cast are two musses, apparently turrets, while various 
tall outstanding buildings, mere ^shells and shreds of cut stone 
and iime, ris«- from the vini'vanl tu the south. Wo noticed a 
number of ancient remains built u[i in the dry wall, such as the 
volutes of a capital and the jiediment of an altar. Nearly 
opposite the YeUnin,* the little maritime powder-magazine, 
built not by the but by the Austrians, is the trunk of 
a statue, fine Carrara-like marble, feet 5 inches (Austrian) 
in height, with toga nnd sandals, the latter ap|)arently un- 
finished. It was foun<l about 15 years ago in tljo Pudestas 
pruperty; and possibly it adorned the fonun or the portico 
referred to l>y the insoiption. Tlie arms are broken ofl^ and 
the head, buugbt with five florins, they Siiy, Avas sent to Vienna 
by M, Hoflman, a classical cnptain in the army. At the eastem- 
luost betid of the same wall, there is a torso of smaller size, 
also clothed : its imperfect condition masks to the non-profes- 
aional its style and dale. 

From the Gradina we walked to the Point and CVmvent f>f 
S. Girohimo, nowa natural mole projecting from north to south, 
fronting the city and defending the'St^mza, or dock, to its west. 
Accorditig to tradition and appeanuices, it was an island : the 
narrow channel connecting it with the mainland, and once 
bridged over, has been filled up by time, whilst around it there 

nre traces of a similar subsidence, — a movement not confined to 
Lissa. We failed to find the subrtqneous mosaics mentioned 
by Fortts (IL 5, § 1, p. 102), and repeated by Ulascheic (p. 114 
'' Manual for 1873 ') ; but the northern shore shows beneath 
the water large cut stones, supposed to be a mole. A shell of 
Roman theutre, with the arc opening southwards, forms the 
terrace of the convent-hospital : the solid masonry at once 
strikes the eye, and the large stones conceal a core of hard 
rubble bedded in mortar. The latter was mixed with the 
usual coarse gravel, and in places we remarked the bits of 
pounded brick, which in England are held evidences of Itomaa 

The convent is rich, and its tenants, the Minori Osservanti. 
have large estates upon tlie island. Don Girolamo Marinkovic, 
the Padre txuardiano, showed us with some pride a " veritable 
pepper-plant " growing in the garden. It proved to be the 
pepper-tree of Gibraltar (Schcemis moUis), a veiy different 
affair, probably introduced by Bill Smith. We also visited 
the monimieiits of the thirty-six artil!ery-raen and marines 
killed under Tcgetthoff". The latter were covered by a 
lion couchant, of tasteful work, by the sculptor Botinelli, 
domiciled at Trieste. The Italians seem to have thrown 
their sliells witJiotit much discrimination: several of the 
missiles, still unexploded, were rolled by the eiiildren down 
the hill-sides, and some fatal accidents followed the bombard- 

We had not time to exhaust all the memorabilia of Lissa. 
D. Apollonio Zan^dlii recommended a visit to a tumulus cixlled 
Stavelo, the {J-ace of rest, on the south-eastern shore, near the 
Valle Riidrt, or the Mine. He spoke also of the Cavenia 
di Pretisjana, near Taleska Bay. which we shall presently 
sight on the mid-southern length of the island, a double 
feature, whose westtirn section may contain traces of pre- 
historic man. Above that poitlet also are found, on a coniciil 
hillock, scatters of cut stones, possibly balongiug to an older 
<lay. Many of them were used by Signor Topich in 18ti(j, when 
building the tower whicli served as a co)'ps-de-garde. For 
additional information he referred us to I). Pietro Borcie» 
Parroco of Comisa tomi ; to D. Simeone Pietric ; and to D. An- 
tonio Mardossic. who lives upon his own property inland. 
Even the vulcanism of tlie Cumisa district deserves study. 
Fortis * heard of igneous matter ; the people talk about con- 
glomerate of lava at the Scogbo Brusuik, alias Molisello ; and 

• Viaggio (ii. 5, § 1, n. 1G<5). He mentions Donati's ' Soggio d' Istorin Naturale 
^eir Admtioo,' and Iio Lore aliowa a wise scoptioal or scientific spirit. 

l^sit to Lissa and PeJaffota. 

my learned and excellent friend, the venerable Cav. Muzio 
de Tommasini," of Triest^e, found near Cornisa a dialla^to like 
that of Busi Island, and suspects trachyte. Dialla^ite is men- 
tioned also by Frana Ritter von Hauer (p. 368, * Die Geologie,' 
&c., Wien, i874). Finally tlie Coinisans show a deposit of 
{yypsum, which may have iJeen converted by heat from carbo- 
imUs into sulphate of lime. 

Part II. — Telagosu. 

L The Voyage ; Landing. — Early on September 23, 1876, La 
Pi'la^osa steamed out of Lissa to inspect the yuimgest and the 
liuest of the sixty lighthouses, with which Austria has provided, 
at a considerable expense, her Adriatic seaboard. Very lovely, 
even in the dimming scirocco, is the view from the mouth of 
glorious St. George's harbour. In front, distant some 12 miles, is 
Lesina, with its ex-French town and port, and its forts Napoleon 
and Spagnuolo: here low-lying, the island towers hign and 
broken to the east. Behind it rises the dark dorsum of rugged 
and roaring Brazza, " CaprLs laudata Biattia ; " while the con- 
tinental horizon-line shows the nick of liistorie Clissa, acro- 
polis of Salona ; the pyramidal buttresses of the Mossor (Mons 
Aureus), and its prolongation, the Biokovo, or White Mountain, 
whose pale and tormented brow is faintly streaked with azure 
light and bluer shade. When the sharp Maestrale (north- 
wester) has purged the air, the sun picks out everv feature with 
startling distinctness; and, as the last glories fade in the waning 
grey, the mountains become the wan and unsubstantial phan- 
toms of wliat they were, — imperial giants, robed in paqile and 
gold. Looking huckwards we see the ridge-line west of Lissa 
city, crowned by tlie two chapels of SS. Cosmo and Andrea. 
The Scotchman, being the taller, has been used for an ** optical 
telegraph ; " while '' AEonte Hum," the island-apex, backs, with 
its naked and couthless form, the fair scene of harbour, city, 
and busily slope. 

Beyond the jaws of St. George we pass to port a low white 
rock, "La Vacca," whose two "Manzetti", (bull-calves) wo 
had sighted when making Lissa. Beyond it, to starboard, 
stand Le Strazziiie, tall cliffs, jagged and abrupt, upon whose 
Beadashed base, during an Ostro-Scirocco (south-south-easter), 
an English man-of-war narrowly escaped wreck, ^vitb the loes 

* Since these liiiee were writiteo, mj cxcoUont friend died fiill of yean and of 

Burton'* Visit to Lissa and Pelagosa. 175 

of ber masts. Between this wall and the Promontore, the 
easternmost projection of the island, the inclines wear a coat of 
lighter and livelier fjreen. Our Lissan companions remember 
the days (July 18-20, 1866) when the hill-sides were aflame 
with the shells vomited by siiips and batteries. While tho 
Becond great naval battle of Lissa was fought about 10 miles to 
the north, here the land preserves many a memorv of the 
English victory. Beyond the Bij^ht of Stroncica,* translated the 
" little Apj^yrodi)" or landing-place, we were shown the position 
of the submerged rock, upon which Captain Hoste, by lx)ld jmd 
skilful tactics, succeeded in grounding his dangerous enemy, 
La Favorite, the forty-gun frigate of the gallant Commodore 
Bernard Dubonrdieu. Here the latter, together with his 
Captain and a crowd of the crew, assembled on the forecastle to 
board tho Amphion, were killed by the discharge of a " brass 
S^-incli howitzer, loaded with 750 balls." It is well to 
"BEMEMnEH Nelson," but I hope that some future James will 
do more justice to the memory of the brave French sailor.t 
Off that bight, now called " Little Smokova," in Italian " Porto 
Figueira," where the Torro Telegrafiea now stands, La Favorite^ 
commanded, after hor double disaster, hy Colonel Alessandro 
Gifflengn, with an Easeigne de Vaisseau to work her, was set on 
fire, and at 4 p.m. " blew up with a great explosion," Some of 
her guns, they say, are stiil to be seen under water. 

Beyond the fine lighthouse which garnishes the Promontore 
di Lissa, and the "Great Smokova" bight, we sighted the islets 
forming a false coast along the eastern and south-eastern 
shores. The first is tho "Greben" {PcdinesW a name and a 
feature equally common in the Dalmatian Seas; bare rocks 
with comb-like crests, and bluft' to the windward where the 
Si'irocco breaks. Next comes the distorted triangle Budicovac, 
a two-hilled well-wooded dot tenanted by vino-cultivators : the 
unfortunate Emperor Maximilian had thoughts of buying it, 
and probably ho was not its first admirer, a^^ two Koman coins 
liave been fuund there. One of our party, tmnslating the name 
" Become thou " (budi) " a smith " (kovac), argued the presence 
of metal, possibly of mines. But the learned D. Apollonio ex- 
plained the title as '• La Sentinella " from buditi, to wake, to 
Keep awake, either because the fishermen here postetl a man 
to look out for squalls, or because the ground is high compared 
with the little Zaule (Sleep I), the low rock to the west. I was 

* Id Ibe Hydrog. Map also Stoni^ira, prolmblj a local corrnptioa of Stioncicii, 
a. rni. <Hiii. of Strana, si'le, flank, sU>|>c. 

t 'Naval Hialory,' vol. v. pp. 253-5ti und o.'il-53. 

J The generic Slav word reappears in tbe ItalLin " grt'jipi," precijiitous cliffs. 


176 Burton's Visit to Lissa and Pelagoaa, 

romiuded of a great Istrian antiquary who found at Castel 
Venere a stone bearing 

M. M. C. P. F. ; 

and incontinently rpndered it "Marcus Metallua Ciiji Filius 
Fecit." It was tlie old tale of "Bill Stumps liis Mark;" a 
peasjint seeing the citizen carefully copying the legend, ex- 
plained it as the work of bis father, and read Mintro Marco 
Coceito fese (feci, fecit) /«re. 

South-west of Budicovac lies the Scoglio Ravnik ('* flat 
rock "), an arid levtil whose only claim to Jiotice ia a veritable 
groiia Azurra. Dr. Coglievina {loc. cit, p. 395) describes it as a 
tunnel in the limestone cliff, with a two-arched entrance formed 
by a natural column ; and with a remarkably regular interior 
about 40 feet wide, into which the magical light penetrates by 
a spiracle, opened in the dome as if by the hand : he declai'es 
that in the poetic days of the Greeks this grot would have 
become a bower for the Nereids, Steaming nearly due south, 
we left to starboard, and south-west of Lissa, the tall islet-rock 
Busi: here some 30 — 40 Corydous feed their sheep and goats, 
living on milk and fish, a leprous diet^ and on bread and wine 
sent by their employers. Further to the north-west, and 
18 miles distant from Comisft, rises the Scoglio Bnisuik (the 
Whetstone) or Molisselo, famed for u peculiar linard with a coat 
like black velvet. Two and a-ha!f miles to w.N.vv. of it is 
S. Andrea, possibly the Pityeia of the old Greek poet ; rich in 
ilices and junipers, it still bears the Pinus maritimus. Here 
also live a few shepherds, not without danger, as seveu were 
carried oft' by a storm-wave on December 2, 1869. An ugly 
deed is connected vvitli this skerry. Shortly after our evacuation 
of Lissa (1815) an English vessel was wrecked on the Kajola 
Kock olf Pelagoga, and the crew, ttiking to their boat, made 
Saint Andrew's isle; where the skippers belt, supfiosed to con- 
tain gold, caused the murder of all hands, except a boy, whose 
witness led to detection. The criminals died in jail : " carcere 
durissimo," with its bi-weekly flogging, was certain doom in the 
days of the " paternal government j" and even now it seldom 
outlasts the tenth year. Last and westernmost of the scatter, 
12^ direct geographical miles w.N.w. from St. Andrea, is Porno, 
the Apple, a barometer Avhich rises from the sea only in the 
finest weather. 

A glance to port shows us lumpy Curzola (Korkyra melaiue). 
Hereabouts the Venetians were defeated, with the loss of 66 
galleys and 7U00 men, by the Genoese (Sept. 8, 129G), when 
ii certain Measer Marco Hiillioni (Milione) was taken prisoner. 
Backed by the lofty and weather-beaten peninsula of Sabbion- 

cello mih its Acroceraunian brow, it is protected southwards by 
Lagosta and dots of islets. The most westerly of the latter is 
La Cazza, the Ladle, and the name explains its(.'ir as we pass by '• 
the inverted bowl is the bare and dome-shaped northern hill, 
some 780 feet high, and the handle is the long low Point 
Gradiska, sloping tu the south-west and endinjLr in a dwarf bulge 
ujxju which a lij^hthonse is being built. A castle, mediteval and 
probably piratical, has left traces upon the slope of the quartz 
eminence;* and the barren-looking rock supports "pastors:" 
they are jiermitted to keep their favourite goats. 

We steam slowly, fur La Pdagosa, whoso maximum speed is 
9-2 knots, rolls heavily imiler the Sch-oeco with sea abeam ; and 
about half-way between the islands, our destination begins to 
rise from the blue bosom of the waves, in the siiape of a rndi- 
montal turret-ship, a lumpy line crowned by a point. Presently 
it developes itself into a regular profile. l>L>ginning from the 
east are the two small jagged rocks, the Kaniik Tormentone,! 
and behind it tin; Scoglio Ostre (southern); further west is a 
comparatively largo dome, the Mala or Piccia P«dagosa; and 
westernmost, its occidental outJiers being hardly visible, rises 
the Pela^ijosa, a long dorsum of dark rock, culminating, when it 
faces the setting sun, in the " Castello," a tine pyramid about 
lUO feet high, and cruwned with the imposing Pharos. There is 
naught around it but sea and air ; notntng to give a measure 
of comparison ; and, despite the Juimblo altitudes the aspect of 
the "Ocean-isle" is at once grandiose and picturesque. 

Before lauding, we will briefly note what has been written 
concerning Pelagosa.^ Ancient history ignores it, either on 
account of its situation, or, possibly, making it au outlier of the 
Diomcdcao (Tremiti) group. We can liardly connect the 
name with the Macedonian Pelagonis bMinding lllyria,§ nor 
with our ohi friends the Pelasgi or Pelargoi (archaic Greeks). 
The word suggests an Italian, not a Latin, derivation from 
niiXa7o<f,|| the latter word being used in these seas; for in- 
stance "fcj. Giovanni in Pelago," the miraculous island aoutli 
of Rovigno. But we are unable to tix U[ion the date at whicii 
it was given. 

* A plan }tfu) been Htipplied k» me by the kindness of M >I. Toi>ich ; but I prefer 
not to d( soribe the mtc lict'iTf making n pereondl itiafH'Cti'tJi. 

t A local corruption of "* Tnimuntana,' the iinrtlj wind. 

t It should rather be calUid Lc Pelnj^cwe, as tLu two main features are quite 
diitinot. James {Uk. cit. ji. 2.')i!) cgjla it " Pcldgosii,'' but he also transfofius 
(p. :;l(<3i PurcDZo into a feminine " Pareiizu." 

§ Strabo, rii. c, 7, § 8, tc. : Livy, xlv. 29 ; Pliny, iv. 17, Jtc 

II Utherwise, the form woulii bci the classical " iVIujiia " (ir«X<i>ia" or Pelagicii 
(■KthayiKo.), meiiningtho Jlarimi; us " pelagia concha," the Bbell-iisb that produced 


17S BuiiTOs'* Visit U> Lissa and Pclagosa. 

Our principal modem authority is the A 
§ 1, p. 162), whose de?cri|)tioji, slightly abri<lgpd, is as follows. 
"The isliind of Pelagosa. lies (!() miles from Lissn, and a little 
more or less from the promontory of 8. Angela in Tuglia 
(Apulia).* The main rock, and the smaller features wliich rise 
from the eea in its neighboiirliood, nre remains of an ancient 
volcano. I would not assure you that it has sprung from the 
waters like many other parts of the Archipelago, although this 
is suggested by the silence of the oldest geogmj)I)ers. Ap[ia- 
rently it should not have been contiiised witli the Diomedean 
group (the Tremiti), distant some 30 roilea, yet this confusion 
may possibly have taken pdace. The Java which forms the 
skeleton of tJi^ island most resemhles the commonest matter erupted 
htj Vesuvius, as far as we could judge when sailing along it,\ 
If some naturalist would visit its highest points we might learn 
whether it has been thrown up by a snlmiarino volcano, like 
the islet near Sauterini (Santorin, of uld Tliera) in our days; 
or whether it was the summit of some ancient cone of eruption, 
whose roots and slopes were buried in the waters when the 
Strait of (Gibraltar was fortued, an invasion wliich cannot be 
doubt eil by those who liave examined the bottoms and the 
coasts of our seas. Tlie fishermen of IJssa declare that violent 
eartliquakes are often felt there; J and this would apjiear from 
the uspeet of the ishmd which is rugged, ruinous^ and broken 
into trHgments." 8o far Fortis, who has teen CLtpied and mis- 
copied into those mines of errors, popular Cyclopaidias and 

* The Abate loMatirea by the short Italian mile of 4000 feat, not the Austrian 
of G<KiO, aud ill pun'ly tO]>ogra[iliicciI luutt^Tii he ia not nlwHVM trustworthy. 

t Tlio itulira arc miiic. Aa will be seco, i\w !^igTli3 of viiK-imiMu at I'eiogoaa 
nro rnthcr lait-ut than strikiug. The learned Abutu hud a iKTwmal kiiowU-dije *>t 
^■e3llvitw, and, sw ho taki.s cjire to sfato, ho only tailed j.»ast Fc^liigosB. In luaKinj; 
\\n6 und otlier k'-B-luri-s cninpanilivfly m(xl«.>rii, Lhut ii jifter Iho date of tbo 
i|;i"ioiil j^tograjjhei^, be wfus giiidtsl by thu opinionfl of hiit duy and the eramis- 
ri:r-i;.;tiod by bis Church to the "Creation." 

X Wu shull SCO fiital sij^s of these niovcments the moment we land. 

§ Kiii;,'lil's ■CyolciiKKlitt of Geography ' (llrudbuiy iind Kvoiiii, I8SG): J. R. 
■M'l.''3 ' Dictiduury ■ (Longumas, 180J), nnd ■the ICngl. Trtms. of Lnvnlk't! 
(Sin/ifoid, 1KG8), olcau ignort- it. Fullarton'a ' tJazeltoer of the Wurld ' (lx>nd<Tii, 
isr)(i), »fty*<, '• Pelagosa or IVIlngosa, a sinnll desert isle of the Adriatic, I'i milra 
boiith-west of Liijjosta laland ; iiud 'i'Z (rtad 2€j miles from the coast of the 
Ciipituiiata in N. Lat. 42° 21* 30" (read 42<^ 23* 44") und K. Lont;. (G.> 
l(j'^ Id' 50". It \A siirrouiido<l (reail "l>oidi3ve<l l<» the enst, to tho west iilid to tha 
Huutb, (he north btiii^' clear ") by duogerfnis recks, of whic-h the i>ribeijittl (!*•- 
Imblv iho "Kajola,' Noric'a Cajohi) is iu N. Lut. \'i'^ 21' ond E. Long. 't«.) 
IG"^ li)' ^Norie, N. L«t. ^^ 23' uud E. Long. 17° 22'). It ullorfl« flue nmrblo " (the 
only (oarbles are a few iaii>orttil fragmuuU«). The latest reference, iu A, Keitii 
Jolinijtone's 'Dictionary of Geography' (Mew edition, Ixmdon. Longmnus, 
18«^), thuB runs : " I'elugtwia is a deeort island ia the Adriatic Soft, midway (» 
rnngh coinpntutiou) between tho Promontory of Gargiuio, South Italy "and 

Burton'* Visit to Lissa andPdagosa. 179 

It may be as well here to state at once the conclusions to 
whicli our researches led. Tho sea about Pelajjosa, bein^ 
abnormally rich in fish, naturally attracted honest labour, and 
the latter, pirates and water-thieves. One of the finds suggests 
that it was a battle-field and a burial-ground for men of the 
Stone Age. It is not without signs of Etruscan occupation ; 
and it was regularly inhabited by the Romans, Pagan and 
Christian : almost all their remnants seem to be sepulchral, as 
if they had converted the rock into a cemetery.* From docu- 
ments still preserved in the archives of Lesina, we learn that 
during the supremacy of Venice (thirteenth century), the noble 
Lusignano house of Slavogosti, being exiled by the " Serenissima 
Republica," took refuge in the Rock and there built a stronghold. 
These fugitives practised every manner of oppression upon the 
hapless fishermen till their den of thieves was razed to the 
ground by the suzerain power. Probably to these days we 
must refer the ten skulls and the heap of bones in the Topich 
Collection. All are comparatively modem, and show the 
orthographic-brachykephalic form with prolongation of the 
parietal bones, except a lower jawbone f almost petrified, 
with the roots of four teeth converted into a friable yellowish 

When the coast was clear of Corsairs, the fishermen of 
Lissan Comisa built, upon the central plateau, a rude little 
chapel dedicated to St. Michele. Pelagosa was claimed by 
the kingdom of Italy, which occupied it provisionally; and 
retired only when the Comisani proved their rights by pro- 
ducing ancient documentary evidence. The trigonometrical 
bench-mark, dated 1869, shows that it is now under Austrian 

After these preliminaries we . proceed to land. The usual 
course lies to the west of Pelagosa, outside three detached fangs, 
the Manzetti, in Slav Volio ; % and the navel-like Scoglio 
Pampano or Perpak : they are separated by a deep-sea channel 
from Point Kapic, on the main feature. On the south-western 
flank of the Castello block towering above us, we remark a 
sloping plainlet grown with Artemisia : here, as will be seen, 

* The distance from Lissa and the other larger islands may suggest diffluultics : 
but we arc not without example. Fortis (i. 4 § 7, pi». 1G4-65), when describing 
llie Scoglietto di S. Stefano, west of Sebenico, explains tho presence of Boman 
tiles, urns, and mortuary inscriptions, ono of the latter robbed of its bronze 
letters, by the fact of its having been a Sepolcreto " according to the praiseworthy 
customs of the ancients who, wiser than the moderns, removed far from their 
Settlements the corruption of corpses and thus prevented the dead injuring the 

t Found in the Cava or new quarry, as will presently appear. 

X Plural of Voliki, a bull-calf; from Vol, an ox. 

N 2 

180 BmTON'u Visit to Lisaa and Pelagosa. 

•were found tmces of habitation. After 5 hours 30 minntes of 
slow progress, we passed to port tlie " Zufli " (Prongs), twO' 
eharp and comb-like ridges of sea-blackened limestones, trendiog^ 
nearly north — south, and rising Kheer from the clear depths of 
blue and green. We left to starboard the dangerous Karoik, 
Sasso or Stone, which, viewed from above, resembles not a little 
the " Dog-rock," at the mouth of the Lycus River of Baynit. 
It is also called Sika or Sikka, a corruption of the Italian 
" Sicca " (shoal), and must not he confounded with the Secca 
]\[ina to the south of Little Felagosa. Between the two main 
islets lies " breeches rock," the Gace, or f?cogIio Braghe,* and, 
finally, some 3^ geographical miles to the s.s.e., lies another 
rock, awash and separated from the main feature by a clear 
deep channel. This is the Kajnla, ji' Slav corniption of La 
Galliola (= galiggiante, tho floating); and here the English 
merchant-craft was wrecked. 

To the north of the " Dog-rock " lies the southern landing 
place, the Zalo,t meaning Spioggia or beach ; a strip of shingle 
about 100 yards long, which can hardly accommodate more 
than ten to twelve fishing-boats. They nnist transfer them- 
selves to tho north-west, when the dangerous Scirocro blows, at 
times raising the water 15-2 feet above its normal level; this 
fierce south-easter has thrice washed away the solid bit of stone 


landing-pier. The peouliarity of the Zulo is the perfectly 
rounded sliajie of the water-wnshed pebbles : some are regular 
as old muskfit-balls, and have been carried off by the fisherman 
to serve as " bnccie '* or bowls. 

The east end of *' the Strand " is called Pod-forano, referring 
to its being under the Lusignani. Here, about a century ago, 
4 or 5 smacks belonging to the rival island were drawn up, and 
the crews were aslnire, when 20 — 25 of them were crushed to 
death by a rock-slip, the result, they say, of an earthquake. 
Since that time the people of Lesina have abandoned the Zalo 
to the Comisans. Strong retaining walls of masonry have been 
built to prevent such accidents ; but the cliff in places overhangs, 
and we were shown a boulder which had lately fallen upon the 
shingle beyond tiie defence. Nothing, indeed, can look more 
unsjite than the foundation of X\m' island generally : the insecure 
base, as throughout the Arcbipelngo, and many parts of the 
coast, is a stratum of schist, here slalo-blue, there ochre-yeUow, 
which crumbles when dry, and which melts and becomes soppy 

• On tlie S. Froncisco River I Tound n cacbfieini or mpiil cal!ed Tiru-calcoen» 
— i.e. " Take oft" your drawer*" (for oiisier swimmmgi. 

t Po jdonounce'I and writton : a iii ire correct foriu is '/a\\ or Zalo (ZLal, ZLalo), 
accflsl, bank. 


■wlien the rains drain down to it through the fissurcs from above. 
TTpoii this luoso argillacuous formation is built the totterinj^ 
wall of limestone aua of hard siliceous breccias. Tlie first aspect 
suggests that some day Pelagosa may sink as suddeuly as it 
is supposed to have risen. 

We will reserve for a future day a careful inspection of the 
«ite8 where the " iinils " appeared ; and at once proceed to lodge 
ourselves at the Lighthouse. X zigzag of U ramp^i, the jiaiuful 
and laborioiw work of the last three years, leads from the Zalo 
to the summit of the cliff, and here we find the platfoitn of 
.S. Ulichele, some I Go feet more, exactly ii5 metf es above sea- 
level, and tlie only flat bit of building-ground on the upper 
island. A few yards of strada d'accesso, or level road, lead to 
the second or short zigzag of three rampa, which ascends *' 11 
Castello," the turret of the "last Austrian ironclad." This was 
the fisherman's nanie for the tall castellated mass which forms 
the west end of. the island ; the apex of the conil) or ridge, 
rising 332 feet above-sea level, bluff to the south, and of gentler 
inclination northwards. It was hardly accessible when the 
Pharos was planned ; and the works began by laying out tho 
zigzag, and by cutting off 3 or 4 feet from the head to gain a 
level. Tho material, a dark flinty limestone, was mistaken for 
gneiss and granite; the fracture is subcouchoidal ; it melts in 
nitric acid, leaving a residuum of silex-graius ; it is generally 
nnfossiliferous, and its character suggests exposure to great 

The Pharos, whicli is perliaps the best on this coast, was built 
by 8ig. Antonio Topioh, a eontract^ir whose name is associated 
only with hard and honest work. The engineer was M. Kichard 
Hiinisch, who enlarged the plans and carried out the works pre- 
pared in the oflicu of the President of the lifaritime Govera- 
ment, Trieste. He began his local studies in 1874, and he 
visited the island six times, some visits lasting three weeks. 
The first stone was laid on May 19, 1S74, and the average number 
of hands employed was about one hundred. The estimates 
asked florins r)t>,000 ; but unforeseen difliculties raised the 
sum to 85,000; uot including 62,000 francs for the lighting 
apparatus, and 18,000 francs for its iron dome and other 
necessaries. Thus the construction, of admirable strength, cost 
only about 12,000/. It was first lighted on September 20, 1875 : 
its orbit covers 5U0 square kilometres, and it ia equally visible 
from the Pharos of Lagosta Island, and from that of Italian 
Viesti upon the Promontory of Monte Gargano. The apparatus 
is of the latest construction, and nothing can be more [lictu- 
resque than the etyht broad rays of light cleaving, like swords, 
the glooms gathered around. 


The only inhabitants of the island are the employes of tho 
Liphthonse, 5 assistants anil 2 women. All their siijipliea are 
imported, even water: the lust item costs some 2000 iiorins 
per annum. We fuuufi large and coml'urtcible rooms; and passed 
thtire the four days between Saturday and Monday, whilst the 
steamer retired from the open uud unsafe anchorage to Lissa, 
We hud reason to be grateful to M. M. Topieb, ^vno had the 
happy thought of carefully preservinpf, despite a hundred diffi- 
cmtit^s, every remnant of antiquity whieh was unearthed by the 
workmen, and to Sf. Hiinisi -h who, when not officially employed, 
accompanied u's on our several sbort excursions, and showed the 
volue of extensive local knowledge. To the lattei" jrentlemaa I 
also owe fit.ime admirably drawn maps and plans; and I only 
hope that he will be persuaded to lithograph his novel 
and beautiful sketches ot the curious scenes wnich Pelagosa 

JI. Ohsf.rvali<mi> on Natvrul History at Pehufosa. — Pelagosa, occupying ft 
neutral tract between the DaltuRtian and the Womodean Archijx'lngos, is so 
little known to tlie reading world, tliat jicrhaps it will be advisable, befcav 
describing its antiquarian yields, to offer tbe r^ults of onr natiinvlists' four 
•lays' gleanings. The account must bo short, sn thtro are no books to borrow 
from; and the ntise-en-schie may be intorestiiif;, because in many points the 
islftDd is a new world iijion a small scale; exceptional, and differing in 
climate, in geology, in flora, and perhajis in fiiuna, from all ita Daliuatian 

The silflj as baa been shown, is in the heart of the Ttfmperates (n. Lat. 
4ii° 23' 44"). The distance from Lissa Port is 40 direct geographical * miles, 
and 37 — 38 IVoin tlie nearest soulh-wcstem point ; 291 miles {^art it from the 
Italian coast (Viesti, on the Garganian prouiontory) ; 37 from the Tremiti, or 
Diomedean Archipelago; and 62 from the inainlami nf Daimatia, the Adriatic 
being about 80 miles brood on this parallel. The form resembles upon the 
ma[i that of a rooiistroHs iiah, with the head to I he west, inclining a few 
degrees nortliuanl, and a well-defined fluke or forked tail to the, with a 
liltlf' Koutliing. The point of camld juucliou, calle*! " 11 Confin," is an ugly 
knifeboard of crumbliug yellow rock, with a precipitous fall on either side. 
The area of the larger feature is 349,000 sfiuarc yards, or 723 acres, or 
bi'lfi Austrian "Jugeri Cadastrali ;" the smaller is of 41,712 square miles, 
or 8*G acres, or 6'5 " Jocks." The maximum length of Great Pelagosa, from 
K.8.K. to w.N.w. is 1390 rafetres. The great<3wt breadth of the b^e is 270 
metrf.s, diminishing to 93 at " 11 Confin ;" aud the average height of the 
jftggeil crest is between 60 and 70, rising to aliove 100 at the Caatello. The 
Scirocco, tynmt of these seas, has converted the whole southern face, except 

at the "Zalo,"into a stiff and broken cliiT-vvall, with dcntilatcd head, and 
liicc corroded, channelled, and tunnelled into a thousanul different forms. The 
northern side, seldom troubled by the Bom, is a dorsum of comparatively 
gentle slope, becoming more inclined and rocky as it descends seaward, where 
tbe bare fawn-coloured Calcaire is blackened by the washings of the ever- 
restle»8 sea. The upjwr parts are clad with shallow brown humus, scattered 
stones, and thin vegetation : the chocolate colour of the soil at once attracts 

* In Austria there are 15 nteilmi to the degree; the same is the caae with tho 
Germanic mile. 

Visit to Lissa and Pchffosa. 

notice, after the red coilb of IstriA aud Daltnatia. About the eut cad of the 
island, as is also the caae in Little Pelagosa, then.* are cavea, hoilowa, atul 
fis«vire«; and tliose opening with upper spiracles, when the wateru oxpH-l llie 
compressed air, prixiuce ouifused nud jiruluiigod kturus, lilie the rooans u\ \m\\ 
— Uit^brious ncconipaiiiments to Ihc ruugU we^ithtr of a slorru-liished wintry 

'ITie meteorology of the rock ttpjiears to Ix* wholly exceptional, and I have 
ventured to suggest to my energetic frieud, Prosideiit Albcr, the ndvisixbility 
of supplying the Liphthouso with instruments and forms for regular records. 
As we approach it the air of the Mediterrancrtu apixars to lose splendour, and 
the lively light is suddenly exchanged for an aahuu hue, especially about the 
horizon. Too small to attract clouds, i'elagosa is, in popular laag\iagt), a 
Spartivento^ or '* split-wind," like the cajx; called Clear, in cloudy Ireland. You 
Bee tbe stontns furiously raging a few miles oil" to right and left, and the rains 
deluging the Dalmatian and Apulian 8hore»<. You feel an absolute stillue&s^ 
reiuindlDg yon of the ■ndpara yairjs : — 

Tpirtp Pitiful) Ptorii iriKfi iwBp^oiirtr 

Ov ft^trbs, otr' hp x<'^uv vuAiit oCrt iror' ififipos 

'AAA' altl 2,t<pipoto Ktyi/ nytioirrat a^at 

'CKtafhs dflt\(Tiv dsa ^vx"*' dt/Optirrout. — Odys. IT. 563. 

It is a surjiHsc, after the cruel climate of Trieste, which — the reverse of 
Cfilifomia, whose winter is Mny, and whoso siminior is only June — combines 
the winter of Iceland with the sninnier of Bombay ; wlnjse Bora, the alterna- 
tive of the wet and gloomy Sclrocco, blows a hurricane worthy of Antillean 
Saint Tliomas, overturning carts, and rcquirin.; ropes along the quay to prevent 
the inhabitants being blown into the sea j and whose only alternatives are the 
Contmste, when the north-easter and south-caster meet aud fight for mastery, 
and the Provtnzn, when the weather hesitates which of the two courses to 
take. Hence the annual avera:^e of morUlity rises to 40 per 1000, nearly 
doubling that of Loudon.* At Pelagosa the Bora does not tyrannise over the 
cold season ; and the Scirocco, after blowing for a few hours, either falls off to 
the west, or becomes a gale (^/orln/m). During twenty-nine mouths only four 
or five showers fell, and the dew, as iu the fabled Garden of Eden, does its 
nightly duty by the ground. Even in the hot se.ison calms are rare, lasting 
only for a few days ; and the inland is ever f.umed by s*jme gentle breeze. It 
is a popular saying that n<ithing ever falls overboard ; some gust catches your 
hat and carries it back to deck. The sick, transported from the coast, speedily 
recover, and hitherto the employe's have not known what sickness is, finally, 
lest eternal perfection should become hateful, the occasional thunderstorms 
arc of terrible violence. The solitary rock seems to attract them, like the Oil 
Regions of the Unite<l States, where the tanks are ao often stnick and destroyed, 
I enclose a Memoir f and illustrations, by M. Hanisch, of a Gewittcr, accora- 
I>anied by a s.s.w. gale and diluvial rain, which broke over the island at 
TM. 0° 45' on April 17, 1876. The "thunderbolts," discharged with a terrible 

• I know only one city in Eum|)e, Rotterdam, where this figure is exceeded, 
But the olintato of Trifste is not the only fiictor in the sum ; thf others are t!»e 
vile hard water charRed with lime, nud the »t«te of the old Unvn, which lins 
literally no drains. Tlie former evil can hardly bo remedied : there is no soft water 
in the neighbourhood. The latter can hv wholly ehungod by widening to donWe 
their breadth the androne, or cuU-de-^ir, ond tlie close alloys whioh represent 
streets; by laying down sewers for the impuritic? which now fester in t)ie houses; 
and by the gtneral "abolition of rookeries" — the latter foul aa the "ooudemuod 
loailitiea " of Birmingham. 

t " Wirkuogi'n eines Blitzseblagea anf der Inael Pelagosa." Eatratto dal 
'BollcltiQO dcUe Scieoze natural!,' N. 2, Annutu ii. (Trieste, 187(>)> 


184 Bchton'* Visit to Litsa and Pclagosa. 

detonation amidst a sheet of viulet-coloured flame, eeem to bare fallen in 
buuches, or gerbs. The ]>luliuiim point of the lightnin2-rod, IIG mfetres 
above Bca-levcl, wa« fused for Italf of it* total length (three centimbtres), 
without, liowever, the rest of tlie conihictor being damnged. A fragroent 
from one of tlie stone stcjw was xtruck off, and the souib-westera angle of 
the two outer walls wna bored through. We were shown a>i iron-bound 
deal box, npon which the fluid had described the most curious figures; 
whiUt another, containing tow, was carbonised externally, but its in- 
fiamniable store remained uninjured. A hammer and a hatchet showed 
llic line of passage, esjieciuUy at the edges, by fusion, which partly con' 
verted the straight lines into funiforni excrescences about the size of ]>efts. 
More curious still, the lijilituing jiassed diagonally through some twenty 
cans of jjetroleuin, placed at different intervals, and Bciittorwl the com- 
btistible contents without setting them on fire. Lastly, about 10 mitres 
from the latter place the " thunderbolt" had discharged itself into the live 
rock of fiiliciou» limestone, cutting a cleft half a mdtrc in depth. The 
whole of thi» channel was carbonised to a sooty black, as though a mine had 
been sprung. 

During our utay at rel.igofla the weather was mostly gloomy, ajiparcnlly 
threatening a (itonn, and tlie cm])loyt^s of the Ligbthouee dcclari-d that the 
first tl.ish of liglitning woald drive them to the harcicke upon tlic lower plat- 
form. In April the a.ssist.niit, who was standing upon the lower step of 
the main door, wjis thrown to the ground, where he remained aeniseless, and 
imconscions of the loud detonation. After a few minutes ho recovered, and 
felt a dull pain in the right nrm, hip and foot, whith, however, soon diaap- 
IHSired. Entering the building he found the wife of one of the light-watchera 
creeping on all-fours, and almost out of her raiud with friglit. She also soon 
recovered. The third assistant, who w.ts in the gmnnd-floor kitchen, near the 
l>elroltimi-nia;:azine, conjplaiuetl of a lancing pain in the big toe of his right 
foot; and a [kaintcr belonging to the house, though accustomed to the sprin;iing 
of mincN, tied to the lower ludgings, and did not return home till compelled by 

The geological formation of Pelagoea is peculiar and exceptional as \\a 
meteorology, di tiering from that of all its neighbours and uf the coast; and 
showing within narrow limits an abnormal annnint of convulsion. The 
Adriatic, trendint: north-west to south-east in a basin of nearly eijual breadth, 
whose axis is snbtendfd on either side by sinjiliir orograjihic syntema, the 
J^ihurno-Daluintian chain to the east, and the A|>ennines on the west; and 
thus forming a gulf unlike any other in the Meditemiuean, is usuallj' dis- 
tributed into three basins. A line of rocks and shoals jasses tlirough the 
"Kfljola," relagoftii, Piamisa and the Trend ti Archipelago to the Tromontory 
of Monte Gnrgano, whilst there is the deeiiest water to the north and south. 
Our island forms apparently pnrt of a volcmic curve, iH>s3ibly a circle, whose 
plutoniajn is hardly yet exlmustcd. To the north, Lissan Comisa sliows 
diallaglte, au augitic pyrogenons alliance, which jirobnbly enters into the 
formation of Ihisi Islarnl, and in the Ibnner place it supjiorts gyi>suni-lnxis, 
which suggest that tlio direct action of sidphurous vapinrH lias converted the 
carbonate into sulphate of lime.* To tiie k.N.k. is Meleda Island, whose 
detonations, esi»cially those of 1823, 1824 and 1825, are now explained by 
volcanic causes; eastward is Ragusa, where a terrible earthquake iu 16G7 
buried some oO^O of the inhabitants ; the neighbouring islands are also 
subject to this phenomenon, and the calcareous highlands of Dahnatia 
when examined carefully will proliobly, like those of Svaia, show many 
detached tracts of pkitouism. To the south-west again are the Tremiti 

• In the Muscft Civico of Trieste are three drawers full of fossils and geo- 
logical sjieciniens, in some of which this change may be noticed. 



Bcbton'* Visit to Lissa and Pelar/osa. 

structares analogous with Pclagosa: liere, on May 15th, 1816, an eruption 
which lasted otily seven hours, throw up pumice stoues and sulphurous laraa. 
The great ccutre of the movement may begin in the Aiwuninea bebiad 

Dr. de Marchesetti* ih di8i>osed to date the geDcsIx of Polagoaa to the 
rost-crotaoeous epoch when th;> plutonic action of the Eugtuieaus, the Emilia, 
Etruria andLatium, prolonged through the eoccnic oud mioceoic periods, gave 
the Italian peninsula the cocligxiration which still di^stinguisbes it. Accoi^ing 
to him, the j:reat depth of water around the rock would argue a sudden rise, 
like the imfietuouB emerj^ence of the Li bur no- Dalmatian rangtes in the 
cretaceous ejxich, Tliis perkxl, >is its strata prove, was one ot vehement 
dislocations, pRiduciny irregular fissures with extensive and profound dis- 
ruption, and contrasting strongly with tbo gentle upheaval of the Apennines 
ia the poat-cretaceous age.f 

The stmtographical succession is readily observed in the many transverse 
sections of our island, which ia utterly destitute of the granite, gucias, tufa 
(volcanic) and lava which were freely reported to exist. The strike of all the 
strata is from iiorth-eust to south-west, ami the dip varies from the almost 
horizontal to the quasi-iM<rpendiculnr. The base, shown along the whole 
southern wall and in the north-western i>ight, is a fine-grained schist, blue, 
and variegated, yullow-greenish, ami someliiues ochre-coloured, with oxides of 
iron; a marly clay, showing frequent fucoid impressions, and splitting into 
thin lamellar atnita with signs of deoomjiosilion. In ascending order upon 
this formation, e8|iecinlly on the southern |*art of the island, rest beds of 
gypsum, granular in the lower, and fibrous in the higher port, the upjior 
limit bt'ing uudeliued aud jhassiiiji; insensibly into the overlying maruose beds. 
But the mass of the island is a calcareous breccia, a rock which suggests that 
the disturbing actiun, at the cluse of ita existence, was sudden and powerful. 
The fragments of the once-coutinuous calcareous strata have been comminuted 
into every possible shajx.' ; and compacted by a tenacious dotomitic paste before 
the angles were bluuted. This breccia, suBiciently hard to strike fire, 
contains a qiiaiitity of true siles : the colour is dark brown, and the crevices 
are filled with red clay ; in places there is a partial crystallization or vitrifica- 
tion of the strata, which look as if revetted with obsidian. Nodules of volcanio 
petinite (retinasphalte) were found both in the breccia and in the nullipore 
limestones. The only fossil was an ammonite, whose septa had been obli- 
terate<l, rendering the .sjwcies undeterminiible. We also collected fragments 
of blue sandstone like steatite, and of sandstone enclosed in banded limestone, 
the c<jmmon effect of calcareous deposition. The breccia in the north-western 
boy is dyked with a line of yellow clay, like the " Cimento" of Pola. 

In the central part of the ii^land, the continuity of this breccia is interrupted 
by a large fissure trending cost — west aud presenting strata of different 
materials. These, beginning from below, are two beds of rod schistose clay, 
dipping gently from south to north, and separated by a layer of greenish 
schist. They are overlaid by two strnta, as n.sual, rich in fossils. The 
lower, varying from 1 to 2 metres in thickness, is an ocbraceous conglomerate 
of Pleiocenic age, showing Venus, Ostrea, Pocten, and other mollusks, with 
iiulli[)ore8. The upper,J measuring 2 to 5 metres, a granular limestone of 

* My companion read a valuable and highly applauded paiier on Pelagtwa 
Itefore the Sociela di Seionze Naturali iu Trieste (Nov. 6th, 187G), and it appeared 
in extoiiso in the ' Bolkttinn' of Jim.-Feb., 1877. 

t Similar signs of n riicular wave vf elevation, probably beginning at Monte 
■Garguiio, are t<i ho (ouml in the stnitificatiun of Pfismnn and Zuri Islands, near 
Sebeiiico, but the distimee is t<io gn-at to conuGct theso with Pula^osa. 

I Xot the lower, as OAsertod by Dr. G. Stuche, " (ieologiscbe Notizen ii1x;r dio 
Insel Pelagosa," p. \2'}, ' VerLandhmg der k. k. geolog. Hoichsanstalt,' 187U. 


BxrsetGS's Visit to Lissa and Pda^oga, 

chalky and tufoccoiis aspect, and coiitamlng mostly beltx, outcrops upon the 
Burfiice, and we shall trace it from tho Caiiu, or quarry to tho very 1«mu of the 
Oasttillo, This upper mineral, evidently much more motlum than the other, 
must be referred to the diluvial e]X)cli. 

The breccia which comfioses the charpenie of the island culminates in the 
Castello, where it becomes darker, more flinty, and more horaogcueous. The 
two lower courses of the lighthouse are built of this refractory mAterial, 
which blunted the tools, nnd which proved so expensive that the Contractor 
preferred importing his limestone fn>m " SjUjot" (liraziEa), the quarry used 
for Diocletian's jwlace at Spalato. About the junctuj-e uf the first and seooud 
ratniw of the .snort zig^a^ the breccia is traversed by a vein of the Ioobb 
Eoceiiie sandstone called, in Ititria, Tnsello, Masfgno, and Crostello. Near 
the aiiex the breccia becomes more jiorous, and it supplies the island with 
what little i<oil it has. 

Botanically considered, alw), we arc here in a Kmall new world, of which, as 
yet, no satisfiictory examination ha.s been made. The first Gommiasion, com- 
poscsl of the Councillor Muzio de Tommasini, Professor von Syrski, formerly 
ousto.s of the City Museum, ami Si<r. Michele Stossicli," reached the island OQ 
September 23rd, 1875. Dr. dc Marchcsetti's visit was in Sipteinlwr 26-29, 
1876. Tims tlic favourable season was mi.>*sed on Itoth occasions ; nnd only 
dilcttatili have made collections during the most propitious limes. 

Briefly to sketch the broad features of the Pela,;o8!in flora. There h an 
absolute want of tho trees and grejtarious shnibs of the Dalmatian and the 
Diomudean iblancis : we look in vain for the ilieos and jnnipors, the Illyrian 
oliveworts and arbutt (^ititcth = corhrzz'jio)f the rock-r»«ses or cisti, and the 
crica.s, which form the greater Jiart of the ncigldxuiriii;^ vegetation. The 
area is confined, and the flora is not easily recruited fruni abrotid ; hence the 
predominance of the families best suited to tho spot, and the small variety of 
forms. The rough and rijoky soil also limits the extension of gregarioua 
plants; and favours the difl"uaion of growths which, desjasing such hardships 
as, for instance, the spray that ilashes over the Pharos-top, can climb the rock 
and thrive upon the scanty luniius of its fissures. Moreover, characteristically 
poor in annuals, it is abuonnally rich in bulbe, esjiccially squills and wild 
garlic : f in places where the soil favours, they grow at the smallest possible 
intervals. A new species, discovered by my friend Cav, I'ommasini, wa» 
named by him Ornithofjalum Visiauii (Tommasini), after the " illustrions 
Father of the Dalmatian Flora," and has been described by Dr. de Marohesctti 
(Joe, (it.). On the other hand, the Fl(/ra rupestn, which presents a certain 
variety, is noteworthy for its alliance with the Dalmatian and Apulian 
growths. An adherent white tomentum mostly clotlies the leaves, and two 
Bjieciefl are e8j)ecially characterised by limited diffusion. These are (I) the 
Centanroa Friderici, of which more presently, and (2) the brossicaceoii.s 
AbysHum leucadeum ; the latter absent from Dalmatia, but abundant in the 
Tremiti and in the adjoining mainland of Japygia (Apidia). 

It may be noted that the few trees are never allowed to survive babyhood. 
We found a fig rising to 6 feet on the southern shore, the true wild-olive (0/«» 
EurojKm), the vino run wild, and the bay (^Laurtis nobiliti), especially in the 
hoUow mouth of the Castello ; while here and there flourished a solitary bush 
of blackberry {liuhm amcevus, rovo moretto, or moro spino), and a flexible 
Dioecorca (tamarro = Tamtia communis). The growths which at once attract the 
eye are the Absinthium (^ArtemiuM arhorescfna), congener of the Arab " shlh," 
Bweetcst of duscrt herbs, which is consiiicuous for its absence from the neigh- 

* Sig. Stossieh published an " Excorsionc noli' Isola d> Peligoia," p. 217. ' Uollet. 
della Sfic. Adriatica di Soienre Nut.' for 1875. 
t Tho effects of eating tlie laitot are notable, as in Tibet. 

bourin'^ archipelago ; and the Cap|iaris, with bloom as bright as the Passion- 
tiuvver, a leaf metallic ns the l|lomcD)^ and a ruot which will split even a Roman 
wall. There are also Bolitarv bushes of Itnla hntdeosa, CoroHiUa tinerna, thu 
malviiceousi>'//r/t/'c/ itrlM/rra, the Convolvv' "n, the holly-like Rvscub 

aciileutas, the Pistuchia hiiKscttH (rare), tli i dandruidea, imitating 

dwurled Chinese trecji, au(3 tho wild kapii/. (^ii/i/vsiaj Dottn-i), bitter, but 
(Hlibic when new grown and well boiled. In the hollow north ot the Pharos, 
well Hhellored frouk the tyrarmical Hcirocco. our botaui8t,4> collected Stutice 
CftncelhUa, Vrithinuin maritimtim, Suturda /ructicosa, Olbioiif porliihii\iUks, 
and l.oluH cytiwitks, Thefreqiieiil spray-showera have thickened the jtduuclcH 
of Picridiiwu viilgare, imniwliately under iho tlowcr; and the Silene inflata, 
condemued to live in crevices, hius liecomo gibbous with fre<|ucut knot^ and 
fleshy leaves, like one of the Cnkaulacesw, As on the other islands, the 
Ceataiu-eii Ragusina lights up with its silvery leaves and golden flowers the 
dull and melancholy nakcdae&s of the rock. The rich brown humus, which 
clothes the gentler slojicH and cumiaratively riant tracts to the north, pro- 
dncca a tail asphodel with branches like cttiulelftbrii, and yellow and rosy 
corolka: tliis is the Asdyet el-llai (Shephcrd's-staQ) of the Libanus. lt« 
inaicjica radicc, like that ol the aruju, is or was (n«.;cording to Fortis, II, 
1, § 2) ])uunded into a farina, niakiii;^ the worst of bread, by the poor, who 
also support life by Iwiled iuui]ier-lwrries. Here also were found the large- 
bulbed wjuills (.S*. nviritini'i), Seuecio (cjas«(/b/i»M), n tliin Funiaria, I'apaver 
(xettgi-ruiii), the Piumitio or Lagurus (^omtus), Cernithis (cwy^em), and Jii»- 
quianua (nlhu»). On the more fertile imrUi sirow OhryKantheiuum {corouitiiuni), 
the Mutthiulft (incniiu), n red crucifer liK.'ally and erroneously calletl " viola," • 
the eternal Clyjieola (fiMittiuio), wboho white flowers even near Trieste likst 
almost throughout the ye.'^r, and n little {;recn heliotrojie {H. EnroiMum, 
Viir. ?), which some would identify with the aunllower of Ovid. 

The want of rain limitK the variety and tie <;rowth of messes ; of these only 
two were noticed — a liiirbula and a Hypiium. Ijesa nire are the lichens, 
eapcciftliy the common lithophils of Istri.t and Daluiatia, e.g. Vtrrucuria 
jHirpurugcms, which lights up the rock ; Uamalliua and a Kocella, the latter 
abundant. 'I'he algous vegetation, nuUijiores, sarjiaasum, corallines, &c., is 
well develo|)ed, as the reader will find from Dr. de Marchesetti'-s cat4ilogvie. 

Rabbits have been found on Little Pelagosa; none on the main feature, 
whose only mammals are im])orted rats and mice: at times a " sea-bear "f 
enters the baylet to the north-west. Migratory birds liere rest for a few 
hours; and, during the season, often dash themselves agtiinst the Pharos: 
woodcock and quail are the roost cimmon. Of the residents we observe the 
KI)ftrrow-hawk.s, called Mangia-galline (" Hen Harriera "), hovering in the air ; 
a few common gulls iii the ofliin;,', and solitary stone-birds (Munticola 
cyanea '{) and water-wagtails (^Mi)hwitla), Poultry apparently di>es not 
thrive, piBsibly because here, as in Iceland, the cereals are absent. The only 
imiwrlaut avi-fauna are the " Diomedean birds " (Strabo VI. 3, § 9), concern- 
ing which fio mauj .strange tales are told ; Pliny (X. 44) calls thera 
" Cataracta,** a name still a[iplied to the Skuas; and Ihey are figured and 
described by Aldovrando (Uistoria, etc., Jotu-. III. pp. 57-02). But whilst 
Pliny makes his Aves Diomedem % resemble coots, Ovid (Met. XIV. ^')'i, 
603) declares that, though not swans they are likest white swans ; and thu8 
nar rates the fate which betel the companions of famous Diomode : 

* No true violet waa obaerred. 

t The common seal (Phoca vitulina), by the Slavs colled Medved, and the 
Italiiina Orso di Mare: in Portugiicso Madeira it bccuuies Lobo de Mar, or "sea- 

t Linnorus poetically named " Diomodroa csulans," the albatross, a bird 
unknown to cloAsioul Iiter&ture. 

168 BuutonV I'mt to Lism and Pdarjona 

" Vox rnriter, Tocisque via e»t tenuata : comcqno 
In plumaa ulx-utit : pluiuU uova coUu Icguntur, 
Peoloraqtic, et tergum : mnjores bnichin ]a-nnas 
Accipiunt, cuMtique levea einiiantur ia ala& 
MagDA i^e^liuu «li^itua pare occupnt: oraque oorau 
Iiulurutft ligeut, fiut'iuque in ucumine ponunt." 

Stuffed s|ieciinens of this Lnriis (?) • were shown to us ; gall-liko Conns, 
with brown contA and bent bills. Tho Italiiuia call them Gabbiani : the 
Slavs ftp{>ly tlic term Kaukalc (lial. Cociile) to llie lar^^-er kind aud Uregole 
to the siiiatlur bird. Their wailing cry is tluit of a child — vagitua infnutis 
siniilis — and tiicy are caught by swarming up the rocks at night with 
torches or limed ixiles, a dreadful trade, as is such binlin^ everywhere. 

The lighthoiiBC erujtioyds produced spirit-specimens of a scorpion and a mon- 
strous lizard with tbreo tails: the original ajipendago had been supplictl with 
a second which had bifurcated : they had also two snakes, ooe dark brown, tha 
other lit up with greenish-white, and showin'^: a triangular head, but no fangs. 
This lacerlinc coluber (Cxlopeltis insignitug, Geoff.)i which some have turned 
into a new species, Creloi>cltis Neumeyeri (Verzeich. p. 57, Vienna Museum) 
is common in Dalinatia and Greece. The lizards, wliich are very numerous, 
are supposed to be of one s[-«cie8 (L. viridis); but we noticed a second, 
Apparently differing in colour and markings from the common green-yellow. 
Then are sundry sjiecies of spider*, amongst which is a large Lyoosa : cen- 
tipedes, beetles, and grassbop[)ers are also numerous. The ground in places 
is covere<i with land-shells, esficcially Ilelix, Clausilia, Pupa, and Bnlimus. 
M. Topich sent me a <<plendid sixicimeu of a fossil univalve. M. tliinisch 
has collected a drawer full of "moulds"; mostly Ilolix. I have also seen 
the PectuncuUis (jielosus '?) of huge size, and splendid sjiocimens of Venus. 
The fish require especial study : the staple article is the Sardine, whose mortal 
«aenues, t^ shark aud the dolphin, are never far oQ*. 

Part III. — LMe Pelagom. 

MM. Marcliesetti and Stossieb, iutent upon collecting beta* 
nieal specimens, took boat from the '• Zulo," and visited Male 
(Little) I'elajrosa, the seeojid largest Icature ol' the miniature 
archipeliigo. TJiis lumpy dome, lying to the east of the " Velika," 
well illustrates tlie Itixnriance of local nomenclature. The Slav 
and other lishermi/n have given at least a liundred names to 
the whole group. The northern bay of tiie rockU^t, for instance, 
is Po<l-nioIu (I'ur nialu), *' under tho Little." To the 8uuth are 
the Bights of Popina, " the place of a Pope," and of Luk,t or 
wild garlic. East lies Mevisdina, or ''^he-bear" (i.e. seal) 
■" Bay ;" and Itasenj-rot.J or Piinto Hpiedo, projects from the 
western flank. I cannot but suggest that " Bogaso Grande," 
opposite Spit-point, is the Turkish Bughaz, a pass. 

* Wo neglected to borrow one, having l>eQn told that many wore in the Husenm 
of Trieste, whieh pmv«d not to be tho fact. It wilt Iw snmo time before this 
mistake t-an he rcpuired. 

t Luk is evidently u congener of tho German " Lauch," a relation to our 

X Local misproDunciatiou for Ra2aTija-nit, or lUasting-epit PoiaL. 

The only sig:n of old human occupatiou noticed by the 
visitors was a vedette Hke that upon the Cjistello-tlank. The 
oval of rude stones, some 6 met res by 4, and strewed with sea- 
sand about 1 foot deep, crowned the central and highest part of 
the dome, Attaetied to its cn^st is a trian;;uh\r offset of the 
usual (erriccio nero, or dark malm, which may consist of animal 
and vegetable debris : fragjmcnta of pottery nowhere appeared. 

The geology and botany of the rocklet were more interesting 
than the vedette. Whilst the line of outliers ranged to the 
west of Great Pelagosa appear in shape and substance, dip and 
strike, to prolong the main cliine of limestone, those of the 
opposite flank present a notable contrast. Already in the 
eastern part of the rock appears a yellow-red marne, which 
splits into lamina? witFi parallel fai-es, much resembling the 
Argilh scagltose of the Eroiliii, which appeara in Tuscany, and 
in other parts of Itidy, but ia nowhere Known in Fstria and 
Dahnatia. This formation is geueraily held, in Italy and else- 
where, to be the solidified remains of the suhe, or boiliug muds 
vomited by the Apennines at the end of the Cretaceous, and 
before the setting in of the Tertiary, j>eriod. The distinguished 
Professor G. Gapelliui, ex-Kector of the Bologna University, 
refers them to a process of metfimorphism by means of gaseous 
exhalations and thermal spriii;^. Their signs of vidcanism, the 
want of fof^sils and of regular stratification, the frecpvent hornito- 
liko openings, jxs if caused by gaseous explosions, the broken 
surfaces, and their aspect of desolating sterility, are described 
by my illustrious friend, now unhappily no more. Professor 
G. G, Bianconi, in his ' t^toria Naturale dei Terreni Ardenti.' 

Tliis eharncteristic marne i.s still better developed in the 
rocks off Little Pelagosu, and renders the section of the latter 
very interesting. The dorsum which culminates to some 50 
metres is.comjiosod of the calcareous breccia which cluiiracterises 
the whole group; whilst a fissure, varying in breadth from 
30 to 40 metres, and splitting the dome from south-east to 
north-west, is tilled with the porous and tufhceous, the uniform 
and pnltaceous mass, of rosy ting^, containing h quantity of com- 
minatcd flints and limestone flakes. The parts richest in silex, 
and where its fragnu-nts are of tlie largest size, are those 
resting immediately upon the calcaire : from the centre of the 
rocklet, where is the greatest depression in the fissure, these 
debris are almost absent. 

Despite the name Lnk, plants were comparatively rare on 
Ivittle Pelagosa, which showed only a modicum of wild garlic. 
The rorklet, on the other liand, (;an l>oast of two spei'ies which 
are distinctly its own ; and the uiarvei is that they never sought 
a home on its congenial soil by crossing the few yards of sea 

Temple'* Account of the Country/ traversed hy the 

separating them from the main formatiou. The lii'St is the 
Cenhiiirea Friilf^riui, discuvorod by rrolessor Botteri, and 
named, by rmfcssor Visiani of Padna, after the late Fre<lerick 
Augustus, the botany-loving King of 8uxony. It resonibloa the 
Centaurea Diomedea <»f the TrHmiti, discovered by Professor 
Gasparriui. It is said to be found upon the almost inaccessible 
Poiuo (Jabuka) Ilo<'k ; and its leaves, like other congeners of 
the Gentian subclass, suggest a superior tonic '* bitter." Again 
the Anthyllis barba-Jovis is found u^-jon tho Little but not on 
the Great I'olagosa ; and Convolvulus oueorum, so comiuou iu 
the former. ap]>eared only in one spot of tbo latter. 

After four diiys of pleasant retreat beyond wars and ruraourai 
of wars, we left the lighthouse with cordial thanks to our 
hospitable and attentive hosts, M. M. Topich. The only serious 
fault of our second visit to Lissa was its short duration ; and 
here we bade a temporary adieu to our friends, with a " Hip, 
hip, hurrah" a VAngiai^e^ that seemed to revive the memories 
of more stirring times. Tho good ship La Pdarjosa got up 
steam on September 27, and in twonty-four hours wo had 
covered the 220 miles sepiu-ating Lissa from Trieste. 

III. — An Account nf the Country traversed by the Second Column 
of the Tal—Cho'tiali Field Force in the Sprim/ of 1S79. By 
Lieut. K. C Temple, F.n.o.s., m.r.a.s., iSrc, I5engal 8tafl' 
Corps ; lately attached to the Ist Goorkha Light Infantrj'. 

[With Map.] 

I. — Introductory. 

ScojH! of Ohservation. — As by the rules of this iSociety the 
auth«jrs of papers are held solely resiHinsible for their contents, 
the present writer thinks it advisable to make a statement of 
the circumstances under wliich the inquiries resulting in these 
notes were made. When (Tencral liiddulph wns directcfl to 
return with his force from Candaliar to India by the unknown 
Tal Cho'tia'li route, he divided it into three eolumus. The first 
under Jlajor Keene, Lst Punjab Lifantry, with Major Sandeman 
as political officer, prereded the remainder by sume diiys, and 
eventually reached Luga'ri' Prn'rhltan vt'd Tal and Cho'tia'Ii 
through tho Han Pass ; Major Sandenuin and his personal 
escort, however, went through tlio Ma'r Pass more to tho west- 
ward. The se<'.ond column, under Col. Sale Hill, 1st Ck>orkhas, 
with Col, Browne. R.E., as political officer, which General 




•'•^•**t **^* AwWVfl 

'. 191 

I Bo'tai 
(B way. 
jie first 
. could 
p sach 
fits for 
is were 
[^ must 

a.ce by 
I to be 
tt pro- 
» as it 

"by its 
8 own. 

to its 


ty six 


, lection 

rict in 

by its 
th the 
Des is 


3 ima- 

: never 


r on the 
: Sodety 













Second Column of the Tal—Cho'tiaHi Field force in 1879. 191 

Biddulpli liiinsL'lf anoompanietl, followed tlie sleiis of tlie first as 
far as Baia'nrti, and then divergeil eastwards along the lio'rai 
Valley, and finally reached Luga'ri' T3a'rklia'n via the Tsiimaulang 
Valley and Han I*as8. The third column, imderBrigadier-GeneraJ 
Nuttftll, came Itvst, following the route of the fii^st all the way. 
The anthnFj. being at that time attiichcd to the 1st Goorkhas, 
was with the second column, and its ho has since had no oppox'- 
tunity 'of obtaining information regarding the doings of the first 
and third, his notes are necessarily limited to what he could 
observe during the march of the second column, and to such 
information us he could pick up en route about the country round. 

Seooiidly, he could not in any way make arrangements for 
elaborate observations, and those embodied in these notes were 
made at such odd times as he could spare from his military duties, 
which, of course, on the line of maieh in an enemy's country, 
were incessant. His observations and sketch-maps, therefore, 
being perforce hurriedly and roughly made and compiled, must 
be taken for what they may hereafter prove to be worth. 

Plnee Names. — As regards place names special difficulties 
were encountered, from the multiplicity of names certain places 
were found to have, and the great variety of pronunciations 
of the same word. The name adopted for any given place by 
the writer in his account and maps is that which he fouuti to be 
the most generally known according to the commonest pro- 
utmciation, and the spelling adopted represents tlie name as it 
appeared to sound to hiai.* The Pathau system of village 
nomenclature, and for that matter the Belu'ch also, is primitive 
in the exfrerae, for a viHage is called as frequently by its 
owner's, or by the tribal names of its inhabitants, as by its own. 
But this system, though primitive and natural enough to its 
framers, is far from being simple, and to the foreigner is poju- 
liarly puzzling, for a village may be, and often is, called by six 
diflerent names. Thus it may be called (1) by its own name, 
(2) by the tribal name of its inhabitants, (3) after the subsection 
of the tribe inhabiting it, ( 1) by the name of the district in 
which it is situated, (5) by its present owner's name, (G) by its 
late owner's name, if recently dead ; the more specific names 
being naturally known only to those best acquainted with the 
village in question. Ami when to this confusion of names is 
added a great variety of pronunciation, the difficulty of ascer- 
taining the proper name of any paiUcular place may be ima- 
gined — a ditlieulty increased by the fact of these names never 
being committed to paper by their users. It is to this confused 

* The filaee names otc nmro fully discuased in tho Popcr by the author on the 
inhabitants of theao distrk-ts, published iu the ' Jounial of the Asiatic Hociety 
of Bengal,' for 1S80. 

192 TempleV Account of the Country traversed by the 

nomenclature that tlie various names found on maps and ia 
accounts by diflTereiit writei's for the same phice is attributalile. 

Akvng t}»e border bt^tween the Afghan and Belo'ch tribes 
double names are found, Afp;han and Belo'cb, for well-known 
places. Thus Ka'Ii' Chuppri' (Belo'eh) and Tor Tsappar 
(Patlian) are names for the same prominent peak at the head of, 
the Han Pass, buth sipnilying the Black Hill. 

A noticeable iwitit also ia the constant recurrence of tJie sarne 
names, especially for districts and hilts, in diflforent parts of the 
country. This is probably due to the fact of the places being 
so named from some peculiarity or special conformation. 

Uncerfainiy of Information. — The difficulties of obtaining- 
correct infonnatiou were aggravate*! by the fear of the various 
tribes of each other, their ignorance corresponding with th«ir 
fear. And this addt/d to the well-known vagueness of a\\' 
oriental information resulted in one's being seldom able to 
obtain any knowledge, except of the vaguest and most uncertain 
kind, of any part of the country before actually passing over it. ' 

Careless Nomenclature lij Explorers. — It may be as well to»j 
remark here on the careless way many exj)lorers name the 
places and encampments at which tliey halt — a habit that 
renders the identification of places on their dilTerent routes- 
very difBeult, and their information liable to be useless, as 
will be seen by a rel'erenoe to Appendix D, attached hereto. 
That it is not easy to avoid misnaming places in such a 
country as Afghanistan may be gathered from the foregoing 
paragraphs, but unquestionably carelessness us to this point 
adds much to the diiticulties of geographers and othera who 
have to compile the results of the accounts of travellers, or, in 
other words, to make them of use. A case in point is the- : 
naming by the Qnartermaster-General's Department of the 
camping-ground preceding Chimja'n along the Tal — Cho'tia'li 
Field Force Itoute. This is given as Oboskoi in their niap^ 
Now O'bushtkai (also spelt Obnski by the staff) is where tho 
first column halted, and is not within 4^ miles of the point so 
marked on the map. viz., where the second and third columns 
halted, which was really at a place called Khw&'ra,, as shown in 
the writer's map. Again the Quartermastei-General's Depart- 
ment's map of tlie route shows Yusuf Kach in the llivcr Ito'd 
Gorge as a camping-ground, and not I'sab Kach (or I'saf 
Kach), although it had been expressly pointed out by their 
own Department (^lackeuzio's Houte, in 'Central Asia,' Part 
II.; 'Afghanistan,' Route No. 35) that the name was I'sab 
Kach, not Yusuf Kach. The difference in these names may be 
better expressed in English : thus, I'sab, I'sav. or I'saf = Esau ; 
Yusuf = Joseph. Altliough the writer differs in severul 

Second Column of the Tal—CUv'tidli Field Force m 1871). 193 

important particulars from the Army Staff and other autho- 
rities in his nomenclature, he does not pretend to absolute 
correctness as to this point, but would merely put forth a claim 
to carefulness.* 

The Ted — Cho'tia'U B&uie considered as a route. — Attached to 
this (Appendix A) will be found a detailed journal of each 
day's march, and it is proposed here to discuss the Tal — Cho'tia'U 
Boute only as a route. Now a route may be practicable 
or otherwise according to the nature of its roads, riyers, 
mountains, passes, climate, products, inhabitants, and means 
of locomotion. Each of these points will be here therefore 

II. Spelling of. Place Names. 

System of Spelling adopted. — But before proceeding further, 
and in order to render the following pages the more intelli- 
gible, an explanation of the system of spelling the names of 
places and foreign words found herein will be given. The 
spelling adopted purports to be according to Dr. Hunter's 
modification of Sir W. Jones's system of transliteration. The 
Hunterian system is, however, not strictly carried out, the only 
diacritical marks used being that to mark the long vowels, and 
the "italic" sign to mark certain peculiarities in the con- 
sonants. The object aimed at is general intelligibility, not 
strict scientific spelling. 

Table of Sounds. — The following table of vowel and con- 
sonantal sounds will aid the general reader in mastering the 
system of spelling herein employed. 

Pabt I. — Vowels. 




As in woman, or as n, in Iiut. 


„ fothor. 


„ met. 


„ feto, or as a, in mate. 


„ ftt. 


„ oblique, or as oe, in meet. 

„ opaqua 


„ mole. 


„ put, or as 00, in foot. 
„ brute, or as oo, in food. 



„ atsle, or as i, in mile. 


As ou, in bouse, or as o«r, in owl. 


As the French u, or German o. 

♦ Tlie points of difference are discussed in his Paper on the inhabv<t»xA& ^sl 
these districts, publiehed in the 'Journal of the Asiatic ^\fe\^ ol 'QeiiQ^ \%^. 

194 TEMPLE'jf Account of the CourUry traversed hj the 

Many of the vowel sounds are such as cannot be rendered in 
English characters. The common termination ai is very 
peculiar : it is pronounced willi a closed mouth, and sharply as 
one syllAhlo, though probably it sUoidd be two distinct syllables, 
a i. Many people write it ce. 

Eat^i vowel syllobio should be {jronouneed, but for the sake 
of clearness the distinct syllables 6 and /, when occurring as a 
termiaatiou iu juxtaposition, are written 6L 

Part 11, — ContonanU. 






„ cIiibAoUiio. 


„ cAarger. 


„ doll. 


„ mucZ/mt 


Vcrjr hard varieties of the above = the Plindoet. ^ and H^. 


As in/onnd. 


., fin- 


„ loj/Aut. 


A veiy gnttural g = Arabic C. 
Aa III AouBt*. w 



1 A sharp finul aspirate, as la Jebova7t, usually not heard in Engliah 
\ proDUDciittion. 


Afl in jump. 

„ bri(J;/«/iead. 


,, fcin-r. 


„ public/ioosc. 


,, GkiTnnn milcA, or Scotch lodi= Arabic ,». 
„ Tnnd. *^ 



„ miud. 


„ ftnw. 


Nasal, a« in French on. 


Ab in jjiunp. 


„ tiiuii/>/miidle. 


„ gwoen. 


„ robbery ; it is always rolled. 


A very Imrd cerebral r, almost a d = Hindost.^. 
As in «in^. 



„ *rJ(OW. 


„ funnel. 


„ ra/Aole. 



Very hard vaxietiefl of the BboTe=Hindoet. Cj and *^. 

As ia very. 


„ wiuff. 


„ rebra. 


The French y, aa jnje=Uie rersion ». 


As in flinr;. 


Bouble consonants all eacli distinctly pronounced tis in the 
[talian tiitti. 

CowiKirative Table of llunteriaii and Phonetic S})dling. — In 
order to aid in the ictentifieation of the names occurring here 
with those in other journals nud maps, a cimipanitive table is 
attached (Appendix C), showing the spelling of place names 
according to the Ilunterian and the ordfinary military {dionetic 
gyfitems. Accentuation has not been eliown in tbo spelling, as 
not being of sufficient importance, and all oriental words used 
iu the paper are explained. 

III. Roads. 

Aff/han Roads in general. — Fii"8tly, then, as regards roads. 
It is necessary before discussing them to explain what is meant 
by the term " road " when applied to Afghanistan. Ruughly a 
" road " may be defined as a beaten track leading to a certain 
place ; and, like all oriental tracks or roads, it runs as straight 
as possible to the point aimed at, without reference to gradients 
and obstacles, or to easier and more practicable lines near at 
Iiand. jVs the only means of locomotion, besides walking, 
which the Afghans have are horses, donkeys, and bullocks, to 
which may bo added, along the main trade-routes, camels, no 
such thing as a wheeled conveyance being known in the 
country, a mountain road or track is capable of being, and 
indeed usually is, a very rough one. WTien asked to describe 
the nature of a track, the local mountaineer will describe it as 
practicable for sheep and goats and man only, or for donkeys 
and bullocks, or as too narrow in the case of a pass for pack- 
animals ; under all of which conditions a road will be considered 
bad. But if a horse or pack-animal can traverse it, then the 
track is called good, or, to use the local expression, " a royal 
road." Now, a reference to the map of Eastern Afghanistan 
mil show it to consist of mountains of considerable height, 
intersected by numerous valleys of no great length or breadth. 
80 that such a track as that above deseribedj from any one 
distant point to another, will alternately cross a series of moun- 
tain tracts and vaUeys by the shortest practicable route. And 
iu travelling what one finds practically is this, that one goes 
first along the bed of a mountain torreut, then over the (Ko'tal) 

Eass or watershed whence it springs, then down a second stream- 
ed on the opposite side, and then along a valley; which 
operation is repeated to the journey's end. Sucli then is an 
Afghan roafl, and, as long as a horse or i)ack-animal can traverse 
it, one road is as good as another, and the only considerations 
which will make an Afghan gviide diverge from the shortest 

o 2 

106 Temple'* Account of the Country traversed by the 

way are, (I) the fear of the inhabitants, and (2) the water- 
supply en route. A main rojid or line of comrauuication differs 
iu no way from any other " imck-animal " road, except that it 
usually coueists of Iialt'-a-dozen or bo of tracks running across ') 
country in iiarallel strintTs, \j,x\% this u not always an iufalliblo 
indication, us the writer i>nce fuiuid to his cost. He Btarted 
with a convoy from the Kabul gate of Candaha'r for Kela't-i- 
(JAilzai, and on getting clear of the broken iand imniediatch" 
round Candaha'r, went along a road consisting of a quantity of 
parallel tracks, which formed to all appearance the Kabul 
rortd, but found they terminated abruptly at a village about 
5 miles out, between whicli and Candaha'r tliere was a large 
trade, and had to iind the real Ka'bu! road across country — 
which, by the way, provided there are no impracticable ravines 
to interrupt him, is about as good a way for the traveller to go 
in this country as any. "\Mien a traveller or army has followed 
any particular line, it means not that that was the best or 
easiest, though it was probably the shortest, road, but that it 
was the line decided on from limo to time according to infor- 
mation received regarding water, people, supplies, the actusJ. 
state of the track at the time, and so on. 

lioada aloiiff iheEonte of ihe Tal — Cho'iia'li Field Force {second 
columii), — Jlanng said this much by way of preface, let lis 
discuss the line followed by the »x'ond column Pal — Cho'tia'li 
Field Force with regard to its a<"tua! Btat<' and its capabilities 
of improvement. Leaving Kala Abdulla/i Khn'n, thu road runs 
at firrit nearly eastwards, along the north end of the Pi-shin 
Ytdley to iTAu'shdil Kha'it, for about 30 miles, during which, 
as it stands, it may generally be called bad in anything but 
fine weather, i.e., it is a track ninning across a country for the 
most part stony and water scarce, and intersected by several 
streams, of \Nhicli the Kliujak, the Aranibi, the Clior, the 
T6ffha\, the Muzarai, the Pishin Lo'ra, and the Barso' arc all 
capable of proving formidable obstacles after rain. The country 
itself is liable to be violently flooded after rain in the hills, and 
in the lower lands the soil is clayey, heavy and slijipery in wet 
weather. And yet the line taken by the force is the best, for 
the alternate routes from A'li'zai via Bagarzai to A'Au'siidil 
Khn'n runs further from the hills, and the rivers, instead of 
being mere mountain-torrents with hard stony beds, have 
become formidable streams, with deep, overhanging, soft and 
clayey banks. There are, however, no real engineering diffi- 
colties along the route, nor would largo bridges be required for 
the rivers; a good road could in fact be easily constructed. 
In the next 15 miles to Balozai Ka're'z the road goes over , 

Second Column of the Tal — Chdtia'li Field Force in 1879. 197 

tbe Sural Pass and the hills about it. During the first clay's 
march to Sharan Ka're'z it fulluws up the bed of the River 
tSharan for tie greater part of the way, which is ag usual st-ouy 
and hard, and not more than 20 yards wide in the narrowest 
part, while the gradient is steep. Durinfi; the second day's 
niarcli, till the bottom of the ]»a*8 is reached, the bed of another 
stream is fullovved, the E-iver Snrai, similar in all respects to 
that of the Sliaran, except that it is narrower, being ojdy 
4 yards wide at the narrowest part. The summit of tiie pass, 
whoso height above the head of the stream is much greater 
than usual, is some 300 feet above the river-bed, and the hill- 
side is steep. When the summit is passed the descent is simi- 
lar to the ascent, viz., down a streann-bed into the Dof Valley, 
along which the road runs for 4 miles to Balozai Ka're'z, cross- 
ing the Kiver tSurAAa'b, which here is not a formidable stream 
in jmy way. This road, while among the hills and where not 
following the stream-beds, is rugged and hilly in the extreme, 
and plainly only passable in tine weather, a very short fall of 
rain rendering it temporarily impassable, A made road wimld 
of course not directly follow the line taken by the army, bnt 
should a ruad ever be required over the pas.s it does not appear 
that the ditSculties would be great, and probably not more 
than one bridge (over the River Surai, — PisLin side) would 
be required. The facta that Lieutenant Wells, r.E-, made the 
pass easily praclicable for camels in two days with the lielp of 
some 6r/iilzai workmen at eight days' notice, and that (n-ueral 
Biddul[>h on the march np to Candaha'r pfvssed ilown it without 
any made road at all, would indicate that no engineering diffi- 
culties need be apprehended here. After leaving Balozai Ka're'z 
the Dof Valley is quitted in 3 miles, and from this point to /lAvva'm 
in the Sho'r Valley, a distance of nearly 40 miles, a long belt 
of mountainous country, for the greater part at considerable 
elevations, is passed. Throughout this distance the road either 
runs along the beds of various strcam.s, or over the hilly tracts 
separating them. It traverses three passes in its course, the 
Ush, the To'pobar<7/i and the Nangalu'na, but none of these are 
of any difficulty. Tbe main watershed of the country is passed 
on crossing the Ush Pass, /. e., all the water to the east of it 
runs towards India and all to the west towards Afghanistan 

S roper. The natural road along this moimtuin tract is nowhere 
ifficult, and may be classed as fair throughout; but it should 
be borne in mind that for the greater ]»art of the way it runs 
along the beds of rivers, some of which, especially the liiver 
Ro'd, are liable to sudden, high and viulent floods in rainy 
weather, and are moreover of considerable length. There is 

198 Temple's Acamnt of the Country traversed hy tlte 

notliing apparently to prevent the easy ooiistruction of a good 
road along this liue, nor wouUl niauy even small bridges be 
necessary. So far the road has kept a nearly easterly coviree, 
but during the next tract of country traversed its course is 
about south-east, ami during the journey from Khwolro. to 
Baia'nai, about 29 mile?, it runs mostly through flattisli valley 
land, crossing tlio Sho'r and Mzami Valleys. In the former it 
runs easily along stony ground, and the country in the latter is 
luuipy, much intersected by deep stream-beds and troublesome. 
The rivera crossed are the Kach, two or three times, and the 
Ghv/azh, both of which, in the case of a mode road, would have 
to be bridged, and the lirst is pretty broad A road along the 
Mzarai Valley would also require a good many, and small, 
bridges and culverts, with a good deal of earthwork and 
cutting. The last 3 miles of tbe road into Baia'nai through 
the Baia'nai Pass are decidedly bad, running as it does over 
snijill hills or along narrow, rugged and stony valleys, inter- 
sected by numberless nulhth-beds. It is doubtful, however, 
whether it would be necessary to go through this pass, for it is 
apparently easily turned to the east, past the villages of Kach 
and Sarkai Zaugal, where the country is generally smoother 
and easier.* Tbe next belt of country passed by the force is 
all valley land to the Hannraba'r Pass, 50 miles; the road 
running nearly due oust successively through the {?/iazgai and 
Bo'rai Valleys, along which it is, for an Afghan road, good. 
There are no engineering rlifticulties in the way of constructing 
a made road, and the rivers to be crossed ai'O the Kach, which, 
is broad, the Hanumba'r, also pretty broad, the Dargi', the To'r 
A7mize, the Beh and the Lo'rat, all smidl streams. But on 
nearing the Hanumba'r Pass, the meetiug-i>oint of all the 
drainage of the Jio'rai Valley, tlie countiy becomes rough, 
lumpy and liable to swamps, and the road along it is only a 
fair-weather one. The rivera to be crossed are the Sia'b, 
Marai, Sih/iM and Lo'raUxi, ail largish streams, showing signs 
of considerable flooding ut limes, and in making a road hero 
there would, no doubt, be some troublesome ground encountered. 
From this point to the Han Pass, a distance of about tiO miles 
to the south-east, the country crossed is a mass of wild njounlains 
intersected by narrow valleys, and quite uniubabited. In thia 
tract the road, which winds nbout a great deal, is Jaiily good in 
the Hat valley lands, Init crosses several strcanjs uf the usual 
description, viz., the rivers La'lci', Kutsa, Jarai, Tsamaulang, 

• Id fact the beat rontc to follow from tlie Sho'r to tho Bo'iui ViJloy wotdd 
a|)]iarontly Chimja'n to KacL, 15 luiles; K&ch to Kbi^'ad, 15 mOoa. 

Second Column of the Tal—ChdtidU Field Force in 1879. 199 

Hanokai, Kalian and Han, and is bad aod difficult in the moun- 
tainous country, following as before the beds of streams. It could, 
however, be made fairly passable with a few days' work any- 
where, and there is nothing to prevent the construction of a 
good road if necessary, but of course some bridging would have 
to be done about the passes and over the rivers. The country 
in the Hanokai Pass is the most difficult, and the gradient in 
Han Pass is severe. The remainder of the road, which is 
in Ba'rkho'm, runs into Luga'ri' Ba'rkha'u, 13 miles a little west 
of south, and presents no difficulties, running along a broad, 
flat valley. 

The road then, as it stands, is, except in fair weather, for 
the most part bud, and difficult for anything but persons on 
foot or on anitnal-back, to coin a word, but does not anywhere 
present any engineering difficulties, and could be matle fairly 
passable without much labour. 

Cotnpariaon with other Afyhan roads, — It should, however, be 
borne in mind that the above description will answer fairly for 
any road in Afghanistan, and that the road, for an Afghan one, 
is not bad. The lino taken by the first and third columns of 
the Tal — Cho'tiu'li Field Force ivill probably prove to be much 
the same kind of road. 

TaUe shomng State of Uoo^a.— The following table will give 
an idea of the road stage by stage :— 








A'Au'ahdil Kha.'n 
Shaiau Ea're'z 

Bolozai Ka're'z 

I'aaf Each 
Ispira Ba'(7/ta 


Ituin'uai .. 

in Slllra. 

State of noail. 





Bad, except in ftno vuather. 
Good ill Hno wculliur, but trouble- 

Bomc in bail, 
lind, excejit in very fine dry weatlier. 
As it ia, bttd, except in fine wciither, 

but capable of being made good. 
At pixBont good in fair wcatlMir 

oiily, but capable of being easily 

inado gixid. 
GtKx!, but posses rivera liable to 

Fair, but requires ri guidf, and 

runs along rirer liable to bigU 



(jood and caHy. 

In ttio Sho'r Valley easy ; in the 
Mzarai Vallry troublesome, ■with 
bad rivers; in lb»« Unia'uiii I'aaa 
bad and iinpracticabk- ia any but 
fine weatlier. 

200 Temple** Account of the Ccnintry traversed hy th9 




lu Mile*. 

Sum uf Uocd. 




Goo«l, but requires a guide. 










Hftriiimbii'r Piwa .. 


Fuir only in fine weather. 


Tri/./i Kumm Pass 


Good in Sarfl/inr Valley, bad eluf^ 
TV hcru, but c.i|)nbIo of being made 

BimI, but cnpablo of being ea«i1jr 




made gcKid. 




YL'ry bud, but could be mado easy 
in a lew duya. 


Mi«Ai' Khu'i*» .. .. 


Steep, but Hot very diflletjU, and 
caiwble of biing iiisily mode 

Good ill dry weullier. troiiblesoiue 


Lnge'ri' Ba'rktia'n 


in wet, being along Bon-dried, 

clayey soil. 

Excursions. — Ihirinp: tlic marcl* the author had three uppor- 
tunitjes of making excursiona ofF the main road, and the 
information gathered there supports the observations made 
above regarding roads. 

The first excursion was from Balozai Ka're'z southwards to 
Gwa'I, 10 miles. Along this h'ne tlie road was simihir to the 
above-describod valley road.s, except that it was better than 
usual. It rrosscd the Gwa'I lliver, a variously named torrent 
of the usual description, two or three times. The second was 
from Gwa'I to U/r/nnoj?Mai Pass and A'inadu'n, 15 miles; the 
object of thei-e e.xcurstims being to see if the gorge of the Kivei" 
Eo'd could bi; turned tu the southwards. The route nins 
through the (xuvMai Defile, i. e., along ibe bed of the river 
forming it, and may bo there describud as passable, but re- 
quiring engineering. As it in, it follows one bank or the other 
all through the defile and is hilly and broken, in phices degene- 
rating into a mcky mountain pathway, while the defile is not 
more than itO yards wide in parts, and the river subject to high 
floods. After this to the Vkhwutjhlmi I'ass the roa*l may bo 
called fair and c!i}Kible of being easily niaile good, but it winds 
about the Uiver Sugar, crossing it constantly, and this stream 
is evidently cjuite capable of being an awkward torrent after 
rain. The country passed is exceptionally wild, consisting of 
fimall, conical, clay bills, among which the river winds with 
turnings so sharp and frequent, that it is impossible to see 

Second Column of the Tal—Gio'tia'H Field Force in 1879. 201 

beyond a few yards at a time. After ihe pass, as. (tiv as 
A'liiadu'n, ttie road is a lumyiy, but an easy one. The road 
then, as a whole, is for a bridle-path fair, nnd is capable of 
being ioivh a good one. It mts found, however, to be not so 
good as the existing one via tlie River Ro'd. 

The third excursion was undertaken from Chimjan to 
ascertain the fuudttion of the roads leafling thence to the 
^Ao'b Valley, and extended as far as the IVlkai Pass, north of 
Chimja'n, about 8 miles. The road was found to traverse some 
20 mdes of mountainous country separating tine Sho'r and 
ZJw'h VaMcys, andt as usual, followed the bed of a river, the 
River Znffhhin. The country passed was very rough, but the 
road was, on the whole, fair. It is probable, however, that a 
more praetinible line would be found along the Tarakai 
Valley, leailing into the Zlio'h more to the eastwnrds. 

Crons Boads. — Before leaving the subject of roads it would bo 
as well to discuss the ulturnativo routes and cross roads passed 
en route. 

Qiu'tta, Pishin and Candaha'r Rotifes. — Numerous roads or 
rather tracks, of course, lead to all parts of tho Pishin from 
Quett;i, but the principal ones onJy need bo considered here. 
From t^uetta a road runs, ind the Gazarbaml Pass, to (iulista'n 
Ka're'z, whence roads branch oft' to the Gwa'ja, Ro^/m'ni* and 
XAo'jak Passes. This is a good road throughout for this part 
of the world. It is joined by a short cut from tfio JT/iOjak 
Pass at Se'gai, which is also said to be an easy route. A 
second road from Quetta to Grulista'n Ka're'z runs via A'Au'sh- 
la'k and Shadi'zai, joining the other at tSe'gai, and turuiug the 
Gaz Hills. From Qiietta also, vin /i/iu'shbi'k and No'a Ba'za'r, 
an easy road runs to AVai'shdil Khor'n, which appears to have 
been an old main line of comminiicaf iou. 

Pishin to Zho7' Vtdle'j. — From 7i7m'shdil Khfi'n, or from 
A'li'zai, via the A'Aa'nizai vilhiges in tho nortli-east curner of the 
Pishin, a road runs through the A maud Klu/l and Mehtarzai 
country, past Darsho'r ami jMount Kaud, into the Zho'b Valley. 
This is also a main line, but its nature was not precisely 

PiaJUn to the Eastward into the Dof and (heal I'ulkijit. — From 
No'a Bft'za'r an easy practicnblo road runs over the Pinakai 
Hills to Gwa'l, arid there are also mountain-roads from tho 
same place to Gwa'l via the Uiver SurMa'b, and to Lu'r 
Anga'ng in the Dof Valley. Also from Sharun Ka're'z the 

* The Rog/ia'ai is a seldom-used pass between the Gwa'ja and tho Kho'pk 

Snrai Pass can be turned a short distanco off by roads to north 
and south of it, respectively via i>n,'(jhiu and Ln'r Anga'ng;, both 
in the Dot' Valley, but it does not appear that eitlier ronte is 
preferable to that of the Surai I'ass. And, lastly, there is a 
short cut from Tiarshu'r tu Sharau Ka're'z over the mountains, 
probably by a bad road. 

Fishin to Ghazni and the To'ha Country. — There is a road from 
A'li'zai over the To'ba country to Ghazni, but it was not describetl 
as a good one ; and the To'ba country itself is probably to be 
reached via Arambi River or tlu> Ma'chka Kiver, These points, 
however were not clearly ascertained. 

Qtu4ta via Giml Yalhtj to Zhdh Valley. — A good easy road runs 
from Quetta via JiAu'shla'k by the Gwa'l Valley, and thence 
through the Dof X'alley past Balozai Ka're'z and the coimtry 
about Mt. Kaud into the Zlio'h Valley, described as giving trouble 
nowhere ; it also appears to have been an old line of commu- 
nicatiun. The Gwa'l Valley can also be readied by a doubtful 
road running east uf Mt. Tjikatu thruiij:;h the Gur/,-/tai defile. 
From this a road branches off from the iSaj^arband Pass, running 
to the UA-Amuj7Mai Pass, and past A'madu'n to Psaf Kueh, there 
joining the main line by the gorge of the Puver Ro'd to Tal 
and Cho'tia'li. This road is joined near lio'dgui by a mountain- 
path running over the Dargai Hills from Balozai Ka're'z, via 

l'khj/mgh(^ai FaM into tht- Marri Countt'i/. — From XJkh- 
mu_<7/idai Pass a road, the value of which wa.s niit clearly ascer- 
tained, runs past the village of Brahiina'n and to the north of 
Mt. Z&vfjhu'a into the Zhnwai Valley, which is described as 
being a plain like the Pishin ; a description that must be taken 
at a large discount. The road probably comes out in the neigh- 
bourhood of 8i'bi, or at tlio Mazpi-a'ni (IJolo'ch) countiy to the 
north of it. It is also probably joined by a roa<l which is pretty- 
sure to run south from Ispira tta'c/Zm between Mts. ^l&'zhwd and 

Isjnra liagha to A'madu'n. — When the writer was at Ispira 
R&'ffhn a clearly defined track was seen to lead west from the 
camping-ground ; but, as the neighbouring country is quite 
uninhabited, no information could be obtained about it. From 
the map, however, it would appear that such a trade must lead 
towards A'nntdu'u. 

Mehtarzai Route via Mt. Sarji;htcand. — An alternative route 
to that taken by the nrniy lies from Mt. Kaud, through the 
lilc/itarzai country to the north of the Ko'd Kiver. viu Mt. i^nvffh- 
Wiuul and the fr/itibargai couutry, into the Sho'r Valley, coming 
out at Ji'/nvara, The route is not described as bad, but it is not 

Second Column of the Tal—Cho'tia'U Field Force in 1879. 203 

usually employed on account of the bad cliaracter of the people 
about Mt. ISury/twand. It is joined by a level road leading to 
the Pa'Ikai Pass, 

SJio'r VoMetj to Zho'b Valhij. — From Chimja'n a road nins to 
the ZJio'b Valley r/« the Zaf//ilu'n and Pa'lkai Passes, which has 
been already described, and two roads run tliroui^h the Tarakai 
Valley ; that vui Khwai and Gundamarai is said to be gocKi, and 
was the one by which Sha/j Jt'ha'n of Khu^no'h {Zho'h VaJley) 
came when be destroyed the food collected by Major Sandcman 
at Chinija'n ; but that via the GAwand Peak is only a moun- 
tain-path. The Tarakai Valley road is joined at Gundamarai 
by one from China'li in the Sho'r Valley. A road is also said 
to lead north-east directly up the Sungalu'n Valley to the ZJio'h, 

Alternative Eoute vk't Kach and Sarlcai Zangah — iVn alter- 
native route to that taken from Chimja'n runs past Dargai, 
China'li, Kach, and Surkai Zangal to Baia'nai ,• this would seem 
to bo the better of tbe two. It appears from Ijient. AYells' 
reconnaissance that this was the route actually taken by a 
portion at least of the firHt and third columns of the force. 

Chimja'n to Shei-in. — With regard to minor roads a doubtful 
one runs from Chimja'n to .She'ri'n, probably finding its way 
eventually into the Marri countr)'. 

Khwvi'ra to Gurm't'. — From KJiv/anx to Gurmi' there is a road, 
which 18 most likely a local one, miming towards the Baia'nai 

Baia'nai Pass Roads. — There are two roads over the Baia'nai 
Pass ; the one followed by the force, and another a little further 
to the south, past some springs caUed the Uchsaha'n Springs. 
There is little to choose between them ; that taken is the most 

To Zliol Valley front the Ghaztjiai and Bo'rai Valleys. — From 
Ninga'nd in the GAazgai Valley two roads run to (?/mrat in the 
Zho'h Valley, one via. the Koha'r Pass, and one via the Bo'rai 
Chap; but little is known of them. And from the Bo'rai 
Valley, %ua the Tor Khulm Pass, a road also runs into the ^io'b, 
but traverses an inhospitable country. 

Cro.s-.s Roads connecting the Bo'rai Valley tcith the Tal and 
Cho'tidU Routes. — Connecting the Bo'rai and Tal Valleys a road 
from Ninga'nd runs past the Dargat Springs through the 
(jr/iobargai Hills to Sinza'wai : but there is said to he a diffi- 
culty about water along it. Also from Waria'gai there runs a 
practicable road through the Sfio'r Pass to Bay/Ki'wa. It was 
along these routes and through the Koha'r and Tor Kh&xze! 
Passes that Sha7< .leha'n's men came from tlie ZJidh Valley, 
when they attempted to arrest the progress of the first column 

Temple's Account of the Country traversed by the 

at Bajr/mwa. Lastly from the Bo'rai Valley a direct road 
runs tlirough the Lu'ni country to Tal, via tlic Hatiuniba'r 

Jtoads to hid ia from the Bo'rai Vallt^y. — With regard to roads 
to Iiulin, two madg load directly oiust nji the Bo'rai Valley to 
the ]\Iu'sa /v7(e'l ROimfry, and thence eventually to De'ra GAa'zi 
Khan and De'ra Isnia'il Kh'Aii, but are both said to be bad, and 
the temper of the inhabitants is said to be more tlian doubtful. 
A third road, also running directly east up the Bo'rai Valley, 
joins the main caravan (Ka'iila) trade-roiite from De'ra Gfm'zi 
Jihixu, towards the Zho'h Valley at Me'Witai', 

Roads to the BuMui'o Vail f}j, and thence to India via Viho'va, — 
After the lio'rai Valley and the Hatiumba'r Pass are crossed, 
all the roads running eastward tend towards the Ea^/Aao Valley 
(Independent Belo'ch tribes), whence they eventually find their 
way to India via Viho'va, but none of them seem to be desirable 

Road3 towards Tal and Clio'tia'U. — But all roads leading west- 
wards go to Tal and Cho'tia'li. A rough uudesirablG mountain- 
road connects the Tsamaulang Valley with Cho'tiali, while the 
main route to Cho'ttu'li from the Han Pass runs along the Ba'la 
Dhaka Valley, joining the route taken by the writer at the 
Ku'han Peak. Also a road, said to be impracticable for a 
force, joins Liigaii ISa'rkha'n with Cho'tiii'li via the Mar Pass, 
but it shuuld be remembered that Major Sandeman antl his 
pei-soual escort, inchuling cavalry, traversed it without mishap. 

IV. Water-Sofply and BivEns. 

Waiei'-Siippljf and Rivers. — After the roads themselves, the 
water-supply and rivers along a route are the most important 
consideration. As might be expected in a mountainous coun- 
try like Afghanistan, torrents, streams, and rivers are very 
numerous, but not large, and oidy the more important ones, of 
which the author iiscerfained the names, are shown on the map. 
None of those that are excluded have any water in them, 
except in wet weather, or after rain, and probably then only 
for a very short time. As a large portion of the route lies near 
the summit of the watersheds or catchment basins, much water 
is not to be expneted in any of the streams, nor are many 
springs to be looked for. 

Fermaneni Streams. — The only streams that were found to 
have a permanent supply of water were the Kho'Jak, the 
Arambi, the Tuijha.], the Muzarai, the Pishin Lo'ra, the Barso', 
the Sur/Jta'b, and the Lo'ra, in the Pishin Valley ; the Soi- 

Second Column of the Tal — Clidtia'li Field Force in 1879. 205 

hlidlh, the Eo'd, and tlie Gnr7k7(ai. between the Pishin and tbo 
Sho'r Valleys, and in tbo Sho'r Valley only the Kach ; in the 
Bo'rai Valley, towards the Hanumba'r Puss, the Kach, the 
Hunumba'r, the Sia'b, the Marai, the Siha'», and the LoValai. 
After leaviiif.' the LoValai, the Kutsa, the Tsamaulanpj, and the 
Ka' han bad water pennaneutly only in deep pools, and no more 
permanently runniuf? water is seen till the Mitt/ti' KIiuTh and 
tlic Han are met with to the south of the Han Pass. In none 
of the above streams is there any body of water, and only in 
the Lo'ra, the LoValai, and the Siha'n is it more tiian ankle- 
deep, the rivers generally runniuj^ about their beda in half-a- 
dozen dribbling streams. The river-beds are, however, extra- 
ordinarily large, even near the tops of tbo bills, and consist 
usually of water-worn pebbles ancl stones of even large size, 
showing that the streams are powerful torrents at times. 

Kuh, ot Artificial Watercourses. — There ia a practice, espe- 
cially in the more thickly-populated portions, of divertuig 
streams along ku'ls,* or artificial watercourses, for irrigation, 
which probably deprives the rivers of a good deal of their 
natural supply of water. 

Sjjrinqs. — There are not many natural springs outside the 
rivcr-becis, nor is awanipy laud often seen in the valleys. The 
only springs passed en route were the Mzarai, near Baia'nai, 
and those near the camping-ground in the Tnlch Kuram Pass. 
Others heard of were the Pla'n and the Uchsaha'n, near 
Baia'nai ; the Dargat, between the Bo'rai and Lwa'ra Valleys, 
near Sinza'wai ; the Cliurma, eit route to GAnrat, from the 
Bo'rai Valley, and the Ma/imu'd Wa'Ii, in the .la'ndhra'n liange. 
These last are said to supply a quantity of good water. 

Wdh and Ka're'zes. — Wells and open reservoirs or tanks do 
not seem to be resorted to by the people in this part of the 
country as a means of procuring water. The only wells the 
writer could hear of were at a place called Tsa'hun, in the 
De'rama Hills, some eight or ten miles east of the TriA/* Kuram 
Pass. And the only tanks that came under his observation in 
Southern Afghanistan were in the Kadanei Valley, immediately 
west of the Kbo'jak Pass, and one in the Pishin Valley, near 

* A knl is an open oxtificiAl waterconrae following tliQ contonr of the bills. It 
generally taps a mountain-stroam at ila herul, but frequently also a river in some 
pert of iti conrtie, and Ihenno takfH tliu water to any point where it i« rcMinirai. 
These ku'ls branch all over tlio vadieya iii tbo nioro civilised [jiirts, nnd tho etrcfiin 
<ir river-water is turned on from time to time to thnt [wrlion of the land requiring 
irrigation. Some rivers, like tbo Tamak ninr Gandnhn'r, nru almost >nado to di»- 
app«3ar in this way. Ku'ls ore common all over tho Uimulayuu districts in India, 
aa n'l'll aa in Afghanistan, and are uouictinies carried for many miled. Thoy aro 
much Tolucd, and tiave long aiuco become n proliBe source of litigation. 

Temple'* Account of the Country traversed hy the 

Samalzai, on the road to iOm'shtlil KJm'n. Ka're'zes,* how- 
ever, are largely used in the Pisbin Valley and the country 
round, and tneiice westwards all over Southern Afghanistan. 
A few are also to be seen in the Ka'kar country about the Sho'r 
and Bo'rai Valleys. 

Waterless Tracts. — Of course about the summits of the water- 
sheds waterless tracts are met with, extending over some 
distance ; and here, as elsewhere in thin portion of the Asian 
continent, the distances from water to water are often serious. 
These are naturally greatest in the mountainous parts of the 
route. From Shudaod, in the upper Ro'd Gorge, there is no 
water till Ispira EaV/Aa is reached, seven miles off, and even 
then the watvr-supply is precarious, so that one would have to 
be prepared to bo without water as far as O'bushtkai, in 
the feho'r Valley, distant from Shudand 16 miles. The 8ho'r 
Valley itself is much more destitute of water than the valleys 
are usually found to bo, none being met with between Chimja'n 
and the Mzanii Springs, 18 miles apart. But the main 
difficulty about water is encountered south of the Hanumba'r 
Pass, where there is no water after the River LoValai is left till 
the TriA7i Kuram Springs are reached, i.e. for 18 miles, 
and then no more till the River Kutsii, 11 miles, and not enongh 
for a camp till the Tsaraaulang campLn«r-ground, 16 miles. 
From this to the Enla Dhaka ground there is none for 10 
miles, ami after that none, except only a precarious supply 
half-way, till the Han Pass is crossed at MittJii Khu'i'n, 16 
miles distant. Off the route the same thing is to be observed. 
There is practically no water between tbo Sho'r and Zhol) 
Valleys, via the Pa'lkai Pass, for 20 miles or so, and alon^ 
the A'madu'n route no water was found at one point for 10 

Ariijicial Means of procurituj Water. — The above remarks 
apply only to natural sources of water-supply, for there are 
inuications, such as damp soil, green and iresh overgrowth, 
&c.» in many parts, of the near presence of water underneath. 

* A ka're'z may be tenned an underjfround ku'l, ox artiiJcial watercouree. Tbc 
procfs* of constracting one ia apparently this : the course of tlia undfr^^round 
water-supply liaviiig l.)cen aacertainfd, a work requiriug considtralile akill and 
experienfc, wells are miak along it at a eJiort distance apart, and often to a great 
depth, and tlieu connected below walcr-ltvel by tunntjLt. The whole fornoB oa 
underground artificial stream or kii'l, and u c&llrd a ka'n-'z. ltd advantages ore 
tUat tho watcr-Bupply la tapped at ita natural Icvol, and a great underground 
cistern formtd, not subject to the rapid uvaporntion it wonld undergo at the Burface 
of the aoil. Ka're'z digging appears to be an art («n6n«d to <Mirtain Tillages or 
(liunliiea, and some sub-diviiiioiiij of the (r/iilzais are especially renowned as ka're'a 

Second Column of the Tal^Clio'tia'li Field Force in 1879. 207 

especially abotit tbc TriA7i Kuram and Han Passes, and in 
several places now described as waterless. And it is probable 
that by judicious well-digging tlio country would be made to 
yield water at reasonable distances all along tbe route. 

Bain/ull and Wtt Seasons. — TLere is a good deal of rain, 
aleet, and suow iu tlte winter niontbs, and some in tbe spring ; 
but the regular rains appear tu be about July and August, as 
is usual in this region. Very little rain, however, seems to fall 
south of tbe Han l*asa, and what does fall comes about spring, 
and then only iu showers. It is remarkable that not a drop 
of tbe water falling hero and passing away in the numerous 
streams ever reaches tlie sea ; that running away U) the west 
is sucked up by the Belo'ch Desert to the south of Afgban- 
istan, and that to the east by tiie Kaehi I^esert, or by the 
san'ly wastes between the Suiima'n Range and tiie Indus. 

Qiuility of the Water-mmly, — As far as the palate can test, 
the water-supply is on the whole good and pleasant, but is 
said generally to contain salts in soluticju, and a considerable 
percentage of solid matter. In places it is brackish to the 
taste, as in the GurA:/(rti River ; and in all the country between 
the Tvihh Kuram and Plan Passes, and some of the rivei-s, as the 
Siha'ft, the Lo'ralai and the Han, have that peculiar pale green 
tinge betokening the presence of salts. In a few places, as 
along the Sagar River, and about the Tri7i/i Kuram and 
Hanokai Passes, much of the water is sidt and unwholesome. 

V. SorPLiES. 

Nature of the Supplies. — There is little to be got in the 
country beyond its natural protlucts, food-grains, fruit and 
live-stock ; and the only manufactured articles oftered for sale 
were some rough woollen cloths here and there.* The 
supplies may therefore be classed under the ftillowing beads : 
(1) food-grains and farinaceous food, (2) live-stock and animal 
food, (3) fruits, fresh or dried according to season. 

Orops aiid Food-Grains. — First, then, as regards grains. The 
cultivation of these naturally depends un the water-supply, 
and, as a rule, where that is found to run short, food-supplies 
(and population) are also found to fail. [Supplies are plentiful 
in the Pishtn and up the Ro'd River Gorge as far as I'siif Kach, 
and again in tho Bo'rai Valley and in lia'rkha'n {IJurkhijm), 
but in the long mountainous belt between the Bo'rai VaUey and 

* Bread, however, wu made ftt Kala AUlulloli K/uin, in Ihe Fibliin, and sugar 
and molatises were procured at Bbarari, in the Uo'rai YuUey, 

208 Temple'* Account of the Country traversed by the 

Da'rkha'n there are no supplies at all, nnd from tlie Uof Valley 
t(t the Bo'rai, all along tlie lio'd ilivor Gorge nnd tho Shor 
ViiUoy, they may be said to be scarce, 80 tliat a difficult road 
and ft failJn;:^ water-supply indicate a scarcity ol" food-supplies 
in thia country. The crops grown are found to be much the 
same throughout, viz., wheat, barley, millet, and Indian com 
(maize) ; to which may be added lucerne about the Pishin and as 
far as the Ko'd Gtirge, and perhaps oats. In the t5ho'r Valley 
such scanty eroris as are raised appear to ho barley niid Indian 
corn. About Dalozai Ka're'z and tliroiighout the 1 )of Valley there 
IS a noticeable cultivation of Slauji't (madder), a plant pro- 
ducing a red dye. Locally it is said not to grow elsewhere, but 
it is to be seen about Candaha'r. It is grown in deejjly fun-owed 
land, at a cousiderable expense of" time and trouble. Grass for 
horses, mules, and cattle was generally procurable without much 
trouble everywhere ; and as grass, camelthoru, and southern- 
wood were abundant in most place;*, the bill or Afghan camels 
had plenty to eat, but there was constant difficulty experienced 
in feeding the tamarisk-eating camel of the Indian plains. Of 
imported products tobacco, Indian and Kandalm'ri, wtis procur- 
able everywhere, and also rice in a few places. Of grain, there- 
fore, wheat, millet, Indian corn and barley, were generally 
obtainable, as also were Hour, both iVoiu wheat and Indian corn, 
and Bhoosa,* or chopped straw.t while rice wjis procurable in a 
few places only. 

Live-Stoch and Animal Products. — Of live-stock the chief are 
sheep, goats, and cattle, wJiich are to be found everywhere, the 
bullocks being used chielly lor carrying purposes. Donkeys 
and horses t are procurable in the m/ne populous parts, and 
camels iu the Pi^ihin and JJa'rkho'm. Fowls are to he bought 
everywhere, uud in the Piahin the long-baired variety of tho 
greyhound — known as tho Pei-sian greyhound — a very hand- 
some, but somewhat treacherous and dangerous species. As 
commoji animal products may be mentioned milk, ghee 
(clarided butter), and eggs. Butter was procurable iu the more 
civilized parts, but not easily ; and butter-milk was only sold 
as such ill one place, Sharan in the Bo'rai Valley. Meat 


• Bhoosa, or chopped atraw, is a common staple for cattlo-food througbont 
Northern Iwlifi jintl Afghnnietan. Duringr tho late war the writer bought a 
bullock in llio Arr|Ai^'n Volk-y that Ook kindly to no other kind of food, ohowing 
that it was acmaloTncd t>i subbitt putirtly on bfiorisa. 

t TLt; 8o-ealk'<I Ka'buli^, who acl! honicg all uvcr ludia, art- the Bayads of tho 
Piahin, and con8e<n]eiitIy iu tlioir villii;?ea niiMi arc to be found in jdenty who have 
travelled ti> all porta of tiio liritL-ih Empire in Llio Kaat, speak Uindostani liuoatly, 
and ore tboruughly acquainted witk Kngliah ways, 

Second Column of the Tal — Chdtia'li Field Force in 1879. 

(killed) was not to be procured anywhere, and, in order to get 
meat, sheep and oattlo bad to be bought and then slaughtered. 
This, however, proved no drawback in a winter campaign, as 
the meat was all the better for being kept for a week or bo. 
Tlie only sort of meat that the writer saw offered for sale was 
some dried mutton in strips at Sharan, in the Bo'rai Valley. 
As animal products may be added eow-dung (go'bar), so uni- 
versally used in India, but here, however, only on sale at 
8hnran ; and dried curds (kurt), sold everywhere as a sweet- 

Game and Wild Animah. — As regards game and wild ani- 
mals, but few opportunities presented themselves of ascertaining 
much. Partriuges, hares, ravine deer," and pig were fomia 
en roxde at several points, while some snow-ieopaurds were seen 
in the highlands about Ispira Ka'^/ja, in the neighbourhood of i 

i^foimt Ma'^/nvij, and porcupines' quills were found about the ^| 
TriWt Kiiram and Han Passes. ^^ 

Fruit, — Round every village and hamlet, even in the wildest 
pai'ts, are fruit-trees to be eeen ; in places, indeed, they are 
very numerous, and the main luxury of these mountaineers 
seems to lie in their fruits. In the winter they are sold 
in a dried state, and, with stewing, make excellent puddings 
and tarts. The chief are iigs, plums, peaches, apricots, 
grapes (raisins), cherries, and olives. Pomegranates also 
are to be bought in the Bo'rai and Pishin Valleys'. In Ba'rk- 
ho'm and the Belo'ch country the absence of the fruit-trees, to 
be remarked round every Pathau village, is immediately 

Fuel, — It Las been remarked ahove, that wherever the road 
was difficult, and the water-supply failing, the population and 
food-supplies wore also found to be scarce, but the converse 
holds good as regards fuel.f Wherever the population is 
scanty there the supply of fuel is moat abundant, and the reason 
is not far io seek. The people hereabouts never seem to plant, 
or to care to preserve, any trees, except those that bear fruit, 

* A very pretty baby specimen of what waa inippoaeJ to be a ravine deer, 
«aught In the Hanuinba'r Pusa, waa handut] over to the niitbor to bo taken care of. 
It was aueoesBfuUy brought tu ludiu aa Tar as DJiariuHala, when it suddenly died, 
seemingly of fever. It waa unfortiitiatdy too young \a be of much value ad a 
zoolcigical gpecitnen, but froni its skin it was snppoiod by Dr. Anderson, 8uper- 
inteDilent of the Indian bluseuni, Calcutta, to be a variety of sheep, the OvU 
eijdocero*. whiob oooora in the Salt Bango of the Punjab, Afghantstan, Beluchi- 
stan, and in Siad. 

t Camel-dnng is a common and nfFectivo aubstitnte for wood as fuel. The dung 
of other auimaU may alao be aetu preserved in the villages for the same purpose* 


210 Temple'* Account of the Country traversed hy the 

anil the process of prociirin^ fuel and wood for buildinn; and 
similar purposes is simple. They cut dowu the nearest supply 
as required, and then proceed to the nest. By this means tlio 
country has beconics gradually denuded of forest and wood — a 

Erocess also observed in the Punjab, Mysore, and other parts of 
ndia — and hence that hare appearance noticed in such places 
hy all travellers. 

Trees and Overgrowths, — That the country is not uatui-ally 
tare of forest and wood may be deduced from the fact that in 
places more difticult of approaf-li tbnn usual, as the highlands 
about Jloiint Ma'^Awo, and in the portions uninluibited for any 
reason, as tho debatable lands about the lianiiniba'r, Trii/* 
Kuram, Hanokai and Han Passes, and iu the Tsamaiilong 
Valley, wood is by no means scarce ; indeed, near the Hanum- 
ba'r Pass there is a small forest. It \vas to be obserTed, too, 
that uhercver the land was hilly and difHcult of access, tliough 
not very far from inhabited spots, such an tho Jv/iojak, Sunii, 
and Baia'nai Passes, wood was to be obtained and trees to be 
seen fj;ro\ving, though not in any qnantity. As might be ex- 
pected, the vegetation and natural growths were found to be 
affected by locality and the very varying levels of the country. 
The most persistent overgrowths observed were southernwood 
and cameltliorn, which are to be found a]iparently everywhere 
all through Central Asia, from the Siilinm'n Kange to the 
Caspian. The fc>l lowing were the trees and overgrowths seen in 
tho various localities. In tho Pishin Valley, as far as the upper 
gorge of the Kiver Ku'd— altitude {iOOU feet to 700O feet — 
the trees were pistachio, dwarf tamarisk, berljery, cherry and 
olive ; the overgrowths were southernwood, canielthorn, gentian, 
moases of sorts, gra^s, both fine and coarse, reeds, dwarf holly, 
find a fragrant plant like broom, used by the natives as a 
medicine, and sTuoked like tohaero. In the higher lands at the 
Ush Pass, and about JMount Ma'^/iwu — altitude. 7000 feet to OOUO 
feet — the trees wore wild plum (ber), juniper, conifers of sorts, 
probably cedars and cypresses, and a hush like a rose ; the 
overgrowths were camelthorn, sonthernwoo<l, grass, fine and 
coarse, reeds, and the broom-like plant above mentioned. In 
the Sho'r and Bo'rai Valleys— altitude, 7U0O feet to 4000 feet — 
the trees were berbery, olive, dwtirf tamarisk, and in the lower 
lands tamarisk nnd willuw ; the overgrowths were southern- 
wood, cameUhoni, grass, fine, coarse, and tnfty, du'b grass 
(Cyiiitdor dadtjlon), dandelions, and reeds. In the country 
lying between the Ilanumba'r and the llan Passes — altitude, 
4000 foet to 5000 feet — the trees were tamarisk, dwarf tama- 

Second Column of the Tal—Cko'tidli Field Force in 1879- 211 

risk, berbery, ber (wild plura, Zizyphu^ jujvha), babu'l {Acacia 
arahim), and dwarf palms; tlie overgrowths wore grass, tliick 
and fine, aud nlso rank, reedy, and coar.^o, reeds, caraelthorn, and 
smithemwoofl. But in Ba'rkbo'ni, whore the general altitude 
is about 3500 feet, there was seen to be a great change in the 
overgrowths, whii^h now became similar to those observahle 
anywhere in Beluehistun and the Indian plains about the Indus 
Valley. Grass and tamarislis were very abundant in the lower 
and daniper lands. 

Distnnces withotit Sitjiplies. — As the distances between places, 
where supplies can be procured, are a serious consideration in 
snch a country as this, a statement of them will be here given. 
There is no difficulty about supplies till I'saf Kach is reachevl 
on the lliver Ko'd, but there are none whatever from this to 
Chimja'n, a distance of 35 miles, or three days' march. And 
again there are none between Chimja'n and Ninga'nd, a distance 
of 30 miles, or two days' march. Such, too, as are procurable 
at Chimja'n are doulitful, so that one should be prepared to 
meet with scanty supplies from I'saf Kach to Ninga'nu, i. e. for 
G5 miles, or five days' march. Again, from tlip. Lu'ni Valley to 
Ba'rkho'm, 60 miles, or five days' march, there are no supplies 
to be got of any sort. Troops and travellers, therefore, accord- 
ing to the direction of their march, should lay in a stock of 
provisions for five days at I'saf Kach and in the Bo'rai Valley, 
or in Ba'rkho'm and the Bo'rui Valley. 

Table shomtiif SiqipJies procurnhle ai Eiicampiiifj Groumh. — 
The following table will show in detail the supplies procured 
at the various encampments en route. It was, of course, im- 
possible to ascertain the rates current in or<linary years, and 
the exorbitant prices demanded from the army were paid 
probably with a view to conciliating the inhabitants and 
keeping them quiet, they being encouraged in their demands 
by the political authoritie.^, wltose rates, according to which 
the Commissariat Department and all officers were requested 
to purchase, were higher than the prices that the people them- 
selves ever thought of asking: — 

VI- Inuabitants, 

Afglmn and Belo'ch Tribes mei tnth en route. — It is not 
intended here to go df-eply into the subject of AFghiin and 
Belto'ch tribes and their infinite Bubdivisions;* a short descrip- 
tion only of those whose territoriea w^re passed en route will 
be given. The Afghan tribes met with along the line of march 
were the Dura'nis or Abda'Iis.f the Tari'ns, the Ka'kars, the 
Ln'nis, and the Zarkba'ns. 

TJte Bura'nis or Abdalis. — The Dura'nis are represented by 
the Achakznis, inhabiting the Kho'jak Pjiss and the hills nortb- 
uest of the Pishin, and by a village here and there in the 
Pishin, the inhabitants of which belong to the Po'palzais, 
lately the ruling chm in Afghanistan through its sub-section 
the Sadozais (better known by the spelling 8udosye.s), and to 
the Bn'rakzais, the present ruling clan. The late ruler of the 
Pishin, A7iu'shdil Khan, a near relative of the late and present 
Ameers, was a Ba'rakzai of the Mohammadzai (the present 
royal) sub-section. The sub-seetions of the Achakzais in the 
Pishin are the Abdal?^ Ilabi'bzais, and Ka'kozais, 

The Tari'ns, — The chief inhabitants of the Piehin are the Tor 

* A Paper, by the author, on the inhabitants of the nnuntry paesod llirongh by 
the second colnmn Tal— C'U'otia'U Field Force, ia published in the ' Jomnal of 
the Aaiatic Rocioty of Bengal ' fnr 1880. 

t Tli(j oii;<trml tiauie of tlio tribe wiis A1i<la'Ii ; tlic name of Dura'ni dates from 
the time of Alimod KJib'h Baduzai, the hero of Pu'ninat and conqueror of {.Ahoro 
and Mtilta'u, who toutk the title of Darr-i-Duna'n, tho Pearl of Pearl«, on ascead- 
ing the Afghan tbrono. . 

Second Column of the Tal—Cho'tiaHi Field Force in 1879. 213 

J'ari'ns, one of the two great divisions of the Tari'n tribe, which 
is (livitled into the Spin (or white) Tari'ns antl the Tor (or 
black) Taring. The former iuhubit all the country about Tal 
and Chu'iia'ii, and the latter the Pishin Viillej'. The following 
sections of the Tor Tari'ns were found in the I'ishin Valley, 
— Batazais or Badozaie, AVm'nizais, A'li'zaia, Nu'rzais, Kula'zais, 
^^lu'flizais, Haikalzaiti, Manatkais, Ma'likais, Ha'ru'ns, and 
Kama'lzais. The known sub-divisions of the Spin Tari'ns are 
the Sha'di'zais, llarpa'nis, Lasra'nis, and Adwa'nis. 

Tlte Sai/ads of th-e Fishiv. — Occupying several villages in the 
Pishin, holding a high and influential position as a sacred 
class, and commanding respect from their wealth and superior 
commercial qualifications, are the Sayads. They are not 
Patlians, hut tire supjiosed to be of Arab descent; at any rate 
they claim to be of such. However, to all intents and 
purposes, they are Pathans, and have a strong national feeling 
with that race. They deal chiefly in horses, and as horse- 
dealers travel to all parts of India, understand Hindostani well 
as a rule, and are acquainted with the ways of more civilized 
lands. Isolated 8ayad villages are found throughout the 
Pathan country, and even in Ba'rkho'm iind among the Belo'ch 
tribes. They always, wherever they may happen to be, com- 
mand the fame respect^ and are looked up to as a superior 
race. They are sub-divided in the Pishin in a v?ay which 
shows their adoption of Pathnu customs. Thus, into Gan- 
galzais, Bagarzais, Ajabzaia, iSha'di'zais, Brahamzais, Haidar- 
zais, and Ya'singzai:?. 

The Kakars. — The whole of tlio country lying between the 
Pisljin Valley and tlie Bo'rai Valley, including the latter, is 
inhabited by the Kakai-s. They are divided into the Lo'we' (or 
Great) Ka'kars, and the Kuchnai (or Lesser) Ka'kars ; the latter 
in a great measure recognizing the supremacy of the former. 
The country occupied by the Great Ka'kars, whose chief appears 
to be Sha'/j; Jeha'n of Khf^no'h, is about the ZJio'h Valley, 
and that passed by the army belongs to the Lesser Ka'kars. 

The Lesser Ka'kars are divided into Sulima'n AVie'ls and 
Amand JvAe'ls, oocupymg the land between the i)oi and Pishin 
Valleys; Me/ttarzais, found between the Zko'h Valley and the 
Ro'd River Gorge, and the Pa'nizais to the sonthwarJ between 
the River Ro'd and Quetta, both these sections ranging as 
lai' as Mts. M&'zh\\6 and Surf/Ziwaud ; I'sa' Khe'h in the Gwa'l 


jrge; Zja/i7<pcis m tne onor vaiiey; iJuraars 
about Smalan and Buffho. wa ; Utma'n A'/te'ls in the 6r/mzgai 
Valley and in the west end of the Bo'rai ; and Sundar A/ie'ls in 

214 Temple'* Accovmt of the Country iraversec 

i\\ii Bo'rui Valley. Among the sections of the Great Ka'kars are 
probably the/tA waida'ili!ftis,Mur3ia'iifi;zai8, Aktarzais and Awazais, 
to whicli should be adde<l perhaps the Me/ttarzais and Siirgarais 
above stated to bo of tho Lesser Ka'kars. With regard to the 
sub-sections of the above, the uutlna' hud not much opportunity 
of making extended enquiries ; but it would appear that the 
Tra^ai-ais may be referred to the Sulima'n /t/ie'ls ; the A'di'/ais 
to the Pa'ni'zais ; the Mula'zais aud Ta'ra'us to the Sara'ngzais ; 
Amazais, Kauozais and Na'ozais to the Za/.7/pe'ls; tho A'ii'zais, 
Shabozais, Mu'ys, Dargais and Waha'rs to the .Sandar A7ie'l6. 

TJiC Lu'ni IvheZf, — To the south of the Ilanumba'r J'as.s, and 
occupying all the country between that and the lielo'eh border, 
are the Lu'ni Kho'h, called also commonly the Lu'ni Pathans. 
They are not lui'knr.s, and claim to be of Ahda'li descent, and 
call themselves Dura'ais, but are not included in any of the 
lists of the Dura'ui sections. It was not ascertained tliat tbey 
are sub-divided in any way. 

TJie Zarkha'its. — Tho Zar7;/ia'ns occupy the liills to the west 
of the Spin Tari'ns about the lluuokai I'ass aud Bala Uha'ka. 
Little is knuwn of them except that they are Pathans, and 
imfortuuately for themselves they are next door neighbours to 
the Blarris, who have nearly wiped them out as a separate clan 
by constant harrying, 

Tfte Belo'ch Trihtn. — The subject of the Be'loch tribes and 
their sub-divisions is almost as complicated as that of the 
Afghans, aud it will be here .suflicient merely to mention 
those that came under observation, lioughly speaking, the 
border (to the ea-st of wliit^h lies the Belo'ch district of Ba'rkho'm, 
eummonly calh d lla'rkha'u) runs along the hdk of the Ma'r 
Pass, thence to the liarbu'z liills, and then ptist the Tor 
Ts^ipar Peak (or Kali' Cliuppri', Belo'cli name) in the Han 
Pass to the Bay/'ao Valley. Ba'rkho'm is the first inhabitf^d 
district, and appears to belong to the Khe'tra'ns, sub-divided 
into Khidra'ni's, Da'ma'ui's, ^Ja'iiars and Su'mi's. Several, how- 
everj of the other tribes have property here, apjiurL-ntly using 
it as a summer residence on account of Ihe boat expuiieucod in 
their main property, whieh lies in the plain between the Suli- 
ma'n range ana the Indus. These are the Luga'ri's, I'slui'ni's, 
Muza'ri's, Gui-chani's, and the Lu'nds, All the lull country 
from Ba'rkho'm and south of the l^athiin border as far as the 
Kachi' Desert aud the P>ugti' territory, is occupied by the 
Jlarris, a tribe of robbers, who are a curse unti u teiror to all 
around them, Belo'chis and Puthaus, 

Table of Aftjhan and Beldch Tn'bts fouiul en route. — A table 
of the Ai'ghan and Belo'ch tribes above mentioned is here 
given, to bring their numerous sub-divisions into one view. 

Second Column of the Tal—Cho'tia'K Field force in 1879* 215 
Past I.— AraHAir Tubes. 










/Dnia'ni or 
\ Abdali. 




















Tor Tari'n. 


^Batazai or Ba- 
\ dozai. 



Lu'r Kh&'mM. 


Dab ITAa'ntzaL 

























Spin Tari'n. 






Lo'w'e Ka'kar. 









Euchnai Ka'kar. 


Siilima'n Khel. 
Ahmand Khe'l. 
















I'sa' Ehol 

















Utma'n Khel 



Sandar Khe'l. 



2 , Shabnzai 

3 MuV. 




Lu'ni Khdl 





216 Temple'* Account of the Country traversed hy the 

Part II.— Satads, 













l-AnT III.- 

BEI-O'cH TBIIiti?. 





















Sysiem of Government in the Pishin and Dof VaUeys.—The 
Ameer's power used to extend as far as the Pisliin and Dof 
Valleys, where A'/ni'shclil Khan of the royjil house was gOTernor^ 
having under him Nu'r Jlohamniad Khtx'it, a (Mohammadzai) 
Ba'rakzai, as Naib or lieuteuant.. It does not appear tliat 
JOiu'shdil Kha'yt or liis family ever resided in the I'ishin, so 
that the Naib was probably supreme. The seat of government 
was the fort known as A7tu'slidil Kh&'n, which is now turned 
into a pommissariat warehouse (or godown) iu charge of another 
Nu'r Hlohamniad Khan, a Belo'ch (Luga'ri'), who is also Na'zim 
or ruler of the Pisbin under our Government. 

Governmeni in Yaghiatan. — From the Dof Yalley eastward* 
to the Belo'ch frontier the Ameer never seems to have had 
any control, and this part of the country is locally known as 
Ya'^/iista'n, or the Independent Land.* This Ya'j/Aista'n includes 

• Ta'jrAi' is nsuBlly taken to mean an outlaw nr tnrbulent fellow lirjond 
ordinary control, and la u«ed in a bad st^nse. In the above term Yn'^Uibta'u. ita 
aigniflciitioii, Iiowpvor, .■<«■ erns to bo coiifiucd 1o mere indepcnilonci?, Imt it must I<o 
remembered tliat the PathauB of this diiitiict bcnr a very bad unmo among their 
felluw countrymen. 

Second Column of the Tai — Chdtia'li Field Force m 1879. 217 

all the Ka'kar country, as well as that of the Lu'nis, the Zar- 
klm'ns and the Spin Turi'iis. The torm Ka'kurista'u is, of 
course, applied properly to the Ka'kar country, but it is also 
loosely used in much the same sense as Ya'j/Ziista'n. Hero the 
government seems to be on the patriarchal system. Every 
villaf^e has its chief or Malik, and every tribal sub-section its 
Malik also, but such men as appear to be chiefs of a tril>e or 
section, such as Sha7( Jeha'n oi the Zho'h Ka'kars, Gwurrat 
Klitk'n of the JSaudar A7ie'l Ka'kars, Samaudar Kha'n oi" the 
Lu'nis, seem to owe their position as much to the force of 
personal character as to descent. There is appnrently no 
Sirda'r, or head, of the Ka'kars, Lu'nis and so on, recopinised as 
such, as among the other Afghan tribes. All the Malika are 
styled Khan. 

Internal Fiffhta and Sqiiohbles. — Every Malik seems to rule 
supreme in his own sub-section or village, and fights Iiis 
neighbours, on occasion, without reference to tlie rest of his 
tribe, while the tribes and sections agam unite under their 
chief for the time being to harry one another. Strangely 
enough, this system seems to work well enough in places, as in 
the Bo'rai Valley, as far as a certain rough kind of prosperity 
goes, but there are many indicutions of a constant state of 
petty war. And this not only in Ya'ghista'n, but also in the 
Pishin, where a more settled government existed. Recent 
instances are the harrying, and linal driving into British pro- 
tection at Quetta, of the Malik i^ayad Sa'lo (Urumzai), with all 
his villagers, by the Malik of Sayad Paind, his near neighbour 
in the Pishiu; and the destruction of old Waria'gai in the 
Bo'rai Valley, resulting in the removal of the village to its 
present site, on account of some local squabble. And many 
more could be found all over the country*. 

Hatred of tavh othtr ahown h^ the Tribes. — The utter hatred 
and distrust of each other exhibited by these tribes is a source 
of wonder to a foreigner : even sections of the same tribe are 
afraid of each other, and often there is a fear of a certain 
village shown by its neighbours. Kach, in the Sho'r Valley, i-* 
a village apparently much dreaded in the neighbourhood, while 
Ka'kars murder Tari'ns, and vice versa. As far as one could 
gather, no Tari'n will willingly visit the Ka'kar country, and 
no Ka'kar the Lu'ni territory. I'sa' Khe'i Ka'kars were met with 
who dreaded their brethren the I'a'ni'zais, and i^a/rApe'Is who 
feared the Dumars and Utma'n Khe'ls, though they were 
neighbours and fellow-tribesmen. The only persons who have 
a safe-conduct everywhere are the Sayads, and even with 
them there ia a danger of being mistaken for a Pathan, In 

218 Temple'* Account of Ike Country traversed by the 

the eyes of a Tarin, au Acliakzai or a Pisliin Sayftd, every 
Ka'lvar is a cut-throat, a scoundrel and a thief, fit only for 
extermination. This character of the Ka'kars also naturally 
obtuius auKuig tliL' Boloeliis about Quetta: and, as we have 
never previously seen anything of the Kakars and Lu'uis iii 
their own territories, it would a]>pear that the bad character 
they have borue with us is attributable to tliis. As fur as the 
present writer could see, in their own country and away from 
the border, where every man's hand is against theru, the 
Ka'kai-s are no worse than any other Patiiaus ; iu fact, i«i some 
lihires they are better off. 

holatioii from ihc Out&r World. — As a consequence of their 
independent attitude towards the government of the Ameer, 
the inhabitants of Ya'y/iista'u have beeji coufiaed to their own 
territories on the western frontier, while the presence of their 
natural enemies the Belochis along the cast and south btirder 
hjis prevented them liom penetrating beyond it, and eonse- 
([uently they have become quite isolated and sliut uut from 
eommuuication with the outer world, and live entirely among 

The Luleixunhnt Beldch Tribes. — The Belo'ch teiTitoiy passed 
through belongs to the independent Belo'ch tribes, each under 
its own Tumanda'r or chief, none of whom recognise the 
authority of the Kha'n of Khela't. Their method of govern- 
ment need not be here dilated on, as it is well known and 
understood from their proximity to ourselves. SuflSce it to 
say that up in the highlands of Ba'rkho'm they seem to live 
much like their Pathun neighlniurs, idways either fighting them 
or each other. Their internal cjuarrels arc not necessarily 
tribal, but often extend no further than the villages imme- 
diately concerned ; and the frequent occurrence of deserted 
villages or of those whose sites have been recently changed, 
points to a constant habit of petty war. But the pests of the 
country are the Marris. 1'his tribe, which oceupie.«i perhaps a 
larger territory than any other, lives professedly by depreda- 
tion. They Imve only one town or village, Ka'han, and, like 
tlie Zakka Khe'ie of the Xhyber, they dwell iu caves, whence 
they sally fi>rth to plunder and murtier. They are a curse to 
all around them, Pathaaa aud Belochis alike, and the sooner 
thi?v are crushed and brouglit to reason the better for the 

Language. — The laoguuge spoken among the Pathaus met 
with r-/i route is Pushto, the language of Aj'ghauihtaii, in several 
dialects. These differ, as might be expected, considerably 
as to terminations, pronunciation, and minor grammatical 

Second Column of the Tal—Cho'tta'U Field Force in 1879. 219 

points from the Pushto of the Yu'sufzais and the dwellers in 
the north, i.e. from the dialects with which Enropeans are 
familiar, but Dowhere to such an extent as not to be readily 
intelljffihle. Hindustani, of a sort, is spoken by the Sayads in 
the Pishin, whose natural Iaii{2^age is, however, Pushto, and by 
8uch Ka'kai-s as have travelled abroad. A few of these were 
met with in the Dof and Gwa'I Valleys, and about the Ro'd 

Among the Belochis of Ba'rkho'm a sort of Hindustani 
(? I'ersian), with a strong admixture of Panja'bi' and Sitidhi' 
expressions and words, seems to be the lanpuape current, as 
they do not apparently understand the Brahoi language. 
Their language is easily intelligible to any one spe-aking 
Hindustani, and they readily understand it when spoken in 

Histoncal Remains. — As far as could be gathered from a 
hurried passage through the country, the historioul remains are 
very few. In tlje Pishin there is, near Sama'lzai (not far from 
7^^/lu'shdil Khu'u) a small artificial mound, with the remains of 
fortifications round it. It is built on the same principle as that 
at Quetta, tiud probably may be referred to the same date, but 
there is no local tradition regarding it. It is called Spin iiAila, 
or the White Fort. No other historical remains were seen till 
the lio'rai Valley was reached, where the traditions of Na'dir 
Sha'/i's march by this route t« India are still strong. There is 
also a mined fort of considerable size in the centre of the valley, 
called 8hahv-i- Na'dir, which, like the others, is built on an 
artificial mound. All over this valley, through the Haunmba'r 
Pass, and along the route taken by tbe force, pieces of pottery 
and of burnt bricks are found, of a njanufacture not now known 
here. These the inhabitants unhesitatingly refer to Na'dir 
JSlia'A, as indeed they do everything that in old ; but it is quite 
possible that their presepce is due to the former pas.sage of 
caravans (ka'filas) this way.* There is also a ruined fort called 
Shar-y/ntln, in Ba'rkho'm, said locally to be of a great age, which 
statement must be taken for what it is worth ; and near LugaVi' 
Bii'rkha'u is a ruined tomb, called 8u'ra'«, of the same pattern 
and build as those of the iMu-ani nionarchs at mu'ltan'. It may 
Mith some cerfcitnty be referred to the time of A/<mad tSha'A, 
the lirst Dura'ni ruler. 

Nnmha-s and Population. — It is of course extremely difficult 

* Specimens of this potterj- were sent by tbe author to the Asiatic Society, 
Eongnl, but tlu! rcaulta of the invcatigutiou (if auy) made regarding them hixn 
uot yet been communicated to him. 

220 Temple's Account of the Country traversed by the 

to judge of the density of population in such & country as this, 
but guesses may be made on such data as we have. In the 
Pishin Valley some fifty-three villages were passed en rotite, and 
taking this number to repreeeiit ahout half that there are in tlie 
valley, and the population at 200 per village, which is probably 
a liberal allowance, the total population of the valley would he 
about 20,000. In the Duf Valley there are twenty-three villages^ 
which, at 200 per village, would yield about 60U0 inhabitants. 
Dawn the Gwa'l Valley, as far as ^Au'shla'k. there are probably 
about fifteen such villages, yielding a popuhitiou of 3000, From 
the Dof to the Bo'rai Valley the villages could not, on the 
average, contain more tiiuu 100 persons, which would give us a 
population of some 2000 about the Kiver Ro'd, and of about 2O0O 
more as far as the Bo'rai Valley. The villages in the Bo'rai 
Valley are larger, and contain, say, 200 wrsotis each, at which 
eompntiition the popidation of the Bo'rai Vulley should be about 
10,000. and there are probably some 10,000 more among the 
Lu'ni ATie'ls, ^o that the total numbei-s of I'athans along the 
route would be about 50,000, of which 20,000 are Ka'kars. 
These figures would give us, as a guess, the total number of 
Ka'kars to be about 50,000, and perhaps as nuany as 75,000.* 
The country is, in fact, very sparsely populated, except in a few 
isolated valleys, in whicb, as may be seen from the map, the 
inliabitants arc fairly dense. 

In Bii'rkho'm the population may be estimated at 10,000 
or more. 

Skiic of Civilization. — The state of civilization of the several 
tribes varies considerably with the locality, and may be gauged 
by the state of the dwellings and the methods of cultivation in 
vogue. As might be expected, the valleys are the most 
civilized, the innabitants of the mountains apparently living 
chiefly by grazing sheep and goats, and cultivating grain just 
sufficient for home consumption. 

Dwdliuffs. — The various kiuds of dwellings met with are 
illustrateil in the plate attached to another paper,! and it will 
be suftifient here to briefly explain their structure. 

The huts in the Pishin Valh'V diSer considerably from those 
in the country to the west of the Khitjak Puss. There the 
familiar Hat-topjied and domed hut of the Southern Afghau is 
everywhere to Lie seen, but in the Pisliin the roof is sloped. 
The l*ishin huts are built of stones and mud, or of mud en- 
tirely, or sun-dried bricks. The roof is of thatch, supported 

* Col. Macgregor's ' Gnzetteer ' places them Bt 72,000. See MujorMackeazio'e 
'Routes in AfgliuniBtaii " — introductory iioticir on Afglianifltan. 
t ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," 1880. 


Second Column of the Tal—aw'tiali Field Force in 1879. 

by strong coarse woofl-work, covered over with mud, and is the 
most valuable part of the structure, on account of the diflk'ulty 
of procuring the beams ; and when a village from any cause 
cliaiiges its position, the roofs are always carried away to be set 
up OQ the new site. These huts are very difficult to destroy, 
even by fire, and are, on the whole, more substantial and com- 
fortable that those further west. The average dimensions are— 
siile walls, 16 feet wide by *3 feet high; gabled ends, 10 feet 
high by 6 feet wide. The doors (usually only one) are about 
5 feet high by 3 i'eet broad. There are no windows, but usually 
three small holes, about 5 feet from the ground in the gable- 
enda, supply their place. 

The dwelliugs found in the Dof and Gwa'l valleys are very 

In the lower gorge of the RiveV Ro'd we come upon a 
much rougher style of dwelling, though it is still substnutial. 
It is irregular in shape, and the walls are of rough stones, built 
up without cement, on the top of which is u wall of mud. 
The roof is also very irregular in shape, and, as before, of 
thfttch, plastered over witli mud. There is generally one hole 
in the wall as an apology for a window. The general dimensions 
are — walls, 10 feet to 12 feet long; rough stone-work, about 
3 feet high, and mud superstructure, 1 foot to 2 feet high; 
total height of wall, about 4 feet ; that of the hut being 
about 10 feet to 11 feet. The door is 6 feet high by 3 feet 
Ijroad, and usually stands out from the roof on the principle 
of a dormer window. 

In tlie upper gorge of the River Eo'd the huts are the 
roughest met with during the march, being for the most part 
merely a thatch of leaves and brushwood, sup[iorted on yolea 
meeting in the middle in the form of a cone or pyramid. Their 
usual height is about 10 feet, and their diameter at the base is 
also about 10 feet. There is a rough doorway, about 6 feet high 
by 3 feet broad. 

The huts of the Sho'r Valley present very much tlie appear- 
ance of those in the lower Ro'd River Gorge, except that there 
is no mud-work between the roof and tlie rough stone-work 
of the wall, and there is no window or hole in the wall to 
represent one. The dimensions are — length, 12 feet; height 
of wall, 3 feet ; total height of hut, 8 feet ; door, 6 feet high 
by y feet wide. 

On reaching the G/iazgai Valley and the territory of the 
Utma'n Khu'ls there is a considerable difference to be observed 
in the congtruction of the dwellings. Those are now well- 
built structures of mud, every hut being fortified and having 


a small look-out tower attiichc'd. The walls and towers are 
of mud, aud tlie roof ia sloped, and is of n similar structure 
to those observed in the Pishiu Valley. The doors are very 
low, probably for reasons of safety, being not more than 3 feet 
in height ; aud round the top of the tower is a series of loop- 
holes. Diinoijsious are — length of hut, Hi feet; height of wall, 
4 feet ; total height of hut, 8 feet ; tower, if square, 12 feet high 
on a 6-feet base; if circular, 6 feet ia diameter; doors, 3 feet 
high by 8 feet broad. 

In the IJo'rai Valley were to be seen (and the same applies 
to the liu'ni Valley) the best dwellings the writer saw iu the 
whole of Houtbem Afghiiriir^tiin outside Candaha'r. They are no 
longer hut.s, but have become house?!, with eousiderably varying 
dimensions. They are built entiridy of mud, with flat roofs, 
from ofl" which the water is carried by projecting spouts. They 
are generally fortifietl, aud have towers attached, and usually 
only one door. The bulk of the houses, however, in the Bo'rai 
Valley are mucli larger than those above mentioned, and may 
be described as fortified structures of mud surrounded by a mud 
wjdl some 12 feet high, and covering sometimes nearly an acre 
of ground. They have usimlly several towers attached and one 
door. Within the outer wall aiv a quantity of fruit-trees, and 
the house probably contains a whole family. Generally also 
thiTO is a low 3-feet mud-wall extending round the fields 
belonging to the house. Three or four of these houses often 
constitute a village. 

Houseless Triltes and Kizhdais. — Some of the Ka'kars, as the 
Sulima'u Khe'is and Amand Elie'h, and some of the Pa'ni'zais 
and ZaAVipe'ls, seem to have no fixed dwellings at all, but live 
iu rough bhmket-tents, which they shift abuut from place to 
place as the exigencies of grazing require. The Achakzais are 
also a tribe of this nomad description, though they own some 
substantial villages about the Pisliin. In the Pishin, also, the 
villagers — for grazing purposes, and sometimes to avoid the 
summer heats — ^go out iuto camp. The black semi-permanent 
tents of the Achakzais and the inimbitants of the country round 
the Pishin are called *•' ki^Adais " (and locally al::*o " kile's " or 
"kire's"). A kiz/tdai is a structure of bent willow-rods or 
withies, covered over with black felt-liko blankets, but some- 
times the covering is of blackened matting. They are very 
warm in winter, and by <:>pening out can be made cool and 
pleasant in summer. There is a space in the middle for 
sheep and goats, to protect thera against the Kcvere frosts of 
wiuter. The usual dimensions are — height, 4 feet; length, 
12 feet ; openings or doorways, 3 feet by '6 feeL 

Secmd Column of the Tal—Chdtia'U Field Force in 1879. 223 

Granaries, Food-Stores and Mills, — Granaries, as such, exist 
only in the Bo'rai Valley, where their construction is notice- 
ahh\ They are small circular mud-towel's of peculiar build, 
raised on piles about 2 feet li'rom. the ground. The average 
dimensions are — height of piles, 2 feet to 3 feet; height of 
tovrer, 10 feet ; diameter at top, 3 feet ; at the bottom, 5 feet 
to G feet.* Grain, as a rule, is stored in sacks, weighing 
160 lbs. to 2U0 lbs. {'2 to 2^ maunds), which are kept in the huts. 
These sacks are of strong, substantial home-make, and valued 
a goo<l deal for themselves. Bhoopa (chopped straw) is storerl 
in heaps covered over with niud,as are turnips, ^tc, in England. 
These neaps contain as much as 4 tons to 8 tons each (lOU to 
200 mds.), and concealed among the iJhoosa are often to be 
found stores of grain. Grain is also kept stored underground 
under tho floors of houses, or in places known only to tho 
owBers, for safety's sake. Tho A'sya's, or water-mills, show 
considerablo skill in construction. They are to bo found along 
the line of a kul, or natural running stream, and are worked 
on the usual principles ; but often, to give the water greater 
power, a portion of the stream will bo banked up to some 
distance before it reaches the mill. The mill itself has its roof 
on a level with the banks of the stream, and in outward appear- 
ance is a small hut, of the same construction as those above 
described in the I'ishiu. In places, as at A'li'zai, in the 
PisLin, long lines of these a'sya's and embankments are to be 
seen along the same stream. 

Ctdiivation ami Irrifjaiion. — Everywhere, as far as it goes, 
the cultivation of tlie Futhans is carried on with some skilL 
The system of irrigation by means of ku'ls and ka're'zes has been 
explained already; but in places, in addition to these, a careful 
and costly (as to labour) system of reclamation of rivor-lnuds 
by meaug of groins and embankments, is to bo seen along the 
line of the lliver Rod, and also along tho River Kach, in tho 
iSho'r Valley. These groins are usually of rough stones, but 
are sometimes made of the trunks of trees. They are frctjuently 
turfed over, and have willows and small bushes growing on 
them. In one place, also in the Bo'rai Valley, a ku'l was 
observed to be carried uudcr tho stony bed of the River To'r 
KhixvAfi by a syphon, showing no mean skill in its constrnetion. 
As regards the cultivation itself, the ploughing ia of the same 

* Tliia giTOft a cubic meBsurement of some S.** cubic feot, ond, taking grain as 
weighing a cwt. per 2J cubic feet, would give ii holiling cai^acity of about \\ ton 
(for about 50 mnunds), yielding, say, 1 J ton of flour (a'tta'), i.e., about 33 lununda, 
or, in otlier wordts, euough for 5 persons for a calendar year ut li lb, (J Boere) per 
diem, the usual ratioa oUowed by Government for a native. 

224 Temple'* Account of the Country traversed by the 

rough, Bcratcby character visible tluuugbout tlio East, with 
a like primitive instrument, which is by no means always even 
of irou. But the sowing is careful, and in some places the lines 
of the crops are as regular as with us. Thu principle as to 
rotation of crops appears to be to let the land lie fallow for 
sonio time, bo that a much larger portion of land appears to be 
under cultivation than is really so in anyone year, and they 
never seem to cultivate more than suflSces for their current 

The Beh'ch Tem'tonj. — There is no difference whatever to 
be observed in tlic construction of the Belo'ch buildings in 
Ba'rkho'm, or in their method of cultivation, irom that in the 
Kaclii' Desert, or among the Belochis of our own territory, so 
nothing further need be said about them here. 

Fi<jhii)uj Power. — As regards lighting power, the fight at 
Bo<//<a'wa proved how entirely overrated were the Ka'kars in 
this respect. Practically unarmed, and utterly unacquainted 
with the power of modern weapons, they can hardly be looked 
upon as an enemy. A very small force of armed soldiere would 
suffice to keep the peace, and, beyond casual robbing, there 
would be nothing to fear from them were the country opened 
up for trade. That the people of tbis part of the country are 
easily cowed may be deduced fnom the fact of the voluntary 
submission and "coming in" of Sha'/f Jeha'u after the fight 
at Baj^/ia'wa, — a submission apparently brought about from 
pressure put on him by neighbouring chiefs, who feared for 
tiieir own safety. It is not likely that the inhabitants generally 
would remain marauders for any length of time were a settled 
governmeiit instituted ; they ai'e, in fact, too well off" for any- 
thing of the kind. In the mountains and passes, however, 
trouble might be expected from the Zarkha'ns, Dumars, 
ZaiApe'ls and Pa'ni'zais, but it should be remembered that the 
presence of a small force sufficed to keep those inveterate 
robbers the Harris absolutely quiet. The Belochis have no 
idea of obstructing British rule, and nothing need ever be 
feared from ihem. 

VII. Climate and Elevations. 

AUitiides.—At is a question whether the route taken by 
the force would bo always passable in winter, when the 
altitudes are taken into consideration. The following are 
the esiimated heights of the encainpm.ent above mean sea- 
level : — 

Second Column of the Tal—Cho'tia'li Field Force in 1879. 225 





















in Feet. 

Eala AbdoUaA Kha'n .. 



Kfcu'bhdil ^Aa'n .. .. 
Sharan Ka're'z 
Balozai Ela're'z 


Ispira Ha,'gh& 







Hanoinba'r Pass .. 
Trifcft Kniam Pass 



Mit^M' Khu'i'n .. .. 
Luga'ri' Ba'rkha'n 


Traffic prohaMy impossible in ordinary Winters for 60 miles. — 
Now the winter during which the late campaign was undertaken 
proved an exceptionally mild one, and all the heights were 
easily passable at any time, but the Klio'yeik Pass, with a 
maximum altitude of 7500 feet, is said to be quite impassable 
for traffic in ordinary, let alone severe, winters; so that, 
arguing by analogy, all the country from Balozai Ea're'z to 
Ninga'nd, nearly sixty miles, must oe calculated to be under 
snow for some time, and all the way more or less impracticable 
during winter.* A difficulty which may be better appreciated 
by a consideration of the altitudes of the passes en route, which 
are estimated as follows : — 



in Feet. 























Trikh Kuram .. .. 












Ba'la Dha'ki' .. .. 





* But it shotild be remembered that snow never lies long at Quetta, or in its 
Talley, at an elevation of 5700 ft to 6000 ft. 
t The more important are printed in italics. , 

VOL. XLIX. «4 

226 Temple'* Account of tJie Country traversed hy the 

No dignity from Clruuite at other Seasons. — During the bulk 
of the year, however, i.e., in spriufj, summer ami autuiuu, uo 
difficulties need be uppreliended from climate, and with a made 
road there need be none tVoiii vet weather. 

Climate. — From the list of various thermometric readings 
taken during the inarch to be found attached (Appendix B *), 
it will he seen that the chief feature in the climate during the 
spring is the great variation hctweeu the day an<l ni^lit 
temp<'ratures ; but this is not su {,'^reat as is tu be observeoTin 
the plains along the Indus Valley during the cold weather 
months, and is characterietic of all this part of the Asian 
Continent. Otherwise, especially in the higher lands, the 
climate to a European may be described as pleasant, fresh and 
health-giving. It is, however, extremely hot in the daytime 
in the lower lands after the Sho'r Vallej' is passed, and in 
summer the climate in Ba'rkho'm is described as detestable, 
pi-eferable only to that of the Belo'ch plains. But though it is 
said to be very hot in the Pishin and Quetta Valleys, i.e., at 
about 5800 feet, in the summer, the heat can never be oppres- 
sive there, and in the highlands above this elevation there can 
be no heat worth mentioniug at any period of the year. 

A'^III. Pbacticability op the Route. 

Advantuf^es and Disadvaniages of the Route. — By a recapitu- 
lation of what has been above written we find that, as regards 
the actual road, it is a good one for the country traversed, and 
that the route presents no engineering lUfficulties iu the way of 
constnic.ting a good made road. 

(2). That the water-supply is not bad en route; the main 
difficulty lying in the long distances without water, which, how- 
ever, can bo paitially remedied by artificial means not now 
used by the inhabitants, 

(3). That the food-supplies for man and beast en route are' 
enough to support life without difficulty, and of sulBciontly 
frequent occurrence to prevent anxiety as to failui-e, never 
more than five days' supply in hand being anywhere requisite. 

(4). That there is, however, a scarcity of fuel, but not a dearth 
of it 

(5). That the inhabitants en rotUe would requiro to be kept 
in order by force if the route were opened up lor trade, but that 
they are nowhere in themselves formidable. 

(6). That tho main objection to the route is in the elevation 



* The readlnga were, however, oeoessarily taken in a very rough-aad>teady 
Tnarner. ' 

Second Column of the Tal^Chdtidli Field Force in 1879. 227 

of a great part of it to over 6000 feet aboTe mean sea-level 
thereby rendering it likely to become impassable from snow in 

Comjyanson with the BolcCn Pass Route. — But, takin* the 
Bola'u Pass route as at present used,* that known as the Tal — 
Cho'tia'li seems to be the better in every respect. To reach the 
Bola'n, a long strip, over 100 miles, of detestable desert has to 
be passed, practically imtiassable for troops or bodies of men in 
the hot season, or in ordinary wet weather, and troublesome as 
regards water at any time ; while to reach the Siilima'n Moun- 
tains there are barely 40 miks of the low laud to bo crossed. 
Again, as to foot!, there are no supplies to be procuied in the 
Bola'n Pass — a march of at least six days — without previous 
storage, and there is uLjo always a difficulty there as to fuel and 
fodder; while the road, as at present used, simply follows the 
bed of the Bola'n River, and is impassable accordingly for days 
together in wet weather. And lastly, as regards climate, the 
Bola'n Route has tho advantJige of being only at an elevation of 
some tJUOO feet at its highest point Darwa'zu, but the terrors of 
the Dasht-i-Be'daulat at its summit during bad weather in 
winter are too well known to need more than mere mention 

Considered as ati Alternative Boute to the Bola'n. — As an 
alternative route to the Bola'n, both for military and commercial 
purposes, tho Tal — Cho'tiali would seem to be iuvaluable, espe- 
cially as we intend to hold the Pishiji, for then Quetta and the 
Pishin would po longer be de|)eudent on the Bola'n Pass for 
communication with the outer world. The comparative dis- 
tances to the Indus are : from Quetta via the Bola'n Pass to 
Sukkur about 250 miies, and to Mithanko't about 270 miles; 
from Quetta via Tal — Cho'tia'li to Mithanko't about 310 miles, 
and to De'ra G/ui'zi Khiin about 21)0 miles. So that for com- 
mercial reasons there is not much to choose as to distance 
between the routes; but the proximity of De'ra GAa'zi Kha'n to 
Mu'lta'n, now about to become an important military centra 
gives additional value to the Tal — Cho'tia'li as an auxihary 

The Zho'ft Valley Route. — According to all native authorities 
the easiest and best route to India is through the ZJio'h Valley 
to De'ra Isma'il Khan, but the isolated position of De'ra Ismail 
KJiiin, and its distance from all existing main lines of com- 
munication, makes this an almost useless line to us. Moreover, 

* It is said, however, that Cfoneml Phikyrc, of the Ikjmbay Ajiuy, in choree of 
the communications along the Bola'n Vasa, hm diacovered u line by which all tho 
worst foatuies of the present route can be avoidtsd. 

Temple'* Account of the Country traversed hy the 

before it could be practically used, the Muftsu'd Wazi'ris would 
liave to be crushed or civilized. 

Best Trade Rouiea via Tal ami Cho'iia'lL — Supposing the 
British Goverument to decide to make the Tal — Cho tia'li a prac- 
ticable route for trade,* it would appear that the best line to 
toko would be from Mithauko't and Ra'jonpu'r, or from De'ra 
Gh&z'i Eltan and Vaddo'r, ti> Ba'rkho'm, and thence via the Han 
Pass to Cho'tiji'li and Tal ; or, if the Ma'r Fana turn out not 
to be 80 impraeticablo ua reported, then r/(i the Ma'r Pass to 
Cho' tia'li and Tal ; theuce through the Lu'nt Valley, theuce via 
the Haiumiba'r Pass throu'^h the Bo'rai Vallt-v, thence through 
the ^io'b Vailoy, and finally via the skirt-s of Mt. Kaud through 
the Dof and Gwa'I Valleys to Quelta ; or via the skirts of Mt. 
Kand and Barshe'r to thu Pishiu Valley. A glance at the map 
will bhow that villages will lie thick along such a route, and 
that consequently better roads would be met with, and greater 
returnd anticipated by the trader. 

IX. Miscellaneous Observations. 

OeograpJdcal Notes. — Certain changes in our ideas as to the 
geography of thifs district will result from the march of the Tal — 
Cho'tia'li Field Force. 

Firstly. The long range of mountaiua to the north of Quetta, 
the Eola'n and the Marri Hills, supposed to run east and west 
from the .Sulima'n Kunge, does not exist. The direction of tlie 
mountains is genenillv north and south, iu lines more or leas 
parallel to the Sulitna ii Range. 

Secondly. The Tu'bii, Ju'ba or Yo'ba Peak, to he found on so 
many maps at the head of the Zlnj'b Valley, is most likely a 
myth or misnomer. Nothing approaching to such a name 
could be ascertained locally. 

Thirdly. Mt. Kand is not nearly so far north as previously 

ftlaced ; while there are some doubts as to the existence of Mt. 
Jhappar, at any rate, it is not a prominent mountain, as before 
supposed. It has been placed on the accompanying map, 
because a round-headed snow-capped mountain was repeatedly 
pointed out from the Pishin as Mt. Chappar. When, bowever, 
it came to be identified from a hill above I'saf KucU, which 
should have been in its neighbourhood, an apparently low hill 

* The road o»cu ina<!e, perhaps the most civiliBing Agent we could employ in 
Afgbiiniatan woiilil 1x> ttio use of carta and wheeled Darriugea. The manufactare 
of farthing dim wnti introduced with signal uucceas into Oandaha'r duriag tha 
former war : vihj uhould uot carts siiccGC-d oa well ? 

Second Column of the Tal—Cho'tia'li Field Force in 1879. 229 

in the right position was by some of the guiJes pointed out as 
Mt. Chiippar, while others seemed doubtful of its existence. 

And lastly, several promiucut peaks have been fur the first 
time named and placed. 

As regards nomenclature the name Khojeh (or KJio'jn) Am- 
ra'n Kange, is a misnomer. Eanges or lines of hills, as a rule, 
have no generic names in Afghanistan, the Afghan system of 
nomenclature not having yet reached that stage. But nearly 
every prominent or remarkable peak has a name of its own. In 
this case, it/ivva'ja Amra'n is really the name of a point above 
the Gwaja Pass, and not tluit of the whole range. If any name 
belongs to the entire line of mountains it is licw7/(a'ni. How- 
ever, as the name Kho'\a Amra'n has become popularised in 
geography, it would be a pity perhaps, as well as almost useless, 
to try and alter it. 

The town Peshiu also, mentioned by so many travellers, does 
not exist. They probably meant by the term the cluster of 
Sayad and Tari'u villages about tSayad Palnj} and A'li'zai in the 
Pishin Valley. 

Scenery and Landmarks. — Looking eastwards from the Pishin, 
there is a grand and striking view of the serie.s of mountain- 
ranges commencing from Mt, Chiltau on the south, and thence 
running past Mts. Takatu', Ziir^/m'u, Pi'l, and Chappar, to 
Mt. Kand on the north. Mt, Takatu' is a line mountain from 
any point of view, as also is Mt. RLa'z/two, of which a grand 
view is obtained from Shudand in the Eiver Ro'd Gorge. Mt. 
Sur^Awand is likewise a fine and striking mountain Iroiu the 
north. There is also a very fine view from the Xungalu'ua 
Pass over the Sho'r Valley and (r/iubiirgai country, the Chim- 
ja'n Ghar Peak and Jit. Syajgai presenting a remarkable 
appearance, aud there is a pretty view towards the Slje'rkai 
Peak and Koha'r Hills from Baia'nai. But with these excep- 
tions the countiy is too bare and broken up into small points to 
be striking or pretty. Mt. Sya'jgai, an isolated square-topped 
peak, in the middle uf the Sho'r Valley near Ciiimja'n, is here 
a remai-kable object from ail points; but it would not be so in 
India generally, where there are many like it in all parts of the 
country from Ka'jputa'na to Mysore. 

Heifjhfs of Mountains. — Many of the mountains rise to a con- 
siderable elevation, but the heights stated in the aceomjjanyiug 
list (page 230) were guessed at on the spot from such flata as 
could bo obtained. 

Geological Formations.* — The geological formation of the 

* A Paper by the author, on the geolopicol formation of the country puaed 
ihroqgh by the Second Colaran Tal — Cbo'tia'li Field Force, will he found in tho 
' Journal of the Aiiatio Society of Deugul ' for 1879. 
















Pi'l .. , 
Knod . . 

Sor^hwand . 
SpinsAcAar . 
Burlo' .. 


greater part of the country passed throagh should apparently 
be rclerred to the Tertiary period. Messi-s. Me<llicott and 
Feistmantel, of tlio Geological HaiTey of ludia, w!io kindly 
examined the geological specimens the writer collected, re- 
ported after a first cursory examiuation as follows: — 

" The fossils are exclusively tertiary, none are post-tertiary. 
They are mostly numraulitif : possibly all of that age. The 
supposed lizard is a detached segment of an echinoderm. A 
very large proportion of the rocks are of such limestone, sand- 
stone, and sliale, as are usual in tertiary formations. There is 
no fragment of granitic or nietftmorphic rock, except one which 
is crystalluie limestone, but this may be a contact rock. The 
same may be said of a few specimens of indurated silicious rock, 
which are of the type common at the contact of eruptive rock. 
Some of them are jaspidious. Of trappean rocks there are not 
a few; some are syenitic and dionitic (non-quartziferous), and 
some are earthy amygdaloids. Tlio erystalliuo minerals are the 
comraonest forms of quartz, calcspar and gypsum ; one is clear, 
white, cubical rock-salt. There is no metalliferous rock or 
mineral in the wliole collection" (GUO specimens). When, 
however, the specimens shall have been referred to their proper 
geographical position a better idea of the geology of the country 
will h« obtained. 

TJie Ghuis. — l)ut the most remarkable point as to conforma- 
tion to be noticed is the peculiar glacis, or slopes up to the hills 
from the vulleys. And tit the risk of recapitulating what has 
been pnblishotf by the writer elsewhere, a snort description of 
this glacis will be here given. It is to be seen everywhere ia 
AfgSnmistan proper, though not noticeable ia Beluchistan or 
south of the Bola'u or Han Passes, and is said to be a common 

Second Column of the Tal—Cho'tia'H Field Force in 1879. 231 

feature throughout Persia and Central Asia. It is to be seen 
at the foot of every range of hills, varying in length and height 
according to the elevation of the neighbouring mountains above 
the valley-level. In the Kadanei Valley, where the Kho'ja 
Amra'n luinge rises 3000 feet and more above the mean valley- 
level, it is 15 miles long, and nearly 1500 feet in height ; while in 
the narrower valleys, such as the Gwal, the slopes on either side 
almost meet in the centre, leaving hardly any flat spaces at 
all. One result of this glacis is that the valley-level seems 
to be reached long before it really is so. Its surface is gene- 
rally much water-scoured, and is covered over with stony de- 
tritus from the mountains, and over it also wander the stony 
beds of numerous torrents. The origin of the phenomenon 
apparently lies in excessive denudation of the moimtains, caused 
by the absence of forests on their slopes, and the soft, shaly 
nature of many of the summits, which last, again, probably 
arises from the combined action of frost, snow, and rain. 









Khu'aMil Kh&'n 

Sharsn Ka're'z 

lialozai Ka're'z 

lat cxcureion to Gwa'l, 10 miles. 

2nd excarsioD, Gwa'l to A'mada'n, 14J milos. 


Ispira Ba'rjtto 



3rd excursion towards Z/to'b Valley, 8 miles. 





Hanumba'r Pass 

TriArA Kuram Pass 




Loga'ri' Ba'rkh'an 






































232 Temple's Account of the Country traversed hj the 

General forward bearing, 80°. 

FiBST Stage. 

Kala Ahdnllah Kha'n to Badwfi'n. Ti miles. 

11th March. 

Kala AbdiiUiih Kha'n, 5600 feet, is a village at the entrance to the /TAo'jak 
Pass from the I'isbiii side to 8, of the r>as3. It is the residence of Mi'r 
Asliini A7«a'r(, Ahda'li, the Sirda'r, or chief, of the Achakzai section of the 
Dura'uis. He is the soa of the late Mi'r AlidullaA Wialn. The village is 
not large, say twenty houses, though it hus the appearance of being so on 
account of the sera'i or fort Mi'r Asliun KJia'h has built by it. There are 
some trees and a garden iu this upon which the Sirda'r has spent, he says, 
Rs. 2000. The arable land between the A'Ao'j.ik stream and the village is said 
to be a ja'gi'r and rent-free. 

The croiw grown hereabouts are wheat, barley, millet, Indian com (maiKe), 
and lucerne. 

Supplies are plentiful of all the sorts generally obtaiuable iu Afghanistan, 
viz., bhoosa, barley, milk, butter, fowls, eggs, and 1 saw some cloths of European 
make also being sold. The supplies come from the district round, IluUi'hullah, 
a large Achakiai village to s.k., furnisliiug a quantity under the influence of 
the Su-da'r, who had the farming of this [art of the i'ishin under the Ameer's 

There is a large siwca for im encaTiipmcrjt alon=:sido the KJio'yxk stream 
(about a mile from tiie village ), which has here a broud stony Iwd like most 
mountain rivers, through wbich the river winds in several streams. At this 
time of the year, winter, the stream at this part is small, but clear and sweet, 
with a fast current. The drawbacks as an cncamping-ground are that the 
place is liable to violent winds and dnst-stt^rms, and in the winter there is 
some danger of being snowed up. Wood, too, is scarce in tlie district, and 
the local supply is soon used up if a force has to halt in lad weather. The 
village and encampment are situated just within the range of low hills at the 
enlntnce of the gorge of the A'Ao'jak struain. These hills are bnre and some- 
whiit bleak, but the view is fair on the whole. There is a view n.e. into the 
risliin through the outraiue of the ptiss, but it is not extensive. Mount 
Takutu', 10,500 feet, is visible across the valley. There is considcrablo culti- 
vation along the hill-sloi>es. 

The road leads right through the A7»o'jak, River in its several beds altogether 
for about i mile, then over sunje uncultivated lands for about 4 miles to 
Ihilmmdil A7ia'M » vilh;ge, and then through the Arambi stream, after which 
it possea a series of water channels, or torreut-bt-ds, for 2i milesi to Badwa'n, 
These beds are stony and full of detritus, which is washed down in enormous 
quantities from the lare hills to the n. ; in fact, the whole country between 
the streams is waterwom and a{vpears to be sa)nrcd after all heavy rams. It, 
with the ATAojak and Aranihi streams, is liahle to sudden floods, when the 
water rushes down with great violence, but to no depth. The road is, on the 
whole, bad, except in fine weather, and io bad weather, if not impassable, 
would give great trouble to baggngc-animals. The higher places between the 
rlvfir-bcda, where the waiter cannot scour, are usually cultivated, and tliore are 
patches of cultivation along the hill-sides. 

At 4 mile-s to the left, close by the road, are imss«l Rahamdil Kha'n'a 
viliao;es of the Mu'sizai sept of the Tor Tari'ns, a li\rgish filiice, to the back of 
which, over the low hills, lie the villages of Mi'r ICalam A'Aa'n.of the Ka'kozai 
HC])t of the Achakzais. 

There is an interesting a'sya', or waterraill, near this, with a raised ku'l 
(ofien watercourse) leading to it, and close by is a ka'ie'z, but most of its wells 
are drj*. Some distance to the right also lie Brija'n Kala, called also Auli'iL 

Second Column of the Tal-^Chdtia'li Field Force in 1879. 233 

Kala after its malik, of the Mft'ezai sept of the Tor Tari'ns about 4 milea off, 
and Da'dgwal, of the Mu'sizai sept of the same tribe, alwiit 5 miles distant 

A noticeable feature in the country is the jieculiar glacis or slope up to the 
hills oa the valley-sides, which is also to be seen ou the other side of the 
Kho'jak Pass in the Kadnuei Valley. The bouses also differ a goo<I deal in 
build from those on the other side the A'Ao'jak, the peculiar domed roof is 
nowhere seen here. ITie kile's (properly kisAciais), or black semi-permanent 
tents of the Achakhais, are to be seen dotted all over the hill-sides and the 
plain. Largo quantities of sheep and goats are to bo seen grazing, but not 
many cattle : horses are to l>o found in the Sayad villages engaged in the 
Kara'chi horse-trade. 

Iladwa'n, 5600 feet, raalik She'rdil Kh^'n, is a To'r Tari'n village of the 
Badozai section ; not jiaiticularly large, but strajigling, like all the villages of 
the Pjshiu. Supplies were plentiful, and willingly offered — bhoosa, barley, 
wheat, eggs and butter, ghee, fowls, sheep and goats, and also several Persian 
greyhoun<i» were offered for sale, but all the prices asked were exorbitant ; 
water is plentiful fr»jm a small stream. Trees are seen on the hill-slopes and 
oa the tops of the hills, but otherwise the country is bare of trees as usuaL 
The chief natural products are southernwood and a weed like an onion. 

There is a fine view from the village over the valley. To the s.e. is the 
(VViaz line of hillu, separating the Plshin and Sha'Iko't (Quetta) Valleys, behind 
which, lying to the s. of Quetta, rises Mt. Chilian to a considerable height. 
To the K. lies Mt. Takatu' and the snow-capped peaks Zar^^Au'n, Pi'l and 
Kand, in succession, to the n. of Takatu'. Itehiind these ranges again is visible 
the round snowy head of Mt. Cbappar in the distance. Ahfjut fi miles distant 
to the E. lie the Sayad villages of Shahda'd and Sayad Paind, and beyond 
them agaiuj at gome 10 miles, the Tor Tari'n village of A'li'zai. 

Second Stage. 

Badwa'n io AlHtai. 12\ miles. General forward bearing, QQ>^. 12th March, 

The road runs mainly tlirough light sandy soil at the foot of the hills to 
the N. of the Pishin for about 10 railcs, but for the last 2 miles, it goes through 
torrent-scoured country, where it is stony and ctivered with detritus. In parts 
it is broken by water washing through the soil and creating irregularities iu 
the surface, and it crosses several small nullahs with hard windy bottoms and 
steep diflicult banks. In fine weather the road is good, easy and pleasant, 
but hefivy and troublesome for baggage-animals after rain or in bad weather, 
especially in the stream-beds or broken ground, where the soil is liable to 
become iiuicksand in places. Opposite Badwa'n the River Ch6r runs a few 
hundred yards to the s. of the road. Hero its channel is very deep, and its 
banks impracticable except by ramping. Alx>ut 5 miles out, to u., a mile 
distant from the road, are the ruins of S.ayad Sa'lo, a large village, the inhabi- 
tants of which have removed to the Quetta district. At 6 miles out, the road 
passes Sayad Paind, 5 miles a. of which lies Knrl>?'ln, whose inhabitants 
claim to be Sayods, but arn disowned by them. The Karbe'laa seem to bo a 
sept apart, for neither Tari'ns, Ka'kars, Dura'ais or S.\vail8 care to own them. 
Alx)iit ft mile off the road to Jf. lie three villages in quick succession, Haji'zi', 
Shahda'd, and Gauri, the first two are Sayad and the latter an A'li'zai (Tor 
Tari'n) villnge. Two hxA nullahs are passed just before reaching Sayad Paind 
and the River Ch6r shortly afterwards. The villages about hero lie pretty thick, 
and the land is extensively cultivated. After jmssing Gauri the road goes 
through a graveyard, iu which is a mound with a Sayad Pi'r's (saint's) tomb 
on the top of it. His name was Ajaiab. Shortly after this it runs past 
Ajabzai, a Sayad village : to the s. of this, about i mile distant, is a copse or 

Temple's Account of the Counfri/ traversed hy the 

enclosure of trees, said to l«ave been the rt'sulencc of Ajaiab, tbo Pi'r above 
meutioned. Ilero also to the N., about 4 miles dislant, and close under the 
hills, are visible the huts of some Ka'kara of the Sulima'n Khe'l section. The 
road next passea the A'li'zai (Tor Tari'n) village of Sayamiwi, and finally, 
after crossing a biid nullah, roaches A'li'zai (Tor Tari'n) itself, aliout a mile 
further on. All tlie villages, especially Shohda'd, are large for Afghan villagM, 
and appear to bo well-to-do. 1 he inhabitants have a more civilised appearance 
than I have yet seen elsewhere, and seem well disposed towards us. A great 
number apeak Hindostani. 

A'li'zai, 5500 feet, is a large well-to-do Tor Tari'n village. The supplies 
were plentiful, principally as before, but the prices were much more reasonable. 
Bullocks, horses, camels, were offerc*! for sale. I saw also largo quuntitiea of 
shceji and goats and donkeys grazing, and near A'li'zai yilenty of cattle. 

The country about kioks fertile, and is a good deal under cultivation. Tbo 
natural products noticeable et» roidc are tumarisk, southernwood, moss, 
camelthom, the onion-like weed above mentioned, ami a mossy shrub with %. 
long flower-stem to it. Trees also seem more plentiful than usual, and here 
and there nea» the villages are some fine ones. Near A'ii'zai there is ao 
interesting seri&s of a'sya'a (w,itermiUs) along the lino of a stream, which ia 
raised by embankments at the head of each a'sya', and then shot down into it 
by a wooden shoot. These mills are well worked, and use»l to pay a tax of 
Ks., 5i yearly to the Ameer's Govommeut. 

A flue and clear view of the peaks above mentioned, Chiltan, Takatu', 
Zariy/m'n, Pi'l, Chappar and Kaud is obtained here, all lying to the b. und e., 
Bud at this time of year all snow-clatl : to the n. runs u low line of volcanic 
hillfi about 4 miles distant. Up to these the glacis above mentioned is longer 
uud more m;irked than usual. A'h'zai lies on the slope, and from it, accord- 
ingly, an exlenaive view of the Pishin is oblainetl. 

Thibd Staos. 

Ali'zai to Khu's7i(2i7 Kha'n. 11 miles, Q«neral forward bearing, 110". 

14 th March. 

The rooil at first runs through light sandy soil, more or leas covered with 
detritus aad scored by the rains. After about a mile it crosses the River To'^/tai 
in its scvcml branch&s, all of which have stony bottoms and no banka to 
fijx'nk of, and the water is about ankle-deep. At 4 miles it crosses the River 
Muzarai, a similar stream in all resjiects. At this jwiut the hills to the N. of 
the Pishin approach to within a mile of the rt.>ad, and the country is mnch 
water-washed and stony. The raid tiien jiassos tbrough a much broken 
country intersected by dec-p mdlahs, wbit-h Would give a gootl deal of trouble 
in wet weather, as far aa the 'Jth mile, where it crossefi the Hirer Lo'ra. The 
soil in the broken land is clayey, and in wet weather slippery and biid for 
animals. At the point where the Uiver Lo'ra is crossed the river has low and 
easy hanks and a stony bijttom. Its bed is about 50 yards broad, and the 
stream knee-deep. After this the road passes over a stony water-scoured 
country, and crosses several streams and torrent-beds, the water about aukle- 
deep, for alxjut a mile, when the River BiirKo' is reached — here of a similar nature 
and dfpth to the Uiver Lo'ra — ami a mile further on, through cultivated fields^ 
lies A7»'uslidil Kftn'ii. As may be Kuip|K>3ed, the road winds a go<Ml deal, but 
its general direction is E.8.K. It may be pronounced to be bad in anything 
but very fine and dry weather, and would always be troublesome for baggage- 
animals or wheeled carriages. It is, however, the beat lino to take, running as 
it docs aa near the hills as practicable, for all the streams, which are hero 

Second Column of the Tal—Cho'tia'li Field Force in 1879. 235 

shallow with low banks, verj' soon eat deep into the sandy and clayey soil 
formed by the wash from the hilla, and become formidable streams, with high 
overhanging hanks, impracticablo without ramping, wbilo the land about them 
is much broken and cat into by the annual rains. There is a short cnt &om 
A'li'zai to ^u'uhdiL Kfa'n by the Tillage of Bagarzai,but it ia not a desirable 
route on this very arcount. 

Tbo villages arc numerous about thiR part of the valley, which is thickly 
populated. From a jxiLnt on the road near the River To'i/Iiai the following are 
visible. To N. Ka'kozai and ^Madat TAbdal), both Adiakzai villages— A'ta' 
Moliammad (A'li'/ai) and Ikahamzai (malik, Sayad La'l). To the a. and 8.B. 
Ma'likai (Tor Tari'n), Ya'sinj;zai (malik, Sayad To'ti) and Ya'singzai (nialik, 
Sayad She'rbat), Sojnm'icai (A'li'xai) and two li.igarzai villages (muliks, Sayad 
Paiyo and Sayad Alab). These villages vary iu distance Iroin 1 to 6 miles. 
At 7 miles out, about 1 mile to n., is auolhor Brabainzai village (malik, 
Sayad £AaiQa'ndai), ou a hillock, and about half a mile to s. of this is Brahamzai 
proper, the malik of which is Do'st Mohammad, — by which the road poases, at 
this point turning s. ; from here a garileu with trees near the River Lo'ra, belong- 
ing to Sayad Faiyo of Bagarzai, is seen. About a mile s. of Urnhamzni lies 
Sama'lzai (l:>ayad), through which also the road passes. Near this to 8. is the 
remains of a snjuli artificial hill, apjiarently an old fort — there are remains 
aboat it. It is like the fort at Quetia on a small scale. The natives know 
nothing about it, but call it Si)i'n KJiila. (the Wliite Fort). The To'r Tari'n 
village of Manzakai hcs .about a mile to s. on the side of a low hill. From 
Samu'lzai ore visible to it., at about 6 to 8 miles distant, three Lu'r Kha'aizai 
(T'or Tari'n) villages, whose maliks are Mohammad tSa'dik, La'l Mohammad, 
and Vaki'l. After leaving Sama'lzai the road runs e. again to Dab Kiia'tiizai, 
near which to s. is an empty fort called Zarra A7*ila, for a mile, and finally s. 
for another mile to the cluster of villa^'eH around the fort of A7(u'8hdil Khu'n, 
all of which are Tor Tari'n, except Allahda'd, which is Sayad. It appojirs 
that one Mu'lla Allahda'tl was a Savad Pi'r (naint), and there ia a Zia'nit (sacred 
tomb) to him thero. The Tor I'ari'ii villager are She'A7ia'lzai, Kanm'lzai, 
Ku'rzai and Ma'likya'r, ahd near the lultcr are the remains of a deserted 
vil]a;4e of the Ma'likyn'rs, who moved to tho present site not very long ago. 
At the head of the valley to the N.E.,al)ont 8 miles distant, are tho remains 
of the fort of Hii'ji Klm'n, the heail of the Araand A'Ae'l Ka'kars. Of these 
villages only Ya'singzai, Manzakai and Ma'lky.a'r are of any size. 

The country jtiissed iLruugh is similar to that previously deacriljed, and its 
natural products and croi« the same. The ground near the hills is uncultivated 
except in patches, but there is extensive cultivation along the Ime of villages, 
except in the broken ground, which is quite bare. Water is stored in smaU 
irrigation-tanks in places, and ku'ls and a'sya's are visible everywhere. There 
is a newly-dng ka're'z running Iwtwecn Dab Kha'nizai and Sama'lzai, the 
wells of which are very deep, small and well dug. Sheep, goats and donkeys 
aro to be seen all along the hills, and about AViu'shdil Kha.'n cattle fn quan- 
tities. There are trees about the villages and pistachio-trees along the hill-slopes 
to tho K. of A'Au'shdil Kka'n, othcnvise tho country is bare. The people en 
route appear, as before, to be well-to-do, speak Uindostani to a great extent, and 
have travelled a good deal. 

^iu'shdil Khn'n, 5600 feet, is now an empty fort, jartially ruined. It is 
built in the usual way, and is about 100 yards square. It was from this that 
tho Ameer's naib (lieutenant), Nu'r Mohammad Kh&'n, Ba'rakzai, governed, 
but he fled on our a[>proach, and the place is now used as a Government godown 
(warehouse), ia charge of another Nu'r Mohammad Kh&'n, a Belo'cb, in otir 
employ. 'I'ho siipjilies now collected are of all stirts, and very plentifid ; but 
the prices are very high. A road from this leads, vid No'a Ba'za'r (Batazai, 
Tor Tari'n), to Quetta, and one is said to lead, via tho vilkgos of Mehtarzai 

236 Temple** Account of the Countrt/ traversed hj the 

and JiSiinjagfti, through a pass near Mt. Kand to the ^o'b valley, Tinu'sh- 
dil Aliji'n is said to be the site of a proposed British cantonment. Water, a* 
usual here, is plentiful and pood. There is a view over the valley to Mt. 
A'Awa'ja Amrau and the Gwa'ja Pass. 

FouBTH Stage. 

Khu'«A-rft7 Kh'an to Sharan Ka're'z. 6i miles. General forward bearing, 
108°. 17th March. 

The road leads past the village of Karaa'lzai (Tor Tari'n)— over a detritus- 
strewn country at an easy upward gradient, towanls the hitlfl to n.e. of the 
rishin for about 3 railes, sfjinething 8. of e., after which it turns northwards 
for a mile, bearing 75°. During this mile it crosses several torrent-l)eds, and 
is somewhat hilly. After this it follows the line nf the Uiver Sharan, in an 
easterly direction. At its entrance the gorge of the river is about 300 yards 
wide, but it rapidly narrows to about 80 yards, and at imlf-a-mile from the 
entrance the road descends into the river-bod, which is hard and stony. The 
hills on either side are not high, aay 250 feet in the highest part, and are 
c"om]X»sed mostly of a soft slaty and Blitily rock. The bed is narrow in places, 
not more tkm 20 yards wide, so that ounils or l»<;gage-ftnimal8, and all 
wheeled carriages, would have to go in single file. The river itself is usually 
an insignificant stream, and there are no signs of its ever becoming a fonnid- 
able torrent. The road up it winds a gooti deal, but the upward gradient is 
not great. At about a mile from the camping-ground the road leaves tlie 
river-hed, and goes over a small kotal (jmss) ; from this to the camy) the gra- 
dient ia stooinsh, but the ground is lirm. Such a road must, fKtm its nature, 
be impracticable during wet weather, but the stream would soon nm down 
after heavy rains. It would be easy to find a line for a good road practicable 
in any weather along the river-side. No villages, or even huts, are met with 
after Kama'Izai. 

Sharan Kn'rc'z, G300 feet. There is no viillage here, and no huts for Bome 
distance ofl' the road. The hills are inhabited by Ka'kars, of the Sulima'a 
Khii'\, Amaud .fl^ie'l, Pa'nizai, and Shaniozai sections, who do not hero live in 
villages, and all their huts are removed some distance from the road for 
rcaaons of safety. The ka're's was the property of Sayad Mu'lla A'Aa'lakda'd 
( = Al!ahda'd), whoso zia'rat (tomb) ia near A7m'shdil A'Aa'ii, aud nowbelongB 
to the Tari'n 2nmi'iidars (landowners) of that neighbourhood ; beyond thi« 
point it belongs t«i the k.Vkars. There are several narrow, dccji wells in it, 
and the water is good. The c!amj)ing-ground is hilly and on broken gronnd, 
but the space is lair and the soil dry ; it is, however, liable to high winds. 
The main range of the hills is about 3 miles lo the e., but points near camp, 
for picquets, can easily be found, eflectually overlooking the country. There 
is a fine view over the Pishin from many points near. A mountain path 
leads to Barsho'r to the n. in the country about Mt. Knnd. Supplies are fair. 
The country passed through as far as the gorge of the River Sharan is much as 
before; cultivation near the villages round A'Au'shdil Kh&'n, and then stony 
water-scoured country, crossed by many small torrent-beds, and cultivated only 
in patches in the hollows. At this time of year, March, some of the wheat 
was about 6 inches high. The southtrnwood and camelthorn are thick, and 
the camcl-gruzing, con.sequently, is here plentiful and good. Barl»ry bushoB 
may also be seen pretty thick in some of the torrent-beds. In the river gorge, 
gnun, both fine and coarse, and reeds are to be found, especially al>out the 
damp ground, causeil by the frequent springs in its ncighbourhotxl. Wheat is 
also grown about the river wherever practicable. After the kotal the country 
is very broken, but tlie natural products are the same as before, and even iu 

Second Column of the Tal—Clw'tiali Field Force in 1879. 237 

these hilU wheat and barley cultivation is largely carried on by means of 
ku'id, or artlficml watercourses. Cattle and sheep are to be seen grazing on 
the lower slopes. Trees are scarce, but a few pistachio-trees are to be seen 
about tbe hills. The climate is not particularly pleasant, but not unhealthy. 
Now, i.e., in the spring, the sun is hot iu the clay tinio, but frequently a bitterly 
cold wind blows, and at night there Ls a hard frost. In wet, and cloudy 
weather it is very cold, with rain in the valleys and snow on tbe hills, abovo 
6000 feet. These remarks apply to the N. of the Pishin generally ; the eastern 
alopes of the Kho'\dk are much wiirixier. 

Fifth Stage. 

Bharan Ka' re' s io Balotai Ka're'z. Similes. General forward bearing, 96°. 

19th March. 

The road leads towards the Sural Pass, general forward bearing, 108°, at 
firet through very wild and broken country, with sharp ascent* and descents 
in rapid succession, but after a few hundred yarda it follows the flat |>ebbly 
bed of a mountain-stream, the River Surai, which is about 70 to 100 yards wide, 
with a general bearing of 110** from Sharan Ka're'z. The iiradient is at first 
easy, but after about a mile the ascent becomes considerable and very trying 
for baggage-animals, and the river-bed gradually narrows to 30 yards after 2 
miles, and to 15 yards after 2i miles. The stream is usually dried up, only a 
little water being found trickling in places from springs in its bed. At one 
point, 2i miles from where the road enters the nullah-bed, a short zigzag, with 
a 12-feet road, has beeu recently made, to avoid a narrow place which is only 
4 feet wide. After this tho roatl in the stream is the reverse of good, being 
f) to 13 yaniswide, with a considerable ascent. At about half-a-mile from the 
top of the Surai Pass, which is reached in 3i miles from Sharan Ka're'z, a 
very winding zigJtag has been recently constructed, at a fair gradient, with a 
6-feet road. The aaccnt over the pass is about 300 feet. 1 ho descent into 
the Dof Valley is at first very rapid and winding down a recently made road,* 
and then for a mile down tho bed of another stream, also called tho Uivcr Sural, 
which is similar in all respects to its namesake on tho Pishin side. The 
general bearing forward of the deacent u about 1C7°, or nearly s.E. At the 
point where the stream debouches on to the valley the road to Balozai Ka're'z 
turns northwards across tho Dof Valley (general forward bearing, 80*^) till the 
village is reached about 4 miles further on across the River SurAAab; here a 
dry insignificant torrent-bed, about 50 yards wide, with a stony bottom, and 
banks from 2 to 5 feet hijth, easy and jjracticable in any weather. The road 
as at present used is one only practicable in fine weather, but there is nothing 
great in the natural difficulties of the pass, and a little engineering should 
render it an ea.<sy one and always practicable. 

A bridle-path leads from Sharan Ka're'z to Sa',9Aai, over a bill about 300 
feet higher than the Surai Pass, capable of being rendered practicable for 
troope. Another bridle-path leads from tho bottom of tho zigs^g in the Surai 
Pass to Lu'r Anga'ng, and another again from that place to No'a Ba'za'r in 
the Pishin, via the A'Aarzaii^ai Pass. A main road leads B. from the Dof 
Valley to Quetta, ma Zary/m'ti Ka're'z and A'Au'shla'k, and another u. to tbe 
Zhct'h valley, via A/mnch:igai on the Eloi>es of Mt. Kaiid, And lastly there is 
a eattlo-track near the village of Shakar into the Pi'l country to b.e. 

The country about the Surai Pass is very wild and broken, com]>osed prin- 
cipally of a series of conical hills, of a soft ahaly and slate rock, which main- 

All coostruoted, I believe, by Lieut. Wells. B.E. 

238 Temi^le'^ Account if the Country traversed h/ iJie 

tegrates on contact with the nir. The ovei^otvths are 8ontberu\voo«i, camel- 
thorn, and coane grass in tofts, and dwarf tamarisk and barbary bushes are to 
be found in the river-beds ; some Sharwa'n or Shnai (? [listachio) trees also 
grow on tho hills, and I saw one chen-y-tree. Towards the summit of the 
pass there are some oUvc-trecs, a fi-ai;rant bush, something like broom in 
appearance, and a plant like a dwarf holly. 

At the top of the pass there is a fine view over the Piahin, but no cmlti- 
vation is to l>e seen anywhere about it. 

I'he I^f Valley is an upland valley at a great elevation, 6500 feet. It is 
about 15 miles long by about 8 broad, and ita general direction i.s from b.n.e. 
to 8.S.W. It is closed at its s. end by the gorge of the Kiver Suri-Aa'b, and at its 
northern end by some low bills. The valley is drained by the Biver Sur^-Aa'b, 
into which nin two smaller streams, the Kiver Bo'd and the llivcr Nari'u. The 
remarkable glncis \-isible in the rishin is also to be observed here, and tlio 
water-scour is also considerable. Cultivation by means of ku'k and ka're'iea 
is carried on by the river- banks and in the hollows as usual. Wheat, millet, 
Indian com, and barley are the crops grown. Where not cultivated, the 
country is bare of trees, except about the villages, and covered over with a 
tliick growth of camelthom and southernwooii. The soil is light, san<ly, and 
friable, and not nearly so good as in the Pishin, Ka're'zes are esj-Hcially 
numerous, being dug to a considerable depth, ami there seems to be no lack of 
water. Sheep and goats and cattle are plentiful, and supplies of the onlinary 
kind obtainable everywhere. 

The valley is well jiopulatwl ; tlio nnniber ofvil!a]:;e5 being no leas than 
twenty, but nono of them are large, excepting Balozai Ka're'z and jST^'iuui 
Ka're'z. All the inhabitants are Ka'kars, anil appear quiet and well-to-do, 
despite their bad name, exceyiting those about the Sural, who have a 
Mverty-atrickcn appearance. The villages are, going up the valley from the s., 
Ku'zanga'ng, Lu'ranga'ng, Mohammad Shari'f, KshoT Ka're'z, Zarghu'a 
Ka're'z, Shakar, Kha'mzai Ka're'z, Me'ldia'u, Sa'yAai, Pharaa'vvan, Balozai 
Kare'z, Woclmi^Ia, Do'wad, Dilsho'r, Mur^/mi, Nari'n, Tlarai, Baipii, 
Tlarai (2), and Ka'hsn. 

A view of Mts. Kand and Takntu' is to be obtained anywhere in the vall^, 
and also of Mt. Sur£//iwaud, an isolated peak to the E. 

Tho climate at this lime of the year, spring, is pleasant^ the thermometer 
ran^iug from 75^ in the day to 25" at night, and the cold wind of the FiaLin 
is shut out by the surrouudiriL; hilLs. 

Llalozai Ka're'z, 6G00 feet, is a Ka'kar village, of the Pa'nizai section, and is 
situated in the centre of the valley on the River Ro'd, near' some low isolated 
hills. It is of some size. Supplies are of the usual kind and plentiful, prices 
being high, as elsewhere in this part of Afghanistan, though not so high aa 
placed by tho 2x>litical authorities. The camping-ground is about a mile from 
the village, on the sloyics of a low hill. The s^iace is large and the natural 
dnuDage good ; water is near, plentiful, and good. 

PiBST ExcDBSiON. — BoloMi Ka'rt'z to Owa'l. 10 miles. General forwiunl | 
bearing, 220°. 21st March. 

The road leads offs.E., past the village of Khu'uizai Ka'rt'z, through a culti- 
vated country for about three miles, when it nears tlie Pinnkai Hilb, It hero 
enters a small pass or gap in the hills by an insignificaut tnillali-btd. It then 
passes along the Bouthem face of the hills for about half-a-mile, and then 
enters another similar small \^&s or gap. Here it is somewhat difficult, and 
the descent is steepish, about 4"^, followmg a nuUah-bed for about 400 j^ards. 
The nulkh is about 10 yards wide, and would have 3 feet of water in it alter 

Second Column of the Tal — Cho'tidli Field Force in 1879. 

rains. Doth these passes can, however, be easily turned by following the bed 
of the River (V/iobarga. Alter the second piiss the road d<^boucheB, ojnioaite 
Zurghu'a Ka're'z, on to the narrow valley called the Gwa'l Valley, which is 
about ihrcu uiikvs wide, and loUowa down the centre of it in & 8.E. direction. 
Ileru it is stony aud firm, and, for an Afghan road, good. It crosses several 
small torrent-beds, and two streani-l)eds, viz., the Biver O/iobarga and the 
Biver Dargai, neither of which would be formidable in any weather. These 
join about 2i miles from Gwa'l, and form the Gwa'l Kiver, which about Gwa'l 
is a \m>ad torrent-bed. The average gradient of the rood is about ijO', or one 
in 100. The Gwa'l Valley, down which these two slrejuus drain, runs along 
the base of Mt. Takatu' into thcSha'l ValUy, say some 20 mile*. The road may 
be pronounced good for Af^hauistau, and should give no trouble at auy timo, 
except fur the first three miles, when it wuuld be troublesome iu wet wtuther. 

The country in the Dui Valley is as before mentioned. Ku'ls and ka're'zes 
abound everywhere, the wells iu the latter being very deep. About A'Aa'nizai 
Ka'rc'is, manji't, called locally mant't, is cultivated for dyeinf; purposes, giving 
a bright re^l dye. It is said locally to grow nowhere else, but I have seen it 
about Kandaha'r. The cultivatitju is costly and troublesome a}»parently, as it 
is growTi, like celery, in deeply furrowed land. The value of the crops in the 
valley is siud to bo Rs. 1000, and they bt4ong to u good rnauy owners. Where 
not cultivated, the land is water-scoureil and stony. There are a good many 
fruit-trees about the village. The Pioakai Uiils are water-scoured, undu- 
lating and atony, and appear to he formed of conglomerate. There is some 
cultivation along the fiats at their bases. The Gwa'l Valley has much the 
same a|ipearanoo as the other valleys in tliia country, cultivated in patches, 
but generally stony and covered over w^ith a growth of southernwood and 
camellhom. On the w. side are the Pinakai Hills, of no great height, fonning 
a much broken hilly country between this valley and the gorge of the Sur- 
A'Aa'b, and on the k. side are the Darg.'ii Hills, rising to a considerable height, 
cidminating in the peaks called UsAdy, Hurana', and Mu'llaba'ri. The glacis 
observal)le elsewhere is also to be remarked here. The soil in the valley does 
not apjjcar to be deep, about 2 to 2i loet over conglomerate. It is very light 
and friable. Water seetns to Iw abuaiiant everywhere. Sheep and goats, but 
no cattle, were seen feeding in quantities. There are a good many trees on 
the hill-slopes about Gwa'l. 

The villages passed were ^/m'nizai Ka're'z, a large Pa'nizai (Ka'kar) 
village, with a kind of mud bastiuued fortinit,andZar,9(^u'n Ka're'z (Sara'ng- 
zai, Ka'kar), and Jvsho'^i Ka're'z (I'sa' iiAc'l, Ka'kar), both open vilhiges of a 
fair size. 

Gwa'l, 6100 feet^ is a long straggling open Pa'tiizai (Ka'kar) village of some 
size. Sufipliea are sufficient : bhoosa, barley, grass, firewood, milk, eggs, fowls, 
goats and sheep. Prices are nut quite so high as usuaL The camping-ground 
is in cultivated land, but the 8{sico is large ; water, near, good, ami plenlifuL 
There is a fijie view of Mts. Takatu' and Zar<//>u'n from the villiige, and from 
the Pinakai Hills to the rear, of the Shargaudai Peak to the v., and of Mts. 
Sur^/*wand and Tsa'ru to n.k. A i»th leads n. into the SurA-Aa'b Valley 
over the Pinakais, and these hills can be turned by an easy road a little to the 
s. into the Piahin valley towards JSTAu'hadil AVia'n. 

SitcoKo ExcTJKSios.— Gwtt'Z to f7khnjttgh</oi Pa$$ and A'vuidu'n. General 
forwanl hearing to Pass, 130°; to A'madu'n, 107° j to Pass, 91 miles; to 
A'madu'n, Hi miles. 22nd March. 

The rood follows the Kiver Gwa'l for about half-a-mile, and then turns across 
the valley to the eatraooe of the Guri/mi Defile iu the Dargai Hillsj which is 


240 Temple's Account of the Country traversed hy the 

reached in three miles, bearing from Gwa'l 188% or 8. So far it is easy, and 
would present no difficulties at any time. At the entrance to the defile, whidi j 
is in fact the gorgeof the Kivcr Guri/*ai, the river is crossed. It is there aoma 
30 yards wide, but the banks are easy and firm, the bottom stony, and tbe^ 
stream usually insignificant. After entering the gorge the river has to be 
frequently crossed, its bed being from 20 to 30 yards wide, the stream small 
and rapid, bottom stony, and the banks nowhere difficult. It seems, howeveiyi 
to be capable of swelling to a depth of 5 or 6 feet in the rains. The roMi 
follows one bank or the other all through the defile, and is hilJy and broken, 
in places degeueraling into a rocky mountain pathway. The defile varies 
considerably in width from 50 yards, in places, to 500 yards. It is abf>ut 2i 
miles long, with a general forward beiaring of 13S°. The rocks are precipitous 
where the defile is narrow, and several hundred feet high, while the broader 
places are very Iiilly and broken. The average gradient of the river-bed is 
about 1° 30'. The road in the defile may bo pronounced passable for camels 
in ordinary weather, and with engineering mittht lie easily made good, and, if 
bridged, practicable and e-isy in any weather, tliedifliculties being insignificant. 
At 5i miles the Sagarband Pass is reached. This is a narrow entrance at the 
top of the defile,after passing which th« roiul entws the Sagar country, a kind 
of valley in the hills, running [mrallel to the Zi\x<jh\x'n range, but presenting 
as wild an appearance as can he well imagined. It is one mass of smMJl, 
oonical clay hills, amid which the road winds, following the Iliver Sagar, which 
it constantly crosses. The River iSagar i.s a small mountain-stream, with a 
sandy bottom and soft clayey banks, which are in places steep and several 
feet high. It is usually dry, but is capable of becoming an awkward torrent. 
The windings of the road are so