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JOTJENAL 



11 



STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



(jf0unbjeb 1834.) 



Vol. XLIIL— Ybab 1880. 



LONDON: 
KDWABD STANFORD, 55, CHARING CROSS, S.W. 

1880. 

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/StO, <L.(/i^<iO^^ /^^^, c^^-//. 



^^>? i^^ 'fff / H'/y. 



NOTICE. 

The CJouncil of the Statistical Society wish it to be understood, 
that, while they consider it their duty to adopt every means within 
their power to test the facts inserted in this Joumaly they do not 
hold themselves responsible for their accuracy, which must rest 
upon the authority of the several Contributors. 



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STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



HIS BOTAL HIGHNESS THE PBINCE OF WALES, KG. 



COUNCIL AND OFFICERS.— 1880-81. 



{having filled the 

Thb Bight Hovottbablb Thb Eabl of 

SHAPTBSBirBY, K.G., D.C.L. 
Thb Bight Honoubablb Thb Eabl op 

Habeowby, K.G., D.C.L. 
Thb Bight Honoubablb Thb Lobd 

Otbrstonb, M.A., F.B.a.S. 
The Bight Honoubablb The Eabl of 

Dbbby, D.C.L., F.B.a. 
Thb Bight Hokoitbablb Thb Lobd 

Houghton, D.C.L., F.B.S. 



Office of Fresiden^). 

William Nbwmaboh, Esq., F.B.S., F.I.A. 

(Corr. Member Inst, of France). 
WiLUAM Fabb, Esq., M.D., C.B., D.O.L., 

F.B.S. (Corr. Member Inst, of France). 
William A. Guy, Esq., M.B., F.B:C.P., 

F.B.S. 
James Heywood, Esq., F.B.S., F.G.S. 
The Bight Honoubablb Gbobgb Shaw 

Lbfbybb, M.P. 
Thomas Bbassby, Esq., M.P. 



JAMES CAIBD, ESQ., C.B., F.B.S. 

Hyde Claeke, F.H.S. I Peoe. W. S. Jevons, LL.D., F.B.S. 

Fbedbbice Hendbiks. I Fbedebio John Mouat, M.D. 

James Heywood, Esq., M.A., F.B.S. | Sib John Lubbock, Babt., M.P., F.B.S. 
William Kewmaboh, Esq., F.B.S. 

Bichabd Biddulfh Mabtin, M.P. 



Coundt 



Abthub H. Bailey, F.I.A. 

T. Gbaham Balfoub, M.D., F.B.S*. 

A. E. Bateman. 

a. Phillifs Bbvan, F.a.S. 

Stbfhen Boubne. 

Edwabd William Bbabbooe, F.S.A. 

Sib Geobge Campbell, E.C.S.I., M.P. 

J. Oldfield Chadwick, F.B.G.S. 

Hammond Chubb, B.A. 

Hyde_Clabke, F.H.S. 

Lionel L. Cohen. 

Majob Patbioe Gt. Cbaigie. 

JULAND DaNYBBS. 

Bobebt Giffen. 
Fbedebick Hbndbiks. 



Noel A. Humfhbeyb. 

Pbof. W. S. Jevons, LL.D., F.B.S. 

Bobebt Lawson. 

Pbofessob Leone Leyi, LL.D. 

Sib John Lubbock, Babt., M.P., F.HS. 

John B. Mabtin, M.A. 

Bichabd Biddulfh Mabtin, M.P. 

Fbedebio John Mouat, M.D., F.B.C.S. 

Fbancis G. p. Neison. 

Bobebt Hogabth Pattbbson. 

Henby D. Poohin. 

Fbedebick Pubdy. 

Sib Bawson W. Bawson, C.B., K.C.M.G. 

CoBNELius Walfobd, F.I.A. 

Thomas A. Wblton. 



Hammokd Chubb. | Bobebt Giffen. 

John B. Mabtin. 



Jfottiun g^ttxttsqn* 
Fbedebio J. Mouat. 



I Bobebt Giffen. 

Joseph Whittall. 



3Bail&mf. -MBseBS. Dbummond and Co., Chasing Csosb, S.W., London. 

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^. '^ 



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CONTENTS. 

Vol. XLIIL— Year 1880. 



March, 1880. 



PAGE 



Is the Value of Money Bising in England and throughout the 
World ? With Bemarks on the Effect of the Fluctuating 
Conditions of Trade upon the Value of Money. By R H. 

Pattjerson, Esq. 1—26 

Discussion on Mr. Patterson's Paper 27 — 34 

The Strikes of the Past Ten Years. By Geobob Philups 

Bkvah, Esq., F.G.S 35—64 

Discussion on Mr. Bevan's Paper 55 — 64 

On Certain Changes in the English Bates of Mortality. By 

Thoicas a. Welton, Esq. 65—83 

Discussion on Mr. Welton's Paper 84 — 94 



Miscbllakea: — 

I. — Financial and Commercial History of 1879 95— 109 

n. — ^Fires in the Metropolis during 1879, and the Fire 

Brigade 109—114 

in.— English Literature in 1879 114—116 

IV.— German Literature of 1878 and 1879 116, 117 

V. — ^Emigration and Immigration in the Year 1879 117 — 123 

VI. — ^Bates of Life Insurance Premiums 123 — 134 

Vll. — ^Beport of a Committee with reference to the Census of 

1881 . 134—139 

VUL— Notes on Economical and Statistical Works 139—143 

IX.— Notes on some of the Additions to the Library 143 — 147 

X. — ^Additions to the Library during the Quarter. 147 — 158 



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vi CONTENTS, VOL. XLIIT, YKAR 1880. 

PAQC 

Periodical Returns : — 

Registrar-General's Report, and Meteorolo^cal Table for 
England and Wales for the Year ending 1879. — ^The same 
for Scotland. — Births, Deaths, and Marriages of the United 
Ejugdom. — Foreign and Colonial Produce Exported, 1878-74. 
— Trade of the United Kingdom, 1879-78-77. — Imports and 
Exports. — Shipping. — Gold and Silver Bullion and Specie. 
Average Prices of Com in England and Wales. — Bank of 
England Returns. — Revenue Returns. — The London Clear- 
ances and Country Bank (Note) Circulation in United 
Kingdom. — Foreign Exchanges 159—182 



.June, 1880. 

On the Education and Training of the Children of the Poor. 

By Frederic J. Mouat, M.D., F.RC.S 183- 243 

Discussion on Dr. Mouat's Paper 244 — 260 

Vital Statistics of Cavalry Horses. By Surgeon-General T. 

Graham Balfour, M.D., F.RS 251—271 

Discussion on Surgeon-General Balfour's Paper 271 — 274 

Ten Years' Statistics of British Agriculture, 1870-79. By 
Captain Patrick Georob Craigie, Secretaiy of the Central 
Chamber of Agriculture * 275—312 

On the Home Produce, Imports, Consumption, and Price of 
Wheat, over the Harvest- Years 1852-53 to 1879-80, inclu- 
sive. By J. B. Lawes, LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., and J. 
H. Gilbert, Ph.D., F.RS., F.C.S 313-331 

Discussion on the two Papers by Captain Craigie, and by 

Lawes and Gilbert 332—340 



Miscellanea : — 

I. — General Results of the Commercial and Financial Histoiy 

of the Year 1879 341—355 

II. — ^The Movement of the Population in Russia during the 

Four Years 1867-70 356—364 

III.— Lloyd's Statistics of Marine Casualties for the Year 1879 366 — 379 

IV.— An Iron Trade Chart for the past Fifty Years 380, 381 

v.— Notes on Economical and Statistical Works 382—388 

VI. — ^Notes on some of the Additions to the Library 388—393 

VII.— A Quarterly List of the Additions to the Library 393—404 



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OONTBUTS, VOL. XLIII, TEAR 1880. vil 



September, 1880. 

TACE 

Report of the Council to the Forty-Sixth Anniversary Meeting 

of the Statistical Society 405- -416 

Proceedings of the Forty-Sixth Anniversary Meeting 417 — 422 

A Survey of Indictable and Summary Jurisdiction Oflfences in 
England and Wales, from 1857 to 1876, in Quinquennial 
Periods, and in 1877 and 1878. By Professor Leone 
Levi, F.S.A., LL.D., &c 423—456 

Discussion on Professor Leone Levi's Paper 456 — 461 

On the Increase of Population in England and Wales. By R. 

Price Williams, M. Inst. C.E 462—496 

Discussion on Mr. R. Price Williams's Paper 497 — 608 

Mortality in Remote Comers of the World. By Harald 

Westbroaard, of Copenhagen 509 — 520 



Miscellanea : — 

I.— Ten Years' Railway Statistics 521—531 

II. — Notes on Economical and Statistical Works 531 — 547 

III. — Notes on some Additions to the Library 547, 548 

IV. — list of Additions to the Library 548 — 558 



December, 1880. 

The Inaugural Address of Jakes Caird, Esq., C.B., F.RS., 
President of the Statistical Society, delivered on Tuesday, 
the 16th of November, 1880 559—572 

Proceedings on the 16th November, 1880 572 

Note on the Tenth Census of the United States of America. 
By F. J. MouAT, M.D., F.R.C.S., Vice-President and 
Foreign Secretary 573—602 

Discussion on Dr. Mouat's Paper 602 — 604 

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Vlii C0NTBKT8, VOL. XLIU, YEAR 1880. 



PAOB 



^' The Oriental Plague in its Social, Economical, Political, and 
" Intamational Belations, special Bef erence being made to 
" the Labours of John Howard on the subject." A Prize 
Essay. By Hrnrt Percy Potter, Esq., RRCS., to 
whom the Howard Medal of 1880 was awarded 606—642 



Miscellanea : — 

I.— Agricultural Eetums for the Year 1880 643—664 

II.— The Com Crops of 1880 664—670 

III.— Ten Years' Eesults of the London School Board 670—682 

rV.— The Annual Local Taxation Betums of 1878-79 683—687 

v.— Ten Years' Telegraphy 687—690 

VI.— The Population of the Earth 690—697 

VII.— Statistics of Australasian Colonies 698, 699 

VIII.— Agricultural Diatress and Bills of Sale 700—705 

IX. — Notes on Economical and Statistical Works 705 — 709 

X. — ^Notes on some Additions to the Library 709 — 711 

XI.— List of Additions to the Library 711—720 

Index to vol. xliii (1880) 721—743 



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(Corrected to 31st December, 1880.) 

STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 

(Founded 1834,) 
SOMERSST HOUSE TERRACE (King's College Entrance), 

STRAND, W.C, LONDON. 



PAas 

Council and Officers 2 

Objects of the Society 8 

Calendar for Session 1880-81 4 

Programme of the Session 1880-81 5 " 

Howard Medal of 1881, Subject of Essay for. . 6 

List of the former Patron and Presidents. ... 7 

Do. Fellows • 8 

Do. Honorary Members 43 

Index to Rui.es 48 

Rules of the Society 49 

Regulations of the Library 53 

Donors to the Library during the Year 1880. . 54 

Cost of Back Nos. of Journal (if not out of Print). 60 

Odd Numbers, Parts and Volumes wanting in 

THE Library 61 

Form of Bequest 62 



LONDON : 

PBIKTBD POB THB BOOIETT, 

BY HABBISON AND SONS, 45 and 46, ST. MARTIN'S LANE, 
IPrmttrs in ®rbimarg ia $tr Pajtstg. 

1881, 



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STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PBINCE OF WALES, K.Q. 
COUNCIL AND OFFICERS.— 1880-8L 

QMving fitted the Office of Preeident), 



Thb Bight HoirorBABLE Ths Babl of 

Shaftbsbttbt, K.G-., D.C.L. 
Thb Bight Honoxtbablb Thb Eabl op 

Habeowbt, K.a., D.O.L. 
Thb Bight Honoubablb Thb Lobd 

OvBESTONB, M.A., F.B.a.S. 
Thb Bight Honottbablb The Eibl of 

Dbbby, D.C.L., F.B.S. 
Thb Bight Honoubablb Thb Lobd 

Hovghtok, D.O.L., F.B.S. 



William Newmabch, Esq., F.B.S., F.IJL. 

(Corr. Member Inst, of France). 
William Fabb, Esq., M.D., C.B., D.O.L., 

F.E.S. (Corr. Member Inst, of France.) 
WiLLLiM A. auT, Esq., M.B., F.B.C.P., 

F.B.S. 
James Hetwood, Esq., F.B.S., F.G.S. 
The Bight Honoubable Qbobgb Shaw 

Lefevbe, M.P. 
Thomas Bbasset, Esq., M.P. 



JAMES OAIBD, ESQ., C.B., F.B.S. 

Hyde Clabkb, F.H.S. | Peof. W. S. Jevoits, LL.D., F.B.S. 

Fbedebiok Hbkdbiks. I Fbbdbbio John Mouat, M.D. 

Jambs Hbtwoop, Esq., M.A., F.B.S. | Sib John Lxtbboos, Babt., M.P., •F.B.S. 
William Newmabch, Esq., F.B.S. 

ZxtKiuxtx. 
Biohabd BiDDtrLPH Mabtik, M.P. 



€ottndl. 



Abthitb H. Bailey, F.I.A. 

T. asAHAM Balfoitb, M.D., F.B.S. 

A. E. Batemin. 

G. Phillifs Bevan, F.G.S. 

Stephen BouBim. 

Edwabd William Bbabbook, F.S.A. 

Sib Geobgb Campbell, E.O.S.L, M.P. 

J. Oldfield Ohadwick, F.B.G.S. 

Hammond Chitbb, B.A. 

Hyde Clabkb, F.H.S. 

Lionel L. Cohen. 

Majob Patbick G-. Cbaigib. 

Juland Dantebs. 

BOBEBT GiFFBN. 

Fbedbbiok Hbndbizb. 



Noel A. Hitmphbbys. 

Peof. W. S. Jbyons, LL.D., P.BJ3. 

Bobebt Lawson. 

Pbofbssob Leone Lbti, LL.D. 

SiB John Litbbook, Baet., M.P., F.B.S. 

John B. Mabtin, M.A. 

Biohabd Biddulfh Mabtin, M.P. 

Fbedeeio John Mouat, M.D., F.B.C.S. 

Feanois G. p. Neison. 

Bobebt Hogabth Pattebsok. 

Henby D. Pochin. 

Fbedebiok Pttbdy. 

Sib Bawson W. Bawson, C.B., E.C.M.G. 

CoBNELius Walfobd, F.I.A. 

Thomas A Wklton. 



^ttxttnxiti. 

Hammond Chtbb. | Bobbbt Giffbn. 

John B. Mabtin. 



Jfaxtisn gptattxxui. 
Fbbdbbio J. Movat. 



etsitax Of t^t SmxntO. 

Bobebt Giffen. 



Joseph Whittall. 
JBan&n3f*^MBSSBS. Dbfmkond aiitd Co., Chabing Cboss, S.W., London. 



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3 
AN OUTUNB OF 

THE OBJECTS OF THE STATISTICAI SOCIETT. 



Thb Statistical Society of London was founded, in pursuance of 
a reoommendation of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Scienoe, on the 15th of March, 1834 ; its object being, the careful 
collection, arrangement, discussion and publication, of facts bearing 
on and illustrating ihe complex relations of modem society 
in its social, economical, and political aspects,-— especially facts 
which can be stated numerically and arranged in tables ; — and also, 
to form a Statistical Library as rapidly as its funds would permit. 

The Soci6tv from its inception has steadily progressed. It now 
possesses a valuable Library and a Reading Koom ; ordinary meet- 
mgs are held monthly from November to June, which are well 
attended, and cultivate among its Fellows an active spirit of inves- 
tigation : the papers read before the Society are, with an abstract 
of the discussions thereon, published in its Journal^ which now 
consists of 43 annual volumes, and forms of itself a valuable library 
of reference. 

The Society has originated and statistically conducted many 
spedal inquiries on subjects of economic or sodal interest, of which 
the results have been published in the Journal or issued separately ; 
the latest instance being the institution of the ^^ Howard Med^ '' 
Prize Essay. 

To enable the Society to extend its sphere of useful activity, and 
accomplish in a yet greater degree the various ends indicated, an 
increase in its numbers and revenue is desirable. With the desired 
increase in the number of Fellows, the Society will be enabled to 
publish standard works on Economic Science and Statistics, 
especially such as are out of print or scarce, and also greatly extend 
its collection of Foreign works. Such a well-arranged Library for 
reference, as would result, does not at present exist m England, and 
is obviously a great desideratum. 

The Society is cosmopolitan, and consists of Fellows and 
Honorary Members, forming together a body, at the present time, 
of between eight and nine hundred Members. 

The Annual Subscription to the Society is Two Guineas^ and 
at present there is no entrance fee. Fellows may, on joining the 
Society, or afterwards, compound for all future Annual Subscriptions 
by a payment of Twenty Guineas. 

The Fellows of the Society receive gratuitously a copy of each 
part of the Journal as published Quarterly, and have the privilege 
of purchasing back numbers at a reduced rate. The Library 
(reference and circulating), and the Reading Room, are open d^y, 
for the convenience of Members. 

Nomination Forms and any further information will be fur- 
nished, on application to the Assistant Secretary. 

B 2 



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CALENDAR FOR SESSION 1880-81. 











S 




fii 












. 




. 




1880 


i 


u 


i 


i 


i 


1 


i 


1881 


i 


i 




1 


I 


i 


1 


NOV. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


MAY 


... 


... 


... 


... 






I 




8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


13 


14 




2 


3 


4 


5 


"e 


7 


8 




15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 




9 


10 


II 


12 


13 


»4 


15 




22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 




16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 




29 


30 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 




23 

30 


24 
31 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


DEC. 


*. . 


• . . 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 




















6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


JUNE 


... 


... 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 




13 


14 


IS 


16 


17 


18 


19 




6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 




20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 




13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 




27 


28 


29 


30 


31 




... 




20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


1881 


















27 


28 


29 


30 






... 


JAN. 


... 


... 


... 


... 


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I 


2 




















3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


JULY 


... 


... 


... 


... 


I 


3 


3 




10 


II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 




4 


S 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 




»7 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 




II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 




24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 




18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 




31 


... 


... 


... 


... 


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25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


FEB. 


... 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


AUG. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 




7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


13 




8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


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14 


15 


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19 


20 




15 


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22 


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•.. 


... 


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29 


30 


31 


... 


... 


... 


... 


MAR. 


... 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


SEP. 


. .. 


.. . 


.. . 


I 


2 


3 


4 




7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


13 




5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


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II 




14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 




12 


13 


14 


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16 


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22 


'23 


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29 


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31 


... 


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36 


27 


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30 


... 




APR. 










I 


2 


3 


OCT. 


... 










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2 




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5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


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3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 




ti 


12 


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14 


15 


16 


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10 


II 


12 


13 


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18 


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24 




17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


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25 


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27 


28 


29 


30 


.. . 




24 
31 


25 


26 


27 


38 


29 


30 



The Ordinanr Meetings of the Society, at which Papers are read and discassed, are 
marked in the Calendar above by Black Figures. 

TA^ Chair will be taken at 7*45 /.«., precisely. 

Visitors may attend the Ordinary Meetings on the introduction of a Fellow. 



THE ANNIVERSART MBETINO 

Will be held on the 28th June, 1881, at 4 p.m. 



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5 

MONTHLY meetings-Session 1880-81. 

HELD ON THE 

Third Tubsdat m the MoNtHs op Noyembbe — June. 

{Bxoeptimg April) 



Tuesday, Nov. 16. 

„ Dec 21, 

„ Jan. 18. 

Feb. 15. 



Tuesday, March 15. 

„ April 12. 

May 17. 

„ Judo 21. 



The Council have reason to expect that in the course 
of the Session the foUovnng Papers will, among others, 
be communicated to the Society : — 

The PBEsmEMT's Inaugural Address. By James Caibd, Esq., 
C.B.,F.R.S. ^ 

** Note on the Tenth Census of the United States of America .V 
By Dr. F. J. Mouat, F.R.C.S. 

" The Growth of the Human Body." By J. T. Danson, Esq. 

" The Methods of Electing Representatives." By Hbnbt R. 
Droop, Esq. 

" The Influence of Expenditure on Intoxicating Liquors on the 
Trade and Conmierce of the Country." By Wm. Hotle, Esq. 

"The Question of the Reduction of the Present Postal Tele- 
graph Tariff." By R- Price Williams, Esq., C.E. 

" The Method of Statistics." By Wtnnard Hooper, Esq. 

" The Comparative Taxation of the Principal European Countries." 
By Robert Oiffen, Esq. 

"The Relative Mortality of Large and Small Hospitals; their 
advantages and disadvantages considered." By H. C. Bur- 
DKTT, E^. 

" The History and Statistics of the Irish Incumbered Estates 
Court, with Suggestions for a Tribimal with similar Juris- 
diction in England." By R. Denny Urun, Esq. (lately 
Examiner under "The Landed Estates Act — Ireland ). 

" On the Development of the Hill Regions of India." By Hyde 
Clarke, Esq. 

"A Statistical Chronology of the Plagues and Pestilences of the 
World." By C. Walford, Esq., F.SA. 



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HOWARD MEDAL. 



The following is the title of the Eseay to which the Medal will 
be awarded in November, 1881. The Essays to be sent in on or 
before SOth June, 1881. 

^^ On the Jcdl Fever , from the earliest Black Assize to the last 
'' recorded outbreak in recent times f 

The Council have decided to grant the sum of £20 to the writer 
who may gain the *' Howard Meikl" in November, 1881. 

(The Medal is of bronze^ having on one side a portrait of John 
Howard^ on the other a wheatsheaf with suitable inscription.) 

The following are the principal conditions : — 

Each Essay to bear a motto, and be accompanied by a sealed 
letter, marked with the like motto, and containing the name and 
address of the author ; such letter not to be opened, except in the 
case of the successful Essay. 

No Essay to exceed in length 150 pages (8vo.) of the Journal of 
the Statistical Society. 

The Council shall, if they see fit, cause the successful Essay, or 
an abridgment thereof, to be read at a Meeting of the Statistical 
Society ; and shall have the right of publishing the Essay in their 
Journal one month before its appearance in any separate indepen- 
dent form ; this right of publication to continue till three months 
after the award of the Prize. 

The President shall place the Medal in the hands of the suc- 
cessful Candidate, at the conclusion of his Annual Address, at the 
ordinary Meeting in November, when he shall also re-announce the 
subject of the Prize Essay for the following year. 

Competition for this Medal shall not be limited to the Fellows 
of the Statistical Society, but shall be open to any competitor, 
providing the Essay be written in the English language. 

The Council shall not award the Prize, except to the author of 
an Essay, in their opinion, of a sufficient standc^d of merit; no 
Essay shall be deemed to be of sufficient merit that does not set 
forth the facts with which it deals, in part, at least, in the language 
of figures and tables ; and distinct references should be miule to 
such authorities as may be quoted or referred to. 

Further particulars or explanations may be obtained from the 
Assistant Secretary, at the Office of the Society, King's College 
Entrance, Strand, London, W.C. 



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LIST OP THE FORMER 



OF THl 

STATISTICAL SOCIETY, 

From Us Foundation, on I5ih March, 1834. 



patron. 

1840-61 — 'H3S KoTAL Highness The Pbincb Consort, K.G, 



1834-36 
1836-38 
1838-40 
1840-42 

1842-43 
1843-45 

1845-47 
1847-49 
1849-51 
1851-53 
1853-55 
1855-57 
1857-59 

1859-61 

1861-63 

1863-65 
1865-67 
1867-69 
1869-71 
1871-73 
1873-75 
1875-77 
1877-79 
1879-80 



The Most Noble the Marquis of Lansdowne, F.RS. 

Sir Charles LemoD, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., LL.D. 

The Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam, F.R.S. 

The Right Hon. the Viscount Sandon, M.P. 
(now Earl of Harrowby.) 

The Most Noble the Marquis of Lansdowne, E.G., F.R^. 

The Right Hon. the Viscount Ashley, M.P, 
(now Earl of Shaftesbury.) 

The Right Hon. the Lord Monteagle. 

The Right Hon. the Earl Mtzwilliam, F.RA 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Harrowby, 

The Right Hon. the Lord Overstone. 

The Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam, K.G., F.R.S. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Stanley, M.P. 
(now Earl of Derby.) 

The Right Hon. the Lord John Russell, M.P., F.R.S. 
(afterwards Earl Russell.) 

The Right Hon. Sir J. S. Pakington, Bart., M.P., G.C.B. 
(afterwards Lord Hampton.) 

Colonel W. H. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Houghton. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L. 

W. Newmarch, Esq., F.R.S., Corr. Mem. Inst, of France. 

WiUiam Farr, Esq., M.D., C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

WiDiam A. Guy, Esq., M.B., F.R.S. 

James Heywood, Esq., Mji., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

The Right Hon. George Shaw Lefevre, M.P. 

Thomas Brassey, Esq., M J*. 



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LIST OF FELLOWS. 



Tho*e marked thui * have compounded for their Annual SubecnpiUme. 
The namee rfMembere rf Council ure printed in Small Capitals. 



Tmt of 
Election. 

1878 



1876 
1870 
1862 
1869 
1879 
1867 
1873 
1880 
1876 
1879 
1841 
1876 
1847 
1872 
1876 
1876 



Abdiir Eabman, Moulvie Syud, F.E.C.S. (BarrUter-at'Laiojy 

42, Talfollah-lane, Calcutta, India, 
Abrahams, Israel, F.KG-.S., 

56, Bussell-square, W,0. 
Absolon, Eugene, 

12, Wellingtan'Square, Kina^s-road, Chehea, S.W. 
Acland, Henry Wentworth, M.D., F.E.S., 

Oxford, 
Acland, Sir Thomas Dyke, Bart., M.P., F.E.S., 

Sprt/doncote, Exeter ; and AthentBum Club, S, W 
Adam, Eobert {City Chamberlain), 

City Chambers, Edinburgh, 
Addison, John, 

6, Delahay'Street, Great Oeorye-street, 8,W, 
♦Airlie, The Eight Hon. the Earl of, K.T., 

36, Chesham-place, S.W. 
Aitchison, David, 

5, Fembridge-square, W, 
Aitchison, William John, 

2, Princes-street, E.C, 
Akers-Douglas, Aretas, M.P., J.P., 

ChiUton Fark, Maidstone, Kent, 
Aldam, "William, F.E.8., 

Frichley Hall, Doncaster, 
Aldwinckle, Thomas Williams, 

7, Fast India-avenue, LeadenhalUstreet, F,C, 
Alexander, George William, 

The Willows, Church-street, Stoke Newington, N, 
Alexander, Eobert Henry, 

24, Lomhard-street, F,C, 
Allen, John T. E., 

North Bailey, Durham, 
Allen, Joseph, 

8t, Mldred's House, FouUry, KC, 



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Tmvoi 

1877 



1878 
1878 
1871 
1871 
1834 
1872 
1871 
1870 
1871 



1872 
1872 
1875 
1879 
1855 
1858 
1879 
1878 
1879 
1848 
1873 
1865 



LIST OP FELLOWS. 



Allen, Joseph, ( West Riding ChambenY 

21, Jraterhouse-ttreetf Jffalifaa, Yorkshire, 
Anderson, A. E., 

131, Mount Pleasant^ Idverpool. 
Anderson, Edward C, M.A., M.D., 

TotD-Law, Darlington. 
Anderson, Sir James, E.E.G.S., F.G.S., 

66, Old Broad-street, E.G. 
Angus, B. 6., 

Montreal, Canada. 
♦AnseD, Charles, F.E.S., 

92, Cheapside, U.O. 
♦Archibalcl, "William Frederick A., M.A, 

3, AmershamrToad, Putney, S. W, 
Atkinson, George "W., 

1, Begent-street, Bamsley, 
Averj, Thomas, 

Church-road, JEdghaston, Birmingham. . 
Axon, William E. A., 

Bank Cottage, Patricroft, Manchester, 



•Babbage, Major-General Henry P., 

d)ainton House, Bromley, Kent. 
'Backhouse, Edmund, 

Middleton Lodge, Richmond, York. ; Reform Club, S. W. 
Baddelej, Samuel, 

JPreeland^s-road, Bromley, Kent. 
Baden- Powell, George S., M.A., F.RA.S., 

8, St. George^ solace, Hyde Park Corner, S. W, 
Bailit, Abthub Htjtchesok, F.I.A., 

7, Royal Exchange, E,C. 
Baines, Sir Edward, 

St, Ann's'hill, Burley, Leeds. 
Baker, W. Mills, 

Stoke Bishop, near Bristol. 
Balfour, Arthur James, M.P., 

4, Carlton -gardens, S. W. 
Balfour, Cecil Charles, 

7, Park-square, Regenfs-park, N.W. 
Balfour, General Sir George, M.P., D.L., K.C.B., 

6, Cleveland-gardens, Bayswater, W. 
Balfour, Jabez Spencer, M.P., 

20, Budge-row, Cannon-street, E.C. 
Balfoub, Thomas Gbaham, M.D., F.R.S., 

Ooombe Lodge, Wimbledon Park, S.W. 



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10 STATISTICAL SOCIETY: 



Tear of 
Klection. 

1879 



18l>9 

1877 
1873 
1880 
1878 
1878 
1879 
1872 
1836 
1873 
1877 
1877 
1876 
1877 
1873 
1871 
1877 
1875 
1878 
1876 
1880 
1863 
1872 
1879 



Bamber, Edward Fisher, C.B., 

67, 8hqft68hufy»road, Ravenseourt-parky W. 
BamptoD, James, 

13, St, JameM^B-tquare^ SL W, 
Barbour, William B., 

196, Haverstock'Ull, N.W. 
Barham, Francis F., 

Bank of England, Birmingham. 
*Baring, Thomas Charles, M.P., 

Hiah Beach, Loughton, 
Barr, John Colemant L.R.C. P., 

Oranmore Villas^ AldershoL 
Barry, Francis Tress, 

St, Leonard* 8'hill, Wind$or. 
Barry, Frederick "W., M.D. {Sanitary Oommisnoner)^ 

Nicosea, Cyprus, 
♦Bass, Michael Arthur, M.P., 

IQl, Eaton-square, S, W,; Bangemore, Burton-on-Trenf. 
Bass, Michael Thomas, M.P., 

101, Eaton^square, S,W.; Bangemorey Burton-on-JVenU 
Bate, George, 

10, City-road^ E,0. 
Bateman, a. £., 

1, Whitehall S.IF. 

Battye, Eichard Fawcett, M.R C.P., 

123, St, George' s-roady S,W. 
Baxter, Bobert, 

6 and 6, Victoria^reeiy Westminster, 8.W. 
Bayfield, Arthur, 

32, Temple-row, Birmingham. 
♦Baynes, Alfred Henry, F.R.G.S., 

19, Gastle-street, Holhom, E.C. 
♦Baynes, William Wilberforce, F.I.A., 
32, Moorgate-street, E,0, 
Beadel, William J., 

Springfield Lyons, Chelmsford, 
♦Beardsall, Francis E. M., 

64, Cross-street, Manchester, 
*Beauchamp, The Eight Hon. Earl, 

13, Belgrave-square, S. W, 
♦Beaufort, William Morris, F.E.A.S., F.B.G.S., &c., 
18, Piccadilly, W. 
Beddell, Charles, 

5, Lothbury, E.C, 
Beddoe, John, B.A., M.D., F.E.S., 

2, Lansdowne-place, Clifton, 
•Bedford, His Grace, the Duke of, 

Wohum Abbey, Oakley, Bedford. 
Beggs, Thomas, 

Razeldene, Shortlands, Kent, 



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YmtoT 

SlMCloil. 

1880 



1878 
1856 
1879 
1875 
1869 
1879 
1866 
1877 
1877 
1873 
1860 
1877 
1880 
1879 
1879 
1875 
1871 
1877 
1860 
1876 
1879 
1880 
1874 
1876 



LI8T OF #£LLOW8. ] 1 



Bell, Isaac Lowthian, J. P^ 

Rounton Orange^ Nbrthallerton^ Yorky N.R. 
Bellew, The Bight Hon. Lord, 

Barmeathy Dunleer, Ireland, 
•Bereaford-Hope, The Eight Hon. A. J., M.P., D.C.L., 

1, Connaught-placey W. 
Bb^ait, Geobgb Phillips, F.G.S., 

ZTplandSf Richmond, Surrey, 
Beyan, Thomas, 

Sione Fork, near Dartford, Kent 
•Beyerley, Henry, 

27, Theatre-road, Oaleutta. 
♦Bickford-Smith, W., J.P., D.L., Ac, 

Trevamo^ HeUton, Cornwall, 
Bik^las, D^m6triu8, 

Athene, Greece, 
Bisho p, G borge Houlton, M.B.O.S., 

Wesihoume Gheen, Harrow road, W, 
Boddj, Evan Marlett, L.E.C.P., {Lifford Home, Dart/brd), 

111, CambervoeUrroad, SJS, 
Bogie, James, 

5, Spenee-^ireet, Newington, EdinbwrgK 
Bohn, Henry George, F.B.A.S., F.L.S., 

18, Henrietta^reet, Covent Oarden^ W,0,; Twickenham. 
Bolam, Harry Oeorge, 

IMle Ingettre, Stafford, 
Bolton, Joseph C, M.P., 

Oarhrookf Larhert, StirUngehire, 
Borchardt, Louis, M.D., 

Swinton House, FalUmfield^ Maneheefer, 
Bordman, Thomas Joseph Clarence Linden, 

Victoria House, Trinity-street, Southtoark, U,0, 
Borthwick, The Eight Hon. Lord, 

Ravenstone, Whithorn, N.B, 
BoTTBurE, Stephen, 

H,M, Oustom House, JE, tt ; Ahherleg, Wallington, Surrey, 
Boutcher, Emanuel, 

12, Oarford^square, Hyde Park, W, 
BoTill, William John, Q.C., 

32, James^treet, Buckingham-gate, S, W, 
Bowen, Horace George, 

Bank of England^ BurHngton-gardens, W, 
Bowley, Edwin, 

Burnt Ash'hill, Lee, Kent. 
Bowser, Wilfred Arthur, 

72, Bishopsgate-street Within, E,C,, 
Bbabbook, Edwabd William, F.S.A., M.E.S.L., 

28, JUngdon-street, S.W. 
Braby, James, J. P., 

Maybanks, Rudgwick, Susses, 



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12 STATISTICAL SOCIETY: 



TMTOf 

BiMtloa 

1874 
1855 
1873 
1864 
1876 
1874 
1878 
1872 
1876 
1876 
1865 
1880 
1878 
1872 
1874 
1877 
1880 



1880 
1857 

1880 
1879 
1874 

1877 



Bramley-Moore, John, D.L., 

GerrartPs-cro8$^ Bucks, 
Brand, The Eight Hon. Henry Bouverie William, M.P., 

Speaker' 8 Court, House of Commons^ 8. W, 
BsASBET, Thomas, M.P., {Honorary Vice-President), 

4, Great Q^orge-street, 8. W.; and 24, Fark-lane^ W. 
•Braye, The Eight tiLon. the Lord, 

40, Lovoer Grosvenor-street ; Stanford HaU^ Bugbv. 
Brodhurst, Bernard Edward, F.E.C.S., 

20, Grosvenor-street, Grosvenor-square, W. 
Broom, Andrew, 

104, Grove»lane, Camberwell. 
Brown, Alexander Hargreavee, M.P., 

12, Grosvenor-gardens, 8.W. 
Brown, James Bryce, F.E.(i.S., 

90, Cannon-street, E.C; and Bromley, Kent. 
Browne, Thomas Gillespie C, F.I.A., 

11, Lombard-street, E.C, 
Bruton, Leonard, 

8t, Stephen's Buildings, Bristol. 
Bunce, John Thackray, 

Longworth, Priory'road, Edgbasion, Birmingham. 
Burdett, Henry Charles, . 

Seamen's Hospital Greenwich, S.E. 
*Bnrdett-CouttB, The Eight Hon. the Baroness, 

1, Siration-street, W.; and Molly Lodge, Highgate, N. 
Bums, The Eev. Dawson, M.A., 

52, Parliament-street, 8. W. 
Burr, William, 

42, Poultry, E.C. 
Burrell, Alexander. 

Burt, Frederick, F.E.G.S., 

Woodstock, Crouch End, N. 



Caine, William S.,M.P., 

1, Ihe Terrace, Clapham Common, S.W. 
Caibd, Jamks, C.B., F.E.S., (President), 

8, Queen' s-gate-gardens. South Kensington, S.W.; and 
Cassencary, Creetoum, N.B. 
Caird, Eobert Henryson, 

6, Petersham^terrace, S.W, 
Campbell, Lord Colin, M.P., 

Argyll Lodge, Kensington, W., and Inverary Castle. 
Campbell, Sib Geobgb, K.C.S.I., M.P.,D.C.L., 

13, ComwalUaardens, South Kensington, 8. W. 
Campbell, George Lamb, 

Market'Street, Wigan. 



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T«tf of 
Blsotton. 

1879 



1862 
1872 
1871 
1876 
1877 
1848 
1878 
1880 
1858 
1834 
1869 
1876 
1880 
1873 
1863 
1851 
1877 
1853 
1862 
1869 
1877 
1849 
1856 
1871 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 13 

Campbell-Colauhoun, Eev. John Erskme, 

Chartwell, Weeterham^ KmU. 
Cape, George A., 

8, Old Jewry, E.O. 
♦Carillon, J. Wilson, P.S.A., F.B.G.S., 

Wbrmhill, Buxton. 
Camac, Harry Rivett-, 

Oaleutta, Bengal, India. 
Carphin, James Bhind, C. A.., 

187, Oearge-gtreet, Edinburgh. 
Carter, E. Harold, 

33, Waterloo-ttreet, Birmingham. 
Carter, John Bonham, 

25, Ashley-place, Vtotoria-Btreet, S.W. 
♦Casley, Eeginald Kennedy, M.D., 

ITbrthgat&street, Ipsvnch. 
Castle, Eobert, 

18, Merton^treet, Oxford. 
Chadwiek, David, 

The Boplars, Heme Rill^ Bulvoich, S.K 
Chadwiek, Edwin, C.B., 

Bark OoUage, East Sheen, Mortlake, S. W. 
Chadwiok, John Oldfield, F.E.G.S., 

2, Moorgatestreet, E.G. 
Challen, George Caleb, 

St. Mildred's House, Boultry, E.O. 
♦Chamberlain, The Eight Honourable Joseph, M.P., 
72, Brince's Gate, S.W. 
Charlesworth, Frederic, 

Widmore, Bromk^, Kent. 
Charlton, W. H., 

Hesleyside, near Hexham, Northumberland^ 
♦Cheshire, Edward, 

3, Vanbrugh Bark, Blackheath, S.E. 
Child, Eobert Carlyle, 

Chisholm, David, F.LA., 

64, Brinces-street, Edinburgh. 
Christie, Chancellor Eichard Copley, M.A. 

2, St, James' s-square, Manchester. 
Chxtbb, Hammond, B.A., (Secretary), 

Bickley, Kent. 
Clapham, Crochley, L.E.C.P., 

Muriel House, Beak Hill, Sydenham, S.E. 
Clark, Gordon Wyatt, 

Mickleham Hall, near Dorking, Surrey. 
Clark, Sir John Forbes, Bart., 

TiUvpronie, Tarland, Aberdeen. 
Clarke, Ebenezer, jun., 

52, Cannon-street, E.G. 



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14 STATISTICAL 80CIETT : 



Tew of 
Electloo, 

1880 



1877 
1876 
1856 
1869 
1850 
1858 
1877 
1873 
1877 
1888 
1859 
1879 
1874 
1877 
1874 
1867 
1878 
1879 
1879 
1874 
1879 
1843 
1874 
1873 



Clarke, Frederick Nevill, 

Eccleshoume^ Thicket-raad, Upper Norwood, S,I!. 
♦Clarke, Henry, L.B.aP., 

H.M, Prison, Wakefield, Torks. 
Clarke, Henry Harcourt Hyde, 

32, St. Oeorge'8'8^re, 8.W. 
♦Clabke, Htdb, (Vtce-Fresident), 

32, 8t, Qeorge's-square, S.W. 
Clegbom, John, 

3, Spriruji-gardens, 8. W. 
♦Clevelana, His Grace the Duke of, K.G^ 

17, St. Jamee's^quare, S. W. 
Clirehugh, William Palin, F.I.A., 

158, LeadenhalUtreet, E.G. 
Cobb, B. Francis, 

79, Oomhill, E.O. 
Cockle, Captain George, F.RG.S., 

9, Bolton-gardens, South Kensington, S. W. 
Cohen, Lionel Louis, 

9, Ryde Fark-Terraoe, W. 
Colebrooke, Sir Thomas Edward, Bart., M.P,, 

14, South-street, W. 
Coles, John, F.I.A., 

39, Throgmorton-street, E.O. 
CoUinga, Jesse, M.P., J. P., Ac. 

TheWoodlands, H eUington-road,Edghaston, Birmingham. 
Collins, Eugene, M.P., 

38, Forehester-terrace, Syde Fork, W. 
Collins, J. Wright, J.P. {Golonial Ih-easurer), 

Stanley, Falkland Islands. 
CoUinson, John, F.B.G.S., 

13, Falace-gate, W. 
Colman, Jeremiah James, M.P., 

Carrow House, Norunch. 
Colomb, Captain J.C.R., E.M.A., J.P., 

Ihronrnquinnae, Kenmare, Kerry. 
Cooke, H. Bibton, 

27, Fenchureh'Streety E.G. 
Cooke, Isaac B., 

19, Froum^s-huildings, Liverpool. 
•Cookson, Faithful, F.B.G.S., 

35, Grand Farade, Brighton. 
Cooper, William John, 

7, Westminster-chambers, Vtctoria-street, 8.W. 
♦Copperthwaite, William Charles, 

New Malton, Yorkshire. 
Corbett, John, 

6a, Waterloo-place, Fall Mall, 8.W. 
Cork, Nathaniel, F.K.G.S., 

89, Lombard-street, E.G. 



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Tear of 
Btectton 

1878 



1862 
1873 
1880 
1880 
1874 
1870 
1872 
1878 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1876 
1878 
1877 
1876 
1879 
1876 
1879 
1848 
1873 

1860 
1880 
1880 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 15 



Comish, Waiiam Eobert, r.E.C.S. {Surgeon Major)^ 

Sanitary Chmmistioner, Madras, 
Courtney, Leonard Henry, M.A., M.P., 

15, Quemi Anne* 9 Oate, Westminster, S, W. 
Cowper, The Hon. Henry Frederick, M.P., 

4, St. Jameses-square, S. W. 
Cox, William John, 

53, Arthur-road, Homsey-road, N, 
Craig, William Young, M.P., 

JPalace Chambers, St. Stephen% Westminster, S, W. 
Cbaigib, Ma job Pateick G-soboe, (21, Arundel-^treet, W.C), 

Hartley House, Lower Heath, Hampstead, N. W. 
Craik, George Lillie, 

29, Bedford-street, Strand, W.O. 
Crellin, Philip, 

83, Ohancen/'lane, W.O. 
Crowd son, Ernest, 

6, Norfolk-street, Manchester. 
Crickmay, Herbert John, 

Bank of England, E.G. 
Crisford, George S., F.I.A., 

West of England Insurance Company, Exeter. 
*Crompton-Eobert8, Charles H. 

16, Belgrave-square, S. W. 
Crosse, John Burton St. Croix, r.E.C.S., 

Boyal Military Asylum, Chelsea, S. W. 
Grossman, James H., J.P., 

Union Club, Trafalgar-square, S, W. 
Crothers, Eobert, M.D., M.E.C.P., 

2, Warrior-square-terrace, St. Leonard^ s-on^Sem. 
Crowe, William Eussell, 

Stanly House, Carshalton, Swrrey^ 
Cunningham, Charles L., M.E.C.S., &c. 

Cunningham, David, C.E., 

Works' Office, Harbour-chambers, Dundee. 
Curtis, Eobert Leabon, 

15 and 16, Blonifield-street, E.C. 
Cutcliffe, George, F.I.A., 

13, St. James' S'Square, S.W. 
Czamikow, C»sar, 

Mitcham, Surrey. 



DalyeU, The Hon. Eobert Anstruther, C.S.I., 
India OJice, Westminster, S. W. 

Danson. John Towne, 

Woodland Crag, Orasmere. 

Danyers, Frederick Charles, 

India Office, Westminster, S.W. 



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16 STATISTICAL SOCI&TT : 



Tear of 
K«cilon. 

1878 



1869 
1874 
1878 
1855 
1878 
1876 
1880 
1879 
1878 
1877 
1873 
1873 
1855 

1877 
1877 
1866 
1873 
1876 
1877 
1875 
1878 
1875 
1872 



Daitviebs, Juland, 

India Office, WeitmntUr, S.W. 
Dayies, James Mair, 

65, West Begentstreety Glasgow. 
Davies, William Henry, 

61, TregwUer-roady S.W. 
Dayis, James, 

82, VillierS'Street, Oharing-eross, S.W, 
•Dawbarn, William, 

Elmswood Hall, Aighwrih^ Liverpool. 
Dawson, James Thomas, 

79, Comhill, JE.O. 
Day, William Ansell, 

Lyndhurst House, Hendon, N.W. 
Debenham, Frank, 

26, Upper Hamilton-plaee, St. John's Wood, N.W. 
*De Fenieres, The Baron Va Bois, M.P., J.P. 

Bag*S'hill House, Cheltenham. 
Delahunty, James, 

2, Satile-row, W. 
Deloitte, William Welch, 

4, Lothburg, E.O. 
Dent, Clinton Thomas, F.E.C.S. 

29, Chesham-street, S.W. 
Dent, Edward, 

Femacres, Fulmer^ near Slough, Bucks. 
*Debbt, The Right Honourable the Eabl of, P.O., F.E.S., 
(Honorarg Vice-President)^ 

23, St. James'S'Sguare; and Knowsley,Frescot, Lancashire. 
Dever, Henry, 

4, Lothburg, E.C. 
De Worms, Baron Henry, M.P., F.R.A.S., 

J? 2, Albany, Ficcadillg, W. 
♦Dilke, Sir Charles Wentworth, Bart., M.P., LL.M., 

76, Sloane^treet, S. W. 
Dixon, George, 

The Dales, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
Dowden, Major Thomas Freeman, li.E., 

71, Old Broad Street, E.C. 
Downs, Henry, 

Manor House, Basingstoke. 
Doxsey, Kev. Isaac, 

The Orove, Oamberwell, S.E. 
Doyle, Patrick, C. E., 

O'Brien Villa, 21, North-road, Entally, Calcutta. 
Drimmie, David, 

41, Lower Sackville-street, Dublin. 
Droop, Henry Bichmond, 

la, New-square, Lincoln' s-inn, W.O. 



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TMTOf 

KleeUon. 

1878 



1875 
1870 
1878 
1875 



1836 
1869 
1876 
1880 
1872 
1874 
1842 
1877 
1873 
1873 
1877 
1879 
1880 
1862 
1875 
1834 



LIST OP FELLOWS, l7 



Duignan, William Henry, 

Walsall, Staffordshire. 
Dun, John, 

Parr^s Banking Company , Limited^ Warrington, 
Duncan, James, 

9, Mincing-lane, B.C. 
♦Dunraven, The Right Hon. Earl of, K.P., 

Kenry House, Putney Vale, 8, W. 
Dyer, Sir Swinnerton Halliday, Bart., J. P., 

Westcrojt, Cholham, Woking Station, Surrey. 



Edmonds, Thomas Bowe, B.A., 

72, Portsdoum-road, Maida-vale, W. 
Edmonds, William, 

Annesley Rouse, Southsea. 
Edwards, Samuel, 

4, Eliot Park, Lewisham, S.K 
Egerton, Honourable Wilbraham, M.P , 

23, Rutland Gate, S.W. 
Elliot, Sir George, Bart., 

Park-street, Park-lane, W. 
Elliot, Eobert, M.D., F.E.C.P., 

35, Lowther- street, Carlisle. 
Elliott, John Hawkins, 

4, Martin' s-lane, E.C. 
Ellis, Arthur, 

11, Park-villas, Crouch-end, N. 
Elsey, John Green, J.P., 

Morant House, Addison-road, Kensington, W. 
Emanuel, Lewis, 

36, Pinshury-circus, E.C 
Emmott, W. T., 

Newfield Rouse, near Lymm, Cheshire. 
Evans, Henry J ones, J.P., 

Brecon Old Bank, Cardiff, 
Evans, Henry Russell, (Mayor of JVewport), 

Newport, Monmouth. 
Evens, John Henry, 

Ericht Lodge, Dulwich, S.E. 
Everett, The Hon. H. Sidney, M.A., 

United States Legation, 4, Alsenstrasse, Berlin. 
Eversley, The Right Honourable Viscount, D.C.L., LL.D., 

114, Eaton-square, S.W,; and Winohjield, Hants. 



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18 



STATISTIC Ali SOCIETY: 



Tear of 

Election. 

1875 



1874 
1839 

1868 
1878 
1878 
1876 
1864 
1874 
1877 
1880 
1834 
1880 
1880 
1873 
1876 
1879 
1878 
J 875 
1841 
1871 
1880 
1877 



Faraday, Frederick J., 

17, Brazenose-sireet, Manchester. 
Farmer, James, 

6, Pordietter-gate, Hyde Park, W. 
Fabe, William, M.D., C.B., D.C.L., F.E.S., 
{Honorary Vice-Fresiden t) , 

78, Portsdown-road, Maida Vale, W. 
Farrell, John Douglas, 

Bank of England, West Branch, Bwrlington-garden*, W, 
Farren, George, M.I.C.E., 

Carnarvon, 
Farrer, Thomas Henry, 

Board of Trade, Whitehall, 8. W. 
Feamside, Henry, M3., F.E.C.P., 

49, Leinster-gardens, Bayswater^ W, 
Fellows, Frank P., 

8, The Oreen, Hampstead, N. W. 
Ferguson, A.M., 

" Ceylon Observer^* Office, Colombo, Ceylon, 
Ferrier, John, 

Bosslyn House, New Bamet, Herts, 
Finch, George Henry, M.P., 

Burley-on^thc'liill, Oakham. 
Finch, John, 

Heathside, Tunhridge Wells. 
Finlaison, Alexander John, F.I.A., 

19, Old Jewry, JE.C. 
Finlay, George, 

London and N. Western Bailway, Huston Station, N. W. 
Fisher, Henry, 

66, New Broad-street, E.C. 
Fitz George, Owen, 

86, Cornhill, E.C. 
Fitzwilliams, Edward Crompton Lloyd, 

Adpar Hill, Newcastle Emlyn, Carmarthen, 8. Wales. 
Follett, Charles John, M.A., B.C.L., 

H.M. Custom House, E.C. 
Fordham, Edward King, J. P., 

The Bury, Ashwell, Baldock, Herts. 
Fortescue, The Eight Honourable Earl, 
Castle Hill, South Molton, Devon. 
Forwood, William Bower, 

Bamlet, Blundellsands, Liverpool. 
Fowell- Watts, Philip Henry, M.A., LL.D., 

73, Cohestone-cresoent, West Hackney, E. 
*Fowler, Alderman Eobert Nicholas, M.P., 

50, Cumhilly E.C. ; and Elm Orove, Corsham^ Wilts. 



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YMTOt 

E]»ctUm. 

1868 



1878 
1879 
1878 

1876 
1876 

1878 



1879 
1852 
1873 
1860 
1878 
1878 
1879 
1872 
1880 
1874 
1877 
1872 
1874 
1871 
1867 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 19 



Fowler, William, M.P., 

33, Comhill, E.O. 
Foxwell, Herbert S., M.A., 

St, John^a College^ Cambridge. 
Francis, George Edward, 

Staunton Goleford, Qloucestershire, 
Frankland, Frederick William, 

Registrar' GeneraVs Office, Wellington, New Zealand, 
♦Freeland, Humphrey William, J. P., 

Athemffum Club, S. W, ; emd Chichester, 
Freeman, Joseph, 

Burwood Lodge, West Brixton, S. W. 
Freeman, T. Kyffin, 

Hampton-on-Sea, Heme Bag, 
Fuller, W. Palmer, 

50, Oresham-street, E.G. 



Gairdner, Charles, 

Broom, Newton Mearns, Renfrewshire, 
G^worthy, Edwin Henry, J.P., F.I.A., 

18, Upper Wimpole-street, W. 
•Galton, Capt. Douglas, R.E., C.B., F.R.S., 

12, Chester-street, Grosvenor-place, S, W, 
Galton, Francis, F.RS., F.fi.G.J?., 

42, Rutland-gate, S.W. 
Gardiner, Clement, 

11, Small-street, Bristol, 
Gkurdiner, Henry J., 

Hurst mectd, Eltham, Kent. 
♦Gassiot, John Peter, J. P., 

The Culvers, Carshalton, Surrey, 
Gastrell, Major- General J. E., 

7, Lansdowne-road^ Wimbledon, S. W. 
•Gates, John B., jun., A.C.A., 

99, Gresham-street, E,C. 
Gatliff, Charles, 

8, MnsburV'Circus, E.G. 
Gawith, Kichara Jackson, M.R.C.S., 

23, Westboume-paric'terrace, Faddinglon, W. 
Gibb, Thomas Ecclesion, 

16, Lady Margaret-road, N, W, 
Gibbs, Alban George Henry, 

82, PoHland'place, W. 
Gibbs, George Sleight, 

Darlington, 
GiPPEN, RoBEBT, {Secretary and Editor oj the Journal), 

4t4i, JPembroke-road, Kensington^ W, 

c2 



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20 STATISTICAL SOCIEXr : 



Tear of 
Election. 

1877 



1878 
1860 
1877 
1877 
1880 
1868 
1855 
1873 
1853 
1876 
1879 
1876 
1847 
1878 
1877 
1868 
1875 
1860 
1878 
1877 
1889 

1880 



Gilbert, William H. Sainsbury, 

9, Old Jewry, E.G. 
*Glanville, S. Gbring, 

238, Lewisham Highroad, 8.E, 
Glover, John, 

22, Great St. Helen's, BUhopsgaUstreet, E.C. 
Goddard, Frederick Robertson, 

19, Victoria-square, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Good, Alfred, (7, Poultry, E.O.), 

91, Highbury Hill, i\r. 
Goodhart, Charles E., 

Langley-park, Beckenham, Kent, 
Goschen, The Kight Hon. George Joachim, M. P., 

69, Portland-place, W. 
*Go88et, John Jackson, 

Thames Ditton, Surrey. 
Goulj, Edward Jamep, 

Bullion Office, Bank of England, E.C. 
Gover, William Sutton, E.I. A., 

4, Queen-street'place, Southwark Bridge, E.C. 
Grahame, James, C A., 

12, St. Vincent'place Glasgow. 
Grant, Daniel, M.P., 

12, Cleveland-gardens, Bayswater, W. 
Granville, Joseph Mortimer, M.D., F.G.S., Ac, 

18, Welbeek-street, Cavendish-square, W. 
Gray, Thomas, 

84, Fenchwrch-street, E.C. 
Green, Thomas Bowden, M.A., F.E.S.L., F.E.H.S., Ac, 

7, New-road, Oxford. 
Greene, William Thomas, M.A.. M.D.. 

Moira House, Peckham Rye, S.E. 
Griffith, Edward Clifton, 

31, St, James' s-square, S.W. 
Gunn, Arthur, 

Metropolitan Board of Works, Spring- gardens ^ S.W. 
Gurnev, Daniel, 

fiorth Runcton, near King's Lynn, Norfolk* 
Guthrie, Charles, 

London Chartered Bank of Australia, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Gutteridge, Richard Sandon, M.D., 

58, Brook-street, Ghosvrnor-square, W. 
Gut, William Augustus, M.B., F.R.C.P., F.R.S., 
{Honorary Vice-President), 

12, Gordon-street, Gordon-square, W.C, 
•Gwjnne, J. Eglinton A., J.P., F.S.A., 

97, Harley-st., W. ; Folkington Manor, Polegaie, Sussex. 



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Tmt of 
KUctlon. 

1878 



1876 
1876 
1869 
1878 
1873 
1879 
1873 
1869 
1879 
1876 
1887 
1879 
1861 
1876 
1871 
1877 
1877 
1878 
1868 
1879 
1834 

1870 
1880 



LIST OP FELLOWS. 21 



♦Haggard, Frederick T., 

JEltham Oourt-road, Sltham, Kent, 
HaU, Edward Algernon, 

131, TiccadHly, W. 
Hall, Edward Hepple, 

73, Elm-park, Brixton-hill, S.W. 
Hall, James Macalester, 

IRllean House, Tayinlocm, Jrgyleshire, 
Hallett, T.G.P., M.A., 

Claverton Lodge, Bath, 
Hamilton, Lord George Francis, M.P., 

17, Montagtfstreet, Porttnan-squarey W, 
Hamilton, Bowfand, 

Oriental Club, Hanover -square, W. 
Hanbury, Robert William, 

liam Hall, Ashbourne, Derbyshire. 
Hancock, "William, 

33, Comhill,JS.O. 
Hancock, William Neilson, LL.D., M.E.I. A., 

64, Upper Gardiner-street, Dublin. 
Hankej, Ernest Alers, 

Mmhyrst, BickUu-park, Kent, 
♦Hankey, John Alexander, J. P., 

JBalcombe-place, Oucl^ld, Sussex, 
Hankey, Thomson, 

69, Portland-place, W. 
Hannjngton, Major-General John Caulfield, F.I. A., 

India Office, Westminster^ S. W. 
Hansard, Luke, 

68, Lombard-street^ E.O. 
Harcourt, Eight Hon. Sir William Vernon, Q.C., M.P., 

7, Grqfion-street, Bond-street, W. 
Harding, Charles, M.R.S.L., F.E.G.S., 

7, Bank Buildinas, E.C. 
Harold, Frederick Eicnard, 

12, Landseer-roadj Upper Holloway, N, 
Harper, W. P., 

Harris, David, 

Caroline Bark, Oranton, Edinburgh, 
Harris, Frederick, 

62, Qracechurch-street, E.G. 
Habeowbt, The Right Hon. the Eabl op, K.G., D.C.L., 
{Honorary Vice-President), 

39, Ghosvenor-square, W. 
Hartley, Fountain John, 

Gloucester House, 97, Gazenove-road, Upper Clapton, ^ 
Hastings, George Woodyatt, M.P., 

Barnard* s-green House, Great Malvern, 



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22 STATISTICAL SOCIETY: 

Tear of 
Eleoti<m. 

1876 Hawkins, Alfred Templeton, F.R.G.S., 

35, Spring-gardens, Charing-crott^ 8, W. 

1879 Hawksley, Thomas, C.E., F.R.S., Ac, 

30, Great Oeorge-street^ WestmiMter, 8, W. 
1873 Haj, James Lamb ^pier, 

1880 Hazell, Walter, 

Ibirham House, Hamsetf'lane, N. 

1877 Hedley, Thomas Fenwick, 

12, Park-place, West, Sunderland. 
1870 Hefford, George V., 

Rtighy. 
1860 Helder, Stewart, F.I. A., 

2, Broad Sanctuary^ R W» 
1865 Hendriks, Augustus, F.I. A., 

7, Comhill, JE.C. 
1855 *Hendbik8, Fbkderick, (Vtce-President), 
1, King William'Street, E,0. 

1858 Herapath, Spencer, F.G.S., 

18, Upper Phillimare^ardens, W, 

1877 'Herbage, William, 

London Sf South Western Bank, 7, Ibnckurch'Street, U.O. 
1834 •Hbtwoop, James, M.A., F.E.S., F.G.S., 
(Honorary Vice-President and Trustee) , 

^QfPalace-gardens, Kensington, W,; Athenaum ClubJS. W. 

1869 Hickson, Joseph, J. P., 

Montreal, Canada. 
1875 Higham, Charles Daniel, F.I.A., 

3, Princes-street, Bank, E.O. 

1878 HiU, Frederick Morlej, 

22, Bichmond-road, Bamshury, JV. 

1873 Hime, Capt. H. W. L., E.A., 

Ske^eld. 

1859 Hincks, His Excellency, Sir Francis, 

Montreal, Canada. 

1879 Hoare, Hamilton Noel, 

37, Fleet-street, B.C. 

1870 *Hoare, Henry, 

Staplehurst, Kent. 
1834 •Hodge, William Barwick, F.I.A., 

5, Whitehall, S.W. 
1877 Holden, Isaac, 

64, Cross-street, Manchester. 
1877 Holmes, Eichard Henry, 

Elswick-villa, Bye Hill, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1880 Holms, John, M.P., 

16, Cornwall-gardens, Queen Gate, S.W. 

1874 Hood, Charles, F.E.S., F.E.A.S., 

10, Zeinster-gardens, Hyde-park, W. 



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LIST OF FELLOWS. 23 

Y««rof 
Bicctlon. 

1871 Hooper, Augus Cameron, 

Montreal^ Canada, 
1874 Hooper, George D., 

Belmont Lodge^ Oxford-road, Chtswick, W. 

1879 Hooper, George Norgate, 

Elmleighy Hayne-roadj Beckenham^ Kent, 
1878 Hooper, Wynnard, 

2, P^mhroJce-gardens, Kensington, W. 

1855 HouGHTOK, The Kight Hon. Lobd, D.C.L. F.E.S., 
{Honorary Vice- President), 

Mryston Hall, Ferrybridge, Yorkshire, 

1876 Hojle, William, 

Claremont, Tottington, near Bury, Lancaster, 

1872 Hubbard, Egerton J., 

4, 8t, Helenas-place, Bishopsgate-street, JE,0, 
1853 ♦Hubbard, The Eight Hon. John Gellibrand, M.P., 

Bank of England, E,C, 
1864 Hudson, Thomas, 

Argos Villa, St, Andrew^ s Fork, Bristol, 

1880 Hnggard, Wm. E., M.A., M.D., M.E.C.P. Lond., 
Stissex House, Hammersmith, W, 

1871 Hughes, Albert William, P.E.G.S., 
Dharvar, So, Mahratta Country, Bombay Fresidency, 

1878 Hughes, John, 

3, West'Street, Finsbury-circus, E,C, 

1872 Humphreys, George, M.A., F.I.A., 
79, Fall Mall, S,W. 

1874 HuMPHEETs, Noel AiiGkrnobt, 

General Register Office, Somerset House, W,C, 

1873 Hunt, Sir Henry Arthur, C.B., 
64, JSccleston-square, S. W, 

1857 Hurst, George, 

King*s Brook House, St. Mary's, Bedford, 

1877 Huskinson, Thomas, 
Fpperstone Manor, Nottingham, 

1879 Hyde, Major-General Henry, E.E., 
Ifhdia Officcy Westminster, S, W. 



1866 
1869 
1874 



Ince, Henry Bret, Q.C., 

18, Oidrsquare, IdncoWs-inn, W,C. 
Ingall, Samuel, F.E.G.S., 

Kent-end, Forest-hill, Kent, S.E, 
*Ingall, William Thomas Eitzherbert Mackenzie, 

50, Threadneedle-street, E.G. 



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24 STATISTICAL SOCIETY: 

Y««rof 
Eleotlon. 

1869 *Ingli8, Cornelius, M.D., 

Athenaum Olub, 8.W. 
1839 Irving, John, 

94, Eaton^lace, S.W, 
1878 Isaacs, Michal Babe), 

35, Leinster'SqtMtrSy Bayawater, W . 
1864 *Ivey, George Pearse, 

Tyle Morris, Briton Ferry, 



1880 ♦Jackson, William Lavies, M.P., 

Ghapelallerton, Leeds. 
1879 Jamieson, George Auldjo, 

58, Melville-street, Edinburgh. 
1872 Janson, Frederick Halsey, F.L.S., 

41, Finshury-circus, E,C., and Oak Bank, Chislehurst. 

1878 Jeans, James Stephen, 

7, Westminster-chambers, Victoria-street, S. W. 
1851 *Jellicoe, Charles, F.I.A., 

12, Cavendish-place, W. 

1879 Jephson, Henry L. {Chief Secretary's Office), 

Dublin Castle, Ireland. 
1864 *Jetons, Peofessob W. Stanley, M.A., LL.D., F.ILS., 
( Vice-Fresident) , 

The Chesnuts, Branch-hill, Hampstead Heath, If. W* 

1871 Johnson, Edmund, 

1, Castle-street, Solhom, E.G. 

1880 Johnson, Walter, 

Rounton Grange, Northallerton. 

1872 Johnston, Francis J., 

Lamas, Ohislehurst. 
1878 'Johnstone, E., 

45, Fleet-street, E.G. 
1878 Jones, Henry E. Bence, 

1, Whitehall, 8.W. 
1874 Jones, Herbert, 

15, Montpelier-row, Blackheath, 8.E. 
1880 Jones, Robert H., 

The Briars, Crystal Falace Fork, Sydenham. 
1877 Jones, Theodore Brooke, 

1, Finsbury-eircus, E.G. ; Oeorgeville, Harrogate, Torks. 

1873 Jones, Sir Willoughby, Bart., M.A,, 
Granmer Hall, Fakenham, Norfolk. 

1858 Jourdan, Francis, 

Avenue House, Hampstead, N. W. 



1877 Karuth, Frank 0., 

Oakhurst, Beckenham, Kent. 



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TMTOf 

EtoeU<Mi. 

1873 
1877 
1874 
1867 
1878 
1873 
1878 
1868 
1878 
1874 
1852 
1878 
1879 
1872 
1865 
1878 
1860 



1880 
1877 
1875 

1874 
1878 
1874 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 25 



Kaj, Dtmcan James, 

60, Queen' s-gaie, S.W. 
Kealj, James WiUiam, 

26, Moorgate-streety E,0. 
KeUy, Charles, M.D., 

Worthing, Sussex, 
KeDy, Edward Eobert, A.M., 

51, Great Queen-streety Lincoln' i-inn^fields, W.C, 
Kelsej, Joseph Francis, 

Oovemment Statisticum, Mauritius, 
Kemp, Samuel, 

Oriel House, Bath, 
Kennedy, J. Murray, 

New University Club, St, James' s-streety S. W, 
Kennedy, Peter, 

13, Oomwall'terrace, Begenfs-park, N. W, 
Kennedy, Thomas, 

11, Old Jewry-chambers, E,0. 
Kennelly, Dayid Joseph, F.R.G.S., F.RA.S., 

Devonshire Club, St, James's, 8, W, 
Kimberley, The Eight Honourable the Earl of, M.A., P.C , 

35, Lowndes-square^ S. W, 
King-Harman, Edward Bobert, 

BocJcingham, Boyle, Ireland. 
Kirkwood, Anderson, LL.D., 

Melville-terrace, Stirling, N,B, 
Knight, John Peake, 

London, Brighton, Sf S. Coast Bail,, London Bridge, B.C. 
Kuhner, Henry, {cjo Messrs. Kiihner, Hendschel & Co.), 

145, Cannon-street, E,C,, 
^Kusaka, Yoshio, 

62, Bogarth-road, Kensington, S.W. 
Kyshe, John Benjamin, 

Begistrar General, Mauritius, 



Lamprey, Joshua Henry, 

17, St, Anne's-park, Wandsworth, S.W, 
Lane, Cecil N., 

King's Bromley Manor, Lichfield. 
Lane, Thomas, 

Bercy Cottage^ Eastbowme. 
Lang, George Murray, E.N., 

18, Cheyne-walk, Chelsea, S.W. 
Law, The Right Hon. Hugh, M.P., 

9, Mtzwilliam-sqttare, Dublin. 
Lawes, John Bennett, LL.D., P.R.S., F.C.S , 
Bothamsted^ark, St. Albans. 



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26 STATISTICAL 80CIETT: 

Tear or 
BlMtloa' 

1877 Lawrance, Henry, 

58, Eusfon-^guare, N, W. 

1878 Lawrence, Alexander M., 

17, Thurlow-road, Hampstead, N. W. 
1873 Lawrie, James, F.R.G.S., 

Kelvin House, Quadrant-road, Highbury^ N. 
1873 Lawson, Kobebt, {Inspector- General of Army Hospitals), 

20, Lansdowne-road, Notiing-hill, W. 
1873 Lea, Thomas, M.P., 

14, Mvaston-plaoe, Queen*s-gate, S. W. 
1880 Lee, Lionel Frederic, (jOeylon Civil Service), 

cjo H, Austin Lee, Foreign Office, Douming-street, 8. W. 

1879 *Leete, Joseph, 

36,St,Marg'at'hill, E,C. (Eversden, 8. Norwood Park.) 
1877 Lepetrb, The Eight Honourable Gteoeob Shaw, M.F., 
{Honorary Vice-Fresident), 18, Brganston-sguare^ W. 

1877 •Ijeggatt, Daniel, LL.D., 

6^ Raymond-buildings, Oray's'inn, W.C. 

1880 Leighton, Stanley, M.P., 

Sweeney Hall, Oswestry, Salop, 

1878 Leslie, Francis Seymour, 

1851 Levi, Peofessoe LEomB, LL.D., F.S.A., 
5, Crown Office-row, Temple, E,CL 

1879 Levison, David, 

2, Boyal Exchange-buildings, E.C, 
1867 Lewis, Charles Edward, M.P., 

8, Old Jewry, E.G. 
1877 Lewis, John, 

1, Temple-row West, Birmingham^ 
1862 Lewis, Eobert, 

1, Bartholomew-lane, E,C. 

1877 Ligertwood, Thomas, M.D., F.R.C.S., 

Eoyal Hospital, Chelsea, 8.W, 
1845 •Lister, William, 

1834 Lloyd, John Horatio, 

100, Lancaster-gate, Hyde-park^ W, 

1878 Lloyd, Thomas, 

4, Huddlestone-road, TufnelUpark, N, 

1879 Lloyd, Wilson, F.R.G.S., 

Myvod House, Wood-green, Wednssbury, 
1876 Lord, James, F.S.A., 

1, Whitehall-gardens, S,W. 
1876 •Lomie, John Guthrie, 

Eosemount, Kirkcaldy ; Bimam House^ JPer/hshire, 

1879 Loyegrove, Mrs., 

28, Bark-street, Grosvenor-square, W, 

1880 Lovegroye, Joseph, 

28, Park-street, Grosvenor-square, W, 



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LIST OF FELLOWS. 27 

Toffof 
Bleetkm. 

1834 Lovelace, The Eight Honourable the Earl of, F.R.S., 

East Horaley Farky Bipley, Swrrey. 
1880 Lovelj, William, E.N., 

Avenue House, Hammersmith, 8, W. 
1879 Lowndes, William Layton, J.P., D.L., 

Linley Hall, Broseley, Shropshire, 
1875 Loyd, William Jones, J.P., 

16, Ghosvenor-place, 8,W„ and Langleyhury, Watford, 
1865 Lubbock, Sib John, Babt., M.P., F.E.8., {Trustee), 

High Elms, Famhorough, Kent, 
1878 Lucaa, Thomas, J.P., 

6, Chreat Oeorge-street, Westminster, S.W. 

1878 Lusk, Sir Andrew, Bart., M.P. J.P., 

16, Hgde-park'Street, W. 

1879 LyaU, J. Watson, 



1875 Mabson, Bichard Sous, 
Ilford, Essex. 

1878 ♦Macandrew, William, J.P.. 

Westvoood, near Colchester, 
1873 McArthur, Alexander, M.P., 

Baleigh Hall, Brixton, S.W. 
1873 McArthur, The Eight Honourable William, M.P., Lord 
Mayor of London, 

1, Choydyr Houses, Brixton Bise, &W. 

1879 MacCarthy, Eev. E. F. M., M.A., 

47, Hagley^road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

1878 McCheane, Eobert, 

90, Balace-gardenS'terraee, W, 

1879 McCheane, Eobert, junr., 

90, BaLace-gardenS'terroiCe, W, 

1867 M'Clean, Frank, 

23, Great George-streetf Westminster, 8. W. 
1873 McDermott, Edward, 

Hill Side, Orove-park, CamherwM, S.E, 

1868 ^Macdonald, James, 

17, BusselUsquare, W,C, 

1872 Macdonell, John, (3, Elm-court, Temple, E. C), 

The Myrtles, Beckenham, Kent, 

1873 *McEwen, Laurence T. {ejo E, A, McLean), 

8, Old Jewry, E.O, 
1873 McGarel-Hogg, Colonel Sir James, Bart , M,P., 

17, Ghrosvenor-gardens, 8, W. 
1856 MacGUlivray, Donald, FJ.A., 

54, Moorgate-street, E.O. 
1879 Maclver, David, M.P., 

34, Zancaster-gate, W, 



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28 STATISTICAL SOCIETY I 



Tear or 
Election. 

1876 



1878 
1870 
1876 
1874 
1863 
1876 
1880 
1871 
1879 
1878 
1877 
1875 
1860 
1880 
1865 
1873 
1874 
1877 
1872 
1876 
1879 
1875 
1878 



McKenna, Sir Joseph N., M.P., 
1, Fen-^'Wem-road, 8.W. 
McKewan, William, 

21, Lombard-streety E.G. 
Maclagan, David, 

22, George^treety Edinburgh. 
♦McLean, Robert Allan, F.R.G.8., 

8, Old Jewry, E,C. 
Maeleod, The Bight Hon. Sir John Macpherson, K.O.S.I., 

1, Stanhopesireety Hyde Fork, W, 
♦Maclure, J. W., J.P., &c., 

CarUon Club; The Home, Whalley Range, Manchester, 
Macpherson, Hugh Martin, r.R.C.S., (Inspector- General), 

14, St, James' 8'Square, 8. W, 
Maddison, Edward C, ^ 

31, Lombard-street, E.C, 
Malgarini, Frederick Lewis, F.E.S.E., 



Man, Edward Garnet (Barrister-at'Law), 

4, Lamb-buildings, Temple, E.O., and Sangoon. 
Manuel, B. A., (Rangoon), 

cjo Messrs, Tnibner and Oo,^ Ludgate-hill, E.O. 
♦Maple, John Blundell, 

8, Clarence'terrace, Begenfs-park, N,W, 
Marsh, Alfred, 

85, Gracechurch-street, E,C, 
Marsh, Matthew Henry, 

Bamridge, near Andover, Hants. 
*Marshall, A., 

31, Apsley-road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Martin, Frederick, 

22, Lady Margaret-road, N.W. 
Martin, Henry, 

National Bank of India, 39a, Threadneedle-street, E.G. 
•Mabtin, John Biddulph, M.A., F.Z.S., (Secretary), 

6b, The Albany, Piecadilly, W. 
Martin, Josiah, F.l.A., 

32, New Bridge- street, E.G. 
•Maetik, ErcHAED BrDBULPH, M.P., (Treasurer), 

Chislehurst, 
Martin, Thomas Jaques, 

Colonial Life Assurance Company, Melbourne, Victoria, 
Martin, Waldyve A. Hamilton, 

14, Manson-place, QueerC s-gate, S, W. 
•Mathers, John Shackleton, 

Hanover House, Leeds, Yorkshire, 
Maughan, Joseph Henry, A.I.S., 

9, New-street, Great Grimsby, 
1870 I Maxse, Bear- Admiral Frederick A., 

Herm House, Upperton-road, Eastbourne. 



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Google 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 29 

Tear of 
BIcctUm. 

1874 Maj, Frank, 

Bank of England^ Threadneedle-street^ E.O. 
1853 •Meikle, James, F.I.A., 

6, St, Andrew" 8-square, Edinburgh. 
1878 Meldon, Charles Henry, M.P., Q.C., LL.D., 

107, Jermyn-street^ S. W, 
1880 Menzies, R. Stewart, 

Hallyhurtony Coupar- Angus y N.B, 

1878 Merrick, iJfred Benjamin, 

6, Cotham-parade^ Bristol, 
1861 Messent, John, F.I.A., 

429, West Strand, W,C, 
1877 Metcalfe, Eichard, 

Grdefenherg Some, New Bamet, Herts, 
1877 Michael, William H., 

38, Farliament'Street, 8, W. 

1875 Mildmay, Henry Bingham, J P., 

8, Bishopsgate-street Within, E,C, 

1873 Millar, William Henry, 

Cleveland Lodge, New Park-road, Brixton-hill, S. W. 

1877 Miller, Robert Ferguson, 

Bamsden-square, Barrow-in-Furness, 

1879 MiUer, William, 

55, Lancaster-gate^ W. (67, Queen Victoria-street, E O ) 

1878 Mills, Sir Charles Henry, Bart., M.P., 

Camelford House, Bark-lane, W, 
1878 Mitchell, James, J.PT, 

33, Ennismore-gardens, S.W, 

1874 *Mocatta, Frederick D,, F.R.G.S., 

9, Oonnaught'place, W. 

1878 Moffat, Robert J., 

The Chesnuts, Great Shelford, Cambridgeshire, 

1879 Moore, Alfred, C.E., 

5, Clarence- street, Manchester, 
1874 Moore, Charles Rendall, 

67, Montvelier-road, Beckham, S, E, 

1877 Moore, Edward, 

3, Crosby-square, E,C, 

1878 *Moore, John Byers Gunning, 

Loymowit, Cookstown, Ireland. 
1874 Moore, Sandford, M.B., 

South Camp, Aldershot. 

1880 More, Robert Jasper, 

Linley Hall^ Bishcmscastle, Salop. 
1872 Morgan, Octavius Vaughan, J.P., 

13, Boltons, South Kensington, S.W. 
1878 •Morley, Samuel, M.P., 

18, Wood-street, E.C; 34, Qrosvenor-street, W. 
1874 *Morri8, James, M.D., F.R.C.S., 

13, Somers-place, Hyde-park- square, W. 



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30 STATISTICAL SOCIETY: 

Tcwof 
ElsctioD. 

1877 Mort, William, 
\, Stanley-cretceni, Nbtting-hill^ W. 

1873 Morton, James, 

Balclutha, Oreenock, N,B, 
1847 •MouAT, Fbbdbeio J., M.D., F.B.C.S., {Fiee- President and 
Foreign Secretary)^ 

12, Durham-mllas, Kensington, W. 
L857 Mount-Temple, The Eight Hon. Baron, 

15, Great Stanhope-street, W, 

1878 Muir, Hugh Brown, 
26, Old Broad^street, RC, 

1880 MulhaU, Michael G., 

Grasslands, Balcomhe^ near Hagwctrd^s Heathy Sussex. 

1877 Mullen, Eobert Gordon, 
Fairviewy Wtdmore-roadj Bromley, Kent. 

1878 ♦Mundella, The Eight Hon. Anthony John, M.P., 

16, Elvaston-place, Queens-gate, S,W. 

1878 Murray, Adam, 
104, King'Streetf Manchester. 

1879 Murray, James Charles, 
Calcutta, 



1879 Nalder, Francis Henry, 

Mndem Lodge^ Spring-grove, Isleworth, 
1865 Nasmith, David, 

4, Garden^eourt, Temple, E,0, 

1878 Nathan, Henry, 
1 1 0, Portsdown-road, Maida-vale, i\r. 

1879 Neil, William M., 
64, Segmour^street, Portman-sq^uare, W. 

1854 NeUd, Alfred, 

Magfield, Manchester, 
Neison, Fbajtcis G. p., 

93, Adelaide-road, South Hampstead, N.W, 
1879 Nepean, Evan Colville, 

War Office, Pall Mall, S.W, 
1877 Nevill, Charles Henry, 

11, Queen Victoria-street, E,C. 
1862 Newbatt, Benjamin, F.I.A., F.fi.G.S., 

13, St. Jameses-square, S, W, 
1879 Newdegate, Charles Newdigate, M.P., D.C.L., 

27, LowndeS'Street, Belgrave-square, S, W. 
1877 Newington, Samuel, M.A., 

Ticehu^st, Sussex, 
1847 •Nbwmaboh, William, F.E.S., F.I.A., 

{Trustee and Honorary Vice-President), 

Beech Hokne, Nighfingale-lane, Clapham-eommon, S. W. 



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Google 



Tear of 
SleeCioD. 

1869 



1878 
1878 
1878 
1858 
1877 
1871 
1870 
1834 
1877 
1878 
1878 



1880 
1880 
1862 
1878 
1878 
1876 
1877 
1874 

1834 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 31 



Newmarch, William T., A.A., Oxon, 

67, Lombard-street, B,C. 
Newport, Henry E., * 

1, Whitehall, S.W. 
Newton, John, 

Ash Lea, Croydon-road, Penge, 8,E 
Nicholson, J. S., 

Trinity College, Cambridge, 
Nightingale, Miss Florence, 

10, South-street, Park-lane, W. 
Nix, Samuel Dyer, 

3, King-street, Cheapside, E,C, 
♦Noble, Benjamin, 

j^orth'Eastern Bank, Neweastle-on-Tyne, 
Noble, John, 

45, Momington-road, Regent* s-park^ N, W, 
Norman, George Warde, J. P., 

Bromley, Kent, 
Norman, General, Sir Henry Wylie, K.C.B., 

27, Lexham-gardens, Cromwell-road, W, 
Nopthbrook, The Eight Hon. the Earl of, G.C.S.I., D.C.L., 

4, Hamilton-place, Piccadilly, W, 
Notthaftt, Theodor, 

cjo Discount Bank, St, Petersburg, 



Oakeshott, George Alfred, 

Secretary's Office, General Post Office, E,0. 
♦Oelsner, Isidor, 

JELighfield, Westwood-park, Eorest-hill, S,E, 
Ogboume, Charles Henry, 

29, Dalhousie-square, Calcutta. 
O'Hagan, The Eight Hon. Lord, 

19, Chesham-place, S, W. 
Oppenheim, Henry, 

17, Park-lane, Piccadilly, W, 
Orange, William, M.D., 

Broadmoor, Wokingham, Berks, 
Ormond, Eichard, 

Belgrave-terrace, Newcastle-on'Tyne, 
OveraU, M illiam Henry, F.S.A., 

Librarian, Guildhall, E.O, {Bepresetiting the Library 
Committee oj the Corporation of the City of London.) 
•OvEBSTONE, The Eight IIoi^oufiABLB Lobd, F.B.G.S. 
{Honorary Vice-President), 

2, Carlton-gardens, S. W 



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32 STATISTICAL SOCIETY 



Tear of 
Kleotion. 

J 866 



1879 

1878 
1880 
1878 
1879 
1869 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1877 
1878 
1876 
1857 
1880 
1876 
1878 
1880 
1871 
1874, 
1874 
1879 
1877 
1885 
1859 



•Palgrave, Robert Harry Inglis, J.P., 

11, Britannia-terrace, Or eat Yarmouth^ Norfolk. 
Palmer, George, M.P., {The Acacia*^ Reading), 

68, Qro8venor-9treet^ W. 
Park, David Francis, C.A., F.F.A., A.I.A., 

17, Change alley ^ Cornhill, E.G, 
Parkin, William {Temple Club, London), 

Wegiboume-road, Shejield. 
^BTTj^ Thomas, 

Chajlton-place, Ashton-under-Lyne. 
Partridge, Henry Francis, L.D.S., &c., 

Sussex House^ Sussex-place, South Kensington, S, W. 
Pattsrson, Eobebt Hooabth, 

22, Wingate-road, Hammersmith, Wi 
Paul, Henry Moncreiff, 

12, Lansdowne-crescent, dotting Hill, W. 
Paulin, David, 

31, StaJbrd'Street, Edinburgh, 
Payn, Howard, 

21, Oilbert -street, Chrosvenor -square, W. 
Payne, William Percy, 

136, Mansfield-road, Nottingham, 
Pearce, Charles William, 

Devon House, Acre-lane, S,W, 
Pearson, Edwin Jamei», 

Board of Trade, Whitehall, S.JF. 
•Pearson, Professor C. H. {cjo John Pearson, Q.C.), 

75, Ojislow-square, S,W. 
*Pease, Joseph Whitwell, M.P., 

24, Kensington-palace-gardens, W, 
♦Peek, Sir Henry William, Bart., M.P., 
Wimbledon House, S.W. 
Pellereau, His Honour, Etienne, 

Fuisne Judge of H.M, Supreme Court, Mauritius. 
Pender, John, M.P., 

18, Arlington-street, S.W, 
Pennington, Frederick, M.P., 

17, Hyde Park-terrace, W. 
Pepys, The Hon. George, 

Phene, John Samuel, F.E.G.S., F.S.A., Ac, 
5, Carlton-terrace, Oakley-street, S. W, 

Philips, Herbert, 

85, Church-street, Manchester. 

Phillipps, Henry Matthews, 
41, Seething-lane, E.C, 
♦Phillips, Sir George Eichard, Bart., 

22, Hill-street, Berkeley-square, W. 
Phillips, Henry James, 

4, Ludgate-hill, EM. 



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Tear of 
EleetioiL 

1877 
1878 
1871 
1873 

1878 

• 

1838 
1879 
1861 
1809 
1874 
1879 
I860 
1879 
1871 
1877 
1877 
1867 
1877 
1849 
1879 
1874 
1871 

1837 



LIST OF FELLOWS* 33 



PhUlips, John Walter, M.B., L.R.C.S,, 

30, Stanley 'Street i Jf est Melbourne^ Victoria, 
Phipps, Pickering, 

6, Collingtree Grange, Northampton. 
♦Pickering, John, F.E.G.S., F.S,A., 

The Abnallsj Mount Freston, Leeds. 
Pickstone, William, 

Maesmynan Mall, Holywell. 
*Piin, Joseph Todhunter, 

Oreenbank, Monkstovm, County Dublin. 
•Pinckard, George Henry, J.P., F.I. A., 

12, Orove-road, St. John's-tcood, N. W. 
Pixley, Francis William, 

Road Club, 4, Fork-place^ St, Jameses, S. TJ . 
Plowden, W. Chicele (Commissioner 1st Division), 
Meeruth District, Mussoorie, N.W.F,, India, 

POCHDT, HeKBT DaVJS, 

Bodnant Hall, Conway. 
Ponsonby, The Hon. Frederick George Brabazon, M.A., 

3, Mownt'Street, Orosvenar-sguare, W. 
Poole, William, 

Newton Avenue, Longsight, Manchester. 
Potter, Edmund, F.R.S., 

64, Queen's-gate, South Kensington, S. W. 
♦Powell, Francis Sharp, F.E.G.S., ( Horton Old Hall, Bradford), 

1, Cambridge-square, Hyde Park, W, 
Power, Edward, 

16, South welUgardens, Kensington, W. 
Prance, Eeginald Heber, 

JPrognal, Hampstead, N. W. 
Praschkauer, Maximilian, 

Swiss Cottage, Heme Hill, S.E. 
♦Pratt, Robert Lindsay, 

80, Bondgate, Darlington. 
Preen, Harvey Edward, 

Kidderminster. 
Presant, John, 

13, St. James^S'Sgtuire, S. W. 
Price, James, F.R.G.S., 

63, Bedcliffe-gardens, South Kensington, W. 
Price, John Charles, 

Compton Cottage, Maryon-road, Old Charlton, Kent, S.E. 
Puleston, John Henry, M.P., 

2, Bank-buildings, E.C.; Westminster Palace Hotel, 
S.W. 

•PUBDT, FeEDEBICK, 

35, Victoria-road, Kensington, W, 



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34 STATISTICAL SOCIETY: 



KIcction. 

1879 



1874 



1872 

1858 
1877 
1864 
1860 
1874 
1879 
1880 
1865 
1859 
1878 
1874 
1877 
1870 
1835 

1880 
1875 
1856 
1867 
1862 



Quail, Jesse, 

60, White Rock-streety Liverpool, E, 
Quain, Eichard, M.D., F.R.S., F.B.C.P., 

67, Rarley-street, W. 



*Rabino, Joseph,* (car^ of Baron J, Vitta), 

8, Bue JLqfont, Lyons, 
•Radstock, The Eight Honourable Lord, 

Uast Sheen^ MortlaJce, S. W, 
Raikes, Captain George Alfred, F.S.A., F.E. His. Soc, 
63, Belsize-parkf Hampstead^ N. W. 
•Ealeigh, Samuel, 

9, St, Andrew-square y Edinburgh, 
Eamsay, Alexander Gillespie, F.I.A., 

Canada Life Assurance, Hamilton, Oanada West, 
Eamsden, Sir James, of Barrow, D.L., 

Fumess Abbey, Lancashire. 
Eanken, "William Bajne, 

37, Stanhope-gardens, Queen^s Oate, 8.W. 
Eankin, James, M.P., 

35, Ennismore-gardens, Princess Oate, S, W, 
EatclifF, Colonel Charles, J.P., 

Athenamm Club, S,W,; and Wyddrington, Birmingham, 
Eathbone, P. H., 

Oreenbank Cottage, Liverpool. 
Eathbone, William, 

18, Prince' s-gar dens. Prince' s-gate, S. W, 
*Eaven8tein, Ernest George, F.E.G.S., 

10, Lorn-road, Brixton, S, W, 
*Eawlins, Thomas, 

45, King William'Street, E.O. 
Eawlinson, Eobert, C.B., 

11, Boltons, West Brompton, S.W, 

Eawson, Sie Eawson W.,C.B.,K.C.M.G.,(c/o Jff.G^. Bawson. 
Esq,, 

2, Gillingham'Street, Ecclest on-square^ S, W.) 
Eeaddy, George, 

Belvedere Cottage, Eastdoum-park, Lewisham, S.E. 
Eecord, John, 

23, Kenninghall-road, Clapton, E. 
Eedgrave, Alexander, C.B., 

Factory Inspectors* Office, Whitehall, S,W. 
Eeid, Herbert Llojd, 

4, GlebC'Villas, Mitcham. 
Eeynolds, Frederick, 

cjo London Institution, Mnsbury Circus^ E,C, 



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Tear of 
Election. 

1879 



1876 

1878 
1879 
1873 
1880 
1868 
1880 
1880 
1873 
1834 
1880 
1865 
1878 
1879 
1878 
1874 



1873 
1875 
1876 
1868 
1860 
1877 



LIST OP FELLOWS. 35 



Bhodes, John G., 

Oakdene, JBeckenham, Keni. 
Rice, Thomas Fitzroj, 

Horseheads^ New Torh, U.S.A. 
Eichards, George, L.E.C.P., Edin., 

Mervyn LodgCy Ashjlelda, Boss, Herefordshire, 
Bichardson, George Gibson, J.P., 

Oak Lawn, Meigats. 
Eipon, The Most Hon. the Marquess of, K.G., F.B.S, Ac,, 

1, Oarlton^gardens, S, W. 
Eoberts, A. 7., 

49, Bow-lane, Cheapside, B.C. 
Bobinson, Sir William Bose, K.C.S.J., 

50, Noffolk-square, Hyde-park, W. 
♦Ronald, Byron L., 

14, Tipper Phillimore-gardens, W. 
Bonald, Robert Bruce, 

29, Femhridge'Square, W. 
♦Bosebery, The Right Hon. the Earl of, 

107, Biccadilly, W. 
•Boss, David, of Bladensburg, 

Bostrevor, Co. Down, Ireland, 
Both, Henry Ling, 

Foulden, Mackay, Queensland. 
Buck, George T., 

The Hawthorns, Dorville'road, Lee, 8.E. 
Bumley, George Chisnall, 

Lawn Cottage, Shepherd's Bush Oreen, W. 
Buntz, John, 

Linton Lodge, Lordship-road, Stoke Newington, N. 
BusselK Bichard F., 

8, John-street, Adelphi, W.C. 
Butherford, Cliarles, 

29, St. Swithin's'lane, B.C. 



♦Salisbury, The Most Hon. the Marquess of, P.C, 1\B.S., 

20, Arlington-street, W. 
♦Salomons, Sir David Lionel, Bart., J. P., 

Broom-hill, Timbridge Wells. 
Salt, Thomas, 

Weeping Cross, Stafford. 
Samuelson, Bernhard, M.P., 

56, Princess-gate, Hyde-park, S. W» 
Sargant, William Lucus, 

Bdgbaston, Birmingham. 
Saunders, Charles Edward, M.D., 

21, Lower Seymour-street, Bortman-square, W. 

D 2 



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36 STATISTICAL SOCIETY: 



Tear of 
Bleotlon. 

1874, 



1852 
1879 
1869 

1877 
1877 
1880 
1878 
1875 
1880 
1869 
1873 
1841 

1879 
1871 

1878 
1850 
1878 
1877 
1869 
1878 
1874 
1871 
1878 



Saunders, Francis, 

6, Limet-grove^ Iiewisham, 8.E. 
Saunders, James Ebenezer, jun., F.O.S. 

9, FiTtsburf/'Circus, E.G. 
Saunders, William, 

Motmt VieWy Streatham^ 8,W 
Sayle, PhUip, F.R.H.S., 

4, St. PauVs Church-yard, E.G. 
Scbiff, Charles 

86, Sac1cmUe'9treety Ficcadilly, TV* 
Schneidau, Charles John, 

6, Wesiwick-gardeng, West Kensington-park, W, 
Schreiber, Charles, M.P., 

Langham Howe, 11, Portland-place, W. 
Scott, Arthur J., 

22, Grafion-street, New Bond-street, W, 
Scott, Sir Edward Henry, Bart., J.P., 

27, Grosffenor-square, W. 
*Seeley, Charles, jun., M.P., 

Sherwood Lodge, Nottingham, 
Seyd, Ernest, 

38, Lombard-streety E,G. 
Seyd, Richard, 

38, Lombard-street, E,G, 
Shaftesbuet, The Eight Hon. the Eaql of, KG., 
{Honorary Vice-President), 

24, Grosvenor-square, W, 
Shepbeard, Wallwjm Poyer B., M.A., 

24, Gld Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
Sidgwick, Henry, 

Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Simmonds, G. H., 

1, Whitehall, S.W. 
Singer, Charles Douglas, 

9, The Terrace, Upper Clapton, E. 
Slaughter, Mihill, 

42, Binfield-road, Glapham, 8.W. 
Sloley, Robert Hugb. 

121, Bishopsgate-sfreet Within, E.G. 
Smee, Alfred Hutcheson, M.R.C.S., 

7, Finsbury-circus, E,G. 

♦Smitb, Charles, M.R.I.A., F.G.S., Assoc. Inst. C.E., 

Barrow-in-Furness. 
Smitb, Edward, 

St. Mildred's House, Poultry, E.G. 
Smitb, E. Cozens, 

1, Old Broad-street, E.G. 
•Smith, George, LL.D , CLE., 

Serampore House, Napier-road, Edinburgh. 



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Te*r of 
Sleotion. 

1880 



1877 
1878 
1880 
1877 
1879 
1878 
1867 
1878 
1855 
1877 
1873 
1867 
1876 
1874 
1856 
1872 
1880 
1856 
1877 
1877 
1880 
1877 
1880 
1877 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 37 



Smith, Thomas Sherwood, 

21, Bichmond-terracey Clifton, 
Smith, Howard S., 

37, Bennetts Sill, Birmingham. 
Smith, JameB, 

South Indian Bailway, Negapatam, Madras, 
Smith, Jervoise, 

1, Lombard^reet, E,G, 
Smith, John, 

8, Old Jewry, E,0, 
Smith, J. Fisher, 

76, Cheapside, JS,G. 
Smith, Col. John Thomas, RE., F.R.S., F.I.A., 

10, Gledhow Gardens, Wetherhy-road, 8. Kensington, S. W, 
♦Smith, The Eight Honourable William Henry, M.P., 

Admiralty, Whitehall, 8.W. 
Souter, John Clement, M.D., F.C.S., 

Sowraj, John Eussell, 

Office of Woods, 1, WhitehalUplace, 8.W. 
Spalding, Samuel, 

8&uth Darenth, Kent, 
Spence, John Berger, 

81, Lombard-street, E.O, 
*Spencer, Robert James, 

High-street, Portsmouth, 
Spensley, Howard, 

Thatched House Club, 8t, James' s-street, 8, W. 
Spicer, James, J. P., 

Harts, Woodford, Essex, 
♦Sprague, Thomas Bond, M.A., F.I.A., 

26, 8t, Andrew^quare, Edinburgh. 
Spriggs, Joseph, 

Dale Cottage, Foston^ near Market Harbro*, 
Stofford, Sir Edward William, K.C.M.G., 

48, Stanhope- gardens, S.W. 
•Stainton, Henry Tibbats, 

Mountsfield, Lewisham, 8,E. 
Stanford, Edward, 

55, Charing Cross, 8. W, 
Staples, Sir Nathaniel Alexander, Bart., 

lAssan, Cookstown, Tyrone, Ireland. 
Stark, James, 

17, King's Arms-yard, E.C, 
Startin, James, M.RC.S., 

17, Sackville-street, W. 
Stephens, William Davies, 

4, Ahbotsford-terrace, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
Stone, William A., 

^0,Cannon'Street, E.G.; West Hill Lodge, Dartford, Kent. 



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38 STATISTICAL SOCIETY: 



Tcftrof 
Election. 

1855 



1865 
1872 

1880 
1878 
1880 



1873 
1859 
1880 

1877 
1873 
X838 
1880 
1878 
1879 
1879 
1878 
1878 
1864. 
1868 
1871 
1877 
1879 



♦Stott, John, F.I.A., 

12, EnseX'Villas, Kensington^ W. 
Strachan, Thomas Young, F.I. A., 

18, Orainger-itreet West, I^etocastle-on-l^e, 
Sfcrachey, General Richard, R.E., C.S.I., F.li.S., 

India Office, Westminster, 8,W. 
Strutt, Hon. Frederick, 

Milford House, near Derby. 
Stubbiris, Thomas K., 

Market-street, Bradford, YorJcs, 
♦Summers, William, M.P. {Sunyside^ Ashtonr under- Ijyne)^ 

12, St, James' S'place, 8.W. 



Tait, Lawson, F.E.C.S., 

7, Qreat Charles-street^ Birmingham. 
♦Tait, Patrick Macnaghten, 

39, Belsize Bark, N,W.; and Oriental Club, W, 
Taylor, George, 

17, Abchurchrlane, E.C. 
Taylor, John E., 

12, Queen's Qate-gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 
Taylor, Peter Alfred, M.P., 

22, Ashleu'place, Westminster^ S* W. 
•Taylor, General Pringle, K.H., 

Temple, Sir Richard, Bart., G.C.S.I., D.C.L., &c, 

Athenaum Club, Ball Mall, S.W. 
Thomas, Rev. R. D., 

Thomas, William Angell, 

King's College, Strand, W.C. 
Thomas, W. Cave, 

53, W elbeck-street. Cavendish-square ^ W. 
Thompson, Alfred Boyle, M.R.C.P., 

18, SeneanfS'inn, Temple, E.G. 
Thompson, Captain C. Halford, (late R.At), 

9, ColUton-crescent, Exeter. 
♦Thompson, Henry Yates, 

26a, Bryanston-square, W. 
Thomson, James, 

35, McholaS'laney E.C. 
Thomson, Thomas D., 

57, Moorgate-street, E.C 
Tiddy, Samuel Vesey, 

110, Cannon-street, E.C, 
Tipping, William, 



Oak field House, Ashton-undet -Lyne . 

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LIST OF FELLOWS. 39 

Tear of 
■lectloiL 

1855 Tomline, Colonel George, 

1, Carlton House-terrace, 8, W, 
1843 Tottie, John William, 

Coniston Hall, Bell Bush, Leeds, 
1868 *Treatt, Frank Burford, 

Immigration Office, Sydney, N.S. Wales, 
1868 Tiitton, Joseph Herbert, 

54, Lombard-street, E,C. 
1880 Tupp, Alfred Cotterill, {Indian Civil Service), 

Accountant' General, Madras. 
1878 Tumbull, Alexander, 

118, Belsize-f ark-gardens, N* W, 
1867 Turner, Thomas, 

Ashley House, JSingsdown, Bristol, 
1878 Turton, William Woolley, 

The Hollies, Bichley, Kent. 
1880 Twist, John Charles, 

78, Union-road, Hurst Brook, Ashton-under-Lyne, 
1841 Tyndall, William Henry, 

92| Cheapside, E,C. 



1873 Underdown, Bobert George, 

London-road Bailway Station, Manchester, 
1877 •Urlin, Eichard Denny, 

22, Stafford-terrace, Fhillimore-gardens, W. 



1842 Valpy, Eichard, 

6, Butland^ate, S. W. 
1868 Vanderbyl, Philip, 

51, Borchester-terrace, W. 
1880 Van de Linde, Gerard, A.C.A., 

12, Lawrence Bountney-lane, Cannon-street, E,C. 
1874 Vian, William John, 

64, ComhUl, B.C. 

1876 Vigers, Eobert, 
4, Frederick* s-plaee. Old Jewry ^ E.C, 

1877 Vine, John Eichard Somers, 
46, St. BauVs-road, Camden-square, JVi TV. 

1878 Vivian, Major Quintus, D.L., F.E.G.S., 
17, Ohesham-street, S,Tr. 



1861 WaddeU, James, 

1, Queen Vtctoria-street, E,0. 
1878 Waddy, Henry Edward, L.E.O.P., M.E.C.S , 

2, Clarence-street, Oloucester. 



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40 STATISTICAL SOCIETY: 



Tear of 
EiectiMi. 

1877 



1857 
1871 
1877 
1868 
1880 
1876 
1877 
1850 
1879 
1873 
1865 
1878 
1874 
1873 
1865 
1865 
1873 
1869 
1873 
1879 
1873 
1879 
1855 
1873 



Wakeford, Henry, 

Home Office, Whitehall, 8.W. 
♦Waltokd, Coenelius, F.I.A., 

86, BeUize-park-gardeTis, N. W. 
♦Walker, B. Bailey, 

The Grove, Didshury, Manchester. 
Wallington, Charles, 

51, Moorgate-atreety E,C, 
Wallis, Charles, J., 

62, Doughty-street, W.C. 
Wallis, E. White, F.M.S., 

1, Springfield-road, 8L John's Wood, N.W. 
Walter, Arthur Fraser, 

15, Queen's GatC'terrace, 8.W, 
Walter, Captain Edward, 

Oommissionaires* Office ^ 419, Strand, W.O. 
Walter, John, M.P., 

40, Upper Grosvenor-street, W. 
Wansey, Arthur H., 

Sambourne, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Waring, Charles, 

19b, Grosvenor-square, S, W, 
Waterhouso, Edwin, B.A., 

44, Gresham-street, E.C, 
Watherston, Edward J., 

12, Pall Mall East, S. W. 
Watson, James, P.E.G.S., 

24, Endsleigh'Street, Tavistock-square, W,C 
Watson, J. Forbes, M.A., M.D., LL.D. 

India Museum, South Kensington, W. 
Watson, William West, 

City Chamberlain, Glasgow, 
Webster, Alphonsus, 

44, Mecklenhurg^qu(tre, W.C, 
Webster, James Hume, 

14, Chapel-street, Park'lane, W. 
Weguelin, Christopher, 

57i Old Broad-street, E.C. 
Weguelin, Thomas Matthias, 

14, Devonshire-street, Portland-place, W. 
Weir, William, 

38, South Audley-street, W. 
♦Welby, Eeginald Earle, C.B., 

The Treasury, Whitehall, 8,W. 
Welch, John Kemp, J.P., 

Clock House, Clapham-common, S. W. 
Weldon, James Walton, 

1, St, James^ s-square, 8, W, 
Wellington, His Grace the Duke of, K.G.. «fec., &<•., 

Apsley Rouse, Piccadilly y W, 



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Tear of 
Bleetion. 

1873 



1865 
1879 
1876 
1879 
1878 
1859 
1876 
1868 
1863 
1879 
1871 
1878 
1873 
1879 
1878 
1875 
1860 
1879 
1880 
1864 
1870 
1876 
1877 
1875 



LIST OP FELLOWS. 41 



WeUfl, W. Lewis, 

66, Old Broad-street, 11,0, 
Welton, Thomas Abebobombie, (5, Moorgate-street, E.C,)y 

6, Offerton-Toad, Glapham, S.W. 
Wenley, Jaraes Adams, 

Bank of Scotland, Bank-street, Edinburgh, 
Westgarth, WillUm, 

28, ComhiU, E,C. 
•Westlake, John, Q.C., LL.D., 

16, Oxford-square, W. 
Wharton, James, 

10, Buckland-crescent, Belsize-park, N. W. 
Whitbread, Samuel, M.P., 

10, Ennismore-gardens, Frinees-gate, 8. W, 
Whitcher, John, Jr^ F.I. A., 

81, King WiUiam-street, E.C. 
White, James, 

8, Thurloe-square, South Kensington, S. W. 
White, Leedham, 

44, Onsloto-gardens, S.W.; 85, Qracechurch-street, E.C, 
White, Eobert Owen, J.P., 

The Briorg, Lewishatn, S.E. 
White, William, 

70, Lombard-street, E,0, 
Whiteford, William, 

8, Temple-gardens, E,0. 
Whitehead, Jeflfery, 

39, Throgmorton^street, E,C. 
Whitwill, Mark, J.P., 

Bedland House, Durdham^park, Bristol 
WUcox, William, L.ELC.P. (Edin.), M.R.C.S., 

Hollg House, North Walsham, Norfolk. 
Wilkinson, Thomas Bead, 

Manchester and Salford Bank, Manchester. 
Willans, John Wrigley, 

2, Headinglg-terrace, Leeds. 
Williams, Edwardf, 

Cleveland Lodge, Middlesborough. 
Williams, Colonel E. C. J., K.E^ C.i.E., 

India Office, Whitehall. 
Williains, Frederick fiessant, 

2, Ludgate Hill, E.C. 
Williams, H. E., 

3, Lime-street, E.C, ; and Oak Lodge, Highgatr, N. 
Williams, John Worthey, 

5, Marlborough-road, Upper Holloway, N. 
Williams, Eichard Price, 

38, Barlianumt-street, S.W. 
Wilson, Edwards D. J., M.A., 

Airlie House, The Orove, Oamberwell, 8.E. 



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42 STATISTICAL SOCIETY: 



Tear of 
BI«ction. 

1874 



1878 
1872 
1868 
1877 
1873 
1838 
1874 
1878 
1880 
1877 
1838 

1872 
1879 
1879 
1877 
1849 



*Wil8on, Bobert Porter, 

5, Oumberland'terraee^ Bej^enfs-park, K.W, 
Wilton, Francis, M.ILC.S., 

TicehurH, Sussex, 
•Winch, William R., 

North Mymms Park, Hatfield, Herts. 
Wood, H. W. I. (Calcutta), 

Care of Messrs. Bichardson^ 13, Fall Mall, 8.W. 
Woodrow, T. J., 

Great Eastern Railway, Liverpool-street, E^C. 
Woods, Henry, 

Warnford Fork, Bish^'s Waltham, Hants. 
Woolhouse, Wesley Stoker Barker, F.R.A.S., 

Alwyne Lodge, Alwyne^oad, Canonbury, Ifn 
Woolner, Thomas, R. A., 

29, Welbeck'Street, Cavendish^quare, W. 
.Worsfold, Rev. J. N., M.A., 

Haddlesey Beetory, near Selby, Yorkshire, 
Wren, Walter, 

7, FounS'Square, W. 
Wright, George, 

9, Craif S'Cowrt, Charing Cross, 8.W. 
»Wyatt-EdgeU, Rev. Edgell, 

40, Lovoer Orosvenor-street, W.; Stwrfbrd Hail, Bugby. 



Yeatman, Morgan, 

Shawfield, Bromley, Kent. 
Teats, John, LL.D., 

7, Beaufort-square, Chepstow. 
Tee, Tung, 

49, Fortland-place, W. 
*Toull, John GHbson, 

Jesmonds-road, Newcastle-on-Tyne^ 
•Toung, Charles Baring, 

12, Hyde-park Terrace, W. 



%* The Executive Committee request that any inaccuracy m 
the foregoing list may he pointed out to the AssiSTAin? Secbbtabt 
and that all changes of address may he notified to him, so that delay 
in forwarding communications and the publications of the Society ma^ 
be avoided. 



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LIST OF HONORABT MEMBBB8. 43 

HONORART MEMBERS. 

fflS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE OF WALES, K.G., 
Honorary President, 

EUROPE. 

%mimi anJr pungarjj. 

■n aap e rt M. CHARLES KELETI, Chrf du Bureau Ro^al 

HonffrotM, de StatiMiique, Cotueiller Miniti&iel, 
▼l€BBm DR. HUGO FRANZ BRACHELLI, Chef du Bureau 

de StatUtique au Minisihre de Commerce, 
„ S. E. M. le BARON de CZ(£RNIG, Corueiiier i$Uime 

aciuel de S. M. Imp, et Royal, 
, PROFESSOR F». XAVIER tou NEUMANN- 

SPALLART, D.C.L., Frofettor of Political 

Economy and Statistics, Agricultural College, 

University of Vienna; Imperial Councilor; 

Member of the Imperial Staiistical Commission ; 

Honorary Member of the Statistical Society of 

Paris and of the Cobden Club. 
„ M. MAX WIRTH, Aneiem Chrf du Bureau de la 

Statistique, Suisse. 



§elgmm. 



Bratselfl ^ SIR HENRY PAGE TURNER BARRON, Bart., 

Secretary qf Legation, British Embassy, 

„ ._ M. XAVIER HEUSCHLING, Chef de Division au 

Minisihre de VlntMeur du Royaume de Belgique, 
S^cr/taire de la Commission Cenirale de Statistique, 

„ M. le DR. E. JANSSENS, Servi<;e d' Hygiene, In- 

specteur du SantS de la Ville de Bruxelles, 
Membre SSerStaire de la Commission Provinciale, 
et de la Commission LoctUe de Statistique h 
Bruxelles. 

M. VICTOR MISSON, Ancien President de la Cour 

dee Comptee de Belgique, Sfc, 



^trtmwck. 



CmwtnUmmtn .... PROFESSOR FALBE HANSEN, Prqfessor of 
Political Economy and Staiistits in the University of 
Copenhiigen, 
^ .^ DR. SCHLEISNER* Medical Officer qf HeaUh. 



^xixntt. 



Pmris... M. le Dr. JACQUES BERTILLON, Prqfesseur de 

DAnographie k VEcole d* Anthropologic ; Chef de 
la Statistique Municipale de Paris; Laur^t de 
I* Academe des Sciences, ^c, 8fc. 



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44 STATISTICAL SOCIETY: 

Parts M.MAURICE BLOCK. 

, M. le Dr. ARTHUR CHERVIN, Member of the 

Statistical Society of Paris; General Secretary 
of the International Congrett of Demography. 

„ M, MXXIMIM DELOCHE. Membre de Vlnttitut, 

Directeur de la Statietique Q-en^cde de la France, 

„ M. JOSEPH GARNIER. Membre de VinaiittU, Prih- 

feneur d* Economic Politique a Vicole dee Ponts et 
Chauit/es, JUdaeteur en ehe/du Journal dee SeonO' 
mistet, 

, M. CLEMENT JUGLAR. Prerident Sortant de la 

Social/ de Statistique de Paris, 

, M. ALFRED ljEGOYT,AncienIHreeteur de U Sta* 

tietique G^h&ale, 

„ M. E. LEVASSEUR, Membre de rinaUiut, Prq/emeur 

au Collige de France, 

„ M.DE VkVilEV, Membre de I' Imtitui.AneienD^^i, 

S^fnateur^ et Miniatre, 

», M. LE PLAY, Ancien S6tateur, 

., M. le PRESIDENT DE LA SOClfiTfi DE 

STATISTIQUE DB PARIS. 

„ THE HON. M. jfiAN BAPTISTE LfiON SAY, 

President qf the Senate qfthe Republic qf France, 

Bmrarim DR. GEORGE MAYR, Formerly Director qf the 

Royal Bureau qf Statistics; Ministerialrath und 
Universitats Prqfessor, 

„ DR. G. CHARLES LEOPOLD SEUFPERT, Chirf 

Inspector and Director qf the Royal Custom House 
at Simbach, 

BerUn DR. CHARLES BECKER, Geheimer olerregier- 

unysrath. Director desKaiserU: StatistischenAmts. 

„ DR. ERNEST ENGEL. Director qfthe Royal Statis- 
tical Office qf Prussia, 

WtmnHtart THE PRESIDENT OF THE STATISTICAL 

SOCIETY OF FRANKFURT. 



(Srtai Britain anir Jnlanb. 



Dnblln THE PRESIDENT OF THE STATISTICAL AND 

SOCIAL ENQUIRY SOCIETY OF IRELAND. 

■mnelietter THE PRESIDENT OF THE MANCHESTER 

STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



(Srwct. 



Athens A. MANSOLAS, Chrf de Division, Directeur du 

Bureau de Statistique HelUnique, 



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LIST OF HONOBAST MEMBERS. 



45 



Italg. 



Genoa PROFESSORE 6RR0LAM0 BOCCARDO, Senator 

of the Kingdom of Italy; Knight of Civil 
Merity ^c, ^c. 

Padorm 8IGNOR EMILIO MORPURGO, Professore 

Ordinario di Statistica nella JR. Univeraitd di 
Padova; Membro della CHunta Centrale di Sta- 
titticay <f*c. 

FaTla SIGNOR LUIGI C08SA, Professeur Ordinaire 

d'Bconomie Politique d V UniversitS de Pavia ; 
Docteur en Droit; OJicier de VOrdre de la 
Couronne d'Jtalief <{•<?., ^c, 

Kone PROFESSORE LUIGI BODIO, Direeteur de la 

Statietique G6i&ale ePIialie. 

PROFESSORE CESARE CONTINI, Membre de la 

Soci^U Staiistique de Paris, Grand Chevalier 
de VOrdre de Sa MajeetS le Eoi d'ltalie, 

SIGNOR CESARE CORRENTI, Membre de la 

Chambre det DiputU ; Vice-Preeident de la Com- 
mission Centrale de Statistique. 

MESSEDAGLIA. SIGNOR ANGELO, Professore di 

Statistica nellu* University di Soma. {Member 
of the Italian Parliament.) 

ILMARCHESE AWOCATO ERMENEGILDO DE 

CINQUE QUINTILI, S^critaire Giniral de la 
Commission des HCpitaux JRomains, 

TuHn PROFESSORE GIOVANNI FLECHIA. Prisidentde 

la FaculU de Philosophie et Prqfesseur tt VVnt- 
versiU de Turin, 

Tenlce SIGNOR FRANCESCO FERRARA,/)^imM am PflWe- 

menty Direeteur del*Ecole Sup6rieure de Commerce' 



fortu0al. 



l^Ubon M. A. J. D'AYILA, Ministre d'Btat honoraire, Con- 

seilleur d*Etat, et Diput6 des Cortis. 



^ttssin. 



SC Petcrtbnrff HIS EXCELLENCY M. SEMENOW, Direeteur 
du Comity Central de Statistique, Conseiller d'£lat 
actuel, 

M. le DR. J. B. VERNADSKI, ConseUler d*Etnt 
actuel, EX'professeur, 

„ M. A. VESSELOVSKY, Secretaire du Cbmiti Sci^ 

entifique du Ministers Imperial des Finances. 



Madrid 



SENOR DON JOSfi MAGAZ Y JAIME. 



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46 



STATISTICAL SOCIETY; 



SfetiTien anir llortoag. 

CkrUtlmnlA PROFESSOR T. H. ASCHEHOU6. Membre de 

VA99embUe Nationals de la Norveffe. 

,, M. A. N. KIAER. Chtf du Bureau de Statittiqut au 

Minitthre de rintSrieur, Membre de la Soeiite 
Royaie det Sciencet, 

StoekholM M. le DR. FREDERIK THEODOR BERG. Ancien 

Ch^ du Bureau Central de StatUtique de la Su^de, 

„ M. EDWARD SCHEUTZ, IngSnieur ChiL 

OeneTm M. MALLET. 

Constantinople. HIS EXCELLENCY AHMED VEFYK PASHA. 
Honorary Member of the StatUtieal Society qfParie. 

PhlUppopoUB .... THOMAS MICHELL. Esq., C.B., F.R.G.S. 



AMERICA. 



•ttmwm . 



gomittion of Cmtaira. 



. JOHN LANGTON E«a., Auditor-General, 
EDWARD YOUNG, Esq., formerly Chief of the 
Bureau of Statistice, United States of America^ 
noWf Secretary of the Board of Custom* of 
Canada. 



Albany. W.Y THE HON. WILLIAM BARNES, Counsellor -at- 

haw {Ex 'Superintendent qf the Insurance Depart' 
meut), 

Dorchester. Xass. DR. EDWARD JARVIS, A.M., President of the 
American Statistical Association, Boston, 

New Harcn, Conn. FRANCIS A. WALKER, Esq., M.A., Prqfessoro/ 
Political Economy, Vale College, 

Norwleh, Conn. THE HON. DAVID A. WELLS, President of the 
American Association for the Promotion of Social 
Science^ Corresponding Member of the Institute of 
France. 

Tannton. Siass. JOHN E. SANFORD. Esq., Speaker of the House 
of Representatives. Insurance Commissioner. 

Washington .... THE HON. CHARLES F. CONANT. Assistant 
Secretary to the Treasury of the United States. 



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LIST OP HONORARY MEMBBBS. 47 

AUSTRALASIA. 
|i;tto Smrf^ Malts, 

Sydney EDWARD GRANT WARD, Esa., Reffiitrar- General, 

WelliniTtoii JAMES HECTOR, Esq., M.D., F.R.S. 

BHsHane HENRY JORDAN, Eso., Reffieirar- General. 

S^ont\i Australia, 

A4elml4e » JOSIAH BOOTHBY, Esa., C.M.6., Under Secretary 

and Government Statist of South Australia. 

Casmania, 

HoUmrt T«wii .... E. SWARBRECK HALL, Eso., M.R.C.S. 

„ .... EDWIN CRADOCK NOWELL, Esq., 

Government Statistician. 

■elUoiirne HENRY HEYLYN HAYTER, Esq., 

Government Statist. 

WILLIAM HENRY ARCHER, Esq., F.I.A., 

F.L.S., &c 



NoTB. — ^The Executive Committee request that any in- 
accuracies in the foregoing List of Honorary Members 
may be pointed out, and that all changes of address may be 
notified to the Secretary, so that delay in forwarding com- 
munications and the publications of the Society may be 
avoided. 



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48 



INDEX TO RULES. 



BULS 

1. The Objects of the Societj. 

2. Society to consiat of Fellows and Honorary Members. 

3. No. of Fellows unlimited ; Hon. Members not to exceed 70. 

4. Fellows — Candidates to be proposed by two or more Fellows. 

5. Do. to be elected by Ballot. 

6. Do. on Admission may attach F.S.S. to their Names. 

7. Honorary Members, Proposed by Council ; Elected by Ballot. 

8. Fellows, to pay an Annual Subscription or a Composition. 

9. Do. how disqualified. Written notice of withdrawal required. 
10. Do. and Honorary Members, Expulsion of. 

] 1. Trustees. Property of Society, to be vested in Tfiree. 

12, President, Council, and Officers, Number and Particulars of. 

- . ' > Do. do. do. Election and Qualifications of. 

16. Do. do. do. Extraordinary Vacancies of. 

16. Committees, may be appointed by Council. 

17. Meetings, Ordinary and Anniversary, when to be held. 

18. Ordinary Meetings, Business of. Strangers may be introduced. 

19. Anniversary Meetings, Business of. 

20. Special General Meetings may be called. 

21. Auditors, Appointment and Duties of. 

22. President, Duties of. To have a Casting Vote. 
28. Treasurer, Duties of, subject to the Council. 

24. Secretaries, Duties of. 

25. Vice-Presidents, Powers of. 

26. Council, Duties of, in Publishing Papers and Expending Funds. 

27. ) Do. Powers of, to frame Regulations not inconsiatent 

28. j with these Rules. 

29. Do. to publish a Journal of the Transactions of the Society'. 

30. Right of Property reserved in all Communications received. 



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49 



RULES OF THE STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



Obfettt of the Society, 

1. Thx Statistical Society waf eeta- 
bliflhed to collect, arrange, digest, and 
publish facts illostrating the condition 
and prospects of society, in its material, 
social and moral relations. These facts 
are for the most part arranged in 
tabular forms, and in accordance with 
the principles of the nnmerical method. 

The Society not only collects new 
materials, but condenses, arranges, and 
publishes those already existing, whether 
unpublished or published in diffuse and 
expensive forms, in the English or in 
any foreign language. 

The Society likewise promotes the 
<Uscussion of legislative and other pub- 
lic measures from the statistical point 
of view. These discussions form portions 
of the Transadaons of the Society. 

ConstUuticn of the Society, 

2. The Society consists of Fellows and 
Honorary Members, elected in the man- 
ner laid down in the following rules. 

Nwnber of Fellowe and Honorary 
Members* 
8. The number of Fellows shall be 
unlimited. Foreigners or British sub- 
jects of distinction residing abroad may 
be admitted as Honorary Members : of 
whom the number shall not be more 
than seventy at any one time. 

Proposal of Fellows, 

4. Every Candidate for admission as 
a Fellow of the Society, shall be pro- 
posed by two or more Fellowo, who, 
shall certify from their personal know- 
ledge of him or of his works, that he is 
a fit person to be admitted a Fellow 
of the Statistical Society. Every such 
certificate having been read and approved 
at a Meeting of the Council, shall be 
suspended in the meeting-room of the 
Society until the following Ordinary 
Meeting, at which the vote shall bo 
taken upon it. 



Election of Fellows, 

5. In the election of Fellows, the 
votes shall be taken by ballot. No 
person shall be admitted unless at least 
sixteen Fellows vote, and unless he have 
in his favour three-fourths of the Fellows 
voting. 



Admission of Fellows, 

6. Every Fellow elect shall appear 
for his admission on or before the third 
Ordinary Meeting of the Society after 
his election, or within such time as shall 
be granted by the Council. 

The manner of admission shall be 
thus: — 

Inmiediately after the reading of the 
minutes, the Fellow elect, having first 
paid his subscription i(x the current 
year or his composition, shall ngn the 
obligation contained in the Fellowship- 
book, to the effect following : — 

" We, who have underwritten out 
" names, do hereby undertake, each for 
« himself, that we will endeavour to 
" further the good of the Statistical 
*' Sodety for improving Statistical 
" Knowledge, and the ends for which 
<' the same has been founded; that 
** we will be present at the Meet- 
*' ings of the Sodety as often as con- 
" veniently we can, and that we will 
*' keep and Ailfil the Rules and Orders 
*• of this Society : provided that when- 
" soever any one of us shall make known, 
*' by writing under his hand, to the 
** President for the time being, that he 
" denres to withdraw from the Sodety, 
*< he shall be free thenceforward from 
" this obligation.*' 

Whereon the President, taking him 
by the hand, shall say, — ** By the autho' 
'* rity and in th^ tame of the Statis' 
" tical Society I ao aOm^ you a 
•* Fellow thereof," 

Upon their admisraon Fellows shall 
have the right of attaching to their 
names the letters F.S.S. 

E 



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50 



RULES OF THE STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



Admission of Honorary Members. 

7. There shall be Two Meetmgi in 
the year, on such days as shall be here* 
after fixed by the Ooondl, at which 
Monorcuy Members ma,y be elected. 

No Honorary Member can be recom- 
mended for election but by the Coundl. 
Any Member of the Oomidl may pro- 
pose a Foreigner or British subject of 
distinction residing abroad at any Meet- 
ing of the Council, delivering at the 
same time a written statement of the 
qnalifications, offices held by, and pab- 
lished works of the person proposed; 
and ten days' notice at least shall be 
given to every Member of the Council, 
of the day on which the Council will 
vote by bfdlot on the question whether 
they will recommend the person pro- 
posed. No such recommendation to the 
Society shall be adopted unless at least 
three-fourths of the votes are in favour 
thereof. 

Notice of the recommendation shall 
be given from the chair at the Meeting 
of the Society next preceding that at 
which the vote shall be taken thereon. 
No person shall be elected an Honorary 
Member unless sixteen Fellows vote and 
three-fourths of the Fellows voting be 
in his fiivonr. 

The Council shall have power to elect 
as Honorary Members, the President for 
the time being of the Statistical Sodetiee 
of Dublin, Manchester, and Paris, and 
the President of any other Statistical 
Society at home or abroad. 

Payments by Fellows, 

8. Every Fellow of the Society shall pay 
a yearly subscription of Tu^o Guineas, 
or may at any time compound for his 
future yearly payments by paying at 
once the sum of Twenty Ouineas.* 

Defaulters, — Withdrawal of 
Fellows. 

9. All yearly payments are due in 
advance on the 1st of January, and if 
any Fellow of the Society have not paid 
lus subscription before tiie Ist of July, 
he shall be applied to in writing by the 
Secretaries, and if the same be not paid 
before the 1st of January of the second 
year, a written application shall again 

* Cheques staoold be made payable to 
Drommood and Co. " 



be made by the Secretaries, and the 
Fellow in arrear shall cease to receive 
the Society's publications, and shall not 
be entitled to any of the privileges of 
the Society until sudi arrears are paid ; 
and if the subscription be not dis- 
charged before the 1st of February of 
the second year, the name of the Fdlow 
thus in arrear shall be exhibited as a 
defaulter on a card suspended in the 
meeting-rooms ; and if, at the next 
Anniversary Meeting, the amount still 
remain unpaid, the defaulter shall be 
announced to be no longer a Fellow of 
the Sodety, the reason for the same 
being at the same time assigned. No 
Fellow of the Sodety can withdraw his 
name from the Sodety's books, unless 
all arrears be paid ; and no resignation 
will be deemed valid unless a written 
notice thereof be communicated to the 
Secretaries. No Fellow shall be entiUed 
to vote at any Meeting of the Sodety 
until he shall have paid his subscription 
for the current year. 

Expulsion of Fellows. 

10. If any Fellow of the Sodety, or 
any Honorary Member, shall so demean 
himself that it would be for the dis- 
honour of the Sodety that he lonser 
continue to be a Fellow or Member 
thereof, the Council shall take the 
matter into consideration ; and if the 
minority of the Members of the Coundl 
present at some Meeting (of which and 
of the matter in hand such Fellow or 
Member, and every Member of the 
Council, shall have due notice) shall 
dedde by ballot to recommend that such 
Fdlow or Member be expelled from the 
Sodety, the President shall at the next 
Ordinary Meeting announce to the 
Sodety the recommendation of the 
Coundl, and at the following Meeting 
the question shall be dedded by ballot, 
and if at least three-fourths of the 
number voting are in favour of the 
expulsion, the President shall forthwith 
cancel the name in the Fellowship-book, 
and shall say, — 

*' By the authority and in the name 
" of the Statistical Sodety, I do declare 
" that A. B. (naming him) is no longer 
" a FeUow (or Honorary Meml^) 
" thereof." 

*Tfae Statistical Society," and croited "UeMn. 



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BULES OF THE 8TAT1BTICAL SOCIETY. 



51 



And raeh Fellow or Honoraiy Mem- 
ber, shall therenpon oease to.be of tbe 
Society. 

Drustees. 

11. The property of the Sodety shall 
be vested in three TVwteee, chosen by 
the Fellows. The Trostees are eli^ble 
to any other offices in the Society. 

Prmidmt^ Council^ and Qfieers* 

12. The Council shall, independent 
of the Honorary Yice-PresidentB, con- 
sist of thirty-one Members, of whom one 
shall be the Prendent, and four be nomi- 
nated Vice-Presidents. The Council 
shall be elected as hereafter provided. 
Any five of the Council shall be a 
quorum. From the Council shall be 
chosen a Treaeurer, three Seeretariee, 
and a Foreign Secretary, who may be 
one of the Secretaries. Six Fellows, at 
leiist, who were not of the Council of the 
previous year, shall be annually elected. 

Election of President and Officers. 

13. The President shall be chosen 
yearly by the Fellows. The same person 
shall not be eli^ble more than two 
years in suooession. 

The fbrmer Presidents who are oon- 
tinuing Fellows of the Society shall be 
Honorary Vioe-Presidents ; four Vlce- 
Preddents shall be yearly chosen from 
the Council by the Prendent. 

Any Honoraiy Vice-President may 
take part in the deliberations of the 
Council on expressing a wish to that 
effect : and when attending the Meetings 
of the Council, shall exercise all the 
rights and powers of a Member of the 
ConnciL 

The Treasurer and Secretaries shall 
be chosen yearly by the Fellows from 
the Council. 

Election of CounciL 

14k The Council shall, previously to 
the Anniversary Meeting, nominate, by 
ballot, the FeUowe whom they reoom- 
mmut to be the next President and 
Council of the Sodety. They shall also 
recommend ibr election a Treasurer and 
Secretaries (in ao(X»dance with Bule 
12), Kotioe shall be sent to every 
Fellow whose reddence is known to be 
withm the limits of the metropolitan 
post, at least a fortnight before the 



Anniversary Meeting,, of the names of 
Fellows recommended by the Council. 

Extraordinary Vacandet. 

15. On Knj extraordinary fxicaney ot 
the Office of the President, or other 
Officer of the Sodety, or in the Council, 
the Secretaries shall summon the 
Council with as little delay as posdble 
and a majority of the Coundl, thereupon 
meeting in their usual place, shall, by 
ballot, and by a majority of those pre- 
sent, choose a new Preddent, or other 
Officer of the Sodety, or Member of the 
Council, to be so until the next Anni- 
versary Meeting. 

Committees. 

16. The Coundl shall have power to 
appoint CommiHees ef Fellows and 
abo an Executive Committee of their 
own body. The Committees shall report 
their proceedings to the Coundl. No 
report shall be communicated to the 
Society which is not approved by the 
CouncdL 

Meetings Ordinary and Anniversary, 

17. The Ordinary Meetings oi the 
Sodety shall be monthly, or oftencr, 
during the Sesdon, which shall be from 
the 1st of November to the 1st of July, 
both indudve, on such days and at 
such hours as the Council shall declare. 
The Anniversary Meeting shall be hdd 
on such day in June of each year as 
shall be appointed by the Council for 
the time being. 

Business of Ordinary Meetings. 

18. The business of the Ordinary 
Meetings shall be to admit Fellows, to 
read and hear reports, letters, and 
papers on subjects interesting to the 
Sodety. NotUng relating to the rules 
or management of the Society shall be 
(Uscussed at the Ordinary Meetings, 
except that the Auditor^ Report sluill 
be recdved at the Ordinary Meeting in 
February, and that the Minutes of the 
Anniversary Meeting, and of every 
Special General Meeting, shaU be con- 
firmed at tiie next Ordinary Meeting 
after the day of such Anniversary or 
Special Qeneral Meeting. Strangers 
may be introduced to tho Ordinary 

e2 



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RULES OF THE STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



Meetings, by any Fellow, with the leave 
of the Prendent, Vice - Preaident, or 
other Fellow presiding at the Meeting. 

Business of Anniversofy MeeUng. 

19. The business of the Anniversary 
Meeting shall be to elect the Officers of 
the Society, and to discuss questions on 
its rules and management. No FeUows 
or Honorary Members shall be propooea 
or admitted at the Anniversary Meeting. 
No Fellow shall moot any question on 
the rules or management of the Society 
at the Anniversary Meeting, unless after 
three weeW notice thereof given to the 
Council, but amendments to any motion 
may be brought forward without notice, 
so that they relate to the same subject 
of motion. The Council shall give 
fourteen days' notice to every Fellow of 
all questions of which such notice shall 
have been given to them. 

Special General Meetings, 

20. The Council may, at any time, 
call a Special Chnerdl Meeting of the 
Society when it appears to them neces- 
sary. Any ten Fellows may require a 
Spedal General Meeting to be called, by 
notice in writing signed by them, deli- 
vered to one of the Secretaries at an 
Ordinary Meeting, specifying the ques- 
tions to be moved. Tlie Council shall, 
withm one week of such notice, appoint 
a day for such Special General Meeting, 
and shall g^ve one week's notice of every 
Special General Meeting, and of the 
questions to be moved, to every Fellow 
within the limits of tlie metropolitan 
post, whose residence is known. No 
business shall be brought forward at any 
Special General Meeting other than that 
specified in the notice for the same. 

Auditors, 

21. At i\ie first Ordinary Meeting 
of each year, the Fellows shall choose 
two Auditors, not of the Council, who, 
with one of the Council, chosen by the 
Council, shall audit the Treasurer's 
accounts, and report thereon to the 
Society, which report shall be presented 
at the Ordinary Meeting in February. 
The Auditors shall be empowered to 
examme into the particulars of all 
expenditure of the funds of the Society 



where they shall see occasion, and may 
report the^ opinion upon any part of it. 

Duties of the President. 

22. The President shall preside at all 
Meetings of the Society, Council, and 
Committees, which he doall attend, and 
in case of an equality of votes, shall 
have a second or casting vote. He shall 
sign alldiplomasof admission of Honoraiy 
Members. He shall admit and expel 
Fellows and Honorary Members, accord- 
ing to the rules of the Sodety. 

Duties of the Treasurer. 

28. The Treasurer shall receive all 
moneys due to, and pay all moneys doe 
from, the Sodety, and shall keep an 
account of his receipts and payments. 
No sum exceeding Ten Pounds shall be 
paid but by order of the Coundl, except- 
ing always any lawfVil demand tor rates 
or taxes. He shall invest the moneys 
of the Sodety in such manner as the 
Council shall fh>m time to time direct. 

Duties of the Secretaries. 

24. The Secretaries shall, under the 
control of the Council, conduct the cor- 
respondence of the Sodety ; they or one 
of them shall attend all Meetings of the 
Sodety and Coundl, and shall have the 
care of duly recording the Minutes 
of the Proceedings. They shall issoe 
the requisite notices, and read such 
papers to the Sodety as the Council 
may direct. 

Powers of the Vice-Presidents. 

25. A Vice -President, whether 
Honorary or nominated, in the chair, 
shall act with the power of the Pre- 
sident, in presiding and voting at any 
Meeting of the Society or Council, and 
in admitting Fellows; but no Vice- 
President shall be empowered to sign 
diplomas of admission of Honorary Mem- 
bears, or to expel Fellows. In the 
absence of the President and Vice-Pre- 
sidents, any Fellow of the Society may 
be called upon, by the Fellows then 
present, to preside at an Ordinary Meet- 
ing. The Fellow so presiding may 
admit Fellows, but shall not be em- 
powered to act otherwise as resident, 
or Vice-President. 



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RULES) OF TUfi STATISXiCAL 80ClETr. 



53 



Powers of the CounciL 

26. The Council shall have control 
over the papers and funds of the So- 
ciety, and may, as they shall see fit, 
<fireot the publication of papers and 
the expenditure of the funds, so, that 
they shall not at any time contract 
engagements on the part of the Sodety 
beyond the amount of the balance that 
would be at that time in the Treasurer's 
hands, if all pre-existing debts and 
liabilities had been satisfied. 

27. The Council shall be empowered 
at any time to frame SeguU^iom not 
inconsistent with these rules, which 
shall be, and remain in force until the 
next Anniversary Meeting at which 
they shall be either affirmed or annulled ; 
but no Council shall have power to 
renew Regulations which have once 



been disapproved at an Anniversary 
Meeting. 

28. Ko Dividend, Gift, Division, or 
Bonus in money shall be made by the 
Society, unto or between any of the 
Fellows or Members, except as herein- 
after provided. 

29. The Council shall publish a 
Journal of the Transactions of the 
Society, and such other Statistical Pub- 
lications, as they may determine upon, 
and may from time to time pay such 
sums to Editors and their assistants, 
whether Fellows of the Society or not^ 
as may be deemed advisable. 

SO. All communications to the Sode^ 
are the property of the Society, unless 
the Council allow the right of property 
to be specially reserved by the Con- 
tributors. 



REGUUTIONS OF THE LIBRARY. 



1. The Library is open daily from 10 a.m. till 5 p.m., except on 
Saturdays, when it closes at 2 p.m. ; and it is entirely closed during 
the month of September. 

2. Members of the Society are permitted to take out Books on 
making personal application, or by letter addressed to the Librarian. 

3. Members are not to have more than two works at a time, nor 
keep any books longer than a month. 

4. Scientific Journals and Periodicals are not circulated until the 
volumes are completed and bound. 

5. GydopflBdias and works of reference are not curculated. 

6. Any Member damaging a book, either replaces the work, or 
pays a fine equivalent to its value. 

7. Books taken from the shelves for reference, are not to be 
replaced, but must be laid on the Library table. 

8. The Secretary shall report to the Council any infrmgement 
of these regulations. 



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DONORS TO THE LIBRARY. 

DxmiKG XHB Ykae 1880. 







Foreign Covnfries. 




Ai^ntine 


Confedera- 


Italy. 


The States of— 


tion. 




Japan. 




Austria and Hungary 


Netherlands, The. 


Iowa. 


Bavaria. 




Prussia. 


Kansas. 


Belgium. 




Eoumania. 


Massachusetts. 


China. 




Bussia. 


Michigan. 


Denmark. 




Saxony. 


New York. 


Egypt. 




Sweden and Norway. 


Ohia 


France. 




The United States of 


Fenusylvaftia. 






America. 


Rhode Island. 


Greece. 


Indiany 


ITruguay. 


Wisconsin. 




Colonial^ and other Fossesstons, 


Bengal. 




Jamaica. 


Queensland. 


Canada. 




Mauritius. 


South Australia. 


Cape of Good Hope. 


New South Wales. 


Tasmania. 


India (British). 


New Zealand. 


Victoria. 



Public Departments. 



The Admiralty. 

Army Medical Department. 

Board of Trade. 

Convict Prisons, Directors of. 

Factories, Inspectors of. 

Fire Brigade, Metropolitan. 

Friendly Societies, Registrar of. 

Home Office 

India Office. 

Local Government Board. 



The Naval Medical Department 
„ Museum of Practical Geology. 
„ Police, Dublin Metropolitan. 
„ Police, London Metropolitan. 
„ Post Office. 
„ Begistrar-G^neral of England. 

„ „ Ireland. 

„ „ „ Scotland. 

„ Tithe CommissionerB. 
M Warden of Standards. 



Abdur Rahman, Syud, Esq. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Phi- 
ladelphia, U. S. A. 

Actuaries, The Institute of, London, 

Adelaide Philosophical Society. 

Agriculture, Central Chamber of. 

Allen, Messrs. W. H. & Co., London. 

American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, Boston. 

American Geographical Society of 
New York. 



American Philosophical Society of 

Philadelphia. 
American Statistioal Associationy 

Boston, Mass. 
Amici, F. Bey, Egypt 
Annand, W., Esq., London. 
Ansell, C, Esq., junr. 
Arts, Society of. 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
„ „ Japan. 

Astor Library, New York U. S. A. 



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DONORS TO THB LIBBABT. 



56 



During the Year 1880 — CoiUinued. 



Athenffium, The Editor of. 
Atkinson, E., Esq., Boston, U.S.A. 
Austrian Central Statistical Com- 

miBsion. 
Austrian Consul-General, London. 

Bain, A. Bryce, Esq. 

Baker, Dr. H. B., Lansing, U.S.A. 

Bankers' Institute, London. 
„ Magazine, London. 
„ „ New York. 

Bany, Dr. F. W., Cyprus. 

Bavaria^ Eojal Bureau of Statistics. 

Beddoe, Dr. J., F.RS., Bristol 

Behm, Herr G., Berlin. 

Belgiiun, Academy, Boyal. 
„ Minister of Interior. 

Berg, Dr. F. T., Stockholm. 

Berlin, Statistical Bureau of. 

Bevan, G. P., Esq., London. 

Bik61as, D., Esq., Athens. 

Birch, J. W., Esq., London. 

Birmingham Free Public Libraries. 

Blackley, Rev. W. L., London. 

Boccardo, Professor G., Italy. 

Boddy, E. M., Esq., F.RC.s!, F.S.S. 

BOckh, Herr, Berlin. 

Bodio, Professor Luigi, Borne. 

BOhmert, Dr. V., Dresden. 
Boothby, J., Esq., C.M.G., South 

Australia. 
Boflchkemper, G., Esq., Holland. 
Bourne, Stephen, Esq., F.S.S. 
Bowditch, H. J., Esq., Boston. 
Brachelli, Dr. H. F., Vienna. 
Braasey, T., M,P. 
British Association, The. 
Brown, Sevellor A, Esq., Washing- 
ton, P.S.A. 
Bruton, Leonard, Esq., Bristol. 
Budapest, Chamber of Conmierce. 

„ Statistical Bureau. 
Buenos Ayres, Statistic^ Bureau of. 
Bunso Kurd, Mr., Japan, 
^u^eau des Longitudes, Paris. 



Cape of (Jood Hope, The Colonial 
Secretary of. 

Capital and Labour, The Editor of. 

Centennial Commission, 1876,U.S.A. 

Chambers of Commerce, The Asso- 
ciated. 

Chervin, Dr. A., of Paris. 

China, The Inspector-General of 
Chinese Maritime Customs. 

Civil Engineers, Institution of. 

Cobden Club, the Committee of. 

Collins, J. Wright, Esq., J.P., Falk- 
land Islands. 

Commercial World, The Editor of. 

Coni, Dr. E. R, Buenos Ayres. 

Cornish, Surgeon-Major W. R, 
F.RC.a, &c 

Courtney, J. M., Esq., Canada. 

Craigie, Maj(»* P. G., London. 

Danvers, Juland, Esq., London. 

Deloche, M., Paris. 

Denmark, Statistical Bureau of. 

„ Political Economy Soc 
Dent, W. T., Esq., Yoj*. 
Dillon, M., Esq., Lcmdon. 
Dodge, J. R Esq., Washington. 
Doyle, Patrick, Esq., C.E. 
Dublin, Chief Com. of Police. 
Du Cane, Colonel E. F, C.B. 
Dun, John, Esq., F.S.S. 
Duncan, W. J., Esq., Edinburgh. 
Durham University College of Medi- 
cine. 

East India Association, London. 
Eccentric Club, Author of the. 
Economist, The Editor of. 
Economiste Fran^ais, The Editoi of. 
Edinburgh, The City Chamberlain. 

„ Boyal Society of. 

EgyP*> Ministry of tl^e Interior. 
Ellison & Co., MessrsL, UverpooL 
Engel, Dr. Ernest, Berlin. 



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DONOB8 TO THE LIBRAUT. 



During the Year ISSO^ContinuecL 



Fearer, John, Esq., Liverpool 
Ficker, Dr. Adolf, Vienna. 
Finance Chronicle, The Editor of. 
Fleming, William, Esq. 
Foville, M. A. de, Paris. 
France, H. £. Minister of Agricul- 
ture and Commerce. 
France, H. E. Minister of Finance. 
., „ Justice. 

Public 
Instruction. 
Public 
Works. 
Frankfort-on-M., G^graphical and 
Statistical Soc. 
„ Medical Society. 

Frankland, F. W., Esq., N. Zealand. 
Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. 
Friendly Societies, The Registrar of. 

Germany, Imperial Statistical Office. 
German Consul-C^eral, London. 
Giflfen, Robert, Esq., F.S.S. 
Glasgow, Philosophical Society of. 

„ Sanitary Department. 

„ Unemployed Relief Fund 
Committee. 

„ United Trades' Council. 
Guy, Dr. W. A,, F.RS., &c 

Hall, E. Swarbreck, Esq., M.R.C.S., 
Tasmania. 

Hamburg, Chamber of Conmierce. 
„ Sanitary Bureau of. 
„ Statistical Bureau of. 

Hancock, Dr. W. N., Dublin. 

Harrison & Sons, Messrs., London. 

Hart, R, Esq., Shanghai 

Hayter, H. H., Esq., Melbourne. 

Hector, James, Esq., M.D., Wel- 
lington. 

Hedley, F. T., Esq., F.S.S. 

Henry, James, The Trustees of. 

Hill, Chas. S., Esq., Washington. 

HiU, Sir Rowland, his Family. 



Historic Society of Lancashire and 

Cheshire. 
Howard Association, London. 
Hoyle, William, Esq. 
Hubbe-Schleiden, D. J. W., Ham- 

bui^. 
Hungary, Ministry for Religion and 
Education. 
„ Statistical Bureau of. 

Illinois, Bureau of Statistics. 
India, The Superintendent of the 

Government Printing of. 
Indiana, Department of Statistics 

and Geology. 
Ingall, W. T. F. M., Esq., F.S.a 
Insurance Gazette, The Editor of. 
„ Record, The Editor of. 
„ World, The Editor of. 
Investors' Monthly Manual, The 

Editor of. 
Ireland, Statistical and Social 

Inquiry Society of. 
Iron and Coal Trades' Review, Tlie 

Editor of. 
Italian Legation, London, The. 
Italy, Director General of Statistics. 

„ Hygienic Society, Milan. 

Jamaica, The Registrar-General 
Janssens, Dr. E., Brussels. 
Japan, Statistical Office, Tokio. 
Jarvis, Dr. E., Dorchester, Mass. 
Jenkins, F. L, Esq., Brooklyn, New 

York. 
Jevons, Prof. W. Stanley, F.RS. 
Johnston, Messrs. W. and A. K 

London. 
Jordan, Henry, Esq., Brisbane. 
Jourdan, Miss Beatrice A., London. 

Keleti, Chas., Esq., Budapest. 
Kelly, Dr., Worthing. 
Kennedy, J. C. G., Esq., Washing- 
ton. U.S.A. 



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DONOB8 TO THE LIBRABY. 



57 



During the Year 1880 — Continued, 



King's College, London. 
Knox, John Jay, Esq., Washington. 
Koroei, Joseph, Budapest. 
Kyshe, J. B., Esq., Mauritius. 

Labourers' Friend, The Editor of. 
Labouring Classes, Society for Im- 
proving the. 
Layton, Messrs. C. and E., London. 
Levaaseur, M. E., Paris. 
Lisboa, Geographical Society of. 
Liverpool, Lit and Phil. Society. 
Lloyds, The Committee of. 
Local Taxation Committee. 
London Hospital, The Secretary. 
Longman and Co., Messrs., London. 
Lovely, William, Esq., RN., London. 
Ludlow, N. M., Esq., London. 

Machinery Market, Editor of. 
Macmillan and Co., Messrs., London. 
Madrid, Geographical Society of. 
„ Listitute of Geography and 
Statistics. 
Mallet, Sir Louis. 

Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society. 
„ Public Free Libraries. 
„ Statistical Society. 
Maasachusetts^ Board of Health, 
Lunacy, and 
Charity. 
„ Bureau of Statistics 

of Labor. 
Mauritius, Governor-General of. 
„ Editor of Almanac and 
Colonial Begister of. 
Mayr, Dr. George, Munich. 
Mechanical Engineers, Listitu- 

tion of. 
Medical Herald, Louisville, U.aA., 

The Editor of. 
Mercator, Ernst, Esq., Frankfort 
Moldenhawer, J. Esq. 
Morselli, Prof. E., Italy. 



Moss, Messrs. J., and Co. 
Mosser, Francois, Esq. 
Mouat, Dr. F. J., F.RC.S. 
Mulhall, M. G., Esq., London. 

Nanson, Prof. E. J., Melbourne. 

National Union of Elementary 
Teachers. 

Nature, The Editor of, London. 

Nelson, F. G. P., Esq., London. 

New York, Trustees of the Cooper 
Union. 

Netherlands Consul at Liverpool. 
„ Legation, London. 

„ Minister of the Interior. 

„ Statistical Society of. 

Neumann-Spallart, Dr. Fr. Xav., 
Vienna. 

Newcome, F. N., Esq. 

NewSouth Wales, Agent-Generalfor 
n Registrar-General. 

New York State Library. 

New Zealand, Registrar-General 

Nimmo, Joseph, Esq., junr., Wash- 
ington. 

Noble, B., Esq., London. 

Novellis, Signer A. 

Norway, Central Statistical Bureau. 

Nowell, E. C, Esq., Tasmania. 

Ohio, Secretary of State. 

Paris, Statistical Society of. 
Parker, J., Esq., Worcester. 
Perozzo, Luigi, Esq., Rome. 
Petersen, Aleksis, Esq. Copenhagen. 
Portugal, Consul - General for, 

London. 
Poznanski, Joseph. 
Praagh, W. van, Esq. 
Prague, Statistical Commission of. 
Prinsep, C. C, Esq., London. 
Prussia, Royal Statistical Bureau of. 
Purdy, F., Esq., F.S.S., London. 



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DONORS TO THE UBRART. 



During the Year 1880 — Continued. 



Queensland, Begistrar-General of. 

Baikes, Captain G. A. 
BailwajB, Society for the Admini- 
stration of German. 
Bavenstein, E. G., Esq., London. 
Redgrave, A. Esq., a B., F.S.S. 
Beeve, Dr. J. T. Madison, Wisconsin. 
Beid, G. H., Esq., Sydney. 
Beid, H. L., Esq. 
Beview, The Editor of. 
B6yue Bibliographique Unirerselle, 

The Eiitor of, Paris. 
B^Yue Geographiqne Internationale, 

The Editor of, Paris. 
Bivista Enropea, The Editor of. 
Bobinson, Sir W. R 
Borne, Giunta Centrale de Statistdca. 
Both, H. L., Esq., Brisbane. 
Boumania, Central Statistical Office. 
Boyal Agricnltoral Society. 

„ Asiatic Society. 

„ „ „ Bombay Branch. 
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Reprinted from the Journal of the Statistical Society for 1851, Prioe 1«., 
with a Preface and Notes. 

STATISTICS 

OT THE 

FARM SCHOOL SYSTEM 

OT THE 

CONTINENT, 

AND OF ITS APPLICABILITT TO THE 

PREYENTIYE AND REFORMATORY EDUCATION 



PAUPER AND CRIMINAL CHILDREN IN ENGLAND. 
By the latb JOSEPH FLETCHER, Esq., 

BAftUSTSE^AT-LAW, HOROmAKT SSCRRAKT. 

LONDON: E. STANFORD, S6, CHABING CROSS, S.W. 



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JOURNAL 



OV THX 



STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



(jfMnirA 1834.) 



Vol. XLIIL— Part I. 
MARCH. 1880. 



LONDON: 
EDWABD STANFORD, 66, OHAEING CttOSS, S.W. 

1880. 

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STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



HIS BOTAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE OF WALES, K.a. 



COUNCIL AND F F I C E R S.— 1879-80. 

(havmff fitted the Office qf PreeidenC). 



The Bight Honoitbablb The Easl op 

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LOKD 



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F.B.S. 
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F.a.8., Ac. 



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THOMAS BBASSEY, ESQ., M.P. 

F. J. Mouat, M.D., F.B.C.S. I Fbedeeick Pubdt. 

A. J. Mundblla, M.P. I Six B. W. Bawson, C.B., E.C.M.a. 

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Cmo^ttrfr* 

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6iB Bawson W. Bawson, O.B., KO.M.G. 
Ebnebt Sbtd. 

COBNBLIUS WaLFOBD, F.LA. 



tttxttaxiti. 

Hammond Chubb. | Bobebt Giffen. 
Pbofbssob W. Stanlbt Jeyons. 
dToretsn ibeoretarv. I editor of t^f SounuiL 

Fbedbbio J. Mouat, M.D. | Bobebt Giffbn. 

Mtfittatit ttvcttBXfii. 

Joseph Whittall. 

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2 



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Vol. XLm.] [Part L 

JOUBNAL OF THE STATISTICAL SOGIETT, 

MABGH, 1880. 



h the Value of Monet Risikq in England and throughout the 
World? With Remarks on the Effect of the Fluctuating 
Conditions of Trade u^on the Value of Monet. By R. H. 
Patterson, Esq. 

[Read before the StatUtiod Society, 16th December, 1S79.] 
CONTENTS : 



PAGE 

I.— Money and Prices in Great 

Britiun 8 

II . — Money and Prices in India . 5 

111.— The Produce of the Mines.. 9 

IV.— Effects of the State of Trade 

on the Value of Money .... 9 



PAGK 

V. — Production and Employ- 
ment of the Precious 

Metals 13 

VI. — Summary and Conclusion 16 

VII.— The Subject at Home 18 

VIIL— Recent Growth of the 

Note Circulation 19 

IX.— Rise of the Bank Rate .... 20 



In more than one part of the " Wealth of Nations," Adam Smith 
refers to the prevalent opinion in his time, that the value of the 
precious metals was still falling ; whereas he explicitly states as his 
own opinion, or rather as a fact demonstrated by the state of prices, 
that for three-quarters of a century previous — viz., from the closing 
years of the seventeenth century down to the time when he wrote 
— ^there had been a slight but distinctly perceptible rise in the 
value of money. The popular opinion thus referred to was 
perfectly natural. Money had fallen immensely in value during the 
century and a half subsequent to the dii^covery of America with its 
mines of the precious metals ; and as the produce of the mines in 
the eighteenth century was very much larger than it had ever 
been before, it was only natural to believe that the fall in the value 
of the precious metals was stiD in progress. Ordinary observers 
overlooked the fact, pointed out by Adam Smith, that the require- 
ments for money had contemporaneously increased vastly ; indeed 
to such an extent that the increased produce of the mines was 
inadequate to fully meet the increased requirements for it. 

An analogous or parallel state of public opinion has prevailed 
in connection with the peerlessly rich new mines of America and 

TOL. XLIU. PAST I. B 

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2 Patterson — h the Value of Money Bidng [Mar; 

Australia. In 1873 — ^wliich is our starting-point in this inquiry — 
prices were very high, and people were still believing in, or expecting 
a continuous fall in the value of money. Although the gold-mines 
had declined from their maximum production, little attention was 
given to that circumstance ; moreover, the annual yield of gold 
was still more than double what it was in 1848; and also, the 
comparative falling off in the produce of gold was compensated in 
amount by the increased supply of silver from the new Nevada 
mines. This was the state of matters in 1873. 

Soon afterwards, a great fall began in the value of silver com- 
pared with gold; and as no one then thought that gold was 
becoming scarce and rising in value, the change in the value of 
silver appeared to be a veritable depreciation of that metal — ^a fall 
not merely relatively to gold, but also to labour and commodities 
in general. The House of Commons, when appointing the Select 
Committee of 1876, adopted the prevalent opinion ; and the Com- 
mittee in their Report proceeded upon the same view of the matter, 
although some of the evidence then adduced pointed to a different 
conclusion. On the other hand, the Commission simultaneously 
appointed by the Congress of the United States, reported in the 
clearest and most confident terms that there had been no fall in the 
value of silver, except as compared with gold, and that the value 
of gold had risen : in their own words, " Since 1873, the purchasing 
" power of gold has risen in all countries, and the purchasing power 
" of silver has fallen in none." The report of the American Com- 
mission failed to attract attention in this country : moreover, as 
the United States are interested in upholding the value of silver, 
for the sake of the splendid Nevada mines, the opinion of the 
American Commission was open to the suspicion that " the wish 
" was father to the thought." 

Recently, however, it has become acknowledged in this country 
that the view taken by the American Commission is not altogether 
baseless, and that the *' depreciation " of silver may really be due, 
to some extent at least, to a rise in the value of gold. To determine 
correctly any substantial change in the value of the precious metals 
compared with other commodities, is one of the most difficult of 
inquiries. It can only be done by reviewing Prices over* a long 
period of years, and by taking into account a variety of causes of a 
most complicated kind, operating upon the production and supply 
of commodities, as well as the fiuctuations in the condition or 
** spirit " of trade. It is only in part that I here attempt such a 
task : I shall hardly go beyond the broad facts of the last half-dozen 
years. I shall venture, however, to lay before you some considera- 
tions relative to the important questions. Whether the cause of the 
altered value of money is to be found in the Supply or in the 



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1880.] in England cmd throughout the World ? 3 

Demand — ^whether tlie rise is owing to the diminished yield of the 
gold-mines, or to the depression of trade, — and how far the rise is 
likely to be permanent. But the first point is, How does the 
value of money stand, both in this oonntry and in India, or throngh- 
ont the world at large ; and in what degree have gold and silver 
respectively been affected in valae, both towards general com- 
modities and towards one another P 

[In this opening portion of the Paper, 1872-73 is the most 
snitablerperiod to start from, because that was prior to the recent 
change in the relative value of gold and silver ; so that, by con- 
sidering the subsequent events,, we can see what have been the 
causes of that change, and the true character of the so-called 
** depreciation" of silver. On the other hand, the year 1873 was 
almost as exceptional as regards its high prices as the present* year 
is for low prices ; and in the portion of this Paper which relates to 
the value of Money generally,, it will be seen that I do not rely in 
any way upon the contrast of prices exhibited in those particular 
years.] 

I. — Jlfoncy amd Friee^ in Great Britain, 

To begin with our own country and currency. That prices 
have ferilen — i.e., that money has risen in value — in this country 
since 1873 is a fact too obvious to be questioned; but, as will 
become apparent in the sequel, it is highly important to observe 
what is the extent to which this change has occurred. A change 
in the value of money must be ascertained, primarily, by reference 
to the state of prices — ^in other words, the value of general com- 
modities as measured in money. 

There are ^veral Tables of Prices available to determine this 
point, for all of which the community is indebted to members of 
this Society. There is, first, the table regularly compiled for, and 
published for many years past hj the *' Economist," and which 
includes all the chief articles of merchandise. There is also a table 
compiled by Mr. Arthur Ellis, editor of the " Statist," from 1869 
to the first quarter of 1878, which gives the prices of the raw 
materials of British manufactures, and which may be said to 
represhit our Imports ; and thirdly, there is a table compiled during 
the present year by Mr. GKffen, for the Board of T^tule, which 
relates to our Exports — to the articles of merchandise produced 
in and exported from this country. Taking these two latter tables 
together, they pretty nearly correspond in character to the single 
" Economist *' table. The " Economist " table, however, is the only 
one which has been brought down to the beginning of the present 
year; and the said table shows a fall of prices since 1873 equal to 
24I per cent. Thus, be the cause what it may, assuming the 

b2 



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4 Pattemoit — It tJie Value of Money Biting [Mw. 

correctness of this carefully compiled table, the purchasing power 
of our British currency — in other words, of Ck>ld — ^has risen folly 
34 per cent, since 1873. 

Next, let us see how Silver stands in this country, and in 
Europe and America generally. The g^ld-price of an ounce of 
silver during the twenty years ending with 1850 (when the produce 
of the new gold-mines first began to reach the markets of the world) 
averaged as near -as may be ^^\d. ; during the next twenty years it 
stood above this old level,4n some years being (ttd, ; but it returned 
to its old level in 1872, and throughout 1873 the average price of 
the ounce of silver was $g\d, -[I may remark in passing that 
although, in common with others, I regard the rise in the price of 
silver as due to the increased production of gold, I do so only 
partially; for I believe that an equal factor in the case was the 
extraordinary demand for silver for the Bast.*] In 1876, under 
the influence of Panic, the price of silver fell to 45. the ounce. 
Since that time, the value of silver has stood at what appears to be 
its normal or natural level under the new circumstances (namely, 
the widespread demonetisation of that metal, Ac.), — the present 
price per ounce being about 5 1^. -.f a fall of ^d. per ounce, or 
about 13^ per cent., compared with its gold-price in 1872, in 
which year the gold-price of silver rwas exactly the same as used 
to prevail previous to 1850. 

Taking these facts as they- stand, and putting them together, 
they go to show that the common idea, and the one universally 
held in this country in 1876 — namely, that there has been an 
absolute depreciation of silver — is wrong. The fall in the value 
of silver compared to gold is 1 1 per cent, less than the rise in the 
value of gold compared with general commodities. In other words, 
the purchasing power of silver, or its value in general commodities, 
has not fallen at all. On the contrary, in this country it has risen 
(judging from the *' Economist's " Table of Prices) 11 percent; 

* Silver, which stood at its Old average price of s$\d. in 1848, thereafter 
began to rise, and in 1852-55 it stood at 6ii<{. As this was before the setting in 
of the great expansion of the trade with India, the rise most be attributed to 
the great increase in the supply of gold. But thereafter, although the g^ld mines 
had reached their maximum of production, the price of sUver continued to rise, 
until it stood at 62'Xd, in 1859; and it remained above its old price (S9\d.) until 
after 1872. From these Acts I infer that the latter part of the rise in the price 
of silver (viz., from 61kd, to 6%^gd,) was owing to the great demand and drain 
of silver to the East which commenced in 1856, or a little earlier, and that after 
that year this great drain for the East was the sole cause of the enhanced price of 
silver. 

t These figures represent the state of matters in September last, when this 
paper was written. Since then, the value of silver has somewhat risen ; but I 
have not thought it necessary to alter the figures, because the change is slight, and 
also because, even were it greater than it is, it would not affect the argument or 
exposition. 



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1880.] in England and throughout the World ? 5 

while gold has risen fully 13 per cent, more, — or in all 24^ per cent, 
at the beginning of the present year. 

II. — Money and Prices in India, 

Snch is the present valae of the two metals in* this country, 
where gold is the standard- money, and more or less* in other 
countries of the Western world. Let us next see how the case 
stands in the East, where silver constitutes the whole currency and 
sole legal measure of value. Unfortunately there are no scientifi- 
cally prepared tables of prices for India similar to those which I 
have quoted for our own country. Before referring to such data as 
we possess, let me first look at the case from a general' point of 
view. The mass ol silver poured* into India during the trwenty 
years subsequent to 1855 has been literally prodigious ; the nett 
additian made to tiie stock of silver in India during the period 
having been about 160 millions sterling. Nevertheless, in the 
opinion of the highest authorities, India in 1876 was still inade- 
quately supplied with currency. The new supply of specie did not 
stagnate and become plethoric in the towns and industrial centres, 
but was drained off to provide currency in the interior of the 
country — in the districts where Barter had previously existed, but 
where both Labour and Production were* becoming developed by 
the large influx of British capital — by the new radlSvays, and by 
the quickening of industry which so remarkably characterised 
those twenty years. More currency was needed in India owing to 
more Employment and higher wages, and also by the gradual 
displacement of Barter ; while more silver, whether in coin or in 
ornaments, was needed to store the small but increasing reserve- 
wealth of the peasantry and shopkeepers. In 1863 the Governor 
of Bombay wrote as- follows : — " Great quantities of silver are 
'* absorbed in remoter parta of the country, and go to furnish a 
*' currency where no general medium of exchange existed before ; 
'* rupees are now to be found in hundreds of small bazaars where 
" all Trdtte used to be conducted in barter." And in 1876, when 
giving evidence before the Select Committee on the depreciation 
of silver. Colonel Hyde, director of the Calcutta Mint, spoke con- 
fidently as to the insufficient amount of currency in India, and the 
capacity of that counta*y to absorb more silver into circulation, — 
adding that " the progress of the currency in India will be very 
'* slow, but I think it will be sure." More silver is needed to dis- 
place barter in the outlying districts, as well as to meet the growing 
requirements of trade and of Government and personal expenditure 
in the more advanced districts where silver-money is already in 
use. 

Thos, vast as has been the quantity of silver poured into India, 



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6 Patteeson — h (he Value of Money Bidng [Mar. 

there are general and d priori gpronnds for donbting, whether there 
has, or coald have been, any redundancy and fall in the value 
of the silver currency of that country. But let us see what is the 
evidence of Prices upon this point. In 1876 Mr. R. W. Crawford 
ntated before the Silver Committee that " Prices have fallen very 
** much in India ; " and he referred to a staple quality of cotton 
■fhich had fallen since 1872-3 from 6\d. the pound to 4^. — a &11 
of one- third, or 33 per cent. — and to saltpetre, which had fallen 
from 305. the cwt. to barely I7«., a fall of fully 43 per cent. Cotton 
and saltpetre are staple exports of India, and doubtless are as 
good single commodities as can be quoted in a question of prices, 
— especially since rice and grain have been abnormally affected in 
price of late years by the severe Famines ; nevertheless, important 
commercial articles as cotton and saltpetre are, taken alone they 
are quite unreliable as indications of a general change of prices. 
Subsequently to 1876, the Government of India has published 
a List of Prices of a tolerably complete character; but they 
are mere lists, not scientifically treated statistics like the Tables 
which have emanated from members of this Society, and which 
tell their own tale on the face of them. Perhaps Mr. Giffen or 
Mr. Ellis, or some other member of this Society — perhaps 
Mr. Newmarch himself, our greatest authority on the subject — may 
have analysed those Indian lists of prices, and will give the results 
in a better manner than I am prepared to do. As is well known, 
there may be a change in the prices of one set of commo- 
dities — Fay in the exports — while a different state of matters 
prevails in another class — say of domestic production and consump- 
tion. The Government of India, referring to those lists of prices 
and also to its general information, simply maintains that there 
has been vo rise of prices in India, and that the rupee still buys as 
much goods or labour as before ; for this is sufficient for the 
purpose which the Government had in view in its Memorandum, 
viz., to show that there has been no absolute depreciation of silver, 
but merely in relation to gold. The Bombay Chamber of Commerce 
states the same fact. In 1877, when the price of silver was lower 
than now, the Bombay Chamber of Commerce reported that " the 
"purchasing power of the rupee in respect of ordinary articles of con- 
'* sumption, such as the food of the people, remains undiminished." 
— Parliamentary Paper, 11th August, 1877. 

But I think somewhat more than this may be said. The general 
opinion or knowledge of merchants connected with the Indian trade 
certainly seems to be that, on the whole, prices have fallen in India 
since 1873, about which time the change began in the relative value 
of the two precious metals. I think it will be acknowledged that 
if silver has risen in purchasing power in a country like England, 



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1880.] in England a/nd throughcmt the World ? 7 

where silver is not Money, ccBteris paribiis, silver will rise in value in 
a country where it is Money, and also the sole currency, — especially 
in a country where, as in India, that currency is to some extent 
inadequate. This, however, is assuming that Ihe conditions of the 
two countries in other respects are similar, which cannot be said 
correctly of India and England at present. Undoubtedly both of 
them are alike in this important respect, that Trade is not prosper- 
ing as it used to do ; but in India the commercial depression has 
not been so severe as in England. Indeed, even if the commercial 
depression were equally severe in both countries, it would produce 
a much lesser effect upon a country like India, whose wealth is 
mainly agricultural and dependent upon its internal Trade, than 
upon England, which is more than any other country dependent upon 
its manufactures and Foreign commerce. In India it may be said 
that Trade, as represented by the Exports and Imports, has simply 
ceased to progress, whereas in England it has greatly lost ground. 
And, as I shall refer to by-and-bye, this difference in commercial 
condition may produce a very considerable difference in the state of 
Prices. Nevertheless, so far as I can venture an opinion, I should 
say that prices have fallen somewhat in India ; in other words, the 
value of silver, measured in general commodities, has risen : — and 
if Uiis change has occurred to the extent of lo per cent., the state 
of matters as regards the purchasing power of silver would (accord- 
ing to the " Economist's'' Table of Prices) be the same in India as 
in England. But, as already said, the value of silver might be con- 
siderably different in India from what it is here ; because the value of 
that metal will naturally (that is, if all other circumstances bo equal) 
stand somewhat higher in a country where it is the sole currency 
than in another where it is not money at all. In the course of time, 
no doubt, such a difference would disappear by the effects of diffu- 
sion and equalisation, but it may be expected to exist at present, or 
at any time when changes are actually in progress. Hence, were 
the state of trade or national prosperity identical in the two 
countries, I should expect that, if silver haa risen lo per cent, in 
parchasing power in this country, it would have risen somewhat 
more in the bazaars of India. On the other hand, the depression 
of trade being greater in this country than in India, will (as I shall 
explain by-and-bye) tend to produce a different and counteracting 
i*e8ult. 

I have taken England, a gold country, and India, a silver 
country, and such is the respective value of the precious metals 
in these two countries as shown by the State of Prices. So 
judged, there has undoubtedly been a rise in the value of Money 
during the last half-dozen years. As regards the simple matter 
of fact, no one can question that this is so. But the important 



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8 Pattibson — Is the Value of Money Bvting [Mar. 

qaestion is, Is thia change dne (so to speak) to Money, or to a 
transient condition of Trade P The state of Prices does not of 
itself show to what canse or causes the present change in the value 
of the precious metals is owing, or whether or not the change 
is substantial, or likely to be permanent, and not merely the 
transient result of a fluctuating Trade. Before this learned 
Society, I need not enumerate the manifold causes which may 
produce a change of prices, totally irrespective of the Supply of 
Money or the precious metals. There are constaot improve- 
ments in manufacture, improvements in the production of raw 
material, and various other causes, which tend to lower prices — 
in other words, to raise the purchasing power of money. For 
example, while writing this Paper (in September), I found the 
following statement in a leading journal of New York, which is 
also worth quoting as showing the recent low state of prices in the 
United States : — " The purchasing power of the dollar has 
'* greatly increased. The mass of our population who labour 
" do not receive so high wages as in former .years. Bents, pro- 
" visions, breadstuffs, and clothing are cheaper than ever known 
" before." But this low state of prices would be exceedingly mis- 
leading, were it taken as showing that there has been a correspond- 
ing rise in the value of money attributable to an inadequate supply 
of the precious metals; for, besides the important effect of the 
resumption of specie payments (albeit it was r^ly completed nearly 
a year and a halt ago), the low price of provisions of all kinds has 
bc^n largely dae to the fine harvest in the United States, and the 
vast expansion of agricultural production during the present year. 
In fact, Prices, although the primary and most important exponent 
of a change in the value of the precious metals, are quite unreliable 
for showing the cause of the change, — ^whether it is in the Demand 
or in the Supply of Money, or as to whether the change is likely 
to be ephemeral or permanent. 

I shall only offer one remark upon this subject. During the 
last thirty years, Prices have been chiefly influenced by two wholly 
distinct, and in their operation conflicting, factors. The steam- 
engine has been employed to annihilate Distance, and cheapen 
conveyance ; and in this way steam-locomotion, both by land and 
sea, has caused Prices to rise in remote places, and to fall in the 
great towns, and in countries which are the hearts of Commerce. 
On the other hand, the new gold-mines have tended to raise Prices 
chiefly in the hearts of Commerce. As these and other factors 
operate more or less together, there is usually a tide-like change in 
Prices ; indeed, even the same cause or factor may produce high- 
water in some places and low- water in others. 

The State of Prices, then, being of itself so unreliable, or so 



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] 880.] »» England and throughoiU the World ? 9 

limited in its significance, let ns look at some matters which Ho 
behind prices. The two great factors which lie behind are, iho 
Produce of the Mines, and the State of Trade, 

III. — The Produce of the Mines, 

The total production of the precious metals when the new gold 
mines were at their best, viz., in 1852-60, was 56 millions sterling 
annuallj. At present it appears to be almost the same. Bat there 
has been a great change in the character of the supply. In 1852-60, 
the annual produce of gold averaged nearly 28 millions, and of 
silver a trifle over 8 millions. Of late years the supply of gold has 
averaged about 19! millions, and of silver about 15 millions. 
Thus, if the Double Standard of gold and silver conjointly gene- 
rally prevailed, no effect at all upon Prices could be produced by the 
present state of the annual supply of the precious metals. But 
in countries under a single gold standard. Money ought to be rising 
in value ; and in countries under a single silver standard, Money 
ought to be falling in value. Nevertheless, as has been seen, silver 
still maintains its old purchasing power in India, or indeed has 
risen in value, while in England the purchasing power of silver has 
likewise risen ; and gold in both countries has risen still more. 

rV. — Effects of the State of Trade on the Value of Money. 

But now we come to another factor which lies behind Prices, 
and it is a most important one ~ namely, the State of Trade : using 
this term as synonymous with the material prosperity of a country. 
A Depression of Trade always, as a matter of fact, produces a fall 
of Prices; in other words, a rise in the value of Money. For 
example, referring to the " Economist's " Table of Prices, we find 
that after the Crisis of 1857 prices fell 1 5^ per cent. ; after the Crisis 
of 1866, 25 per cent.; and under the recent Depression of Trade, 
prices at the beginning of the present year stood upwards of 2 4, per 
cent, below the level in 1873. Mr. Jevons's carefully prepared 
table is not brought down to the present time, but it shows the fall 
of prices during the depression of trade which followed the Crisis 
of 1857 to have been io| per cent., and during the depression 
which followed the Crisis of 1866, 8 per cent. And here I must 
remark that the great diversity between the level of prices shown 
in these two tables — viz., the "Economist's " and Mr. Jevons*s — is a 
striking warning against dogmatism. Both of these tables are care- 
fully compiled by able men, practised in this kind of work, yet the one 
table in some cases shows a chauge of prices twice as great as in the 
other. Thus in what appears, and indeed is, the surest and most 
computable of the factors which indicate the value of the precious 
metals — namely, the statistical department, or the state of prices — 



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10 Patterson — Is the Value of Money Bismg [Mar. 

we find a stiikiiig discrepancy, which makes it impossible to attain to 
anything like accuracy of detaiL We can say that prices have risen 
or fallen (in other words, that the value of money has changed) so 
much according to this or that Table, but it seems hopeless at 
present to reach anything like perfect accuracy.* 

All evidence, however, concurs in demonstrating that money irises 
in value when Trade is depressed, and that is, when the extent of 
monetary transactions is less than usual. Prom one point of vie-w, 
and the one which used to be regarded as paramount, thia state of 
matters is very puzsling. During each of those above-mentioned 
periods of depressed Trade — in 1857 and 1866 — there was no fedl- 
ing off or change of any kind in the annual supply of the precious 
metals; and at the same time there was much less Trade or reqtLire- 
ment for money. Upon these grounds Prices ought to rise in a 
period of depression ; yet, as we know, they do not. At such times 
the amount of Money in the banks is unusually large, and the banks 
are quite ready to part with it on unusually cheap terms. Money, 
in fact, is superabundant: nevertheless Prices stand unusually 
low. On the face of it this is a strange anomaly, and certainly 
it destroys a good many Theories which used to be current. The 
explanation appears to be, that in those cases of commercial collapse 
or depression there is a great loss of Wealth in the community. 
People have not so much wealth to spend. Money may be plentiful, 
but people cannot employ it plentifully. With less wealth, people 
have less command over money ; they have not their former power 
of employing it. In other words, perhaps, it may be said that in 
bad times, people, having less wealth or property, cannot afford to 
employ or keep in circulation so much of it as usual in the shape 
of Money. They cannot afford to spend so much or to pay the old 
prices, whether for labour or goods. Merchants must trade, in 
order to maintain their commercial connections; manufacturers 
must continue their production, or else lose the interest on their 
costly factories and plant; and coal and ironmasters must keep 
their mines or furnaces in operation, or else have to incur a large 
expenditure in putting them at work again. Hence traders of all 
kinds will submit to very low prices rather than not trade at all. 

* The Fall of Prices owing to the several Depressions of Trade since 1850. 
is stated as follows : — (1) in the " Economist's *' Table ; (2) by the same Table as 
corrected by Mr. Bourne; and (3) bj Mr. Jevons:— 

1857-59, " Economist," 15*4 per cent. ; Bourne, i5'7 ; Jevons, io'6. 
'66-71, „ 27 » » 1638 » 7-8. 

'73-79, „ 246 „ ^ „ 253 „ — 

Mr. Jevons finds the effects of the Crisis of 1866 exhausted during the 
following year ; Mr. Bourne continues the Fall of Prices to the end of 1869 ; and 
the ** Economist " down to 1871. — See also Appendix B. 



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1880.] m Englamd and throughotit the World ? 11 

All classes, in short, in bad times, produce, trade, or spend upon 
lower terms ; and thus, with diminished profits and less wealth, 
there are lower wages and lower prices. In other words, the 
purchasing power of money is greater than usual. At the same 
time, although Money }my% more than usual, yet its value on loan 
is less, because people in trade — the great borrowing or discounting 
class — can hardly find profitable use even for the money which is at 
their own command. The actual amount of Reserve-wealth or 
Loanable Capital may be reduced, but the demand for it is reduced 
very much more — the result being a low Bank-rate. 

I may illustrate the effects of a Depression of Trade upon the 
value of Money in this way : — As is well known, Money always 
" goes ftirther," or buys more, in a poor country than in a rich one ; 
and, under a Depression of Trade, a country becomes, comparatively 
to its former self, a poor one. Hence the purchasing-power of. 
Money increases. Thus far the case may be plain ; but, on the 
other hand, the Rate of Discount or the Bank-rate becomes low, — 
which is the very opposite of what ordinarily prevails in a poor 
country. This anomaly may perhaps be explained by the fact that 
in a reallj or permanently poor country, the purchasing-power of 
money is high, because the nation has not been able to afford to 
provide itself with an adequate amount of money, — which can only 
be done by converting into money (i.e., the precious metals) a 
portion of the other and spare wealth or property of the country. 
But in a rich country which becomes temporarily poor, through a 
depression of trade, an adequate supply of money is already in 
existence ; and accordingly, when not employed or in circulation, 
it accumulates in the banks, and thereby facilitates the making of 
loans, — that is, produces a low Bank-rate. 

I may offer one more remark upon the effects of the condition 
of trade upon the value of Money. That more Trade requires more 
Money is a traism, — albeit it was the neglect of this consideration 
which mainly occasioned the memorable mistakes as to the Future 
of Money committed by nearly all our leading authorities in 1860, 
and for a good many years thereafter, — the only correct appreciation 
of the effects of the new gold mines which I can find being that 
made, with marvellous sagacity, by Messrs. Tooke and Newmarch 
in the concluding volumes of the "History of Prices." It may 
be said generally, that in any particular country and stage of its 
economical development, any given amount of Trade will require 
a similar amount of Money to carry it on. But this is merely a 
starting point — a general proposition which does not help much 
under the variations which one meets in actual circumstances. 
The amount of Money required at any given time, even in the 
same country, does not depend merely upon the amount of Trade- 



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12 Patteeson — Is the Value of Money Einng {^hUtr. 

transactions, bnt also npon the spirit and conditions under w^Hich 
that amount of Trade is carried on. When Trade is progressive 
and prosperous, more Monej is required than when the aame 
amount of transactions is being carried on under a stationary or 
falling Trade. For example, say that the Exports and Imports of 
a country (which ronghlj represent the state of Trade) amount 
to 400 millions : the amount of Money required to carry on that 
amount of business will be larger when Trade rises to that pointy 
than when we come back to that point owing to a decline of 
Trade. Although the number of exchanges or business-transactions 
be the same, Trade is rising and prosperous in the former case, and 
depressed in the latter. And when Trade is prosperous. Prices are 
high, requiring more currency to carry on the same amount of 
business ; and when Trade is depressed, Prices are low, so that less 
currency is required. 

From these and other considerations, it is obvious that at a 
time like the present , when a severe commercial depression pre- 
vails, any reasoning or any statement of £Etcts relative to tlie 
Value of Money would be utterly misleading, unless the effects of 
this Depression be taken into account. First, as to gold and silver 
separately. Let us suppose that but for this commercial depres- 
sion, Prices would have remained as they were in 1873. In sucli a 
case the import or significance of the change which since then has 
occurred in the relative value of gold and silver would be greatly 
altered. If gold stood simply at its old value (i.e., had not risen), 
then the recent change in the gold-price of silver would shew a 
real depreciation. On the other hand, as prices stand, gold lias 
risen so much compared with general commodities that the decline 
of silver relative to gold is not a depreciation at all, but merely a 
lesser rise in its value as measured by commodities. Both gold and 
silver have risen in purchasing power (t.c. relative to general com- 
modi ties), but silver has not risen so much as gold has done ; that 
is all. But how the case between the two metals will stand when 
the Depression comes to an end, remains to be seen. 

Secondly, a depression of trade in each country where it prevails 
exerts a similar masking effect as regards money as a whole — 
whether it be gold and silver conjointly, or gold alone, or silver 
alone : it masks or temporarily obscures the normal and ordinary, 
or what may be called the natural, value of money. The present 
depression of trade is an exceptional condition of affairs, and exerts 
an exceptional influence upon the value of money — an influence 
which must cease when the depression has ceased. 

But when the depression is over, there will come into play not 
one single and easily computable influence, but two absolutely 
conflicting influences. When the depression is over, Trade of 



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1880.] in England and throughout the World ? 13 

course will expand; and this increase of trade, with its concomitant 
increase of monetary transactions, will increase the requirement 
for money ; therefore it will tend to radse the valne of money : in 
other words, if this particnlar agency stood alone, there would be 
low prices. On the other hand, profits will increase, the old losses 
will be repaired; the national wealth will augment. Wages also will 
increase ; and both employers and employed having more to spend 
will spend more, and with more profusion or less niggardly; the 
money in bank will be called into circulation, and prices vnU rise. 
In fact, with prosperous trade, wages rise along with profits ; and a 
rise of prices is the invariable concomitant. Another usual result 
of such circumstances is a high Bank-rate. Thus, there will be 
cheap money as regards prices, but dear money as regards money 
on loan : — ^another of those anomalies and apparent contradictions 
which have to be taken into account, yet which have often been 
overlooked by authorities in forecasting the yalue of money. 

Thus the various effects of Trade and of Demand upon the 
value of money are really of the most complex character. In 
former times, and at least as late as 1858, when M, Chevalier 
published, and Mr. Cobden translated, his well known book on 
"The Coming Fall in the Value of Gold," — a book which even 
so thoroughly practical a man as Mr. Cobden endorsed and com- 
mended wamingly to the English public, yet which proved entirely 
wrong, — a very simple sum in proportion was thonght enough to 
forecast the value of money. " Here," it was said, speaking of 
the new gold-mines, "is a prodigious increase in the quantity of 
" money; therefore the value of Money must fall, and Prices rise 
" in proportion." Since that time the world has received many 
instructive lessons from Experience, and we now know how to 
avoid some of the errors formerly made ; nevertheless the subject 
is still so highly complicated that any one may shrink from the 
task of actual prediction. 

V. — Production and Employment of the Precums Metals. 

I may venture, however, in addition to what has been already 
said, to speak with some confidence upon two points. These points 
relate to the effects of the actual Production and Employment of 
the precious metals. The future supply of gold and silver from 
the earth is too conjectural a matter to be dealt with here. New 
and rich mines will doubtless be discovered, but no man can say 
where, or what is much more important, when ; and even as regards 
the existing mines, we can only afl&rm that they are not likely to 
be soon exhausted. But although only conjectures could be 
offered as to the future Production of the precious metals, we can 



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14 Patterson — h the Value of Money Rising [Mar. 

speak pretty safely as to the Employment of the present produce, 
— the use which is made of it by nations or their (Governments. 

It is needless to say that the recent widespread demonetisation 
of silver mnst greatly tend to reduce the value of that metal. The 
chief and paramount requirement both for gold and silver now-a- 
days is as money ; consequently the chief and paramount source or 
element of their value arises from the fact that they are money. 
The common saying that gold owes its value as Money simply to 
its natural pBeciousness as a commodity, I hold to be exceedingly 
incorrect. As money, gold acquires a legal value, besides its ordinary 
value as merchandise. Demonetise both gold and silver — as it is 
quite conceivable may be the fate of those metab ultimately in the 
remote future — and the value of those metals would at once be 
immensely reduced, it may be to a half, or even a quarter of the 
value which they at present possess as the costly counters which 
nations have agreed to trade with and accept as a measure of 
value. Already, in the most advanced countries, gold and silver 
might be, and to a large extent are, dispensed with in domestic 
cvrculation. Even now, specie is indispensable only in international 
payments — or rather, for a small part of them, viz., the ** balance ; " 
and if the nations come to suffer severely from changes in the 
relative value of the two metals — ^the depreciation of one and the 
appreciation of the other, — they will be tempted to see whether 
such fitful measures of value cannot be still further supplanted by 
other means of exchange, even in international transactions. 

Needless though it be to say that silver must fall in value from 
the recent work of legislative Demonetisation, it is highly important 
to bear in mind a corollary, and necessary sequence, of this change. 
The Demonetisation of silver carries with it an inevitable rise in 
the value of gold. The amount of silver demonetised must be 
replaced by, and cause to be absorbed in new transactions, an 
equal amount of gold. If there were a great plethora of gold, such 
a change might be advantageous, and could not be embarrassing. 
But there is no such plethora of gold ; and the amount of this 
metal required to take the place of the demonetised silver, must 
inevitably produce a scarcity of gold — dear M&ney, in this and 
every other country which has adopted a single gold standard. 
The amount of gold required for this new use must be very large, 
and each year in the future will make the amount larger. If the 
world had remained as it was in 1870, the seven millions a-year 
of new silver from the Nevada Mines would have been readily 
absorbed ; indeed such a sum would hardly have done more than 
annually replace the mass of lost and worn-out silver tbroughont 
the world. But since 1872, besides the collapse of Trade, several 
of the leading Governments of the West have followed the example 



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1880.] ifh EngloMd and throughout the World / 15 

of England in adopting a single gold standard ; while France and 
the other States of the Latin Union have stopped the coinage of 
silver. Thus a vast amount of silver-money has been actually 
demonetised, while, almost throughout the whole Western world, 
the entire replacement of the worn metallic currency or coinage, 
and also all the additions to it, must henceforth be made in gold. 
And it will hardly be questioned that these requisite additions will 
be of no small amount. 

A scarcity of gold, under snch circumstances, is inevitable. 
Indeed the leading merchants and bankers of the City of London, 
a few months ago addressed a memorial to the Prime Minister, 
complaining that metallic money is growing scarce. The event is 
commonly spoken of as if it were a visitation of Providence, — a 
thing as much beyond man's power of prevention as the bad 
seasons with which we have recently been afflicted ; and yet this 
scarcity of metallic money is entirely of man's making. The demo- 
netising of silver is a destrv^ciion of a large part of the wcrrld's 
cu/rrency, wilfdlly produced, — a measure voluntarily adopted by 
Parliaments or enacted by Governments. Legislation creates this 
difficulty, and legislation could remedy it. 

The common and strongest arguments in &vour of a single 
gold standard are, firstly, that gold is best suited for wealthy 
countries where large payments are common. But even in England, 
as we all know, no large payments are made in coin at all ; and as 
regards international payments, it costs no more to send silver than 
to send gold, because the cost of conveyance is not reckoned by the 
weight of the bullion but by its value. The other and more 
important argument in favour of a single standard (but one which 
be it noted, is as much in favour of silver as of gold), is, that a 
standard which rests upon the two metals is doubly unstable, 
because liable to a double set of fluctuations. I venture to say, 
there could not be a greater mistake than this. If the two bases 
were things wholly different and independent, the argument would 
be correct; but it is wholly incorrect when the two things are 
mutually interchangeable — when they can be used for the same 
purpose. No one will say that a man can stand better upon one leg 
than on two! I have never heard any sane man complain of 
having two legs because thereby he has to support himself upon 
" a double set of fluctuations." Or put the case in another way : — 
Would any one think of maintaining that the cost ^ food fluc- 
tuates more when men can live both upon animal and vegetable 
food than if, with both kinds of sustenanoe within reach, they 
chose to live upon bread or butcher's meat separately ? If either of 
these two kinds of food be in such abundance that people can 
wholly do without the other, then undoubtedly the people may 



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16 Pattbbson — Is the Value of Money Rising [Mar. 

indulge their preference, and live upon that one kind of food alone. 
But if, as is actually the case, there is no such superabundance of 
food, people would be foolish indeed if they were to create an arti- 
ficial famine, and starvation for themselves, by refusing to treat as 
food what 18 food. In like manner, it seems to me that for Gt)Tem- 
ments or Legislatures to forbid the use of silver as Money at a 
time like the present, when metallic money is growing scarce, is 
as extraordinary an aberration as legislative wisdom could possibly 
exhibit. 

To prevent misapprehension, I may state, or rather repeat, that 
I am not opposed to a single gold-standard, whether in a particular 
country or all over the world, provided the supply of that metal be 
suflQcient to maintain such a monetary system stably; but I am 
opposed to the demonetisation of silver at a time when the supply 
of gold is not sufficient to meet the new and large requirements for 
it so created — ^that is, to take the place of the demonetised silver. 

VI. — Summary omd Conclusion, 

Summing up the remarks which I have had the honour to 
submit, I would say that under the present remarkable Depression 
of Trade, the State of Prices cannot be accepted as a proof of 
what (from the imperfections of language) may be called the natural 
value of Money. At no particular time can Prices of themselves 
be relied upon to show whether the supply of the precious metals, 
as money, is redundant or scarce ; and at the present time Prices are 
so abnormally afEected by the State of Trade that they are still 
less reliable than usual for such a purpose. But we may safely 
reckon that ere long Trade will resume its progress and expansion, 
although not probably at the marvellous rate which the present 
generation have witnessed ; that wealth also will augment, and that 
the requirement for money or the precious metals will become greater 
than it is at present. 

Also, if we look at the production of the precious metals, 
especially the decline of the gold-mines, together with the wide- 
spread demonetisation of silver, I think that (wholly irrespective 
of the evidence of Prices) it can hardly be questioned that Money 
must be already growing scarce in countries which have a single 
gold currency, and that this scarcity will inevitably become greater 
and severe. 

The effects of the fluctuating conditions of Trade upon the value 
of Money, are the most interesting, and, owing to their frequent 
occurrence, perhaps the most important, and certainly they are the 
most intricate and difficult to explain. But they are only a 
transient element in the present question ; and if we would see 
what substantial change is in progress in the value of Money, we 



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1880.] in Englcmd cmd throughout the World ? 17 

must look to the more permanent element, namely, the Supply of 
the Precious Metals, and our employment of them as Money. The 
use of Money throughout the world is always extending with the 
spread of civilisatiou, growth of population, and increase of Trade ; 
and whenever the produce of the mines seriously declines, the 
probability is that a scarcity of Money is impending. Upon this 
matter I venture to state my conclusions as follows : — 

(1). As r^ards the value of Money in India. No one alleges 
that the Indian currency was in excess, or in any way depreciated, 
prior to 1873, i.e., just before the change began in the relative value 
of gold and silver. Well then, since 1872, the annual supply or 
influx of silver iuto India, has been only one-fourth what it used to 
be during the seventeen years previously.* Accordingly, coderis 
parihusj a rise in the value of Money in India would be natural ; 
and certainly it is inconceivable that there should have been a fall, 
or depreciation. Moreover, if there were a Fall or Depreciation, 
the rupee would lose a portion of its purchasing power, and hence 
a larger quantity of silver must be required than before, — whereas, 
as just shown, there has been a great decrease in the supply of 
silver in India. Mr. Bagehot has justly remarked that the Indian 
metaUic currency is so large that a depreciation of merely 2 per 
cent, would require a great addition to the stock of silver. 
Whereas, I repeat, there has been a great reduction in tlie annual 
supply since 1872, when the change began in the value of silver 
compared with gold. 

(2). Next, as to the value of Money in the gold-countries, or in 
England and the countries of the Western world generally. Since 
1872, the supply of gold from the Mines has continued to decline, 
although only slightly, and at present the supply is nearly 30 per 
cent, less than it was between 1851 and 1860. At the same time, 
since 1872, the extensive Demonetisation of Silver has created a 
proportionate increase of the requirements for Gold. Hence, as the 
gold-supply has somewhat decreased sinQe 1872, while the require- 
ments for gold have been greatly augmented, the tendency of these 
circumstances must certainly be to raise the value of Money in 
those countries where gold is the sole or chief currency. 

(3). tJpon these grounds (apart altogether from the evidence 
of Prices) it certainly appears that the value of Money is rising 

* During the seventoen years ending on Slat March, 1872, the nett imports 
of the precious metals, or the increase of gold and silver in India amount^ to 
236! millions sterling, or at the rate of 13*9 millions a-yoar : of which amount 
154} millions were silver, giving an annual average of 9*1 millions of that metal. 
During the next four years — during which period the Fall of Silver relatively to 
gold occurred, and reached its maximum — the nett imports of silver into India 
amounted to 913531584^ i or at the rate of 2 J millions a-year, or little more than a 
quarter of the previous rate of supply. — See Appendix A. 

VOL. XLUI. PAST I. C 



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18 Patterson — Is the Vcdtte of Money Rising [Mari 

throagboTit the world, both in the East and in the West, — the rise 
being greatest in gold, the metal most in nse among the chief 
trading nations of the world. 

(4). I see mach groand for believing that, bnt for the wide 
demonetisation of silver in the Western world, the fall in the valne 
of that metal relatively to gold wonld at most have been slight 
and transient. The Dse of silver-money, especially in the East, is 
so extensive as to require a large amount of that metal for the mere 
maintenance of those silver currencies, as well as for the additions 
which are naturally required, owing to the growth of trade. In 
1878, the expenditure of British capital for the railways in India 
had come to an end ; and, owing to the world-wide Depression of 
Trade, the foreign trade of India became, not retrogressive, but 
stationary. And under these circumslances silver, which had 
previously risen in value compared with gold, returned to its old 
and traditional price in gold. But thereupon the work of demone- 
tising silver commenced in Europe, and the gold-price of silver has 
fallen greatly. Bnt for this arbitrary change (viz., the demonetisa- 
tion), I think any change in the value of silver relatively to gold, 
would have been slight, and transient. Since the world proved able 
to absorb some 20 millions of new gold annually, is it not probable 
(to say the least) that now, when the gold-supply has diminished 
to the extent of 8 millions sterling, the world would have been 
able to absorb the 7 millions of new silver from Nevada ? In fact, 
but for the demonetisation of silver, would not the recent deficit 
of gold have been just compensated by the increase of silver, — 
thereby preventing that ** scarcity of metallic money ** whioh the 
leading merchants and bankers of the City of London now deplore 
in their Memorial to the Prime Minister. 

When one of the metals which constitute Money is becoming 
scarce, it is a strange procedure to demonetise the otiier. 

VII. — The Subject at Home. 

Passing from this broad, if not world-wide view of the question 
as to the present and prospective Value of Money, I shall conclude 
by coming to the state of matters at home. Gold is the single 
money of this country, and it is gold that is becoming scarce ; and 
I shall briefly call attention to one part of our Monetary System 
through which a scarcity will first make itself embarrassingly 
manifest. 

It is some ten years since, in a discussion in this Society upon 
an able paper read by Mr. Chubb, I drew attention to the matter 
of which I shall now treat more fally, and which in the interval 
has acquired additional importance, namely, — the steady increase of 
tbe note-circulation of the Bank of England pf late years, and 



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1880.] m Etiglcmd and ihroughout ihe World ? 19 

which seems bonnd to go on, — requiring a larger and larger amount 
of gold to be locked up in the Bonk in oonnectioa with its note 
issues. 

VIIL — ISiecemt Groitd% of the Hote-^Ctrctilh^ion, 

For twenty years after 1844^ the Bioik's note-tissues remained 
stationary in STerage amount, or indeed averaged somewhat less 
than at the time whem> the Bank Act was pegged. At first sight 
this circumstance appears somewhat surprising,, because during 
those twenty years the trade of the -country had expanded vastly ; 
more Trade requires more currency, or else an* improvement in the 
methods of economising it. The new gold-mines of California 
and Australia enabled additions to be made year by year to our 
stock of ^ small money,! ''the gold coins in permanent circulation, 
and these annuaT additions,, in the aggregate,, have amounted to a 
very large sam ; but, simultaneously,, ouriappliancefr for economising 
money increased in a still more remarkable and important manner. 
The employment of bank cheques in payments between individuals 
became general, and by-and-bye universal. Thereafter the "clearing 
'' system ** established a similar economy of money between the 
Banks, — the system being gradually extended until it was made 
complete (in its present form) by the Bank of England joining 
the Clearing House in 1864. This sums up the monetary 
economies effected during these twenty years, and since then no 
new economy of the currency has oome into operation. Con- 
sequently the currency itself has had to be increased, in order to 
meet the requirements of our expanding trade. As Mr. Newmarch 
has recently shown in a valuable article in the " Banking Magazine " 
an important cause of this rise in the amouBit of the Bank of 
England's note-issues is the large number of new banking offices 
(chiefly branches), which have been opened of late years ; each of 
whichy ef ceuise; has to keep in< hMid some amount of notes, as 
the basis of its operations.* 

* Mr. Newmarch sbowi that dnrmg the laat tweutj years (since 1858) the 
number of banking offices, taking banks and brancbea together, in the Metropolis, 
haa increased from 84 to ii i, or nearly threefold; in the Wast of England the 
increase has been from 1,212 to 2,195, or 8ii per cent.;, in Scotland from 609 to 
950, or 56 per cent.; and in Ireland from 187 to 4*1,. or 113 per cent. For the 
whole of the United Kingdom, Mr. Newmarch states that there has been an 
increase of banking offices to the namher of 1,546, or abo«t 77 per cent. Each of 
these new offices, of course, requires a certain amoant in cai^ (notes and coin) in 
hand to carry on its business; and Mr. Newmarch says, " If we assume that the 
" new bank-offices keep on the arerage no larger a sum than 3,oooZ. in Bank of 
** England notes, this will account for 4*74 millions sterling out of the total 
'* increase [in the Bank of England's note circulation] of 6*60 milliona—- leaving an 
" unascertained margin of only 1*86 mUlions — a sum most probably all absorbed 
" in the larger bank-note reserves kept by the older bank-offices." — •* Bunker's 
<« Magaime/' October, 1879. 

C2 



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20 Patterson — la the Value of Money Einng [Mar. 

The following statistics show the extent of the change as 
regards the note- circulation of the Bank of England. On the 
passing of the Bank Act in 1844 the note issnes of the Bank 
amounted to 21,200,000/., and, as already said, they remained a 
little below this amount on the average of the subsequent twenty 
years; that is, down to 1864. After that time the Bank's note 
circulation began steadily to increase, and during the last twelve 
months the increase has proceeded with unprecedented rapidity, 
doubtless owing, in great part, to the shaking of bank credit 
generally, by the scand^ous and disastrous collapse of the City of 
Glasgow Bank and others. Although the banking panic has quite 
passed away, I think that the addition which it has occasioned in 
the note issues of the Bank of England as it now stands, and when 
trade revives, is likely to ' be permanent. ' The following figures 
show the average note-circulation of the Bank of England since 
1844, and the great expansion which it has undergone since 
1864:— 

^ote Circulation of the Bank of England* 

£ 

1844 to 1864 20,500,000 

*66. 6th July to 25th October 21,950,000 

*71. 5th „ „ 25th „ 25,800,000 

*72. 3rd „ „ 25th September 2(>,6oo,ooo 

*73. 2nd „ „ 15th October .26^125,000 

'78. 8rd April „ Hth August 27,900,000 

*79. Ut January to'SOth September 29,244,000 

Here it appears that, apart &om the events of the last twelve 
months, the Bank's note circulation since 1864 had increased by 
more than 7 millions ; and at present, or rather, taking the avei'age 
since the commencement of the present year, the increase has been 
8| millions since 1864, — and this despite an almost unprecedented 
depression of Trade, and consequent diminution .of the ordinary 
requirement for bank-notes. 

IX. — Rise of the Bank^McUe. 

The effects of this change are of a serious character as regards 
the value of money in this country, especially when we consider the 
decline of the gold-mines and the new requirements for gold pro- 
duced by the demonetisation of silver. As is well known, the Bank 
Act requires that for the portion of the Bank's note circulation in 
excess of 1 5 millions an equal amount of specie (three-fourths of 
which must be gold) shall be kept locked up in the Issue Depart- 
ment. Accordingly nearly 9 millions of specie have thus to be 
kept locked up more than was necessary in 1864 a^d previously ; and 
the total amoant of specie thus immobilised in connection with tJje 



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1880.] 



in England and throughout the World ? 



21 



Bank's note circnlation is now upwards of 14 millions, — an amount 
twice as great as the eniire stock of coin and bullion which used to 
be held by the Bank previous to»1842. 

The effects of tl»is change have t6ld seriously upon the Bank-rate, 
or the value of money on loan. When the Bank-rate rises to 5 per 
cent., money on loan begins to become dear; and the following 
tables show the stock of coin and bullion held by the Bank on the 
several occasions when the bank-rate was^fixed at this point (viz., 
5 per cent.) in two periods: first, between 1844 and 1864; and 
secondly, since 1864 to the present date : — 



1847. 
'47. 
'63. 
'54. 
'56. 
'66. 
'66. 
'6a 
'60. 



8th April 

23rd December .... 
20th September.... 

8rd August 

27th September.... 

29th May 

Ist October 

14th January 

12th April 



1844-64 : Ftve-per Cent' 
£ 
9,236/)oo 
11,609,000 
15,066,000 
ii,594iOoo 
12,368,000 
10,766,000 

IO,2i7,000 

13,746,000 
13,890,000 



1860. 13th November.... 1 2,536,000 

'60. 28th „ .... 12,419,00c 

'61. 11th April.... 11,520,000 

'61. Ist August- 14,482,000 

'68. 28th January; .... 12,737,000 

'63. 2iid Neyember .... 13,300,000 



15)183,496,000 



Average 12,233,000 



Since 1864 the corresponding statistics have been asfollows : 



1870. 
'71. 
'72. 
'72. 
'73. 
'73. 
'78. 
'78. 



27th July 19,252,000 

7th October 19,500,000 

2nd „ 21,156,000 

11th Decembw .... 23,244,000 

14th May ^,166,000 

9th July 22,374,000 

Ist October 21,^32,000 

4th December .... 21,667,000 



1865-79 : Five per Cent, 
£ 



1874. 16th November .... 20,201,000 

'75. 7th January 22,085,000 

'76. 6th „ 21,215,000 

'77. 11th October 22,788,000 

'78. 12th August 21,683,000 

'78. 2l8t November .... 26,333,000 



Average 21,735,000 



) Thus, during the last nine years, the Bank-rate has been fixed 
at 5 per cent, when the stock of specie has averaged 24 1 millions, 
as against 12} millions in the previous time,*— the 5 per cent, 
point being now reached while there are 9I millions more specie in 
the Bank than used to be the case during the twenty years after 
1844 In truth, owing to the increase oi the note-circulation, the 
Bank is in no better position now with 22 millions of specie, than it 
used to be up to 1864 with only 12 millions. 

The statistics above given show that the connection between 
the increase of the Note-circulation since 1864 and the rise of the 
Bank-rate (relatively to the stock of gold) is perfect, — the Circula- 
tion having increased g\ millions, and the Bate standing at 5 pei 



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22 Patterson — Is the Value of Money Rising [Mar. 

oent. when the stock of coin and bullion is 9I' millions more than 
in 1864 and previoaslj. 

In giving these figures I have taken the averages, — a procedure 
which makes the extent of the change appear considerably less than 
it really is ; for, as the figures show, the amount of gold in Bank 
requisite to maintain % 5 per cent, rate of discount is upwards of 
a 6 millions ; or twice as large as was thought or found requisite 
in 1864, and nearly three times as large as in 1844. In relation 
to the stock of gold in the Bank, the rate of discount has been 
rising throughout the entire period. Indeed it is a point worthy 
of notice that even during the twenty years ending with 1864, — 
during which period, as already shown, there was no increase of 
the Bank's note-circulation, — the Bank-rate was considerably raised 
relative to the amount of gold in the Bank. And this leads me to 
observe that the policy or system of the Court of Directors may 
and does exert a great influence upon the Bank-rate, irrespective 
both of the stock of gold and ihe amount of the note-circulation. 
For rather more than twen^ years past, the policy of the 
Directors has tended towards quicker and greater elevations of the 
Bank-rate, compared with the available stock of gold, than had 
been customary before, and for some years immediately subsequent 
to, the passing of the Act of 1844, — the chief causes of the 
change being the ignoring of any difference between Home and 
Foreign drains of gold ; these were treated entirely alike, — a pro- 
cedure which I ventured to object to in two Papers which I had 
the honour to read before this Society in 1870 and 1871.* The 
worst and only serious form of a Home Drain is that which occurs 
during a Commercial or Banking Crisis ; and such drains always 
end, after a month or two, by creating a plethora of gold in the 
Bank. A year ago, however, during the Banking Crisis, the Bank 
Directors very considerably altered their practice, and the change 
which they then made was not only highly beneficial to the com- 
munity, but, as seems to me, perfectly correct in principle. 

Both the Act of 1819, and the Act of 1844 recognised bi- 
metallism — both gold and silver — as the basis of the note-circula- 
tion of the Bank of England. For a good many years after 1844, 
the Bank used to keep a portion of the specie in the Issue Depart- 
ment in the form of silver ; but some years after the gold-discoverios, 
when silver rose above its old value, the Bank, very naturally, 
preferred to keep its locked-up specie entirely in the cheaper metal, 
gold. At any time the Bank can recur to its old practice, by 
keeping one-fourth part (about 3^ millions) of this specie in silver : 

• " On Our Home Monetary Drains, and the Crisis of 1866 (1870)." «* On the 
^ Rate of Interest, and the Effects of a High Bank-rate daring Commercial 
" and Monetary Crises (1871)." 



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1880.] in England and ihroughotd the World ? 23 

but, even if this be done, we shi^ll still be in a much worse position 
tkan in 1864, because, as already shown, the increase in the note- 
circulation requires some 13 millions more specie to be kept looked 
op, or immobilised in the Issne Department. 

While the note-circulation of the Bank of England has thus 
been increasing, and to all appearances is bound to increase, I need 
hardly say that there is another increasing requirement for gold 
at home — ^viz., the annual absorption of gold coin into the cir- 
culation of this country. In 1867, when preparing my book 
on "the Science of Finance," I obtained statistics from the Mint, 
which showed that this annual absorption of gold, during the 
twenty-two years ending with 1865, averaged fully 4^ millions, 
exclusive of silver coin.* This absorption, which is necessary 
owing to the want of small notes, proceeds very irregularly, — ^being 
largest, of course, when trade is brisk and prosperous ; and it was 
exceptionally large in 1853, when the total net issue of coin from 
the Mint amounted to nearly 12 millions, — a considerable portion of 
which sum was taken abroad by emigrants, and to supply metallic 
money for Australia and California, before mints were established 
in those countries. What the present rate of absorption of gold 
into our currency is at present, I have not inquired ; but if , as is 
probable, under ordinary circumstanoes of trade, it amounts to 
about 5,000,000/., we have here — ^in the mere requirement for small 
change at home — a source of annual absorption equal of itself to 
one-fourth of the present supply of gold from the mines. This 
requirement for gold, then, must be taken into account, in consider- 
ing the Future of Money, along with the increase in the note- circu- 
lation of the Bank of England, which necessitates a corresponding 
addition to the stock of coin and bullion immobilised in the Issue 
Department of the Bank. 

Such, then, is the joint in our harness through which the scarcity 
of gold will first, and most obviously, make itself felt. 

I had intended' to include in this Paper the suggestion of 
some remedial measures for the scarcity of gold which appeals 
to be impending, or to some extent is already existing. If it bo 

• The total amount of gold and silver coined at the 'I «o ,, ^-- 

Mint between 1848 and 1866 was J '"»n9»4*7 

The amount of light gold and silver ooin withdrawn \ 1% Acq 08 

from circulutioD during the same period was j * ^ * 

Net issue of ooin from Mint 109,489,119 

or at the average rate of 4, 7 60*400/. a-year. 

The total net issue of gold coin during these twenty- three years was 
103,807,138/., or on the average rather more than 4i miUbns a-year. The 
statistics are given in full iu " The Science of Finance/' p. 677. 



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24 



Pattebsoh — Is ike Value of Money Biting 



[Mar. 



the pleagnre of the Society I Bh»Il be hi^j to treat of these 
matters on another occasion. For the present, it is enongh to 
submit to joa the &cts and amsiderations abeadj stated as to iiie 
present value of money, and the probability, as I think the cer- 
tainty, that the leading oonntrtes of the world— at least if the 
demonetisation of silver be adhered to — are about to encounter a 
period of Dear Money, and a reversal of the monetary circum- 
tftanoes which so happily set in thirty years ago. 



Appkkdee a. 



Absorption of Silver in Indian 

Table showing the Kett ImporU or Absorption tf Silvmb, in India^ 1851-75 ; 
together with the Contemporaneous Produce of the Silver Mines. The 
Figures represent the Annual Average for Quinquennial Periods^ in 
Millions Sterling, 





8iin»h» 




Inermsed Mtofftwm 






laporUorSUTcr. 




of Silver ui Iii<iia. 
Muked PlM or Minus 






•ad 




•coordinc u it 


Price of Sflver, 




tke Avenge 


rrodactaoaorSihtr. 


Escceds or faUs fthort 
of the 


perOmnee. 














after 18»S. 




of surer. 






Nett 














Imports. 


iBcrme. 




UercMe. 




d. d. 


1851-65 


2-6 


— 


8-14 


— 


— 


61 to6U 


'56-60 


IO-03 


7-43 


814 


None 


+ 7*43 


61A..62Vy 


'61-65 


997 


7-87 


9*^3 


1*40 


+ 5*88 


60H„61t^ 


'66-70 


9*43 


6-83 


lO'il 


207 


+ 4-76 


6U ,.60t^ 


'71-75 


3 -05 


•45 


13 94 


5*80 


-5'35 


601 „56i 



The total Surplus Imports of Silver into India daring these 
twenty-one years subsequent to March, 1855, amounted to 164 
millions sterling. The total Produce of the Silver Mines during 
the same years amounted to 220 millions, of which amount 50 
millions came from the new Mines, 



The Indian Trade-Balances, cmd How they were Settled, 

The aggregate Trade-balances (or excess of exports of mer- 
chandise over imports) in favour of India during the official years 
1855-56 to 1877-78 amounted to 455 millions. Of this vast amount 
276 millions were paid in specie imported into India, and 148 



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1880.] in England amd throughout the World ? 25 

millions by " Conncil Drafts," or bills drawn by onr Government 
upon the Government of India. This leaves a balance of 31 
millions nnaccoanted for, bnt which doubtless was settled by 
'* private remittances," — i.e., bills drawn upon the Indian banks by 
Englishmen resident in India (chiefly for the support of their 
iamilies in England), and payable in England. 

The aggregate Trade-balance in favoui* of India during the 
twenty-nine years subsequent to 1848 amounted to 511 millions 
sterling ; the entire production of gold and silver during the same 
period was, as nearly as can be computed, 940 millions — of whicb 
amount (taking the production at the beginning of 1848 at 
16 millions) 464 millions was the produce of the old mines, — leaving 
476 millions as the produce of the new mines since 1848. Thus it 
appears that, but for the Council Drafts and private remittances 
from India, the Indian Trade would have absorbed 35 millions rrvore 
than the entire new stock of gold and sUvei' — i.e., the entire produce 
of the gold and silver mines discovered since the beginning of 
1848. 

These statistics are taken, chiefly, from various documents 
printed in the Appendix to the Report of the Select Committee of 
the House of Commons on the Silver Question in 1876. 



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26 Patteeson — la the Value of Money Eisvi%g in England ? [Mar. 
Appendix B,--Prices and the Bank-Rate, 





Tables of Prices. 1 






Yew. 








BMk- ^_,_,,_ ,__,_ 


Tew. 


Economist. 


Bourne. 


Jevons. 


Bate. 


i:«ouuMO ATvuia. 


1845... 






g>f"5 


|j3i 


Railway Mania 


1845 


'46... 






:i ' "^ 




'46 


*47.... 






^ LI22 


Irish Famine. Panic and Com- 
mercial CnsiB 


'47 


'48.... 






106 


8f 




•48 


'49.... 


^ 


1 


lOO 


8 




'49 


I860.... 


b 


^ 

« ^ 


1 r 

-^ lOI 


■ir^t 


Average price of Consols 96I 


1850 


'61... 


^104* ^ 


103« |2 


P' 103 


1*18 




'51 


'62... 


X07 # 


114 • 


>• 1 101 


(2 u 


C<»)solflieaehed io»,aTeraged 99I 


'52 


'58... 






116 ^ 


Zi 




'53 


'54... 








'130"^ 






'6 


■^ 


'54 


1855.. 
'56... 


-a 


* 

A 
^ 


1. 
1 


»a5 
129 


■a, 


4i 

6i 


Russian War. Loan of 16 
millions 


1855 
'56 


'57.... 


136* k 


140* ^ 




.132 


1 




.64 


Severe Commercial Crisis 


'57 


'58.... 


119 # 


123 « 


118" 


81 




•68 


'59... 


ti5^ 


118^ 


120 


2f 




'69 


1860... 


122'* 


123 


124 




Financial depression in India 


1860 


'61... 


124 


124 


123 


American Civil War began 


•61 


'62... 


131 


125 


124 


21 


Cotton Famine 


•62 


'63... 


158^ 


1 


144"] 


I 


'*3 


4i 




'63 


'64... 


172 


151 


122 


M rn 




•64 


1865.. 


162 


• a 

B 


138 


J 


'*' ^ 


■M\ 


4i 


Inflation of Joint stock enterprise 


1865 








M 


:! 


4) 




"Financial A Commercial Crisis. 




'66.... 


162^ 




141^ 


1 


128»S 

• 


k 


^7 


J Fall of Overend and Gurney's. 
1 Bimk-rate 10 per cent, for 


'66 










Im 


three months 




'67.... 


137 


128 


118 




•67 


'68.... 


122/ 


122 


120 


|l2i 




'68 


'69.... 


121 


118^ 


119 


8i 




'69 


1870.... 


122/ 


119 




S 




1870 


'71.... 


118 


118 




3k 


Trade proceeds " by leaps and 
. bounds." Bubble Companies 


•71 














'72... 


129 


133 




•a Mi 


and Foreign Loan Mama 


•72 


'78t 


134 


142 




Semi-Crisis in November 


'73* 


'74... 


131 


186 




St 




•74 


1875... 


126 


130 




3i 


^ Collapse of Foreign Loans 
Bad harvests and Depression 


1875 


'76... 


1^3 


123 




Low2f 


'76 












of Trade begin 




'77.... 


113 i' 


126 




8 


. 


•77 


1878.... 


1161I 


118T^ 




8i 


Banking Ciisis. Fall of City 
of Glasgow Bank 


1878 


'79t 


Jan. 101 J ^ 


loej^ 


1 - 


J Harvest equal to only half acrop 


•79f 



t As above shown, tbe TabuUr nurol>er which the " Economist " employs to represent the stnte of prices in 187S m 134. 
and for JanoHry, IB.V, the Tabular number is loi, — the difference in figures being 33. But thi» is not a fall of 33 pm- cemi^ 
as one of the speakers in the debate inadvertently assumed, bat a fall of 24^ per cent., as stated iu the Paper. 



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1880.] • 27 



Discussion on Ms. Pattibson's Papeb. 

Mb. Gohbn said that Mr. Patterson had left little for anybody else 
to say on the subject. There were two points, on both of which 
the dednctions were strongly in unison with these at which 
Mr. Patterson has arrived, to whicli he had, however, not alluded 
in his paper. They were, firstly, the change from paper currency 
to gold currency in the United States of America ; and the slow 
oontraction in a similar direction which was going on in Europe ; 
and secondly, the very large works to which France had committed 
herself during the next decennial period. With respect to the first 
point, the initial effect of the introduction of paper currencies in 
many of the great countries of the world which enjoyed a large 
metallic medium, was to set freo a very large amount of gold and 
silver. In the United States for the last eight or twelve years, 
there had been a very large amount of created money, as it were, 
which was accepted by the country itself, in lieu of metallic medium. 
In the very first year in which the greenback currency was no 
longer compulsory, its place had to be taken by a very large amount 
of metal, thereby increasing the absorption and consequent deamess 
of the latter. In Europe this was aJso going on. For example, 
in Austria and Italy there were similar causes at work in the same 
direction, to a less extent ; and although the absorption of silver 
was undoubted, such had been the depreciation of silver, from its 
demonetisation elnewhere, that its value fell too far, as compared 
with the bank note ; and the two Governments, especially that of 
Austria, took advantage of that circumstance, to reduce the amount 
of paper currency. Then there was also France itself, which now 
had made the bank note convertible, and although previously 
practically convertible, it was not legally convertible up to the 
commencement of last year. France now had to maintain a large 
circulation of gold. Therefore, as to the first point, all these 
countries were operating in the same direction, and the writer of 
the paper had not specially alluded to these circumstances, possibly 
considering them as natural causes. Then as to the second point, 
experience showed that one of the great factors in the price of 
money was the value of labour. There was an immense absorption 
of money created by any large scheme of public works, producing 
apparent prosperity which was really only fictitious, because, when 
great public works were in progress, the prices of commodities 
rose at the same time, and necessitated a larger individual expen- 
diture of money. The French legislature has sanctioned a scheme 
by which an expenditure of 132,000,000/. sterling would be made in 
the next ten years. It had authorised the creation of debt, the 
annual issue of which was to be regulated by the ChamberH, but 
which would amount to at least 12,000,000/. sterling per annum for 
the next ten years. Besides this French scheme, large public works 
had been undertaken elsewhere, and the effect of them had already 



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28 Discusdon [Mar. 

l)een shown in the enhanced value of commodities. America, and 
each of our colonies, were engaged in works which, although highly 
productive, must tend to the absorption of metals for the purpose 
of paying the workmen who were engaged in their construction. 
The world was now in a stage of constructive work larger than it 
had attempted for sometime past. This small island had made 
railways at a rapid rate, and its wealth was so large that it was 
enabled to do so in advance of other countries. But there was now 
a concurrent desire for railway making in all parts of the world. 
GiM^ntic railways were being made from the extreme west of Russia 
in Europe, to the extreme east of Russia in Asia ; and experience 
would show that unless there was some new secret source of wealth 
to be discovered, the value of gold must gradually appreciate from 
this cause alone, if from no other. These considerations were of 
importance to the artisan and to the trader. It was not a misfor- 
tune that there should be a period of moderately dear money ; but 
it was a misfortune when jerks in trade were produced by commit- 
ments to gigantic enterprises, which required longer periods for 
their dcTelopment than the impatience of some countries was pre- 
pared to afEord. 

Mr. Hbnby Hoabe thought that although it was not difficult to 
arrive at a general notion of figures and statistics, there was 
nothing so vague as the knowledge about the value of monev and 
the value of gold. Everyone admitted that the value of gold was 
dependent upon the quantity of goods that people would give for 
it, and as this naturally varied from time to time, it must de|iend 
upon the amount of supply and demand. The amount of gold had 
been estimated to be about 1,200 million pounds ; and the amount 
of gold that had been transplaced and had been taken from the 
general stock and brought into new quarters was something like 
200 millions. At the time of the German war, the French Govern- 
ment had borrowed 60 millions from the Bank of France, and he 
believed that the greater part of that was in gold. The amount of 
gold absorbed in Germany was something like 60 millions, and 
there had been a similar amount absorbed in the United States, 
therefore under those three heads there was in round numbers 
about 180 millions, the whole of which had been taken from the 
general stock of gold and put in circulation into new quarters, 
replacing paper money in France, replacing silver and paper money 
in Germany, and replacing paper money in the United States. He 
thought a good deal more wanted to be worked out in relation to 
the difference between gold, as money, and paper money and bank 
balances. In a time of great trade, a large number of bills were 
current, and these would produce, for the time, the same effect as a 
large quantity of gold. He thought the natural contraction of the 
currency in times of depression would in a great measure account 
for the low prices then ruling. 

Mr. BoTTRNK thought that Mr. Patterson failed, as he himself 
seemed disposed to admit, to make out that the rise shown by the 
alteration of prices really substantiated any increase in the value of 



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1880.] on Mr. Patterson's Paper. 29 

money ; for this reason principally, that if the alteration in prices 
had resulted from an alteration in the real yalne of the money by 
which those prices were estimated, there would have been some- 
thing like regularity and fixity in their relations. The point on 
which he wished to touch was this : that there was no irregularity 
in the changes in prices at all comparable or at all equivalent k> 
the changes in the quantity of gold in existence at the time, or the 
amount of gold produced. Now, it would be expected that if it was 
an alteration in the value of gold itself that effected a change in 
prices, the various articles would follow the same rule. Mr. Patterson 
had alluded to prices in India, and spoke of two articles selected 
by Mr. Crawford; but these in themselves, although they were 
individually fitting articles to be chosen as examples, were not 
sufficient to regulate the whole comparison. He agreed with 
Mr. Patterson in that opinion, for he (Mr. Bourne) had himself 
attempted to draw a comparison of prices in India, and found it was 
utterly impossible. The cotton at one time showed a rise, and wheat 
at another, and the various causes operated to produce a difference 
in price utterly irrespective of the quantity of gold in circulation or 
the value of silver. He therefore inferred that the change had been 
in the prices of the goods themselves, and not in the gold by which 
they were represented. This would make all the difference in their 
calculations^ and he thought such would be fully made out on an 
examination of the case. Again, Mr. Patterson had spoken of 
silver as though it had absolutely risen in value in our own 
country ; but he (Mr. Bourne) rather thought that the figures to 
which Mr. Patterson had referred, did not support the conclusion 
to which he had arrived, and he was not able to reconcile these with 
the present state of prices. The '^Economist " said that the value 
of silver as compared with gold was 1 1 per cent, less than the value 
of gold compared with other commodities. At the present time he 
thought it was 22 per cent. In 1873 the " Economist " prices were 
134 and, in 1879, loi, which made a difference of 33 per cent, in 
prices; at the same time -there was 13 per cent, only in silver; 
therefore the difference was t2 instead of 11. He thought 
Mr. Patterson had<made his calculations last year, and that they 
were not in accordance with the present state of things. Recently 
there was an undoubted rise in prices, which seemed to impugn the 
conclusion at which Mr. Patterson had arrived. The inflation of 
1873 was one which could not possibly last, and he thought it was 
hardly fair to take those prices as a test, and to compare them with 
the prices of the present time, when they wanted to judge of the 
value of money. Allusion was made to the variations in the prices 
as shown by the " Economist " and himself. He (Mr. Bourne) had 
ventured to alter those of the " Economist," because the selected 
articles embraced four descriptions of cotton, and thus the great 
fluctuations in the price of the raw material affected the general 
results fourfold. In like manner he thought his friend Mr. Giffen, 
in his paper on the " Prices of Exports,*' bad selected a year in 
which the coal famine had abnormally raised all articles into which 
the price of coal entered, and thus vitiated the comparison between 
that year and 1877. Mr. Patterson bad spoken of the falling off in 



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30 Diteuisicn [Mar. 

India. Now it seemed to bim that tbat depended very mnch upon 
the state of her export trade. In 1873 the surplns of India's 
exports over her imports was 3 1 millions, and in 1876 only 19 millions, 
making a difference of 12 millions; that bad to be supplied by 
silver, and which would account for the falling off of the quantity 
of silver in India. Again, precious metals were not like articles c^ 
consumption, which went on importing at the same rate. Tbe 
importations were expected to be regulated by the trade. He took 
it that the real necessity for the use of gold in settling intemationml 
balances, did not so much depend upon the aggregate amount of 
trade, as upon the balances of trade that bad to be settled. Talcing 
the case of America and England at the present moment, there 
could be no doubt that if our transactiona with America were settled 
by the agency of circulating medium, we should be denuded of ^old 
in a very short time, because America was taking from us 60 millions 
or 70 millions worth of goods more than we were taking from her, 
the reason being that the balances were settled by the use of securities 
of various kinds which one nation parted with and another nation 
took, instead of being taken by means of gold. There was no don^bt 
that at the present moment Ama*ica was settling her balance "vritii 
us by the purchase from us of the securities we held formerly in 
her country, and hence the extreme difference had not been made 
manifest, because it had been quietly going on in that way. Bnt^ 
again, they coald scarcely conceive 01 a metalHe scarcity at the 
present moment. There was no want of it experienced in this 
country nor in America. The great extension of banking facilities 
in this country, the use of cheques, the ease with which securities 
were transferred from one counts'y to another, seemed aHl to supply 
the place of a metallic medium. 

Mr. GiFPEN remarked as to what Mr. Bourne bad said with 
reference to there being no deficiency of metallic money at the 
present time, that this was no answer to the statement tbat a 
deficiency of metallic money had caused an unusual fall of prices ; 
the fall having taken place, money was again abundant for the 
moment : but only for idie moxient. To compare the present time 
with 1873 merely was a very insufficient process. The only way in 
which any profitable result could be arrived at, was to take as many 
cycles of prosperity and adversity as was possible, and to compare 
the prices of one prosperous period with those of another pros- 
perous period, and also to compare the prices of one depressed 
period with those of another. If that were done and it was found 
that at one period of prosperity the aggregate level of prices did 
not rise quite so high as in the previous period of prosperity, or 
rose highei*, then at the next period of depression it was found that 
the fall was to a much lower level on the average than in the 
previous period of depression, or to not quite so low a level, he 
thought that from these facts there would be an indication of the 
genei-al rise or fall of prices ; and that general rise or fall of 
prices was only another way of stating that there was a deprecia- 
tion or appreciation of the standard money in which the prices 
were expressed. This very point was dwelt upon a great deal in 



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1880.] on Mr. Patterson's Paper. 31 

a famoTis book of Mr. Jevons, in whicli he showed that a ^eat 
fall in gold took place between 1848 and 1860. He proved that 
the averags lerei in prices was higher in 1860 than it was in 1848, 
and it was found that a sovereigpi did not go so far at one period 
as at another. This was what was meant by a general rise of 
prices. Since then there was an indication that there had been a 
movement in the opposite direction. Comparing one prosperous 
period with another, and comparing a depressed period with a 
depressed period, it was fonnd that a sovereign now went farther 
than it did some ten years ago. He thonght that was only an 
indication; bat it was no sufficient answer to say that at a par- 
ticular moment money seemed to be abundant, and there was 
plenty of money in the banks. He thonght also there had been 
a gi'eat deal of evidence to show that there was now a scarcity 
of bullion for all the wants of the world. The recent stringency 
in the United States was an unmistakable proof. The United 
States had lately wanted metal very much^ and he should say 
that very nearly i6 millions sterling from the 1st of August last 
had been shipped from England and France to the United States 
[Mr. Lionel Cohen — 19 millions], and part of that money had actu- 
ally been nsed in the United States, and in a quarter where scarcity 
of money would show itself most, namely, in the reserve of the 
banks. The New York banks alone held 7 millions or 8 millions 
sterling more than in August last. Although then quite lately 
the sarplns in the Bank of England and the Bank of France seemed 
to be so enormous, it had gone away quickly, and both these banks 
had raised their rates. Mr. Bourne had repeated the challenge to 
some of his (Mr. Giffen's) figures, but nothing he had said affected 
the comparison he had made between 1873 and 1877 in point of 
fact. Taking a certain group of articles, and taking the average 
prices of those articles in 1873, and comparing them with the actual 
prices in 1877, would be a good comparison as far as it went. In 
fact it would be found that the average price of these articles in 
1877 was very ifauch less than that of 1873, and any diminution of 
the decline in these two dates must be a decline in price only. It 
might be true that the figures in 1873 were abnormal ; but that 
did not affect the correctness of the actual comparison in the two 
years. Referring to Mr. Patterson's paper, he should like to make 
a small correction as to what Mr. Patterson had sa^d regarding the 
annual consumption of gold in the coinage of this country at the 
present time. He did not think it was necessary for Mr. Patterson's 
argument to put it so strongly, but he thought that Mr. Patterson 
had a good deal overstated what the consumption really was. 
Mr. Patterson had put it at between 4 or 5 millions. Some years ago 
it might have reached that sum, and he believed it did reach it, but 
during the last ten years the consumption of gold in the United 
Kingdom for the coinage had not been so much as 4 or 5 milHons. 
So ^r as he could make out, the proper figure of the consumption 
of gold in the coinage would not exceed about 2 millions per annum 
during the last ten years. The sum was rather a difficult one to 
do, because one would have to take the actual coinage, which 
during the last ten years had been about 47 millions sterling, and 



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32 Discussion [Mar. 

to dednct from that the light coin -withdrawn, and that had heen 
melted and re-coined. That would bring it to 3 5 or 36 millions ; 
and after that, there had to be deducted the excess of the exports 
of British gold coined over the imports. There was a constant 
movement going on, and the net export of coin in this way could 
not be put in the last ten years at less than 1 5 millions sterling, and 
that would bring the consumption at home to about 20 millions 
sterling, or 2 millions a-year. In addition, however, a large export 
of coin took place in the pockets of travellers, and that would reduce 
the estimate of coin going into circulation in this country still more. 
Another comparatively small point seemed to be in regard to what 
Mr. Patterson said about India. He (Mr. GKfEen) did not think it 
was quite fair to take the last few years, and compare them with 
the seventeen years previous, for the reason that those seventeen 
years included a most extraordinary time, the time of the cotton 
famine, in which the consumption of silver in India was on a 
most abnormal scale. The silver then went to India in enormous 
quantities for special purposes, and was absorbed in a special way. 
It appeared to him, as far as the average consumption of silver in 
India was concerned, if the time say before 1850 was compared with 
the present time, it would be found that there had been an enor- 
mous increase in the import trade in India. He was also inclined 
to think that in some parts of India, there had been a considerable 
rise in prices, in consequence of the enormous absorption of silver 
in the seven years ending about 1870. Certainly in some parts of 
the Bombay presidency there had been such a rise in prices as he 
had hardly known of anywhere. The particulars of it were to be 
found in some official papers published a good many years ago, 
showing that enormous changes had taken place in India in con- 
sequence of the absorption of silver owing to the cotton &mine. 
What he wished to say generally about Mr. Pattersou^s paper was, 
that he believed there were indications of a gold scarcity which 
it was very difficult to estimate at the present moment, because so 
little time had elapsed to show the actual reduction in the range of 
prices at the present time compared with what it was ten, twelve, or 
twenty years ago. It took a long time to show these things statis- 
tically. There had been since 1860 a lower range of prices all 
round, and it seemed to indicate a state of things that might be 
called a gold scarcity, which might be expected to go on. He thought 
Mr. Cohen had explained very well how we would be affected by 
the demands of the United States. Taking all these things into 
consideration, and also the fact that we were in a present state of 
depression, we might look forward for the next few years to high 
rates of discount, and as a consequence of that, eventually a fall of 
prices. He should like to dissent from the apparent impression 
given by Mr. Patterson's paper, that he held opinions in favour of 
bi-metallism. It seemed to him that to condemn the general 
demonetisation of silver as unwise, was really a very different thing 
from approving of bi-metallism, and Mr. Patterson had apparently 
confounded the two things. 

Mr. BouBNA said he did not for one moment impugn Mr. 

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1880.] on Mr. PaUersan^s Paper. 33 

Giffen's calcnlations, he simply said he did not think the variation 
of the prices in two such years at all went to establish the fact 
that there had been any dilEerence in the value of the money. 

Mr. Walfobd said he conld not help feeling that while the 
paper was a nataral efEort to eliminate a ilieory ont of the question 
of the rise in value of money or the decrease in money, the author 
had not taken into account sufficiently accidental circumstances, 
such as the question of supply as regulated by good or bad 
harvests, which in his judgment regulated the question of prices 
much more than the actual supply of currency. There was only a 
small portion of the currency in use in the case of international 
exchange for commodities. There was another point which 
affected the question very much, and that was legislative inter- 
ference. In some coantries the customs on imports had to be paid 
in gold, some in silver, and some in other ways ; and there seemed 
to be always a legislative interference going on which would affect 
the bullion requirements in those countries. In the United States, 
during his recent visit of some months, he observed that the people, 
having got used to paper money, would not voluntarily use 
bullion ; but the Gk)vemment were forcing the use of gold and 
diver by withdrawing the paper. It could not be said that the 
bullion now flowing over to America was in the natural course of 
events. The abundant harvests there, and the deficient ones in 
Europe, had caused a very large amount of money to go. This 
circumstance fitted in with the policy of the Government there at 
the moment. Bullion after all was only one, and a smaU, element in 
the mercantile transactions of the world, and a temporary neces- 
sity for it in any one locality caused fluctuations. Bank notes 
must always be an important medium in home dealings ; and Bank 
of England notes were every year becoming a more extended 
medium of exchange in different parts of the world. They were 
all indebted to Mr. Patterson for a very able paper. 

The President (Thomas Brasaey, M.P.) said he could not claim 
to be in any sense an authority on the complex and important 
question that had been brought under their notice in Mr. Patter- 
son's able paper. It was a valuable contribution to the Journal 
of the Society, and he was sure they were all very much in- 
debted to Mr. Patterson for the labour he had bestowed upon 
it. Having had a good deal to do with commercial matters, he 
(the President) had many reasons for appreciating Mr. Patterson's 
difficulty in satisfactorily determining the appreciation or depre- 
ciation in prices. Mr. Patterson had drawn an inference with 
reference to the valae of gold from a comparison of prices at 
the present time with those current in the year 1873. That was 
rather too short a period to justify any generalisation. If, how- 
ever, exception were taken to the policy of our Government in 
selecting gold as the standard, a policy which had been framed 
-with the idea of using that metal which was most likely to be the 
best in point of value, the fluctaations of prices as detailed in the 
appendix to Mr. Patterson's paper, showed that that policy on the 

TOL. XLin. PART I. D 

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34 Discussion on Mr. FcMersoifCs Paper, [Mar. 

whole was justified by experience. It had been said that prioes had 
fallen very sensibly since 1873. Were they to trace that faD in 
prices entirely or mainly to the appreciation of gold ? On that 
point he would venture to say, as a commercial man, that prices 
had fallen from causes with which the question of gold had not 
any direct relation. Certainly prices had fallen, in part because 
producers and manufacturers had been obliged to forego the profits 
they were realising in 1873, and also because the labouring class 
had been obliged to submit to a veiy considerable reduction of 
wages. It was a question, therefore, whether this fiuctuation in 
prices was not as much a depreciation in profit and wages as 
^preciation in gold. Looking along the columns compiled by the 
" Economist " and Mr. Bourne, he would venture to say that the 
value of gold would, on the whole, appear to have been remarkably 
steady. Mr. Gifien had said that prosperous years must be compared 
with prosperous years, and unprosperous years with unprosperous 
years. There was a remarkable recurrence of the same average of 
prices at different periods in the period embraced in the table. For 
instance, the figure 1 18 appeared in the tables of prices in 1878, in 
1871, in 1869, in 1859, and again in 1853. So, too, in regwxl to 
the bank rate, the same figures were found occurring from time to 
time over a long period of years. In view of these facts, he ven- 
tured to say that on the whole the policy of the Government in 
adopting gold as the standard had been justified by experience. It 
was known that in India another metal had been adopted as the 
standard, and in India there had been a serious fall in the value of 
silver. That had recently been the subject of an elaborate parlia- 
mentary inquiry. The value of silver in India had been very 
seriously impaired by the policy unfortunately adopted in Germany 
of the demonetisation of silver. That policy had thrown a large 
amount of silver on the market, and had affected prejudicially the 
value of silver in India. Something had been said in regard to 
what seemed to be a waste of money when the wages rose unduly. 
He should be very sorry to advocate an undue rise of wages ; but 
he thought they had heard a good deal of late with reference to the 
impaired activity of trade in the home market, and its depressing 
effect upon our manufactures generally. This, he thought, was 
very certain, that the distribution of money in the form of wages 
did cause a demand for commodities, and it was equally certain that 
serious reductions in wages pi^ejudicially affected the home market 
and our trade generally. He was sure he was doing what all 
present would desire, when he expressed to Mr. Patterson their 
acknowledgments for the great services which he had, not for the 
first time, rendered for the Statistical Society, in preparing such an 
able paper upon so difficult and important a subject. 



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1880.] 36 



The Stbikbs of the Past Tin Yeaes. 
By Q. Phillips Bbvan, F.S.S., P.G.S. 

[Read before the Statistical Society, 20th Jaimaiy, 1880.] 

I APPBOAGH the subject of my paper this eyening with the greatest 
diffidence, and a strong distmst in my own powers to deal with it as 
it shonld be dealt with. The subject itself is not a grateful one ; 
and I am sure that all who have paid any attention to the labour 
question, will join with me in the appreciation of the difficulties with 
which it is surrounded, and in a very decided feeling of dissatis&c- 
tion at the results of our inquiries into the particular branch of trade 
disputes. Indeed, at the very outset, the thought naturally occurs, 
cui bono ? For what object are we examining the strikes of the 
past decade ? What can be the good of raking up quarrels which 
should never have been begun, and that should be consigned to 
limbo as soon as finished ; and why should we seek to disinter the 
chronicles of disputes which have passed into the regions of history P 
To this not unreasonable question I would reply, that it would be 
well for this country if strikes had become a matter of history, 
instead of being episodes of the present time, so constant as to be 
the rule and not the exception. Striking has become a disease, and 
a very grave disease, in the body social, a remedy for which has 
long occupied the attention of learned sociologists and legislators, 
but which as yet shows no sign of having run its course. I think 
therefore that it is not only useful, but necessary, for all who are 
interested in the proceedings of capital and labour (and who are not, 
directly or indirectly?), to examine and diagnose this great evil 
in all its bearings, as it is only by so doing that we can arrive at any 
hope of alleviation. For myself, I do not believe in any speedy 
cure by legislative measures or any one course of action. What 
I have endeavoured to do in this short paper, is to bring together as 
many cases of strikes as I have been able to collect, that have 
happened within the last ten years, as a text upon which the 
opinions and discussions of this Society may be founded. It is, I 
have reason to think, the first time that this subject has been' 
brought before the Statistical Society: and although many a 
pleasanter one could have been selected, not one could be discussed 
which is of more vital importance to the country. I am happy to 
know that it will be discussed by an assembly which is so eminently 
calculated to do so judicially and distwjBsionately, free from the 

d2 

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36 Bevan— On the Strikes of the Pad Ten Tears. [Mar. 

bias with which the employer naturally views the question, or from 
the intemperate spirit which so often characterises the disputants on 
the other side. I feel sadly conscious that my investigations have 
been most imperfect : for I have met with more difficulties than 
I expected in the way of procuring information. Strikes, numerous 
as they are, have been so imperfectly chronicled, even in those 
journals and publications which profess to devote most attention to 
industrial matters, that the labour of getting at the simple ^t of 
their occurrence has been very considerable, and in a vast number of 
oases I have only been able to state that such and such a strike did 
take place, without any further information. Even this bald state- 
ment, however, is not without its uses, for it has enabled me to make 
an aggregate of the number of labour disputes, which may perhaps 
startle those who have engaged in them, if they ever do happen 
to reflect upon the enormous hindrance to labour and trade that 
these quarrels represent. The causes of strikes are so few, that it 
becomes monotonous to read them : nor is it perhaps very essential 
to our subject to know what is the reason of each strike, as long as 
the strike takes place. But the points of information which are 
most lacking, and the absence of which I very much regret, are the 
results. There is an especial difficulty about getting at the results of 
the termination of a strike, unless it happens to be one on a very 
large scale, so large as to be chronicled from day to day in the 
public papers : the reason being, that whether masters or men 
are victorious, neither side are anxious to trumpet forth the fact, 
but prefer to let the whole quarrel glide into obscurity without 
enlightening the outside world as to its specific features. I have 
however been able in a great number of cases, the majority indeed, 
to ascertain pretty correctly the duration of the strike, a very 
important fact when we try to arrive at any calculation as to the 
cost of a strike to the country. In the case of very large and 
important strikes, we are often informed as to the probable loss 
sustained, sometimes stated, as it were, ex cathedrd, in the report of 
a trade society, bat more frequently the result of a simple guess, 
which as often as not is exceedingly wild and vague. Supposing it 
were possible to arrive at an accurate conclusion as to the loss in 
wages of the aggregate strikes, which seems to me to be scarcely 
feasible, considering the lack of data, I fear that the figures, gigantio 
as they would be, would have no appreciable effect in checking 
the recurrence of strikes ; for the moment that a fresh casus belli 
arises, all prudence seems to be flung to the wind. The losses, the 
miseries, the starvation, the debt, the destruction to trade, which 
have occurred on previous occasions, are forgotten in the bitterness 
of fighting ; and it is only the sober few, whose age and ex- 
perience remind them sadly of the past, that hold up their hands 



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1880.] Bbvan— On the Strikes of the Past Ten Tears. 37 

for peace, and council a more pradont policy. This is supposing 
the quarrel to be a bond fide one, and not a question of deliberate 
war carried by the trade societies into the enemies' ground. It is 
much to be feared that an ofEensive campaign of this kind has not 
unfrequently been commenced and persisted in as part of a deter- 
mined scheme, against which the feelings of the majority of work- 
men, who have to contribute to the strike fund, would decidedly 
pronounce, if full opportunity and free licence of opinion were 
allowed. K however the statements made by Mr. George Howell in 
" Eraser's Magazine " for December last are correct, it appears that 
strikes are frequently carried on because it pays the strikers to do 
so ; and if undertaken in this way as an investment, I confess that 
1 do not see much hopes of any solution of the difficulty. 

The following table shows the number of strikes that have taken 
place during the last ten years, as far as I have been able to obtain 
the facts, to amount in the aggregate to 2,3 52^ viz. : — 



1870 30 

'71 98 

'72 343 

'78 365 

'74 286 



1875 245 

'76 229 

'77 180 

'78 268 

*79 (to let December) 308 



The numbers of 1870 and 1871 are out of all proportion to those 
of succeeding years, and the only way in which I can account for 
it, is the fact that a great epidemic of strikes broke out at the end 
of the latter year — an epidemic which has unfortunately become 
chronic, and seems, if anything, to grow in intensiiy. It may be, too, 
that public attention was not so much directed to these questions 
as it has been of late years ; so that many disputes might have 
taken place, which were not chronicled in the local papers. The 
causes of strikes are monotonously due to either demands for advance 
of wages and resistance to a reduction, or, what seems to be the 
same thing, an increase or a decrease of working hours. The great 
number of strikes that took place in 1872-73, which have not 
been equalled either before or since, happened at a time when, as 
we all remember, industry was at its highest. Labour was in 
extreme demand ; there was a great inflation of prices, which culmi- 
nated about 1874 ; and as a matter of wage, men could get pretty 
well what they liked to ask within fairly reasonable limits ; some- 
times, indeed, the limit might well have been pronounced extrava- 
gant ; still they were not satisfied ; and though the generality of them 
were earning more money than they had ever earned before, they 
determined to work the question in another way, and demand a 
reduction of working hours — a reduction which in the main was 
universally complied with, though not until after many disastrous 



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38 BiVAK— 0» the Strikes of ihe Past Ten Tears. [Mar. 

qoarrelfl. At the present time we see the oonverse of ihia state of 
things. Times are bad — ^worse almost than we have ever known 
them — and although the inevitable decline of wages which has taken 
place during the increasing depression of trade has provoked manj 
strikes, the men have been obliged to bow to the necessities of the 
occasion, and have not been able to carry on their resistance wiih. 
the same pertinacity which they could afEord to exercise in brisk 
seasons. The masters have seized their opportunity, and done in 
1879 exactly what the men did in 1872-73, viz., made an effort to 
win back the extra hour which they then conceded. This is partly 
the explanation of the large number of strikes in 1879. 

Looking through the detailed list of later quarrels, I find that 
amongst the extraneous causes are — alterations of old rules in fac- 
tories and workshops; piecework; refusal of the men to allow 
women to participate in their employment (as in the case of the 
Nottingham hosiers in 1871) ; dismissal of workmen; insubordina- 
tion (as in the case of the gas- stokers at Beckton in 1872, when 
they nearly succeeded in plunging London into darkness); the 
importation of foreign labour (as in the case of the experimentiJ 
beetroot sugar nuiking at Lavenham, in Suffolk, in 1873) ; the 
introduction of juvenile labour ; legislative interference (as in the 
case of the chain cable makers of Newcastle, who struck in 1873 
because the Act required a chain of stronger straining power than 
they had been in the habit of making) ; an increased speed of loom 
(as in the case of the carpet weavers at Elderslie in 1874) ; disUke 
to check weighmen (as in the case of the Tyldesley and the Bamsley 
colliers in 1876, the Ryhope colliers in 1877, and the Wigan 
colliers in 1879) ; the introduction of labour saving machinery (as 
in the case of the bootmakers of Leeds in 1876) ; disapproval of an 
arbitration award (as in the case of the Ashton towel weavers, and 
the Middlesbrough ironworkers in 1878); the Manvers Main 
colliers who struck against Mr. Mundella's arbitration ; the colliers 
at Dodsworth, in 1877 ; the Northumberland colliers, in the same 
year, who declined to accede to Mr. Herschel's arbitration; the 
painters at Preston, and the Wolverhampton joiners. Colliers have 
also struck against the use of a more stringent safety lamp (as in 
the case of the Carlton Main and Rawmarsh colliers, in 1878) ; and 
there have been strikes also against the employment of non- 
unionists (as in the case of the Padiham building operatives) ; 
against riddling in collieries (as in the case of the Kippax oollieries, 
1878). These are amongst the minor causes that have produced 
quarrels, the great majority being, as before stated, against a reduc- 
tion or for an advance of wage. The persistence with which large 
bodies of men have fought a hopeless battle is worthy of the highest 
praise, were the energy a bit better directed. The Manchester 



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1880.] Beyah— On ihe StHhes of ike Past IW YewB. 



39 



joiners, in 1878, fonght for a whole year for an increase of wages; 
and at the end of that time, those who did not find their places 
filled up, were glad to get back at less than the original terms ; 
while in the. same year the Dundee slaters disputed unsuccessfully 
for two months for an extra halfpenny per hour, and the Gorton 
Main colliers stuck out for many weeks against what amounted to 
five-eighths of a penny. 

Let us now examme how many trades have struck in the last 
ten years, and which are the industries that seem most open to this 
course of proceeding. I have drawn up two tables on this subject — 
the first rather more in detail, and the second dealing with the 
trades in groups. The subdivisions of labour are so numerous in 
the present day, that I have been obliged to comprise a good many 
classes under one head. Under that of the iron trade, for instance, 
are included not only the workmen in an iron or steel establishment, 
such as furnace men, pnddlers, rollers, hammerers, &c., but also 
blacksmiths, moulders, foundrymen, and other subsidiary classes of 
operatives. Under the heading of engineers are comprised fitters, 
mechanics, and engine tenters; while under that of the cotton 
trades are winders, piecers, self-acting minders, strippers, grinders, 
spinners, weavers, &>q. The result of the list shows that iii 
trades are implicated in these disputes. Of course, as might be 
expected, the staple industries exhibit the largest number of strikes ; 
but it is encouraging to find how few of the trades do strike in 
comparison with those who do not. Even some of those who figure 
in our list might almost be eliminated, as far as the number and 
duration of their strikes go ; for, what we may call the striking 
trades are limited to some forty or so. Taking the last census 
tables of the industrial population as a general guide to the number 
of trades, we find that they are set down at 187, and it is perhaps 
a source of congratulation to observe the small proportion of indus- 
trial combatants, although the fighting instinct in this proportion 
is a matter of regret. 









Table XL 














Tr.de. 


70. 


71. 


72. 


78. 


74. 


75. 


76. 


77. 


78. 


79. 


Tbtal. 


Agricultural labourers... 

Anchor makers 

Ail<f Tnakers 


1 


1 


3 
10 

4 

I 

1 


7 
1 

4 
8 

1 


I 

4 

3 
1 

I 


1 

6 

1 


I 

2 
2 


1 

1 

8 
1 

1 


5 

4 


6 

1 

1 
1 

4 


17 

t 
I 


Bakers 


23 

1 
I 


Beetsugar makers 

Bobbin makers 


Boilermakers 


27 


Bookbinders 


6 


Brass and copper 1 
workers j 


II 



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40 Bevan — On the Strikes of the Fast Ten Years, 

Table Ti—Contd, 



[Mar. 



T^e. 


70. 


71. 


72. 


78. 


74. 


75. 


76. 


77. 


78. 


79. 


Total. 


SnavAn ...•.••— 


1 

1 

I 

I 
I 

4 

3 

I 

I 

I 

I 


2 

1 

1 
4 

1 

1 

2 
15 

1 
5 

5 
5 

4 

1 

2 

10 
2 


I 
6 
1 
6 
3 

I 
4 

34 

I 

5 

I 
6 

26 

4 

3 

4 

1 

lO 

4 

3 

i6 

I 

8 

2 

1 
I 
2 

4 

1 

3 
I 

»5 


8 

6 
2 
4 

8 

27 
1 

8 

2 

5 
46 

4 

11 
2 

5 
6 
6 

1 

16 
3 

1 
12 

2 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

19 
1 


2 
lO 

4. 

3 

i3 

4 

1 

6 

41 

2 

6 
3 

2 
5 

15 
1 

I 
10 

2 

3 

10 

2 


6 

1 
2 

2 

25 
2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

4 

23 

1 

10 
2 

2 

1 

16 
3 

2 

1 

20 


2 

8 
3 
3 

6 

1 
5 

I 
I 

5 

20 
I 

7 

3 

2 
4 

2 
6 

12 


8 
8 

8 
25 

4 

8 

19 

1 
9 

1 
6 

4 

1 

1 

1 

4 


5 

3 
I 

2 
H 

8 

I 



4* 

2 

I 

4 

I 
3 

6 

3 

16 

I 


2 
6 

7 

3 

15 

1 

5 

1 
3 

4 

64 

1 

24 

5 

5 
2 

4 

13 
10 

3 

8 

2 

2 

1 

20 
2 


J 


Brick and tUe makers .... 
Srickbftt makers 


15 
I 


Bricklftvors 


52 


Bnuliinakera 


9 


Building operatiTee 

Butchers 


43 

2 


Cabinet makers andl 

polishers J 

Carpenters and joiners 
Cametmakers ,T--t"- 


37 

187 
6 


Carriage and waggon 1 

builders J 

Caseraakers - 

CausewaT layers 


30 

1 
1 


Cement makers... .--^-- 


2 


Chain makers 




Chemical operatires 

China-clay diggers 

Cloth and wool opera- 1 

tires J 

Colliers 


16 

2 

37 
314 


Combmakers 


1 


Confectioners 


I 


Coopers and packing! 

case makers J 

Corkcutters 


13 


Cotton hands 


120 


Cutlers and tool makers 
Distillers 


22 


Dock labourers 


23 


Drivers and carmen 

Dyers and printers 

£lectroDlat>erB 


14 
I 


Engineers and fitters .... 
Farriers 


96 
4 


Fender and fireiron 

makers 

Fisbermen 


2 
2 


Flax, linen, and jutel 
haiids J 

Floor clotb and mati 
makers J 

Fustian cutters..... rr- 


56 

4 
I 


Gttrdeners 




Ghaswork men 


6 


Glass makers 


31 


Gun makers 


I 


TTfirdware makers...... 


3 


Hatters 


4 


Hinfl^ makers „r..,r r 


1 


Horseshoe makers 

Hosiery hands 


1 
14 


Indiarubber workers .... 
Iron workers 


I 
127 


Tiftce hands , r..„. 


8 







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1880.] Bevan— On ths Stakes of the Past Ten Tears. 
Table II— Cbn^. 



41 



Trade, 


70. 


71. 


72. 


73. 


74. 


75. 


76. 


77. 


78. 


79. 


Total. 


Labourers (general) 

Lath splitters 

Leather workers and! 

tanners J 

Lockmakers 




I 

I 

2 

5 

I 

I 

I 


2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

4 
8 

1 
2 

6 
3 

2 

1 

1 
1 


I 
3 

2 

7 
3 

4 

3 
3 

2 

3 

2 
2 
I 

8 
6 

5 

2 

4 

I 

3 
8 

2 
20 

6 

4 

7 

2 

I 
I 


1 

1 

16 
1 
3 

4 
10 

1 

2 

5 

1 

2 

6 
6 

2 

1 
6 

5 

2 

8 

2 
2 

14 

25 

1 

5 

17 

4 

1 
1 


I 
i8 

I 

2 
2 

2 
lO 

X 

2 

3 

5 

4 

3 
5 
I 

3 

7 

I 
I 
8 

I 

1 
II 

2 
1 

I 
2 
I 


1 

1 

22 

1 
2 
2 

1 

6 

2 
8 
5 

3 
8 

1 
4 
1 

1 
14 

6 

6 
1 

10 

1 
1 

1 


I 

21 

X 
I 
2 

2 

i8 

2 

3 

3 

4 
3 

2 

3 

I 

n 

7 

I 
I 
5 

2 
I 
I 


1 

1 

1 

17 

2 

8 

1 
6 

1 

5 

3 

1 

4 

1 

1 
9 

3 

1 

7 

2 

4 
2 


1 
I 

I 

29 

2 

4 

I 

6 

6 

5 

4 

I 

6 
3 

2 

6 

4 

3 

3 

I 


12 

4 
5 

3 
2 

2 

2 

13 
6 

4 

3 

3 

4 

1 
8 


6 

3 

7 

5 
I 


Maltsters 


Masons 


151 

I 
7 


Military clothing makers 
Millers 


Miners (metallic) 


25 

39 

6 


Kail and chain makers 
Navvies 


Needle makers 


I 


Nut and bolt makers .... 

Offif^if^lA ,,, 


10 
4 


Painters 


57 
I 




Paupers 


7, 


Paviors 






2 


Pipe and tube makers .... 
Plasterers 


6 
39 


Plumbers ..« 

Porters 


28 
8 


Potters 


10 


Printers and compositors 
Professionals 


24 
I 


Ouarrvroen ,.... 


37 


Bail way and telegraph \ 

employes J 

Ropemakers 


13 

9 

19 

13 


Saddlers and harness! 

makers J 

Sailors 


Snilmakers ..„ 


4 

8 

100 


Sawyers and wood 1 

cutters 

Shipbuilders 


Shopkeepers 


2 


Shoe and bootmakers .... 
Silk hands 


82 
9 


Skinners 


I 


Slaters 


40 

2 


Rprinfir makera 


Stone cutters and V 

polishers J 

Tailors 


8 
72 


Tinplate workers 


19 


Tobacco pipe makers .... 
Tobacco spmners 


3 

X 


Trunk makers 


3 




I 


Wheelwrights 


3 


Whitesmiths 


4 


Wire workers 


7 


Zinc workers 


I 







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42 BEVks—On ihe Strikes of the Pad Ten Years. [Mar. 

In this somewhat long list the colliers figure in a rather unen- 
viahle manner for 314, which, while we bear in mind that they 
form a very large body of workmen, amounting to 500,cxx) in ronnd 
numbers, is out of proportion to the strikes in other trades. While 
dispassionately searching for and reviewing the causes that lead to 
so many coal mining disputes, one cannot but be struck with the 
fact, that colliers, more than any other class of workmen, appear to 
live in a chronic state of excitement as to the wages question, and 
that there seems to be a perpetual distrust between the employed 
and employers. I simply state the circumstances as I find them 
recorded in the public papers, which anybody can read for them- 
selves ; and these records are of a continuous succession of restless 
advice and inflammatory speeches, made by those who assume the 
control of the colliers' policy in Great Britain. As to whether the 
colliers are to be envied or pitied for thus being drilled into a 
perpetual state of industrial warfare, I offer no opinion, my wish, 
as far as possible, in this paper, is to try and get at facts and figures. 
Grouping the subdivisions into more compact bodies, we find the 
following results as to the industries engaged in strikes : — 

Table III. 

Building trades 598 

Metal trades 390 

Colliers and miners 339 

Textile trades 277 

Clothing trades 163 

Ships and shipping 140 

Potterj and glass trades 63 

Wood trades 63 

Stone trades (not masons) 54 

Food and drink trades 39 

Carrying trades 35 

Carnage building trades 33 

Leather trades (not shoes) 28 

Fibre trades 2X 

Agricidtural trades 18 

The building trades, which head this list with the formidable 
number of 598, are composed of a good many sections, which have 
separate organisations and interests, and yet which seem to follow, 
as by an irrepressible impulse, the infectious habit of striking. 
They comprise masons, carpenters and joiners, slaters, bricklayers, 
plasterers, plumbers, builders' labourers, with certain minor occu- 
pations ; and it is not unnatural to find all these branches in an 
unsettled state under certain conditions of trade. The carpenters 
and joiners have the proud distinction of being the most restless, 
there having been 187 strikes under this head; and next to them 
come the masons, with 151. There are several reasons which may 



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1880.] Bevan— On the Strikes of the Fast Ten Tea/rs. 43 

account for the building trades striking so often: — 1st. It is a 
class of industry which feels almost instantaneously the ups and 
downs of trade depression or revival. 2nd. The employers are, as 
a rule, men of but moderate means, and in a great many cases 
men who have emerged more or less recently from the ranks of the 
employed. Capital being short, and speculative building being rife, 
it is not a matter of surprise that extreme cutting should be prac- 
tised in the matter of wages, and that disputes should frequently 
happen between two classes of men so little divided from each other 
by position. Of course there are giants in the building trade, as in 
all others; to them these remarks will not apply; but the great 
majority of building strikes have happened amongst the rank and 
file of employers ; and this fact will also seem as a reason why, as 
a rule, the building strikes are not only soon settled, but also much 
more frequently in favour of the men than in other trades. 3rd. The 
inequality of wages may be also a reason as to the frequency of 
these disputes. At the time of the Manchester joiners* strike, in 
1877, they were paid 8|d per hour, whereas in Liverpool the 
wages at the same time were 8 jd, at Bradford 8c?., at Lincoln 7f tf., 
at Lancaster 7c?., at Cambridge 6|c?., at Gloucester 6rf., at Win- 
chester 5^c?., at Frome 4|c?. The amount of labour being the same, 
and the prices of living being so little different in all these towns, 
it is a natural feeling that the lower- waged should seek to be on a 
little better level with the higher- waged. The next point of interest, 
though we cannot call it one of very much importance, is as to the 
localities in which strikes abound. It is to be expected that the 
greatest number of strikes would be found in the largest industrial 
centres ; and this is true to a great extent, though at the same time 
some industrial towns with large populations are much freer from 
strikes than others, proving that certain trades which afiect those 
towns are not so much given to strikes. But throughout England 
and Scotland the value of the special industry figures is a good 
deal detracted from by the perpetual recurrence of the building 
strikes, which may happen in a little town like Margate just as they 
do in Glasgow or London. I will first of all give a sort of strike 
chart by ooxmties, taking Scotland, Ireland, and Wales each as 
one. 



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44 Bevan— On the Strikes of the Past Ten Yewrs, 

Table IV. 



[Mar. 



Scotland 

Yorkshire 

Lancashire 

Northumberland 

South Wales 

Durham 

Staffordshire 

Ireland 

Middlesex 

Warwickshire 

Gloucestershire .... 

North Wales 

Monmouthshire .... 

Cumberland 

Nottinghamshire 

Derbyshire 

Chesliire 

Worcestershire .... 

Deronshire 

Leicestershire 

Kent 

Cambridgeshire .... 

Suffolk 

Northamptonshire 

Lirerpool 

Norfolk 

Hampshire 

Salop 

Westmoreland .... 

Sussex 

Essex 



473 
388 
149 

138 

135 

131 

80 

65 
58 
5* 
51 
40 

33 
32 
30 
2% 
zS 
24 
M. 
23 
20 

>9 
II 
II 
10 

9 

5 

4 
4 
3 

I 



Character of Trades. 



y Coal, iron, textiles, shipping 



> Coal, iron, shipping 

Coal, iron, hardwares, pottery 

Linen, shipping 

Metal, wood, decorative trades 

Coal 

Shipping, agriculture 

Coal, iron, mining 

K Coal, iron, shipping 

Y Coal, textiles 

Shipping, agriculture 
Coal, iron 
Mining, shipping 
Coal, textiles 

V Agriculture 

Agriculture, textiles 
Mining, leather 
Iron, agriculture 
Agriculture 

„ shipping 

„ mining 

Mining 
Agriculture 



The most noteworthy feature in the foregoing list is the extra- 
ordinary prevalence of strikes in Scotland, which, with the excep- 
tions of the counties of Lanark, Roxburgh, Ayr, Forfar, and Fife, 
has no industrial population to compare with those of the same 
character in England. A large proportion of the Scotch strikes 
are in the coal mining, and I must confess that I cannot dissociate 
these particular strikes from the policy of the individuals to whom 
I have alluded before, who claim to direct this organisation, and 
whose particular aim it seems to be is to prevent any possibility of 
unanimity or friendly feeling growing up between masters and men. 
At the same time, I cannot find that the same important influence 
exists in the case of other Scotch strikes, and am quite unable to 
give any reason for their frequency. It would be tedious to detail 
every place in which a strike has occurred during the ten years, 
and I content myself therefore with specifying the principal ones. 



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1880.] Beyajs— On the Strikes of the Past Ten Tears. 

Table V. 



45 





85 
73 
66 

63 
56 
48 
46 
45 
44 
43 
4^ 
36 
36 
30 
30 
29 
29 
28 
z8 

27 
26 
26 
24 
H 
11 
22 
21 
21 
19 
19 
19 
18 

17 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
15 
14 
14 
U 
13 
13 

13 
13 
12 
II 
10 
10 
10 


Character of Trtdet. 


fl-Wgow 


Shipping, textiles, railway works, chemicals 
Iron 60ft] plnth Hat 


Leeds 


Sheffield 

Edinburgh and Leith 

Newcastle 

Iiondon .,„ 


Coal, iron, glass, cutlery 

Shipping, milling, printing 

1, coal, iron, glass, chemicals 
„ general industries 

Co&l iron liriAn 


Bamsley 


Dundee 


Shipping, linen, and jute 

Coal, iron 

Cotton, silk, coal, iron, engineering 

n coal, engineering 
Shipping, coal, glass 
H&rdw&ntH imn 


Merthyr 

Manchester 

Bolton 


Sunderland 


Birmingham 


Bradford 


Stuff and worsted 


The Tyne 


Shipping, coal, glass, chemicals 
Lace, silk, coal 
Shipping, engineering 

„ iron, jute 
Cotton, engineering 
Coal iron nflilfi 


Nntitingham 


Liyerpool 

Barrow 

Oldhf^Tn 


Dudley 


Huddersfield 


Woollens 


Bristol 


Shipping, coal, leather 
Linens, shipping 
Coal, shippmg 
Cotton 


Belfast 


Shields 


Blackburn 


Middlesbrough 

Derby 


Iron, shipping, engineering 
WoolI«nfl 


Forest of Dean 


Iron, coal 


Ashton 


Cotton 


Dublin 


Shipping, general trades 
Iron, coiJ, hardwares 
Coal iron 


WoWerhampton 

'Rnthflrhi^m , 


Ghreenock 


Shipping, sugar refining 
Cotton 


Preston 


Hartlepool 


• Shipping, iron 

Textiles, coal, iron 
Shipping, engineering 
Pottery, coal, iron 
Shipping, quarries, woollens 
Mining, iron 
G-eneral 


Stockton 


"Wigan 


HuU 


Potteries 


Aberdeen 


Clereland 


York 


Perth 


Dyeing, woollens 
Cotton aoaI 


Bunbury 


Alloa 


Glass, pottery, linen 
Shipping, engineering 
Hats and cape, cotton 
Shipping, iron, coal, tinphite 
Hosiery, coal 

Woollftna 


Birkenhead 


Carlisle 


Cardiff 


Leicester 


Dumfries 


Hali&x 


Cloth womf»d 


Whitehaven 


Shipping, mininpr, coal 

„ quames 
Copper, iron, coal 


Plymouth 


Neath 





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46 BByAH— On ihe Strikes of the Pcut Ten Tears. [Mar. 

In addition to this list, there are 87 towns which haye ex- 
perienced strikes varying from i to 9, of which there is no occasion 
to give anjr detailed account. The next point to which I would 
briefly direct attention, is the duration of time which these 2,352 
strikes have lasted. Although in nearly half of them I have been 
able to ascertain the time which was wasted, in the remaining 
portion, viz., 1,256, there is nothing to guide us, so that I think we 
are warranted in giving each of them a duration of one week only. 
Some may have lasted more, and some less, but in the latter case we 
are quite safe in assuming that the work of that week was first 
broken into and destroyed. The following table gives the time each 
year spent in strikes : — 

Table VI. 

Weeki. 

1870 68 

*71 279 

'72 988 

'73 1,093 

'74 „ 81a 

'76 684 

'76 95a 

'77 759 

'78 1,621 

'79 (up to Ist December) 1,774 

Total 9.027 weeks or 54,162 working days. 

The durations of strikes are frequently of very considerable 
length, and one can only account for them either by supposing that 
the strike allowance is of so comfortable a nature, that the striker 
really does not care whether he works or not, or that the object to 
be gained is considered to be sufficiently valuable to repay the 
great sacrifice of time and money. The following are some of the 
principal durations of strikes since 1870 : — 

Table VII. 



TnulM. 




Weeks. 


Yean. 




Heywood 


28 
27 
5i 
40 

11 

27 

47 

57 
20 

23 


1872 




Wolyerhampton 

Manchester 


'77 
'77 


Carpenters and joiners .... i 


Dunfermline 


•78 




Hartlepool 


'78 




Shields 


'78 


V 

r 


Merthyr 


'74 


J 


Blanafon 


'76 


Tailors < 


AUam^aam 


'76 

'78 


1 


Bradford 


Dock labourers 


Shields 


'73 









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1880.] Bevan— On the Strikes of the Fast Ten Yecen. 
Table VTl—€orUd. 



47 



Trades. 



Colfien 

Iron workers .. 

Ship buflden .. 
Okas workers.. 



ICasons 



Spring makers ^ 

Tin piste workers 

Sngineers \ 



Baihimy men 

Tobacco spinners 

Flnmbers ^ «... 

Compositors 



Towns. 



South Wales 

Burnley 

Dronfield 

Pembrokeshire .. 

Kinneil 

Church Lane .. 
Bianyers Main .. 

Wishaw 

Middlesbrough.. 

Parkgate 

Abeidare 

Bradford 

Q-laagow 

Dumbarton 

Buncom 

Glasgow 

Sunderland 

Glasgow 

Alloa 

London 

Newcastle 

Kirkcaldy 

Wigan 

Bamsley 

Sheffield 

Edinburgh 

Newcastb 

Asbton 

Belfast 

TafP Vale 

Newcastle 

Nottingham 

Darlington 

Dublin « 



Weeks. 



21 

iS 
36 
28 
26 
36 
26 
20 
29 
22 
26 
3<5 
20 
28 
26 

^3 
26 

33 
56 
33 
H 
36 
30 
31 
28 

33 
21 
22 
26 
25 

38 
37 
31 



Years. 



1875 
76 
77 
76 
78 
78 
78 
78 
73 
75 
79 
79 
70 
76 
76 
77 
76 
76 
78 
77 
78 
78 
'79 
79 
75 
79 
71 
79 
'79 
76 
79 
78 
76 
78 



The two next points to be examined are nnf ortnnately the most 
disappointing in the whole inqniry, viz., the nnmbers engaged in 
tiiese strikes, and the results of the strikes. It is obvions that 
unless we can form some approximate idea of the numbers of men 
who are idle in ^srj particular dispute, we can give a very poor 
estimate as to the amount of money lost, and the same may be said 
as to the results. Those results which I have been able to collect 
are, on the face of them, unfavourable to the strikers; but in 
taking this view, we must not forget that many a successful strike 
entails far greater advantages than the mere fact of the strike 
ehows, as a small section of a trade may fight a battle for the whole 
trade, and by winning it obtain very considerable pecuniary results 
extending over a long period. The number of strikes of which I 
have been able to ascertain any results for certain are ridiculously 
few, and bear no reasonable proportion to the bulk of the disputes. 
Such as they are, however, I give them. 



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48 Bbyan— On the Strikes of the Pad Ten Years. 

Table VIIL 



[Mar. 





Number 
of Strikes. 


Lost 


Won. 




Aeoonnted for. 


Unknown. 


1870 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

'79 


30 

98 

343 

365 

286 

H5 
229 
180 
268 
308 


1 
5 
6 

28 
24 
15 
43 
72 


8 
10 

8 

No 
No 
17 
15 

7 

3 

3 


2 

11 

8 

details 
detoils 
9 
16 
10 
15 
20 


II 
26 
22 

49 
55 
3i 
61 

95 


19 
72 
321 
365 
286 
196 
174 
148 
207 
213 


Total.... 


a»35a 


189 


71 


91 


351 


2,001 



Meagre and almost useless as this list is for dedncing facts 
from, it shows nevertheless that of the results really known, the 
balance is very considerably against the strikers, and also, that 
there is an increasing tendency to compromise, which is so far a 
hopeful sign, which may soon lead to an agreement before the battle 
has commenced. The cases in which the numbers actually engaged 
are given are also, I regret to say, very few, though perhaps they 
are sufficiently definite for us to form some idea of what those 
particular strikes cost in actual loss of wages. The following 
table is one of 1 10 strikes in which the numbers engaged and the 
duration are based on reliable facts. I have estimated the loss on 
wages as the daily loss of 4s. for five days in the week, and consider- 
ing that in the ten years we have had the maximum and the minimum 
of wages, and considering also that men, women, and children are 
all implicated in the strikes, I do not think that I have placed the 
average wage too high. 







Table IX. 








Dtte. 


Trmde. 


Locality. 


Dnration 

in 
Weekt. 


Numbers. 


LOM. 


1870 


Naflers 


Netberton 




600 
3,000 

600 
1,500 
1,400 

200 

400 
1,500 

500 

240 
2,000 

160 


6CQ 


70 


Cotton operatives 

Ck)llier8 


Wigan 


3,000 
600 


70 


Vron 


70 


Miners 


Cleveland 


3,000 
800 


70 


Joiners 


G-laegow 


70 


Waggon builders 

ColHers 


Saltley 


71 


Hanley 


400 
9,000 

500 

240 

2,000 


*71 


Shoemakers 


Rotherbam 


71 


Cotton spinners 


Perth 


71 


Pottery pressers 

Colliers 


Stoke 


71 


Butterley 


71 


Railway men 


L. Y. B 


160 











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1880.] BEVAN—On ths Strikes of the Past Ten Years. 



49 



Dite. 




LocalHy. 



Duration 




in 


Knmben. 


T^eeks. 






200 




3,000 




500 


20 


9,000 




35,000 


40 


1,600 


12 


18,000 


11- 


700 




1,700 




SOO 




200 




400 




400 


14 


700 


14 


1,700 




600 




600 




2,500 




5,000 




100 




1,300 




600 


IJ. 


10,000 




600 




800 


• 2 


400 




2,000 




500 




400 




2,000 




700 


11 


70,000 




500 


Z5 


1,500 


10 


1,000 




600 




200 




300 


33 


1,700 




300,000 




700 




1,200 




350 




2,000 




250 


15 


250 




160 


11 


2,000 


10 


700 




1,700 


26 


1,000 




2,000 




700 




700 




300 



Loss. 



1871 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'7a 
'72 
72: 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'73 
'73 
'78 
'78 
'73 
'73 
'76 

. '77 
•78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 



Telegnph derks^ 

Engineers 

Glass workers 

Engineers 

Cotton hands 

Nut and bolt makers 
CoUiers 

j> • 

Iron workers 

Colliers 

Joiners 

Bakers 

Saucer makers 

Hosiers 

Linen weayers 

Printers 

Engineers 

Moulders 

Carters 

Steamboat men 

Railway men 

Dock labourers 

Building operatiyes ... 

Shoemakers 

Engineers 

Bailwaj men 

Colliers 

Engineer» « 

»i 

Colliers 

Miners 

Colliers 

Linen hands 

Colliers 

Iron workers 

Plasterers 

Joiners 

Masons 

Cotton hftnds 

II 

» 

Colliers 



Manchester .... 
Sunderland .... 
>i 

Newcastle" 

Oldham 

Smethwick 

South Wales.... 
Forest of Bean 

Leeds 

Sheffield 

Darwen 

London 

Longton 

Nottingham .... 

Banbury 

Edinburgh 

Sheffield 

Xeighlej 

Liyerpool 

M. 8. L. R 

G-lasgow. 

Hull 

London 

Norwich 

Birkenhead- .... 

L. N. W. 

Ryhope 

Q-lasgow 

N. B. R 

South Wales .... 

Cleveland 

South Wales .... 

Bed worth 

Bamslej 

Wishaw. 

Clarence 

Leeds 

Southampton > 

London 

Lancaster 

Macclesfield.... 

Glasgow 

Aldwark 

Bestwood 

Park Gate 

Rawmarsh 

Unstone- 

Leeds ^ 

DenabyMain.... 
Chadderton .... 
Manyers Main 

Kippax 

Rosa 

Thorp Chiwber 
Wednesbury .... 



£ 

200 
9,000 

500 
180,000 

35»ooo 

60,000 

216,000 

7,700 

1,700 

300 

400 

3,600 

3,600 

9,8 DO 

18,700 

4,200 

I,200 

10,000 

5>ooo 

100 

1,300 

600 

1 20,000 

600 

4,800 

800 

2,000 

500 

400 

2,000 

700 

770,000 

1,000 

37,500 

10,000 

600 

200 

300 

56,100 

2,700,000 

2,100 

2,400 

350 
18,000 

250 

3i75o 

160 

22,000 

7,000 

1,700 

26,000 

2,000 

700 

700 

300 



VOL. XLIII. PART I. 



E 

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50 Bbvan— On ihe Strikes of the Fast Ten Tears. 

Table JX^C(mtd. 



[Mar. 



Date. 



Tnde. 



LoMOity. 



Duration 

in 
Weeks. 



Nnmbera. 



1878 
78 
78 
78 

• 78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
'78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
79 
79 
79 
79 
'79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
'79 
'79 
'79 
'79 



Collien 



Moulders 
Joiners ... 



Nailers 

Navvies 

Painters 

Plumbers 

Railway men.. 

Silk hands 

Tailors 

Cotton hands.. 



Waggon builders 

»> 

Building operatives . 



Chemical workers.. 

Flax hands 

Colliers 



Masons 

Joiners 

Ship builders.. 



Harrington 

Eddlewood 

Seaham 

Rother Vale 

Pemberton 

Bristol 

Stourport 

Spon Lane 

Boroughbridge . 

Bolton 

Aberdeen 

Staffordshire 

Hartlepool 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

N. B. R 

Macclesfield 

Bradford 

Macclesfield 

Oldham 

Leiffh 

Todmorden 

Bristol 

Radcliffe 

Rhodes 

Glasgow 

Daubhill 

Oldham 

Carlisle 

Ashton 

Macclesfield 

Stockport 

Gorton 

Liverpool 

Manchester 

Wigan 

Northallerton .. 

Widnes 

Porfer 

Aberdare 

Tyldesley 

Bristol 



Tyne 



1 
1 
I 
I 

I 

12 

2 

4 

I 

i6 

I 

10 

I 

10 

9 
>5 

I 

20 

4 
5 
4 
I 
6 

5 
1 

2 
1 

4 

.22 

5 
7 

2 
2 

4 
13 

2 
I 

17 
4 
I 
I 
8 

2 

3 



577 



200 

800 

150 

800 

500 

500 

200 

760 

120 

200 

500 

25,000 

400 

1,600 

200 

900 

4,000 

200 

1,600 

5,000 

500 

150 

2,000 

2,000 

150 

400 

1,000 

10,000 

600 

5,000 

1,000 

400 

1,500 

500 

1,000 

500 

400 

6,000 

1,000 

2,000 

1,200 

1,000 

1,000 

8,000 



£ 

200 
300 

300 

500 
6,000 

400 
3,000 

120 
3,200 

500 
250,000 

400 

16,000 

1,800 

I3»500 
4,000 
4,000 
6,400 

25,000 
2,800 

«5o 

12,000 

10,000 

150 

800 

1,000 

40,000 

600 

25,000 

7,000 

800 

3,000 

2,000 

i3»ooo 

10,000 

400 

85,000 

4,000 

2,200 

1,200 

8,000 

2,000 

24,000 



— 4,468,950 



To this sum we may add a few totals of well-known strikes, 
which I have taken at the time from the public papers, viz., the 
engineers* strike of London during 1879, which is said to have cost 
28,875/.; *^® Clyde shipbuilders' strike of 1877, which cost 300,000/. ; 
the Longton colliers* strike of 1878, which cost 30,000/. ; and the 
Durham miners' strike of 1879, on which 240,000/. is said to have 



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1880.] Bevan— On the Strikes of the Past Ten Tears, 51 

been lost, sweUing the total amount to 5,067,825/. This being the 
.snm lost in 1 1 4 strikes, what are we to say for the losses on the 
remaining 2,238 ? As we have no figures to go upon, it is impos- 
sible to form even an estimate, though the sum must clearly be a 
very enormous one. Mr. Howell, to whose recent paper in " Eraser's 
'* Magazine " 1 have already alluded, puts as an asset in favour of 
the men on strike a sum averaging about los, per week, which they 
received as strike pay, and this of course would amount to many 
thousands to be put to their credit. But I fail to see by whab right 
he can call this sum in any degree a set-off, or even partial set-off, to 
the losers, except indeed that portion of the strike fund which may 
have been contributed by other sections of trades or the public 
for the maintenance of the men on strike. Unless 1 am wrong in 
my conjectures, the strike fund has been contributed to the trade 
society by the men themselves, and the payment to them of so 
much when on strike, is really only giving them back their own 
money, which, were there no strikes, would be accumulating, to be 
spent in what we may hope would be a more profitable manner. 
Mr. Howell seems to be right, in my opinion, in putting forward a 
statement, that many a strike, though resulting in the expenditure 
of a large sum of money at the time, has resulted also in the gain 
of a more or less permanent advantage to the great body of the 
trade. I think, however, that he has cousiderably exaggerated both 
the permanence and the amount of these benefits, even when the 
strikes have been successful ; but my own observations find this to 
be so seldom the case comparatively, that 1 cannot help thinking 
the many losers far outbalance the few gainers. 

Whatever these losses or gains may be, we must remember that 
they are, after all, only those of the employed, and that in calcu- 
lating or considering the results of strikes to the country, the 
employed only form one part of the social economy. Who is to 
gauge the individual losses to the masters ? To estimate these 
would be impossible, for very few employers would care, perhaps, 
to make the amount of their losses known, even if they could esti- 
mate them themselves, which would not be an easy task, and espe- 
cially during prolonged strikes. There are doubtless many cases in 
which employers, and particularly those who have not much capital, 
might welcome, or at all events not disapprove of, a strike, as being 
the means of relieving them from a losing contract, or freeing them 
from the obligation of paying higher wages than they can afford. 
It is better, they may say, to keep the works idle, than make a loss 
on each day's production. On the other hand, idleness of a mill, 
factory, ironwork, or colliery, means not only unprofitable capital for 
the time, but a very serious depreciation of plant and machinery; not 
to mention the chances (and very probable ones) that the customers 

e2 

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52 Bbvan — On the Strikes of the Past Ten Years, [Mar. 

will go elsewhere for what they want, and will perhaps never return. 
Let US think, too, of the deterioration of house property in all neigh- 
bourhoods which have been the subject of a great strike ; of the 
dwellings uncared for and left without tenants; of the rents unpaid; 
of the shopbills in arrear ; of the tradesmen left with heavy legacies of 
debt ; of the accumulating poor rates ; of the deteriorated physique ; 
the illness, and the consequently lessened labour value of the work- 
men, and their wives and families. "Sot must we omit to take cog- 
nizance of the cases in which a whole industry has been driven 
away to more kindly localities. Trade is, after all, but a tender 
plant, which will not survive many rude shocks ; and nrore than one 
instance has happened, in which it has been completely scared away 
from the neighbourhood. The Thames shipbuilding at Mill wall is 
a well known instance of this, the still idle yards standing even 
now as a monument of the perversity and folly of those who once 
gained their livelihood in them, while Sheffield, Dundee, and other 
industrial towns can bear witness to similar occurrences, where 
capital and machinery have been transplanted to foreign countries, 
in which labour was more pliable than at home. I believe that if all 
these results could be put into figures, they would double and treble 
the actual losses of wages, though it is impossible to do more than 
allude to them in this general manner. 

Whatever the figures that I have been able to bring forward 
this evening may be worth, they at all events show what a terrible 
cancer we have got in the midst of our industrial body, and should 
make all earnest and thinking men set vigorously to work to see 
what can be done to lessening the evil. Strikes have been discussed, 
and remedies proposed to any amount within the last few years, 
but we seem to get no nearer the solution of the difficulty. I may 
perhaps be permitted to add my contribution to the subject, feeling 
that, at all events, its importance warrants any suggestions. Many 
people have a firm belief in arbitration as the best settlement of the 
vexed question. I confess that, looking back on the results of arbi- 
tration, I do not share in that belief, but think that the success of 
arbitration is far too doubtful to seek the remedy in that direction. 
Arbitration has been treated in so fast and loose a way, and has been 
so often played with, that it has lost all its dignity and respect. 
Striking has been made a business of by the workman, and it has 
become an institution in the country. I would make also the treat- 
ment of strikes an institution, so that those who commence the 
quarrel should know what they would have to expect. It would not 
be amiss perhaps to glance at our neighbours in France and Belgium, 
and see what results their Conseils des Prtid^hommes have pro- 
duced. I find that in France, previous to the Franco- German war, 
the number of cases that came before these tribunals were very 



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1880.] Bbvan— On the Strikes of the Fast Ten Years, 



68 



large, viz., 43,807 in 1860, and 45,001 in 1868. After the war they 
decreased, being 29,913 in 1873; and since that year they have 
gradually increased to 31,244 in 1874, 33,907 in 1875, 34,774 in 
1876, and 35,046 in 1877. 

Of this number, 25,834 cases were heard before the councils in 
private, and a reconciliation was effected in 18,415 cases, or 71 per 
cent. 7,419 could not be conciliated, and were remitted for hearing 
by the General Council, while 9,076 quarrels were settled outside the 
court. As to the causes of dispute, 21,368 or 61 per cent, were 
relative to wagetf, 4,733 ^^ '4 P^r cent, to dismissals, and 1,795 ^'^ 
5 per cent, to apprenticeship cases. These councils, it must be 
remembered, not only settle disputes between the masters and the 
men, but also between the men themselves. In Belgium we find 
the results of their operations as follows : — 

Table X 



1862 
'63 
'64 
*65 
*66 
'67 
*68 
'69 
'70 
'71 
'72 
'73 
'74 
•75 
'76 
'77 



Caaea Heard. 



2,761 

3»3i7 
3,38* 
2,999 
3»234 
3»494 
3,323 
3,536 
3,36« 
3,330 
3,5*<5 
3,638 
4.158 
3,8*3 
3,854 



Cases Conciliated. 



2,345 
2,552 
2.759 
2,712 
2,425 
2,535 
2,646 
2,474 
2,687 
2,517 
2,492 
2,701 
2,815 
2,750 
2,738 
2,866 



Cases Heard before 

the 
Geoeral CoonciL 



179 
aoo 

2ZI 

419 
403 
452 
581 
543 
579 
426 

497 

594 
580 
578 
267 
305 



Cases Settled 

between 
the Parties. 



201 
207 
214 
326 
840 
381 
251 
291 
242 
392 
304 
224 
220 
494 
432 
656 



These results in both countries appear to me to be exceedingly 
satisfactory, and I should wish nothing better than to see the 
establishment of similar legalised institutions in this country. 
Twelve council boards might be appointed for the various industrial 
centres, viz. : — 

1. Lancashire, Oheehire, and Cnmberland. 

2. Yorkshire. 

3. Nortliomberland and Durham. 

4. Staffordshire, Warwickshire, and Worcestershire. 

5. Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, and Derbyshire. 

6. North Wales and Shropshire. 

7. South Wales and Monmoathshire. 

8. Somersetshire and South West of England. 

9. London and home counties. 

10. Lanarkshire, Ayrshire, and South West of Scotland. 

11. Fifeshire, Forfarshire, and East of Scotland. 

12. Ulster. 



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54 Sevan — On the Strikes of the Past Ten Tears. [Mar. 

Each board should be composed of an eqnal number, say ten 
each, of employers and employed, so that the varions staple 
indnstries might be fairly represented, each member being regularly 
elected, like the School Board members, for a term of years, say 
three or five. The expenses of the board, which would only sit 
as often as required, might be met by a scale of fees, based upon 
the amount in dispute. My own belief is, that, if a wages quarrel 
arose in the district, which could not be settled amicably at first 
hand between the parties, and that if this dispute was obliged to 
come before the board for hearing, each party to contribute before- 
hand a sum in proportion to the amount in question, a great many 
disputes would be nipped in the bud. To strike costs nothing in 
the way of preliminary expenses, but when a certain round sum 
had to be paid down before the necessary hearing could be 
obtained, it might, and I think would, considerably modify the 
state of alFairs. A superior board of appeal should be constituted 
for the whole kingdom, consisting of twenty-four members, one 
employer and one employed out of each district board. The 
decisions of the boards, not being self-constituted or voluntary, 
would carry legal weight with them, and should be enforced just 
in the same way as the orders of a magistrate or judge. I believe 
that under some such arrangement as this, a vast number of disputes 
would never come to the stage of publicity at all — and that the 
great majority of those that did come for hearing would be settled 
by the board, the very composition of which could not fail to inspire 
confidence in the minds of the disputants. Of course, circumstances 
might arise, in which a body of men might decline to abide by the 
decision of the district board, and even of the after decision of the 
superior board. In that case, the strikers would be in the position 
of men who had simply outlawed themselves by not obeying the 
laws of the country, and should be dealt with, if necessary, as such. 
I say, if necessary, for this reason : a disputant or a body of dis- 
putants would probably not go on with their work (although they 
might do so) until the .case was fairly settled by the superior 
court. If decided in a way by which they declined to abide, their 
only alternative would be to leave their work and let the masters 
fill up their places ss best they could, without attempt at 
interference or molestation of any kind. The least approach to 
this, either by moral suasion or physical force, should be most 
striugontly punished. Some plan such as this appears to me the 
most likely to work with reasonable smoothness ; at all events, I 
offer it for what it is worth. Unsatisfactory in many ways bs are 
my data, I think they are full enough to show the gravity of the 
complaint, and that the subject is one which may well invite the 
discussion of the Statistical Society. 



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1880.] 65 



Discussion on Mb. G. P. Bevan's Papbb. 

Thb Chaibmak (Sir Bawson W. Bawson), in mviting discussion on 
the paper, said that paiticnlar attention ought to he devoted to 
the suggestion of the author as to the Gonseile des Prud*hommes, 
There was no donht that if there were constituted bodies to arbi- 
trate in these matters, their decision, coming from a body not 
appointed for a special case, but a permanent body, consequently 
likely to be disinterested, and numerically stronger than one or two 
or even three arbitrators, would be likely to influence both the con- 
testing parties more than the decision of arbitrators had hitherto 
done. That was the practical point of Mr. Sevan's paper; but 
mpon the other points, which the author had not been able fully to 
elucidate, some gentlemen present might be able to supply interest- 
ing and useful information. 

Mr. Theo Wood Bukning, Secretary of the Northumberland 
and Durham Coal Owners' Associations, said that having been asked 
to attend the meeting to hear the paper read on the striken of the 
last ten years, he had accepted the invitation with pleasure, as 
having b^n actively engaged in some of the largest of them, he had 
gained considerable expenenoe in these matters. 

Before making any remarks upon the general questions of 
strikes, he desired to point out an important error in the paper. 
The miners of Northumberland did not strike against Mr. Herschell's 
award, but, on the contrary, both the owners and men of Northum- 
berland and Durham had at all times loyally accepted all awards 
made by umpires. He also deprecated the tone of some parts of 
the paper, for all such expressions as *' the owners seized their 
opportunity," were improper. In discussing matters of this kind, 
any slighting remarks, whether from the one side or the other, did 
an immense amount of injury to the efforts of those who were 
loyally attempting to promote friendly relations between capital 
and labour. 

He further stated that the experience gained in his connection 
with trades unions, of upwards of thirteen years, had resulted in 
his becoming convinced that men of all classes have pretty much 
the same passions, and have a pretty equal percentage of reasonable 
and unreasonable men amongst them ; and that they all have the 
same common lever by which they can be moved, namely, ** seli 
interest ;" and the reason that self interest does not operate in pre- 
venting strikes is that each party is unable to measure and allow 
for the interests of the other. 

This became very apparent during a strike that took place in 
1866, at a shipyard on tne Tyne, where the men were actually on 
strike because they wanted to work a certain supposed &wer 
number of hours toan was the custom, whilst in fact they were 
actually working fewer hours than they were asking for. The men 



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56 Diicuasion [Mar. 

wanled to work nine hours a day, while through men being off 
work on Mondays and other times, for their own pleasure, the 
average number of hours worked per man was only about eight and 
a half. 

It is evident Tiere the owners might reasonablv have said that 
if they were guaranteed nine hours a day, it would be worth their 
while to close every day after that number of hours had been 
worked, and this seemed so reasonable, that the wonder is that both 
sides did not see -it, and mutually help each other in carrying it 
out ; and it immediately occurred to him (Mr. Bunning), that if the 
owners and the men formed separate organisations to meet together 
and discuss their several necessities, that half of the difficulties con- 
nected with the relationship between capital and labour would be 
at an end. 

He did not think, from the nature of things, that strikes would 
ever cease, bat he did think that the number of them could be 
much diminished, and those that must take place reduced to ques- 
tions which scarcely any other means could determine. 

It might as well be said that domestic quaii^ls would cease, or 
that merchants could be compelled, by awards or acts of parlia- 
ment, to continue to sell their goods to any given man at a loss. 
There must be abselute freedom and perfect equality between the 
contracting parties, and the bond that keeps them together must be 
mutual self interest. These remarks apply equally to capital and 
labour, the relations between which being precisely those between 
two merchants, the one selling and the other buying. 

It has been premised that all classes of men have much about 
the same average of good and bad amongst them ; but to compose 
this general average, there must be some who are more or less 
difficult to deal with, and strikes veiy often occur through men who 
have no grievance with their own employers, going out on strike 
out of sympathy for others who have left work en account of a 
quarrel started through the unreasonableness of other owners. 
This class of strike could be prevented by the formation of large 
associations of masters and men, where the average intelligence of 
the two bodies would have more chance of being developed and of 
directing the councils of all, so that there would be less difference 
between badly managed places, and so that an insubordinate work- 
man would be more under the control of the better informed of his 
class. 

The immediate effect of this arrangement is no doubt to drag 
down the best managed concerns somewhat, and to prevent work- 
men from individually bettering their condition, but in the end 
these defects will, if not disappear entirely, at least be considerably 
modified; besides, these large associations give stability to all 
arrangements mutually agreed upon, create precedent, and afford 
ample opportunity for each side ascertaining the wants and feelings 
of the other. 

There are two great dangers however which beset these 
associations from the commencement of their existence : the one is 
that, formed as they are at first for the protection of the interest of 
their members, they are made use of by outsiders for political 



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1880.] an Mr. Q. P. B&uan^s Paper. 67 

pnrposes; and the second is, that thej offer a convenient opportunity 
for advertising nostrums in the shape of political economy warranted 
to cure everything; but these dangers rectify themselves in the 
end, and the latter especially will die out from the very folly of 
the various panacesd suggested. 

It must not be for one moment supposed that it is intended that 
these remarks should apply to one side only, for they are equally 
applicable to both, and are made with the belief that there is the 
most absolute equality in the average good sense of all ; and this, 
combined with mutual self interest, renders a joint discussion 
amongst all parties concerned the best means of solving difficulties. 

To make these meetings successful, each side must be treated 
as perfectly on the same footing; there must be the most rigid 
politeness and cordiality observed, and there should be a total 
absence of all patronising lessons in morality on the one side, and 
of begging appeals to benevoleeoe on the other. 

Now it has pleased some to advert to the north as a country 
where disputes are frequent, and where there is an absolute igno- 
rance of all political economy, and a total absence of all sympathy 
between the masters and the men. 

His (Mr. Bunning's) experience was precisely the contrary ; and 
he thought there was no district in Great Britain where more had 
been done to bring men and masters on one common platform of 
mutual interest than in Newcastle. In that town has been inaugu- 
rated the most important ameliorations in the relations between 
capital and labour, the most striking of which may be summed up 
as the joint committee, and the sliding scale : institutions which 
are rapidly becoming extended over England* 

It is not averred that either of these institutions is perfect, or 
that they will become perfect, but it is fearlessly asserted that no two 
arrangements have done more to open the eyes of both sides to their 
mutual necessities ; for instance, before the adoption of the sliding 
scale, could any miner be got to believe, that while coal was selling 
for 2 5«. a ton in London, and 15s. in some of the local depdts, the 
coal owner was only getting 4*. ^d, a ton over an output of 26 
million tons in the counties of Northumberland and Durham ? but 
this has now become an acknowledged fact ; the working of the 
sliding scale has thus done more to give the men an insight into 
the necessities of the owners, than worlds of political economy. 
Arbitration may also be said to be a child of the north; but it is 
one which certainly has not developed itself so rapidly, or done so 
much good, as the joint committee, and the reascm is this : the 
umpire must of necessity be a man who has no direct interest at 
stake ; but this does not necessarily prevent his having a personal 
bias, while it precludes him from having the least technical know- 
ledge of the interests he is called upon -to decide. The umpire may 
have a pet idea like restriction to advertise; he may have a 
peculiar training, which may cause him to exclude a certain class 
of evidence ; he may have aU, or a certain number of defects ; but 
he never can have a perfect knowledge of the absolute wants of 
both sides, and this often causes mischievous awards. The men 
themselves are annoyed when a blundering verdict gives them all 



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58 Discwsion [Mar. 

their own way, foreseeing tliat the necessities of the case would 
soon assert themselves, and that arbitration would be swept away 
when the dam was let loose, and a struggle for existence com- 
menced. Mistakes such as these can be cited, in which awards 
have screened men from a small reduction, at a period when a 
small reduction might have saved a trade from dire loss, and 
caused the men to have to submit to a reduction of over 20 per 
cent, a few months afler. 

His opinion was, that arbitration in its present form, where the 
arbitrator has full power to decide on matters deeply affecting the 
interests of largo districts, was a great mistake; but combined with 
a committee of both the interested parties, who have already made 
concessions to each other, and narrowed the issue, it may be 
conducive of much good. 

In conclusion, it will have been observed that the gist of all these 
remarks is to endeavour to prove the necessity of bringing masters 
and men to discuss their interests together, with a view of letting 
each know the necessities of the other; that the parties should meet 
and talk matters over with a view of narrowing the questions in 
dispute, leaving not the whole question, but the question so 
narrowed, to the umpire ; in this way the umpire could not make 
any very improper award. 

This is precisely the construction of the joint committee, where 
the two sides meet and discuss before the chairman their several 
cases, when it often happens that an arrangement is come to without 
having recourse to an umpire. 

Mr. Alsaqer Hill said he rather agreed with the last speaker, 
that any strong language made use of in a matter of this sort was 
highly inexpedient. He submitted that the whole of Mr. Bevan's 
facts seemed to indicate that the phenomena of strikes were 
more of a " measly," than of a " cancerous " description. These 
phenomena of strikes were simply the result of the higher organi- 
sation of labour, bringing those diseases more rapidly to a head. 
Mr. Bevan himself had admitted that the net result of strikes had 
been, on the whole, satisfactory to the body of workmen of this 
country, in bringing about compromises in matters of dispute. He 
thought he was right in saying that the average condition of the 
industrial classes in England was never higher than it was at 
present, and even taking the international view, he did not think 
there was any part of the world in which a man could secure better 
reward for his labour than in England. As far as the building 
operatives were concerned, they came naturally to the front, and 
after them, the colliers. The latter class worked under more 
difficult conditions than almost any other class of men, and had less 
leisure than those who generally worked during the day time. He 
did not think, therefore, that any great value was to be laid on his 
friend's calculations with regard to any particular class of people on 
strike. Mr. Bevan seemed to have forgotten that it was only 
recently that the industrial classes of this country had had time to 
organise. The question was entirely one of general economic policy, 
and the main difficulty at present was the want of economic know- 



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1880.] on Mr, G. P. BevoAi's Paper. 59 

ledge on the part of those who constitnted the indastrial classes. 
The number of strikes allnded to by Mr. Bevan had, in a great 
measure, resulted from a mere matter of organisation, because the 
leaders of these organised strikes were able to insist npon having 
that haggling in the market which, Mr. Bevan had said, lay at the 
root of the whole question. Mr. Bevan had shown that a large 
body of the most educated portion of the indastrial classes in the 
north of England and in Scotland, had come to the conclusion that 
these particular contests were in their interest. He had in his 
possession the last report of the Glasgow Trades Council, which 
showed that the secretary was only paid loL a-year. Mr. Brassey 
some time ago expressed an , opinion that the great body of the 
people who formed the industrial classes, had not seen their way to 
pay their own servants properly. So long as the secretary of such 
a body as the Trades Council of Glasgow was paid only loL a-year, 
80 long it would be found that the more ignorant section, like 
colliers, would fight when they did not get what they thought were 
the market wages. 

Mr. Howell said he had come rather to be a listener than a 
speaker. He felt with Mr. Bevan, that the more that was known 
about those subjects the better. He thought, however, that 
Mr. Bevan ought to be a little more careful in some of his facts. 
Mr. Bevan had asserted that strikes drove from the Thames the 
ship building industry. He (Mr. Howell) thought if there was any 
one thing that was proved to be wrong, it was that statement. 
Mr. Samuda, who was an authority on t£is subject, gave what he 
( Mr. Howell) should have thought a quietus to that statement, and 
Mr. Brassey had entered into statistics upon it, and it was well 
known to every trades unionist in London, that other causes had 
operated to drive the ship building from the Thames. There was 
one thing referred to by Mr. Bunning, namely, the difference of 
language used by speakers regarding tbe masters and the men. No 
one could find fault with the tone of Mr. Bevan's paper, but he 
(Mr. Howell) wished to note the difference with which he spoke of 
one very simple fact. He said, " I am happy to know that it will 
be discussed by an assembly which is so eminently calculated to do 
so judicially and dispassionately, free from the bias with which the 
employer naturally views the question, or from the intemperate 
spirit which so often characterises the disputants on the other side." 
He did not think it was intended by Mr. Bevan to say anything 
unkind with regard to the men, bat he could assure him that all 
the "intemperance*' did not belong to the workmen. He was 
speaking to a very large employer in the building trade a few days 
ago, who was chairman of the association in the district, and who 
had suffered from strikes. Refening to several strikes that had 
taken place recently, he said, " Are the men always in the wrong ? " 
" Oh, no," he said, " my greatest difficulty is to keep some of the 
masters back. They woidd be getting up a strike every week if it 
was not for other employers that restrained them." That was to 
say, that there were intemperate spirits among the masters as well 
as among the men. If Mr. Bevan thought that he (Mr. Howell) 
wished to encourage strikes by the facts he brought out in " Fraser's 

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60 Discussion [Mar. 

Magazine," the conclnsion was a wrong one. He wanted to show 
that certain results followed from certain courses, and until it was 
known whether these results did or did not follow, they would not 
feel safe ground. He (Mr. Howell) did not intend to say that 
strikes were carried on because it paid the strikers to do so. What 
he endeavoured to convey was, that in the long run, having no 
other course open to them by which to adjust wages, strikes 
ultimately paid the men ; and, moreover, that it was often the only 
way they had open to them to get out of the difficulty. The men 
were not always to be blamed for causing a strike. If the master 
attempted a reduction, and the men struck against this reduction, 
the one who was originally the cause «f the quarrel seemed to be 
in the wrong, unless circumstances showed that he was justified in 
taking that step. Although it was stated that a certain course of 
action would pay, that did not prove that the action was right. 
Any one who had read the report on loan mongering with foreign 
States, could not but say that it paid somebody to enter very 
largely into that basiness. He did not say that strikers were to be 
brought to that level; but he did say that, having no other 
recognised means of adjusting their differences, they had found in 
the long run that this would pay them. Mr. Hill had taken 
exception to the calculation that he (Mr. Howell) had made with 
regard to the io«. per week that a man received in the form of pay. 
He did not think it oould be said that a man paid himself his strike 
wages, any more than it could be said of a man in an insurance 
society that he paid for the rebuilding of a house that had been 
burned down. He paid into a society, a first class benefit society, 
which gave him certain advantages. In reality they paid for a 
great number of benefits, and it happened, perhaps, that once in a 
life time he was thrown out on strike and got a great deal of strike 
payment. In those great labour battles a very small proportion of 
the men fight the battle for the entire class. If lo or even 20 per 
cent, of a trade fought the battle for the whole number, that class 
must be benefited by that struggle, and the loss to the entire body 
woald be very small indeed. Supposing >h a certain district 200 
men struck for two months, and received 2«. per week advance, that 
was a small number of men; but if those 2CX5 men fought the 
battle, and gained it, for say, I,CX50 men in the district, and 
prevented the repetition of a similar straggle, this would do good. 
With regard to arbitration, he believed in an attempt to conciliate 
difEerences between masters and men in the first instance, and if no 
snch attempt were made, he thought it would be doing a wrong 
both politically and socially. The issues -ought to be narrowed 
down as far as possible, and then submitted to arbitration, or failing 
this, to an umpire. He did not think that the number of cases in 
which the men and masters had repudiated the award when given, 
ought to lead them to despair of the remedy of arbitration. He 
thought employers ought to be the first to welcome it, because as a 
class they were more intelligent than the employed, and able to take 
a broader view of the thing. The onus ought to be thrown upon 
the men if they were stupid enough to refuse to submit to 
arbitration. It had been the worst feature in the arbitration 
question, that most of the strikes were those that had taken place 

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1880.] on Mr. (?. P. Severn's Taper. 61 

on tbe most trivial subjects. He could only hope, in conclusion, that 
the discussion on the paper, and on others of the same kind carried 
on elsewhere, would lead to justice being done on both sides. 

Mr. Nbwmarch was glad to see there Mr. Gfeorge Howell, who 
as parliamentaiy secretary of the trades union societies, had 
acquired a high reputation. Mr. Howell had written several books 
and articles of great merit, all or most of which Mr. Newmarch had 
read with interest and profit. Mr. Howell's article in " Fraser's 
Magazine,'* for December last, was temperate and very ingenious, 
but the premises were assumed with considerable freedom, and 
there was good reason to doubt whether, as Mr. Howell represents, 
the strikes of very small numbers of men had procured solid 
benefits for the great and large number? he set out in his tables. 
The legislation of the last few years had entirely abrogated the 
repressive features of the old combination laws, and the law had 
now most properly left both masters and men to form any combina- 
tion they pleased, so long as absolute freedom on the part of each 
individual is not impaired. In the case of trades union societies, 
the legislature, by means of an Act, which Mr. Howell had a leading 
band in procuring, has gratnted to trade societies a degree of 
license very hard to defend : inasmuch as such societies are per- 
mitted to mix in the same fund, contributions received by them 
for pxirely life insurance, annuity, and sick purposes, and contri- 
butions received for strike and trade purposes ; and the courts of 
law are forbidden to give any remedy to contributors unable to 
procure the fulfilment bv any such society of its life insurance, 
annuity^ or sick obligations. The grievances arising out of this 
extravagant liberiy are by no means speculative, as was shown in 
the painful case of the South Yorkshire Miners' Fund two or three 
years ago, in which some hundreds of claimants, rendered widows 
and orphans by a colliery accident, could not get either money or 
redress. Mr. Newmatcb had never heard any reason even decently 
tenable advanced in favour of the confusion of contributions, and 
denial of legal remedies, to which he had referred, and until this 
scandal be removed, the trades unions will most properly be open 
to severe criticism. 

Trade contentionff, like all contentions between buyers and 
sellers, were inevitable, and in themselves wholesome. But con- 
tentions about wages were more intrinsically difficult than bargain- 
ings about goods. Hence it was matter of real congratulation to 
both men and masters, that latterly the subject had been treated in 
many cases by both sides with eminent moderation, intelligence, and 
care. Both sides seem to be now sensible that whether it is a 
strike or an arbitration, there is, and must be, unrepresented at it, 
that important third party — ^the public — and the willingness or 
unwillingness of tbe public to pay higher prices, which in reality 
controls both wage payers and wage receivers. It may be assumed 
that tbe bad days of trades unions were over. We cannot suppose 
the encouragement by respectable men of violence or intimidation ; 
but even greater order and peacefulness cannot remove from trades 
unions their fundamental defect, viz., that in their essence they 
seek to place checks and difficulties in the way of superior skill. 

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62 Diacussicyii [Mar. 

intelligence and industry, for the benefit or supposed benefit of the 
men who are inferior in all or most of the qualities which enable 
men to raise themselves in the world. With the growth of educa- 
tion it is inevitable, taking human nature as it i^, that the 
superior, active, ambitious working men, will more and more 
refuse to be put under disabilities for the supposed benefit of their 
inferior comnules and competitors. 

Mr. Sevan's paper was a veir intelligent and praiseworthy 
attempt to collect and classify the racts of a very difficult subject. 

Mr. Walpord thought the international aspect of the question 
ought not to be lost sight of, because there could be no doubt that 
during the continuance of strikes in the last ten years, our inter- 
national interests had been suffering. A large proportion of certain 
branches of trade had gone from this to other countries, and would 
no doubt continue to do so if the strikes continued. Belgium had 
been considerably benefited in this way; and still more so the 
United States, who had supplanted our cutlery over the entire 
continent of America, was usurping our former supremacy in plated 
wares, and also seriously threatening our iron industries generally. 
He could give further instances of it if it were necessary to do so. 

Mr. Philip Vanderbyl said the author of the paper had 
omitted to give a definition of the term strike. 

If the refusal of a clerk to perform his duties without increase 
of salary, or the objection of a merchant to sell his goods below a 
certain price, were to be considered as strikes — as suggested by 
two of the speakers — it is clear that the tabular statements of the 
author would have to be greatly altered, in fact it would be 
impossible to consider the subject statistically. 

In his (Mr. Vanderbyrs) opinion, a stnke might be defined as the 
refusal of a number of persons to perform certain customary work 
or duties, not only to the disadvantage of the employer, but also to 
the injury of the general community. 

In referring to the causes of strikes, the author had omitted one 
which he (Mr. Vanderbyl) thought very important, viz.. the stupid 
desire of workmen to be placed on an equal footing with regard to 
pay, and although certain men were infinitely superior to others, 
they insisted that the inferior workmen should be paid the same as 
the best men. If the employer were allowed to classify his men, 
and pay according to merit, it would not only be a great advantage 
to the intelligent workmen, but would tend to prevent strikes. 

The Chairman thought the idea of a strike was shown in 
Table IX. In upwards of a hundred cases the minimum number 
was 1 50 men. 

Sir Edmund Beckett, Q.C, thought that the only thing that 
would put an end to strikes was that those who conducted them, 
should be made to understand, bettor than they do yet, whether 
they were really injurious or not. Mr. Howell, and those whom he 
led, were in the habit of coming to very rough and ready con- 
clusions about cause and effect in a manner perfectly illogical. 
They continually said that the condition of the working man was 

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1880.] on Mr. 0, P. Sevan's Paper. 63 

improved, and then jumped to the conclnsion that that mnst be due 
to strikes, whereas it might just as well be in spite of strikes. The 
condition of everj class has improved, of those which strike, quite 
as much as of those which do not. The condition of school boys and 
domestic servants has improved immensely, and he did not know 
that strikes could be credited with doing any great benefit to either 
of them. That sort of reasoning is mere begging of the very 
question in dispute. Then Mr. Howell assumed that because 
strikes are most numerous in the north, and because intelligence 
chiefly lived in the north (which compliment he [Sir E. Beckett] 
gladly accepted), therefore strikes must be right. But this summary 
kind of logic is not altogether convincing. Mr. Howell might 
perhaps reflect with advantage that great labouring masses are 
vastly more numerous in the north than the south. Another still 
more amazing fallacy which Mr. Howell persisted in, was that those 
who strike, being only a small proportion of the whole number of 
workmen, and spending only the money they already have, was 
analogous to an insurance company against fire. A more unlike 
analogy was never put forward. People do not make fires on 
purpose, as they do strikes. The loss by fire is inevitable, what is 
called in law, the act of God, and the object of insurance is to 
distribute that inevitable loss over as many people as possible. 
But a strike first wilfully makes a universal loss of all the labonr 
and its produce to everybody, and then consumes all the savings 
of the working class alone to maintain it as long as possible. So 
long as Mr. Howell deludes his followers with reasoning of that 
kind, the visions of working men having learnt more wisdom than 
before these bad times, are altogether Imseless ; and he was sprry 
to say he could see no evidence that they had yet learnt anything. 

So far as he had heard this eyening, no notice seemed to have 
been taken that mere striking for money was not by any means the 
most important part of what is called the labour question. At a 
meeting of the Architects' Institute, two years ago, Mr. Lucas, the 
great builder, said, " I pay for labour half as much again as I did 
some yeara ago, and I do not get half as much done, in other 
words, the same amount of work costs three times as much as 
it did. I conld stand paying more, if I could get the work done ;'* 
and many other employers o(f all kinds say the same. Until 
Mr. Howell, and those whom he leads, learn that all the riches the 
world enjoys come from two things, namely, from the earth itself, 
and the labour spent upon it, all their other reasoning would be in 
vain, and only lead to mischief. With regard to the present 
prospects of trade, although it was a dangerous thing to connect 
causes and efiects, he was struck with the fact that immediately 
there was a good harvest in America, trade began to revive here 
in consequence of increased demands from America. The fiinda- 
mental thing was to get as much work out of the earth as the world 
could do without doing itself any harm, i.e., working too hard for 
health ; and the question of how much was to be paid for it, was a 
minor one, though of course all important in competition. B;ef erring 
to trade outrages, it was obviously the spirit of unionism that 
caused them. Every man who destroys another's tools, or breaks 
his head, because he disobeys nnion rules, or works for lower wages 



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64 Discussion on Mr, 0. P. Bevcm^s Paper, [Mar. 

than are resolved on, is ipso facto the agent of unionism, whether 
he has had any special orders from a nnion council or not ; and it 
is mere absurdity to deny them, when we are reading them con- 
tinually in the newspapers, which of course only record a very small 
proportion of what really happen. 

It was very easy for Mr. Howell to say that Mr. Brassey, or 
somebody else, has proved that strikes had nothing to do with the 
driving away of shipbuilding from the Thames. That is a very 
common desire of reasoners on many subjects who have awkward 
facts to deal with, or arguments that they cannot answer, viz., to 
say that somebody else has answered them completely. Nobody 
who is versed in the ways of controversy, accepts statements of that 
kind, except as proving that the man who makes them, really 
cannot answer the arguments himself. Has Mr. Howell forgotten 
that Messrs. Bums of Glasgow wrote to the " Times " two years ago, 
that they were getting carpentry for their ships from Japan ? The 
union orators and reasoners never seemed to take any account of 
foreign competition, aided by English strikes, carrying off whole 
trades, except, indeed, when they try to get up grand international 
unions for universal strikes. 

Mr. PocHiN said that the constant differences that arose between 
masters and men, were very deeply to be regretted. The effect was 
very injurious to all the interests concerned. Arbitration as at 
present conducted, was very unsatisfactory, as it had no settled basis 
on which to act. Arbitrators and umpires in nearly all cases had 
confined themselves to an inquiry as to the amount of wages the 
masters could afford to pay on the one hand, and the men afford to 
work for on the other hand ; that, he thought, could never be a 
satisfactory basis. He knew a case where one company was working 
six collieries ; in some of those collieries the coal was very good, 
commanding a high price in the market, and was easily raised ; in 
the other collieries, the coal was inferior, and commanded a far less 
price in the market, and the raising was attended with many mining 
difficulties. Arbitration, on the terms on which it was usually 
conducted, would, under those circumstances, decree, that two 
colliers, working at less than a mile distant from each other, should 
have different rates of wages, for precisely the same amount of 
work. Until wages were settled purely on the question of supply 
and demand, and without combinations of workmen on one side, 
and masters on the other, he did not think that the three great 
interests concerned would have reason to be satisfied with the 
results. These three interests being the masters, the workmen, 
and the public. 

Mr. Bevan, in reply, disclaimed having used intemperance of 
language in treating the subject. Mr. Howell had spoken of the 
violence of masters, and the intemperate spirit of the employed. 
He (Mr. Bevan) thought the one was as bad as the other. To 
discuss the question with bias, would be as bad as to discuss it with 
temper. The evil was a terrible one. It was no use discussing 
what caused it, but they ought to seek to remedy it. 



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1880.] 65 

On Certain Changes in the English Rates of Mortality. 
By Thomas A. Welton, Esq. 

[Read before the Statiitical Society, I7th February, 1880.] 



CONTENTS : 



FAGS 

fL — Introductory ^ 66 

II.— The Extent of the Changee 

in Mortality 69 



FAGS 

III. — ^The Canses of the Increased 
MortaKty amongst Males 
Aged 36-66 7» 



I. — Introdudory. 

The leading fact in relaMon to the statistics of mortality is the 
reguloflrity which underlies every variation of death-rate^ whether 
snch variation be found to exist on a comparison of statistics of 
several localities, or of the same locality at different periods and 
nnder dissimilar conditions ; whether the reason of snch variation 
be traceable to the inflnence of particular occupations npon 
mortality, to the results of migrations (in search of employment, 
of education, of amusement, or of renewed health), to the unequal 
stamina of different races of men, to the circumstances respectively 
affecting the two sexes, or to some alteration in the habits of the 
people. 

The essential nature of this regularity consists in the graduation 
of the series of death-rates at the several periods of life, beginning 
with heavy losses in the earliest years, descending rapidly to a 
minimum, and thenceforward progressively increasing until the end 
of life. The exact place of the minimum may fluctuate, and the 
increase afterwards may not proceed by similar steps ; the absolute 
rates at all periods of life may be strongly contrasted, but the 
general likeness of the series remains. We may say with truth 
that a resemblance exists between curves representing mortality at 
successive ages, even greater than that which unites in one category 
every right-angled triangle ; for the sides of such a triangle may be 
of any length, but there are limits beyond which the variations of 
death-rates do not appear to go. 

Whilst regularity of type is the leading feature of the curves 
resulting from different series of death-rates, variability of detail is 
the next. When once the mind has grasped the idea of regularity 
of general character, nothing more remains to be learned in that 
direction ; but as variations in the amount of losses by death are 
material and frequent, they afford infinite matter for study, and 
observers are led to think rather too much of momentary changes 

VOL. XLIII. PART I. P 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



66 



Wblton — On Certain Oha/nges 



[Mar. 



and contrasts, and too little of the substantial similarity and 
constancy which nnderlies them all. 

I am far from regretting that this is so, for whilst the losses by 
death are so frequently excessive, it is well to instil the lesson that 
rates of mortality a/re changeable, and may conseqnently be modified 
by the endeavours of mankind. The more thoroughly people 
appreciate this fact, the greater the probability that they will exert 
themselves in order to reduce the ravages of preventable disease 
and death. 

On the other hand, it is fit that from time to time the data for 
long periods should be examined, and the stability or changefulness 
of the phenomena considered. Tendencies may thus be discovered 
which, from the slowness of their operation, might produce, in any 
short period of time, effects so slight as to be overshadowed by those 
resulting from transient causes of disturbance, but which, being 
persistent, would in a series of years bring about changes of an un- 
mistakeable character. 

The English returns were comparatively imperfect until the 
system of registration had been some years in existence ; and the 
population tables classifying the inhabitants of this country 
according to their ages were prior to 1851 very far from being 
reliable. I am therefore of opinion that it will be better to restrict 
our comparisons to the thirty years extending from 18^6 to 1875, 
instead of commencing with 1838, the first year of registration. 

According to the tables of annual d^ath-rates given by the 
Registrar-General (Nos. 28 and 25, in his thirty-eighUi report), the 
mortality of both sexes at ages 5 — 25* has been continuonsly 
reduced with hardly an interruption, during twenty-five years, 
thus: — 





Meaa Death-RatM per i,ooo Uving. 




Males. 


Femelee. 




Age 6—10. 


AgeUK-U. 


Age 16-26. 


Age 6-10. 


Age 10-16. 


Agel6-Siw 


Arerage 1846-60 

„ '61-56 

'56-60 

„ '61-66 

'66-70 

„ '71-76 


9-6 
8-8 
8-3 
8-5 
7'9 
7'» 


5-4 
5-2 
4-6 
4-7 
4-8 
4-0 


8-6 
8-1 
7*4 
7*5 
71 
6-9 


9*3 

8-5 
8-3 
8-z 

7-4 
6-6 


5-7 
6-8 
4-9 
4-8 
4-3 
4-0 


8-9 
8-5 
7-8 
7-6 
7-1 
6-7 


Abatement equal to 1 
(per cent.) J 


26 


26 


20 


29 


80 


26 



* The mortality tabulated at ages — 6 has diminished thus >— amongst males 
from 74*1 per i,ooo in 1846-60, to 70*0 per 1,000 in 1871-75 : — amongst femakt. 



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1880.] 



in the English Bates of Mortality. 



67 



At ages 35 — 75 the rates of mortality amongst males, after 
being somewhat diminished, have become higher than thej were 
in 1846-50:— 





Mean Death-RatM per i,ooo Uring, amongrt Males. 




Age 86-46. 


Age 46-56. 


Age 66-66. 


Age 66-76. 


ATenige 1846-50 

'61-55 

'66-60 


»3*4 
iz-9 
IV4 


19-4 
18-6 
171 


33*4 
31.5 
30*0 


68*9 
66-8 
66*2 


Abatement equal tol 
(percent.) j 


7 


12 


10 


4 


Arerage 1861-65 

'66-70 

„ '71-76 


»3'4 
13-6 
14*3 


18-8 
19-6 
201 


3^6 
33'5 
34*8 


66-6 
68-2 
69-6 


Later increase equal! 
to (per cent.) J 


16 


18 


16 


6 


Increase on the whole 1 
period (per cent.) J 


7 


4 


4 


1 



The increase in male mortality wonld appear in a stronger light, 
were the years omitted in which epidemics occnrred. Thns taking 
that year of each qninqnenninm in which the average mortality 
was lowest, we have the following death-rates at the ages men- 
tioned, viz. : — 





Mean Beath-Bates per i,ooo Uring, amongat Malea. 




Age 86-45. 


Age 46-65. 




Age 66-76. 


Tear 1860 Gowest in 1846-60).... 


II-6 
12-4 
11*9 


17-2 
17-9 
16-4 


29-8 

30*3 
28*8 


62-8 
640 
61-6 


Abatement equal to (per cent.) 


8» 


6 


8 


2 


Tear 1862 (lowest in 1860-66).... 
„ '67 ( „ '66-70).... 
„ '78 ( „ '71-75).... 


12-7 

13*5 
13-6 


181 
191 
19-5 


31*3 
33*5 
34*o 


62-6 
68*6 
70-4 


Later increase equal to (perl 
cent.) J 


14 


19 


18 


14 


Increase on the whole period 1 
(per cent.) j 


17 


18 


14 


18 



• Increase. 



ftom 63*9 per 1,000 in 1846-60, to 6o** per 1,000 in 1871-75. The rates in 
1841-45 were lower than any since shown, but the earlier records at this period 
of life were no doubt imperiect in comparison with more recent returns. 

f2 

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68 



Wilton — On Oertam Changes 



[Mar. 



The average mortality amongst females at the ages 85 to 75 
appears to have been as nnder, viz. : — 









AgcS6-«. 


Age46-(S. 


Age 66-61. 


Age 66—75. 


Ayerage 1846-60 

•51-56 

*66-60 


13*5 

12-4 

ir6 


16-7 
16-6 
14-7 


29*4 
27-8 

27-1 


63-3 
690 
54-9 


Abatement equal to\ 
(per cent.) J 


14 


12 


8 


18 


Ayerage 1861-66 

^ • '66-70 

'71-76 


IZ'O 
12*0 


16-4 
16-8 
15-8 


28-0 

28*0 

28-9 


57-9 
69-4 
61-2 


Later increase equal 1 
to (per cent.) J 


8 


8 


7 


U 



showing, upon the whole, a reduction, in spite of recent increase ; 
but on comparing the most favourable years, as in the case of males, 
a tendency towards increased death-rates from age 45 upwards is 
observable : — 





Mean Deatb-Ratet per i,ooo Liring, amongit Femilet. 




Age 86—46. 


Age 46-66. 


Age 66— <6. 


Age 66-76. 


Tear 1850 Oowett in 1846-60) .. 
„ '51 ( „ '61-65).... 
„ '56 ( „ '66-60).... 


11*7 
11-9 
ll'3 


14-7 
15-2 
140 


z6'l 
26-8 
251 


57-3 
68-6 
51-2 


Abatement equal to (per cent.) 


8 


6 


4 


11 


Tear 1862 aoweetinl861.65).... 
„ '67 r „ '66-70).... 
„ '78 ( „ '71-76).... 


11-8 
11-9 
"6 


14-7 
15-6 
16-6 


26-7 
27-6 
28-4 


67-2 
69-6 
61-8 


Later increase equal to (per cent.) 


2 


11 


18 


21 



On the whole then the tables show that the striking abatement 
in mortality at ages 5 — 25 has been attended with an aggravation of 
the loss by death at higher ages, putting aside epidemic years, and 
tbat such aggravation has been far more considerable amongst 
males than amongst females. Every circumstance which will help 
us to measure the extent, and to understand the causes, of such a 
deterioration in the vitality of males, demands attention. 

I shall proceed before the close of this paper, to point out the 
apparent causes, as sbown in the Registrar GeDeraVs tables, leaving 
to others to determine how these have been brought into operation. 



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1880.] in ihe EngUeh Bates of Mortality. 69 



U.—The Extent of the Cha/nges in Mortality, 

The tables in the Registrar- General's thirty-eighth re|)ort, 
from which the abov*e ratios were extracted, are nse^l enough for 
ordinary purposes; bnt when we have to*grapp]e with qnestioos of 
serious import, in order to appreciate which small and gradual but 
cumulative changes have to be measured, it is right that every 
correction which the figures need should be borne in mind. 

I have arrived at the conclusions (1st) that the census returns 
as to ages require to be amended; (2nd) that the approximate 
proportions of births which annually escape registration are 
discoverable ; and (3rd) that the net results of migrations into and 
from the country may also be measured. 

By the help then of such transpositions of the numbers stated to 
exist at difEerent ages as appear to me to be necessary, I proceed to 
show what I believe to be an approximately true national table of 
mortality for 1856-60, when the upward movement seems not to 
have commenced; and also a similar table representing the experience 
of the years 1871-75, when such movement had attained a consider- 
able if not alarming development.* l^hese two tables, for males 
and females respectively, and showing the excess of either sex 
surviving at different periods of life in a stationary population solely 
recruited by births, are here contrasted with Dr. Farr's English Life 
Table No. 3. 

* Besides correcting the retomi of population hy ages in conformity with the 
suggestions contained in my paper " On the Inaccuracies which probably exist in 
" the Census Returns of Ages," printed in the ** Transactions of the Historic 
** Society of Liverpool," tor 1875-76, vol. iv, which will be found in the Library of 
the Statistical Society, I have allowed for unregistered births in conformity with 
the percentages mentioned in the same paper; and then having, by means of 
estimates, apportioned the recorded deaths under the quinquennial periods in 
which the persons dying were horn, I have arrived by way of ditferenoe at the 
probable loss or gain resulting from migrations at each age in the intervals 
between the censuses, and have obtained sets of ratios showing the proportionate 
losses by death out of the population existing at each age, in 1841, 1846, 1851, 
1856, 1861, 1866, and 1871, during the five years next succeeding each of those 
years. Each set of ratios so obtained is immediately convertible into a table of 
mortality (column P^ according to Dr. Parr's notation), capable of direct com- 
parison with the English Life Table No. 3, because based on an equal number of 
•apposed annual births. 



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70 



Wblton— On Certain Ghanges 



[Mar. 









England 


I and Wales. Population resnlting firom a Tbonaand 




Survirora (Experience of 1866-«0). 


SuiriTon (Experience 


Age. 
















Male. 


FemiOe. 


Females. 


Male. 


Female. 






ExceM. 


Deficiency. 




0— 6 .... 


2026-254 


1999-406 


26-849 


_ 


»030-349 


2005-758 




6—10 .... 


1823*021 


1803*464 


^9'557 


— 


1848*430 


1835*665 




10-15 .... 


1769*607 


1749*360 


20-247 


— 


i8oi*iio 


1791*242 




15—20 .... 


1724*129 


1701*429 


22*700 


— 


1760*946 


1750*043 




20—26 .... 


1659*129 


1634-392 


^4*737 


— *. 


1699-490 


1688*967 




26—30 .... 


1586*128 


1659-864 


26*264 


— 


1623-863 


1617-187 




30—36 .... 


J5I5-387 


1484*211 


3i'n6 


— 


1 543 '807 


1541*987 




35—40 ... 


H37'345 


1407*626 


29-719 





H53'34i 


1462-112 




40—45 .... 


i353'i6o 


1327*111 


26*149 


— 


1350*299 


1376*578 




46—50 .... 


»^59'o73 


1246*495 


I3'578 


— 


1 241 -060 


1284*761 




60—56 .... 


1152*430 


1157*812 




6*382 


1119*189 


1189*946 




65—60 .... 


1025*893 


1057*893 





32000 


984*550 


1079*162 




60-66 .. 


884*115 


933*590 


— 


49-475 


827-71* 


945-671 




66—70 .... 


709*768 


772*453 


— 


62-685 


644-954 


769-966 




70—76 .... 


5i3'30^ 


577*409 


— 


64*103 


448*566 


566*926 




76-80 .... 


309*728 


367*752 


~~ 


68-024 


264-475 


356199 





Using the fignres in Dr. Fair's Life Table as a convenient 
standard of comparison, we find the excess or defect of survivors 
(per cent.), according to the other tables to be — 



Amongit SnrrivwB Aged 



0-35 

35-56 

55-80 

All ages up to 80 



Experience 18Stf-(M). 



Males. 



1*4 more 
31 „ 
6*1 „ 
2-6 „ 



Females. 



I -4 more 

3*3 >i 
8*1 „ 
3*o „ 



Experience 1871-7&. 



Males. 



3*1 more 
2-4 „ 

2-31688 

2*1 more 



Females. 



3-9 more 
6-8 „ 
8*4 » 
5'4 i» 



The period of years which elapses before the persons who are 
bom are reduced to half their original number, is, according to the 
above tables, as under : — 





By Dr. Fanr's 

Table. 


Bt Experience 
of 1856-60. 


Bt Experience 
of lSl-76. 


Males 


44*4 

46*4 

2*0 


46-6 

48-9 

2-4 


45-8 

50*9 

5'i 


Females 







Thus the probable lifetime of female infants seems now to exceed 



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1880.] 



in the English Bates of Mortaiiiy. 



71 



ABulBirtlu 


: 511*745 little uid 4S8'255 Female. 










r 1871-7S). 


Sorrif on (by Dr. fWr*! life Table Vo. 8). 




Males ooopved witli 






Maleo compared with 


Age. 


yemairt. 






Femalea. 








Male. 


Female. 








EXCCM. 


Sefldencj. 


'Rxceat. 


Deficiency. 




24-596 


^_ 


2015-886 


1988-830 


27-556 




0- 5 


12-765 


— 


1801*316 


1783-240 


18-076 


— 


6—10 


9-868 


— 


174^*507 


1723-706 


18-801 


— 


10—16 


10-903 


— 


1696-773 


1676-461 


21-312 


— 


15—30 


io*5*3 


— 


1632-979 


1609-814 


23-165 


— 


2a-26 


6-676 


— 


1560-236 


1634-785 


25-451 


_ 


26—30 


1'820 


— 


1483-840 


1456076 


27-764 


— 


30—35 


— 


8-771 


1402-868 


1374-392 


28-476 


__ 


36—40 


— 


26-279 


1315-244 


1289-612 


25-632 





40—46 


— 


43-701 


1218-321 


1201-075 


17-246 


..-. 


46—60 


— 


70-767 


1 108-460 


1107-736 


0-725 


— 


50-65 


— 


94-612 


981-337 


999-667 





18-330 


56—60 


— 


117-959 


834-862 


866-700 


— 


31-838 


60—65 


— 


126-012 


664-601 


706-898 





42-297 


65—70 


— 


118-860 


475*223 


628-015 


— 


47-792 


70-75 


"^ 


91-724 


288-993 


333-526 


"~ 


44-533 


75—80 



the duration of tHat of males bj perhaps five years, against a 
difference of little more than two jears according to earlier data. 

This great change might seem to arise rather from increased 
mortalit7 amongst males than from diminished female death-rates. 
For example, those surviving to be counted at ages 60 — 66 were by 
table resulting from 

Experience of 1856-60 Males 884115 Females 983-590 
'71-75 „ 827-712 „ 945-671 



Fewer 56403 



More 12-081 



It should, however, be remarked, that 1856-60 was an excep- 
tionally healthy quinquennium ; and if we base our comparison 
upon Dr. Farr's Life Table, as representing the average of a greater 
number of years, we find that the figures for 1871-75 show but a 
small reduction iu the number of males attaining the age 60 — 65, 
against a very considerable augmentation in the number of surviving 
females at that period of life. There has apparently been an increase 
of male mortality at the higher ages, sufficient to counterbalance the 
improTement in early life, fmd even after a time to turn it into a 
loss; whilst among females, a more than proportionate improvement 
in early life has been followed by a condition of things at the higher 
ages which leaves the gain practically undiminished. 



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72 



Welww — On Certain Ghangea 



[Mar. 





Males. 


Females. 


A««i. 


Eneliih 
No. 3. 


TiWe 
for 1871-75. 


Difference 
percent. 


EnriiBh 

li/eTeble 

No. 8. 


table 
for 1871-75. 


Difference 
percent. 


80-35 

45—60 
60-65 
75—80 


1483*840 

I2l8'321 

834*862 
288*993 


1543-807 

1241*060 

827-712 

264*475 


+ 4-0 
+ 1*9 
- 0*9 

-8*5 


1456*076 

1201*075 

866*700 

333*526 


1541*987 

12^4-761 

945-671 

356199 


+ 5*9 
-»- 7*0 

+ 9*1 

+ 6-8 



I have endeavoured to dear np still further the question as to 
how the average mortality of the English people has varied since 
1841, by constructing a series of life tables on the principles which 
guided me in preparing the tables already given for 1856-60 and 
1871-75. By that means the following results have been reached, 
viz. : — 





Sttrrhrore Aged 30-86. 


Aged 45—50. 


Aged 60— 65. 


Ezperienee 
of 


Males. 


Pemalea. 


Males 

ia 
Excess. 


Males. 


Females. 


MalM 

More or 

Less. 


Males. 


females. 


FeoMles 

in 
Excess. 


1841-45 .... 
'4^50 .... 
'51-55 .... 
'56-60 .... 

1861-66 .... 
'66-70 ... 
71-75 .... 

Averages^ 

1841-60 .... 

*61-75 .... 


1525*674 
H55*492 
H75*754 
1515*387 

1493*194 
1512*780 

1543-807 

1493*077 
1516*593 


1491*276 
1126-174 
1451-982 
1484*211 

1474*474 
1501-741 
1541-987 

1468-411 
1606-067 


34*398 
29*318 
23*772 
31*176 

18-720 

11*039 

1*820 

29-666 
10-526 


1264*691 
1179*817 
1211*694 

1259*073 

1224*212 

1227833 
1241-060 

1228*819 
1231*035 


1243-227 
1163*474 
1201*721 
1245-495 

1229*989 
1251-530 
1284-761 

1213-479 
1255-427 


+ 21*464 
+ 16*343 
+ 9*973 
+ 13*578 

- 5*777 
-23*697 
-43*701 

+ 15*340 
-M392 


906-245 
809*585 
837*633 
884*115 

835*077 
832*590 
827*712 

859*394 
831793 


938136 
847168 
886-911 
933-590 

910*842 
923*688 
946*671 

901*451 
926-734 


31*891 
37*583 
49*278 
49*475 

75*765 
91*098 

117*959 

42*057 
94*941 



The average figures which result from grouping the ratios for 
1841 to 1860, and for 1861 to 1875, show an improvement, both 
absolute and comparative, in the vitality of females ; and the series 
of quinquennial figures shows that this alteration in the relative 
mortality of the sexes not only continued in progress from the 
earliest to the latest date, with hardly any interruption, but waa 
accelerated during the last fifteen years. Although in 1841-45 the 
average rates of mortality were much lower, and in 1846-50 they 
were much higher than the ordinary level, the tables for these two 
periods were alike in one respect, viz., in showing a smaller excess 
of female survivors at age 60 — 65 than in any later quinquen- 
nium. 

Begarding the matter from another point of view, we perceivei 



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1880.] in (he English Bates of Mortality/. 73 

that in 1871-75 the male mortality after age 30 was so high as to 
reduce 

iS43'8o7 aged 30—35, 

to 827712 aged 60 — 65, only 53*6 per cent, surviving. 

Even in 1846-50, when the cholera epidemic so materially 
affected the average result, such a loss was not experienced ; for 

1 45 5*492 aged 30— 35, 

became 809' 58 5 aged 60 — 65, fully 55*6 per ceni. surviving. 

Consequently the male mortality dunng the latest quinqueii- 
nium at ages 30 — 60 was higher than in any of the other six similar 
periods. 

The variations in the risk of death at several periods of life, 
which are summed up in the life tables already given, may be 
better seen in the following table, which shows the proportional 
loss by deaths occurring in the five years next succeeding the attain- 
ment of the age mentioned in the first column : — 



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74 



Welton — On Certain Ohcmget 



[Mar. 







Deaths 


per 1,000 in the Next Fire Years. 








Age at 






1 




1 








Commenco- 


** EngUih 
life Tabl^ ^n > " 


Experience, 1841^. 


Experience. 184«-60. 


Experience, 1851-66. 




ment 






















Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 




Birth* .... 


212-2 


i85*5 


1961 


16/3 


208-2 


180-6 


213-4 


185*5 




0— 6.... 


106-4 


103-1 


99-9 


95-8 


112-1 


107*3 


103-8 


98-9 




5—10.... 


82-6 


33'4 


81-7 


31-4 


83-5 


33'» 


82-1 


317 




10—16.... 


26-2 


28*0 


26-8 


298 


29-2 


31*7 


27-7 


29*6 




15—20.... 


87-6 


39*a 


40-8 


4^-8 


48-5 


46-1 


41-9 


43*:» 




20-25.... 


44-5 


46-6 


44-2 


47*9 


50-1 


52-0 


46-9 


49*7 




25—80.... 


49-0 


51-3 


46-7 


50-4 


50-9 


56-6 


48-5 


51*5 




30-85.... 


64-6 


56-1 


52-9 


55*3 


581 


59*9 


58-6 


56*1 




85—40.... 


62-5 


6i-7 


60-6 


58-1 


66-9 


66-3 


68-1 


59*9 




40—45.... 


73-7 


68-7 


68-8 


63-1 


77-7 


70*6 


740 


67-3 




46—50.... 


90-2 


77'7 


82-5 


69-3 


91-8 


78-2 


91-0 


73*4 




50—66.... 


114-7 


97*6 


102-6 


85-1 


1160 


95*5 


112-4 


91-9 




66—60.... 


148-8 


133*0 


129-7 


H3*8 


145-8 


126-7 


143-2 


122-9 




60-65... 


208-9 


184-4 


184-7 


165-3 


208-5 


181-5 


200-0 


176-8 




65—70.... 


2850 


260*1 


264-9 


241-2 


2860 


262-2 


2861 


^59*5 




70—75.... 


891-9 


36z-3 


880-8 


344' 1 


406-2 


369-1 


406-7 


374*2 





* The ratios in this line show that out of 1,000 births occurring in five suocessire jears prior 
year are exposed to five years* risk, those at the very end of the last year are exposed to no risk. 



The regularity of the several sets of ratios shown in the above 
table cannot escape notice; it remains to be seen what are the 
changes which they indicate to be in progress, and are snch changes 
subject to any nniform laws ? Other tables must be employed to 
assist us in placing the matter in a sufficiently clear light. Thus : — 



Digitized by 



Google 



1880.] 



in the EnglUh Bates of Mortality. 



75 









Deaths per 1,000 in 


the Next Ktc Years. 










Experience, 1856^. 


Experience. 18«1^. 


Experience, 1866.70. 


Experience, 1871-76. 


Age at 
Commence- 
ment. 




Males. 


Femalet. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 






208-1 


i8ro 


2121 


1 84- a 


213-3 


185-8 


206-6 


178-4 


Birth* 




100-3 


98*0 


106-7 


ioi'6 


97-8 


93a 


89-6 


84-8 


0—6 




29-3 


30*0 


29-2 


18-9 


27-0 


26-0 


25-6 


24-2 


5—10 




26-7 


27-4 


25-6 


271 


237 


246 


22-3 


23-0 


10—16 




37-7 


39*4 


38-6 


39*5 


360 


37-0 


34-9 


34*9 


16—20 




440 


45-6 


43-8 


44-8 


44-0 


43*4 


44-5 


42-5 


20—26 




44-6 


48-5 


47-8 


49*3 


48-6 


48-0 


49-3 


46-5 


25—30 




61-6 


51-6 


64-6 


54-1 


57-6 


53-a 


58-6 


51-8 


30-36 




68-6 


57-2 


64-8 


sn 


66-5 


59-a 


70-9 


58-5 


36—40 




69-6 


61-5 


72-7 


64-1 


77-4 


64-4 


80-9 


66*7 


40—45 




84-7 


70-4 


91-1 


71-0 


91-5 


73*5 


98-2 


73-8 


45—50 




109-8 


86-3 


116-7 


9i'7 


119-3 


895 


120-3 


93-1 


60—56 




138-2 


117-5 


151-3 


122-4 


152*6 


125-1 


1693 


123.7 


56—60 




197-2 


172-6 


201-3 


176-2 


211-6 


175*6 


220-8 


185-8 


60—66 




276-8 


25*'5 


287-0 


256-8 


2880 


257-1 


304-6 


263.7 


65—70 




896-6 


3^3-1 


399-2 


362-5 


412-8 


369-7 


410-4 


371-7 


70-76 



to a 06118118 taken at the end of the period so many die. Those bom at the beginning of the first 
because they are immediately coimted as liying at the age — 6. 



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76 



Weltok — On Gertwin Ohanges 



[Mar. 



Age at 
Commence- 


The Male Death-Rate in the lait Table being 
Atsumed Equal to i,ooo, the Female Death-Rate was Lees* by 


In Thirty Years 

the Female Drath-Rate 

badUius 

become relatively 


ment of 
Fire Tears. 


Experi- 
ence, 
1841.45. 


Experi. 

ence, 

1846.»0. 


fixperi- 

ence, 

1861-56. 


Experi. 

ence, 

I806-6O. 


Experi- 

ence, 

1861-66. 


Experi- 
ence, 
1866-70. 


Experi- 
ence, 
1871-76. 


Less. 


More. 


Birth 

0— 5 .... 

6—10 .... 
10—16 .... 


137 

9 
+ 11Z 


138 

43 

9 

+ 86 


131 

43 

12 

+ 69 


130 
23 

+ 24 
+ 66 


13* 

39 

10 

+ 63 


129 
47 
87 

+ 38 


136 
54 

55 
+ 31 


13 
46 
81 


1 


Aggregate 
r^ios.... 


} " 


99 


117 


68 


118 


176 


214 


— 


— 


15—20 .... 
20-25 ... 
25-30 .... 
80—35 .... 


+ 62 
+ 84 
+ 79 
+ 45 


+ 60 
+ 38 
+ 112 
+ 81 


+ 31 
+ 60 
+ 62 
+ 47 


+ 45 
+ 36 
+ 87 
+ 2 


+ a6 

+ 23 

+ 31 

9 


+ 28 
14 
10 
77 


45 

57 

116 


62 
129 
136 
161 


— 


Aggregate 
ratios.... 


1+270 
J 


+ 241 


+ 200 


+ 170 


+ 71 


73 


218 


— 


— 


85—40 .... 
40—45 .... 
45—50 .... 
80—55 .... 


41 

76 

160 

171 


9 

91 

148 

177 


5t 
91 

193 
182 


22 
116 
169 
214 


I to 
118 
221 

207 


110 
168 
197 
241 


175 
176 
248 
226 


»34 

100 

88 

55 


— 


Aggregate 
ratios.... 


1 448 


426 


617 


621 


666 


716 


826 


— 


— 


65—60 .... 
60—65 .... 
6&-70 .... 
70—76 .... 


'i3 

105 

89 

95 


128 

108 

83 

91 


142 

116 

90 

80 


150 
125 

88 
85 


191 

125 

105 

92 


180 
170 
107 
104 


224 
159 

134 
94 


lOI 

54 
45 


1 


ratios.... 


1 412 


410 


428 


448 


618 


661 


611 


— 


— 



* Where the female death-rate was greater instead of lets^ an affirmative sign ( + ) is used. 

These ratios possess a great deal of regnlarity, whether we 
regard them in one way or another, and they show once more, that 
for some reason^ operating over the whole period^ male mortality, at 
ages 5 to 70, has diminished by a less amount, or has increased to 
a greater extent, than that of females. In 1841-45 the mortality of 
females exceeded that of males at the five ages from 10 to 35 ; in 
1871-75 there was no sncli excess save at the age 10 to 15. 

At the ages 15 — 35 it is specially to be remarked that, not- 
withstanding the dangers of maternity, female mortality now com- 
pares favourably with that amongst males. At ages 25 — 35 the 
male death-rates were hardly lower in 1871-75 than in 1846-50 ; at 
the same ages, female death-rates were in 1871-75 about 16 per cent, 
lower than in 1846-50. 



Digitized by 



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.1880.] 



in the English Batiks of Mortality, 



77 



Next, let US compare the absolute ratios contained in the 
preceding table for either sex, thus : — 













Total Chances 


Utest Ratios a871-76) 




Changes in 


Changes in 




. " . 


compnred with 


Age at 
Conunene*- 




Female Death-Rates. 


in Thirty Years nrom 
1841-46 to 1871-75. 


those derived from the 
English Life Table No. 3. 


■lentttf 


















VlfeTcan. 


Between 


Between 


Between 


Between 












1841-45 HDd 


1866.00 and 


1841-46 and 


1856-CO aud 


Males. 


Vemales. 


Males. 


Females. 




1866-flO. 


1871-75. 


186«.60. 


1871-76. 










Birth 


+ I20 


- 1-6 


+ 11-7 


- 2-6 


+ 10-4 


+ 9*1 


- 5-7 


- 7'i 


0— 5... 


+ 04 


-10-7 


+ 2*2 


-13-2 


-10-8 


— 11*0 


-16-8 


-18-3 


6—10... 


- **4 


- 3-7 


- 1*4 


- 6-8 


- 61 


- 7'2 


- 70 


- 9-2 


10-15... 


— ri 


- 3-4 


- i*4 


- 4-4 


- 4-5 


- 6-8 


- 3-9 


- 5'o 


15—20... 


- 2-6 


- 2-8 


- 3*4 


- 4-6 


- 6-4 


- 7-9 


- 2-7 


- 4*3 


20—25... 


— 0'2 


+ 0-5 


- 2*3 


- 31 


+ 0-3 


- 5'4 


— 


- 4*1 


25—30... 


— 2*1 


+ 4-7 


- 19 


- 20 


+ 2-6 


- 3*9 


+ 0-3 


- 4-8 


80-^.. 


- 1*4 


+ 71 


- 3*7 


+ 0-2 


+ 6-7 


- 3*5 


+ 40 


- 4*3 


35-40... 


— 21 


+ 12-4 


- 0-9 


+ 1-8 


+ 10-3 


+ 0-4 


+ 8-4 


- 3*a 


40--45.... 


+ f3 


+ 11-8 


- 1-6 


+ 6-2 


+ 12-6 


+ 3-6 


+ 7-2 


— 20 


45—50.... 


+ 2*2 


+ 18-5 


+ VI 


+ 3 4 


-H6-7 


+ 4*5 


+ 8-0 


- 3*9 


60-65..^ 


+ 7*2 


+ 10-5 


+ 1*2 


+ 6-8 


+ 17-7 


+ 8*0 


+ 5-6 


- 4*5 


65—60... 


+ 8*5 


+ 211 


+ 37 


+ 6-2 


+ 296 


+ 9*9 


+ 100 


- 9*3 


00—65... 


+ 12-5 


+ 23-6 


+ 7'3 


+ 13-2 


+ 861 


+ 20*5 


+ 16-9 


+ 1-4 


66—70... 


+ 11-9 


+ 27-7 


+ 11*3 


-Hll-2 


+ 39-6 


+ 22-5 


+ 19-6 


+ 3-6 


70-76.... 


+ i6*3 


+ 18-8 


-I-190 


+ 8-6 


+ 301 


+ 27*6 


+ 18-5 


+ 9*4 



This table again shows that there has been more regularity than 
could have been expected in the changes of mortality ratios which 
have taken place. In the fifteen years between 1841-45 and 1856-50 
both sexes experienced an unfavourable change* in the earliest 
period of infancy, then an improvement extending to about 40 or 
45 years of age, and at higher ages, a deterioration in vitality. In 
the second period of equal duration, there was a yet greater improve- 
ment in the period of youth, but after 25 the ratios for males 
showed very unfavourably, and after 35 there was a sensible increase 
in female mortality. 

The sum of the changes within the two periods exhibits a 
striking improvement in the mortality of both sexes, after earliest 
infancy up to age 20 ; this continued fifteen years later in life for 
women ; after which both sexes, especially males, showed enhanced 
death-rates. 

On being compared with the English Life Table No. 3, the latest 
set of ratios would indicate that female vitality at every age up to 
60 has improved, but that male inhabitants of this country aged 25 



* This unfavourable feature is probably illusory ; if tbe record of infantile 
deaths had been as complete in 1841*45 as in 1856-60, very likely appearances 
would have pointed the other way. 



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78 



Wblton — On Certain Changes 



[Mar. 



and upwards are now subject to rates of mortality exceeding those 
shown in that table. 

III. — The Ca/uses of the Increased Mortality amongst Males 
Aged 35—66. 

The deaths occurring amongst males aged 35 — 65 appear to have 
been due to the undermentioned causes in the proportions indicated 
at the periods mentioned : — 





Annual Male Death-Bates per 1,000 Liring. 


CftlMCS. 


Age86-«. 


AgeiS— 65. 


Age (l-6(. 




1861-eO. 


1861-70. 


1875. 


1861.60. 


1861-70. 


1876. 


1861-60. 


1861-70. 


1876. 


Zymotic diseasee .... 


v6o 
0-I7 

0*12 
4-01 

ri8 

I'OO 

0*89 
o'a9 

0-55 


1-38 
0-20 

010 

417 
1-34 

1-23 

i-72 

0-91 

0-41 
1-31 
069 


1-41 
0-25 

0-08 
4-41 
^•55 
1-59 
2-52 

I*OI 

0-52 
1*39 
0-37 


2-07 

0-42 
0-13 

3-83 
1-99 

1-90 

3-09 

1-66 

0-47 
1*37 
i'03 


1-69 
0-54 

Oil 

3-86 
2-24 

219 

8-50 

1-71 

0*66 
1-65 
1-11 


1*5^ 
0*70 

0-07 

3-85 
*'45 
2-61 

4-78 

1-82 

0-87 
1-63 
0*70 


0-93 
0-14 

3*33 
4*10 

4*13 

6-62 

3'03 

0-94 
V6i 
2*90 


2-54 
1-21 

0^14 

3-80 
4-66 

4-68 

7-69 

3*06 

1*28 
1-89 
2-76 


2*31 

1-62 


Scrofula, tabes 1 
mesenterica J 

PhthiBiB 

Diaease of brain 

Heart diBease audi 
dropsy J 

Disease of lungs 

Disease of stomach \ 
and liver 


o-o8 

3*33 

5'57 

5*40 
10*32 
3'*o 


Disease of kidneys.... 

Violent deaths 

Other causes 


f77 
2-o8 

2'00 






All causes 


12-48 


13-46 


15-10 


ir9^ 


19-16 


21*00 


30-85 


38-00 


37-6S 





At these ages, the zymotic diseases, or those specially consequent 
on bad sanitary conditions, such as fevers, small pox, cholera, and 
diarrhoea, seem collectively less fatal than they were, but local 
diseases, of the lungs, heart, brain, and kidneys, and also cancer, 
appear to be more destructive. 

The causes of death at several ages are not shown in the 
Registrar-General's Reports except for the whole country and for 
London, save in the supplementary tables for 1851-60 and 1861-70. 
These supplementary tables enable us to present the following 
comparisons : — 



Digitized by 



Google 



1880.] 



tn the English Bates of MortaMty. 



79 



yeTomu^ — 

london (diviiion) »...»..„... 

iTerpod 

fancbester 

timiingham 

ieeds ^ 

(hdBdd ^.^ 



fottiiigliam 

Jriatel 

luU 



rhePotteriee ^. 

fewcast]6-oii-Tjiie 

[ieicester....^ 

V^dTerbampton .... 



Dir. 11. South Eastern ... 
» UL Sooth Midland... 

» IV. Eastern 

» V. South Wertcra... 

Bertof Dir. VL W. Mdhid. 

Vn. N.lidlnd. 

„ VIIL N. Wstm. 

n 12L xonL 

ti X. Northern 
Dir. XL Wales, Ac 



England and Wales 



Annma Mortality per i,ooo Males Aged S5— M. 



Diaease 

of 
Longa. 



1861.60. 



1861-70. 



1-98 
3-10 

3*14 
1-91 

^7 
0*97 

n$ 

V78 
1*37 
1-41 

*"35 



i-a7 
113 
i*oz 

1-28 
I'OO 

170 

VZ2 
0*92 
VZ2 



VS2 



218 
3-53 
3-66 
211 
2-93 
300 

1-30 
1-89 
1-62 
3-68 
203 
1-66 
1-92 



1-38 
118 
103 
1-39 
1-32 
112 
2-09 
1-53 
lU 
1-41 



1-72 



Heart Disease 

and 

Dropsy. 



•51-60. 



i'3a 
1*46 

1*21 

1-19 
I -09 

0*87 
114 

I'12 

i*03 
1*09 
I'll 



ro5 
0-85 
0*72 
0-86 

0'92 
0'82 
I*02 
0*84 

0*99 
0*70 



'61-70. 



1-64 
2-06 
1-47 
1-36 
1-62 
1-68 

118 
1-30 
1-61 
1-36 
2-44 
1-93 
116 



1-38 
0-96 
0-86 
108 
105 
0^90 
119 
111 
1-20 
0-92 



1-23 



Disease of 
Brain. 



'61-60. 



•26 

•43 
0-94 

H 

18 

078 

H 

•06 

0-99 

0*80 



ri8 



'61-70. 



1-56 
1-43 
1-96 
1-44 
115 
1-29 

1*28 
1-73 
1-42 
108 
1-28 
1-74 
0-73 



1-44 
1-67 
1-09 
1-31 
1-34 
0*94 
1-38 
1-25 
105 
101 



1-34 



Diaeaaeof 
Kidneys. 



61-60. 



044 
0*37 

0'42 

0-42 

o*35 
o'27 

018 
044 
0*30 

0*21 
0-44 

o'43 
0*34 



0-3 a 
0*26 
0*26 
0*26 

0'22 
0-23 
0-25 

0-23 

0-25 

o'i8 



0*29 



•61-70. 



0-62 
0-67 
0-50 
0*40 
0-48 
0-31 

0-35 
0-64 
0-37 
0-33 
0-49 
0-53 
0-49 



0*46 
0-36 
0-36 
0-48 
0-34 
0-30 
0-29 
0-31 
0-25 
0*32 



0-41 



Cancer. 



•61-60. 



0-24 

0-23 

0'2I 

0-25 

0-23 

0*14 

0*10 
0*38 

0*20 

0-15 

0*29 
0-I7 

0*I2 



0*19 
0*19 

0-13 

o*i6 

014 

o'i3 
0-13 
0*14 
o-i8 
0-I3 



0*17 



•61-70. 

0-29 
0-23 
0-24 
0-22 
0-29 
010 

0*23 
0-34 
018 
0-06 
0-34 
014 
0-23 



019 
0-23 
017 
0-21 
018 
017 
016 
017 
017 
0-20 



0-20 



• The serend towns sre represented in this table by groups of registration districts : for 
unple, Manchester, by the districts of Manchester, Chorlton, and Salford ; Bristol, by those 
Bristol and Clifton. 



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80 



Wbmon — 0» Certain Ohanget 



[Mar. 



Large Toione — 

London (diyision) 

Liverpool 

Manohester 

Birmingham 

Leeds 

Sheffield ., , 

Nottingham ^ 

Bristol 

Hull 

The Potteries 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Leicester 

Wolrerhampton _ 

Rural Divisions — 

Dir. II. South Eastern 

„ III. South Midland 

„ rV. Eastern 

„ V. South Western 

RestofDiv. VL W.Mdlnd 
VII. N. „ 
VIII. N. Wstm 

„ IX. York 

„ X. Northern 
Div. XL Wales, &c 

England and Wales 



Annval MortaUty per l.pOO Males Aged 4S~6S. 



Disease 

of 
Luugs. 



18514K). 1861-70, 



4*55 
6*37 
7"37 
4*6o 

5-58 

^'59 
4*a6 

7-78 
4*05 
3-50 
4*43 



2*09 
2*or 
1-83 

2-56 
1-44 

187 
3*77 
i'62 
2*10 
1*43 



3*09 



4*84 
8-22 
8-45 
4-93 
6-22 
6-72 

2*44 
8*98 
3-33 
8-51 
4-08 
3*99 
4-48 



2-30 
216 
1-97 
2-42 
2-81 
213 
4-64 
3-28 
2 27 
2-77 



3-50 



Heart Disease 

sud 

Dropsj. 



'61-«0. 



a'45 
2-62 

»*54 
a'47 

2*22 

rSi 
218 
a-44 
242 

3 44 
220 
2*84 



1-85 
1-62 
1-26 

1-57 
194 

1-65 
1*98 
1-70 

2*lO 
126 



i"90 



•61-70. 



2-73 
307 
2-40 
2-58 
308 
2-82 

207 
2-30 
2-76 
2-64 
392 
312 
2-84 



209 
1-87 
1-60 
1-91 
204 
1-85 
2-31 
214 
2-24 
1-63 



219 



Disease of 
Brain. 



'51.60. 



2-68 

i'50 
2*89 
2-71 
217 
2*09 

2-03 

»'45 
i'47 
rs6 
2-77 
246 



2*o8 
1*90 
»*54 
1*73 
1-90 

^•50 
1*98 

1-82 

r8o 
I 28 



'61-70. 



199 



2-90 
2-60 
322 
2-60 
2-80 
2-56 

2-32 

2-88 
2-40 
2-63 
292 
2-66 
1-62 



2-21 
2-31 
1-71 
1-99 
2-80 
1-64 
2-28 
2-18 
202 
1-48 



2-24 



Disease of 
Kidneys. 



&1-60. 



o-8i 
0*6 1 
0*62 
0-86 

045 

0*40 
0*81 
0-41 

0-53 
0-78 
0-45 



o'52 
o'43 
044 

0*40 
0-38 
035 
039 
0*30 
0-28 



*61.70. 



107 
0-91 
0-91 
0-86 
0-92 
0-64 

0-63 
100 
0-70 
0-52 
0-66 
0-53 
0'63 



0-78 
0-58 
0-54 
0-56 
0-59 
0-60 
0-55 
0-50 
0-42 
0-47 



Cancer. 



'61-60. 'ei-TO. 



047 0-66 0*42 



o*6i 
0-44 
0-50 
0*62 
0*46 
0-47 

0-27 
o'6i 
0*46 

o"33 
0-66 
o*6o 
0*30 



0-38 
0-51 
o*34 
0*40 

o*35 
0-31 
o*33 
0*40 

o*39 
o'38 



0-82 
0*70 
0-68 
0-51 
0-65 
0*40 

0*53 
0*56 
0-37 
0-54 
0*89 
0*93 
0*66 



0*53 
0-60 
0*42 
0*56 
0-43 
(0*44 
0-42 
0-42 
0*46 
0*48 



± 



0-54 



The€ie last tables are cnrions, as showing the unequal fatality of 
certain diseases in different places. Lang disease, which was least 
fatal in the eastern counties, was most so in Liverpool, Manchester, 
and the Staffordshire Potteries, where the mortality from idiis cause 
was almost fourfold. 

The wide diffusioii of the increase m mortality from each of the 
five causes mentioned in these tables is yet more noticeable. Out 
of II 5 cases in the first table (age 35 — 45) only 1 1 showed any 
decrease in the rate of mortality, and 4 a stationary death-rate, 
the rest indicating increase more or less considerable. The other 
table, out of a like number, showed 1$ instances of decreased 
mortality, and i of a stationary rate. 

The cases where the increase in the rate of mortality exceeded 
10 per cent, were naturally much fewer than those where there was 
merely some amount of increase, small or great. It is interesting 



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1880.] in the BngUsh Bates of Mortality. 81 

to consider what were the places where such marked increase of 
fatality from the undermentioned classes of disease was observed ^-^ 

Disease of lungs, at age 35 — 45, in London, Liverpool, Man- 
chester, Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Nottingham, the 
Potteries, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Leicester; also Bura] 
Divisions YII (North Midland), VIII (North Western), 

IX (York) and X (Northern). 

At age 45 — 55, in Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, and 
Leicester ; also in Rural Divisions U (South Eastern), 
VI (West Midland), VII (North Midland), VIII (North 
Western), IX (York), and XI (Wales). 

Heart disease and dropsy, at age 35—45, in London, Liverpool, 
Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Nottingham, 
Bristol, the Potteries, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Leicester; 
also in every one of the rural divisions. 

At age 45 — 55, in London, Liverpool, Leeds, Sheffield, 
Nottingham, Hull, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Leicester; also 
in all the rural divisions except VI (West Midland), and 

X (Northern) ► 

Disease of brain, at age 35 — 45, in Manchester and Sheffield, 
and in all the rural divisions except X (Northern Counties). 
At age 45 — 55, in Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Notting- 
ham, and Bristol, and in all the rural divisions except II 
(South Western), and VII (North Midland). 

We are obliged to conclude, that of these three classes of 
disease the only one the f ataUty by which was peculiarly increased 
in the manufoGtwrvng digtriots as distinguished from the rest of the 
country, was that of diseases of the lungs; the other two classes 
were much more fatal in the later period, whether in the agri- 
cultural divisions or in the more densely peopled divisions to the 
north and west. Disease of the kidneys and cancer also show a 
seriously increased rate of fatality, extending to the non-manu- 
facturing divisions. 

We find then that the mortality amongst males at ages 35 — 65 
Has been increasing, not only in the large towns and manufacturing 
districts, but also elsewhere ; and we observe that this increase has 
not been largely due to epidemic disease, to consumption, or to 
diseases of the stomach and liver, but to other causes which have 
been specified. It remains to be seen whether the increased 
mortality from the causes in question has been steadily augmenting, 
or has been subject to much fluctuation. 

The following table of annual death-rates amongst males, for 
England and Wales, will supply an answer to that question : — 

VOL. XLIII. PART I. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



82 



Welton — On Certain Oluxngea 



[Mar. 



Yw. 


DiBeaM of Longt. 


Heart Disease and 
Dropay. 


Disease of Brain. 


Disease of Kidneys. 


Cancer. 






46—65. 


86—46. 


46-65. 


S6--A6. 


46—56. 


36-46. 


46—66. 


J6— 46. 


46—66. 


1851 .... 


1*50 


8-01 


0*98 


1-80 


114 


1-88 


0*21 


0-36 


0*15 


0*85 


*62 .... 


'35 


2-77 


0-97 


1-87 


1*13 


1-90 


0*15 


0-41 


0-17 


0-44 


'58 . ... 


i-6o 


3*34 


0-98 


1-99 


I'20 


1-97 


0-2a 


0-47 


0-17 


0*42 


'54 .... 


1-42 


2-85 


1*03 


1-93 


ri4 


1-95 


0*29 


0-48 


o-i8 


0*43 


'56 .... 


1-76 


3-68 


0-97 


1-90 


1-15 


208 


0*30 


0^49 


021 


0*88 


1856 .... 


1*37 


2-73 


0-94 


1-74 


i'i5 


1-92 


0*29 


0-50 


o\6 


0*44 


'57.... 


J '47 


2-90 


o'95 


1-82 


ri4 


200 


0^31 


0-50 


o-i8 


0-40 


'58 .... 


1-58 


3-25 


vol 


1-97 


1*^3 


208 


0-32 


0-51 


o-i8 


0-40 


'59 .... 


I'fz 


3-20 


IIO 


1-97 


1-20 


20a 


o'34 


0-53 


o-i8 


0-47 


'60.... 


1*75 


3-45 


rii 


210 


1-38 


2-21 


o'34 


0-50 


0*19 


0*60 


1861 .... 


1-66 


8-27 


I'lO 


1-98 


1-23 


207 


o*35 


0-57 


0*19 


0*52 


'62 .... 


1-58 


8-80 


119 


206 


123 


215 


0*31 


0-58 


0-20 


0-47 


'63 .... 


i'59 


809 


113 


203 


1*33 


218 


0*37 


0-64 


0'20 


0*51 


'64.... 


»'93 


392 


1-27 


2-22 


1-40 


2-28 


0-41 


0-69 


0*19 


056 


'65 ... 


1-71 


8-59 


i'27 


2-46 


1-41 


2-34 


041 


0-65 


0'20 


0*61 


1866 .... 


1*70 


3-64 


1-29 


2-22 


J*33 


2^0 


0*46 


0-68 


0*21 


0*62 


'67 .... 


1-78 


3-59 


vxs 


2-28 


i*3i 


2-29 


0*44 


067 


0-2I 


0*57 


'68 .... 


1*59 


318 


1*21 


216 


1*33 


2-3e 


0*43 


0-70 


0'19 


0-55 


'69... 


182 


8-72 


i'3i 


2-32 


1-42 


2-29 


o'44 


0-70 


023 


0-58 


'70.... 


1-91 


3-88 


1*34 


2-26 


1-46 


281 


0*44 


0-73 


024 


0*62 


1871 .... 


1-78 


8-83 


1-42 


2-36 


1-42 


2-85 


048 


0-74 


0-23 


0*60 


'72 .... 


1*74 


3-39 


144 


2-42 


1-42 


282 


0-50 


0-78 


0*20 


0*67 


'73 .... 


2*03 


894 


1*5- 


2-83 


»*47 


239 


0-48 


0-86 


0-22 


068 


74.... 


2*21 


4-45 


1*53 


2-43 


1-46 


2-50 


o'<;o 


0-81 


0*22 


066 


'75 .... 


2*52 


4-78 


1*59 


2-61 


^'5S 


2-45 


0-52 


0-87 


0-25 


0-70 



To get rid of exceptional years, let us compare the medium and 
minimum ratios in each period of five jrears ; thns : — 



Period. 


Disease of Longs 


Heart Disease 
and Dropsy. 


Disease of Brain. 


Disease of 
Kidoeys. 


Cancer. 




86—46. 


46—66. 


86—46. 


46—66. 


86-46. 


46—66. 


36—46. 


46-66. 




46— M. 






Medium Batio9^ 
1851-56 


1*50 
»*5» 
1-66 
1-78 
2-03 


301 
3-20 
8-30 
8-64 
8*94 


0-98 
i'o6 
1*19 
1*29 
1*5* 


1-90 
1-97 
206 
2-26 
2-42 


1-14 
1*20 
1*33 
1*33 
1-46 


1*95 
206 
218 
2-30 
2-39 


0*28 
0-32 
0-37 
0-44 
0-50 


0*47 
0-60 
064 
0*70 
0-81 


0-17 
0*18 

0'20 
0*2I 
0*22 


0*42 


'56-60 


0*44 


*61-65 


0-61 


'66-70 


0*57 


'71-75 


0*67 






Increase per cent 


85 


81 


56 


27 


28 


23 


79 


72 


29 


60 


Mininmm Ratios — 
1851-65 


^'3S 

1*37 
1*58 

»'59 
1*74 


2-77 
2*78 
809 
818 
8-39 


o*97 
0*94 

1*10 
1*21 
1*42 


1-80 
1*74 
1-98 
215 
2-33 


1*13 
1-14 

1**3 
1*3* 

1*42 


1-88 
1-92 
2*07 
2*29 
232 


0*21 

0*29 
0-31 
0-43 
0-48 


0-35 
0-50 
0*57 
067 
0-74 


o'lS 
o*i6 
0*19 
0*19 
0*20 


0-35 


'66-60 


0*40 


'61-65 


0*47 


'66-70 


0-52 
0*60 


'71-76 






Increase per cent 


29 


22 


46 


29 


26 


28 


129 


111 


88 


71 



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1880.] in the English Bates of Mortality. 83 

This table demonstrates, I think, that the increased mortaliiy \j 
each of the five specified causes was no mere accident, bnt arose 
from some condition of things which if not altered may admit of 
further increase in the fainre, to an extent which we cannot 
measure. 

Summary. 

1. I find that whilst both sexes, especiially females,^ have ex- 
perienced a diminished mortality during many years pasi at, ages 
under 25 ; there has been an increased death-rate amongst males 
at the ages from 35 upwards, if not commencing earlier, which has 
raised male mortality at those ages, not only far above the standard 
of 1866-60, but even higher than the unfavourable rates which 
prevailed in 1846-50. A similar tendency to increase is observable 
in female death-rates at ages 45 upwards, but it is much less power- 
ful than that affecting male rates. 

2. It appears that in consequence of these changes the proba* 
bility ef attaining a high age has diminished in the case of males, 
but has increased in the case of females, so that the tendency 
towards an excess of female population arising is stronger than it 
was. A National Life Table based on recent data, would conse- 
quently deviate considerably from Dr. Farr** English Life Table, 
No. 3. 

3. The chaises in question seem to have progressed step by 
step without much interruption, at all events siace 1856-60. 

4. The particular diseases to which the increased numbeifs of 
male deaths at ages 35 — 65 were attributed in^ the Registrar 
Oenerars Tables, appear to have been mainfy lung disease (bron- 
chitis^ pneumonia, &c.), heart disease, dropsy, brain disease, disease 
of the kidneySy and cancer. The ordinary fatality resulting from 
these diseases in medium or &vourable years is shown to have risen, 
considerably. 



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81 [Mar. 



Discasiioif on Me. Wblton's Papbr. 

The Chiieman (Sir Rawson W. Rawson), after alluding to the 
importance of the paper, said that there conld be little or no doubt as 
to the facts contained in it. With regard to the calculations and 
deductions Mr. Welton had drawn from them, there were some 
gentlemen present who would be able to speak with greater know- 
ledge than he (the Chairman) was able to do. Having had the 
paper in his hands the previous daj, it appeared to him so important 
that he took the trouble to look into it for the purpose of bringing 
before the meeting a fdw features which Mr. Welton had not 
drawn out, and which he would suggest should be drawn out before 
the paper was published in the Journal. He would suggest 
that the author should give the proportions in several cases. In 
the first table he showed that the death-rates amongst males 
and females from the ages of 5 to 25 had been gradually increas- 
ing from the quinquennium of 1846-50 to that of 1871-75; but 
the mere figures did not show the proportions. The author 
stated casually they were about 2{ per cent., and so it was; 
. but it would be very important to draw these out exactly, 
and so with regard to many of the others. There was 
one point in the paper which was very tantalising to him. 
Mr. Welton said, " I have arrived at the conclusions (lat) that 
the census returns as to ages require to be amended ; (2nd) that 
the approximate proportions of births which annually escape 
registration are discoverable, and (3rd) that the net results of 
migrations into and from the country may also be measured," It 
would have been a great boon if the author had given the informa- 
tion which enabled him to state positively those three conclasions. 
He would also suggest to Mr. Welton if he would, at the end of 
his paper, summarise the chief facts and deductions, which, being 
spr^kd between the different tables, would have to be sought out, 
and require a care which many persons actively engaged would not 
be able to give. In the first table, the chief facts with regard to 
the mean death-rates per i,ooo living seemed to be these. 
Between the two dates which he took as his extremes, 1846-50 and 
1871-75, there had been a uniform increased vitality amongst males 
and females, and he observed that it had only been checked in one 
quinquennium, and that only amongst the males, namely, in 
1861-65. There was a moderate check in this period, curiously 
enough, occurring amongst the males, but not occurring amongst 
the females. That was the first fact— that the vitality of young 
people seemed, during the thirty years from 1846 to 1875, to have 
increased about one-fourth. Amongst males of the age of from 
5 to 10 there were exactly 25 per cent. ; between 10 and 15, 25*9; 
between 15 and 25, 19* 7. Then amongst the females, in the first 
period it was 29 per cent., being 4 per cent, more than amongst the 
males ; in the second period it was 29*8, and in the third period - 



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1880.] Discussion on Mr. Welton'g Pcvper. 8S» 

247. No mention was made, howerrer, of children nnder the age 
of 5. Although it might not accord with the facts whicli 
Mr. Welton had brought out in this taHe, it would be desiraHe to 
note in connection with them wha* the change was with regard tO' 
the younger ones. As far as he could make out, there had been an 
increased mortality ; but as the information was not shown in the 
same form, he had not been arble exactly to draw that out. Theii 
came the really important fact in the paper, that the vitality of the 
men of middle age — the staple of our population — ^was on the 
decrease, the cause of which ought to be looked into. The second 
table showed this very interesting, but very sad statement, that 
between the age9 of 35 and 75 for the first three quinquenniums, 
there was a gradual improvement. Then there came a change, 
and each succeeding quinquennium up to the present time showed 
a falling off to the prejudice of the population. Mr. Welton had 
brought forward four periods in regard to age : from 35 to 45, 
45 to 55, 55 to 65, and 65 to 75. Between the first quinquennium 
and the third there was a diminution of mortality for those several 
ages respectively in favour of our population of 7 per cent., 12 per 
cent., 10 per cent., and 4 per cent. Then the tide turned, and 
there was a corresponding increase of mortality up to the quin- 
quennium ending in 1875 of 15 per cent., 17 per cent.^ 16 per cent., 
and 5 per cent., all to the bad ; and comparing the first with the 
last quinquennium, there was a disadvantage represented by nearly 
7 per cent., nearly 4 per cent., 4 per cent,, saad i per cent. Those 
were the ratios of increased mortality between the* years 1846-50 
and the quinquennium 1871-75, In that way he should like the 
several tables to be examined, because the mind could then grasp 
the changes that had occurred. (Mr. Welton said it would be very 
easy to do so, but he was anxious not to overload the paper.) The 
Chairman said the next point of interest which occurred to him 
was the difference brought out between Dr. Farr*8 table and the 
experiences of 1856-60 and 1871-75. He was not competent to 
judge of Mr. Welton' s method ; but supposing that Dr. Farr*s table 
was recognised as accurate, and that Mr. Welton had adopted the 
same method, there would be the following interesting results. It 
was clear, from the figure as they stood, that Dr. Farr's table 
corresponded very closely with the experiences of 1856-60, but 
that, as regards females, it differed materially from those of the 
later period. Taking the whole of the males and females at the 
different periods of life, which was the only way of obtaining 
an average, adding them up and comparing them, he found the 
following results : — that in 1856-60 the value of male life at all 
ages by the tables, as compared with Dr. Farr's tables, was 2J 
(2*6) per cent, in excess of Dr. Farr; while among females it 
was just 3 per cent. ; but in 1871-75 it had fallen among males 
to 2 per cent, below Dr. Farr's table, while among females the 
excess had increased to 5*4 per cent. These changes, however, 
varied very much at different times of life. Up to the age of 35 
the variations amongst the males from Dr. Farr's tables were 
+ 1 '45 and -|- 3' i per cent, at the two periods selected by Mr. Welton. 
Then from 35 to 55 the differences were + 3'i3 and -f 2*37; but 



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St DiseuBsum [Mar. 

from 55 io 80 tk«re was an iRcrease of 6*i in the first qnrnqnennimn, 
amd a decrease of 2't m the second, showing that the advantage 
which the males had m that period from 55 to 80 over Dr. Farr's 
tables of 6 per cent», had «tterly disappeared, and had become a 
decrease of 2^5 per cent. With regard to the females, it stood 
thus : np to 85 they had the advantage in the first period (1856-60) 
of 1*34; in 1871-75, 3-95, being an increase of threefold in the 
latter. In the second period of life, 35 to 55, it was 3*31 in 
1856-60 ; and 6*83 in 18/1'75, being an increase of donble in the 
latt^. Beyond the age of 55 in the first period it was 8*1 ; and in 
the second period 8*31 ; which changes, he thought, afforded 
saffieient evidence that it became very necessary from time to 
time to examine life tables, and adapt them to circnmstances. 
Always pvoviding that the methods adopted by Mr. Welton in 
his paper were reliable, there was nothing to find fanlt with 
in his dednctions from the &cts on which his calculations are 
founded. One other point he desired to refer to, was the very 
remarkable change in the prospect in the life of women during 
the period of child-bearing. It would be seen that between 
the ^es of 15 and 35 during the first quinquennium of 1841-45, 
there was an excess in the death-rate of females above that 
of males amounting to 270 in 4,000. In the next quinquen- 
nium it had decreased to 241 ; in the next to 200; in the 
next to 170; in the next to 71. In the sixth quinqaenninm 
the mortality was 73 less amongst the females than amongst the 
males ; and in the last, viz., between 1871-75, the mortality was 
218 less; so that whereas forty years ago the mortality amongst 
females at the age of child-bearing was 270 more in 4,000, or 
nearly 7 per cent*, in 1871-75 it was 218, or nearly cj per cenL 
less, a change atnouoting to 12 per cent. Such a fact, if on exami- 
nation it should prove to be accurate, led to the inference that 
there had been •some very great change for the better in the treat- 
ment of women <luring that critical period. True (as Mr. Welton 
here interposed) the difference may have been caused in a con- 
siderable measure by an increase in the mortality of males. The 
males were dying in so much greater proportion than formerly that 
it affected the ratio of male and female ; bat he had little doubt 
that improved methods of treatment had beneficially affected the 
value of female life at this stage of it. Qe had made a calculation 
in reference to the last table. Mr. Welton considered that diseases 
of the lungs, brain, kidneys, heart, and cancer were the five that 
had most increased among males at the ages from 35 to 55 during 
the period named. He (the Chairman) made out that such 
increased mortality, as shown by Mr. Welton, caused by disease of 
the lungs during that period was 10 per cent. ; by heart disease 
and dropsy 7 J per cent. ; by disease of the brain nearly 7 per cent. ; 
by disease of the kidneys 6|, and by cancer 16^ per cent. He 
hoped some of those present would be able to give reasons for the 
peculiar increase of these diseases, and also for the increase of 
mortality amongst males at this period of life. Coming from 
abroad, he might be ignorant of the real state of things ; but it 
appeared to him that it might be accounted for in some measure in 



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1880.] an Mr. WeUon's Pa/per. 87 

this way. There had been an improvement in the earlier stages of 
life, from 5 to 26, but there had been a marvellous increase of 
mortality amongst males between the ages of 35 and 75. It 
occurred to him that the improved vitality which seemed to occur 
at earlier stages might be accounted for, first, by the introduction 
of improved sanitary measures, of schooling, and of legislation 
regulating the employment of young people, all tending to the 
improvement t>f their condition; and, secondly, by the improve- 
ment in the rates of wages, which had benefited the families, the 
wives, and the children, more than the adult males themselves. 
There had also, in later years, been an increase in the wages earned 
by the children themselves, which enabled them to live better than 
formerly. But with the increase of wages beginning at the period 
of 1861-65, there had been an increased activity — perhaps excessive 
exertion — on the part of the labouring population, also excessive 
living, which had led to dissipation and weakened physical powers, 
which was now telling upon them at an advanced period of life. 
It struck him that this might be a partial explanation of otte cause 
of this very remarkable change. Whether or not that was a 
possible cause, Mr. Welton'« facts oouM not be put forward in too 
powerful a light. 

Mr. A. H, Bailey (President of the Institute of Actuaries) said 
that while appreciating highly the pains and research Mr. Welton 
had bestowed on the subject, he was quite unable to accept the 
conclusious at which he had arrived, as he did not think the data 
employed werotkvailable for the solution of the questionB the author 
had been investigating. In order to determine rate** of mortality, 
two things were necessary : first, accurate information of the number 
of deaths in any country or district in a year or any definite period 
of time; and secondly, the number of living population at the 
periods in which those deaths had arisen. He did not think it 
could be doubted that in this country the deafths were accurately 
registerod, and that the censuses iskea at intervals of ten years 
gave as Bocurate enumerations of the living as could be attained in 
any similar large operation. By observing the increase in the 
rates of population, there could be determined within a reasonable 
margin of error the numbers living in intervening years. By these 
data the annual mortality of the country as a whole could be ob- 
tained with considerable accuracy. Some time ago, in making 
some investigations for another purpose, he wished to know, 
amongst other things, what had been the changes in the English 
rate of mortality. Discarding the first two or three years of regis- 
tration, he thought it advisable to divide the subsequent period into 
intervals of ten years: 1840-50, 1850-60, 1860-70, and the result 
was that there had been no change whatever in each of those ten 
years in the general mortality of England. Since 1870 he was 
aware there had been some improvement, but they had not got to 
the end of another ten years. This result was in accordance with a 
multitude of other observations that had been made, and went to 
show that it was a mistake to suppose that there had been any 
material change in the rate of mortality in this country, a notion 



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88 Discussion [Mar. 

whicli arose from some inaccurate obseryations made last centurj 
in the number of deaths alone. For Mr. Welton's purpose it was 
not only necessary to know the whole number of deaths, but also 
the number of deaths at particular ages. Whilst he (Mr. Bailey) 
willingly admitted that the number of deaths was accurately regis- 
tered, he could state, from the certificates passing through his 
hands, that the ages at death were very far from being accurate. 
It was even more difficult to ascertain the ages of the living popula- 
tion in the intervals between the censuses. Emigration was a dis- 
turbing element ; there were far more male than female emigrants, 
and far more amongst the younger than the elder portion of the 
population. Emigration did not follow any law, and therefore 
taking any such estimates as these to ascertain the rate of mortality 
at particular ages would produce results which would, he believed, 
be altogther at variance with the facts. He should say, therefore, 
that those rates of mortality Mr. Welton had brought out were not 
to be depended upon at all. It would stagger those who had expe- 
rience of insurance societies to be told that in 1846-50 the death- 
rate among females between the ages of 15 and 25 was 8*9 per 1,000, 
and that m 1871-75 it waa 67. This was at variance with other 
observations, and this sort of result ran through the whole of 
Mr. Welton's calculations. Therefore, although he had listened to 
the deductions of the chairman, he doubted the premises. Of course 
there were variations in the rate of mortality in particular years, 
but he thought the changes were small when a long period of time 
was taken into acoount. As to the very interesting part of the 
paper referring to diseases, there were others who could more com- 
petently deal with it than himself. There were, no doubt, particular 
diseases that had altogether disappeai»ed. They never heard of the 
plague now, and the ravages of small pox were less than they 
were two generations ago ; but other diseases seem to have taken 
their place. (The Chairman having pointed out that according to 
Mr. Welton the zymotic diseases bad decreased 23 per cent.) 
Mr. Bailey said it would be interesting to know whether other 
diseases, such as diseases of particular organs, had increased. 

The Bev. I. Doxsey said he was sorry that he had not known 
the subject of the paper, because he would have brought with him 
some calculations he ha4 made from the registrar-generars reports 
on this very question; but the general conclusions at which he 
arrived were to some extent in harmony with those at which 
Mr. Welton had arrived. There had been an obvious improvement 
in the death-rate from 5 years of age to 45 among females, but only 
to 25 among males, above which it had increased in every decen- 
nium. He thought there were certain facts in regard to our manu- 
facturing life that were perhaps unfavourable to the prolonged life 
of children. It was well known that when women worked in fac- 
tories, infant children did not get the attention they required, and 
it was a remarkable fact, that while an increase of about 5 per 1,000 
had taken place in children under 5 years of age, there was no 
perceptible difEerenoe between the male and female children in 
regard to increase. These facts might tend to show that the weaker 



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1880.] on Mr. Wdton's Paper. 89 

children were cut off in the earlier periods of life; and in harmony 
with the law that had been called " the survival of the fittest," the 
children that had escaped the discipline of early life might be those 
born stronger, and therefore that might in some measure accoont 
for the improvement of the death-rate at the ages to which the 
Chairman and Mr. Welton had referred. From a valuable paper by 
ja medical gentleman, to whom the Howard Medal had been awarded, 
he (Mr. Doxsey) had come to the conclusion that there had been a 
similar increase in the death-rates in hospitals in the later periods, 
as compared with the earlier ones, and the death-rate had increased 
more among the males than among the females. This was in 
perfect harmony with the law laid down in the paper. He thought 
there could be no doubt that as there had been only a slight increase 
in the death-rate among females between 45 and 65, but in the male 
death-rate at all ages above 25, that therefore there must be some 
cause or causes operating among males which did not affect females. 
The search for these causes seemed to be the object of all statistical 
inquiry on the subject ; but what those causes were he did not pre- 
tend to say. He did not think it arose oaly from the increase of 
drinking, which in later years had taken place more among females 
than males, and yet the death-rate among males had increased 
faster than the death-rate among females. He did not believe that 
the working classes worked harder now than they did forty years 
ago. Perhaps they drank harder, and that might partly account 
for the increased death-rate. Another cause might be the vast 
increase in the use of tobacco among boys. He should be thankful 
to know the relative proportions of male and female deaths from 
those diseases that had so much increased, and which would account 
for the greater ratio of increase of the death-rate among males than 
females. He believed that in the registrar-general's report, to which 
he had referred, they were all put together. If the registrar- 
general's report were compared with the essay on the increase of the 
dea£h-rate in hospitals, there could be no doubt of the general prin- 
ciple laid down in the paper, that the death-rate was increasing to 
some extent, and that the increase was principally among the male 
population firom 25 years of age to the later periods of life. The 
only other increase was amongst children under 5 years of age, and 
that was equal in both sexes. 

Mr. Cornelius Walfoed said he had hoped that the scope of 
the discussion would have taken the turn of seeing how far the 
results given in the paper harmonised with any facts which conld 
be brought to bear by way of solution of them. It seemed to him 
the broad fact stated in the paper was that the death-rate up to the 
age of 25 had lessened on the whole, and that beyond those ages it 
had much increased, more particularly amongst males. If so, there 
must be some reasons for it, but he had heard none stated in the 
course of the discussion. He thought that the increased mortality 
under 5 years of age was generally believed to result from more 
complete registration at those young ages. His own belief, how- 
ever, was that the actual deaths under 5 years of age had been 
less rather than more of late years, and that this resulted from 



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90 Discussion [ICar. 

improved medical scienoe, which kept children alive until they 
arrived at the age of puberty, when they died. "While, therefore, 
it changed the figures, it did not do any permanent good to 
mankind. Another circumstance which very much affected the 
ages in the direction indicated by Mr. Welton, was the emigration 
of young, active, strong men at the ages^of from 15 to 25. Thia 
would seem to him to leave a weakened population at ages beyond, 
and that weakened population would show a larger mortality than 
if the more vital portion of the population had remained, but this 
was no new feature. The present generation had not been distinct 
from the preceding generation in *that respect, and therefore 
although it had some weight, it by no means accounted for the pecu- 
liarity mentioned in the paper. One had also to look how far the 
habits of the people or the customs of trade had affected the 
vitality. He thought that the drinking customs of the country had 
a great deal to do with it. These ciistoms had resulted from the 
increase of wages that had taken place in the preseat generation, 
and the death results from drinking habits were coincident with 
the period Mr. Welton had alluded to. Assuming the drinking 
theory to be true, he thought it applied much more to the males 
than the females. Another circumstance to be taken into account 
WB/a the adulteration of food which had been carried on to a much 
larger extent before the Adulteration Acts were passed. That, 
however, would apply as much to the females as the males, because 
although females did not drink so much as the males, tbey probably 
ate a little more. That case of adulteration would not meet 
Mr. Welton's theory at alL He confessed that, after a consider- 
ation of all the points, there was nothing in itself, singly or in 
combination, which could account for this state of things, and he 
had come to the conclusion that there was something or other 
Mr. Welton had failed to discover which would go to show that his 
facts were reliable, unless indeed the drinking theory was held 
sufficient to account for it all. 

Mr. N. A. Humphries, after alluding to the value of the paper, 
said that during the past thirty-eight years there had been a continual 
increase in the mortality of males at all ages. In equal numbers 
living, the relative mortality of males from 1841-50 was 107 to 
each 100 deaths of females; in the next ten years it was 108 ; in 
the next ten years it was 1 1 1 ; and in the last seven years of the 
current decade it had increased to 113 to 100. With regard to the 
particular ages at which the increase had occurred, he thought 
Mr. Welton had brought a great many facts together which might 
probably be made very great use of. The second speaker had 
expressed a decided opinion that there was no change in the general 
death-rate ; it was a fact that the mortality remained nearly 
stationary during the three decades 1841 to 1850, 1851 to 1860, 
and from 1861 to 1870 ; but taking into account the vast increase 
of aggregation in towns, the fact that mortality was stationary was 
in itself evidence of good sanitary work. There must have been 
some counteracting influence at work which kept it stationary. 
Looking at the present decade, of which only nine years had 



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1880.] on Mr. WeltorCa Paper. 91 

passed, a vast improyemeiit was observable. In 1872-75 the 
Public Health Acts were passed, and a new era of sanitation was 
thereby introduced into England. The registrar- general in his 
last quarterly report, pointed oat that 1 50,000 persons had survived 
during the last nine years who would have died if the mortality 
had been the same as it was during the preceding thirty years. The 
excessive increase of mortality amongst males was very striking. 
The diseases which caused this increase appear to be the very 
diseases which are often induced by intemperate habits. He 
personally thanked Mr. Welton for the trouble he had taken with 
his paper, which was one of the most useful of its kind that the 
Society had ever had before it. (The Chairman having asked 
Mr. Humphries whether, from his experience in the regictrar- 
general's oflSce, he saw any ground of fallacy in the principal 
point brought out in the paper, that there was increased mortality 
amongst males and not amongst females between the ages of 35 
and 65), Mr. Humphries said that the fact was beyond all dispute. 

Me. Philip Vandesbyl expressed his regret that the author did 
not conclude his paper with a summary statement of the results 
proved by the numerous tables. In the table enumerating the 
causes of increased mentality anoongst males from 35 — 65 the author 
did not show how the diseases named had affected females, or the 
different percentages of increased mortality from certain diseases. 
He believed that the imcreased use of machinery and the more dan- 
gerous occupations of men would partly account for the increased 
mortality amongst males. With regard to the improved death-rate 
among females, he thought that was to be acooumted for, not only 
by the improved medical skill, but more especially by the use of 
chloroform. As to the causes of death amongst females, it was an 
extraordinary fact, that on account of the male infant's head being 
on an average only half -an inch larger in circumference than that 
of a female, if all the births in Great Britain during one year were 
females, 5,000 lives of mothers would be saved in that time. This 
was calculated by the late Sir James Simpson, of Edinburgh, who 
first used chloroform as an anaesthetic. It had been often said that 
we could prove anything by statistics, but he did not consider that 
the Society was established £or such a purpose, and certainly the 
author of the paper did not exhibit any tendency to prove any pre- 
conceived ideas. 

Mr. H. MoNCEEiFP Paul said that the author, in his paper, had 
stated that " On the whole, then, the tables show that the striking 
abatement in mortality at ages from 5 to 25 has been attended with 
an aggravation of the loss by death at higher ages, putting aside 
epidemic years, and that such aggravation has been far more con- 
siderable amongst males than amongst females. Every circum- 
stance which will help us to measure the extent and to understand 
the causes of this deterioration in the vitality of males demands our 
attention.*' Although the author had said " every circumstance,*' 
he (Mr. Paul) did not see in the paper any single instance given 
except the reference in the tables to certain diseases. On looking 



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{>2 Discussion [Mar. 

to these tables, it wonld be seen at once that tbese were brain and 
heart diseases, from which deaths at the " higher ages *' of males 
had, in the later periods nnder comparison sensibly increased. He 
referred more particularly to the last table. It wonld be seen also 
that these diseases were due to certain causes. Allusion had been 
made by a previous speaker to the shortening of working hours, 
but attention had not been drawn to the compression of work. 
There was too much of that in the present day, and the consequent 
strain really affected the vital powers, as did also the excitement 
arising out of constant railway travelling and the Using the tele- 
graph system, with all their concomitant evils. If these questions 
were looked at more carefully, results would be found quite in 
keeping with the deductions drawn by the author. 

Mr. BouBifE thought that more importance ought to be attached 
to Mr. Welton's statistics with regard to specific ages, than pro- 
bably Mr. Bailey wonld seem to accord them. There was no doubt 
whatever that sanitary measures and medical skill had done much 
to preserve younger as well as older life ; but as far as middle age 
was concerned, it was quite true that the mode of life in the present 
day had very much to do with increased mortality at the period 
when life ought to be the strongest and most vigorous, and that it 

r rated much more unfavourably upon males than upon females, 
doubt drinking was a very important element in the matter. As 
a temperance reformer, however, it wa» a source of great gratifica- 
tion to him that there was a very great diminution in the consump- 
tion of alcohol among the mass of the population, as evidenced by 
the failure of the revenue. He would ask Mr. Welton if it had 
ever occurred to him to compare the deaths which took place with 
the marriage rates. The age at which men married had been very 
much extended, whereas females were now married rather earlier 
than formerly. This, he thought, arose very much out of habits 
and practices which tended most materially to affect the health of 
the males. In support of this proposition, he cited the opinions 
expressed by Mr. Ansell, the well-known actuary, in a book pub- 
lished by him some years ago on the sta,tistics of families in the 
higher and professional classes. He (Mr. Bourne) had taken three 
periods of three years each. In the first of those periods the 
number of marriages among the population was i in 123 ; in the 
second, i in 121; and in the third i in 117; showing that the 
number of marriages in proportion to the population was increasing. 
Mr. Bourne then adduced some figures to show that while the age 
of matrimony was deferred in the males, it was not in the females, 
and that seemed to point to habits of life which would deteriorate 
the vital power of young men, and to account for the increased 
number of deaths amongst them more than amongst females. The 
increase of wages was also another cause ; but he took it that it was 
more favourable to females than to males. It was true that the 
males were subjected to a strain of increased hurry and increased 
strain upon their health, arising partly from labour, but he believed 
in a far greater degree to the pursuit of pleasure and a deteriora- 
tion in their habits and practices. With regard to females, the 



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1880.] on Mr. Welton'a Paper. 93 

effect of easier circumstances had been to lessen the amount of 
labour they had to perform, and to put them in more comfortable 
homes, surrounded by more comfortable circumstances ; therefore 
it might be expected that female life would be prolonged, and the 
death-rate improved with regard to them to a greater extent than 
males. So far the inference to be drawn from that woold bear 
but the conclusions demonstrated by Mr. Welton's figures. He 
(Mr. Bourne) believed in the fitness of our organisation and the 
exercise of our powers in obedience to natural laws ; therefore that 
the true happiness and welfare of any community very much 
depended upon the fulfilling of the divine command: ''Increase 
and multiply and replenish the earth." 

Dr. C. E. Sauvdbss said he concurred entirely with the remarks 
of Mr. Bourne. He pointed out that it was acKnowledged in our 
lunatic asylums that many cases of general paralysis of the insane, 
and of degenerative diseoises of the nervous centres, were due to 
sexual excesses. 

The Chaibman then laid before the meeting, in connection with 
the remarks of the last speaker, a statement as to the rate of 
increase in the diiferent kinos of diseases, for the purpose of guiding 
any farther discussion that might take pkce on the paper. He 
stated that, according to the table at the commencement of the 
third section of Mr. Wei ton's paper, the increase in the annual 
death-rates among males between the ages of 85 and 65 in the year 
1875, as compared with the average of 1851-60 (the value of the 
comparison bBing diminished by the contrast of a single year with 
an average of five years) was as follows: from diseases of the 
kidneys, 86 per cent. ; cancer, 69 per cent. ; lung diseases, 37 ; heart 
disease and dropsy, 36*5 ; brain diseases, 3 1 ; diseases of the stomach 
and liver, 8 ; phthisis, only 3*5 per cent. ; while from scrofulous 
diseases there was a decrease of 41 per cent., and from zymotic 
diseases a decrease of 23 per cent. The average increase from all 
causes was 22 per cent. 

Mr. Lawsok thought that the remarks as to the increase of 
diseases ought to be received with a certain amount of caution, 
because in the periods to which the paper referred there had been a 
considerable alteration in the nomenclature of diseases, and also a 
great improvement in the means of distinguishing them. Several 
speakers had remarked that the diseases amongst men had increased 
as compared with women, but the reports of the registrar-general 
show that among male children under 1 year of age, there was a 
decidedly greater mortality from all the ordinary children's diseases, 
except whooping cough, than amongst females. In the service to 
whicn he belongs there was a benefit society. In connection with 
it an inquiry was made some years ago, and it was found that the 
mortality amongst the single men was about twice as great as it 
was amongst those who were married. This fact was borne out by 
an examination made by the registrar-general for Scotland about 
twelve years ago. As to the causes of the higher mortality among 



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94 Discussion tm i£r, WeltorCs Taper, [Mar. 

nnmarTied men, no doubt they lived more freely in every way, and 
that told upon their health. Greater indulgence, consequent on the 
increased wages of late years, produced a gouty disposition, to 
which much of the increased mortality from bronchitis seems 
attributable. 

Mr. Rowland Hamilton pointed out that a large proportion of 
the males of mairrying age who were in feeble health, remained 
unmarried, while- the whole death-rate, so to speak, of these was 
added to the class of bachelors, which would very materially alter 
the conclusion come to by a previous speaker. 

Mr. Welton, in reply, thanked the Chairman for the analysis 
he had made of the paper. In regard to Mr.. Kailey's oteer- 
vations, he said that no one could impeach the accuracy of his 
(Mr. Welton's) figures without impeaching the registrar-general's 
reports, from which they had been taken. Speaking of the causes 
of disease, he thought that drink was one of the most patent in 
bringing about a state of things conducive to bronchitis. Hard 
work ami excitement at the present time no doubt told' upen many 
men, more particularly the middle class. The tabfe- showed that 
the increane in the number of deaths by accident was a mere 
fraction to that occasioned by disease. He believed that in sub- 
stance the registrar-generaFs tables were correct. In answer to 
the supposition of the Chairman, that the methods adopted by him 
(Mr. Welton) were similar to* those of Dr. Farr, he might say that 
he had followed a process which was perhaps more simple than 
that adopted by Dr; Farr, in framing his life table, but whatever 
method was employed, he believed the results arrived at could not> 
vary much &om those shown in the paper.. 



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1880.] 



95 



MISCELLANEA. 



CONTENTS : 



PAGB 

I.. — Financial and Commercial 

History of 1879 96 

ir. — Fires in the Metropolis 

dnring the Year 1879 .... 109* 

III. — Biiglish Literatwe in the 

Year 1879 ^ _... 114 

IV.— German Literatore of 1878 

and 1879 ^ 11« 

V. — Emigrntion and Immigra- 
tion in the Year 1879 ..« 117 



PAGB 

VI. — Rates of Life Insurance 

Preminms « 123 

VII. — Report of a Committee on 

the Census of 1881 134 

VIII. — Notes on Economical and 

Stattistical Works 189 

IX.— Kotes on some of the 

Additions to the Library 148 
X.— A list of the Additions to 

the Library ^ 147 



I. — Financicd and Oommercial History of 1879. 

The following introduction by Mr. R. GifFen is taken from the 
Supplement to the Statist of ^Ist ef January, 1880 r — 

The Trade Revival — The Harvest Failure and other Events — The Rise 
in Silver — The Drain of Gold to America — Scientific Improve* 
menk — The Prospect of 1880. 

*' Financially and commercially, 1879 has been a most remarkable 
year. Commencing amid the shadows cast by the great City of 
Glasgow Bank disaster in the autumn of 1878, with credit at the 
lowest ebb, with all kinds of quack remedies for depressed trade 
gainm^ attention from a suffering community, it promised during the 
earlier months to be one of the most memorable years of depres- 
sion on lecord. Credit was so slow in recovering that, even after 
the turn ©f the half-year, there were fears of new commercial failures 
on a great scale, while the harvest prospects became gloomier and 
gloomier as the season advanced. There were signs, even in the 
early summer, that the current apprehensions expressed were exag- 
gerated, and this journal was honourably distinguished among its 
contemporaries by dwelling on the facts and their extreme srgnifi- 
cance ; but they were quite insufficient to alter the general feeling 
of gloom. Late in autumn Mr. Chamberlain, at Glasgow, and 
other authorities, were still looking forward to a winter of continued 
depression and suffering, and ridiculing the very notion of a turn in 
business affairs being in prospect, much less actually in progress. 
But with the autumn, in spite of the harvest proving one of the 
worst on record, the wheat crop being almost a total failure, 
the long delayed reaction came. One of the earliest promises of 
improvement had been the demand from the United States for 
various articles of manufacture, particularly for iron manufac- 
tures, and in September the orders were on such a scale as to 
precipitate a great rise in pig iron and other products of the iron 
and coal trades. Attention once excited, the movement was 
extremely rapid, orders pouring in for shipbuilding and other 



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96 Mtscellamsa. [Mar. 

requirements, and speculators, as usual, joining in the game. In 
another month the movement was found to have extended itself 
to the other metal trades ; to the various raw materials of our 
textile and other industries, including * chemicals ; ' to numerous 
articles of general consumption, such as tea, sugar, butter, and 
cheese, as well as grain, all determined more or less hj harvest 
failures, but assisted somewhat by the general reaction which had 
set in. The commercial improvement was also accompanied by a 
great rise on the Stock Exchange, especially in English railway 
shares, where improvement was stimulated by the actual increase 
in railway traffic incidental to the trade revival. In the end^ 
before the year was out, it was found that the reaction in business 
had been one of the most wonderful on record, the recovery 
from the lowest summer price in iron and many other articles being 
extreme, and the animation in almost all the heavy trades being in 
singular contrast to the stagnation at the beginning of the year. In 
the result, then, 1879 is distinguished by its having witnessed the 
commencement of a trade revival unusual for its suddenness and 
distinctness, although for a long period during its progress the 
anticipation was that it would be a year of stagnation and disaster, 
and there was much, not only in the extreme discredit and dis- 
organisation of business which existed, but in the actual out-turn of 
the harvest itself, to justify the anticipation. 

" A great economic movement like this would have been enough 
to distinguish any year, but 1879 has also witnessed other economic 
changes and events of importance. The miseries caused by the 
unlimited liability of shareholders in the disastrous case of the City 
of Glasgow Bank led to the passage of an Act for enabling 
unlimited banks to become limited ; under which Act many of our 
most important banking institutions, including the London and 
"Westminster, London and County, and National Provincial Banks, 
have already limited the liability of their shareholders, have begun 
to record the word 'limited* after their names, and to admit the 
audit of their accounts as prescribed by the Act. When one thinks 
of the objections to the word * limited * which formerly prevailed, so 
considerable a change in the banking world in a single year becomes 
every way remarkable. The harvest failure, to which reference has 
already been made, was also of singular importance, both from its 
magnitude and the new conditions of business it illustrated, in- 
cluding the receipt in Europe of unprecedented quantities of 
American wheat at comparatively moderate prices. That in a 
year when the English wheat harvest, upon the lowest acreage on 
record, yielded a result less than the average, variously estimated at 
from 30 to 50 per cent., the average price of wheat should still 
be far indeed from famine prices, is extremely noteworthy, while 
attention has been forcibly drawn to it by the coincidence of a 
trade revival with the depression in agi-iculture itself Another 
noteworthy circumstance of the year has been a recovery in the 
Indian trade, due evidently in part to the material progress of the 
Indian people, which becomes manifest in a non-famine year, and 
in part, as we believe, to the final destruction in 1878 of the bad 
financing which has been the bane of this trade for years. Partly, 



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1880.] Financial and Qommercial History of 1879. 97 

too, as a consequence of this Indian trade reyiyal, there has been a 
recovery in the price of silver in 1879, which occurred very oppor- 
tunely to confirm the refusal by the Government of Colonel Smith's 
strange proposal for meeting the evils inflicted on India through the 
fall in silver by a restriction of the rupee coinage, and to put an end 
to fresh propositions for a bi-metallic conference and other bi- 
metallic projects, which made a noise when trade was dull. Among 
other economic events of interest, there have also been the improve- 
ment in Egyptian affairs through the deposition of the late Khedive, 
and the appointment of English and French controllers, whereby 
the extension of the evils of the defaults on foreign loans has been 
prevented ; the success of the Chilians in their war against Peru, 
which has improved Peruvian as well as Chilian finance, because 
the guano and nitrate deposits of Peru have passed into the hands 
of a comparatively honest Government ; the improvements in the 
manufacture of steel and increased use of steel as a substitute for 
iron ; and other changes. Last of all, as affecting directly the 
money market, and with it the general economic movement, we 
have to record as one of the leading events of 1879 the occurrence of 
a great drain of gold to the United States, the obvious result of the 
conjunction of great prosperity there with the resumption of specie 
payments; the demand for more currency, due to prosperity, 
necessarily taking the shape of a demand for gold. All these events 
combine to make the year 1879 of singular interest, not only to the 
business man, who wishes to find in the records of the past and the 
present a guide to the conditions of business in the immediate 
I oture, but to the student of economics, who finds in the events of 
the year new illustrations of old problems, as well as suggestions of 
new ones. 

"We may be expected to add, perhaps, that events in the 
political world have also had an important economic bearing ; that 
the finance of the Zulu and Afghan wars is a serious matter ; that 
the deficits of the Chancellor of the Exchequer are alarming, and so 
forth. But we perceive no necessity for mixing up politics with 
business. Without depreciating the importance of such financial 
questions in their own place, we can easily recognise that any out- 
lay on Zulu or Afghan wars which has occurred is immaterial in a 
business view — that business will ebb and flow pretty much the 
same whether we have little wars or not ; one of the worst dangers 
of these wars in a political view arising perhaps from the circum- 
stance that they are wars 'with limited liability' and of little 
economic importance. There is one set of political events, however, 
which may become economically of great importance, perhaps not 
so much to this country as to the other nations of Europe generally. 
We refer to the alliances and negociationa in progress, or alleged to 
be in progress, between Austria and Germany on the one side, and 
Russia, France, and Italy on the other. Gtx>d city authorities 
hold that in all probability another war is brewing in Eastern 
Europe, which may become a general European war. Such an 
event would have effects of first-rate consequence in the economic 
order, and the share of 1879 in preparing them cannot be over- 
looked. 



VOL. XLIU. PABT I. ] 

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98 



Miscellanea. 



[Mar. 



" The Trade Revival. 

" Dealinpf in their order with the events thus ennmerated, we 
begin with the * Trade Revival.' As regards the description of the 
event we have very little to add to the brief sketch already given. 
There were signs of it, as we have said, as long ago as the begin- 
ning of last summer, the Statist of 24th May last having an article 
openly headed * Trade Revival.* Chief of these signs was the 
increased purchasing on American account ; bnt there were also signs 
of betterness in the Indian trade, and the general tone was a little 
more cheerful, although there was still much talk of discredit. All 
this, however, did not prevent the reaction, which became marked 
in September, having a sudden and even startling character ; so much 
so that the share of speculators in it was denounced with no litfcle 
indignation. But denunciation had no effect in stopping the move- 
ment. First in the iron trade, as the American demand was felt, 
there was a great outburst of speculation, Scotch pig iron jumping 
up from about 45s. to 67*. in a few weeks, and remaining not far 
under 605., although it was only towards the end of the year that 
the extreme price touched in the first burst of speculation was 
again reached and exceeded. Then came a burst in tin, copper, and 
the metal trades generally, followed in October and November by 
great excitement in Mincing Lane, both in raw materials and 
articles of general consumption. All the while there was an 
equally striking and rapid advance on the Stock Exchange, the 
revival of trade coming at a time when hope had been almost 
extinct, and when no possibility of improvement had been discounted. 
When the speculators began to operate, therefore, there was no 
stock, as the phrase is, and prices were accordingly bid up by * leaps 
and bounds.' Whatever the cause, there can be no doubt of the 
suddenness and magnitude of the rise of prices — ^which is fully 
indicated, we may add, by the tables in the appendix to this history, 
showing the monthly prices of the leading wholesale commodities, 
as well as the prices at different dates throughout the year of the 
leading Stock Exchange securities. 

"Without repeating the figures in detail, we may refer the 
reader to these tables, noting only one or two conspicuous changes. 
Thus, the prices of metals per ton at the end of each month in the 
second half of the year were as follows : — 





Scotch 


SUiTs. 


Sheets, 


Copper, 


Le«d, 


Tin, 


Tin Plates, 

I.e. 

CharcoaL 




Pig Iron. 


Bar Iron. 


Single. 


ChiUBars. 


Sheet. 


Straits. 




#. d. 


£ 8. d. 


£ ».d. 


£ s.d. 


£ s.d. 


£ s.d. 


£ *. d. 


July 


40 8 


6 12 6 


8 5 - 


53 -- 


14 - - 


64 7 6 


23 10 - 


August .... 


43 li 


6 12 6 


8 - - 


54 7 6 


'4 15 - 


68 15 - 


24 10 - 


September 


55 - 


6 15 - 


8 - - 


57 7 6 


>5 15 - 


73 6 - 


25 JO - 


October.... 


5^ 6 


7 6- 


95- 


65 5 - 


17 15 - 


93 6 


28 - - 


November 


58 7i 7 7 6 


9 5- 


66 2 6 


17 17 6 


92 5 


28 - - 


December 


67 3 ' 8 6 - 


9 15 - 


66 -- 


19 10 - 


90 17 6 


30 - - 



" Thns, in almost every case, after all the intermediate flnctua- 
tions of speculation, the price at the end of the year is higher than 

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1880.] 



Financial and Oammereial History of 1879. 



99 



in any previons month, and the rise is generally from 25 to 50 per 
cent. Since the beginning of the present year there has been 
another move npwards, which renders all the stronger the evidence 
of the prices alone as to the steady demand in the trade. Specu- 
lation is quite incapable of bringing about so steady and proloneed 
a change. Similar tables could be made up for other commodities, 
though the change in iron and metals happens to be most striking. 
*' As regards the Stock Exchange, the conspicuous rise has been 
in English railways, of which the following will give an idea : — 





97th Jine, 
187». 


PriM, 

30th December, 

187». 


Riie. 


Caledoniaa « 

Oreat Western 


^1 
95t 

117 

132* 


105i 
112i 

186i 

149 

1281 

148 


H 

i6| 


London, Brighton, and South 1 

Coast ord J 

London and North Western Kailway 


8i 
6i 


North Eastern 


«5l 





** Here, again, it may be remarked that the advance has been 
snstaiued, and far more than sustained, during the present year. 
Speculation alone, without any solid support by real holders and 
investors, is incapable of any such feats. 

*' There being no question, then, of a reaction in trade of great 
magnitude having occurred, we may confine ourselves to inquiring 
what has been its real extent and causes; Snrpnsii^ as the state- 
ment may seem after some of the discussion wkich took place when 
the speculation was going on, we are inclined to say that the 
improvement is very nearly universal among the industries of the 
United Kingdom. The agricultural industry is a conspicuous 
exception, though perhaps, as we shall see, the agricultural depres- 
sion has been itself exaggerated ; but with that exception there is 
improvement almost everywhere. In proof the reader can only be 
referred to the tables of prices already cited, and the trade circulars 
quoted in the appendix. When we find leading firms in a wide 
variety of trades and manufactures all reporting improvement, and 
all speaking hopefully of the future, it is impossible to suppose that 
they are all writing under a delusion. Look only at the list of 
trades as to which this cheerful report of rising prices and increas- 
ing employment for capital and labour ss made . — 



Iron and ooal trades. 

Shipbniildmg. 

Shipping. 

Cotton. 

Woollen. 

Linen. 



Leather. 

Colonial produce (tea, sngar, 

dyestnfis, Ac). 
Chemicals. 
Metals generaUj. 



''Admitting the magnitude of the agricultural industry, and 
that the great building trades are also rather dull, it is plain that 
in the above large groups an immense mass of the capital and 
labour of the country is employed. The iron and coal trades alone 

h2 

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100 MUceUanea, [Mar. 

come next in importance to the agricnltaral industry; and with 
the textile industries all improving, as well as the yarions metal 
mannfactnres and ' chemicals,* what the statement implies is, that 
the metropolis, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Durham, Northumberland, a 
large part of South Wales, Cornwall, the manufactaring districts 
of Scotland, and Ulster, have their chief industries in a prosperous 
and improving condition. In other words, the bulk of the country 
has become more active than it was, so that, allowing for the agri* 
caltural depression and the dulness in the building trades, the 
gains exceed the losses. As in such matters it is the strongest that 
wins, the fact that so much trade is better makes it likely that the 
prosperous industries to some extent are drawing the unprosperous 
after them — that depression in agriculture, for instance, is less 
than it would otherwise have been, because of the reaction around 
it, and will probably be less enduring. 

** This last remark brings us to the question of the cause of the 
great movement. Unless an intelligible explanation can be given 
of it, accounting for the facts, it will be impossible to give any 
reason for anticipating its continuance or stoppage. It will be all 
a mystery, even to the business men whose sound instincts enable 
them to make a profit of tiie events. But we believe it is possible 
to give an explanation, especially as some reasons for anticipating 
a revival were given in the Statist before the event took place. It 
is easy to prophesy after the event and invent ex post facto expla- 
nations, but not so easy to give the explanations first. This is, 
however, what the Statist has done in the present case. In the 
issue for 21 st June last we read : — 

"*It remains to be seen whether the complete trade revival 
which we are all expecting will come in time to prevent another 
semi-crisis. It seems to be an even chance, it may be admitted, 
that the revival will come in time. There are many fitvoutable 
symptoms, of which the prosperity of the labouring classes, includ- 
ing the agricultural labourers, notwithstanding the bad times for 
&rmers and landowners, is one of the most important.' 

" Under the date of 28th June, we read : — 

*** As the summer passes, the question of the harvest prospects 
becomes more and more alarming. It is all but certain that a good 
harvest, or even a harvest slightly under the average, would revive 
trade, and, as a natural consequence, send up the prices of stocks 
and shares and investment property of almost every description. 
Things have been so bad, and prices have got so adjusted to the 
badness, that even something not so good as the average might have 
this effect. But the chances seem all against us, and we may have 
to m&^e up our minds to another disappointing year. 

'** Still it is possible that the general causes tending to improve 
trade in England may be so strong that even an untoward harvest 
event will not wholly neutralise them. The conjunction of low 
prices of agricultural produce with bad seasons is so unusual that 
it is diffiotdt to predict what the general effect on trade wUl even- 
tually be. At first, while there have been other causes of general 
depression at work, the conjunction seems wholly unfavourable. It 
specially depresses the ogiicaltaral intercut, and adds to the general 



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1880.] Financial a/nd Oommerdal Eidmj of 1879. 101 

gloom. Bni cheap food is the main qnestion after all, and probably 
it will be found, after a time, that while good or bad harvests at 
home are. make- weights in the general account of prosperity, or the 
reverse, tiiey are not all important. This appeared to be the case 
in years of activity like 1871, 1872, and 1873, when the harvests 
were under the average, and the same result may again be 
witnessed. It is certainly a most interesting economic problem 
whether trade can revive without a good harvest, and the autumn 
of 1879 may perhaps be destined to famish a solution.' 

" Under the dates 12th and 19th July and 2nd August we have 
remarks to the same effect, coupled with the notice of an opposite 
opinion its then prevalent on the Stock Exchange. Finally, on 
9th August, we read : — 

***The question of revival, though connected with, is not exclu- 
sively dependent on what the harvest at home may be. Just in 
proportion to our increasing dependence on foreign food supplies 
will be our independence of home harvests for the adversity or 
prosperity of our aggregate trade. Good harvests abroad, increas- 
ing the surplus which foreigners setid us, will increase pro tanto the 
purchasing power of our foreign customers. The purchases 
foreigners make will accordingly affect our home trade, as the 
purchases of our agricultural classes at home will affect it.' 

"There is much more to the same effect, but the above will 
give an idea that trade revival was anticipated on account of the 
general cheapness that prevailed, and the fact that some of our 
important foreign customers were profiting by a good harvest. In 
other words, all the conditions of revival were present, except a 
good home harvest, and as that element was believed to be less 
important than it had been, the conclusion was reached that a bad 
harvest would not prevent revival. This conclusion may now be 
considered a settled one. There could hardly have been a worse 
season than last year's, yet trade revives. Coupled with the 
similar independence of trade on good harvests, shown in former 
years, this last event has the effect of a crucial test. We mu^ not, 
of course, rush to the conclusion that the old economists and statis- 
ticians were wrong in dwelling on the connection between harvests 
and trade, or that good and bad harvests are now of no consequence. 
On the contrary, the old authorities, men like Quetelet, Tooke, and 
others were demonstrably right. In the circumstances of most 
countries, even including England, a good or bad home harvest 
used to be all-important for trade. The agricultural interest was 
relatively far more important than it is now, while the price of 
food depended on the home harvest because only a relatively small 
supply was obtained from abroad. All that has happened is that 
English circumstances are changed. England has become a country 
where the agricultural population is only about a tenth of the 
whole, while the price of food is not regulated by the home 
harvest but by the foreign. It is the circumstances which have 
changed and not the teaching of economists. And good harvests 
at home still remain important on account of the great importance 
of the agricultural interests. A tenth part is undoubtedly a large 
section of the people, while probably, in ordinary years, their net 



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102 MisceUamea, [Mar. 

wages and profits, inclnding rent, exceed a tenth part of the 
national income. The prosperity or adversity of such a class must 
always be a material factor in a question of general trade prosperity 
or the reverse. 

** But what, it may be asked, are the usual causes of a revival 
in trade which the occurrence of a bad harvest at home has not 
been powerful enough to neutralise ? It is easy to say that cheap 
food, and cheapness generally, tend to produce revival, but in what 
way ? To this, also, an answer can easily be given. The general 
efEect of years of depression is to check production. In the course 
of time, most articles come to be sold for a season at prices which 
are below the average necessary to maintain the production. The 
actual falling off of consumption in many directions may really be 
very little, but a slight excess of supply is enough to produce a 
great fall in the market. Production is consequently checked at 
the very time cheapness enables annuitants and capitalists to save 
more than in busier times, and when the reduced wages of the 
labouring classes may even go &rther than the higher wages of the 
busy seasons. At a point which it would be impossible to deter- 
mine beforehand, since no one can tell what the minimiun consump- 
tion will be even in the worst depression, and it is probable that 
the minimum changes with the circumstances of each case ; still at 
some point the production is suddenly found to be below what current 
consumption requires, and then the turn in the opposite direction 
comes. The movement is usually determined by some special or 
accidental event, as by a very good harvest or by such a demand as 
has lately come to us from the United States ; but, once started, it 
acquires a momentum wholly out of proportion to the apparent 
occasion. The truth is, the occasion is not the cause. The real 
causes lie deep in the whole circumstances of the depression itself, 
with its low prices tempting consumption on the one side, and the 
generally diminished or stationary production on the other. The 
production falling short of the minimum consumption, the moment 
this fact appears there must be a rise all round, and an immediate 
impetus in all directions to new production, which, of course, 
immediately increases the general consuming power. The impetus 
apparently gains energy and volume from the general desire of 
retailers and other intermediaries to increase their stocks, which 
had fallen below the average, while the mere feeling that things 
are going to be better helps to make them better. 

'* In some such way we should explain the usual causes of a 
trade revival, and while there can be no doubt in the present case 
of the extreme lowness of prices which had been brought about, 
the subject indeed of general lamentation a year ago, there seems 
equally little doubt of the general check to production we have 
referred to. As this last point is comparatively new, we may give 
a few illustrations. Thus in the iron trade we find that the pro- 
duction in the United Kingdom, which had been stationary for 
several years, must have tended to be much lower in the early part 
of 1879, since the total for that year, notwithstanding all the 
activity of the last three months of the year, is still below the 
average. The figures are : — 



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1880.] Finandal and ConmercM History of 1879. 103 



1871 « 6,627,000 

*72 6,742,000 

'73 6,566,000 

'74 5»99i»ooo 

'75 6,365,000 

'76 6,555,000 

'77 6,608,000 

'78 6,381,000 

'79 (estimntec^) 6,200,000 

'* The total for 1879 is onlj estunated, bnt the estimate is that 
of Messrs. Fallows and Co., of Liverpool, who are usually not wide 
of the mark, the margin for error being also rery small. The figures 
tell their own tale. Production, it is clear, most hare sank to a 
very low ebb at the beginning of last year, as for the whole year it 
is still more than 10 per cent, less than the average of 1872-73, 
and considerably less than the average of years like 1876-77, which 
were undoubtedly years of depression. With population steadily 
increasing all the while, it is easv to see that production must have 
fallen under actual wants. It is on a production thus arranged 
that an extra demand suddenly falls. 

" In cotton we have very similar figures. The deliveries of raw 
cotton to all Europe, according to Messrs. Ellison's circular, 
amounted to 2,136,866,000 pounds in 1878-79; but the total as 
long ago as 1870-71 was 2,161,724,000 pounds, and this has been 
exceeded in several years in the interval. In Great Britain alone 
the deliveries were 1,110,212,000 pounds in 1878-79, which is 
absolutely a lower figure than in any of the previous eight seasons. 
With all the inflation that may have characterised the ti*ade 
formerly, these figures still show a pause in production which is 
most serious, allowing for the increase of population in the 
interval. 

"As regards wool, we have also similar fibres. Messrs. 
Helmuth Schwartze and Co. give the following in one of their 
tables : — 

ToUl Wool left 
for Home Consumption. 

> of 1870-74 339,ooo,coo Iba. 

'75 351,000,000 „ 

'76....„ 369,000,000 „ 

*77 373,000,000 „ 

*78 352,000,000 „ 

*79 319,000,000 „ 

'* These figures seem even more striking to us than those of 
iron and cotton. The pause in production must have been serious 
at the last. 

'' Shipping, the produce trades, hides, and other trades supply 
other illustrations. It would be needless to multiply instances, 
while we do not sav the experience is uniform ; there being cases, 
like tea, where an increasing supply, until the very last year, seems 
hardly to have overtaken consumption, and a very slight reduction 



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104 MisceUanea, [Mar. 

in the supply has led to a great rise in price. Still it is remarkable 
to notice in so many of the trade circnlars the references to a 
diminished production of the raw material as having come to a 
climax in 1879. The conclusion seems inevitable. The long period 
of low prices seems at last to have been as effectual in checking 
production on the one side, as in sustaining and stimulating demand 
on the other. Now the situation becomes more normal. The 
demand becomes the more active as it cannot be readily supplied, 
and the power of consumption increases with the increase of pro- 
duction itself. 

** Such is the rationale of the trade revival as it appears to our 
mind ; and from which we draw the conclusion that the bad harvest 
of last season ought not to have prevented it, as it has not, in fact, 
prevented it. Why should it have had any such effect? It 
weakens, no doubt, the purchasing power of the agricultural classes, 
but most other classes of the community have been enriched, and 
the extra demand is principally, after all, for the requirements of 
a minimum consumption. To some extent, also, the feeling of 
improvement is unconnected with any great improvement in reality ; 
it is small changes in production and consumption, which produce 
all these effects; people are thankful for small mercies. In the 
foreign export trade, for instance, an increase of 5 per cent., 
which seems very probable in 1880, and which will delight all 
exporters, will still only raise the total value to the level of 1876, 
which shows a great decline as compared with 1873. But because 
the figures increase, everybody rejoices, although the country may 
be no better off, or not much better off, than in 1876. As econo- 
mists view it, there was little cause to be dissatisfied with the latter 
year, but the point of view of business men and of economists is 
not precisely the same. 

" The Harvest Failure and Other Events. 

"There remain to be noticed the other important economic 
events of the year which we have already mentioned. Some of 
them, however, we propose to pass over without farther notice, as 
not relatively important to the immediate development of business, 
always the main topic in such a review as this, however important 
they may be in themselves. The change of unlimited banks into 
limited is an event of this sort. Eventually the transformation 
may have far-reaching consequences, changing the curreirts of 
investment, through banking shares becoming more attractive than 
they were, and stimulating the growth of banking and joint stock 
enterprise ; but as regards the next few years, there will not be 
much difference. The development of business will be much what 
it would have been in any case. For a similar reason we pass 6ver, 
also, the changes in Egypt and South America. It is an important 
matter within a certain sphere that something has been done which 
will improve the finances of Egypt and of the South American 
Republics, and the moral effect, by giving confidence to investors, 
may even be greater than the material effect ; but relatively to the 
main influences which affect the movements of English trade, it can 
hardly be said that continued disorganisation in Egypt and, Peru 



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1880.] Financial and Commercial History of 1879. 105 

would have mattered much. The p^reat current wonld have swept 
on its course, and these eddies would have been hardly noticeable, 
just as their contributions to the main current will now be relatively 
inconsiderable. It is impossible, however, to class such an event 
as the harvest failure, as altogether secondary in its influence, and 
it appears to demand a few more words of notice. 

** There can be no doubt as regards the com crops that last 
season was one of the worst on record. After the harvest each 
succeeding estimate of the yield of the wheat crop, appeared to be 
worse than its predecessor, and these low estimates have been fully 
confirmed by the remarkable falling off in the quantities brought 
to market. The reduction of yield must have been at least 30 per 
cent, below the average, as estimated in an elaborate article in the 
Times^ quoted in the Statist of 8th November last, and even the 
estimate of 50 per cent, below the average hardly seems too high. 
The barley harvest has also been most deficient, the result being 
peculiarly disastrous to the excise revenue. In minor crops, such 
as hops, there has been quite as serious failure. The season has 
also been far from favourable to green crops and live stock, the last 
agricultural returns showing only a slight increase in cattle, and a 
decrease in sheep and pigs, while the prices of meat have been most 
unfavourable to producers as compared with recent years. Coming 
after previous bad seasons, such an account is disastrous, and there 
is little cause for wonder at agricultural complaints or the ap- 
pointment of a royal commission to inquire into the depression of 
agriculture. A little consideration would seem to show, however, 
that there are not a few qualifications to the opinion that agriculture 
is altogether ruined, and to the farther opinion as to this depression 
making a recovery in the home trade impossible. The figures of 
the live stock are still very large, and at least show little decline 
compared with what they were several years ago, although good 
agricultural authorities hold that the tendency of the conversion 
of arable into pasture land, is to reduce the stock, while making 
the business more profitable to those engaged. At the same time 
though the price of meat has fallen as compared with a few years 
back, there nas been since last summer a great recovery in the 
prices of butter and cheese, so that all the events of the agricultural 
year have not been unfavourable to the agricultural interest. We 
may feel quite certain that while we hear complaints on all sides, 
farmers and landlords throughout the country are not suffering 
equally, and that the results of the year have been more tolerable 
to many than at first sight appears^ Taking this into account, and 
dealing with the effects of the harvest on industry generally, we 
see at once why the bad result of the Jiarvest should not affect the 
general trade revival. The agricultural industry, after all, is onlv 
about a tenth of the whole industry of the country ; and although 
the net income from it, received as rent, wages, and profits, may 
usually be more than a tenth, we doubt if it very much exceeds 
that proportion. But say it is a sixth parfc, we should still only 
have a net income from agriculture of about 200 million pounds a 
year (taking the whole income of the country as nearly 1,200 
million pounds). This 200 million pounds again may be assumed 



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106 MisceUanea, [Mar. 

to be equally divided between labourers, farmers, and landlords ; 
but the labourers we know have hardly suffered ; and assuming 
that the farmers all round have only made half their profits, and 
that landlords have bad to give up 20 per cent, of their rents, we 
should arrive at a net reduction of about 50 million pounds in the 
usual return to agricultural industry. Wo should doubt if the net 
reduction is as great as this, while those concerned have gained like 
the rest of the community in the general cheapness ; but even a 
reduction of 50 million pounds is not a large amount if the rest of 
the country is prosperous as it is beginning to be. It is not 5 per 
cent, of the aggregate income of the country. This is why the 
bad harvest has so little general effect. The agricultural industry, 
though large, is far from all-important. The other influences are 
stronger, and the country, as a whole, gains more by cheap food 
than it loses by a bad harvest. 

" The Rise in Silver. 

" Another of the secondary events to which we must give a few 
additional words of notice is the rise in silver. The advance has 
been from about 496?. at the beginning of the year, to between 52^!. 
and 53(/., the main cause undoubtedly being the improvement of 
the Indian trade, although the temporary suspension of the sales 
of German silver, the diminution of American production, and 
other causes have contributed. There seems little doubt also that 
a farther improvement will take place, the Indian trade keeping 
good, and private capital again seeking an outlet in India. We are 
a long way from the alarms which were very prevalent a year ago, 
and which made it very difficult to preach patience. The event is 
a most important one economicallv. A rising exchange helps to 
make Indian trade better, and tne fact of recovery proves once 
more that the despairing and pessimist view as to the fature price 
of silver is not at any rate to bo realised at once — that there will be 
many ups-and-downs in the process, and ample time for the neces- 
sary adjustments to be made by the countries whose currencies are 
affected. The rejection in the early part of the year of Colonel 
Smith's proposal to restrict the rupee coinage, as well as the failure 
of the officious proposals of the German and American Govern- 
ments for a new bi -metallic conference, were happily confirmed, or 
rendered more easy, by the course of the silver market. The world 
has thus been spared the loss and misery of great currency changes, 
which could have had no other than a disturbing effect on trade 
and commerce generally. 

** In connection with this silver question we think it deserving 
of note here that the directors of the Bank of England have been 
induced by the course of the discussion to reprint Lord Liverpool's 
famous book on * The Coins of the Realm.' The publication, it 
may be hoped, will settle the bi-metallic controversy for many a 
day to come. 

" Another special event to notice is 

" The Drain of Gold to ^America, 
" This haa been very fully described in the Statist, from time to 



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1880.] Fincmdal a/nd Oommercial History of 1879. 107 

time, and its bearings discnssed. The broad fact is, that between 
1st Angnst and the end of the year, about i6 millions of gold were 
shipped from England and France to the United States ; and that 
this was mainly dne to the increasing currency requirements of the 
United States consequent on their good trade. The like require- 
ments in former years had no such effect, because the American 
currency, until 1st January, 1879, was inconvertible paper. But 
since the resumption of specie payments on the latter date, the 
currency has become gold or based upon gold, and hence when 
trade expands and wages rise there, America, though a gold- 
producing country, is also able to take gold from her neighbours. 
The amount abstracted is a large one, and would probably not have 
been parted with so easily but for the great ease of money on this 
side ; still there can be no doubt that in ordinary years America 
will absorb gold largely, especiaUy as it appears that the paper 
currency is wholly inelastic, the greenbacks bemg strictly limited in 
quantity, and the conditions of the note circulation being such as to 
make the business unprofitable to the national banks. These points 
have been very fully explained in the Statist^ the most recent 
article having appeu^ in the issue of 3rd January, to which 
reference may here be made. 

^^ Scientific Improvements, 

" Another point to which attention may be drawn is the great 
economy effected in production during the years of depression. 
One of the beneficial results of such a period is the stimulus it 
gives to invention and labour-saving appliances, and such a stimulus 
has been given of late years. Gfreat improvements, in particular, 
have been made in the processes for making steel, and in the use of 
steel as a substitute for iron, a source of large economies, for 
instance, in the permanent way expenses of railways. Gfreat 
improvements have also been made in blast furnaces, the capacity 
of a single furnace being increased and the cost of production 
diminished. There is a similar economy in shipping, the tendency 
to increase being in large steamers, which cost little more in fuel 
and wages than smaller vessels, although their capacity is much 
greater. It would be out of place to go minutely into such ques- 
tions here. It is important, however, to remember that the machine 
of production at the present moment is far more efficient than it was 
several years ago. The same labour will produce greater results, 
and a great increase of prodaction, or saving in the hours of labour, 
will be possible. 

"TAePro«pec< 0/1880. 

** We come, then, to the prospect for the current year, on which, 
however, we need say little. A review like what has been written, 
in conjunction, at l^ist, with the numerous trade circulars quoted, 
tells its own tale. If we have brought out clearly the nature of the 
past year's events and of the present situation, the inferences 
should follow of themselves. All the facts and deductions point to 
a continuance of the improvement which has begun. The facts — 
that so many trades are better, that a stimulus is given to pro- 



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108 MiscelUmea^ [Mar, 

dxLction in all directions, that the harvest failnre is really not of a 
kind to affect prejudicially the general movement, as it has not, in 
fact, prevented a start upwards, and that specially the improvement 
in India and America continues to affect us most favourably — all 
point to the one conclusion that the revival of trade is strong and 
genuine, and must be upheld by the causes which have set it in 
motion : for how long a period it is impossible to say beforehand, 
but probably for no inconsiderable time. The orders booked in 
almost every trade, it is believed, will carry us a great way through 
the present year. We may also believe, according to past experience, 
that such a movement once started will go on augmenting, will 
extend from one trade to another, and will be strengthened by 
incessant action and reaction. No one in sach a matter should be 
over confident, knowing what a part is played by the unforeseen in 
haman affairs ; but the present is a time for hope, and a cheerful 
feeling is no unimportant factor in producing the good trade that 
is hoped for. The revival has given confidence, and enriched the 
leading capitalists and speculators — the people who direct pro- 
duction. Such a stimulus once given will last a long time. 

" It is objected that the rise of prices is an adverse influence to 
prosperity ; that the working classes have their purchasing power 
diminished by the rise in tea, sugar, and other articles of general 
consumption. Bat to this the answer is, that a rise of prices is the 
essential part of a trade revival, and in its earlier stages does not 
prevent the continuance of improvement. The fuller employment 
appears to compensate, and more than compensate, the consumer 
for the rise in prices by which production is stimulated. After- 
wards, when prices rise still higher, the effect is different, consump- 
tion being checked, and production being rendered unprofitable, 
but we are yet a long way from such a period. Prices have risen, 
but not as yet to a very high level. 

" Apprehensions are also expressed respecting the state of the 
money market, and the political complications in the east of 
Europe, But while fully believing that money is likely to be 
dearer, especially if trade goes on improving, we do not think the 
improvement in trade will itself be arrested. Experience has often 
shown that moderately high rates for money and good trade are 
quite compatible. We should doubt also whether the actual out- 
break of war in the east of Europe, though it might check some 
speculation, would have very much influence in the commercial 
world. Even during the Franco- German war of 1870-71, our trade 
kept steadily improving, the chief economic effect of that war in its 
early stage being a brief disturbance of th^ money market. We 
see no reason why new continental wars, if their duration is 
equally brief, should have any greater effect. Of course, if they are 
protracted, the result would be different. Two or three years hence 
they might be found to assist in the descent from a period of 
prosperity and inflation to one of adversity and contraction. But 
for the present year there would be little perceptible evil, as regards 
our economic development, even in the outbreak of a great conti- 
nental war. We come back to the conclusion, then, that the trade 
prospect of the year is a cheerful one, and that there is little to 



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1880.] The Fires of Lothdon and the Fire Brigade. 109 

obscure the prospect — that the hopes generally indulged in have a 
very solid foundation. Barring accidents, the year 1880 should be 
quite as prosperous as 1870, when trade started into life after 
another great depression." 



The Financial and Commercial History, 1879, with Appendix — 
to which the foregoing introduction belongs — is arranged under 
the following heads, viz. : — 

Trade in 1879—Foreign Trade in 1879— TAe Harvest of 1879. 

Appendix. 

Bxtraota from. Trade Oiroulars. 

A. — Iron, Coal, Chemicals, Ac. — 

Iron — Goal — Engineering — Ohemicdls. 

B. — Raw Materials — 

Cotton— WooI^-Flax—SUk. 

C. — Produce — 

Mindng Lane Markets — Coffee — Sugar — Tea — Canned Ooods 
and Freserved Provision Trade — Wine and Spirits — Oil and 
Seed Trade — Tallow — Wood and Tirnber — Hides^ Tanning 
Materials, ^c. — Drugs^ 8fc» 

D. — ^Miscellaneous — 

Qold and Silver — The Oerma/n Bourses — Freights — FaH/u^es. 

Index to Tables. 
Bank Returns — 

Bank of Fnglamd — Bank of France — Bank of Oermamy — BoAhk 
of Austria — Bank of the Netherlands — Associated New York 
Banks — San)ings Banks. 

Clearikg House Returns — 

London Bankers' Clearing Returns — Settlings on the 4ith of the 
Month. 

Stock Exchange Settling Days — Foreign Market Rates of Discount 
'-Exchanges and Bullion — Public Revenues — Stock Exchange 
Securities — Traffic Returns — Pauperism — Prices of Wholesale 
Commodities — ^Allotments of Indian Council Bills in 1879 — 
Supply, Stock, and Prices of Wholesale Commodities — Statistics 
of Failures. 



II. — The Fires of London during the Tear 1879, and the Metropolitan 

Fire Brigade. 

The following particulars are taken from Captain Shaw's 
Annual Report for 1879, to the Metropolitan Board of Works, in 
continuation of similar notices for previous years : — 

" The number of caUs for fires, or supposed fires, received during 
the year has been 1,949. Of these 116 were false alarms, 1 1 5 proved 



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110 



MuceUcmea. 



[Mar. 



to be only chimney alarms, and 1,718 were calls for fires, of wluch 
159 resnlted in serious damage, and 1,559 in slight damage. 

" These figures refer only to the regular cidls for fires, or sup- 
posed fires, involving the turning out of firemen, fire engines, fire 
escapes, horses, and coachmen; they do not include trifling damages 
by fires which were not sufficiently important to require the 
attendance of firemen ; neither do they include the ordinary calls 
for chimneys on fire, which are separately accounted for further on. 

"The fires of 1879, compared with those of 1878, show an 
increase of 59; and compa^d with the average of the last ten 
years, there is an increase of 85. 

"The proportion of serious to slight losses — 159 to 1,559 — ^is 
most favourable, and notwithstanding several exceptional periods, 
as, for instance, the year 1872, 1 think 1 am justified in saying that 
the value of property destroyed by fire in London has been less in 
1879, than in anv other year since the formation of the brigade. 

" The following table gives it both in actual numbers and per- 
centages : — 



Tear. 


Number of Firci. 


Percentage. 


Seriooi. 


Slight. 


TotaL 


Seriooi. 


9Ug1it. 


Total. 


1866 

'67 

'68 

'69 

70 

'71 

'72 

'73 

74 

'76 

76 

77 

78 

'79....„.. 


3^6 
H5 
-35 
199 
276 
207 
120 
166 
I £4 
>63 
166 

170 
159 


1,012 
1,152 
1,488 
1,373 
1,670 
1,636 
1,374 
1,382 
1,419 
1,866 
1,466 
1,874 
1,489 
1,559 


I1338 
i»397 
1,668 

1,842 
M94 
1,548 
«,573 
1,5*9 
1,632 

',533 
1,659 
1,718 


25 
18 

H 
13 
H 
II 

8 
11 
10 
II 
II 
10 
10 

9 


75 
82 
86 
87 
86 
89 
92 
89 
90 
89 
89 
90 
90 
91 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
too 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



" The number of fires in the metropolis in which life hafi been 
seriously endangered during the year 1879 has been 96 ; and the 
number of these in which life has been lost has been 27. 

" The number of persons seriously endangered by fire has been 
I 6a, of whom 132 were saved, and 32 lost their lives. Of the 32 
lost, 15 were taken out alive, but died afterwards in hospitals or 
elsewhere, and 17 were suffocated or burned to death. 

*'The number of calls for chinmeys has been 4,169. Of these 
1,375 proved to be false alarms, and 2,794 were for chimneys on 
fire. In these cases there was no attendance of engines, but only 
of firemen with handpumps. 

*' The nximber of journeys made by the fire engines of the 52 land 
stations has been 22,184, and the total distance run has been 50,491 
miles. 

" The quantity of water nsed for extinguishing fires in the 
metropolis during the year has been 16,122,128 gallons — ^in round 



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1880.] The Fires of London.and the Fire Brigade. Ill 

numbeTS a Kttle more than i6 million gallons, or about 72,000 tons. 
Of this quantity, about 32,000 tons, or a little more than two-fifths 
of the whole, were taken from the river, canals, and docks, and the 
remainder from the street pipes. 

** During the year there have been 9 cases of short supply of 
water, 33 of late attendance of turncocks, and 18 of no attendance, 
making altogether 60 cases in which the water arrangements were 
unsatisfactory. 

*' The strength of the brigade at present is as follows : — 

52 Umd fire engine station 
1 moyable land station. 
113 fire escape stations. 
4 fioating „ 

3 large land steam fire engines. 
34 small „ 

12 seven-inch manual fire engines. 
64 siz-ioch „ 

37 nnder six-inch „ 

130 fire escapes and long tcallng ladders. 
3 fioating steam fire engines. 
I steam tng. 
17 hose carts. 
15 Tans. 

3 barges. 
57 telegraph lines. 
106 miles of telegraph lines. 

452 firemen, including chief officer, superintendents, and all 
ranks. 

" The number of firemen employed on the several watches kept 
up throughout the metropolis is at present 104 by day and 188 by 
night, making a total of 292 in every twenty-four hours ; the 
remaining men are available for general work at fires. 

" Our list of wounds and other injuries for 1879 is, unfortunately, 
very large, but this will always be the case as long as the men work 
with zeal and energy. 

" There have been during the year 297 cases of ordinary illness, 
and 69 injuries, making a total of 366 cases, of which many were 
very serious." 

From the tables appended to the report the following particulars 
are obtained : — 

(a) The fires classified according to occupations, arranged in the 
order of frequency of occurrence ; to which are added, for the pur- 
pose of comparison, the corresponding figures for the three previous 
years: — 



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112 



Miscellanea. 



[Mar. 



Number. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

26 

26 

27 

28 



80 
81 
32 
83 
84 
86 
86 
37 
38 
39 



Occupations. 



Private houses 

Lodginj^s 

Victuallers 

Coffee houses 

Cabinet makers 

Drapers 

Oil and colourmen 

Tobacconists 

Greengrocers and fruiterers 

Tailors, clothiers, and outfitters- 

Boot and shoe makers 

Builders 

Stables 

Under repairs and building 

Ghrooers 

Booksellers, binders and stationers 

Carpenters, Ac. (not cabinet makers) 

Offices 

Bakers 

Railways 

Butchers 

Chandlers 

Marine store dealers 

Upholsterers 

Coal and coke merchants 

Confectioners 

Engineers and machinists 

Furniture makers and dealers 

Chemists (including all chemical labo-1 

ratories) j 

Farming stock 

Hotels and club houses 

Looking glass and picture frame makers... 

Printers 

Beershop keepers 

Furriers and skinners 

Refreshment rooms 

Saw mills 

Schools 

Unoccupied 



Number of Fires. 



1879. 1878. 1877. 1876. 



Remainder, yarjing from 9 to i 



399 

172 

58 
32 
30 
30 
29 
27 
25 
25 

24 
23 
23 
20 
18 
17 
17 
15 
>5 
H 
>3 
13 
13 
12 
12 
12 
12 



II 
II 
II 
II 

10 
10 
10 

10 

ID 

10 



i»»39 
479 



1,718 



368 
203 
60 
26 
27 
29 
28 
22 
16 
30 
21 
14 
19 
36 
28 
16 

7 

9 
11 

7 

14 
10 

4 
11 

6 
16 

9 
11 



9 
14 

7 
17 
13 
10 
16 

4 

4 
10 



321 
195 
56 
21 
30 
*5 
25 
15 
13 
23 
17 
13 
21 

23 
29 
II 

6 

16 
20 

6 

10 
10 

7 
6 

9 
7 
4 

5 



22 
13 

5 

16 

8 

5 

H 

6 

2 

H 



327 

193 

68 

17 

30 

22 

31 

8 

17 

30 

22 

21 

26 

20 

26 

22 

16 

8 

16 

17 

9 

14 

8 

6 

9 

12 

13 

12 



41 
10 

7 
13 
11 

6 
11 

3 

14 
10 



(h) A. list of the fires classified under the causes to which they 
haye been assigned, and arranged in the order of frequency of 
occurrence : — 



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1880.] The Fires of London and the Fire Brigade. 113 



Cavset. 



Nnmber 
of Fires. 



1. Unknown 402 

2. Lamps (not gas) and lights (thrown down) 256 

8. DefectiTe, or improperly set — flues, OTens, furnaces, boilers, stores, &c. 183 

4. Sparks from fires, &c 17a 

5. Qua (in various ways) 146 

6. Candles 108 

7. Overheating of— flues, ovens, furnaces, boilers, stoves, &c 90 

8. Children plajing with fire, matches, &o 64 

9. Hot ashes 48 

10. Airing and drying stoves 40 

11. Foul flues 39 

12. Boiling over, or upsetting of fat, pitch, &o 30 

18. Smoking tobacco 24 

14. Spirits, or vapour of spirits, in contact with flame 24 

15. Spontaneous ignition 20 

16. Lime slaking by rain and otherwise 14 

17. Lucifer matches 14 

18. Doubtful II 

19. Burning rubbish 5 

20. Incendiarism 5 

Miscellaneous, varying from 3 to i 23 

Total 1,718 

(c) The usual sninmaries attached to the report for 1879 
further show : that of the months, the greatest number of fires 
occurred in December (211), and the smallest number in July 
(113) ; that of the days of the week, the largest number of fires 
(268) occurred on Saturday, and the smallest number (212) on 
Monday ; and that of the hours of the day, the greatest number of 
fires occurred between the 7th and 12th hours p.m., and those most 
exempt from such disaster were the 5th to the 11th hours a.m. 

With reference to the daily summary, the following table, which 
gives the totals of the fires for each day of the week for the last 
ten years, shows on the average that the largest number of fires 
occur on Saturday, and the smallest number on Monday. The 
annual ayerage number of fires for the last ten years is 1,647. 



YOU XUii- PART I. 

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114 



Miscellanea, 



[Mar. 



Tears. 


Sunday. 


Monday. 


Tuesday. 


Wednesday. 


Thursday. 


Friday. 


SatonlHy. 


Total. 


1870.... 


290 


252 


2«;8 


266 


300 


258 


322 


1,94^ 


71.... 


286 


202 


H7 


802 


271 


258 


276 


1,842 


72.... 


199 


206 


ii3 


207 


220 


220 


229 


1,494 


73.... 


202 


209 


137 


199 


230 


243 


228 


1,548 


74.... 


222 


228 


228 


195 


240 


231 


229 


1,573 


75.... 


200 


208 


231 


227 


236 


209 


223 


1,529 


76.... 


260 


218 


226 


236 


242 


221 


230 


1,682 


77.... 


192 


218 


212 


224 


243 


216 


228 


1,533 


78.... 


260 


191 


271 


234 


2H 


236 


253 


1,659 


79.... 


235 


212 


231 


267 


264 


251 


268 


1,718 


Total- 


2.346 


2,139 


2,354 


2,346 


24^0 


2,343 


2,486 


16,474 



The condition of the brigade is reported to be in all respects 
satisfactory, and Captain Shaw in his report recommends two fire- 
men for special merit in saving life from fire, who collectively saved 
six lives dnring the year. 



m. — EngliJsh Literature in 1879. 

The following particnlars are taken from the Publishers' 
Circular of 31st December, 1879, in continuation of a series of 
similar extracts for previous years : — 

" Comparing the yield with that of 1878, we find that the total 
of books issued during the year is 5t834 against 5,314 in 1878. 
Of these 4,294 are new books, 3,730 being the number of new books 
chronicled for 1878 ; of new editions there are 1,540 as against 
1,584 new editions in 1878. The various classes show compara- 
tively as follows, new books and new editions together : — Divinity 
is 40 per cent, in advance of last year in point of numbers; 
education has the same increase ; fiction and juvenile works are 
about on a par with those of 1878 ; law, jurisprudence, &c., have 
afforded about 20 per cent, more books in 1879 than in 1878 ; 
political and practical matters, art and illustrated books, about 
half as many again as the preceding year ; geographical research, 
travels, history, &c., show a large increase; as against practical 
treatises, poetry, and the drama are not so well represented, being 
fewer by some sixty or seventy books ; of the rest we may say, 
that about the average increase is kept up. 

" It is worthy of remark, that the relative activity of the year 
just ended, is greater than the gross numbers lead one to think. 
The proportion of new books as compared with new editions is in 
1879 much greater than in 1878. In 1879 the new books are 
not far from three times the number of the new editions ; in 1878 
the new books wore about two and a half times as many as the 
new editions. 



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1830.] English LUercUure in 1879. 

Analytical Table of Books Published in 1879. 



115 



Subject*. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April. 



May. 



June. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Not. 



Dec. 



Total of 
Books on each 

Subjecfc 
for the Y-ear. 



Theology, sennons,! 
biblical, &c J 

Edacational, classi-l 
cal, and philo- > 
logical J 

Jurenile works and 1 
tales J 

Norels, tales, and 1 
other fiction j 

Law, jurisprudtooe, "1 
Slc J 

Political and social l 
economy, trade > 
and commerce .... J 

Arts, science, and! 
illustrated works J 

Voyages, travels, "| 
and geographical V 
research J 

History, biography, T 
&c J 

Poetry and the \ 
drama j 

Year books and 1 
serials in volumes j 

Medicine, surgery, \ 
&c J 

Belles lettres, essays, 1 
monographs, &c. J 

Miscellaneous, in- 1 
eluding pamphlets, > 
not sermons J 



•73 
t36 

•94 
t32 

•13 
t 8 

•51 

t28 

•15 

t7 

• 4 
t3 

•34 
14 

•19 

tio 

•32 

te 

•16 

t4 

•57 

t 

• 9 
t3 

•15 
t3 

•68 

tio 



36 
27 

59 
27 

7 
4 

3& 
17 

11 
6 

5 

1 

17 
2 

13 
3 

21 
6 

9 
5 

16 



14 



64 
20 

51 
20 

10. 
9 

44 



14 

12 

8 

49 
44 

15 
6. 

13 

4 

30 
8 

35 

10 

86 
6 

13 

4 

20 



51 
20 

37 
11 

8 
4 

40 
33 

7 
4 

8 
1 

30 

8 

25 

10 

17 
3 

17 
5 

20 



47 
21 



15 



58 
12 

34 
17 

9 
4 



12 

34 
6 

4 
2 

28 
20 

4 
5 

3 
1 

5 
6 

7 
2 

12 
4 



97 



103 
45 

64 

20 

25 
5 

72 
41 

11 
5 

12 
3 

31 
14 

27 
3 

3& 
11 

12 
5 

3a 



10 



643 



384 



430 



416 



624 



446 



400 



340 



206 



697 



653 



595 



775 
811 

i,c86 

613 
215 

8a8 

153 
61 

214 

607 

406 

1,013 

102 
55 

157 



lai 

268 
85 

353 

228 

70 

298 

319 

84 

403 

150 

41 

286 



136 
53 

136 
43 

422 
94 



191 
286 
189 
179 

5.834 



• New books. 



t NeweditionSk 



The analytical table is divided into fouarteen classes ; also new 
books and new editions : — 

l2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



116 



MuceUanea. 



[Mar. 



IMnricnu. 



1878. 



New 
Booki. 



New 
Edition!. 



1879. 



New 
Books. 



New 
£cUtiuni. 



Theology, termons, biblical, &o 

Educational, classioal, and philological.... 

Juvenile works and tales 

NoTels, tales, and other fiction 

Law, jorisprudence, &o 

Political and Bodal economy, trade and 1 

commerce J 

Arts, sciences, and illustrated works 

Voyages, travels, geographical research ., 

Histoiy, biography, Ac 

Poetry and the drama 

Year books and serials in Tolumee 

Uedicine, surgery, &o 

Belles lettres, essays, monographs, &c 

Miscellaneous, including pamphlets, 1 

not sermons J 



531 
424 
819 
447 
93 

138 

119 
147 
812 
200 
225 
176 
409 

195 



8,780 



208 

162 

129 

432 

36 

48 

28 

68 

118 

156 

'5 

57 

122 



1*584 



5,814 



775 
613 
153 
607 
102 

99 

268 
228 
819 
150 
286 
136 
186 

422 



4,294 

V 



311 
i>5 

61 
406 

55 



85 
70 

84 
11 

53 
43 

94 



1.540 



5,884 



IV.— German Literaiwre of 1878 amd 1879. 

The following is taken firom the Fublishers^ Gircular of 2nd 
February, 1880 :— 

" Systematic view of the literary productions of the German 
bookselling trade in 1878 and 1879, extracted from the BorsenblaM: — 



1. Collections or sets of works— literary histoiy, 1 

bibliography j 

2. Divinity 

8. Law, politics, statistics, trade 

4. Therapeutics, yeterinary 

5. Natural histoiy, chemistry, pharmacy 

6. PhUoeophy 

7a. Education, German school-books, physical 1 

education j 

7ft. Juvenile books 

8. The classics and oriental languages, anti-1 

quities, mythology j 

9. Modem languages, old German 

10. Histoiy, biography, memoirs, letters 

11. Gheoeraphy and travel 

12. Mathematics and astronomy 

18. War, hippology 




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1880.] Emigration and InumgroMo* in the Tear 1879. 



117 



14. Mercantile science, teclinology 

15. Machinerj, railways, mining, nautical 

16. Hunting and forestry 

17. Domestic economy, agriculture, gardening 

18. Belles lettres, novels, poems, drama, &c 

19. Fine arts — painting, music, Ac. ; shorthand 

20. Popular literature, almanacks 

21. Freemasonry 

22. Miscellaneous 

28. MaigB 

Total 



187a 



18,912 



1879. 



577 


577 


882 


384 


118 


103 


886 


42 f 


1,181 


1,170 


571 


584 


715 


642 


20 


21 


840 


378 


293 


300 



14.179 



V. — Emigration cmd Im/inigrcUum in the Yea/r 1879. 

The following is a copy of Mr. Giffen's Report to the Secretary 
of the Board of Trade, relating to Emigration from, and Immigra- 
tion into, the United Kingdom in the year 1879 : — 

" Sir, — In submitting a year ago the tables of emigration 
and immigration for the year 1878, 1 had to call attention to certain 
changes in the figures, as compiured with the years immediately 
previous; the number of emigrants having increased, while 
immigration continued to decline, so that the balance of emigra- 
tion, i.e., the excess of emigrants over immigrants, had increased 
in still greater proportion than the increase of emigration itself. 
The figures of increase and decrease were, however, so small, as 
only to raise a presumption that emigration had once more begun 
to augment after declining for several years ; it remained to be seen 
whether the current would continue to flow, and would flow more 
strongly, in the direction in which it had set. The tables of 1879, 
which I have now to submit, appear to answer the question in the 
affirmative. There is a farther increase of emigration in 1879 over 
1878, that increase being also more considerable than the similar 
increase in 1878 over 1877; there is also a farther decline in 
immigration, and consequently a farther considerable increase in the 
excess of emigrants. It is also noticeable, as we shall see, that 
some of the concomitants of the increase of emigration in 1878 are 
again observable as regards the much larger increase of 1879. It 
is again to the United States and British North America that the 
additional emigrants have departed ; the increase in the emigration 
to Australia, which had not ^llen off as that to the United States 
and North America had done, being inconsiderable. 

'' The exact figures as to the increase of emigration, decline of 
immigrationy and increase of the excess of emigrants, are as 
follows : — 



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118 



IfiseeUoMea. 
(a) Increase of Emigration. 



[Mar. 





Total, hidoding 
Foreigner!. 


Emisranti 

ofBriUihaitdlrUh 

Origin only. 


Number of emiflrants in 1879 


it7»i63 
147,663 


164,274 
U2,d02 


78 




locroMc .....1... 


69,500 


51,372 





*' Thus the increase of emigrants of all nationalities is 69,500 as 
compared with am increase in 1878 over 1877 of 27,692 only; and 
the increase of emigrants of British and Irish origin only, the 
main fact to deal with as far as this conntrj is concerned, is 51,372 
as compared with an increase in 1878 -over 1877 of 17,707 only. 
These increases, it will also be remembered, compare with a decline 
which had been going on for several years down to 1877. 

(i) Decrease of Immiffratum, 





Total, including 
Foreigners. 


Immigrants 

of Britisb and Irish 

Origin only. 


Nwmber t^f imwiicrTAnfia In 1S78 


77,951 
53,973 


54,944 
87,936 


° ' ' »ijn 






Decrwu* in 1879 


23*978 


17,008 





** Thus the number of total immigrants has fallen from 77,951 to 
5 3, 97 J, and the number of immigrants of Britisk-and Irish origin 
only has fallen from 54,944 to 37,93'6. The decrease in 1879 as 
compared with 1878, is also greater than in 1878 as compared with 
1877. 

"It clearly follows from these figures, that the excess of 
emigrants in 1879 must have been much greater than in the two 
previous years, aa will be more clearly perceived from the following 
additional summary: — 

(e) Increase of Excess of EmigramU, 





Total Emigration 

and 

Immigration. 


Emigration 

and ImniigratioB 

of Pen>ons of 

British and 

Irisb Origin only. 


Number of emigrant in 1879 «... 

ixpmiffTaTitff .. 


217,163 
53r973 


164,274 
37,936 




Exoess of emigrants » 

CoiresDonciinff excesa in 1878 


163,1^ 

69,712 

3«Wi3 
44,665 


126,388 
57,958 


vrrepo mg 77; :::., 


81,305 


'76 


88,066 



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1880.] Emigration cmd Immigration in the Year 1879. 119 

**Thn8 the excess of emigrants — the loss of populaHon to the 
United Kingdom through more people going to places oat of 
Europe than come back from those places — is very much greater 
in 1879 than in any of the three previous years. As regards 
persons of British and Irish origin only, the excess of emigrants 
in 1879, amounting to 126,338, is more than double the excess in 
1878, which amounted to 57,958 ; more than four times the excess 
in 1877, when the figure was 31,305 only; and between three and 
four times the excess in 1876. From being only nominal in the 
previous two or three years, the emigration in 1879 has, in fact, 
risen to an appreciable total. 

" Into the causes of this increase of emigration this would 
hardly be the place to enter, as there are no data obtained in the 
collection of the statistics themselves which throw light on the 
matter. I may be permitted, however, to suggest a reference to 
the statement in my report for 1875, in which I drew attention to 
the decline of emigration, which always appeared to occur in years 
of depression in this country and the United States.* The coin- 
cidence of the present increase of emigration with a revival of 
trade which has been making progress in the United States for the 
last two years, and in this country during the latter part of 1879, 
appears so far to confirm the view that a great falling ofE in 
emigration is among the signs of a depressed period in this country. 

" It remains to be seen, however, whether the amount and rate 
of emigration will, with the revival of trade, return to their 
former level, or whether the tendency is not to a gradual but still 
appreciable decline from period to period. The degree of falling 
o£E in 1877 and 1878 was certainly very remarkable, but it is 
difficult to compare it properly with earlier years on account of the 
imperfect record, or rather absence of record, of immigration 
which previously 'existed. In the absence of a better test, then, 
the actual decline •of immigration at a time when emigration 
increases appears important. It would seem to be a natural 
inference from ithis cireumstance that there is always a certain 
amount of " tentative " emigration, and that of those who go away 
a larger numbeo* stay in the countries to which they depart in good 
times than in times when trade is depressed. Thus the diminution 
of immigration in a year like 1879 is a sign of the operation of 
causes which are likely to promote emigration for some time after- 
wards. By-and-bye, as emigration increases, immigration will 
increase ioo, till at last, when the tide is again turning, immigra- 
tion will be large in the face of declining emigration, and there 
will be a small excess of emigrants ; but for the present, judging 
by past statistics, we seem to be at the comparatively early stage of 
a new tide of emigration. In confirmation of this opinion, it seems 
sufficient to glance at No. 15a of the tables annexed to the Report. 
It will there be seen that between 1870 and 1873, emigration and 
immigration both increased, but there was very little increase in the 
excess of emigrants ; that in 1874 there was a large decrease of 
emigration coupled with a large increase of immigration, so that 

* This report was a departniMital paper only, and was not presented to 
parliament. 



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120 



MisceUwnea. 



[Mar. 



the excess of emigrants showed a large diminutioii, the exact 
contrary of what is now occurring ; and that from 1874 to 1877 
there was a steady decline of both emigration and immigration, 
but more in the former than the latter, so that the excess of 
emigrants declined. It seems reasonable to infer that the present 
movement is Ukely to follow the same course, and will be followed 
by an increase of both emigration and immigration, accompanying 
a considerable net emigration, and then by a decrease of both, 
accompanied by a very small net emigration. Of course I do not 
put forward any such opinion authoritetively, the sole object being 
to call attention to what seems the bearing of the figures when 
compared with those of former periods. 

'^ It has already been stated incidentally that the principal part 
of the increase of emigration, as was the case last year, is to the 
United States and British North America, in which, as I had often 
occasion to point out in former reports, the chief falling off in 
previous years occurred. The point seems deserving of fuller 
statement. The inference from the former falling o£E was that the 
natural stream of emigration was to North America, and the 
emigration to Australia was only steadier because it was not so 
completely self-supporting; and this inference is apparently sup- 
ported by the direction of the stream of emigration when trade 
becomes good. Almost all the increase goes to North America and 
very little to Australia. Thus, taking all emigrants, including 
foreigners, we find that out of a total increase of 70,000 in 1879, 
compared with 1878, no less than 53,000 is an increase of emigra- 
tion to the United States and 9,000 to British North America, 
leaving only 8,000 as the increase to all other places, including 
Australia. The increase to America, moreover, is about 65 per 
cent., whereas to Australia it is very little over 13 per cent. 
Dealing with the emigration of persons of British and Irish origin 
only, we find that while the total increase as above stated is 51,372 
persons, the increase to the United States only is 37,112 persons, 
and to British North America, 7,300 persons, leaving only 7,000 as 
the increase to all other places, including Australia. Here, again, 
the increase to North America is 69 per cent., and to Australia only 
about 12 per cent. And we get a still more striking comparison, 
when we look at the figures of the excess of emigrants for a series 
of years, as exhibited in the following table : — 



Destinations of Excess of Emigrants over Immigrants amona 
British and Irish Origin only in the Undermentioned Y 


Persons of 
ears. 


Coantry of Emigntion 


Excess of Emignnts in 


and Immigntion. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


United States 


(-) '43» 
2,706 
29,617 


603 

2,033 

26,501 

8,168 


20,654 
4448 

584 


71,758 

14,456 

85,992 

4,183 


Sritish. North. America 




All other parte 






38,065 


81,305 


57,958 


126,388 



* Excess of immigrants. 



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1880.] EmxgraUon and Immigration in the Year 1879. 



121 



" Thus, of the whole addition of 69,000 to the net emigration 
last year, 51,000 is to the United States, 10,000 to British North 
America, and only the remainder, or 8,000, to all other places. The 
iocrease in the case of the United States, again, is from 20,654 to 
71,758, or more than 240 per cent.; and, if the years 1876 and 1877 
are compared, is practically an increase from zero to this large 
figure. The increase in the case of North America is from 4,448 to 
14,455, ^^ about 230 per cent. ; and in the years 1876 and 1877 is 
from about 2,000 to 14,000, or a multiplication of the minimum 
number by seven times. But the increase in the case of Australasia 
is from 32,272 in 1878, and 25,501 in 1877, to 35,992 in 1879, or at 
the rate of rather more than 10 per cent, in the former case, and 
rather less than 30 per cent, in the latter. In other words, the 
natural stream of emigration to North America, which was almost 
wholly suspended in 1876 and 1877, and which began to flow a 
little in 1878, haa once more swollen to dimensions greatly in excess 
of the comparatively steady emigration to Australasia. 

'* Another sign of what appears to me the increase of natural 
emigration in 1879, is the circumstance of its corresponding very 
closelv to the increase of steerage passengers outwards, the number 
of caoin passengers remaining stationary. We get the following 
comparison : — 

Numbers of Cabin and Steerage Passengers Leamng the United Kingdom 
for Places out of Europe, in each of the Years 1876-79. 



Yean. 


Cabin Pasaeiigeri. 


Steerage Passengers. 


Total. 


1876 


41,900 

37,147 
43,168 

43,9*8 


96,322 

82,824 

104,495 

178,235 


138,222 
119,971 
147,663 
217,163 


77 


»78 


•79 





*' There can be no doubt that, as a class, emigrants go as steerage 
and not as cabin passengers, and the increase of steerage passengers 
is practically an increase of emigrants. 

" Another subject which has been specially dealt with in former 
reports is the composition of the emigration from the United 
Eangdom. It has been shown that the proportion of Irish persons 
in the total emigration from the United Kingdom, which used to 
be 50 and 60 per cent., and as late as the five years ending 1875 
amounted to 34 per cent., had, since the latter date, fallen to 24 per 
cent. Now it would seem that, while the numbers are again 
increasing, still it is only pari passu with the increase of the 
numbers of English and Scotch emigrating, the proportion being 
still 25 per cent, only, as compared with 26 per cent, in 1878 and 
24 per cent, in 1876 and 1877. 

** The following table showing this is in continuation of a similar 
table in former reports : — 



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122 



Miscellanea. 



[Mar. 



StatemeiU of the N^tmber and Proportion of Persona of English^ Scotch, 
and Irish Birth respectivdy, in the Total Emigration of Persons 
of British Origin, at Diffei'ent Periods, 





Engluh. 


9«*d.. 


Iridi. 




Period. 


Nomber. 


Per- 
centage 

of 
ToUl. 


t 

Kumber. 


PeP- 

oenUge 

of 
Tout 


NMber. 


Per- 
centMge 

of 
ToUl. 


ToUl. 


Three jean, 1858-55 
Five years.... '56-60 

„ .... '61-65 
.... '66-70 

„ .... '71-75 
Year 1876 


211,013 

243,409 

236,888 

368,327 

545,015 

73,396 

63,711 

72,323 

104,275 


30 
39 
33 

«7 
«♦ 
64 


62,514 
69,016 
62,461 
85,621 
95,055 
10,097 
8,663 
11,087 
18,708 


9 
10 

9 

10 
ao 
9 
9 
10 
If 


421,672 

915,059 

418,497 

400,085 

829,467 

25,976 

22,831 

29,492 

41,296 

1 


61 
5« 

58 
47 
34 
24 
24 
26 

i5 


695,199 
617,484 
717,796 
854,033 
969,537 
109,469 


77 


95,196 


»78 


112,902 


„ '79 


1^274 







'* How small the t«tal of Irish emigration still is, as compared 
with that of former years, is shown by the following table, which is 
likewise continued from former reports : — 

Annual aTorage, 1861-70 81,858 persons 

Year 1871 711067 „ 

„ *72 ^ „ 72,763 «, 

„ 73 83,69a „ 

» '74 , ^ 60,496 „ 

>} '75 4»»449 »» 

i» '76 25,976 „ 

„ '77 - ~ 22,831 n 

» '78 29^.91 ». 

„ '^9 ^ ^ 4>»»96 ,1 

" In proportion to the popnlstion, however, the Irish emigration 
is still larger than that of Great Britain. 

^' The nsaal tables have been added, showing, in detail, the 
nnmber, sex, and destination of the emigrants, distinguishing 
between adnlts and children, and between married and single 
among the adnlts, and showing also the occupations of the adults. 
With regard to these, the only point to which I would call atten- 
tion, on comparing the tables with those of former years, is the 
great increase of certaim classes of emigrants of British and Irish 
origin during the past year. The ' general labourers ' number 
28,504, compared with 13,701 in 1878, and 9,816 in 1877; the 
* farmers ' number 5,382, compared with 3,296 in 1878, and 2,477 
in 1877; the * miners and quarrymen ' number 3,933, compared 
with 1,176 in 1878, and 1,428 in 1877; the 'males, occupation not 
stated,* number 13,353, compared with 10,995 in 1878, and 9,767 
in 1877 ; the * females, occupation not stated,* number 37,594, 
compared with 27,363 in 1878, and 23,531 in 1877. In such classes 
as ' gentlemen, professional men, merchants, <fec.,' there is hardly 



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1880.] Rates of Life Insurance Premiums. 123 

any change in 1879, compared with the two previons years, a fact 
which seems to lead to the same inference as the increase of steerage 
passengers during the last two or three years, while the number of 
cabin passengers has remained stationary. 

^' Tables are also given, as usual, containing a statement of the 
number of emigrants embarking from different ports of the United 
Kingdom, particulars of detention money recovered by emigration 
officers, and statement of remittances by settlers in the United 
States or British North America to their Mends in the United 
Kingdom, besides comparative tables. I may again repeat, how- 
ever, the observation in my last report, that the data as to the 
remittances by settlers to friends at home are necessarily most 
incomplete, and the figures are only givem quantum, valeant, and to 
continue those formarly published. 

(Signed) " R. OnrBN." 



VI. — Bates of Life Insuramee Premivms. 

The following is taken from the Statist of the 17th of January, 
1880, being No. 7 of a series of special articles on " Insurance 
Companies' Accounts,^ that have appeared in that paper : — 

*' In the course of ihe various special articles which we have 
published, and which we have in preparation, on the accounts of 
the different insurance companies, it has been necessary to refer in 
each case to the rates of premium charged. The ideal company is 
of course one which charges the lowest possible rate of premium 
consistent with safety, at the same time using ap the smallest 
possible portion of that premium in expenses and proprietors' 
profits, and investing the funds to the best advantage in suitable 
securities. Hence the primary necessify for referring to the rates 
of premium, while there are other secondary reasons, such as the 
comparison of the proportion of expenses actually incurred, and the 
proportion allowed for in the loading, among companies charging 
the same, or nearly the same rates of premium, and the comparison 
of the amounts returned as bonuses, the companies which charge 
the highest premiums being of course bound to give the largest 
bonuses, if their policy holders are to be treated equally. But it is 
not easy to compare the rates of different companies. They have 
mostly different scales, according as the policy holders are entitled 
to participate in profits or not, and according to other conditions 
of insurance. In comparing particular scales, it is found, as it 
ought to be, that there are differeant premiums for each age, from 
20 or even a lower age to 50 and upwards, and that the companies 
are not uniformly dearer or chea^r at all ages, but that some which 
are cheaper than others at ages under 30 are dearer at the ages 
above that, and vice versA, How, then, find a common term of 
comparison ? Hitherto, following a usual practice, we have com- 
pared what are called the * with profit ' premiums to insure lOo/. 



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124 MUcdUmea^ [Mar. 

at death at three ages, viz. : 21, 31, and 41 ; but this is not wholly 
satisfactory. It is right, we believe, to select the *with profits' 
premiams for comparison; most of the business of insurance 
companies being insurances for the whole term of life, with a right 
to participate in profits — ^in mutual companies the whole of the 
profits, and in proprietary companies three-fourths or four-fifths, 
and sometimes nine-tenths of the whole. But the method assigns 
no relative value to each of the three ages, and a more extended 
comparison would clearly be useful. We propose to give such a 
comparison in the present article. For this purpose we have com- 
pared the *with profit' premiums for the whole of life of the 
oifEerent companies at the ag^ between 26 and 41 inclusive, these 
being obviously the ages at which the bulk of insurance business 
must be done; and to obtain a single figure for comparison, wo 
have added together the premiums at each age, sixteen in all, and 
divided them by this number of sixteen, so as to give the average 
or mean of the whole. To be scientifically correct, we should have 
compared all ages and allowed each to enter into the avei*age only 
in the proportion of the amount of business done at that age to the 
whole business, but this would be obviously impossible, there being 
no general statistics embracing all companies of the ages at which 
insurances are effected ; while even if it were possible, there would 
be the farther difficulty that the proportion of business at each age 
done by a particular company would vary from the general average. 
It seems to us, therefore, practically useful, though not scientifically 
perfect, to compare the premiums between 26 and 41 in the way we 
nave done, that is, assigning an equal value to each age. Our 
readers will, of course, understand that the companies might be 
ranged somewhat differently than they are on our list if the com- 
parison embraced all ages, and if each age affected the comparison 
only in proportion to the actual amount of business done. All we 
have proposed to do is to make a list which may be useful in the 
absence of anything better.* 

" The general results of the table are obvious enough. Out of 
ninety- two companies which we have been able to include in our com- 
parison, having an aggregate premium income of I2,i63,75i/,,t it 
appears that there are fourteen companies, with an aggregate pre- 
mium income of 2,424,8 12/., where the mean annual premium at the 
ages 26 to 41, to insure 100/. at death with profits, exceeds 2/. i6«. 3(f. ; 
that there are twenty-six companies, with an aggregate premium 

* As ojxt table shows, oar anthority for the preminms charged is the statistical 
returns to the Board of Trade, under the Life Insurance Companies Act of 1870, 
sixth schedule. In all cases we have taken the last returns in the blue books, and 
it is possible, of course, that there are one or two instances where the companies 
have since altered the scale of premiums. In one instance, the Equitable, where 
there are no recent statistical returns in the blue book, we have taken the figures 
from the published tables of the company. 

t As the number of companies and amount of premium income dealt with are 
different from those in our article of 9th August last, showing the proportion of 
expenses to premium income, it may be useful to explain that it has not been 
possible in all cases to compare the companies in our former list, some of them 
taking weekly payments, and there being other difficulties. 



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1880.] Bates of Life Insurance Premmms, 125 

income of 4,563, 109Z., where the mean annual premium exceeds 
2L I5«., and does not exceed 2/. i6s. ^d. ; that there are thirty-three 
companies, with an aggregate premium income of 3,1 14,910/., where 
the mean annual premium exceeds 2L 139. gd,, and does not exceed 
2 1. IC9. ; that there are eleven companies, with an aggregate 
premmm income of 1,036,124?., where the mean annual premium 
exceeds 2/. i28. 6d,y and does not exceed 2L 135. 9^ ; and that there 
are eight companies, with an aggregate premium income of 
1,024,796/., where the mean annual premium does not exceed 
2 1. 128. 6d. The bulk of the companies, numbering seventy, are in 
the second, third, and fourth lists, their aggregate premium income 
being 8,714,000/., or 72 per cent, of the total ; and this means that 
most of the companies have average premiums at the ages referred 
to not differing in the most extreme case by more than about 6^ per 
cent., that being the difference between a mean annual premium of 
2/. i6s. ^d. and another of 2/. i2«. 6d, A considerable addition 
might be made to this from the lower part of the first table, where 
the mean annual premium exceeds 2/. 165. 3 c?. by a very small 
amount ; but the facts as they stand are very striking. Whatever 
differences there may be at particular ages, still between 26 and 41 
on the average, there is great likeness in the premiums which our 
insurance companies charge. The difference between 2/. i6«. ^d. 
and 2/. 126. 6d., considering the objects for which insurances are 
effected, and the proportion of the payment, as a rule, to the whole 
income of the insurers, is practically inappreciable. It amounts to 
a difference of i/. 17*. 6d. on the sum required to insure 1,000/., the 
difference, namely, between 28/. 28. 6d., the sum required at a rate 
of 2/. 168. 3c/., and of 26/. 5^., the sum required at a rate of 2/. 12s. 6d. 
To a man whose income would suggest the expediency of an insurance 
for 1,000/., the difference between 28/. 2s. 6d. and 26/. $8. would 
hardly be appreciable. On an income of 500/. it would not be more 
than 0'4 per cent. Security being the main element sought in 
insurance, the least shade of doubt about the cheaper company 
would justify and induce an insurer to seek the dearer one, when 
the difference between cheaper and dearer is really so little. The 
limits of difference as reg^ards many particular companies are of 
course still less. 

"Nor can it be said that at certain ages the differences are 
greater. Looking down the different columns it will be seen fchat 
at the extreme ages, where the differences are apt to be greatest, 
these differences are still very limited. The highest at the age 26, 
in Tables 11, III, and lY, is 2/. 6s. 8c/., and the lowest 2/. 2s. 4c/., 
which is at most a difference of 10 per cent. ; while the highest 
at the age of 41 is 3/. gs. gd., and the lowest 3/. 49. gd.^ or a 
difference of 7 per cent. only. At the intermediate age, which 
appears to be 34, the rates correspond with singular closeness to the 
mean of the sixteen ages, the highest being 2/. 16s. le/., and the 
lowest 2/. 128. ^d. An examination of the tables will show that 
the rates do approximate about age 34, those having the same mean 
which start with a relatively high rate at 26 having a relatively low 
rate at 41, and vice versdj and the ages from 30 to 34 being the 
point where the two different scales approximate. Why this should 



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126 Miscellanea. [Mar. 

be so — why the companies should not be nniformly higher or lower 
all through, as ought to be the case if they have the same scientific 
basis, is an actuarial question on which we need not enter. But it 
is obviously of practical interest to an insurer to know that while 
the mean annual premiums of the bulk of insurance companies at 
the insuring ages vary little, the extremes of variation at particular 
ages within the same limits cannot be very much greater, and are 
insignificant in a question of security, which is his main object in 
insuring. This conclusion is absolutely demonstrated by the tables 
which we have arranged. 

" There remain two tables — Table I and Table V — about which 
a remark or two may be added. A portion of the former, and 
perhaps the whole of it, with the exception of the single company 
that heads the list, which occupies a peculiar position, might even 
be included with the second table, and still much the same remarks 
we have made would apply. The difference between zl. iSs, 5^., 
which would then become the maximum, and the minimum of 
zL 1Z8. 6c2., would still be comparatively immaterial in respect of 
the main question for an insurer, while the difference would be still 
less^ of 'course, between the maximum, and all but the few com- 
panies near the minimum of zL izs. 6d. The extremes on either 
side would also be extended in no greater proportion, the maximum 
at age 26 becoming 2/. 98. id, and at age 41 becoming 3/. 115. 9^^., 
instead of 2I, 7*. %d, and 3/. 98. ^d. respectively. Adding the 

Premium income of Table I to> the premium income of Tables II, 
II, and IV, the- result would be that out of companies with a 
total premium income of 12, 163,7 ciZ., the companies with a 
premium income of 1 1,139,000^., or 91^ percent, of the total, charge 
rates of premium which differ so little from each other that the 
slightest shade of doubt about the security of a cheaper company 
ought to incline the insurer ta the dearer. Of course the premiums 
being ' with profit * premiums, a great difference will be made by 
the various management of companies in respect of the risks they 
take, the rate of interest earned, and the proportion of expenses to 
the premium income, but the latter are the vital points and not the 
differences in the rate of premium. A company with premiums 
5 per cent, lower than a neighbouring company, a difference which 
will include a wide range of companies, may manage so very much 
better as not only to give more ample security than the dearer 
company gives, but to insure a larger return to the policy holder in 
the shape of bonus. As rega^rds most of the companies, therefore, 
as between themselves, the comparison of their premiums only 
serves to increase the importance of the other vital points to be 
examined in insurance accounts. 

"A more interesting point arises upon Table V, that which 
includes the cheaper companies. These are only eight in number, 
with a premium income of 1,02:4,796/. only, or 8^ per cent, of the 
total, so that they are obviously a class apart from the others, and 
it is obvious that if we were to include them we could no longer 
say that the differences in the rates of premium charged are alto- 
gether immaterial. No less than three companies are included, with 
mean premiums of 509., or 5 per cent, lower than the minimum of 



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1880.] Bates of Life Insurance Premiums, 127 

Table IV, and there is one company — the Scottish Provident — with 
a mean of 46*., or 12 per cent, lower than that minimnm. Between 
these companies, and especially between the last of all, and the 
companies in Table I, as well as the highest in Table II, there is 
manifestly a great divergence, amonnting in the extreme case to 
ai^ per cent., which is a very different matter from differences of 
premium amonnting to 5 per cent, only, or perhaps amounting in 
extreme cases to 7^ or 10 per cent. It may be true that an insurer, 
if there is a shade of doubt,, should still prefer the dearer company, 
even a difference of 21^ per cent, being only the difference between 
29/. ^s. and it^l. in an insurance for 1,000^, or a percentage of less 
than 1 1 per cent, on an income of 500Z. ; but the divergence is so 
great as to suggest that there is a difference of principle in the 
methods followed — that the higher rates are deliberately adopted, 
or at least continued in practice, not because they are necessary for 
safety, but for extrinsic and incidental advantages. What these 
advantages may be will be a point for consideration; but if the 
cheaper companies are right in their practice, as far as safety is 
concerned, the choice as between them and the dearer companies 
cannot necessarily be given to the latter, on the score of safety, on 
a mere consideration of the premiums alone. 

" Stich is an account of the tables themselves, and we may now 
proceed to discuss some of the points they suggest. To some 
extent the remarks already made have raised some of these points, 
but explicit discussion may be ueefdl. 

'* 1. The great divergence between the cheaper and the dearer 
companfes raines an important point. If the che»p companies are 
perfectly safe; as they seem to Be, what is the advantage or dis- 
advantage of insuring in them compared with the dearer com- 
panies ? The- extra charge for the latter above what is required for 
safety seems very large. One of the very cheapest companies, the 
Economic, has a proportion of 8| per cent, of expenses to its 
premium income; and the still cheaper company, the Scottish 
Provident, has a proportion of icr9 per cent. Adding to this latter 
figure the percentage by which the premiums of the companies at 
the top of the list exceed the lowest, or say 20 per cent., we make 
out the loading in the highest premiums to be at least 30 per cent. 
As some of the companies with these high premiums woric with a 
proportion of expenses of only 5 per cent, or less, which is obviously 
sufficient, it would thus seem, on a mere comparison of premiums 
alone, that the excess of premiums in the ca^e of the dearer com- 
panies above what is required for safety amounts to 25 per cent. 
The same conclusion would be enforced by a consideration of the 
position of other companies in Table V, or at the bottom of 
Table IV, where the proportion of expenses to premium income 
amounts to from 12 to 15 per cent., companies whose position and 
general reputation entitle them to be regarded as safe. It would 
also be enforced by an examination of the non.participating 
premiums of some of the dearer companies, these being about as 
low as the participating premiums of the Scottish Provident, and 
yet, it may be assumed, leaving some margin over. The excess 
above what is required for safety in the cafle of the dearer corn- 



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128 Miscellanea. [Mar. 

panies may even be more than 25 per cent., bnt we state a figure 
"whicli appeal's to be justified by a comparison of the practice of the 
companies themselves, quite apart from actuarial discussions, into 
which we do not enter. The question, then, is, what advantage an 
insurer gets by paying this 2 5 per cent. ? The advantage would 
seem to be this — that the whole excess is an investment An 
insurance of a certain sum being required for contingencies, the 
insurer voluntarily adds to his premium in order to save indirectly 
what he might not save directly. He assumes that he provides 
sufficiently for the contingency of death if it should happen soon, 
and if he lives to pay many high premiums the excess will be prac- 
tically saved, and his familv will receive it. Along with this goes 
a belief that probably the dear companies are the best and safest, 
as they have a larger margin, and some such idea, it may be sup- 
posed, helps at least to reconcile the insurer to paying a high 
premium. And this belief and practice are not without excuse. 
Certainly the general practice of English companies and of 
insurers with them is not to be condenmed off-hand as unreason- 
able. All that need be pointed out is that an insurer paying a high 
premium necessarily counts on greatly adding to his policy by 
bonuses; that these bonuses enter into his calculation; and that 
an insurer paying a low premium is content with a more exact 
arrangement. The latter acts with more theoretical correctness, 
but the usage of the former is practical and English-like, and 
eminently safe. 

*' 2. As between most of the companies, there is no necessity 
for regarding the rates of premium in judging of their manage- 
ment in respect of the proportion of expenses to premium income. 
A well informed correspondent in our columns suggested that it 
was not quite fair to compare companies having low premiums with 
companies having high premiums, for the same expenses, calculated 
on an income from premiums at a low rate, woald bear a larger 
proportion than when calculated on an income from the same 
number of premiums at a high rate. But where the difference 
between the rates of premium is 5 per cent., or less, this would 
obviously be immaterial. A proportion of expenses amounting to 
10 per cent., in the case of a company having 5 per cent, higher 
premiums than its neighbour, would still amount to no more than 
10^ per cent, in the case of the latter company. Where the differ- 
ence was 10 per cent., an ampunt of expenses giving a proportion 
of 10 per cent, in the one case would still only give 1 1 per cent, in 
the other. Even where the difference of premium is as great as 20 
per cent. — an extreme instance — an amount of expenses giving 
a proportion of 10 per cent, in the one case would still only give 
12 per cent, in the other. Where the differences in the amount and 
proportion of expenses to income are at all serious, the consideration 
of the difference in the rates of premium would not, as a rule, affect 
very much one's judgment of the management of a company. The 
lower the rate of premium, besides, the more necessity for care 
about the expenses, the margin being so much smaller. 

** 3. As already suggested, the important thing, as between most 
of the companies, is obviously not their rates of premium but their 



Digitized by 



Google 



1880.] Bates of Life Insurance Premiums. 129 

management. The rates varying within limits of 5, 7, and even 10 
per cent., it is qnite plain that dilEerences in the care with which 
risks are taken, in the rate of interest earned, and in the proportion 
of expenses to premium income, are more vital to insurers than 
differences in the rates of premium. The insurer must judge as 
best he can of these points, especially taking care, as regards the 
rate of interest earned, to steer between the Scylla of companies 
which are timid and lazy, and invest in solid securities enough but 
without getting the rates they might obtain with greater vigilance, 
and the Charybdis of other companies which venture too much 
among securities not of the first class for the sake of a higher rate. 
But as regards one of these points — ^he proportion of expenses to 
premium income — the table we formerly published, and the essential 
part of which we now repeat along with the statement of the pre- 
mium, becomes an invaluable help. It is obvious that the point is 
of cardinal importance. It may well be that a company charges 5 per 
cent, more than a neighbour, but if the neighbour spends 1 5 per 
cent, or more in expenses and profits, and the first company only 
5 per cent., it is the first company clearly which it is most advan- 
tageous to insure with. UnhappUy, as our table shows, there are 
even greater differences between companies in the proportion of 
their expenses to premium income. Insurers cannot be urged too 
strongly to look to this point. The explanations of companies 
where the proportion is highest, as to their getting new business 
and the like, ought, of course, to be weighed, and our readers must 
understand that we are not discussing at present all the bearings of 
this question. We are only urging, in view of the great similarity 
of premiums at the insuring ages, its very great importance. 

**With these remarks we lay the tables of comparative pre- 
miums before our readers. Apart from all other uses they have, we 
cannot but believe that they will be useful for reference, and they 
will be useful to ourselves at least in our future articles in ' placing * 
the respective companies we discuss." 



TOL, XLin. PIKT I. K 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



18D 



MisoeUcmeck, 



[Mbt. 



Tables sktnpwff the. '' With Profit"* Premiumefop the Whok qf Life ta Inmre lool. at Death 
the Mean Qf the PrenUume at theee Agee ; also the Amount of the Premiwm Income of each 
in Order from the Highest to the Lowest Mean Annvfll Premium Charged * [Frim the 

I. Compamiss with a Mean Annual 



London Lifef 

Hook 

Law Life 

Equitably. 

Positive 

Hand'in-Hand 

Colonial 

Norwich Ihuon (N.S.) 

ScotdBh Sqaitable 

„ Widows' Fund 
„ Amicable .. 

Bojal Exchange 

United Kingdom .... 

West of England .... 



36. 



«. d, 

54 6 
49 I 

^9 
49 
46 
45 
4<5 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
45 
46 



27, 



9. 

II5I 

1151 

^ 8,47 .. 

47 10 48 II 

48 7 49 7 
48 « 49 7 
48 6 49 7 
48 5 49 6 
48 149 3 

46 10 48 4 

47 9 48 10 



29. 



«. d. 
67 9 
62 8 
62 8 
62 8 
50 7 
49 4 
60 1 
60 8 
60 8 
60 8 
60 7 
60 6 
49 6 
60 - 



80. 



#. d. 

59 3 
53 5 
53 5 
53 5 
5» - 

50 8 

51 4 
51 
51 
5» 
51 
51 

50 8 

51 3 



81. 



62 11 
62 11 
62 11 
62 11 
52 10 
62 - 
62 6 



82. 



6z - 

55 9 

55 9 

55 9 

54 i» 

53 9 

54 

54 

54 

54 

54 

54 

53 

53 



#. d. 
68 6 
67 1 
67 1 
57 1 
66 8 



65 

55 

55 

66 

66 

55 

65 

55 6 

55 1 



34, 



#. d. 



65 3 

58 5 

58 5 

58 5 

58 6 

57 - 

56 10 

56 9 

56 9 

56 9 

5« 9 

5^ 9 

56 6 

56 6 



86. 



«. a. 

67 - 
69 10 
69 10 
69 10 
69 11 

68 9 



68 
58 
68 
68 



58 2 
68 2 
58 - 
57 11 



II. Companies with a Mean Annual Premium 



Mntual 

Legal and G-eneral 

PeUcan 

Briton Med. and C^n. 

National of Ireland .... 

,, Provident .... 

Provident 

Atlas 

Marine and G-eneral .... 

Eagle: 

National 

Metropolitan Life 

Provincial 

University 

Union 

Eng. and Scottish Law 
N. British & Mercantile 

Imperial Life 

Life Assoc., Scotland 

G-uardian 

Scottish Union§ 

Qresham 

General 

Prudential II 

Alliance 

Sun Life 



«. d. 



45 
46 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
46 

46 

45 I 

46 4 
46 8 



46- 

45 3 

46 3 
45 4 
45 - 
45 I 
44 5 
43 9 
43 9 



s. d, 

46 9 

47 8 
46 7 
46 4 
46 6 
46 6 
46 6 
46 6 

46 6 

47 6 
47 - 

46 1 

47 4 
47 7 
47 7 
46 6 

46 - 

47 - 

46 6 

47 2 
46 5 
46 - 
46 2 
45 8 
45 2 
45 2 



«. d, 

47 10 

48 ^ 
47 9 
47 8 
47 8 
47 8 
47 8 
47 8 

47 8 

48 6 
48 I 

3 
4 
7 
7 
7 
4 



47 
48 
48 
48 
47 
47 
48 
47 
48 
47 
47 
47 
47 
46 
46 



s, d. 

48 11 

49 6 
49 - 
48 10 
48 11 
48 11 
48 11 
48 11 

48 11 

49 7 



49 
48 
49 



2 
5 

6 
8 
8 
8 
7 
1 
8 
8 
9 
5 
7 
4 

47 11 
47 11 



<. d. 



50 

50 

50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 



50 8 
50 4 



49 
50 
50 



50 8 

49 9 

49 10 

50 3 
50 - 
50 4 
49 " 
49 7 
49 10 
49 6 
49 2 
49 i 



s. d. 
61 4 
52 - 
51 8 
51 4 
51 6 
51 6 
51 6 
51 6 
61 6 
51 10 
51 6 
51 1 
51 10 
51 11 
51 10 
50 11 



51 1 

51 5 

51 - 

51 5 

51 2 

50 9 

51 1 
50 9 
50 6 
50 6 



s. d. 
5* 7 
53 4 
53 1 
5* 9 
52 " 
5a II 
5a II 

5* " 
52 II 



53 
5i 
5* 
53 
53 
53 
5^ 
5a 
5a 
5* 
5i 
52 
5* 
5^ 
5i 



5 
7 
3 
7 
6 

5 
I 

51 10 
51 10 



s. d. 

54 - 

64 8 

54 6 

54 8 



54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
64 
54 
64 
54 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
2 
1 
4 

54 8 
54 8 
58 6 
53 10 
53 10 
53 9 
53 10 
58 10 
58 5 
53 9 
58 6 



53 
53 



s. a. 

55 8 

56 1 
56 - 
55 >o 
55 >o 
55 >o 
55 10 
55 «o 
55 »o 
55 8 



55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

54 II 

54 II 



«. d, 

57 6 

67 7 

57 7 

57 6 

57 6 



57 

67 

57 

57 

57 

57 

57 

57 

56 11 

56 10 

56 6 

57 - 
66 8 
57 - 
56 7 
56 9 
56 7 
56 6 
56 8 
56 8 
56 8 



* In the case of companies doing a foreign or colonial business, the premiums for the home 
t These payments, it is stated, are calculated to allow a reduction of 60 per cent, after 
X Return for half-year only. § Amalgamated with Scottish National. 



Digitized by 



Google 



18800 



Bates of Life Inturwnee PrenUums. 



131 



of the undermentioned Life Insurance Companies at the Ages from 26 to 41 inclusive^ with 
Company and the Proportion of Expenses to that of Income ; tM Companies being Classified 
StatisticcU Returns to the Board of Trade under the Life Insurance Uompa/nies Act of 1870.] 
Premifsm Sxceedimg iL i6s, ^d. 



















Meui 




Proportiou 






36, 


37. 


38, 


39. 


40. 


41. 


Annoftl 
Pre- 


Premium 
Income. 


of 
ExpeoMi 
to Premium 




















mium. 




Income. 






s. d. 


*. d. 


s. 


(2. 


*. d. 


«. d. 


*. tf. 


#. d. 


£ 


Perent. 






68 9 


70 9 


n 


9 


74 9 


77 - 


79 3 


62 10 


307,629 


3*9 


London Life t 




61 4 


62 10 


64 


6 


66 2 


67 11 


69 9 


58 5 


142,867 


IO'2 


Bock 




61 4 


62 10 


64 


6 


66 2 


67 II 


60 9 


58 5 


254,784 


8-0 


Law Life 




61 4 


62 10 


64 


6 


66 2 


67 II 


69 9 


58 5 


149,706 


5'5 


Equitable 




61 10 


63 9 


(>s 


9 


67 9 


69 9 


71 9 


58 2 


89,408 


50*5 


Positiye 




60 7 


62 7 


«4 


7 


66 8 


68 10 


71 3 


57 - 


186,264 


8-3 


Hand-in-Hand 




60 - 


61 8 


63 


6 


65 4 


67 4 


69 6 


$6 10 


9,177 


75*1 


Colonial 




59 8 


61 3 


62 


II 


64 8 


66 6 


68 6 


56 10 


168,222 


J3*i 


Norwicb Union (N.S.) 




59 9 


61 3 


63 


- 


640 


66 3 


68 2 


56 9 


204,345 


13*1 


Scottish Equitable 




59 9 


61 3 


63 


- 


64 6 


66 3 


68 2 


56 9 


579,194 


10*9 


„ Widows* Fund 




59 8 


61 2 


62 


11 


646 


66 3 


68 2 


56 9 


178,940 


11-6 


„ Amicable 




59 8 


61 2 


63 


9 


64 6 


66 3 


68 2 


56 7 


138,960 


io*9 


Bojal Exchange 




59 4 


61 6 


63 




66 1 


67 4 


69 6 


56 4 


22.567 


53*5 


United Kingdom 




59 5 


61 1 


62 


8 


64 4 


66 1 


67 11 


56 4 


103,249 


12*3 


West of England 




2,424,812 




Exceeding il. i^s. < 


ffKJ not Exceeding zl. i6s. id. 










s. d. 


s, d. 


#. 


d. 


#. <;. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


#. d. 


£ 


PercnU 






59 4 


61 2 


63 


3 


65 4 


67 6 


69 9 


56 I 


81,046 


12-7 


Mutual 




59 1 


60 8 


62 


4 


64 1 


65 11 


67 10 


56 - 


140,067 


io*7 


Legal and General 




59 3 


60 11 


62 


8 


64 6 


66 5 


68 5 


55 I' 


86,310 


12*2 


FeUcan 




59 3 


61 1 


63 


- 


66 - 


66 9 


68 6 


55 10 


167,712 


9*4 


Briton Med. and Gen. 




59 - 


60 9 


62 


6 


64 4 


66 3 


68 4 


SB 9 


14,280 


H'o 


National of Ireland 




59 - 


60 9 


62 


6 


64 4 


66 3 


68 4 


55 9 


266,025 


9*4 


„ Provident 




59 - 


60 9 


62 


6 


64 4 


66 3 


68 4 


55 9 


182,836 


14-6 


Provident 




59 - 


60 9 


62 


6 


64 4 


66 3 


68 4 


55 9 


91,582 


12-4 


Athis 




59 - 


60 9 


62 


6 


64 4 


66 3 


68 4 


55 9 


28,619 


23 -8 


Marine and General 




58 7 


60 2 


61 


10 


68 7 


65 5 


67 4 


55 9 


132,103 


9*7 


Eagk: 




58 7 


60 3 


62 


- 


63 10 


65 9 


67 9 


55 7 


66,203 


11-9 


National 




59 « 


60 9 


62 


7 


64 5 


66 4 


68 6 


55 7 


147,814 


5'i 


Metropolitan Life 




58 6 


60 - 


6i 


7 


63 8 


65 - 


66 9 


55 7 


32,427 


19*5 


, ProTincial 




584 


59 9 


61 


4 


62 11 


64 7 


66 4 


55 6 


51,232 


10*9 


University 




58 3 


59 9 


61 


3 


62 10 


64 7 


m 8 


55 6 


97,523 


14-2 


Union 




58 6 


60 3 


62 


3 


64 3 


66 6 


68 9 


55 5 


129,617 


14-6 


Eng.and Scottish Law 




58 6 


60 2 


62 


- 


64 1 


66 I 


67 11 


55 4 


309,894 


11-9 


N.Briti8h & Mercantile 




58 2 


59 8 


61 


4 


63 1 


64 11 


66 10 


55 3 


81,442 


I3'4 


Imperial Life 




58 3 


60 - 


61 


3 


63 8 


65 3 


67 3 


55 a 


328,454 


14-4 


Life Assoc, Scotland 




58 - 


59 6 


6t 




62 9 


64 6 


66 5 


55 i 


115,500 


11-9 


Guardian 




58 3 


69 10 


61 


6 


63 3 


65 - 


66 10 


55 a 


159,609 


J5'* 


Scottish Union § 




58 3 


60 - 


61 


10 


63 10 


65 10 


68 - 


55 I 


413,717 


26-4 


Gresham 




58 z 


59 10 


61 


7 


63 5 


65 4 


67 4 


55 I 


95,303 


20'I 


, General 




58 4 


60 2 


62 




63 11 


65 u 


67 11 


55 > 


1,184,170 


50'3 


Prudential II 




58 5 


60 4 


62 


4 


64 6 


66 6 


68 7 


55 - 


99,181 


10-7 


Alliance 




58 5 


60 4 


62 


4 


64 6 


66 6 


68 7 


55 - 


130,448 


H'3 


Sun Life 




4,563.109 




busioess are taken for oompariaon. 








seven parents. 

II Including in expenses 141,000^. of special new bos 


inesscharg 


es. 





e2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



132 



MisceUanea, [Mar. 

III. Companies with a Mean Annual Premium 



s, d. 

Reliance 

London & Provin. Law 45 
Law, Property, and Life 44 1 1 

3 
5 
I 
6 
3 



Lir. and Lon. & G-lobe* 
London and Southwark 

Emperor 

British Equitable . 
Midland Counties . 

Caledonian 

SoTereign 

London Assurance. 

Law Union 

United Kent 

Rojal 

Yorkshire 

Queen 

Scottish Commercial .... 

Commercial Union 

Scottish Imperial 

Westminster and Qten. 

Scottish National t 

Patriotic of Ireland ... 

Star 

Masonic and General... 

United King. Temp 

Cler. Med. and Gheneral 

Equity and Law 

standard t 

Imperial Union § 

Qreat Britain 

Sceptre 

National Guardian .... 
City of Glasgow Life.... 



44 
45 
45 

44 10 

45 - 
44 9 

3 
3 
6 

ID 

S 
9 
7 
9 
10 

9 

9 

9 

10 

9 
3 

44 1 
44 I 



27. 



8, d, 

45 4 

46 3 

45 11 

46 - 
45 6 
45 7 

45 3 

46 5 
46 5 

45 11 

46 - 

45 10 

46 3 
46 4 
45 9 
45 11 
45 8 
45 11 
45 9 
45 - 
45 2 
45 - 
45 - 
45 - 
45 - 
45 - 
45 3 
45 3 
45 1 
45 - 
44 10 
44 9 
44 8 



28. 



*. d. 

46 8 

47 5 
47 
47 
46 
46 
46 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
46 

47 
47 
46 
46 

46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46- 



29. 



8. d. 

47 11 

48 8 
48 8 
48 8 
48 
48 

47 8 

48 8 
48 9 
48 2 
4S 4 
48 2 
48 6 



48 7 

48 4 

48 2 

47 11 

48 3 
48 2 
47 7 
47 9 



47 

47 



47 6 

47 7 

47 6 

47 8 

47 9 

47 2 



47 
47 
47 



47 2 



30. 



49 4 
49 10 
49 5 



49 5 

49 4 

49 3 

49 - 

49 II 

49 10 



49 4 

49 6 

49 4 

49 8 

49 9 



49 
49 



49 I 



49 
49 



48 10 

49 - 
48 9 
48 9 
48 9 
48 10 
48 9 
48 10 
48 II 
48 5 
48 4 
48 8 
48 6 
48 5 



81. 



8. d. 

50 8 

51 1 
50 8 
50 8 
50 8 



50 7 

50 4 

51 - 
50 11 
50 7 
50 8 

60 5 
50 11 

61 - 
50 5 
60 6 
50 8 



32. 



«. d, 



50 7 

50 5 

50 - 

50 2 

50 - 

50 - 

50 - 

50 - 

50 - 

50 1 

50 1 

49 8 

49 7 

49 10 

49 9 

49 8 



5» 

5* 

5* 

5i 

5* 

5a 

51 

5* 

5» 

5» 

5* 

51 

5i 

5* 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 - 

50 II 



33. 



53 8 
53 5 



63 3 
53 5 



34. 



63 
53 
53 



53 3 



52 10 

53 ' 
52 11 

52 8 

53 - 
52 9 
52 9 
52 9 
52 9 
52 9 
52 11 
52 8 
52 8 
62 4 
52 6 
52 5 
52 4 



*. d. 

5S I 

55 I 

54 10 

54 10 

54 10 

54 II 
54 10 
54 9 



54 
54 
54 

54 



54 II 
54 9 
54 8 



54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 



53 10 

54 I 
53 II 
53 10 



*. d, 

66 9 

56 6 

56 6 

56 5 

66 6 

56 6 

56 6 

66 2 

66 1 

56 3 



56 
66 
56 



66 2 
56 3 
56 - 
56 - 

55 9 

56 10 
55 10 
55 10 
55 10 

55 11 

56 « 

55 7 

56 9 

55 10 

56 8 
55 8 
55 6 
55 8 
55 6 
55 5 



t Amalgamated with Scottish Union. The 



• With guaranteed bonus, 
as yet of the amalgamated company. 

§ In this case the policies are payable at specified ages as well as at death. 



lY. Companies with a Mean Premium 



British Empire 

British Workman's . 
Scottish Proyinoial . 

Unirersal 

Lancashire 

Northern 

Whittington 

Edinburgh 

Crown , 

Royal Farmers' , 

Church of England .. 



8. d. 


8. d. 


8, d. 


8. d. 


8, d. 


43 5 


44 8 


45 10 


47 - 


48 3 


43 I 


44 3 


45 6 


46 8 


47 II 


41 II 


44 3 


45 7 


46 10 


48 I 


44 4 


45 6 


46 7 


47 8 


48 10 


44 - 


45 - 


46 - 


47 - 


48 6 


43 I 


44 4 


45 7 


46 10 


48 - 


43 6 


44 6 


45 8 


46 10 


48 - 


43 - 


44 1 


45 3 


46 5 


47 7 


4* 5 


43 8 


44 10 


46 1 


47 4 


4i 4 


43 7 


44 10 


46 1 


47 5 


42 6 


43 6 


44 7 


46 8 


46 10 



8. d. 

49 7 
49 3 
49 4 
49 11 
49 6 
49 3 
49 2 
48 10 
48 9 
48 
48 



8. d. 

50 II 



50 
50 
51 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
9 I 50 
1 49 



#. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


62 5 


53 10 


55 4 


52 1 


•;3 8 


65 2 


62 1 


53 7 


55 2 


52 3 


53 7 


54 11 


52 - 


53 10 


55 - 


51 11 


Si 5 


54 11 


61 6 


53 - 


54 8 


51 6 


53 - 


54 6 


51 6 


53 - 


64 6 


51 6 


53 - 


64 6 


50 10 


5* 4 


53 11 



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1880.] 



Bates of Life Insurance Premiums. 



133 





Exceeding 2I. 1 


13*. 


9£ 


and not Exceeding 


2l. 


15*- 






























Mean 




Proportion 






86. 


87. 


88. 


89. 


40. 


41. 


Annual 


Premium 


of 
Expenies 
























Pro- 


Income. 


to Premium 
























miam. 




Income. 






s, d. 


*. d. 


9, 


d. 


*. d. 


*. 


d. 


«. 


d. 


9. 


d. 


£ 


Percnt 






58 4 


60 1 


61 


11 


63 11 


65 


10 


68 


- 


55 


- 


85,400 


21*1 


Beliance 




5« - 


59 8 


61 


3 


63 - 


64 


10 


66 


9 


SS 


- 


80,789 


9'5 


London &. Provin. Law 




58 - 


59 9 


61 


6 


63 6 


65 


6 


67 


7 


54 


II 


8,783 


n'9 


Law,Property, and Life 
Liv. and Lon. & Globe* 




58 - 


59 9 


61 


6 


63 5 


65 


5 


67 


7 


54 


11 


235,341 


9'4 




f8 1 


59 10 


61 


9 


68 8 


^5 


8 


67 


8 


54 


10 


4,124 


I5'0 


London and Southwark 




58 z 


59 10 


61 


7 


63 7 


65 


7 


67 


7 


54 


10 


14,352 


34> 


Emperor 




58 2 


60 - 


61 


11 


68 11 


66 




68 


2 


54 


10 


126,282 


27*3 


British Equitable 
Midland Counties 




57 8 


59 8 


60 


10 


62 8 


64 


8 


66 


4 


54 


10 


2,741 


I7*» 




57 7 


59 8 


61 


- 


62 9 


64 


6 


66 


4 


54 


9 


64,073 


t6-8 


Caledonian 




57 11 


59 7 


61 


4 


68 2 


65 


2 


67 


2 


54 


9 


74,652 


14'3 


Sovereign 




57 10 


59 5 


61 


2 


63 - 


64 


II 


66 


11 


54 


9 


159,455 


9*9 


IxHklon Assurance 




57 8 


59 4 


61 


2 


63 2 


65 


3 


67 


2 


54 


9 


65,728 


»3*4 


Law Union 




57 7 


59 - 


60 


7 


62 4 


64 


3 


66 


4 


54 


8 


21,514 


11-6 


United Kent 




57 7 


59 1 


60 


8 


62 4 


64 


I 


65 


11 


54 


8 


245,058 


9*9 


Eojal 




57 6 


59 3 


61 


I 


63 2 


65 


- 


66 


5 


54 


7 


41,433 


12-3 


Yorkshire 




57 6 


59 8 


61 


I 


63 - 


65 


- 


66 


5 


54 


7 


52,383 


14-1 


Queen 




57 8 


59 4 


6i 


1 


62 11 


64 


II 


67 


- 


54 


6 


13,519 


5^-6 


Scottish Commercial 




57 3 


58 11 


60 


8 


62 5 


64 


2 


m 


- 


54 


5 


97,178 


'4*3 


Commercial Union 




57 5 


59 - 


60 


9 


62 6 


64 


4 


66 


2 


54 


4 


24,664 


13*2 


Scottish Imperial 




57 6 


59 8 


61 


2 


63 3 


65 




67 


- 


54 


4 


46,182 


20'9 


Westminster and Gten. 




57 6 


59 4 


6i 


~ 


62 8 


64 


6 


66 


6 


54 


4 


98,206 


i6-8 


Scottish National t 




57 6 


59 8 


6t 


I 


63 - 


65 


- 


67 


1 


54 


3 


9,571 


8-5 


Patriotic of Ireland 




57 6 


59 8 


61 


1 


63 - 


64 


II 


66 11 


54 


3 


197,298 


i6-2 


Star 




57 6 


59 8 


61 


- 


63 - 


65 


~ 


67 


- 


54 


3 


5,318 


56-2 


Masonic and (General 




57 6 


59 3 


61 


I 


63 - 


64 


II 


66 11 


54 


3 


225,844 


13*0 


United King. Temp. 




57 6 


59 8 


61 


- 


63 - 


65 


- 


67 


- 


54 


3 


185,434 


in 


Cler. Med. and General 




57 5 


59 - 


60 


9 


62 7 


64 


6 


66 


6 


54 


3 


123,690 


lOT 


Equity and Law 




57 3 


58 11 


60 


8 


62 6 


64 


5 


66 


3 


54 


2 


675,222 


13'7 


Standard! 




57 4 


59 - 


60 


10 


62 8 


^^4 


6 


66 


7 


54 


1 


2,613 


52-8 


Imperial Union § 




57 2 


58 11 


60 


10 


62 10 


65 


- 


67 


8 


54 


I 


70,149 


34*0 


Ch-eat Britain 




57 4 


69 - 


60 


10 


62 9 


64 


8 


66 


8 


54 


1 


27,479 


25*9 


Sceptre 




57 2 


58 11 


60 


9 


62 8 


64 


8 


66 


5 


54 


- 


666 


I2'3 


National Guardian 




57 - 


58 10 


60 


7 


62 6 


64 


6 


66 


5 


53 


10 


134,919 


14-2 


Citj of Glasgow Life 




3,114,910 





last returns of each company in the blue books haye been made use of, there being no return 
X Home scheme, with profits equal division. 



Exceeding 2I. I2«. 6d. and not Exceeding il. 139. ^d. 



9. d. 


9, d. 


9, d. 


*. d. 


*. d. 


9. d. 


*. d. 


£ 


Feront 


56 6 


58 7 


60 4 


62 8 


64 2 


66 2 


53 9 


101,962 


20*6 


56 II 


58 9 


607 


62 6 


64 6 


66 8 


53 8 


33,387 


6\'6 


S^ 11 


58 8 


60 7 


62 6 


64 6 


66 3 


53 7 


129,924 


>5*7 


56 5 


58 - 


59 7 


61 3 


63 - 


64 9 


SI 7 


121,239 


10-5 


56 6 


68 - 


59 9 


61 6 


63 6 


65 6 


53 6 


60,498 


11*4 


56 7 


58 4 


60 I 


62 - 


63 II 


65 10 


53 5 


167,581 


9'9 


56 4 


58 2 


60 2 


62 2 


64 2 


66 2 


53 5 


40,013 


28-7 


56 I 


57 9 


59 6 


61 8 


67, 2 


65 2 


52 11 


165,656 


14-2 


5<5 1 


57 10 


59 6 


61 4 


63 4 


65 6 


52 10 


138,788 


13*5 


56 I 


57 9 


59 6 


61 4 


63 4 


66 5 


52 10 


9,940 


17*2 


SS 8 


67 6 


59 4 


61 4 


61 6 


66 9 


52 6 


77,186 


14-4 


1,036,124 



British Empire 

British Workman's 

Scottbh Provincial 

Universal 

Lancashire 

Northern 

Whittington 

Edinburgh 

Crown 

Eoyal Fanners' 

Church of England 



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184 



MiseeUcm^a, 



[Mar. 
y. Compcmie^ with a Mean 



London and Lancashire 

Provident Clerks* 

Wesleyan and General 

Clergy Mutual 

Argus 

Friends Provident 

Economic 

Scottish Provident 



9, d, 
4* - 
41 3 
43 9 
41 4 

41 " 

4Z I 
40 - 
38 6 



27. 



*. d. 

43 8 
42 7 

44 - 
42 6 

42 1 

43 - 
41 - 
39 2 



*. d. 

44 5 
43 " 

45 5 
43 10 
43 a 
43 10 
4* - 
39 " 



29. 



9. d. 

45 8 

45 2 

45 10 

45 - 

44 8 

44 9 

43 1 

40 8 



80. 



9. d. 
46 10 



4^ 
46 
4<5 
45 
45 
44 
41 



31. 



*. d. 

48 - 

47 7 

46 11 

47 6 
46 8 
46 9 
45 5 
42 6 



32. 



*. d, 

49 3 

48 10 

47 5 

48 8 
47 II 
47 9 
46 8 

43 5 



88. 



9. d 

50 8 

50 8 

50 6 

50 - 

49 8 

48 10 

48 - 

44 6 



84. 



9. d. 
5^ » 



51 9 
5» 7 
51 6 

50 7 
50 - 
49 5 
45 7 



35. 



58 
58 
52 
58 
52 
51 2 
50 11 
46 10 




H 

26 

II 
8 



9* 



£ 9.d. 

Companies with mean premiums exceeding 2 16 3 

M „ 2 15 - and not above 2^ 16«. Bd. 
„ „ 2 18 9 ,» 21. 15*. -<i. 
», „ 2 12 6 „ 2^ 13*. 9d. 
„ Hot exceeding 2 12 6 

Total 



£ 
z,4a4»8i* 
4»563»io9 
3»iH»9»o 
1,036,124 

1,014,796 



12,163,751 



VII. — Sepori of a Committee with reference to the Gemw of 1881. 

A COPT of the following Report, approved of, and adopted by 
the Conncil, has been submitted to the President of the Local 
Government Board. 

The CoMHiTTEB AppoTNTiD hy the COUNCIL of the Statistical 
SociBTT of London, wi the l^th November^ 1879, for the 
Purpose of Considbbino " Whether any Suogistions can with 
" advantage he Madk as regards Improvements in the Inquiries, 
" or Machinery, connected wUh the Census (tf 1881,** herewith 
siihmit their Report. 

It appears to the Committee that the subject referred to them 
divides itself into two branches : — 

1. The nature and form of the inquiries to be made. 

2. The form in which the information, when obtained, is ix> be 

abstracted and published. 



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1880.] Beport of a OommiUee €^h f^fe^^hce to the Cktrnts of 1881. 135 
Premium not BxeeedU^g zL iik. 6d 



*" 














MeM 




PrOportioB 






86. 


»r. 


88. 


69. ' 


40. 


4d^ 


▲nuual 


Premiam 


of 
UKpeoftefe 


















Pre- 
mium. 


Income. 


to Premiam 
Income. 






s. d. 


s. d. 


*. d. 


s, d. 


*. tf. 


^. <i?. 


•. d. 


£ 


Per cat. 






SS 2 


66 11 


58 8 


60 6 


6*4 


64 8 


5* I 


65,846 


ire 


London and Lancasliire 




55 ' 


56 10 


58 9 


60 8 


6i 8 


65 2 


51 II 


94,219 


13*9 


Provident Clerks' 




5» 7 


63 7 


56 8 


61 10 


^4 5 


66 4 


51 10 


. 18,927 


i9-i 


Wealeyan and Gtenoral 




548 


56 '6 


58 4 


60 2 


61 2 


64 - 


5^ 7 


196,517 


6-9 


Olef gy Mutual 




53 7 


55 2 


56 II 


58 8 


60 7 


62 7 


50 8 


26,475 


10*6 


ArguA 




52 5 


58 8 


55 t 


56 ^ 


58 « 


69 8 


50 "-• 


81,284 


ii*i 


Fridnd« Ph)vident 




5^6 


54 2 


55 " 


67 9 


59 9 


61 10 


49 >! 


227,281 


8-6 


Eoonomic 




48 a 


49 8 


5« 3 


52 11 


54 9 


56 8 


46 - 


824,297 


10*9 


Scottish Provident 




1,024,796 





As the Censns Bills will be soon laid before Parliament) and l^e 
opiAiolU of the Gonii6il on the former branch should be stibmitted 
withont delay to the Government, the Oommittee hare deemed it 
desirable to oonfine their attention, in the first instance^ to that 
branch, and to such points in the second brandi as ard necessarily 
Connected with it, and to reserve iAiQVt suggestions on the latter for 
a future report. 

The Committed are of opinion i^^ 

1. That the results of the Census shdnld be presented to the 
public, not^ as hitherto, in the form only of separate reports 6n the 
three divisions of the United Elingdom, but in a general report oil 
the whole Kingdom, iKdth tables exhibiting the more important 
facts rekkting to ihe whole collectively. At the same time it is 
desirable not to dispense 'with the separate reports hitherto pub^ 
lished. 

2. That the same information should be obtained, and iDonse^ 
quently the sane form of inquiries should be adopted, throughout 
the whole Eohgdom^ including the Isle of Man and the Channel 
Islands* 

The reasots for these reoomm^ndatiDns ore — ^That the past 
arrangement makes it difficult for all but statistical adepts to ascer- 
tain the leading facts relating to the population of the United 
Kingdom at one view^ while the difficulty fwr adepts is greatly 
increased by the necessity and consequent expense of procuring 
thjree series of costly volumes ; or is even trendered insuperable by 
the results being so classified in the three separate reports, and the 
annexed tables, as to make it impossible to combine them in a form 
applicable to the whole of the Kingdom^ 

8. That the occasion oi each recurring ^nsud shall be taken by 
the Grovernment to require from all public departments under its 
control who are charged with the supervision of any branch of the 
national life, special reports, in as. much detail as will be practic- 
able and useful, at the date, or as near as convenient to the date, 
of the General Census. 

As examples 4f tiie iaten^on of the Coijamittee» they woidd 4ite 



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136 MiseeUanea, [Mar. 

the Edacation Committee of the Privy Conncil, who can snpplj the 
statistics of edncation, and render it nnnecessary to make inquiries 
on this subject in the Householder's Schedule. The Local Gt>yem- 
ment Board can supply detailed returns regarding pauperism, to 
which the Commissioners of Charities can add further valuable 
information. Beports from the Commissioners of Prisons and 
Lunacy will throw light upon the subjects of crime and disease. 
The Board of Trade can supply the agricultural returns in more 
detail than usual; while the Inspectors of Factories and Mines 
might furnish returns bearing upon the industrial condition of the 
population. 

The Committee, although deeply impressed with the import- 
ance of obtaining an Industrial Census of the Kingdom, have hesi- 
tated to recommend it on this occasion, looking to the careful preli- 
minary consideration which must be given to the details of the 
arrangements for its prosecution, and also to the additionaf expense 
which its preparation would entail ; but they desire to record their 
conviction that it is desirable that before the next following 
Census, steps should be taken to combine such a census with the 
general enumeration of that year. 

In the meantime the Government may be able, from the sources 
above indicated, and perhaps from large public companies having 
the management of railways, docks, &o,^ &c., to procure a series of 
returns, which, when brought together in an Appendix to the 
General Census Report, will form a very important and valuable 
addition to that document. 

4. That it is desirable, for a variety of purposes, connected with 
the growth and movement of the population, the provision of 
sanitary arrangements, and the testing of the conclusions drawn 
from the periodical returns of births, deaths, and marriages, that a 
census should be taken every five, instead of every ten, years. 

If the labour and expense of such a census in the same form as 
that adopted for the Decennial Census should be deemed too great, 
the Committee recommend that a nominal census only should be 
taken, which would show the number of houses, and the number 
and ages of the population. This, the Committee have reason to 
believe, could be carried out, and its results could be abstracted 
and published, at a small cost. 

The Committee are satisfied that if a census were taken more 
frequently, a machinery might be organised which would tend to 
the enumeration being more accurately and more completely taken 
on each occasion, and to the abstracts being more rapidly given to 
the public. 

They would call attention to the fact, that although the several 
preliminary reports of the Census of 1871, taken on the 3rd April, 
were furnished in the following June, the final reports, with the 
detailed tables, were dated aa follows : — 

For England and Wales 30th July, 1873. 

„ Scotland Ist May, 74. 

„ Ireland 29th Sept., 75. 

Several causes appear to have contributed to the delay in the 

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1880.] Beport of a Oommiitee with reference to the Census of 1881. 137 

presentation of the Irish Beport, some of which will be obviated 
on the approaching occasion, and the Committee will, in their next 
report, recommend a change in the form of the Abstract Returns 
which will greatij expedite the work. 

With these preliminary general observations, the Committee 
submit the following Recommendations to the Council, with the 
suggestion that, if adopted, they should be forwarded without delay 
to the President of the Local Government Board, together with a 
copy of this report, both in print, for the convenience of perusal 
and reference : — 

Recorrnnendations. 

1. That vdth a view to a General Beport upon the population of 

the United Kingdom, to be prepared under such authority 
as Her Majesty's Government and the Legislature may 
decide, the same form of Householder's Schedule should he 
adopted throughout the whole Kingdom. 

2. That the Census of 1881 should embrace all the information 

obtained on the laat occasion, vdth the additions hereinafter 
suggested. 

3. That in accordance with previous recommendations, and in 

agreement with the Census of Ireland, and of most of the 
British Colonies, including the most important, in 1871, 
the religions profession of each inhabitant should be 
obtained by the insertion of a column for that purpose in 
the Householder's Schedule. 

Note. — ^The Committee object to its being left optional 
to persons to fill up this column, and to any limitation of 
the heads under which they should describe themselves. 

4. That in continuance of the inquiry snccessfully made in 

Scotland in 1861 and 1871, information should bo obtained 
thence, and for the other divisions of the United Kingdom, 
as to the house accommodation, i.e., as to the number of 
rooms in each dwelling house. 

Note. — The density of the population in a district is 
determined by the namber of inhabitants in a given space, 
but the number of inhabitants which any locality can 
accommodate with due regard to sanitary laws is resolved 
by the number of houses used for habitation, and the 
accommodation those houses afford. Thus from either 
the greater housing capacity of the buildings, or the greater 
proportion of inhabitable dwellings, one district can with 
security to health possess a greater density of population 
than another. A return of the number of rooms in each 
house, and an enumeration likewise of the dwellings used 
for habitation, are requisite for the proper consideration of 
the subject. 

t>. That "dwelling" houses designed for habitation should be 
distinguished from those designed for other purposes, such 
as stores, warehouses, school houses, factories, offices and 
chambers, <&^. 

6. That dwelling houses not in actual occupation, and '* being 



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138 Miscellaned. [Hat. 

" to let," should be difttingtliflh^d and feltedidfed feej>atately 
in the abstracts. 

NOTB.-^The difititoctiott hithettb adoj)tfei ^girding hotides 
has been between inhabited and nninhabited houses, and 
houses building. If the above two suggestians be adopted, 
houses will be divided into :-^ 

Dweiling-houses — inhabited. 

„ not inhabited. 

„ of which "to let." 

„ building. 

Other builditgA. 

7. That the headings of the last column Ibut one oi tte House- 

holder's Schedule, for i-^cording the place " where bom,*' be 
changed as follows, with the double object of adapting the 
schedule to the whole of the Elingdom, and o^ eliciting the 
birthplace of all British bom persons, instead of confimng 
it to those bom in the same division of the Kingdom, as 
at present. 

PROPOftSD Form. 
Where Bofn. 

Opposite the names of those bom in the United Kingdom, write 
the county, and town or parish. 

If bom out of the United Kingdom, write the particular State 
or country. 

The Committee do not attach much value to the addition made 
in the original schedule, viz. : — " And if also a British subject, add, 
" * British subject,* or * naturalised British subject,' as the case 
*' may be ; '* but to meet the case of the children of British parents 
bom abroad, they would suggest the addition of the words, *' If of 
" * British parents,' add those words." 

8. That steps be taken to ascertain from What departments of the 

Government, and from what public bodies, such reports 
as have been suggested in the first part of this report 
should be obtained^ and that timely measures b^ taken to 
obtain them. 

9. That in the instructions wit^ regard to filling up the cohimn 

of Employments, care be taken to remove, as far as prac- 
ticable, the difficulties which experience has pointed out as 
hindering an exact definition and classification of the 
occupations of the population. 

10. That in making arrangements for the Census of 1881, they 

should be framed with the prospect of a simili^, or an 
intermediate partial, Census in 1886. 

11. That for the promotion of municipal and sanitary objects, 

of works of construction and production, and for other 
useful purposes, means should be afibrded to the public of 
obtaining, at a reasonable charge, more detailed information 
regarding any locality than it is necessary or eonvenient 
to supply in the gen^raJ tables* 



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1880.] Notes on EcononUcal ^nd Statistical Works. 139 

NoTB. — The Committee apprehend that the central 
anthorities, by whom the Cenans is made and its results 
are abstraoteo, must confine the abstracts to fixed and 
recognised bonndaries, and that any variation from these 
can only be designed by persons possessing local informa- 
tion, and with a definite object in each case. The existence 
of some permanent census machinery in connection with 
the General Census Office, would facilitate the preparation 
of such returns, as well as of those which the legislature 
and the executive would, doubtless often, desire to obtain, 
if the means of absti-acting them were in existence. 

The Committee conclude this Report with the remark that the 
first six of the above Recommendations and the ninth and tenth 
are in substantial agreement with the Resolutions of the Council of 
" The National Association for the Promotion of Social Science," 
which have already been brought to the notice of the Government. 

RA.WS0IC W. RaW80N> 

Ohairman* 
Statistical Socistt of Loimolr, 
7th February, 1880. 



YlU.-^Notes «n Econofnieal and BtoHstiodl Works. 

La Tra/nsformation des Moyens de Transpmi e^ ses consequences 
^eOnomiques et sooiales. Pl»r Alfred de Foville, Chef de Bureau au 
Minist^re des Finances, (fee. (Ouvrage conronn^ par TAcademie 
des Sciences Morales et Folitiques.) Paris, Guillaumin et Cie., 
1880. 

This able and interesting volume deals with a branch of what 
may be termed social physiology. It treats of the development 
and functions of means of communication. M. de Foville com- 
mences by laying down the proposition that movement is as 
essential to the life of a people as to that of an animal or a plant ; 
and that according as the internal movement of a community is or 
is not highly devdoped, the people composing it may be considered 
as advanced or behindhand in civilisation. The cause of this 
movement occurring in society is the necessity for exchange, both of 
manufactured commodities and raw produce, and the equal or greater 
necessity of rapid personal movement. And the need for the 
exchange of these arises from the great differences in the products of 
different parts of the globe, and in the characters of the men who 
dwell in them. This process of interchange is the basis of modem 
life, and " just as in the animal world, the degree of perfection of 
each species is measured by the development of the apparatus of 
circulation, in like manner the degree of civilisation of each people 
may be measured by the importance, efficiency, and value of its 
channels and means of communication." With this view of the 
subject constantly before him, M. de Foville has carefully investi* 
gated, first, the general development of meant of communication, 



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140 Miscellanea. [Mar. 

and next, the economic, moral, political, and other social effects 
that have been produced by, or which have at all events appeared 
simnltaDeonsly with, the snccessive stages of this development. 
The book is pre-eminently, bnt by no means exclnsively, a book 
about railways. The means by which the internal movements of 
society were formerly effected have long since either succumbed 
altogether, or have taken a new lease of life as assistants and 
feeders to their conqueror. ** The principal peoples of Europe have 
completed their main systems, and are only occupied in increasing 
their ramifications." But the steamship, the canal, the electric 
telegraph, and the tramway also receive the notice due to them. 
The first part of the volume treats of the direct results of the 
application of steam and electricity to the purposes of man. By 
the direct results are meant not so mucn the actual physical 
results, such as the existence of so many miles of railway in the 
various countries, and of so much steam tonnage in their merchant 
marines, but two general results, namely, the increase of speed 
and diminution of cost. M. de Foville begins by endeavouring to 
obtain an idea of the rapidity and cost of movement before the 
introduction of railways. The data for this investigation are not 
extensive, but he gives some very interesting facts r^arding this 
part of the subject, in so far as it concerns France, in which 
country locomotion was for a long time slower than elsewhere. 
The tables relative to the speed attained on various railways in 
different countries contain little that is novel, and it is the 
question of cost on which the author has bestowed most pains. 
Concerning the cost of travelling in the last century, M. de Foville 
quotes from a guide book published in 1775, which is now rarely 
met with. This curious work gives detailed estimates of all the 
expenses of travelling in most of the countries of Europe. Th0 
writer's notions of expense are those of a wealthy man, as may be 
seen from the fact that he proposed to spend 340 frs. in England, 
and 300 frs. in France per diem. The last official regulation affecting 
post horses in France was issued in 1840. Previous to the introduc- 
tion of railways, M. de Foville estimates the mean cost of locomotion 
at 1 4 centimes per kilometre ; the cost of travelling by rail, even as 
early as 1835, was about 8 centimes per kilometre. Since then, in 
consequence of successive changes in the tariff, the mean cost has 
fallen to 5*19 centimes. These amounts relate to passengers. The 
saving as compared with the earlier modes of travelling is thns 
about 55 per cent. M. de Foville does not overlook the fact of 
the great expense of laying down railways. He gives a table, 
showing the cost, per kilometre, of railways in various countries in 
1858 to 1875. That cost is still much higher in England than any- 
where else, but the cost has risen a good deal on the continent 
during the period referred to. M. de Foville then examines the 
tariffs of countries other than France. In England he finds the rates 
rather higher than in France, not apparently making allowance for 
rebates and other reductions, which very materially diminish the 
actual cost of carriage here. The saving in the cost of travelling 
effected by the introduction of steam was much greater here than 
elsewhere, because the cost of titivelling was much higher in 



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1880.] Notes on Economical and Statistical Worlcs, 141 

England before that event. Belgium appears to have tried several 
experiments in tariffs, without any very satisfactory result. As 
regards the carriage of merchandise, M. de Foville estimates the 
saving consequent on the employment of steam at about 75 per 
cent, per ton kilometre. This calculation is probably correct as 
regards France, though the taxes and some other charges are not 
included in it, on the ground that they are a set off against similar 
taxes on the older modes of transport, and also that the use of the 
roads was practically gratuitous. As a curiosity among the tariffs 
in force in other countries, M. de Foville cites those on some of 
the wheat carrying lines of the United States in 1878-79, when 
competition had driven them down to rates which were equivalent 
to a charge of 1*2 centimes per ton kilometre. He quotes the opinion 
of several able French engineers, that the railway tariffs can hardly 
go lower, and are very likely to rise in future. The grounds of this 
opinion are the tendency of wages to rise; butM. de Foville thinks 
that this cause of increased cost naay be neutralised by improve- 
ments in the working of the lines, and by judicious developments of 
the traffic. In speaking of the increased security of modem 
travelling, the author points to the defective information supplied 
as to accidents affecting servants of the companies, and hints that 
it would be well to imitate England in this matter. In France 
there has been, it seems, no account of the accidents to i*ailway 
servants published for any year later than 1869. Turning from 
railways to roads, M. de Foville remarks that these latter have by 
no means been rendered useless by the spread of railways, but have 
on the contrary increased steadily in length, besides having more 
spent on them per kilometre. Their function is chiefly to feed the 
railways, and consequently roads which cross the general direction 
of a railway system, have gained in importance at the expense of 
those parallel to it. The author here entei*s on an interesting 
mathematical investigation of the attraction exercised by a railway 
connecting two important centres. By the aid of a little elementary 
geometrical conies, M. de Foville is able to show that the " zone of 
attraction " of the two terminal stations will be respectively the 
two branches of a hyperbola, which has the two stations for its foci, 
and the middle point of the line joining them for its centre. There 
is a good deal that is interesting and valuable in those portions of 
the work which are devoted to canals, and to the ocean highway. 
The " indirect " effects of the improved modes of locomotion are 
treated in as systematic a manner as the " direct '' effects of the 
employment of steam. We need not speak of them at length, 
however, as they are a portion of the subject matter of works on 
the general progress of civilisation. The principal effect dwelt on 
by M. de Foville is the unification of prices, and he gives some 
rather striking instances of the differences in the price of wheat 
which existed even as late as 1847, in which year there was a 
difference of 20 frs. between the market prices in two departments 
of France per hectolitre of wheat. The author remarks that the 
improvement in our means of communication, both by land and sea, 
has practically resulted in rendering famine an impossibility in the 
civilised world. Among the minor economio effects, he mentions 



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142 MiseeUanea. [Mar. 

the tendency to concentrate retail business, and thus kill ont the 
smaller traders. In conclusion, we are glad to find that 
M. de Foville takes a hopeful view of the prospects of free trade 
in France. 

A History of the Precimis Metcds, from the Earliest Times to the 
Present. By Alexander Del Mar, IJ. S., formerlj Director of the 
Bureau of Statistics of the United States ; Member of the United 
States Monetary Commission of 1876. (George Bell and Sons, 
1880.) 

Mr. Del Mar's work is intended as a successor to that of 
Mr. William Jacob. Mr. Jacob's book may fairly be considered 
out of date, considering the immense increase in the production of 
the precious metals that has occurred since he wrote. Besides this, 
Mr. Del Mar is able to show that, with all his ability and care, 
Mr. Jacob fell into more than one serious error, particularly in 
underestimating the productiveness of Brazil. These deficiencies 
are noted in the preface to Mr. Del Mar's book. Speaking of the 
work of his predecessor, our author says, " It fails to mark the 
significant agency of conquest and slavery in the production of gold 
and silver ; it is vitiated throughout by unsafe calculations of the 
world's stock of these metals in ancient and mediceval times; it 
affords no information of the very considerable movement from 
Japan to Euro^ during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ; it 
scarcely mentions, and thus underrates the importance of the 
Brazilian placers which have yielded to the world nearly 200 million 
pounds sterling of gold ; it contains no connected history, indeed, 
but little mention, of the ratio of value between gold and silver ; 
and it omits all reference to the devastation of the earth, and the 
social mischiefs entailed upon mining countries 1^ the search for 
these metals." On all points except the last, Mr. Del Mar seems to 
have made out his case, but his remarks about the moral and 
material mischief produced by gold and silver mining are too 
sweeping. That, however, is a minor point, and does not detract 
from the merit of the book as a comprehensive treatise on the 
history of the precious metals. Mr. Del Mar, while objecting to the 
vague and unsatisfactory guesses of Mr. Jacob, as to the amounts 
of gold and silver existing in early periods, refuses to attempt to 
give an estimate himself. As regards Brazil, he calculates the gold 
production of that country up to 1870 at 180 million pounds. 

Economic Studies, By the late Walter Bagehot. Edited by 
Bichard Holt Hutton. (Longmans, Green, and Co., 1880.) 

This volume contains the incomplete fragments of a work which 
Mr. Bagehot had intended to write, but was unable to finish, unfor- 
tunately for the world. The main point we notice in this exceed- 
ingly interesting book is its logical connection with the anther's 
" Physics and Politics," a work in which he shows how one great 
" peculiarity of this age," the " sudden acquisition of much 
physical knowledge," has operated to modify the notions formerly 
held on politics and political economy. As regards the latter the 
extension of our knowledge of the conditions of life in various 
countries and at various periods^ gave rise to the historical school 
of economists, who deny that there are any laws of economics at all. 



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1880.] Notes on AddUions to the Library. 143 

Hr. Bageliot held that the older eoonomistB were not wrong in 
their views of the economic conditions of modem England, but 
that the historic school were sound in their opposition to the 
attempts of later writers of the " orthodox *' school to apply these 
yiews to all countries and all periods. He also held that aa other 
conntries advance in wealth and civilisation, the extent of the 
applicability of the general doctrines inculcated by Ricardo and 
Mill will increase. The phenomena of *' business" will be the 
same wherever "business" is done, and the theories which are 
true or almost true in England, the land of ** business," will 
become true in other countries in time. Briefly, then, Mr. Bage- 
hot ma^ be said to have gone far on the road to reconciling the 
conflicting claims of " orthodox and historical " economics, for 
which alone he would have deserved the gratitude of all who per- 
ceived the logical need for such a reconciliation in the interests of 
economic science itself. Their thanks are also due to Mr. Hntton, 
Mr. Bagehot's intimate friend, to whose careful and patient labour 
they are indebted for the arrangement of the papers which are 
here published* The latter were at the untimely death of their 
author, in some oon^ion, to which the mind that bad produced 
them alone had the key, and Mr. Hutton's self-imposed task was 
consequently ViQi altogether an easy one^ 



IX. — Notes on some of the Additions to the Library^ 

Annwiire Statistique de la Norvege. Premiere AnnSe^ 1879. 
£labor6 dans le Bureau Central de Statistique. Kristiania, 1879* 

The Norwegian Statistical Office have decided to pubbsh an 
annual volume containing a resume of the more important 
statistical information which is obtained in that kingdom each 
year. This, the first volume of the kind, is necessarily somewhat 
imperfect. Apparently, it is intended that it should be, to a large 
extent, modelled on the Statistical Abstract of the Board of Trade. 
In all cases where the figures were obtainable they are given for a 
series of years, and in nearly every case those for two or three 
years are supplied. The returns are brought down to 1878 as 
regards the population, national finances, imports and exports, 
bsmking, and in some other instances. The difficulty of producing 
the first volume of such a work is much greater than that of 
issuing those subsequent to it, and its value for practical purposes 
cannot be overestimated. 

BesuUadojB Oenerales del Genso de la Tohlacion de 'Espana segun 
el empadionamiento hecho enSl de Diciem^e, 1877. Por la Direc^ 
cion General del Institute Geografico y Estadistico. Madrid, 1879. 

The returns of the Spanish Census, taken on 81st December, 
1877, show that the actual residents in Spain at that date numbered 
16,625,860 persons. There were also 565,554 persons returned as 
" absent," of whom the great majority were Spanish subjects, the 
remainder, 1,088, being foreigners. The returns a,re given by 



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144 Miscellanea, [Mar. 

provinces and districts, the most popnlons province being Barcelona, 
with 835,306 persons, and that with the least population being Alava, 
with 93,191. As the information contained in this volume is con- 
fined to a statement of the number of persons, male and female, 
who were resident in Spain at the date of the census, there is 
nothing further of interest to say regarding it. Apparently the 
Spanish authorities are of the same opinion, for the remarks of 
the Count of Toreno, who signs the introduction, are very meagre. 
It appears that since 1860, when the last census previous to this 
was taken, there has been an increase of population amounting to 
952,324 persons, or about 6 per cent. 

8toria e teoria generals della Statistica del Dr. Antonio Gabaglio, 
Professore di Statistica nel R. Institute Tecnico e Incaricato di tale 
insegnamento nella R. Universita di Pavia. Con nove tavole 
miniate. Ulrico Hoepli. Ulilavo, 1880. 

We had occasion to notice, in the Journal of the Society for 
March, 1878, the able and lucid work of M. Maurice Block, 
entitled TraitS ThSorique et Pratique de Statistique, and in that 
for December, 1877, we commented on the profound volume by 
Dr. Mayr on Die Oesetzmdssigkeit im QeselUchaftsleben, We have 
now to record the appearance of another volume on the same 
subject — the work of Dr. Antonio Gabaglio, the Professor of Sta- 
tistics in the University of Pavia. Of all the books on the scientific 
theory of statistics with which we are acquainted, this of Dr. Gubaglio 
is the most exhaustive, and, on the whole, the most satisfactory. 
This assertion is not intended as any disparagement of the works 
of Dr. Mayr and M. Block, for the purpose of each of these two 
writers was different from that or Dr. Gabaglio. The three 
authors agree to a very large extent in their conception of the 
nature of statistics, and in their modes of expounding it ; but 
Dr. Mayr, when he wrote Die Gesetzmdssigkeit im QeselUchaftslehen 
addressed an audience presumably unacquainted with the subject. 
He furnished a manual of statistics for the use of that large and 
increasing body of intelligent persons who desire to possess a 
general conception of the principles of science in general, and of 
the nature and methods 01 the particular sciences. Accordingly 
Dr. Mayr described with unrivalled skill the nature of statistics 
and its relation to the sociological sciences, and gave a rSsumd of 
the more general results that have been arrived at by means of 
statistics. On the other hand, M. Block applied himself to the 
historical and practical sides of statistical inquiry, and paid great 
attention to setting forth the results of his own valuable experience 
as bearing on the problems presented to the officials of statistical 
departments. The theoretical aspect of statistics received only a 
general, and not always a sound, treatment at his hands. The 
treatise of Dr. Gabaglio is a complete analysis of the theory of sta- 
tistics, and a complete historical account of their rise and progress, 
so far as such an account was needful for his purpose. The first 
third of the volume deals with this latter subject. It is divided 
into chapters, of which the first two, extending over about forty 
pages, contain such information as is available regarding what, by 
courtesy, is called " statistics in antiquity and in the middle ages." 



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1880.] Notes on Additions to the Library. 145 

We tlien have a chapter whicli carries the histoiy of statistics down 
to Qu^telet, and in which the work of the various contributors to 
the advancement of statistics is touched on briefly. The remaining 
five chapters of the first part are devoted to an account of the work 
done in Belgium, France, Germany, England, and Italy, since 
Qu^let, by the publication of his famous "Letters,'* gave to sta- 
tistics the status of a branch of scientific knowledge. The special 
views of each writer in each country are briefly described, and this 
portion of the work therefore forms a valuable epitome of the views 
of the chief statistical authorities of Europe, on those first prin- 
ciples of statistics regarding which ihere is more or less difference 
of opinion among those competent to form a judgment. That 
Germany obtains the lion's share of the space devoted to this 
historical inquiry is natural, and we can hardly blame an Italian 
for giving rather more space to his own country than the number 
of eminent Italian statisticians would perhaps warrant. But cer- 
tainly England has no right to grumble at the small amount of 
space allotted to her, for hitherto, unhappily, English works on the 
theory of statistics have resembled the too famous " snakes of 
Norway " — there have been none. Dr. Gabaglio generously endea- 
vours to make out a case for us by mentioning the names of John 
Stuart Mill and Buckle, as well as that of Porter. But though 
Porter was a great practical statist, he was not strong as regards 
theory, and neither Mill nor Buckle devoted their ab&ties to sta- 
tistics, except in a purely incidental way. It is true there are 
passages in Mill's works, particularly in his remarkable essay On 
the D^inition a/nd Method of Political Economy, as well as in the 
concluding chapters of the Logic, which bear on the theory of sta- 
tistics, but we doubt whether the writer realised the full scope of 
the remarks in question. And as to Buckle, his great work is 
statistical only in the sense in which that of Achenwall and the 
older " descriptive " school receives the title. Nevertheless, there 
are passages in the History of OimUsation which show that a dim 
conception of the function of statistics was present to the mind of 
this author also. The second part of Dr. Gubaglio's work is 
nominally divided into six chapters, but Chapter V, "On the 
Method of Statistics " occupies by far the greater part of it. The 
first chapter, after dealing briefly with the etymology of the word 
" statistics," discusses various definitions that have been proposed 
for it, and in particular criticises the distinction proposed to be 
drawn by several of the German writers between Stalistik and 
Btaatenkunde, between the " theory of statistics," and the " statistics 
of a State" Dr. Grabaglio considers this nomenclature objectionable 
on more grounds than one, and we agree with him. He proceeds 
to consider the defects of the definitions offered by the various 
authors whose views are stated in Chapters IV to VIII of Part I. 
The criticisms are generally sound, but we do not think that 
Dr. Gkibaglio altogetiber does justice to M. Block, in saying that 
his definition " represents statistic as a simple description of the 
actual state, which makes no use of numbers, and does not trouble 
about laws." M. Block expressly says at the commencement of 
his " partie th^rique" that statistic, as a science, is identical with 

VOL. XLin. PAST I. L 



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146 Miicdlanea. [Mar; 

" demograpliy,*'and he elsewhere define* demog^phy as " la science 
de rhomme yivant en soci^, en tant qu'elle pent etre exprim6e 
par lea ohiffres," which is really nofc bad as a mere deaoription of 
this branch of knowledge. Dr. (jabaglio^s charge is rather too 
sweeping therefore, but we admit that there is a certain want of 
accuracy and rigidity about the theoretical portion of M. Block's 
work which cannot but be displeasing to so close a reasoner as 
Dr. Gtibaglio. As we hare alr^dy said, M. Block is less a master 
of theoretical than of practical statistics. When we come to our 
author's own definition, we find that according to it the science of 
statistics (statistica come scienza) is ^Hhe study of the actual 
social-political order by means of mathematical induction.'' Against 
this definition we have little to say. It is perhaps rather better 
than Engel's, and is certainly preferable to Mayr's, both of which 
make statistics intrude, to some extent, on the sphere of general 
sociology, but the view taken by all three authorities is essentially 
the same. We are rather inclined to take exoeption to the t^m 
^ mathematical induction " (induzione matematica), as equivalent 
to what the Glermans call '* Massenbeobachtung," which excellent 
w(M:d may be translated "aggregate observation. " The phrase 
" mathematical induction " does not indicate with sufficient clear* 
ness the processes which are intended to be denoted by it. There 
is an additional objection to its use, that this phrase is already 
appropriated to a procedure of mathematics proper, namely, the 
artifice by which the laws of permutations and combinations, to 
take a simple instance, are demonstrated, in which we show that if a 
certain law empirically assumed for a series of terms, holds when a 
particular number of the terms is taken, it will also hold when that 
number is increased by one. On the other hand, the term *' aggre- 
gate observation" or " Massenbeobachtung,'' or '* osservazione 
coUetiiva," thoroughly expresses the nature of the characteristic 
process of statistics. In Chapters II and III the author defines the 
limits of statistics, and its relations with the other social sciences, 
such as economics, politics, "social physiology," " social psychology," 
and history, as well as with jurisprudence. Here we think that 
Dr. G«bagJio fails to deal satisfactorily with the subject, on grounds 
which we can for the present only indicate. It seems to us Ainda- 
mentally eironeous to set up statistics as an independent social 
science, the proper conception being that statistics is essentially a 
method applicable to all sciences alike, but pre-eminently to the social 
sciences. W hen applied to sociology the function of statistics is to 
extricate and render perceptible the facts relating to communities 
of human beings ; the facts themselves, when thus made perceptible^ 
must be dealt with by the scienoes under which they come. This 
is very nearly, thougn not quite, coincident with M. Block's view. 
Chapter Y, the most important of all, treats of the method of 
statistics. Dr. GUkbaglio commences with a dissertation on scientific 
method in general. The phenomena of society are produced by 
causes, some of which are constant and some variable. Phenomena 
of this class may be investigated in three ways. First, by " obserw 
vation of external psychical activity associated with observation of 
internal observation." (From the context, ihiM rather obscore 



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1880."] AddiHofiB to the Idbrary. 147 

sentence appears to mean " by observation of the external manifes- 
tations in others of psychical processes, coupled with observation 
of the processes of one's own mind." Second, by " historical 
observation*' (the historical method). Third, by "collective, or 
mass, observation." At this point Dr. Gabaglio inserts his state- 
ment of the difference between the method of statistics and mathe- 
matics. Mathematics deal with abstract quantity, while the objects 
of statistical investigation are not abstract quantities, but " facts 
translated into concrete quantities." The method is applicable to 
all the sciences. We work by aid of the statistical metlwd when 
we investigate the climates of countries, and the meteorological 
phenomena which affect them. We employ the statistical science 
when we apply the results of these investigations to explain the 
phenomena of mortality, or investigate the influence of the prices 
of the chief means of subsistence on the number of marriages or of 
crimes. Dr. Ghkbaglio treats exhaustively, with the aid of simple 
mathematical formulsa, of all the forms of statistics. He uses the 
method of least squares for determining probable values whenever 
it is possible, and he concludes by giving a full description of the 
nature and use of diagrams, and of the useful method of graphic 
representation. Taken as a whole, this volume is the most complete 
work on statistics which has, as far as we know, appeared in any 
language, and to students of this important branch of knowledge 
its value cannot but be great. 



X. — Additions to the Library during the Quarter, 
Additions to the Librari/ during the Quarter ended Zlst Marcky 1880. 



DOMtiOM.. 



By w1k» PrMtnttd. 



Austria and Hungary — 

Statistisches Jahrbuoh des E. K. Ackerban-ministe-' 
riums j 3*« Hefte, 2« Liefenmg ; Bergieerks-Betrieb 
Oesterreiohs im Jahre 1878. 128 pp., 8yo. Wijsn, 
1879 

StatistiBches Jahrbuch, f£ir 1878. Hefte 9 and 11. 
Imp. 8vo. Wien, 1879 

Stotifltiachefl Jahrbuoh fiir Ungam, 1877, 7*' Jahrgang. 
Hefte 1—3, 6—10, und 11. Imp. 8to. Budapest, 
1880 



Imperial Central Sta- 
tistical Oommis- 



Boyal Statistical 
Bureau 



Belgixun — 
Bulletin hebdomadaire de Statistique D^ograrohiqueT -r>^ t« . ««- •p^,^ 
et Medicale. Ann6e xi, Nos. 1 et 2, efc 8, 9, efc 10. \ ^'- Jaww"". ^^^' 
8vo. Bruxelles J ®®" 

Oliina — 
Imperial Maritime Customs — 
I. Statittical aeries. No. 2. Customs Gasette,! B. Hart, Bsq., In- 
Ko. 43, Jolj — September, 1879. 4to. Shanghai J spector-Q^iMral 

Boyal Asiatic Society, North China Branch, Journal 1 
of the. New Series, No. 13. Plates, 8to. Shanghai, > The Society 
1879 „ J 

l2 



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14S 



MUeeUanea* 
Donations — Contd. 



[Mar. 



Donatioiii. 



Bj vkon ProMBtod. 



Denmark — 
NatdonalOkonomisk Tidsskrift, Bind 15, Hofte 1 og 2. 

8vo. Kj6benliftTn, 1880 

SiatiHuk Tahelvmrh, 4* RtBkke— 
litra C. Nr. 2. Det besaaede Anal og UdsflBden den' 
17*» Jtili, 1876. (Superfide enw 

meno^ ftc) 4to 

litis D. Nr.2. Yare-Indfdnelen oe Udfdnden, 
Handel8-Flaaden,slib0farteD aamt 
Bnenderins Froduktionen, &c., i 
aaret, 1878. (Commerce, Nariga- 
tion, &o.) 4U>. KjObenhaTn, 
1879 



Danish Political Eco- 
nomy Society 



Statistical Bureau of 
DenmariL 



Miniature dee Finances. Bulletin de Statistiqne et de 
legislation comport, 8* ann^, Becembre, 1879, 
4* ann^ Janrier, 1880. 8to. Paris 



;del 

>, et !> M. 1. de 



Forilla 



B^me Bibliographiqne UniTerselle— 
Partie litteraire, tome xxtI, No. 6, Becembre; et' 

tome xxriii, Nos. 1 — 8, Jan. — Mar 

„ Technique, tome zxrii, No. 12, Deoembre, 
et tome xzx, No. 8, Mars, 1880. 8to. 

Paris, 1879-80 

Soci^t^ de Statistiqne de Paris, Journal de la,' 
zxi« ann^. 1880. Nos. 1—^, Jan. — Mar. Imp. 
8to. Paris 



The Editor 



> The Society 



Qermany — 

Monatshefte zur Statistik des Deutschen Beichs.' 

Band xxxvii, Hefte 11 und 12 (Not.— Dez., 1879) ; 

nnd Band xliii. Heft 1 (Jan., 1880). 4to. Berlin 
Statistisches Jahrbuch fOr das Deutsche Beich, 1'' 

Jahrgang, 1880. 8to. Berlin 

BsBLiir. YerOffentlichungen des Statistischen Bureau's^ 

der Stadt ; Bheschliessungen, Gkburten, Sterbefalle 

nnd Witterung. Nos. 60—66, 1879 j und 1—10, 

1880. 4to ^ 

Hambubo. Neuee Handels-Archiy; Jahrgang 1879. ' 

8to. 1880 ^ 

Sazokt. Zeitschrift des K. S&chsischen Statistischen 

Bureau's, Jahrgang 25, Hefte 1 und 2. 4to. 

Dresden, 1879 

PBI788IA. Preussische Statistik, B&nde 49, 60, 51, 52.^^ 
Folio. Berlin, 1879 

Zeitschrift des K5niglich Preussischen Statistischen 
Bureau's, 19«' J^irgang, Hefte 8 und 4, Juli— 
Dezember, 1879. Folio. Berlin 



Italy— 

Notizie e Studi sulla Agricoltura, 1877. xri and' 

1130 pp., imp. 8to. Boma, 1879 

Annali cU Agncoltura, 1879, Nos. 15 e 19 (Pte 1>) ; 

e 1880, No. 28. 8to. Roma 

Annali dell' Industria e del Commercio, 1879. No. 11 ; 

el880,Nos. 10— 18. 8to. Roma, 1879-80 

Annali di Statistica. Serie 2*, toI. 10, 1879 ; ctoL 11, 

1880. Diagrams. 8to. Boma 



Imperial Statistical 
Office 



Statistical Bureau of 
Berlin 

Chamber of Com- 
merce, Hamburg 

Royal Statistical 
Bureau of Saxony 



Royal Statistical 
Bureau of Pmssia 



Directorate-General 
of Statistics ; 

Ministry of Agricul- 
ture, Industry, and 
Commerce 



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1880.] 



AddUiont to the Librcury. 
Donation* — Contd. 



140 



DoMtioiif. 



By wImmd PnMiited. 



Italy— Con^i. 
De raasistanoe Publiqne et des ^blissementB de charity 

et Iiutitutions pieiises en Nonr^ (£xpo8^ pour 

la Stat. Internationale). 120 pp. 8yo. Borne, 

1880 

Atti Pariamentari. Sesdone del 1878-79. Camera dei 

Deputati, No. 190a 

Biforma della legge elettorale Politioa del 17 Dicem- 

bre,1860. Relazione della Oommisnone. 147 pp. 4to. 

Boma 

Bflanci Oomunali, anno xyi, 1878. Imp. 8to. Boma .... 
BoUettino Settimanale dei Frezzi di Aicuni del prinoi- 

pali Prodotti Agrari. Anno 1879. Nob. 48 — 52 ; 

e anno 1880, Noe. 1 — 8. Imp. 8yo. Boma 

BoUettino Mensile delle Sitnazioni dei Oonti deg^ 

Istituti d'Emissione. Anno i, Noe. 9 — 11, Sett — 

Dee., 1879. Imp. 8to. Boma 

BoUettino Bimeetrale deUe Sitnazioni dei ContL 

Anno z, Nos. 4 e 5, Ag.— Ott., 1879. Imp. 8to. 

Boma 

BoUettino Bimeetrale del Bieparmio, Anno 4, No. 5, 

Ott. Imp.STO. Boma, 1879 

BoUettino di Notizie OommerciaU. Nos. 26 — 29, 

1879 ; e 1, 1880. Imp. 8vo. Boma 

BoUettino Oonsolare. Vol. zy, faec. 11 e 12, Nor.— 

Die. 1879 ; e toL zvi, faeo. 1, e 2 Gen. e Feb. 1880. 

8to. Boma 

Statistica del Gommeroio Sjpeciale dt Importazione e di 

Ezportazione dal G^nnaio— Dec., 1879. 4to. Boma 
Statistica delle Careen per Tanno 1876. YoL x. 

Imp. 8fo. Civita Veocfaia, 1879 

MonograAa Statistica sul Servizio deUe Suasistenzie 

MiUtari durante Tanno 1877. zvi e 521 pp., 

folio 

Belazione Medioo-Statistica sidle condizioni Sanitarie 

deU' Esercito Italiano neU' anno 1877. Diagrams, 

8vo. Boma, 1879 

Quattordicesimi Belazione sul servizio Postale, 

1876-78. Map.4to. Boma, 1879 

Belazione Statistica sui Telegrafi del Begno d'ltaHa, 

ndl' anno 1878. Diagram, 4to. Boma, 1879 

A Diagram in Plaster of Paris, representing : — II 

numero aseoluto dei Nati viri maschi e loro sujierstiti > 

dassificati per et4 seoondo 1 risultati dei oensimenti 

in Syezia, 1760-1876 

GuiAaLio (Dr. Aktonio), Storia e Teoria Generate 

della Statistica, ziy e 697 pp., diagrams, 8yo. Milaoo, 

1880 



Directorate - General 
of Statistics : 

Ministry of Agricul- 
ture,' Industry, and 
Commerae 



Directorate • General 

of Statistics 



Nuoya Antologia di Sdenze, Lettere ed Arti, anno ziy, 
2* Seiie, yoL zviii, iame. 24, Dic^ 1879. 8yo. 
Boma 

Biyista Eoropea, Biyista Intemazionale. VoL xyi, 
fasc. 4, yoL zni, fasc. 1 — 4, • yoL zyiii, faeo. 1 e 2, 
1879-80. Imp. 8yo. Firenze 

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150 



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Denatumt — CotUd. 



[Mar. 



Bonationt. 



Bj vbom Presented. 



Naftherlands — 

Statistiek van het C^ndorediefc in Nederland orcr de "| a*-*:-«^i q,^^^ «# 

Poxtaaral — Sociedade de QSographia de Lithca — 
Expedi^ Bcientifica so interior de Africa; Obser-'^ 

Ta^^tos meteorologicas e magneticas feitas pdbs [ m^ tLiAmtm 
explopadorea Portugneze* H. Capello e B. Ireng. ( ^'^ «>««V 
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BoTunania. Questionnaire d'une StetiBtique Interna- *! 
tionale compart det Soci^t^ d'assnrance oontre la I Central 
grAle et T^pizootie. Ann^ 1879. 16 pp^, folio. [ Office 
Buoarest «....,.«...... « J 



Statistical 



Bnasia. 

pour 



*. B^glement Definitif du Budget de TBrnpiro \ v a VaMi^u^Vr 
rExercice 187^ 8va St Petersbourg, 1880 ....J "* ^' ^e^eiOTSiy 



Spain — 

Oenso de la Poblacion en 1877, por la direocion general 1 Institute of Geo- 
del Insituto Gbogrdfico y Estadistico. yiii and \ graphy and 3ta- 
601 pp., 4to. Ma&d, 1879...^ I tistica 

Sooiedad Gkogr&fica de Madrid. Boletim de la. | 
Tomo rii, Nos. B y 6, Nor. — ^Dic, 1879 ; y tomo Tiii, \ The Society 
Enero, 1880 - J 



Central Statistical 
Bureau of Norway 



Sweden and Norway — 

NOEWAY — 

Annuaire Statistique de ]a Korr^e, 1* ann^, 1879' 

95 pp., 8to. Eristiania 

OffteieUe StcUutik-- 

B. No. 1. Tabeller Todkommende SldfterflBsenet 

i aaret 1876. (FaiUites) 

,y 8, Beretning om Bigets strafarbeidt- 
anstalter for aaret 1877. (P^niten- 
tiaires) 

C. No. 1. Tabeller yedkonunende Folkemsng- 

den8BeTfiBgd8eiaaretl875. (Moure- 

ment de la Population) 

M i. Beretning om Sundhedstilstanden og 

Medidnalforholdene i aaret 1877. 

(I'l^tat Sanitaire et Medical) 

„ 9. Statistik orer Norges Fiskerier i aaret 

1877 (P^he} 

„ 10. Statiitik orer Norges Eommnnale Fi- 

nantser i aaret 1876. (Finaneee dee 

Conununes) 

„ 18. Statistik over Norges Fabrikanlieg 

af aaret 1875. (Etabkseements 

Industrieb.) 4to. KristiaBia 

SwBDEN — Offhiela SttrUeHh^- 

A. BefoVmings^tatistik, ny ibljd, sx, fftr ir 1878.1 

(Population) I Central Statistical 

B. B&tt8T§sendet ny fdljd, xx, 1, 2, fOr ftr 1877. \ Burevn 

(Justice civile et crimineUe) ...... 



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1880.] 



Additions to the Library. 
Dimation9-^C<mid. 



151 



Donaiiont. 



By vhom Presented 



Maps 



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Offidela StatUHk — Contd. 
F, Utrikes Handel ochSjOfart, for &r 1878. (Com-^ 

merce et nayigation extorieur) 

L. Statens Jeray&^trafik, 17, fbr ir 1878. 

and diagram. (Chemins de fer) 

M. Postrerket, 14, 1877 ; tillagg till Serien B 

15. 1878. (Poetes) 

N. Jordbrak och Boekapsskdtsel, fbr ftr 1879 (Sta- 

iistiqae agricole) 

Q. SkogdT&sendet 1, 18, intiU &r 1870. (For^ts) 
B. Val-Statistik) 4, fdr &ren 1876-78. (Statistique 

eleotorale) 

S. AllnuUma Arbeten, 7, £6r &ret 1878. (Travaux 

pablics) 

V. Brftn?in« tillyerkning och fdnfilining, 2, f6r 
&ren 1875-76, och 1876-77. (Fabrication et 

vente de Teau-de-Tie) 

Kapital Eonto till Biks-Hufvud-Boken £5r ftr 1877 

Biks-Stat f6r &r 1880. (Budget) 

dfVeraigt af Syeriges Biksbankt etillning, tamman- 

fattad efter 1878 Are Bokslut 

General-Sammandrag &fTerl878 &r8 Bevillning 

Uppgifter om Hjpoteksiniftttningame f^r &r 1878 ... 
Sammandrag af Biksbankens SuHlningy Jan. — Dec., 

1879. (Banque de Suhde) 

Sammandragen dfversigt af de enskilda bankinr&tt- 
ningarnes st&llning efter 1877 ooh 1878 &ren 

Bokslut, &c 

Sammandrag af de solidariska enskilda bankemas 
samt akUebankemas och kreditaktiebolagens upp- 
gifter Jan.— Dec., 1879 

Uppgi^t i runda tal & rikets in och ut-f Orsel af rissa 
biSrudsakliga yaror under Januari — December, 
1875-79. 4to. Stockholm, 1879-80 J 



United States— 

Agriculture, Department of, 



Central Statistical 
Bureaa 



Sp^Beport on tiie| Commissioner of 
nd 21, December, 1879, V limcultiire 
and January, 1880. 8vo. Washington J '^ 



Condition of Crops. Nos. 20 and 21, December, 1879, \ 



Commissioner of 
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Bureau of Sdmcation — 

Circulaors of Information of the, 1879 , ' 

No. S. The yalue of School Education to Common 

Labor. By Dr» E. Jaryis 

I, 4. Training Schools of Cookery 

„ 5. American Education as described by the 
French Commission to the International 
Exhibition of 1876. 8yo. Washington....^ 

Bureau of Statistics — 
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Nos. 4 and 6, October and Noyember, 1879 

Quarterly Beport of the, to 30th September, 1879 I Joseph Nimmo,Esq., 

(No. 1, 1879-80). 8yo. Washington f jun. 

Beport on Internal Commerce for 1879. Cloth, map. 

8yo. Washington * ^ 



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Comptroller of the Currency, Beport of the, for 1879. "I 

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Bankers* Magazine, New YorL Series 4, voL xir. 
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Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Journal of the. 
Series 8, toI. Ixxviii, No. 6, December, 1879, and 
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Western, The. New Series. Vol. vi, Nos. 1 and 2, \ mi^ ttj;*.^, 
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The Editor 
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India, Colonial, and other PoeeeMions. 
IndU, BritiflOi— 
^'^^^ N*^^gation» Monthly Returns of. Qurrent | j^^^ Govemment 

Benoaii— 

Report on the Administration of, 1878-79. Cloth,") Q- over n men t of 

royal 8vo. Calcutta, 1879 J Bengal 

Asiatic Society of — 

Proceedings, Nos. 8 and 9 (August and November),^ 

Journal, voLiviii,iMttti7N^ f ^® Society 

1879, maps, &c., 8vo. Calcutta J 

Kew Sonth Wales — 

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10th December, 1879. Folio I Affent-General for 

Sydney, Vital Statistics of, for November, 1879. 3 pp., [ New South Wales 
folio J 

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Queensland. Report of the Meteorological Observer! ^x t a«-, t?-^ 

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1880.] 



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153 



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Victoria— 

Australasian Statistice for 1878. Folio 1 

Statistical Begister of the Ck>loii7 of, for 1878. I Ag^t-Q«neral for 

Part 5. Law, Crime, &c f victoria 

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„ 7. Accumulation. Folio H. H. Hayter, Esq. 

Mining Survejors and Begistrars, Beports for the 1 -w- • «. « -u" 

quarter ended SOtli September, 1879. FoUo J ^"^'^^ ^^ ^^'^^ 

Patents and Patentees, Indexes for 1876, toI. x, byl 

B. GKbbs, Begistrar-Q-eneral. 66 pp., numerous > Begistrar-GbnenJ 

plates, 4to. Melbourne, 1879 J 

Victorian Year Book for 1878-79, by H. H. Hayter, \ ™, * ., 
Government Statist. 395 pp., 8vo. Melbourne / ^'^^ ^utnor 



py ' 

Folio. (Pari. Pap. 



United Kingdom — 
Emigration and Immigration, copy of Statistical' 

Tables relating to, for 1879. ~ 

No. 8, 1880) 

Foreign Countries, Statistical Abstract for the principal 

and other, in each year from 1866 to 1877-78, No. 6. 

8vo. Pari. Pap. [C-2451]. 1879 

Trade and Navigation, Monthly Betums of. Current 

numbers 

Factories and Workshops, Beport of the Chief Inspector 

of, for the year ending 31st October, 1879. 8vo. 

Pari Pap. [C-2489]. 1880 

Navy, Statistical Beport of the Health of the, for 1878. \ Admiralty 

Maps, Ac., 8vo. (Pari. Pap. No. 346, 1879) ^ '^ 



•J 



Board of Trade. 



A. Bedgrave, Esq., 
^ C.B. 



Medical 
Department 

War OflBce List, &c., for the British Army, 1879. Svo."] 

London I Messrs. Harrison and 

Foreign Office List, and Diplomatic and Consular [ Sons, Pall Mall 

Handbook, 1880. Cloth, maps, 8vo. London J 



England and Wales — 
Ellison's Annual Beview of the Cotton Trade for 1879. 
(For private circulation only). 8 pp., 4to. Liver 

pool 

Friendly Societies, &c., Beports, 1878 — 



■} 



Messrs. 
Co. 



Ellison and 



Part I (A)... 

Part I (B), Appendix (D). 



Industrial and Provi- 
dent Societies 
Part I (C), Appendix (E). Trade TJnions. (ParL 

Pap. Nos. 375, 1,-n, 1879.) FoUo 

Kemp's Mercantile G^ette, Supplement, containing a 
Statistical Abstract of Failures in England and 

Wales during 1879. 1 sheet, 4to 

Quarterly Betums of Marriages in, to September, and 
of Births and Deaths, to December, 1879. No. 
124. 8vo ^ 

Ireland — 
Weekly Betums of Births and Deaths of eight large 1 
towns, current numbers, with an Annual Summary. 
8to ^ I 



Begistrar of Friendly 
Societies 



^ Messrs. John Kemp 
and Co. 

B^istrar-Gheneral of 
England 



General of 



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154 



Miseellemea. 
Donation* — Contd. 



[Mar. 



Donation!. 



By vhom Pretented. 



Ireland — Contd. 



Quaiteriy Retums^of the Marriages in, to Septembw,| Registrar-Gkneral of 



and Births and Deaths, to December, 1879. 
8vo. Dublin- 



No. 



Begistrar-Gkneral of 
Scotland 



Scotland — 

Census of 1871, Preliminary Beport on. Folio *" 

Births, Deaths, and Marriages : — 

Weekly and Monthly Ketums of, in the eight 

principal towns, current numbers. 8vo. 

Quarterly Return of, to December, 1879. No. 100. 

8to 

Twenty-first Detailed Annual Beport on (abstracts 
of 1876). 8yo. Pari. Pap. No.tC-2494.] 1879....^ 

Edinbubgh, City op — 
Accounts published in 1879, with Appendix. Cloth,*" 

folio 

Bolls of Superiorities belonging to the Lord ProTOst, 

&c., showing the Accounting for the Feu Duties 1 Bobert Adam, Esq., 

in the Year ended Ist August, 1878. Cloth, ( City Cluunberlain 

folio. Edinburgh, 1879 

Water Trust, Beport on Financial Affairs for 1879, 

with Appendix. 36 pp., folio ^ 

Glasgow. United Trades Council, Beport for 1878-79. "I mT^ ^ampi^rr 
24 pp. 8vo / owwwiy 

Anthon, ftc. — 
Atkiitbok (Edwabd). Chart giying a Geographical 

Presentation of the Comparatiye Areae of the States 

and Territories of the Umted States and the Countries 

of Europe, omitting Bussia and Alaska. 1 sheet ..... 
Bbvan (G. Phillips). Primer of the Industrial 

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cloth, 12mo. London, 1880 

Eccentric Club, The, by X. Y. Z. 202 pp., cloth. 8vo. 

Liverpool, 1880 _ 

Edmonds (W.). Bills of Sale Begistered in England' 

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KOEdsi (Joseph). Id^ sur le but et le r6le des 

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reducing the National Debt. 1 sheet 

PozNANSKi (Joseph). 

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to 1876. 263 pp., diagram, 8yo. St. Petersburg, 
1879 „ 

The Financial Questions of Bussia. 86 pp., 8vo. 

St. Petersburg, 1878 ^ 

\_Both in Ruanan.l 



» The Author 



W. Swan Sonnens- 
chein, Esq. 



The Author 



I 



} 



M. G. Mulhall, Esq. 



The Author 



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AddiHoru to tjie library. 
Donationt^-CotUd. 



155 



Donatkmi. 



By whom Preienied. 



The Author 



W. Ytti PMagfa, Esq. 



The Author 



Anthon, fto. — Contd, 
Pbaash (W. van)— 
British Institutions for the De«f and Dumb, alplia-'^ 
betically arranged aocording to their location. 

1 sheet. London, 1880 *. 

On the Oral Education of the Deaf and Dumb (re- 
printed from the ''Journal of Education*'). 

7 pp., 8to. Beading, 1878 ^ 

Deaf and Dimib, Association for the Oral Instruc- ' 
tion of the. Report for 1878, and objects of the 

Association, &c. 8vo. London 

Baikeb (Capt. Qt. A.). History of the Honourable" 
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maps, plates, &c., 8vo. London, 1879 

SAinrDSRS (William). Land Laws and their Results' 
at Home and Abroad. 62 pp., 8to. HuU and 

London, 1880 

Tmpp (A. C.)— 
The Indian Ciyil Serrioe and the Competitiye"^ 
System. 142 and xcvi pp., cloth, 12mo. London, 

1876 

* Statistics of the N.-W. Provinces of India. 186 pp., 

cloth, imp. 8vo. Allahabad, 1877 

Imperial Gazetteer of the N.-W* Provinces of India. 

Cloth, imp. 8vo ^ 

Vine (J. R. Sohsss) — 
The County Companion, Diary and Magisterial and^ 

Official Directory, 1880. Cloth, 8vo. London.... 
The Municipal Corporations Companion, Diary, > The Editor 
Directory, and Year Book of Statistics, 1880, 

Cloth, 8vo. London J 

Waones (Peopessob H.). Johann Eduard WappaBUs | 

(separatabdruck aus Petermann's Mittheilungen, > The Author 

1880, Heft 8). 4to. Gotha J 

Walkbe (Pbop. Francis A.). Money in its Relations | 
to Trade and Industry. 839 pp., cloth, 12Uio. \ " 

New York, 1879 J 

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8vo. London j Layton 



and E. 



Societies, Ao. 
Actuaries, Journal of the Institute of, and Assurance 1 

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1879. 8vo J 

Arts, Journal of the Society of. Current numbers. 1 ,j« Society 
8vo. London J ^^ 

Bankers, Journal of the Institute of. Parts 4 — 6, 1 mi Tnafif nf- 
January— March, 1880. Plate, 8vo. London / -^'i® ""^^^^ 

Labouring Classes, the Magazine of the Society fori 

Improving the Condition of the. No. 263, January, > The Society 

1880. 8vo. London J 

London Hospital, General Statement of the, number ] 

of patients under treatment in the, during 1879. V The Secretary 

1 sheet, folio J 

Manchester StaUstical Society ^ papers read before. 1 
The Silver Controversy, by B. Montgomery. V The Society 
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156 MisceiUMea, [Mar. 

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By whom Pnsenttd. 



Societies, fto. — Contd, 
Mechanical Eniriiieers, Prooeedinirs of tlie Institation, 1 mu t ^•j. j.* 

No. 6, October, 1879. PlatesTiyo. London | The InstituUon 

Mefcropolitan Fire Brigade, Bepoit of the Chief 1 ru «. tj' tlt qi. 

Officer on the state of the, and the Fires in London, [ ^^P'^i ^' ^' ^'^^' 

during 1879. 8vo J ^•'*^- 

Mortalitj, a (Collection of the Yearly Bills of, froml 

1657 to 1768 inclusive, with reprints of Essays on I y , a*. «.«. it 

MortaUty, PoUtical Arithmetic, Gh^wth of London f ''^'^ °^^^* ^^' 

(1767), and Life Tables. 4fco. London, 1759 J 

Post Magazine Almanack and Insurance Directory, for 1 f*,. i^ q . , ■» 

1880. 8yo. London / ^' ^' ^^^* ^• 

Aoyal Asiatic Society, Journal of the, new series, \ q« « . . 

voL xii, part 1, January, 1880. 8vo. London J "^^^ oociecy 

Boyal Q^graphical Society, Proceedings of the, new 1 

series, toL ii, Nos. 1 — 8, January — March, 1880. > „ 

8to. London J 

Royal IntHtution — 

Proceedings of the, toI. ix, part 2, No. 71. Plates, 1 
8vo V The Institution 

List of Fellows, &c, and Additions to libraiy. 8to. J 
Boyal Society, Proceedings of the, to the present time. 1 rm^ Sociflt 

8vo. London j ^ 

Boyal United Service Institution, Journal of the, 1 mv j i.**^ *,• 

vol. ixiii. No. 103. Phites, Ac., 8vo. London, 1879 / ^^^ AMtitution 
Social Science Association, Sessional Proceedings of the, 1 nru a ' *■' 

vol. xii, Nos. land 2, Jan.— Feb., 1880. 8vo. London/ ^^^ Association 
Surveyors, Transactions of the Institution of, vol. xii, 1 «,, t l-*. *.- 

parte 4^^, 8to. London, 1880 } ^^^ ^*^^^ 

WancUworth. Report on the Sanitorv Condition of.T ^* ^°^ °j^°?k 
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AddHtMU to iha Library. 
Donatwna — Cowtd. 



157 



DomtionM. 


Bj whom Presented. 


Atbenffium, The. (Montblj parts) .... Oorrenl 

Bankers' Magazine (London) 

Capital and Labour *»„ 


t numbers 

» 

»^ 
M 

N 

» 
ft 

n 
»» 
» 
tt 

ft 

jorology,] 
82 pp., V 


The Editor 


Commercial World, The « 

Kconomisty The 


*9 


Insnranoe Giusette. The 




Becord. The 




„ World, The 




Inyestors' Monthly Mannal, The 

Lx>n and Coal Trades BeTiew 


»* 


Mai^hinery Market, The 




Nature 

Beview, The 

Statist, The 




Textile Manufacturer, The 




Universal Engineer, The 

Urania; a Monthly Journal of Astrology, Mete 
and Physical Science, toI. i, January, 1880. 
8to 


>9 

n 


Trade Circulars for the Tear 1879— 

BAlfiuit Linim TnulA HoniTnitt^W rTiinen^ 


The Committee 


Boutcher, Mortimer, and Co., London (Leath< 
Durant and Co., London (Silk) 


It) 


TheUrm 


"/ •••••••••••• 




Baton (H. W.) and Sons, London (Silk) 




Niohol (W.) and Co.. Bombay TG^neral Prices^ 




PixW and Abell. Tjondon rBullion> 






Powell (T. J. and T.), London (Leather) 




Bagg (A.) and Co., Lirerpool (Wool) 




Bonald and Sons, Lirerpool (Wool) 




Thompson (W. J. and H.), London (China Tea) 

Umson. Elliott, and Co.. LiTflmool rTobaooo^ 


It 


Wool Brokers* Association. LiTemool 











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158 Mucellamd. [MaiC 

Purchase, 

American Almanac and Treasury of Facts for 1880. 884 pp., cloth, 
12mo. New York and Washington. 

Annales d'Hygiftne publique. Nos. 8, 10 — 16, October, 1879, to March, 
1880. 8to. Paris, 1879. 

Archivio di Statistioa. Anno 17, faso. 1—4. 8to. Boma, 1879. 

Banking Almanac, Directory, &o., for 1880. Cloth, 8to. London. 

British Almanac and Companion for 1880. 12mo. London. 

Classified Directory to the Metropolitan Charities, for 1879, with 
Appendix. (Fourth Annual Edition.) 12mo. 

Eason's Almanac and Handbook for Ireland, for 1880. 12mo. 
Dublin and London. 

Financial Reform Almanac for 1880. 8to. London. 

Inde;^ Society's Publications, No. 4, containing Report of First Annual 
Meeting, 1879, and four Appendices, yiz. : — 

(1) Index to Books and Papers on Marriage between near Kin, bj 

A. H. Huth. 

(2) Index of the Styles and Titles of English Soyereigns, by W. 

De Gray Birch. 

(3) Indexes of Portraits in the " European Magazine," " London 

Magazine," and '' Register of the Times," by E. Solly. 

(4) Index of Obituary Notices for 1878. 4to. London, 1879. 

Journal des Economistes. 4* sMe, Nos. 20—27, August — ^December, 
1879, and January— March, 1880. 8vo. Paris. 

Lowe's Handbook of the Charities of London for* 1880. 12mo. 

Masttnt (F). The Statesman's Year Book for 1880. 12mo. London. 

Medical Directory for 1880. 8to. London. 

Mitchell's Newspaper Press Directory for 1880. Imp. 8vo. London. 

Oliver and Boyd's New Edinburgh Almanac for 1880. 8to. 

Post Office London Directory, for 1880. Boy. 8vo. 

RoBXBTS (C, F.R.C.S.). A Manual of Anthropometry, Cloth, 
diagrams, 8to. London, 1878. 

Surtees Society, Publications of the. Vol. Ixix, cloth, 8yo, London. 

Thom's Irish Almanac and Official Directory for 1880. Royal 8vo. 
Dublin. 

Todd (T. J.) . The Book of Analysis, or a New Method of Experience. 
Cloth, 8to. London, 1881. 

Whiteker'a Ahnanae for 1880. Cloth, 12mo. 



Digitized by 



Google 



1880.] 



159 



REGISTRATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 



No. L-ENGLAND AND WALES. 

MARRIAGES— To 30th Sbpteicbbb, 1879. 
BIRTHS AND DEATHS— To 3l8T Deoekbbs, 1879. 



A. — Se^nal Table of Marriages, Births, and Deaths, returned in the 
Years 1879-78, and in the Quarters of those Tears. 

Calendar Years, 1879-78: — Numbers. 



Teari 


'79. 


'78. 


'77. 


'76. 


•76. 


'74. 


'73. 


Marriages No. 

BiHhs „ 

Deaths .... „ 


882,866 
528,194 


189,657 
891,418 
539,574 


194,343 
887,055 
500,348 


201,835 
887,464 
510,308 


201,212 
850,607 
546,453 


202,010 
854,956 
526,632 


205,615 
829,778 
492,520 



•Quarters of each Calendar Year, 1879-78. 
(I.) Masbiaoss: — Numbers. 



Qrs. ended 
last day of 


'79. 


•78. 


•77. 


•76. 


•76. 


•74. 


•73. 
















Marcli No. 


35,851 


39,106 


39,755 


41,757 


42,376 


41,413 


41,217 


June „ 


46,488 


48,433 


49,054 


51,218 


48,410 


52,827 


53,408 


September „ 


45,071 


46,510 


47,732 


49,135 


49,826 


49,144 


49,709 


December „ 


— 


55,608 


57,802 


59,725 


60,600 


58,626 


61,281 



(II.) BniTHS: — Numbers. 



Of s. ended 
last day of 


*79. 


'78. 


'77. 


'76. 


'75. 


'74. 


78. 
















Marcb No. 


226,669 


221,567 


230,036 


229,980 


214,862 


214,514 


215,744 


June „ 


221,011 


228,702 


223,220 


225,866 


214,939 


217,598 


206,516 


September „ 


218,170 


222,004 


213,190 


216,167 


211,109 


210,323 


204,167 


December „ 


217,016 


219,146 


220,609 


215,451 


209,697 


212,521 


203,361 







ail.) 


Deaths .- 


—Nwrnbers. 






Qrs. ended 
last day of 


79. 


•78. 


*77. 


76. 


'76. 


'74. 


'73. 
















March No. 


156,390 


139,825 


135,000 


142,269 


162,256 


136,518 


132,432 


June , 


132,186 


129,111 


131,289 


126,212 


130,999 


123,907 


118,582 


September „ 


103,733 


129,348 


109,565 


119,909 


121,547 


124,253 


114,676 


December „ 


135,885 


141,290 


124,494 


121,918 


181,651 


141,954 


126,830 



Digitized by 



Google 



160 



Periodical Eetwms. 



[Mar. 



Annual Rates of Marriaobs, Births, and Deaths, per i,ooo Persons 
LiYiNG in the Tears 1870-78, and in the Quarters of those Tears. 

Calendar Years, 1870-78: — General Ratios. 



TiAma 


'79. 


Mean 
'69-78. 


'78. 


^77. 


•76. 


•76. 


•74. 


'78. 






Estmtd. Fopln. 
of England 
til ihou*andi\ 
in middle of 
each Year.... 


25,i^5» 


— 


^4.854. 


a4.547, 


24.144. 


^3.944. 


^3.^49. 


a3,35«» 


Persons Mar-\ 
ried / 

Births 


861 
210 


i6'6 
35*7 

21-8 


16-8 

86-9 
21-7 


16-8 

861 
20*4 


16-6 

86-6 
21-0 


16-8 

85*5 
22-8 


171 

86-2 
22-3 


17-6 
85*5 


Deaths 


21-1 







Quarters of each Calendar Tear, 1870-'78. 
(I.) Pbbsovb Married : — Ratio per 1,000. 



Qrs. ended 
last day of 


'79. 


Mean 
•69-78 


'78. 


•77. 


•76. 


•76. 


•74. 


•78. 


March 


11-6 
14*8 
14*2 


13-7 
i6-8 
i6-i 
19*6 


12*8 
15-6 
14.8 
17*8 


181 
16*0 
15*4 
18*7 


13-8 
16*9 
161 
19*5 


14*4 
16-2 
16-6 
201 


14*2 
17*9 
16-6 
197 


14*3 


Jnn^ , 


18-8 


September 

December 


16-9 
20*8 







(11.) Births :- 










Qrs. ended 
last day q^ 


79. 


Mean 
'69-78. 


•78. 


•77. 


•76. 


•76. 


•74. 


'78. 


March 


86'6 
35-2 
34*4 
34*2 


37-1 
36-a 
34*7 
34-8 


36*2 
36*9 
35*4 
350 


38*0 
36*5 
34-5 
36-7 


38-0 
37*4 
35*4 
35*3 


36*4 
360 
350 
34*7 


36-8 
36*9 
35-8 
36-7 


37-5 


June 


35-5 


September 

December 


34*7 
34-5 





i 


JH.) Deaths :- 


—Ratio per i,occ 


. 






Qrs. ended 
last day qf 

March 


'79. 


Mean 
'69-78. 


•78. 


•77. 


•76. 


•76. 


'74. 


•78. 


26*2 
211 
16*4 
21-4 


24*1 
21*2 
20*2 

21-9 


22-8 
20-8 
20*6 
22-6 


22*3 
21-5 
17*7 
201 


23*5 
20-9 
19*6 
200 


27-5 
21-9 
201 
21*8 


23*4 
210 
20-8 
23*8 


23*0 


Jane -... 

September 

December «. 


20-4 
19-5 
21*6 



Digitized by 



Google 



1880.] 



Uegistraf-QeneraVt Beport: — England. 



161 



B. -Comparative Table of 


Consols, Provisions, Coal, and Pauperism in 








each Quarter of 1877-78-79. 




Ayerage Prices of 


pAUpemisM. 




Consols 


Dis- 


Whkat 


Mkat per Ponnd 

St the Metropolitan 

Meat Mnrkei 


Potatoes 


Coal 


Quarterly Average of 




(for 


count 


per 


(Best 


(Sf'H. 


the Number of Paupers 


Qoarten 
ending 


Money) 
per 

lOO/. 


charged 
bytlie 
Bank 

of Eng. 


Quarter 

in 

England 

and 


(by the Carciwe), 
with the Jf«u Prices. 


Quality) 
per Ton at 
Waterside 

Market. 


borne) 
in the 
London 
Market 


Relieved on the 
iM/i^ay of each Week. 














Stock. 


land. 


Wales. 


B<er. 


Uutton. 


Somhwsrk. 


per Ton 


In-door. 


Out-door. 


1877 


£ 




*. d. 


d. d. d. 


<;. <;. d. 


*. *. *. 


*. d. 






Mm. 31 


95J 


2'0 


51 4 


4t-7i 
6i 


6-9f 

7* 


138-172 

^55 


16 8 


15^.778 


582,697 


June 80 


941 


^•9 


61 5 


6f 


4i-9i 
7 


136-174 
>55 


18 2 


143,674 


528,878 


Sept. 30 


95i 


a'4 


62 ~ 


6* 


4f-9l 

7* 


97—126 
111 


17 7 


>39»iii 


509,110 


Deo. 81 


96i 


4*5 


52 4 


8f-8 
5l 


4i-8j 


152—174 
163 


18 3 


151*701 


512,839 


1878 




















Mar. 31 


95f 


2'4 


50 10 


4i-8i 
6* 


4|-9i 

7 


188-212 

200 


16 2 


162,442 


540,571 


June 80 


951 


a-8 


50 2 


4*-8f 
6» 


6— 9i 
7t 


150—187 

168 


16 4 


151,715 


583,787 


Sept. 30 


95^ 


4'3 


44 6 


4i-8i 
61 


4i-»i 

7 


120—161 

'35 


16 - 


145,956 


513,616 


Dec. 81 


95 


5*4 


40 2 


4i-7i 
6 


4i-«l 
6i 


111—132 

121 


17 4 


159,7*1 


523,996 


1879 




















Mar. 81 


96i 


3*3 


39 - 


3i-7i 
5» 


4i-8i 
6* 


118—144 
131 


16 6 


172,200 


599,991 


June 30 


m 


2-0 


41 2 


V 


4i-9 


12^-161 

144 


16 2 


i59,94<> 


567,916 


Sept. 30 


971 


2*0 


47 2 


4^71 
5l 


41-9 
«l 


182—233 

207 


14 10 


157,113 


548,755 


Dec. 81 


98 


2-6 


48 1 


3j-7i 
5t 


4i— 7i 
6t 


136-160 
148 


15 10 


173,099 


565,644 



G. — Oeneral Average Death-Rate Table: — Annual Rate of Mortality to 1,000 
of the Population in the Eleven Divisions of England and Wales, 



Divisions. 



England and Wales 

I. London 

II. South-Eastem 

ni. South Midland 

IT. Eastern 

T. South- Western , 

TI. West Midland 

yn. North Midland 

rni. North-Western 

IX. Yorkshure 

X. Northern 

XI. Monmthsh. and Wales . 

YOL. XLIII. PAET I 



Average Annual Rate of Mortality to 1,000 Living in 



Ten Years, 



1851^. 18ftl-70. 



22*2 



23-6 
19*6 

20-4 
20*6 
20*0 
224 
21*1 

25*5 
23*1 

22*0 
21*3 



22*4 



24*3 
191 
20*2 
20*1 
19*9 
21*8 
20*8 
26*3 
240 
22-7 
21*6 



Year 
lb78. 



21*7 



23*4 
17*8 
i8*8 
19*5 
19*3 
21-6 

20'9 

iS'9 

22*6 
21*7 
21'1 



1879. Quarters ending 



March. 



25*2 



271 
20*3 
22-3 
230 
23* 1 
251 
25-9 
30*6 
25-5 
22*4 
24*3 



June. 



211 



22*4 
17*8 
19*5 
20*2 
19-6 
21*2 
21*4 
231 
21-1 
20*9 
21-8 



Sept. 



16*4 



18*4 
131 
14*0 
15*4 
140 
15*4 
170 
18-9 
170 
171 
16*3 



Dec. 



21*4 



24*9 
170 
180 
18*7 
18*8 
20*4 
21*8 
25*4 
21*2 
19-8 
19*6 



Digitized by 



ML 

Google 



162 



Periodical Betums, 



[Mar. 



jy.^Special Average Death-Rale Table: — Annual Rate of Mortautt per 
i,ooo in Town and Country Disfricts of England in each Quarter of the 
Years 1879-77- 





Area 

in Sutute 
Acres. 


PopnUtion 
Eiinmerated. 


Qimrters 
ending 


Annual Rate of Mortality per 1,000 
in earli Quarter of the Years 




1871. 


1879. 


Mean 
•69-78. 


1878. 


1877. 


Inl84Di8trict«,andl 
67 Sub -districts, 1 
comprising the ( 
Chief Townt J 


3,184,419 


12,900,142 


rMarch.. 
J June .... 

1 Sept 

LDec 

Year .... 


26-6 
21-6 
17-5 
23*8 


22-7 


24-5 
22-2 
231 
24-8 


23-8 
22-7 
19-2 
22-3 




22-4 


23-8 


23-7 


220 




84,134,802 


9,812,124 


Year .... 

fMarch.. 
J June ... 

1 Sept 

LDec 


191 


192 


190 


18-2 


In tbe nmuiniiicr Dia-") 

comprising chiefly f 
Small Town$ ana 
Countrjf PaH»k*» J 


23-2 
20-3 
14-7 
180 


21-8 

194 

i6*9 
i8-6 


20-5 
18-9 
17-2 
19-4 


20-2 
19-6 
15-6 
17-2 



JVb^.— The three montha JaaoMT, Fehraary, March, eontain 90, and in leap year 91 da/s; the three montha 
April. Hay, June, 91 daya ; and each of the laat two opartera of the year, 93 daya. For Uiia meqtudity a oonrectioB 
ia made in f^i«ml^bng the rate of mortality in the dimrent <iQartera of the year. 



"E,— Special Town TViife;— Population ; Birth-Rate and Death-Ratb in each 
Quarter of 1870, in Twentt-Threk Large Tomm. 



Cities* Ice. 



Estimated 

Population in 

the MiddSe 

of the 
Year 1879. 



Annual Rate to i,ooo Liring during the Thirteen AVeeks ending 



29th March. 
(1st Ouarter.) 



Births. Deaths. 



SSth June. 
(2nd Quarter.) 



Births. Deaths. 



27th September. 
(3rd (Quarter.) 



Births. Deaths. 



3rd Jan.. 1880. 
(4th Quarter.)* 



Births. Deaths. 



Total of 23 towns in U. K. 

London 

Brighton 

Portsmouth 

Norwich 

Plymouth 

Bristol 

Wolverhampton 

Birmingham 

Jjeicester 

Nottingham 

Liverpool 

Manchester 

Salford 

Oldham 

Bradford 

Leeds 

Sheffield 

Hull 

Sunderland 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Edinburgh 

Glasgow 

Dublin 



8,502,896 

3,620,868 

105,608 

I3»»82i 

85,222 

74»293 
209,947 

75,100 
388,884 
125,622 
169,396 
538,388 
361,819 
177,849 
111,318 
191,046 
311,860 
^97,138 
14<5,347 
114,575 
146,948 
226,075 
578,156 
314,666 



37-8 

380 
29-0 
32-4 
35-2 
34-0 
380 
421 
42-4 
40-2 
37-8 
40-8 
38-8 
44*4 
35-6 
35-7 
381 
36-5 
39-7 
41-7 
37-4 
330 
36-8 
31-8 



27-8 

27-1 

21*3 
20-3 

H'9 
23-6 
23-8 
27*8 
26*6 
26-1 
26*9 
32*9 
35*1 
31*5 
27-5 
247 
26-5 
26-4 
26-4 
24-6 
*5'4 

21-8 

26-6 
43*3 



35-7 
35*4 
31-2 
31-3 
34-9 
291 
34-8 
38*4 
40*5 
35-9 
35-7 
37-6 
35-7 
381 
340 
31-6 
36-3 
35-8 
40-8 
40-8 
37-3 
34*3 
86*3 
32-7 



22-7 
22*4 

i8-o 
t5-8 

22*0 
21-7 
20*1 

»3'3 

22*4 

19*9 

20*7 

23-6 
25-8 

22-8 

21-3 

21*1 
2fO 
2fO 
21-8 
22-8 

25*4 
20'6 

22*0 

36-5 



35-6 

35-8 
28*8 
31-5 
31-4 
32-6 
35-4 
34-7 
38-4 
381 
35-2 
38*4 
36*4 
40*3 
34-9 
31-2 
36-5 
35-6 
39-7 
38-6 
36-8 
31-8 
33-2 
32-4 



8-4 

8-4 
6-2 
3*0 
7*4 
7*3 
6-5 
6-0 
6-6 
8-0 
7*4 
*4 
o'S 
9*5 
7*2 
6-8 
8-3 
6*5 
6-8 

9*5 

20*9 

6-5 
7*0 

25*1 



35-6 

36-7 
30-2 
31-7 
34-7 
301 
35-2 
37-3 
39-2 
36-0 
35-4 
38-9 
34-5 
37-7 
340 
330 
36-6 
35-6 
38*3 
36-5 
35'9 
32-2 
31-4 
28*4 



24-6 
249 

20*2 

17*7 

22-7 

26-8 
23*7 
23-8 

23*1 
22-4 

25*3 

30-2 

26-2 

*5'7 

20'8 
22*0 

24'3 

21*2 

23'9 
20-8 

22-8 

19*7 
21-3 
35-6 



* This quarter contains fourteen weeks. 



^itized by 



Goo^It 



1880.] 



Bsgiatra/r-OeftLeraV 8 Repwi: — Bnglcmd. 



163 



F.^Divisional Table: — Marriages in the Tear ending ZOth September; and Births 
avd Deaths in the Tear ending 31«< Decemher^ 1879, as Registered Quarterly, 



I 


S 






8 




4 i < 7 
MAaniAQM in Qaartem ending 


DIVISIONS. 
(England mnd Wales.) 


in 
SUtate Acres. 


1871. 
(Fsrsom.) 


3l8t 

December, 
1878. 


Slst 
March. 
187«. 


SOth June. 
1879. 


SOth 
1879. 


Engld. kWAJLEB....T»taU 


37,319.221 


No. 
22,712,266 


No. 
^ 55,608 


No. 
35,851 


No. 
46,488 


No. 
45,071 


I. London ».. 

II. South-Eaetern « 

III. Soutb Midland 

IV. Eastern 


75,362 

3,994,431 
3,201,325 

3,211,441 

4,981,170 
3,945,460 
3,535445 

1,998,914 
3,702,384 
3,547,947 

5,125,342 


3,254,260 

2,167,726 
1,442,654 
1,218,728 

1,880,777 
2,721,931 
1,406,935 

3,889,044 
2,444,762 
1,365,041 

1,420,408 


9,533 

5,205 
3,278- 
3,162 

3,646 
6,369 
3,455 

8,429 

6,333 
3,067 

3,131 


6,276 

3,096 
1,530 
1,530 

2,496 
3.847 
1,996 

6,408 
4,852 
2,330 

1,991 


8,524 

4,184 

2,304 
1,946 

3,228 
5,112 
3,130 

7,639 
5,173 
2,610 

2,638 


9,187 

4,096 
2,280 
1,708 


V. South-Western 

VI. West Midland 

VII. North Midland 

VIII. North-Westem 

IX. Yorkshire 


2,871 
4,875 
2,541 

7,937 
4,849 


z. Northern 


2,616 


XI. Monmthsh.&Wales 


2,311 


8 


9 10 11 12 
BiETHS in each Quarter of 1879 ending 


18 14 IS 16 
Oraths in each Quarter of 1879 ending 


DIVISIONS. 
(England and Wales.) 


Slst 
March. 


SOth 
Jane. 


SOth 
Septem- 
ber. 


Slst 
Decem- 
ber. 


3l8t 

March. 


SOih 
June. 


SOth 

Septem- 

her. 


Slst 
Decem- 
ber. 




No. 
226,669 


No. 

221,OH 


No. 
218,170 


No. 
217,016 


No. 
156,390 


No. 
132,186 


No. 
103,733 


No. 
^35,885 


I. liondon 


34,262 

19,511 
13,007 
10,736 

14,585 
27,555 
14,495 

38458 
25,728 
15,192 

13,140 


31,900 

18,647 
12,861 
10,847 

14,187 
26,992 
14,305 

36,620 
25,179 
15,633 


32,276 

19.007 
12,311 

10,2f9 

13,901 
25,894 
13,993 

37,163 
25,365 
14,925 

13,116 


35,658 

19,169 
12,370 
10,716 

13,646 
25,365 
13,960 

85,292 
24,741 
13,817 


24,4-29 

12,407 
8,733 
7,305 

10,935 

18,367 

9,643 

28,685 

1.7,822 

8,87 < 


20,248 

11,024 
7,739 
6,472 

9,388 

15,660 

8,067 

21,944 

14,933 

8,380 

8,881 


16,633 

8,198 
5,625 
5,012 

6,772 

11,492 

6,476 

18,137 

12,138 

6,958 

6,292 


24,230 


n. South-Eastem 

III. South Midland 

IV. Eastern 


10,629 
7,205 
6,087 


V. South-Westem 

VI. West Midland 

vn. North Midland 

vni. North-Westem 

ix. Yorkshire 


9,063 

15,266 

8,295 

24,388 
15,149 


X. Northern 


8,049 


XI. Monmthsh.ft Wales 


ld,84( 


[) 


12,2 


S2 


9,18 


9 


7,674 



, * These are revised figures, and will be found to differ somewhat from those first 
published. 



Digitized by 



C^Sogk 



164 



Periodical Returns. 



[Mar. 



G. — Oeneral Meteorological Table, 

[Ahttracted fiom the particulars tupplied to the 





Temperature of 


Elastic 
Force 

of 
Vapour. 


Weight 
of Vapour 




1879^ 


Air. 


Evaporation. 


Dew Point. 


Ai^- 
Daily aange. 


Water 
of the 
rhames 


ina 

Cubic Foot 

of Air. 




Month!. 


Mean 


DiflT. 
from 
Aver, 
age of 

!o8 
Year». 


Diff. 
from 
Aver- 

Years. 


Hean. 


Diff. 
from 
Aver- 
age of 

88 
Years. 


Mean. 


Diff. 
from 
Aver- 

Years. 


Mean 


Diff. 
from 
Aver- 

Years. 


Mean. 


Diff. 
from 
Aver- 

Years. 


Mean. 


from 
Aver- 
age of 

88 
Years. 




Jan 


o 
81 •» 


o 
-4-7 


o 
-8-8 




80-4 


o 
-8-8 


o 
27-0 


o 
-8-2 


o 
7-1 




-2-6 


o 
84-9 


In. 
•146 


In. 
-066 


Grs. 
1^7 


6r. 
-0^7 




Feb 


88-9 


-0-5 


-1-2 


86 -7 


-l-O 


34-7 


-0-4 


8-3 


-2-9 


38-9 


•201 


-006 


9^8 


-©•1 




Mar. .. 


41-2 


+01 


-0-4 


38'6 


-0-7 


35-2 


-11 


14-2 


-0-4 


48 


•90S 


-010 


9-4 


-0-1 




Mean ... 


37-1 


-1-7 


-2-8 


SS-2 


-2-8 


32-3 


-3-2 


9-9 


-2-0 


38-9 


•184 


-•024 


2^1 


-0^8 




April ... 


43-2 


-2-9 


-4-0 


40-7 


-3-4 


87 -a 


-30 


:l6-8 


-2-2 


48-4 


•226 


-•029 


9-6 


-0 8 




May 


48-4 


-4-1 


-4-8 


44-7 


-4-2 


40-7 


-46 


18-3 


-21 


52-0 


•254 


-•046 


2-9 


-0^6 




June ... 


66-9 


-1-8 


-2-1 


6V8 


-0-6 


51-0 


+0-4 


17-4 


-8-8 


69-6 


•374 


+ •004 


4-9 


+0^1 




Mean ... 


49-5 


-2-8 


-8-5 


46-4 


-2-7 


43-1 


-2 4 


17-3 


-2-7 


52-7 


•284 


-•024 


8-2 


-0-3 




July 


68-1 


-8-6 


-^•1 


56-6 


-2-1 


58*4 


-0-6 


16-6 


-6-7 


60-6 


•409 


-•008 


46 


-01 




Aug. ... 


69-9 


-1-0 


-1-6 


67-4 


0-0 


f>6*2 


+1-4 


16-4 


-8-4 


62 9 


•436 


+ •018 


4-9 


+0^3 




Sept. ... 


66-8 


-0-2 


-0-8 


&3-8 


-01 


51-4 


+0-4 


16-3 


-2-2 


68-8 


•879 


+ •001 


4 8 


-01 




Mean ... 


68-1 


-1-6 


-2-2 


55-6 


-0-7 


63-3 


+04 


18-1 


-&-8 


60-7 


•408 


+ 004 


4^6 


0-0 




Oct 


491 


-0-6 


-11 


47-6 


-0-7 


46-8 


-0-2 


19-6 


-2-3 


— 


•308 


-•006 


8^6 


-01 




Not. ... 


88-8 


-40 


-5-2 


86-6 


-4-8 


•34-9 


-5-2 


10-9 


-1-4 


— 


•197 


-•049 


2^3 


-©•5 




Dec. ... 


32*4 


-6-7 


-7-6 


81-3 


-7-8 


28-8 


-7-9 


10-6 


+ 1-2 


- 


•168 


-062 


1-9 


-0-6 




Mean ... 


89-9 


-8-7 


-4-6 


38-4 


-4-2 


36 -3 


-4-4 


11 1 


-0-8 


- 


•221 


-•039 


2^6 


-0^4 





Note. — In reading tltis titble it will be borne in miud that the sign (— ) minus signifies 



The mean temperature of the air for October was 49°'l, being 0°-5 and l^'l 
reapectively, below the averages of the preceding 108 years and 88 years. It 
was 2^^4 lower than the value in 1878. 

The mean temperature of the air for November was 38°*8, being 4°'0 and 
5**'2 respectively, below the averages of the preceding 108 years and 88 years. In 
the preceding 108 years there are but four instances of so cold a November, viz., 
in the year 1782, 34°-7; in 1786, 86°7; in 1851, 37°-9; and in 1871, 37*^-6. 

The mean temperature of the air for December was 82°*4^ being 6^*7 and 
7^*6 respectively, below the averages of the preceding 108 years and 38 years. It 
was the coldest December in this century, and there are but three instances of so 
c?)ld a December back to 1771, viz., in the year 1784, 31*^; in 1788, 29°D; and 
in 1796, 30°-4. 



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1880.] 



Meteorological Report 



165 



for the Year ended 31«< December, 1870. 
Regittrar-Genenil by JAMxa GLAisHBm, E8Q.» F.R.S., &e.] 





Degree 


Reading 


Weight 

of a 

Cubic Foot 

of Air. 






Daily 
Hon- 
zontel 
More. 
ment 
of the 
Air. 


Reading of Tliermometer on Grata. 






of 
Hnmidity. 


of 

Barometer. 


Bam. 


Numlier of Night! 
itwai 


Low. 

eit 
Read. 

ing 

at 
Night. 


High. 
est 

Read, 
ing 
at 

Night. 


1S79. 




)fMa. 


Diff. 

from 
Aver- 
ngeof 

38 
Years 


Mean. 


Diff. 
from 
Arer. 

Tears. 


Mean. 


Diff. 
ftrom 
Aver- 

Years. 


Annt. 


Diff. 

from 
Aver- 
age of 

64 
Ycar». 


At or 
below 
SOo. 


Be- 

tveen 
80O 
ami 
40O. 


Above 
40O. 


Month! 




80 


- 7 


In. 
29-661 


In. 

+ •097 


Gra. 
668 


Grs. 
+ 10 


In. 
2-6 


In. 
+0-7 


Milei. 
283 


24 


7 





187 


o 
33-0 


January 




87 


+ 3 


29 -368 


-■488 


647 


- 6 


3-8 


+2-3 


808 


11 


14 


8 


28-0 


44-9 


Feb. 




8f) 


- 2 


29-809 


+ 069 


669 


+ 2 


0^6 


-1-0 


816 


13 


Snm 
88 


1 

Snm 

4 


24-9 


42-2 


March 




82 


29-674 


-•091 


654 


+ 8 


Sum 
7-0 


Sum 
+2-0 


Mean 
301 


Sum 
48 


18-7 


Higfast 
44^ 


Mean 




81 


+ 8 


29 620 


-•241 


644 


■ + 1 


2-6 


+0-9 


229 


8 


30 


2 


24-0 


40-6 


April 




76 


- 1 


29-838 


+ -062 


644 


+ 8 


8-4 


+1-3 


260 


8 


14 


9 


24-6 


46 6 


May 




80 


-t- « 


29-641 


--171 


681 


- 1 


4-8 


+2-3 


277 





3 


27 


86 8 


66-6 


June 




7» 


+ 8 


29-666 


I--120 


640 


+ 1 


Slim 
10-3 


Sum 

+ 4-6 


Mean 
256 


Sum 
16 


Sum 
37 


Sum 
38 


Lowent 
24-0 


%•' 


Mean 




84 


+ » 


29-628 


-•177 


629 


+ 1 


8-7 


+ 1-2 


314 








81 


400 


68-6 


July 




88 


+ 9 


29-672 


-•114 


528 





6-2 


+8-8 


286 








31 


41-0 


66-2 


August 




84 


+ 4 


29 802 


-•008 


684 


+ 1 


2-8 


i+0-4 


221 





8 


27 


86-0 


67-0 


Sept. 




84 


+ 7 


29-701 


-•098 


680 


+ 1 


Sam 
11-7 


Sum 

+ 4-4 


Mean 
273 


Sum 



Sura 
3 


Sum 

89 


Lowest 
36-0 


X" 


Mean 




89 


+ 8 


29-962 


+ -2M 


646 


+ 6 


0-8 


-2-0 


263 


8 


12 


16 


29-2 


oOO 


October 




8S 


- 8 


80-084 


+ •295 


669 


+ 11 


0-9 


-1-6 


239 


18 


11 


1 


16-0 


42-2 


Nov. 




87 


- 1 


80-139 


+ -863 


668 


+ 16 


0-6 


-1-4 


230 


24 


7 





13-7 


37-5 


Dec. 




87 





30-024 


+ -800 


667 


+ 11 


Sum 
2-3 


Sum 
-4-9 


Mean 
241 


Sum 
46 


Sum 
80 


Sum 
17 


LowMt 
13-7 


"«W 


Mean 



below the average, and that the aign (+) plus signifies above the average. 



The mecm temperature of the air for the quarter was 89°^9, being 8^^7 
and 4^*6 reapectiTely below the avflraget of the preceding 108 years and 
88 years. 

The mean high day temperatures of the air were 2^*8, fSi^'i, and 7^*5 respec- 
tivelj, below their averages in October, November and December. 

s 

The mean tow night temperatures of the air were 0°'6, 4^*0, and 8^-5 respec- 
tively, below their averages in October, November and December. Therefore the 
days and nights were cold Uironghont the quarter, and particularly so in November 
and December. 



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166 



Periodical Returns, 



[Mar. 



No. n.-6G0TLAND. 
BIRTHSl, DEATHS, aitd MABBIAGES, nr thx Ybab 

(BNDBD aiST DbOSMBBB, 1879. 



I. — Sevial Table : — Number of Bprths, Deaths, and Marriaobs in Scotland^ and 
their Proportion to the Population estimated to the Middle of each Year^ during 
each Quarter of the Years 1679-76 inclusive. 





1879. 


1878. 


1«77. 


1876. 


1875. 




Number. 


Per 
•Cent. 


Number. 


Per 
Cent. 


Number. 


Per 
Cent. 


Number. 


Per 
Cent. 


Number. 


Per 
Cent. 


1st quarter— 

Births 

Deaths 

Marriages .. 


31,830 

22,364 

5,956 


3'5i 
2'47 
0-66 


81,226 

20,320 

6,063 


3-48 
2-26 
0*63 


31,256 

20,525 

5,977 


3*51 
2'3i 
0*67 


82,333 

21,294 

6^663 


3-67 
241 
0*75 


31,096 

25,116 

6,369 


3-56 
2-87 
0-73 


Mean Tern- 1 
perature j 


84°0 


89°-9 


38''-5 


3r-9 


88°-7 


2.nd Quarter- 

Births 

Deattis 

Marriages .. 


32,968 
18,784 
'6,050 


3-64 

2-04 

0*67 


33,629 

19,&14 

6,095 


3*74 

2-17 

0-68 


33,355 

19,580 

6,735 


3*75 

2'20 
0*76 


53,088 

19,270 

6,469 


3'75 
i-i8 

0-73 


32,294 

19,518 

6,638 


3*70 

2-23 

0*76 


Mean Tern- 1 

perature j' 


46*'-8 


50''-4 


4r-5 


49°'2 


60^-73 


Srd Quarter— 

Births 

Deaths 

Marriages .. 


81,436 

16,115 

5,061 


3-47 

1-67 
0*56 


31,236 

17,344 

5,508 


3-48 
1*93 
o-6i 


30,988 

15,919 

5,694 


3*45 
1*79 
0*64 


80,790 

16,465 

5,895 


3*49 
1-87 
0*67 


30,123 

18,050 

5,723 


3 '45 
2-07 
0*65 


MeanTem-' 
perature 


64^1 


5r-5 


54''0 


56'0 


5r-27 


^th Quarter— 

Births 

Deaths 

Marriages .. 


30,064 

17,480 

6,523 


3-32 
1*93 
0-72 


30,616 

19,597 

6,662 


3*4< 
2-i8 

0-74 


31,225 

17,916 

7,384 


3*51 

2*OI 
0*83 


80,588 

17,093 

7,546 


3-46 
1*94 
0-86 


30,180 

19,101 

7,191 


3*45 
2-19 
0-82 


Mean Tem- 
perature 


40°-4 


39°-2 


42°-8 


43°-5 


4r-7 


Year— 
Population . 


3.6^7,453 


3>593»929 


3»56o,7i5 


3.5*7,811 


3,495»2H 


Births 

Deaths 

Marriages.. 


125,736 
73,329 
23,462 


3-46 

Z'02 
0*65 


126,707 
76,775 
24,333 


3'53 

2-14 

o'68 


126,824 
73,946 
25,790 


3-56 
2*o8 

0-72 


126,749 
74,122 
26,563 


3*59 

2"10 

0-75 


123,693 
81,785 
25,921 


3'54 
i'34 
0-74 



Digitized by 



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1880.] 



Begtstrar-OeneraVs Report : — Scotlcmd. 



167 



I r. — Special Average Table: — dumber of Births, Deaths, and Marriages in Scotland and 
in the Tovm and Country Districts for each Quarter of the Year ending 3lst 
December, 1879, and their Proportion to the Population; also the Number of 
Illegitimate Births, and their Proportion to the Total Births. 





TotHl Births. 


Illegitimate 


Births. 


Deaths. 


Marriaifes. 


Registration 
Groups 
















Per 
Cent. 


Ratio. 




Per 


Ratio. 




Per 


Ratio. 




Per 


Ratio. 


of Districts. 


Number 


One in 
every 


Nnmber 


Cent. 


One in 
erery 


Number. 


Cent. 


One in 
every 


Number. 


Cent. 


One in 
every 


Isf Quarter— 


























Scotland 


31,830 


3*51 


28 


2,736 


8-6 


11-6 


22,364 


3^-47 


40 


5,966 


0-66 


152 


Principal towns 


10,955 


r46 


29 


911 


8-^ 


120 


8,125 


*'57 


39 


2,421 


0*76 


132 


Large „ 
Small 


3,894 


4*20 


24 


275 


7*1 


141 


2,959 


3'J9 


31 


707 


076 


132 


7,463 


V67 


27 


605 


8-1 


12-3 


4,801 


2-36 


42 


1,288 


0-63 


159 


Mainland rural 


8,778 


r^f 


30 


894 


lo'a 


9-8 


5,758 


2*2<; 


46 


1,311 


0-50 


200 


Insular „ 


740 


231 


43 


50 


6-8 


14-7 


721 


2*20 


44 


229 


071 


141 


2nd Quarter — 










^" 
















Scotland 


32,968 


3-64 


27 


2,606 


7*9 


12-7 


18,784 


2-04 


49-0 


6,050 


0-67 


140 


Principal towns 


11,506 


V6^ 


28 


959 


8M 


120 


7,007 


2*21 


45-2 


2,392 


076 


132 


Large „ 


4,294 


46 s 


22 


273 


6-4 


15-6 


2,327 


2*51 


39-8 


698 


075 


133 


Small 


7,878 


V87 


26 


561 


7'i 


141 


4,230 


2*o8 


AS'\ 


1,280 


0*63 


159 


Mainland rural 


8,576 


V^7 


30 


770 


9*0 


111 


4^657 


1-78 


56-2 


1,578 


o'6o 


167 


Insular „ 


714 


2'23 


45 


43 


60 


16-7 


563 


176 


56-8 


102 


0-32 


313 


9rd QuaHer— 


























Scotland 


31,436 


3*47 


29 


2,729 


8-7 


11-6 


15,115 


1-67 
1-73 


60-0 


6,061 


0-56 


179 


Principal towns 


10,781 


3*40 


29 


940 


8-7 


11-5 


5,462 


58-0 


2,236 


071 


142 


Large „ 


3,980 


429 


23 


265 


6-7 


16-0 


1,892 


2-04 


490 


645 


070 


144 


SmaU 


7,598 


3*74 


27 


627 


8-3 


121 


3,478 


1-71 


58-5 


1.076 


o-.')3 


189 


Mainland rural 


8,177 


V12 


32 


846 


10-^ 


9-7 


8,831 


146 


68-4 


1,009 


0-39 


259 


Insular „ 


900 


2-8 1 


36 


51 


5*7 


17-6 


452 


1-41 


70-9 


95 


0-30 


337 


Uh Quarter— 


























Scotland 


30,064 


3'32 


30 


2,606 


8-6 


11-5 


17,480 


^•93 


52 


6,523 


072 


139 


Principal towns ' 


10,285 


3-25 


31 


873 


8-^ 


11-8 


6,538 


2-o6 


48 


2,420 


076 


131 


Large 


3,782 


4-o8 


25 


264 


7-0 


14-8 


2,259 


2*44 


41 


724 


078 


128 


SmaU 


7,169 


3'S2 


28 


675 


8-0 


12-5 


4,060 


2'OC 


50 


1,441 


071 


141 


Mainland rural 


7,915 


V02 


33 


839 


io'6 


9-4 


4,198 


r6o 


62 


1,785 


0-68 


147 


Insular „ 


923 


2*88 


35 


55 


6-0 


16-8 


425 


^'11 


75 


163 


0-48 


209 



Papulation of Scotland, 



Population. 


ScoUand. 


Principal 
Towns. 


Large 
Towns. 


Small 
Towns. 


Mainli«na 
Rural. 


Insular 
Rural. 


By Census of 1871 

Estimated to the middle \ 
of 1879 ' 


3,360,018 
3»627,453 


1,079,211 
1,266,521 


318,740 
371,076 


767,487 
813,646 


1,062,576 
1,048,013 


182,004 
128,198 



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168 



Periodieal Beturns, 



[Mar. 



III. — Ba»tardy Table: — Proportion of Illbgitimatb in every Hundred 
Births in the Divisiom and Counties of Scotland, during each 
quarter of the Year ending 31«/ December, 1870 ; unth the Corresponding 
Figures for 1878 added for Comparison, 



Divitioni aad CoantiM. 



Per Cent for the Qtuirtert ending 



SUt 
March. 



80th 
June. 



HOth 
Sept. 



Silt 
Dec 



Per Cent, for the Qumrten endiig 

187B. 



Slit 
March. 



SOth 
Jane. 



SOth 
Sept. 



Silt 
Dec. 



SOOTLAUD 



8-6 



7-9 



8-7 



8-67 



8*46 



7-8 



8-5 



Divisions — 
Northern 

North-western.. 

North-Eastern .. 

East Midland .. 

West Midland .. 

South- Western.. 

South-Eastem .. 

Southern 



Countiss — 

Shetland 

Orkney 

Caithness 

Sutherland 

Boss and Cromarty 

Inverness 

Nairn 

. Elgin 

BanflT 

Aberdeen 

Kincardine 

Forfar 

Perth 

Fife 

Kinross 

Clackmannan ... 

Stirling 

Dumbarton 

Argyll 

Bute 

Renfrew 

Ayr 

Lanark 

Linlithgow 

Edinburgh 

Haddington ... 

Berwick 

Peebles 

Selkirk 

Roxburgh 

Dumfries 

Kirkcudbright 

Wigtown 



7-0 
6-6 

8-3 
6-8 
7*0 
8-1 
14*6 



4-0 

3-6 

II-4 

6-8 

4-0 

9'2 

9*3 

13-8 

i8-z 

14-6 

i6'9 

9-8 
8-3 
6-9 

**7 

7'5 
6-3 
5*3 
9'5 
8-0 

5*4 
8-0 

7-2 
8-4 
8-0 

7*4 

9*3 

ii-7 

7-5 

12*9 

14*6 

M-4 
17-7 



72 
6-6 

129 
8-8 
5-8 
6-6 
7-6 

11-3 



2-2 

60 

10-8 

6-7 

41 

6-6 

80 

13-9 

160 

131 

9-6 

102 

9-7 

6-5 

5-4 

66 

60 

61 

6-2 

61 

6-6 

71 

6-6 

7-9 

7-4 

7-8 

6-9 

60 

8-3 

100 

11-6 

11-2 

131 



y6 

6'o 
14*0 
9*5 
6-7 
7*5 
7*5 
U*9 



61 
6-0 

141 
9-6 
7-7 
71 
7-6 

14-3 



8-9 
6-0 
14-9 
90 
6'4 
6-9 

7*5 
14-1 



3*o 

5-7 
7-0 

5*9 

6*5 
9-6 

11*9 

i8-o 

13*1 
16-8 

11-4 
8*5 
7'i 

io*6 

6'S 

5*8 
5*9 

lO'O 

4*5 
6-5 
8-1 
7-6 
8-6 

7*1 
8-6 

8-3 

6-4 

10*4 

12-4 

•4*1 
14-9 
14*6 



3-9 

60 

7-6 

6-3 

3-9 

8-0 

61 

15-6 

14*6 

13-8 

16-6 

11-3 

9-4 

6-6 

14-6 

7-7 

8-1 

61 

9-5 

6-8 

6-9 

7-5 

7-4 

8-2 

71 

5-4 

10-9 

9-6 

101 

12-8 

16-6 

14-4 

12-7 



5*1 
9-6 
II-4 
7*7 
3*7 
8-1 

17*5 

22*2 
17*3 

<3*3 

I4'4 

9*3 

9*6 

8-0 

12-8 

9*5 
6-1 

5*6 
8*4 
5*7 
5-6 
6-9 
7'2 
7-6 
7*4 
B'S 
12-6 

7*5 

2*7 

io*4 
i3*« 
i6-7 
i8*o 



90 
61 

130 
8*4 
6-6 
6*4 
7*6 

11*3 



6-4 

72 

13*6 

6*4 

6*0 

7*0 

6*5 

14*8 

140 

12*8 

12*3 

9*8 

7*3 

6-9 

11*6 

7*4 

6*6 

4*8 

6-9 

6*5 

5*1 

6*7 

6*6 

91 

7*5 

61 

7*8 

8*7 

7*1 

9*1 

12-1 

11-2 

12*9 



7*1 

5*9 

14*0 

8*9 

6*2 

71 

8*4 

13*4 



4*» 

7*6 

8-3 
7-8 
3-6 
8*1 

7*4 
16*2 
i6'4 
'3-8 
10*0 

9*9 
io*4 

6-9 

4-8 
7*o 
7*i 
4*3 
7*3 
3*9 
6*4 
7'5 
7-1 
7*9 
8*o 
101 
13*1 
4-8 
8*o 
8-7 
U*8 

i6-3 
i6*i 



8-67 



61 
60 

141 
9*6 
7*7 
7*1 
7-6 

14*3 



3*9 

60 

7-6 

6*3 

3-9 

80 

61 

15*6 

14*6 

13-8 

15*6 

11*3 

9*4 

6*6 

14*6 

7*7 

81 

61 

9*6 

6-8 

6*9 

7-6 

7*4 

8-2 

7*1 

5*4 

10*9 

9*6 

101 

12-3 

16*6 

14*4 

12*7 



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1880.] Registrar-aeneraVs BepoH:^ Scotland. 169 

IV. — Divistonal 7'aW«:— Marriaobs, Births, anc? Dbaths Regiitered in 

the Year ended ^Ut December, 1870. 

(Compiled from the Regiitrar-General'i Quarterly Retnmi.) 



1 

DIVISIONS. 

(Scotland) 


8 

kMMk 

in 
SUtute Acrei. 


8 

Population. 

1871. 

(Persons.) 


4 
Marriagee. 


6 
Birthi. 


6 
Deaths. 


SOOTLAVD TotaU 


19,^391377 


No. 
3,360,018 


No. 
23,729 


No. 
126,850 


No. 
75,860 


I. Korthem 


2,261,622 

4.739,876 
2,429.594 

2,790,492 
2,693,176 

1,462,397 
1,192,524 
2,069,696 


127,191 
166,851 
398,199 

559,676 
251,088 

1,188,218 
475,523 
203,772 


598 

800 

2,604 

3,575 
1,494 

9,646 
3,816 
•1,196 


8,124 

4,279 

13,694 

19,626 
9,081 

52,436 

18,193 

6,417 


2,044 
2,836 
7,175 

12,098 
5,515 

31,920 

10,317 

3,955 


n. North- Western 

in. North-Eaatern 

IT. Bast Midland 

T. West Midland 

ri, Soutb-Western 

yn. South-Eastern 

VIII. Southern 





No. IIL-GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

SumcART of Marriages, in the Year ended 30th September, 1879 ; and 
of Births and Deaths, in the Year ended Zlet December, 1870. 

(Compiled from the Quarterly Retnmi of the reapectire Regittrara-Oeneral.) 





[OOO'i omitted.] 


Marriages. 


Per 
1,000 of 
Popu- 
UUon. 


Birtha. 


Per 

1,000 of 
Popu- 
lation. 


Death!. 


Per 


COOHTKIXS. 


Area 

in 
Statute 
Acres. 


Popu- 

bUon, 

1871. 

{Persons.) 


l.OOOof 
Popu- 
lation. 


England and! 
Wales / 

Scotland 


37,319, 

19,639, 
20,323, 


No. 
22,712, 

3,860, 
5,412, 


No. 
183,018 

23,729 
23,824 


Ratio. 
8-1 

7*1 

4*4 


No. 
882,866 

126,850 
185,408 


Ratio. 
38-9 

37-7 
25*0 


No. 
528,194 

75,860 
105,432 


Ratio. 
23-2 

22-6 


I'vland . . 


19-5 




G^BSAT BbitaiwI 

AND IbBLAND J 


77,281, 


31,484, 


280,571 


7-3 


1,145,124 


36-4 


709,486 


22*2 



Note. — ^The numbers against Ireland represent the marriages, births, and deaths 
that the local registrars hare succeeded in recording ; but how far the registration 
approximates to absolute completeness, does not at present appear to be known. It 
will be seen that the Irish ratios of marriages, births, and deaths are much under those 
of England and Scotland. — Ed. 8. J, 



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iro 



Periodical Returns. 



[Mar. 



Trade of United Kinflrdom, for the Tears 1878-74. — Declared Value of the Total 
Exports of Foreifrn and Colonial Produce and Manufactures to each Foreign 
Country and British Possession. 



Merchmndise Exported 
to tlie following Foreign Coontriet, Sec 



[000*8 omitted.] 



1878. 



1877. 



1876. 



1875. 



1874. 



I.— FOBEIGN COUNTBIBS. 

Northern Enrope; ^iz-i Russia, Sweden, 1 
Norway, Deumark, k Iceland, & Heligoland J 

Central Europe; viz., Germany, Holland 1 
and Belgium j 

Western Europe ; viz., France, Portugal, 1 
(with Azores, Madeira, &c.), and Spain, V 
(with Gibraltar and Canaries) J 

Southern Europe; viz., Italy, Austrian! 
Empire, Greece, Ionian Islands, and Malta / 

Levant ; viz., Turkey, with Wallachia and 1 
Moldavia, Syria and Palestine, and Egypt J 

Northern Africa; viz., Tripoli, Tunis, 1 

Algeria, and Morocco j 

Western Africa 

Eastern Africa; vrith African Ports on 
Red Sea, Aden, Arabia, Persia, Bourbon, 
and Eooria Mooria Islands 

Tndian Seas, Siam, Sumatra, Java, Philip- 1 

pines ; other Islands ^ J 

South Sea Islands 

China, including Hong Kong 

United States of America 

Mexico and Central America 

Foreign West Indies and Hayti 

South America (Northern), New Granada, l 

Venezuela and Ecuador j 
,, (Pacific), Peru, BoUvia,i 

ChiU, and Patagonia .... j 
,1 (AtIantic),Brazil, Uruguay, 1 

and Buenos Ayres J 

Other countries (unenumerated) 



:} 



4.799» 
20,915,. 

i2>973, 

1,766, 

737, 

178, 
257, 

328» 



£ 
4,687, 

22,182, 

12,789, 

1,778, 
474, 

77, 
299, 



307, 



4,951, 
23,543, 

14,343, 

2,066, 
593, 

76, 
270, 



183, 



£ 
5,478, 

25,842, 

13,509, 

2,056, 
655, 

86, 
259, 

162, 



Total — Foreign Countries.. 
n. — ^British Possessions: 



British India, Ceylon, and Singapore 
Austral. Cols. — New South Wales and Vic- 



ic-l 



toria. So. Aus., W. Aus., Tasm., and 
Zealand 

British Xorth America 

„ W.Indies with Bt>8h.GKiiana& Honduras 

Cape and Natal 

Brt. W. Co. of Af., Ascension and St. Helena. 

Mauritius 

Channel Islands ., 

Other possessions 



Total — British Possessions 



General Total £ 



38a, 

2,980, 

121, 

689, 

37, 

323, 

735» 
109, 



344, 

3,509, 
119, 
497, 

33, 

264, 

593, 

150, 



290, 

3,393, 

97, 

595, 

41, 

297, 

406, 

136, 



407, 

3,194, 

125, 

406, 

58, 
360, 
452, 

79, 



47,329, 



1^536, 

597, 

306, 

546, 

99, 

22, 

198, 

5o» 



5»3o6, 



52,635» 



47,997, 



51,280, 



53,128, 



1475, 

2^18, 

642, 
328, 
387, 

82, 
106, 
184, 

34, 



5,466, 



53,453, 



1,433, 

1,788, 



347, 

315, 

84, 

22, 

170, 

80, 



4,857, 



56,137, 



1,536, 

1,733, 

646, 

361, 

441, 

94, 

26, 

150, 

31, 



5,018, 



£ 
5,116, 

24,016, 

14,560, 

2,105, 
668, 

93, 
271, 

29, 
34, 



441, 

3,996, 
216, 
490, 

45, 

262, 

512, 

438, 



52,995, 



58,146, 



1,437, 

1,606, 

879, 

325, 

400, 

41, 

69, 

99, 

241, 



5,097. 



58,092, 



Digitized by 



Google 



1880.] 



Imports, ExporUy Shipping y Bullion. 



171 



^rade of TTnited EUn^dom, 1879-78-77. — Distribution of Exports* ^rom United Kingdom, 
according to their Declured Real VcUue; and the Declared Real Value {Ex-duty) of 
Imports at Port of Entry, and therefore including Freight and Importers Profit, 



Mercbuidiie {excluding Gold and Sihtr) 

Imported from, and Exported to, 

the following I'oreisn Conntriet, Ice. 



I. — FOBEIGN COUNTBIES: 

Northern Europe ; yiz., Russia, Sweden, \ 
Norway, Denmark & Iceland, & Heligoland J 

CeDtral Europe; Tiz., Germany, Holland, 1 
and Belgium „ j 

Western Europe ; vi«.. France, Portugal i 
(with Azores, Madeira, &c.), and Spain > 
(with Gibraltar and Canaries) J 

Southern Europe; ▼iz-* Italy, Austrian \ 
Empire, Ghreece, Ionian Islands, and Malta j 

Levant ; viz., Turkey, with Wallaohia and 1 
Moldavia, Syria and Palestine, and Egypt J 

Northern Africa; viz., XripoU, Tunis, 1 

Algeria and Morocco J 

Western Africa 

Eastern Africa; with African Ports on 
Bed Sea, Aden, Arabia, Persia, Bourbon 
and Kooria Mooria Islands, 

Indian Seas, Siam, Sumatra, Java, Philip- ] 

pines; other Islands J 

South Sea Islands 

China and Japan, including Hong Kong 
United States of America ^ 

Mexico and Central America , 

Foreign West Indies, Hayti, &c. 



•} 



South America (Northern), NewGranada, l 

Venezuela, and Ecuador J 
„ (Pacific), Peru, Bolivia, 1 

Chili, and Patagonia .... J 
„ (Atlantic)Brazil, Uruguay, 1 

and Buenos Ayres j 

Whale Fisheries ; Gmlnd., Davis' Straits, 1 
Southn.WhaleFishery,&Falkland Islands J 

Total — Foreign Countries 



II. — Beitish Possessions : 

Britiah India, Ceylon, and Singapore 

Austral. Cols. — N. So.W.,Victoria&Qucensld, 

„ „ So, Aus-, W. Aus., Tasm., 1 

and N. Zealand J 

British North America 

„ W.IndieswithBtsh.Guiana&Honduras 

Cape and Natal 

Brt. W. Co. of Af., Ascension and St. Helena 

Mttoritius 

Channel Islands 



Total — British Possessions 

General Total £ 



[UOO'i omitted.] 



1879. 



Imports 
ttom 



28,916, 

8,306, 
12,267, 

1.035. 
1,436, 

454. 

3i320, 

167, 
1 2,844, 

90,896, 
1,965, 
3.294, 

1,562, 
7,379, 
5,974, 

153, 



284,919, 



3«,024, 

8,291, 

10,569, 

7,303, 

4.570, 

586, 

642, 

738, 



77.361, 



362,280, 



£ 
11,814, 

33,078, 

20,804, 

8,622, 
9,325, 

602, 
836, 

1,066, 

2,297, 

168, 
10,238, 

20,595, 
1,407, 
2,625, 

1,624, 

1,749, 

8,661, 

12, 



135.223, 



24,201, 
10,080, 

6,178, 

6,465, 

2,812, 

5,844, 

767, 

345, 

599, 



56,281, 



I9«.504, 



1878. 



Imports 
fh,m 



£ 
31,427, 

$7,134, 

54.3*6, 

6,825, 
11,803, 

1,089, 
1,269, 

538, 

3,111, 

116, 

15.426, 

89,071, 

1,500, 

2,217, 

1,164, 

7,957, 

6,375, 

170, 



291,518, 



32,975. 
13,029, 

7,795. 

9,441, 

^,334, 

4.383. 

624, 

889, 

946, 



76,416, 



367,934, 



EaporU 



£ 
10,859, 

34,275, 

21,128, 

8,251, 
10,841, 

406, 
1,174, 

465, 

2,563, 

81, 
9,212, 

14,621, 
1,503, 
2,836, 

1,705, 

2,684, 

8,891, 

22, 



131.457, 



26,853, 
12,480, 

7,089, 

6,412, 

2,761, 

4,911, 

897, 

409, 

536, 



61,347, 



192,804, 



1877. 



Import* 
from 



£ 
36,510 

59,106, 

60,829, 

8,350- 
18,258, 

1,874. 
1,525, 

543. 

3,755. 

82 

16,048 

77,669, 
2,167. 
2,099: 

722; 
8,321, 

8,775. 
177, 



306,81c, 

38,396, 
14,682, 

7,031, 

12,010, 
7,117. 
4.275i 

772i 
1,918, 

938, 



87,139. 



393.949 



Ksperit 



£ 
10,172, 

34,615, 

21,355, 

8,946, 
8,083 

700, 
1,175, 

464, 

3,394, 

78, 
10,119, 

16,313, 
1,925, 
3,169, 

1,783, 

2,864, 

9,134, 

21, 



34»2io, 

28,657, 
13,209, 

6,072, 

7,585, 

3,008, 

4,114, 

833, 

494, 

549, 

64,521, 



198,731, 



* i,e,f British and Irish produce and manufactures. 

yitized by 



Google 



172 



Periodical BekmM, 



[Mar. 



IMPORTS. -(United Kingdom.)— For the Tears 1870-78-77-76-76.— 2)ec^arec^ 
Real Value {Ex-duty), at Port of EiUry {and therefore indvding Freight and 
Importei^s Profit), of Articles of Foreign and Colonial Merchandise Imported 
into the United Kingdom, 

[000*B omitted.] 



FoRKlOM AATICLK8 ImFOKTSD. 


1879. 


1878. 


1877. 


1876. 


1875. 


BAwMiTL8.-r«ar<i7tf,&c. Cotton Wool .... 
Wool (Sheep's).. 
Silk* 


£ 

36,279, 

24*930, 

16,825, 

3,581, 

4,943, 

1,901, 


£ 

88,524, 

24,589, 

16,867, 

8,483, 

6,156, 

1,583, 


£ 

86;489, 

26,310, 

17,733, 

6,055, 

4,978, 

1,686, 


£ 

40,847, 

24,980, 

18,186, 

8,537, 

4,755, 

2,180, 


£ 

46,820, 
22389, 
15,227, 


Flax 


4,880, 




4,822, 


Indigo 


1,62^1, 








88,459, 


85,202, 


9>,>96, 


93,935» 


95,259, 


„ „ yarious. Hides 


5,109, 

3,477, 

lo,6iy, 

2,>00, 

10,726, 


6,266, 
3,184, 

10,632, 
1,811, 

13,915, 


6.495, 
^,200, 

11,569, 
2,570, 

20,191, 


6,273, 
4,786, 

10,252, 
2,874, 

19,026, 


7,005, 


Oils 


5,868, 


Metals 


12,685, 


TaDow 


2,087, 


Timber 


15,862, 








3^,031, 


35,808, 


45,025, 


43,210, 


42,457, 


,, ,, Aareltl, O-nano 


704, 
7,098, 


1,806, 
8,690, 


1,667, 
9.139, 


2.462, 
8,970, 


1,292, 


Seeds 


8,789, 








7,802, 


io495> 


10,806, 


",43», 


10,081, 


Tropical, Ac.,PiiODTroK. Tea 


i',373, 
7,324, 

22,35', 
>,975, 
5,481, 
3,794, 
5,380, 

2,895» 


13,097, 
6,098, 

21,107, 
3,718, 
3,192, 
3,509, 
6,003, 
2,209, 


12,482, 
7,852, 

27,277, 
3,589, 
8,507, 
4,384, 
7,156, 
2,256, 


12,818, 
6,413, 

20,620, 
8,946, 
2,927, 
8,839. 
7,020, 
3,968, 


14,167, 


Coffee 


7,606, 


Sugar & Molasses 
Tobacco 


21,917, 
2,987, 


Rice 


1 2,991, 


Fruits 


3,789, 


Wines 


6,821, 


Spirits 


2,885, 








58,573, 


58,928, 


68,403, 


61,541, 


63,162, 


Food Qraisi and Meal. 

ProTisions 


60,596, 
35,901, 


58,378, 
35,951, 


63,210, 
33,241, 


51,550, 
82,837, 


52,714, 
25,752, 




96,497, 


94,324, 


96,45i» 


84,387, 


78,466, 


Remainder of Enumerated Articles .... 


4^955. 


43,253, 


42,560, 


4>,i99» 


45,716, 


Total Enxtmbsatbd Impobt^..^ 
Add for Unbihtmeilated Iicpokts (say) 


325,3*7, 
36,810, 


328,010, 
38,050, 


354,44^ 
39,500, 


335»704, 
38,300, 


335»Hi, 
38,800, 


Total Impobts 


362,127, 


366,060, 


393>94i» 


374,004, 


373,94',-:^ 





* ** Silk," inclusive of manufactured silk, *' not made up." 



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1880.] 



Imports, Exports^ Shipping^ Bvlllon. 



173 



EXPORTS.— (United Kingdom.)— Por the Years 1879-78-77-76-76.— 2)«c;arc(i 
Real ValuBf at Fort of Shipment j of Articles of British and Irish Produce 
and Manufactures Exported frova the United Kingdom, 

[OOO't omitted.] 



BllTISR PXODUCB, IcO., BXPOETBD. 


1879. 


1878. 


1877. 


1876. 


1876. 


MiKFBS.— reoT^fZ^. Cotton ManufeuitiiFes.. 
Tarn 


51,843, 
iA,i03, 

15*85 1> 
3,714, 
1,696, 

694» 
5»474, 
i,c75, 


£ 

52,908, 

13,006, 

16,723, 

3,910, 

1,921, 

664, 

5,526, 

1,213, 


£ 

66,964, 

12,209, 

17,335, 

8,609, 

1,707, 

572, 

5,830, 

1,291, 


£ 

54,851, 

12,783, 

18,620, 

4,417, 

1,769, 

1,073, 

5,621, 

1,460, 


£ 

58,666, 

13,170, 

21,649, 

6,102, 

1,738, 

878, 

7,271, 

1,865, 


Woollen Manufactures 
„ Yam 


Silk Manufactures 

„ Yam 

Linen Manufactures .... 
Yam 






9^,450, 


95,766, 


99,507, 


100,594, 


I10,Z28, 


„ Sewed, Appai^l 


3,198, 
3,487, 


8,166, 
3,966, 


2,833, 
8,803, 


2,962, 
3,771, 


8,186, 
4,922, 


Bikberdy. and Mllnry. 




6,685, 


7,121, 


6,636, 


6,733. 


8,107, 


'M'KVATii. Ikjn Bardware 


3,019, 
7,283, 

i9»439» 
3,380, 
1,019, 

7,20i, 


3,290, 
7,490, 
18,394, 
3,622, 
1,057, 
7,321, 


8,336, 
6,683, 
20,095, 
8,503, 
1,363, 
7,829, 


8,481, 
7,198, 
20,731, 
3,401, 
1,202, 
8,901, 


4,266, 
9,099, 
25,781, 
3,730, 
1,300, 
9,646, 


Ma<4»inerT ,,,-.-,,- ,r-. 


Ii^n 


Copper and Brass 

Leaa and Tin 


Coals and Culm 




4»»342, 


41,074, 


42,809, 


44,914, 


53,821, 


Ceramic Mannfcts, Earthenware and Glass 


2,5'26, 


2,450, 


2,614, 


2,577, 


2,812, 


Indi^enon* Kfi^e. Beer and Ale ..,,.... 


i»759» 
235» 
55. 
136, 
552. 
454, 


1,762, 
243, 
66, 
170, 
503, 
390, 


1,895, 
247, 
72, 
196, 
463, 
373, 


1,922, 
210, 
70, 
151, 
529, 
312, 


2,090, 

240, 

88 


and Products. Butter 


Cheese 


Candles 


177, 
676, 
277 


Salt ^ 

Spirits 


Soda 


2,300, 






3»<9i» 


3,134, 


3,246, 


3,194, 


5,848, 


Various Mfmufcts, Books, Printed 


953, 

2,058, 
433, 
213, 
664, 


891, 

2,003. 
406, 
221, 
647, 


896, 

1,995, 
366, 
218, 
655, 


877, 

3,343, 
312, 
247, 
659, 


915 


Furniture 




Leather Manufactures 
Soap 


2,385, 
311 


. Plate and Watches .... 
Stationery 


uxx, 

804, 
684 




oo*t, 




4,321, 


4,167, 


4,129, 


5438, 


4,599, 


Remainder of Enumerated Articles 

XTnennmerated Artiolesr,- , .,..,.,.„„„.r.„.tT,,r, 


22,936, 
18,053, 


20,953, 
18,139, 


22,509, 
17,281, 


19,796, 
17,330, 


20,880, 
17,200, 




Total Exports 


191,504, 


192,804, 


198,731, 


200,576, 


223,494, 





Digitized by 



Google 



174 



Periodical Betums. 



[Mar. 



SHIPPING.--(United Kiugdom,)^Account of Tonnage of Vesseh Entered and 
Cleared with Cargoee, from and to Various Countries, during the Tears ended 
December^ 1879-78-77. 



Countries from 

whence Entered and 

to 

which Cleared. 



FOEBIGir COUVTBIBS. 

\ Southern h 

Sweden 

Norway 

Denmark 

G^erraany 

Holland 

Belgium 

France „ 

Spain 

Portugal 

Italy 

Austrian territories 

Greece 

Turkey 

Boumania 

Egypt 

United States of America .... 

Mexico, Foreign West 1 
Indies, and Central l 
America J 

Brazil 

Peru 

ChUi 

China 

Other countries 



Total British and Foreign. 



1879. 



Entered. Cleared. 



Total, Foreign Countries 

Bbitish Possessions. 

North American Colonies .... 

Fast Indies, including 1 
Ceylon, Singapore, and V 
Mauritius J 

Australia and New Zealand 

West Indies 

Channel Islands 

Other possessions 



Total, JBrititrh Possessions 



Total Foreign Countries 
AND British Possessions, 

Tears 

ended 
December, 



ri879 

i 78 

I 77 



Ton*. 

1,161,245 

284,747 

1,143,64S 

665,034 

239,776 

1,653,266 

1,250,035 

828,024 

1,843,596 

1,106,416 

188,603 

262,477 

38,767 

74,442 

164,523 

79,726 

281,056 

4,981,317 

317,892 

209,025 
113,543 
127,832 
138,513 
608,344 



17,746,842 



1,249,901 

949,453 

357,339 
206,795 
296,444 
292,570 



3,352,502 



Tom. 
1,066,649 
151,107 
632»399 
442i»i79 
640,744 

2,361,798 

1,360,310 

872,170 

3,230,265 

713,797 

351,700 

1,029,891 

80,296 

76,749 

264*453 

i3>75i 

430,888 

3,038,411 

464474 

467,276 
79,680 

156,702 
i3»4" 

711,177 



18,670,277 



715,169 
1,530,654 

549402 

179,563 

199,134 

1,005,158 



4,179,080 



21,099,344 22,849,357 



1878. 



Entered. 



Tons. 
1,389,143 

364,882 
1,135,394 

765,235 

226,282 
1,709,068 
1,226,814 

875,987 
1,952,058 
1,155,908 

219,861 

254,066 
39,570 
64,581 

801,974 

201,656 
4,718,304 

223,439 

199,069 
239,363 
32,660 
170,288 
664,099 



18,009,691 



1,248,277 

1,040,738 

809,906 
182,699 
288,739 
238,296 



3,308,665 



21,318,246 



aeared. 



Tom. 

983,599 

237,8' I 

645,757 

425,973 

609,992 

2,277,658 

1,361,961 

902,760 

5,120,192 

665,720 

316,824 

894,049 

85,108 

72,099 

385,180 

394,598 
2»369,354 

412,656 

491,033 
69,667 

176,520 
20,281 

625,858 



17,544,650 



686,395 
1416,506 

597,995 
160,577 
182,052 
993,5 »3 



4,037,038 



21,581,688 



1877. 



Entered. Cleared. 



Tons. 
1,804,220 

166,737 
1,324,690 

775,660 

202,402 
1,705,672 
1,206,035 

882,532 
1,967,674 
1,184,911 

219,158 

336,877 
37,869 
79,334 

838,643 

417,790 
4,070,638 

198,730 

230,793 
216,438 
62,166 
150,222 
649,728 



Tons. 

938435 
56,542 
746,935 
463,323 
658,951 

2,317,399 
1,322,876 

932,156 

2,98 1 ,046 

696,039 

314,078 

869,110 

88,610 

64,445 

221,353 

470,357 
2,029,537 

413,946 

474,667 

85,543 
186,439 

28,887 
638,132 



18,207,709 16,998,812 



1,641,153 

1,277,962 

269,018 
173,338 
289,199 
273,097 



3,923,767 



707,982 
1,698,887 

598,391 
160,589 
174,691 
857,668 



4,198,208 



22,131,47621,197,020 



Digitized by 



Google 



1880.] 



Imports, Exports, Shipping, Btdlion, 



175 



GOLD AHD SILVER BULLION and SPECIE.— (United Kingdom.) 
— Declared Heal Value of, Imported and Exported for the Tears 

1879-78-77. 

[OOO'i omitted.] 





1879. 1 


1878. 1 


1877. 


Conntries. 


Gold. 


SUter. 


Gold. 


SiUer. 


Gold. 


Siher. 


Imported from — 

Aufltra-liA 


£ 
3,152, 

1,374, 

388, 


£ 

110, 

3»767, 
2,59^» 


£ 
5,681, 

1,591, 

866, 


£ 

21, 

3,548, 

i,6i6. 


£ 
6,655, 

1,172, 

2,062, 


£ 
38, 


So. Amoa., including 1 
Mexico and W. [. 
Indies J 

United States 


3,394. 
2,616, 






Prance 


4,914, 

2,903, 
853, 

563, 
409, 

809, 

116, 
2,765, 


6,473, 

2,347, 
833» 

274» 

22, 

349, 

62, 

374. 


8,138, 

5,908, 
2,019, 

376, 
1,578, 

480, 

122, 
2,801, 


1,741, 
4,100, 

77, 
43, 

I, 

41, 
361, 


9,889, 

873, 
1,036, 

501, 
817, 

187, 

121, 
2,528, 


6,048, 

1.521, 
U.855. 

46, 
107, 

I, 

11, 
122, 


Germany, Holl. &\ 
Belg / 

Prtgl., Spain, and! 
Gbrltp / 

Mlta. and Egjpt 

China, including 1 

Hong Kong J 

West Coast of Africa 
All other Countries .... 




13,331, 


10,734. 


20,872, 


",549, 


15,452, 


21,711, 


Prance ,,,,,,,r--rrt,T.----,r,rt 


696, 
3,537, 

859, 


723, 
1,871, 

279» 


4^599, 
5,324, 

1,316, 


2,191, 
I1645. 

729, 


6,147, 
8,404, 

744, 


768, 
166, 

1,566, 


Germany, Holl. k 
Belg ; 

Prtgl., Spain, and 
Gbrltr. / 


Ind. and Cliina... 


5,092, 

219, 
6,949, 

1,730, 

1,072, 
2,617, 


2,873, 

6,574,* 
614, 

24. 

596, 
350, 


11,239, 

233, 

829, 

847, 

809, 
1,612, 


4.565, 

5,840, 
1,083, 

39. 
191, 


16,296, 

609, 
1,168, 

485, 

683, 
2,121, 


2,500, 

16,361, 
298, 

7, 

59, 
212, 


United States 


South Africa 


So. Amca., including 1 
Mexico and W. 
Indies 

All other Countries .... 


TotaU Exported .... 


17,579, 


11,031, 


14,969, 


11,718, 


20,361, 


19,437, 


Excess of imports .... 
exports .... 


^, 


297, 


6,903, 


169, 


4,"9()9, 


2,274, 



• This entry is now shown direct, instead of to Egypt as formerly. 



Digitized by 



Google 



176 



Periodical Beturns. 



[Mar. 



BRITISH CORN.— (7<w«tt« Average Pricet (Exolakd and Walks) 
Weekly for 1979. 

[Thife Table i» oommnnioated hj tlie Statutical and Com Department, Board of Trade.] 



Weeks ended 



Saturday. 



Weekly Arerage. 
(Per Imperial Quarter J 



Wheat. 



Barley. 



OaU. 



Weeks eided 

on 

Saturday. 



Weekly Average. 
(Per Imperial Quarter.) 



Wheat. 



Barley. 



OaU. 



1879. 
January 4 

„ 11 
„ 18 
» 25 

February 1 .... 
.> 8 
„ 15 
,, 22 



March 1.. 
„ 8.. 
„ 15.. 
» 22.. 
„ 29.. 

April 5 .. 
,, 12 .. 
„ 19 .. 
,, 26 .. 



May 3.. 
,, 10.. 
„ 17.. 
„ 24.. 
., 31.. 



June 7 
„ u 
,, 21 
„ 28 



*. d. 

39 7 

39 7 

38 II 

39 I 

38 4 

38 I 

38 I 

37 7 

38 - 

39 I 

39 7 

40 8 
40 8 

40 II 

41 - 
41 2 
40 II 

40 9 

40 9 

40 8 

41 4 
41 5 

41 7 

41 4 

41 8 

42 6 



e, d. 
38 10 
86 11 

36 11 

37 5 

36 9 
35 7 
35 5 
34 10 

33 10 

34 4 
34 1 
83 9 
33 - 

32 6 
32 8 

30 11 

31 - 

80 1 
30 9 
30 1 
28 10 
28 6 

26 6 
28 2 
25 11 
28 1 



a. d, 

20 3 

20 I 

19 8 

20 I 

'9 5 

20 - 

19 2 

20 3 

19 7 

20 5 

20 9 

21 I 

20 8 

21 I 
20 8 
20 7 

20 II 

21 9 

ii 5 

21 II 

22 6 
21 II 

21 8 

a* 3 

23 5 

22 I 



1879. 

July 5 

„ 12 ....... 

„ 19 

„ 26 

August 2 .... 
„ 9 .... 
„ 16 .... 
„ 23 .... 
„ 80 .... 

September 6 
„ 13 
„ 20 
., 27 

October 4..., 
„ 11 ... 
„ 18.... 
., 25 ... 

November 1 

8 

15 



December 6 
„ 13 
„ 20 
,, 27 



e. d, 

42 4 

43 4 

44 10 

47 7 

49 3 

49 7 

49 5 

49 3 

48 I 

48 z 

47 II 

47 4 

46 5 

47 I 

48 8 

49 9 

49 >o 

50 4 
50 5 
48 9 
47 10 
46 7 

46 7 

46 2 

46 6 

47 1 



8, d. 

24 6 

24 - 

28 - 

29 1 

28 6 
26 11 
31 - 

31 1 

29 7 

32 11 

36 8 
43 2 
41 11 

40 7 
40 9 
40 10 

40 10 

41 1 
40 8 
40 1 
39 8 
38 10 

38 4 
38 5 
38 7 

37 11 



*. d. 

24 2 

21 - 

22 - 
^4 4 

2t 8 

24 2 

»3 6 

24 10 

24 9 

26 7 

^5 7 

22 II 

23 II 

23 4 

22 2 

22 2 

a* 3 

22 I 

21 C 

21 4 

21 6 

20 6 

»« 4 

21 4 
20 II 
20 10 






Digitized by 



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1880.] 



Periodical BehtoTM. 



177 



BRITISH COBN. ^Gazette Average Prices (England and Wales), 
Summary of, for 1870, vdth those for 1878, added for Comparison, 

[This Tftble U oommiuiicated hj the Statiatieal and Corn Department, Board of Trade.] 



Average for 



January — 

Febrnaiy m 

March — -...m.^.. 



First quarter 



April. 
May . 
June . 



Second quarter.... 



July 

August 

September.. 



Third quarter .... 

October ^..^ 

Kovember 

December ».. 



Fcmrth quarter.... 
ThbYhab .... 



Per Imperial Quarter, 1879. 



Wheal. 



*. d. 

39 3 

38 - 

39 7 



39 - 



41 - 
40 II 
+1 9 



41 2 



44 6 
49 I 
47 5 



47 



48 10 
48 9 
46 7 



48 I 



43 10 



Barley. 



s. 
37 

85 

83 



35 6 



31 8 
29 7 
27 2 



29 6 



26 4 
29 5 
38 8 



31 4 



40 9 
40 - 
W 3 



39 8 



34 - 



Oats. 



S. d. 

20 

19 8 

20 6 



20 9 

21 10 
*i 4 



21 8 



22 10 

*3 9 
24 9 



23 



i* 5 
21 4 
21 I 



21 7 



21 9 



Per Imperial Quarter, 1878. 



Wheat. 



s. d. 

51 II 

51 4 

49 7 



50 10 



51 3 

48 - 



50 a 



44 II 
44 9 
43 8 



44 6 



39 7 

40 4 

40 3 



40 a 



46 5 



Barley. 



«. d. 

43 11 

44 2 
42 5 



43 5 



41 11 
39 10 
36 11 



39 4 



37 5 
36 - 
41 7 



38 4 



40 4 
39 8 
88 11 



39 7 



40 2 



Oats. 



s. d. 

23 II 

H 3 

24 - 



^4 



a5 4 
26 - 
26 3 



25 10 



*7 6 
26 2 

24 - 



*5 II 



22 

21 10 
21 - 



21 8 



^4 4 



VOL. XLlll. PART I. 



Digitized by 



Google 



178 



Periodical Eetums. 



[Mar, 



REVENUE ov thb TJnitbd Kikodom. 
Net Produce in Quarters and Years ended 31*< Dec., 1879-78-77-76. 

[OOO's omitt«d.] 



QUABTEB8, 
ended 8l8t Deo. 


1879. 


1878. 


1879. 




Leis. 


More. 


1877. 


1876. 


rhMfcnmfl 


£ 

5>356> 
6,460, 

3,725» 

26, 

1,630, 
365, 


£ 
6,484, 

6,990, 

2,628, 

26, 

1,564, 

826, 


£ 
128, 

680, 


£ 

97, 

76, 
40, 


£ 
6,386, 

6,855, 

2,786, 

46, 

1,677, 

820, 


£ 
5,433, 


Exci06 t • «••••• 


7,058, 


flfajTi'na 


2,692, 


Tftxes 


39, 


Post Office 


1,552, 


Telegraph Serrice .... 


330, 


PiviTiftrfcv Tar 


16,562, 


17,007, 
440, 


658, 


213, 
46, 


16,919, 
342, 


17,099, 
281, 






fJ*«"WTi Xjands 


17,048, 

135. 
316, 

1,108, 


17,447, 
141, 
883, 

1,098, 


658, 

6, 

67, 


259» 
10, 


17,261, 
141. 
837, 
644, 


17,380, 
141, 


Interest on Advances 
Miflcollaneous 


276, 
880, 






TotaU 


18,617, 


19,069, 


721, 

V 


269, 


18,383, 


18.677, 




Nkt Dec*. £462, 




TEAB8, 


1879. 


1878. 


1879. 


Corresponding Yean. 


ended Slst Dec. 


Lttt. 


More. 


1877. 


1876. 


nnntrimfl 


£ 

195750, 

26,277, 

11,019, 

2,644, 

6,3i9» 

i»375» 


£ 
20,166, 

27,372, 

10,652, 

2,665, 

6,180, 

1,380, 


£ 
416, 

1,095, 
11, 


£ 

367, 

'39. 
45. 


£ 
19.762, 

27,868, 

10,968, 

2,636, 

6,133, 

1,820, 


£ 

20,076, 


Excise • 


27,853, 


flfa,ir|T)8 


10,946. 


Taxes • ......«•• • 


2,488. 


Pout Office 


5,970, 


Telegrapli Service .... 


1,295, 


Pro-nertv Tax 


67,384. 
9>485> 


68,364, 
6,031, 


1,521, 


3454. 


68,187, 
6.736, 


68,627, 
4,095, 






rWvkxm TAnds 


76,869, 

399» 

1,127, 

4.272, 


74,386, 

410, 

1,047, 

4,642, 


1,521, 
11, 

370, 


4.005, 
80, 


73,923, 

410, 

954, 

3,898, 


72,722, 
405, 


Interest on Advances 
UTiaAAllainflOiis 


797. 
8,555, 






Totals 


82,667, 


80,484, 


1,902, 


4,085, 


78,680, 


77,479, 




Net IncK. £2,183, 





Digitized by 



Google 



1880.] 



Periodical Betums, 



179 



LONDON OLBABINa; OIBOULATION, PRIVATE AND PROVINCIAL. 
T/ie London Cleainng, and the Average Amount of Promissory Notes in Circulation irk 
England and Wales on Saturday in each Week dttring the Year 1879; and in 
Scotland and Ireland, at the Dates^ as under. 

CO.OOCTs omitted.] 





Elf GLAND 


AHD Walks. 




SCOTLAMD. 


lUCLAND. 




Londont 


Prirrte 


Joint 


















Dates. 


Cletred in 


Banks. 


Stock 
Banks. 


Total. 


Weeks 


£6 


Under 


Total. 


£6 


Under 


Total. 


Saturday. 


each Week 
ended 


(Fixed 
Issnes, 


(Fixed 
Jisues, 


(Fixed 
Itsnes, 


ended 


and 
upwards. 


£6. 


(Fixed 
Issues. 


and 
upwards 


£6. 


(Fixed 




IFedHtsday* 


8.72). 


2,49). 


6,21). 








2.68). 






6.86). 


187». 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


1879. 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


JtlL 4 


88,89 


2.09 


1.84 


r.^ 
















„ 11 


89,55 


2,10 


1.66 
















n 18 


97i70 


2,07 


1,83 


iM 


Jan. 18... 


2.06 


8.68 


5,63 


8.70 


2,98 


6,68 


. 26 


9a.48 


2,02t 


1,79 
















Feb. 1 


77»38 


J'K 


1.76 


m 
















„ 8 


111,12 


1.92 


1,74 
















Z 16 


76,8| 
109,06 


1,87 


1.71 


3.58 


Feb. 16... 


1,98 


8^ 


5.29 


8,67 


2.84 


641 


.. 22 


1,84 


1,70 


3,54 
















Mar. 1 


7it53 


1.88 


1.70 


3.53 
















„ 8 

Z 16 


7a 


1.83 
1.81 


1.70 
1.71 


3.53 
3.52 


Mar. 16... 


1.86 


8.81 


5,17 


8,66 


2.71 


6,a6 


.. 22 


102,3a 


IM 


1.74 


tu 
















„ 29 


75.43 


1.88 


1.80 
















April 6 


I03i55 


1.97 


1.88 


3.85 
















„ 12 


U 


2,02 


1.91 


3.93 


April 12... 


1,86 


8,88 


5,19 


8.62 


2,67 


6,29 


„ 19 


2.08 


1.92 


3.95 
















u 26 


109.59 


2,01 


1,90 


3.91 
















M.y 8 

; 10 


104,75 
90.52 


2,01 
1.98 


1,90 
1.90 


's 


May 10... 


2.00 


8.46 


546 


8,67 


2,66 


6,32 


n 17 


84,26 


1.97t 


1,89 


3.86 
















n 24 


109,06 


1.91 


1.82 


l;S 
















,. 81...... 


77.9* 


W 


1.78 
















June 7 


I03.a5 


1,84 


1.74 


3.58 


June 7... 


2.60 


8.90 


d^o 


8.46 


2.66 


6,00 


.. 14 


8149 


1.81J 


1.71 


3.52 
















„ 21 


104,70 


1,79 


1.68 


i:J2 
















>. 28 


8o,ao 


1,80 


1.68 
















July 6 

J 12 


115.56 
93,<» 


1.88 
1.86 


1,70 
1.71 


tu 


July 6... 


2,08 


8,60 


5»68 


8,22 


2,48 


5.r> 


„ 12 


105,00 


1.84 


1.68 


3.52 
















„ 2« 


83.83 


1.79 


1,64 


343 
















Aug. 2 


73.68 


1,78 


1.68 


3.39 


Aug. 2... 


1.89 


8,08 


5,42 


8,18 


2.42 


5,60 


« 9 


10247 


1,74 


1,68 


3,37 
















.. 1« 


78,75 


1.72 


1.60 


3.32 
















„ 28 


S:^ 


1.89 


1.68 


3,27 
















„ 80* 


1.67 


1,66 


3,23 


„ 80... 


1.77 


8.42 


5.19 


8.06 


2.86 


541 


Sept « 


102,81 


1.87 


1.68 


3,25 
















» 18 


74.41 
94,60 
^.75 


1.66 


1,67 


3.23 
















„ 20 

.. 27 


1.67 
1,68 


1.68 
1.68 


l:^al 


Sept 27... 


1.76 


8.46 


5.21 


8,06 


2.42 


5,48 


Oct. 4 


102,93 


1,79 


1.64 


3,43 
















„ 11 


86,53 


1.86 


1.69 


3.54 
















„ 18 


'S;g 


1.86 


1,72 


3.57 
















„ 25 


1.83 


1.72 


3,55 


Oct. 26... 


1.80 


8.68 


5,33 


8,86 


2.68 


6,C3 


Nov. 1 


80,78 


1,848 


1,78 


ni 
















„ 8 


121,19 


1.86 


1.76 
















" 15 


85.21 


1.86 


1.77 


3.62 
















« 22 


i»5.97 


1.84 


1.76 


3.60 


Nof . 22... 


2.12 


8.87 


5.99 


8,49 


2.89 


6,38 


» 29 


7741 


1.84 


1.77t 


3,61 
















Dec. 8 


'Sul 


1,80 


1.75 


3.55 
















« 18 


1,78 


1.71 


3,49 
















» 20 


'^M 


1.78 


1.72 


3.50 


Dec 20... 


2.04 


8.79 


5.83 


8.40 


2.88 


6,28 


« 27 


1,80 


1,73 


3,53 

















' The Wednesdays preceding the Saturdays. 
S Fixed Issues. 8,60. 



t Fixed issues, 8,66. 
Fixed Issues. 8.68. 



t Fixed Issues, 8,64. 
f Fixed Issues, 2,46. 



n2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



180 



Periodical Betums. 



[Mar. 



BANK OF ENGLAND, 
Puriuant to the Act 1th and Sth Victoria, cap. 32 (1844) 

C0,00O*t omitted.] 



I88UI DlPASTmRT. 



6 T 

C0LL4TlSiLX. COLtniHS. 



liabilitiat. 



KotetlMnod 



Datu. 
(WednMayi.) 



Aoeto. 



Gtoreramest 
Debt. 



Other 
Seonritiea. 



OoldCoin 

and 
Bullion. 



Notes 

in Hands of 

Pablie. 

(CoL 1 minus 
eol. 1«.) 



Minimum Batet 

of Dbeount 

at 

Bank of 'FF>gi»wd 



£ 

Mlns. 
42.19 
48,73 
43.81 
43.87 
48.95 

44.87 
44.94 
46.«1 
46,87 
46.28 
46.74 
47.16 
47.82 

47,76 
47.19 
47.22 
47.64 
47.61 

47,60 
47.26 
46.97 
47,06 

47.06 
47^ 
48,01 
48.74 

49.02 
48,97 
49,14 
49,16 
49.57 
49.21 
49.19 
49.18 
48,68 

48,46 
48.69 
49.03 
48.88 

48.73 
47.99 
47.25 
46.00 
44.98 

44.08 
48.18 
42.76 
42,76 

41.69 
41.49 
41.44 
41.26 
41.38 



1879. 

Jan. 1 .. 

, 8 .. 

o 16.. 

» 22 .. 

„ ».. 
Feb. 6 .. 

: S:: 

„ 36.. 
Mar. 6 .. 

: \l: 

„ 26.. 
April 2 .. 

lil 

« 80.. 
May 7.. 

•• It:. 

„ 28.. 

June 4 .. 

„ 11 .. 

; 18.. 

n 81.. 
July S .. 

; iJ:: 

„ 23.. 
., 80 .. 

Aug. 6 .. 

: ^:: 
: 27.. 

bept. 3 .. 

„ 10 .. 

« 17.. 

M 24.. 
Oct 1 .. 

•• i" 

,» 23 .. 

Nov. 6 .. 
„ 12 .. 
M 19.. 

Dec. 8 .. 

„ 10 .. 

" V- 
.. 24.. 

n 81.. 



£ 
Mlns. 
11.02 
11,02 
11,02 
11,02 
11.02 

11,03 
11,03 
11,08 
11,08 

11,03 
11,03 
11,03 
11,02 

11,02 
11,02 
11,03 
11,02 
11.02 

11,02 
11,02 
11,02 
11.02 

11.02 
11.02 
11.03 
11.03 

11.03 
11,08 
11.03 
11,03 
11.03 

1103 
11,02 
11,02 
11,02 

11.02 
11.02 
11.02 
11,02 

11,02 
11.02 
11,02 
11,02 
11.02 

11,03 
11,03 
11.03 
11,02 

11.08 
11.08 
11.02 
11.02 
11.02 



£ 
Mlns. 
8.98 
8.98 
8.98 
8.98 
8,98 

8.98 
8.98 
8,98 
8.98 

8,98 
8,98 
8.98 
8,98 

8.98 
8.98 
8,98 
8.98 
8,98 

8.98 
8,98 
8,98 
8.98 

8,98 
8,98 
8,98 
8.98 

8.98 
8.98 
3.98 
8.98 
8.98 

3.98 
8.98 
8.98 
8.98 

8,98 
3.98 
8.98 
8.98 

8.98 
8,98 
8.98 
3.98 
8^98 

8^98 
8.98 
3.98 
8.98 

8.98 
3.98 
8.98 
8.98 
3.98 



£ 

Mlns, 
27.19 
27.73 
28,21 
28.67 
28,96 

29.37 
29.94 
80.61 
30.87 

81.28 
81.74 
38.15 
82,82 

82,76 
32.19 
33.23 
33.54 
82,61 

82.60 
32.26 
81,97 
83,06 

32.06 
82.87 
33,01 
83.74 

84.02 
83,97 
34.14 
34.15 
34,67 

84^ 
34.19 
84,18 
83,68 

83,46 
38.69 
84,02 
33.88 

33.78 
82.99 
82.26 
31.00 
29,93 

29.06 
28.18 
27.76 
27.76 

26.69 
26.49 
26.44 
26,25 
26,88 



£ 
Mlns. 
3»,78 

33M 
3146 

39i38 



28,50 
28,89 

29.63 
29,83 
29,42 
29i<H 
29.37 

2943 
29i37 



29,39 
28,90 
28,64 
28,89 

^!i 

29,33 
29,29 
29,32 
29,66 

25,24 
28,83 
28,54 



1079. Per cot. 

16 Jan » 4 

29 „ 8 



12 Mar 2i 



9 April 2 



6 Not.,. 



Digitized by 



Google 



1880.] 



PeriodiccU BetutM. 



181 



— ^WSIXLT BbTUBN. 

for Wednesday in each Week^ dwring the Tear 1879. 

[0,000's omittedO 





8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


18 


14 


16 


16 


17 


18 


























DATia. 


Assets. 


Totals 




Capital and Rett 


Depodts. 1 


Seren 


Secoritiet. | 


Besanre. 


of 
LiabiU. 












Day and 
other 
BilU. 


(Wcdn'sdys.) 










ties 




Capital. 


Beat. 


Piblie. 


Private. 


GoTem- 
ment. 


Other. 


Notes. 


Gold and 
SUverCoin. 


and 
AsseU. 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


1879. 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 




Mlns. 


Mlns. 


Mint. 


Mlna. 


Mint. 


Mlna. 


Mlns. 


Mlns. 


Mhs. 


Mlns. 




14,55 


8,81 


4.94 


81.13 


,22 


Jan. 1 


14.72 


r4 


9,41 


.89 


54.14 




14,56 


8,48 


4i75 


89.64 


,27 


.. 8 


18.29 


9.69 


,99 


55.59 
55.01 




14,56 


8.69 


4i4i 


8934 


59 


« 16 


18.94 


MM 


10.66 


97 




14»66 


8.68 


tu 


89.60 


.98 


,. 21 


17,09 


10.48 


1,04 


54.93 




14,56 


8,64 


81.08 


.89 


« 29 


16.72 


11.80 


1,06 


53.21 




14.66 


8,58 


5i92 


99.08 


fiO 


Feb. 6 


16,44 


23.99 


12.91 


1.04 


53.38 




14,66 


8,68 


7.43 


98.61 


.88 


„ 12 


14.67 


24.04 


14,61 


1,18 


an 




14.66 


8,68 


6,09 


28.87 


.88 


.. 19 


14.69 


t'^ 


16.76 


1.26 




14,66 


8,80 


28.71 


.86 


. 26 


14.69 


16,49 


1.27 


55.21 




H56 


8,88 


8,90 


99.86 


^ 


Mar. 6 


14.96 


23.72 


16.96 


1,88 


56,96 




14,66 


8.88 


9i7» 


98,87 


.97 


., 12 


14,98 


22,54 


17,90 


1.40 


ki 




14.65 


8.92 


10,77 


28,39 


.86 


„ 19 


15.46 


22,37 

22,38 


18,66 


1.49 




14,66 


8,98 


'0.97 


98.86 


.84 


.. 26 


15.46 


18,98 


1,28 




14»56 


8.98 




98,88 


,87 


April 2 


15.64 


23.00 


18,12 


1,14 


57.80 




14,66 


8,U 


80.66 


.88 


n 9 


14,91 


22. 16 


17,86 


1,80 


55.73 
50.33 




14.66 


8,U 


81,89 


.97 


„ 16 


14.91 


22,33 


17,80 


1.29 




14.56 


8.16 


89,89 


.88 


.. 28 


14,91 


22,38 


18.60 


1.28 


57.02 
56.04 




14,65 


8,18 


<S65 


81,48 


,99 


.. 80 


14,91 


21,00 


18,24 


1.09 




H66 


8,14 


6,98 


80,40 


.81 


May 7 


14.91 


21,33 


18,07 


1.17 


54^^ 




14,66 


8,14 


%a 


99,50 


,98 


H U 


14.68 


20,97 


17,89 


l*iS 




14.66 


8.15 


2;S 


99,31 


.27 


„ 21 


14,68 


21,02 


17.90 


1.29 


54.82 




14,65 


8,15 


98,28 


.26 


n 28 


14,67 


20,19 


18,17 


1,28 


54.26 




H66 


8.10 


7,56 


97,79 


.26 


Jane 4 


14,68 


»9.7o 


17,66 


1.16 


53.19 




14.66 


8.10 


7i70 


27,8(7 


,88 


„ 11 


14.68 


19.20 


18,87 


1.26 


53.50 




14,66 


8.10 


7.58 


28.84 


,80 


.. 18 


14,68 


10,08 
18,52 


19,87 


1.24 


54.37 




H56 


8.11 


%95 


28,68 


.26 


n 26 


14,68 


1936 


1.40 


54.45 




14.66 


8.17 


7.28 


29,96 


.29 


July 9 


14.48 


20,04 


19.49 


1.26 


55.25 




14.66 


8.80 


4.8a 


82,88 


.88 


M 9 


16.78 


18,27 


19,49 


138 


55.82 




14,66 


8,84 


4.05 


88,61 


.86 


,. 16 


16,76 


17.92 


19.81 


1.89 


55.80 




H66 


8,86 


tn 


88.46 


.86 


„ 28 


16.75 


»7.H5 


19.86 


1.97 


im 




14,66 


8,84 


88,29 


.88 


.. 80 


16,76 


17,70 


20,26 


1,12 




14.66 


8.88 


4.46 


82,26 


.88 


Anf. 6 


16,80 


'7.47 


19.66 


1,16 


54.98 




14.56 


Pi 


5.5a 


81,80 


.84 


,7 18 


16.80 


n 


19.96 


1.21 


55. 10 




14,66 


8.49 


tu 


81,06 


.28 


„ 20 


16.38 


2036 


1.20 


54.84 




14.56 


8.87 


81,06 


,29 


,. 27 


16,93 


16,93 


90,14 


1,17 


54.17 




14.66 


8.72 


4,61 


80,67 


,29 


Sept. 8 


16.68 


17.61 


19,61 


1,19 


53.84 




14.66 


8,72 


1^ 

6,00 


81.14 


,80 


,. 10 


16.84 


17,28 


2038 


1.24 


55.09 




14.56 


8.79 


81.66 


.29 


., 17 


16,34 


17.25 


20,98 


1.19 


solo* 




14.66 


8,78 


81.48 


,28 


n 24 


16,88 


17.33 


21,16 


1,29 




14.66 


8,79 


5.48 


81.00 


,29 


Oct. 1 


16,88 


17.45 


Si* 


J'Jl 


55.13 




14.66 


8,06 


5i90 


88.51 


.82 


M 8 


19.67 


17.43 


1,10 


56.'73 
55.78 




14,56 


8,07 


5.08 


83.68 


.86 


., 16 


19.87 


1?;S 


18.41 


1,18 




14.66 


8,07 


4.94 


89.86 


.86 


„ 22 


19.17 


17,47 


1,96 




14.66 


8,08 


4.90 


81,96 


.80 


„ 89 


19.07 


17.86 


16,66 


1.17 


54.76 




HI6 


8.07 


4.17 


81,69 


.84 


Not. 6 


18,67 


18,59 


16.66x 


J'Jl 


53.82 




14,66 


8.07 


8.12 


81,94 


,84 


„ 12 


18.14 


18,76 


16,06 


1,19 


53.02 




14,66 


8,08 


3,36 


81.49 


.86 


„ 19 


17,79 


18,89 


14.99 


VI 


52,84 




14.66 


8,08 


3.14 


81,09 


,88 


.. 26 


17,29 


18,84 


14,97 


1.09 


52.19 




H66 


8.08 


t^ 


29,97 


,88 


Dec. 8 


16.86 


19.17 


14,10 


J'^ 


50,66 




14,66 


8.04 


28,68 


.84 


„ 10 


16.66 


19,01 


14,48 


1-i! 


50.21 




14,66 


8.08 


4.41 


99,11 


.80 


.. 17 


16.84 


I9!65 


14,68 


1.26 


5I.4S 




14,66 


8.08 


i:S 


28,04 


.48 


« 24 


16.84 


20,30 


14.02 


^'IZ 


lit 




14»66 


8.07 


29.97 


.28 


- 81 


16.69 


24.29 


18.76 


139 



Digitized by 



Google 



182 



Periodical Betuma, 



[Mar. 1880. 



FOREIGN EXCBANGEB.—Quotatums as under, London on Paris, Hamburg 
and Calcutta; — a^ New York, Calcutta, Hong Kong, and Sydney, on 
JjOJXiyoif, for 1879. 



1 


s 


S 


4 


6 


« 


7 


8 


» 




London 

on 
Piria. 

8 ni.d. 


London 

on 

Hunborg. 

8m.d. 


New 
York. 

60d.i. 


Calcutta. 


Hong 
Zong. 

6m.d. 


Sydney. 
SOd.«. 


Standard 


Datm. 

(Approxi- 
mately.) 


Indian 

Council 

Bills. 


CalcntU 

on 

London 

Bank BiUi. 

tf m. a. 


SUttr 

in Ban in 

Loodott. 

pr.oi. 


1879. 






Per cnt. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


Per cnt. 


d. 


Jan. 8.... 

„ 17.... 


25-57i 
26-62i 


20-76 
20-67 


4-81i 

4-84 


i8| 
19* 


19* 

20 


43* 


— 


491 
501 


Feb. 11 .... 
„ 26.... 


26-46 
26-47i 


20-61 
20-64 


4-85 
4-86} 


IS- 


i9i 
I9i 


43| 
43i 


— 


49* 
481 


Mar. 11 .... 
„ 26.... 


25-62i 
25-60 


20-66 
20-66 


4-86i 
4-85 


;:» 


;if 


43* 


— 


49i 
60* 


April 8 .... 
„ 22.... 


25-60 
26-42i 


20-66 
20-61 


4-86 
4-86 


I9i 
"9* 


•9i 
i9« 


.It 


— 


m 

49K 


May 6.... 
„ 20.... 


25-87i 
26-40 


20-68 
20-59 


4-86} 
4-871 


19* 




v.\ 


— 


601 
60i 


June 3 .... 
„ 17.... 


25-37i 
26-46 


20-59 
20-60 


4-87 
4-87 


19A 

20 




47i 


— 


62i 
62 


July 8.... 
„ 17.... 


25-46 
26-47i 


20-62 
20-63 


4-86i 
4-85i 


•9« 
19H 


»oi 


46f 
45* 


— 


62t 
61* 


Aug. 6 .... 
„ 19.... 


26-46 
26-47i 


20-63 
20-64 


4-811 
4-8U 


19* 
I9i* 


:» 


44| 
+4* 


— 


61* 
61ii 


Sept. 4 .... 
„ 18.... 


26-52i 
26-60 


20-66 
20-65 


4-80} 
4-81i 


>9i 
>9« 


20* 


44* 
44* 


— 


61* 
611 


Oct. 2.... 
„ 16.... 


26-60 
26-47i 


20-63 
20-62 


4-81 
4'80t 


«9« 

20 




44* 


— 


in- 


Nov. 4.... 
„ 18.... 


26-42i 
26-46 


20-66 
20*66 


4-79i 
4-80} 


»oi 

20i 


20}» 
20H» 


4«*» 
4«i» 


— 


68i 
63i 


Dec 4.... 
„ 18.... 


26-47i 
26-47i 


20-67 
20-57 


4-81 
4-81i 


aoi 


20i» 
20i» 


4«* 
45*' 


— 


62} 
621 



• These are at four months' date only. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



JOURNAL 



OT THB 



STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



(Jfmmbtb 1834.) 



Vol. XLIIL— Part II. 
JUNE, 1880. 



LONDON: 
EDWARD STANFORD, 65, CHARING CROSS, S.W. 

1880. 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 



STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



HIS BOTAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE OF WALES, E.G. 



COUNCIL AND F F I C E R S.— 1879-80. 

{having filled the Office of President), 



Thb RiaHT HovoiTBABLE Thb Eael of 

SHAPTESBrET, K.G., D.C.L. 
The Right Honoubablb The Eael of 

Haeeowby, K.G., D.C.L. 
The Rioht Honoitbable The Lobd 

Otteestonb, M.A., F.E.G.S. 
The Bight Hokoubablb The Eabl of 

Debet, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
James Heywood, Esq., M. A., F.R.S. 



The Right Honoitbable The Lobd 

Houghton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
William Nbwmabch, Esq., F.R.S., F.I. A. 

(Corr. Member Inst, of France). 
Wm. Fabb, Esq., M.D., C.B., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. (Corr. Member Inst, of France). 
William A. Gut, Esq., M.B., F.R.C.P., 

F.R.S. 
Geobgb Shaw Lefetbb, Esq., M.P. 



Tf^xtiititnt 
THOMAS BRASSEY, ESQ., M^. 

eitf^XtixtitvAi. 

F. J. MoiTAT, M.D., F.R.C.S. I Feedbbick Pubdy. 

A. J. Mundblla, M.P. I Sib R. W. Rawson, C.B., K.C.M.a. 

^XvAttti. 

Jambs Heywood, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. | Sib John Lubboce, Babt., M.P., F.R.S. 

William Newmaboh, Esq., F.R.S. 

RiCHABD BlDDULFH MABTIN, M.A. 



€0undL 



Majob-Gekebal H. p. Babbage. 

Abthub H. Bailey, F.I.A. 

T. Gbaham Balfoitb, M.D., F.R.S. 

A. E. Bateman. 

Stefhen Bottbne. 

Edwabd William Bbabbooe, F.S.A. 

James Caibd, C.B., F.R.S. 

J. Oldfibld Chadwick, F.R.G.S. 

Hammond Chubb, B.A. 

Hyde Clabkb. 

Lionel L. Cohen. 

Caftain Patbick G. Cbaigte. 

JULAND DaNVBES. 

Robebt Giffen. 
Feedbbick Hendbies. 



Henby Jbula, F.R.G.S. 

Peop. W. 8. Jevons, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Fbancis Joubdan. 

Pbofessob Leone Leti, LL.D. 

John B. Mabtin, M.A. 

RiCHABD BlDDULFH MaBTIN, M.A. 

Fbbdebio John Mouat, M.D., F.R.C.S. 

Anthony J. Mundblla, M.P. 

Fbancis G. P. Neison. 

Robebt Hogabth Pattebson. 

Feedbbick Pubdy. 

E en est Geobge Rayenstein, F.R.G.S. 

SiB Rawson W. Rawson, C.B., K.C.M.G. 

Ebnest Sbyd. 

CoBNELius Walpobd, F.I.A. 



Ibtxxtiaxxsi. 

Hammond Chxtbb. | Robebt Giffen. 

Pbofessob W. Stanley Jevons. 



Fbedeeic J. Mouat, M.D. 



e^itax al ^t 90uma(. 

Robebt Giffen. 



Joseph Whittall. 

J^uxSktxt* — ^Messrs. Drummond and Co., Chabino Ceoss, S.W., London. 
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STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 

(KINa'S COLLEaB ENTRANCE), 

STEAND, W.C, LONDON. 

Jvne, 1880. 



NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTIONS are due in advance, on the Ist of 
Jannary in each year. 

A Form for authorising a Banker or Agent to pay the Snbecrip- 
tion Annually will be forwarded by the Assistant Secretary, on 
application. When conyenient, this mode of payment is recom-' 
mended. 

Drafts should be made payable to the order of " The Statistical 
Society," and crossed ** Brwmmond and Oo" 



To be included in the Ballot at any particular Ordinary Meeting, 
the Nomination Papers of Candidates for Fellowship, must be 
lodged at least six days before the date of such Meeting. 



Fellows who may desire to receive Special and Separate Notices of 
each Paper to be read before the Society, should indicate their 
wishes to the Assistant Secretary. 



Members borrowing books from the Library are requested to be 
good enough to return them with as little delay as possible, but 
without fail at the expiration of a month, so as to obviate the 
necessity otherwise of recalling them. 



Members changing their Addresses are requested to notify the same 
to the Assistant Secretary, so that delay in forwarding communica- 
tions, or the JotMmalf may be avoided. 

Bi Order of the Exbcutivb Committee. 

3 

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HOWAKD MEDAL OF 1881. 



The following is the title of the Essay to which the Medal will 
be awarded in November, 1881. The Essays to be sent in on or 
before 30th June, 1881. 

" On the Jail Fever from the Earliest Black Assize to the last 
" recorded Outbreak in Recent Times J*^ 

The Council have decided to grant the sum of 20/. to the writer 
who may gain the " Howard Medal *' in November, 1881. 

{The Medal is of hronzBy having on one side a portrait of John 
Howard, on the other a wheatsheaf with suitable inscription). 

The following are the principal conditions : — 

Each Essay to bear a motto, and be accompanied by a sealed 
letter, marked with the like motto, and containing the name and 
address of the author ; such letter not to be opened, except in the 
case of the successfal Essay. 

No Essay to exceed in length 150 pages (^vo.) of the Journal of 
the Statistical Society. 

The Council shall, if they see fit, cause the successful Essay, or 
an abridgment thereof, to be read at a Meeting of the Statistical 
Society ; and shall have the right of publishing the Essay in their 
Journal one month before its appearance in any separate indepen- 
dent form ; this right of publication to continue till three months 
after the award of the Prize. 

The 'President shall place the Medal in the hands of the suc- 
cessful Candidate, at the conclusion of his Annual Address, at the 
ordinary Meeting in November, when he shall also re-announce the 
subject of the Prize Essay for the following year. 

Competition for this Medal shall not be limited to the Fellows 
of the Statistical Society, but shall be open to any competitor, 
providing the Essay be written in the English language. 

The Council shall not award the Prize, except to the author of 
an Essay, in their opinion, of a- sufficient standard of merit; no 
Essay shall be deemed to be of sufficient merit that does not set 
forth the facts with which it deals, in part, at least, in the language 
of figures and tables; and distinct references should be made to 
such authorities as may be quoted or referred to. 

Further particulars or explanations may be obtained from the 
Assistant Secretary, at the Office of the Society, Eling's College 
Entrance, Strand, London, W.C. 
4 



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CALENDAR FOR 1880. 











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In Monthly Parts. Price 325. per Annum. Postage Free. 

PRECIS 



OF 



OFFICIAL PAPERS, 



BEING 



ABSTRACTS OF ALL PARLIAMENTARY RETURNS 

Directed to be Printed by both Houses 
of Parliament 



SESSIOnST 1880. 

MESSRS. W. H. ALLEN AND CO., 
13, WATERLOO PLACE, LONDON, 



MEMORANDUM WITH REFERENCE TO 

ADVERTISEMENTS 

POB THB 

STATISTICAL SOCIETY'S JOURNAL, 

Which has a wide circiilation, both at Home and Abroad, 



Suitable Advertisements will be inserted in the Quarterly 
Parts of the Society's Journal, at the undermentioned rates : — 



In the Four Quarterly Parte of the 
Journal — 

(FOUB IlflSETIOm) 

One Page •• •• £10 10 

Half Page.. 6 6 

G 



In one Quarterly Petri of the Journal 
onljf^ 

(Om Imnnov) 

One Page • • ..£330 
Half Page .. .. 2 2 



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ISSUED BY 

EDWAED STANFOED, 

56, OHARINQ CROSS, S.W. 



L ATLA8ES and MAPS.— General Catalogue of Atlases and Maps 
publiflhed or sold by Edwabd Stahpobd. New Edition. 

2. BOOKS. — Selected List of Books published by Edward Stamford. 

Naval and Military Books, Ordnance Survey Publications, Memoirs of the Geological 
Surrey of the United Kingdom, and Meteorological Office Publications, published 
on account of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 

4. LONDON and its ENVIRONS.— Selected List of Maps of London 

and its Environs, published by Edwahd Stakpobd. 

5. ORDNANCE MAPS. — Catalogue of the Ordnance Maps, published 

under the superintendence of Colonel Cookb. Price 6d. ; per post 7d. 

6. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY of GREAT BRITAIN and IRE- 

LAND. — Oatalosue of the Geological Maps, Sections, and Memoirs of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Gbeat Britain and Ireland, under the superintendence of Akdbew 
C. Bambat, LL.D., F.B.S., Director-General of the Geological Surveys of the 
United Kingdom. Price 6d. ; per post 'Jd, 

8. ADMIRALTY CHARTS.— Catalogue of Charts, Plans, Views, and 

Sailing Directions, &c., published by order of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Adminlty. 224 pp. royal Svo. Price 7a, ; per post, 7s. 4i. 

9. INDIA. — Catalogue of Maps of the British Possessions in India and 

other parts of Asia, with continuation to the year 1876. Published by order of Her 
Migesty's Secretary of State for India in Council. Post free for Two Penny 
Stamps. 

10. EDUCATIONAL.— Select List of Educational Works published by 

Edwabd Stanfobd, including those formerly published by Yabty & Cox. 

11. EDUCATIONAL WORKS and STATIONERY.— Stanford's 

Catalogue of School Stationery, Educational Works, Atlases, Maps, and Globes, 
with Specimens of Copy and Exercise Books, &c. 

12. SCHOOL PRIZE BOOKS.— List of Works specially adapted for 

School Prizes, Awards, and Presentations. 

14. BOOKS and MAPS for TOURISTS. — Stakford's Tourist's 
Catalogue, containing a list, irrespective of Publisher, of all the best Guide Books 
and Maps suitable for the British and Continental Traveller ; with Index Maps to 
the GoTemment Surveys of England, France, and Switzerland. 

*0* With the exception of ttaore with price affixed, any of the ahove Catalognes can be had gratis on 
Application; or, by poet, for a Fenny Stamp. 



EDWABD STANFOBD, 55, Charing Cross, London. 

AgeiU hff Appointment for the Sale of the Ordnance and Geological Survey Maps^ 

the Admiralty Charte, Her Majesty* e Stationery Office and 

India Office Publications^ etc. 



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Air OUTLINE OF THB OBJECTS OF 

THE STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



Thb BtoMstical Society of London was founded, in porsnanoe of a 
reoommendation of the British Association for the Advancement ot 
Science, on the 15th of March, 1834 ; its object being, the carefnl 
collection, arrangement, discussion and publication, of facts bear- 
ing on and illustrating the complex relations of modem society 
in its social, economical, and political aspects, — especially facts 
which can be stated numerically and arranged in tables ; — and also 
to form a Statistical Library as rapidly as its funds would permit. 

The Society from its inception has steadily progressed. It 
now possesses a valuable Library and a Beading Room ; ordinary 
meetings are held monthly from November to June, which are well 
attended, and cultivate among its Fellows an active spirit of inves- 
tigation : the papers read before the Society are, with an abstract 
of the discussions thereon, published in its Journal^ which now 
consists of forty-two annual volumes, and forms of itself a valuable 
library of reference. 

The Society has originated and statistically conducted many 
special inquiries on subjects of economic or sot^ial interest, of which 
the results have been pablished in the Jouimal, or issued separately ; 
the latest instance being the institution of the " Howard Medal *' 
Prize Essay. 

To enable the Society to extend its sphere of useful activity, and 
accomplish in a yet greater degree the various ends indicated, an 
increase in its numbers and revenue is desirable. With the desired 
increase in the number of Fellows, the Society will be enabled to 
publish standard works on Economic Science and Statistics, espe- 
cially such as are out of print or. scarce, and also greatly extend 
its collection of Foreign works. Such a well-arranged Library for 
reference, as would result, does not at present exist in England, and 
is obviously a great desideratum. 

The Society is cosmopolitan, and consists of Fellows and Hono- 
rary Members, forming together a body, at the present time, of 
nearly nine hwndred Members. 

The Annual Subscription to the Society is Two Outneas, and 
at present there is no entrance fee. Fellows may, on joining the 
Society, or afterwards, compound for all future annual subscrip- 
tions by a payment of Twenty Chiitieas, 

The Fellows of the Society receive gratuitously a copy of each 
part of the Journal as published quarterly, and have the privilege 
of purchasing back numbers at a reduced rate. The Library 
(reference and circulating), and the Beading Boom, are open daily 
for the convenience of Members. 

Nomination Forms and any further information will be ftir- 
nished, on application to the Assistant Secretary. 
8 



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CORNELIUS WALFORB, F.I.A., F.S.S., 

\ BBIKG 

A DICTIONAEY OF THE DEFINITION OP TERMS USED IN CONNEXION 
WITH THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF INSURANCE IN ALL ITS 
BRANCHES: A BIOaRAPHICAL SUMMARY OF THE LIVES OF ALL 
THOSE WHO HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE DEVELOPMENT AND 
IMPROVEMENT OF THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF INSURANCE, 
WHETHER AS AUTHOR, MANAGER, ACTUARY, SECRETARY, AGENCY 
SUPERINTENDENT, OR OTHERWISE: A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REPER- 
TORY OF ALL WORKS WRITTEN UPON THE SUBJECT OF INSURANCE 
AND ITS ASSOCIATED SCIENCES: AN HISTORICAL TREASURY OF 
EVENTS AND CIRCUMSTANCES CONNECTED WITH THE ORIGIN AND 
PROGRESS OF INSURANCE, INCLUDING A HISTORY OF ALL KNOWN 
OFFICES OF INSURANCE FOUNDED IN GREAT BRITAIN, FROM THE 
BEGINNING. 

AHJ> AL60 OONTAINDra 

A Detailed Account of the Rise and Progress of Insnrance 
in Enrope and In America. 



Continued in Farts, which appear about every Six Weeks^ price 28. 6d. 
Four Vols., cloth, 21«. each. 



OPINIONS OF THE tPRESS. 

We think we may safely say that it suxpasseB all autidpatioxiB which haye been formed 
as to its Talue. The plan oi the work is perfect. — Insurance Record, 

We think we can safely predict for it the position of a standard work. — Insurance 
Agent. 

Eyery matter more or lees closely connected with Insurance is dealt with clearly and 
fully.— CWy Press. 

The work is as thorough as though on each separate article, as on a separate yolume, 
the author were content to rest his reputation for accuracy of information and knowledge 
of details. — Ineurance Circular. 

We haye reyiewed in detail this extended work, which is really one of a national 
character, dealing as it does with so many phases of our social life, in the belief that the 
knowledge of its contents will be appreciated by many outoide insurance circles. — Times, 
2nd January, 1878. 



LONDON;: 
CHABLES AND EDWIN LAYTON, 150, FLEET STREET. 

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Those persons who are inclined to benefit the Society 
by legacies are recommended to adopt the following 

FORM OF BEQUEST. 

I give and bequeath mito the Statistical Society of 
London, the sum of £ , such legacy to be 

paid out of such part of my personal estate^ not specifically 
bequeathed, as the law permits to be appropriated by will 
to such a purpose. 



Note A. — ^All gifts by will to the Society of land, or of 
money secured on, or directed to be secured on, or to arise 
from the sale of^ or directed to be laid out in the purchase of, 
land, will be void. Gifts may be made by will of stock in 
the pubUc funds, shares or debentures of railway or other 
jointnstock companies, or money to be paid out of the testa 
tor's pure personal estate, or of personal chattels. 

Note B. — Bequests may be made either for the general 
purposes of the Society, or to the Society's ** Building 
Fund," which has been recently established. 



10 

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THE LONDON LIBRARY, 

12, ST. JAMES'S SQUARE , S.W. 

patron. 
HIS EOYAL HiaHNKSS THE PKINCB OF WALES. 
(rtfibent. 
THOMAS OAELYLB, Esq. 

Vut-^rtiibtids. 
The dean OP WESTMINSTER. I EDWAKD H. BUNBURY, Ebq. 
ET. HON. W. E. GLADSTONE., M.P. | JAMES SPEDDING, Esq. 

Cnuttts. 
LORD HOUGHTON. | EARL OF CARNARVON. | EARL OF ROSEBERY. 

Contnulttt. 



Sir James Axdebsov. 
F. W. BxTBTON, Esq. 
Rer. Canon Chbbtham. 
J. C. CoirrBEABB, Esq. 
W. J. COUBTHOPB, Esq. 

Sir Fbbdbbiok Eluot. 
Rev. E. E. EsTOOiTBT. 

H. W. FBEBI.AND, Esq. 



Jas. COTTESMOEISOir, Esq. 
The Eabl oe Moblet. 
Dr. MuvK. 

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Leslie Stephen, Esq. 



Sydket Oedob, Esq. 
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Rey. Dr. Stanley Lbathes. 
W. Watkiss liLOYD, Esq. 
H. Maxwell Lyte, Esq. 

The Library (established in 1841) contains 90,000 yolumes of Ancient and Modem 
Literature, in various Languages : Subscriptions, £3 a-jear, or £2 with Entrance Fee of £6. 
Life Membership, £26. Fifteen volumes are allowed to Country and Ten to Town 
Members. Reading-rooms open from ten to half-past six. Catalogue, New Edition, 1875 
(1062 pp.), price 16f . ; to Members, 12^. Prospectuses on application. 

ROBERT HARRISON, Secretary and Librarian. 



Reprinted from the Journal of the StcUtsttcal Society for 1861, Price 1«., 
vdth a PrefIcb and Notes. 



STATISTICS 

of the 

FARM SCHOOL SYSTEM 

OF THE 

CONTINENT, 

AND OF ITS APPLICABILITY TO THE 

PREYENTIYE AND REFORMATORY EDUCATION 

OF 

PAUPER AND CRIMINAL CHILDREN IN ENGLAND. 
By the late JOSEPH FLETCHER, Esq., 

BAKXIBTIS-AT-LAW, BOMOKAKT SXCllZTABT. 

LONDON: E, STANFORD, 65, CHARING CROSS, S.W. 

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JOURNAL OF THE STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 

COST OF A COMPLETE SET (if not out of peiht). 
1838-79. (42 Vols., unbound.) 



f. 


d. 


]3 


b 


12 


- 


10 


- 


12 


6 


10 


- 


11 


- 


12 


- 


11 


6 


13 


- 


10 


* 


8 


-. 


17 


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15 


6 


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15 


6 


U 


- 



Vol. 1. (1838.) 9 Numbers at It. 6rf - 

Vol. 11. (1839.) 3 Numbers at 1«. 6d. and 3 ParU at 2«. 6d - 

VoU. Ill— XI. (1840-48.) OtoIs. lOt 4 

Vol. XII. (1849.) Including a double number - 

Vols. XIII— XIX. (1850-56.) 7 vols, at lOt 3 

Vol. XX. (1857.) - 

Vol. XXI. (1858.) - 

VoL XXII. (1859.) - 

Vol. XXIII. (1860.) ..„ - 

VoU. XXIV— XXV. (1861-62.) 2 vols, at 15f 1 

Vols. XXVI— XXVII. (1863-64.) 2 voU. at 14« 1 

Vol. XXVIII. (1865.) - 

Vol. XXIX. (1866.) - 

Vol. XXX. (1867.) - 

Vol. XXXI. (1868.) - 

Vol. XXXII. (1869.) - 

Vol.XXXUI. (1870.) 

Vol. XXXIV. (1871.) 

Vol. XXXV. (1872.) 

Vol XXXVI. (1873.) '. 

Vol. XXXVII. (1874.) 

Vol. XXXVIII. (1875.) 

Vol. XXXIX. (1876.) 

Vol. XL. (1877.) t 

Vol. XLI. (1878.) 

Vol. XLII. (1879) 

General Analytical Indexes:— 

To the First Fifteen Volumes (1838-62) - 3 6 

„ Ten Volumes (1853-62) - 3 6 

„ „ a863-72) - 3 6 

i'29 15 6 



Sets, or single copies of any number, of the Journal (if not out of 
print), can be obtained of the publisher, E. Stanford, 56, Charing 
Cross, London, S.W. 

By a resolution of the Council, dated 12th May, 1864, the price 
of back numbers of the Journal of the Society, charged to Members, 
was raised from one-half to three-fiffchs of tiie publishing price. 

Members only, under the above mentioned resolution, can obtain 
copies of any number of the Journal (if not out of print), at the 
Society's Rooms, King's College Entrance, Strand, W.C, London. 

Note. — One or two numbers of the Journal are now out of print. 
12 



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4. Scientific Journals and Periodicals are not circulated nntil 
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of these regulations. 

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BOOKS, k, WANTING TO COMPLETE SETS. 



The following is a List of Odd Volumes, Numbers, or Parts, &c., 
wanting to complete Sets : 

DonoHont of any portion thereof will he acceptable, and will be acknowledged 
by the Society, [Dates in all cases are inclusiye.] 

Association op the Chambers op Commerce op the United 

Kingdom, Annual Reports of. 2, 3, aini 6. (1862-63, aod 

1866.) 
Athenjbum. The first seven volumes. 1827-34. 
Bankers' Magazine. New York. Series 3, Vol. ii, No. 7 (1868) ; 

Vol. V, No. 2 (1870) ; Vol. vii, Nos. 6 and 7 (1872), and Vol. viii, 

No. 6 (1873). 
Census of Berar. 1872. 
Census op Coorg. 1872. 
Central Chamber of Agriculture, Annual Reports, Nos. 1 and 2, 

for (1866-67). 
CoMPTB Q^n^ral db l' Administration de la Justice Civile et 

Commercials bn France pendant les Annies 1862, 1872, et 

1873. 

COMPTE OiN^RAL DB L' ADMINISTRATION DB LA JUSTICE CrIMINELLE 

BN France pendant les Annbes 1862, 1872, et 1873. 
Economist. The first three volumes. 1843-45. 
EcoNOMiSTB FRAN9AIS, Annies 1 — 4 (1872-75); Ann6e 6, Vol. 1, and 

Nos. 1—42 of Vol. ii (1876); Annee 6, Nos. 51 and 52 of Vol. u 

(1878); Ann6e 7, Vol. i, and Nos. 1—50 of Vol. ii (1879). 
Hunt's Mbrchants' Magazine. (New York.) Vols, i to xii, and 

XV to xxvi. 
Investors' Monthly Manual. First three volumes. 1871-73. 
Labourer's Friend. Nos. 230 (1869) and 231 (1870). 
Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society, Proceedings of. 

Nos. 1—5, 1844-45 to 1848-49. 
Manchester Statistical Society. Transactions for 1854-55. 
RivisTA Europea, Rivista Internationale. New series. Vols, i 

to iii, and Fasc. 1 of Vol. iv (1877). 
Royal Society, London. Indexes to the Philosophical Transac- 

TIONS. 4to. Parts I, II, and III. 
Royal Society, London. Catalogue op Scientific Papers. Vols. 

i to viii. 4to. 
Royal Society op Edinburgh, Proceedings op. Vols, i and ii. 
Royal Society op Victoru, Transactions of. Vol. v. 
Royal Asutic Society, Journal. Vol. xiv (1853-54). 
SuRTEES Society. Vols, i to xxv, xxvii to xxxii, and xxxiv. 
Tableaux Q^n^raux du Commerce de la Francb> ArO., pendant les 

AnniSbs 1846, 1847, 1850, et 1868 k 1876. 
The Times, from 1845-63 and 1869-74. 
14 



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LIST OP THE FORMER 

OP THE 

STATISTICAL SOCIETY, 

From its Foundation, on I5th March, 1834. 



P«riod. ^ 

1840-61 — ^Hi8 Royal Hiohnsss The Prince Consort, K.G. 



1834-86 
1836-38 
1838-40 
1840-42 

1842-43 
1843-45 

1845-47 
1847-49 
1849-51 
1851-53 
1853-55 
1855-57 
1857-59 

1859-61 

1861-63 

1863-65 
1865-67 
1867-69 
1869-71 
1871-73 
1873-75 
1875-77 
1877-79 



The Most Noble the Marquis of Lansdowne, F.KS. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., LL.D. 

The Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam, F.R.S. 

The ^ght Hon. the Yisconnt Sandon, M.P. 
(now Earl of Harrowby.) 

The Most Noble the Marqnis of Lansdowne, E.O., FJBJS. 

The Right Hon. the Viscount Ashley, M.P. 
(now Earl of Shaftesbury.) 

The Right Hon. the Lord Monteagle. 

The Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam, F.R.S. 

The Blghi Hon. the Earl of Harrowby. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Overstone. 

The Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam, K.G., F.R.S. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Harrowby, F JI.S. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Stanley, M.P. 
(now Earl of Derby.) 

The Right Hon. the Lord John Russell, M.P., F.R.S. 
(afterwards Earl Russell.) 

The Right Hon. Su- J. S. Pakington, Bart, M.P., G.C.B. 
(afterwards Lord Hampton.) 

Colonel W. H. Sykes, M.P., FJR.S. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Houghton. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L. 

W. Newmarch, Esq., F.R.S., Corr. Mem. Inst of France. 

WiUiam Farr, Esq., MD., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

WiUiam A. Guy, Esq., M.B., F.R.S. 

James Heywood, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.G5. 

George Shaw-Lefevre, Esq., M.P. 



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The Council of the Statistical Society wish it to be understood, 
tbat, while thej consider it their duty to adopt everj means within 
their power to test the facts inserted in this Journal, they do not 
hold themselves responsible for their accuracy, which must rest 
upon the authority of the several Contributors. 



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Vol XUn.] [Part IL 

JOURNAL OF THE STATISTICAL SOCIETY, 

JUNE, 1880. 



On the Education and Training of the Children of the Poor. 
By Frbdkeio J. Mouat, M.D., late Secretary and Member, Council 
of Education of Bengal ; Member of the Senate, of the Faculties 
of Arts ancZ Medicvne, and Fellow of the University of Calcutta ; 
Vice-President a/nd Foreign Secretary Statistical Society^ ^c, 
^c, ^c. 

[Head before the Statistical Society, 20th April, 1880.] 



contents: 



PAOB 

Introdnction 184 

Who and what are Panper 

Children? 185 

I. — The Past 188 

State of the Question prior 
to the passing of Poor 
Law Amendment Act of 

1834 188 

II. — ^The Pbesbnt 191 

(a) Workhouse Schools .... 193 

(b) Separate Schools 196 

(c) Certified „ 198 

(d) Training Ships 199 

(tf) Boarding Out 202 

(/) District Schools 206 

Cost of Education in the Poor 

Law District and Separate 

Metropolitan Schools 209 

Bcsults of Education in Poor 

Law Schools 212 

III.— The PiTTUBE 220 

Why the District and 
Separate Schools on the 
Aggregate System, have 
not fully answered the 
end intended 221 

Reasons for preferring the 
Cottage Home System 
in all future Schools 
detached from Work- 
houses 224 

Edui'ational Standards of 
Elementary Instruction 228 

Army and N^vy Schools... 230 
VOL. XLIII. PART II. 



Casual Children 230 

Summary 231 

Condusion 233 

Appendix. 

Table I. — ^Number of Children 
educated and Parliamentary 
Qrant for payment of Teachers, 
1861-78 236 

Table IL — Qross Expenditure and 
Cost per Child in Metropolitan 
District Schools, 1869-78 236 

Table III.— Details of Annual 
Cost of above, nnder heads of 
Provisions; Necessaries, Re- 
pairs, and Furniture, and Edu- 
cation and Industrial Training 238 

Table IV. — Parliamentary Returns 
of Numbers of Young Persons 
educated in Workhouses and 
District Schools who returned 
to the Houses, either from mis- 
conduct, or from causes not 
involving misconduct. Sum- 
mary by Counties 240 

Table V.— Table of Young Of- 
fenders admitted to and dis- 
charged from Certified Reforma- 
tory Schools from 1854-56 242 

Table VI. — ^Number of Juvenile 
Offenders committed to Refor- 
matories who have been Inmates 
of Workhouse or District Schools 
from 1868-77 243 





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184 MouAT — On the EducaHon.and Traming [June^ 

IfUrodticHon. 

In the early period of the institution of the Statistical Society of 
London, few questions occupied a larger share of its time and 
attention, and none were considered with more care, than those 
connected with education, eepeciallj in relation to the elementary 
branch of that important subject ; which, in one of not the least 
interesting of its phases, is the immediate purpose of this paper. 

Before proceeding to the consideration of the subject, I deem 
it right to mention that the statements and views contained in the 
paper are purely and entirely personal, and must not be considered 
to have any official significance, from my connection with the Local 
Government Board, under the general direction and authority 
of which the education of all poor law children in England and 
Wales is conducted. My qualification for considering such a ques- 
tion is based upon a practical acquaintance of some fifteen years' 
duration, with all branches of education. Li Bengal, from the 
primary elementary schools of that presidency, to the institution 
of Universities in Lidia, based upon plans proposed by me some 
years prior to their adoption by the State. In this country, I have 
been connected with the poor law administration, for nearly eight 
years. I conducted two great inquiries, which are published in 
official records, into the schools of the metropolis, which gave me a 
thorough insight into their management, and I have since seen 
many workhouse schools and children in nearly every part of 
England and Wales. I hope, therefore, that I do not come quite 
unprepared to the task which I have undertaken. 

A committee of the Society was appointed, and continued for 
some years to conduct educational inquiries, of which the results 
were, from time to time, published in our Journal. They are a mine 
of wealth on the subject, and of considerable historical interest. 

These investigations only came to an end, when a department 
of the State took up and continued the work on an extended 
scale, with such command of public funds, and with access to such 
abundant and instructive sources of information, as rendered it 
unnecessary, as well as inexpedient, for private persons to continue 
to labour in a field so thoroughly occupied by able, active, accurate 
workers, charged with the official responsibility of a public duty in 
the matter. 

Of all the unpaid toilers in this field, no one was more earnest, 
devoted, painstaking, large and liberal in his views, and clear and 
candid in his exposition of them, than the late Mr. Joseph Fletcher, 
for some time Secretary of the Society and Editor of its Jowmal^ in 
several volumes of which his vrritings are to be found. His admi- 
rable paper on the Farm Schools of the Continent| and the applica- 



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1880.] Of the OhOdrm of the Poor. 185 

tion of the system to the preventive and reformatory education of 
pavfper and erimiiMd children — ^terms which were, at one time, nearly 
synonymous — ^was reprinted by the Society last year.* If the great 
value of its contents were better and more widely known, it woxQd 
have been eagerly purchased by aU interested in or connected with 
the children of the classes to which it relates, as containing counsels 
of wisdom in relation to their management, which are of as much 
importance now, as they were when written so long since. 

Mr. Fletcher's paper immediately preceded the establishment of 
district schools in the metropolis, some of which have now been 
more than a quarter of a century in existence, and, in consequence, 
are in a position to afford positive testimony as to the soundness or 
otherwise, of the views which led to their institution. It therefore 
marks an epoch, and I take up the parable where Mr. Fletcher left 
it, for it seems to me to be an important function of such a Society 
as ours, to continue and revise its work from time to time, guided 
by the light of subsequent experience, in all great practical ques- 
tions. 

The excellent i^eports of the Educational Department of the 
Privy Council, show how well its work has been done, and how 
largely and beneficially the fi»cts and figures collected by its officers, 
have influenced the legislation of the country in the wise direction 
of its public instruction. It is, I think, no small merit fairly due 
to this Society, that it early saw the importance of the work, and 
paved the way for its continuance in a manner altogether beyond 
its own power, before it allowed it to pass out of its hands. 

Before I proceed to the immediate development of my subject 
I must say a few words as to who and what are known as pauper 
children, and to indicate precisely the nature of the raw material 
we have to convert into good stuff, for " to eradicate the hereditary 
'^ taint of pauperism, would be to annihilate the great mass of the 
" pauperism of the conntry ;" wise words, written by an earnest and 
singularly single-minded and devoted friend of this class, whose 
eminent and invaluable public services have not received the public 
recognition to which they are entitled : I mean Mr. B.C. Tnffnelly 
the late inspector of the Metropolitan Poor Law Schools. 

What are termed pauper children, are the offspring of destitute 
persons, maintained from the rates in union workhouses, district 
schools, and training ships, or boarded out at the expense of their 
several unions, in all of which cases they are dependent from the 
misfortune of thoir birth and parentage, and from no &ult or cause 
of their own. 

^ " Statistics of the Farm School System of the Continent, and of its Appli- 
** cability to the Preventive and Refonnatory Education of Pauper and Criminal 
" Children in England." By Joseph Fletcher. Edward Stanford, 1878. 

02 



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1 S6 MouAT-^O^i the Education and Training [ Jtme, 

Now, as the term " pauper '* has become one of reproach, and is 
associated with moral and social degradation, I hold it to be impo- 
litic and wrong to brand with it those who are in no way responsible 
for the unfortunate position in which the destitution of their parents 
has — ^to whatever cause due — placed them. Thus branded, stig- 
matised, and placed in a class apart, the child has not a fair sts^ 
in life. 

" A child should not be degraded in his own estimation bj being 
^' a member of a despised class. A child cannot be a pauper in the 
" sense in which that term is commonly understood ; that is, he 
** cannot be indigent as the consequence of his own want of industry, 
" skill, frugality, or forethought, and ought not, therefore, to be 
" taught to despise himself. The pauper apprentice and the juvenile 
** vagrant were, under the old system, brethren of the same class, 
** outcasts, neither trained by frugal and industrious parents, nor 
" by a well-devised system of public industrial education. 

" The dependence of pauper children is probably the natural 
" consequence of the crimes or follies (but it may also be of the 
" misfortunes), of their parents; and in any of these cases it is the 
** interest of society that the children should neither inherit the 
" infamy nor the vices, nor the misfortunes of their parents."* 

The remedy suggested for all this was the establishment of 
district schools, in which the children should be taught with other 
children not received from the workhouse, nor the offspring of 
pauper parents. 

When I asked in Holland for information regarding their pauper 
schools, I was told that no such thing existed, and that the appli- 
cation of the epithet was not permitted. Provision for the educa- 
tion and training of all the children of the poor was made, and no 
section of them was treated as a separate class, an example which 
it would be wise for us to follow, when a change in the existing laws 
permits, and the education of the whole of the poor is gratuitous, 
as well as compulsory, a change which I venture to think must 
come, however revolutionary and opposed to our present habits of 
thought and manner of dealing with these questions, it appears at 
first sight to be. This, however, touches the whole question of 
elementary education, which is not within the scope of my paper. 
In the title to this paper I have advisedly used the word poor^ instead 
of that of pauper^ because the term is already employed in some of 
the acts of parliament on the poor laws, and because it will be 
understood, after my definition of what the children referred to 
really are. 

Nowhere, and by no one, has this class been better described 

• Dr. Kay, ** Reports on the Training of Pauper Children," &c. London. 
8vo., 1841, p. 31. 



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1880.] 0/ the Children of the Poor. 187 

than hj the late Sir James Kay-Shnttleworth, in the parliamentary 
report already referred to, when writing of the School of Industry 
at Norwood. 

'^ As they are chiefly orphans, deserted, illegitimate^ or the off- 
" spring of persons undergoing punishment, for crime, they are, in 
" fact, children of the dregs of the pauper population of London, 
'* and have consequently, for the most part, been reared in scenes 
** of misery, vice, and villainy. Their physical conformation and 
" physiognomy betray that they have inherited from their parents 
" physical and moral constitutions requiring the most vigorous and 
" careful training, to render them useful members of society. They 
'* arrive at the school in various stages of sickness and disease : 
** some are the incurable victims of scrofula ; others are constantly 
** liable to a recurrence of its symptoms ; almost all exhibit the 
" consequence of the vicious habits, neglect, and misery of their 
" parents. Visitors invariably mark the prevalence of a singular 
** formation of their heads ; that the boys have almost invariably 
" coarse features, and that the girls are almost all plain. To the 
" physical coarseness are added faces of suspicion, obstinacy, and 
" gloom." 

My own observation, based on an examination of the physical 
state of several thousands of those in the district schools of the 
metropolis, and the children of more than one of our great centres 
of industry, such as Birmingham, Manchester, and Liverpool, 
brought out in startling relief the fact, that they are a scrofulous, 
undersized, badly-developed, narrow-chested, degenerate class, as 
compared with all other sections of the population urban or 
rural ; that they are more or less torpid and flaccid in mind and 
body, and altogether below the average standard of those in town 
and country in health and stature, and in the beauty of form aud 
feature, which struck St. Augustine so many centuries since, and 
which still happily characterise the progeny of the British, nation, 
in an ethnological point of view. 

Between the lowest type of workhouse child, as described by 
Sir James Shuttleworth, and the children of the poor, whose 
poverty is the result of misfortune and not of vice or crime, and 
who have seen better days, there is, however, nearly every gradation 
of physical development ; but, the majority are generally below the 
usual standard of beauty of form and healthiness of conformation, 
of the working classes of the population at large. In the rural 
districts sound and healthy children are generally found, but they 
are in a painful minority in the great masses of pauper children 
throughout the country ; and I am afraid it must be accepted as 
true that, as a class, they are as above described. 

I dwell upon these points strongly, because it is, in my opinion, 



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188 MouAT — On the Education cmd Training [Jane, 

the key to the solutioii of the problem, of how best to deal with 
them, at the most critical period of their lives. 

We have not only to train them to earn an honest livelihood 
when of suitable ages, to lead useful and moral lives, to recmit 
the ranks of the indnstrial classes, and to become permanently dis- 
panperised ; bnt, it seems to me to be of almost equal importance so 
to conduct and regulate their training, as to make healthy men and 
women of them, that they may not in time become the progenitors 
of a still more degenerate race ; inasmuch as it is now accepted 
by all physiologists, that the defects which are transmissible by 
heredity, are intensified in each succeeding generation. 

The rapid and somewhat alarming gravitation of rural popu- 
lations to urban centres, moreover, invests the subject with special 
interest, for the children of the poor, bom and Inred in, or trans- 
ferred to towns, rapidly degenerate and become scrofulous, from 
overcrowding, defective food, absence of the means of healthy recre- 
ation, and other insanitary conditions. The taint, as remarked 
above, is often accompanied by the coarseness of feature and other 
signs of mental and moral degradation, not usually found in the 
same classes of the country population. To arrest this state before 
it becomes permanent, is then of the utmost importance, for all the 
consequences of scrofula are harder to remove the longer it lasts. 
In the second and third generations they become stereotyped, and 
fill our institutions with the halt, the blind, the epileptic, and the 
imbecile. They bear out the view of some of the most careful and 
experienced of the earlier writers on the poor laws and their 
administration, that pauperism, and the diseases begotten of it, 
are, to a very large extent, hereditary. That some of these physical 
evils are on the increase, appears to me to be undoubted, and among 
the causes I hold to be the condition of the children of the poor 
generally, in all our great towns. 

With this unavoidably lengthened preamble, I proceed to the 
immediate subject of my paper, which, to consider logically, I 
mast divide into three steps or stages, the past, the present, and 
the future, so as to utilise the knowledge and experience of the 
past and present, in the guidance and direction of the future. 

I.— The Past. 

This does not need any lengthened demonstration, for its evils 
were long since recognised, and to a certain extent remedied. 
Wherein the remedy has fallen short of the desired effect, and 
further measures appear to be necessary to carry it into full effect) 
I shall endeavour in my concluding remarks to show. 

The commissioners appointed to consider and report upon the 
working of the poor laws, in the third decade of the present 



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1880.] Of iU OhOdren of the Poor. 189 

century, whose labours cnlminated in one of the most beneficial of 
all oar measures of domestic legislation of modem times, in 
winding np their work, directed attention to the necessity of 
attacking the evils of pauperism at their source. 

They said, and I quote the whole of their words, for they 
4mnnot be too earnestly and frequently impressed : — 

" It will be observed that the measures we have suggested are 
** intended to produce rather negative than positive effects, rather 
*^ to remove the debasing influence to which a large portion of the 
'* population is now subject, than to afford new means of prosperity 
** and virtue. We are perfectly aware that, for the general diffusion 
^'of right principles and habits, we are to look, not so much to 
*' any economic arrangements and regulations, as to the influence of 
" a moral and religious education.'* 

" But one great advantage of any measure which shall remove 
*^ or diminish the evils of the present system, is that it will in the 
^ same degree remove the obstacles which now impede the progress 
^of instruction, and mitigate its results; and will afford a fair 
"scope to the operation of every instrument which may be 
^^ employed for elevating the intellectual and moral condition of 
" the poorer classes.*' 

The commissioners went on to observe, that as the subject was 
not within their commission, they would not dwell further on it, 
and that they only ventured on the few remarks above cited, for the 
purpose of recording their conviction, " that as soon as a good 
^* administration of the poor laws shall have rendered further im- 
** provemeuts possible, the most important act of the legislature is 
" to take measures to promote the religions and moral education of 
" the labouring classes." 

In consequence of this recommendation, after the appointment 
of poor law commissioners, and when the department was in fVill 
working order, in 1839, the attention of the commission was specially 
directed to the subject by the Home Secretary, and instructions were 
accordingly issued by them to those assisting the commissioners, to 
make ijiquiry into, and report as to — 

1. The state of the pauper schools before the passing of the 

Poor Law Amendment Act. 

2. The improvements introduced into those schools since the 

passing of the Act. 

3. The further improvements which might be introduced into 

the pauper schools, and the obstacles to such further 
improvements. ' , 

Somewhat detailed instructions were given as to the great points 
necessary to be inquired into and made known, and much minute 



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190 MouAT — On the Education amd Travrving [June, 

and valuable information was soon collected, of which the most 
important was printed in an invalaable report, published by the poor 
law commissioners in 1841. By very far the best of all the reports 
were those of Dr. Kay, and Mr. E, C. Tuffnell, which abounded in 
carefully collected facts, and excellent practical suggestions re- 
garding the measures necessary to remedy the evils pointed out. 
They all united in one unbroken chorus of condemnation, of the 
ante-poor-law amendment period. These schools were shown to be, 
as a rule, efficient instruments of evil, with few redeeming qualities. 
A large portion of the criminal population was supplied from 
the juvenile inmates of the workhouses and their schools; the 
system of apprenticeship then in force was one of intolerable abuser 
and the evidence of workhouse masters and assistant commissioners 
tended to show, that the bad results of the system were in so great 
a measure due to the associations inseparable from the immediate 
connection of the schools with the workhouses, that the remedy was 
to be sought in the complete separation of the children from the 
adult paupers, rather than in the amendment of the schools them- 
selves. 

Some of the more flagrant abuses were corrected so far as 
correction could be applied without going to the root of the evi}, 
and there was found an occasional oasis of good and efficient 
management, in the dreary desert of a wrong direction in the 
training of the children of the poor. There was not, however, 
sufficient of this leaven to leaven the mass, and the radical remedy 
of the establishment of District Schools entirely separated from the 
workhouses, was suggested and steadily kept in view, until after 
much discussion and inquiry, the public were sufficiently educated 
to induce the legislature to grant the necessary authority for their 
establishment. Large schools were recommended, on the groimd of 
economy of management, and efficiency of education and training 
at moderate cost, the expense of the material and agency employed 
being spread over a large sur^ce, and thus lessening the outlay 
necessary for the fair start in life of each individual child. 

The authors of the plan, however, I think rightly, deprecated its 
being considered from the economic side only, for any plan which 
falls short of efficiency from the grudging of really necessary expen- 
diture of money, cannot be considered to be economical, in the trne 
sense of that much misapplied and misused term. The conversion 
of unprofitable consumers into profitable producers, the rescue of 
the young from augmenting the ranks of those preying upon society, 
the enormous gain to the commonwealth of a virtuous, well 
conducted, industrious, and thrifty population, are ends that justify, 
and even sanctify, any outlay requisite to attain them, even if there 
be not, as I hold there are, yet higher objects than are mentioned 



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1880.] 0/ the ChOdrm of the Poor. 191 

above, in giving to the unhappy cliildren, who are not responsible 
for their lowly lot, the best education and training it is in our 
power to give, consistent with the position — the honourable position 
I esteem it to be — they are intended to occupy in the great army of 
the labouring classes, As modem society is itself responsible for 
many of the evils inseparable from civilisation in its most advanced 
development, so it should not grudge to the irresponsible, the means 
requisite to counteract those evils, so far as it is in our power to 
remedy them. And surely in no direction have we a better prospect 
of success, than in the moral and industrial training of the offspring 
of the poor. Rightly regarded, these children of the State are 
invaluable material when rightly dealt with. I do not believe in 
the practicability of making men sober and industrious, and women 
virtuous, by the agency of acts of parliament; I attach com- 
paratively little importance to efforts to reclaim those steeped in 
vice and crime, in the maturity and decline of their lives: but 
I do believe, most heartily and unfeignedly, in the moral and 
industrial training of the young, and in the efficacy of education 
generally as efficient agents in ridding the body politic of the 
most unwholesome of its humours, in cutting out the corrupting 
cancer of pauperism from its deepest attachments, and in purifying 
the turbid stream of our social life at its source. 

No opportunity was neglected by the poor law commissioners in 
placing the question fairly and fully before boards of guardians ; 
until, by the passing of Act 7 and 8 Vict., cap. 112, the necessary 
powers for the formation of school districts, were granted by the 
legislature. This met the customary opposition to all new measures 
intended to secure uniformity of action, but in due course of time 
district schools were founded in the metropolis, with the consent of 
the local authorities, and without the enforcement of the compulsory 
powers contained in the Act. 

As I am not writing a history of the working of the poor laws 
since the passing of the great Act of 1834, this brief outline is all 
that seems to me to be necessary to record regarding the past, in 
relation to the education and training of the children of the poor — 
and it naturally brings me to the second division of my subject. 

n. — The Peesent. 

There are now six recognised methods of dealing with the 
children known as the pauper class, viz. : — 

(a) In Workhouse Schools, 
(h) „ Separate „ 

(c) „ Certified „ 

(d) „ Training Ships. 

(e) ,y Boarding out, and 
(/) „ District Schools. 

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192 MoTJAT — On the Education cmd Training [ Jnne, 

Of tlie schools which still form an integral portion of the work- 
honses, a considerable nnmber send the children for instruction to 
nationsJ, parish, board, and other day schools, maintaining them 
in the workhouse after the time of instruction. The instruction in 
all the schools mentioned is based on the standards of the Educa< 
tion Department; and is, in fact, that of the public elementary 
education of the country. 

It is impossible to ascertain from the official returns, the exact 
number of the children dealt with. The number of those taught 
in district and workhouse schools, with the salaries of the teachers, 
is given in Table I, from 1851, the date of Mr. Fletcher's paper, to 
the last published report of the Local Government Board. There 
has been comparatively little increase or decrease in the numbers and 
cost, which have been carefully compiled from the returns of the late 
Poor Law, and the present Local Government Boards. The smallest 
average number under instruction in any one year was 30,654, and 
the largest 41,574. 

From a summary prepared from the returns of 1877, the 
following figures were obtained, there were : — 

Number of in-door pauper children on the f sane. 47i59^ 

Ist January, 1877 •.- \ insane .... 644 

48,140 

Of these the number of the orphans, or those 1 g ^ 

relieved without their parents, was j ^ '^^ 

A considerable number of the above were infants below the age 
at which instruction begins. Of those under instruction, the 
following was the distribution at the time mentioned : — 



Knmber 

of 
Uoicms. 


How Disposed of. 


Daily ATerage 

Attendance. 

Half-Year ended 

L«iy-day, 1877. 


88 


Sent their children to 9 district schools 


5,59d 

8,711 

17,980 

2,080 


65 

416 

186 { 


Maintained their children in 49 separate schools 

Educated the children in 414 workhouse „ 

Sent their children to national, parish, board, and 1 
other daj schools, average attendance at J 


This is exclusive of — 
Which sent the children to an industrial school .... 
Boarded out their children 




1 
8 


34,377 


6 


Had no workhouses or in-door oauners 










660 





The above figures are only an approximation to the truth, for 
the number of the large class of casual children who are con- 



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1880.] 



Of the Children of the Poor. 



193 



stantly in and ont of the workhonses with their parents, is 
extremely difficalt to ascertain, from the incomplete records pub- 
lished. 

There is also some flnctoation in the numbers themselves, as 
shown by the following abstract of the returns for 1878, the 
latest for which I have been able to obtain the figures. The 
number of children supported out of the rates must of necessity, 
to a great extent, fluctuate, in accordance with the variation of the 
pauperism of the parents. 

Number of in-door pauper children on let f sane 5i>427 

January, 1878 L insane .... 7 1 3 



Of these children the number of the orphans and 1 
of children relieved without their parents was .... J 



5**140 
30.714 



Of those actually under instruction on the same date, the 
following is the number : — 



Number 

of 
Unkins. 


Manner of thdrDi^xMaL 


Daily ArertKe 

Attendance, 

Half-Ycar ended 

Lady-day, 1878. 


84 
36 

418 

166 - 


Sent their pauper children to 10 district schools 

„ f> 28 separate „ 

Taught their „ in 415 workhouse schools.. 

Sent their pauper children to national, British, I 
board, and other day schools j the arerage atten- • 
danoe may be estimated at 


6,206 

7,011 

20HOI 

2,870 


1 
3 


Union boarded out its in-door pauper children 

Unions had no workhouse 




1 


Union had a few <!hildren but no school 






In the training ship " Exmouth " « 

Total daily arerage attendance in school 


139 


649 


36,627 



(a) — Workhouse Schools. 

From these returns it will be seen that by far the largest 
number of the children are still retained in schools which are 
integral parts of the workhouses, via., 18,000 in 1877, and 20,401 in 
1878. 

In spite of all that has been said and written on the subject 
since 1834, and notwithstanding the great and undoubted improve- 
ments which have been effected in the internal arraugements and 
management of most of our workhouses, the pauper class is very 
much the same now as it was then, and probably ever will be,* and 

* " Strange as the assertion may sound in some ears, I beliere it, nevertheless, 
to be quite true that, of the many millions of adult men and women in England, 
scarcely a solitary person has thought of asking himself this vital question : What 



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194 MoTJ^T — On the Education a/nd Training [Jnnei 

the evil inflaences of pauper example and associations continue to 
be about the worst to which a child can be subjected, at the most 
plastic and impressionable period of life. 

To children brought up in a workhouse, however well managed, 
the early home will be the one looked to with greatest affection 
throughout life, for early influences are the most lasting ; and the 
great kindness and affection with which they are, as a rule, treated 
by masters, matrons, and workhouse officials generally, will seldom 
be effaced from the memories of even the careless and indifferent, 
and those whose misfortune it has been never to have known real 
parental affection, or home life beyond the dreary walls of the 
union house. Where such a feeling exists, the wholesome sentiments 
of independence and self-respect are blunted, and in most cases 
probably altogether deadened. The chief incentives to thrift and 
economy are removed, when no sense of disgrace is attached to the 
workhouse as a refuge in times of distress, in old age, in sickness, 
and even in temporary pressure from bad seasons, short work, strikes, 
and the other incidents of the career of the improvident, idle, and 
ill-disposed members of the working classes, who, unfortunately, 
are far too numerous in these times of high pressure, and keen 
competition at home and abroad. Parents imbued with such senti- 
ments have no scruple in abandoning their children to the support 
of the public, and children make no effort to maintain their parents 
in old age, while the house which sheltered, fed, and clothed them 
in early life, is open for their reception. The best managed work- 
house schools are those of which the memory will survive longest 
in the minds of those who have been trained in them. Human 
nature in its springs of action is very much the same in all classes, 
guided as much by early training and influences as by temperament 

becomes of the wom-ont and nsed-np moliitudes of the criminal and dangerous 
classes? When they can plunder and plague the public no longer, into what 
holes and comers do they slink to die ? Not in garrets and cellars — the poor die 
in such places as these — ^not in ditches and under hedges, but in union work- 
houses. Where else should they wear out the remnant of their ill-spent lives P 
Where, too, do the children of the dangerous classes, taught to steal, sent out to 
beg, witnesses perforce of every nauseous vice, full to the brim of revolting 
experiences, their every word an indecency or a blasphemy ; where do they go ? 
Where must they go, when by any accident they fall helpless into the hands of 
the police ? There is but one answer. They, too, must go to the union. And so of 
profUgate mothers, when their time of trouble comes; and so of the tramping 
imbecile, when the weather is not to his taste. These and every other variety of 
vicious manhood, womanhood, and childhood, must find their way to the union 
workhouse — must take part in the education of those with whom they are mad^ 
to associate. Let who will do the work of instruction, these, and such as these, 
must bring to bear on all around them the terrible force of example. These 
must carry on the work of education. Thus does the union workhouse become 
inevitably the normal school of all the vices." — <* Walker's Original," 5th edition, 
by Dr. Guy, p. 218. 



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1880.] Of tlie Children of the Poor. 195 

and constitiitioii, modified, as they probably are more or less, by 
hereditary and transmitted tendencies. 

All wages earned in excess of the narrowest requirements cf 
daily existence, will be freely spent in drink and dissipation — there 
will be no heed for the morrow. Food, a fireside, a bed, and the 
constant congenial companionship of men and women of their own 
stamp, are always ready for their reception on the submission of 
proofs of destitution. What more do they want ? They will at 
once resort to it when such a life as theirs has produced its natural 
result, early decay and indisposition to exertion. Hence, I regard 
the workhouse as the best possible training school for the produc- 
tion, continuance, and extension of pauperism, and I am by no means 
sure that it is not still responsible for some of the crime of the 
country. A comparatively small part of pauperism is due to true, 
misfortune, and the failure of honest, but unprosperous exertions. 
Every class, doubtless, has its social failures, but the short* and 
simple annals of the poor, if correctly apprehended and honestly 
written, would, I am afraid, show that the majority of those who 
become a permanent burthen to the community, are exactly of 
the type which a workhouse training is calculated to evolve. 

As the workhouse test, when rightly used and rigorously 
applied, has nearly banished the able-bodied from all well-governed 
unions, and left the houses to the old, decayed, worn-out, and 
feeble in mind and body ; so the absolute exclusion of all children 
from their precincts, would cut off the most fruitful supply of 
paupers at its source. 

Many excellent and benevolent persons doubt the heredity 
of pauperism. I do not — but this is a side issue not necessary 
to my argument. Hence I shall content myself with its mere 
mention. 

I have been informed by a gentleman who has had several 
years' knowledge and experience of street arabs, and who has long 
been engaged in the training of criminal children, that by far the 
most depraved and incorrigibly vicious children who have come 
under his care, have been those who have been in workhouse 
schools. 

There is, of course, a reverse to this medal, and many exemplary 
members of the working classes, of both sexes, have been trained 
in such institutions. Yet the strength of any system must be 
judged by its weakest point, and if it be true that evil communica- 
tions corrupt good manners, such communications are the normal 
state of a large proportion of the inmates of workhouses. 

That children can be properly educated and trained in work- 
house schools, with the necessarily imperfect machinery that can be 
employed, I altogether disbelieve, and assuredly their hereditary 



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196 MouAT — On the Education and Training [ Jane^ 

physical defects are not to be corrected either by the sorroimdings, 
or the dreary life of such places. 

Children out of school hours need to be under nearly as careful 
regulation, as when at their studies. If left to their own devices, 
or in the charge of adult pauper inmates, they hang about the 
most objectionable places within reach, the result of which is the 
reverse of any beneficial inflaence either on their morals or their 
manners. They also require to be taught to play, and to benefit by 
all the conditions of active out-door exercises, which are so neces- 
sary to their healthy physical growth. 

In early infancy they are sometimes placed in the charge of 
weak-minded paupers, who, although often singularly gentle Mid 
kindly in their treatment of their young charges, are about the very 
worst persons to whom a duty of so much importance should be 
assigned. Most persons of weak minds, however careful, tractable, 
and affectionate they may usually be, are at times uncertain tem- 
pered, and not capable of self-control. Their habits and entire 
want of education cause them to teach children objectionable tricks 
and ways, which are difficult to eradicate at a later period, and are 
not improbably the source of some of the nervous and similar 
disorders, with which this class are known to be afflicted. Some of 
the forms of epilepsy, ending often in complete loss of reason, are, 
I have reason to think, due to previous habits acquired in early 
life. From tables which I prepared in 1874, it appeared that in the 
year in question there were in the extra-metropolitan workhouses 
542 deaths from brain disease, 258 from epilepsy, and 1,283 ^^^^^^ 
paralysis. There are at all times a considerable number of epileptics 
in the workhouses. If the exact history of the above casualties 
could be ascertained, it is m^re than probable that many of them 
had their remote origin in workhcmse influences and conditions. 
Hence, in my belief, an additional reason of some weight why pauper 
children should never be educated and trained in woi^diouses. To 
many of them the remarks published in 1841, by the late Sir 
James Kay- Shuttle worth, Mr. Tufihell, and others still apply, and 
to their reports I must refer those who desire frirther information 
on the subject. 

I hope that the time is not far distant, when by the formation 
of county boards and the better organisation of all local institutions, 
boards of guardians will be brought to see the desirability of sepa- 
rating schools entirely from workhouses, without a resort to compul- 
sory legislation in any form. 

(6) — Separate Schools. 

These are schools detached from the workhouses, sometimes in 
their immediate vicinity, but for the most part at a distance, and 



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1880.] 



Of the OhUdr&n of the Poor, 



197 



ander the control of the workhouse authorities. The nnmbers 
taught in such schools range from 7,000 to 8,000 and upwards. 
Some of them are of considerable importance, as will be seen hj 
the following lists of those in effective operation in 1878, with the 
number of children in each : — 



Westminster (Battersea) iz7 

St. Marylebone (Soufchall) 3 1 8 

St. Pancras (Leavesden) 566 

Ia]iDgtx>n (Hollowaj) 372 

Strand (Edmonton) 410 

Holbom (Mitcham) 540 

Bethnal Ghreen (Leytonstone) .... 277 

St-Gteorge-in-the-East (Plashet).. 267 
Mile End Old Town (Bancroft 1 ^ 

Eoad) / *^^ 

Lambeth (Norwood) » 465 

Brighton 247 

Petworth « 17 

Bamet loi 

Edmonton 156 

Wjcombe 54 



Oxford 98 

Hartismere 30 

Norwich 24 

Bristol 1 3 1 

Wellington 57 

Birkenhead 161 

Liyerpool 688 

Kirkdale (girls) 66 

West Derby (the boys at Kirk- "1 _ 

dale) J 

Manchester (Swinton) 966 

Newport (Monmouthshire) 198 

Cardiff. 169 

Bridgend and Cowbridge 110 

Swansea 69 



Since that time a separate school for Birmii^ham was occupied 
at the end of 1879, at Marston Ghreen. 

The largest of these schools are, in all essentials aa respects 
establishment, teaching, industrial training, and management, on 
the footing of district schools. Some of them, as Kirkdale and 
Swinton, have attained high proficiency in mental cxdtare and 
indostrial training, and are doing a great and important work in 
the dispanperisation of the children of the important industrial 
and manufacturing centres in which thej are situated. Those at 
a distance from the union houses are, taken altogether, absolutely 
free from workhouse influences and associations, and the successful 
subsequent career of those trained in them, which in a large number 
of instances has been carefully traced, shows that they are con- 
ducted wisely and well. Those which contain large numbers in big 
buildings on the aggregate system, suffer from the conditions of 
such aggregation in health, and in the enforced absence of the 
study of individual character, which is the only really sound system 
of educating the young. But as they share those disadvantages 
with the district schools, with which they are essentially identical 
in character, I shall postpone my remarks on this head until I 
come to them. 

Although the district schools come first in logical sequence, from 
the number of children — 5,000 to 6,000 — educated in them, I shall 
consider them last, for reasons which will appear anon. 

From the returns it appears that from some 1 50 or more unions, 



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198 MouAT — On the Education and Training [Jane, 

the children are sent to national, board, and other schools for their 
mental culture, returning to the workhouses for their meals, and in 
all other matters becoming inmates of those institutions. The 
number of children thus disposed of, is between 2,000 and 3,000. 

This does not appear to me to be a satisfactory arrangement, 
notwithstanding that the instructive staff of those schools is superior 
to the teachers found in the smaller workhouses, and that the 
mental training, mode of thought, and the glimpse of the outer, 
self-reliant world obtained by the children, are educational in- 
fluences of considerable value. All these advantages are neutralised 
by the workhouse atmosphere to which they return, and irom. which 
they come, and the association with adult paupers, which no 
vigilance can prevent. The absence also of industrial training, 
which exists only in name in most of the smaller workhouses, is a 
cardinal defect of the system for which nothing can compensate. 

It would be far better for the guardians of all the unions which 
adopt this system, from the most praiseworthy nM>tives, to combine 
together in each county to form district schools, than to rely upon 
a plan which, seeming to be advantageous, leaves the vices and defects 
of the old system in full vigour, during, by far, the greater part 
of the lives of the children of the poor committed to their charge. 
In some instances, what are called industrial trainers are em- 
ployed to take charge of the children to and from school, and to 
look after them in the workhouse. In other cases, the same duty 
is performed by pauper inmates. The root of the evil is not 
reached by either plan. The workhouse and its associations 
overshadows them all, and little that is healthy can grow in its 
shade. 

(c) — Certified Schools, 

There is another clas^ of schools not specifically mentioned in 
the tabular statement, which deserves a passing notice, viz., schools 
certified under the statute, 25 and 26 Vict., cap. 43. These are 
schools under private management, in which pauper children are 
taken in for education and training on the payment by the 
guardians of the unions from which they are sent, of a fee equal 
to the cost of maintenance of each child in the workhouse school 
of the same union. Several of the schools are for destitute Roman 
Catholic children; and before children can be sent to them, the 
school and its management must be certified to be fit for the purpose, 
by a local government inspector. The number of children in these 
schools is not large, but they are doing a good work in a quiet, 
unostentatious way, and although the standard of instruction and 
industrial training in them is not so high as it is in the district and 
separate schools, those which I have seen appear to be fitting their 



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1880.] . 



Of the OhMrm of the Poor. 



199 



inmates for the hnmble poeitions they are destined to occupy, in a 
^kirly satisfactory manner. 

On the 1st of June, 1878, according to a return moved for by 
Mr. Salt, Parliamentary Secretary of the Local Government Board, 
there were in England and Wales at that time 76 of these institu- 
tions containing poor law children, via. : — 



Number. 


InduBtrial and Training InsfdtiitionB .... 
InBtitntions for the hlind „.,.„.,.rT„ -r .r,..T 


Boy.. 


Girii. 


TbUL 


87 
16 


116 
161 
no 

382 
47 


526 
181 

64 
809 

27 


64Z 
29Z 

691 
74 


11 
10 


„ deftf and dumb .... 
omhanH ....r. 


2 


„ ur|iiuuui 

„ idiote 






76 


816 


1,067 


1,873 



Fifteen of the above are exclusively devoted to Roman Catholic 
children, viz., eight industrial schools, two institutions for the 
blind, and five for the deaf and dumb. 

(d) — Training Ships. 

One of the most satis&ctory and successM of the methods adopted 
for the training of some of the children of the poor in the metropolis, 
is ihe solitary training ship which is exclusively devoted to that 
purpose. In 1870, the last report of the late Poor Law Board stated, 
^ That a difficulty is often experienced in obtaining a satisfactory 
'* outlet for boys brought up in the district and separate schools, and 
" it appeared to us that great advantage would result if a ship was 
^' founded in the Thames for the training of pauper boys from the 
" metropolitan schools.'* They communicated with the Lords of the 
Admiralty on the subject, who expressed a willingness to grant 
the use of the " Ooliath," then lying at Sheemess, for the purpose. 
A provision was introduced into the Metropolitan Poor Law (1867) 
Amendment Act, to enable the guardians of any union or parish, 
and the managers of any school or asylum district, with the consent 
of the Poor Law Board, to purchase, hire, or otherwise acquire and 
fit up one or more ships for the purpose of training boys for the 
sea service. The " Goliath " was accordingly obtained, a commander 
in the navy appointed to her charge, and she was anchored o£E 
Grays in Essex. There she lay until she was destroyed by fire in 
1875. She was placed under the control of the managers of the 
Forest Gate District School, as two of the unions contained in the 
district were waterside unions, but she was available for boys from 
all the unions and parishes in the metropolis on the payment of a 
weekly charge per head sufficient to Cbver the actual cost of main* 

VOL. XLIII. PIBT II. p 



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200 MoUAT — On the EdueaUon and TrcMng ^Jane, 

tenanoe of the cliildren, with a fair proportion of the charges 
incurred hy the fitting np of the vessel. 

In the first report of the Local Oovemment Board it was stated 
that " a sufficient period has now elapsed since the establishment 
'* by the managers of the Forest Gitte School District, of the 
" ' Goliath ' as a training ship for pauper boys, to enable an autho- 
" ritative judgment to be pronounced. The results of this experi- 
'* ment have been in all respects most satisfactory. A marked and 
^' most encouraging improvement has been observed in the physical 
*' development, and in the bearing and general intelligence of the 
*' boys transferred to the ship from the metropolitan unions. The 
" rapidity with which some, when transferred to the ship — ^town- 
" bred boys of stunted growth — ^have increased in stature and in 
'* bulk, has excited general remark."* 

The purchase of a small sailing tender was sanctioned, to lessen 
the cost of conveying stores and water, and to exercise a beneficial 
influence on the boys in accustoming them to the sea, and in 
developing habits of practical seamanship. 

The managers were also empowered to receive children from 
unions and parishes outside the metropolis. 

The stunted growth and imperfect physical development of the 
London poor, led to a correspondence between the managers of the 
ship and the most experienced of the Local Oovemmeiit educational 
inspectors, in which the latter fully maintained his position, that to 
this cause alone was due the exclusion of most of these boys from 
the royal navy.f The boys sent to the " Gbliath " were the pick of 
the London district schools, and all were rejected who, after careful 
medical examination, were found to be in any way unfit for a sea 
life, by reason of physical imperfections ; and yet, even from this 
selection of the fittest, comparatively few attained the standard of 
growth and development, required by the naval authorities. As this 
is, in my own opinion, based upon a personal examination of several 
thousands of these children, the cardinal defect of the existing 
system of training in most of the district and separate, and of all 

• First "B«port of Local Government Board, 1871-72," p. xxvi. 
t In the prologue to an entertainment on board the " Ezmonth/' in December 
last, occurs the following passage : — 

** And yet there's one thing saddens as, and that is— 
That we, with all our pudding, beef, and g^vy. 
Can't reach the standard of the royal navy." 

The annual reports of the successor of the " Gbliath," the " Ezmouth," a 
lecture by Captain Bonrchier on the system of tnuniug adopted by him» read 
before the Society of Arts, 6th March, 1872, and the *' Instruction Book of the 
'Exmouth,'" 422, published by Harrisons, St. Martin's Lane, are deserving of 
carefhl consideration by all interested in the thorough training of the dass to which 
these boys belong. 



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1880.] Of ihe ChOdrm of the Foot. 201 

the oiher schools of every kind and class to which these children 
are sent, I dwell npon it, because, in this direction, the greatest 
change is required, as I shall show in my remarks when treating of 
the fatnre of this important question. 

In the succeeding year, a house on shore was hired to accommo- 
date boys suffering from fever and other infectious diseases, such as 
are certain to occur when large numbers are congregated in a 
restricted space, without a more perfect system of sanitary arrange- 
ment and supervision than yet exists. The little attention paid, 
heretofore, to such matters, and the universal neglect in all classes 
of educational institutions in Great Britain of matters relating to 
the hygiene of schools and colleges, must ere long force its attention 
upon the public, in such manner as to provide the necessary 
remedy. 

The '' Ck>liath " continued to advance in the success of its train- 
ing, until, on the 22nd December, 1875, it was totally destroyed by 
fire, in spite of every effort to save her, of both officers and crew. 
There were on board at the time $2$ persons, most of them boys of 
tender age, and she lay in deep water and in a tideway ; yet in cold 
winter weather, as a result of the admirable discipline maintained, 
and the excellent training which produced it, but 2 1 of the ship's 
company perished. More striking testimony of the value of such 
an institution, in capable hands, could never have been afforded 
in the even tenor of its ordinary life, from any length of time. 

The behaviour of the commander and of the crew excited sym- 
pathy and admiration at home and abroad, and the incident takes 
rank, with many other episodes of similar character, which adorn 
the annals of our country. 

I regret that the space at my disposal will not permit of my 
extracting from the official records, where they are buried so far as 
the general public are concerned, the very striking accounts of this 
incident, which I hold to be the best testimony that has ever been 
afforded, of poor law administration when directed in the right 
channel. 

In addition to the proof by fire of the " Goliath " herself, the 
sailing brigantine attached to her as a tender, underwent as crucial 
a test by water, of the good stuff into which Captain Bourchier had 
converted his indifferent raw materiaL She was run down by a 
steamer in a strong tideway, and not a soul on board of her was lost, 
every boy having been able to save himself by his activity, and by the 
self-command which her excellent commander had instilled into them. 
If history be, as it assuredly may be made, teaching by example, do 
not these accidents of the " Goliath '* and the behaviour of her lillipu- 
tian crew, taken from the very lowest stratum of our town popula- 
tion, show how valuable the annual supply of 40,000 or $0,000 of 

p2 

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202 MouAT — On the EducaUon and Training [Jime» 

these strays and waifs, who have been not inaptly termed children 
of the State, really are, and how they may, by wise direction and 
travelling ont of the beaten tracts of the past, which are not now fit 
guides of the fntnre, become the instruments of removing some of 
our social difficulties, in the best and most efficacious of all manners. 
As stated in the last report on the ** Gh>liath," by Mr. Holgate, the 
educational inspector, who had made his annual official examination 
a few days before the fire : — " The instruction carried out on board 
" was not limited to ordinary schoolwork, but included navigation, 
'* seamanship in all its branches, taught by careftilly chosen in- 
*^ structors from the royal navy, swinmiing, driU, with or without 
** rifles, band, and singing ; besides the industrial work of tailoring, 
^ carpentry, and shoemaking ; in addition, the boys had the great 
*' advantage of learning to utilise their teaching by cruising in the 
*' brigantine of i8o tons, attached as a tender to Uie ' Ooliath,' and 
" in which ihej were often away for days together, in all sorts of 
" weather." 

About 1,645 ^7^ passed through Captain Bourchier's hands in 
the '' Goliath," and ip86 in the '' Ezmouth ; ** nearly all of whom 
are known to have turned out well. The exact figures cannot be 
given, as the early records were destroyed with the ship. There are 
now 570 boys in the latter vessel. 

(e) — Boarding Out, 

There is, probably, no question connected with the education 
and trtdning of the class of children to whom my paper refers, 
which has excited more controversy, than that of boarding out. 
Upon it the philanthropists and all who approach the question from 
the sentimental side, are hopelessly at issue with the economists, 
and those who are guided mainly or solely by public policy 
in the matter. To consider it fairly and with strict impartiality, it 
appears to me to be necessary that the real conditions of the ques* 
tion should first be clearly apprehended and formulated, and then 
that the rules of policy or propriety should be applied to its 
solution. 

I shall attempt to do so, with the confession that it is always 
difficult to determine the manifold relations of any great social 
problem, within the limits of an aphorism or an epigram. 

The question then is, how to educate and train the orphan 
and deserted children of the poor, in such manner as to take them 
permanently ont of the class in which they are, with special 
reference to their own interests, and to the general administration 
of the laws for the relief of destitution. 

To take these conditions, not in the order of their importance, 
but in that in which they are usually treated by the advocates of 



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1880.] Of ths OhUdrm of the Poor. 203 



the system, the advantages of the plan as regards the children, \ 
that it removes them permanently from the inflnenoe of the work- 
house and its associations ; tliat it gives to those who have been 
denied them, from no fanlt of their own, the comforts, advantages, 
and priceless blessings of a home ; that it places them on a level 
with the members of the class to which they really belong ; that it 
affords them an education suited to the future position they are to 
occupy ; that it gives them a fair start in life, without the pariah 
taint of pauperism ; and that it is, therefore, the most humane, 
thoughts, and considerate manner of discharging the duty of the 
State towards them. Pauperism and its surroundings are in &ct 
the outcome of civilisation itself, and it should be the sacred task 
of society to mitigate as much as it can, miseries which are so 
much the creatures of its own creation. 

These are, in a few words, so far as I have been able to gather 
from the published reports and writings which I have consulted — 
and they are legion — the cardinal conditions put forward by the 
earnest and philanthropic persons who are advocates of the system. 
The public policy of the proceeding is very generally disregarded 
by them, and, as usual, in this strictly sentimental view, the minor 
is preferred to the major. 

In all social problems private must of necessity yield to public 
interests, however much apparent individual hardship may be the 
result. 

From a poor law point of view, as stated by Professor Fawcett, 
in his admirable work on *' Pauperism, its Causes, and Remedies," 
it is an encouragement to improvidence, to immorality, and to other 
social vices; it rewards the improvident at the expense of the 
thrifty ; it will introduce far greater evils than it ^11 cure ; and, it 
will exercise a demoralising influence which will most powerfully 
promote the future increase of pauperism. 

After referring to the rules promulgated by the poor law autho- 
rities, which deserve to be more widely known than they are, this 
eminent Economist proceeds to show, that it places the orphan and 
deserted child in substantially a better position in life than the child 
of a labourer ; that it encourages, by a pecuniary bribe, the neglect 
of an important part of the obligation of parents to maintain and 
educate their children during their lives, and to make provision for 
them after their deaths; that it is a powerful premium on illegitimacy, 
encouraging it in a manner worse than any of the conditions of the 
old poor laws, as shown by the statistics of the country from which 
it has been imported — Scotland; that it encourages desertion of 
the children bom out of wedlock by their mothers, thus severing 
the strongest of all natural ties ; that it is equally injurious to the 
class of legitimate children, in affording the strongest possibU 



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204 MouAT — On the EducaHon and TrcUning [June, 

enoonragement to their desertion ; and, tbat it is inconsistent with 
a proper administration of the poor laws. He winds np by 
stating that those who disconntenance it, must be content to bear 
the reproach of hard-heartedness for resisting the attempts of an 
nDwise philanthropy and mistaken benevolence, **to benefit the 
" yicioas and improvident, at the expense of the thrifty and 
" indnstrions." 

An attentive stndy of the rules to prevent the abnse, and 
regulate the nse of the system, shows how liable it is to the objec* 
tions so forcibly stated by the anthorit^ above referred to, and 
how well nigh impossible it is to guard it from inherent dangers, 
beyond the pale alike of economic objections, and of philanthropic 
motives. 

If it could be shown that the classes of children who alone can 
be allowed to be benefited by the system are neglected or prejudiced 
by the present management of district and separate schools, there 
might be some foundation for a small fragment of the philanthropic 
plan. 

But, it cannot be dem'ed that the mental and physical training 
are really superior ; that the taint of pauperism is as efEectually 
removed ; that quite as fair a start in life, with better preparation 
for it, is given to them, and that the majority do well in their 
subsequent career, as I shall show anon. While this manner of 
dealing with them is strictly consistent with the correct cardinal 
conditions of the relief of destitution, it violates no principle of 
public morality, and is altogether removed from the dangers 
inherent in boarding out, as shown by the terrible scandals which 
occasionally come to light in its working. 

The solitary advantage then seems to me to be in the cultivation 
of kindly feelings, and the love and affection of foster parents, the 
value and importance of which I have no desire to underrate, or to 
undervalue. 

But, is genuine parental affection a purchasable commodity ; is 
the stray waif likely to supersede the child of the house in its mani- 
festations ; and can it in any case be regarded as an equivalent for 
the better mental and physical culture of the school which is dis- 
severed from all pauper associations P 

An admirable word picture of the life and lot of the children, 
male and female, of the labouring classes, was painted by the late 
Sir J. Kay-Shuttleworth, in the report of 1841, and I fail to find 
in it any encouragement to bring the best and most hopeful classes 
of pauper children within reach of its freedom and advantages, 
such as they are. All parliamentary and other authentic reports of 
the agricultural population show how much improvement is required 
in their dwellings, manners and customs, training, and the other 



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1880.] Of the Ohadrm of the Poor. 205 

conditions necessary to supplement their healthy, virtnoasy and 
otherwise happy lives, to enable them to face with success the fierce 
struggle for life, the existence of which has been revealed by the 
prevailing agricultural distress and depressiou. Even from the 
sentimental side of boarding out, I am not convinced of its advan- 
tages, apart from all other considerations. 

The question was forced upon the attention of the poor law 
authorities in 1869, who stated that for some time past an increasing 
number of applications had been made to them by boards of guar- 
dians for the practical adoption of that system, and that after much 
deliberation they had come to the conclusion that a fair trial ought 
not to be refused to the proposed change. They saw the serious 
risks attendant upon the practice, and the imperative need of all 
possible safeguards, to ensure the proper education and general 
well-being of the children. They sent one of their best and most 
experienced inspectors (Mr. J. J. Henley) to Scotland, to collect 
information as to its working in that country, and directed similar 
inquiries to be made in England and Wales, wherever the plan had 
been tried. Their reports were published in a separate parliamen- 
tary paper (No. 176, Sess. 1870). After detailing all their mis- 
givings, they wound up by saying that they quite believed the 
system, if well conducted, likely to benefit pauper children in the 
highest degree; but that, if not watched with unremitting care, 
abuses of a deplorable nature might easily surround it, and result in 
moral and social evils of the greatest magnitude. 

After accumulating, and carefully considering all the information 
they could obtain on the subject, they authorised the guardians of 
large town parishes and densely inhabited unions to board out their 
children in the country, and sanctioned non-resident relief to enable 
them to eflfect that object. They discouraged boarding out in 
towns, and framed the extremely stringent regulations hereinbefore 
mentioned, to prevent abuse. The order was addressed to forty 
unions and separate parishes, all more or less densely populated, and 
including the unions and parishes of the metropolis. 

Thirty boarding-out committees, composed chiefly of ladies, 
were established under the authority of the Board, in some of the 
principal counties of England, and the system was &irly floated, 
and has continued in operation to the present time, the sanction of 
the Board being never withheld, when careful inquiry has proved aU 
the conditions required to have been fulfilled. 

As might be expected, grave cases of abuse have, from time to 
time, been brought to light ; but, on the whole, the plan is reported 
to have worked fairly well. It has not, however, been very generally 
adopted by boards of guardians, as comparatively few of the chil- 
dren in the schools have been brought under its operation. 



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206 MouAT — On ihe EdueaHon and Trailing [June, 

The latest retom shows that^ in 1879, 597 children, ont of abont 
30,000, were boarded ont, nnder the order of 25th November, 1870, 
from twenty-five nnions. 

I have not referred to or indnded in this statement children 
boarded oat in their own nnions, for whose better care regnlationa 
were framed, and published in the " London Cbsette " of 14th Sep- 
tember, 1877. It is so entirely a mere form of ont-relief, as to place 
those children in an entirely different category from those dealt 
with nnder the order of 1870 ; and is not accompanied by the same 
saf eg^nards to prevent abuse. Their numbers are considerable, and 
this manner of disposing of them is liable, in my opinion, to even 
graver objections, from a purely poor law point of view, than thai 
mentioned above. 

(f)— District Schools. 

The remedy recommended for the defects of the old system of 
workhouse schools, and the removal of the abuses of the appren- 
ticeship of pauper children, under the Acts on the subject prior to 
the legislation of 1834, was the institution of district schools, by 
the union of the authorities of several unions and parishes, in pro- 
viding the buildings and agency for the accommodation of their 
children in large numbers, in bnUdings calculated to contain them ; 
these buildings to be placed in healthy oountiy places far away from 
the workhouses and the towns, and surrounded by a sufficient 
amount of cultivable land, to admit of farming operations being 
conducted on them. 

It was considered that by this plan the maximum of good could 
be accomplished at the minimum of cost, and that suitable agency 
could be procured at a fair and not disproportionate outlay, to 
admit of the introduction of a well-devised plan of education and 
training. 

It took some years of discussion, and the granting of com- 
pulsory powers, in the case of the Metropolis, to secure the general 
adoption of the plan even there. In several unions, however, the 
number of children was safficiently great to justify the establish- 
ment of a separate school, so that up to the present time there are 
but eleven district schools in existence, viz. : — 

Arerace Number 
of Cbiidrai. 

1. The Central London, at Hanwell^ formed by the City 1 « 

of London and St. Savionr's Unions j *^^ 

2. The South Metropolitan, at Sutton i«58o 

(Taking the children from Camberwell, Greenwich, 
St. Olaye's, Woolwich, and Stepney). 

8. Famham and Hartly Wintney 127 

(With children from Alton, Famham, and Hartly 
Wintney). 



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1880.] Of t\e OhOdren of the Poor. 207 

Arerage Number 
of Childnik—ConU. 

4. North Surrey, at Anerlej 8o8 

(To which Crojdon, Lewisham, Biohmond, Wands- 
worth, and Clapham, Kensington, and Chelsea con* 
trihuted in 1878 ; but the two hist haye since with- 
drawn). 

6. Sonih-East Shropshire at Quatt 152 

(Hare children from Bridgnorth, Cleobniy Mortimer, 
Madelej, Scriyen, Newport, Salop, and Shiffnal). 

6. Beading and Wokingham, at Wargraye 185 

(Haye children from Beading and Wokingham). 

7. West London, Ashford, Staines 682 

(Haye the children from Eeltham, Paddington, St. 
Gkorge*s, and Brentford). 

8. Forest Gate, West Ham 545 

(Fed &om Poplar and Whitechapel). 

0. Walsall and West Bromwich 249 

(Haying diildren from Walsall and West Bromwich). 

10. Brentwood 535 

(Supplied from Hackney and Shoreditch). 

11. The training ship ** Exmouth," which is under the orders 

of the Metropolitan Asylum District. 

In the above schools there was an average daily attendance in 
the half-year ended on Lady-day, 1878, of 6,345 children, or abont 
a sixth of the whole nnmber of children in all the schools, at the 
time in question. 

In these schools, which are all condncted on the half-time 
system, the mental training is in strict accordance with the 
standard for elementary schools of the edacation department, and 
very considerable proficiency has been attained in some of them, as 
high as the sixth standard. They are carefully inspected by a 
special staff of school inspectors, under the orders of the Local 
(Government Board. Valuable reports by these gentlemen are 
contained in the annual returns of that department. The instruc- 
tive staff varies in most of them, and a large part of the teaching 
is relegated to pupil teachers — a plan which I, as an old education 
officer, regard as an unwise economy, for such teaching can never 
be effective, especially with those children who need, but never get, 
the very best instructors who can be procured, viz., the younger 
children and infants. It would be out of place, even if I could 
find time for it, to discuss the very important subject of elementary 
education in a paper not specially devoted to it, as it covers a large 
area of ground, and would lead me far a-field in my exposition of the 
system in use in the poor law schools. The great and crying want 
of the country is a sufficient supply of competent teachers, and these 



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208 MouAT — On the Educcdion and Training [Jone^ 

schools suffer from the want as mnch as any other educational 
institations. A great ontcry is always raised at any increase of 
expense in sach matters, and boards of guardians are, naturally and 
properly, anxious to practise the most rigid economy in their estab- 
lishments. 

While lavish and unnecessary outlay should never be allowed 
for any purpose whatever, any expenditure which is really necessary 
to secure efficiency is, in reality, a profitable application of funds. 
However much they may cost, schools are less expensive than 
prisons, and tax the community less than does the vast amount of 
money required to maintain the expensive agency needed for the 
detection, prevention, and punishment of crime. The correction 
of most of our social evils will be better accomplished by education, 
than by any other agency ; hence no amount of money required to 
place this on a thoroughly efficient footing should be grudged, 
however lowly the objects of it may be. The industrial training in 
the large district, and the more important separate schools, is stated, 
and appears, on the surface, to be sufficient, to secure its imme- 
diate object ; but this seems to me to be more apparent than real. 
Tailoring, shoemaking, carpentry, smith's-work, and the menial 
duties of the establishments, form the staple of the training of the 
boys, with instrumental music in the larger schools. For the girls : 
sewing, mending, and making, cooking, and household work 
generally, chiefly occupy their time and attention. With the 
exception of instrumental music to fit the boys for enlistment 
into military bands, which is remarkably well taught, none of the 
instruction is as thorough as it might be made, if instructors of 
a higher order were entertained, and boards of guardians were not 
over anxious to launch their children in life, the moment they 
are considered in any way qualified, the demand being in excess of 
the supply. 

Farm work is also, in some schools, well carried on, and is of 
great importance, both in supplying the wants of the institution, 
and in affording the most healthy and invigorating of all the 
varieties of manual labour. This subject is, however, scarcely 
carried sufficiently far to induce the boys to become agricultural 
labourers, except possibly among those who emigp:tite ; the majority 
of them are consequently absorbed into the town populations. 

All the essentials of physical training, drilling, gymnastics, 
the mast, and swimming are practised in the large schools, and in 
some few of them girls as well as boys are taught to swim, with 
remarkable success. If time permitted, I could show from a strictly 
hygienic point of view, how exceptionably valuable all of these are 
for the class of children referred to. 

In the above respects, the best of our district and separate 



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1880]. Of the OhUdr&n of ilie Poor. 209 

Rcbools, are in advance of nearly every one of the other classes of 
institntion for elementary education in this country. 

This is by no means an exhaustive account of the schools in 
question, and I do not intend it to be so. Should any of those who 
now listen to me desire to know more about it, I counsel them to 
visit the North Surrey District School, at Anerley, near the 
Crystal Palace, and see for themselves how by wise and liberal 
expenditure on the part of the managers, it has become a model of 
its class, in the health and training, mental and physical, of the 
children ; how mental culture is pursued in strict relation to indus- 
trial training ; how cardinal defects have been remedied, by a bold 
application of the remedies recommended ; and to what an extent 
the correction of physical defects has been effected by exercises, 
as invigorating to the mind, as they are strengthening to the body, 
and interesting to the children themselves. 

Another school, much farther away, at Swinton, near Manchester, 
as a model of what a separate school may be made in capable 
hands, is also deserving of a pilgrimage. The extent to which 
mental training and farm operations are carried in it are deserving 
of all praise ; and the swimming of the girls and boys interested me 
much when I visited it. One little maid of 13 years swam once in a 
prize contest most gracefully, accomplishing a couple of miles 
without touching ground, and without the least sign of distress or 
fatigue ; in fact, she declared herself ready and able to double the 
distance, had it been allowed. I dwell upon these matters because 
I hold them to be of priceless advantage, both in their relation to 
health, and as instruments of education. The drill and music of the 
boys inculcate order, obedience, unity of action, and the classical 
softening of the manners, which tempers the roughness of their 
natures. The swimming, musical and dumb bell exercises of the 
girls at Anerley, do the same for the other sex, and I am quite 
certain that if our educational authorities will condescend to take a 
leaf out of the poor law book, break away from their standards and 
traditions, and combine industrial and physical training with mental 
culture, they will improve the elementary education of the country 
to an extent which can be measured by no mere money standard.* 

Cost of Education in the Poor Law District cmd 8epa/rate 
Metropolita/n Schools, 

The cost of the schools still attached to workhouses cannot be 
ascertained from any of the published returns, as they are mixed 

* In the antamn of last year, at a meeting held at Lansanne, of the teachers 
and others engaged in primary edncation in Switzerland, the whole question of 
the urgent need of combining physical training with mental colture was discussed, 
and resolutions were adopted to increase the former, and diminish the latter. I 



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210 MouAT — On the Education and Tradmng [June, 

up with the expenditure of the workhonses themselves, in such 
manner as to he insusceptihle of separation. One of the grounds 
for the retention of the children in the houses which weighs most 
with many hoards of guardians, is its supposed economy. What- 
ever is inefficient and insufficient, is dear at any price, and of all 
possible methods of restricting necessary expenditure, the most 
unwise is in the primary education of the children of all classes. If 
by means of education crime can be arrested at its source ; virtue 
and sobriety be inculcated, when the lessons are likely to be of 
greatest efficacy ; habits of industry, order, regularity, and obedience 
be implanted at the ages when impressions are most lasting, and 
the ranks of the community can be recruited from year to year by a 
well trained little army of boys and girls entering upon a life of 
independence and self-support, what may not the future of the great 
nation to which we belong, become ? If the great body of the people 
rise to the knowledge and conviction, that no amount of money 
should be grudged in so profitable an investment, a tithe of the 
sum wasted annually in drink, or in unprofitable foreign loans to 
impecunious and dishonest nations ; or, even, if the amount of money 
now employed to the least advantage in many of our charitable 
institutions, from absence of organisation and judicious direction, 
were more wisely bestowed, it would be sufficient for the purpose. 

The return (No. I of the Appendix) shows that in the twenty- 
eight years from 1861, the date of the paper of Mr. Fletcher, which 
is the last in the records of the Society on the subject, an annual 
average of 32,159 boys and girls under 15 years of age were under 
instruction in the poor law schools, at an annual average allowance 
from the parliamentary grant of 31,498^ towards the salaries of the 
teachers. The whole amount thus expended was 881,976/. 

This represents but a single head of expenditure, and its mention 
shows how inadequate it is even for its special purpose, in the 
present state of the labour market. The time has certainly come 
when the value of the teaching element in the whole scheme of 
elementary education should be properly estimated ; when the social 
status of the teacher should be raised ; when he should belong to as 
distinct and elevated a body as the medical, legal, engineering, and 
other recognised professions ; and when the great truth should be 
recognised, without question, that properly to instruct the young of 
all classes, needs the application of the highest powers and the best 
training in the teachers; when it is understood that all such 
imperfect agency as that of pupl teachers, and similar devices for 
saving money, are unwise and even mischievous errors ; and that 

hxve been unable to obtain a fnll report of tbe discnssion, and of the resolatlonf, bnt 
the abstract pablislied showed that the views entertained, were strictly in accor- 
dance with my contention. 



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1880.] 



Of ihe Children of the Poor. 



211 



in this teaching exists the best and most appropriate common ground 
for the work of men and women, each in their own sphere. 

How few are able to write children's books of any real valne ; 
equally few are those competent to instmot children properly, who 
are procurable now, on the salaries considered sufficient for the 
purpose. 

In 1873 I was employed by the Local .(Joyemment Board in 
examining into the cost of maintenance of the district and separate 
poor law schools of the metropolis, and my report on the subject 
was published as a parliamentary paper in 1876, and appended to 
the " Fifth Annual Report of the Local Government Board for 
** 1875-76," No. 17, Appendix B, pp. 95—129. I selected a period of 
fiye years from 1867-73, as likely to give a more accurate result, 
than could be obtained from the expenditure of any single year. 

The following are the figures which represent the average 
yearly number of children under instruction, the average gross 
annual expenditure, and the cost per child in the years mentioned : — 



8t Pancras ~. 

Poreet Gate,"GK)liafch" 

St. LeoDard's, Shoreditoh. 

Oentral London 

St. Marrlebone .. 

Korth Surrey 

Bethnal Qreen 

Holbom 

Forest Qs,te School 

Strand 

South Metropolitan 

Westminster 

Islington 

St. &eorge-in-the-East 

Lambeth 

Mile End. 



ATttngo 
Number of 
Children. 



393 
387 
380 

1,131 
43* 
823 
297 
431 
19 
371 

127 
^47 
403 
387 
a73 



Aremge Gross 
Expenditure. 



£ 

14,472 
10,432 

9,667 
26,814 

9,937 
18,777 

6,499 

9,265 
16,490 

7,767 
26,623 

4,874 
7,699 
6,566 
4,517 



Arerage Annual 

Cort 

per Child. 



£ 9. 

36 16 

27 - 

25 8 

23 19 

23 - 

22 16 

21 17 



2 



3 
6 

3 

4 
3 
I 
2 
2 
I 

19 15 10 
19 14 8 
18 17 I 
16 19 4 
16 10 - 



21 10 

21 - 

20 18 

20 5 



The particulars of each year are contained in Tables 11 and III 
of the Appendix. 

They inclnde all expenses, except those of loans, and repayment 
of loans with interest. The causes of the variations of the cost 
are explained in the report, and the results must only be regarded 
as approximations to an accuracy which could not be attained, from 
the different manner in which the accounts were kept in different 
schools. 

As years pass on, the loans are repaid with interest, and the 
expenditure is thus considerably reduced, the cost will of necessity 
he less than in the years mentioned. That considerable economy. 



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212 MouAT — On the EdueaHon a/nd Training {June, 

witihoat dimination of efficiency, could be practised in the metro- 
politan schools by a better and more sensible system of management 
IS certain, as I pointed out in my report. 

In the Local Government reports of the two last years, retnms 
of the expenditure in the same schools are published ; and for 1878 
the cost per head ranged from 34/. 10s. gd.ia the training ship 
^^Ezmouth" to 17Z. 3«. 9(£. in the Mile End school, giving a total 
expenditure of all the schools of 222,955^, or 23/. gg, ^d, per child, 
exclusive of loans and interest. 

If time and space permitted, I should have been glad to have 
compared this expenditure with that of other schools of the same 
character, but of different classes. I must leave the contrast for 
others to expound and explain. 

Eesults of the Education of Children in the Foot Law Schools 
of aU Olatsei. 

The results as regards the proficiency attained in the educa* 
tional standards, and in such branches of industrial training as can 
be tested by examination, are contained in the returns of tiie poor 
law educational inspectors. The details are not published, nor 
are they of any special use for my paper, which is to ascertain the 
ultimate effect of the system, as shown in the ascertained success 
in life, of those who have been brought up in the poor law schools. 

The reports of the inspectors, so &r as they are published, 
show that, in many of the district and separate schools, a very 
high standard of proficiency is attained in education, and that, on 
the whole, the system works fairly well. 

But, as respects the after career of those children, we have a 
much more satisfactory basis of comparison of the past with the 
present, in the facts and figures contained in parliamentary and 
other records. 

In Mr. Fletcher's paper on the " Farm School System of the 
" Continent," read before this Society in 1851, the record of the 
number of juvenile criminals brought up in pauper schools who 
were in the prisons at home, was brought down to the year 
1849. It was not only believed, but proven, that the results of the 
training of children in workhouses were then most disastrous, as 
may be ascertained by consulting the various official documents 
issued in connection with the great inquiry into the working of 
the poor laws in 1834, and in several subsequent years. 

Following up Mr. Fletcher's figures, a return was moved for by 
Mr. Henley in the House of Commons, of the number of young 
persons in the workhouses of England and Wales in 1861, who had 
not been less than two consecutive years in those institutions, 
within the ten years ending on the last day of 1860, and who had 



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1880.] Of the GhUdrm of the Poor. 21 3 

left the workhoofle for service or otber industrial occupation, with 
the number of those who had returned to the workhouse by reason 
of their own misconduct, the number of those who had returned 
from causes not involving their own misconduct, and the like 
particulars as to district schools. A summary of this impprtant 
and interesting return forms Table lY of the Appendix. From 
this table it appears that there were in the workhouses of England 
14,404 boys, and 12,957 girls, in all 27,361, of whom 836 boys, 
find 1,663 girls, in all 2,499, returned to the workhouse by rea43on of 
misconduct ; and 1,264 hoys, and 1,748 girls, in all 3,012, returned 
from causes unconnected with personal misconduct. This gives a 
percentage of bad behaviour, calculated on the whole number 
in the workhouse schools, of 5*8 per cent, of boys, and 12*8 per 
oent. of girls. 

In the workhouses of Wales there were 529 boys and 439 girls ; 
20 of the former and 30 of the latter returned to the houses on 
account of misbehaviour, and 32 of the former and 43 of the latter 
from no cause of misconduct. 

In the district schools, some of which had then been only 
partially and recently occupied, there were 777 boys, and 612 girls, 
in all 1,389, of whom 24 boys, and 63 girls returned on account of 
misconduct, and 63 boys, and 67 girls, from no fault of their own. 
This gives a ratio of failure of boys, 3*08 per cent., of girls, io'2 per 
cent. 

The accuracy of the return has been questioned on grounds 
which do not convince me of their validity, although they show 
correctly that mere figures are of little value, unless the facts 
underlying them are explained. It is undoubted that many 
children return to the workhouse from no fault of their own, hence 
I exclude them; but this does not apply to those the cause of 
whose misconduct is ascertained and recorded inmiediately on 
their return, and to probably not a few of the others, whose training 
has not fitted them for the positions they were sent to fill. 

In the same year, the chaplain of the largest metropolitan 
district school stated in print, ihat 22*2 per oent. of the children 
sent to places from those schools had returned to them, and 8*6 per 
cent, to the workhouse. On the other hand, the chaplain of the 
Brighton workhouse, in comparing the difference of the system of 
educating the children in the separate school, which was established 
during his incumbency, stated, as published in Mr. TufEnell's report 
for 1868, " that the character and history of the Brighton work- 
** house children for many years, is frightful to think of. I can 
'* remember as many as 44 persons, members at the same time ot 
" the able-bodied ward, all brought up in the workhouse schools, 
'* most of them thieves and prostitutes. Thank God, there is an 



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214 MoTTAT — On the Education and Training [Jtme, 

"end of this, op anything approaching to it. Of 50 girls sent out 
" from our present school, I know of only one fallen ; of about the 
" same number of boys, the majority are justifying the hopes of 
"their teachers, and the expectations of the promoters of this 
" important charity. In Brighton, at least, society has shaken off 
" a great scandal, and the ratepayers of the parish a heavy burden. 
" Here, for the future, the pauper schools will no longer be the 
" nursery of pauperism." 

Again in 1862, the number of juvenile inmates of the prisons 
and reformatories of England and Wales was 19,955, ^^ whom 
15,751 were males, and 4^04 were females. Of the total number, 
646, or 3*2 per cent., had been brought up in workhouse or distrio 
schools.* 

These 646 prisoners had been in workhouse or district schools 
for various periods, ranging from one day to five years and 
upwards* — 

22 had been in sohool from 1 to 6 days. 

48 ,1 1 »» 3 weeks. 

214 „ 1 „ 4 months. 

79 „ upwards of .... 6 years. 

25 for unasoertained periods. 

646 

These again are not formidable figures, and for the great 
majority the schools cannot fairly be held responsible. In any case 
they indicate no wide-spread criminality, considering how many 
workhouse children are the ofbpring of members of the cnmim^ 



Attempts are sometimes made to compare the social failures in 
higher grades of life, with those of workhouse children who have 
gone to the bad. These comparisons are at the best but vague 
guesses and impressions, with no substantial foundation, and based 
on conditions so entirely different as not to admit of comparison. 

In Table Y is a return of the total number of young offenders 
admitted into and discharged from the certified reformatories of 
Great Britain from 1854 to 1876, a period of twenty-three years. 
It is reprinted from the " Twentieth Report on Eeformatory and 
Industrial Schools " (p. 206). The number of those brought up in 
poor law schools not being specified in this return, a special state- 
ment was called for by the Local Government Board for the ten 
years from 1868 to 1877. This forms Table VI of the Appendix. 

This table shows, that of the children sent to reformatories in 
1868-77 there had been :— 

* Parliamentary Paper 494, of Sees. 1862. 

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1880.] 



Of thu ChUdrm of the Poor. 



215 





BoyB. 


Girta. 


Total. 


England and WaleB-^ 

In workhouses 


362 
80 


120 
32 


482 

1 12 


„ district schools 








442 


152 


594 


In woi*1thon<M)S -,-,,...,,.„„„,,, 


25 
12 


15 


40 
12 


„ workhouse schools 




37 


15 


5* 



As many thousands of cliildren passed through these schools in 
the years in question, this is but a very small portion of them. The 
returns are not published in such forms, as to enable me to get at 
anything like even an approximation to the exact numbers repre- 
senting the movement of this juvenile population ; but, as the 
greatest number of the children are from its fluctuating element, 
and are the offspring in too many cases of criminal or degraded 
parents, I doubt if the schools are really responsible for the whole 
of even this small fraction. In some of the larger institutions as 
many as 500 of these children have passed in and out in the course 
of a single year — some of them as many as half-a-dozen times. 

When compared with the prison returns of former years, these 
figures appear to me to prove indisputably, that the education of the 
children of the poor is gradually stopping the supply of criminals 
at the right end. As we gather from the first of these tables, from 
the large number of the juvenile members of the poorer population, 
the whole number convicted of crime amounted to only 25,612 boys 
and 6,200 girls in nearly a quarter of a century, and from the 
latter, that both sexes of those brought up in workhouse and poor 
law schools contribute a little over 600 in ten years, a very small 
percentage of either of those populations, the result must, I thinks 
be considered of an encouraging and gratifying nature. 

I am aware, however, that these figures are not rigorously exact, 
and that they constitute but a rough approximation to the truth, 
for there are many collateral conditions of age, parentage, the 
antecedents, and other circumstances of these children, which 
require to be known, before any strict deduction can be drawn from 
them. 

It is, I think, much to be regretted that the legislature does not 
make it compulsory on ail public institutions to keep their records 
on some simple uniform principle, which would gather together all 
the leading facts requiring to be known, and publish them from 
year to year in some easy form, to enable us to jadge of the progress 

VOL. XLIU. PART II. Q 

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216 MouAT — On the Education a/nd Training [June, 

we are making. It wonld entail a little tronble in the first instance, 
but wonld soon snbstitnte a sonnd basis for the solution of these 
great social problems, in the place of the spasmodic and unsatisfac- 
tory manner in which we are compelled to deal with them at 
present, from the absence of continuous authentic' data. 

I have waded through the Poor Law and Local Government 
Boards' reports for many years past, to endeavour to compOe from 
them such a collection of facts as to enable me to speak with confi- 
dence of the results obtained, but I have failed to find the necessary 
data. Here and there, scattered through them, are many carefully 
collected figures, which may be accepted as proofs, so far as they 
go, of the contentions of the observers. There can be no doubt, in 
any of these cases, of the high character, good faith, and qualifica- 
tions for the task of those who have examined into the question ; 
but, there is in some of them evidence of a strong personal biaa 
towards particular views, and in others a controversial character, 
which somewhat diminishes their value. 

It would be a waste of time to attempt to reduce this undigested 
mass to order and system, or to deduce from it strictly logical 
conclusions, as all sound data of comparison on a sufficiently 
extended scale, are absent. I shall, therefore, content myself with 
selecting some of the best authenticated figures, and leave you to 
form your own judgments as to how far they can be considered to 
cover the whole ground. In the consideration of all social ques- 
tions there are so many sources of fallacy, so much room for falsifi- 
cation and concealment, and so many conditions for which no moral 
barometrical scale has yet been constructed, that any conclusions 
arrived at must be regarded rather as endeavours to arrive at the 
truth, than as proofs of the truth itself. 

I have taken the figures from the latest reports, as they most 
correctly represent the present state of the poor law schools. 

In the report of the Local Government Board for 1872-73,* 
Mr. Bowyer, one of the oldest and most experienced of the poor 
law educational inspectors, collected in the midland districts, from 
returns procured from the schools, particulars regarding 1,009 ^7^ 
and 1,170 girls, in considerable detail. . An abstract of these figures 
is subjoined : — 

• Pp. 101 and 102. 



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1880.] 



Of the Children of the Poor. 



217 



TtAtl 
Knnber. 


Number 
of Retumi 

to 
Workhouie. 


Number 

who 
Returned. 


CauMS of their Return. 


Condition in LifiB, 

and Repute 
when lait heard of. 


1,109 .... 


176 


157 - 


Serions faults 
Slight „ 
No fault .... 


99 I 


Doing well 1,008 

Not doing well .. 51 

Dead 11 

Not known, or! 
still in school J ^^ 

Total .... 1,109 


1,170 .... 


417 


303 - 


Serious-faults 
SUghfe „. 
No fault 


zoi L 


Doing well 987 

Not doing well.. 98 

Dead 15 

Not known 70 

Total 1,170 



The same inspector oolleeted in the preceding jear figures 
regarding 657 boys and 621 girls placed ont in eleven tmions, of 
whom 605 of the former, and 498 of the latter, were reported to 
have done well. In fonr other unions, of which the returns were 
mixed, of 261 children of both sexes, 248 had done well. 

The most valuable, interesting, and instructive report ever 
written of the training of girls under the poor law system, is that 
of the late Mrs. Nassau Senior, published in the report of the 
Local Gbvemment Board for 1873-74.* I accompanied her in her 
visits to some of the metropolitan and other institutions, and can 
testify to the singularly careful and conscientious manner in which 
she conducted her investigations, and the almost painful anxiety 
she exhibited to avoid acquiring erroneous impressions, or arriving 
at incorrect conclusions from false premisses. 

Although I dissent from the main conclusion at which she 
arrived in favour of boarding out, I think she hit the blots in the 
system of large schools for girls, and that her proposal to sub- 
stitute small schools for large ones, and to classify the schools and 
their inmates with regard to girls, was, in principle, thoroughly 
sound. 

Information was collected by her, or for her, of girls sent out to 
service from the metropolitan schools in 1871 and 1872, of 245 girls 
from district, and 245 from separate schools. No notice was taken 
of girls sent to their famOies, and 74 girls from district and 106 
from separate schools were omitted from the record, aa incorrect 
addresses were given, the families had removed, or the letters were 
unanswered. 



• Appendix B, pp. 311—394. 



Q 2 

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218 MouAi' — On the Education and Training [June, 

Of those personally visited, the classification was as follows : — 





Class. 


District Schools. 


Separate Sebools. 




Number. 


Percent 


Number. 


Per Cent 


Good 


I. 
n. 
III. 
IV. 


28 - 11-42 

64 - 26-12 

106 - 43-26 

47 - 19-08 


61 — 20*81 


Fair 


81 - 33-06 

82 - 32-46 
81 - 12-65 


Unsatisfactory 

Bad 






246 - 99-88 


246 - 99-98 



If all the published tables are scrutinised carefully, it will be 
found in almost every instance, even the most fiavourable, that 
there is a larger proportion of failures among girls, than among 
boys. The reason why it should be so, and why aggregate training 
is more dangerous to girls than to boys, is clearly shown in 
Mrs. Senior's remarks, and these I regard as one of the most 
valuable features of her report. No man could possibly approach 
the question with so thorough a knowledge of all its bearings, and 
no official inquiry that I know of, has ever been conducted in so 
thoroughly careful and painstaking a spirit, as that of the gifted 
and lamented lady to whom I refer. 

In the report for 1875-76, the Rev. Dr. Clutterbuck, a Poor 
Law School Inspector, collected figures respecting the children 
sent to service during the preceding five yeaii9, from all the Unions 
of the Western District. 



1 

Number of 
Unions. 


S 

Total Number 
Sent Out 


8 

Reported as 
still in Place. 

or 
Doiug Well. 


4 

DoubtfU 
or 
Bad. 


6 

Returned 
to, and stUl 

in 
the House. 


6 

No 

Information 

as to Present 

CoiidiUon. 


7 
Dead. 


England 145 
Wales .... B9 


fBoys 2,329 
\ Girls 2,086 

/Boys 616 
1 Girls 568 

5,599 


1,809 
1,102 

848 
297 


96 
128 

30 
19 


66 
88 

11 
18 


839 

199 
i3* 


19 
7 

8 
2 


Total .... 184 


8,056 


273 


178 


2,026 


46 



Dr. Clutterbuck very candidly states, that these tables are h&aed 
solely on figures supplied by the house masters and matrons, but 
gives the reasons for which he considers them reliable, and further 
on states that the "pauper taint," the ** workhouse surroundings," 
may be summed up in the expression, adult influence: hence he 
thinks that the schools should be separated from the workhouses. 
The virtues of the workhouse school proper in small unions, the 



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1880.] Of the Ohildren of the Poor. 219 

same inspector attributes to the viidtvidual treatment, -whicli is pos- 
sible with small numbers. 

In the report for 1876-77, are special and interesting reports on 
the results of workhouse school education, by Messrs. Murray 
Browne and Davy, general inspectors of the Local Government 
Board, and Mr. Mozley, one of the inspectors of workhouse 
schools. 

Mr. Murray Browne's report is a continuation of one made by 
him in 1874 He selected four unions as the subject of his inquiry 
— Chester, Tarvin, Hawarden, and Wrexham. These unions 
comprise together an area of 185,268 acres, and a population of 
120,450. 

He found in the four workhouses but 1 1 paupers who had been 
brought up in workhouse schools, of whom 5 were imbeciles, 
3 more or less disabled by chronic disease, and j who, having been 
brought up in them as children, were then inmates through their 
own fault. 

He then investigated the history, prior to their leaving the 
workhouses, of all the children who had been in them for more 
than two years, and who had then been in service for two years and 
upwards, and whose ages averaged between 16 and 17 years. Of 
the total number answering those conditions, there were 49 — 
30 boys and 19 girls. Of the 49, 3 were unable, from physical 
causes, to support themselves, and 8 more had not been trained. 
Among the 38 remaining, of the 21 boys, i had failed, giving a 
ratio of 476 per cent., and of the 17 girls, 1 also had failed, in the 
proportion of 6*35 per cent., being a general ratio on the combined 
figures, of 5*26 per cent. Adding these figures to those of his 
former report, of a total of 93' boys and 84 girls, 215 per cent, of 
the former had failed, and 9*52 per cent, of the latter — a mean 
ratio of 5*65 per cent, in the boys and girls combined. 

Messrs. Davy and Mozley visited 52 children brought up in the 
Swinton schools, taken at random out of a list of 97 boys, and 74 
girls. According to their scheme of classification^ of the 32 girls,, 
they found — 

21 yery satisfactory.- 
II satis&ctory. 
o unsatisfaotoiy.. 



and of the 20 boys — 



13 yery satisfactory- 
7 satisfactory, 
o unsatisfactory. 



These figures are evidently too small for any sound deductions 
to be drawn from them, but I think that the whole of the figures, 
now grouped together for the first time, show, that the state of the 



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220 MouAT — On the Education and Training [Jane, 

poor law schools is no longer the same as that so strongly denounced 
for some years after the passing of the Poor Law Amendment Act 
of 1834, and that tke dispauperisation of the balk of the children 
termed pauper, is seal and satisfactory. 

in. — The Future. 

If the present has been so fairly successful in its instructional 
results, and in its dispauperising effects, in district and separate, 
and in some of the workhouse schools, why not extend the best 
parts of the system, instead of devising, what in England are ^till 
regarded as new and untried ways, of attaining the same end, which 
may possibly entail greater cost ? 

I will endeavour to supply the answer. 

While I ap{»*ove of any system which takes the children out of 
the workhouses, trains them to earn an honest liveKkood in posi- 
tions suited to their class, dispauperises them, and in some cases 
enables them to rise entirely out of the class in which they «tart, I 
am of opinion that sufficient experience has now been acquired of 
the large district and separate schools, to show that there are some 
defects inherent in, and inseparable from them, which can and 
o<]ght to be remedied in all future schools separated from work- 
houses. 

In all schemes of education the unit is the most important 
factor, and in all forms of society, the family is tke foundation, on 
which we should endeavour to build. 

The more we depart from these cardinal conditions, the more 
likely we are to err, and although economic considerations may 
compel us to modify them, they should be as steadily kept in view 
in the education and training of the children of the State, as finan- 
cial circumstances will allow. 

Too much praise cannot be accorded to the late Sir J. Kay- 
Shuttleworth and Mr. Tuffnell, for guiding public ^opinion and the 
legislature, in the greatest advance yet made in the elementary 
school system of the country, and I should not counsel the smallest 
retrocession from the position attained. 

But, some careful, far-seeing observers, pointed out at the time 
grave objections to the plan of collecting the poor law children in 
large numbers, and in big buildings. The experience of the third 
of a century, in which some of them have now been in active 
operation, has proved that those objections were based on correct 
views. 

There is a weli-defined limit beyond which the number of chil- 
dren under the control of a single head, cannot be placed with 
safety. The grouping of large and unmanageable numbers in 
school rooms, day rooms, and dormitories, causing undue pressure 



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1880.] OJ the Ohildrm of the Poor. 221 

upon a limited area, introdnces new conditions of health and disease, 
which demand the most serioos care and consideration. From it 
have resulted outbreaks of ophthalmia,* skin disease, and similar 
very destractive and injurious consequences, the results of some 
of which are life-long in their prejudicial influences. The worst 
forms of scrofulous degeneration have thus become crystallised and 
intensified, and are likely to influence generations yet unborn, in 
ways that will render them a permanent burden upon society, 
without any misconduct or malfeasance on the part of their 
parents. 

So much for the physical aspects of the question. 

As regards its jhotbI side, the objections appear to me to be 
quite as strong. The numbers who have to be dealt with renders 
the study of individual character and personal proclivities, impos- 
sible to the immediately responsible authority, of any of these over- 
grown schools. The absence of this individuality in the earliest and 
most plastic period of life, I hold to be £i>tal to any sound scheme 
of education in its true meaning. Education is not the teaching of 
large bodies of children to act with the precision of machines, or the 
cultivation of minds in the mass, for in the process the weakest go 
to the wall, and the selection of the fittest is by no means secured. 
The formation of the individual is the true aim and object of all 
education, and this can never be accomplished by the herding 
together of children, any more than it can be in dogs or in horses. 
The physical defects of the children influence their whole lives in 
their higher relations, and, although some of them attain a good 
position in the educational standards, as a body they are as apathetic, 
dull, and helpless, when first sent out to earn their livelihood, as 
they are stunted in growth, and ungainly in gait and manner. 
Their powers of perception and observation are, in numberless 
cases, scarcely developed at all, and certainly in no way proportioned 
to their book knowledge. All persons engaged in aiding children 
to emigrate, and the rules for boarding out, show that it is useless to 
attempt to correct bad habits, and to form character after 10 years 
of age ; yet, it is during the earliest period that the children are 
under the charge of subordinate agents, who possess neither the 
training, the knowledge, nor the experience necessary to develop all 
that is good in them, and thus to correct their faults. 

The domestic economy of a multitude, and their implicit reliance 
on all their wants being supplied with unvarying and mechanical 

'^ Fide reports of Dr. J. H. Bridges and of Dr. Monat on Ophthalmia: 
" Third Annual Report of Local GoTemment Board," 1873-74, Appendix B, 
pp. 210—216. Also report of Professor E. Nettleship, F.E.C.S., "Report of 
** Local Qovemment Board," 1874-75, Appendix B, pp. 65 — 168, the most able 
and exhaustive account of Uie subject in print. 



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222 MouAT — On the Education and Training [June, 

uniformity and regularity, are destmctive of the individual energy 
and prescience, which ought to be cultivated at the earliest possible 
age. It is this quickness of observation, readiness of resource, and 
adaptability to new circumstances, which sharpens the wits of the 
street arabs and gamins, and renders them, unkempt and untrained, 
80 superior in the art of taking care of themselves, to the well-taught 
workhouse boy or girl. This helplessness in novel circumstances is 
described in more graphic language than I can employ, in one of the 
most deeply interesting and painful narratives I have ever read ; that 
of a success^ workhouse boy, recorded by Mr. Tuffnell in his last 
oflBcial report.* It is also, I am afraid, a truer picture of the sad 
realities of the workhouse lives of children in many more of those 
institutions, than those in which it occurred. 

The cooking and laundry work of these great places, in which, 
from economy of cost and labour, the preparation of the food and the 
cleansing and getting up of the linen are of necessity more cheaply 
done by machinery, are no fit training for servants of all work, or 
for poor men's wives ; nor are the employment of the elder girls in 
kitchens, for the preparation of the officers' food, and washhouses 
for the getting up of their linen, <fcc., well suited for the same 
purpose. 

The nature of the industrial training generally, of the great 
schools, does not appear to be sound or judicious ; in the smaller 
workhouses it is practically absent. There is a great deal too much 
of tailoring and shoemaking, and of cleaning, scrubbing, and 
keeping the huge rooms in order, and too little of carpentry, smith's 
work, printing, farm and garden labour, and such industries as 
develop bone and muscle, while they cultivate the understanding 
and produce ready-handiness. Boys should be taught to cook as 
well as girls, and all strictly domestic operations should be assimi- 
lated as much as possible, to the circumstances of poor men's 
homes. This cannot, I am of opinion, be accomplished satisfactorily 
in such schools as those I am considering. 

Another plea, strongly urged, of the superiority of these schools, 
is the low death-rate, and consequent supposed immunity from most 
of the ills to which the children of the poor are liable. This I hold 
to be a fallacy. It is undoubted that the death-rate is very low com- 
pared with that of the poorer classes in the dens and overcrowded 
abodes of all our great cities, and even of those in the cottages of 
many of our villages, which are known to be in an undoubtedly 
unsatisfactory state, as regards their healthiness. It could easily 
be shown why it should be so, but that the death-rate is lower 
than that of other schools in which care is taken of the health of 

• " Report of the Local Gtovernment Board " for 1873-74. Appendix B. 
No. 17, pp. 247—269. 



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1880.] Of the OhOdren of the Poor. 223 

children, and their ailments are attended to at once, I altogether doubt 
and disbelieve. I know of public institutions for European orphans 
in India, with the management of some of which I was associated for 
many years, in which the death-rate was much lower. In them 
accurate records have been kept for many years, and there was no 
room for conjecture on the aabject. In the Little Boys' Home at 
Famingham, in children not specially selected, I was informed that 
there had been only 4 deaths in fourteen years among an average 
annual population of 300, and of those but i death was from disease 
acquired in the institution. So far as I have been able to ascertain, 
the deaths in the farm schools of the continent, some of which 
have been established for more than a century, are fewer even than 
those which have been ascertained for similar numbers in England. 
The most authentic figures regarding the metropolitan schools are 
those of Dr. Bridges, who reports, that (excepting the deaths of 
infants under 2 years of age at the Marylebone schools), the total 
number of deaths among the children in 1873 was 102, which gave 
a mortality rate of 12 per i,cx>o. Taking the death-rate of the 
children in the whole of the metropolis at the corresponding ages 
(2 to 15), the ratio was i4'i per 1,000. There is, however, no real 
ground of comparison between them. The fact is that the figures 
have not been collected with sufficient care and accuracy, and with 
an analysis of all the collateral and surrounding circumstances, over 
a sufficiently extended period, to determine the question farther than 
that the death-rate is really low, but not so low as to cause surprise, 
or to justify the extension of the system on that ground. That it 
may be still further reduced, when the hygiene of our schools is 
better understood than it is at present, I believe, with Dr. Bridges. 
A far better test of the unwholesomeness of the aggregation of 
these children is the sickness rate, which I have ascertained to be, 
in some cases, as high as 2 j per cent, of the inmates. Ophthalmia, 
itch, and a multitude of affections of the skin and scalp, have, to 
my certain knowledge, had a firm hold of some of these schools 
for a lengthened series of years. It is simply impossible to gauge 
accurately the amount of misery caused both in early and after 
life, by defects and partial or total loss of sight, scrofulous degene- 
rations, and the continuance and increase of hereditary and trans- 
mitted defects, all of which are only susceptible of mitigation or 
removal at a very early age. The stunted growth, impaired general 
health, and feeble bodily powers of too many of such children, are 
not removed or corrected by massing them in large buildings or 
bodies. I have no desire to over-rate or to attach too much im- 
portance to snch considerations, if it be possible to do so ; but I do 
deem it necessary to point out the existence of the evil, and to 
suggest the remedy for its removal : and, that it can be removed, I 



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224 MouAT — On tJie EducaHon cmd Training [June, 

entertain not tlie least donbt. It is not alone by ascertaining the 
greater or smaller number of failures in this class, that the yirtues 
or defects of the system can be folly ascertained and explained. 
There is a large and possibly increasing factor of imbecility, idiocy, 
and nervous disorders generally, and some of the more immediate 
results of scroAila at the critical periods of life, which may be due 
to the insanitary conditions of this orercrowding, and which is not 
touched by any inquiry yet made. There is still another objection, 
which is difficult to touch upon, and yet which cannot be altogether 
ignored, and that is the habits of immorality which are inseparable 
from accumulating children in dormitories which cannot be pro- 
perly controlled and watched at night, when they exceed 50 in 
number. I hare seen as many as 174 in double beds in a single 
room, in one of these schools. It is true that the children were 
young, but the precocity in vice of many ef the casual children has 
been frequently remarked ; and I have seen too much «f it myself, 
to doubt its existence. To ignore social evils, is net the right way 
to remove them. 

Now, what is the only valid reason which has ever been assigned 
for these unnatural and unhealthy accumulations? It is solely 
and entirely one of economy, and a more pernicious and unsound 
reason could scarcely be advanced. 

The saving in iike oost of management and establishment by 
spreading it over a larger surface is purchased, I think, at too 
heavy a rate to countenance tts extension to the future separation 
of schools from workhouses ; fer I hold that, in spite of its many 
and great advantages, it is responsible for evils, which no plea of 
economy should be permitted to extend. 

The remedy then is to break them up mto smaller and more 
manageable bodies, and so to subdivide them, that while the study 
of individual charac^r and domestic training can be carried on with 
as fair an approach to a home as can be secured in such circum- 
stances, the elementary education, industrial training, swimming, 
gymnastics, and all the advantages of the distriot and separate 
schools, can be carried to as high a pitch of perfection, as has been 
accomplished in any existing school. That this can and ought to 
be done in a school of 500 er 600 boys and girls, as well as in one 
of 1,500 or 1,600, I hold to be beyond denial. That it will cost a 
little more in establishment is probable, but that the oost will, or 
ought to be immoderate can, I think, be shown to be incorrect. 

The published tables show that there are maof^ thousands of 
children still in the workhouses, who would be better separated 
from them, and to them I intend my remarks to apply. 

In a letter, dated May, 1873, addressed to Mr. Stansfeld, then 
President of the Local Qovemment Beard, and to the chairman of 



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1880.] 0/ the OhUdren of the Poor, 226 

a Welsh board of guardians, Mr. Andrew Dojle, late an Inspector 
of the Board, suggested the establishment of district schools on the 
Mettray systeni, in some of the Welsh Unions under his charge. 
He believed that, admirable as are some of the separate schools, it 
could hardly be doubted ''that a gpreat improvement would be 
" effected in the system upon which such schools are organised, if 
'' instead of being associated in large numbers, the children could be 
" separated into £EkBftilies ; if, for instance, for huge buildings in which 
" several hundred dnldrem are massed together, you could substi- 
" tute « village in which they might be distributed in cottage 
'' homes, leading, as nearly as may be, the lives of the best class of 
" cottagers' children." This system he studied at Diiss^thal and 
Mettray^ and found that its characteristics are based on family 
organisation, and agricultural labour. Mr. Doyle also referred, 
quoting largely from Mr. Fletcher's paper, republished by this 
Society last year, to the farm school 9)r8tem of the continent 
originated by the celebrated Pestalozzi in 1746, or nearly a century 
and a-half ago. For all the deeply interesting details contained in 
these reports, I must refer to the documents <themselves, which are 
well deserving of careful study. 

I, too, some years before Mr. Doyle, studied the system at 
Mettray, with M. Demetz, and examined his colony most care- 
fully, when I was in administrative charge of the prison depart- 
ment of BengaL 

The outcome of Mr. Doyle's proposal has been the establish- 
ment of four of these cottage homes in Wales. They are in full 
operation, and when I visited them last year, promised to answer 
the anticipations of their founders. They have, however, been 
too recently at work to permit of auy judgment being yet pro- 
nounced upon them. Similar schools have been sanctioned for 
West Derby, West Ham, and Bolton. 

More recently the Birmingham, and Kensington and Chelsea 
guardians, have adopted the village home system for their 
children, and the former commenced work at Marston Green a 
short time since. Each of 4iheir schools is for about 6oo children, 
and, if all the means and appliances necessary are provided, as 
they doubtless will be, we shall soon have an opportunity of com- 
paring the system with that in use, on a sufficient scale to determine 
which is best. Both are mixed schools for boys and girls, as all 
institutions which profess to imitate the family system, ought to 
be. 

In 1878, the late Captain Bowly, of the Royal Engineers, 
then an officer of the Local Government Board, and I, were 
directed to visit certain schools worked on the home and cottage 
system, and to report as to how far we considered the system to be 



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226 MouAT — On the Education and Training [June, 

applicable to the edncation and training of the children of the 
poor. We visited six institntiona answering the above conditions 
more or less, and although none of them are strictlj comparable 
with poor law schools, we had no difficulty in arriving at the con- 
viction that the system itself is perfectly capable of adaptation to, 
and adoption by the poor law department. Our report was pub- 
lished as a House of Commons Return, No. 285, of 1878. The 
report is accompanied by plans of the schools referred to. 

As to cost, we ascertained that at the Princess Mary's Home, 
at Addlestone, the cost per child, on an average of 155 girls, in 
1876, was 15^ I $8, 6d. 

The Little Boys' Home at Famingham, on an average of 510 
boys, 20L 8s. 11^. 

Philanthropic Farm School at Redhill, on an average of 
298^ boys, 23/. 17s. 9c?. 

In all the other institutions visited, the actual money outlay was 
so much supplemented by donations of various kinds, as to render it 
impossible to gauge the individual cost with exactness. 

Each pair of cottages at Addlestone, for 10 children each, cost 
400/. to build ; and one approaching completion, in a block for 
30 children, in three comptu^tments, cost i,oooZ. in erection. 

At Dr. Bamado*s Village Home for Female Orphans at Hford, 
each cottage for 20 children, cost 500L, which included its share of 
the cost of the general drainage system. 

At Redhill, the s^arate houses contain 60 boys in each ; when 
originally constructed for 50 boys, the cost was about i,20oL, and 
the subsequent enlargement to hold 10 more boys, about 400/. 

It is obvious, however, that all estimates of the cost of buildings 
must vary so much from the differing circumstances of time, place, 
price of material, state of the labour market, &c,f that no fixed 
scale of cost can be determined. The price of land varies even 
still more. But, of one thing I am certain, and that is that 
the complete organisation of a mixed village home school for 
600 children, complete in all respects for education and train- 
ing, need not, and ought not to cost much more than a school 
of similar dimensions for children on the aggregate system. If 
the moral and material superiority of the family, over the aggre- 
gate system could be gauged by any mere money standard, the 
question of cost would at once be abandoned, as undeserving of 
consideration. 

Again, with respect to the extent and nature of the establish- 
ments required to manage such institutions, the outlay would be as 
low in the one as in the other, if proper, and properly paid agency, 
were employed in both. 

Nay, I am disposed to go further, and to maintain that if 



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1880.] Of ths Children of the Poor, 227 

the main objection to the cottage home system is that of cost, on 
the ground that yon cannot for any i*eaBonable expenditure form 
educational villages on the monstrous scale of some of the schools 
holding from i,ooo to i,6cx> children, I should regard it as the best 
possible reason for preferring them. 

I have not been able to ascertain the exact cost of ground, 
buildings, furnishing, and all other particulars connected with most 
of the poor law cottage home schools, which are in course of con- 
struction. 

The cost of the Kensington and Chelsea Village Homes at 
Banstead is 60,000/., to which 10,000/. must be added for the pur- 
chase and laying out of the grounds and playgrounds. 

The village consists of 8 cottages for boys, 12 for girls, and 2 
for probationary purposes, in addition to an infirmary, an infectious 
hospital, all the necessary schoolrooms, workshops, offices, and a 
chapel to hold 400 persons. 

The institution is calculated for 672 children, and contains 
many requisites not usually provided in schools. The architects 
are Messrs. A. and C. Harston, who have already constructed some 
excellent poor law buildings. The whole outlay will be at the rate 
of about 100/. a child — all told. 

The Marston Green Schools are situated about seven miles from 
Birmingham, and cost for buildings, including roads, architects' 
fees, 32,190/. 19^. jrf. ; furnishing (not yet complete), 2,394/. 8«. ; 
and purchase of land, 4,715/. lis. 6(/., the quantity of land being 
44 acres 3 rods i yard. 

The homes are fourteen in number, seven for boys and seven for 
girls, divided in the centre by the workshop block, and swimming 
bath, (Sbc. Each home is complete in itself, and has dormitories for 
thirty children, ten in each, with kitchen, scullery, day room, store 
room, and the abode of the house father and mother, with all neces- 
sary out offices, and play yards. 

The workshops make provision for shoemaking, tailoring, print- 
ing, carpentry; and on the land provision is made for farming 
operations. 

The architect is Mr. Homeyard, and the whole cost per child 
will be about 100/. 

Some of the Welsh cottage homes have been built for less than 
the above, but they are not so complete. A less costly plan of 
building might doubtless be adopted, but what is most appropriate 
is probably the least expensive ultimately. I myself personally 
advocate much more simple and inexpensive structures for schools, 
hospitals, workshops, school chapels, and all places where large 
numbers either dwell or assemble, on grounds of health as well as 
of economy. But this opens up a large question of an entirely 



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228 MouAT— Of» ike Education and Training [June, 

different character, which this is not the place to discuss or 
consider. 

If the exact figures representing the cost of the great district 
and separate schools, as well as that of the land on which they are 
built, could be got at, together with the not inconsiderable ontlaj 
which has been found necessary to make some of them healthy, I 
doubt if the system would be found to be much, if anything, cheaper 
than that of cottage homes. 

But, be that as it may, if the latter were twice as costly, I 
should still prefer it, for reasons which I believe to be unanswerable 
from the stand points of individual culture, health and morality. 

BdMcaUonaX Standards of Elementary Ineiruetion. 

And now, before summarising my conclusions on the whole 
subject, I wish to take advantage of this opportunity, as an old 
educationist, who has occupied the executive offices of professor, 
principal, and examiner, and the administrative control of the 
public instruction of a province numbering 60 millions of people, 
to say a few words on the standards of instruction adopted for the 
elementary education of the children of the poor in Great Britain ; 
and on one or two collateral subjects. 

The standards of the New Code of 1878 do not appear to me to 
be altogether judicious, or well calculated to develop in the right 
direction, the intelligence of children of the poorer classes, who are 
to gain their livelihood by manual labour, or in the various posi- 
tions they are destined to fill. An adequate knowledge of reading, 
writing, and arithmetic are doubtless necessary, and so may be the 
moderate amount of history and geography contained in the code ; 
but, they are at best but a deadly lively routine of study, unless 
supplemented and relieved by some acquaintance with the nature 
of the objects by which they are surrounded, and some knowledge 
of their properties and uses. The manner in which the three R's 
are usually taught 'in those schools appears to me to be simply 
deplorable, and their relegation to pupil teachers and all such 
ill-paid, unpaid, and incompetent agency, a grave error. 

On the whole, I prefer the Dutch standard of elementary instruc- 
tion, to our own.* 

The Kinder-garten system for infants, and a more varied and 
interesting course of instruction for those more advanced in age, 
with as little as possible of poetic recitation and political geography, 

* The Dut6b Ryttem of elementary initraetiQn, wit^ lome additiona as to 
phyaical traimng, appears to me to be better suited for our poor law schools, than 
oar own educational standards. 

In the Dutch law of 1857, which, I believe, is stUl in force, it is divided into 
ordinary, and more extended instruction. 



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1880.] Of the Ohadren of the Poor. 229 

and the banishment of grammatical analysis, wonld be of ^ more 
nse to them. As soon as they can read, write, and cipher decently, 
and learn something exact about the world in which they live, 
their subsequent book learning should be strictly and immediately 
associated with their technical education, all such instruction being, 
from first to last, on the half-time system. If these schools were 
properly guided, boards of guardians were not in such a desperate 
hurry to tnm out their children immature in mind and body, and 
pK^erly trailed teachers were imperative, there is scarcely a child 
of average capacity, that ought not to be brought up to the highest 
standard necessary, by 12 years of age. What is now, on a thoroughly 
hums a non hicendo principle, denominated industrial training, should 
be placed on an entirely different footing, and carried on for at 
least two years, with all the mesuis and appliances necessary to 
render it effective, and with competent agency, if it can be found. 

I would that the time allowed, and the space you can give me 
in the Jou/mal, permitted of my pointing out to you how this is 
managed in Holland, in what are called there " Ambacht Schools." 
These are industrial schools, based on the joint stock principle, in 
which special instruction is given in trades and handicrafls. The 
funds of these industrial school societies, are derived from the con- 
tributions and yearly subscriptions of the shareholders, gifts from 
those who take an interest in their objects, legacies, bequests, and 
assignments, interest, income ^m property, school fees, and 
miscellaneous receipts. 

Ordinary instmction inclndes :— 
a. Beading. 
J. Writing, 
o. Arithmetic 

d. The radimenta of morphology (knowledge of form in general). 

e. „ the Dutch language. 
/. ,f geography. 

ff „ history. 

h, „ natural philosophy. 

f. Smging. 

The more extended instruction is considered to include : — 
k. The rudiments of the modem languages. 
{. „ mathematics, 

m. „ agriculture. 

n. Gymnastics, 
o. Drawing. 
p. Needlework. 

Keeping tedinical instmction and industrial training apart, a better graduated 
system could, I yenture to think^ be fashioned from this, than that represented by 
our six standards. 

From the ordinary instmction in poor law schools, most of the geography, 
history, and natural philosophy should be eliminated ; but to it should be added 
music, physical exercises, and industrial training in the widest sense for both boys 
and girls. By a properly graduated system of schools, a much higher order of 
technical education might be given to aU the more promising boys and giris. 



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230 MoUAT — On the Education and Training [June, 

These schools are of a higher order than any similar institu- 
tions in England, and I know of no good reason why such schools 
should not be established in all our great industrial centres, on the 
co-operative principle, which, when correctly applied, is one of the 
best of all instruments of self-help in such matters. 

One or more such schools formed in connection with the poor 
law administration, to which the most promising of the pupils in 
our present district and separate schools in all parts of the country 
might possibly, under the existing law, be transferred* would be of 
incalculable benefit in training those of our orphans and deserted 
children who exhibit high and special aptitude, to become skilled 
artizans. 

Or, what would be better, and it may possibly be legal, to pay 
for them from the rates, under the provisions of the Elementary 
Education Act of 1876, in technical schools established in the 
centres to which the children themselves belong, Manchester, 
Birmingham, Leeds, Bradford, Sheffield, Liverpool, and other 
important places of similar character. 

Why rely upon great corporations and State support, for what 
can be much better done by the people themselves, in the way of 
technical education, of which so much is said and written just now ? 

Army and Navy Schools. 

It has been strongly recommended by some persons, that special 
training schools for the army and navy should be connected with 
the poor law administration. A majority of the boys of the 
" Goliath " and " Exmouth '* already pass into the merchant service, 
and some into the navy, and many boys from the schools enter the 
army as musicians ; but, even if their stature and growth admitted 
of any large number being found fit to shoulder the rifle or to 
mount the mast, it would scarcely be right to put a pressure upon 
them or to compel them to do so, should they have elected to enter 
such special schools at an age when they are not capable of fixing 
their own destiny, as in the case of orphans and deserted children, 
who have no near relatives to guide them. 

To train and educate them thoroughly, is the best possible 
preparation for either of those callings, and it is wise to leave the 
ultimate choice to the boys themselves, when they are old enough 
to decide, as is done at present ; for there is quite enough of the 
old spirit of fighting among them, and no lack of attraction in the 
drum and the blue jacket, to entice those who have a fancy for 
them, and are anxious to follow those careers. 

Casual Children, 
The number of these is very great, as shown in the few parlia- 



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1880.] Of the Children of the Poor. 231 

mentarj returns, in wliicli an attempt is made to specify tbem. 
These returns are of too old a date, however, to be of any present 
application ; yet in the workhouses of England and Wales, from 700 
to 800 vagrants under 16 years of age, were relieved nightly some 
thirty years ago, when a special inquiry was made on the subject. 
The children of Scotch parentage were fewest, and those from 
Ireland most numerous in the tramp wards at that time. The 
remainder of the children, those of the poor in receipt of out- door 
relief, are still more numerous : hence the question is one which 
ought to be fairly faced, however difficult it may prove of solution. 
A more difficult matter is how to deal with the children of the 
vagrant and profligate fathers and mothers, without causing greater 
evils than would be remedied, by the State taking charge of them, 
and relieving their natural protectors from the burden of their 
maintenance. I confess that I do not see my way to a satisfactory 
solution of the difficulty. 

Summary, 

To sum up then briefly, what I have attempted to prove in some 
detail, I am of opinion : — 

1. That most of the flagrant abuses of the manner in which 
the children of the poor were dealt with under the Poor Laws prior, 
and for some years subsequent, to the passing of the great Act of 
1834, have been remedied, by the separation of many of the schools 
from the workhouses, and by the generally improved arrangements 
of the poor houses themselves. 

2. That a very large number, probably a majority, of the 
children educated in the schools succeed fairly well in life, and are 
apparently dispauperised, so far as they have been traced. 

3. That a majority of the orphan, deserted, and casual children 
of the poor are still, however, retained in the workhouses. Although 
these have ceased to be training schools of crime, their inmates are 
not proper associates for the young, and the surroundings and 
atmosphere of such places are in every way undesirable for 
children. 

4. That the education and training in the small schools of 
workhouses are, of necessity, incomplete and imperfect, from the 
impossibility of obtaining competent agency on the salaries which 
can be allowed. Their sole feature of excellence is the amount of care 
and attention, such as they are, which can be bestowed on individual 
children. 

5. That the provision of a home, which is the principle on 
which boarding out is based, is sound in itself, and that it is 
attended with benefit to the individual, when carefully watched and 
controlled; but, that it is liable to so many abuses difficult to 

VOL. XLin. PART II. R 



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232 MouAT — On the Educaiion and Training [June, 

detect and prevent, and is so entirely opposed to a sound system of 
relief of destitution, as to be unfitted for general adoption, even if 
it were practicable to obtain the agency necessary, on the scale that 
would be required. 

6. That, while the principle of forming district and separate 
schools is correct, the special manner in which it has been advo* 
cated and applied, is not equally so : inasmuch as the aggregation 
of very large numbers of children in great buildings is attended 
with evils, moral and physical, which neutralise much of the 
undoubted excellence of the instruction given in them. 

7. Consequently, that while all such schools should continue to 
be mixed, each should not contain more than 500 or 600 boys 
and girls ; for to this number as complete mental, and much more 
complete moral and physical, training can be given at a reasonable 
cost, as in institutions in which the numbers collected are altogether 
beyond the reach of the satis&ctory control and supervision of a 
single head. 

8. That such schools should be on the village home or cottage 
system, with central buildings for instruction in all its branches, in 
which mental culture, industrial training, and physical exercises 
should go hand in hand, and be united with farm labour, and that 
the domestic arrangements should be brought as much as possible 
into harmony with those of the homes of the poor, in the best of our 
villages. 

9. That the educational standards applied to poor law schools 
should be better adapted to the future lives of the children brought 
up in them, and be more varied in character, without increasing 
the difficulty of working up to them. Hence that the status, emolu- 
ments, and qualifications of the teachers should be of a higher order 
than they are at present, to render the introduction of such a system 
possible. Its results would more than repay any additional cost 
incurred. 

10. That the instruction of the infants in all these schools 
should be on the Kinder-garten system, as that best calculated to 
train the powers of observation at the earliest ages, for, as recently 
remarked by Canon Farrar, " When a child is allowed to gi-ow up 
" to the ages of 5 or 7, without any adequate training of the 
** power, not of reading and writing, but of the important mental 
•* power of observation, it would by that time have learned many 
** things in a wrong way, which would be detrimental to it in the 
" future." It is aJso much more needed for workhouse children 
than for the children of any other class, rich or poor, as it is in the 
power of observation that they are naturally most deficient. 

11. Lastly. That many of the physical defects of the children 
can be removed, as they were in the hardy crew of the " Goliath," 



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1880.] Of the OhOdrm of the Poor. 233 

and as thej now are in the " Ezmoutb/' and in both girls and boys 
at Anerley, by the mnsical and dnmb bell drill, and swimming of 
the former ; and by the drill, gymnastics, mast, and swimming also 
of the latter, combined with carpentry, smith's work, farm labonr, 
and such other varieties of handicrafts and industrial occn- 
pations, as may fit them to take a proper place among the working 
classes of the country. 

OoncltUfUm. 

I cannot conclude my paper in a more fitting manner, than by 
quoting the judgment of the family system pronounced by the 
Managers of the Children's Home in the Bonner Boad, after some 
years of its practical working among identically the same type of 
children as are found in the Metropolitan Workhouses. To this 
admirable institution none are denied admission, who are 
'* friendless, fatherless, or destitute, and for whose moral and 
** material welfare no provision is made." 

"Many advantages," they say, "are gained by this plan. It 
" checks, if it does not entirely prevent, the evils so frequently 
" found in very large gatherings of children, evils against which 
" special precautions are needed. It renders the maintenance of 
" discipline possible, without crushing the spontaneity and vivacity 
" of child life. It secures an exactness of oversight and a dealing 
" with individual temperaments, according to their special pecu- 
" liarities, which in other circumstances would not be possible, and 
*' it reproduces as nearly as may be that home life which is God's 
" grand device for the education, in the best meaning of the word, 
" of the human race. There are, moreover, economical advantages 
" attached to the system, but of which one only need be mentioned : 
" it enables the institution to be established without any enormous 
" outlay for buildings, allows it to grow naturally, and by a succes- 
" sion of comparatively easy efforts, house being added to house as 
" the families multiply." 

What higher commendation could be given to any system ? 



fi2 

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234 MouAT — On ike Education a/nd Training [June, 



APPENDIX. 



SIX TABLES, 

Showinq THi Amount <yr thx Pabliambntast Grant for thi 
Payment of Tiaohebs, 1857-58; 

Cost of the Metropolitan Poor Law Schools ; 

Beturns of Children sent back to the Workhouses; 

TouNQ Offenders Admitted to Beformatort Schools, 1854-76; 

AND 

Number of Children in Reformatories who haye been in 
WoBKHOusis, 1868-77. 



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1880.] 



0/ the OhUdren of ihe Poor. 



235 



Tablk I. — JVtmher of Children Educated hy the Poor Law Authorities, 
with the Amount of the Parliamentary Grant for Payment of the 
Salaries of the Teachers. 



Tmt. 


Taught in 
WorkhooM Schools. 


Tiraght in 
District Schools. 


Total Number 

of Childrm 

Edacated 

by Poor Law 

Aathorities. 


SalariM 
of 




Boyt. 


Giris. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Teachers. 


1861 .... 


18,252 


16,151 


^_ 


__ 


84,408 


21,328 


'52.... 


17,289 


i5»579 


625 


373 


88,766 


21,848 


'68... 


16,277 


15,051 


1,096 


783 


83,207 


22,204 


'64.... 


17,278 


16,545 


1;007 


863 


86,698 


231013 


1855 .... 


18,455 


X 7,829 


1,129 


927 


38,840 


23,982 


'56 .... 


17,666 


17,416 


1,448 


1,284 


87,814 


26,616 


'67.... 


17,870 


16,999 


1,519 


x,352 


87,240 


29»398 


'58.... 


17,886 


17,069 


1,564 


x,349 


87,868 


30,857 


'60.... 


16,052 


14,842 


1,453 


1,229 


38,576 


3X,xi7 


I860.... 


14,344 


13,761 


1,870 


x,x79 


80,654 


3X,23i 


'61 .... 


15,290 


15434 


1,435 


x,3X7 


33,476 


3X,i88 


'62.... 


16,684 


16,987 


1,633 


x,475 


36,779 


32,124 


'68.... 


17,172 


"6,732 


1,669 


x,5i8 


37,091 


32,768 


'64.... 


16,568 


16,003 


1,585 


x,392 


35,648 


33,9>6 


1865 .... 


16,820 


15*425 


1,596 


x,366 


34,706 


34,220 


'66.... 


15,886 


15*304 


1,655 


1,421 


84,266 


34,322 


'67.... 


16,815 


16,124 


1,838 


x,5o5 


86,282 


34,xx7 


'68.... 


18,464 


17,640 


2,077 


1,669 


89,850 


33,838 


'69 .... 


19,318 


18,420 


1,961 


hS^6 


41,215 


35*474 


1870.... 


19,076 


17,5x9 


2,816 


2,163 


41,574 


36,X39 


'71 .... 


18,874 


16,463 


2,782 


x,973 


39,542 


36,778 


'72.... 


16,182 


14,800 


2,717 


x,898 


35,547 


36,222 


'78... 


16,374 


14,298 


8,008 


2,217 


34,897 


36,098 


'74.... 


14,699 


X3.459 


8,126 


2,293 


38,577 


35,5x8 


1875 .... 


14,120 


13,006 


8,894 


2^.23 


82,943 


34*405 


'76.... 


18,711 


12,781 


8,165 


2,4X7 


32,074 


34*636 


'77.... 


14,068 


X 2,595 


2,207 


2,388 


82,258 


33*494 


'78.... 


14,359 


X 2,925 


8,654 


2,690 


33,628 


35»xx6 



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236 



MouAT — On the Education and Training 



[Jane, 



Table IL- 


-Annual Average 


Number of Scholars, Grose Expenditure, and 


Cost per Child 




Average Number of Scholars per Baj. 


Total Expenditure for all Purposes. 1 


Nmne of School. 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1878. 


Aver- 
aireof 
the 5 
Yean. 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


Averagfi 
of the 
5 Years. 
















£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


St. Pancrae ... 


— 


— 


— 


389 


398 


393 


— 


— 


— 


14,562 


14,880 


14,472 


Forest Gate,! 
"Gk)li»th"J 


— 


— 


— 


395 


379 


387 


— 


— 


— 


9,462 


11,403 


10,432 


St. Leonard,! 
Shoreditch, 


404 


408 


364 


361 


363 


380 


9,783 


8»554 


12,032 


9,723 


8,192 


9,657 


Central Lon-\ 
don , ' 


1,042 


1,065 


1,227 


1,164 


1,166 


i>i3i 


21,796 


21,926 


27,408 


30,086 


32,863 


z6,8i4 


St.Mai7lebone 


436 


439 


432 


439 


416 


432 


9,966 


9»663 


9,806 


10,063 


10,186 


9,937 


North Surrey .. 


823 


869 


864 


750 


807 


823 


18,891 


19,896 


17,176 


>5,5'8 


22,404 


18,77: 


Bethnal Green 


143 


Z46 


361 


350 


894 


297 


3,111 


6,682 


7,377 


6,751 


8,676 


6,49^ 


Holborn 


— 


— 


— 


424 


438 


431 


— 


— 


— 


9,331 


9,200 


9,265 


Forest Gkte" 
School ..../ 


— 


881 


771 


698 


791 


79> 


— 


i5»97o 


16,429 


15,858 


17,703 


16490 


Strand 


361 


3^7 
1,272 


399 


377 
«»234 


360 


371 


7,922 


7,821 


7,289 


8,646 
26,008 


7,206 


7,757 


^uth Metro-! 
politan ..../ 


1,310 


1,216 


1,291 


1,265 


24,181 


24,661 


24,906 


28,368 


25.623 


Westminstep.... 


213 


238 


239 


223 


221 


227 


3,603 


4,146 


4,817 


4,3" 


6,835 


4*44- 


Islington 


246 


H7 


262 


H8 


241 


247 


4,224 


4,217 


4,484 


Syioo 


6,344 


4,874 


St. G^eopge- ' 
in-the-East/ 


630 


488 


439 


290 


266 


403 


9,191 


8,301 


7,678 


6,550 


6,378 


7,59« 


Lambeth 


436 


416 


387 


350 


848 


387 


6,716 


6,629 


6,387 


6,532 


6,670 


6,56t 


Mile End 


266 


267 


266 


286 


279 


273 


4,138 


4,4H 


4,661 


4,503 


4,877 


4.5»: 





























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1880.] 



Of the Children of the Poor. 



237 



of each of the District and Separate Metropolitan Poor Law SchodU from 1869 to 1873. 





Total Cost per Head per AnnQm. 






1869. 


1870 


, 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


Average of 

tbe 
Five Yean. 


NaaworScbooL 




£«.(«. 


£ ». 


d. 


£ e. d. 


£ e, d. 


£ a. d. 


£ s. 


d. 






— 


— 




— 


57 8 8 


86 2 8 


36 16 


2 


St. Pancra* 




— 


— 




— 


*3 «9 I 


80 1 9 


27 - 


- 


/Forest Gate, 
1 "Goliath" 




24 4 8 


20 19 


4 


33 1 1 


26 18 8 


22 11 4 


15 8 




rSt. Leonard, 
\ Shoreditoh 




21-8 


20 XI 


9 


22 6 9 


25 i6 11 


28 8 11 


»3 19 




fOentral Lon- 
1 don 




22 18 2 


22 - 


2 


22 13 11 


22 18 5 


24 10 10 


23 - 




St. Marylebone 




22 19 8 


22 17 


II 


19 17 6 


20 13 iO 


27 15 3 


22 16 




North Surrey 




21 15 1 


27 3 


4 


21-4 


19 5 10 


21 15 4 


21 17 




Bethnal Green 




— 


— 






22-1 


21-1 


21 10 




Holbom 




— 


18 2 


7 


21 6 2 


*2 H 5 


22 7 7 


21 - 




/ForeetGate 
I School 




21 8 11 


21 6 


2 


18 5 6 


22 18 8 


20 11 9 


20 18 




Strand 




18 9 2 


19 7 


9 


20 9 7 


21 I 6 


21 19 4 


20 5 




/South Metro- 
\ politan 




16 18 4 


17 8 


5 


20 3 1 


19 6 8 


24 2 10 


19 i5 


10 


Westminster 




17 4 10 


17 I 


6 


17 16 10 


20 11 3 


26 6 6 


19 14 


8 


Islington 




17 6 10 


17 - 


2 


17 6 2 


Z2 II 8 


28 19 7 


19 12 


% 


' St. George-in- 
■ the-East 




16 8 9 


15 18 


8 


16 10 1 


«8 13 3 


18 17 7 


16 19 


4 


lambeth 




15 11 1 


16 10 


8 


17 11 - 


15 14 10 


16 9 7 


16 10 


- 


Mile End 



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MouAT — On the EducaHon and Travning 



[June, 



Table III. — Cost in the Metropolitan Poor Law Schools of Provisions^ Necessaries^ dc 

under Four Diferent Heads, 



Nameof School 



Cottof ''ProfriMu" pet Hotd peri 



1869. 



1870, 



1871. 



1872. 



1878. 



Averamef 

tSe 
Fbe Yean. 



Separate Schools — 
Bethnal Green, Lejton- 1 

Btone j 

St. George-in-ihe-EMt^l 

Plaahet / 

Holbom, Mitoham 

Islington, Homsej 

Lambeth, Norwood 

Mile End Old Town,! 

Bancroft fioad / 

St. Marylebone, Sonthall 
St. Pancraa, Leayesden.... 
Shoreditch, Brentwood.... 

Strand, Edmonton 

Westminster, Battersea.... 

Jhstrid Schools— 

Central London 

Forest (Hte 

North Surrey 

South Metropolitan 



Separate Schools — 
Bethnal Qreen, Lejton- 1 

stone J 

St. Oeorge-in-the-Ea8t,1 

Plaehet J 

Holbom, Mitoham 

Islington, Homsej 

Lambeth, Norwood 

Mile End Old Town,! 

Bancroft Koad J 

St. Marjlebone, Southall 
St. Fanoras, LeaTesden.... 
Shoreditch, Brentwood , 

Strand, Edmonton 

Westminster, Battersea. 

District Schools-^ 

Central London 

Forest Oate 

North Surrey 

South Metropolitan 



£ s.d, 
4 1 10 

8 19 6 

7-6 
6 8 11 

6 10 -1 



11 6 4 
8 6-1 
7 16 1 



7 15 9 

9 6 8 
7 11 1 



£ s, d, 

8 ID 9 

648 
649 

6 2 10 

6 18 5 

8 1 iii 

7 8 4 
6 3 li 



7 5 8* 

6 12 li 

8 17 8 

7 10 5i 



£ s. d, 

6 16 2 

8 14 9 

6 16 2 

6 9 8i 

6 9 6 

7 4 9 

7 18 6i 

6 19 2 

6 10 8 



7 6 2 

6 8 2 

8 18 6 

7 11 8 



£ s. d. 
674 



11 14 



9 

4 



4i 

li 
li 
9 

19 li 

II iif 
8 9, 
6 iii 

II 9 

- 5 



8 15 6i 

7 4 loi 

9 10 - 

8 2 5 



£ s, d. 

6 8 4 

12 2 6i 

7 6 2 

7 6 8i 
7 7 7 

6 18 81 

7 2 -i 
6 18 11 

6 14 7 

7 17 -i 
7 16 



8 18 4} 
7 17 11 

9 6- 
7 18 2 



£ #. d. 

5 16 - 

9 »9 9* 



7 - I 

6 II 5 

6 15 1 

6 It III 

7 4 3* 
7 I 4. 
7 16 7* 
7 12 6 
6 18 3 



8 - 4 
7-9 

9 3 5 
7 14 9 



Coet of ''Neceeiaiiee'' per Head per Annum. 



£ s. 
4 11 



3 



d, 
9i 

2 21 



14 91 
14 11 

2 17 10 



4 10 4i 
2 16 -I 
2 10 6i 



3 18 1 

8-6 
3 11 1 



£ s. d. 

a 18 4i 

2 14 4 

a 14 6\ 

2 18 4 

2 16 4 

4 - 8 



3i 
5i 

15 10 



3 6 
a 5 



3 5 9i 
a 4 3 
286 

3 9 II 



£ «. <f. 

2 6 21 

8 7 81 

2 16 4 

8 2 2 

8 12 8 

4 16 - 



4 18 
2 9 
2 12 



8 17 2i 

2 1 21 

2 8 8 

3 9 6 



£ «. ^. 

2-10 

5-7 
211 

3 a 1 

2 18 8 

a 13 2 

476 
$66 

3 10 6 

2 12 2 

3 I I 



3 13 II* 

a 9 8i 
a 5 3 
3 8 2 



£ «. d. 

3 8- 

2 19 lOi 

2 14 61 

3 16 10 
3 2 6i 

3 3 



6 12 
6 13 
4 9 
3 1 
6 2 



4 2 7i 
2 16 Hi 
4 17 

4 2- 



£ s, d. 

3 - -^ 



3 8 II 

a 7 
3 - 
2 19 



9i 

4 
6 



3-7 

4 14 -* 

5 10 II 
4 3 -i 

a 14 9 
3 4 6k 

3 14 6k 

28- 
a 15 If 
3 la I 



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1880.] 



Of the Children of the Poor. 



239 



Table III CoiUd.'-Cost in the Metropolitan Poor Law SchooU of Furniture^ and Repairs 
of BuHdingSy lAc, under Four Diferenl Heads. 





Cook of «« Repain, Famitore, be/' per Head per Annom. 


NamoofSdiooL 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1878. 


ATerageof 
Five Years. 


JSeparate SchooU— 

.Betihnal Ghreen, Leyton- 1 

stone J 

St. G^rge-in-the-Bast, 1 

Plaahet / 

Holborn, Mitoham 

Islingtoiii Homsej 


£ s, d, 
10 19 11 

2 9 9 

2-10 
1-9 

16 8} 

4 4 8 
8 17 7 
2 8 10 

6 7 8 

8 18 7f 
8 16 1} 


£ s. d. 

5 12 11 

2 4 3i 

* 1 3 

1 to 2 

2 lO 10 

4 II 6 

3 i6 9i 

4 10 5i 

3 19 a 

8 7 5 
2 i6 9 

4 3 4 
4 9 II 


£ #. d, 

8 18 9 

2 7 8i 

2 11 2i 

1 9 11 

2 6 4i 

8 19 10 

9 7 9i 
2 4 10 
6 10 2 

6 1 9i 
2 12 8i 
2 17 8 

6 8 8f 


£ s. d. 

1 8 8 

2 17 9\ 

6 i6 11 

3 15 li 

2 12 2 

- 19 iii 

3 4iii 

7 II iii 
6 15 iii 
a 5 li 

4 8 1 

3 19 9i 

2 8 II 

3 8 loi 

5 8 4i 


£ s. d. 
8 11 - 

2 15 6i 

6 18 8 
6 16 9i 

1 14 10 

2-8 

8 6 9i 
5 8 4 

2 - 7f 
2 12 - 

5 12 6i 

6 18 2\ 
2 12 2 

7 1 8J 
4 18 8 


£ S. d. 
5*3 

2 10 II 

6 17 7 

3 9 -i 
1 13 * 

1 16 11 

3 15 9 
678 

5 5 i 

3 * - 

4 II 9 

6 I 10} 

2 12 7i 

4 4 loi 

5 I 8 


Lambeth, Norwood 

Mile End Old Town,") 

Bancroft Road J 

St. Marylebone, Southall 
St. Panoras, Leayeeden .... 
Shoreditoh, Brentwood.... 
Strand, Kdmonton , 


Westminfter, Battersea ... 

District Schools^ 

Central London 


Forest Gste 


North Suirey 


South Metropolitan 




Cort of •* iklQcation and Induitrial Training •* per Head per Annum. 


Separate Schools^ 
'. Sethnal Green, Leyton- 1 

stone J 

St. George-in-the-£a8t,\ 

Plashet / 

Holbom, Mitchn-m. ..r 


£ «. d, 

- 9 21 

4 8 10 

- 14 1 
2-7 

19 1 

11- 

12 9) 
2-9 

- 16 5J 

8 18 7 
1-11 


£ s. d. 

I » 2i 

4 1* -i 

- i8 ifi 
I i6 8 

1 9 3 
I I 4i 

1 7 7} 

2 1 7 
-13 6 

4 1 loi 

- 3 li 

I - -t 


£ s. d. 

- 11 11 

4 2 lOi 

- 19 7 
1 18 6 

1 10 6 

12 5 

1 6 111 

2 2 7 
-12 7i 

8 2 6} 

- - 8i 

1 2 5i 


£ s, d, 
-14 3i 
4 14 - 

I - 6i 
I 18 9* 

I 9 3 

I 3 4* 
1 10 -i 
I 4 8J 
a 5 8 

- 14 10 

3 3 3i 

- I -i 

I 3 9 


£ s. d, 

- 15 4J 

5 4 2 

18 6 
2 4 10 

18 7 

19 8 

1 8 8i 
12 9 

2 5 4i 

- 14 2 

2 19 li 

- 2 4i 

119 


£ s. d. 
- 14 7 
411 4* 




- 19 4 

I 18 loi 

I 9 3i 
1 4 1 
' 9 4i 
1 4 7 
232 

-143* 

3 9 1 

- I 9i 


LamBeth, Norwood 

Mile End Old Town,! 

Bancroft Boad J 

St. Marylebone, Southall 
St. Pancras, Leayesden.... 
Shoreditch, Brentwood,... 
Str^Tid, Edmonton 


Westminster, Battersea.... 

District Schools— 
Central London 


Forest (Hte 


North Surrey 


South MetropoHten 


1 I 9 



Digitized by 



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240 



MouAT — On the Education and Trainivg 



[June, 



Table IV. — Summary hy Counties Proper, 
[Abftract of PariiamenUry Betvrn of Workhoase and District Schoob, No. 496, dated SOth Jan., I86I.3 



County 

and 
Union. 



The Number of Young 

Persons who were 

in the Workhouse Schools 

of the several Unions 

and Parishes in Eng^land and 

Wales, for a period oi 

not less than Two 

ConsecutiTe Years within 

the Ten Years ended 

the 81st daT of December, 

1860, and who have Left the 

Workhouse, for Serrioe 

or other 
Industrial Occupation. 



Males. 



Females. 



The Number of such 

Young Persons 

who have Returned to 

the Workhouse, 

bj Reason of dieir 

own Misconduct. 



Males. 



Females. 



The Number who 

have returned 

to the Workhouse^ 

from Causes not 

inrolring their owm 

Misconduct 



Males. 



Females. 



England. 

Bedford 

Berks 

Bucks 

CoDibridge 

Cheetep 

Cornwall 

Cumberland 

Derby 

Deyon 

Dorset 

Durham 

Essex 

Gloucester 

Hereford 

Hertford 

Huntingdon 

Kent 

Lancaster 

Leicester 

Lincoln 

Middlesex 

Monmouth 

Norfolk 

Northampton ... 
Northumberland 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Butland 

Salop 

Somerset 

Southampton ... 

Stafford 

Suffolk 

Surrey 

Sussex 

Warwick 

Westmoreland ... 

wnte 

Worcester 

York (E. Biding) 

„ (N. 

» (W, 






90 
818 
152 
220 
257 
161 
193 
195 
882 
135 
186 
455 
639 
128 
188 

54 

608 

1,132 

847 

455 

1,489 

84 
521 
817 
152 
234 
271 

22 
231 
530 
665 
307 
894 
652 
431 
196 

42 
881 
201 
177 

77 
390 



"3 
332 
177 
180 

173 
15* 
»59 
138 
716 

178 
186 
490 
5*3 
13* 
^9^ 
49 
679 

813 
254 
456 

i»33^ 
107 
476 
294 

174 
218 

15 
195 
457 
505 
34» 
410 

465 
384 
138 

3» 
346 

185 
116 

79 
377 



4 
14 
11 
13 
22 

5 

6 
14 
25 

7 

8 
12 
27 « 
13 

9 

8 
43 
87 

9 
32 
90 

5 
19 
25 

4 
24 
10 

27 
25 
24 
81 
44 
25 
28 

3 

2 

8 
27 

8 

3 
85 



6 
ai 
20 
16 
27 
17 
II 

«3 
38 
II 

51 
46 
16 

39 

10 

120 

"03 
21 

79 
175 

55 
59 
21 

38 
18 

30 

4* 

48 

119 

68 

51 

45 

8 

2 

45 

47 

12 

12 

6i 



15 

8 
29 
87 
14 
39 

2 
98 
13 

5 

38 
37 

5 
17 

2 

81 

214 

7 
80 
98 

8 
25 
16 

6 

14 
23 

2 
20 
67 
46 
29 
29 
84 
44 

7 

2 
86 
19 
16 

6 
32 



Totals ... 



14,404 



i»,979 



1,663 



1,264 



20 
38 
10 

29 

40 

13 
22 

3 
118 

13 
8 

63 

80 

7 

22 

II 

107 

161 

6 

34 

161 

18 

47 
26 
26 
20 
30 

4 
27 
93 
88 
62 
22 
7* 
83 
23 

I 

4» 
26 

19 

8 

36 



1,748 



Digitized by 



Google 



1880.] Of the OliUdrm of the Poor. 

Table IV, —Symmetry hy Cotmties Proper — ContcL 



241 



Coonty 

and 
Union. 


The Number of Tonng 

Penoni who were 

in the Workhooae School! 

of the leTeral Unions 

and Parishes in England and 

Wales, for a period of 

not less than Two 

Consecutive Years within 

the Ten Years ended 

the Slst day of December. 

IMO. and who hare Left the 

Workhouse, for Service 

or other 
Industrial Occupation. 


The Number of such 
Young Persons 

who have Returned to 

the Workhouse, 

bjBeason of their 

own Misconduct. 


The Number who 

have returned 

to the Workhouse, 

from Causes not 

involving their own 

Misconduct. 




Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Walks. 
Angleflea 


68 
9 
31 
21 
23 
100 
88 
13 
68 
96 
83 


5» 

4 
25 

10 

i7 

I02 

65 

ID 

37 
89 

17 


4 

2 

1 
2 
2 
4 

4 

1 


5 

4 

2 
3 

5 

4 
5 

2 


1 
1 

1 
3 
7 

9 
9 

1 




Brecon 




Cftrdisran 




Cannarthen 

OamarTon 


I 


Denbigh 


3 

5 
6 

2 


Hint 


Glamorgan 

Merioneth 


Montgomeiy 

Pembroke 


4 
9 
I 


Badnor 






Totals 


629 


439 


20 


30 


32 


43 


District schools.... 


777 


612 


24 


63 


67 


105 


Totals of" 
Bngland and • 
Wales 


16,710 


14*030 


880 


1,756 


1,363 


1,896 



Digitized by 



Google 



242 



MouAT — On the Ed/ucatian cmd Tramvng 



[June, 



Table Y.—TotdU of the Number of Young Ofender$ Admitted into and 
Discharged fro9n Certified Reformatory School* in Great Britain^ and the 
Mode of DitchargCy up to Zlst December, 1876. 



England. 



AdmUsion* — 

1864 

'56 

'66 

'67 

'68 

'69 

'60 

'61 

'62 

'63 

'64 

'66 

'66 

'67 

'68 



'70. 
'71. 
'72. 
'78. 
'74. 
'76. 
'76. 



Total. 



DiscTiargei — 
To employment'! 

OP seryice J 

To friends 

Emigrated. 

Sent to sea 

Enlisted 

Discharged on ao- 1 

count of disease j 
Discharged as in- 1 

corrigible J 

Transferred 

Died 

Absconded 



Total. 



Under detention 1 
81st Dec, 1876.... J 

In school 

On licence 

In prison 

Absconded, sen- 
tence unexpired 

Retained in school, 1 
sentence expired J 



Protestant. 



Boyi. 



28 
164 
477 
711 
668 
706 
766 
869 
675 
643 
664 
763 
816 
860 
828 
863 
801 
790 
881 
863 
821 
773 
800 



Qirls. 



»4 

5* 

ICO 

X04 

^SS 
19a 
*59 
150 
149 
148 
ai3 
193 
201 

213 
199 
196 
182 
240 
204 
207 

150 
186 



16,034 3,718 4,682 



Eoman 
Catholie. 



B078. 



192 
247 
119 
148 
146 
163 
161 
106 
233 
268 
264 
270 
266 
222 
264 
248 
311 
306 
306 
228 
268 



3,649 

3,743 

1,608 

2,149 

861 

161 

182 

423 
274 
427 



12,707 



3,327 



2,786 

494 

11 

36 
2 



870 

37 



9S 

SO 

144 
90 
81 



1,477 
190 
697 
126 

63 

26 

66 

118 

98 



2,922 3,628 



796 



1,164 



666 
114 

4 



986 

161 

2 

16 



Girls. 



4* 
53 
40 
43 
46 
45 
54 
47 
46 
5i 
67 
43 
3» 
58 
66 

59 
63 
48 
57 
56 
33 



1,050 



463 
219 



5 

36 

79 



874 



176 



164 

9 

2 



Scotland. 



Protestant. 



Boys^ 



167 
161 
143 
120 
129 
174 
184 
186 
179 
179 
186 
207 
181 
186 
177 
174 
194 
186 
170 
216 
161 
166 



Girls. 



54 
49 
50 
48 
58 
50 
26 

55 
51 
48 
57 
40 
38 
51 
56 
44 
59 
39 
40 

35 
38 



3,816 1,009 ^1^1 



Catholic. 



Boys. 



60 
82 
47 
49 
63 
64 
60 
96 
68 
95 
72 
68 
76 
64 
48 
44 
61 



Girls. 



4 
17 
35 
18 
26 
20 
22 

15 
20 
28 
38 
17 

21 

19 

26 

31 
23 
10 

33 



4*3 



Total. 



Boys. 



28 
831 
820 
1,101 
792 
1,009 
1,146 
1,288 
1,069 
976 
1,119 
1,266 
1,827 
1,396 
1,837 
1,867 
1,301 
1,296 
1,403 
1,396 
1,386 
1,206 
1,275 



26,612 6,200 



Gills. 



I 
78 
H3 
»03 
196 
27» 
3*3 
348 
285 
267 
264 
337 
320 
310 

334 
330 
3^7 
319 
368 

3*3 
3" 
^54 
^75 



1,636 

752 

181 

134 

36 

36 

18 

107 
128 
176 



3,092 



723 



661 
64 



395 

^5* 
^5 



«9 

»3 

4" 
34 
94 



686 

161 

10 



18 



12 
40 
49 



873 881 



136 



122 
6 



200 



167 
30 

13 



149 

129 
12 



2 
18 

2 



316 



X07 



103 
3 



6,889 

6,133 

1,889 

2,980 

613 

267 

176 

607 
665 
740 



20,208 



6,404 



4,679 

739 

18 

71 
2 



i»47o 
18 



U5 

71 

**3 

221 

185 



4.985 



1,2x5 



>.o55 

«3» 

6 

>9 
3 



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1880.] 



Of ike Ohtldren of the Poor. 



248 



Table VL—^aofwuy the Ntanber of Juvenile Offenders Committed for Detention in Reformatory Schools, 
vfho h(we Previously been Inmates of Workhouse, Union, or Poorhouse Schools, or of Pauper District 
Schools, for the Period of Ten Tears, ending Slst December, 1877—1868-77. 



Name of Beformatory School 



Arno*8 Court girii 

•« Akbw ^.. ^ boys 

Bedford « 

BirkdaleFann ^, 

Binnhighaiii nrls 

Bolqm Castle 

Bra4waU 

Buxton ^ 

CalderEann 

Castle Howard „ 

" Clarenee" .««. 

" Cornwall " 

Cumberiand 

DeroB aad EzjBter ^ 

Doncatter „ 

Essex boys 

Glamergan ^, 

Hampstead «»..... nrls 

Hampshire boys 

HaroWick ^ „ 

Hertfordshire » p 

Ipswich i:irls 

KioKswoed 

Lancashire, north 

Laocashire, R. C. girls 

Leeds ^ 

Limpley Stoke (Bath) 

Liveifool Boys 

,, .« ««.... girls 

Londen, Home in tiie East boys 
Maocbeeterand SaUbid..., 

Market Weiehton , 

Monmowthsnire 

Moant St. Bernard. 

Morthampton m 

North Eastern boys 

Bed Hill ^ „ 

Red Lodge ...... girls 

Saltley ^ 

Stoke Farm 

Suffolk 

Sunderland girls 

Surrey 

roxtethPark , 

l¥andsworth boys 

Warwickshire ., 

girls 

Wellington Farm...... 

Wilts 

Woodbury Hill 

Yorkshire, B. C girls 

SOOTLAVD. 

Aberdeen girls 

Dalbeth 

Dairy Road 

Glasgow boys 

[nvemees boys 

Kibble 

Did MiU 

Parkhead 

Eloasie ...#. 

Jtranraer 



Information not aTailable 

:|?|:|?|:|t|:| 



10 



data to go upon, but manager reco 
|-|1|-|-.|-|4|-|1| ^ ■ 
Information not availabie 



m 

S 

s 

4 



i-i-i-in-i- 



No record kept 



m 

mformation can be obtamec 



I 
No record kept 



•|l|-|l|-| 8| a 



Ty>tal. 



1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


.. 


- 


— 


_ 


4 


— 


— 


_ 


1 


_ 


6 


a 


1 


H 


1 


6 




7 


1 


- 


8 




1 


- 


2 




_ 


_ 


ij 


— 


I 


a 


: 


- 


led 8 more than three 


2-13 


- 11-18 1- 


1 


- 


1 




6| 


- 


7 


- 



Hare had a few from workhouses, but none from district school 



No record 

I 
I 



No reoord. Thirty girls now hi 



the 



workhouses 



Reiormatonr own to hare been in 



86 



87 



67 



482 



-l-l-l-lll-l- 



- ♦ - 



-U ? 



kIi- 

Nil 



|-|-|1|-|1|-|-|-| 8|- 



3-l---i-.-_ 


1 


_ 


6 


1 - 6 - 4 - - - 1 - 


1 


- 


12 


- I - I - - - I - - 


. 


— 


__ 


1 - - - 1 - - - 1 - 


- 


_ 


6 


Nil 









- - -r II 



2- ill 8 1-18 I- 11 



NU 



IS 



40 



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244 [June, 

Discussion on De. Mouat's Paper. 

The Chairman (Mr. W, Newmarch, F.R.S.) said Dr. Mouat bad 
read a very able and conscientious paper, upon whicb be boped 
tbere would be a very vigorous discussion. The best compliment 
they could pay to the author of the paper was to contradict him 
most vigorously, and he trusted that there would be a good 
response to that invitation. 

Mr. Edwin Chadwick, C.B., commended the high spirit and ability 
of a large proportion of Dr. Mouat's paper, but he could have shown 
at length, had time permitted, that the doctrine propounded of the 
advantages of the smaller, or even of middle sized, over the larger 
schools, was wholly in error in principle, as demonstrated by 
comparative results ; — that the larger the aggregation, the greater 
the segregation or power of classification and of class teaching; 
the better the physical, the intellectual, and the moral results, and 
the greater the economy. Due credit had been given to the kinder- 
garten — ^but the efficiency of the infant school was only to be got 
usually with a first-class teacher — as the primary and most im- 
portant part of a large school. Dr. Mouat had spoken of it as 
a disadvantage of a large school, "that the numbers collected 
together are altogether beyond the reach of the satisfactory control 
and supervision of a single head." Why this was precisely the 
disadvantage of the small school, of the single mastered school, 
that its numerous and disparate classes, some six or seven, were 
only under the control of one head ; whilst in the large school they 
were under the supervision, and special occupation of a number 
of heads ; of a first class infant school teacher, whose service 
effected a saving of two years of school time (a saving which had 
not been noted) ; then of some twelve pupil teachers of different 
classes for one class after the other; tiien of a second assistant 
teacher, and a first teacher, and of a head teacher, and at the same 
time of a drill master — one of the most potent and formative of 
masters — of a music master, and of a trade instructor, all of whose 
services were brought to bear upon the body as well as the mind of 
the pupil on the half-time school system. And what was the 
comparative cost of all this teaching and training power in the 
larger systematised organisation? why in the instance cited of 
the Annerly district school, as in others, it was not more than one 
pound per head per annum, as against two pounds per head and 
more, the common expense of small schools throughout the 
country ; but on the half-time principle, including the in&nt school, 
the chUdren of the lowest and slowest type are got well through 
the " three R's '* in about seven years, or between the tenth and the 
eleventh year, instead of between the thirteenth and the fourteenth 
year, saving about three years of time in primary education, gaining 
that three years for secondary education. As to the expense of 
this teaching power on the half -lime principle gained by aggre- 
gation and segregation, it was indeed of seven years at one pound 
per annum, as against at least ton years at two pounds per annum, 
and the total cost of elementary education. Now as to the moral 



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1880.] Discussion on Dr. Motiafs Faper^ 245 

and economical outcome from tlie separate district scliools, upon 
what material, be it borne in mind, the very lowest morally and phy- 
sically of the commnnity, chiefly the offspring of depraved paupers, 
hereditary mendicants and delinquents, coming from the lowest 
neighbourhoods and most unsanitary conditions. As a class they 
were all stunted, and of inferior physique, with a large proportion 
of scrofulous and half idiotic children, many of them brought in 
late, and with hardened habits. Dr. Mouat spoke of the results in 
a subdued tone, that " a large number, probably a majority, of the 
children educated in the schools succeed fairly well in after life." 
The investigations that have been made show that they succeed 
pre-eminently well. The failures were stated to be within 6 per 
cent., but formerly the failures were fully 6o per cent., not above 
one out of three got into productive service ; the bulk were on the 
streets, and formed the largest contingent to the population of the 
prisons ; and considering the class, the latest results were grand, 
even with a larger discount. As to the physical outcome, there had 
been large and persistent misrepresentations, not by Dr. Mouat, but 
by others, who maintained that the aggregation of large numbers 
must be productive of disease : as it must to those ignorant of 
sanitary science, who could only conceive aggregations of filth, of 
filthy skins, in foul air. The fact was overlooked that these district 
half-time schools were in fact children's hospitals, in which many 
were brought in only to die ; yet including these, the deatk^rates in 
these institutions were below the general death-rates of children of 
the same class of the population ; but taking the children of this 
low type, who came in without developed disease upon them, the 
death-rates had been reduced to within 3 in a 1,000, whilst of the 
boarded out children, it had been held forth as satisfactory that 
the deaths had not exceeded 2 per cent., that is to say, 20 in a 
1,000. In these lar^r institutions the "children's diseases" of 
spontaneous generation had been almost entirely excluded, and the 
power of sanitation and physical improvement, as far as they had 
gone, increased with the numbers and power of class treatment. 

Note by Mr. ChadvncJc. — The real question as to the best course 
of treatment of the children of the destitute dates back to 1833, 
when the principle proposed by our Poor Law Commission was for 
the treatment of the children not under the same roof as adult 
paupers as in the union houses, but in separate houses and on a large 
scale. There is now a movement for a return to the principle then 
pd*opounded, for economising as well as from experience in superior 
eflBciency. The principle of graded schools now in progress in 
America was taken by Mr. Horace Mann from these separate 
schools, such as they were first introduced under the new poor law 
in England. The following table displays the principle of the large 
and small schools, and of graded schools up to 700. There are 
working examples of schools of above 1,000, with increasing advan- 
tages in economy, certainty, and presumably in efficiency, and 
indeed the limits of the profitable application of the principle as to 
numbers have not yet been determined. I submit the table as an 
example of statistiaJ exposition of the working of a principle : — 



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246 Diiousnon [June, 

Admmittraiion of Fvmda for Edvcation, 

Table IlluHrathe of School OrganUaHom for the AugmenUaHon of Ijfflcieney 
with Meduction of Expense. 

tin this table— whkh hat been prepared on inatmetkuit by Mr. T. P. Allen, an experienced and diilM 
teadier who had charge, under Earl RoaseU, of an elementary achool at Petenham— it ia aianmed 
that the pupils enter «o1k>o1 at 7 yeara <^ ase. At the end of the several periods mentioned in the 
third eokmin, they would write a dear hand and would read intelligently, and would be capable 
of passinc with credit the ordinary examinatkma in arithmetic approved by Uie Privy Council: 
they woud have thoroughly mattered the usual rulea, including proportion, as fkr as decimal 
fractions inclusive]. SiiMe it was presented, in 1970, the prices of trained educational service 
have been augmented by the demand. The average number of scholars which can be acoMnmo- 
dated in the whole of the existing State-aided schools appears to be 95. 



Number 

of 
Scholan. 



40^ 



70 



120^ 



200 



400-^ 



700-^ 



Annual Coat per Head. 



£ e. d. 

Master and miBtress* .... 70 - -" 

Monitor 2 10 - 

Expensetf 10 - - 

House Tentt 20 - - 



Annual cost per head.... 2 11 

Master and mistress 75 - 

One pu]nl teacher 15 - 

Expenses 15 - 

House rent 20 - 



Annual cost per head.... i 

Mpkster and mistress 105 

Two pupil teachers 30 

Expenses 25 

House rent 25 



IS 6j 



Annual cost per head.... i 10 io_ 

Master 135 - - 

Four pupil teachers 60 - - 

Expenses 35 - ~ 

Annual cost per head.... 13- 

Master 185 - - 

One assistant 70 - - 

Six pupil teachers 90 - - 

Expenses S5 ~ ~ 



Annual cost per head.... 1 

Master 240 

First assistant 1 10 

Second „ 70 

Twelve pupil teachers .... 180 
Expenses loo 



Annual cost per head.. 



Time 
of Teaching. 



etoTyrs. 



7 7ear8§ 



6 



5 „ 



4 „ 



3to4yr8. 



Total Cost per Head. 



£ 9. 

About 16 10 



12 10 



9 - 



« 6 - 



4 - 



Nearly 4 - 



* It will be seen that no mistress is allowed when the number of scholars exceeds 120. In those 
cases separate establishments are maintained for boys and girls. 

t By expenses is meant disbursements for stationery, cleaning, repairs, Ice. 

X Small schools, espedally in the case of the so-called nationaJ schools, are usually provided with 
teachers' residences, ui estimating cost, therefore, in the small schods, we must include a fair per- 
centage (5^) upon the capital enoployed in the ounstruction of the residence, the teacher's income 
being affected to the fall extent 01 the supposed rental. 

§ A school of seventy is perhaps rather more obstructive to progress than one of forty. In the 
latter, thouj^h the organisation is necessarily very imperfect, the surveillance of the master can be 
more readily directed to every individuaL In ranch krger collections this advantage in favour of a 
small number is much more than counterbalanced by the constant general supervision of the master, 
by the aptitude and intelligence of his subordinates, 8tc. 



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1880.] on Dr. Mouafs Paper. 247 

Mr. Georoe Hubst said that mach as he admired the excellent 
paper they had listened to, he thought some of its contents 
admitted of a great deal of discussion. The condemnation of 
workhouse schools was altogether unworthy, for a great many of 
them had been well conducted, and the children had been brought 
up carefully and well. He had had some little experience of work- 
house management in the last half century, and he could say that 
in many workhouse schools (and he referred particularly to the 
one at Bedford) the children had been well taught morally and 
intellectually, and had had a thorough training in tailoring, shoe- 
making, and other industrial occupations. The children were 
generally healthy and cheerful looking, and, at all events at Bed- 
ford, very few of them had gone wrong, while many of them had 
got very excellent situations. 

Mr. E. C. TuFFKELL remarked that one of the main objects of 
Dr. Mouat's paper was to discredit large schools. Now this was 
a point much discussed in the Leeds meeting of the Social Science 
Congress : when the almost unanimous opinion was in favour of 
large schools, on account of the economy of time, money, and 
teaching power thereby effected. The London School Board have 
also expressed their preference for large schools, and acted on this 
opinion. Dr. Mouat had also stated that it was a fallacy to 
suppose that any credit was due to the district schools on account 
of their low death-rate, and instanced the low mortality at the 
Famingham school as a proof that the death-rate at the district 
schools was not extraordinary. This is an unfair comparison, as 
the Famingham school only admits boys under 10 years of age, 
and who are physically fit for labour ; whQe the district schools 
admit children of all ages and in all states of disease. The last 
report of the North Surrey school showed only two deaths in the 
year among 8oo children. One of these was a boy who entered ill 
of pleuro-pneumonia and who died in a month ; the other was a 
child deserted and found half dead from a night's exposure on 
Clapham Common, who was partly recovered by the medical care 
at the school, and at length died of pneumonia. Now neither of 
these cases would have been admitted into the Famingham school ; 
therefore it is unjust to contrast the death-rates in the two schools, 
unless it be to show the excellence of the district system. But the 
evidence alleged by Dr. Mouat in his paper, proves the superiority 
of the district schools in this matter. He says that the death-rate 
in all the London pauper schools was shown by elaborate inquiry 
to be 12 per i,ooo, while the death-rate of the whole metropolis 
among children of similar age was 14 per 1,000 : that is con- 
trasting the deaths of the lowest caste and physically most weak 
children as they exist in pauper schools, with the deaths among 
children of all classes, including of course the healthiest ; we find 
that the deaths in the latter class are one-sixth larger than among 
the former. Can there be a stronger proof of the healthiness of 
the pauper schools ? 

Miss MiiLLEB said she had had no acquaintance with the class 

VOL. XLIII. PA£T II. S 



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248 Discussion [Jnne, 

of schools nnder discnssion, and, as a beginner, she felt unworthy 
to be placed on the same planks with those who had been at work 
for twenty or thirty years. There was, however, one question 
which suggested itself to her on the point raised by Dr. Mouat, that 
the status, emoluments, and qualifications of the teachers should 
be higher than at present. Was it not possible that by fulfilling 
this condition the teachers would be unfitted for the simple and 
elementary teaching of the youngest children ? The minds of the 
children were in the earliest years most plastic, and it was then 
that the best and most suitable work should be brought to bear 
upon them. In the public schools for boys in England, the 
masters were men of the highest character, from the Universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge, and they were brought to teach boys of 
mild attainments in English and the classics, and the consequence 
was that a boy going to Eton or Harrow, who did not know the 
rudiments of an English education, would not learn them there. 
They must be very careful that they did not take away the 
education from the poor to give it to the rich. 

Captain Bourchieb, in response to the invitation of the Chair- 
man, remarked that he quite agreed with all Dr. Mouat had said 
in the admirable paper which he had read that evening. 

Mr. Wtndham Holgatb (Inspector of Workhouse Schools), after 
expressing his thanks to Dr. Mouat for his excellent paper, and the 
Society for allowing it to be read and discussed, said many of the 
points brought forward might be looked at from different points of 
view. With respect to bowxiing-out, he thought that principle was 
not brought out so strong as it might be. Dr. Mouat did not 
mention that under the best circumstances boarding-out could only 
apply to a particular class — orphans and deserted children of 9 or 
10 years of age, while it left on their hands, under any circum- 
stances, the children most difficult to deal with. He fully agreed 
with the remarks made as to the benefit arising from physical edu- 
cation, and he had always told his teachers, when they were rather 
alarmed about the Education Act of 1876, that they would get just 
as good results if they allowed the children to play double as 
long as they did, if they kept them well at their work when in 
school. Dr. Mouat referred to the fact that no farming or garden 
work was done at the North Surrey schools, or on the ** Exmouth." 
While fully agreeing with Dr. Mouat from a hygienic point of view, 
he remarked that the boys put to this work were usually the 
lowest types of intellect, unless, of course, the boys were really 
taught gardening. Mr. Holgate then read some remarks he had 
made on the subject of physical education in his last annual report, 
in which he advocated the extension of more useful kinds of work 
both for boys and girls. The girls should not merely assist, apd do 
the work of the servants, but they should receive bond fide instruc- 
tion. Dr. Mouat had spoken of the excessive requirements of the 
new code ; but with one or two exceptions, the special subjects were 
absolutely untaught in poor law schools, nor did he think they 
should be. In the " three R*s '* and a good industrial training, he 



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. 1880.] on Dr. Mouat's Paper. 249 

thought they could tarn out scholars equal to any in the world. 
With respect to Miss Miiller's remark as to the teachers being of 
too high a dass in some cases, he admitted that the young prig ^m 
college was unfitted for the task of teaching in such schools, for he 
had not come down to the duty required by the poor law autho- 
rities, that of keeping" his temper and seeing to the whole welfare of 
the children, their moral and their religious education ; and he re- 
gretted that Dr. Mouat had not laid stress on the religious element 
in the question. With regard to Tillage schools, there was an admi- 
rable building at West Ham : but through an oversight there was 
not sufficient rooms to accommodate the number of ofi&cers required. 
Village homes must be more costly than district schools, as they 
required a larger permanent staff. School inspectors were fully 
alive to the weaknesses of the system, and they did their best to . 
remedy them. 

Surgeon- General Geaham Balfour, F.R.S., asked whether in the 
schools referred to by Dr. Mouat, the proportion of children at each 
year of life was the same, for if not the comparison of the rates 
of mortality would be wanting in accuracy. He had had some 
little experience of the physical health of schools, and he was sure 
that the combination of physical with intellectusJ instruction was 
of the utmost importance. Amongst other things, he had been 
instrumental in introducing swimming into the Doke of York's 
School at Chelsea, and since 1851 no boy had left that school 
without being able to swim well — in his clothes as well as out of 
them. 

The Rev. I. Doxsbt said for some considerable time ophthalmia 
had never been absent from the South Metropolitan District 
Schools, and this had been a very grave and difficult question to 
deal with. The education was all that could be desired, but he 
thought the health of the children was endangered by their being 
gathered in large numbers. He suggested whether it would not 
be better that while the children were all taught together, they 
should live in small numbers, under the care of a single matron. 

Dr. Guy, F.R.S., said he became a school boy at Christ's 
Hospital at a time when an important sanitary reform was made ; 
prior to that time, ophthalmia and head-sores had been prevalent 
amongst the boys, and many of them were supplied with caps of 
a peculiar kind to prevent them coming into contact with their 
neighbours. The boys had previously washed consecutively in the 
same water; but by setting up long cisterns furnished with a 
number of separate cocks, so that each boy washed in clean fresh 
water, ophthalmia disappeared, and the cases of ringworm greatly 
diminished. The death-rate among the 8oo boys was very small, 
so that a death was a very striking and solemn event. Of course, 
with proper care, the rate of mortality at the ages of those boys 
should be very small indeed. On the subject of the poor-law 
administration. Dr. Guy observed that in his opinion the Govern- 
ment ought to follow the example recently set by the prison 

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250 Discussion on Dr, MowxCs Fa^er, [Jane, 

authorities, who had redaced the number of prisons from 120 or 
1 30 to aboat one-half of that number, at a saving already of some 
such sum as {o,cxx3/. a-year. There were 630 workhouses, which 
might very well be consolidated, and the children removed entirely 
from contact with the depraved adults, who form so large a section 
of the workhouse community, and with the idiots and imbeciles. At 
present the children were brought into contact only too often with 
old offenders ; and if we must have a poor law, it ought certainly 
to be reformed in this particular. This suggestion did not arise 
exactly out of the admirable paper which had been read, but it was 
germain to the subject. He knew but little of the workhouse 
system, but a good deal of another system which was too nearly 
allied to it — ^the prison system. The Home Office has set a good 
example, let the Local Government Board follow it, and a lu*ger 
economy must result from the change. 

Dr. MouAT, in reply, said that notwithstanding his extinction by 
his respected friend Mr. Chad wick, who had not waited to witness 
his revival, he was well satisfied with the results of the discussion, 
as it had not disturbed any of his conclusions. With reference to 
mortality rates there were not sufficient data in existence to deter- 
mine the question with scientific accuracy, and he had advisedly 
spoken with reserve of the results of the education in the poor-law 
schools, as less than 10 per cent, of the children brought up in 
those schools had been traced in their after lives. 

The question of the amalgamation of workhouses, and of the 
formation of separate or district schools for the children still 
retained in them, must await the probably no longer distant forma- 
tion of county boards, as boards of guardians were not at present 
disposed to unite for any purpose whatever, and none but central 
authorities would take large and liberal views of such questions. 

That the educational standards were not worked up to was 
probable enough, but that in no way disturbed his contention as 
to their unfitness, and the necessity of more physical and less 
mental training. 

When the changes he advocated were introduced, he had no 
doubt that the success of the future would be even greater than 
that of the past. 



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1880.] 251 



Vital Statistics of Cayalry Horses. 

By Subgkon-General T. Graham Balfour, M.D., F.R.S., Kenn. 
Corr. Etr, de VAcad, Boydle de Medicine de Belgique^ ^c,y 8fc. 

[Read before the Statistical Society, 16th March, 1880.] 
CONTENTS : 

PAQB I PA6B 

L— The French Army 251 | II.— The Brit^h Army 266 

The vital statistics of horses do not appear to have been mnch 
studied in this country, and the information on the subject is con- 
sequently meagre. In France, on the contrary, they have been 
carefully collected, and the results, as regards those of the army, 
have for a series of years been published by the Government. I 
propose to bring under the notice of the Society the leading facts 
thus recorded, in the hope that the subject may meet with that 
attention from our Gt)vemment which it undoubtedly deserves, 
and thus lead to measures being taken to obtain trustworthy 
information on so important a question. And first as regards — 

I. — The French Army. 
During the ten years preceding 1843 the heavy losses of horses 
in the army by glanders had been repeatedly brought under the 
consideration of the military authorities, and several Commissions 
had been appointed to report upon various methods of treatment 
which had been suggested, and professed specifics for the cure of 
the disease, and to make such experiments as might be considered 
desirable to throw light upon this important subject. The results 
were not satisfe^tory; the vaunted remedies having been found 
useless, and the disease, when fully developed, beyond the control 
of medicine. An infirmary which had been established for the 
purpose of making the necessary experiments, was in consequence 
discontinued. But the labours of these Commissions had shown 
that much valuable information might be obtained by a systematic 
investigation . of the various conditions under which the horses 
were placed, and much advantage gained by a judicious super- 
vision of their management in health and treatment in sickness. 
Accordingly, in 1843, the war minister established a permanent 
Commission, under the titie of " Commission d' Hygiene Hippique," 
whose official duty was to be the examination of all questions 
relating to the health and preservation of the horses of the army. 
M. Magendie, the celebrated physiologist, who had conducted some 



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252 Balfour — On Vital Statistics of Ca/vdlry Horses, [June, 

of the previous investigations, was named president of the Com- 
mission, and with him were associated as members two medical 
men and two agricultural chemists — ^members of the Institute — an 
assessor, skilled in administrative questions relative to the organisa- 
tion of the cavalry and of the remount service of the army ; two 
civil veterinary surgeons — members of the Royal Academy of 
Medicine — and four military veterinary officers. An assistant 
operative chemist was attached to the Ck>mmission to conduct such 
analyses and experiments as might be required. 

A form of annual report was established, to be furnished by 
every army veterinary surgeon, and to include the following 
subjects : — 

1. A medico-topographical description of the garrison and 
cantonments. 

2. A description of the stables, their aspect, their internal 
arrangements, the nature of the ground, their capacity* 

3. The nature and quality of the forage, and nomenclature of 
the plants which enter into the composition of the hay of the 
natural meadows. 

4« Qreen food ; number and ages of the horses which have 
been put upon it. 

5. Nature and chemical composition of the water in use for 
watering the horses. 

6. Statistics of the diseases observed from 1st January to 
3l8t December. 

7. Table of the losses by death during the year, subdivided 
according to ages, the districts in which the horses have been 
raised, and the fatal diseases ; numerical statement of the horses 
cast as unfit for service, according to ages, districts, and causes of 
casting. 

8. Mode of treatment employed in each class of diseases; 
opinion on the contagion or non-contagion of glanders, with facts 
observed. 

9. Statement of the general causes which have contributed to 
the development of the diseases. 

10. Hygienic measures adopted to preserve the health of the 
horses ; measures suggested for adoption. 

11. Sanitary condition of the horses of the corps. 

12. Breed of the horses of the corps. 

13. Mode of shoeing in use ; improvements suggested. 

The war minister also authorised the publication of an annual 
volume containing the results of the labours of the Commission. 
This, however, was not commenced till 1847, when the first volume 
appeared under the title of ** Becueil de M6moires et Observations 
*'sur THygiene et la Medicine V^t^rinaires Militaires.*' The 



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1880.] Balfoue— On Vital Statistics of Cavalry Horses* 253 

detailed tables showing the sickness, mortality, and casting, were 
not inserted till the second volnme, when those for 1846 were given, 
but, owing to some omissions, these were less perfect than those in 
the subsequent volumes. There is, however, a complete series for 
twenty years, 1847-66, from which the information to be brought 
under the notice of the Society has been chiefly obtained. In the 
third volume a table is given of the strength, deaths, and numbers 
cast in each year from 1835 to 1846, but there is no information 
respecting the causes of mortality and casting, or the ages at 
which these occurred. 

In 1852 a change was made in the composition of the Com- 
mission, a more military character being given to it by the appoint- 
ment of General Bougenel as president, and of a colonel and 
lieutenant-colonel of cavalry as members ; M. Magendie being made 
honoiary president. Some slight modifications were introduced 
into the returns, but no alteration of importance was made. The 
volumes continued to appear annually, till the twentieth, containing 
the statistics of 1866, was published in 1869. During the siege of 
Pans the documents for the subsequent year were lost or destroyed, 
but a new series was begun in 1872, which is still in course of 
publication. 

The returns relating to the horses of the army in France and in 
^gen'a respectively have been kept separate in these reports, and 
it is the results ftrom the former alone which it is proposed to 
bring under notice. No information has been published respecting 
i^e losses in the campaigns of the Crimea and Italy which occurred 
daring the twenty years included in the volumes of reports* 

The mortality of the horses in the French army serving at 
lome amounted, on the average of thirty years, 1837-66, to 58*15 
^r 1,000 of the strength annually, ranging between 12550 in 1841, 
tnd 25'94 in 1862. The proportion " cast '* during the same period 
vas 8o'59 per 1,000, and ranged between 135*20 in 1849 and 
f6*8o in 1855. The total loss of horses therefore by death and 
casting was close upon 14 per cent. The details of the strength, 
deaths, and number cast in each year, will be found in Table 1, 
appended to this paper. On examining the table it will be found 
that a marked increase in the rate of mortality almost invariably 
occurs in connection with any considerable addition to the strength. 
This is very manifest in the years 1841, 1848, 1854, 1855, 1856, and 
1859. The year 1849 appears to be an exception to this rule, there 
having been a large increase in the strength with a decrease in 
the rate of mortality compared with the preceding year, but the 
difference may probably have depended upon the very large number 
of horses removed from the service by casting in that year. We 
shall in a subsequent part of the paper refer to the causes of this 



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254 Balfoue — On Vital Statistics of Cavalry Horses. [Jane 

bigliGfr rate of mortality. In comparing the proportion cast in 
different years, it must be borne in mind that ** casting " does not 
always arise from a great degree of inefficiency, but is liable to be 
affected by such circnmstances as an increase or reduction in the 
strength of the army ; the former causes all horses to be retained 
which are in any degree fit for service, while the latter is taken 
advantage of to get rid of any which are sickly, or which it is 
desirable, for various causes, to remove from the army. This 
remark of conrse does not apply to the mortality. 

On subdividing the thirty years into quinquennial periods, the 
following results are obtained : — 



Period!. 


Aggregate 
Strength. 


Died or 
SUttghtered. 


Cart. 


Ratio per 1,000 of Stitngth. 


Died. 


Cat. 


1837-41 


201,843 

257,219 

286,304 

312,213 
291,825 
251,163 


23,238 
20,722 
15,427 
17,843 
10,444 
6,917 


»3,55i 
18,381 
26,828 
23,662 
25,260 
21,273 


115-37 
80-56 
53-87 
55 55 
85-79 
27-54 


6729 
7i'46 
9370 


42-46 


•47-61 


'52-56 


'57-61 


86-5« 
84-7* 


•62-66 




Total, 80 years.... 


1,600,567 


93,076 


"8»955 


5815 


80-8: 



This table shows a remarkable and steady decrease in tlB 
mortality in each quinquennial period, except that from 1852 b 
1856 inclusive, the ratio, which was 115*37 per i,cxx) in the firrt 
five years, having fallen to 27*50, or less' than one fourth, in tlo 
last. The exception above noted was pr6bably due to two causes: 
first, the large number of young horses -brought into the service b; 
the augmentation which took place on the outbreak of the Crimeai 
War ; and secondly, the number of horses which returned from it 
some with constitutions impaired by the hardships they had under- 
gone, and others labouring under disease contracted on service, tc 
which they ultimately succumbed. 

The great and progressive reduction in the mortality of the 
horses was one of the important results of the labours of the 
Commission of Hygiene. It was effected by the improvements 
iutroduced, on their recommendation, into the general management 
and sanitary conditions of the horses, especially those relating to 
feeding, and to the ventilation of, and increased cubic space pro- 
vided in, the stables, and by the greater care bestowed upon the 
remounts. The importance of these results may to some extent be 
estimated by the fact, that in the amount required for the purchase 
of horses during the last five years, a saving of upwards of 90,000/. 
per annum was effected, compared with what wmJd have been 



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1880.] Balfour— On Vital Statistics of Cavalry Horses. 



255 



required bad the ratio of deaths and casting been the same as 
daring the first qninqaenninm. 

It is a point of some interest to ascertain whether sex exerts 
any influence npon the rate of mortality. The retnms do not 
enable ns to show this prior to 1850, but during the seventeen 
years 1850-66, the following results have been obtained : — 

Table shovring the Strength, Deaths, arid Numbers Cast of Horses and 
Mares respectively, from 1850 to 1866, grouped in Three Periods, 





Hones. 


Mares. 


Ratio per i,ooo of Strength. 




Strength. 


Died. 


Cut. 


StreoKtli. 


Died. 


Cast. 


Horses. 


Hares. 




Died. 


Cast. 


Died. 


Cast. 


1850-56 
'57-61 
'62-66 


238,527 
162,859 
146,9*26 


12,363 
5,592 
3,813 


20,117 
15,038 
13,160 


190,655 
128,966 
104,237 


10,715 
4,852 
3,104 


14,340 

10,222 
8,113 


51-88 
34-84 
2595 


84*34 
92-34 
89*57 


56-20 
37-62 
29-78 


75'2i 
79*27 
7783 


Total.... 


548,312 


21,768 


48,315 


423,858 


18,67132,675 

1 


39-70 


88-12 


4405 


77-09 



There has been a remarkable uniformity in the three periods 
into which the seventeen years are divided, the general result 
being that the mortality of the mares has been about 4;^ per 1,000 
higher than that of the horses, but the proportion of the latter cast 
has been 11 per 1,000 above that of the mares — the total loss of 
horses to the army being about 6| per 1 ,000 greater than of mares. 

The influence of age on the mortality and casting is a subject 
of great importance, and on it the information in the returns is 
very complete. In the table appended. No. II, the strength, deaths, 
and number cast at each age during the twenty years 1847-66, are 
stated, and the following are the results per 1,000 of mean strength 
in each quinquennium, and also for the whole period : — 



Ages. 


Deatlis per i,ooo of Mean Strength in 


1847-51. 


1852-56. 


1857-61. 


186266. 


1847-66. 


4 yean 


63-00 

57*73 
59*88 
58*56 
56' 1 3 
52*53 
42-81 

38-51 
39*77 
53*87 


75-74 
6262 
60-71 
55-42 
56-15 
46-90 
43-22 
41-30 
41-98 
50-50 


5>*79 
46-86 
38-28 
34*58 
32*77 
32-12 
29*32 

27*94 
27-20 

3693 


43-93 
36-12 
2912 
24-14 
2400 
22-90 
22-33 
2309 
25-77 
28-47 


62*01 


5 „ 


53*18 
49-81 
44-69 
42-64 
38-70 
34* 14 
32-39 
33*41 
40-63 


6 


7 „ 


8 „ 


9 „ 


10 „ 


11 


12 „ 


13 upwards 




Total 


53*87 


55 55 


35*79 


27-54 


43*92 





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256 



Balioub — On VUai Statistics of Cavalry Horses. [Jane, 



Aget. 


Cast per i,ooo of If can Strength in 


1847-61. 


1852-56. 


1857-61. 


1862-66. 


1847-66. 


4 years 


i6*i;2 
24*90 
48*20 
63*93 
71*45 
80-70 
178*18 


6*41 
1900 
37-60 
50-53 
61-57 
71-33 
16209 


11*45 
32*00 
49-69 
64-44 
74*50 
84-09 
157*47 


8*94 
10*72 
22*59 
36-68 
49-84 
6223 
128-72 


9*50 
22*36 
41-56 

55*93 
65*89 

75*35 
158*01 


5 .. 


6 .. 


7 


8 „ 


9 „ 


10 upwards 




Total 


93*70 


7579 


8656 


84*70 


8500 





From this it appears that the highest mortality occurs among 
horses of 4 years, and that the rate decreases till 11, when it reaches 
the minimnm ; but the mortality at 4, 5, and 6, has been higher 
in all four quinquennial periods than among horses of 13 and 
upwards. The very high rates at 4 and 5, and, to some extent also, 
the excess at 6 and 7, have been attributed to the circumstances 
under which horses are bought into the service. Shortly before 
the periods at which the purchases are usually made in the 
different districts, the young horses undergo what is known as la 
'prdparation a la vente. Fed up to that time principally on grass, 
and not accustomed to a stably, they are then brought in by the 
breeders, and shut up in their stables, which are usually small, 
dark, crowded, and low, and they are never exercised. They 
are covered with warm clothing, and abundantly nourished with 
barley, beans, or cooked grains or roots, to fetten them and give 
them a fine shining coat. They are consequently, when sold, very 
susceptible of disease from exposure on the journey from the place 
of purchase to the remoant dep6t, from the change of food, and 
from the amount of work to which they are subjected in their 
trainiug, preparatory to being handed over to corps. The effect of 
this on the mortality at different ages may be estimated to some 
extent by the numbers joining at each age. Of the horses pur- 
chased for the remount dep6ts in the seventeen years 1849-65, the 
ages were as follows : — 

4 years 101,626 - 50*3 per cent. 

6 „ 50,321 - 249 „ 

6 „ 26,146 - 12*5 „ 

7 „ 24,964-11*3 „ 

We shall advert to this subject again when considering the 
rates of mortality in the different arms of the service. 

The casting, as might have been expected, increases progres- 
sively with the advance of age, the amount in the earlier years 



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1880.] Balfour— 0» Vital Statistics of Cavalry Horses, 



257 



being comparatively very low, as the prevailing diseases among 
the yonng horses are chiefly of an acute character, and not very 
often terminating in such disabilities as would render them non- 
effective. ^ 

The diseases and injuries by which the mortality among the 
horses have been occasioned have been grouped into thirteen classes. 
In the following table the results are stated in four periods, with a 
view to show in what groups the reduction in the deaths has been 
chiefly effected. In consequence of some of the alterations in the 
forms of returns which were made on the reorganisation of the 
Commission in 1852, it has been found necessary to include six years 
in the first, and four in the second period, the last two periods, 
being still, as in the other tables, quinquennial : — 

Table shomng the Mortality hy DiferetU Classes of Disease among the 
Horses of the French Cavalry, serving in France, from 1847 to 1866, 
arranged in Fottr Periods, 



Period 


1847-62. 


1853-56. 


1857-61. 


1862-66. 












Aggregate Strength 


34i»329- 


257,188. 


291,825. 


251,163. 




Died. 


Ratio 
per 

1,000. 


Died. 


Ratio 
per 

1,000. 


Died. 


Ratio 

per 

1,000. 


Died. 


Ratio 
per 
x,ooa 


Wounds and injuries 
^Fractures 


285 

835 

7,926 

504 

• 
• 

4A77 

• 

• 

528 

• 

• 
3,913 


0*69 

0-98 

23-12 

1-48 

I2M4 

1*54 
11*46 


816 

684 

5,515 

488 
82 
94 

4,163 

74 
849 
644 

534 

60 
1,591 

108 


1-23 

2-46 
21*44 
1*90 
0-32 
036 

16*19 

0*29 
3*30 
^•50 
2-o8 

0-23 

6*19 

0*42 


329 

817 

3,202 

378 

80 

63 

2,321 

44 
878 
808 

460 

58 
948 

63 


i*>3 

2*80 
10*97 

1*29 

0*27 

0*22 

7*95 

o'lS 
301 

i-75 
1-58 

0*20 
3-25 

0*22 


235 

689 

1,863 

190 

47 

26 

1,565 

84 
743 
532 

356 

85 
592 

10 


0*93 
274 
7-42 
0*76 
0*19 

O'lO 


Glanders 


Farcy 


Sorethroat 


Sronchitis 


Inflammation ofl 

lungs and pleura J 

Strangles „. 


6-23 

0*13 
296 

2*12 
1*42 
0-14 

a-36 

0*04 


Diseases of bowels.... 

Typhoid diseases .... 

Diseases of nerrous \ 
system j 

Diseases of foot 

Other diseases 

Diseases of an epi- ] 
or enzootic cha- V 
racter J 


Total 


17,618 


51*61 


15,152 


58*91 


10,444 


35*79 


6,917 


«7-54 





* Included under *' other diseases.' 



This table shows that in all the four periods glanders has been 
the cause of the greatest mortality, and that in it also the most 
marked reduction has taken place, amounting to 15*8 per 1,000 
annually in the fourth as compared with the first period. It may 



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258 Balfour — On Vital StatUHcs of Oa/valry Horses, [Jane, 

be necessaiy here to note that glanders is considered to be so 
incurable, that with a view to prevent its spread by contagion, 
a horse is slaughtered as soon as the existence of the disease is 
fuUy recognised. A ministerial circulft of 18th December, 1846, 
ordered that all glandered or suspected horses were to be 
slaughtered unless cured at the end of six weeks. In 1847 instrac- 
tions were issued that all horses with suspicious discharges should 
' be examined by a special board ; if the board were satisfied that 
the disease was glanders, it was to recommend the immediate 
slaughter of the horse ; if not satisfied, it was to visit the horse 
frequently till the nature of the disease was ascertained. Next to 
glanders in importance, as a cause of death, is inflammation of the 
lungs and pleura, and in this class also there has been a very 
notable decrease. The deaths recorded under the very vague 
heading of other diseases, has also undergone a very satisfactory 
diminution. But it may be remarked that the ratio has been lower 
in the last than in all the preceding periods by all the groups 
except wounds and injuries, and fractures. It would appear there- 
fore that the measures adopted by the Commission to improve the 
general health of the horses have been attended with success in all 
classes of diseases. 

The influence of age upon the mortality by the different classes 
of diseases is a subject of much interest and importance. The 
returns show this only a» regards four, but these the most 
important, of the groups. The results for the twenty years are 
shown in the following table : — 

Table showing the Inflxtence of Age on the Mortality by certain Diseases on the 
Average of Twenty Years, 1847-66. 





Aggregate 
Strength. 


))eathtb7 


Ratio per 1,000 of Strength Died by 


Age. 


Glundera. 


Farcy. 


Lang 
Inflaro. 
mation. 


Typhoid 
DiwMsei. 


Qlauden. 


Farcy. 


Inflmn- 


Typhoid 
DiseaM. 


4 yeora 


96,o8z 
I3i,i8i 
143,763 
I39»6i6 
120,449 
110,694 

97.579 
85,176 

73,569 
143,296 


979 
2,065 
2,897 
2,686 
2,823 
1,846 
1,456 
1,165 

996 
2,114 


lOl 

177 
»53 
»50 
171 
165 
122 
82 
71 
168 


2,729 

2,842 

1,698 

1,343 

963 

798 

576 

469 

892 

926 


689 
613 
381 
^56 
H9 
136 

73 
62 

55 
9a 


1019 

15-65 

2015 

19-23 

19-29 

1668 

14-92 

18-56 

18-54 . 

14-75 


1*05 
^35 
1*76 
1-79 
1-42 
1-49 

0-96 
0-96 
1-17 


28-40 
17-84 
11-81 
9-62 
7-99 
7-21 
5-90 
5-89 


7-17 
463 
2-66 




6 


7 „ 


1-83 
113 
1-^3 
0-75 

0*7l 


8 


9 


10 , 


11 „ 


12 „ 


5-83 1 07 «; 
6-46 1 0-64 


13 and upwards .... 


Total 


1,141,505 


18,506 


1,560 


12,226 


2,507 


1621 


1-34 


10-71 


2-ao 







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1880.] Balfour — On Vital Statistics of Oa/vdlry Borses. 



259 



It appears from this that the youngest horses are comparatively 
free from glanders. The highest rate of mortality by this disease 
occurs among those of 6 years, and there is afterwards a progres- 
sive diminution till 13 years. Farcy does not appear to be afEected 
by age. By inflammation of the lungs and pleura the young 
horses suffer very severely, a result probably in a great degree due 
to the manner in which, as already pointed out, they are got up 
for sale by the breeders. At the age of 4, the age at which 50 per 
cent, of the horses is purchased, the mortality by these diseases 
amounts to nearly 3 per cent, annually. It decreases rapidly, and 
ultimately fells to a little over \ per cent, at 11 and 12. The 
mortality by typhoid diseases is also very high among the young 
horses, and likewise diminishes rapidly with the advance of age : 
in this respect resembling typhoid fever in the soldiers, among 
whom it is essentially, but not exclusively, a disease of the young. 

The disabilities which have given rise to the casting of the 
horses during the twenty years are shown in quinquennial periods 
in the following table : — 

Table showing the Causes for which Horses in the Freruih Cavalry were 
" CorSt " from 1847 to 1866 indusivSy arranged in Four Periods. 



Period 


1847-51. 


1852-56. 


1857-61 


1862-66 












'^ggrag&te strength 


286,304 


3I2.2I3 


291,825 


251,163 




Nnmber 
Cwt. 


Ratio 
per 

1,000. 


Number 
Cast 


Ratio 

per 

1,000. 


Number 
Caat 


Ratio 
per 
1,000. 


Number 
Cast. 


Ratio 

per 

1,000. 


WoondB and injuries 
Bad constitution .... 
Keetiveness 


867 

4,022 

666 

611 

5,353 
7,904 
3,467 
1,170 
3,268 


2-33 
2-13 

1870 
27*61 

IZ'II 

4-08 
11-41 


259 

2,445 

335 

578 

4,623 
7,436 
2,816 
1,595 
3,575 


0-83 
7-83 
ro7 
1-85 

14-81 
23*82 

9'02 

5" 
ii'45 


387 
2,840 

538 
•410 
tl82 
3,239 
8,452 
3,226 
1,373 
4,613 


1*33 
9*73 
.•84 

}ro3 

ii'io 

28-96 

11-06 
4*70 
15-81 


197 

1,174 

269 

1 313 
2,314 
8,750 
2,896 
1,525 
3,835 


0-79 
4-67 
1-07 


Crib-biting 




Blindness 


9-21 


Old age 


Legs worn out 

Incurable lameness.... 
Broken wind 


34-84 

11-53 

6 07 


Other causes 


15*^7 




Total 


26,828 


93*70 


23,662 


75-79 


25,260 


86-56 


21,273 


84-70 





• Four years only, 1867-60. 



t One year only, 1861. 



The principal cause of casting has been the condition of the 
legs, one-third of the whole having, on the average of the twenty 
years, taken place on that account, and it appears to have increased 
latterly, the proportion in the last having been higher than in any 
of the preceding periods of five years. It may probably be fairly 



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260 



BALForB — On Vital StatUties of Cavalry Horses. [Jane 



inferred from this, that, owing perhaps to changes in the drill and 
duties of the cavalry, there is now more wear and tear of the 
horses than in the earlier period. The marked redaction in the 
proportion cast for '^ bad consb'tntion *' may be taken as additional 
evidence of the value of the work done by the Commission, in the 
careful supervision of the remounts. The other causes of casting 
do not seem to have undergone any marked change. 

Before submitting the figures showing the rates of mortality 
and casting in the different arms of the service, a few preliminary 
observations may be necessary. In 1849 a corps of guides was 
raised, chiefly as a body guard for the President of the Republic. 
In 1854, after the proclamation of the Empire, it was formed into 
the imperial guard, and was subdivided into different arms, in the 
same manner as the troops of the line. Owing to the comparatively 
small numbers composing it, I have not thought it necessary to 
work out the results by arms of the service, but have kept the 
mortality and casting for the whole GUiard, including the period 
they were the corps of guides, separate from those of the Line. 

The cavalry of the French army is subdivided as follows : 
cavalry of reserve, comprising carabiniers and cuirassiers; cavalry of 
line — dragoons, and lancers ; light cavalry — chasseurs, and hussars. 
The artillery, engineers, and transport corps also require a certain 
proportion of horses, but the greater number of these are for 
draught, not saddle ; estimated by the purchases for these corps, 
the proportion of the latter amounts to one-sixth. The horses for 
all mounted troops are purchased for them, and sent to the different 
corps from the remount dep6t8. The regulations in force during 
the twenty years under review, as regards height and price of 
horses, were as follows : — 



Cayaby of reserre 

„ line 

Light cavalry 

ArtiUery, engineers, and trans- J saddle ... 

port corps \ draught 

Officers' horses 



But higher prices were allowed for the horses of the imperial 
guard. At first i,ooo frs. were given for all the horses, but in 1857 
the prices were fixed at 1,200 for officers, 850 for reserve, 750 
for line, light cavalry, and artillery saddle horses, and 650 for all 
draught horses. 

The mortality and casting in the different arms are shown in 
the following table :— 




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1880.] Balfour — On Vital Statistics of Cmalry Sorses. 



261 



Table showing the Losses by Death arid CastiTig in each Arm of the Service 
in the French Army Serving at Borne, for Twenty Years, 1847-66 
incltisive. 



Period, 1847-M. 


Aggregate 
Strength. 


Died. 


Cut. 


Ratio per 1,000 of 
Strength. 




Died. 


Cart. 




80,727 

157,207 
257,495 
267,357 

257,448 
55,582 

19,709 
45,980 


2,580 

6,518 
11,476 
10,541 

10,482 

4,091 

620 

8,878 


7,131 

15,529 
24,685 
25»H5 
16,501 

4,890 
1 

r3,i42 

J 


3203 

41-43 
44-57 
39-48 

40-52 

73-60 

r 31-46 
184-34 


88-33 

98-78 
95-87 
94-10 

50-91 

87-99 

} 47-83 


Troops of the Line-- 
Cavalry of r^erye 


Cavahy of line 


XiiffHt cavalry 


Artillery and train ofl 
artillery J 

Engineers, and transport 1 
corps J 

Military schools 


Remount depots 






1,141,505 


50,131 


97,023 


43-91 


85-00 



Omitting the military schools, which are in many respects 
exceptional and cannot fairly be brought into the comparison, the 
mortality has been lower in the imperial guard than in any other 
branch of the service. But to form a fair comparison with the 
troops of the line, it is necessary to confine it to the same period, 
and to exclude the remount dep6ts, which belong alike to both. 
Taking the last ten years, 1857-66, as the basis of comparison, the 
mortality in the imperial guard averaged 23*32, while that in the 
ti'oops of the line was 31*13 per 1,000 of mean strength. It may be 
questioned how far this lower rate of mortality is due to the nature 
of the duties of the imperial guard, and whether it may not, to a 
great extent at least, be a consequence of the better bred horses 
obtained for it by the higher prices allowed. This view seems to 
be supported by the lower rate of mortality among the officers' than 
among the troop horses. Both are included in the general return, 
but a separate table of the mortality among the officers* horses, the 
property of the State, enables us to make the comparison for a 
period of eighteen years, 1849-66: — 

Officer^ Horses, the Property of the State. 



Period. 


strength. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Ratio per 1,000 of Strength. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


1849-51 

'52-56 

*57-61. 

'62-66 


9,800 
22,299 

27,407 
22,260 


5,632 
11,999 
13,426 

8,926 


409 

1,061 

922 

451 


574-7 
5381 
489-8 
401-1 


41-73 
47-58 
33-64 
20*26 


18 yeais .... 


81,767 


39,982 


2,843 


4960 


35'20 



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262 Balfour — On Vital StaiigHcs of Cavalry Harsei, [June, 

During that time the deaths among the officers' horses were*in 
the proportion of 35*20, while among the troop horses they 
amounted to 43*1 1 per 1,000 of the strength. On the average of the 
ten years 1857-66 the rate among the former was 27*64 per 1,000, 
thus holding an intermediate place between that of the guard and 
troops of the line for the same period. 

The mortality of the horses of the engineers and transport 
corps is very much higher than in any of the other arms. They 
are all draught horses, and low priced, which may to some extent 
account for the difference; but it must also in a considerable degree 
be due to the constant labour, the amount exacted from them in 
transport work, and the necessary exposure in all sorts of weather. 
The very high rate of mortality at the remount depots may be 
explained by the fact that the average strength is not that of a 
number of horses constantly at the dep6ts throughout the year, but 
of a large number passing through and remaining at them for 
limited periods only. But these are the very periods during which 
* diseases arising from exposure on removal from the hot stables of 
the breeders, or contracted en route to the depots, or resulting from 
change of diet, and from the work in training, would manifest 
themselves. That these circumstances exert a great influence, may 
be deduced from the fact that inflammation of the lungs and pleura 
is the cause of 45 per cent, of the deaths at the remount depdts, 
while it amounts to only 23 per cent, of the total, exclusive of them. 
Typhoid diseases also cause a mortality of 7*96 per 1,000 of strength 
at them against 1*95 in the rest of the service. 

The proportion of horses cast has been lower in the imperial 
guard than in the cavalry of the line, but it has been much lower 
in the artillery than in any of the other arms; the ratio in the 
engineer and transport corps has been almost identical with that in 
the guard. As already pointed out, the casting does not depend 
entirely on the horses being unfit for service, but is considerably 
affected by any augmentation or redaction of the force ; it is there- 
fore extremely difficult to account for the difference in the various 
arms, and especially the apparent exemption of the artillery. 

Our observations have hitherto been confined to the mortality 
and casting of the horses ; but the returns also show the admissions 
into infirmaries by the different groups of diseases. There is, how- 
ever a circumstance connected with them which requires to be noted. 
At various times there have been a number of mules employed in 
the artillery and transport corps, and the cases occurring among 
them cannot be separated from those of the horses, as has been 
done with regard to the deaths and casting. In the following 
table, therefore, it has been necessary to add the strength of the 
mules, amounting to 9,985, to the aggregate strength of the horses. 



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1880.] Balfoub — On Vital Statistics of Ca/odlry Hot-ses. 



263 



The nnmber is so small, amonnting only to 9 in 1,000 of the whole 
force, that it can only in a veiy slight degree affect the results.* 

Table showing the Admissions into the Infirmaries by Various Classes 
of Diseases, from 1847 to 1866 inclusive, arranged in Four Periods, 



Aggregate! 
strength of > 
horses & mules J 



Admitted 

into 
Infirmary. 



andl 



Wounds 

injuries 

Fractures 

Glanders 

Farcy 

Sore throat 

Bronchitis 

Inflammation of 

lungs and 

pleura 

Strangles 

Diseases of bowels 
Typhoid diseases 
Diseases of ner-\ 

Tous system.... J 
Diseases of feet .... 
Other diseases .... 
Epi- or enzootic 1 

diseases J 



Total 



1847-52. 



34^3*9 



80,749 

8d0 
9,525 
3,425 



35,737 



5,524 



100,768 



186,118 



Ratio per 
1,000 of 
Strength. 



90*1 

VI 

27-9 
lO'O 



104-7 



i6-2 



a95*2 



545*3 



1853-56. 



261,225 



Admitted 

into 
Infirmary. 



84,233 

768 

6,544 

2,087 

5,412 

12,432 

28,904 

17,674 
8,874 
4,103 

1,147 

5,260 
23,445 

2,997 



153,875 



Ratio 
per 



Admitted 

into 
Infirmary. 



ili'O 
2-9 

25*1 
80 

20'7 

47-6 

iio*6 

67-6 
34*0 
157 

4*4 

20*I 
897 

"•5 



588-9 



1857-61. 



294,842 



42,180 

901 

4,790 

1,502 

6,201 

11,040 

13,502 

16,853 

11,565 

5,433 

952 

8,291 
28,807 

315 



152,332 



Ratio 

per 

1,000. 



Admitted 

into 
Infirmary. 



1431 

3*0 

i6-3 

5'i 

21*0 

37*5 

45-8 

57-2 
39'^ 
i8'4 

3*2 

28-1 

977 

I'l 



5167 



1862-66. 



^54.094 



83,261 

800 
2,541 

603 
4,908 
9,677 

9,128 

13,556 

10,541 

8,558 

808 

6,862 
29,238 

77 



125,548 



Ratio 

per 

r,ooa 



130*9 
3*1 

lO-Q 
2*4 

19*3 
38-1 

3*59 

53*3 
41*5 
14*0 

3*2 

27*0 

115*1 

0-3 



494*1 



There was a slight increase in the proportion of admissions in 

* The following shows the strength of mules and the numbers that died and 
were cast from 1854 to 1866 inclnsiye. The returns do not show any to have 
been empbyed between 1846 and 1854 : — 

Table showing the Strength, Deaths, and Numbers Cast of Mules in the 
French Ca/oalry from 1854 to 1866. 





strength. 


Died. 


Cast. 


Ratio per i,ooo. 




Died. 


Cast. 


1854-60t 


5.883 

4»I02 


851 
183 


610 

560 


59-66 
32-42 


103-69 
136,52 


'61-66 


Total 


9,985 


484 


1,170 


48-47 


117*18 



t There were no mules employed in 1858. 



TOL. XLIII. PAET II. 



T 

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264 



Balfour — Ou Ft/ol Staiisties of Cavalry Horses, [Jane, 



the second period compared with the first, bat a very marked and 
progressiye redaction in the last two periods. The decrease is 
most marked in glanders and farcj, and in inflammation of the 
langs and pleara. In woonds and injaries there has been an 
increase compared with the first six years, bat this maj perhaps, to 
some extent, have been a resalt of the change in the groaping of 
ihe diseases, a very large nnmber of cases in the first period being 
classed ander the heading of other diseases; the admissions by 
this groap in the second and fonrth periods were identical. Daring 
the last five years the admissions from all caases have been eqoal 
to about half the strength annaally ; above one-foarth of them 
having been from wonnds and injaries, aboat the same proportion 
from diseases of the respiratory system, and rather less than a 
fonrth by nnclassed diseases. 

The deaths of horses and males affected with glanders amoonted 
in the twenty years included in the table to 10,773, °r 79*9 P®^ 
1,000 of the cases, leaving 20*1 per 1,000 as the proportion cured, 
or in which the diagnosis was incorrect, for in the admissions are 
included all saspected cases. It is stated in the reports of the 
Commission, that many of the cases discharged as cured were re- 
admitted with the disease, and ultimately slaughtered, and a very 
strong opinion is repeatedly expressed that the disease is really 
incurable, and that immediate slaughtering of infected animals is 
absolutely necessary to stamp it out, or even to keep it within 
bounds. 

If a comparison of the deaths with the admissions into the 
infirmaries by the various g^ups of diseases be made for the 
fourteen years 1853-66, the proportion of deaths to cases will be 
found to be as follows : — 





Horset tnd Mules. 


Classes of Diseases. 


Hones and Moles. 


ClaiMsof 
Diseatet, 8u:. 


CaMf. 


DeaOis. 


Deaths 

in 
1,000 
Gates. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Deaths 

in 
1,000 
Uwca. 


Wounds, &c 


109,674 
2464 

13.875 
4.i9» 

16,521 

33»i49 
51.534 


880 

2,140 

10,773 

1,078 

209 

183 

8,108 


8-0 
868-5 
776-4 

257*2 

ia-6 

5*5 
157-3 


Strangles '. 


48,083 

30,980 

» 3.094 

2,902 

20,413 

81,485 

3,389 


152 

2,472 

1,979 

1,350 

158 

3,338 

181 


3** 

85-5 


Fractures 

Glanders 


Diseases of! 

bowels J 

Typhoid 




>5i-5 


Farcv 


Diseasesofner- 1 
Tous system J 
Diseases of feet 
Other diseases .... 
£pi- or enzootic 


Sore throat 

Bronchitis 

Inflammation 1 
oflungB,&c. j 


465** 

7-5 
410 

33-4 



From this it would appear that it has been found necessary to 

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1880,] Balfour — On Vital Staiistica of Cavalry Horses, 



2G5 



slanghter a very high proportion of the cases of fracture. Omitting 
these and glanders, already noticed, the highest ratio of deaths to 
cases has been furnished by diseases of the nervous .system. In 
ioflammation of the Inngs and plenra, and in typhoid, the deaths 
have been upwards of i in 7 cases. 

The influence of the seasons on the prevalence of the various 
groups of diseases, is shown in the following table of the quarterly 
admissions into the infirmaries in the years 1853-66 inclusive. 



Aggregtte Strength 
of 




Ratio of Adroisiiont 
per 10,000 of Strength in 


810,161. 


First 
Quarter. 


Second 
Quarter. 


Third 
Qoarter. 


Fourth 
Quarter. 


First 
Quarter. 


Second 
Quarter. 


Third 
Quarter. 


Fourth 
Quarter. 


Woundfl and 1 

injuriee J 

Fractures 


22,274 

554 
8,567 
1,027 
4,594 
8,343 

12,056 

12,926 
6,876 
2,546 

681 

4,806 
18,227 

595 


28,846 

720 
8,779 
1,055 
5,307 
9,994 

14,406 

18,040 
8,022 
8,813 

875 

6,125 
21,670 

645 


83,872 

689 
8,591 
1,084 
3,645 
8,839 

13,423 

10,838 
8,618 
3,782 

864 

6,485 
21,924 

915 


26,182 

601 
2,938 
1,026 
2,975 
6,478 

11,649 

6,284 
7,464 
2,953 

582 

4,997 
19,664 

1,284 


280-4 

44*9 

57-8 
105*0 

151-8 

i6z-7 
86-6 
3i-o 

7*9 

60-5 

229-4 

7*5 


360*0 

90 

47*2 

>3'i 

66-2 

124-7 

179*8 

225-1 
100- 1 
47-6 

10-9 

^3'9 
270-4 

8-0 


411-9 

8*5 

44*3 

I3'4 

45-0 

102-9 

165-7 

I33'7 
106-4 

467 

10-7 

67-7 
2706 

"•3 


310*8 
6-2 


Glanders 


36*3 
12-7 
367 
79'9 

143*8 


Farcy 


Sore throat 


Bronchitis 

Inflammation of) 
lungs and > 
pleura 


Strangles 


77*6 


Diseases of bowels 
Tjphoid diseases 
Diseases of ner- 1 
TOUS sjstem j 
Diseases of feet .... 

Other diseases 

Epi- or enzootic 1 


92-1 

364 

6-6 

61*7 
242*7 

»5*a 


Tot»l 


99,022 


122,297 


116,564 


93,872 


1246-4 


1526-1 


1438-8 


1158-7 





Note. — In the calculations, the necessarj correction has heen made to equalise 
the number of dajs in each quarter. 



The second quarter, April — June, has furnished the largest 
number of admissions, and the last quarter, October — December, 
the smallest. The excess in the second quarter has been chiefly 
due to diseases of the respiratory organs. In the third quarter 
there has been a considerable increase in the cases of wounds and 
injuries, including sore backs, a result of the autumn manoeuvres. 

The average number of horses constantly non-efEective from 
injuries and disease is a point of great importance, on which unfor- 
tunately the returns do not afford information. The nearest 
approximation to it which they furnish is the numbers in the 
infirmaries on the 31st December in each year, which have been as 
follows : — 

t2 



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266 



Balfour — On Vital Statistics of Cavalry Horses. [June, 



Table showing the Nwmher of Horses and MtUes in the Infirmaries on the 
3lst December in each Tear from 1847 to 1866 inclusive. 



Year. 


Namber 

in 

luffrmary 

on Slst 

Decemlier. 


Year. 


Number 

in 
InfirmRTY 

on Slst 
December. 


Year. 


Number 

in 

Inflrmaiy 

on Slst 

December. 


Year. 


Number 

in 
Infirmarr 

on Slst 
December. 


1847 


1,375 
3.?93 
1,257 
1,850 
1,59a 


1852.... 
'68.... 
'64.... 
'65... 
'66... 


1,734 
1,478 
1,931 
3,541 
i,9H 


1857.... 
'58.... 
'69.... 
'60.... 
'61.... 


1,318 

1,314 
2,116 

1,471 
1,404 


1862.... 
'63... 
'64.... 
'65.... 
'66.... 


I,2<2 


'48 


798 

441 

1,139 

1,457 


»40 


'60 


'61 




In periods of 1 
fire years J 


10,367 


— 


11,608 


— 


7,623 


— 


5,187 


Ayerage per"! 
i,ooo of > 
strength.... J 


3^'io 


— 


37-18 


— 


26"12 


— 


20*65 



The results show a decrease in the proportion -non-effective 
from 36*20 in the first to 20*65 P®^ 1,000 in the last five years. 
But the numbers must be considered aa a mere approximation, and 
probably a good deal under the average for the whole year, as they 
are taken at the end of that quarter in which, as already shown, 
the admissions are lowest. 

II. — British Army. 

The information respecting the horses of the army serving in 
the United Kingdom is unfortunately very meagre. It is chiefly to 
be found in the ** General Annual Return of the British Army,'* 
prepared by the adjutant-general, and presented to parliament. 
This return shows the strength, deaths, and numbers cast in each 
year from 1861 to 1878 inclusive, but gives no information respect- 
ing the causes by which the mortality and casting have been 
occasioned, nor the ages at which they occurred. 

The aggregate strength for the eighteen years 1861-78 
amounted to 246,856, the deaths to 5,202, and the numbers cast to 
24,014, being in the proportion of 21*07 ^^^ 97*79 P®r 1,000 of the 
strength annually. If the period be subdivided it will be found 
that there has been a slight increase in the mortality, but a very 
marked decrease in the casting during the last eight compared 
with the preceding ten years : — 





Aggregate 
Strength. 


Died. 


Cast. 


Ratio per 1,000 of Strength. 




Died. 


Cast. 


1861-70 


119,324 
117,531 


2,647 
2,655 


14,210 
9,804 


20-47 
21-74 


109*88 
77-16 


'71-78 




Total 18 years.... 


246,856 


5,202 


14,014 


2107 


97*79 



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1880.] Balfour— On Vital Statistics of Cavalry Hones. 267 

The mortalitj ranged between 16*87 per 1,000 in 1864, and 28*15 
in 1871, and the casting between 75*71 in 1871, and 156*12 in 1878. 
It wiU be observed that the year in which the mortality was highest 
was that in which the casting was lowest. Unfortunately we 
have no means of tracing the diseases in which these differences 
occurred, nor of ascertaining the influence of age on the death-rate. 

If the results for 1861-70 be compared with those of the French 
army for 1862-66, it will be found that in the British army the 
rate of mortality has been one-fourth lower, but the casting about 
one-fourth higher than in the French army. 

From 1872 the returns give the numbers separately for the 
different arms of the service, of which the following table shows 
the results : — 



1872-78. 


Aggregate 
Strength. 


Died. 


Cut 


Batio per i,ooo of 
Strength. 




Died. 


Cut 


HniuAl)o1<l cavalry , 


5,885 
47,307 
13,025 
27,906 

2,921 

7,558 


90 
1,073 

\ 810 

59 

169 


492 
3,645 
3,006 

191 
1,489 


15-29 
22 68 

1979 

20-20 

21-04 


83-60 
77-05 


CaTaby of line 


Royal [lorae artillerj 


Bojal artilleiy „ 

Boval engineen 


73*44 

65*39 

19701 


MiUtaiy train, and armyl 
Berrice corps ,.../ 


Total 7 yean 


104,602 


3,191 


8,823 


20-95 


84-35 





It will be seen that the highest rate of mortality has occurred in 
the cavalry of the line, and the lowest among the horses of the 
royal engineers ; but the numbers are much too small to justify any 
positive conclusions on the subject. The household cavalry had 
the highest proportion of horses cast, and the royal engineers the 
lowest. 

In 1838, Assistant-surgeon H. Marshall, of the 7th Dragoon 
Guards, published* a report on the vital statistics of the horses of 
that regiment for the eight years 1830-37. The aggregate strength 
for that period was 2,016 ; the deaths were 58, and the numbers 
cast 168, being in the ratio of 2877 and 83*22 per 1,000 of 
strength. These ratios correspond very closely with those of the 
French army for the quinquennial period 1862-66. Of the deaths, 23 
were caused by lung disease, 6 by glanders, 3 by farcy, 6 by diseases 
of the nervous system, and 12 were shot on account of fractures. 
Of the horses cast, 67, or upwards of one-half, were for lameness, 
33 as worn out, 22 for blindness, 20 as broken- winded, 14 for 

• « Edinlmrgh Medical and Surgical Joomal," voL xliz, p. 467. 

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268 Balfoub — On Vital Statistics of Cavalry Horses. [June, 

unhealthy constitution, 8 for vice, and 3 for slowness of pace. The 
numbers are much too small to admit of any conclusions being 
drawn from them, but they are brought to notice as being, so far 
as I am aware, the only information of the kind which has been 
published respecting the causes of mortality and casting in the 
British army ; and it will be seen that the paper waa published at a 
date considerably anterior to the establishment of the statistical 
returns of the French army. 

The French statistics afford another striking instance of the 
value of the numerical method in the investigation of questions 
relating to health. The system first adopted by the B^tish 
Government in 1836, in the inquiries then instituted into the 
sanitary condition of the troops, was followed by the French 
military authorities, in 1843, as already stated, with regard to the 
horses of the army, and with equally striking results. We are 
not aware whether any similar investigation has ever been made in 
our army into the condition of the horses, the losses experienced 
by death and casting, and their causes, but if it has, the results 
have never been published. That such an inquiry should be 
undertaken is very desirable in the interests alike of science and 
economy. It is not to be expected that as great and important a 
reduction can be effected in our army as has been done in the 
French, because already the proportion of deaths and casting is 
comparatively low, but it is very probable that some improvements 
might be introduced and consequent saving made, and that the 
experience of the army might be turned to useful account in civil 
life. A careful inquiry of this nature is rendered more necessary 
at present in consequence of the recent step taken by Government 
of purchasing Hungarian horses for the cavalry, for it is only by 
means of statistical returns that the practical value of this can be 
ascertained. An accurate comparison of the sickness, mortality, 
casting, and proportion constantly non-effective of the British and 
foreign horses respectively, at the same ages, can alone settle this 
question. 

The marked reduction in the loss by glanders in the French 
army since the rule was enforced of killing all infected horses as 
soon as the nature of the disease has been ascertained, gives 
valuable support to the practice established of late years in this 
country with reference to the immediate destruction of glandered 
horses. The diminution in the mortality by inflammation of the 
lungs and pleura, also furnishes important evidence of the advan- 
tages to be derived from sanitary improvements in the management 
of horses. There are still some important points on which further 
information is required — such, for instance, as the proportion 
constantly non-effective from injuries and disease — which could be 



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1880.] Balfour — On Vital StaHsHcs of Cavalry Horses. 



269 



-well and easilj cleared np by a sjBtem of returns to be periodically 
famished by the veterinary surgeons of the army. We trust that 
the Secretary of State for War will cause some such measures to 
be introduced, and we have no doubt that under such a system, the 
veterinary department will soon add very materially to the existing 
information, and will establish for itself a reputation as a corps of 
scientific observers. 



APPENDIX. 



Table T. — Skotcing the Strength of Cavalry Horses in the French Army 
Serving at Home, the Number of Deaths, a/nd the Number Cast, in each 
Year from 1837 to 1866 inclusive. 



Yew. 


Strength. 


Died. 


Cast. 


Ratio per 1,000 of Strength. 


DJed. 


Cart. 


1887 


34*987 
36,370 
35»045 
61,563 
60,637 
53»70i 
i;o,8c9 
47,488 
44*584 
44,883 
57,146 
67,306 
60,726 
56,243 
55iOi5 
54,974 
62,871 
68,073 
71,270 

55,944 
50.959 
62,603 
63,160 

59,159 
53,076 
50,596 
48.414 
50,619 
48,458 


8,282 
8,569 
8,799 
8,897 
7,726 
6,521 
8,967 
8,618 
8,613 
8,018 
2,413 
8,592 
8,687 
8,217 
2,518 
2,191 
2,527 
8,831 
4,186 
4,669 
2,074 
1,464 
8,374 
1,875 
1,667 
1,877 
1,488 
1,877 
1,494 
1,231 


2,3*1 

2,588 

2,579 
3,030 

3,033 
4,588 
3,411 
3,681 
3,281 
3,420 
3,539 
3,393 
9,100 
7,028 
3,768 
4,552 
5,7 » I 
3,618 
3,186 

6,595 
5,300 
3,288 
4,698 
7,056 
4,918 
4,666 
3,807 
3, "4 
5,073 
4»6i3 


95-40 
10201 
104-45 
111-20 
125-50 
107-56 
73-67 
7111 
76-08 
67-69 
68-76 
62-86 
54-78 
52-97 
44-77 
89-82 
45-97 
60-98 
60-74 
65-37 
8707 
28-73 
53-89 
29-69 
28-01 
25-94 
28-42 
28-44 
29-51 
28-50 


68*51 

73*97 
70-91 
86-46 
49*27 
75*66 
63*5* 
72*45 
69-09 

76-71 

78-85 

59*37 

135*20 

115*73 
66-99 

82-73 
103-88 

57*55 
46-80 

92*53 
94*74 
64*52 
75*04 
111-72 

83*13 
87*9« 
75*24 
64*32 
100-22 


'88 

'89 


'40 


'41 


'42 


'48 


'44 


'46 


'46 


'47 


»48 


'49 


'50 


'61 


'52 


'68 


'54 


'56 


•66 


'67 


'68 


'69 


'60 


'61 


'62 


•68 


'64 


'66 


'66 


95*20 




Total for 80 years.. 


1,600,567 


98,076 


"8,955 


6815 


80-57 



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270 Balfoub — Oi^ VUal Staiiities of Cavalry Horses. [June, 

Tablb n. — Showing the Strength of Horees in the French Army Serving %n FraneCy the 



AgeB 



Four. 



Fiye. 



Six. 



Seren. 



Eigbt. 



Tear. 



dtrengtl Died. Cast. 



1847.. 
'48.. 
'49.. 



I860.. 
'51... 
'52.. 
'68.. 
'64.. 
'65.. 
'66.. 
'67.. 
'68.. 
'69.. 

I860.. 
'61.. 
'62.. 
'68.. 
'64.. 
'65.. 
'66.. 



5»547 
4,876 

4,069 
4*131 

4*367 
5*565 
10,337 
8,014 
7,286 
4,698 
3,673 
5»9*o 

3,650 
3,*78 
1,651 
3,>03 
3,017 
3,609 

3,851 



282 
346 
266 

297 
273 
292 
478 
953 
687 
434 
238 
118 
441 

141 
161 
79 
109 
164 
192 
179 



Strength Died. Gait. 



127 
75 
61 

68 
50 
33 
35 
80 

37 
43 
54 
18 
88 

45 

38 
16 

H 

6 

II 

H 



8,812 
8,491 

6,531 
5,398 
5,396 
5,717 
9,750 
13,338 
9,268 
6,641 
4,961 
8,797 

7,125 
4,379 
4,367 
3,710 

4,094 
4,316 
4,972 



260 
673 
414 

368 
294 
217 
308 
784 
924 
539 
246 
178 
661 

229 
183 
146 
143 
175 
144 
167 



Streoftli DM. Cast. 



"5 

123 
338 

175 
107 
132 
i»3 
>39 
247 
>95 
226 

123 
318 

298 
56 
65 
44 
48 
30 
43 



4,644 
8,668 

12,474 

8,497 
5,796 
5,721 
5,811 
8,052 
11,280 
113,150 
7,678 
5,960 
9,«25 



826 
596 
767 

481 
281 
258 
271 
452 
783 
908 
264 
178 
689 



8,930 313 

6,685 : 187 

4,541 
4,226 

3,889 
4,101 

4,547 



114 
144 
126 
129 
107 



StreDgtli Died. Cast. Strength Died. 



141 
174 
948 

484 
185 
214 
235 
188 
289 
729 
405 
225 
359 

647 
271 
129 
99 
75 
88 
90 



4,071 
6,506 
9.438 

9,729 
6,985 
5,373 
5.105 
7,006 

8,509 
11,252 

0,317 
6,544 
8,476 

8,725 
8,133 
6,042 

4,687 
4.193 
4,365 
4,175 



239 
422 
576 

565 
349 
229 
281 
864 
499 
761 
879 
177 
464 

251 
198 
148 
104 
112 
114 
88 



193 
202 

839 

817 
297 
296 

325 
237 
274 
750 
757 
291 
45 1 

725 
495 
290 

183 
107 

135 
145 



3,433 
4,688 
7,032 

7,377 
8,290 

5,999 
4.827 
5,225 
5,730 
7,471 
7,772 
8,285 
6,902 

7,349 
7,196 

6,317 
5,231 
3,496 
3,94« 
3,907 



189 
315 

404 

450 
372 
221 
227 
253 
384 
543 
284 
269 
317 

190 
169 
157 
128 

82 
104 

78 



179 
189 
631 

757 
446 
337 
327 
255 
225 

657 
680 

451 
534 

683 
446 
434 
293 
109 
181 
123 



* The oast in this ocdiimn indade 



Table III. — Showing the Strength, the Deaths, and the NwmJber Cast, of Horses in the 
French Army in each Quinquennial Period from 1847 to 1866, and at each Age, 



Period 


1847-61. 


1852-66. 


1867-61. 


1862-66. 


AgCi. 


Strength. 


Died. 


Cut 


Strength. 


Died. 


Cast. 


Strength. 


Died. 


Cast. 


Strength. 


Died. 


Cast. 


Yew 
4.... 


33,064 


1,453 


381 


35,5^9 


2,694 


228 


21,219 


1,099 


243 


16,230 


718 


61 


6.... 


34,451 


1,989 


858 


43,469 


3,722 


826 


31,903 


1,495 


1,021 


21.458 


776 


230 


6.... 


40,079 


2,400 


1,932 


44*014 


2,672 


1,655 


38,378 


1,469 


1,907 


21,292 


620 


481 


7.... 


36.729 


2,151 


2,348 


37.245 


2,064 


1,882 


42,195 


1,469 


2,719 


23,447 


666 


860 


8.... 


30,820 


1,730 


2,202 


29,252 


1,628 


1,801 


37,504 


1,229 


2,794 


22,873 


649 


1,140 


9.... 


25,452 


1,387 


2,054 


28,783 


1,850 


2,053 


32.965 


1,059 


2,772 


23,494 


688 


i^6z 


10.... 


21,676 


928 


17,053 


24.569 


1,062 


15*217 


27,866 


817 


13,804 


23,468 


624 


17,039 


11.... 


19,447 


749 




21,333 


881 




21,399 


698 




22,997 


681 


— ^ 


12.... 
18 & 

up- 


17,778 


707 


— 


17,961 


764 


— 


15,51^ 


422 


— 


22,314 


675 


— 


136,808 


1,983 


— 


30,018 


1^16 


— 


22,880 


797 





53,590 


1,626 


— 


wards 
























TotL 


286,304 


16,427 


26,828 


312,213 


17,848 


23,662 


291,825 


10,444 


25,260 


251,163 


6,917 


21,273 



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1880.] Balfode— Oji Vital Statistics of Cavalry Horses. 271 

Deaths, and the Numbers Cast in each Year from 1847 to 1866 vncHusive, arranged by Age, 





Kino. 


Ten. 


Eleyen. 


Twelve. 


18 and npwda. 


TotaL 




Strength 


Died. 


Cast. 


Strength 


Died. 


Cart.* 


Strength 


Died 


Strength 


Died. 


Strength 


Died. 


Strength. 


Died. 


Cast 




2,935 


150 


207 


3,462 


156 


2,577 


4.263 


198 


4.475 


226 


7,940 


397 


44.883 


2,413 


3,539 




3,950 


220 


165 


3.350 


148 


2,465 


3,622 


163 


4,166 


195 


7,837 


520 


57,146 


3,592 


3,393 




5^597 


371 


633 


4.580 


203 


5,650 


3,630 


110 


3,418 


119 


7,770 


468 


67,306 


3,687 


9,100 




5,988 


290 


619 


4*946 


222 


4.108 


3,766 


148 


2,704 


82 


7,119 


374 


60,726 


3,217 


7,028 




6,982 


306 


430 


5.338 


204 


2,254 


4,166 


130 


3.015 


85 


6,142 


224 


56,243 


2,518 


3.768 




8,069 


298 


528 


3.917 


199 


3,012 


4.382 


174 


3.635 


128 


6,166 


175 


55.025 


2,191 


4.552 




5.77i 


206 


488 


6,640 


262 


4,188 


5.484 


197 


4.096 


185 


5.957 


212 


54.974 


2,527 


5,711 




4»55* 


222 


251 


4,102 


183 


2,468 


4,683 


212 


3.774 


170 


5,390 


298 


62,871 


3,831 


3,618 




4,608 


242 


226 


3,582 


162 


1,888 


3,264 


123 


3.648 


165 


6,100 


316 


68,073 


4,135 


3,186 




5.782 


382 


560 


4.328 


256 


3.661 


3,520 


175 


2,808 


156 


6,405 


515 


71,270 


4,659 


6,595 




5,618 


215 


549 


4,213 


137 


2,629 


3,166 


99 


2,163 


81 


3.678 


142 


55.944 


2,074 


5,300 




6,786 


162 


393 


5.041 


116 


1,787 


3.461 


82 


2,477 


64 


3.771 


120 


50,959 


1,464 


3,288 




7,043 


853 


628 


5.575 


199 


2,320 


3,762 


139 


2,822 


88 


4,181 


183 


62,603 


3,374 


4,698 




6,921 


162 


729 


6,885 


217 


3,929 


5,"6 


113 


3,469 


81 


4.990 


178 


63,160 


1,876 


7,056 




6,597 


167 


473 


6,152 


148 


3.139 


5.894 


165 


4.585 


108 


6,260 


174 


59,159 


1,657 


4,918 




5,88z 


140 


39> 


5,631 


118 


3,341 


4.893 


109 


4.945 


136 


7,807 


230 


53.076 


1,377 


4,666 




5.702 


132 


457 


5.235 


180 


2,717 


4.904 


118 


4,466 


124 


9,332 


306 


50,596 


1,438 


3.807 




4,682 


91 


240 


5,344 


120 


2,529 


4.451 


115 


4,128 


88 


11,120 


314 


48,414 


1,377 


3,114 




3,645 


100 


187 


4.369 


99 


4.441 


4.940 


129 


4,499 


126 


13,010 


357 


50,619 


1,494 


5.073 




3,611 


76 


187 


2,952 


57 


4,011 


3,853 


60 


4»353 


101 


12,435 


319 


48,458 


1,231 


4.613 



hones of 10 and upwards. 



Discussion on Subgeon-Oenebal Balfoue's Paper. 

The Chaibiiak (Sir B. W. Bawson, K.G.M.G.), in expressing the 
thanks of the Society to Surgeon- General Balfour, echoed the 
conduding sentences of the paper, and expressed the hope that the 
War Office anthorities would caose some such measures to be intro- 
duced as would enable them to apply to these most important arms 
of our military service, the same measures which were applied to 
our troops forty years ago, mainly throngh the exertions of 
Surgeon- General Balfour and his colleagues. The commission, of 
which General Tulloch and Surgeon-General Balfour were members, 
had the satisfaction of materially improving the condition of our 
troops in our own country, and in our colonies, and he trusted that 
the exertions of Surgeon Balfour with respect to the vitality of 
cavalry horses, would have the same beneficial result. The subject 
was one in which the public generally would take a lively interest. 



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272 Discussion [June, 

Mr. Walfobd tboaght it somewhat anfortanate that two Bach 
highly important papers as those of Surgeon- General Balfour and 
Professor Leoni Levi should have been set down for the same 
evening. When offices for the insurance of horses were started 
some few years ago, he took some trouble to obtain statistics of 
deaths and sickness of horses. Extended inquiries were made in 
several quarters, but he found that the statements with r^i^ard to 
the diseases, and consequent mortality, were so divergent, that it 
was impossible to compile any authentic statistics. Now, for the 
first time, we had something authentic on which to work. From a 
national point of view, it was very important that the statistics of 
the horses employed in the army service should be examined, as 
those familiar with the army estimates would know. France had 
been spoken of, and certainly that country had one interest in this 
question which did not exist in this country, namely, that horse 
flesh was, to a greater extent, he believed, than was generally 
expected, used as an article of human food. He had found, on 
inquiry, that in parts of France horse flesh formed a considerable 
item in the food of the population. He thought the Society, and 
the public generally, ow^ the author of the paper a debt of 
gratitude. 

General Sir F. W. FitzWtobam, Inspector-General of Cavalry, 
thought the author of the paper was in error in sajring that there 
were no statistics of the vitality, Ac., of horses in the British army, 
for he believed that the whole of the information required would 
be found at the office of the principal Veterinary Surgeon. With 
regard to the casting of horses in oar army, the Secretary of State 
for War allowed a certain percentage, viz., lo per cent., each year 
for castings. Regiments generally cast up to the allowed percentage, 
and hence the uniformity which would be found in the returns. 
He thought the percentage, when compared with the ordinary wear 
and tear of horses, was very creditable to the veterinary department 
and the officers of our army. He had taken some interest and 
trouble in this question, and upon consulting several London cabmen, 
he found that the usual wear of cab horses in London was about 
two and a-half years. He found that omnibus horses ran from 
three to three and a-half years, but the exact number could, doubt- 
less, easily be obtained from the London General Onmibus Company. 
Messrs. Leny, who were the carriers for the Great Western Railway, 
got five years' work out of their horses, but this was rather a fast 
traffic. He had also had an interview with Messrs. Reid, the 
brewers, and he found that their horses, which were uncommonly 
well cared for, worked for about nine years. After many inquiries, 
he had not found that any large body of horse owners got a larger 
average life than in the cavalry of this country. Cavalry horses 
last, on the average, for ten years, and the work which they do is 
not draft, but carrying on their back an average weight of 20 stone. 
He noticed that in the French army glanders amounted to 39OOO 
a-year, but in the English army, he thought 30 a-year from that 
cause would be nearer the mark. With regard to the alleged 
tendency of horses from grass to suffer from diseases, it was 



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1880.] Of* Surgeori'Oeneral Bcdfour^s Pofer. 273 

hardly his experience that a large number of horses did so sn£Per. 
With respect to officers' horses, his own experience was that they 
suffered more from disease than the troopers' horses, a fact which 
was creditable to the service rather than to the immediate owners. 

Mr. G. Flemino said they must all feel extremely indebted to 
Surgeon-General Balfour for his paper. He thought information as 
that which had been derived from French sources could be obtained 
in this country ; but as it had not been called for by the Govern- 
ment, it had not been given to the general public. He had looked 
through our army returns very carefully, and he had found an 
astonishing improvement in the condition of the cavalry horses 
during the last thirty or forty years. At an early period in the pre- 
sent century, glanders — a most disastrous malady, which was, to all 
intents and purposes incurable — was so very prevalent, that whole 
troops of horses had to be shot ; but now, in consequence of the 
disease being better understood, a great improvement had been 
effected. The importance of the disease was very largely owing to 
its contagious properties, and the only thing was to destroy at once 
the animal in which it appeared. The deaths from glanders among 
British cavalry horses in the year before last was, he thought, only 
'2 per cent., which showed what an improvement had resulted from 
a better understanding of the disease. The greatest percentage of 
loss among the horses of the British army was from diseases of the 
stomach and intestines, whereas in France the highest mortality 
was owing to diseases of the lungs and the air passages, which was 
probably due to the bad ventilation existing in the French cavalry 
stables. He found that in the last three years the strength of the 
horses in the British army was 15,629, of which 8,731 were treated, 
the average being 55*86. Of these, 8,102, or a percentage of 51^, 
were cured. The average annual number which was supposed to 
be incurable was 198*3, or a percentage of 1*26, and the average 
number of deaths for the period was 180, or a percentage of 1*14 — a 
remarkably small percentage in comparison with that of the French 
army — and the average number destroyed had been 114, or 73 per 
cent. Heretofore the classification in the Enghsh cavalry had not 
been so good as it should be, but they were now at work improving 
that matter, and he thought that information of interest with regard 
to our army horses would soon be accessible. So far as he was con- 
cerned, he would take good care that all the information of interest 
that could possibly be given should be afforded. The highest mor- 
tality was chiefly among young horses, the great mistcdce having 
been the purchase . of 3-year old horsed. Owing, however, princi- 
pally to the exertions of General FitzWygram, horses under 4 
years of age were not bought now, and he trusted that this raising 
of the standard would have the effect of lessening the rate of 
mortality. 

The Ghaibman said they were much obliged to General Fitz- 
Wygram and Mr. Fleming for the information they had given, 
showing that the necessary information was actually in existence. 
It was just the same in the case of our troops forty years ago, when 



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27*1 DUcusiion on Sv/rgeon^Oenerdl Balfour^s Paper, [Jane, 

twenty years* information was fonnd to be accessible. He congratn- 
lated Surgeon-General Balfour on having brought forward such an 
interesting paper. 

Surgeon-General Balpoub expressed his gratification at the 
manner in which the subject he had brought before the Society had 
been received, and the interest it had excited. On one point Sir F. 
FitzWygram had misapprehended him: he had not intended to 
deny the existence in the War Office of statistics on the subject : 
he had merely said that he was not aware whether any existed, as 
none had ever been published. With regard to the difference in the 
rate of mortality of the officers' horses as compared with the 
troopers in the French and British armies respectively, in the former 
the horses were the property of the State, but in the latter of the 
individual officers, i^ossibly the greater loss in the British service 
might be accounted for by the negligence of over-paid grooms. 
Mr. Fleming's remarks on the low rate of mortality were iMised on 
the returns of three years only, but it would be found that the aver- 
age of eight years amounted to 2 per cent. It was necessary to 
have a sufficient number of horses under observation to get rid of 
accidental irregularities in the numerical results, and where the 
numbers were small, this could only be done by esLtending the 
period of observation. 



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1880.] 



275 



Ten Tears' Statistics of British Agriculture, 1870-79. 

J5y Captain Patrick George Craigie, 

Secretary of the Central Ohamher of Agricultwre. 

[Read before the Statistical Society, 11th May, 1880.] 

CONTENTS : 



PA6B 

I. — ^Value of the Annual Agri- 

cnltural Statistics 275 

II. — Classification of Areas 276 

III. — Distribution of the Surface 

of the Country 279 

I v.— Ten Years* Changes in Culti- 
vated, Arable, and Pasture 

Land 280 

v. — Changes in ParticnUr Crops 283 

1. Wheat 285 

2. Barley 286 

8. Oats 287 



PAGE 

YI. — Changes in the Number 

of Live Stock 288 

1. Horses 288 

2. Cattle ^ 291 

3. Sheep 294 

VII.— Size of Farms ..._ 296 

VIII. — Number and Acreage of 

Holdings 299 

IX.— Changes in Rent 804 

X.— Summary 806 



I. — VaVae of the Annual AgricuLiwral StaUstics, 

Twelve years have passed since Mr. Caird, in an able paper, invited 
the attention of this Society to the then recently established official 
statistics of British agricnltnre, and the lessons and deductions to 
be drawn from yearly figures. The value of this register of our 
agricultural position at home is now universally admitted, and our 
gratitude to Mr. Caird for the part he took in Parliament in pro- 
curing the now familiar annual blue book deserves prominent 
expression. The unreasoning and ignorant objections to the filling 
up of the required forms which for some time in the southern and 
midland districts of England retarded the completeness of the infor- 
mation now furnished may be said, with advanced intelligence, to 
have been very largely overcome. Especially is to be noted that 
the apprehension of unpleasant fiscal consequences with which at 
the outset many occupiers of land viewed the request to give 
information respecting their business aflfoirs, through the agency of 
officers of the inland revenue department, is fast dying away ; and 
English ^rmers are much more generally being brought to concur 
in the opinion, long held by their fellow agriculturists in Scotland, 
that the inquiry is in no respect inquisitorial or likely to divulge 
matters prejudicial to tenant farmers, or to compromise in any way 
individual interests. 

For only 1,612,143 acres of land in Great Britain, or but 5 per 



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276 Craigib— Ow Ten Tears* Statigtics [June, 

cent, of the acreage under all kincb of crops, fallow, or grass, is it 
now necessary to resort in any way to estimate. Under these 
circumstances, at a moment when agriculture stands foremost in the 
matters of domestic concern, in indicating the course during the 
past decade of this greatest of all our industries, I may, to a very 
large extent, rely on the official figures which Mr. GilPen is now 
able to place before the country with greater promptitude and 
accuracy than has ever heretofore been achieved. Much has been 
written and much spoken on British agricalture within the past 
three years : it will be the simple aim of this paper to furnish, I 
fear but crudely, some of the data which it is above all things 
desirable to have as starting points in new ag^cultural discussions. 
It may be thought that the existence of the data in the pages of 
the ten blue books of the period before us should suffice for this 
purpose, but I believe I may profitably bring together to-night some 
of the facts spread over a variety of separate papers, and although 
but imperfectly, still in some measure so arrange them as to lead to 
suggestive criticism. 

The first matter that we have to realise in a survey of this sort 
is the extent of the area with which we have to deal. 

It is perhaps not an absolutely exact statement to say that the 
area of the United Kingdom remains necessarily identical in the 
whole period under review. Bound the coast no doubt occasionally 
there is going on here and there an accretion and here and there a 
loss of territory. Slight alterations, however, such as the growth 
of Sunk Island, on the Humber, or the inroads suffered on the 
Norfolk coast, scarcely affect the official total. 

It is perhaps necessary to explain that, according to the ordnance 
survey figures which are relied on in the yearly statistics, the only 
recorded changes in the area of the United Kingdom during the 
past decade are the rise from 77,514,000 acres to 78,011,000 acres 
in 1872, wholly due to a rectification made in Ireland at the 
time of the census, and a subsequent drop the following year from 
78,01 1,000 acres to 77,829,000 acres, at which the total now stands. 
The last reduction may be accounted for by an addition of 7,000 
acres in England, a diminution of 12,000 acres in Wales, a falling 
off of fully 143,000 acres in Scotland, and a relatively considerable 
reduction in the area credited to the Isle of Man, all of which may 
probably be attributed to the greater accuracy of the ordnance 
returns. For any reference to the total area I have preferred to 
employ the latest figure only as the most exact. 

II. — Classification of Areas. 

Starting, then, with a knowledge of the area to be considered, 
the first question that occurs to an investigator is the extent of that 



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1880.] of British AgrumUure, 1870-79. 277 

area which is nnder cnltivation ; and it is interesting here to discri- 
minate between the ratios of cultivated laud possessed bj the 
different sections of the United Kingdom, due, as this feature 
nsnallj is, to climatic, g^logical, or geographical considerations. 
And here and throughout the whole of this paper I have attempted 
to carry the comparison of the position of matters at the beginning 
and end of the period under review further than a mere enumera- 
tion for the four great divisions of the United Kingdom — England, 
Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. For the last three of these I am 
compelled, by regard to the time and space at my disposal, to take 
only the general results, but for England herself I have attempted 
a somewhat narrower scrutiny, grouping into three separate agri- 
cultural zones or sections the forty-two counties which form the 
units of the official statistics. 

I must here explain why I have somewhat departed from the 
customary plan of longitudinally dividing England simply into an 
eastern, or *' corn," and a western, or " g^rass " half, as was done 
by Mr. Caird in 1850-51, and as is done annually in the agricultural 
returns of the Board of Trade. I must explain also why it is that 
in adopting a triplicate division of England I have not strictly 
followed the classification of the several counties in the " com," 
** mixed," and " pastoral " groups indicated by Mr. Giffen in the 
valuable tables appended to the official returns of 1879. One other 
explanation, too, must be offered in reference to the variation of 
method in the maps presented herewith from those interesting ones 
furnished by Mr. Pnrdy in vol. xxxi of our Journal, in 1868. 

I cordially agree with the opinion expressed in that volume 
that a geographical and not a merely mechanical or alphabetical 
arrangement ought to be adopted in this matter, and this will 
explain my slight divergence from Mr. Giffen 's classification this year. 
I am not at all indifferent to the advantages, for which Mr. Purdy 
contended in 1868, of following the same divisions for agricul- 
tural as for poor law, and registration, and census purposes, and if 
I do not follow it, it is because I am anxious to attain a more 
strictly agricultural congruity in the counties grouped together 
than was possible in the maps then given. However generally 
convenient the Registrar- General's divisions are for most purposes, 
I cannot view with satisfaction an arrangement which unites, for 
example, such grass counties as Derby — where arable land forms 
but 19 per cent, of the whole area — ^with com counties such as 
Lincoln, where about 60 per cent, is thus occupied. In order, 
therefore, to avoid linking such agricultural opposites, and striking 
a common average for a "North Midland Division," comprising 
both, I have ventured to make a simpler triplicate division. The 
five eastern counties of Cambridge, Hunts, Norfolk, Suffolk, and 



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278 Cbiigib— On Ten Tears* BtaJtUtUe [Jane, 

Essex, I liave regarded, as the agricultural returns for 1879 also do, 
as pre-eminentlj com counties, and have designated them my firet 
earn distriei. Of these over 64 per cent, is now under the plongh, 
and only 18 per cent, is in permanent pasture. Moving westward, I 
draw another line from the Yorkshire ooast to that of Hampshire, 
enclosing a second belt of counties, where also com growing, though 
on the whole less markedly, predominates, and this larger area I 
call my second com district. Throughout this the ayerage area under 
the plough will just exceed 50 per cent, and that in grass just hH 
short of 30 per cent. 

These two areas together make up the artible district of Eng- 
land, which very nearly coincides with the longitudinal " com " 
division, for some time back g^ven in the yearly blue book. Thus 
combined, the whole eastern area displays an average of 55 per cent, 
of arable land, and 26 per cent, in permanent pasture. 

All to the west of the last drawn line up to the Welsh boundary 
I take to be more or less correctly viewed as the grass district or 
pastoral belt of English soil. It coyers, doubtless, a large area, but 
its general characteristic is that in contradistinction to the figures 
just quoted, it has only got 29*7 per cent, of its area under the 
plough, while it has 41 per cent, occupied by permanent grass. 

It will be seen by reference to the map, that I am compelled in 
thus adopting a geographical rather than a simply arithmetical 
grouping of counties to include in the arable area the somewhat 
isolated counties of Surrey and Middlesex, whose place should 
strictly be to the west of the central line, while I balance this in- 
equality by another in not including Cornwall in the com area, for 
which its percentages qualify it. This exchange, for convenience 
sake, occurs also in the customary official grouping into "com" 
and " grazing '* counties, and indeed my complete arable and grass 
districts would altogether coincide with that arrangement, but for 
the fact that I include to the east of my line of division the county 
of Wilts, and exclude the county of Warwick. Geogiaphical and 
other local reasons decide me in doing this, and it should be 
noticed that the arable land of Wilts is very nearly half its whole 
area (48*4), while that of Warwick is less than two-fifths of its 
area (397). Warwick also, with its 46 per cent, of grass, seems 
to me to be more fitly placed among the grass counties than Wilts, 
where the permanent grass is but 39 per cent. 

Mr. Caird's line between com and grass differed still more con- 
siderably from that adopted officially than does mine. It included 
Northumberland, Durham, and part of Yorkshire on the north, and 
Dorset in the south as com counties; while it classed Notts, Rutland, 
Northampton, Oxford, and part of Wilts as grass counties. This 
may have been right in 1850, but I do not think it will now apply. 



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1880.] 



of British Agriculture, 1870-79. 



279 



III. — Distribution of the Surface of the Country. 

AssTuning that I have justified my departure from precedent, 
I will invite attention to the changes which have taken place 
in the modes of utilising the agricultural area of the several 
divisions of England just enumerated separately, and of each of 
the other divisions of the United Kingdom collectively in the ten 
years which have elapsed since 1870. The subjoined table 
exhibits the particulars as to total area, cultivated area, arable land 
and pasture, for the following distinct areas, to which, wherever 
practicable, I propose to refer all other facts, viz.: — 

(1.) Five counties of England called the First Oom District. 

(2.) Sixteen counties of England called the Second Oom District, 

(3.) Twenty-one counties collectively as the Arable District of 
this division of the United Kingdom. 

(4.) Twenty-one pastoral counties of England called the Grass 
District. 

(5.) England as a whole. 

(6.) Wales. 

(7.) Scotland. 

(8.) Great Britain. 

(9.) Ireland. 
(10.) The Isle of Man and Channel Islands. 
(11.) The entire United Kingdom. 



Distribution of Surface, 
[GOO'S omitted.] 



Total 


I. Com district .... 
II. 

Arable district 

^rasB „ 

England 


CalUvated Area. 


Arable Land. 


Pasture. 


Area, 
1879. 


1870. 


1879. 


1870. 


1879. 


187d. 


1879. 


Acres. 
4,n6, 
io,392» 


Acres. 
3,259, 
8,078, 


Acres. 

3,382, 

8,336, 


Acres. 

2,617, 

5,321, 


Acres. 
2,639, 
5,267, 


Acres. 
642, 
2,756, 


Acres. 

743, 
3,069^ 


14,508, 
18,089, 


11,337, 
12,072, 


11,718, 
12,786, 


7,938, 
5,791, 


7,906, 
5,364, 


3,398, 
6,282, 


3,812, 
7,422, 


32,597, 

4*722, 

I9>496, 


23,409, 
2,548, 
4,451, 


24,504, 
2,759, 
4»7i3, 


13,729, 
1,120, 
3,486, 


13,270, 

985. 

3.554, 


9,680, 

1,428, 

965, 


ii,234f 
1,774, 
1,159, 


Wales 


Scotland 


Great Britain 

Ireland, 


56,815. 
20.820. 


30,408, 
15,653, 

116, 


31,976, 
15.336, 

125, 


18,335, 
5,662, 

96, 


17,809, 
5,138, 

93, 


12,073, 
9,991, 

21, 


14,167, 
10,198, 

31, 


194. 


r Isle of Man and "1 
\ Channel Islands J 

United Kingdom .... 


77,829, 


46,177, 


47,437 


24,092, 


23,040, 


22,085, 


24,396, 



yOL. XLIU. PART II. 



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280 



Ceaiqik — On Ten Years' Statistics 



[Jane, 



Here it is well to recognise the relative dimensions of the three 
belts or sections of English territory accounted for. The first corn 
district contains but an eighth of the entire area. The second 
com district covers about a third, while more than half of England 
lies in the grass district. The percentages of the total area under 
cultivation at the beginning and end of the decade, and the percen- 
tage in arable and pasture respectively at these dates, appears from 
the following table : — 

Percentages of Total Area, 



I. Com district , 

II. „ 

Arable district 

G-rass „ 

England 

WiSes 

Scotland 

Great Britain 

Ireland 

Isle of Man and Channel! 
Islands J 

United Kingdom 



CuUivBtea. 



1870. 



79-2 
77-7 

781 
66-7 

71-8 
5 to 
22-8 

53-5 
75-2 

59-8 



59-3 



1879 



82-z 
So'z 

8o*8 
7i-a 

75*2 
58'4 

24*2 

56-3 
73*7 

64-4 
6ro 



Arable. 



1870. 



63-6 
51-2 

64-7 
820 

421 
23-7 
17-9 

32-3 
27-2 

490 
810 



1879. 



641 
50'7 

54'5 
29-7 

40-7 
20*9 
i8-2 

31*3 
H*7 

47-9 
29*6 



Pasture. 



1870. 



15-6 
26-6 

23*4 
84-7 

29-7 

30-2 

4-9 

21-2 
48*0 

10*8 
28*4 



1879. 



i8-i 

^6*3 
41*0 

34*5 

37*5 

5'9 

H-8 
49-0 

16-0 
3i'3 



rV. — Ten Tears' Changes in Cultivated^ Arable^ and Pasture Land. 

The first of the changes to be noted in the period 1870-79 is 
the growth in the cultivated surface. This is due, as has been 
explained in the yearly reports, to more accui-ate returns, as 
well as to a real extension of agricultural operations. It is general 
everywhere in all three districts of England, and in the rest of the 
United Kingdom save only in the case (so often exceptional) of 
Ireland. But the Irish falling off is, I believe, rightly ascribed to 
a technical cause, the more correct classification of certain moun- 
tain pastures as waste rather than cultivated territory. As 
Mr. Giffen has indicated, it is difficult to draw the line between 
cultivated and uncultivated land, and it may be doubted whether 
the distinction now shown, particularly in Scotland, represents the 
practical position of matters. For my own part, I am disposed to 
believe that it would be well somewhat more widely to extend the 
definition of cultivated land, and give us, so far as may bo, all 
land, mountain or other, actually used in the agricultural economy 
of the country in the process of feeding sheep or cattle. 

Taking, however, the figures given as to increased ^ cultivation,'' 



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1880.] 



of British Agriculture, 1870-79. 



28(; 



the following table shows the changes of the past ten years, and 
indicates where the chief increase of area has arisen. Any referenec 
to the apparent growth of pasture must be, however, subject to the 
caution of the last Agricultural Blue Book, that it is possibly 
to some extent a reclassification of land formerly reckoned under 
rotation grasses. ' 

[000*8 omitted.] 





CaltiTated Area. 


Arable. 


Pasture. 




Increase. 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


I. Com district 

n 


Acres. 
a58» 


Acres. 


Acres. 
22, 


Acres. 
74, 


Acres. 
lOI, 

3I3> 


Acres. 


Arable district 


381, 
7.4, 


— 


68, 


32, 
427, 


414, 
1,140, 




Grass „ 








England 


1,095, 

ZII, 

262, 


459, 
136, 


1,554, 
346, 
194, 




W^es 




Scotland 








flif^f Britain 


1,568, 
9, 


817, 


__ 


526, 

524, 

2, 


2,094, 
207, 

10, 




Ireland 




Isle of Man, &c 


— 


United Kingdom 


1,260, 


— 


— 


1,052, 


a,3ii, 


— 



One and a quarter million more acres are now therefore 
accounted for in the United Elingdom, and virtually the whole of 
this addition takes the form of permanent grass — a classification 
which has grown also by the application of this less labour- 
involving form of husbandry to another million acres formerly 
under the plough. It does not seem generally to have been 
recognised that it is in Ireland alone that half this transformation 
has been effected, and a glance at the Inst given table makes it 
plain that the disposition to convert com land into grass, as 
alluded to in Mr. GifEen*s report in 1879, is almost wholly to be 
found in pastoral districts. 

In the most conspicuously com area of England we have 
actually 22,000 acres more arable land, and in Scotland, where 
the plough is always in favour, 68,000 acres. The entire falling off 
to the east of my line between the arable and grass districts of 
England is altogether insignificant. While reduction of arable 
land in England generally has been a matter of 3*3 per cent., and 
the ratio of falling off in the whole arable area is less than i per 
cent., in the grass district it is 7*4 per cent. In Wales it has been 
12 per cent., in Ireland over 9 per cent. There is not quite so 
much difference in the rate at which cultivation appears to extend. 

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Craigie — On Ten Tears* Statistics 



[Jnne, 



The arable half of England shows additions that represent an 
increase of less than 3^ per cent., while the grass region has 6 per 
cent, more of its total surface in cultivation than in 1870. More 
permanent pasture is accounted for by some 1 2 per cent, in the arable 
area, but this contrasts with fully 18 per cent, more in the pastoral 
district. The growth of permanent grass is unmistakably to be 
found mainly in districts most suited to grass growing, for, with a 
single exception, all the western counties exceed the average 
increase, and with very few exceptions all the eastern fall below 
it. 

In Table I, in the appendix, will be found a total of the English 
counties in the order of precedence suggested by the relative extent 
of their cultivated area in 1879, with relative figures for 1870, and 
the increased percentage of total area now appearing in the 
returns. 

To the three south-western counties of Devon, Cornwall, and 
Somerset, must be ascribed the largest additions to the area of 
cultivation : there being in the case of the first of these counties 
upwards of 7 per cent., in the second upwards of 6 per cent., and 
in the third 5^ per cent, more of their surface now accounted for 
as under crops, fallow, or grass. Bucks, Notts, Hertford, Durham, 
Bedford, Berks, and Kent add less than 2 per cent., while the 
Gloucestershire additions are slightly below i per cent. 

To obtain a clear view of the relative character of the agriculture 
of the several sections of the country, I have thought it well here 
to interpolate a table of the percentage, not of the absolute, but of 
the cultivated area : — 





Percentage of Cultivated Area, 






Arable. 


Pasture. 




1870. 


1879. 


1870. 


1879. 


I. Corn district 

n. 

Arable district 

GJ-rftflfl 


80-3 
65-9 

700 
480 

58-6 
440 
78-3 

60-3 
86-2 
81-9 

62-2 


78*0 

6rs 

4Z-0 

541 

35-7 
754 

55*7 
33-5 
74*4 

48-6 


19-7 
341 

800 
520 

41-4 
560 
21-7 

39-7 
63-8 
181 

47-8 


21'0 
36-8 

3^*5 
58*0 

45*9 
64-3 
H-6 

44*3 
66-5 
256 

51*4 


England 

Wales 

Scotland 

Great Britain 


Ireland 

Isle of Man, &c 

United Kingdom 



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1880.] of Britieh Agriculture, 1870-79- 283 

Here the strongly marked divergence of the two com districts 
and the grass district of England becomes very clearly apparent, 
and I woold invite attention to the difference in the Scotch 
tignres thus indicated; "while Scotland has only i8 per cent, of her 
whole area under the plough, she still has, after a 3 per cent, 
reduction in the ten years, 75 per cent, of her so-called cultivated 
area still in the condition of arable land — a higher percentage than 
appears in any one of the eleven sections under which I have 
grouped our information. 

It may be noted as a distinct and characteristic effect of the 
ten years* changes and extension of cultivated area, that whereas 
in the United Kingdom, as a whole, rather more than half of that 
area was in 1870 accounted arable, and rather less pastoral, now 
the positions are almost exactly reversed, and the pasture exceeds 
the arable by just about the same relative proportions. 



V. — Changes in Pa/rticular Grope, 

A ten years' retrospect of our agricultural statistics furnishes 
interesting confirmation of those changes in cropping which are 
usual matters of remark, and it may be well to see how these minor 
movements correspond with the general changes which I have just 
noted. 

That we grow less wheat and more barley, is on every hand 
said. The question I propose to ask of the official oracle is, how 
much less and how much more respectively, and where the chief 
alteration is going on ? 

According to the tables supplied in the last agricultural returns, 
the land under com of all sorts in England has dropped from 23*2 per 
cent, of the total area to 2 1 *8 per cent, since 1870. I believe that 
only two counties have at this moment a larger percentage of com 
than they had ten years ago, and in neither is the abnormal 
increase important. Suffolk accounts now for 40*3 per cent, of its 
surface under com in place of 397 per cent., and Lincoln for 35*1 in 
place of 34*9. The following table exhibits the falling off in the 
corn area for the several sections of the country : — 



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284 



Craioie — On Ten Tears^ Statistics 



[June, 



Changes in Corn-Cropped Land, 

[000*8 omltt«dl. 





1870. 


1879. 


DecrsMe. 


DMrease. 


I. Corn district 

11. 


Acres. 

1.606, 

8,056, 


Acres. 

1,577, 
2,940» 


Acres. 

29, 

116, 


Percnt. 
1-8 
3-8 


Arable district 


4,662, 
2.908, 


4,5' 7, 
2,596, 


145, 
812, 


31 

10*7 


Grass .. 






England 


7,570, 

554, 

1,424, 


7,113. 

482, 

1,390. 


457, 
72, 
84, 


6-0 


Waes 


I^'O 


Scotland 


2*4 




Great Britain 


9,548, 

2,173, 

84, 


8,985. 

1,762, 

30, 


663, 

411, 

4, 


5*9 
18-9 
in 


Ireland 


Isle of Man, ko 


United Kingdom 


11,766, 


10,777, 


978, 


8-3 



Very nearly a million acres less of com was therefore grown in 
the United Kingdom last year than at the beginning of the decade. 
This is practically the reduction visible in arable land generally, 
and as in that case Ireland, not England, is the scene of the largest 
proportionate change. In the period under review, the proportion 
of corn on the arable land is slightly diminished. Of the arable 
land of the United Kingdom some 47 per cent., in place of 49 per 
cent., is devoted to the growth of com. In England the altera- 
tion means a reduction of the com-bearing percentage of arable 
land from 55 to 53^. Still upwards of half the land under the 
plough grows com. For the last two years the English green 
crops cover slightly fewer acres, but so far the figures go— and it 
must be remembered there is some little haziness about the official 
classification of rotation grasses — the item of clover shows an 
increase, while a larger breadth in fallow may be due, doubtless, 
to the exigencies of disastrous weather, and growingly dirty soil. 

I am anxious, however, it should be noted that the check in com 
growing is much more marked in some districts than in others. In 
the counties selected as my first com district the alteration repre- 
sents less than 2 per cent, of the corn area, and the reduction 
coincides with an increased arable area, green crops and clovers 
bulking more largely. In the second and more mixed district the 
percentage of decrease rises to nearly 4 per cent., but over the 
whole eastern and arable division of England the diminution of 
com is bat 3*1 per cent., against 10*7 in the grazing counties. 
Taking this fact in conjunction with the still larger relative falling 
off in Wales and Ireland, and the remarkably small falling off in 



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of BriHgh Agricuttwrs, 1870-79. 



285 



Scotland, it is clear agricultarists are not jet harriedlj abandoning 
the cultiyation of com in districts and soils most snited to its 
growth, bat are stirred np, by the keen competition of America, 
2)iore carefully to appropriate their laud to the most distinctly 
Buitable form of crop. 

1. Wheat. 

The foremost item of the com changes is of course the smaller 
breadth of wheat now cultivated, and this also I have analysed in 
the same divisions as before. The actual alteration in each county 
in England is shown in Tables II, III, and IV of the appendix, and 
a summary of the results shows : — 

Wheat Changes, 

[000*1 omitted.] 





1870. 


1879. 


Decresie. 


Decrease. 


I. Com district 


Acres. 

701, 

1,856, 


Acres. 

637, 
1,150, 


Acres. 

64, 

206, 


Per cut, 

9' 
^5*i 


Arable district ».., 


2,057, 
1,191, 


1,787, 


270, 
259, 


131 
%V1 


Qrass 




Bngland 


8,248, 
127, 
126, 


2i7iy, 
95» 
76, 


529, 
82, 
50, 


i6-3 
39*7 


Wales 

Scotland 


G-reat Britain 


8,501, 

260, 

12, 


2,890, 

158. 

8, 


611, 

102, 

4, 


>r5 

39'i 
33*3 


Ireland 

Isle of Man, &c 


United Kingdom 


8,773, 


3,056, 


717, 


19*0 



Here the change in the aggregate is nearly three-quarters of a 
million acres, and in England alone it is more than half -a-mill ion ; 
hut as England is the only important wheat growing section of the 
United Eangdom, containing some nine-tenths of our wheat land, 
this result is to he expected. It is not, however, in England so much 
as in Scotland or Ireland that the largest relative abandonment 
of wheat appears. North of the Tweed wheat has never been a 
favourite crop, but five and twenty years ago Scotland had not far 
short of 200,cxx> acres of this cereal. Ten years ago this area had 
shrunk to the diminished figure of I26,(XX), and even that small 
section, not one acre in each 1 54 of the surface of North Britain, is 
now reduced by well nigh 40 per cent. The Irish reductions show a 
similar percentage of diminution. In Wales 25 per oent. less wheat 
appears, and, as in the case of com generally, the least reduction 
in England appears in the five com counties of the first district, 



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Craioie — On Ten Years* Statistics 



[June, 



wliere 1 5 J per cent, of the whole area is used for wheat growing, 
and the most marked reduction is in the grass counties, where only 
5 per cent, of the surface is thus occupied. 

It should he noted that no less than 44 per cent, of the com 
land of the first com district of England is still growing wheat, as 
also 39 per cent, of the com land of the second com district, 
whereas of the com land in Scotland, not 6 per cent, is in wheat ; 
in Ireland not 9 per cent., and in Wales less than 20 per cent. 
The good, and in years not abnormal as of late, the profitable, 
character of Scotch agriculture is generally recognised. Climate 
alone will scarcely account for the entire diversity in practice. It 
would seem therefore that English farmers may much more largely 
than they have yet done discontinue wheat growing without en- 
tailing an agricultural catastrophe. 

2. Ba/rley. 

Very nearly half of the surface withdrawn from wheat culti- 
vation has been devoted to the growth of barley. The entire area 
of this crop is now in the United Kingdom all but equal to that of 
wheat. In Wales, in Scotland, and in Ireland, it is considerably 
more important. In Wales only is there any exception to the 
general increase of barley culture in the several divisions of tha 
country. The following table of ten years' barley changes possesses 
several interesting features : — 

Barley Changes, 

[000*0 omitted.] 





1870. 


1879. 


Incrette. 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


I. Corn district 

n. 


Acrei. 
747, 


Acres. 
602, 
893, 


Acres. 

83. 
146, 


Acres. 


Per cm. 
i6-2 
19-7 


Percnt 


Arable district 


1,266, 
698, 


1,495, 
741, 


2i9t 
43, 


— 


i8-o 
6-2 




Grass ., 


_ 






England 


i,964» 
164, 
a44» 


2,286, 
162, 
279, 


a7a, 
35» 


12, 


13-8 
H*3 




Wales 


7-3 


Scotland 








C^r^fiX "Rritftin 


i,37i, 

241, 

9> 


2,667, 

265, 

10, 


i95> 

14* 

I, 


— 


12-4 
5-8 




Ireland 


_ 


Isle of Man, Ac 


— 


United Kingdom 


2,622, 


2,982, 


310, 


— 


II-8 


— 



Ireland here shows the least relative addition, and the com 
districts of England the greatest. The increased acreage of barley 
grown in 1879 in the first com district is greater than the 



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of British Agriculture^ 1870-79. 



287 



decreased area of wheat just remarked, and nearly half of the 
whole barley increase of the second com district has occurred, as 
may be seen in Table III, in the county of Lincoln alone. While 
of the 272,<xx) acres of barley added in ten years to England as a 
whole, 130,000 acres appear in the two great counties of Lincoln 
and York. 

3. Oats. 

The third of the great cereal crops occupies the largest absolute 
area of any ; but its distribution is singular. Much more than half 
of our oats are grown in Scotland and Ireland, in which countries 
this crop occupies from 25 to 30 per cent, of the arable area, and 
no less than 72 to 76 per cent, of the whole surface under corn. 
This contrasts strongly with the 7I per cent, of com land which is 
alone spared for oats in the first com district of England. The 
favour shown towards a crop suitable to a moister and more 
northerly climate leads us to find it more largely in the north and 
west ; the arable districts generally devoting 1 5 per cent, of their 
com area to the oat crop, the grass districts giving it 28 per cent., 
and Wales as much as 47 per cent. 

Oats, however, like wheat, have decreased in the ten years 
1870-79 ; chiefly, however, in Ireland, where, as the following table 
will show, 330,000 acres less were grown in 1879 than in 1870. 
Although only 26,000 acres less oats are grown in the first com 
district of England, the relative decrease there is nearly as great, 
17*8 per cent., a figure which contrasts strikingly with the 4*4 per 
cent, of decrease for England as a whole, while Scotland sticks 
strongly to its distinctive national grain, only 14,000 acres less 
of oats being grown there now than ten years ago : — • 

OcUs Changes. 

[000*8 omitted.] 





1870. 


1879. 


Inereste. 


Decrease. 


lucrease. 


Decresse. 


I. Com district 

11 


Acre*. 
146, 
682, 


Acres, 
lao, 
569, 


Acres. 


Acres. 
13, 


Per cnt. 


Percnt. 
17-8 

2*3 


Arable district 


728, 
763, 


689, 
736, 


— 


39, 

27, 


— 


'>'4> 


Otms ., 


3*5 






Enirland 


1,491, 

253, 

1,019, 


«,4a5> 

aa7, 

1,005 


E 


66, 
26, 
I4» 


E 


4*4 
10*3 


Wales 


Sootland 


1*4 






Cb«at Britain 


2,763, 

1,650, 

12, 


2,657, 

i,330» 

II, 


^_ 


106, 

330, 

I, 


— 


%'9 


Ireland 


ZO'O 


Isle of Man, Ac 


8-3 


United Kingdom 


4,425, 


3,998, 


— 


473, 


— 


99 



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288 CjULiQi%—On Ten Tears' Statistics [Jane, 

VI. — Changes in the Number of Live Stock, 

If the changes occurring in British agricultore in the chief 
cereal crops are interesting, it can hardly he said the alterations in 
the liye stock of oar farms are less so. Briefly, I will endeavour 
to indicate, at all events as regards horses, cattle, and sheep, 
omitting for the present that interesting animal the pig, what ten 
years have done for as. 

In the United Kingdom, as a whole, we possess 200,000 more 
horses than we did in 1870 ; we account for 727,000 more cattle, 
and we lament a reduction of 548,000 in our flocks of sheep. As 
I may he ahle to show hereafter in more detail, one class only of 
horses — hreeding mares and unbroken horses — and only one class 
of cattle — ^young stock under 2 years of age^may be said to 
account for the addition to our totals, while only the older class of 
sheep shows any material reduction. 

The course of increase has not been uniform, and generally 
speaking the decade 1870-79, except in the case of horses, has 
witnessed a rise and then a fall in the numbers of our live stock. 
The horses of all sorts averaged for the first three years of this 
period 1,750,000, for the second three years 1,790,000, while the 
annual average for 1876-79 has reached 1,910,000. Cattle, on the 
other hand, averaged in round numbers 9,430,000 head in the first 
three years, 10,200,000 in the next three years, reaching the 
maximum in 1874, while in the last four years the average sunk 
again to 9,863,000. Sheep also, which on the average of the years 
1870-72 were 32,480,000 in number, during 1873-76 had multiplied 
to 33)770,000, and for the last three years they are reduced to 
32,380,000. 

1. Horses. 

Taking first the changes occurring among horses — those only 
actually employed in agriculture, and as breeding and young stock 
being reckoned — the student of ten years of agricultural statistics 
has to notice a distinct and material increase in the numbers 
annually recorded. This increase is specially notable in ^he class 
which denotes an extension of horse breeding. Throughout the 
United Kingdom, as a whole, we have in 1879 nearly 12 per cent, 
more horses of all sorts than were recorded in 1870. The manner 
of the classification of horses in Ireland differs somewhat from that 
employed on this side of St. George's Channel, and deficiencies will 
be found in the figures I give for Ireland and for the United 
Kingdom, on account of my omitting the details of the classes of 
Irish horses, which are not in a form strictly comparable with those 
of England or Scotland in the years preceding 1877, although 



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1880.] of BrUish Agriculture, 1870-79. 289 

the totals appear to have been entered without qnaJification in the 
summary of the general returns. 

For Great Britain we have now 1 3 per cent, more horses than 
we had ten years ago ; but while horses actually employed in agri- 
culture have only increased by some 2 per cent, in this period, 
unbroken and young horses and breeding mares are more numerous 
by half as many again. We have in Qreat Britain no less than 
147,000 more horses of this class than we had in 1870. No doubt 
this increase is due to the remunerative prices which prevailed for 
young horses, and to the foreign demand which has been noted. 
The development has been throughout steady and continuous, and 
it may be seen just as clearly in the years preceding the repeal of 
the horse duty as in those which followed 1874. 

It may at first sight strike the observer as somewhat curious 
that horsebreeding, as shown by this column of the official tables, 
shows its largest relative increase in the five eastern counties, which 
I have designated the first and most distinctively com district of 
England. Since 1870 the increase in breeding mares and unbroken 
horses is 60 per cent, in this area, while the average of all England 
shows 49 per cent, increase. Scotland only of the other divisions, 
where arable land again predominates in the cultivated area, ap- 
proaches this percentage with an increase of 59 per cent, in its 
young horses and mares. 

The same phenomenon characterised the addition in the com 
district of England in the shorter period, 1874-79, for in that time 
we find the percentage of increase is 33 per cent. ; so that for every 
three unbroken horses or mares five years ago we have now 
four. 

There is, however, another matter to which I would like, under 
this head, to invite attention, and that is the tendency, in the more 
recent years, to add also to the number of horses employed in agri- 
cultural work. It would have been no matter of surprise if there had, 
on the contrary, been a falling off in this particular, which might 
have been set down to the use of steam machinery for cultivation ; 
and from 1870 to 1874 we did see such a falling off. From 
1874 to 1879 however the reverse process has been at work, and it 
is not so much in the com growing as the less arable districts where 
this excess of horse power is now to be met with. In the first corn 
district the increase in farai horses is 3*8 per cent, since 1874, and 
in the whole arable half of England it is a little over 3*6 per 
cent., while in the grass districts it is very nearly 5 per cent, and 
in Wales, strangely enough, not far short of 6 per cent. ; — 



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290 



Gbaiqie — On Ten Yean* SttUistics 



[June, 



Number of Horses at Three Periods, 

[000*8 omitted.] 





1870. 


1874. 


1879. 




Uaedin 

Agri. 

cnltore. 


Unbroken 

HorMa 

or 

Breeding 
If area. 


Total. 


Uiedin 

Agri. 

cnltore. 


Unbroken 
UorMa 

Brewing 
Marea. 


ToiaL 


Uaedin 

Agri. 

coltore. 


Unbroken 

HorMa 

or 

Breeding 
Maito. 


TtoUL 


T. Com district .. 
II. „ .. 


No. 

133, 
264. 


No. 
35, 
63, 


Na 

168, 

37a, 


No. 

I3»» 
258, 


No. 
42, 
74, 


No. 

174, 

332, 


No. 

137. 
267, 


No. 
56, 
90, 


No. 

193. 

357, 


Arable district .... 
ChTiM „ 


397, 
359» 


98, 
124, 


495. 
483, 


390, 
349. 


116, 
152, 


506, 
50», 


404, 
366, 


146, 
185. 


550, 
55 «. 


England 

Wales 


756, 
71, 
1391 


222, 
45, 
84, 


978. 
116, 
I73» 


739, 

69, 

136, 


268, 
54, 
46. 


1,007, 
181, 


770, 

73, 
142, 


831. 
68, 
54. 


1,101, 
136, 


Scotland 


196, 






(Jreat Britain 

Ireland 


966, 
7, 


301, 
3, 


i,i67, 

474» 

10, 


944, 
7, 


867, 
2, 


i,3>a, 
459, 

9, 


985, 
7, 


448. 
2, 


1,433. 
5>3, 

9, 


Isle of Man andl 
Channel Islands/ 


United Kingdom .. 


— 


— 


i,75<» 


— 


— 


1,780, 


— 


— 


1,95^ 



Increase in Horses, 

[000*a omitted.] 





Increase since 1870. 


Increase since 1874. 




Uaedin 
Agricnltnre. 


Unbroken 

floraea 

or Breeding 

Marea. 


ToUU 


Uaedin 

Agricoltore. 


Unbroken 
Horaea 

or Breeding 
Marea. 


TotiO. 




Norn, 
ber. 


Per 

Cent. 


Nom- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Norn- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Nom- 
ber. 


Per 

Cent. 


Nnm. 
ber. 


Per 

Cent. 


Num. 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


I. Com district 

n. 


4, 
8, 


3*0 
1*1 


21, 
27, 


6o*o 
42-9 


25, 
80, 


14-9 
9*2 


5, 
9. 


3-8 
3-5 


14. 
16, 


33'3 
21-6 


19, 
26, 


io*9 

7*5 


Arable district .... 
Grass ,. .... 


7, 
7. 


VS 
i'9 


48, 
61. 


49*0 
49*2 


55, 
68, 


in 
14-1 


14, 
17. 


3-6 
4'9 


80. 
33, 


^5*9 
21*7 


44, 
50, 


8-3 

lO'O 


England 


14, 
2, 
8, 


VS 
2-8 

2*3 


109, 
18, 
20, 


49-1 
40*0 
58-8 


123, 
20, 
23, 


12-6 
17*2 

13*3 


31, 
4, 
6, 


4*2 
5-8 
4'4 


63, 
9, 
9, 


23*5 
i6-7 

20*0 


94. 
12, 
15, 


9*3 
97 

8-3 


WtSes 


Scotland 




(Jreat Britain .... 
Ireland 


19, 


2'0 


147, 


48-8 


166, 
39, 


i3'i 
8-2 


41, 


4*3 


81, 


22*1 


121, 
54, 


9*a 
11-8 


United Kingdom 


— 


— 


— 


— 


204, 


11-7 


— 


— 


— 


— 


175, 


9-8 



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1880.] 



of British Agriculture, 1870-79. 



291 



2. GaUle, 

The changes which have occurred in this branch of the farmer's 
property are of considerable moment. At the present time there is 
but little short of lo million head of cattle within the British Isles, 
that is to say, were they evenly spread over the United Kingdom, 
one ox, cow, or calf for every 7*8 acres of territory, or on the 
so-called cultivated area of the annual statistics, one for every 
4*7 acres returned. Computed for each hundred cultivated acres of 
crop, fallow, or grass the proportion of cattle varies, however, 
somewhat considerably. The subjoined tables, carrying, as in other 
instances in this paper, the investigations into somewhat closer 
areas than the official figures, exhibit the relative head of cattle 
reckoned in each hundred acres, both of the entire area and of the 
cultivated portion of each of the several sections of the country. 

Cattle per 100 Acres. 





1870. 


1874. 


1879. 




Per 

100 Acres 
Total Area. 


Per 
100 Acres 

of 
Cultivated 

Area. 


Per 
100 Acres 
Total Area. 


Per 
100 Acres 

of 

Cultirated 

Area. 


Per 

100 Acres 
Total Area. 


Per 
100 Acres 

of 

Cultivated 

Area. 


I. Com diBtrict 
II. 

Arable district .... 
Ghrass „ .... 

Sngland 


6-6 
9-5 

8-7 
13-8 

11-5 

12-8 

5-3 

9-5 
18-2 
120 
38-3 
35-2 


8-4 

l\'Z 

20-8 

i6'o 
23*7 
23-4 

17-8 
H*3 

20-I 

58-2 
58-9 


8-4 
111 

10-8 
15-5 

13-2 

140 

5-9 

10-8 
19-8 
131 
400 
357 


io*3 
14-0 

I3'0 

17-9 
24-8 
25*2 

19*6 

26-1 
20"9 

6o-3* 
59*6 


7-8 
10-7 

9-9 
160 

12-7 

13-6 

6-6 

103 
19-5 
13-8 
383 
35-4 


9'5 
13-3 

12*2 
21*1 

1 6*9 

23*3 

23.0 

18-3 
26-5 

21'3 

567 
6i-4 


Wales 


Scotland 


Great Britain 

Ireland ,.... 

Isle of Man 

Jersey 


Guernsey, &c 


United Kingdom 


11-9 


ZO'O 


13-2 


21-8 


12-8 


2I*0 



* Returns for 1875, those for 1874 not being stated. 

The distribution of cattle on the total area of the different parts 
of the United Kingdom is remarkable. Omitting the cases of the 
Channel Islands (which I have given separately, as instances of 
the large percentage of stock kept), Ireland, it seems, bears off the 
palm with the highest ratio of cattle to her entire surface ; the grass 
district of Englajid and Wales coming next, while Scotland stands 
lowest in this particular, although occupying very nearly the 



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292 Ceaioib— On Ten Years' Statistics [June, 

opposite position in respect of the cattle on its cultivated area. 
As the official tables do not give the ratio of stock to the whole 
acreage of the country, I have thought it might be useful to 
supplement their information by the above figures. 

Another point, which must not be overlooked in this connection, 
is the entire failure of our returns to give us, on account of the date 
at which they are collected, anything like the real head of stock 
often to be found in the com counties. Although, therefore, the 
entire stock of the country at a given date appears, it is to a 
great extent an accident that they appear where they do. A large 
portion of work of feeding cattle is done in winter in many com 
counties. In Norfolk, for example, little or no summer stock is 
kept, and there, as Mr. Clare Bead pointed out lately before a 
parliamentary committee, three typical stockowners, interrogated 
as to the number of cattle held by them in December and the 
number returned in June, stated that they had 414 over 2 years 
old in winter, but only 98 when the return was made. 

These movements of cattle in the process of their manufacture 
into beef, from one county into another, and from Ireland into 
England, deprive the local apportionment of this branch of onr 
live stock of much of its value. 

Taking the figures as they stand, and bearing in mind that they 
are to a considerable extent modified by the circumstance I have 
mentioned, I should like to point out, as possibly helping to the 
solution of the problem sometimes discussed, whether more pasture 
will give us more stock, that in the grass districts of England the 
ten years now in review began with 208 cattle on every 1,000 
cultivated acres, and ended with no more than 211 on the same 
area, a far less relative development than the increase of from 84 to 
95 per 1,000 acres in the first com district, 123 to 133 per 1,000 in 
the second com district, or 112 to 122 per 1,000 in the arable 
counties generally. Taking, as is still better, the ratio of the stock 
to the constant total area at the beginning and end of the decade, 
it is clear that while the stock on the arable district has increased 
14 per cent., that on the grass land, with all the extension of 
pasture efi*ected, has been but 8| per cent, per 100 acres. 

The absolute increase, with the rise up to 1874, and the subse- 
quent drop, is given in the tables which follow. There it may be 
noticed that there is an addition of 47,000 cattle or 17*2 per cent, 
to the stock of the first corn district in the ten years, and one of 
nearly 13 per cent, in the arable district generally where the process 
of conversion into pasture has been less marked. Everywhere else 
the increase has been relatively much smaller. In the western 
counties, Wales, and Ireland, where permanent pasture has more 
rapidly increased, the growth of stock has been from 6 to 8| per 



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1880.] 



of British Agrictdture, 1870-79. 



293 



cent. only. It is impossible within the limits of such a paper as 
this to touch on more than one or two of the suggestive points 
mooted by any analysis of our valuable yearly figures, but the 
proportion borne by the cows and breeding stock on our farms to 
the total head returned, and the large diversities in the ratio of 
young to old animals, are all matters which will repay those who 
have the time to make closer investigation. 

The distinct check which, after 1874, attended the growth of 
our cattle stocks in this country, must be held to have been largely 
due to the recent prevalence of disease, and the dread among 
breeders of the continued risk of foreign contagion. This icause 
of alarm is happily now to a great extent removed. The useful 
statute of 1878 has done much to clear our country of diseaBes 
which, though less alarming to the public, were far more injurious 
to the farmer than rinderpest itself ; and the administration of the 
Act has been equally successful in checking the threatened invasion 
of meat-destroying diseases from America and elsewhere. If the 
same care is taken for the future, there seems no reason to doubt 
that a very large and considerable development might be effected 
in the quantity of home-bred stock maintained on British farms, 
while the figures I have quoted tend to show that such an increase 
of meat production need not depend on a great conversion of arable 
into pasture land. 

Number of Cattle at Three Periods. 

[OOCi omitted.] 





1870. 


1874. 


1879. 




COWB. 


Othrr CatUe. 


Total. 

No. 

i73- 

994 


Cowa. 


other Cattle. 


Total. 


CoWB. 


other CatUe. 






2 Yean 

and 
upwards. 


Under 

8 
Yean. 


2 Yean 

and 
upwards. 


Under 

2 
Yean. 


8 Yean 

and 
upwards. 


Under 

2 
Yean. 


Tbtal. 


I. Com district 
11. 


No. 

85, 
875, 


Ho. 
29 ^ 


Ko. 

94, 
826, 


No. 

94, 
400, 

494, 
1,120, 

1,614, 
264, 
396, 


No. 

120, 

335, 


No. 

130, 

422, 


No. 
344* 
1,157, 


No. 

91, 
400, 


No. 

106, 

317, 


No. 

123, 

394, 


No. 

320, 

1,111, 


Arable district .... 
Grass 


460, 
1,069, 


387. 
591, 


420, 
830, 


1,167. 
2,490, 


455. 
651, 


652, 
1,033, 


1,501, 

2,805, 


491, 
1,114. 


423, 
610, 


617, 
974, 


1,431, 

2,698, 


England 


1,529, 
256, 
376, 


978, 
123, 

^55^ 


1,250, 
225, 
411, 


3»757, 

604, 

1.042, 


1,106, 
>25, 
279. 


1,685, 
276, 
481, 


4,306, 
665, 


1,605, 
262, 
389, 


1,033, 
112, 
260, 


1,491, 
270, 
435. 


41,29, 

644, 

1,084, 


WiSes 


8<M>tland 




Great Britain .... 
Ireland 


2,162, 
1,527, 

16, 


'.356, 
796. 

4. 


1,885, 
1,474, 

15. 


3i797- 
iS- 


2,274, 
1,490, 

16, 


1,510, '2,342, 

oil, 1^19 


6,125, 
4,110, 

38, 


2,255, 
1,465, 

16, 


1,405, 
840, 

5» 


2,196, 
1,762, 

17. 


5,856, 
4'067, 

38, 


Isle of Man andl 
Channel Islands j 


5» 


17, 


United Kingdom 


3,705, 


2,156, 


3,374, 


9»i35' 


3,780, 


2,426, J 


4,078, 


10,283, 


3,736, 


2,250, 


3,975, 


9,961, 



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294 



Craioie — On Ten Years' Statistics 
Increase or Decrease of Cattle since 1870. 



[June, 





Number. [OOCs omitted.] 


Percentage. 




Cows. 


Other Cattle. 


Total. 


Covt. 


Other Cattle. 






S Years 

and 
Upwards. 


Under 
2 Years. 


8 Years 

and 
Upwards. 


Under 
8 Years. 


Total. 


I. Com flintrict 
IL 


6, 
25, 




29, 
68, 


47, 
Ii7f 


70 
6-7 


11-8 
8-2 


30-8 
20-9 


17-2 
11-8 


Arable district .... 
Grass „ 


81, 
45, 


36, 
19» 


97, 
144, 


164, 
208, 


6-7 
42 


9*3 
3'i 


231 
17-3 


12-9 
8*4 


England 


76, 

6, 

13, 


5S* 
-II, 

5» 


241, 
46, 
24, 


371, 
40, 
4»» 


50 
2-3 
35 


5*6 
8-9 

2'0 


19-3 
200 

6-8 


9'9 
6-6 


Wales 


Scotland 


4*0 




Great Britain 

Ireland 


95, 
-62, 


49» 

44» 

1, 


310, 

288, 
2, 


454. 
270, 

3» 


4-4 
-4-2 


3*6 

5'S 


16-4 
19-5 
18-3 


8*4 
71 
8-6 


Isle of Man 


United Kingdom 


88, 


94» 


600, 


727, 


10 


4*4 


18-0 


7*9 





Decrease c 


f Cattle since 


1874. 










Number. [OOO's omitted.] 


Percentage. 




Cows. 


Other CaUle. 


Total. 


Cows. 


Other CatUe. 






2 Years 

and 
Upwards. 


Under 
9 Years. 


3 Years 

and 
Upwards. 


Under 
S Years. 


TotaL 


I. Com district 
II. 


3, 


18, 


7, 
28, 


24, 
46, 


3-2 


II-7 
5'4 


5-4 
6-6 


7-0 
4*0 


Arable district .... 
Grass „ 


3, 
6, 


3 a, 
41 » 


35, 
60, 


70, 
107, 


0-6 
0-5 


7*o 
6-3 


6-2 

6-8 


4-6 
3-8 


TTnglftTid .„ 


9, 
2, 

7, 


73, 
13, 
19, 


95, 

6, 

45, 


177, 
21, 
71, 


0-6 
0-8 
1-8 


6-6 

10-4 

6-8 


60 
2-2 
9-4 


4« 

3'2 

6*1 


"W^ales 


Scotland 






Great Britain 

Ireland «... 

Isle of Man, &c 


19, 
25, 


105, 
71, 


146, 

+ 43, 


270, 
53, 


0-9 
1-7 


7'o 
7-8 


6-2 

+ 2-5 


4'4 
1*3 


United Kingdom 


44, 


176, 


103, 


3^3, 


1-2 


7*a 


2-5 


3"! 



3. Sheep. 

The diminution in the sheep stock of the country is a feature 
pressed upon our attention in the annual returns. The tables 
appended to this section make some endeavour to discover if there is 
any marked local peculiarities in this reduction. 



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1880.] 



of Bntish Agriculture^ 1870-79. 



295 



It mxLst be specially noted that while compared with 1870 we 
have in the aggregate bat little diminution of onr flocks, the falling 
ofF when 1879 is contrasted with 1874 is much more serious. The 
aggregate flocks of the United Kingdom rose from 32,800,000 in 
1870, to 34,800,000 in 1874, and dropped again to 32,200,000 last 
year. Over the more recent period, and for the whole country, the 
reduction marked is 7J per cent. Ireland shows relatively a 
greater falling off than any other section of the United Kingdom, 
unless we take the drop, of course on a very much smaller scale, 
in the flocks of the Isle of Man into account. So far as 
England herself is concerned, it is distinctly the com and arable 
districts where the greatest loss of sheep is reported. This is 
quite what ought to be expected from the effect of the wet seasons on 
the corn-growing clays ; and it is here that in the ten years, 1870-79, 
a material diminution is apparent. The Welsh sheep-farmers 
account for 6 per cent, larger flocks than at the beginning of the 
decade, and the grass district of England has about one-tenth pGr 
cent, more sheep than in 1870, while the arable district has 5 per 
cent. less. The figures as between 1874 and 1879 do not retain the 
same marked difference in this respect, though the falling off in this 
case is about 8 per cent, on the arable to 6^ per cent, on the grass. 

It is worthy of remark, however, that we have practically no 
larger flocks now in those very districts of England where the 
permanent pasture is greater by 1,100,000 acres than it was ten 
years ago. 

Number of Sheep at Three Periods, 

[OOO*! omitted.] 





1870. 


1874. 


1879. 




One Year 

and 
Upward*. 


Under 
1 Year. 


Total. 


One Year 

and 
Upwards. 


Under 
lYear. 


Total. 


One Year 

and 
Upwards. 


Under 
lYear. 


TotaL 


I. Corn district .... 
II. 


No. 

1,320, 
4,709, 


No. 
798, 
2,720, 


No. 

2,118, 
7,429, 


No. 
1.314. 
4.739. 


No. 
873, 
2,895, 


No. 

2,187, 
7,634 


No. 
1,210, 
4,384, 


No. 
790, 
2,662, 


No. 

2,000, 
7,046, 


Arable diatriot 

Grass 


6,029, 
5,974, 


3,518, 
3,419, 


9.547, 
9,393, 


6,053, 
6,389, 


3,768, 
8,650, 


9,821. 
10,039, 


5.594, 
5,927, 


3,452, 
8,473, 


9.046, 
9.400, 


£iifflaxid 


12,003, 
1,892, 
4,5 >5» 


6,987, 

815, 

2,235, 


18,940, 
2,707, 
6,750, 


12,442, 
2,111, 
4,896, 


7,418, 

954, 

2,493, 


19,860, 
3,065- 
7,389 


11,521, 
2,012, 

4,639, 


6,925, 

861, 

2,199, 


18,446, 
2,873, 


WiSes 


Scotland 


6,838, 






Qreat Britain 


18,410, 
2,840, 

34, 


9,987, 
1,494, 

21, 


28,397, 
4,334, 

55i 


19449, 
2,857, 

51. 


10,866, 
1,581, 

36, 


30,314 
4.438- 

87, 


18,172, 
2,572, 

36, 


9,985, 
1,446, 

27, 


28,1 ';7, 


Ireland 


4,018, 


Isle of Man andl 
Channel Islands 


63, 


United Kingdom .... 


21,284, 


11,502, 


32,787, 


22,357, |l2,482. 


34,838, 


20,780, 


11,458, 


32,138. 



YOL. XLIII. PART II. 



Digitized by 



Google 



29C 



Craigie — On Ten Years* Statistics 



[June, 



Increase or Decrease of Shee^ since 1870. 





Number. 
[pOC* omitted.] 


Pereeatagtt. 




One Year 

and 
Upwards. 


Under 
1 Year. 


Total. 


One Year , Under 

■nd 1 - „ 
Upwards. 1 1 Year. 


1^>tal. 


I. Cora district 

II. 


Inc. or dee. 
- no, 
-325, 


Inc. or dec. 
- 8, 
-58, 


Inc. or dec. 
- 118, 
-383, 


PerciiU 

- 8-3 

- 6-9 


Percnt,