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Jlrmbre dr VInsfifut, Profatsmr au Museum (VHhfoire Naiurclle. 



( Con fin ucd from Journal No . II, page 1 20. ) 

Imellkctval Ciiabactebistics. C*) 

Z.*i M^ii/7^f.— Being a ])cife(l rslranger to the study of liiuguagcs, 
I can but gimply record here, without discussing them, the variouis 

C ^ ) This paper was originally published in the Jomnal di'» Saianttf (Aviit 
et Dccrmbre 188:i). 

^C*) 1" order to make a complete untliropological dcFcription of the 
Ne^ritof*, 1 onght to have mentioned here their physiological j.nd pathological 
cliaraet* riBtice. But what we know on this wihjcct amcuntfl to veiy iittle mmI 
if* little more than what truvellers have said of most wild tiiben. Tiie 
muscular strength of the MincopicH is much greater than would 1 c Buppoytd 
from ihuir t-hort stature and rounded linil>. Like the AcU-h, ti cy ar«! ic- 
nuirkable for tin ir extreme agility md ihcacuttncbK of their tetUKh. IJoth 


ptirtirttljirs ^^utbt're^l by a few tniveUui"?*, Nvliicli inilorlmiately comci 
fa vtiry little. 

Of all the languages j^juiktm h\ NegritotJ thu most ItittTestitig tci 
«tiuly would mujue&tionably be tlial^ of the Mini'0[)icf*, Owinj^ to th(.* 
uluiofit niiui>lete isolation in wliicb fbene ittlandt^r** b*ne lived, espe- 
cially in the Great Aniiainaii group. (' ) tbi'jrdialeL'ta i-an only have 
bceu altered through uatural evolution atul tiidepen^letitly of forei^ 
influenc<\ This laii|;uiige *;on.s back t'crtatnly to remote antif[iiity 
and luis probably precox led those now spokon in Malacca, 8iam 
and ill Indi?i Itself, The ntudy of it would eonsequently be of the 
j^reatus*t interest, as well from an ethnoloj^iral as from a linguistieal 
[mint of view, 

Mr. Fa U. Man Heems to liu\e understood it so. Before hiui, 
SvMEs, CoiiKBUooKE, KoEj»sTOiiFF, TiCKEL, ifcc, had confiiied 
lliemselves to gatheritiL? abort vocabubirletj. (*) Brought into 
daily communication vvitb the natives, in the eourse of big oiricial 
rtnties, Mr. Ma?^ learned their languages. lie trani«lated in one of 
thorn tho Lord*? Prayer, which was published uith a eommentary 

rice^ arc able to bear lon<]^ foM^tiug and alBO t4> con»uiiie at onu mi^l n ]»n>difn* 
oiw qu'Mitity of fool, Tbt^ Mincopie*, who aloBe eeem to have Ikjch Rtadie<l 
at all from a pathological iKiint of viow, miffcr mostly from dif»eai*»»«eontnict*Ml 
from thp habit, to which I whall refer hort'Aftert of c!f>thing themselvt^H, 
fio to hprjik, ys'lth mail. PulnioDiiry L'<jiifiuaiptiou diii not c'Xi8t in tho vUida- 
matiKt, I Hit u few riativei^ who trame to Europi^au t^ettlementD were very eoon 
atfiicte'l with it, Thi» would tend to coafirm what I have repeatedly «axd« 
namely that wc ournelveii have imjiorted the di*^ia«e intt^ various part« of thr 
vvorld where it waf* iiuknowu tefore. ( Lr* PoltjHeMiHi^ vi Itut* Mii/ratioH£ et 
Jtuirnii tlin S tptuttit, IS7J). M. M usTANo found, in oue Biuglt* Mantlira family, 
two individujiii* altticted one with the rick©t*i, the other with t-jtilepfiy. ( i^url' 
ij/tc/tjoftr^t rhi'z Irnf hnittjenvn dv la prnriMt*e d** Maimuui ; Urent' d' EihHogrujfhii% 
Vol/l, p. 4(1,^ Thi* he a]i]ieiiri» to conaider a» a g:earral rule aud what he saw 
«»H7<!mR4l to hiiu to show htnc w ruct< dhs vnt. lint the group** Hcen by M* 
AIosTANo um^t lie the exci i»t:i..u, L<»ciAK, ut all events, mentioue nothiD{r 
of the kind aul n[4k'ari», od the contrary, to iiH8igu to the^^ j.>opuIatiottii a 
vitality cft|KU>h' uf reiilwtinj^ the unfavourable conditioiu to which cotiqueAt 
hoM Niibjeetel thein. f'/fir Uhtfm n/ Jufwir : Tfu Jotirnal of the Indutft 

^1 ) In m," 6i»t Etttdc mnv Ivx Mirn'opie* rt la It-ire y^tjriia t'ntfi'nefutt, I have 
fTit»nt;nnid t ic fiwX that <*igii^ of er*>HH' breed it* •: have l>een f«fmid in Little An- 
daiuaUt ooutii nt the oUif^r isnlinidH,, f Urrui d\\f$f/trtt^Mi/ot/it\ Vol. I, p, -13.) 

(3) I h ivi! liorrowoil fnmi ihrrtc variou.M» t^nnv vt the exiuupki* 
wlii^Il •t.i iiihI mo«*t RuUed to show dearly the variety of Miiicoiue dialocits. 
Iir%i jM,iiiitvd to by Mr, Fkancis Day, i^tmlc *«/- k* MinvvpUv, p. 11*1.) 


an<l notes added by Lieutenant K. C. Templk. (*) Colonel Laxe 
Fox, in two different papers, has given this translation, (•) and 
9uinmed up, though rather too briefly, the general concluHiona of 
the authors. (') Thinking that it may be useful to readers, 
engaged in the study of languages, I transcribe hereunder (♦) the 
document which was the starting point of this investigation. 

The study of the vocabularies to which I have just called atten- 
tion had led Latham to admit of a certain connection between the 
Mincopie and Burmese languages. (*) M. Pruneh-Bey has pointed 
out a few common traits in the Mincopie and Xcw Caledonian dia- 
lects. ("; Hyde Clarke has fancied that he could discover in the 
Andamanese language affinities with those of several races of Asia, 
Africa and the two Americas. (') Messrs. Man and Temple begin 
!)y stating that the nine tribes which figure on the map prepared 
by one of these authors, ('*) have each a private language. ** A 

(i) Tke JUfrd'* Prayer tramUtted into B6jing''jtdn by E. H. Man, »nY/< 
prtfacr and noteM by R. C. TEMPLE. Calcutta 1877. 

(•) The Andaman Idnnd*. (The Journal of the Anthropo1i>gieal Institiffe^ 
Vol- VII, p. 108.; 

(3) Ob*erratioh$ an Mr. Man's eoUectlon of Andamanefte and yieobaresfi 
Objtcf*. r The Jour Hal of the Anthropoloyleal Inxtitvte, VoL VII, p. 4:J6.J 
(^ » ) J/r Matr-rn kohtor-hit yutr inollurduru Ab-Moyola, 

O Heaven iu (in) who oiir (lit. all of ub <5f) Father. 

dtii-i-i-mrh/H-t n-hi(/tt Ittifi. ^yoNa-hn mo/h'jdih'U 

\Hi reverence. \mU\ Let. Yon (to) we all 

nyrndkr iib-rhanmj (/'-'" bt'diy. Man'-rn 

wish for supreme taily and. llraven 

tiy't-lnt-fmilifi yf*" "il'<f hnnik, h<l-itb<t(la 

is <»beyetl which thy will, in the same way 

lirht-h tt I'rlu'hn ('Vtm-hn Uun. Ka-trai iiioUoardarxi-Un 

« vt-r (thiily. always) earth on Let. This day all of ns 

I'trlti'mickan yni-vmn. MuUurduvn mol oichih-hn tiyrrl ytf'' 

to daily (lit. daily like) food j^ive. We all ub (to) /. r. against offend who 
t'hnckik-li n irtidubn. M'.lh'rduru-lt u ofiy-ujiinya Itf'/i yo-bd, dona 
them forjrive I's all (so) he tempted let not, hut 

Hn.'U''irdurii-lt'it abja-bay-tth ofroj. ^y^l hii'hi-han hnnakc ! 

UH all (to) t:vil from deliver. (Do) thou thnR order (/.r. Amen. ) 

t ^ ) Kh mt htf of Comparatirr PhUoloyy^ j), '/.). 

(< ) Jinlhrin dt fa Stu-it'tr d'A/tfhrojjoioyir de Parix, ISOJ), p. 12 et Li. 
( T ) Thf Jinivmil of ihv Anihvopuhujivu} Tnnfitute, Vol. IV, p. 407. 
( - ) fill Andanutti hhnaU by E. H. Man, Y,Hi\.,(Joiirnul of thr Anthro- 
f»n?o(iiraf Jnjttitiiti', Vol. VII, p. *1().'..) The Lord's Pniyer was translat«!.l into 
the'lanjjTuajre siK»ken by the tril)e inhabiting the sonthern island of (rreat 
Andaman, wliere Fort Blair, the FiUglish Settlement, is situntr^d. 


thtg-h n 


name \i^ 

'ft la 





.'/ n tr^ 


4 TTfr rn}>iTK8. 

*' native of Nartli An«la*nau is aa utterly nnable to make Itiinaclf 
** understood by a native of 8out1i Andaman, aa an English pea- 
•* sant wDvild b? by a Russian ." It m not, tberefore, a question of 
simple dialects, hyt in reality •►f rlistinct lani^nages. Yet thpsc* 
langnageB bave a common origin and Rtrueture; tbey aro all agglii* 
tinative. Sbould tbey have any affinities witb otbers, which 
Mpssfi*. ^Ian aud Temple consider as doubtful, il nii^^lit be with 
the lanj^uag'^ft of Australia or of the Dra%'jdian and Scytblnn groupa, 
which they resemble in a few peculiarities, 8uch n^ tbe use uf 
post-positiona instead of prepositioti« ; the use of two forms — one 
inclusive, t!io olber exeluHive — for the Brst person of the plural, 
aud, iu general, iu the agf;lutinative structure of words. Heading 
over tbese few Bent^ncea one la naturally reminded of the eon nee* 
tiou already noted by |diilolof;:ista auiouji^ others by otir enuni.»nt 
eollca^^^iic. Mr. MAinY, as exiwtiuLj between tbe Draviduiu aud Aus- 
tralian birif^iuvgert. (*) To lliese Messri;*, Man and Temflk add 
a third philoloj^ieal «^ron[i whii-b ba» probably preceded the two 
otherft. Everytbiu^' tii fai't tenii.s tuore aul ui'jra to prove that the 
Negrito race, of wbieb the Mineot>ies are tbe purest repres- 
entatives, is the fuudanieutal negro element of all or very nearly 
all the Drav'idiati tribei< aud of tlione wbo, tbo'if^b not speak- 
ing a lan*^uago clussifiod under tbat name, reseml>le thein iu 
phyt*ical charactcriiitic«, (") If Lhi?* is really the ease, are we not 
entitled to believe tbat tbe subntrafum of this linguistic family 
will be found in tbi* Mineopie buiguaj;ef?? At all events, it h an 
interest iu^i problem to Rolve, ami we hoartily wlnb that Messrs, 
Man and Tkmple may pursue rese^rebt^ wbicli bave already leil 
them to 8neh eurious results 

Tbuu^di 8eattt»red from tbe Andaman lalauda to the Pbiltppini*8, 
the Negrito tribes have retained, in a remarkable manner, ^11 lhi*fr 
exterior and o»kM»lo^»cal ebaracteri«ticK. It ia otherwise with re* 

(i) Xtf Tnrr rf nfomwf, *M\m C*lition, {^TiUA.j M. Ma try is moreover 
Inclined to connect th<^J»e tA-o g-roiqiH of knjfujiges with the Mi4jo-fH'ytlthitf^ 
iivluch wjVH jjroliahly ftjwkt-n, ho wiyc, In- theuativi^ tribcftof McJiaaurlSuHitma, 

(") I bfivc dwtlt on thif* qneKtion in a pap^r in the Rvrne ff Effinotft^a- 
phi*". Vol. I. 


jTrtrcl lo lan^innge. Tins ho« in nomc inRtnnces, completely dU- 
appcftrcd, through contact vith ftuporior populations, oven where 
Kegritn grntip?, ntimeni'ally strong and enjovinq: n certain inde- 
pondonce, have preserved a com pa rati ve purity of blood. 

Thi» faet hrid been observed in the Philippinea, from the cnrliea* 
period of the Spanish occupation. Even in the island named after 
thriDt thpj*o dtminiHive ne^roos spoke Bisaffu, one of the Incnl ^Way 
dtaleet«», (*) to which however they added a j^reat number of 
foreign woi-d}?. ]t Bc^eius to tne probable that these hitter were 
m many surviving wttne»8es of the primitive lanjTUfLge. 

Still njore munt tbi-i Ikivo been the va^e in Ln/on, The evi- 
Jenee given on ihi» puiot by de la Fl'Evtk, {^) has lately been 
fully cuiiiirmed by the researches of Dr, Montajto, who has kindly 
|da< ed h\ti ut j published notes at my disposal with a liberality for 
which I utJi happy tu be able to thank him here. This traveller, 
who apeaks Malay t^ucntly mid is acquainted with several of its 
dialects, was able to detect, in the A«'ta Itnignage, not only gram- 
matical forma, but eveti a vombrdary, almost exclusively Tagaloc, 
0\w by one, ho verified oac btindred and four words ooUet-ted by 
Mr. Meyer in the dialect of the Marivelcji. He noted down those 
which seamed to be foreign lo the Malay hmguages and could fiud 
butueventeen. lie ia Ktill unable to speak decidedly about moiuo 
o( these, (^) 

(*) "lift lin^uA deUlaola deUa de* Negri e la Biaaaya KttsMsa col tniBcuglio 

*'^^ '"^ *' > jMirole forentjerw/' (L'Abb?* ToBttfe, quote«i by PRICHAAD^ 
■ftf t/tr P/ii/*it'ui flhto.y (tf .Uti/fkinti, VoL \\ |% 1*2 L) 
' '-^ Pkk.hako, hH\ ctt, 
^.^'\ o tuuml murcovtft in the same vocabulary, tmuHlateil into 

**** ^*^ t of ZAiiibaict?, thirteen wordu which are not Malay, lie 

» oltU.iio*l, uot without ajujt* trouble, from ao A(«ta, the fonywing: verwi 

1 am goiugr 

Be vi^rv 
Ta .' «M 
All) I mn g«>mn 

ivhilt* ytm 

^rt'eT (.vaur) vi)higr wili l>e forgottcJi (by) \m. 



(oh my) 



ktt t tt'i 


ihou, frirml 


ttfiifitH, ttkil 



tnt my 


miH tt 



f«to|) ill 








M, MoKTAKO wn>i iinnMo tn i^T^nmre nqunllj aoeurntt* infortna- 
tion with regai%l to the lans^uii^t* i>lt tlio Mam/iinias, or Xogritofi of 
MiiKlaiuio. But these people conM make them^t'lve.'* unilemtootl 
by hiu guides who spoke to them a kiutl of corrupted or rather 
Bimplified Bisaya. (') There also, no doubt, the primitive language 
has nil I re or lees died out. 

Haa it been the same in the Malay Peninsula ? M* T^Ioxtan'O, 
does not think he can yet answer the f|uestion. He easily nnder- 
fttood his Manthra (*) g[uido, when the hitter spoke Malay to him ; 
but ho could eatoh but very few words when the same individual 
conversed with his wild countrymen. He is satisfied that the 
Manthraa have a peculiar accent which mny ari?ie from various 
cauj^es. Father Pixokt, who has lived fttv a lon^]^ time in Malacca 
and visited all tho irdaud tribcrt^ told M. Must wo that these wild 
pe<iple had no special language or dialect of their own, aod that 
they sptike a mixture of corrupted Malay and Siamese. lfowever» 
in his ruri*'UH wru'k on the Binuas of dohore, ( \) Lo*iAN re«;ard8 it 
as certain that these people, though evidently more freely crossed 
with Malay blood thau the JManthras^ have hu<l, in former times, a 
bm^najje of their own ; and he brin;^^ forward numerous ar^ii- 
nientH in support of his opinion. (' / In the peculiar Itinguai^e, whicdi 
they speak wfu:;n searchiug for cain[jlior tree>i (^) amid tltcir forests, 
the same author ha» detecteil acortaiu ntnnbtu* «»t' wonb foreij»u 
to Malay. 1 have compareil seveui] of lhrj«e wilh wordn in two 

Tho Negritos of tbe Allmy province (South -eant of Lu/.on) R|w*4ik Bicol flu- 
ently. But i\wy un' cniKHtsil w-ith Malays* The liisjiya Tajruhxs lUcol. Piiui* 
pimgo, etc., are but Mi*lay dialect* more or less coiisiil< nildv nioclitieiL (MoN- 

(i> M, MONTAXO Rnyi*: "a kiud of Pifljin Biaaya/' 

(*) The Manthrae? arc half-tireinls of the neig'hhourhfK>d of Kepung, neiu* 
Mulaccat in ttie MiUuy PenuiHuhi. 

(a) The mo^t fioutherlj' rej^ion of the Mitlny Pi-ninfluLi. 

(*) Tkt ihutmj IJitiHu t*f Johorr. (Jtnfrnal Titttttiu An^hijitltttja^ I, p. 2811.^ 

(a) Thij^ langiiofre m culleil bnAitft kujwr (cjinipbor lan^fuagL-)* Loo AN 
found it employeil juulalwuvH the KaiuLr, hy thntrit>t'H who nt-arch for camphor* 
TUee«? »5iiVttge« are ixthUi-uUmI thtit it would litr iiin>ow<it'T«? to diHcoviT camphor 
ta'CM"* if anv othtr idiom but thf^ hunm-intpm- were ^siiokcn while w^arvb m 
l>«iD^: made* for thtw trc^ti. (LoiiAN, hn\ tft., p, *Hu^.) M. Montaxo alw5 
mMitictUi^ thit* Iujij*^uajrt* m hif^ uoU^ autl hjm»11^ it ** buhtn^o-htpoutJ' 

Niame«tc aud Lau»iaii vocabularu'^ |»ubiiiihe(i hy Lajiiam (*) aod 
cuuld uot trace « ay resemblauce. Nor could I Hiid any on eom- 
f>arin«5 these again with M. de li Cuoix*s vocabulary of the Pemk 
SakaiH, (*) M. de l\ Croix only Hudu twelve Malay word* out 
uf the ninety wliicli he givea. The llu8«.inn traveller MrKLrrin»- 
Maclay ha*! ppevitia»ly gathered, among the wild tribe<i of Johoro 
and further inland, one hundred and seventy words, (*) whicli 
*ieveral Mahiys'. on being contiuUed, declared were perfectly un- 
known to them. Lastly Mr. m: Castei.xau had al^o arrived 
independently at analagous concluBionR. ( * ) From this ag^reji^tc 
of facts, it seems to me to result that the orii^nal Negritos of the 
Malay Peninsula m\i:*t have had a language of their own, which 
lui» been completely forgotten by a portion of their dc»- 
cendanls and a Httlc Jei<8 so perhaps by others, because they are 
iill more or le»? crosfc<od with Malays, no doubt with Siiiuiesc also, 
and probably with other ethnological elements still undetermined. 
Was this languaire connected in any way with that of the Min- 
ropies ? Thid i^ but an hypothesis, but the comparative proximity 
of the two raecfi allnwa us at all events to put the cjuestion. 
Measrif. Ma> and Temi»lk will perhaps one day tell ub how much 
truth there may be in this conjecture. (*) They may alao aue- 

E^tment^ nf i\*mparniire Phtlohffy^ p. 5l, 

Pemk j« #ittLate<l about 2^ or 3^ >^orth of Malacca iowarcU the mid- 
*' * m cooAt of the Puuiiiiaiila. We hiire no particulatB as to 

vy tri>>e« which may exifct ftirther north. 

/ t/it' ytehifU'*Uin Trilft* in the Malay Pcnintudd (Jour iHtl of 
rdtu hrattch nfth^ Royal Afimtic ^H^m^irti/, Nu. 1, p. 3^*.) From Johory 
tiOMih of the Peain^oiA to Ligor in the eoath of Siam« the Ruj4»iiLn 
[ivdlci h«e asoertamed the identity of language among' tTil)es which are 
'at«d Mid hare no communication with each other. This result eeem» 
■ * him with ai^nifihmeut. There is^ however, nothing in it 
ilK^' em (^uit^ natural to any one who Btudies the hiflfioiy of Ni^^ 

a whole* 

{*) ii^vM de PhiMoffie, lS7e, [ I am indebted to M, MoXTA>o for this 

\m^V \ ** ^^^^^*^' 1 think, be most intcre^fting-, with reference to thie enqiiiiy, 
W nttfl uiit whjit lanyvwige i£ spoken by t^he Kejp-ito^i who have recently be<cu 
*^*'^*^T**J i^ tiic am ail Mrchipehigo of Tenabbcrim- Their comparative ieola* 
won Wight cncoumgo a hope that their primitive lanir uaec hji»!^ h^en lem alter* 
w ihui cm the cottiacat. 


vaed ill tindiiiLC out wlietlier there is anjtbiu|f t^olid in tlie singr^tlari 
affinities pointed to by Mr. Hyde Clahkk, between the various , 
Mincopie lanf^iuiges aod certaiQ African and American idiom*. (*| | 
La&tlj it would l»c of soino interest to iiiveatljtjate whether the ' 
hmguagc of the Pnttourts of the Amaikaiitak nioiuitaini!*, whieh i?* , 
l^erfeetly different from any Dravidian diideet of the neighbour- 
hood, (^) would j^eeni to he at all eonneetcd with those spoken in 
tJ»o Andauian Islands or Malay t'eniui^ula. 

Social Sftjh\ — The Mincopies depend exekKsively for their exist- i 
once on hunting and lishinp and have no permanent homes. Living 
on the 8hore« of a j^ea in whieh linh is reumrkably abundanl, within 
immediate reach of dense f4}reijts where i»iga are very unmorotw, 
and honey and fruits plentiful, they have not felt the want of 
claiming from tlie aoil a supplement of food, and this very state i 
of comfort htiis^ in itself, kept them down on the lowest rung of the 
eocial ladder. (') 

Moat travellers, who have visited the Fhilippiue I^landB, hare 
fcjipoken of the Actas as having never got past this step, though 
placed in much loss favouraide condittouB. La OmoNNihtK, (*) 
and Mkyer are very positive on this point, (*) and M. Giuuou 
has nnresorvedly accepted what they say cm the iiubject, (•) 
KiENZi himt*elf| to whom we are indebted for information as to llie 
more happy past of the^e people, represents them as living now- 
a-days exclusively on wild fruits and tlie proceeds of fishing and 
hunting. (') 

( I ) Xott* ftn the Langttftge* of the Audumuitjf (Journal of the Ahthro/Hftoffical 
lHJrtitf*te, VoL IV, p. AtnJ 

(■) ROL'SSELKT, Tttifii^ttt det Iin<^ eUf tlnde CeHtruk (BevHe d'Anthrajtohgie^ 
Vol. II, p. 282 J 

(5) Mr. Fbanois Day informa lis tliat a very amflll Mincopie tribe, atatioa- 
ed close to the Brititili Settlements and reociviug daily rations, bagged, in one 
year. 500 wild-boars, 150 turtles, 2o wild cats, 50 igujuu.s and 6 dugongi» 
(Pffiftrdhif/ti i\f the Ajmitii' Stuudi/ of Iitit*jtd, iS70, p, [CjXJ 

(O Vin//t A unit a ftitJT PhilippiHtH, p, lUKl. 

(») Di(( Phitif.jyintu uud iltrt ^r/tv/Ztwrr, M« 

(fl) ifindi sutia Iiti:a ytf/rita (Archiriojpei* lAnlropohtgia, Voli V, p« 21^ 
■Jid Vmrniv ddla Pironttvctia MttgentHi p. '24 6. J 

(t) dviankuyol I. p. ^1>1. 




But it if* evident that in the Philippine^, this degraded »oeiai 
Hiatus i» tbo cons€«iuenee of the persecution which theac Negritoa 
h^VG suffered at the hands of more powerful and vigorous racea. 
No doobt also, the interestedly false etatements made to travellers 
hj the petty chief** of Tagal villages, (^) have led to the ndmii^Bion. 
as general, of a state of things which is, perhaps, more or less excep- 
tional. In reply to these exaggerations, I cannot do better than 
copy almost verbally M. Montafo's own words : — 

** The Negritos of the Bataan province seemed to value fully 
** the security afforded to them by the just and enlightened admin- 
'* istratfoo of the Governor, Don Estakiblao Chaves. I have 

•* visited them in their own mountains The house of the chief, 

•• wety clean indeed, was situated on an eniinenco surrounded by 
*' other small bills. Several huts had been erected, every one of 
" them in the centre of a clearing of a few acrew planted with 

•* banana4reeB, rice» sugar-cane and, above all. sweet potatoes 

*' The chief shouted, and immediately the shouts were repeated 
** near and far. Before long the whole tribe had gathered round 
"me ,,. . , In the provinre of Albay, where the conditions of 
•* life must be similar to tliusu which exist in Bataan, I have 
** seen a considerable quantity of cacao that had been gathered 
** by the Negritos inhabiting the islands of the bay." 

Even among the Mamanouas (*) of Mindanao^ of whom the 
laat survivors are constantly being hunted down by the ferocious 
Manobros, the French traveller saw on the eastern shore of Lake 
Haimt, "a timid tribe, very distrustful, who had nevertheless clear- 
•*ed a apace in the jungle, erected huts, and planted banana- trees 
*• and sweet potatoes.*' 

TLuA, aU that has been said about the indomitable roving 
lEiBtiacts of Actas is thoroughly inaccurate. If, in certain parts of 
tlie Archipelago, these diminutive negroes lead a wandering life, if 
iWy do not buUd huts or till the soil, the fault lies with those who 
persecute and victimise them. The method of cultivation just 

V> ^' »Wt« of M. MONTAXO. 

e) »a«nit given voKegrltos in Mindanao* (MoyiAKO). 



meationed, very primitive by the way, i» to be seen among tbe half*] 
breed Negritos of India and the Malay Peninsula. All of tbei 
i*eeni to proceed in the same way. The Gond, like the Manthra^l 
be^^ins by felKng the trees^ whk'h ho burns when half dried up» 
In the outanglemcnt of trunks and bmncho^, he then sows or plants 
rice, potatoes, •fee. When the jungle « hoots np again, he abati* 
don« hii4 fniil and leaf-coverotl hut and proceeds elsewh^Sre to 
begin over again. A dog, a few fowls and pigs live as bent they 
viiu hi these primitive clearings. What they can get by Hshiug 
and hunting, together with edible root^ mkI jungle fruits, seem t 
form the prineipal rcBOurecn of these people. ( ') 

8ueh i« the present state of things. But have not theae tribes^ 
now half-nomad and scattered, known better days and enjoyed a 
more perfect social organization ? It is not easy to give a general 
answer to this question. 

As far as regards the Mincopies, nothing indicates that they evei 
rose above what we know them to be now-a-days. Having, 
to apeak, under their hand, all that can ftatinfy the simple wants 
of a wild mau, and without interoonrae with foreigners, they have 
received nothiug that could awaken new aspirations in them, and 
their intellectual activity has been applied solely to ninltiplying. 
or improving the implements reijuired by their mL*de of life, Wc 
shall see further on that they have, in that line, evinced real 
initiative power 

It ia more than probable that in the Philippines, the Aetas were 
once in a more advanced stage. EiEKZi. whose summary of thai 
tra^litions of these people is unfortunately rather confused, repre- 
sents them as h'lving in by-gone days occupied the whole of Luzon 
and having for a long while resisted the Tagal invasions. (•) They 
had, in tho^e times, a form of government. An assembly of chiefa^ 
and elders snperiutended the execution of the laws. (*) It is dif 
ficult to admit that, at that period, rmllivation of the soil waa no' 

(i> Notes (unpubli^ed) of M. MoNTAKo ; EouSSELET, for. tit. p. 276 
LotJAJi, hw, fit, p. 255 ; etc. 

(1) Oeritnit, Vol. I. p, 80L 

<>) ThiH iti preaisdy whjit \a etill the cufiUim among tbu Bhik, LuUf-bre 
Negritos. CRoiJSSJtLKT, he. cit p. Ul ). 




[ ftt least m the same degree oi that deicribed by M. 

With still more reason muRt it have been the same with the more 
or leae mixed tribes of Malacea. M, MoyTAXO informs ub that 
the Mantbras have still preserved a recollection of the days wheo 
iheir aoceators ruled over the whole ooantry. At that time, they 
nay, they had nuraoroiis records written on leaves. Thiii fact implies 
in tt«elf a soctal state of which M. Moxtako seems to have found 
in the very name of his guide. He was called , as his father, 
ud father, and, no doubt, his ancestors had been, Pfln^/mi» dalam, 
which the tnivelltsr translates as ** the lord who admiuisters the 
Sultan's palace/' (• ) This descendant of some great dignitary is 
now but a simple coolie in a Chinese plantation. In the Malay 
Feninsnla, ae9 in India, conquest has destroyed States that were 
considerable and flourishing once upon a time, but of which even 
rooollectiou haabeen lost, driving back to the jungles and mountains 
the races, more or less Negroid, which had founded them. There 
the T»r.e, like many other Dravidian (■) groups, has returned to a 
wild life. It has been broken up and divided into tribes and small 
communities, (*) and the hierarchy of chiefs, recorded by Looan 
aa existing among the Bermun populations, is probably ail that is 
left of ita former social state. (*) 


iMrftut d' Ethnofjraphie, VoL I» p. 48). 

however^ they stUl have pennonent homes, 
-oup4:iicI in viUagtiB. What may be oonsidered iis a suppo- 

<r» ) Tiie Bbilfi amonir others 
well boDt hoQse« grot 

sitjon with regurd to wme of the Bermun tribes would seem to be weU osoer- 
tamed with respect to their brethren the Binuas. LuoAN informs \ib that the 
mtf^* " ^ "^ *^ r times g^ovemed by kingfi, the origin of whom was 
iitnral and whow deooonilantB ore still to be found. 

It¥ him Mfinoir nn the Binuoa of Johore, L06AK givee particulara con- 


^M vdi thut I 8a J here ff|)eciaLly applies: they are 

^B the Jakunft, the SakaiSf the HiutiraH or Manthrati 

^^ li^rtxikj^ cine ♦ ^^* iJil** inbubit the monntainouB region of Gnnong 

Jfant-hrA^. tWj / ,^^^'^ high»^«t ruii^^H in the Malay PeninBiila. Among the 

d«MMMcd 'ujmtTicftL*^^v^' ^^*^^*^^^^^ ( Halin) whose jurisdiction extends over well 

Mtaf mn fad^flnftja ^"^^^ H^itiu UaH uutltx him a Jinunff, a Jukra or Jttrokru, 

^ ttajMlxei of Pit ng limit* and Uhbala)tg>c. On the death of a 


run rioMiEs* 

Among Negritofl, everywhere thv family jieems to have survived 
the general decl ine of the race. A Sepoj deserter who«e as^er* 
tioHR have been too easily accepted by some writers, represented it 
as rather loosely constituted in the Andaman inlands. Information 
gathered by Lientenant St. John (* ) and partienlarly by Mr, Dai 
(*) has corrected what was erroneous in these early reports. The 
Mmcopiea are mooogamouB, Marriage only takes place wit 
the consent uf the *jwirdian of the inaidens^ who sanctioos tl 
union of the pair by joining their hands together. The duties 
nma and wife are reciprocal, and the pareuts evince the most ten 
der affection for their offspring. (^) In the Philippine Island 
La GiRONNii^ KE ascertained analogous facte, even among the wretobed 
and savage tribe which he vi&ited. ** The Atitafi/* ^vl^a he, *' are fait I 
'* ful in wedlock and have but one wife.'* When a young man hfl 
made his choice, he applies to tlie parents^ who never refus 
their consent, but send the girl into the forest where she hide 
herself before daybrealc. The young man has to find her, and, if 
he does not suecued, has to relinqnisb all claim. (•) It is evident 
that the decision really depends on the young girl. 

M. MoTTTANo's notes conlirm and complete the information 
given by La GiRONNrfcae. lie moreover actpiaints ns with the 
curious ceremony which ratifies wedlock among the Acta** of 
Luzou. The young couple climb up two flejtible trees which 
an old man bends down towards each other. When the head of 
bridegroom touches that of the young woman tlie marriage is pr 
nounced legal and is followed by a big fejiat and war dances. 

I also borrow from the same traveller the following JntereMii 
particulars relating to the Negritos of Mindanao, 

*' Among the miserable Mamanuas, those ancient owners of tli5" 

Biitin^ his Hueoefl«or ie chcwea from nmong the eons of one of his bu 
(TTis liinwi of Johore. JanrnttJ of ike Indian Arehipchtgo, VoL I, p, 275 j. 

(I) X<w. eit. p, 245* 

(i) L&c. cit, p. 160. 

(») MoUAT, Adpentnmi and Re*farfke§ amomj thv Amhiman UIhh 



•• Imjd, (*) who are described a« so degraded, I have found the 

*' same habits as among the Negritos of Marivelea; I have witnessed 
** the same Teneration for old men, the same love for chiUlren, the 
** fiarne respeet for the dead. Among this tribe, which m faist dying 
** out, the old customs have preserved an uaabated iiiffuonce. Theee 
** customs are simple indeed, and the procedure elementary, but 
*' tbey do exist. It muBt not be supposed that a Mamanua can act 
•* a$ he likes in his own hut without having an account to give to 
*' anyone.'* 

** An unfaithful wife may be killed by her husband, but not 
*' onlesB the adultery be proved, in which case the relations of the 
'* guilty woman absent to her death. Otherwise he would be con- 
** ifidered as a common murderer and liable to be condemned to 
*' death by the chief of the tribe, on the complaint of the relations 
'* of the viotira." 

" Adultery, however, like other offences or crimes, is exceedingly 
•• rare among the Negritos of these regions. The young girlf* are 
" Tery modest in their demeanour. Tbe slightest suspicion on that 
" score would be an obstacle to their finding a husband/* 

** A Negrito does nut buy his wife, he dimply makes a small 
** present to his future father-in-law, who generally gives his 
** daughter a dowry equivalent to what he has thus received.'" 

** Private property is well recognised and can be transmitted by 
•' sale or inheritance* Every field is the incontestable property of 
* the one who has cleared it, or his heirs. At the death of the 
** father, should the mother still be alive, the estate is divided in 
•* two, one-half going to the latter, the other half to the children, 
" between whom it is divided in ciiual shares.** 

** If lUe children are grown up, the widow continues to live in 
•' tbe hut of her late husband, but should they be very young, she 
^ removes with them to the abode of her panrnts." 

** All disputes are settled by the chief of the tribe and his dcci- 

nons are always scrupulously obeyed. He has, however, but 

•elOom to interfere;' 

(l) Atfifir« 

*/iad'*; iMt jiofisrfiiiive prefix. (Moktano.) 


niE PTaMTK?i. 

We mnni acknowledge tbat there ia a grent diicrepancy betwow 
this atate of things, as described by M, Moktano, and the itifornii* 
tion given hy his predeeeaaora. This is orio more instance, to be 
added to many othert*, of the imprudence of limiting oneself to 
eiiperficial observation when it ih a question of forming an opinion 
of these backward and wild popidations. 

In 8pit« of their intermixturo with alien races, the Negritos of 
Malacca would, no doubt^ if better known, exhibit similar social cha- 
racteriHtics. M. Mont and tells us that they never gcj to war, ( » ) 
that parents attend n^iost tenderly on their offspring, and, if necea- 
«ary, wiil, for their sake, deprive themselves of food* Logan 
informs ua that, among the Manthra^, adultery is punished with 
death, but not unless, as among the Mamanuas, the enme be 
proved by witnesses. The sentence is passed by the head chief 
( Bat in) and carried out by the Pangllma. The two culprit a are 
laid down in the nearest stream and their heads are kept under 
water by the means of a fork. A man who is convinced of hU 
wife*a misconduct, but who has no actual proof of it, can leave her 
on condition of giving up to her his house and fields, a certain 
amount of cotton atuff, a few rings, and a small sum of money. 
The children remain with their mother, hut she cannot re-marry 
until her divorced husband has taken to himself another w^ife. (*) 

Indastrif. — I have already mentioned how the various Negrito 
populations support themselves. I must add that none of those 
of whom I speak here are cannibals. ( ') This accusation has been 

(1 ) Logan liad already aUuied to this fact, which is a ramarkaWe feature 
among tbeee wild and sport-loving triliee. (7^' li'mmi of Johare^ p 273.) 

(t) Loe.cit,\i.*l\M^ 

(3 ) I mast remark here that this paper is exohisively devoted to the Rtody 
of tbi:' Negritos projjer. As for the Papua-Negritoet mixed with tht* Papiuis 
of NeW'G-Qiiiea and the adjacent ialaad-frroupe, it is very possible that tht»j 
may have let themnelves be carmd tiway bv eKainftle and may have addicted 
thenutelves to man-cating; but it i'r inii>ow*ihle, for want of accurate inforina- 
tion* to give an opinion on the eubject. The oonfiision wbieh has too long 
eit«t(^d coaoemJQg th*i**e t\\ o raee*» and which ir Ftill mere or teas kept up by 
Hunic of the mo«t recent tnivellfcrjt. makes it very difficult to Rtudy them 
indtf|Mndently of each other. The examination nl ftktills pirmits uf owr din- 
ting iiiiihing the two races, but thrown bo light on the various characteristics 
which liivide them in other respect**. 

TEE PI61IIE8. 15 

brought againat several of these tribes, particularly against the 
Mincopies. Now, far from having any liking for human flesh, the 
Andamanese look upon it as a deadly poison. (^) 

All Negritos cook meat by boiling or roasting ; all consequently 
are able to procure fire and no doubt use the same process, the fric- 
tion of two pieces of wood. This is an uncertain and laborious task, 
even for savages, and therefore when the first spark is procured, 
they devise means to preserve it. The Mincopies have invented 
a peculiar method of their own : ** The large trees are charred in 
" the interior : a great hollow is formed iu the centre in which they 
** allow about three feet of ashes to accumulate, under which fii*e 
" is always found— over the fire of these strange ovens the Min- 
** copie can grill his little pig, fry his fish and prepare his turtle 
" soup." (*) Among the Manthras the charred tree is replaced by a 
heap of clay enclosed in a wooden frame in which fire is care- 
fully kept up. (') In cold or temperate climates the most urgent 
wants, after food, are shelter and clothing. In tropical countries, on 
the contrary, clothes are a matter of luxury and are often more 
inconvenient than useful. It is almost the same with regard to 
dwellings. A simple cover, affording shade during the day, shelter 
from the moon's rays at night, and protection from rain, answers 
all the most important purposes. Travellers are but too often 
luimindful of these circumstances, and many writers look upon 
this extreme simplicity of dress or houses, as a sign of intellectual 
inferiority and want of industry. The Mincopies have been 
reproached with wearing no clothes. It is a fact ; with the excep- 
tion of a girdle to which I shall refer further on, their dress is 
limited to uncouth tattooing or painting such as we see in 
Mr. Dobson's phototypes. (*) Still, in order to protect them- 
selves against mosquitos or other insects, they are in the habit, 
when night comes on, of smearing the body with a thick coating of 

( 1 ) Day, loc. cit, p. 16o. 
(«) lAoVKT, Adventures, ^.m%. 
(^) MoNTA>'0, /oc. e/Y. p. 46. 

( * ) On the Andaniatm and Andainancse, (The Journal of the AfUhropolo- 
gical Irutitute, VoL IV, p. 467, PI. XXXI, XXXII and XXXIII.; 



clayoy mud, which bood dries and forma a regular cuirass. They 
cau thus ftleep in peace ; but it is ohvioiia that this night-dresB fxoea 
a ItjriL; way tnwarda dovolopiog the rheumatic and abdominal diseaftca 
to which they are particularly subject. 

l\T|jetualIy wautleriag as thoy do, along their shores, the Anda- 
maneae are not giv'en to ereetiuf^ permaoeot dwellings. Four 
poles secured together at the upper ends and covered with broad 
leaves give them a perfect but, which is quickly erected and aftords 
capital shelter against rain — the only thing they aeem to di-ead, 
tSueh a hut is in reality a kind of impervious tent, the materials of 
which are entirely supplied hy the neighbouring jungle, and which 
need not be transported from place to place. They could not 
possibly have contrived any tiling better* and our own African 
Boldiers would deem themaelves lucky, ct>uld they but do the same. 

The Ai^'tas aro scarcely better clad than their Andamanese 
brotbren. (^) Further, such of their tribes as are subject to the 
continual attacks of formidable enemies do not even erect tem- 
porary sheds, but sleep in trees, or, as a proteetioji againat cold, 
roll themselves up in the hot ashes of a large fire kindled for the 
purijose. But we have aceo already that, when placed in normal 
conditions of Hfe, they know how to erect permanent house® and 
settle down. 

The photographs of M. de Saint Pol- Lias repreaeot the Sakais 
as wearing a simple waist cloth tied round the waist with tboj 
ends hanging down on the thighs. M* Montano has de8cribe5'«| 
the bauaboo hut of a Manthra family whom he met livinjjby them- 
selves in the midst of the forest. (*) Though anything but luxuri- 
ous, this dwelling exhibited the peculiarity of having a floor 
raised two feet oSf the ground. In almost all of the houses of 
our own peasants the bare earth is the substitute for plank floors 
and in this respect at all events the Malay savage imderstanda 
hygienic conditionfl better than the European. 

( I ) A portrait of an Acta chief* eDgrnved after a photograph by _ 
MoNTANO has been given by me in a memoir called — ymtpeile^ Mtvdet wr I 
dittributwft git^raphifj^t^ det A^urito§ rf tiir levr ideHtiJieatimi avee Ie$ P^ 
mie» a$iatiqv»9 de CHi$ia§ et de flint!, {Jlevve d'Ethrngtaphie^ Vol. I* p, l^8)i 

{9)Loc. cif p. 40. 

TJt£ piouiica. 


The Miucopie^ live exclusi%*cly on bun ting andfibbing, but owing 
to tbcir isolatiou and ale<o to tbe fables that have been spread con* 

■ning some of their habiU, (^) they have been free to develop 
qxiictly the various indut*triea puited to their mode of life. The 
reaulti* attained by these islander** had already forcibly «truek the 
learned obscrvera who were the first m our time to study the 
Andaman? nnd their inhabitants. Notwithstanding their contempt 
for these *'a(tva(fe nnjroes^^' CohKBUooKK, HTXfEs, and especially 
MouAT have iu many instances done juatice to their merits in thia 
respect. (•) Thanka to Mr, Ma^, we are now better acquainted 
with them, lie got together and sent to London a valuable coU 
lection illotttrating most of the native industries, and of thia 
Major-Genoral L\ne-Fo3l (*) has given an account m interesting 
ae it ifl instructive. I can only very brieily sum up these Tarioua 

Let ua notice firiit of all that the Andaman Islands, where iron 
seecdfl to have been introduced by the Chinese and Nicobareso, have 
hrid their stone age, the remains of which are dtill to be found iu 
kmklienmfriidings^ entirely similar to those of Denmark. Those 
heaps of *' kitchen refuse*' were discovered by M. db Roepstorfp (*) 
and more closely examined by Br. Stoliczka. (*) Hammers and 
knives were fotm<l in them together with rude hatchets undoubted- 
ly corre«ponding with the chipped Implomeuts of our stone ago. 
Close to these were discovered a polished axe which Stoliczka 
declares to be identical with the " ctUn' of the neolithic period^ and 
also real vhUel^ three inches long, with a sharp edge at one 

(» ) Iu a \ysi\n*x Mpecially devoted to the Mmcopiea, I hnve recorded some of 
tli« f allies Inirro wet i from MAaco-PoLO and Ariib writers— (id*M?i*<» d'Aathro- 
^^*^*, Vol 1» II. 40). 

A I inaat hcTii refer the reader to my ftrst poper, already quoted. 

'" ' " ''r.^'* Colhctioa of Andamitnc^e and Nicoharete 

?Q\, P. a, 8., with fourplattw* CI he Jonrnal 
^'J Vol. VII, p. 434). 

(•> -*! " r*r Tttt Wordii, {Pi'ocerJifi^n ttf the Atiatie 

Saaetp ttf j' ,. Xiie Kitjckkeiiitta'ddiuff discovered near Hope 

Town WM6 ..;, iji i:ucumfereiiue and 12 ftset high. Several of euok 

*f \^^*^ *^^ ^ ^ found ia various parte of Chatham Island. 

-#-1 f'f'--'*''<^^^ixkkcnma^4intnu/the Andamnn Itlandt* iPr0C$9dinst 



©ud. Numerous fragments of aun-baked pottery, decorated with 
incieiana of irregular designs, (*) were found in the same place. 
The Mincopiea still manufacture pots of the same kind, and if they 
have uotyet attained the art of baking pottery in a kiln» this is due, 
no doubtj to the facility with which they can replace water vessels 
by a length of bamboo, and eookiDg utensils by the large shells of 
the Tridacna and Turbo, 

With the exception of harpoons exclusively used for EahiDg, the 
bow i^, according to the latest travellers, the only weapon employ- 
ed in hunting or warfare. (') The bow used in Little Andaman is 
very similar to most otherss, being straight and Bymmetric&llj| 
tapered from the middle to the endn. ("*) lu the Great Andaman »| 
on the contrary, it asanmns a peculiar fthape. In the middle there is \ 
a kind of cylindrical handle of a comparatively small diameter ;i 
\hG two sides, nithor wide at tinst. nre flat inside with a convex back; | 
they get thinner towards the extremities iitid are curved in opposite | 
way 80 that the whole reminds one of an elongated g. This bow ' 
is from 1^75 to 2'» in length, (♦) It is \erj hard to beud, and 
the strongest English sailors were unable to strinf^ it. T*) In 
spite of their small stature and rounded limbs, the Mincopies used j 
it BO skillfully and with such puwer that, at 40 or 50 metres, the i 
arrows penetrated right through the cluthes of Europeans and deep i 
into the llesh. Several varieties of arrows are used, among which 
there is one which might be styled a huntittg harpoon. The head 
of it, to which the point is attached, ia very small, whilst the shaft 
is im long. The two parts are brought together by means of a 
strong cord twisted round so as to keep the two independent por- 
tions together. When a pig is ?^truck and tries to escape headlong 
through tlie jungle, tfie cord unrolls itself, the barbed point uf the 

( i ) Fkte XVI of General Lank-Fox's Ngte repre«eata nerend of these 

(s) 8VMES o!ime has mentioned long spears ani shldda made of bark. 

U) L.O4E-F0X, PI. XIV, fi(f. 3. 

U> MoUAT. Loc. cit, p. 321, 

\»j Ueneral Laxk-Fox obi^rvts that the same shaped bow is to be found 
at MiilLicxilo. It also rcsoiubles the Japauosu bow in so far oe the ondi are 
net sj'mmetrical* {Zot?> vit., p. 440> 

THX PiaMIXS. 19 

arrow remains in the fleeh, but the shaft which is dragged after 
him, keeps on checking the course of the animal which is soon 

The Mincopie canoe has deserredly attracted the attention of 
the English. It is cut out of the trunk of a tree : outside, it is 
highly finished ; the sides are very thin, and the bottom very 
thick. Being thus naturally ballasted, it cannot capsize and even 
when riddled with bullets it does not sink. 

They are propelled by paddles, with marvellous speed. The gig 
and cutter of the Pluto, manned by picked crews, had a trial with 
a Mincopie canoe, and were completely beaten ; the victory of the 
ravages was owing to the superiority of their workmanship. (*) 

It is useless my dwelling any longer on the various manufac- 
turer of these islanders and mentioning their harpoons, nets, &c., 
Here, again, they ^rove themselves to be equal, and at times 
much superior to other races placed in the same conditions of life. 
The collection made by Mr. Man and the plates which accompany the 
paper of General Lane- Fox are sufficient to refute all that has been 
said concerning the intellectual degradation of the Mincopies. 

It is otherwise with regard to the Actas, whom persecution keeps 
in a coutiuual wandering state, and there is nothing surprising in 
the fact. The only weapons they use in war or hunting expedi- 
tions are a short spear, a bow, and one single kind of arrow. But 
the^e latter are poisoned, and the slightest wound, if not deadly, 
causes, at least, long and acute suffering, which La GiBONNifeBE 
has described from his own experience. (^) 

(i) MorAT, Adrcnfiirc.% p. .315. 

(*) La Giro NKiE RE was wounded in the finger by one of these arrows, 
in the n^moval of the nkeleton of an Acta (the first that was sent to 
EurojKr and which is now nt the Paris Muwnim). He took no notice of the 
wound which he took for the scmtch of a thorn. After three days, however, the 
jioifH^n bc-.^an to act, and fearful suffering ensued ; the whole arm was inflamed 
and the jjain extended to the chest. After a whole month of torture, the sick 
man war* reduced to the last extremity. He recovered, however, but, for 
more than a year, he felt pains in the chest. These symptoms recall, in no 
way, what travellerb and experimenters tell us of the effect of known poisons. 
It would seem as if the poison used by Aetas was of a si>ecial kind. But 
perhaps also the treatment had something to do with the sufferings of the 
intrepid traveller. 


Poison is also employed by the Manthraa (^) and other Bermnn 
tribes. But these half-bred Negritos, although knowing the use 
of bows and arrows, Lave substituted the blow-pipe for them. (■) 
In this case, as in many others, we can easily detect the influence 
of the Malays. 

These Malacca Negritos are also acquainted with the art of 
setting snares for big game, some of them being strong enough to 
capture even tigers. They place at the end of a long path, artifici- 
ally made in the jungle, a strong spear fixed to a tree which is bent 
back and kept in position by the means of a catch. Any anim&l 
passing by, releases the spring, and is instantly transfixed. (*) 
In India, now-a-days, as in the time of CxfisiAS, the bow is, so to 
speak, the characteristic weapon of the Dravidian races. The 
Gonds seem to be the only ones who have given it up and 
taken to the use of the axe and pike. (*) 



Belief in Superior Beings. — Like many other wild races, the 
Negritos, to whom these chapters are specially devoted, have 
often been represented as perfect atheists. This is anything but 
accurate. We must not, in our appreciation of their rudimentary 
beliefs, start from the ideas which educated Europeans form of 
religion, even when they declare themselves unbelievers. 

On the strength of assertions made by a Sepoy deserter who had 
lived for some time with the Mincopies, some writers have, even 
quite recently, taken for granted that these islanders do not bcliove 
in any superior being who has any influence, bad or good, on their 

(l) MONTANO, loc. clt., p. 47. 
(•) MoNTANO ; Logan, he. cit., p. 272. 
(8) Logan, loc. cit., p. 257. 

(*) RocsSELET, Tableau des JRaees dc I'Inde Ceniralr {Revve d" Anthropole- 
gie. Vol. II, p. 276). 

THE PI6MIZ8. 21 

destiny. They forget the formal evidence given by Stices, which 
I think right to reproduce textually : — 

" Their religion is the simple but genuine homage of nature, ex- 
" pressed in adoration to the sun as the primary and most obvious 
" source of good ; to the moon as the Hecondary power ; and to the 
*' genii of the wood?, the waters and the mountains, as inferior 
** agents. In the spirit of the storms thpy confess the influence of 
" a malignant being, and during the south-west monsoon, when 
" tempests prevail with unusual violence, they deprecate his wrath 
" by wild chorus, which they chant in small congregations assom- 
"bled on the beach or some rock that overhangs the ocean." (^) 
The late statements furnished by Messrs. St. John and Day have 
still further confirmed the above account of Colonel Symes. 

When the question has been more thoroughly studied as in 
other places, we shall perhaps ascertain the existence of a complete 
rudimentary mythology among the Mincopios. We knotv as yet, 
through Mr. Man, that they have preserved some tradition of a 
deluge. In the south-east of 3Iiddle Andaman, they point out a 
rock, called Wota-Emeda, on wliich the first man made his appear- 
ance and engraved the history of the creation. Mr. Man has visited 
this Mincopie Eden, and has given a description of it. It is an 
isolated boulder of small proportions, the surface of which is 
covered with irregular grooves due to the action of the waves and 
storms. (') Let us hope that Mr. Max will enter into more 
detail respecting the fables connected with it. (^) 

(») Accoutit of the BrifiK/i EmbaRny to the Kiugdom of Am, p. 282. 
Major Symes gives the information furnished to hira by Captain Stockoe, 
who had resided for Hcveral years in the Andiuuans and taken great interest 
in the natives. 

(«) 'liie Andaman I)<hiv(I». {^Tlit Journal of the Anihroj)olu(jical Inst'itnte, 
Vol. VII, pp. lur> and 4:>.->). 

(5) Ihis pajxjr was orij^inally puhliRhcd in AugiiFt, 1882. Since then I 
have read in " 'I he Journal of the Anlhrojjologlcd Institute, (Vol. XII, Nob. I 
II and III), the very remarkable paper of Mr. !Man " On the Aboriginal 
InhahituAii of the And'unan Islands:' Unfortunately the first number. 
thoTigh bearing the Rame date as mine, was JFsued some time after, and I 
wa« ooMequently unable to profit by the valuable and detailed account given 
m it. However, far from altering my cBsential conclusions, it fully confirmn 
tne opmjon which I had alwaj-s maintained touching th« religious feelings 


With regard to the Aetas, our present knowledge is lees ftdraneed. 
M. Mont A NO says in his notes that he could find among them no 
form of worship ; but judging from personal experience, he refrain- 
ed from concluding that they were wholly destitute of any beliefs 
whatever. (^) La GiuoNNiiiRE, while declaring that these di- 
minutive Negroes have no religion, informs us that, at times, they 
worship rocks and trunks of trees which seem to bear xesemblance 
to animal beings. («) My impression is that in all probability, 
this homage is paid to something higher than these material objects, 
perhaps to the spirits or genii of the mountains and forests, for 
RiENzr tells us that these savages believe in evil spirits called 
Nonos, to whom they offer up sacrifices. (') 

This belief in spirits is current among the Bermun tribes, and 
consequently among the Sakais, Manthras, &c. Here it is profes- 
sionally represented by a body of priests or rather wizards called 

of the AndamancBe- Where certain travellers had only seen moet wretched 
savages, where I had m^^self only suspected confused but genuine notions, we 
find in reality a pretty complete niytholop:^' and a belief in a true God, invi- 
sible, immortal and omniscient, by whom the whole world was created and 
whom they call Pu-lvgn. I shall quote Mr. Man's own words (No. II, pu 

*• Of Pu'higa they say that : — 

I. — Though His appearance is like fire, yet He is (now-a-days) invisible. 
II. — He was never bom and is immortal. 
III. — By Him the world and all objects, animate and inanimate, were 
created, excepting only the ix)wer8 of evil. 
IV. — He is regarded as omniKcient while it is day, knowing even the 

thoughts of their hearts. 
V. — He is angered by the commission of certain sins, while to those in 
pain or distress he is pitiful, and sometimes deigns to afford 
VI. — He is the Judge from whom each soul receives its sentence after 
death, and, to nonic extent, the hope of escai)e from the tor- 
monts of Jvr-f(j-h)rni'i(jii (regartling which anon) is said to 
alf^ ct their course of action in the present life. 
This Jtr'-vfj-lnr-mCtju is a kind of hell or purgatory which the Mincopies 
c(.iiHiutr j;b a cold and icy region, 
(i) M. MoNTANO had been told that the Bagobogos had no religion. 
Owing to favourable circuni stance b, he was able to recognise among them a 
well defined and anything but rudimentary religious conception, of which he 
gave us an outline in one of his adiiresses to the " Soci^te de Grcographie," 

(2) Xr>r. nY., p. 300. 
(S) hoc, cit., p. 303. 


PiHfamg or Fawang, After having given, on this subject, many 
details, which I need not repeat here, Loqan sums up his impres- 
sions in the following terms : — " Among these tribes, we recognise 
" a pure Schamamism with its accompanjing charms and talismans; 
•• a living faith fresh from ancient days of Eastern and Middle Asia, 

" preserving its pristine vigour and simplicity, untouched 

" by the Budhistic deluge and resisting the pressure of the 

'* Islamism which surrounds it.'* (^) 

I hardly need remark that among most Dravidian tribes, even 
among those who have reached a certain standard of civilization, 
we can detect, in spite of the influence of different Hindu or 
Mohamedan sects, a substratum of various beliefs similar to those 
I have just recorded. 

Belief in a future life. — All Negritos believe that the soul sur- 
vives the body ; that it has the same wants as the living, and 
desires that a regard should be manifested for it. Among the 
Mincopies it is customary to place a vet'Sel full of water on 
the grave of the deceased, so that his soul may be able to (jucnch 
its thirst during the night ;' a fire is lighted under the stage which 
bears the body of a chief, in order to prevent his mighty spirit 
from harming any traveller passini; by ; the skull and bones, 
exhumed from the tomb, are worn round the nock as propitiatoiy 
to the spirit of the dead ; the soul of a stranger iy looked upon as 
harmless, and therefore the body of any one who dies away from 
his tribe is left unburied. (2) 

The Aetas show great respect to the dead. ** For several 
'* years," says La Gironxikre, "they depoj^it tobacco and Letel on 
** the tombs. The bow and arrows which belonged to the departed 
** are suspended over his grave, on the day of the funeral, and every 
•* night, according to the belief of his friends, he leaves it and 
** goes out hunting." (^) 

(1) Tfie Binua of Johore. Loc. clt., p. 282. 

(J) The details ore borrowed from Mr. Day's memoir. They have all 
the more weight that the writer gave them ''en pannnnf' and without hav- 
ing apparently understood their real importance. OhHwationtontheAnda' 
mansse, loc. cit. p. 163). 

(^) Mnft annehi avx Philip^inei^ p. 301. 


The Malacca Negritos do not appear to eniertaiu eucli well 
defined Uleaa. I^ooAJf states that the Berinuii tribes light a fire on 
the tomb, for sevcnil eont«c<.nilive ni*;hts» in order to prevent the 
apirit from cryinji; out. (*) M. Montajso aibU that the Maiithraa 
bury their dead sufllfienll v far from the houses, ** so that they shall 
not he* troubled by the crowing of the cocks/' (•) But neither of 
those two wnterii makes any mention of offerinirsj being presented 
to the spirit of the departed, though among theManthras the gravo 
is evidently the object of peculiar attentions. (^) 

Chnxiit^, MofIrist(j, — M, MoNTAXo has given ue his experience 
regarding the chastity of the A^ta daniBeU* The testimony 
of Symes leavod no room for doubt that this virtue Is found 
among the Andaman ose. Two Mincopie girln who had been taken 
as prisoners on board an English man-of-war, were soon tran* 
quillised in many respects^ but though they had been put by 
themselves in a separate room, they never went to sleep both at 
the same time, but watched alternately over each other, (•) Not 
one of the travellers who have vi:*ited the Andamans up to the pre- 
sent time has ever reported having witnessed any of those scenes 
and seandalniis sightj* st» often alluded to by the discoverers of the 
Pacific Archipelagoes. In that respect, the Mincopie women are 
unquestionably superior to the Pol}Tjesiaus* 

Want of decency is the most common of all the accusations 
which have been brought against a whole host of wild tril)es. 
But we know that travellers have often been mistaken, so far in- 
rleed ad to take for the height of immodesty what, in the eyes of 
the natives, was but an elementary act of decency. 

On this particular point, we lack information with regard to most 
Negrito races. Bnt as to the Andaumns, where the dress of the 
women is aa limited as possible, we know now, thanks to Mr. Man, 


(I) Loc. eit„ p. 271. 

(») Loc. cit, p, 49. 

(»> Montjuco, kit. cit., p. 50, and Fi^. r»'i, 'tH, 54 and Su. [But sue llr. 
Hebvkit's desoriptioa of a Jakan tomb in Xo> b of this JounmL--£D., 
Joum. Straita Branch, R* A. S.j 

(•) L^e. dt, p. 243. 


that Buch a dret^s docs exist and bears a particular uame (^) and 
that appearing without it is considered as indecent. (*^ 

Though displayed otherwise than with us, modesty nevertheless 
exists among the Andamanese. 

The history of a Mincopie, brought over to Europe, shows how 
much this sentiment is developed amonor these islanders. When a 
full length photograph was taken of Jack Andaman and ** he 
" was told to strip, it was by no moans an easy master to prevail 
" upon him to take off his clothes, and, when he waa dressed again, 
** he manifested much joy at the restoration of his garments. This 
" savage seemed utterly shocked at the very thought of being 
*• seen naked." (^) 

Oeneral Character. — It follows, from the various descriptions 
given above, that the Negritos, who are the special subject of this 
Part, are far from deserving the accusations which have been too 
often brought against them. 

The Mincopies who have repeatedly been depicted as horrid can- 
nibals, have been found, when more closely examined, to be spoilt, 
capricious but good tempered children. (*) Mouat describes them 
ar a gay, laughter-loving population, fond of singing and dancing. 
Far from being intractable and cruel, they have shown themselves 
kind and hospitable when fear was banished from their hearts. 

The English traveller adds that they are courageous, hardwork- 
ing, skilful and extremely active, and, that under the influence of 
civilization, they would become intelligent and industrious. (*) 

M. MoNTAXO tells me in his notes : ** Not only are the Negri- 
" tos anything but ferocious, but they are really humane. They 
'* nurse the sick with much devotion, even when they do not 
" belong to their own family.*' He adds again : " The Manthras 
*• are not wanting in brain power but carelessness and laziness 

( » ) Bod'dii. ThLs ffirdle varyinif in shape, is represented in the paper 
quoted alwvc. PI. XIII, figr- 27 and 27 a. 

(») Obsertiitwns on Mr. ManscoUection^ loc, cit. p. 440. 
(a) Mot' AT, loc. cit. 284. 
(♦) St. John, he. cit. p. 45. 
(») Adventures^ Preface p. XV. 


"seem (o prevent them from making any progress." Q) At 
the same time he acknowledges among them the gentle and 
soft manners to which we liave already allnded. In this, ho 
ai^rees entirely with Lo(*an. The latter, however, considers the 
Bcruinn tribes as inconi»i{>lent and irritable. They must, says 
he, be treated as children. (■) St. John uses tlie very same 
expression with regard to the Mincopies. It shows once more 
that these two groups resemble each other, in their moral as well 
their physical characteristics. To deny their fundamental ethnical 
identity is evidently impossible for any one who has at all studied 
tlie (piestion. 

Conclusion. — However, incomplete this study may be, the con- 
clusion to be drawn from it seems to me to be obvious and easy to 
formulate. From nearly unanimous testimony, these races have 
been considered as occupying one of the last stages in humankind. 
When attention was originally directed to the Mincopies, some 
Icanu^l men of unquestionable merit, were led to believe that the 
missing link between the man and the monkey had been found at 
lust. "We have now seen that this is not so and that, even where 
fnrthcrcst removed from change and from mixture with other 
ra((\s, the only things which ennoble a community, the Negrift)B 
prove to be true and real men in every respect. 



'\ ho At'iican dwarfs of whom the Ancients had a glinipse and the 
vciy «^onijino cxistc lue oF whom has given rise to so many legends, 
wcic ()iily dis((>v(r(il n«:[n'n by n odcrn generations at a late period. 

( 1 ; MoNTANO, loc. lit. ]K 41 
I'/) Lor. cif. p. 'JGiK 

THE proMiT^a. 


in 1625, Battel first made known certain faints asccrtafnetl by him 
m the Loa!igo. (*) 

At eight daja march to the east of Cape Neg^ro, (■) is fniuid, 
arcortling to hi id, the Mani-KeHOck territur^^ to the north -east 
of which *' lives n race of Pij^niies. cnllefl Mulimhtjn. Their stn- 
"tiire har<lly exceeds that of an ordinary hoy of twelve, they 
^*are all niont uncommonly stout They feed on tlie flesh of 
'*antmala which they kill with arrows. They pay to IMani-KeBOck 
**ii trihnte of elephnnts' tnsks and tniU. Though thctr dif^pDRition 
•' ig by no meant* lierce they absolutely refuse to etiter into the 
'*hou«ed of the Marambas or receive them in their own town». 
"The ^moieii nre as MUlfnl asi tht^ men in archory, and ai-e not 
^'alVmd of [lenetrntin;; alone into the di»pth of the woods, wilh 
*' no other protection than their poijjoned arrowj^. (') '" 

AVithout mentioniuf^ the 8ource of his information, Dajh^er giv(*K 
fletniU of the game kind regarding the Mimoa or Bnl'ktiBahkt^!^ whom 
h^ places a little further 80iith, in the very heart of Loan^o. (♦ ) 

More recent observations, the latest of which does not go back 
farther thrit 18G1, (') have come to hand to coiitirui the^jo ancient 
ilattt. The Bakk«'-Bakk*'8 of Dapper were discovered a^ain in 
Loani^o, under the name of Bnkonkoa^ by a Grerman expedilion 
who brought back portraits and photogriiphs, C*) 

( » > ANoufcw Battel, aq English fiailoT, takei] prieoncsr by the PortuyneBc 
i»' "" ■ ciurieMl oway to Congro^ where he remained a captive for nearly 

^''-. 2x llt^ puiilitiht'fl his* afiv*:;ntures ill Purchae* coUection. Walc- 

Ki- .. ^ k tictailotl aiimmary of this niirrativti aftt^r caUiug atten- 
tion to tUe evident veracity whitrli charivcteriKeii it* Hi*(oit^ ffhtrruif dr* 
V^f'tffc*, vol. XIII, p. 12 and 4rt4). 

(•) This i8 not the Cajie Ne^ro Bhimt««l S<mth of Rengiu^la, U\'^ IV W)nth 
Ifttitiiilf* luul n^ W f-fwt Inng-itudc (Malt<-BniTi). The Ca|>e ^'egro, aUtideil to 
l*y '' '' L the iJayof Ma^omtmj and is perhupsCui>e YnmUa 

r< ao' South Latitude. 

yr.r,,,,. ,;,> \'(t)/u^t*, vol. Xlll, }y, iiL 

i » ) t>t-**^ rifition dp la Bawse fitldopie. 

'. * ^ ^ T'^' ' I! iKO, .Vfifirr it*tr tv (JtihoM in the Urfuf mor'ttime ti eoloititiiv 
f^' 'iz^i\ Uy M. H\MY itt hi^ AWir dt t'om'tltHittivn dru matt^'ia**^ 

^ 'l** nw r*fftrwi(tfftc df'x S,'f/riffnt m$ Ptftfrnttn dv tA/t'i*jNr 

^/ ft*n tir Itt Si**irte d'tttftfntwaitujir dr Pttrid, !*<?'{♦, p, 8'i), 

f*n' Ethntthttjir, |K74— H- IlAllT.MANX, Dtr ytyrifii-i; PI. 

, ^^' ' -'d many i>f the foUowiuiJ lH*hliog:niphirjd ri*f«*rtaio»-H itJftrnnJiri^ 

tb^hmUMtr^ of VViviU'rii Xt»^iU«w am horrowed frrnu M. Uamv t^ work. 


Dr. ToucHARD has remarked on the recent disappearance of a 
Gabonese race, the AJcoas ( ^ small group of whom were never- 
theless in 1868, still established in the woods north of the river 
Nazareth. Admiral Fleuriot de Langle was able to photo- 
graph one of them who was a real dwarf. (■) It is the same 
with regard to the WBoalous, ChcJcianis or Osxekanis visited by 
M. M. ToucHARD (') and Marohe. (*) Smothered between the 
Fans and the Pongoes, the}' are fast dying out like their brethren, 
the Akoas. 

By grouping together the in fr.rmation procured by these various 
photographs and descriptions, M. Hamt has been able to draw an 
almost complete portrait of some of these African dwarfs. The 
Akoa, examined by Admiral Fleuriot, "seemed to be forty years 
"old and was from l'"^ 39 to I'* 40 in height. lie was most 

"beautifully proportioned lie had a fairly good head, his hair 

*' was well placed, and loss woolly than those of Negroes properly 
" so called ; the nose was straight and the commissure of the lips 
'* well defined, exhibiting in no way the bestial stamp so common 
" with certain African types. (**) " The photograph justifies this 
description. The head is globular, but relatively strong. The 
length of it, as compared to the total height of the individual 
comes very close to the ratio already mentioned by M. IIamy with 
reference to a Babongo (1/6). {^) The countenance is just a little 
prognathous. The muscles of the thorax and upper limbs present 
outlines at the same time developed and rounded ; the lower limbs 
however are more slendoi', the feet are decidedly flat, and the heels 
rather too projecting. {'') 

(i) Notice sur Iv (hihon. {Rerue mnrit'ime et coloniale, vol. Ill, p. 9) 

(2) Crohih'i's a la coiv. d'Afrique, ISiJS {Tour du Monde, 1^70, p. 27\) 
and plate p. 28;i ). Owing to a j overnig-lit, thin Ahou or Ahona f FLEriuoT) 
is deHcri1>e(l as an Ohotigo. 

( » ) Ja)c. rif., p. \K 

(t) Troiif roijnffe* dung V Afr'njnr orcidenlale, p. lOG. 

(5) Lc'ttc^r of the Admiral quoted by M. Hamv, loc. eif., p. 84. 

( •' ) This is the highest ratio yet recorded among human beings. Tlie Xe- 
grilloH would surpaw* the Negritos in this res)X»ct. 

(-) IIamy. for. rit., p. 84. 



M. Mabche describes the M* Boulous as having an earthy- 
brown complexion. (^) Admiral Fleuriot confines himself to 
stating that these dwarfs are not so dark as their taller neighbours. 
We have seen above that the Admiral has only spoken appro- 
ximately of the height of his Akoa. M. March e also confines 
himself to saying that the M' Boulous hardly exceed l"'o 60. Dr. 
Faxkensteix is more precise. The adult Babonko, whom he pho- 
tographed, was about forty years of age and measured 1^*^ 365. (") 
The average of these four figures is 1™ 428; but as two of 
them have been given as maxima, we are entitled to consider this 
average as too high. With regard to stature, the Negrillos of 
this region would therefore be below Negritos and would come 
nearer to the Bushmen, who are perhaps the shortest race of 
men, their mean height being as low as 1^ 370. ('*). 

But the Negrillos differ from the Bushmen in a mo«t esjsenlial 
anatomical characteristic. These latter are strictly dolichocephalic 
or sub-dolichocephalic, ("•) whereas, on the contrary, the Aknas 
the Bongos,... Ac, are brachycephalic or at least sub-brnchycepha- 
Hc. (5) The measurements of the skulls, brought back by Admiral 
Fleurtot, M. MaR( he and others, have removed all doubt as to 
this fact which a simple glance at the photographs is sufficient 
to prove. C) 

M. Hamy has not contented himself with recognising and defin- 
ing the Negrillo type of the tribes that have maintained a com- 
parative purity of blood in Gaboon, lower Ogoouc and Loaiigo ; he 
has traced it much farther and has shown that it has had a real 
J^i^d important iniluence on the formation of several of the popula- 

0) Hamy, lor. cit., p. 80. 

V*) The other individual was a young: man of fifteen rears ohl who mea- 
s^ured ln,025 only. ( Hamy, lor. rit.. p. 82.) 

V ) We shall see further on that tae Akkan seem to Htaiul l)olo\v the Bunh- 
™en in this respect. 
, \ ) Their average horizontal index, 77,45, places them in thin !aHt cateprorj' 

linn? ?^^^' average horizontal index, 83.2:^ raiHOS them to the upper 

^J^^^ «ii^-l>rachycrphali»m. {Cranhi rf/iitiru,p. lioO.) 
T ...^ Among otherH, the photograph ffiven in the work of Admiral DK 
*^^NOLEal)ove quoted. 



tions of the same region and adjacent territories, who are connected 
with the negro type proper. Availing himself again of materialu 
of all kinds, M. Hamy has proved that crossing of dolichocephalic 
with brachycephalic Negroes could alone account for the general 
mixture of characteristics, especially for the morphological differ- 
ences in the skull, remarked, instance after instance, among variou« 
tribes of the valley of the Ogoouc of Fernand-Vaz. (*) I need 
not follow him here in all the details which have brought him to 
this general conclusion, but will state one single fact only. When 
M. M. DE Brazzv and Ballay returned from the perilous jour- 
ney, which was rewarded by the discovery of the Alima and the 
Licona, they found, on an island of the Upper Ogoono, four bkull.-* 
and one complete skeleton which are now in the anthropological 
gallery of the Museum. Two out of these ^ve skulls, have an 
average horizontal index of 82.24, thus approaching very closely 
to true brachycephalism. (*) The three others are dolichocephalic. 
The former arc the skulls of Negrillos the latter of Negroes. 

Let us add that the observations, gathered by M. Makche 
among the N'Javis, the Apindjis, the Okotas and the Okoa.s, show 
that among these races, who have the skull relatively full, there is 
a sensible falling off in stature. (*) With the N'Javis, it hardly 

(1) I should mention, among others, the study made by M. Hamy of the 
eraniometrical results which Professor Owex obtained by examining a 
collection brought from these regions by M. de Chaillu. The Eiiglish 
ttaranf had published the rough figures. Our countryman calculateti the 
indices and showed that, out of the 93 skulls, which formed the collection, 
411 only were dolichocephalic or sub-dolichocephalic, 1 1 sub-brachycephalic, 
and 2 brachycephalic. The intervention of an eth-tical element belonging 
to this last tyiHi is shewn clearly by this discussion which M. Hamy ha« 
made the starting point of his studies on the same subject, (yotv xtir 
Ti'xhtfnce de» Aigrcs brachycvpJiaU« *ur IdcMc occidentale d'A^'riquvj in the 
Jiullet'ui dv la Soeiete d' Anthropologies 2ineserie, vol. VII, p. 210.) 

(a) Hamy, Note xur rcxiatt-nrc de» Avgreit brachycephalcit <5>"'*m P* •*^») 
(3) M. Hamy thinks that these tribes are al lieu to the Obongoe seen by 
DlT Chaillu, near Nlembouai in the Ashango land, ( l°r»iS'.*>4' sonth latitude* 
and IPriCi'liS" east longitude). Tucse Obongos belong in fact to the small 
sized iMipulations we are examining now. The you.ig adult nifasuntd 
])y the tnivoller, was luiiww; only, and one of the women, lm.'i40. B\it ilio 
dirty y<OJow colonr of their ^kin and esiJociall^' their short hair, growinjr in 
small Irixzied tufts, Iwid led to co)nH?ctiug these dwarfs witli thtr IJrsHiiKN 
Howevt-r, l>U Chailli: has not mentioned the chamcteristic ai)ron and stvuto- 



roaclii.*^ 1'" (50. Among the Akoa«ji« the a verrrge height of the men 
vsirieji fmrn l"^')0 to 1 52, that of the women hvhvf l'"i(l io I'^'ill 
(•) At the Fame time, the complexion ia lighter, praj^nuthi^m 
dimiijit»hes and the general outline i» elegant especiaUy unions; tlje 
womt^n, whose rounded iaccs havu a pleanant expresrfsion. It i» 
evident that the negru tvpe proper is modi tied in places by 
a di»tiuct ethnologiral element* and we ©ay eonsid^r the whole 
of thi« ret^on m haring been in farmer time«, and still being to 
gome eitont, a centre of a Negrillo popalntton, 1 shall further 
on refer again to the dit^tinetion which has thus to be made 
between the pai*t and the present, 

J am inclined to consider as a eentre of the «ame kind, another 
umall territory, the Tenda-Maie, situated much further north and 
we»t, in a bend of the Riu-Grande, Mollikn, who visited thebe 
n^iona in 1818, eaye '* there is but little uniformity in the general 
'* eharacleriBtic» of the physiognomy of thes^e Keg roe** but the 
'* natives of the village of Karan are remarkable for their small 
•* statiire, slender limbs and the softnoBs of their voice. They are 
*• the tnie African Pigniiee.*' {*) However incomplete this nbort 
de»eription may be, it is eauy tu see that Teuda Mai J is inhabited 
by a mixed population, of whrch these Pigmies are an element. 

Although Tenda Maic is somewhat distant from the «pot 
where the Nflsamons {'*) of Herodotus were taken pri^oneri«, yet 
it in difficult not to connect the diminutive men alluded to by the 
Greek historian with Mollien*8 Pigmies. The upper banins 
of th© Kio-Grande and Niger are not far apart and we may admit, 
without ditEculty, that they were inhabied, in former daye, by men 
of tho same race. 

^jgrgy as wtifitinff aiuoxij; tbe women though lie sow them qaite clo&e. Bouie 

f»i»i»f»T-t;.inrv i.v,;.,i ■nn^ moasurements odone couJd remove* etill prevails 

the ethaicftl affinities of the Ol>ongo«. (Dtr Chaillit, 

^ . - -'''.) 

(•) ttfi/fiffft iittn, ruiirrii*ttr tie rj/ritjur, tntj; unfitrt tltt Sitnigul it de h 
,fo*^%^f' •^•yiMl iH3a. VOL II, ^ 216. The viJIftge of FMania situated about 

< » y ^ Itfo Part I, p. 


The Gaboon, the Ogooue and the Loaiigo arc a long way from 
Tenda Male, and the existence of Negrillo tribes has never as yet 
been reported within these limits. 1 am, however, inclined to 
believe that all these races of low stature are closely allied one 
with another. We know that the whole of the Guinea coast 
has been the same of successive invasions which have brought the 
conquering tribes of the interior up to the soa-coast. The purpose 
of the movement of these swarms of tribes, and their murderous 
customs, of which the Dahomeyans of our own times still furnish 
a well known example, explain easily how a comparatively feeble 
race could, and in fact did disappear over a considerable area. 
The extinction of some of these tribes has just been carried out 
in our own generation and under our very eyes. It was no doubt 
one of the last scenes of a drama, the first acts of which were 
enacted far back in the past. 

I shall not enter into more detail, the above being sufficient to 
lead me to the conclusion that the Negrillos of the Kio- Grande 
and those of the further end of the Gulf of Guinea are closely 
related with each other and that both have relation to the small 
beings described to Herodotus by the Nasamons. 


Almost due East of this Gabonese group of pigmies, there pro- 
bably exists, in the very heart of Africa, a large centre of Negrillo 
populations of which the ancients could have had no knowledge. 
The accounts given to Sta^lky by Ahmed, son of Djoumah 
(^) seem to me to be of too precise a nature not to be founded on 
fact. This ivory merchant had himself seen the small men he 
spoke of and had had to fight them ; he owned having been beaten 
by them and his statements agree with all the other information 
collected by the great American traveller. From this ensemble 
of evidence, it follows that towards the centre of the region 
comprised within the extensive track of Livinostone, there exists 
a race of dwarfs called VouatouaSf very numerous, spread over a 

(1) Across the Dark Continent VoL II, p. 114. 



eon«iderable area au<l in possession o£ complete mdcpciitiencp 
(») As liu piisj^cil ihrougli Ikoiiudou, (") h>TA n let captured a u 
individual beloiif^iug to that or a neigtibuuring tribe. This Voua- 
toua mcaaured l^iL His head waa lar^e and his face wju 
eurrouudod willi uneven whiskers i>f a lli»hr. chocolate-brow u 
colour. Likcj Battel's little Negroe«, these Vouatouns aro elephaul 
hunteri* aiid use ]>oij«oned arrows. Thia combiuation of phyaical 
and Kocial characteristics connect them evidently with the Negril- 
los almve-mentioned. We ehall again find similar traits* among 
their brethren, the descendants of the Pigmies of Homer and 


The tradition referring to the latter ie by uu uicanB lost ; It 
haa been kept up, in particular, by the Arab geographers who have 
placed a rirer of (he Fii^mies m tlio South of Abyssinia. The 
Reverend Father LfiON Dts Atanojiers i» of opinion that thit* 
ri?er can be identified with a stream spiin^^ng from the Anku 
mountains, a little to tbe north of the Eijuator In thift region, 
abuut 32^ east longitude, this eminent misBionnry has placed his 
Wa-B^^nA'imt/fi^ {^) aIi*o called Cincitllt^Hj which literally means* </7m</ 
a nyander! Me aUo &aw, in iho kingdom of Gcra, several of these 
dwarfs wbom he describeB as ** deformed, thick-set beings, with 
large heads, and at the most four feet in height*' (about l^ 30) {*). 

The particulars collecte<l by M, ij'AnaAorE from A mace, ainlm«- 
sador of the King of Kullo, and from a woman a native of the 
neighbouring territory of Kaffa, (*) corroborate the preceding 
et&texnente. The Malatt or Maz^ MaJmn would stand a little over 

(»> In Stajclky's large Map this region is i>!Aced in about 3*^ south latitude 

' Ifi^ ♦ t^de. The tiriveller udda that th« Vouatouaa aiia also 

Fc y. Vtmaluiumun and Ymiahoumouit, 

(•) Ik • -v 2°53'. 

(•) jt ^ dr«mjf4 Orttmo on (hiUn dit» /wyjr Stfttmli 

ft tie h c< : „ ..:. ,^ i, with a map, borrowed from a letW to M. 

^Z»'AB&APia. Kl^aUmn d€ ia Sael^^ de Gtom^aphltf, ime s^rie, vol. XVII, 

(*) ^ i* d Abl>adif, with a mop ( Bullet in d4S la SocteU de 

Gm>gr^j*h ic, vol. XII. 1866, p. 171). 

( »> , ir'^" ""^"^ ^^ north latitude and 31** east longitude ( Map of Be v. 
Fataer Lioy dssAvakou&bs, ho, cit} 



l^ 50; they are of a black, and occasionally reddish, complexion 
(fnym). C) 

The data, which my eminent colleague has been good enough to 
give mts seem to take these diminutive Negroes a little further 
North. But, even so, this would indicate that herc» as in Western 
AlVitva, Ihuy arc sputtered over a more or less extenwive area, nnd 
that thuir triboH bear different nnmes. Everything, tberet'ore, tends 
to show that, to the south of the Gallas countries, thero exists a 
centre of a Negrillo population, and I do not think I am too bold in 
eunnecting theso eastern tribes with the Pigmies of Povpoyirs 
MEC.A.jnst ml have roiupareil the small beings of Hebodotl's with 
the dwarfs of ^^enegnmbia. It is useless, I think* my repeating 
ben% in Kupport of tliis ii|jiijion, the arguments whieh I have men- 
tioned above. 

We know that it is particularly the Pigmies of IIomeb, living m 
the marshy region of the Nile, who have a ttrarted the attention 
of commentators. I have before this recalled the opinions expressed 
by BuFFos nnd HnuLtN on this subject, {*} The paper of the Abbe 
Ba**ikh sums up the various interpretations ottered by other 
savants, who, also regarding these legends as having a certain 
groundwork of truth, have tried to indentify the dwarfs of mytho- 
logy with some of the populations known to the ancients, (*) 
It IB hardly necessary to add that these conjectures, wliieh were 
bu«ed on no solid foujidation whatever, could lead to no valua- 
ble result, nnd it is easy to vniderstaud why earnest investigators 
should have rejected, as groundless, all that had been said on the 
Buhjeet It was reserved for modern exploration to give another 
direction to these resi^arches and lo lead to positive conclusions. 

In fact, the further travellers have penetrated in the regions of 
the Upper Nile, the more evidence they have been able to collect 

(I) M. S. Communicnihm of M* B'Abbadik with a note by tlie aame 
author, ilhtlhtiN ilv lu Soviet t iV AKthroj/ologie^ Mu fi6rie, II, p. lOD). 

(») Vidt anti\ Part I. 

(>) JtU^ettntwti «ftr /rt r^ym^es (M^mohc* tif VActidcfttif dca In*erip- 
inns t /Irlti* Lt'ttfTA^sul \\ p, lOl), The author ynde^voiira to i»ruvo thut 
r gm tn fiave rc^Jly cxi«te<l titid arc to be lOQked for m Aaoiont Ethiopia, 
Eo ideutaieb Lhom with the PaohiiiiAnB of Ftolsmy. 

THE PI0HIV8. 88 

with regard to theeo Bmall aised populationa. Tlie existence of true 
Pigmiea thus became more and more probable; so innch bo tliat in 
Bome instructions framed by a committee of the '* Acadcmio 
dca Sciences ■' for the exploring expedition of M. d*Escayrac or 
LAUTriiE, the compiler took care to draw the attention uf the tra- 
veller to this particular point. (*) But we know that it has been 
in rain thnt Eun:>pean8 have travelled up the Nile and have even 
reached its source; they have never come across these small beinga. 
Spcke ftJone »aw, at the court of Kamraai, a deformed dwarf of 
whom be gives a portrait. But this* drawing and aci'ompanying 
explanation ahow that KvMJ'iKiA, far from belonging to a race of 
Pigmiefl, was not even aware of the existence of the^e diminutive 
Ncgpocs. (*) 

It is SciiwEiFFiTBTH to whom is due the honour of demonstrating 
that rhe myth of IIomkr oonccalod a reality, and of proving the word^ 
of AttisTOTLt. But to do this he had to cross over from the water- 
shed of the Nile to that of the Ouellu, to go beyond the laud of 
the Niftm-Niam» and reach the eountry of the Monbouttoua whleh 
he was the first to visit It was at the court of Mounza that he 
diKovered tliis dwarfish race, still know^n there under the name of 
Akkas, the very name whitrh Mariettk had read at the side of 
th*; portrait of a tlvvarf on a monument of the old Ej^yptian empire, 
tVom the information ^iven to Schwexnfurth by Adimokou, 
^■hicf o! the small colony which Mounza keeps near his royal resi- 
lience^ it would seem that the land of the Akkas or Tiki-Tikis, (<") 
i» fitnated about '4 Nortli latitude and 25'' East longitude. This 
wmtry ia uo doubt pretty extensive- Living on amicable terms 
*Hh the surrounding populations, and protected by their mighty 
^^Jglil>orir, the Akkas seem to occupy here a continuous area and 

^»M Comjptn rrtuhu d^ VArntUmir dt4i Scientet. Sitting of the 10th 

, ^"^" ~ '"' ' ' ■ *y« df hi SoetHr dc Gro0rttphit\ -^wi/* Berie. XII, 

- cuinix*«<Mi of M-M. OATssy, CoaoiEB, ^lik 


* i^^. VALi:.XLli;?iNE3, J. ULOijCKT ftml JOMARD, 

J J) 7h4^ Simrce M iU y\it\ J. U. SPEKE. p. 496 and plate, p. 497. 
X^ . ) HoLT^ZA oaeil the w uid Akka to describe theee little Negroeii, wbereait 
^ ^^^Mi euxemia Moimimeri, called tliem Tiki-Tikifl, 

number, nine difitinct tribes having each ite own king or chief. (*) 
At the time of iScEWEiNFUCTii's nsit, these people were, partiallr 
at least, under the atithority of MorMSiERi, one of MorxzA^'s ras* 
"^nh^ whn catne to pay homapje to hts suzerain at the head of a 
perfect regiment of these Btnall Negroes, so that the European 
traveller was able to see, at the same time, several hundreds of 
tliese dwarf warriors. (^) 

In exchange for one of ht^ dogs, ScHWEiNFUftTH obtaloed from 
MouiczA one of the Akkas of whom he had made a portrait f*) 
Ue ihteuded brui*j;ing lum over to Europe, but th<? unfortunate 
Nsfnor^ died of dj^eutery at Berber, Soutli of Khartoum, His 
skeleton may perhaps one tUy be found by some traveller and 
brought to somo Muaoum where it will furnish to science tlie 
anatomical indications which are still wanting concerning these 

The only record^^ wo have as jet^ with respect to the Akkiis, 
proceed from the examijiatitm of living subjectH, and are very few 
in number. The notes and measuremeuts taken by 8ciiWKi\'prRTii 
were burnt in the unlucky fire which destroyed the fruit of three 
years* arduous work and toil, and it was anything but easy to make 
up, even partially, for such a loss. However, M. MatinO bad the 

(1) ScmwiiiNFCliTH, .ttf P€Pwr ^/r rj/r/^wf, p. 110. This journey i» one 
of the most remarkable amonjf tho&e which have fw> rapiiUy incjvoeeci our 
kaovvledge of Central Africa* It lasittd from the beginning of July, I^<;h^ 
to tiie eArly part of Novemljcr, 1 871, and the greattT part of it was jus^Ik m 
countrit5» entirely unexplored up to that time hy Europeans. The trav< ; ^i 
had gathered splendid collpctionti of ail kinds and had taken numerous ol -- r- 
fttions. note**, drawinp!i» maps, etc. Nearly all of these scientific Uku- 

ires were unfortunately desti'oyed by fire. We can will "ro ig-'ue t^v j- f 

' the flavant thus rctiucod to relate his travels from memory. Hi* u ui k 
is none the lec<H moat valuable on account of the information obtained al>oDt 
regrionfi which until then were utterly unknown. 

(«) ScHWEiNFniTii, Ah cfcnr drVAtrifjite, p. ILl. 

(>) Id. p. i>4. BcuwKiNFT'BTU has given a full height portnut of another 
AJdCA called B6mbi. {LL p. 121 ), 

Sinoe Moi^nza hiLH learnt tlie value attached Uy Akkas, as objects of eurio«i^, 
he oecft«ionally gives them ae pT«*enti3 to the ivorj* merchaute who visit him 
I'.very year* This m liow one of these individuale arrived at Khartoum; he 
had l>een eent to the Governor of the Soudan by Emin-Bst ( Doctor 
Hthx iTZOR ). M. VnssioK, the French Vioe-CouJinl, gave a brief deecriii* 
tion of him iu a iett<*r t«o \vhicli I will refer htrenftci'. 

THE FI0HTI8. 37 

good luck, during one of his travels, of coming across two Akka 
female slaves, a young girl and an adult woman. (^) Another 
woman, SaIda, sent to Italy by Gessi-Pacha, was thoroughly 
examined by M. Gioliolt. (') M. CiiAiLLfi-LoNo-BEY saw also 
a woman who had accompanied one of Mouxza's sisters 
to the country of the Niams-Niams. (^) M. Vossion, French 
Vice-Consul at Khartoum, has given, in a letter that was put at my 
disposal, a brief description of a grown-up man. But, though 
these records may corroborate and complete each other, still they 
would be quite insufficient, had not a favourable circumstance 
occurred, which furnished European anthropologists with the means 
of studying personally the curious race under remark. 

A traveller, more courageous than learned, M. Miani, had fol- 
lowed on the footsteps of ScnwEiNFrRTn and also reached the 
country of Mombouttous. Less fortunate than his predecessor, 
he broke down from fatigue, and died, bequeathing to the Italian 
Geographical Society, two young Akkas whom he had exchanged 
for a dog and a calf. (*) After various vicissitudes, Tebo and 
Chaieallah, were taken charge of by a man of science and feeling, 
Count MiNiscALcni-Eiiizzo, who had them brought up under his 
direction. They could thus be followed and studied at leisure. 
Their photographs were at the same time profusely distributed 
by the Geographical Society, and attracted, on all sides, the atten- 
tion of anthropologists. (*) The result of these observations was 

(i) M. Marxo'S notcfi were publisher! in the Mittheilnnz/en der Anthropo- 
loghche^tt Gticlhchafi in Wicn, vol. V, and were analvftctl in the Arch irio per 
TAniropolotjia e Ul Etnologia^XiA. IV, p. 4r>l, and also in M. HAM Y*S work, loc. 
cit, p. 98. 

(«) Gli Akhi rrrtniti in If aim. {Archirio, vol. X, p. 404.) 

(s ( Vaynge an Lac Mctoria Nyanza et an Patjg des yiaTns-JViams ; linlletin 
dc la Svciatt de Geoijraphiv^ <»tb Series, vol. X, p. 303 ) and Central Africa^ p. 
263. with plates, p. 264 and 207. In the latter an Akka woman is represented 
between two Niam-Niams and hardly comes up to their shouldtr. 

(♦) Les Ahkas, by Count Miniscalchi-Eeizzo. ) Congref International 
de* Sciences Geographiqvat, Steeion of Paris, 1879. vol. I, p. 299.) The author 
jnves three photographs representing Tebo, full face and profile, and Chaib- 
ALLAH full face only. 

(») Tebo and Chairallah, on arriving at Cairo, were examined by 
Colucci-Pacha, Reony-Bey, Doctor Gaillardot and by M.M. Schwein- 
FLRTH, OwEN% CoRNALiA and Paxceri, who happened, by chance, to be at 

THE PIGltlEfl. 

first to remove all doubt as to the reality of SoHWKi»TrBTH*B dis- 
4?orerj, Some persona considered the individuals preriouely 
meaKured by travellers as mere children and believed that Tedo 
aud Chairallah would grow taller. (^) The former of these two 
8 lip positions could not stajid before the accurate statementa made by 
MabnO, onthe observatinos of MM. Giolioli and Chaill6-Loko 
on three women, and those of M. Vossion on a man ; as for the 
second hypothesis, it was refuted by one of the two Akkas himself, 
who, as he grew older, never exceeded or even reached the maxi- 
mum height recorded by Schweintcrtu, (-) 

The Russian traveller measured six adults; none of them, aaya 


i the name time in Egypt. Their observations were published in the BnUrtin 
\de V Inst it tit Etjijpfien in 1873 and 1874* These little negroes w^rethe cause of 
the pul>licatioii of mim)' other jMifiers, among which I shall quote : Ej'amrn de 
dcuiF jXrffrffJt I*i/ffitUeit df la trtbu (iejf Akktis ramenvx par Miani dtt ^^trure f/a- 
hoH, by M, Richard Owen ; Itcmarqurnt on the above jjapex, by MM, Baix^A, 
Hamy and de QuATBKiUfJuei. ( JiulUtin de la ,Soeit^t^ d' A nf hnfpoh^^ie^ 1874^ 
p. 255*) ; — Sitr leg Akhttt by M, Fantzza {id, p. 4fi3; Observationji Anrles Jdit't** 
natHJf A/riefthtcs it propo» drs Alikait, hy A, De Quatrefaoks ( #VA p- 7»OU ) 
And Comptett-rrndnn de V Academic drs *^Vwr//tvvf, 1874, p. 1518); — Lem Akkm^^ 
race Ptfijtnee de V AfviqKc Ctntralc^ by P. Bllu€A {limfv d'Anthropoltufh\ 1874, 
p. 279 ) ;— / dup Afika dd MianU by MM. P. Manteuazza and A. ZAy>ET'ri, 
{Archirio per tAnthropulogitt e U Etmdogia^ voL III, 1874, p. 1H7 ) with an 
AppvndU (p* 158) including three letters ^Fxitten at Cairo by MM. Owfijr, 
P, Paiccehi, and E. Corn alt A ; — I^ltns wr les Akkat de Mititti, l»y E, CoR- 

NALIA, 'ftith remarks by M. M. Oi«LiOLi and Zanneti Arehit^w , 1874. 

p. 4L^8 i^Gli Ahhi ddMiani by Z— - Archirio -, vol. IV, 1874, p. IMO ); 

— Attrritiri yt/tizif cutornir di Ac(/riti ; ftfi Akkii rirtnti t*t Itatiti^ by Pro- 
fessor E. UlLLIOKH GlOLlULI ( Archirio , vol, X, p. 404 ), 

(t) Panijuca— /f^t'. c^t^ p. 4G4. The Anthropological Society of Madrid fieemi 
I have shared tbu doubts euUirtaintd by the Itomnn Doctor. 
(5) Some doubt haa betm entertuin%?*l a» t*> the puritj' of type of MlANl'8 
kk^fi. M, Hamy expreHHe^, on thirt particidar jHjint, ( he eit^ p* 97 ) a 
ktion which m not p«rliaj)« entirely without t^round with reg'anl to 
HAIItALLAH. On the other hand, his cephiillL' index m rather low ( 77,52 ) ; 
i\L Manteoazza and Zannktti, in thoir exhaui?ti%'e work on these Akka^ 
'groumiing^ their opinion on the t*uppo*H^d aj<e of tho two subject** aud the 
g^^neral hiws of growth, had predicted thatTetio wuuld stop below Chairal- 
LAU ( W. eit^ p. 1 H )* The event hart confirmtid their pretliction ; Chairal- 
kABi Btili growings had rcaohed lin42t wheroan Tkbo* who hoe all the cha- 
M!ten9tica of an aduJt, and ^tec-mc^ to have finiehetl gioyfing^ has Ktoppc'd at 
;ni4! (GIOLIOLT, lor. cit, p. 4uii ). Moreover, the latter has a verj' hig-h index 
80.2H ). Therefore, if any doubt can utill be »aid to exist with regard to 
HAIRALLAU, who may |>erhap*i have tieen aflPected by intermixture with a 
full -blood Negro element, such a frappoeitlou can howeTer not apply to Tebo 


be, exceeded lm50. (0 l^e one measured bj &f. Yossion, was 
32 years old and l°>dl in height. Tebo, the older of Miami's 
Akkas, with all the characteristics of an adult, has stopped grow- 
ing at 1™41, which is the average for the three figures above. (■) 

The woman measured by Mabn5, was from 20 to 25 years of 
a^e and came up to 1°^3G (') ; the one of Chaill^-Long was 
l=»2ir>; Saida, 1™;34 (*) ; the mean height thus being 1^302. 
The average for both sexes would be lm3o6. These figures bring 
the Akkas, with regard to stature, perceptibly below the Mincopies, 
and even slightly under the Bushmen, who, to this day, have been 
looked upon as the smallest people on earth. But the measure- 
ments obtained, up to now, among intertropical Pigmies are not 
numerous enough to allow of this fact being definitively accepted 
by science. (*) 

ScnwErxFUBTH describes the Akkas as having a very large head, 
a wide and nearly spheroidal skull. (•) The latter feature has 
certainly been exaggerated. The highest index, ever measured on 
the body, is given by Mabno*s figures and only reaches 82-85, 
which amounts to about 80-85 for the dry skull. The average, for 
three young subjects, is 78-03, that is, over 76-00 for the dry skull. 
(') This result, far from indicating the true dolicocephalism which 
dis*tinguii*he8 full-blooded Ne^^roes, agrees on the contrary with the 
figures that distinguish the Negrillo type as shown above. Accord- 
in:^ to Sceiweixfukth again, the complexion of the Akkas recalls 
the colour of slightly burnt coffee. The observations made ou 

CO Loc. cit p. 151. 

(«) GiGLiOLi, loc. cit., p. 406. 

(3) Zor. r/f, p. 461. 

( * ) Loe. rit, p. p. 410. 

( *) This refiervation is all the more juBtified that no Akka has ever exhi- 
bited BO low a minimum (1ml 4) as the female Bushman measured by Bar- 
R< ► w and especially as the individual of the same race to whom Doctor Weis- 
BACK a**igiiii a stature of Im only. 

(«) Loc. cit, p. 124. 

(' ) In order to bring back the ratio obtained on the living to what it 
would be on the dry skull, M. Hamy takes into account the small develop- 
ment of the temporal muscles in young subjects, and reduces the index by 
oue unit only, thuji considering the average under remark at being 77.00 at 
lean. {loc. c</, p. 98.) 


Tebo and CHi.iRi.LLA.u are in accordaace with this statement. But 
Count MiNrscALCiii has observed that their skin became much paler 
in winter time. (^) Their hair is about the same colour, though 
lighter in the ease of With both it is decidedly woolly 
and forms gzoun'rides ; such is also the beard which has grown on 
Tebo's chin and upper lip. (') 

SrnwEiXFUBTH has represented Nsfevou^ as very prognathic, 
the nose being aquiline de profil, though the tip is blended with 
the upper lip (^) ; the chin is prominent, whereas, with Bombi, 
it recedes a good deal and the nose stands out more. (*) In that 
respect, Tebo's photograph approaches more closely the latter type 
than the former. (*) The lips are not so thick as with common 
Negroes, and are even described as thin by VL. VossiON and by 
ScnwEiNFURTii as well. 

All statements agree in asigning to the Akkas, men or 
women, a considerable expansion of the belly which gives to 
adults the appearence of Negro or Arab children. (•) In the 
photographs we possess of Tebo and Chairallau, this feature is 
most conspicuous. M. Panizza, who studied, in an anatomical 
point of view and by auscultation, the cause of such a develop- 
ment, attributes it to an unusual size of the spleen and of the 
left lobe of the liver, and also to a large amount of fat accummu- 
lated in the mesentery. (0 '^^^^ distension of the abdomen is 
attended by consequences which have struck all observers. The 
chest, comparatively narrow and flat in the upper region, expands 
lower down so as to encompass this enormous paunch. (®) On the 
other hand, the protrusion of the belly requires, for the sake of 
balance in the body, that the lower portion of the spine should 

(1) Lite, clt., p. 301. 

( a ) GlOLlOLl, loc. cit., p. 405. 

(s) Loc. cit., p. Gi. 

(4) SCHWEINKL'RTII, loc. cit., p. 121. 

^^) MiNISCALCHI, ior. Clt., p. 30U. 

(0) SCHWEIXFL'KTU, ioc. cit , p. 123; 3IarNo, loc. cit., p. 461 ; VossiON's 
unpubliahed letter. However, BoMBi's portrait docs not exhibit this character, 

(7) Z«7C. c<Y., p. 465. 

(») SCHWEIXrURTH, loc, cit. 

TKE PKSnaL 41 

ilao be brought forvud in c«:QK4x<esf^ cf w^j^sl ij« T«c^«cr^ 

It is obrioos, boirerer, laat tai* Ab:::-r3jil oe^clopzaei: of lie 
abdomen cannot be taken as a tme ratriil crLir:fc::e»dir 'i izi* 
people, but w no d»"»ubt brought on r_r th^ir 2>>ie *>f li^ac ac-i 
nature of tbe food, and perhaps al^o hv the ^ceral o?Qd::io:is of 
habitat. TLia we can infer from the personal experience of Coon; 
MnascALCHi, who noticed that, after a few weeks of vholessome 
and regular diet, " the excessive expansion of the abdomen had 
disappeared and the spine had resumed it« normal state. *^ i. ' ) 
The same change has occurred with regard to SaIda. (') 

In order to complete the physical description of these Akkas, I need 
saj a few words about their limbs. The upper ones are long« and 
the hands very delicately shaped. (*) The lower limbs are short 
as compared with the bust and have a slight inward bend. The 
feet also arc turned in, but more so than with other Africans. (*) 

(1 ) This conformation has been the cause of a singular mistake and of a 
good <1^ of discussion. In a communication to the Egyptian Institute 
( 5th December, 1873 ), Schweixfubth had compared this bend of the spine 
to a G. The eminent traveller evidently alluded to the lower portion of the 
back and meant to say that the concavity of the C was turned backwards. 
But, acting under the influence of preconceived ideas, and in the hopes of disco- 
vering the mingifig link, which has been the subject of so much active search 
for so long, some venturesome minds supposed that theC represented the shape 
of the whole back, that the concavity was turned forward, and that, conse- 
quently, the Akkas bore, in that respect, a great resemblance to anthropo- 
morphous monkeys. Before even having seen their photographs, I had com- 
batted. at the Anthropological Society and elsewhere ( loc. eit., p. 1519 ) this 
interpretation, which is perfectly incompatible with the mode of locomotion 
in man and with the agi'ity universally attributed to the Akkas. Broga {he. 
cit., p. 284) and also MM. Manteoazza and Zanxetti ( loc. cit^ p. 148 ) 
have, later on, given the same arguments in support of our common opinion , 
which is entirely justified by the present state of knowledge on the subject. 

(>) HI5IBCALCHI, loc. cit., p. 21)9. 

C) GIOLIOLI, U)c. ciU p. 410. 

(*) SCHWElxrUBTH, loc. cit, p. 124. The photographs' of Tebo and 
CBAiaALLAH do not justify this compliment, any more than the cast made of 

(») SCHWEDTFUBTH, loc» ciU P. 123. 

42 TH£ PI6MI£8. 

The Akka women bear a great resemblance to the men. M. 
GiGLTOLi speaks of SaIda as having a thick waist, short neck, 
arms neither slim nor long and hands rather largo than other- 
wise, ller complexion, as with Chaiballaii, is that of a mulatto; 
her hair is of a fuliginous black and the grony'rulrs are not so 
distinct; prognathism rather more defined. (*) This description 
agrees perfectly with the portrait given by M. Chaill^-Lono, 
who adds that, in the case of his Tiki-Tiki woman, the breasts were 
very flaccid, though she vowed never having had any children. (•) 

The physiological characteristics of Akkas resemble those of 
most savages. Thoir senses are extremely acute, and Schwiih- 
FUBxn repeatedly bears witness to their excessive agility. Accord- 
ing to the Monboukous, these little creatures are wont to bound 
in the tall grass, after the manner of grasshoppers. (') NsfevouiS 
had, in a certain measure, kept up that habit and during the time 
he stopped with Scuwei>fueth, was never able to bring a dish 
without spilling part of its contents. (*) 

The Akkas are very courageous. " They are men, and men who 
know how to fight," said Moumm^bi speaking of his followers. (•) 
They are great elephant hunters and will attack them with a very 
short bow, and spears hardly as high as themselves. (•) LoNO- 
Bbv coroboratcs this statement and adds that the women are as 
martial as the men and this again fully confirms the information 
given by Battf:l. (") 

J;^c^WKINFUurII draws a miserable picture of the character and 
iiitellcct of NsEvou^:. lie describes him as enjoying the sight of 

( ) Lot', fit., !». 410. 

( -^ ) Loc. at., p. 201). Tay traveller liowovor asjilbos to hor very small han^JU 


(n A/., p. 111. 
(4) /r/., p. 12X 
(») SCHWEI.NFUKTII, p. 11."). 

('* ) P7.'//? portrait of Bom bi, he cit. ScH WEiXFUUTH does uot mention that 
tl.oir arrows arc poisoned. 
( 1 ) Lon(J-Bky, Ioc. cit., p. 2<»0. 


wfitoinj m men and animals, and as ncrep baring sacceeded in 
learning Arabic or any other dialect of the country. (*) Mnaa- 
CALCDi, on the contrary, found Tebo and Chatbai.laii to be 
affectionate and grateful pupiU, always ready to improre them- 
leWes. Both of them, especially TfiBO, had a great tiste for music. 
Two years after their arrival in Europe, they knew how to read and 
write. Their adoptive father showed, in 1S79, to one of his col- 
leagues, two letters entirely worded and written out by them 
without any help whatever ; the fac-simile of these specimens wa* 
inserted in the proceedings of the Congress. (») They had not, 
however, forgotten their mother-tongue and could supply 31. 
MiKiBCALcni with several hundred words and various information 
enabling him thus to draw up a grammar which he considers as 
similar to that of the Niam-Niam Ungnage. (*) 

What have these Akkas become under the influence of a Euro- 
pean climate and of an education to which they were submitted, for 
the first time, these representatives of that ancient and wild race that 
has settled down at two or three degrees from the Equator r 
Evidently the question is of great interest, and we must feel grate- 
ful to M. GioLiOLi for having replied to it in detail. (♦) 

Tebo has always borne up very well against the cold winters of 
Verona. Chaiballah has had ague and cough pretty often ; he 
also suffered from rheumatism for the first two or three years, but 
both are now perfectly well acclimatized, (•) and so is also Saida. (•) 

(O Loe.eit^^ 125. 

^•) ^. ci^., p.p. 302 and 303. 

'^) M. MiKiscALCHi used to converse with them in Arabic, which they 

fiy^ VAo ^^^ virenti in Italiu^ loc. cit. This memoir was written in \i<¥}, 
J^eaiB after that of Count Mixie^'ALCHi. 
J*> ^rf.p.407. 
of the Sl^^^^^^^^ thought that he could discover, by a fidrni^e inqiection 
bostandS'^ ^ ^^ ^'^ grown somewhat longer. The examination of the 
^^•^ do y^ nie^suiea, necessarily approximative, which I took of this plaster- 
not, to my mmd, justify this opinion. 


A casting was taken of TgBO. and his bust can be Been at the 
Museum. By com|mringit with tlie photographs taken in 1874, we 
6ee that he has lost somewhat of his infantine looks ; his forehead 
is less prominent, though not so elan ting as with Xsfivoufe. In 
that reapect he comes closer to B^^mbi. Prognathism is mther more 
defined, but the other features are hardly altered. (* ) 

These two Akkas have kept a sensitive and unsettled disposi- 
tion, like that of ehilflren. (*) They are fond of play ; their 
motions are rapid, and, in their promenades, they like Ut run at a 
douhle-(|uiek pace. ('') 

Tebo is more affectionate and studious, and has always behayed 
himself well. Chaihallau i.-? more int*^lligent, but has occasionally 
nhowed himseU" spiteftd and revengeful. They have, however, 
never quarelled with their young friends, and they love each other 
most tenderly. 

Both of them have been baptized and are observant of their 
religious dutie.*^, though their spiritual leader does not consider 
their sentiments in tliat respect aa very deeply rooted. (*) 

They have now completely forgotten their mother-tongue^ and ' 
very nearly all the Arabic thoy knew. Tlusy speak Italian fluently, 
but experienced at first grt-at diiEculty in pronouncing wordu 
containing two z {beHezza, carezza). 

They have a great sense of emulation, and, at school, hare shown , 
themselves superior to their European companions of ten and 

(i) GlOLIOLI, /<?<?. rf^, p. 4HK 

(i) Lo€. ciU p. 409, 

(») The above conJd alen B]>ply to SAiDA. However she was not treated in 
the Banie way as her coimti'} iulii, 8ht' remaiii'd a servant and was not 
taught to read and writt\ SLestjieukB Italian fluently, and a little GeanMi, 
s^bich iH lilt- language of hm- iniBtrefi*; she is bometimefi capriciouB and very 
fond of plajTng with children. (Oir.LinLi. loe. nt., p. 411.) 

(•) /rf,»p. 409, 

rwelve jears old» The Dotet wbich their professor nhoweil to M. 
GteLiOLi, prove that they went thorough ly well through the v&riam 
compositions in arithraetic, paroing and dictation. (*) Countess 
^Incise Aii en I gave muaio lessons to Tkbo, and M, GiOLroLt heard 
him play» on the piano, some rather difficult piecesj with a certain 
amount of feeling and a good de^l of precision, (■) 

In jihort, we maj conclude that, in spite of their small stature, 
their comparatively long arms, their large bellies and short logs, 
the Akkas are real and true men in every respect; those who had 
looked upon them as Iialf-monkeya must be now completely un- 

ConeluMwn, — The foreing facts seem to convey a few general 
roniiiderationa which I will now briefly summarize. 

In proceeding from Senegambia and Gaboon towards the land 
of the Gallafl and Mouboutous, we have verified the true existence 
of human communities characterized, all of them, by a small 
stature, a comparatively large and rounded head, a lighter 
complexion than that of Negroes proper, and by similar instincts and 
customs. With M. Hamt, we must acknowledge that these 
groups are as many specimens of a special race, the Neoiullos, who 
are, in Africa^ the representatives of the Asiatic and Indo-Melane- 
ftian Negritos. 

The ancients evidently possessed more or less accurate infor- 
aation respecting these Negrillos, as well as the Negritos. They 
were the African Pigmies, but they had been placed in three 

ographical localities where they are no more to be met with now- 
adays. In order to find them, wo must look to countries which are 

fe- ■ — _^^ — ^. ^ 

(*) Chaiballau had obtained 10 ( mnximum figure) for dictation and 

aJigraphy ; Tebo, aleo 10 for dietntion. Their other noteeare 8/ 10 and &/ll> 

ic«t>t for the ioiution of arithmetic problems, in which Chair allah comes 

own to 7/10 axkd Tbbo to 6/10. We find hcjre a^^oin a proof of the iuferiority 

"of Sapc^o races with Teg^ajrd to science, 

(•) 14. p, 209. Their education has uufortimatcsly been stopped at prenent- 
Bc^h CHAraALLAU and Tebo make part of the houfehold in the HiifiacAL- 
Cfli familj. iQiQLiovhhc, city 



mucli f uilher from Europe than was supposed in olden times ; more- 
over, these Picrniicpi appear to us now as forming isolated agglomer* 
ations far apart from ea^^h other Laf*tly, in one of these homes 
ftt least, we are able to witness at present the decline of the race 
and its fusion with n iiei[jfhl>ourIn); eleii2nt, whieh is conatimtly 
inrreaaing in i#trens?th and rinmber 

All theae faets reeall vividly the past, and the present fato of the 
Negpritos must naturally be relegated to the same causes. They 
show us that, iu days gone by, the Neijrillo!* were more niimeroua 
and formed more eompaet and continuous communitiea, aud that 
they must have been driven back and broken up by anperior race^. 
Their Liiitory, if better known, would moat eertaitily biMtr a ^reat 
resemblance to that of their Ei^toni brethren. 

What we know of the latter iuduces to believe that, in the lauds 
where they are still to be fouruh these Negritos have preceded the 
races by whom they have Bubaequently been oppresi^ed, di^pert^e^l 
and almost anuihilated. With regard to Negrilloe, eimilar facts 
must carry with them the same conelusionn. We are tbtia brou^^ht 
to accept as must probable that these small and brat'liyt'ephulie 
Ne^roei* originally occupied at lea^it a great part of Africa 
previous to the full-blooded Negroes characterized by dolieocopha- 
lisTii and a larger stature. The latter eorrespuiid ivith the Papuan, 
while the Negrillos are the Negritos of Africa. 

This comparison does not arise simply from a superficial inspec- 
tion of the African and Indo-Mehinesian Negroes ; it is also 
justified by the detailed study of skulls which renders evident 
the striking connoctiuo existing between the two great anthropo- 
logical formatioua which rcpr«'ii'nl tho Xngro type at batli extre- 
mities of our continent, ( * ) 

Ifow could such a narrow resemblance liave occurred between 
populations which are separated by so vast a upaee and by su*di 


(1) Cran'm Ethnita, 

THE PlttHIES. 47 

numerous and diflerent raced? Arc these affinities the nimpie 
result of a common origin ? This interrogati()u, and many others 
too, had been uttered, even before the late discovery of Negrillos, 
which has made a reply more urgent than ever. I regret to say 
that the present state of science doodi not allow us to offer a satis- 
factory solution to this problem, assuredly one of the most curious 
among the many points connected with the geographical distribu- 
tion of the human race. (*) 

The study of these small negro races suggests one more reflec- 
tion. ^ 

AVTien alluding to Pigmies, the ancients mixed up with true 
facts many exaggerations and fables. Modern science, misled at 
times by its own strictness, and, dwelling solely on the unaccep. 
table points of these traditions, rejected in a lump all the 
statements regarding the dwarfs of A.-ia and Africa. The above 
proves that science was wrong, and this mistake teaches us a 

When there' is a question of traditions, of legends connected with 
people less learned than we are, and especially with wild popula- 
tions, it is but right to examine them thoroughly, however strange 

(») Logan has studied this que-^t ion from different points of view, and 
has developed with much scien^^. the theory that the African Negroes 
have penetrated into A<«ia and M^'lauesLi through a slow infloxion which 
has been accompli»he<l hv sea. He attributes a great infloence to the 
Malagasy pofulation. ^ The Kthnohtgi/of tin- Ind'mn Archipthtno ; The Jour- 
nal of the Indian Archipehion anil Eaxttrn Asia, vol- IV, and Ethnology oftke 
iHdO'PaciJip Txland*, vol. VII. ) Fu>WERS i* in<l:ne<l to admit that the small 
black race which sDrunir n\\ in the southerly re^dons of In^lia, has spread itsefl 
East and W» pt in Melanesia and Africa, and that the taU Xegroes are descended 
from it. C On. the O*teoloqy and Afi'titia of the yatitei of the Andaman 
Islands : Ihe Journal of the Anthropological Institute, vol IX.) AXLESr also 
derives the African No^zroes from A^ia and endeavours to prove that they have 
left traces of their pasflage in. mnny parte of inteiTnediate countries. fTke 
Original Range of the Papna and ycgrito Races ; The Journal of ths AntkrO' 
pological Institute, vol. VIII.) Professor Seeley thinks that the Kegro two^ 
occupied, in former timed, a t^trip of land which extended from Africa to 
MeUmeaia and is now submerged. (Quoted by Allen* ; loc, citt p. iO.j 

48 THE PIftMISi. 

and singular they may appear at first. Many of these accounts 
contain interesting and true information which is often concealed 
under superstitions, mistakes, forms of language or erroneous in- 
terpretations. The duty of the man of science is then similar to 
the task of the miner who separates gold from its quartz. Very 
often he also, with a little work and cautious criticism will succeed 
in redeeming, from a heap of errors, some important truth. 


[ The following paper is a translation by Mr. MCiif.ER, Govern- 
ment Translator, of Valenttn's Account of Malacca. 

A portion of tliin has alre.idy appe.irc«l in IjOi;vn'h Journal, Vol. 
IV, but &A it appears that it was never complete I, asid m.itter waa 
omitted wliirh some might find interestin:;, and, further, that the 
translation was not altogether to be deperi«led on, I have thoui^ht 
it worth while to insert a tru:*tworthy translation of the whole 
with a few note«*. 

I). F. A. II.] 


The town of Malakka is situated in 2' 20" northern latitude 
and on 102~ 20" lon«;itude, on the Continental Malay coa:*t, which 
lies easterly of the East coast of the great i.^lau'l of Sumatra, 
about 8 miles [leagues?] in a strai-^ht line from the shore. 

Ptolemy and the Ancients gave it the name of "Terra or Regie 
Aurifera/* which means ** the country rich in ^old/' or of ** Aurea 
Chen«onesus," i.e., ** The Gold Peninsula/' making it appear at 
about the 11th dei^ree, where it is* joined by a narrow isthmus to 
Tenassefrim and Siam. It is the southern territory of India. 

It is situated on the point of a neck of lan<l, between which and 
the N.E. coant of Sumatra is a fine sound, known by the name of 
the Straits of Malakka, or otherwise, by that of the Straits of Sin- 
gapore, after a very ancient town commonly called Siwjapura. 

It covers approximately an area of l.SOJ paces in circuit, or of 
about one mile, and has a strong wall on the sea side of about 600 
paces long, being also protected by a solid stone wall on the X.W. 
or river side. Tliere is, moreover, a stone bastion on the N.K. side, 
called Santo Domingos, and there was another wall, called Ti/irtA, 
built towards the waterside, and extending to a strong round 
bastion called Si. Jngo, now gone to ruins ; there were also other 
fortresaes on the S.E. side and two bastions, making it altogether 4 


very Btrono: pkce, but in time almnut all thaie fort ifl nation 9 hfive 
gone to rninB, We do not ine.Jtiun their aamts now, a« tho/ will 
appear io tlie course of this di*^Miri|»tion. 

The c(mvent of ttfe'.To*»nrtrt: ai»»o railed St. Pivul'i* Conrent, waw 
buift lii;L^lier up in U»\viii, m\\ the riio »n,st«ry iif tha Miiiorin*, 
otherwise ealleil that nT Madrede Deo.-*, stoo't on the adjfioeiit hill*. 

'11 1€ hrritorj^' belmi^in;; to Mahikka extend?* over a leii^th of liO 
milea, and over n breiidfh uf alHmt 10 rnilej*. There are two i?,lets 
in its vicinitVT ^//^'' '/'* N*tO}i,{^) witiiin a gun-s+hot fri)tn the t-jwn, 
and i7/o^ dnH Pedrust, {^) from where they i^ot the storieH to build 
I houBes, tl'r. with, heyoiid the range of ^'invshot. Hio Portumii^o 
carraeks and galleonH used to anchor between these two iUet« in 
4 or 5 fathoms uf wuier, (^) 

On the >iorth-West ftide of the town is a wall with a jratr and a 
email fortified turret, and next to it a river, dischartjin;;; into the 
eea, with fresh water at low tide, but w^ith salt water at Lifili 
tide, lis width ia 40 paces, and its current is generally pretty 
strong. It U commonly called ** ChrysoraDt," aud there is another 
river on the East side. (*) 

The country on the other pide of the river { being on the ^ame 
level with the laud Avhere the town i»* built ) is joined to it by a 
wooden bridge ; but tlie ground is very Hwampy on the South- Eaut 
side, being generally flooiled in the rainy mouiioou, with the excep- 
tion of a s*mall ]>iece along tlie beach, which lies somewhat higher. 

There are in the town many fine and broad street;?, but un))aveJ, 
and also many fin*^ btone houeiies, the greater part of which are of 
the time of the Portuguese, and built very solidly after their 

The town is built in the form of a crescent. 

There is a respectable fortreji« of great Httength* fvitli solid wnlU 
and fortified with bttstion?, vvell-j»r*tvii!ed with L'uti?», able to stand 
with its garrison a hard bh>w* (^> !here are, in the fortress, sci^eral 
strong stone houses and pretty good f»treet8, ali reuiembering the 
Portuguese timet*, and the tower, erected on the hill, Beem.^ to be 

ii) FQliLuJawa, 


( « ) OnJy about two fatliomB now. 

{ • ) No traces of tliie now, txctj t in the large drains near Kampong Jiwm, 
and Banda HUir. 

(» ) The only remains visible of thif* now nre contahiefl in the cursor*« old 
gateway (near tho io^;d*;nceof Mr. J, E, U'EciXEiiuouT) which bears Porta- 
gnese unnB, but a Dutch dutc, vix , ]U«0 ; thifi is prubably whi^t ia left of the 
baatiOD called " Balaarte Sfintiatro'' »a marked in the old platnaof the For- 




pretty Btron^, thonpli itii interior is fallinsf into decay. Tbia 
rortrefa, built on the hill in the centre of the town, is Ebout the 
tize of Belfshriven, and hos also two tiates, and though one o£ it» 
fides st/uids on tiie hiU, yet the other t*ide is washed by the sea. It 
in rtt ]?re*4fnt tlie res^idence of the Governor, of the other ofBcers 
eni[»[t»yt'd by tlie eonipnny. Jind of the garrison* which is pretty 
ulroriir. Two Imiidn d years ajo thia place was merely a fidher- 
lueh'g villsyje (^ ) attd ni»w it is a fine town* 

In fmn>er iinie» the town hinl a populatio'i of 12,000 anuls ; bufc 
there are now not more than 2tK) or ;^0 Jfauiilie**^ 8ome<»f w*hich are 
Dutch and some others Pi>rtu<Tue»e ami Malay**, the latter living in 
the mnijt remote corners of I ho town in common at tap huts. 

At a small distance from the town are itl«o Bnme fine houses and 
many well-kept eoctni- nut pbintationB and gardens* with fruit treea, 
the theater part of which are owned 1>y Malays. 

Tiiiti town iH remnrkaldy well situated for trade, and these 
stroitd have been frequented, since the times of old, by much 
ahippin^» which atill continues from Bengal, Coromandel, Surat, 
Pers^ijt, Ceylon, Java, Humsitra, JSiam, Tonkin, China, and from many 
other conntries; the groaa reveime in the year lOGO (ctmsislinj^ of 
10 per cent, import duly attd 8 per cent, export duty, and some 
other somll taxes ) »mnuntin*f to 7i,95STiS guilders. 

There arrived in thati*ame year 1U» Javanese veaaeb, beaideBthe 
Danish, Portuguese arid MooriKh vect-^eU. 

This [dace is very cunvenicnt ftrr our voasela panmni^ throu^^h tho 
Straitu t>f Siiit;apore uoini; from Japan to Beii^ul, Cfiromandel, 
^iurat and Persia, ajni alan for vfs.sdij bound for Batavia coming 
from thcue places, 

Tfio plnec lA not very productive in provlrtiona ; everything muft 
be iiii[>or*ed from other places, with the exception of tiah and some 
kindn of frtjits. 

The pri>duc1ivene»8 of ihit* place u very poor, compared to that 
of tho tSiast [ of Coromandel], Bengal, Ceylon, itc. ; and the aur- 
rounding country bears a barren aspect. 

It is nUo not safe to venture in the jungle, as It abounds in 
wild befj*ta. 

Ota' of my friends, "^Ir, tax Naarsskn, told me, that it once 
had fia|'pcned to hiui in |>crsun to fall in with a ti*^pr aecidentallvj 
nod lie war* enre on scveml oilier occMsiorts of beinp in the neigh- 
bourhood of one of these animals, for it was* only in tbutca^e hia horse 

(I J Le, about 1626i or 14 years after the Portuguese took it, in which 
ue it matt hare greatlj ftkilvn. from Ui« fitate in whioh ther found it. 


got UDmanogeable. There are. moreover, many elephants and other 
wild beaBts. 1 his satne gentleman has told me also, that he once 
saw a tiger vhich made a leap at a deer that tried to escape him 
in the water ; the deer did escape, and the tiger was dragged down 
by an alligator. 

The East India Company has a Governor at this place, who has 
supreme authority over all the oflScers and over all the affairs. He 
i» assisted by a Supercargo ( as second in rank ), an Attorney- 
General, ( » Paymaster, and a staff of officers similar to those men- 
tioned in our account of Amboina, performinif almost the same 
duties and rocoiviuii the same pay; there arc here, besides, several 
** Opperhoofden" ((^ommandants) of other places or factories, which 
are under the authority (»f this Governor, and also an especial 
*• Shahbandar " or (^Hector of the Custom-house duties. 

A Council of Police is constituted from amon^ these officers (as 
aUo already mentioned under Amboina) forming the Government of 
thirt territory : another Council administers the law; and a third one 
all the ecclesiastical affairs. 

The Mahiys of these countries are commonly called " ornn^ 
di hnicn anr/ift,'' /. e., "the people behiw the wind " (to leeward), 
or else '* Easterlin^s," whilst those of the Occident, more especially 
the AniljH, are calle<l '* drntf/ af/rs nnf/iu,"" i.e., ** people above the 
wind '* or Occidentals ; this is not that there are no other tribes of 
that nanje, but that these two nations are the most renowned, the 
most intrcnious and the most civilised of that race. 

The Malays aie the most cunning, the most ingenious and the 
politest people of the whole East. 

Whether they have been thus called after the country, or whether 
the covMitrv has I een tailed after them, will be shown by and by, 
when we s'liall have traced their origin as far back as* possible, 
pro(lucing it from their earliest history. 

They are of a rather pale hue and much fairer than other na- 
tives of India, also much kinder, more polite, neater in their man- 
uer of living, and in general 80 charming, that no other people can be 
compand to theui. Their lan<;ua^'e. Bnhdsa Maldyu, i.c, the Malay 
lanj4uat:e (whether called after the |)e(»ple or after the country) 
was not only spoken on that coast, hut was used through the 
wluile of India. an<l in all the flastern countries, as a language 
understood everywhere and by every one, just as French or Latin 
in Europe, or as the Lingua Franca in Italy or in the Iievant, 
to such an extent even that, knowing that language, one never 

( « ) Prokureur-Generaal. 



will be Rt a loss, it beinjj u^od niifl iindorstond in Persia, nay 
even berand that country on that »iilt', and ultio as far as the 
Phi lip pities. 

And if you don't understand tbis lnn^na«re. yon are fonsidered 
ft very badly ediieatcd man in the Ei^^t, whilst the Malays nro 
acru»toined to t*tiidy it»tryiiitt their utmost tu enlarge their know- 
ledge of it and to learu also tt»e Arubk- ; even Hutue amon^ tbem 
the Persian laufrua^e too, and thone who are more studious »till 
alrive to ol>tnlu ihe kriowlerl^eof the SauBkrit, the uiuther-hiuguago 
of mo8t of the idiom» in the East* 

The Malay is spoken nowhere bo eorrectly and fio purely as 
bene, thout^li there is still a great di(Teren<'o between the Court 
language and that of the lo%ver vhim. The laui»na*^e s[)nken by the 
courtiefa ia ao svvt41ini^» bo interlarded with Anibie (to show their 
ernditiori in that languai^je), arnl differs &o much fn^m ihe commoa 
pure language (the former beinti: the adulterated hmi^uage)^ 
since ©very nati»ni, that «*ppak8 this comnmn f.r low Mrdny, has 
mixed some words of their own language with it» that it would not 
be iinderHTOod by the e»ymmon people, for whieh reason it is* UBed 
only by prinees, ronrlier^ and (niesti?, ami therefore eonsidered as 
the Inntn^fl'ie of (icbolari*. It h by nature a very pleasant, sweet, 
cbaruiing, and yet a veiT pt»werful lan^na^e to cxprrt^i*! yourself 
in, A lot of works written in that langusiiie, rdready mentioned by 

^x^B before^ and several line sonj^n, in whieh they have transmitted 
many events of pa!*t time?*, tallow tlij» jdaiiily. 
The Malay men are generally dressed in a pair of troupers, with 
a broad blue, red or green garment, worn at* a bloUBe, and a luiban 
rolled round the head. 
They are commonly of a very lively nature, but ihej always 
keep open a baek door and ore Kot easily to be eaugbt, wbile they 
Ire witty and of great self-conceit, 
I do not know another nation in the Jnrlirp irore eunninfr than 
the ^^alays and the natives of Macafci*or, for wLieh rtaKUi thty rue 
not much to be relied upon. 
Tbe women's dress in almost the satjie as ihat of other Jnduin 
women, or like that of the Javarte^e wciiien, and consists in a long 
gown, h^mj^in^ down to their feet and verj' often al^o freiencd 
above tbe b<»g(Jin under the arms, the upper part of the tody \ vmn 
naked. Uhey tic np their hair in a iLnclle at the bark of the^> 
be; d, though (uDie hv\& aLotber bair-djc^K. aln ot^t the ajjmeatii (hat 
af tbe Credei. Theso woiaen too are generally of a tnore exalted 



mind tlmn other women of lodia, and they excel also in lo?elineM 
and wit far above others. {^) 

(O The ioMowijig jmeeage is g"iven in Logan*6 Joumnl* p. 700, Vol. TV, bat 
dot« not Occur in my udiiiuii ul VjllektyK, whiiib is dated 1726. 

D. R A. H. 

** The other ;tihahi tints are PortufriieB©, who are weU koov^u, or «*ihtfr 
** Indians, who hiive Ix^en already di^*H?rlU!d as Chintfse, Guzerattes, Beogn* 
*^ lis, Ouisl-^Jwjrs, At'liint'se una others. 

** The cuniinuditiLs produced hc^re Eire these : — 

*' Kt?li'inbak,* Ag^iln*wood und Camjihor in the Kingdom of Ptihang* Tin, 
** Gold, Ti ji|xr, IVdra de Fnreo (Qut-ry, Be* oar stouts 'r), Ek'plmni (tunki). 

** Tht' iiyi>orttd goods consist of: — 

" All sorts of cloths, more especially Petas Malay u, or Malay clotlis. 

*♦ Sui'at cloths 

** Bengal cloths. 

** Guinea cloths (coarse 

'* hlue calico,) 
** Sfllarapoiies.t 
'♦ Bafta Broisjti.t 
'* B(ithili9,§ 

Coast Chintz. 


Ked Woollens. 



Rt-ils of eight [SpmmAh 
lars ?]. 

*♦ The chnrj^s of the ^nrrisnn and other expenses run very high, some* 
•* tinit'S fi5i mueh as 2(K*,0i«) ^ruil,]rrs (2 to/tncN //<iw</w), the rc^hon of which 
*♦ ifi, that the clear income during the year is often much ksi than the out- 
»« Jay. 

** In the year lf>6i and duriufr several yeari*, the expt^nses were much 
'* higher and il wjlh thought proper to rt^duet? tho strenirth of thf* ir«<rnsoii 
*' and briu^ the exptui^vs within the sura mentioned, 2(X>,tHH) ifuildcn*, 
** Suh?*eiiuintlv it wtt" di^-med proper further to retlure tho ex|K*nujturt hj 
** 4r»/MX* |?uildors. Orders were givtn hy their ExivUmries in I0ti9 to 
** reduee the extent of the forlilieat ons und a certain Enhlji^n [f^aftrtflri^y 
** was cstaMihhvd there from the ITth of January ol the year and eiitru5t4*ct 
*' with the duties of enquirer." 

• M ABSDKN quot<;6 LouBKiRO against Valenttn in support of the con* 
tention that " k^ Cmbck ' and " gtdmru'* (i.e. apila wood or ]ii;numa]'>e8) come 
from the «5ame tree* und ore mertly drff* n nt qualities arisinjr from differtnoe 
■ t age, &c t and he quotes also, " Gahxu ohiunpnkn cgiillochum eparlum, E.'* 

ttt '* kC' 5mbiik'* is tho he&rt -f the " kjiml Aja'' troe, known also as ''poko* 
'"broign kubhur. " The heart of the " chempiki* ' tree, furnishes the " kas- 
tiiri," while the heart of thi» *' kirns" tr«e profluc<A all the varittiea of 
"ifiihartt," which are ts fol'ows:— tgt quditv, very blaek."— lampom;" the 
2nd " — tundok" or "— ii^ik ;" the Srd "— wnn^kanj?-*' or "--Vmt\vft ;'* 4th, which 
ia net market!) bte, but ia used privutcl^, ie the refuse of the 3rd and ia called 
M g&hAiQ mSdang.** 

f Half wool, half rotton, 

* I Indian cotton cloth. Brotaja, — place where it waa made ? 
I A flue Indian linen. 


SeTeral other factones are under the Oovernorship of Malakka 
of which some are in this country and others on the East coaht of* 
Saniati*H, and the Opjjerh i.»fdc?i ( (^i^uman'l I'ltn ) (»f th •.-^t: t?Tilv»- 
meuts* wtjre sent thituer by tlie (Jov^Tiior jf t.iis* plaeo i nd b\ iiis 
TounciL Ihese factories are IVirah ( Puiik ;, Ivcidah ( Kci*»ili ). 
Oodjon^-S&tan^, (*; and Andni^iri. (■) 

Pel rah, tiie fii-st named iSettlement, situated on thin Mahiy Coast, 
was suhjected to the authority of the Queen of At!*jin ( Aeheh ), 
and was only kept for the tin trade: the llon'ble Company had 
appointed there an Underfactor, to purelrise that mineral for ready 
Gish, or to barter it ai;ain$it cloths at fifty Kix (h)narrt the A.i/r^/r, 
but the nature of that people is very mean and murderous, which it 
has shown by murdering iu 1651 all the people of our factory at 
that pkce. Their Honours have often been compelled to ordvrthe 
Governors of this (jovernmoiit (Malakka) to break up quietly 
that factory and its hid^ings, and to try to find an opportunity to 
avenge this abominable piece of ro^^uery, which was carried 
out afterwards, and which we will mention with every particular 
later on. 

The second outer-factory is Quedah (Kcdah), also situated on 
this Coast almost opposite Atsjin. We had there also an Under- 
factor and a JSettlenieut ti) barter tin, j^old and elephants for the 
Ilou'ble Company; but this small kiui^dom, gave us also now and 
then so much trouble, that we have been obliged to break up this 
factory loo. 

We shall meet with the two other factories in our history of 

[Here follows a list of the Governors and principal Officials 
of the Government of Malacca.'} 


Johan van Twist, Governor and Extraordinary Mem- 
ber of the Council of India, ... ... 1611—1642 

Jeremias van Vliet, Governor and Extraordinary 

Member • f the Council of India in 1615, ... 1612 — 1645 


Commonly known as *' Junk Ceylon." 


Arnold do Ylaming van Ontshoorn, GoTernor and 

Extraordinary Member of the Council of India, 1645 — 1616 

Johan Thyssoon Paijart, Governor and Extraordi- 
nary Member of the Council of India in 1657, 1646 — 1062 

Johan van Riebeek, Commander and President, 1632—1665 

Balthnsar Bert, Commander and President, ... 1665 — 1668. 

Promoted to Governorship, ... ... 1668 — 1679 

E.xtraordinary Council of India in 1670 and 

Ordinary Council of India in 1678. 

Jacob Jori8»*oon Pits, Governor, .. ... 1679 — 16S0 

Comelis van Quaalber^?, Governor, ... .. 1680 — 16S4 

Extraordinary Council of India in 1682. 
Nicolaas Schaghen, Governor and Extraordinary 

Council of India in 1682, . . .".. 168 A— 1686 
Dirk Romans, Director from 5th January till 26th 

November, ... ... ... ... 1686 

Thomn? Slicber, Governor and Extraordinary Council 

of India, ... .. ' ... ... 1686— 1G91 

Dirk Komans, Director from 18th October, 1601, to 

1st October, 1602, ... ... ... 1691—1692 

Gelmer Vosburt?, Governor, ... 1692 — 1697 

Govcrt van Hoorn, Governor, ... ... 1G97 — 1700 

Bernard Piioonsen, Governed and Extraordinary 

Council of India in 1703, ... ... 1700—1704 

Johan Grotcnhuys, Director from 18th January to 

22nd May, ... ... ... ' ... 1704 

Karel Bolner, Governor, ... ... ... 1704 — 1707 

Pieter Kooselaar, Governor and Extraordinary Coun- 
cil of India in 1707, ... ... ... 1707—1709 

Willem Six, Governor, ... .. ... 1709 — 1711 

Willem Moorman, Governor, ... 1711-^1717 

Herman van Suchtelen Governor, ... ... 1717 



Johan Verpoorten, 
N. Snoek, ( asserts that he saw hero in 1(>43 a wo- 

wan 150 years old ) ,♦ 
Grerard Bersche, 
Johan Goesens,... 

Garhara Herberts, 1 These two have been Super- 1 ... 
Balthasap Bort, ) cargos at the same time, ) ... 
Miehiel Curre, (instead of Bort, with Herberts), ... 
Gillis Sybcii, 
Joannes Massis,... 
Fran9oi8 Sandvoord, 
Henrik Schenkenberg, 

Dirk Komans, (sometimes acting as Director ), 
Adriaan Lucassoou, 
Francois van der Beko, 
Pieter de Vos, ... 
Abraham Douglas, 
Philip David van Ucchelcn, 
Gerard Huychelbosch, 
Joannes Grotenhuys, 
Antoni Valkeuier, 
Herman van Such tele n , 
Antoni Hey usius, 
Gerard Voogd, 

Laurens Forcenburg, 
Hans Cruger, Captain-Lieutenant, 
N. Femmer, 

Jacob Palm, Captain-Lieutenant, 
Christiaan Trokmeyer, Captain-Lieutenant, 
Nicolaas Oostenrode, Captain-Lieutenant, 


1646— (?) 
(?) —1656 

1657— 165S 






* I had credible information the other day of the death of a man at the age 
of 120 a few years ago : he died in the Mahomedan year 1295 ; he could read 
and write* and told his son that he was bom in 1 1 75. In the Death Returns for 
this year, so far, there are 7 deaths registered at the age of 100 years, but I 
h«76 been unable to obtain MiiiafRctory proof in regard to them* 

5b TALEsny s descbipiiox or iiiulcca. 


Jau Jauiwoon van Meiik*, ... ... 1641 — 1644 

Emanuel du Molin, ... ... ... 1656—1660 

Michel Curre. ... ... .. ... 1660 

Francis ran der Beke, ... . 1683—1692 

Johan van der Leli, ... ... ... 1T08 

DirkVouk. .. ... ... 1709-1712 

X. Tempelaar. ... .. .. ... 1712 

Samuel Cra8, .. .. 1712-1716 

Johan Bernard, ... ... ... 1717 


Gerard Herberts, ... . ... 1641 

Balthasar Bort, ... ... .. 16*9 

Johan van Zy 11, ... ... 1G50— 1 655 

Emanuel du Molin, ... ... ... 1655 — 1656 

GillisSjben, ^ .. . ... ( 1656 

Balthasar Bort, ' a short time those ...) 1656 

Emanuel du Molin. (4 all toj^cther, ... ... y 1656 

GillisSijlen ) ... ... ... U656— 1657 

Gilles Syben, ... ... ... 1657—1661 

Abraham den Back, ... ..'. ... 1661—1069 

Jacob Martenssoon Scliagcn, ... ... 1669 

Jacob van NaarsHcn, ... ... ... 1083 — 1GS4 

Pictervan Helsdinj^cn, ... ... ... 1684 — 16S5 


Arnold llackiu8, ... ... ... 1690 

Arnold van Alzein, ... ... ... 1695 — 1703 

Abraham van Kcrvcl, ... ... ... 1708—1711 

N. van Loon, ... ... ... 1711 

Kutger Dekker, .. .. .. 1712 

N. Cromm(4yu, ... ... ... 1712— (?) 

N. SibnrHma. ... ... ... ... (V) —1717 




Jacob do Cooter, 
Jan Claestsoon Cloek, 
Thomas do Yos, 
Adriaan Lucassoon, 
Jacob Jorissoon Pits, 
Jacob Splinter, 
N. Hex, 


BalthaKAr Bort. 

(HIlis Syben, ... 

Abraham den Back, 

Mattbys SonuemauH, 

Jan Pas, 

Samuel Cras, 

N. Liflpensier (for a Hhort time "ad interim"), 

N. CotgcTe, 

WAREHOUSE-KEEPERS. (" Winkeliers.") 

Jacob May, 

Karel Verwyk, ... 

Dirk van Lier, ... 

Johan van Groenewep:en, ... 

Joban Massis, ... 

Nicolaas Muller, 

X. Bokent, 

















COMMANDANTS ("Opperhoofden") AT PEIRAH. 
This Factory re-eMahlished in 1655. 

Isaak Ryken, 
Pieter Buy tzen, . . . 
Cornclis van Gunwt, 



Factory abandoned in 1656 and re-established in 1659. 

Johan Massis, ... 
Abraham Schats, 
Johan Massis, ... 
Adriaan Lucassoon, 




Balthasar Bort,... 
Joannes Zacharks, 
Michiel Curre, ... 
Johan Masai s, 
Nicolaas Muller, 

1661— (?) 


Michiel Curre, ... 
Kornelis van Gunst, 
Michiel Curre, ... 
Abraham Schats, 
Cornelis van Gunst, 





1658— (?) 


Lubbert Coorn, 
Jan Claassoon Cloek, 
Bernhard Vink, 
Jacob Jorissoon Pits, 


1668— (?) 



Comelis van Gunst, ... ... ... 1656—1658 

r Jacob Jorissoon Pits, ... ... ... 1658—1660 

The factory hrolcen up in 1660. 


Pir'?r Bnytz.on, ... ... 105 1~ ID'.r, 

Aren- ('l.ia.ssc»«>n Drncy ("^'Iii.s L'.i' *ory w?* ([iiii'tly l'!5() 

broken up in Defcuilxr). 
Jacob JoriBson Pits (sent thither as Tax-collector; but 

the roadstead reraaiued blockaded till 1660), ... 1657 

[ I have found, moreover, in some of the documents in the 
Archives of Malacca the names of the fojlowinpr Officers, besides 
those mentioned ahove : — 

Jacob Kerkhoven, Underfactor, ... 1660—1062 

Henrik van Ekeren, Supercariiijo in Lii^or. 

Jacob van Twist, Lieutenant, ... ... 1656 

Scbastiaan Cledits, Ensi*^n, ... ... ... 1657 

Jan van Es, Ensi«2;n, ... ... ... 1602 

Bernhard Vink, Ensiji;n, ... 1602 

Jan Meke, Surojeon-Major, ... ... 1662 

Willem Cornelissoon, Surgeon-Major, in the Fortress, 1062 

Henrik Peltirom, Ensii^n, ... ... 1710 

Pieter du Quesne, ... ... ... 1711] 

COMMISSIONERS (known for having" done somethinjir noticeable here.) 

Justus Schoutcn, ... ... ... 1611 

Pieter Boreel, ... ... ... ... 1642 

Johan van Fevlingen. ... ... ... 1646 

Balthasar Cofeth, ... ... ... 1709 

Isaac Massis, 
N. Elards, 

The island of Dindinn; belonged also to the jurisdiction of 
Malakka, and its Chiefs were also appointed by the Governors of 

02 VALENTTK'S description of MALACCA. 


To know Malakka thoroughly and to be fully instructed of those 
particulars which have made it renowned, " we must trace its 
origin and foundation, and disinter for posterity, from the darkness 
of antiquity, all that has been buried by the lapse of years and by 
oblivion, or most probably by want of opportunity. 

If I had not been so fortunate as to secure some very rare books, 
written in Arabia, which cannot be got now for any money, 1 
would not have been able to inform the world of those particulars 
about IMalakka, which are now here mentioned, and which we are 
sure that but very few people could make known to mankind, 
while amonjj: thousands ( of men ) w^ho know the Malay language. 
there is liardly one able to read it, when it is written in Arabic 
characters, and still less to understand that bombastic Malay, 
nnxed with so many Arabic nn<l Persian words and sentences. 

Those books tlien arc called " Tmljoo Eashttina " or '* Makotn Segalhi 
Ihidja,''' i.e., " The Crown ot'tlic Kings," ''MIsn Gomitar'\u\{['' Kitah 
llmitoowa' or *' Uanfjtooha'' (^ ) / ^., "The Book Ilantoowa," common. 
1 V more known amon*]; the INIalay scholars under the name of " Soolalct 
y.ssnlathinn,'^ thatis, " The Book of Heraldry or Genealogical Register 
of the Kings '' (viz., Malakka Kings ). These three gems (^which are 
now only foundiu very few libraries), though full of fictions and nse- 
k'ss stories, are considered, however, among us as the best historical 
descriptions written in the Malay lan^uaije, and which are not only 
most useful to learn the Malay thoroughly, but in which are also 
to be found many useful things ahout the Javanese, Malay and 
other Kings, not mentioned hy another author. The Mohamedan 
Princes in India and their Priests are almost tl>e nnicjue possessors 
of those works, and it is the greatest diibmlty in the world to get 
possession of one copy. But I have got them all, as I have men- 
tioned already before,* whilst si)eaking of the Malay language. 
Though we iiiid in the two first mentioned works and in some other 
books, particulars clearing up many obscure points, yet the last 
one mentioned is in this respect the best one, while it gives us all 
the particulars from the very bej^inniui^, even from before the time 
that it (Malakka) was built, and in quite a decent style (for 
natives at least). 

( 1 ) Hatiri Tfht/t.'-ThcYv wen? Dine of thcrsc* ** hangs," cliampions, of whom 
an accouut may be fouud in Lkydkns ''Malay AnnalH." CliAWFl-an 
^lx akrt c()ntini])tiu»iipily <»f it nsa li!Kt<»rieal work, which it no iloulit defierves: 
i.iit it i^ usrfiil i<»r the insight it allonls into the uationnl customs and man- 


I really dou't know the author of tlie book llangtooha, but I 
must admit it to be one of tlie most decent Mahiy works I ever 
bave read, of which we will conimunicite to our readers a sum- 
mary as briefly as possible. 

If we want to trace scrupulously the ori*;;in of the Malays, it is 
worth while to find out first, whether they derive their name 
from the country (the Malay Coast and the town of Malacca) or 
whether that country has been called after them. 

They lived first on the great island of Sumatra ( called in 
former times Andells ( * ) and also Mnnhiifcaho^ ('^) till it was discover- 
ed that this was the name of only one kingdom of this island) and 
there more especially in the kinj^dom of Palimbang, situated on 
the inner west coast, at about H degrees latitude, opposite the 
island of Banea, on the river Malatjoo, wliich runs all round the 
rtio\x\\t2im Mah a me r 00 ^ (3) and thence downwards to the river Tatnufj 
and 80 on into the sea. 

* Every one hearing the name of the first mentioned river, would 
feel inclined at once to think, that those who had settled there 
had been called after the said river '' Ornng MalayoOy' i.e., " the 
Malayoo people, people living on the river Malayoo," others however 
suppose that that river ( also called JIuIlojoo and Maladjoo) has 
received its name from this laborious, industrious, quick and ha*ity 
people, while the Malay word for laboriousness and quickness is 
also Maladjoo. liut it is my opinion that the Malays got their 
first name from that river, and that they have given that name 
afterwards to several coasts and countries where they have 
nettled, though the whole of this country ( then nothing but 
fishermen) has been subdued by the King of Siam, of whom 
Home of these natives have rid themselves a long time afterwards. 

After having been settled here for some years, without knowing 
anything about a King to govern them ( an obscure period, about 
which nothing has been mentioned by one author), but not quite 
pleased with this place, and not always having been left unmolested, 

( 1 ) More commonly •* Indalas " or " Andalns." 

(«) M(^nangkabau, or M?nangkcrl)au, as to the origin of which name 
various legends exist, c.ff. lijrht between tiger and buffalo, latter winning ; also 
fight between gigantic Javanese buffalo and buffalo calf, latter victorious ; 
again when Rdja was firht inHtltutcd at liukit GunUing Tf ujaringan a buffalo 
with golden bonis and hoofs issued from a hole iu the ground with a herd 
of followers, but returned to it before his pursuers could catch him and so 
*' mfinang k€rbau." 

(«) Mahamiru, the Hindu Olympus. 

* This and much of what follows has already been criticised by competent 
critics, BO I will not indulge myself here. 


they thought it more advisable to elect a Kin^ir (and such the more 
while they had greatly increased, whilst still heathens) which first 
King had the name of Sim Toori I3owAyA.(0 This Prince has ruled 
them 48 years, and pretended to be a descendant of Alexander thb 
Great, to whom Dejiano Latbur Dawano (*) (who then ruled the 
Malays as a Prince of less fame) resigned his sway, in considera- 
tion of his illustricms lineai:;e and while ho wa.s a descendant of 
such a renowned Prince; this happened in about 1160 a.c. (or 
some years before). 

The Malays crossed under this Prince (SirtToohi Bowana) from 
the island of Sumatra to the opposite shore, now the Malay Coast, and 
more especially to its Xorth-East point, known as " Ordjomj Tanah,' 
that is, " the extremity of the country,*' and known among geogra- 
phers as '* Zir baud '* which means in Persian ** below wind " ( to 
leeward), hence receiving a long time afterwards also the new 
name of " the people below wind " ( to leeward ). or else ** Easter- 
lings " (above all the other nations in the East), from thi^ 
so-called promontory where they had settled again, the same 
name having been given afterwards atso to some of their 
neighbours or other Eastcrlings. This country has generally been 
known since that time by the name of '* Tanah Malayu,'* i.e., **the 
Malay territory " or else '* the Malay Coast," comprising in a 
larger sense all the country from that very point or from the 
2nd degree till the llth degree North latitude and till Tenasse- 
rim, though, taking it in a more limited sense, only that country 
is understood, which now belongs under the governorship and juris- 
diction of Malacca and its environs ; they are also considered above 
all the real and original Malays and th.ey are, therefore, also called 
" Orang Malay u,^^ i.e., the Malays, whilst all the other Malays, 
either closely or far off, as those of Patani, Pahang, Peirah, 
Keidah, Djohor, Bintam, (3) Lingga, Gampar, (♦) Haru, and 
others in this same country or on the islands of Bintang(*) 

(1) " Pri TribuAna" nnd " ^ri Trib'huvcna" — Mahty Annah, Leyden. Bnt 
Crawfukd nccoptfl '•SriTuri BiiAnn," end on the authority of Profc-Ror Wilson 
giv< s "Illustrious T{iri trfco of the world" as the meaning. His first name was 
" Sang Sy|er])a." 

(2 J Lcluir Daun. ''Dtmnnjr" a Chief (Javanese). — " Ddmang L^bar 
Daun" — '• Chieftain Broad Leaf." 

( s ) Batam or Bataiig Island lying between Ben tan and Bulang ? or Bentan ? 

(*) Kampar, river and eountry of that name in Sumatra lying between 
the Siak and Indragiri rivers. 

(») Bentan, the island lying E. by S. of Singapore, on which is a prominent 
hill visible from Singapore, and alongside of which on the W. side of it, Uea 
PiUau P^nyingat, the tite of RSau (Rhio). 



I»m|7p;n (») (on the South of Malakkn ), orin Sumatra, are nho 
colletl Mnlays, but alwaye with the atldilion of the namo of tbe 
country where thej come from, as for insitance : Malayu-Djohor, 
Malayu-Ptttatu, <fec., drc. 

Now, thi-* i» thit fjimoua far- renowned country considered by 
mnny ancients and even by mnny people now-a-days, to be that 
very anoiont Oflr^ tho country from wliere King SoLOMDy got 
the gold and the other Indian curiosities, mentioned in the H. 
8cript:nreR, and <'nnseqnently called by the ancienla **i?fyi£r ^If^r*- 
frrn,^' i e.^ tbe gold coast, the ^o\A region. 

Ii is certain that, leaviiii^ Ezhn Geher and paR^ing throtigb the 
Jisfi St'fi and so alon^ the shares of Arabia and Perst't and from 
there a^ain aloniu the Coasts of Mahhnr, Coronmndel and Bengal, 
and eo on, »*kirtin*^ ahMiji^ tho coast, from one shore to the other 
and finally ahun^ the Kio^'doms of Arraeanf P^fju, Siam and 
TrnftsAf-rim^ till the Malay G>a«t, this could be done without a 
compass ; but we have aniiily shown in tnir firnt vohimo and in 
other places, th;it it was nut this Coaxt, which wan meant by that 
O/ifr, but that it mti«t have been very likely the island of Ceylon. 

The Malays, after iiavinj^ remained at that place for some time, 
built there their first town, calling it StHtjnpura^ and a small 
sound on the Snutli side of the same t(»wn aiill carries that name. 

The Kini; of MttdjftpfihU (an empire of Java ) was in those days 
one of the uiotut powerful Pi-inccs iji those quarterB. lie was not 
erdy feared on the ij^land of Java, but he had conquered aUo many 
places in Java Minor and in Sumatra and had extended hi^ do^ 
minion over several other provinces (*) 

Madjapaliit then beiuL^one of tbe fir^t and most celebrated cities, 
not only of Java, but of the tiurronnding i:5lauds too, the ambitiou 
of its Prince induced him to drive this new pcoplu out of their 
country, and consequently to attach a new pearl to hia crow^ji. 
He attacked tliem several times with large foreea and thus forced 
them to fortify their place more and more. 

81111 ^Ff^Kiu HciWAX.v died in l:iUS, after having; ruled them as a 
brave Prince duriui^ 4S yearn, and was* sneceedud Uy Pauoeka 

( 1 ) On ta> ^ ^ Dttck, til*? ee&t of the Johor sovereign iiftf - *^- ' ti- 

dyn merit of J I The oocumne© of tko mimos BinUoij J 

BitiUm^'L^ng-;; .^ I, woalii au^-gxtit perliapa ttcuilental repetit .. r 

Pthiifi tiio iufcn:uct! tJaxit Biiitam was for BaUiin, the latter not bem^' well 

' knoWTit while B^jnt^m wu* in comieotion with Lingga. Thia ia eviLteutly the 

«iiae from what appears on p. 65. 

(>} kvtd had had comTuuBJcatioii with Cbina after defeating a (!hine9Q 
expedition Beuta^inst him. 



PiKARAM WrnA as their second Piince. This on© did not govera 

them for eueh a long space of time; he died after a period of 
15 ypars. Ho did nothiiijEj of importance, only extending the 
recently built town and fortifyin;;; it a little more, so a« Uj be 
able to withstand butter the plots of the mighty Prince of ALid* 
japahit, wIjo did not leavn him in [)eace. 

He died a. d. 122:*, and was then succeeded by the tldrd King, 
Sriii Rama Wikamam. This was a yomij^ aud brave Knit;, who 
ruled them diirin'; 13 years with mofleratiun, ami who cumuieiic^ 
ed to be feared all rounrl, but ho died very suddenly in 12S^\ 
to the great grief of hiii people, who liked him very much, 

His »iicceasor was 8iin M\h\ Haja» who was the foartli King 
and who also made a very go d H^aro and extended the towti 
greatly. He guverned them 12^ years with great eai^, and wa» 
ako very much liked by his subjwts and feared by hits euemids. 
He died 111 1249. 

That same year SrEi IsiLiNDER Sn\u was elevated to the crown 
in his place as the last Kiwj; of Singapura. He resisted the 
mighty Kiug of Madjapahit in the tirist three years of his rei^, 
but was 80 hard presstnl by him at the end of l"i52» that he kiid 
to abaudon Nini^ajjuni and to migrate higher up to the North ftide 
and from thence to the Wo^it side of thit* couiitry, where bo laid 
foundation of a new town in 125^1 Including him, live king** had 
ruled in Singapura during a period of 91 years. HeombeUi^^bed 
that new place gradually to »ni:h an extent thnt» among the three 
great and celebrated cities in thur^e quartera of the East, this plaee 
was consiidered afterwards to he tbe third in rank^ or next to 
Paai in Sumatra, which stood second neatt to ^'kladjapahit. He 
caHed this new town Malakka, after a eertaiu tree — ** Kaj(ic» 
Malakka/* or the Malakka, otherwise called the Mirnbulan or the 
pentagonal tree. While it happened that he com me need to build 
the town * at the very spot w here he had taken some retit under 
such a tree, whilst waiting there till the dogs dii^lodged the gauiOp 
one day that he was hunting in thos'e environn, ail whi»di pitrricn. 
laiB are told at large in the book llontoowak. Ihe iormtr kiugti 
of Madjapohit, not yit (^atissticd wills ihe conques*t of ^ingapurtt, 
CT08t*ed to the oppo^ite shore of the inland olf Sumatra and took 
there the kiugdom uf ludmgiri. k'^iuce then, they have iiU 
fvaye made one of the Javauewe princes, related tu them, King of 
that realm, and we shall find aflerwjifdj* one of the Kinga of 



* Mr. Majcwell haA drawn ctUimtlon to the exis^«noe of a fdmilar l«geiid 
Amongn't th^ Gumratip. (Journ, Roy. A* R* Sooy ♦ XIII* N.S.) 



Malakka as a Kint; an that throDe» invefited with that authority 
bj the Kin^of iladjnpahit 

In the meantime this town ( Malakka) and this renowned people 
increnaed under ihh prince very much in importance and in pow- 
er, and it was this King who laid t>ie foundation of a permanent 

He lived till 1*274 a. d., and died after havinor governed 
this people duntii; 25 yeaiM, liavinij: 8wayed the sceptre three years 
in Hingapiira and 22 years as the fir^t King of Mrdakka, feared 
by hi* n< iijhiionrs, and beloved by hid subjeeta. «Sultan Magat 
sueceeded him that same year as the second Malay King at 

This prioee died after a short reign of two years, and on his 
death the Malays had been governed 115 yeara and 6 months by 
Heathen Kirigg, 

lie wa.^ Ruececded in 127B by Stjltnn MoiTAM^^iKnSHARt the seventh 
Kini: (tf the Malays, and the third of Malnkkii, uho was the first 
Mohaminedm Prince of Malnkka; he hpcame famoun, while he 
strongly propagated thij* new religion and f;reatlv eidarged his 
empire durin*^ the 57 years that he governed this kingdom. 

It i*eeniF that it was he who tran»ferrc«l the name of Malajoo to 
the adjaceut islands of Linf^^a and BinUim or liintung, f>onth 
of the Promontory of the Malay Coast, and that he made that 
uamefamout* anions the natives of Djohar, Patani, Keidab ( other- 
wise called Quedah), Peirah and of other places even on the 
oppoiiite coaiit of 8umatra and Gampnr (^) and Haru, and that the 
inhahitanN of thi^se quarters, feared him so much, that appa- 
rently all their conntneis were then already subjected to liim. 

^'ot sah•^fied with those conquests, he married in tliL^ last yeai-a 
of his rei^n. the Princess of Arracan, heirc^^ of that King, thus 
subjecting that kingdom by inheritancejnj^taliing the Prince, ^hom 
he appointed there and who had been Kelectcd amon»: the Malays 
ItJaniikubnmi^, i.e,. Chancellor of the Kiiigdtun of Mahikka. 

lie died ad, K^3I3, after having reached a very advanced a£:e, 
leaving to hi« non Snlhtn Aboo Shaujd (the cightli King of the 
Malays, the fonrth of Malakka, and the second Mohnii.nudan Kijig) 
a ]»ea< eahle kingdom. PiUt tin** Prince did uc^t poseeBs it a very 
lon^r time» for he was stal bed by the King of Arm can in 
1??34, oftrr a reign of but one year and 6ve montliB, leaving the 
lin^di ro in the snme condition as his father bad left it to him. 
lie was succeeded that same year by Sultan Modxpab Shah (as 


the niuth Kinjx of the Malaya, the fifth of Miilnkka, and the third 
^lohainmedan Kin^^). Tlii:* Kiug gjrerned hia people with great 
HUtrm-ity and vvry vtirefuWy, 

lie shewed liis »ai:?iL'ttv iu leaFiiis: to his people a book full of 
sublime ruie« and niaxiiui*, ealled " ihe statutes of Malakka."andhe 
hai' uiven aUo iimiiy proofs of his valour during him reign of 40 year*. 

A very mi<ili ty Friiu'e, called BooB.vxyji governed in isio tb© 
Kinijdom of Si am (then called Sjaharnnn or Sornfin), 

Thirt Kini* who had overpowered the conntriee all rouud hia 
empire, haviji^ also received reports of the celebrated commer- 
cial town of Mnlakka, was jealoug of ila rise, challenged it tn 
surrender, and when Kin^ Mohafar would not submit to him^ he 
ordered hia General Awi Isjakab to attack it. 

A fierce battle cnsncd lietween thef»c two Prioce«, or rather 
between their (jenernlw. but JSini Naua DitdjA, the General of 
Malakkn, behaved so valiantly, that he forced the Hianieae to re- 
treat with ^reat loss and shame. That Kiii^ of >>iam died ftoon 
afterwards, and was succet^ded hj one rurpAMM>% %vho did not 
leave the matter, bnt» a^ain attarkiiii;^ tho Kin^ of 3l»lukkri, bc- 
sic'^ed tlie town for the second lime; but he was as unfortunate n« 
his predecessor, and w*;ia also defeated hy the same (lenend of 
Malakka, wIhi «:ave him sncli a severe Idow in driviif;; tiini nw?iy 
from the town, that he to<i died of cha^^rin a sluirt time afterward*. 

It wa.-< at thrs time that the town of IMalakka was considorcil 
the third in rank with I^ladjapahit ami Pasi, amon*j the renowned 
cirics in tliose (piarters of the East. 

This IVioce ^'overned this kingdom with much glory for sotn© 
y ea rs n n > re, a n d d i ed in 1 :] 74 . 

He left III?* so. I as his successor, who was first commonly called 
Sultan Abdi L, hut called nitcrwards (when he became Kii:g) 
SultJin Mansok iSiJAii. He was the tenth King of the Malays*, the 
sixth of 3lalakka, and the fourth i^toliauuncdan Kiu"^, Many 
iin[>nrtnnt things happened in tljcse ijuartcrs durinii his reigiv» and 
iume of hiM predccesstu's governed so huit^ as he did, viz., 7*i years, 

Ihe Kin^ilom of Imlragiri on the East coast of JSumatra %%*aa 
Btill under the supremacy of Madjapahit in the beginning of the 
reign r^f this King"* but when Ma>soii Nuah had mflrried Kadin 
GAtA IfeJiNDHA KiaA>A, the daughtt r r>f the King of Madjapuhtt 
and a Piinccfs of gieat celebrity, that King bestowed the King. 
dom of Indrngiri ujiou hih i*on-in-law, and iu this manner ludrngiri 
came under the rule of the Kings of Malakka, who governed it till 
we came here. 

The King of Madjapahit was at that time (1380)| io powerful 



that he rather ought to have been styled an Emperor than a King, 
-while there were so many Kiniija submitted to his supromncy, that, 
when they appeared in his council, he had to show to every one 
of them their scat according to their rank. Jle gave the first seat, 
the place of honour no.^t to him, 1o the King of Daha ; the second 
Beat to the King of Tanjong Para (Java), who was also married 
to one of his daughters, Nasa Kusam\. or Nyai Kasuma and 
who has succeeded him as Kiuij: of Madjapahit ; and the third seat 
was the place of the King of Malakka, his other son-in-law. 

King Mansor Shau made also an alliance with the Kmperor of 
China, and married his daughter. After this union he declared 
war with the King of Pahang and conquered his kingdom. 

At that time Malakka was the first, Pasi the second, and Ham 
the third city in those ([uarters of the East : these places were 
famous, excelling in power and importance. Afterwards he declar- 
ed also war with the King of P^isi, one SAiNALAnniN,* and defeated 
him too. 

A short time afterwards, about 1420, KnAiy Samahlooka, King 
of Macassar, sent a fleet of 200 sail with a strong army to Malakka, 
to wage war against that i)lacc, but the Laksan^ana or the Admiral 
of King Maksor Shah attacked the enemy so valiantly, that he 
compelled him to retreat, and he retired to Pasi, which place he then 
besieged, ruining the country all round it. 

The said Sainalaudin, King of Pasi, afterwards had differ- 
ences with his two youni;er brothers, who drove him from his 
kingdom, compelling him to take refuge with this King of 
Maliikka (Mansor Sir \u), who took him under his protection, 

lie besieged Pa^i for the sake of this Piince, and recoiujuered for 
him his kini^dom and its chief town ; but afterwards he (Satnalah- 
DI5) would not submit to Mansor Shah. 

His reij^n thus passed in constant wars and military troubles. 

He died in 14:17, leaving his son, SSultan Aleddin as his suc- 

He was the eleventh King of the Malays, the seventh of Malakka 
and the fifth Mohammedan King. 

His reign lasted 80 years, but it does not appear to me, that 
he performed anything memorable. It moreover seems to me 
that, under his rule, Malakka must have submitted for a short time 
to the dominion of the King of Siam. 

He died in 1477 and was then succeeded bv Sultan Matimxtd 
8HA.H, who was the twelfth King of the Malays, the eighth and also 

* ZSDiiDDtN, or ZlINlxABftDDtN. 


the last King of Malakka, and the eixth Mohammedan King. 

lie ixovenierl t\\u people during 3(5 year^, of which *I9 yeari in 
Malakka and afterwardHi 7 years more in Johor, It wan under 
hia reii^'n that tho Malays threw off the Siamese yoke, and such 
in 15U1>; but we will see that at lari^^e in what follows* 

It was also ddrlnif the roiLTii of thU Kin*^, that the Por»ogn<»#e 
arnved for tho tirst time at Makkka, and conquered the conntry. 
For the sake of evidence and toeleiir up the matter we witl mention 
all thoae great events from the beginning and treat In due nrdox 
that part of tho history of Malakka and of its Kin^a till the timai. 
when we arrived in these regions. 


The Malay historian ia not quite correct, when he etates thai 
the Portuguese arrived for tlie first time in these quarter^, more 
especially in Malakka^ in the bej^ioniui^ of the 30th year of Sultan 
Maiimud Suau's reijrn, for, ashling 21) years to the date that he 
ascended ihe throne, i.e,, 1J:77, the tir^^t arrival of the Portuguese 
fihould have happened in A.n, 15U(j, nnd it is fully evident from 
whiit fullows, that ihcy first came here not earlier than two or three 
years after that date and that they did not conqner Malnkka 
earlier than five year^^ after that date, viz., ad. 1511. This Frince'i 
reign was conseouently a longer one in Malakka and not 8Uch a 
long one in Johor, 

KiuiT Emasukl of Portu^*al ordered in I0O8 Japob SEQUKtiiAi (*) 
one of hiH Admirals (according to Maffkjus it was the Admiral 
DiDAKTs LoPKs), to go with 4 veasels of hi:* fleet of IG sail to 
Malakka to make a treaty of friendship with the King of that coun- 
try; then Sultan Maumvd Shau. 

Arrived at Coebin, he iirsit went in lo09 to Sumatra, touched 
at Aeheen, and finolly arrived thence at Malakka. 

lie met King Mahmud at that place, vho had then jnst revolted 
from the King of yiiim^ under whose dominion the Malaya had 
been ft«r a shurt time. Hkqueira, as poon as he had drop- 
ped anrhor, forwarded one Hejionhmv^ Ieixi ika (*) with a prestnit 
and with a letter written in Arabia from King Kmakcel, requedt- 
ing the Slid Kiiii^ of Milakki to allow him (^iiQU^KiiiA) to carry on 
trade in amily. whieh the King granted him at once, 

Ko fioouer had ^kqueiaa made a treaty of friendship and of 

( I ) Tlik name la tttll met wiUi here. 

TAiMwrr^n D i icmiF n os of maiacca. 71 

eommeiTe, thmn tbe Monrs ind Ambs T^-fnre^i oTit to tlse Kirc that 
tlie Portugnttte did not come here to tnii«\ b ;t t!'.ar :t w- r .e r 
intoution to drive the Pri::ce oj: of :i:s ki :^'!om. i hey *: •'ie so 
m feir that, wben the Pjrtu^"ie*? were •••u-e al. "»«r..-i to tn .e here, 
their ottti traSc bj meaas of i-amrjns fr:)zi Cainj an-i AIex.i::dria 
in Ezjr>t and lo Europe. woV.d be torallr rui-.e'L 

They a-'^ier^e^i th,* Portn^r ;e^ec:i iraorer r .■ the i:=i »^r, an i : \\ • ne 
KinsC that they had a^ted i;i t.iat ^erj mi i :fr a: L\vr.:u. Cana- 
noor, Orinns and otlier places, t'riit t>*ey hid ^.-izd uj>«n tie viid 
countries and had buiit f.jnre«&cs in all those places to vijdioate 
their ri;;btd. 

The consequence of th?*e in*ri^i:iDn* w.i< tbat Mvhml'd at 
once mvie up hii« mini to violate his wirl ^rA to breik t'.e irea'j 
already made with .Se^l'EIR^. an! ne intonl:-.! to invite him with 
his priiicipii offi^re-s t.^ a dinner anl i > k:L the n ili at that party. 
The Moon* thouijht this i^lot to be carri.*! -vj: as ea*:.y as it hai 
been eai«y to their cunuinzness t*» persaa-le the Ivinj: to their pur- 
poses, but we will see that they dii u>t >j -oee*! s> reaJily as they 
had imagined. 

True, Sfqi'KIBa had alrea«ly accepte<l the invituion, but, in the 
meantime, hivin;^ been infi^rmed uf the said pl»t. he pretended to be 
unwell and betrayed nothing. 

The Kin^ had also aM«i\ved Srqi-eira to have a building on 
shore, in which htiuse KoDBiao Araxge (>) had already established 
himself as the Supercargo, fur the trade of the Portujjuesc. 

The Chinamen living here and a Persian woman had informed 
Sequeiri in time, by means of a tailor, of the intended troacliery, 
but at first neither he nor his companions would believe that it w;i8 
true,- and thoy went on courting the girls in the town behaving 

One Nakhoila Beoua and one IsrxEE Mrxis, (-) a Javanese Raja 
(1 really dcMi't know how to spell these names), the wealtliiest iuha- 
bitants of this place next to the King, meantime did their 
be«st to kin<lle this fire and to confirm the King of Malakka more 
and more in his hatre«l to the Portu^Miese. They made sjdeu- 
did presents to the King antl to his uncle, thus tr\ing to obtain 
their villaini»us object; but the Admiral of the King of Malakka, 
an honest man, fully disapproved thin shameful treason, and main- 
tain! d that the Khig was obliged to kee[) the treaty at least as long 
as these new customers liad not given him a reason to do something 

( I ) According to the Commriitarie* of Albuquerque, " Ruy de Araujo." 
(9) Utimi^ti, a Javanede title. 


of that kind with some appearance of jastice : but all his persua- 
sion. thouj:h welUfoundt^d, had no effect. 

When Mahmud heard that his fipdt plot had failed and that the 
principal reason that SEQiTicrR\ had not come was, that the pro- 
misj-d spices had not been forwarded to him, ho senthiua wonl that 
he would despatch at once the crafts with the fjjoods. Sequeiiia 
seemed to be pretty well pleased with this messai^e, but he for his 
part stationed at the same time some of his boats on four different 
places so as to be prepared for all eventualities. 

The King sent some embarkations with soldiers besides, who 
were hidden under the victuals and provisions. He ordered more- 
over some of his people to conceal their arms under their garments 
and to try to get access on board of the vessels as dealers in eata- 
bles, and to take hold of the opportunity as soon as they perceived 
a column of smoke going up in the town. 

Petuus M\ffkjus tt?lls UM, that Isutee Mutis had ordered his 
cousin, one Patiakoos, to kill Sequeiua, while Seqcteira had put 
his trust entirely in that man and admitted him freely into his 

When everything had been properly arranijed, the crafts paddled 
to the vessels; they created suspicion, however, by ascending the 
vessoN with too largo a number at ouce and G-racia dk Sousa 
noticing this stopped them and sent Ferdfsand Mao^ellaan to 
Skqukiua, to warn him that there was something suspicious in the 

IsuTi Mutis and his men, eight of which already surrounded 
Sequeira, wlio was playing at chess, stood anxiously waiting for 
the .^^ignal on shore, viz., the column of smoke. 8equeir\, though 
warned by Maoellaax, did not care at all about it, ho only ordered 
a Mate to ascend the mast to see if the boats, which had their 
freight, were on the way back already, and continued his game 
as passionately as over. Still the signal was not given, and 
when the Mate, who was in the mast, saw that a Malay drew 
his Kris and that another made a sign to show the first one, that 
it was not the right moment yet, ho warned Sequeira at the top 
of his voioe, that those Malays were merely waiting for a signal 
to effectuate their plot. 

Skqukira called out for his arms just in time and drove the 
eneniics ovcrboanl, who, astonished and wild that their attempt 
again had failed, jumped in their boats and hurried away from the 

The signal on shore was given just after they had left the ves- 
sels, and the consequence was that those who had still stopped 



strmggiiiig in the town, were murtiered uamercifuHy. Twcatjr of 

Lfhem fletl to tlit house of Rc^deioo Araxqe (i) and Fa vycrsco Skii- 
iftjuio, and havisig got a bout ia time escaped the massacre. 
WhiUt Sec^uEiEA aad his officers were etill deliberating^ with 
each other about this wicked deod» the King and the Bandahara 
( C'haneellur of the Exchequer) sent an Ambassador to the 
ve09el8 to apc>logi?:e for what had happened, offering to pun* 
mh all the cuLprlta and to deliver nnhurt all the Portuguei^e 
wluj were still in ARAXOE'sbonse. The very first thing that Nk- 
iirEiRA did, wris to claim, tlmt those Portuguese should be surren- 
dered Jit oTiee, but Beeint^ that the Kioi; was continually ut^inij 
Kuhterfuges and that his ahips tjot ^riidiially nurrounded by a |];reat 
many native craft**, bloekintr him up imperceptibly, ho thought it 
more a<iv liable not to stop any longer, but to wei^h anchor, not 
only to avoid a tiagrrnvt breach of peace, but also not to mhs hia 
return to India through the Gauge-*, by the pasiiing of the mon- 
jn. But when he received the intclligeuoe, that d'Al>ieida 
(together with whom he had been dispatched ) had returned home, 
lie too went back to Portugal. The famous ALFOKsira ALButiRK, 
who bad been appointed Vice-Roy in loOJ), had resolved in the 
meantime to conquer Aden, in compliance with the orders 
of hia Sovereign ; he consequently first sailed with 2*! vessels, 
manned with 800 Portuguoao and 000 Natives of Malabar to 
Ormns, int*?nding to take the uuual way, but, prevented by eontrary 
winds, he had to put it off an to take another resolution, lie then 
con<iuered Goa and made peace at Ormus. 

Jacob Mended VAscoxaEL, backed by several other sbip-maaters, 
wanted then to go to Malakka against the advice of ALBUKtRK and 
iietiially started to realize that plan; but Albitkirk had him brought 
back by main force, imprisoned him and dismissed several of his 

He made at tbe same time a treaty with the King of Pacem 
(Pasi) and insisted upon the extradition of Nakhoda Bjc(U'a ; Vnit 
fehis one having escaped before he could bo surrendered, tho 
Portuguese at once pursued him and sneceeded in overtaking his 
ship, he wa» killed after having defended himself very bravely. 

The following curious fact occurred at bis death, viz., that no 
blood was to be seen first, though he had been stabbed through j 
but it was discovered then, that ho wore a blood-stanching stone 

(») Sc€note(l)p.71. 

:i-:^ .-i-e- "vrr* cni Mi«'ii:r"i to 

._ " _• -irrr ^^. 1-..- T ?1Z •■• T-Om 

._. -_T.- > -1 z-^- ^: - x-ki n :i:e 

: . • • '. " r-Z. K.ZZ z-^"r*r!'. 
- r- \ -ji .irar-7.;r tha: 

r . • _ . — — - ::z:. :7':': TK"^...:ii 
- _ _- - : V r •> '-: -i:Ar 

— % - •'- i>-^"*-: A'-IVilBii. 

• : ' TL. -. :^ -".1 ^ V :ji. J. vrrv All»«i 
•>■ • •<. ■_:-.: "Lii- :.. i-.i zj» f-i*ii can 



tlie King tried again to deceive him^ he ordered to set fire to his 
palace. Then the King begged to make pt'ace and accepted the 
terniB made by Albukirk, who deraandi'd the delivery of all the 
Fortiigueee, the restitution of the stolen goods, and the indemnifi- 
eatton of the expenees ibr two fleets, which had heen despatched 
this way ; but the King's son (whom MAFFKJrs hae named Allopin) 
and the King of Pahang deolinini* to aer«*pt the mh\ terms, Albu- 
KiJLK ordered hie troops to attack and to plunder the town, and t4» 
iipare only the properties of one Kinac nexu and of Isutjnutis, 
(who hrul already made peace with hiiii liefore and had Kubmitted 
to him) and of all the Javanese who stood under lii^ orders and of 
a few other individnaln, who were his alliet* in town. The Kin;; 
baring been wounded personally dismounted hit* elephrmt and fled. 
and HO did the King ot Pahang too, and they never returned again, 

A few days afterwards he and his General Antonio n'AatiKo (^) 
iiitacked the town for a»ocond time; a fierce battle was foiight, hui 
d'Abreo eonrjiiering a certain bridge put the Maluyn to flight and 
ALariciRK made hia entry in the royal palme where he found that 
the King and hiw hoUBehold had already tied. 

Allouin hnving collected the fugitive?*, was defeated for a 
Becond time and com[)elied tn flee to the inland of Ointam (>itnated 
opposite to Singapore), where he f(»rtitied himself in spite of itn 

The Portuguese, once niastera of the town, plundered it thoroughly^ 
capturing among oHu^r Hiiugs the l^tX}(} hrai*a gun«. 'J'hiT 
booty fieized at Matakka was ho rich, that one fifth of it, t,fi., the 
part reserved for I he King (of I'ortugfil), amounted to 2t>0,<XK) 

Albvkiuk appointed Kaja Isriii^UTis^ head of the Moors, and 
NlNACiiKTiT, head of the other native inlifibitants; he fortified the 
tow^n, opened the place for the trade, and built of the tomb^i of the 
Kings trie firs^t Christian rhurch, devoted to the Annunciation. 

lie went the news of this <'onque«it to tlie King of Ni/im, wlu» 
was very much pleaded, that Juk dit^loyal vansnl been punished 
eo severely, he congratulated Ar.m kirk on his hucccfs ivnd beg- 
ged him to make an oftensive and dcfeoKive allinnee. The Laxa- 
mana (or Admiral of Mal'ikka) came to beg liim alf>o to consider 
hira a friend. a8Huring liim, that he had tried todit^suade the King 
from making war, and ALorKiRK pardoned him also. 

And bcfiold now this proud Malakka, the glory and the fiUCccM 
of the Malays! 


The fugitive King Mahmud did not die of grief ( * ) (as it is asserted 
by the Portuguese), but he had fled in 1511, to the North-East side of 
the Southern Promontory of the country, after having ruled Malakka 
for 34 years ; with him a period of 252 years was completed that 
this country had been under the sway of Malay Kings. He com- 
menced to build a new town at that place (the third one built by 
Malay Kings in those quarters), enlarged it and finally finished it^ 
and gave it the name of Johor, after the iLrabic word " Johor" 
perhaps, which means " a pearl" also " the fine human shape." 

lie founded a new, empire there, the Kings of which from that 
date were no longer styled Malay Princes or Kings of Malakka, but 
Kings of Johor. He reigned two years at that place, died iii 
1513, and was succeeded by his son, who had not the name of 
Allodin (according to the Portuguese historians), but who has 
been mentioned by the Malays as Sultan Ahmed Suae, in their 
^'enealogioal register of the Kings of Malakka and Johor. Ho 
was the thirteenth King of the Malays, the first of Johor, and tho 
seventh Mohammedan King. 

[ To he continued, ] 

(1) The Covmi' ntaricH say ho died at Pahang, a few days af ter hifl arriTftl 




IT ERE are, probably, few subjects connected with 
the Government of a Mahiy population which are so 
little understood by Englishmen in the Colony as 
the principles which account for the point of view 
from which these people treat the possession of, and 
rights in, land. Successive generations of public servants in 
the Straits Siitlementa have been haunted by a bug- bear 
known as *' the Malacca Land Question,*' which still makes 
perio<lical appearances, and is very far from having been set 
finally at rest : it is nearly sixty years old and has derived 
from the joint forces of ignorance and neglect an extraordi- 
nary vitality. From time to time a great deal of well-meant 
labour has been employed in trying to bring Asiatic customs 
and English law into harmony without the aid of legislation, 
and it need hardly be said that the task is an endless one. 
Two systems of tenure have been in operation in Malacca 
during the greater part of this century, and the present gen- 
eration of officials have inherited a legacy of confusion in 
which time develops fresh combinations continually. 

In all the provinces of British India, British Administrators 
have' taken the native revenue system as the ground-work on 
which to build up a detailed and consistent structure of land- 
revenue administration. Native tenure has been fully recog- 
nised ; native law has been studied ; the technical terms used in 
the vernacular to express particular documents, tenures and 
native officials have been preserved and are employed in all the 
Coiirta ; nothing so fatal to the prosperity of the country and 


SO uuBuited to the native mind as the introduction of English 
real-property law has been dreamt of. Why was the policy of 
Indian Administrators as regards Malacca directly con- 
trary to that pursued in British India ? Principally, I think, 
because it was not soon enough discovered that the conditions 
of Malacca — an ancient Malay kingdom and then successively 
a Portuguese and Dutch (^olony — differed fundamentally from 
those of the modern Settlements of Penang and Singapore, 
which had no population prior to their acquisition by the East 
India Company, and to which, therefore, any law of laud tenure 
might be applied without the fear of disturbing existing rights, 
interests, customs, prejudices or sui)crstitions. Malacca has 
never been the seat of Government during its occupation by 
the British, and the land laws and regulations formulated from 
time to time by officials, more conversant with the English 
practice introduced into Ptiiang and Singapore, than with 
native law and custom, have never really fulfilled their pur- 

Within the last nine years, certain Malay States on the West 
('oast of the Peninsula have fallen under the direction of 
British OIKcers subordinate to the Government of the Straits 
Settlements, and the latter are, therefore, to some extent, in a 
])05iition similar to that of the ^Malacca officials earlier in the 
('cnturv. Unless i'uturc jj:(.ne rat ions of public servauts are to 
be confronted by a Perak, a Salangor, or a Sungei Ujong 
•' Jiand Question/' it is difficult to exaggerate the importance 
of studying very closely, and understanding very clearly, the 
nature of native rights in land. There is even a danger of 
imbibing and conveying erroneous ideas on the subject by the 
use of Knglisli technical terms. 

The first proclamation about laud issued in Perak under the 
advica of a British Resident contained such terms as " fee 
siniple,^^ and in Larut, as early as 1876, laud was being trans- 
ferred and mortgaged with all English legal technicalities by 
the aid of two or three ignorant scribes who brought printed 
forniss from the nearest British Settlement — Penang ! It is 
ptrlmi)s doubtful if, to this day, the Malay law of land tenure 
and Malay thought and feeling regarding land are properly 
understood by Europetins in Native States^ and, if not^ there 
may be reason to fear difficulties in years to come. 


Besides persons in the senrice of the S'atiTe GoTemmenti, 
who are brought, by their duties, into connection with nstire 
land-holders, there is an independent class of British settlers — 
planters, miners and others — to whom it may be important to 
know what rights in contiguous land their native neighbours 
may have, and how far they are at liberty to alienate them. 

It has occurred to me, therefore, that it may be useful to 
summarise, as far as I have been able to ascertain it, the law 
relating to immoveable property in an independent Malay 
State, and to publish translated extracts from Malay Codes of 
laws, as well as the judgmci-ts of English Judges who have had 
to deal with the subject. I shall be amply repaid for the 
trouble which I have taken to examine the available informa- 
tion, and to arrange it in an intelligible f«»rm, if increased recog- 
nition and respect for the rights of native land-holders should 
be obtained therebv. 

Chapter I. 

The customary law of the Malays with reference to the 
occupation and proprietorship of land differs little from that 
of other Indo-Chinese nations — the Burmese, Siamese and 
others. The natural condition of land in Malay countries, 
from Sumatra to Borneo, is characterised by dense forest, which 
demands no small labour and |>erseverance before a clearing 
is effected and cultivation commenced. Land is abundant, but 
the population is sparse ; there is no restriction upon the selec- 
tion and appropriation of forest land, and a proprietary right is 
created by the clearing of the land foNowefi ht/ roniinttot/s orcu" 


' pation.^ Forest land and land which, though once cleared, 
has been abandoned and bears no trace of appropriation ( such 
as fruit-trees still existing) are said technically to be tanah 
matt, or " dead land." He who, by clearing or cultivation, 

, or by building a house, causes that to live which was dead 
(meng-hidop-kan burnt), acquires a proprietary right in the 
land, which now becomes tanah hidop ('' live land '') in contra- 
distinction to tanah mati. His right to the land is absolute 
as long as occupation continues, or as long as the land brnrs signs 
of appropriation. 

This qualification of the right of the proprietor is the key 
to several important distinctions which help towards the classi- 
fication of the subject. Malays practice two kinds of cultiva- 
tion — cither permanent cultivation ( wot rice-fields and plan- 
tations of fruit-trees ) in the plains ; or shifting cultivation 
( dry rice-lands and vegetable gardens ) on the hills. In cul- 
tivation of the latter kind, the element of continuous occupa- 
tion, and, therefore, a lasting proprietary right, is wanting. 
Again, between wet rice- fields and fruit-plantations there is a 
wide difference in respect to the permanence of evidence of 
appropriation ; the former, if left uncultivated for a few years, 
are soon covered with brushwood and rank vegetation, in 
which are harboured vermin of all sorts, to the injury of the 
crops of contiguous owners, and shew no signs, except the 
absence of heavy forest, of ever having been cultivated ; the 
latter, on the other hand, even if abandoned, do not disappear 
for many years, not, in fact, until the insidious growth of jun- 

/ gle chokes and kills the fruit-trees. Malay custom has, there- 
fore, fixed three years as the term within which wet rice-fields, 

\^ if left uncultivated, shall remain subject to the proprietary 
right of the owner. If wet.rice-land remains uncultivated for 
more than that peiiod, it is open to the Kaja, Chief or head- 
man, within whose district it is situated, to put in another 

♦ " In practice there may be said to ho but one orij^^inul foundation for land 
•' tenures in Burma, viz , that tlie cultivated-land clearer acqtiires an abso- 
" lute dominion over the soil, bul)ject only to contribution for the service of 
" the State. He cm alienate it by pft or sale, and in default of his doing so, 
*' it descends to his heirs in th • usual order of succession. The title to land, 
•'therefore, is essontially allodial." British Burma Gazetteer, I, 438. 


cultivator. Abandoned fruit-plantations, on the other hand, > 
may bo successfully claimed and resumed by th » pr jprietor, or ^ 
by any one claiming under him by descent or transfer, as long i 
as any of the trees survive, and the proprietary right is not I 
extinguished until all evidence of propriotorsliip is gone.* J 

A general view of tlie tenure of land in a Malay State has 
been given by Colonel Low ; t the State selected as a type of the 
rest being Kedah, as it exi-jtcd before the Siamese concpiest : — 
'* The sovereign was lord of the soil, which the nranr/ hiadanfj, 
*' or ryots, cultivated under regular tenur^Ns. The chief one was 
*' termed sii rat put u^y under which the oci'upicr paid at the out- 
"set the price of one J)fa>t, or rupee, for every orlomj of land. 
" He received this deed from the K:ija, and it was stamped with 
'* tlie chops of the latter and his minister-*. It wa-^ in perpetui- 
*' ty, nnd could not be alienated, but was subject to resumption 
**' by the (ioveriimeiit if the p()ss(»>s(>r allowed the land to go to 
"waste within a given period— sometimes thirty years. Instead 
" of a regular quit-rent, each ryot capable of labour was sub- 
" jected to a capitati(jn-tax of 10 (jnvfantjii of paddy and one of 
" cleaned rice, which wonid now be ccinivalcnt to nearly a 
*^ dollar. This was occasionally commute I into a copper pay- 
" mcnt." But Colonel Low fails to remark, what I believe to 
be the case, that only a small portion of th(; land of th ' State, 

• This is what I biivf mys-lt' ohsrved in P«r:ik, and have heard declared 
by natives to bu the' (Mi>tom of ih.* coiiiitry. It a;4iv s with what Marsdex 
says of thf Malays ol" Sumatra :- - 

** Whilst anyofthov (I'niit-lncs) <uhsi>t, th • d-'^cii'laiits ot tin- planter 
** may claim tli.';^round, tli«>aih it has ]) 'cn l<»r y^-ars ahand n/<l. It they are 
**cut down, Ii..' may n-covrr daiir.i;;is ; hut it ih-y have disaj>j)c*ar«.(l in the 
*• course ot* nature, X\\' land nvir.'s to tlie puhli*-.'' 

"t" Disaertif^i'm tni Prminf tni'l Prorincv Wrf/rs^.-i/, p. (J. Tlu- practice of 
usin;^ a \*ritt',n doeuni-.nt p ihap> h ■ ii h .rr .»v • i Uy t!i:- Kedah Midays 
fnim th.' •> • : **A ( /kik S'n t, or < iil;iv;it .r, wlii> is de>iroU!> <»f clearing 
** jriound, applies to the h- adunn o!" t-ie ^ilI.^^.•. Th»' l.itt -r ^hf•wrt his written 
** application to the jjp'p-r I'llicc-r, aJk- dir-.-rN him t » in>pe<-t the land and 
'* measure it. The ai^plicant, haviiiLT el n-nl it, r civ.-s a writt.-n title ; but 
** althoui^'-h he' i.«^ mtf in it v. -t il a »-'»Lj' ly v.i;:i u ri^dil in perp^'tuity, still 
*' the liind forms th:.'rea!ur a pirt ot hi:- /<•.-/' pr..p riv, is ali.'uahle by (ieed of 
*• sale, or by jrift, and d.-^«vnds to his h.-irs at l.,\v. \\\>:n {\\'ir> it is clear that 
** the Kin;^ can taki' alvanta':^' ^t so d f 'liv.' a title. l're.scription is the 
** owner's best safeicuard."--t'ulonel Low, Jonrn. Iml. Arch., I, 3;j7. 


and that the best padi land probably^ is held direct from 
the Raja by suriit putits. The restrictiou on alienation is, there- 
fore, limited in operation, and the doctrine of proprietary right 
created by clearing and occupying is general. 

The rules as to proprietary right may be stated as follows : — 

1. There can be no proprietary right in ianah mati. 
I 2. Tanah hidop is of three kinds : — 

{a) Land planted with fruit-trees {tanah kampong). 
' (/>) Wet rice-land [tanah heudang, or, satcah), 

i (c) Ilill-land taken up for shifting crops [tanah hnma. 

or, la dang), 
3. The ])roprietary right in kampong land endures during 
occupation and afterwards as long as any fruit-trees re- 
1 main as evidence that the land is ianah hidop. 

\ 1. The proprietary right in tanah hendang, or satrah, lasts 
as long as the laud is occupied, and for three years after- 
5. The proprietary right in ta7iah huma, or ladang, lasts as 
long as the land is occupied, which is usually a single 
season . 
The rights of tenure in a primitive Malay settlement are 
thus oxceediiigly simple, if each proprietor is viewed as the 
owner of the ])icee of land which he has won for himself from 
the forest. The katnpong, or village, is made up of independ- 
ent holdings, and there is no such thing as a joint ownership, 
by the inhabitants of a village or tract, of cultivated lands, 
which is common in India. In long-established and populous 
settlements, the cultivated lands of which have been trans- 
mitted by descent for generati(ms, there has, of course, been 
time for the operation of all sorts of influences — the result of 
a comparatively civilised state of society — which have contri- 
buted to iutrcHluce fresh modifications into the simple rules 
just enunciated. Thus, it will become necessary to consider, 
further (m, the right of the Haja to a share of the produce, the 
lialjility of the j)r«)|)rictor for personal service, the right of the 
proprietor to sell and mortgage, tlie law of inheritance, &c. 


Chapter II. 

The most primitive form of cultivation known to tlio Malays, 
and one that is practised by numerous Indo-Chinese tribes, is 
the hill-farm system.* 

The Malay peasant who does not possess a .s///r///i, or wet 
padi fields or who, possessing one, is unable, from want of 
buffaloes or some other cause, to work it, selects a piece of 
forest land on the side of a hill and proceeds to clear it by 
first eutting down ( 1'^)^ ) the under- wood and then felling 
( tebang) the forest trees. 

Work is commenced about ^larch or April, and when the 
fallen timber is dry it is set on fire; if this is skilfully done 
and advantage taken of wind, the whole is rapidly consumed, 
leaving a clear surface for agricultural operations, ('harrecl 
stumps stick up in all directions on the cleaijng. and some of 
the lighter timber is turned to account in making a rough 
fence round the cultivated patch. Uill-padi {padi Imma ) ivs 
then sown by dropping a few seeds into holes made nt short 
intervals with a pointed stick. Many Malays prefer the ladany 
system, as it is called, to the wet cultivation on the pi i ins, fur 
one reason, namely, the variety of different edible vegetables 
which a hi dang will produce. Besides the hili-^^r/^//, he can 
grow on his farm bananas, Indian- corn, pumpkins and gourds, 
sugar-cane, chillies, &e., A'C. Sometimes the same piece of 
land is cultivated in this manner two years running, but 
usually new land is taken up every year. 

The Sakai and other aboriginal tribes who inhabit the inte- 
rior of the Peninsula, also practise this ^*ystcm of hill-cultiva- 
tion, and their clearings may be seen on the sides of the more 
distant mountains far removed from the districts inhabited by 
the Malays. Logan observed this among the wild tribes in the 
South of the Peninsula, and has described their mode of clear- 
ing and planting their ladnntj. f 

* " The custom of * Chcna ' furms is of extreme antiquity in Ceylon. 
•* It is alluded to in the Mahawanso, B. C. 161, eh. xxiii, p. 140."— Tbn- 
NEHT*s Ceyhn, II, 463. 

tJburM. Ind. Arch.f I, 465. 



This is. no doubt, the national Malay mode of agriculture, 
and characterijitically enough it is introduced into the legend 
which tells of thf establi-^hment of a royal line of Indian 
origin Malay cjuntries. The two peasant women whom 
the Mr^-t ludiun kinir meets when he dcsrendii upon the sacretl 
mountain at Palembang, are described as engaged in culti- 
vating a hill-jrarden « hrrJatfnnj \ where they plant hiW-padi* 
The succ«.*<sive processes of clearing, burning and planting 
apjKJar to be carried out in Sumatra in precisely the same way 
2A on the Peninsula. t 

Texnknt's description of '•' Chena'' cultivation in Ceylon is 
worth transcribing in full. It will Ix* seen that he regards the 
disadvantagfs of tlio system as outweigl.ed by its advantages : — 

" The process of Clicna cultivation in this proA'ince is uni- 
'* form and sinjplc. The forest being felled, burned, cleared, 
*' and fenced, each individuaPs share is distinguished by 
" marks, huts are erected for the several families, and in Sep- 
" tember the land is planted with Indian corn and puujpkins ; 
*'and melon seeds are sown, and cassava plants put down 
"round the enclosure. In December, the Indian corn is 
'' pulled in the cob and carried to market ; and the ground is 
*' re-sown with millet and other kinds of grain, chillies, sweet 
*' potatoes, sugar-cane, hemp, yams, and other vegetables, over 
" which an unwearied watcli is kept up till March and April, 
'* when all is gathered and carried off. But as the cotton 
" plants, which are put in at the same time with the small 
" ^rain and other articles that form the second crop after the 
*' Indian corn has been pulled, require two years to come to 
" maturity, one party is left behind to tend and gather, whilst 
*' their companions move forward into the forest to commence 
*^ the process of felling the trees, and forming another Chena 
" farm . 

*' The Chcna cultivation lasts but for two years in any one 
'locality. It is undertaken by a company of speculators 
" under a license from the government agent of the district, 
" and a single crop of grain having been secured and sufficient 
*Uime allowed for the ripening and collection of the cotton. 

♦ Jovrn. Royal At. Socy. vol. XIII, N.S., p. 401. 
t Mabbden, nut of Sumatra, 62. 



** the whole enclosure is abandoned and permitted to return 
'* to jangle, the adventurers moving onward to clear a fresh 
** Chena elsewhere, and take a crop oil some other enclosure, 
'* to be in turn abandoned like the first ; as in this province 
'' no Chena is considerefl worth the labour of a second cuUi- 
'* vation until after an interval of fifteen years from the 
** first harvest. 

'* During the period of cultivation great numbers resort to 
•• the forests ; comfortable huts are built ; poultr\^ is reared ; 
*' thread spun, and chatties and other earthenware vessels are 
*' made and fired ; and by this primitive mode of life, which 
" ha.^ attractions much superior to the monotonous cultivation 
^•' of a coco-nut garden or an ancestral paddy farm, numbers 
" of the population find the means of support. It likewise 
** suits the fancy of those who feel repugnant to labour for 
*' hire, but begrudge no toil upon a sput of earth which they 
'* can call their own : where they can choose their own hours 
'* for work and follow their own impulses to rest and idleness. 
*' It is impossible to dony that thisi system tends to encourage 
"the natives in their predilection for a re^itlcss and unsettled 
" life, and that it therefore militates against their attaching 
*^ tberaselves to fixed pursuits, through which the interests of 
*" the whole community would rventually he advanced* It 
** likewise leads to the destruction of large tracts of forest hind, 
*' which, after conversion to Chena, are unprofitable for a long 
*' series of years ; but, on the other liaml, it is equally evident 
*' that the custom tends materially to aiigmeut tlie food of the 
*' district ( especially during periods of drought ) ; to su-^tain 
" the wages of labour, and to prevent an undue increase in the 
*' market-value of the first necessaries of life. Regarding it in 
" this lights and looking to the prodigious extent of forest land 
*' in the island, of which the Chena cultivation affects (mly a 
*' minute and unsaleable portion, it is a prevalent and plausi- 
" ble supposition, in whicli, however, I am little disposed to 
*^ acquiesce, that the a^l vantages are sutheieot to counterba- 
^' lance the disatl vantages of the system/' 

FoaBEs,"**^ who also gives a full description of this system of 

• Britith Surma^ 28 1» " I wn not aware that the Imiuttff mode of cultivn- 
'' lion offers any other ftdvuntage to the Hjilftys than that it is oompatfbJe with 
" the«njo7me&t of ft wimderiii^ life." — Nswbqld. Strain of Malacca, I, 26S. 



agriculture us it prevails amoog tlie Karens of Burma^ regards 
as ^^ their great pecidlaritfi, which they pos^^css iu coram on 
"with all the hiJl-rucefi, not only of Burma and Assam, but of 
'' the whole of India, their unsettled and ever-changing modeaf 
*nifet whieli entitles them to the designation of * nomadic cul- 
•• tivutoi*s/ To raise their seuuty crops, the viri^in forests on 
'* the steep slopes of the hills must he cleared and burned : but 
^* the excessive rainfall washes the friable soil ofi the surface, 
** so tbat only one crop can he raised on the same spot until 
'* it has again heconic overgrown with jungle and a freith 
*' deposit of earth has formed/' 

The same practice exists amon^ the more remote and unci- 
vilised tribes in Siuul The husbandry of the people of Laos 
and of the Karieng trihe is thus described by Pallegoix : — "Les 
*' Lao choisisscnt un erulroit fertile dans la foret voisine, en 
" abattcnt tons !es arbres, et y mettent le feu, ce qui danue k 

'^ la terre nne fecondite surpreiuuite/' * " Lc5« 

*' Karieng, de meme que les Lai, ont eoutnme de cuuper et dc 
'' h ruler cha([ue an nee nne eertainc etendue de la fciret pour 
*^ planter leur riz, changeant airisl de place tons les ans, ee qui 
** jes oblige i\ etinstruire suuvt^nt de nouvelles cabanos/' \ 

Cambodia furnishes another example : — 

** La culture par le dcfrielicnieat et rincendie des foi*et« 
" adoptee par les liabitants sauvajres de Ijoterieur est encore 
" bien plus barbare et plus rc«irettablc. Ces pauvresgens se font 
" nne idee exageree des proprictcs fertilisantes des eendres, qui 
" appartiennent, conHue on suit, aux aniendemmts utilises sculc- 
*Vment ponr introdnire dans la terrc les elements mineraux 
" qui quelquefois lui manqucnt et qui sout neeessaires k la vie 

" de certaines plantes/' , ,... 

" lis abattcnt tuus les arbres dans une certaine etendue du bois; 
"ils les laissent sei-hcr nn pen, et les bruleut sur place; iU 
*' etcndent les eendres uniformenient snr le sol atin de Tamender 
" un pen, et an dclmt dc la saison pleuveuse, ils font des Irons 
" regulierement espaces dans le sol, avec un morceau de boia 



^' poiutu, et <3an8 lesquels iU laissent tomber quelque* grains de 
" paddy quails recou%Tent d'un pen de cendres.*' * 

This is also ** the proper national mode of plantiDg rice " in 
ihc Lampong districts (Sumatra), where such clean Dgs are 
tailed by tiie Malay name iadanff, corresponding with the 
Javanese '* iipar. ** It is practised in Java also, f 

Further east, *^ nomadic cultivation*' is still found, distin- 
guishing tribes of cognate origin. The Dyaks of Borneo 
repeat year by year the toihome operation of cleariDg forest 
land fur their temporary farms. ** They do not suppose that 
*' the soil is in any way incapable of bearing further culture, but 
" give always as a reason for deserting their farms, that the 
** weeds and grass which immediately spring up after the padi 
-* has been gathered are less eat^ily eradicated than ground oecu* 
'* pied by old jungle is prepared. They never return to the 
** 9(ame s|)ot until after n period of seven years has elap^, 
** which they say was the custom of their ancestors." J 

Amnn^ the hill-tribes of India^ the same primitive mode of 
cultivation which Himalaic swarms have carried eastward to 
Burma, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and liorneo, 
may Vje viewed in the very districts, perhaps, in which it origi- 
nated. The Kukis ( north-east of Chittagong ) cut down the 
jungle on the declivity of some hill in the month of Marcli, 
and allow it to lemain there until sufficiently decayed to hum 
freely, when they set it on ^re^ and thus at once perfonn the 
double purpo.<e of clearing away the rubbish and of manuring 
the ground with its ashes. The women now dig small holes 
at certain distances in the spot so cleared and into each hole 
they throw a liaudful of difierent seeds they intend to rear.jl 

'J'he Abors observe the same method of cultivation, but tisike 
three successive crops otl" it before abandoning it.^ 

In India and Jlurma the control of this practice has neces- 
sarily engaged the attention of district officers, and in some 
districts tiscal regulations have recognised this system of shift- 

f Journ, Jnd. Arch,, V, 636, 
f Javrn, Ind, Arch., II. 2'Sii, 



mg cultivatioD, ensuring thereby a reasonable revenue to the 
State. In the Straits Settlements, on the other hand, where 
the neces&ity of making every cultivator take out a lease seems 
to have been the whole and sole guiding principle of the Land 
Office, the I ad an g or hnma system has never been recognised 
and regulated. It is still practised, u evert helcf^s, in parts of 
Malacca at a loss of rcvcuue to the Colony. In Xative States 
on the Peniusola it is, of course, common. 

The follnwing remarks on the temporary cultivation of hill- 
farms by certaiTi tribes m India and Burma ai*e extracted frora 
Bad EN- Powell's Mfinfftii of the Laati Ihrenue Sf/sffmft and 
Land Temirfn of British India (1882), p, 102 :— 

*• Shifting CrLxn atto\. 

" An account, liowever elementary, of Indian Innd tenures, 
" would beinccioiplete withoutsome notice of a customary hold- 
*^ ing of jungle lantl which is widely prevalent in parts of India, 
"' but which is of such a nature that it is very doubtful whether 
** the term * hmd-ienure ' can with propriety he ap[)licd to it. 
'' I alliidc to the practice of temporary or shifting cultivation uf 
** patches of forest, winch has iu some districts proved an ubsta- 
'* cle, or at least a source of difficulty in the way of making 
'* arrangements for the preservation of wooded tracts as forest 
"estates, a ivork which mndern science recognises as e-S3?en- 
■* tial for almost nuy eountry, and csperiully a great contioent 
** like Indiu with its clinuitic chan^^cs iiud seasons of drought uf 
*' such frequent recurrence/' 

"In the jungle-chid hill country on the east and north of 
" Bengal, in the Ghats of the eastern and western coasts of the 
** peninsula, in the inlaud hill ranges of the Central Provinces 
" and Southern India, there are aborigiTial tribes wlio live by 
" clearing patches of the jtingle, and taking u crop or two off J 
*^ the virgin soih after wiiieh the tract is left to trmw up again' 
" while a new one is attacked. 

** This method of cultivation seems to be instinctive to all 
"tribes inhabiting such districts. 1 1 seems to be the natural 
** and obvious unshod of dealing with a country so situated. 

"The details of t!ie t ustom are of course various, and the 
" names are legion. The most widespread names^ however^ are 



f^^jim' in Bengal, * * bewnr * ( often, but incorrectly, dah^d) 
in the Cetitral Proviaee*, ^kifnri' in S^uth India, and 

^* taung-t/d' in Burma, 

^[** In all cases the essence of the pncticecan'^i^t^in selecting 
hill side where the e^fe^iive trjplcil rainfall will drain on 
** sniliciently to prevent floodin^^of ther^rop aWil on wliich thtare 
'' 11 a sufficient depth of soil. A few plot^ arc selectc i, and all 
" the ve;retation carefully cut : the lar;2fet' trees will usually b? 
•* rinc^ed and left to die ; — standin^^ bare and drietl, there will be 
** no shade from them hurtful to the ripe iin;a^ crop. The refuse 
'* is left on the ground to dry. At the proper season, when the 
** dry weather is at its height, and before the rains begin 
"and fit the ground for sowiut?. the wholo nia^s will be S3t 
"on fire: the ashes are du*? into the nrrouml, and the seed is 
■*»own» — -usually be in f^j ruixed with tlic ashes ami the whole dug 
"in together. The ploui^h is not usi» L The ^^rcat labour after 
"that consints in wtfcdin;;?, and it i^ the only labr>ur after t!ie 
*' first few daVH of hard catting, to clear the ground in the first 
** instance, are over. \Veedin«: is, in many places, a sifir qud non, 
" for the rich soil would soon send up a crop (jf jutigle growth 
** that would suppress the hill rice or wliatovcr it is that has 
•' been sown, f 

** A second crop maybe taken, the fullowin;^ yeii\% pos-^ibly a 
** third, but then a new piece i^ cut, and the process is repeated, 

**Natuiie of Riout to wHrcu sucn Prvctick «jives rise, 

'* When the whole of the area in tlie locality judf^erl suitable 
** fortrcattuRnt in exhausted, tlie families or tribes will move otJ' 
'* to another region, and may, if land is abundant, only come 
** back to the same hill sides after twenty or even forty years, 
'* But when the families are numerous, the land available be- 

^**Jdm lathe general niime usel in offijkl rf^porti*, but in rfiaUtj this 
"njime must be entirely local- tn fact no oil's name can hn applied In the 
••ttaro hilb, in Cliittiigontr, in (ioAlpira, in Suntulk, ami no <louljt in every 
**nt^ — r,. ^-: t wbure this m^thoJ of L'ultiviitlon ia practiaeJ, thure is ti dlfisi- 

t ^18 not always the caae^ where the hill hmd has long bet>n fiubjeot 

*' to this ueatmont, or where the noil Ik pacnlifir : in the Qato hOls, I am told, 
** wnetMafg in not requirel." 

'< conies limited and then the rotation is shortened to a number 
" of Tears — seven or even less^ — ^in which a growth, now reduced 
"to bamboos and smaller jungle, can be got wp to a sufficient 
" density and height to give the soil and the ash- manure neces* 
'' sary. In its ordinary fonn, this method of cultivation may 
" give rise to some difficult questions* It obviously does not 
" amount to a permanent, adverse occupation of a definite area 
*' of land ; nor does it t-xactly fall in with any western legal con- 
" ception of a right of user, I n some cases it may he destructive 
" of forest wliieli is of great use and value, in others the forast 
" may be of no use whatever, and this method of eulttvation may 
'* be natural and necessary. The progress of civilisation and the 
"increase in the jfopulution always tc!id to bring this class of 
'* cultivation into the former category, and tlien it is very ditfi cult 
" to deal with. It is impossible not to tVcl that whatever may 
" be the theoretical failure in the growth of a !»trict right, the 
^' tribes that have for generations praetined this ctiltivatiou from 
'" one range of bills to anotber, have seraething closely resem* 
" bling u right; ihey have probably been paying a Government 
''revenue or tax— so much per adult male who can wield the 
'* knife or iixe with wliicb the clearing is effected — which 
** streugtbcns their claim to consideration. In creating forest 
" estates for the public beuetit, the adjustment of * foumj-i^d,* 
"*/»v/wnV ** or 'Juni* claim!* has now become a matter of 
*' settled and well-undrrs^tood practice. In the Western GhAts it 
** IS becoming a subject of difficulty^* but the discussion of the 

• "AlreaJy, in the Koukaii, whole hiU sitiee have ^ ^ 

•• while the *^oil washe*! hy thv houvy nmnaoon rain- 
*' liilfeenl upand renderetl uHolesH, BtrettiiisaiKlcretk:* wiu.i. .1 x. ,rj..v_ 
**Thediifficiilty is thjit the tribes are ftlwtiVB **t'ini-lmrh.^rou«, aiid the 
'* iu^luct! them to overcoiiio their upftthy atid tuke to jNTmaiieDt en 
" Uufortiiimtcly, sympothetio ofiiciaJis proj*rly ulive to the ii€C5i:rft»ity 
** ttcatinff thest* tribee, are UBUaUy totally hjind tf> thf* t*^\ thmii^r of d 
•* the O hut forests, or whiit i« worsct pi :t, the belnji Jii 3 no 

*' real hold on thera. To aboliflh thi^ '^u, aerione and su»- 

/* tained effort i» necessary ; to g-et tit , , . , . ; ; , , i. .wn. und to procure 

**for them cAttle, plou^^hs, and Beeil-gia n. r | 1 rt-. liUorul cxiKinditure, It i« 
"diflicalt to find offi^xTa who hare thr liine or li^i z :il nacc^eary for the ftr«(, 
" ttnd fituuicial dii!icaltie« are likely to be in thu way of the eeoond. An eAAier 
"oourseis to draw harrowing" pictures of the Buffering- cans«^ to the tril>ee hy 
** stopping their ancient cultivation, and to denounce the efforts^ of the Foro«t 
*♦ Administration as being hnr»b and without recognition of ttie * want** of th« 


** question would be foreign to my present purpose, which is 
•* merely to describe what is in fact a form of land occupation 
" or quasi -tenure." 

Chapter III. 

Monarchical goveniment was introduced among the Malay 
tribes by Hindu rulers from India, and a new element was thus 
added to the primitive structure of society theretofore existing. 
The settlement or group of settlements of individual cultiva- 
tors ( each deriving his right to his holding from the fact that 
lie and his family or slaves had reclaimed it from the forest ) 
who lived in tribes under elected Chiefs, or Penghulus, for 
mutual protection, now became subject to the incidents of 
Aryan kingly government. 

The rights of the Raja in the early Hindu kingdoms in India 
were : — 

1. The right to a share in the grain. 

2. The right to collect taxes. 

3. The right of disposal of waste land. 

The proportion of the padi crop which the Malay Raja or 
Chief can claim has come to be fixed by custom at one-tenth 
of the grain, and payment can be enforced by seizure of the 
crop or land. A new qualification in the proprietary right of the 

" people.' It is unfortunate that the ver? forests at the head- waters of streams 
** with dense growth and steep slopes, whioh forest economy most imperatively 
** calls on ns to preserve, are the very tracts in which this temporary oultiva- 
'' tion is most indsted on. " 

land-Lokkr lias thus grown up in some districts. It wa^ 
explained just now that liiw right, which was based upon ciri* 
ginal oeeupati(*n, is* ahsohitc as hing as that occupation 
continues ; to this must now be added, " at}d as long as a pro* 
port i Oil of fhv fjrffin h paid to the Raja or Chir/s" 

The rate of ouc-tenth of the produce thus leviable by Malay 
custom is, it should be observed, the same as the rate still 
collected under a law based upon native custom, in Ceylon. 
So, in China, *'the land is held as a freehold as long as the 
*^ sovereign receives his rent, fthivh h eatimatcfi at about one- 
** tenth of f/ff prodftrf, and the pruprietors record their names 
" in the District Magistrate' s Office as responsible for the tax, 
*' feeling themselves secure in the possession while that is paid/'* 
In Cambodia, too, the share of the sovereign is one-tenth of 
gross produce, t Low, speaking of Siamese rule in Kcdah, says 
" The Siamese, fuUuwing the code of Menu, affect to exact onlyi 
** one*tenth of the gross produce value, but the tax is more thi 
" doubled in practice. ^'I 

The rigid of the Raja to dispOhe of wuste land cannot liare, 
been seriously exerted in iMalay States in respect of fore 
land. The old Malay cu8ti>m which permitted the free selec- 
tion and appropriation of forest land for the purposes of cul- 
tivation was not interfered with, the adoption of any other 
course being almost impossible iii countries the greater part of 
wbich was under forest. As regards abandoned laod, or land 
to which there wiis no heir, it was, no doubt, diflerent, and the 
rights of the Raja were often duly enforced. It is not difH. 
cult to sec how the rights of the Kaja to demand a proportion 
of the produce, on pain of forfeiture of the holding, and to 
dispose of waste land, tended by degrees to create the doctrine 
that the right to the soil was iu the Raja. Such a doctrine 
did in fact grow up, and being, to all appearance, consistent 
with the rights exercised by the Raji*, and not iucompatibl 
with the proprietary rights claimed by the Malay land- holder,^ 
it has received complete acceptance in Malay States, It wiia 


• The Middle Kingdim^-^WiLHAMS, II, 100. 
f Ze Eefyavmi! de CamlH>dge—W.OU^JL, I, 264, 
} DutmiMWH on Penang and Pt'ovin^f Wflls$Ity^ 6. 

Jtfum, Ind, Arek^ I 



aot incompatible with the righta of the owner of the proprie- 
tary rightj for he did not claim an allodial right to the soil, 
but merely the right to appropriate and keep for himself as 
much land as he had the power ( ttsaha ) to clear and keep in 
cultivation. There was nj necessity, from his point of view, 
to ask in whom the absolute property in the soil was vested ; 
he did not claim more than a usufruct, continuous as long as 
he chose it to be so, and terminable on abandonment,* 

That the soil of a Malay State is vested in the Raja is a 
doctrine not now to be questioned, though it may have origi- 
nated in confusion of thought, the exercise of the rights to 
collect the tenth and to dispose of abandoned land being 
assumed to imply the existence of a superior right of property 
in the soil^ to which the rights of proprietorship were subor- 

* ** In tlie timofi of the early Hrndu yOlag^ commimities, proprietary righte, 
' Afl defined bj powers to alieimt^, existed to a ^ery tdfling extent. In the 
' more ancient form of community, aa has been said, tennree had no market 
'value; and in the later and more democratic comm unities where rights 
' were more decided, the land waa not an individual but a common property, 

* and one man oonid not without the consent of the others sell to a stranger. 
' Still transactions occurred in the hitter case among the members of tlie 
' community themselves, which showed an indiridual ownere^hip within that 
^ limit. Sales were not common, and mortgages were usuaUy not forecloa- 
' able fi>r a very long period; but the latter existed in abundanoe, showing a 
' c«;rtain ^aluc in individual ownership of landed property'. Individual pro- 

* perty m land apni ug up earlier than elsewhere in the districti} on the west- 
' cm coast, probnbly owing to the political circumstances which rendered 

* the Govpmmcnt RUthority weak and the St-ate demandfl light. The attitude 

* of the Hindu rajahs with regard to the ^oil ha« been much discussed* It 

* probably varied entirely with the circumstances of timesi and places. The 

* object of Government ia to obtain revenueti for Government purposes. If it 

* found oomm unities ho organized ii« to be able to farm the villagee properly 
' and to render the proi^-r State dues, the Government would uot interfere 
' iu the direction of the di^ipoNal of the lands claimed by the community. 

* If it found an inifierfect organization it would \y^ forced to interfere 

* in the disposal of the lands, e&peciallv of the woMte lauds, with a view to 

* the proper develcxprnent of the country and realization of the revenue, 
' The tendency probably mis for the villagers to lean more and more on the 
' Govermnent in these mattery and hence Id manj* parte of the country the 
'* State interference became a regular institution. Still there is no evidence 

* that any Hindu government ever tocik the step of ejecting an occupii-r ; 

* even if they tailed to obtain their dues from him they limittnl their repri» 

* fial« t ! l1 torture or sale of moveable property. The sale hiw is not 

* a ua' uion. The discussion whether the Indiiin governments are 
'*pro| ;..... af the soil,' or not, seems to be little more than a dispute 
' about words." — Sttindrn^ Infoi'vuition^ MadiHt^^ p, 78, ; ; 



dinate. The right of the subject of a Malay State to appro- 

f)riate and cultivate, and thufi acquire a proprietary right orer, 
and which, though once tanah hidop, has been abandoned and 
has relapsed into ttinah mati, is unquestioned * ; it is not incon* 
sistent with any supposed right of the Raja to the soil of the 
abandoned holdings for Malay tenant right may be established 
by a cultivator over the land of another, The Raja's absolnte 
property in the soi], is but a barren right, and as he undoubt- 
edly has, independently of h. the right of levying tenths and 
taxes and of forfeiting lands for non-payment, Malay law does 
not trouble itself mueh with speculation about it. Tenant 
right is the cardinal doctrine of the Malay cultivator, and^ as ' 
long as that is fully recognised, it does not matter to him who 
or what functionary or power may, in theory, be clothed with 
the original and supreme right to the soiLf 

When Malay laws speak of the grant by the Raja of lands 
aireadi/ raider cHltiration to some Chief or royal favourite, it 
must be understood that what is granted is the right to exer- 
cise the royal privileges of claiming from the cultivators a tenth 
of the produce and of disposing of abandoned and forfeited 
lands. The Raja's property in the soil is not parted with, and 
the tenant right of the cultivators in in no way interfered with. 
The grants of the local Dutch Government in Malacca parcel- , 
ling out the district to a few privileged individuals, which gave^ 

• Appendix 1, p. v. ' 

t " It doea nut iip],>ear from BI17 of the SiamoHe writing« ezAiniiif^d hy bm» 
*• or from inf armation oraUy obtamec?* that the sovereigti us th** virtiml pro^ 
**prietor of the soil. Thnt he in perfectly despotic c&zmot be doubted. But 
*' eaatem despots gi^eeraUy encotiiage Ag^riciilture* and however the case ] 
"have stood orsgimllj, it Ib evident from law canes quoted in thedigeotfl 
**cleciaionB that the occupiers of Uie laud have a firm pr«icriptiv** -'^ -"^ 
** indefeaitbld proprietary right in it, Perhape their Kings may ha > 
" and with truth, that thoir own pro«i>eiity wtt« linked with the adrj. t J 

"that right ; and hence may have arisen the fixed aseefisment on landed _ 
" perty, which has not altered i^iuce the dajts of the earliest interoonne 
** Europeans with Slam. It is coUeeted either in kind ftt 10 per cent* or 
** money* Ten per cent, on the value of the net produce is here meai 
" Although this, for Asia, ia a light tax in itself, yet when taken in conjuncfcioil 
" with the obligation to |*erBonal service for the State and with other exme* 
. ♦* tiouB to which all are liable, it will be found on the whole oppreti«ive. Be- 
:**^ido8^ the Kings wiU often break thro^igh all law, social and moral/'-^olo- 
l"*'" :nAl hOVf^Jifurn, Ind. Arc/t,, I, 33(i 



so tnucli trouble to the officers of the East India Company ou 
their aucoession to the Government of that Settlement in 1825, 
were of this nature.* The grantees were nothing more than 
a species of what are called in India *' Zamiud^rs/' The abso- 
lute right of the ciUtivatorH to retain possession of their hold- 
ings as long as thoy paid to the grantees tenths of the produce, 
was in no way prejudiced, nor was the customary right of 
every native of the country to take up forest or waste land 
.wherever he pleased and to bring it into cultivation. The 
^grants were in accordance with Malay tenure, and in no sense 
corresponded with the English idea of a freehold holding. 
Nevertheless, there are not wanting, on the part of the few 
remaining grantees, attempts to assert that their rights within 
the districts granted to them include the fullest pi-oprietor- 
(i«hip of the soil, and to act as if they were the owners of the 
freehold. This is an illustration of the tendency to argue the 
acquisition of a proprietary right from the exercise of certain 
powers which, until their history is examined, seem to he 
inconsistent with any other position. So, in Bengal, the Za- 
minddr, who was, in the inception of the native revenue 
system, a revenue official^ or agent, established in course of 
time hereditary and proprietary rights and came to be looked 
on eventually as the proprietor of the district over which he 
exercised the rights assigned to him. Had the Straits otFtcials 
from 1825 understood the true bearing of the position, accord- 
ing to Malay law, as the Dutch undoubtedly did ( for the 
' same system is recognised in some districts of Java), it would 
liave been possible, perhaps, to have left the grantees in pos- 
["»ession of theii* Zamlnduri rights, to have assessed the land 
revenue of their respective districts at a fixed sum, and to 
have exacted full payment of this, leaving the concessionaire to 
collect the tenth in detail from his tenantry. 

The following principles regarding land tenure in Java had 
been laid down by Sir Stamford Raffles only eleven years 
before the settlement with the Malacca grantees took place t^ — 
** The nature of the landed tenure throughout the island is now 

• Journ, Ind. Areh., 11. 740, 

t Htvenuf Imtructiont, llth Febraaiy, 181'i* 



*^ thoroughly underBtood. Generally speakiog, no proprietary 
*' right in the soil is vested in any between the actual cultiva- 
*' tor and the sovereiorn ; the intermediate classes, who may 
" have at any time enjoyed the revenues of villages or districts 
*^ being deemed merely the execntive officers of Govemmem 
" who received these revenues from the gift of their lord ; and 
*' who depended on his will alone for their tenure. Of this 
" actual proprietary right, there can be no doubt that the 
*' investiture vested solely in the sovereign ; but it is equally 
" certain that the first clearers of the land entitled themselves, 
'^ as a just reward, to such a real property in the ground they 
'' tlms in a manner created, that, while a due tribute of a cer- 
" tain share of its produ(*e was granted to the sovereign power 
** for the protection it extended, the government in return was 
'' equally bound nut to disturb them or their heirs in its p<>s- 
*' session. The disposal of the government share w^as thus*. 
" therefore, all tliat (*ould justly depend on the will of tht' 
*' ruling authority ; and consequently the numerous gifts of 
*' land niadt* in various periods by the several sovereigns have 
" in no way affected the rights of the actual cultivators. All 
" that Uoveninient could alienate was merely it« own revenue 
*' or share of the produce. This subject has come fully under 
*' discussion, and the above result, as regaixling this island, has 
" been quite s*atisfai.^torily established ^' 

The following description of the mode of creating thc^e 
qnani-rnHHorinl rights in Java, and the nature of the rigli 
created, from which it will appear that the Dutch in thei; 
Eastern possessions have simply adopted tlie native law of 
tenure und have not introduced one of their own, is translated 
from WixcKEi/s Enaai mtr irti PriifnjjcH reginnani VAdministra- 
thii tie la Justice attx htdva Ormitaha JJol/umitnses (1880), p, 
141. It is cnlirely in accordance with Malay law. and the 
principles laid down apply, to a great extent, to the private 
right* in ^lulacca vUjich (jovcrnor Filleuton bought up, 
with few exceptions, in 1828 : — 

** Following in this respect the general Muhammadan law, 
'* at least in part, tlie ancient Javanese sovereigns* used to 

* '* Thai is Btill doae in Java on the lands of the Susohunan of Sourakarta 
** aad tho Sidtan of Jokjokortu. Hut there* the thing has been ably worked 



" pay tbeir functionaries and sbew favour to their relations 
*• and favourites, not with hard cash, but by a delegation of 
'* sovereign rights consisting iu the right to exact a share of 
** the produce of the soil (from one to four tenths) and that 
" of requiring the cultivator to work (in some cases, one day 
*^ out of every five) either for the pecuniary profit of the lord 
** or merely to gratify his t^iste for ostentation by swelling his 
" train, 

'• The delegated ruler (who exercises police control and even 
" administers justice to some extent) is not the owner of the 
*' soil in the European sense of the word. He cannot, for 
" instauce, evict the cultivator from it; but the latter is obliged 
" to pay the tithe and to take a part in the forced service* 

*' Our ancestors found this system in force in Java and 
'* imitated it, 

'* Tbese sovereign rights have been conceded by the influ-^ 
•' ence of monev, but la perpetuity, contrary to Muhammadan 
'' law. 

'* The European goveninients which have followed have 
*^ often clone this and have had cause to repent it. 

** Be tbat as it may, in the Residencies of Bantam, Batavia, 
*' Krawungj Cheribon, Tagal, Samarang, Japara, Sourabaya 
*' and Pa Baruan, there are these 'private lands' [terrea par- 

** by EiiropoftJis. They, never natives or Chinese, take on lease, with the 
** consent of the Dutch Govemment and for twenty rears at moat, the right* 
" delegated to members of the royal family and to* the officers of their High- 
*» nesftes. It is the Europeans^ who, instead of usint^the cor vet' to seeure a 
** II uite, tuni it to account in indig-o factories, su^ar-niills and cofTee 

** 1 OfttD, instead ol a share of the |jrod\ice of the soil, they 

" tan< II >riMif of the ttoil itwvlf. This organisation has i^iven incredible 
** scope to European enterprise, has demorali»ed thw native nobility, and 
'* has given more intelligent and therefore more indulgent masters to the 
** common people, 

•• If, as it ii> high time it ithould b*^ the case, these phantoms of sovereigns 
•* were deprived of their power, and the administration were put on the footing 
*• of the ' Government* lands, the Rouroe of European inaustry would drj^ 
•* np, and the common people would not gain very much, /roi» a practical 
** point of view ; the minor ehiefs alone would profit. Effort was made fifty 
" Yeari ago to put a stop to the * farming out of the land' fhail de9 UrreiJ^ 
•• out the ancient system was reverted to, tempered by the, by ao meani ao- 
** minal, control of the Dutch ojQ&clals/* 



ficttiieres}.^ Those of Kmwang — only two in number and 
comprising 31H and 51 villages, respectively, with a popula- 
tion of nearly 1 80,000 souls — exceed in extent and importance 
many an European State, 

^' These little principalities have been objects of dislike to 
the Dutch power, ever since, dating from the fall of the 
noble Company, there has been a governing government : to 
^ the Company, commerce was always the chief thing. Some- 
times the government has repurchased them ; t on other 
' occasions recourse 1ms been had to not very honourable 
" means in order to obtain possession of them 4 

'* It is certain that these lands, especially those of no great 
' extent and cultivated by Chinese, might support a happier 
' native population » Nevertheless, for some years past com- 
' plaints have much diminished, thanks probably to the strict 
'' control of the government. 
" However that may be, it was supposed in 1854§ that it 
was particularly against these absolute principalities that 
^ ill-will was entertained in high places, and guarantees were 
^ accordingly asked for. The governments protested, saying 
' that such a use of the law of dispossession would be an 

* ** In Duteli, partkitfivt' htndhi'zit. Tlie origin of some of the»e oonces* 

Biotjs 18 Dot a little mysterious. The Btdleiw des Lois, 1836» No, 19, con- 

t4jin^ the Ordinance for the West of Java regarding * private land*/ We 

' regret that thi*! interesting subject is Ijcyond the «*copo which we have 

Erc'soribed ta tmrstlvoK^ It is too extensive to be treated of in a note. 
,et iifi be satistiid with sajing that the Court of Justice of Batavin (BoEE^s 
' case, 5th June* 1M78, Indisch Weekhlad van bet Kect, No* 784) winiits as 
^ an extenuating tijcumstance the fact that the Uitlinance is inoom|^e 

and bad, and that this ha* greatly uonttibuted to the eommisaion of noU 
' of violence. See the splendid reports of M. van Dissxl on the pmmtt 
' lands of the East of Java, printed, by the Society of Industry and Ag 
' culture, Batavia, 1878." 

t ^' For instance, the present regency of Frobolingo in the beginning i 
' the century,** 

t " Sukabumi^ for instanoe*'* 

5 ** At the time of the passing of the Eegulation for the Governmcattj 
' Netherlands India, article 77 of which commences a& follows ; — 'Ko oC 
' * may be dispossessed of his property, except, in the public interetti im thtt 
' ' manner laid down hj a general legisktive act, and in ooniidermtioa af 
' * preliminary iad^mmfication.* " 


enormous wrong against which no law could give a guaran- 
*^ tee except that provided by Article 24, para. 1, of the Re- 
" gulation for the Conduct of the Govermnent, which forbids 
" the Governor-General to sacrifice on his own authority the 
** important principles of administration. 

** Let us admit that an express allusion would have settled 
*' the matter better. There is nothing now to prevent, if not 
" the Governor-General, at all events the King, from discover- 
ing some fine day that the dispossession of the ' lords of the 
aoir * would be in the public interest, especially since a 
** good many people are already of that opinion. 

** But let these gentry be re-assured : for many years to 
*' come the government of India will not be able to aflbrd the 
*' immense sums f which such a measure would require, even if 
*^ there should be found at the head of this goveniment a man 
bold enough to undertake it.'* 

Chapter IV. 

The exaction of a tithe of the produce of land is by no means 
an universal tax in Malay States. In those States which are 
governed by Rajas, there are also hi reditary chiefs who inter- 
cept most of the revenue of particular districts, and in email 
quasi-republies like the Negri Sambilan taxation is practically 
unknown. The only purely Malay provint-e in which I have 
personally seen the tenth nf the grain collected by a native 

• " Landkeer in Dutch ; Tuaa tanah in Malay," 

t •* We are reminded that one of the estates of the Rje*iilency of Krawang 

hiis been encumbertd (to prevent a partition, we believe) with a mortga^ 

'• of fcix tnil lions of florins. However, we are not eon3|>etent to say what m 

*• the value of lands of this kind. All that we know is that they pay well 

, •• worked bv an European ; » little less in the hands of a native farmer : 

** enormously farmed out to a Chinaraan/* 



Government is the Krian provmce in Perak, Before 1874, tfce 
coast district lying between the Krian river and Paair Gedabu 
was regarded as a personal estate of the reigning Snltan. It 
contains an exteosive area of very fertile paddy-land, cultivat- 
ed chiefly by Malays of Penang and Province Wellesley, who 
naed in fornier times to live principally in the British Settle- 
ments, giving across to Krian dnring tbe padi Beason and re- 
moving their grain ^ when harvested, to their homes by the sea» 
The fact that most of the padi was taken out of the country in 
this way made it easy to collect the tax at the time of export, and 
at the time I speak of (1H74-), the headman upon each creek 
exacted, instead of an assessed tenth, a fixed tax of thirty ffan- 
fangs o^ padi {or e\eT J orlong cultivated, in money or kind, 
before a land -owner was allowed to export his grain to British 
territory. Those who lived permanently in Krian and did not 
export their jj^f// hud to settle with the Penghnlu at the same 
rate. He kept a roll of the cultivators in (lis district, and esti- 
mated roughly, or by actual measurement, the area cultivated 
by each. 

The inhabitants of this district paid also a capitation tax of 
82,25 per family, or ^l-l^i pci' every unmarried male adult. 

These taxes were not levied in Pcrak proper, lirst, because it 
is not a great grain-producing country, and taxation would 
have discouraged cultivators and cansed them to abandon culti- 
vation for mining — the principal industry of the State ; secondly, 
because the inhiibitauts of Perak proper were always available 
for the performance of forced serviues of all kinds, w^hereus the 
L'ultivuturs of Krian w^cre a shifting population who spent most 
u f t h ci r t i ni c in B ri t i j? Ii t er r i t o ry , 

It is evident that the Kriun system of collection at the time 
of export is one not suited to a country in which the grain 
produced is intended for local consiiinption. It is not clear 
how the tithe of the produce of the Nuuing rice-fields, which, 
by an agreemont made iu 164 1-, became payable to the Dutch 
Government at Malacca,* was intended to be collected. It 
may liave been levied upon cargoes coming down the river, 
but more probably it was never ettectually exacted. In Kedah^ 
following the Siamese custom, the practice seems to have been 


• JfBWBOLn* I* 2m. 



to require the cultivator, under fear of puniahtnent, to deliver 
the tax in money or kind at a certain place. '* Grain^holdera 
** were forced to deliver the rice into the Raja's granaries 
'* at the price he chose to fix on it, which always left him a 
'* profit of about 20 percent,, uor could they sell grain without 
" special permission/'* 

The method of levying the tenth on the rice-crops in Malacca 
19 thus described by Newhold : t '' When the grain is ripe, a 
** person on the part of the Gi)veniment visits the rice-fields, 
*• attended hy the owner, the Pang;hulu, or Mata-Mnta, of the 
** village aij(l several of the oldest inhabitants, on the «pot, in 
" order to agree upon and assess the value of the crop. A dif- 
*• fcrence of opinion will naturally souictiiues arise between the 
** taxcr and thr^ taxed. This is submitted to the arbitration of 
** the Pan«;hulii iiud the village ehlcrs. But should these persons 
" Jigain a^^ioss the crop at a lower value than the Collector's 
** agent really thinks it worth, the latter has still the resource of 
'* offering to purchase the wh<de of tlic evo[> on the part of 
** Government, at a price according to the ownei-^s valuation, 
*' This proposal, whenever made, has been, I believe, invariably 
"refused. It is not^ therefore, improbable, all circumstances 
*' considered, that not more than seven or eight per cent., at the 
" most, ever finds its way into the Company's godowns. The 
'* tenth in kind on paddy is sold, whenever a gootl price can be 
** procured for it. on the spot, and the proceeds lodged in the 
•* Treasury, The tenth ou the other articles of land prodoee is 
** levied at tolls placed at the eutraucos into Nnning from Malac- 
** ra, and there immediately sold/' 

This account describes a purely native procedure, for, fifty 
years ago, when Newbold wrote, just us at the present time 
tl88i), no mode of collertin^ the tenth was provided by law. 

lie absence of legal powers tri punish the evasion of the well- 
known customary regulations does not^ however, seem to have 
prevented the collectors from using their position as oppres- 
sively in a British possession as in a Native State. J 

• Low — DiMert^ttioH^ p. T. 

I CorrapoN/ien^ rfhiihtQ to the Land Hn^n^e Syitem (*f the Str^itu Settle* * 
m&rtiii, 1837-44, p, 61, 



Sir Emerson Tennent, in his account of Ceylon, though he 
describes the manoer in which the tenth is collected there under 
British Cilnnial rule,* dops not state how, if at all, this varies 
from the practice which obtained under the native administra- 
tioD, but I find a very full description of the collection of a 
tithe on grain in an Asiatic kingdom in Morn\*s Le Rotjaujm' 
de Camhodge^ which is interesting as shewing the extreme 
elaborateness of the procedure found necessary. It is instruc- 
tive to compare the publislied deacriptions of the eflbrts made 
during the lai*t fifty or sixty years to collect the Malacca land 
revenue, one long history of want of knowled^^e on one side, 
and fraud and e\'asion on the other, shewing " how cruelly the 
"subject has been neglected and mismanaged ,"t with what this 
author is able to state as regards Cambodia, *' no difficulty or 
"delay is ever experienced in getting in this tax '^ ! 

"The rice-harvest is gathered betweenNoveniber and January, 
" according to the forwardness of the crops. Towards tlie 
" month of Jannar3% the King sends out into each province an 
" envoy, who is the beai*er of a royal order conferring on him 
" tlie right of estimating tlic riee-crops realised by the owners, 
" and of deeiding the portion due to the State, that is to say, 
'' a tenth nf the gross produce. The envoy is always ac- 
" eompanicd on tliis mission by an agent of the i^torekeeper- 
" general of Phnom Penh, They proceed together to the 
" province which has been assignetl to them, and exhibit their 
" credentials to the Governor, On siglit of the King's seal, 
** the Governor prostrates himself three times ; he at once 
** causes candles aiid joss-stieks to be lighted and places them 
" on the ground u\ front of him, and he then listens, lying on 
** hi& face, to tliC reading of the royal edict. He himself at 
** once draws up instructions to the various employes of bis 
'• province, so that the task of the envoys from the capital may 
" be facilitated everywhere and that the reception to which 
" they are entitled may be accorded to them. Lastly, the 
" Governor nominates from among the local authorities a third 
^**. delegate, who forms one, ex-offit-io^ oi the committee of 
,:'^. measurement. This delegate represents the interest of the 

t Blvxdell 

I — Jovrn, 

Ind. Arch.. 11, 741. 

'* Goyemor, who gets €>iie lenih ci tLe tisMsr ai lire vinc^ huM 
" to the State." 

" In the Tillages they prepaie beforelimd greaa jb^« laJk 
'* for the shelter of the defalcation, the mezLhir^ rf wxaiii art 
*' received at the border of his JTuisdicticai Lj iLe bendnuuDu 
*' who instals them in the qnarten prepared fur ihsm. A* 
'^ soon as they have settled down and are MtDCwLat Tceu^ liie 
*' headman of the village joins them and pre*CDi* ' ri/ c/«tf fc 
" of the oath' a piece of cotton staff five c:ibit* long wiici i§ 
" accompanied by five coins • worth about forty oe^tiiDe^ . a 
*' cock^ as door-keeper of the *a1Uy and lastly some fresh besuJ 
" leaves and peeled areca-nats. The headnum prcfStrttea 
" himself before his offering, and the royal delegate tolemnlj 
'' reads out his instructions. This rental over, the head man 
*' swears to conduct himself in the matUrr as an honest fnne- 
" tionary and one anxious for the interests <*f the State, and 
^* not to lend assistance to any fraud calculated to withhold 
" anv portion of the crops of his district from the researches 
" of 'the collectors." 

^' Next they proceed to examine, house by house, the heaps 
'^ of rice ; these are valued, and against the name of the person 
'' liable for the payment, there is entered cm a register one- 
'' tenth of the quantity found, representing the tax due to the 
'^ State ; this the proprietor himself is under the obligation of 
'' conveying to the capital, together with a delivery order which 
'' the King's envoy delivers to each cultivator before leaving 
" their house." 

" When the circuit is finished, the Committee return to the 
" chief town of the province, where three precisely identical 
'' registers are drawn up recording their labours ; one of these 
^^ registers is for the King, another is sent to the keeper of 
'' the rice-granary, and the third remains in the hands of the 
" Governor. No difficulty or delay is ever experienced in 
*' getting in this tax." 

" Rice which has been exported before the arrival of the 
'' collectors in the district has, of course, had to pay the tax of 
^' one- tenth at the custom house, and the cultivator has nothing 

to do but to shew the receipt of the custom-house officers." 
Forest produce^ such as cardamums, gutta-percha^ bees' 





** wax, etc., are taxed in a different manner. The inhabitan 

" of the forest are required to work these articles; the law 
*^ prescribes M^hat amount each family must furnish to thi 
^* State annually/and everything exceeding tliis is for themselvei 
** Timber is charged with a trifling duty when felled and after 
** wardfi with a tenth of its value on parsing the custOJ 
*• housc/^^ 

It is almost incredible that the Colonial Government has 
not got proper pawerK for rolleetiug the teuth^ but native cus- 
tom is hardly sufficient warrant to enable Courts governed bi 
Eiiglislj law and practice to punish by hue and imprisonmeu 
breaches of n [>urely native revenue system, which has not heei 
specially adopted by the Legislature, Governor Flllertov 
in a mmiitc dated the 18th May, 1829, asked : " How are 
" to regulate dceisions at llalacea ? There the sovereign righi 
*' is one-tenth of tlic produce ; the Dutch made over the righ' 
*' to certain of the inhabitants more than 1(N) years ago. Thii 
'^Governments by w^iy of ensuring increase of cultivation an< 
*' introduction of pojjulatiou. redeemed the right. How ai 
** we to levy the tenth if refused ? The land tenures at 31 a- 
" laeca bear no analogy or resemblance to any English tenure ; 
" yet by such they must, in case of doubt, be tried. Rcgu' 
" tions adapted to the case have indeed been sent to England, 
'* but until local legislation is applied, and the mode of admi 
" nistcring jus^tice better adaptefl to the circumstances of tb 
*' place, it secnift to me quite useless to attempt the realisation 
** of any revenue whatever. '^t 

The prublcm is still unsolved, as the following extract from 
an official re])ort laid before the Legislative Council of the 
Colony last year shews : — 

" The valuation of pudi before the assessment of the GoTem- 
"ment tenths h^ccms to be carried on in a perfunctory way, 
*' The system is purely customary and its details have neve: 
'* been rcgubiied by nny law ^Vhcn the padi in a district 
'* ripe, a Clerk (Kumsiau or Miday) is sent tlicre. He visiti 
'* the rice-fiehls with tlie Pangliulu. A little of the padi is 
" cut and examined, and an estimate is foi'med of the probable 





t Uottit »f CvumifH* Btptrt, a'iOE., October, 1831. 


'' yield and what is the assessed tenth. These Clerks are 
" ignorant, and the correctness of their returns is not checked 
*' in any way. They are entirely dependent upon the Pang- 
*' hulu for information as to the names of occupiers and the 
*' extent of their cultivation. These may vary annually, for it 
•' is the cultivator (not necessarily the proprietor, but possibly 
" a tenant for the season only) who has to pay the tenth, and 
" only a portion of a given holding may be under cultivation." 
" When the Clerk has finished his assessment of a district, 
" a copy of his return is made out in Malay and sent to the 
'* Panghulu. The latter collects the money from the ryots 
" and pays it to the Land OflSce, receiving a commission of ten 
'* per cent, on the amounts collected. This procedure is sanc- 
'' tioned by custom only and not by law. There is no sum- 
" mary method of punishing a cultivator who cuts his crop 
" before it has been assessed, or a Panghulu who fails to attend 
" the valuation Clerk, or the Panghulu, or Clerk, who makes 
" a dishonest assessment or return.''* 

Chapter V. 


*' Persons," says the Malacca Code, " who settle on the 
lands or plantations of others, must obey the orders of the 
proprietor, and if they oppose him, they may be fined ten 

" tahila and one paha. It is the duty of all the dwellers on 

'' the land to co-operate with the proprietor." 

♦ Proceedingi of the Legiilative Council of the Straits Settlements for 1883, 
p. 392. 




This pafisagc indicates the existence of a class of sub-tenants 
aubordinate to a proprit tor, and that the tenant ri^lit of these 
people in el odes fixity of tenure raay be gathered from the fact 
that a refractory tenant is liable to fine only. There is no 
hint of eviction. The peasant ctdtivator, or sub-tenant, who 
enters into occupation of the land of an(^tber, with \m consent 
(unqualified as to time)^ acquires, therefore, a proprietary riglit, 
enbject to the ri^ht of the other to a share in the produce of 
the laud, and subject; to the HabiHty of being lined if he docs 
not obey his feudal superior. 

Thus one proprietary ri^ht may spring;; up within another, 
and this ma 3^ go on a(/ infiniiitm j in Beng^al, ?^incc the permanent 
settlement, as many as eighteen and twenty distinct rights may 
sometimes be discoverable between the Zaminddr and cultiva- 
tor. So among the JIutays a man who, by bis personal indus- 
try , or by the co-operation of his family and slaves, or by 
inheritance^ finds himself in possession of more land than he 
'^dshes to cultivate, can, by admitting sub-tenants, secure himself 
an annual return, in kind, of grain or fruit, besides adding to 
bis importance by the acquisition of a number of neighbours 
who are bound to recognise his superior proprietary rights and 
to obey him on pain of fine. The first proprietor who, as was 
stated at the outset, is bound to keep up continuous occupa- 
tion or cultivation, performs this duty vicariously in the 
persons of his sub-tenants, and they again, if they choose, 
create fresh sub-tenancies on the same system. 

If cultivation, or the payment of the tenth, ceases on the 
part of the tenant for a period prescribed by custom (See supra 
p. 77) his tenant right lapses. 

This is the explanation of the decision in the case of Ahdul- 
laiif V. Mahomed Miera Lebe tried in Malacca in 18*^9. The 
plaintiff, who brought an action to recover possession of a piece 
of land, was non-suited. Apparently he was a proprietor who 
had admitted a sub-tenant on the customary agreement to pay 
one-tenth uf the produce, and he desired to regard this a,s a 
tenancy terminable at tlie will of the proprietor. But the 
Court upheld the right of the sub-tenant, or cultivatorj to 
fixity of tenure as long as the land was kept in cultivation and 
the tenth paid, (See Appmdix, III, p, xxxvi*] 


In this case, it was laid down, among other things, that 
'' the owner of the soil * ( proprietor ? ) may sell or otherwise 
'* dispose of his interest without prejudice to the cultivator, 
*' and the cultivator vice vend.'' This is, of course, quite con- 
sistent with the existence of separate rights, but these are not 
necessarily confined to two persons, the possessor of the first 
proprietary right (whom, for convenience sake, I have hitherto 
called the proprietor) and the cultivator, but there may inter- 
vene any number of subordinate proprietary rights, one spring- 
ing from within another. 

Where a chief or royal favourite or some powerful individual 
or family has obtained a 2:rant from the Raja, or has usurped 
the right of the Raja to levy tenths and taxes and to dispose 
of abandoned land, a relationship between this superior proprie- 
tor and the cultivator is established, which soon develops -into a 
system of tenancy, which is not readily distinguishable from that 
just described. The tenant continues to be the proprietor of his 
holding on fixed tenure, subject to the customary terms, while 
the rights of the superior proprietor, be they the creation of 
the Raja, or inherited, or the result of usurpation, become, in 
course of time, so fixed and continuous as to favour the im- 
pression that they include ownership of the soil. The position, 
therefore, which the judgment in AhduVatif v. Mahomed 
Meera Lehe discusses as existing between " the owner of the 
soil'' (see note at foot) and the cultivator, may be created 
either by the admission of a tenant by a proprietor already 
in possession or by the establishment of a proprietor over 
the heads of cultivators already in possession. In a Malay 
State, the exercise of the rights of the superior proprietor are 
liable to much fluctuation. The despotic power of the Raja 
in petty Asiatic States is, of course, fatal to anything like 

♦ With all deference, I conceive that the learned Recorder was in error 
in using the term ** owner of the soil." The first proprietor has really 
only a proprietary right (unless, in Malacca, he has purchased the freehold 
from the British Oovemment), which depends upon continuous occupation 
and payment of tenths to the Raja or Government, but, of course, in a district 
where land is valuable, occupation is certain to be continuous and thus the 
first proprietor comes to be regarded as the "owner of the soil." 



security of rights of property^ and everything depends npcm 
the personal energy and family influence of the person who 
claims the superior rights. There will always be other candi- 
dates for royal fa%^oiar wl»o will seek to supplant him in his 
rights if they are profitable (the rights of minora are almost 
certain to be invaded in this way)^ and the cultivator is always 
anxious to be reco^ised as an independent proprietor. One 
man will make good his right to receive tenths from a whole 
.district and to regard the cultivators as his tenants, while his 
successor may, perhaps, on some show of opposition, tacitly 
abandon oil such cliiime and leave the cultivators to be recog^ 
nised in course of time as separate proprietors* All this it 
quite inconsistent with any notion of '* ownership of the soil,'" 
though it is cosy to see how a systematic and continuous ex- 
ercise of pmprielury rights would lead an English Court to 
aj^surae that such ownership existed, I entirely repudiate the 
theory of '^ownership of the soil " as iucidcntal in any way to 
the Malay system of land-tenure, and all the evidence showsi 
that the Dutch grantee in Malacca had simply the rights of a 
Malay iifan tanak, sucli a one as I have described as being put 
in by the Raja over the heads of the cultivators. 

'J'Le right of the proprietor to require obedience from hia 
tenantt?! raises a new question — the liability of the cultivator to 
tbrced labour. 

* ** From the facts alrea^ly udJuctd, regarding the state of land ' . 

*' it will have aimpiirod thai the pro|»m*tnry rijjfht to the boil ]b i. 
** hilly vcjitid iu me Sovemgn, Thin priiieiplo is »!> luii versa Uy • i, 

** una so frequently cserciatHl, thut it is almost suptrtliiouB to o&« ; 1 

**ofit. Such ifl the tluctimtion of Imuleil property from the uj - 1.. x. i. v*t 
'* this principle that there is nut» perhapw, iiU oVf»r the etnmtiy, nt the presftit 
** dnv, ten ,/"«//* of land in the possession of the dei*eendLiuts of thosr wlo 
** held them fifty, nay, thirty years ngo. The aetuul efllei of lUf pn 
** is, indeed, even more violent than we should be led at tir»t night to . - 
** The descendants of those who, no ^^reat miniber of years n^o, were in 
** aifluenee, holding the hit^hest employinentij of the State, and, conseqnently, 
** important and valnaltle tmel.** t>f land, rauy now be seen not only o*»t 
** inheritini? the posf+essions of their Corefathers, Imt hardly enjoj-ing the 
** hart* means of Mibsii*tenee, and rediieed to n U'vel with the meane'st of iho 
*' people.'' Ca^iwrerm — l^jHtrt on Xiitiireatuf Coftth'tt'im of LttiKird Trnut^tn 
under ih^ Nafire Garernmvttt of Jtira. Qifftird hf Hafflks : M*hhU tm Ad* 
\pttm*ttafioti of Java f p. Wl. 


Chapter VL 


In a land regulatioo passed by the Governor in Council in the 
Straits Settlements for the Settlement of Malacca (IX of 1830), 
there occurs a clause which declares cultivators to be exempt 
from forced labour. This regulation, if it ever Lad the force 
of law, was repealed a few years afterwards, and none of the 
Laud Acts now in force in the Straits approach the subject 
at all. Whether or not the liability to forced labour from 
which Malacca cultivators were declared to be exempt in 1830, 
still survives, though dormant, as one of tlic incidents of the 
locsil customary tenure, is not u qucsti<m of much importance 
now» for there is little likelihood of any attempt beiuf^ made 
to enforce it on a laro^e scale in a British Colony, But it is 
clear thut, if tliere had been no existing liability in 1830, tliere 
would have been no necessity for special exemption. A code 
of regulations for Penghulus, which the I)ut<")i authoritica 
were about to introduce in Malacca just before the cession in 
1825, contains a claase requiring the Tenghulu to keep ail 
ruads in order and to call on the tenants to repair them, This^ 
too. assumes a pre-existing duty on the part of the tenants. 

Mr, FuLLEHTON, Govemor of Penang and subsequently of 
ihe incorporated Settlements (18:24 to 1830), recorded tliaf, 
under the Dutch Government in Malacca, services were required 
and laboiu* exacted, from the tenants j that they were, in short, 
ki'pt in a state of vajisaluge and servitude quite inconsistent 
with the encouragement of cultivation,* 

The cultivator or tenant, who was thus liable to be required 
to work for the Governmctit or superior propriety »r, was the 
holder of the proprietary right which has already bLcn described. 
In Malay States, the liability still exists, and^ for the com- 
plete understanding of the ra'it/af^s position, it is necessary 
to ascertain, as nearly as possible, what is the extent of 
his liability to forced service, how far it is an incident of his 

•/oiirn. Jnrf. Arch,, II. 740. 



tenure of his knd> what is tlie mode of enforcing obedience, 
and wluit is tlie penalty for contumacy. With the excep- 
tion of the extract at the head of the preecTling chapter, I 
have met with nu passage in ]Malny laws which affects tho*«e 
questions; there is no written definition of the nature and 
extent of the services which a llaja or f'hief or superior pro- 
prietor can exact from the cultivator. In a Malay State. tJRt 
exaction of personal service from the rn*h/(tt is limited only by 
t!ie powers of endurance of the latter. The supciiur autho- 
rity is obliged, fnim self-interest, to stop short of the point 
at which oppression will compel the cultivator to abandon 
his laud and emigrate. But within this limit, the euIti\ator 
may be requiretl to give his labour in making roads, briil'_r'-^. 
drains, and other works of public utility, to tend e!ephaiit>. 
to pole boats, to curry letters mid messages* to attend hi^ 
Chief when travelling, to cultivate his Chiers fields as %ifcll 
as his own, and to serve as a soldier when required.* Local 
custom often r< gulates the kind of service cxactfKl from the 

♦ Kapfles, writing tu Lord Ml mo in IHll on the disad vantages of allow- 
ing Sifimose inliuenc* to prej^ondcinte in Kttlfili, thus describes ihe atntus of 
diL' Siunic'W pcasunt :— ** Iti^th (irrsons and proiHTty are at the ooinraiind of 
*' the King. !Uid,of f^oitrst% nt the command of Ins UlTjotTs in rcc^ - m 

** th*jlowt*it to the hjt.'hfst ; hence nti man will r,nr what hvuaM 
" own. Cftjiin months are allowi d th< immv tii |dnnt nud riap t! 
*' iimi thin wlh'ii siond x^ saorud uml cannot W tnkm fioni their j 
** with (his < \replJ*>n idl the rest of their limr, exertions, or a* 4 »......, ,.;h 

** may Le Uikt a l»y the King or hij* Oifieera if so indilied. ** Life nf J(eJ^f$^ 
p. 52, 

The Burninn sc'ems to In linh» heller off: — 

'* (oi'trtji and enfoieed duties of all linds are fn^qneut, and iht* iiii*n 
" sielei'Ird for ^iirh SL'jviee eon only get olT by fuini^hju^ a 5nh^4titnU* or 
*' hrihiit^ the tiihing-miui. The Kin^ or st me gzent Hkmi i;vnnts to hniUl 
" n r^^f «1». "»nl orders are M'nr ronfid to I he Tarious Hreles that they nmist 
'' fiindf^h a rev iilar supply *if workers thiily. The W/j or nit/o-t/nHj^ytf 
** draws up « r* suis aiol « ath man litt>« U^ ^o !o work ftjr a ecrloin nnii,b« r 
"of dnvfl. If he fail to *^o, he i« tied np to a iiost or a tree and pets a 
" titnincl tlo|^^inj£. Sinnlar foried duties are the protection of the frontier 
'* and (he pursuit < f <L^He<its. Such wmk i.s jartieuhuly detigted, 1\ r tho 
** nu ti have to keep (lieoi*<i Ivts siiji] Hid wiiL fcod, or ^et their friends tt> 
*' hiin^ it to tlieni, and this is not alwavR an easy nifttter. BeKideR, jiueh 
*' serriee mnv last an indolinite time." * The Bunnan, hh Life and Xotfiotu, 
1»82, IT» 262 



cultivator in a particular district. Thns in Perak one district 
used to supply the Raja ivith timber for building purposes, 
while rattans ond oilier materials came from others; the peo- 
ple of one locality used to furnish the musicians for tlie Raja's 
band, while another had to provide nurses and attendants for 
his children.''^ Speaking of Keduh, Colonel Low eays : ** The 
'* ryrit was obliged also to pay for keeping- up bands of music 
*• and stiite elephants. His children were liable to be forcibly 
" taken from him — the girls for the seraglio, and the youths for 
'* public %\*orks or for war, ^vhere they got no pay and hut pre- 
•' I arious supplies (*f food/'t 

Teknent describes 'Meudnl service** as prerailiug in its 
amplest details in the Ea-^tern Province of Ceylon. *'^ Accord- 
" ing to the ctistom of the country, the chief of the district 
''directs its cultiviition hy the villager^*; they acknowledge his 
^' aiilhority, and, ao long as they live on the land, devote their 
" whole time and labour to his service, receiving in return a 
"division of the grain^ a shar^' of the milk fi'om liis cattle, and 
"'the certainty of support in pcriodB of fiuiiine and distress, 
" Their houseSj gaitlens and wells, though built, pkintcd and 
*'dug by themselves, are the property of the Chief, who alone 
" can dispose of thern." *#-»(■ 

" These serfs, whilst they live on the land, are bound to 
" perform every service for the lord of the soil, without pay; 
*' they fence his gardens^ cover his houses, carry bis baggoge, 
** perform the work of eoolies in IxtlamH (canoes), fish for liim, 
** act as his messengers ; and wheu absent from his village, 
*' they must provide food for himself and servants* They 

• ** It would he in viun to pretcnt^ to rendtr au oceouut of nil the irreijnlar 
•* emttnbittvnts and rei/uhsittons to which a p'^ojile nre lialile who liil>our under 
" iho vTilh ot a nidf ixud fuliitr»i-y Govenjmtixt. At tcstivals, t*t ni,irria^es 
**iiiid hiiths wLtther iti the tYimily of the Bmereig^ orol tht* Chief who 
** j>! ' ' > 1 thiw, the eiiltivatcaa are called upon for Loatributiotis. lu 
** tl r;*iion ol' public proi>erly, or the coiivtyiinct' of the laiiuoas ol 

**th' .' i.iL '<i its. ciffictrs, in the rtpulr or construution uf ruuds^ brid^^es, 
'*oiiii other public works, the services of Ibe people tire exact<>d uarai^roi- 
•^ fuUv, aud without thanks or reward." CluwFTRn— ^i>^ Ind, Arch,^ 

t DfMfriafiant p. 7 



" may, in fact^ be called his slaves, except that they are at 
*' liberty to quit his service for that of another chief when 
" they choose. But as tliey seldom do change, it may safely 
" he presumed that they are contented with the arrangement, 
" and their healtliy and pleasant faces suflficiently prove that 
*' they are well-fed and happy /^ ^ 

Forced service in a Malay State, too, is not merely the result 
of tlie applicatino of the lawof tlje etronger; it is well under- 
stood to be an incident of the lot of the cultivator of land, he 
acquiesces in it as one of the couditions on which he holds his 
fields, and lie usually submits Cjuietly to the orders of his supe- 
riors until tliey reach the pitch of oppression at which he 
decides that eujigration is preferable to shivery. lie knows 
that, hy emigrating, he will forfeit his land, and in fact it is at 
once seized by the Pengbulu an^l held for the Raja. 

The cultivator may perhaps receive forgiveness and the re- 
stitution of bis fiehls if he returns and sula raits at some later 
time, but he will probably have to pay a hue if he is known to 
possess the means of doing 80, 

No incident of native rule has contnbutcd so much to swell 
the Malay population of Pcnaug and Province Wellesley as 
this. Kedah has been half dcnutlcd of its inbabitant^, and 
Pat an i, Perl is, Situl^ Trung, etc., have contributed numbers of 
emigrants anxious to escape the unjust exactions of native 
rulers. But when the system is worked with justice and 
moderation, there are sehlom e<unplaints from the people. In 
the Krian district of Perak, the people (many of them British 
subjects), under the orders of the Oraug Kaya Mantri, made 
roads and canals without murmnrinrr, and in the same distrh-t, 
after its cession to the British Government, there was no dilh- 
cnlty in turning out nearly a thousand men in 1874, to com- 
mence clearing a line tbrou«^h the forest for a pi-opubcd ruud^f 

The kvrahf or forced levy of men for labour, is effected 
through the hearlmcn of villages or districts. A Pcuglmlu 
receives tbc orders of his Chief or Raja to have a certain num- 
ber of men ready at a given time or placcj and runs a risk of 

• TenNENT'8 CeyUn, II, 459. 

t Government Qut^f^ Feb. 6th, 1875, 



pnmihment or disgrace if he does not do to. He fines those 
■vrLo liisohey, and takes raoney from those whd are able to pur- 
chase p\eni|)tion, so Ue rontiiv* s usuaMy to make the incident 
profitable to himself. The cultivator who ba« to leave his house 
and his firlds at this bidding, has to Hnd his own tools and 
food, which may involve the carrying of a heavy load to the 
place of work, and a good deal of expense or privation* The 
abolition of the eultivator's liability for personal sorvice in 
Java* %Ta8 ouc of the facts which ItAri'LEs took into consi- 
deration in deciding what proportion of his crop the cultivator 
should pay to the State by way of land-revenue. t Tlnit 
pnlightcned administrator was very far from thinking that 
forced service, as one of the incidents of native tenure, wa-s to 
be abulifthed simply, without any consideration given to Gov- 
ernment for the concession. It was never for a moment 
doubted that the rif^ht of the Government to exact personal 
service from the cultivator was inherent in the system under 
which he held his lands, and the s:*iiie holds good in Malay 
countries also. The right of a Slalay Raja or Chief to order his 
feudal inferior to perform reasonable services is indisputable, 
and the surrender of such a right is a perfectly legitimate 
eonsideratiori fur demanding an enhanced land revenue or 
other equivalent. 

' Tlie Bj'Btem of TOPBaluge and forced (leliveriee has becm aholielied gene* 
■itiUy throug-hout the Ifiloiid-" Pfifctamathu hy Lieut. *6t*Ffrn&r of Jurrt^ 

t '* On mntnre conHulrrjition, and the l»eBt ftd^dce within my reach, I con- 
"eeivod that a fair equivalent for thenit mchnliriif the acknowle*!^,''^* < Govern* 
♦*mi'r?* - ♦' the croi>» the njuonnt piiid in personal taxen utv^ - " ^'^'•- intcr- 
**«iil thi't'ahi(rttfforctd>nrciev^^TT\\ghih^^ioxini\^i^ with 

"HDtit uibJiflhing the Guvtmrfteiit share, at about t^ '1 the 

"ric«'crt»iv Icttving the eecond crop and the fruit-trees and pivrdfeiis aituched to 
•Hhe rUliige^ free from a*<fi*>iwiHL»iitH tho etiltivator free from fjernouul taxe&« 
** and the inland Ixade ujire«trict€d aiul untaxed." RAyrLES' jihtutc ofi Java, 

' "T-i - - --gjtnt wni? snVijoct to groes oppression and undefined exnctlon; onr 

•? to rrmove hiB opprcBBor* und to liDut demand to a fixed and rea- 

• .tto of contribution. He waB Hable to reetruiiita on the fTerdom of 

" jniand trade, to perBonal oerrices and forced eontingents : onr objwt wae to 

**eommnbQ them all for a fixed and well-kno^-n contribution/' lIi$U>ry of 

Jaw}^ J, 154, 



With the k^rah system aa practised in Malay States, it is 
interesting to compare the state of things which the ICnglish 
fouml in jMva •:*veuty years ago. A Dutch Commissiotier, 
repoiting oa the province of Sourabayain 1812, wrote as fol- 
lows : — 

''The feudal scrviee was as grievous as almost all the other 
'' chur^t's united, Tlie orip;in of those services must be song lit 
''for in the feudal system of the native f Joveriiment lon;^ ngo 
" adopted throughout Java. It was considered that all the land 
**wa9 the property of the j^rineej who only marie provisional 
"assignments tlR'nof to his subjects, in remuneration for niili- 
'^ tury and other services rendered. This was the cause of all 
"tlic hmds^ being dividetl into as many allotments as cfudd be 
''cultivated, called Huh-hus, each nf a size to be cultivated by 
*' one man. A ccrttiin number of these was assignerl to the dif- 
" forent chiefs, according to his rank : the custom of the eomitry 
'* fixing not only the amount of contributions to be pai<l from 
"the produce, but the nnmber of men to be const an tjy kc]it in 
" attcmhiuec upon him. The lands thus assigned to cbietH were 
"exempt from service to them, and the inhablhints were only 
"expected to watch the vilhigcs, to make and repair the roads, 
"and to perform other general services of the State. This 
'*' was the sitmiliou of the people witli regard to service, when 
"the coast diMtricts were first ceded to the European Govern* 
" raent. The system of tratle and iixed contributions did not 
"admit of any change, and the services weie at that titm- of 
"very little consequence, and such as could be performed 
" witliout oppression to the inhabitants; but the ease is now 
*^ quite different, Snecessively, and particularly of late years, 
"njueh heavier services have been demanded than were ever 
"before known, and itnatumlly follows, that tlu" Javan must 
'* be k« pt more at work than before. Besides, it is not possi- 
" ble to apportion those services equally, on account t>f the 
"fiitnation (jf the idaces where the !*ervices are required, and 
"because the chiefs, who have the direction of the works, from 
"indifierenee or laziness, generally make a requisition on the 
"nearest village; and it not unfrcqaentlv happens, that nuuiy 
" people are thus taken for the public service, who have no lands 
" whatever allotted to them/' 




Were the requisitions made for the public service alone* 

l** it would still hi! companitivoly nothinfj, it heiri;:^ ailraitted 
'*' tbftt the 8tate Ua« a rifj^ht to the labour of iu subjects, but 
I "the Regents, their relations, their PtfA'//«, and the subordi- 
r'nnte Chiefs of every description, assume the riglit of disposing 
''*of the services of the common people as they think proper, 
'*and themselves employ many of them in menial hibour of all 
"tleseriptions, from wliieh it arises titat the number of people 
" employed away from their houses on what is culled public 
"services is almost incredible.'' 

Forced labour is naturally hated by Malays and is evaded as 
much as posftihle. Travel lino in the interior of Kcdah, I have 
seen the Malay peasant runoin*; from his fields into the jungle 
at the sight of the Raja's elephants, lest he sould be called 
upon to iorm one of the train. In Perak, the establishment of 
British influence has led to a general "strike" on the part 
of the peasantry against the system to which they formerly 
ibmitted peacefully. A Malay Raja in Pcrak, who in 1876 
M able to supply roe with the men of two or three villages 
In order to convfV the bagi^age and stores of u detaelmient of 
troops from Blanja to Kiuta, now finds it ditheult to procure 
men to pole his own boat without paying them. Men required 
to perform work for the Government of ihe State, as at present 
constituted, are jtcrupulously paid, or provided witli ara[de 
rations. In Malacca, the corvee system has never been exer- 
cised under British rule, though it isj no doulit, an incident of 
native tenure, and, unless surrendered by Government for a 
money eq\iivalent, might very reasonably be exacted for such 
purely local objects* as repairing the dams and other native 
irrigaiiun works which are necessary for the successful cultiva- 
tion of the fields of a \'illagc or district,^ buildini^ a balei 

ry likUour wub forrnerly An institution in Cevlon also ; — " Anotlier 
* 11' io the inlintnce and oji^riition of which the country wus in^kbtcd 

*»fcjr tii^; t-onstmction of thi! workB which diffused plcTity throughout every 
*'f%glojK w»e the ny^Um of Rnja-Ittritfit^ by which the King had a rig'ht to 
**eaipk»7, for imbliu jiiirpt»(*LR, thvj * otopulBory Irvliour of ihe inhabitants. To 
*^ whiit Qxteint this wub c&fiable of tjXiiction» or umL r whut mde^ma^ it W:ui 
♦'enforced in curly tiin»?s, does not appear from the hiattirical bookn. Bat on 
♦' oil occasions when tanks were to bo formed or cuniila cut for irrigation, the 
*' Miihamatuo aUadca almost in worda of course — to the application of Ruja- 
*• hAri^fa for their construction, the people being luiomoiMd to the ta«k by 
' beat of dmm.** TaxyENTs Ceylon, I, 427. 



or place of business for the use of the headman and elders of 
the village, keeping pathways clear of jungle, etc., etc.* 
But no wunls can be too strong to condemn the exactions 
of Mahiy Rajus, Chiefs und their followers in respect of 
the family and jiersonal property of the cultivator, which may 
aft'tit any of his possessions, from his daughter to the vegeta- 
bles growing in bis garden. t The goats, fowls, fruit, crops, etc., 
of the uufoi lunate peasant whose hut and land are on the route 
followed by a Kaja on liis journey, are, under a native Crovero- 
ment, at the mercy of his rapacious followers; gajah iaiu 
araffff huat hf/u, " the elephant parses by, but men bring 

* Sf), in Enj^land. the oath of fealt^' ib fitill lui iocident of the teattfc of oer- 
t»iii csUit€B in liinJ* thctigh f*cldf»iii or nerer exacted in pnKitioc. 

f *♦ The proi»rietcn-B of tXio ptittiktu have aJeo a claim to the fterriee* of tJie oal- 
"tivatOFR; a certain nninber of them are alwaya in attendanof^ at the liooMi 
"of their Chief ts and on joumr-ys are em ploy wi in earr**'"' *^- -- ^— rm>ii0mtid 
"bagga^. Thehindfi not jt it ^ukti used to pay the wmi ppodoot 

"to the SuJtau n» the othern did to the proprit'tc>w : bu n* of tin 

♦•royal dominions lolxnired under grcjiter di8advanta,(<<^ri ihuu the otiienL 
" Ercrj Chief or favourite about Court had authority to employ th^m in th« 
"moat menial oiliccsi and Chiefs "pc^mtmin^ pttttikdM often sparf^ their own 
"people^ and emplojed tha others. Jttpoji on BanUim -Haffles' liUtorp 0/ 
Java, I, loO. 

" It muy be veiy desirable that I ehoidd mention a few of the oppru>«»ion* 
'• from which it ia the object of the present syetem to relieve the t>c^(fp1ew I 
** cannot but conddcr the greatest of these— the extent of the fiernonal ^jriot 
" demanded not only by the TumnfiffffOtt^ and hiA family, but the MuntrtM and 
** all the petty Chief «, who had trains of followers that received no stipendiary 
♦* reeompenBe. Thene udde<i to the individuals employed in the colfee<ptjuitA- 
"tioiia (to which they apj^ar jieculiarly averse), in beatin : -^ - ' - the 
'•continfctnti. ill cutting- gntea I'or and att^ndingr the ;^V<y ire 

"mil.titOt V^^^ carriage and letter-carrit r**, may be calci ... m- 

*■ ployed one*Bfth of the male population of the wot klngr men« ^ : <.!at 

"source of exaction was the large unwieldy e«tablishment of ^^ ir#, 

" and police officers: the former were libcridly imid, the latter Tutd uki rugular 
" emoluments. Both ihet^o cksses. however, quartered themetilves fn 1 ly in 
"whatever part of the countiy their funetionB demandctl ' ' noci 

"This was equally the cubc with any of the Repcnt'fl fan >i£« 

** who travelled for plertBure or on duty. WfanLever waw rtqii: ^ . ^ - . . ... , . . vt« 
*'aiid their followers, wae tbkm from the poor inhcbitiint^ who have now h(>en 
•• to long accnstomcil to such practices that they never dure to compliim or to 
** remonfNtrate. The European authority did not escape the taint of corruption. 
••Monopolies, unpaid acn'iceft, licences, forced or at lea^t expected present*, 
"were but too summon even in the best times, and must have contributed to 
•* ©strange the affections and respect of the natives from that power whick 
•♦should have afforded them protection/' liejmi an Fosuruan — Id, 


a blight/' is a significant saying in Perak and aufficiently 
denotes the effect of royal progrresses from the villager's point 
of view. The praetice of the Malay peasant, which must he 
well known to British officials who have worked in Malay 
districts, of bringing some Bimple offering, such as a fowl 
nr two, or a basket of fruit or vegetables, when he presents 
himself before his sui>crior with some request or application, 
has its orij^ip in tins cu»tora. Such a present is expectLd in a 
State under native Government^ and a man has small chance 
of a favourable hearing who comes empty-handed, It is satis- 
factory to observe the gradual disappeiirance of the practice 
of oflering such present s^ hmvever trifling, for it is a testimony 
of the general acceptance by the people of the fact that, far 
ifrom being expecte<l or exacted, they are not even accepted 
1 under British administratioa. 

Before quitting the subject of forced service, it may be use- 
ful to notice that Sir Stamford Kaffles maintained the right 
of the renters of Government estates to require the cultivators 
to perforin certain duties, hut he stipulated that in such case 
they should be paid. The following paragraph occurs in his 
minute of June 1 i-th, 1813 : — 

" It will necessarily form a part of the arrangement to be 
'* concluded, that the renters shall engage to keep the roads and 
•' bridges in repair (witli the exception of the great military 
** road) and aNo to furnish labourers, carriages, etc,^ when 
'* required fur the public service : but 1 propose that, oo these 
"occasions, the persons so furoislicd be regularly paid for, at 
'' the rate to be established in the leases of each district. This 
"arrangement is, indeed, ahsolutely necessary if it were only 
** to place in the hands of Government the meanti of checking 
** the employment of people, on the various pretexts of official 
" establishment, on the ptdjlic service. At present there exists 
*" no check ; and as the people so furaished by the Regents, 
" under the existing Hystem» ought to be paid by a proportion of 
*' land J it follows either that they are not paid for their labour, 
*' or that the Regent is obliged to give up to them a portion of 
" that land, from which he would derive a revenue^ and for which, 
**it is naturally to be expected, he will make a proportionate 
" exaction elsewhere. As the whole lands will now be rented 



*' mdibcrimjuately, this fund ceases, and the additional hiud thus 
**' to be rented, instead of fiunishing a fund for the payment of 
** persons employed in the public service, will provide the »ource 
" of Revenue from whence stieh persons will be paid, while the 
*' exaniintitlon of the public disbursements will ctfeetually pre- 
*' vent imanthoriscd employraeut of individuals on the |jublie 

In Java, it would appear from the fidlowing extract.* the 
Dutch GoveriimeDt proceeds on the principle of requiring that 
all labour which niav be legally exacted should be paid for in 

*' F(/rcni Luhoti)\ — Besides the ordinary day labourers, the 
^* landlord, whether Government or a private land-owner, is fur- 
*^ tlicr entitled to require the cottiers on his estate to work Utr 
" him as much as he pleases, but otdy on the condition of paying 
** each man the hi|;ficst a;ji:ri cultural wages of the district. This 
'* is the only real forced labour in Java, and the only lutint on 
*' which the land-owner there ]\m any but a strictly limited power 
**over the cottier peasantry on his estate. The labour reutt 
** extcndin*^ all ovi'V the island causes no perceptible dissat is fac* 
" tion, but tlie foricd labonr beyund tlie one-tent Ii excites bitter 
" feelinj^s if pei-sistcd in. Both tlie labour rent and the forced 
** labour are applied, on private estates, to the cultivation of 
'* those crops which the ]and<»wner is growing on the spaix; land 
'* for his own profit, except so much of the labour as is required 
" for the pardtjs, and for Xhv maintenance of the roads near the 
** estate, hoth which the landlords have to keep up from the 
** labour rciit.*^ 

*■ Tlic ccjttirr peasant is carefully guarded from extortion by 
** hii» landlord, but btmud to pay his landlord's share of the pro- 
•'duce of the laud ; his subordinaie rights in his holding arc 
*• protected, but kept subject to his landlord's paramount right 
'* to the soil ; anil he is praetically freed from oppression, though 
*' subject 1i* have his laVmur utilized by his landlord. By these 
'* means the cottier tciooit's interests are secured, and he soon 
** becomes rich, IVoni the large stirplus produce of his holding 
'* after paying his landloid's one-tifth. By the same protisiona 

• MoxEY'a Java, II, 2 IP. 

t The obligatian of the peasant to give one day'B gxataitOQa work m 



the land- owner is invested with sufficient power over his whole 
' estate to enable him to turn the remainder of his laiid to the 

most profitable use it is fitted for. After having thus care- 
' fully regulated the respective rights of landlord and tenant, 
' the Dutch are wise enough to abs^tain from further interfer- 

* ence. beyond seeing that the legal conditions are fulfilled. If 
' a land-owner chooses to exact forced labour from liis cottiera^ 
' and thereby to create discontent among them, tlic Dutch 
'officials do not envenom this feeling by issuing injudicious 
' proclamations of abstract right** fr>r tlie cottiers, or of remon- 

* strance with the land-owner. Tliey take care that the land- 
' owner complies with the law, by paying the highest agricul- 
' tural wages for sucli forced labour, and they meet the peasant's 
' complaint by saying that the huid-m^nier is only exercising his 
' right, in a manner of which he i« sole judge, and that the cot- 
' tiers mu8t either submit or withdraw from the estate/' 

Chapter VI 11. 


*' Land/* f^ays Marsdex, *■ is so abundant in proportion to 
'^the population, that they (the ilalays of Sumatra) Bcarrely 
" consider it as the subject of right, any more than tlic elemenls 
'* of air and water ; excepting so far as in speculation the prince 
" lays claim to the whole. The ground^ boweverj on which a 
*' man plants or builds, with the consent of his neighbours, 
'* becomes a s]»eciej^ of nominal property, aud is trauHftrahh' ;* 

* In Batma "all owtiern cxcrLitK? the rijirht of 8;iJe, lciiw,yirt aiul mortjitage, 
" llioiu;ti HflJe fmti-Jt»ht \b %'try fKildom made. Thtn.^ appears toVtc an objection 
" t<) it» which uiMj ftliuoet be coJle<l religiont", irreepeotivo of tile rights of 
" heirn, ^v!;-' -h «."iiiiiot be olienufed ; oiul when land ia pohl hy deed, it is gene- 
'* rail I that the object of the purchiiser is to buiJd a pagcx3tt or other 

" r*l ij e thereon. This is supposed to justify the dale* Rice land Ib 

C"occ^Pi''niaiiy let fTom year to year on verbal agreement, the tenant agreeing 
•to pay ten per cent, of the produce.' 8ir ARTurR pHAYBEt before the So- 
iSety of A^rta, May, 18ft I. 



" but as it costs him nothing, beside his labour, it is only the 
'* produce which ib esteemed of value, and the compensation he 
" receives is for this alone, A temporary usufruct is accordingly ' 
" all that they attend to, and the price^ in case of sale^ i> 
" generalhj ascertained ttt/ the cocoa-nui^durian^ and oth^^r fruit' 
*' trees that have been phuted on it ; the buildings bein^ for the 
'* most part, but little durable. Whilst any of these subsist, the 
" de^ceudaiits of the planter may claim the groutid, though it 
" has been for years abandoned. If they are cut down, he maj" 
** recover damages ; but if they have disappeared in the course 
'* of nature the land reverts to the public/'^ 

'* In Celebes* in Buli, and in that ill-peopled portion of 
" Java called the country of the Sundas, the cultivator is 
** invested with a kiitd of ]>roprietary right. Bf/ sufferance he 
" can hequvafh, ahtnatv, or morfgage his little ttnemnif^^'f 

" Among thcui (the Sundanese), private property in the soil 
" is generally established ; the cultivator can transmit his pos* 
" session to his children. Among them it ran he sub-divided 
" tcithoift am/ interference on the part of a mi per tor ; the po^nen' 
" sor can sell liis interest in if to ot/ters^ and transfer it h*/ gift 
" or c(*reiiant. He pays to his Chief a certain proportion of the 
" produce, in the same manner as the other inhabitants of 
" Java; because in a couutry without trade or raanufaeturen, 
" labour or produce is the only shape in which he can contri- 
'* bute to support the necessary establishments of the commu- 
" nity. So long as he advances this tribute^ which is one*tenth 
^' or one-fifth of the gros-s produce^ he has an independent right 
" to the occupancy of his land and the enjoyment of the 
*' remainder/' * ^ * * 

*' The situation, however, of the cultivator in the Sunda 
*' districts, who is a proprietor^ is not much more eligible than 
'Mhatofthe tenant of the Government: he may, it is true, 
" alienate or transfer Ins lands, but while he retains them, he 
" is liable to im points almost as great as they can bear ; and 
" when he transfers them, he can therefore expect little for 
*' surrendering to another the privilege of i*eaping from his 

• Ei^ory of Sumatra, 244. 

t CRAWFCRn— jHW . lifd. J rrA.» III. fiS. 


'' own soil, what ia only the average recompense of labour 
" expended on the estate of another."* 

In the first of the above extracts, Marsden, with his usual 
accuracy, describes the chief incidents of the laud tenure of 
the Malays^ as they exist among the people of the Pen nsula a^ 
well as among those of Sumatra ; and it is subsequently shewn 
that among the Sundanese in the west of Java — a people who 
in their customs and language bear a much nearer resemblance 
to the Malays than do the people of any other part of Java — 
those incidents which have relation to the alienation of land 
are almost identical with those which obtain among the ^la- 
lays. I am inclined to think that the superior permanency of 
the tenure of the Sundanese, when compared with that of the 
Javanese, is to be accounted for by a Malay origin, and that it 
is unnecessary to argue, with R \ffles, that it is a mere survival 
in a remote district of a more liberal system, which once pre- 
vailed generally in the island, but which was destroyed by the 
rapacity of Muhammadan sovereigns. ^Malays, too, have had 
for centuries Muhammadan Rajas, not less given to encroach- 
ment upon the rights of individuals than those of Java ; yet 
the Malay peasant has retained his proprietary right, and I 
believe that, both in Malay countries and in Suuda, this has 
been due to a national feeling or instinct on this subject, not to 
be found among the Javanese, who. under native rule, were serfs 
without proprietary interest in the land which they cultivated. 
The power of alienation is one of the most important pri- 
vileges connected with laud that a land-holder can exercise, 
but it is only the result of an advanced and liberal recognition 
on the part of the governing power, of tho rights of the sub- 
ject. It must not be forgotten that, even in P^ngland, it was 
not until the Statute of Quia em jj fores was passed, in the reign 
of Edward I, that tenants in fee simple obtained the right of 
alienating their lauds at their pleasure, and that the right of 
devising lands bv will onlv dates from the reign of Henry 

* 'Ravfles— History of Jaea, I, 140. 

t " We are too apt to fortret that property in land as a transferable, mar- 
" ketable commodity, absolutely owned and passing from hand to hand like 
" any chattel, is not an ancient institution, but a modem development reach- 
" ed only in a few very advanced countries. In the greater part of the world, 



It is not to be expected that among the Malays the system 
of alienation, or the effect of a transfer, shoald quite corres- 
pond with any European system, and it is necessary to be cau- 
tious in supposing that when land in a Malay State is said to 
have been bought or sold, the transaction has been similar to 
the purcliase or sale of land in British territory, either in the 
mode in which it has been conducted, or in its practical opera- 
tion. ( RAWFURD, it will have been noticed, says that the Suu- 
dancse cultivator is allowed to alienate his land " by suffer- 
ance '/' and ^Iarsden points out that die usufruct is all that a 
Malay has and all that he can dispose of. 

Wiuri Captain Low, in describing land tenure in Kedah, 
s^ys that land granted by the Raja " could not be alienated '** 
it must not l)e supposed that the right-of occupancy could not 
in general be the subject of a bargjun there. Captain Ja)w 
quotes extracts from the Unrfninj-Undam] Kvdah (Laws of 
Kcdah) in which occur the two follow^ing sectiuns : — 

" \\'lien a garden is to be sold, the trees are to be estimated 
'^ at \ of a dollar each and the amount will be the price of the 
'' land." 

'* AVhat the Raja has given no one can take away, nor can 
*' any one sell land so given trithovi the Rnju's conrurretice/* t 

Tlic Hrst of these rules exac*tly coir.cidrs with what Maksdiix 
describes, as rcgnrils the interest in the land which passes by 
sale in Sumatra, and with Raffles' estimate of what the Sun- 
tlancso ])ca>iuit has a right to expect on the surrender of his 

"tln! ri'^'^ht of cultivutinpr particular jwrtions of the earth ih rather a privi- 
" Irgc thjiTi a i)ro]H!rty — a privilcjrc tir^»t of the whole i>eoi»le, then of a jvirti- 
'• culnr trilif or a pnrtirular villape comiminity, and finally of i>artionlar 
" in<liviiliial of the community." Sir GK(»i:(;e CAMrnr.LL on Indhtn Lnml 
" Ttimrcn fCobdtn CUthPapn'»). 

* Scr supra, J). 7I>. 

f " Powerful an ll)i' /uuihuliir l)ecame in mmaprinp' the lantl, in grasi^ing' an«l 
"ill oiist Tit:, he ha'l no i><^w» t (in Bcnjrnl hoforo 171)3) of alit:uatin^ hi-* 
"ostiito: he ((niM not rai^c mom.y on it liy niortjrajjTc, nor wll the whole or 
'* .-luy \y.\vt <»1" it. This el* iirly apin-ars from a proclamation iwucdonlst 
'• Aiijnirt, 17.S«) ; the illc^^al prii<:tice of 'aJicnating i-evenue lands ' is compluinod 
"of; 'the prentlemen «i»i.ointed to bu per intend ' the various districts arc 
" invito »1 7«;iloiisly to i»n\ent the 'commission of the offence;' and the Z-/- 
" viiiid.'-r, i lumdlit, ri, Tulinjdfh\ orothcr land-holder who iliPol)oyB, is tlircatvn»tl 
"with «lisi)Oh«eHsion from his landp.' Lnnfl Rvriuni* and I^nd Tmvrf* of 

/ndifi ,- -UWIIS-VOWTAA., p. I'lM . 


proprietary right to a transferee. It may be clearly laid down 
that the Malay cultivator can transfer only the interest in the 
land which he himself possesses ; that that interest, as already 
shewn, is merely a permanent and inheritable right of occu- 
pation, conditional on the continuous occupation of the land 
on the payment of tenths and taxes, and on the rendering of 
certain customary services ; and that the price to be paid has 
no reference to the value of the land itself (for, in a j)rimitive 
state of society, that has little intrinsic value), but is calculated, 
if garden land, by estimating the value of the fruit-trees, or, if 
padi land, by assessing at a reasonable sum the probable value 
of the labour bestowed by the first cultivator in clearing the 
forest and bringing the field into cultivation. 

I have had opportunities of observing the Malay customs 
relating to the sale and mortgage of land in operation in 
purely native districts, having been deputed in 1874 to take 
over the territory on the left bank of the Krian river, then 
recently ceded by Perak to the British Government, and having 
since then served for some years as Assistant Resident in the 
Native State of Perak. I am, therefore, able to speak with 
some confidence upon the laws and customs which have come 
under my personal observation in actual practice. 

The technical term used in Perak for the transfer of land 
by sale h pulang belanja (return of expenses), which sufficient- 
ly indicates that the money paid is not a price set upon the 
land itself, but the recoupment of the outlay incurred by the 
vendor in bringing it into cultivation. The new proprietor, 
in fact, does not buy the land ; he simply buys out the occupier 
by compensating him for his labour, thut being the factor 
which originally created the tenancy, and thus obtains the 
right to stand in his place. It is manifest that he will not 
pay a long price for a mere right of occupancy weighted by 
the incidents and liabilities above described; in Krian, in 
1874, it was difficult to get ten dollars an orlung for excellent 
padi land by pulmiff hilanja, but when security of tenure and 
the full right of alienation of the soil were introduced in the 
district by the British Government, it became possible to sell 
the same land for $G0 or $70 an orlong. 

So in the case of land on which fruit-trees are growing. 



Not long after the PSrak war it became necessary to acquire 
the piece of land at Kuala Kanofsa, m Perak, on wliich the 
British lieaiduiicy novv stauds. The bargain was effected in 
strict accorclance with Malay law, and the sum which was paid 
was cnh^nlated as the value of the fruit-trees and houses stand- 
ing on the land. It was clearly understood on both side^ that 
the soil was vested in the State, and that all that the praprie* 
tor could dispose of was the proprietary right; the transaction 
was strictly one of /j?//fl«f7/j^Au//t/. 8pcakin{»: of this purchase 
to Kaja Muda YisuF at Sayong soon aftcrwanlsj I was asked by 
him in a pointed manner whether the late proprietor had sold 
me f/if I((Hff ; the explanation that the proprietor liad merely 
been compensated for her interest in the land, namely, her 
trees and houses, quite satisfied him and others that Malay 
custom had been observed, and that the rights of tlie Raja or 
State had not been invaded by an undue claim, on the part of 
a subject^ to the soil. This principle has always been recog- 
nised in all sales of land in Malay districts in Perak which 
have come under thj notice* But the ^lalay cultivator is 
always ready to claim from British officers, whom he may think 
likely to be i^^norant of the real conditions of native land 
lenurej a larger interest than Malay law gives him, in fact, ae 
large an interest as csui be conceded. The official who hears the 
words ** seir^ ( jual ) and " hitt/ '* ( heli ) used in connection with 
the transfer of land under native tenure, is apt to conclude that 
a title to the soil has been passed by the transaction, and he 
very possibly recognises, or allows to be recognised in a general 
way, this view of the matter, and so people get to believe, or 
are allowed to assert, that their pusition in respect to the State 
is something quite different from what it really is. This, though 
it may cauac cmbarrasmeut in administering the huid-rc venue 
of a district, cannot, of course, affect the legal status of the cul- 
tivator, for ignorant administration of the law does not alter 
the law itself, Tsothirg can be more certain than the fact 
that no subjrct in a Malay State can lawfully claim to hold 
any pioperty inland approaching our freehold or fee simple 

As the Malay J3t//aw^ b(^lof\ja differs widely from our idea of 
a sale of laud^ so the jual janji (conditional lale)^ the onlj 



form of hypothecation of land known to Malay law^ is^ in its 
principal incidents^ quite unlike our mortgage of real pro- 
perty. * 

The Malay who raises money on his holding by the transac- 
tion cMed J ualjanji, sells his proprietary right for a sum then 
and there advanced to him, and surrenders the land to the 
vendee, coupling, however, the transfer with the condition 
that if, at any time, or within a certain time, he shall repay to 
the vendee the sura so advanced, he (the vendor) shall be enti- 
tled to take back his land. This transaction differs from our 
mortgage in the facts: — (1) that no property in the soil passes, 
but merely the proprietary right ; (2) that possession is actually 
given to the person who advancas the money. 

It frequently happens that the conditional vendor (the 
debtor) wishes to retain possession of the land during the 
period of his indebtedness, and, if so, this is arranged by his 
becoming the tenant of the conditional vendee (the creditor). 
The Tent in money or kind which he pays, or which some other 
tenant pays if the laud is not let to the conditional vendor, or 
the profit which the conditional vendee derives from cultivating 
tlie land himself if he does not let it, takes the place of in- 
terest, which is not charged, usury being condemned by 
Muliammadan law. 

If a term is mentioned within which the money must be 
repaid, and the condition of repayment is not fulfilled within 
tli«- ajipointed period, the sale becomes absolute (pittus) and 
the vendee takes the full rights of proprietorship. But even 

' In China, ** a mortjrag^ee must actually ent«r into posseswion of the pro- 

• l^Tiy and make himself i>ersonul!y resjJonKible for the payment of the tuxoB, 
•• '■♦'fi.'rH his mortgag-e in valid : unleH« explicitly stated, the land can l>e re- 
" ■:t.-«-meil at any time within thirty yearw on payment of the oris"inal wum. 
~ Jv**.-*. 1M> U) 1(M) of the Code contain the laws relating- to thin yubject, some 

•of which l»ear a re-i^rmhlunce to those established among the Hebrews and 
" :nt€'nde«l to s«^curo a similar ol>ject of retaining the land in the same class 
•ortriU'."— TV//' Middlt- Kinf/dom, Williams, II, 100. 
'* Land under Burman rule was never sold in the usual acceptation of the 

• term. It wa« frequently conveyed for a price from one person to another, 
•' and thnugh the tranhacti<m was styled a sale, Jind not a mortgage, it was fully 

• imderstood tliat the vendor retained a right to repurchase the land at 
~ any time he likeil, and that the emptor could not re-sell the land without 

• the c^n*ent of the original vendor." — lirifiith Hvrma (Tuzcitrei\ Vol. I, p. 438 



then the payment of the money at some later time would, in 
most cases, be sufficient to enable the conditional vendor to 
regain his land from a stranger under purely native rule. If 
no term is fixed, the money may be paid at any time, but 
until it is paid, the conditional vendee is entitled to retain 
possession of the land and to cultivate it, or let it» at his 
pleasure, A short document is generally drawn up in evidence 
of the transaction, but these are ofteu so loosely or iuformallj* 
worded that t!je proof of the existence of the condition reft« 
principally upon the good faith of the parties. Sometime^ 
there is no written agreement at all. 

Transactions of this nature necessarily led to the inrestiga- 
tions of many flisputed claims when the rights of the native 
land-holders in Kriau were being settled (sec ^*//>m, p. 121 ), 
The rise in the value of land OL't^asioiied by the establish meat 
of British rule resulted in a general runh for possession, men 
who had long since sold their fields by pulattff bi^ianjn ruming 
forward to declare that the sale was merely conditional, while 
in other instance's conditional vendees in possession were eqaaU 
\y ready to declare that the transaction which gave them their 
right \\visjtffffjj{{fui,nn absolute sale^ wot j*(al jnnju a condi- 
tional one. 

The native laws contain some curious provisions on the sub- 
ject of hypothecation, a specimen of which relating to real 
pr6perty may be consulted in the Appendix, p. xv. In all, 
the peculiar principle of the ^falay mortgage^ namely, the 
handing over to thr creditor of the property on which the 
money is advanced, is fully recognised* 

Chapter VIII. 

Among the Malays, the distribution of the property of ^ 
deceased persons is governed either by Jluharamaclan law, or 
by national custom, or partly by one and partly by the other. 



e.^.f tbe real proi>erty by customary law and the personal pro- 
perty by Muhammaaan law. 

There are Malay treatises on the Mnhammadau law of inhe- 
ritance (faraiz^ )^ in accordrtnco v?ith the rulcK of which it is 
commoTi to apportion the estate of an intestate. But thtre are 
rpasoDs which often make it clear to the Malay mind that land 
ia a species of ijri»perty, the tran^niis.sion of which nlioukl he 
in accordance with tlie national cnstoniar}^ law ( kttkuiu ^adnt ) 
rather than with that of the Koran ( httkutti Rhur^a), For 
inntanee, the wife of a Malay cultivator will generally share in 
the toil of cultivation ; indeed the planting and reaping of 
paddy is performed almost entirely by women* althongh the 
ploughing and harrowing fall to the lot of the men. In res- 
pect, therefore^ of the crop, which is harvested as tlie result of 
these joint labours, the hus^band and wife are co-partners 
(nhnrikat) and this is often the case with regard to the land 
itself. Under such circumstances, in case of the death of the 
liUFband, it would be manifestly unjust to distribute the joint 
property as hin estate nndor Mubammadan law. The joint 
property must be equally divided, and the share of the wife 
having bt'cn allotted to her, the share of the deceased husband 
may, if desired, be distributed in accordance with the Muham- 
matlan law of inheritance. This is only the rightful due of the 
wife, who, properly speaking, is entiiletl to be maintained by her 
husband in a manner befitting his station in life without per- 
forming any labour, 

I think that it will be generally found that, in the Malay 
States, the property of- the trading class— goods, merchandise, 
tthops, ships, &c. — are distributed according to Muhammadan 
law, while the agricultural class cling with tenacity to their 
old customs, and insist that their lands at least, and often the 
I whole of their property, shall descend in accordance with the 
old Malay law which has come down to them from their fore- 

This customary law varies very much according to locality, 
individual States having often regulations peculiar to them 

• s^J^f plural of 4^^^ from ^J to cut. (Irabic.) 


Crawfurd mentions the subject very briefly : — '' Where 
*^ there is a right of private property in land, or at least the 
'' usufruct of it, there is generally a community of goo:ls 
" among the members of a family. It is held in the name of 
*' the father or elder male of the family, and hence, by the 
'* customs of the greater number of the tribes, the father, or 
"nearest of kin, is answerable for the debts of all the meni- 
*' bers of a family. 1 can nowhere discover in any of the 
" collections of native laws which have fallen into my hands^ 
'' that the right of devising property by will had any existunre 
'* among the tribes of the Indian Islands."* 

This recognition of a superior right in the eldest male of a 
family and the tendency of the Malays to confine the right of 
succession to land to the tribe to which the deceased owner 
belonged, is found in the law of the Chinese also : " The 
** paternal estate and the houses upon it descend to the 
''eldest son, but his brothers can remain upon it with their 
*M'amilie8, Hud devise their iwrtxon in perpetuo to their {:h\U 
'' dren, or an amicable composition can be made ; daughters 
*' never inherit, nor can an adopted son of another clan suc- 
'' ceed. *' t 

Marsden, writing of the law of inheritance among the peo- 
ple of Pasummah in Sumatra, says : — 

*• If a person dies having children, these inherit his effects 
" in equal portions and become answerable for the debts of the 
" deceased. If any of his brothers survive, they may be per- 
*' mittcd to share with their nephews, but rather as a matter 
*' of courtesy than right and only when the effects of the 
'* deceased devolved to him from his father or grandfather. If 
'' he M as a )iian of rank, it is common for the son who succeeels 
*• liini in title to have a larger share. This succession is not 
•'conilncd to the eldest born, but depends much on j^riVa/e 
^^ a(jri(ii(i)tt in the family. If the deceased person leaves no 
*' kindred behind him, the tribe to which he belonged shall 
*' inherit his effects auel be answerable for his debts.*' J 

♦ Crawfurd— 7//*^ Ind. Arch., Ill, 98. 
t Williams— The MiddU Kingdom, II, 100. 
J Hist, of Sumatra, p. 230, (3rd Ed.). 


According to the Menangkabau law of inheritance^ the 
nephew on the sister's side becomes heir to his uncle's pro- 
perty to the exclusion of the son of the latter. The tradition 
which accounts for this singular regulation is to be found in 
Newbold^s work on the Straits of Malacca, vol. II, p. 221. 
A similar custom prevails in the Eastern Province of Ceylon 
and in parts of India, and there is a Sinhalese legend, not 
unlike the Malay one, explanatory of its origin.* This 
custom is still obser\'ed in the district of Naning in the 
interior of Malacca, and in Kambau, Sungci Ujong and the 
Negri Sambilan. 

The Perak custom differs from this. In that State the lands 
and houses of the deceased descend to his daughters equally, 
while the sons divide the personal property. The latter are 
supposed to be able to create landed estates for themselves, by 
clearing and planting land which they may select, or, at all 
events, to obtain the use of land by marrying women who may 
have inherited it. 

However, the more active of the Muhammadan priests and 
mosque o£Scials, especially if they be foreigners and not Perak 
Malays, endeavour, as far as they can, to get the Muhamma- 
dan law of inheritance adopted, to the exclusion of the local 
custom. The older men are more conservative. PVom infor- 
mation supplied by an old Imam up the country, I learn that 
the principle of distribution practised in his district is as fol- 
lows : — 

" If a man dies without children, leaving a widow, his pro- 
" perty is divided between her and the uaris of the deceased. 
" If he leaves a wife and children, the property is, in the firpt 
" instance, divid( d into two equal shares, one of which gees to 
" the Karis of the deceased and the other is again sub-divided 
" into four parts, one of which ( one-eighth of the whole ) 
" goes to the widow and the other three ( three-eighths ) are 
*' divided among the children." 

" If there are children of both sexes, the three-eighths above- 
" mentioned are divided into four portions, of which three go 

♦ Tenxekt's Ceylon, II, 4oS. 


'* to the sou or sons, and tlie remaining one to the dauglitc-r oi 

It will be apparent that there is very little genuine Muhatn- 
madan law in all this. Under that system, the widow does 
not get a half under any circumstance*. It is not clear who 
are the tear is, or heirs, who take oae-half of an estate to the 
exclusion of the widow and children. Perhaps it is meant 
that one-half is set apart in the first place to meet funeral 
expenses and tbe claims of persons entitled to share under 
llubanimadau law, among whom the cluldren would be in- 
chided* The same authority has supplied me with the follow- 
ing note on the customary law of inheritance practised in part^ 
of Pcrak : — 

** Upon the death of a man possessed of property^ his phin- 
*' tations^ houses and />rtf/i-fields go to his daughters, while hid 
*^ other property, such as cattle, huftaloes, goat^^ elephants, 
" &c., are divided into four shares : three of these go to the 
'^ sons and the fourth is devoted to the cost of the funeral 
'* feasts. If there is no land or house, the daughters share in 
"the personal property equally with the sons/' 

^* If a woman who has inherite<l land or house property 
** marries and then dies without leaving a chihl, the property 
•^^ goes to her gravis and not to her husband. If she leaves 
" issue, tlie inheritance goes to the cliild or children.*' 

" Property which has been acquired by the joint earning* 
"of the husband ond wife must, upon the death of either of 
" them, be divided. The funeral expenses must be deducted 
** before division. The remainder must be divided equally in 
'* two shares, one of which goes to the survivor and the other 
" to the children or ^rarrs of the deceased.'' 

'* The shares of infant children are held in trust for them by 
'* the fraris of a deceased parent, until they come of age." 

The descent of landed property in Perak to the female issue 
and its restitution to the family if an heiress dies childlesa, 
illustrate in a striking manner the tribal instinct of the 
Malays and the tendency to keep property in a particular 
family, group or tribe. 

Even the wild tribes of the Peninsula have their rules of 
inheritance. Favre, writing of the Jakuns, says : *' After the 



'' death of parents the whole of their property will be divided 
" amongst all the children in equal parts/' * 

In Siam^ according to Colonel Low, f " the property of an 
" intestate person, should he leave no legal heirs, escheats to 
'' the King, who generally contrvies to get a portion of the 
" estate of every person deceased. Wills are written or made 
'* verbally, in the presence of competent witnesses ; and may 
" not be confounded with alienation by gift. Real and per- 
'* sonal property may be willed and gified away to any one, 
" and, as hereditaments, descend to, and are without distinc- 
" tion divided amongst, the heirs at law. The laws of inheri- 
" tance are considered as applying chiefly ti> heads of families. 
" Under this view, the property of a man deceased is divided 
'^ into three portions. One goes to the parents and grand 
' parents, one to the widow, and the third to the children 
*' and other relations on the man's side according to priority. 
*•' But should the man not have cohabited so lon;^ as three 
" years with his wife, she will only receive one-third of a por- 
" tion or part." 

"The distribution of the property takes effect after the 
'* solemnization of the obsequies ; and should a claimant, 
" having the power and opportunity so to do, neglect to put 
" in his claim previous to the termination of the obsequies, he 
•^ forfeits his right.^' 

" A person claiming inheritance must personally appear ; 
" substitutes being inadmissible. Heirs to property must 
" assist at and bear their share of the charge for obsequies, 
" exceptions being made for those who cannot, from the nature 
**of circumstances, be present." 

'* Before property is divided, the debts of the deceased are 
" to be punctually paid, and competent witnesses must be pre- 
•' sent at the division. It does not appear that any distinction 
'* is drawn betwixt property of which a female may be pos- 
" sessed, and that left by a man : both are divided on similar 
'* principles. The eldest child, whether male or female, gets 
" the largest share. Should the individual have no parents, 

♦ Jonni, Ind, Arch., II, 2(>«, 
i Id,, I, Mi. 



"grandparents or great- grandparents living, then the portion, 
'' or one-tliird of the real and personal property which such 
^* persons Wuuld have otherwise taken is divided equally and 
*' added to the two romiiniog p>rtioua, the form of rtrst sepi- 
" rating the estate into three parts being always adhered to. 
" Tlie same principle regulates the division where there are no 
'^ cliimants to either of the other two shares.'^ 

With this description, and with the cn^toms of the Malars 
as to succession, it is interesting to compare the law:j of another 
Indo-Chinese kingdom — Gumbodii. I take the futlowing 
account from a recent French work : — * 

" Pptperty in land doea not G\kt in Cambodia, for, as is 
** well known, the State is the absolute proprietor of the «oiK 
" Nevertheless, the enjoyment of lands is left to those who 
'*" clear them and employ them for Romc specific eultivution, 
'* rice in particular; It happens also, sometimes, that the fir-it 
'* occupiers arc disposisesticd witliout a wurd of warning, with- 
"out the excuse of public interest and simply in order that 
"some one mav help himself to a field quite fit for cnliiva- 
" tion,'^ 

** The furtuuL' uf a Cambodian is cumposed of moveable and 
" immoveable piMperty, laud excepted. Generally apcak- 
'* ing, even the richest have not much money, but they own 
'* boats, elephants, horses, cattle, butiiiloes, which they hire 
" out ; they have sometimes a large number of lilaves tvhom 
" they eni[doy at home either on the products which they cnl- 
*' tivute or in M kinds of commercial and industrial underta- 
** kings. Money is lent out at high rates of interest, but it in 
*' liable to catastrophes/' 

** The goods of a Cumbodiau who dies a widower and with- 
** out children, go all to the State, that is to the Kiug. If he 
*' leaves daughters only, the Government takes half of the 
" property and divides the other lialt' among them. If they 
" arc of tender age, tlic goods are deposited with their graud- 
" father who beeouies their guardian.'^ 

** When the Government is a creditor of the deceased, the 
" King causes the whole of the debt to be exacted first of all 



*' from the assets, and the balance, if any, is divided aoioug the 

" When the head of a family dies leaving several wives 
" and several children, the child or children by whom he has 
" been more excluaively nursed during his illness share the 
'* fortune according to the rank of their mother. For this 
'* purpose, the property is divided into seven parts; out of 
" these, the son of the third wife lias one^ that of the second 
"wife two, aad that of the first, four. If these ladies have 
'* several children, the distribution is made, all the same, 
''according to the proportion ju^i mentioned. Children who 
"arc absent at the time of the sickness and death of their 
'* father lose a portion of their riji^lits to the inheritance/' 

'* If there are no children, the fii-ht wife keeps all the goods 
" and the family remains united. Were the second and third 
*' wife to wish to leave the house before the conclusion of the 
-* mourning, that is to say, within three years, they %vould have 
" the right to do so, but on the condition of renouncing their 
*' share of the inheritance. After the three years, if tlic 
"widows separate, the property is divided amonoj them accord- 
*'iixg to the rule laid down for their children^ when they have 
•' any, that is to say, the first has four shares, the second, two 
*' and the third, one." 

**The widows of the same husband may marry again after 
"three years of mourning: tlic socond smd tliird have not 
" got to pay anything to the State for this, but the first wife, 
" if she marry again and be without children by her first hus- 
*' band, must first surrender half of her fortune for the benefit 
"of the royal treasury. If she docs not marry again the 
** Government takes the whole at her death." 

"An adopted son renounces the right of inheriting from 
*' his real parents and cannot be sued for debts wiiich they 
" may have contracted in their lifetime. If the head of u 
"family, after having adopted a child, becomes himself the 
" father of a legitimate child, the adopted son does not lose 
"all hope of inheriting, foi* the law gives him equal rights 
" with the children of the full blood.'^ 

'♦Children, wiio, at the time of the death of their father, 
" are in the special service of the King, have a right to three 
" and a half shares of the inheritance/' 



*' In case a busband, on account of the barrenness of bis 

first wife, marries another who bearg him a son, this latter 
19 the sole heir of his father and he provides, after the death 
of the latter, for the support of the first widow and hia own 

"The law of the Hindus sanctions similarly the right of 
' the eldest son to the gr«\atcr part of the putrimony of the 
' father and mother, * The eldest of the family,' says the 
' law, * if he he virlnons, nia)* take pQJs?»ession of the whole of 
' his patrimony of the father and motlier, and the other 
' brothers must live under his guardianship as they live under 
' that of their father/ *' 
** Gcnendly, in India, di.strtbution used to be made in the 

* I'oUowin;^ way : the eldest had a double share, the second a 

* nhiire and a half, and tlie other brothers a single share res- 

* pectively. The bi othei'^* gave to their sisiteis by the same 

* mt>ther a qunrter of their shares to help them to establish 

* themselves/' 

f'li VITKH IX. 


ixni A, iuTK:\rA. Java, ckylox. 

I N in A 

a wholesale inmlifitation of the systems of land tenure of 
iiueieut ami highly civilised com nuiui ties in British India by 
the intHMliu'tiuu of Kntflish biw would obviously have been 
unwise. It has always been the objeit of l^ritish Admiuistra- 
k»rs iu that country to recognise native laws and customs 
relating to the tenure of land, and, in elaborating Revenue 
systems, to secure that the regulations laid down shall give 
due effect to every class of interest in land known to native 
laws. It has been gradually ascertained in the various pro- 



yinces what are the different degrees of right of occupants and 
proprietors and each interest has received definition in the 
Land Acts passed from time to time for particular provinces, 
divisions or districts. In such Acts, the terminology used in 
describing tenures, classes of proprietors, and occupants, docu- 
ments evidencing title, and rents and other payments, is 
largely borrowed from the .native languages. The use of 
terms which have a technical meaning in English law is thus 

Speaking generally, the ra'iyat is the owner of his holding, 
subject to the payment of the assessed land revenue. No 
documentary evidence of title is necessary, though in some 
provinces he holds a patta, or official statement of the facts of 
his holding or assessment. Ilis rights are alienable and heri- 
table, but all transfers have to be registered. 

Revenue systems vary in different parts of India ; there are 
practically two. The first contemplates settlement with a mid- 
dleman ; and the second, dealing with the individual culti- 
vator direct — ( the ra'if/at-trdri system). The Government 
may, in point of fact, either deal with a whole village at once 
through representative headmen, or may make a settlement 
of each individual holding. 

In the latter case the settlement of a district is based 
upon a survey, the soil of every field is classified with a view 
to ascertaining the proper rate of assessment to be imposed, and 
eventually settlement records are made up, which include a 
register shewing the name of the occupant of every surveyed 

In such a system, there is no place for English documents of 
title, and the tenure is none the less certain and secure because 
it is not supported by parchment and sealing-wax. The ra^iyafs 
name is down in the register of the village to which he be- 
longs, and the extent of his land and the annual assessment 
which he has to pay are there recorded. The village records 
and the evidence of the headmen and villagers are at hand to 
support him if his right of occupancy is impugned. 

"In Bombay (just as in Madras) the occupant holds on 
" the simple terms of paying the revenue ; if he admits that 
" he is ( or is proved by a decree of a Court to be ) holding 



5 he 

^ on behalf of some one else^ aa a tenant, or in an inferic _ 
^position, then the 'superior holder's' name is entered in 
^ the register, not his : he becomes the ' inferior holder, * and 
' it is the superior who is entered in the register as the ' occu- 
'pant' responsible for the assessed sum* Any one who 
' recorded as the responsible holder can simply resign ( if 
^ does not like to pay the assessment ) any field in his holdir 
' The assessment is fixed for a period of thirty years^ so th 
^a roan who elects to hold continuously, knows for certa 
^that during that long period, ail the profit he can make wij 
' go to him." 

" At the beginning of each year, he can signify to 
^ mdmlatddr ( or local revenue officer of a tahtk sub-divisioii 
^ w^hat fields he wishes to hold, and what he wishes to give upT 
^ as long as he does this in proper time, he is free to do as he_ 
' pleases. If he relin(|utshes, the fields are available for aii 
' one else ; if no one applies for them, they are usually m 
^ tioned as fallow (for the right of grazing) for the year, and 
■ on, till some one offers to take them up for cultivatic 
'Nothing whatever is said in tlio Revenue Code about tha 
'person in possession { on his own accouut ) being ' ow*ncJ 
' in the western sense. lie is simply called the ' occupani 
^ and the Code says what he can do and what he cauLot. Tl 
' occupant may do anything he pleases to improve tlic lar 
^but may not, without permission, do anything w^hich divc^ 
' the holding from agricultural purposes. He has no right^ 
' mines or minerals.*^ 

*' These are the facts of the tenure ; yon may theorise 
' them as you please ; you may say this amounts to propr 
' torship, or this is a riominium minus plenum, or anyttiing 
' else/' 

'* The qncatiou of tenancy is just us simply dealt with. 

have 8tatcd that, if it appears that the occupant is in 

session m behalf of some one else, that some one else j 
' recorded as the ' superior holder^' and he becomes 

' inferior holder/ ^' 

'* What sort of 'inferior* — whether a tenant or on aome 
^ other terras— is a simple question of fact and of the ; 

nient or the custom by which he holds/* 



'' If an occupant dies^ one ( the eldest or responsible ) heir 
'' mnst be entered as the succeeding occupant who has to pay 
** the revenue, for there can only be one registered revenue- 
*' payer for each field with a separate survey number, though, 
''of course, there may be several sharers (joint heirs of the 
" deceased owner, for instance ) in a numbsr. Which of them 
'' is so entered, depends, of course, on consent, or on the result 
" of a Court decree, if there is a dispute/' 

" Sharers can always get their shares partitioned and assess- 
" ed separately, as long as there is no dispute as to what the 
*' shares are." * 

The advantages enjoyed by the occupant of land under the 
survey settlement are : — 

Ist. — Fixity of tenure conditional on the duo payment of 
the Government demand. 

2ndly. — His occupation is heritable and transferable by 
gift, sale, or mortgage, without other restriction than the 
requirement to give notice to the authorities. 

Srdlf/. — His assessment is fixed, but subject to revision 
after periods of thirty years. The right of occupancy is not 
afiected by the expiration of a term of settlement, being con- 
ditional solely on the payment of the assessment imposed. 

Athhj. — lie is at libtTty to resign his entire occupancy, or 
any recognised share or part of it defined by the survey in any 
year, provided notice be given by a fixed date. 1 1: waste land 
be available, he may enlarge his liolding at pleasure on appli- 
cation to the district oflScials. 

5M/y. — He may sub-let his lands, and Government will 
assist him, under certain limitations, in recovering rents from 
his tenants. 

Qthlff, — His holding cannot be encroached on by his 
neighbour, every sub-division of it being clearly defined by 
boundary marks, and susceptible of immediate identification 
by means of the village maps and registers. Further, the 
fact of his possession of any field or sub-division of it can be 
traced without difficulty in the village records year by year up 

♦ Badex- Po WELL— Z/in/7 Hrfcnveand Land Tenure in India, 136-8. 



to the date of the introduction of the first survey settlement. 
Thus the chances of dispute and litigation are entirely removed, 
or reduced to a minimum. Subject, then, to the part of the 
Government assessment, the oecupant of land under the sur- 
vey tenure may be said to enjoy every right of property that 
be can desire, with the advantage of possessing a title the 
most simple and complete that can bo imagined.* 


The rights of the land-holder, s^ubject to the revenue de- 
mands of Government, have been just as carefully guarded 
in British Burma, The Land Act of that province (Act II 
of 1876 ) is founded upon earlier local regulations, whicli 
were themselves an epitome, more or lese, of the laws and 
customs of the Biirmer^e as to tenure of land. The land-hohl- 
er in Burma has, like the ra'hjaf \\i Malacca, a propric* 
tary rij^ht, but in the case of the Ibrmcr, this ri*;ht is inchoate 
until there have been twelve years' continuous possession ; 
whereas in the case of the Malay mere appropriatiuo and pos- 
session create tlic ritjpht at once, provided that cleariiif^ and 
cultivation arc undertaken. 

In British Burma, " if a person ( not holding under a ji^rurit 
*^ or order of Government whioli itsdf determines the extent 
*' of right) has conti[Uiously \\\t\i\ po^^^vm'iuH of any culturable 
^"^ land for twelve years, antl has contiononsly paid thcrevcnae 
^* due tlicreon, or held it exempt on express grant, he is allow- 
'* cd to have acquired a permanent heritable and transferable 
'* title. It will not, liowever, do for a man to be able to assert 
** former or ancient possession if that pcrssession came to an 
'*end twelve years before tlie Act came into force ( 1st l^e- 
'* bruary, l>v79)» Possession, on the other hand, is m>t broken 
*^ by a succession or transfer. If A has held for seven years, 
'* and then sells to B, who has held for iive, B can put in a 
** twelve years^ possession. So if B has inherited from A. In 
*^ the same way as regards the condition of paying the revenue, 
** The payment will liold good if it has been made by a tenant 

" Btmhn^ Adminiitfnjnofi Iiej>&rt, 1S82-H, p, 32» 

" or odier penco iiiiizx imfisr -izir t»*t<»l jl ti:i«.ts*;';.i_ Tiif 
" ]aiid-hoIdcr*§ ris^z > iiic ;x -:" ir: T-ri*i:.'7 le/Lii*.: :: :« 
*^ restricted n-:c oslLj Vt -.*it IL-7 nr Taj*-!^ t-. rriiir . ttx**. tri 
" cesses, whiai i* a r*Tsr-kTj:»i :•:. tZ zr^z^i^rrr 11. 'jiz.i ii. Iziiii^ 
*• but also bj tie fvi*: i':;^: l1_ zm** kui rz^itnl Tr;il-:i* kz.! 
" buried treaft-are *rc r?--^rr*-i z:- '>:Trnr:jei.: kf ils: ^If r-^i: 
"to work or search f.-r 'i':**^ Z'rjiz.r.^ :- 1*1.7-^ r;:L:»f--skt.;a 
" for the snrfacE- darr.are."" 

"Any •' land-LciceT ' :-i- :b:i- i:i i-:l.-.:i:.r If-:liri- 
'• tion that he is «:*:-. br LjT-Triir :: iiTe >..- rlrr.: rt*:-:riei 
"on a rezisttr prorior^a ::-r :le i-rT«:'<e. i-i ^irriL^ & c^nf- 
'•' ficaie of the rec-i-rd. Th-ere arv, :■: c-:-r**f, ir:v:>..-> :- ihe 
" Act regarding the cincelniei:: i-d call:- z in c:ie*::on :•: <uoii 


It has already been stated that, under native niie. the Java- 
nese were mere serfs, without f»roprietarT interest in the land 
which they cultivated. Under Dutch rule, prior to the con- 
quest of Java by the English in 1>11. no proprietary tenure 
was introduced, and the native system ix-mair.ed uumoditied if 
the foll(»wing description jriven by Raffles is a correct one : — 

" The Dutch Company, actuated solely by the spirit of jrain, 
"and viewing their Javan subjects with Kss reganl or consi- 
" deration than a AVest Indian planter formerly viewed the 
" gang upon his estate, because the latter had paid the pur- 
" chase money of human property which the other had not, 
" employed all the pre-existing machinery of despotism, to 
"squeeze from the people their utmost mite of contribution, 
" the last dregs of their labour, and thus aggravated the evils 
" of a capricious and semi-barbarous government by working 
" it with all the practised ingenuity of politicians, and all the 
" monopolising selfishness of traders.'' t 

* Baden-Powell — Land Revenue and Land Tenure in India, 700-702. 
t Hiitory of Java, 1, 168, ( 2nd edition ). 



Security of tenure and protection from unjust exactions 
the desiderata indicated in the eloquent passage which follo' 
written with all the burning indignation with which Raffles 
avowed tlie tyranny and rapacity of the Dutch Colonial Otfi- 
cialsi of thoHC days inspired hira ; — * 

^' Ctin it, therefore, be a subject of surprise, that the arts of 
** agriculture and the improvement of society have made no 
** greater advances in Java? Need it excite wonder that the 
** implement of husbandry are simple ; that the cultivation is 
*' unskilful and inartificial ; that the state of the roads, where 
" European eonveniuucu in not consulted, is bad ; that the 
*' natural advantages of the country arc neg:lectcd ; that so 
•* little euterprise is dis[ilayed or c.»pital employed ; that the 
** pcasant'jJi cottage is niefiri, and that so little wealth and know* 
" ledge are among the aj^rieultural po[)nlatJon ; when it is 
'* considered that the occupant of lantt enjoys no security for 
'* reaping the fruits of his industry ; when Ins possession is 
'* liable to be taken away from him every seaBoo, or to suffer 
*' each an cnliHucement of rent as will drive hira fr(tm it ; when 
" such a small t|uantity of lartd only is allowed him as will 
" yield hira bare subsistence, and every car of grain that can be 
** spared from the supply of his immediate wants, is extorted 
'* from him in the shape of tribute ; when his personal ser- 
" vices arc required unpaid for, in the train of luxury or in the 
'* culture of urtielcs nf rantiopoly j and when in addition to 
•* all these discourageraent>«, he is subject to other heavy im- 
'* posts and impolitic restraints ? No man will exert himself, 
" when actiug for another^ m ith so much zeal as when stimu- 
*' lated by hi?* own immediate interest ; and under a system of 
^* goveruraent, where everything but the bare means of sub- 
*' sistencc is liable to be seized, nothing but the bare means of 
*^ subsistence will be sought to be attained," f 

♦ •♦ It m but ri^hi, however, to siy that the Dutch* while fulmittingr their ' 
old Colouial nile Uj have been mi>hfc objectionable in many ways*, deny the 
uysteraatic atrociticH iiripute'd to tbvm hy Raffles juiiJ CuAWicito, both of i 
whom, the Dut<.ih say, difiti rtod the fact* and wsirking- ot their old Colonial} 
GovernnHjnt, which was only known to thoRe aothors by hearsay/' KosKV'a i 
Javih I, *>7, citing Tkaijhikck's Cotm d'eeil general Mur les Ptfttetsions AV<?W*/rt- 
daUcj dam VInde Arehipehigiquc, i, 13. 




To transmute the serf into a proprietor, and to give him 
immunity from forced labour and other exactions, was the 
task which Kafflks set himself. To use his own woMs : " The 
" foundation of the amended system wasj, 1st — The entire 
'* abolition of forced deliveries ot inarlequate rates, ond of all 
"feudal services. T\'itli ihc ostjililislimcut of a pi^rf^'t rrocdom 
'* in cultivation and iradt? ; '.2\\d — Tlio a>;sinnpti!)n, on the 
'* part of Government, of the immediate suj)enntendcnc'C of 
''the hinds with the collection of tlic res()n^'C^' and n-nts thcre- 
" of; 8rd — The renting out of the lands so assumed to the 
** actual occupants, in large or small estates, according to local 
" circumstances, on leases for a moderate term. In the course 
"of tho following years (1814 and 1815) these measures wore 
** carried into execution in most of the districts under our 
*' Government, with a view to the eventual establishment of a 
" perpetual settlement, on the principle of the vi/otwar 
''Or as it has been termed in Java, the finnfj-a/if system.'^ 
* * ^ * -x- -H- •»<■ 

*' In the first settlement, leases were only granted for a year, 
" or, at the utmost, three years, and were given to intermedi- 
*•' ate renters; but in the more detailed settlement of 181'J, 
*' after sufficient information had been collected on the state 
" of the country. Government determined to act directly with 
^' the individual cultivator and to lay the foundation of a per- 
'* manent system. By this hitter period, the experiments had 
" been tried to a certain extent, and had succeeded beyond the 
" most sanguine expectation. Difficulties met us in the way, 
'* but they were by no means insurmountable ; there were at 
'* first imperfections in the system, but they did not affect its 
" principle, and were easily removed. By the zeal, the ability, 
" and industry of the various officers entrusted with the exe- 
" cution of the duty, whatever was practicable in furtherance 
" of the object in which they felt deeply interested, was accom- 
" plished. In the course of the j^ears 1814 and 1815, the new 
'* system was introduced into Bantam, Cheribon and the 
'* eastern districts, over a population of a million and a half of 
" cultivators, not only without disturbance and opposition, but 
" to the satisfaction of all classes of the natives, and to the 
" manifest increase of the public revenue derivable from land." 



Raffles' system wm the raHyat^ttdri system of Bengal ^a 
proprietary right was accqnlel to the cultivator, aad a tempo- 
rary BCttlefticnt was arrived at with him as to the amount of 
assessment pLiyahle by him in lieu of the miacellaaeoua lia- 
bilities of former tiraes» The assessment was payable in 
money or kind (grain). It was intended that this should be a 
stepping-stone to a permanent settlement, when expf^rience 
should have shewn the justice or otherw'iae of the scale first 
determined upon. This was : — 

For sawah lands ( rice-fields ), 
Ist quality of soil, one-half of the estimated produce. 
2nd quality of suil, two-fifths of the estimated produce. 
3rd quality of soil, one- third of the estimated produee. 

For teffai lands ( maize, &c.). 
let quality of soil, two^fifths of the estimated produce. 
2nd quality of soil, one-third of the estimated produce* 
3rd quality of soil, one- fourth of the estimated produce. 
Chiefs and headmen of villages were continued in office aa 
Cullectors of Revenue. Individuul rights were recorded in a 
document, kept for inspection in every village office, in which 
the name of every land-holder in the village and the amount 
of his assessment were to be found. 

About the year 1818, two years after the restoration of 
Java to the Dutch, Raffles* experiment was abandoned aa 
unsuccessfn!, and the Government of Netherlands India went 
back to the system of settlement with the village for the 
wliole village lands. *' The yearly allotment of lands wj 
'' then left to be made as b'ifore, and the legal fiction of the'' 
*' separate property of each village in certain specified fields 
'* was abolished." 

The present system of land-tenure in Java, which is fouuded 
on the native customary law, is thus explained by Mr. 
MoNEV : — * 

'* Old Lftnd Tenure and Bent under NaUte Rule, — The old 
'* idea under the Native rule was, that the laud belong* d to 
'^ the prince, the usufruct of it to the cultivator. The price of 

* Monet's Jata^ Ii 76. 



'* the usufract, or thu rent, was oye-fiftii of the produce, and 
** one- fifth of the ppasant"'s labour, or one day's s^ratuitnoivs 
"labour in the Java week of five dnys. The Dutch, in re- 
*' verting to the olJ system, lo^iciilly carried out this idea, 
** holding that they had conquered tlje priiiee and not the 
'* people, and therefore came int'» the prince's rights^ They 
''however, rtdnci'd the Liboiir rent from one-fifth to one- 
'* seventh, substituting one day in the European week of seven 
^ " days, for one day in tfie Java week of five days/" 

*• The difl^rent systems of land tenure in the island all 
" derive from this idea/' 

" Landlord Pmperti/, — ^ Where the Dutch are masters by 
" treaty and not by conque-st, tlie produce rent and the labour 
'* rent are jmid, not to the Dntch 1>ut to the Native Princes, as 
"in the Preantrer and in Soerakarta and Djokjakarta, In tho 
" rest of the islanrl, where the Dntch are masters by conquest, 
"the one- fifth of produce and one-seventh of labour belong 
'* to the Dutch Government, except on private estates, where 
"the Government has pro fanto granted away its rights. 
'* There tlie one fifth and one-seventh are paid by the peasant 
"to the European or Chinese landowner, and the landowner 
'* pays to Government three-fourths of one per cent, per 
" annum on the total value of his estate, equal at most to 
" one-fifth of the net yearly income/' 

" Ptasanfs Property, — The peasant's property under the 
** Kative syjttem to which the Dutch reverted, is of three kinds. 

" Ist* Village lands belonging jointly to the whole village 
" community, to liis share in which every householder has a 
" right. These Joint village lands are yearly pai'titioned and 
*' separately allotted to every head of family according to the 
" size of his family, and according to their capacity to cnlti- 
" Tate the laud so pJlotted.** 

*' '^nd. Lands formerly uncultivated, which belong exclu- 
" sively to the peasant who brings thera into cultivation. For 
" these he pays the one- fifth and one-seventh after five years, 
" but is exempt from all payment for them^ and from all 
" gratuitous labour whatever, during the first five years/' 

" 8rd. Lands which have descended from the first cultivator 
" to his representatives. 



'* quires the one-fiM of produce to be paid in kind, the tenant 
" must delivor it at the landlord's grange on the property as 
" soon as reaped/' 

" If landlord and tenant cannot a gee as to the number of 
*' piculs the different fields will yield per ba/m, the rest of the 
" villagers are called in, the crop is at once cut down, tied up 
" in geddinffB or bundles of pftdi as big as can be held in the 
" two arms, and put up in heaps of five yedchm/s each. The 
*' landlord or his agent then takes one t/eddinff from every 
*' heap. The villagers get a certain proportion of the geddivg^ 
" for cutting down and stacking the crop^ which, makes it the 
" the tenant's interest to agree to a nither higher asse&s- 
" ment in quantity, so as to be left to cut down his crop him- 
" self. The landloixl is subject to the disadvantage, in th»i« 
*' having the crop cut down by tlie vilbgcrs* of having to C4irry 
** away his own share, which also induces him not to insist 
" on quite the highest valuation in quantity he thinks the 
' can bear/* 

" If the landlord and t-enant agree as to quant it v, but can- 
" not agree as to the market price, the peasant is left to reap 
" his crop himself, and has to deliver to the landlord one-fifth 
*' of tht> f^tipulutcd quantity of j/adi in kind, for the liafe dc- 
*' livery of which the village chief i* also rejjjponsible." 

" The value to be agreed on is the current market value of 
** the neighbourhood in full harvest, and wht:n consequently 
** the price is lowtr than the average throughout the year, 
" The cottier koowt* that if the laufllord and he can agree m 
'* to value, he will have four months time to pay in. He 
" knows that as soon as ihe harvest is oil in, and the produce 
** rent of the neighbourhood has either been sold on the spot 
*' or been sent away fur export, produce will rise again to tl.e 
•' Uf^ual price through the year in his locality* It is the tenant's 
*Mnterei!^t, thtrefurc, to agree to both the assessed quantity and 
'* value if not exorbitaot^ while the landlord's estimate is kept 
" within bounds by the tenant^s right to pav the actual one- 
" fifth in kind/^ 

" Large £!urcpc on Lavdotrticvs. — Although, as previously 
''mentioned, the linglii^h Government of Java found on in* 
" quiry that the Native chiefs did not even claim any proprie- 


lAiy hghtB in the soil, ret ta some few instances oonsiderm* 
** We tracts of crown land wt i^ b Mto^ed by us on Natives as 
** pii^^te estates. On the return of tbe Dutch all our grants 
" and alienations of crown land were recognised, but from that 
** time the Jam crown landt ha^e only been leised out, and 
*' nerer granted away. The few Natives, whom we than made 
'' landed pft>pnetors^ then entered into the same condition as the 
" old European and Chinese lauded proprietors, and their 
^' estates became liable to sale for arrears of land tax or for 
'* mortgage debt. The reckless and extravagant habits of 
** these Native landowners have gradually alienated most of 
*' ibeir properties, and thei^ are now not above half-a-dozen 
*■ Natives, out of the Preanger and other Native states, 
** who are still owners of land. There is no pn»hibition a- 
" gainst any Native buying any private estate which is for sale, 
" but the practice is discouraged by the Dutch Government/' 

The culture-system, a description of which does not fall 
within the scope of this paper, has been founded upon and is 
in no way inconsistent with the native customary tenure. 



The land-revenue system of Ceylon is based upon native 
custom, which, in this respect, resembles the practice, common 
to the Malays and other Indo-Chinese peoples, of levying u 
tenth or otlier proportionate share uf tfic pmducc* A local 
Ordinance, passed in Ceylon in lH4tl, gave legislative sanction 
to a procedure devised for securing the du-.* collection of the 
Govemmcut share of the crops of paddy and dry grain grown 
in the island. This ta\ was a well-rei^oj^tiijied inipjst leviable 
by ctistom and continued by Govern uiont proclamations issued 
in the early years of British occupation, * 

The law of IHJ-O, which is still in force, dcHcribcs the duty 
leviable to be " a tax of one-tenth or such other proportion 
*' of the crops of pad Jy and dry groin grown in a^id upon all 
" lauds now liable thereto^ as by law^ custom, or usage is at 
" present levied or payable," 

**OTdltiaao« XIV of 1840, quoting in the preamble ProolamatiaEis of Sept, 
Srd, leOl. and Nov, 21»t» 1818. 



The mode of coUeoting the tax was, in 184"1, described as 
followfi, by one who had held high office in Ceylon and whose 
nofavourable opinion of this system of collecting a laud reve- 
nne was fuimedj therefore, aftrr some experience : — 

"When the crop is ??nf!iciontly advanced to enable an e^ti- 
'^ mate to bo formed td'its possible proilai*e» tliu Govorarnent 
*' A?*iessor8 proceetj to ealuulutc it^^ pmb^iblc value, and a 
'* return is made to the Govenitnent A^jjent of the atnoimt 
" leviable upon every field. The faim of the tax id" each district 
" is thin sold by pnhlie auction ; and, as the harve^st approaches, 
"the enltivator is obliged to ^ive fiv*» days' notice to the pnr- 
" chaser of \m intention to cut ; two days* notice if he finals it 
*' necessary to postpone; if the crop be nol threshed inimerlU 
*'ately» the renter is entitled to a further notice of the day 
'^ fixed for that |)urpose ; and for any omi-ssioti or irregularity 
" he has a renjcdv hv suiu|( for a penalty in the District 

'* It would he cliihcnlt to devise a system more pregnant 
** with oppression, extortion, and (Icmornlisation thaji the one 
" liere detailcil. The cultivator is handed over helplessly to 
** two successive >«cts of inqnisitoriul otRcers the assessors and 
** the renters ; whose acts are so utieoutrolled that abuses are 
'inevitable, and the interrruirse of the tw(» parties in cltarac- 
** terised by vignur and extortion on tlie one f^ide, and cunning 
" and subterfuges of every description on the other. Every 
" artifice and disingennous device is put lu practice to deceive 
'Mlie headmen and assessors as to the extent and fertility of 
" the laud and the uctu:d vahie of the crop ; and they, in 
'^return, resort to the most inqui^titorial and vexatious iutcr- 
*'ftrence, either to protect the interest of the Government, or 
** privately to further tlietr own. Between these tlemorabsing 
*' inflnenecs, the clni meter and iudustry uf the rural popula- 
" tion are deteriorated and destroyed. The extcntion of culti- 
" vution by reclainiin*jr a portion of waste land only exposes 
** the harassetl proprietor to fresh visits from thehenilmen^ and 
*' a new vahuitiou by tlie Government Asst-ssor, and where 
** annoyance is not the kndinfr objrct, recourse is hud to cor- 
*' rnption, in order to keep down the vabiation/* 

MAJjiY I^XD TEXrRK. 147 

'' But no sooner has the cultivator got rid of the assessor than 
" he falls into the hands of the renter, who, under the autho- 
*' rity with which the law invests him, finds himself possessed 
*' of unusual powers of vexation and annoyance. He may be 
" designedly out of the way when the cultivator sends notice of 
*' his intention to cut ; and if the latter, to save his harvest 
•* from perishing on the stalk, ventures to rcjip it in his ab- 
*' sence^ the penalties of the law are instantly enforced againjj* 
*• him. Under the pressure of this formidable control, the 
*' agricultural proprietor, rather than lose his tinio or his crop 
*' in dancing attendance on the renter, or submitting to the 
" multiform annoyances of his subordinates, is driven to pur- 
*' chase forbearance by additional payments ; and it is generally 
'^ understood that the share of the tax which eventually reaches 
'^ the Treasury does not form one-half of the amount which is 
'' thus extorted by oppressive devices from the helpless pro- 
" prietors.'' 

" The same process which is here described for the collection 
" of the tax upon rice lands in the valleys is resorted to for 
" realising that upon dry grain in the uplands and hills ; and it 
^' is a striking confirmation of the discouragement to the exten- 
" sion of agriculture, which is inseparable from a system so 
" vexatious and so oppressive, that by a return of the produce 
*' of the paddi tax and that on dry grain for the years prior to 
" 1846, during which the cultivation of every other description 
" of produce had been making extensive advances, it was shewn 
" that the production of corn had been for some time station- 
•' ary in Ceylon ; and the increase has been very inconsiderable 





British rule in Malacca dates from 1825, the year in which 
the cession arranged by the treaty with the Netherlands of 

* Sir Emerson Texnext'.s Hint, of ('njlon, II. 170, //. 



1824 wa^ carried into effect. It is truo that from 1795 to 
1818, Malacca bad been held by the English, but this was 
more in the nature of a military occupationj which might 
come to an end at any time on the cessation of war, than per- 
manent civil administration. As far as can be learned, the 
Government of Malacca between 1795 and 1818 went on very 
much as it had under the Dutch, save for the removal of res- 
trictions on cultivation nnd trade and lor the humane ^efo^m-1^ 
of Lord !SIi>'To in the criminal procedure,^ At all events 
at first, docuuientis dealing with rights in land were made out 
in the Dutch language for the signature of the Englisih 

Taking 1825 as the starting point, wliat was the land tenure 
of the Settlement as the British found it in that year ? I 
reply unliesitatiugly that it wan the native tenure of the 
Malays^ unchanged in any way either by Portuguese or Dutch 
rulers, t All tlie evidence supports this, the absence of any 
express htnd hiws or regulations passed during the prcctnliug 
period of European rule, the fact t!iat such records as we have 
of the Dutch administration exhibit the government uphold- 
ing the customary rules of native tenure^ the fact tliut in their 
other eastern possessions the Dutch have consistently main- 
tained the native tenure as the}' found it, and the fact that at 
the date of the final cession of Malacca a code of regulations 
was under the consideration of the Dutch Oovernment, which 
is founded in all respects upon local custom and baa nothing 
in common with any European system. 

There were very good reasons why the tenure of Malacca 
should not have been interfered with* The Portuguese rulo 
was the mere military occupation of a fortress, by which the 
command of the Straits, and thereby of the eastern trade, was 

• ** Malacca was to have* beta restnnxl to tKe Dutch at the peace of Amieiifi^ 
** in 1802 ; but war rocommeuccd (Aiay 1603) before the transfer was mode, 
** and the Dutch falling agtiin under the grii>e of France, it consequently 
** remained m the hands of the Bnti^h until 1818. The kw of Huliand con* 
** tinued to be administered, and the d<.rrees of the courts of justice posscd ill 
** the luime of their Hi;^h MightiKe88t*s/' — NE'vviiOLlJ, I» 126. 

t ** The Portngiieae, while they held Malflcca. iind, after them, the Dutch, 
** left the Miilaj custoniB, or irx non Avrivfn, in force." See the judgment of 
Sir Bbkson Maxwell in Sahrip v. Mittfiell atui ano,. Appendix, p. xli. 



maintained. They were frcqueDtly besieged, and the enemy 
was on more than one occasion up to tlieir very gates. It 
would be absurd to suppose that any new land system was 
devised or introduced for the limited area covered by the fort 
and town in those troublous times. The Dutch drove out the 
Portuguese in 1640. At no time during their occupation did 
tho Dutch open up the interior by means of roads : their forts 
at St. John's hill aud elscw^hure .nhcw that the suburbs 
were not always peaceful, and there in little reason to suppose 
tfiat their direct rule extended far from the town of Malacca 
itself. The whole object of their estahlishraetit was trade, 
and, in the words of an English ofheial whu Lad studied the 
subject, ** Malacca wa^ considered a mere outi>08t of tlie 
*• Supreme Colonial Government in Java for securing Dutch 
*' supremacy and monojioly in the Straits. Not only wbm 
** u<i:»'iculture discounvgcd, hut it was absolutely prevcuteh. 
*' Tijc cultivation of grain was forbidden us interfering witd 
'"'monopoly in Java, and other species of tropical cultivation 
'* were equally disallowed from the same cause.''* Among the 
sources of revenue of tlie Dutch (jovernmcnt before 17f)5 
there in no mention of land revenue, and the absence of this 
item is sufficiently arcounted for by the statement just quoted. 
The Dutch did not introduce any laud lawt?, or derive any 
public revenue from landj but they fully rccogn is ctT individual 
rights in land, and supplied the means of proving title by 
written docnment?^. These rights were, for the most part, 
rights acquired under the local native customs, and the man- 
ner in which they were transferred was quite in keeping with 
the native mo<le of thought. I have already quoted (^* //;>., p. 
120) a passage from the Kedah laws in which it ia laid down 

* Journ. lad, Arch^ 11^ 737 i Id. X, 45.— *' Though under tlie dominion 
•* of an Europcim puwtr for nbout 250 years, it itmains, even t^ the foot of 
** the linea of the town, ns wild and imciillivated as if there h.*id never been 
" II settlement formed here, and except liy the ^mall river that paiisea be- 
'* tween the fort and town, you cannot penetrate into the tH>aatrY in any 
»* direction above a few miles ; nor is even this extent general, bemR oon» 
** fined to the roads that run idong the seashore about two miles each way 
•* and one that goes inland (nhout four miles).** — ^Capi. Lo^xok's Journal, — 
lim^jQurn, Straits Branch R. A. 5'., Xo. 7, p. m. 



that the Raja's concurrence shall bn necessary to validate a 
trunsfer made hy a land-owner to anotlicr. Thisi^ the princi- 
ple upon which the Dutch documents of title, still extant in 
Malacca, seem to have been issued, A purchaser or inheritor 
of land had to go before the Court of Justice and deehire and 
prove the transaetion by which he claimed possession of the 
land. Upon satisfactory proof being a*lduccd, the Court con- 
Hmied die transfer or traumis&ion and if^stued to Inui 
a document in the nature of a eertifiL-ate of his right of 
possession, that \^ of bis proprietary right under the local law. 
Tlic greater part of the land in the town of ^falacca is lield ia 
this manner, and it has been ha*?tily assumed that the certifi* 
cates of the Dutch Court of Justice have superseded enrlier 
grants issued to the original proprietors. I do not believo 
that there is, in the majority of cases, tiny fonudiition fjT ^ucb 
an assumption. Laud in the* town and suburbs of ^^al 
was in t\w possession id iu(lividiud> before the Dutch ocnij- - 
lion— and before the Portuguese roncpiest for the niattt r •»( 
that. It was hchl and continued to be held either by I lie 
native |>osses.sors or by new-comers, with or without the pcr- 
missio!! of tfic ruling uutbority. nurh^* the local tenure* O, ^ 
after the cstabiishmful rjf u Court of Justice by the l>.i 
secret was not permitted. A transfer of laiul had 
to reccivi' lh<* ^iUu'tiou of tlie goveniuicnt, iu whom ihe<jtf ti- 
cally the soil was vested, and this, us lias Ijcen shcwn^ is quite 
in accordance with Malay iiiv^h. 

The uncertainty attciuling the term;* on wbiidi such hkutl 
could be held is clearly evidenced in some of the I>utch 
documents SouR-timcs it is exprissly declared that the 
laud is subjiM't to any taxes, iSiv., which may at auy tulurf 
time be impo^eil, and tliis sutficicntly indicutes that the tei'iaa 
ultimattly to be imposed were not settled, though it was well 
understood that hintl was liable to a customary tux if the 
Govemmeut should at any tinie choose to exact it But, at I 
have shewn, no land revenue was collected in Malacca iu 
Dutch times and presumedly no tax was ever imposed. The 
land on which the town of Malu(^ca stands pays no rentj tax or 
reveuuo of any kind to the Governmentj to this day. But 
there cau be little doubt that it is open to the Crovemmeut of 

bet:. 'j..e:L..-.:^ 

. : . : K ...: »..:.\> 

:^^:^. av.a 

'Ne^li: I. : - M: \v ; 
3,653 awzvi onlv wti-.- wul;:riu-d 



it was only under the British Government, after 1795, that they 
began to he valiuible. 

The laod-hoklei-s, then, in Malacca, at tlie time that the 
British ttiuk possession of the place finally in 1825, were of 
tliree rlashes : — 
K ]. — Holders ut'land in the town and siibnrl>*!, wither 

^^^^ without certificates of the Court of Justice ; 

^^^P *J, — Proprietor's of coneessionsj in the natm-c of Zamin- 
^^^ t/dri rights, over country lands : 

H »1. — Ntitlvo enllivators liaving a proprietary right ; — 

all holding under the local cnstoniary tenure of the country. 

It was dithuuU at tirst for the offirer^ of the new Crov^erament 
to obtain accurate iutorjuation as to the state of the tenure. 
The person :s belongiii^j^ to the dceond of the three classes just 
enumerated — *' proprietors/' as they called themselves, *' tithe- 
owners'^ or *' impropriatoi'?^/' as Sir. VoUxVa termed them"* — 
cnnimeneed by making wholly inadmissible chiiins. For a 
time it seciued as if the whole of the land of the Province, 
beyond the town^limits, was the absolute [)ropcrty of '*' pro- 
prietors/^ wlietber eultivatcd laud, waste laud, or forest* Th€*re 
was no one to appeal to for inforniatiun as to the nature of 
the tenure except the '' proprietors'' thcni'ielves and their 

■ friends and relation?^. Snrh intbrmatiun as tliey could or 
would give will be found in the minutes nf a mectini^ held by 
the Kesideut CmuuMllor on the HJtb nf October, 183fi 
(Appciulix 11) . Tlicy claimed the nnqualitk^d ovvnciNihip of hun- 
dreds of square niilea of laud, the greater part of which waj? 
uncleared forest because^, though the rights granted in i*espect 
of it bad been conferred with a view to its bring cleared, the 
Dutch Government had never enforced this stipulation ! They 
called the cultivators their '' tenants/' and dented the right of 
any one to settle on their alleged estates without permission ; 
yet they admitted the right of a ** tenant" to sell, mortgage 
and devise his land and to extend his property by taking up 
waata land at will. They alleged a customary right to collect 


^ Correspondence relating to tho Land Revenue System, 3.9. — Mr. YQvya*§ 
8rd Report, pp. 61-75, 




a rent which was ordinarily a tenth of all produce, but admit- 
ted that they had no right to levy a higher rate. 

It need hardly be said that this description was not suflScient 
to convince the Governor (Mr. Fullerton ) that the relative 
rights of Government, "proprietor,'^ and ''tenants'^ had 
been correctly stated.* He pointed out the inconsistencies 
which occurred in the information elicited at the meeting, and 
the claims of the concesftionaires to be absolute owners were 
never recognised. It was made clear by the production of a 
Dutch Proclamation, dated 14th December, 1773, and a later one 
dated 20th May, 1810 (Appendix IV), that the latter were 
forbidden, under pain of a heavy fine, from levying more than 
one-tenth of the produce from the cultivators. This satisfied 
the Governor that all that had ever been given up by the 
Dutch Government to the concessionaires was the right of col- 
lecting the tax of onctenth of the produce, and that no valid 
claim could be made out to any absolute right of ownership of 
the soil. It was decided to redeem the rights which had been 
thus given up, and in 1828 these were repurchased by Govern- 
ment from the concessionaires, who received in lieu of them 
hereditary allowances calculated according to the respective 
values of the concessions so re-acquired by Government. In 
a few cases, owing to absence from the Settlement, or inca- 
pacity to contract, on the part of the persons entitled, the 
re-purchase of the right of levying the tenth was not carried 
out, and this right is, therefore, still enjoyed by a few indivi- 
duals in Malacca. 

The lands at Malacca, having been just freed from the 
incubus of a middleman between Government and the cultiva- 
tor, were taken in hand by the authorities. A Superintendent 
of Lands was appointed, and a Regulation for the Administra- 
tion of the Land Revenue Department was passed on the 25th 
June, 1828, which, after approval by the Board of Directors, 
became Regulation IX of 1830. 

The foundation of much of the mal-administration that has 
followed may be traced to this very incomplete measure. The 
Government ought then to have decided whether the tithe 

♦ See Mr. Fullebton's minute. Appendix II, p. xxx. 


system was to be persisted in or not; whether laud was thence- 
forth to be taken up in the old way and to be subject to the 
payment of tenths, or whether any other system of tenure 
was to be introduced. But what was done was this : — 

(1). The Government determined to collect the tenth on 
produce which had just been rc-acquired from the 
former tithc-owncrs, .and toll-houses were erected 
throughout the ctnmtry to intLrcc[)t produce ou iis 
way to market. 
(2). A determination was announced to survey the h<»liU 
ings of the then cultivators and to issue '* title- 
deeds'' for them. Th's was not carried out.* 
(3). For lands disposed of subsequently, grants and 

leases were to be issued under English law. 
(1). TJic Regulation was silent as to the method of en- 
forcing the levy of the tenth. 
Is it surprising that the result has been incessant confusion 
ever since ? Here was a native tenure easily intelligible and 
suited to the customs and traditions of the people. It was 
possible to carry it out in its entirety by encouraging the 
exercise of the free right of taking up land for agricultural 
purposes and the acquisition of an alienable proprietary right, 
subject to the payment of tenths, and by providing legal machi- 
nery for the collection of tenths and the punishment of per- 
sons evading payment. It was possible, on the other hand, 
to abandon it, to levy an assessment (founded, as in India, on 
a rough survey or estimate of area) in lieu of it, and to alienate 
lands in the future on this system. But neither of these sys- 
tems was adopted. The old lands cultivated and liable to 
tenths before 1830 remained subject to the native customs, 
but they were not identified by registration or survey. Lands 
taken up and brought into cultivation without permission 
after 1830 could not, therefore, in subsequent years, be dis- 

* ** A Surveyor was appointed, but before he had been many months 
" empl()5'0(l, his servi(;e« were dispensed with in tlie general reduction, and 
" in eonseciuenee until this day (1H5G), except in the immediate vicinity of 
'' tlie town, the lands are not measured, nor do the tenants hoM any doeu- 
•' incuts to prove tlu-ir ri}^hts." Journ. In(f. Arrh,, X, (il. 


tinguished from them. The lithe system was mamtained, but 
the toll-houses pro red to be a nuisance and at the same time 
an inefficient means of collecting the tax. It must have been 
obrions that much produce liable to the tax would not pass 
the toll-houses at all, while, on the other hand^ produce exempt 
from taxation, i\^.. that dcri%ed from the lands of Peughulu«, 
etc., and from lauds leased or granted on a quit-rent after 
1 830, would very likely be charged. The outlook from the 
first was not j»ron>isinp:, and two important facts— one legal and 
the other administrative — tended to aggravate all the other 
difficulties. One was the decision of the Recorder, Sir B. 
" ilALKiN,* *' that the introduction of the King's charter into 
'* th&se Settlements had introduced the existing law of Eng- 
" land also, except in some cases where it was modified by 
*^ express provision, and had abrogated any law previously 
existing," f and the other was the alteration in the form of 
goverument and the reduction of establishments which took 
place about l^TO. Thenceforward there were only two officers 
to perform all the executive and judicial duties of the station.! 
Tho Malacca Land Regulation (IX of 1830) was not long 
regarded as law. It was passed by the same autliority as the 
Singapore Land Rrgulution, which was judicially declared 
by Sir B. M.vlkix, to be illegnl because it was not a 
Regulation ** for imposing duties and taxes/* those being the 
only purposes for which the Governor in Council of Prince of 
Wales' Island, Singapore and Malacca could legislate. § 

Changes in the law and in the Government were followed 
soon afterwards by the Nauing War ( 1831-2 }. So it will be 
seen that the years which immediately followed the cession of 
Malacca were characterised by a number of incidents which 
^^ rendered the establishment of a successful administration of 
^H the Land Department a very difficult operation. 

■ *Ro] 

■ t^" 

RoDTK t\ WiLLiiHsoy, 24th May, 1834. 
fin the ffoodit af AhdnUah^ 31st Mari'h^ 1835, Ppeeial Reports of the 
- Lftw CommiBsioners, House of Commoas Pftpero, 30th May, 1843, p. 

; Jo^m, Ind. Arch., X, 6^» 

} Indian Law Commissioners' Rt^poit, 6R. For an abstract of the Sin- 
gipOrt< Land Regulation, eoe Journ. Ind. -ire A., IV, 2H. 






The difficulties mth which the Oovernmeut was brought 
face to face in 1829, the introduction of English law which 
rendered the eufurcement of Dutch or native customary iaws, 
however well suited to the place, impossible, the absence of 
legislative power in the Local Government, and the conse- 
quent impracticability of enforcing revenue claims and com- 
pelling the delivery of the tenth, were well summarised by 
Mr, FuLLEBTo\%in a minute dated I8th May, 1820, from which 
I extract the following passage : — 

** This brings rae to the explanation of the radical cause why 
" revenue cannot be raised in these eastern countries* On the 
"continent of India, the Governments are invested with legi«- 
*' lative power, and that power is exercised in prescribed fu rm, 
" by the enactment and promulgation of laws registered in the 
*' Judicial Ilepartmentj under the term of Regulations. Those 
'* Regulations, besides providing for the forms of administering 
'* justiee, define the relative rights of the (iovcrnment and the 
" subject, and prescribe the mode under which those rights are 
*' to be inferred on tin* one part, maintained on the other, by 
''application to local Pruvincjfd Conrt^, bound to act accord- 
** ing to those llcgiikitions. The Supreme Cuurts have no 
'* jurisdiction in atiy matters of Revenue, or the collection 
'* thereof. In the Revenue Department, public officers hold 
*' summary [lowers of enforcing, in the first instance^ all de- 
*' miouls, wlictlier for payment of arrears, ejecting from lands 
** ujidiily held, leaving the ointu jHrm'^pfrndi on the party sup- 
'' posing liimsrlf aggrievctl, distraint when n,o arrear is due, or 
*' cjt^c'tmcnt from lands properly belonging to him. It is only 
** under the exercise of the summary process that the collec- 
" tion of the Government Revenue in India is insured. In 
** these eastern settlements the Government has no power of 
" framing those legislative provisions. There does not, there- 
" fore, exist nny di>tincl and clear definition of relative rights, 
** or preseribed mode of enforcing ami preserving them. There 
** arc no Provimiul Courts acting under local law. Govern. 
* ment possLSscs no power of enforcing its demands. The 
** Court administering justice as a Revenue Court is a King's 
*' Court, framed on the English model, and taking the common 
*' law of England as its guide. Questions of Revenue, there- 







'* fore, whether arising from land or excise, fall to be tried 
** under principles that have no relation or resemblance to the 
*' local situation of the country and its inhabitants. Before 
''demands can be enforced, legal process in all the English 
*' farms must be resorted to ; writ?? of ejectment must be sued 
suits entered for arrears; delays, expenae^j doubts and 
- ulties arise that rend'^r it easy for the people to evade 
** the payment of all demaiHls. and induce the officers of Gov* 
" crnmcnt rather to ubundon the demand, small in individual 
*' cases, though considerable iu tlie a^j^regate, rather than 
*' encountvr all the diffimiltics and go through forms which 
'* they cannot understand. Let us suppose, for example's sake, 
'* that the Supreme Cnurt ut Calcutta were at once deelared 
" the only lieveuue (Tourt ; that every arrear of Revenue, 
" every question resulting from its eolleetion, or the ocrupa- 
" tion of land, were to be tried there in the first iiistauce, under 
** all its forms ; would it possible to realize the Land Revenue? 
'* Yet this, in a small way, is exactly our ease. Hingapore, 
"indeed, is of recent acquisition, and tlie titles hithtrto given 
'* have been in Englif^h form : but even at Singapore, tlirre is 
**much land occupied without any title whatever ; and unless 
'* something is done by regular enactment, pusscssion will make 
*'a title, a^s it has done in this Island, from the neglect of the 
" local authorities. But how are we to regulate decisions at 
** Malacca ? There the sovereign right is one-tenth of the 
" produce ; the I)ut<4i made over the right to certain of the 
'* inhabitants more thnn 100 years ago. Thi;^ (lovernment, by 
" way of insuring incrcuse of cultivation and iutrodtiction of 
** population, redeeracfl the right » llow are wc to levy the 
" tenth, if refused ? The land tenures at ^Malacca bear no 
*' analogy or resemblance to any English tenure : yet by such 
*^ they must, in ease of doubt, be tried. Regulations arlaptcd 
** to the case have indeed been sent to England, but until local 
"legislation is applied, and the mode of administering justice 
'* better adapted to the circitni stances of the place, it seems to 
** me quite useless to attempt the realization of any Revenue 
** whatever." 

References to Bengal on the many vexed questions relative 
to the occupation and alienation of land in the Straits were 



inceaaant for the next ten years. Each of tlie tbree Settle- 
ments had its separate liistory and its peculiar administrative 
difficoiltieSj and it was no easy task to find out and apply tlie 
proper remedies in each. In 1837 the Supreme Government j 
in Calcutta gave effect to some of Sir B. Malkix's recomraeri- 
dations by reijealiug: tlie local Land Rcgulatione f the legidity 
of which was more than doubtful ),* with a view to the intro- 
duction of a general Land Law, and by passing an Act ( No,! 
XX of 1837 ) which modifit^^, in tlie 8traits» the English lawj 
of succession and mako«i oil immoveable pruiierty d^*s<^cud toJ 
the executor or administrator and not to the heir, f In the 
t«ame year a Commissioner ( Mr. YoUiNa ) was despatched 
from India to the Straits Settlemeuts to settle existing disptites 
and difficulties about titles to laud and to report ou the whole 
subject. He visited Slahicca in 183B, and again there was an 
opportunity of putting the land rcv^enue system on an intelli- 
gible basis, either by ascertaining^ and formally enacting as 
law, the native customs relative to the eollcetiou of the tenth 
(as was done in Ceylon a few years later J ), or by establish- 
ing by law the principle of un assessment in money ^ instead of 
the tax in kind, to be levied on the cultivated area as in India. , 
Mr, YoUKG recommended neither. He deprecated legisla-^^ 
ticu, and preferred to trust ( the result has shewn how vainly ) 
to argument and pcrsuasicni to induce the Malays to commute 
the tithe for a fixed antuial payment in money. The idea 
started in llegulatiou IX of 1830^ that each cultivator was to 
have a title-deed for bis hokbug, seems to have taken complete 
possession of that generation of Land Revenue ofBcials and 
the object of every succeeding administration seems similarly 
to have been to force documents of title upon an miw^illing 
population. The tdl-hfjuscs were discoutinucd mid the vohiu- 
tary commutation plan was tried. Its complete failure was 
thus described bv Mr, E, A. Blundelt. iu 1848 ; — 

• ActXof IR37. s> 1. 

+ See Sir B* Malkin's letter to the GoTerniurnt of India, datetl Jiilj 17, 
1&3T; Report of Indian Land Commisjjioners, p. 85. 
\ Sfijh, p, 145, 



'* He (Mr. Yorxn) seeras to have brouglit to Tiotiee the 
" very objectionable svste^n of levvin*jj a reveinic in kind on 
** tlie procure of the lands, and to liavc iiidnce I the report to a 
" commntation of the tenths into a money paytnent, but 
" nnfurlunately tbc mode julopted either by or through him, 
** was or.e thnt proved most nrtpalatuljle to the natives of the 
'* place, and by its enforeeintnt led to nnieh vexation and dis- 
*' satisfaction. This novel mode of raiding a land revenue was 
" by means of teebnieal English leijfal iiitientures between the 
" tenants an<l tl»e East Incba Company, tlrawii np with all the 
*• preeit^ion and formality of a praetisirjg attorney in KiiglanLl, 
*' wheri'l)y tl>e tenant cngagesi to pay so much per annum, and 
** the East India Company engages not to demand any more, 
** during a period of twenty year;* from the date of signing. 
" This legal iliH-nmeut oecnpies the whole of une side of a 
*' sheet of fnolHcap, while the other ih filh'd with Mahiyan 
** writing purporting to be a translation of the F^nglish, but, 
** a» may well be .supposed* failing entirely to eotivey to a 
'* native reader an'y idea oif its meaning. It requires some 
" knowledge of law to nnderstan<l the English original, con- 
*' sidering that it is drawn up in striotly legal terms, and the 
'• attempt to tratyshite tlioso terms into Malay has produced 
" an utterly unintelligible jumble of words. Indentures being 
** duplieate doenments are of course required to be t^igued, 
** sealed and delivered in duplicate by each party in the prc- 
'* sence of witnesses. To secure therefore the payment {often 
" of a few anna.s only per annum ) the tenants ( ignorant 
*' Malay peasants) were sent for in ^-houls to ptit their marks 
" to these sheets of foolscap paper tilled with writing. They 
'* naturally got alarmed and evinced the greatest reluctance 
** to attix their signature. To uvcreome this reluctance and to 
" induce a general signing throughout, seems to have been the 
" great and almost sole olijcct nf the Laud Department from 
" that time to the present. All the ingenuity of Eesidents 
" and Assistants has been exerted to this end and all the prin- 
*' ciples of political economy have been exhausted in endea- 
** vouring to explain the advantages of the system, but in 
** many part^ without success. Threats, coaxings and expla- 
" nations have been set at defiance, and an obstinate determi- 


" nation evinced not to sign these legal papers. In 1841 or 
" 1844^ the then Resident hit on the notable plan of punching 
*' the recnearits for their eontninaey by putting their tenths up 
** to anetion and seliii:^ them to a Chinaman, the very thing 
*^ that foniH^d ime of the i^rounls for redeeming the laiids from 
'* the proprietors !" 

Tiie Government hnd redeemed the rightti granted in the 
days of Duteli nde to a few privileged '' proprietors '" an^l tho 
worst that was aiiid of the Imrgairt for some years was that it 
had been rashly and improvidently eoneliide<l an<1 bad resulted 
in an annnnl luss to (Fovei'nment, Hut a^ time went on it was 
cjinfovert'd that the (loverninent had liy no me ins aeqiiirej, ab 
had been .<:nrpo5ied, an onfi'Mered rij^ht to de:d witfi the wa»te 
lanil of >hih!e<'a. The ileeds by whteh lh<* '"proprietors'* 
svu'rcudcred their rights to Ci over ii men h eontaincd a stipuU- 
tlonto the e fleet thnt, iji ease the SetthMiient of Malacca shouW 
ever be given np to any oth{*r Power, they shoo Id be restored 
to their original position with respeet to the lands.* This 
proviso efiVemally prevented the (lOVernnient from giving a 
elean title to purehaserA. 

1 he b^^al dillieulty thus engendered* and the aeknowledged 
fail are of the voluntary commutation plan, neeessitated refer* 
ence onee more to the Goveriament of India, and in 1861 a 
Bill was introduced in the Legislative Council ^4 India , whieh, 
it was hoped J would give the loea! authoritien ail the nereg*arv 
jKjwers. During a debate on this meaf^nre, the law oHieer of 
tlie (jovernmcnt (Mr. St once) read to the Council an extract 
from a letter written by Mr. Blundell, ex-Governor of the 
Straits Settlements, in wliicb the injurious effect of the exac- 
tion ot the tetitb in kind was point*.^ out. lie further 
explained that twenty years earlier an attempt had been 
made to eonunute the payment in kind to a money payment, 
which bad failed ** from the bad way in which it was carried 
out/" and tbsit many disputes bad arisen from the inetfici* 
ency of the native surveyors, *' whose suiTeys were so bad 
** that constant disputes were arising in consequence of them, 
many lands having been assigned twice over.'* To meet 

♦ J^arfu Ijtd. Arch,, X, 60-61. 



thid difficulty the Bill provided for a survey und u suminary 
feGttletnetit of the rights of parties, *' wliieli wuuld put an end 
to disputes /'"**" 

Tl»e Bill in dneliine Ijccaine law und, as Act XXVI of 1861, 
is still in faree in the Colony. It settled summarily all ditli- 
culties OS to the title of the Governmeut to the kmls over 
which the Dutch grantees had once had rights, by vesting the 
lauds in question in fee simple in Her JIajesty and thus for 
ever extin^uislicd any hopes which the former grantees might 
have entertained of regaining pos^scssion, at sonje future time, 
ijf the surrendered rights. 

It also declared what was the legal status of certain classes 
of native land-holdcrsi and provided a seheme of survey and 
settlement, analogous to the Indian system, under which the 
rights and liabilttics of every one could be ascertained and 

But thirty year« had been lost and the hinds taken up with 
or without authority iit that period wrrc now^ n^^t to he distin- 
guished from the lands which were held under tlic local cus- 
toraary tenure at the time when Regulation IX of 1830 was 
pasAcd.f The duty to be urulertakeu was a completely new 
sorvey of the Settlement of Malacca, iu the course of whieh 
the stiitus of every pcrj^on claiming to have title to land wan 
to be ascertained and dcelarefl ; atid this was not facilitated 
by any e^'irlier survey and Ncillcinent, for the provisions cf 
Kegulattons IX of ]83(> in this respect had been id lowed to 
remain a dead letter, J 

The Aet contemplated (». 1 ) two elasscs of native land-holdersj 
namely, (1) *• cultivators and res^ideut tenants*' of the lauds 
redeemed from the Duteh grantees^ and of lands in Naniug 
" who hold their lands b}f prvscription ; § 

(2) 'VAll other caltivators and under-tcuants who now 
occupy or liold^ or shall occupy or hold, any of such lands as 
aforesaid," Those who could prnve a proprietary right under 

Bcagnl Hurkara, January l&th, 1881, 

iSWp. 151, 

See tvjfra, p. lo4, note.* 

L e., by local cuatom, usaye or law, Sahnft v« Mitchall, Appendix III, p. 



the Lk'uI eiit»totDary tenure, and who c^Lirae, therefore within 
the first category, were dechired to be liable to a payment, 
either in mouey or kind, of one-tenth part of the pniduce of 
the lund to Government* 

Thu«e ft'lass 2), whose occupation was independent of the 
native eustomai y tenure were to be treated us sqnatters un- 
der the Straits Land Act (Act XVI of 1839, s 2) and had the 
altemaliveof ^* engaging for *' their land on terms fixed by the 
Government, or of removing from it altogether. 

Power was givca to the Oovenior to com nude the euatom- 
ary liability of a land-holder to pay tenth'* iu kind, for a sum 
down and an uonuu! ipi it-rent. 

Wa^tc land ut the disposal of Government wa^ to be alien- 
ated, in the discretion of the Governor, to applicants, in 
perpetuity or for any term of years and subject to any quit- 
rent agreed upon ; and the local customary right, which the 
peasantry of Mahieca possessed, of taking up forest, waste or 
nncnltivatcd hmd and uf^ Hiring n proprietary riglit over it by 
clearing and cultivating it, was taken away. Every land-huldcr 
was, however, declared to be entitled to add to his holding by 
engaging for contiguous uncultivated land in the proportion 
of one part of waste for every four parts of land cultivated 
by him. 

Finally, certain legal powers were given to otKeirds to 
be flppointc<l by the Governor^ to make a survey of the 
lands of the Settlemenl, to require the utteudance of parties 
and tlie pnuluction of documents, and to enquire into and 
decide questions of title, subject to an aijpeal to the Court of 

If tliis Act had been properly worked by a sutficient estab- 
lishment, there would seem to be no reason why the Malacca 
Land Revenue Department should not be at the present time, 
as regards survey, settlement, maps, registration of holdings, 
and record of rights, on m satisfactory a footing as any settled 
district in an Indian province. 

But no settlement operations on a sufficiently extended scale 
were ever undertaken. A surveyor was appointed and worked 
for some years during which time a tolerable survey of the coast 
diBtricts (about one-fourth of the whole) wa§ executed. The 


Malay land tenure. 


so ohtaine<I were never publislicd and the Indian sys- 
tem of declaring particular land to be liable for so much 
revenue annually, leviable quite irrespective of any title-deed 
delivered lo the occupant, was not enforced by the LandOtiice, 
though this is distinctly what the Act aimed at. The officials 
of the day seem to have been still unable to get rid of the 
idea that the only way to make an occupant liable for land 
revenue was to make him sign a lease first of all. 

In the words of the late Attorney-General of this Colony 
(Mr, T. Braddell, c ,m.g.), wIiohc paper ou tlie Malacca Laud 
History ■'*■ has been of the {j^reatest value to me in com piling 
these notes, — ** the cultivators, findin|j^ themselves better ott' 
under the Penghuliis, witli whom ( when they had no written 
titles registered in the office, and followed by regular demands 
for the rent expressed in the titlc-deedj they were able to 
evade payment of the tenths, still refused to take titles, and 
continued to occupy old lands and to open up otber lands with 
impunity, owing to the weakness of the Land Department, 
which was provided with so few, and such iueflicient officers, 
that there was no regular supervision, and when any person 

as found encroaching on the Crown lauds he was all ready 
with the excuse that the land was prescriptive tenant land/'t 

Systematic work in 3Ialacca under Act XXVI of 1861 
fcd with the departure of Surveyor-General Qcinton from 
^ Settlement, about 1867. 

A parsing reference may here be made to Ordinance XI of 
1876, intended to facilitate land-administration in Malacca, 
which has remained more or less a dead-letter for want of an 
efficient establishraent.J 

Neither Act XXVI of 1861, nor the Ordinance last quoted, 
touch on a subject which has attracted the attention of several 
persons who liave written upon Malacca Lands. It has been 
stated above (p. 153 ) that owing to absence from the Settle- 
ment, or incapacity to contract, on the part of the persons 
entitled, the right of collecting the tenth was not redeemed 

*J9ttrK, Ind, Arch,, N.S., 1, 43. 

f Fruoecflmgis of the Legialative Council of the Straits Settlements, 
p. «8. 



by Government in all cases and that this right is still enjoyed 
by a few individuals in Malacca. Blundell speaks of the 
omiasion to carry out the redemptiun policy in these few 
instances (which of course ought to have been dealt with as 
soon as the exceptional circumstances alluded to ceased), as an 
*Mmpoi'tant error/* but describes the unredeemed lands as 
*^so small in extent (probably not unc-tenth of the whole), 
" and abeady ( 1848 ) so far occupied, as to preclude their 
"being selected for any extensive cultivation"" by a new 
colonist prospecting for agricultuml land * 

The plan proposed by Mr. W. R. Young, in 1838, of pixjviding 
by a special Act for the resumption by the State of the privileges 
held by the few remaining tithe-impropnators, upon the award 
of compensation on an equitable principle, has not yet been 
acted upon. Tcrhaps the limited area of the land in question, 
which, lie states, '' does not exceed in area four or five square 
mile-i/' was thought to characterise the matter as one of not 
BulUciciit importance to demand special legislation ]nC*alcutta. 
Mr, YouNo^s remarks and recommendations are as follows : — f 

*' I must here mention that although the great bulk of the 
*^ impropriators transferred their rights to the Government in 
*' 1828, a few of them were not in eluded in Mr. Fillerton's 
*^ arrangemfut, eitlitr by reason of the abstuce from Malacca 
'' of the principiils, at the time of the negt«tiation, or because 
'* some of ihe tithe-owners had j?ub-lct their privileges to 
'* others for a term of years, and tlic derivative interests ihud 
"created stood in the way of the admission of those impro- 
'* priators into the scheme of adjustment. The land thus 
'* excluded from the general arrangement docs not exceed in 
** area four or five square miles, and I believe that the impro- 
** priators would be quite willing to surrender their privileges 
'* to the Government in consideration of receiving compensa- 
'• tion on the principle which was applied to the cases of the 
** other tithe-ownert'. I think it would be desii-able, for tho 
*' sake of uniformity, to extend the arrangement to these par- 
'*tie«<, although the land in question is not sufficiently eiLten- 

• Jimrn. Ind. Aivh., II, 743, 744. 

t Vtn-rrxpotulvnee nhtifuj to the Land Retinue S^iUm 0/ fht StraHs SeM^ 
wentt, ISSraSU, para* 40, p. «>9. 



*^ sive to offer any important obstruction to the satisfactory 
*' working of the new system as a whole. The position of the 
*^ lands referred to^ their limited area, and the faeility of ob- 
("taining correct information respecting their produce and 
''ralue, would obviate all risk of a recurrence, in relation to 
'* them, of the miscalculations or deceptions which have ren- 
" dered the existing composition with the tithe-owners so bad 
** a bargain to the State. If, however, these impropriators 
'* should be unwilling to assent to an equitable arrangement 
*^ with tlje State for the surrender of their rights — the terms of 
" which might be settled by arbitrators — and if Government 
" should be of opinion tliat the retention, in hands of a few 
*' individuals of privileges, tlie rescrviition of which, even to 
"the ruling authority, has been declared to be incompatible 
** with the good of the country, would militate against the 
*** beneficial working of the new plan— there would be neither 
" injustice nor difhculty in providing by law for the transfer 
'^ of those privileges to the State, with a view to the pcrfcc- 
'^ tion of the commutation arrangement, compensation, on an 
'' equitable principle being of course awarded to the parties 
" w^hose interests may be affected by the transfer* A measure 
*'of this sort would, I have no doubt, be acceptable to the 
" tithe-payers, who will soon find themselves in a more un- 
*^ favourable position than their neighbours who have assented 
"to the commutation, and, indeed, there is little reason to 
" suppose that the tithe-owners woxild object to a fair adjust- 
"ment. Perhaps it would be advisable that Government 
"should direct the local authorities to negotiate with the 
" impropriators in question for the surrender of their rights 
" to tithes, aud to report the result for the approval or further 
'* instructions of the Supreme Government/' 

A good deal has been said lately about " British Malaya," 
under which term those who favour a policy of extending our 
territory on the Malay Peninsula, by annexation, would in- 
clude the Straits Settlements, and at least those Native States 
which are now under our direct protectorate (Perak, Salangor 
and Sungei Ujong). A word, therefore, may Iiere he added as 
to the lessons to be learnt from the history of the land-laws 



applied during the last sixty years to the only Malay State 
which has yet hecome British territory. 

In Malacca, the native system of land tenure and revenue 
has never been properly ascertained and put into the shape of 
an Act. It has always been, therefore^ and still is, more or 
less unworkable under English law. 

The lands held under the native tenure at the time of ces- 
sion were not identified and registered, and though a new system 
of tenure under ICnglish grants and leases was introduced, the 
old native system went on extending itself side by side with 
the new one. 

When, in 1861, it was declared to he the intentiou of Gov- 
ernment to put a stop to the native system of acquiring a 
proprietary riglit by occupation, the holdings then existing 
were not ascertained by a visitation or survey. 

So, though the native revenue system cannot be satisfacto- 
rily worked, for want of power to exact the tenth, the officials 
have been untiblc to oblige the people to adopt the English 
tenure, because lands, really only recently brought under cul- 
tivation, cannot always be proved not to be old lioldings under 
the native tenure. 

The experience of other British possessions in the Eost con- 
clusively si lews that the wisest way to organise the collection 
of land revenue in an Asiatic country is to adopt and extend 
the native system, to work it through responsible trained offi- 
cers charged witli the earc of separate tracts and living in 
their districts, to create a revenue side of every District Offi- 
cer's Court and to have nothing to do with English law\ 

This paper, Avhieh has grown to unexpected proportions, 
may now fitly end with a final quotation from an official 
report :— 

'* It wonkl be well if in the Protected States the history of 
*' Malacca tenures were taken as a warning, and if an early 
" opportunity were taken of ascertaining the rights of native cul- 
** tivators and land-holders andi^ecuringtothcm their fullenjoy- 
" mcnt, while laying down any modifications of the native law 
** which may he decided on us to the fnture. If something of 
" this kind is not done, the modern clearing will be undistin- 
" guishahle from the ancient holding and land will continue to 


" be occupied and acquired on a system which it is diflScult to 
'' assimilate with any satisfactory land revenue scheme."* 


* Proceedings of the LegiBlative Connoil of the Straits Settlements, 1883, 
p. 479. 

bkar- 'lMa> ie Zjfw^ as. tl "it; r*» rr "thf 

htot Mr. J. B. ViasssairT it: lLu&:» uil 2:<v ^t^ 
fcaoig & Hr D- J. .1^ nTrrrx, ils&iofSL* Cuctivtlj^x 
of HjuJMKm: fcc -at!: T*rtk Ortirf. s tckliir:*:^ in »;> 

yeaR oSd : aai f-:«- ib? Mf sjLairiikM .: Cv\ie. :3ir, o",,v 
maaiM c iijK cew the MV«f«KTT\^ ^ k«&<^t IVx^V 
Chief; tke Ba> :i[mkoa/ 

170 — »i— 

^^5^^y eJI** jt ^U iil ^y \jj^ J^\ i^i ^;--^ /" -l^ ^}^, 

I'ri Imkutu orari^^ iiiem-bas riinlia yinv^ tiacia prr-lnimu-i 
omiig mflam kari iiiilek orruig sabaja doa jaiiji<iiia. 

Halnva mia Viiiig int-nebasi itu Islam, ka-dua Ijuuii itu jaii- 
^an ada niilfk orang lain. 

Apa-l)ila (li-lobas-iiia uiaka liaraiig yaiig ada di'dalam-iiia 
ilii |KMi-da[vat-aii yaii^ nicnebaA-lah. 

IScr'tiiuhijika ada ttiraii-kaii im't- dalaiii biinii itu vaug 
It^jili di-ri-piHla liajnl-iiia akaii lueii-clrnis taiuiin-au-iiia dan 
akiui di-niiiium-nia serta miniini-an bciiataiig-nia maku janiran- 
lah di-!aning-kan-iiia dun di-bahagi-nia-lah akan oiang y&ng 
di-liilir-nia itu. 

♦ii^.* dU ^'y jjl( ^<i pxj »>— ^^x5 i 3lx-- ^j.:^ ^5^ j^ J^^ 

Vada lut'ijyata-lviin sagala tatialj |ier-hnma-an yanf* tiada 
di-per-bunia-i iilcb tuaii-nia. Maka baranj^ siapa yaiig haiidah 
bcr-buat dia maka di-piTrjam-nia pada tiiaii-nia atau di-sewa- 
in'a keiiidian jikalau brT-kaiuiudak tuan-nia di-kembali-kan-nia 
dia. Dan jikalau iya ineng-hatldak-i sakali akan dia saperti 
bcudiing (U-bcli-nia ka^jada tuan*iiia maka hatidak-hib kamu 

— m— 


[Aeqiunition of Proprietury Uight. 
in Water privilegfK, 

AJjnccnt Owners t<i nhare 
Prrak Ctuk,] 

The law regarding the clearing of forest-land 
which has not been taken up for huma cultivation. 
Such laud becomes the property of the person who 
clears it, subject to two conditions, tirst, be must be 
a Muha-imiadan ;* secondly, the land must not be 
already in the possession of another person. 

When such land is cleared, everything which may 
be upon it becomes the property of him who cuts 
down the jungle. 

It' there be a spring of water on the land which 
yields )n(jre water than is required Jjy the proprietor 
lor wateriug his plants, and for drinking purposes 
for himself and cattle, he must not refuse to permit 
those wlio liv«» lower down to share in the use of it. 

[At'uniiiiiii'n (»f Lanth Ri;;Kl to tnki* uj) Waste Laml, Pei'ak CoJ^,] 

To declare the law on the subject of upland fields 
which are not cultivated by their owners. Should 
any one desire to cultivate land ol'this description, he 
must borrow it or rent it from the owner, and should 
the latter want it back at any subse(iuent time, it 
must be rt^stored to him. 

*So, in former timea, Engliab law denied the possibility of righta overland 
iO uou-Christlouii 

Am. laUi nii CoKE'6 timet, it was th© theory of English lawyers that an 
ill'' i could hftve no civil riiiflits. Je we certainly had none beforu 

t; V Edwauij L Ui-g-iilutionH were made i'or their gavernment>« 

!Ui . ..... H,.. ultima U'ly hunish^id from th*;* i'e:din by the ho1« authority of 

the C'ruwn ; and th<\v are fxpreK-^ly udle'l the Kin^w m*^iTh in eontennioniry 
docuiu«riil*^ lu mndiuv^al thiniry, no ono iii»tik ehrlt^tian con Id be a real tm?ni- 
b^^r of thf; >^Uitn, oud (!hnMtianity wai* om? inid itidjvisilble. — PtiLLi>cic, **T»i« 
JLaudLaWN* \u 17m. 



j\j tiiJ^ ijl ^^y iJj! ^«'U*^» -iV**l ^^ f*-^ (•A*' ^^ iV^ J* u>y^^ 

sakalian meDulong sagala saudara kamit yang Islam, Ada- 
pun paila suatu kliiar hakim resam taimh Jang tiada di*per- 
iiuma-i uleh tnari-iiia itu aiaka tiada sakali-kali «tapat di-tegnh* 
kuii akaii haraiig niapa yaiig liandak bcr-buat me-lain-kan tanah 
itu ili-iaran|7-kaii subal) liandak iiieng-ambil nienafa'at dcri-pa- 
da-iija atau taiiah van«: dckat dusun-iiia. 

^A^ fj^\ ^jm^^ dU is\^^ Jxtt ci^ u£l» ^*^l^ ^^j cri>^i ^^ ^'^ ^fy 

Bt^r-miila jika taimli kuin pong dan ladaiig maka lu*r-jiiij- 
duh tnart-iiia pnlaii^ kapnda oran^ hcsur niasitii^. massing kapatia 
Huka-iiia jikii tbidu wuris-nia dan wakil-nia jika ludanii tiii»f^T»l 
di-tlapat nmka'bjs oran^^r di-trbang*nia kayn-kuyii-nitt 
kiTndian inaka puluiig-lali kapuda I'tiafjii-iiia sakali*kali jungau 
aiij^^kau |X'r-barjtalj-kan n\v\\ tuaTi-tuaii takaliaii karana tanaU 
jjubiii^-lnb ka-rjmha'iiia sji-ksili-kali jangaii anij;kau [»er*ban- 
tah-kan ulth tuan*liiau padau^ itii pulang-lah kapada Allah 
dan jan<^^an-lab di-per-bautah-kan yan<; damikian iUi lah kata 

1 73 

Should a person desire to acquire such land out- 
and-out in the same manner as wet rice-land, lie must 
buy it from the owner. And ye must all give assist- 
ince to your l)rethren in Islam [in permitting the 
ecupation of anv spare land by such as may nquire 

According to an accepted opinion of the judges 
to the custom regarding lands lying uncultivated, 
'no one has any right whatever to oppose the appro- 
priation of tjuch waste land by any one who desires 
to cultivate if, unless the owner himself is going to 
turn it to some advantage, or unless it is land adjacent 
to his holding, in either of w hieb cases objection may 
be made. 

[Forfeiture of Proprietary Kigjht upon AbanrloiiTnent, 
Mentnttfkahan Coflf.^ 

If the owner of a plantation (knmpong) or fnrni 
(Imlang) removes [and ahandons it], the land rt*v*'rts 
to tlie Chief of his tribe (mikn) if he have no heirs or 

in the case of a farm which has been abandon^xl, 
that is to say, where a man has felled antl cleared 
furrst-land and flien lias allowed his property to go 
bark tn junglcj ye must by no means permit any op- 
position oil tlie j)nrt of the former cultivjitor to its 
appropriation by another^ for it is land which has re- 
verted to j untile. Ye must not suffer the former 
owners to dispute possession, for the Held has gone* 
l)aek to God. and custom d !ctares that there shall bo 
no such dispute. 


— ^Tl — 

i>l *iU ji ^'iSy J V ^bU ^Isr^ J--.U ^^ jjjfc Ll ^y ,^y ^uJ^J^ 

aUI ^^jlJ ijL. o1»j^j d.**. ^ V ^^;i«j u^-* Vff f^ (^ "^ <J V^ l>"* ^^^ 

Pada menyjitu-kati hukiiiii taiiah per-huma-aii nixni bpii- 
(Ijiiij^ oda-puii tatiuli itti atain dua bahaj:;i siuilti tana!i liidnp 
ka-diia tanali inati ada-iiuii tanali mati itii ttada tariila *alaTrHit 
»a-su:iUi jiiapa yaii|4 puoia hak kurana vaii^ puiita dnsuii itu 
liaudak'kaii husil iiMKcliaya tiada-lah lag* pcr-kata-an-nia pada 
tuiiaii itu nmka jika di-per-bual ukdi sa-sa'onmg Imma atau 
sawali Uendanj^ niaka tiada-lah da pat baraiig ^iapa ber-kuta» 
kata hip:! karana sudali di-j^uka-kaii vang putiia (Uimuj aila-)Hui 
\ aug ber-uaina tariah liidi»p itu tli-chiduk-i onu^ di'timaiii-i 
pukok kayu-kayu-aii dan biudr-ljuali-aii scrta tU-per-buat-nta 
kanjpoii^ Jialaujaii tanijjat itu maka tiadu-Ia!i bukdi di-aujbil 
ulebea-sa'araiigitLi-lahdi-iiaina-i tanah bidopdan damikiati lagi 
sa^ahi orang yatijc dudiik di-dalam tanab oraug^ ataii du2>im 
oraag niidva liandak-lah dia meng-ikut ijatvutah dan jika dia 
me-la\vaii kapnila yaiig anipuuia taiiali atao dusuu atati yarj*^ 
di-tnaii-kan-nia uiaka di'liukiitn sa-i>ulfdi taliil sa-palia. Maka 
handak-lahsagalu isi taiiali itu niinjyeita-i tuari-nia itu (biniikiau 
lagi di-kias-kau pada luikuui kauim ada-pun jika di-per-huat 
ubdi sii*8a'orang dusuii umkujidi lUisun itu yagala }ang di- 
l;uiam-nia jrka di d'awa idrb auipmda taii!*li uiaka di-balingi- 
lab akau lia»"2:a*;Ha tauab itu sa-baliagi Uapada yaug jnirnH 
tuuab dua Ijaliagi |Ka]a yaug lueuuiiaui balijuti dan dauykiau 

— ^n — 

J 75 

[Proprietary Kight. What Laud lua^ bu appropriatoJ ami nuiAv 
the subject of Proprietary Kigbt. Mttlficcn Code] 

Tu tlechuT tlin law relating to upbmd clearings 
and [>u(ldy-laiid. Land lor these purpos(\s is of two 
kinds, the first is fa/iafi /udop, (live land), and tlie se- 
cond is (ffiKfh mati (dead land). Tamth inati is that 
on uhieh there is no sign or token that it lias been 
appropriated hy any one, or any grove of fruit-trees 
in respect of which a proprietor can demand a pay- 
ment. Regarding such land it is certain that there 
can be no question. If any person proceeds to plant 
upland or wet padl on such land, no one has any right 
to dispute it with him for it has been abandoned 
voluntarily hy its former owner. 

Land which is known as Urnah hidop is tliat 
which is appropriated by some one, eitlier by living 
on it or by planting timber or fruit-trees or by laying 
out a garden or enclosure. This cannot he taken by 
anyone and is called tunah hidop. This rule applit^s 
also to persons who settle on the lands or plantations 
of others. As lonj^ as thev live there, thev nmst obev 
the orders of the owner, and if they oppose him, they 
may be fined ten taltiis and one pului.^ It is the duty 
of all the persons who live on the land to support and 
co-operate with their lord, a rule which is also laid 
down in the Hukum Kffnun.f 

If a person plants an oreliard (on the land of 
'another) and his trees grow up successfully, and a 
complaint is lodged by the owner of the land, the va- 
lue of the land shall be divided into three equal parts, 
one third shall be paid to the owner of the laud, and 
, \ 1 tfthtl^s^i, " ' " 

i i jtfthn^l tithiL 
t X a>epiu:ate Code. It vvoiild bo inUirGBtiiig^ to Aucortiiin wk^mcc the 
f alaya borrowod tho Or^k word it^v^¥ ox Lulia €^h9h* 


^U-» ^ii ^U U-jJ ^OUJk JU AjU ,^1 ^^V jjl Uyft C»5^^J Ci.^ g|b 

^^^xjJL ia)j*. t^jklSy J jlx*. ^jlj iib *]^ j_f^ 

jijf jt) *]y Ljtjc^^ dl« «^*^^y 

^j^l *)^ ^ 



jU Jx** j>l ,^jA jjl ^jfjSj Jb^ lT^"* <ii^ **^ f^ *''^* ^-^ fi 

lagi jiku di-per-buat saw ah bcndang itu-lah 'adat-nia dan jika 
fli^lKT-buat huma atau ladang akan taiiah yaii^ haiiipa iiii tiada 
deiigan sa-talui tuaii-nia niaka di-d*awa-nia iilch yaiig piinia 
dia hiileh dapat dun jikalau di-ga^ah-i-niu jiipra raelaiii-kaii di- 
rt enda akan dia sa-piiloh am as jika di-tinggal-kaii iileh tiiati- 
Ilia maka di-per-buat uleb sa-sa^orang kabun atau barang sa- 
biigei-uia maka dt-detida uleli liakim akan dia sa-tabil sa-pahn 
karana lya meng-gagah liak arapunia tanah itu dan jikalaii 
dengan suka arapunia tanali itu tiada per-kata-an di-dalam-uia 
itu-lah hukum tanali yang liidop tetap-lah hiikuoi itu karana 
dt-pakei di-dalara ncgri atau dusun atau sagala telok rantau 
sckalian ada-nia antahi. 

Pada meiiyata-kan hukum orang mem-biiat hama atau 
ladang yang bahani di-tebas-tebang maka di-bakar-nia uleh 
saWang jikalau iya hangus tiada-lah men-jadi per-kata-an dan 
jikalau tiada hangus maka handak-lah orang yang mera-bakar 
itu di-suroh memCrun sa-tengah ladang itu dan jika ladang itu 
orang bcsar-besar ampunia dia mc-lain-kan di-perun-nia sam* 
pei habiB sudah sakali dan jika mcm-bita( huma ber-kawmn- 



-tliirds to liim who lias madelheplar.titiou. The 

'ttllfte is the rule in the case of ricc-fieUl^i laid out by 

^A person on the land of another. But if a man niikes 

a clearing [for a farm of upland padi and vecrot;ibles] 

^mi the waste land of another without the kTinwhHl«^e 

id consent of the latter, who thereupon complains, 

'the owner of the land shall i>et it and if tlie trespasser 

persists, he shall be fined ten amas.'^ 

If (he land is left by the cultivatjr, and another 
comes and makes a plantation thereon, or otherwise 
cultivates on it, the latter shall be fined by the judge 
one lahll and one paha for he has .^oreibly encroaclied 
upon the rights of another* If it is the owner of the 
land who does this, there is, of course, nothing' to be 
said. Sueh is the law rei^ardin^j; frnffth hidopy and it is 
firmly established and followed buth in towns and in 
the country and in all districts and divisions of the 

l^Hunw or Ladanff land. CuBtomarj Hules as to fenciag and ua to 

the simultaneoua buruing of a general clearing. 

Malacca Code.] 

To declare the law regartlini^ up-land farms and 
clearing. If the newly-felled timber on such a clear- 
ing is tired by some one and is successfully burned, 
there is nothing to be said. But if it is not burned 
off, the person who set fire to it must be ordered to 
lop and pile the branches on half the clearing, 
or, if it should belong to a Chief, on the wliole 
clearing. If a number of persons clear land in con- 
cert, and when each has felled his portion, one of them 
of his own individual motion and without any general 

* 1 ma§ or amai^l niajf/im^ith of Ibe weight in gold of a SpmiiHli dollar ? 

jTl^,^ jU ^/^ (/t aII^ eU ^L..* iJm- Jill f.jj^ jil Uj^^Ufc* 
^^t_**^ 4^i o*^* ^* -??^ i'^ L5^^ c^ ^^ ^^ ^j^ ^^^ J^^"^ *^ lJ^' 
tt)j». aL-Xa^ cj^-^ c^*>*-^ A*^ *^ ^-^ u*-^ '^^ u^-^^ ^^<^ i^' ^W» j.^^ 



kawati telah liamplr-lah tebang-an masliig-masiag maka tiba- 
tiba di-bakur-nia dengan sa^orang-niadiri tiada dengan muafa- 
kut yang ramci maka tcr-bakar liimia oning yang baniak im 
pun damikian jun:a hukura-nia dan jikalau tiiem-pagar huma 
sagalu oraDg bauiak eiidah mcra-pagar maka tinggal iya sm*- 
orang tiada taksir akan tetapi jika saga la pad i- pad i oracig itii 
di-makan babi atau kcrbau maka tnoii;;-ganti iya sabab karaaa 
taksir tiada dia mcm-pagar dan jika habis di<uiakaa lK?iiataug 
aanina-nia uieluin-kan damikiau-iah juga di-hukum-kaii atas- 
iiiu aiitabi. 

l^ada mengata-kan bnkum resaiii sagala orang yang ber- 
tanani-tanam-an per-uleh kamu akan pagar dan parity janganj 

taksi r men uo ggu-i-dia, 

Sabcrmiila tanum-tanam-an itu atas dua perkara stiatn 
tanam-an itu ada ber-pagar jika masok kcrbau atau lumba 
jikalau tcr-tikam pada malam mcnyiiih benataiig itu sa-b^Iali 
iiarga-nia tetapi pada kaul yang suli inenyilih samua-nia hargm- I 
Ilia maka tauam-an itu di-iilih uk4i yang ampunia benatang. 

— » — 



agreement sets fire to his potion and the fire extends 
to the land of the others* the same law is to he fol- 
lowed. And if the persons interested in the clearing 
set up a fence round it, and, though most of them 
fence their respective portions, one person neglects to 
do so, this is no offence ; but if, owing to such neglect, 
the crops of the others are eaten by pigs or buffaloes, 

^he shall make good the loss, for it was by his neglect 
in not fencing that it occurred, and if the whole crop 
is devoured by animals the same law is to be observed. 


[Obligation to fence. Cattle-treBpfifis, Verak 0>ileS\ 

To declare the customary law regarding the du- 
ties of the owners of growing crops. Ye must all have 
fences and ditches [round your holdings] and must 

not neglect to watch them. 

Growing crops are of two kinds. First, those 
which are fenced in. In tlie rase of thr^e, if a buJfalo 
or ox effects an entry and be stabbed Jit night [by the 
owner of the crop or his people], the latter must make 
good half of the value of the beast. But according 
to another sound doctrine, the full value of the beast 
must be made good (by the crop-owner) and the value 
(»f the damaged crop must be made good by the owner 
of the beast 

• " Thi> (ir«?rtt!inice of this practice (the enclosure of catUe in fences), and 
th* i»rv with which fencing ih nnjverwally attended to. is the best evidence of 
t' ' ctuiion laud by u dense population. Thejr perception of the rights 

^ and thetr desire to maintain and reepect them, are amply atte^^ted 

I . ,: ...any armngLmente to rt'.8train the tteflinaaei of cattle. On the other 
hand, one of the most rterions annoyanoea with which the planters of the South 
hn\i hnd to contend, Uoth on their Coffee and Sngur EBteitcfi arises from the 
indifference of thti Kandyana and vSing-halese in this particular, and 
^:ird of all precantionn foraecuring: their buffaloee and hullock* by 
nuv nr Tiy tught.' Tkxxkxt s ^' CevUm, " IT, 532. 



Ka-dua tanam-an ito tiada ber-pagar jika di-tikam pada 
malam menyilih samua-niu yang ampunia tanatn-an itii dau 
tiada-lah di-ailih-Hia iileh yang aniputiia benataug akan 
tanam-aii itu. 

Jikalaii siaiig ter-tikam sa-piilang-dua hiikum-nia mclaia- 
kan jikalau sudali ma<^ahur jaliat-nia kerbau itu sa*hingga 
raenyilib sa*br]ah haro;a-nia jagadaii tanam-an itu di-silih pula 
tileh yang ampunia kerbau. 

(s5^*X^ji ^*ji^\ i^^U* c£« t^>ii '^/^ ^^^ ^^ \J^ *j^ <^ t//"*^ ^^ 

Pada menyata-kan hukum buah-buali*an di-dalam kam- 
pong orang atau di-dalam kota iie;2^ri ada-pun jika tiada iya 
meni-baliagi-kuti buab itii akaii tuaii-niadi-makan-niaber-ftama- 
saraa jikalau di-jtutUnia biiah-nia itu maka di-piuta harga-nia 
sa-per-tiga dua bidiaf^i ]mda ampunia kanipong su*bahagi akau 
tuan-fiia lama dim jikaiya tiada malm nicin-bcri maka marali iya 
lain di-tebaug-nia pokok itu maka meng-adap ampunia pada J 
hakim maka di-surob hakim bayar Iiarga-nia pokok itu bagei- 
mana *adat sagala pokok kayu-kuyu-au yang di-dalam kam*j 
pong orang di-akan sagala buah-buab-an itu jniu nuiua 'adat* 
nia yang sa-per-tiga juga dan jikalau di-Jual-nia uleb ampunia | 
kampoug itu dapat di-d'awa-nia uteh yang ampunia hinia me*] 

The second kind of growing crop is that which 
is not fenced in. Tn the case of land of this kind, 
the value of a beast stabbed at night in the act of 
trespassing must be made good in full by the owner 
of the crop, and there is no obligation upon the owner 
of the beast to make good the value of the damage 
done by it. 

Should a beast be stabbed [trespassing] in day- 
light, the rule is that twice its value must be paid, 
except in the case of a notoriously vicious buffalo,* 
only one-half of the value of which need be paid, and 
the owner of which must make good the damage to 
the crop. 

[Superior and Inferior Rights. Malacca Code.l 

To declare the law regarding the fruit of trees 
growing in the kampong of another or in the capital 
town, if the proprietor (of the trees) does not give a 
share of such fruit to the owner of the land, so that 
they may enjoy it in common, but on the contrary sells 
such fruit (for his own benefit), one-third of the value 
thereof may be demanded, that is to say, two shares go 
to the proprietor of the kampong and ©ne share to the 
o^vner of the land. If the former will not give it, but 
in his anger cut« down the trees and the land-owner 
presents himself before the j udge for redress, th(5 j udge 
must order the value of the trees to be paid in ae- 
cordance with the customary price of all fruit-trees 
growing in the kampong oi others, and in like manner 
fruit must be appraised, the above custom of dividini; 
in thirds bein": observed, and it' it is sold bv tlu^ 
proprietor of the kampong the owner of tlie ancient 
right to the land has the right to sue. 

• Comiwre the nile of Eiijjli.sli law as to iiiiiiualH of u known vitions disponi- 
tion. Cttj- V. nurbiHyf. \'.\ C. B. N. S. A'M). 


V^ ^f-jr'\j^py^fj^^ iJ^ ^^^ J^ o^-*^ G,^-' "^ *^^ eP^ 

lain-kan vang tiada ada per-kata-aii lugi liania-lah kampong 
atau dusun yang di-anugraha deri-pada raja mantri akau sa- 
sa'orangada-puii saperti bandahara dan orang be.Har-be^ur raeiii- 
brrikampoiigakan Ha-sa*oraiig clengan tiada tabu dapat sampoi 
bcr-kata akan hul-nia raariku itu kapada raja adu-piin jikalaii 
di-ambil kampong orang atau dusun sa'orang-orang besar- 
bt'sar uiaka di-br-ri-kau-nia kapada sa-BaVn'aug luaka uli h am- 
puuia kampui^g itu di-per-sembab-kau-uia kapada raja uuika 
raja puu bcr-titab itu pun tiada dapat di-d'awa lagl uleli am- 
pufiia kampOQg itu karaua sudali dcngau s^a-tidni raja antalii. 

Pada mcnyuta-kau bukum orang ber-gudei dusun niaka 
ber-gadei itu dua pcr-kara suatu liarus ka-dua-nia gauda harus 
ada-pun saperti sa'orang btT-gadei dusun kupada raja atau 
orang kampong yang ada taiiainan-uia nnika tiada ber-biiah 
pada yuug uiemcgaug kerudian itu saLatna birua-nia iya nit^inu- 
gang itu niaka be-brrapa taliuu di-Tuuili-kau-iiia tiada jua ber- 
buali inaka dapat di-ganda-kan-nia ulcb vaug auipuuia amas 
itu ada-jmu yaiig tiada dapat di-gauda-kan-nia itu dusun kebiiia 
pinaiig atau harang sa-bagri-nia iiada~bdi !>u1ih di-ganda-kiin- 

—If— Iffl 

A eatie in whieli there can be no question at all 
(lis to the Tight of the Innd-owner) is tbeeajseofa 
knmpOHff (orehard or plantation) or dusun (grove or 
fope) which is granted hy the llaja or Mantri to an 
individual, Regardiog the Bandahara and Chiefs, 
however, if one of them grants a kampong to a person 
and nothing is known of it hy the Raja until the case 
of the cultivating-proprietor is represented to him, or 
if any Chief takes the kampong or dusun of any per- 
son and grants it to another and the proprietor re- 
presents the matter to the Raja and the Raja eon- 
tinnsthe grant, tlie proprietor of the kampoug has no 
further cause of action, for the thing has heen done 
with the knowledge of the Raja* The end. 

[Uypotliecatiou of Land, Recovery oi Laud^ lVv., wrongfully 
takeUt Malacca Codfi,] 

To declare the law regarding the hypothecation 
of dnsunB (groves of fruit-trees). Now hypothecation 
is of two kinds, the first is hams (*' lawful '), the se- 
cond is ganda harus ("lawful to double '*). 

If a man hypothecates a dusun (grove of fniit- 
trees) or a kampong planted with fruit-trees to the 
Raja, and the trees do not hear fruit while in the pos- 
session of the bailee during the whole time of his 
possession, even though he wait for years, the creditor 
may claim double his money. 

Property in respect of which this doubling can- 
not take place is a grove of cocoa-nut or betel-nut or 
other similar trees. The law is that ganda docs not 
apply to these, and should the creditor claim it, in- 



l^jVl^jV tl^^S^. cU ^t^^»>s£ja}j i^^jdL ^1^^ I 

O^W dLJ;A^ lJV^^ ^-^ ,«;Xj|Xi^ A^>^' f y^ ^ ^T^^ At ^J^ ^^ ^'"^I'V 

^yuf >\ 4^j^ eU 

nitt Imkimi-Tua dnu j»ka di-j>antla-kan maka (li-b*^n tahu ka- 
patUi liakiiii maka Imkirn-hih jadi lawan-nia jika iya meu^apat 
barung sa*ljag^ei-nia hcuda yan^ gliraih kapada kampoiig oratig 
yan«: di-pcpiii«2:-kaTi-uia itii di*baha-^i 8a-pi?r-ti{;a 'adat dan 
sa-baluigi pada yaiig memcgang gaclei itii diia babagl pada 
am poll ia karana lagi iya meiiimg^qfu di-tampat itu dan darui- 
kian lagi kampong yaog di-ainigraha akan orang besar-besar 
jikalau iya men-dapat sa-suato peii-dapat-an di-bahagi diia pada 
yaiig anipunia sa-babagi dan kapada yang men-dapat sa- 
bahagi damikian-lah bukum-nia ada-piin liukum dusun dua 
babagi iileb saV^rang yang tiada ber-butang maka di-makan- 
nia bnab-eia dau di-jiial-nia maka datang tuan-iiia buleh di- 
d*awa-nia dan dara^ikian lagi segala orang yang di-murka-i uleh 
raja-raja maka hni iya pacta riegri lain scbab takiit-nia. Hata 
maka dusun atau kampong-nia di-tinggal-kan-nia tiba-tiba di- 
ambil ideb orang itu pun buleh di-d'awa-nia pada kemdian 
bari karana bak-nia naacbaya di-kembaH-kan uleh bakim 
ada-nia antabi. 

eL L 

•J»/ cAtr-* *VJ— ' 

Jj 4j«)j r 

Pri bukum ber*scwa«kan bumi. Apa-bila di-beri-nia uleh 

sa'orung laki-laki di-buboh pada ea^oraDg di-surob-nia ber- 

— ITU- 


formation may be t^iven lu tliejudj^o. who shallop- 
pose it. If the creditor finds any concealed projierty 
of value upon the land of the debtor wliich is held 
hy him in hypothei*ation, (he custom is that it f>hal! be 
divided iu three equal sharej<, one tjf whit'h shall go lo 
the holder of the mortgai^ed land, and two to the pro- 
prietor, for tlie finding has taken ])lace while the 
creditor is in possession of the land. The same prin- 
ciple applies to land hestowed by the Eaja upon Chiefs. 
If anything is fouo' I thereon, it must Ijc divided in 
two equal shares, ore of which goes to the owner of the 
land and the other to the tinder. TLis is the law. 

Now regarding: ilnsun there are two re^^^nhitions. 
first in the case of a man to whom no debt ijs due, hut 
he nevertheless eats the fruit of the ifiisHu and sells 
it; in such a ease, if the owner appears, he has a ri^'ht 
of action. So in the ease of persons who have incur- 
red the displeasure of their Rajas and ilee to other coun- 
tries out of fear for their safety, abandoning heir 
dnstui or kampoHg, wliich arc tVirthwith tak(^n by 
others. In their case also, the rightful owners may 
sue in after days, for the property is theirs and shall 
certainly be restored to them by the ^udgc. The end. 

[Sub- letting. A etatad reut necessary. Ferak CoiWl. 

The law regarding the renting of land. If land 
be made over l)y a man to another, the latter being 
put in to cultivate it on the condition that he receives 

.il-;U (^^i^j c^'^J*' J>«*J^ u**^ u^^ cr^l?-*'* ^ 

h»ima, inaka per-jauji -ail sa-^uku clori-pada tanali per-huma-an 
itii akan upah-nia ; niaka tiada-lah hams jika di-sewa-kaa-nia 
elougau araas atau pcruk atau makan-au di-tuntu-kau-nia liarus- 

^Jj W» ^j j' f^ i/> 

.4*$* H^ \jT^ 9jy^ *2tU ^4^-** iij..^ ^^i jjrtU* jCl dU 

^;;b ^S^}ij* Aaj^^^ eJj». tr-jl Aft^ ^^^J** JJtii* i/^ dL*. 4_;;b j!V Ak«» \j 


y ^Ui L 

Vri Uukuiii unui-^ yaii^ meiiyewa rumah maka apa-kalu 
liiiuusu dcntifau sa'wuutu sabab*nia maka orang menyewa ilu 

Jikahiii Iiiiiidak^di-ljiiiusa-kaii per*jaDJi-an maka di-pinta- 
nra*bib kambali akan «a-bt*lab Hewa-niuitu-iiuiparaa-uia sa'uraiig 
nirnyewa rumali jaiiji-nia sa-puloli hnlan sa-ratus timah mah 
tli-diam-i-iiiii fu'bulaii rnmah itu niiitoh atau binasa di-kinu"' 
kira-kan sa-bii!an sa'puloh tiinah dan yanf^ sambihm puloh itu 
di*piiita-nia-luh kambali* Jika iya ber-keoaii diam lagi di 
rumali itu di-Huroli-uiu-lali per-baik-ki karana sewa-nia telali 
di-bayar-uia ter-lebili dabiihi. 

Misal jikalau bchim di-tai .sewa-nia belapa hukum-nia t^ 
Maka apa-kalaiya any:t;au meupj-diaiu*! di-bayar-nialah sewil' 
yang telab laht dati jika iya handak mcng-diam-i tampat ilu 
juga di-syn»b-iua-lah jer-baik-ki dan di-bayar-nia eewa yang ^ 
ada lagi pada-nia itu. 

— %tx — 


one quarter of the produce as compensation for his 
trouble, such an agreement is not lawful But if the 
land be let out in consideration of gold, or silver, or 
food, the amount of which is determined, this is law- 

[Ijeane of Hou»e Property. House nt risk of owner- Perai: Codt,] 

The law affecting the tenants of houses. If thr 
house is destroyed by the fault of the tenant he must 
make good its valui*. 

Should the tenant desire to put an end to the 
agreement, he may demand that a proportionate^ part 
of the rent shall be returned ti> him* For instanre, 
a man rents a house on the un(U^rtaking that he shall 
pay one hundred catties of tin for ten months; he 
resides there for one nionth, and then tlie house falls 
down, or is othenvisc destroyed ; in tliis case, ten ciat- 
ties of tin must be allowed for the onf^montli of occu- 
pation, and he uiay demand that the remaining ninety 
catties shall be returned to him. If he likes to con- 
tinue to live in that hous(% he can call upon the owner 
to repair it for him, for he has paid in advance. 

The case may be put, '' if the rent has not been 
paid beforehand what will the law l)e V^ The answer 
is, at the time that he refuses to live in the liouse any 
longer, he must pay rent for the term that has ah*eady 
expired ; or if he still desires to go on living in the 
place, he may call on the owner to repair nnd must 
pay all rent which subsequently becomps due, 

18S —XX— 

•A** J*X4:;*y J^ Q)^^ Jf^ytJ J$-» sj\i' ^Jt y^ /k^^. ^ {fj 

^J fiM 

Pri hukum benda yang sakutu bumi dan sagala per-buat- 
an dan sagala polion kayu meng-ikut bumi itu. 

Bcr-mula apa-bila di-jual-nia uleh sa'orang deri-pada dua 
itu akan benda yang sakutu itu kapada orang lain. Maka 
(li-bclulah uleh yang sakutu itu saperti jual-anitu tiada bams 
di-jual-nia pada orang lain. 

Maka jikulau bersalah-an pada kadarnia benda itu atau 
pada harga-nia mak^ orang yang mem-brli itu ber.surapah. 

Maka jikalau tcr.lambat di-tuntut-nia deri-pada-nia me- 
lain-kan ^uzur-nia binasa hukum benda yang sakutu itu. 

Ber-mula jika sa'orang sakutu itu suka men-jual kapada 
Iain orang dan yang sa'orang tiada menyuka-kau maka di- 
ambil-nia-Iah sakalian benda itu atau ditinggalkan uleh yang 
tiada mera-per-kenan-kan-nia itu. 

—Ml— i^g 

{Joint-proprietorship, Perak Code,"] 

The law regarding property which is held in com- 
mon — ^land, and cultivation of all kinds and all fruit- 
trees which go with the land. 

If any property so held in common be sold by 
one of two joint-proprietors to a third person, though 
the other joint-proprietor be willing to purchase it 
on the same terms, such a sale is illegal. 

If there be a disagreement as to the nature of 
the property sold {i.e., whether it is part of the joint- 
property or not), or as to the price of it, the purchaser 
must be put upon his oath. 

But if there be delay in making the claim (on 
the part of a joint-proprietor whose interests have 
been prejudiced by the sale of some of the joint-pro- 
perty by another joint-proprietor to a third person), 
unless this be caused by ill-health, the law of joint- 
proprietorship shall cease to apply. - 

If one of two joint-proprietors is willing to sell 
joint-property to a third person, and the other is un- 
willing to do so, the latter must either take over the 
whole of the joint-property or must relinquish his 
interest in it to the other [at a valuation ?]. 

— ^_ 


TuPs^atj, lOlh Octoher, 1820, 

The following European and Native Landed Proprietors were 
assembled this day at the Resident CouneiUor'a Oftiee for the pur- 
pofte of pnqniring into the partictilarB detailed below : 

E. De Wind, Esq. 

J, B. Wertebhout, Esq. 

G. KoEK, Ea<i- 


The Captain of Malays : — 

Ahoom \ 

MahmatTvre» f 



^I. BE Souzi WBB present by proxy in the perfton of his son. 

McBsra. De Wit, D. Koek, and G. de Souza, the Capta 
Kliiif; and Doaso Bindaaa were reqnested to attend, but imavoula^ 
h!e riroomfltaocea detained them elsewhere. 

The above meeting took place for the purpose of ascertaining the 
nature of the agreement subsisting respectively between the Got 
emment, the landed proprietors, the Penghulus (or intermediate 
officers between the landed propnetor« nut! the fenantp), and lhe| 
immediate eultivAtor^ of the Hioil 

L — Between the Government and the landed proprietora. 

On a reference to the records in the Eegi^trar's Office, it woul4 
appear that some t;rant6 expresi<Iy state the ri^ht of Govemmeni 
to rcBiime the land, and all, s^o far as the inquiry has gone, seem to 
indicate an nltimate right of tht& nature. 

The grantee, by the recorde, is generally supposed to receive 
the land under an engagement of clearing the Fame of jungle, j 
the right of reeumption on the part of Government woiUd seem 
arise from the non-fultilment of this eiEpre^Bed or implied duty i 
the part of the grantee. 

In regard to thie clause, implied or seemingly understood 
favour of Government, the present proprietors state that, withou 

|ue)9tu>niiif^ the absolute rigbt of Ooverumetit on ihiA point, they 

[»iit¥uler themselves as posaeasinf; in equity a full ntid inviolftte 

title t«> their ground**, iruiamuch na the land hiin Itceu sold to, and 

aandod over during a Hcriea of years to various individual a without 

ly mention being made of 8uch inherent reservation allecting 

their title. On being required to produce their title deeds and 

grants* tbc present landed proprietorrt can only s*how Bill^ of Sale. 

Bffhey stat-e that all sales or transfers of land were nmde in the 

^BCourt of JuRtice, wbicb body detained all previous papers and 

^Wleedfl on delivering up tbe last Bill of Sale or Transfer, and that 

^■tbe Court did not intimate to them the reservation above, to which 

it wa*i their duty to do, if Mich a right be recognised on the part 

^mpi Government. 

^P The proprietora acknowledge that they consider themselves 
bound, on the requisition of Govemmc^nt* to keep in repair all e«- 
tabliMhed bridges and roads running through the grountlH, ajid to 

Irleau the banks and bud}^ of the river bordering on thrir estates 
from nuisancefj. J»ut that all Jievv roadn are to be constrtieted at 
Ihe expense of Ouvernmenl, who ean carry tj^Uih roads llimu^h any 
|>art of an estate, after intimating their intention to the immediate 
proprietora of the soii. 
The propneto»*w aeknowledge also, that in caset* of emergent-y (if 
tany buch sliOuld occur), they are bound to provide for the peace of 
Ibeir respective estates by embodying a police from among their 
I 2. — Between the landed proprietora and the Penghulus. 
The appointment of Penghulus is not obh'gatory, but h left to 
the freewill of the proprietor, being solely for bis own convenience. 
Oo small estates there may be no intermediate officer. On estates 
somewhat larger, but i^osReesing a paucity of tenants, there may 
Ibe a laata-wirta, who, under a more modest deaignationj is de facto a 
1 Peughnlu, both in power and privilege. On eatateB possessing 15 
">20 houses, there is usually a Penghulu appointed. On exten- 
entates, there are several Penghulus, on© being generally ap- 
_ :tinted for each respective quarter of an estate, which may incor- 
[porate parcels of grouiid of different names. 

The Penghulu and Mata-mata are exempted from any tax or 
lassedsment on their property, and are supposed to settle all disputes 
lof minor importance subsisting among the tenants. But this is by 
[gimple com[>romi8e, as they possess no judicial powers. They pay 
^regard lo the tranqujllity of the eHtaic, and are the oiodium of 
commuoicatiou bulweea the lauded proprietors and the tenanta, 



Tht^ IViiglmlus are not Goveriniieut Officen* in any &en»ts of 
ihc lerm, ami prior to tlie British Jinthority receiving over MalaArctt 
oil 11th April, 1S25, Governmcut ilid not, in uny respect, interfere 
with thcni. 8m<'0 that peri oil, the Penghnlus have bc»eu compellecl 
1o appear in Court, to l:ike an oath for correctly excpci»»Dg their 
Ji II thori ty. 

3. — Between the landed proprietors and the tenants. 

The tenant eeltles on an estate by the verbal permis^ioD o£ the 
(proprietor. There ie no express law as to the rate of rent payable, 
init the custom iu j^eneral h for the landlord to receive 10 per cent 
upon all the produce of the soil, althoui^lu in Bome particular in- 
stances, so low aw *j per cent, hru been accepted by way of encour- 
agement. When spices or pepper are to be planted, therein uuuab 
ly a separate and sometimes a written engagement made, and no 
tithe is levied for the first 3 or 4 years. 

During the Dutch administration^ the luhabitanU were not 
permitted to cultivate padi, and tlie produce of the estate coDsisted 
chiefly iu fruits, wood and charcoal Padi cultivation it* however 
now extending in all parttt. The tithe of padi, gpieee and pepper 
is UHUall y received at the residence or stores of the cultivators, and 
in most casea this lithe is taken by et^timation ratluT than by ah* 
solute nieasurement. which is ftmud to be inconvenient. But ihc 
tithe of other arlicleK is generally received in ca.Nh, after the saaic 
have been disposed of, and in ease of apparent fraud, the «alc mu^t 
be traced, in order to a.^certain the truth or error of such a 6U»pi- 
eiou. The land-htdder possesses noright toetftablighhis own mode 
of ai^HCssmeut or revenue, whether a^ to time, or place, or rmte. 
In the collection of these tithes, some proprietors farm out their 
revenues* and ovhers receive theai through their own agents, 

A tenant moy t*ell, transfer, devise, &c. the portions of land 
he may cultivate, and he i^ free to cultivate the soil to any eitent. 
He may quit the estate at his free pleasure. But the land-holder 
cannot "force him off the estate without just cause of offence. 
When this exists, a proper time must be granted to the tenant to 
enable him to dispose of hit* property. 

If such tenant appeare dilatory in effecting hie arrangemeDts^ 
the land- holder may assemble the Penghulus and elderly people a» 
acomniiltee uf appraieement, and the hind*h older paying the amount 
according to their estimate, can oblige the tenant to quit the estate. 

If the tenant feels aggrieved with the conduct or the judgmeni 
of the Penghulu, he is to apply to his landlord, and in all caai^. 

-IXV — 


without exception, where disputes or differences of opinion maj 
Bubeist between the tenant and his landlord, which cannot other-, 
wise be compromised, the appeal lies to Government. 

Wednesday, llth October, 1826. 

As the nature of the landed tenures, so far as respects the re- 
lative right of Oovernment and the landed proprietors, remains 
involved in eTome obscurity, the following order was issued, and it is 
believed that the question at issue will be satisfactorily elucidated 
when the Register required in this order may be completed. 

With a view to ascertain the precise nature of the landed 
tenures, so as to complete the information which was yesterday 
elucidated at a meeting of the principal landed proprietors, the 
Dutch Translator is requested to examine the records in the oflBce 
of the Registrar, who is to assist in the said enquiry, and extract 
from thence the particulars necessary to fill up an Abstract Regis- 
try of the following form : — 

Abstract Registry of the Grants of Land made by Government 
from the earliest periods to the Inhabitants of Malacca. 








S *i .2 





i . 



The Land Surveyor will also draw up a draft of the Territory 
of Malacca, grounded upon the map in the Resident's office. In 
this draft, the Land Surveyor will trace, in double lines, the several 
divisions according to the original grants of Government and with 
Roman letters will refer to the foot of the map, or to an appended 
Schedule, exhibiting the dates of the original grants, names of the 
grantees, and other particulars as set forth in the Register to be 
completed by the Dutch Translator as above directed. The Land 


Survryor will tlien trace off: witU colours only, the prcftorit di^ribu- 
tioii of territory, uning miDiWra, in Hon of Roman letters, for 
references as above. 

A a thin Kegieter and the map are to be be submitted to the 
Ilon^hle the Governor, the period of whose arrival h very uncer- 
tain, the Dnti'h Translator and Land Surveyor are rerj nested to 
exeri isse &uch pracliealde expedition as may be con^patihjc with a 
clean eluridation of the points in question. 

Ej-tract from ft Jffrfftlc }tt/ Mr. Fullerton, Gorentor t*f fhf 
pStt'olis SttlfttHttifjif tinted t/tc 2lih of* Xuremher^ 1827. 

All the papers conniTlod with Lamlt* of Multirra heiii!* iind^f 
preiMiration fi»r tr<insmist;ion to Benj^iil, I now re*u>rd a minute tu 
accompany them. l*ein<^ an abstract of pa?*t transartionsiii tlmtJ 
depart mcnL 

1*he Lan<lH of Malnt'cii extend alon^ the coast of the Malay 
l*enin«nla 39 miles<, their greatest breadth inlantl, withont inrludinsf j 
NanitJiTj 2S ntile^i. contain in^f Htpnire miles (551, ur acre« 4lS,5l5*l. Of 
thif«, 501* Kqnare mites, or acrc« 32D,tMiU, are capable nf wet rice I 
1 uhivation, and of wliich 50i> acrea are iu>\y KUpplied to he actually 
cultivateth Of ttie dry lands, acrei§ UM>(_)0 may be Hnp[)n»ed In 1m» 
pliintcd with fruit treew, or in {gardens, acren 8H,50^) iva^te an«l 
covered with forest. 

The wbifle of the lands appea red tu hare been assit^ned over j 
to certain of the inhabitant 8 nearly one Inmdn-d yearn ago, i >n first 1 
eoipiiry and examination of the iIcciIh hchl by the pre^^ent pro- 
jirictni'H us they vwre callcth descendant's of the first grantee)*, the 
(iovernmcnt were leil to view them a?t absolnte proprietors audi 
owners id' the soil at full liberty to rent and derive the utmost;] 
advantage from them. Una fnrfher entpiiry, however, and tbe©x- 
aminatiou of the Dutch records, it wan found that only iho | 
(government ri^^ht of Icvyitjg from the rewitleiit inhabitants a tenth ( 
of the produce had been j;ranted to them, and Prochimation» werol 
dittcovered interdicting, under heavy penalties*, the demand nfanrj 
rent or tax beyond the tenth uf tlie produce. The perfc^tms ihuu I 
invet*ting with th** Oovertmient right, it appeared, took btlle pains] 
t-o encountgtj or extend tlie cultivation. Jtesiding at Malacca and! 
never (juilting the town, the right of levying the tax was? iMjldJ 
annually to certain ChineHe itiliabitants, who appear to have exer- 1 
ei«ed over the inhabitants the right of eompnbory labour and a J 


de^ipree of power iueousi^teut with the improvemeut o£ the couutry. 
In reality, as the exercise of Police functions seems to have been a 
part of tne tenure, the whole authority over the country rested with 
a few Chinese contractors. In order to open to Government the 
means of direct management of the lands with a view of encour- 
aging and extending cultivation, as well as maintaining due con- 
trol over the inhabitants, the redemption of the Government right 
to the tenth from the persons called proprietors presented itself 
as a most desirable measure. The collections having been rented, 
and the renters supposed to gain considerably, it was -calculated 
that, by agreeing to pay to the proprietors a num. even a little ex- 
ceeding that received by them at i)resent, little, it' any, immediate 
loss would be sustained, and the Government would, besides the 
levy of the tenth on the lands actually occupied, be entitled to dis- 
pose of the waste and derive a growing revenue from the gradual 
extension of cultivation and increase of produce, to a portion oE 
which they would be entitled. A settlement was accoitlingly 
made with the ])roprietors, whereby Government agree to pay an- 
nually according to the list. In consideration of which, the pro- 
prietors agreed to make over to Government all right derived from 
previous grants given by the preceding Government, surrendering 
all such as were in their possession. More than a year having ex- 
pired, the following is the result : — 

The total amount to he chart/ai (Ujainut the land. 
First, payable to former Proprietors, ... 10,270 
^Second, Contingencies, ... ... 145 5 J) 

Third, Establishment, ... ... 4,560 

24),975 5 
Collection, ...15,40012 1 

Difference, ... 5,574 9 8 


Statement of Lands lately taken by Qocernment. 

J. B. DE Wind, ... ...4,500 00 

Heirs of A. KoEK, ... ...2,000 00 

A. A. Velge,... ... ... 500 00 

Mrs. WESTERnouT, ... ...2,500 00 

Heirs of De Cost .V, ... ... 700 00 

Carried forward,. . . 10,200 00 



Brought forward, . . . 10,200 00 

Daniel Koek, ... ... 850 00 

Appa Kachil, ... ...1,500 00 

Manuel DE-Souz A, ... ... 400 00 

Mr. Westeriiout, & Co., ... 450 (K) 

Intje SouBiN, ... ... 170 00 

,. Aeom, ... ... ... 300 00 

„ Sabiaii, .. .. 100 00 

Heirs of Samsoodin. ... ... 50 00 

Mr. Wbstebhout, (Malim), .. 150 00 

Intje Sadeah, (Bertara), ... 120 (X) 

Sewa Sanoba, Chetty, ... ... 100 00 

Sedassuah, ... ^ ... ... 750 (X) 

Mount & Co., ... ... 50 00 

Iladjcc Aboobak.ab, ... ... 300 iH) 

Intjo AuMiD tfe Co., ... ... 380 00 

„ MoMET Hayeb, ... ... 300 (X) 

„ Ahamidah, ... ... 100 00 

Total Sicca Eupecs,. . . 16,270 00 
Malacca, November 2nd, 1829. 

A. M. BOND, 

A ssist a n t Besidtu t . 

LiV of Allowance to the Pangliuloos stationed at the different parti 

in the Interior from Ist July to SOth June, 1829. 
July, 1828. 18 Panghuloos at 10 Sicca Es. per 

^. month, each ... ... 180 

August, „ 

September, „ 

October, „ 

November, „ 

December, ,. 
January, 1829. 

February, „ 

March, ., 

June, ,, 












ditto, . 

ditto, , 

.. 180 

.. 180 

.. 180 

.. 180 

.. 180 

.. 180 

.. 180 

.. 210 

.. 210 

.. 160 

.. 160 


Total Sicca Eupeos,... 2,180 00 
Malacca, the 2dth October, 1829. 

A. M. BOND, 

Aieistant ReHdent. 

— xxix— IS^ 

Extract from a Letter from the Honourable the Court of Directors, 
dated SOth September, 1S29. 

15G. The investigations requi-^ite for the adjustment of the 
landed tenures at Malacca have, we arc happy to see, been satisfac- 
torily performed, and the adjustment itself completed. The follow- 
ing are the points which have been ascertained : — 

Ist. — That the pecuniary claim of Government upon the soil, 
by the custom of the place, and of the neighbour! njjj Malay States, 
amounted to one tenth of the produce. 

2tuU^. — That the persons called the proj)rietors, mostly Dutch 
colonists resident at Malacca, were merely persons to whom Gov- 
ernment had granted out its tenth, and who had no other claims 
upon the produce, nor upon the occupiers, not founded in abuse. 

Srdtt/. — That the occupiers, therefore, were the real proprietors 
of the soil. 

4ithl^ — That the Panghooloos were merely the Agents of Gov- 
ernment, or of the persons called the proprietors, for collecting the 
tenth share, and performing certain duties of the nature of Police, 
attached by custom to the proprietorship. 

157. We are extremely glad that you have baen able to effect, 
with the body of proprietors, an arrangement whereby they make over 
to you the whole of their rights, for the lixed annual payment, 
about equal to the present amount of their annual receipts. You 
propose to manage the lands directly on account of Government, 
employing the Panghooloos as Collectors and Police Officers. They 
are probably the most efficient instruments Whom, in the present 
state of society at Malacca, you have it in your power to employ. 
They will, however, require a vigilant superintendence, and the more 
80 since the administration of justice, as at present organised, 
does not afford to the cultivators so accessible or expeditious a 
means of redress in case of their sustaining any injury, as to dis- 
pense with the necessity of other securities. 

158. You have reserved, as the privilege of Government, the 
absolute disposal of all lands hitherto unreclaimed, or which here- 
after be suffered to run again into forest and remain unproduc- 
tive for five years. 

159. The limits of all lands occupied by individuals are to be, 
as soon as possible, determined by survey, and defined by Grants 
duly isBVied and registered. All future transfers of landed proper- 

198 —XXX— 

ty are likewise to be registered ; all these arraugemeuts are highly 

160. Toil have prepared a ** Regulation for declaring the rights 
of the Government over the lands within the territories of Malacca 
and providing for the due collection of the Government share of 
the produce thereof." This Regulation, consisting of thirteen para- 
graphs, you have transmitted for the sanction of the home autho- 
rities. We have already separately expressed to you our appro- 
bation of uu)s»t of the arrangements to which this Ordinance in in- 
tended to give effect. We have now to add, that it is worded with 
remarkable clearness and precision and the rights of Government 
and of the occupiers are exactly and at the same time concisely 
defined. "We, therefore, in conformity with the provih^ions of the 
Act 53 Geo. Ill Chap. 155, hereby sanction, with the a])probation 
of the Commissioners for the Affairs of India, the draft jis a Regula- 
tion w^hieh you have submitted to us, and of which we have already 
transcribed the title ; and we direct this Regulation be promulgated 
and enforced, on the receipt of this despatch. 

A. M. BOND, 

Assistant Residtiii, 

Krfract from a Minute by Mr, Fuli.erton, dated the 
29th January, 1828. 

In my minute «of the 5th July, 1827, I entered into the consi- 
deration of the land tenures, but rather to record the apparent 
contradiction in terms or incompatibility of a supposed ownership of 
land with a right of levying no more than 10 per cent, of the pro- 
duce, or without that of forbidding the occupancy of land except un- 
der such term as might be agreed on between parties. The mam and 
express object of that minute was to excite further enquiries and draw 
forth further information on the subject apparently little understood. 
Mr. Lewis has now made a further report, and nas submitted two 
documents out of the records which lend, to throw much light on 
the whole subject. I allude to the order issued by the Dutch Gov- 
ernment in the year 1819 referring to one of 1773. These documents 
render clear the terms and understanding under which the persons 
denominated proprietors hold their lands. It expressly interdicts 
and prohibits proprietors from levying as a tax from occupants of land 

— xiii— 19§ 

more tlion onc-tentli of the produce. Trom tlii« it appears that 
the Governnu'iit of the dny ga-Ne up to the ])ropriotor8, not the 
absolute rijjjht or ownerRhip over the Inud, but only the Government 
right over it, that is, the tax of one-tenth of t lie produce. As far 
as 1 can trace from every enquiry, it appears that along the whole 
Knstern Coast of the Bay of iJengal from thecommcncomont of the 
J^urmcse Temtories to Point Komania, the right of the Sovereign 
is supposed to consist of one-tenth of the produce.* 'ihe owner- 
ship of the land is originally vested in the King, by whom it is 
infldo over to subordinate occupants to fultivato and render j)ro- 
ductive. on tlie term of yielding a tenth «>f the prudnce of every 
article. t The <d)jcct of the late (rovcinimiit in assignini^ to the 
persons designated as ])roprietnrs tlu- ri«:ht of levying a tenth, pro- 
bably was to make ittlie interest of certain individuals to introduce, 
encourage and extend the cultivation ot the l.inds. In some deeds 
thoso terms are expressly mentioned. How far that object has been 
attained will best appear by the former report of Mr. Lewis. It 
appears by that report, that of 1,4'J() s(juare miles, only acres 5,05*^ 
are in cultivation. Jt appears that so far from the persons called 
proprietors taking any pains to that purpose, they never even 
visit these estates, that they do not even themsclvi'S collect their 
tenth, but rent it in the mass once a year to a Chiiui contractor by 
pubhc sale, who, having only one year's interest in the country, 
extracts from it the utmost he can, and it appears not only from 
the report of Mr. Lewis, hut my own enquiries, that an excess is 
sometimes levied beyond the tenth, moreover that services are re- 
quired, aiul labour exacted, from the t<'nants ; in short they are kept 
in a state of vassalage and servitude ([uite inconsistent with the 
eiu'ouragement of cultivation. The ri^ht of levying the (Tovernment 
rent carries with it all the rent power of the Stat^. That ri^^ht vested 
in the Dutch proiirietors, by them transferred in the mass to Chi- 
nese, has established a power and intluence in that class too great 
even for the Officers of Government to hold in cheek. The advan- 
tages, therefore, that wouhl result from the redenq)tion of the rights 
of (lovernment are too obvious to reqnire further illustration. 
The present proprietors are stattd to be willing to part with their 
privileges on certain terms and conditions. According to my idea. 

* 1 exclude that porliou of the ci)a^!t held hy the Siamese (iovermiicnt. 
It is known that the Chief of Lij^orc- takes in kind 10 per cent, of the pro- 
duce, leaving to the cultivator haie suhsisttnee. 

t Her«' then wo fiuil, as iu many parts of India, two distinct rig-lits: — (1) 
The rijjht to the (iovcmnient tenth. (2) The rig-ht of ooeui)aniy vcstc<l in the 
Huboniinatc t^iiiant on tlioir j)ayingr the tenth. 

200 — xxxit— 

tliee© nhDiild bo settle^l on the principle of tendering them in the 
shape of an nnnufil payment the full equivalent of which they now 
rei'eivc. That is to say, the propnetors shnuhl agree on their own 
behfilf and that of tlieiV heir^ to surrender and deliver up all ri^ht>, 
[)rivilei;es and advantages, resulting from this* presetil title, to 
Government, receiving in return a certain annual suui/^ayahlc n* 
Ion*; aa the Brilinh Government shall remain in poi*tte8!*ion of 
Malacca. It might have been expedient to have awaited the ordtrs 
of the Hon'ble Court of Directors bofore such a measure wait car- 
ried into execution, but it appears to me that the case a^linits <if «<^ 
delay. Unlesis immediate advantai^e be taken of the di*i>o!«itiou 
evinced by the proprietora to part with their titles, the object may 
he entirely defeated, for it U impo.Hiiible to sny what eomplicati-tl 
rij>hts may arit-e, and come into judicial decision which may opptmc 
<iil]icultie8 to future arraimcment, It is cleiir that, by agreeing to 
pay a sum equivalent to tiio present amount of their peceipt<*i or 
even Konethim^ more — the riglit boin^ rented and a certain exceun 
op proHt, without reckoning undue exaction, nrust remain to the 
contractor, ami which would, ofeourBO, be levied by the Officeri of 
Govcrnment^no Uma could occur. In support of sueli an arrange 
TiH'tit, and to induce consent to such, it may be pointed out to the 
proprietors thatjiy tlicir tenupc?<, they are bound to perform certaii 
>crvicc!^, uhioh, thoiJi;li nt-^i;lected by the lute (jovernment^ wiU ' 
retjuired under our administration ; that in all old Grants the rigl 
of Government to impose a land tax is expressly reserved, is ind< 
inherent in vvery Government, and must^ in all probability, be 
reverted to at no distant period, as it is not to lie »uppOi*ed that 
Government can be at the expenao of af^'ordiri^ efficient protection 
to t!ie country without some contribution of the people, levied in 
all other countries ^or purpo«e of ftovernment. The titles to many 
of the priucipal etitates as they are called, I have reason to believe 
are of a very (|ue8tionablc nature, and if strictly i*crutini&ed would 
be bnmd probably very defective : they have on some occasions been 
ac(|uircd, and llicir limits extended by the exercise of private and 
undue intluence rather than the tianctiou of public authority. The 
circuujHtanre of their having been lin»;=^ in pti8«efi»ion of the n^ht» 
Huch as they are, l^ the main ar^tituerit to induce the offer of pecu- 
niary compcni^atioh lor iheir redeuiption. Sliuuld the pn>pfieti>rnr 
as they are called, dtndine coming tu terin^, a strict inve.stiuaiu»n 
mwHl take |»biee ; the term?i expmswly stipulated on thoj<e quoted iu 
Mr, LKwrs'a last report, that i*t» the right of res^tnnption must be 
exerted whenever they can bo traceib The cffer of payinj^ an 
annual sum tn the pro[>rietor involves no admission of their cljiim« 

the 1 

for it muit be unJeratood that only on their acccptin;^ thcae terms 
we waii-e all enquiry. It would appear that raauy of the original 
title deed* lodged in the Office of the Court have Oden m-tde away 
with, I entertain little doubt, by peranns intereiitCMl, jui^l that the 
right of reaumption aad the proviai'^n for cultivating atid impravfn^ 
them wa< iiiserted in all. should the proprietors assent to the 
transfer, our course will be very clear; we «hall then stand in their 

f>lace in relation to the actual tenantry. Tlio posaession of t!ie 
ands now occupied and cultivated rau:^t, of course, bo ensured to 
them, that is, on the payment of the regular tenth and no more, due 
notice mujit be ^tren them that all existing rights will be carefully 
preserved to them, that papers will lie given to them 
specifying and defining the land attached to each, and securing 
jpos^Hcssion to them and their heirs on the estiiblished terms. They 
I must be told that they are relieved from all vassalage and feudal 
services whatever, that their labour r^ free, that in rendering the 
tenth of the produce, all pecuniary ohligatiouB due to the 8tato are 
fulfille*!, and that for ^\Gry article required over and above, pay- 
ment will be made. It muat, however, be understood that the set- 
tlement to be made with the occupants will embrace only the lands 
actually cleared, occupied and cultivatot!; to all lands actually 
waste and forent the right of Government is reserved ; for the 
r gradual clearinij of all such lands, arrangement mnat from time to 
I time bo made by the Officers of GMvernment, and in this re^Jipect 
the known and es'tablished principle will bo oliserved. That it*, to 
grant cutting papers to such as may apply, to allow to the parties 
the occupation of the Inrid free of any payment for a given rmmher 
of years, after wbich to be liable to the payment of the cjitablished 
tenth or Kuch other terms as Government may Hettlo with the 
partir-^, \n a country where the t^oil is partienbuly rich and fertile, 
(he climate peculinrly favourable and healthy, \vliere due care and 
attention exist towanU the protection of the persona and pro- 
perty of the inhabit^iiiti*, influx of populatiou and great eitension 
of cultivation may be reiisonably expected. 

Having made these observationa respecting the lands, and 
pnvposed a certain conrdo to be eventually pursued, the next point 
for consideration in the Felice of the country. From the repurt 
of Mr Garlino above alluded to (of the llih December), 1 infer 
generally that there extstbi no Police in the interior, that the 
authority of Government has never been establiehed, that the few 
inhabitants occupying lands near our iVontier are subjected to con- 
stant annoyance from the Cliiefa and inhabitants beyond them, 
that the proprietors can neither collect their tenth, or even prevail 





Oil nil J one to reaiUe tlier^. It fl|)poftra from Mr. LEwt3*a i 
that certain perBoiia under the Chief o£ Moar have been allowed 
to CBtablisli iliomsehTs within the boundaries known from time 
iTumetnorial m the bonmkrj of Mnlacca up to Mount (Jphir; thM ] 
thia eocroathuient haa been brought about by the aid and conni- 
vance of a Dutch proprietor^ who was content to aet as aub-routef 1 
of that Chief, who brought persons into Court to depose to points j 
affeetin*!: the limits of the territory ; thus, by a strange ineonsis- 1 
tency, the sovereign ri^^hts of Government, determinable bv tlicm 
only ia the Political Department, were brought into discussion iii a I 
Municipal Court, which hurl no jurisdiction whatever in the case. 
The circumstance of a Diitch subject eomin*^ forward to infringe tbo^ 
limitjs of Dutch territory, affords proof of the siuj^ular puiref 
UKisiumed by the individual, and the strange hixity and iuatlenlioii 
of the GoveriMoent to their (uvti interest. It \vi>uhl appear indeedJ 
from all I ran learn, that the whole time Mala«x'a remained imderl 
iifs, from L71>5 to the end of IMS, the public authoririea took but J 
little iotercHt ni the affiiirHoH the phice, iloldintf it only for a time* I 
the Dutch hiw« rontinaeil in foret% and the Duteh Court of JuHrcel 
was continoed in operation, but instead of eoniiniug ha powers!**] 
itrt proper duUen — the admini.^fration of Municipal Law — theca^^oj 
before us jihuws that the Court in re.dity performed the functioiuil 
of Government. I mention thi.'^ suljject now, in onhT to induce I 
caution ou the part of the public Othcera in [mrting with the 
Recordis of the Dutch Court in Judicial Proceedings, since it ^hiusJ 
evident they contain as much matter of Govermnent as of Justice;! 
the whole of the Kecords should, therefore, he kept as Govern*! 
merit Keconli*, the Olbcer of the Court of JudicatufH? beiiM^I 
allowed to in8j)ect, examine and take copies when rer[uired. ] 
In rebpecL to th* measure to be jmrdued in order t>o effoct the I 
removal of the pemons from Moar. and the reutoration of the J 
integrity of our teiritory, 1 am of opinion a lettershould be wriltrnl 
to the Chief of Moar to recall them. D' not attended lo, the jfun-l 
boat with a party of SepojK and a careful peri^on may be sent nnl 
to a proper po.^^ilion to iuKisl on their reuiuval, but 1 apprehetiaj 
little fear of tjpposition to our wishet*. In respect to Pulice gencral-1 
ly, it mav be observed that, mi long aa the pros^ent ptT^on* r?vl]ed| 
propnetors* ctnitinue to levv their tenth, they mn**t perform the reci*^ 
prcu'al obligation imposed by their tenure uf mainrainiug the peace ^ 
of the country. Jn not ]>erformiug that diity, tiiey have entirely j 
failed in their obligation to the Siate. Were lheGo\erunieni, there* 
fore, now to maintaitj l*olice EHtablishmeats, it would only be tc 
incur an expense which the proprietors ought to pay, and theTj 
should be distinctly informed that m long as they exercis-e the pr* 

— 3XXV 

21 Kt 




r function:^ of Govcniiiicut lu tlio ffilkvduii of the tcutli, 
ving the proHt therehy* they iniiisi; ptTforni the red proca! duly, 

nolhcr duty properly belonging to the iM'oprietors ta that of 
"ring roafl», bridges, piitha, Ac, ; this* mily appears* ti» bav« 
n Diuch neglected; by all account tfie roail** arc by no iiieaiiH iti 
stnte they used to be, and oii^ht to be in ; the little labour Uuit 
li«a been befttuwed, I sufipect to have been the forced I ahoy r of the 
inhabitants, e^itracted from them by the proprielors*, and not paid 
for. Should the proprietors* a^^ree to part with their titles on rca- 
solvable terms, tlie ewtnblishinent of a regnlnr Police will not be a 
difficult matter. The emiuiricH I have made contirm me in the 
belief that the Prmi^hooloos are the fittci^t inHtruments of Police, 
they appear to bo the pnneipnl inhabitanta of these vi|[a*^ea or di- 
"visions. Their proper duty Jias indeed been to levy the tenth on 
account of the proprietor. When the proprietor puts his right, np 
to outcry and sells to a Chinese contrnctor this duty «eem8 to bo 
done by the contractor himnelf, much to tbo |>rejudico of the 
people ; the Panghooloo continucH^ however, to enjoy the immu- 
nities* of \\U office— exemption from the payment of the tithe. Two 
of the PanghoolooH I met with at Ayer Panas, distinctly informed 
me that their fathers were the Panghooloos before them, and that 
they expected their i*onji to succeed them. I infer that by the custom 
of the country the office \a hereditary in families, and I think the 
admiBtiion oi smi^h practice genenilly beneficial, a>« more likely to 
ensure good conduct and being consonant to the idea of the people. 
To render the Police efficient throughout the conntry, it would 
only be neceseary to appoint the Panghooloo the Snperintendcnt of 
the Police, to u»*e the Kuropeao term» Cons^table of his divi^tion, to 
allow him one or more Peons, to explain to him hi>*i(lutieK. they are 
in this case very simple — to seize, and scud in all peri^ojis breaking 
the peace or committing crimes and offeneetf, and to execute orders 
from the superior Magisterial authorities of the country ; other 
duties naturally present themselves — that of keeping a correct list 
of all the inhabitanta of bis division, their characters and mode of 
life, requiring all newcomers and passers by to report theraselve-a, 
allowing no person to settle without a register, or report to and 
license from suj^erior authority* In their Eevenue capacity, that is, 
as a servant of the proprietors, eventually of Government* his duty 
will be to collect the tenth* to report the state of the crops and of 
the general cultivation. The duties, if I mi\y use the expression, 
of Ke venue and Police arc so blended^ that they can best he [>er- 
formed by the same person. As to the argument that ujay be used 
in respect to abuse of powers, we must recollect that all jiowcr in 
huinan Imndi is liable to abuse, that abu^e would probably b» 



greater, certainly not lens^ by the employment of a aeparute Btipeu- 
diary establislmient of strfliigerB — Chnliahs or Chinese. Abuse of 
power cjin only be prevented by contstant local supervision of \ ' 
Public Servants of Government, tiod whether the rij;btd of Qove 
ment are redeemed or left with proprietors, the occasional preseu 
and inspeetioo of Public OiKcer:* U indiupeusable. The expeni^e of 
creeling a few bungalows in different parts of the country woulJ 
bo very trillinj:;, and I propose that no time be lodt in their cotu- 
inf*neemeiit. '1 hey should be built at different directions, at intervaJi 
ui from 811 to ten miles, "^ and the roads between them made ami 
kept in repair. To faeilitate the niean^ of eonimunication U tbc 
fir»t &tep to improvement and exten^iun of cuUivation. When 
ready means of aeeess are affuided, wdieu men Gnd tliat thi^y an^ 
alike scoure at a diatanee frunr the town ai* they are on the !*p<^t, 
the Jands ihcnwill be oreujued nnd brought into cultivation, and it 
is only when tfiat ^'eneral protection f^hall have been fully eistablt^b- 
cd that we can expect ^lalacca to assume the appearance of a 
liritiKh fSettleaient. The ctin>municatioii between tne Public Ofli* 
eers and the people whonid hi^ at all times direct, free and uiipe»er%ed. 
The inturiist of (jovernnienfc cmi never be separated from the »>r,)^. 
perity, prott^ction and happinetsi* of the people. We can, tbi i 
have no object ill deceit or concealment of our intention to....^ .- 
theui^ and from the knowledge no88e8»ed by Mr Lewis of the 
lan^uajje, habits and eu*«tomH of tne Malnya in {general, I am led to 
hope hii^ endeavonrri will be flticcessful in leading the iuhabitatitj 
of the Malacca Territories fully to understand and duly to npprv- 
ciate our view.^ in regard to them. 



Malacca, the 7th day of March, 1829. 

Before Sir John Tuomas Clabiuoc, Recorder, and SAiirxii] 
Gab LINO, E(*quireT Resident Councillor, 

* At Nun ng, at of about Tutilang Hill ; at or nbout Pangkalan NaniB^^l 
AytrTantLB; at I aU distance ; ut the F\.'jipGr PkntntioQ; at 8upaii HQl; «t 
GtxUug Hill ; at Liagy. 

— XXX vii — *i05 

Abdullatif r. Mahomed Meeka Lebe. 
Action to recover possession of a certain piece or parcel of 

After hearing the evidence of both parties, \)\ii'mi'i& No nsui fed 
with CosU. 

N. B.— In tins case, it was proved that in the territories of 
Malacca the owners of the soil and the cultivators of it nre onlire- 
ly distinct persons, except in, and in the immediate vicinity of, the 

That the owner of the soil cannot eject the cultivator as long 
as he continues to pay him a certain portion of tlie produce — gene- 
rally one-tenth. 

That the owner of the soil may sell, or otherwise dispose of 
his interest, without prejudice to the cultivati»r, and the cultiva- 
tor vice term. 

That in case the cultivator allows the land to lie waste, the 
owner of the soil may eject him by due process of law. 

That tlie fact of lands lying uncultivated for periods, is evi- 
dence of waste. 

That the period for paddy is ... ... J3 years. 

Cocoa-nut trees and other fruit-trees is ... 3 years. 

Gambler, ... ... ... 1 year. 

Pepper, ... ... • ... 1 year.* 



Before Sir P. Benson Maxwell, ('. J. 

March 17, 1870. 

Sahrip v. Mitchell and Endain. 

Trespass, Meaning of the expression " hold hy prescription ** 
u^ed in sec, 12 of Indian Act 16 of 1839, with respect to lands in 

* Extracted from the Oiril Court Book for Malaoca» Vol. 1. 


— xxxviii — 

The Chief Justice; — This is an action of trespn,^^, The 
petition contains two coiiutHi— one for expelling the plaiutiff from 
nia land and previ?nting him from reaping the <; rowing crop ; the 
eecund, for breaking and enterinf^ into his dweliini^ house and 
expelling him from it, whereby he was prevented from earryiiig 
on his liusiness^ and was compelled to procure another dwelling. 
The fii'Kt three plena deny the tresj)a«!S and the posseBsiou. The 
fourth alte<:;es lliat the plaintiif, not beijuj a culfitafor or rtBident 
tenant /toh/inq bif prrsrrip/ion^ waa, by a duly served notice, in- 
formed that llie land in cpiestion had been assessed by Government 
from the Ist of January, 1870, at 97 cents per annum, and wa« 
therein also called npon by the Cidleetor to take out proper title 
for the huid, within a month from the date of the service of the 
notice, and that in default he would be ejected. The plea then 
avers that the plaintiff would neither comply with the terms of the 
notice, uor remove froiii the lariil w^ithin a month ; and that the 
defendants, by the order of the Collector, and in the exercise of 
the powers given to him by Act l(i of 1839, assisted him in ejecting 
the plaintiff, which are the trespiisse^, &c. 

The Act referred to authorises the Collector, by section 3, to 
eject persona in occupation of land ntherwise than under a grant 
or title from Government, if tlo^y refuse to "engage for or to 
remove from** it within a month from the date on which they are 
called upon by hiui to enter into such engagement or to remove. 
But the last yeetion of the Act except** from itd provisions *' such 
"cultivators and resident tenants of Malacca as hold their landji by 
'* prescription, subject only to a payment of one-tenth part of the 
** produce thereof, whether such payment be made in kind *' or in 

The trei*pasM was^ clearly proved ; imleed, it was in substance ad- 
mitted. It was proved or admitted that a notice in the terms stated 
in the fourth plea, signed by the Lieut. -Governor, had been sensed on 
the petitioner a month before, and that by that oflicer's orders, the 
defendant Mitchell, a Clerk in the Land OMce, accompanied by 
another Clerk of the fiame Office, ivent in company with the other 
defendant, Endaix, who is a Police Di^ffadar, three other Poliee- 
men, and an European Inspector, to the house of the plaintiff at 
about 11 A. M, on tlie 24th December. The Policemen were armed 
with swords, and one of the Europeans with a double-barrelled gun. 
The plaintiif wa.s absent ; but they turned his wife and family out 
of the house, and the furniture was removed from it by their ordem. 
The garden and paddy land were also taken possesiiion of ; thev 
wore afterwards sold by auction byMixcHfiLL; and the plaintilf 


— xxxix— tin 

was kept out of possessioD down to the present time. The plain- 
tifTii wife made some imputations, in the course of her evidence, 
on the conduct of defendants and their comrades, in a<jgravation of 
the trespass, to the effect that her box had been broken open and 
some money taken from it, and that some of her furniture had been 
broken ; and she also spoke of a threat to burn down the house if 
she did not leave it ; but, as 1 stated yesterday at the close of the 
case, 1 did not think the imputations sufficiently borne out to be 
entitled to credit. They were denied by ^Mitchell; they were 
not corroborated, as they might have been, if true, by other testi- 
mony ; and I had no evidence that any complaint had been made 
at the time, of the loss or destruction of the money or goods. A 
question arose in the course of the case, whether the Lieut. -Qov- 
eruor was a ** Collector'* within the mennini^ of the Act 1(5 of 1S39, 
and another, whether the notice was in Jiccordancc with the 3rd 
section, ixs. it did not require the plaintifl' " to engage for or remove 
from *' the land ; but in the view which I take of the main question 
in the case, viz., whether the plaintitf is one of those "cultivators or 
tenants holding by prescription,'* who are excepted from the pro- 
visions of the Act by the 12th section, it is not necessary that I 
should express any opinion on them. 

The term "prescription*' does not apply in PJnglish law, as 
Mr. Davidson justly observed, to land, but only to incorporeal 
hereditaments, such as rights of way, common or light ; and if tho 
term were construed in its strictly technical sense, it would find no 
application to cultivators of land. We had no statute of limita- 
tions in this country, relating to land, until 1850, and if " prescrip- 
tion ** were to be understood as referring to a title to land acquired 
by long occupation, the section in (juestion wojuld find little or no 
application here, because the title acquired by the cultivators and 
tenants in Malacca does not depend on any statute or law of limita- 
tions. But there is another sense in which the term may have 
been used, viz., in the seu«e of "custom,*' and in this sense it 
would make the section so widely and justly applicable to the cir- 
cumstances of this .Settlement that it appears to !ne beyond doubt 
that it is in this sense that the Legislature used it. 

" Prescription," properly so called, is personal ; it is the title 
acquired by hmg usage by ii particular person and his ancestors, or 
the preceding owners of the estates in respect of which the right 
is so acquired. A "custom'* is also established by hnig usage, but 
unlike prescription it is '* local*' not personal ; when once establish- 
ed, it becomes the law of the place where it prevails, to the exclu- 
sion of the ordinary law ; and those who have a right under it, have 


— xl— 

it, not becjiuijie they and their ance«tori or predeceseora Lave long 
enjoyeJ it» as in tho caao of prescription^ but simplj because the 
custom of local la^ gives it to them, without any referrence to tho 
length ijf their oujojment. In the ease of pre^iTiption. Jon-^ u»a^e 
gives tillo to an individual; in tlie caso of eudtom, long uga;;o 
! estahlishe^ the custom, and it is the custom, become law, which 
^ives title to a class of person:* in a IncalitVi and gives it to them 
at once. The two thin<j3 are es.^entially different, but there is a 
fiulh^^-ient similarity or analogy between them — neage being nn 
element common to both — to acconnt for their being occasionally 
confounded; and 1 think it plain, from the history of the land 
tenure of Malncca, that it was in the s^ense of "cURtom " that the 
term *' prescription" was used in the Act of 1839. 

Tt is well known that by the iild Malay law or custom i\( 
Malacca, while the Sovereign was the owner of the »oil, ev^ery man 
had nevertheless the ripfht to clear and occupy all forest and waste 
land, subject to the payment, to tho Sovereign, of one-ten I h of ihe 
produce of the land so taken. The treci which he phintod, th<^ 
fiouRCs which he Imilt, imd the remaining nine-tenths uf the pro- 
duce, were K\s pn>perlyT which he could sell, or mortujai^'c, or hand 
down to hia children. If ho abandoned the pad<!y bind or fruit 
treesi for three years, or his gambier or pepper plantatiutis for a 
year, his rii^hta ceased, and all reverted to I he 4Soverei*;n. If, 
without deserting the land, he left it uncultivated louiijer than was 
usual or neceaaary, he was liable to eject lu en t. See Mr, Nctct*oftV$ 
Work oji (he Sfrni/H of Malacca ^yo). T, 100. It is cliMir that n|;hU 
thus acquired are not prescriptive, in tbt* technical sense of the 
term, but customary. 'Ihey are ac(iuire<l aa roju as the land i* 
occupicil au^l rcchtiincd, and the title re<|uires no lapne of time to 
perfect it. 

It was contt'inlcd by ihc Solicitor-General tliat sut-h a custom 
WHS unreaHouable and I herefi»re invalid ; but if s«ucb an objection 
could now he raided after iti^ b^ng recognition, ad 1 bhall presently 
show, I should not hcwitate to Iiold that the cu!*tom wan not only 
rciiifornilile, but very \\v\[ anitcd to any country like thisi, where ihu 
popuhition is ihin and the uui'Ieared land is superabundant and of 
no value. It must be for the advantage of the State to attract 
aetllerd to lands* winch are worthless n^ forest and awamp, and thu* 
to increase at ortce the [copulation and the wealth of the country 
A similar custom or law prevails in Snuiutra. {MitrsdnCg Sum^tif^^ 
22k) In Java, every Javanciio ha^s the right to occupy uncleftreil 
land, payiiig for it by giving the State hfs personal labour on iH>ad- 
making or similar public work, one day in five, or now, under tHo 

— xli- 


cli, one clay in seven ; and though it might seem unreasonable 
iQ England that one pcTj^on should acquire an indefeasible title to 
occupy the land of another by fellin*^ hia foreat and ploughing the 
land, I think that» in the circumatances of these countries* it 19 noi* 
thof unrea>»onftble nor impofitio fur the sovereign power to offer 
•uch terms to persons willing to reclaim and cultivate its waste 
Laodd. But it i» too late to question its rea^onableuesa^ after a 
long and continuous rei-otjnition, amountiUL: virtually to an olTer of 
forest land to all who chose to clear it, on the tenna of the custom. 

The Portu*;uo8e, wliile they hnld xVlalaeca, and, after thetu, the 
Dutch, left the Malay custom or lex non scripfa iu forco. That it 
wa«t in force when this Settlement was ceded to the Crown appears 
to be beyond dirf[)ute ; and that the cession left the law unaltered 
in equally plain on general principles. (Campbell i\ Hall, Covvp, 
2U4, 200.) It was held in this Court by Sir John CL.vuiDiiK, in 
182J>, to be then in full force* ; and although it was decided by 8ir 
H, M-iLici>r in I83l,t in conformity with what had been held in 
India, that the taw of En^j^land had been iotruduced into the Set- 
tlement by the Charter which crcatctl the Supreme Court, it seems 
to me cle^r that the law so introduced would no more supersede the 
cui«tom in question, than it syperi<edcs local ctistoms in England. 
Further, the custom has always been recognised by the Govern- 
ment ; down to the present time tenths are collected, both in kind 
and in money, from the holders of land acquired under the custom ; 
^ftnd from 1S3S to lS5ij. commutatiotis of the tenths into money 
payments were frequently made by deeds between the East India 
Campany and the tenants, in which it was recited that the Com- 
pany ** possessed the right of taking for the use of the Government 
"* one-tenth of the produce of all lands iu the Settlement of Malac- 
" ca." The Malacca Land Act of 1891 plainly refers to and reoog- 
niseB the same customar}^ tenure, when it ** declares *' that ** all 
"cultivators and resident tenants of lands " (the sovereign or quasi- 
manorial rights of which had been grautcd away by the Dutch 
Government) *' who hold their title bt/ pretfe/iption, are, and shall 
** be aubjoct to the payuient of ooc^tentli of tho produce thereof to 
** Government/* cither in kind or in money fixed in commutation. 

That the 12th Section of the Act of l639t would be justly ap- 

• See the caB& of Abdullah p. M \ homed Msera Lebb, iitpra, p. xxrvii 
fSee Judgment of S.r B. H. Malilin ; I^ th^ gtmls 0/ Abdullah de^ 
»wl.— MOBTOJJ'a Deoixiota,^. 19, 
J Section 12 of Act XVI of 1839 is n? foUort^a : — '* And it is hereby providcl 
" tJiAt nothing in this Act contained slmll iipply to suoh cnltivntors' and rcsi- 
•* dcat t»:nantB of Malacco as hold tiieir Jjuidi* by prcaoription, subject only to a 
■• p^ynwnt Co Government of one-tenth part of the prodttco thereof, wh^ather 
' aocli jM^yment b« made in kind 01 in the form of a sum of money rec«ivod by 
' ** tb« Oorenunent ia ot^ounatatloti of tbd paym«&t in kind." 

— xlii- 

Tvlicab!© to these customary tenant.^, can admit of little doubt, when 
It is eonBideretl that that Act made all iier^otia, in general terms, 
holdin*? lands in these Settlements otherwise tliau under Govern- 
ment f^rant;^, Italdo to nsderstiiuut ** in Kuoh mantuT, at such fiite, 
** und under such louditioiid '' a» the Colkvlor, nndor iubtructlons 
from Oovurninei't, tdnise to im[H:>»e; and authorised the CoUet'lor to 
flject all those who detdiiitid to *' uniiago for ' (that is, I suppose, to 
accept the terms of the Goverinnent), "or remove from tiio land"* 
in their uccnpation. 'J heseprovisi^ms, suitable enough to new Set- 
tlements like 8injT;aporo and Penan^, where neither custom nor 
even pretseriptiou luid had iimo to t*prin!» up, couhi not, without 
mauiFeat injuFtire, have been af^plicd tvperj^ons In Mahicea, who had 
nireadj a^^ood litlt? to their hmd hy the law or custom of the place; 
it was to ho cipectcd tliat pro\isiMU t*hould bo made fur exeeptinij 
such a numerous and iujj>ortaiit cla^s of persons from their opera- 
tion, and it sccuih to me that provision wa;* made for that purpose 
by the 1-th &ecliun, the Lv^ialature usiui; the ward "* prescription/* 
not in its technical mouuiii^, in which it would be insensible, having 
rt^gard to the circumstances of the Settlement, but in the sense of 
local custom^ usage or law, with which it is readily confounded. 

If this be so, it is plain that the plaintiff was not liable to 
ejectment by the Collector for declining ** to take out the proper 
** title" for the land in his occupatiun, under the Act of lS39* It 
WHS forc^st and uncultivated laud when he cleared it in 1820^ and 
he paid tenths to the Government from that time until 1853, when 
he was ap^poiuted Fen^^hulu. 1 his appointment he held until iHiiH^ 
and duriojL; his tenure of it he was, as is usual, exempted from pay- 
ment, llv was d(*privcd of the appointment in 18()8, and lie paid 
tenths ajj;ain in l^GU. He is, therefore, plaiuly one of the customary 
tenants protected by the 12th section of the Act ot 1839. 

'Ihe only remainiuij; cpie^^tion, then, is as to the damaj^es. The 
plftiritili" claims three hundred dollars. It seemstoine thataserious 
wrong was dune him, and that he sustained scriims injury wheu bo 
was ejspelk'd from his home and from his laud, lie had lived there 
for forty years, and 1 shall not conceal that I have some sympathy 
fur the fecliiij^'rt df the Maliy peasant, driven from Ids cottage, from 
the orchard which he planted ami the fichl which he reclaimed — 
from his home, in a word, and from the IVuits of his labour — bo- 
cause lie would not give up his good title for one which he waa not 
bound to acee])t, and nobody had the right to impose on him. But 
further^ the injury was done by or under the orders of an officer, or 
officers, invented with ceriuin pONver»» and under the colour of tho«0 

pO"?reTi ; and I tliink that, whnn public offlcora pet about oKcmsin^ 
powers whieli iieceBi*Bnly iufli*?t y^ufferinfr or injury, or interfero 
witli tlio rh^hin or liberties of any peraun, they ought to be ex^ 
tremt'lv cautious in what they do, or make their agent;* or Buhordi- 
n^teu do. Hefp, the defund^nits, acting on their own or the^r su- 
periors* view of the law (it mutterd nijt which, aa' regards the 
plaintiff), comTnitted a brent-'h of the law, and a hreitch which, 
might have resulted in a breach of the peare ; for ainonjg the seven 
m<.*n en^^aired in the trpjipii&e, Buverat vvere aitned, and ii the plain- 
tiff had happened to bo prps^ctit, ihey mi^ht have eneotintered 
resistance; blood mi^ht have been shod, and the ofEcers of the law 
would have hnd to ausiwor for all the eonaeqiiences of havini^ been 
trespfiftserj* and wron^-doerpi. On tfie other hand, most of onr na- 
tive peai^antB, in the plaintiff' i« place, whether they reaisted or yield- 
ed, at the timer to the display of fon © in the name of the law, 
wotild liot hove ventnred, as ihe plaiotifT his, to qncs ion its legali- 
ty in a Court of Jnsti* e, and they would tlins be [permanently dia- 
pOJi8es?sed eoutrary to law. For these ren^oof«t I tlrlnk it my duty 
to do what iu n^o liea to di^Lonrafice such prtpceedin«:8 ; and, there* 
fore, havin|:j re i^ard to sdl the tircumt^tances of the i^ase, I shall 
give the plaiiitifi' the amount of the damages which he has claiuaeJ, 

Judgment for the plaintiff for 300 dollari. 



A complaint having been laid before the Court of Justice 
that the Captain Malay n, land-holder for Sungei Pootat and Batoo 
Brandani, has demanded from his tenants more than yV on the pro- 
duce and also on sales or transfers of the property of cultivators, — 

Considering that it is ac^ainst the rules and regulations of the 
place and opposed to the pro.^perity of the Settlement, we have 
found it advisable, in order to obviate this evil, to make known by 
proclamation that any one found guilty of exacting from any of 
his tenants a rent exceeding the tenth of the produce, will be 



fined 600 Bix dollars for luch offence — ono-lialf of which will 
given to the Churches and the other Imlf to the Government. 


Hth Becemher, 1773. 

D. A. BE H1N8ILE, 
A. S. Lb:MlvEH, 


We, JoH.N Samuel TiMMEnMAuTHTSBEN, Governor of Malacca 
and its Dependeiicit'8, to uil to whom these PreRentfl mny come, 
lend greeting : — 

Whereas it has come to tmr koowledge that several covetous 
pergkons, proprietors of landed estates, have demanded from their 
tenants rcHidiiig on their etstatefl and pOBsessiug plantatioiif^j which 
throngh their indutitry have been brought to perfection, more than 
the fixed rate of ten per cent, on the produce of sneh plantations, 
and whereas it has also been repn^Rented to uethat, on the transfer 
or sale of such plantations, the landed proprietorB have demanded ten 
per cent, upon the amount realized for the same ; 

All of which, we consider to be an unwarrontabl© extortion, by 
which the prosperity of the t'ettlement and the interests of the 
industriona inhabitants, mutt in a great measure be affected ; 

So it 18, that in order to obviate this evil, wo direct the follow- 
ing to be promulgated :^ — 

!«/, — That the proprietors of lands ehall be eati^ficd *o levy 
only a tentli u[>on the pri*duce of their leatied lands. 

2fid. — That whenever Hioncy t^hall be pHid l>y the ten ant r of 
their leased binds or plantalionti^ instead of puviuent being made in 
kind, the landed puprietors mui^t, in tuih c-a^cH^ annually pass a 
contract in the pTeseiue of two witncBseds, viz., the Pen^hooJoo of 
the district, and the High I'riefct residing in the neighbonrhood, who 
•hall declare that none of the contracting parties have been com- 
pelled to enter into such an engagement. 


llT 3J18 

Turtlier, it nhM bo free to every tenant^ after he hm plnnted 
hiB groEod with fruit trees, or cultivated it, to disptise of the same 
to another person, without pajing to the land- holders the tea per 

We reiiewj against this extortion, the proclamation of the Got- 
eruor and Director Jan CkakSi bearing date 14th December, 177B, 
aiid enfort'e the penalty of 500 Rix dollars denounced in that pub- 
lication af;aiiiBt tbe transgresior of thiH order, tb> one half of wbich 
amoant will go to the poor funds and the other to the informer. 

It ii underetood by tliie, that in the event of a tenant wiifthiug 
to diRpoee of his plantationpOr tranifer it to another, the laud-boid- 
er eh nil have the preference on paying down the ium offered by 

And that no one may plead ignorance, this publication will be 
published in the Dutch, Portuguette, Mulay and Ohinei^e languages- 

2Qth ilfsy, 1819, 




GovEBT VAN HooRN, Govcrnor and Director of the Town and 
Fortress of Malacca, in the place of the late Inche Hollanda, 
Malay Translator and Writer of tbe East India Company, to whom 
the land of Battan Tiga, extending in length from Tanjong Broasto 
Cooleban Pekeneno* and in breadth on the north side extending to 
Bertam, was given for the good of this place, not only to cultivate 
it, but especially to settle it in order that no evil-minded or other dis- 
reputable people may have harbourage in the said land. Mow as the 
said grantee is some time since dead ; so it is that from a good mo- 

* Kl£ban|r kechil. 

214 — xlri— 

tire being a place well situated, and to prevent the M anicabows 
our enemies or otber evil-minded men from annoying us which 
would be the case if they were permitted to take shelter in that 
place : It is therefore by this that we have again appointed as 
Head and Superintendent of the said place Battan Tiga, Iiiche 
Arok, who at present resides in the said place, and we further per- 
mit him to cultivate the aforesaid land, on condition that in the 
event a future Governor, our Successor, shall judge it necessary 
for the service of the East India Company to make any alteration 
in the buildings or the plantations on the said land, he must by 
all means acquiesce in such measures, without expecting to receive 
any remuneration for the same from the East India Companv, on 
the other side. We promise at the request of Inche A.uon to re- 
commeud to the favourable consideration of the succeeding 
Qtjvernor, our Successor, if his conduct should deserve the favour, to 
place his son SA3isooDEEy in the next possession of the said piece 
of land in the event of his death or resignation of the charge, this 
we do in consideration of the loss of 90J Kix dollars sustained by 
Inche Aiioy, arising from the mortgage of the said land to him by 
bis predecessor Inche Holla.nda. The above land is, however, 
subject to all Government impositions and taxes which are at pre- 
sent in force or may hereafter be introduced. 

(Signed) G. van HOOEN. 
Maheea, 17th June, 1700. 


Jan Crans, Governor and Director of this place and of the 
Fortress of Malacca and its whole jurisdiction, makes known. 

That I have alU>wcd and granted with the consent of the 
board of Administration of this place, as 1 allow, grant and make 
over by tlicso presents, to the masterof theSMixn's shop, Mr. Omstee 
a piece of unoccupied and uncultivated ground, beion<xing to the 
Fast India Company, bordering upon the trench, to the East of 
this Fortressi between the points Amelia and Henrietta Louisa, 
broad in front along the road, six rods and three feet, course N. 
N. E. and S. S. W., and behind, towards the east side, bordering on 

~x1tu — 


the land of the Malab&r Moetiaf bix roda and iix feet, counae 
K. and 3-, beajdes deep oa the North East side, borderiog on the 
proper tr of the said Umster, ten rods and eight feet, course B. 
8, fi. mid W, N, W., am] on the Bouth side borderm;^ on the land 
of the widow of the hook'bee]>er, MABTiPfi's van Toulok, thirteen 
podn fltid ihrt'e feet, the f^ame course as on the 3outh Woat side, all 
in Khiuelaiui measure, timFornmblo to the ^urvcyor'a new plao of 
lUth Auitiif^t of tiiia year, and that he may take le<;al poaaession 
of the iaid unocciipit*d jx^'^'und and let it out, or mortga*^© it, or do 
with it whatever he likes, provided, however, that he wilJ always 
remain subjected to all th« taxes and dutie& already put on land 
and i^roperiies by the high authorities, or wbieh might etilL be 
ordered ia the future, 

TbuB done and given in the Fortress of Malacca the,,....Au- 
giittp 1776, 

(Signed; Jan CRANS, 

Seal of the By Order of His Honourable the Gov- 

East India Compfmy eriior and Director of thia place and of 

in the Fortress of Malacea and of the board 

red sealing-wax, of A dmiuint ration. 

(Siguod) J. F, FABKIENIS, 


PiETEB Gkrardus de Bruyn, Governor and Director of this 
place and of the Foitret^s of Malacca and its -.rhole jurisdiction, 
makes known that, with the consent of the Board of Administration 
and with the object of improving this place and with other good 
purposes, I have transferred to and bestowed upon the Burgeon- 
Major of this Fortress, Mr. Joiian IIkkduik Wekth, a certain 
piece of ground, situated within this Fortress, opposite the " Mid- 
delpunt*' (centrum), between two other cultivated properties of 
the same owner, broad in front along the Public Road, live roods 
four feet and ten inches, conrs^e N. N.E. or S. S. \V., and behind 
St. Paul's Hill, the same breadth and course as on the JSouth East 
side, besides deep on the North side and on the South side, twenty 
roods, course W. N. W. or E. S. E , all in Rhincland measure, 
according to the plan of the sworn Surveyor, II ebmaus JelgeBHUis 
dated «30th Marcn last, to take henceforward legal possessioa of 


— xWii — 

this piece of land for him and for his heirs^ with the right to sell 
it, or to alienate it in another manner, or to let it out, or to do 
with it whatever he likes, provided however, that it will be kept 
^cleati, and that it will he cultivated j whilst aoy Possessor^ who- 
oever he may he. shall he suhjei'ted to sill such taxes, duties and 
ruleis, already laifl down by the llijj:h AiUhoritien of thi>* Goveni- 
inrot, or by their representatives, on land granted In this way; or 
to any RuleR or Ordinances, still to be nuule and hesiJew, lliat any 
PoisEieftsor ^hall be bound to make restiLutiiai *»f the aaid ground, if 
it miglit be requin^d for tbe nae of I he East India Company* with- 
out having the right to make au action for damages. 

Thus drawn and given in the Fortrees of Mylacca, this 12tli 
May, 17i!>o- 

(Signed) P. G. DeBETJYN. 
Seal in 
red sealing-wax By order of the Governor and Council. 

of the 
Judicial Councih (Signed) C. G. BAUMGARTEN, 


William Fakquiiar, Commandant of this Town and itH Fon- 
resSi makes known. 

That with the object of improving this pbice and with other 
good pu r po Mcs 1 h a Y e t rn n s fv r re d to and bes I u we* I upon ^M r . A o it i a * 
AN KoKK, Captain #f the Civil Guard, as 1 am doini^' again by tbese 
presents, a certain piece of ground sitviated on the West side oF tbia 
town outside Tranijucndi's gate on tl^e ftra-shore, bnmd in front 
along tlje pubhc road, eigbt rodfi and nine feet, course H. |° S, or W- 
f^ N. ar)d behind on the aea feide, eight rods and nine feet» course 
as in front besidtB deep on the S. E. side, thirty-one rods, conrse 
K. 1*^ Ft. or 8. 1° W. bounded by a emal! piece of Government land 
and a small road towards the flea, and on the 8. W. side by the jrar* 
den of tbesaid Mr. KoKK.also deepl!iirty-one rods, course N, J^ P, 
pr i>. f^ W-, all in K bine I and measure, conformable to the plan ol: 
pile t^wom ^^u^veyor of the 19th instant, to take henceforward leL^al 
poB^e&hion of tins piece of land for him and for hia heirs, with the 
right to sell it or to alienate it in another manner, or to let it tm*^, 
or to (Jo with it whatever he likee, — provided, however, that it will 
be kept clean and that it will be cultivated, whilst any poasea&or, 

— xlk— 217 

whoioever he may be, ehall be subjected to all iuch tajce«, duties 
and nilefl already laid dawn by tb© higb autboritieB of tbis Govern- 
ment or by tbeir repreBentatives, as to land granted in tbiB same 
way, or to any new Bales or Ordinancee, still to be made, and be- 
fiideB that any poaaa^sor will bo bound to make reatitution of tbe 
said ground, if it may be required for the uae of tbe East India 
Compaiiy, without having tbe right to make any action for damages. 

Thus drawn stnd giren in tbe Forireis of Malacca this 21at 
KoTember, 1808. 

(Signed) W, FAEQUHAB, 

Contain Commandant 

3eal of tbe 
East India Company By Order of tbe said Commandant 
in William FAEQtmAE, 

red sealing-was, 

(Signed) J, W. STECKEE, 

This tbe 2nd February, 1816, a piece of tbe herein mentioned 
ground has been sold and, transferred to the Hon'ble William 
Fabquhab, Eesident and Commissioner oft bis place, broad in front 
along tbe public road, eight rods and six feet, y)ur8e E. f ° S. or W. 
f ° N. and behind on the sea-shore, seven rods and eight feet, the 
same course as in front, besides deep on the East side Mr. A. 
Koek's, thirty rods, course 8. 6° W. or N. 6° E., and on the West 
side bounded by the land of the Hon'ble William Easquhab^ 
thirty-one rods, course N. i° E. or S. i° W. all in Ehineland mea- 
sure, conformable to the new plan of the Sworn Surveyor of 
tins place, Johan H£in>BiE Yalbebg, dated the 26th October of 
last year. 

In cognizance of me the undersigned, 

(Signed) A. Y. STECKEE, 



This day tbe 14th July, 1772. 

Appeared before us the underBig;iied, especially appoioted 
Members of the Hon'ble Court of Justice of this Government, the 
Portuguese DoMiKooa de Costa, inhabitant of this place, who has 
pretended, and proTcd to u», to be the proprietor or three planta- 
tions situated afc a small distance up the river and called Cor- 
hou^ TuaUang and Mat! jap ; that the said plantations have still the 
same extent as when they were owned and h olden by his deceased 
fatber Joan be Costa » pursuant to a deed of purchase, dated 20th 
May, IT^t, and to a title deed, dated 6th April* 1739, and that the 
Raid plantations have been assigned and allotted to appearer as 
co-heir of bi« dceeaaod father Joan be Costa, and as heir ot the late 
IsNOCENTiA BE CosTA his siftter, accordiog to a deed of liquidation 
of the succession, passed before the Sworn Chief Clerk of the Police 
Court and two witnesses on 8 th July in at. 

The possession of the said plantations being legal and legiti- 
mate, the appearer is consequently entitled to sell and alienate the 
three plantations aforesaid as he thinks best. 

And in order to be able to prove hia lawfid right, where and 
whenever he may want to do so and to exempt himself and guarantee 
that all is as it ought to be according to the Law, this deed has been 
granted to him. 

In witness whereof We the especially appointed Committee i 
have herouuto set our hands and have contirmed it with the seal' 
of this tow^n. ^ 

Thus done and passed in the Portress of Malacca at the date 
above written. 


The Mcmbera of the Committee. 

„ T, U. Van MOiSBEUQEX. 

In witness whereof. 


— (name unreadable.) 



Na. 574. 

ThiB day the 3rd April, 1816. 
Appeared before us the undersigned, especiallj appointed 
Members of the Court of Juatice of thia Government, the Arab 
Cheg Ajcat Bts^ MoHAMAT Baraloean aod his son Mohamat bin 
AciiMAT Babaloean (uow abroad), who, in the quality of general 
proxies of the Moorish woman Bibi Abji Booy Nessa G^anam 
BurrEE MmsA Mohamat Leabeek, iohabitant of Suraita (the 
only remaining heir of her deceased mother Boi Amator Bau:ik), 
anti in virtue of a Dutch power of attorney, dated the 3rd May, 
1808» translated in the Arable langua^j© on the 10th of June, 1813, 
declared to have sold and transferred t-o and in heluilf of Joseph 
HoTAd, an Armenian Merchant at thia place, two pieces of ground, 
now united to one, which have belonged to her above mentioned 
mother, (pursuant to a Deed of Purcliase, dated Srd September, 
1777) » situated in the Northern suburb in the Ueeren or Tran* 
quera Street^ at the end of that Street next to the gate of Tran* 
quera, with a brick huuae on its South Western aide, is broad in 
front along the Street five rods and six feet, course N. W, 4*^ W. 
and behind at the seaside five rode and eight feet, course S. E. 4^ 
E., besides deep on the N. W. side, bordering on the land of 
JaS Teu3, twelve rods» course N, E. 4° N. and on the S, E. side, 
bordering on land of the same owner as this ground, also twelve 
rods, course S, AV. 4'^ S,, with a private etono-wall on both sides, 
all in Rhineland measure, conformable to the now plan of the 
sworn Surveyor Jak HEifDRiK Valbero, recently drawn again on 
the 24th of last July, and such for the amount of .Spanish Dollars 
one thousand and six hundred, of 68 stivers each, which amount the 
transferor acknowledges to have received already, promising to 
exempt and to guarantee this Transfer, for all whomsoever, to be 
a« it ought to be according to the Law. 

In witness whereof We the eBpeeially appointed Committee 
have hereunto set our hands and have confirmed it with the seal of 
thia town. 

Thus done and passed in the Fortress of Malacca, at the date 
Above written. 

By the Order of the following Gentlemen, Members of the 

(Signed) W. OVEREEE. 

(Signed) A, Y. STECKEB, 


N, B. — The foreg-oing tranaLations give, it is believeil, the purport of the 
'OriffioAlSt btit I am not responsible for grammatical errors in tbe Eiig^Ush ver- 





Page 79, Note* aefrf, But see the judgment in -46f//^//a/j/ v. 
Mahonied Meera Lebe, Appendix p. xxxvii. 

82, line 12,/or he regards recul he does not regard. 

84, last line but one, for pleuveuse read pluvieuse. 

85, Note * for du read de. 

98, line 7, for giving read going. 

„ line Sy/or by the sea read by sea. 

99, Note t /or Id., p. 261 read Newbold, I, p. 261. 
104, line 5, after eyiction, add ( see p. 91 end of note*). 
107, Note * add, Appendix, p. xxxi. 

110, line 19, add ( see Appendix p. xvii). 

113, Note * last line but two, for alludes almost read 
alludes — almost. 

116, line 21, for one-tenth read one-seventh. 

117, line 17, for Chapter VIII read Chapter VII. 
126, Note X add Appendix, p. v. 

148, line 12, add (see Appendix V, p. xlviii.) 

149, line 16, /or preventeh read prevented. 
„ line 17,/or witd read with, 

xii, line 11, /or jaga read juga. 

xlvii, last line but one, for Hermaus read Hermanus. 

1, line 25, /or hereunto read hereunto. 


LEt?TCllK5 DELtVMIiEti AT Tli:VTPt:><J, PKft\K, 

The Eevd. J. E, TE;N[SONAVUO08. i,a,»., F.L.8., Au. 

L£OTUJli!< 1. 

17th April, 1884. 

1 baye liero before me two pieces of stone. One, you observe, is 
n rouj^h frati^meQt of granite of irregular shape : the other is a 
rounded pebble mch as vou may pick up any day from the gravel 
of a runtiiDg atrenm. It I ask how these stones came to have their 
respective appearance, few would hesitate for an answer. You 
would sav that oiiq has been roughly broken off from a rocky mass : 
and the other has been rounded in the bottom of a running stream. 
Yet, in these opinions, simple as they are and evidently borne out 
by the facts of the case, you have formed by the interpretation of 
the geological record. You have acted upon a principle which, if 
followed up, mu8t lead to the interpretatiou of many of the geolo- 
gical features upon the earth's surface. You hvje deciphered one 
of the inscriptions which nature has written on the stones, that is to 
say, the record of the way in which its forces have been exercised. 

In this respect, there is a close resemblance between the work 
of an Archaeologist or Antiquary and that of a Geologist. For 
example, the antiquary finds a stone, covered all over with inscrip- 
tions. This, he says, must have been done by a human hand. The 
man who has cut this has known the use of metals as well as writ- 
ing. His people had arts, and thus he draws conclusions which no 
one will be found to dispute, which no one can dispute, as they ob- 
viously belong to the facts of the case, however much we may 
question theories built upon these facts. 

Precisely in a similar manner we are able to draw conclusions 
-from the inscriptions on the stones before us. The first is rough 



and ite tVaL-fcurtsd edges show that it lias been detached from u more 
mafisivo rock by tlie exercbe of some force. Byt I shall re«er7e 
for another oeeiisiori wh^xt 1 have to say about this piece of stone. 

Thf >«c<'ond sttone is wuter-worn. Wlmtever shape it liad for- 
merly, tl«at simpe hns been unxllfiyfl hy tlie action of a running jitream. 
No other natural action ^lvv» lo stonen the peculiar smooth and 
ronnded t?hnpc that this intone has* It has not, however, been pro- 
duced by waiter alone. There ha^ been nUo the ^?i-iii4iu^ action of 
friction by one stone npoo another. Hunnin^^ satreame have their 
pravel in constant nmtion. By earryin<| nway fesnid and lighter par- 
liclef^, the lar^e clones are constantly shifting' their position and roll- 
ing over. Ihen a Hood co)ne6, and the rstnncBai'e pushed along and 
pounded aj^aiii^t one anoHier nntd the edt^e^^ of the fragments have 
abraded aint rounded, 'i'his jirocess of hainmering, breakint; and 
washing is one that is constantly ^^oio|r on. It is more rapid of 
couFKe and eonntant in t-wift deeji iitrcatn.s. Irregular as it would 
Keem, nuvdern t«cjonce h»K found means* to measure it. Bv the use 
of the water teh.»tiCO]»c jind by actnal rxperiment. Mens. l)AtnBtE 
hfl>* learned mucli that forinerly wra^, in this n;atter, mere conjecture. 
Bymean^ut revtdvint* cylinder^*, he found tluit when pieces of gra- 
nite are t*ahjocted to the kiinl of movemeut and friction met with 
in river**, they jue reduced to fnie mud vvhen they have travei*sed a 
distance of about 25 mile8. 

One word here al>ont this granitic mud, which will form 8ub«e- 
ipiently n 8ui)ject of our enquiry. Though the chauge from a rou^h 
piece of granite to mere tine mud is very great, yet it in not ho eom- 
pkdeuK to tlude detection by tlie ndcroi^copc. With the aid of this 
in»lrument, an ex|>err r:in tell you at iince that snrh nind has been 
derived fnim i^rsiiiite. l\v cau not only tell yon what kind of gra- 
nite it was*, but J^^o \Oitther it contained any metals, lie can also 
aay with cerlninly whether it wns the action of the sea or rivers 
which reduced it to innd.and many t>ther particulars whieh we shall 
Jind hereafter niosst ikseful in our present entpiiries. 

Jt may **cen) very nnucce!*sAry to t^pend so uiiu'h time in ex- 
plaining HO Kim pie a thin*^ a** the manner in which t^toue« become 
water-worn. Hot obviouj< as it t», 1 think yon will acknowledge its 
importanic if you will bear with me a little longer. Simple aku 
at* It is, tiL'vend important ge(dot;ical conclm^ioni* depend upon it : 
and in fact, like uioi«t ♦simple things in nature, %vbeti closely ob- 
served, it eerv Lb lo explain ulrnt is very cuDjplei. Thu8, if you pay 
attention to the hiils and moimtalna which surround the beautiful 
valleys near Thaipeng, you will notice features which this water- 
worn jnece of stone will help you to explain. Our mountain 






hM been rounded and moalded in a manner timilar to all 
mopntain ranges of its class on the earth's surface. The crest of 
the range rises and falls according to the projections of the rocks 
wUch are mostly bare on the summit. Weathering soon decom* 
poees and rounds them, and the materials are swept to lower levels. 
From the crest buttresses de.^cond ; the drainage from which soon 
canres out deep vallejs on the sides. On these latteral buttresses 
other raileys are cut down, and soon almost infinitely. The whole 
thing, however complex, reproseutd one hugo system of drainage. 
The great surface presented by the side of the range acts as an exten- 
•iye condenser to the moist air from the sea. The water is ever rnsh- 
ing down back to the ocean, first in rivulets, then in torrents, and 
often, as an obstinate fac*e of rock stops the water dashing over, in 
angry cascades. It is never at rest. Each day the process of wear* 
ing away goes on in thousands of rills and streams. But observe 
that it is not water alone which is doing the work. The sand and 
fragments of rock carried down by the water does the great work of 
scouring and cutting down the valleyK. and the mountainsi are thus 
very slowly but surely worn away. 

At one time in their history, probably these mountains were 
upheaved, but upheaval has little to do with their present form. 
The features which so many mountains share in eommou, point to 
some common cause for all, and this is what we call weathering, 
erosion or denudation. It is tlio effect of tho friction of water and 
sand just as we see in the cane of the water-worn pebble. So when 
you hold that pebble in your hand, you hold in miniature what the 
water is doing in the hills arouinl you. Water is the universal 
solvent, and the law of gravity does ther;'Ht. Rocks are under- 
mined and come tumbling down in lamlslips \vhich fill up the 
vallevK. Water pounces upon them here again and gives the stones 
no rest. They are worn away and carried to the sea, and the val- 
ley is scooped out again waiting for other supplies of material. 
Thus, gradually, main ridges become scarped and cut down by side 
valleys until they dwindle away. The materials are carried into 
plains which gradually build up islands and mud flats such as those 
which front the western side of ihe Malay Peninsula. 

Those who have visited the top of tho range must have re- 
marked how the crystals of felppar stand out from the surface 
of the granite just like pebbles in conglomerate. They often pro- 
ject an inch or more. Weathering has dissolved away the rock 
arouud them. Their crystalline structure and compact form enable 
them to resist decomposition, and thus they remain, for a time, as a 



record of what water has done. 

If, then, theThaipen^' Hange has thus assumed Us present forraT 
by thf^ action of water, we may assume that we have no means of 
knowiutT the eitent to which it has been worn away. It certainly 
was higher than it is?, and I shall show j^oti what reason there i» fi>r 
lielieviag that it wni* covered hy other formations. But one thing 
wo can certainly say. It ha?^ not been recently raised from the sea. 
Recent marine remains are cotircly absent from ft. I need not 
tell you perhap!^ that the sea never leaves doubtful »h^us of itt* pie- 
Keuce where it has once been, lU iuliaite treasures uf life leave 
millions of relies behind to mark the history of its stay. Nothing of 
the kind is seen here. Instead, we have layers of vegetable remains 
to mark what has been the former land surface and how it has 
support ed oidy plnnt life. 

To find out the ^jjetvlogical history of these hills >ve must inter* 
rogate the only record that remains to us, that is. the mate- 
rial derived from the rocks, thi* drifts, sands and mud banks. 
This at first would not seem to be a very hopeful enquiry. Hut 
more evidence wilt l>e tVjrthcomini^ from it than one woidd think. 
DAUBufeE*s experiment?! havo shown that rocks are broken smaller 
and smaller by water until there comes a lime when friction and 
ahraf»iou have no lonfj;er any power. This is when tliey are re* 
duced to fragments alMUit one-fiftieth of an inch in diameter. Not 
only do they then cease to become brokeo* but tlie fragments do 
not readily become rounded or nbraded at the edges, ^luch frag- 
ments are easily examine<l by microscopes of moder:ite power. By 
its aid the sand tells us its history. It it he from the sea, particles 
of lime and shell with other familiar remains soon tell its origin, 
If it were aeriaUor from a desert, every particle will he rounded, 
abraded and opaque. If from fresh water there will be carbona- 
ceous matter and a peculiar eortiug of the materials which I «hall 
oTtplain more fully. 

With these fads as a guide, let us now examine the material 
which has come down to the jdains froin the moutitaiiu. C'lu^u to 
the bills we shall lind boulderf^ and heavy gravel. Their weight 
obviously [>revents these materials from travelling far. Amongst 
the boulders some are angular, or just as tlu^v have rolled down 
iVora the hills, an<l some are rounded by water. Further out iu tlie 
plain, we lind alluvium and certain ontliers of roeks which have as 
yet escaped denndutiou. These sometimes rise into detached hil- 
locks, ftueli as the Resident's HilL Or they may scarcely rise above 
the surface at all, such im the red clays near the Thaipcug gaol. 
The-ae clays are most important, and we shall consider them more 


at ten ti rely hr and bj. The r©&t of th© pUitia are ri^ep drifts. 

When pi^rADns ?eo only narrow streatii3 ery^airii^ wide plains, 
they ^Titb dilficiilty tjndHrHtmd how sui-h rinilet:i could have formed 
men lar^^t? arean of gra%'el, saad and i-arth. But th*? caiit^c^ is quite 
adequate for theelfectti, if we rt^memher the conetaot drainage from 
the sides of the mountmnH. It is uncensini^ly bHii^iri^ down new 
material^ whitdi, anit aeouinulsite.^, throwis the streun b^iek wards and 
forwards. A'o matter how diataat certain portifms of the plain 
may be» as aoon ag they become the lowest levelj I he wator goes 
over to it and heiipait up. 

It was the enstiun, long n^o, to explain deposits of alluvium 
and gravel by theories of great iimndatioiia. But ^reat inundations 
and couvulHians of nature have a tendency to de5troy and rani'ive. 
I'he buildinj^f up i^ done hy the little i*trernii which, like the busy 
bee, neatly i^p reads* the materials. They jnny be called nature's 
cbiselii which cane ami chip the Ktone, and natnre^a trowels which 
smooth and level every t hint;. 

Bear in mind again that tlia whole of the plains are not form- ^ 
ed of alluvium. There were iner|ualitics on thts eurfa.'e which are 
covered over by drift, but of unequal thickne-j^.-*. Theae^ no doubt, 
were barriei^s to the waters until the drift rose up to tbem* 

But not only doea rlrainaije level the materiaU. It sorts them 
AH it earrjea them alonj^. Lighter portions of granite sand, espe- 
cially mica, are carried a long diataoce, Some metals also with 
li^ht eealy ore^^ such ai* p]>ecular iron or tltaniier-m^* iri»n, are 
borne a long way. Heavy metals such as tin, gold and platinum, 
soon sink and remain belli iid. 

In another lecture, I shall tell you more about granite, or the 
rough piece of stone with which we began 'J:his evening. But I 
want to say now that granite frequently contains metalliferous 
veins and crystals of oxide of tin scattered through it. I'his latter 
is a heavy mineral, and is never carried far from the hills. It is 
enclosed in granite, or at least mixed up with other rock, yet it is 
gradually sorted out and gathered together. 1 he constant opera- 
tions of water washes it and buries it in alluvial drift where it be- 
comes stream tin. Vein tin, from its name, means tin ore occur- 
ring in lodes or veins, whence it has to be quarried from the 
solid rock. Vein tin. though in narrow lodes, goes down to great 
depths: stream tin is only a shallow deposit of fine ore spread 
over a wide surface. It is better ore and more accessible, but less 
permanent than vein tin. 

But has all the alluvial drift of the Larut plains been derived 
from ^anite ? I think not. I referred just now to the red clays. 

: Tm DEPOSITS or rEHAir 

Th<^io are titrntified. If you examine those which ar© not far from 
the ^ftol, yoii will perceive in tUetn a finjjrular ribboo-like structure. 
Thore nro liiie» vjirjin^ between red, yellow, white and dark alaty 
bluii In »ome placet, trnccs of quartz veins may be seen. The 
Btiata arc iwiated and mimpled into curves and folds. Now, I re- 
gard thin (iH a wry nnrient furmation, and wliieh once probably 
covered tlie pranite. Thu latttT rock has* been pushed thronirh if, 
iintl ihift U why wo tlnd it [u^inci pally at the base and the aides of 
the range, Probably the ij^ranite itnelf has been formed from this 
iHJck. It ha« been melted into it:^ pre.<»ent crystalline form, Bnt 
tlui clays o<intain moro iron than tno granite does. They have 
been much changed by their contact witb tbe j^Tanite, and some 
portumn of tht» tormation hjvve been converted into what geologists 
call ** f^neifis/* 1 tear ] cannot explain these terms to yon now in 
the tinvo at my diwpoHnb 

There is one ihin;^ about these clays which must strike ob- 
iiw*ver*, and that is their fiery red colour* This is due to per-oxide 
of iron or rust of iron. In the^se cot^ntrio^i such a rock is called 
'* latrrite/' Tbou;;h the term is applied to many different kinds of 
rtjck, in fact any red stone or clay, I am now rtferrini* to only one 
kind, which is that derived from the paleoxoit" or ancient formation 
which lii*» ftbove the granite. 1 wish to add also that, when not 
affected by much aiidation or rusting, these clays are blue instead 
of red. 

These palcoxoic clays give us a c1uf« to the age of the tin. It 
lulls us that the metal oceur?* hcn^ as it does in other pnrts of the 
world, that is, in cxiunexiiui with the oldest granites. These }>iiie<>- 
toic cUys are pnibably OniovtH'ian, or amongst the oldest of the 
ftmlified series know n to ^eolovrlst^. Tsually such eUys or slatM 
liAve bet^n much wlTtrt;*! b\ the changes to which they hare been 

wMeli tliesf* rUys aope^r througliotit 

V they once coTerwl 

But before tliia 

I altered owing to 

ictit eoi:ito>«» vi iUh» fonuatiou in the clifFa 

^ ir, Sini^apofe. ^ipd i^^ain mhcr^ the new road 

r^ kiUaott wbicb Birr ts b«aUt. Tboettsl 

'.In J xl^^ At Sh ^ .^an» ao ckiitrfu|» of tlie 

J to ibe westward and a «ar- 

ja^ Kliaf naar Malacca th# 

tpl roeki^ pftore properlj t« 

Ltflkonite ittst««d of Latwt» 


hare been deriyed from similar rocks. I call them Ordovecian, 
a term proposed for the Upper Cambian series, but I merely sug- 
gest this age as probable. They much resemble the Ordovecian 
of Australia, though the precise age cannot as yet be proved. 

It is probably under these clays, at their junction with the 
granite, the great deposits of tin ore took place. All mining 
geologists are aware, that when any metal is contained in a rock, it 
will be most abundant at the junction of that rock with another 
formation. I do not undertake to explain why it is so, but I merely 
state the fact. The junction of two formations is the locality 
where metallic deposits must be looked for. The whole of the 
granite in the peninsula contains tin, but it is at the junction of 
this granite with the paleozoic clays that the richest deposits of 
tin ore have taken place. 

Thus the red clays become a good indication where tin sand 
may be looked for. But observe : it is not at this junction that 
mining takes place. It is when the clay has been washed away 
and the tin washed out of the junction ; when it has been sifted 
and sorted by streams of water that the stream tin has been depo- 
sited where miners get it now. Not at the base of the clavs, but 
in the drift which has been derived from the clays and the gra- 
nite together. 

It may, be asked, therefore, whether it would be worth while to 
mine through the clays where they have not been denuded and 
look for tin at their junction with the granite. I think it would 
be worth trying. I do not think the tin sand would be likely to 
prove so ricFi as in drift wliere it has been subjected to ages of 
washing and puddling f n)m tlie streams. Tin sand is found upon 
the clays throughout Tliaipeng ami the neighbouring hills. I can- 
not even give a guess at how thick these cbws are, except that I 
do not think they can be very thick. I repeat that it would be worth 
while trying whether there is what miners term a second bottom. 

Observe alno that 1 do not think tliat the tin deposits are mere- 
ly confined to the junction of the granite with the paleozoic clays. 
The ore may be found at the junction of the granite with any rock. 
On the other side of the range, we seldom see these clays, but in 
place of them we have limestone and marble abutting on the 
granite. Here als*o tin is found and in great richness. 

So, those who go prospecting may take the presence of such 
formations as a favourable indication, especially where there are 
high ranges near so as to secure the destruction and thorough wash- 
ing of the overlying rock. 

If any one asks why we do not find tin in such places as Singa- 



pore, where tUe paleozoic clays and granite are found side by Hide, 
tlie answer is that there aro nu drifts. The reason of that is that 
there Jire no hif^h mountaint* near to give rise to them. Suiftll 
quantities of tiTi hare bt-on found at the junction of the claya and 
gniiHte at SiniTfipore, aulKcii^ni perhupa to justify the concluaion 
that hud they been aiihji>cted to the action of running water and 
monntain jistreama for ages, large deposits of stream tin would 
have resulted. 

At the Biime time, 1 do not suppose that all the graoita at 
i ts j u n c t i on with some o v e rl y i n 14 f o rm ation h e« 1 u n 1 ly ri c h - G e ne- 
rally it i« rich. There are doubtless barren granito.H liere ae else- 
where, hilt tbty seem to he fewer here than elsewhere. 

Jt Ia a remarkable fact in mining for tin that stream tin ore 
and tnineral vein-i or lodes of tin iirc ttcldom found together. T say 
Hchlom, honause I om not eo nure about the experience of Europe, 
but 1 mi^'ht say never, as far as experience teaches us in Au**tralia 
and in this country. The richest tin lodes in Australia (Herber- 
ton) haTo no stream deposits (iny where near them, I should say 
that the causes wliich made the tin fcic^Tcj^ute into lodes were mnre 
energetic than those which condemned it loosely on the edges of aaj 
overlying formntion. This, however, i^ theory. Wbat my expe- 
rience teaches me as certain in, — first, that stream tin is not derived 
from lodcH or veins ; and secondly, that lodes or veine do not decom- 
pose into anything like stream tin. 

Now let usj in conclusion, examine the sections presented by 
the tin mines at Ihaipeng, and see how far these will bear out J 
those inferencesi. First of all, ^e meet with loamy clay or black 
vegetable mould, full of roots, branches^ stumps ot large trees in 
the positirms in which tlicy grew, bej^ides pro,strate stems of trees. 
Hnlf of thiji black (k-pusit is water, {ind half tbe remainder is vege- 
table matter that will burn. I'nderneath are layers of white, red 
and yellow sands, mixed with coarse layers of quartz and felspar. 
Tbere are also occnwional deposits of red clay. 

By the aid of the microscope we find tbat the sand is derived 
from granite and dejiosited in fresh w.'iter. If yon examine iti 
closely, you will see thai the grains are all an;j:ulav aud transparent* ' 
Wben the pnlarifcope is applied to them^ we find a magnificent 
play of colours. By the same instrument we are enabled to dia- 
tinguiFli a few fraf^meiits nf felspar and fewer sTiU of unca. A 
little experience enables one to prououiice at once that this sand 
has come from granite, If it had been derived from a volcanic 
rockj the quartz would be glasiy and not give the play of colour* 
that we observe here. 


Tlie red clays, and probablj tlio yellow claTs, are derifed from 
the paleozoic ptratB. Tlie white claya may E»e deeom posed fel- 
Bpnr from which the sand is washed out, AH thi« careful eorting 
and iifting h^n been effected by the for*N> of gravity aided by the 
never failing strenms of water from the hills. 

t>eeai4ior»!*!lT^ veget-'djle soil ia again repeated, showing that 
thare were different stirfjices of dry land at different I o vela and at 
various timei in the geological history of these depoi^itB, 

Then appear mure or less worn fragments of tinartx, felnpar, 
fluourspar, and i^mnitt\ This may be called a gravel, but it» 
niaiefial In somel JmeK a stratum of mere peM»h y* ov souictimcj^ 
conftiwtin^ of large botdders. These represent varimi?* vicis^j^itudoa 
in the Kinlory nf iha «treara. When such w.Ut^r-worn Htotn\4 iiro 
remrnted togc^ther, the rock is called a conglomeratic 

Undprncath all thei^e deposits, at a depth of 2t> or 30 feet, wo 
find tho fitream tm. It is usually in a gravel with innch fine clay 
and ciiarne sand, which i^ives the stratum a grey speckled appear- 
ance. The depth of the tin stratum is variable, bnt seldom more 
llian four feet, and often, in oven rich mines, irmeh 1p8«. llie tin 
resta upon white or blue clay either paleozoic or ilerived from the 

Now, when we find the tin sand all in one plflce and in the 
lowest stratum, we mtist conclude that it came there by the force 
of gravity, or that the upper part of the rockw from which tho tin 
was^ deprived was richer \n tin than that which sub(*o(piently sup- 
plied the materials for the drift. Both these conelusionB, 1 think^ 
are partly true. 

The drift overlying the tin may, in some case, have been re- 
moved and replaced many times by the running waters as they 
shifted their beds. Streams undermine their .banks, they fall in, 
and are thus turned over, washed and re-washed and the heavier 
particles of tin soon become a stationary stratum in the lowest part. 
This is the history of a good deal of the tin deposits, but not of all. 
According to what has been already said, some portions of the ma- 
terials for the drift were richer in tin than others, that is, the 
junction of the paleozoic clays with the granite rock. When 
these rocks were subjected to erosion, tin sand .accumulated in 
much larger quantities. 

If this exi)lanati()n be correct, then we ought to find tin sand 
at different levels in dilVerent mines, and, as a matter of fact, we do. 
But in one group of mines there is generally a correspondence in 
the level of the tin in all parts of the field. Thus in Thaipeng it 
occupies nearly the lowest levels, from which we may infer that a 



good deal of barren rock has been denuded ftince the rich beds at 
the junction of the f^ranite and clay havo been washed away. 

To some extent, tin aand may have gravitated tlirnugh the 
loose watery rands even after they were deposited in beds. This 
actually occurs in thin strnta of washed sand which is thrown out 
ot the sluicaa. What little tin ore rcm«iriH in thia m\ud h found 
to have settled down to the hottom. But, of course, this could not 
happen through coarse gravel or compact clay. 

At the nek of being: tedious, I mnst repeat the important les- 
son to he learned from these facts. The way \n which tin sand is 
found in rich deposits in cerhiin parts only of tlic drift, shows that 
it has been the wearing away of some rct^tncted portion of the 
rocks. This is at the junction of a formation overlying the granite. 
Wherever, therefore, either from the out-crop of tlie rockR or the 
nature of the drift such a junction appears evident, deposits of 
tin may be looked for Red clays are to he regarded ns a special- 
ly favourable indieatioo, and so are out-cropw of alute, scluHt or 
liaicstitDe near granite. But an essential t'onditiou appears to bo 
tliat there should he high granite hills near, iu order to seeure the 
req\]isi1e drainage for the formation of drit't. 

I have nicotioned how hollows* in the gronml afl'ect the deposi- 
tion of tin. There are a gnod many depres^ioun of the kifid nbout 
these mines, thou^li the surface is even. The ground, as the miners 
say, rirjos up, and the ore U almost al^t^ont from the slojies, while it 
is unusually rich in the hollows^ those nearest the bills being the 

It may be asked whether tin sand might be louked for at any 
great distance from the hills. To this a double answer may be 
given. The first ji^ that tin sand usually does not ti avel far, even 
when it is very nnv. A mile from its origin would be a long 

But, secondly, tin may be looked for far out in the plains, be- 
cause it is certain that both paleozoic clays or jrranite in the form 
of outlying hilloeks have existed there* though now they aie \va»l - 
ed away. In this case, the nature of tlie soil would be the best 

The manner in which the paleozoic clays are strati tied, and how 
the strata are turned and twisted and crosseil by white veins, hnB 
suggested to the author of '* Tin ilincB it; LArut " tltat there were 
fearfTiI convnfstons of nature goiug- on when the streiim tin was 
deposited. But the cause of this dales mueli farther baek. It 
dates to the i>eriod when the paleozoic were affected by the gn*- 
nite. and crumpled or folded back b^ that rock. 


1 liave gone til rough moat of the points coDDec ted with the 
geology of stream tin, eep^cmlly aa it refers to the State of Pfirak. 
you will doubtless be inclined to aek a question which I have not 
touched upon at all. This ia, how the occurrence of tin ore in 
aucU quantities in dajs or in granite ie accounted for. This must 
form the subject of nnother lecture, for the Btory i«a long one. It 
cannot be aecountud for in as satisfactorj a manner as the occur- 
rrnce of tin in drift, but the matter is of the higbeet interest, 
as you wiU find, connected with the most attractive field of geological 

Let mv say, in conclunion, that the connexion of stri-'am tin 
with paleozoic rocke, Htnestono and granite is a most cheering 
part for the future mining prospect of this State. Such rocks are 
to be found every where : the valleyn of the rivers arc full of them. 
Thi« nifikes me think that the tin depoesits of the Malay Penin- 
sula are the richest in the worldj and that we are as yet only on 
the threshold of our di«cov erics. 


2 1 Bt April, 1884. 

(hir i«iM|nii'y in UiU Icctnrr; will be an to the way in which we 
I'lili Mi'i'iiiinl I'nr iIm« ricli <lr|)()MitK of tin ore in connexion with 
^iMIilIn iiM'lii* 

N Mil will rniM»nilu»i' liow, in llu^firht Keture, we be;;an with the 
n\\\\\\ III' I wo piiMTH of Htonr, on(»nf which was water- worn and the 
nihiM' n ioukIi frMu:m<»ni <»f ^^rnnito. The water-worn stone fur- 
nlnhoii UN will) n rluo lo tlie ero^ionH of monntains and the forma- 
\\\\\\ of dnft Wo HJinll now turn to the ronp;h stone to sift the 
»|Uo»»tiou nf iU ctniwtitucnl parti*, and wo will begin our enquiry by 
ll»Kiuu Whrtt ij^jMMuito? 

Hn^rtdlx dot\uod» it i»« a coinponnd nvk consisting of quartz, 
tS>l*»p<n i\\u\ \\\\\\\ Quart/ i»» a vorv hartl glassy mineral consist- 
u\^ y\\ tho o\ido of tho lUMuout silicon. Felspar is a trifle less 
hf^^M <^>u\ w>^\^v *mw|^Ua. It ivn>ists of, say roui:lily, IV) or 70 per 
^'^vwt iNtA^iL-^rt?, a li<riij>^ por^vntao'* of alunnna. snd iho rest made 
upol x.sla or |SNta>h. and a vor\ liulc inu^j, linic and ma^ziu^i.i. Mica 
>x A v)nu\ ^hstonn^ij uuU'TaI, Cinorally ^-ol.Mi^od >oro»\ Ma<-ki>h 
M \ cn>viv»:> r.t \\ x)^ut> into ihin t^aktv. and hv^k> c-'^lden OfMlverv 

s*\ xi»>«<'l XJS\»k^ 

Mioa >^ a A^^',nJVM 

ijiui ^v!nor;i". a:i.^, c .r.:*iTi&, K^idc-^ 

,»lKv^ )|, .., 4\sK. 

v^-'lalvx 'iVr.i, Ni".;, 

v-* . y 1 K ;v. - : .r» f.:i\ ft: . a' k ft . i u^^iial- 

'.x i\*»M^-^ r«.'. 

D'^^iN^ir- 1^ ^ V ; 

\A \ r.c n >^in:.lltr Tr prri.r. 

i'K^.i .» »oK:^n' 

\ -^ .^Kv,, 

>v :^*rt ; f'.iy ,'jo,... 

. \^ * . : ^ : "h,^^ : ■» • ' .^-s ; r. Tr-! id,>.: 

\',*»*\* •! N > ■'. , »" 

x^ ; X 'i '','\ » "% 

T,^: ,-.' \ ij.*T \ /: f:<'-*f-i.: ki»ii> -f 

^. .» ;■, '»' »> . 

V. .: (V^.\^> V -^.iv 

.* %.'x o.- <^-M. -^ f,>»- :•:•! :i,-.r.> 

.. »,,. t".i-o \.i. 

.. ..|fc,. . \^, .,-. 

\>4^ * « -^ ". t- *•. :ii;m ::»:«!(;**.. M.T 

, v,,..\.« ^ . » 

•v.. 1 -,»:» ..A V' 

* .: ' v>- ^ iT n.; nri^?<ii.i 

-..■ ^ ^, ■^■, 

1. X ,*.»f M • .• V 

• V • S %\ -, ^ ♦* ■, ■' ; 

.» ^. , 

. .•f-,r....vv 

■ ^ ^- ■•■ ■ :- T- .' <-^ -•.!'!.■.■. 

». ■% » .X 


when it is melted and cooled, or slowly cooled if you will, becomes 

. But against this theory we know many instances of the melt- 
ing of the earth's surface by heat, and when cooled it becomes 
something very different from granite. Volcanoes emit from 
their craters the melted materials of the cru«t of the earth, but lava 
is not at all like granite, and even where it has cooled slowly it 
is still very different. 

Heat alone, then, will notsufEce as a theory. A simple reflex- 
ion will make us realize this better. Granite is in structure not 
unlike a piece of loaf sugar. But in the case of the sugar the 
structore is not due to mere heat, as I need not tell you. , If you 
take the sugar and melt it over a fire, what a different material it 
becomes, and so it is with granite. If it be melted, which it re- 
quires an enormous heat to effect, the result, when cooled, is a mere 

Besides, if granite bo closely examined, a curious feature in the 
crystals will be noticed. The mica and the felspar have both left 
the forms of their crystals imbedded on the quartz. But the 
quartz cools at a much higher temperature than the mica or fel- 
spar. ]f heat alone had been in operation, the (juartz should have 
cooled first and left its crystals to modify the other two minerals. 

But for all that, geological research proved beyond a doubt 
that, melted or softened in some sort of way, granite had formerly 
been. At its junction with stratified rocks it was frequently found 
to throw out veins into fissures, and to be injected, so to speak, as a 
molten material could only be expected to do. Granite d^'kes or 
elvans are not nncommon, and these sonic'iimes in granite itself 
showing tliat the encasing material of which tl« walls of the dyke 
are formed had cooled or solidified to some extent before the latter 
was injected. AVlien granite is found in coutaet witli stratified 
rocks, the latter are usually much changed, and as if the crystal- 
line rock had affected them by its heat. When this is not the 
case, it can generally be proved that there has been considerable 
displacement and upheaval since the granite was melted. The tilted 
stratified rocks which lie against it came to their present position 
in a later period in the geological history of both formations. 
Sometimes gradual transition from stratified rock to granite may 
be observed, so that it is difficult to say where one begins and 
the other ends, and even where the unaltered slates which lie 
near granite are submitted to microscopic examination. Occa- 
sionally in granite it>e]f marks of former stratification can be 
made uut. Blocks of evident I v stratified rock are found imbedded 



in granite pa&te. But tbe most extraordinary thins; of all la 
that fossils bave been fonnd in granite, mnch chanored, of course, 
ftnd crystalline, but perfectly recognizable, The Jtjra Itelrfntttteg 
in tlie Alps may be cited as an example, and I think I have met with 
paleozoic fof»sila in a granitic roek in Australia. 

All thiij was very pnzzlintj and gave vmG to many tli<^orie*4. 
The facta seemed to hold the bulfince equally between a stratified 
rock fin the one hand, and a kind of volcanic, or at any rate, an 
erujitive rock on ttie other. Then the theory of metamorphiiim 
began to make lU wuy. This suggested tlie granite had originally 
been a strati fiinl rock, and that it had been converted into its pre- 
sent ftirm by the ngency of heat. 

This, you ol>8crve, only removed the difficulty one step further 
back. Tlie question was still unsolved as to wfiat kind of heat it 
wa8» Gradually the microscope was brnught to bear upon tlie 
matter, and this, with chemical aids, brought wliat is now believed 
to be a full and satisfactory explanation. 

If you subject a small rou;^h fragment of granite to micros- 
copic examination, you will not learn mnclu But if you grind 
down thill polished sli^^es until they bc*conie quite transparent, 
you will be able to subject them to very high mtignifying powers. 
Then you will see that the apparcjitly solid crystals are full of 
minute cavities. 8ome of these arc partly filled with water, 
others^ with gas, others again are cavities containing perfect crystals 
of such minerals as common salt, and other salts of magnesia, soda, 
Ac. These crystals sometimes appear in fluid, which may be 
water, and they are in cons taut movement. 

It would be an error, however, to suppose that these appear- 
ances are only fmind in granite crystals. They are seen, though 
not exactly in tffe same manner, in volcanic rocks, in meteoric 
stones and even in the slags of furnaccF*, But microscopic examina- 
tion ha8 shown immense difTerenccs between granites and those 
which have been certainly subjected to heat within reach of the 
eartirs at mo sphere. 

I cannot, in the limits of such a lecture as thif<, go iyti> the de- 
tails of this subject, but it will he sufficient to say thnt the progress 
of science, largely aided by the microscopic investigation of rocks, 
has shown us a most probable and sufficient cause for the meta- 
morphism of granites. All the different effects of heat are found 
to vary according to the pressure at which they have been exor- 

It will save a great deal of ei^planation if 1 enter at once 
into thi coDiideration of what mu»t nave been the geological hii- 

rrr 2B?i« 


♦nc tr t. -Si" 

• I* "1.1 o**'-* yr"-^"! I i:i _"*^L "T • 

■*S^ JUL 

■fit* :it.i*-:.:. 


-•*-i- - 

of Tbr re^:.:'r'*a- 
da:* -f Tiir T v-j 

-Hi .* 1^ - .' 

roek- •■> »"--i: : " - --i 

tnzti- i*:T^i * *» ' •*•.-**«• 
roJk*. B-: :i; : r— 
of the OT^rji-.j r • K* 
lost b.T ra-i:.!-: r.. 

Le: -:* :ur:, : r a 
tlii"« heat. : ' t ikr ::.• 
deal. B-.f miLr^^.:-^ 
We eaii s>ee ;r.> ::i :.. j 

St nit a were Lti-i ti-'.vu 
sea or tho neiial .-urr-:-: 
then c«iii''i?»*ei «.•:" >a^ 

; :■. V "2.. .- r 


- :r\vr 

vti.* :l,u. 

'. e: re '^ c 

: t-.i- r/...:^ r!.»*. \v::V. w :.:,:; i: h.^s tv> 
V V ver-; i ^. \tr.«':;iv um^ s::a;;rusl. 
s wiitri* :::o :::;ir.N> .»:' s;-;^:irua;i.Mi 
TliC-rowa-a ::::u\ \\ho!ith»so 
^::.e i v line h.>r:z.-n:.v!!v bv liie rixrr or the 
.: iV.m:: wh:^ ;i li.ov woiv .irposito.i. Thov 
which iiioiins silii-a, v»i" mua or oi;i\. whioK 


n.H alumina. n;:5-n*.>i:t. iiriit. -oia. |>i»tash and a litth^ ovule of 
.. Flii'-rint- and lar!'. ns. tin. i;o!d .»r silver weri* alM» pn^sotil 
iufinitesimnlly. How they eame to he proont, 1 shall explaiti 

But there wa^* t>ne very important injrrtNliont whioh ue must 
not leave or.t. and that was water. All roeks eont.un this in a oor- 
tain proportion. • 1 do nut mean those stoivs whieh eome out wa 
spring!* upon the surfaee, hut water mingled with thein^riHlionts of 
the rocks, that is. chemically combined. Gases of couii»o then* weri\ 





alpo ehemieallj combiDed, and also water in iU simple fornix mixca 
or Boakcd in we may sny, and from whicli na compound roek in ever 

Kow, cnn^idpr the effect of beat caused by pres8Ui*e on these 
materialB aided by the presence of water. The latter material, yon 
know, at the surface oi the earth cannot helieatvd much above 212^ 
degrees of Falirenheit. Then it evaporates in the form of i^team. 
But under great pressure, of course it caniint evaporate. It may 
bo then hcntrd tr» any evtent that the prosHuro will bear. Water, 
even col<l water, is a solvent of rockt* to a far greater extent than 
yoti would imagine, not only by wcaiing them away, but by really 
dissolviniT the t*toue. Bnt at very high temperatures water actw on 
rocks such as quartz more powerfully than the stroni^eKt acid docs 
upon iron at the earth's surface. Let us take dull red heat^ for 
instjitjce, and 1 will tell you pre^^ently why 1 ei]i>08e (hat dej^ree of 
fieat. At thm ttmperature, quart?- would be readily tliHsolved by 
superheated water, while 1 need not tell you that it requires a 
eon^^idcrably hiL^her temperature to melt it lu the air. 

Thciie eonchisiouH are not the result of mere theory. Experi- 
ments have ju'oved them, By meauH of carefully eecureil vengelrt, 
water has been raided to a red heat and even higher, and its action 
u|)on ([uarfz. ^la*fi atid many other s^ubHtances observed* If I douot 
mistake, after au evpcrinient which hinted aouie IS montll^^. some of 
the iriiu^rals uf granite and fiometbing very like i^ranite have heeu 
reproduced liy Muny, DvuxiitKE, 

This pressure, or the weiufht of tlie supcriiunimbent rock, is quite 
sufficient til account for the change of ^itratified rock into granite. 
Pressure has generated heat, bent has brou<r[it into action the 
highly corrosive and stdvent action of water, chemit al action has 
been set nj*, thoseit»lements that have the greatest affinity for each 
other have united, acids have neutralised alkalies, gases liave been 
liberated and made new^ combinationsi, and tiually Ciinerals have 
segregates], and the ix.*sult is* the rocks iri the form in which we see 
them now. 

Bo it renieiiiberpd that tliough we class tlie rocka of thi^ Kaiige 
under one category, which we distinguish na granite, the r«iek is 
very varied in ite constitution. It is fine grained, and coarse, 
blue and red, dai'k coloured ami light, Smne of it i» almost all 
quartz and s^ome f<diated like a fichiat. Mica prcdouiinatcs lu 
one place, and there are thick veins of felsj>ar in anoUter All 
this i» just what we should expect* Tl)e Hlrjitilied rock wiis not 
of utuforui character, but even if it were, the preBsure would pre- 
vent the reduction of the whole into a rock of simple mineralogi- 


cal features. Tbis fact must also explain tbe presence of metals 
in one portion and not in another. 

Some persona might find it difficult to umlerstand liow any in- 
terchange would go on under such prcBsurc, but it will solve the 
diflSculty to some extent when they are reminded that interchange 
and chemical aotion goes on in the hardest and most solid roeks. 
Solidity is a relative term. There is nothing on the earth 80 hard 
that a movement is not going on in its particles. The moving 
crystals in the cavities of granite prove thiB. Some think that light 
is the stimulus in this case. It may be so. That shows how even on 
the hard transparent diamond movement is continually going on, 
movement that ia not more appreciable than th© Waves of light, yet 
movement and interchange for all that. 

I mentioneil red heat just now, and I did so because certain 
geologists believe that this is the temperature to which g:ranite has 
been rfdsod. This is not a guesH. It is founded on the koowa 
qualities of gases and steam. Their rate of expansion under boat 
and pressure ia calculated in connexion with the cavities in granite. 
8ome of these, it will be remembered, are half full of water, which 
has been steam. The amount of rondensation furnishes a factor 
from which the former heat is estimatedT 

A^nother kind of proof as to the origin of granite is found in the 
sections of extinct volcaDoes. A few instances are found which 
enable us to see down into the innermost recesses of these subter- 
ranean fiery lagoons. In the lowest depths where pressure of the 
overlying lava prevented the escape of «team, the rock is granite. 
In fact, the volcano itself is probably no more than the escape 
through an accidental fissure of some of that heat which pressure 
is causing below. 

We must not, however, leave out of consitieratiou one impor- 
tant condition in these operations, and that is the length of time 
through which they have been exercised. We have no standard 
by which to measure it. The period of hiintory occupies only a 
few thousand years. Supposing the granite to have been seething 
and baking amid steam at a red heat for that time, we can well 
imagine surprising results. But probably nature's laboratory has 
been working for cycles in which the hiRtoncal period is only a 
unit. What are the mutations observed in thetie granite hills as 
a work for such eternal ages? The silence and obscurity in their 
history is one of those mysterious charms to the edge of which 
science has enabled us to climb, but where we can discern only a 
depth which ia unfathomable. 

But now to account for the presence of the tin in the granite,. 


or ratber in the strata from which the granito ie formed. I am of 
opinion that it has been very finely, nay almost iDfinrtesimally, 
divided through the rocks just aa gold and silver is in the sea at 
the present day. Many people are not aware that these metuli 
exist in solution in t^ea-water, but in so small a qnantity, that 
tons of water must he evaporated before any appreciable quantity 
can be extracted. Now, it is quite certain that the precious metal 
is being deposited in the rocks forming on the sea-shore or at the 
aea-bottom at the present day. No doubts immense quantities of 
this deposit woold have to bo reduced before even a trace of gold 
wouhl be seen, yet the quantity la absolutely if not relatively great. 
But what is not poseible to man's chemistry is easily effected 
in the great laboratory of nature. If the present shore and sea 
deposits were subjecttd to such an action as that which reduced 
the ranges here to granite, we should have the gold in rich veins 
and shf^ots just as it is in the quartz veins in Australia. You may 
be inclined to say that the gold in Australia has been much more 
abundant than in the case 1 am supposing, but this is not so. It ie 
estimated that more than five tons of quartz or vein-stuff has been 
operated upon for every ounce of gold extracted, which is coosi* 
derably beh>\v the truth. This, however, be it less or more, is only 
a mere fraction of the rock metamorphosed from which this gold 
hflB been derived. 

I'he whole process depends upon a peculiarity in the ehomistry 
of minerals which is only im]>erfectly understooil. This is a ten- 
dency to what we call segregation. Similar minerals seek eaeli 
other out and run together. In tho heavier metals when they are 
melted, one can uudcrstand it, but this occur** when the rocks or 
metals are not melted at all, where they are not particularly heavy, 
and where they tnka^ directions quite independent of tho force of 
gravity. You will find veins of quartz and veins of felspar running 
through stratified rocks, you fiud lines of flints in chalk and sep- 
tarian nodules in clay. If these things take place in solid rocks, 
every facility occurs for their occurrence in granite. Thus, in 
effect, we iind in granito innumerable veins of i|uartz, felspar, 
iron ores, tin from scams of considerable thickness to tho merest 
threads. They evidently do not depend upon cracks in the stone 
and could not have been injected in a fluid state. They have 
iiimply segregated and come together in that strange movement 
of particles to which the materials of the most solid rock are sub- 
ject^ by means of which they evidently travel long distance. 

ISow, turning to the tin ore, we find it in the form of an oxide- 
Pay attention to this. Tin ia easily melted. If it had been sub- 

STREAM xm DEPoaira of perak. 


jected to mere heat, it would liave run together in the form of 
pure metal as it does in tho smelting furnace. But under heat 
pressure and with water, it is forced ti> combine with oxjgen gae^ 
a combination which is not ens'dy effected without those conditions. 
Tin when kept at a red heat with free accejss of air» oxidizes readily, 
There are two forms of oxide of tin, one in which one volume of 
tin combines with one volume of oxygen, this is called the proto- 
ixideor stannous oxide obtained by chemical precipitation. It is 
I » T©ry unstable compound, and on slight application of red heat 
Imakes it burn like tinder and become stannic oxide. There is the 
•econd combination, or peroxide of tin, in which one volumie of tin 
18 combined with two of oxygen. This is the common ore of tin. 
If heat alone had been coucerned in the production of the tin 
which is found, it would have occurred in a different way. The 
peculiar oxide of tin, which is so familiar to you here, is a state of 
the mineral which can hardly bo adequately exphiined, unless formed 
ulowly. Crystals of Cassiterite may have been formed by the sole 
action of water just as crystals of silica are so formed. But the 
proximity of the granite renders the conclusion more probable that 
the agencies of beat, pressure and superheated steam have been all 
in operation in the production of this oxkle of tin. 

Usually, the form of the fragments of Cassiterite iu the drifts 
is not crystalline. You do find many crystals, but the majority of 
the grains are angular and amorphous. The edges are very clean 
r and sharp, and not often manifosting any marks of abrasion. They 
resemble in this respect the fragments of quartz washed out of 
granite which are associated with them in the drift. From thia 
I conclude that the tin has been amalgamated in the matrix or 
other rock paste just as qyartz, felspar and mi<'a are. 

I am rather diffident in propounding a theory as to how this 
may have occurred. Supposing, however, tin to have been 11 nely 
disseminated through the formation which went to form the gra- 
mte»tt may have boea sublimed and then condeosed on the edges of 
tlie strata where the metamorphiam was not complete. Thus it 19 
found at the junction of the granite with the stratified rock. The 
use of the terms subliming and condensation may be a little mis- 
leading, I only use them as generally expressing the category to 
which the processes may have belonged. As a matter of course, 
they must have been different, because the conditions were differ- 
ent from anything which we can reduce to experiment 

I am aware how unsatisfactory any theory is which cannot be 
brought to some test for its verificotion. In this matter, however, 
wo must rest content with explanations which are little more than 


Slausible guesses. In tracing back things like the metalliferous 
eposits to their true causes, we are still working very much in the 
dark. My object in this lecture has been to point out what is 
really known about metamorphism and to show how it bears upon 
the occurrence of such ores as Cassiterite. I hope I have at least 
suoceeded so far as to give you a clear and simple exposition of 
the subject, and with this, I must rest satisfied and conclude my 


*NoTB. — ^Tin ia found in drifts or alluvial depositB in Perak. Many 
think that it must have been derived from veins and that these will yet be 
found. The context of these lectures will show that I do not think so. The 
true matrix of the tin is in granite at its junction with the clays where it has 
been abundantly disseminated in fine and coarse grains. Nevertheless, in north- 
em Perak there are tin veins or true lodes. Furthermore, I wiie^ to place on 
record my opinion that the stream tin deposits of Perak are practically in ex* 


As little has been recorded on the subject of this Stale, except in 
works not very accessible, and as 1 have visited it oflSciallj on 
several occasions, I have thought that a short account of the coun- 
tr}^ may not be without some interest for the readers of this 

This State is one of the countries known as the " N'dgH Shihilan,''* One of > 
or Nine States, formerly under a Yam Tuan (in full, Tang-di-pSr- ^ 
tuan) Besar and a Yam Tuan Muda, each, however, with its own 
chief or Dato' P^nghulu. 

Tn Rembau, as in Naning and others of the " Nine States," a MCnangl 
considerable portion of the population ar^Ienangkabau by descent, ^ ^^^ 
and Menangkabau people still come over, as they do to Malacca. 

Its name is said to derive from an enormous M^rhau tree which Suppoea 
Urfcd to grow in the plaiu near the foot of Gunong Dato' j there S^e.^'^ 
are said to be some traces left of it still. 

Another account states that the great tree fell down from the 
mountain, and that the name of tlie country arose from the des- 
cription of the noise of the fall as the colossal s^m thundered down 
the steeps — ^^ merhau r^mhau,^\^) 

It is further related that so vast was the size of this giant of the 
jungle that its head reached to the Sungei tTjongC) stream, to which 
it gave its name (i.e.y Sungei tTjong Kayu M^rbau) ; while its 
branches extended to the Moar, and it has been pretended that from 

(1) Probably a case of mei-ithesis. This is likely enough to be the origin 
of the name; the other accounts are, of course, later embeUishnients. 

(2) This is the recognised official spelling, or I should spell it " Hiijong " 
in accordance with the proper Malay spelling, though Malays have begun to 
drop the "h" in this word, as in other similar ones, but I see no reason to 
drop it because it it mute. Many Malays still sound the " h " in " hitam " and 
''hiyam," though the latter is more commonly sounded now without it. 



gimX Bet< 
meni of. 

V elected. 


this cireumatance **M£rbau SarAtuV(*) one ol" the limits of fiahing 
rights on the Moar, took its name. 

KcnihuuT like the reatof these countries, was, ncuording to Mentra 
traditiuos, at first inhabited hy the aboriginal tribe* alone^ and its 
firet Peughulu was, like that of Naniog, appointed by the Dato* 
KrUiia Vt'trn of Sungci t^jong, (*) 

Another local veruion \a that RCjmbau was first Bettled by Biltin 
Brndahara Sakiidoi at Hillu Hem ban near G&nong Dato', and he it 
was who felled the niif>:bty Mdrhau tree. According to native autho- 
rity quoted by Nkwbold, Bi-iidahrira Sakudei was the first chief of 
Sungei Cjong upon wliojn the title Kelfma Pclra wiis conferred, 
and waa the ^on of a T>ritin,(*) and the follnwing account of this 
origin wna related to Newuolb by the Etlja di lUja of Sungei 

*' In ancient iimen one of the priiiee8ees(*) o£ iSnugei tjjong hav- 
** mg had the presumption to laugh at the naked »tate of a Bittiu 
*' of the Jakiinf^, ineyrred Jjis resentment, and wag compelled irre- 
** t^istiblv l<j follow him throutrh thicket and brake, nntil, moved 

• D ft 

** with compaasion, her ' san^-culotte mahre dedanae* broke the 
** Kpell and married her. The offspring of this sylvan union isi said 
** to be 8akudei,('') from whom descend the rcnghiHu:^ of Sungei 

*' Ijcduunda " is the name of one of the chief aboriginal tribes 
in the South of the PeninsuLi, and two of the chief Rembau tribesj 
bear the ^txme i)am|^the lirdujinda Jawa, and the BCduanda Ja- 
knn — from whieh the Pnighnlu is alternately elected* 

Tills alternate election is said to be dae to a di^^pute m days 

( i > The real origin of tlilfl noiue was probably that it wsm a very large tree, 
Bjijd to have KX) bnmchcB: t/» "rf-ngoe tQjoli" furtbei down the ^loar, which 
has HtvtJi bti-niH brnuching from one root. 

(2) rf, infra with apiprovjil of J oh or. 

(ii) vf. ififrtu 

(1) The tradition, if the word "ittihcese " ie to be tuktn litiirally, is some* 
whut mired (a not uncommon occmTi tict^ about thiB, for there was do princely 
ract) ill SuTigci Cjong at the time ; but it la a eommon practice to ooiifer this 
titio on women r«,iDiLrk&ble for bc&ut j and faimeas of complexion, and it may 
moan no more. 

(5) </. with B(m!j&u tradition tH/ra. which mak«« him come from Johor. 

rRmbau. 248 

gone by between the two branches of the BMuanda, each claiming 
the right to elect the P^nghulu, which was settled by the sovereign 
.of Johor giving each the right alternately. 

He at the same time gave distinctive titles to the Penghulus — to Titles, 
the one elected from the " BMuanda Jawa '' that of " SSdia Eaja," 
to him of the '' Btduanda Jakun " that of " Lela Maharaja." 

The office is hereditary, desceuding on the side of the sister, as in 
Nailing and in all the Mmangkabau States. I attach a table shewing 
the constitution of the country, and giving an approximate estimate 
of the numbers of each tribe. 

it will be noticed tliat the population is mixed. Mixed na- 

The Siamese probably date from the time of the invasions by their **o^^*"^' 
ancestors recorded in the '^Sejarah," and which, if we may believe 
that work, took place shortly before the Portuguese took Malacca. 

Acheh and Malacca were at one time intimately connected, the 
latter, at first the superior, having subsequently become feudatory 
to the former. 

The boundaries of Hcnibau with Malacca territory were defined Boimdari< 
by the Treaty of the 9th January, 18S3, and were fixed as follows : — 
KwalaSnngei Jcrneli,,(0 Bnkit Bertam,(2) Bukit Jel6tong,(») Bukit 
PLitua,(*) Jirat Gnnjei,(^) Lilbok Talan,(^) Dusun rcringgi(^) 
Dusun Ki^par,^*; Ciu Sungga, Bukit Putus. 

(1) '* J«'rneli,"' clear. ^^ 

(2) " BOrtnm " a palm-like reed, of which the Icwes are used for thatch, 
:tntl the stem split for wallinjr houses. 

(;i) " Jelotong," a fine j,^euih- bearing tree. The gC'tah is mixed with other 
marketable getah. 

(4) " Bukit rCitns, " cleft hill, a very common name all over the country. 

(.')) " Jirat," a grave : "gunjei, " a giant. This giant is said to have beenso tall 
that he could pluck the oo;.oa-nuts as he ^valkcd along ; he is said to have been 
killeii at Padaiig Cl^.ai hnr (t'lc plain of thechachar trees) by introducing a spear 
head into a l)ambu in which water was given him to drink so that when he 
tij'iKHl it up to drink he Bwallowed the H^K-ar-head, on which he fled, and was 
brought down by (.< ino- cut in the kg ; he fell and was buried where he fell, the 
iieup ov..r this mnrks toe boundary point, where a pillar is now erected. 
Tiiere ib another Jin\t Gunjei in Tam])in, said to be that of a female Gunjei. 

(<)) " Lubok," pool in a river ; " talan," a tree (in other parts of the couu- 
tr>' calle<l " gapis ''). 

(7) *' Ffringgi " Portuguese ; " dftsun " orchard. 

(H) " Kc'par," a very pecidiar stumpy kind of palm. 



hief plaoee. 



The E^inbflH branch of the Linggi from Sempang upwardi f ornn 
the rest of tlie bounORrj line. 

The boimdnrj with Sungei Cjong wat fixed about two jean ago 
by Hii Excellency Sir F. A. Weld, ni, proriotia to that time. tb«r# 
had been disputes abont it. It now runs as follows :^from Sempang 
to Bukit Mandi Angm, thence to PLrhentian Tinggi, ami thence 
to GAnong Angei. The boundary on the inland eide towardi 
Sri Mciianti, Inas or Ji^Iei, and Joliol has shifted from time 
to time, Gnnon^if Pasir, which is now under Sri Mutianti, Is chn'med 
as properly belonging to llembau, though in Newbold's time it 
was said to have origitmlly belonged to Johol, and thh lastia eon- 
firmed by the aborigines, who aro the best authorities. The 
boundaries with Sri MCnanii are said to be Gihioug Tiijoh, and Gu- 
nong Lipat Kfijaug. 

Those with Johnl, Botu Giljah (on hill of thut oame), Giiiiong 
Dato\ Pt^rbentian Lantei {or Tingi^i) on Bukit Clu Api-Api, and 
(inelnding Tamjiin) BAti^ Bcri^iit (now claimed to be in Tampin, 
Pcrhentiaii Mauggis being said to be the right point, on Bukit 
Kiida Mati), Jeram Kambing and Bukit Put us. 

Sempang, where the Remhau ftnd Pcnar join to form tlie Linggi, 
and where wo have now a Police Station on a small piece of land 
ceded to Government in L874, waa formerly one of the chief places 
in Rcmhau ; Kwahi Ptdas, a few milefi further up on the right Ixink, 
waa another, but ihevliavo hulh been abandoned. At Bandar Kui^au 
was the residence j^ the Yam Tiian Mudaj and latterly of the late 
Pcnghulu Haji Sail In Nkwholt/s time the PC'Ughfdn lived 
at Clirmbong. The prcBCnt Pt^nghuUi rcKidet^ at Gtt-mayun near 
Chcugkau^ where IJaji Sail Imd another residence. H-rmban, in 
proportion to its size, is, no doubt, the most populous of these 
native States, being probably abont 1 1,000, exclusive of Tatnpin» 
Krn and Trbong; the details will be found in the table shewing the 
constitution of the country ; in Newdold (tS30) it is given at 9,0«)0 
ioclnding Tampin aiid Km. The most populous part of the country 
is said to be inland at Sri Lcmalc and Clu Nepri, but this is not 
confirmed by tho numbers I have itbtained. From the table first 
alluded to, it will be seen of what a miied character the population 



of Bdjiu 


ii. Thej likewise bear» among th© Malays, the charaoter of being 
pre-etninently treacheroue. The Glidong diftriet (lying between 
oar frontier and Gilnong Dato') near which Haji Maatafa lives, 
' it taid to be the harbour of robbers and cattle- lifters, but Haji 
Mas^tafa i» too far advanced in years, too imbecile, and too much 
in tbe hands of others to do anything to improve matters j but 
nnder the new n-gitne we may in time look for amendment. 

As Kumbau used to he the place of installation i?f the Yam Tilan 
or Yang-di-pcrttlan Bt^aar, it will not be out of place to deal here 
with the anbjeet of the Yam Tiiane. Tlie onginal States in the 
interior of this part of the Peninsula, accordinj^ to tradition, before 
they became ** Negri Srmbilan " wereKMang, Jrk-bu, Hiingei Cjong 
and Johol, with seniority in the order given. 

The ** N«"gri Scmbilan " are stjited by Newbold, and probably cor 
rcctly, as being origiually as follows, Kelang^^ Jclebu, 8nngei grisc^mbilu 
0jon^, Joliol, Segamat, NAuing, Kcnibim, lihUi Pnhang (iucludiug 
Stirting and Jcuipol) and Jclei (in Pah{t^«;, adjuiaing Jrlelju)*(*) 
Kelang soon fell under the domluation of WCdrrugor 

Johol originally included Jempol and the whole watershed of the 
Moar as far as the Piilon^ on one side and Mount Ophir on the 
other, having on the N.& W. common boundaries with JClchUj Sungei 
t?jong, Ktinban and NTming (the latter now included in Malacca). 

H«Sgamat seems to have bemi absorbed by Johor a generation or 
two since. K^ning and Ei:m ban were children of Snngei Cjong, 
iind when the former of them came nujre fleetly under Dutch 
induencc, tSri JVlcnaJiti, or more correctly Iluln Moar, which ha*l 
aiiserted independence of Johol, took its place in the con federal ion. 

About the middle of b*st century, the Dutch, in conjunction with Origin ( 
the sovereign of Johor, Sultan Abdl^l Jalil Siiaii, who was suzerain J?"* '^^^ 

(1 ) There is of course iiDother J?!ei ulso Icnown as Inaa, which, tUl a ^nera- 
tion or two ag-o, formed part of Johol, nor is it clear that it is entirelj scp&r- 
lite now ; this district coiilii not have hoc.n one of the urig^inal " Negri Sdmbi- 
lim ; '* tho titk of its ubief ia the same us that of the Johol Dato\ while that of 
the J?lei in the tt^xt wr^s Mahardj^i PerJia. No doubt with the decadence 
of the Johor dymuaty, and the pnvctical independence of Ptvhangr, Jclei oeaaed 
to be r«igarded as aiijthing bat & dependency of the Bt'ndah^m* 



of the Nine States, appointed Daing Kamb^jaf a Bugia Prince, ai 
ihelr chief. 

J lis rule, howerer, was not approved of, and the PcDghfilus of Sim- 
gei Cjong, Johol, Hembau and Htllu Moar invited^ with the aasist- 
ance of the Dutch and the consent of Johor, the Princes of the 
M'"nangk«baii dynasty to come over as their chief j<. Daing Kamhoja, 
howe\*er, foimd support with some of the Penghuhis, and for r% tiine 
hostilities eneued between. the rival parti e?, hut in the end HA j a 
MC:lHwar» the Mt^nnngkribuu Prioce, prevailed, and Daing Ivambrga 
withdrew to Riau, where he died in 1773. Thenceforward Johor, 
by common couBcnt, hnd nothing more to do with the Nr-gri Seuiln- 

Raja MrhWar was then duly installed ae Yang-dipt'rtuan Brsar 
by the four Pioghulns of iSungoi Cjong, JohtO, Rrmbau andlluln 
Moar (who were i?tyled the Fcnghulu Bi^Jantik from their otBee of 
installing the suzerain^^ in llembau, whiidi was thenceforth called 
" Trmah KLTJunn/* i,e,, the place where tlie Imstnrsa of installation 
is performed, not **karaja-uii/* so it is 8aid.(*) 

Thence the suzerain proceeded to Sri Menjuiti, his place of rej^i- 
deoce, so named from the chief and Eiitins there waiting to reeeive 
him in etato, and it was called '* T^nah Mr^ngandong.'X*) 

The h/ihis erected for the suaerain on his visits to the differfnt 
States wereconfetnicied of peculiar form, whitdi must not be altered. 
That in 8nngei^Pjong was called ** Brdei MClintang '' ac*cording 
to the bent acconnt, tigui^atlvely speaking from [ts Fenghillu being 
in a position to oppose auy innovations at tempted hy the Yam 
Tuan j(*) that in Johol '* Bfllei Birtingkat " in the same way, being 
as it weix% a third story on iSungei t jong and Itemhan, and being 
nest door to Sri Meuanti. would britig their representations riglit 
up to the Astana. 

(1) I BJB dlBpoi^ed to think It H?g»**ladBi|ilw>ti^ origin all v. 

(S) " KtindoDj^," to be with child, in lihtffc senie to carry, to support^ so this 
place liore or ftUT)ix>rted tiie Yam Tiiun BOj<itr. 

(8) Kot* I am infontied, aft Newbold eUitofl, becmuie it was buDt at right 
uiglee to the river. The aJiegorlcul explaiuition giveji in the text is more in 
^eoord&nce with Malay idean. 

rBmbau. 247 

Tlie real power in these States is vested with the PSnghiilu, that Real power 
of the suzerain being nominal only. Newbold, from whose writings JJjthP&ighl 
I have taken mucli of the account hero given, states that, on the 
elevation of Raja Melawar to the office of Yang-di-pcrtuan, the foi- 
lowintr arrangement was agreed to between him and the PiJnghillus: 
that he should avssemble them on affairs of State and submit to a 
majority ; that his maintenance be furnished equally by the inhabi- Mainten^o 
tants of the four States, each house contributing annually a gan- BSaar. 
tang of padi, two cocoa-nuts and one suku {i.e., 13j cts.). 

On the occasion of a death, marriage, or circumcision in the 
Royal Family, each Punghulu was to send three buffaloes and to 
furnish a certain sum for distribution (probably for the benefit of 
the various officers who took part in the ceremonies). 

In the case of a war also, the Penghulu was expected to come 
forward with a certain contribution of men, arms, ammunition, and 

The Ptnghiilu derived his revenue frogi his power of inflicting pcnghfila^B 
iiues, and from contributions in kind made by the people of his r«v«"*'i©« 
State ; he was said, too, to have the power, in other Malay countries 
reserved to the sovereign, of enforcing gratuitous labour, but I 
doubt if the power has been exercised, except to a very limited 
extent. (/) The respective positions of Vang-di-pcrtuan and Peng- 
hulu arc also defined by the following verbal Menangkabau tradi- 
tions: — 

Undany-undang of the N^gri SemhiWk (*) Undang-un 

Al(u/i neu bcrdja, Idh'ik nen herp^nghuiu^ sdku h^riuha, anak hdah 

bertbu hdpa. 
The kingdom is under the Raja, the district under the Penghulu, 
the 8uku under the elder, and the members of the suku 

(1) Such as helping in padi-pUntin^: and repairing the Pgnghaiu's house 
and Itnoe. 

(2) i.e , of the " J'^rputih (or iKjrLapB more pro|)erly " P&ti " Plhang) SabA- 
tan^f, opposed to which is the "adat tOm^nggongan/' I may refer to this in 
greater detail on a future occasion. 



imder tLe ibuhapa, (lit., father aod mulher) lille of lubordi'- 
uate elder, 

^ahint^kah tdnah ihbdiik^ %a hilei urat Myu yan<f puiu» undang 
yang pttuya. 

Every clod of eaith upturned, evury slip t>f root aimpped, ia the 

Drri huftt dyer m^nijcuchcn^ sampti kahilir omhak m^mechah^ To^ 
BandtJi* ynng^funtja. 

From tho trickling »oun?e of tbe stream to the mouth when the 
wnvcs hvei\k is the To' Bnndar*». 

Di ptjak tdnah ^ dl lamjkah ukat undang yang punya. 

All the soil and roots uuder foot belong to the Pmghulu. 

Di sntik ay^r, dt put ah ranffnq aa champak ijdhh di itpi ti^'bing 
To" Bandnv yang pum/a. 

All water taken, or boughs broken within reach of a pun ting- 
pole from the ban^s, belong to the To* Baodar. 

Adat ttu di tinjak{^) ht^u^ di dUh mdii. 

Neglect of these customs will bring dec:ij on the country, and 
if they are changed, destruction will result. 

Adapun Bdja itu tiddtt m^mjmnyai nPgri dan tidda Mleh menehukei 
Icharajaff mHainknn h'-rkadJilan sahaja sMa pSrmdkananya 
diiH sasukUf bh'QS dua tjtmtan^t ^itor safdlL 

Now the Bfija docs not own the country, nor can he levy taxes 
on its prodrj^ but with him liea the final award of justice 
only, auil he obtains a maintenance of a *' wuku '* (12 cents), 
two gantang8{gallonB) of rice and a string of (i.e., 2) cocoa- 
nuts. [A contribution from every householder.] 

Kama iPsar than hahHat shar b^lat katehintj. 

For the fish (being prcHSed) rest against the weir and the weir ia 
attached to the bank, (/.e., the Lcmbagalookto the P^SnghiLln, 
and the PgnghlHu to the ESja)* 

Jika runtoh t^hing^ Innnsa luh Mlat, 

If the bank gives way the weir is destroyed {i.f,, if tho R^ja is 
without justice, the Pfinghilln is undang*h$$) and the four 

B^MBAU. 249 

8uku8 are without their L^mhdga,ihe warts get no inheritance, 
and the country is destroyed). 

The following table gives a view of the Yang-di-pSrtilans Besar Table of 
and Muda from the time of their first introduction to 1832, from •^^*"*- 
which it will be seen that up to the time of Eaja Ali's appearance 
on the scene, the Yang-di-pcrtuans came over regularly from 
Menangkabau. He was called in by the Rembau people to help 
in the conduct of hostilities against Yam TQan Muda Baja Asil, 
and his son Raja Haji, who had given offence by a marriage that 
was considered unlawful. 

(From MHangkdbau.) Yam Tuan Besar. Yam Tuan Muda. 

Raja MiiLAWAB. 

( Do. ) Adil [ (died 1795-96) 

leaving Rajas Asil and &ilBUN, latter 
became Yam Tuan of Jelebu, and 
TfiNGKTT PCtih.] 

( Do. ) HiTAM (died 1808.) Raja Asil (son of 

Yam Tuan Besar, 
Raja Adil.) 

( Do. ) Lenugang Laut (died VKaja Ali (1815.) (') 

1824) had two sons Radix and 


( Do. ) Labu (1820.) 

Ali 1832. Syed Sab an 1832. {^) 

( 1 ) Son of Raja Hitam's wife by her former husband, Raja Haman, brother 
to Sultan Ibrahim of Sehingor. 

(2) Tengku Antah, the present Yam TAan of Sri MCnanti is son of Rfija 

(3) Syed Hamid, the present ruler of Tampin, is his son. 

R&ja Alj. 


Sjed Hftmid. 

Orig-iu of 

Chief fl and 


Biija All iotrigued himself into the position of Yam THan Mftda, 
and after the defeat and retirement from the country of Kija 
Labu, tlie last Mcnangkuhau priuce, he succeeded in obtaining 
tbe object of hie ambition, the position of Yam Tuan Bcsar, to 
which, as to that of Yam Tuan Muda, be had no real claim at alh 

From the time uf his advent till quite hitelj, llcmbau and the 
neighbouring States have continued to be troubled by a series ot 

liv appointed Syed Saban, hU son-in-law, Yam Tuan Muda, who 
waa nltimately unable to hold hia own, and after the Nnniug war 
became a pensioner of the Govcrnmeut, living alternately in Malacca 
andTampiu, which latter place hiis, from tlie time of the first Tarn 
Tuan Miida RAja A si I, been aswigneO to tho prince holding; that 
position for his uiaiutennnce. 

Syed 8aban's aon» Teugku Syed Ilamid. though he haa long en- 
deavoured to obtain the posilion of Yam Tfian Muda. has never 
succteded in secuiing the needful rccognitioo, and now rules in 
Tampin only, which may bo now conBidered to be as completely 
eevcrcd from Rcmbau, as that State in from any fiu'ther connection 
with a Yam Ti\an either Besar or ^hlda. 

The following account ombodiea those traditiona which have 
been imnded down inRembau ngarding the origin of thePcnghrthi, 
of pome of tlae cbicfH, and of souie of the stiliig, and will be found ^ 
as might have be|^xpected, to differ in some points from otbcrs 
on the sauie t^ubject already referred to and ohtained from differi'nt 
source 8. 

Among the '' Ltmbf^ga " or eigbt ehiefs of /* Buku *' the two 
highest are the G«"mpa Mahanijft, and Mtlrah Bangsii. 

This is becauae, ou the decease of a Sv^dia EAja Penghulu, when 
the ehiefs are ai*sembled for the election uf his successor, the Dato' 
Gi?mpa Maharaja*« duty is to install him and notify it to tho people. 
And on the decease of a Lcla MahnrAja Ptlni^hidu the Dato' Mcrah 
Baugsa discharges t^imilar functions. 

Tbe four LemViga in the low country are held senior to the four 
inland, and wben one of the former dies, hia insignia are half those 
displayed on the death of a Ptnglu'du, wbile tlio^e of m\ inland 



chief are slightly less ; money, for instance, is not scattered on the 

wajj nor are cloths spread on the path. The story of the ori;;m of Origin o3 

raja PCrfa 
and PCkti] 

Dato' Gempa, Dato* Pi;rba^ and Dato' Piltih Is as follows: There 
was a chief named Dato'(*) Biiidahfira *Sakudei(*) (his wife was a s 
JakiiD, dau^'hterof Oatio Sarlbn Java, she was iMilcd PriuceBs Long- 
hair), who earao from Johor with hia followers to open Rem ban. 
After him came a man from Mciiangk^bau imined Dato* Lt'teb, and 
he and his party became tru&tod to the I)ato' Btodahsira, and sup- 
ported the people from Johor : they all settled at a plat-e called 
Krhuu Ltida (Pepper Garden). After a time BCndahrira Sukudei 
had three chihlrcti (female) the eldest naiijed Dato' Bungkal, the 
next Dato' M ddek, and the yo^jngest Dato' Mengkadii. Later on he 
removed to Sunc^ei Cjong, hut he left his eldest cliild Dato' Puno- 
KAL in Rt mbaii with Dato' Lrteh, Dato' Leteli belonged to the 
Mandiling branch of the Hutu Hampar Snkn. and at the time all 
those of the Batn Hampar 8uku who came over from Mcnangka- 
bau to Rcmbau put themselves under him. 

There were ftve branches of the Bittu Hampar Sdku from 
Mcoangk ban who adhered to Dato* Lt:teh* viz,, the MandJling, 
the Cheniagaj the Paja Bidara, the Pa gar Chiuchang, and the 
A gam. 

In course of time Dat43' Lcteh looked rouod for a suitable hus- 
band for the daughter of the BcudahfAra, and while he was consi- 
dering; the matter, there came a Mi5riangkilbau/^n of the Chi^nijiga 
branch of the Batu Hampar fciuku named ^"fflfo' Iicla Balang, 
to ask for Dato' Buugkal as a wife ; all the family were agreed to 
it, and they were married. 

In due course Dato* LcLi Bllang became father of a soiij whom 
he named L<^la Maharaja. 

When he was about six years old, and the country had become 
populous, Dato' Leteh consulted with Dato* Lcla Bulang, and 
suggested that it would be advisable for the latter to go to Johor 
and make o\*er the country, for it belonged to the Dato* Bt?ndahrkra 

(H The account quoted tn^frn cfLlIs him a Batin, which would imply that he 
was kimseLf » jAkun. The title of Bt^ndahara Its novr m uso amongst the Jakuns. 
(3) Probttblj because he come from the rivt^ of that name in Johor, 

tntof Pffng- 

cond np- 
intment of 

(Sakftdei), the t 
country but Lei 

Then Data* LCla Bulang went with Dato' Laut Diilam who wa* 
a Mcnantjkabau man with a Javanese wife, to Johor antl there 
the son of Dato* Lela Balang was appointed Pcnghulu Wla Maha- 
nija, but while he was in hk minority Dato* Lt4a BaUanf^ under- 
took the duties, and was given the title of Datt>* Gempa Maharaja. 

Then came Dato' Laut Dalam complaining to Dato' Lula Btilaug 
that he hxid obtained the Penghrduahip for hin aoa and the adminis- 
tratiun of it for himself with a title, while ho, Dato' Laut DAhini 
had got nothing for hh trouble (the journey to Johor ?). Then 
Diito* LChi Bui an g returned to the presence the same day and 
reprcftented the state of niatter?*. The B«ja asked whether Dato' 
Laut Di\lam had any daughters, and finding he imd, decided that 
when he grev? up L^'la Mahari\ja shouhl marry Bato' Laut Drdam's 
daughter, ami if he got a chil<l. that child should be Penghuhi 
St'dia RAja, wdmse duties should be undertaken b}' Dato' Laut 
Dalam^ and Dato* Laut Dalam had the title of Dato' MSrah Bangsa 
conferred on him. They then returned to lirmbau. (*) 

It was suhsef^ucnlly decided, in couftultatiou with Dato' Ltteh, 
that ail the ChcniA^a branch of the Batu Hampjir Suku should be 
handed over to thechar^ge of the Dato* Clompa Mahan\ja, i.e.^ Dato' 
Lcia B^lang. The o/ r four branches of the suku remained under 
Dato' Luteh, who ws Dato' Putili, and have so continued to this 

The deacendants of Dato* Laut Dftlam became the " waris " of 
the Pcngbiilu Scdia llAJn, becausje of the mother havini? been Java- 
nese, and when the " waris '* of both Pi-nghalus had become nume- 
roua, an elder was put over t!iom with the name of Dato' Pcrba> 
who wae chosen alternately from each side, being at one time 
Jakun and the next Jflwa» 

Dato* Piitih has always been considered to be connected with the 

0) This and tho other Stiit^^s were no doubt At the time of the taking of 
Sluhicca by tha Port ugxiese iuhabited by aborigines onJy. These latter asBiffted 
in the defence of Malacca with their primitive weapoas. 



in tfe] 


I& the tiM of 

s gtrcB 



people was taken to wife br s miii of tbe J 

LoftiieI>4to* IVtlui*9< 
r tribe in TuBpui, ' 
but Us people did not psftbeBarnisedowfy. On tkis tbe Data* 
FirU and Data' PStih mft c r «»— llaatka eMBMoaed their people to*^ 
gelber aod went to l^kupin to deBisiid tbe dowrr ; thej kept up 
tlie ttttAck for about m fortiiigbtt bet withovt swceas; tben Dalo' 
fitib end Dato* FMincelleil lo tbetr aid Daia* Mabaiija Siadm, 
Dato* htU Angsa^ and Dato* Ganti Mabarija; tbeee tbree agre>ed to 
b^Ip tbem in tbe a&ir tber were engaged in, and aateemMgd all 
tbeir people and attacked Tampin, wKicb waa defieated at tbeir ^r»t 
attempt ; tbe ICnngfcar people admitted tbe dowry claini, and the 
matter was settled. Tben tbe ^t^ Dato retnmed to Hcmbau, and 
ibere tbey agreed to act togetber always, and they bad a fea^^t and 
8lau;;litered buffaloes, and Pengbulu Kd«ir removed to a placo 
called Mesjid Batu FutiL, wbere there was a great assembly and 
the fire ehiefa meotianed registered ao oath with the spiUing(^) of 
blood and under the Koran, that they would remain fire elders 
with one Lembiiga, each with his own people^ but of one uiind, 
whether advantage or injury should acer^ftLhey should share it 
as long as the sun and moon, which cannot change, endure* Which- 
ever of the B^e chiefs should change or depart from the above 
solemn agreement^ he would be punished by the tcs^timouy of the 
thirty books of the Koran, the Majesty of Pagar Ruyong would 
fall upon him, and the weapon Kftwi would make nu end of him. 
Thiis was tho origin of the five eukiis, and thenceforth Dato' Peng- 
bQlu KAsir spoke of the four and five aiikus, in the low cuiiotr}', 
with respect to tho ** bcrampat bcrliina siiku," and the ** bcrainpat 
bcrBcmbilun suku *' inland. It ia said that the first settling of thi^ ^ 

(1) Each imrty pnte aome of his blooti into a oup* and then each dip® hia j 
finger into tbe blood and conveys it to hla mouth* 



part of the countiy was agreed on by tliree chief d from Mdnang- 
kubau ; one Dato* Laut of Paya Kamboh (^) selected a stream called 
LA van ^ : from him Dato' 8i Maliarfija (^) is descended : another Dat^^' 
Putih from 8n Lcmak took the stream called Lubok Ruaa ; from 
htm is descended Dato* Siada Maharaja :(*) another Dato' Inda Pctra, 
a man of Batii Balani]; took the stream of Bintongan ; ho waa the 
nncesttjr of Dato' Andika. (") 

These three all be^^an planting in the placea named. Tbej 
claimed from the sources of tho streams to their junction with the 
main stream. While oriLjai^od in clearing, they heard the aouod of 
many trees falling down stream withm the range of their claims, 
on going to aeo the cause, thej found one Dato' Put eh KcpS,la a 
Sri Mt'ltinggaDg man of ^lenangknbau occupied in clearing. {Dato' 
MandL*lika (^)defleends IVom him,) The place was called Bain Ham- 
par. Then thero was a ilispute between the three chiefs and Dato' 
Puteh Kcpala, the former claiming from the gullies to tlie mouths 
of their sitreams, saying t^ey had settled there hrst; the l^ttter 
claimed the same, arid tlieir claims wero equally strong, for they had 
been all recognised from Johor. Later on authority came from the 
Penghulu dividing the land between them, and making the boundary 
from Bfitu MLUunggul to Tnnggnl Mcrbau in the Batu Bk*.^ar jun- 
gle, and thence to Tunggril Chtlchar, on to Kwtda Anak Aycr 
Ilitam in the Sepri stream ; wliocver went up the Leng stream must 
be under Da to* SlJf /liarija, whoever went up the Lubok Ilu8<a 
stream must be un^^M)at«.y Sinda Maharaja, anil any one settling 
up Tao Bintouj^aci stit?am must bo under Dato' Andika. So the 
Tiga BAtn people under Nang Bcsar, who went up the Bintongan, 
were under the jurisdiction of Dato* Andika. So Ukewir^e in the 
case of the ScprI, Dato' PcnghuUi Uban bn3ught two men from 
Johor, Dato' Chindei Luatan (a Bcduanda, from whom descends 
Dato' Si^lir Maharaja), and a Mt-nangkabau man of the Pilya 
Bidrira branch of the B;Uu llampar, (from whom Sytan Bt^udahara 
is descended), and told them to settle on the Scpri, They worked 

(1) Kame of a ruflh-like gfrofls growing in swampy grrotiiL4 
(3) Lt'inbaga " di-darat,** 



witli tho three ehiefs, Bafco' Si Maharaja, Dat^^' Sitida Maharaja, 
anii Dato' Andika, and tliey became five sakus, and were called 
" brrampat berliraa suku^' boio^ cotiiiued withm the boundaries 

Further down streaui came D.ito* Muiigiraig of the Mun^^kar 
sukti from ^iriohap,( *) and a M^naugkslbau man, i, e,, Dato' Mahnraja 
InJa, making three with Dato' Putih Kopfila, /'. ^., Date' Maudciika, 
and these were called three clderjj and one Ltimbaga. 

The origin of the appellation '* berfiembihm '' i« that they des- 
cended from nine mothers in these three i^ukus, four in tho Sri 
Mt'len<jgimg, three in the Mnngkar, in tho Tiinah Datar (") two ; these 
worked together, together bore disgrace and shame. 

The eight Lemhaga of sukus, fonr in the lo.v country and four 
inlaui], hold the next position in the State to llio Penghulu, and in 
all affairs* of' consequence ho is obliged to cotisult them and to 
follow the opinion of the majority^ and no treaties or agreements 
affecting the country generally are vaTid without tbeir signaturo. 
The four Oning I>ei»ar, though not heads of silkus, still, from their 
position as *' wans'' and con3e<|uent eligibility for the Pengliulu- 
Khip, arc able to exercise considerable influence. But subordi- 
nate ehiefuS of intriguing eharai:ter are, of course, often found to 
have an influence greatly disproportioned to their ollieial position. 
The Dato' Pcrba, theforemoatof the " duablas ttCiku/* also occupies 
an influentifil poaition, from bis being the ^iid of the joint sAku of 
Bi'duunda Jakini and Beduanda Jawa, fr>wr*^vhich he, like the 
Pi^nghiilu, is alternately eleeted. He ia aUo eligible for tho Peng- 
huluship. It will also be noticed that his siikn is by far the most 
liumerouB, being double any of the othcris. 

The soil of Ecmbau resembles that of arming generally. The Natuic 
l«Eme may bo said of ita pliysical configuration ; the country i.s of con 

undulating character, the depressions being mostly "sawah/' 
and the rising ground kampongs or secondary jungle. The hill^, 
except near the Malacca frontier, seem to be of lesB elevation than 
in NAning, Bukit Bcsar is the only mountain in the country, eielu- 

(1) InNftning. 

J/atar^ i. c. fiat. 



nive of those in the ranges which divide it from Snngei tTjong, Sii 
Menanti and Johol. 
i-land The ^'sflwah " or padi-fielda are extensive, but a good deal is 

now out ot* cultivation^ owing to tbe fatal cattle disease wliich has 
ragecl during the last three years, and has carried off almost all 
the buffak)es. I saw very few indeed, 

A lar^e proportion of the "tiawflh'- have, however, been planted 
nut with padi this season , tlie Ileitis having been prepared by means 
of a large wooden '* changkul '' or hoe, which is much used by the 

Tbe ** a^wah *' divisions ( ** ja!or " or ** pt^tak *' ) strike mo as being 
a good deal smaller than tboae m our territory, probably owing to 
the fiR't that they are cultiv/vted by hand, and the '* bataa '* or 
dividiog ridges appear much better kept. 

The soil of the *'ftiwah'* ffe of a lighter colour thad ia common 
iu MatatTa and there U more tendency to sand and ipiartz grit in it. 

The yieltl appears to be high, averaging eighty to ninety^ and in 
8ome plaooB run3 ae high aa a buodred-fokL At Qadong I noticed 
tbe ** Biiwah" soil waa a very wliite clay with an admixture of grit, 
and was told it waa partieolarly good and produced a hundred-fold. 
In thiH, as in other Malay countries, a certuiu amount of** ladang/^ 
or high-land cultivation, of padi takes place, more particularly 
when circumstances are unfavourable for the *'8t\wah" or wet cul- 
tivation, ^^u 

There ia no tin \^^ffcd in ItL-mbau, though it was acknowledged 
that it exiated, but was not worked for fear of the water flowing 
from the working.-* pnisoning the '^sAwah*' and preventing the 
cuUivation of padi. At CUi Prdas tin bus been worked, but T beard 
it had been given up owing to rival claims. 

Grnnitc w the prevailing rock, but fjuartz occasionally appears 
cropping up to u limited extent, and loose fragments are found in 
the stream;*. The soil on the mountains of Tampin ami Dato* is 
good^ of light brown, occasionally clayey. The variety of ferns on 
GQnong Datu' was considerable. The Tampin soil is said to be 
richer than any in Malacca, except that in the Machap district 








HE followitii; sketch of these two rivers, tnken the notes of a trip which the writer had the 
pleasure of undertaking recently in the company of 
Mr. A. H* Everett, known for his rcaearchci* into 
the ornithology of the Philippines^ do not claim to be 
more than a cursory survcvt hut uitiy contain some eleraeiitj^ 
of interest. ti3 treating of two rivers tl«it have rcmuined prac* 
tically unvislted since the respective visits of Mr. Burbidoe, 
the botunist, on his journey to Kina J^uhu and of the present 
Sir SpE^'SEii St. John, in one of his numerous exploring 

'I he TawAran river is reported to take its rise in tbo moui\- 
tainn flanking the great mountain of Kina Balu to tlie South, 
An affluent of it, howevrr, called by the Ljcal Duauns the 
Sungei Dumit, which flows into the ^Aki stream on its 
true right bank at a point some f(*w nnld^Hy from the hcu, 
is said by them to flow mure from the North oi East, and rnay, 
therefore, be siirmised to take its rise from the western (hink 
of the big mountain. Tlie muutfi of the Tawaran open« to the 
westward, and is partly closed by the invuriablc sandy bar 
which obstructs the entrances uf all the riv^ers of thia part of 

Starting from the island of Gaya, where the North norneo 
Company have a station, our route lay across the bav of tfiat 
name, past the mouth of the Menjigatal, er ICuhatuan river 
whii-h, debouching to the westward, has good anchoratre in 
deep water off its mouth, to a landing plate called (ianijgan 
•itnat© in the bight of Sapangar bay, where formerly tht» vil- 



la^rc of Gantieati stood, A low neck of land separates Sapan- 
giir bay at this poiut from the adjacent basin of the Karinibu- 
nai river. Coal is reported by the natives at thi** point. The 
water supply h p>od, and thrre is secure anchorage close in- 
nlmvv |>rott?cU'd frosn bfJlh monsoons. A very slight cutting 
wouhl KuHice tn pierce tliis narrow collar^ and vvonhl thus 
remlr^r riMnlisan, the nutimd ontlct of the trade td'thc Karim- 
hunai, MengkAhonp: nnd Tawrtnin rivers. The soil of the 
whohi of Huh divitliiig vuU^e is apparently lateritic siiudstone. 
Dtr'icriiflinp; into the valley of th<^ Kjinmbunai river, a short 
walk d'lu li its left brink hroui^ht n« to tin? village of that nanir; 
the henflqiiiirb-rs of PnnocrriTi Kaup, tlie Governfir of tlie dis- 
trict, 11 fciifhitdry oi' the SuU:in of Brnnei aurl a member i»f 
the former lirunei royal funnily. On examining an outerop 
of the «trata on the river b«!ik, the strike provefl to be N.K. 
with a tlip of jibnut HO^ bed rock sandstone. After an inter- 
view with tlie old Panfffiran, a boat was procured in which we 
^)!rrhl^^l down to th*' ei)minf>n month td" the Karinibunai atid 
dcn^kjil>un!ij rivoTH. ''nHH is rcinarkaldy narrow and woukl 
Neeui to bavr hern furitnicted by the formation of a high sand- 
bank which ha8 bem, and is being, pnshcd southwards by the 
iiiflnerrec (*f the north-ea8t monsoon and of the heavy swell 
from the Chiua Sra, the action of the opposing monsoon being 
^'rcaMy neutralized by the proteetiun attbrdcd by the project- 
iuijf bbilf of i'myn lii^jid to the soulh-wcstward. The entmnee 
iw huh\ (o lit' J/iiiJtf th'cp, but would probably be impraetica- 
bio ill heavy iiuJ^\\vsU*i\y winds. Paddling up the broad 
expanse of tliu Men^klibou};' liver, our coui-sCj on the average, 
being about K» by N,, we come upon some fine reaches of 
water. , Nnmerou'^ cbauuclj^ Ijraucheil of}* from the main one, 
whicli Will* lliiuk*?d Itj ihf mulliward by mangrove growth, and 
to iLl' honth and * ant by ^ruKsy hill.s, while a bold range taw- 
en 'd up to the S.K, A few mili's further brought us to a 
point nt wliith the rivtr I'Xpands^ into a large, lake-like sheet 
of water, fn^m tlie upper oud of ^ bich a perfect network of 
brotid charivcls divrrjie^ dotted in all directions with Bajau 
villages extending far away up to the foot of the mountains. 

Eight feet or go» 



Tbe entire population of this district ii Bajaw, and is sup- 
ported mainly by fishing, a little hill padcly being grown as 

The Mengk&bong "river,'' so called, bf^ars evidences of 
.having been originally an inlet of the sea dotted with .sand- 
stone islands, which have, for th-^r most part, become cnouected 
by the rising of the land and by the silting up oF the ba^in 
itself* the bkirking up of the mrnitb of wltitrh, by s:ind-bar^, 
has led to its assuming its present form. In general fea* 
tares, it much resembles the SuKiman basin» no great distaaec 
to the north of it. 

After threading this watery labyrinth for some hours we 
penctrsited a narrow chanuel aiul landed at its headj at a small 
kampontf called Brungis, whence a walk of about uu 
hour over a low ridgo, and then across a broad plain, 
brought uti to the banks of the swiftly flowing TuwAnin river, 
which at this point is a fine stream rolling it*? turgid yellow 
tiood along between sandy b:inks of ^nediuiu heigh I. The 
Tawfiran here interHcetd a level phnu uf large extent and sandy 
soil, dotted with homcHteads surrounded by plantations of 
cocoa-nuts, and here and there nntler pathly cnltivatinu. llus 
filain is bonuded by tho sea to tlie \V., by the moontains of 
the upper TawAran to the E,j and to the 8. by the low ridge 
mentioned above, which divides the respective water-sheds of 
the Ttiwuran and the Mengkuhoug. On ihe northern bank 
the plain apparently extends to tite foot^^« the mountains 
separating the Tawtlran from the SulaTnaii^tsin. Our route 
from Bruugislay East, East by North and then North, and the 
portion of the plain traversetl had a general fall towards the 
East of North, Imt a very slight one. 

On striking the river, our course lay upstream for some con- 
siderable distance, at first over level ground, and then, when 
the limits of the plain had been reached, and the true valley 
of the Taw4ran entered, along the steep flanks of hills abut- 
ting on the stream, where a f^ilse step would often have preci-, 
^litatcd one into the flood below. Fields of paddy, groves of 
oeoa-mit trees, lierds of buffaloes, together witli pigs, goats 
and poultry, betokened a w^ell-to-do and prosperous population. 
Siipar-cane appeared to thrive, but the specimens seen were 



liot well planted and were short in the staple. Some of the 
Dusun h'linesteads clottd about this Ta^virdn plain pos^^ea-ied 
quke a home-like air of tranquillity and rep(i33 abrnit them. 
Nestling in tlie grateful shade of cocoa-nat groves, bowered ia 
broad- lea%'ed bananas, and girdled with green pmlly tiells, 
they had a pleasant look to the tired traveller's eye. Snowy 
pad«ly birds duttt*d the verdant pasture;*, huge adjutaot birds 
flew on lazy wing from puiiit to pSnit. Tae sceie was not 
without its idylliu charms, nor wt^re bome-assjciatioiis want' 
ing in the faiuiliar-soundiug caw of t\w jiorncancrow (Oorvus 
faikhisj a* it was borne to the ear on the breeze. 

The district towards the mouth of the Tawaran is called the 
Timbalung country, and has a Bajan colony settled in it. 
Above this point the Dosmi population prevaiU, though a 
Bajau house may be found liere aud there, The tnbal de.>ig- 
nation of the Ttiwdran I*U8un8 is Laimi^ and it may here be 
mentioned that tluit of X\u^ Dusuns up the Tampa^^suk river 
further north, is Tln^t! ; that of the Dusuns in tlie vicinity 
of tho North Borneo Company's Station tft Kudat, on the 
north coast, Memdguti { vide the late Mr. F, Witti ) ; \vhile 
that of tbe Dusuna up the Labuk river, on the east coast, is 

Reaching at sunset the house of a Bajau named Iinj, who Imd 
settled down there and had taken a Tawaran Dusun mnith ii to 
wife, we put up ft)r the night, our slumbers soothed by the 
potent iuHuerue^B sinue tttnK\ or cocoa-nut toddy, pressed 
upon us by tUflproprietor of a neighbouring iJusun hou^e. 
This distiiet we were told was called Tcllboug. 

An early start on the mon ow down the bank of the river, 
brought us to the village of Liong Liongan, the Tawflran at 
our starting point H«*wing from N,K. with a rap»il currcau Tuc 
bed rock of this region is sandstone. Proceeding some dis- 
tance further down stream we accomplislicd a penlons transit 
in a gohong, or dug-uut canoe of the very slemlerest di- 
mensions, C'eiait' nn vutnrais qitari tthcnrc. for neither of 
ns could swim, and the river, swollen by fitjod water^ resem«» 
bled a boiling, eddying Maebtrutn, but tuitune was kind, and 
on j-alely reaching the ri-ht bank, a short walk brought us to 
the Sungei Damitj which w*e struck a few hundred yards above 



its eonflufnce with the main river. Tli^ Sungei Damit is a 
deep, iliijtrgij^h stream shut in by high muddy baiiki?* tiere we 
hailed at the (uu^cof the Datu^ Baridara aad Tam:>nggoa^ — a 
large, l«>ug structure of tfie ordiimry Diiiin bara-like typ^. A 
sago extmcting apparatus was set up on tfic rUvr bank here, 
in whii'h product a moderite tnidc exists thv-^re, I had, e/i ra?*^e, 
notieed cocoa-nut aud =*roea p dmsj b^iuanas, keiidi^ and 
paddy in prufu^ir'n. The e.jiintry is in fact very proiperoas, 
iu despite of the rava;^e3 of tiic menii>rablo flood oi' January, 
185i3* wliieh vvn^i very destructive in^the Tawdran district. 
From th«^ Datu Tnnionggong's euDver!iatioa;, it uppiMred that a 
tarnti, or market^ wfts held at a place twj day>i* journey up 
the Sungei Damit, to whieh tlie people of Kiau — the village on 
the flankt^ of Kiua Bahi, visiteJ by Mcisrs. Bukbidge and 
BpExscH St, Johx at different times — cauie down to tra^le. 
Tiie route was, however, at present closed, owing to a blood- 

Returning in the afternoon to Inufe Imuse, we started, after 
a h^ht repa^it, for Tcrnpeluri, a village 8L*nio distant e up the 
TawAran. reaching tlie house of a Datu Ma?*suui nt about 8 
F.M. The Tawl'aii jy here a fine nt^d stream, bordered on its 
true right bank hy wooded hillH, arid on it^left liy level ground 
well planted witlieocda-nutij, with paddy fieKls beyond, bound- 
ed by hillis in the buek-gruund. The height of the river ren- 
dering it impossible for us t* proceed to Bawaug or Lokob, 
we returned to our head-quarters iu IbC^Jiousc at the loot of 
the hill of Tagerangan, after a tramp ^^togcther dome 15 
miles i»r mt»re. In the eveniug a native of Kiau, named 
BuHOARAX, arrived. This man, in the course of conversation, 
deidared tfjat no man had ever yet reached the true summit of 
Kina Ualu, which, he asserti-d, is inaccessible from every 
»idc when ouee a certain elevation ha.s been re-udicd, the re- 
mainder of the accent being sheer pteeipiee. He added that 
there is a Dusun legend to the elieet that a deep lake exists 
on the top This is piubably only a deduction on their part, 
drawn from the exisunce of perenoial cataracts dashing duwn 
the topmost precipices, which form a magnilicent feature in 
the hind»eaptj on the Tawarau, 

The climate m the Taw^ran valley is superb. At 5 a.m 



the thermometer will often stand as low as 68°, while the keen, 
cold air blowing down from the black towering summits that 
cut the eastern sky-line, invigorates the frame and braces the 
muscles for the coming labours of the tlar* It would require 
a poet's pen to do anything like justice to the gorgeous scenic 
effects and grand transforraatiou scenes^ as the orb of day 
rises behind the jagged mountain barrier. The whole country 
is so well opened np, that the monsoons have free play, and 
fever should be companitiveJy nnknown. The soil may be 
described as sandy near the eea, but of every quality as one 
proceeds inland. Kina Balu bears about E.S,E, from the plain 
near the river mouth. 

An hour's walk brought ns back to Brungis, where we had 
left our pakerangan^ or native boat, and some hve hours 
more brought us to Gaya island, whence a start was effected 
early <»n the ensuing murning for the mouth ofthePutatan 

The Piitatau river hm two mouths — the Patilgas month, 
which lies a little to the E. of S» of the most southerly point 
of Gaya island at a distance, in a direvi lincj of about five 
miles, roughly estimated,* and about half thj^t distance south 
of Taujong Aru ; and its main inoutli, Telipnk^ wtiirh lies a 
short distance to the southward of Triujuug Togoruugon, The 
former is the most aeces^iible < atrancc, the main kufda having 
a very gradually shoallug f >reshon*, and but little depth of 
water on it at higb^ater. The Patdgas moutli orwns to the 
westward and has^^Bicpth of abunt one fathom at low water. 
A short distance from it, to the northward, off Tiuijong Aru, 
there is good anchorage close inshore for pruhufi and small 
boats^ completely sheltered from both monsoons by an out- 
lying sand -bank. The Putatan river is an appiinai:e t^f the 
Sultan of Brunei, and of Pangcran Muda BrxjAi^s family. 

A paddle of little over a mile and a half^ passing en route ^ 
on the true right bank, the confluence of the httle river 
MuDglab^ brings one to a small B;gau village, the head of 
which is Hatu Kilan, From this point the Patil^as flows 
more from the 8.K,, and becomes very narrow and tortuou^ 
up to its divergence from the main Putatan, rather more than 
ji mile further on, where (and situate therefore at the apex of 




the delta of the 'Putatau) k a large Bajau kampong contaiu- 
ing some liundrcds of inhabitants. Directly above this the 
Du^un country bt^gin'*. The heal of this village is Datu 
S^TiA. On landing some two miles further up, I found Uaya 
island bearing about flue North. A cursory survey sliewed a 
fine open cultivated country, honudcd .some two miles off to 
the eastward by the foot-liills of tiie coant range, atid dotted 
here and there with wooded knolls. The river maintains 
an average width of some seventy or eighty yards, with a 
winding eourse, whose main axiw lies about East and West. It 
t*arries a g'H>d volume of water with a considerable amount 
of matter held iu solutiou. From native r* port, it is not sub- 
jeet to severe floods, which may perhaps be attributed to its 
having two mouths to discharge by. Passing at 2 p.m. a con- 
siderable Diisun village, in which the \eYy large house of 
Datu BAaUEls, the headman, is con^pienons, we ^xtal our 
head* quarters half an hour later, at the house of one Kawan, 
a Dusnn, at a small hamlet named Kandayan, From this 
point *' Castle Peak*' (of tlie Admiralty Chart) bore S by W,, 
while the right hand flank of Kina Balu bore 8tf' E. of N. 
After a pleasant walk across a iiue opcti country to the house 
of a Chinaman named An Kong^ whose oi^ciipation is that 
of diatillitig arrack from rice, we were glad on our return to 
settle down for the night* A daughter ui our host being ill 
with fever, I administered some tnedicine to her, and a regu- 
lar smoking divan was then formed, ail the men, and the 
la^lies alsOj joining the circle. The D|^m iu thia respect 
presents a favourable contrast to the seoro^, if not ^*^dour^' 
Malay. lie and all his belongings, male aud female, after 
doing the honours, will freely sit down with yon and join 
in the conversatiou. These Putatau Dusuns are by far the 
best type of their race that I have met. They are tall, well- 
developed, clean-skinned, bright and intelligent looking peo- 
ple, who look what they are — well-fed and well-to-do. 
Among the bevy of damsels that sat around^ were some by no 
means unprepossessing in appearance, with bright dark 
eyes, open laughing countenances, clean limbs aud well- 
turned figures, A chorus of laughter was evoked by my 
cbiperate endeavours to explain to an intelligent youug Du- 



8un that the earth is round like an orange, and not only 
revolves on its own axis, but round the sun also. Our mer- 
riment wos, however, interrupted by the raviuf^s of tlie fever- 
stricken patient, who had become delirious. Thereupon the 
entire compuny rose and adjcjurncd to the long and broad 
verandah, wdien a must curious ** function ** wafi performed. 
Damar torches were lighted, and all the men squatted 
down in a circle out.-ide the door of the patient^s room. In 
the centre sat her brotlier. liack to back with another relation. 
A tremendous din was tlnn ^truck np by the beating of 
numerous gongs, haugin-j rdong the wal!s^ in a kind of mea- 
surerl cadence, varied at intervals by a loud shout raised by 
all the men present. A youngish woman then com mi need 
to dunce with a slow measured step and swaying to and fro 
of her body, round the inside of the circle. In her left hand 
she held a stick, furnished at one extremity with a curious 
arrangement of black feathers. In her right she held a 
naked ewfud. With this latttr J^hc cciitinitally mode pulses, 
bringing the blade down edgeways b* ti^ctn the hcjids of the 
two sitting nicn,nnd then striking the fcatlicred stkk with it. 
This continued fir gon e time. She then touched tlie heads 
of all prestnt with her '* fetish'* rod, wddeh was then dis- 
cPidfd\ a fCKnr/ tiiktn up in its pluce. With this she 
danced slowly rcnnd and round, holdii g it out extended in 
front of her. All this time the shouts were being vigortmsly 
givfii forth at ii;tt^jals, while the t hinging of gr>ngs was 
deafening, llic j^p/i.'^in then made up the narcvg intu a tur- 
ban which she slcwTv brought down over the head of the sick 
we man^s brothf r, letting it rest there for a few seconds. She 
then removed it and laid it gen fly down lehind her, and the 
ceremony was over. A tt^rch-light piocesBion of truvelling 
natives, passing the veranduh jui>t at this juncture, lent an 
additicnidly weiul cflect to the conclusion of this curious 
ceremony, whose strange rites and obscure origin may per- 
haps be admitted to waircnt my des^ciiption cf it. Dinbi- 
lesfS the idea is the easting of the tvil .«;pirit out of the sick 
pel gen, and the gccd cfl'tcts of the jalJs liduiinistered to the 
patient were picbubly set down to the credit of the cere many, 
A pemai'kable thing in this district is the neatness and 




oompirative cleanliness of the bulk oi the houses, Instead 
©f the ohjectionable split uibottf/t the floors are made of 
beaten out bamboo, the walls, of the same material, neatly 
plaited, chess-board pattern. There are regular sleeping 
compartmentB, and a tine broad verandah runs from end to 
end of the house along the front of it. Our beds were 
arranged in the main body of the houae, a fine lofty, airy 
apartment where dirt and mosquitoea were equally couHpicu- 
0U3 by their absence. We noticed as a curious fact in these 
DusunSj that they made use^ iu talking, of the letter Z, which 
would seem to point to their affinity to the Mililnaus of 

An early start on the ensuing morning brought U9, after a 
seven-mile tramp, among the foot-hills td' the eoast range. 
We were here some twelve miles, or more, inland. ( *n our 
way we passed the dehoKchuve of the river Sugut, whieli 
joins the Putatan on its proper left bank, and further up, on 
the opposite side, the eoufluence of ^e Paguuau river, which 
is the true Putatan ^ the river bearing that name from this 
point, which we follow^ed up, being in reality only a 8mall 
tributary stream flowing from S,E. Pursuing our way up 
the valley of the latter, we reached our destination, a house 
at the foot of the hills^ tenanted by au old Chinaman find his 
Dusun wife and daughter. We were here beyond the limits 
of the highly cultivated Putatan valley, and in a lovely eoun- 
try, at the point where the district c^^he Dusuns of the 
plain^ marches "with that of the Ori^k Tag4s^ or Hill 
Dusuns. The Putatan valley is, without exception^ the finest 
and most highly cultivated district in North Borneo. ^Vith- 
out visiting it, it would be diffienlt for any one, accustomed 
only to such cultivation, or the lack of it, as is met with in 
other parts of North Borneo^ to realize that, side by side 
with such districts, there exists one in which rice cultivation 
has been carried to the highest pitch of perfection, where every 
foot of soil is tilled J where substantial, and in many cases orna- 
mental, land-marks of wood and stone have been erected all over 
the face of the country, and where the price of land ranges from 
$40 an acre or thereabouts. This country must be the gra- 
nary of Brunei. The acreage of paddy is immense. One 



field, or rather plain, must, at a rougb estimate^ bave been 
some 000 acres in extent, the whole being marked off by the 
land -marks of the different proprietors. It was intersected 
by the Longhap, a small, eanaUlike stream. The water sup- 
ply for purposes of irrigation is unlimited, the levels are well 
laid out and the banks neatly kept up, a path runniag along 
the ridge f»f each* It would., however, be of great benefit to 
the district were a stock of paddy introduced, larger iu 
the cur, the premie nt stock being small in the grain and 
shewing signs oE divterioration. There are some 80 to 100 
Chinese settled on the Pntatau, the bulk of tlicm being the 
dcsceodants of former Chinese settlers, who have intermar- 
i-ied with the D nanus and shew evidence of mixed blood. 
Tliese Chinese are not agricaltnrists, nor^ as far as 1 could 
learn, landed proprietors, but are principally distillers, 
manufacturing arrack, which tliey barter with the Du- 
suns. Tlie soil is decidedly superior to that of the valleys 
of the Papar and Ki munis rivers fro the South, and there is 
an almost total absence of swamp, owing, no doubt, to the 
country being all cleared, and the complete system of drain- 
age. The surface configuration is that of a practically level 
plain studded with nntnerons smull hills, oti which the timber 
has wisely been left standing. The paddy fiekls extend up 
to the very bases of these. In moist tracts and along the 
lines of water-courses^ some sago is grown, but the quantity 
of this is inconside'';ble. Some five piculs of gutta come 
down from the iul;4jj^jr monthly, and tobacco, camphor, bees- 
wax and armadillo skins form the staple exports. The Bru- 
nei Govern lU en t imposes a tux of from $6 to $9 per head per ^ 
annum, or about ^'200 for each panfjkuian^ or village land- 
ing place. The number of the villages is remarkable, and in 
some parts of the upper portion of the river, they lie in sight 
of, and sometimes quite contiguous to, one another. The 
geucial aspect of the whole countiy is that of an orderly, 
industrious and civilized community, and a very fair prospect 
unfolds itself to the eye of one looking forth from the sum- 
mit of one of the picturesque little hills above referred to, 
over the far stretching expanse of green paddy plains* clus- 
tering villages and detached homesteads nestling amid their 



irroundings of tall cocoa-nut and spreuding eago palms, 

[while dotted over the plain, tlio numerous wooded kuolls rise 

[like islands amid a sea of green. It ia a smiiiug landscape 

iboundiog in soft beauty, and backed by a range of noble 

IniouDtains, with the father of them all— the towering Kina 

IBalu — rearing his lofty mass on the northern horizon. Indeed, 

for general evidences of prosperity, plenty and industry, and 

of well applied prineiples of cultivation carried out on a 

most exhaustive and extensive scale, the Putatan district 

Biay be fairly said to he unequalled in the whole of North 

^Borneo. The formation of the lowlands and foot-hills is 

sandstone of recent formation. 

The Futatan does not apparently drain any of the Kina 
Balu water-shed, although the river, which, as before stated, 
goes by the name of the Pugunan ubtive thecouflueucc of the 
Putatan river so called, can, I was informed, be ascended for 
fifteen days, Tbe Oranf/ Tagds, a hill Dusun peoplcj who 
wear the c/nitcdtj or bark loin -cloth, and who are found 
at the head-waters of all the rivers in N.W Borneo, from 
the Tawiiran to the Ivimfmis, inhabit the upper portion of 
the river down to its debouchure from the main coast range. 
I noticed a curious musical instrument, a species of guitar, 
called by the Dusuns tonkoononif. This is made of a piece 
of large bamboo about 2i feet long and has strings which 
are formed by the detaching and raising thin strips of the 
bamboo sheath. These are tiglitcncd r|L will by pushing a 
piece of wood along underueath each towSy its point of junc- 
tion with the bamboo. 

Their customs are much the same as those of the bulk of 
the Dusun race. An intcndiu^: bridegroom haa to pay a 
marriage portion for his bride. When a father diesj his lauds 
and property go to his sons, the eldest getting the largest 
share. The widow hfis no share^ but has a right to the usufruct 
of the estate during her life, and the daughters have a claim 
for support upon the estate until marriage. At his death, a 
Dusun^ if a poor man, is buried in the ground, a small house 
being erected over his grave, from and above which various 
coloured calico streamei-s aie dependent. If a rich man, hi« 
body is buried in a valuable old jar. The value of some of 


these old jars k very great, amoimtiug in some instances to 
hundreds of dollars^ and the expenses of the funeral obsequies 
of an opuient Dusnn chief often amount to over gBtX*^ buffaloes 
being killed and eaten, iuak consumed in large quantities^ 
obai (fetish ceremonies) performed, etc* 

Although the Putatau cannot properly be described aa a 
sago river, its delta would uflbrd a large area of laud suitable 
for planting the sago palm, the land being low-lying and 
swampy, and abutting on a good water-way on either side. 
The highlands of the interior arc easily aecessible up its 
valley, the climate is saluhrioos and pleasant, the population 
large and well-disposect^ but tlie lands along its banks are 
firmly held and highly valued, and it is doubtful whether any 
area of such land could ever he brought into the market. 

The course of the main Putatau, or Telipuk^ to the sea, 
from the point at which the PatJigas branch diverges from it, 
is somewhat tortuous but has a good depth of water. Its 
mouth, however, as already stated, is ^lioal and difficult of 
entry. An examinaticA of an outcrop of the strata on its 
right bank, on the way down, shewed the strike to be S.E. 
with a dip of about 80^. A mangrove growth extends up both 
banks for a short distance from the kuah^ and also along 
the coast on cither side, and there is no beach available for 
landing on. This is not the case with the PatAgas mouth 
which has a sandy beach and true jungle close to the sea 
with however mangroves inside* 

As regards tbfl^ate of cultivation of the tract watered by 
it, the Putatau may be fairly classed as the show river of North 




tErr«tttm:— r>i«» 27t». line 2, for (iKi rrad 6,0(X).] 



Students of Malay, among whom many members of this 
Society may be iorliidcdj will learn with interciit thut Mr, H. C* 
Ki.i^KERT, one of the best ]Mukiy schobii'^ in Hollimd, has it 
in coutempltition to publisfi an English- Malay Dictionary, 
adapted from bis new Dntch-^fabr* Dictiunaiy now passing 
through the press. 

Whether the Englinh edition will, or will notj he produced, 
will depend upon the measure of support w^bieb may he de- 
pended on. A certain number of subseriber.s should be forth- 
coming, in the fii'st instance, to cnfiire tbat a work involving 
so much labour will not n^sult in pecuniary loss. The publi- 
cation of the work, if subscribers are found in auffieient 
number ( and among these, the Government of the Straits 
Settlements, the Raja of S.\rawak and the DireetorH of the 
British North Borneo Company may perhaps be counted 
upon fur substantial support ? ), will be undertaken by Mr. E* 
J. BuTLL of Ley den, whose recently issued prospectus h sub- 
joined ; — 1^ 

'* Mr. K. C, K LINK BUT whose acientific and practifiil publica- 
*' tiona on the Malay Language ami Literature have already eon- 
" tributed 6o largely to tiie knowledge of tliat laiit,'ua*;e, has, aa 
'* the reault of several yearns* study, uudertaken the rompilation 
'* of an English-Malay l)Jetionary, wliitli id to be pabli.shed next 
" year. When, during the Oriental Congress at Lejdeo, Mr. 
" Klepkebt, speaking with i^ouie fouipeteut men on thi8 publica- 
" tion, was requested to make it accesaible to tfiose also, who do 
** not undei'stand the Dutch Language. Thou^^h a very tedious 
** work, he would not directly deulint* the re<|ueBt, if by a suificient 
** suhscriptioii it should appear that the work would meet the 
" wiwhea of those who are to use it. 

" With regard to the manner in wldeh he iutende to compile 
" thlB dictionary, he believes it to bo in consonance with the f*pir- 



'* it of the language nimple and natural, aud—what bis long ©x^j 
" ]Kvrieiice cuiilirais — thoroughly practical. 

• Tlio trpiU3*c»'i|»tiou of the Malay words will be gi^en in tho , 
** iiiiilect uF tho iStrail^e-Seitlcniients, aftfT the manner adopted bjr. 
" Messrs, Maxwell and IvKAanEnuY i 

** Tho Jini^lii^h part will be revised by a native EogUahman. Aa 
*• Boon a*« we lia^e a ttiilBcient number of subscribera — we sh^ll 
** begiti prinlitiK. Tbo Hubaeriplit^n pricu for one copy is twenty- 
*• five shillinijH, bound — 

*' Po show the nmnner in wliicl* the author ha,s formed Ijis plan, 
*' and tn give an idf:i of tta fompletenoss and extent, we give a 
** speeimen, annexed to tliL^ pmsfKvtus. 

" The wlndo will be abotit one tfionsaud — or one thousand two 
*' hundred pa^^as^. 

To !ay claim to e-ompletenesi* the Dictitjmi ry of tlie EngHah 

LfivnuN, October, 1884, 

J. }3RlLLr 

A subsiTipiinn list lias been opened by the Iloourury Secre- 
tary of the Straits Bra in;! i, Kayal Asiatic Soeietyj SiDgapore; 
and members of t^^i^ucicty and tho public who may wish to 
enter their mtme^ as subscribers can do so at the RalBe^ 
Library, Singapore, where the spec i men sheet of the proposed 
Dictionary ean be seen. As stated in the prospectus, the 
wabseription price for one copy will be £1 5.s* 0//. boifitd. 


In the paper headed " Malacca in the Eighteentli Century '* 
printed in Journal No. XIIj p. ^61, for bentang (wherever that 
word occurs )^ i<."id henfeny. 

JOURNAL •.'"'•^ 





DECEMBER, 1884. 



Printed at the Govebkmext Pbintino Office. 


Agents of the Society : 

London and America, . . . Tbubner & Co. 

Paris, ... Ernest Leeoux & CiE. 

Germany, ... K. F. Koehler's Antiqcarium, Leipzig. 



Coimcilfor 1885, ... , •« *.* ... v 

List of Members for 1885j ... ... .<. vi 

Proceedings of the General Meetiog, .. ,*, xi 

Council's Annual Report for 188 4j ... ... xiii 

Treasurer's Accounts for 1884j .,. ... xvii 

Journey to the Summit of Gunong Bubuj by the Revd, 

J". E, Tenison- Woods, f.g.s., f.l.s., &c., ... 275 

Sea Dyak Religion^ by the Revd, J. Perham, . . . 287 

The History of Perak from Native Sources, by the 

Hon'ble W. E. Maxwell, ... ... ... 305 

British North Borneo, by E. P, Gueritz, Esquire, . . . 333 

Jelebu, by H, A, O'Brien, Esquire, ... ... 337 

Occasional Notes, ... * ... ... 436 






Council for il^S^. 

The Iloirble A. M. Skinner, Presidrnf. 

W. A. PicKKitiNO, Esquire, c.m.(l. Vicp-Vrrnidrui. Singapore. 

J). Loo AX, Esquire. Vice-Pnxidcnf, Peumitf. 

Ihe llon'blc W. E. Maxwell, cm.*!.. Jlonomri/ SJtcrefary. 

Edwin Kokk. E.^qu'>e, Ilonorrry Treasvrer. 

K. W. HuLLKTT, Esjpiire, 


A. KNKiHT, E.sqniro. J 

IT. L. XoROXiiA, Kr^ouiro. > Couurillon*. 


E. C. IIlLL, Esqniro, \ 

J. MiLLETi. Esquire, / 












Adamson, W. 



Ahmstbong, a. 




Abbahamson, E. E. 

North Borneo. 


Bamppylde, C. a. 


North Borneo. 


Baumgabten, C. 




Bebnard, F. Q. 








BiEBEB, Dr. E. 




Biggs, Rev. L. C. 



BiBcn, J. K. 

Province AVelleslev. 


Bland, E. N. 



Bbanj)t, D. 



Bbown, L. C. 






Buckley, C. B. 



Cantley, N. 



Cavenagh, General Obpeur 






Cboix, J. E. Dk La 



Copley, Georue 



Cebbuti, G. B. 




North Borneo. 


Dalmakn, G B. 



Daly, D. D. 

North Borneo. 


Dknntson, N. 


MEMBERS FOR i&^s,— Continued. 





Dfjtt Alfbed 

London. • 



Dkitnis, Dr. K B, 



Djethilm, W. H, 




Down, St V. B. 


30^ Puff, Alexasipkh 


31, DtOfLOP, ColoDol, S., C.M.G* 




Dtdtlop, C, 



Deloncle, FBAirtj'Ois 



Dew, a. T, 


4 - 



Etiijiett, a. II. 

Nortli Bo^uf^o. 



£gebto>% Waltkk 



Fat&e, The He?d. hWhU J- 

' ♦ 

(Hoaorarj Member) 



FEaorsoN, A . M., Jr. 



Fhank, H. 



FR.\si!;R, Jonw 



Fbaskk^ Dr. D. MjjfsuK 

Kudat, North Borneo. 


GrtFiLLAjr, 8, 



Gbaham, The Hoii'ble Jajies 



Quay, A. 

Sydney, N. S. Iff, 
North Borneo. 


Gxjeeitz, E, p. 

46 GULLAKD, W. G. 


47 Gottlieb, F, H. 




Gottlieb, G. S. H. 



Hauohtojt. H, T* 



Hkbtey, The Hon*ble D. 

R A. 



Hir»YETT, H. D. 



Hill, E. C. 



Hole, W. 



Hose, The Eight Kevd. 


G. F, (Hatiorarv Member) 




Hullett, li. W/ 




MEMBERS FOR ^ms^—C^nhmcJ, 




H. K. TL Frince Khum Mto 

„ , 1 

Dkwamonqsk Varopr-viur 

BiinL^kolc* 1 


H. H, MahaHja of Johor, 


(Honorary Member) ' 

4nhor. 1 


Inch© lon.vHiM iit5 Abuim-lah 

Juhor. ^1 


Ikyixg, The Hun1>1e V. J , c-m.o* 

Fetmn^r. ^ 



J^ingfl|iort^ " 


KKtiPlKO. R 

Labimn, Deli, 

m E 



Km. T EAW80V 



KKuiirr* AKfai'U : 




8! Dg a ports, 


KvhNKUs^L^:!^ C. W. S. 



LAJHHKnT, <t. li. 



La VI NO, (4, 



iMWEs/rhc Kcvd. K. (.1 {noiiorar}' 


New Guiii^A. 


Leecij, H.K. C 



JjMiH'iuiiurj, E, T. 




Pen an g. 


Lou J .Sir If mil, K.i\M.(f. 



Ldne, JL Brooke 



Lakoen Van 

Kuta Ifailjn, Aijt h. 


MiKLtfHO-MACKLAi% Baron 

(Honorarj Mcmbt^r) 



Maxwelu The Han ble \V, E., 

CMLU. « 



Maxwell, E. W. 









MroRv, 0. 



XoaaKiiA, H. L. 



rl EMBERS FOR im$,—Conlim4ed. 





Nut, Pet KB 




Panaxig* * , 


Or]3, Sir llARaY St. Geohoe^ 





Palqeate. F. GiFFORD: (Ilono- 


rarj Member) 



Paul, W. R B. 

Sungd Ujong. 


Parsonx J. H. 


Pell, Bennett 


Oi\ Peroam, llevd, J. (Honorary 




Pickering, W. A., cm. a. 



PooLES, Feed. 



Ronc^ER, J. P, 



Beau, The Hou*ble W. H. 




Penan g. 





EowKLL, Dr. T. L 




^ATOW, E. M. 

Bangkyk. . 

m 8JIRAWAK, U. II. Tho Kiljil of. 

(llonnrarv^ Meuibcr; 


llK) SCHiAJ^E, k. 




SERyiL, V. 



SiiELFOED, TKu Iliiirble T. 




SexnkeEj '\hf' llotrble A. M, 



SmttHt 11 h HxtrL^lloney C* Ct 








SoiTRixsnitu ^luiriNTAtJOBt:. Mua, 

D,. Kajri 



StrvKxa* H. (J. 



J5TiiiN\.r>tt* C. 



MEMBERS FOR iHSs.—Canttnucd. 


Addressee, ' 

Swkttemtam; I\ A. 

SrED Aboooakaii mik Omah 








Syirs, H. C. 

i Sel^ngor. 


Tah Kim CtiT>'0 



Tknison-Woods, Hevd, J. E, 
(Honorary Member) 

aoMPSON, A. B, 


3LSOK, G, p. 




Tbeacdeb, The Hoii'ble W. H. 

Korti BorneOi 

Trebing, Dr C, 




Talbot, A, P, 


TbI!B5F1? & Co, 


Veemont, The Hoii'ble J. M. 



Walteb, Major B. S. F. 




WATsoir, K A. 

J oh or. 


Whampoa, H, a. Yip 






Weay, L., Jr. 



WfiAY, L. 












FItlDAr, 27Tff MAliCIL IHhru 

The Hon'ble A* M. tiKiNXEBt Vtcr-Fremdenf, in (hf Chmr. 

llie minutes of the laet geneml meeting were read and 

The Honorary Secretary re^d the Annual Export of tte Com- 
mittee for the year 18-Sl. {Sea f. xVu.) 

The Honorary Treasurer's Aceounta for the year IS^i were 
laid before the meeting* (See p, ivii,) 

The Report and Aeconnts were unnnimouel v aJnpted wltbmit 

The election of Oflrc^rs forth© year 1885 werethm prtu'eedml 




with, ttnd the following gentlemen were declared duly eleeteil : — 

Vice-P resident, Penanrj, 
Hanorary Secrrtari/, 
Honorary Treaiurer, 

. The ITon^ble A, M. SKricNKR. 

, W. A. PicKKUiKQ. Esquire^ c.u.o. 

Tlie Hon'ble W. E. ^fAXWELL.c.M.i 

. E. KoEK, Edfjuire. 

f K W. lEiTLLKTT, Esqufre, 
I A. Knight, Esquire. 
CounrUhr/t^ .,, ., -^ H. L. Xouonma, Enquire. 

I E. C. Hill, Enquire, 
I^ J. Miller, Egqriire, 

The now members elected provisionally by the Council gince 
the Ia«t general meeting were then formally elected by an unani- 
raous vote; and llie meeting also elected the fullowini* gentlemen 
who were duly propOMed and Rccooded: — Messrs. C, B. Cehriti, 


Mr. KxiouT then proposed thiit the Officers of the Society be 
added to by the crcAtion of a Vice-President for Mahicea. and that 
the Hon'ble D. F. A. IIeuvet be elected to that office. 

The Honorary Secretary explained that the eonatitution of 
the Society is fixed by the Rules, and that before altering them, 
it wouhl be desirable tinit notice shonld be ^iven, and the nature 
of tfie propot4t*d alteration made known to the members of the 
Society. Thia view waa generally concurred in by those present. 
It was «n|Lri4c8ted in convcrRation ttiut a sixth Council hi r might be 
a|>pointedj who t^honld be resident in Malacca, hut to thi.-^ course 
the f»ame objection applied. The Honorary Secretary said that h« 
would be glad to see the meetint;!* of the Sonety held under a 
Vice-Pret^idcnt in Malarca, for that Settlement had a historicul 
claim, havimr been the scene t>f a nief^ting of the Asiatic Society of 
Ben ga I in 1 h 1 1 , w h c n f^ a F f L K s a n d 1 - 1-: 1 1> kk \i e re t h e re on t h eif 
way to Java. 

Mr. Kniout enid that he would, ^f necrsanry, give notice of 
hm pmpopal at some future date^ 

Tlic proceedinj^t* then terminated. 









The l{<»port which the Council for 1.^8 1 have to lay before the 
Annual General Meetinjj: will, they believe, shew that the iuteretit 
evinced in the objects for which the Society was established iu 
1878 continues unabated, and that those objects are being steadily 
kept in view by those to whom the management of the affairs of 
the Society is entrusted. 

Tho new members elected provisionally by the Council »in<-c the 
last General Meeting: are : — 

Walter E<^erton. 
K. E. Abniliainson. 
Fran(;t)is Deloncle. 
.^Srair Elphinstone Dalrymple. 
Van Langen. 
L. Wrav, Jr. 
\V. IT. Diethelm. 
D. IJrandt. 
A.T. Dew, IVrak. 
Thei^e elc<'tioris have now to be confirmed by the members pre< 
sent at the General ^^celin«^ 

A. W. O'Sullivan. 

Dr. D. Manson Eraser, North 

St.V. B. Down. 
E. P. Gueritz, North BornC'V. 
W. G. Gullaud. 
J. p. Itodger, SclAngor. 
George Copley. 

The following numbers have retired : — 

Jiovd. J. Aberigh Mackay. ' General II. Man. 

The iloatli of the ft)llowing members has been announced: — 
il. Herwig. | J. T. Thomson, New Zealand. 


The following gentlemen have ceased to he members in accord- 
ance with Rule 6 : — 

A. Anson. 
K. Bruce. 

B. Douglas. 

Mohamed bin Mahboot. 
^y. Krohn. 
George Mansfield. 

In the Report for 1S^;^>, mention is made of a text book of 
Eastern Geogrnphy which the Society had uudertiiken, at the 
request of the G-overnment, to produce. The first part of this 
work (the Malay Peninsula and Borneo) has now been ])ublishod, 
and the following letter regarding it has been received from the 
Government of the Colony : — 

** Colonial Secrktaky's Office, 

Singapore y 12 th February, 18S5. 

The Honorart/ Secretary, 

Stbaits Asiatic Society, Sixoapoue. 

Sir, — I am directed by the Acting Governor to acknowledge 
the receipt of your letter of the 29th ultimo with regard to the 
publieaticm of the work entitled the '^Easteru Geography," and to 
state that His Excellency fully recognises the v.iluable assistance 
which the Society has afforded to the Government in acceding to the 
request that it should undertake this work, and desires especially 
to tender the cordial thanks of the Government to the Vice-Presi- 
dent (Mr. A. M. Skinnku) for the valuable results of the action of 
the Society. • 

2. The work which he has edited —the first of its kind as re- 
gards this part of the world — will, in His Excellency's opinion, 
prove of very great usefulness both inside the Schools of this 
Colony, and outside the C(dony itself, where so much ignorance 
prevails regarding the Malay Peninsula and its neighbourhood. 

3. I am to add that His Excellency concurs in the recom- 
mendation of the Council of the Society, and will invite the Legis- 
lative Council to vote the necessary sum to enable Mr. Stanford's 
ofter to be accepted. It appears to His Excellency that if the part 
regarding Australia is to be omitted, as His Excelleiu^y considers 
ir should be, it may not even be necessary to pay so much as £100. 

I have, Ac, 


for Acting Cohniaf Svcvvtary, S, S.** 


The scbeme for republishing a selection of papers which have 
' appeared from time to time in the Journals or Proceedings of 
learned Societies bearing upon matters of scientinc interest in tlie 
Eastern Archipelago, has taken definite shape. 

The consent of the Asiatic Society of Bengal having been 
received to the republication of papers relating to Imlo-China 
which have appeared in their «Tournal(», the first series of selections 
will consist of papers extracted from " Asiatic Researches" and the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Ben;»al. These will probably bo 
preceded by a few papers originally published in Dalrtmple*s 
** Oriental Kepertory." The Council liave been fortunate enough 
to secure the co-operation of Dr. Eeinholj) Rost, Librarian of the 
India Office, who has consented to edit the re-printed papers in 
London. It i^ hoi)od that two volumes will bo brought out during 
1885, and it will tnen rest with the Society whether or not to ex- 
tend the scheme and continue to issue, from time to time, as funds 
may allow, further volumes of selected papers relating to the Far 

The previous ventures of the Society in the direction of 
publishing, have not caused, in the aggregate, any pecuniary loss. 
The large Map of the Peninsula (1879) has, up to date, left a 
margin of proiit of $33.0*3, with 8 copies still in hand. 

The re-T>ublication of the ^*Hikayat Abdulhih*' cost $400, of 
which $308 Iiae been recovered, and 2 copies remain. 

In the Department of Geograpliv, the Council have noted with 
satisfaction the publi<*atiou during tlie year 1SS4, by the Govcrn- 
nieut of the Native State of Sclim^or, (»f a map of tlie State (pub- 
lished by Mr. E. Stanford, Chariug Cross) on the scale of 2 miles 
to the inch. 

The Skeleton I^Ia]) of the roninaula. upon which all new infor- 
mation is to be entered as exploration advances, mentioned in last 
year*8 Keport, has been completed, and several maps and sket<»hes 
embodying fresh geographical knowledge have bvion received from 
the Native States. 

The most important of these i^ the Map of Ulu Pahang by 
Mr. W. Camekox, a most indefatigable explorer as well as a 
itkilful surv'cyur and geologist. 

Four of the papers published in the Society's Journal since 
the last General ^Meeting are by ^lombers who had not previously 
contributed, and the Council hope that they may infer from this 
that the number of active ^Icuibers is increasing. They desire, 
however, to renew the appeal made in last year's Keport, ft)r 


literary contributions on scientific subjects from those willing to co- 
operate in the objects of the Society. 

It is believed that some will perhaps contribute notes, who 
have not leisure to write papers, and, in order to encourag;e this, it 
is proposed to develop the idea with which a few pages have usual- 
ly been set apart in each number of the Journal for ** Miscellaneous 
Notes," and to publish in each future number a paper devoted to 
" Notes and Queries," which will be edited by the Honorary Secre- 

No. 12 of the Journal of this Society (for the half-year ending 
December, 1883) did not appear until May, 188 A, and No. 13 (for 
the half-year ending June, 1881) was only published in December 

The absence of the Honorary Secretary from the Colony in 
the spring and autumn of the year partly accounts for this. No. 14 
(for the last half-year of 1881) is now in the press. 

The following papers have beeu published in the Journal of 
the Society since the last General Meeting : — 

"Malayan Ornithology" (Part III), by Capt. Kelhom, High- 
land Light Infantry. 

" Gutta-protiucing Trees," by L. Wray, Jr. 

" Shamanism in Pcrak," by W, E. Maxwell. 

" Changes in Malayan Dialects," by A. M. Fer^usoji, Jr. 

" Straits Meteorology," by A. M. Skinner. 

" The Pigmies," translated by J. Erringfon de la Croix. 

" Valentyn*8 Description of Malacca," translated by J. MilUer, 
edited by D. F. A. Jlervei/. 

*• The Law and Customs of the Malays with reference to the 
Tenure of Land," by W. E. Maxwell. 

" The Stream Tin Deposits of PrTak," by Eevd. J, E. Teuison- 

" Rx?mbau," by D. F. A. Ilerrey. 

" The Tawaran and Putatan Rivers," by B. E. Dalnjmple. 

The Honorary TreaMirer's Accounts, which are annexed, shew 
a credit balance of $1,021.31;. 


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Gunong Bubu is the most elevatetl mountain of the coaat 
range of the State of Purak, Its highest summit lies about 
8* 17^ E. of Thaipetii^j distant, saVj twenty miles as the crow 
fliea. It h one of the jseriea of nearly detached groups of 
moun tains which form the coEist-rangc, having their spnvs 
and longest axes generally in a N.N.E. and S,S,W, direetioiu 
There is no reeord of any exploration of Gunong Bubu. It 
is said that some Europeans have ascended it and made a col- 
lection of platitSj but what the Keverend Mr, Scohtecuini 
and I saw of the fioraj inclineg us to think that some of 
the adjacent and lower summits eould only have been reached. 
The mountain m not quite 5,600 feet high, but rendered very 
inaccessible by pri^^ipiee^ of granite 1,000 feet high^ whioh 
bar most of the spuw. At the request of Sir Hugh Low, I 
undertook its exploration, accompanied by the Revd. B. Scor- 
TECHiNi as botanist, and Mr. C. F. Bt)zzoLo, who had charge of 
the Malays carrying our baggage. Wo started from the 
mountain garden at Araug Para, which is about 3,0')0 feet 
above sea level — not a good point of departure, as we had to 
descend and then climb up again over several very steep 
spurs before w^e could reach even the foot of the range. The 
following is the journal. 

May 20, 1884. — Started from the mountain garden at 9 
A.M. on a course due south, descending a very steep slope along 
a mountain track used by Chinese sawyers. It soon began 
to rain heavily, which made the steep path so slippery that 



prog re fi'^ wu.s excL^cdingly slow, We at last reached the bot- 
tom of a narrow gorge, through which a monntain torrent 
came down with consirleruble forces. Fro-n this potJit to the 
summit of Gutioag Bubu, our ra;i 1 hal to bs cut tlirougli the 
jungle* After wa.lio^ along the sfcreini to tiul a convenient 
point for climbini^ the next spur or rid^^e, wo crossed it, having 
difficult and sluw climbing both in a^cemlin^ and dasneniing. 
The fore.'^t wag a clo^ie juni^jlo of rattain aal siplinjs, with 
an undergroth of Fi?rn^ w3iich couipletcly clo^od u^ in nbov3 
and arw7und. A sc:?ond sptir, still higher than the firat, wa* 
ascended, bat on its rid^c wo fv>und the Jiaglo in a slight 
dogrtie more open, so we continued along it. It ascended 
slowly. In about two miles, fimling that it wa^ taking us too 
inneh out of our course* we left the rid^^c and crossed another 
spur which was very stcep^ rendering it necessary to proceed by 
a series of long zigzags. Rested in the furtliest vtdley^ and 
then mounted another ridge Ui'^her and steejer thau any we 
bad prerionsly climbed. On the edge, wo found an old rhino- 
coixjs beat, which we followed, ascending for about a mile, 
Mijcrc it terminated on the summit of an almost precipitous 
bhiff. The rain was so heary at this point, that we had to 
wait till it C'Ctised before we could dcijccnd, Tlds was uo easy 
matter, and occupied until nearly sunstt in biinging down our 
baggage. In tliu valley, we found n branch of the Kenus 
Ivivcr making a pretty cascade o\er large granite bouldci's. 
Here we built nice little wheels which fhe lurgr-lcavc^l Vinauga 
pulin enabled us to thatch comfortably. 

May 21. — We left our encampment idiout 7, •*);), following 
the 8tre*m uutil it joined the Kcua^i liiver. Near this we 
found a species of Ililuiit^ whic h is the second proleaccous 
plant we have noticed in Pcrak, AVe alno fuuml a ?jplendid 
species oi Fngrfta^ pn babiy K attrivulafit, with large fragrant 


eream-coloured floorers nearly a foot across the rotate corolla, 
the tube of which is eight inehea long. 

The Kenas River is about one hundred fett w-iJe, desceiiclmg 
in rapids amid large granite:! boulderi^. It contains many deep 
waier^holes with fiahcsj diffcront someflrhat from those on the 
Perak. Thej are under i xami nation ^ witli a view to specific 
description. There are also land cnibe about the stream and a 
peculiar species of prawn ( Palttmou f ) . 

From the Kenas, we struck to the west of south croj^aing two 
small J steep, dcuisely- wooded spurs. Thi:! brought us to the 
base of a steep slope, which was at the fool of (juaong Bubu. 
Here the jungle became mora open, being mostly c^;mposed of 
forest trees and Beit am palm ( Engehmnht tnazi^). We soon 
lost sight of tbe Pintint/a which wc had found on the Keoas. 
There was a distinct rhinoceros beat on the creit, covcn^d 
with foot -prints, which had been made only a few hours 
before. The logs which Iny in the w^ay were smootlied by the 
constant passing and repasaing of these aoimab. There wore 
also many of these water-holes and it was difficult to imagine 
that they had not been cut artificially on one side. The 
jungle was easily cut, but the track was so steep as scarcely 
to afford a footing in places. It took us nearly the whole day 
to climb a distance of 5,000 yards, and then we camped on a 
narrow terrace near a small trickling supply of water. Near 
this camp, we could hear the roaring of a large cascade, pro- 
bably not far off, but the descent to it was too steep for us 
to attempt to reach it then. Our huts were built of attap and 
were large and comfortable. We had descended so much from 
our starting point that we were still below the level of the 
Hermitage garden of Arang Para. 

May 22.— -Before starting this morning we sent back a party 
of Malays to bring up fresh supplies to this camp for our 


return jouruey. We got uway about 8 am. It is very difli- 
r!ilt Uj make au early move from these cam|)s. What witli 
WHjking rice far the day and piicking up the baggage^ a good 
part of the moniing runs away. Our journey was just like 
that of yesterday, only a little tiiore steep in places*. About 
l,Ov)0 fet't above camp \vc k'ft the region of Bertam, or attap 
jjalmSj and came into tluit of Lkuala, growing amid high 
forest trees. Up to this time^ we could not f^et a single view 
of the country around us. When we had ascended to the level 
of Araug T\ira we felled a number of trees in the liope of 
extending the prospect, but were unsucccssfid. The ascent 
was now only very steep in places, and the spur curved 
much more to the north. When we reached the height of 
nearly 4,000 feet above the sea, we camped and built our 
houses. Wlicn this was done, we felled u good deal of timber 
on the northern sio| c of the spnr aud soon opened up an ex- 
tensive view; Anmg Para bungalow bore about E.N.E., but 
none of the Larut side of the range was visible, owing to the 
*<purs of Mount liubu. We had an abundance of water close 
to our camp, A email stream fell over about one hundred 
feet of rocks at a short distance below the terrace we wei^ 

Next day, the 23rd, we left all tha baggage at our resting 
phica, and proceeded to make a trial trip to reach the summit. 
We could get no reliable information frutn the Malays, Some 
said it was only two boura' Journey, while otliers insisted that 
it would take the whole day. Our intention was to climb 
for hrilf a day, and, if the difhcultics were great, to move our 
camp on another stage. Our great delay, of course, was in 
cutting down tl^e jungle and not being able to see more than 
a few yards around us. However, we were agreeably sur- 
prised to find a couiparatively eiisy, though stoepj ascent fox 



about a mile. After tliis^ we had to climb by roots of trees^ 
stumps and brancbea, aad made but slow progress, I cannot 
say now whether this portioQ of our jouraej was on the face of 
a cliff or not. We could see absolutely nothing around U8 
but trees and roots, and thc^e overhung with such a thick 
coating of brown mossj ferns and orchids, that above and 
below were equally hidden. Sometimes we crept in and out 
under these roots and over them, or climbed a tree to get to 
some ledge near its upper branches j but where we wei"e goings 
or bow far we were, could only be guessed from the barometer. 
I do not suppose^ however, that any one could climb so steep 
an ascent with less danger. One could not falL It would 
puiszle any person to throw a stone more than a few yards 
amid such a thicket. 

At five thousand feet by the aneroid, we began to sec the 
first specimens of that graceful fern Maionia pectinatu* This 
has never been previously recorded from Perak, and the only 
habitats are Java and Slount Ophir near Malacca, where it ia 
associated with Dip tens Horsfeidii, The latter fern we had 
seen IjOOO feet below, and it occurs on all the mountains of 
Perak at heights a little over 3,500 feet but at Singapore 
it is found at the sea level. Besides this, there was plen- 
ty to see and admire in the way of ferns, orchids and 
mosses, with many curious fungi and lichens, for the mois- 
ture and deep shade made the place the very home of the cryp- 
togamia. But the climbing was such very hard work, that 
attention to anything else was almost impossible. At about 
5,400 feet, the entire vegetation changed. It was still a thick- 
et, but more or less stunted and twiggy, very distressing to 
climb. I cannot say how long it continued, but long before 
I expected it, we suddenly found ourselves on an open level 
space, on the summit of Mount Bubu. 



This, however, is not the highest point. The creat of the 
mountain is a narrow ridge about half a mile long, gradually 
sloping up to the northward until it is about 100 feet above 
where we then were. This might ha called the lower shoulder 
of the ridge or crest. A splendid view wan f^btainable throe- 
quarters round the compass, but the north waa liidileu by the 
higher summit. 

The first tiling that attracted our attention wa^ the vegeta- 
tion. The trees were all low and small, stuuted and gnarled 
by the weatiier. Beneath there was a thick carpet of moss, 
into which the foot sunk some inches and when withdrawn 
left a pool of water on the foot-print. Above tin? was a most 
luxuriant growth of heatber ( Lf/copoiiifffn nutans ), white 
MaioniaptdiMfitft spread out its fan-like fronds on every side. 
The sides of the trees were hoary with long-bearded lichens 
( Unnca imrbata ) and mos^ses. There were only a few species 
of trees. One very common one was a conifer, but in the 
absence of any conea we were left in doubt whether it was 
Dacrf/rJium viahrm or some other species. Abundance of 
young plants of this pine covered the ground. There were 
also thickets of Lppiospermum Jiareacerm, which grew as high 
as the pine, and a ^hrub of the genus LeitcopiKjon, The two 
hitter are entirely Australian on their affinities, and both 
species are found on that continent. Besides these, there 
were abundance of Nepenthes or pitcher-plants with hushes 
of Rhododendron*? ( li. reriiciliafum /), with a Guhnia and some 
few other flowering plants and ferns. 

From this point, a hasty exploration was made to the high- 
est point or northorn summit of the mountain. Though 
scarcely half a mile in direct distance, it required considera- 
bly over a mile of hard climbing to reach it. The roots of the 
bushes have proved a kiud of tipper platform un the crest and 


thus one has to climb over and under in a moat disgraceful 
manner, ag the whole was an entangled moss of twigs which 
stopped and caui^ht one at e^'cry side, beiides bcitig dripping 
with water. By the time the highest ore^t waa reached, the 
clouds had gathered, and no view could be obtained. Having 
Batisfied onraelve.i about the roadi and cleared the most of it, 
we turned back. Though tha descent was slower and more 
troublesome than going up, yet we reiched our camp easily 
an hour before sunset. Our supplier had not amvedj and our 
chancer of making a sea^ad accent s^emsd rather uneertaia. 
Our lar^t rations of rice were aer^ed out that.evening. On the 
next day ( Queen's birthday, henoe the camp wa.^ called 
Queen's Camp ) we cleared away much xaovd of the forest, but 
a§ the party were without fo^l, and there were no sigiis of our 
niestengeii*, we prepared, with much chagrin, to return to our 
lower camp. We hal just picfcel every thiog when the sup- 
plies arrived. Oar messengers liad lost t he ao selves in the jun- 
gle and this was the can^e of the delay. 

On the S;7th, taking with us a light equipment for 
earn ping, we again asceudud the aamoiit of the mountain. 
After erecting our tcnt^, or rather lutr waterproof sheets which 
serv^ed as a suh^^titute, wl» we?it on to the summit and built an 
immense heap of wood aid datnmar resin to serve as a signal 
fire at night. Beyond the summit there is a steep valley and 
at the other side are isolated pinnacle of granite nearly as 
liigh as tlie mountain and perfectly precipitous except on the 
side of the valley. Messrs. Scohtechini and BozzoLo ascend- 
ed tliis with much hard climbing and found on the summit a 
small pile of stones and a flag-staff, while the remains of a flag 
were strewn on the ground. It is supposed that this flag was 
placed ^there at the instance of Captain Speedy, who paid the 
Malays a considerable sum to plaat a flag there for surveying 



purposes. We found no other signs that any persoa hswl 
visited the locality before. 

A perfect deluge of ruin with thunder and lightning obliged 
Messrs. Bozzolo and Scohtechi.m to remain on the grunite 
pinnacle for some timCj for the cloud and mist obscured every- 
thing and rendered it impossible to descend. 1 remained on 
the opposite summit superintending the erection of the bonfire, 
It was miserably cold, and we were all very glad when we 
could make our way back to our tents. This we did not do 
until the clouds cleared, when a mugnificent view was iiu veil- 
ed. Both sides of the coaat range were visible and the plains 
from the Binding River to the town of Tiiaijjeng were laid out 
like a panorama. Tbe Matang opening with the village 
seemed just boueath us. The whole valley of the PtVak with 
all the windings of the river were clear and distinct for a dis- 
tance of fifty or sixty miles. The main range was also very 
clear and some of the highest peak bore a different tii^pect from 
anything I had seen before. An island between Perak and Suma- 
tra, which i^ rarely seen from Mount Ijau, was now plainly 
visible^ as also several summits of mountains to the south-cast* 
Nothing could be seen of the mountain observed by Mr. 
S^iSTTENTiAM from Arang Para, The highest summit viijiible 
to us was, in my opinion, the sugar-loaf lull to the north and 
east of Gunong Robinson. I sliould think the mountain I 
refer to is between eight thousand and nine thousand feet high. 

Altogether, the view from the summit of Gunong Bnbu is 
one of the finest imaginable. Rivers and mountains, dense 
forests and open plains, the distant sea and the unexplored 
forests to the eastward all combine to form a sceoe of wonder- 
fully varied beauty. Unfortunately, however, the clouls and 
mistB almost coutinnally obscure this prospect. At early morn- 
ing and after a heavy thunderstorm, the whole atmosphere is 



comparatively clear. At otlier t'mea^ there is generally either 
a cap of cloud on the summit of the mountain itself or the 
whole valleys arc slirouded with dazzling masses of steam-like 
white vapour in which the mountain tops peep out like Islands. 
We returned to our camp about sunset, and then proceeded 
to light our signal fires. We had one on each cmd of the crest 
so as to be well seen from the valley of tbe Perak on one eide 
and Thaipeng^ on the other. Owing to the £;ood supply of 
dnmmar we had obtained^ we were able to kindle a very bright 
and conspicuous flame at each station xiud we were answered 
by fires from Sen gang, Kwala Kangsa, and other places on 
the Perak river as well as from Kota and Matang onthcLsirut 
side. We also fired rockets, but these were not seen except in 
places very close to the mountain. 

Our tents were completely open on one side, but the cold 
was not great until nearly dawn. The temperature then went 
down to 08° Fahrenheit, which was the lowest reached on this 
journey. At 4 a.m. we were visited by heavy rain and a strong 
wind from the east. Our shelter did uot protect us from 
either, so that we passed the time rather uncomfortably until 
euDrise, when the rain ceased. Everything was then so wet 
that we could not attempt to dry our clothes, we therefore re- 
turned to Queen's Camp as speedily as we could. Having 
taken a hasty and scanty uieal there, we made our way to our 
second day's camp reaching it easily at sunset. We expected 
t-o meet supplies at this camp, but they had not arrived. We 
had nothing but cocoa to serve out to our weary and hungry 
Malays after their long journey, but with this they were satis- 
fied and went to rest quite cheerfully. An early start on the fol- 
lowing morning enabled us to reach the Kcnas Kiver at an 
appointed depOt, and hero we found the much-needed supplier 
at about noon. 



I have alrea^ly mentioned tliat, at the camp of the preceding 
evening, we conid again distinctly hear the roar of some large 
casnadc at about half a mile from where wc were. We tried 
to scan^h it, bat the jungle was too thiik and the dpscent too 
steep tn do so that night, our want of provisions obliged ns 
to push r»n withont further delay in the evening. From the 
noise we heard, there must be a fine body of water^ falling 
from a considerable height. 

Tfie camp we were now npon was not one we had occupied 
on our outward joqrney. It wa;^ on the Uivcr Kena&, The 
Btrenm was here abont eighty yards wide and descending in 
nipitls iimid large rocks. There were many deep pools of 
beautifully elciir wat^r. We spent a few days fishing on 
these pool'i^, and caught a ^ood many rock-fiHli and mullet about 
one pound in weight. Three species of fish were seen and a 
peculiar prawn. I believe the fish were species of Uarhus 
therapon, and what I thought was Pohjfiranthus eivponuR The 
latter \% the scaly fish (without barbels) which is found in 
the ditch*'s and paddy fieUi^. 

In returning from the camp, w^e crossed the watershed be- 
tween the Kcnas and Kangsa, in order to explore the course of 
that river, which was not previously known. The watershed 
was somewhat difficult of access, and took ua to a height of 
about three thousand feet above the sea-level* We had the 
misfortune to meet with had weather and incessant rain during 
this part of the Journey^ The river Kangsa, even in its 
upper portions, was swollen into a fierce muddy stream, quite 
impassable, except on fallen trees. Uf these there were many 
lying fmm hank to biink on the rocky sides of the torrent. 
We soon found that the water descended in a series of cascades 
for a depth of about 1,1Q0 feet. I can give no idea of the 
grand mugnificence of the scenery at this part of our jour- 



ney. Wbctlicr there was a flood in tlie ri?er or not, the beauty 
of the rocks and precipices in the wild forest could not be 
surpassed. We had to descend by a series of zigzags crossing 
the miccessive rascadoa on logs sometimes at a considerable 
bciji^ht a hove the water. If ever the romance of a lovely view 
was destroyeil by the perils of a jonmey, it was here* Wc 
had f^ cross fifteen of these aerial bridges. Some were nar- 
Titw and some were half rutteOj and uU were over caseadeH ' 
wliere the slightest elip was certain destruction. In the lower 
part oP the stream wo had to ford the water, which w^as just 
fordable and no more. I consider that it was quite wonderful 
tliJit this part of our journey was accomplished without accident, 
which, hoiftcver, was only effected by constant care and much 
delay, Wc arrived at Lady Weld's rest-house on the Kurda 
Kan;r^a Road on the eveuint^ of the last day of the month 
the most of whieh had been spent in the jungle^ and none the 
wor-^e for our sojourn away from eivilixation^ except in the 
innumerable leech-bites from which we all suflered. 


Nofr. — AmonL'st the fishes of the Kenas there was a small 
specimen of what I took to be Ophiocephalus micropeltf^s, but 
tlie species is doubtful. 1 he barbel may have been B. kolas. 

Since our journey, the mountain has been again ascended by 
Mr., tlie (jovernment Botanist^ who obtained a good 
collection of plants 




( Cantinffedfrom Journal Na. 10 p. 243. ) 

In a former nuraber of the Straits Asiatic Journal {No. 
10), some arctaint was given of the relitfioius ideas and customs 
of the Sea Dyaks of Sarawak j of their belief in {ifoils and evil 
spirits; of their sacrifires and auguries. 'J he subject h incom- 
plete without a consideration of their burial rite--^, and their 
ideas of esehatolog^y. These 1 now endeavour to supply* 

But first a word about marriage* Birth is not eelelirated 
with any religions ceremony, and marriage is a eoniparatively 
simple matter. The marringe ceremony eonsints [vrineipally 
in publicly fetching the briile from her fatlter's to the biide- 
|groom*s house, hut tlie Dyak, with Ids love of divination, could 
not allow such an occasion to pas.s withi'Ut some attempt, or 
pretence, to penetrate the secrets of the future. When the bridal 
party are assembled in the bride's house, nnd tlje arrangements 
for tlie youi g couple talked over, a pivaiifj (betel-nut) is 
*plit into seven pieces by someone supposed to lie lueky in 
matrimonial affairs; aud these pieces, to*j;ethcr with the other 
ingredients of the betel-nut mixture, are put iu a little basket, 
which is bound round with ml cloth and laid for a short time 
upon the open platform outside the verandah oft lie house: 
should the pieces oi phjaag by sf>me mystic power increase iu 
number, the marriage wiU be an uu usually lucky one \ but 
sliould they decrease, it is a bad omen, and the marriage must 
be postponed, or relinquished altogether; but, as matter of 
experience, they ncitlicr increase nor decrease i and this i% 
intcrpretetl iu the obvious sense of an ordiujiry marriage upon 
which the spirits have pronounced neither good nor bad. This 
action gives the name to the whole ceremony, wliich is called 
Mluh* pinang — hpHiting the bttel-nut* When the bride has 



been brought to her future husband's housej a fowl is waved'**' 
over them, with a hastily muttered invocation for Lealtli and 
prfigperity ; and with this serai-sacrificial action the marriage 
is complete. 

Death is much more involved with sacred observances. 
Although the Dyiika have something of the Moslem sentiment 
of fate, and commonly speak of the measure of a man's life, 
which once rc!tchcd nothiiij^ can prohmgj yet this does not 
seem to help thera to a qinet submission to the inevitable ; 
for, even when death is unmistakeably drawing near, tliey are 
eager in fruitl« ss efforts of resistance, and tlie srerie is general- 
ly one tjf tumultuous wailing- They will shout wildly to the 
nic:licine-man to recover the wandering spirit, and they will 
call out to the dying — ^' Come buck ; do not go with the spirits 
** who are leading you astray to Hades. 1 his is your country, 
" and we are your friends/' The wnrd pulai.pulai^ *' return, 
return/' is reiterated in piercing, piteous tones. tSileucc and 
reverent awe in the presence of death would be regarded as cul- 
pable callousness to the interests ui a life trembling in the 
balance. And when actual dissolutitm is plaitdy imminent, 
they tlre^s the person in the garments usiuilly worn, and some 
few ornaments in addition, that the man may be fully equipped 
for tlie untried journey; and in violent demonstrations of 
grief, the women and younger people wait tht; end, or perhaps 
rush distractetUy about in hopes of doing something to delay 
it. As soon as respiration has ceased, a wild ontbui*^t of 
wailing is heard from the women, which proclaims to all the 
village that life is extinct. The cessation of visible breathing 
is with the Dyak the cessation of life ; he knows of no other 
way to distiugnish a prolonged state of coma from death, anil 
I have good reason to believe that sometimes bodies have been 
buried before they were corpses. 

After death the body is lifted from the room to the ruai^ 
or verandah, of the village-house; som^ rice is sprinkled 
npoD the breast, and it is watched until burial by numerous 
relatives and friends who come to show their Fympatliy, 
The nearer connections of the deceased will probably be heanl 

* This miring nf a sacrifice or oiVriag is a nottccabk feature in the 
practice uf liiiidu uxorciat» in Indiii, — ^Ed. 



shouting out to some departed relative to corae from Hndns 
and thke them away also, feeling at the nifimeut that lif^ is 
lit* bearable. At u burial once I eaw u. woman jump d-twn into 
the grave, and stretch hci^elf at full leugth upon the coffin 
loudly lieggiug to be buried with hw husband. 

Among some tribes, tliere are professional wailorSj iiPurly 

Lai ways women, who arc hired to wail for the dt^ad One of 
the-se is now fetched, not only to lament the lost, but by her 

I presence and incantation to as^-AiRt the soul in it^s passage to 
Hades. Her song takes about twelve hours to sing, and the 
Bum of it is this. 8hc calla with tedious prolixity upon bird, 
beast and fibli to go to Hades with a message, but in vain, 
for they cannot pas:^ the boundary. She then summons the 
spirit of the winds to go^ and — 

** Call the dead of ancient times, 

•* To fetch the laid out corpse under the ere&ceut moon, 

** Already arranged like the galaxy of the milky way. 

'* To call those along ago bent double, 

'* To fetch the shroud of our frieml below the moon, 

" Already a heap like the hummock of the rejtgguanfj, (*) 

** To call the far away departed, 

** To fetch the nailed coffin under the dawn of the rising sun, 

*' Already like the form of a fikilled artisan's cheet. 

** To call the long departed onee, 

** To fetch the icifflKwoud coffin below the brilliant moon, 

** Already bound with golden bands.*' 

The Spirit of the Winds is reluctant at first : but^ at the 
iioUcitation of his wife, at length consents to do the waller's 
bidding. He speeds on his way through forests and plains, hills 
atid vaUeys, rivers and ravines, until night comefl oo and he is 
tired and hungry, and stops to make a temporary resting place. 
After refreshing himself, he goes up a high tree to make sure 
of the proper road. " He looks round, and all is dark and dim 
'* in the distance : he looks behind, and all is obscure and con* 



" fused : be looks before him, and nil k gloomy as iiigbt." t)ii 
all sides are roads, for the wnys of the dead are seventy times 
fioven* In his perplexity, he drops hisliumiui spirit form, and 
by a stroke of ghostly energy raetuniorphohcs himself into 
rusliing wind ; and soon makes known bis presence in Hades 
by a furious tempest wbicli sweeps everything before it^ and 
rouses the inhabitants to enquire tlie cause of the unwotitcd 
commotion. They are told. Tliey must go to tlie lund of the 
living and fetch so and so and all bis belongings. The dead 
rejoice at the summons, and without delay collect their friends^ 
get iuto a boat and pull through the siygian watci^ ; and with 
such force docs the h(mt plough the lake, that all the neigh* 
bouring tish die. Arrived at the landing place, they all mako 
an eager rush into the lionsc, ^' like soldiers who fly upon the 
'*' spoil : and mad like wild pigs they seize the dead oue/^ The 
departed soul cries out in anguish at being thus violently 
carried oil"; but long before the ghostly party has reached 
their abode, it becomes reconciled to its fate* 

Thus sings the wailer, wiio has now done her w^ork* She 
has conveyed the soul to its new home, which it wouhl never 
reacli, it is said, without her intervention ; but remain sus- 
pended somewhere, and find rest nowhere. 

The climate necessitates a speedy interment ; but there is 
another reason for putting their dead quickly out of sight. 
After life is extinct^ the body is no longer spoken of as a body 
or corpse ; it is an aitfUf a spirit ; and to have it hmg with 
them %vould, apart from sanitary considerations, expose them 
to sinistm* ghostly influences. Some time before daylight, a 
suiRciont number of men take away the corpse wrapped in 
mats and secured with a light framework of wood ; and as it 
is being borne from tlie Imnse* ashes are tbrow^n after it, and a 
water-gourd is flung and broken on the floor. Tlie jjraveyard 
is generally a small hill^ or rising ground in the neighbourhood, 
as nnkempt as the suiTounding forest, overshadowed by 
towering trees, and full of an entangled undergrowth of grass, 
climbers and thorny rotan. On coming to the cemetery, the 
first thing done is to kill a fowl to propitiate the dread powers 
of Hades, to whom the ground is supposed to be devoted : 
and so strong is the need of this sacrifice felt^ that no Dyakj 



unenlightened by other principles, will dare toueh the ground 
until it is made. >ome now dig the gravii ; some cook a meid, 
which is afti.rwards eateti an the 8pot ; whih^t others get a 
large log of wood of the required length, split it into two» sicoop 
out the inside ^udit-irnlly to admit the corpsj*, und thus make 
a rude cotEn, tlie two parts of uhit-h, after receiving the body^ 
are firmly lushed together with rotan. Sometimes^ however, 
the coffin is made of pi Links before proceeding to the grave- 

With the hnrial of the body is deposited haif/(ff that is, 
things given to thcrlead, Personal necessaries, like rice, platei^, 
the beteLnnt mixture, money and u few other iirtieles are laid 
with the body in the f^round ; whilst spears, baskets, swords, 
weaving materiiilsj pots, jarSj g^ongs, etc., art; put on the sur- 
face, the jars and gongs being broken to render them useless 
to any alien who may be inclined to sacrilegious depreilations* 
This hah/a, little or much lieeortling to the wealth of the 
deceased, is regarded us a mark of atleetion. and to omit it is 
to fail in a natural duty. But the custom i^ really founded 
upon the belief that the thin^^s so bestowed are in some 
.mystic way carried into the other world, and useful to the 
'dea<l — their capital, in fact, to begin life with in tlie new stage 
of existence. And in eases where Dyaka are killed, or die by 
Hicknes.H* far away from home, the imij/a is tstill depo*sited in 
the family buryiug-place, A burial without bau/a is, in 
their phrase, the burial of a dog. A fence round the grave 
as a protection from ravages by wild pigs completes the 

There is a deeply-seated fear amongst Dyaks touching 
everything connected \\ith death and burial rites. They have 
for instance, a lurking suspicion that the dead, having become 
the victims of the most terrible of all powers, may harbour 
envious ft-elings, and possibly follow the burying-party back to 
their homes with some evil intent. To prevent such mischief, 
some of them will make a notched stick-ladder,t and fix it upside 

■ Compare the obtjervances of tht" JoLor Jukans^ Ko. 1 yf this Journal 

t The tan^iju fmrnauiiat of the Juhyr Jukans is eaid ** to eaable thi 
Bpirit to hjave the gfra^e when required/' Id.— Ed» 

dovn ia tlie pMth neir die eeotelerf to «iop any departnl spiiil 
r wbo ■»▼ be uafftiflg on «|«at>inbfe vmadrinigB; otfen pbni 
bits af ilkktatflntMte bamboo aihiop* to luieiketr feet cboold 
thcf Tcntiire in poniut^ mud »• obatrnel tkeir aiTaacc 

lorcmieal i» the umui, but not immfnl, nodeof dMposiiis 
of tbc dead. Matum^B^ or nedkriQe men, ate suspended in 
trees ia tbe cesmeterT ; * and amongit tbe Bakca tiibe, duldfeii 
d ring before dentiti* n liai derelatped eiajoj tbe same dbtiDdioD, 
b;iviiii^' a jar for tbeir cuffia* Same eccentric mcthidimb bate a 
i dislike to be pat andergroaad, and reqoett ibat after deatb 
tbej mav be bid upon an open platform in tbe eemetenr; tbe 
result of which b that a most ofleosire exudation aoon ooie« 
from tbe badly made coffin ; and after a rear or tiro the posts 
became rotten^ and tbe whole stmcture tumbles down^ the 
eoffin btLrating in ptecesp adding to the alreadj large stoc*k of 
eipoaed bones, which^ with broken pots, jars, basketjs, and 
other miscellaneous articles, $well the property of grim death, 
and make the place a vast cbamel awesome and gloomy, well 
calculated to frighten the superstitious Dyak. Occasionally, 
a man has a fancy to have his body put on the top of a moun- 
tain, and the relativc:5 probably dare not refuse to carry out 
the wish through fear of imaginary evil consequences. Among 
the Kayans, this burial above ground b the general practice^ 
but they earrj' it out in a more subitantial manner. The 
hatyn is pat in the cofEu, but heads of slain enemies are bung 

• Evi'O siuoni^ the Mfllaye of the Feiiinsula, tliiK pmctiee of keeping the 
till* IkxIv itta ptttrftti,^, or medifine*man, above ^rtumd h notuidtaown. It 
i'xi*.t» ijHf* D'-'^ably amojiK: the Sakai tribes. Ifftan Uimt is the Sakai aanie 
for 1 ' I tij;er-?*pint or mon-tiger. A man who baa a tiger-spirit a.i 

hi» 1^ a iitiwang hlian^ aud may nut 1»e hariedia the orduiary Malay 

way, buL ia» butly mni^t be pbiced leaning against n^prah tree, in order that 
the»pirit niHy enter inta auf»ther man. 

In iVrrtk, it in Kuid that In the iime of Sultan J' A F.^R there was a 
pnttftfiff of tbo httnfH hliiiH^ Bamt;d Alanif Dt'wam. When he died (at 
lltiluh Miuyuk in 1^1 u rerai) hi« relations woidd not permit his body to be 
*«t up iipiinnt ii tree^ but buried it. fc'oon afterwards the ^onnd was found 
diffturUdf iind ninee tljiii Aluu^ Pewiii'a hn» frcijiiently appeared as a 
hitntn btiaru whtu luvuked by patcant/a uf that class (See Journal No, 12, 
p 224), II'* rumrn down in the ^hujie of a tiper, with one eye closed* the 
nftVet of ao in jury he received when huriedi or when ka\ing the earth to 
iiituino hia mmu form.^ED. 


up round the grave. Great warriors have been sometimes 
buried fur a time and then exhiinieJ^ and their relics sacredly 
tept by their descendants in or iiciir their houses^ or it may be, 
ou the spur of a neighbouring hill, witfi the objeet of securing 
the departed ancestor ^h a tutehiry .spirit, 

yea Dyaks do vnA consider hurial as the last office wliich 
they can render to the dead, hut fulhiw tliem up with certoia 
after-ministries of mixed afteetion and ftuperstition. For 
three or four evcninjjs after death, they li^lit a ^re j*ouiewherc 
outside the liouse (or the use of the depurtcil ; fur in Hutlea, 
they say, fire is not to he prorored witliout puyint? for it. 
After burial, the nearest relatlciu lives in stiict seehrsion aud 
keeps a comparative last until the observaiu'e cilled pafm 
is made, A plate of rice with other eatablea is taken by one 
of the neighbours to this chief mourner, and from tliis time 
he or she returns to the usual di^'t, and ui!eu|mti ni-s uf life. 
But this ncifj^h hourly act to tlie living is the least part of 
pana, amongst those trihe^* at leo-st wlicro pn.fe sional 
wallers exist. It is prinei [>:Uly con ee rued with the dead, to 
whom by it food is supposed to be scut. Boiled rice and 
other ibiu^ usually eaten with it, toget!ier with Dyiik delica- 
cies, are put together, au?l thrown through the opeuinjj; at the 
back of the house, ami the wuilt-r is Fetched to elicet their 
transmission to Hailc^. She comes again to the liouse of 
muurning, not to huoent over the dead — that is left for the 
relatives to do— but to call upon the adjutant biid, *' the 
royal bird which tishes the watere all alone/* to do her bid- 
ding in conveying tlie articles of tlic puna to the other world. 
Amonpf these are included with some pathos the sorrows and 
sif^hs of the living. 

** To carry the pano of teartj to the departed ono 
** at the clear muutli of the Poiatoe river. 

•* To carry deep sighs to tho^e sunk out of view 
•* in the land of the red ripu rainhutna 

** To carry pityiai; tittbi* to those wh(> have fallen 

*' unripo in ihe land uf empty fruiting litnea," 

Tlie bird, says the song, speeds on it^ way, and after 
taking a rest on the bacha tree, which hears fur flower one 
dark red be^id, arrives in the region of the departed. There 


»EA DVAR RfitlOlOV. 

they flo not recogBize the visitant, and inquire where it comes 
from and why : ^' Do you come to look at the widows f We* 
" have thirty and one ; bnt onl}^ one is handsome- Do you 
" come to seek after maidens? We have thirty and three ; 
*' but only one is pretty," *' No," says the bird, ^* we have 
" widows and maidi^ns plenty in the land of the living, all 
" beautiful and admired of men/' *' What is that you have 
" bron.i^'!it with you ho securely covered up ?^' " Get a basin, 
" anrl I will pour J he cent en ti* of my burden into it/' The 
basin is brought and receives the />(?// ^f, and lu ! the eatables 
and ihc tears aad the sobs of the living mourners have become 
^ohl and silver and precious* stones wondrously beautiful. 
But neither the men or the women know what ibrv are ; and 
mutual accusations of ipiorance and stupidity are bnndied 
about J and a noif*y quarrel is the result At this juueture, an 
ancient rintivc uf Hades appears, one, that is, who never was 
an inhabitant of this world ; 

Dara Enhai Orn<hi* 

Dnyang 8c"pau*]j KapaJya. 

She ehides tbi ir unseemly squAbbling. aud explains to them 
that the bird has come from tbe realms of the living with 
presents from their friends j whcreupou they are sieizcd witfi a 
passionate desire to return, but are told that tins is impossible. 

** The notched ladder is top dovvnvvanls* 

•' Their eye« see eroake<lIy. 

" Their feet step the wrong way. 

*' Their Bpcecli is all apuide down/' 

Their capacities are no longer adapted to the world tliey 
have left, aud their destiny is rrrevcrsible ; but still tliey ur/e 
their request to accompany the bird, and all the ingtniuity of 
Hades is called in requisiiion to devise means of aujusing the 
souls as yet nnaceustomcd to their new dwcllin^f. Meanwhile, 
tlic bird takes its liumeward flijfbt. Thus fur the wailcr, 

Utvtil ihh pa/iu is made, say the Dyaks who observe it, the 
fioul is not tborou*:ldy conscious that it lias departed from the 
world, and Hades wili not give it food or water; but after this^ 
it h received as a regular denizen of deatbland. 



There is a similar observunce called mmpintj, whicb is 
carried out at a varying period after death. They tuke the 
symbols aud trophies uf a hcad-huatiDf^ raiil, and the wader is 
.siqHj<isod to procure the services of the spirit of the windr^i to 
convey them to the dead, whose ab^de, before full of darkiu^ss 
and discomfort, h now, at sij^ht of the tropluc^, filled with 
light; for they have the satisfaction of feeling tliat their rcdu- 
.tions have revenged upon others tlieir own deatti ; so Iiciicc- 
'forih they stand more f rifely upon their own footing. 

This observance, which, according to ancient custom, could 
not be performed until the bead of an enemy had been obtainctl, 
brings out Ifie darker and fiercer side of the Dvak nature, 
Tliey would fight with dealli if tliey could ; but as they cannot, 
they rejoice in taking VLingeauce upon tlic living, vv hencver a 
eliance of killing the eucnile^ of tUcir tribe otiei*is itself; so as 
tn be abhf to say to themselves : ** Aly rehitives l»avc revenged 
**my death . I am now on equal terms with tfic evil faJe wliich 
" iins sent me hither." But in these times, when they live 
under a strong and civilized government^ it is very seldom 
that this observance can be carried out in its fntness ; atid 
therefore it is cither slurred over by some mild substitute, or 
omitted altogctlier. 

But the great observairee for the dead is the Oufcvi 
aniu, Festival of Departed S])irits. No definite period is 
fixed for the celebration of it, and tlie linn* varies from one 
to three or four years. The prcparaticm for it of food and 
drink a!idothtr things is carried on for weeks and even months ; 
and sometimes it taxes very s(^vcrtly the resources of tlvc 
Dyak. When all is ready, the whole neighbourhood for ndles 
round is invited to partake of it It is an oppurtunity for a 
general social gathering ; it is a formal laying aside of mourn- 
ing; above ali, it is, in their niimls, tijc execution of certain 
offices uccesHary for the liiial well-being of the dead. 

But though it is a feast for the dead to which they are 
invoked and invited, yet they pictend to guard against any 
unorthodox and premature approach of the dep^irtetl as full of 
uncanny influence. When the ttu}l\ a drink brewed from 
rice, has been miule, an earthenware potful of it is hung up 
before the door of the one room which cuih familv of the 



village house occupies^ po as to attract tlie attention of any 
casual wanderer from Hades. Such a one is siipposed to see 

tbe pot, and to go atid regale himself from it, and be satisfied 
without going further: and thus his thouglits are pleasantly 
diverted from the inner scat of family ILfe ; the room — where, 
if permitted to enter, he might possibly, in revengeful spite, 
carry off some of the living circle. 

The presence oF the dead i» desired, but only at the pro- 
per time and in the proper way. But how are they to come 
from Hades in the numbers desired? Nothing easier, thinks 
Ihe l>yak, send a boat for them : So he despatches what is 
called the Ittmpatiff* A piece of bamboo in which some 
rice has heen boiled is nvadc into a tiny boat, which, by the aid 
of the wailcr, who is ngain fctehed, is sent to Hades. Actual- 
ly, it is thrown away behind the house : spirituallyi it is sup- 
posefl by the incantation of the waiter to be transmitted to the 
unseen realm through the instrumentality of the king of all 
the iishes, who acconiplishcs the journey witlumt much trou- 
ble. But in Hades he dare not ascend the great river of the 
dead bevond the first landing place, where he leaves the mystic 
craft together with food and drink. No sooner is tins done 
than the stream becomes dammed up and overflows its banks. 
The curious boat is seen floating upon the swollen waters, but 
no one knows what it is. At length a water nymph rises out 
of tie river, and tells them tluit the strange craft, which by 
this time has grown from the size of a toy to a mighty war- 
boat, has bctn sent by their living friends for their passage 
across the styx to partake of a final banquet. Great is the 
joy of Hades on discovering this. 

** Their Rhouts reach beyond the clouds. 
'* They incite each other like men preparing the druina, 
*' With joy they thump their breasts, 
" With ghtdness they slap tlieir thighs. 
'■ We shall soon feant hckiw tho star-pprinkled heavens. 
" We shrtll soon eat where the roaring thuader falls. 
** We shall BOon feed below the t^uspended moon. 
'* We shall snon be on our way to visit the world, and march 
"to the feast.'* 

With this contrivance, the way is now^ open fur the 



departed to visit their old habitatioiig as soon as the feast shall 
be ready and the final summoTis sent. Meanwhile preparations 
for ihe festival advance. Those tribes who erect iron wood 
memorial monuments at the graves g^et them put together. 
On the day of the feast, or may he the day befurcj the women 
weave with finely split bamboo small imitations of various 
articles of personal and domestic use, which are afterwards 
hung over the f^rave, that is, given to the df ail. If it be a male 
for whom the feast is made, a bambuo gun, a shield, a war cap, 
a Binh bag and drinking vessel, etc, are woven : if a female, a 
loom, a fish basket, a winnowing fan, sunsliadc, and other 
tilings: if a child, bamboo toy a of various descriptions. 

The guests arrive during the day* and tlic feasting begins 
lu the evening, and lasts all night. An offering of food to the 
dead is put outride at the entrance of the house. The wailer 
of course is present, and her office now is to invoke the spirit 
of the winds to invite the dead to come, and feast once more 
with the living ; and slie goes on to describe in song the whole 
imaginary circumstances — the coming of the dead from Hades, 
the feasting, and the return. Slie sings how numerous auimals^ 
one after another, and tlien Salampantifd, maker of men, are 
called upon to go to Hades, but none have the capacity to under- 
take such a journey ; how thi* spirit of the winds arrives in 
Hades, and urges the acceptance of the invitation by expatia- 
ting on the abundance ami excellence of the food their rela- 
tions have provided for thcna ; how they and a great company 
of friends start, an<t make the journey hither in the boat before 
sent for them ; how glad tiR^y arc to sec our earth and sky 
again, and to hear the many voices of tiie busy Wi>rld ; how 
they eat and drink, dance, and have a cock-Hght with their 
living friends (for ihey have brought fighting cocks with 
them) ; how Hades is beaten (to make it victorious would bo 
a bad omen) ; how they sisk for their final share of the fami- 
ly property, and a division is made, but liere again the dead 
get the worst of it, fur in dividing the paddy, the living get 
the grain, the dead only the chest in which it is kept; so, the 
jars remain with the living, the stand only on which they are 
set being given to the dead ; the weapons too are retained, 
whilst the sheaths go to HaiieSj etc., etc* In the very act of 



professing to eiitcrtaia tlielr friend^?, lli(*y must cheat tbcm for 
fenr of concTding too much to Hudes, and so liastcu their own 
departure thither. After this pretcnde^l divisiim ofpruporty, 
the chikh'en of death hmd make their partni;^ salutation witli 
much affcetinu and regret :tnd *j,o on their way. Sunh i^ the 
esoteric meaniu|^ of the ie.^tival aceordiug to the waih.'r*$ sonj;;. 

Tlie Hong makcfi the dead urnve about early dawn ; and 
then occurs an action wherein tlie intercommuniiUi of thedt ad 
and the living is supposed to be brought to a climax. A 
certain quantity of fffftf, has been reserved niiiil now in a 
bamboo, as the peculiar p^irtion of Hades, set apart for a 
ssiered symposium between the dead and the livm*^. It i^ uo>v 
drunk by some old m:in rcMowned for bravery or riches, or 
other aged guest who is believed to possess a nature tough 
enough to encounter the risk of so near a contact with the 
!*hades of death. This ' drinkinj^ the bamboo/* as it is oalleil, 
is an important part of t!ie festival. 

Earlier in tlie ni|:^!it eouics the formal putting off of 
ninnrninji:. The nearest unile relation is habited in an old 
waistclothj or trousers : these are slit throu^li aud taken away, 
and the man assumes a better and tiuer garment ; a bit of Lair 
from eacli side of the head is cut ott* and thrown away. In 
case of female relations, some of the roiftn rinj^cs which they 
wear r on n d t h c i r wa i 8 ts a re cut 1 1 1 r o n ;>h a n ( I set an i d e ; and 
they now resume the use of personal ornsimeiits. Thitj action 
is rej)re5?entcd as a hist farewell tn tlie dead. 

The morning afti^r the feast, the hint duty to tlie dead ia 
fulfilled. The monument, if jiuy, the bamboo imitati«m articles, 
the cast oil* garments, with food (»f all kinds arc taken and 
arranged upon the gra%e, ^V'itli tlds final etpiifunciit, the 
dead are said to relinquish all elaium u]jun the liviiij^* and to 
go henceforward ou ttieir way, and to depend upon tlielr own 
resources, lint Ijifore the Gairet antn is mrulc they are 
thought to carry on a system of secret depreihititms upon the 
eatables und drinkables oi the living, in other words, to come 
for their siiare. When sitting down to his plate of rice, a 
Dyak will soTuctiins be seen to throw a little under the huusc 
a-4 a portion for a departed one. And I have been told that ilk 
the morning the footprints of tlie chad are ^ometime« visible in 



.tbe paddy stores from wlik;!i they have been supplying tbem- 
flelvt-a under cover of darkness. Thoy are driven to su -h litHc 
foraging expeditions, it is afiid^ by the neees-«itied of tlieir 
position ; iur the powers of llaJes lojk with c^^nterapt upon 
any who go thither insufficiently provtsioned, and even quarrel 
with thcni. And worse »tdl is sfiid tn liappou if this feast be 
omitted altogether : the dead lose their per^iiuulity, and are 
dissolved into primitive earth. Hence charity Ui thn deal 
and motives of economy urge the Dyak lo undertake the 
Ubour and expense of ibe Gawel utttn, the pre^mration nf 
which seriously huiilcrs tlie faruiwork, and diniiuisbes tlie 
following year's crop of pa'ldy. 

Acconling to ancient custom, thii Feast of the Spirits 
eould not be held nutil a new human bead liati been procured, 
hut this ghastly, yet valaetl, urn inieat to the festival has now 
to b© f^enerally dispensed with. 

Thus far I liave, in the main, followed Dyak th uigbt 
about death and t!ie aftcrstate as it is embodied iti their trilial 
ecrcinonies and sontrs ; but as niiglit fie cxpcctetl popular 
thought is not without its ideas aad theories; and theso sup- 
plement what has hitherto been said. 

In the borderland, says the Dyak, botween this world and 
the next, is situated tJie house of t!ie Bird bffhui^ a bird lierc, 
a spirit th^Te, covering his identity in human form. Every 
human spirit in the extremity of sickness comes to this plaee : 
if it goes up into the huusc, by tlie inHueuee of the bird it 
returns to the body, which thcieupin recovers; but if it avoids 
the house, as is more [)robalde, because it is always in a tdtliy 
state of dirt and stt^neb, then it hi well nn its way to the other 
world. There is, liowcver, another chance for it at the ** Bridge 
<jf Fear," a see-saw bridge stretching acr^isa the Styx, and 
difBcult to pass over : if the suid makes makes the passage 
successfully, it is gone past rcH*(jvcry ; if it falls into tlve water, 
the cold bath wakes it np to a senrc of its real position, and 
determines it to retrace \u sfeps. 

Afler thisj it seems, the aonl tias to pass the ** Hill of 
Fire/' Kvil souls arc compelled to go stmight over the hill 
with scorching fire on every side, which nearly consumes them ; 
but gfK>d ones arc led by an easy path round the feotj and so 


escape the pain ami danger.* This is the only connet'tioffTn" 
which I have met with anything which suggests the idea of 
future retribution for wrong doing in this life, 

Dyaks attribute to the dead a disposition of mixed good 
and eirii towards the living, and so alternately fear and desire 
any imaginary contact with them. As ha9 been said before, 
they do not speak of taking a '* corpse" to the grave, but an 
antu, a spirit ; oa though the departed had. already become 
a member of that class of capricious unseen beings whieli are 
believed to be inimical to men. They think the dead can 
rush from their secret habitations, and seize invisibly upon 
any one passing by the cemetery, which is, therefore, regarded 
as an awesome, dreaded place. But yet this fear does not 
obliterate affectionate regard, and many a grave is kept clean 
and tidy by the loving care of the living ; the fear being 
united with the hope of good, as they fancy tlie dead may also 
have the will and the power to help them. I was once present 
at the death of an old man^ when a woman came into the 
room, and begged him, insensible though he was, to accept a 
brass finger ring, slioutiug out to him as she offered it : 
" Here, grandfather, take this ring, and in Hades remember 
*' I am very poor, and sen J me sonje paddy medicine that I 
" may get better harvests/' Whether tliC request was granted, 
I never heard. Sometimes they seek communion with the dead 
by sleeping at their graves in hope of getting some benefit from 
them through dreams, or otherwise. A Dyak acquaintance of 
mine had made a good memorial covering over the grave of his 
mother of an unusual pattern, and soon fell ill, in consequence, 
some said, of tliis ghostly work. So he slept at her gnivo 
feeling sure she wcqM help hira in hie need, but neitlier voice 
nor vision nor medicine came : and he wad thoroughly disap- 
pointed, lie said to me: '* 1 have made a decent resting 
*' place for my mother, and now I am ill and ask her assistance, 
" she pays no attention. I think she is very ungrateful/' 

• **Acoonlmg to th.^ cret!l of the JUtbt^^As inXamiil ln<ii:ii thL*s<>iils are 
obhged to pass ] y a C4>lmim of Hre which r-un^uwn^ the winful, and it is ouly 
ofttr perils th:ii tlnv reiieh tlje limd of the blesi^'d hv u bridge of ruin?. ' 
PbscHEL, Ra*:tsofMau^ p, 2^>1, quoting" Baishleik, Xitcfi um/atts Imiien* — 




TI118 belief in reciprocal good offices between tlie dead and the 
living comes ont again in those cases where the remains of the 
dead are reverently prescrvotl by the living. On every festival 
occasion, they are presented uffcriiigs of food, ete,, in return for 
which these honoured dead are <pxpeeted to confer subs tan tial 
favours upon their living descendants. 

Their notions of the relutiouship of tins vrorld to the 
next, and of the dead to the livin|^, will be further illustrated 
by the story of Katiawa ; wliiuh may also h^ taken ix^ a 
specimen of their follvh>re. 

Kadawa was a great cock -fighter, but had suffered suc- 
cessive defeats from his fellow Dyaks. Irritated at bcin;^ 
beaten in a sport he so dearly lovecl, he started off to seek a 
cock of a particular white and red plumage, called birbig 
UntnggatHf, which he believed would bear down all others 
before it. But a chanticleer of this peculiar plumage ^vas a 
" rara avis'* among fowls ; and village after village was visited, 
and neither for love or money could the coveted bird be got, 
for the simple reason that there were none. Nothing daunted, 
he started off ngain to go further a lick!, and determined not 
to return till he had succeeded in his quest. He travelled 
hither and thither in the land of the Dyakn until he knew not 
where he was, and at length arrived at the land of Maw^ai 
tdffp, the borderland between Hades and ibis world, the 
inhabitants of which can visit one or the other as they wis!i. 
Here a long Tillage house appeared in ai^ht. lie went up the 
ladder into it ; and to his astoui^shmeut it showe^l all the signs 
of being inhabited, even to the tires burning on the hearth 
and the siounds of surrouncling voices ; but not a person could 
he seen ; so he shouted out : " llo, where ure you all ? '* 
Whereupon an unembodied voice answered : " Is that you, 
** Kadawv ? Sit down and cat pi Hang and*/>^*A. What do you 
" want ? " *' 1 am come to beg f,T buy a biruitj grunggang^ 
" fighting cock." There is not one to be had here, but if you 
" go on to the next village, yon will find one.'' So Kadawa 
trudged on, greatly wondering at the strangeness of a place 
peopled by bodiless beings, talking working phantoms of men 
and women. Soon after, he came to u populous place, where 
many village-houses were cluijtercd together — Mamiai mati. 


tile first district of the kud of the dead; but Kadawa knew 
it not for it had nothing to remind him of dt-ath ; the people 
moved about, spoke and had the same form and feature as his 
own neighbonra : moretn^er they recognized and called hira by 
name. They offered to pvc him a hiring f/ritHfff/fingj 
whieh I JO gladly acce[)tcd. Having now obtained his object, 
be was happy, aud finding the people sociable and lio-^pitable, 
he was in no hurry to return, but remained with his new- 
found friends more than a year, oblivious of home and its 

But wliat of his wife and child whom he had left behind 
in bis house ? She was fi:rievcd at his hjng absence, and at 
last resolved that he must be dead and she wept and bewailed 
him; and at length she died of sorrow. 

The time came w*ben the relations made the Gatrvi 
anlit for her ; and the wailer was bringing fbe company 
of gueets from Hades to the feast Just at that time Kadawa 
had determined upon returning, and was securing bis ti^jhting 
cock and buckling on bis sword, when some one en lied to him 
to go on the platform in front of the huuse, and pointed out 
to him a processiton niarcbing along the hill oi>poHite the house. 
Kadawa looked and saw in the middle of the long train his 
own wife ; and it flashed upon him tlint bis wife was dead and 
he himself within tlic contiues of deathl;md. Without speak- 
ing a word he caught up Ins fighting cock, swor«! and spear 
and rushed to join bis wife. IShe repelled bim, but in vain. 
At length they came to the stygian lake and found a boat 
lying on the shore, into which they all Iturried, trying to keep 
Kadawa out ; but he vigorously persisted, and was allowed 
to embark. After paddling several hours the boat struck up- 
on a roek, ami would not move : all except Kadawa jumped 
out to pull her off, but she would not budge an inch. Kat>aw v 
was called upon by his wife to help ; but he refused for fear 
of being Icfi behind- — says his wife : '' Do you not know I am 
*• dead ? What is the use of tiy^ing to follow me ? '' ^* Let me 
** die also, I will not leave you/' '* Very well/' replied his wife^ 
" since you arc resolved to come with mc, when we get to the 
*' housCj you will find some dried sugar cane over the fire 
" place : eat that, and you will be able to bear mc company. 



** Now get out, and help to pull the boat oft' the rock," Ilo 
juraped out* anJ as »oou as iiLs fcot touched tho luek, boat 
[>eoplc and hike vanished' and he found himself atandLag at 
his own dtior^tep. 

l^at no pleasuic did his return brhig hiui, tor he fuuiul 
his friends making the last Ikrewell feast fur his wife, lie 
neither ate nor drank nor shared in the festivities : but kept iu 
his own room till all was over when he thiiught of the sugar 
cane over the tireplnce. He scandicd fur it, hut found oi^thiu^j: 
luore tliun a roll of poisonotis (nha^^ root : u^ain and upain he 
looked hut nothing else was there; so he enjicluded tliat this 
w^awhat his wife meant hy the su^^ar cane, lie spoke sar- 
fuwfuUy to his neighbours and told them he should not live 
long, and begged them to he kind to his orphan boy and give 
him Ids inheritance : then he returned to hiss room wrapped 
a blanket round him and laid himself on the floor chewed the 
fatal root nnd joined his wife in dcathhuuk 

1 have iIjus traced the general belief of the Sarawak Sea 
Dyak about his future existence. There are however excep- 
tions to it. Occaijionally the idea of metempsychosis is met 
with. At one time the spirit of a man is said to have passed 
into an alligator; at another into a snake, etc., tlic knowledgf.^ 
of it being always revealed by dreams. Sometimes a Dyak 
will dcuy the possibility of any future existence : but only I 
think to serve the purpose of an argument. But these, wher- 
ci'cr found, are deviations from the general belief. 

But it is no gloomy Tartarus, nor ia it any superior happy 
Klysium to which the Dyak looks forward : but a simple [iro- 
longation of the present state of things in a new sphere. The 
dead are believed ti^ build houses, make paddy furms, and go 
through all the drudgery of a labouring life, aud to be subject 
to tl»c same inequalities of condition and of fortune as the 
living are here. And as men helped each other in life, so 
death, they thiuk, need not cut jisunder the bund of mutual 
interchanges of kindly service : they can ii^ssist the dead with 
food and other ueccssajies: and the dead can be equally gener- 
ous in bestowing n[K>n them medicines of meglcal virtue, * 


amtikts and talkman^ of all kinds to help thcru in the work 
o( life. This sums up the nicanii^g of their eschatological 
observances which perhaps exceed those of most other races of 

But this future life does not, in their minds^ extend to 
an immortalitjr. Death is still the inevitahle destiny. Some 
Dyaks say they have to die three times ; Withers seven times ; 
but all o^'cc in the notion^ that after having become degener- 
ated by these successive dyings, they becomes practically anni- 
hilated by abaorption into air and fog, or by a final dissolution 
into rarious jungle plants not recognized by any name. May 
be, they lack the mental eapacity to imRgiue an endless state 
uf liveable life* 



■^ au^ PAPEK under the above title, which was published 

^ f ff ' in Ko. 9 of this Journal (June, 188'2), c uitains a 

^^ ^,. tranptlation of the later portion of the Perak '* Salsilu," 

^'^^\ (chaia, ^jenealogy) of the royal family. This 

'^ J ends abruptly with the death of JUar/nim Mtida^ 

which took place about the year 1777. It has been 
carried on and brought down to 188.2 by Raja Ha.ii 
Yahya, of Bclanja, in Perak, whoso manuscript I have 
translated. Unoku Itui's work does not profess to be more 
than a genealou:ieal record, and is not, like the older book, 
a historiral narrative of events. It has not, therefore, the 
interest of the latter. It is useful, however, as exhibitiiij; 
the mode of succession which was customary amonj^ tlie Perak 
Rajas in former times, and as an authentic source from which 
to ascertain the relative purity of the descent of the survi- 
ving members of the royal line in that vState. 

For convenience of reference, tlic names aiul titles, wliorevcr 
they occur, of the Rajas wlio at any tiuic succeedcnl to the 
throne of Perak are printed in small capitals. 

AV. !•:. MAXWELL. 

This is the genealogy of the llajas wlio arc in the kin:^^d'):n 
of Perak, at present. 

Marhi M Jalil-ullau "^ was tlio grandson of Marhuin 
Kasab of Siak, who was des -ended from Siing ^^apurba of 
Pagar-ruyong. ^Iahhum Jalii.-illmi married a danglitcr of 
iVlarhum ^[uda Paliang (by the granddaughter (»f Maiuiu^i 
Kota Lama, Sultan nf Perak) and had six childn n — Four 
sons and two daughters. Tlic sons were : — 

* For un explaniition of the t< rni JA/?*// .'//// un,l tiw! lUjiluy j»rji(,-1i'«- (»f n*- 
naminsT their kin<^K aft..*r their d %;;•;•.««•. s.f; No. '.) of tliis .Toaniai. ( T/ir Jfiti. 
tory of Fti'iLli from Siit'irr So>irrrx, p. '.>"^ //.) 

The name of MARHJ'ii jAML-rLLAir in his lifiitiine w; m >!oi)ArAH Siiaii. 
(/^., p. 1UL>.) 



by tlio »:irac mutkcr. 

Wlicn Raja Radix succectletl to the throne, be was pro- 
claimed as Sultan AIo(1\fvk Shah, iind after his death ho 
wa^ kno\vn us Maiuhm IIajk 

RiJi BijiXC was Rija MuJa while Uatv IlvniN Wiis Sulhui, 
and lifter him, wliile Raja Inu reigurd. There wfw u civil 
wur while Rua Ixu was Sultttii, und the Uaja lluda. Raja 
Uis.NU, w;iH misctl to the throne, und took tht^ title of Stlta v 
ilriiA^MAD Shah.* Luter, hi* became Vang di pertuan 
Muila. When lie die-i he wits called by the pc inle Miuhum 


He had eight childreti— five sons and three duujhtcrj*— 
namely : — 

1 — Raj.v Iskanoar, I 

2.-- Raja Ki:mas or Salch, J 

tJ. — Raja Aj.i-kdoix. 

4. — Raja Itm Mutla. 

6, — KvUA Ki:( iiiK Boxfisr. 

6, 7j S. — The names uf the daughters are iiut givvn. 

Iluja I'utch gave birtli to Raja Khalim, Kaja Hamid hegut 
four ehildreri, uaracly, one soti, named Raja C'holan, and tiwi-e 
duuj^liter^, iianies unlvnowiL One of the daughters married 
Raja Ala-kujjin, son of Mauuum AMiMfLLAii, and another 
maniid Raja Seniil. 

Raja Kemas t son of I^f ARHi-:\r Aminullah, intirried Raja 
Keehik Ampuan, dan^hter of M \fuii'M Sulontj (TARoxofiONo, 
Raja Iskandar^ who became Raja MutLa, married Raja Bndak 
Hasulj daugliter of ^Iarhum Majt, and sorceedcd Mahhim 
Uaji ou the throne under the title of Si:ltan I>kanoar 
Zii'lKakxayn. After his death, he was known as Mak- 
HiTM Kahar-uu.aii. J One of \m sisters Avas j^iven Iiy liira in 
marriage to Sht;nf Hassan, son of Toh Tambak (Slierit' JahidiD), 
and »ine of the dau*jhtcrs of Raja Hamid mairied Marhum 
Tenjrah (Banduhara Uaja Inn). 

Bi^fore bin marriag:e with the Princess Budak Rasnl, MaiiHUM 
Kaiiar already had i^sne by a woman of the lower orders, and 

• S^-e Xo. y of this Jounu^r P* HWi. 

t A'enia*=Kei Amiwi. Sc^ No, oi llm Joumd, p. 106, 

X Hoc Ko' 2 of this Jouitml, p. 187. 



1. — Si LTAN MAinin* IsKANDAR Si[Aii» better known 
m M\iuii M Bkjsah OtiJA-rij.Aii, wliose 
rci^ii Instf^d fur hhq htHidrd aiul twenty 
yuars, lie hful no cliildrcti, 
2* — Yang d)-|>cr-tuaii Mtula Stt.tan M^nsuii Shah, 
called after Lift <leiitli Mauiivm PrLAu Tin a 
3 ^- — ^Marh 1 1 in Bid n ra , 
4.— Raja .A[ijdaf ir. 
The iiamea of tlie dau '^liters were :— 
■>.— Sliu'alani Iksan 
t). — Sha^alam Maiiy;kut di Sayong, 
Numbers 1, 2 ancl o were the ehildrm of Mahih m J\i:il- 
UKi.Aii by the;^hter of }-Furlri(n \[ii lu Pabm^ ; and uu:n- 
bers .'^, I and H wrre li!< eSJdr»'ii by ati'>t'H'r ni ithi^r, 

Itaja Molafar br^ >t one dau-^liter, and Mui'hnni Bldara 
{otherwise uallt'd Uaja Kanayau} \va^ the fuunder ot'the fimily 
of Rajas wlio arc ut Sclnt Pula'uuid K^rapar np to the pre- 
sent day. 

Makuum Pri.AU TioA had ten ehddren — seven sons and three 
datightcrs — whose names weiv* a** follows: — 

1.— Raja Radix (Mauhum Suloxg GAUoxtiCiONC) 

who was afterwards Sui.tan Ala-Ej)di\". 
2,— Raja Inu. 


4. — Uajii Galuh. 

5.— Eaja Daha. 

6.— Ilaja Patch, mother (.f Raja Kh;diui. 

7,— Raja Alfhil Jalil. 

8. — Kaja Hamad. 

9 —Raja Su. 

10.- Raja Seiii. 

Raja Kadtx h^id two ehildren — otic son aD<l one daughter* 
The son rere.ved tlie tith.^ of Raja Keehik Huijgaa, aiid the 
daughter wa.< entitled ILjija Keelnk Anipnaiu 

Raja Iku nmrried the daughter of Raja JIadafar, and Iniil 
one diin^'hter who was named Raja Buthik Uasiil ; ho Ua*l 
another diint^hferj by a wiKiian of tiie pi'o]?le, wlio-e nu:tic woj 
Raja Toiigah» 



When R.\JA Uadi^j succce<!ed to the throne^ lie wan pm- 
cl jiiiied as Sii.tav MoOai'^k Shaii^ and after lits death ho 
was kuo^vn as -Maiuum IIajl 

RaJi BisNu wan HiJH 3[ula whilf; Haj v 1v\di.v whs Sultan, 
and after him, while Raja !nu reigui'd. Tiiore was a civil 
war while H\J A Ixu was Siiltnu, and tlic liaja Muda, Uaja 
HisNU, was raised t*> the throne, anl took tli/^ title of Si i.tav 
3IuHAMM\n Sr!\n.* Latt?r, hr became Vang di pcr-ttum 
Moila. When he dst^i lie wa^ culled by the pejplc Majuium 

He had eight chihlron — five sons and three daii^^liters — 
namely ;— 

1 — Raja Iskandam, I i ^^l 41 

,^ ,. 1- '^ , 1 } by the same motlicr. 

2. — Raja Ivcmas or baleh, J ^ 

3.-— Raja ALv-Kimix. 

4.^ — Ilaju Tun ^[uda. 

5, — Raja Kkchik Buxfi>i'. 

Oj 7 J 8. — Tlic namcj* of the daughters arc nut given, 

Iluja Patch gave birtli to Unja Khalim, Raja Ham id l>e;^ut 
four ehihlrcn, namely, uuc son, namud Raja C!]iohH», and time 
dauj^hiers, namrs unknown. One of tlie dan^^hters married 
Kaja Al\-kijj>ix, son (»f MAUiirM A:^UNULL,\ii, and another 
married Raja Senah 

IluAKEMASt son (jf Maiuium Aminullah, imirried Raja 
Kechtk Ampuaii, dautj^hter of Ma an cm Si'LON^i (xAaoxGiioxfi* 
Haja IsKANDiu, who bccamc Haju iMuda, married Raja Riidok 
Ra**ul, daugliter of Marhim Maji, and succeeded AIarium 
IIajt on the tluone UTider the title of Iskandar 
Zii'lKaknav.v. After his deatli, he waa kuown as Mar- 
hum Kahah-ullaii. t One ui his listers was pcivtm by him in 
marriage to Shurif Hassan, son of Toh Tambak (Sberif Jalndin), 
and olio of the daui^liters of Raja Hannd married Marhnm 
Ten^ah (Bandah.ira Rsija Inn). 

Bdore hia raarriajj^e witli the Priueess Budak Rasul, Mariium 
Kahar alreiidy had issue by ft woman of the lower orders, and 

• See No. U of this JotinutJ, p. inri. 

t Arwirf* — Kei A ma pi. *^'c No. *.» nl thit; Jouraal, j>. 

{ bee No* 2 of ihifi Journal^ ji. 187. 




a dauglitcr by this marruige named Raja Sabda Kasul was 
given by bim in marriage ti> Ilija Sh^Tif Bi.snn, wbo was the 
Kon of Sherif Ilissan by the sister of M ariium Kaiiar. This 
U'lja ^berif rct'cived tbo title of Sult:in Muda Ala-edilin, and 
}iad, by llaja Sabda, twj suns and one dantjhturi nainiily. Raja 
Iim and Kaja Abm;^ (ofteti culled Raja Alaug Tulau), suns^ 
and Ilaja Itain, d;iugbtt'r. 

Riija Alanjiif bad two cliildren, of whom ohb was a daughter 
who hMs left a ininierons fostei'ity, namoly, Rajab Ngah Ami- 
nab, Rnjub Itam married a Saiyld from Treng^ann of tlio 
Araf> triljc Beui Yaliya; tbf^y b k1 t^vo smi^^ namely, Raja 
Kgab Daba (Saiyid Hussein) and Rajti Alang Hussein, coni- 
niindy known as Iluja Tua. 

While Makirim Kaiiar was Itaja Muda, Raja Kemas b;id 
the title of Rjija Koehik Miidu, and when tbo former beeame 
Sultan the littei* sueecedod a^* Raj i Muda. He eventually 
eucceeiled to llie throne on the death of Mahiitm Kaiiar and 
t(X»k the title of Sultan Mihammadix Sh.^h, * establishing 
himself at Pasir Pnhii, to which phiee he gave the name 
of Piilau Bcsar Indra Mulia. It was he who crcnted a Snltaa 
ofSabmgortby installing tb'^re Sultan Sala>eddin, the fii*st 
Y«ng di'per-tnanj and liis descendant??. After the dealb of 
Stltax MriiAMMAniN Sh \ii, he wa>s exiled Marhim Mtda. 
Hy his wife Kaja Kechik Ampmui, he bad one son, Raja 
Ibruliin!, who took the title of Raja Kechik Muda X and begot 
a son named Uai i Mabmud. 

At the time that Makiii m Kahar was Sultan, Raja Ala- 
KiUJix.souof Marhum AMixnj.vri, was Bnndabara, and called 
himself by the title of *' Baiidaboni Pen in gat Itam/^ 

Here it i^s neeessary to introduce a story. 'Jdiere were two 
sisters who npon the death of their father and mother were 
detained by their nnele as pledges for the repayment of a 
dubt of five dollar!* due ta him by their parents. He employ- 

* This name is not gireii la the account prlntd on p. H>7 of No> 9 of this 

t See No. 2 of thk Joiirnnl. p. 191. 

X Acvordiiig to IVrak tnuh'tiun* tb:h prm*!G vvm6 the first littja Biiurlfihara. 
Bafure hiw time the title of Bwiiclahara ha<l l<im held lij (liiefs not of royal 
blood. See Journiil N<;, 2, p. 187. 





ed the two girli* in looking after liia farm {ladang). Otic day 
ail old woman (.'cirac tlicrc and questioned thom, and tliey ex- 
plained how tlicy were in a pnmtion of sl^tvery in coiT^efiuence 
of a debt of five d<illara. Tlie woman asked tlieii" names, and 
one of thoni replied : '' I am called Upik and my sisters name is 
Dewi/' Then tho old woman said : '* Open your mouth ; '^ she 
did so and the old woman spat into it * and touched Dewi in the 
Waist. I'lieo she sai i : '* I am Nenek Kerning/' t and she gave 
them a tiial (an iustrumeat for plucking padi-ears) aad in- 
structed them in the art of riee-cultivation anl that is the 
origin of the knowledge nf the cultivation, of padi as it is 
practised in Kampir and Teja up to the preseiU day.J (In the 
name of the God wliu knovvetli ! ) The old woman said more- 
over: '^I)o not be uohappy, it is no hunger in the power uf any 
one to fasten on your skin and bone-^ : your debt is at an end 
and ye are no longer hlaves/* she then vanished. 

When the harvest was over and the jur/f// had been tnken to 
the kampong, Raja Bandahara Pcniiigat Itara came up the 
little river on the h mk of which they lived and the people 
there told him of the eseeprioua! beiuty (d'Che Upik and Cho 
Dewi. He iminiHliately took both of tliem and they accom- 
panied bim down the river. He married Toll Upik, and she 
bore him a son who wan called Raja Abilnrralimau. 

After the death of Makhtm Kahak, Raja Kemas became 
Raja ^ ; ISandabnra Peningat Itam became Raja Muda and 
Raja Cholan became Handahara, After the death *•£ Raja 
KisMAS, he was known as Makuim Mloa. Raja Muda Ala- 
EDDiN then became Raja under the title of Si ltan Ala-eddIxV 

♦ Thi» rather oLpje^tionQble incident, or something like it, occurs in the legend I 
of Badang i.i the Bajmiib Afnliiyu. It 1*3 found alik> in other Puruk leg-end^ i 
r^M that of Tob Knnla Bidor. 

\ f The legend uf Nrmk Kfthuug is igtiorantly introdnceil here as an inci- 
imt which tn^curred in the last teiitu-y. It u an ftnrient Ir^end which bc'ongs 
to the pre-Mulmninmdsn timrsot' th<* Mula\ nation, and io the falk'lorp' of iVruk 
Malftyi the bcrifvalent fairy i»r godtlrfls la oiWw referred to. Prink y^neh 
AVwifvny* ** the choking* jvjt of NriieSt Kemang " (ihu contciits of which could 
iit'rcr be eihau*>tcd)^ i« the " w idow*8 erui:!© " of theMaliij pe»tsa»iit. 

t Afl t*> the belief in a Cmt* entortaineci by Indo^CbtQene u«tion*i, see 
CoK Low's J)}*$frtutioH OH VvHitttg iitu! Ptitrhttw Wrf/t'iflrt/^ ■p,*JiK 

§ Under the title of Stiff an MnktnHd Shuh, nee No. 2 of the JounMl, \k lyt, 
Thi*i soTorcign rciifned for eight yeari>T probably A. D, 1770-1777. 



Manser Shah KiialifaT'Ihhaiiim Iskavdar ^Tupa. Ruja 
lUudihura Clinlrtu became Raja Miula^ Raja Iiiii bceime 
Bmdiiliira and Raja Kkchik liijVGsii becarao Sultan Miula, * 

Raja ]\Iu:l;i Cliiiluii had three cliildre 11,111 Lii.^ly two daii^Iitors 
by his principal wife f^ahara ^^iid one son by aiiothi2r wife 
of a lower class (orang ka4iiftr-ati), IHs iluii^^hters were 
called Raja L.>ti<j Irang and R'm Chu, nod his son Wfis called 
Raja Ka^iira* The rnother of thy latter wa-? Inchc Mek 
Anjong ; sh(» wils ihn daughter of fchc S»"i Mahanija Lchi, Toh 
Ustnaru of Kola Lama, 

The IJamlaliara, Rnji Inn, married a sister of Rai i Muda 
Cholan, whose title was Raji Che Puan Tengah ; she bore him 
two sons and one daughter, namely :— : 

1.— Rrija AbdorrahiTii, who married Raja Lonj^ Irangj 

the danghter of Raja iluda Cholan, 
12. — Raja Rail in, who manied Ilaja Chii^ younger 

h'ister of Raja Long Irang. 
3. — Raja It am. 

\Vheu Raja Muda Cholan died, bt3 became known among the 
people as Marhum Pului Jnwar. t Raja Kasiin was then srill 
very youn^, and bis sister Rija Ijong Irang liroiight him up. 
Raja Long Irang and her htishand and chihl all died about the 
Bamc time, the hitter being quite young. Raja liandabara 
Inu dii'd sotm afl^Twards and became known to posterity 
as Marhnm Tengah. Raja RadJn then became Bandahara. 

When St LTAN Ala-ediun died, Hnltan Muda Raja Keciuk 
BoNGsili became Yang-di-pcr-tuan ntider tlic title of Sultan 
AiiAMADiN SiiAii. 'i'he Bandalrura, Raja Radio, then became 

♦ A. D. J777|jrolmljly. Sultan ATa tddin MaUBiu 8iiiih is the last ruJfT 
meTitione*! in the Mha Mahtyn (Jounanl No. *J, p. 1 u:i). The origiiml Pemk 
SiiWtlu cnly critics the hintory Dts far tt* the previous reign (Journal 
No. i*. p, J 07). All thcrcfc^re thitt now follows in ntw. 

f Kaju Cbolan (Marhum I^uhtu JtttrttrJ i« famous in Perak as the author 
ol l,ho hiBtt)rical work MtKit Mnlnyti^ which hoH bt^n deficrilied in No. 2 of 
thiri Journal, p. 187* and exiriicta from which will h€ found in No. 10, p.p. 
258, 2{VA, I take this opportunity of correcting a inistuke committtul in the 
piipers qiintcd, where Mhtil is written for Mhtt. There ie a Javantae 
romance whk-h has betu tx^n^lated iiito Miilay and i« very popular in Perak. 
It is called iluhtifjitt Mimi lUrbitjutju^ or pimply Mi*a Jan*a. Raja CholnJi'B 
work has been compared by its adiinrer« to Ihe romance in question and haH 
thurt come bo be called Miti MrihttfH, (The Malay Misa) in coutradiBtinotiou 
to the Mlta Juwa, 



Raja Muda, and Raja Kucliik yiiida Malimihl, trie son of 
Jlarbum Mwla, became Baudalsara, 

SuLTANT Aham\P!S" maiTicd four wives, nanioly, first Che Pa- 
tch, daiigbler of tilt? Luksamaiia, Tuli Kiiiibi Ijiiior, by biswilb 
Toh Piiasa. Che l*uteh reectvvd the title of Toll Dabnn and 
gave birth to one son whiv^nc name wa* Rajv Ahdul Mulk. 
The second was Raia IVu^ah B;jn^^u, daiigliter of iMikhum 
IIaji by a woman of Jovv birth. She had ouc boo, Itaja Ion, 
Tbe king's tliird wife was a wonian of Katiar named liiche 
Sri Na; an, danghter of 'Fob Imam Malik-aUAmin. ( Ihls 
Imam AlaHk-al-Amin waf* one of nine brotlvers, namely Tub 
Biji Dowa, Tob Saiab Da^nn, Toll Lobjk, Tob liiijab Toll 
Sarambi— these last tsvo went to A<;bt fi — and three others. 
They were tlie sons of an Arab named Salyid Aji by Toh 
Dnsnn binti Mrab (!hie!iik Pnti b» an Achine^e woman of 
royal blood). The kinj^ bad one sun by C'bt^ Sri Nayiin, 
wliooi he called Raja Abdnrrahman. His fourth wile was a 
woman of Snngkei named Tob Nah bioti Tob Samban, She 
bore him one danghter named Raja Andak. lie had one other 
wife, a woman of 8nngei Siput, Che 8innli by name, who had 
one dangbter, Rajd >I andak. 

Raja Anntfi. Mulk nnirried Raja Itam binti Marhnm 
Tentrah and liad by her two .<nns and three daugliters. The 
sons were Haja Abdullah and Raja Ahaniad, and the 
danghters were Itaja Cbe Pnan Hcsar (Raja Aoiinah), Haja 
Che Poan Saraja, and Kaja Che Pnan Bnsu. 

Raja Jnu married Raja rer.^ali Iran^^ a d^uiulttcr of >!ar- 
bnm Tengah by a wotoan of Labu Knbong Lanih. (Raja 
Tcngab Irang waskor>wn from her t-hildltood u^ Inebe Bidaru), 
He had one son, Raja Cnoi.AX, and one daughter, Raja Alang. 

Raja Andak married Raja Ka*iim, son of ilurhum Palan 
Juwar, and had one <!augh.ter named Raja Meh Salamah^ 
fanuliavly known as Raja Xotih, who wtus of great bcanty. 

The BiuidahrtPu, Raja Mjihmod, had eight cbildreo*— four 
Bona and Unw da^igbters— rmmelv : — 
L— RajaAli. 
2.— Raja Ngah Laut. 
-1 — Raja Tengah Buiing. 
L— Raja Ratlin. 



5,— Raja Teh Pcrak. 

6. — Raja An dak A mas. 

7.— Raja Maiidak (the mother of Raja Maudak was 
a daughter of Uxe Raja of Sfenaogkahau). 

H. — Riija Urei, 

Of these, Raja 1 'adiii and Raja Urei were by the same mother, a 
woman of Biikit Tiintong named Eentnak Malak Bergia of 
the family of Toh Bidara. 

When SiLTAN AnAMAfH\' died, peo|de spoke of him as Mar- 
m M BoNGsu M.vxriKAT i>i CinnAR Galau. !ia,ia Krcmic 
Besak, AjiDUL MuLK, his son, tljen heranie Raja uiidrr the 
title of Sultan IVIansur Shah, mid Raja Ahdtllah, his sou, 
became Huja Sluda. The Bandahara, Raja Maliniiid, also 
dicd» Raja Ki^ah Laut married Kajii Aniinah, and became 
Eandaharfi. Rnja Alidurr;diman leeeived tlie title of Rait 
Keehik Btsar luid when he died at Kfimpani*; Maiifikrjsur, peo]>le 
spoke of him as Mai hum Kanipong. Raja Kcchik Btsar 
married Che Limah, the sister of Toh Lndiiij a native of 
Kuala Prai, dan<^rhtcr of Wan Eentan, who Wfis the son of 
Tuinonggong Vuk Ujan, who first opened Knala Prji.* I'aj^i 
Kechik BeFar and hii? wife Clie Limah had ncc son, Raja 
AnD^LLAn. lie raarrit d Raja Ngah Aniimdi, the dan^^litt-r 
of Raja Alang and grand-dauL'hter of Sultan Muda Ai-a- 
EnniN (Rnja Sherif Bienn), and Raja Cholan, the son of 
Raja Inu, tnarrictl Raja Mandak, daughter of Jlarhnm Say- 
nngj and had one S(in, Raja Malimiid, who died \onng. R \J t 
(*HoLAN divorced liis wife, Rfija Mandak and married Raja 
Kutih ^Ivh Sahimfilj, the daughter nf Rajtik Kasim. I'his 
Raja Ohwlan leeeivid the title of Raja Kechik Miula. 

Rsija All, the s- n of Jlarhum Sayong, married Che Nur- 
mah, a woman of the people, and had a son named Raja Dancl, 
and a danghtrr named Raja Put eh Kliadijah. Raja Dand 
married Ruja Kcehik Puan Bnsn, daughter of Sultjiu ^lansur 
Shfdj, and had two rhildivn, namely a son, liaja Sa'id, and a 
dan^^htcr, Raja Andak. R[ija Dand married secondly Inehe 
Long Ilalimah, a wnman of tte people, daughter of Muhammad 
Kasim, a native of Sarong and Bi^ya. She bore hfra two 

♦ The piiTt of Provix?c? WtiOffilejr neftrc^t lo Pcimng. 



rinltlrcii, of whom t ho eUlf.T was a ^irl, Raja Fatirnnh, nriil 
the youiififpr was a boy, Raja AIkIijI Latif (nicknamed lliyi 
It^jflin), Raja Daud received Ujo tiile of Raja Kcrliik Uc^ar, 
mid Raja Aiiaraad (son of the reign iJijr Siiltni) was crcati'd 
Raja Kechik Teiigab. The latirr married Raja Lun^ (Raja 
Cl»c Puan IJougsii) daughter of Daing Ma^^ak hy Raja Caluli, 
nad had three ehil Irca — one dau*;liter. llaja Utih, and two 
6on5s, Raja K('AH J^affar and Raja Alanj^ Iskanchir, 

Raja Baiidahara Ngah Laut and hi:* wife Raja Aniinuh had 
one daupfhtcr. 

Raja Teh Perak, daughter of 3Iarhum Sayonjr, married 
Tiuigku Re^ar Mnda Raja Abdurrahmnu bin (Afar/tttin Mantj- 
hat iii halfi) Yang*di-pcr-tuun J5esar Sultan Ismail of Siak, 
and had one daughter, Raja Lon;^ Siak. This Eaja Abdui'- 
rabman maj-ried also at. Sungci Siput a woman, nor of rAyal 
blood, named Long Ridara* She wa^ the duuLthtcr of Toh 
Padang Raja, a native of Janibi» by his wife Nga!i Patali binti 
Pik Suli bin Toh Sah bin Tnh Pajnr Tunnuiggong liilang di 
Padang^ biu Parmci di Wangsa Tub Kahar, s*n of Tan Jalak 
Piiteh llata* son of Tan Undan, son of Tan Saban Palik 
hilang di Bnkit Mendi. Rnja Abdnrrahiaan ami Lon:^ 
Bidara had two sons — I'ngkn Muda Raja Ismail i*utc!i, and 
Ungku Busu Raja Daud (ralletl for short Ungku Anduk), 

Raja Kechik ISnlong Tua Abdurraliman^ son of tliR la to 
Sultan, had four sons, namely^ Kaja I^skandar, Raja Kemas, 
Raja Zeinal, and Raja Ismail. Raja liikaudar had, by a con- 
cubine, a daughter named Raja Saf. Raja Ismail married 
Raja Anduk Amas and had two children — a son named Itiij.i 
Idris, and a daughter named Raja Banun. Rajaldiis uianicrl 
Raja Long Siak and had two sous — Raja Alang Ali sind Raja 
Kulnp Keehik Abdurrahman and two daughtcrii— Raja Putch 
Zulika and Raja Ngah Zfdiara. 

Ungku Muda Raja Ismail Putch married R'ija Puteh 
Khadijah, daughter of Raju Ali, and had two children — a sou 
and a daughter, who were both killed by fh'tattfs in MS.), 

lie married the second time a woman of the uuintnh i^ttuhft 
rla^ss^* Long Saiba by name, and had by her three cIiiMren, 

* Uttn/fiii mtfntdk htmbtt "the tribe of the civw'tt vomit^" lilli^gtii U» be thtf 
dc«k)«n(Unt*j vl the Bh&t (hiMJtld ur bard) of the fin*! Mahiy Kinp Boof, milk, 
1ruil<jr, ffhif kc ^ tttv £<jrbiUdvn U* them, Juur- lUt^%\ Asiatic fiwidyi Xlli, 

X 4?, ex 



Kaja Muliamoiad Perak, Raja ^lahmutl, sons, and Rtija ^lui- 
mimalij daughter. 

rn*,^kii Biisu Ddtul married Clie Essuli, a Salutigor \vom:in, 
and liad by lier one daugUtcr named Raja Ilamidab. When 
Che Esisali died, lie mari-icd her sister Che Nai and had three 
rriildren by hor— Raja Yaliya Ke hik, Raja 'Ayo^ha (7^, and 
Raja Khadljah (f), ^ 

After Rnja MnJa Rfidin died pceide spoke of hira us ^lar- 
hnm Sliiiliid Allah, By his wife ILaja Che Puan Bcaur (Ung- 
ka Chu) hinli Marhurn Piilau J owar, he had three children ;— 
1. — Raja Omar. 
2. — A datij2fhter, who bceanic the wife of Raja Muda 

3. — Raja Busu f/), whose title was Rnja Clie P nan 
bifida, and who becaiiic the wife of Raji Keehik Teng^ali Yu- 
hnU son of Raja Muljummad uf Kedah by Che Pntt^^a. The 
f.'tther of this Raji Muhammad was Raja Ilitam of Kedah and 
his mother was Raja Amas Irhi^. 

Rnja Keeliik Tengah and Ins wife Raja Cho Pnan Muda 
Busu hafl four children — two son.s and two daughters :^ — 
L — Raja Muhammad AmiauRah. 
2. — Raja Panrlidv Ibrahim. 
3.^ — A daughter, name unknown. 
4,— Roja Putch Chautik. 
When Sultan Mansi r Shah died, he was caHed by the title 
ofjrnrhiim Jamal-ullau. The Raja ^fnda then ascended 
the throne taking the title of Sultan ArmirLLAn Ma'aijam 
8nAn ; the Bandahara, Raja Ngali Laut, became Raja Muda, 
and Raju Rndin, the younL'i^r bj other of Raja Kgali Laut, be- 
came Bandahara. Raja Bandaham Radin married a w^oman 
of tlie lower ejnss, a native of Kamprm^ Clinpin, Ninda Un;;u 
by namCj and had by her a daughter named linja Utih, and a 
t^on named Raja Ngali Putra. The Raja Bandahara took a se- 
cond wile, CliL" Butch, a wunian uf 15andar, ritd had by her a 
«on named Raja Alanddin. Alter Ilic death of Raja Banda- 
hara liadin» he was sjioktn of by the people by the titles of 
Jfarhum Kfthik and JIaihnm Pnlau. And R*{*ja Che Pnail 
Bcsar Aminah, ^ii^tcr of Slltax AiinuLLAn, ^nd wife of Raja 
!Mud;i Ngah Laut, aj^o dicd^ and wa-s called after Irer death by 
the title of Sha'alam Muda. 

THE irrsTORv OF feuak from xative sources* 


Uaja Kochik Jfutla CrroL vx was tlie next Batidahara, tintl iu 
his tiQic an arrangement waa got up aaiong tlie Cliiefs aiid 

JtajasaTid a European iiaraed , by ivhieli the Raja Muda, 

^ "gall Lant, was niijiod to tho dignity of Yang-di-per-Tiuiu 
Uuda, and Kaja Bandahara Ciiolan was jiiadc Raja iliida, and 
Raja AnouLLVii, sou of Marhutn Kampun;? Mangkasar (K*aja 
Keehik Ilesar AbduiTahinaii) chauged his title for that of Ra- 
ja Kcehik Muda, and Raja Idrls, sou of Raja Ismail^ cJianj^od 
\ih title fiir tliat of Raja Kechik Sulong. 

Raja Jlaudak, d.mghter of Marlaun Boxosu, was given iu 
marriage by her youu;^ relation Sultax Ahduu^ah JIa'aj/am 
Shau to Ruji Saiyid Itam, son of a Raja from Siak, who al- 
ready hod a Sim, named Raja Hiij**cin, living at Larut. The 
issue of this niarriag*? was two children^ namely^ a sou named 
Raja Ismail Hi tarn, and a daugliter who died young. 

Raja Moda Ciiulan and his wife Raja Che Puan Besar (llcli 
Salamah) had one sou named Ruja Noah Ali, 

Ksiju Noah J^\ fi" a r married adaughter of Vang-di-par-Tuan 
Mnda Ngah Laut, and took the title of Rjij.i di Ililir. 

Raja Alang Iskandar, younger brotljer of Rajidi IldirNtJAri 
J^iFFAit, married a daughter of Raj i Kechik Tengah Yusiif, 
and another dnughtcr of the latter, namely Raji Puteh, marrial 
Raja Ngjdi Ali. 

The sister of Riija di Ililir NnAU J*ArFAn wa% married to 
Raja Hussein, sou of Raja I tarn (who now took the title of 
Raja Keehik Muda) and his wife that of Rija Che Puan Muda* 

After Sultan Audullau Ma'acIam Shah died, ho was men- 
titmcd always by the title of Mahuum Khalil-ullau or Mar- 
iir^M Pasir Paxjano. Raja Muda Cuolax now ascended the 
throne under the title of Sultan SuAnAiJ-roniN Shah, and Ra- 
ja Bandahara ArmuLLATr. son of Marhnni Kampoug ilangkasar, 
bccamo Rnja Mud a, while Raja di Ililir Noau J'affar suc- 
ceeded him OS Roja Bandahara. Sultan SuAHAB-uDnix Suait 
died, and watj known after his death as j\1aruum Taxjoxg Pk- 
NAXOGAS Safi-um-ah. Raja Wnda Ahduixau then became 
h^ultan, and reigned ot Tanjong Sarangdcndang under tha title 
of Snltnn AnmiLAn MntAMMAD Shah. The Bantlahara (Ka- 
ja di Ililir) became Raji Aluda, aufl Raja Alang Iskandar he- 
uimc Bandahara. The wife of Raja Muda NoAir J^afkar 


rut insTORV op perak prom xativi^ souutEs. 

rcopived thn title of Raja CIic Pivan Lesar, and tlie wife of Ri- 
jfi Ijundabnra Alunj; Iskantlar, that of Raja Che Puan Kechil. 

The Raja Bandahara by hb wife R^aja Cbc Piian Kechil had 

two chihlrcn^ the eldest of w'lom was u daut/Jiter named Ruja 

Te!i Kerhik, and the eeeoiid a sou luimed Kaji llassan. He 

Ifsid aiiotluT wife also, a woman uf tlic lower c*lu»8 naaied 

Ahing Milu, aHas Ken Uda, by wboni he had three sons : — 

I. — Raja Kiilup Muhammad Kramat. 

2. — Raja Idris. 

*J, — ^Uaja Lop Ahamad. 

llap Bandaliara Alanpf Iskandar died at Kuala Teja, and has 
evjr sinre been known by tlie people as ilarhum kviala Tejn, 

Sultan Aiiorij.An AJuiiammao SiLvn by Ids wife Raji 
Penmpuan Xg ih Aniiouh had tbvej soiih and one dtughtcrj 
namely :— 

l.^Raja XfiAii YusiTj (the present Regent). 
2.— R.ija Pandidc. 
3. — Rujn Suleiman. 

4. — A diUiglilcr born after lier father came to thf^ 
thrnne, whose niinie was Raja jliii»dak and 
who«c tllle was Uuin Biulak Rasul f anak bino}^ 
. tn*J- 
R(»j;i Is^fAiL IIiTAM^ Bon of lUj't Mjiusluk, and f^rund^ion of 
JIacjii u i^oNiisr, TOfirried Raja Fatimali, daughter of Raja 
Keehik Resar l)aud by !ds wife Long H rd in uiIj ; and Raja 
NoAii Al!t ^oii ol' Marui M Safi-CLlaii, was a vlo^e friend iuid 
ally of this Raja Ij^mail, fur the latter hud bren adopted by 
JivimiM SArr*t:|,LAn uud his wife in their lifelime. \Vheu 
this Raja Ngah All lost bis wife Raja Ruteb, daughter of Raja 
Kechik Ten;^ah, be niarriud the dauj;bter of Raja Ktjehik Su- 
lung I<!ri.s; h^.r name wns Rnja Pnteb Zelcha, They had two 
Rons : — 

1.— Rnja Clsman. 
2. — Ruju Omar. 
Ijpfore they reached nianliootb 
{hi r-chert i hrthrp) Rntt h Zelelia. 

Raja XfJAM A LI divorecd 

* Anak hattjfttt nr amtk Mnlkij is the namo g>en la Vcuk to a child of a 
iinhun liomi» after bis nccc-eiou. 


Baja Jsif AIL HiTAS, bj* his wife Baja Fatimah^ had two 
children^ the elder of whom was a daughter^ Kaja Lon^ Kha<* 
dijah^ and the second a son named Raja Lop Ahamad. 

When Saltan Abdullah Mchammad Shah died^ Raja Ma* 
da Ngah J'affar became Yang-di-per-taan and took tho title 
of Saltan J'affar MA'AdAM Shah. Raja An became Raja 
Muda and Baja Ismail became Raja Bandahara. 

Saltan J'affar and his wife Raja Kechik Pnan Besar had 
one daughter named Raja Long. Her mother died before 
Raja J^affar sacceeded to the throne and was known after 
her death by the title of Sha'alam Telok Kapayang Mangkat 
di Pangkalan Tengah. The Saltan^ had, by another wife (Che 
Bnlan), a daughter named Raja Ngah, and, by another wife 
(Che Mahat), a daughter named Raja Nandak and a son named 
Raja Abdullah. This Raja ABouLLAn was born on the night 
of Nasf Sha^aban, and it is said that on that night the water of 
the well Zem-zem babbled up and overflowed. Further, a pious 
Menangkabau man, still living, named Haji Muhammad Ali (who 
is married to Che Fatimah of Bandar and is known as Taan 
Besar Kramat) when he saw the new-bom infant, said at the 
time : " This child is supematurall y gifted {her-tuah) ; take 
'* the greatest care of him.*' 

Kaja Long, the Sultan's daughter, married Raja Kechik, the 
son of a Raja from Riau, and his second daughter. Raja Ngah, 
married Daing Perbn, the son of a Bugis Raja who was the son 
of Kraing Chandrapolili, son of the Kaji of Bcrnih (Brunei) : 
and his third daughter, Raja Nandak, married Raja Pandak, 
son of ^iIautium Atik-ullaii Mangkat di Durian Sabataxq, 


Raja Abdullah, the son of Sultan J'affar married Raja 
Tipah, half sister of Rnja Muda Ngah Ali on the mother's 

Sultan J^\FFAR married another wife called Che Alang 
A mas, >vho bore him a son called Riija Musah. 

Raja Long had three sons by her husband Raja Kechik of 
Riau, namely : — 

1.— Raji Mahmud, who is now at Riau and who has 
been to Meccah. 



2. — ^Haja N^ah J'affarj who lives at Kampar at Knni- 

pong Changkat, 
3»— llaja [hiatus m M. S.)j also at Kampar at the 
present time. 
Kajfi Kj^jah bore her husbantl, Dam^: Pcrbn, a daugliter 
rifimcd Kuja Eiulah, wlio niarrioJ li\iy\ Ngah J'aftar the sou of 
Ruja Long. 

Kaja Nanclak nn J IicrhnsbaDtl Raja Pandak had three sons: — 

1. — llaja Ibrahim. 

2,— ruga AH.- 

3. — Ilaja Alanj^r. 

Ilaja" Pandak hnd hccn previoiislr married, before lie mar- 

ricd liaja Nanduk, to a woman of the lower class named Clio 

Long, daughter of Toh Marat of Pulau Tig^, and by her he had 

one son nnmed Ivaja Mahmnd, 

After Sullan .Paitar died, he was always spoken of by the 
title of Makiium OuLiA-rLLAH 1)1 Pasih PA>\JAx<f. Kaja Mnda 
No A 11 Ali then ascended the throne, and his title while Sul- 
tan wa.s " Al ma*ftkkal billah il jali Paduka Sri Sultau al miik-> 
'* nud 'Anayat Shah el Perak dar cd rnjnan/'* 

Haja Ani»ULLATT, son of the late Sultan, became Raja Jfiida, 
the Bandahara, Raja Ismail lliiam, jctained that oftice, and it 
was by his wish and coari^nt that Xhxy^v AmuLLAU was made 
Paja AInda. 

Paja Osumn, son of tlie new Sultan, married Pnja Long 
Khadijahj daughter of Raja Pandahara Ismail, and had no issue. 
After the Sultjui (Ali) had reigned fora time, hcdicd at Kua- 
la Mitnoraat tlse house of Che Rajnb, and wa^ buried nt ijcdonjj 
8iam ^at Si>yuii£^, The title givi^ii to him after his death was 


At this time, Kuja AiiDUi.L\n was down the river and thouji;h 
he was sent for repeatedly ho did not come.t There was then a 

♦ '*He whft plarffl nil h s coTifidrncc in the jnat God, Faduka Sri Sultan el 
UJ&lonpl *Aiiitjftt fchab of PemV, llm tiliodf <<£' P.uadisc. 

tTbcciisfetin qnoiod by thr Pernk Cliicfs in pxplnmitirm of their artirni 
ill r«i5slng' DViT the Rjij'i Muila (^c<* Biiic-Book c, 11 11, p. 1I>!) is Common to 
1*^ vcrnl Iiido-Chirtw ijalit-ne, c. g. the !Si«raci»f, Jonrn. Ittd, Arch. I. 3t I, Mid 
tlirt riimbtnliiirj?, Munra,Zr Jit>yaiimr tie ('itmbutJ*j(\ 1, 317. I u Timor t ho bcnly 
of a flcocast^i kiiifT remubis unhujii-d I ill the rtklivcs C4in BfTonl to pn>vid(5 
tliC hnri«l frftBt* Till Fuch time the king i*t supposed to be ftj^leep und no 
mrtTWw^t with rtiguinj; powcis cna be aprointed* Forbes' EHfit<:rii Ai^Mpela- 
|ji», p. 438. 


ronifciiltation among the Chiefs, at the head of whom was Padu- 
la Sri ^raharaja Ibraliini, Mantri at liarut, after which they 
raised Raja Bandaliani Ismail to the throne under the title of 
*^ Kl mestdr bsctri Allah el jemil * Paduka Sri Sultan Ismail 
** 5tuT-eddin 'ayat Shah." 

Baja Oliiiianj son of the late Sultan, was made Bandahara 
nnder the title of Bandahara Wakil-al-Sultan Wazir al kabir. 
Not long after this, Kaja Muda Abdullah came to an agree- 
ment with the Chiefs down the river, at the head of whom was 
the Laksamana Muhammad Amin, that he should be recognised 
as Sultan under the title of" El 'ashik billahf Sultan Abdullah 
Muhammad Shah, Yang-di-per-Tuan, Perak,'' and he at once 
went to Singapore where Governor Ord was then stationed as 
the Governor of the Straits Settlements. Soon after he re- 
turned to Pcrak, there was a change of Governors and Sir An- 
drew Clarke became Governor and after reaching Singapore 
came on to Pangkor, where he confirmed Sultan Abdullah as 
Yang-di-per-Tuan of Persfk, Sultan Ismail becoming Ex-Sul- 
tan, that is to say, Sultan Muda. The Colonial Secretary, Mr, 
J. W. Birch was then appointed Resident of Perak. Again 
there was a change of Governors in Singapore, and Sir William 
Jervois became Governor. Then the death of Mr. Birch at 
Pasir Salak took place, and the Sultan (Ismail) retired from 
Pangkalan Poguh. Then Captain Dunlop and Major 

McXair became Queen's Commissioners in Pcrak and after- 
wards Mr. Davidson became Resident. After this. Sultan 
Abdullah and the Laksamana and the Shabandar were taken 
away to Singapore and thence to Pulau Seychelles. Then 
Mr. Ilugli Ijow became Resident of Perak and Mr. Maxwell 
l)cearae Assistant Resident and governed Larut. Raja Muda 
YusuF became Regent of Perak, and Raja Idris, son of Marhum 
Bandnhara Iskandar, became Hakim of Perak. 

Raja Muda Yusur, Regent of Pcrak, begot two children, a 
daughter named Raja Nutih, and a son, Raja Lop Mansur. He 
liad another son, by a concubine, Raja Muhammad Ajam ; and 
another son, by a woman called Zenab (to whom he was never 
married) , who was named Raja Pcndawa. By a woman named 
Alang Malaka (whom he married) he has a son named Raja 

♦ *'Thc covering of thf prolccling mantle of God." 
t 'ThefikndofOod.'' 




The object of this paper is to give a short and goiiernl 
sketch of the territory under the Govcrnuufnt of BritisU North 
Borneo Company, from personal observations made during a 
residence of nearly three years in tbc i^owntry, and from the 
official reports of Messrs". Pryek, Vqk DoNor, FiiA?*it H.iTT<^?f 
and WiTTi. ^ 


Embracing an area of some 20, 000 square miles, and a 
coast line of about 500 miles, the territory Iie«* between the 
116th and 119th degrees of East longitude, uud the 4th and 
7th parallels of North latitude. 

Geograjjhical Fcafiwes, 

The general geographical features of the country are as 
follows : — A range of mountains — the general direction of which 
is North-East and South-West — forms a backbone thorough 
the heart of the country, varying in height from 4,000, 7,000 
and 8,000 feet in the mountains of Melaio, Mentapok and 
Trodan, respectively, until the altitude of 13,698 feet is attained 
by the rugged peaks of Kina Balu, which tower above the 
surrounding country, repelling with precipitous ascent the 
adventurer who would attain their summits. From this range 
and descending to the coast on either side, are lesser ranges of 


• Sec a paper, with this title, by SirTWALTKR MeduI'UST, read at a nic«t- 
iag of the Roval Colonial IiiMitute this rear.— Ed. 

hills covcrptl for the most part with virgin forositj tiiid iuter- 
spersjMl with fertile pluins, watered by the niunerou** rivers 
which wend their circuitous courses to the sea bey o nth The 
e.ui-st, fu a rule, is b^vv and Hut iiiul is, to a large extenf» lined with 
the liandsomc easuariuu tree, broken by stretches of uiaograve, 
dcnotm;^ swampy j^rouiKi or tlie mouths of rivers, aui diversitied 
by h>w saodstoiie cliffy, yellow from exposure to the weather^ or 
patches of forest readiiug to the water's edge. 

At a short diKtanee from the shore ou tlie West eoa^t, a 
very large area of country is denuded of trees, and ia!ait(i\ a 
(*\ >a r s e i; rass ( . / h fh ' op ogu n m r iros h n / ) , I las s p r e ii d over it, ex cep t 
wliert! here and there the plantations of the natives vary its 


Many indi^nttitif*ns occur on flie r-oastj and the eonntry is 
particularly rich iu harbours, the principal bein^ Gaya, Aniboug 
aiul Fsikau on the Wc«it coast, Kutlat on the North, and 
Sandakau on tlie Kast, The importance of these harboui*8 it 
nec<li but a jjlanee at the map to realize, containing as they do, 
iimongst other ad%'antages, Uiitural facilities for defence* 

Saiulakan harbour it will be seen, lies but a abort distance 
from the trnck taken by truding: vcsscIj* between Australia and 
China, and is indeed bnt tive bjurs steaming di*itance from 
their conr>iC. Jt is extremely well pn^teeted, aiui contains an- 
chorage for any number of vcsseltn; having an extent of fifteen 
miles iu lengthy by Bvc miles in breadth. 

lunhtt and Gutja, 

Kudat and Gaya harlionrs are witLin a few hours steam of 
the route, thrtugli the Palawan passage, taken by ships trading 
from the Wett to Cliinu and Japan, The value of these 
harbour?, therefore, as coaling potations, and refuges for our 
mercantile navy, in the event of a war with a mival power. 


cannot be overrated, and it followa, that it is of the highest 
importance that they should not be in the hands of any foreign 
and possibly hostile power. 

The value of these harbours, in addition to their strategical 
importance, is euhancd by the rich country lying at their back. 
This is especially the case with regard to Sandakan, into which 
flow some fifteen rivers, taking their courses, for the most part, 
through a country which is without doubt a field for large 
sugar and tobacco plantations, ajid containing a supply of 
timber which, from its easy access, should be a great source of 
revenue to the Goyernment. 


The principal rivers in the territory are the Kiraanis, 
Papar, Putatan, Abai, and Tampasuk, on the West Coast, 
Paitan'and Sugut on the North, and Sibuco and Kinabatangan 
on the East. Most of these rivers are navigable for steam 
launches of light draught, for although, as a rule, deep water i^ 
found inside the entrance, all the rivers are more or less barred. 
The Kinabatangan is navigable for some 200 miles. Rising in 
the ranges south of Kina Balu, it takes its course to the sea, 
emerging some twenty miles south of Saudakan harbour, after 
passing through a very tlnnly populated country covered for 
the most part with virgin forest, varied by occasional native 
plantations, or patches of secondary jungle denoting M'here 
formtr clearings have been. The quantity of floating limber 
met \^ ith, in the rivers, renders careful navigation necessary. 

North Bornt'o ux a fit' Id for the Planter, 

North Bonieo as a new field for the crowded-out planters 
of Ceylon and J^umatia, is not to be surpassed, for in its hills 
and valleys will be found soil suitable to almost every tropical 
product. 'Hapion in the Netr d yJon writes as follows, and his 
remarks are confirmed by exiK?rts from personal observations : — 
**The spurs and slopes of Kina Balu arc peculiarly fitted for 
"o-rowing eofleCj tea and cinchona, while the rich plains that 



tiiark ilii^ njurrtt* of the Kinabatangan and other rivei's lend 

tli(^iHKflvL'S u* tlit^ fultiire of indijro, tobacrfi, cotton, rice and - 

the other wi/lUknowii tropical products. Sucli villages as the^ 

' traveller meets with on cxcuriiona in the interior, are fed and 

' maintaine<l by agrieultiire. tbe siicecssful features of which, 

behm^ to tbeimtural fertility of the soil^ rather than to the 

science oit the native fanner. .... You ero-is a plain of rice, 

' bananaSy cocoa-tmt trees and other hixnriant ve;jfetatjon. You 

^see the native cultivator at wnrk, his rude plough dra^n by 

^butfalops, and flocks of white paddy birds siiling aloft, or a, 

' few solitary eranes adding an oriental touch to the picture, J 

' You halt on the river bank amidst tropical g-roves, here and ' 

* there relieved by neatly kept gardens, feueed down to the 

* waler's edge, and contaiuing plentiful supplier of sweet p(»ta- 

* to€K, eueuniberH, niai/.e and kalndi/* 

Tlujt the country is peculiarly adapted for the ^(niwth of 
tobacco, is demonstrated by the fact of its enltivatiun by the 
uativ(*H of both eoasts. and that in spite of the wnut of cure in 
its production, an pxct^llent leaf is obtained. A sample nf leaf 
from a newly opened plantation on the Hast (nmst* has been 
pronounced by experts to be unsnrpristsed. Sneb bein^ the ease, 
:itul considering that tbe available land in ihe tobucct/proilucin^ 
eoontrit s is hecoming exhanstetl, it is reasonable to suppose that 
this eoiintry will, in a short time, take a promim^nt place as a 
luri^e producer of tobaeco. 

**^ugar is also cultivated to some extent and in some part;* 
of the eonnlry ; a primitive mill for crushing is used hy the 
natives, Considering* however, tlie snntll profit returned, 
together with the known risks in cultivation, the suljstitutes for 
eane which are being bnnight into the market^ and tbe com- 
paratively low rate at wljieli labour is obtained in the sugar 
producing countries, it is doubtful whether this prodner will be 
eullivatcd to any larjfe eitenl. 



Guiubier ( the inspissated juice of Nauclea gamhir^ an 
astringent use! in dyin*^ and tanning), the cultivation of wliieh 
has met with such success in the neiglihouring state of Sarawak, 
pepper, tea and coffoa arahica, have all been proved suitable, 
and saj^o which is indigenous to the country would largely 
repay for planting in the low lying grounds at the entrances to 

Jungle Productn. 

Especially is this country rich in natural jungle products, 
such as gutta percha, india rubber, camphor^ canes, and an 
infinite variety of useful and ornamental woods, including the 
valuable biiian (iron-wood) and ebony. 


The camphor of Boruoo, (Brgohalanopa cwnphora) is noted 
for its^, i)eculiar medicinal properties, and is highly valued by 
the Chinese, who will give, according to the variation of the 
market, fi*om twenty to forty dollars a pound for the best. 

Horneo. with its natural advantages in waterways, should 
export its timber larj^ely to China, and no doubt when labour 
bet'oincs more* abundant, this will be the case. 


A market for firewood has been already established in 
Hongkong, and the supply of mangrove whiili is unequalled for 
this purpose, is practically inexhaustible, and can be obtained 
without any difficulty. The bark of this trco. which has to be 
removed in its preparation as firewood, has its own special value 
as producing a rrddisli dye much used by the Chinese. 

Kfllhlr Birfffi' 3V«/«. 

Another valuable and increasing product is the edible 



hirds*-nest, wliich is obtained in sinitll quantities on the West 
eoa8t, aiul adjacent ishnifls, but is chiefly supplied from the 
(lomarUon caves on the East eoa-st, Tlietollowinj^ description 
of these caves h condensed h\ym an nccouut lately pnblisbed in 
the Sfralfji Tum'H. The cave?* are situate on the Kin aim tan gan 
river, near the viliao:c of Malapi, uhieh is stnne fifty miles from 
tlie motith. Tiie eliief entrante 8//^/^f^//>fi//// (white entranco) 
is on the Gonianton bill at on elevation of 50O feet, and is 
about 30 feet high by 50 feet wide. The accent to it is very 
fteep, in some parts almost perpendienkr, hntthe nature of the 
jagged hard lime-stone rucks, afFords hohling points for one's 
hands and feet. From this entrance the ascent to the summit 
of the hill, is another 500 feet, arid at the top is a smallish hole 
whitdi leads into the groat Simid putiu caves below, going 
straight down about 851} feet. Down this the natives descend 
by I'attan ladders, fastened to the circumference of the hole, 
right into the abys^t below, in search of the nesta. At nightfall 
a remarkable sight is to be pieen at the entrance, viz , the return 
of the swallows (CoHuchHh eJ^rHfenfa) to their nests, and the 
departure of the hatH. AVith a whiiTlng sound, multitudes of 
hats wheel round in spiral columns from the summit of which 
detachment? break oft^ and wheel away rapidly towards the 
mangrove swnnips and the nipa palms. Amongst them the 
white hats arc very conspicnousj and are termed by tljc natives, 
the Rajah J lis wife and child. Soon after the bats emerge from 
the caves, the swallows return m countless nnndjers. Each 
morning the process is reversed, tlie swtjUows going out and the 
bats reluming home. On entering the mouth of the cave as 
deseribe<i above, the floor fur the tirst part of the way slopes 
down at an fnigle of twenty-five degrees, to m\ enormous cave 
with several smaller ones leading out i4 it. From the side of this 
cave rises a higli dome, from the tf»]> of which you can see tlie 
opening before-mentioned, some 8-10 above. The average height 
of the cave before eonung to tlie tlome is 150 feet. The next 
rave Shu ad if am (black entrance) is on a level with the rivei* 
bank. The entrance is by a mngnificent porch of 250 feet in 
height, opening out into a large and lolty chamber, beyond 
which an open space is reached, tVum wliieh looking up can be 
seen the Simub rrTiH. 



From this space U u cave nimilng under the Scmdd Form 
series wliich is filled, halfway to the top with b;its' rruatio, which 
cannot be le83 thart tifty feet in depth. It* extent is unknown. 
SamplcH of the guano ha\*e been sent home and were valued at 
from JC'^ to J^l'} per ton. The annual value taken from these 
caves \ti 825jU<XI, 


That eoul is present in many parts of the territory, has 
been proved^ and borinjj^ for workable deposits, is being actively 
engaged in. The pi-escnt supply, which ts i<tored at the principal 
ports of call, for tlic use of men-of-war and tradin^f vessels, is 
obtained horn the Moani mines, situate at the mouth of theBrunei 
River and which have been leaiicd by the Sultan of Brunei to the 
Labuan tirm of Mes^^i-s. Cowie BiioTnEES. The quality of the 
coal has been well reported upon by engineers of 11 er ^lajesty's 
ships and others, and it is u.'^ed to a large extent by those 
Tesisels virtiting Borneo and Labuan, as well as by all the 
local trailing steamers There are five scaais now being worked, 
of 26j 24, 6, 5 and ^ feet in thickness respectively* 

Mi it f rain. 

From the rei>orts of travelers and others, the mineral 
wealth of Borneo hari been much exaggerated, although the 
numerous indications mv snfiicient to have caused them. Gold 
indeed is found in l>utc!i Btjrneo and Sarawak, but in compa- 
ratively small quantities. Tnu!cs of gold have also been found 
in North Borneo, and the vi^laudof Bungucy off the North coast, 
and samples of auriferous quarts have lately been discovered in 
the vicinity of Marudu Bay and in rivers fiowiug into Sanda- 
kan Bay. Up to the present, however, the search has been 
unsuccessful, and this is not to be wondered at, when we . 
consider how everything is hidflen by a luxuriant vegetation 
which jealously guards the treasures of the earth fixjm the 
eye« of the explorer. Samples of cinnabar, silver ore, anti- 
mony and tin have been found in different parts of the tcrrito 
rv. Copper also was lieing traced by the late oMr.FiLiNK Hatton, 
the Company *g minerulogist, w^ho was confident of its existcncQ 



but hi» lanieattjd smd sad dcatli has temporarily put a s 
the search i'or it. The same formations in which the silve/ore 
and antiiiifjny are footid in Sarawak, ar** also met with in parts 
of Noi^th Buraco, and from speciuien'* whirh have been brought 
in by the native;*, it is reasonable to snppose that a systematic 
search won hi disek>se workable deposits » 


The .sea also has treasnre<s which form no small item of 
export, such as mother-f>'[>earl, bcche-de-mer [huhthuria^) and 
tortoise shell. The neighbouring nyster bcdri in the Sulu sea ^ 
have lately been attractinfr the attention of Europeans, with a fl 
view to the introduction of proper appliances fur the efieetive ' 
working of the beds, which is impossible with the primitive ^ 
means employed by the natives. There is no donbt that a^* the ■ 
European government becomes known and appreciated, the * 
pearl oyster beds, which unqnestionably exist round the coasts, 
will lie made to yield their riches, Ttie o^nisping natures of 
the innumerable petty chiefs uf a former regime, who oppressed 
the unfortunate pearl fishers^ until their oeeupation^ardiions I 
and dangerous as it was — brought them no profit, is the ■ 
eause assigned by the old men for the abandonment of the 
pursuit, and the consequent losing sight of the exact locality of 
the beds. On one occasion, whilst searching for an oyster bed 
in a locality pointed out by an old man living on one of the 
small islands otf the coast, the divers who accompanied the 
writer, obtained over a hundredweight of motber-o^pearl 
valued at § lo, but all the shells were isolated, and it was 
evident that only the outlying members of the true bed had 
been found. 


Beasts of prey are conspicuous by their ahsenee, the one 
known exception being a small tree tiger (Ff^iiK niaeroerliH ) 
which i« found in the interior. Deer of varioufi kinds, wild 
pigs, wild cattle {B09 gamtis), and butlalo, are abundant^ and 


K:iy5'> SI 

Mpmt, vUkf <« idrs Y^iz si'dfe^T -err 

_ «p tke men, Kaaj ia?M»« ^f irc ssck-rj nibe 
witL iadiriing a t^oll fpeoe^f ri: -zri^Bg-^sis. SbsII 
. VbAhcmniMelmrtim rmryffUm*. zre <'K:^:-cail}T met vi^h.* 
The tapir and otfaer haj^ beva «ei» c^ i^ Ncct h c^nst. A 
kige Ta ricty of aqwireis ahen&i. AaciiKi«¥t the acakesare 
fepfld the eobrm, prtfaon. uii Icax snlke Tm^it^w^ 
>J««wfafB^), but the vritcr Las cot k»>«n a ^^^e fual i 
m aiaike-liite daring m mzdmce of «f x yean in Bcmeo. 

CrocodOcs mie nnmenns. aod at times extmiKiT &?Tre and 
.tffefeigcroas. The riTen and coa«i tc^em vi:h iKh. which form 
Ihe staple food of a lat^ portion of the inhabitaui^. 

Paeons of many kinds, snipe, cnrlev and plover, the At^m 
Md Bnhrer pheasants ( Ar^fsieHm4 Grtiyii and LMophm^U 
ttfmuii t ) and aeveral kinds of partridge affiml a tempting 
noriety to the sportsman, and the field opened np to the 
aatarmlist amongst the Damen3u« binis of North Ikinieo, is a 
laqge and bnt little known one. 

The climate is more healthy than might be expected in a 
eountry situated so near the Equator. The maximum monthly 
mean temperature during tlie year 1<S83 was 83.9, whilst the 
lowest fur the same period was 75.1. The nights as a rule are 
very cool and pleasant, and on the coast the heut during the 
day is rarely oppressive. The rainfall lor 1883, as obserAcd at 
Kadat, on the North coast, was 120. OG inches, November, 
December and January being the months during which most 
nun fell. There is no absolutely dry j-eason, it being rare to 
aasa many days without rain. To Europeans who take reason- 
pble precautions against exposure to malarial influences, the 
climate is healthy. 

• Sir ftTAMPORD Raffles deeoribed the Malayan bear l)efoe the Linneaa 
fl^riecj in IS30. Crawfubd says that the B )meau and Sumatran bears are 
fSke iHiiic species* — £d, 

f This is an error. The Bulwer Pheasant ( TAihiopJtasl* Buhrci-i) haA not 
eome imder the knowledge of the anther. The birds referred to are two 
meajes ot the Fiyeback Pheawint, the Knp^oraunx pyrrJionutiiis and the 



North Borneo is \qtx thiuly populated and its scattered 

inhabitants lurludc um!iy diflen'ut nu-cs, 

Hid Wtstcoa^'tis priiicipjiily peopled by a mixture of Ma- 
lays, Bajaus aud Uoiinuf*, wliiLst on the Nortli and ^ ast coaBtii Ba- 
jau.H and Saltis arc rhiefly mr^t with, Thf aborigines \vho reside* 
iu the interior are eaUrd Jhi^uns or Id a'atK They arc au agrirul* 
tural raue, aud jreuerally pcareful. They gi'ovv tobaeci) and 
cotton, as wtdl as riee, tajiioea, yanis aud iudian corn, but only 
cultivate sutlirieut for their own imiufidiafce use — the usual habil 
of Diost nativL\s of these parts, wjvo fail to realize the importance 
of providing for the future. They use u plou;i^h and harrow, aud 
iu this resjjeet are superjor to tlio otiicr natives of Bt^rneo, 
A althouf^h the use of these implonieotN is Kuid to have been iu- 
} trLxluccd by the CUiinciie wlio— report tells \\n — at !«onie remote 
period thirkly populated North lioriu^o, 


For purposes of labour, the native cannot be depended upon, 
being naturaJly iudolent and quite eontent s«o \oiv^ i\s his own 
ininiediatc wauts are satisfied, aud tl*cst3 Ijeiug .simple, he finds 
A no ditlieulty iu supplying thcra. Chinese at pre.sent supply tlie 
S labour market. Chinese, natives of ludia, aud Arabs arc to be 
/found tradiuL,^ in most of the rivers, and the first named are 
/ settling iu large number!! wlierever stations have been tjpeued 
by the Company, more especially at Sandakan, which now- 
con tains some *3,0OO. 

A rough estimate of the pnpuLitiou gives the number \x% 
15O,O00j but this i.s probably underrated, as it is being rapidly 
increased by the influx of Chinese. The value of tlie Chinese 
in a new country like this, is well knowu, aud as a pioneer, his 
aasiNtance in makin«' the Government known to the natives of 
the interior, amongst whom he intrepidly ventures, alone or 
with but one or two couipanious^ Kpeuking impert'ectty if at all 
their language, will be readily acknowledged by those whc 
liave experienced it. 



One great benefit which will follow on the establishment of 
a Govern mont by European**, will be the gradual abolition of 
slavery, wbich, however mild it may be in this country, is 
repug'nant to civilised humanity. By recent laws promulgated 
by the Government, the death blow to the various modes of 
obtaining slaves has been struck, the following regnlatious 
effectually accomplishing this object : — (1.) No slaves can be 
imported from other countries. (2.) Debtors cannot be seized 
by their creditors, wliich was formerly one of the principal 
means of obtaining slaves. (3.) All children bom of slave 
parents after November, 1883, and who would^ according to 
custom, be slaves also, are declared free. 

Most of the inhabitants of the coast are Mahomedans, 
whilst the aborigines put their faith in omens and old supersti- 

Fufure Prospects. 

In conclusion, the experiment in colonization now being 
tried by the Britisli North Borneo Company, is one of more 
than local importance, and is being anxiously watched by other 
nations whose interests in those seas are so great. 

With the example of what has been done in the Native 
States, and Sarawak, and by governing through and with the 
assistance of the natives tlicmsclves — which is indeed the onlv 
true way in a country such as this — the young colony should, 
within a reasonable time, realize the expectations it has aroused, 
by taking a position corresponding to its natural advantages^ 
and sending forth its riches to tlic otlier countries of the world. * 


[This paper was prepared at the suggestion of Mr. J. SI 
O'ITalloran, Secretary of the Roy^al Colonial Institute, by 
whom it was read, on my behalf, at the Montreal Meeting of 
the British Association for the Advancement of Science, on the 
29th August, 18S4.— E. P. G.] 

* The information in thin paper may be fitly supplemented by the following^ 



remarks »riii*le by Mr. A. Dent when Sir Waltek Medhubst's paper on 
British Noiib Honn'o was retwl beftrrfl the E.iyui Colonial Inisuixitc on tno I^Lh 
May* JK85:— "Tlie pn prt^t^s in >Jorlh Borueo Iujs not hvcu Ho nq^d us wua 
anticipated when wv oLlaitn-il iho fhmterat ihc tud «if 1S81, bur Mill we 
«*!»n tvrtjiinl)' point to st.-ndy pragu'B!* »\nrc the ruiiii»aiiy iiok po-Pi fl,i.»n in 
July, ]B^S2, I fitid tluit the fit*ctvl icvtimt? for ISt^i uk Luiiiitured wiiii li*U 
jih<jw?< an iticn-ase of tiO \wr tenl., hind Bales a k!eci't»ufi*' u( ^^9 piT cunU, {>nv:u^ 
a tolal inrreiiiitf r.f 2ii iK*r cent, whith* cJii^i^lenng the bluto of 
iiUfJi? and unirureal depression, inu.'ftj I think I jr thoa^^ht n ii wholly qc sat is- 
fuetorjr. 8ir WalTEIi Juiii alluded Lo i^eveial nt^w itnpoita and trxj^ori^. Wo 
hope ill 1HS5 t(» f*how nn exjK»rl ofi^^'ld, Lui^t autun«i we smt one of uU' beat 
ofili^crB tf> explrtre for ;:oy jn tin- Si'j;»imi unJ Kmab:itangan rivcra, and hid 
rt^l^irt *ih<>\wd gohl li* exisst in alluvinl dt'fo^ili* in tlio ;^<i ur 4o pliiu-s exiw^'i- 
m nted np ►n. Hi* coold not c^oniinue hi* exploration^-, iiwing to tae w«t 
sfa«<jn hn%'ini^ just set in, but hiis rm-ently gone Uiek, and wi* ho|se so.m to heat 
it c'kmfirnvjd tha! th"'ro ar** woikuble deposit* lil g">M in thij country. That 
the G»>vcnj«ir and nHiuialfl of North Borneo belicvi' in it is evjdenerd by their 
having biken the trouble to publish iv^idtiU ju^ and proehitui reitutii dutricts 
UK g^olil firhli^. Tv>bareo we look forward 1i» its fikvly to pruvc au iinptfrtiint 
ttiUtrprine ill tJu? cuiitry. This, tin the pupf r Mays, is advaneiriu^ but slowly, 
f*T, ftwing^ to many ditfieuHie.Ti whieh i^nur ma n- \v e 'Uiii-y, thu 18,S'1 crop 
iJid not come up tf> expe'lutions. Con8id<Tabie pret^.irttione haw, howeViT» 
l>ieti niiule fur plantin*; durin:; (he *:oming^ ^.lekm In Febru:iry last otio 
€oiDpiiQy hiid Ji.Ul eoolii B workinjj un their plaut^aittn, and an^-tuor e<>uiptmy 1<H) 
cofdicB, Frtun all ait.'ount«, this tob:Meo m likely to prnve eqUid to tnti timflt 
Snuiutni. It i* ufied for cov* rin^ purposts. In t?tuiir litlkMnifl been dune jia 
y<tt, but lar;:e tmtts of country hjiv*> been tukrn by Auf*tt'-iiiiins, c;itjj£^ tthd < 
ofcheri*. There se^ma tii be* u f^iii prinfipt'tt tbiit the ilHpi^^bjun in t'»is irji<lir will 
iwM>n pass away, for piiees huv*? rceently ndvaru't^d oU per tent. Tmi'e is s*jme 
reufion to believe ihiit ihe Germnn Goveri.miDi am getlinfj; tirt-d of the sy^U.-ra 
itt bonnliea, for I l>elirve il in a faet that the fiui^uu: uU)Tiufa< ttuvra and giowerfl 
of bt'etrodt in Germany owe the* Uovemincal somethinyj J ike tini milbuns etor- 
ling, and the nulhoritieB are beginning" (o wonder whether tiioy will ever « o 
their m^iney attain. An rcjia'ds timh* r, our txp<.>rt f*jr \ii^4: amuuiitud lo 
SHMXKJ. Part went t\i Au«*r3i]iii and pirt of Lhma* Ttitsre ia a gieat varhty 
of timber in Burneo, mime of Ibe hircU.'iil wo<iji8 in the worjd being found iharo. 
The iJilliani or iron wtofl, is pientjfid, and Viilu>*bJe for rjuiwuy tJi-epL^rs, 
wbjiirveis ^c. ; and some other wooda ate united f*»r furniture, sui^ibuiliia^, 
and ulh^r puqxjsi-fi. One of the CUtnefv m irhnnts haj* -iiMi uic^n imiU^*g 
timber for the Ch'na maikrt, und ihe Avistitdiaiis are cULtirtit tim cr freely 
.for the Melbourne mirket. The report opyu tbu txperitnentul j^urdt-^ii at 
Silam states t hi) t Liberian colFee, now ri^inj^r t<i itn ili^rdyear. Is very fine, 
and yieliiiusf freely. Tlie younjfer plinitatiotvs at Sandikm iirotniso well 
The growth of pepj>»T is all that rould Ive dtH red. Coroii^ Maudu he t-p, iid 
giimbin are, iimonf^t other arttcleB, easily pruduceil in the inrntory. < me of 
the nirtin queBtioi b n-maining lur eonBideration is that of labour. Kvorywauro 
the question seems to be hem', and »hi;re^ logetJabour, ilany n fitn uo is I 
iLre, we know, put upon the importing of Chinese into Auiffrioa and AudtTuIii^, I 


but tlioee who haye lived as lonfi; 48 I have amongst tlie Chineso will testify ) 
to their value if they are treated properly. One advantage wHh this labonr is I 
that you can make contracts, and payment by results, by which means yon oan ' 
get the maximum amount of labour at the minimum of expense. Boineo is 
but a few days* steam from China and Singapore, where, for a moderate wage, 
an unlimited amount of this labopir can be obtained. Anyone who has studied 
the map will, I think, recognise that, commercially and stratrgioally. North 
Borneo occupies a position of great importance. Lying on the hi«;h road 
between China and Australia, we must in time get a large population there. 
The climate I can speak well of. I have lived there many months at different 
timea of the year. The (Government of the country is based, as Sir Walter 
haa told us, on the Indian penal code, and the administration seems to meet 
Uie wishes of the natives and the Chinese, and the other settlers. A force of 
180 police has hitherto been sufficient to keep order with comparative ease. Aa 
to tlu» charter, seme friends of the enterprise seem to believe that the enormoua 
powers we hold were giren by Her Majesty the Queen. It is not so at alL All 
our powers were derived enturely from the Sultans of Brunei and Sulu, and what 
the British (Government did wa9 simply to incorporate us by Bojal charter, 
thus recognising our powers, which recognition is to us, of course, of vital 
importance. I hope I have said enough to interest you in our scheme, and to 
■how Uiat North Borneo has a considerable future before iU" 

' Ed, 



The following Notes, regarding the history of the con* 
stitution of Jelchu have been compiled from information 
gleaned from the Ireadmen of the State* 

The four followin°: coiintries— (1) Jelebu, (2) Sungei Ujonj?, 
(3) TJcmbau, and (4) Johol — were in fortiier days governed by 
Pengbulns siibje*it to the suzerainty of Jolior* 

On ono occiisiou the Raja of Juhor was js^ilty of an act 
of gross oppression towartla the Penf^jbulu of Remban entitled 
Onmi; Kaya Kuchil. The Raja of Johor wished in obtuin in 
marriage this Pcnghnlu^s daugltter, but the Pengbnln rcfnsed 
and married her to another. The U^ija's ang;er was ronaed at 
^thiy, and the Penghulu, hearing of his indignation sent his own 
lion SiAMAT (sic) to explain matters to the Kaja and to endea- 
[▼our to appease his wrath. 

The Raja, however, would not listen to Siamat, but order- 
t ed him to be put to death. 

After this the Pengbokis of the four States were afraid to 
go to the Court of the Raja, owiiif> to this unjust aet. 

After some time, however, tlie headman of .lelebu took 
i courage to appear before him. Now this headman's name 
'was MrxYoxG ISalui, and [lis title was Orang Kaya of Sungei 
Lumut. The name of Jek^bu was as yet unknown : and it was 
not until some time later that the t'ountry was so called after a 
man oi that name who wa^i drowned in the river (Triano;), 
This headman of Jelebu, then, went to the Court of the Rjija 
of Johor, who presented him with a eliop benring the follow- 
ing inscription : — 

*' The Sultan MA*AdlAM Shah confers upon the Mandelika 
*' Mantri supreme authority to be the Sultan of Jelebu 
*' for ever." 

♦ The first division of this paper is, I need hardly point out, a litemJ 
translation of the »tory verbnUy communicated to me liy Malaya. — H. A. 03, 



And this is the form of words that has been nsed from 
generation to g^cneration by the Penghuliis who have governed 
the country of Jelebu, 

The Raja of Johor further issued instructions to the 
Penghulu, that from that time forth the Penghulus of Jelebu 
and of the other three States were not to bring their complaints 
before Johor. 

Thercrvpon the four Penghuhis made an arrangement to 
create a Raja of tlieir own, and chose a man oF the royal blood 
of MenangkabaUj who on his election abode in the country of 
Sri Meuanti, 

The place where the election of this Raja occurred was 
Petftjeh, and hence arises the (dd Malay sayimg : *'The source 
'*of royal power is Petajcli ; the place where it dwells is Sri 
'* Meimuti/^ A Yam Tnan Muda in Rembau, and a Yam 
Tuan Besar in Sri Menauti, such was the (new) order of things^ 
and the four Pcnghulus no longer took their complaints to 
Johor, but to Sri Alenauti, and had thus a Menangkabau man 
as their ruler. 

At that time there was no Yam Tuan in Jelebn, but the 
Penghulu held sway in that country, and this state of things 
continued for a loii^ time. 

At length the Yam Tuan of Sri Menanti, wdio had a num- 
ber of sons, sent one of them to Jelebiu merely to take np his 
abode there and to till the ground. His conduct w^as long 
watched by all the officers of Jclcbuj and tliey saw that it was 
very good* His behaviour towards the people was good, and lie 
seemed to be a man capable of supporting and sustaining the 
country. He was also a man of considerable mental ability^ 
and his personal character was beyond repnmch. 

Accordingly (lU the officers met together and notified to the 
Penghulu their intention * of making the Yam Tuau's (Sri 
Mcnunti) boq their supreme ruler. 

He was acconlingly elected with the title of Yarn Tuan 
of Jelebu, with the duties of protector of the inhabitants of 
that country. He did not, however, receive any jurisdiction in 
the country, and the Fenghnln and the officers contributed to 
his support, each man as much as he could afli^rd. 

• Thi* account of the attitude of tbe Waiis and Ltuibii^,'aa in these early 
timni IB fioteworthj as bearing upon the i^r^sent conBtitution of the country. 



The district within which the Yam Tuan's authority 
extended was from Bandar Berangan up to Sungei Melcntang, 
that is to suVj to Batu Gominting (in other words^ a portion of 
what h now Kkwang) , 

Such was the limit of his private and direct rule from that 
time down to the time of his descendant at the pFet«ent day. 

And should he violate this understanding or the customs 
of the country he may be deposed by his officers. 

*' If a king be just he is reverenced if unjust checked/'* 

Such wan the order of things in former times, and the 
boundary of Jelebu with Pahang is the phice called Meranti 
Serabilan, t while the boundary with JSungei UJong ia Bukit 

Now Klawaug is said to belong to Sungei XJjong for the 
following reasons. 

Some time ago a son of the Datu Penghulu of Jelebu vio- 
lated a daughter of the Penghulu of Klambn, and was compel- 
led to marry her. Sufficient money to pay the fine exacted was 
not forthcoming, and so in place of a money payment the 
Penghulu of Jelebu gave Klawang (to Sungei Ujong), that is to 
say, so much of it as is oo the right as oue goes up stream to 
Sungei Uj<»ng and down stream %o far as Lubok Kerbau Balir. 
For any measure that the Yam Tuan wishes to take in the dis- 
trict thus defined^ he must first obtain the sanction of the 
Government of Sungei Ujong. 

Such is the account of the origin of the present Government 
which obtains in Jelebu, taken from the lips of those who are 
most likely to be informed on the subject and who are unanim- 
ous in their story. 

1 may append a short account of the constitution of Jelebu 
as I found it wheti I visited it abmt the middle of the present 

* The lieodmen htJd that the present Tau\ Tuan ba^ Yiulated the ccn- 
fititntioHt and he now leeidee in KkwaTijr, with an aUowaDie from the BritMi 
Goveiiimctil c<jtiting.t,t upcm his non- interference in the govcmment of Jelebu. 

t This appeufB to been the old Jakuii botmdarj* It ia low down on 
the Triang river, is decidedly Fahang in ita tendenoies, and does not acknow 
edge the i^eng^ulu* 



year (188^.) audio what follows, for the purposes of simplicity, 
I venture to leave out of couskleratiou the recent arraugements 
made with the rulers of Jelehu. 

ThertJ h still a Yam Ttiaii of Jdubii* although practicnily 
he may be regarded m a cipher, lie arrogated to himself pow- 
ers of iuterference in the interaal government of the eonntry, 
which the ren«;halii antl the Waris considered to be a violation 
of the eouditiona under which the office of Yam Tuan was esta* 
blished, and he was ordered by them in lH8fJ to leave Jelebu 
and reside in Sri Menanti. A composition was Jiowever, effect- 
ed in his behalf, and be now resides in Klawang near the Jelebu 
frontier. Theoretically he still continues to be the Protector 
of the people^ but I have not learnt that any point has been 
referred to him since his removal from the country, except in 
the ca&e of an informal grant of land recently made to an Kuro- 
pean company in Jelebu, and again in the case of the Pahang 
boundary question, when he exprejised hi;* opinion to the 
Government at my request. 

The Penghnlu, therefore, Syetj Ali bin Zix, h the ruler 
o£ the country, for all practical purposes. I may say the undis- 
puted ruler J as the Yam Tuan signed a bond in January of the 
present year undeilaking not again to interfere in the govern- 
ment of the State. 

The Penghulu is assisted in the conduct of affairs by 
nine officers, or perhaps it would be more correct to describe 
his Jurisdiction as limited by them. They arc entitled Lem* 
hagtiSf oi wliom there are five, and Warkj who are four in num- 
ber. The LemhaffUK liave each a separate title :— 

I, — Datu Mantri. 

2. — Datu Ngiang. 

8. — Datu Ohinchang. 

4. — Datu Sendara, 

5. — Datu Lei a Angsa. 
These officers are all entitled to a vote in every act of State, 
aiid any act doue without their concurrence is illegal. At the 
State Council, however, tbey may, in case of illne^ss and so on, be 
represented by authenticated Wakils. The entire land of Jele- 
bu is considered to be vc^-ted in tbcm and the War'n^j but under 
no circumatauces can a Lcmbaga rise to the office of Penghulu. 

The TTaris are entitled as follows : — 


1. — Raja Balang. 

2. — Maharaja Imlah. 
3. — ^Raja Pcoghulii. 
4. — I'atii Umbei. 

They also have a vote in the State Cotincil» and the Peng- 
htilu is elected from their body with two reservations. 

The Datu Umbei cannot become Pcnghuhi, nor can the 
Raja Pciighnlu, A member of the family of the latter officer 
may, however^ become a cnodidate for election. 

The succession would appear to follow a fixed rule, viz.^ 
that on the death of a Penghnln who ha^ been of the family of 
a Itaja Pen«xhulu, the Haja Balansj^ of the day is elected. At 
his death the Mahanija ludah of the day sueeecds, and is again 
sncceedcd as Penghulii by a member of the family of the Raja 

This rule is theoretically absolute, bnt has often been bro- 
ken through, and in ail eases the appoiutnient must be ratitied 
by the nnanimons vote of the Leuibagas. 

The Datu JIantri is the head of the Lembagas^ with the 
full title of*' Datu Mantn Shah Mcniangku Alam/' The full 
title of the Datu Umbei (father of the Waxis) is ** Datu Umbei 
Pangkal Maharaja Lela/' 

Acconling to old custom, the Datu Lela Angsa was ap* 
pointed by the Penghuhi to protect the Yam Tuan, and the 
Penghulu when he wished to obtain an audience of the Yam 
Tuan applied to do so to the Datu Mantrij who laid the request 
before the Datu Lela Angsa. 

The Yam Tuan has, however, no followers now, with the 
exception of an ex-Maharaja Indah, who was deposed for sup- 
porting him in acts of oppression » and who resides with him 
in Klawang. Similarly in former days the Yam Tuan had 
four officers attached to his household, who now no longer. 
Their titles were : — 

1 — Bruang Sati who was chosen by the Datu Sendara, 
2 — Penglima Prang, . Datu Mantri. 

3 — Penglima Mamat, Datu Chinchang. 

4 — Penglima Prang No. 2, Datu Ngiang. 

The Lembagas had thus a direct control over the internal 



affairs of the Yam Tuan's houseliold, butj as I have said^ all this 
is at ail end now. 

The Peiighulu has four officers attached to his persoDj 
who are in like manner appointed and removed by the Waris. 
1 — PcuglimaGarang isehoseii by the Data Maotri. 
2 — Pengliraa llitam, .,. Data Ngiaug, 

3 — Peiiglima Siitati No. 1, , , Data ClnQchang, 
4— Penglima Siitan No, 2, . . Datu Sendara. 

The Penghulu, though in theon^ above control, is in reality 
entirely under the direetioa of the Lcrabagas and Waris, who, if 
unanimousj can obtain anjconstitntional change in the country 
they may desire by observing tlic following routine. 

If a measure is originated at the unanimous desire of the 
Lemhar/aSf it is submitted by tbera to the JFari^j ^nAvtce versa, 
Sbouhl it obtain the coucurreuce of the party which is not its 
originator, it is submitted in due form to the Penghulu, who 
has the power of veto, but who in practice accepts what is laid 
before Lim with but little discussion. After this step has been 
taken, the measure (until recently) is transmitted to the Yam 
Tuan for final ratification, and when this has been obtained, 
the measure becomes law, binding upon the inhabitants of the 
country generally. 

This process may appear to be rather too involved to work 
without frictiou in a Malay State, but there can be no doubt but 
that it contains elements of safety for the rj^ot from its very 

The ex-Raja Balang left Jelebu and has reappeared with 
the Pahsmg envoy supporting bis theory that Jelebu has always 
been Pahaug territory, atid that Jelebu as a scpLirate State is 

Whatever may be the real status of Jelebu, the present 
condition of the country is truly deplorable. It bears marks 
of having been, at no very distimt period, fairly prosperous and 
sufficiently peopled, but now, speaking generally, the whole land 
is waste< 

I passed the other djiy through mile after mile of deserted 
kampontj8 with fine padi hmd all round in abundance and 
with fruit-trees still in bearing. 

The only sign of work or prosperity I came across was at 

• See Uie postscript. 

JlLEBV. 848 

some tin mines at Jgliindong, which have been worked on a 
small scale for 17 years by a Sungei Ujong Chinaman. 

The tin deposit at this spot is the richest I have seen, being 
quite 100 per cent, better than in any mine at present working 
in Sungei TJjong^ but even with this natural advantage the 
miner's struggle for existence is a very hard one. He is de* 
pendent for every mouthful of food upon Pahanj^ or Sungei 
Ujong, and rice delivered at the mines is costly lood indeed. 
When I was there, a dollar purchased only 2f gantangi of rice, 
fis against 7 gantangs in Sungei Ujong, and 10 gantangs at KuAla 

An arrangement has been entered into by which a bridle- 
track will be constructed from Paiitei in Sungei Ujong to thtsse 
mines early in the coming year, and other roads will be made 
later (»n. A shop in connection with the mines will be opened 
next year^ so that I hope that they may progress as they ought 
to do. 

With regard to the country generally, I see nothing in the 
way of its prosperity but the absence of population, and people 
are sure to come in when the proposed roads have become an 
established fact. 


P. S. — At the present time (September, 1885) the road alluded 
to above has been completed, and a Collector (Mr. E P. G-ueritz) 
has been appointed, who took up his dutieis in June last. I under- 
stand that the old residents are gradually returning to the countiy, 
and tliat there is every prospect of an early development of the 
mineral resources of the State. 

The Pahang boundary has been definitely fixed at Sungei 
Dua on the Triang, and the Collector's quarters, together with a 
Custom House, Court, and Police Station, have been erected at 
Kuala Klawang. 

H. A. O'B. 



The following extract will be of great interest to tbose who 
have read Mr. O'Brien's paper on this subject in No. 11 of 
this Journal. — Kd. 

" The first thin|f of interest to attract me within a few hourv 
of my arrival at Kosula^ was a casi* in one of the servants of 
the honse of that curious cerebral affection called by the 
natives iata. It is of a hysterical nature^ and is confined 
chiefly to women, although I have also seen a man affected by 
it. On being start leil^ or excited suddenly^ the pirson becomc»B 
lata, losing the control of her will, and cannot refrain from 
imitating whatever she may hear or see done, and will keep 
calling out, as long as the fit lasts, the name — and generally 
that word aloue^ — of whatever has flashed through her mind as 
the cause of it. *' He-ih-hch niatjan!" (tiger) ; " He-ih-heh boo- 
rung bcsar!" (a great bird ). Her purpose will be arrested, 
as, it walkimr, »hc will stop short, and on j:oing on again will 
often follow some other course. The prefatory exclamation is 
an invariable symptom, seemingly caused by involuntary hys- 
terical inspirations. According to the degree of alarm the 
symptoms may remain only a few moments, or last for the 
greater part of a day, especially if tin* patient be prevented 
from calming down. The afflicted, if not very seriously 
affected, are not altogether incapacitated from performing the 
duties to which tlicy are accustomed. The most curious cha- 
racteristic of the disease is their imitation of every action they 
see. On one occasion, while eating a banana, I suddenly met 
this servant w ith a piece of soap in her hand : and, perceiving 
she was .«*]igh{ly lata, but v»ithout appearing to take any notice 
of her, 1 made a vigorous bite at the fruit in passing her, an 
action she instantly repeated on the piece of soap. On another 

[ Ko. 16. ] • w 



, OF THE J, 




JUNK, 1S85. 


Pbinted at tue Government Phinting Office. 


Agents of the Society : 

London and America, ... Trl'bner & Co. 

Paria. . . . Eunest Leuoux & Cie. 

Germany, ... K. F. Koehlee's Antiquahium, Leipzig. 


I I II . iQi I P 

Council for ISS5, ... ... ... ... ▼ 

Liat of Members for 1 885, ... ... ... vi 

Journal kept during a Journey across the Malay Peninsula 

(with Maps), — by F. A. Swettenham, ... ... 1 

The Object and Keaults of a Dutch Expedition into the 
Interior of Sumatra in the years 1877, 1878, and 1879, 
—Translated from the French by R. N, Bland, ... 39 

Further Notes on the Raiiif.iU of Singapore, — by J, J. L. 

irheatley, ... .. ... ... 61 

A Glinipso at the ■NEaimeri* and Customs of the Hill Tribes 

of Xortli Formosa, — by J. DodJ, ... ... 69 

Gcnealo^v of the Hoyal Familv of IJrunei, — Translated from 

the kaloy by ir II. Treac/wr. ... ... ... 79 

French Land Decree in Cambodia, — Translated Jrom the 

French ly the Hon bU' ir. E JLuvwell, c.M.o.^ ... 81 

Malay Language and Literature,— 6/^ Dr. Relnhold Most, ... 93 

A Mis.-^ioiiary's Journey thrnuglt Lao8 from Bangkok to 
Cbon, — Contribiffid by the H^vd. N. J. Couvreur, Fro- 
cureur des Ali,ssiotiti I'Jtnntyrrca tft Singapoi^ey ... 103 

Valciitvn's Account ni' ^[aLicca, — Tr inflated from the Dutch 

{cliifrib.ffrd hj ihc Hon hie D. F. A. Kervry), ... 119 



Noticei of Booki :— 

"Eftpport h, M, le MiniBtre de rinstractiou Publique 
«ur une MtBsioii aux Ilee PhilippiEes et en Mftlaiaie" 

" Work and Adventure in Kew Guinea, 1877 to 1885, 
by Kov. -James Chalmers and Kev, W. Wyatt GifiL/* 

(K?a s i on al N o t ea : — 

Expbmtfon of Pahaog — (Eitraeti from » Letter {mm 
W> Cameron J Esq.), 

North Borneo Land Rcf^uljitione! — (E^ctrjicted from the 
MntM North Bomto Ilt^mld), 

Anruitncfle Ance^stral Wori^hip — (Eifriw^ted from *' France 
ntid Tongking '" by J, G, Scott) » 



• ^ ' ■ 

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THE ^ 

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• pOtrlfCIL FOR i8lt* 

The Hon'ble A. M. Skinxer, Preahlrnt. 

W. A. PiCKKHiyo, Enquire, c.m.c. . Vicr^F resident, Singnpore, 

J). Logan. Ef*qulrc, Viee-Prcalilenf, Penaiuj. 

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Edwin Kokk. Enquire, Jlonororj/ Treasurer. 

R. AV. HrLLETT, Esqtiiro. 

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IT. L. XoROXUA, Ksquiro. \ Councillors. 

E. C. lliix. Ks(|nire. 

J. MiLLiCR. Esquire, 









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Xorth Borneo. 


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1 Sinjj;«ipore. 


BiEBEB, Dr. E. 

' Europe. 


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• Pcnauj]^. 


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! Province Wcllosley. 


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33i Deloncle, Francois 
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I (Honorary Member) 
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42; GrRAHAM, Tlic Ilon'ble James 

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4:t! Gueritz, E. p. 

45| Gull AND, W. G. 

46' Gottlieb, F. II. 

47i Gottlieb, G. S. II. 

48i nAUGHTOX. H. T. 

40; Hervey, The Honble D. F. A. 

50 Hewett, B. D. 

51 Hill, E. C. 
.'">2! Hole, W. 
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I G. F. (Honorary Member) 

54' HULLETT, B. W. 





Sydney, N. 8. W. 
North Bonieo. 
: Penang. 









H. 1^ IL Prmce Khom Mux 

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G o.M,G., o.csj,, (Huiiorary 

ill InL4ie InitiHiM iiJN Ai^mtllaii 

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WEATrL., Jr. 







Fridaff, inth April, 1885.— Left Taipeng for Port WeM 
by traia at 10 J 5 p.m., accampatiied hy Major Walker^ Cap- 
tain GiLt:s, and Mr. Listek, and arrived at Port Weld after 
a 25 minutes* run. Shipped on board the A/ert, lent by the 
Resident Coiiiicilior of Peiiane:, and started for Panj^kor at 
11.15 P.M. The lauiieh Confifance hnd been seot on to Hernanx 
the previous day with a guard, and the Kinta beiu;jj disabled, 
it would have been itnpot*Nible to start without the Alert, 

Saturdaf/j 11 /A April, — Arrived at Pangkor at 6 A.M. 
Mr. Dew, the Acting Snperiutendentj earae on board. Went 
ashore with Major Walker and Mr. Listek, and inspected the 
buildings. We loft Pangkor at 2 r.M., ami anchored inside 
the Bernum River at (>.t30 p.m. 

Sunday f I2th AptiL — Under weigh at 4 a.m., and reached 
Saba at fi.3() a.m. Mr. Joxks and Eajas Indlt and Binix 
came on board. Mr, Jones toUi us Mr. Hkwktt had gone on 
to TMok Mahiing with the Constance and boats. Inspected 
the Police Station, I cannot understand the boldness of 12 
Chinese robbers in attacking the station and village. There 
must have been at least thirty people actually on the spot in 
the shops between the farm and the station. Went down to 
Raja Indi T*s house with him. The cholera is decreasing. 
Two people died yei*terday, and there have been 120 Heaths 
since the outbreak of the disease. Left Saba at 8.r30 a.m. and 
steamed up river to Telok Mahang. Here we met Mr. Hkwett 
with the Constance at 3 p.m., and after two hours* further 
steaming arrived at Changkat Bcrtam, where we camped for 
the night, sleeping in the boats. 

Mondmjy 13M April, — ^At daylight Walker and Hewett 
returned down river in the Constance^ and we, having got all 
uur baggHgc into eleven riv'cr-boats the previous evening, 


began rowing up-stream* Break rastcd on the river bank at 
iioon» and getting into the great Beniam swamp camped for 
the night at DahA Rul the entrance to the final cutting. The 
banks were so low and wet we did not land, and the dew was 
exceiisive. This is whera the fever was so bad when Mr. J. B* 
31. Leech was mitttng the eanals. One of the boatmen sick 

TtieJtffaf/* ]4tk ^/jW/.— Started at day lights having po)ed 
from midday yesterday. Stopped for breakfa:*! at 12,30 p.m. The 
river here is most lovely^ but the distriet i<? quite uuiuliabited and 
unclcaretL The upper reaeht^s of the Bernam are wonderful 
in the beauty and variety of water and foliagr\ It turus out 
tliat our siek boatman has eholeru. I gave Inrn some cholera 
raedieinej bnt he wan so frightcne:! that it had no efflbct ; wc 
did what we could for hinij and at his request sent him back in 
a boat. At 2 \\m* eon tinned our journey and readied Kuala 
Sltra at CI r.M., where we fuuud Mr, liuxLEft (the Acting 
Magistmte) with 81) Sakeis anil 80 Malays to earry our bag- 
gage. The Bern:im river, by tlie eonstrui;ti^fn of seven miles 
of eanal^ cuuM be shortened by about 57 miles cjf its present 
length, but those eanal» must bo both deep and wide if they 
are to be useful at all times of the year und at all stages of 
the tide, and the question is whether the expenditure neces- 
sary for such a work is at piewejit juiitifiablc. The influence 
of the tide is felt for 80 miles from the moutli of the river. 

Kuala Slim is V2\} miles from the mouth of the Bernam river 
by the present chmineL 

Wfdiies<hii/f l^ilk April, — At 7 a.m., 77'^ l-alircnhtit, the 
aneroid 8be%ved Kufda Slim tf> be 120 feet above 8ea level. 

Having loaded the coolies, left Kuala Slim at 7.20 a.m.^ and 
after hve hours' walking over a very fair path with no stcop 
gradients f the hrBt three miles having been made), we reach- 
ed Kuida Gdliting at 4.15 p.m. distance 14 miles from 
KuMa Slim, and V-M from Ku4la Bernam. 

We found Mr, Hill and Mr. ^Voodoatk at KuAla Geliting 
waiting to go over the trace of the trunk-road with Mr. 

After dinner, had a long conversation with Haji IfirsTAPUA, 
Pungliulu of I' lu Bernam, Saiyid Abubakah, and Wax Lengga 
of Pahang* They tohl me they had iieard that no rafts had yet 
been prepared at Buntu to take me down the Babang River, 


[hikI that I should only have i'j wait tliere : so I wrote It^ttern 
[to several Pahmi^ Chiefs — ToH UAKAn of Bantu, Ton Kaya of 

<I others — askiDfj tli' 


ith rafts 

assist me wim ratta, men 
urn^s, and I gavu these letters to Maxtki JltroA and Che 
Wanda to take over the next mnriiiug, havin*; determined to 
wait a day at Kuula Gelititij^', The aneroid at 4.15 p.m.. Ther- 
mometer SS' L\, shewed a height of 2J(j feet above the sea. 

TftnrsJai/f 16M JpriL — ^Mes^rs. Jones, Hii.l and Wood- 
r.ATE went off early towards 'JVolati to return by Pandras and 
examine two alternative traee?i fur the main-road through 
Prrak* They returned in the afternoun, and we determined 
th;it the traee alreaiiy made ero-^sin^ the Slimjusit below Kuala 
GelUin^ would be the best to adopt and the «liyrtest. We 
i*pLmt our day in sketching and unpacking our storts from 
their boxes, as it was necessary to put them up in more man- 
ageable bundles in view of the difficult ground we had to 
travel over. 

/'/•///«//, 17 /A April. — A bint thirty of our Malay eojUes 
deserted before daylight, and tlits gave us a great deal of 
trouble, as we had not men enough to carry our baggage. By 
giving the Sikhs their kits to cjirry, we managed to get away 
at 8.15 A*ii., witli sixty-uinu Malays ami thirty-six Sakeis. 
BtJTLEKhad fever and could not move. HtLL, Jones and 
WooufiATid went back to the UUi Bernam, and Giles, Listeh 
and I set our faces due North fir lllu Slim. After four mites 
of an inteui^ety h'>t and trying walk through kamponjH unrl 
padi-fields, we reached Kuilla Brjseh, tl»e jumrtion of th;"* Slim 
and Rnseh Rivers, and here we left the Slim, still tJjwitig 
North and Sonth, while we turned sharp to the East, following 
the course of the llrtseh. Tfiree and a half miles of very stitf 
walking, first through btirnt secondary growth and then up a 
steep aseeut, brought us to a bathing place on the bank of the 
Briseh, l»i?3*i feet above the sea, thermometer H5'^, where at 
11.45 we halted for breakfast. 

After a stay of two !ionrs antl a shurt furtl*er climb, we eamc 
to a curious overhanging rock called Sripor Batn { the stone 
lean-to) above tlie right bank of the Briseh River. Here we 
determined tu camp for the night, as our coolies siid they 
could go no further. At a very h*w estimate, we made 7\ 
miles to-day from KuAla Gelitiug in a North-Kast and easterly 


direction. The journey was uifijiitely more trying than the 
14 miles to Kiuila (ielking, Hur camp wan a striking sight 
with its fiiiDs lighting up the various groups of Sakeis, Indians^ 
Malays and Chinese nnder the huge overhanging granite rock 
surrounded by the imneuctrahle ghiom of virgin forest, with 
the faint roar of the Briseh River rushing over its rocky bed 
fifty feet below. 

bafitnfat/, IHih ApriL^Jjeh SApor Batu at 6A0 a.m.j and 
goin^ still easterly, with the Briseh down in a gorge on our 
right, wc continued the ascent till we crossed a considerable 
tributary of the Briseh named Jul fttong LAper, height l,G46 
feet above the sea. Immediately afterwards we ascended a 
very steep hill, then foHoweJ a ridge and with longish ascents 
and short descents crossed in succession the following iitreams :— 

7.30 A.M. S, SApor Ibu, 1,826 feet, 
7.40 A.M. S. Sapor Anak, 1,8H6 feet, 

S. Sapor JIauahj 
8» A.M. S. Silpor Kayu Ara, 2,281 feet, 

the thermometer reading 77° F. Fifteen minutes' walk 
brought us to Sapor Buluh at 8.30 a,m., height 2,550 feet 
above the sea, four miles from camp and tdeven and-a-half miles 
from Kufda (Irliting. Teiuperature 75"^ F. Here a hut had 
been built for us, but after a halt nf 20 minutes to let the 
baggage CMiie up, we pushed on auain almost due Kust up a 
^tcep ridge, and, passing Batu llidang at U,10 a.m., elevation 
Ji,tHjO feet abuve s^eiij we reached Batu Giijah at 9.22 ; lieight 
'i,100 fet t ; and the hoonflary between Perak and Pahang at 
9.30 A.M. The aneroid sfjcwed tliat the gap was 2,854 feet 
above Kua!a UclkSug and 3,P'*ii feet above the sea. 

In a very tiny rill ruuniiig West we traced the source of the 
Brisehjaiid only a few itet on the other side was the first sign 
of a stream whicli, with eight others running between a suc- 
cession of buttre^ises jutling out fniiu the mmn range, forms, 
a littlelouer down, tlie Suugei SaniLthm — tlie mostnoitiicrly of 
tlie thrcestreanvs win ell, united, arc called tlie Lipis; the Lipis in 
its turn join in*,' the J^lei with a more northerly source, and, 
together, beeoming the Pahang River, Looking iuto Puhang 
as one stands *)n the ^ap, a luliy untuntain of some 5,000 feet 
rises on the right, this is Chunggang. while to the left towei-si 


u higher nirmTUaiii rifttned Kuhut. These are on the true baek- 
btiue of the Peninsula^ which here ruQ3 very nearly due North 
and South, while on cither side jut out spurs more or less at 
right angles to the main range^ — eastward into Fahang and 
Westward into Pcrnk. These spurs extend, as a rule, for about 
six miles on each side of the backbone. 

Without halting at the snnunit, we immediately began the 
descent into Pahung, and, just as we had ascended a long, nar- 
row, gradually rising ridge called Ganong Telitga with the 
BHseh River Ho win.; down its aoutliern base, so we descended 
the lunf^est (jf many easterly- running ridgrs, the Snngei Sam- 
bilan flowing We>t with a slight trend to the North along its 
southern base, but the descent into Pahang was decidedly 
steeper than that into Pcrak, and after 30 minutes' walk we 
crossed one of the nine streams that form the Sambilan, and 
found we had come down 600 feet* 

The soil on both sides was only moderate, studded all over 
with the m(jst gigantic granite bouldevs I have erer seen iu 
the Peninsula. 

On the Perak side, I noticed many dry Wtitercourses full of 
large granite blocks. In those the water may he subterrane- 
ous, as it is on the slopes of Ginting Bidei in Sehingor, but 
more profmbly the long drought account j* for the absence td* 
water. On the whole, I have never seen a range better watered 
ili>in this one, and it is only surprising that the Hlim is not a 
larger rii'cr. At 24 mih^s from the boundary aud a heiglit of 
!2,l<*n feet above Uie sea, wc brcakfuste-d by tlic bunk id' the 
Sambilan, road and river bearing 7^ North of Kast, 

At 12.37 p»M. we resumed our JMurney, and at 1.30 p.m, 
reached a spot on the river c:dled Sani:ka Dua, wliere two 
bi"ani4iea of the river meet again after dividing and forming a 
large island. Height above sea L740 feet. Thcnuometcr 
b*2° F. At Ltia P,M. errii-^cd the river a^ain^ hut Iserc it is 
named the Kenor, and has, the natives say, already received the 
wati'is of the two branches, viz., the true Lipis, which rises 
frt.m the western side of Gunong Tctnaug Batuk (in which 
hill the Snngei G^Hting takes its rise and flows westward), 
find the Tebalak, rising from a mountain in it her South, in 
which the Bernam Kivt r is said to have its suurce» The Kenor 
IS now a considerable stream, and crossing it (1,564 feet above 

o JOVii\KY Arnoas iirK ma lay PKKrasrLA. 

the sea) we immediately began the ascent of what lt)oks like 
an isolated hill called B^raug. It i% really, ho»rcver, 1 
should say, a long spur from the main range, o%"er the end 
of whieh the water system pa^^ses. and which the lilalay 
crosRcs as a short cut rather than follow the winding course 
of the river. Tlie ascent is steep but short and of no g^reat 
height, the highest point we reached being 1,734 feet above 
the sea, and frnni here the saddle is so narrow timt Chung- 
gang can be plainly seen to the South- Wc«t and Ki'ibut 
to the North- West* This saddle runs round in an E,-S»-ELi*<t- 
erly direction, and the descent i;; very fatiguing. The spur 
seems to be only u few feet aci*oss the top, but unusually lung, 
and you descend by seven stejis, each with a long gradual rise, 
and then a very steep desct!nt. The bottom of thia spur wc 
reached at 3.8 i\m., height 680 feet ahovc the sea, and cross. 
ing and recrossing the River liiinlu, which cornea from the 
North, we camped at the Kuula Buutu, where it falls into the 
Kcnor, aiul the combined rivers nrc here, for the first time, 
named the Lipis, The Hpot where the Buntn joins the Kenor 
is called Knilla Buntu, and tliis spot we readied at 3.4'} p.m., 
eleven miles tVom the boundary niul fifteen miles from our 
last ram|i at Sapor BAtu. 

Sumifff/, IWh AprfL — At 7 a.m. we left our camp, and walk- 
ing through burnt secondary growth along the banks of the 
Li pis iu a North-easterly direction reached Pcnnatanj^ Linggi 
at H A.M» 'lliis place is (i^O feet above the sea and still 344 
feet ubove KuAla Gdliting on the Pcrak side of the rang^e, 
Kunhi Buiitn to Permfltang Linggi three mitcH, Fi>urtt-en 
niilfs tVuni the latter place to the boundary* aud twcnty*tive 
and a half miles at least from Kuala (jcllting Good Malay 
Avalkers can do the whole distaoce in a day- 

T**n Bakak, the bead man of this distnct, met me on the 
road, and took us to his house at PeruiAtang Lin^'*^i, where we 
were received with a salute from a fewnjuskets. About a mile 
before reiiehin^ Prrmatau*? Linggi, I noticed the stream went 
over a bed rock of slate, and all the g »ld is found further down 
the river. Ton Bakak had preparctl twenty-throt^ small raft.s 
for us, on w^hich we shall huve to travel t'> J "ram Besu — a rapid 
where, they tell us, it is necessary to leave the river and walk 
to Puchons^. I found that Ton Bakah had never been in his 


life to SCO the Raja at the mouth of the river, nnd though he 
(Ton Bakar) is called the owner of Triisang, one of the 
richest gold districts in Pahang, it is suid tlie Kaja has lately 
given the place to the Ton Gajaii, Spent the day in writiDg 
and settliiifT with our Malay and Sakt?i coolies, the lalter 
returning: highly delighted with their earnitigs. After dinner 
had a talk with Ton Bakar, Ifc and the people with hitn told 
me of all the taxes they are called upon to pay* Once a year 
the people are numbered, and have to pay felJ]3 a head to the 
Yam Tfian ; this they call Jlcisil banchf. Then there is the 
serah^ a form of squeeze still praetieicd in Pahaug ; some worth- 
less thing is sent from the Raja to a subject, a price is namedj 
and the subject ii^ obliged in purch:<sc at that price. Again 
when a District Chief goes annually to pay homage to the 
Ilaju, the Chief calls upon every man in liis district to pay %\ 
towards his expenses, and a similar contribution is demanded 
for tho return junrney. All gold must be sold to the Raja 
only, and it is said there is no standard of weight* It is said 
that most imports and exports are taxed ^ debt*slavery prevails 
in parts, and the people are liable in be called out for forced 
labour. The Dato^ tells me that Mr. W. Cameron came here 
and went on to Butu Gajah, but he is the only white man he 
ever saw. 

A curious thing yesterday wa^ to hear the cry, twice 
repeated^ of a wild Sakei as yet nnfaniiliar with Malays. The 
cry was exactly like that of a wikl beast, and was probably a 
warning to the friends of thij man who ottered it; he could 
not have been far from us on the eastern slope of Burang. 
Some of our people caught with nets this afternoon two of the 
tinest frcs'h water fish I ever tasted in the Eaat— /Xra/i klah — 
weighing about 6 lbs. each. 

Momhii/^ 2Qf/i April,— Aiier no liltlc trouble arranging our 
baggage for the rafts (bamboo, four feet wide and about twenty- 
five feet long) we left Fermdtang Linggi at 8 a.ji* We had 
twenty-four i-afts manned by Ton Bakah's adherents and 
eight of the men I had brought over. The Dato\ his son and 
all his people aecompanicd us, and the start was a most pictur- 
esque scene. Each raft had a poler at the stem and another at 
the stern* s-»me baggage and one or two paf^sengers on a raised 
central platform. The rafts at unie began the descent of a 



succession ot rapids wltli ititerveuiug stretches of smooth 
broken water, the stream riiriDiug^ thruiigh a gorfre with steep 
hilis always on the northern side and soruetimcs on both, 
magnificently wooded down to the water's edge^ the remark- 
able Gupts tree bt'ing a special feature* The bed of the stream 
appeared to be soraetinjea of slate and sometimes of .sandstone, 
the bank^ usually of the latter and a good soil. No river 
bcenery in the Peniuisula have I ever seen to compare with 
this in beauty, added to whioli the novelty of shooting a long 
succession of fairly steep rapids* made the jonrney most en- 

At 9.15 A.M* we had to unload the rafts in order to shoot 
a considerable mpid called Jeram M^ugi'iloiv This was nego- 
tiated w^itbnut accident, and passing a very curious fishinty 
weir in tlie form of the letter Wj constructed by Sakeis, we 
stopped ff>r breakfast at 1(J.3D a.m.^^ having descended sixty 
feet in a distuncc of about llirce and a half miles. We left 
again at 2 p.m., passed the months of several sraidl tributaries, 
and reaching a long straggling kfinipoug called IJlu Sungei at 
2.45 P.M., we tied up for the night at its lowest end named 
Serebu, time 3.15 p.m., total distance, say, ten and a half 
miles. Unfortunately the man carrying the aneroid fell over- 
board from ray raft and the iustrument was damaged. We 
had to unload every raft and lift them one after another over 
an immense fallen tree, many similar obstructions being passed 
by lying down as the raft glided under one end* Altogether, 
without stoppages, we were fi\t hours travelling and ten and a 
half miles is perhaps a low estimate of the distancej but it 
was carefully calculated, the compass directions being at the 
same time noted and shewing that the river winds eunsider- 
ably, the general direction being from N.E. to S.E. 

At S^rcbu I found tlie Panglinia Jluda awaiting me, and a 
hut prepared for onr reception by the influence of Ton Bakar. 
The people are all very polite and friendly, but their minds 
are unsettled, owing to the late attempt of the Raja Muda 
Maxsur to enter the country, and they don^t know whether 
my synipatliies are with bim or with t!je Yam Tuan. We made 
a number of sketches during the day. 

Titrmfaif^ 2U^ April — At midnight la**! night we had a 
thunderstorm follo^vcd by a heavy storm of rain, the tirst for 




three mouths here. We Beem to have brought it over with us, 
for the night before we couhl see it raining at Bi\tu Giijah 
though it did not reach us. We have rea9f»n to be specially 
thankful for the fine weather we h:ive had. Our journey 
across the hills would have been a very ditiferent unttter in 
wet weather, many of the streams are uiifordable in the rains, 
and though we might have made a very much more rapid 
descent from BS,tu Gdjah, it would probably not have been on 
our feet. Twi> of the twelve Bernam men we were obliged to 
bring to help toman the raft^ showed signs of cholera yestenluy; 
one is better, but the othL^r worse this morningj and neither is 
fit for work. Left Sercbu at 7.15 a.m., and passed a rouk 
called Btity Kimau. This is supposed to be a petrified tiger^ his 
body only, his head is said to be in Jelei . At 8.20 .\,m. we reached 
KuiilaSungei Che Nek ; gold is found in the Ulu of this river. 
At 9 A.M. we shot the Jeram Mcnaogis ('' the rapid of tears ^^), 
find shortly after the Jeram Maalini, a considerable drop in 
the river. At 9.25 A.!^r. reached BsUu Tidani, and there met 
Ilaji Besar, my messenger, in a small boat with a letter from 
the Yam Tuan, saying, he fearetl I should find tlie Journey 
over the hills a diflieult one, but that he had sent orders to all 
the headmen to assist me. At 9.45 a.m. stopped for break fast* 
and leaving again at noon reached Kuiila Trdsang at 2 p.m. 

Sending on the other raftSj we landed here and walked to a 
spot a mile distant where some twenty Chinese are mining for 
gold. About a quarter of an acre has been worked out by pre- 
Tious miners, who are said to have got 5J kaiis from a hole 60 
' feet in diameter, but left owing to a poll tax of $8 a head 
being imposed, and the present men have only just begun 
stripping ; one of them washed a basin of already once washed 
earth and obtained from it a few grains of gold. The spot is 
thirty feet above KuMa Trilsang and is reached by crossing 
higher ground, 

lletumed to Kuala Trusang and started again at 3.10 f,m 
. getting oursehea and njost of our effects drenched by a very 
^ heavy storm of rain. Arrived at Kuala Semantau at 4.30 p.m., 
and there tied up for the night. 

I have ascertained that the following arc the prices of cer- 
tain commodities sold at Penjum, where the Uhr people have 
their nearest market. These prices arc due to the fact that 



the import of ncaHy every necec*sary and luxury seems to be 
fanned to ct^rtain Chinese tit Pi^kfln. the Yam TOan^s residence 
at the moiith of tlie river, iluldiiig a monopoly, the farmerB 
of conrf^e charge any price they like, and it ]^ perhupa in eon- 
soquynre of thiw that the Chinese miners in Pahang are said 
to number about one hundred only, Hnd all the Malays seem to 
be wretchedly poor. 

1 tin Kerosene oil, S^2.(J0* 
Tobacco, $1 a kftfi, 
10 bits of Gambier, 8 cents. 
6 f/atitatfgs 8 alt, §L 
1 ball of Opium ^22; and so on. 

The highest price for rice is said to be $1 for twelve yan- 
itmf/nS, The currency of the country is gold, and the following 
are the weights and values : — 

1 Itani Tengko -- 4 cent-* of a dollar. 
1 lii^neri of gold -- 2 I tarn Tengko ^ 8 ecnt«. 
1 Bu«o -- 2 Kdneri ^ 2 Saga ---16 cents. 
1 Suku ^=^ 1 Kiipang ^^ 2 Buso =^ 33^ ceuti?.- 
:i Ktjpang - §1. 

4 Kflpang = h Suku = 1 Mas -- $1.33^ cents. 
16 JIaa — 1 Bungkal valued lu Pahanfs; at ft2lj which seerni 
cnrions as it ought only to bo w^orth $'iL28. 

Abuut 7 P.M. I heard that a messenger had arrived from Per- 
niataug Liuggi to say that one of niy Bernam coolies, left 
belli nd to return* had died of cholera. I determinec] to send 
all my Bernam men burk at once, as this makes the third man 
who has sickened in two days. One of those with us is better, 
the other worse and unable to be moved. Kept on raining till 
late in the night. iJistance travelled to-day thirteen miles, 
general direct iuo E.S.E, 

B^vihie-sJaiff 22nd ApriL — Sent back Pengbulu Mat Saleh 
and the Bernam men except the one too sick to move; left him 
w^ith some money in the care of a man across the river. He 
is a very bad patient, refuses all medieiue, and does everything 
lie is told not to do. He looks bad, but is, I think, perhaps 
more frightened than really ill. We had a good deal of trou- 
ble in getting new men to supply the placcji of these Bernam 



people, and did not get away from Knkia Semaiitaii till 9 a.m. 
At 10*'K) A.M. Imam Pnino; Pcngbidii, a great Captain and 
lieadman of some influcnt^e, met rae and invited me to go aud 
spend the night at hh hoine. I found be lived ut a place 
called Smrm, two liours^ wulk inland from Ku^la Dum, on the 
right bank of the river, and, as I should have lost a whole day 
hy complying willi his invitation arid shonld have had to carry 
all our baggage inland and back again, I begged him to excuse 
me. He said he asked me to go to shew Ids friendship and 
good feelings and I am afraid he was rather disappointed, 
but there was nothing to .see at his place, and I conld hai*dly 
fcpare the time. 

At 11.30 A.M, stopped at Kmlla Dnm for breakfast, after 
which I had a long talk with the Imam Prang and his people. 
They all comphiined of excessive taxati^m and the want of 
settled laws and ctistoms. The Imam Prang told me that 
every bnffiilo exported ia liable to a tax of $3, and tliis goes to 
the Toll GAjah, though formerly he hiniselt' received it. At 
Pi5njnm, theo! is a gambling farm, which pns the Tfvii Kava 
i'jO a month, and that chief ak'» gets a tax of one- tenth on all 
imported cloth. A great deal of rice i« imported from K5lan- 
tan, also silk sarongs, A good many sarongs are, h'lwevcr, 
manufactured in Pahang, rhiefly at the Pt!^kan. 

At 2.30 P.M. saying good-bye to the Imam Prang, we started 
again and still meeting occasional rapids, wc soon passed 
into a magnificent open conntry, where the scenery, though 
different from that in the Uln, is in its way equally fine* The 
river w^idcns into a hroad stream, with a partly dry channel, 
sliewing what a con«iideruhle river it must be in the rains. 
The bed is full of snogs, and nothing whatever seems t<» 
have been done to it, but were it cleared, there is water enough 
for a launcli, though of course nothing of the kind cnnhl 
get here owing to the Jeram Bvmi fapid, which cannot be 
passed by boat even going down-stream. There seems to 
be an immenee tratt of level gronnd here. I have seen no- 
thing like it elsewhere at such a distance from the coast. I 
have been told that cr^coa-nnts will not Nourish ut over fifty 
miles from the sea-fchorc, but that is a mistakcj for we have 
»cen them everywhere. 

At 8,80 P.M. we pitssid KmMa Cheniier and Tmi IUkab 




told me that, though his territory extended further dowo, h 
people ended here- I am told that the Jelei Kiver, which 
longer and larger than the Li pis, rises in the main range with 
a brunch from Gunong TAhan — a moimtaio lying between the 
Jelei and the Teraelin. The T5mchn, which is said to be as 
considerable a stream as the Jelei, rises from the South-east 
face of GAnong Tilhan, with a branch rising in the borders of 
Pahang and Trenggunu. Gftnong Tfihan thus stands at tlie 
meeting of Pahang, K^kntaa and Tr^nggAnu, and is not in 
the main range, but as this is only native report, much reliance 
roust not be placed on it. The Lip!&, Jelei and Tem<!^lin unite 
and form the Paliaog river. At 4 p.m. we reached Kui\la 
S^ger, Dato' Kli's kumponf/f one of tlie most beautiful places 
we have yet seen on the river* It is 303 feet above the sea. 
The Dato' received us most cordially, and seemed a very good* 
tempered, intelligent [»ld man, Distjiuce tni veiled eleven miles. 
General direction N.K. Distance from KuMa Bernam^ 195 
miles. i 

In the evening the Da to' told me he eouM not get men 
enough to carry our baggage past the Jeram Brsn rapid^ and 
that I must stay here to-morrow whilst he collects them. Ton 
Bakar told me he would now return with his men, I am 
sorry to hear that one of them has stayed behind with cho- 
leraic symptoms. I sent him some medicine. 

Thundatj, Stjrrf -^//^/f/, — Cue Wan Da arrived in the course 
of the morning with a number of men, and there was a great 
argument as to the liabilities of the owners of bullalues, a man 
having been recently killed hy one tjf those dnngeious animals. 
Ton Bakar came to tell me he and his peuplc must now 
return, and Ton Kj.i would take me down to P^njura. He 
also said he had just hrard that a girl he had brouglit down 
with him aiid kft at Batu TAlam died lai?t night of cholt-ra. 
It is Very distressing. She was perfectly well until yesterday 
evening, but was then attacked and died in the night, 1 can- 
not nndcj^taiid it. Coming at roKsfrcm Slim^ n*jt a man ettm* 
plaint d, the iiatcrwe have had to drink hjiS been excellent^ 
and they liavc had no cholera in Pa hung up to this tune. I 
gave Tiin Bakah ^omc njeditinia with dircctioiis how louse 
them, also a present <»f money to himself and his men, and we 
parted with mutual expressions of good -will. I have had to 




prescribe far several people since I came here^ fortunately with 

good results. 

Devoted the day to writing np journal, and in the eveuing 
went out to try and find some jnngle fowl;, but failed. Bet- 
ween the river and the bills there ia one great level plain 
COTered with very short grass. Utitil three years ago this 
was a pad i- fields hut owing to defects in the irrigation syBtera, 
they eannot now cultivate. The drought here is excessive, 
even the ftirch vines are all burnt up ; there arc no vegetables, 
owing to the dryness of the ground, and the people live on 
rice and on what fish they can eatf:h in tlie river. The vil- 
lagers, principally the woineukind^ wash the hand in the bed 
of the river for gold, and get from sixteen cents to one dollar's 
worth a day, 

Friday, 2Ath JpriL — Left Seger At 7.30 a.m. and walked 
through tlie fields to Jeram Tem^e, about two miles, Gilbs 
going in the boat^. All the trees that do flower seem to have 
come out in this dry wenther, and we passed many covered all 
over with a splendid purple bloom, others bright scarlet aud 
yellow, and the 3/mjy/tf^ * the leaves of which are used as 
sand-japer, in full flower, a delicate pale yellow blossom witli 
the sweetest sceut. I have never seen it in flower before, nor 
the trees in such profusion. These level grass plains dotted 
over with flowering shrubs arc very unlike other parts of the 
Peninsula. The heat is cxcuasive even from early morning, 
and the nights arc not cool. 

Huvittg taken out of the rafts such baggage as would be 
damaged by water, we titarted jigain iit 9.3U a,m , and reached 
Jeram BesQ at 10 a.m. This rapid nnd the appruaeli tu it 
form the most striking picture we have yet seen on this river, 
which presents a long succession of lovely ever-changing 
scenes. Ihe river widens into a pool of dark unbroken water, 
with steep hills covered hy virgin forest rising straij^ht from 
the edge of the pool ; then it narrows to the head of the rapidj 
which is in truth a cataract. From top to bottom of the rapid. 

• Probably 'b Mirh4)lia. The ordifiapy mrmpiktM y; a fieut ; ( fietti mhrocarpa, 
4smjflu4 uxul pifiUvria), See the detJcriptioii of this iiod uther upocieH of ^rir« 
iji JftTA. FoitBES' Eastern Anchipelairi', 77.— En, 



and for many miles below, the bed rock ( a hard sandstone j 
crops out ond has been cut by the water into fantastic shapes, 
wliile hucre bouldera are piled in picturesque confusion on 
either side of the channel. These rocks as wc came up were 
covered by men iu many-coloured dresse.*^, the rafts were either 
lying against the rocks at the betid of the cataract, or slowly 
filing into the basin at its head atid the clouds of spray dash- 
ed up from the rapid against the deep shadow of jungle foliage 
made a picture not to be forgotten. 

The rapal itself, comparatively small after four months' 
drought, is the channel of the river running under the left 
bank» and at first sight it did not look like a place down which 
either raft or boat could go in safi^ty, but we were shortly to 
see tliat the operation, though attended with considerable risk, 
could be successfully performecL The rapid h about sixty 
yard.s long, with a drop of some twelve feet, the water rushes 
and boils and foams between walls of rock, and there are two 
corners in the length which make the principal dangers. Two 
Malays mounted a raft, one at the stem aud the other at the 
Bteni, each holding a large bamboo paddle fixal in a tripod. 
The raft slowly reached tlie top of the rapid, and then leapt 
into the boiling stream, where the men were instantly up to 
their waists in water. Tlie stern man was washed off the raft, 
and it looked as if nothing could save him in such a place, but 
while the bow man with two or three powerful strokes of the 
paddle kept the bow off the opposite rock, the stern man 
dexterously leaped again on the raft, and in a moment of time 
a few more strikes of the bow man's paddle had (dcared tlie 
raft of tlie second danger — a projecting rock on tlie other bank 
' — aud the raft was in smooth water below. AFter this, a second 
raft was taken down in the same way, and then each man went 
alone on a raft, and, thfmgh one of them was again thrown ott* 
in the middle of the rapid, and the other one had the paddle 
whirled out of his liand us the raft tt-ok its first le:»p, no acci- 
dent occurreth A number of rafts were then sent down by 
themselves, and they seemed to accomplish the jourucy almost 
better without assistance, but this was exphiitied by tlie fact 
that the weight of even one man sinks the raft to a dangerouH 
depth, where the points of unseen rtieks may wreck it. Old 
Pato' Kli absolutely refnsed to allow us to tempt Providence 



m a journey down this rapidj where a good many fatal acci- 
dents have oocnrred, aad even tried his best to make us walk 
to Piichon{4:, but this we refused to do, and sending all oiiruon- 
waterproof baggage, watches^ &c. by land with the Sikhs, e\r 
started again on the rafts. 

The river from Jeram Besi to Pfiehoug runs tli rough a long 
winding gorge, and the ehannel of the stream passing con- 
tinuously between walls of bed rock and pdea of immense 
detached boulders, is nothing but a series of more or less for- 
midable rapids which succeed each otiicr with somewhat 
Bonfusiug speed, but it is an exeitinsf atunsemcnt^ which we 
Ivould not willingly have missed, Wc reuched Pilchong at 
12,15 r.M., very hungry indeed, and the coolicf* carrying our 
^baggage arriving at the same time, w^e sat down on the high 
bank of the river as we could get no shade and made a rather 
uncomfortable meal. People were washing for gold in the bed 
of the river in several places below the last rapid. From 
PflehoTig nr^arly all the Seger people returned, and w^e stalled 
again at ii/20 p.m. with our own people doing most of the 
poling. Ton Kli however still accompanied us. 

At 2.45 r.M. we met the Oraog Kaya TilFis with a number 
of verv small boats, a lot of men, and a Alalay band, and when 
(jjLEs, Lister and I had changed from our rafts into boats, w^e 
went on again at 3.35 p.m,, and reached Pcnjum at G.30 p.m., 
dark except for the light of the moon now about fifteen days 
old. I went down with the Orang Kaya in his boat and as it 
leaked got wet through. 

A great reception awaited us at Penjum ; the high bank 
which rises from the ri\er in three terraces was crowded 
by people some fifty «»f wliom carried torches, their light 
strongly reflected by the river, here crowded with boats and 
rafts, made the eflect very striking. As we hurried up the 
rough steps cut in the soil, a salute of many guns was fircd^ 
and the Orang Kaya. leading me by tlic hand, ushered us into 
a house which hud been prepared for us, and made us m com- 
fortable as possible with the means at his command. The 
*' band '^ had played Avith great perseverance all down the 

The distance travelled to-day was about sixteen and a half 
miles, and the gmtral direction N.N.E. Wq did not get dinner 



till 9J30 P.M., and after tliat the Orang Kaya and Che Ali, 
who had been sent bj the Yam TAun and received me with the 
utmost cordiality^ came in for a talk, I told the Orang Kaya I 
wished to go on aj booh aa possible, but he said there was a 
difficnity about boats and we conld not get on to-morrow; after 
he had left, I received a message from Chk Ali to say that the 
Orang Kaya had not complied with the orders he received 
from t!je Sultan, and that the boats ought to have been ready. 

SatHrdar/, 2Qih ApriL — ^CiiE Wan Da, who brought over my 
letter to the Orang Kaya and has been very useful^ came to tell 
me he w«iuld now return to his place. He told me there was 
a large gold mine called Jali, worked by Chinese, an hour's 
walk from here. I thought of going to see it, but found the 
journey would be useless as they were only stripping. I 
understand they are working the side of a hill- It is an old 
mine and has yielded good results in past times » I heard from 
the Chinese that there is plenty of gold in the country, but no 
one can lire here owing to the injustice, " squeezing," and 
want of government. They say whenever any one gets gold 
it is taken from him on some pretext or other, and that very 
few Chinese are now left in the place. If a man gets on a 
good mine, some chiL-f claims it, work is stopped and not re* 
eumed, and the result is that the country is in a very bad 
state at the present time. A friend of Raja Ismaii/s told me 
that only about twenty Chinese had worked for him at Raub, 
and then in a very erratic and perfunctory way, sometimes 
stopping work altogether for months, even for a year, from 
want of capital. 

Spent the day in writing and making a sketch of Peujum 
from across the river. This place is 210 feet above sea level, 

Sunday, 26th April.— 1 bad begged that the boats might he 
ready for us at 6 a.m., but was disappointed. In spite of the 
Yam TAan*s letter, there were only two large boats and a small 
one ready for our party of twenty -five, Wan Ali giving me 
the best part of his boat. We put the servants into the small 
boat, Giles and Lister went in the large one, and a number of 
Sikhs in the other large boat, hut finding it leaked, we had to 
move them into a boat which providentially arrived at that 
moment sent by the Imam Prang GAjah, with his son as 
ambassador, to meet us. W^n Ali was exceedingly angry 






and said unkind tilings of the Orang Kaja LTpis^ who fiept 
walking on the bank in an aimless way eeemingly quito 
unable to mer?t suth a demand on hin energy and ivsources. I 
of course said nothing, but Wan Alt told me the Yam TAan 
had sent orders to all the Chiefs to assist me and treat me as 
they would hituaelf. I had prtiel Ton lliKAa for the very great 
help he had given ns (without any onicrn from hi?* Sultan) and 
I also sent away Ton Kli bappy with a present, for he ia not 
well off, nor in the way of squeezing other people to do his 
work, but I only thanked the Orang Knya for what he did and 
in any case T should have hesitated to offer him money, 

I was HOYvy not to meet here the Oraug Kay a Jelfa, to whom 
the Sultan had sent a letter telling him to meet ns at Peiijum, 
but the Orang Kaya lives so far off he hrul not time to comply 
with the order, and I left a message for him in ease lie came after 
we had gone* The delay in getting; our party finally settled 
into boats was so great that we did not leave Pi?njum till 

10 AM. 

AlK>ve Knftla Prtok, Cue Wax Da met ns with a present of 
riee, and we stopped at the Kuala, a beautiful place, for break- 
fast, Chk Wax Da^s father lives here. On the \vay down 
the river, we passed a gigantic water wheel fixed in the river 
and used for irrigating the land on the bank. The wheel 
( undershot ) is forced slowly round by the current of the river* 
On its outer circumference are fixed at a certain angle leugths 
of bamboo clor>ed at one end and open at the other and as the 
wheel revolves these bamboos in turn enter the river, mouth 
upwards, are filled with water, atul, as they arrive at the highest 
point of their orbit^ they, one after the other, discharge their 
load of water into a trough which conveys it by gravitation to 
the required point in the fiehi. I have not before seen in the 
Malay States so large or well-const rue ted an irrigating wheel, 
but I believe they have been and still may be used in Ulu 

Left Ku41a Priok at 1,30 p.m. and continuing our journey 
reached Kufda Llpis (where this river falls into the Jelei) at 
1,50 p.M, Here Che Wan Da left us to return to his home ; 
he has been very useful and shewn a great desire to be friendly 
and helpful. The combined rivers — the Llpis and Jelei — ^imme- 
diately after their junction^ are about sixty yards wide. The 



Jelei carritis rather more water than the Llpis. Camiied for 
the nif^ht at I'ulau Kiinau at 5.30 p.m., having passed tlie fol- 
lowing kampoifg.^ during the day : — Bandar Lama, Kampong 
Piilau, Sematung, Jerani Lfina, Knfda Keehan, 

Distance travelled to-day, ten niiles; general direction N.N.E. 

Moiidatj, 27 th ^1/jr//.— Started before (* a.m. and passin:^ 
Changkongj where there is a longish rapid with but little fall 
in it but many rocks which make it difficult for boats to 
navigate J stopped just below at noon f<^r breakfast. The 
river is here about 100 yards wide, that is, the bed of the 
stream from bank to bank. There wt re numerous tracks of 
deer onthessindspit where we lunelied^aod while we stayed there 
the carcase of a M'ild pig floated past. Leaving again at 
L30 p,M, we camped for the night at Kuala Tenulin, where 
the waters of that stream join the combined Lipis and Jclei 
thus forming the Pahang lliver.* 

The Temelin, which, as I have said, comes from the North 
and rises in a mountain on the borders of Pahang and 
Trenggibiu, ia in M'idth and body of water about the .same size 
as the combined Lipis and Jclei, at least so it appears at the 
confluence, but it is a curious fact that neither the addition 
of the waters of the Jelei nor yet of the T^^mclin appears to make 
any immediate and pronounced difference in the widtb or 
de[>t1i of the Pahang Kiver, The growth of the stream seeiUB 
gradual, aud^ except at the actual points of Junction, the reeep- 
tiou of the waters of the Jelei and Tcmi'^lin, themselves large 
rivers, seems to have no more effect in widening or deepening 
the river than is made by the atidition of the waters of any 
of those smaller tributaries the months of which we pass 
daily* It was 5 f.m, when we rcachetl Kufila Tenulin, 154 
feet above the sea, and \iith some ditlicuUy 1 got here 
a few specimens of really excellent Malay pottery — ves- 
bcIb of various fonns and designs for holding water. 


* This place i« mealiond in Ponik lilfltofy, on tlic oc«?aBioa of the nmmug^ 
of the Raja Mada of Pahang with a Pcrak princess (circ. A.D. 1600), a6 the 
pliico at which the Perak nud Pahang envoys mcL The T^melin is tho river 
callc<j T^'mbflauj^ A^ "^ ^^^ J/'>«i Mtihttju aod in the UHfUmg-uttdanff htt 

RAJafui (code of lawft) uf rerak, r*hnrg ^Tid Juhor. Sec Xo. J* of this Jonnmt, 
P H>1. Ed, 


Ku4Ia Temt»liu is celebrated in Paliaug for its earthenware, 
but like all natives far f ram a market, the potters keep uo atoek 
and make only what is ordered. The shapes of the jurs I got 
are all good^ and the deeoratioo, done with a sharp tool before 
the firing, is most artistic. We ordered some further specimens 
to be made^ including incense-bnrners. 

Distance travelled to-day 21 i miles ; general direetion E*S.E, 
We passed, in the order in w!iich they are given, the follow- 
ing small vilhiges or clusters of huts on our journey to-day; — 
Pilsir Sibau, Jeram Cht'kuas, BAtn Gujah, Sungei Kenuug, 
Rantau Panjang, Pulau Sa'arnas, Sungei (!hika« Pulau Trm- 
binga, Changkat Glugor, Hatu Papan. 

Tuesday^ 2Sf/t Jpni.—Qot away at o. 'JO a*m._> and stopped 
for breakfast at Kanpr*«a at 11,2-') p.m. The temperature in my 
l>oat at noon was 9^1^ aful in the water af the river 9^\ The 
thermometer stands at 95^ in the boat every day at 2 p.m* mvi 
the excessive heat of Pahung strikes us all. We notice here 
that the people are deeidoilly darker than tlie Malays on the 
western i*ide of the Peninsula, and tlio^e Maluyi* who have eome 
with us from Prrak eomplaiii espeeially of the great heat of 
the gronnd to bare feet when walking in the exposed fields 
[which stretch inland from the river bank. Unfortunately I 
broke the thermometer to-day, but I do not think it eon hi t{^U 
us much more than we have learnt already. 

Started again at 3. I-j p.x., and roaehed Pulan Tawer at 4 p.m. 
Here we were met by the Imam Prang Indru GAjah, the Yam 
Tilan'e right-hand man in all matters eonneeteil witli that part 
of the eountry whicli lies up-streaui from Pulan TAwer. The 
Imam Prang gave us a mo^t eoi'dinl reception and, dragging 
me by the hand up the almost vertietd bank ( here twenty to 
twenty-five feet hi irh), ushered ns intoa comfortaljle hut, whitrh 
.we were informed had been eonstructed in a day. Our subse- 
quent proceedings, whi-tlKT dressings writing, eating or sletfp- 
jiog, seemed to be matters of tlic dee]ievt interest to the larg** 
Icrowd of Malays who surrounded the phiee and never lost 
[light of us for a moment. T«m Gajah, who is a man of about 
forty, very thickset and dark, but full of laughter, informed 
me that he had four wives, twenty-five children and nine 
Bgrandebildren. lie introduced hia brother and a few of \m 
[inale children, and aftc^r seeing thut we wantetl nothing 



went to arrange for men to take us to Kota Kclanggi to-morrow 
morning as I expressed a wish to visit the caves there. 

No one has been for some time, and the path is said to be 
overgrown, so the Ton CxAJAn sent off a lot ot' men to clear it. 
The river here is about 7(*t) feet wide (about the same width 
as the Perak River at Kufila Kangsa ) ; the hanks are exceed- 
ingly high and steep and the river at tlie present time is said 
to be lower than ever known. The Ton OAjah says that if the 
dronght contiimcs for another two months, that is, making six 
instead of three dry months as nsnal^ there may be pnrtial 
famine in the phice. 

The ToH Gajaii settled w^ith his peoph* at Pulati Tciwer 
twelve years ago, after he returned frotn Klaug where he was 
sent in command of the tliree thuusand Pahaug men who, at the 
request of Governor Sir Hakry Oun, were despatched by the 
BendahSra to assist Tnnku DiA UnniN in the struggle with 
Biiji Maudi, 

A fine kampotig^ and houses shut in by a long bamboo fence, 
streiehos along the bank of the river in a gmve of young 
cocoa-nut and other fin it trees. Behind this hamlet extends 
an almost level plain, as far as the eye can reach, broken only to 
the North by a snmll pointed hill, and to tlie Kiist Ijy the lime- 
stone rocks iu which are the caves of Kota Kfbnggi, A con- 
siderable portiiai of the plain is now being plunghcd for the 
cultivation of riee, jind the rest is Jungle* 

Far away to the West is the mass of hills called Gunong 
Baya, to the North of whieh lies the river down which we 
have come. I'he mountairts of the nniin r^nge are nowhere 
visible, and we are tidd that tfie moutli of tin- Puhang Hiver 
lies from here l^iist a little South. 

Ton (lAJAij'^ father was a Surnatrim Malay, his mother a 
Pahung woman ; lie is reported to be a great wfirrior, is the 
Held Marshal i>f Paliang and rauks with the Orang Be-iar 
Am put or Chiefs of the first class. lie is a man of much 
euergy, greatly feared by t!te diseontcnted faction in (he upper 
country and greatly trnsled by the Yam Tilan. 

I have aseertaioed froni C hk Ahi, w!io is a good authority 
and one of the Yam TTUui's most trusted adhcrentSj that the 
fidlowing are the principal Chiefs of Pahang :^ 




New Creation^ 

6rang Besar 

Class I. 

Class IL 

r The Raja Muda. 
j The D4tuh Bemkhara. 
(^ The Datoh Temenggong. 
[ L The Toh Bandar, 
\ 2. Toh Kfiya Che no. 

< 3. Toh Kay a Ti^nierluh (at present vacant). 
J 4, Maharaja Perbii (at present the Orang 
I, Kaya Jelei hohls this post). 

f>. Toh MudaTnn^^^al 

6. Tuh Jabe. 

7. Toh Bangan. 

8. Toh fJmar (held by tlie Urang Kciya 
J SemantaUj who is also Orang K^ya 

] PahUwan). 

9. Toh PenggAwa. 

10. Tnh Lela. 

11. Orang KAya Jelei, 
1^12, ( )rang Kay a Li pis. 

Distance travelled to-day, eighteen and a half miles; general 
direction, 8. E. We passed the following villages on the way:— 
Kampong Te, Tanjong GAtal, Tanjong Linflong» Ptilan Didfiri, 
KiHila PodaSj Kam[Joiig KuAIn St^lan, Kuala Kedundongv 

WedftcMflaf/f 29fh April, — I think the To it GAjah must 
have been up all night, for lie appeared at midnight and 
again at 4.30 a.m. We got up at o.30 a.m., but coidd not 
make a start till 7 a.m. Then, with the 7V>h Gajah and 
nearly 100 men, all armed us every one seems to be in tlvin 
State, we started down the left bank of the river for Kikila Te- 
kam, a distance* of one and a half oiiles» level walking but hot, 
for in Pahang, in this weather at any rate, li;^ilit means heat 
and from daylight tti dark one seems to be in a vapour bath* 
It w^QS a eunous sight to see in the Maluy Peninsula buHaloes 
plojjghing the slightly undulating plain of dry but not hard 
soil and rooro strange still to be ttild that the rice grain is 
then sown as wheat if* in tlie Wcst^ the ground harrowed and no 
irrigation done whatever, the harvest depending simply upon 
the rain. These fields when fallow seem to grow uo weeds, 
only a sparine sliort grass, and they are plonghed across and 
across like a chess-board several times before the wooden 



plough gets deep enough, then sown, harrowed, and nothing 
more is required till the time of harvest. 

These tielda have for many years yielded erop after crop 
under these conditions, and the only renewal or manuring of 
the soil is the annual small flood, which risea over even these 
high banks, and a higher flood which comes about once in 
six years and drives the people out of their homes into rafts, 
I sliould suppose that with this soil and three months rainless 
weather, cotton might be succeeBfuDy grown. 

The Snngei Tekam w^as almost dry, and whilst the Malays 
walked up the b(_d eros&in*^ and reerossing what little water there 
was, we were dniirged up-stream in a dug-out for 1ml f a mile and 
then landing walked over a good level jungle-path for two and a 
half miles reaching Kuta Tongkat 8.35 a.m. Tliis Kuta Tongkat 
is a curious sort of gate through which ariver Qpj>ears tohave run, 
and it is flanked on both sides by high limestone clifl's covered 
with foliage; these cliff's appear to shut in a narrow valley, a mile 
long, at the far end of which is the cave Kota IiL-lunggi,* in 
reality, however, the valley is only rock-bound on tlie right hatid 
side as you enter and tlie ancient river nnist have met this obs- 
truction at Kuta Kelanggi, been turned by it and, cutting along 
the face of these limestone eliflTs, made its exit through the 
Kota Tongkat and thence found its w^ay, probably by the 
channel of the Sungei Tekain, to the Pahaug River. There is 
nothing specially remarkable about Kuta Tougkiit, but since 
the river ceased to flow tlirongli this giant gate of stonCj the 
action of the atmosphere has formed a number t»f stalaclires 
which extend from the clear cut ledges of riiof to tlic ground 
(no great distance) and these probably gave to the phiee its 
present name^Kuta Tongkat. 

After a short rest liere (the Tou GAjah having succumbed 
to the pace at which we came from the river), we walked up 
the valley until we reached the foot of Kola Balei. I'p to 
this cave we climbed by a ladder of forty steps and then found 
ourselves in q vast cave lighted mainly from the entrance an<l 
eonipk'tcly closed at the further end, but having three subsi- 

* See Mr* Cam ebon's ftocoimt of hin vii^it to iJiiemx cuveH, No. !) of thii 
JonTDft], p. 153. 



<Jiai*y caves or chambers, two on the rigbt of the entraucc and 
one on the left, each partially lighted by rifts in the roof. 
The inaiti eave aud the smaller chatnber.H are all very fine^ aiid 
reminded loe of the Selilogor cave at Batii, though I do not 
think any *jf them fqual in beauty or size that magnificent 
rock chamber, 

Wc spent a considerable time in this Kuta Balci and then, 
descending the ladder, walked a few steps to the edge of the 
present insignificant stream where you find yourself facing a 
long, low and straight gallery with a straight, flat roof not 
leas than twenty feet wide. This very remarkable passage 
with it?i wide flat roof only about seveu to eiglit feet from the 
ground was cut by the river out of the solid rock before that 
ancient jieriod when, For some reason not yet explained, the 
volume of water in the river bocame immensely reduced, or 
the original stream was diverted into some other channel leav- 
ing the results nf the battle between the water and the rock in 
the form of the present caVL'S, whence all trace of water has 
disappeared leaving only the evidence of its power as a con- 
stant source of admiration and wonder to the Malays of the 

At the end of this gallery the roek has been hollowed out 
into a circular chaml>er of some height, while from the centre 
of the ceiling depends one euormous and strikingly beautiful 
stalactite. After luncheon, with lanterns and torches we ex- 
plored the long dark cavern which extends into the hill from 
the back of this circular aute-chambcr. 

There is nothing to reward the explorer^ but the place is 
infested by myriads of bats which are only with difficulty kept 
from strikinof you in their blind flight towards the lights. The 
masses of Malays in their many coloured dresses with the 
light of the to relics shining on their weapons and swarthy 
faces, the deep shadowy gloom of the cave as a background, 
here and there faintly lighted by a ray from the distant en- 
trance, made a sccdc very remarkable in its picturesque 

We left Kota Ktlanggi at noon and reached our hut at 
Pulau Tnwcr in exactly two honrsj after a very smart walk ; 
the heat from Kui\hi T^kam to the village was indescribable, 
and the Toil GAjau was quite knocked np^ taking refuge in a 



boat aud shirking the last mile and a half. About 4 p.m. a 
heavy storm of Piiia fell and continued till kite In the night. 
FroniB p.m, till 11 f.vl 1 talked politics with the Ton Gajah 
aud Cue Ali and then retired to the boat to sleep so that we 
might be able to start iu the morning without del a}'. 

It is worthy of record that this Kuta Kelanggi is mentiouad 
iu the Scjilra Malaiu ( the Malay Annals ) us having been 
occupied by the Siameae. The 8ejura Malaiu is supposed to 
bo the earliest written record of ilalay History. 

Thtirsthti/, 3Qih J;jr//.— Did not get away till 7 a.m., Ton 
Gajah accompanying us. At 10 a.m. passed Batu Bi\roag| 
where the cave-mukini^ process may he very readily seen in 
the action of the I'ahaug River on a huge limestone rock 
wbieb crops out from its left bank. It i^^ said that there 
is a subterranean channel from the bottom of this cliff to a 
place many days* journey down the river. At 10.30 a.m. 
reached Pnlau Burau, where there are said to be quauti- 
ties of selddang ( wild cattle) in the wet season. In the line 
of the next reach of the river and straight ahead of us lie two 
remarkable isolated bills called Bnkit Scuyum and Bdkit Sah. 
These hills are said to be plainly visible from the sea and used 
by the fishermen as landmarks. 

At notiU reached Taujoug Blauja, the limits of Ton GAjau's 
jurisdiction, and here we sta3^ed for one and a half hours 
breakfasting and then parted with the Datob and continued 
our journey down river. The Toit Gajah has done everything 
possible for us. I f^ave him ray Purak goiok (chopping knife) 
aud we parted excellent friends. I saw him in the river up to 
his waist saying good-bye to the Subadar. 

Passing Kufda Krau, a river and kampong on the right bankj 
we reached Pulau Chcns^al at G.20 p.M.p and there camped for 
the night. Distance travelled, 17 J miles ; general direction, 

The following kampongs were passed during the day : — 
[Klang, Sungei Kio, Tanjong Antan, Tanjoug Tenggoh, T5luk 
Maik, Sungei Sebul, Pnlau Haya. 

Friday^ Id Mtn/. — het\ at fi a.m. and passed a Chinese 
BUgar mill at PcngkMen Benom at 8.30 a.m. ; subsequently 
we saw several of these milks on the left bank, they are driven 
by buffaloesj and the Juice is expressed from the cones by pass- 



ing them between three revolving circular blot*k.^ of wood in 
juxtaposition on the same horizontal phine. At 9.30 a.m. 
Bftkit Si:;nriim appeared directly a-stero of the bf>ats, which were 
then droppinf^ down a long etraij^ht reach of the river. Passing 
PAsir Mandij one hundred feet above the sea^ we stopped at 
Teluk Siutang at noon for breakfast. The river here cuts 
deeply into the right hank forming a bay and making the width 
of the stream at this point very considerahle. 

The Bungau trees with their gorgeous purple flowers grow 
larger and more numerous as we descend the river, and the 
forest is everywhere strikingly bcautifnh I saw a quantity of 
maiden-hair fern in the jungle to-day at our halting place, but 
it did not look like a new kind. 

Lef t Teluk Sintang at 1.30 p.m., passed Ktiiila Scmantan Ilir 
a little before 5 p,m,, and reached Pulau Tcmerloh at 6 r.M. 
Camped here for the night. Pulau Temerloh^ said to be half 
way between the Sultan's place and Penjum, is an extensive 
kampoitg, admirably situated on the right bank opposite to a 
large island which hero divides the stream. 

Distance travelled to-day, twenty-one miles ; general dircc- 
tion^ South. Distance from Ku^la Beniamj .300 miles. 

Passed the following kumpomjH to-day :— Jcnerak, Kutlla 
Tekai, Lipat Kajang, Dor, Sanggang, Bintang, Tebing Tinggi, 
Balei Gantang and liangau. 

Salunlaf/j 2n(f Mat/, — To-day the villages are larger^ the 
river is wider though no deeper, and the banks are not quite ao| 
high. There must be a very considerable population of Malays 
settled on the banks of the Pahang, and its three large tribu- 
taries, of which the Jclei is undoubtedly the longest, and is pro- 
perly called by the Malays the parent stream. We left T6naer- 
loh at 3 A.M., and passed Gnal, a large village on the left bank, 
at 9 A.M., reaching Triang, kampung and tributary stream, at 
10 AM* Triang is 88 feet above the sea. At Triang the river 
was very shallow, and twice we had to drag our boat over the 
land. Breakfasted at Knala Bra at noon, and leaving again at 
2,30 P.M., reached Kertau at 7 f.m,, and camped there for the 
night. There is a hill called Bftkit Kertau on the right bank, and 
the place at present is chiefly remarkable for the enormous 
extent of sand which stretches between the left bank and the 
channel of the river. Under the right bank, however, there 



is a deep hole aaid to bo infested by crocodiles, and these reptiles 
have dragged four or five people, sleeping on the sand^into the 

VV^e passed the following villai^es and kawponqs to-day, in 
the order uained: — PAsir Anaoi, Beralch K^pas, Lebak Beleugu, 
Jilam, Mengkflrak, Tambak, LAbok Piirap, PAmun, Cheruis, 
BlUu Pfipaii, Batu Haiichor, Likbok Lieu, Pulau Keiiiu, Siii- 
taufj, Lerause, E'uLui Nyak. 

Distauee travelled, tweuty-tivc miles; general direction, 

Sunt! a If, Ihd Mai/. — It was inltdcrably hot aod close last 
nip:ht, and having started the boats at l:i,30 a.m., I tried iu 
vain to sleep on the stern platform of my boat in spite of mos- 
quitoes, and it was not till nearly 5 a.m. that sleep was pos- 

It is hanlly fair to complain of mosquitoes here, for tliougli 
the statement that there are none in Puhang is no more ac- 
curate than that there arc no snakes in Pcrak, yet there are 
comparatively few of these pests, in this dry weather at all 
events, and even after the oeeasional showers of rain we have 
had hardly any. 

We stuck on a sund-bank for half an hour almost directly 
after stjirting, and passed Cheno at 1.30 a.m. Cheno is cele- 
brated for making the best mats iu Pahaug. They are mode 
of hleaehed and dyed MC^igkuang leaves and are very pretty. 

From ChiT-no we pushed on down some very lung reaches, each 
two and three miles in length, and even more, nsually with is- 
lands at intervals making an ever-changing panorama of beauti- 
ful pictures. Passed L^vvan at 10 A.^r,, fiily-tive feet above the 
sea, and at noon we stopped opposite Eilkit Serlin for break- 
fast. Left again at 2 p.m., and passing Knfila Luit, a river 
formerly worked for gold, we reached Terpei at 3.30 p.m. 
From here tliere is a good vit^w of the high mDuntain called 
GAnong Cheni, a long irregnlur triple- peaked mass of hills 
with a large lake, or series of lakes, at its base. 

GAnong Chcni is seen on the rifiht bank of the river appa* 
rently distant about five miles. The lakes are only approach- 
able by a small river — the Cheni (almost dry in this weather), 
the mouth of which w^e passed at 4 p .m. The Malays have a 
great dread of these lakes, will not live near them, though they 



are full of fish, and say they are haimteJ by evil spirits. 

Stopped fur the night on the sands at Sungei Uuri at 6*30 
l\M., the l^iat of the boats not coming up till 8.30 p.m. Sun- 
gei Duri is another place with a reputivtioii for crocodiles. 
Che Ali's nephew was tuken here two years ago, but was 
Tcseueil hy liis cousin, though the crocodile injured him for 
life. In the sixtt^en hours we wrro travelling to-day^ we made 
thirty-one aiid three-qu^irter miles, going at times in nearly all 
the directions on the compfii^Sj but niaiiily South. 

Passed the following places ; — PiiLni M/ilaug, B^tu GAjah, 
Ku41a Jingka, Pesagi, Tanjooir B;\tu, Kn:iia Jempul, Pejin, 
Temiang. Lara^, Knlla Mentenang, G;\lang, Ltibok Paku, 
BAtu l{c\kit, KuAla Temelong, Pulau Dato', 

Momfaf/j Ath Jfat/, — Left Suugei Duri at 5 a.m. Stopped 
for two hours at Pinyo, thirty-nine feet above the sea — CnE 
A Li's kampong — and nmde nn unnuecerisful search for peacock, 
but shot some golden plover. We have seen several peacock 
on the sands in the early morning, but they keep out of range 
of anythir»g but a rifle. Passed Sungei Mt^ntiga (whatever 
that may mean) at noon. This small stream, which flows into 
the Pahang Hiver, not a day *s journey from the sea, bifurcates 
and one branch, culled Sempang, runs back towai-ds the Hum- 
pin river, a tributary of tlie Muar, so that by ascending the 
Muar and Rumpin rivers, crossing a few hundred yards of land 
and descending the Sempang, Mentiga and Pahang Rivers, 
or lice rrrsd, t!ie Peninsula can very easily be crossed in a 
comparatively short time. 

Stopped at I5atu Buiia for breakfast at 1 1.3) a,m., and con- 
tinuing our journey at 2 l\M. reacljed Tanjong Puici at 6.30 
P.M. The river is here about one th(^>usand yai*ds wide. 

Distance travelled, eighteen miles; general direction, K.N^E. 

Passed tlte following kampfrngs to-day : — ^Kinehi, Pulau 
I'bah, Pulan Pluk, Kuala L<jpa, Pulau K<^p.\yang. 

TucAdatf, bth Mat/. — Started at 2 a.m., and stopped at Qan- 
chong at ^ a,m f\>r an hour to allow tlie boatmen to breakfast. 
Ganchong is only twelve feet above sea level. Cue Ali went 
on from here in a small boat to tell the VamTuanofour 
whereabouts. At 1 p.\r, reached Langger, a fine kampomj on 
the left bank, where the whole population turned out to watch 
us breakfasting. J. eft again at 2M p.m., and reached Pulau 



KlMi, two miles above the Pekaii, at 4.15 p.m. Here we 
waited, according to agreement^ and ia a short time Che Ali 
returned with Che Gadoh and a message from the Yam Tftaii 
t^ say that he was very unwell ( coasuinptian tliey say ), and 
asking me to wait hem tiU to-morrow to allow them to make 
proper preparations. We accordingly camped on the bank^ 
and the tide fallin|p left us ten yardis of mud to cross to the 

Distance travelled, eighteen miles; general direction, S.E. 
The river is about one thousand yards wide at this point, and 
the banks low, but covered with gras^ and jungle where there 
ia no cultivation. 

Unlike the rivers on the West coast, there ia no mangrove* 
To-day the banks were thickly populated, and we passed the 
following hamlets :^ — Karapong Teraai, Elilker Acheh, Pulau 
Ganchong, Tanjong Hengas, Anr Gading, Kampong Teluk, 
Siingci Pa hang Tua, Kufda Langgcr. 

This sort of travelling may seem very easy and pleasant, 
but it has its disadvantages; for instance, at midnight I started 
for bed, seemingly no very difficult journey, and imme<liately 
stepped into a nest of the Hemtd api\ or fire ant, that is an 
experience that no one would care to repeat. A Sikh then 
carried me over the mud and deposited me up to my ankles 
in water in a dug-out and, with the assistance of that unstable 
conve3^ance, I reached the back of my boat somewhere in the 
depths of which a rat had died tfiree days before. To get as 
far as possible from the pestilent stench of the decaying rat, j 
I had had my mosquito net hung in the middle of the boat 
and to reach that it was necessary to crawl through two doors, 
each two and a half feet by two feet, and over the body of a 
sleeping Malay, arranged seemingly to make one's progress as 
difficult and uncomfortable as possible. Then I faced my cur- 
tain to find the hole through which alone entrance can be 
gfiincd, and which for the best reasons is not in the side but 
in the bottom of the curtain, next the side of the boat, Le., 
with two inches of vvooil between it and the water* Through 
that bole I gi)t by a series of gymnastic feats which no one 
would attempt in the light, and finally reached my goal to find 
the small mattress quite wet with the heavy dew, and the cur- 
tain simply wringing. Fifteen days in a boat four feet wide 

jonssr Acmo&i tmi mal^t Fsarosiruk. 


and only hig^k enoof^ to sit up oo Iko flcMir^ where the ther- 
mometer registen {ram 92^ to dj^ Ibr aerenl hours ia 
each day, irhfiffvi tmJU, soorpiofu, centipedes^ and other Ter- 
miQ abotind^ mad where the erew are too close to be agreeable 
in this climikte, is an experMce which forces its drawb^dis on 
the notice of the trareUer^ in spite of the loreliest acenerjr and 
situations which are often more pictnresqiie than pleasant. 
One re^nlt of these cucamataaees is that, erer since we started, 
not less than twenty p^ eeot. of our panr have been on the 
sick list, the medicine ehesl has proved imnsloable^ and, con$i> 
dering how often its danseitms contents haTo been drawn upon, 
it is surprising that^ with to mneh liberalitj and so little skillp 
no particular harm has been done. The man and woman who 
died of cholera were nerer under mr treatment, I am glad to 
say, and since learing Seger we hare faeaid nothing more of 

Wedmeutay^ 6th May. — Went ashore early this morning, 
and shot a con pie of peacock and a brace of jungle fowL It 
is certainly rather an astonishing sight to see pescock flying 
about or sitting on the dead stumps of an old clearing. I also 
saw a snipe^ which is rather remarkable at this time of year 
and after snch a dronght ; the ground he was in was hard and 
dry as a hi^iroad. The tide is curious here, it was falling 
when we arrived at 4 t.n. yesterday, it fell a good deal lower, 
and at midnight some of our boats were high aud dry ; at 
5 i.M. they they were ttiJl in the same position^ but at 8 a.M. 
the tide began to rise, and at 2 r.M, it was nearly up to the 
top of the bank. 

At that hoar^ oo the top of high waler^ four large barges 
appeared roond the point «hicfa hides the Tarn Tilan^s place 
' ' :>m us, and in a few uiiautes reached us. They were all 
^crowded with rowers and chiefs who inrited us to take our 
seats in the largest boat, a long two-storeyed barge with twen- 
ty-two rowers clad in yellow jackets, Morojt^ and white 
trousers. Half an hour's paddlsug carried us over the two 
liles of water, and we landed at the stairs in front of the 
'Yam Tilan's bouse, an immense crowd of well dressed Malays 
liniog the steps, the bank of the rirer and both aides of the 
road from the jetty down to the gate of the reception hall, 
where a double line of ipearmen waited and conducted us to 



the liall, a nicely dccorateJ room raised on low pillars. Here 
the Datoh BendahAra^ and Dfitoh Temengg:ong, the two Chief 
Officers of the State, received us with great ceremony, and 
teUing us the Yarn Trtan wa>* far from well but wished to S3e 
us, invited us to sit down, Whilst we made our way from the 
landing place and greeted the Reudahara and Temenggong, a 
salute was being fired lower down the river. 

I carried ou a spasmodic conversation with the Beudakira 
for one and a half hourSj during which the Yum Trtan again sent 
to say he meant to come and see ns, and then Hi^ lli^^hness 
appeared. He certainly looked deadly ilK but he was just as 
courteous and nice as ever, and we all thought lie looked a 
trifle better and spoke with \vm difficulty (his voice was hoarse 
and changed, and he complained of cough and fever ) when 
we left him than when he came in. 

After I had t^^ld him of our journeyj. he asked us to have 
some coffee, &a, he and liis son, a nice looking boy, joining in 
this part of the eeremonv, and then I toltl him I shonid like to 
see him when he felt better and we left. 

Some of t!ie Yam TOan's people took us across the river to a 
raft which had been prepared for our accommodation. On the 
raft is a plank house contain inuj one large rnonij very eomfor- 
tably furnished, and a sort of veranduli all round it has been 
planked over «o that we can sit out and watch tlic busy river- 
life with the picturesque town and palm groves for a back- 
ground, Auotlier raft much larger than ours with an upper 
storey { but rapidly falling into decay ) was lianded over to 
our people, and a guard of twenty- two Malays were sent to see 
that no harm befell ub ! The Bcnilabfinij Temenggong and 
others came to sl'C that cverytlung was in order, anti then we 
were left to ourselves. In the night there was a tremendous 
etorm of ruin with thunder and lightning, but that wus hardly 
so disturbing as the uproar made by tlie rats who live under 
the floor of our raft, a protest I supp-sc against our occupa- 
tion of the teueracTit- 

T/Hfr^ffitt/, 7ih Mat/, — The Dato' Mautri of Jolnir called ou 
me and wc had a very long talk about Paliang and the other 

On making up our itinerary, I find that we have come down 
the river two hundred and foriv-one anrl a half milrs from 





Buntu^ and three hundred and ninety-five miles from KuAla 
Bernam, while there rcniams another seven miles or so to the 
month of the river. 

There h much to admire in this place. Specially striking to 
any one acquainted with the other Native States is the appear- 
ance of the village on the banks of this large river, here about 
fifteen hundred yards wide, with the picturesque house rafts 
moored not only along the bank of the river and in face of 
the Yam Tuan's various houses, but along the shores of the 
islands which here stud tbc stream. 

These islands are the most beautiful feature of the place ; 
they are large, covered with cultivation in tlie shape of palms, 
the cocoa-nut, betel and jagaret'^ or with flowering trees and 
shrubs and fine short grass. The raft we occupy is moored 
to the shore of one of these islands just opposite the new 
mosque of Pekan, and l^etween us aud the opposite bank of 
the river are three considerable islands with wide stretches of 
water in between. 

On shore in the village there are ftnir notable buildings— the 
new mosque in the angle made by a small stream or canal 
coming in to the liver from the right hank ; one himdred and 
fifty yards higher up a new brick house such as those occupied 
by Europeans in Singapore; one himdred and fifty yards fur- 
ther on, the old mosque, a building with far more to recommend 
it as regards appearance than the new one ; and immediately 
to the right rear of the mosque the Yam Tdan^s principal 
bouse, a building which, as far as I could judge, is as satisftietory 
in its accommodation a^ it is pleasing to the eye. This house, 
which was built without any plan, is said to have cost ^■2o,(KXJ, 
and is worth the money. 

The Yam Tuaa*8 Baki or Audience Hall is an indifferent 
ijtTUCtnre inside the enclosure of another and less pretentions 
bouse, which stands half w^dv between tbc old mosque and the 
new one. 

The business part td' the village is of tbc most wretched 
description. Two s^mall rows of the veriest hovels, built on 
c ither aide of the nuiin road, containing in all forty or fifty 
dwellings constitute the '* bazaar '^ of the principal place in 
•Pahang. As long as the customs of the country are such 
that Chinese don't find it to their advantage to settle here. 

*- ■■■ 



there is no likelibood of improvement in this respect. At thff" 
present time the Chinese population of Pekan numbers about 
eighty, and when aaked why that is so, they reply because the 
taxation, both in system and m imiluding every article of 
import or export, is intolerable, and that if ever they import 
from outside, or buy in the interior anything? of value, it is 
removed by some chief who forgets to pay for it. Chinese 
will put up with many evils and difficulties and much injus- 
tice that no Europt^an will tolerate, and while making every 
alloTvance for exaggeriition, mistakes and wilful falsehoods, 
the fact that there arc not more than two or three hundred 
Chinese in the whole of this large and rich State so close to 
Singapore is the best proof of how matters really stand. 

This is the fourth time I have visited Pahang, and I have 
on this occasion had an opportunity of verifying some of the 
stories that have reached us in the last two years. Without 
proceeding to details, I can say that those whose experience 
of the Peninsula has been confined to the Protected Native 
States would be rather astonished at the manners and customs 
still prevalent in the governing claims in Pahang and if Eu- 
ropeans will risk their capital in any large undertaking here 
and can manage to comply with their obligations, get business 
tranaacted, and obtain justice and satisfaction in their dealioga 
with those they are brought in contact with, I think it 
will be a little surprising. It will also be well for them to 
remember that in a purely Malay iState patience is not so 
much a virtue as a necessity. ^M 

A good many wide and well selected roads have been laidH 
out and formed, but not metal led, in and about the Pekan ; 
some fair bridges have also been constructed, and it seems as 
if, in any future arrangements for the housing of a large 
Chinese or other population, some new ground would have to 
be chosen for the site of a town, as there is none available up- 
stream of the canal to which I have referred. Below that, 
however, land might be got and a town built with the advan- 
tage that large boats and steam-launchca can get to this point 
and lie there while they cannot reach the mouth of the canal 
owing to the shallowness of the water. 

All the ground about the Yam Tuan^s house being already 
©ccupicd, the beet spot for dwelling houses is the island which 


lies opposite the Yam Tuan's principal dwelling. The whole 
coantry seems to be one vast level plain only a few feet above 
the level of the river, the soil is excellent and would probably 
grow any low-country produce, while swamps seem unknown, 
though I have no doubt the appearance of the place is different 
in the wet season. 

The people of the country, outside the Rujas and Chiefs, with 
some few exceptions, are industrious for Malays, but their 
distaste for work may, to some extent, be explained by the 
fact that a man does not care to work for more than bare sub- 
sistence if his gains can always be appropriated by his more 
powerful neighbour. That, at least, is an explanation offered 
here and in other Malay States, especially where Siamese 
influence is strong. Sic rofi von robin might have been written 
of the Malay ryot. 

The principal industries of Pahang are agriculture (the cul- 
tivation of rice and fruit), the rearing of cattle (especially 
buffaloes, which are very cheap here), sheep and poultry, a 
little gold-washing (but there are good reasons why this occu- 
pation is limited), and the manufacture of mats and silk cloth. 
The weaving and mat-making is done by the women, and the 
silk and mats produced are excellent of their kind, but very 
little known outside Pahang. 

The present occupation of the ruling class in Pahang is top- 
spinning, and the example is pretty generally followed by all 
the unemployed male Malays in Pckan. There is not much 
to be said against this very innocent amusement, but it strikes 
the casual observer as curious that while the people of the 
Ulu ( and indeed nearly every one outside this village ) are 
crying out for the redress of manifest grievances and the intro- 
duction of something resembling fixed laws and fair govern- 
ment, those who have the direction of affairs devote to the 
spinning of tops the time that can be spared from le:?s harm- 
less distracti(»ns. 

In many respects the State is unlike any on the western 
coast and more nearly resembles Kclantan in features and 
products. Pahang has undoubtedly ^reat -resources and un- 
usual capabilities for supporting and enriching a large popu- 
lation and no intelligent person could see the country without 
regretting the circumstances which still keep it closed to 



legitimate enterprise^ wliilat its people are unable to ta 
advantage of tlie gifts lying ready to their hands. 

Tlse Map which aceom panics this journal shows the route 
we followed from Ku^la Bernam in the Straits of Malacxia, 
Latitude 3"^ 50', to Kuala Pa hang in the Cliina Sea, Latitude 
3® 44J', The tracG of the Bernam River has been taken from 
existing inforuiatimi, lately revised by Mr* F. St.G. Caul- 
field, also the bind route from KuSla Slim to KuAlaGflitiug, 
From KuAla G tilting on the Bernam to Buntu on the Lipis 
River is roughly sketched from a time and compass sur- 
vey, the distances and general direction being fairly correct, 
hut there is no attempt at accuracy* The sketch of the Lipia 
and Pahang Rivers is plotted from a time and compass surve? 
made by Captain Giles, r.\,, and in this case there is no 
pretence to accuracy, though it will probably be some years 
before a more earefnl survey is made uf this river. 

8o far as I know, this is the first time the Peninsula ha« 
been crossed from sea to sea by a Knropean from any point 
North of the Muar River, that is to say, in the wider part. 
Avliere the journey can only be accomplished by crossing the 
main range of mountains which forms the backbone of the 
Peninsula- I believe that Mr. C. Bozzolo crossed from the 
Galena mines in Patani to the mouth of the Muda Riv^erm 
Kcdah, passing however North of the main dividing range. ■ 

Fourteen years ago I saw in Klang a Frenchman who toff 
me he had three times crossed the Peninsula from Khmg to 
Trrnggimu, hut there are very strong reasons for doubting that 

Some years ago Messrs, Dai:v and O'Brieic ascended the 
Muar River, crosj?ed a few hundred yards of dry laud by port- 
age and descended the Bra, a tributary of the Pabang Kivcr, 
bavin I? its embouchure about eighty miles above Pekan, while 
Mr. W. Knaggs, I am told, has just crosses! by the Muar and 
Triarig Rivers^ the moutli of the Triang being a few miles 
further from Prkan than tliat of the Bra» The shortest cross- 
ing uf all is said by the Malays to be by the Muar, Rumpiu 
and IVlrntJga Rivers* h 

We have crossed the Peninsula by probably the lont^oH 
route, nnli'SK the aficcnt of the Murla and descent of the Fatani 
Risers be longer and feasible, Tlie Bernam river, the U 


in some senses of those flowing into the Straits of Malacca^ is 
the furthest North of those rivers which, rising in the main 
range^ flow East and West to the Straits of Malacca, both the 
Krian and Muda Rivers bcinj:^ stated to take their rise in 
mountains other than the main chain. The Pahang River 
again is universally admitted to be the longest navigable river 
on either side of the Peninsula, and though we did not descend 
the centre or parent stream, the Jelei, there is probably not 
very much difierence in navigable length between that and 
the Lipis, and there is no recognised crossing from the west- 
ern to the eastern side of the ran^e which would take the tra- 
veller to the head waters of the Jelei, nor any easily navigable 
river on the western side that would lead up to a point on the 
western slopes of the main chain opposite to the source of the 
Jelei. When it is considered that the measured distance on 
the map from Kuula Bernam to Knala Pahang is, as the crow 
flies, one hundred and seventy miles, the route by which we 
have travelled covering a distance of four hundred and two 
miles ascending the largest river on the western side of the 
Peninsula and descending the longest on the eastern, may be 
considered fairly direct. 

The Straits Government steamer Sea Belie arrived on the 
7th, and as I was not able to leave and (!^aptain Giles seemed 
to be seriously ill, I sent him on to Singapore in the Sea Bella 
on the 8th instant. 

Mr. Lister and I remained at PGkan till the 14th May. In 
that time we saw something of the country in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Pekan, and had many opportunities of talk- 
ing to Malays of all ranks on matters concerning Pahang. 
The RAja Muda of Pahang ( brother of the Yam Tuan ), who 
had arrived in the Sea Belie, landed on the 8th, and I had the 
pleasure of taking him to the Balei ( Audience Hall ) and 
seeing him reconciled to his brother. On two other evenings 
I had interviews with the Yam Tuan, and he took us to his 
principal house, and let us see the 70^^/ danced by ladies of 
his own household. I described these dances and the gam^- 
lang accompaniment in an early number of the Journal of the 
Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. I noticed that 
on these occasions the company of onlookers was much more 
select than when I first saw the dances, but, as before, the 


[)88 Till 

amusement was eoiitiiiuod till nearly daylight. 

Oil the Hth, at 1 p.m., the Yam Tuan^ the RAja Madu and 
all tbc Chief* curao over to nur raft to bid lis good-bye, the 
Yam Tilan with his usual generosity giving something to 
every jq ember of my party. At 2 f,.^k we left in the Sen 
He!le*s hanit-h and boats, while a salute was fired from 8f»me 
guns in front of the new mosque, and the Sultan's fla;<, which 
he had Iovve«ed on uur arrival ei^lit days bef^n^e, was re-hoiatcd. 

The tide had nearly run out wliun we started, ami we only 
just manaj^'cd to ^^et the lauruili out of the river, reaching the 
Sea Belle ( lying a hm% way out ) at 4 r.M. We arrived at 
Singapore at 8 a.m. on the 15th. 

I cannot close this journal without remarking that, having 
journeyed thnnigh nearly all the Malay States, I have never 
met with elscw^here such courtesy as wc experienced from 
all classes in I'Ahang* I could only regret my inability to 
make anv adequate return for the hospitality and kindness of 
the Yam Tu an. 

It is staled that the mouth of the Pjlhang River is nnap- 
proHcliable in the North-East monsoon and that PAhang is 
shut oB' from communication w^th the outer world ( except by 
a few jungle paths across the main range of the Peninsula ) 
for six month f^ in the year. I cannot say %vhether that is true 
or not, but it is likely, and even in the best of weather no 
vcsHcl of any i*ize can get near Kuala Pub an g, while only 
steam launches of the lightest draught can, in the best weather, 
get up to IVkan at all times of the tide. There is, however, 
an easy way to open i\\h rich country, and that is by the oon- 
Btruction of a road, one hundred and thirty miles long, from 
Johor Bharn, exactly opposite the Johor end of the Singa- 
pore- K ran ji Road, to Pckan. About sevenly railea of this 
ruad would pass tlvron^^li Johor territory, and tlie rest through 
Pilhang. A tirst class bridle-nrnd could be constructed in 
eighteen months for k^s than $150,000, and it could at any- 
time be widened into a cart-road or converted into a tramway 
or light railroad. Tliis would put Singapore and its resources 
in direct commxmication with the lower country of Pahang^ 
besides tappinL? a long stretch of land, lK>th in Johor and 
Pahangj useful for the cullivution of kiw country tropical pixj- 

A tirmn 

lia mud 
■ metmliilefu«ii 
' Lompor ( tbe 


eentiv for thetndetf ttaB r 

, while tbf fffi^seiit m^ favm -_^-^ 
«| the Seiin^or imlvrnj ) to ~ 

xnd in a 

posiible to get die veik 


woold ht 

of the StJte. 




Pabam, imi jr«7, isSl 


i' . 

■ i 4 

-: /■ 

1877, 1878, AND 1879, 



[The followinj? paper has been translated from the French by Mr. fi. N. 
Bland, C. 8. The original will be found in the second Volume of the Proceedings 
of the Third International Geographical Congrefw (held at Venice in September 
1881), published by the Italian Geographical Society. No account, it is believed, 
has been published in English of the Dutch Mid-Sumatra Expedition and, in the 
absence of an English version of their official reports, it Is hoped that Mr. Van 
Hasselt and his companions will not object to the publication of this translation, 
which has been undertaken unavoidably without their consent bein^ first obtained. 


A SHORT time after the Commission of the Netherlands 
Geographical Society liad decided upon a scientific 
expedition into the interior of Sumatra, I was, by virtue of 
my office, as Government " Controleur" at Soepajang, invited 
by the above-named Commission to take charge of one of the 
sections into vrhich the expedition had been divided. Al- 
though convinced of the great difficulties of the task about 
to be entrusted to me, I thought it my duty not to refuse 
so honourable a mission. 

From February, 1877, to March, 1879, we remained in the 
districts that had been assigned to us, and though not able 
to apply " Veniy vidiy vici " to ourselves, we nevertheless 
collected a mass of details regarding the country, of which, on 
our return, it was our privilege to render an account. 

Those who are acquainted with the work in which are 
united the results of the Sumatra expedition, and which, 
thanks to the efforts of our Commission, has taken so high 
a place at this Geographical Congress, may have observed 
that our labours are not yet ended. 



Whilo wG were slill occupied with oar report, the 
Netherlands Sooietj received an invitation from the Central 
Commission of this Conprreaa, to send its representatives to h 
the aneient City of the Doge^. Amongst the delegates of our fl 
Society to thia Congress where so many illustrious geographers 
and famous travellers were to meet, the honour of represent- 
ing the Sumatra Exi>editionj fell upon two of its Members^ 
Mr, D, D, Veth and ni^^self, I was specially entrusted to ex- 
plain in this place the object of the Netherlands Scientific 
Ejq>edition into the interior of Sumatra, and the resulta 

I would ask, at s tailing, to be allowed to refer to the 
published portion of the work compiled on the return of th»? 
Expedition, by its Membei^. I trust I may be permitted 
to state briefly what was known of the interior of 
Sumatra previous to our Expedition^ and what has been dom^ 
by us to extend this knowledge. Various circumstances had 
within recent yeai-s contributed to awaken attention 
to Sumatra, and our experience of the country and its 
people was called in to supply the existing gaps. Up to 
the end of the 18th century Maesden's book* was the 
only work comprising eveiTthing which at that epoch was h 
known of Sumatra, but after that time,tlie scientific researches ■ 
of several latt-r travellers had accuumhited knowledge 
and discovered new facts with regard to the Eastern 
Coast ; these were most notably JuNGnuuN,t Van dee Tuuk, 
Solomon MuLLEE,x\. Homkk, Van Ookt and Korthals, Oosth- ^ 
OPF^ Teysman, Coedes, Ludekino, and lastly the Italian travel- fl 
ler Bkccari. Tn the branch of geographical research, " 
Beyebinck andCLUYSENAER chieOy distinguisbed themselves, 
and in the region of topograpliy and geology, the Engineers 
Van Duck i>e Greve and Vkrbeck. For Bencoolen and the 
Lampong districts we had the ilata of Major Steck, the travel- 
lers Du Bois and Zolunoek, General Kohlee, the philologist 
Van dee Tuuk, and various public officials of Netherlands 

♦Hiirtory of Sumatra, London, 1783, 1784, 1811, 4fi. 

fTlie titles of all work* and article*} in Rt*Tk'W« treating: of Sunmtra will lie 
found at tbe end of a paper upon thiJ* iHlarid by Prtife^jor P. J. Xe:th, rt'jirinle<l 
in tlie Statistical and Gcograpliicttl Bictionarj of Xotherlaad!* India, AiUBterdum, 
1873, p. 777 d ieq. 



India. Until Mabsden's time the extent of the important king- 
dom oi Paleiiibaog was little known, but tlie wars and military 
operations on a small scale which were the inevitabte result of 
thecoUapseof the Sultanate and submission to the Netherlands 
authority, huve, within the last half-century, increa^sed our 
information with rcj^^ard to this important cotmtry. To thi« 
the writings of Salmund, Prksgkave, Court, i>k Stukkleb 
Pb.etorius, Grambeug, Teysman, Waixace, Mohnick and 
DE Pruys Van der Hoeven have especially contributed. 

On the North of Palemban^, are situated the kingdoms of 
Djambi, Indmgiri and Kauipar, of which the iirfit is reckoned 
as a dependency of Palembang. The second is tributary to 
the H>ultan of Lingua anri consequently considers itself as with- 
in the jurisdiction of the Riouw Ret^idency, whilst Kanipar, 
formerly part of the ancient kiii^duiu of 8iak, now ackuow- 
ledgeH the anthority of the Re^iilency of the East Coast of 
Sumatra. This part of the interior bad never, previously to 
to our Expedition, been thoroughly exptoredj and of the two 
rivers— Kam par, and Indragiri or Konantan — our specific 
knowledge was limited to their mouths and tlie immediate 
vicinity. The Residency on the East Coast embraced 
in lS7*^ the dependencies of the ancient 8yltanate of Sink ; 
after that date many now highly tlourishing agricnltural 
undertakings were established, chiufly at Deii and Langkat, 
and our acquaintance with this part of the island haf? thus 
been increased. Finally, the circnnistance to which science 
is indebted for so much information with regard to the an- 
cient kingdom of Acheen and its people, is no other, alas, 
than the long war with all its attendant evils, which is 
now said to be over, — having led to a peace by no means as* 
8ured, owing to the spirit of hatred existing amongst the 
vanquished. Sumatra now belongs wholly to Netherlands 
India. In reality, however, there is in the centre and on the 
East Coast, a large extent of country in which the r\de of the 
Netherlands is still a iictiou, but even there its influence has 
been daily extending for some years. 

The Coast of Acheen iti the North ; Tapanonli and the 
West Coast, down to the borders of Mount Barisan ; Beukoiden, 
the Lainpong districts and Palembiuig to the South; the 
Coasts of Siak, Di^U and Langkat to the N, £« — these^ gentle* 



men, iire the provinces now subject to our iidoiiuii^trative 
system. NotwithstiLiidiii^ the resoarclieH of the travellers I 
liiive ah'etuly meulioned, there remained a wide extent of 
country iti the centre of the Island which was still, for the 
must part., if not entirely, terra incognita. 

The maps of this region slkowed very inaccurately the 
eun figuration «jf the *,^roTmd, the topograpliy of the mountains, 
tlie courses of the rivers, the geoh>gieal aspect and fertility 
of the soil, and tlie facilities for transport by land and 
water. With regard to all this and wniuy other questiunn of 
ethnography, language and natural history, the works wntteu 
upon Sumatra left the explorer painfully in the dark. Thus 
nuittei's stood when our representative, Co^*iiel Veusteeu, 
conceived the idea of exploring these utiknowD regions. 

Scarcely anything was known of the riFcr, Avhich, with 
its inaity aliluents, traverses Dj;imbi, except that its source 
lies south uf the highlands of Padang, and a few other facts 
gathered in the interests of navigation. Djamhi, the Sultan 
of which was a nominee of the Netherlands India Govern- 
ment, and where a Netherlands oiticial acted as Political 
Agent, was looked upfui as a dependency of the Proviuce 
administered by the Kesideot of Palembang. 

Djainbi was as mnch nulmown to us as Central Africa 
Avas to our fathers. Nevertheless there was mure than one 
reason for desiring more intimate knowledge. Most of the 
Central Districts were celebrated for the beauty uf tlunr 
scenery, their unequal led richness of soil and the industry 
and pvleasajit disposition of their inhabitants. 

In 18(59, after the existence of rich seams of cotd on the 
hanks of theOuibilin {the upper waters of the Tndragiri) had 
IxvTi discovered by Gkkvk^ an Kngineer, who died in the 
midst of hid labours, serious elfurts were made to provide 
no.^ans for the transport of this '* black gold/' The country 
lying bet SY ecu the coal beds and the West Coast was expk^red 
l»y a blind of ctigiueers under the orders uf M> CLirysEXAER. 
They |)ublished a large ^vork and detailed maps^ but though 
this v,as useful from a scientitie point of view^ the estimated 
cost of constructing ami working a railway to the West Coast 
wdH so considerable, tliat there could bo no hope uf putting 
such an idea into execution. This, then, was one of the moat 



powerful reasons for selecting this portion of the centre of 
Sumatra as the chief aim of the researches of our expedi- 
tion. The more so, as the Government was willing^ to encour- 
age travelling in all these countries, except Korintji, 
which, fur political reafions, was closed to travellers* All the 
reports of the Government officials as to the attitnrle of the 
natives were favourable, and the Government itself gave full 
support to the undertaking of our Society by large contribu- 
tions both of money and stores. The actnal state of affairs, 
however, as we fomid afterwards* differed widely from what 
hud \yeeu hoped for in Holland during the preparations for our 
expedition. Our companion, Schouw Santvoort, who after- 
wards died at Djambij experienced this at stai'ting, when 
making his perilous expedition across the island in a canoe; 
and when later we endeavoured to visit the petty sta-tes of 
Manangkabo, which di\dde the Netherlands territory in the 
highlands of Padang from the great kingdom of Djambi, we 
were obliged to beat a precipitate retreat owing to the hostile 
attitude of the Prince of Si Gountour ;^ and the news of the 
unfavourable disposition of the above-named States spread 
with such rapidity, that the Government tliought it prudent to 
forbid our penetrating farther into the States of Eantau, 
Barf>nk and Djambi from the Avest. We were therefore 
obliged to turn our steps towards the east. But there also, 
we soon discovered, when we endeavoured to explore the Dis- 
trict of Limoun, a part of the Djambi territory, that all the 
original repoiis had been dictated by an unjustifiable opti- 
mism, and that even when a friendly chief lent us his sup- 
port, the general feeling of the natives was too hostile 
to allow us to shew ourselves any longer without military 
escort, and still less, of course, to attempt any scientihc 

• ForliC'*, the Naturalist, two ymrs later, fjiiled to peiietnite into IljuTubi, 
He vt;ia lulviiiied *' not to attempt to oiit<*r nithoiit the inaivtik? of the SulUm, 
'* iiieaoiiijif not the Sulfin rwo^'uised by the lAitcb Goverhmeiit, but the [►revimis 
*' Jf]Mwed niler, wlm butt tuki'ti np hh court in tlie iiiterior of the cotintry ami 
'* n honi III! the Djiiiibi fH'onJe re<'<i;4^niHefL Thi»« Wiit? very diHMp|tomtijJtr, but I 
** hatl fiired mo womc thau llie l>ult?li Mid-Siiniatni Exi»editioij, whieb, iwo ymrsj 
** before, h'ut been udvisetl to turu back at tlmt s«auc plmc." — Forbts JSatttm 


What then was the iLctiial condition of Djaiubi ? In 18*M, 
the Netherlands Government had signed a treaty with the 
Bultan, who, no longer feeling hiuiself able to cope with his 
diacont-ented sabjects, had made the first advances. But when 
in 1855, RATotr Ahmad Natsaeouddin succeeded him, difiicul- 
ties aroee, resulting in a military expedition to Dfanibi, which, 
by an attack on the Kraton, drove out the Sultan, The Gov- 
ennnent appointed Saltan Ahmad as his successor, and wag 
satisfied by erecting a small fort, in which a weak garri- 
son was stationed^ leaving tlie conduct of the new Sal- 
tan to be controlled by a Political Agent* The expelled 
8ultan, generally known as 8outan Taha, retired to the 
interior, where, fixing hig residence at Telok Perdali on the 
Bailing Hari, near the mouth of the Tabir, he mauag-ed to 
attract a numl>er of followers* 

Hia anthoritj,, though insignificant, was recognised by 
all the Chiefs along the Hnri and its tributaries uti far as 
the mouth of the Tembesi. 

Sultan Ahmab, lacking the power to make himself res- 
pected, was obliged to submit to the existing state uf things 
and to conclude a treaty of amity with his predecessor, bj 
wliich the btmndaries ot the territory of each were fixed. 

Meanwhile, the resentment of Soutan Taha against the 
Europeans who had deposed him did not diminish, and he 
did not cease to incite revolt among all who could be con- 
fiidered friendly towards the Netherlands (fovernment. 

The unfortunate results of such a a bat*? of things were, as 
might have been expected, experienced by our comrades, 
who in a stcani-launch were engaged in making a survey 
of the rivers ; they were obliged to suspend their labours 
owing to the hostile attitude of the natives, who prevented 
their further advance. As I have already stsited, the expedi- 
tion had been divided into two parties, one of which was de- 
tailed to explore the higlilands, tlie other to sun^ey the river 
Djambi and its aMuents. The leader of the latter was Mr. S. 
ScHouw SANTVooRT,an officer of theNetherhuids Navy, who, on 
his decease, was succeeded by Lieutenant C, H, Coenelissen. 
A steam -launch was placed at their disposal,— a boat 
perfectly suited to the work iu hand owing to its dimensions 
and ita Bumll draught of water. The other members of tho 

ex:pei>ition ikto iktehtob at HvuAnkM 


party were Mr. Makkink, the pilot, aBd Mr. Hrrmiks, the 
engineer, afterwards aucci^edeed by Mr. Snijdewjnd* 

A a for myself, I wiib at the head of the other party, 
assisted by the Civil Engineer, Mr. D. D, Veth> who wa8 en- 
trusted with the geoj^raphical, geological and meteorological 
investigations, as well as the prepamtion of negatives for 
photographs, and by Mr. Soh T. Snelleman, whose province 
was zoology in it^ higher branches. Ethnology and the study 
of languages fell to iny share. 

In summing up the results of our i^eaearches in thia 
marvellous country, I will Urst deal with geography, as this 
subject, at a Geographical Congress like the present, 
should be given the tirst place. 

It seems superfluous to explain the success which crowned 
the efforts of Messra, Veth, Cornelissen and Saktvoort; with 
the exception of quite a small portion, the courses of I he 
Hari and its chief affluent, the Tembesi, were minutely sur^ 
veyed. It was thus discovered that the Hari, on quitting the 
bighlands of Padang, flows due North, whence it follows 
that the furthest point navigable for large boats, is much 
nearer to the coal mines of Ombilin than it appeared to be on 
former maps ; so much so that the Hari is of as much impor- 
tance, as a highway for the transport of minerals to the East 
Coast, as the river Indragiri itself. In surveying the southern 
part of the Padang up-knds it was discovered that the rivers 
Mamoun and Pottar belong in no way to the Kouantan 
basin, but are affluents quite distinct from the Hari. But 
most notably in the survey of Lebotjg was the inaccuracy of 
former surveys made apparent. 

The mountains of the interior of Sumatra have been 
described with great exactness by Mr. Veth in the 2ud part of 
our work, which also contaius all the geological and meteoro- 
Ic^cal records^ The large collection of photogmphs of the 
country and of the people taken by him, are assuredly not 
the least part of the labours which have helped to extend our 
imperfect knowledge of Sumatra and its inhabitants. Again, 
amongst the things which we were enabled to bring back with 
ns, I must mention an ethnographical collection* of more 



ttaii 500 objectsj almost the whole of which have been repm- 
duced in the 'Ird part of our work. We trust that they will 
give a tnie idea of the life and custonjs of the Malays, set 
forth aa they are in thirteen chapters of our ethnographical 
description. In ray linguistic researches, I set myself as 
much as possible to note words and to collect manuscripts. 

As to these latter, I frequently had them read and ex- 
plained to me, in order to learn the i-eal meaning and the 
proper pronunciation of words. The difficulties I had to 
overcome will be evident to all those who will take the trou- 
ble to examine the word-lists of the Rawaa and I^bong 
(known as the Redjang) dialects, nnd the songs, puzzles and 
proverbs which I gatheredf I'om the lips of the people themselves, 
as well as the Manangkabo, Mouroi-Batoii andTouankou- 
nan Tjeredeg manuscripts. Besides, I was fortunate enough 
to gather complete information about the Jigure*characters 
of the Rentjonng as well aa the method of spelling and 
writing theuu 

This tigure-vmting owes its name to the manner in which 
the words are engraved with the point of a knife upon strips 
of bamboo, 

I was, on several occasions, able to gather interesting in- 
formation with regard to the aborigines of this part of the 
countr}' — the Kouhous — and I am in a position to state this 
curious fact, riz.t that their langunge, which at the first 
glance appears to differ entirely from Malay, appears on 
clever investigation to be almost the same language as that 
of the Malays who inhabit the Koubou district. Only, the 
pronunciation of theKonbous is harsher, and their peculiari- 
ty of expression takes the form of a dialect. 

We were lucky enough to obtain some valuable botani- 
cal specimens, and some other fortunate finds go to show 
that our researches were not altogether fi*uitless* Bnt most 
remarkable of all were the results of our zoological investiga- 
tions, We brought back 30 mammals, 285 birds, 17^^ reptiles 
and amphibians, 385 fish, 5 to 6 thousand insects, including 
823 species of lepidoptera, and a large number of molluscs.* 

* The f^-eater part of tKis oollectiaa is now in tha Boyal Muse am of 
Natural History at Lejden. 



AiuonjX'st tliesc animal!^, there arr mauy ihmv s[>e(."i*.^iS 



especially annrngst the iiisiv'tg of wiiieli oiiiiiy sjvcies liuU 
never previously been ub-^erveil in Suiiiatrfi. Louklnir ut this 
hirgc number of animuls collectel in a cninp:t.ratively ybort 
space uf time, one inii^ht be \e*\ in'u t!ie mistake uf iiuppysiiit.f 
that the foi'matiuti of sueh a Ci)llectinn would bo an easy matt-T. 
Without couiitiiifr the dilHroUy of preparing and paxjkini^ up 
niHdt of the spei'im*?iu, tlie very huutin:^: t'^r \h"\u wasattembxl 
with many obitaele-s, and involved j^reiit his?* of time. Tlie 
richness uf the tropical fauna ha^f passed into a proverb^ 
nut without rea^oru but like mnsf, treasure'^v it nuLst bj 
fc;Qii'Tht after out uf tli-.* beaten track, and it is only little by 
little that the path^ lea'Hu^ t) the hidden ireiisni^es uf 
nature are tu be tliseovered. 

In jj^ivinj^ the preeediuf^^ resunit'^ I liave accomplished 
tlie task al luted t> me, bnt permit me now to intrudnce you 
in ima^jrination, for a few ttiomcuti at least, to the countrieii 
vii?ited by my cumpanions and iny^t^If {it the time that we tra- 
versed these nncuUivateii rej^ious, deeply impressed with their 
nnirpie beauty, I will choose paLjeJi of our jour na.l which 
describe our ascent of tlie peak of Korintji, nv In Irapiirji, the 
highest monntain in 8unj:itra, and one of the liiij^hest 
volcanoes in the Indian Arcliipelu<^^). We wi-re in th^i 
country of the '* twelve kota??," a district bounded on the 
{3, W. by the above-named mountain, and ws before ourselves 
no European, and still less jiny nntive, Lad ever at teujptcd 
the ascent, the prc[)arations for our <]eparture occupied s<mie 
bpaee of tiTiie. Our lirst idea wns to take with ns native 
carrierg, called konfis, but as it wus too rifcky to set out 
with our necessary baggage without knowing anything about 
the nature of the groundj or even it" it were pos^ibh? to reach 
the summit, we took the precaution of sending some 
explorers on ahead as an advance-guird. The superstitiotis 
nature of these people, liov/t* ver, so excited their imaginatitm 
that they returned to ns wit!i all sr»rts of extra vagiuit stories 
of the innccessihle rocks tliey had seen, and tlie fearful 
monsters they had met. A second attempt on their part 
was nioit^ successful, and although micertain as to being 
able to reach the highest puiat, we set out ou the 5tli 
Decemberi 1877, f uU of avJour aud dotcrmiuation. Bcsidcia 

I lie couHfV'^, wo were accoiiipiinied by the two guides who had 
cnmlyctecl tlh' cxpliiriiT^ purtieri\ ami by the Toiiaiikuii 4 if 
D^uria^Tan.»url^^JlIT intelli^^eiii chief, Avith tvvo uf hi 8 followers. 
Kneh konll cJtrrieJ 8 chnpah (i*i kih) of rice, whilst the 
twu j^uides and the chief's IVillowera carried betwct?n them 
40 i'ltupah. Besides rice, eaeli Ijad to carry a pwrt of the 
ba^^nf^e necessary fur aticdi a loii;j:sfisiy in the j'ni^'h* : firstly^, 
oiir cuiJip'heds, and klunbou.^^ or mosquito curtains, iirtich*:^ nufc 
le^s indispensable thun a change uf clothes iri case of rain; 
Home Bimple cookin^^ utensils, an»l sutnc tiiiued pravisioii25, lu 
atford a chancre in our principal diet, viz., rice; these 
eunslituted onr equipment, together with the other part of 
unr ba^f'j:a;(e, consi.stin^' of iuytrumentj^ for makinLj geo- 
jjfrjiphical and ataiosplierie observations, whikt those ncces- 
8;uy fur {heculleetioii of plants and animak were not wanting, 
nnd iiimlly 2 chuini and ,some efuus and ammunition completed 
tlie \vhu!e. Every portion at onr hiiggao;e was carefully wrapped 
up in tarpaulins, whidi, fastened toj^ether^ served as a r<M>f fur 
ituv shelter at ni;,dit* Clad in the simple dresa suitable fur a 
watiderin;:,' life in these wild rei^^ions, we set out, and unr 
first tat^k wa.s to cleiir a path with our wood-knives for the 
/.'h/Zm. The«e carriers, who, in Sumatra, are accusitomed to 
carrying their burdens on their heads, would never have been 
able to get along in the small space sufficient for pei'sons not 
hnl'^n, and wonld hav<^ been liable every mnment to get cauglit 
in the lianc's ami ihurny branches s|U"eading out in every 
th'rretion overhead, it' the guides hud nat furme<l a reixuhir 
brd, so to t^peak, for the long line of hmlU t'ollowing 
tln'U*. We were sckju obliged tu quit the path on ac- 
count of the unfavourable nnturc of the ground, and 
to eoutiinie our march along tlie bed of a river, a change 
wliich considerably diminished our speed nnd compelled 
inir httt/ffi to dnjp a long di:^tanee l>ehind. When we 
left the water to taki) again tu dry land, our first care^ while 
waiting for the I'onli^ to rejoin us, was to look ananid to 
bee if there wns anything worth carrying off. We perceived 
an object wdp-h we were ftir from expecting to hnd in such a 
place^ namely ji, human skulb which prujei ting out of tlie w^ater 
was gazing at ns with liollow orbits. Approaching, we dis- 
covered the thigh bones belonging to the same individual, 




a Malay, who two y*>avs previously had been banished from his 
negari on aceoiuit of If^prosy, Ten gouh* of riec had 
b*^?n set iipart f<>r liiii], and he bad betaken himself in this 
dire'^tion provided with an axe, a t'liopper, a wallet oontaiii- 
intr tobaeco and ifin'h, and a flint andtiuder. Tims eqnipped, 
ht* had be}3:un to eliinb the j:^reni nxmniaiu, the Peak of Ko- 
rintji in order to seek anionor the nionntain-spirits a enre t'<»r 
IiiK fri»^htfnl malady.* He may, perlni.])S, have reached the 
.snmniit, but it wonid aeeni that tlie spirits did not ^rant his 
wish, Thon;?h it may seem inlnimnn to treat ftdlow eveatures 
ill this way, we nniHt remember tluit the inntiaetrif preserva- 
tinn, in cnnntriea where the popidatiroi in ton id ten decimat- 
ed by epideniieH, lea^s easily to nieiusures of tln« kind. We 
pi^rehed the Bknll, blanehed by tlie ntterjiato action of air and 
water on the end of a pf>le by the riverside, no as tt» tind it 
easily on onr return, feeHnt]^ sure that no one would come in 
.the intei*val to dispute with us this strange product of tlie 
■■fiftil. We followed the path whieh h^d frnni the siretim 
towards the mountain ehipes, and whieh was nothini: bat n 
broad track formed by elephants iiad rhiiioeeroHes. This 
)avai|>!it: ns at about 11 o'clock in the afternoon to Tindsonhmn, 
Tlien% we foinul such an excelh^nt restiu*^ phice ftir the 
iMI^^ht, amidst n conixlomerntion of ])rojectinf2: volennie rocks, 
tliat we resolved nut t> pnali on furtlier, iiud all the n^ore so 
because the A*fiT^/i>f were still fur l»ehind. It was only an hour 
nfterwardstliat the first arrived, and as their number j^radu- 
ally increased, we had to listen to confused accounts of 
the diftieulties they had undergcme, and the misfortunes they 
bad met with, 

Tlie short time reniaininqf before sunset was occupied in 
folli>win^ up for a bit the course of the river, and not fur 
from our encampment, we came across a stream, the limpiil 
water of which d?isheddown from a heiirhtof 20 feet between 

full, 11. 2r» ; f MiMhf^<xiir) j'Ulbr Hmtary of Mntln',ci^'^cur. L H4 i St'o uUo 
Ji^iirji. ImL ArcU, IX. 125 ; and £ Ilia' rolvueiiULU lU*scurdiea, L, XiT and 

IV.. an. 




"I'anite VfnlU. TUp water dripped oeasolesslyfrora traiUiig 
crnopnrs tnid from the rucks wliieh overlnm^ the catamct. 
Everytliiii^' around wad damp, the ulr chill, and the silencp^ 
whit'li wei^died like lead upon the whole seeue, was unbroken^ 
Bave for the monotonous noise of the falliiij^ drops. In the 
nief«ntinie some of our Lonlii< he;j:jin to cut down yonngf trees 
and hrauches, and to dra<^ them to the phice wOiere we intende<l 
to lonn our hivoiiae. The lopped branches formed the sup- 
ports of our dwell inf^-phice, wliieh, thanks to Ibe natural 
shelter we had found, wai for once quickly enough put up, 
iLud in vvhicli, besides otir baf^ii^ai^e, there was apace enoug^h to 
hid^n* our followers. A little distance on our left, a larg^e fire 
was li^'hteil at which our cook busied himself in preparing a 
meal a-'^fiu^^^al as it \vas welcome. A eecoud ihx^ was li^'hted in 
front of the hut, its tall thune^ casting such fantastic shadown 
around Unit we hsul no fear of beln^ disturbed by any wild 
beast. After lontr marches, such as we made nearly evory 
dsij of our cxpeditictn, i»ne is not much disxiosed to prolonoj 
the eveniuf^ after havinj:? dined. The convei*satiou soon 
begins lo ila^, and the nli^^ditest hint is snHlcienttu convince 
the compauy of the advantage, nay the neeessitj, of goini^ 
to rest. We found this to be so, and whilst the kouU^ were* 
aecordiiifif to their custom, squat tin^j; rooiid the tire engaged 
in animated conversation, we were stretchinsf our wearied 
limbs on our camp-beds, w^hirli tlioutfh verj^ simple, made a 
nuich more comfortable bed than the bare ground. The 
next morning we made haste to continue our journey, and 
just allowuntr enouji^h time to cook a few haudfuls of rice, 
whicli with sliip's liiseuit formed our breakfast, we were on 
our %vay by halt-past (> (/clock. 

Wi^ still followt^d the truck formed by the paehydemis* 
which led us upwards in the nortli of the m omit a in. We 
advanced very slowly, having continually to clear tlie path of 
fallen trees, and twisted creepers. 

We marched in front with the guides, and towards 11 
o'clock Tve arrived at a hut which had previously sheltered them, 
but whiidi we could not now make use of, on aceonnt of it^ 
distaiu-e from any water we cunld drink, and also because 
our day's task was by no means done. At jibont o o'clock in 
the afternoon we came to the last hut occupied by the guides, 



rathpr more favourably situated by reason of its proximity to 
water. We roiumeuced at ouct*, tkorefore, to establish our- 
selves tbere, nn<1 alter we bad cleared and levelled a spa<*e of (j 
metres long by 2 broail, we put up a Ion*; shed or pomlok, 

1 will not weary you with a too detailed account of our 
undei-tiikin^iT, Suffice to say tbat after several fruitless at- 
tempts to jjusli furward, we resolved on tbe 7tli December to 
leave our hniliH behind with the bag*jage, and to endeavour 
ran*»eives, each escorted by two men with axes, to reaeh the 
summit by different routes. 

On the Sth of December, about Iialf-past twelve, I was 
only about 200 metres fi*om the summit, when my guide, 
stumbling over a bjose stone, fell on bis face. Turning 
round, I found hira sitting on a roclc, his mouth was 
bleeding and his knee and arm were bruised. At this 
moment a violent peal of thunder, with at least a hundred 
reverberating educes, broke over our heads. My guide 
instantly began to urge a return, "' Let us go baek^ Tuan, 
since we know the way. It is begmning to get dark and we 
are going to have heavy niin." A second thunder-clap, as 
loud as the first, sounded almost as he spoke. 

'"The mountain is angry/* he continued ''do not let us 
wait longer." Looking up t.<j wards the summit where a short 
time before a picturesque crest of jagged rooks bad stood out 
alx»ve the gravel slopes of the mountain, I could perceive 
nothing but a black and threatening cloud, There waa 
nothiug fur us but to return. But this was not so easy, the 
stones which previously had seemed so solid, broke awny 
every moment under our feet, bringing down others in their 

Arriving at tbe spot where we had quitted the forest, we 
resolved to fuliow up the course of the river as well as possi- 
ble as far as tbe cataract just above our hut. In this we 
succeeded, and at about 2 o'clock in the afternoon we reacbed 
our bivouac. 

On tlie sixtli day after leaving I be plain, we at last got to 
the top. Tt was on my hands and feet tbat I climbed tbe last 
part, and the view that then met my eyes ma^ie me start kick 
with sui-prise, what I had taken for the top was but the 
narrow rim of a yawning crater with precipitous sides. More 



than 1,000 metres below, water and sulphur were seething 
and piving off va|?^iu^a, which filled the cavity for moments 

at a lime, and then Ufied so as to reveal Ui us the whole 
bottom of the abyss. This floor presented a saudy surface^ 
witli lakes of sulphur here and there, easily reeot^iiisable by 
their yellow colour, and a number of small arteries connect* 
ing them. To my riofht and left the cliifs were more elevated, 
find prevented my seehi*; the surrounding eonntry^ leaving onl)' 
a view of the sunnnits of mountains in the distanee. Notwitli- 
standingf the gnmd gpeetaele presented by the hi^rh lan*l!i 
of Padiuig, I could not, but express a feeling of disappoint- 
ment at our situation, for I saw tliat it would be very difK- 
cult to make our way round the lofty and ru;;,'£:ed edt^r^, 
whose exterior slope, at an angle of not less than 45" was 
composed of such kvosely holdiiu^ Bhingle, that a sin<jfle step 
was sometimes enough to send immense stones rolling down 
the precipice. 

A few momenta later M. Veth rejoined me, and aft^:*r 
having satisfied himself that the rocks on our right were 
absolutely inaccessible, he proceeded to try and discover, more 
to the floutb, a 8pi>t level enough to set up the tripod rest of 
our telescope, by means of which we were to observe the 
surrounding country. After a quarter of an hour s climb he 
called for the instruments ; the Mandor, or head of the 
hruJii^, with his men, advanced a few steps, but then sat 
down, declaring that they were giddj-. Only two coolies 
ventured to follow me to the spot where my companion was 
waiting. Climbing over sharp rocks, we at last reach^^d a 
level space of a few metres. Our observations, however, had 
to be very brief, for big clouds collecting on all sides hindenMl 
all exploration. To the S. E. towards the (JounoungTimj**uk 
(seven mountains) we noticed a large lake shut in by sermled 
peaks, forest clad. In bygone ages this mountain, hail 
evidently been a gigantic volcano, sueh as the Peak of 
Kurintji at the present day. 

K, W, from the foot of the GounoungToujonk, the firM 
rice fields of Korintji are sitoated on the banks of a consider- 
able ti^rrent* These fields were thKided and shnuein the snit- 
shine like polished plates of meLal. Lastly, when a big cloml 
suddenly hitercepted our view, we noted the state of the 

KSfsmrtOK INTO inteeioe of SrMATBA. 


Imrometijr mul the tlierniometer. The first indicated 495 

iiiilliun'^tros, the second 7''8. C. On the t'ollowinj^ duy wc 
lauceefded in reachin^^ the highest sumniit of the moimtiiiii* 

We liiid been forced to send back five coolies who had 
bruken dovvTi, an J even the Chief of Dourian Taronngf liini^elf 
waa obiifTfcd to leave us throui^h illness. As our provj^iona were 
sensibly diminishinjjf, and we were iifraid that tlie rest of the 
coolies wonld nut be able fo stand the faii^^ne and cold much 
lunger, we decided to retnrn. 

I must not quit this subject without making some 
observations upon the character of the fanna midjhra of 
thin volcano, which rises to a height of 2^VM} metres. 

As far as the place where we spent the first night, tlie 
forest generally resembled those we had already «o often 
t Pel versed, c^mtaining a consideralde number of hirge trees 
linked together by strong creepers and heavy rotht-manmu 
The haU rises side by side w^ith the wantufin^ the sacred 
trr^e of the Hindoos, the kouiang, the ififtittnd\ or milk- 
tree, with its wliitc bark, and the wild knhau or k(tp*tk. 
The undergrowtli consists of hirge-leaved banilwjos, with 
knotted stenjs which interlace in every direction, of tlie 
tlahun ^(tfart\ much used in Malay houiehokU, of the bidmi* 
king witli its edible flowers, aud a large variety of ferns and 

Advaucing upwards, towards our second halting place, 
liamlxN>s were replaced by varieties of />Ofwr, whilst along 
the river banks the djttmhoH^njftr were met with, and further 
on, in tin* jiuigle, mcrfntfi and other stniight-stemmcd trees. 
At this elevation rattan is stiU common enongh, bnt as in the 
case of the lianes, it is finer and weaker thiin in the lowlands. 

Ascending hi^^^her still, the tninks of the vanons species 
of the kftli^ and the ifjirfth-p/tdan(j diminish in size, and we 
notice that they are twisted, knott-ed, and covered with 
different kinds of moss. The rattans and climbing plant*i 
become more and mfire rare, grasses take the place uf the 
youai\ to he repla<;ed in turn by the thick-stemmed pakou- 
ragftrn^ a species of fern which, t<igether with other volcanic 
* plants, is f»mnd right u]i to the summit. 

Above a height of 2^500 metres, no trees worthy of the 
name are to be met with, but various kinds of flowering, or 



swetitr-smeUinjpr J4linil»s, suck as the Idwan^^ the bark of which 

has an odour oi^ onuige-flrjweiV'^, as also the Howers, the leaves, 
and the fruit of the «ariknviudjari^ a number of shjirp ed^ed 
f^rasses, and several graceful speeies of nepenth'*. At the 
highest point, which exceeds 3,000 metreiJ, wherever a 
little ve^^et^ble soil is o»lleeted in corners of the poruus iH>ck, 
arc to be seen* besides the plants a I read j mentioned, the 
hihifk with its yellow flowers, and th^ tjapo'ifotitiotttf^ whose 
little white flowerd and pointed velvet leaves remind us of 
the Edelweiss of the Alpi. I wdl not ^o into the questiati as 
to whether tlie presence of tliese phinta proves the fertility uf 
the soil, but it is certain that the soil of the «^a^ntle sloi>e 
U) the east and to the north -east of the Peak, is singularly 
rich, and perfectly suited to agricultural enterprise. 

In digging the ground ffjr the foundations of our hut, 
iis well as in places wliere huulslips had occurred, I ascer- 
tained that the vegetable S'nl was in places more than a 
metre in depth. But in order to obtain satisfactory results 
from the cultivution of this district, it would first of nil l>e 
necessar)^ to supplement its present scanty population 
with a supply uf labourers from Hindostan, Java, or 

The result of our observations of animal life, after leav- 
ing the foot of the monntain, may be stated in a few words. 
The large animals did not show themselves, which indeed 
they rarely do, for in the depths of these vast forests animal 
hfe seems exinct. The tracks of the rhinoceros were only 
met with up to a height of 2,000 metres, those ol the elephant 
jiot beyond 1,500 metres ; wild chamois frequent the inaceeis- 
sible rocks, and choose out tfiose crevices and grottos Avhich 
by their projections afford thcnn cover from tlie whid and 
rain. Up t<i the very top we found tracks and droppings of 
this (ndiftKarpm svjwtftrn^U. With regard to insects, we 
remarked at the summit, some bees, ga 1 flierf, some small 
black insects under stones, and here and there a butterliy. 
We ulao met with a species of brown pigeon, perliaps the Trcron 
Xuitkoy imd some smallerbirds with green wings sind red bends. 
Leeches were otily perceived up to a height of l,oOO metres, 
while spiders, especially those of the family of Ltjcoeiilcis 
do ttot go higher than y,000 metres. 


We came dowii the mountain much more slowly than 
we had gone up. Still the rat« at which we were (?oing pre- 
vented us from bestowing sufficient attention on the natural 
features by which we were surrounded, and on the peculiari- 
ties of the mysterious forests in which the struggle for 
existence is ceaselessly going on — a struggle which man is 
often unable to explain. 

What a delightful feeling it is to reach, at the close of 
day, an open space where one can give onpself who ly orer to 
the repose and comfort of a bivouac. Many of these phvcea 
>\ill remain indelibly in our memories. Thus on the evening 
of the 5th October, we arrived at 4Sun:rei Sapi, a most pic- 
turesque sp)t. Our people were aire idy busy putting up a 
shelter for us under the river bank. Th?* banks rose sheer up 
lx)th sides, leaving only a clear view of the water up and down 
stream. Our hut was quickly built on the stony soil of 
the upper part of the river-bed, which was then dry. Soon the 
tire for preparing our was lit, whilst near at hand 
resounded the axes engaged in felling the trees destined for 
building our pfmdok or hut. All around is movement, not, 
however, to be of long duration, for as soon as the strictly 
necessary labour is over, everyone makes hinisplf as com- 
fortable as possible, in order to make the most of this charm- 
ing resting-place. 

Let us take the trouble to more minutely examine the 
groimd around us. By the path leading: to the river, and 
at a short distance from i^, we notice colfee-bushes, diirians, 
mangosteens, and janibn-trees. It is evident that these are 
not forest treos, i>ut are the liviiijj^ remains of a village, which, 
like so many others, has disappeared. Not a house whoso 
iidiabitants nii^ht have told us their storv has been left 
standing; nothing has snrvivel but th-^St) fiw fruit trees 
which nature will rcchiim in like manner, so as to completely 
wipe out every vestige of ibe p:ist. 

To (»ur left, the iiv';r il')\vi slowly over a bel of stones, 
and not far away is hiddcu from us by a bend. 

On our ri;j:lit hand tl» j 8i*ene ih very difforpnt. The 
water flows impetuously and dashes itself down from a high 
rock into a deep basiu, falling in a bioad sheet with a con« 
tinual roar, like an avalanche of pearls, and bringing with 



it an icy CErrcot of air. It would be impoHsible to imagine 
a move picturesqne bib of water scenery than this natural 
basin. As long as the day-Hjjfht lasted we made notes, or 
arnuiffed the collections made durinjif the day. 

The approach of ni|j^bt forced us to give up our 
work, and we placed our chaira at ' the w^ater'a ed, 
enveloping ourselves in fragrant Havana smoke. The su 
daed eifects of twilight are unfortunately uuknown in these 
countries. It is as though the mm were in haste tcj bide 
himgelf, and in this enchanting spot the night fell suddenly 
and covered aU our landscape witli its black veil. 

Then almost at once we heiird tlie leader of the insect 
orchestra take up his otTicej and with a diaboUe note give 
the BJgnal to begin* The light of phosphorescent eock- 
chaferd shine fantastically amidst the trees, bats flit like 
shadows around our rpHtiug-pIaee. 

The koidis, who have liglited a second iire on the other 
side of the hut, are sfiuatting round it, intercepting the light, 
which thus falls only on a portion of the nver and hardly 
I'eaches the distorted tree-roots which a luud-slip has exposed 
on the opposite side. 

Our rice will soon be ready ; our old cook is giving it 
his whole attention. Chid only in a puir of tnmsers, he is 
sitting cross-legged and is with imperturbable gravity stir- 
ring his rice with a long spoon. His whole figure is 
stiff, severe, and rigid, as t'lough it were carved in 
wood. Of the Msiluys seated between us and the tire, we can 
only distinguish tbe outlines, whilst every feature of their 
companions wlio are sitting opposite to us is vigourously 
brought ttufc by tlxj red gleams, produced by the light of the 
llaniilig %vood* upon their browned faces and bodies. And 
while they rest themselves, smoking their cigarettes, they 
listen attentively to one of their inimber who is telling the 
hist^jry vf some previous excursion. Doubtless, nowhere daes 
nature olfer more ,spleuilid spectacles than in these distant 
fcirests. There is no monotony, on the contrary, an infinite 
variety, Sometiines the surroundings inspire us with calm, 
at other times we are awed by the stern force with which na- 
ture works out her ends. The aspect of water rushing down- 
ward from the mountains with ever increasing impetuosity, 




tearing a way for itself through and over the most colossal 
and massive rocka, is truly terrific. 

And what shall we say regardinff the fine layer of earth, 
which covers the rock, and which, althon^^^h often not more 
than a few centimetres in depth, yet iioiirishes and gives ita 
vital forces to a forest of gigantic trees, of hruahwood and 
lianes infinitely varied, and wearying the imagination with 
their diversity of form and coluor P 

Our European forests cannot be compared with the flora 
which Sumatra presents to our astonished eyes, Gis^antlG 
trees strike their tenacious roots into the earth, or project 
them into the air, as though nervously defending themselves 
against the attacks of assailants. 

In straight lim*s and fantastic curves, branches, leaves, 
trunks an J roots, twist in and out disputing for nouriah- 
ment; here lianea attach themselves like tightened ropes to 
the trees, or else twist in spirals round a yonng tree, whilst 
there, they are poised without support, cork-screw fashion. 
What is the meaning of this spiral without a prop? The 
victim which it formerly entwined, snccunibed to its stitling 
embrace and full into dnst, leaving only the fatal knot which 
had strangled it, No plant can grow without a struggle : 
parasites are everywhere, on the bark, on the branches, on 
the leaves. It may easily be understood how hard it is to 
recognise the parent amidst this chaos ; tlie parasites cliiah 
from branch to branch, until tlie last leaf disappears, and 
the last twig, lx?ndiiig beneath their weight, succumbs, and 
hangs like the powerless arm of a vanquished man. And all 
this luxuriant verdure, striving to climb on high in order to 
enjoy the sparkling sun-!ight, twists about and forms an in- 
extricable network, which oidy the w\iod-knife and the axe can 
unravel. The rattan winds alj^'mfc like a snake between the 
most delicate stems as well as between the thickest trunks, 
and rears its spiny head, like a plume, amidst the tops of the 
loftiest trees. 

Prom time to time a bamboo grove presents nn agreeable 
change to the eye. Tlie large stems spring forth nrnjes- 
tk^ally, to full afterwards in graceful cvn*ves ; sometiuies tlie 
path is blocked by a fallen tree, which in its heavy fall has 
dragged down a whole plantation with it, while crushing a 



portion of the forpst oppostite. Knowing that lime with his 
inevitablt^ scytht* will put all things in order, the native in 
Biich a case avoi<ls the ol)3taclo, ^oea round it, an<l clears him- 
self a new path wbieh rejoiiiH the old one further on. 

Gloomy obsimrity and henvy silence weii^h upon these 
forests, never visited hy Europt'iins, and seldom by Malays. 
At midday, surrounded by native fnllowers, there should be 
nothinj^ to ahinn one in Hueh a place, nevei thelees one lifts 
one's head with a shudder, when the mysterious stillness is 
brofeen by a falliuf^ leat\ fluttering; down and <yrazin^ the 
tree -branches, or by a loosened stone rolling down a ravine. 
It is the iuiiuenee exercised by this lr(»pical nature. 

Thuy in a fiauiewovk of verdure, the torrent rolls down 
from rock to rock n'itli foam whiter tluin snow, until, become 
at last a caturaL-t, it swnys the broad leaf of tire plsaufj^ hs 
easily as the lacc-Iike fern. The basin into which it is ever 
ponriuf,^ its limpid water contains myriads of shining iish, 
which lind nourishment in the fruit which the torrent brinvjs 
down witli it. And when chance rays of suu-Ht^ht manap^e to 
pieree tlie dome of veidure, then one's eyes are o^reeted with 
a splendour of tints and colours, which one mu^t have seen 
before one can admit that it is ijnpossible to tleseribe them. 

liut other surprises are in store for iis iti these wild 
loealitiea. When after marchin'^for several lunira, or rather 
jumping; from stone to stone iti the l>ed of a river, one entt^rs 
the forest, one is struck by llie ineredible mass of dead 
leaves which one meets witlt, and which form a fertile soil 
for the trees from which they have fallen. All those leaves 
are covered with a mildew as glossy aij silk, dtlicate as 
a spider's web, and white as snow, stan«liu*f out n*^ainst 
a dark baekj^rooud, Indet*d one is afraid to make a step 
lesi one Khould desii*oy in an instant tliese woiks of art of 
suf'h inimitable delieac)' and elegance. In the midst of these 
is enthroned the Giant of tlir Forest, the matnhoumi^^ a tree 
whose tnmk is a meLre and a half in diameter, and which rears 
its majestic head straight overhead at a liei^ht f>f lOOfeet. 

It is natural that one sliould be sin«^ularly impressed 
by this contrast, or rather by these extremes wliieh UHHi't, as 
the proverb says, like the lirst and last pages ofatreatiae 
on Botany placed side by side. 



The tree-trtmka are covered with many species of 
plants, beloiitrin^, it is tint*, to the stime family, hut varying 
infinitely in their dfvrli>pinent. Here are rattans twiiiinpf 
round a tree like the boa round its prey. There the nkar 
himhonfoH thick as maii-s arm grows side by side witli the 
roian emhoun as fine as thrt-'aJ. 

As has already been remarked, few large animals arc 
met with iu these regions* Sometimes one hears the shrill 
note of the argus phensant. Occasionally a monkey is risible 
leaping and swing^inf^ fmm one branch to another. But as 
far as the smaller animals ai-e concerned, an attentive explur- 
ermay observe nmeh. Amonj^st insects, we found ouiny 
whose only means of defence lay in their disguise, creatures 
wliieh so nuich resemble, in form and colour, tbe eartli and 
the plants amon^^^st which they live as to he nus taken for them, 
Tliey must have had many enemies to be obliged to assume 
this disguise in order that their species may preserve its vitality. 

Before endin*^ this nnrrative, I must tonch upon the 
charms which night olfers amidst tlieee forests. Hardly lias 
the darkness set in and the stars hetjnn to gleam through 
the leafy roof thnn the forest is light-ed up by a thousand 
fires which, at first stationary, seem to be resting in the tree 
tops in order to afterwards take flight in graceful curves, and 
at last be lost to siglit, like shooting stars. 

Even the leaves, the dead twigs, the very soil itself, seeiii 
to give forth a pliosphoreseeiit radiance* This formless mass 
covering the earth, which but lately impeded onr march, is 
now enveloped in a mysti^rious li^^ht ; we might describe 
it as an enchanted garden, like those of the AmbiLin stones, 
if this sijnile were not woni threadbare. 

It is unfurtuiiate that tliis fairy-like scene is marred by 
the music of cieadtw, whieh far from prixlucing tlie harmoni- 
ous sounds which would Ijo appropriate to it ne belie nuit fantag- 
iiqne^ assail onr ears with piercing cries, uttered with 
demoniacal strength and a pertinacity only to le paralleled 
by the bass notes in this impromptu concert which are sup- 
plied by the mountain t^>n'ent* 

Such are the sights that nature unfolded to us in Sumatra, 
It will easily be understood that we shall not reailily forget 
them. m 

■? - 

Further Notes on the Rainfall of Singapore. 

PIYE jeara ago I had the privilege of suhmitting a few 
^ Dotes on the miiifall of Singapore, which appeared in 
No. 7 of this JoiimaL I now purpose to add a few more re- 
niarka on this interesting study. 

In the last notes above referred to, the registers of two 
places only were taken into account, viz,, those of the old 
criTninal Prison between Brass Bassa and Stamford Roads, 
fur the rainfall in Town» and Mr. Knight's on Mount 
Pleasant, Thompson Road^ for the conn try ; but in 1880, on 
the removal of the Criminal Prison to ita new locality, the 
former was discontinued , and later on Mr* Knight changing 
his residence the latter also. 

It, therefore, became necessary to take a more general 
view, and a table baa been prepared of the Mean Annual Rain* 
fall of Singapoi-e as observed at present at seven stations, 
wbicb, through the kindness of Dr, Rowell, Principal 
Civil Medical Officer, Straits Settlements, in permitting me 
U) have access to the records, I now have the pleasure of 
submitting, together with charts shewing the ranges of the 
Mean Annual Rainfall, and Rainy Days since 1869, It will be 
an easy matter to continue these charts, say at intervals 
of live years, and thus arrive at some idea of the law of the 
rainfall of Singa|K>re, 

Mr. Skinner in his article on *' Straits Meteorology** 
(No. 12 of this Joui-nal), is of opinion that it is** not too 
early to endeavour to obtain some result^a from the series 
of Rainfall returns*' now to liand, and has ventured to con* 
nect certain outbreaks of cholera, heri-heri^ Ac, with the 
rainfalL The concluding paragraphs of that article are very 
hopeful and promising. The chart accompanying this 
paper apparently beai^s out his anticipations tliat ** an excess 
of rain may be Iwked for in the years 1884-85," for the line 
is an ascending one ; but it requires the tracingM of a few 
more years to get a clear knowledge of the rhythm of the 
alternations of periods of lesser and greater ascents befonj 



the corresponding fallmgs. For instance, the chart shows 
a sudden fall in the amount of rain for 1871 ond 1872, with 
a slowly in^Toajiing rise iip to 1875, followed hy a still lower 
fall in 1877 (the lowest recorded), lii 187c5 there iB almost 
double the rainfall of 1877, rising still higher in 1879, from 
which peritwi down to 188»), the ammal niinfiill was steadily 
deerea8iii*r, bnt in 188 i it ngain aseended, and may ascend 
further if Mr. Skinner's conch^sions rest on a soiind basis.* 
The continuous and steiidy improvements in the sani- 
tary eondition of Singapore town and suburbs within the 
last eight years have been so mLuked, that it would hardly 
be fair to draw eoiicluiiive infer en ee^s from tlie old returns of 
bealth by comparing them with those of recent dates, and 
attributing any diiferences tu the rainfalL For instance, 
when choiera bi(«ke out as an epidemic in 187*^ (having been 
in the first instance imported from Bangkok where the 
disease was raging virulently) Singapore wa:i suffering badly 
from want of water, the season was unusually dry, nearly all 
the wells such as they were — many being mere pits a few 
feet deep with<jut any protective wall — had almcst run dry, 
the brick conduit for bringing the water innn the impound- 
ing reservoir was a failui'e, as the water could not lise in the 
af|neduct over the canal, so that the poorer people resorted to 
ih« filthy canal water when the tide had ebbed* The largest 
number of cases of cholera occurred in the vicinity of that 
Canal commcnrm<j from tlie Lunatic Asylum, which suffered 
severely, e^tendutij to Kunipong Kapor, which was a regularl 
hot-bed for d*'vek*ping, continuing and tipreading the disease, 
and iermuHifintj at Eoclior, There were also some cases of 
cholera from Kampong Malacca and the crowded pai'tsof the 

• It h eprl.iiulv weU to wail until iro li;ive « lrir>:er Tories **f hiihu il rctiiT^is 
hetnw jjcnemliain;,'^ mi anrh n iinltiT Uw \nysH]yi'\y : mvl Urn bntirli (»f the sub- 
jci-l Ti*oiily tniirliiKl \\\^m now lo in vile llie nltentjin of nil who iniiy kwp or 
HtUfly our MettKtrologHMl R<v.'onls. But fnnu IIil* uvidcnce nirc nJy iiwuumliited 
the loi!.r drtui^ilil of lSS:i-S3, wliit li t*mU'il Uh\ August, nu\ T ui:untiiu, I'learjy 
In be jinliciiJfiletl ; far it ilfwe'l tlic nolnr |M*ri«Ml a-iliiij^' frcuii tho liniit«*fl iMmffiH 
(U'-fJ indit'H) ill 1S72-3, jnul the «tilifEidjnry ilrv jt^^nod, ?ihmviu;f th** full of 
I IS inche** only, in J s7 0-7. All pxcei«fl of min nin\ in the ssime waiy. l>e looked 
for in tin; years lSHl-5, and jitill more in 18H3-<> r but uot «o ^t^nt an<^'ss, 
these years merely clotiiiiK I lip siibsifji^iry periml of excew firuu 'H7'J-S0 (22?! 
ini^Iie!^^. — Joomftl Ko. 13 of tliQ BtraitB Braii<;b of the EojiU Amtic Sociotyt ' 



town south of the Singapore river, places deficient in water 
eupply, and where sanitation of any sort was never thought 

Then, again, in 1875-77, outbreaks of cholera in an 
-epidemic form were mainly averted by the untiring exertionB 
of Messrs Batlibs and Colson who had charge of the water- 
works then in course of completion. They opened up tho 
conduit in several places near the Race Course, and stationed 
a steam engine at the distal end of the a4:iueduct and pumped 
the water across the canal, rendering the precious element 
available to large numbers of people ; and, later on, by the 
completion of the water-works, good wholesome water was 
distributed throughout the town, which has helped to pro* 
<l\ice so marked a change, that since then, cholera or chol- 
eraic diarrhoea has not appeared in an epidemic form. 

As regards herl-heri^ I think the Medical retnrns will 
ehdw a marked falling off in the numbers treated since the 
removal of prisoners to the new Jaih 

There can be no question that a great many unknown 
influence^ are at work on and around this globe of ours 
which more or less affect the health of its inhabitants. For 
some time past attention has been drawn to the wonderful 
spots on the sun, and they have been the subject of study of 
many observers, but the results must necessarily be slow. 
That the moon also has a share in some of these influences 
must be conceded, for it is well known that atmospheric 
disturbances are more frequent at certain stjiges of the 
moon's phases than at others, and quite recently there has 
been free exx>ressi€m rpganling the influences caused or to 
be caused by the perihelia of certain planets^ so that the 
conclusion is still forced on us, that it is as yet premature to 
calculate with any certainty on this queatiou ; yet every little 
effort towarcJs helping its solution should be encouraged, 
and in time the skein which now seems tangled may be 

In connection with this line of thought it may be sug- 
gested that in this, almost the wealthiest of t!ie British 
Colonies, it is not too soon to provide for an observatory \in- 
Mer an Astronomer and Meteorologist. The equatorial posi- 
tion of Siogapore gives to the Astronomer a more interesting- 



field for obsenrationa than can be obtained at higher or 
lower latitudes. But till nnch an idea is taken up by Ihe 
powers thiat be, those who liave tlie means, time and in- 
clination can contribute much iuforaiatiou bydailj obser- 
vations of the sun when possible, registering the sun spots, 
if any, and thus aacertaiu if Uwra he any connection between 
their occurrence and our rainfall ; and the Principal CiTil 
Medical Officer would also help conairlerably if he could see 
his way to having rain gauges and regis te!*s kept at Changi 
or Siranggong ( extreme eaat ), Tan jong Karang ( west ), at 
the Police stations, Bukit Tiniah E^jad 7tb mile, and Seli* 
tar ; a more general average of the rainfall could thus be 
ascertained* The absence of a station or stations well in 
the centre of the island is a drawback, the more so as ma 03* 
of the streams running into the impounding reservoir, which 
snpplies the town with its drinking water, are fed by the 
rains falling ou the southern aspect of Bukit Timah. There 
fihould be little difficulty in teaching the Police Sergeants 
in charge of the stations to keep the registex*. 







O r^^t^.^^Of^O&^OD^OOOOO&O-twL'S 

B f^ iP^ f-H f-i rH 








.11 /^ ' 1- 





1 i 

' 00 1 


: i ' M ! 1 '"^^II^- 





' . 1 • \: • , 









^ ^ « „ „ ^ ... 





1884. Singapore. 















3-93 ] 








18-25 S 

J 25 







1105 ] 

11 17 















716 ] 








3-88 : 








2-91 ] 








3 97 ] 









, 11 







13-57 ] 

I: 16 







19*18 i 

I 15 







517 ] 

I 21 







13-35 ] 








6-58 ] 
















8-81 1 












7-89 1 






In a previous number of this Journa],^ I touched lightly 
on the subject of the probable origin of the Hill Tribes of 
Formosa, adding at the same time a short vocabulary of a 
dialect spoken by certain tribes and families occupying the 
savage forest-clad mountains to the South- East and South of 
the Chinese town of Banca ^jlS ^^^ quondam emporium 
of foreign and native trade in the North of the island — a town 
said some twenty years ago to have been composed of thirty 
to forty thousand Chinese souls. Its position as a trading 
centre has been somewhat interfered with of late years by the 
rival town of Twatutia Jl.if3;;^ (situated only a mile or so 
to the North of Banca), whose growing importance is owing 
almost entirely to the establishment there of foreign mercan- 
tile houses, and to the rapid development of the tea trade, of 
which Twatutia is the principal mart. 

It is my present object to give a description of the abori- 
ginal tribes living in the hills in rear of Banca extending in 
various directions towards SA-oh Bay on the East coast, and 
more especially of those tribes living nearest to the western 
borderland in the neighbourhood of K5t Chiu /^JP| for- 
merly a Chinese border outpost, as well as of those residing 
in the mountains at the back of San Ko Yeng ^ ^ ^ and 
to the East also of To Ko Ham JM'^y^ extending down to 
the ''Sylvian and Dodd^* ranges in the vicinity of the 
" Petroleum Wells ^' discovered by myself in the spring of the 
year 1865. 

♦ Journal No. 9, pp. 69-84. 



The Hill Sarages of North Formosa are^ without doubt, 
exactly like other huraau beinga in the shape of their 
bodies and number of their limbsj aud altljou^h they 
are as wild sts the aninirtlit which roam about tlicir country, 
have no written language of their own, and live in a most pri- 
mitive style, yet there arc no signs of a Darwinian tail^ neither 
do they at all give you the idea that their pi*ogemtors were of 
the monkey species. 

The men are not remarkably tall ; in fact I should say 
that few^ of them measure over five feet nine inches, and the 
majority of them arc, pro!>ably, under five feet six inches. 
In the South of the island, it is said, the mcu are of a 
larger mould than those residing North of Latitude 24 K. 

The complexion of old men of the tribes is very sallow 
and often swarthy; that of yi^ung^ healthy wairiors much lighter 
and rlearcrj but there is observable in the nui|urity effaces a 
(lark tinge not to be .seen io the fares ol CJiinese, not quite so 
dark as the complexion of mixed dei^cendants of Portuguese 
settlers in Macao, but resembling more the tint to be seen in 
the faces of fair-complexionetl JapanciJC. They are, if anylbing, 
darker-skinned than ordinary Chinamen who have not been 
' exposed to the sun : but the peculiar si rain refcrrt^d to^ does not 
appear so disfinrtly in the younger members of the tribC;, or so 
strong, as it docs in the complexions of those who have taken 
an active part in hunting, fighting, and in the hard daily strug- 
gle for existence. 

The skin of the daikcst savnge of the North of the island 
is not so dark as the complexions of many rcprescutativee of 
Spain, southern France and Italy, nnd in higher latitudes, 
many faces of Celtic type shew as dark a hue ns that observa- 
ble in the fjires of the aborigines of the North, In old mem- 
bers of the tribes, the colour of the skin assumes a duskier and 
sallow er tint^ consfnnt on tlie frequent exposure to the sun and 
tt» the weather, but with all this, there is no similarity of colour 
to that visible in the faces of African negroes. 

The strain of negro blood was plainly visible in the 
farce of the wrecked Pcllcw Islandci-s^ but in tljc colour 




of the skin and in the texture of the hair of the northern 
tribes there are no signs of negro extraction. Their hair is 
invariably dark and lank, not curly or frizzled, their lips are not 
so thick even as those of Malays^ and the high noses possessed 
by many approach often the European type. With these 
evidences before us, it is safe to assume that these savages have 
inherited an intermediate colour not apparently traceable to 
negro admixture. The diversities of colour in men, whether in 
a civil. sed or wild state, have puzzled enquirers, I imagine, up 
to the present day, and it is impossible to say with any cer- 
tainty now, after all the speculations and theories enunciated 
in books on the subject, whether our first parents were created 
black or fair-skinned. The stronger reasons are in favour of the 
former colour, in any case the hot rays of the sun seem to have 
the effect of only tanning the skin brown, even in the tropics, 
and this effect in Formosa, where, in the valleys, it is extremely 
hot for more than half the year, would appear to have no here- 
ditary consequence on the colour of young savages who are 
launched into the world year after year. The colour of the 
skin of all peoples must necessarily be a guide to descent, for 
it must be inherited, of course with modifications. I have 
considered it advisable to allude to this subject to prove that 
the savages of North Formosa are not apparently directly 
descended from the Eastern negro section of the human 
family, specimens of which are to be found in the islands of 
the South Pacific Ocean. It is well known that there are cer- 
tain-dark curly-headed tribes in the Philippine group, and pos- 
sibly similar representatives of that class of people may later 
on be discovercvl in some of the numerous valleys of Formosa 
amongst the tribes to the Soath of the 24th parallel, when the 
whole of the country between ilount Morrison and the Sylvian 
Range has been thoroughly explored. The colour of the skin of 
all the Northern tribes 1 have seen appears to be of a uniform 
hue, without any variety, beyond a darker or lighter complexion 
observable when comparing bronzed and swarthy old men 
with younger members of the tribe who have never been much 
exposed to the wxathcr. 

The general contour f)f the face resembles somewhat that 



of u Malay, bat the lips of the Formosan savage are not »o 

thick, E either are their noses (excepting in few instances) quite 
so t!at as those of the JIalajs whom 1 huve seen at Singapore 
and in China. It may safely be said that there is nothing in 
their physiognomy ^v!uch resembles tlie Cliinese, their tiatur 
enemies, whom they imagine to he t!ie only other inhabitant 
of Formosa or indeed of the worhh 

On first meeting a savage of the trne type {not be«^gar 
savages who are to be found on the borders aiul <»ften in Chi- 
nese villageii), you notice immediately the wide differenee 
between hini and the Celestial whom you have left on the 
opposite side of the bordei's, not only in the ishape of his head, 
but partienlarly in tlie expression of the eye, which reminds 
you more than anything else of the wild and anxious gaze of a 
Scotch deer*bouud. The eyes of most of the young warrioraj 
are strikingly bhick and piercings they always appear to bo" 
on the move, staring to their full extent and gazing with a clear 
but eager look as it were at some far distant object beyond 
yon. In the eye of the younger huntsmen and warrior.^, you 
cannot recognise care, but the look of those in their prime 
speaks of anxitms tbongbt for the morrow and is an index of the 
general feeling of insecurity, whicli ninst frequently and 
naturally exist amongst men who ahucst daily encounter 
dangers from contact with their human etiemics, in the shape 
o( neighbouring unfriendly tribes or the wily Chinese invader, 
as well Its at times the wiUl animals of the forests, on the tlesb 
of uhicli they are, for the must part, dependent for their sub- 
sistence. The expression referred to is not one of fear, but 
denotes rather a life of care and anxiety* 

The head being generally sr^all and round, the face 
is not particularly large or fnll. The eyes are very dark- 
coloured and straight cut, not at all oblique. In these uf 
good-looking young men and women, the lashes arc dark and 
long, eyebrows bhuk, stnn^^ and thick, but nt*t overhanging. 
In some faces they often ucaily meet nt the root of tiie nose. 
They are decidedly a very distinct feature of the face, as beards* 
and whiskei^ arc unknown atid a monatache is seldom 
ai tempted, though I have seen certain old members of tribes 


wearing a resemblance to one : as a rule all hairs appearing 
on the chin or cheek are plucked out by the roots, a small pair 
of tweezers being used for the purpose. 

The shape of the heads of savages varies considerably, 
though the majority of them appear round and rather small. 
Their faces are for the most part of a Malayan type, some have 
a Jewish cast, and again you observe faces whose profiles 
resemble those of Europeans. I am inclined to think 
that these differences in physiogyiomies are attributable 
to the mixture of Malay, Philippine and Polynesian blood with 
the original ancient stocks previously existing in the island. 

The men of the northern tribes are in the habit of tat- 
tooing the forehead and chin in horizontal lines of about 
three quarters of an inch in length, and one-sixteenth part of 
an inch in breadth right in the centre of the forehead from the 
parting of the hair, which is always in the middle, to the root 
of the nose. 

On the chin, also, are similar horizontal lines, and these 
are, as a rule, the only tattoo marks that are visible on the faces 
of the men. On the body they tattoo slightly, but it is not very 
general amongst them. The men have also a curious custom 
of piercing the lobes of their ears. Each lobe has a hole 
through it, large enough to receive a piece of bamboo about 
the size of a Manila cheroot. They usually wear therein 
hollow pieces of youDg bamboo with tufts of scarlet long-ells 
sticking out of the opening at the upper end ; others insert 
pieces of what appears to be white cuttle-tisli bone, about four in- 
ches long, with a disc made of the same material in the outer end. 
< )n the foreheads of some of the men may be seen similar flat 
but round pieces of cuttle-fish bone, fixed tlierc by means of a 
piece of string round the head or attached to a circlet or wreath 
of embroidered camlets or native-made cloth. On their small, 
tight-fitting caps, they frequently fix circular pieces of this white 
cuttle-tish bone, or whatever it is. It seems to be quite a com- 
mon article of barter amongst them. They use strings of small 
beads made of cuttle-fish bono not only as ornaments for their 
heads and necks, but as a *' circulating medium.'^ Necklaces, 
earrings and trinkets of various kinds are made of it. The 


aborigines of the northern and central mountains are immense- 
ly fond of all sorts of trinkets. Round the necks of old men 
and young warriors are ser»a necklaces of wild boars' tusks and 
teeth of animals. Tliey are worn often as heirlooms, but prin- 
cipally m symbols of individual prowess. Tiioy often load their 
necks with metal trinkets^ cuttle-fi?*h beads, &e., to whiL*h they 
attach numerous little appliancos oonnected with the priming and 
loading of their Tnatcfdouk**, a motley 8ort of eol lection, which ex- 
cites the curiosity of the beholder, livery man who pos^iesses 
a gun (pahtih) w^ears rounffhis ncckcuriuu8-looking priming- 
flasks full of powder, and overhts shoulder^ or round his wai^t, 
an obloug-shaped case, made of sskiu, often containing several 
cylindrieal-shapod wooden receptacles full of powder He ha*i 
generally about him a smiU bag contaiuiug shot and long 
iron projectiles alrajst the size of the little liuij;er, which are 
slipped down the muzzle of the long-barrelled matchlock on 
top of the powder without any wad between. Matchlocks, 
however, are not very common in the interior, and even the 
border tribes are only scantily furnished with them. The ma- 
jority of the men are armed witii bows aud arrows, with which 
they make gootl practice at st:ttiouary objects. Bowmen wear 
round their waists a deer skin strap, orarrow-bcdt» and not a initn 
is without a long knife called hiitu* Another cotomon append- 
age is a bag made either of hempen cloth or skin, about four 
or five inches broad and nine or tea inched long, iu w^hich they 
place dried tobacco leaves. Tobacco grows wild in many parU 
of the country inhabited by the savages, and in Chinese terri- 
tory it is cultivated to a large extent in certain districts. The 
savages sinjply sun-dry it, theu rub it in thoir hands and place 
it in their pipes. In this form it is very mild. Foreigners 
make it into blocks by placing the leaves one above the other ; 
a litlle water is tfien sprinkle:! over tliem^ sometimes a dash of 
rum, the leaves are then prcBsed into a compact block, or are 
compressed into a circular sliape about the size of the wrist 
and tapering to a point at both ends. Tobacco made in this 
form is tied round tightly together with rope^ and is a very 
good substitute for what is called ship'js tobaccj. Nativc-growu 
tobacco, has been often prepared in this w^ay by sailors on board 


Britiiih guiilxjats visitino^ Tamsui, and haa beco much appre- 
ciated by every one fond of a pipe. 

Chinese cultivate the tobaceo plants and large quantities 
are exported in junks to the mainland, where it is " cured " 
according to Cfiinese taste, and in this form is rc-imported for 
the use of Chinese only. The plant seems to thrive in Formosa 
luxuriantly, and it is a wonder that no attempt has been made 
here to manufacture cigars and cheroots for foreign exportation. 
Judgin*; from the quality and size of the leaf, there ouf;ht to 
be no difficulty in producing cigars equal to those made in 

The aborigines of tlje North one and all smoke tobacco. 
Men and women invariably do so, and even younp; boys and 
girls are addicted to this pleasant vice, and as the plant grows 
wild and Formosa is a foverisli and aguish eountryj it is not 
astonishing that smoking is Huch a common habit amongst 
them, Their pipes are made of hollowed bamboo and the stem 
(fdid hitliid kiH) is also made of very thin bamboo reed, being 
about half a foot to a foot in length, aec'irding to the taste of 
the owner. The bowls are often very tastefully and prettily 
carved and are frequently ornamented with pieces of metal. 
When not in use, the pipe is generally stuck iu the hair at the 
back of the head by both men and women. 

The clothing of these so-called savages li\ing iu the 
lower hills adjoining Chinese territory is, especially in the sum- 
mer months, very scant. It er>nsists cliiefly of a coat, called /«- 
hts resembling very much an enlarged singlet open in the front 
and as a rule without sleeves. Four straight pieces of native 
hempen cloth are sewn together two to the back and two in 
front, leaving room for the arms to pass through, sewn also at 
llie top c.^er the shoulders, but open in front, exposing the 
chest and stomach. Sometimes they are buttoned across the 
chest, and sleeves are occasionally w^oru by border savages. 
These coats cover the back entirely, arid reach down nearly as 
far as the knees, and although they arc usually made of plain, 
coarse^ bleached, hempen clotlu they are almost always em- 
broidered fn^m the waist downwards, or interwoven witli either 
blue or jicarlct threads of long-ell^, which they obtain from tUc 



Chinese borderers. 

The patterns vary very miieh, resembliug somewhat tie 
carvings to be seen on their pipe stems and not unlike the tattoo 
lines and bars on the faces of the women. They shew great 
diversity as well as regularity of design, and if not imitations 
derived from outside sources, they indicate not only originality 
but ^-eat taste. In addition to the htkHH the men wear 
round their waists a strip of woven hemp four ur five inches 
broad, embroidered in tfie same way as the lower part of the 
lukiis. This girdle or belt is called habhock, and is worn 
next to the skin as a rule, but sometimes outside the coat. 
The UkflH and habhock are almost the only articles of clothing 
worn by the men in tlic lower ranges of hills, but on the 
higher leveh many wear eoat>s with sleeves, and sometimea 
clothes matle of the skins of animals. 

In the summer mt)nths, one often meets men and boys roam- 
ing about with absolutely no clothes on at alL Some consider 
*' full dress ^^ to consist of a rattan wicker-work closely fitting 
cap (mobu), others strut about all day long with only the 
belt or habhovk round their waists, with the lalao stuck in it. 

The blade of the laldo is about a foot and a half long and 
18 always kept sharp. It is set in a haft of wood, which is 
usually adorned in the same way as their pipcsi with carvings 
and pieces* of metal. The blade is protected by a sheath of 
wood on one side and an open wire work guard on the other. 
At the end of this scabbard is often fixed part of the tail of a 
Chinaman, or other enemy, who has fallen a victim in some 
border war or on some head-hunting c.\pedinon. The laldo 
is a most necessary article to possess, for with it they cut their 
way through the jungle and thick undergrowth, with it they 
give the death-blow to the game they hunt; they use it in di- 
viding the animals they kill, they eat with it as sailors do 
with their knives, they cut and split firewood with it, and last 
of all they cut off the heads of their enemies with this most 
useful implement. The blades are made by Chinese and are 
obtained by the savages in barter for decr^s horns, &c. ; 
often they are taken from the bodies of Chinese kilted by them 


in their numerous encounters with their would-be extermina- 

On occasions the men sometimes wear tied over their right 
shoulder and flowing down the back and a«;ross the chest, a 
square piece of variegated cloth (worn by women as a sort 
of petticoat, tied round the waist and reaching to the knees), 
but this airticle of apparel is worn more by the women than 
the men. 

They wear another kind of coat, or rather jacket, called the 
fil^hting jacket. It is made in every way like the lukutty 
but in its size. Instead of extending low down the body, it 
only reaches as far as the waist, and is more like a shell jacket 
without sleeves than anything else. It is made of hemp, very 
closely interwoven with threads of scarlet long-ells, a colour 
which, amongst the northern tribes, seems to be the favourite. 
Further south, towards the Sylvian Range, coats embroidered 
with blue thread of loug-ells arc more the fashion. The 
long-ells and camlets used by the border savages are 
obtained from their neighbours, the Chinese hillmen. In 
describing the dress of the savages, I am alluding at present 
more especially to that worn bv men living in the hills to the 
North of N. L^at. 24, and to the East of 1:21 E. Long. There 
appears to be very little variety in the costumes worn in this 
region, that is, in the lower ranges of hills, but at 6,000 to 
8,000 feet above tho sea level, great differences in the appear- 
ance of the dresses as well as in the manners and ways 
of the people arc observable. A rather curious apology for 
a great coat is worn in damp or rainy W(?ather, of which they 
get a very full share at all times of the year, for the lofty 
mountain ranges, varying from 4,000 to 12,000 feet running 
nearly the wliole length of the island, olicr a great attraction 
to rain clouds. 

This coat is male generally of the skin of the large brown 
deer, only partially cured by exposure to tho sun and wind. 
The design is about as rude as anything can be, a slit of 
about six inches in length is made in the hide and at the end of 
the slit a circular piece of the skin is cut out, allowing just room 
for the neck. The stiffness of the hide and the narrow space 


allowed for the neck prevent the roat dropping off the shoul- 
dera. A man with a covering of this kind can screw himself 
into such a position that no part of his body is exposed, ex- 
cepting his head, and on this he places his jockey-cap-shaped 
rattan cap, with the peak at the back, thus securing perfect 
protection from rain. A few other articles besides those named 
are carried, such as hand nets, fishing gear, rope port-fires 
(made of hemp or the bark of a tree), w^om round the wrists 
of men armed with matchlocks, &c., but such articles will 
be referred to later on. 

f To he continmcL J 



[The following translation from a native Manuscript, which 
has been kindly communicated to the Society by His Excellen- 
cy, W. H. Taeacher, Esquire^ Governor of British North Bor- 
neo, is a supplement to Sir Hugh Low's paper published in 
No. 5 of this Journal^ pp. 1-35. 


The issue ot Marhum Tumbang di rumput were Pangeraii 
di Gadong Omar^ who had many descendants, and Bandahara 
BoNosUy and Sultan Kam aludin, who also had many descend- 
ants ; we cannot enumerate them because there were so many 
of them; many of them became slaves; ask of others their 

Marhum di Lubah, Sultan Kamaludin^ begat Pangeran 
di Gadong Abdul and Pangeran di Gadong Tajudin^ who 
both became Ministers, and Pangeran Paduka Tuan and 
Pangeran Kamarindra, who were both Chatriyas,^ Pangeran 
Tuah, Paugeran Neian, Pangeran Ontong, Pangeran Bada- 
KUDiN, Pangeran Kadir and Pangeran Apong were all his 
sons by concubines. 

He also had daughters — Raja Bulan, Baja PCtri, Baja 
Nuralam, Pangeran Bongsu, Pangeran Sri Banum, Pange- 
ran Ratna and Pangeran Tuaii, all borne by concubines. 

Sultan Muhammad Ala-eddin married Pangeran Sri Ba« 
NUM, a daughter of Pangeran Bandahara Ontong, by whom 
he had two children, the eldest Pangeran Muda Amir Bahar, 
who refused to be made Sultan, the other Sultan Omar Aw 
Saipuddin, who succeeded to the throne. 

Before Sultan Muhammad Ala-eddin became Sultan, his 
wife Pangeran Sri Baxum died, and he married Raja Bulan 
and begat Pangeran Motalam and then he became Sultan. 
Marhum di Lubah made him Sultan because he was of the 
line of the Sultans. 

* A particular rank or order of nobility in Brunoi, a corruption of A>A«f- 
iriya (tiajxsk.), the military caste of ancient India. — £d. 


Oil the death of Sultan Muhammad Ala-eddix the throue 
went hack ai^jaiii to Mariium di Liuail 

Paiij^eran Tiimmonggoiig Ampati, half brother by a concu- 
bine of Marhum dt BiiUNisi (Saltan Muhammad Ala-eddin) 
married Raja Bur,\N, 

Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddtn married Raja PriHi and be^t 
Sultan Muhammad Tajldin. On Rap Petri's death Sultan 
Omar Ali Saiitddin married Raja Nlfralam and has a son 
Sultan Muhammad Khan y/v}. Alam. On the death of Raja 
NuuALAM he married Pangeran Istri Bo.VGSitJ, widow of Pan- 
^eran Pa»iaxcma Kassim, whd hore a child called Pangeran 
Saliha, who wasthedauj^hterof Pauj;cran Pamanciia Kas^im. 

Sultan Muhammad Khan z'ul Alam, whoso name was Pan- 
geran AvAn, married Pangeran Saliha and begat Rajah Nc* 
RALABfj the mother of Sultan Omar Ahi SAiYVuinn, who is now 
reigTiing, and Paugerau Mi j*a Motalam, who was called Sultan 
JIuH ammad Alam. On the death of Pangeran Saliua he 
married Pangeran Nuralam, daughter of Pmgerun Srt Rama 
and begat Pan;4'eran I^Iaimam and Pangeran Pasar. 

Panjreran Maktam be;^at Pangeran Suliman and Pangeran 
"Babu Patima, who became the wife of the present Pangeran 
<li Gadong. When Pangeran Xukalam died Sultan Muham- 
mad Khan z'ul Alam married Pangeran Sclamah, also a 
daughter of Pangeran Siu Rama, and begat Siti Baxum, Pan- 
geran ^luDA lf-\ssiM,t Pangeran MruA Muhammad, who is 
now Pangeran Eandaliara, nud Pangeran Siti Khatijah* He 
had many child ren by cone n bines. 

The eldest >4on of Sultan T^Iuhammad Ala-eddin^ above re- 
ferred to, named Panger;in ^Jnda Amih Bauar^ begat Pange- 
ran Nasiuudin, who was styled Pangeran Maharaja Dinda, 
and who begat Pangeran Muda Anak Baiiah* who l^vame tlie 
son-in-law of Soltan Muhammad Khan z'ul Alam and begat 
Pangeran I^^tri Nuiialam, Pangeran Anak Beaar Muh\mm\i> 
Saman, Pangeran Anak Tengah Lsmail, Pangeran Anak Da- 
mit Omar Alli aud Pangeran Istru Thin latter became the 
wife of the Siiltan Omar Ajj Saifuddin, now on the throne, 


f Panqoran MuDA HAesm nmrricd the niece of the Ute Sultan MfMiuir 
ATid had ihitfii rlaughters and two sans. Oqc of the lut Icr wuh callvtl PaCj^mti 
Muda OlkQchu Besar and t^ other Pangeran Muda Chuchu Damit. 


The different systems adopted in raising a revenue from 
land and providing for alienation, inheritance, &c. in certain 
Asiatic countries brought under European rule were briefly 
reviewed in this Journal in a paper which appeared in No. 13.* 
Descriptions of the native tenure and revenue system as they 
existed in Cambodia up to 1884 were there cited. t With the 
progress of events, it is now in our power to note the latest 
effort of European administrators in Asia to deal with the 
problem of harmonising native customs, as to this department 
of government, with civilised notions of freedom and justice. 

The Convention concluded between France and Cambodia 
last year provides for much more direct interference by the 
French in the administration of the latter country than existed 
under the Protectorate during the previous twenty years. The 
alleged necessity for this is thus stated by a writer in Hxcursions 
et Reconnaissances, VIII, 206 (November and December, 
1885) :— 

" It was necessary that France, the protecting power, 
should at last intervene. Without wishing to interfere un- 
reasonably in the administration of the country, it was necessary 
that the revenue realised by the land-tax, ceasing to be devo- 
ted to the augmentation of the personal wealth of the King 
or privileged mandarins, should be the source of productive 
expenditure ; it was necessary that the peasant should become 
owner of his land, and the slave master of his person ; that 
justice should be regularly administered, and that, placed at 
first within the reach of all by the creation of minor courts, it 
should be secured by the existence of superior tribunals. It 
was necessary beyond everything that the execution of these 
reforms should not be evaded, as so many promises have been 
during the last twenty years, by the ill-will of mandarins 

♦ 2'he Imw and Customs iff the Malays xcUh reference to the Tenure of 
Land, Journal, Straits Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, No. 13, p. 75. 
+ p.p. UXJ and 130. 



interested in maintaining the existing state of affairs/' 

'^The peru^ial of the decrees which follow w^ill ehew 
better than any commentary how it has been decided to solve 
all these difficuHies. The tux in liind has been abolished and 
the right of private property in laud created. The eight pi*o- 
viuces formed out of the hfty-seven old ones are placed several- 
ly under the superintendence of a French Resident ; a eivil 
list is assigned U) the King, while t!ie headmen of provinees 
and the judges receive salaries which justily the exaction 
from them of integrity and industry. Finally, at the Court 
of the King, France is represented by a Resident-General 
who, instead of bcin^» as in the past, an almost powerles^s 
spectator of Cambodian decline, will have a firm hand over all 
branches of the administration.^* 

The decrees here alluded to include one relating to the poll* 
tieal and administrative organisation of Cambodia, one provi- 
ding for the judicit^l organisation, one abolishing slavery, one 
creating private property in land, and one abolishing tax in 
kind levied on paddy. All of these are of interest to English- 
men, to whom no experiment in colonisation and in the govern- 
meut of subject races can be a matter of indifference. But 
only the two last, as bearing upon hmd'tcuurc^ and laud- 
revenue, and tlicrefore related to the subject of the paper 
already mentioned, are here translated. Whether the political 
condition of the country will admit of their peacefnl intro- 
duction remains yet to be seen."^ 


• " The kiit mail from Indti-China brings also some particulurs as to 
the aituatioa in Cumlxjdia. This couBtry is far frum being pacified ; if it h 
true tiiat our s*>ldiers havt- hcen % irtoiiuus in all c^ui^iig-emintf^ and that they 
havt' iaJlicted enomnoM?* lossei^ cm the insurt^ents, it \<> ixmxv the Iohs true that 
the whole rounliy is diiiorfj^mised, thai amtrthy rtif^us there, atitl that secu- 
rity is wanting. What is tnont painful to ua to notice is that tidini,^ 
only reach us tbroiiyh the pe^t, tiiat in the seven monUu* dviriiij^' which th*? 
m«iirrec'tion has now Ltslcd the Governor of <'oe!iin-China has jy;iven no 
details, except when they have been foreed from him^ and that it is only 
now that we are bef^innLng to Ivnni tl»<i nanieti of iht^ killed and wounded, 
llndoutrtedly it >va8 necessary nut to pve the tnoveini>nt moi*e importunee 
than it deserved, hut it is, to say the least of it, f^lnuicce that we should not 
have been informi"d, until a month aUer the event, that Pnom* Penh » the 
ratiital of C'ambodiii, hiid bctn attacked,*' — Aftimhit de VExttittw Ontftt^ 
JuJy, 1885, p, 27. 



Part I. — Of the creation of property in land. 

Part II. — Division of tub State-domain. 

Part III. — Of the administratioxofthe State-domain. 

Part IV. — Of occupiers. 

Part V. — Op alienation. 

Part VI. — Of registration of proprietorship. 

Part VII. — Of dispossession. 

General provisions. 

Part I. 
Of the Creation of Property in Land. 

1. The territory of Cambodia, up to this day the exclu- 
sive property of the Crown, is declared to be the property of 
the State. 

2. All persons holding lands by virtue of documents 
indicating a temporary hiring or alienation will be required to 
deposit the same, during the six months next following after 
the publication oL* this order, in the hands of the Resident of 
the Province, who will grant receipts for them. 

After having been verified by the Resident-General, these 
documents will, if their validity is established, be counter- 
signed and returned to the parties interested. 

3. In default of compliance, within the period specified, 
with the requirements of the preceding section, land-holders 
will forfeit all rights. 

Part II. 

Dirision of the Statc-dotnain, 

1. The State-domain includes, 

lands assigned as an endowment to the Crown ; 



lands employed for public purposes (le domaine 
pffhiicj ; 

reserved lands fie dmnaine de reserve) ; 

aii enable lands fie domaine alienable). 
In the eudowment of the Crown is included all the im-^ 
moveable property placed at the disposal of His Majesty the 
King of Cambodia, with power to hiui to collect the revenues 
thereof and to dispose of them ut \m pleusurej i5 abject to the 
reservations contained in this order. 

In the public domain are included — roads, highways, rail- 
way lines and their appurtenances ; streams navigable for vcs* 
aels or rafts, as well us their banks or shores to a breadth of 
eight nieircs beyond the ordinary level of high water; all the 
ways of communication in general ; buildings, lands and pre- 
mises appropriated to a public purpose. 

5. The Crown endow^raeut and the public domain are 
ioalieoable ; the immoveable property composing them can 
neither be pledged or mortgaged* 

6. The reserved tracts include such iranioveable property 
as the government decides to withhold fi-om immediate alte- 
iiaticm and to reserve tor the wants of the future, although 
they form a poitiou neither uf the Crown endowment nor of 
the public domain. 

Such immoveable property is inalienable as long as it 
continue to be classed under this category; it may^ however, 
be pledged or mortgaged, 

7. The alienublc tracts comprise all lands, the alienation 
of which is authorised as occasion arises. They may be clas- 
sified, in each comnnnie, in ditlercnt classes, which will only be 
disposed of successively, so that lands of the second cluss will 
only be alienated after those of the firet have been exhausted^ 
those of the tliird class alter the complete alienation of the 
second, and s:) on. 

8. Land revenue of all kinds, and the rents derived from 
the immoveable property of the State-domain, witii the excep- 
tion of the trown endowment, goto the credit of the iStute 
budget, Mhich bcnctits similarly by the sums realised by the 
sale of alienable lands. 


9. The classification of the lands of the State-domain 

the Crown endowment, 

the public domain, 

the reserved portion, and 

the alienable portion, 
will' be carried out, and may be modified from time to time by 
an order of the Resident-General, confirmed by the Governor 
of Cochin-China, after consultation with the Council of the 
Government of Cambodia. 

Tlie division, according to communes, and the classifica- 
tion of the alienable tracts will be cfiected by the provincial 
Residents, after consultation with the native authorities, and 
sanctioned by the Resident-General. 

Part III. 

Of the Administration of the State'domain. 

10. The State-domain is administered, under the high 
authority of the King and of the Governor of Cochin-China, 
by the French Resident-General, represented in the provinces 
by the Residents. 

The Resident-General executes, either in person or by 
those to whom he has delegated authority, all the instruments 
whicli aflect tlie State-domain ; purchases, sales, concessions, 
contracts, exchanges, leases and agreements, and represents it 
in Couits of law. 

Paut IV. 

Of Occupiers, 

11. Exceptional advantages will be oflTered to occupiers 
of the soil. 

Those who have established themselves upon lands form- 
ing part of the alienable domain will be admitted, in prefer- 
ence to all other persons, either to become the owners of such 
lands on a gratuitous title, or else to acquire them by private 
contracts in consideration of a payment calculated on the 



intrinsic value of the soil indepemlent of any added value 
resulting fmm improvements made by siicli occupiers. 

12. Those wlio have established themselves ou lands ap- 
propriated to the public domain or the rcsierved tracts will have 
to quit them witiiiu a period to be fixed by the Resident of 
the province ; but the? will receive, free of cost, if they desire 
it, a concession of land sufficient to indemnify them fur any 
losses resulting from compulsory removal. 

When the lands in respect of which such evacuation is to 
be effected are occupied by standing crops^ the period afore- 
said can only comnienee from the day of their removal. 

13, Every pei'son who s!ia!l occupy in the future, with* 
out the license of a competent uuthority, a piece of hind lie- 
longing to the State, shall he liable to a tine of four times the 
letable value of the land occupied. 

Part V. 

Of Alienation. 

1 k The land of the State may be alienated by means of 
free gift fconrctisfoa t/ntinitc)^ of sale by private contract, and 
of sale by public auction, 

15. Free concession of fifty hpctares* and under^ in the 
country, or of one thcusaiid square m tires and under in centres 
of population, may be granted by the provincial Residents, 
after consultation with the nativt? authorities ; but they will 
not tjikeetfect until after approval by the llesident-GeneraL 

IG. Concessions of greater extent may be made by the 
Resident-GenernL When they exceed three hundred liecJares, 
in the case of country lands, or three tliousand f^quare 
metrea in the case of populous centres, they must, in addition, 
be ratitied by thedovcrnnr of Coebin-ChiLia, after consultation 
w*ith the Council of the Government of Cambodia. 

17. Sales by private contract of land of a value of two 
hundred dollars and under may be concluded by the proviu* 
cial Residents and confirmed by the Kesidcut-General ; above 
two hundred dollars, tliey may be concluded by the Resident- 

• One hertare^^tvio acroi* one rood ihirty-rtve jierchefu 


General ; when they exceed two thousand dollars, they must, 
in addition, be submitted for the approval of the Gx)yemor of 
Cochin-Chma, the Council of the uovemment of Cambodia 
being consulted. 

18. The putting up of land for sale by public auction 
must, iu every case^ be authorised^ as a preliminary measure, 
by the Resident-General, who has subsequently to confirm the 
report of the sale. This report must, in addition, receive the 
approval of the Governor of Cochin-China, in consultation 
with the Council of Government of Cambodia, if the price 
realised at the auction exceeds two thousand dollars. 

19. In case the confirmation of the Besident-General, or 
the approval of the Governor, is refused^ the alienations men- 
tioned in sections 16, 17 and 18 will be rendered void and will 
be of no eflect. 

20. The draft of the instrument of free concession or of 
private contract is shewn on the counterfoil of the register of 
alienations kept at the Residency of the Province in which the 
land is situated : a duplicate is made out on the detachable 
part of the same register and an extract thereof upon the butt 
attached to the latter. These three documents are signed by 
the provincial Resident and by the purchaser or concessionaire, 
or by two witnesses if the latter be illiterate. The detachable 
copy and its butt arc then torn off* and despatched to the Re- 
sident-General, who will transmit them, if necessary, to the 

After all the prescribed formalities have been performed, 
the butt is detached from the duplicate and kept at the Chief 
Residency (la Residence Gevi' rale) while this latter is made 
over to the party interested to serve as his document of title. 

21. The approval of the Governor of Cochin-China may 
be given in a general way, by a resolution mentioning the 
various instruments, to several alienations. 

22. Sections 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15 (the three first 
paragraphs only) , 1(5, 17, 18 and 19 oftlie resolution of the 22nd 
August, 1882, relating to the alienations of publicland in Cochin- 
China, shall be applicable to sales by auction of public lands in 
Cambodia. The Hesidcnt-General is to perform the functions 
which in Cochin-China devolve on the Director of the Interior. 



23. The instrument of alienation may contuin a stipula- 
tion exempting the land from taxation, either wholly or par- 
tialljj for a period which shall in no case exceed four years. 

The purc4ia6e money will be payable either in cash at the 
time of delivery of title, or by annual payments calculated in 
such a manner that the purchaser will hud himself entirely 
free within a maximum period of ten years. 

24. The cost of taking possession must be defrayed 
entirely by the purchasers and concessionaires. 

25. Instruments by which the alienation of State lands 
is effected are exempt from all fees for registration or other- 
wisCj with the exception of a fixed charge of 20 cents fur 
delivery of title^ winch will be levied at the time of reg^istra- 
tion in the rcf^ister of alienations, on which a minute of sales 
by auction will be entered. 

26. The alienation of State lands takes final effect~iQ 
the case of free concessions^ by the discharge, for four conse- 
cutive years, of the land-tax ; or, in the case of alienatious 
bui-dened with a payment, by the entire payment of the pur- 

27. The Resident-General can always direct the revoca- 
tion of alienations which hnve not taken final effect^ either for 
non-compliance with the clauses of the contract, or for insuf- 
ficient or bad cultivation. 

The eviction of the purchaser or eoneessionaire is pro- 
nounced, after a preliminary suit, by the authority who ordered 
the alienation, subject to the confirmation or approval of the 
superior authorities whose concurrence is necessary as laid 
down in sections 15^ 16, 17, 18 and 19. 

28. No demise of State lands for farming can take place 
if it has not been previously authorised by the Resident-Gene- 
ral; such demise will then be concluded by the provincial 
Resident, entered on the register of leases specially kept for 
that purpose (which vfill be kept in the way indicated in sec- 
tion 20 as to the register of ahenation), and confirmed by the 
Resident-General in the same w^ay as sales by private contract 
where the purchase money is less than two hundred dollars, 
before the detached duplicate is issued to the lessee. This lat- 
ter can in no case Ijc exempted from pn}Tnent of the land-tax. 


20. Leases of land belonj^iug to the State will be charge- 
able with a fee of twenty cents on delivery of title. This ft>e 
will be levied at the time of the entry on the register of leases. 

30. Christian institutions, pagodas, mosques and other 
religious establLsliinents, will be permitted to keep in full pro- 
perty the lands occupied by them on the 17th June, 18iS4, the 
day of the signature of the Pnom-Penh Convention, that is to 
say, temple-grounds, cemeteries, schools, and priests^ houses, 
with their gardens ami out-houses. 

Part VI. 

Of R(*(jistrafion of Lands. 

31. During the six montJis next following after the 
publication cf this order, there will be opened, for each cojtnnune, 
or, if necessary, for each section of a ro/;/w//?/e, quarter, or ham- 
let, a register of the lands comprised in it, the form of which 
will be decided upon hereafter. 

These registers will be kept in French by the provincial 

32. All mutations of immoveable property must, under 
pain of nullity, be certified to the headmen of cantons, who 
will receive the instrument ])y virtue of which the nnitation is 
effected, will give a receipt for it, and will forward it without 
delay, through the successive grades of headmen fpar la 
voir hirrarrJihiue), to the i)rovincial llcsid(;nt f(jr entrj' on the 
register of lands of his Kesidf^ncy. 

Tiie ctirtificate of the j)artics interested is verified by a 
statement sign«d by the liC^idcnt and written upon the ins- 
trument of transfer. 

No mutation of title can be effected by a verbal contract. 

33. The registers of lands will be commenced afresh 
every ?i\Q years. 

Pabt VII. 

Of DiffpossesHtan. 

34. No one shall heuceforth be obliged to BorreDder his 



property except in the case of its being required for public 
purposefi^ and in consideration of fair compensation previoualy 

3o. Lands in respect of wbit;h dispossession is effected 
on account of tlicir being required for public purpose8j will be- 
I'ome part of the State-domain and be class i lied under the 
Jiead of /<? domains puhiic* 

36. U^'henevcr there shall be occasion for disposscaisioUj 
the nature of the public purposes for which the land is required 
shall be previously declared by an order of the Resident-(.Tene- 
ral, Tbis order will describe tlie lands to bo appropriated , 
will declare their appropriation, will state, if necessary, any 
reasons for urgency in fixing the date from which possession 
will be taken, and will appoint the non-official members of the 
Cojnniittee mentioned in the following section. 

^7, Witljin (at the latest) the three months next follow- 
ing the order of the Heiiidcnt-Gcueral, a Committee consisting 

1, the Provincial llcsidcntj or his deputy, Pre.«ident ; 

2, the Headman of the arrondissement nnd the Head- 
man of the rantoHj within which the land appro- 
priated is sitaated ; 

3, the two non-official members appointed by the 
order prescribed in s, 36; 

shall proceed to the spot, inspect the land appropriated, listen 
to the claims of the owners and other persons interested (notice 
having been given to them at least eight days previously) and 
fix the aujount of the compensation. 

The Committee will draw up a Report of its proceedings 
and forward it without delay to the Itesident-General, who 
will pay, within three months from the date of such report, 
the sums thereby awarded. 

38. Exi'cpt in cases of urgency, possession shall never be 
taken until the compensation has been paid. 

The tuking of possession must never be delayed longer 
than the montli following bucli payment. 

If urgency has been formally declared to exist, posses- 
sion will be taken on the date fixed in the order of the Hesi- 



In either case^ the fact t)f possession having been taken 
most be recorded in a report by the Provincial I&ident. 

39. Evei^ act of dispossession which shall not be in oon- 
formity with the preceding regulations is hereby declared to 
be void and of no effect, provided that this shail in no way 
affect any liability, civil or criminal, which may have been 
incurred by those officers who may have ordered, prosecuted, 
carried out, or in any manner taken part in the same. 

General Procedure. 

40. Any matter not provided for in the present B^ula* 
tion shall, on the motion of the Resident-General^ be deter- 
mined by the Governor of Cochin-China, the Council of the 
Government of Cambodia being consulted. 

41. The Resident-General is charged with the carrying 
out of the present order, which shall be enrolled wherever need- 
ful, and inserted in the Journal Officiel de la Cochin-Chine 
Frangaise and in the Bulletin Officiel du Catnhodge. 

Given at Pnom-Penh, the 28th October, 1884. 

Goveryior of Cochin-China. 
(Seal of the first Minister). 

Obder abolishing the Tax on Paddy. 

1. The tax upon paddy levied by the Oknhaluong is, and 
shall remain^ abolished. 

2. The foregoing decision shall apply to the harvest, now 
in progress, for 1884. 

3. Paddy intended for the manufacture of spirits shall 
continue to be charged with a duty of ten per cent. 


i}. The representative, for the time being, of the Protec- 
torate is charged with the enforcement of this decree. 

Given at Pnom-Pcnh, the 18th November, 1884. 



(Seal of the first Minister) . 

By order of the Governor, 

J. FOURfiS, 

liepresentatke f provisional J of the Protectorate. 


The Malay language is a member of the Malayan section of 
the Malayo-Polynesian class of languages, but it is by no 
means a representative type of the section which has taken its 
name from it. The area over which it is spoken comprises the 
peninsula of Malacca with the adjacent islands (the Rhio- 
Lingga Archipelago), the greater part of the coast districts of 
Sumatra and Borneo, the seaports of Java, the Sunda and 
Banda Islands. It is the general medium of communication 
throughout the archipelago from Sumatra to the Philippine Is- 
lands, and it was so upwards of three hundred and fifty years 
ago when the Portuguese first appeared in those parts. 

There are no Malay manuscripts extant, no monumental re- 
cords with inscriptions in Malay, dating from before the 
spreading of Islam in the archipelago, about the end of the 13th 
century. By some it has been argued from this fact that the 
Malays possessed no kind of writing prior to the introduction 
of the Arabic alphabet (W. Robinson, J. J. de Hollander) ; 
whereas others have maintained, with greater show of probabi- 
lity, that the Malays were in possession of an ancient alphabet, 
and that it was the same as the Kcchang (Marsden, Friederich), 
as the Kawi (Van der Tuuk), or most like the Lampong 
(Kern), — all of which alphabets, with the Battak, Bugi, and 
Macassar, are ultimately traceable to the ancient Gambojan 
characters. With the Mohammedan conquest the Perso-Arabic 
alphabet was introduced among the Malays ; it has continued 
ever since to be in use for literary, religious, and business pur- 
poses. Where Javanese is the principal language, Malay is 
sometimes found written with Javanese characters ; and in I*a- 
lembang, in the Menangkabo country of Middle Sumatra, the 
Rechang or Renchong characters are in general use, so called 
from the sharp and pointed knife with which they are cut on 
the smooth side of bamboo staves. It is only since the Dutch 
have established their supremacy in the archipelago that he 



Eomau clmracter lina come to be largely used in writing and 
printing Malay* This ia also the case in the Straits Settle- 

By the simiiUcity of its phonetic elements, the regularity of 
its graDimjiticul structure, and the copiousness of its imutiral 
vocabulary^ the Malay larigua^^e is singularly well-fitted to be 
tlie ihi(/tfa franca throughout tlie hulian archipelago. It 
possesses the tive vowels, a* i\ n^ c, o^ both short and long, and 
one pure diphthong an. Its consonants are k^ fj, ng, ch^J, ^n 
t, r/, «,;>, //, m, If, r, /, ^r, s, h. Long vowels can only occur in 
open syllables. The only possible consonantal nexus in pure- 
ly Malay words is that of a na^al and mute, a liquid and mute 
and vice versa* and a liquid and nasal Final k and h are all 
but suppressed in the utteraDce, Purely Arabic letters are 
only used in Arabic words, u great number of which have been 
received into the Malay vocabulary. But the Arabic chara<^- 
ter is even less suited to Malay than to the other Eastera 
languages on which it has been foisted, As the shoii; vowels 
an? nut marked, one would, in seeing, e, //., the word bntng^ 
think first of hintaifij^ a star ; but the word mii^djt also mean a 
laro;e sear, to tlir<»w down, to spread, rigid, mutilated, euceiute, 
a kind of cucumber, a redoubt, according' as it is pronounced 
hantang, bantinff^ benttaiffj buniiufg, huntung, buntinfj, bonteiig^ 

Malay is essentially, with few exceptions, a dissyllabic lan- 
guage, and the syllabic accent rests on the penultimate unless 
that syllabic is npen and short ; r, //., datiing, namana, bt'sur^ 
diumpalkaofiaiah. Nothing in the form of a root word indi- 
cates tlie grammatical category to which it belongs : thus^ 
kiii^i/t, kindness, affectionate^ to love; gfintt, ik proxy, to ex- 
change, instead of. It is only in derivative words that this 
vagueness is avoided. Derivation is effected by infixes, pre- 
fixes, affixes, and reduplication. Infixes occur more rarely in 
Malay than in the cognate tongues. Examples arc — guruh^ 
a r u m b 1 i n g noise, gu m ff rn h , t o m akc sii ch a no isc ; t u ir/u k ♦ to 
point, telnnjuk, the forefinger; ckHclmk^ to pierce, cheruckuk. 

No, The Roman cliAr.'ickr has nofc yet been adopted in the fHnuU 
BottlvmoriiM, cither in lUc GovernmoDl Vtrimcular ScUuoIk, or hy the Native 



a stockade. The import of the prefixes — m^ (meng, meS, 
men, mem), pe (peng, pen, pen, pem), ber, (bel), per, pel, ka, 
di, ter, — and affixes — an, kan, i, lah — will best appear from 
the following examples : root word djary to teach, to learn ; 
mtngdjary to instruct (expresses an action) ; beldjar, to study 
(state or condition) ; mencjdjari, to instruct (some one, trans.) ; 
menydjnrkan, to instruct (in something, causative) ;/>i"//^a/*ar, the 
instructor \peldjarj the learner ; pengajdran, the lesson taught, 
also the scho:)l ;pc'la/dran, the lesson learnt; didjar, to be learnt 
/rra/ar, learnt; tevajdrkan,iVL\\^\\i; /dVryyjrj, instructed ; [/?iV- 
dja; (from r/7/fl, prince), to recognize as prince; perajdkan, to 
crown as prince ; karajdan, royalty] ; d/arkanlah, teach ! Ex- 
amples of reduplicatiou are — djar-d/tir, a sainted person ; ajar' 
berdjar, (or beldjar) y to be learning and teaching by turns ; 
similarly there are forms like djar-m^ngdjary hin^djar-ajdran^ 
djar-ajdriy mcmperdjary mlnnpcrdjarkan, memperajdriy terhel- 
djarkan, pcrbeldjarkany &c. Altogether there are upwards of 
a hundred possible derivative forms, in the idiomatic use of 
which the Malays exhibit much skill. See especially II. von Dk- 
WALL, De cormveranderinjon der MaUlsche /aa/, Batavia, ISGt; 
and J. PiJNAPPEL, Mahisch'HollandHch JFoordenhoek, Amster- 
dam, 1875, ''Inleiding." lu every other respect the language 
is characterized by great simplicity and iudefiniteness. There 
is no inflexion to distinguish number, gender, or case. Num- 
ber is never indicated when the sense is obvious or can be 
gathered from the context ; otherwise plurality is expressed by 
adjectives such as siiffdla, all, Tiudhdnaky many, more rarely by 
the repetition of the uoim, and the indeiioite singular by sa or 
fidiu, one, with a class-word, (ieudcr may, if neeessarv, be dis- 
tinguished by the words laki-Idki, male, and perampuan, fe- 
male, in the case of persons, and o{ Junta n and betina in the case 
of animals. The genitive case is generally indicated by the 
position of the word aft^^r its governing noun. Also adjectives 
and demonstrative pronouns have their places after the noun. 
Comparison is effected by the use of particles. Instead of the 
personal pronouns, both in their full and abbreviated forms, 
conventional nouns are in frequent use to indicate tlio social 
position or relation of the respective interlocutors, as, e, g,j 
hamha tuan, the master's slave, i. e., I. These nouns vary ac- 
cording to the different localities. Another peculiarity of 



Malay (and likewise of Chinese, Shan^ Talaing, Burmese, and 

Siamese) is the use of certain class-words or coefficients with 
numerals, suc^h as oratif; (man), wlien speaking of persons, ekor 
(tail) of animals, keping (piece) of flat thiu;^??, hlji (seed) of 
roundish things ; e, g.^ lima biji telot% five eggs* The number 
of theso class- words is considerahlc, Malay verbs have neither 
person or number nor mood or tense, The last two are some- 
times indicated by particles or auxiliary verbs; but these are 
generally dispensed with if the meaning is sufficiently plaia 
without them. The Midiiys avoid the buildini^ up of long sen- 
tences. The two main rules by which the order of the words in a 
sentence is regulated are — subject, verb, object: and qualify- 
ing words follow those which they qualify. This is quite the 
reverse of what is the rule in Burmese. 

The history of rlie Malays amply accounts for the number 
and variety of foreitjn iiigredieuts in their lnngua[;e* Hindus 
appear to hmrc settled in Sumatra and Java as early m tlie ith 
century of our era, and to have continued to CKercise sway 
over the native populations for many centuries, Theso receiv- 
ed from them into their language a very large number of Sans- 
krit terras from which we can infer the nature of the civiliz- 
ing indiicnce imparted by tlie Hindu rulers. Not only ia words 
concerning commerce and ai^riculture, but also in ternis con- 
nected with soctul, religious, aud administrative matters^ that 
influence is traceable in Malay. See W. E. Maxwkll, Mtutimi 
of the Mnlny Lanijnatje^ 1KH2, pp. 5-3 1> where tliis subject is 
treated more fully than by previous writers. This San^^krit 
element forms such an integral part of the Jlalay vocabuhiry 
that in spite of the subsequent infusion of Arabic and Persian 
words adopted in the u.sual course nf Mohammedan conquest 
it has niained its ancient citizenship in the language. The 
number of Portusfuese, English, Dtitch, and Chinese words in 
3Ialay is not i^onsidcrahle ; their presence is easily accounted 
for by j)o!iliual or commercial contact. 

Tlic Malay language abounds in idiomatic exprcssiim?, 
which constitute the chief difficulty in its acquisition. It is 
sparing in the use of personal pronouns, and prefers imperson- 
al and elliptical rlietion. As it is ri.'h in !*pecilic expressions 
for the various aspects of certain ideas, it is requisite to em- 
ploy always the most appropriate term suited to the particular 


aspect. In Maxwkll's Manual^ pp. 120 8q,^uo less than six- 
teen terms are given to express the different kinds of striking, 
as many for the diffi}rent kinds of speaking, eighteen for the 
various modes of carrving, &c. Au unnecessary distinction 
has been made between ^gh Malay and Loic Malay. The 
latter is no separate dialect at all, but a mere brogue or jargon, 
the medium of intercourse between illiterate natives and Euro- 
peans too indolent to apply themselves to the acquisition of 
the language of the people ; its vocabulary is made up of Malay 
words, with a conventional admixture of words from other 
languages ; and it varies, not only in different localities, but 
also in proportion to the individual speaker's acquaintance 
with Malay proper. The use is different as regards the term 
Jdwi as applied to the Malay language. This has its origin 
in the names Great Java and Lesser Java, by which the me- 
diaeval Java and Sumatra were cnlled, and it accordingly 
means the language spoken along the coasts of the two great 

Malay is probably spoken with greatest purity in the Rhio- 
Lingga Archipelago and in the independent states of Perak 
and Kedah, on the western coast of the peninsula of Malacca. 
In other states of the peninsula (Johor, Tringganu, Eelantan) 
dialectical divergencies both as to pronunciation and tne use 
i»{ words have been noted. The most important and the most 
interesting of all the Malay dialects is that of Menangkabo 
(Menangkarbau) in the residency of Padnng and in Upper 
Jambi, in Central Sumatra. It abounds in diphthongs, and 
prefers vocalic to consonantal terminations, thus changing fi- 
nal al and ar into a% il and ir into iye^ ?// and i/r into uwe^ as' 
and at into e', us into wri ; final a mostly passes into 3, so that 
for siiddrn an»] Hitddfjar they say Hudero, sudego ; the emphatic 
'lah is turned into -malah or malah hd : the prefixes ber, per^ 
ier are changed into hd, pa, td, or bard, pdrd, tdrd. Amcmg 
other changes in pronunciation may be noted urany for orany, 
mtinyko for makay lai for Idgi ; they use nan for yang, naf for 
hendak, deh for o!eh, ba* for bdgai, pai tor peryi, ko' iorjikalau, 
&c. In Some districts of Menangkabo (Palerabang, Lebong) 
the Renchong character is in general use in writing this dia- 
lect, for which purpose it is far better suited than the Arabic. 
As early as 1822 a small tract on the customs and traditions 


of Moko-Mokoj in tliis dialect, was printed with a translation 
at Bencoolen. But it is oylv in recent years that the Dutch 
have commenced to pay the dialect the attention it deserves, 
by publisldng texts^ with transliteration uud translations and 
snpplying other materials for its iuvcstigalion. See tho 
Trmismtions and Journal of the Asiatic Societies of Batavia 
and the Hague the Imiiachv Gids^ and more especially the 
philological portion^ by A. L, van ITassklt, of Midden- Sit mat ra^ 
ill. 1 (Leydeu, 188'))^ where also the best and fullest account 
of tlie Rciichong character is to be found. Of either Malay dia- 
lects in Sumatra, only the one sp:)ken at Achih (Achin) 
descrvcis mention : in Java the Batavian dialect shows the most 
marked peculiarities. The numerous and «;Teatly div^ergent 
dialects spoken in the Molucca Islands (vahiabie information 
on which lias been supplied by F. 8. A, i>e Clekcq, G. W, \V. 
C. VAN HoEVELLj aud A. van Ekius) and in Timor diilcr so 
matenally from the Mahay of the peninsula of the Mcnangka- 
bo that they cannot be calted Malay dialects at all ; whereas 
tlie Malay spoken in some parts of the Minahassa (Celebes) 
scarcely differs from Malay proper. 

There is no grammar of Malay by a native writer with the 
sole exception of a small tract of 70 pages, entitled Bustduu 
'IkuiifiJn, by Raja Ali IIajji of Rbio, which was lithographed 
•in the island of Penengal in 1857. A. I^ioafetta, whoaccom- 
pained Mackllan in his first voyage round the globe, was the 
first European whose vocaVjulary of Malay words (150) has 
come down to ns. Next in the field were the Dutch, who 
provitlcd a medium of intercourse between their traders and 
the Malays. F. Hoi tman's Vocaf^flart/ and Cfmrtrmtion^, in 
Butch, Jlaluf/, and Mainga^jj, appeared at Amsterdam in 1()03 : 
and it may be noted that the Malay spoken in those days does 
not appear to have matcriatly altered since. The same dia- 
logues a|)peared in English and Malay in 1514. Since then 
numerous grammars^ dictionaries, and eonvcrsaliuii hooks have 
been brought out by Knglieh and Dutch wiiters. As the best 
helps at present available for the study of Malay may be recom- 
mended W. K. Maxwell's Mumuil of the Jfalat/ Lanijuage, Lon- 
don, 1882 (especially valuable for its full treatment id' the 
itlioms) ; P* Favre, Grammaire de la I am/ up Mffiauf, Vienna 
and Paris, 1876: and THctionnaire JUalais-Franrais, ib,^ 1875> 


2 vols. ; Didionnaire Franc^ais-Malais, ib., 1880, 2 vols. ; J. J. 
DB Hollander, Handleiding bij de heoefening der Maleische taal 
en letterkunde, Breda, 1882 ; J. Punappel, Maleische Spraak- 
kunst, Hague, 1866 ; and Maleisch-Hollandsch Wbordenboek, 
Amsterdam, 1875. The printing of Von Dewall^s Didionart/, 
edited by H. N. van deji Tuuk, is still in progress at Batavia. 

Literature, — There are two kinds of Malay popular litera- 
ture — the one in prose, the other in poetry. The former com- 
prises the proverbs, the latter the " pantims/^ *' Agriculture, 
hunting, fishing, boating, and wood-craft are the occupations 
or accomplishments which furnish most of the illustrations* 
and the number of beasts, birds, fishes, and plants named in a 
collection of Malay proverbs will be found to be considerable'* 
(W. E. Maxwell, Malay Proverbs), H. C. Klinkert, pub- 
lished a collection in the Hijdracjen tot de taalkunde van N. I, 
(Journal of the Asiatic Society of the Hague) for 1866, pp. 39 
-87. See also J. Habbema on the Menangkabo proverbs, in 
vols. XXV. and xxvi. of the Batavian Tijdschrift, and Favre's 
Didionnaire Malais-Fran^ais, passim. The pantuns are im- 
pro\nised poems, generally (though not necessarily) of four 
lines, in which the first and third and the second and fourth 
rhyme. They arc mostly love poems ; and their chief peculi- 
arity is that the meaning intended to be conveyed is expressed 
in the second couplet, whereas the first contains a simile or 
distant allusion to the second, or often has, beyond the rhyme, 
no connexion with the second at all. The Malays are fond of 
reciting such rhymes '' in alternate contest for several hours, 
the preceding pantun furnishing the catchword to that which 
follows, until one of the parties be silenced or vanquished/' 
See T. J. Newholi), Account of the British Bettlemeyits in the 
Straits of JUahiccny vol. ii. 340 ; Klinkert in the Bijdraeien for 
1808, pp 309-70; L. K. Harmskx in the Tijdschrift, vol. 
xxi. pp. 480-533 (Menangkabo). If the Malays have kept 
entirely aloof from the influences of Islam in this the most 
characteristic part of their literature, they have almost equally 
preserved their independence in the other departments. Not 
that this may be considered entirely to their credit ; for, if 
they had endeavoured to infuse into their writings some of the 
spirit of Arabic and Persian historiography, poetry, and fiction, 
it could not but have benefited the character of their own liter- 



ary productions. As it is their histories and chroiiicles are a 
strange motley oC truth and ficiiou ; their pooms and no vela 
lack coherence and irnfigi nation^ and are singularly monotou- 
ons and devoid of tfu»t spirit ot* chivalry which pervades the 
eorresipondinf^ branches of literature amouiar the loading na- 
tions of Ishim. As Malay copyists are much ^iven to making 
arbitrLiry changes, it happens that no two MSS. a;^eej and 
that of many a pc^pular work difierent recensions exiat, which, 
moreover, often go by different names. This circumstauce 
j!:reatly tends to increase the difEculties of editing Malay tex^ts* 
Work-^t on spcchdly Mohammedan subjects (theology, law, ethics, 
mysticism) are of con i^e only imitation?} of Arabic or Persian 
originals : there are also numerous novels and poems treating^ 
of purely Mohammedan legends* But not only is there trace- 
able in many of these a slight undercurrent of Hinduism and 
even pre-Hinduisni; the Malays possess also, and indiscriminate- 
ly read along with their MohammiMlan books, quite as many 
works of fiction of purely Hindu origin. The w^ant, however, 
of political cohesion, and of a national spirit among tribes so 
scattered as the Malaya are, wdaich could have fiivoured the 
growth of a national epic or national songs, sufficiently ac- 
counts for the absence from their literature of any prod net ions 
of this clasfi^ such as exist in Bugi and Jtacassar literature. 
The most popular of their poetical productions arc the ShaHr 
Ken Tiimhrthan, Shamir Bnidsari, Shamir Jauhar JUdnikam and 
^/ta'ir Al>(h('l}nith}k, all of winch have been printed. Among 
the prose works there are various collections of local laws and 
customs ({(n(kwg*undQHij)i chronicles (such as tlie Sajarat ma- 
fdf/it)j books on ethics (the best are the Makota sagala raja-rd' 
ja^ and the Bffsftlnn^i^'nildtJn^ and a very large number of works 
of fiction and legendary lore, some of which possess mucli des- 
criptive power. They all bear the title Hikayat, and the foU 
lowing are the best-know n : H* Hang Tuah, H. Hamzah, H* 
hmCi Yail/fff H. Jmnjumah^ IL Bakhtiifdr (Sddah Bakhtin^ 
GholdmJ, H. ^tmiskin, IL Suikln Ihrdhzm, H. Sn Rdma, H. 
Panddira lima. Several of these and many other works not 
mentioned here have appeared in print (with or withcnt trans* 
lation) chiefly in Holland, Batavia, and Singapore, and extracts 
have been given in the various Malay chrestomathics by 
IKlacrirr, De Hollander, Niemann, Van der Ttvk, Gra- 



SH uis, and in M arsuen^s Malatj Grammar. The best recent Ma- 
lay writer was 'A nor llah iBN 'Abdelkadjr Munshi of Singa- 
pore, who died, it is said of poison, at Mecciij some eight and 
twenty yeai*s ago. His autobiography, *^ Journey to Kelantan/' 
find ^* Pilgrimage to Mecca '' are patterns of Malay style, tliough 
the author's contact with educated Europeans is traceable in 
them, while his translation (from the Tamil version) of the 
Pnnchatantra is free from such influence. 

Malay literature is fairly represented in England in the Bri- 
tish Museum, the India Office, and the Royal Asiatic Society, 
and descriptive catalogues of the Malay MSS. in each of these 
libraries arc available. See Niemann in the Blidragen^ iii. 6. 
p. 116-101 ; Van derTuuk in Tijdschrifl voor Ned. Indili for 
1819, i. p, 385-400, and in the Journal of the Rof/al Adatie 
Socieif/f new series, ii. p, 85-135. An account of the Leyden 
collection, by J, Pu nap pel, is given in the Bijdrafjen^ iii. 5, pp. 
142-178. The finest collection of Malay MSS., upwards of 
400 volumes, is in the library of the Asiatic Society of Batavia, 
See L, W. C. van den Berc^, Verslag^aneene rerzameUng Ma- 
Itische, *!^c"., handHchriften^ Batavia, 1877. If it had not been 
for the loss, by fire, on their passage from India, of three hun- 
dred Malay MSS., the property of the late Sir T. S. Raffles, 
England would now boast of the largest assemblage of Malay 
MSS. in the world. On Malay literature in general, compare 
G, H. Werndly^ Maieische JSpraakkumt, Amsterdam, 1736, 
pp, 227-357 ; E. Jacquet in the Nouveau Journal Asiatiqnttj 
vol. ix. (1832), pp. 97-132, and 222-253; T. J. Newbold, 
British SettlementH in ike Straiifi of Malacca^ 1839, vol. ii. pp. 
215-368 ; E. Dilaurier, Memoire^ lettres^ ct rappurts^ Paris, 
1843 ; J. J. DE Hollander, Handleiding bij de beoefetiing der 
Maleische iaak en ietterhinde, Breda, 1882, pp. 277-388 ; and 
G, K. NiE^tANN, in Bijdragen, iii. 1 (1866), pp. 113-16, 333 

R, R. 

[ The foregoing paper, which is extracted firom the Encyclo- 
pedia Britannica (1883) is from the pen of Dr. Reinhou) 
Host, the learned librarian of the India Office Library, a 
friend to Oriental research of every deacription, 



AM glad to be able to communicate to the Straits 
Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society some notes 
made by a Missionary on his way from Bangkok 
to tJbon to convert the Laos tribes. 

Missionaries penetrate gradually and from dif- 
ferent directions into the midst of these savage 
tribes, and try to convert them to Christianity. The story 
of what occurred among the wild Ba-huars, an independent 
tribe on the West of Cochin-China near the 14° lat. N. and 
106° long. E. (Paris), is well known. In the beginning 
of 1884 five Missionaries were murdered by brigands while 
they were engaged in establishing a Mission among the 
Cbau tribe in the West of Tonquin. 

For some time past the ^lission in Slam has maintained 
a Station at Cbon, near 15° 20' N. lat. and 102° 30' E. 
long. (Paris) on the Seimoun, a tributary of the Mekong. 
It is the Narrative of a Missionary on liis way to Cbon which 
I have now the pleasure of communicating. 

N. C. 

It is not a carefully composed narrative that I propose to 
give you, but simply a journal kept from day to day, written 
often by the light of a torch, or of the setting sun, when, tired 
by the day^s march, we had pitched our camp for the night. In 
order to take the place of Pcre Rondel, invalided, I started with 


P6re Xavier Gd^go, who had alreacl^ been for two yeara a Mis- 
sionary in Laos. We bought iu Bangkok suvh things as were 
absolutely necessary^ these being of on exorbitant price among 
the Chinese of Laos, viz., cotton goods, thread, cooking 
utensils^ racdicines, etc. On Septuagcsima Monday, the 
11th of February, 1884, two boats lauded with luggage took 
their departure for Thakien, four days* jouniey N. K. of Bang- 
kok. The following Tfuir^^day we were at Thakien, where the 
inhabitants entertained us during the few days employed in 
preparing the earts to be used on our journey. These cart^ 
were the same which had brought down our {^onfrerea from 
T^aos a few day-t before. On Wednesday, the ^()th February, 
the earts started; we tbllowed a few hours later, and overtook 
them, and halted at inid-djiy at tlie village of Ban-scng. This 
village is at the entranee of tlie forest, which we were not to 
leave again after this point. Tliere is nothing but one immen^je 
forest, in some places very dense, in others relieved by elearings 
in the midst of which villages are scattered about. It is a 
thick wood, through which passes a ruad just broad enough 
for a cart, there is not room for a man either on the right orou 
the left. Here and tlierc one comes across a clearing. It must 
not be supposed that llie road is free from obstructions ; now 
it is a deep rut which nobody iilla up, now it is an enormous 
root which blocks uj) part of the road-way and which has tu 
be crossed at the risk of seeing the cart smashed iuto a 
thonsaud pieces. We advaucL'd iu this way with our ten carta 
and retiiys of bullocks, which either fotlowi^d or preceded us 
by a sliort distmoe. Sometimes a wheel would lostJ its 
8j>okt*s, and sometimes an axle would bmak Ithese axles are 
merely bars nf snme tough wood which go through the 
wheels and liave to be renewed frequeatly). 

At last, about 9 oYdock, we reached a muddy pool and 
pitched our camp on its banks. This consisted in arrunging 
the carts in a large cn^clc, in the centre of whinh the bullocks 
and horses were tethered to stakes driven irito the groaud* 
Tlieir dnvt-rs spread ibeir mats on the grass umler the carts 
and passed the night there. As for ourselves, we had 
manufa<'turcd two little tents which we set up between two 
carts. Large tires, fed with fuel by watchmen who mounted 

joxnam thbovoh ulob fbok b a vgkok to teoir. 105 

guard armed with muskets, were a safeguard against wild 
beasts and robbers. 

Thursday y 21«^. — Daylight had hardly appeared when I 
wakened the camp and rang to prayers. Then each made his 
way to the cart that served as our kitchen^ to swallow a cfup 
of tea, while waiting for breakfast^ which might be a long time 
coming, for it was necessary first to reach the regular htdting- 
place, otherwise no water was to be got. The bullocks were 
yoked, and we started— '^my confrerCy on horseback, leading the 
way, while I brought up the rear in order to keep an eye ujx>n 
stragglers. After an hour's march, there was a sudden halt, 
and I went from one cart to another asking what was the mat- 
ter. Each had stopped because the one in front of it had 
stopped ! It turned out that a wheel was broken, the damage 
was repaired with rattan, and we went on again. About mid- 
day we stopped near a pool and cooked our breakfast, while 
the bullocks, unyoked, cropped the fresh herbage. We were 
at the village of Bamachai, but we were in want of a spare 
felloe, for which we sought in vain. Our people went off to 
the Laosian village of Ban-kula and thence brought back the 
piece of wood that we wanted. We then set off. The route 
here was over loose, white sand, which made it very heavy 
travelling for the bullocks. In the evening we reached two 
muddy marshes ; here, at the pool known as Nong-pi-ieng, we 

Friday^ 22nd. — Towards the evening we arrived at a 
small village— a group of little huts built upon piles in 
the middle of an enclosure formed of felled timber. We did 
not halt here, for the water was not good and the custom- 
house of Muang Sanam is only a kilometre further on and 
there is a good spring there. 

The mention of a '^ custom-house '' is calculated to make 
you suppose that we were approaching a collection of houses 
protected by a military station. But in this country a 
douane is a much more simple affair. No registers, no com- 
missioners ! Two men sprawling peacefully in a hut of leaves 
await, at the frontier of a province, the passage of cart and 
bullocks and lew a tax on the owners. 

Saturday^ 2Srd, — A short stage. Busy prepariiig an tsliiir, 

Sundaf/, 24///. — Mass* We camped in the evening on tbe 
hanks of a torrent, whicli is nearly dry in this season. 

JJomhitjy Uoi/t. — We found in the evening on the sui*face 
of the ground a kind ot* iron ore which the most intelligent 
oi onr followei-s called ** si one of Bien-hou,*^ This substance 
seems to mo to be somewhat curious ; it lociks as if it were 
formed of little globules of iron, or like tlie sing wliich is 
taken from a fumarc after smelting, lilocks of this stone 
are found at disisint intervals, quite isolated one from the 
other. We camped near a little torrent. 

Tftt^daij, 'Zijt/i, — We started again, crossing the stream 
Huai Khai, and met four hullock-carts accompanied by some 
Siamese. This is the first time for tivc days that we bare 
come across any human being. 

Wednesday y 27(h, — We had to cross the river Sakiio, which 
never dries up, and the bed of which is at the bottom of a 
deep ravine and is disfigured with stakes and fiuags. 

Tlie dcBcent was negotiatedj and we crossed over and halted 
for breakfaet. Fonr or five Burmese caravans were encamp- 
ed not far from us, and in another direction a party of 
Oamljodiants, These people had come from the provinces of 
Sourin and Sisaket to buy gambler, wliicli they eat witli the 
?tcl-leaf and arcca-nut. They had been here for more than 
week and had not yet been able to make their purchases, 
owing to their not having complied with some formality or other 
insisted on by the local authorities. While we took our 
meal, we received several visits. The first to come was a 
judge from the town of Amnet, twelve leagues from Cbon^ 
who was on his way to Bangkok, and was good enough to 
take charge of a short note to Monseignenr Yey giving him 
news of us. By degrees all these folks disappeared on their 
way south, in the direction by which we had come. About 2 
o^cloek we too started. We had been on the march for aboi 
three quarters of an hour when wo reached the custom-horn 
of Bakio, which is situated on the side of a road as large and 
straight as ours in Europe. It goes from the province oE 


Kabin to Battambang. Constructed originally hj a Pbya 
(high Siamese official) to secure easy communication with 
the Cambodian provinces subject to Siam, this road might 
be of the greatest use to travellers. But since the date of 
its construction it has not received any repairs whatever^ and 
the forest therefore is taking possession of it again. In this 
very year (1884) a telegraph line hes been erected along this 
road, over its entire length, by the agency of Frenchmen from 
Saigon (this line goes from Saigon to Bangkok). In the 
evening we camped at a pool called Nong Salika. A caravan 
of Chinese traders from Sourin had established themselves 
before our arrival, and among them was the nephew of an old 
Chinese Christian whom I had known at Bangkok. He was 
travelling towards Kabin to sell skins, silk, etc., and intended 
to bring back with him cloth, hardware, etc. His corres- 
pondent at Kabin being a Christian, I« entrusted him with 
a second letter for Bangkok. 

Thursday, 28th. — At 8 p. m. we reached the frontier of the 
province of Yathana. We were all fasting, and we esta- 
blished ourselves in the sheds which had been built for the 
workmen employed on the telegraph line. Night had al- 
ready fallen when we heard the sound of a band of men advanc- 
ing in our direction. Pere Xavier got up to see what was hap- 
pening, and saw a black mass a few feet in front of him. 
" Who goes there V " Phra Aphai/^ Torches were bought 
and Pcre Xavier then saw that the black mass was an ele- 
phant of the largest size followed by two smaller ones. The 
travellers were in search of a lodging for the night, and as 
there still remained one large shed unoccupied, they settled 

themselves down in that. 


Friday, 29fh, — To-day we rested, and watched at our leisure 
the travellers of last night. Their chief is a Cambodian 
mandarin subordinate to Siam. Of the three elephants which 
he had with him, two were intended for the King of Siam as 

The mandarin came to pay us a visit, and informed us of the 
object of his journey. He is, he said, the son of Phya Anu- 
phat (a high official) and the second mandarin of the Province 


of Siem-Tiib, In return for the elephants whiot he was going 
to offer to the King, he hoped for certain favours. We paid a 
visit to the Governor, for whom we had bron^tht letters from 
Bangkok. His house is a tumble-down aflWir. He is of 
Laosian race, ahout sixty years old, and has under his jt(nverii- 
nicnt about two or three hundred houses scattered about in 
the forest, the population of which is Cambodian. 

Salf(rd(tf/j lai March, — For the last time we crossed the tele- 
graph line, which we then quitted in order to take the road to 
Nong-bua (pool of Lokas). At one o'clock wo resumed our 
journey, and cam]ied in the evening at the village of Bang- 
sang inhabited by Laosians. 

Sumi(if/f 2nd,'—Onr itinerary instructed us to go by 
Nong-phi» and Tong-nong — two pools which are close to the 
roadside— but the dryness of the weather obli