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Full text of "The journey from Chester to London"



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THE 



JOURNEY 



FROM 



CHESTER TO LONDON. 



Primed by S. Hamilton, Weypridje. 




:t..|lllillli!|l!iWl!lil|lliii-!i"ll'! 




IN 
S 



THti 



JOURNEY 



FROM 



CHESTER TO LONDON, 



BY 



THOMAS PENNANT, ESQ. 



WITH NOTES. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR WILKIE AND ROBINSON J J. NUNN J WHITE AND 
COCHRANE ; LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN ; 
VERNOR, HOOD, AND SHARPE ; CADELL AND DAVIES ; J. 
HARDING J J. RICHARDSON J J. BOOTH J J. MAWMAN ', AND 
J. JOHNSON AND CO. 

1811. 



Co T^O 

\t\r- 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



X HE ground which is described in the following 
sheets, has been for some centuries passed over 
by the incurious Traveller ; and has had the hard 
fortune of being constantly execrated for its dul- 
ness. To retort the charge, and clear it from the 
calumny, is my present business. To shew that 
the road itself, or its vicinity, is replete with either 
antient historic facts, or with matter worthy of pre- 
sent attention, is an affair of no great difficulty. 
Possibly my readers may subscribe to the opinion, 
that the tract is not absolutely devoid of entertain- 
ment, and that the blame rests on themselves, not 
the country. 



Whatsoever entertainment they may meet 
with, let them join with me in thanks to the fol- 
lowing contributors. Firstly and chiefly, to the 



V i ADVERTISEMENT. 

Reverend Mr. Cole of Milton, near Cambridge ; 
after him, to the Reverend Doctor Edwards, of 
Nuneaton, near Coventry ; to Mr. Greene, Sur- 
geon, in Lichfield; and to the Reverend Arch- 
deacon Coxe, of Flitton, Bedfordshire. To these 

Gentlemen I owe great obligations for their assist- 
ance. 

Public ! smile on what is right : candidly con- 
vey correction of what is wrong. 

THOMAS PENNANT. 

Downing, March 1782. 



. 



. 



ITINERARY. 



vU 



PART I. 

Chester 
Christleton . 
Tarvin . . 
Torporley 
Beeston Castle 
Bunbury 
Acton . . 
Nantwich 
Wybunbury 
Doddington Hall 
Wore . . . 
Swinerton . 
Darlaston 
Stone . . . 
Sandon . . 
Chartley . . 
Stow Church 
Heywood 
Shugborough 
Tixal . . 
Jngestre . . 
Stafford . . 



1 
2 
5 
9 
14 
19 
26 
32 
49 
53 
60 
65 
66 
77 
80 
84 
87 
89 
91 
94 
97 
99 



Page 

Colwich . . '. . . 107 
Blithefield . . . .110 
Maveston Ridvvare . 118 
King's Bromley . . 120 
Wichnor . . . . .121 
Rudgley . . * . . .128 

Longdon 129 

Beaudesert .... 130 
Lichfield . . . .136 

Ilford 159 

Croxal 162 

Tamworth . . . .164 

Lichfield 171 

Canwell 172 

Moxhull . . . . . 173 

Coleshill 174 

Blithe Hall ... . 179 
Maxstoke Castle . . 182 
Packington .... 184 

Mireden 185 

Coventry 188 

Combe Abbey . . . 237 
Knightlow .... 250 



vm 



ITINERARY. 



Dunchurch . 
Braunston . . 
Daventry . . 
Borough Hill . 
Wedon . . . 
Stow Nine Churches 
Toucester . . 
Easton Neston . 
Stoney Stratford 
Blecheley . . 
Fenny Stratford 
Little Brickhill . 
Hockliffe . . 
Dunstable . , 
Market Cell . . 
Redburn . . . 
Gorhambury 
Verulamium 
St.Alban's . . 
Hadley . ; , 
Barnet . . , 
London . . , 



PART II. 



251 

253 

255 

258 

264 

267 

272 

275 

284 

ib. 

289 

290 

291 

292 

, 299 

301 

, 304 

339 

. 348 

, 386 

. 390 

, 392 



Daventry 
Badby . 
Fawsley . 



393 
393 
394 



Flore .... 
Northampton . 
Castle Ashby 
Easton Mauduit 
Northampton . 
De la Pre Abbey 
Eltavon . . . 
Horton Church 
Gothurst . . . 
Tyringham . . 
Newport Pagnel 
Woburn Town . 

Abbey 

Ampthill . . . 
Houghton Park 
Maulden Church 
Wrest . . . 
Flitton Church 
Luton . . 

-Ho . 

Hatfield . . 
Gobions . . 
Enfield Palace 
Waltham 
Copthall . . 
Theobalds . 
London . . 



Page 

400 

402 

418 

426 

432 

ib. 

434 

435 

437 

455 

458 

463 

464 

498 

505 

507 

. 503 

. 521 

. 524 

. 529 

. 533 

. 559 

. 560 

. 562 

. 566 

. 567 

. 568 



/> 3W- 




./. t},/,/ K ;i/l *eu/jp? 

GEOIGE CAJLTJEMT, THE F3BST LOID BAIL TIM ME, 
From the Original Ftaturc ,ii Gorhambury. 

PiML-/ml Mnv idn.bv ll'/iitr H- <}>r/ir<uu-,&v. 




>UK"TJESS OF SlTFOLK. 

From tfw Original /'inure ,it doHuimbury. 



p. ./!<> 




H^ TAJLBOT, JEAELL OJF HBJE WSB URT". 
From die Original Fw/n/r ,it Gude Ashby. 

Jhblit/url Mm ldn, by >f/u/F X- detnaM Xr. 



f>-4#7 




riWIrTilf m$? 

..MAHGAIET, COUHTESS OF Cl T MBEllAl"I). 
Trom the ('riai/i.iJ /Vr/wr ,// /I','/'///-// . 

/'/,/,.,/;/ ,11,, i I, 'in by ll'/iilr tii,V,nmr ..<!; . 



JOURNEY 



LONDON. 

IN March 1780, I began my annual journey to 
London. At Chester some improvements had 
taken place since my last account of the city. A 
very commodious building has been erected in the 
Yatchfield, near the Watergate street, for the sale 
of Irish linen at the two fairs. It surrounds 
a large square area; on each side of which are 
piazzas, with numbers of shops well adapted for 
the purpose. 

In digging the foundation for certain houses 
near the street, were discovered some Roman 
buildings, and a large Hypocaust with its several 
conveniences ; and some other antiquities, parti- 
cularly a beautiful altar*, dedicated Fortiuue 
Rcduci et JEsculapio. Much of its inscription is 

* Engraven in Moses Griffith's Supplemental Plates to the. 
Tours in Wales, tab. X. 

B 



4 CHRISTLETON. 

abbey. In the Saxon times, every man was allowed 
to kill game on his own estate, but on the Conquest 
the king vested the property of all the game in him- 
self, so that no one could sport, even on his own 
land, under most cruel penalties, without permission 
from the. king, by grant of a chase or free warren. 
By this, the grantee had an exclusive power of 
killing game on his own estate, but it was on con- 
dition that he prevented every one else ; so that, 
as our learned commentator e observes, this seem- 
ing favour was intended for the preservation of the 
beasts and fowls of warren; which were roes, 
hares, and rabbits, partridge, rails, and quails, 
woodcocks and pheasants, mallards, and herons, 
for the sport of our savage monarchs. This 
liberty, which they allowed to a few individuals, 
being designed merely to prevent a general de- 
struction. 

Christleton passed from the Birmingham*, in 
Richard 'II.' 's time, to Sir Hugh Brower : Sir Hugh 
lost it by his attachment to the house of York; 
and Henry the IVth, in the fourth year of his 
reign, bestowed it on John Manxvaring, of Over 
Peover, an attendant on his son, afterwards 
Henry V f . Manxvaring having no lawful issue, 
bestowed this place on Sir Thomas le Grosvenor, 

e Judge Blackstone. f Leicester, 333. 



CHRISTLETON. TARVIN. 

lord of Hulme; but it passed immediately from 
him to John de Macclesfield, in the 10th of Henry 
V. One of his descendants alienated it, in 1442, 
or the 21st of Henry VI. to Humphrey (afterward 
Duke) of Buckingham. Henry Lord Stafford, 
son to Edzvard Duke of Buckingham, sold it to 
Sir William Sneyde, of Keel; and Sir Ralph Sneyde, 
to Sir John Harpur, of Swerston, in Derbyshire ; 
one of whose descendants sold it to Thomas Brock 5 , 
Esquire, the present lord of the manor. The 
living is a rectory, in the disposal of Sir Roger 
Mostyn : the church is dedicated to St. James. 

From hence I took the horse-road across 
Brownheath, by Hockenhall, formerly the seat of 
a family of the same name. The rising country 
to the left of this road appears to great advantage, 
opposing to the traveller a fair front, beautifully 
clumped with self-planted groves. 

Passed over a brook, and reached the small 
town of Tarvin, which still retains nearly its 
British name Terfyn, or the Boundary, being so 
to the forest of Delamere. In Doomsday book it 
is stiled Terve : the bishop at that time held it. 
It then contained six taxable hides of land. The 
bishop kept on it six cowmen, three radmen, seven 

8 On Mr. Brock's decease, the manor devolved on his nephew 
John Brock Wood, Esq. Ed. 



6 TARVIX. 

villeyns, seven boors, and six ploughlands. The 
first were to keep his cattle; the second to attend 
his person in his travels, or to go wheresoever he 
pleased to send them ; the third, by their tenure, 
to cultivate his lands ; and the fourth, to supply 
his table with poultry, eggs, and other small 
matters. The plough land, or caruca, was as much 
as one plough could work in the year. This shews 
the establishment of a manor in those early times ; 
which I mention now to prevent repetition. 

In Hairy VI.'s time the village and manor were 
estimated at 23/. a year, and were held by Regi- 
nald, bishop of Lichfield, in the same manner as 
they were held by his predecessors, under the 
Prince of Wales, as earl of Chester. They conti- 
nued possessed by them till the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, when they were alienated to Sir John 
Savage, who procured for the town the privilege 
of a market. The church is a rectory, and still 
continues part of the see of Lichfield ; being a 
prebendary, originally founded about the year 
1 226, by Alexander de Stavenby, bishop of that 
diocese. It is valued at 26/. 1 3*. Ad. the highest 
endowment of any prebend in that cathedral. It 
is called the prebend of Tarvin, which presents to 
the living. 

The same prelate also bestowed this church 



TARVIN. 7 

on the vice-prebendal church of Burton, in 
Wiral*; and formed out of its revenues an hos- 
pital for shipwrecked persons. This hospital was 
probably at Burton, Tarvin being too remote from 
the sea for so humane a design. 

Against the church-wall is a monument, in 
memory of Mr. John Thomasine, thirty-six j r ears 
master of the grammar-school. The epitaph de- 
servedly celebrates the performances of this ex- 
quisite penman, as " highly excelling in all the 
" varieties of writing, and wonderfully so in the 
" Greek characters. Specimens of his ingenuity 
" are treasured up, not only in the cabinets of 
" the curious, but in public libraries throughout 
" the kingdom. He had the honour to tran- 
" scribe, for her Majesty Queen Anne, the Icon 
" Basilike of her royal grandfather. Invaluable 
" copies also of Pindar, Anacreon, Theocritus, 
" Epictetus, Hippocrates s Aphorisms, and that 
" finished piece the Shield of Achilles, as described 
" by Homer, are among the productions of his 
" celebrated pen. 

" As his incomparable performances acquired 
" him the esteem and patronage of the great and 
" learned ; so his affability and humanity gained 
" him the good-will of all his acquaintance ; and 

h Awlia Sacra, i. 4-46. 



STAPLEFORD. UTKINTON. 

" the decease of so much private -worth is re- 
" gretted as a public loss." 

From Tarvin I travel on the great road, and at 
about two miles distance, leave on the right Sta- 
pleford, which retains the name it had at the 
Conquest, when it Mas held by Radulpus Venator 
from Hugh Lupus. After a long interval, it fell to 
the Breretons. In 1378, or the second of Richard 
II. it was held by Sir William Brereton of the 
king, as earl of Chester. From that family it 
passed to the Bruyns, and was purchased by the 
late Randle JVilbraham, Esquire. 

Two miles farther, on the left, stood Utkinton 
Hall: the manor, with Kingsley, and the bailey- 
wick of the forest of Delamere, was given by 
Randle Meschincs, earl of Chester, to Randle de 
Kingsley ; whose great grand-daughter Joan, 
about the year 1233, conveyed it to the Dories. 
Richard Done was possessed of it in 1311, the 
sixth of Edward II. He held it by a quarter 
part of a knight's fee, and the master forcstership 
of Merc {Delamere) and Mottram, by himself, 
and a horseman, and eight footmen under him, to 
keep that forest, then valued at 10/. 106'. 3d. 

Upon the failure of issue male of Sir John 
Done, in the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
the manor of Utkinton came to his daughters, and 
has been since held by them, or persons claming 



THE DONES. TORPORLEY. 

under them. Mary, the second daughter, mar- 
ried, in 1636, John, second son of Sir Randle 
Crew, of Crew j and Elinor, the younger, Ralph 
Ardeme, Esquire. 

The Dones of Flaxy ard, in this neighborhood, 
were another considerable family, at constant feud 
with the former, till the houses were united by the 
nuptials of the heir of Flaxy ard with the heiress 
of Utkinton. But at this time both those antient 
seats are demolished, or turned into farm-houses. 

From hence I soon reached Torpor ley, a small 
town, seated on a gentle descent. It had once 
been a borough town, of which Richard Francis 
was mayor in the twentieth of Edztard I. In the 
tenth of the same reign, Hugh de Tarpoley had 
licence to hold a market here every Tuesday, and 
a fair on the vigil, the feast day, and the day after 
the exaltation of the Holy Cross ; but he alienated 
this privilege, with this property, to Reginald de 
Grey, chief justice of Chester. 

In the eighth of Richard II. this manor was 
divided into two moieties ; one of which was held 
by John Done, the other by Reginald Grey, of 
the family of Lord Grey, of Ruthin. 

The manor and rectory of Torpor ley are now 
divided into six shares: four belong to the Ar- 
dcns ; one to the dean and chapter of Chester ; 



10 TORPORLEY. 

and another to Philip Egerton 1 , Esquire, of 
Oulton. 

The living is a rectory, the advowson of which 
is divided into the same portions as the manor. 
The church is dedicated to St. Heien, the Empress 
of Const ant his, the daughter of Coel, a British 
prince, a popular saint among us, if we may judge 
from the number of churches under her protection. 
That in question is of no great antiquity, in respect 
to the building ; nor has it any beauty. Within is 
much waste of good marble, in monumental 
vanity. 

The best are two monuments in the chancel, 
seemingly copied from half-length portraits. Two 
figures in mezzo relievo are included in carved 
borders of marble, in imitation of frames: that 
of Sir John Done, Knight, hereditary forester and 
keeper of the forest of Delamere, who died in 
1629, is picturesque. He is represented in a 
laced jacket, and with a horn in his hand, the 
badge of his office : which horn descended to 
the different owners of the estate, and is now in 
the possession of John Arden, Esquire. 

When that Ninwod, James I. made a progress 
in 1617, he was entertained by this gentleman at 
Utkinton ; " Avho ordered so wisely and content- 

1 His son John Egerton, Esquire, is the present proprietor. 
Ed. 



TORPORLEY. U 

"fully" says King*, "his Highness's sports, that 
" James conferred on him the honor of knighthood." 
He married Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Wil- 
braham, Esquire, of Woodhey ; who left behind 
her so admirable a character, that, to this day, 
when a Cheshire man would express some excel- 
lency in one of the fair sex, he would say, "There 
" is Lady Done for you.' 7 

The other figure is of John Crezv, Esquire, 
second son of Sir Randle Crew, of Crezv, Knight, 
married to Mary, daughter of Sir John Done. 
His face is represented in profile, with long hair. 
He died 1670. 

His lady, and her elder sister Jane Done, an 
antient virgin, lie at full length in the Utkinton 
chapel, with long and excellent characters. One 
lies recumbent; the other reclined and strait laced^ 
which gives little grace in statuary. Jane died in 
1662; Mrs. Crew, in 1690, aged 86. 

Sir John Crezv, Knight, son of Mr. John Crezv, 
lies reclined on an altar-tomb, with a vast perri- 
wig, and a Roman dress, with a whimpering ge- 
nius at his head and feet. Sir John married, firsts 
Mary, daughter of Thomas Wagstaff, of Tach- 
brook, in Warwickshire, Esquire ; and secondly, 

k Vale Royal, ji. 106. 



n BEESTON HALL. 

Mary, daughter of Sir Willughby Aston, of As- 
ton, Baronet. He died in 1711, aged 71. 

I must not quit this place without letting fall 
a few tears, as a tribute to the memory of its ho- 
nest rector John Allen ; whose antiquarian know- 
lege and hospitality, I have often experienced on 
this great thoroughfare to the capital. From the 
antient rectorial house, at the bottom of the 
town, is an aweful view of the great rock of Bees- 
ton, backed by the Peckfreton hills, tempting me 
to take a nearer survey. 

The distance is about two miles. In my way 
I crossed the canal at Beeston Bridge, and called 
at the poor remains of Beeston Hall, the manor- 
house, inhabited by the agent for the estate. 
This place was burnt by prince Rupert, during 
the civil wars. There is a tradition, that he had 
dined that day with the lady of the house. After 
dinner, he told her, that he was sorry that he was 
obliged to make so bad a return for her hospita- 
lity; advised her to secure any valuable effects 
she had, for he must order the house to be burnt 
that night, lest it should be garrisoned by the 
enemy. 

This manor had been part of the barony of 
MalpaSj and was held under the lords, by the fa- 
mily of Dc Bunbury ; who changed their Norman 



BEESTON HALL. 13 

ftame, St. Pierre, and assumed that of the place 
where they first settled. 

In 1271, or the fifty-sixth of Henri/ III. Henry 
de Bunbury, and Margery his wife, gave it to 
their nephew Richard, who made the place his 
residence, and assumed its name. It continued 
in his family for many generations. Sir George 
Beeston possessed it in the forty-fourth of Queen 
Elizabeth. At length, by the. marriage of Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir Hugh Beeston, with Wil- 
liam Whitemore, of Leighton, it was conveyed 
into that house ; and as suddenly transferred, by 
Bridget, heiress of Mr. Whitemore, to Darcie 
Savage, second son to Thomas Viscount Savage, 
of Rock Savage ; whose grand-daughter, another 
Bridget, brought it by marriage to Sir Thomas 
Mostyn, Baronet, with the lordships of Pcckf re- 
ton, Leighton, and Thornton ; in whose house 
they still remain. This lady was a Roman Ca- 
tholic. Tradition is warm in her praise, and full 
of her domestic virtues, and the particular atten- 
tion that she shewed in obliging her domestics, of 
each religion, to attend their respective churches. 
Her husband and she ' were lovely and pleasant 
in their lives, and in their death they were not 
divided:' they died within a day or two of each 
other, at Gloddaeth, in Caernarvonshire, and were 



14 BEESTON ROCK, AND CASTLE. 

interred in the neighboring church of Eglwys 
Rhos. 

At a small distance from the hall, is the great 
insulated rock of Beeston, composed of sand-stone, 
very lofty and precipitous at one end, and sloped 
down into the flat country at the other. Its 
height, from Beeston Bridge to the summit, is 
three hundred and sixty-six feet. From the sum- 
mit is a most extensive view on every side, ex- 
cept where interrupted by the Peckfreton hills. 
The land appears deeply indented by the estuaries 
of the Dee and Mersey, and the canal from Ches- 
ter appears a continued slender line of water from 
that city to almost the base of this eminence. To 
this place its utility has been proved to all the 
market-women of the neighboring farmers, who 
have the benefit of Treek-schuyts to convey their 
merchandize to their capital : a few coals also 
come up, and a little timber ; and these form the 
sum of their present commerce. 

This rock is crowned with the ruins of a strong 
Beeston fortress, which rose in the year 1220; founded by 
Handle Blondevil/e, earl of Chester, on his return 
out of the Holy Land ; for which purpose, and for 
the building of Chartley Castle, he raised a tax 
upon all his estates \ At that time it belonged 

1 Polychronicon, cccvi. 



BEESTON CASTLE. 15 

to the lords of the manor of Beeston ; from whom 
he obtained leave to erect his castle. It devolved 
afterwards to the crown; for, according to Er~ 
deszvick, Sir Hugh Beeston purchased it from 
Queen Elizabeth, and restored it to his lordship. 

It had been a place of very great strength. The 
access, about midway of the slope, was defended 
by a great gateway, and a strong wall fortified 
with round towers, which ran from one edge of 
the precipice to the other, across the slope ; but 
never surrounded the hill, as is most erroneously 
represented in the old print. Some of the walls, 
and about six or seven rounders, still exist. A 
square tower, part of the gateway, is also stand- 
ing. Within this cincture is a large area, per- 
haps four or five acres in extent. Near the top 
is the castle, defended, on this side, by an ama- 
zing ditch, cut out of the live rock ; on the other, 
by the abrupt precipice that hangs over the vale 
of Cheshire. 

The entrance is through a noble gateway, 
guarded on each side by a great rounder, whose 
walls are of a prodigious thickness. Within the 
yard is a rectangular building, the chapel of the 
place. The draw-well was of a most surprising 
depth ; being sunk through the higher part of the 

m Potychronicon, cccvi. 



16 BEESTON CASTEE. 

rock, to the level of Bceston brook, that runs be- 
neath ! In the area just mentioned, was another 
well : both at this time are filled up ; but King 
remembered the first to have been eighty, the 
other ninety-one, yards deep, although the last is 
said to have been half filled with stones and rub- 
bish". 

We are quite unacquainted with the events 
that befel this strong hold, for several centuries 
after its foundation. Stozv says, that Richard II. 
lodged here his great treasures during his expedi- 
tion into Ireland, and garrisoned it with an hun- 
dred men of arms, chosen and able ; who, on the 
approach of Henry duke of Lancaster, yielded 
it to the usurper. But other historians assert, 
that his treasures were placed in the castle of 
Holt. 

The fortress certainly fell into decay soon after 
this reign ; for Leland, in his poem on the birth 
of Edward VI. speaks of it as in ruin, when he 
makes Fame to alight on its summit, and foretell 
its restoration. 

Explicuit dehinc Fama suas perniciter alas, 
Altaque fulminei petiit Jovis atria victrix, 
Circuiens liquidi spatiosa volumina cceli. 
Turn quoque despexit terram, sublimis, ocellos 
Sidereos figens Bisdimi in moenia castri, &c. 

n Vale Royal, iii. Annals, 321. 



BEESTON CASTLE. 17 

Thence to Jove's palace she prepar'd to fly 

With out-stretch'd pinions through the yielding sky ; 

Wide o'er the circuit of the ample space, 

Survey'd the subject earth and human race." 

Sublime in air she cast her radiant eyes, 

Where far-fam'd Beeston's airy turrets rise : 

High on a rock it stood, whence all around 

Each fruitful valley, and each rising ground, 

In beauteous prospect lay; these scenes to view, 

Descending swift, the wondering goddess flew. 

Perch'd on the topmost pinnacle, she shook 

Her sounding plumes, and thus in rapture spoke : 

" From Syrian climes the conquering Randolph came, 

" Whose well-fought fields bear record of his name. 

" To guard his country, and to check his foes, 

" By Randolph's hands this glorious fabric rose : 

" Though now in ruin'd heaps thy bulwarks lie, 

" Revolving time shall raise those bulwarks high, 

" If faith to antient prophecies be due ; 

" Then Edward shall thy pristine state renew." R. W. 



The castle was restored to its former strength, 
between the days of Leland and the sad conten- 
tions betwixt the king and parlement, in the time 
of Charles I. It was first possessed by the par- 
lement; but on the 1 3th of September 1643, was Sieges. 
taken by the royalists, under the famous partizan 
Captain Sandford ; who scaled the steep sides of 
the rock, and took it by surprize p . Steel, the 

* Genethliacon Eaduardi Pr. Wallix, L. 749. 

C 



19 BEESTON CASTLE. 

governor, was suspected of treachery, tried, and 
shot to death. 

The parlement made a vigorous attempt to 
recover a place of such importance, and besieged 
it for seventeen weeks : during which time it was 
gallantly defended by Captain Valet. At length, 
on the approach of prince Rupert, the enemy 
abandoned the attack, on the 18th of March 
I644 q . 

In the following year it was taken, after a most 
vigorous defence of eighteen weeks. The defend- 
ants were reduced to the necessity of eating cats, 
8$c. when the brave Colonel Ballard, out of mere 
compassion to the poor remains of his garrison, 
consented to beat a parley, and obtained the most 
honorable conditions, for beyond what would be 
expected in such extremity ; viz. to march out, 
the governor and officers with their horses and 
arms, and their own proper goods (which loaded 
two waggons); the common soldiers with colors 
flying, drums beating, matches alight, a propor- 
tion of cannon and ball, and a convoy to guard 
them to Flint Castle. On Sunday, the 16th of 
March, he surrendered the castle to Sir William 
Brereton, and, according to articles, marched out 

* MS. account. Mr. Grose, article Beeston. 



BUNBURY. 1ST 

with his men, now reduced to about sixty 1 . The 
fortress soon after underwent the fate of the other 
seats of loyalty. 

From Beeston Castle I continued my journey 
about two miles to Bunbury ; a village, and the Bunbury. 
seat of the parish church. This was the Boliberie 
of Doomsday Book; which, with several neigh- 
boring places in the antient hundred of Riseton, 
now comprehended in that of Ledesbury, were 
possessed by Robert Fitzhugh. The family who 
assumed the name of the place, held it under him 
and his successors, till, Humphrey dying without 
issue, his sisters, Ameria and Joan, became co- 
heiresses. Amerids share came to the Patricks, 
and from them to the St. Piers. At length, 
Isabel, daughter and heiress of Uriam St. Pier, 
brought it by marriage to Sir Walter Cokesey ; 
who sold his share of the advowson of the church 
to the famous Sir Hugh de Calvely. Joans moiety 
came to her son Alexander, who still continued the 
name De Bunbury. Sir Hugh de Calvely ob-- 
taining likewise the other share of the church, 
erected here a college for a master and six chap- 
lains ; for which purpose he obtained licence, 
dated March 12th, 1386, from Richard II. on 
paying to the king the sum of forty pounds. It 

1 Rushworth, vol. i. part 4. p. 136. 
c2 



30 feUNBURY. 

was instituted for the good state of the King and 
of Sir Hugh, as long as they lived ; and on their 
death, for the souls of them and their progenitors, 
and those of all the faithful '. Its revenue was an 
hundred marks, but at the dissolution, was 48/. Qs< 
Sd. when the foundation consisted of a dean, five 
vicars, and two choristers. 

In the fourteenth of Queen Elizabeth it was 
purchased of the crown by Thomas Alder sey, of 
London, merchant-taylor, a second son of the 
house of Spurstoxv, in this parish. Here he 
founded a preacher's place, of 100 marks a year, 
Avith a good house and glebe; an assistant or 
curate, with 20/. a year ; the other for an usher ', 
with 10/.; ten pounds a year to the poor; and 
several other charitable gifts. The disposal of 
the places here are in the haberdashers' company, 
London ". 

In respect to the succession of the manor, Sir 
Thomas Cokesey, in the latter end of the reign of 
Henry VII. having no issue, alienated his share to 
the Bunburies. In the thirty-second of Henry 
VIII. Richard Bunbury was lord of the manor ; 
from whom the family of the Bunburies of Stanny, 



* Dugdale Monast. iii. part 2, p. 107. 

* A schoolmaster, with 201. a year. 
King's Vale Rayal, ii. 104, 105. 



BUNBURY CHURCH. 

in TVirral, and the present Sir Charles, is lineally 
descended. 

The church is a handsome building, embattled, Church. 
and the tower ornamented with pinnacles. The 
architecture seems of the time of Henry VII. It 
is dedicated to St. Boniface ; from whom the place 
takes its name. Whether the patron was Boniface, 
an Englishman, first archbishop of Mentz, who 
died in 754, or Pope Boniface the First, who died 
in 423, I cannot determine; for both received 
their apotheosis. 

The church is distinguished by the magnificent Tomb. 
tomb of Sir Hugh cle Calvely, whose effigies in 
white marble lies on it recumbent. He is armed 
in the fashion of the times ; and, to give an idea 
of his vast prowess, his figure is represented seven 
feet and a half long. He was the Arthur of 
Cheshire; the glory of the county: accordingly 
the most prodigious feats are recorded of him. 
Whether, like Milo, he could kill a bull with a 
blow of his fist, is not said ; but our ballads give 
Sir Hugh no more than the honor of devouring a 
calf at a meal. His head rests on a helmet, with 
a calf's head for the crest, allusive to his name; 
yet probably gave rise to the fable. 

Sir Hugh sprung from a neighboring hamlet (of 
which I shall have occasion to speak) from whence 
be took his surname. According to the cast of 



2a SIR HUGH DE CALVELY. 

the times, he sought adventures in the military 
line ; and, like a soldier of fortune, first appeared 
a principal commander of the Grandes Compagnies, 
Tarcl venus, or Malandrins, a species of banditti, 
formed out of the disbanded soldiery of different 
nations. On the captivity of king John, at the 
battle of Poitiers, they amounted at least to above 
forty thousand veteran troops. They lived upon 
plunder; yet were ready to join the side most 
adverse to France. At the battle of Anray, in 
1 364, Sir Hugh x served with a considerable body 
of them, under the English general, Lord Chandos ; 
and had the honor of turning the fortune of the 
day, in which was taken the great De Gueselin. 

In 1366, Sir Hugh was won over by that illus- 
trious general (again at the head of the armies of 
Finance), to join him in an expedition into Spain, to 
dethrone Peter the Cruel, king of Castile. The 
enterprize was successful; but, on the express 
command of Edward III. to Lord Chandos, Sir 
Hugh de Cafoely, and others of his subjects, 
leaders of the companies, to forbear hostilities 7 
against Peter, they deserted the quarrel they had 
espoused; and, on the appearance of the Black 
Prince in Spain, who, to his disgrace, took part 
with the tyrant, Sir Hugh, and a great body of 

x Froissart, i. ch. ccxxvi. * Bymer, vi. 480. 



SIR HUGH DE CALVELY. 3 

the companies, joined him. The prince reinstated 
Peter on the throne, after the great victory of 
Najara over his rival Henry of Trastamare; to 
which the bravery of Sir Hugh and his troops 
highly contributed. On the recall of the Black 
Prince, by his father, in 1 367, Sir Hugh was left 
commander of the companies. History gives him 
a royal consort, in reward of his valour, and 
marries him to the queen of Arragon. If at this 
period, he took a most antiquated piece of royalty ; 
for I can find no other dowager of that kingdom, 
unless Leonora, relict of Alonso IV. who became 
a widow in 1335, was then alive. There was no 
issue by this match 2 ; but by his second wife*, 
heiress to Mot tram Lord of Mottram, his line was 
continued. 

In 1376, the last year of Edzvard III. he was 
appointed to the important government of Calais\ 
In 1378, he plundered and burnt Boulogne, with 
several vessels which lay in the harbour : he also 
retook the castle of Mark, lost before by neglect. 
In 1379, he resigned the place to the earl of 

z Salusbury Pedigrees, 72. 

a Mess rs Lysons, in their account of Cheshire, p. 544, produce 
arguments to shew that Sir Hugh Calvely was never married, 
and that the line was continued from his brother David, who 
espoused the heiress of Mottram. Ed. . 

b Hist. Calais, ii. 55. 



24 BUNBURY CHURCH. 

Salusbury, and was appointed by Richard II. 
admiral of his fleet c . 

In 1382, we find him governor of Guernsey, 
and the adjacent isles. The last mention we find 
of him, is in a cause that was to be determined in 
1388 d ; after which, history is silent in respect to 
this hero. Fuller remarks, " It was as impossible 
" for such a spirit not to be, as not to be active." 
Probably old-age might subdue his enterprizing 
soul; for I find that he lived to the reign of Henry 
IV e ; but mention is made of the weak state of 
his body in Rymers record of the cause f . 

This tomb is kept always very neat ; which is 
owing to the piety of Dame Mary Calvely, of 
Lea, who, in 1705, left the interest of an hundred 
pounds, to be distributed annually among certain 
poor of this parish, on condition they attended 
divine service while they were able, and swept the 
chancel, and cleaned the monument. 

The Ridley chapel, founded in 1527, belonging 
to the Egertons of Ridley, is separated from the 

e Rymer, vii. 223. A Rymer, vii. 576. 

e Two visitations of Cheshire, &c. MSS. in my possession : 
one in 1566; the other in 1580. 

f This satisfies me that his royal consort was not Sybilla 
Fortia, relict of Pedro, fourth king of Arragon, who lost her 
6pouse in 1388 ; as was suggested to me by a most ingenious 
friend. 



CALVELY. 25 

church by a wood-work skreen, painted. This had 
been their place of interment; but nothing monu- 
mental remains, except the impression of a plate 
of a kneeling man, against one of the walls. 

In the chancel is a recumbent figure of Sir 
George Beeston, who died in 1600. This monu- 
ment was erected by his son Sir Hugh, the last 
male of this antient line ; who for some time sur- 
vived his only son George*. 

At a small distance from Bwibury, I fell into 
the great road, opposite to Alpram, a hamlet, 
whose name is corrupted from the Savon Alburg- 
ham, in the Doomsday Book. In after-times it was 
the seat of the Pages, now extinct. 

A little farther lies Calvely, long the property 
of that illustrious family, now likewise lost. The 
place was bestowed on a Hugh, by Richard 
Vernon, Baron of Shipbrbok, about the time of 
Richard I. In Edward the III.'s time, it came to 
the Davenports, by the marriage of Arthur to 
Catharine, daughter and heiress of Robert de 
Calvely: in which family it has continued till the 
present time\ 

My road lay along the low unpleasant lane that 

He died in 1640. 

h Calvely is now vested in John Hromley, Esq. who married 
the eldest daughter, and co-heiress, of Richard Davenport, 
Esq. deceased in 1771. Ed. 



m ACTON. 

led towards Nantwich ; the prospect frequently 
deformed by the great fosses of the unfortunate 
canal \ falling in on each side of the road ; for it 
crosses at Barbridge, and is finished from thence 
to Nanftcich. This was only a secondary consi- 
deration, executed on the hopes of considerable 
profit in the carriage of salt and cheese. The 
original and principal object was, to continue the 
main trunk by Church Minshul to the great Staf- 
fordshire canal, near Middlexvich, and by that 
means share in the freight of the goods of the 
opposite side of the kingdom : but various causes 
have frustrated all hopes of that benefit ; and this 
part of the plan remains unattempted. 
Acton. At Acton the prospect mends a little. That 
village, with its handsome new church, stand on a 
small rising, and commands another great extent 
Earl M or- f A 3 ^ beyond Nantwich. This place, before the 
car s. Conquest, was possessed by Morcar, the gallant 
brother of the gallant earl Edzvin, last earl of 
Mercia. At that time, the hundred it lay in was 
called JVarmundestrcu, at present Nantzcich. 
Actune, as it is stiled in Doomsday Book, was a 
-very considerable place. There were eight hides 
of land taxable : there were thirty plough-lands ; 

1 A branch of the EUcsmere canal, which unites the Severn 
and the Dec, now falls into it between Tarporley and Niml- 
xaich, and occasions some commercial intercourse. Lb. 



ACTON. 27 

in the lord's demesn three : two servants, thirteen 
villeyns, and fifteen boors, with seven plough- 
lands, a mill for the use of the court (curia), and 
ten acres of meadow : a wood six leagues long, 
and one broad : an aery of hawks : two presbyters, 
who had a* plough-land : two aliens, having a 
plough-land and a half: a servant: six villeyns : 
seven boors, with four plough-lands. 

This not only shews the greatness of this Saxon 
manor, but that it was the seat of Morcar, by the 
provision made for his support. The tenants had 
likewise the right of pleas in the hall of their lord, 
and one house in JVich (Nantxvich), where they 
might make salt without interruption. In the 
time of the Confessor, the manor was valued at 
ten pounds a year ; at the Conquest, at only six. 
It may be observed, once for all, that the troubles 
occasioned by that event, and the ravages com- 
mitted, instantly sunk the value of the land. 

The manor of Acton, which had been antiently 
a portion of the Barony of Wich Malbang, passed 
to the Vernons, and by a co-heiress of Warren de 
Vernon to the Littleburies, who sold their share 
to John de Wetenhall. At a subsequent period it 
became, by marriage, the property of the Ar- 
dernes ; yet about the year 1464 it was conveyed 
by the heirs male of the IVetcnhalls to feoffees in 
trust, for the use of Sir John Bromley, in whose 



C8 SIR \Y. MANWARING'S TOMB. 

heirs it remained till about the year 1600, when it 
was purchased from them by Sir Roger Wil- 
braham, master of the requests, and conveyed by 
him to his younger brother Ralph, of whose 
descendants it was bought, in 1752, by the father 
of Henry Tomkinson, Esq. the present possessor k . 
Church. About twenty years ago, the steeple and roof 
of the church were destroyed; but the whole has 
since been restored, in a very handsome manner. 
One monument is in good preservation, notwith- 
standing this church was a temporary prison after 
the battle of Nantwich, in the civil wars of 
Charles I.; but the prisoners were of the party 
which respected these memorials of the dead. 

The most antient is one in St. Marys chapel, 
in memory of Sir William Marrwaring, of Over 
Pexer, and of Badcly, in this neighborhood. 
-This knight, before his departure on an expedition 
to Guienne, in 1393, settled his estate, and next 
year made his will ; by which he bequeathed his 
body to this church, and ordered a picture in 
alabaster, to cover his tomb. He also left to the 
same church part of Christ's cross, which the wife 
of his half-brother had shut up in wax, and a suf- 
ficient salary for a chaplain to say a competent 
number of masses, in St. Mary's chapel, for the 

k hyson*, Mag. Brit. art. Cheshire, p. 469. 



TOMBS IN ACTON. W 

sake of his soul, for seven years, when it might 
be supposed to have been redeemed from Purga-. 
tvry, and 

" The foul crimes done in his days of nature 
** Were burnt and purg'd away." 

After his death, which happened in 1399, a mag- 
nificent tomb was erected beneath a Gothic arch, 
with a large embattled superstructure. Under the 
arch lies Sir William in full armour, with suppliant 
hands. His head is cased in a conic helm, bound 
with a fillet entwined with foliage. From his 
helmet is a guard of mail, which covers his neck, 
and rises to his lips ; over which flow two great 
whiskers. His head rests on a casque, with an 
ass's head for a crest. Above, within the arch, is 
a row of half-lengths, with a book opposite to 
each; probably religious, chaunting his requiem. 
The whole is painted. On the edge of the tomb 
was this inscription, now much defaced by time : 
Hie jacet William Manwaring quondam dominus 
de Badeleye, qui obiit die Veneris ##" ante f est um 
Pentecostce, anno Dni. m n ccc nonogessimo nono. 

The tomb of Sir Thomas Wilbraham, Baronet, 
and his lady Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Roger 
Wilbraham, Knight, and one of the masters of 
request to James I. is very handsome. Their 
figures are placed on an altar-tomb, in white 



30 TOMBS IN ACTON. 

marble, recumbent: he in armour, long curled 
hair, and a turn-over, with one hand in his breast, 
the other by his side. Beneath him is spread 
a large cloak. The lady has a book in one hand ; 
the other, like his, reclines on her breast. He died 
in 1660. 

This tomb is a specimen of the first deviation 
from the old form : a greater ease of attitude 
began to prevail. The hands, which used to be 
erect, close, and suppliant, here vary in the atti- 
tude, and shew a dawning of the grace that 
reigned on the revival of sculpture. In England, 
monumental beauty was soon ruined by servilely 
copying the dress of the times ; by having night- 
gowns and flowing perriwigs cut out of the Parian 
blocks ; or adding the great wig to the absurdity 
of the Roman habit. 

The church had been long the place of sepul- 
ture of the houses of JVoodhey and Badeley. The 
vain attention of our forefathers to posthumous 
honors and superstitious rites, is well exemplified 
in the will of William WilbraJunn, of JVoodhey, 
who died in 1536; by which " he bequeaths his 
" body to be buried before the image of our Lady, 
" in the chancel of the church of Act on, and f> 
" bestows x\ to be laid out on a tenor bell, if the 
" parish will provide the rest; but if not, then the 
" money to be laid out on a pax and two cruytt* 



TOMBS IN ACTON. 31 

9 of silver, to serve at the high altar on good 
" days. He further wills, that 12 white gowns 
" be given to 12 poor men; as also, that 12 
" torches be mdde, to hold about his body the day 
" of his burial; and that a light be over him, with 
" viii tapers, in the middle whereof a bigger taper 
" should spring out; also, that penny-dole should 
" be given at his burial, to every person that 
" would take it. 

" He, moreover, requires his executors to buy 
" a stone of marble to lie on him, in the said 
" chancel of Acton, with pictures of himself and 
" his wife, and their arms ; also, that they put 
" out xi^. under sure keeping, to pay xi s . yearly to 
" a well-disposed priest, to sing (during twenty 
" years) for him and his wife, children, father, 
" and mother, and all that God would be prayed 
" for; and the said service to be performed in his 
" chapel of Woodhey ; which priest should likewise 
" have \w. more yearly for his salary, if so be his 
" heir is not pleased to give him his board and 
" chamber-room V 

The monument alluded to, either never was 
executed, or was destroyed by the fall of the 
steeple. 

From Acton, I went down a gentle descent 

J Collins** Baronets, ed. 1725, vol. ii. 291. 



32 NANTVVICH. 

to Xantwich, about a mile distant. Antiently this 
place was known only by the name of Wich m , an 
Anglo-Saxon word for district or habitation ; and 
a very common termination of a multitude of 
places. Here the British Nant is added, to shew 
its low situation. 

Immediately before the Conquest its reve- 
nues were divided between the king and earl 
Edwin. After that event it was bestowed by the 
great proprietor of Cheshire, Hugh Lupus, on 
William de Malbedeng, or de Malbang, a Norman 
chieftain ; from whom it was called JVich Malbang. 
Hugh erected it into a barony, in favour of 
Malbedeng, and honored him with a seat in his 
parlement. 

William de Malbank, the third baron, died in 
the reign of Edward I. without issue male, leaving 
three daughters, Philippa, Aude, and Eleanor. 
Philippa married Thomas Lord Basset of Heding- 
ton ; Aude, Warren de Vernon, baron of Ship- 
broke ; Eleanor, who died unmarried, conveyed 
her share to Henry Audleij and his heirs n . 

m See Skinner's Etymologicon: Notwithstanding the word 
does not appear to have any thing to do with salt, yet wich, 
or wych, is always applied, with us, to places where salt is 
found ; as Droitwich, Nantwich, &c. and the houses in which 
it is made, are called wych houses. 

n Lysons, Mag. Brit. art. Cheshire, p. 705. 



NANTWICH. S3 

By these means the barony became divided into 
four, reckoning the part which had been given by 
Hugh Malbang to the abbey of Cumbermere ; 
and soon after, by different alliances, became split 
into multitudes of other shares. 

When entire, it was under the government of 
the lord, or his steward ; who were vested with the 
usual baronial powers. This town had been 
governed by a bailiff; but the election of that 
officer being dropt, it is at present under the 
government of the constables. It has likewise 
several other officers, such as the rulers of walling, 
who were guardians of the salt-springs, and regu- 
lated all matters respecting that important staple 
of the place . 

After them came the ale-tasters ; whose office 
related to the assize of bread and drink. 

The next were the heath-keepers ; who attended 
to the right of the beam-heath, antiently called 
the creach; and took care to preserve it from all 
incroachments, or trespassers. 

The leave-lookers superintended the markets, 
inspected the weights, and destroyed unwholesome 
meat of every kind. These corresponded a good 
deal with the Mdiles cereales of the Romans ; as 
the next officers, the f re-lookers, did to the triam- 

History of Nantwich, 1774. 
D 



34 NANTWICH, 

viri nocturni. They had the care of the chimnies, 
and were to guard against all accidents that might 
arise from fire. 

The town is large, but consists chiefly of old 
houses. The JVeever, which divides it in unequal 
parts, is here a small stream, and not navigable 
higher than JVinsford Bridge. The inhabitants of 
Nantzvkh had, many years ago, an act for making 
this river navigable from that place to their town ; 
but they never earned the power into execution. 
The Chester canal is now completed from that 
city, and finishes in a handsome broad bason, near 
the road between Acton and the town ; but at this 
time, it remains an almost useless ornament to 
the country : nor has it, as might have been ex- 
pected, given the least increase to the salt-trade, 
for which this antient town was once so distin- 
guished. Unfortunately for it, the other salt- 
towns lie more conveniently for commerce, and 
abound almost to excess with that useful article. 

The chief trade of the place is in shoes, which 
are sent to London. Here is a small manufacture 
of gloves ; but those of bone-lace and stockings, 
once considerable, are now lost. In the reigns of 
Queen Elizabeth, and James I. the tanning busi- 
ness brought much wealth into the town. 

The salt made from the adjacent brine-springs 
formed once a very important business. In the 



SALT-WORKS. 35 

reign of Queen Elizabeth, here were two hundred 
and sixteen salt-works, of six leads-walling each : 
in 1774, only two works, of five p large pans of 
wrought iron. The duty produced from them 
amounts annually to near five thousand pounds : 
from the whole district, including the works at 
Lazvton, and a small one at Durtwich, from 
eighteen to twenty thousand pounds. The tax on 
this useful article is very considerable, which it 
bears, as being of most cheap fabrick, and most 
universal use. It seems, for that reason, to have 
been one of the earliest taxes of the Romans ; for 
Ancus Martins, near 640 years before Christ, 
salinarum vectigal instituit q . This tribute was 
continued on the Britons when the Romans pos- 
sessed our isle. 

The latter also made salt part of the pay 
of their soldiers, which was called solarium ; and 
from which is derived our word salary. 

The art of making salt was known in very early 
times, to the Gauls and Germans : it is not, there- 
fore, likely that the Britons, who had, in several 
places, plenty of salt-springs, should be ignorant 

p In August IS 10 only one pan was employed at Nantwich, 
the monthly duty on which amounts to sixty pounds. The 
works near Lazvion, belonging to the reverend Sir Thomas 
Broughton, B l . have increased to a great degree. Ed. 

* Aurdius Victor, c. v. 

J> % 



SG SALT-WORKS. 

of it. The way of making it was very simple, but 
very dirty; for they did no more than fling the 
water on burning wood ; the water evaporated by 
the heat, and left the salt adhering to the ashes, or 
charcoal r . 

It is very probable that the Britons used the 
spring of Nantxoich for this purpose ; numbers of 
pieces of half-burnt wood being frequently dug up 
in this neighborhood. Salinis was a place not 
far from hence, one of the wiches; but I am 
uncertain which. The Romans made use of the 
springs, and made salt by much the same process 
as we do at present. The salt produced was 
white. " It struck the natives, who stiled this 
place, perhaps the first where they saw salt 
of this kind, Heledd-Wen, or the white brine-pits, 
to distinguish them from the springs which they 
used in so slovenly a fashion. 

The Romans were acquainted with rock-salt, 
but had not discovered it within the limits of 
Italy. There were mountains of salt in India. 
Spain afforded the transparent colorless rock-salt, 
and Cappadocia the deep yellow \ The Romans 

T PlinU Hist. Nat. lib. xxxi. c. 7. Gallia Germanicequt 
ardentibus lignis aquam salsam infundunt. 

s Pliny, lib. xxxi. c. 7. Strabo, lib. xx. 1057. But the 
rock-salt of our island remained undiscovered till past the 
middle of the last century. 



SALT-WORKS. 37 

were conversant in the methods of producing this 
useful article from the brine f , which they prac- 
tised in our island, and communicated their in- 
structions to the natives. Salt was an early import 
into Britain, but it was only to the Cassiterides u , 
and the neighboring parts which were remote from 
the salt-springs. 

These advantages are but sparingly scattered 
over Great Britain: Scotland and Ireland are 
totally destitute of them. In England there are 
several, but few that contain salt sufficient to be 
worked. Thus, there are some which rise out of 
the middle of the Were, in the bishoprick of 
Durham ; others in Yorkshire, Cumberland, Lan- 
cashire, and Oxfordshire x ; all those are neglected, 
either on account of their weakness, or, in some 
places, by reason of the dearness of fuel. These 
in Cheshire, and those at Droitwich, in Worces- 
tershire, with the small works at Weston in 
Staffordshire, are the only places where any busi- 
ness is done. Droitwich, and those in Cheshire, 
were worked by the Romans, and had the common 
name of Salince. 

From that period to the present, they have been 
successively in use. The Saxons, according to 
their idea of liberty, divided them between the 

* Fit et e puteis in salinas ingestis. Plin. xxxi. 7. 

> Strabo, 265. * See. CampbeVs Politic. Survey, i. 76. 



38 SALT-WORKS. 

king, the great people, and the freemen. Thus, 
at Nantwich was one brine-pit, which gave employ 
to numbers of salin<e, or works. Eight of them 
were between the king and earl Edwin, of which 
the king had two shares of the profits, the earl 
one. Edwin had likewise a work near his manor 
of Aghton, out of which was made salt sufficient 
for the annual consumption of his houshold ; but 
if any was sold, the king had a tax of two pence, 
and the earl of one penny. 

In this place were likewise numbers of works 
belonging to the people of the neighborhood; 
which had this usage : From Ascension-day to the 
feast of St. Martin, they might carry home what 
salt they pleased ; but if they sold any on the spot, 
or any-where in the county, they were to pay a 
tax to the king and the earl : but after the feast of 
St. Martin, whosoever took the salt home, whether 
his own, or purchased from other works, was to 
pay toll, except the before-mentioned work of the 
earl; which enjoyed exemption, according to an- 
tient usage. 

It appears, that the king and earl farmed out 
their eight works ; for they were obliged to give, 
on the Friday of the weeks in which they were 
worked, xvi. boilings; of which xv. made one 
sum of salt. This is a measure, which, according 
to Spelman, amounts to a horse-load, or eight 



SALT-WORKS. 39 

bushels. The pans of other people, from Ascen- 
sion-day to that of St. Martin, were not subject 
to this farm on the Friday ; but from St. Martins- 
day to Ascension they were liable to those cus- 
toms, in the same manner as those of the king and 
the earl. 

The Welsh used to supply themselves from 
these pits, before the union of their country with 
England. Henry III. in order to distress them, 
during the wars he had with them, took care 
to put a stop to the works, and deprive them of 
this necessary article. 

All these salt-works were confined between the 
river and a certain ditch. If any person was 
guilty of a crime, within these limits, he was at 
liberty to make atonement by a mulct of two 
shillings, or xxx. boilings of salt ; except in the 
case of murder or theft, for which he was to 
suffer death. If crimes of that nature were com- 
mitted without the precinct, the common usage of 
the county was to be observed. 

In the time of the Confessor, this place yielded 
a rent of xx. pounds, with all the pleas of the 
hundred ; but when earl Hugh received it, it was 
a waste. 

The Germans had an idea of a peculiar sanctity 
attendant on salt-springs; that they were nearer 
to heaven than other places ; that the prayers of 



40 SALT-WORKS. 

mortals were nowhere sooner heard ; and that, by 
the peculiar favor of the gods, the rivers and the 
woods were productive of salt, not, as in other 
places, by the virtue of the sea, but by the 
water being poured on a burning pile of wood y . 

Whether this notion might not have been de- 
livered from the Germans to their Savon progeny, 
and whether they might not, in after-times, deliver 
their grateful thanks for these advantages, I will 
not determine : but certain it is, that on Ascension- 
day the old inhabitants of Nantzvich piously sang 
a hymn of thansgiving, for the blessing of the 
brine. A very antient pit, called the Old Brine, 
was also held in great veneration, and, till within 
these few years, was annually, on that festival, 
bedecked with boughs, flowers, and garlands, and 
was encircled by a jovial band of young people, 
celebrating the day with song and dance z . 
. This festival was probably one of the reliques 
of Saxon paganism, which Mellitus might permit 
his proselytes to retain, according to the politieal 
instructions he received from Gregory the Great a , 
on his mission, least, by too rigid an adherence to 
the purity of the Christian religion, he should 
deter the English from accepting his doctrine. In 
fact, salt was, from the earliest times, in the 

y Tacit i Annul, xiii. c. 57. x Hist. Nanlivich, 60. 

Bede, lib. i. c. 31. 



SALT-WORKS. 41 

highest esteem, and admitted into religious cere- 
monies : it was considered as a mark of league 
and friendship. " Neither shalt thou," says the 
Jewish Legislator b , " suffer the salt of the cove- 
" nant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat- 
" offering. With all thy offerings thou shalt 
" offer salt." Homer gives to salt the epithet 
of divine. Both Greeks and Romans mixed salt 
with their sacrificial cakes. In their lustrations 
they made use of salt and water, which gave rise, 
in after-times, to the superstition of holy water; 
only the Greeks made use of an olive branch in- 
stead of a brush, to sprinkle it on the objects of 
purification. 

" Next, with pure sulphur purge the house, and bring 
" The purest water from the freshest spring; 
" This, mix'd with salt, and with green olive crown' d, 
" Will cleanse the late contaminated ground." 

Theocritus, Idyl. 24. 

Stackiits tells us, that the Muscovites thought that 
a prince could not shew a guest a greater mark 
of affection, than by sending to him salt from his 
own table c . The dread of spilling salt, is a 
known superstition among us and the Germans, 
being reckoned a presage of some future calamity, 

b La-it. ch. ii. v. 13. 

c Pane ipso princeps suam erga aliquem gratiam ; Sale vero 
amorem ostendit. Antiq. Conviviales, 171. 



42 NANTWICH. 

and particularly, that it foreboded domestic feuds ; 
to avert which, it is customary to fling some salt 
over the shoulder into the fire, in a manner truly 
classical d : 

Mollibit aversos penates 
Farre pio, et saliente mica. 

In this town was an antient hospital dedicated 
to St. Nicholas, endowed with a portion of tythes, 
which w T ere granted to W. Grys by Queen Eliza- 
beth e . The historian of this place also mentions 
. a priory, dependent on Cumbermere, and a domus 
leprosornm, or lazar-house, called St. Laurence's 
Hospital; both which stood in the Welsh Rota, 
the street next to Acton; but at present, even 
their scite is hardly known. Here was, besides, 
a chapel called St. Anne's, near to the bridge; 
but that, likewise, has been totally destroyed. 

Near the end of the Welsh Row stands a large 
house, called Town's End, formerly the residence 
of the very worthy family of the IVilbrahams. 
That honest and distinguished lawyer, Randle 
Wilbraham, was a younger brother of the late 
owner, and, with unblemished reputation, raised 
a vast fortune by his profession. For several 
years before his death, he retired from business, 

d Horace, lib. iii. ode 23. e Tanner, 65. 



NANTWICH. 43 

and enjoyed the fruits of his labors in an hospita- 
ble retirement. 

The church is a very handsome pile, in the 
form of a cross, with an octagonal tower in the 
centre. The east and west windows are filled 
with elegant tracery. The roof of the chancel is 
of stone, adorned with pretty sculpture. The 
stalls are neat. Tradition says, that they were 
brought, at the dissolution, from the abbey of 
Vale Royal. 

The only remarkable tombs are, a mutilated 
one of Sir David Cradoc in armor, with three 
gerbes on his breast for his coat of arms ; and an- 
other of John Maisterson and his wife, engraven 
on a large slab, and dated 1586. The following 
quaint epitaph records the good intentions of the 
husband : 

" Within this fading tomb, vaulted, lies 

" John Maisterson, and Margaret his wife ; 

" Whose soules do dwell above the moving skies, 

** In paradise with God, the Lorde of lyfle. 

This John wrought means to build this Namptxvich town, 

" When fyer hir face had fret & burnde hir downe." 

Among some lumber in this church I found the 
fragments of a white smooth monument, with the 
following inscription : 

Johannes Crew 

Ex antiqua familia de Crew oriundus 

Vir Pius. 



44 NANTWICH. 

Susceptum ex Alicia Manwaring. 

Uxore reliquit sobolem 

Ranulphum, Thomam, Lucretiam, Prudentiam. 

Vixit annos 74. Obiit 

An Do 1598. 

The two sons were brought up to the law. Ran- 
die became chief justice of the King's Bench, and 
was the founder of the respectable house of Crew, 
near this town : Thomas was Speaker of the House 
of Commons in the latter end of the reign of 
James I. and in the first parlement of Charles I. 
The father of John Crew was a wealthy tanner of 
this town, whom tradition still records by the 
name of Golden Roger, who had a small monu- 
ment in the church, with the figure of himself and 
wife ; which an aged lady born in the parish re- 
membered standing. I shall have occasion when 
I reach Wrest to give a further account of his 
illustrious posterity. 

This town was the only one in the county 
which continued firm to the parlement from the 
beginning to the end of the civil wars. It under- 
went a severe siege in January 1643, by Lord 
Biron ; who, after the signal defeat he here expe- 
rienced from the army commanded by Sir Thomas 
Fairfax r , on the 25th of that month retired with 
his shattered forces to Chester. The place was 

f Rushworth II. part iii. 302. 



CAP T - SANDFORD'S LETTER. 45 

defended only by mud-walls and ditches, formed 
in a hasty manner by the inhabitants and coun- 
try people; who were highly incensed at some 
cruel and impolitic treatment they had met 
with from the royalists. The garrison defended 
themselves with great obstinacy. The most re- 
markable attack was on the 1 8th of January, 
when the besiegers were repulsed with great loss. 
Among the slain on their side, was the famous 
Captain Sandford ; who again employed the elo- 
quence of his pen, but to as little purpose as he 
did before at Hqzvarden. On each occasion s he 
maintains the same stile. 

" To the Officers, Soldiers, and Gentlemen 
" in Namptwyche, these. 

" Your drum can inform you, Acton church is 
" no more a prison, but now free for honest men 
" to do their devotions therein ; wherefore be per- 
" suaded from your incredulity, and resolve God 
" will not forsake his anointed. Let not your 
" zeal in a bad cause dazzle your eyes any 
" longer ; but wipe away your vain conceits, that 
" have too long let you into blind errors. Loth 
" I am to undertake the trouble of persuading 
" you into obedience, because your erroneous 
" opinions do most violently oppose reason 

s Tour in Wales, vol. i. 133. 



40 CAP r SANDFORD'S LETTER. 

" amongst you ; but, however, if you love youf 
"town, accept of quarter; and if you regard 
" your lives, work your safeties by yielding your 
" town to Lord Byron, for his Majesty's use. 
" You see now my battery is fixed ; from whence 
" fire shall eternally visit you, to the terror of 
" the old, and females, and consumption of your 
" thatched houses. Believe me, gentlemen, I 
" have laid by my former delays, and am now 
" resolved to batter, burn, storm, and destroy 
" you. Do not wonder that I write unto you, 
" having officers in chief above me : 'tis only to 
" advise you, because I have some friends 
" amongst you, for whose safety I wish you to 
" accept of my Lord Byron's conditions ; he is 
" gracious, and will charitably consider of you. 
" Accept of this as a summons, that you forth- 
" with surrender the town ; and by that testimony 
" of your fealty to his Majesty, you may obtain 
" favour. My firelocks, you know, have done 
" strange feats, both by day and night ; and 
" hourly we will not fail in our private visits of 
" you. You have not as yet received mine 
" alarms ; wherefore expect suddenly to hear 
" from my battery and approaches before your 
" Welsh Row. 

"This 1 5th of January, Tho. Sandford, 

" 1643. Captain of Firelocks." 



GENERAL MONK. 4 ? 

" Gentlemen, 
" Let these resolve your jealousies concerning 
V our religion : I vow by the faith of a Christian, 
" I know not one Papist in our army ; and, as I 
" am a gentleman, we are no Irish, but true- 
" born English, and real Protestants also, born 
" and bred. Pray mistake us not, but receive 
" us into your fair esteem. I know we intend 
" loyalty to his Majesty, and will be no other 
M but faithful in his service. This, Gentlemen, 
" believe, from 

CI IT ' 

" Yours, 
" January 15. Tho. Samlford" 

Among many other prisoners of distinction 
taken by Sir Thomas Fairfax, was Colonel 
George Monk, in after-times the famous instru- 
ment of the restoration of Charles II. Fairfax 
was so well acquainted with his merit, that he 
^vas determined that he never should have an 
opportunity of exerting his courage again in the 
royal cause. He sent him up to London, where 
he was committed prisoner to the Tower, and 
confined near four years. On his release he 
joined the parlement; but, through a sense of 
honor, declined acting against his old master; 
and employed his sword against the Irish rebels, 
in which service he was engaged till after the 
death of the King. 

Nantxvich was the residence of the widow of 



48 MILTON'S WIDOW. 

the great Milton, during the latter part of hef 
life. h She was the daughter of Mr. Minshul; of 
Stoke, in this neighborhood. The poet married 
her in the fifty-third or fifty-fourth year of his age, 
wanting, in the season of his infirmities, assist- 
ance from a dearer relation than that of domes- 
tics. I fear that he was disappointed ; for she is 
said to have been a lady of most violent spirit. 
Yet she maintained a great respect for his me- 
mory ; and could not bear to hear the least im- 
putation of plagiarism ascribed to him. She used 
to say, that he stole from nobody but the muse 
who inspired him, and that muse was God's grace, 
and the Holy Spirit, xchich visited him nightly. 
She probably had heard him say as much, in the 
composition of his invocation to Urania, in his 7th 
book: 

. upled by Thee, 

Into the heav'n of heav'ns I have presum'd, 
An earthly guest, and drawn empyreal air, 
Thy temp'ring. 

And again, with greater force, 

More safe I sing with mortal voice, unchang'd 
To hoarse or mute, though fall'n on evil days, 
On evil days though fall'n, and evil tongues; 
In darkness and with dangers compass'd round, 
And solitude; yet not alone, while Thou 
Visit'st my slumbers nightly. 

b Life of Milton by Bishop Newton. She died in a very 
advanced age, in March 1726. 



GERARD, THE BOTANIST. 49 

In this town, in 1545, was born the good old 
botanist John Gerard. He was bred an apothe- 
cary ; and removing to London was patronized by 
Lord Burghley, and during twenty years was su- 
perintendant of his lordship's fine garden. He 
often speaks of his own poor garden in Holborn, 
which probably was a very respectable one. Doc- 
tor Bulky n says it contained 1100 plants. It is 
said to have been the first physic-garden we ever 
had. The catalogue was given in print by him- 
self in 1596 and 1599- There were two editions 
of his Herbal: the first in 1597. The second 
published in 1633 and 1636 by the ingenious and 
brave Thomas Johnson, also an apothecary ; but 
who afterwards was honored with the degree of 
Doctor of Physic conferred on him in 1643 by the 
university of Oxford. He had entered into the 
royal army, and was advanced to the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel ; behaved with distinguished gaU 
lantry, and at length (in 1644) fell, greatly la- 
mented, at the siege of Basinghouse, which was 
soon after relieved by the loyal Colonel Gage. 
Gerard died in the year 1607. 

I continued my journey along the London 
road, flat, tedious, and heavy. At the fourth 
stone lieth, a little out of the way, JVybunbury, 
a small village, supposed to have taken its name 
from IVibba, second king of the Mercians, who^ 





dO WYBUNBURY. 

died in 615. The manor was antiently in the 
great family of the Praers. Sir Robert de Praer 
gave it to his son Richard, about the reign of 
King John, upon condition of rendering to the 
heirs of his elder brother two barbed arrows 
yearly, on the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, in 
lieu of all other services. But the Praers re- 
mitted all their right in this manor, and the pa- 
tronage of the church, to the bishop of Lichfield 
and Coventry, in 1276, the fifth of Edward I. 
and the bishops continued to be lords of the ma- 
nor till the second of Queen Elizabeth; about 
which time it was alienated : but the bishops still 
continue patrons of the church. 

There had been, in much earlier times, a fa- 
mily in this place which took their name from it ; 
for Richard de Wibbunbury was sheriff of Cheshire 
in 1233. Whether the Praers ever assumed that 
name, is uncertain. It is probable, that the Ri- 
chard abovementioned was the same with the she- 
riff, and took the addition on receiving the place 
from his father. 

This village was formerly surrounded with gen- 
tlemen's seats. Among those was Lee, the resi- 
dence of a family of the same name ; from which 
were descended- the Lees, earls of Lichfield, de- 
rived from Benedict, a son of this house, who 
made a settlement at Quarendon, in Bucking- 



WYBUNBURY CHURCH. 51 

liamshire, in the beginning of the reign of Ed- 
ward IV. 

The church is a very handsome building, em- 
battled and pinnacled : the tower lofty ; the roof 
is timbered on the inside, and carved with the 
arms of the various benefactors. Part of the 
church was taken down in 1591 ; at which time 
many of the monuments were destroyed : of those 
remaining, are several in memory of the Delves of 
Doddington. The most antient is a large altar- 
tomb of alabaster, with the figures of a father, and 
son, and lady, engraven on the stone : at the feet 
of each is a dog, and beneath, a dolphin : on the 
front of the tomb, several figures, their progeny. 
The persons represented are Sir John Delves, his 
son John, and his wife Ellen, daughter of Ralph 
Egerton, of TVrinehill, in the county of Stafford; 
for his marriage with whom, probably on account 
of consanguinity, a dispensation was granted in 
1439 1 . 

Sir John was in high favor with Henry VI. 
and enjoyed several lucrative posts under him. 
This he repaid by the most faithful adherence, 
raised forces in his support, and lost his life va- 
liantly fighting, in the fatal field at Texvhesbury, 
on Saturday, May the. 4th, 1471. His son, with 

1 Collins' s Baronet, ed. 1720. p. 300. 
E 2 



52 WYBUNBURY. TOMBS. 

numbers of persons of distinction, took refuge in 
the abbey. The furious Edward pursued them, 
with his drawn sword, into the church k ; but was 
opposed by a resolute priest, who for the present 
diverted his vengeance by lifting up the host, in- 
terposing the sacred mystery, and denied him ad- 
mittance till he obtained a promise of pardon ; 
depending on the king's word, they neglected 
making their escape, and continued in the sanc- 
tuary till the Monday, when the relentless monarch 
caused them to be drawn out and beheaded, ac- 
cording to the custom of the times, without any 
process. The bodies of this unfortunate pair were 
at first buried at Tewkesbury*, but afterwards 
translated to this place ; where their remains lie, 
with the following inscription : 

Hie jacet Johannes Delves, miles, et Elena uxor 

ejus, nee non Johannes Delves, armiger, Alius 

et heres predicti Johis. qui quidem Johannes 

miles obiit quarto die Mail, anno Dnl 

MCCCCLXXI. quorum animabus propi- 

tietur Deus. Amen. 

Ralph, the second son of Sir John, and his 

wife Catharine, are represented on a tomb by 

two brass plates. The inscription imports, that 

he died the 11th March, 1513. 

k Stoiv's Annafs, 424-. ' Leland Itin. y\. 88. 



DODDINGTON HALL, &c. 53 

The tomb of Sir Thomas Smith, of the Hough, 
in this parish, and his lady, is magnificent in its 
kind. Sir Thomas lies beneath a canopy, sup- 
ported by four pillars of the Ionic order, of white 
marble, gilt and painted. He is represented re- 
cumbent and armed, with his gauntlets lying at 
his feet: his hair long, curled, and flowing: his 
visage bearded and whiskered. His lady (Anne, 
daughter of Sir William Brereton) has a fashion- 
able fore-top, a great ruff, and extended hood. 
Sir Thomas died on the 21st of December 16 14; 
and his relict erected this monumental compli- 
ment. 

On getting into the great road, I passed on the 
left the scite of the antient seat of Lee, and an 
iron forge. 

A little farther stood the antient seat of 
Doddington, originally belonging to a family of 
the same name ; but in the reign of Edward II. 
it passed to the Praers : in 1352, the twenty- 
sixth of Edward III. to the Brescies, by marriage 
with the heiress of the house : but in the thirtieth 
of the same reign, John Brescie, with Margaret 
his wife, alienated it to John Delves, of Delves- 
hall in Staffordshire, one of the four renowned 
'squires who distinguished themselves under the 
Lord Audley, at the battle of Poitiers. Sir John 
Berniers, Lord Bourchier, the noble translator 



54 LORD AUDLEY AND HIS SQUIRES. 

of Froissart, relates the deed with all the sim- 
plicity of the original. " But when Lord James 
" Audeley sawe that shoulde nedes fyght (he sayde 
" to the Pry nee) I have alwaies served truly my 
" lorde your father, and you also, and shall do as 
" long as I live. I say this, because I made ones 
" a vow, that the first batayle that other the 
" Kynge your father, or anie of his chyldren, 
" shoulde be at, ho we that I wulde be one of the 
" fyrst setters on, or else to dye in the fayle. 
" Therefore I requyre your Grace, as in rewarde 
" for any servyce that ever I dyde to the Kynge 
" your father, or to you, that you will gyve me 
" licence to departe fro' you, and to set up my 
" self there, as I maye accomplyshe my vowe. The 
" Prince, according to his desyre (and sayde) Sir 
" James, God gyve you this daye that grace to be 
" the best Knyght of all others, and to take hym 
" by the hande. Than the Knyght departed fro 
" the Prince, and went to the foremost front of 
" all the batayles all, onely accompanyed with 
" four Squyers, who promysed nat to fayle him. 
" This Lorde James was a ryghte sage and a va- 
" liant knyght, and by hym was muche of the 
" hooste ordeyned and governed the day before. 
" The Lord James Audeley, with his foure Squyers, 
" was in the front of that battel, and these dyd 
" marvels in armes ; and by great prowes, he 



LORD AUDLEY AND HIS 'SQUIRES. 55 

" came and fought with Sir Arnolde Dandrchen, 
" under his own banner ; and there they fought 
" longe togyder, and Sir Arnolde was there sore 
" handled. And there was Sir Arnolde Dan- 
" drchen taken prysoner by other men than by 
" Syr James Audeley or his foure Squyers ; for 
" y l daye he never toke prisoner, but always 
" foughte and wente on his enemyes. On the 
" Englyshe parte, the Lord James Audeley, with 
" the ayde of his foure Squyers, foughte alwayes 
" in the chyefe of the batayle : he was sore hurte 
" in the bodye, and in the vysage. As longe as 
" his breth served him he fought : at last, at the 
" end of the batayle hys foure Squyers toke and 
" brought hym out of the felde, and layed hym 
u under a hedge syde, for to refreshe hym. And 
" they unarmed hym, and bounde up his woundes 
" as well as they coude. After the battle, the 
" Prince demanded of the Knyghtes that were 
" aboute him, for the Lord Audley, if any knewe 
" any thing of him. Some Knights y* were there 
" answered and sayde, Sir, he is sore hurt, and 
" lieth in a litter here beside ; by my faith, said 
" the Prince, of his hurts I am right sorye, go 
" and knowe if he maye be broughte hider, or els 
" I will go, and se him there, as he is. Than 
" twoo Knights came to the Lord Audeley (and 
" sayde) Sir, the Prince desireth greatly to see 



56 LORD AUDLEY AND HIS 'SQUIRES. 

" you : outher ye must go to him, or els he will 
" come to you. A, Sir, sayde the Knighte, I 
" thanke the Prince when he thinketh on so pore 
" a knight as I am ; then he called eyght of his 
" servanntes, and caused them to bere hym in hys 
" lytter to the place where was the Prince. Than 
" the Prince toke hym in his armes and kyst hym, 
" and made him great chear, and sayd, Sir James, 
ff I ought gretly to honour you, for by your va- 
" liance ye have this day achyved y e grace and 
" renowne of us al, and ye are reputed for the 
" most valyant of al others. I retain you for ever 
"to be my knight, with five hundred markes of 
" yearly revenues. When Syr James Audeley was 
" broughte to his lodgynge, thenne he send for Syr 
"Peter Audeley, his brother, and for the Lorde 
" Bartylemawe of Brennes, the Lorde Stephanne 
" of Goutenton, the Lorde of Wylly, and the 
" Lorde Raffe Ferres : all these were of his ly- 
" nage : and than he called before them hys foure 
" Squyers, that hadde served hym that daye well 
" and trewlye : than he sayde to the sayde Lordes, 
" Syrs, it hath pleased my Lorde the Prynce to 
" gyve me five hundred markes of revenues by 
" yere; for the which gyft I have done him but 
" small servyce with my bodye. Sirs, beholde 
" here these foure Squyers, who hath alwayes 
" served me truely, and especyally thys day : that 



LORD AUDLEY AND HIS 'SQUIRES. 57 

" honour that I have is by their valyantnesse, 
" wherefore I woll reward them : I gyve and re- 
" signe into their handes the gyft that my Lorde 
" y e Prynce hath gyv'n me of five hundred markes 
" of yerely revenues, to them and their heyres for 
" ever. I clearly disheryte me thereofF, and in- 
" heryte them wythout any rebell or condy- 
u tyon m ." 

I have dwelt the longer on this account of the 
Lord Audley, not only as his history is so mingled 
with that of his four 'squires, Delves, Dutton, 
Foulhurst, and Hawkeston ; but because all five 
were Cheshire men ; the 'squires, by attachment, 
following their neighbor to the scene of military 
glory. I must add, that their gallant leader en- 
joined them, as a further proof of his esteem, to 
bear in some parts of their coats of arms, his own 
proper atchievement gules, a fret d'or" ; which 
the families constantly retained. 

The statues of Lord Audley and his four 
'squires, cut in stone, are still preserved at Dod- 
dington Hall. Doctor Gozver supposes that of 
Lord Audley to have been original ; the others to 
have been made in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
when the late mansion was built. 

Sir John (for he was knighted by Edrvard III.) 

m Ch. clxii. clxv. clxvii. " Dr. Gotvcr's Material* fyc. 47. 



58 AUDLEY CHURCH. 

was distinguished by several marks of royal favor : 
had the wardship of the Dutchess of Bretagne : 
was constituted one of the justices of the King's 
Bench ; and had licence to embattle his house at 
Doddington. He bequeathed his body to be bu- 
ried in the church of St. James, at Audelcy, in 
Staffordshire, and, dying on the 16th of August 
1369, was interred there, according to his desire. 
Near him, in the same church, were deposited the 
remains of his illustrious patron. 

Audley lies a very few miles to the north-east 
of Doddington, seated on the top of a hill, on the 
road between Nantxvich and Newcastle. A reve- 
rential curiosity once led me to visit the reliques 
of these heroes. Those of the Lord Audley lie 
beneath a plain altar-tomb, formerly having his 
figure on the slab, engraven on a small brass 
plate. 

His 'squire is perpetuated in a more ostenta- 
tious manner, and represented in alabaster, at full 
length, with his coat of arms on his breast. The 
inscription is lost. 

One of the residences of the Audley s was at 
this village ; from which they took their name. A 
farm occupies the scite of their house ; but in 
latter times they inhabited Heleigh Castle, about 
three miles distant. 

The Lords had many privileges here; such as 



HARDINGVVOOD. DODDINGTON. 59 

court-leet, tumbrel, and gallows : nor could any 
one arrest a person here, except an officer of the 
manor. These estates passed, by marriage of Sir 
John Touchet, to Joan, daughter of the great Lord 
Audley, and sister and co-heir of his son Nicholas. 
George Touchet, Lord Audley, sold it, in 1577, 
to Sir Gilbert Gerrard ; from whose family it 
descended to the Fleetwoods ; and in this cen- 
tury was lost in a single night by the cast of a die. 

There is a particularity in the situation of the 
house of Hardingxvood, adjacent to this parish, 
which I cannot forbear mentioning. Whenever 
the family go to church (which is that of Lawton) 
they go out of the province of Canterbury into 
that of York ; pass through two counties, viz. 
Staffordshire and Cheshire ; three parishes, JVool- 
stanton, Audley, and Lazvton; three constableries, 
Tunstall, Chell, and Lawton; two hundreds, Pir- 
chill and Nantwich ; and two dioceses, Lichfield 
and Chester. 

Doddington continued in the family of the 
Delves till the present century, when, by the 
failure of issue male, it descended to the Brough- 
tons, of Broughton in the county of Stafford, by 
virtue of the marriage of Sir Bryan Broughton, 
in the year 1700, with Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 

Thomas Delves, Baronet. The house is seated in 

The last. Ed. 



60 WORE. MUCCLESTON. 

a park, watered on one side by a large mere ; with 
a small island, ornamented with an elegant ro- 
tundo. The present owner, Sir Thomas Brough- 
ton, is now building a new house, in a magnifi- 
cent stile, and in a far more agreeable situation, 
at the head of the lake, at some distance from the 
old mansion. The antient house was fortified, 
and garrisoned during the civil wars ; and taken 
and retaken in the course of the contest. 
After travelling about three miles further, in 
the same tedious lane, a portion of Shropshire 
presents a hilly front, and intersects the road. On 
Woke. the top of the ascent lies Wore, or Oare, a hamlet 
of a few houses, with a small chapel, dependent 
on the rectory of Muccleston, in the county of 
Stafford. Old Stczv informs us, that Randolph 
Woolley, of London, merchant-taylor, left to the 
reader of the place .5 for freely instructing the 
children of the inhabitants of this parish. 

From Wore I quitted, for the sake of a small 
digression, the London road, and at about two 
miles distance enter, at Bearston-mill, the county 

of 

STAFFORD p . 

Mucci.es- A little farther stands Muccleston, a small 

TOS. , 

P This county, as well as Cheshire, was the seat of the Cor- 
navii, and was in Saxon times part of the Mercian kingdom ; 
and its inhabitants what Bedc called the Middle Englishmen. 



BATTLE OF BLOREHEATH. 61 

village, seated on a rising ground. The church, 
dedicated to St. Mary, is a rectory, in the gift of 
John Crew q , Esquire, of Crexv, lord of the manor. 
In 1085, the twentieth of the Conqueror, it was 
held by Kenning, one of the Taynes : it afterwards 
was possessed by the Morgans, of the west coun- 
try, till about the first of Queen Elizabeth ; when 
it was sold by Robert Morgan, Esquire, to Sir 
Thomas Offley, Knight, Lord Mayor of London 
in 1 556 ; whom Fuller calls the Zaccheus of 
that city, not for his low stature, but high charity. 

From the tower of the church, Margaret of Battle of 
Anjou, the faithful and spirited consort of Hen- heath. 
ry VI. saw the fierce battle of Bloreheath, fatal 
to the cause of her meek husband, then at Coles- 
hill. Richard Nevil, Earl of Salusbury, com- 
manded the Yorkists: he was at that time on his 
march from Middleham Castle, with four or five 
thousand men, under pretence of settling with the 
King the disputes of the two houses. Margaret, 
fearing for her husband's safety, directed Lord 
Andley to intercept him on the way. He posted 
himself on Bloreheath, with ten thousand troops, 
collected out of Cheshire and Shropshire, whose 
chieftains were distinguished by silver swans, the 
badges of their young prince. Salusbury, *not- 

i Created a peer of Great Britain in 1806. E. 



C2 CHESHIRE HEROES. 

withstanding the disparity of numbers, determined 
to stand the fortune of the day ; but wisely had 
recourse to stratagem. He encamped at night on 
the banks of a rivulet, not broad, but deep ; and 
in the morning pretended a retreat ; Audley fol- 
lowing him with the impetuous valor natural to 
himself and the times, Salusbury made an instant 
attack on the divided forces of the Lancastria?is. 
The field was long disputed, with the animosity 
usual in civil feuds. Audley fell, with two thou- 
sand four hundred of his troops, chiefly the flower 
of the Cheshire gentry ; whose courage led them 
to the front of the battle. A great stone still 
marks the spot of their leader's death. The 
Queen fled to Ecclushal Castle. Salusbury joined 
the Duke of York at Ludlow. Michael Drayton 
commemorates the slaughter of the day, and pre- 
serves the names of the Cheshire heroes ; for the 
county listed under both banners. 



-The earl, 



As hungry in revenge, there made a ravenous spoil. 
There Dutton, Duiton kills; a Done doth kill a Done; 
A Booth, a Booth ; and Leigh by Leigh is overthrown : 
A Venables against a Venables doth stand ; 
A Trouibeck fighteth with a Troutbeck hand to hand : 
T,here Molineux doth make a Molineux to die ; 
And Egerton the strength of Egerton doth try. 

I returned into the great road by Winning- 



WELLS. MERE. THE BRUFF. 63 

ton forge and JVillozvbridge wells. The last were 
once in high esteem for their sanative waters, 
strongly impregnated with sulphur. They were 
formerly much frequented, on account of bathing 
and drinking. A house for the reception of pa- 
tients was built, and a bath inclosed ; but at pre- 
sent the waters (which to look and taste differ not 
from common) are entirely deserted. 

I re-entered the London road on Meter Mere. 
Heath, in the parish of Maer, or Mere ; so stiled 
from a large piece of water, the head of the river 
Tern, which flowing through Shropshire, falls into 
the Severn three miles below Shrewsbury. Meter 
and Aston, an adjacent manor, were on the Con- 
quest divided between William de Maer and Ro- 
bert Stafford. Some centuries afterwards, a Staf- 
ford exchanged his part of Maer, with Ralph, the 
son of John Macclesfield ; by which it came into 
that family, who sold it to John Lord Chetwynd. 

This parish is remarkable for Savon antiqui- Bruff. 
ties. On a hill is an antient fortress, or strong 
hold, composed of two deep ditches and a ram- 
part, formed chiefly of stone ; the precinct is not 
of any regular shape, for the fosses conform to 
the shape of the hill ; as was usual with the Bri- 
tons and the earlier Saxons. Two of the corriers 
project naturally, and form a species of bastions. 
The entrance was on ^he side next the present 



64 THE BRUFF. BARROWS. 

road. The approach is very visible : it crept up 
the steep sides ; divided about midway, one branch 
took to the left and the other to the right. Near 
this place finished his course Osred, the licentious 
king of the Northumbrians ; a despiser of monks 
and corrupter 'of nuns : slain in battle in 716, at 
Mear, in the bloom of youth. This fortress is 
called the Bri/ff, corruptly from Burgh. It seems 
to have been cast up by Kinred, king of Mercia, 
against the invasion of Osred. Kinred probably 
gave his antagonist the usual funeral honors, and 
interred him, and his officers, with the respect due 
Barrows, to their rank. Tumuli, or barrows, some round, 
others oblong, are scattered over the neighboring 
hills and heath. Under the large conical hill, 
called Coplozv, might be deposited the corpse of 
Osred ; beneath the others, those of his unfortu- 
nate followers. I must not pass over in silence 
the Camp-hills, notwithstanding the name has out- 
lived the vestiges of entrenchments ; nor does any 
tradition of the possessor remain. Shall we sup- 
pose it to be Osred, who might have been there 
before his defeat ? 

This country is gravelly, full of commons and 
low hills r , entirely covered with heath ; which still 
give shelter to a few black grous, and red. The 

r A considerable portion of this dreary tract is now enclosed 
and cultivated. Ed. 



SWINERTON. 65 



mention of the heath reminds me, that about a Heath usbd 
century ago it was sometimes made use of instead 
of hops : a practice continued to this day in some 
of the Hebrides. . . 

Cross Hatton and Swinerton heaths. The last Swinertojt. 
lies in a parish and manor of the same name, 
which was owned, from the Conquest to the reign 
of Henry VIII. by the Swinertons. Their an- 
cestor was called Aslam, who held the estate from 
Robert de Stafford, and at the time of the general 
survey, possessed in this county alone eighty-one 
manors. This family produced numbers of knights ; 
and, among them, Roger de Swinerton had the 
honor of being summoned to parlement in the 
reign of Edxvard III. He seems to have been 
favored in those reigns. In that of the first Ed- 
ward, he obtained free warren for his manor, and 
got the privilege of a market and a fair to be held 
there. In the reign of Edward II. he was ap- 
pointed governor of Stafford; afterwards, of the 
important castle of Harlech, in Meireonethshire ; 
and was made constable of the Tower of London. 
In that of his successor, besides the honor above 
recited, he was made a banneret ; and had for his 
several services an assignation out of the exchequer, 
of an hundred and forty-five pounds thirteen shil- 
lings and eight-pence. In the reign of Henry VIII. 
this manor of Swinerton passed into the family of 

F 



QQ CHURCH. SCHOOL. DARLASTON. 

the Fitzherberts, by the marriage of the youngest 
daughter of Humphry, last male heir of the line, 
to William Fitzherbert of Norbury, in which 
name it still continues. 

The church, and seat of Mr. Fitzherbert, com- 
mand a vast view into Worcestershire and Shrop- 
shire. In the first is a tomb of a cross-legged 
knight ; and a plain altar-tomb, inscribed Dominus 
de Sivinnerton 8$ Ellen uxor ejus. 

In the school -house is placed the colossal figure 
of our Saviour, sitting. He is represented as if 
after the resurrection, shewing the wound in his 
side to the incredulous disciple. It was found 
under ground, near the place it now occupies; 
and seems to have been buried in the reforming 
times, to preserve it from the rage of the image- 
breakers. 

In the house is a very fine full-length portrait 
of Sir John Fitzherbert, Knight. 
Darlaston. On descending a hill, I reached Darlaston, 
a village on the Trent. Near this place, on the 
summit of a hill, called Bury Bank, is an area 
of an oval form, about 250 yards in diameter, en- 
vironed by a deep trench and ramparts : the en- 
trance is on the north-west. On the south part 
is a tumulus, surrounded with a ditch. This I 
imagine to have been formed out of the ruins of 
some buildings, and to have been a sort of prce- 



THE TRENT. 67 

torium to the occupier of this post. It is sup- 
posed to have been the residence of Wulpherus, 
who reigned over Mercia from 656 to 675. The 
old name of JVlferecester in a manner confirms the 
opinion. Whether the neighboring Cop, or Low, 
was the place of his interment, as Plot thinks, is 
doubtful. 

Here I first meet with the Trent. This river 
rises in the Morelands, near Biddulph, out of 
Newpool, and two springs near Molecop. At this 
place it is an inconsiderable stream, becomes na- 
vigable at Burton on Trent, and, after flowing 
through this county (which it almost equally di- 
vides), that of Derby, Nottingham, and Lincoln, 
it loses its name in the Humber, the great recep- 
tacle of the northern rivers. Poets have taken 
most beautiful liberties in their etymologies of the 
name of this river ; for it neither derives it from 
its thirty kinds of fish, nor yet from its thirty 
rivers that swell its waters. 

The bounteous Trent, that in himself enseams 
Both thirty sorts of fish, and thirty sundry streams. 

After quoting the sublime description of Mil- 
ton, we shall give its simple derivation. 

Rivers, arise ! whether thou be the son 
Of utmost Tiveed, or Ooze, or gulphy Dun, 
Or Trent, which, like some earth-born giant, spreads 
His thirty arms along the indented meads. 

F 2 



M STONEFIELD. CAxVAL. 

In fact, the name is Saxon ; Trenta, Treonta, and 
formed from the word drie (three), on account of 
its rising from three heads. 

Stonefikld. After crossing the river, and ascending a small 
bank, I find myself in a vast open tract rising to 
the left, called Stonefield. Here, in 1745,. the 
Duke of Cumberland drew up his army to give 
battle to the rebels, who were supposed to have 
been on their march this way. His intelligence 
failed him, and the Scotch insurgents possessed 
themselves of Derby. In future times, posterity 
will almost doubt the fact, when they read that 
an inconsiderable band of mountaineers, undisci- 
plined, unomcered, and half-armed, penetrated into 
the center of an unfriendly country, with one 
army behind them, and another in their front ; that 
they rested there a few days ; and that they re- 
treated above three hundred miles, with scarcely 
any loss, continually pressed by a foe supplied 
with every advantage that loyalty could afford. 

The Canal. Parallel to my road runs that magnificent 
enterprize the Grand Trunk Canal, for the junc- 
tion of the eastern and the western oceans ; de- 
signed to give to each side of the kingdom an easy 
share in the commodities of both. In other coun- 
tries, the nature of the land permits a ready ex- 
ecution of these designs. Egypt and Holland are 
levelled to the workmen's hands. Our aspiring 



THE CANAL. eg 

genius scoffs at obstructions, and difficulties serve 
but to whet our ardor : our aqueducts pass over 
our once-admired rivers, now despised for the 
purposes of navigation : we fill vallies, we pene- 
trate mountains. How would the prophet have 
been treated, who, forty years ago, should have 
predicted, that a vessel of twenty-five tons would 
be seen sailing over Stonefield? Yet such is the 
case at present. 

Figitur in viridi (si fors tulit) anchora prato. 

This great enterprize was begun on July 17th, 
1766, near the south end of Hare-castle Hill, in 
this county. Its entire length is ninety-three 
miles, viz. sixty-one miles two furlongs from the 
south side of that hill to Wildon ferry, in the 
county of Derby ; and thirty-one miles six fur- 
longs on the north side, to its junction with the 
Duke of Bridgewaters canal at Preston on the 
Hill, in Cheshire. 

To effect this work, there are forty locks on the 
south side ; having in all three hundred and six- 
teen feet fall ; and on the north side thirty-five, 
with three hundred and twenty-six feet fall. Six 
of the most southern locks are fourteen feet wide, 
adapted for the navigation of large vessels, from 
opposite to Burton to Gainsborough. At Mid- 



70 THE CANAL. 

dlewich, on the north side, is another, of the same 
width. 

The common dimensions of the canal are 
twenty-nine feet breadth at top; at bottom six- 
teen; and the depth four and a half, except in 
the part from Wilden to Burton, which is thirty- 
one feet broad at top, eighteen at bottom, and 
five and a half deep. The same is observed from 
Middlexcich to Preston on the Hill ; upon which 
vessels, capable of navigating in the estuary of 
the Severn, may pass to the port of Liverpool. 

The canal is carried over the river Dove, in an 
aqueduct of twenty-three arches, and the ground 
raised one mile and two furlongs in length, and 
to a very considerable height. It is also carried 
over the river Trent, on an aqueduct of six arches, 
of twenty-one feet span each : and again, over the 
river Dane, in Cheshire, in the same manner, on 
three arches of twenty feet diameter. 

Besides these, there are near a hundred and 
sixty less aqueducts and culverts, for the convey- 
ance of brooks and streams under the canal ; many 
of which are in span from twelve to eighteen feet. 

The undertakers, for the conveniency of the 
several persons whose lands they have cut through, 
or when the canal intersects any public road, have 
built an hundred and eighty-nine cart-bridges, and 



THE CANAL. 71 

eleven foot-bridges ; and frequently, when the ca- 
nal passed in sight of any gentleman's seat, have 
politely given it a breadth, or curvature, to im- 
prove the beauty of the prospect. 

The mountains, hills, or rocks, that obstructed 
the canal, are pierced through in the following 
places. 

The most southern tunnel, as it is called, is at 
Hermitage ; where a work is carried under ground 
for the space of an hundred and thirty yards, with 
a haling-way for horses on one side. 

The tunnel through the mountain at Hare 
Castle, is cut through a variety of strata, and was 
a work of stupendous difficulty and expence, and 
executed in a manner worthy of the courage and 
skill of the great undertaker, Mr. Brindley. It 
passes under ground for the length of two thou- 
sand eight hundred and eighty yards ; is nine feet 
wide and twelve high, lined and arched with brick. 
This traverses a country full of coals. 

In Cheshire, at Burnt on, in the parish of Great 
Budzvorth, is another tunnel, five hundred and 
sixty yards long ; at Saltenford, in the same pa- 
rish, is another, three hundred and fifty yards 
long ; and finally, at Preston on the Hill is an- 
other, which passes under ground twelve hun- 
dred and forty-one yards ; each of them are seven- 
teen feet four inches high, and thirteen feet six 



72 MR. JAMES BRINDLEY. 

inches wide : at Preston on the Hill the canal 
emerges, and soon concludes its course, by falling 
into the canal formed by an useful Peer, the Duke 
of Bridgexvater * ; the latter drops into the Mersey 
at Runcorn, with a fall of eighty-two feet, eased 
by ten magnificent locks. 

From Middlewich to Manchester is a dead 
level, which does not require a lock. 

The proprietors of the Grand Trunk Canal 

have employed on it about fifty boats, exclusive 

of those belonging to other persons, which amount 

at least to the same number. They are calculated 

to carry twenty-five tons each, and are drawn by 

one horse, for which the proprietors receive per 

mile three halfpence a ton. 

Of James It would be ungrateful not to pay some respect 
Brikdley. . . 

to the memory of the great architect and contriver 

of these works, Mr. James Brindley. That 
rare genius was born at Tunsted, in the parish of 
JVormhill, Derbyshire, in the year 1716". His 
father was a small freeholder, who ruined himself 
by following the sports of the field, and disabled 
himself from giving his children any sort of edu- 
cation. 

Young James shewed very early the goodness 
of his heart, by maintaining the orphan family 

Deceased in 1803. Ed. 



MR. JAMES BRINDLEY. 73 

by such labor as he was capable of. At the ag6 
of seventeen he bound himself apprentice to a 
millwright near Macclesfield, when his amazing 
abilities were soon discovered. He speedily be- 
came a great proficient, and performed a number 
of things of which his master was totally ignorant. 
His gratitude was equal to his genius ; for he over- 
paid any instructions which he received from his 
master, by maintaining him in a comfortable man- 
ner when he grew past working, and fell into di- 
stress. 

The first service the public received from him, 
was a very considerable improvement in the paper- 
press. He got great credit by a water-engine at 
Clifton, in Lancashire; and still more by the ma- 
chinery of a new silk-mill at Congleton, to which 
he gave many most important movements. He 
highly facilitated the grinding of flints for the pot- 
teries; and in 1756, erected a steam-engine, on a 
new plan, by which he reduced the consumption 
of coal to one half. 

It was a peculiar felicity to the Duke of 
Bridgewater, to find a genius such as Brind- 
ley, cotemporary to the great designs formed by 
his Grace. That wonderful mechanic naturally 
fell under the Dukes patronage, and was the 
grand contriver of all the works which his noble 
friend carried on. Many of his projects were of 



74 MR. JAMES BRINDLEY. 

so stupendous a kind, and so incomprehensible 
to vulgar minds, as to subject him to great ridi- 
cule, till the scoffers were put to confusion by the 
successful execution. 

Wherever any great difficulty arose, he con- 
stantly took to his bed, excluded all light, and lay 
in meditation for two or three days, till he had in 
idea completed the whole of his plan. A poet 
would have said, he was visited by his muse in 
those hours of seclusion. Brindlcy certainly was 
illuminated, amidst the darkness, by his attendant 
genius. He reminds me of the younger Pliny, 
who adopted almost a similar method : " Clause? 
"fenestra manent. Mirk enim Silent io et tent- 
t( bris animus alitur. ab Us. qua axocant abduc- 
" tus, et liber, et mihi relictus, non oculos animo 
" sed animum oculis sequor, qui eadem qua mens 
" vident quoties non vident alia \" 

When he found his health and faculties to de- 
cline, he virtuously determined to extend as far 
as possible his services, even beyond the grave. 
He communicated all his plans and designs to 
Mr. Hugh Henshall, his wife's brother, who had 
been employed by the proprietors, from the be- 
ginning, as clerk of the works. His assiduity and 
abilities seem to have compensated for the loss of 

* Epist. lib. ix. ep. 3G. 



ADVANTAGES OF THE CANAL. 75 

his great ally ; for the most difficult parts in the 
undertaking have been successfully executed, since 
Mr. Brindleys death", under the direction of Mr. 
Henshall. 

Notwithstanding the clamors which were 
raised against this undertaking, in the places 
through which it was intended to pass, when it 
was first projected, we have the pleasure now to 
see content reign universally on its banks, and 
plenty attend its progress. The cottage, instead 
of being half-covered with miserable thatch, is 
now secured with a substantial covering of tiles 
or slates, brought from the distant hills of Wales 
or Cumberland. The fields, which before were 
barren, are now drained, and, by the assistance 
of manure, conveyed on the canal toll-free, are 
cloathed with a beautiful verdure. Places which 
rarely knew the use of coal, are plentifully sup- 
plied with that essential article upon reasonable 
terms : and, what is of still greater public utility, 
the monopolizers of corn are prevented from ex- 
ercising their infamous trade ; for, by the commu- 
nication being opened between Liverpool, Bristol, 
and Hull, and the line of the canal being through 
countries abundant in grain, it affords a convey- 
ance for corn unknown to past ages. At present, 

He died at Tumhurst, in the parish of Wolstanton, Staf- 
fordshire, September 27 lb, 1772. 



76 ADVANTAGES OF THE CANAL. 

nothing but a general dearth can create a scarcity 
in any part adjacent to this extensive work. 

These, and many other advantages, are de- 
rived, both to individuals and the public, from 
this internal navigation, and when it happens that 
the kingdom is engaged in a foreign war, with 
what security is the trade between those three 
great ports carried on ; and with how much less 
expence has the trader his goods conveyed to any 
part of the kingdom, than he had formerly been 
subject to, when they were obliged to be carried 
coastways, and to pay insurance? 

I believe it may be asserted, that no under- 
taking, equally expensive and arduous, was ever 
attempted by private people in any kingdom ; and, 
in justice to the adventurers, it must be allowed, 
that, considering the difficulties they met with, 
owing to the nature of the works, or the caprice 
of persons whose lands were taken to make the 
canal, that ten years and a half was but a short 
time to perform it in; and that satisfaction has 
been made to every individual who suffered any 
injury by the execution of the undertaking. The 
profits arising from tonnage are already very con- 
siderable ; and there is no doubt but they will in- 
crease annually ; and, notwithstanding the enor- 
mous sum of money it has cost in the execution, 
the proprietors will be amply repaid, and have 



STONE. COLLEGE. 77 

the comfort to reflect, that by the completion of 
this project, they have contributed to the good of 
their country, and acquired wealth for themselves 
and posterity. 

Immediately after leaving Stonejield, reached Stone. 
the little town of Stone, a place remarkable for 
religious antiquity. Legend tells us, that the be- 
fore-mentioned Wulferus, then a Pagan, put to 
death his two sons, JVulfad and Riifin, on sus- 
picion of favoring the Christian faith ; JVulfad at 
this place, Rufin at Burston, about three miles 
distant. Over each, stones were erected, as usual, 
in memory of the dead ; whence the names of these 
places are derived. Wulfere, after this unnatural 
deed, was struck with the utmost remorse, and, 
by the influence of his queen and St. Cedda, or 
Chad, who lived in a neighboring hermitage, was 
converted to the religion he had so lately perse- 
cuted ; and, by way of expiating his guilt, among 
other works of piety, founded at Stone a college 
of canons regular, about the year 670. His 
queen Ermenilda is said to have also founded a 
nunnery here. On the invasion of the Danes, the College. 
religious were dispersed ; but on the abatement of 
the cruelty of those barbarians, it is probable they 
returned, or at lest a new establishment was form- 
ed. This is certain, that religious were found here 
after the Conquest ; for there is an idle tale of two 



78 STONE PRIORY. 

nuns and a priest being slain there, by Enysan, a 
Norman. This Enysan, of Walton, was the true 
re-founder. Caution must be used in reading the 
histories of these times, which are filled with pious 
romance. Little credit should also be given to 
the murder of the sons of Wulfere. The Saxon 
Chronicle is silent about the deed. That prince 
was a convert to Christianity, and seems to have 
founded the house through the common motives 
of zeal. 

Enysan, on his re-establishment of this house, 
filled it with canons from Kenelworth, and made 
Priory, ft a cell to that place. The Staffords, who were 
his superiors, assumed the honor of this new foun- 
dation ; and a second Robert de Stafford, about 
the year 1260, rendered it independent of Kenel- 
worth, excepting the right of patronage, and a 
yearly pension. The church of this priory was 
the place of interment of several of this great fa- 
mily; and numbers of magnificent tombs, with- 
their figures in alabaster, lay there till the disso- 
lution; when they were removed to the Augus- 
tines, on Stafford Green. On the road-side is a 
fragment of a thick wall, perhaps a remnant of 
the priory. The church is quite new, and is a 
very elegant building, dedicated to St. IVulfad, 
one of the supposed martyrs. At the time of the 
suppression, a tablet, giving the whole history of 



ASTON HALL. BURSTON. 



79 



the house, was hung up in the priory : it is related 
in old English metre; but is so tedious, that I 
must refer the readers, who desire to peruse it, to 
the cited author*. 

As soon as I left Stone, I saw on the right a Ast<w. 
large house called Aston, originally the property 
of a branch of the He-ceninghams of Suffolk. 
Walter, the last of the line, left two daughters ; 
the second (who only had children) conveyed by 
marriage the estate to Sir James Simeon, who re- 
built the hall. He also built in the garden a mau- 
soleum; in which, I think, he is interred. The 
place is at present the property of Edward Weld, 
Esq. of Lulworth castle, in Dorsetshire, and de- 
scended to him of late years, by virtue of a mar- 
riage of an ancestor with a daughter of this house, 
in the reign of Charles II. 

The road from this place, for several miles, 
passes along a pretty vale, watered by the Trent> 
bounded by two hills, and much enlivened by the 
course of the canal. About the third mile from 
Stone, I went by Burston, a small hamlet, noted Burs-tost, 
formerly for a chapel erected over the spot where 
Rujin, second son of Wulfere, was supposed to 
have been martyred ; and on that account, in old 
times, greatly frequented by the devout. 

x Duzdak Mon. ii. 126. 



SO SANDON. 

About a quarter of a mile from hence, on the 
Sandok. top of a hill, stands the church of Sandon. This 
manor, in the twentieth of William the Conqueror, 
was in the hands of the king ; who bestowed it on 
Hugh Lupus ; and he again gave it to William de 
Malbang, or Nantwich. It passed from this fa- 
mily (by the gift of Adena, second daughter of 
William, grandson to the former) to Warren de 
Vcrdon ; and by his daughter Alditha, to Sir Wil- 
liam Stafford ; and by the marriage of Margaret, 
daughter of one of his descendants, in the twelfth 
of Edward III. to Thomas of Erdesxvik. It con- 
tinued in possession of that family till the reign 
of James I. In his time it was sold to George 
Digby, groom of the stole to that monarch, by 
his half-brother Richard Erdesxvik. Charles Lord 
Gerard, of Bromley, became master of it, by mar- 
riage with a daughter of Mr. Digby ; whose grand- 
daughter, by matching with William Duke of Ha- 
inilton, conveyed it to Lord Archibald Hamilton ; 
who, in 1776, disposed of it to Lord Harrowby. 
A law-suit concerning this place gave rise to the 
fatal duel, in November 1712, between James 
Duke of Hamilton and Lord Mohun ; in which 
both combatants lost their lives. 

The antient mansion stood near the church, 
within a moat; but is now demolished, and a 



MONUMENTS OF THE ERDESWIKS. 81 

beautiful house y , commanding a fine view, was 
built by Lord Archibald Hamilton, on an eminence 
impending over the Chester road. The steep slope 
is beautiful, cloathed with plantations of recent 
date, but extremely flourishing. 

The church is in the gift of Lord Harrow by. 
Before the dissolution, it belonged to the abbey of 
Cumber mere; being bestowed on it by the founder, 
Hugh de Malbang. 

The monuments are curious. The finest is in 
memory of the celebrated Sampson Erdeswik, the 
learned antiquary of the county; a faithful guide 
of all that concerned the families, till his death, 
which happened in 1603. He might have spared 
himself the expence of a monument; his work 
would have perpetuated his name. He erected 
one in his life-time; and is represented recum- 
bent, a colossal figure in a jacket with short skirts, 
and spurs on his legs. Above, in two niches, are 
his two wives, kneeling: the one was Elizabeth 
Dikeswel; the other Maria Neale, widow to Sir 
Everard Digby, and mother to the unfortunate 
victim to the gunpowder plot. Besides inscrip- 
tions to these ladies, is a pedigree of the house ; 
for which, as well as several other epitaphs of the 
Erdeszciks, the reader is referred to the Appendix x . 

y Now the residence of Lord Harroivby. Ed. 2 No. I. 

G 



m MONUMENT OF GEORGE DIGBY. 

I shall only mention, that the tombs are of the 
altar-form, and have the figures of the persons 
commemorated engraved on the stone. 

The inscription on a plain marble tomb, in 

Of George memory of Mr. Digby, once owner of the place, 

is very worthy of preservation : as it records a 

remarkable piece of history, I shall give it here 

at length, and add notes to the. obscure parts. 

Si quis hie jaceat, roges, viator, 

Georgius Digbceus, 

Armiger. 

Vir (si quis alius) celebrati nominis. 

Nobili clarus prosapia, sed vita nobiliori : 

Quippe qui 

Ipsum nobilitatis fontein caeno turbatum 

Demum limpidum reddidit : 

Hoc est 

Ut memet explicem, 

Qui regis Jacobi purpuram 

Maledicti Schopii a dicterici foedatam 

a Gaspar Scioppiud was a German of great erudition, but of 
a most turbulent disposition ; he became a convert to Popery 
in 1599, and naturally distinguished himself by a blind and 
furious zeal against his former religion ; and went so far as 
even to recommend the utter extirpation of its professors. He 
was a fierce antagonist to Scaliger, Causabon, and other Pro- 
testant writers ; and in his book stiled Ecclesiasticus, 1611, he 
attacked James I. in a very indecent manner. 



MONUMENT OF GEORGE DIGBY. $3 

Obtrectatoris sanguine b 

Retinxit. 

Nee tamen homuncionem penitus sustulit 

Sed gravius stigma fronti incussit 

Quam Henricus magnus 

Libello c , 

Quo scilicet toto vitse curriculo 

(Utpote omnium contemptui expositus) 

Sensit se mori. 

Hujus egregii facinoris intuitu 

A Jacobo honoribus auctus est 

Digbceus 
Meritis tandem annisque plenus 
Vivere desiit, semper victurus. 

Ipsis Idibus Decembris a . fo^ ^ Lxxxyj 

Tanti herois laudes 

b The affront offered to our monarch, induced Mr. Digby, 
and some other followers of the Earl of Bristol, then ambas- 
sador to Spain, to attack Scioppius in the streets of Madrid, 
in 1614; where they left him for dead. As soon as he reco- 
vered, he removed to Padua, dreading another attack. He 
lived afterwards in continual apprehensions, and shut himself 
up in his room for the last fourteen years of his life. He 
died in 164-9, at enmity with all mankind. 

c He was as profuse of his abuse of Henry IV. in the book 
above mentioned, as he was of the English monarch. The re- 
gency of France, in honor to the memory of that great prince, 
directed it to be burnt by the hands of the common hangman. 

G 2 



81 CHARTLEY. 

Licet non taceant historic i 

Haec saxa loqui curavit 

Lectissima heroina Jana Baronissa Gerrard 

De Bromley , 

Clarissimi Digbcei filia 

Superstes unica. 

From Sandon the hills recede to the north. I 
Chartley. directed my course to Chartley, about four miles 
and a half distant, and about three north from the 
great road. This venerable pile is built round a 
court, and great part of it is curiously made of 
wood, embattled at top, and the sides carved. In 
many places are the arms of the Devereux; the 
devices of the Ferrars and Garnishes ; and, in 
Saxon characters, the initials of the founder, 
W. D. (Walter Devereux) with the motto Loial 
suisje. Over the door of the gateway is carved a 
head in profile, with a crown above. In the mid- 
dle of the court stands a fountain : and the whole 
building is surrounded with a moat. The view 
within the court is faithfully shewn in Plot, tab. v. 
In several of the windows are painted glass. 
In the great bow- window of the hall are the horse- 
shoes, the antient device of the Ferrars; in others, 
the arms of that family, of the Devereux, Gar- 
nishes, and Shir lies, A bed is still preserved here, 
the work of Mary Stuart, who was for some time 



CHARTLEY CASTLE. 85 

imprisoned in this house : besides this, at present 
there are no vestiges of its former grandeur. With- 
in and without is a mortifying appearance of ne- 
glect and approaching decay d . 

At a small distance from the house, on a knowl, 
are the poor remains of the castle ; consisting of Castle. 
the fragments of two rounders, and a bit of a wall, 
almost hid in wood. This fortress was very soon 
permitted to fall in decay. Leland speaks of it as 
a ruin in his days. When the power of the no- 
bility was broken, by the policy of Henry VII. 
numbers of the barons, finding their castle no 
longer a protection to their insolence, were glad to 
quit so incommodious a kind of habitation. We 
often see, as in the present instance, an antient 
mansion near the remains, or on the scite of a 
more antient castle : the times were so much bet- 
tered, and monarchy had recovered so much right- 
ful strength, that the former became useless against 
their prince, or their rival reguli, who then began 
to acknowledge the power of law. Yet still 
some species of castellated mansion, against po- 
pular commotions, or the attacks of bands of rob- 
bers, was requisite. Conveniency, and a sort of 
elegance, was affected in their houses ; but a ne- 
cessary suspicion still remained, and safety pro- 

4 A fire in July 1781, completed its destruction. 



86 CHARTLEY CASTLE. 

vided for by the deep surrounding moat, by the 
gateway, and the strong door. 

Chartley castle was built by Handle Blunde- 
ville, Earl of Chester, in 1220, on his return from 
the Holy Land; and to defray the expence of this, 
as also of Beeston, which he also founded, a tax 
was levied on all his vassals. By his death, this 
part of his estate devolved on William Ferrars 
Earl of Derby, in right of his wife Agnes, third 
sister of Handle. 

. His son Robert, entering into the factious views 
of the barons, received a defeat at Chesterfield in 
1 266. His estates were confiscated, and the castle 
and manor bestowed by Henry III. on Hamon 
Le Strange; but, notwithstanding this, he pos- 
sessed himself of it by force, and the king was 
obliged to order his brother, Edmund Earl of 
Lancaster, to besiege the place; which he took, 
but not till after much loss on both sides. Ed- 
mund, and the nobility who assisted in the siege, 
thought proper to obtain his Majesty's pardon for 
the lives lost on the occasion. Ferrars himself 
received his pardon, was divested of the earldom 
of Derby, but was suffered to retain this castle ; 
possibly, being reduced so low as to be incapable 
of giving farther disturbance. It continued in his 
line till the reign of Henry VI. when, in 1447, 
by the marriage of Anne, or Agnes, sole heiress 



STOW CHURCH* *1 

to William Lord Ferrars, to Walter Devereux, 
sheriff of Herefordshire, it passed into another 
great race of peers. The lady was at that time 
only eleven years and eight months old ; but by 
the king's special favor, in 1452, she had livery of 
her lands, without further proof of her age. This 
estate continued in his posterity (the Lords Fer- 
rars, Viscounts Hereford, and Earls of Essex) 
till the year 1646, when it fell to Sir Robert Shir- 
ley, by his marriage with Dorothy, youngest sister 
to Robert Earl of Essex, the noted parlement- 
general ; and is at present possessed by their de- 
scendant Earl Ferrers. 

In hopes of finding, in the neighboring parish- r ST w u 
church of Stow, the monumental honors usually 
attendant on great families, I visited it, at the 
small trouble of a mile's ride. I was disappointed, 
for I found only one of this great line deposited 
in the place. This is very frequent with a race of 
heroes, whose active spirits carry them into scenes- 
remote from their natal soil, or bring them to fates 
that prevent possession of their parental sepul- 
chres. Walter Devereux, the first Lord Ferrars, 
fell in the field of Boszvorth, fighting valiantly in 
behalf of Richard, and was buried among the un- 
distinguished slain. Walter, his descendant, first 
Earl of Essex, died Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 
September 22d, 1576, as supposed by poison, 



Church. 



88 STOW CHURCH. 

and was interred at Caermarthen. His son, the 
favorite of Elizabeth, fell a victim to his indiscre- 
tion and ambition ; perished by the ax, and was 
flung among the attainted herd. His son, for a 
series of victories in the cause of liberty, received 
from his grateful party the magnificent honors of 
a public funeral in the capital, which his arms had 
defended. 

I found here only the tomb of J Falter, first 
Viscount Hereford, grandson of the first Lord 
Ferrers, and founder of the house of Chart ley. 
He served with honor in the Flinch wars, under 
Henry VIII ; and in the naval attack of Conquet, 
in 1512, he was honored with the garter by his 
royal master, and with the title of Hereford by 
his successor. His death happened in 1558. He 
lies here under a fine monument, erected in his 
life-time; his figure is represented in robes, with 
the collar of the garter round his neck : his head 
reposed on a plume of feathers, wreathed round a 
helmet. On one side of him is placed his first 
lady, Mary, daughter of Thomas Marquis of 
Dorset; on the other, his second, Margaret, 
daughter of Robert Garnyche, Esquire, of Kynge- 
ton, in Suffolk. Around the side is represented, 
I suppose as mourners, six female and six male 
figures ; the last begirt with swords. 

Near this is another tomb of alabaster, with 



WYCH WESTON. HEYWOOD. 89 

the figures of two persons engraven on it; but so 
cankered with age, that neither inscription nor dis- 
tinction of sex, can be made out. 

On the chancel floor a brass plate preserves 
the memory of Thomas Newport, steward of the 
houshold to Walter, first earl of Essex, and deli- 
vers his character in these terms : 

Qui charus charis fuerat qui firmus amicis ; 
Era ! Tiiomas Newport conditur hoc tumulo. 
Qui felix ortu fuit et morte beatus ; 
Quem Deus et coelum, quern pia vota habent. 

From Stow I hastened to the Chester road, Wtch 

Weston - . 
which I reached at the hamlet of IVych, in the 

parish of Weston on the Trent, whose spire steeple 
appears at a small distance on the other side of 
the road. This place is productive of salt, and 
has been long noted for its brine-pits, the property 
of Earl Ferrers. 

After going about two miles farther, I passed Heywood. 
through Great Heywood, a village bestowed by 
Roger de Melend, alias Long Epee, a worthless 
prelate, in the reign of Henry III. on his valet 
Roger de Aston ; whose family made it their resi- 
dence, till the marriage of a descendant with the 
heiress of Tival, occasioned it to remove to the 
new acquisition. In my memory the old seat was 
in possession of the Whitbies. It has since been 
re-united to the house of Tival, by purchase. The 



90 VALE OF SHUGBOROUGH. 

barn belonging to the manor-house of Heywood, 
was of a most magnificent size ; but of late has 
been greatly reduced. 
Its long The horse-bridge over the Trent, adjoining to 

Bridge. & ' J & 

Heyzvood, was not less remarkable, for I remem- 
ber it to have consisted of two-and-forty arches ; 
but the number at present is much lessened. 
There is a tradition, that it was built by the coun- 
ty, in compliment to the last Devereux Earl of 
Essex, who resided much at Chartley ; and, being 
a keen sportsman, was often deprived of his di- 
version for want of a bridge. I am not clear about 
the truth of this report. There certainly had been 
a bridge here long before, so that, if tliere was any 
foundation for such a mark of respect, it could 
only have been rebuilt after falling to decay. 
Vale of From the middle is a view, of very uncommon 

SHUGBO- 11 i 'l'li 

rough. beauty, of a small vale, varied with almost every 
thing that nature or art could give to render it 
delicious; rich meadows, watered by the Trent 
and Sow. The first, animated with milk-white 
cattle, emulating those of Tinian; the last with 
numerous swans. The boundary on one side, is 
a cultivated slope ; on the other, the lofty front of 
Cannock Wood, clothed with heath, or shaded 
with old oaks, scattered over its glowing bloom 
by the free hand of nature. 

It is more difficult to enumerate the works of art 



SHUGBOROUGH. 91 

dispersed over this Elysium ; they epitomize those 
of so many places. The old church of Cohvich ; 
the mansion of the antient English baron, at 
JFolsely Hall; the great-windowed mode of build- 
ing in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the house 
of Ingestre ; the modern seat in Oak-edge ; and 
the lively improved front of Shugborough; are 
embellishments proper to our own country. 
Amidst these arise the genuine architecture of 
China, in all its extravagance; the dawning of 
the Grecian, in the mixed gothic gateway at Tival; 
and the chaste buildings of Athens, exemplified 
by Mr. Stuart, in the counterparts of the Chora- 
gic monument of Lysicrates% and the octagon 
tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes f . From the 
same hand arose, by command of a grateful bro- 
ther, the arch of Adrian of Athens, embellished 
with naval trophies, in honor of Lord Anson, a 
glory to the British fleet ; and who still survives 
in the gallant train of officers who remember and 
emulate his actions. My much-respected friend, 
the late Thomas Anson, Esquire, preferred the 
still paths of private life, and was the best quali- 
fied for its enjoyment of any man I ever knew ; 
for with the most humane and the most sedate 
disposition, he possessed a mind most uncom- 

c Antiquities of Athens, ch. iv. tab. 1. 3. 
The same, ch. Hi. tab. 1. 3. 



9S SHUGBOROUGH. 

monly cultivated. He was the example of true 
taste in this country ; and at the time that he made 
his own place a paradise, made every neighbor 
partaker of its elegancies. He was happy in his 
life, and happy in his end. I saw him about thirty 
hours before his death, listening calmly to the me- 
lody of the harp, preparing for the momentary 
transit from an earthly concert to an union with 
the angelic harmonies. The unfinished improve- 
ments are carried on with great judgment, by his 
worthy nephew and successor George Anson, 
Esquire 5 . 

Among the great number of statues which em- 
bellish the place, an Adonis and Thalia are the 
most capital. There is also a very fine figure of 
Trajan, in the attitude of haranguing his army. 
The number of rude Etruscan figures in the gar- 
den, shew the extravagance of the earliest ages, 
and the great antiquity of the art of sculpture in 
Italy, long before the Romans became a people. 
The beautiful monument in the lower end of the 
garden, does honor to the present age. It was 
the work of Mr. Schemecher, under the direction 

s Father to the present proprietor, who was created a peer 
of Great Britain in 1806. The house has been recently- 
enlarged, and a handsome portico added to it. The highly 
cultivated state of the demesne marks the laudable agricultural 
taste of the noble owner. Ed. 



SHUGBOROUGH. 93 

of the late Mr. Anson. The scene is laid in Ar- 
cadia. Two lovers, expressed in elegant pastoral 
figures, appear attentive to an antient shepherd, 
who reads to them an inscription on a tomb, 

Et in Arcadia ego ! 

The moral resulting from this seems to be, that 
there are no situations of life so delicious, but 
which death must at length snatch us from. It 
was placed here by the amiable owner, as a me- 
mento of the certainty of that event. Perhaps, 
also, as a secret memorial of some loss of a tender 
nature in his early days ; for he was wont often to 
hang over it in affectionate and firm meditation. 
The Chinese house, a little farther on, is a true 
pattern of the architecture of that nation, taken in 
the country by the skilful pencil of Sir Percy 
Brett: not a mongrel invention of British car- 
penters. 

Opposite to the back-front of the house, on 
the banks of the Sow, stand the small remains of 
the antient mansion, which, according to Leland, 
originally belonged to Sackborrozv with a long 
beard, and who, as some say, gave it to the mitre 
of Lichfield. It must have been in very early 
times ; for the manor of Haywood (in which this 
is included) belonged to the see in 1085, the twen- 
tieth of William the Conqueror, and so continued 



94 SHUGBOROUGH. TIXAL. 

till the reign of Edward VI. who bestowed it on 
Lord Paget. The house was till that time one of 
the palaces of the bishops. The reliques, at pre- 
sent, serve to give the appearance of reality of 
ruin to some beautiful Grecian columns, and other 
fragments of antient architecture; which were 
tacked to the front by the late Mr. Anson. 

Shug borough was frequently the house I had 
the happiness of making my head-quarters : from 
whence I made many an excursion to the neigh- 
boring places. I beg the reader's pardon for in- 
dulging myself with a recollection of what for- 
merly gave me so much pleasure in the survey, 
and for detaining him with the account of a short 
circuit, rich in objects. 
Tixal. I shall cross the Sow, and begin with Tival, 

distinguished at present only by its magnificent 
gateway, a motley pile of Gothic and Grecian 
architecture, embellished in front with three series 
of columns, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. I 
thought it might have been one of the early works 
of my countryman by descent Inigo Jones ; but I 
find it was built by Sir [Falter Aston, Knight, who 
died in 1589, when Inigo was too young for any 
such undertaking. The antient house stood be- 
hind this gateway, and was a most venerable pile, 
built as far as the first floor with stone, the rest 
ith wood and plaister, by Sir Edward Aston, in 



TIXAL. 95 

the reign of Henry VIII. A brick building is 
substituted in the place. The memory of the an- 
tient pile is preserved in the xxxviiith plate of 
Doctor Plot's history. This manor, immediately 
after the Conquest, belonged to Roger de Mont- 
gomery, and was held from him by Henry de Fer- 
rers. It passed afterwards into the house of 
IVasteneys, or de Gastenoys, one Paganus de Gas- 
tenoys being lord of it about the reign of Henry II. 
It continued in that family for several generations, 
till Rose, the daughter of the last, and widow to 
Sir John Gastenoys, Knight, sold it to the Little- 
tons, but not without consulting the learned, whe- 
ther she could do it with safety to her soul. By 
the marriage of Joan (daughter to Sir William, 
Littleton, who died in 1507,) to Sir John Aston, 
Knight of the Bath, it passed into that name, and 
is now owned by the Honorable Thomas Clifford, 
in right of his lady, daughter to the last Lord 
Aston. 

I must not omit, that the poet Michael Dray- 
ton was greatly patronized by Sir Walter Aston, 
ambassador to Spain in the time of James I. ; nor 
is the bavd deficient in gratitude : 

" The Trent, by Tixal grac'd, the Astons* antient seat, 

" Which oft the Muse hath found her safe and sweet retreat ; 

" The noble owners now of which beloved place, 

" Good fortune them and theirs with honor'd titles grace. 



96 



TIXAL HEATH. ASSASSINATION. 



" May Heaven still bless that house, till happy floods you see ; 
" Yourselves more grac'd by it than it by you can be : 
" Whose bounty still my Muse so freely shall confess, 
" As when she shall want words, her sighs shall it express/' 

Polyolbion, Song xii. 



TlXAI. 

Heath. 



Assassin- 
ation 

THERE. 



Michael Drayton owed much to this gentleman ; 
and was one of his esquires when Sir Walter was 
created Knight of the Bath. He again acknow- 
ledges his particular bounty, in the Preface to the 
Polyolbion ; and it is even said, that he undertook 
that work at his patron's persuasion. 

On leaving Tival, I went through the park, and 
part of a common of the same name, on which are 
two tumuli; one called the king's, the other the 
queen's Law ; but no reason is assigned for the 
names. In 1493, an infamous assassination was 
committed on this heath ; which shews how little 
the vindictive spirit of the feudal times was sub- 
dued. A family emulation had subsisted between 
the Stanlies of Pipe, in this county, and the Chet- 
xvynds of Ingestre. Sir Humphrey Stanley was 
one of the knights of the body to Henry VII ; Sir 
William Chetwynd one of his gentlemen-ushers. 
The former, as is said, through envy, inveigled Sir 
William out of his house, by means of a counter- 
feit letter from a neighbor ; and while he was pass- 
ing over this common, caused him to be attacked 
by twenty armed men, and slain on the spot ; Sir 



INGESTRE. 97 

Humphrey passing with a train at the instant, 
under the pretence of hunting, but in fact to glut 
his revenge with the sight. It does not appear 
that justice overtook the assassin, notwithstanding 
the widow of Sir William invoked it. Probably 
Sir Humphrey had no fortune worthy of confis- 
cation. 

At a very little distance from this heath lies Ingestre. 
Ingestre, or Ingestrent, a respectable old house, 
seated on the easy slope of a hill, and backed by 
a large wood, filled with antient oaks of vast size, 
which makes part of the pleasure-ground. The 
walks are partly bounded by enormous hedges of 
forest-trees, and partly wander into the antient 
wood, beneath the shade of the venerable trees. 

This manor, about the time of Henry II. was 
the property of Eudo de Mutton ; in the reign of 
Edward III. it was transferred to the family of 
the Chetwynds, by the marriage of Isabel, daugh- 
ter of Philip de Mutton, with Sir John de Chet- 
wynd: in which line it continues, being at present 
owned by John Chetwynd Talbot*, Esquire, grand- 
son of John Lord Chetwynd. 

h He succeeded his uncle William in the barony of Talbot 
in 1782, and in 1784 was advanced to the dignity of an earl- 
dom. Ingestre is now in the possession of his son Charles 
Chetwynd, earl Talbot. 

H 



9B 



INGESTRE. HOPTON HEATH FIGHT. 



The house is built in the stile of the reign of 
Elizabeth, with great windows' in the center, and 
a bow on each side : the last are of stone, the rest 
of the house brick. In the great hall, over the 
fire-place, is a very good picture of Walter Chet- 
wynd, Esquire, in a great wig, and crossed by a 
rich sash. This gentleman was distinguished by 
his vast knowledge in the antiquities of his coun- 
Church. try, and more so by his piety. The present church 
of Ingestre was rebuilt by him, and was conse- 
secrated in August 1677, when a sermon was 
preached, prayers read, a child baptized, a woman 
churched, a couple married, a corpse buried, the 
sacraments administred, and, to crown all, Mr. 
Chetzvynd made an offering on the altar of the 
tythes of Hopton, worth fifty pounds a year, to be 
added to the rectory for ever. The church is 
very neat, and is prettily stuccoed. In it is a 
mural monument, in memory of its great benefac- 
tor, who died in 1692. 

Hopton Heath lies on the side of Ingestre Park, 
and is noted for a skirmish between a party of the 
King's forces, under the earl of Northampton, and 
another of the parlement's, commanded by Sir 
William Brereton and Sir John Gell. Victory, 
notwithstanding a great inequality of numbers, 
declared itself on the side of the royalists ; but it 
was purchased at so dear a rate, that, as Lord 



IIOPTON 

Heath 
Skirmish. 



STAFFORD. INFIRMARY. CHURCH. 99 

Clarendon expresses, a great victory had been an 
unequal recompence for the loss sustained in the 
General. The earl fell in the action, neglected 
by his troops, busied in the pursuit ; and left en- 
vironed by enemies. He slew his first assailants,, 
and died valiantly, refusing the offered quarter. 

After riding from Ingestre three miles, through 
very bad roads, I reached Stafford, a good town, Stafford. 
containing about five thousand inhabitants, seated 
on a plain, bounded by rising grounds at a very 
small distance. The streets in general are well 
built ; the market-place large, ornamented with a 
handsome town-hall, with five windows in front : 
it is built upon pillars, and presents a facade with 
six arches, intercolumniated with Ionic pilasters. 
This is the county-town ; and here the assizes are 
appointed to be held, by a statute of the first of 
Elizabeth. 

The county infirmary lies at a small distance Infirmary. 
from the town, and is a good plain building. It 
was finished in 1772, and is supported by an 
annual subscription of between eight and nine 
hundred a year. 

Stafford consists of but a single parish, with 
two churches. That of St. Mary is a rectory, in Churches. 
the gift of the king; a large building with an 
octagon tower, and formerly with a lofty spire 
rising from it. Here is to be seen the tomb of Sir 

h 2 



100 RELIGIOUS HOUSES. 

Edrcard Aston, the builder of Tixal, who died in 
1567, and Joan his wife. Their figures are repre- 
sented in alabaster, under a large canopy. 

The font is a singular piece of antiquity : very 
clumsy; but the sides and base most singularly 
carved into rude Gothic figures. 

This church had been collegiate, and was given, 
a little before the year 1 1 36, by King Stephen, to 
the bishop and chapter of Lichfield and Coventry. 
The patronage was granted, in 1445, by Henry 
VI. to Humphrey Duke of Buckingham. It was 
of exempt jurisdiction, and consisted, in the twenty- 
sixth of Henry VIII. of a dean and thirteen pre- 
bendaries'. The dean's house stood at the west 
end of the church, and serves at present for the 
school. 

Religious The religious houses were the Grey Friars, or 
Houses. . 

Franciscans, at the north end of the walls, found- 
ed, according to Erdeswik, by Sir James Stafford 
of Sandon. It was valued at 35. 1 3s. 1 Od. per 
annum, and granted, in the thirty-first of Henry 
VIII. to James Leveson. 

The Friers Austins had a piece of ground 
given them on the green, at the south end of the 
town, by Ralph Lord Stafford*, in order to found 
a house, about the year 1 344, for his own soul's 


1 Tanner, 4P5. k Dugdale's Baron. i. 161. 







RELIGIOUS HOUSES. FORTIFICATIONS. 10i 

sake, those of his wives {Katharine and Margaret), 
Sir Humphrey Hastings, Knight, and that of Ed- 
ward III. The tombs of his great line were 
removed to this church from Stone, at the disso- 
lution, but soon suffered to perish. It was granted, 
in the first of Queen Mary, to Thomas Neve and 
Giles Isam. 

A priory of black canons, founded by Richard 
Peche, bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, about 
the year 1 1 80 ; as others say, by Gerard Stafford, 
on land which he held from the bishop, whom he 
complimented with the title of founder 1 . The 
prelate had a great affection for this house ; for, 
on resigning his see, he became a canon of it : and 
here ended his days" 1 . It maintained only seven 
religious, whose revenues were 198- a year. On 
the dissolution it was granted to Rowland Zee, 
bishop of Lichfield. 

Besides these, were two hospitals, and the free 
chapel of Saint Nicholas, in the castle. 

The town was defended 'partly by the river Fortifi 
Soxv, which bounds one half of it; the rest was 
guarded by a wall, and by a ditch, supplied by 
the river with water. It had formerly four gates ; 
of these two are yet standing. The place never 

1 Tanner, 499. 

m Angl. Sacra, i. 435. This house was dedicated to St. 
Thomas Becket, exactly ten years after his death. 



CATIONS. 



102 ORIGIN OF STAFFORD. CASTLE. 

was defencible ; at least never stood a siege. Sir 

William Brereton, the parlement general, took it 

by surprize, in May 1643, with the loss only of a 

single man. 

Origin of The origin of Stafford is very uncertain : the 
Stafford. . . 

first name of it is said to be Betheney, and that it 

had been the seat of an hermit called Bert elm, in 
high fame for his sanctity. The earliest authentic 
mention of the place is in the year 913, when 
Ethelfleda* Countess of Mercia, and sister of 
Edward the Elder, built a castle here. This lady 
had one child by her lord Ethelred; when, ba- 
lancing the pangs of parturition with the joys of 
connubial rites, Amazon like, she determined to 
forbear for the future all commerce with him. 
From thenceforth her delight was in arms, in con- 
quests, and in securing her dominions. Such was 
her prowess, that, laying aside all feminine titles, 
she received that of King, as if Countess and 
Queen were inadequate to her heroism . 

The scite of this fortress is not precisely known. 
Doctor Plot is of opinion, that it lay within the 
entrenchments at Billington, at some distance from 
Stafford, and seems to found his conjecture from 
the lands wherein they are being still a remaining 
part of the demesne land of the barony of Staf- 

Saxon Chr, 104. Tour in Wales. 



STAFFORD CASTLE. 103 

ford p . Camden attributes a tower to Edward the 
Elder, founded in the year after that which was 
built by his sister, and places it on the north side 
of the river. A mount still remains near the new 
bridge, called by Speed, Castle-hill; at present 
named Bully hill, on which it probably stood. 

The poor remains of the castle, which was gar- Castle. . 
risoned in the civil wars, stand on a little insulated 
hill, a mile south from the town. The keep was 
on an artificial mount : the whole is surrounded 
with a deep foss, which, on the south side, has be- 
sides the additional strength of a high rampart. 
This was founded by William the Conqueror, and 
was soon after demolished. It is supposed, that, 
during the time it stood, the custody of it was 
committed to Robert de Tonei, younger son of 
Roger, standard-bearer of Normandy q , a follower 
of the Conqueror, who took from this circumstance 
the name of Stafford. It is conjectured, that the 
king at that time reserved this manor to himself, 
and that it was not included in the vast grant 
made by him to Robert, of eighty-one manors in 
this county, twenty-six in that of Warwick, twenty 
in Lincolnshire, two in Suffolk, and one in each 
of those of Worcester and Northampton. It ap- 
pears that it continued in the crown till the second 

Hist. Staff. 416. * Dugdalc's Baron. I 156, 



104 



MANOR-HOUSE. BILLINGTON BURY. 



Manor- 
house. 



Billing- 
ton Bury. 



of Edward II. when Edmund Lord Stafford re- 
ceived the grant, and held it in capite by barony, 
together with that of Bradeley and Madeley, by 
service, of finding for forty days, at his own 
charge, three armed men, with three equis cooper- 
tis, horses harnessed for war, as often as there 
should be war with Wales or Scotland'. I know 
not for certain who was the restorer of this castle. 
Mr. Erdeszvic says, it was Ralph de Stafford, 
a distinguished warrior, cotemporary with Ed- 
ward III. It was garrisoned by the king in the 
civil wars ; was taken by the parlement forces, and 
demolished in 1644. 

About a quarter of a mile south of the castle, 
in a low situation, stood the manor-house of the 
family, fortified by the same Ralph; for I find 
from Dugdale s , that he had permission, in 1 348, 
to make castles of his manor-houses at Stafford 
and Madeley. This great family had in it barons, 
earls, and dukes; and in the year 1637 became 
extinct : at that time humiliated into barons again. 
The moat of their antient residence is still to be 
seen, surrounding a rectangular piece of ground, 
the scite of the house. 

My curiosity led me about two miles further, 
to Billington, to examine the supposed scite of 



* Bhmt's Tenures, 25. 



9 Baron, i. 160. 



BOROUGH. BARONY. 105 

the antient Stafford castle. Near the extremity 
of a high hill, steeply sloping on three sides, and 
commanding a most extensive and beautiful view, 
I found a large area, surrounded in some parts 
with one, in others with two, deep fosses. This 
had been a British post, as it agrees with those 
we find in many parts of the kingdom ; but as it 
retains the name of Billington Bury, it probably 
might have been occupied by the Saxons, whose 
posts are distinguished by the addition of Borough, 
Bury, and Berry. 

The town of Stafford is governed by a mayor, 
recorder, ten aldermen, and twenty common-coun- 
cil-men; and was incorporated in the third of 
Edward VI. It first sent burgesses to parlement 
in 1 294, the twenty-third of Edxvard I. They are 
elected by inhabitants paying scot and lot, and are 
returned by the mayor I 

The borough still retains one antient custom, Borough. 
the privilege of borough English, or the descent 
of lands, within its liberty, to the youngest sons 
of those who die intestate : an usage which is sup- 
posed to have been originally founded on the pre- 
sumption, that the younger child was the lest ca- 
pable of providing for itself. 

The barony was, even at the Conquest, one of Barony. 

* Willis, in. 50. 



10S CANK WOOD. 

the greatest in England, and afterwards, like other 
great seigniories, stiled the Honor of Stafford. 
None were such originally, but which were royal ; 
but were afterwards bestowed in fee on some no- 
bleman, as proved the case with this, as mentioned 
in page 104; when it was given to Edmund Lord 
Stafford, with eighty-one dependent manors, with 
sixty knights fees, viz. nine in his demesne, and 
fifty-one in service. 

After leaving the town, I crossed the Wolver- 
hampton Navigation* at Radford Bridge. This 
may be called a port to Stafford. A little farther 
is Weeping Cross; so stiled from its vicinity to the 
antient place of execution. A little farther on, 
opens the rich view of the vale of Shugborough, 
varied with rivers and canals, and bordered with 
the several seats before described. 
CakkWood; q n approaching Cank Wood, I find on its con- 
H |Park ^ nes H e y wo d Park ; a small house, the property 
of Lord Paget, remarkable for the beautiful woody 
dingles that wind into the sides of the forest. When 
I was wandering through them, I imagined myself 
engaged in those of my native country. Here I 
suppose to have been the park of red deer, which 
Leland says the bishop of Lichfield had in his 

Distances. Ha/wood, to its junction with the Birmingham 
canal, near Wolverhampton, 22. 4. 0; rise 125 feet: Stainport 
on the Severn, 24. 0. ; fall 301 feet. 



COLWICH. i07 

manor of Shugborow. I skirted part of the wood, 
which here ends boldly, almost driving the tra- 
veller into the -tore;. This front has received from 
Mr. Anson a wonderful change. 

HIT- . t> 1 

Miraturque novas frondes. 

Pines instead of oaks ; which, waving over the head 
of the passenger, would recall to his memory, had 
he been abroad, the idea of many an alpine scene. 

Returning over Heyzvood bridge, I passed 
through the two hamlets of that name ; and within 
two miles of the first, reached the church and vil- 
lage of Cohvich. I must imagine the traveller, as Colwich. 
well as myself, blinded, if we rode this space in- 
sensible of the most elegant view of the vale. It 
is perfectly prodigal in its beauties, and spreads 
at once every charm that can captivate the eye. 
It shews here at once, all that I before mentioned 
en detail. 

The parsonage and church of Colwich contri- 
bute to the variety of the view, from another sta- 
tion : both are antient. This place had been the 
property of a family of the same name x , at lest 
from Henry III.'s reign to about the beginning 
of Elizabeth ; when it passed into that of Leicester 
of Tabley, in Cheshire, by the marriage of the 

x Erdesivic. 



108 



COLWICH CHURCH. BISHTON. 



daughter of Edzvard Cohvich y to Peter Leicester, 
Esquire. 
Church. The church is dedicated to St. Michael, and 
is a prebend in the cathedral of Lichfield. Within 
is a tomb, with the recumbent figure, dressed in a 
gown, of Sir William Wolsely. Here is also the 
burial-place of the Ansons, made a V antique, in 
form of a catacomb. I must not forget an inscrip- 
tion, in memory of another Sir William Wolsely, 
which does not commemorate his unlucky and sin- 
gular end ; being drowned in his chariot, on the 
8th of July 1728, owing to the accidental break- 
ing of a mill-dam, in the village of Longdon, by 
a thunder-shower. His four horses perished. The 
coachman was saved, being carried by the torrent 
into an orchard, where he stuck till the water 
abated. 

At a little distance from Cohvich is Bishton, 



BlSHTON. 



near which I cross the navigation a 



gain, 



and in- 



Wolsley stantly after the Trent, at Wolsley Bridge, placed 
at the foot of the hanging- woods of Wolsley park ; 
an inclosure of much native wild beauty. The 
antient mansion of the family of the same name, 
lies low, and near the river. This manor is a 
member of Heyxcood. In the twentieth year of 



r Leicester's Cheshire, 303. 



THE BURBOT. 109 

the Conqueror, Nigellus, the paternal ancestor of 
Greski, held it of the bishop. About the reign of 
Henry II. it was a divided manor, between Ri- 
chard Hints and Richard JVolsley z . Soon after 
this, they seem to have become sole proprietors. 

After riding a little way along the Lichfield 
road, I turned to the left, and crossing the vale, 
which now expands and grows less riante, repass 
the Trent at Cotton, on a bridge of a fine single 
arch. Near this place is sometimes taken the 
Burbot*, a fish of disgusting appearance, but of TheBurbot. 
a delicate flavor, and very firm. It is not common 
in these parts, but abounds in the JVitham, and 
in the fens of Lincolnshire ; and is very common 
in the lake of Geneva, where it is called Lota. 
According to the new arrangement of fish, it is 
ranked among the gadi, or cod fish: by Mr. Ray, 
among the eel-shaped fish. The form is long; 
the head depressed ; the mouth large, armed with 
small teeth; the nose furnished with two beards, 
the chin with one : on the back are two fins ; the 
skin smooth and slippery, of a disagreeable green 
color, spotted with yellow. It is very voracious, 
and very prolific. The noted old fisherman of the 
Rhine, Leonard Baltner, took out of a single fish 
not fewer than 12.8,000 eggs. 

z Erdeswicl a Plot, 241. tab.xxii. Br. Zool, 1 11. N 



110 



COLTON. BLITHEFIELD. 



COLTON. 



Blithe- 
field. 



Mr. Erdeswik informs us, that at the time of 
the Conqueror, one Galfridus was lord of Colton. 
Soon after, Sir Hardulph de Gastenoys had either 
all, or shared it with another ; for in the year 1315, 
Sir William Gastenoys and Anselm le Marshal 
were joint lords of it. After many generations, a 
female (Thomasine, sole heiress and daughter of 
Sir Thomas Gastenoys, last male heir of the fa- 
mily, by marriage with Sir Nicholas Greislei, about 
1379) transferred it to the house of Drakelow. 
The old hall, which was large enough to contain 
fourscore lodging-rooms, was burnt down in the 
time of Charles I. by the carelessness of a ser- 
vant. It at that time belonged to Lord Aston*. 

The country now alters for the worse, and the 
soil becomes wet and miry. About two miles 
distance from Colton stands Blithefield, the re- 
spectable old seat of the respectable family of the 
Bagots ; a most antient race. At the time of the 
Conquest they were found possessed of Bagofs 
Bromley. In 1193, or the fifth of Richard I. 
younger branch became ennobled, by the marriage 
of Millisent, heiress of Robert Lord Stafford , 
with Hervey Bagot ; from which match sprung 
a long line of peers of every rank. The elder 
branch acquired this place by the marriage of Sir 



* Mr. Alien* 9 MSS. 



c Dugdalc, i. 158. 



PORTRAITS OF LORD BURLEIGH, m 

Ralph Bagot (before the reign of Henry IV.) 
with Elizabeth, sole heiress of Richard Blithe- 
Jield, lineally descended from a Saxon of the name 
of Hereman, or the warrior. 

The house d is built round a court, and still 
retains, on the outside, the simplicity of appear- 
ance of that of an antient baron ; and within, the 
old hospitality. The best rooms are, the hall, the 
library, and a large drawing-room, lately added* 
The first is a noble apartment, unadorned, except- 
ing over the chimney-piece, where is a representa- 
tion in bold and good sculpture, in free-stone, of 
an event dear as life to every true Englishman ; 
that of King John granting to his subjects the 
great charter of liberty. 

Among the portraits, I observed on a board, T M 80t 
in a flat manner, the head of lord treasurer Bur- Burleigh. 
leigh, with a white beard, bonnet, collar of the 
garter, the George, and a white wand. His abi- 
lities as a statesman were inimitable ; his private 
virtues, his honesty, temperance, moderation, in- 
dustry, and justice, not beyond the power of the 
great to copy ; his magnificence was attended with 
hospitality ; his annual deeds of alms were to the 

d Blithefield has within these few years received considera- 
ble improvements, with an attention, to comfort and propriety, 
not always observable in the alteration of houses of so antient 
a date. Ed. 



112 EARL OF HUNGTINGTON, SIR W. ASTON, 

amount of five hundred pounds e . As his life was 
excellent, so his death was happy ; dying in the 
fulness of years and of glory, envied, as his greatest 
enemy declared, only because his sun went down 
"with so much lustre ; not clouded, as generally is 
the fate of great ministers. 
Henry a cotemporary of his is painted in the same 

Earl of 

Hunting- manner, with the collar of the garter; his beard 



TON. 



forked: the date 1588, set. 52. This preserves a 
likeness of a very different character, Henry Earl 
of Huntington, lord president of the north, and one 
of the peers to whom the custody of the queen of 
Scots was entrusted. Burleigh created a fortune 
by his prudence ; Huntington dissipated his, by 
being the dupe to the ministers of the rising fana- 
ticism of the age, which, nurtured by such wooers 
of popularity as Leicester, Essex, and this noble 
peer, in the next age attained strength sufficient 
to subvert the church it pretended to purify. 

Sir Walter^ a neighboring statesman, Sir Walter Aston, 
Aston. 

of Tival, is painted on board. He appears with 

a firm countenance, short hair, and whiskers ; in 
a black dress, laced with gold on the seams, and 
graced with a triple gold chain. Sir Walter was 
ambassador to Spain in the time of the negotia- 
tions about the Spanish match, in the reign of 

e Camden's Annals, year 1598. 



WALTER EARL OF ESSEX, 113 

James I. and favored the designs of the young 
prince, and his favorite Buckingham. He was 
resolute and prudent, and had great knowlege of 
the importance of the English trade with Spain f . 
He might serve his master, but he hurt his own 
fortune ; dissipating great part of . 10,000 a year 
in supporting the dignity of his character, and the 
honor of his country. His reward was a Scotch 
peerage ; being created by Charles I. in the third 
year of his reign, Lord Forfar. 

An half-length of Walter Earl of Essex, father Walter 
to the unfortunate Robert. He is represented in Essex. 
rich armor. On one side are the words Virtutis 
comes invidia ; allusive to the constant ill usage 
he met with from the worthless favorite of Eliza- 
beth, the Earl of Leicester. He was a nobleman 
of great merit and courage ; was sent to command 
in Ireland, in 1573, and performed services wor- 
thy of his character ; but at length, worn out by 
the ill usage of the ministry, who with-held from 
him the necessary support, he came over to Eng- 
land, to lay his complaint before the queen. He 
was artfully received, and sent back with the pro- 
mises of better usage. Grief, or, as others say, 
poison, administered by the instigation of Leices- 
ter, who loved his wife, cut him off at the age of 
'' . - 

f Lloyd's Worries, ii. 248. 
1 



114 COLONEL BAGOT, MRS. SALUSBURY, 

thirty-five, at Dublin, in 1576. Perhaps the in- 
famy of Dudleys character, and the speedy and 
indecent marriage of the countess with that fa- 
vorite, might give rise to the scandal ; for an in- 
quisition was made on his death, and the report 
in consequence was, that he died of the flux ; a 
disorder very frequent in Ireland in those days. 
Here are several portraits of different persons, 
Colonel of this worthy house. Among them is Colonel 

Richard 7 t r i^ j t_ * n 

Bagot. Richard Bagot, governor of Lichfield, who fell in 
the cause of loyalty, in the fatal battle of Naseby. 
He is dressed in a buff coat, and represented with 
long hair. 

I must not omit a curious picture of a country- 
Mrs. woman of mine, Mrs. Salusbury, of Bachymbed, 
in Denbighshire, in a vast high sugar-loafed hat 
and kerchief, bordered with ermine. Near her 
are two of her grandchildren, Sir Edzvard Bagot, 
and Elizabeth, afterwards Countess of Uxbridge, 
by her daughter Jane, who married Sir J Fa Iter 
Bagot, and conveyed the Welsh estate into the 
family. A head of her son Charles Salusbury, in 
long hair, and flowered night-gown, is also pre- 
served here. 

Lady Ma ry Countess of Ayksford, painted in her 

Aylesford. ... .. . r . 

old-age, by Hudson, sitting, is a most beautiful 

portrait. She is dressed, simplex munditiis, in 

pale brown sattin, white hood, handkerchief, 



LADY AYLESFORD, AND OF MOLIERE. 115 

apron, and short ruffles : a reproach to the un- 
suitable fantastic dress of these times, which at- 
tempts to disguise respectful years, and renders: 
that inevitable period the object of ridicule. . 

Mary, daughter to Hervey Bagot,' Esquire, of 
Pipehall, first married to Sir Charley Berkeley 
Earl of Falmouth 5 } and afterwards to Charles 
Earl of Dorset ; a brown beauty of the gay court 
of Charles II. and, as Grammont says, the only 
one that had the appearance of beauty and wis- 
dom in the departments of maids of honor to the 
Dutchess of York. 

William Legge, first Earl of Dartmouth, and his 
lady ; parents of the late Lady Barbara Bagot. 

That eccentric statesman, Henry Earl of Bo- 
lingbroke, when young, dressed in his robes. 

A head of that great actor, and dramatic poet, Moliere. 
Moliere. He lived the adoration of his country- 
men ; but, dying in his profession, was, according 
to a custom of the church of his nation, refused 
Christian burial by Harlai de Chanvalon, a de- 
bauched archbishop of Paris. The king (Lewis 
XIV.) at length prevailed to have him buried in 

8 According to Lord Clarendon's account, he was a very 
worthless young favorite of Charles II. He was killed in the 
great sea-fight with the Dutch, in 1-665. Charles wept bitterly 
at his death. The loss of better men never went so near his 
heart. Clarendon's Continuation, 268, - . 

i 2 



ll BLITHEFIELD PARK. 

a church; but the curate would net undertake the 
office. The populace with difficulty could be per- 
suaded to suffer his remains to be carried to the 
grave. Bouhours marks the injustice done this 
great man, in the following lines : 

Tu reformas et la ville et la cour, 

Mais quelle en fut la recompense ? 

Les Frangois rougiront un jour 

De leur peu de reconnaissance. 

II leur falut un comedien 
Qui mit a les polir sa gloire et son etude ; 
Mais Moliere, a ta gloire il ne manquera rien, 
Si parmi les defauts que tu peignis si bien, 
Tu les avais repris de leur ingratitude. 

I quit the subject of paintings, notwithstand- 
ing there are multitudes of pictures, by the best 
masters, in this house. They were all undergoing 
a removal ; therefore I avoid further mention of 
them, until they are fixed in their permanent situ- 
ations \ But I must not be silent about the col- 
lection of coins, one of the most valuable and in- 
structive in England, the bequest of his beloved 
neighbor and friend Thomas Anson, Esquire. 
Park. The park is at some distance from the house. 

The oaks are of a very great size : a twin-tree was 
lately sold for <.120, and some single ones for 

h A catalogue of the pictures, according to their present 
arrangement, will be given in the Appendix. Ed. 



CHURCH. HERMITAGE. 117 

half that sum ; and I am told, that there are se- 
veral now standing equally large. 

The church is very near the house, in the gift Church. 
of Sir William Bagot, dedicated to St. Leonard. 
Within, are several sculptured tombs, of the fif- 
teenth century ; some with imaged figures, others 
engraven; mostly in memorial of the Bagot s: one 
of an Aston of Broughton, and another expressed 
by a little skeleton of a Broughton, a child of 
three months old. The monument of Sir Edward 
Bagot j who died in 1673, is mural, and supersedes 
the ten commandments, being placed over the 
altar. The inscription tells us, that he was a true 
assertor of episcopacy in the church, and heredi- 
tary monarchy in the state ; which probably enti- 
tled him, in those days, to this sacred place. On 
the outside of the church, two modest heaps of 
turf, parallel to each other, mark the spot where 
the remains of the last amiable owners of the place 
repose. 

I found myself here not very distant from 
Whichenoure Hall, and could not resist the desire 
of visiting the seat of the celebrated Flitch, the 
desperate reward of conjugal affection. 

In my road, not far from Blithefield, I again Hermitage. 
met with the Trent, and the Canal: the last a 
most fortunate embellishment to the neat seat of 
Mr. Lister of Hermitage. The proprietors (with 



118 



MAVESTON RIDVVARE. 



Church. 



Maveston 
Ridware. 



the respect they usually pay to gentlemen) have 
before this house given it an elegant form ; and, 
to add to the scenery, luckily the aweful mouth of 
a considerable subterraneous course of the naviga- 
tion opens to view, and affords the amazing sight 
of barges losing themselves in the cavern, or sud- 
denly emerging to day from the other side. 

The church of Hermitage, seated on a small 
eminence, forms another beautiful object. This 
belongs to the cathedral of Lichfield, and is stiled 
the prebendary of Hansacre, a hamlet in this pa- 
rish, founded by Bishop Clinton. 

On the opposite side of the Trent is Maveston 
Ridware, a rectory, whose church is dedicated to 
St. Andrexv. This was the property of the Mave- 
stons, at lest from the time of Henry I. to that 
of Henry IV. Hugo Mauvesin was in this reign 
Lord of Ridware, and founder of the priory of 
Blithburgh, in Suffolk. He v^as son of Henry 
Mauvesin, who came into England with the Con- 
queror. The corpse of Hugo was discovered in 
September 1785, after it had lain there six hun- 
dred years. That of Sir Henri/, his great great 
grandson, was discovered at the same time. The 
tomb of Sir Robert Maveston, or Mauvesine, in 
the parish-church, recals to memory a melancholy 
story. In the beginning of the reign of the usurp- 
ing Henry, when the kingdom was divided against 



MAVESTON RIDWARE. 119 

itself, two neighboring knights, Sir Robert Ma- 
veston, and Sir William Handsacre, of Handsacre, 
took arms in support of different parties : the 
first, to assert the cause of Boling broke ; the last, 
that of the deposed Richard. They assembled 
their vassals, and began their march to join the 
armies, then about to join battle, near Shrews- 
bury. The two neighbors, with their respective 
followers, unfortunately met, not far from their 
seats. Actuated by party rage, a skirmish en- 
sued : Sir William was slain on the spot. Sir 
Robert proceeded to the field, and met his fate 
with the gallant Percy. What a picture is this 
accident, of the miseries of civil dissension ! What 
a tale is the following, of the sudden vicissitude of . 
hatred to love, between contending families ! Mar- 
garet, one of the daughters, and co-heiress of Sir 
Robert Maveston, gave her hand to Sir William, 
son of the knight slain by her father ; and with her 
person and fortune compensated the injury done 
by her house to that of Handsacre l . 

The other daughter, Elizabeth, married Sir 
John Cawardine, whose posterity became extinct 
in the male line by the death of Thomas Cazvar- 
dine, Esquire, in 1592. David Cazvardine, one of 

this antient line, had served under Henry V. at the 

... . . -' 

1 Erdesivik. 



120 SIR ROBERT MAVESTON'S TOMB. 

battle of Agincourt, and William was knighted at 
the siege of Boulogne, where he attended Henri/ 
VIII. 

The tomb of Sir Robert is altar-shaped : his 
figure armed and helmed, with a great sword on 
one side, and a dagger on the other, is engraven 
on the incumbent alabaster slab, with the follow- 
ing inscription : 

Hie jacet Dns. Robertas de Mauvesine, miles, Dns. de 
Mauvcsine Ridware, qui occubu it juxta Salopiam, 1403, 
stans cum rege, dimicansex parte sua usque ad mortem, 
cujus aninaae propitietur Deus. 

Here is a tomb of two Mawvesins, one cross- 
legged, with each hand on his sword ; both under 
arches in the wall. The cross-legged knight is 
supposed to represent the Sir Henry before men- 
tioned. 

Near the church is the gateway, part of the 
antient mansion of the family of Mauvesi?i; and 
on the other side of the Trent, beyond High 
Bridge, is a moated fragment of the rival house of 
Handsacre. 

At the distance of about two miles from Mcwe- 

King's ston, I passed by Kings Bromley. Before the 

Conquest, this manor had been the residence of 

the Earl of Mercia. Here, in 1057, died the 

pious Leofric*, husband to the famous Godiva. 

k Dugdale's Baron, i. 1 0. 



KING'S BROMLEY. ORGRAVE. 



121 



At that time, it was called Brom-legge. After 
the Conqueror took it into his own hands, the 
name was changed to that of King's Bromley. It 
continued in the crown till the year 1258, or the 
forty-third of Henry III. when Roger Corbet 
died, holding it of the king in capite 1 . It con- 
tinued in that family till the year 1451, or the 
thirtieth of Henry VI. when it came by descent to 
Praiers of Baddeleigh, in Cheshire ; from him to 
one Partridge, who sold it to Francis Agard, of 
Ireland; whose descendants possessed it for some 
generations, when it was sold to John Newton, 
Esquire, of Barbadoes ; in whose line it remains m . 

From hence I passed by Or grave, one of the Orgrave. 
seats of George Anson, Esquire, lately the pro- 
perty of the Turtons. Afterwards, through the 
village of Alrewas. The manor was in possession 
of Algar Earl of Mercia; but on the forfeiture of 
his son, the brave Edwin, was bestowed by the 
Conqueror, with the following, on Walter de So- 
mervil, one of his Norman followers. 

From hence I visited Whichenoure, or Wichnor, 
where I crossed a bridge of the same name over 
the Trent, not far from the place where it receives 



Whiche- 
noure 
Manor. 



1 Erdemik. 

m After the death of the last Mr. Neivlon it became the pro- 
perty of John Lane, Esq. Ed. 



\-:i 



WHICHENOURE. CHURCH. 



Chdrch." 



the Tame. The Roman road passes this Way, 
and on this marshy spot was formed upon piles of 
wood. It runs from the east side of Lich/ield, 
and points to the north-east. Much brass money 
has been found, and, as I am informed, there are 
Testiges of a Roman camp in IVhichenoure park. 

The church stands on an eminence, on the 
north side of the river. The house is at a small dis- 
tance, and enjoys a most beautiful view. I believe 
this to have been on the site of a very antient man- 
sion, which Leland observes to have been quite 
down in his days : and that the seat was then 
below, much subject to the risings of the Trent. 
Singular The p resen t house is a modern building, remark- 

lENURIi. r 

able for the painted wooden bacon flitch, still hung 
up over the hall chimney, in memory of the sin- 
gular tenure by which Sir Philip de Somervile, in 
the time of Edward III. held the manors of 
Whichenoure, Sirescote, Ridware, Netherton, and 
Cowlee, of the Earl of Lancaster, then lord of the 
honor of Tutbury. The services clamed were 
these, viz. two small'fees; " that is to say, when 
" other tenants pay for releef one whole knight's 
ft fee, one hundred shillings ; he, the said Sir 
" Philip, shall pay but fifty shillings; and when 
" escuage is assessed throghcout the land, or ayde 
" for to make the eldest son of the lord knyght, or 



WHICHENOURE TENURE. 123 

" for to marry the eldest doughter of the lord, the 
" sayd Sir Philip shal pay bot the moiety of 
" it that other shal paye. 

" Nevertheless, the sayd Sir Philip shal fynde 
" meyntienge and susteiyne one bacon flyke hang- 
" ing in his halle, at JVichenore, ready arrayed 
" all tymes of the yere, bott in Lent, to be given 
" to everyche mane or womane married, after the 
" dey and yere of their manage be passed ; and 
"to be given to everyche mane of religion, arch 
" bishop, prior, or other religious ; and to everyche 
" preest, after the year and day of their profession 
" finished, or of their dignity reseyved, in forme 
" following. Whensoever that ony such before 
" named wylle come for to enquire for the baconne 
" in their owne person, or by any other for them, 
" they shall come to the bayliff or porter of the 
" lordship of Whichenour, and shall say to them in 
" the manere as ensewethe : 

" Bay life, or Porter, I doo you to knowe, 

" that I am come for my self (or, if he 

" come for any other, shewing for whome) 

" one bacon flyke, hanging in the halle of 

" the lord of IVhichenour, after the forme 

" thereunto belonginge. 

w After which relation the bailiffe, or porter, shal 

" assigne a daye to him, upon promise by his 

" feythe to return, and with him to bring tweyne 



124 WHICHENOURE TENURE. 

" of his neighbours ; and in the meyn time the 
" said bailif shal take with him tweyne of the free- 
" holders of the lordship of JVhichenoure, and they 
" three shal goe to the mannour ofRudlowe, belong- 
" ing to Robert Knyghtley, and there shall somon 
" the foresaid Knyghtley, or his bayliffe, com- 
" manding him to be ready at Whichenour the 
" day appoynted, at pry me of the day, with 
" his carriage; that is to say, a horse and a sadyle, 
" a sakke, and a pryke, for to convey and carry 
" the said baconne and corne a journey out 
" of the county of Stafford, at his costages ; and 
" then the sayd bailiffe shal, with the said free- 
" holders, somon all the tenants of the said manoir 
" to be ready at the day appoynted at Whichenour ', 
" for to doe and performe the services to the 
" baconne. And at the day assigned, all such as 
" owe services to the baconne, shal be ready at 
" the gatte of the manoir of Whichenour, from the 
" sonne risinge to none, attendyng and a way ting 
" for the comyng of hym and his felowys cha- 
" paletts, and to all those whiche shal be there, to 
" doe their services deue to the baconne : and 
" they shal lede the said demandant, wythe tromps 
" and tabours, and other manner of mynstralseye, 
H to the halle dore, where he shal fynde the lord 
f* of Whichenour, or his steward, redy to deliver 
" the baconne in this manere : 



WHICHENOURE TENURE. l5 

" He shal enquere of hym which demandeth 
" the baconne, if he hath brought tweyne of his 
" neighbours ; who must answere, They be here 
" redy; and then the steward shal cause theis two 
" neighbours to swere yf the said demandant be a 
" weddyt man, or have be a man weddyt, and yf 
" syth his marryage one yere and a day be passed, 
" and yf he be a freeman or a villeyn : and yf his 
" seid neghbours make othe that he hath for hym 
" all theis three poynts rehersed, then shal the 
" baconne be take downe, and brought to the 
" halle dore, and shal there be layd upon one 
" half a quarter of wheatte, and upon one other of 
" rye : and he that demandeth the baconne shal 
" kneel upon his knee, and shal hold his right 
" hande upon a booke, which shal be layd above 
" the baconne and the corne, and shall make oath 
" in this manere : 

" Here ye Sir Philip de Somervyle, lord of 
" Whichenour, mayntayner and giver of this ba- 
" conne, that I A., syth I wedded B. my wife, 
" and syth I had her in my kepyng and at wylle, 
"by a yere and a daye after our marryage, I 
" would not have changed for none other, farer ne 
" fowler, richer ne powrer, ne for none other 
" descended of gretter lynage, slepyng ne waking, 
11 at noo tyme; and if the seid B. were sole, and 
" I sole, I wolde take her to be my wife before all 



120 WHICHENOURE TENURE. 

" the wymen of the worlde, of what condytions 
* soevere they be, good or evyle, as helpe me 
" God, and his seyntys, and this flesh, and all 
" fleshes. 

" And his neghbours shal make oath, that they 
" trust verily he hath said truely. And yf it be 
" founde by his neghbours before named, that he 
" be a villeyn, there shal be delyvered to him half 
" a quarter of wheatte and a cheese ; and yf he 
" be a villein, he shal have half a quarter of rye, 
" withoutte cheese, and then shal Knyghtley, the 
" lord of Rudlotv, be called for, to carry all their 
" thyngs to fore rehersed ; and the say d corne shal 
" be layd upon one horse, and the baconne apper- 
" teyneth shal ascend upon his horse, and shal take 
" the chese before hym, if he have a horse ; and 
" yf he have none, the lord of Whichenour shall 
" cause him have one horse arid sadyl, to such 
" tyme as he passed his lordshippe; and soe shal 
" they departe the manoyr of Whichenour with the 
" corne and the baconne to fore him, him that 
" hath wonne ytt, with trompets, tabourets, and 
" other manoir of mynstralsce. And all the free 
" tenants of Whichenour shal conduct him to be 
" passed the lordship of Whichenour ; and then 
" shall they retorne, except hym to whom apper- 
" teiyneth to make the carriage and journy with- 
" outt the countye of Stafford, at the costys of his 



WHICHENOURE TENURE. 127 

" lord of Whichenour. And yf the seid Robert 
" Knyghtley doe not cause the baconne and come 
" to be conveyed as is rehersed, the lord of 
" Whichenour shal do it to be carryed, and shall 
" distreigne the said Robert Knyghtley for his 
" default, for one hundred shillings in his manoir 
" of Rudlowe, and shall kepe the distresse so 
" takyn irreplevisable"." 

Such is the history of this memorable custom.- Present 

t c State ofthe 

I wish, for the honor of the state matrimonial, Flitch. 
that it was in my power to continue the register of 
successful clamants, from that preserved in the 
60 8th Spectator ; but, from the strictest enquiry, 
the flitch has remained untouched, from the first 
century of its institution to the present : and we 
are credibly informed, that the late and present 
worthy owners of the manor, were deterred from 
entering into the holy state, through the dread 
of not obtaining a single rasher from their own 
bacon. 

The first possessor of this manor was Sir 
Walter de Somervile, a Norma?i, on whom it was 
bestowed by the Conqueror. It rested in his. 
family till the death of the above-mentioned Sir 
Philip de Somervile, who left two daughters, Joan, 
wife to Sir Rhys ap Gryffydd, Knight ; and Maud, 

n Blunt' s Tenures, 95. 



128 RUDGLEY. CHURCH. 

married to Edmund Vernon. This estate fell to 
the former, and remained in the family till the 
year 1661, when it was sold by Sir Francis 
Boynton to Mary, widow of John Offley, Esquire, 
ancestor to the late owner ; who, within these few 
years, alienated it to the present owner, John 
Levet, Esquire. 

In pursuance of my original plan, I took the 
same way, in order to return into the great road. 
Soon after, repassing the Trent, at Colton bridge, 

Rudgley. J reached Rudgley, a small town, celebrated for 
its great annual fairs for horses of the coach 
breed. 

Church. The church, which stands a little north of the 
town, is dedicated to Saint Augustin, and is 
a vicarage belonging to the chapter of Lichjield. 
Opposite to it is a very antient timber-house, 
which once belonged to the Chetxvynds ; and is 
now the property of Mr. Anson. On an eminence 
above the town, is beautifully situated a large 
house, formerly belonging to the Westons, greatly 
enlarged and improved by the present owner, 
Ashton Curzon*, Esquire. 

The antient owners of Rudgley were of the 

From whom it has since descended to a nephew of the 
same name. Ed. 

p Created Baron Curzon of Penn in Buckinghamshire in the 
year 1794-. Ed. 



LONGDON. 129 

same name with the town : some of the family had 
the honor of being sheriffs of the county, in the 
reign of Edward III : another was knight of the 
shire, at the same period. The name continued 
here till after the time of Henry VI. Erdeswik 
mentions this to have been a manor belonging to 
the bishop of Lichfield; which I find was alienated 
to the king by bishop Sampson, in 1547. 

The parish and village of Longdon succeed Longdon. 
Rudgley. The church lies out of the road, on the 
left; it is a vicarage, dedicated to St. James, and 
belongs to a prebendship of Lichfield. The village 
consists of scattered houses, extending for a vast 
way on each side of the lane ; from whence 
the name. This gave rise to a common saying in 
these parts, 

The stoutest beggar that goes by the way, 
Cannot beg through Long' in a summer's day. 

This village antiently was full of gentlemen's 
seats ; a most useful species of population to the 
poor, whose distresses seldom fail reaching the 
ears of mediocrity, but whose cries rarely attain 
the height of greatness. Sir Edzvard Littleton had a 
house here, called Chistal; Simon Rudgley, sheriffof 
the county in the time of Edward III. had another; 
the younger brother of the Astons had a seat here, 
from the reign of Edward I ; the Brought ons had 

K 



130 BEAUDESERT. 

Brought on Hall, from the days of King John; 
and Adam Arblaster possessed Liszvys (now Long- 
hall) in 1351, or the twenty-fifth of Edward III., 
in whose name it continued till of late, when it 
was purchased by Francis Cob q , Esquire. 

This manor is of vast extent. Above thirty 
other manors, lordships, and villages, owe suit 
and service, besides Cank, Heywood, and 
Rudgley, to the court-leet, which is held here 
every three weeks. It once belonged to the 
bishop of Lichfield, but was alienated by Bishop 
Sampson. 

After winding up the steep of a high hill, an 
advanced part of the forest of Cank, I turned out 
Beaudesert. of the road to Beaudesert, the princely seat of 
Lord Paget', placed on the side of a lofty sloping 
eminence, sheltered above, and on each side, by 
beautiful rising grounds, and embosomed in trees, 
commanding in front, over the tops of far subja- 
cent woods, a most extensive and agreeable view; 
so that it well vindicates the propriety of its 
name. 

This had been a place belonging to the bishops 
of Lichfield, which, with the manors of Longdon, 
Heywood, Berkswick, Cank, Rudgley, and Shug- 

i On Mr. Cob's decease, Longhall became the property of 
Miss Tysons. Ed. 

T Earl of Uxbridge. Ed. 



BEAUDESERT. 131 

borrow, were part of the spoils of that see, wrested 
from it in the time of Edward VI. with the con- 
nivance of Richard Sampson, then bishop, who 
accepted in their stead certain impropriations of 
the value of an hundred and eighty-three pounds 
a year. These livings at that time were good rec- 
tories ; now poor vicarages, or mercenary curacies, 
annexed to the bishoprick. 

The leviathan who swallowed these manors, 
was Sir William' Paget, created by EdzvardVl. 
Baron Beaudesert. He first appeared in the reign 
of Henri/ VIII. and from a low beginning, meri- 
toriously rose to the dignity of secretary and am- 
bassador to Charles V. and Francis I. In the 
next reign, he was made chancellor of the dutchy 
of Lancaster, and comptroller of the houshold ; 
and obtained a peerage. In that of Mary he 
became lord privy-seal, and was restored to the 
order of the Garter, from which he had been de- 
graded in the time of her predecessor. At the 
accession of Elizabeth, at his own request, he was 
permitted to retire from the service of the state, 
being zealously attached to the religion of his 
former mistress*. Yet his zeal for the old religion 
produced in him no scruples about sharing in the 
plunder of the church. The reforming Somerset, 

* Fuller' t Worthies, 210. 
K 2 



>s 



132 CASTLE-HILL. 

and the papal Paget, agreed in that single point. 
His posterity derive from him an uncommon extent 
of interest and command. 

Beaudesert was rebuilt by Thomas Lord Paget, 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. It is a very 
handsome stone edifice, in form of an half H ; of 
late most admirably improved, and fitted up by 
the noble owner. It is totally disengaged from 
the gateway, walls, and other obstructions that 
encumbered it in the days of Plot 1 ; and the 
grounds that environ it are disposed with the sim- 
plicity which forms true grandeur. 

Here is a gothic hall of eighty feet by twenty- 
one ; a dining room of forty-two by twenty-seven ; 
and a magnificent gallery of ninety-seven by seven- 
teen. The other apartments are small. 
Portrait of ^ n tne drawing-room is a fine portrait of the 
LordPaget - founder of the family, the first Lord Paget, a 
three-quarters length; in a bonnet, black gown 
furred, with a great forked beard, the George, a 
stick, and dagger. A fine performance of Hol- 
bein's. 

From the house I ascended to the summit 
of the hill, on the verge of Cank heath, to an an- 
Castle- tient British post called the Castle- hill. It is 
encompassed with a vast rampart and two ditches. 

* See his plate viii. p. 126. 



HILL. 



CANK FOREST. 133 

The two entrances are opposite to each other, and 
before the eastern are several advanced works. It 
commands a vast view, and was well situated for 
a temporary retreat. I refer the reader, for an 
account of the uses of these entrenchments, to my 
Welsh Tour n ; for they are common to most parts 
of Britain. Doctor Plot ascribes this work 
to King Canute; but I suspect it to be of earlier 
origin. 

From hence is an extensive view of the chace, 
or forest, of Cank, or Cannock, which Plot de- Forest. 
rives from the name of the Danish prince Canuti 
Sylva. This vast tract was once covered with 
oaks, but for some centuries past, has been 
spoiled of its honors ; even old Drayton x de- 
plores its losses, owing, as he says, to the avarice 
of the times. 

O woeful Cank the while, 
As brave a wood-nymph once as any of this isle, 
Great Ar den's eldest child ! 
Now by vile gain devourM ! 

But this change is much more beautifully de- 
scribed by Mr. Masters, in his Itinerary y of 
1675; in which he describes his journey in most 
elegant Latin. His passage over Cank wood, 

* - 

Vol. i. 412. x Polyolbion, song 12. 

i Published under the title of Iter Boreale. 



X 



134 FAIRWELL CHURCH. 

and the translation by my ingenious friend z , can- 
not but be acceptable to every reader of taste. 

Hinc mihi mox ingens ericetum coraplet ocellos, 
Sylva olim passim nymphis habitata ferisque, 
Condensaj quercus, domibus res nata struendis 
Ornandoque foco, et validas spes unica classis. 
Nunc umbris immissa dies, namque sequore vasto 
Ante, retro, dextra, laeva, quo lumina cunque, 
Verteris una humili consurgit vertice planta, 
Purpureoque erice tellurem vestit amictu; 
Dum floret suaves et naribus adflat odores 
Hasc ferimus saltern amissaj solatia sylvae. 

A vast and naked plain confines the view, 

Where trees unnumber'd in past ages grew, 

The green retreat of wood-nymphs ; once the boast, 

The pride, the guardians of their native coast. 

Alas ! how chang'd ! each venerable oak 

Long since has yielded to the woodman's stroke. 

Where'er the chearless prospect meets the eye, 

No shrub, no plant, except the heath, is nigh ; 

The solitary heath alone is there, 

And wafts its sweetness in the desert air. 

So sweet its scent, so rich its purple hue, 

We half forget that here a forest grew. R. W. 

Fairwell From Castle-hill I descended towards the great 
Church. . 

road, and passed by Fairtvell church a , once con- 
ventual, belonging to a priory of Benedictine nuns. 
It originally was the property of canons regular, 

z The Rev. Richard Williams, ot Fron, Flintshire. 
* Called Eccksia Sanda Maria, Pugdale. 



FAIRWELL CHURCH, 155 

or hermits ; but at the request of Roger, Jeffry, 
and Robert, brothers of Farewell*, and with the 
consent of the chapter of Lichfield, was bestowed 
on the priory, about 1140, by Roger de Clinton, 
bishop of Lichfield ; who endowed it with the mill, 
and all the lands between the brooks, then called 
Chistals, and Blache Siche, with other emoluments 
mentioned in his two grants. Henry II. was also 
a great benefactor to these nuns, bestowing on 
them three ploughlands at Fagereswell, one at 
Pipe, and one at Hamerwich, and forty acres of 
land cleared from wood, in the forest of Cank c , 
in 1527. On the suppression of the lesser reli- 
gious houses, it was given to Lichfield, to increase 
and maintain the choristers, in recompense of a 
pension which should have been given by Cardinal 
IVolsey, out of his college at Oxford d . 

After a short ride, I reached the summit of 
a long but gentle descent, from which is a fine 
view of the city of Lichfield, lying at the foot of 
it. The situation is delightful, in a fertile and dry 
soil, with small risings on almost every side. The 
cathedral, with its three spires, is a most striking 
object. 

b Dugdale Mon. i. 441. c The same, 443, 444. 

* Leland Itin. iv. 119. Rymer, xiv. 193. This place is 
called in different places Fainveld, Faunveti, Fagrowell, and 
Fagereswell. 



136 LICHFIELD. ST. CHAD. 

Lichfield. Lichfield is a place of Saxon origin, and owes 
its rise to Ceadda, or Chad, the great saint of 
Mercia. I omit the legend of the thousand Chris- 
tians, disciples of St. Amphibolus, that were mar- 
tyred here under Diocksian ; or the three kings 
slain at this place in battle, as sculptured over the 
town-hall. I take up its history about the year 
656, when Oszvy, king of the country, established 
a bishoprick here, and made Dwna, or D'mma, 
the first prelate. To him succeeded Cellach and 
Trumberct ; and on his demise, the famous Ce- 

St. Chad. a dda. This pious man at first led an eremitical 
life, in a cell, at the place on which now stands 
the church of his name, and supported himself by 
the milk of a white hind. In this place he was 
discovered by Rufine, the son of Wolphere, who 
was privately instructed by him till the time of 
his martyrdom, before-recited. Remorse, and con- 
sequential conversion, seized the Pagan prince. 
As some species of expiation, he preferred the 
apostle to the vacant see. He built himself a 
small house near the church, and, with seven or 
eight of his brethren, during the interval of preach- 
ing, read and prayed in private. On the approach 
of his death, flights of angels sang hymns over his 
cell. Miracles at his tomb confirmed the holiness 
of his life. A lunatic, who by accident escaped 
from his keepers, lay a night on it, and in the 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 137 

morning was found restored to his senses. The 
very earth taken out of it, was an infallible remedy 
for all disorders incident to man or beast. Cead- 
da e was of course canonized; a shrine was erected 
in honor of him ; great was the concourse of de- 
votees : the place increased and flourished. 

The history of our cathedrals is, in its begin- 
ning, but the history of superstition, mixed with 
some truth and abundance of legend : humiliating 
proof of the weakness of the human mind ! yet all 
the fine arts of past times, and all the magnificent 
works we now so justly admire, are owing to a 
species of piety that every lover of the elegance 
of architecture must rejoice to have existed. 

We are told, that in the days of Jaruman, Cathedral, 
about the year 666, the cathedral was founded. founded. 

I shall not trouble the reader with a dry list 
of prelates, but only mention those distinguished 
by some remarkable event, that befel the see 
during their days. 

In those of Winfrid, successor to St. Chad, in 
674, Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, thought 
fit to divide the bishoprick into two, and to esta- 
blish the other at Sidnacester, in Lincolnshire, the 
present Stow. Winfrid disapproving this defalca- 
tion, was deprived for contumacy. The diocese 

e Bede Hist. lib. ir. c. 3. 



138 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

might well bear dividing ; for at that time it con- 
tained the whole kingdom of Mercia. At present, 
it comprehends all Staffordshire, except Brome 
and Clent, which belong to Worcester ; all Derby- 
shire; the larger part oilVarwickshire ; and about 
half Shropshire, 

In 786, in the time of Bishop Adulf, Off a, 
king of the Mercians, procured liberty from the 
pope to erect the see into an archbishoprick ; and 
of assigning him for suffragans Winchester, Here- 
ford, Lagecester (Leicester), Helmham, and Dun- 
wick. This honor died with Adulf. 

A bishop Peter, in 1067, the year succeeding 
the Conquest, removed the see to St. John's, in 
Chester; where he died, and was interred, in 1085. 

His successor, Robert de Limesey, smitten with 

the love of the gold and silver f with which the 

pious Earl Leofric had covered the walls of his 

new convent at Coventry, in 1095 removed the 

see to that city, and at once scraped from a single 

beam, that supported a shrine, 500 marks worth 

of silver 6 . 

Bishop I NO w speak of a prelate of a different temper; 
Clinton. . 

to whose munificence both the church and city 

were highly indebted. Roger de Clinton, conse- 

f Wharton's Angl Sacr. i. 433. 

* William of Malmsbury, as quoted by Dugdale, Hist. War- 
wick, i. 157. 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 139 

crated in 1129, took down the antient Mercian 
cathedral. We are not informed of the dimen- 
sions or nature of that building, any more than 
we are of the one erected by this bishop. It must 
have been, according to the reigning mode of the 
times, of the species of architecture usually called 
Saxon, with massy pillars and round arches. There 
is not at present the least relique of this stile. But 
I am unacquainted with the accident, or calamity, 
which destroyed the labors of this pious prelate ; 
who took up the cross, and died at Antioch, on a 
pilgrimage to the holy sepulchre. 

After a succession of twelve prelates, Walter Bishop 
de Langton, treasurer of England, was consecrated 
bishop of this see, in 1296. He was highly fa- 
vored by Edward I. His prosperity was inter- 
rupted by the resentment of the prince, who meanly 
revenged on the bishop a short imprisonment he 
had suffered in the time of his father, for riotously 
destroying his deer. After a persecution and con- 
finement of above two years, he emerged from all 
his difficulties, and resumed his pastoral charge in 
a manner that did him great honor. He may be 
considered as the third of this cathedral : to him 
we are indebted for the present elegant pile. He 
laid the foundation of our Lady's chapel ; an edi- 
fice of uncommon beauty, finished after his death 
with money left for that purpose. He built the 



Langtonv 



140 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

cloysters, and expended <. 2,000 upon a shrine 
for St. Chad. He bestowed on the choir several 
rich vestments, a chalice, and two cups of beaten 
gold, to the value of o.200. To the vicars choral 
he gave a standing cup, and an annual pension of 
of. 20, and procured for them and the canons great 
immunities : in particular, there was an order from 
the king to the justices of Staffordshire, that, with- 
out trial, they should hang upon the next gallows 
divers persons that by force kept their lands from 
them. This prelate also surrounded the close with 
a wall and ditch, made the great gate h at the west 
end, and the postern at the south. He gave his 
own palace, at the west end of the close, to the 
vicars choral, and built a new one for himself at 
the east end. He partly built, or enlarged, the 
castle at Eccleshal, and the manors of Heyzvood 
and Shugboroxv, and the palace in the Strand. He 
finished his useful life in November 1321, and was 
, buried in the chapel of his own founding. 

The cathedral continued in the state it was left 

k In the west entrance into the close is a handsome range of 
buildings containing apartments for sixteen widows of clergy- 
men of the diocese of Lichfield, each of whom enjoys an an- 
nuity of forty pounds, which will probably be soon increased 
to sixty. This munificent establishment was founded by the 
late Mr. Newton. The antient gate which stood here was 
taken down in the year 1 800. Ed. 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. Ml 

by Bishop Langton, till the time of the dissolution, 
when the rich shrine of St. Chad, and other ob- 
jects of similar devotion, fell a prey to the rapacity 
of Henry VIII. The building continued in its 
pristine beauty till the unhappy wars of the last 
century, when it suffered greatly by three sieges. 
The situation of the place on an eminence, sur- Cathedral 

. FORTIFIED. 

rounded by water and by deep ditches, and forti- 
fied with walls and bastions, rendered it unhap- 
pily a proper place for a garrison. 

In 1643, it was possessed by the royalists of 
the county, under the Earl of Chesterfield; when 
it underwent the attack rendered memorable by 
the death of Lord Brook, commander of the par- 
lementary forces. His lordship, while reconnoi- 
tring the cathedral, in a wooden porch in Dams 
street, was shot March Q, 1643, by a musket-ball 
which penetrated his eye. That day happened to 
be the festival of St. Chad, the patron of the 
church. The cavaliers attributed the direction of 
the fatal bullet to the influence of the Saint, in 
resentment of the sacrileges this nobleman was 
committing; on his cathedral. What share the 
Saint had in this affair, I will not pretend to say ; 
but the musket was aimed, and the trigger drawn, 
by a neighboring gentleman posted in the leads, 
known by the name of diimb Dyot. The death 
of Lord Brook gave very short respite to the gar- 



142 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

rison ; which was taken almost immediately after, 
by Sir John GelL 

In April, in the same year, it was attacked by 
Prince Rupert. At that time it was commanded 
by Colonel Rousxvel; a steady governor over an 
enthusiastic garrison. He defended the place with 
vast resolution. A breach was made by the blow- 
ing up of a mine. The attack was made with great 
bravery, but great loss. At length the garrison 
surrendered, on the most honourable conditions 1 . 
The colonel took care to plunder the church of the 
communion-plate, during the time the fanatics 
were in possession. They used every species of 
profanation; hunted a cat in it with hounds, to 
enjoy the fine echo from the roof; and brought a 
calf, dressed in linen, to the font, and sprinkled 
it with water, in derision of baptism k . 

The prince appointed Colonel Hercey Bagot * 

1 Clarendon, ii. 235. k Mr. Greene's MSS. 

1 During the time this gentleman commanded at Lichfield, 
he received the following extraordinary challenge from a Cap- 
tain Hunt, a parlementary commander in Tamworih. Mercu- 
rius Aullcus, p. 1347. 

" Bagot, thou sonne of an Egiption hore, meete mee half the 
" way to morrow morning, the half way betwixt Tamworth 
"and Litchfeald, if thou darest; if not, I will whippe thee 
" when soever I meete thee. 

" Tamworth, this Tho. Hunt." 

" Decemb. 1044. 

Colonel Bagot met him, and, after a brisk action, whipped 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 143 

the governor ; who kept possession till the ruin of 
the king's affairs, in 1 646 ; when the colonel, and 
other commanders, being satisfied that the king 
had not an hundred men in any one place in the 
field, nor any garrison unbesieged, surrendered on 
very honorable terms, on the 10th of July, to 
Adjutant Louthian m . 

The state of this church, after so many sieges, 
may easily be conceived. The honor of restoring 
it to its former splendor, was reserved for John Restored 

. ^ r\ \ BY Bishop 

Uacket, presented to this see in 1 661 . On the very Hacket. 
next day after his arrival, he set his coach-horses, 
with teams, to remove the rubbish ; and in eight 
years time restored the cathedral to its present 
beautiful state, at the expence of twenty thousand 
pounds'; one thousand of which was the gift of 
the dean and chapter ; the rest was done either at 
his own charge, or by benefactions resulting from 
his own solicitations. He died in 1670. A very 
handsome tomb was erected in the choir to his 
memory, with his effigies laid recumbent on it, 

the fellow himself into his retreat, and narrowly missed taking 
him. . 

m Articles qf Surrender. 

n Br. Biogr. W. 2457. A MS. with which Mr. Greene fa- 
vored me, makes the sum much less. See Appendix, No. III. 



H4 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

with a mitre on his head, and in his episcopal 
dress. 

The west front is of great elegance, adorned 
with the richest sculpture, and, till of late, with 
rows of statues of prophets, kings of Judak, &c. 
and, above all, a very bad one of Charles II. who 
had contributed to the repair of the church, by a 
liberal gift of timber. This statue was the work 
of a Sir William Wilson, originally a mason from 
Sutton Coldfield, who, after marrying a rich wife, 
arrived at the dignity of knighthood. 

The sculptures round the doors were very ele- 
gant ; but time, or violence, hath greatly impaired 
their beauty. 

James II. when Duke of York, bestowed on this 
church the magnificent west window. The fine 
painted glass was given of late years, by Dean 
Addenbrook. 
Rich north Th e northern door is extremely rich in sculp- 
tured moldings ; three of foliage, and three of small 
figures in ovals. In one of the lowest is repre- 
sented a monk baptizing a person kneeling before 
him. Probably the former is intended for St. 
Chad ; the latter for Wulferus. It is a misfor- 
tune, that the ornaments of this cathedral are made 
of such friable stone, that what fanaticism has 
spared, the weather has impaired. 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 



U5 



In the front are two fine spires, and a third in 
the centre, of a vast height, and fine proportion. 

The roof was till of late covered with lead, but 
grew so greatly out of repair, that the dean and 
chapter were obliged to substitute slates instead 
of metal, on account of the narrow revenues left 
to maintain this venerable pile; and, after the 
strictest ceconomy, they will be under the necessity 
of contributing from their own income, in order to 
complete their plan. The excellent order that all 
the cathedrals I have visited are in, does great 
credit to their members ; who spare nothing from 
their own incomes to render them not only decent, 
but elegant. 

The body is lofty, supported by pillars formed 
of numbers of slender columns, with neat foliated 
capitals. Along the walls of the ailes are rows of 
false arches, in the gothic stile, with seats beneath. 

The upper rows of windows, in the body, are 
of an uncommon form, being triangular, including 
three circles in each. 

In each transept are two places, formerly cha- 
pels ; but at present serve as consistory courts 
and the vicar's vestry-room. 

The choir merits attention, on account of the 
elegant sculpture about the. windows, and the em- 
battled gallery that runs beneath them. On each 
side are six statues, now much mutilated, placed 

L 



Front. 



Body. 



Choir. 



146 S T - MARY'S CHAPEL. 

in beautiful gothic niches, and richly painted. The 
first on the left is St. Peter; the next is the Vir- 
gin ; the third is Mary Magdalene, with one leg 
bare, to denote her legendary wantonness. The 
other three are St. Philip, St. James, and St. 
Christopher, with Christ on his shoulders. 

The beauty of the choir was much impaired by 
the impropriety of a rich altar-piece , of Grecian 
architecture, terminating this elegant gothic build- 
ing. 
St. Marys Behind this is St. Mar if s chapel, with a stone 

Chapel. ** r 

skreen, the most elegant which can be imagined, 
embattled at top, and adorned with several rows 
of gothic niches, of most exquisite workmanship ; 
each formerly containing a small statue. Beneath 
them are thirteen stalls, with gothic work over 
each. In this chapel are nine windows, more 
narrow, lofty, and of more elegant construction, 
than any of the others ; three on each side, and 
three at the end. 



This altar-piece was removed in 1788, and St. Mary's 
chapel injudiciously added to the choir, which gives it a most 
disproportionate length. The slender windows at the east end 
are filled with painted glass, seven of which were brought from 
the great abbey of Herkenrode in the bishopric of Liege, and 
are of extreme beauty. The elegant stone skreen now forms 
the western enclosure of the choir, and supports the organ. 
Ed. 



MENTS. 



SHRINE OF S T - CHAD. MONUMENTS. 147 

In this chapel stood the shrine of St. Chad.. Shrine of 

1 , .St. Chad. 

Here was interred Ceolred ? , king of the Mercians; 
and in later times, here was placed the magnifi- 

cent tomb (on the site of the shrine) of the first 
Lord Paget, adorned with columns, with two Monu 
kneeling; figures of a man and woman between 
the front and back pillars. These were destroyed 
in the blind fury of civil war; as was another fine 
tomb of a Lord Basset of Drayton, who died in 
1389. Few indeed escaped. Of those are the 
effigies of the great Bishop Langton, with his pas- 
toral staff in one hand, and the other hand in the 
action of benediction : another of Hugh de Pate- 
shut, who died in 1241, remarkable for having the 
stigmata, or marks of our Saviours wounds on the 
hands and feet: a- respectful superstition of an- 
tient times. Dean Heyzvood is represented in his 
habit, and again naked, with the emaciated change 
which death occasions. 

Here are several monuments within the walls, 
of a most frugal nature, having no appearance of 
any part but the head and feet. From an inter- 
mediate bracket, it is probable some favorite saint 
might have been honored with a rich image. 

I have a singular drawing of a tomb now lost, 
of a knight naked to his waist : his legs and thighs 

p Saxon Chr. 51. 

L g' 



148 ABSURD EPITAPHS. 

armed, and at his feet and head a stag's horn ; his 
hair long and dishevelled ; a scroll in his hands, as 
if he was reading a confession, or act of contri- 
tion : across his middle, on his baslet, is his coat 
of arms ; which shew him to have been a Stanley. 
He is called Captain Stanley, and is said to have 
been excommunicated, but to have received fu- 
neral rites in holy ground (having shewn signs of 
repentance) on condition that his monument should 
bear those marks of disgrace. I find a Sir Hum- 
phry Stanley of Pipe, who died in the reign of 
Henry Nil. who had a squabble with the chapter, 
about conveying the water through his lands to 
the close. He also defrauded the prebendary of 
Stotford of his tithes : so probably this might be 
the gentleman who incurred the censure of the 
church for his impiety. 
Absurd On the floor, near the west door, are two droll 

Epitaphs* 

epitaphs. " William Roberts of Overbury, some 
" time malster in this town (tells you) for the love 
" I bore to choir service, I chose to be buried in 
" this place. He died Dec r . 16th, 1748." 

The other gives you the posthumous grief of a 
deceased wife, and the classical knowledge of the 
living husband : 

K. S. E. 
Secunda Horatii Linea' 

* O, et presidium et dulce decus meuna. 



CHAPTER HOUSE. 149 

viz. 

Eiizabetka, EZ : Polsted 

msestissima conjux r 

Quae 

obiit ultima dies Mortis, 1712. 

In St. Marys chapel is a fragment of singular 
sculpture, of two gothic arches : beneath one is a 
king sitting, with one hand on a young prince; 
beneath the other a monarch also seated. 

Till lately, there lay near the north door a 
very thick and clumsy tomb-stone, with a cross 
fleury on it, and a great knife, resembling those 
represented in Montfaucon I. part II. tab. lxv. 
as sacrificial. I know of no rites in the Christian 
church which required such an instrument ; there- 
fore presume it to be a simple chopping knife, and 
that the person whom the stone commemorates, 
was neither more nor less than a butcher. These 
modest acknowlegements are not unfrequent: I 
have seen a deceased shearer denoted by his 
shears, and a taylor by his goose. 

C/H A PTF R 

On the part of the south choral aile is the chap- House. 
ter-house, which is approached through a passage 
with gothic arched seats on its side. The room is 
an octagon, consisting of two long and six shorter 

r A wag translated these two words in a similar epitaph on 
a lady who did not make the best of wives, thus a most sad 
wife indeed! 



150 THE CLOSE. WATER. 

sides, ornamented with arches, like the approach ; 
but the lost pillars, instead of being restored, are 
now supplied with an uniform plaister, supported 
in the center by a clustered column. Above is a 
library, instituted by Dean Heywood, containing 
some valuable books and manuscripts. 
The Close. The close, or surrounding space, is built on 
three sides. The palace, originally founded by 
Bishop Langton, was rebuilt in a very handsome 
manner by Bishop Hacket. The deanry, destroyed 
in the civil wars, was restored after the restora- 
tion. 

In the hall of the antient palace was painted 
the life and most memorable transactions of Ed- 
wa?'d I. and his officers ; among which were the 
valiant deeds of Sir Roger de Pulesdon against my 
countrymen \ 

The prebendal houses are built around the 
close. The whole property of which is in the 
church, except two houses on the south side, 
bordering on the pool, which, before the present 
causeways were made, were granted to the city, 
that the inhabitants might have landing-places, and 
access to the cathedral ; which in old times had a 
.vast concourse of devotees to the shrine of St. 
Chad. 
Water. This precinct is supplied with water from 

* Efdeswik. 



MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH. 151 

Maple Hay, about a mile and a half to the north; 
two fountains having been bestowed on the church' 
by Thomas Bromley, for ever, on the annual pay- 
ment of 15.?. 4td. I find that this donation was 
made before 1293; for in that year a dispute 
arose between the dean and chapter, and Thomas 
de Abbenhale, about the passage of the water 
through his lands r . 

The whole close is of exempt jurisdiction, and Members of 
quite independent of the city, Its members are, 
a dean, precentor, chancellor, and treasurer, who 
have prebends annexed to their offices. There 
are twenty-seven other prebends, of which that of 
Eccleshal is annexed to the bishoprick. Out of 
these thirty-one, the dean and four more are stiled 
canons residentiary ; which four are chosen out of 
the prebendaries and dignitaries. Here are twelve 
minor canons : five of whom are called priest- 
vicars ; the other seven, lay-vicars, or singing- 
men. Both these were formerly collegiated, and 
had their hall and houses. That of the priest- 
vicars is a handsome room, rebuilt, and usually 
lent for the purposes of assemblies, and other 
amusements. A new house also stands on the 
ground once occupied by the house of the cho- 
risters : before it stood, within memory, a very 

* Mr. Greene's MSS, 



1.52 S T - MARY'S. ST- MICHAEL. 

pretty gate, which formed the entrance ; on which 
was inscribed Domus Choristes. 

Besides these members, are an organist, two 
vergers, a sacrist, and sub-sacrist. It is remarka- 
ble, that the four archdeacons have here no stalls, 
as is usual in all other cathedrals. 
St. Mary's. The other churches are that of St. Mary, re- 
built since the year 1716, when, the body being 
ruinous, its fine spire steeple was unnecessarily 
pulled down. In the time of Edxvard III. a re- 
ligious guild was instituted, and after that much 
promoted by Dean Heyxcood. Five priests be- 
longed to this society, who officiated in the 
church u . It is a vicarage, in the gift of the dean. 
St. Mi- St. Michael, or Greenhill, is on an eminence 

CHAEL. . 

east of the town ; remarkable for its extensive 
church-yard. This, and that of Stow, or St. 
Chad's, are curacies dependent on St. Marys. 
St. Chad is reckoned the oldest of the churches of 
this city. In its north end formerly stood the 
shrine - of St. Catherine, whose chauntry-priest 
had his stipend from the vicars-choral of the ca- 
thedral. Near it is the well of the saint, where 
he had his first oratory; which in antient times 
was much frequented by devotees. 

Grey The grey friars had a house here, founded 

Friers. 

Lefond It in. iv. 117. 



GREY FRIARS. TOMB-STONE. 15S 

about 1229, by Bishop Alexander, who gave 
certain free burgages, on which it was erected. 
It was destroyed by fire in 1291, but rebuilt in 
the thirty-sixth of Henry VIII. It was granted 
to Richard Crumblethorn. At present, both house 
and land support an hospital at Seal, in Leicester- 
shire. The water which now supplies the city, 
was granted on St. James s day, in 1301, by 
Henry Campanarius, son of Michael de Lichfield, 
bell-founder. Henry gave his fountains at Foul- 
xvel, near Alreschaxo, in pure and perpetual alms 
to the friars of this house, with power to cover 
them with a head of stones, and of carrying the 
pipes through his land, on condition that, when- 
ever they wanted repair, the friars were to indem- 
nify him and his heirs for the damage done to the 
ground. Several parts of the house are yet stand- 
ing, and form a pleasant and comfortable habita- 
tion. In digging near it, was found a large tomb- 
stone, with a cross fleury, surrounded by a sin- 
gular inscription, to the following purpose : 

Ricardus mercator victus morte noverca 
Qui cessat mercari pausat in hac ierarca. 
Extulit ephebus paucis vivendo diebus 
Ecclesiam rebus ditat variis speciebus, 
Vivat ut in Ccelis nunc mercator Michaelis. 

" Richard the merchant here extended lies, 

" Death, like a step-dame, gladly clos'd his eyes. 



154, ST. JOHN'S HOSPITAL. 

** No more he trades beyond the burning zone, 

" But happy rests beneath this sacred stone. 

" His benefactions to the church were great j 

* Though young, he hasten' d from his mortal state. 

" May he, though dead in trade, successful prove, 

" Saint Michael's merchant in the realms above." 

The stone is still to be seen there. A figure of it 
was sent to the Gentleman s Magazine, by Mr. 
Greene, in this city. The inscription and transla- 
tion are copied from the same magazine : the latter 
appearing to me to be equally faithful and inge- 
nious. 
Hospital of 'A little beyond, stands the hospital of St. 
St. John. j onrif consisting of a master and twelve poor bre- 
thren. The master is a clergyman, who has a good 
house and stipend for superintending the charity, 
and reading daily prayers in the chapel belonging 
to it. The founder is uncertain. We only know 
that William Smith, while bishop of Lichfield, in 
the time of Henry VII. formed here a new foun- 
dation for a master, two priests, and ten poor 
men. Henry patronized the charity, and endowed 
it with the old hospital of Denhal, and the lands 
and impropriation of Burton church, both in 
Wiral, in Cheshire. Smith also founded the 
grammar-school in this city x . 

Among other things worthy of attention in this 

x Ldandltin. iv. 117. 



LICHFIELD CITY. 155 

city, is the cabinet of curiosities, antient, natural, 
and artificial, in .the possession of Mr. Green 7 , 
surgeon. It contains numbers of most valuable 
and instructive pieces in each class. A visit to 
my worthy friend is the more agreeable, as he 
takes great pleasure in gratifying the curiosity of 
all that favor him with their company. 

The city is divided from the close by a large ClTY - 
piece of water, of which there were originally 
three; at present remain only this and another, 
called Stoicpool, a little to the east. Bishop 
Langton made the causeway, bridges, and dams, 
at each end of the pool. Before that, the great 
road went round Stozcpool, near Stoiv church. 
The city is neat and well built; contains little 
more than three thousand souls 2 ; is a place of 
great passage, has a considerable manufacture of 
sail cloth, and a small manufacture of saddle- 
cloths and tammies. 

It was originally governed by a guild and guild- jj ow G0- 
master; which were the origin of corporations, 
and took rise before the time of the Conquest; 
the name being Saxon, signifying a fraternity, 
which unites and flings its effects into a common 

y Mr. Green died in 1793. His cabinet has been dispersed 
6ince his decease. Ed. 

. z In the Census of 1801 the population is stated at 4512. 
V.o. 



VliRNED. 



156 LICHFIELD DISTRICT. 

stock, and is derived from Gildan, to pay*. A 
guild was a public feast, to commemorate the 
time of the institution; and the guild-hall the 
place in which the fraternity assembled : these (at 
lest after the Conquest) paid fines to the crown, 
and formed part of its revenue. Richard I. 
enabled it to purchase lands to the value of ten 
pounds ; but it was not chartered till the reign of 
Edward VI. who formed it into a regular corpora- 
tion by its first charter. This was confirmed by 
Queen Mary and Elizabeth; and Charles II. 
granted a new one, confirming all the others. 

This city is governed by a recorder, high 
steward, sheriff, two bailiffs, a town-clerk, and 
coroner. One of the bailiffs is elected by the 
bishop ; the others to be elected annually by and 
out of the brethren which form the corporation. 
The city has the power of life and death within its 
jurisdiction; a court of record, and a pie-powder k 
court, which regulated the disputes arising in 
fairs. 
District. The district of the city and county of Lichfield 
is called the sheriff's ride, and lies at unequal 

* Spebnan, 260. Rennet's Gloss, to Paroch. Antiq. 

b So called from pieds poudreaux, or dusty feet, because 
country people usually come with dusty shoes to fairs. See 
Doctor Pettingal's able dissertation on the word, Archaol. 
i. 190 



LICHFIELD CASTLE. 157 

distances around. In this the corporation has ex- 
clusive jurisdiction. 

This city sent representatives in the thirty- Members. 
third of Edwardl. ; the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, 
and twentieth ofEdzvardll. ; and first, fourteenth, 
and twenty-seventh of Edward III. ; from whose 
reign they were discontinued, till that of Edzvard 
VI c . The members are returned by the sheriff 
and bailiffs. The right of electing is in the free- 
men by servitude; in the burgage-holders, or such 
who live in the town and pay a small acknow- 
legement to the corporation; and in the free- 
holders of forty shillings a year, within the sheriff's 
ride. 

Lichfield is quite an open town : all the traces 
of the ditches made by Bishop Clinton are lost, as 
well as of the tower, on which he is said to have 
bestowed such great expence d . The name only of 
Castle Ditch, in the east part of the town, pre- astle. 
serves its memory. Probably in this fortress 
Richard II. kept his sumptuous Christmas, in 
1397, when he consumed two hundred tuns of 
wine, and two thousand oxen e ; but with more 
certainty we know that it was his place of confine- 
ment, in his road to the tower of London, in 1 399, 

c Willis's Notitia Parliam, iii. 50. 

d Goodwin, 367. c Stoiv's Ckr. 318. 



158 WALL. LOWS. 

a captive prince. The unhappy Richard here at- 
tempted his escape, by slipping from the window 
of the high tower into a garden ; but being seen, 
was carried back to his imprisonment f . 
Etocet R Wdlte, the antient Etocetum, lies about a mile 
and a half from Lichfield, on the Wat ling-street 
road, on a rising ground. There are still some 
remains of the walls to be seen, mixed with roots 
of some very old ash-trees. Coins and tiles evince 
it to have been the Roman Etocetum, as well as its 
distance from Pennocrucium, a place somewhere 
on the river Penh, not far from Penkridge ; but 
the site not well ascertained. The Watling-street 
road enters the county near Tamworth, and is con- 
tinued into Shropshire, as far as Wroxeter. Near 
Wall, another Roman road crosses it ; and at the 
intersection is an exploratory mount, about 
forty feet in diameter, called Offlo, in sight of 
Borough Cop, near Lichfield, on which the mar- 
tyrdom of the thousand Christians, in the tenth 
persecution, is said to have happened. This is 
asserted by John Ross, a Warxvickshire antiquary, 
who died in 1491, near twelve hundred years after 
the event ; which he alone relates. 
Lows. These lows, which have the same signification 

as laws in Scotland, and mean a mount, and 

f Stow's Chr. 322. 



WHITTINGTON. ELFORD. 159 

placed here in sight of one another, were usually 
designed as exploratory, and for the repetition of 
signals ; and sometimes were sepulchral. 

I made one day an excursion; passed through 
Whittington, a village with a church and spire- 
steeple, about two miles N. E. of Lichfield; 
thence proceeded through Fisherwick park g , a fine 
seat of the Earl of Donegal, built from a design 
of Mr. Browns: the grounds bounded by the 
Tame, a beautiful river. Elford church, village, 
and house h , the seat of the late Earl of Suffolk, 
form a pretty groupe of objects on the opposite 
bank. I forded the river, and went by Elford 
Low, a verdant mount, which Doctor Plot proved, 
from examination, to have been sepulchral ; but, 
from its situation and elevation, I suspect it 
might have had on it a specula, or watch-tower. 

Elford, before the Conquest, was possessed by Elford. 
Earl Algar ; after which the Conqueror himself 
seized on it for his own use. About Henry the 
Third's reign, William of Arderne was lord of it, 

Fisherwick has recently been purchased by Richard How- 
ard, Esq. and the noble mansion is now (1810) in a state of 
demolition for the value of the materials. Ed. 

h On the death of Lady Andover, daughter-in-law to the 
Earl of Suffolk, Elford devolved on her daughter Frances, wife 
to Richard Bagot, Esq. who assumed the name of Howard. 
Ed. 



IfiO ELFORD CHURCH. 

and his posterity was seised of it till the marriage 
of Maud, sole heiress of Sir John Ardeme, with 
Thomas, second son of Sir John Stanley, of 
Latham, Knight; he dying in 1463, the 6th of 
Edward IV. Margaret, his daughter, conveyed 
it by marriage to the Stantons : by the same means 
it passed from the Stantons to the Smiths ; from 
the Smiths to the Hudd lesions ; and from the 
Huddlestons to the Bowes. So very rapid was the 
change of family in this place ! It continued with 
the Borves four or five generations ; but, about the 
end of the seventeenth century, became the property 
of the Honorable Craven Howard, by marriage with 
Mary, daughter of George Bozves, Esquire : and 
continued in his posterity (the Earls of Suffolk) till 
the death of the late able and honest peer ; when 
it devolved to his sister, the Honorable Frances 
Hoxcard. 
Church. In the church are several fine monuments, in 
the antient stile. 

In the north wall is a painted figure, with 
curled hair, gown down to his knees, buskins on 
his legs, sword, gold chain, his hands closed, and 
a ring on his thumb. 

An alabaster tomb of an Ardeme, in a conic 
helmet, mail round his neck, chin, and shoulders, 
and a collar of S S : one of his hands clasps that 



ELFORD CHURCH. 161 

of his wife, who has on a rich pearl bonnet, a 
cloak, and gown. Around the tomb are various 
figures, in the dress of the times. 

Sir William Smith, who died in 1500, lies 
armed, has a collar of SS, and is represented 
beardless. He lies between his two wives : Isabel, 
in long hair and a coronet, daughter of John 
Nevil Marquis of Montacute, brother to the great 
Earl of Warwick ; and Anne, daughter of William 
Stanton, by whom he acquired this place. Monks, 
and coats of arms, surround the tomb : the first, to 
express his piety ; the last, to gratify the vanity of 
survivors. 

Sir John Stanley, son of Thomas Stanley and 
Maud Arderne, lies under an arch, with both 
hands supplicatory, in armor, with a mail muffler. 
His head rests on a helm, with the Eagle and 
Child, the cognizance of the Stanleys. 

Under another arch is his eldest son, a child 
with curled hair, and in a long gown, recumbent: 
one hand points to his ear; the other holds a 
ball, the unfortunate instrument of his death ; on 
which was inscribed Ubi dolor ibi digitus. 

About two miles further, in a place called 
Ejford Park Farm, I observed a barrozo which is 
small, and evidently sepulchral. There had pro- 
bably been a battle on this spot during the hep- 

M 



162 



CROXAL CHURCH. CLIFTON. 



Croxal 
Church 



tarchy: whether between Saxons and Danes, or 
two Saxon princes, is uncertain. 

Croxal church stands on an eminence. Within 
are two tombs, with the figures of an armed man 
and his wife, curiously engraven on each. One 
commemorates John Horton, of Cat on, and his 
spouse, Anne, daughter of John Curzon, of this 
place. He died in the year 1500. His name is 
expressed in form of a rebus ; the word Hor cut 
upon a tun. 

The other tomb is of George Curzon, Esquire, 
and his wife Catharine, who died in 1605. By 
the marriage of their only daughter Mary, to the 
famous Sir Edward Sacboille Earl of Dorset, it 
was conveyed to that noble family, in which it 
still remains. The Curzons had been possessed 
of it ever since the reign of Henry I. 

Pass by Hazelar hamlet and chapel. The last 
is prebendal, and at present converted into a pig- 
stye. Ride for some time by the side of the little 
river Mease, the boundary, in this part, between 
Staffordshire and Derbyshire. A little further is 
Clifton, the village and church of Clifton, usually called 
Clifton Camville, from a family of that name, who 
possessed it from the year 1 200, or the second of 
King John, to about the year 1315. The spire of 
the church is extremely elegant, joined to the 



THORP. 163 

tower by flying buttresses. In the church is a 
tomb, with the effigies of Sir John Vernon of Har- 
leston, in this neighborhood, and Dame Allen, his 
wife. He is dressed in a long bonnet and gown, 
with a chain from his neck, as usual with people 
of worship; for he had been one of the king's 
counsel, and custos rotulorim of the county of" 
Derby. His wife is dressed in a square hood, with 
a purse, knife, and beads by her side. They died 
in 1545. 

Visit Thorp Constantine, a small church close Thorp. 
to the seat of my matrimonial relation William 
Inge \ Esquire, who deservedly bears the respect- 
able and useful character of being the best justice 
of any country gentleman in England. The living 
is in his gift, and the whole parish his property. 
The manor once belonged to the see of Ely ; for 
it appears that Hotham, bishop of that diocese, in 
1316, obtained for it a charter of free warren. 

Henry Lord Scrope, favorite of Henry V. be- 
headed for his ungrateful plot against his master, 
left to this church a vestment worth Q6s. Sd. 
on condition that the priest should pray for his 
soul on Sundays, and in all his masses. His will, 
made before his treason was discovered, was a 
curious piece of hypocrisy \ 

1 William Inge, Esq. died in 1785. En. 
k Rymer's Foedera, ix. 275. 

M 2 



164 SEKINDON. TAMWORTH. 

I continued this little ramble to Sekindon, a 
mile distant, on the edge of Warwickshire, re- 
markable for a lofty artificial mount, the keep of 
a Savon castle, with a flat area beneath ; at the 
bottom are the remains of a great rampart, and the 
whole surrounded with a deep ditch. This place 
is celebrated for the battle between Ethelbald, 
king of the Mercians, and Cuthred, king of the 
West Saxons, in 755 \ when Ethelbald, disdain- 
ing flight, was slain by Beonred, one of his own 
officers, who, for a short time, usurped the 
kingdom. 

Tamworth. About four miles farther lies Tamxvorth, be- 
tween the conflux of the Tame and the Ankor, 
which formed at this place the appearance of an 
island ; its Saxon name being Tameneordige and 
Tamanweorthe ; ige signifying an island. It had 
long been the residence of the Mercian princes, who 
preferred it on account of its pleasant situation, and 
the quantity of woodland, which afforded them 
in plenty the pleasures of the chase. Off a dates 
a grant, in 781, to the monks of Worcester, from 

A royal re- jjg r0 y a i palace at Tamworth. Ceonulf. Bern- 

SIDENCE. J r ,j > 

wulf, and Burthred, date other charters, in the 
years 814, 841, and 854, from the same place". 
The precinct of their residence was an enormous 

1 Saxon Chr. 59. m Brompton, 769. Ingulphus, 853. 
n Dugdalt's Wancicksh. ii. 1 130. Plot's Staffordsh. 410. 



TAMWORTH. 165 

ditch, forty-five feet wide, protecting the town on 
the north, west, and east ; the rivers serving as a 
defence on the other side. The ditch is filled up 
in many places, yet still there are vestiges of it, 
and also of two mounts, on which probably stood 
two small towers. 

Tamworth was totally ruined by the jncursions Ruined by 
of the Danes; at length it was restored by the Re S e TO redby 
celebrated Ethelfleda, who, in the spring of 913, Ethelfleda. 
erected a tower on the artificial mount on which 
the present castle stands. Here, in 920, she 
finished her glorious life, and in 922 she received, 
I may say, posthumous honors, by the assemblage 
of the Mercian tribes she had conquered, who, 
with the princes of North Wales, here acknow- 
leged the sovereign power of her brother Ed- 
ward* ', probably obtained by her valour and 
prudence. 

The town, or borough, as it was called on the 
Conquest, continued part of the royal demesne, 
but was afterwards set at a certain rent to the 
lords of the castle ; the first of whom, after that 
event, was Robert Marmion, one of the followers Marmions. 
of the Conqueror, on whom it was bestowed. 
His posterity remained masters of it for some 
generations, holding of the crown in capite } by the 

Saxon Chr. 10*. p The same, 110. 



166 



TAMWORTH. 



service of finding three knights at their own costs, 
for forty days, in the wars of Wales. 

On the death of Philip Marmion, in 1291, 
the twentieth of Edward I. this fortress descended 
to his eldest daughter Joan, wife of William 
Mortein ; who dying without issue, it fell three 
years after, by agreement among the co-heirs, to 
Joan, a relation of Philip Marmion, and wife of 

Freviles. Alexander Frevile. The Freviles by this means 
owned it till the year 1419, or seventh of Hen- 
ry V., when Sir Baldwyn Frevile dying childless, 
Thomas Ferrers, second son of William Lord 
Ferrers, of Groby, became master of it, in right 
of Elizabeth his wife, eldest of the three sisters 

Ferrers, of Sir Baldxvyn. The Ferrers held it till the be- 
ginning of the present century; when it passed 
into the family of the Comptons, by the marriage 
of James Earl of Northampton with Elizabeth, 
sister to Robert Lord Tamworth, grandson and 
heir apparent to Robert Earl Ferrers, who had 
obtained it by his marriage, in 1688, with Anne, 
daughter of Sir Humphrey Ferrers, of this place. 
Lady Charlotte Compion, sole surviving daughter 
of the match, Baroness de Ferrers, in right of her 
mother, married the present Lord Townshend, 
whose son, now Lord Tie Ferrers, enjoys the 
place. I must not forget to add, that Sir John 
Baldwyn, Knight, on the coronation of Richard 



TAMWORTH CASTLE. 167 

II. clamed the honor of being the king's champion, 
by virtue of tenure of this castle (a service per- 
formed by his predecessors the Marmions) ; but 
it being found that the Marmions held their right 
only from the tenure of Scrivelsby manor, it was 
challenged by Sir John Dymock, the then owner, 
and adjudged to him q . 

Till the present century the castle was the Castle. 
seat of its lords. The rooms are numerous, but 
inconvenient and irregular, except a dining-room 
and drawing-room ; each with large projecting 
windows. Around the first are painted great 
numbers of coats of arms of the family of the 
Ferrers, and its alliances. The chimney-piece of 
the drawing-room is richly carved, in the old 
taste, and beneath the arms is the motto, Only 
one. 

The beauty of the situation of Tamworth is 
seen from the castle to great advantage, varied 
with rich meadows, two bridges over the Tame 
and the Ankor, and the rivers wandering pictu- 
resquely along the country. Michael Drayton, 
born on the banks of the last, most elegantly paints 
out his love-complaints, and celebrates the last in 
the sweetest strain. 

* Dugdak's Warwicksh. ii. If 34% 



168 TAkWORTH TOWN. 

Clear Ankor, on whose silver-sanded shore 

My soul-shrin'd saint, my fair idea lies : 

A blessed brook, whose milk-white swans adore 

Thy crystal stream refined by her eyes; 

Where sweet myrrh-breathing zephyr in the spring 

Gently distils his nectar-dropping showers ; 

Where nightingales in Arden sit and sing 

Amongst the dainty dew-impearled flowers. 

Say thus, fair brook, when thou shalt see thy queen : 

Lo, here thy shepherd spent his wand'ring days, 

And in these shades, dear nymph, he oft has been, 

And here to thee he sacrific'd his tears. 

Fair Arden, thou my Tempe art alone ; 

And thou, sweet Ankor, art my Helicon. 

Town. The town is large and well-built; part is 

situated in Staffordshire, and part in Warwick- 
shire ; for which Teason its members are returned 
by the sheriffs of both counties r . It first sent re- 
presentatives in the fifth year of Queen Elizabeth : 
and was made a corporation two years before ; 
which consists of two bailiffs, a recorder, and 
twenty-four capital burgesses. The right of voting 
is in the inhabitants paying scot and lot. 

Church. The church is large, built at different times. 
Near the chancel are two great round arches, with 
zigzag moldings, which were prior to the reign of 
Henry III. when this species of arch fell into 



* Willis Notitia Pari. iii. 51. 



TAMWORTH CHURCH. 169 

disuse. Here are numbers of monuments, some 
antient, of the Freviles and Ferrers, with their 
figures, and those of their wives. Here is also a 
handsome monument of John Ferrers, Esquire, 
who died in 1680, aged 59,; and of his son Sir 
Humphry Ferrers, knight, who died in 1678, 
aged 25. Their figures are represented in marble, 
as large as life, in a Roman dress, long flowing 
hair, and half-kneeling. Sir Humphry was the 
last male heir of his line. 

The church is dedicated to St. Editha, daugh- 
ter to king Edgar ; who, preferring the cloistered 
life to the troubles of a throne, received after death 
the honor of saintship. It has been said, that she 
founded here a nunnery, and that Robert Mar- 
mion, lord of this place, received from her very 
sensible marks of resentment, for daring to remove 
the holy sisters. St. Editha descended from 
heaven, and, while Marmion was lying down, 
after a costly feast, in Tamworth castle, she ad- 
monished him to restore them to their rights, and, 
by way of memorandum, gave him such a blow 
with her crosier on his side, that he rose in ex- 
treme torment ; which instantly ceased on repent- 
ance and restitution s . It is probable that this very 

* Dugdak's Baron, i. 375. 



170 TAMVVORTH HOSPITAL. 

Marmion made the church collegiate, and placed 
here a dean and six prebendaries, each of whom 
had his substitute, or vicar ; for it is the opinion 
of Leland, this foundation arose from the piety of 
one of the name*. The idle legend might have 
been formed from some real offence", which might 
have been expiated in the manner usual in old 
times. 

Saint Editha had also an image here. After 
the dissolution, the seven incumbents had pen- 
sions, as late as 1553 x . Queen Elizabeth granted 
the college, and all its prebends, to Edward 
Dozoiing and Peter Ashton. At present, this 
great church is only a curacy. 
Hospital. In 1286, the fifteenth of Edward I. Philip 
Marmion dedicated here an hospital to St. James, 
intending to found a house of Premonstrensians ; 
but, till he could execute his design, granted it to 
William of Combe?y-hall, with all its appurten- 
ances, and pasture in Ashjield for four oxen and 

1 Itin.'w. 121. 

As it is very doubtful whether there had been any 
nunnery here, the offence might be the expulsion of the nuns 
from Polesworth convent, dedicated to Saint Editha ; which 
were restored by Robert Marmion and his wife. Stevens, 1 25 1 . 
Tanner, 566. 

* Willis, ii. 218. 



SWINFEN. 171 

two horses, on condition that it should celebrate 
mass for his soul y . There is now an hospital 
founded for more useful purposes, by Mr. Guy. 

From Tamworth I returned to Lichfield, and 
resumed my journey along the London road. 

About two miles from the city, see on the left Swinfen. 
Swinfen, the seat of a gentleman of the same name; 
happy in its beautiful demesne, ornamented with 
an extent of water, meads, and hanging- woods. 
This place was once the property of the Sper- 
mores ; but in the time of Henry VI. by marriage 
of Joyce, daughter and heiress of the family, with 
William Sxvinfen, it came into that name. The 
executors of the last of that line, a Doctor Sxvin- 
fen, sold it, in the present century, to Mr. Sxvinfen, 
of London ; in whose family it continues. 

A little farther, the great Wat ling-street 
crosses the road near Weford 3 or the ford on the 
way. This is seated on Blackbrook, a small 
stream, now furnished with a bridge. The stream 
runs through a beautiful tract of narrow but rich 
meadows, prettily bounded by low and fertile 
risings. This spot had been the scene of much 
civil rage. A Purefoy was here slain by Sir 
Henry Willoughby, in the cause of Edward IV. ; 
and Sir Henry in the same place fought, and was 

y Tamer, 502. 



m CANWELL. 

desperately Mounded by, Lord Visit 7 '. JVeford 
Common a , a black heath, succeeds ; and a little 
Canwell. beyond, on the left, stood Camvell priory, founded 
about the year 1142, by Geva, widow of Jeffry 
Riddel, and daughter of Hugh Earl of Chester, 
for Benedictine monks. It had ten pounds a year 
in spiritualities, and fifteen pounds ten shillings 
and three-pence in temporalities. It became at 
length a cell for a solitary monk ; was suppressed, 
and granted by Henry VIII. to Cardinal IVolsey, 
towards the endowment of his two colleges b . 
Near this place I entered 

WARWICKSHIRE, 

in the parish of Middleton ; from which the JVil- 
loughbies take their title. The road is over part 
of the common of Sutton Colfield, which is finely 
bounded on the left by a long-continued range of 
woods. " There is a common report (which pass- 
" eth for currant amongst the vulgar) that the great 
" heape of stones, which lyeth near the road way 
" from Litchfeild towards Coleshill, upon Bassets 
" heath, called the Bishops Stones, and those other 

z Leland Itin. iv. 120. Probably one of the neighboring 
L'Isles of Moxhull. 

a Now inclosed, and in a state of excellent cultivation, as 
is the common of Sutton Colfield, mentioned below. Ed. 

b Tanner, 497. 



MOXHULL. 173 

" lesser heapes, which lye in the valley below ; were 
" at first laid there in memorie of a bishop and his 
" retinue, who were long since rob'd and killed, 
" as they were travailing upon that way : but this 
" is a meere fabulous storye : for upon an inquisi- 
" tion made in King James his time, concerning 
" the extent of common upon that heath, betwixt 
" Weeford and Sutton ; there was an old woman, 
" called old Bess of Blackbrooke, being then above 
" an hundred yeares of age, who deposed (inter 
" alia) that the Bishop of Exeter (of whom men- 
" tion is made in pag: 667. of this booke) living 
" then at Moore Hall : taking notice how trouble- 
" some such a number of pibble stones as then 
" lay in the roade thereabouts, were to all passen- 
" gers, caused them to be pickt up, and thus 
" layd upon heapes c ." 

A few miles farther, I passed Moxhull hall, Moxhull. 
the neat-dressed seat of Mr. Hacket, a descendant 
of the worthy bishop of that name ; whose son, by 
marriage with Mary, eldest daughter of John 
Ulsle, became owner of it, after it had been in 
the L'lsles, or tie Insula, for some hundreds 
of years' 1 . On the right is the parish-church, 

c The note above written is in Sir William Dugdale's own 
hand, in a copy of his Warwickshire, in Lord Stamford's library 
at Envil. 

d Dugdale, Warwichh. ii. 936". 



174 CURDWORTH. COLESHILL. 

Curdworth. Wishaw, and a little farther, that of Curdworth. 
That manor was possessed, in the time of the 
Conqueror, by Turchil de Wanoik, son of Alwine, 
a potent Saxon in the time of Edward the Con- 
fessor. Turchil is recorded to have been the first 
in England who, in imitation of the Normans, took 
a surname, stiling himself Turchil de Ear dine', 
or Arden, from his residence in that part of the 
country then called Arden, or the forest ; a word, 
according to Camden f , by which both Britons and 
Gauls expressed a woodland tract. He was an- 
cestor to the antient and respectable family which 
flourished under the same name till the year 1643, 
when it was lost in the male line by the death of 
Robert Arden. 

About half a mile from Curdworth, I crossed 
the Tame at Curdworth Bridge *, and a mile far- 
ther the Cole. The view from hence, of the stream 
watering a range of rich meadows, bounded on one 
side by hanging-woods, is extremely agreeable ; as 

Coleshill. i Sj a little further, the town of Coleshill, covering 
the steep ascent of a lofty brow, on whose top ap- 
pears the handsome church and elegant spire. 
The place had been long a royal demesne ; was 
possessed by Edward the Confessor, and after- 

e Dugdale Wanvicksh. ii. 925. f i. 606. 

s Near Curdworth the road crosses the Birmingham and 
Fazeley canal. Ed. 



COLESHILL. 175 

wards by the Conqueror. It fell, either in his 
reign or that of William Ritfus, into the hands of 
the Clintons, in whom it continued till the year 
1353, the twenty-seventh of Edxvard III ; when it 
passed to Sir John de Mountfort, by virtue of his 
marriage with Joan, daughter of Sir John Clin- 
ton*. The Mountforts held it till the reign of 
Henry VII. when, by the cruel attainder and ex- 
ecution of Sir Simon Mountfort, for sending thirty 
pounds, by his younger son Henry, to Perkin 
IVarbeck, on supposition that Perkin Avas the 
real son of his former master Edxvard IV., this 
brought ruin on himself and family. He was tried 
at Guildhall in 1494, and condemned to be drawn 
through the city, and hanged and quartered at 
Tyburn \ His manor of Coleshill was immediately 
bestowed on Simon Digby, deputy-constable of 
the castle, who brought the unfortunate gentleman 
to the bar. He was a younger son of the house 
of Tilton, of Leicestershire, ancestor of the Lord 
Digby, the present worthy possessor. 

In the upper part of the town is a small place, 
neatly built. The church-yard commands a line 
view of a rich country. The vicarage was for- 
merly belonging to Markgate, in Bedfordshire, 
but is now in the gift of its lord. The spire, lofty 

h Dugdale Warwicksh. ii. 925. 

1 Dugdale Warxvicksh. ii. 1012. Digby Pedigree, viii, 15. 



176 COLESHILL CHURCH. 

as it is, was fifteen feet higher, before it had been 
struck with lightning in 1550; when the inhabit- 
ants sold one of the bells towards the repairs. 
Church. I n the church are numbers of fine tombs of the 
Digbies, with their figures recumbent. Among 
others, that of the above-mentioned Simon, and 
his spouse Alice, who lie under a tomb erected 
by himself. He died in 1519 : she survived him, 
and left by her will a silver penny to every child 
under the age of nine, whose parents were house- 
keepers in this parish (beginning with those next 
the church) on condition that, every day in the 
year, after the sacring of the high mass, they 
should kneel down at the altar and say five pater- 
nosters, an ave, and a creed, for her soul, that of 
her husband, and all Christian souls ; and the an- 
nual sum of six shillings and eight pence to the 
dean, for seeing the same duly performed, and 
likewise for performing the same himself. At the 
reformation this custom was changed. The inha- 
bitants purchased from the crown the lands charged 
with this money : part maintains a school : the rest 
is distributed to such children who repair to the 
church every morning at ten o'clock, and say the 
Lord's prayer ; and the clerk has an allowance for 
seeing the performance, and for ringing the bell to 
summon them k . 

k Dugdale Warwicksh. ij. 1013, 1014. 



TOMBS IN COLESHILL CHURCH. 177 

The figure of Simon Digby is in armour, with 
lank hair, and bare-headed. His grandson John, 
and his great grandson George, knighted at the 
siege of Zutphen, are represented in the same 
manner, with their wives. The first died in 1558 ; 
the last in 1586. These are of alabaster, and 
painted. 

The tomb of Reginald, son of Simon, who died 
in 1549, diners. His figure, and that of his wife, 
are engraven on a flat slab of marble, with twelve 
of their children at their feet. 

On a pedestal, with an urn at the top, is an 
inscription to Kildare Lord Digby, of Geashil, in 
the kingdom of Ireland, who died in 1661 ; and 
on the opposite side is another, in memory of his 
lady, who died in 1692, drawn up by Bishop 
Hough, forming a character uncommonly amiable 
and exemplary ; the integrity of that worthy pre- 
late giving sanction to every line. 

I felt great pleasure in perusing an epitaph, 
by a grateful mistress ', to the memory of a worthy 
domestic, Mary Wheely ; whom she stiles an ex- 
cellent servant and good friend; for what is a 
faithful servant but an humble friend ? 

Beneath two arches are two antient figures 
of cross-legged knights, armed in mail, with short 

1 Mrs. Charlotte Bridgman, with whom Mary Wheely lived 
thirty-eight years : she died in 1747. Ed. 

N 



178 COLESHILL HALL. 

surtouts ; in all respects alike, only one has a dog, 
the other a lion, at his feet. On their shields are 
two fleurs de lis, which denote them to have been 
some of the earlier Clintons ; and by Dugdale 1 
it appears, that one was John de Clinton, lord of 
this place, a strong adherent to the barons against 
Henry III. who suffered a temporary forfeiture 
of his estate ; but was restored to it by the famous 
Dictum de Kenelworth. He became a favorite of 
Edward I. and clamed for his manor of Coleshill 
by prescription, "assize of bread and beer, gallows, 
" piliorie, tumbril, a court-leet, infangthef, outfang- 
"thef, mercate, faire, and free warren." He died 
in the year 1291, the period of crusades, and is 
buried cross-legged. 

I observe, that the piety of the Catholics has 
given the same attitude to several of the Sher- 
borns, in the church of Mitton, in Yorkshire, who 
were interred in the seventeenth century ; so that 
I suspect it to have sometimes been considered 
merely as a reverential sign of our Saviour's 
suffering m . 
Coleshill The deserted seat of the Digbies lies about a 
mile or two from the town, in a fine park. The 
house consists but of one story, besides garrets ; 

1 Dugdale, &c. 1009. 

m The circular font in Coleshill church merits notice; round 
it are rude bas reliefs, representing the crucifixion, saints, 
and ornamental mouldings. Ed. 



Hall. 



BLITHE HALL. 



179 



Blithe 
Hall. 



yet the apartments are numerous, approachable 
by ways strange and unintelligible to all that are 
unacquainted with them, according to the stile of 
old buildings. 

From Coleshill I descended to pay a respectful 
pilgrimage to Blithe Hall, the seat of the great 
antiquary Sir William Dugdale; from whose in- 
defatigable labors, his successors in the science 
draw such endless helps. In respect to this 
county, he has fairly extinguished all hope of dis- 
covering any thing which has escaped his pene- 
trating eye. 

The house lies about a mile below Coleshill, 
on the river Blithe ; was purchased by Sir Wil- 
liam from Sir Walter Aston, and made his place 
of residence. It at present belongs (by female 
descent) to Richard Guest, Esquire ; whose po- 
liteness to an inquisitive intruder I shall ever ac- 
knowlege. He was so obliging as to show me an 
excellent half-length of his ancestor, dressed in Portrait 
black, with a bundle of manuscripts in his hand, William 
painted at the age of sixty, by Peter Bosscler 11 , )uGDALE - 
in 1665. 

Another portrait of his wife, Margery, daugh- 
ter of John Huntback, Esquire, of Sewal, in Staf- 
fordshire ; a head of Lord Keeper Bridgeman, 

" I imagine, the same with the person Mr. Walpole calls 
Bustler, ii. 26. 

N 2 



180 PORTRAITS IN BLITHE HALL. 

a thin primitive face; another of Lord Clarendon; 
Keeper anc * a third f Lord Keeper Littleton, with a jo- 

LiTTLE-roif. y ' m \ p en countenance. As a judge (for he had 
been chief justice of the common pleas) he was, 
as Sir Edzvard Coke said, a well-poised and weighed 
man . As lord keeper, dispirited, from the me- 
lancholy apprehensions he had of the approaching 
calamities of the times. For a while he tempo- 
rized with the views of the opposition. At length, 
finding the resolution of the leaders to seize on 
the seals, and make use of them against his royal 
master, he gave them up, to a messenger, ap- 
pointed for that purpose, and followed them, at 
the hazard of his life, to the king at York* ; where 
he loyally resumed their use, till his death, at Ox- 
ford, in 1645; when he at once performed the 
functions of lord keeper, privy-counsellor, and 
colonel of a redment of foot. 

El !*1^ sh " A half-length of the famous Elias Ashmole, 
whom Antony Wood stiles " the greatest virtuoso 
" and curioso ever known or read of in England. 
" Uxor solis took up its habitation in his breast, 
c; and in his bosom the great God did abundantly 
" store up the treasures of all sorts of wisdom and 
" knowlege V It is well for poor Ashmole, that 
the peevish historian, never read the wonderful 

Lloyd, ii. 322. f Clarendon, ii. 474. 

* Athcn. Oxon. ii. 289. 



MOLE. 



PORTRAITS IN BLITHE HALL. 181 

diary of his life, in which is a most minute and 
filthy detail of all his ails and strange mishaps r ; 
otherwise Antony never would have been so pro- 
fuse of his praise. Yet, amidst his foibles, he was 
an able botanist ; of most uncommon knowlege in 
the study of antiquity and records ; a physician, 
herald, chemist, and astrologer. On rectifying his 
nativity, he found his birth to have been on the 
23d of May 1617, about three in the morning, 
or " 3 hours 25 minutes 49 seconds A. M. the 
" quarter 8 of n ascending; but, upon Mr. Lil- 
" lys rectification thereof, anno 1667, he makes 
" the quarter 36 ascending '." This jargon should 
not deprive him of his real merit. To him we 
owe a most elaborate treatise on the institution 
of the order of the Garter, he having been Windsor 
herald ; various manuscripts respecting county an- 
tiquities, still extant ; and, above all, the founda- 
tion of the Museum at Oxford, which bears his 
name, finished in 1682, on purpose to receive the 
vast collection of curiosities bestowed by him on 
that university, which he had defended in 1646, 
as comptroller of the ordnance. Mr. Ashmok 
was doubly engaged to the worthy owner of this 
house : first, by the friendship resulting from the 
congenial turn of their studies ; and again, by his 

r Mr. Ashmok' s Life, 287. ' Mr. Ashmolcs Life. 



182 MAXSTOKE CASTLE. 

alliance with Sir William, in his marriage with his 
daughter Elizabeth ; which proved a source of 
great generosity, on his part, towards his father- 
in-law and his family. By his portrait, drawn by 
Nave 1 , in 1664, in his herald's coat, he appears 
to have been a good-looking man, with long hair ; 
there is a view of Windsor in the back-ground. 

Maxstokr From hence I visited Maxstoke castle, three 

Castle. 

miles south-east; most of the way lies through 
fields. The castle is very entire, and stands on 
a plain, in a most sequestered spot, surrounded 
with trees, and guarded by a moat. It is of a 
square form : at each corner is an hexagonal 
tower, and at the entrance a fine gateway, with a 
tower of the same form with the rest on each side. 
The gates are in their original state, covered with 
plates of iron. Above, are the holes for pouring 
hot sand, or melted lead, on assailants, and the 
cavity which once held the portcullis. These 
gates were made in the time of Humphry Stafford 
Earl (afterwards Duke) of Buckingham. He fixed 
on them his arms (still remaining) impaled with 
. those o( his wife, Anne Nevil; supported by two 
antelopesp derived from his mother, as one of the 
daughters of Thomas Woodstock, Duke of Glou- 
cester ; and added the burning nave, or knot, the 

* Probably Neve. 



MAXSTOKE CASTLE. 183 

cognizance of his own ancestors. Within the court 
the walls are pierced with divers cells, the antient 
casernes of the garrison. 

Much of the habitable part is still standing, 
but part was burnt by accident ; what remains is 
the dwelling-house of Mr. Dilkes, in whose family 
it has been for several generations. The great 
vault ribbed with stone, the old chapel, and kit- 
Ghen, still remain ; the noble old hall, and a great 
dining-room with a most curious carved door and 
chimney, are still in use. 

After the Conquest, it was given to Turchil Owners 
de Warwick; from one of his posterity it was 
granted to the Limesies, lords of Long Ichinton 
and Solihull ; from them to the O din gf ells ; and 
from the Odingfells, by Ida, eldest daughter of 
the last of the name, to the great family of the 
Clintons before mentioned, who made it their chief 
seat. In 1437, the sixteenth of Henry VI. Sir 
William de Clinton exchanged it with Humphry 
Earl of Buckingham, with whom it became a fa- 
vorite residence. On the execution of his son 
Henry Duke of Buckingham, in 1483, the first 
of Richard III. it was seized by the king. Ri- 
chard, on his march towards Nottingham, ordered 
all the inner building's of Kcnelworth castle to be 
removed here". After his defeat and death in 

u Dugdale, ii. P95. 



184 PACKINGTON. 

Botzcorth field, this place reverted to Edzvard, 
son of the last duke; who fell a victim, in 1521, 
to Henry VIII. a tyrant greater and more inex- 
cusable, than him who destroyed the father. The 
estates, again forfeited, were granted to Sir Wil- 
liam Compton, a favorite, and gallant tilter, in the 
reign of the former, and ancestor of the Earl of 
Northampton. In 1 596, his great grandson, Wil- 
liam Lord Compton, conveyed it to Lord Keeper 
F.gerton, who, in two years after, sold it to Tho- 
mas Dilke, Esquire, in whose family it remains. 

I did not visit the neighboring priory of Max- 
stoke ; so shall say no more of it, than that it 
was founded in 1336, by Sir William de Clinton, 
afterwards Earl of Huntingdon, and peopled with 
canons regular of St. Augustin \ 

Returned through Coleshill, and at a small 
Packing- distance, on the left of the road, digressed to Pack- 
ington, the seat of the Earl of Aylcsford. The ma- 
nor antiently belonged to the priory of Kenelworth, 
being granted to it by Geo fry de Clinton, lord 
chamberlain to Henry II. At the dissolution it 
was sold for the sum of six hundred and twenty- 
one pounds and one penny, to John Fisher, Esquire, 
gentleman-pensioner to Henry VIII. and four suc- 
ceeding monarchs. By the marriage of Mary, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Clement Fisher, Ba- 

x Tanner, 583. 



TON. 



MIREDEN. 185 

ronet, with Heneage, second Earl of Aylesford, 
the place was transferred to that noble family. 
The situation has of late years been highly im- 
proved by the change of the road. The grounds 
are prettily sloped by nature, are well wooded, 
and the bottom filled with two pleasing pieces of 
water. The house has also undergone many al- 
terations ; it is a plain convenient building, except 
on one side, where opens a loggio, most admirably 
adapted (in our climate) for the encouragement of 
rheums and rheumatisms. 

Within is a good portrait of its founder, John 
Fisher ; a half-length, with a square white beard, 
close black cap, upright ruff, and black jacket. 

A beautiful picture of Henrietta Maria, 
consort to Charles I. She is represented sitting, 
in blue, with roses in her hand, and her thorny 
crown by her. 

Here is also a portrait of Charles Duke of 
Somerset, in his robes, father to the Countess 
Dowager of Aylesford. 

The country here begins to lose the comforts 
of a gravelly soil, and changes to the wet-retain- 
ing clay. . At the pleasant village of Mireden it is Miredeh. 
uncommonly deep, but by the assistance of turn- 
pikes the road is rendered excellent. The pretty 
houses on each side of the way, and the magnifi- 
cent inn, famed for time immemorial for its excel- 



186 TOMBS IN MIREDEN CHURCH. 

lent malt-liquor, with the various embellishments 
(made by the old inn-keeper, Reynolds) of gate- 
way, little ponds, statues, and other whims, enliven 
the spot greatly. 
Chdrch. The church is seated a little higher up, on an 
eminence. Within is a handsome alabaster tomb 
of John Wyard, in armour and mail, with sword 
and dagger by his side ; his arms a cinquefoil on 
his breast. This gentleman had been 'squire (as 
the inscription relates) to Thomas de Beauchamp 
Earl of Warwick, and founder of a chauntry in this 
church, near which he had his residence. He 
was also knight of the shire for this county, in the 
second year of Richard II. 

Here is another tomb, with a figure in stone, 
supposed to have been that of one of the Walshes, 
the antient lords of this manor. This figure, as 
well as the former, is recumbent, with the hands 
in the action of supplication : but this gentle- 
man has a short skirt over the lower part of his 
armour. 

The antient name of this place was Alspath, 
or Ailespede, even till the beginning of the reign of 
Henry VI ; about which time, becoming a great 
thoroughfare, it got the name of Myreden ; den 
signifying a bottom, and myre, dirt: and I can 
well vouch for the propriety of the appellation, 
before the institution of turnpikes. 



LING. 



OLD FASHION OF TRAVELLING. ] 187 

In March 1739-40, I changed my Welsh school _. LD 

G J Fashion of 

for one nearer to the capital, and travelled in the Travel- 
Chester stage ; then no despicable vehicle for 
country gentlemen. The first day, with much 
labor, we got from Chester to Whitchurch, twenty 
miles ; the second day, to the Welsh Harp ; the 
third, to Coventry ; the fourth, to Northampton ; 
the fifth, to Dunstable ; and, as a wondrous effort, 
on the last, to London before the commencement 
of night. The strain and labor of six good horses, 
sometimes eight, drew us through the sloughs of 
Mireden, and many other places. We were con- 
stantly out two hours before day, and as late at 
night ; and in the depth of winter proportionably 
later. 

Families who travelled in their own carriages, 
contracted with Benson and Co. and were dragged 
up in the same number of days, by three sets of 
able horses. 

The single gentlemen, then a hardy race, 
equipped in jack-boots and trowsers, up to their 
middle, rode post through thick and thin, and, 
guarded against the mire, defied the frequent 
stumble and fall ; arose and pursued their jour- 
ney with alacrity : while in these days their ener- 
vated posterity sleep away their rapid journies in 
easy chaises, fitted for the conveyance of the soft 
inhabitants of Sybaris. 



188 ALLESEY. COVENTRY. 

Allesey. I continued my way to Coventry through 
Allesey, a village with a church and spire-steeple. 
The place was originally a member of that city, 
Bishop Clinton having permitted a chapel to be 
built here for the use of the poor, reserving the 
right of burial to the mother church y . In a place 
called The Parks, stood a castle, doubly moated, 
probably the residence of the Hastings, who pos- 
sessed this place in the time of Edward I. The 

present handsome seat is owned by Neale, 

Esquire. 

After a ride of two miles from hence, I en- 

Coventry. tered Coventry, a great and antient city. The 
time of its foundation is unknown. By the addi- 
tion of tre, a town, it should seem as if it had been 
inhabited by the Britons, before the Saxons added 
the word coven to it, as is conjectured, from a 
nunnery very antiently established here. The site 
of the old town is supposed to have been on the 
north side of the present, not only because great 
foundations are discovered about the spot called 
St. Nicholas Church-yard, but, I may add, from 
the tumulus near it, on the Atherston road, called 
Barrs Hill, on which might have been a castelet. 

Saxon Ndn- The certainty of there having been a convent 
here in early times, depends on the authority of 

y Dugdale, i. 129. 



STORY OF GODEVA. 189 

John Rous 7 '; who says, that when the traitor 

Edric ravaged this country, in 1016, he burnt the 

nunnery in this city, of which a holy virgin, St. 

Osburg, had been abbess. 

On its ruins, Leofric, fifth Earl of Mercia, and 

his countess Godeva, founded a monastery. At that 

period Coventry must have been a considerable 

place, and its inhabitants numerous, otherwise 

the fair Godeva could never have made so great Story f 

Godeva. 

a merit of riding naked through the town, to re- 
deem it from the intolerable taxes and grievances 
it at that time labored under. The cause must 
have been equal to the deed. Her husband long 
resisted her importunity in its behalf, on account 
of the profits that accrued to him : at length he 
thought to silence her by the strange proposal; 
she accepted it, and, being happy in fine flowing 
locks, rode, decently covered to her very feet with 
her lovely tresses. The history was preserved in 
a picture, about the time of Richard II. in which 
were pourtrayed the earl and countess. He holds 
a charter of freedom in his hand, and thus ad- 
dresses his lady : 

I Luriche (Leofric) for love of thee, 
Doe make Coventre toll-free. 

Legend says, that previous to her ride, all the in- 
* Leland (iv. 124.) says it was founded by king Canute. 



>90 COVENTRY. 

habitants were ordered, on pain of death, to shut 
themselves up during the time ; but, the curiosity 
of a certain taylor overcoming his fear, he took a 
single peep, which is commemorated even at pre- 
sent, by a figure projecting from a window in 
Smithford street. To this day, the love of Godeva 
to the city is annually remembered, by a proces- 
sion : and a valiant fair still rides, (not literally 
like the good countess, but) in silk, closely fitted 
to her limbs, and of color emulating their com- 
plexion a . 
Norman After the Conquest, the lordship of this city 
fell, by the marriage of Lucia (daughter to Algar, 
successor and son of Edwin, and grandson of 
Leofric) with her third husband Handle Meschine, 
to the Earls of Chester \ Handle bestowed on it 
the same privileges that Linsda enjoyed, and be- 
stowed great part of the city on the monks. When 
Hemy III. took the earldom of Chester into his 
hands, the remainder of Coventry fell to William 
de Albany Earl of Arundel, in right of his wife 
Mabil, daughter of Hugh Ceveilioc. On the death 
of Hugh Earl of Arundel, in 1 243, it fell to Roger 
de Montalto, who had married Cecilia, his young- 

a This custom is not continued with its former regularity, 
and the representative of the fair Godeva is now more ceco- 
nomically clad in white linen. Ed. 

b Leicester, 127. Camden, i. 611. 



COVENTRY. 



1U 



PO- 
RATED. 



est sister. After that, it was granted by his grand- 
son Robert, in default of issue, to Isabel, queen 
mother of Edward III. with remainder to John of 
Eltham, afterwards Earl of Cornwall; and then to 
Edzvard king of England. It thus became an- 
nexed to the earldom of Cornwall, and became 
more immediately the object of royal favor. Ed- 
ward III. in the eighteenth of his reign, by letters Incor 
dated the 20th of January, made it a corporation, 
consisting of a mayor and two bailiffs, whom the 
inhabitants were to select from among themselves. 
The first mayor was John Ward, who was chosen 
in the year 1348. 

Henry VI. in 1451, bestowed on this city a 
very particular mark of his affection, by erecting 
it, with a considerable district around, into a 
county c , by the name of the city and county of cou 
Coventry ; and ordered that the bailiffs from that 
time should be sheriffs : so that at present, it is 
governed by a mayor, recorder, two sheriffs, ten 
aldermen, thirty-one superior and twenty-five infe- 
rior common-council-men. Henry came expressly 
to Coventry, heard mass in St. Michael's church, 
presented the church with a gown of cloth of gold, 
and then created the first sheriffs. 

The representatives are returned by the sheriffs Right of 

Election 

e Accurately laid down in Mr. Beighton's map of Wanvick~ 

shire. ' u 



Made a 
nty. 



s 



194 COVENTRY. 

of the city, after being chosen by the freemen, who 
are all enrolled, and are freemen from having 
served seven years as apprentices within the city 
or suburbs. To be qualified to vote, a man must 
have been enrolled a full year before the time of 
an election. He must produce his indentures be- 
fore the mayor at a time appointed, and take an 
oath that he hath not absented himself from the 
service of his master during the term of his ap- 
prenticeship. 

The city sent members in the four first parle- 
ments of Edzvard I. That privilege was inter- 
rupted (except in the eighth of Edzvard II. and 
twentieth and twenty-fifth of Edzvard III.) till the 
thirty-first of Henri/ VI. when it was resumed. 

Among all its privileges, unfortunately for the 
magistrates, it has that of life and death d . 

The county of Coventry extends about four 
miles round the city, but the service of an ap- 
prenticeship in this extent beyond the city and 
suburbs does not entitle a man to his freedom, or 
to the privilege of a vote; neither can a man, 
though possessed of land to the amount of 1 000/. 
per annum, that lies within the county of Coven- 
try, be entitled to vote at an election for the 

The magistrates never avail themselves of this privilege, 
as the judges in the Midland circuit regularly preside at the 
assizet, and are paid by the sheriffs. Ed. 



COVENTRY. 193 

county of IVarwick, so that the land-owners of 
the county of the city of Coventry may truly, be 
said not to be represented in parlement. 

A trial of this particular was made in the ge- 
neral election of 1774, and claims to vote for the 
county of IVarwick upon freehold in two parishes 
were given in, which, being in the county of Co- 
ventry, were not admitted. It was therefore re- 
quired to give the votes upon freehold in the 
county of Warwick. The freeholders had not 
been called upon to vote for seventy years, but 
they had it upon record, that lands within the 
county of Coventry were not entitled to vote at an 
election for the county of Warxcick. 

Two parlements have been held in this city, in Parlements 
the great chamber of the priory. The first, in 
1404, by Henry IV. which was stiled Parlia- 
mentum indoctorum ; not that it consisted of a 
greater number of blockheads than parlements or- 
dinarily do, but from its inveteracy against the 
clergy, whose revenues it was determined not to 
spare: whence it was also called the Laymen's 
Parlement. 

The other was held in the chapter-house of the 
priory, in 1459, by Henry VI. and was called 
Parliamentum diabolicum, by reason of the multi- 
tude of attainders passed against Richard Duke 
of York, and his adherents. 

o 



HELD HERE. 



194 COVENTRY. 

Trade, The trade of this city consisted originally in 
the manufacture of cloth, and caps, or bonnets e , 
which arose to a great degree of consequence, as 
early as 1436, and continued till the seventeenth 
century, when it was changed for the worsted bu- 
siness ; and, for a long time, the making and sale 
of shags, camblets, lastings, tammies, 8$c. 8$c. 
proved very extensive and profitable ; but this 
gradually migrated into Leicestershire and North- 
amptonshire ; and at present, only a few articles, 
such as camblets and lastings, constitute the wool- 
len trade f . 

* Anderson's Diet. i. 262. 

f The Editor has been favored by Robert Simson, Esq. with 
the following observations on the present state of the manu- 
factures in the city of Coventry : 

" The manufactory of woollen cloth continued till 1 696, 
" about which period it was nearly lost by the long war be- 
" tween England and France, which destroyed the Turkey 
" trade ; about which time the making of mixt or striped 
" tammies was introduced. The worsted manufactory was af- 

* terwards increased by the making of lastings, camblets, calli- 

* mancoes, and shalloons; but this trade, except shags, has 
w wholly emigrated into Northamptonshire and Yorkshire. 

" Ribands still remain the staple trade. 

" The trade in gauzes speedily declined, and has been for 
" many years discontinued. 

" The manufactory of shags is still important, and has lately 
" been increased by the making of silk shag for the covering 
" of men's hats. In the whole about two hundred looms are 



COVENTRY. 



195 



Blub 
Thread. 



I must remark, that in the beginning, or mid- 
dle, of the sixteenth century, Coventry had a vast 
manufacture of blue thread ; which was lost before 
the year 1581 s . So famous was it for its dye, that 
true as Coventry blue became proverbial. 

About eighty years ago, the silk manufacture Ribands. 
of ribands was introduced here, and, for the first 
thirty years, remained in the hands of a few peo- 
ple, who acquired vast fortunes ; since which, it 
has extended to a great degree, and is supposed 
to employ at lest ten thousand people ; it has like- 
wise spread into the neighboring towns, such as 
Nuneaton, and other places. Such real good re- 
sults from our little vanities ! 

There are about a dozen traders in Coventry, 
who have houses in London ; to which they send 



' employed, which gives a further employment to about a 
thousand persons. 

" The manufactory of watches was introduced about the 
year 1770 ; within the last twenty years it has increased 
rapidly, and is yet in a progressive. state; it employs about 
seven hundred persons. 

" About the year 1793 a manufactory of calicoes was esta- 
blished, which upon an average makes about five hundred 
pieces per week. 

" A fancy -net trimming manufacture employs a considerable 
number of hands, and is in a progressive and flourishing 
condition." Ed. 



2 Anderson's Diet. i. 422. 



o 2 



196 COVENTRY. 

up weekly great quantities of ribands ; and, before 
our unhappy breach with America, a very exten- 
sive trade was carried on with the colonies : but 
the home-consumption has been always reckoned 
most material. A few ribands are exported to 
Spain, Portugal, and Russia; but the French un- 
dersell us at those markets. 

Within these few years, four or five houses 
have begun to introduce the making of gauzes ; 
and for that purpose chiefly, employ hands from 
Scotland. This branch is at present in its infancy. 
A manufacture of broad silks was likewise set up, 
which, I am sorry to find, does not go on with the 
expected success. 

The military transactions of this city are very 
few. It was an open town for many centuries, 
and, of course, incapable of sustaining a siege. 
Walls. The walls were not begun till the year 1355, and 
then by virtue of a licence granted by Edward III. 
twenty-seven years before ; nor were they finished 
in less than forty. They were built with money 
raised by taxes, and by customs on the wine, 
malt, oxen, hogs, calves, and sheep, consumed in 
Coventry. These walls were of great strength 
and grandeur, furnished with thirty-two towers 
and twelve gates ; they continued till the 22d of 
July 1 66 1 , when great part of the wall, and most 
of the towers, and many of the gates, were pulled 



COVENTRY. 197 

down, with certain circumstances of disgrace, as 
a punishment for the disloyalty of the inhabitants, 
for refusing admission to their monarch Charles I. 
on the 13th of August 1642. His majesty, after 
setting up his standard at Nottingham, had sent 
to this city, to acquaint them that he meant to re- 
side there for some time, and desired quarters for 
his forces in and about the place. The mayor and 
aldermen, with many expressions of affection, of- 
fered to receive the king, but refused admittance 
to any of the soldiery. Incensed at this, his ma- 
jesty attacked the city, and with his ordnance ClTY AT - 

TACKED BY 

forced open one of the gates ; but was repulsed Charles I. 
by the valour of the citizens, and obliged to retire 
with loss \ In the following month Coventry was 
regularly garrisoned by the parlement 1 , and re- 
mained in its possession during the whole war. 

I should have mentioned before, that in the 
fifteenth century another monarch had been de- 
nied the possession of this city. The great Earl 
of Warwick armed it against Edward IV. in 1470, 
when he attempted entering on the side of Gosford 
Green. The king amply repaid the insult on the 
citizens, who perhaps acted by constraint. He 
deprived them of their privileges, and made them 
pay five hundred marks for their recovery, by hav- 
ing the sword restored to them. 

h Vicar's Parliament. Chron. 14-1. ! Whitelock, 63. 



198 



COVENTRY CASTLE. 



Castle. Before the building of the walls, there had 
been, from very early times, a castle on the south 
side of the town, near Chylesmore, with a park 
belonging to it. This had been the residence of 
the kings and earls of Mercia : it afterwards fell 
to the earls of Chester, and at length was vested 
in the royal line. No vestige of it is now to be 
seen : in its place is a very antient wooden build- 
ing, the remains of the manor-house of Chyles- 
more, probably built after the demolition of the 
castle. It was of Saxon origin, and was bestowed 
by the Conqueror on Robert de Marmion, the 
same to whom he had granted Tamxvorth and its 
dependencies. 

King Stephen forcibly took this fortress from 
Handle de Gernons Earl of Chester. The earl, in 
1146, attempted to reduce it, not by siege, but 
by erecting a fort near it, in order to distress 
the garrison, by cutting off supplies. The king 
twice attempted its relief; the first time with- 
out success, but in the second action he de- 
feated the earl, forced him to fly, covered with 
w r ounds, and then demolished the castle \ There 
was a great enmity between Robert, son of the 
first Robert Marmion, and Randle de Gernons, 
and he determined to dispossess the earl of his 
castle in the year 1 142 ; it being at that time the 

k Leicester's Cheshire ex gestis Stephani, 124. 



Demo- 
lished. 



COVENTRY. 

place of his residence. Marmion seized on the 
priory and fortified it, after expelling the monks. 
He then sunk pit-falls in the adjacent fields, 
and covered them lightly with earth, in order to 
entrap any who attempted to approach him. But 
seeing the earl's forces drawing near, he went 
out to reconnoitre, and was caught in his own 
snares; for falling into one he broke his thigh, 
and was seized by a common soldier, who in- 
stantly cut off his head \ 

1 shall take notice of the ecclesiastical his- 
tory, churches, remains of religious houses, and 
the public buildings, in the course of my walk 
through the city, in which I was accompanied by 
the Reverend Doctor Edwards ; whose hospitality 
and politeness I have more than once had occasion 
to experience. 

Coventry is seated on ground gently sloping on City 

. , .' , , ~ Tr . DESCRIBED. 

most sides : its length, from JtiiUstreet-gate to 
Gosford-gate, is about three quarters of a mile, 
exclusive of the suburbs. The streets in general 
are narrow, and composed of very antient build- 
ings, the stories of which, in some, impend one 
over the other in such a manner, as nearly to meet 
at top, and exclude the sight of the sky. By the 
appearance of the whole, it is very evident that it 

1 Dugdale's Warwickshire, ii. p. 1 1 32. 



200 COVENTRY. 

never underwent the calamity of fire ; which, de- 
precated as it pught to be, is usually the cause of 
future improvement. 
Numbers. The number of inhabitants, taken at different 
periods, in the last two hundred years, is very dif- 
ferent. Before 1549, they were found to have 
been 15,000; but on that violent convulsion, the 
Dissolution, trade grew so low, and occasioned 
such a dispersion of people from this city, as to 
reduce them to 3,000. To remedy this evil, Ed- 
ward VI. granted the city a charter for an addi- 
tional fair. To this cause perhaps was owing 
the increase, by the year 1586, to 6,502. In 
1644, when the inhabitants were numbered, from 
the apprehension of a siege, they were found to 
amount to 9,500 m . By Bradford's Survey n of' 
Coventry, made in 1748 and 1749, there appears 
to have been 2,065 houses, and 12,1 17 people. 
The accounts of the present population vary from 
20,000 to 30,000 ; but, from my enquiries, the 
middle sum between both may come nearest the 
truth . 

m Dugdale, I 146, 150, 152. 

n Published by Jefferys, in 1750. 

On a survey made in 1694, the population of Coventry 
amounted to 6,710 souls. The present numbers are about 
25,000 ; the returns made to government under the recent act, 
stating them at 16034, are glaringly incorrect. When an al- 



COVENTRY. 201 

The city is watered by the Radford and the 
Sherburn brooks, which, from N. and S. meet 
within the walls, and, after a short current, bound 
the north-eastern parts without the walls. 

We began our progress from the Chester road, , Sponne 

. r & . Hospital, 

on the western side of the city, at the reliques of for Lepers. 
Sponne hospital, consisting of the chapel and gate- 
way. It was founded for the lepers which hap- 
pened to be in Coventry, by Hugh Ceveilioc Earl 
of Chester, out of affection to William de Auney, a 
knight of his houshold, afflicted with the leprosy. 
Here was also a priest, to pray both for the living 
and the dead ; also certain brethren and sisters, 
to pray, with the lepers, for the good estate of all 
their benefactors. This hospital is said once to 
have belonged to the abbey of Basingwerk, in 
Flintshire ; but at length was appropriated to the 
monks of Coventry, from whom it passed to the 
crown, in the time of Edward IV ; who gave it 
to the canons of Studley, in order to obtain their 
prayers for him, and all his connections. 

That loathsome disorder, which gave rise tOLEPRosY,rrs 
this, and numbers of other similar foundations, ^SJi^^f 

7 " INXjNGLAND. 

was introduced into England in the reign of 
Henry I. and was supposed to have been brought 

lowance of bread, meat, and beer, was distributed to as many 
of the inhabitants as chose to accept it, on the occasion of the 
Jubilee 1809, there were fourteen thousand applicants. Ed. 



202 CHURCH OF ST. JOHN. 

out of Egypt, or perhaps the east, by means of 
the crusades. To add to the horror, it was con- 
tagious ; which enhanced the charity of a provision 
for such miserables, who were not only naturally 
shunned, but even chaced, by royal edict, from the 
society of their fellow-creatures p . All the lesser 
Lazar houses in England were subject to the rich 
house at Burton, in Leicestershire ; which again 
was subject to that in Jerusalem q . They were 
usually dedicated to St. Lazarus, from whom they 
derived their name. 
Sponne j^ little farther is the entrance into the city; 
within my memory under a venerable and magni- 
ficent gate, called Sponne Gate; demolished in 
1771, in order to give admittance to the enormous 
waggons, loaden beyond the height of arches erect- 
ed when war was our chief trade. 

Church of Immediately within the walls, on the left, 
St. John. 

stands the church of St. John, a very handsome 

building, with a neat but not lofty tower, placed 
in the centre : the inside is in form of a cross, in- 
tersected by a short transept : the windows high, 
and forming a long range, with very narrow divi- 
sions. This church was originally a chapel to the 
merchants gild, the most antient in Coventry, li- 

v Edward III. drove from London all the lepers, except 
fourteen, who clamed admittance into St. Giles's hospital. 
* Tanner, 239. 



CHURCH OF ST. JOHN. 203 

censed by Edward III. in 1340, for a fraternity 
of brethren and sisters, with a warden, or master, 
to be elected out of the body, who might make 
chauntries, bestow alms, and do other works of 
piety ; constitute ordinances, and purchase lands 
to the value of .20 a year, within the liberty of 
the city, for founding a chauntry of six priests, to 
sing mass every day in the churches of the holy 
Trinity and St. Michael, for the soul of king Ed- 
ward, queen Philippa, their children, and for the 
souls of the gild, and others. Soon after, Isabel, 
queen-mother, assigned the land on this spot, 
then called Bablake, for building a chapel, in 
which masses were to be sung daily for the same 
purposes, which was finished and dedicated in 
1 350. At length, in 1 399, licence was given for 
celebrating divine service here, provided it might 
be done without injury to the mother-church r . 

On the dissolution, its revenues were found to 
be . 1 1 1 1 3s. 8d. which supported a warden and 
eight priests, who had chambers in the precinct, 
a master of a grammar-school, two singing-clerks, 
and two singing-boys, and several poor men, who 
had been brethren of the gild. The church has of 
late years been rebuilt ; made a rectory by act of 

r Dugd. W. i. 188. 



Bablake 
Hospital. 



1204 COVENTRY: BABLAKE HOSPITAL. 

parlement, in 1734, and settled on the master of 
the free-school of Coventry \ 

Behind this church is Bablake hospital, an old 
building, Avith a court in the middle : one part is 
occupied by Bond's alms-houses, founded in 1506, 
by Thomas Bond, mayor of Coventry in 1497, for 
ten poor men and one poor woman, with a priest 
to pray for the soul of the founder, his grandfa- 
ther, father, and all Christian souls. At that time 
the revenues were .49. 11$. Id. In the first 1 of 
Edward Vlth's time, they were vested in the city. 
The revenues being improved, they maintain at 
present eighteen old men and a nurse, each of 
whom has three shillings a week, a black gown, 
and other emoluments. About the year 1619, 
an infernal ambition of becoming chief of the 
house, seized one of the alms-men ; who, to attain 
his end, poisoned eight of his brethren; five of 
whom instantly died. On detection, the wretch 
effected his own destruction by the same method, 
and was buried with the usual marks of infamv. 

J 

Had his fortune flung him into a higher station, his 

deeds would have paralleled him with Cesar Borgia, 

or his more monstrous father, Pope Alexander VI. 

The other part of the building is allotted for 

* Ecton, 93. * Dugd. W. i. IPS. 



COVENTRY : CANAL. 205 

the blue boys : a foundation owing to a very sin- 
gular accident. Mr. Thomas Wheatly, mayor of 
Coventry in 1556, and ironmonger and card-maker 
by trade, sent his servant, Ought on, to Spain, to 
buy some barrels of steel gads ; which he thought 
he did, in open fair. When they were brought 
home and examined, they were found to contain 
cochineal and ingots of silver. Mr. IVheatly 
kept them for a considerable time, in hopes of dis- 
covering the owner ; for his servant did not know 
from whom he bought them. At length he applied 
the profits, as well as much of his own estate, for 
the support of poor children. 

From thence my walk was continued along the Canal. 
west side of the city, to Bishopsgate-street. A little 
without is the head of the great canal, which, pass- 
ing by the neighboring collieries at Hawkesbury, 
is to extend to Brinklow, Hill-Morton, Braunston 
in Northamptonshire, return into Warwickshire, 
and, after passing by Banbury, conclude at Ox- 
ford*. By another branch, likewise begun near 
to Coventry, it is to pass by Atherston and Tam- 
worth, and to unite with the great Staffordshire 

Distances. Coventry to Hill-Morton, 20 1 

Napton Napton Field, 17 15, rise 88 f. 
Claydon, - 8 5 1 

Oxford, - 36 7, fall 204. 



206 COVENTRY: FREE-SCHOOL. 

canal on Fradley heath, three miles N. E. of Licit- 
Jield % ; which, by means of the Stour Port canal, 
would have become the uniting spot of the com- 
merce of the Thames, the Severn, and the Trent, 
had Britain flourished in the manner it did when 
these vast designs were undertaken, in the full in- 
toxication of its prosperity. At present it is only 
finished as far as Atherston y . 
Free At the lower end of this street is the free- 

OCHOOL, 

once St. school, dedicated to St. John Baptist : it sprung 
Hospital, out of an hospital, founded in the beginning of the 
reign of Henry II. by Laurence, prior of Coven- 
try, and his convent, at the request of Edmund, 
archdeacon of Coventry, for the reception of the 
sick and needy. At the dissolution, John Hales, 
clerk of the hanaper in the time of Henry VIII. 
a gentleman who had a large share in the plunder 
of the church, and having neither wife nor child, 

x Distances. Staffordshire canal to Atherston, 21 0, rise 95. 

Coventry, 14 4 
Branches to coal mines, 14 

y These great undertakings are now completed ; the former 
is distinguished by the name of the Oxford, the latter by that 
of the Coventry canal. Near Braunston the Oxford unites with 
the Grand Junction canal, which forms a more ready commu- 
nication with the Tliames, and serves to supply the metropolis 
with coal from the central parts of the kingdom. The shares 
in the Coventry canal, originally of one handred pounds, now 
sell for eight hundred guineas. Ed. 



COVENTRY: FREE-SCHOOL. 207 

converted this foundation, which he had purchased 
at a very cheap rate, into a free-school, and en- 
dowed it with CC marks a year in land. At first, 
the boys were instructed in the church of the 
White Friars ; but the magistrates finding that 
Mr. Hales had bought the lands but not the 
church, took advantage of the flaw, removed the 
scholars to the present place, and pulled down 
the church 2 . The chapel, now reduced to one 
aile, is the present school ; and the master resides 
in the house belonging to the antient master of the 
hospital. The school has also a library belonging 
to it. Mr. Hales died in 1572 : his fortunes, 
which chiefly lay in Warwickshire, devolved to 
John, son of his eldest brother Christopher, who 
made his residence at Hales Place, the antient 
house of the White Friars in this city, and in 
1660 was dignified by Charles II. with the title 
of Baronet. 

Pass by Cookstreet Gate, on the outside of the 
city, and a little further, by the Three Virgins, or 
Priory Gate, between which there is a complete 
part of the wall. On the outside was a paved 
road, in imitation of the military way from turret 
to turret on the famed wall of Severus * : and be- 
sides, here were four other similar roads, which 
went a mile each way from the city. 

* Dugd. W. i. 170, 130. a Tour Scot!, vol. iii. 288. 



208 COVENTRY: PRIORY. 

At a small distance without the Priory Gate, 
is Stvanszvell Pool, which works the wheel that 
supplies a part of the city with water. This did 
belong to the priory, but was at the dissolution 
purchased by the corporation from the crown b . 
Priort. From hence I returned to the priory, seated 
on the south side of the brook Sherburn. What 
bears that name is an uninhabited house c , of much 
later date than that monastery ; but built on some 
part of the site of this great foundation. 

About the year 1043, earl Leojric and his fair 
countess more than repaired the loss in 1016, in 
the destruction of the famous Sazo?i nunnery, by 
founding in its stead a magnificent monastery. 
They placed here an abbot and twenty-four monks 
of the Benedictine order ; enriched the very walls 
and the church with massy gold and silver, and 
endowed it with half the town and twenty-four 
manors. All this they did with the advice of king 
Edward the Confessor and the reigning pope, and 
dedicated the church to the honor of God and his 
blessed mother, St. Peter, St. Osburg, and all 
saints. The pious founders were buried, accord- 
ing to the custom of the times, in the porches ; for 
the distasteful custom of church interment did not 
prevale till long after. 

b Dugd. W. i. 14-6. c It is now occupied. En. 



COVENTRY: PRIORY. 209 

The first abbot was Leofrin ; but that dignity 
was of short duration, for, on the removal of the 
see of Lichfield to this place, in 1095, by Robert 
de Limisie, the office was suppressed, the bishop 
being in such cases always esteemed supreme of 
the house d in his stead; a prior was appointed, 
but without derogating from the honor of the 
house ; for the priors were barons in parlement as 
well as the preceding abbots, and the place a 
mitred abbey. This first prelate was more at- 
tracted by the wealth of the house than by any 
spiritual call ; for he at once scraped from a single 
beam five hundred marks worth of silver, in order 
to carry on the intrigue at Rome against the poor 
monks. He reduced them to such short com- 
mons, that he depressed their spirits, discouraged 
all sorts of knowlege among them, and, in short, 
rendered them too dejected to think of obtaining 
any redress. 

This was a prelude to greater misfortunes. In 
the latter end of the following century, Hugh No- 
vani, a Norman, became bishop. He soon quar- 
relled with the monks ; who, in a synod held be- 
fore the high altar, doubtless on some high pro- 
vocation, broke his head with the holy cross. 

Tantsene animis coelestibus irae ! 

* Willis's Abbeys, i. 70. 
P 



410 COVENTRY: PRIORY. 

This enraged the proud prelate (as he was called 
by those meek monks) to lay his complaint against 
them at Rome. The pope attended to it, expelled 
the antient inhabitants, and placed in their room 
a set of secular canons. The monks, now driven 
into the wild world, had only the satisfaction of 
seeing their persecutor struck with deep remorse ; 
for, in 1198, lying on his death-bed, in the abbey 
of Bee in Normandy, he was seized with fierce 
horrors at his conduct towards those holy men ; 
implored forgiveness, and desired their interces- 
sion with the Almighty in his behalf. He re- 
quested to be buried in the habit of the order, 
that he might receive the benefit of its protection 
in the other world, and finally consigned himself 
to purgatory, ibi in diem judicii cruciandus. 

Luckily at the time of this event, Thomas, a 
monk of Coventry, happened to be at Rome soli- 
citing the cause of his brethren : but Innocent III. 
(then pope) was so enraged by his importunities, 
as to order him to withdraw. The poor monk, 
with tears, replied, Another pope will come, to 

* whom I shall not sue in vain. I therefore will 

* patiently wait your death, as I have that of your 
' two predecessors.' " Here is a devil of a fel- 
" low" (says his Holiness, in high wrath, to his 
attendants) "by St. Peter! he shall not wait 
" for my death ; so I will not put him off any 



COVENTRY: PRIORY, 211 

** longer, but make out the purpose of his petition 
" before I put a morsel more into my mouth V 

This troublesome affair ended, they were re- 
placed with double advantage; their privileges, 
as if by way of atonement for their short suffer- 
ings, increased beyond all reason ; for in the time 
of Edward III. they obtained, that they and their 
tenants, except those who held by knight service 
more than half a knight's fee, should be quit of 
murder, robbery, suit to the county or hundred 
courts, aid to the sheriffs, view of frankpledge, 
and repair of the king's castles or pools f . Reign 
after reign they received fresh emoluments; so 
that in the end they became possessed of revenues 
to the amount of ,75\. 19s. 5d., or, after re- 
prises, A99. 7s. 4</. g 

Among the sacred furniture was an image of 
the Virgin Mary, adorned with a chain of gold 
enriched with gems, bestowed by the Countesa 
Godeoa on her death-bed : to which the devotees 
were to say as many prayers as there were in it 
precious stones. 

And besides this, an arm of St. Augustine of 
Hippo, which Agelnethus, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, in 1020, bought at Rome from the pope, for 

e Dugdale, W. i. 161. . f Dugdale, i. 161. 

s Tanner, 567. 

P 2 



212 COVENTRY: PRIORY. 

the small sum of C talents of silver, and one of 
gold \ 

But even this arm had not power to ward off 
the blow given by the more irresistible one of 
Henry VIII ; who, not content with the expul- 
sion of its inhabitants, and seizure of the revenues, 
directed this noble pile to be levelled with the 
ground ; which he did, notwithstanding the earnest 
prayers of its bishop, Rowland Lee, one of his 
most servile tools. A deed equally wanton and 
impious ! 

The loss is the more to be regretted, as this 
cathedral is supposed to have been built on the 
model of that of Lichfield, and to have been equally 
beautiful. Nothing remains except a fragment, 
constituting part of a private house, to be seen 
with difficulty, and after some search. The pa- 
lace stood between the priory and St. MichaeVs, 
and was sold in 1 65 1 , for its materials, to Natha- 
niel Lacy and Obadiah Chambers, for the sum of 
one hundred guineas. The last prior, Thomas 
Camsel, in 1538, was prevaled on to make a sur- 
render of the house, either through fear of death 
for withstanding the tyrant's pleasure, or through 
lucre of 'pension ; for he had not less than 

h Dugdak W. i. 158. Goodwin, 78. 



COVENTRY: S T - MICHAEL'S CHURCH. 213 

-.133. 6s. Sd. annuity, besides other allowances 
to the monks f . The site was then granted to 
John Combes and Richard Stansjield, after flou- 
rishing under monastic government above five 
hundred years. 

When the cathedral was standing, Coventry 
possessed a matchless group of churches, all within 
one ccemetery. St. Michael's at present is a spe- St. Mr- 
cimen of the most beautiful steeple in Europe : a Church. 
tower enriched with saintly figures on the sides ; 
an octagon rising out of it, and that lengthened 
into a most elegant spire. Every part is so finely 
proportioned, that it is no wonder Sir Christopher 
Wren spoke of it as a masterpiece of architecture. 
The outside is extremely handsome; the inside 
light and lofty, consisting of a body and two ailes, 
divided by four rows of high and airy pillars and 
arches. The height of the steeple and length of 
the church are the same, three hundred and three 
feet ; the width of the latter a hundred and four. 

In king Stephens time, this church was a chapel 
to the monks; it became afterwards a vicarage, 
and on the dissolution fell to the gift of the crown. 
This, Trinity, and St. Johns, form the parishes of 
this great city ; so numerous are the dissenters. 

Its beautiful steeple was begun in the reign of 

* Stevens, i. 223. Willis's Abbeys, i. 72. 



214 COVENTRY: TRINITY CHURCH. 

Edward III. in 1372, by two brothers, Adam 
and William Botener, at their own charges, which 
amounted annually to one hundred pounds ; nor 
was it finished in less than twenty years. By the 
stile of architecture, I agree with Sir William Dug- 
dale, that the present body was built in the reign 
of Henry VI. Some ornament was also added 
to the steeple at the same time. Coventry seems 
to have been particularly favored by Henry, or, 
to speak more properly of that meek prince, by 
the heroine Margaret ; for this city used to be 
stiled the secret harbour of that queen. 
Trinity Trinity church, and its spire, would be spoken 
of as a most beautiful building, was it not eclipsed 
by its unfortunate vicinity to St. Michael's. With- 
in are two epitaphs, which I give for their singu- 
larity. One is on Philemon Holland, the famous 
translator. He was schoolmaster and physician 
in the city. A wag made this distich on one of 
his labors : 

Philemon with translations doth so fill us, 
He will not let Suetonius be Tranquillus. 

He was called translator-general of his age; 
acquired much credit by his fidelity, but none 
greater than by his translation of Camden, in that 
great antiquarian's life-time, and by his consent; 
to whose work he made considerable additions. 



COVENTRY: CHURCHES. 215 

He wrote a great folio with one pen, and, as 
he tells us, did not wear it out : 

With one sole pen I writ this book, 

Made of a grey goose quill : 
A pen it was when it I took ; 

A pen I leave it still k . 

At length (if I may be allowed to pun with 
Fuller) death translated this translator to the 
other world, in 1636, at the good old age of 
eighty-five ; leaving behind this epitaph of his own 
composition : 

Nemo habet hie, nemo' ? hospes salveto, Philemon 
Holland hac recubat rite repostus lmrao : 
Si quairas ratio quasnam sit nominis, haec est, 
Totus terra fui, terraque totus ero : 
At redivivus morte tua servabor, Iesu, 
Una fides votis, haec est via sola salutis. 
Hac spe fretus ego, culpa poenaque solutus 
Jamque renatus, et inde novo conspectus amictu, 
Coetu in sanctorum post redimitus ero. 
Claudicat incessu senior mea musa, videsne ? 
Claudatur capulo mecum simul ipsa, valeto. 

Valedictio 
Ad liberos et nepotes superstites. 
Dantque omnes una. dudum de stirpe creati 
Henrice ah ! septem de fratribus une superstes 
Orphanici patris Oulielmi nuper adempti 
Et mihi (bis puero) nutricis Anna, Maria 
Cumque tuis angelis Elizabeta ; valete l . 

k Fuller's Worthies, 127, 128. ' Copied from Dugdale. 



216 COVENTRY CROSS. 

The other, which is in St. MichaeVs church, 
commemorates a Captain Gervas Scrope, written, 
as the proem tells you, in the agony and dolorous 
pains of the gout, soon before his death. 

Here lies an old tennis-ball, 
Was racketted from spring to fall, 
With so much heat and so much haste, 
Time's arm for shame grew tir'd at last. 
Four kings in camps he truly serv'd, 
And from his loyalty ne'er swerv'd. 
Father ruin'd, the son slighted, 
And from the crown ne'er recruited. 
Loss of estate, relations, blood, 
Was too well known, but did no good. 
With long campaigns, and pains of gout, 
He could no longer hold it out. 
Always a restless life he led ; 
Never at quiet till quite dead. 
He married, in his latter days, 
One who exceeds the common pAise ; * 
But wanting breath still to make known 
Her true affection and his own, 
Death timely came, all wants supply'd, 
By giving rest, which life deny'd. 

On leaving these churches, I surveyed with 
indignation, such as antiquaries experience, the 
Cross, site of the elegant and antient cross, till of late 
years such an ornament to the city. I am not 
furnished with an apology for the corporation who 
destroyed this beautiful building; so must leave 



COVENTRY: SAINT MARY HALL. 217 

it doubtful, whether the gothic resolution was the 
result of want of money, or want of taste. In 
169,9, the city paid it such respect, as to expend 
t&33 4*. 6d. in its repair 1 ". 

It was built, or rather begun, in 1541, to re- 
place another cross, taken down some years be- 
fore. The founder was Sir William Hollies, lord 
mayor of London, and son of Thomas Hollies, of 
Stoke near this city, who left by his will two hun- 
dred pounds towards the design. The base was 
hexangular, finely ornamented with gothic sculp- 
ture ; above, rose three stories of most light and 
elegant tabernacle-work, lessening to the summit. 
In the niches were saints and English monarchs, 
from Henry II. to Henry V. and around each 
story a variety of pretty figures with flags, with the 
arms of England or the rose of Lancaster ex- 
pressed on them : and on the summit of the up- 
permost plate Justice, and other gracious attri- 
butes. 

A little south of St. Michaels, stands St. St. Mart 

Hall. 
Mary Hall, at present used for corporation-as- 
semblies. This place was built in the beginning 
of the reign of Henry VI : a venerable pile, whose 
entrance is beneath a large gateway, over which 
are the figures of a king and queen sitting ; pro- 

n Dugdale W. i. 146. 



218 COVENTRY: SAINT MARY HALL. 

bably Henry and his consort Margaret. Within 
this building is a fine old room : in the upper end 
is a noble semicircular window, divided into nine 
parts, elegantly painted with figures of several of 
our monarchs, with coats of arms and ornaments, 
but now very imperfect : those in the windows on 
the one side are lost ; several of those on the other 
are entire, and were designed to represent some 
of our great nobility, who had honored this hall 
with their presence as brothers and sisters of the 
gild, for whose use this hall was founded. This 
had been the gild of St. Katherine, established by 
certain citizens of Coventry, in 1343, by licence 
of Edward III ; after which it was united to those 
of the Holy Trinity, Our Lady, and St. John the 
Baptist. 

The illustrious personages represented here, 
are William Beauchamp, lord of Abergavenny, 
and fourth son to Thomas Earl of Warwick ; and 
by him is his countess Joan, daughter of Richard 
Earl of Arundel. 

Richard Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, and his 
second wife Isabella, daughter of Thomas Lord 
D'Espencer ; Humphry Earl of Stafford, with a 
battle-ax in his hand ; and one of the John Mow- 
brays Dukes of Norfolk. All those great men 
are dressed with the magnificence and luxury of 
the east, in long robes lined with ermine, and with 



VERSES IN SAINT MARY HALL. 219 

large and singular hoods. These were the gar- 
ments of peace, when they passed the festive day 
in honor of their fraternity. 

Along the walls are ranged a number of Latin 
verses, with a sort of Sternhold translation oppo- 
site. I shall only give the latter, as Doctor 
Stukely has already preserved the former in his 
Itinerary. 

Edward the floure of chivalre, whilesome the Black Prynce hyghte, 
Who prisoner tooke the French king John, in claime of grandames 

right ; 
And slew the kyng of Brame in field, whereby the ostrich penn 
He won, and ware on crest here first; which poesie bare Ich Dien. 
Amid their martial feats of arms, wherein he had no peere, 
His countie eke to shew this seate he chose and lov'd full deer. 
The former state he gat confirmed, and freedom did encrease ; 
A president of knyghthood rare, as well for warre as peace. 

Since time that first this antient town Earl Leqfrike feoffed free, 
At Godines suite and merit strange, or else it could not bee. 
In princes grace by long descent, as old recordes do date, 
It stood manteind, until at length it grew to cities state. 
Quene Isabel, sole heire of Frannce, great favor hither caste, 
And did procure large fraunchises by charter ay to last. 
We owe, therefore, in loialtie our selves, and all wee have, 
To Elizabeth, our ladie liege ; whom God in mercy save. 

When florishing state gan once to fade, and commonwealth decay, 
No wonder that in cities great ; for what endureth aye ? 
John, late Duke of Northumberland", a prince of high degree, 
Did graunt faire lands for commons weale, as here in brass you see. 

n John Dudley, beheaded in 1553: a character as wicked 
as that of his son. 



220 



COVENTRY: GREY FRIARS. 



Drapiers 
Hall. 



Grey 
Friars. 



And Leicester mid thos great affairs, whereto high place doth call. 
His father's worthy steps hath traced to prop, that his might fall 
On forth in prince and countrie's cause hold forth this course your 

days: 
Such deeds do noble bloud commend, such bring mortal praise. 

In the apartments of this building are held the 
balls and assemblies of the city. In one of the 
drawing-rooms is to be seen, in high preservation, 
a piece of antiquity equally delicate and curious ; 
an unique, which Coventry alone has the happi- 
ness of possessing. Here it is known by the name 
of The Lady's Spoon, but is doubtless no other 
than the Scaphium of the antients, described by 
Ccelius Rhodiginus and Pancirollus, Rerum me- 
morabil. deperd." 

The front of the Drapiers Hall is very elegant, 
ornamented with Tuscan pilasters, and does much 
credit to the city. It was lately rebuilt on the 
site of the antient hall, founded by certain dra- 
piers, whose names have long since perished. 

From hence we crossed the city to the Grey 
Friars, which stood on the south side. This order 
arrived in Coventry before the year 1234, when they 
had only an oratory, which was covered with shin- 



As quoted by the learned author of The Dialogue on De- 
cency, &c. &c. 40, 41. I greatly lament that the citizens of 
Coventry, mistaking my panegyric for ridicule, have destroyed 
this matchless morsel. 



CORPUS CHRISTI PLAYS. 221 

gles from Kenelworth wood, by an order of Henry 
III. to the sheriff of JVarzvickshire. Both the house 
and church, of an order devoted to poverty, were 
built by pious alms, on a spot of ground bestowed 
on them by the last Randle Earl of Chester, out 
of his neighboring manor of Cheylesmor. The 
church seems not to have been built till the time 
of Edward III. when the Black Prince permitted 
the friars to take stone out of his park of Cheyles- 
mor for that purpose. A beautiful steeple, with 
a spire springing from an octagon, is all that re- 
mains of this church. Dugdale supposes the 
Hastings to have been great benefactors ; for 
numbers of them were interred here, in a chapel 
of their name, and many in the habit of the order, 
from a superstition of the respect the Evil Spirit 
would pay to it on the last day. 

These friars were celebrated for their annual Corpus 

. . ' .'ii r-ii Christi 

exhibitions of the mysteries called Corpus Christi Plays. 
plays, which they performed on that day, to their 
great emolument, before crowds of spectators, who 
resorted hither at that season from all parts. Like 
Thespis of old, they are recorded 

Plaustris vexisse poemata, 



and to have gone to the most advantageous parts 
of the city, with portable theatres drawn on wheeled 
carriages, from which they exhibited their page- 



222 CORPUS CHRISTI PLAYS. 

ants, which amounted to forty. The subjects are 
announced in a sort of prologue, by a person 
called Ve,viliator, who probably carried a flag 
painted with the subject of the day, and at the 
same time gave out to the crowd the history it 
was to expect. The history is taken up at the 
creation, and ends with the last day. I have said 
much of these religious dramata in my JVelsh 
Tour p , therefore will not pester the reader at pre- 
sent with more than Eve's rhetoric, after being 
tempted by the serpent, to persuade poor Adam 
to taste of the forbidden fruit. 

My semely spouse and good husbond, 

Lystenyth to me ser, I zow pray ; 
Take yis fayr appyl all in zow hond, 

Yerof a mursel byte & asay 
To ete this appyl loke that ze fond 

Goddys felaw to be alvvay ; 
All his wisdom to undyrstonde, 

And Goddys per to be for ay. 
All thyng for to make, 

Both fysch & foule, se & sond, 

Byrd & best, watyr & lond, 

Yis appyl you take out of myn hond 
A bete herof you take % 

Henry VIII. put an end to the performances 
of these poor friars, who had the honor of falling 

f Tour 1773, p. 137. 8vo. ed. 1810. i. p. 185. 
* Stevens, i. 145, &c. 



COVENTRY: GREY FRIARS. 223 

with the greater monasteries ; having escaped the 
wreck of the lesser, because they had nothing 
worth seizing to gratify his rapacious court. But 
the king, not content with their ruin, added to it 
the mortifying obligation of making their surrender 
on the 5th of October 1538, and to sign it with 
their names and common seal. The instrument 
is curious, and worthy perusal. 

" For as moche as we the wardens and freers 
" of the house of Saynt Frances in Coventre, 
" commonly callyd the Grey Freers in Coventre, 
" in the county of Warwick, doo profoundly con- 
" sider, that the perfection of Christian livynge 
" dothe not consist in dume ceremonies, werynge 
" of a grey coot, disgeasinge our selfe aftur 
" straunge fassions, do kynge, noddynge, and 
" beckyng, in guyrdyng our selves wythe a gurdle 
*' fulle of knotts, & other like papisticall ceremo- 
" nies, wherein we have ben mooste principally 
" practised and mislyd in tymes paste ; but the 
" very true waye to plese God, and to live a tru 
" Christian inon, wytheout all ypocrisie and fayned 
" diseimulation, is sinceerly declared unto us by 
" our Mr. Christ e, his evangelists and apostles ; 
" being myndyd hereafter to followe the same, 
w conformynge our self unto the will and plesure 



224 F COVENTRY: GREY FRIARS. 

" of our supreme hedde under God in erthe, the 
" kynges majestie, and not to folowe henseforth 
" the superstitious traditions of any forinsecall 
" potentate or peere ; wythe mutuall assent and 
H consent do surrendre and yelde up into the 
" hondes of the same, all our seide house of Saynt 
" Frances, in the cite of Coventre, commonly 
" callyd the Grey Freers in Coventre, wythe also 
" the londs, tenements, gardens, medows, waters, 
" pondiards, fedings, pastures, comens, rents, re- 
" versions, & alle other our interest, ryghtes, or 
" titles appertaining unto the same ; mooste hum- 
" bly beseechinge his mooste noble grace to dis- 
" pose of us, and of the same, as beste shall stonde 
" wythe his mooste gracious pleasure. And fur- 
" ther, frely to graunte unto every on of us his li- 
" cense under wretyng & seealle, to chaunge our 
" habits into secular fashion, and to receive suche 
" maner of livinges as other secular priests com- 
" monly be preferred unto. And we all faithfully 
" shall pray unto Almighty God long to preserve 
" his mooste noble grace wythe increase of moche 
" felicite and honour. And in witnes of alle and 
" singular the premisses, we the seide warden and 
" covent of the Grey Freers in Coventre to thes 
" presences have putte our covent seealle, the 
" fivithe day of October, in the thertythe yert of 



COVENTRY : GREY FRIARS. 225 

" the raynge of our mooste soveraynge lord king 
" Henry the eyghte. 

" Per me Johannem Stafford, Guardian, 

" Per me Thomas Mailer, 

" Per me Thomas Sanderson, 

" Per me Johannem A bell, 

" Per me Johannem Wood, 

" Per me Rogerum Lilly, 

" Per me Thomam Aukock, 

" Per me Matheum Walker, 

" Per me Robartum Walker, 

" Per me Thomam Bangsit, 

" Per me Willielmum Gosnelle." 

Which said house, or site, was in the thirty-fourth 
of Henry VIII. granted by the king (inter alia) 
to the mayor, bailiffs, and commonalty of this 
city, and their successors for ever. 

Not far from the friary is a fine gate, called 
The Grey Friars Gate, the most beautiful of any 
left standing r . 

A little further to the east is Cheleysmor, 
where is still to be seen part of the manor-house ; 
a wooden building, with a gateway beneath. This, 
or some other on the site of it, had been the resi- 
dence of the lords of the place, and of the kings 

r This elegant gate was taken down in 1781. Ed. 



226 COVENTRY: WHITE FRIARS. 

and earls of Mercia ; after that, of the earls of 
Chester ; and finally, it fell to the crown, when 
that earldom was resumed : which, with the park, 
about three miles in circumference, belongs to the 
Prince of Wales as Earl of Chester *. The castle 
stood not remote from the manor-house. 

From hence we proceeded to the Carmelites, 
or White Friars ; whose house stands at the east 
end of the city : another order devoted to poverty, 
who lived on charity both from the living and the 
dead ; for they often received legacies, supposed 
expiations for sins. Their house was built about 
the year 1342, by Sir John Poultney, four times 
lord mayor of London; a gentleman deservedly 
celebrated for his pious munificence'. At the 
dissolution it was granted to Sir Ralph Sadler. 
It was afterwards sold to John Hales, who, re- 
siding here, occasioned it to be called Hates' 
Place. 

Hebe are considerable remains of the building: 
part of the arched cloisters, the refectory and dor- 
mitory, and vast vaulted rooms, which served as 
magazines for provisions. A very handsome gate- 
way, with three niches on the front, is still stand- 
ing ; and on an inner gate are three arrows, the 

s The Prince of Wales, under the act for redeeming the 
land-tax, has sold the manor-house and park to the Marquis 
of Hertford: great part of it is now enclosed. Ed. 

x Burton's Leicestershire, 191. 



COVENTRY: COMBUSTIBLE WOMAN. 227 

arms of the Hales. Sir Christopher Hales, Ba- 
ronet, and after him Lady Hales, resided at the 
White Friars many years in the memory of some 
who were lately living : during which time the pre- 
mises were kept in good repair. The mansion- 
house was afterwards sold, and is now filled with 
weavers and Jersey-combers". 

In the course of my walk a chamber was shewn 
to me, in Gosford-street, noted for the melancholy 
end of Mary Clues, in February 1772; who was 
found almost consumed by fire, occasioned by an 
accident of a most uncommon nature. She had 
been confined to her bed by illness, the conse- 
quence of intemperance. The room was floored 
with brick ; the bed furnished with only one cur- 
tain, and that was next to the window. The fire- 
place was on the other side. She was left, the 
evening before the accident, with two small bits 
of coal put quite back in the grate, and a rush- 
light on the chair, by the head of the bed. The 
next morning a great smoke was perceived in the 
room. On bursting open the door some flames 
appeared, which were easily extinguished. The 
remains of the woman lay on the floor, but the 

" White Friars has been purchased by the city of Coventry 
for a house of industry: the exterior of tbe antient part has 
been preserved ; the cloisters are glazed, and fitted up as a 
dining-room for the poor inhabitants. Ed. 

Q 2 



228 REMARKABLE PHiENOMENA. 

furniture of the room was only slightly damaged ; 
the bedstead superficially burnt, but neither sheets, 
feather-bed, or blankets destroyed. 

The solution of this phenomenon is rather ri- 
diculous. Mrs. Clues was excessively addicted 
to dram-drinking : she would drink a quart in a 
day, either of rum or anise-seed water ; and by 
those means, filling her veins with pure spirits, be- 
came as inflammable as a lamp. She tumbled 
out of bed, took fire by the candle, and in about 
two hours was fairly burnt out to her thighs and 
one leg, and nothing left except her bones, com- 
pletely calcined \ 

This is not the only instance. I have read of 
persons being burnt by their own phlogiston , 
natural or acquired. Two Courland noblemen, 
after a drinking-match of spirituous liquors, died 
scorched and suffocated : and the Countess Cor- 
nelia Baudi, of Cesena in Italy y , was found in the 
situation of Mary Clues, but without imputation 
of the guilty origin. Semele was certainly one of 
those combustible ladies; but the gallant Ovid 
has ascribed her fatal end to another cause. 

Corpus mortale tumultus 
Non tulit iEthereos; donisque jugalibus arsit. 

x Philosoph. Trans. LXIV. part i. p. 340. 
y Annual Register, 1763. 



GOSFORD GREEN. 229 

In Gosford-street I took horse to visit Combe 
abbey, the seat of Lord Craven ; passed through 
Gosford-gate, and by a green of the same name, green. 
memorable for the single combat which was to 
have been fought there in September 1398, be- 
tween the Duke of Hereford 2, and the Duke of 
Norfolk, earl marshal \ The former had basely 
betrayed a private conversation, in which he said 
that Mowbray had dropt several expressions of a 
treasonable nature. The accusation was denied, 
and, according to the barbarous usage of the times, 
Moxvbray demanded the privilege of acquitting 
himself by single combat. Each of the dukes, 
agreeable to the laws of chivalry, flung down his 
glove, which was taken up before the king and 
sealed b (I suppose, to prevent any future denial 
of the challenge). The king appointed Coventry 
for the place of combat, and caused for that pur- 
pose a vast and magnificent theatre to be erected 
on this green c . The rival dukes made all requi- 
site preparation, and particularly about the essen- 
tial article armour. Froissart relates the steps 
they took ; which shews the preference which was 
given to foreign armourers. This I shall deliver 
in the words of his noble translator d . 

2 Afterwards Henry IV. a Thomas Mowbray. 

b Polychronicon cccxxiv. c Vita Ricardi II. 145. 

4 Sir John Bourchier, Lord Berners. 



230 GOSFORD GREEN: 

" These two lordes made provision for that was 
" necessarye for them for their battayle. The 
" Earl of Derby e sent his messangers in to Lom- 
" bardy, to the Duke of My Hay n, Sir G a leas, for 
" to have armure at his pleasure. The duke agreed 
" to the erles desyre, and caused the knight that 
" the erle had sent thyder, whose name was 
" Fraunces, to se all the dukes armorye ; and 
" whan the knight had chosen such as he lyked, 
" than the duke furthermore, for love of the erle 
" of Derby, he sent four of the best armourers 
" that were in Lombardy to y e erle into Englande 
" with the knight, to thentent y l tliei shuld arme 
M & make armure accordyng to the erles en- 
" tent. The Erie Marshal, on his part, sent in 
" to Almayn, and in to other places, to provyde 
" him for the journey. The charge of these two 
" lords was greate. But the Erie of Derby was 
" at mooste charge." 

The armour of the great men was uncommonly 
splendid and expensive ; usually inlaid with gold 
and silver, with most elegant devices and patterns. 
That of Francis I. in possession of Mr. JValpole, 
and that of George Earl of Cumberland, at Ap- 
pleby castle, exist as specimens of the great atten- 
tion given to that circumstance. Besides beauty, 

The Duke si Hereford. 



INTENDED COMBAT THERE. 31 

the utmost regard was paid to the essential requi- 
site of its being proof. This was to be the result 
of the skill of the armourer, not of art-magic ; for 
the combatants were to clear themselves by oath, 
from having any commerce with incantations, or 
of renderincr their armour or bodies invulnerable 

o 

by any charm. Let their cause be ever so bad, 
they determined to die like good Christians ; dis- 
avowed all dependence on the power of Satan, 
and supplicated the prayers of the pious specta- 
tors. 

Add proof unto my armour with thy prayers, 
And with thy blessings steel my lance's point f . 

I shall give the consequence of this important 
affair in the very graphical words of honest Ho- 
Ibished, who minutely describes the pomp and ce- 
remony preceding the resolution taken by the un- 
fortunate monarch, which in the end cost him his 
crown and life. 

" At the time appointed, the king came to Co- 
" ventrie, where the two dukes were readie, ac- 
" cording to the order prescribed therein ; com- 
" ming thither in great arraie, accompanied with 
" the lords and gentlemen of their linages. The 
" king caused a sumptuous scaffold, or theater, 

f Shakespeare. Richard II. in a speech of Hereford on this 
occasion. 



232 GOSFORD GREEN: 

and roial listes there to be erected and pre- 
pared. The Sundaie before they should fight, 
after dinner, the duke of Hereford came to the 
king (being lodged about a quarter of a mile 
without the town, in a tower that belonged to 
Sir William Bagot) to take his leave of him. 
The morrow after, being the daie appointed for 
the combat, about the spring of the daie came 
the duke of Norfolke to the court, to take leave 
likewise of the king. The duke of Hereford 
armed him in his tent, that was set up neere to 
the lists ; and the duke of Norfolke put on his 
armor betwixt the gate and the barrier of the 
town, in a beautiful house, having a fair perclois 
of wood towards the gate, that none might see 
what was done within the house. 
" The duke of Aumarle that daie being high 
constable of England, and the duke of Surrie 
marshal, placed themselves betwixt them, well 
armed and appointed. And when they saw their 
time, they first entered into the lists with a great 
company of men, apparelled in silke sendal, im- 
brodered with silver both richlie and curiouslie; 
everie man having a tipped staff, to keep the 
field in order. About the houre of prime came 
to the barriers of the lists the duke of Hereford, 
mounted on a white courser, barded with green 
and blew velvet, imbroidered sumptuously with 



INTENDED COMBAT THERE. 233 

" swans and antelopes of goldsmiths worke, armed 
"'at all points. The constable and marshal came 
" to the barriers, demanding of him what he was? 
" he answered, ' I am Henrie of Lancaster, duke 
" of Hereford, which am come hither to do mine 
" indevor against Thomas Moxvbraie duke of Nor- 
" folke, as a traitor untrue to God, the king, his 
" realme, and me.' Then incontinentlie he sware 
" upon the holie Evangelists, that his quarrel was 
" true & just ; and upon that point he required 
" to enter the lists. Then he puts up his sword, 
" which before he held up naked in his hand, and, 
" putting down his visor, made a cross on his 
" horsse, and with speare in hand entered into the 
" lists, and descended from his horsse, and set 
" him down in a chaire of green velvet, at the one 
" end of the lists, and there reposed himself, 
" abiding the comming of his adversarie. 

" Soone after him entered into the field, with 
" great triumph, King Richard, accompanied with 
" all the peerses of the realme ; and in his com- 
" panie was the earle of Saint Paule, which was 
" come out of France, in post, to see this challenge 
" performed. The king had there above ten thou- 
" sand men in armour, least some fraie or tumult 
" might rise amongst his nobles, by quarrelling or 
" partaking. When the king was set in his seat, 
" which was richly hanged and adorned, a king 



234 GOSFORD GREEN : 

" at arms made open proclamation, prohibiting all 
" men, in the name of the king, and of the high 
" constable and marshal, to enterprise or attempt 
" to approach, or touch any part of the lists, upon 
" pain of death, except such as were appointed to 
" order or marshal the field. The proclamation 
" ended, another herald cried, ' Behold here Hen- 
" rie of Lancaster duke of Hereford, appelant, 
" which is entered into the lists roiall, to do his 
" devoir against Thomas Mozvbraie duke of Nor- 
u folke, defendant, upon paine to be found false & 
" recreant.' 

""The duke of Norfolke hovered on horsseback 
" at the entrie of the lists, his horsse being barded 
" with crimson velvet, imbrodered richlie with 
" lions of silver and mulberie trees ; and when he 
" had made his oth before the constable and inar- 
" shal, that his quarrel was just & true, he en- 
" tered the field manfullie, saieng aloud, ' God, 
" and him that hath the right ;' and then he de- 
" parted from his horsse, & sate him downe in his 
" chaire, which was of crimson velvet, courtined 
" about with white and red damaske. The lord 
" marshall viewed their spears, to see that they 
" were of equall length, and delivered the one 
" speare himself to the Duke of Hereford, and 
" sent the other unto the Duke of Norfolke by a 
" knight ; then the herald proclamed, that the 



INTENDED COMBAT THERE. 235 

traverses & chaires of the champions should be 
removed, commanding them, on the king's be- 
half, to mount on horssebacke, and address 
themselves to the battel and combat g . 
" The duke of Hereford was quicklie horssed, 
and closed his bauier, and cast his speare into 
the rest; and when the trumpet sounded, set 
forward couragiouslie towards his enemie six or 
seven pases. The duke of Norfolke was not 
fullie set forward, when the king cast downe his 
warder, and the heralds cried c Ho, ho.' Then 
the king caused their speares to be taken from 
them, and commanded them to repaire againe to 
their chaires; where they remained two long 
houres, while the king and his councell delibe- 
ratlie consulted what order was best to be had in 
so weightie a cause. Finallie : after they had de- 
vised, and fullie determined what should be done 
therein, the heralds cried ' Silence ;' and Sir 
John Bushie, the king's secretarie, read the sen- 
tence and determination of the king and his 
councell, in a long roll ; the effect whereof was, 
that Henrie duke of Hereford should, within 
fifteene daies, depart out of the realme, and not 
to returne before the terme of ten yeares were 
expired, except by the king he should be re- 

s Holinshed's Chr. 494. 



236 GOSFORD GREEN. 

" pealed againe ; and this upon paine of death : 
" and that Thomas Mowbraie duke of Norfolke, 
" bicause he had sowen sedition in the relme by 
" his words, should likewise avoid the realme, 
" and never returne againe into England, nor ap- 
" proch the borders or confines thereof, upon pain 
" of death : and that the king would staie the pro- 
" fits of his lands, till he had levied thereof such 
" summes of monie as the duke had taken up of 
" the king's treasuror, for the wages of the gar- 
" rison of Calls ; which were still unpaid. 

" When these judgements were once read, the 
" king called before him both parties, and made 
" them to sweare that the one should never come 
" in place where the other was, willinglie, nor 
" keepe any companie togither in any forren re- 
" gion : which oth they both received humblie, 
" and so went their waies. The duke of Norfolke 
" departed sorrowfullie out of the realme into 
" Almanie, and at the last came into Venice ', 
" where he, for thought and melancholic, de- 
" ceassed; for he was in hope (as writers record) 
" that he should have beene borne out in the 
" matter by the king; which, when it fell out 
" otherwise, it greeved him not a little. The 
" duke of Hereford tooke his leave of the king at 
" Eltham, who there released foure yeares of his 
" banishment; so he tooke his jornie over into 



BINLY. COMBE ABBEY. 



237 



" Calls, and from thence went into France, where 
" he remained. 

" A woonder it was to see what number of 
" people ran after him, in everie towne and street 
" where he came, before he tooke the sea, lament- 
" ing and bewailing his departure ; as who should 
" saie, that when he departed, the onlie shield, 
" defense, and comfort of the commonwealth was 
" vaded and gone." 

About two miles from Coventry, I crossed the 
little river Sow at Binly bridge, a little beyond 
which stands the beautiful small church of that 
name, dedicated to St. Bartholomew, formerly 
belonging to the monks of Coventry ; now a cu- 
racy in the gift of Lord Craven, who rebuilt the 
church with uncommon elegance. The roof is 
coved, and ornamented with scriptural histories, 
in form of medallions, and with pious ornaments 
of crosses, crowns, and thorns, and other deco- 
rations adapted to the place. The altar is in a 
tribune, with marble pillars; and its window con- 
sists of glass painted with a fine holy family, by 
Mr. William Pecket. 

Combe Abbey, or, to spell it with propriety, 
Cwm, from its low situation, lies about two miles 
farther. Notwithstanding its conversion to the 
seat of a nobleman, it retains in part the form of 
its conventual state. The cloisters are preserved 



Binly 

Church. 



Combe 
Abbey. 



238 COMBE ABBEY. 

on three sides of the antient court, glazed as when 
occupied by their former owners, and their walls 
enriched with the spoils of the chace. Methinks 
the jovial abbot is now before me, formed out of 
the monk so admirably described by old Chaucer. 

A monk ther was, a fay re for the maistrie, 

An out rider that loved venerie ; 

A manly man, to ben an abbot able ; 

Full many a deinte hors hadde he in stable. 

And when he rode, men mighte his bridel here, 

Gingeling in a whistling wind as clere 

And eke as loude as doth the chapell belle. 

Ther as this lord was keper of the celle, 

The rule of Seint Maure and of Seint Beneit, 

Because that it was olde & somedele streit, 

This ilke monk lette olde thinges pace, 

And held after the newe world the trace. 

He yave not of the text a pulled hen, 

That saith that hunters ben not holy men ; 

Ne that a monk, when he is rekkeles, 

Is like a fish that is waterles : 

This is to say, a monk out of his cloistre, 

This ilke text held he not worth an oistre. 

And I say his opinion was good : 

What shulde he studie, & make himselven wood, 

Upon a book in cloistre alway to pore, 

Or swinken with his hondes, & laboure 

As Austin bit ? How shall the world bs served ? 

Let Austin have his swink to him reserved. 

Therefore he was a prickasoure a right ; 

Greihounds he hadde as swift as foul of flight : 



COMBE ABBEY. 239 

Of pricking, & of hunting for the hare, 
Was all his lust; for no cost wolde he spare. 

The abbot is now represented by a jovial 
English baron h , not less a lover of the generous 
exercise. He derives his right to the place from 
his ancestor Sir William Craven, Knight, great 
grandson of Henry Craven, elder brother to Sir 
William, lord mayor of London in 16 10; one of 
the richest men of his time. It was purchased 
from that squanderer Lucy countess of Bedford, 
who inherited it from her brother Lord Harring- 
ton, who derived it from his mother Anne, daugh- 
ter of Robert Kelway, who received it in lease 
after the forfeiture of John Dudley Duke of North- 
umberland, to whom it had been granted by Ed- 
ward VI. It had been founded by Richard de Founder. 
Camville, in 1150, and peopled with Cistercian 
monks ; who were at the dissolution found to be 
endowed with upwards of three hundred pounds a 
year 1 . Robert Bates, alias Kymmer, was the last 
abbot ; who, for his surrender, was rewarded with 
a pension of eighty pounds a year k , and his thir- 
teen or fourteen religious with small pittances, as 
the merit of the deed rested in the former. 

That accomplished nobleman Lord Harring- 

k The Lord Craven here alluded to died in 1791. Ed. 
1 Tanner. k Willis, ii. 241. 



240 COMBE ABBEY: 

ton was the refounder of this house ; which Cam- 
den says arose from the ashes of the antient abbey. 
His taste is evident, in his preservation of the ve- 
nerable cloisters. It is indebted to the owners of 
the present name for its instructive furniture of 
portraits, probably entirely to the hero William 
Craven, a most distinguished personage of this 
family. 
Portraits. In the north parlour is a fine full-length of his 

GUSTAVDS . 

Adolphus. great master in the art of war, Gustavus Aaolpnas ; 
under whose banners he defended the Protestant 
cause in Germany, and, when very young, gained 
immortal honor at the desperate storming of the 
fortress of Creutzenach, in the palatinate. 
James A full-length of James Stewart Duke of 

T~)titc f of 

Richmond. Richmond, in black, with long flowing flaxen hair, 
and a dog by him. This illustrious nobleman 
forms one of the most amiable characters in the 
reign of Charles I. His attachment and affection 
to his royal relation was unequalled : he is even 
said to have offered his own life, to save that of 
his devoted master 1 . He was permitted to attend 
the funeral of the beloved remains ; then lingered 
away a few years, and died a victim to grief on 
March 30, 1655. 

Frederick V. elector palatine, a full-length, in 

1 Pcrichef, as quoted by Mr. Hume. 



PORTRAITS THERE. 241 

robes, and with the unfortunate crown which he KlNG 0F 

Bohemia. 

wore, as short-lived king of Bohemia, elected by 
the revolted state in 16 19, when it attempted to 
shake off the yoke of the emperor Ferdinand II. 
The battle of Prague, in the following year, de- 
prived Frederick of his new kingdom and his he- 
reditary dominions, and, from a potent prince, 
reduced him to a fugitive beggar in Holland. He 
survived his own misfortunes twelve years, but 
died with grief, on the death of his great friend 
Gustavus Adolphus, in 1632. 

Near him is his queen, dressed in black, and Elizabeth 

1 Queen of 

with a melancholy look. She was the daughter Bohemia. 
of our peaceful monarch James I. ; who, either 
through hatred of war, or disapprobation of his 
son-in-law's ambition, reluctantly undertook his 
defence, and made, under Mansfield, an unfortu- 
nate essay. His daughter Elizabeth supported 
her unhappy situation with uncommon dignity, 
and shewed, amidst the most distressful poverty, 
an illustrious example of magnanimity. She vi- 
sited the army of Gustavus, which had in view 
her husband's restoration, as well as the giving 
liberty to the German Protestants. The English 
volunteers seem to have fought her battles, inspired 
by love. She was the admiration of the camp, 
and had votaries among every nation. The young 

R 



242 COMBE ABBEY: 

Craven was among her warmest devotees, and 
continued his attachment to the last moment of 
her life ; possessed her deserved confidence, di- 
rected all her affairs, and gave a most distinguish- 
ing proof of his esteem, by building for her use, 
at his estate in Berkshire, a magnificent palace. 
The difference of rank alone prevented the publi- 
cation of their union, which is generally supposed 
to have taken place. Her spotless fame was 
never aspersed with improper connection. 
William I must step to another room, the picture-gal- 
Crave. lery, for the portrait of her admirer ; a fine head, 
with the body armed, and crossed with a sash. 
Let me finish his history with saying, that after 
the death of Gust amis, he retired from the Swedish 
army into the service of the Dutch, and, notwith- 
standing he never interfered in the civil wars of 
his own country, yet, in 1650, his estates were 
confiscated by the parlement (as is said) through 
false accusations of favors done to the exiled king. 
On the restoration he came over, and in 1670, on 
the death of the Duke of Albemarle, he was ap- 
pointed colonel of the Coldstream regiment of 
guards. His gallant spirit never forsook him : he 
braved the pestilence in its greatest fury, and, with 
a few other worthies, undertook the care of Lon- 
don in 1665, during the desolation of the plague; 



PORTRAITS THERE. 243 

and in every fire, was so active in preventing the 
devastation of that other scourge, that it was said, 
" his very horse smelt it out." 

1 must return to the parlour, to mention a fine Conversa- 

T -n TION- 

conversation-piece, consisting of Prince Rupert, Piece. 
Prince Maurice, and the Duke of Richmond at 
table, in the manner of Dobson, by Hont hurst. 
Those of the king of Bohe?nia and his queen are 
by the same hand; Honthurst having had the 
honor of instructing that unfortunate princess and 
her family. 

A head of Raphael. 

The brazen serpent, surrounded by the terrified 
multitude : a fine performance. 

Judith and Holqfernes. Her maid, a swarthy 
old woman, is performing the operation of cutting 
off the head. 

On the stair-case is a large picture of Lord T.ord 
Craven on horseback, with a truncheon in his 
hand. 

In the breakfast-room is a fine scene among 
the Alps, by John Loten, a Dutchman, who, re- 
siding much in Switzerland, became celebrated for 
his wild romantic views. 

In the picture-gallery is a fine half-length of 
David, with the head of Goliah, by Guercino. 
Frederick Tromellus, count Lavella, a head. John 
Ernest duke of Savoy. 

r 2 



'244 COMBE ABBEY: 

Gustavus Gustavus Adolphus, a half-length ; and the heads 

Adolphus. _ ... 

of sixteen of his illustrious generals, by Mirevelt. 
These, and most of the other portraits of men of 
eminence in Germany \ were brought over by the 
queen of Bohemia, and by her bequeathed by will 
to Lord Craven. 
Mirevelt A head of Mirevelt, and another of Honthurst, 

AND . > 

Honthurst. painted by themselves. The former resided chiefly 

at Delft, and was prevented visiting England 

by reason of the plague. The latter was here 

some time, by the encouragement of Charles I. 

Christian Christian Duke of Brunswick, a fierce hero in 

Duke of 

Brunswick, the army of Gustavus, subdued by the charms of 

our royal countrywoman. It is said, that he 

snatched a glove from her, put it in his cap, and 

swore he would never part with it, till he saw her 

husband in possession of the capital of Bohemia. 

Lord Sir Edward Cecil, third son of the Earl of 

Wimbledon. . . 

Lxeter, a celebrated commander during thirty-five 

years in the Netherlands. He died in 1638, after 

being honored with the title of Lord Wimbledon". 

"' Harte's Gustavus Adolphus, i. 177. 

n He is buried in a chapel erected for the purpose, opening 
to the chancel of Wimbledon church, under a very handsome 
tomb, with the following inscription: " Sir Edtvard Cecil, Knt. 
" Lord Cecil, Baron of Putney, and Viscount Wimbledon, 3 
" son of Thomas earl of Exeter, and Dorothea Nevil, one of the 
" coheirs of Lord Nevil, and grandchild of Lord Treasurer 
" Burlewh. 1638." 



PORTRAITS THERE. 245 

His picture is a head, with short grey hair; his 
body in rich armour, with a sash. From this the 
print by Simon Pass was taken. 

A REMARKABLE legend of OttO, Or Otho I. Legend of 
& . Otho I. 

earl of Oldenberg, represented as wearied with the 

chace, and separated from his companions, on a 
wild mountain. When he was almost fainting 
with thirst, a beautiful virgin, in white, with long 
flowing hair, and a garland on her head, burst out 
of the side of the hill, and offered him drink out 
of a rich horn, which she put into his hand, assur- 
ing him, that if he drank, prosperity would attend 
him and his house. He disliked the proposal, 
suspecting deceit. Accordingly, pouring some of 
the liquor on the hind part of his horse, he found it 
so noxious as to take off the hair. He instantly 
rode off with the horn full speed, terrified at the 
adventure, and the spectre retired into the bowels 
of the mountain. The horn, which gave rise to 
this fable, is of silver, gilt, and of most exquisite 
workmanship, and is still preserved in the mu- 
seum at Copenhagen . Instead of being of the 
age of Otho I. or about the year 918, it is proved 
to have been made by Christian I. in honor of 
the three kings of Cologne, whose names are in- 
scribed on it; for it seems it was customary, 

Museum Regium Havnia, &c. pars II. sect. iii. par. 60. 
tab. v. 



a*6 COMBE ABBEY : 

among the northern nations, to dedicate their cups 
or horns to saints, and make large libations out of 
them, invoking the saint to assist the mighty 
draught: Help Got unde Maria dat Iw Got p . 
What gave rise to the particular legend relative to 
the horn, is the figure of a woman on the recur- 
vated tip, with a label, with this jovial exhortation, 
Drinc all wt ; and round the lip, O mater Dei 
memento met. 

In several apartments, whose names I have for- 

gotten,are a variety of other paintings and portraits. 

Among them is one of the founder of the fa- 

SiRWiLLiAM m jiy 5 j r lVim am Craven, lord mayor of London, 
by Jansen ; two full-lengths of Earl Craven, in 
armour, one very spirited ; and a portrait of Sir 
William Craven of this place, by Sir Peter Lely ; 

Countess of Lucy countess of Bedford, by Jansen, in the same 
attitude and dress in which she is painted at JVo- 
burn and at Alloa q . 
Henry An elegant figure of Henry prince of JVales, in 

Prince of . & . J * ' 

Wales, a gay silk jacket, crimson hose, roses to his shoes, 
a white silk hat and feather before him, and a 
glove in one hand. He stands in a room with a 
pretty view through the window. Drawn while 
that amiable prince was in his boyhood. 

P Museum llcgium Havnia, &c. pars II. sect. iii. par. 62. 
Tour Scotl. 1772, part ii. p. 222. 



PORTRAITS THERE. 47 

Charles II. when young; his body armed with Charles II. 
steel, the rest with buff. 

General Monk, cloathed entirely in buff. General 
This species of defence was usually made of the 
skin of the elk, and oftentimes of the stag, and 
was proof against a ball. 

Duke of Ormond, by Sir Pete?" Lely. *? UKE 0F 

J J Ormond. 

A pretty half-length of Lord Herbert, young, Lord 

nFRBFRT 

in armour, laced cravat, and his helmet before 
him. 

The punishment of sloth: a man whipping a 
woman out of bed. 

A fine decollation of St. John, by Albert 
Durer. The executioner sheathing his sword; 
Herodiass daughter receives the head with great 
satisfaction of countenance; and her swelling waist 
shews the price of the Baptist's destruction. 

Four musicians : two, a Flemish gentleman 
and a lady ; the other, peasants : a capital per- 
formance, by Frank Hals. 

The offering of the wise men in the east, by 
Paul Veronese, equally fine. 

An old woman and boy, heads, by candle-light, 
likewise fine. 

Two fine paintings, by Rembrandt, of two phi- 
losophers; each with a noble pupil: one in a 
Turkish dress ; the other in an ermine robe. These 
young figures are called Prince Rupert and Prince 



248 COVENTRY: CHARTREUX. 

Maurice. The time of the residence of their mo- 
ther in Holland, agrees entirely with that of Rem- 
brandt in Amsterdam, which makes the conjecture 
probable r . 

I returned through Coventry, and, passing 
over the site of the New gate, soon entered on a 
long common. At about a mile's distance from 
the city, on the left side of the road, stood the 

Chartreux, Chartreux, now inhabited by Inge, Esquire. 

Little of the antient building remains. The wall 
of the precinct is still standing, and in a wall in 
the garden are the marks of many small doors, the 
entrance into the cells of the austere inhabitants. 

This religious house arose from the pious in- 
tentions of William Lord Zouch, of Harringxcorth, 
in Northamptonshire, who obtaining, in 1381, four- 
teen acres of land in this place from Sir Baldzvyn 
Frevile the elder, determined on that to erect a 
monastery of Carthusians, and endow it with am- 
ple revenues. Death prevented the execution; 

r When the editor visited Combe Abbey in 1809, the house 
and grounds were undergoing considerable alterations, and 
most of the pictures were taken down. Among the few por- 
traits unnoticed by Mr. Pennant, he remarked six heads of the 
children of the Elector Palatine, all handsome, particularly 
the princess Sophia, the future electress of Hanover. Here 
are also shewn five portraits of Palatine princesses, said to 
have been painted by the hand of Sophia. Ed. 



CHARTREUX. 49 

but in his last illness he left sixty pounds towards 
a future establishment. 

The design was speedily completed by various 
pious persons. Richard Luff, a mayor of Co- 
ventry, and Richard Botoner, a fellow-citizen, 
bestowed four hundred marks on the church-choir, 
cloisters, and three cells : others followed their 
example. Richard II. on his return from Scot- 
land, in 1385, assumed the honor of being the 
founder, and, at the instance of his queen Anne, 
laid the first stone of the church with his own 
hands, declaring, in the presence of his nobility, 
and of the mayor and citizens of Coventry, that 
he would bring it to perfection. After this, it 
received considerable endowments, and at the dis- 
solution was found, according to Dugdale, to be 
possessed of <.131. 6s. Sd. above all reprizes. 
The prior seemed to want the resolution of this 
severe and conscientious order ; for more of this 
than of any other resisted the will of their cruel 
monarch, and underwent martyrdom in support of 
the trusts committed to them. It is probable that 
John Bochard, the last who presided over the 
house, was prevaled on to surrender for the con- 
sideration of the great pension of forty pounds a 
year ; after which it was granted to Richard An- 
drews and Leonard Chamberlain. 

A little farther I crossed the Sher bourn, 



<2jO WHITLEY. KNIGHTLOW. 

Whitley, leaving on the right Whitley, a large old house, in 
which Charles I. resided during the attempt upon 
Coventry'. I was told, that the history of many 
of his actions had been painted on the wainscot. 
About a mile and a half from hence I passed the 
Avon, at Ryton bridge. This is the river that 
runs hy Warwick and Stratford, and discharges 
itself into the Severn, near Tewkesbury ; still re- 
taining the British name Afon, or river, as is the 
case with several others watering English ground. 
Ascend an extensive brow, commanding a rich 
and vast view toward the north and west. On 
the summit is a tumulus, from which the spot, 
Kuightlow. which gives name to the hundred, is called Knight- 
low, or mount. It seems to have been sepulchral, 
and to have covered the ashes of some Roman 
eques, or knight, from which it was denominated. 
It lies very near a great Roman road, as is cus- 
tomary with similar memorials. On it in after- 
times stood a cross, on whose base the inhabitants 
of several towns in this hundred still attend, and 
pay the dues to the lord on Martinmass-d&y : the 
sums are from ]d. to Qs. 3d. each. These rents 
are called Wroth-money, and Worth or Swarff 

Now belonging to, and the residence of, the right honor- 
able Lord Hood, who married the only daughter and heiress 
of its late owner, Francis Whder, Esq. Ed. 



ROMAN ROAD. WILLOUGHBY. 251 

penny, and are supposed by Dugdale to be the 
same as ward-penny : Vicecomiti aut aliis castel- 
lanis persoluti ob castrorum presidium vel excubias 
agendas. They must be paid at this cross before 
sun-rise, and the party paying must go thrice 
round the cross, say wroth-money, and put it into 
the hole in the stone before good witness, or on 
omission to forfeit thirty shillings and a white 
bull 1 . 

A small distance beyond, the Roman foss-way Roman 
crosses the road : it enters this county at High 
Cross, on the verge of Leicestershire, where it is 
intersected by the great Wat ling-street, and tra- 
verses direct to Stafford upon Foss, near the edge 
oiGlocester shire. 

Go over Dunsmore heath (now inclosed), and, 
after riding in a tedious avenue of elms and firs 
for five miles, reach Dunchurch, or the church on 
the hill; a small village, whose church once be- 
longed to the monks of Pipwell, in Northampton- 
shire. 

Descend the hill, and about three miles further 
go near Willoughby, or the place of willozvs; a WlLL0UG "~ 
little village, with a church dedicated to St. Ni- 
cholas, formerly appropriated to the hospital of 
St. John without East-gate, Oxford; now in the 

* Dugdale, i. 4. 



252 BEIGHTON, THE SURVEYOR. 

patronage of Magdalen College. This bottom, at 
present enlivened with the windings of the canal, 
assumes a commercial appearance, by the number 
of new buildings rising on its banks, and the ma- 
gazines of coal and limestone laid up for sale. 
The former gives a most comfortable prospect to 
the half-starved inhabitants of Northamptonshire, 
by flattering them with the speedy approximation 
of the means of warmth, and giving to their poor 
good fuel, instead of the wretched substitute of 
horse-dung, which they collect in scanty portions 
for that purpose. 

It would be ungrateful to leave Warwickshire, 
without paying a tribute to the memory of Mr. 
Henry Beighton, author of the map of this county". 
As it was the earliest, so it was the best perform- 
ance of the kind. He had an estate of about a 
hundred a year, in the parish of Coton, in this 
county. He assisted his income by surveying, in 
which, for elegance, accuracy, and expedition, he 
had few equals. He left behind him, in his neigh- 
borhood, numbers of excellent surveyors, who own 
him for their master. His account of London 
bridge, in the Philosophical Transactions, shews 
his skill in mechanics. He was interred at Chil- 
lers Coton ; where a small monument barely tells 

u He begun his survey in 1725, and finished it in 1729. 



BRAUNSTON. 253 

that he lived and died, without mentioning his 
merit : neglected by his countrymen during life, 
he never met with encouragement to publish his 
admirable map, which was done about the year 
1750, by subscription, for the support of his 
widow. 

From Willoughby I instantly entered 

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE, 

in the parish of Braunston. The village, church Braunstojt. 
with spire steeple, and a number of narrow in- 
closures, appear on the side of a slope, on the left 
of the road. This is among the few places I ne- 
glected to visit. I must therefore speak from Mr. 
Bridges of its cross, twenty-four feet high; of the 
effigy of the Knight Templar in the church ; and 
of the instance of the longevity of William Bren, 
of this village, who attained the age of an hundred 
and twenty-one. 

After the Conquest, the D 'Aienconrts and 
the Peverels held land here. From the last it 
fell, by marriage, to Albricius de Harcourt ; by 
his daughter, to William de Trussebot, a man 
raised from a low situation, by his desperate va- 
lour, to great estates. In the reign of king Ste- 
phen, being attacked in Bonville, of which he was 
governor, he set fire to his own house in four 



354 SINGULAR TENURE. 

places; which so terrified the enemy, that they 
instantly evacuated the town. 

By his daughter Roese, it fell to Everard de 
Roos; a family who flourished here for several 
centuries, a distinguished race. One of them, 
William, was clamant to the crown of Scotland, 
under the arbitration of Edward I. x They be- 
came extinct in the male line, in the reign of 
Henry VII. when Elinor, eldest sister of the last 
lord Roos, conveyed it by marriage to Sir Robert 
Manners; and it was sold by his descendant, 
Henry Earl of Rutland (who died in 1563) to 
Gregory Isham of London, merchant, a younger 
son of the respectable and antient family of that 
name. 

The present lord of the manor is Web, 

Esquire, who keeps in the small manor-house a 
Singular court-leet and baron. The tenure of a consider- 

1 ENURE. 

able portion of land in the parish is very singular. 
If a widow appears at the next court after her 
husband's death, and presents a leathern purse 
with a groat in it, she can keep her husband's 
copyhold lands for life ; but she must attend every 
court after she has done this service. 

Erom Dunchurch the country grows hilly, and 
till of late was uninclosed; pleasant during the 

x Sir David Dulrymplc's Annals Scot!, i. 203. 



DAVENTRY. 255 

verdure of the young, and the rich yellow of the 
ripened corn. About three miles from Braunston 
appears Daventry, on the side and top of a hill. Davektry. 
The place is populous, and carries on a consider- 
able manufacture of whips : it is an incorporated 
town, governed by a bailiff, twelve burgesses, and 
a recorder ; has two Serjeants at mace, and one 
town-clerk. The bailiff for the time is justice of 
the peace, and also the year following, and is like- 
wise coroner of the inquest. The Serjeants may ar- 
rest any one within their jurisdiction for a sum under 
one hundred pounds, and the cause is to be de- 
cided here. No county justice hath power in this 
place; the justices of the borough having power 
of commitment to the county-jail in criminal 
cases. The inhabitants also enjoy the privilege 
of exemption from serving on juries at the county 
assizes. Its charter is said to have been first 
granted by king John, and was renewed by queen 
Elizabeth. 

Daventry is of considerable antiquity ; espe- 
cially if we give into the derivation of its name, 
They Afon tre, the town of the two Avons, or ri- 
vers, from its situation between them. Certainly 
it was a place of note at the Conquest ; had in it 
sixteen plough-lands; in the manor three, with 
three slaves, twenty villeyns, a presbyter, and ten 
boors, and twelve acres of meadow. It had been 



256 DAVENTRY PRIORY. 

worth three pounds; after that event improved to 
eight. 

This was a part of the great possessions of the 
countess Judith, niece to the Conqueror, whom 
he had married to the brave IValtheof Earl of 
, Northumberland; and farther to engage his fide- 
lity, he gave with her this county, and that of 
Huntingdon. IValtheof unfortunately engaged in 
a conspiracy, and, notwithstanding he repented, 
and flung himself at the king's mercy, was be- 
headed in 1074, at the instigation of his wife y . 
It seems she had cast a favorable eye on another 
person, but was disappointed ; for the king offered 
to her Simon de Liz, a noble Norman, lame of one 
leg : him she rejected ; which so enraged her un- 
cle, that he deprived her of the two earldoms, and 
gave them to De Liz, with her eldest daughter ; 
which obliged Judith to a state of penitentiary 
widowhood during life. 
Priory. Here are some remains of the priory, inhabited 
by poor families. The place is easily discovered, 
by several gothic windows, and a door accessible 
by a great flight of steps. Four Cluniac monks 
were originally placed at Preston Capes, in this 
county, by Hugh de Leicester, sheriff of the 
county, and steward to Maud, sister to the first 

r Order: Vital. 



DAVENTRY PRIORY. 257 

S. Liz Earl of Huntingdon; but finding the situa- 
tion inconvenient, for want of water, he built a 
priory, and removed them here, about the year 
1090. It was dedicated to St. Augustine, and 
was subordinate to St. Mary de Caritate 2 . Its 
spiritualities were valued at ,.115 17*. 4f/. per 
annum; its temporalities . 120 10.?. Qd. Car- 
dinal Wolsey directed five of his emissaries to 
pick a quarrel with the poor monks, about certain 
lands of theirs ; and, causing the dispute to be 
referred to himself, took occasion to dissolve the 
house, and, as Stow says, to be given to his own 
college. " But of this irreligious robbery, done 
" of no conscience, but to patch up pride, which 
" private wealth could not furnish, what punish- 
" ment hath since ensued by God's hand (sayeth 
" mine author) partly ourselves have seen ; for of 
" those five persons, two fell at discord between 
" themselves, and the one slew the other ; for 
" which the survivor was hanged : the third 
" drowned himself in a well : the fourth, being 
" well known, and valued worth two hundred 
" pounds, became in three years so poore, that 
" he begged till his dying-day : and the fift, called 
" Doctor Allane, being cheefe executor of these 
" doings, was cruelly maimed in b eland, even at 

z Tanner, 375. 

S 



258 



DAVENTRY CHURCH. BOROUGH-HILL. 



" such time as he was bishop \" The pious his- 
torian then traces the judgment to the cardinal, 
who died under the king's displeasure : to the col- 
leges which occasioned the sacrilege ; that of Ips- 
wich being pulled down ; that of Christ-church 
never finished under Woheys patronage : and 
lastly to the pope, who permitted these violences 
on religious houses ; for he was besieged in his 
holy see, and suffered a long imprisonment. 
Church. The parish-church was formerly the conventual : 
of late years it has been handsomely rebuilt ; but 
is no more than a curacy in the gift of Christ- 
church college. The arms of the college, and of 
the Earl of Winchelsea, lord of the manor, grace 
the east window. 

From Daventry I visited the noted camps on 
Borough-hill, or Danes-hill, about a mile south- 
east of the town. It is lofty and insulated. The 
area is of an oblong or oval form, about a mea- 
sured mile in length, and near two in circum- 
ference. The whole is surrounded by two, three, 
or four deep trenches, and the same number of 
great ramparts, or banks ; according as the strength 
or weakness of the ground required. These run 
on the margin of the hill, and on the slope, having 
the entrance on the eastern and western sides op- 
posite to each other. 



Borough 
hill. 



a Annals, 522. 



BOROUGH-HILL. 2,39 

Within the area, near the middle, is a bank, 
which passes strait from the western side towards 
the eastern : the remainder is destroyed. Farther 
on is the vestige of another, running parallel. 
These, when entire, would have formed a rectan- 
gular camp, by the assistance of part of the ditches 
on the sides of the hill. 

Near this camp are several tumuli of the se- 
pulchral kind ; but since Mr. Morton's time, their 
number is evidently lessened ; for in his days, he 
informs us, there were eighteen. 

The northern end of the hill is formed into a 
third camp, of a circular shape, and of vast 
strength. Two ditches, of prodigious depth, with 
suitable ramparts, and a deep entrance, cross the 
area, and fall into the general surrounding ditches, 
which have been deepened to add to the strength 
of the third part. There are likewise the imper- 
fect remains of another ditch and bank on the out- 
side, a little south, designed to add to the security. 

On the north-west part of the great rampart 
of this round camp, is a large mount, either ex- 
ploratory, or the spot where the chieftain pitched 
his tent. 

I must differ with Mr. Morton about the 
makers of the first of these. camps or posts, which 
were the Britons themselves. It has every agree- 
ment with the multitudes of others scattered over 

s 2 



260 BOROUGH-HILL. 

the kingdom, and suits exactly with the descrip- 
tion left by Tacitus of the method of defence used 
by our ancestors, Tunc montibus arduis, et <si qua 
clementer accedi poterant in modum valli saxa prce- 
struit. I shall not here repeat what I have fully 
dwelt on in my Tours in JVales and Scotland*. 

This post was in all probability made use of 
when the victorious Ostorius was traversing this 
island, to quell the commotions he found on his 
arrival in Britain. It is evident, that the Britons 
at this period made use of the same species of de- 
fence which is proved to have been common to 
the whole country. The Iceni lodged themselves 
within a post of this kind, against this very ge- 
neral, f Locum pugnce delcgere septum agresti ag- 
gere et aditu angusto ne pervius equiti foret c ) but 
it did not avale. The Coritani of these parts had 
recourse to the strong hold of what I dare say 
they called Ben Afon, or the head over the river ; 
one of the streams which form the Nen, the river 
Of this country, passing beneath. 

This post proved no obstacle to the Conqueror; 
he found it fit for a station : he contracted its li- 
mits east into the shape of the camps of his peo- 
ple, and made this a summer, as he did the warm 

b Tour Scotl. 1772, part ii. 159. Tour Wales, 413. 8vo. ed. 
ii. 62. 
c Taciti Annal. lib. xii. c. 31. 



BOROUGH-HILL. 261 

bottom, near the fort, a winter station. Numbers 
of Roman coins found on the spots, confirm this 
conjecture. The Romans, as was usual with them, 
latinized the British name, and formed from it 
their Beiwenna ; which I beg leave to place here 
rather than at TVedon, a place destitute of all clas- 
sical traces. 

I must add, that on the south-east side of 
Borough-hill, about two or three hundred yards 
below the ditches, is a lesser camp, surrounded 
by a foss and bank. Mr. Morton guesses it to 
have been the receptacle of the carriages of the 
greater camp : I imagine it to have been a pro- 
cesttHa, a sort of free post attendant often on 
camps, where provisions and other necessaries 
were brought. 

As to the third division of the area of this hill, 
it is probably Saxon ; the words borough, burgh, 
berry, and bury, being the constant appellation 
given by the Saxons to similar places. It is my 
belief, that every post of this nature, occupied by 
that nation in our island, had been originally Bri- 
tish ; which the Saxons altered to their concep- 
tions of strength and defence; this was usually 
done by deepening the ditches, raising the ram- 
parts, and clearing the area, and often by exalting 
one part into what was called the donjeon, or keep. 
These places were stationary, not properly camps; 



262 BOROUGH-HILL. BURNT WALLS. 

for the antient Germans, from whom these inva- 
ders were derived, and whose customs they re- 
tained, made use of no other defence to their 
camps than a barrier of waggons, with which they 
formed the precinct. Omnes Barbari, says Ve- 
getius, carris suis in orbem connexis ad similitu- 
dinem castrorum securas a supervenient ibus exi- 
gunt noctes A . Casar twice* mentions this custom 
among the German nations ; and I am told, that 
even in later days, this mode of defence has been 
used, and called Waggenburg, or the camp of 
waggons. 

Every thing on this hill must not be attributed 
to remote antiquity ; for Charles I. a few days before 
the fatal battle of Naseby, occupied this post, and 
fortified it : so possibly some of the entrenchments 
might be the work of that unfortunate monarch f . 

I must not quit this place without mentioning 

a spot which I overlooked. This is what Mr. 

Burnt Morton calls the Burnt Walls; where many loads 
Walls. , J 

of walls and foundations have been dug up. The 

precinct is about six acres, and was moated round. 

The water that filled the moat was conveyed from 

pools in Diwentry Park, a place not remote. 

Tradition says, that within the area stood a seat 

of John of Gaunt ; which is probable, as this ma- 

* Lib. iii. c. 10. e Bell. Gal. lib. i. k lib. iv. 

{ Whitelock, 150. 



DODFORD CHURCH. 263 

nor was once possessed by the earls and dukes of 
Lancaster, in Edivard Ill's time, annexed to that 
dutchy, and assigned to that great duke g . 

Continue my journey: turn a little out of 
my road, on the left, to Dodford church, and rind Church" 
there a tomb of a cross-legged knight, armed in 
mail, with both hands upon his sword, as if in the 
attitude of drawing it. On his shield are, ill-bla- 
zoned, vaire, argent and azure; two bars gules, 
which denote the person here deposited to have 
been a Keynes, one of the antient lords of the 
place ; and, from the attitude of his legs, to have 
lived during the fashionable madness of crusades. 

Two ladies, in hoods, recumbent, said to have 
been two sisters, co-heiresses of the manor, and 
probably Margaret and Maud de Ayote, who 
were possessed of it, I think, in the time of Ri- 
chard II ; which manor descended to their father, 
Laurence, from his mother Lettice, sister to Wil- 
liam de Keynes. 

A brass plate of William Wyde, who died 
owner of this place in 1422, and another of his 
wife. 

An alabaster figure, armed, of John Cressy, a 
successor of the former ; who distinguished him- 
self in the French wars, under the duke of Eed- 

s Hist. Northampt. 44. 



164* WEDON. 

ford, was captain of Lycieu.r, Orbef, and Pon- 
tesque, in Normandy, and privy-counsellor in 
France. He died in 1443, at Tove, in Lorrain h . 

In this manor, the Wailing- street crosses the 
road to Wedon : it enters the county at Dgzv- 
bridge, on the edge of Leicestershire, passes close 
by Borough-hill, and proceeds from Wedon to 
Toucester and Stoney Stratford, where it enters 
the county of Bucks. 

Near the sixty-eighth mile-stone is the en- 
trance to the new turnpike-road to Northampton, 
which is above seven miles distant; and on an 
eminence, a little to the left, is pleasantly seated 
the church and village of Flore, or Flower. 

A little beyond, on the right, lies the village 
Wedon. f Wedon on the Street, or Weedon Bee; from 
which I chuse to transfer the old Bennevenna to 
Borough-hill, on account of deficiency of classical 
evidence at this place, and the little difference of 
distance from the other stations. 

Sufficient honor will remain to Wedo?i\ in 

* Hist. Northampt. 51. 

1 Near Wedon the bank is covered with immense buildings 
for the reception of all kinds of military stores ; a national 
depot rendered too necessary by the exigency of the times. 
The Grand Junction canal passes beneath, and forms a ready 
communication by other canals from this central spot with 
all parts of the kingdom. Ed. 



WEDON. 265 

allowing it to have been the site of the royal palace 
of JVulfere k , the Mercian monarch ; afterwards 
converted into a nunnery, at the instance of his 
daughter, St. Werburg, who presided for a time 
over it. Here she performed the miracle of the 
wild geese ; who, at her word, forgot their nature, 
were driven by her steward from their ravages 
among the corn, into the grange, and, after re- 
ceiving from her a severe check for their depreda- 
tions, were commanded to take wing, and never 
appear in her demesnes. They obeyed in part, 
but kept hovering about, till one of their compa- 
nions, which had been stolen (and some say eaten) 
by a servant, was restored ; on which they bid an 
eternal adieu to the fields of IVedon \ 

This nunnery was destroyed by the Danes; 
but the memory of the foundress was preserved 
in Leland's day, by a fair chapel dedicated to that 
saint m . 

After the Conquest, Roger de Thebovil gave 
a moiety of lands in this monastery to the abbey 
of Bee in Normandy ; which was, with many other 
grants to the same house, confirmed by Henry II. 
That abbey afterwards became possessed of the 
whole, when it was made dependent on their great 
cell or priory at Okeburn, in Wiltshire. Vast 

k Bridges, 93. l Cress/ s Ch. Hist. 427. 

m Leland Itin. i. 11. 



266 CASTLE DIKES. 

privileges were bestowed in favor of the monks of 
this abbey ; such as exemption from suit and ser- 
vice to the county and hundred courts ; from toll 
passage and pontage ; and exemption from forest 
laws. They had also free warren, and right of 
determining in murder, manslaughter, 8gc. 8$c. all 
which perished at the dissolution of the priories ; 
and this manor, as part of the possessions of Oke- 
burn, was vested in the provost and fellows of 
Eton college, by Henri/ VI ; in which it still con- 
tinues n . 

From hence I was led by my curiosity about 
Castle two miles westward, to Castle Dikes, in the parish 
of Farthingstone, remarkable for some antient 
works attributed to the Saxons. They are placed 
on the brow of a steep hill, commanding a vast 
view ; but at present so overgrown with thick 
woods, that I had but a very indistinct sight of 
them. They appeared to comprehend near thir- 
teen acres of ground, and to consist of strong- 
holds, divided from each other by a ditch of stu- 
pendous breadth and depth. A plat, called the 
Castle-yard, stands to the south-west of these, en- 
trenched on all sides but the south-west, compre- 

n Hist. Northampt. 93 ; in which Mr. Bridges denies that 
there ever was a priory here, as Sir W. Dugdale and Bishop 
Tanner imagine. 



Dikes 



STOW-NINE-CHURCHES. 267 

hending about seven acres, on which, tradition 
says, a town was situated. 

Mr. Morton informs us, that a vaulted room, 
formed of squared stones, was discovered in his 
time, and beneath that another, which falling in 
accidentally, a smell, resembling that of putrid 
carcases, issued from it. Two or three rude 
sculptures were also discovered among the rub- 
bish. 

It is conjectured that this place was burnt by 
the Danes ; for vast masses of cinders, mixed with 
pebbles and clay, have been found in different 
parts ; and many of the stones had on them the 
marks of fire . There is no account left of the 
particulars of their ravages ; so this rests upon 
conjecture, as well as the notion of Ethelfleda 
having been founder of this place, among her 
other great works performed in 9 1 3. 

On my return to the great road, about two 
miles from the place, I visited the church of Stow- stow-nine- 
nine-Churches, to see the most elegant tomb which Churches - 
this or any other kingdom can boast of; that of 
Elizabeth, fourth daughter of John Lord Latimer, 
wife, first to Sir John Danvers, of Dantrey, Wilt- 
shire, and afterwards to Sir Edmund Cary, third 
son of Henry Lord Hurisdon. Her figure is of 

Mr. Morton, 543. 



268 STOW-NINE-CHURCHES : 

white marble, lying recumbent on a slab of black. 
The attitude is the most easy possible, that of one 
asleep ; her head, covered with a loose hood, re- 
clines on a rich cushion. One hand is placed on 
her breast, the other lies on one side. Round her 
neck is a quilled ruflf. The fashionable stiffness 
of her embroidered stays is a disadvantage to this 
elegant sculpture. Her gown flows to her feet in 
easy folds, and covers them. She lies on a long 
cloak, lined with ermine, fastened at her neck with 
rich jewels. At her feet is a griffin holding a 
shield of the family-arms. The whole rests on a 
white marble altar-tomb, with inscriptions and 
arms on the sides. After informing us of her pa- 
rentage, marriages, and children, are these lines : 

Sic familia prseclara -\ /-iEtatis 84-, 
Praeclarior prole > 1 Anno 

Virtute prasclarissima.) (.Dni. 1G30. 
Comrautavit Saecula ; non obiit. 

She left three sons and seven daughters by her 
first husband. Sir Charles, the eldest, lost his 
head through his unfortunate attachment to the 
ill-fated Earl of Essex ; Henry, an able warrior, 
died Earl of Danby, full of years and glory ; Sir 
John married into the great family of the New- 
ports, in Shropshire. 

This noble monument was erected by the lady 
in her life-time, and was the chef ' d 'autre of that 



TOMBS IN THE CHURCH. 269 

great statuary Nicholas Stone, master-mason to 
king James and Charles I. statuary and stone- 
cutter ; so humbly does he stile himself. It ap- 
pears by a note of his, that, " March the 16. 1617. 
" I undertook to make a tomb for my lady, mo- 
" ther to Lord Davers; which was all of whit mar- 
" bell & touch p ; and I set it up at Stoxv of the 
" nine Churches, in Northamptonshire, som 2 yeare 
" after. One altar tombe : for the which I had 
" 220 li. " 

Opposite to this is a very handsome cenotaph, 
in memory of the Reverend Doctor Thomas Tur- 
ner, born at Bristol in 1645, and buried in 1714, 
at Corpus Christi college, Oxford, of which he 
had been president. 

He laid out his great income in acts of hospi- 
tality and charity; and on his death, after be- 

* Touch, Pierre de Touche was a name applied to any black 
stone which was used for the touching or trying of gold. At 
length the statuaries bestowed it on all the black marbles, be- 
cause they were sometimes used for that purpose. 

* Mr. Walpole, in the 2d vol. of his Anecdotes of Painting, 
p. 23, informs us, that this able artist was born at Woodbury, 
near Exeter, in 1586, and died in London, 1647. I refer the 
reader to that elegant performance for a list of his works. Let 
me add, that the first time I saw this beautiful tomb, it was 
going fast to decay ; but, since that time, has been fully re- 
stored, by the care of the worthy rector and (I think) patron 
of this church, Doctor Lloyd. 



270 STOW-NINE-CHURCHES : 

queathing A000 to his relations and friends, left 
the rest of his wealth to pious uses. He aug- 
mented the stipends of the poorer members of 
Ely cathedral, in which he was prebendary : he 
left of. 100 to be expended in apprenticing poor 
children of that city : he left . 6000 for improving 
the buildings of the college he presided over : and 
finally, left o\20,000 to be laid out by his execu- 
tors in estates and lands, to be settled by them on 
the governors of the charity for the relief of the 
poor widows and children of the clergy. Accord- 
ingly they purchased this manor, and other estates 
here, and at West Wratling in Cambridgeshire, 
to the amount of upwards of . \ 000 a year, and 
settled them, in 1716, agreeable to his will r . 
This manor was purchased from Edward Hooley, 
Esquire, for . 16,000; which occasioned the ho- 
norable mark of gratitude in this church. It is 
singular, that Francis Turner, bishop of Ely, lost 
his preferments in 1690, for refusing the oaths to 
William and Mary, when this gentleman, his bro- 
ther, had the good fortune to preserve his, without 
injuring his conscience. 

In 1702, the last year allowed for undergoing 
the test, he left London on the 28th of July, and 
went to Oxford with a full resolution to sacrifice 

r Willis's Cathedrals, ii. 389. 



TOMBS IN THE CHURCH. 71 

all his preferments on the first of August, the last 
day allowed by the act. He wisely made no re- 
signation, well knowing that his refusal would be 
ample deprivation. Whether he was forgotten, or 
whether the omission was winked at, does not ap- 
pear ; but he retained all his benefices to his dying 
day 5 . 

This charitable divine is placed standing in a 
graceful attitude, in his master of arts robes, in 
his own hair, under a canopy supported by two 
fluted pillars of the Corinthian order, of colored 
marble. On the side of him is Religion, repre- 
sented by a woman on a celestial globe, with a 
cross in one, and a font in the other hand. On 
the last is inscribed phskeia kagapa amiantos 
itapa to Ei. The doctor stands on a terres- 
trial globe, with a book in his hand, in which is 
written thn iiapakatahkhn $taaeon. The 
account of his various charities is placed on the 
pediment. 

To the corner of an aile, to make room for this 
sumptuous monument, was removed the tomb of 
a cross-legged [knight, armed in mail, and partly 
covered with a surtout. One hand is on his breast, 
the other on his sword. On an enormous shield, 
which is belted to his body, is a rude figure of a 

* Bentham's Hist, Ely, 263. 



272 TOUCESTER. 

lion passant guardant, and crowned. He is sup- 
posed to be one of the Gilbert de Gants, the an- 
tient owners. There were five of them. The first 
was great nephew to the Conqueror ; the last died 
in 1295. 

From hence I descended to the great road : the 
country hilly and clayey. The quarries are of a 
coarse grit stone, often filled with shells, but of 
too shattery a nature to be used, except in ordi- 
nary buildings. A few miles farther is an emi- 
nence, caHed Forsters Booth, so named from a 
booth erected here by one Forster, a poor coun- 
tryman. It grew at length into a scattered street 
of several houses and carriers inns, through which 
runs the Wat ling-street road in a direct line to 
Toucester, four miles distant. 
Toucester. This is a pretty considerable town, seated on a 
plain, on a small stream called the Tove, from 
which the name is derived ; Toucester, or the castle 
on the Tove. The great tumulus on the east side 
of the town, points out the site of the speculum or 
watch-tower. The Roman coins found in digging 
about, prove it to have been an appendage to a 
Roman station, whose name has never reached us. 
The Saxons took advantage of this little fortress, 
and added the foss which surrounded it. From 
them it received its present title of the Bury, or 



TOUCESTER. 73 

Borough, to which has been since added the dou- 
ble tautology of Berry Mount hill. 

The Saxons called the town Tqfeceastrc. In 
the time of Edxvard the Elder it was almost ru- 
ined by the ravages of the Danes ; but in 92 1 the 
king determined to restore it, and for that purpose 
detached part of his forces ; who, soon after their 
arrival, were attacked by the Danes resident in 
Northampton and Leicester l ; but, assisted by the 
townsmen, they repelled the barbarians ; and Ed- 
ward, in order to prevent future insults, fortified 
the whole place with a stone wall". But time 
hath destroyed every vestige of it. 

This manor, after various changes, became the 
property of the famous Sir Richard Empson, one 
of the instruments of the avarice and oppression 
of Henry VII; who, in 1509, lost his head, with 
Edmund Dudley, on Tower-hill ; perhaps more 
deservedly than legally. Empson was the son of 
a sieve-maker in this town : by his great abilities 
in the profession of the law, he was promoted to 
the chancellorship of the duchy of Lancaster ; but 
by his unbounded submission to the will of his ra- 
pacious master, fell a victim, in the next reign, to 
the demands of an enraged nation. At present, 
the manor belongs to the Earl of Ponifret, who 

Sax. Chr. 107. " Ibid. 108. 

T 



274 TOUCESTER CHURCH. 

derives it from his ancestor Richard Fermor, a 
merchant of Calais, and a younger brother of the 
antient house of the Fewnors, of Oxfordshire. 
Church. There was a church here at the Conquest, 
which was given by the Conqueror to the abbey 
of St. Wandragasile, in Normandy. In the pre- 
sent, is nothing remarkable, excepting the tomb 
of IVilliam Sponne, archdeacon of Norfolk, and 
rector of this parish in the reign of Henry VI. 
who founded here a college and chantry for two 
priests to say mass for his soul, and the souls 
of his friends. At the dissolution, it was worth 
. 19- 6s. Sd. a year x . He was also a great be- 
nefactor to the town, and his charities are still felt 
here, governed by feoffees, consisting of fifteen of 
the principal inhabitants. 

His figure is represented recumbent, dressed 
in a red gown, which reaches round his feet, with 
ermine hood and sleeves. Beneath is another re- 
presentation of him after death, with a sunk nose 
and emaciated body, and all the changes wrought 
by that fell monster on the human frame. 

The town is supported by the great concourse 
of passengers, and by a manufacture of lace, and 
a small one of silk stockings. The first was im- 
ported from Flanders, and is carried on with much 

* Tanner, 388. 



EASTON-NESTON. MANOR. 



9,75 



Easton- 
Neston. 



success in this place, and ' with still more in the 
neighboring county of Buckingham. 

I took a walk about a mile east of the town, 
to see Easton-Neston, the seat of the Earl of Pom- 
fret. The wings were built by Sir Christopher 
IVren, in 1682 ; the centre by Hawkesmore, about 
twenty years after, who is said to have departed 
greatly from the original design. It has nine win- 
dows in front, and is enriched with pilasters. The 
inside has been long since despoiled of its curious 
portraits and valuable statues : the latter having 
been presented to the university of Oxford, by the 
late Countess of Pomfret, grandaughter to the lord 
chancellor Jeffries. 

This manor was purchased by the same Richard Manor. 
Termor, in 1530, from Thomas, son of Sir Richard 
Empson. The antient house stood below the 
church, in a park inclosed by Sir Richard, by li- 
cence from Henry VII, at the time it came into 
the possession of Mr. Termor. He lived here 
with boundless hospitality, till the year 1540, 
when, for sending Sd. and a couple of shirts, to 
one Nicholas Thane, his confessor, then in prison 
at Buckingham for denying the king's supremacy, 
he incurred the tyrant's displeasure. He fell under 
a praemunire, and, in his old-age, being stripped 
of all he had, was forced to live with the parson of 
Wapenham (whom he had presented), and with 

t 2 



276 VVIL. SOMMERS: SINGULAR ANECDOTE. 

whom he lived for several years, an example of 
consummate piety and resignation y . 

The recovery of part of his fortune was owing 
to a singular accident. During his prosperous 
days he kept, as was usual in those times with 
people of rank, a fool or jester : his was the noted 
Wil. Som- Wil. Sommers, who, for his drollery, was promoted 
to the same office under Henry VIII. I have a 
very scarce print of this illustrious personage, by 
Delaram, with all the insignia of his place about 
him. Wil. with a gratitude not frequent at courts, 
remembered his old master ; and in the latter days 
of Henry, when his constitution was weakened 
by infirmities, took occasion, by some well-timed 
speech, to awaken the king's conscience; who, 
touched with a compunction rarely known to him, 
ordered restitution z ; but died before it could be 
effected. His pious successor, Eckvard VI. re- 
stored to him this manor, that of Toucester, and 
some others of his estates, and added many grants, 
by way of compensation for the injury done him ; 
but all fell short of the great losses he had sus- 
tained from the cruel father. He returned to his 
house, which he enjoyed only two years, dying in 
January 1552-3. He seemed to have a presage of 
his end ; for on the day of his death he had in* 

y Bridges, 290. z Collins's Peerage, v. 50, 



TOMBS IN EASTON-NESTON CHURCH. 277 

vited a number of his friends and neighbors; took 
his leave of them, retired to his closet, and was 
found dead in an attitude of devotion*. His tomb, 
with his figure in brass, and that of his wife, are 
still to be seen in the adjacent church. 

There are, besides, several other family-monu- Chdrch. 
ments. Sir John Termor (son of Richard) and 
Maud his wife, are represented kneeling at a desk, 
beneath an arch: she is dressed in a great ruff 
and lappets. He, perhaps out of respect to his 
father's sufferings in the cause of the see of Rome, 
received the honor of Knight of the Bath at the 
coronation of queen Mary. He died in 1571. 

His son Sir George lies in alabaster, recumbent 
and armed, with peaked beard and small whiskers. 
His wife, Mary daughter of Thomas Curzon, of 
Addington, Bucks, lies by him, dressed in a gown 
tied neatly with ribands from top to bottom, a 
quilled ruff, and great tete a caleche. Beneath 
are represented, kneeling, their seven sons and 
eight daughters. Above all, is a vast quantity of 
ornaments, arms, fyc. $c. This gentleman might, 
like Sir Fulk Grevil, have boasted of being the 
friend of Sir Philip Sydney, having contracted an 
intimacy with him in the wars in the Netherlands, 
where he served all his . youth, under William 

a Collins's Peerage, v. 50. 



27S TOMBS IN EASTON-NESTON CHURCH. 

prince of Orange, and walked at the funeral of the 
celebrated English hero. He also improved him- 
self by foreign travel; lived at home with vast 
splendor and hospitality ; and, on June 11,1 603, 
his house had the honor of being the place of 
meeting between James I. and his queen, on her 
journey from Scotland, to receive her new crown. 
Here they dined, and were entertained, with all 
their trains, in a princely manner b . He quitted 
this life in 1612. 

Sir Nation Termor, who with nine other gen- 
tlemen were knighted at the above interview, is 
also buried here. He died of the consequences 
of a broken leg, in 1620. He and his lady are 
very elegant figures, placed standing ; he armed ; 
in great boots, flapping down ; vast whiskers ; 
peaked beard ; and, what was not in use at the 
time of his death, a cravat. It seems the monu- 
ment was not erected till 1662, when his widow 
Anna, daughter of Sir William Cochain, lord 
mayor of London, gave this proof of her affection. 
She is dressed in a loose gown, and with long 
flowing tresses : her hand is on an hour-glass ; his 
on a scroll : between, is a bust of a man in long 
hair : above, are three most aukward figures of 
kneeling women. I must not quit the lady, with- 

* Collins, 52. 



Whittle- 
bury 



WHITTLEBURY FOREST. 279 

out saying she suffered, with exemplary patience, 
a long imprisonment and great confiscations, on 
account of the loyalty of her family ; which were 
rewarded with a peerage in the person of her son 
Sir William Fermor. 

From hence I continued my journey southward, 
and much of the way near the borders of Whit tie- 
wood, or Whittlebury Forest, which still continues 
wooded for several miles in length, and of different Forest. 
extents in breadth, in a most deep and clayey 
country. Much of the timber is cut in rotation, 
but in parts towards the edge of Buckinghamshire, 
are considerable quantities of good oak. This 
forest remained in the crown till the year 1685, 
when Henry Fitz-roy, first duke of Grafton, was 
appointed hereditary ranger. The present duke 
hath an elegant house, called Wakefield Lodge", 
originally built by Mr. Claypole, son-in-law to 
Oliver Cromwell, and ranger of the forest. This 
was one of the five tracts, called walks ; viz. 
Wakefield, Shelbrook, Hazelbury, Shrob, and 
Hanger. Fourteen townships are allowed the 
right of common in the open coppices and ridings, 
from the principle of justice, that some reparation 
might be made to them for the damages sustained 
by the deer. In this great tract are two lawns, 

c Designed by W. Kent. 



280 WHITTLEBURY FOREST. 

i . e. spots inclosed with pales, for pasture for the 
deer : one is Wakefield Lawn, the other Sholbrook 
Lawn, which are secluded from the forest cattle. 

That fierce animal the wild cat, is still met 
with in this forest. In the reign of Richard I. the 
abbot and convent of Peterborough had a charter 
for hunting in this place the hare, the fox, and the 
wild cat; which was confirmed to them, in 1253, 
by Henry III d . By these charters, it appears 
the wild cat should be added to the beasts of 
forest, or of venerie ; which the book of St. Albans, 
and old Sir Tristram, in his xvorthie Treatise of 
Hunting, confined to the hart, the hynde, the hare, 
the boare, and the wolfe : the hart and hind being 
separated, because the season of hunting them was 
different ; yet they remain in species still the same. 
Beasts of the chace (which was an inferior sort of 
forest) were the buck, the doe, the fox, the martin, 
and the roe c . 

The fondness that seized the regular clergy for 
the pleasures of the chace, did not appear till after 
the Conquest. The Saxon clergy were expressly 
forbidden the amusement. King Edgar directs 
the priest " to be neither a hunter nor hawker, 
nor yet a tippler ; but to keep close to his books, 
as becomes a man of his order'. " 

A Morton, 443. e Manwood's Forest Laws, 39. 

f Leges Saxon. 86. 



POTTERS PERY. 281 

The canon law still preserved its severity, and 
forbad to spiritual persons the amusement of the 
chace. This probably was rather designed to 
check what might, by the excess, estrange them 
from their sacred function. The common law, 
from a principle of good sense and humanity, per- 
mitted the recreation, because nothing could con- 
tribute more effectually to the performance of their 
duty than good health, resulting from fit exercise ; 
as nothing could disqualify them so greatly as the 
disorders arising from a sedentary life. This in- 
dulgence probably soon ended in abuse. In the 
twelfth century, we find Abelard unhappy in pre- 
siding over a monastery of huntsmen. Chaucer, 
as I have before quoted, flings a fine ridicule on 
the sporting monk. Finally, the chace became so 
necessary an appendage to the ecclesiastical state, 
that every see had a number of parks : that of 
Norivich, thirteen ; and the sixth mortuary which 
the king clamed on the death of a prelate, was his 
kennel of hounds. 

Pass by Potters Pery, a village which takes Potters 
its name from the manufacture of coarse ware, 
such as flower-pots, 8$c. which has been long car- 
ried on here. The clay is yellowish, pure, and 
firm; yet the pots made with it are very brittle, 
unless glazed ; when they endure the weather as 
well as any. 



282 PASSENHAM. OLD STRATFORD. 

The post-road is still continued the whole way 
on or near the Wat ling-street. Near Potters 
Pery I quitted it, through the curiosity of visiting 

Passenham. Passenham, about a mile or two distant, on the 
banks of the Ouze, near this village. Edzvard the 
Elder encamped here to cover his workmen, who 
were employed in building the walls of Toucester 1 , 
from being interrupted by the Danes. A square 
entrenchment is supposed to have been cast up by 
him, and garrisoned for that purpose. 
Church. The church is small, and without ailes ; dedi- 
cated to Guthlaius, the saint of the fens. It was 
rebuilt in 1626, at the sole expence of Sir Robert 
Banastre. This gentleman was lord of the ma- 
nor; he died in 1649, aged about eighty. His 
figure is a half-length, with a book in his hand, 
placed against the wall. His epitaph informs us, 
that he was born at Wem, in Shropshire ; that he 
was bred at court, and served three princes ; that 
he had three wives, and by the last an only daugh- 
ter, who conveyed the estate, by marriage with 
William lord Maynard, into that family ; a younger 
branch of which possesses it, as I apprehend, at 
present. 

I regained the great road, and passed through 

Stratford, the hamlet of Old Stratford, seated on rich mea- 

8 Saxon Chron. 103. 



OLD STRATFORD. 283 

dows, watered by the Ouzc, which rises in this 
county, not remote from Brackly. This place is 
reasonably supposed to have been the Lactodorum, 
or Lactorodum, of the Itinerary, as the distance 
suits extremely well, and Roman coins have been 
found in the neighboring fields. Antiquaries de- 
rive it from Llech dwr, and Llech ryd : one signi- 
fying the stone on the water ; the other, the stone 
on the ford h : a name bestowed on it by the Bri- 
tons, probably because the bank of the river was 
marked by a miliary stone on this great military 
way. I here cross the river into 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE ; 

which, with Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, form- 
ed the country of the Catticuchlani. The present 
name is, according to Mr. Camden, taken from 
the quantity of beeches found in parts of it; a 
word derived from the Saxon bucken. Two argu- 
ments serve to confirm the assertion of Caisar, 
that this tree was not found in Britain at the time 
of his invasion : one is, that the woods of it are 
merely local, and confined to a very few of our 
southern counties : the other is, that the Britons 
had no name for it, but what they derived from 

h See Gale, 60, and Burton, 144. 



284 STONEY STRATFORD. 

the Latin fagus ; for they stiled it, as we do still, 

Ffawydden, and Prenffawydd. 

On crossing the Ouze I entered Stoney Strat- 
Stoney < * 

Stratford, jm/, a town built on each side of the 1 Vat ling- 
street. It suffered greatly by fire on May the 
19th, 1742, which almost destroyed the whole 
place ; but it was soon restored by the vigour of 
English charity. One church (that of St. Giles) 
has never been rebuilt ; the body of the other (St. 
Magdalene s) is restored in a very handsome man- 
ner, by Mr. Irons, architect in Warwick, and, I 
suppose, enlarged sufficiently to supply the want 
of the other. St. Giles's had been a chantry, va- 
lued at 9,0. 2s. 6d. a year ; and was at the time 
of its ruin a curacy : St. Magdalene's was a cha- 
pel belonging to Wolverton, but is now in the pre- 
sentation of the parishioners. 

My journey was continued along the Street 
road to the 47th stone, where, tempted by the 
fame of certain monuments in Blecheley church, I 

T5t FCHFLFY 

Church, digressed about a mile and a quarter to the right. 
I found there a very fine alabaster tomb of Richard 

Tomb op k r d Grey of Wilton, restored by the celebrated 
Lord Grey, antiquarian Brozvn Willis, Esquire, who added an 
inscription, and in the front the arms. From the 
former we find, that besides Richard, his son Re- 
ginald, who died February 22, 1493; and his 



BLEdHELEY CHURCH. TOMBS. 285 

great grandson Edmund, who died in Water-hall 
on May 6th, 161 1 ; were interred here. 

This Richard Lord Grey, by will, dated at 
Blecheley, August 12, 1442, bequeaths his body 
to be buried in the church of the B. V. Mary of 
Blecheley ; and directs his executors to find a 
priest, for four years, to perform divine service in 
the said church for his soul ; and that they make 
a tomb of alabaster or marble, according to his 
state and degree. He bequeaths to the lady Mar- 
garet his wife, his manor of Burry-hall, in Essex, 
for life. The residue of his lands and goods he 
gives to his executors, to dispose of for the health 
of his soul ; viz. the lady Margaret Grey, Robert 
Darcy, Esquire, John Habethal, Esquire, Roger 
Eton Clerc, rector of Blecheley, and William 
Barker \ 

The tomb is of alabaster: his figure is armed, 
his hair cropt, his face without a beard ; round his 
neck is a collar of SS, and round the lower part 
of his armour is another collar of jewels, in the 
midst of which is a small shield with the cross of 
St. George; for he was made Knight of the Gar- 
ter by Richard II. On the fingers of his left 
hand are not fewer than six rings. 

Notwithstanding it may be thought tedious 

1 His will, dated Aug. 12, 1442. Mr. Cole's MSS. 



286 TOMBS IN BLECHELEY CHURCH. 

to many, yet I cannot forbear describing two mo- 
numents, full of the fashionable emblem, pun, and 
quibble of the times. The first is in memory of 
Dr.Sparke. Thomas Sparke, S. S ce . Theol. Dr. celeber. hu- 
jus eccle. rector vigilant issimus, as inscribed round 
the oval that contains his figure. A little altar 
with sparkling flames is placed near his name. 
The monument is a small but extremely neat one 
of brass, set in a white marble frame : on the top 
is the crest, a demi talbot rampant, studded with 
torteauxes, and sparks of fire issuing from his 
mouth : on the brass is finely engraven an altar- 
tomb, on the table of which is an urn, with sparks 
issuing from the mouth; and on the belly is 
written 

Non extincta, sepulta licet ; Scintilla favilla est. 

On the left side of the urn stands Death, in form 
of a skeleton, holding a spade, on the flat part of 
which, going to cover the mouth of the urn, is 
wrote Mors tegit ; and an angel in the heavens 
sounding a trumpet, from the end of which issues 
these words, Reteget nuntius iste tuba ; and on a 
scroll, in the same hand, is written, Ista caduca 
rosaest: just above which, in the other hand of 
the angel, is a fresh-blown rose, inscribed Sed re- 
novata tamen ; about the angel's head, and in the 
clouds, are several stars : and quite at top is writ- 



TOMBS IN BLECHELEY CHURCH. 287 

ten, Qui multos ad justitiam adducunt, ut stellce 
semper splendebunt. 

Fame, with her usual attributes of ears, eyes, 
and tongues, blowing a trumpet, stands on the 
other side of the urn. On each side of her are 
two scrolls : on one is, 

Vindex fama libros fatali tollit ab urna; 

on the other, 

Sic Scintilla micat quern tegit atra cinis. 

Fame holds in one hand a book, near the mouth 
of the urn, on which is written Funeral Sermons. 
On other books, scattered about, are inscribed, A 
Persuasive to Conformity ; A confortable Treatise 
for a troubled Conscience ; Motives to Qu. Eliza- 
beth for her Successor ; A Treatise of Catechising ; 
A Confutation of J. Albin ; and out of the mouth 
of the trumpet, The high way to Heaven. These 
were the works of the Doctor, who was a most 
famous controversialist, in the reigns of Elizabeth 
and James I. He is engraven in front of the 
tomb, a half-length, in gown, cassock, scarf, scull- 
cap, ruff, and square beard. On each side of him 
is a shield : on one is Scutum Jidei : on the other, 
Arma nostra sunt spiritualia. On one side of the 
figure are three clergymen in their habits, kneel- 
ing, with a church by each ; and beyond them two 



288 TOMBS IN BLECHELEY CHURCH. 

women in high-crowned hats. These five were 
his children, whom he admonishes, Filioli cavete 
vobis ab idolis ; and above their heads are these 
lines : 

Bis geniti, retinete, fidem zelumque paternum : 
Hoeredes vestri sic decet esse patris ; 

Sic decet, O mea tunc quam molliter ossa cubabunt 
Si licet in natis sic superesse meis : 

Scintillam Scintilla meam si vestra sequetur 
Orba sua flamma mors erit ara Dei. 

On the other side of his picture are represented 
his parishioners, with these verses : 

2 Cor. iii. 5. Ut sacra in populo signatur epistola Pauli 
Sic mea in hoc sancto lucet imago grege. 

Corporis in tabula datur imperfecta; sed ilia 
Cordibus in vestris viva figura mei est. 

Viva mei, dixi, Christi at sit vera figura ; 
Sat mihi si populus vera figura Dei. 

The Doctor died in 16 16; his wife the year 
before. Luckily, her name was Rose; which 
afforded fresh matter of allusions. 

Sixty-eight yea s a fragrant Rose she lasted : 
No vile reproach her virtues ever blasted. 
Her autumn past, expects a glorious spring, 
A second better life, more flourishing. 

The other is in memory of Mrs. Faith Taylor, 
wife of Mr. Edward Taylor, minister of the parish, 



. FENNY STRATFORD: CHAPEL. 289 

with many pretty sportings on the word Faith; 

but the dulness of this species of epitaph has so 

wearied me, as I fear it has the reader, that I dare 

not venture on the transcript of what was probably 

much admired at the period of its composition. 

From hence I got into the great road at Fenmj _ Fenny 

<=> o ^ Stratford. 

Stratford, so called from its situation. The cha- 
pel, which is in the parish of Blecheley, was re- Chapel. 
built, and endowed at the expence of Mr. Brown 
TVillis and his friends. His residence was near the 
church of Blecheley ; but, having a great predilec- 
tion for the works of his own hands, he intrusted 
to the Reverend William Cole, then rector of the 
parish, the following inscription ; which Mr. Cole 
was requested to cause to be inscribed on a white 
marble stone fineered with black, to be laid over 
him in this chapel. 

Hie situs est 

Brown Willis, antiquarius 

Cujus CI. Avi aeternee memoriae 

TJio. Willis, archiatri totius Europe celeberrimi, 

Defuncti die Sancti Martini, A. D. 1675 

Haec capella exiguum monumentum est. 

Obiit Feb. 5 die, Anno Domini 1760. 

.SStatis suae 78. 

O Christe. Soter et Judex, 
Huic peccatorum primo 
Miserecors et propitius esto. 

V 



290 LITTLE BRICKHILL. HOCKLEY. 

On the cieling are the arms of all benefactors of 
ten pounds and upwards. The chapel had been 
originally a chantry k . The new building was de- 
dicated to St. Martin, out of respect to his grand- 
father, who happened to die on that day. The 
same great physician first made a settlement in 
this parish, by the purchase of the manor of 
Blecheley, and that of Fenny Stratford, from the 
last George Villiers Duke of Buckingham. 
. From hence I kept a gentle ascent to Little 

Little r & 

Brickhill. Brichhill, seated on the steep of a long range of 
sand-hills, divided by pleasant woody dingles, 
which extend for a considerable way, and form a 
lofty frontier at this end of the county. Very soon 
after my passage over them, I entered the county 
of 

BEDFORD, 

and proceeded as far as Dunstable on the Wat- 
ling-street, which goes directly to this town. In 
the beginning it crosses a most undulated descent. 
On the left are the woods and park of Battlesdon, 
a seat of Mrs. Page '. In the bottom go through 
Hockley. Hockley in the Hole; a long range of houses, 
mostly inns, built on each side of the road. The 

k Ecton, 217. 

1 Now of Sir Gregory Page, Bart. Eu. 



HOCKCLIFF. CHALK-HILL. 291 

English rage of novelty is strongly tempted by 
one sagacious publican, who informs us on his 
sign, of news-papers being to be seen at his house 
every day in the week. 

At this place, whose proper name is Occleie, Hockcliff, 
or Hockcliff, was an hospital, with a master and 
several brethren, dedicated to St. John the Bap- 
tist m . In 1283 here was a feudal quarrel, be- 
tween the people of the priory of Dunstaple and 
those of William de Muntcheny, a potent baron, 
in which one John the Smith was killed on the 
side of the priory, and Thomas Mustard, a fierce 
knave, on the other n . In old times, such contests 
Were very frequent, and very fatal : men were al- 
ways formed into parties, and ready to pursue the 
most bloody measures on the most trivial occa- 
sions. 

Two miles farther, I reached the foot of Chalk- Chalk- 
Hill. 
hill, formerly of a tremendous steepness, and the 

terror of country passengers ; at present formed 
into an easy ascent. This is the first specimen 
the traveller meets with of the great chalky stra- 
tum which intersects the kingdom. A line drawn 
from Dorchester, in the county of Dorset, to the 
county of Norfolk, would include all the chalky 
beds of the kingdom ; for none are found in any 

m Tanner, 8. n Chron. Dunstaple, ii. 483. 

U 2 



292 IMAIDEN'S BOWER. DUNSTABLE. 

quantity to the west of that line. This earth was 
in great estimation, and an article of commerce in 
the time of the Romans. The workers in it had 
their goddess Nehelennia, who presided over it. 
To her we find this votive altar : 

DE^E NEHELENNIA 

Ob merces rite conservatas 

M. Secundus Silvanus 

Negotor Cretarius 

Britannicianus 

V.S.L.M. 

After ascending the hill, I turned about half 
Bower, a mile out of the road, to visit Maiden's Bower, a 
very large Danish camp, of a circular form, sur- 
rounded with a great rampart and a ditch on its 
side : it lies on a plain, with a portion verging to- 
wards a brow, hanging over a valley. Its history 
is unknown ; yet it merits a visit, as the camps of 
the Danes are not very common in our kingdom. 
Dunstable. After a mile's descent, enter Dunstable, a 
long town, built on each side of the Watling- 
street, and intersected in the middle by the Ick- 
nield-street. This town was the Magiovinum, or 
Magioventum, of the Itinerary ; and probably 
had four portce, answerable to the great roads. 
The Icknield-street issues out on the north side 
of the church. Antiquarians derive the name, 
very properly, from Maes Gwyn, or the white 



DUNSTABLE. 293 

field, from the color of the chalky soil. Roman 
money has been found about the place, which the 
country people call madning money ; this, as Dr. 
Stukeley observes, can have no reference to Maid 
en's Bower, which belonged to another people: 
but on a hill, called Castle-hill, about half a mile 
west of it, is a Roman camp ; within which, near 
one end, is a large mount, very hollow in the top; 
and near the outside of one of the ramparts is a 
deep hole, probably the place of the draw-well. 
The whole stands on a steep promontory, project- 
ing westward. 

The place was certainly occupied by the Sax~ 
ons, after the departure of the Romans. We can 
indeed only argue from the present name, Dun- 
Staple, the mart near the hill. We cannot allow 
the monkish legend, that it was called Dun's Sta- 
ble, or the stable of a robber of that name. It 
probably was a waste at the time of the Conquest, 
as many places were, and might become a harbour 
of thieves, by reason of the woods with which the 
country was over-run. This determined Henry I. 
to colonize the spot; for that purpose, he en- 
couraged people by proclamation to settle there, 
and, in order to destroy the shelter which the fo- 
rest gave to robbers, directed the woods to be 
grubbed up. He also built a royal palace, called 



294 DUNSTABLE: PRIORY. 

Kingsbury 1 which stood near the church, and 
whose site is now occupied by a farm-house. Here 
he kept his Christmas in 1123, with his whole 
court, and received at the same time the embassy 
from the Earl of Anjou p . He made the town a 
borough, bestowed on it a fair and a market, and 
various other privileges ; particularly, that the in- 
habitants should not be liable to be called before 
the itinerant justices, but that their causes should 
be determined by the justices of the king, and a 
jury of twelve of the burgesses 9 . He kept the 
town seventeen years in his own hands, and then 
bestowed it, with all its privileges (reserving only 
Priory, his royal residence) on the priory, which he found- 
ed here some time after the year 1131, for black 
canons, in honor of St. Peter. At the time of 
the dissolution, here were a prior and twelve ca- 
nons, whose revenues, according to Dugdale, were 
^.344. 13s. 3d. a year: to Speed, AOQ. Us. Id. 
The last prior was Gervase Markham, whOj 
with his canons, subscribed to the king's supre- 
macy in 1534; and on the dissolution, had a pen- 
sion of sixty pounds a year for life. His reward 
was the greater, as his convent was the residence 
of the commissioners for carrying on the divorce 

Slow, 136. Dugdale Monast. ii. 132. Sax. Chr.22t.Ma- 
dox Aruiq. Exch. i. 1 2. s Dugdale Mon. ii. 1 33. 



DUNSTABLE CHURCH. 



295 



between Henry VIII. and Catharine of Arragon; 
in which he took an active part r . The unfortu- 
nate princess at that time resided at Ampthill, in 
this neighborhood. 

The church, and an arch in the wall adjoining, Church. 
are the only remains of the priory. The front of 
the church is singular, having a gallery divided by 
carved gothic arches ; a great door with a round 
arch richly carved with scrolls and ovals, including 
human figures ; and the capitals of the pillars cut 
into grotesque forms. The lesser door is gothic, 
richly ornamented with nail heads. Between both 
doors is a row of false arches interlaced ; the co- 
lumns consist of very singular greater and lesser 
joints, placed alternate, not unlike one species of 
the fossils called entrochi. 

The steeple is attached to one side of the front, Steeple. 
and has two rows of niches, now deprived of their 
statues. Formerly another tower corresponded 
with this: both fell down in 1221, and destroyed 
the prior's hall and part of the church 5 . The 
body was rebuilt in 1273, by the parishioners; 
but one Henry Chedde went to the greatest ex- 
pence*. The inside of the church is supported 
by six round arches, all plain except one: the 



r Willis's Abbies, ii. 2. 

8 Chron. de Dunstaple, i. 12(5. 



* The same, 417. 



296 TOMBS IN DUNSTABLE CHURCH. 

windows above are also round at the top. Either 
the supposed date of the rebuilding is wrong, or the 
Saxon or round-arched mode must have continued 
later than is generally allowed. 

The church was originally in form of a cross, 
with a tower in the center. Two of the vast pil- 
lars which supported it are still to be seen at the 
east end. 

Above the altar is a large and handsome paint- 
ing of the Last Supper by Sir James Thornhill ; 
which, with the plate and rich pulpit-cloth, were 
the gift of two widows, of the name of Cart and 
Ashton. 

I omitted in its place a visit made to the 
priory by Henry III. and his family; when the 
monks presented the king with a gilt cup, and the 
queen with another, and gave his son Edward and 
daughter Margaret a gold clasp apiece. In re- 
turn, the royal visitants bestowed on the church 
eight pieces of silk ; and the king gave C shillings 
for making of a thuribule and a piv u . 
Tombs. I MET w ith some antient tombs, dated between 
the years 1400 and 1500 ; but none of dignity suf- 
ficient to be particularised. Sir Ke?ielm Digbys 
famous pedigree-book has preserved one, in me- 
mory of William Mulso and his wife x . Both are 

B Ckron. de Dunstaple, i. 277. x The same, 598, 



TOMBS IN DUNSTABLE CHURCH. 297 

dressed in their gowns, with their hands in the at- 
titude of prayer. At his feet is a group of eleven 
sons ; at her's, another of seven daughters. The 
attributes of the four evangelists are placed at the 
corners. Between their feet were these lines : 



Hie William Mulso sibi quam sociavit et Alice 
Marmore sub duro conclusit sors generalis : 
Ter tres, bis quinos hie natos fertur habere 
Per sponsos binos, Deus hiis clemens miserere. 



This gentleman was oiThingdon, in the county of 
Northampton. The name of the lady, Alice Mar- 
more, the same that Fuller, by a singular mis- 
conception of the epitaph, reports to have had 
" nineteen children at five births, viz, three sever- 
" al times three children at a birth, and five at a 
" birth, two other times 7 ." 

Besides the religious house, was one of friars 
preachers, who settled here about 125$. It was 
valued at only 4/. 1 8*. 4d ; and at the dissolution 
its site was granted to Sir William Herbert. These 
brethren, as the Chronicle says, came sorely 
against the will of the monks, per summam indu- 
striam et seductionem; but by their interest with the 
king, queen, and courtiers, got leave to stay here z . 

y British Worthies, p; 1 19. * Chr. Dunst. i. 341. 



DUNSTABLE: MANUFACTURE. 

It seems the inhabitants of the priory did not like 
such insinuating interlopers as Chaucer describes 
this order to have been, who were sure to win all 
the penitent males and females. 

Full swetely herde he confession, 
And pleasant was his absolution. 



Here was a house or hospital for lepers. 
Whether it was the same with that marked at the 
post-house, a mile west of the town in the new map, 
I cannot determine. 

The schools here were probably considerable; 
for I find the quarrels between the scholars and 
the townsmen important enough to be mentioned 
in the Chronicle. 

This town is now supported chiefly by the 
ture. great passage of travellers. A small neat manufac- 
ture of straw-hats, and baskets, and toys, main- 
tains many of the poor. In old time the breweries 
raised many of the inhabitants to great wealth. 
We are told by Holinshed of one William Murlie, 
an eminent brewer in this town, who sallied out 
in the time of Henry V. to join the foolish insur- 
rection of the Lollards, near London, followed 
by two led horses with gilt trappings. He also 
took with him a pair of gilt spurs, ready to wear 
on his receiving from Lord Cobham the honour of 



Manufac- 



MARKET CELL. 299 

knighthood a , but had the hard luck to be taken, 
and hung, with them about his neck. 

About four miles from Dunstable I passed by 
Market Cell, at present a gentleman's seat ; for- ^*" T 
merly a nunnery of Benedictines, dedicated to the 
Holy Trinity of the Wood. Legend ascribes its 
origin to Roger, a monk of Saint Alban, who, on 
his return from Jerusalem, led here an eremetical 
life ; and, taking under his care Christiana, a rich 
virgin of Huntingdon, inspired her with the same 
contempt of the world. She succeeded to his cell, 
resisted many temptations, was visited by many di- 
vine visions, and many miracles were wrought in 
her favour \ She was patronized by Geoffry, elect- 
ed abbot of St. Albans in 1 1 19, who built and en- 
dowed a house and constituted Christiana first ab- 
bess. The site of some adjoining lands were the 
gift of the dean and chapter of St. Paul c , the 
rest of the pious work resulted solely from the ab- 
bot, who twice rebuilt the same, after it had suf- 
fered by fire d : but Matthew Paris complains, that 
all this was done at the expence of the convent of 
St. Albans, and even without its consent, to the 
great injury of the church. In the time of 
Henry VIII. Humphry Boucher % " base sunne 

* Hollinshed p. 544. fi Dugdalc Monast. i. 350 &c. &c. 

c Ibid. ii. 872. d Matthew Paris, 1013. 

e Leland Itin. i. 116. 



SOO FLAMSTED. 

" to the late Berners, did much cost in translating 
" of the priory into a maner place ;" i. e. convert- 
ing it into a mansion for himself, but left it unfi- 
nished. It probably was granted to him; but it 
afterwards was bestowed by Edward VI. on 
George Ferrers. At the dissolution it was valued 
by Dugdale at of 1 14 \6s. Id. a year ; by Speed dX 
ol43 8s. 3d { . 

It appears that these religious were grievously 
oppressed by a neighboring knight; of whom they 
complained in certain lines too ludicrous to be 
inserted 8 . Whether they got any redress does not 
appear. 

After passing through the village of Market- 
Street, built on each side of the Wat ling-street 
road, I entered the county of 

HERTFORD, 

and near the twenty eighth mile stone leave on the 
right Flamsted where stood a small priory of Bene- 
Flamsted. dictine nuns, founded in the time of King Stephen, 
by Roger de Tonei. The manor had been granted 
by the Conqueror to Ralph de Tonei. His predeces- 
sor was a Saxon knight called Thurnoth, who in the 
true spirit of the times, engaged with thirteen soldiers, 
JValdef, and Thurman, to protect all passengers from 

f Tanner, 4. 8 See Weever, 585. 



REDBURN. 301 

the thieves and wild beasts which then infested the 
road, and in time of war, to protect the church of 
St. Albans with all their might. Leqfftan, abbot 
of that convent in the time of the Confessor, facili- 
tated the undertaking, by cutting down the great 
woods on the side of the IVat ling-street which 
gave shelter to robbers. He bestowed on Thur- 
noth this manor : who, in return, presentedXft^- 
tan with five ounces of gold and a fair palfrey. 
Thurnoth at the Conquest resisted the power of the 
Norman invader ; who bestowed it on de Tonei and 
directed that the same services should be strictly 
performed to the abbey \ 

About three miles further, go through Redburn, Rboburk. 
a small town, built like Market Street on each 
side of the antient road. At this place were dis- 
covered the bones of Saint Amphibalus, the noble 
Briton, who lodging at the house of St. Alban at 
Verulam, proved the means of his conversion. In 
the Diocletian persecution he was diligently sought 
after ; but St. Alban generously determined not to 
give up his guest, promoted his escape by putting 
on his preceptor's cloak, and suffering himself to be 
seized by the soldiers in his stead 1 . Amphibalus 

h Chauncy 432, who by mistake calls this de Tonei Roger; 
but in page 565 gives him his right name. 
1 Bede de Br. Eccl. 539. 



302 REDBURN: CELL: 

for a time evaded their fury, but was at length 
seized, and underwent a most cruel death k , on the 
spot on which his pious convert was martyred. 
The Christians stole the body and gave it a private 
interment at this place. In 1178, the reliques 
were removed to St. Albans, enshrined near those 
of his fellow-sufferer, and a prior and three 
monks, with QOs. a year, were appointed guardians 
of the sacred deposit. I am sorry to find, that, af- 
ter all, the very existence of this saint is doubted ; 
for there are some who believe that the saint was 
no more than an amphibalus, a long cloak, which 
St. Alban, before he went to execution, threw 
about him; which being at length personified, was 
canonized, and received into the Kalendar !. 

A cell consisting of a prior and a few Bene- 
dictines from St. Albans, was placed here. It 
was dedicated to St. Amphibalus and his compa- 
nions, and was inhabited before 1 195. After the 
dissolution, it was, with the manor, granted to 
John Cork" 1 . 

The present great road, a little beyond this 
place, quits the Wat ling-street , which runs direct 
on the right to Verulam. The former can boast of 
no great extent of view, but is bounded by beauti- 

k Weever's Fun. Mm. 585. 

1 Usher de Br. Eccl. 539. a Tanner, 185. 



Chalk. 



SOIL. 305 

ful risings varied with woods, and inclosures dress- 
ed with a garden-like elegance. The common 
soil is almost covered with flints : the stratum be- 
neath is chalk, which is used for a manure. Pliny 
describes this British earth under the title Creta 
argentaria, and addspe^Ywr ex alto, in centenos 
pedes, actis plerunque puteis, ore angustatis intus, 
ut in metallis spatiante vena. Hac maxime Bri- 
tannia utitur B . This very method is used in the 
county at present. The farmer sinks a pit, and 
(in the terms of a miner) drives out on all sides, 
leaving a sufficient roof, and draws up the chalk 
in buckets, through a narrow mouth. Pliny in- 
forms us, in his remarks on the British marls, that 
they will last eighty years, and that there is not 
an example of any person being obliged to marl 
his land twice in his life . An experienced farmer, 
whom I met with in Hertfordshire, assured me, 
that he had about thirty years before made use of 
this manure on a field of his, and that, should he 
live to the period mentioned by the Roman natu- 
ralist, he thought he should not have occasion for 
a repetition. 

This bottom is watered by the small stream of 
the Verlume, Ver, or Mure ; which rises at Row- 
beach, beyond Market-street # flows by Flamsted, 

Lib. xr'ii. c. 8. * The same. 



304 GORHAMBURY. 

Redburn, and St. Albans ; and loses itself and 
name in the Coin, a little N. E. of Colney -street. 
About a mile and a half from St. Albans I 
Gorham- turne d out of the road to the right, to visit Gor- 
BURY - hambury, the venerable seat of that glory of our 
country Sir Francis Bacon Viscount Verulam. His 
matchless talents, his deplorable weaknesses, and 
his merited fall, have been the subjects of so many 
able pens, that it would be a presumption in me 
to enter into a detail either of his life or works. I 
shall prefer giving an account of the place, and 
perhaps touch incidentally on what may relate 
to one whom Mr. JValpole justly stiles " The 
" Prophet of the Arts, which Newton was sent 
afterwards to reveal." 

This manor was, from very antient times, part 
of the lands of the abbey of St. Albans : the ori- 
ginal name is not delivered to us ; that which it 
has at present was derived from Robert de Gor- 
ham, erected abbot of the house in 1151. Mr. 
Salmon conjectures, that he might have built here 
a villa p : a luxury not unfrequent with the abbots 
of the richer houses. In 1540, Henry VIII. made 
a grant of it to Ralph, afterwards Sir Ralph Roxvlet, 
who sold it to Sir Nicholas Bacon, the worthy 
and able lord keeper, and father of the great Lord 

* Salmon Hist, Hertf. 83. Chauncy, 464. 



GORHAMBURY. 305 

Verulam. The elegance of his taste was apparent 
in his buildings, which confirm the observation of 
Lloyd q , that " his use of learned artists was con- 
" tinual." To him we are indebted for Redgrave', 
in Suffolk, and the seat in question. In both he 
adhered to his rational motto, Mediocria Fir ma. 
He is said to have departed a little from it in the 
instance of Redgrave, but not till after his royal 
mistress, Avho honored him with a visit there, told 
him, " You have made your house too little for 
" your lordship." ' No, madam,' replied he ; 
' but your highness has made me too big for the 
' house.' But after this, he added the wings \ 

The building consists of two parts, discordant 
in their manner, yet in various respects of a clas- 
sical taste. On the outside of the portion which 
forms the approach is the piazza, or porticus, with 
a range of pillars of the Tuscan order in front, 
where the philosophic inhabitants walked and held 
their learned discourse ; and withinside is a court 
with another piazza ; the one being intended for 
enjoying the shade, the other to catch, during win- 
ter, the comfortable warmth of the sun. The walls 
of the piazzas are painted alfresco, with the ad- 

i. 356. 

r Redgrave has unfortunately shared the fate of Gorhambury; 
a modern house has been erected on its ruins. Ed. 

5 Collins' 's Baronets,u ' .. 

X 



306 GORHAMBURY. 

ventures of Ulysses, by Van Koepen. In one is a 
statue of Henry VIII ; in the other a bust of the 
founder, Sir Nicholas Bacon, and another of his 
lady. Over the entrance from the court into the 
hall, are these plain verses ; which prove the date 
of the building to have been 1571. 

Haec cum perfecit Nicholaus tecta Baconua 
Elizabeth regni lustra fuere duo. 
Factus eques magni custos fuit ipse sigilli. 
Gloria sit soli tota tributa Deo. 

MEDIOCRIA. FlRMA. 

Somes lines over the statue of Orpheus, that once 
stood on the entrance into the orchard, shew what 
a waste the place was before it was possessed by 
this great man. 

Horrida nuper eram aspectu latebra^que ferarum ; 

Ruricolis tantum numinibusque locus. 
Edoinitor fausto hie dum forte supervenit Orpheus, 

Ulterius qui me non sinit esse rudem : 
Gonvocat avulsis virgulta virentia truncis, 

Et sedem quae vel diis placuisse potest. 
Sicque mei cultor, sic est mihi cultus et Orpheus; 

Floreat o noster cultus amorque diu. 

In the orchard was built an elegant summer- 
house (no longer existing) not dedicated to Baccha- 



GORHAMBURY. 307 

nalian festivities 1 , but to refined converse on the 
liberal arts ; which were decyphered on the walls, 
with the heads of Cicero, Aristotle, Donatus, Co- 
pernicus, and other illustrious antients and mo- 
derns, who had excelled in each". This room 
seemed to have answered to the Dia;ta, or favorite 
summer-room of the younger Pliny, at his beloved 
Laurent inum, built for the enjoyment of an ele- 
gant privacy, apart from the noise of his house x . 
Methinks I discover many similitudes between the 
villa of the Roman orator and that of our great 
countryman. This building, the porticos suited 
for both seasons * a crypto porticus, or noble gal- 
lery, over z the other, and finally, towers placed at 
different parts recall to mind the disposition of the 
villa, so fully described by its philosophic owner*. 
The hall is large and lofty, with a gallery 

1 Welsh Tour. tt Weever's Fun. Mon. 584. 

x Lib. ii. epist. 17. 7 Lib. v. epist. 6. 

z Lib. ii. epist. 17. 

a This venerable edifice, of which the greatest part was 
slightly built with framed wood and plaister, having fallen to 
decay, a new and handsome mansion was erected at a small 
distance from the site of the former by the late Viscount Grim' 
slon. 

The editor has preserved the description of the old houe. 
The valuable collection of portraits is described according to 
the order in which they are now placed. Ed. 

X2 



509 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

above ; in the lower part are various full-length 
portraits. 

James I. Among them three of the Stuart line; James L 
Charles II. and James II. The first is dressed 
in black, barred with gold. Typical of the 
Stuarts, the prerogative is before his eyes, in form 
of the crown and sceptre. 

William William III. who gave us the power of hap- 
piness, makes a fifth portrait in this royal succes- 
sion. 

George I. An equestrian portrait of George I. by Sir 
Godfrey Kneller. 
Maurice of Maurice of Nassau, third son to Frederic, 

.Nassau. 

the unfortunate Elector Palatine. 
Sir Samuel Sir Samuel Grimston, by Lely, in a Ions wig 

Grimston. \ if i 

and laced cravat. He had rendered himself so ob- 
noxious to James II. as to be excepted out of an 
act of grace, when that prince meditated a descent 
in 1692. 
His two His two wives, by Lely, lady Anne Tufton, and 
lady Elizabeth Finch, the last, daughter of lord 
chancellor the Earl of Nottingham. 

Sir Harbot- Sir Har bottle Grimston, Baronet, in black, with 
tle Grim- 
ston. a turn-over and black coif, leaning on a slab. On 

the picture is this motto, 

Nee pudet vivere, nee piget me-ri. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. S09 

This gentleman was one of those worthy persons 
who set out with a view of reforming the abuses of 
the arbitrary court of Charles I. but whose mode- 
ration and good sense made them oppose their own 
party, when it attempted measures subversive of 
the constitution : in consequence, he, with several 
others, were excluded the House. In 1 656, he was 
elected one of Cromwell's p&rlement; but not being 
approved of by the slavish council of the usurper, 
was laid aside. He was active in promoting the 
Restoration; was chosen speaker of the parle- 
ment, was rewarded with the mastership of the 
Rolls, and died in great reputation, at the age of 
ninety, in 1683. 

His first wife, daughter to Sir George Croke: His Wives* 
the second, Anne the daughter of Sir Nathaniel 
Bacon, and widow to Sir Thomas Meautys. 

Doctor Burnet, chaplain to Sir Harbottle Doctor 
Grimston, and afterwards the celebrated Bishop 
of Salisbury, probably painted during his residence 
in Sir Harbottle s family. 

The gallant fickle Earl of Holland, in a striped earl of 

and very rich dress : a hat with red feather in his HoLLAND - 

hand, the blue riband across his breast. 

Sir Edward Sackville, the accomplished, witty, Earl op 

. Dorset. 

and learned Earl of Dorset ; a nobleman of quick 

passions and resentments, violent in his friendships 

and enmities. In the great national quarrel be- 



S10 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

tween the English and Scots at Croydon races, 
he alone left his countrymen and sided with the 
latter, out of friendship to Lord Bruce, for which, 
had not the affray been prevented, the English 
had fixed on Sir Edward as the first victim b : yet 
a dispute with his beloved Scot produced the fa- 
mous duel, which was pursued with unheard of 
animosity, and terminated in the death of 
Bruce c . He behaved in the public quarrel of his 
royal master with equal spirit, and survived till 

1652. 

Sir John c t i rr 

Howe. ^ir John Howe. 

Lady Howe. Lady Howe, with white long hair, daughter to 

Sir Harbottle Grimston. Both by Lely. 

SirHarbot- Sir Harbottle Luckyn. Baronet, by Sir G. 

TLE LUC- & ' 'J 

kyn. Kneller, in a blue coat, long white wig, and 

breast-plate ; a castle at a distance. 
Lady Anna Sophia countess of Carnarvon, a copy 

from Vandyck. 
SirGeorge a half-length of Sir George Croke, one 

Croke. 

of the judges of the King's Bench in the time 
of Charles I. in his robes; distinguished for his 
knowledge of the laws. He was one of the 
judges who had the honor of deciding against the 
legality of ship-money ; yet still, on account of his 

* Osborris reign of King James, paragraph 26. 
e For an account of this dreadful affair read the Guardian > 
N 129. 133. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. SU 

eminent qualities, preserved the favor of the court. 
When sunk in years, and petitioning for a retreat, 
the King granted his request, and rewarded his 
services with the fees and honor of chief justice 
during life. Mundum vicit et deseruit, says his 
epitaph, at. 82. Anno R. C. I. 17. Anno Do- 
mini 1641. 

His lady in black, with a lawn ruff: her por- His Lady. 
trait is dated 1626. Lady Croke should by no 
means be passed unnoticed ; especially as IVhite- 
lock* gives her the chief merit in her husband's de- 
cision in the case of ship-money. He had it seems 
resolved on the contrary side, but appearing wa- 
vering, was told by his wife, " that she hoped he 
" would do nothing against his conscience, for 
" fear of any danger or prejudice to him or his 
" family; and that she would be contented to suffer 
" want or any misery with him, rather than be an 
" occasion for him to do or say any thing against 
" his judgment or conscience." 

Half-length of a beautiful woman reading, Melancho- 

ly Cook. 
called the Melancholy Cook 6 . 

Sir Francis Bacon, a three-quarter length. Bacon. " 

Philip Earl of Pembroke an half length : a Philip 

complete contrast to his brother William, was Pembroke. 

d Lloyd ii. 267. Memorials 25. 

c This is now called a Sibyll, and is said to have been 
painted by John Vandcr Meer. Ed. 



312 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

rude, reprobate, boisterous, and devoted to his 
dogs and horses : so mean as to receive tamely a 
horse- whipping from one Ramsay, a Scotchman, at 
a public horse-race, and for his civility in not re- 
senting the insult, was rewarded by the peaceful 
James, by being made . a knight, baron, viscount, 
and earl, on the same day. His mother, 

Sydney's sister, Pembroke's mother, 



tore her hair when she heard of her son's disgrace. 
He was likewise lord chamberlain to Charles I. 
and, as Osborn observes, in that office broke with 
his white rod many wiser heads than his own ; but 
his fear always secured him by a quick and ample 
submission. Notwithstanding the profundity of 
his ignorance he became, on the king's imprison- 
ment, chancellor of the university of Oxford, a fit 
instrument for the eradication of royalty. A noble 
statue of him stands in the picture-gallery. On 
the Usurpation, he had the meanness to sit in 
Cromwell's mock parlement as knight of the shire 
for Berkshire ; and concluded his despicable life 
on January the 23d, 1649-50. 
George George Carezv Earl of Totness in a white 
Totness. flowered jacket ; hand on his sword ; white beard, 
and short hair : a nobleman celebrated as a war- 
rior, scholar, and author. He was son of a dean 
of Exeter ; received his education at Oxford. His 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 313 

active spirit led him from his studies into the 
army; but in 1589, he was created master of 
arts. The scene of his military exploits was 
Ireland, where, in the year 1599, he was presi- 
dent of Munster. With a small force he reduced 
a great part of the province to her Majesty's go- 
vernment, took the titular Earl of Desmond pri- 
soner, and brought numbers of the rebellious Septs 
to obedience 6 . The queen honored him with a 
letter of thanks under her own hand f . He left his 
province in general peace in 1603, and arrived in 
England three days before the death of his royal 
mistress. Her successor rewarded his service, by 
making him governor of Guernsey, creating him 
Lord Carezv, of Clopton, and appointing him ma- 
ster of the ordnance for life. ' Charles I. on his ac- 
cession, created him Earl of Totness*. He died in 
March 1629, aged seventy-three, and was in- 
terred beneath a magnificent monument at Strat- 
ford upon Avon. He was not less distinguished 
by his pen than his sword. In his book Pacata 
Jiiberma, he wrote his own commentaries; of 
which his modesty prevented the publication dur- 
ing life. He collected four volumes of Antiquities 
relating to Ireland, at this time preserved un- 

e Prince's Worthies of Devonshire, 197. 
f The same. 
5 Prince, 198. 



314 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

heeded in the Bodleian library : he collected ma- 
terials for the life of Henry V. h digested by Speed, 
into his Chronicle. To conclude, he merited en- 
tirely the encomium given him by Wood, of being 
" a faithful subject, valiant and prudent com- 
" mander, an honest counsellor, a gentle scholar, 
" a lover of antiquities, and great patron of learn- 
" nig 1 ." 
Margaret A beautiful picture of Lady Margaret Bus- 

Countess of 

Cumber- sel, daughter to Francis Earl of Bedford, and wife 
to George Earl of Cumberland, and mother to the 
celebrated Anne Clifford: a lady happier in the 
filial affections of her daughter than the conjugal 
tenderness of her husband ; who, taken up with 
military glory, and the pomps of tilts and tourna- 
ments, paid little attention to domestic duties. In 
her diary, which is preserved in manuscript, I 
find she suffered even to poverty, and complains 
of her ill usage in a most suppliant and pathetic 
manner. Her lord felt heavy compunction on his 
death-bed. I cannot help relating two of the 
minuticB of her journal. She relates that " Anne 
" Clifford was begot on her the first of May 
" 1589, in Channel-row house, hard by the river 
u Thames ; and in Skipton Castle on Bardon- 
" torver, she felt a child stir in her belly." She 

h Athen. Ox on. i. 529. 
1 Dugdale Baron, ii. 310. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 313 

survived her lord. The dress of the portrait is 
very elegant. Her hair is turned up before, and 
backed with chains of pearl. Over her head is a 
black feather : a beautiful ruff and pearl necklace 
surround her neck. Her gown is black, hung with 
chains, and set with ornaments of pearl. 

In the gallery over the hall are the portraits of 
Charles Hoxvard Earl of Nottingham, lord eakl^f 
high admiral, drest in robes, with a view of a Notting- 

HAM. 

fleet and storm; the conqueror of the Spanish 
armada. 

Henry Duke of Gloucester, in a buff coat, Henry 

Duke of 

breast-plate, long black hair, the Garter, and a Gloucester. 

truncheon. A prince whose eminent virtues made 

his early end universally deplored. He died in 

1660, in his twenty-first year, feelingly lamented 

by his brother Charles, who was never observed 

to shew a sensibility equal to what he did on this 

occasion. 

A head of Mr. Chiffinch. finch!*** 

Sir Capel Lucky n, who, by his marriage with S ' R Capbi. 
Mary the eldest daughter of Sir Harbottle Grim- 
ston, brought the Gorhambury estate into the fa- 
mily, which exchanged its name for that of his 
lady. 

CHARLES I. r Charles I. 

Mary Viscountess Barrington, daughter of v g^ l"* 
Henry Lovell, Esq. She first married Samuel T0N - 



316 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

the eldest son of IVilliam Viscount Grimston, 
and secondly, William Viscount Harrington. 
SirWilliam ir iyun am father to Sir Capel Luckyn. 

LUCKYN. . . 

The first The first Lord Cornwallis, with long hair, in 
Cornwallis l ac k 5 and a turn-over : an active and valiant ad- 
herent to Charles I. ; brought up from his youth 
in his service, and that of his brother Henri/. So 
resolute, that he knew not fear ; so chearful, that 
sorrow never came next his heart. Death would 
not try him by illness, but took him off suddenly, 
on January 31, 1611-2, after he had been raised 
to the peerage the preceding year. 
. William William Earl of Pembroke, in black, with 
Pembroke, the white rod and key, as lord chamberlain; 
George pendent, flat ruff, short hair, peaked beard : 
a great and amiable character, and the most uni- 
versally esteemed and beloved of any man of that 
age; and, having a great office in the court, he 
made the court itself better esteemed, and more 
reverenced in the country \ He was beloved in 
court, because he was disinterested ; in the coun- 
try, because he was independent. In 1630, he 
died universally lamented : his many fine qualities 
causing his abandoned sensualities to be forgotten. 
Viscount William first Viscount Grimston. 
R . I " S Mary Queen of Scots, richly dressed in black. 

Mary j 

Qdeen of with a large ruff. 

'Scots. 

k Clarendon, i. 56. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 317 

Viscountess Grimston. gISE 

Sir Harbottle Grimston, father of Sir Harbottle Sir Har- 
Grimston, Master of the Rolls. Grimston-. 

Anne Crofts Countess of Cleveland, wife of Countess of 
Thomas Earl of Cleveland. 

In the library ; 

Heneage Finch Earl of Nottingham, in his Chancellor 

NOTTING- 

robes, with the seals in his hands, and long deep ham. 
brown hair, by Sir Peter Lely. This nobleman 
was lord chancellor in the reign of Charles II. and 
in those dangerous times distinguished himself for 
his integrity and prudence, in steering clear from 
a criminal compliance with the views of the court, 
or humoring the unbounded faction of the popu- 
lar side* He brought the peerage into the family, 
which (rare to say) has never been sullied by those 
who have derived the honor from him. He re 
ceived the seals in ]673 ; died in 1682. 

Ludovic Duke of Richmond and Lenox, and Ludovic 

Duke of 

Earl of Newcastle, by Geldrop. He is dressed in Richmond. 
his robes, a bonnet with a white feather ; the 
George and a white rod are other appendages : 
the last as lord high steward of the household. He 
was also high chamberlain and admiral of Scot- 
land, and was sent ambassador to France 1 before 
the accession of his royal master to the English 

1 Crawford's Peerage. Scot. 262. 



318 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

throne. He was a most deserved favourite, and 
supported himself with such true dignity, that, as 
Wilson expresses it, " the king, as it were, want- 
" ing one of his limbs to support the grandeur of 
" majesty at the first meeting of parliament, in 
" 1623, sent for him with great earnestness;" and 
received by the return of the messenger, the me- 
lancholy news of his being found dead in his bed, 
after going to rest in the fullest health m . His ma- 
jesty shewed the sincerest respect to his deceased 
servant by proroguing the parlement for several 
days, unable sooner to digest his loss. 
General George Monk Duke of Albemarle, the well- 
known instrument of the Restoration ; by Kneller. 
He is drest in a buff coat, with an anchor by him. 
He entered at a very early age into the military life, 
and first made trial of his sword in the ill-conducted 
expedition to Cadiz, in 1625 : but his military ex- 
perience was attained by a ten years' service in the 
Lozv Countries. On the breaking out of the civil 
wars, his principles led him to embrace the royal 
party, after serving for some time against the rebels 
in Ireland. In his first campaign he was taken 
prisoner at Namptwich, and imprisoned for some 
years, with such severity, that he was afc last in- 
duced, for the sake of obtaining liberty, to engage 

m Wilson 257, 258. 



PORTRAITS. AT GORHAMBURY. 319 

with the parlement. Perhaps by stipulation, he 
never served the remainder of the war in England. 
Ireland was the scene of his exploits, and after- 
wards Scotland, which he entirely reduced. He 
was justly loaded with honors by his restored 
prince, under whom, by indulging his spirit of fru- 
gality, he amassed a vast fortune. His great mi- 
litary abilities fitted him equally for sea or land. 
He commanded, jointly with prince Rupert, the 
fleet against the Dutch, in the dreadful engage- 
ment of 1560. His success was equal to his va- 
lour. He became the darling of the sailors, who 
called him by the familiar appellation of Honest 
George ; for he was a plain man, of few words, 
but inviolable in his promises. Worn out with 
fatigue, he died in 1670, and received a funeral 
pomp, which his eminent services so well me- 
rited. 

Sir George Calvert Lord Baltimore, is dressed Lord 

ii, i',i i it Baltimore. 

in black, a turn- over, and with short hair. He was 

born at Kipplin in Yorkshire, was educated at 
Oxford, and received his first preferment, which 
was in the law line, in Ireland. His political abi- 
lities occasioned his being taken notice of by Sir 
Robert Cecil. Mr. Calvert was first his clerk, 
and after knighthood promoted to be one of the 
secretaries of state, and was in great confidence 
with his master James I, He thought fit to change 



320 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY, 

his religion, which he ingenuously avowed. The 
king, pleased with his sincerity, continued him of 
his privy council, and even created him Lord Bal- 
timore, of the kingdom of Ireland, and made him 
large grants in that kingdom : a proof that the per- 
version of his subjects was far from exciting his 
displeasure. He also obtained a grant of a part 
of Newfoundland, which he called Avalon, after 
Old Avalon, the site of Glastonbury abbey, where 
(as is said) Christianity was first planted in Bri- 
tain. He was constituted absolute lord and pro- 
prietor, with the royalties of a county palatine, 
except the sovereign dominion and allegiance, with 
a fifth part of the gold and silver reserved to the 
crown. After the king's death, he twice visited 
the place, built a fair house there ; and when his 
settlement was molested by the French, he fitted 
out two ships at his own expence, and drove them 
away. At length, on a repetition of their insults, 
he was obliged to abandon the island. Charles I. 
to make him amends, gave him a new grant of the 
country on the north side of Chesapeak Bay, to 
hold in common socage as of the manor of Wind- 
sor, delivering annually to the crown, in acknow- 
ledgement, two Indian arrows on Easter Tuesday, 
at Windsor castle, with a fifth of the gold and sil- 
ver ore n . His lordship died on April 15th, 1632,' 

n Fuller's Worthies of Yorkshire, 201. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 321 

before the patent was made out ; but his son Cecil 
took it in his own name, in June following, and 
laid the foundation of a flourishing colony, which 
was named by the King himself Maryland, in ho- 
nor of Henrietta Maria, his royal consort. 

Thomas IVentworth Earl of Strafford, in ar- Thomas 

t -i t j t * i i Earl of 

mour. Like Buckingham, a victim also to the Strafford. 
popular fury ; but brought to his end by all the 
solemnity of trial and pomp of strained justice. 
His great abilities and moving eloquence, his for- 
titude and great deportment on the scaffold, make 
us lose sight of his failings, and lament that so 
much heroism should be devoted to plans, which 
made his life incompatible with the public se- 
curity. 

Richard Weston Earl of Portland drest in Richard 
black, with a ruff, blue riband, and white rod, his Portland. 
hair and beard grey . This nobleman exhibited a 
striking proof how honors change manners. He 
set out with a great character for prudence, spirit, 
and abilities, and discharged his duty as ambassa- 
dor, and, on his return, as chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, with much credit. Under the ministry 

There is a print by Hollar after this portrait, inscribed 
" Hieronymus Weston ius Comes Portlands, &c. ;" an evi- 
dent misnomer. Jerome never attained the dignity of the or- 
der of the Garter, which is worn by the person here repre- 
sented. Ed. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

of the Duke of Buckingham, he was appointed 
lord treasurer : on which he suddenly became so 
elated, that he lost all disposition to please ; and, 
soon after the duke's death, became his successor 
in the public hatred, without succeeding him in 
his credit at court p . His lust after power, and 
his rapacity to raise a great fortune, were un- 
measurable ; yet the jealousy of his temper frus- 
trated the one, and the greatness of his expences 
the other. His imperious nature led him to give 
frequent offence, yet his timidity obliged him to 
make humiliating concessions to the very people 
he had offended. He had a strange curiosity to 
learn what the persons injured said of him ; the 
knowledge of which always brought on fresh 
troubles ; as he would expostulate with them for 
their severe sayings, as if he had never given 
cause for them ; by which he would often discover 
the mean informant of his fruitless intelligence. 
He died in March 1634, in universal disesteem ; 
and the family and fortune, for which he la- 
bored so greatly, were extinct early in the next 
reign. 
Thomas Thomas JVriothesley Earl of Southampton, by 
Southamp- My tens ; a nobleman, firmly attached to his royal 
TON * master, and who offered himself a victim for his 

* Clarendon i. 49. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. S23 

prince's life. The earls of Hertford and Lindsay 
joined in the generous petition to the commons, 
on the condemnation of the king; alleging, that 
they having been counsellors to his majesty, and 
concurring in the advice of the several measures 
now imputed as crimes, they alone were guilty in 
the eye of the law, and ought to expiate the sup- 
posed offences of majesty. He survived to see 
the restoration of the royal family ; was rewarded 
with the treasurer's rod ; and died a friend to his 
country, as well as prince, on May 16th, 1667. 
His death, and the fall of Chancellor Hyde, re- 
moved from the abandoned court every check 
upon its profligate designs. It was so impatient 
to remove him, as to wish to wrest the rod from 
his dying hands, had not Hyde earnestly entreated 
the king to wait four or five days, till his death 
must happen. He died of the stone. So little 
credit had our surgeons at that time, that he sent 
to Paris for one ; but his end prevented the ope- 
ration 9 . 

The Chancellor himself, by Lely, in his robes. Chancellor 
In him is the character of an honest great man ; 
the glorious victim to a prince and party, that 
neither could nor dared to attempt the slavery 
of their country, while he remained in power in it. 

* Continuation of Clarendon, 411. 

Y 2 



324 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

He was exiled in 1667, by the contrivances of an 
ungrateful master, and lived abroad, venerated by 
the good, till this ornament to human nature gave 
way to death, on December 9th, 1 674. 
Archbishop Archbishop Abbot, by Vandyck, in a cap and 

-Abbot 

episcopal habit, with a grey square beard. This 
prelate owed his preferment under James I. to the 
Scottish favorite, the able and worthy Earl of 
Dunbar ; perhaps from the Calvinistical princi- 
ples with which he was strongly imbued. Fuller 
says, " he honored cloaks above cassocks ; lay, 
" above clergymen'." He was upright and firm 
in his principles, probably too favourable to the 
tenets, which, under him, acquired strength, in the 
following reign, to subvert both church and state, 
with the assistance of the contrary conduct of the 
indiscreet and furious Laud. How difficult is the 
virtue of moderation ! Abbot gloriously resisted the 
licensing of a slavish sermon, preached by Dr. 
Sibthorp, and fell into disgrace; his office was 
suspended : nor was the suspension taken off, till 
the rising strength of the puritanical party made 
compliance with the times prudent. His man- 
ners had in them an uncourtly stiffness and mo- 
roseness*. He found he was restored more 
through policy than affection. As he attained to 

r Fuller's Worthies of Surry, 83, 
8 Clarendon, i. 88. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 325 

the age of seventy-one, I can scarcely think that 
grief, either on account of his suspension, or un- 
conquerable sorrow for the sad accident of killing 
a gamekeeper with a cross-bow, in shooting at a 
deer \ brought him to his end. Nature might ef- 
fect his dissolution, without having recourse to 
other causes. 

Lord Keeper Coventry in his robes, and a ruff, Lord 

, t JvEEPER 

with his hands on the seals : his look remarkably Coventry. 
pleasing ; a mark of the internal comfort he felt 
from a life passed with integrity in the discharge 
of his profession. He held the seals for fifteen 
years, and died in universal esteem, January 14, 
1639-40, at a period unhappy for his country; 
when the respect borne to his counsels 11 might 
have prevented the dreadful feuds that so imme- 
diately followed his decease. 

A half-length of Sir Edward Grimston, in s ^ Edward 

. Grimston. 

black, a bonnet, and lawn ruff, by Holbein. Its 

date is 1548, aet. 20. On one side are these 

verses : 

The life that nature sends, death soon destroyeth, 
And momentarie is that life's resemblance ; 
The seeming life which peaceful art supplieth 
Is but a shadow, though life's perfect semblans : 

1 Illust. Heads, i. 60. 
u Clarendon, i. 131. 



326 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

But that threvve life which virtue doth restore, 
Is life indeed, and lasteth evermore. 

This gentleman was comptroller at Calais at 
the time it was taken by the Duke de Guise in 
1 558. He had frequently written to the ministry, 
to inform them how ill provided it was against a 
siege. His remonstrance was neglected ; and when 
the place was lost, the English government per- 
mitted him to remain prisoner, for fear of his 
complaints. The French demanded, as the price 
of his ransom, a large estate he had purchased 
about Calais ; but he preferred captivity rather 
than injure his family. He suffered a long and 
rigorous imprisonment in the Bast He ; at length 
escaped to England, and was honorably acquitted 
of any thing that could be laid to his charge*. 
He lived to the great age of ninety-eight. 
His Father. A portrait of his father, by Holbein, at the 
age of eighty-one, with a skull in his hand, and a 
white bushy beard. 

A portrait, unknown, by the same master. 
Sir H. g IR Harbottle Grimston, by Lcly. 

Grimston. ' J J 

The following are in the dining-room : 
Edward EpwARD Earl of Worcester, by Zucchero, 

Earl of j 

Worcester, master of the horse to Queen Elizabeth, and privy 
seal to James I. What recommended him to the 

x Lodge's Irish Peerage, iii. 267. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 327 

first, was his being of royal blood, and at the same 
time the finest gentleman and the best horseman 
and tilter of his time y . He is represented here at 
the period at which he had outlived the athletic 
exercises, with a bald head and white beard ; in a 
white jacket and ruff, and George pendent. 

A fine full-length portrait, by Vandyck, of Thomas 
Thomas IVentworth, Earl of Cleveland, made Cleveland. 
knight of the bath at the creation of Hemy Prince 
of Wales. He is drest in black, with a red riband, 
turn-over, and yellow hair. He was captain of 
the guard to Charles I., and a distinguished loyal- 
ist. Survived the Restoration, and enjoyed his 
former post z . 

William ViscountGrimston, withhis daughters Viscount 
Jane and Mary, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

A FULL-LENGTH of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, Thomas 

by Holbein, in a bonnet, furred robe, the order of Norfolk. 
the garter, and a white rod. This respectable 
peer, who had distinguished himself on various oc- 
casions during the reign of Henry VIII., nearly 
fell a sacrifice to the jealousy of that tyrant ; his 
execution was only prevented by the timely death 
of his oppressor. He was kept in custody during 
the next short reign, but was released on the 
accession of Queen Mary. He mounted his horse 

y Collins's Peerage, i. 204. 
z Dugdale Baron, ii. 310. 



528 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 



James 
Duke of 
Richmond 



Villiers 
Duke or 
Bucking- 
ham. 



in 1554, at the age of fourscore, to assist in quell- 
ing the insurrection of Sir Thomas JVyat, and died 
in the same year. 

The illustrious and faithful servant to Charles I. 
James Duke of Richmond, by Vandyck, in long, 
flowing, flaxen hair ; his star on his cloak ; a dog 
by him. 

The beautiful George Villiers Duke of Bucking- 
ham, by Mytens, in white, with a hat and feather 
on a table. A minion of fortune, who owed his rise 
to a handsome face and elegant person, merits irre- 
sistible with James I. The King, by the insolence 
and ingratitude of his favorite, received sufficient 
punishment for his folly. Buckingham was pos- 
sessed of abilities, clouded and almost rendered 
useless by the violence of his passions. In his em- 
bassy to France, in 1625, he had the presumption to 
make his addresses to the Queen Anne of Austria \ 
On receiving the treatment which his vanity me- 
rited, he not only, in revenge, involved his country 
in war, but endeavoured to alienate the affection 
of his master Charles from his spouse, her lovely 
sister-in-law, Henrietta Maria. I ought to have 
mentioned the common report, that his ill-success 
with the wife of Olivarez, the Spanish minister, 
and a cruel deception in consequence 1 , was the 

a Clarendon, i. 38. 

b Granger, i. 326, note. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 329 

primary cause of the breach of the Spanish match, 
and the hazard his young prince ran in escaping 
from an incensed court. He fell at length by the 
hands of the melancholy Felton, who, taught by 
the murmurs of the people, thought he did an ac- 
ceptable service, by freeing his country from so 
distasteful a minister. 

A large picture, by Vandyck, containing the Algernon 
portraits of Algernon Earl of Northumberland, in Northum- 
black, standing: his lady in blue, sitting, and a 
child by them. This generous peer stepped for- 
ward in the cause of liberty, in the beginning of 
the troubles of Charles I. while he held the post of 
lord high admiral : a post he was displaced from 
by the popular party, by reason of his moderation, 
which they suspected would be a check to their 
unreasonable views. He was constantly a me- 
diating commissioner in all treaties on the side of 
the parlement, in which he behaved to them with 
dignity, spirit, and integrity. He was appointed 
governor of the kings children while they were se- 
parated from their parents, and behaved to them 
with respect and affection. He joined in oppos- 
ing the ordinance for the trial of his master ; after 
whose death he retired to Tetworth, and took no 
part with the usurping powers. He joined heartily 
in the Restoration ; but, like a true friend to his 
country, wished for it on terms of security to the 



330 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

people, and advantage to the nation. He re- 
ceived from the restored king honors suited to his 
rank, and enjoyed them till his death in 1668. 
Earl op The favourite Devereux, . Earl of Essex, by 
Hilliar 'd, in black and gold, with a ruff : a chain 
round his waist, and a sword by his side ; date 
1594. 
Elizabeth. ^ is rova l mistress in a dress of black and gold, 
and of materials resembling the former; with a 
great lawn ruff, and three long chains of pearls 
round her neck. This was also painted by Hilliard, 
and presented by her Majesty to the lord keeper 
Bacon. 

C Wolk F A FINE full - len g th of the Countess of Suffolk, 
daughter of Sir Henry Knevit, and wife to the 
lord treasurer. A lady, who, like Lord Verulam, 
fell under the charge of corruption, should have 
been placed next to him. She is dressed in 
white, and in a great ruff ; her breasts much ex- 
posed ; her waist short and swelling ; for she was 
extremely prolific. This lady had unhappily a 
great ascendency over her husband, and was ex- 
tremely rapacious. She made use of his exalted 
situation to indulge her avarice, and took bribes 
from all quarters. Sir Francis Bacon, in his 
speech in the star-chamber against her husband, 
wittily compares her to an exchange-woman, who 
kept her shop, while Sir John Bingleg, a teller of 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 331 

the exchequer, a tool of hers, cried, What d'ye 
lack c ? Her beauty was remarkable, and I fear 
she made a bad use of her charms. " Lady 
"Suffolk" says the famous Ann Clifford, in her 
diary under the year 1619, " had the small-pox 
" at Northampton-house, which spoiled that good 
" face of hers, which had brought to others much 
" misery, and to herself greatness which ended in 
" much unhappiness." 

Charles I. by Mytens. Charles I. 

Next appears a fine full-length portrait, by Sir Francis 
Vansomer, of Sir Francis Bacon Lord Verulam, 
who succeeded his brother Anthony in the posses- 
sion of Gorhambury. Much is said of his depravity 
during prosperity, and more of his abject fawning 
after his fall. For my part, I look on the latter 
part of his life as the period in which he shone 
with greatest dignity. That soul, which sunk, dur- 
ing good fortune, beneath the temptation of cor- 
ruption, arose, unbroken by disgrace, and superior 
to obloquy. He passed his latter days in labors 
which have made him the admiration of succeed- 
ing times. He was then disengaged from business, 
which fettered his genius, and was supported (not- 
withstanding assertions to the contrary) by a great 
pension {. 1800 a year) which enabled him to 

c Wilson, 97. 



332 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

pursue his studies at ease, removed from every 
fear of the embarrassments of poverty. 

SirNatha- Near him is his accomplished kinsman, his 
half-brother Sir Nathaniel Bacon, knight of the 
bath, leaning back in his chair, in a green jacket 
laced, yellow stockings, a dog by him, and sword 
and pallet hung up. " In the art of painting, 
" none," says Peackam, " deserveth more respect 
" and admiration than master Nathaniel Bacon, 
" of Brome, in Suffolk ; not inferior, inmyjudg- 
" ment, to our skilfullest masters d ." He im- 
proved his talent by travelling into Italy ; and 
left in this house, as a proof of the excellency of 
his performances, this portrait, and a most beau- 
tiful one of a cook, a perfect Venus, with an old 
game-keeper : behind is a variety of dead game, 
in particular a swan, whose plumage is expressed 
with inimitable softness and gloss. 

Sir Thomas a REMARKABLE picture of Sir Thomas Meau- 

Meautys. l 

tys e , secretary to Lord Vcrulam, by Vansomer. 

A Complete Gentleman, 127. Watpole's Anecdotes of Painters, 
i. 163. where the portrait of Sir Nathaniel is engraven. 

c Sir Tliomas Meautys was of Norman extraction*; his an- 
cestor John Meautys came into England with Henry VII. and 
was his secretary for the French tongue. His grandfather Sir 
Peter was enriched by the spoils of the church in the possession 
of Stratford abbey in Essex, and sent ambassador to France 

* Morant's Essex, i. 19. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 333 

His dress confirms the account of the choice he 
made of his servants, whom he selected from the 
young, the prodigal, and expensive f . Sir Thomas 
makes a most finical appearance : his habit ele- 
gant : he has on a sash, a hat with a white feather, 
laced turn-over, a long love-lock extended on his 
left arm, an ear-ring in one ear, a spear in the 
other, and brown boots. He was clerk of the 
privy council to two kings ; and got possession of 
Gorhambury from his master, who conveyed it to 
him on foreseeing his fall. Like a grateful ser- 
vant, Meautys erected a handsome monument to 
him in a neighboring church, more to shew his 
respect, than from any necessity of endeavouring 
to preserve the memory of one self-immortalized. 
In Lady Grimstorts dressing-room, 

The head of Sir Nicholas Baco?i, his dress a Sir Nicho- 
las Bacon. 
furred robe. He was a person of a very corpu- 
lent habit ; for which reason Queen Elizabeth used 
to say, " that her lord keeper's soul lodged well." 
To what I have given of him before, I shall only 
add, that he caught his death by sleeping in his 
chair with his window open. He awoke dis- 
ordered, and, reproving his servant for his negli- 

by Henry VIII. who conferred on him the honor of knighthood. 
Sir Thomas Meautys married Anne eldest daughter of Sir 
Nathaniel Bacon, of Culford. Ed. 
f Wilson, 159. 



334 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

gence, was told, that he feared to awake him. 
" Then," replies the Keeper, " your complaisance 
" will cost me my life." He died in 1579- 
His second A head of his second wife in a close cap and 

Wife* 

white gown, worked with oak-leaves and acorns. 
This distinguished lady was Anne daughter of Sir 
Anthony Cook, of Giddy hall, in Essex. She had 
great abilities, natural and acquired, was emi- 
nently skilled in Greek, Latin, and Italian, and 
had the honor of being appointed governess to 
Edward VI. To her instructions was probably 
owing the surprising knowledge of that excellent 
young prince. She shared his education with 
her father, Doctor Cox, and Sir John Cheek 1 . 
Her sons Anthony and Francis were not a little 
indebted, for the reputation they acquired, to the 
pains taken with them by this excellent woman in 
their tender years' 1 . When they grew up, they 
found in her a severe but admirable monitor. She 
translated from the Italian the sermons of Bar' 
nardine Ochine ; and from the Latin JexveVs Apo- 
logy for the church of England : both which met 
with the highest applause. She died in the be- 
ginning of the reign of James I. and was buried in 
the neighbouring church of St. Michael 1 . 

Chauncy's Hertfordshire, 464. 
h Complete Hist. England, ii. 274. 
1 Ballard's Br. Ladies, 136. 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 335 

Mere is also preserved a very singular k portrait ? h1 b IP 
in wood, called Sylvester de Grimston, a no- Duke of 
ble Norman, standard-bearer to the Conqueror at 
the battle of Hastings, and afterwards his cham- 
berlain. He held lands in Yorkshire of the Lord 
Roos : among others that of Grimston in Holder- 
ness ; from whence he took the name. The pic- 
ture is antient and curious, but wants four centu- 
ries of the great period in which Sylvester lived ; 
neither did that age afford any artists that could 
give even a tolerable representation of the human 
figure, much less convey down a likeness of the 
fierce heroes of their times. I premise this, to 
show the impossibility of this portrait having been 
a copy of some original of this great ancestor. 
The dress is singular : a large bonnet, with a very 
long silken appendage; a green jacket, hanging 
sleeves : a collar of SS held in one hand : his face 

k This portrait is now supposed by the noble owner to 
represent Edward Grimston, who was* ambassador to the 
court of Burgundy in the reign of Henry VI. ; and as the 
family arms are painted on the back and front of the pic- 
ture, the conjecture does not appear improbable. It must 
however be remarked, that the resemblance to the Duke of 
Burgundy may be traced in other prints, exclusive of that 
referred to in the Monarchic Francoise. Ed. 

* Rymer's Fatdcra, xi. 230. 



336 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

beardless. On the back of the picture is the fol- 
lowing inscription : 






The artist is unknown to me ; but the habit of 
the person is that of the date : for I find in Mont- 
Jaucons Monarchie Francoise several persons of 
rank in the dress, particularly Philip Le Bon 
Duke of Burgundy : between whom and this por- 
trait there is so strong a resemblance of feature, 
that I do not hesitate to imagine that the Gorham- 
bury portrait is no other than one of this illus- 
trious prince. He was born in 1396; died in 
1467: so that he was a youth when the picture 
was taken. 

Catherine. The beautiful picture of Catherine Queen to 
Charles II. in the character of St. Catherine, in 
one of the bed-chambers. 
Thomas In a dressing-room is a head of Thomas 

Arundel. Howard, the virtuoso Earl of Arundel; who, by 
much residence in foreign parts, acquired a tho- 
rough contempt for his own country. Filled 



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 337 

with family-pride, he was sent to the Tower for 
a contempt shewn in the House to a nobleman 
less highly born than himself; yet on the break- 
ing out of the troubles of his royal master Charles 
I. he. shewed a great want of true spirit, con- 
sulting his own safety and ease rather than risque 
them by siding with either party. He quitted 
England, for which, as Lord Clarendon says, 
he had little other affection than as he -had a 
great share in it, in which, like a great leviathan, 
he might sport himself. He was a man of a no- 
ble presence, and affected a plain garb. He ac- 
cordingly is here dressed in a dark habit robed 
with fur. His countenance corresponds to the 
description : his hair short, and his beard bushy : 
his turn-over plain ; and the only ornament is the 
pendent order of the Garter. 

James I 1 , in inconsistent armour, black and James I. 
gold, with each foot on a rock. Above him, 

Jam turn tenditque fovetque, 

1 These royal portraits, and a few others, were too much 
injured to bear removal from the old house, or were thought 
unworthy to occupy a place in the collection of the modern 
Gorhambury. Ed. 

In the house are several valuable paintings by foreign 
masters, a list of which will be given in the Appendix. Ed. 

Z 



338 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 

beneath, 

Jacobus unitor Britannia plantator Hibernice conditor im- 
perii Atlantici. 

The last, I fear, a piece of the characteristic adu- 
lation of the chancellor. 

Near him are two monarchs, not in fact coeval 
with Bacon, but placed here from the admiration 
he had of their abilities, in extending their domi- 
KhnTof mons to tne Indies. By Emanuel king of Portu- 
Portugal. g a ^ ne pointed out the advantage of commerce, re- 
ceived by the discovery of the new passage to 
India under his auspices, by Vasco di Gama : 

Ferdinand . 

of Spain, by Ferdinand V. he points out the discovery of 
America by Columbus. The first monarch he 
calls Conditor imperii Europce super Indias ori- 
entales ; the other Super Indias Occident ales. Both 
of the princes are represented knee-deep in water : 
but I suppose, by the situation of their cautious 
master, he would shew he had too much prudence 
to wet his feet. 

I now resume my journey, and, in my way to 
St. Albans, about a mile and half distant, pass by 
the site of St. Mary de la Pre, de Pratis, or the 
Meadows ; an hospital for leprous women, found- 
ed about 11 90, by Warine, abbot of St. Albans. 



Verula- 

MIUM. 



VERULAMIUM. 339 

It afterwards rose to a priory of Benedictine nuns, 
but fell in 1528, when JVolsey, commendatory ab- 
bot, obtained from Clement VIII. a bull for its 
suppression, and for annexing it to the abbey ; 
after which he got a grant of it for himself from the 
king, who, on the ruin of the cardinal, gave it to 
Sir Ralph Rowlet m . 

Immediately after quitting this place, I en- 
tered the celebrated Verulamium, at a spot distin- 
guished by a great fragment of the antient wall, 
known by the name of Gorhambury-block, which 
probably bounded one side of one of the porter, or 
entrances, being exactly opposite to that on the 
eastern part. The precinct departs from the rec- 
tangular form of the Romans, this being among 
those which were laid out, Prout loci qualitas aut 
necessitas postulaverit n . It inclines to an oval 
shape ; is placed on a slope, and the lower side 
bounded by the river Ver, which in former times 
might have spread into a lake, and given greater 
security to the town. According to Humphry 
Lloyd , it gave also the name to the place, Gwer- 
llan, or the temple on the Ver ; rightly bestowing 
on the Britons a pre-occupancy of it to the Ro- 
mans. I shall not dispute the notions of the parti- 

m Tanner, 185. n Vegetius, lib. i. c. 23. 

9 Commentariol, 31. 

z 2 



340 VERULAMIUM. 

cular ford over which Ccesar crossed the Thames, 
when he penetrated into our island. It probably 
was at or near Coway Stakes. Ccesar leaves us no 
room to depart from that opinion, as he expressly 
tells us that he led his army to the river Thames, 
towards the borders of the territories of Cassive- 
launus 9 , the golden-locked leader of the country 
of the Cassi : and these Cassi are reasonably sup- 
posed to have been a clan of the Cattieuchlani, 
and to have inhabited the hundred of this county 
now called Cashio, in which Verulamium stood. 
But I must contend, that the distance of that city 
is far too remote from the fordable parts of the 
Thames, to admit it to have been the town of the 
British leader destroyed by the invader. It lies, 
in the nearest line, thirty-seven miles from those 
parts of the river : a distance too great for the 
time given to Ccesar for his second campaign in 
Britain. The town, or rather post, which was 
forced by him, was not remote from the camp oc- 
cupied by him on the side of the river ; and most 
likely was that which is still very entire, in the 
park of her Grace the Dutchess dowager of Port- 



p Caesar cognito consilio eorum ad {lumen Tamasin in fines 
Cassivelauni exercitumduxit. Bel. Gal. lib. v. 

Preceding this, he speaks of the fines Cassivelauni, as being 
a mari cireiter millia passuum lxxx. 



VERULAMIUM. 341 

land, at Bulstrode, about fifteen miles distant from 
the Roman camp : whose vestiges are still to be 
seen, not far from the famous ford q . Partly by 
length of time, partly by constant cultivation, this 
post has lost some of the characters ascribed by 
Ccesar to the town of Cassivelaunus ; for it wants 
at present the marshy defence it had in his days. 

The town alluded to was within the territories 
of the British chieftain, and one of the strong-holds 
into which the Britons were used to drive their 
cattle in time of danger. This, by Casars ac- 
count, was certainly not the most capital ; for his 
first relation informs us, it only contained satis nume- 
rus pecorum, a pretty considerable number of cat- 
tle. Notwithstanding his vanity, a few lines lower, 
swells his booty into magnus numerus, a vast num- 
ber r . At Shepperton, also, near Cozvay-Stakes, 
in a field called War Close, are found spurs, 
swords, bones, and other marks of a battle. See 
Camden, i. 366 : but in all likelihood, the first is 
the nearest to the truth. 

Verulamium was the capital of this country, and 
the residence of its princes. I do not reckon 
Cassivelaunus among them ; he was a chieftain of 
the Cassi, and, for his great abilities, elected general 
on the Roman invasion, if our British history is to 

i Syhis paludibmque munitum. T Lexvis Hist. Br. 73. 



342 VERULAMIUM. 

be trusted. He was guardian to his nephews, 
Anarzvy and Tenafan s (the last) father to Cunobo- 
line, whose coins are so frequent. Here was one 
of the British mints; for we find the word Veron 
the coins, but no prince's name to distinguish the 
reign. 

After the Romans had effected their conquest, 
they added walls to the ordinary British defence 
of ramparts, and ditches. Many great fragments 
of the former still remain, proofs of the strength 
and manner of the Roman masonry. On one 
Walls, side is a vast foss ; on another, two. The walls 
are twelve feet thick, where entire, formed of flints 
bedded in mortar, now grown into amazing hard- 
ness. By intervals of about three feet distance, 
are three, and in some places four rows of broad 
and thin bricks, or tiles, which were continued the 
whole length of the walls, which seem designed as 
foundations to sustain the layers of flints and lime, 
while the last was in a moist state. There were, 
besides, round holes, which penetrated quite 
through l ; but these are either filled up, or escap- 
ed my notice. According to Doctor Stukelys 
measurement, the area is five thousand two hun- 
dred feet in length, and the greatest breadth 



Stukely Itin. i. 1 17. 

*. See Doctor Stukely's admirable plan of this place. 



VERULAMIUM. 343 

about three thousand. It is at present inclosed ; 
but under the hedges, in many places, are ves- 
tiges of buildings, and, as I am told, when it is 
under tillage, the sites of the streets appear, by 
the different color of the corn above them. The 
Watling-street comes to the Porta Decumana, the 
gate on the western side, and passes quite through 
the city. There is another road goes on the outside 
on the south side ; a small military way, like that 
which passed from turret to turret on Sewruss 
wall", for the conveniency of external passen- 
gers. 

This place, by its attachment to the conquerors, 
acquired the privileges of a free borough, a muni- A m unici _ 
cipium, or municipal city, whose inhabitants en- PIUM * 
joyed all the rights of the Roman citizens ; for 
which reason such towns derive their name a mu- 
neribus capiendis, their power to bear public offices. 
They had their senators, knights, and commons ; 
magistrates and priests ; censors, ediles, questors, 
and flamens. 

The attachment of this town to its new masters, 
proved the cause of a heavy misfortune, which be- 
fel it under the reign of Nero. Boadicea, widow Sacked bt 
of Prasutagus, king of the Iceni, enraged at the Boadicea. 
cruel indignity offered to her and her daughters, 

Tour Scotl. 1772. partii.p. 288. 



344 VERULAMIUM. 

raised an insurrection against the Romans and their 
friends, and repaid with the most dreadful cruelties 
the injuries they had received. Camolodunum, 
Londinium, and Verolamium, suffered from the 
fury of the Britons, and seventy thousand citizens 
and allies fell by the edge of the sword. This city 
was remarkable for its wealth x , which was an- 
other incentive for the Britons to attack it, add- 
ed to a particular animosity against a people who 
had forsaken the customs and religion of their an- 
cestors. 

The place in a short time emerged from its 
Albanus. misfortune; and had the honor of producing Alba- 
nus, the proto-martyr of Britain, a wealthy citizen 
of Verulamium, and, by privilege, of Rome also. 
He had been a Pagan, but was converted by 
means of a guest, whom he had sheltered during 
the great persecution of Diocksian as I have be- 
fore related. St. Alban suffered in the year 302. 
Let not legend destroy the credibility of the mar- 
tyrdom, by assigning attendant miracles, long after 
their cessation. We are told, that after he had re- 
fused to sacrifice to the heathen gods, the usual test 
of the alleged crime of Christianity, he was, as 
customary, whipped with rods, and then led to ex- 
ecution, and beheaded on Holmhurst, where the 

x Taciii Annal. lib. xiv. c. 31. fyc. 



VERULAMIUM. 345 

town of St. Albaris at present stands. In his pas- 
sage, the torrent, which then divided the place 
from Verulamium, like the Red-sea, divided its 
waters, and gave dry passage to the Saint and his 
followers : a fountain sprung up where the martyr 
kneeled: one of the executioners relenting, was 
converted, and suffered with Albanus ; another, 
who performed the deed, lost his eyes, as a penal- 
ty for his cruelty ; for they dropped out of his head 
at the moment in which he gave the blow y . St. 
Alban was interred on the spot ; and his remains 
were miraculously discovered several centuries 
after their interment. 

In 429, this place was honored with a synod, Synod 

J, HELD HERE. 

in which St. Germanus and Lupus, two French 
prelates, assisted. A chapel was erected, about 
the year 945, by abbot Ulsin, in honor of the for- 
mer, on the spot in which he preached; whose 
ruins were to be seen the beginning of the last 
century. 

After the Savon invasion, the name of the 
town was changed for that of Verlamcester and 
JVatlincester. The British hero, Uther Pendra- 
gon, after a long siege, wrested it out of the hands 
of the Savons, and held it during his life ; after 

y Bede Hist. Eccl. lib. i. c. 7. Father Cressy, in his Church 
History, lib. vi. has given a much longer detail. 



Vaults. 



346 VERULAMIUM. 

his death they soon recovered it ; but by reason of 
the cruel wars that raged during the contest be- 
tween them and the Britons, the place became to- 
tally desolated. 
Great Like the antient Deva z , Verulamium had its 

great vaults, or subterraneous retreats, strongly 
and artfully arched. These are supposed, by Sir 
Henry Ckauncy, to have been designed as places 
of retreat in time of war for the women and child- 
ren, and for the concealment of the most valuable 
effects. In 960, they were found to give shelter 
to thieves and prostitutes, which caused Eldred, 
the eighth abbot, to search after these souterreins; 
he discovered several ways and passages, all which 
he caused to be destroyed, but preserved the tiles 
and stones for rebuilding the church, then in ruins*. 
The present St. Albaris arose from the ruins of 
Verulamium. Offa king of the Mercians, direct- 
ed, says legend, by a vision from heaven, discover- 
ed the reliques of St. Alban, by beams of glory 
springing from the grave b . In 793, he erected on 
the spot the magnificent monastery, for the main- 
tenance of a hundred Benedictine or black monks, 
and in a parlementary council, which he held in the 
same year, bestowed on it most liberal endow- 

2 Tour in Wales, p. 108. 8th ed. 1810. 1. p. 149. 

* Chauncy, 43 1 . b Crcssy, lib. xxv. c. 6. 



ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH. 347 

ments. Verulamium was now reduced to the state 
elegantly described by Spenser, assuming the cha- 
racter of the Genius of the place. 

I was that city which the garland wore 
Of Britain's pride, delivered unto me 
By Roman victors, which it wore of yore, 
Though nought at all but ruins now I be, 
And lie in mine own ashes, as ye see. 
Verlame I was : what boots it that I was, 
Sith now I am but weeds and wasteful grass f 

Ruines of Time. 

Before I quit these antient precincts, I must 
note the church of St. Michael, built within them 
by the same pious abbot who founded the chapel f , CH " RCH 0F 

J r r St.Michael. 

of St. German. It became an impropriation of 
the abbey, and, after the dissolution, a vicarage. 
The church is small, supported within by round 
arches. It is most distinguished by the monument 
of the great Lord Verulam. His figure is of white 
marble, sitting in a chair, and reclining, in the 
easy attitude of meditation. He is dressed in 
robes lined with fur, and a high-crowned hat. 
Any emblems of greatness would have been unne- 
cessary attendants on this illustrious character. 
The spectator's ideas must render every com- 
plimentai sculpture superfluous. The epitaph 



348 SAINT ALBAN'S. 

conveys high honor to the grateful servant: his 
master could receive nothing additional. 

H. P. 

Francisc. Bacon, Baro de Verulam, Sanct. Albani viceco' 

Seu notioribus titulis 

Scientiarum lumen, facundiae lex, 

Sic sedebat : 

Qui postquam, omnia naturalis sapientiae 

Et civilis arcana evolvisset, 

Naturae decretum explevit. 

Composita solvantur. 

Anno Dom. MDCXXVL 

JEt. LXVI. 

Tanti viri 

Mem. 

Tliomas Meautys 

Superstitis cultor, 

Defuncti admirator. 



On leaving St. Michael's, I passed through a 
St ALBAN's.sort of suburbs to St. Albans, and crossed the 
Ver, to the site of the palace of Kingsbury. It 
had long been the residence of the Savon princes, 
who, by their frequent visits to the abbey of St. 
Albaris, became an insupportable burden to its 
revenues. At length abbot Alfric, by his inter- 
est with king Ethelred II. prevaled on him to 
dispose of it, the king only reserving a small for- 



SAINT ALBAN'S. 349 

tress in the neighborhood of the monastery 5 . 
This also continuing to give offence to its pious 
neighbors, was destroyed by king Stephen, at the 
intercession of Robert, the seventh abbot c . 

I see in Doctor Stukeleys plan, a bury, or 
mount, called Osterhill, on which the palace might 
have stood ; and a ditch called Tomnan Ditch, 
which took its name from this Tommin, or Tu- 
mulus. 

On ascending into St. Albans, up Fishpool Fishpool. 
street, the bottom on the right reminded me of the 
great pool which once occupied that tract. This 
had been the property of the Saxon monarchs, and 
was alienated by Edgar to the all-grasping monks. 
Those princes were supposed to have taken great 
pleasure in navigating on this piece of water. 
Anchors have been found on the spot ; which oc- 
casioned poets to fable that the Thames once ran 
this way. One of them, speaking to the Ver, says, 

Thou saw'st great burden'd ships through these thy vallies 

pass, 
Where now the sharp-edg'd scythe shears up the spiring 

grass; 
And where the seal and porpoise us'd to play, 
The grasshopper and ant now lord it all the day d . 

Chauncy, 431, 463. c The same, 436. 

d Drayton, song xvi. Spenser sings in the same strain, see 
Ruins of Time. 



350 ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. 

The town spreads along the slopes and top of 
the hill. The magnificent mitred parlementary 
Abbey, abbey graced the verge of the southern side. Of 
this there does not remain the lest vestige, except 
the gateway, a large square building, with a fine 
Spacious pointed arch beneath : so that all the la- 
bors of Offa, and the splendid piety of a long 
train of abbots, and a numerous list of benefactors, 
are now reduced to the conventual church; and 
the once-thronged entrance of the devout pilgrims 
to the shrine of our great proto-martyr, is now no 
more than an empty gateway. 

A Murder. A barbarous murder was the true spring of 
Offds munificence. The Mercian monarch cast a 
longing eye on the dominions of Ethelbert, prince 
of the East Angles; treacherously invited him to 
court, under pretence of marrying him to his 
daughter Althrida; seized on the young prince 
(who is represented to have been the most amiable 
of his time), beheaded him, and seized on his do- 
Cadse of the minions'. Offa had recourse to the usual expia- 

ormiHt- ti n f ms cr i m e, that of founding a monastery ; 
bey. when the grateful monks, to conceal the infamy of 
their benefactor, call down a vision from heaven, 
as a motive to his piety. But Offa did not trust 
to this solely : he made a penitential pilgrimage to 
Rome, and, by the merit of his monastic institution 

e Carte, i. 272. 



ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. 351 

at St. Albaris, readily obtained absolution, and not 

only procured for the house exemption from the Its great 
_ Privilege. 

tax of Peter-pence, but power to collect the same 
for its own use, through the whole province of 
Hertford; a privilege which no person in the 
realm, the king himself not excepted, ever enjoyed. 
By the same bull, his holiness granted, that the 
abbot, or monk, whom he appointed archdeacon, 
should have pontifical jurisdiction over the priests 
and laymen of the possessions of this church ; and 
that no person whatsoever, save the pope himself, 
should offer to interfere. It was, by the charter 
of the king, to be free from all taxes, repair of 
bridges and castles, and from making entrench- 
ments against an enemy ; to be exempt from epis- 
copal jurisdiction ; and, by the same charter, the 
fines for crimes, which belonged to the king, were 
given for ever to this monastery. Offa, not con- 
tent with this, inclosed the body of the Saint in a 
shrine of beaten gold and silver, set with precious 
stones ; and, encircling the scull with a golden 
diadem, caused to be inscribed on it, Hoc est 
caput Sancti Albani, Anglorum protomar- 
tytis*. 

Wiligord was the first abbot. It flourished First and 

last Abbot. 

f Mat. Paris, 984> 



352 ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. 

from his time to the dissolution, and received vast 
endowments and rich gifts. At that fatal period 
it was surrendered, on the 5th of December 1538, 
by Richard Boreman 1 , alias Stevenache, the last 
abbot ; who got, in reward for his ready com- 
pliance, the annual pension of . 266 1 3*. 4d. ; 
and the thirty-nine monks, then of the house, 
lesser sums ; some even as small as five pounds a 
year h . The house, and the greatest part of the 
lands, were granted to Richard Lee, captain of the 
band of pensioners, as scandal reports, in reward 
for his prudence in winking at the king's affection 
for his handsome wife \ The town, or, as Willis 
says, the abbot, purchased the church from the 
king for A00, and by that means preserved it 
from destruction ; which gave him so much merit 
with Queen Mary, that when she determined to 
restore the abbey, she appointed him to preside 
over it k . It is said that he died of a broken 
heart, within a few days after he received the news 
of her death. 



5 The reverend Peter Newcome, in his elaborate History of 
the Abbey, p. 439, says, That Boreman was put in the place 
of abbot Catton, who died in 1538, with no other view than to 
make a surrender in form; an artifice practised whenever 
there was a vacancy. Ed. 

h Willis, i. 27. Stevens, i. 265. k Willis, i. 27. 



ST. ALBAN'S CHURCH. 353 

The revenues at the dissolution were, valued by Revenues. 
Dugdale at . % 102. 7s. \d. per annum; by Speed 
at .%5 1 0. 6s. Id. ' Notwithstanding the purchase 
made by Boreman, Edward VI. granted the mo- Granted to 

i . iJf , i i i THE TOWN. 

nastery to the corporation of bt. Albans, which he 
had lately instituted, and ordered that the church 
should be reputed the parish church of the place, 
and be served by a rector, to be nominated by the 
mayor and burgesses of the town. 

The abbots lived in splendor, suitable to their 
rank and revenues. They dined in the great hall, 
at a table to which there was a flight of fifteen 
steps. The monks served up the dinner on plate, 
and in their way made a halt at every fifth step, 
where there was a landing, and sung on each a short 
hymn. The abbot usually sat alone in the middle 
of the table ; and when any persons of rank came, 
he sat towards the end of the table. After the 
monks had waited some time on the abbot, they 
sat down at two other tables, placed on the sides 
of the hall, and had their services brought in by 
the novices; who, when the monks had dined, 
sat down to their own dinners m . 

The church, in its present state, is a most Church. 
venerable and great pile : its form that of a cross, 
with a tower. At the intersection the length is 

1 Tanner, 180. * Antiquarian Repertory, Hi. 60. 

2 A 



354 ST. ALBAN'S CHURCH. 

six hundred feet; that of the transepts one hun- 
dred and eighty. The height of the tower one 
hundred and forty-four feet; that of the body 
sixty-five; of the aiies thirty; the breadth of the 
body two hundred and seventeen. 
Ruined j By neglect, or by the ravages of war, the ori- 
ginal church fell to decay. Abbot Ealdred, who 
lived in 969, designed to pull down and rebuild it; 
and for that purpose collected, from the ruins of 
Verulamium, all the stone, tiles, and timber, 
he could find. Death put a stop to his intention. 
His successor, Eadmer, resumed the task of get- 
ting together the materials ; and in his search, 
found great quantities of curious antiquities ; such 
as altars, urns, fyc. which the pious man broke to 
pieces, as heathen abominations. He also, as is 
said, discovered several books, some in British, 
others in Latin ; and a great one in a language 
and character unknown to any but an old priest. 
This was found to be the authentic life of St. Al- 
lan ; which was carefully treasured up, being a 
confirmation of what Btde had written on the 
same subject. The other books, being only ac- 
counts of heathen mythology, inventions of the de- 
vil, were instantly condemned to the flames n . 
A famine stopped the design of the new 

n Stevens, i. 237. 



ST. ALBAN'S CHURCH. 355 

church, under the abbot Leofric. The troubles 
that ensued, under the remaining Sa.von monarchs, 
and the unsettled state of the kingdom at the Con- 
quest, occasioned the plan to lie dormant till the 
year 1077? when it was executed by abbot Paul, and rebuilt. 
a Norman monk. He applied to that purpose 
the timber, the stones, and tiles, collected by his 
predecessors : accordingly we see the far greater 
and more antient part of the walls a motley com- 
position of stones and Roman tiles. 

Many other parts afterwards were pulled down, Altera. 

r r ' TIONS. 

and rebuilt in the stile of the times ; and I suspect 
that, in general, the present windows are long pos- 
terior to those coeval with the walls ; being point- 
ed, and in the taste of another age. The windows 
in the great tower, and perhaps the range along 
the nave, are of an intervening period ; for they 
differ from the mode of each of the others. I find 
this confirmed in the lives of the abbots. John 
(first of the name) who died in 1214, pulled down 
the front- wall, which was built of old tiles, so 
strongly cemented with mortar, that it proved a 
work of great labor. Master Hugh Goldcliff] a 

Ex lapidibus et tegulis veteris civitatis Verolamii et mate- 
rie lignea quam invenit a praedecessoribus suis collectam et 
reservatam. Mat. Paris. 1001. 

2 A 2 



356 ST. ALBAN'S CHURCH. 

most excellent workman, was employed ; who, 
consulting more the ornaments of sculpture, of 
images and flowers, neglected the security of his 
building ; so that it fell down, and was left unfi- 
nished during the life of this good abbot p . His 
successor, William of Trompington, had the honor 
of completing his design. He not only rebuilt 
that front, but made new windows, and put glass 
into them, so as to give more light to the church. 
He also raised the steeple much higher, covered it 
with lead, and died full of good works, in 1235 q . 
In the abbacy of John of JVhethamstead, this 
church received the most considerable alterations. 
To avoid prolixity, I omit the numerous works of 
that most munificent abbot: I shall only note the 
change he made in the exterior part, by enlarging 
and glazing the windows on the north side of the 
church, which was before dark, and by causing a 
large window to be made at the west end of the 
north aile, which was as destitute of light as the other 
part r . John died in 1464; before which time the 
narrow windows had been changed for those more 
expanded, lightsome, and less pointed. 

Part qtit t * 

Saxon. ^ t i s m tne inside only that any part of the original 

p Mat. Paris, 1047. The same, 1054, 1063. 

r Stevens, i. 262. 



ST. ALBAN'S CHURCH. 357 

building, or the genuine Saxon architecture, is pre- 
served ; which is to be seen in the round arches which 
support the tower, and some of the enormous pillars 
with round arches in the body of the church, and in 
the stile of each transept. After the Conquest the 
round arch was continued, but the pillars were also 
round and massy : these are square, and not less 
than twenty-nine feet thick, with capitals totally 
unadorned. Their composition, as well as that of 
the stair-cases, is of brick : the other pillars are 
light, and the arches pointed ; evidently of a far 
later date than the others. Above, are two gal- 
leries; the lowest is very elegant, divided with 
light slender pillars, much enriched ; but I find no 
authority to ascertain the time. 

Above the antient arches are galleries, with 
openings round ; of a stile probably coeval with the 
former. 

The upper part of the choir is entirely of go- Choir. 
thic architecture, and is divided from the body by 
a stone skreen, ornamented with gothic tabernacle 
work. Before this stood the chapel of Saint Cuth- 
bert : a work owing to the piety of abbot Richard, 
who happening to be present at the translation of 
the incorruptible body of that Saint to the church 
of Durham, apprehending, from its pliantness then, 
jt was going to fall to pieces, caught it in his arms 



55S ABBEY OF ST. ALBANS. 

and in reward, one of them, which was withered, 
was instantly restored \ 
High Altar. The high altar fills the end of the choir: a 
most rich and elegant piece of got hie sculpture, 
once adorned with images of gold and silver, placed 
in beautiful niches : the middle part is not of a 
piece with the rest, being modern and clumsy. 
This altar was made by abbot IVallingford, either 
in the reign of Edward TV. or Richard III. at the 
expence of eleven hundred marks. 
Chapel of The hind part of it, which stands in the chapel 

t. Alban. q g t Alban, is of got hie work; inferior indeed to 
the other side, but still of much elegance. The 
tops of both are nearly similar ; consisting of a 
light open-work battlement: at the bottom is a 
large arched recess, in which stood the superb 

Shrine, shrine which contained the reliques of St. Albany 
made of beaten gold and silver, and enriched with 
gems and sculpture. The gems were taken from 
the treasury, one excepted, which, being of singu- 
lar use to parturient women, was left out. This 
was no other than the famous JEtites, or Eagle- 
stone, in most superstitious repute from the days of 
Pliny' to that of abbot Geffry, re-founder of the 
shrine ; which had been taken down and concealed, 
during the reign of Edward the Confessor, to pre 

s M. Paris, 1006. * Lib. xxxvi. c. 21. 



ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN'S. 359 

serve it from the ravages of the Danes*. To 
guard the invaluable treasures, a careful and trusty 
monk was appointed, who was called Gustos Fere- 
tri, and who kept watch and ward in a small 
wooden gallery, still standing, near the site of 
the martyr's shrine*. 

On the north side of the high altar stands the Ramridge 
magnificent chapel of abbot Ramridge, who was 
elected in the year 1496. The fronts are of most 
elegant gothic open-work ; the upper part supplied 
with niches for statues : in many parts are carved, 
allusive to the abbot's name, two rams, with the 
word Ridge inscribed on their collars, supporting 
a coronet over the arms of the abbey. At the 
foot of this beautiful structure is a large flag, with 
the figure of an abbot, with figures of rams : pro- 
bably the spot of the good man's interment. 

On the south side of the chapel of St. Alban is 
the magnificent tomb y of Humphry Duke of Glo- Tomb of 

o r j Humphry 

cester, distinguished by the name of The Good. Duke op 

. Glocester. 
He was uncle to Henry VI. and regent of the king- 
dom, under his weak nephew, during twenty-five 
years. His many eminent qualities gained him the 

u Mat. Paris, 996. 

x Such a guardian was appointed to the shrine of St. Am- 
phibalus, at Redbourn. M. Paris, 1054. 
y Finely engraven in Sandford's Genealogical History, p. 318. 



360 ABBEY OF ST. ALBANS. 

love of the people ; his popularity, the hatred of 
the queen and her favorites. His life was found 
to be incompatible with their views. They first ef- 
fected the ruin of his dutchess by a ridiculous 
charge of witchcraft, and after that, brought as 
groundless a charge of treason against the duke. 
He was conveyed to St. Edmonds Bury, where a 
parlement was convened in 1446, before which the 
accusation was to be made. His enemies, fearing 
the public execution of so great and so beloved a 
character, caused him to be stifled in his bed, and 
then pretended that he died of vexation at his sud- 
den fall. His body was interred in this church, 
the scene of his detection of the pretended mira- 
cle of the blind restored to sight at the virtuous 
shrine of St. Alban. Shakespeare gives us the re- 
lation admirably z . Glocesler had a predilection 
for this place: he had bestowed on ;it rich vest- 
ments, to the value of three thousand marks, and 
the manor of Pembroke, that the monks should 
pray for his soul : and he also directed that his 
body should be deposited within these holy walls. 
The fees attendant on his funeral, were not of the 
most moderate kind ; unless we may suppose, as 
probably was the case, that the house was at the 
charge of erecting the monument to so great a be- 

* Henry VI. part ii. sc. 2. taken from Grafton p. 597, 598. 



BURIAL CHARGES. 361 

nefactor. Sir Henry Chauncy expressly says, 
that abbot IVhethamsted adorned Duke Hum- 
phry's tomb; which shews, that part at lest of 
the expences were borne by the convent. The ac- 
count is curious. 

" CHARGES of the burial of Humphry Duke Funeral 
11 of Gloucester, and observances appointed by 
" him, to be perpetually born by the convent of 
" the monasterie of St. Alban b . 

" First, The abbat and 
" convent of the said mo- 
" nastarie have payd for 
" markynge the tumbe & 
" place of sepulture of the 
" said duke, within the seid 
" monasterie, above the . s. d. 

" sume of ccccxxxiii. 2. viii. 

" Item. To two monks 
" prests,daylyseiyingmesse 
" at the auter of sepulture 
" of the seid prince, everich 
" takyng by 1 day vi d sma. 
" thereofF, by 1 hole yere xviii. v*. 

a 448. 

b Cotton Library Claudii, A. 8. fol. 195. A copy of this 
is hung up in the church. 



362 BURIAL CHARGES OF 

" Item. To the abbat . s. d, 

"ther yerely, the day of 
"the anniversary of the 
" seid prince, attending his 
" exquys ther - xls. 

" Item. To the priour 
" yerly ther, the same day, 
" in likwyse atteinding xxj. 

" Item. To xl monks 
" prests, yerly, to everich 
" of them, in the same day, 
" vw. wild. sm. therofF xir. vi. viii. 

" Item. To viii monks 
" not prests, yerly, in the 
" seid day, to everich of 
" them 3*. Aid. sm. thereof? xxvls. vind 

" Item. To ii ankeresses, 
" i at St. Peter church,ano- 
" ther at St. Mich, the seid 
" day, yerly, to everich sm. nw. 4rf. 

" Item. In money, to be 
" distribut to pore peple 
" ther, the seid day, yerly xls. 

11 Item. To xiii pore 
" men beryng torches, the 
"seid day, about the seid 
" sepulture m. nrf. 

" Item. For wex bren- 



THE DUKE OF GLOCESTER. S62 

" nyng dayly at the messes, . s. d. 

" and his anniversary of 

* torch, yerly - - vi. xn. in. 

" Item. The kechin of 
" the convent ther yerly, in 
" relief of the great decay of 
" the hustode of the seid 
" monasteri in the marches 
" of Scotland, which before 
" tyme shall be appointed 
" to the kichyn - x. 

This beautiful tomb was once insulated, as ap- 
pears by one of these items. In the middle is a 
pervious arch, adorned above with the coat of arms 
of the deceased ; and others again along a freeze ; 
with his supporters, two antelopes with collars. 
From the freeze arises a light elegant tabernacle- 
work, with niches ; containing on one side the ef- 
figies of our princes ; the other side is despoiled 
of the figures. 

In 1703, the vault in which reposed the re- 
mains of this illustrious personage was discovered. 
The body was preserved in a leaden coffin, in a 
strong pickle : and over that was another case of 
wood, now perished. Against the wall is painted 
a Crucifixion, with four chalices receiving the 



564 ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN'S. 

blood ; a hand pointing towards it, with a label, 
inscribed Lord have mercy upon me. 

The epitaph has long since been defaced ; but 
was as follows : 

Hie jacet Umphredus dux ille Glocestrius, olim 
Henrici regis protector, fraudis ineptae 
Detector ; dum ficta notat miracula caeci c 
Lumen erat patriae, columen venerabile regni : 
Pacis amans musisque favens melioribus ; unde 
Gratum opus Oxonio A quae nunc scola sacra refulget. 
Invida sed mulier regno, regi, sibi, nequara 
Abstulit hunc, humili vix hoc dignata sepulchre. 
Invidia rumpente tamen post funera vivit. 

Abbot IVhethamsted's tomb (or Johannes de 
Whetham- loco Jrumentario, as he stiled himself) is covered 
Chapel ty a sma ^ chapel, erected by himself. It is a 
plain building, on the south side of the choir. 
His arms, allusive to his name, are three ears of 
wheat ; and the motto, allusive to the nourishing 
state of the monastery under his government, is 
Valles abundabunt, twice repeated. Weever, from 
p. 562 to 5Q7, enumerates all his munificent 
works. He had a great turn towards ornamental 
generosity ; and caused this church, the Lady's 

Alluding to the detection of the impostor. 

' He founded the beautiful divinity-school at Oxford, 



ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN'S. 365 

chapel, and several parts of the house, to be 
adorned with historical paintings, and inscriptions 
of his own composition to be placed under them. 
He also was a great composer of epitaphs. The 
reader will accept, as a specimen of the first, a 
distich placed in our Lady's chapel : 

Dulce pluit manna, partum dum protulit Anna, 
Dulcius ancilla dum Christus crevit in ilia e . 

Of the other, a curious one upon one Peter, wh 
was interred in the lower choir: 

Petrum petra tegit ; qui post obituna sibi legit 
Hie in fine chori, se sub tellure reponi. 
Petra fuit Petrus, petrae quia condicionis 
Substans et solidus, quasi postis religionis 
Hie sibi sub petra, sit pax et pausa quieta f . 

His artist was Alan Strayler. painter, who is Strayler, 

, , thePainter. 

said to have been so well paid for his work, that 

he forgave the convents three shillings and four 
pence of an old debt, for colors ; and on that ac- 
count was probably complimented with the follow- 
ing epitaph : 

Nomen pictoris Alanus Strayler habetur 
Qui sine fine choris eelestibus associetur ?. 

Werner, 562. f Idem, 577. e Idem, 578. 



S66 ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN'S. 

I believe, some of his labors are yet extant 
in the roof of the choir ; on which is painted, in 
compartments, an Eagle and a Lamb. Under 
others, in our Lady's chapel, was this line : 

Inter oves Aries, ut sine cornubus Agnus. 

Under the other, 

Inter aves aquila veluti sine felle columba. 

In the middle of the cieling of the north aile, is 
a painting of the martyrdom of St. Alban, (as is 
said) over the very spot on which he suffered. 
There is, besides, a rude sculpture of his death in 
a small aile on the back of his chapel, expressing 
the manner how the executioner lost his eyes for 
his impiety. 

In the centre of another cieling, is a rude paint- 
ing of king Offa ; and this inscription beneath : 

Fundator ecclesiae circa annum 793. 

Quem mal depictum, et residentem cernitis alt& 

Sublimem solio Mercius Offa fuit. 

Mondments ^ N tne cn i r are some fine brasses of mitred ab- 
Abbot bots. That of Thomas de la More, a most muni- 
ficent and pious man, who died in 1 396, is very 
richly engraved. His figure lies in the center, sur- 



ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN'S. 36/ 

rounded by the twelve Apostles in miniature : a 
proof that this art was arrived at great perfection 
at so early a period. 

I must not omit the modest epitaph of an an- 
tient abbot. 

Hie quidem terra tegitur, 
Peccato solvens debitum: 
Cujus nomen non impositum, 
In libro vitse sit inscriptum. 

On a large brass plate is engraven the figure of Heir of Ed- 

t-, r . mundEarl 

a warrior, fragments ot the inscription are of Kent. 
given by Mr. Salmon; which inform us, that it 
was in memory of the son and heir to Edmonde 
erle of Kent. The date 1480. The historian 
says, that he was killed in the second battle of St. 
Albaris. This must be a mistake ; for none of the 
name of that family fell on that day, except Sir 
John Grey of Groby. This must therefore have 
been a cenotaph in honor of Anthony Grey, eldest 
son of Edmund Earl of Kent, buried at Luton, 
who died before his father h : the earl dying in 
1489 : which might bring the son's death to the 
date on the brass. 

Against a wall, near JVhethamsted's chapel, 

h Vincent's Discoverie, &c. 287. 



S68 ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN'S. 

is painted, kneeling, in a cloak, Ralph Maynard, 
of this town, of the family of the ancestor of Lord 
Maynard. 

A long inscription 1 against a column, on the 
north side of the body of the church, clames the 
Sir John honor of having the body of the celebrated Sir 
ville. John Mandeville interred beneath. We admit 
that this place gave him birth ; but he found a 
grave at Liege, in the convent of the Gulielmites, 
in 1371. He was the greatest traveller of his own 
or any other age ; having been out thirty-four 
years; and in the character of pilgrim, knight- 
errant, and man of observation, visited the great- 
est parts of Africa and Asia then known. It is 
probable that he penetrated as far as China. He 
left an account of his travels, which was shame- 
fully falsified by the monks ; who destroyed much 
of its credit, by mingling with it legendary tales, 
and stories out of Pliny : but still truth appears 
so frequently, that the authenticity of the ground- 
work is by no means impaired. He was called 
Johannes de Mandevile, aliter dictus ad Barbara, 
from his forked beard. He is engraven on his 
tomb with that addition, armed, and treading on 
a lion. At his head, the hand of one blessing 

1 This, and many others, are nearly defaced with white ; 
but may be seen in Werner, 567. 



ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN'S. 369 

him ; and these words in the French of the time, 
Vos ki paseis sor mi pour V amour Deix proies por 
mi. His knives, horse-furniture, and spurs, were, 
in the time of Ortelius k , preserved at Liege by 
the monks, and shewn to strangers. 

An inscription under the great west window de- 
notes, that the courts of justice were adjourned 
from London to this town : once, in the reign of 
Henry VIII, and again in that of his daughter 
Elizabeth, on account of the pestilence which at 
those times raged in the capital. 

The magnificent brazen font, brought from the Font. 
plunder of Leith by Sir Richard Lee, in the reign 
of Henry VIII. was again stolen in the civil wars. 
The knight commemorates his benefaction in these 
bombastic terms : " Cum Lcethia oppidum apud 
" Scot os non incelebre et Edinburgus primoria 
" apud eos ci vitas incendio conflagrarent, Ri- 
fl cardus Leius eques auratus me flammis ereptum 
<c ad Anglos perduxit. Hujus ego tanti beneficii 
" memor non nisi regum liberos lavare solitus, 
" nunc meam operam etiam infimis Anglorum li- 
" benter condixi. Leius victor sic voluit. 
" Vale. A. D. 1543." 

k Life of Sir J. M. prefixed to his Travels. The tomb was 
in being in the time of Weever, who, saw both that and the in- 
scription. 

2 B 



370 ST. MARY'S CHAPEL. 

The last inscription I shall mention, is that in 
memory of two hermits, now almost defaced, in- 
scribed near a benetoire, by the door in the south 
aile leading into the cloisters. 



Vir domini verus jacet hie hermita Rogems 
Et sub eo clarus meritis hermita Sigarus. 



The door adjacent is extremely beautiful, and 
rich in sculpture. The cloisters lay on the other 
side. Nothing but the marks of their junction 
with the outside of the church now remains ; a se- 
ries of tripartite arches : nor is there the lest re- 
lique of the vast and magnificent buildings, which 
once covered a large space on this side. 
Chapel of Adjoining to the east end of the church is the 
chapel of St. Mary, supported by light and ele- 
gant pillars. The roof is of stone, the sides of 
the windows ornamented with a fine running; foli- 
age, and little images adorn the pillars of each 
window. The stair-case from hence to the leads 
has a beautiful imitation of cordage cut in stone, 
following the spiral windings. All the arches are 
of the sharp-pointed gothic. 

I cannot trace the founder of this elegant 
building. It was prior to the days of John of 



SaijttMary. 



ST. PETER'S CHURCH. SJi 

JVhethamsted ; for he caused 1 " our Lady's chapel 
" to be new trimmed, and curiously depicted with 
" stories out of the Sacred Word ; and caused 
" some verses (before quoted by me) to be curi- 
" ously depensed in gold." 

Edmund Beaufort Duke of Somerset, Henry 
Percy Earl oiNorthumberland, John Lord Clifford, 
and others of the nobility and gentry, to the 
amount of forty-seven, slain in the first battle of 
St. Alban's, were interred in this chapel. 

Saint Peter's, the third church in St. Alban's, St. Peter's. 
lies at the upper end of the town : it was founded 
by abbot Uljm, and was an impropriation of the ab- 
bey, now a vicarage in the patronage of the bishop 
of Ely. This church received the overflowings of 
the bodies of the men of rank slain in the same 
battle. There is still a perfect brass of Sir Bertin 
Entxvysle, in complete armor. He was born in 
Lancashire, and was viscount and baron of Brik- 
beke'm Normandy. He died on May 28th, 1455, 
of the wounds he received while fighting in the 
cause of Henry. 

The two Ralph Babthorps of Yorkshire, father 
and son (the one sewer, the other 'squire to that 
unfortunate prince) found then graves here ; slain 
in the same cause. 

1 We&ver, 562. 
2 U 2 



37T HOLYWELL HOUSE. 

On a stone is this inscription : Edit he le Vi- 
neter gist : ici: Dieu: de: sa: alme: eie: merci. 

A large marble monument, with a bust, com- 
memorates the reward of ingenuity and honest 
industry. " Beneath, lie the remains of Edward 
" Strong, a shepherd's boy near this town, who 
" took to masonry, worked at St. Paul's cathe- 
" dral, and laid the last stone. He acquired a 
" good fortune, with a fair character, and died 
" aged 72, in 1723." 

At the bottom of the town is a small brick 

Holywell house, called Holywell ; once the residence of 
House 

Sarah Dutchess of Marlborough. Her portrait, 

in white, exquisitely handsome, is preserved here ; 

as is that of her aged mother, Mrs. Jennings. In 

the first, are not the lest vestiges of her diabolical 

passions, the torments of her queen, her husband, 

and herself. 

Two little pictures in this house are so charm- 
ingly finished, as to merit a visit. One is of a 
beautiful woman, with red hair parted in the mid- 
dle ; a close cap, placed far behind ; with a long 
black coif, edged with pearl. 

She is dressed in a scarlet gown, Avith sleeves 
and mantle of purple : breasts and shoulders naked. 
She appears a deep devotee, reading a rich illumi- 
nated missal, seated in a chair. Her middle is 

m Lord Treasurer Godolphin died in that house. 



TOWN OF ST. ALBAN'S. 375 

surrounded with a chain, a rosary of gold and 
colored beads pendent from it. On a table, be- 
hind, is a chalice of gold, set with pearls. 

The other is a head of an old man, in a black 
gown ; his beard grey and square, finely finished. 

The town of St. Albans is large, and, in gene- Toww. 
ral, filled with antient buildings. It originally 
sprung from a few houses built by. king Offa, for 
the conveniency of the officers and servants of the 
monastery. About the year 950, it was so in- 
creased, that king Ethelred, at the intercession of 
abbot Ulfin, gave it a grant of a market, and the 
rank of a borough. In the Doomsday Book, it 
appears at the Conquest to have been rated for 
ten hides. The " arable was sixteen ploughlands. 
' In demesne, three hides, two ploughlands, and 
' another may be made. There were four aliens, 
' sixteen villeyns, and thirteen boors, having thir- 
' teen ploughlands : forty-six burgesses : the toll, 
' and other rents of the town, eleven pounds four- 
' teen shillings a year : three mills, forty shillings 
' a year : meadow, two ploughlands in quantity : 
' wood to feed a thousand hogs in pannage-time : 
' and seven shillings rent. The total twenty 
' pounds at that time ; in that of Edward the 
' Confessor, twenty-four. There are now twelve 
cottagers, a park of deer, and a fish-pond." 



374 TOWN OF ST. ALBANS. 

The town was always considered as a part of the 
demesne of the abbey ; and at the Conquest it was 
part of its possessions. Richard I. by charter, 
confirmed it to the abbey, with a market, and all 
the privileges attending a borough : the abbot hold- 
ing, as he alleged, of the king in capite, and hold- 
ing the burgesses as demesned men of the abbey. 
This tenure the burgesses wished to force from 
him ; which they attempted by the following stra- 
tagem In the thirty-fifth of Edzvard I. they had 
sent representatives to parlement, and also in the 
first and second of Edward II ; but in the fifth of 
the same reign, the sheriff of Hertfordshire, by the 
contrivance of the abbot, to save the expence, had 
omitted the usual summons. This the burgesses 
complained of, asserting that they held of the king ; 
hoping thereby to get released of the services they 
owed their lord abbot : or, if they succeeded in 
sending members, to be freed of those which they 
owed the king. Both of which expectations, in 
the opinion of Mr. Mado.v, were ill-founded". 
Burgesses were returned to parlement the fifth of 
Edzvard II. and in the second, fourth, and fifth of 
Edzvard III ; after which the load, or the privilege, 
as it was respectively thought by the disputants, 
ceased. At the time of the dissolution, the town, 

Antiquities of the Exchequer, i. 760. 



TROUBLES AT ST. ALBAN'S. 375 

with the other possessions of the abbey, fell to the 
king (Henry VIII.) and from him to his heir, 
Edward VI ; who, by letters patent, dated May 
12th, 1553, made the town of St. Albans a body 
corporate,by the name of the mayor and burgesses, Incorpo- 
and granted to the said mayor and burgesses, and 
their successors, the said profits, and other fran- 
chises ; they to hold the premises in free burgage, 
and to render yearly to the crown X/. as a fee- 
farm, at the feast of St. Michael . 

These were changed, by Charles II. into a 
mayor, recorder, twelve aldermen, and twenty- 
four assistants. The members are returned by 
the inhabitants and freemen (about a thousand in 
number) and the returning-officer is the mayor p . 

The remarkable events, which befel this town 
in earlier times, were, as usual, of the sanguinary 
kind. During the rage of the barons wars, in the 
reign of Henry III. the burgesses fortified the 
place, and defended it with strong gates, well se- 
cured. They were particularly jealous of horse- 
men ; therefore refused passage to all cavaliers. 
The constable of Hertford, displeased at this pro- 
hibition, in a bravado, boasted that he would enter 
the town with three youths (knights) and four of 
his best villeins. He did so, and, walking up 

Q Madox, i. 762. p Willis Notit. Pari. iii. 26. 



376 TROUBLES AT ST. ALBAN'S. 

and down with great insolence, asked his com- 
panions which way the wind was. The towns- 
men, alarmed at the question, thought he designed 
to fire their houses. In a summary way they ex- 
ecuted justice, by knocking down and beheading 
him, his youths, and villeins ; placing their heads 
on poles, at the corners of their streets. The king 
resented this invasion of his prerogative, and fined 
the town in a hundred marks ; which was imme- 
diately paid 9 . 

In the reign of Richard!!, it underwent a mor- 
tification of a far heavier nature. In 1381, after 
the bloody insurrection of Wat Tyler, a court of 
justice was held here, by the famous Sir Robert 
Tresilian. John Ball, a priest of Coventry, was 
tried and executed. Several of the inhabitants had 
* favored the rebels, or, taking advantage of the 
turbulence of the times, had demanded from the 
abbot a release from all their services. Several 
of them were condemned and put to death, and 
orders given, that their bodies should remain on 
the gallows in terror em. The burgesses, in con- 
tempt of the king, took them down ; but when a 
discovery was made, Richard, in a rage, com- 
manded the townsmen to make chains, and hang 
the putrid carcases on the same places they took 

9 Chauncy, 442. 



FIRST BATTLE AT ST. ALBAN'S. 377 

them from ; which, disgusting and horrible as the 
task was, they were obliged to perform 1 . 

In the civil wars between the houses of York FlRS1 " B cJ" 

TLB AT bT. 

and Lancaster, this town was the scene of dread- Alban's. 
ful carnage. Here was shed the first blood in 
that fatal quarrel. As soon as ever the weak 
Henry, or rather his queen and ministers, found 
themselves free from the power of his rival the 
Duke of York, they armed their forces, and marched 
from London to St. Alban's to encounter their 
enemy, who was advancing towards them with a 
mighty host. They met on the 22d of May, 1455. 
The peaceful prince sent out a herald to York, 
strictly commanding him to keep the peace as be- 
came a dutiful subject, and to avoid effusion of 
blood. York's answer was humble, yet resolute ; 
demanding the Duke of Somerset, and other de- 
linquents, to be delivered into his hands, that jus- 
tice might be executed on them, for the miseries 
they had brought on the realm. Somerset, who 
had been regent of France, was charged in parti- 
cular with the loss of Normandy. The king de- 
termined to stand the event of the day, rather than 
give up his friends. His banner was placed in St. 
Peters street. Orders were issued by Henry 
(but most probably by the, bloody Margaret) that 
no quarter should be given to his opponents. The 

1 Hollinslted, 438. 



37S FIRST BATTLE AT ST. ALBAN'S. 

Yorkists began the attack in three places. The 
famous John Lord Clifford defended the barriers 
with his accustomed valour. The king-making 
Warzvick, who at this time espoused the cause of 
York, collected his force, and broke in through the 
gardens into Holyxvell-streeV : his soldiers shouted 
his tremendous name. The Duke of York entered 
at the same time, and a dreadful fight ensued. 
Victory declared in his favor. Numbers of the 
nobility and gentry, with about eight hundred 
common men, fell on the side of Henry : the va- 
liant Clifford, usually called The Old, though only 
forty years of age, the Earl of Northumberland, 
son to the noted Hotspur, and the great Duke of 
Somerset, were slain. The last lost his life be- 
neath the sign of the Castle, to fulfil the prophecy 
thus delivered by Shakespeare : 

Let him shun castles. 
Safer shall he be on the sandy plains. 
Than where castles mounted stand l . 

Numbers of the nobility were wounded, and num- 
bers fled till the fury of the battle was over. None 
were executed by the victor : the barbarity of civil 

8 Stow, 399. 

* Henry VI. part ii. act 1. Halk's Qtronicle, Ixxxvi. 



SECOND BATTLE AT ST. ALBAN'S. 379 

feuds had not yet taken place, provoked by the 
reciprocal cruelties which speedily followed. 

Henry, wounded in the neck by an arrow, which 
hurtled in showers on him, retreated to a poor cot- 
tage, where he was found by the conquerors. 
They asked forgiveness on their knees, which the 
humane prince readily gave, on condition they 
would stop the carnage. He became their pri- 
soner, and they of course became governors of the 
kingdom. The abbey escaped plunder ; for for- 
tunately the king did not make it his head-quarters. 

The king, from this time to the year 1461, re- 
mained a mere shadow of royalty, entirely under 
the direction of the Yorkists. His queen was 
driven from him, under the terror of proscription. 
That spirited woman did not employ her time in 
prayers, or counting her beads, like her weak hus- 
band; but, by the assistance of her northern 
friends, raised a potent army, fought and slew the 
Duke of York at the battle of Wakefield, on Z)e- 
cember 30th, 1460, and, marching towards Lon- 
don, gave occasion to a second battle at St. Albans. 

The Earl of fVarzvic k, now in possession of the 
king, hastened from London with the captive mo- Second Bat- 

TT P AT ^T 

narch, and took post in St. Albans. Margaret, alban's. 
attempting to pass through the town, was repulsed 
by a storm of arrows, directed from the market- 



380 SECOND BATTLE AT ST. ALBAN'S. 

place ; but she quickly forced her way through a 
lane into St. Peters-street. The conflict became 
then very bloody ; and, after great slaughter, both 
parties quitted the town, and continued the battle, 
with the animosity usual in civil feuds, on Ber- 
nard Heath, north of St. Albans, as far as the 
village of Sauntbridge, and even beyond it, to a 
place called No Mans Land u . There a corps dt 
reserve of Warwick 's army, to the number of four 
or five thousand, made so vigorous an onset on the 
Lancastrians, as to render the victory for some 
time doubtful. At length the treachery or cow- 
ardice of a captain Lovelace, who commanded the 
Kentishmen, determined the day : he quitted the 
field, and left a complete victory to the queen. 
The confederated lords fled, and left the king in 
company of Lord Bonvil and Sir Thomas Kiriel, 
a gallant knight of Kent, both Yorkists. These 
gentlemen Henry had prevaled on to stay with 
him, assuring them of pardon and security ; but 
his barbarous queen, in contempt of the royal 
word, and in defiance of all good faith, caused 
them to be beheaded in the presence of her son 
Edzvard*, as it were to familiarize the young prince 
with blood, and train him to cruelty. 

Three-and-twenty hundred men perished 

Stow, 413. * Halle, p. c. 



SOPEWELL NUNNERY. 581 

in this battle. Only one man of rank was slain, 
Sir John Grey of Groby, who had that morning, 
with twelve others, been knighted by the king at 
Colney. His widow became queen to Edward IV. 
and occasioned fresh calamities to the kingdom, 
and proved the innocent cause of the destruction 
of her kindred. 

On quitting St. Albaris, I passed by the long 
wall which inclosed the nunnery of Sopewell, made Sopewell. 
of stone mixed with great quantities of Roman 
tiles. This religious house took its rise from two 
pious women, who on the site built a hovel with 
boughs of trees, and covered it with bark, in order 
to indulge in privacy their fondness for prayer and 
fasting. Abbot Jeffry, about the year 1140, en- 
couraged their virtue, by founding a nunnery of 
Benedictines. 

In this house Henry VIII. was privately mar- 
ried, by Doctor Rowland Lee, afterwards bishop 
of Lichfield, to Anna Boleyne. It maintained at 
that time thirteen nuns : on the dissolution, only 
nine; when its revenues, according to Dugdale, were 
.45. 7s. I0d.; to Speed, .68. 8s. It was 
first granted to Sir Richard Lee; but finally be- 
came the property of Sir Harbottle Grimston, and 
his heirs y . 

r 

y Tanner, 183. 



S82 BATTLE OF BARNET. 

London After passing through the village of London 

Colney. Qolney, seated on the Colne, at about a mile's 

Ridgehill. distance I ascended Ridgekitl, remarkable for a 

most extensive and rich view northwards of the 

fine country about St. Alban's. At South Mints, 

enter the county of 



MIDDLESEX; 



Wrotham and soon after leave, on the left, IVrotham Park ; 
Park* 

a beautiful house, built by admiral Byng, who was 

put to death in 1757 ! 

About a mile farther, reach the bloody field of 

Battle of Barnet, marked by a column, that shews the spot 

Barnet. j r 

where the decisive battle was fought between the 
houses of York and Lancaster, which fixed the 
crown on the head of Edzvard IV. 

The great earl of Warwick, resentful of the 
injuries he had received from that prince, deposed 
him from the throne he had enabled him to mount. 
So popular was the character of this potent baron, 
that a numerous army flew to his standard : every 
one was proud of bearing his cognisance, the bear 
and ragged staff, in his cap : some of gold, ena- 
melled ; others of silver ; and those who could not 
afford the precious metals, cut them out of white 



BATTLE OF BARNET. S83 

silk, or cloth. When he visited London in peace- 
ful times, he came attended by six hundred men, 
in red jackets, embroidered with ragged staves 
before and behind. He kept house at his palace 
in Warwick- Lane. Six oxen were consumed at 
every breakfast ; and every tavern was full of his 
meat ; and every guest was allowed to carry off 
as much, roast or boiled, as he could bear upon his 
long dagger*. 

Edward, on his return to England, was joy- 
fully received in London. Hearing that Warwick 
was on his march towards the capital, he hastened 
to meet him, and posted himself at Barnet. So 
bad was the intelligence in those days, that Edward 
advanced in the night so near to WarxvicKs camp, 
that the earl, unapprized of his vicinity, kept firing 
his ordnance over that of the king the greatest part 
of the night, without the least execution. On 
the morning, being that of Easter-day, April 14th 
1471, both the leaders placed their armies in order. 
Warwick wore as his cognisance an ostrich's fea- 
ther% the badge of Edxvard, the son of king Henry : 
his friend Vere Earl of Oxford, a star ; the fatal 
cause of the loss of the day. Edward wore a sun ; 
from a fancy, that before the battle of Mortimers 

z Stow's Hist. London, edit. 1G1 1, p. ISO. 
a Ibid. 422. 



384 BATTLE OF BARNET. 

Cross, he saw three distinct suns at last unite in 
one b . The battle began at four in the morning, 
which opened in a thick mist, with that deadly 
hate which the long series of civil wars had created. 
The battle raged with various success, as might be 
expected from the undaunted courage and ani- 
mosity of the leaders, and from the reflection on 
the certain destruction consequential of defeat. 
They fought obscured in fog till ten o'clock; 
victory seemed to incline to Warwick; when 
his people, mistaking the stars in the helms of 
Oxford's soldiers, for the suns of Edward's party, 
charged their own friends ; who, crying Treason ! 
Treason ! fled with eight hundred men. The mar- 
quis of Montacute, with the fickleness usual in 
those times, had privily agreed with Edxvard to 
desert his brother Warxvick, and had changed his 
livery. This was discovered by some of the earl's 
men, who instantly put him to death : a fit reward 
of fraternal perfidy ! JVarzvick, seeing his brother 
slain, Oxford fled, and the fortune of the day 
turned against him, leaped on a horse, in hopes of 
escaping ; but coming to an impassable Mood, was 
there killed, and stripped naked, and, after being 
exposed, with the body of Montacute, for three or 
four days, in the church of St. PauCs, was interred 

b Hollinshed, 660. Shakespeare, Henri/ VI. part iii. act 2. 



BATTLE OF BARNET. S83 

in the abbey of Bisham in Berkshire, founded by 
the Montacutes, his maternal ancestors. About 
four thousand were slain on both sides ; who were 
interred for the most part on the spot. Edward 
built here a chapel, and, according to the custom 
of the times, appointed a priest to say mass for the 
souls of the deceased. This place, in the days of 
Stozv d , was converted into a dwelling-house. The 
following conversation relative to this battle, be- 
tween Civis and Roger, extracted from Doctor 
Bulleiiis Dialogues both pleasant e 8$pietifull, &c. 
will probably be acceptable to the reader : 

" Civis. How like you this heath ? Here was 
" foughten a fearful field, called Palme Sondaie. 
" Battaile, in king Edward the fowerthes tyme. 
" Many thousands were slain on this grounde, 
" Here was slain the noble erle of JVarwiche. 

" Roger. If it please your maistership, my 
" granndfather was also here, with twenty tall men 
" of the parishe where I was borne, and none of 
" them escaped but my granndfather only. I had 
" his bo we in my hande many a tyme : no man 
" could stir the string when it was bent. Also his 
" harnes was worn upon our S. Georges back, in 
" our churche, many a colde winter after ; and I 
" hearde my grand-dame tell how he escaped. 

* Annals, 423. 



HADLEY CHURCH. 

" Civis. Tell me, Roger, I pray thee, ho we he 
' did escape the danger ? 
" Roger. Sir, when the battaile was pitched, 
and appointed to bee foughten nere unto this 
windmill, and the somons given by the harolts 
of armies, that spere, polax, blackbille, bowe and 
arrowes, should be sette a worke the daie follow- 
ing, and that it shoulde be tried by bloudie 
weapon, a sodaine fear fell on my grandfather ; 
and the same night, when it was darke, he stale 
out of the erle's campe, for fear of the king's 
displeasure, and hid him in the woode ; and at 
lengthe he espied a greate hollow oke tree, 
with armes somewhat greene, and climbed up, 
partly through climing, for he was a thatcher ; 
but feare was worthe a ladder to him : and then, 
by the helpe of the writhen arm of the tree, he 
went down, and there remained a good while ; 
and was fedde there by the space of a monthe 
with old achorns and nuttes which squirrels had 
brought in ; and also did in his sallet kepe the 
raine water for his drinke, and at length escaped 
the danger." 

Hadley At a small distance stand Haclley church, and 

Church. j tg pi easan t village, on the edge of Enfield Chace ; 

where, in my boyish age, I passed many happy days 

with my uncle, the Reverend John Pennant , who, 



HADLEY CHURCH. 3S7 

during forty years, was the worthy minister. The 
following epitaph, composed by the Reverend Mr. 
Oarrow, schoolmaster at Hadley> truely describes 
his well-spent life : 

" Here lieth the body of the Reverend John Pennant, 
" youngest son of Peter Pennant, of Bychton, in the county of 
" Flint; and Catharine, daughter of Owen Wynne, Esq. of 
" Glynne, in Merionethshire. He was rector of this parish 
" forty years, and of that of Compton Martin, in Somersetshire ; 
" and chaplain to her Royal Highness the Princess dowager of 
" Wales. He resided here forty years ; and lived much 
" respected, and died much regretted by the poor and his 
" numerous acquaintance. He departed this life the 28th 
" day of October, 1770, in his seventy-first year, full of piety 
" towards his God, and of gratitude to his friends." 
. 

Here had been, in early times, a hermitage; 
which Geffry de Magnaville, about the year 1 1 36, 
bestowed on his new-founded abbey of JValden in 
Essex*. The church was probably a chapel to the, 
hermitage, and, from its being annexed to Walden % . 
was called Hadley Monachorum. It is at present 
a donative in the gift of the lords of the manor. 
The present church is built with flints. Over the 
west door is the date 1498, and the sculpture of a 
rose and a wing. The same is found under the 
upper window of Erifield, and on a gateway oppofr 

e Newcourt's Repertorium; i. 621. 
2 c 2 



38S HADLEY CHURCH. 

site to the Curtain in Shoreditch, once belonging 
to the Benedictine nunnery of Halkvell. Sir 
Thomas Lovel, who lived at the period in which 
this church was built, was a great benefactor to 
the nunnery, and had his residence at Enfield. 
Whether he contributed to the building of Hadley, 
does not appear ; otherwise it would seem to have 
been a badge of his : but others have conjectured 
it to have been a rebus, expressive of the name of 
an architect, Rosewing. 

To this church, on the demolition of that of 
St. Christopher Le Storks, were removed the 
poor remains of my pious mother, who died of 
the small pox in London, in April 1744. At 
the same time, those of my worthy sister Sarah, 
born November 28th, 1730, who died November 
11, 1780, were deposited in the same place. 
That excellent woman, her twin sister Catherine, 
survived till February 10, 1797, and on the 
20th was interred in Hadley church. 

On the top of the steeple there remains an iron 
Beacon, pitch-pot, designed as a beacon, to be fired oc- 
casionally, to alarm the country in case of invasion. 
It takes its name from the Saxon Becnian, to call 
by signs. Before the time of Edward III. the 
signals were given by firing great stacks of wood ; 
but in the eleventh of his reign, it was first ordered 



HADLEY. ENFIELD CHACE. 389 

that this species of alarm should be made with 
pitch-pots placed on standards', or on elevated 
buildings, within due distances of one another. 

Hadley stands at the edge of Enfield Chace z , a ^^ LD 
vast tract of woodland, filled with deer. The view 
of the county of Essex, over the trees, is extremely 
beautiful. This great extent of forest was first 
granted, by William the Conqueror, to Geffry de 

f Lambarde's Kent, 66. 

s This Chace was inclosed in the seventeenth of the present 
reign, and was found to contain 8349 acres; which were 
thus allotted : 

A. R. P. 

Enfield parish 1732 2 6 including 200 to be in- 
closed and let, in aid of 
land-tax and poor's rate. 

Old Park in ditto 30 15 

Edmonton 1231 2 6 

Hadley 240 

South Minis 1026 

Old/old Farm 36 3 24 

The Crown 3213 2 20 

Tythe Owners 519 O 32 

Four Lodges 313 3 

To be enfranchised 6 2 1 

The 200 acres allowed in relief of Enfield parish, are divided 
into forty-one lots, and let at . 1 . 1 6s. per acre, and some for 
two guineas, for ninety-nine years, commencing at Michaelmas 
1778. The crown makes . 1 300 a year of twenty-four lots, 
for the same term, and at various and higher rents. 



390 ENFIELD CHACE. BARNET. 

Magnaville, a noble Norman, one of his followers : 
the name afterwards corrupted to Mandeville. 
His posterity were Earls of Essex till the death of 
William Fitzpier, in 1227, his descendant by the 
female line ; when this chace, and the title of 
Essex, fell to Humphry de Bohun Earl of Hereford, 
in right of his mother, sister to Fitzpier*. It con- 
tinued with the Bohuns till the decease of the 
tenth of the name ; after which, the property of 
the Chace descended to Henry Earl of Derby, 
afterwards Henry IV. by virtue of his marriage 
with Mary, younger sister to the last Bohun, and 
became annexed to the dutchy of Lancaster 1 . 

Barnet. From Hadley to Barnetis half a mile : a small 
thoroughfare town on the top of a hill ; whence 
its name, corrupted from the Saxon Berg net, a 
little hill. It has also the title of Chipping Bar- 
net, on account of its market. In Saxon times, a 
vast wood filled this tract ; which was granted to 
the abbey of St. Albans. An inscription in the 

Church, church shews it was founded by a Beauchamp : 

Ora pro anima Johannis Beauchamp hujus operis fundatoris. 

Here is a fair monument to a countryman of 
mine, Thomas Ravenscrqft, Esquire, born at Ha- 
warden, of an antient family in that parish. He 

h Vincent's Discoverie, 180. l Cambden, i. 398. 



WHETSTONE. HIGHGATE. 391 

lies in a gown and ruff, recumbent. He died in 
1630. He and his son James were considerable 
benefactors to this place. To him wets owin i the 
vestry-room ; to James, an alms-house for six poor 
women, which he amply endowed. 

Near Barnet is a medicinal well, a gentle and 
safe chalybeate ; in former times in great repute. 

From this town is a quick descent. Near the 
village of Whetstone I again enter Middlesex ; Whetstone. 
which I quitted on going into Barnet. Just 
beyond Whetstone, the road passes over Finchley Finchle* 
Common; infamous for robberies, and often 
planted with gibbets, the penalty of murderers. 
The resort of travellers of all ranks, and the mul- 
titudes of heavy carriages which crowd this road, 
compared with those between St. Denys and Paris, 
give a melancholy idea of the overgrown size of 
our capital, which makes such annual havock of 
the lives and fortunes of the distant visitants. 

About a mile beyond this common, stands 
Highgate ; a large village, seated on a lofty emi- Highgatb. 
nence, overlooking the smoky extent beneath. 
Here, in my memory, stood a large gateway, at 
which, in old times, a toll was paid to the bishop 
of London., for liberty granted (between four and 
five hundred years ago) by one of his predecessors, 
for passing from Whetstone, along the present road, 
through his parks, instead of the old miry way 



392 HIGHGATE. 

by Friarn Barnet, Colnie-hatch, Muszvell-hill, 
Crouch-end, and (leaving Highgate to the west) 
by the church of Pancras. In the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, it was farmed from the bishop, for forty 
pounds a year 1 . After resting for a small space 
over the busy prospect, I descended into the plain, 
reached the metropolis, and disappeared in the 
crowd. 

1 Nor den's Speculum Brit. Middlesex, 1 5, 



393 



PART II. 



NORTHAMPTON TO LONDON. 

lNa preceding year, I determined to vary part 
of my journey to the capital, by quitting the com- 
mon road near Daventry. I began with making 
a digression about five miles to the south of that 
town, as far as Fawsley. I passed through the 
village, and by the church of Badby. The manor, Badby. 
in Saxon times, was bestowed on the abbey of 
Crow land, by one Norman, a sheriff; and the 
grant was confirmed by Witlaf and Beored, kings 
of Mercia, in 868. That great convent held it 
for no very long period. In 1017 it devolved to 
Leqfric Earl of Leicester, by the death of his bro- 
ther, also of the name of Norman, to whom the 
house of Croxvland had granted it for one hundred 
years, on the payment of a pepper-corn : but 
Leofric severed it from Croxvland, and bestowed 



394 



ARDBURY-HILL. CATESBY. 



Ardbury- 

HILL. 



it on the abbey of Evesham. On the dissolution, 
Henry VIII. gave it to Sir Edmund Knightly, third 
son of Richard Knightly of Faxcsley ; and it now 
is the sole property of Lucy Knightly, Esquire. 

In this parish, and at a small distance to the 
west of the village, is Ardbury-hill, noted for the 
vast ditch and rampart which surround it. It is 
of an irregular shape, conforming to that of the 
hill ; notwithstanding which, it may have been 
Roman, and possessed afterwards by the Saxons ; 
who bestowed on it the present name of Ard, 
which signifies, in the British, high ; and Bury, 
which, in their own tongue, denotes an eminence*. 

Catesby. At a small distance from hence is Catesby : 
long the property of a family of the same name. 
Sir William Catesby, one of the three favourites of 
Ricliard III. was lord of this manor. His ances- 
tors possessed the place in the reign of Edward 
III ; and it continued in his posterity till the infa- 
mous conclusion of his line, in Robert Catesby, 
the execrable 15 contriver of the Gun-powder Plot. 
From Badby, I rode through some woods, and 

Fawsley. through Fawslcy-park, to the house of Fazvsley, 
the seat of the antient family of the Knight leys ; 
standing in an improved demesne, above some 
pretty pieces of water, which wind along a fine 
wooded dell. 



* Morton, 524. 



b Dot's Church Hist. ii. i30. 



FAWSLEY-HOUSE. 39* 

The present owner derives it from a very long 
race of ancestors, who were settled here from the 
year 1415 : at which time it was purchased by 
Richard Knightly, descended from a Stafford- 
shire family : taking its name from a manor in 
that county, which they had possessed from the 
twentieth year of William the Conqueror. 

The present house is a motley building ; part House. 
being exceedingly old, part middle-aged, and part 
new. The hall is a magnificent gothic room, of a 
vast height, timbered at top, and fifty-two feet 
long. The recess, or bow-window, is richly orna- 
mented at top with sculpture in stone. All the 
other windows are very large, and placed at a 
great height above the floor. In every one are the 
arms of the family, and their alliances. I enume- 
rated above sixty ; for it has been greatly allied^ 
from very early times. 

The chimney-piece is large, grand, and well 
carved. Above it is a great window. The smoke 
is conveyed by flues passing on each side of it ; 
so that the chimney does not in the lest disturb 
the uniformity of the room : at the lower end are 
two arched doors. There would be a faultless 
propriety, if it was not for a modern wooden skreen 
trespassing on the lower end. 

The kitchen is most hospitably divided. On Kitchen. 
each side of the partition is an enormous fire-place, 



396 PORTRAITS IN FAWSLEY-HOUSE. 

fitted for a hecatomb of beeves : they are placed 
back to back, so as not to interrupt their respec- 
tive operations. 
Portraits. The portraits preserved here are very curious : 
that of Sir Valentine Knightly caught my eye first, 
as senior of the company. He is represented half- 
length, in black, with short brown hair, whiskers, 
and a small beard ; one hand on his sword, the 
other on his side. I find nothing more remark- 
able of him, than being father to a more active 
spirit, 

Sir Richard Knightly : who is painted in 
two periods of life; once in advanced years, 
sitting ; his head kept warm by a coif; his dress 
black ; his ruff laced. Near him are his specta- 
cles, a Bible, and hour-glass. Between his legs is 
a little girl playing with his stick, while he, laying 
one hand on her shoulder, forms a true picture of 
aged affection. In the inscription he is stiled of 
Norton; a manor belonging to the family, and 
possibly the residence of Sir Richard at this 
time. a 

The other portrait represents him in the thirty- 
third year of his age, A. D. ] 567. On his head 
is a bonnet : his dress is yellow : his cloak black : 
his ruff small. He is painted with a sword and 
small rod. It should seem, from some not ill- 
wrote lines, that he had passed his youth licen- 



PORTRAITS IN FAWS LEY-HOUSE. 3^7 

tiously ; but afterwards made a most rigid reform. 
They begin, 

In vita Fortuna. 
So hitherto, by helpe of hevenlie powers, 
My doubtful lifFe hath ronne his postinge race; 
Whos recklesse youthe hath passed such stormie showers 
As might have cute me of in halfe this space. 
Yet mightie Jove, by his celestial grace, 
Hath brought my barke to such a blissful shore, 
As daylie doth advaunce me more and more. 

In vita Fortuna, 

It is probable he had an enthusiastic turn. He 
took part with the puritans, who early began to 
give disturbance to the church of England. Their 
spirits were so greatly embittered by the unfavor- 
able conclusion of the mock conference between 
their ministers and the royal paedagogue, in 1603 C , 
that they gave vent to their rage in a variety of 
most scurrilous pamphlets against the prelatical 
order. These were the productions of secret 
presses, that travelled from place to place. The 
lord of Fazvsley was found guilty of harboring 
them. He was cited before the Star-chamber, 
and would have been severely treated, had it not 
been for the mild Whitgif't, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, who had been the principal object of their 

c Rapin, ii. 162. 



398 PORTRAITS IN FAWSLEY-HOUSE. 

abuse*. The agreement of Sir Richard with Sir 
Francis Hastings, in a petition to the house for 
granting a toleration to the Roman catholics, must 
not be thought inconsistent with the views of his 
party ; for, had success followed, the puritans 
might have clamed, and most probably obtained, 
the same indulgence. He died in 1615. 

His first wife was Mary, daughter of Mr. 
Richard Termor, of Easton Neston ; his second, 
was Lady Elizabeth Seymour, sixth 6 daughter to 
the protector Duke of Somerset. There are two 
portraits of this lady: one dated 1590, at. 40. 
Her hands and face are small : her dress a quilled 
ruff; black gown hung and beset with vast strings 
and rows of pearls. The other is also in black, 
with a high ruff. This lady brought her husband 
seven sons and two daughters : she died in 1 602, 
and was interred in the church at Norton^. 

A full-length of Thomas Lord Grey of 
Groby, in armour, long hair, a turnover and boots ; 
with a boy in red giving him his helmet. This 
nobleman was eldest son to the first Earl of Stam- 
ford, and married to Anne, second daughter of 
Edward Bourchier Earl of Bath. He is repre- 
sented as a young man of mean abilities; who 
took a determined part in the civil wars against 

* Bridges, 66. c Vincent's Discoverie, 483. f Bridges, 79. 



FAWSLEY CHURCH. TOMBS. 

his sovereign, was active against him in the field, 
and submitted, when others, equally warm in the 
cause of liberty, declined the dangerous office, to 
sit among the judges on the trial of the king ; and 
finally, to sign his name to the warrant which 
brought him to the block. These services were 
fully rewarded. He had lands to the amount of a 
thousand a year bestowed on him g , and revelled in 
the plunder of the royal manor of Holdenby ; but 
before the Restoration, death luckily rescued him 
from the fate of his brother-delinquents. 

I must close this list with mentioning two most 
beautiful heads of women, done in crayons ; much 
to the honor of the fair performer, a lady of the 
present generation. 

The church is dedicated to St. Peter, and was Church. 
bestowed by Henry II. on the monks of Daven- 
try. On the dissolution, it was given to the col- 
lege of St Frideswide, Oxford; but is now in the 
gift of Mr. Knightly. Within, are numbers of Tombs. 
antient tombs of the family, even from its first 
settlement in this country; but many of them 
much mutilated. That of Sir Richard Knightly, 
who died in 1534, and Jane his wife, are magni- 
ficently represented in alabaster, recumbent, on an 

* Drake's Perl Hist. xx. 50. 



400 FLORE. 

altar-tomb : he in armour, with a herald's mantle 
over it, and a defence of mail over his thighs. 

Sir Edmund Knightly, and his wife Ursula, 
sister to John Vere Earl of Oxford, are figured on 
a brass plate ; he, according to the fashion of the 
times, is armed, notwithstanding he was a serjeant 
at law. He died in 1542. 

A vast mural monument preserves the memory 
of another Sir Valentine and his spouse, Anne, 
daughter of Sir Edward Ferrers of Badesly, in 
Warwickshire. He died in \566. This memo- 
rial is a great pile of marble, with a great black 
sarcophagus in the middle, and finished with a 
pediment. 

The seats of the church are most ridiculously 
carved with a variety of droll subjects : such as a 
cat fiddling, and the mice dancing ; an animal 
riding on a sow, bridled and saddled : and other 
figures equally calculated to spoil the gravity of 
the best-disposed congregation. 

From Fawsley I returned into the London road, 
near the eighth stone from Toucester ; and cross- 
ing it, reached the village and church of Flore, or 
Flore. Floxcer, pleasantly seated on rising ground, at a 
small distance from the great road. In Dooms- 
day-book it is called Flora; perhaps from its 
agreeable situation. I left the church unvisited. 



FLORE: TOMBS IN THE CHURCH. 



401 



I must speak from Mr. Bridges* of the most re- 
markable particulars. It is dedicated to All 
Saints. It was bestowed in the reign of king Church. 
John, by a Ralph de Kaines, on Merton abbey, in 
Surrey; but at the dissolution, was given to 
Christ-church, Oxford ; under the patronage of 
which it continues. 

On a grey stone, in brass, is the figure of the Tombs. 
Virgin, clasping our Saviour in her arms. 
Beneath them are Thomas Knaresburght, in ar- 
mour, and Agnes his wife; both with suppliant 
hands, addressing themselves to the object of the 
adoration of their days. She in these words : O 
Blyssyd Lady, pray to IHU, of us to have mercy. 
He died in die ramis palmarum, 1450 ; she, on 
the 26th of March, 1488. 

The following curious epitaph informs us of the 
end of Robert Saunders, and Margaret his wife. 

" Robert Saunders, the seconde sone of Thomas Saunders 
" of Sybbertoft, lyethe here buryed : 

" To Margret Staunton, the hey re of Thomas Staunton, he 
* was fyrste marryed ; 

" Which Margret being dead, Joyse Goodivyn 
" he tooke to wyfe. 

" The xiii daye of November, A. xcv. xlix. 
' he departyd thys lyfe ; 

" And restethe at God's pleasure, tyll the daye of perfec- 
" tion. 

" God sende us and hyra then a joyful resurrection. Amen." 

h P. 506, tfc. 

2D 



402 



UPTON. NORTHAMPTON. 



Close by Flower I enter on the new turnpike- 
road, which forms a communication between Da- 
ventry and Northampton, and which opens into 
the London road between Dodford and JVeedon. 

About two miles from Northampton, I passed 
Upton, through the village of Upton, and by Upton-hall, 
the seat of Sir Thomas Samwell, Baronet, and pro- 
perty of his ancestors since the year 1600; when 
it was purchased from Sir Richard Knightley by 
William Samwell, Esquire, a gentleman of antient 
Cornish descent. 

After a short space, I crossed the northern 
water, or Naesby-head, a river that rises due north, 
and by its junction a little below with another 
stream, which flows from Faw sley -pools, forms that 
which receives at Northampton the name of Nen. 
Leland calls one of these branches the Aron ; the 
other the JVeedon. 
Jorthamp- I entered this beautiful town at the west gate, 
and passed beneath the site of the castle. No- 
thing, excepting an outer wall and foss, remains ; 
in part of which is a vast stratum of ferruginous 
geodes. 
Castle. Opposite to the castle is a great mount, once 
the foundation of some more antient fortress ; per- 
haps one of the line of forts which crossed this and 
the neighboring counties. One exists at Touces- 
ter, and another I shall have occasion to speak of, 



NORTHAMPTON. 403 

lying about three miles to the east. I cannot 
speak with certainty of the period in which 
it was occupied by the Saxons, who gave it the 
name of Hamtune. Mr. Bridges supposes it to 
have risen from the ruins of Eltavon, a Roman 
station on the side of the town. It appears that 
the Danes were possessed of Northampton in 9 1 7; 
and from thence long made their barbarous ex- 
cursions \ Before the year 1010, they had quitted 
the place ; but in their inroads in that year, they 
burnt the town, and desolated the country. 

In 1064, it found in the Northumbrians, under 
Morcar, who had advanced as far as Northamp- 
ton, a cruel set of banditti, who committed most 
unprovoked outrages. They murdered the inha- 
bitants, burnt the houses, and carried off thou- 
sands of cattle, and multitudes of prisoners. But 
in the reign of Edward the Confessor, here were 
LX burgesses in the king's lordship, and LX 
houses. At the time of the Conquest, fourteen 
were waste ; but at the time of the survey, there 
were forty burgesses in the new borough k . 

Simon de Sancto Licio, or Senliz, a noble Nor- 
man, founded here the castle. He had married 

* Sax. Chr. 104, 106. 

k Doomsday -book t in Morion's Northampt. 

2d2 



404 NORTHAMPTON. 

Maude, daughter of JValtheof, the Saxon earl of 
Northampton, and succeeded to the title. 

The Conqueror bestowed this town, and the 
whole hundred of Fawsley, then worth fort}'" 
pounds a year, on St. Liz, to provide shoes for 
his horses'. From that period it became consi- 
derable, and frequently was the seat of parlements, 
and was on several other occasions honored with 
the royal presence. 

I must particularize the great council held there 
in 1164, in which the contumacy of Thomas 
T$ecket was punished by a heavy fine. At this 
time, the whole people came, as one man ; and yet 
all were unequal to the pride and obstinacy of the 
single prelate m . The other great council, or parle- 
ment, was summoned in 1 1 76, to confirm the 
statutes of Clarendon ; in which the rights of the 
crown and customs of the realm, especially as to 
judicial proceedings, had been established". 

During the civil contests in which England 
was so unhappily involved, Northampton came in 
for its share of the calamities incident to war. In 
that between king John and the barons, it was 
stoutly defended on the part of the king against 

1 Blunt's Antient Tenures, 1 6. 

m Lord Lyttelton's Henry II. 41 to 56. 

n The same, v. 20' 4, octavo, 2d edit. 



NORTHAMPTON. 403 

Robert Fitzwalter, fanatically stiled marshal of the 
army of God and the holy church ; who, for 
want of military engines, was obliged to raise the 
siege p . This post was of such importance, that, 
after the charter of liberties was extorted from 
John, the constable for the time being was sworn 
(by the twenty-five barons appointed at a com- 
mittee to enforce its execution) to govern the 
castle according to their pleasure. This was done 
in the fullness of their power ; but as soon as the 
perjured prince got the upper hand, he appointed 
Fulk de Bream (a valiant but base-born Norman) 
to the command, as one in whom he could entirely 
confide 9 . 

In the year 1263, the younger Mountfort and 
his barons held it against their sovereign Henry 
III. The king marched against them with a 
strong force ; and having with his battering rams 
formed a great breach in that part of the town- 
walls nearest to the monastery of St. Andrew, en- 
tered the place, and, after a short but vigorous re- 
sistance, made the whole garrison prisoners r . 

In 1460, Henry VI. made Northampton the 
place of rendezvous of his forces. The strength 

Cambden, i. 519. p Dugdale Baron, i. 219. 

1 Dugdale Baron, i. 743. r Carte, ii. 141. 



406 NORTHAMPTON. 

of his army encouraged his spirited queen to offer 
battle to his young antagonist, the Earl of Marche, 
then at the head of a potent army. A conference 
was demanded by the earl, and rejected by the 
royal party; who marched out of the town, 
and encamped in the meadows between it and 
Hardinston. The battle was fierce and bloody; 
but by the treachery of Edmund Lord Grey of Ru- 
then, who deserted his unhappy master, victory 
declared in favor of the house of York. Thou- 
sands were slain, or drowned in the Nen : among 
them the duke of Buckingham, Earl of Shrews- 
bury, John Viscount Beaumont, and Lord Egre- 
rnont. The duke was interred in the church of the 
Grey Friars ; others of the men of rank, in the 
adjacent abbey of De la Pre ; and others, in the 
hospital of St. John, in the town. 

The town had been inclosed with a strong wall, 
probably before the reign of King John ; for men- 
tion is made, in the second year of his reign, of the 
east-gate, one of the four. The walls were of 
breadth sufficient for six men to walk abreast. 
Both walls and castle were early neglected ; for 
they appear to have been in 1593 in a ruinous 
state*; yet the latter was used as a prison before 

* Nor den, as quoted by Bridges, +32. 



NORTHAMPTON. 407 

the year 1675 : and within had been a royal free- 
chapel, dedicated to St. George ; to which a chap- 
lain was presented by the crown, with a salary of 
hs. a year. 

In the civil wars, Northampton was seized by 
Lord Brook, for the use of the parlement. In 1642, 
he fortified it with a foss and ramparts ; converted 
the bridges into draw-bridges ; and brought seve- 
ral pieces of cannon here to defend it, in case of 
attack. Whether it distinguished itself by any 
particular acts of disloyalty beyond other places, 
I cannot say; but in \66% pursuant to an order 
of council, the walls, gates, and part of the castle, 
were demolished 1 . 

The most antient of the religious houses in this houses?* 
town was the priory of St. Andrew, founded about St. An- 
the year 1076, by Simon de St. Liz, (first Earl of 
Northampton of his name) and Maude, his wife. 
He peopled it with Cluniacs, and in 1 084 made it 
subject to the abbey of St. Mary de Caritate, a 
monastery upon the Loire. This occasioned it to 
undergo the common fate of all alien priories, that 
of being seized into the king's hands. It was sur- 
rendered to Henry at the dissolution, by Francis 
Abree, then prior; who, in reward for his ready 

1 Bridges. 



408 



NORTHAMPTON. 



Grey 
Friars. 



White 
Friars. 



"Black 

Friars. 



compliance, was appointed the first dean of Peter- 
borough*. 

Its revenue, according to Dugdale, was 
<. 263. 7s. Id.; to Speed, . 344. 13*. Id. The 
house stood near the north end of the town, and, 
with the demesne lands, was granted by Edzvard 
VI. to Sir Thomas Smith 1 ". 

The Grey Friars, or Franciscans, had a house 
on the west side of the place. They originally 
hired a habitation in St. Giles s parish, but after- 
wards built one on ground given them by the town, 
in the year 1 245. John Windloxve, the last war- 
den, and ten of his brethren, surrendered their 
poor revenues, of of. 6. 13s. 4d. per annum, on 
October 28th, \539 y ; after which it was granted 
to one Richard Taverner. 

Above this house was a priory of Carmelites, 
or White Friars, founded in 1271, by Simon 
Mountfort and Thomas Chetzeood. It was valued 
at . 10. 10*. and granted to William Ramesden 7 -, 
after being resigned by John Howel, the last prior, 
and eight brethren. 

The Dominicans, or Black Friars, were fixed 

n Willis, ii. 160. The recantation which he and his poor 
monks were forced to make, is well worth perusal. See Ap- 
pendix. 

x Tanner. r Willis, ii. 160. z Tanner, 386, 



NORTHAMPTON. 



409 



Black 

Canons. 



here before 1240. John Dalyngton was either 
founder, or a considerable benefactor. Its re- 
venues were only . 5. lis. 5d. * It was resigned 
to the crown by its prior William Dyckyns, and 
seven of his friars. 

William Peverel, natural son to the Conqueror, 
founded, before 1112, a house of Black Canons, 
in honor of St. James. This Peverel had no less 
than forty-four manors granted to him in this 
county. The revenues of this house amounted 
to . 175. 8*. Id. according to Dugdale; or 
. 213. 17*. Qd. according to Speed. Henry 
VIII. granted it to Nicholas Giffard b . Its last 
abbot was William Brokden, who, with five monks, 
resigned it in 1 540. 

The Austin Friars, or Friars Eremites, had a 
house here in the Bridge-street, founded in 1 322, 
by Sir John Longueville of Woherton, in Buck- 
inghamshire ; and several of his name were in- 
terred there. John Goodwyn, the prior, with seven 
friars, resigned it to the king in 1539. It was 
soon after granted to Robert Dighton. Its reve- 
nues are unknown . 

The college of All Saints was founded in 1459, All Saints. 
with licence of purchasing to the value of twenty 
marks. It consisted only of two fellows. In 



Austin 
Friars. 



* Bridges, 455. b Tanner, 377. c Bridges, 456. 



410 NORTHAMPTON. 

1535, it was found, clear of all reprizes, to be 
worth xxxix*. ivd. College-lane, in this town, 
takes its name from it d . 
Hospital of j he hospital of St. John is an antient building, 

St. John. ... . 

standing in Bridge-street. It consists of a chapel, 
a large hall with apartments for the brethren, 
and two rooms above for the co-brothers. It was 
founded for the reception of infirm poor, probably 
by William St. Clere, archdeacon of Northampton ; 
who died possessed of that dignity in 1168. He 
is supposed to have been brother to one of the 
Simon St. Cleres ; but Leland justly insinuates, 
that they never were called by that name, but by 
that of St. Liz e . 

At the dissolution, its clear revenues were 
. 57. 19s. 6d. Sir Francis Brian was then high 
steward of the house, and had 4(Xs. yearly ; and 
eight poor persons were maintained at %d. a day 
each : a charity founded by John Dallington, 
clerk, and confirmed in 1340, by Henry Burg- 
herst, bishop of Lincoln. It is at present govern- 
ed by a master, and two co-brothers or chaplains, 
whose salary is . v. each, with xis. each, in lieu 
of firing, and x*. on renewing of leases. The eight 
poor people are named by the master, and main- 
tained in lodging, firing, and common room, and 
I*. Id. weekly. 
d Bridges, 458. e Leland bin. i. 10. and Bridges, 459. 



NORTHAMPTON. 411 

St. Thomas's hospital stands a little more to the St/Thome's. 
south of St. Johns, beyond the south gate, in the 
suburbs called The Quarters, which extend to the 
south bridge. This owes its foundation, in 1450, 
to the respect the citizens had for St. Thomas 
Becket. Originally it maintained twelve poor 
people: six more were added in 1654, by Sir 
John Langham ; and one more of later years, by 
Richard Massingberd. It is governed by a war- 
den, who is one of the aldermen ; and the vicar of 
All Saints is the chaplain, with an annual salary 
of . III. xvis. vtudJ 

I find, besides, an hospital on the south side of 
the town, in the parish of Hardingstone, dedicated 
to St. Leonard, for a master and leprous brethren; 
founded before 1 240. The mayor and burgesses 
were patrons. Dugdale valued it at ten pounds a 
year*. 

I must not omit mention of the short-lived uni- 
versity which existed in this town ; and which arose University. 
from the following occasion: In 1238, Otho, the 
pope's legate, happened to visit the university of 
Oxford, and took his residence at the neighboring 
convent of Osney. He was one day respectfully 
waited on by the students ; who were insolently 
refused admittance by the Italian porter. At 

f Bridges, 457. Tanner, 386". 



412 NORTHAMPTON. 

length, after intolerable provocation from the clerk 
of the kitchen, a Welsh student drew his bow, and 
shot him dead h . The resentment of government, 
and the fear of punishment, caused the first seces- 
sion of the students to Northampton, and other 
places. In succeeding years fresh riots arose, and 
occasioned farther migrations. At length, these 
migrations were made under sanction of the king; 
who imagined that the disturbances arose from the 
too great concourse of scholars to one place. It 
is said, that not fewer than fifteen thousand stu- 
dents settled in this town. Whether from resent- 
ment of former proceedings against them, or from 
the usual dislike youth has to governing powers, 
they took the part of the barons. They formed 
themselves into companies, had their distinguish- 
ing banner, and, when Henri/ III. made his attack 
on Northampton, proved by far his most vigorous 
opponents. After the king had made himself 
master of the place, he determined to hang every 
student; but being at length appeased, he per- 
mitted them to return to Oxford, under the con- 
duct of Simon Mountfort, and abolished the uni- 
versity of Northampton 1 . 
Towk The town is finely situated on an eminence, 

DESCRIBED. . , . . . . , . . . 

gently sloping to the river, which bounds it on the 

h Wood's Hist. Ox. i. 89. l Bridges, 426. 



NORTHAMPTON. 41S 

South, as it also does on the west. The streets are 
in general strait, and very handsomely built. The 
great market-place is an ornament to the town : 
few can boast the like. Much of the beauty of 
Northampton is owing to the calamity it sustained 
by fire, on September 20th, 1675; when the Fire. 
greatest part was laid in ashes. The houses were 
at that time chiefly wooden. Twenty-five thousand 
pounds were collected by briefs and private 
charity towards its relief; and the king gave a 
thousand tons of timber, out of JVhittlezvood 
forest, and remitted the duty of chimney-money in 
this town for seven years : so that it was soon 
rebuilt ; and changed its wooden edifices for more 
secure and ornamental houses of stone. 

The church of All Saints fell a victim to the Churches. 
flames. The old church was a large pile, with a 
tower in the center. It was rebuilt with great 
magnificence, and is a considerable ornament to 
this pretty town. The portico is very elegant, 
supported in front by eight columns of the Ionic 
order. The body stands on four lofty columns, 
and has a neat dome in the middle. The roof is 
beautifully stuccoed. This church, and that of 
St. Peter, were bestowed on the priory of St. 
Andrew, by Simon de St. Liz, the founder. All 
Saints is at present in the gift of the members of 
the corporation, who are inhabitants of the parish. 



414 NORTHAMPTON. 

Holy The church of the Holy Sepulchre is supposed 

Sepulchre 

' to have been built by the Knights Templars, on 
the model of that at Jerusalem. The imitative 
part is round, with a nave issuing from it. In the 
round part is a peristyle of eight round pillars, 
thirteen feet eight inches high, and twelve feet 
three in circumference. The capitals consist of 
two round fillets : the arches sharp and plain. 
The space from the wall to the pillars is eleven 
feet : the diameter, from the inside of one pillar 
to that of the opposite, is twenty-nine feet two 
inches. In the center of the area stands, in the 
church at Jerusalem, the supposed sepulchre k ; 
and it is probable a model might be placed in 
those which we find of the same kind in our island j 
for, besides this, the Temple church in London, and 
St. Sepulchre's in Cambridge, are built on the 
same plan. The steeple, and some other parts of 
that in question, have been added since the build- 
ing: of the circular church. 
St. Peter's St. Peters church is a singular building;. Two 
corners of the tower are ornamented with three 
round pillars : above these are two, and above 
them one ; all gradually less than the others. 
The middle of the tower is ornamented with small 
round arches, which are continued along the out^ 
side of the body of the church, and have a good 

k See Sandys's Travels. 



NORTHAMPTON. 415 

effect. Within are two rows of round arches, 
carved with zigzag work : the pillars which support 
these are alternately single and quadruple. A 
small monument commemorates John Smith, that 
eminent metzotinto scraper \ who died in January 
1742, aged ninety. 

The advowson of this church was given by 
Edward III. to the hospital of St. Catherine, near 
the Tower, in London, and still remains under its 
patronage. 

Whosoever intended to clear himself of any 
criminal accusation in this town, was obliged to do 
it in this church only ; having here first performed 
his vigil and prayers in the preceding evening 1 ". St. Giles. 
St. Giles's church stands in the east skirts of the 
town ; but contains nothing worthy notice. 

In old times Northampton was possessed of 
three other churches, which are now destroyed. 
St. Bartholomew's stood on the east side of the 
road going to Kingsthorp ; and was bestowed by 
St. Liz on his convent of St. Andrew. St. Ed- 
mund's stood without the east gate, and was also 
under the patronage of St. Andrezvs: and the 
church of St. Gregory was the third ; also the 
property of that much-favored house. 

Among the public buildings, I first speak of 
the county hospital; not on account of the beauty Hospital. 

1 Mr. Walpole, Engravers, 105. m Bridges, 445. 



416 NORTHAMPTON. 

or magnificence of the house, for it is laudably de- 
stitute of both ; but because the subscription which 
supports it does honor to the province, by proving 
the benevolence of its inhabitants. That of 1779 
amounted to near eight hundred pounds ; and the 
number of patients perfectly cured, from its found- 
ation in 1744 to the former year, was not fewer 
than thirteen thousand one hundred and fifty n . 
County The county hall is a very handsome building, 
and ornamented in a manner which gives dignity 
to courts of justice. The vulgar are affected with 
external shew, and never pay half the respect to a 
judge scampering in boots and bob- wig up the 
stairs of a barn-like court, as they would to the 
same person, who adds solemnity to his merit, and 
assumes the garb suited to his character. 
Jail. ^he j au \ s a ^ a small distance from the sessions 

house, and was originally built as a dwelling-house 
by a Sir Thomas Haselwood, and sold by him to 
the justices of the peace. 
GuildHall. The town or guild hall, is an antient building, 
in which the corporation transacts its business. 
Northampton was incorporated by Henry II. 

n In lieu of this, a General Infirmary was erected and 
opened in 1793 ; the annual subscription to which, for the 
present year, amounted to . 1933 16*. 6d. ; the number of 
in-patients admitted in 1 809 was 825, of out-patients who re- 
ceived benefit from the charity 1286. Ed. 



NORTHAMPTON. 417 

Henry III. gave it the power of chusing annually 
a mayor and two bailiffs, to be elected by all the 
freemen ; but Henry VII. ordered by charter, that Charter. 
the mayor and his brethren, late mayors, should 
name forty-eight persons of the inhabitants, with 
liberty of changing them as often as was found ne- 
cessary; which forty-eight, with the mayor and 
his brethren, and such as had been mayors and 
bailiffs, were annually to elect all future mayors 
and bailiffs. There are, besides, a recorder, 
chamberlain, and town-clerk. The mayor, late 
mayor, and one other member of the corporation, 
nominated by the mayor, aldermen, and bailiffs, 
are justices of the peace within the town for one 
year. The mayor, recorder or his deputy, and 
one justice, are necessary to form a sessions : they 
have power in criminal cases to try all offenders ; 
but wisely leave all, except petty larcenies, to the 
judges of assize . 

Northampton is among the most antient bo- 
roughs. In the parlement held at Acton Burnel, 
in the time of Edward I. it was one of the nineteen 
trading towns which sent two members each. 
Every inhabitant, resident or non-resident, free or 
not free, has liberty of voting : a cruel privilege 
for such who have of late years been ambitious of 
recommending their representatives. 

Bridges, 433. 

2e 



418 CASTLE ASHBY. 

Castle From Northampton I visited Castle Ashby, the 
princely seat of the Comptons Earls of North- 
ampton. It lies about six miles south-east of the 
town, in a wet country, and without any advantage 
of situation. It is a large structure, surrounding 
a handsome square court, with a beautiful skreen, 
the work of In'igo Jones, bounding one side. More 
is attributed to that great architect. Some is more 
antient than his time; yet he probably had the 
restoring of the old house, as the finishing appears, 
by a date on the stone ballustrade, to be 1624, 
preceded by the pious text, Nisi Dominus cedifica- 
verit Domum, in vanum laboraverunt qui cedijicant 
eum. 
Portraits. One front is taken up by a long gallery, and at 
the end is a small room, the chapel-closet. In it 
Compton, is a full-length of Henry Compton, Bishop of 
London. F London, He was youngest son of the famous 
loyalist Earl of Northampton ; went for a short 
time into the army, after the Restoration; but 
soon quitted it for the church. In 1674 he was 
promoted to the bishoprick of Oxford, and in the 
next year to that of London. His abilities were 
said not to be shining ; but his discharge of his 
pastoral office gained him great reputation. He 
was firmly attached to the constitution and religion 
of his country ; and, in the reign of the bigotted 
James, underwent the honor of suspension, for not 



CASTLE ASHBY. 4 If 

complying with the views of the court. He ap- 
peared in arms at Nottingham, in support of the 
Revolution ; and lived till 1713, when he died, at 
the age of eighty-one. 

In the same closet is a good head of the Re- M R- Ly * 
verend Mr. Lye, who began the Saxon Dictionary * 
finished and published by the Reverend Mr. 
Manning, 1772. He also published Junius's 
Etymologicum Anglicanum, in 1743. He was 
born at Totness, in 1694; became possessed of 
benefices in this county ; and died in 1767, at the 
rectory of Yardly Hastings. 

The drawing-room is remarkably grand ; it is Drawing- 
fifty feet five inches by twenty-four ; and eighteen 
feet ten inches high. It is hung with tapestry, the 
meritorious labor of two aunts of the present lord p . 
The chimney-piece is of an enormous s'ze : a quarry 
of stone filled with shells from Raance. 

Mr. Walpole had made me impatient for the 
sight of the picture of the hero John Talbot, JohnTal- 
first Earl of Shrewsbury, by informing me that b shrews- F 
such a portrait existed in this house. I was at BURY * 
first much chagrined, by my attendant denying all 
knowlege of it. At length, after much search, I 
discovered it, and redeemed the earl and his second 
countess from beneath a load of paltry pictures 
flung into one of the garrets. 

9 Spencer Compton, Earl of Northampton, died in 1796. Ed. 

2e 2 



420 CASTLE ASHBY. 

The portraits are originals ; coarse, and rudely 
painted on board, as might be expected from the 
artists of the period in which they flourished. It 
has on it this later inscription : " John Talbote 
" Lord Talbote, created E. of Shrewsbury by 
" Henry VI." His countenance is hard, his hair 
short and ill-combed, his hands stretched out in 
the attitude of prayer. He is in armour, but 
mostly covered with a mantle emblazoned with his 
arms. His sword, sum Talboti pro occidere 
inimicos meos, is wanted. He was the terror of 
France : his name put armies to flight. He had 
been victorious in forty several and dangerous 
skirmishes : at length was slain, in 1453, aged 
eighty, at Chastillon ; and with him perished the 
good fortune of the English during that unhappy 
reign. His herald, dressed in the surtout of the 
hero's arms, found his body, embraced it, took off 
the surtout painted with his master's arms, cloathed 
the dead corpse with it, and burst into these 
^passionate expressions : " Alas ! is it you ? I pray 
" God pardon all my misdoings ! I have been 
" your officer of arms forty years or more ; 'tis 
" time I should surrender them to you q ." 
and his His Countess Margaret, eldest daughter and 
co-heir of Richard Beauchamp Earl of Warxvick, 
is represented in the same attitude, and with a 

s Collins, iii. 12. last edit. 



CASTLE ASHBY. 401 

herald's surtout properly emblazoned. Her cap is 
worked with lions rampant, the arms of her hus- 
band : her neck ornamented with gold chains. 
She died June 14th, 1468, and was interred in St. 
Paul's cathedral. The body of her lord was 
brought over and buried at Whitchurch, Shrop- 
shire. 

Here is a portrait of Spencer Earl of North- Spencer 
ampton (the justly-boasted character and hero of Northamp- 
the house) represented in armour. His genius 
was so extensive, that in his youth he at once kept 
four different tutors in employ, who daily had their 
respective hours for instructing him in the different 
arts they professed. In the civil wars he was the 
great rival of Lord Brooks, whom he drove out of 
his own county of Warwick ; and was a most 
successful opponent to the Earl of Essex. He 
brought two thousand of the best-disciplined men 
in the army to the royal standard at Nottingham. 
At length fell in Staffordshire, in March 1643, 
desperately fighting ; forgetting, as is too frequently 
the case with great minds, the difference between 
the General and common man. 

His eldest son, James Earl of Northampton, is his Son 

i-i i i tt James. 

in armour, and with a great dog near him. He 
inherited his father's valour, and was wounded in 
the battle in which his father was slain. In all 
the following actions he maintained a spirit worthy 



422 CASTLE ASHBY. 

of his name. - On the fall of monarchy he lived 
retired. On the Restoration he was loaden with 
honors, and died in fullness of glory at this place, 
in December 1 68 1 . 
Sir Spencer A portrait, which I take to be Sir Spencer 

COMPTON? ( * 

Compton r , his third brother, is dressed in a green 
silk vest, a laced turnover, and with long hair. 
This youth was at the battle of Eilgehill, at a time 
he was not able to grasp a pistol ; yet cried with 
vexation that he was not permitted to share in the 
same glory and danger with his elder brothers. 
Edw. Sack- . x HE celebrated Edward Sackvi/le Earl of Dorset 

ville Earl 

of Dorset. j s painted in armour. His well-known spirit, in 
the duel between him and Lord Bruce, would 
make one imagine that he would have appeared 
with peculiar lustre in the field of action, during 
the civil wars ; but fortune flung him but once 
into the bloody scenes of that period. He fought 
with distinguished bravery at Edgehili, and retook 
the royal standard, after its bearer, Sir Edmund 
Verney, was slain. Might not the weight of the 
sanguinary conflict at Tergose rest heavy on his 
mind, and make him shun for the future scenes of 
destruction? for he could do it with unimpeached 
reputation. Certain it is, that his lordship acted 
chiefly in the cabinet, was a faithful servant to his 
master, and a true friend to his country ; and 

* In the house he is called Earl of Northampton. 



CASTLE ASHBY. 425 

spent the rest of his service in earnest and unre- 
mitting endeavours to qualify affairs, and restore 
peace to his country. After the king's death, he 
never stirred out of his house; and died in 1652, 
at his house, then called Dorset-house, in Salis- 
bury-court. 

Here is a singular head, called that of George Geo. Vil- 

. . liers Duke 

Villiers Duke of Buckingham; bearded, whiskered, of Buckino- 
and represented as dead. 

The heads of the Duke of Somerset, Protector, 
Francis first Earl of Bedford, and Sir Thomas 
More, and another, the name of which I have 
forgotten, are beautifully painted in small size. 

That favorite of fortune Sir Stephen Fox, is Sir Stephen 
represented sitting, in a long wig and night-gown : 
a good-looking man. He was the son of a private 
family in Wiltshire, but raised himself by the most 
laudable of means, that of merit. After the 
battle of Worcester, in which his elder brother 
was engaged, he fled with him to France, and was 
entertained by Henry Lord Percy, then lord cham- 
berlain to our exiled monarch. To young Fox 
was committed the whole regulation of the house- 
hold ; " who," as Lord Clarendon observes, u was 
'- well qualified with the languages, and all parts of 
" clerkship, honesty, and discretion, as was neces- 
" sary for such a trust ; and indeed his great in* 
" dustry, modesty, and prudence, did very much 



424 CASTLE ASHBY. 

" contribute to the bringing the family, which for 
" so many years had been under no government, 
" into very good order." On the Restoration he 
was made Clerk of the Green Cloth ; and on the 
raising of the two regiments, the first of the kind 
ever known, he was appointed paymaster, and soon 
after paymaster-general to all the forces in Eng~ 
land. In 1679, he was made one of the lords of 
the Treasury; and in the same year, first com- 
missioner in the office of master of the horse ; and 
in 1682, had interest to get his son Charles, then 
only twenty-three years old, to be appointed sole 
paymaster of the^forces, and himself, in 1684, sole 
commissioner for master of the horse. James II. 
continued to him every kind of favor; yet Sir 
Stephen made a very easy transition to the suc- 
ceeding prince, and enjoyed the same degree of 
courtly emolument. James thought he might 
have expected another return from this creation 
of the StuaiHs: accordingly excepted him in his 
act of grace, on the intended invasion of 1 692. 

Sir Stephen made a noble use of the gifts of 
fortune : he rebuilt the church of Farly, his na- 
tive place; built an hospital there for six poor 
men, and as many poor women ; erected a chapel, 
and handsome lodgings for the chaplain, and en- 
dowed it with . 188 a year: he founded in the 
pame place a charity-school ; he built the chancel 



CASTLE ASHBY. 425 

of a church in the north of Wiltshire, which the 
rector was unable to do. He also built the church 
of Culford in Suffolk, and pewed the cathedral of 
Salisbury : but his greatest act was the founding 
of Chelsea hospital, which he first projected, and 
contributed thirteen thousand pounds towards the 
carrying on ; alleging, that he could not bear to 
see the common soldiers, zvho had spent their 
strength in our service, beg at our doors \ 

He married his second wife in 1703, when he 
was seventy-six years of age, and had by her two 
sons : Stephen, late Earl of Ilchester ; and Henry, 
late Lord Holland. His happiness continued to 
his last moment ; for he died, without experiencing 
the usual infirmities of eighty-nine, in October 
1716. 

The manor of Castle Ashby was called in the Manor of 
Doomsday-book, Asebi: it was afterwards called ashby! 
Ashby David, from David de Esseby, who was 
lord of it in the time of Henry III. It fell after- 
wards to Walter de Langton, bishop of Lichfield ; 
who, in 1 305, got leave to fortify it 1 ; from which 
it got the name of Castle Ashby. It afterwards 
passed through several owners. The Greys, Lords 
of Ruthin and Earls of Kent, possessed it for a 
long time, till Richard, who died in 1503, parted 

Collins, v. 368. * Bridges, 341, 



426 EASTON MAUDUIT. 

with it to Lord Hussey ; who alienated it, in the 
time of Henry VIII., to Sir William Compton, of 
Compton Vinyate, in Warwickshire, ancestor of 
the present noblep ossessor. 

The grounds have been laid out by Mr. Brawn ; 
the church, dedicated to St. Nicholas, stands in 
them, at a small distance from the house. I took 
horse and rode through the park, and, after a mile 
Easton and a half, reached Easton Mauduit u , one of the 
seats of the Earls of Sussex ; a large but low old 
house, with a quadrangle in the middle. This 
place probably took the addition of Mauduit from 
some antient owner. Sir Christopher Yelverton, 
third son of a very antient family in Norfolk, was 
the first of the name who settled at this place. 
Portraits. The portraits in this house are numerous. In 
venth Y Ear"l the hal1 is a full-length of Henry, seventh Earl of 
of Kent. Kent, of the name of Grey, dressed in black, 
with a turnover ; and another of his lady, Eliza- 
beth, second daughter and co-heir of Gilbert, se- 
venth Earl of Shrewsbury. She is also in black, 
with a great black aigret, light hair, bare neck, 
and ruff. 

Her father, in white, with a black cloak, ruff, 

u Upon the death of the late Earl of Sussex, Easton Mau- 
duit estate passed by purchase to Lord Northampton, who pull- 
ed down the house, and disposed of the pictures by public 
sale. Ed. 



EASTON MAUDUIT. 42/ 

and George. He died in 1616. A misnamed 
portrait, called his great ancestor, the first Earl of 
Shrexosbury, is shewn here. It seems to be of 
some nobleman of the time of Edward VI. dressed 
in black, with a sword, the George, and the garter 
about his leg. 

On the stairs is an excellent painting of an old 
poultry- woman. 

In the dining-room is a half-length of Sir Chris^ SlR Chris- 

TOPHER IEL- 

topher Yelverton, with a ruff, and in robes, as one verton. 
of the justices of the King's Bench. He distin- 
guished himself in the profession of the law in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, was appointed queen's 
Serjeant, and was chosen speaker of the House of 
Commons in 1597. His speech of excuse is sin- 
gular, and historical of himself \ His prayer (for 
in those days it was usual for the speaker to com- 
pose one, and read it every morning during the 
sessions) ran in a strong vein of good sense and 
piety y . He was the purchaser of this estate ; 
died here in 1607, and was buried in the adjacent 
church. 

His son, Sir Henry, appears in the same habit Sir Henry 

Yelvertov 

with the father. The date is 1626, cet. 60. He 
proved as distinguished a lawyer as his father, 

* Drake's Parliam. Hist. iv. 411. * The same, 413. 



42S EASTON MAUDUIT. 

but was less fortunate, in falling on more dan- 
gerous times. He owed his rise to the profligate 
favorite Ker Earl of Somerset. On the disgrace 
of his patron, Sir Henry had gratitude enough to 
refuse to plead against him 2 , notwithstanding his 
office as solicitor- general might have been a plea 
for doing it. When he was attorney-general, he fell 
under the displeasure of the court : he was charged 
by the Commons with making out the patents for 
the monopolies, sojustly complained of in thatreign. 
In his defence he suffered to escape some indiscreet 
truths, which were interpreted as if his delin- 
quency was not disagreeable to the king and the 
then favorite Buckingham. The rage of the court 
was directed against him : he was fined in ten 
thousand marks to the king, and five thousand to 
Buckingham ; who instantly remitted his share 3 . 
Perhaps the favorite might fear him; it having 
been said, that one cause of his disgrace was the 
refusal of making out patents to the degree which 
the duke desired b , whose brother was deeply 
concerned in this plunder of the public. A 
mean letter to Buckingham, and a submission 
in the star-chamber, acknowleging errors of ne- 
gligence, ignorance, and misprision, restored him 

* Lloyd's Worthies, ii. 86. a Carte, iv. 73, 

fc Wilson. 



EASTON MAUDUIT. 42 9 

to favor c . In the following reign he was made 
one of the judges of the Common Pleas, and died 
in January 1630. 

His grandson, Sir Henry Yelverton, Baronet, henrt^ 
is dressed in a brown mantle and large wig. He 
was a worthy character, with a most religious 
turn : a strenuous defender of Christianity in ge- 
neral, and of the church of England in particular, 
as appears by his writings in behalf of both. 

His lady Susanna, daughter and sole heiress of 
Charles Longueville Lord Grey of Ruthin ; which 
title devolved to her, and afterwards to her son 
Charles. She is very beautiful, and represented 
by Sir Peter Lely with her head reclining on her 
hand. 

Anne, daughter to the second Sir Christopher d , 
is drawn by the same painter, in yellow, leaning 
on an urn. She was first married to Robert Earl 
of Manchester, and afterwards to Charles Earl of 
Halifax. 

A Lady Bulkeley. 

A head of -France* Viscountess Hatton, daugh- 
ter to the last Sir Henry Yelverton. 

Barbara, daughter to Sir Thomas Slingsby, 

c Cabala, 409, fyc. 

d Son to Sir Henry Yelverton, the solicitor-general, and fa- 
ther to the second Sir Henry. 



430 EASTON MAUDUIT. 

second wife to Thomas Earl of Pembroke, by 
DahL 

Mrs. Lawson, a celebrated beauty of her time, 
bare-necked, in a loose habit clasped before, with 
a sort of veil flung over her head. 

Sir John Talbot, a head, with a big wig and 
armour. 
Church. The church is at a small distance from the 
house : it is now in the gift of Christ-church, Ox- 
ford ; but formerly belonged to the abbey of La- 
tendon, Buckinghamshire. Within are very ex- 
Tombs. pensive monuments. The first is in memory of 
Sir Christopher Yclverton, who died in \607 
aged seventy-six ; and of his lady Margaret, 
daughter of Thomas Catesby of Ecton and Whis- 
ton, in this county. Their figures are placed re- 
cumbent, and painted : he in his robes, and square 
cap, and an artichoke at his feet ; she, in a black 
jacket and petticoat, and great distended hood. 
At her feet a cat, allusive to her name. 

Over them are two arched canopies of veined 
marble, supported by six square pillars of luma- 
chella. On one side of the tomb are eight fe- 
males ; on the other, two male figures, and a little 
girl. 

The other monument is of his son Sir Henry. 
He is represented in his robes : and on one side 



LITTLE BILLINGS. 431 

his lady Anne, daughter of Sir William Twisden 
of Rawdon-hall, in Kent, lies by him, wrapped in 
a black cloak from head to feet. Round her neck 
is a ruff : in one hand an open book. Above them 
is a vast canopy, with various statues on the top. 
This is supported on each side by two full-length 
figures of almsmen, in black gowns and hoods, 
with great white beards ; the arch resting on their 
heads. This probably alludes to some charitable 
foundation with which I am unacquainted. In 
front, beneath Sir Henry, is an altar, at which 
kneel two men in armour, and two in cloaks, and 
five women. It does not appear that either Sir 
Christopher or Sir Henry left a number of child- 
ren equal to those expressed on their respective 
tombs. 

In my return I saw at Little Billings the poor Little Bil- 

. . LINGS. 

remains of the mansion of the great family of the 
Longvilles. John de Lungville was declared lord 
of the place in 1315. This was he who founded 
the Augustines in Northampton. It continued in 
the name till the time of Queen Elizabeth, or 
James I. when that succession expired in the per- 
son of Sir Edzvard Longeville. 

Not far from hence I visited Clifford's Hill, in 
the parish of Houghton Parva, a vast artificial 
mount, having once on it a specula, or watch- 
tower. The coins found in and near it^ prove it 



432 ABBEY DE LA PRE. 

to have been the work of the Romans. Before 
the river Nen was diverted, by the building of 
Billings Bridge, the channel ran under this mount; 
which it is supposed to have guarded e . 

Reach Northampton, and, after a short stay, 
pass over the river into the suburbs, called the 
South Quarters, and into the parish of Harding- 
stone. On each side is a fine range of meadows ; 
those on the left are greatly enlivened by the 
beautiful plantations and improvements of the 
Honorable Edward Bowverie, whose house stands 
De la Pre on the site of the Abbey de Prat is, or de la Pre ; 
a house of Cluniac nuns, founded by Simon de St. 
Liz the younger, Earl of Northampton f . It had 
in it ten nuns at the time of the dissolution. The 
last abbess, Clementina Stokes, governed it thirty 
years ; obtained the king's charter for the conti- 
nuance of her convent ; but, fearing to incur the 
displeasure of the tyrant, resigned it into the 
hands of Doctor London, the king's commissioner, 
and got from him the character of a gudde agyd 
woman; of her howse being in a gudde state ; and, 
what was more substantial, a pension of forty 
pounds a year. 

Between this place and the town, in 1460, 

e Morton, 518. 

f Dugdale, i. 1011 ; in which is the recital of the old char- 
ters. 



BATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON. 



433 



encamped Henry VI. and his insolent nobility, 
immediately before the bloody battle of North- 
ampton. The king (or rather queen) depending 
on the strength of their entrenchments and warlike 
engines, returned a haughty answer to the humble 
proposals sent by the Earls of March and War- 
wick. These spirited commanders led their 
troops instantly to the attack, and forced the camp, Battle op 

r j i t-i NORTHAMP- 

favored by the treachery of Edmund Lord Grey of ton. 
Ruthen ; who, on some disgust, changed sides, 
and assisted the enemy in forcing their way into 
the works. " Ten thousand talle Englishmen 
" and their king," says Halle 8 , " were taken, 
" and numbers slain or drowned in the river ;" for 
the fight was carried on with the obstinacy usual 
in civil dissension. Humphrey Duke of Bucking- 
ham, John Earl of Shrervsbury, John Viscount 
Beaumont, Thomas Lord Egremont, and Sir Tho- 
mas Lucy, were among those who fell. Multi- 
tudes of my countrymen also perished on that 
day \ The slain were buried either in the church 
of this convent, or in the hospital of St. John. 

On the road-side, on an ascent near this place, 
stands one of the pledges of affection borne by Ed- 
ward I. to his beloved Eleanor; who caused a 
cross to be erected on the spot wheresoever her 



Queen's 
Cross. 



* xx iv. xxv. 



h The battle was fought July 9th. 
2 F 



434 QUEEN'S CROSS. ELTAVON. 

body rested, in its way from Hareby in Lincoln-* 
shire, where she died, in 1290, to Westminster, 
the place of her interment. It is kept in excel- 
lent repair : is of an octagonal form, and stands 
on a base of seven steps. Coats of arms and an 
open book adorn the lower compartments. Above, 
in six gothie niches, are as many female figures, 
crowned. Above them, are four modern dials, 
facing the four cardinal points ; and above those 
is the cross. 

Around this spot are frequently found Roman 
coins and medals : from which it is conjectured, 

Eltavon. that this might have been the site of Eltavon, or 
Eltabon (from the British Ael, a brow, and Afon, 
a river) ; and is supposed to have been the Elta- 
nori, or Eltavori, of the geographer of Ravenna f . 
The dry and elevated situation, and its vicinity to 
a river, makes it very probable that this was a 
Roman station, at least a summer camp. 

Hcnsbo- Near this place, on the summit of the hill called 
Hunsborough, are some antient works, of a circu- 
lar form ; i. e. conforming to the shape of it ; con- 
sisting of a foss and double rampart, with a single 
entrance. . Mr. Morton* attributes this to the 
Danes, and imagines it to have been a summer- 

1 Morton Northampton, 504. Gale's Iter Br. Com, 145. 
k Morton, 533. 



ROUGH. 



HUNSBOROUGH. HORTON CHURCH. 435 

camp of one of the plundering parties which in- 
fested the kingdom of Mercia about the year 921. 
Another was raised, about the same time, at Terns- 
ford, in the county of Bedford, for the same pur- 
pose. This has very much the appearance of a 
British post; but as there is great similitude be- 
tween the early fortifications of the northern na- 
tions, I will not controvert the opinion of that in- 
genious author; yet I have probability on my 
side, as he admits that the Danes had possession 
of Hamtune, i. e. Northampton, in 917. I think 
they would scarcely trouble themselves with rais- 
ing these works so near their former quarters, 
which, for any thing that appears, were as open to 
them in 92 1 , as in the former year. 

About five miles from Queens Cross I turned Hortow 

Church. 

a little out of my road, to see Horton church, re- 
markable for a fine monument of William Lord William 
Parr, uncle to Catherine, the last queen to Henry 
VIII. His lordship is represented in alabaster, 
recumbent, with his lady, Mary Salusbury, by 
his side ; in right of whom he became master of 
this manor. He is dressed in armour, with a col- 
lar of SS, and a rose at the end. His head rests 
on a helmet, whose crest is a hand holding a stag's 
horn. His upper lip is bare, but his beard is 
enormous, regularly curled in two rows. He was 
called to the House of Peers on this second mar- 

2 f 2 



Lord Parr. 



436 HORTON. 

riage of his niece, was appointed her chamberlain, 
and, during the queen's regency, on the king's ex- 
pedition to France in 1544, had the respect shewn 
him to be named as a counsel to her majesty, oc- 
casionally to be called in 1 . He died in 1548; 
left four daughters, the eldest of whom conveyed, 
by marriage with Sir Ralph Lane, the estate into 
his family. 

On the floor are the figures of Roger Salus- 
bury, between his two wives, in brass. He died 
in 1482, first owner, of his name, of this estate; 
whose grandaughter became mistress of it on the 
death of her father William,. 

The Lanes kept it for some generations. On 
the death of Sir William, it was found to be held 
of Sir Richard Chetwood, as of his manor of Wood- 
hall, by the service of one knight's fee, suit of 
court, and the annual payment of 6s. towards the 
guard of Rockingham castle. The estate passed 
from the Lanes (I believe by purchase) to Sir 
Henry Mountague, first Earl of Manchester, and, 
by descent, fell to the Earl of Halifax ; and is 
now possessed by Lord Hinchinbroke m , in right of 
his lady, daughter and heiress of the last Earl. 

1 Herbert's Henry VIII. 577. 

m This nobleman succeeded to the earldom of Sandwich 
on the death of his father in 1792. Ed. 



THE OUZE. GOTHURST. 437 

The house is in a very unfinished state; part 
modern, part antient and embattled. 

From the Queens Cross to this place the coun- 
try is uneven, unwatered, and far from pleasant. 
It is now, in general, inclosed ; but the hedges are 
young, and, till within these few years, quite a 
novelty. 

Near the fifty-eight mile-stone enter the 
county of 

BUCKINGHAM. 

Here the country improves. After passing Stoke r ST0KE c . 
Goldington, a small village, a beautiful vale opens ton. 
on the left, watered by the Ouze, running through The Ouze. 
rich meadows, and embellished with the spire of 
Oulney church. This river rises near Sysam in 
Northamptonshire, and, after watering this coun- 
try, becomes navigable above Bedford, by means 
of locks ; runs by Huntingdon ; and, after creep- 
ing almost undistinguished amidst the canals of 
the fenny tracts, falls into the sea at Lynn Regis. 
The name is probably derived from the British, 
perhaps signifying a river"; being, in common with 
Avon, the name of numbers of British streams. 

About half a mile from its banks, on a rising 
ground on the right, stands Gothurst, antiently Gothurst. 

" Skinner. 



438 GOTHURST. 

Gaythurst ; whose venerable form has not been 
injured by inconsistent alterations. It was begun 
in the forty-third of Queen Elizabeth, and was 
greatly improved, a few years after, by William 
Mukho, Esquire. The windows are glazed with 
propriety : only part of the back-front is mo- 
dernized. The lands are very finely dressed, and 
swell into extensive lawns. One before the house 
consists of a hundred and twenty-eight acres ; and 
on the sides are others of great extent. The woods 
are vast, and cut into walks extensive and pleas- 
ing. Several pretty pieces of water, the view of 
the Ouze and its verdant meadows, and the old 
respectable house of Tyringham, with its church, 
on the opposite side, are no small embellishments 
to the place. 

This manor, at the time of the compilation of 
the Doomsday-book, was held by Robert cle Noda- 
virs, or de Nouers, under Odo bishop of Baieu.r, 
Earl of Kent, and half-brother to the Conqueror. 
Nouers ^ ne ^ e N uers became possessed of it in their 
own right in the time of Henry II; perhaps 
earlier : but the first I meet with is lladulphus, 
and his son Almaric, who lived in 1252, the 
thirty-seventh of Henry III. It continued in 
that family till 1408 p , the tenth of Henry IV. 
when it became the property of Robert Nevyll, 

Mr. Cole. r Digly Pedigree, 46 to 47. 



SIR EVERARD DIGBY. 



439 



descended from Hugo de Nevyll, who had lands 
in Essex in 1363, or the thirty-fifth of Edzvard 
III. Robert Nevyll possessed himself of Go- 
thurst, by marrying Joanna, sister and sole heir to 
the last Almaric de Nouers ; his two other sisters, 
Agnes and Gracia, having preferred a monastic 
life". 

The Nevylls remained owners of it till the Nevylls. 
reign of Henry VIII. when Maria, only daughter 
of Michael Nevyll, on the death of her two bro- 
thers, became possessed of it ; and she bestowed 
it, with her person, on Thomas Mulsho of Thing- Mulshos. 
don, in the county of Northampton r , a respect- 
able family. I find sheriffs of the name, as early 
as the time of Richard II ; and one of that house 
governor of Calais in the reign of Henry VI. But 
the first mention of the name is in 1370, when 
lived John Mulsho of Goddington. 

Gothurst continued with the Mulshos till the 

beginning of the reign of James I ; when Maria, 

daughter and sole heiress to William (who died in 

1601) resigned herself and great fortune to Sir 

Everard Digby 3 , one of the handsomest and com- dicbys. 

pletest gentlemen of his time : but 

Eumenides tenuere faces de funere raptas : 
Eumenides stravere torum. 



^ Digby Pedigree, 44, 47. 
* The same, x. 43. 



r The same, 4.5. 



440 SIR EVERARD DIGBY. 

She had not been married three years, before her 
husband was snatched from her by an ignominious 
and merited death, for his deep concern in the 
plot, which, thanks to the charity of the times, is 
execrated by each religion. It is very probable, 
that a mind so tinctured with bigotry as his was, 
soon devoted itself to the most desperate resolu- 
tions, for the restoration of the antient church. He 
foresaw the certain consequences of ill success, 
and, preparing against the event, took every 
method to preserve his infant son from suffering 
from the fault of the father. Before he committed 
any acts of treason, he secured to his heirs his 
estates, in such a manner as to put it out of the 
power of the crown to profit by their confiscation 1 . 
This illustrious line was the chief of the Digby 
family ; the peers of that name springing from 
younger branches. The origin is Saxon. The 
first, of whom notice is taken, is JElmar, who had 
lands at Tilton in Leicestershire, in 1086, the 
twentieth of William the Conqueror. They after- 
wards took the name of Digby, from a place in 
Lincolnshire ; and became owners of Stokedry in 
Rutlandshire (which, till the acquisition of Cq- 
thurst, was their usual residence) by the marriage 
of Everard Digby, Esquire, in the reign of King 
Henry VI. with Agnes, daughter of Francis 

% Wright's Antio. Rutlandshire, 1 1 -t. 



DIGBY PEDIGREE-BOOK. 441 

Clare of JVyssenden and Stokedry, Esquire. This 
gentleman, with three of his sons, fell in the bloody 
field at Towton, fighting in the cause of the house 
of Lancaster". 

Most of the particulars relative to this great 
family, I owe to the friendship of my worthy pJjJJJ^ 
neighbor JVatkin Williams, Esquire, who favored 
me with the use of the famous genealogy of the 
Digbys of Tilton ; a book compiled by the direc- 
tion of Sir Kenelm, in 1634, at the expence of 
twelve hundred pounds. This tradition is very 
credible, to those who have seen the book : a large 
folio, consisting of five hundred and eighty-nine 
vellum leaves ; the first hundred and sixty-five orna- 
mented with the coats of arms of the family and 
its allies, and with all the tombs of the Digbys 
then extant, illuminated in the richest and most 
exquisite manner. The rest of the book is com- 
posed of grants, wills, and a variety of other pieces, 
serving to illustrate the history of the family; 
drawn from the most authentic records, as the 
title sets forth. Several of the wills are curious 
proofs of the simplicity of the manners of the 
times ; and one of the magnificence, superstition, 
and vanity, of our greater ancestors. A specimen 
of the first kind I shall give here ; the latter, being 
of great length, is reserved for the Appendix. 

Collins' '$ Peerage, vii. 65 \ , 



442 SINGULAR WILL. 

Curious " In the name of God, Amen. The xvi day 
" ofthemoneth of January, the yere of our Lord 
" God a thousand fyve hundred and vinth, I 
" Ever ode Dygby of Stoke dry, in the countie of 
" Rutland, of the diocese of Lincoln, seke in body 
" and hole in mynde, make my testament and last 
" will in this fourme following. Fyrst, I bequeth 
" my soul to God Allmyghty, our blessed lady 
" seynt Mary, and all the seynts of heven. My 
" body to be buryed in the parishe churche of 
" Seynt Pet r at Tylton, before the ymage of the 
" blessed Trinitie, at o' lady autther. Itm. I be- 
" queth to reparacon of the said church, for my 
" buryall ther, vis. viijd. Item. I bequeth to the 
" said church a webe of land ; whiche the churh- 
" masters of the said churche have in their kepyng. 
" Item. I bequeth to the high aiot. of the parish 
" church of Stokedry, for tythes by me forgotten, 
" ij*. It m . I bequeth to the reparacons of the 
" said churche of Stokedry vis. viij*/. It m . I bi- 
" queth to the cathcdrall churche of Line. \]s. 
" It m . I biqueth to John Dygby, my son, all my 
" rents, lands, and tenementes whiche I have 
" p r chased, by dede or by copyhold, in the townes 
" and fields of Vipinghm, Preston, Pysbroke, and 
" Elynden, to have and to hold, to hym and his 
i ( assigneys, duryng the terme of his lyfF; and 
" aft r his decease, I Mill that the said rentes, 



SINGULAR WILL. 443 

" londes, and tenementes, shall remayne to Everod 
" Dygby, my eldest sonne, and to his hey res and 
" assignes for ever. Item. I biqueth to Alice) 
" my daughter, all my rentes, landes, and tene- 
" mentes, w th all proufetts and comoditiestothem 
" belongyng, whiche I have p r chased, by dede or 
" by copy, in the townes and feldes of Hareborow, 
" Bow den, and Foxton, to have and to hold to 
" hyr, hyr heyres and assigneyes for ever. Itm. 
" I biqueth to the foresaid John Dygby, my son, 
" ij geldyngs, iij maires for his ploughe, with all 
" barnes and other thynges to it belongyng, and 
" also a pair of cart wheles unshode. Itm. I bi- 
" queth to my forsaid doughter Alice, a fetherbed, 
" a matras, a bolster of fethures, with pillowes, 
" blanketts, shetys, coverletts, and covyng. with 
" all the hangyng of rede say pertenyng to the 
" bed whiche I now ly in. Itm. I biqueth to 
" Elyn, my dowght. lxxx/. of gode and lawfull 
" money, to be payed to hir by my sone Everode, 
" within the space of iij yeres next following aft r 
" my decease, if she within that tyme be maryed; 
" and if she be not maried within iij yeres next 
" after my decease, then I will that my sone 
" Everad shall delyv. hir 10/. in gode money; and 
" the residue of the lxxx/., I will be put into stock, 
" and be occupyed by my said sonne Everad to 
u hir use and proufitt, untill the tyme that she be 



444 SINGULAR WILL. 

" maryed, and then to be dely vered to hir : and if 
" she decease before that she be maryed, then I 
H will that the said residew of lxxx/. besids the 
" xl. paid to her, be gyven and payed to the 
" fynding of a preste to syng for my soul, as long 
" as the money will extend to, after the discrcion 
" of my execute Itm. I biqueth to my said 
" dought. Elyn, a fetherbed, a matras, a spaiver 
" w 1 hangynge, blankette, shetis, and coverlitts, 
" and other things to it belongyng, as it lies in the 
" chamber called the Norcery, within my place of 
" Stoke bifor said. Itm. I bequeth to Everad 
" my sone, and Alice my daughter, iiij pair of my 
" best and finest shetis, to be devided equallie 
" bitwixt them. Itm. I biqueth to my said 
" daughter Elyn, the next best pair of shetis that 
" I have, and other v pair of fflexyn shetys, and 
" ij pair of hardyn shetis. Itm. I bequeth to my 
" daughter Alice aforsaid, x other pair of flexyn 
u shetis, and ii pair of harden shetis. Itm. I 
" bequeth to my daughter Kateryn, nunne at 
u Sempinghm. xxs. in money, and a pair of flexyn 
" shete, and a white sparnar. Itm. I bequeth to 
" Darnegold, my daughter, ij kyne and 1 2 ewes. 
" Itm. I bequeth to my sonne Everad Dygby, 
" my grettest bras pot, to be kept for a standard 
" of that hows, and the next bras pott and two 
i( little bras pottes, and halfe a garnysh of pewter 



SINGULAR WILL. 445 

vessell, with all other ledy fattys, tubby s, and 
bolles w'in my hows, and my grettest bras pane, 
w* two other lesser pannes : and all other my 
brass pottes, panes, and pewt. vessel, I will be 
devided betwene John Dygby my sonne, and 
Alice and Elyn my doughters. Itm. I biqueth 
to my said sonne Everod, a plough, w* all harnes 
pertenyng to it, and six of my plough horses, 
for his said plough, and my waynes, and viij of 
my best oxen, w l all thinges pertenyng to the 
same waynes, and six of my best keyn, and lx 
of my best shepe. It m. I will that the residew 
of all my shepe, keyn, calves, and oxen, not by 
me biquested, divided bitwen John Dygby my 
sonne, and Alice and Elyn my forsaid dough- 
ters, equally. Itm. 1 biqueth to Rowland of 
Lee, my susters sonne, ij keyn and a young 
black ster, and vj ewes. Itm. I bequeth to 
Everard Ashby, my godson, iiij of my best 
calves, which be goyng in Tylton feilds. Itm. 
I biqueth to Margaret Kynton, my hunte, a 
matras, a gode coverlitt, a bras pott, a pair of 
flexyn shete, a kow, and vj ewes, and xiijV. 
iiij*/. in money, for hir wages. Itm. I biqueth 
to Elyn Hall, my hunte, at Tylton, a kow and 
x\s. in money. Itm. I biqueth to the parishc 
church of Skevyngton vjs. v'ujd. Itm. To the 
parishe churche of Vpinghm. us. Itm. To the 



446 SINGULAR WILL. 

" parishe churche of Lidington \\]s. iiijJ. Itm* 
" To the abbot of Wolston \js. \i\]d. and every 
" chalon. of his hous v\\]d. if they be at my 
" buriall. Itm. I gyve to the couent there, to 
" have placebo and dirigc song in their church for 
" my soul, xs. Itm. I biqueth to Sir Robert 
lt Kyrkby, chalon. ther, to py. for my soul, xxs. 
" Itm. I will that my executo. doe fynde an able 
" prest, to syng for my soull, and the soulles of 
" my father and mother, and all Cristen soules, 
" by the space of iij yere next following after my 
" decease, in parishe church of Tylton. The re- 
" sidue of all my rentes, londes, and tenementes, 
w dettes, and all other my godes, moveable and 
" unmoveable, I give and biqueth them to Ever ad 
" Dygby, my eldist sonne and myn hey re, whom 
" I ordeyne and make my sole executor, to pay 
" therwith my dette, and to dispose the residew 
" thereof att his discretion, for the helth of my 
" soulle and my friendes. Thyes beryng witness, 
OfDalison. " Mr. Thomas Daly son, pson. of Stoke dry, 
Of Skeff- <c Wilii am Skevyngton, Everod Darby, and John 
Of Darby. " Daluson, gentilmen, Sir Robart Kyrkby, chalon. 

Of Kirkby. ttt . 

Of North- " of Wolston, and Sir Thomas Northmpton, 
" chalon. of Laund, of the diocise of Lincoln above 
" rehersed. E. Watson. 

" 2Tenore putm. nos JVillmus. permissione di- 



AMPTON. 



SINGULAR WILL. 447 

" vinas Can? Archiepus totius Anglie primus et 
" Aplice sedis legtus notum facimus universis 
" quod duodecimo die mensis February anno 
" Dm. millimo quingentesimo octavo, apud La- 
" mehith probatum fuit coram nobis ac p. nos ap- 
" probatur et insinuatur testm. Eoerardi Dygby 
" defuncti putib. annexu. trents. dum vixit & 
" mortis sue tempore bona in diversis dioc nre. 
" Cant, provinc. cujus pro textu ipsius testamenti 
" approbatio et insinuatio ac administrationis 
" bonorum & debitorum concessio nee non com- 
" poti calculi sive rationarii administrationis 
" hinor. auditio finalisq. liberatio sive dimissio 
" ab eadm. nos solum et insolidum et non ad 
" alium nobis inferiorem cudicem de nre preroga- 
" tiva et consuetudine nris ac ecclie. pre xpi. tant 
" hactenus quiete pacifice et inculle in hac pte. 
" usitat. et obsuat. ltimeq. prescript dmonstrat. 
" notorie pertinere comissaq. fuit admistratio om. 
" et singulor. bonor. et debitor: dri. defuncti 
" Ever ar do Dygbi executori in timor. testamento 
" noiat. de bene et fidelit. admistrando eadm. ac 
" de pleno et fideli inuentario omni. &c. singlor. 
" bono, et debitoru. timoi. conficiend. et nobis 
" citra festid. annunciationis beate Marie Virgi- 
" nis px. futur. exhibendo, nee non de piano et 
" vero compoto calculo sive ratiotino nobis aut 
" successoribus nris. in ea pte. redend. ad fta. dei 



448 SIR KENELM DIG BY. 

" eungelia. in rat dat. die mensis, anno Dni. et 
" loco predicto et nre. trans anno sexto. 

" Exam. a. concard. recordia 
" /. Hen. Lilly, 
" Rouge Rose. 
" Everard Digby 
" made his will 
" anno 1508. 



"Eva-ard John Alice. Ellen. Katharine, Darnegold." 
Digby, Digby. a nun at 

eldest son Scmpringham. 

and heir. 

I now return to the period when the family 

emerged from its misfortune, and in the person of 

Sir Kenelm gj r Xenelm, the son of the last Sir Everard, was 

Digby. ' 

restored to its former honor, by his uncommon 
merit. He married Venetia, daughter of Sir 
Edxvard Stanley of Tongue Castle, Shropshire, 
Knight of the Bath. His eldest son, Kenelm, 
was slain in 1648, in the civil wars, at St. 
Neots: his second son, John, succeeded to the 
estate, and survived his father many years. He 
left by his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir Edward 
Longueville of Wolverton, in this county, Baronet, 
two daughters ; the eldest, Margaret Maria, 
married Sir John Conway of Bodryddan, in Flint- 
. shire ; the younger, Charlotta, married Richard 



GOTHURST: PORTRAITS. 449 

Mostyn of Penbedzv, in the same county, Esquire. 
These two gentlemen, in 1 704, sold this manor, 
with Stoke Goldington, and the advowson of both 
the churches, to George Wright, Esquire, son of 
the lord keeper, Sir Nathan Wright ; in whose 
posterity it still remains. By the preceding owners, 
the reliques of Sir Kenehns collection came into 
my country ; but the leaving behind the two beau- 
tiful busts of lady Venetia, impresses no favorable 
idea of their taste. 

Some portraits, belonging to the former pos- Portraits. 
sessors, still keep a place in the house. In the 
parlour is a full-length of old Mr. Digby, father Old Mr. 
to the unhappy Sir Everard. He is represented 
in a close black dress, a laced turnover ruff, and 
with lace at his wrist : his hair black, his beard 
round, with one hand on his sword. The other, of. 

His lady, Mary daughter of Francis Neile, His Lady. 
Esquire, of Prestzvold and Keythorp, in Leices- 
tershire, and widow to the Staffordshire anti- 
quary, Sampson Erdeswik. Her dress is black, 
pinked with red ; she has a high fore-top adorned 
with jewels, a thin upright . ruff, round kerchief, a 
farthingale, with gloves in her hand. 

Their son, the victim to bigotry, is here atSiREvERARD. 
full-length, in a black mantle and vest, the sleeves 
slashed, and pinked with white, large turnover, 
and turn-ups at his wrists : one hand holds his 

2g 



450 GOTHURST i 

gloves ; the other is gracefully folded in his 
mantle. 
Sir Kekelm. a remarkable portrait, of a young man of 
large size, in a quilled ruff, white jacket, black 
cloak, purple hose, flowered belt, a bonnet with at 
white feather in it, with one hand on his sword. 
Above him, in a tablet, is represented a lady, in 
a most supplicatory attitude, with a lute in one 
hand, and a purse in the other, offering it to him. 
He stands by her, with averted look, one hand on 
his breast, and with an air which shows his rejec- 
tion of her addresses, and horror at the infamy of 
mercenary love ; and as if uttering to her the 
words inscribed near to him, his major a \ 

This I suspect is a portrait of the famous Sir 
Kenelm, in his youthful days ; that prodigy of 
learning, credulity, valour, and romance, whose 
merits, although mixed with many foibles, entirely 
obliterated every attention to the memory of his 
father's infamy. The circumstance of the lady 
painted along with him, is a strong confirmation 
of the truth of the story related by Lloyd, that an 
Italian prince, who was childless, earnestly wished 
that his princess might become a mother by Sir Ke- 

1 This portrait is inscribed on the back John Digbt/ ; but 
from the romantic circumstance attending it, the dress, and 
the likeness to other pictures of Sir Kenelm, I cannot help 
supposing it to be his. 



PORTRAITS. 451 

nelm, whom he esteemed as a just model of perfec- 
tion. It is probable that the princess would not have 
disobeyed the commands of her lord : bin whether 
the painting alludes to our knight's cruelty on this 
occasion, or whether it might not describe the ad-^ 
venture of the Spanish lady, recorded in an ele- 
gant old ballad ", I will not pretend to determine. 

In the long room above stairs, is the picture of v Lad * a 
his beloved wife Venetia Anastatia Stanley, in a 
Roman habit, with curled locks. In one hand is 
a serpent ; the other rests on a pair of white 
doves. She is painted at Windsor in the same em- 
blematic manner, but in a different dress, and with 
accompaniments explanatory of the emblems. 
The doves shew her innocency ; the serpent, which 
she handles with impunity, shews her triumph 
over the envenomed tongues of the times. We 
know not the particulars of the story. Lord 
Clarendon must allude to her exculpation of the 
charge, whatsoever it was, when he mentions her 
as " a lady of extraordinary beauty, of as extraor- 
" dinary fame V In the same picture is a genius* 
about to place a wreath on her head. Beneath 
her is a Cupid prostrate : and behind him is Ca- 
lumny, with two faces, flung down and bound ; a 
beautiful compliment on her victory over Male- 

" Antient Songs and Ballads, ii. 231. 
* Lord Clarendon's Life, 34. 

2 G 2 



452 GOTHURST: 

volence. Her hair in this picture is light, and 
differs in color from that in the other. I have 
heard. from a descendant of her's, that she affect- 
ed different hair-dresses, and different-colored eye- 
brows, to see which best became her. 

Sir Kenelm was so enamoured with her beauty, 
that he was said to have attempted to exalt her 
charms, and preserve her health, by a variety of 
whimsical experiments. Among others, that of 
feeding her with capons fed with the flesh of vi- 
pers J ; and that, to improve her complexion, he 
was perpetually inventing new cosmetics. Pro- 
bably she fell a victim to these arts ; for she was 
found dead in bed, May 1st, 1633, in the thirty- 
third year of her age. She was buried in Christ- 
church, London, under a large insulated tomb of 
black marble, with her bust on the top. This 
perished in the great fire ; but the form is repre- 
sented in the Pedigree-book, and from that en- 
graven in the Antiquaries Repertory. 

Both the pictures are the performances of Van- 
dyck. In this at Gothurst are two of her sons, of 
a boyish age, and in the dress of the times. 

y I am told, that the great snail, or Pomatia, (Br. Zool. iy. 
N. 128) is found in the neighboring woods, which is its most 
northern residence in this island. It is of exotic origin. Tra- 
dition says, it was introduced by Sir Kenelm, as a medicine 
for the use of his lady. 



PORTRAITS. 453 

Here are, besides, two most beautiful busts of Busts or 
the same lady, in brass ; whether by Le Soeur or Venetia. 
Fanelli, I am not certain. One is in the dress of 
the times : an elegant laced handkerchief falls over 
her shoulders, leaving her neck bare. Her hair is 
curled, braided, twisted, and formed on the hind 
part of her head into a circle ; beneath which fall 
elegant locks. On this bust is inscribed, 

Uxor em vivam amare voluptas, defunct am, religio. 

The other is a V antique. The head is dressed 
in the same manner, only bound in a fillet : the 
drapery covers her breast ; but so artificially, as 
not to destroy the elegancy of the form. 

I know of no persons who are painted in 
greater variety of forms and places, than this il- 
lustrious pair : possibly because they were the 
finest subjects of the times. Mr. TValpole is in 
possession of several most exquisite miniatures of 
the lady, by Oliver, bought from the heirs of Bod- 
rhyddan and Pembedw, at a very high price. The 
most valuable one is in a gold case, where she is 
painted in company with her husband. There is 
another, said to be painted after she was dead : 
and four others, in water-colors. 

The same gentleman is in possession of a beau- 
tiful miniature of her mother, Lady Lucy Percy, 



454 GOTHURST: PORTRAITS. 

purchased at the same time. She is dressed like 
a citizen's wife, and with dark hair. 
LordKeeper Among other portraits 2 , is a full-length of the 

Wright. * \ c 

lord keeper, Sir Nathan I Fright, in his robes, and 
Sir Joseph a head of Sir Joseph Jekyll, in a long wig and 

Jekyll. # 

robes. The first received his appointment in the 
year 1700, unfortunately for him, as successor to 
Lord Somers; whose precipitate dismission, in fa- 
vor of a Tory, hardly allowed time for reflection 
on the impropriety of the choice. Sir Nathan 
kept his place till the year 1703, when he was 
dismissed, not without disgrace ; more through 
defect of ability than want of integrity : but con- 
temned by both parties. 

Sir Joseph was a very different character: a 
staunch Whig, and a man of great abilities and 
worth. He died Master of the Rolls, in 1738. 
His wig was probably none of the best, if we are 
to trust these complimentary lines of Pope a : 

A horse-laugh, if you please, on honesty ; 
A joke oh Jekyll, cr some odd old Whig 
Who never chang'd his principle or wig. 

* Here is also preserved a good portrait of Sir Leoline Jen- 
kins, plenipotentiary at Cologn and Nimegven, and secretary 
of state in 1680. Ed. 

a Epilogue to the Satires. 



GOTHURST CHURCH. 455 

The church lies at a little distance from the Chorch. 
house ; it is new, and very neat, having been re- 
built, in pursuance of the will of George Wright, 
Esquire, son of the keeper, The figures of father 
and son face you as you enter the church : the first 
in his robes : the other in a plain gown : both 
furnished with enormous Parian perriwigs. 

In the old church was a grave-stone, lying in 
the chancel, supposed to have been laid over John 
de Nouers, who lived in the time of Edward III. 
The inscription was in French b . 

JO : DE : NOVERS : GIST ICI 

DIEV : DE : S'ALME : EIT : MERCI : AMEN. 

From Got hurst I crossed the Ouze, to the re 
spectable old house of Tyringham c , (once the seat Tyringham, 
of a family of the same name) which stands very 
high in point of antiquity. Giffard de Tyringham 
gave the church of Tyringham to the priory of 
Tickford, near Newport Pagnel, in 1187. Sir 

b Communicated by Mr. Cole, from church-notes, taken 
1634. 

e Tyringham' is now in the possession of William Praed, 
Esquire, in right of his wife Elizabeth, sister and heiress to Ty- 
ringham Backwell, Esquire. The old mansion was pulled 
down in the year 1 800, at the time an elegant modern house, 
built by Mr. Praed, was finished. Ed. 



456 TYRINGHAM HOUSE. 

Roger de Tyringham was cne of the knights who 
attended Edward I. into Scotland; and Roger, 
his son, was sheriff of this county as early as the 
fifteenth of Richard II d . A Sir John Tyringham 
had the honor of losing his head in the cause of 
Henry VI. ; being, with several others, put to 
death unheard, in 1461, for the murder of the 
Duke of York ; that is, for being present at the 
battle of Wakefield, where that prince fell by some 
unknown hand. It continued in this antient 
family, till 1685, when, on the death of Sir WiU 
Ham Tyringham, it devolved to John, son of Ed- 
ward Backwell, alderman of London, who had 
married his only daughter. 

The house has been neglected for some time, 
but not wholly unfurnished. Several family-por- 
traits still continue there : such as a head of Lady 
Tyringham, in a yellow laced cap and ruff; of 
the same kind with that in which the famous Mrs. 
Turner went to be hanged, for her concern in 
Over bury s murder. 

A very curious picture, full-length, of an aged 
lady, in a great quilled ruff and gauze cap, dis- 
tended behind, with an enormous gauze veil fall- 

d In 1322, or the fifteenth of Edward II., Roger de Tyring- 
ham was appointed to superintend the estates forfeited in this 
county, on the Earl of Lancaster's rebellion. Rj/mer, iii. 963. 



Portraits. 



TYRINGHAM HOUSE. 457 

ing to the ground; a black gown spotted with 
white ; jewels, in form of a cross, on her breast ; 
another on her arm, and great strings of pearl 
round her wrists. She stands beneath a canopy, 
on which is a crown and coat of arms. 

Another, of a young lady leaning on a chair, 
in a gauze cap, falling back; yellow petticoat 
flowered with red, and a feather-fan. 

A half-length of Colonel Backwell, in blue, 
gold sleeves and frogs, a sash ; and a battle in view. 

A small portrait of Edward Backwell, Es- Edw. Back- 
quire. He is represented in long hair and a 
flowered gown, with a table by him. I have a 
fine print of him, given me by the late Mr. Back- 
xvell, one of his descendants. He was, says Mr. 
Granger, an alderman of London and a banker, 
of great ability, industry, and integrity, and of 
most extensive credit ; but ruined in the reign of 
Charles II. by the infamous project of shutting 
up the Exchequer. He retired to Holland, where 
he died, and was brought over to be interred in 
the church of Tyringham ; where he lies em- 
balmed. A glass is placed over his face ; so his 
visage may possibly be seen to this time. 

I could not but admire a spirited picture of a 
Falcon stooping at Bitterns. 

In the hall is a curious table, of an ash-colore^ 



453 NEWPORT PAGNEL. 

marble. I should call it a polynesious marble, 
being veined like a chart filled with little islands, 
nicely shaded at their edges. 

As my curiosity led me to explore the kitchen, 
I found on the walls the rude portraits of the fol- 
lowing fish, recorded to be taken in the adjacent 
river, in the years below-mentioned. 

A carp, in 1648, 2 feet 9 inches long. 

A pike, in 1658, 3 7. 

A bream, 2 3f; 

A salmon, 3 1 0. 

A perch, 2 0. 

A shad, in 1683, 1 11. 

These are the records of rural life ; important to 
those who were perhaps happily disengaged from 
the bustle and cares attendant on politics and dis- 
sipation. 

The adjacent church is dedicated to St. Peter, 
and united with Filgrave : it is in the gift of Mr. 
Backwell. The village of Tyringham is quite de- 
populated, and the church of Filgrave dilapidated ; 
but the inhabitants of that parish make use of the 
church of Tyringham. 

About a mile farther, go through the village of 

Lathburt. Lathbury ; near which is the church, and a large 
old house. 

Newport ^ little farther is Nezvport Pagnel : in former 

rAGKL< 



NEWPORT PAGNEL. 459 

times of dangerous approach, by reason of the 
overflowing of the Ouze. This small town stands 
between that river and the Lovet, near their junc- 
tion. Soon after the Conquest, it was the pro- 
perty of William Fitz-Ausculph 6 -, from him it 
passed in the reign of IVtlliam Rufics to the 
Paganels, or Painels, who continued possessed of 
it above a century. Leland mentions them as 
lords of the castle of Nexvport PagneV. On the 
death of Gervase Pagnel, in the reign of Richard 
I. this manor became the property of John de 
Somerie, by marriage with Hawise, daughter of 
Gervase*. His son Ralph gave King John & hundred 
pounds, and two palfreys, for livery of this lord- 
ship, and did homage for it. In the reign of Henry 
III. Roger de Somerie forfeited his lands, for ne- 
glecting (on summons) to receive the honour of 
knighthood \ The king then granted the farm of 
this place to Walter de Kirkham for life, quitting 
him of suits to county and hundred, and of aid to 
sheriffs and his bailiffs ; and that, when the king 
or his heirs should tallage their manors and de- 
mesnes, the said Walter might by himself, and to 
his own use, tallage the said manor in like form 
as it might be tallaged if it were in the king's 

e Dugdale Baron, i. 43 1 . f Leland Itin. i. 26. 

s Dugdale Baron, i. 612. h Dugdale, p. 613. 



460 



NEWPORT PAGNEL. HOSPITALS. 



Lace Manc 
facture. 



hand ! . But I find that it afterwards reverted to 
the Sorrier ies. In the reign of Edward II. it was 
conveyed to Thomas de Botetourt, by his marriage 
with Joan, one of the sisters of John de Somerie, 
last male heir k . I now lose sight of the succes- 
sion, and can only say, that it continued a place of 
strength till the civil wars of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, when its strength was demolished, or, ac- 
cording to the phrase of the time, slighted, by order 
of parlement, in 1646 1 . 

It flourishes greatly, by means of the lace ma- 
nufacture, which we stole from the Flemings, and 
introduced with great success into this county. 
There is scarcely a door to be seen, during sum- 
mer, in most of the towns, but what is occupied by 
some industrious pale-faced lass ; their sedentary 
trade forbidding the rose to bloom in their sickly 
cheeks. 

The church is dedicated to St. Peter and St. 
Paul; was an impropriation belonging to the 
neighboring abbey of Tickford; and is in the gift 
of the crown. 
Hospitals. Here were three hospitals, founded in early 
times. That by John de Somerie, about the year 
1280, still survives, for three poor men, and the 



Church. 



1 Madox Antiq.Exch. i. 418. 
1 Whitelock, 167, 236. 



k Duzdale Baron, ii. 46. 



WOBURN SANDS. 

same number of poor women; having been re- 
founded by Anne of Denmark^ and from her is 
called Queen Anne's Hospital The vicar of 
Newport for the time being is appointed master m . 
About eight miles from Nezvport, at the forty- 
four mile-stone, at Hogsty-house, enter the county 
of 



461 



BEDFORD, 

on Woburn Sands, seated on the extremity of the Woburk 

Sands. 

range of hills which traverse the east end of the 
former county, and contain the parishes of the 
three Brickhills. Near the road side are the 
noted pits of fullers' earth, that invaluable sub- Fullers' 
stance which is supposed to give the great supe- 
riority to the British cloth (honestly worked) over 
that of other nations. 

The beds over this important marie are, firstly, 
several layers of reddish sand, to the thickness of 
six yards ; then succeeds a stratum of sand-stone, 
of the same color ; beneath which, for seven or 
eight yards more, the sand is again continued to 
the fullers' earth ; the upper part of which, being 
impure, or mixed with sand, is flung aside, the 
rest taken up for use. The earth lies in layers ; 
under which is a bed of rough white free-stone, 



m Tanner, 33. 



462 FULLERS' EARTH. 

about two feet thick, and under that sand \ be- 
yond that the laborers never have penetrated. 

The great use of this earth is cleansing the 
cloth, or imbibing the tar, grease, and tallow, which 
are so frequently employed by the shepherds, in 
healing the external diseases which sheep are 
liable to; neither can the wool be worked, spun, 
or woven, unless it be well greased. All this 
grease must be gotten out, before the cloths are fit 
to wear. Other countries either want this species 
of earth, or have it in less perfection. The British 
legislature therefore have, from the days of Charles 
I. guarded against the exportation of it under 
severe penalties. The Romans attended to the 
fulling business by their lex Metella, which was 
made expressly to regulate the manufacture*. 
They used various kinds of earth : the cimolia, the 
tarda (which came from Sardinia), and the urn* 
brica. The two first were white ; the latter might 
be allied to ours : crescit in macerando ; it swells 

n Neque enim pigebit hanc quoque partem attingere, cum 
lex Metella extet fullonibus dicta, quam C. Flaminius, L. 
Mmilius, censores dedere ad populum ferendam. Adeo omnia 
majoribus curae fuere. Ergo ordo hie est : primum abluitur 
vestis Sardd, dein sulphure suffitur : mox desquamatur Cimolia 
quae est coloris veri. Plinii Hist. Nat. lib. xxxv. c. 17. The 
finest foreign earth of this kind, is what the prince of Biscari 
sent me from Sicily, under the title of Terra Chiamata sapo- 
nara della quale si servono quei Paesani per lavare i pannilinL 



WOBURN TOWN. CHURCH. TOMBS. 



463 



in water ; a property of the true marles. But the 
application of earths in the woollen manufacture, 
and for the purpose of cleansing, was of very early 
times : But who may abide the day of his coming, 
and who shall stand when He appea7*eth ? for He 
is like a refiner s fire, and like fullers' sope p . 

At a small distance from hence lies the little 
town of TVoburn, in which is a free-school, found- 
ed by Francis I. Earl of Bedford, and a charity- 
school for thirty boys, by Wriothesly Duke of 
Bedford. The church was built by the last abbot 
of JVoburn q , and belonged to that religious house ; 
having been a chapel to Birchmore, a church long 
since demolished. This place is of exempt juris- 
diction, under the patronage of the adjacent great 
family". The steeple is oddly disjoined from the 
church. The chancel has been very elegantly 
fitted up with stucco by the late duke. The pulpit 
is a pretty piece of got hie carving, probably coeval 
with the abbey. 

A neat monument of Sir Francis Stanton, is 
preserved here ; who, with his lady, is kneeling at 
an altar. 

In the south aile stood a grey marble, robbed 
of the figure of a priest under a large canopy, and 
four coats of arms, with the inscription entire. 



WoBURtt 

Town- 



Church. 



Tomes. 



* Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. xxxv. c. 17. 
1 Willis, ii. 4. r Ecton, 211. 



P Malachi iii. 2. 



464 WOBURN ABBEY. 

Hie peek Job Morton, filius quonda Johes Morton, de Ports- 1 
grave, domini de Lovelsbury, qi obiit in die comemorcois Sci 
Pauli, anno Dni Millmo C. C. C. nonagesimo quarto. Quor 
aie ppicietur Deus*. 

In the east window were the arms of Robert 
Vere Earl of Oxford, impaling Samford ; the last, 
in right of his wife Alice, daughter and heiress to 
Gilbert Lord Samford, chamberlain to Elinor, 
consort to Edward I. s 
Abbey. At a little distance from the town was situated 
the abbey, founded, in 1 145, by Hugh de Bolebec, 
a nobleman of great property in this neighbor- 
hood ; who, inspired by God, made a visit to the 
abbot of Fountains, to advise him about his pious 
design 1 . The abbot encouraged him to proceed ; 
and Hugh erected the buildings, endowed them, 
and peopled them with monks of the Cistercian 
order, and placed over them, as first abbot, Alan, 
brought from the monastery of Si. Mary, at 
York". The place prospered, by several benefac- 
tions ; and at the dissolution, was found, accord- 
ing to Dugdale, to be possessed of revenues to 
the amount of . 391. 18^. %d. a year, or to 
. 430. 13s. 1 Id. according to Speed*. 

* These two particulars I collect from Mr. Cole's papers. 

* Dugdale Monast. i. 829. Willis, ii. 4. 

* Tanner, 4. 



WOBURN ABBEY. 465 

The last abbot, Robert Hobbs, was hanged at 
JVoburn, in March, 1537, for not acknowleging 
the king's supremacy. The monastery and its re- 
venues, in 1547, were granted by Edzoard VI. to 
Lord Russel, soon after created Earl of Bedford 
by the same prince. None profited so greatly by 
the plunder of the church as this family : whose 
fortune, even to the present time, principally 
originates from gifts of this nature. To the grant 
of IVoburn it owes much of its property in this 
county, and in Bucks ; to that of the rich abbey 
of Tavistock, vast fortunes and interest in Devon- 
shire ; and, to render them more extensive, that 
of Dunkeswell was added. The donation of 
T homey abbey gave him an amazing tract of fens 
in Cambridgeshire, together with a great revenue. 
Melchburn abbey (I should have before said) in- 
creased his property in Bedfordshire ; the priory 
of Castle Hymel gave him footing in Northamp- 
tonshire, and he came in for parcels of the apper- 
tenance of St. Albaris, and Mountgrace in York- 
shire ; not to mention the house of the friars 
preachers in Exeter, with the revenues belonging 
to the foundation ; and finally, the estate about 
Covent Garden, with a field adjoining, called The 
Seven Acres, on which Long Acre is built, apper- 
tenances to the convent of Westminster ; the first, 
a garden belonging to the abbot. 

2 H 



WOBURN-HOUSE. PORTRAITS. 

The superstitious will stand amazed, that no 
signal judgment has overtaken these children of sa- 
crilege ; yet no house in Britain has thriven more 
than the house of Russel. 
House. The 7 house is situated in a very pleasant park, 
well wooded, but defective in water; the several 
pieces being too much divided, and the dams too 
conspicuous. The present house was built by the 
late duke, excepting a paltry grotto, by Inigo 
Jones (which shews that his taste was superior to 
such childish performances), and the great stables, 
which were part of the antient cloisters, and still 
preserve their pillars and vaulted roof. The 
offices are also the work of the late duke, and 
form two magnificent but plain buildings, at a 
small distance from the mansion. 
Portrays. This house is a treasure of paintings ; of por- 
traits of the great, now illustrious by the figure 
they make in the eyes of posterity, undazzled by 
the wealth, rank, power, or qualifications, men- 

* Considerable additions were made to Woburn by its late 
noble owner, and the grounds greatly improved ; the detached 
pieces of water are united so as to form a sufficient expanse 
bounded by flourishing plantations. To pass unnoticed the laud- 
able attention of Francis Duke of Bedford to agriculture, would 
be invidious, but to particularise the perfection to which he 
brought it, and the patriotic endeavours he exerted in its dif- 
fusion, requires a space incompatible with the tendency of 
this work. Ed. 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 467 

tal or corporeal, which concealed their failings, and 
made them pass at lest unnoticed openly by their 
cotemporaries. They now undergo a posthumous 
trial, and, like the Egyptians of old, receive cen- 
sure or praise according to their respective merits. 
The greater number are now collected in the 
gallery, a room unparalleled for its valuable and in- 
structive series of portraits ; their history would 
make a volume. I can only pretend to point out 
some principal facts, that the spectator, who 
honors me with his company, through this illus- 
trious assemblage, may not have to reproach me 
with suffering him to depart wholly uninformed. 
I lament they are not placed in chronological 
order. I must give them as they are now z arranged. 
Beginning at the east end, the first I shall point 

out is 

Sir Nicholas Bacon, in a black dress, furred ; by Sir Nicho- 

_ 7 las Bacon. 

Zucchero. 

A fine portrait by Sir Antonio More of Edw. Cour- 

TENEY XLARI* 

Edward Court eney, last Earl of Devonshire of his of Devon- 



shire. 



z The editor here, as at Gorhambury, has preserved the 
description of the whole of the portraits mentioned in the first 
edition of this work, arranging them in the order in which 
they are placed at present. The late Duke of Bedford added 
several valuable paintings of the Flemish school, and the very 
interesting series of the portraits of artists which adorn the 
elegant library. A general catalogue of the pictures at Woburn 
is given in the Appendix. Ed. 

2 H 2 



463 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

name ; who, for his nearness in blood to the crown, 
was imprisoned by the jealous Henry, from the 
age of ten till about that of twenty-eight. His 
daughter Mary set him at liberty, and wooed him 
to share the kingdom with her. He rejected her 
offer, from preference to her sister Elizabeth ; for 
which, and some false suspicions of disaffection, 
he suffered another imprisonment with Elizabeth. 
He was soon released. He quitted the kingdom, 
as prudence directed, and died at the age of thirty 
at Padua. 

He is represented as a handsome man, with 
short brown hair, and a yellow beard, a dark 
jacket, with white sleeves, and breeches ; behind 
him is a ruined tower ; beneath him this inscrip- 
tion, expressive of his misfortunes ; 

En! puer et insons et adhuc jurenilibus annis : 
Annos bis septem carcere clusus eram. 
Me pater his tenuit vinclis, quae filia solvit : 
Sors mea sic tandem vertitur a superis. 

Fourteen long years in strict captivity, 
Tyrant-condemn d I passed my early bloom, 
'Till pity bade the generous daughter free 
A guiltless captive, and reverse my doom. R. W. 

Sir Philip $ ir Philip Sydney is painted in the twenty se- 
Sydney. con d vear f his a g e . j n a quilled ruff, white 

slashed jacket, a three-quarter length. He was a 
deserved favourite of Queen Elizabeth : who well 
might think the court deficient without him ; for, 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 



469 



to uncommon knowledge, valour, and virtuous 
gallantry, was joined a romantic spirit, congenial 
with that of his royal mistress. His romance of 
Arcadia is not relished at present : it may be 
tedious ; but the morality, I fear, renders it dis- 
gusting to our age. It is too replete with inno- 
cence to be relished. Sir Philip was to the Eng- 
lish, what the Chevalier Bayard was to the 
French, Un chevalier sans peur, ct sans reproche. 
Both were strongly tinctured with enthusiastic 
virtue : both died in the field with the highest sen- 
timents of piety. 

Queen Mary in her usual deformity, by Sir 
Antonio More. 

Th e head of Frances Countess of Somerset a . She Frances 
is dressed in black, striped with white, and her ruff Somerset. 
and ruffles starched with yellow. This fashion 
soon expired; for her bawd and creature, Mrs. 
Turner, went to Tyburn in a yellow ruff, and put 
the wearers out of conceit with it. I need not en- 



CjUEEN 

Mary. 



a This bears so little resemblance to the print by Passe, 
of the same infamous character, that the editor is inclined 
to doubt its being the portrait of the person it is said to re- 
present. The inscription formerly called it Anne Countess 
of Somerset, a misnomer which has been corrected. The 
head of her sister Catharine Countess of Salisbury, which oc- 
cupies a place in the gallery, is admirably painted, and in 
the stile of dress and features, though much embellished, is 
a striking likeness of the above mentioned engraving. Ed. 



470 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

large on the well-known marriage and divorce of 
this lady from the Earl of Essex. They are too 
notorious to be insisted on ; as is her weakness, in 
having recourse to the impostor Forman for 
philtres to debilitate Essex, and impel the affec- 
tions of Somerset towards her. Her wickedness, 
in procuring the death of Overbury, who ob- 
structed this union ; her sudden fall, and confes- 
sion of guilt on her trial, need no repetition. Her 
Earl avowed his innocency; he had been more 
covert in his proceedings. Her passions were 
more violent, her resentments greater, and, of 
course, her caution less. They both obtained an 
unmerited pardon, or rather reprieve, being con- 
fined in the Tower till the year 1622, and then 
confined, by way of indulgence, in the house of 
Lord Wallingford. The little delicacy which 
people of rank too frequently shew, by counte- 
nancing the vices of their equals, was too conspi- 
cuous at this time. The Countess felt their pity, 
and was visited even by the stern Anne Clifford. 
Somerset lived with his lady, after their confine- 
ment, with the strongest mutual hatred : the cer- 
tain consequence of vicious associations. He died 
in the year l645 b ; she, before him. In her end 
may be read a fine lesson on the vengeance of 
Providence on the complicated wickedness of her 

b Dugdalc Baron, ii. 420. 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 471 

life. It may be held up as a mirror to posterity, 
persuasive to virtue, and teach that Heaven in- 
flicted a finite punishment on the criminal, in 
mercy to her, and as a warning to future genera- 
tions. I give the relation (filthy as it is) in the 
Appendix ; but hope the utility of the moral will 
excuse the grossness of the tale. 

On the north side of the gallery Sir Nicholas Sir Nicho- 

r7T7 LAS THROG- 

1 nrogmorton. morton. 

A full length portrait of Robert Earl of Essex, RobertEarl 
by Zucchero, in white. Elizabeth's passion for 
Essex certainly was not founded on the beauty of 
his person. His beard was red, his hair black, his 
person strong, but without elegance, his gait un- 
graceful c . But the queen was far past the heyday 
of her blood : she was struck with his romantic 
valour, with his seeming attachment to her per- 
son, and I may add, with the violence of his pas- 
sions ; for her majesty, like the rest of her sex, 
probably 

StoopM to the forward and the b old. 

At length his presumption increased with her 
favor ; her fears overcame her affection, and, after 
many struggles, she consigned him to the scaffold ; 
having thoroughly worked himself out of her gra- 
cious conceit d . 

c Reliquicc Wottoniance, 3d. ed. 170. d Ibid. 165. 



472 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

ThomasEawl Thom as Earl of Exeter, eldest son to the great 

OF l^XKTER. 

Burleigh, is painted a full length. Notwithstand- 
ing this nobleman was inferior in abilities to his 
younger brother, yet was he a man of spirit and 
of parts. He served as a volunteer at the siege 
of Edinburgh castle in 1 573 ; distinguished him- 
self in the wars in the Low Countries ; and, with 
his brother, served on board the fleet which had 
the honor of defeating the Spanish armada. He 
entered also into the romantic gallantries of the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and was a knight-tflter 
in the tournaments performed for the amusement 
of her illustrious lover, the Duke oiAnjou, in 1581. 
In the following reign he was employed as a man 
of business ; was created Earl of Exeter ; and 
finished his course, aged eighty, in February 1622. 
RobertEarl His younger brother is placed near him, stand- 
bury. ing : a mean, little, deformed figure, possessed of 
his father's abilities, but mixed with deceit and 
treachery. His services to his master and his 
country, will give him rank among the greatest 
ministers, but his share in bringing the great 
Raleigh to the scaffold, and the dark part he 
acted, in secretly precipitating the generous, un- 
suspecting Essex to his ruin, will ever remain in- 
delible blots on him as a man. His dress is that 
of the Spanish nation, (though he was averse to 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 473 

its politics) a black jacket and cloak, which add 
no grace to his figure. 

Three heads of Diana, Margaret and Anne, Ladies 

K.USSEL 

daughters of Francis, fourth Earl of Bedford. 

Lucy, Countess of Bedford, exactly resembling Lucy 

, . Countess of 

that at Alloa. ' Bedford. 

Diana Russel, wife to Francis, Earl of New- Lady 

. , Newport. 

port, a head. 

Her sister Margaret, wife to James Earl of Countess of 

sy ,. 7 Carlisle. 

Carlisle. 

A fine full length of a nobleman, in a black A Noble- 

MAN. 

and gold vest, and with a high-crowned hat in his 
hand. On the back ground is a curtain, almost 
concealing a lady ; of whom only one hand and a 
part of her petticoat are seen. By this is JEtatis. 
1614. L cy I. 
Edward Earl of Manchester, lord chamber- Edward 

i m 7 tt t i Earl of 

lain to Charles II. Long hair and robes. Manches- 

Catherine, eldest daughter of Francis, fourth 

Earl of Bedford, and widow of the unfortunate Lady Brook. 

Robert Lord Brook, who was killed at Lichfield, 

She is represented in mourning. 
Thomas, Earl of Southampton, in black with a Thomas 

Earl of 

star on his mantle. Southamp- 

Hea d of Anne Countess of Bedford. Anne 

Christiana, daughter to Edward Lord Bruce, C ^^^ f 

of Kinloss, and wife to the second William Earl of Christiana, 

Countess of 
Devon- 
shire. 



474 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

Devonshire, a small head 6 , with long hair; her 
dress white. This lady, who is less talked of than 
others, was by far the most illustrious character of 
the age in which she. lived. Her virtues, domestic 
and public, were of the most exalted kind. Hos- 
pitality, charity, and piety, were in her pre-emi- 
nent. I speak not of her great maternal cares ; 
nature dictates that, more or less, in all the sex : 
but her abilities in the management of the vast 
affairs of her family, perplexed with numberless 
litigations, gave her a distinguished character. She 
at least equalled her lord in loyalty, and was in- 
defatigable in inciting the nobility, who had quitted 
the cause of majesty, to expiate their error. After 
the battle of Worcester, she lived three years in 
privacy at her brother's house at Ampthill, and 
had correspondence with several great personages, 
on the subject of restoring the exiled king. The 
reserved Monk had such an opinion of her pru- 
dence, as to communicate to her the signal by 
which she might know his intentions on that sub- 
ject. She lived in high esteem, to a very advanced 
age; died in 1674, and was interred by her be- 
loved lord, at Derby. 

It is no wonder that so illustrious a character 

e This and eleven other heads of the same size, are copies 
by a painter of the name of Russel. 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 475 

should attract the powers of the poets. She had 
the honor of being celebrated by one equal in rank 
to her own. That accomplished nobleman Wil- 
liam Earl of Pembroke, wrote several poems to 
her, and dedicated a collection of them to her. 
" There is wit and ease in several ; but a great 
" want of correction ; and often of harmony." 
The following is the least faulty f ; the subject, 

That he would not be beloved. 
Disdain me still, that I may ever love; 
For who his love enjoys can love no more ; 
The war once past, with peace men cowards prove, 
And ships returned, do rot upon the shore. 
Then tho' thou frown, I'll say thou art most fair, 
And still I'll love, tho' still I must despair. 
As heat to life, so is desire to love ; 
For these once quench'd, both life and love are done. 
Let not my sighs nor tears thy virtue move j 
Like basest metals, do not melt too soon. 
Laugh at my woes, although I ever mourn : 
Love surfeits with rewards, his nurse is scorn. 

A portrait formerly called Lucy Countess of Lucy 

. . . Countess of 

Bedford, in a white satin gown worked with Bedford. 
colors, a laced single ruff, and a long scarlet velvet 

f Communicated to me by Mr. Walpole ; who is in pos- 
session of this very scarce book : a thin small quarto, published 
in 1 660. It consist^ of the Earl's poems, and responses by 
Sir Benjamin Rudyard; and other poems, by both, on other 
subjects. See Royal Authors, i. 192, for a farther account of 
this noble poet. 



476 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

cloak hanging gracefully with one arm folded in it. 
On her head is a pearl coronet, and pearls on her 
wrists. In the back ground, she appears in a 
garden, in the true attitude of stately disdain, bent 
half back, in scorn of a poor gentleman bowing to 
the very ground. Unfortunately for her lover, it 
is probable that Donne had just told her, 

Out from your chariot, morning breaks at night, 
And falsifies both computations, so; 
Since a new world doth rise here from your light, 
We your new creatures by new recknings go. 

This shews that you from nature lothly stray, 

Thus suffer not an artificial day. 
In this you have made the court the antipodes, 
And will'd your delegate the vulgar sunne. 
To doe profane autumnal offices, 
Whilst here to you wee sacrificers runne, 

In all religions as much care hath bin 

Of temples frames and beauty, as rites within. 

Henry Earl A half length of Henri/ Earl of Southampton, 
ampton. by Sol.mon de Caus z , with short grey hair ; in 
black, with points round his waist, a flat ruff, 
leaning on a chair, with a mantle over one arm. 
This nobleman was a friend to -the Earl of Essex, 
and through friendship, not disaffection, attended 
him in the mad and desperate insurrection which 
brought the favorite to the block. The plea was 
admitted, he was condemned, but reprieved ; and 

* WalpoUs painters, i. 20. 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 



477 



Countess 
of Berk- 
shire. 



, continued in the Tower till the accession of James I. 
when he was instantly restored to his honors and 
estate. By reason of.his love to the Earl of Essex, 
he never was on good terms with the minister, the 
Earl of Salisbury. He was one that attended 
Mansfield's army into the Netherlands, and died 
in 1624, at Bergen op Zoom, of a fever, contracted 
in that fatal expedition. 

Head of Dorothy, daughter to Thomas Lord 
Viscount Savage, and wife to Charles, second 
Earl of Berkshire. 

Heads of Edward, John, Francis, and Cathe- 
rine, children of Francis, fourth Earl of Bed- 
ford. 

A full length of a nobleman, in a black jacket, 
double ruff, brown boots, and a stick in his hand ; Northum 
armour by him ; a manly figure, with short black 
hair and square beard, miscalled Car Earl of So- 
merset \ I forget whether the print among the 
illustrious heads (Vol. II. 19.) was not copied 1 
from this. But Car was a person of effeminate 
features and light hair. 

A full length of Henry Dangers, created 
Baron Dauntsey by James I., and Earl of 



Henry 
Earl op 



Earl of 
Danby. 



h It is now considered as the portrait of Henry Earl of 
Northumberland, who came to the title in 1585. Ed. 
1 It certainly was. Ed. 



478 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

Danby by Charles I. ; by Vandyck. His beard 
square and yellow, his jacket black ; over that 
a red mantle, furred and laced with gold. His 
rich armour lies by him. Near him is writ- 
ten, Omnia prcecepi. He was son of Sir John 
Dancers of Dauntsey, in Wiltshire, by Elizabeth, 
daughter and co-heir of John Nevil Lord Latimer*. 
His elder brother, Sir Charles Danvers, lost his 
head for his concern in Essex's insurrection. 
James, who on all occasions testified his respect to 
that unhappy nobleman, countenanced every family 
who suffered in his cause, and accordingly, had 
Dangers restored in blood. Besides a peerage, he 
made him governor of Guernsey, and created him 
knight of the Garter. He passed his life as a 
soldier, under Maurice Prince of Orange, in the" 
Low Countries; under Henry IV. in France; 
and under the Earl of Essex and Lord Monjoy in 
Ireland. At length, in 1644, died, as his epi- 
taph says, at his house of Cornbury Park, Ox- 
fordshire, full of honor, wounds (verified in the 
portrait, by a great patch on his forehead), and 
days, in the seventy-first year of his age. Besides 
his military glory, we may add that of founding 
the Physic Garden at Oxford, in 1639,, pur- 
chasing for that use the ground (once the Jews' ce- 

k Dugdale's Baron, ii. 410. 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 479 

metery) and inclosing it with a wall and beautiful 
gate, at the expence of five thousand pounds l . 

William Duke of Bedford, a full length, in William 
a long wig, and the robes of the Garter. Bedford. 

The head of Lady Cook, dated 1585, set. 44. Lady Cook. 
She has on a quilled ruff, is dressed in black, 
richly ornamented with pearls. I apprehend this 
lady to have been the wife of the son of Sir An- 
thony Cook, one of the tutors to Edward VI., and 
distinguished by being father to five daughters, 
the wonders of their age for intellectual accom- 
plishments. 

At the west end of the Gallery 

General Monk. Monk. 

A fine three quarters of Killegrew, leaning on Killegrew. 
a table, a medallion with the portrait of Charles 
the First near him. 

A head of Lord William Russet, the sad vie- Lord Wil- 
tim to his virtuous design of preserving our liber- IAM USSEL * 
ties and constitution from the attempts of as aban- 
doned a set of men as ever governed these king- 
doms. True patriotism, not ambition or interest, 
directed his intentions. Posterity must applaud 
his unavailing engagements, with due censure of 
the Machiavelian necessity of taking off so dan- 
gerous an opposer of the machinations of his ene- 
mies. The law of politics gives sanction to the 

1 Wo9&\ Hist. Oxon. lib. ii. 45. and Dugdale as above. 



480 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

removal of every obstacle to the designs of states- 
men. At the same time, we never should lessen 
our admiration and pity of the generous charac- 
ters who fell sacrifices to their hopes of delivering, 
purified to their descendants, the corrupted go- 
vernment of their own days. To attempt to clear 
Lord Rassel from the share in so glorious a de- 
sign, would be to deprive him of a most brilliant 
part of his character. His integrity and ingenu- 
ousness would not suffer even himself to deny that 
part of the charge. Let that remain unimpeached, 
since he continues so perfectly acquitted of the 
most distant design of making assassination a 
means ; or of intriguing with a foreign monarch, 
the most repugnant to our religion and freedom, 
to bring about so desired an end. 
Lady Ra- The sad relict of this virtuous nobleman, the 
' daughter to the good and great IVriothesley, Earl 
of Southampton, is placed near him ; a small full 
length, in widow's weeds, with her head reclined 
on one hand, and a book by her, with a counte- 
nance full of deep and silent sorrow. I imagine 
her in the third month of her affliction, filled with 
the following meditation. 

" Lord, let me understand the reason of these 
" dark and wounding providences, that I sink not 
" under the discouragement of my own thoughts. 
" I Joiow I have deserved my punishment, and 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN*. 481 

" will be silent under it; but yet secretly my 
" heart mourns, because I have not the dear 
" companion and sharer of my joys and sorrows: 
" I want him to talk with, to eat and sleep with. 
" All these things are irksome to me now : the 
" day unwelcome, and the night so too. All 
" company and meals I would avoid, if it might 
" be, yet all this is, that I enjoy not the world in 
" my own way, and this sure hinders my com- 
" fort. When I see my children before me, I 
" remember the pleasure he took in them ! This 
" makes my heart to shrink. Can I regret his 
" quitting a lesser good for a bigger ? O ! if I 
" did stedfastly believe, I could not be dejected ! 
" But I will not injure myself, to say I offer my 
" mind any inferior consolation to supply this 
" loss : no, I most willingly forsake this world, 
" this vexatious, troublesome world, in which I 
" have no other business but to rid my soul from 
" sin, secure by faith and a good conscience my 
" eternal interest; with patience and courage 
" bear my eminent misfortunes, and ever here- 
" after be above the smiles and frowns of it; and 
" when I have done the remnant of the work ap- 
" pointed me on earth, then joyfully wait for the 
" heavenly perfection, in God's good time ; when, 
" by his infinite mercy, I may be accounted 
" worthy to enter in the same place of rest and 

2 i 



482 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

u repose, where he is gone for whom only I 
" grieve." 
Dudley The series of portraits on the south side com- 

Earl of r 

Warwick, mences with Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick, a 
head with a bonnet, black dress, the George pen- 
dent. 
Dudley His unworthy brother the Earl of Leicester. 
Leicester. A head of John Russel first Earl of Bedford, 
IrBzmoli. a P ronle > w i tn a l n g wni te beard, and the George 
hanging from his neck; this gentleman was the 
founder of the family, and owed his rise to his 
merit and accomplishment. Philip Archduke of 
Austria, being in 1508 driven by a storm on the 
coast of Dorsetshire, was entertained by Sir Tho- 
mas Trenchard ; who sent for his neighbor, Mr. 
Russel, who was skilled in the languages, to wait 
on his highness. The Duke was so pleased with 
his conversation, as to insist on his going with 
him to the King, then at Windsor. Henry, at the 
recommendation of the Duke, took him into his 
service. In the following reign he advanced in 
fortune with vast rapidity. He fortunately was 
cotemporary with the fall of monastic life, and ob- 
tained vast grants of the possessions of the church. 
Edzvard VI. created him Earl of Bedford. The 
last act of his life was a voyage to Spain, to bring 
over Philip II. (grandson of the prince to whom 
he owed his rise), to espouse his royal mistress. 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 



4S3 



Earl of 
Rutland. 



He died in March 1555, and lies buried at Chey- 
neys in Buckinghamshire, with his lady, by whom 
he acquired that estate. The church of Cheyneys, 
from that time, became the deterna domiis of all 
this great family, and contains a most superb col- 
lection of different fashioned monuments. 

An Earl of Rutland, a full length, in a rich 
flowered jacket, red full skirts, a single laced ruff, 
short hair and beard, brown boots ; a plumed 
helmet near him. He wears the honor of the 
George. From his boots (a fashionable part of 
dress in the time of James I. and Charles I.), I 
suspect him to be Francis Earl of Rutland, who 
commanded the fleet which conveyed Charles, 
when Prince of Wales, in his return from his ro- 
mantic expedition into Spain. This nobleman 
died in 1635. 

Next is the portrait of Sir William Russel William 
(afterwards Duke of Bedford) when young. He Bedford. 
is dressed in the robes of the order of the Bath, 
leaning on his sword ; and by him a dwarf, aged 
thirty-two. On the picture is inscribed Johannes 
Privezer di Hungaria, fecit 1627; a painter of 
merit, but whose works are rare. 

Lai>y Anne Ayscough, eldest daughter of the Lady Anne 
first Earl of Lincoln, and wife to William Ays- 
cough, son to Sir Francis Ayscough of Lincoln- 
shire. 

2 i 2 



484 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

Comptrol- A head of a gentleman of the name of Rogers, 

ler Rogers. *r . . . 

Comptroller to Queen Elizabeth. I imagine him 
to be Sir Edward Rogers, a person of some con- 
sideration at the time of her accession ; for he 
was one of the few who waited on her at Hatfield, 
on the death of Queen Mary, and formed one of 
the privy-council held there on that great event. 

Prince dk j strange figure of a man, in black, half- 
Nassau. e 

length, in a close black cap, and a letter in his 

hand, directed to Pr. de Nassau. I am informed, 

by a very able herald, that from the arms on the 

picture, the personage represented is the Count 

de Nabsau-Uranien Nassau. 

Duke of Head of the Duke of Monmouth. 

Monmouth. ^ _ r o r\ > c< 

Sir Edw. Sir Edward btradling, 01 St. Donet s, in South 
Wales. A head, with whiskers, a turn-over, and 
black dress. I imagine him to be the gentleman 
who had a regiment under Charles I., who was 
taken prisoner at the battle of Edgehill, and who 
died on his release at Oxford. 

James Earl James Earl of Carlisle, in long hair, buff coat, 

0FCARLISLE -and red sash". 

Anne Coun- Anne, wife of Ambrose Dudley, Earl of War- 

Warwick wick an d daughter to Francis, second Earl of 

n This is probably not the portrait of the nobleman of 
whom so full an account is given in the Tour of Scotland, but 
of his son who married Catherine, daughter to Francis fourth 
Earl of Bedford. 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 485 

Bedford, in black and white sleeves, and a black 
body. 

Lady Wimbledon, wife of Lord Wimbledon. , ir Lady 

' t Wimbledon. 

Lady Bindloss, wife to Sir Francis Bindloss, 

-r> - r Lady 

of Bewvick, near Lancaster, and daughter to Tho- Bindloss. 
mas third Lord Delawar. 

Edward Earl of Bedford, sitting. He is dressed e dward 

in black and gold, with a high-crowned hat : his ARL or 

to ' ' Bedford. 

hand in a sash, being gouty. This nobleman was 
an exception to the good understanding this family 
is blest with ; and unluckily was matched with a 
lady whose vanity and expences were boundless. 

Sir William Russel, in a black slashed vest. SirWilliam 
He was lord deputy of Ireland in the reign of USSEI - 
Queen Elizabeth, in 1 594 : a wise and most gal- 
lant commander, and successful in various expe- 
ditions against the rebels; but not brooking a 
divided power with the general, Sir John Norris, 
he was, at his own request, recalled. He was 
created by James I. Baron of Thornhaugh, and 
died in 1613. 

Giles, the third Lord Chandos, in a high-crowned Giles Lord 
hat, white jacket, black gown laced with silver, HAND0 
short hair and beard. iEt. 43, 1589- He died 
in 1594. 

The first Francis Earl of Bedford, with a long first Fran- 
white beard and furred robe, and George pen- C b E dford F 
dent; a head. Another illustrious personage of 



436 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

this house, who discharged several great offices in 
the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth. Such was his 
hospitality, that the latter used to say of him, that 
he made all the beggars. He died, aged 58, on 
the 28th of July 1585, the day after his third son, 
Francis, was slain, happily unknowing of the mis- 
fortune. 
Francis and This youth, and his elder brother Edward 

Edward * 

Russel. Lord Russel, are represented in small, in two 
paintings, and so alike, as scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished : both dressed in white close jackets, 
and black and gold cloaks, and black bonnets. 
The date by Lord Edward, is aet. 22, 1573. He 
is represented grasping in one hand some snakes, 
with this motto, Fides homini, serpentibus fraus ; 
and in the back ground he is placed standing in a 
labyrinth, and above is inscribed, Fata viam in- 
venient. This young nobleman also died before 
his father. 

His brother Francis has his accompaniments 
not less singular. A lady, seemingly in distress, 
is represented sitting in the back ground, sur- 
rounded with snakes, a dragon, crocodile, and 
cock. At a distance is the sea, with a ship under 
full sail. The story is not well known ; but it cer- 
tainly alludes to a family transaction, similar to 
that in Otways Orphan, and gave rise to it. He, 
by the attendants, was perhaps the Polydore of 



PORTRAITS AT VVOBURN. 487 

the history. Edxoard seems by his motto, Fides 
homini, serpent ibusfraus, to have been the Casta- 
Ho, conscious of his own integrity, and indignant 
at the perfidy of his brother. The ship alludes 
to the desertion of the lady. If it conveyed Sir 
Francis to Scotland, it was to his punishment ; for 
he fell there on July 27th, 1585, in a border fray. 

Francis Russel, third son to the fourth Earl Francis 
of Bedford, in armour. Russel. 

His brother Colonel John Russel. John 

Russel. 

A head of Catherine , youngest daughter to Catherine 
the Treasurer, Earl of Suffolk, and wife to ^/.Countess cf 

' *" ' Suffolk. 

Ham Earl of Salisbury. She is in a flowered 
dress ; her ruff worked with gold, and her breasts 
naked. 

Head of the fair Geraldine, the third wife of The fair 
Edward Earl of Lincoln. Her hair yellow ; her 
face a proof how much beauty depends on fancy ; 
her dress far from elegant. 

Margaret Countess of Cumberland) she was Margaret 
youngest daughter to the first Francis Earl of Bed- Co J 8 R . or 
ford, and wife to the celebrated George Clifford LAND - 
Earl of Cumberland p . 

Lord Treasurer Burleigh, the able statesman Lord 
of Elizabeth ; a favorite, whom she chose, as she 

This is the portrait alluded to above, in the note relative 
to the Countess of Somerset. Ed, 
p For an account of both see Tour in Scotland, vol. ml i. 355. 



4S 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 



Edward 
Earl of 
Lincoln. 



expressed it, not for his bad legs, but for his good 
head q . His maxims did not quite agree with those 
of the ministers of later days ; for he held, That 
nothing could be for the advantage of the prince, 
which makes any way against his reputation ; 
wherefore he never would suffer the rents of lands 
to be raised, nor the old tenants to be put out r . 
This great statesman is represented sitting. His 
countenance comely, his beard grey, his gown 
black and furred, and adorned with a gold chain. 
His mistress lost this faithful servant in 1598, 
aged 77. 

Edzvard Clinton, first Earl of Lincoln, sitting : 
a half-length in black, a short ruff, bonnet, and 
with his George, by Cornelius Ketel, the whimsi- 
cal artist, who took it into his head to lay aside 
his brushes, and paint with his fingers only ; and 
at length, finding those tools too easy, undertook 
to paint with his toes s . This nobleman was one 
of the most distinguished persons of his age, and 
shone equally as a soldier and a sailor ; for, du- 
ring the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., 
Mary and Elizabeth, there were scarely any ex- 
peditions in which he did not signalize himself. 
He was Lord Great Admiral for thirty years, 
counsellor to three princes, and of unspotted re- 

9 Lloyd's Worthies, i. 360. * Camden's Elizabeth. 

* JValpok's Lives of Painters, i. 138, 139. 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 489 

putation. In an advanced age he married for his 
third wife the fair Geraldine, the subject of the 
gallant Earl of Surry's affection, and of his amo- 
rous muse. Their union never took place. It is 
probable that she deserted him ; for soon after 
his sonnet, descriptive of the fair, 

From Tuscane came my ladies worthy race, 

follow several others, complaining of his hard lot, 
in experiencing the scorn and inconstancy of his 
mistress ; but what affects him most is, the giving 
the preference to a lover of meaner rank. 

I know (though she say nay, and would it well withstand) 
When in hir grace thou yeldest the most, she bare thee but 

in hand. 
I see her pleasant cheere in chiefest of thy suite, 
When to art gone I see him come that gathers up the fruite ; 
And eke in thy respecte, I see the base degree 
Of him to whom she gave the heart that promised was to 

thee *. 

Near him is the head of Charles Brandon Brandon 
Duke of Suffolk, son of Sir William Brandon, 
standard-bearer to Henry VII., slain in the battle 
of Bosworth. His dress is black, with red sleeves, 
with the collar of the Garter and the George. 
His beard is white, his countenance bluff, not un- 

* Fol. ii. edition 158,5. 



Duke of 

Suffolk. 



490 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

like that of his master Henry VIII. Their quali- 
ties, happily for the favorite, were different; for 
the inscription with truth says, that he was " gra- 
" tiose with Henry VIII. ; void of despyte ; 
" most fortunate to the end ; never in displeasure 
" with his kynge." He was brought up with his 
master, and justly beloved by him for his noble 
qualities, for his goodly person, courage, and con- 
formity of disposition (I suppose only) in all his 
exercises and pastimes \ He was a principal 
figure in every tilt and tournament. In his younger 
days (1510) he appeared at Westminster in the 
solemn justs, held in honor of Catherine of Arra- 
gon, in the dress of a recluse, begging of her 
highness permission to run in her presence ; which 
obtained, he instantly flung off his weeds, and 
came out all armed. He signalized himself at the 
justs at Tournay, in 1511, instituted by Margaret 
Princess of Castile, in compliment to his royal 
master. The place was flagged with black marble, 
and the horses of the knights were shod with felt, 
to prevent them from slipping*. He here won 
the heart of the fair foundress of the entertain- 
ment ; but fortune reserved him for another prin- 
cess. 

In 1514 he performed amazing deeds of arms 

Herbert's Henry VIII. 35. * lb. 41. . 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 491 

at Saint Denys, at the coronation of the youthful 
Mary, sister to Henry, on her marriage with the 
aged and decrepid Louis XII. The good king, 
says Henault, forgot his age, and met with death 
in her arms in less than three months. This opened 
the way to his possession of the beautiful dowager. 
Her heart was lost to him at the preceding tourna- 
ments, in which she had an opportunity of com- 
paring the feebleness of her bridegroom with the 
dexterity, the grace, and strength of her valiant 
knight, who, at single combat, overthrew man and 
horse. The French, envious of his prowess, in- 
troduced into the lists a gigantic German, in hopes 
of bringing the English hero into disgrace. He 
treated the Almain so roughly, that the French in- 
terfered ; but in a second trial, Suffolk caught him 
round the neck, and pummelled him so severely 
about the head, that they were obliged to convey 
the fellow away secretly ; who had been surrepti- 
tiously introduced in disguise, merely on account 
his great strength*. 

Mary, on the death of her royal consort, pro- 
posed to Suffolk, and gave him only four days to 
consider of the offer y . This seems to have been 
concerted, to save her lover from the fury of 
Henry, for daring to look up to a dowager of 

* Halle, xlix. Holinshed 833. 
y Herbert's Henry VIII. 54. 



-192 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

France, and, what was more, his sister. His 
master fortunately favored the match. He con- 
tinued beloved by the king to the end of his life ; 
after seeing the following knights and attendants 
on the conjugal festivities, the Earl of Devonshire, 
Lord Leonard Grey, Sir Nicholas Carew, and 
Anna Boleyn, sent headless to their graves. But 
Charles went off triumphant with his royal spouse; 
carried with him her jewels, to the amount of 
200,000 crowns ; the famous diamond le mirroir 
de Naples ; and secured her jointure of sixty thou- 
sand crowns 2 . He married almost as many wives 
as Henry, leaving his fourth to survive him. He 
died universally lamented, in 1545, and was 
buried magnificently at the expenceof his master; 
his loss being one of the few things that touched 
his hardened heart. 
Queen Queen Elizabeth, full length, with a rich gown, 

KjLijr A BETH* 

white, embroidered with flowers, and a fan of fea- 
thers in her hand. I find that her majesty would 
condescend to accept of the smallest present, as a 
mark of her subjects' love; for, in passing through 
a Doctor Puddins house in her way to the cele- 
brated wedding of Mrs. Anne Russel with Lord 
Herbert, she did the Doctor the honor of accept- 
ing from him a fan en passant. 
Sir Richard Head of Sir Richard Bingley. 

BlNGLEY. 

2 Herbert's Henry VIII. 5.5. 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 493 

Another of Sir Edward Gorges ? & S53S D 

Sir Joscelyn Percy, seventh son of Henry eighth SirJoscelyn 
Earl of Northumberland, closes the list. He and 
his brother Charles were concerned in the Earl of 
Essex's insurrection. Both received their par- 
dons: and Joscelyn survived till 1631. 

That gloomy* insipid pair, Philip II. and his Philip and 
consort Mary, are painted in small full-lengths by 
Sir Antonio More. The first of these ungracious 
figures is dressed in a black jacket, Avith gold 
sleeves and hose ; the Queen sitting in a black and 
gold petticoat, and furred sleeves. Her black 
conic cap is faced with gold and jewels. A rich 
chain of great pearls and small vases, red and gold, 
are other ornaments to our bigotted sovereign. 
The date is 1553. Sir Antonio was sent from 
Spain to draw her picture ; so has placed her and 
Philip in a scene of auk ward courtship ; for they 
were not married till the following year. 

Isabella, daughter to Henry Bennet, Earl of Isabella 

, . r n r Dutchess of 

Arlington, and wife to the first Duke of Grafton, Grafton. 
is represented a half length in white, with long 
flowing hair, very handsome. 

a This curious picture, and some of the portraits mentioned 
below, are removed to a room destined to receive the over- 
flowings of the house; others have gradually disappeared from 
Woburn, are placed in the attics, or are no longer shewn. Ed. 



494 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

Elizabeth A large family picture, by Jervis, of Elizabeth 
D B^"ord. F Hoxvland, Dutchess to the first IVriothesley Duke 
of Bedford, in her weeds, with her four children- 
Above her, in the back part of the picture, hangs 
the portrait of her lord; the same who built Covent 
Garden church, and was called the good Duke. 

Gertrude In another apartment is a large picture, repre- 

DuTCHESSOF . ~. i -r-v i r -rt i r 1 

Bedford, sentmg Gertrude, Dutchess of Bedjrd, present- 
ing her daughter (the Dutchess of Marlborough) 
to Minerva, the sciences and graces painted by 
Hamilton, an artist settled I believe at Rome. 

Nobleman A full length of a nobleman in a hat with a 
red crown and feather, square black beard, red ear- 
rings and stockings : in his robes, with a white rod 
in his hand. This was brought from Thornhaugh, 
a seat of the family in Northamptonshire. 
Lady Portrait of a lady in black, a red and white 

UNKNOWN. c - 

petticoat, flat run, and a great string ot pearls 
across her breast. 
Ladies Two children in one piece, Ladv Diana and 

KUSSEL. 

Lady Anne Russel, daughters of William first 
Duke of Bedford. They had the misfortune of 
being poisoned, by eating some noxious berries 
which they met with. Lady Anne died ; Lady 
Diana survived, and is again painted, in more ad- 
vanced life, by Sir Deter Lely. 

A man in a grey jacket, red breeches, short hair, 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 495 

and small beard ; a stick in his hand, and helmet 
by him. Date 1592, aet. 28. 

Elizabeth Bruges, or Bridges, aged 14, Elizabeth 

i n m i tt- v Bruges. 

1589, painted in a flat stile, by Hieronymo m 
Custodio, of Antwerp. She is represented in black, 
flowered with white, with full sleeves, a gold chain, 
great pearl set in gold on one shoulder, and a gold 
ornament on the other. This lady was eldest 
daughter to Giles, Lord Chandos, and wife to Sir 
John Kenneda, knight b : she dying childless, the 
whole fortune of her family devolved to her se- 
cond sister, Catherine, Countess of Bedford. 

A full length of that fantastic lady, Lucy; Lucy 

. Countess op 

Countess of Bedford, in a dancing attitude, dressed Bedford. 
in a fantastic habit, with an immense transparent 
veil distended behind her. 

Present Dutchess of Marlborough. Dutchess 

of Marl- 

LoRD Francis Russel in a black dress, a minia- borough. 

Lord Fr. 
ture. Russel. 

A female, dwarf to Catherine, Queen to a Dwarf. 
Charles II. 

Catherine Countess of Bedford, wife to Catherine 
Francis Earl of Bedford, and daughter to Giles Bedford. 
Bruges, third Lord Chandos. Her dress a pearl 
coronet, and hair flowing below her waist, a 
worked gown, and red mantle : a fine full length; 

b Dugdale's Baronagt, ii. 395. 



496 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 

Anne Anne, daughter of that infamous pair, Robert 

Countess of . . 

Bedford. Car, Earl of Somerset, and his Countess, is paint- 
ed by Vandyck, in blue, drawing on a glove : a 
most beautiful half length. She was the wife of 
Sir William Russel, above mentioned, married to 
him in the year 1637. She proved worthy of the 
alliance she made. It is said that she was igno- 
rant of her mother's dishonor, till she read it in a 
pamphlet she found accidentally left in a window. 
It is added, that she was so struck with this de- 
tection of her parent's guilt, that she fell down in 
a fit, and was found senseless, with the book open 
before her. She died on May 10, 1684. The 
anecdote is omitted in the histories of the family, 
probably to avoid the revival of a disgraceful tale. 
Francis Earl of Bedford, was so averse to the 
alliance, that he gave his son leave to chuse a wife 
out of any family but that. Opposition usually 
stimulates desire : the young couple's affection 
were only increased. At length the king inter- 
posed, and, sending the Duke of Lenox to urge the 
Earl to consent, the match was brought about. 
Somerset, now reduced to poverty, acted a gene- 
rous part; selling his house at Chiswick, plate, 
jewels, and furniture, to raise a fortune for his 
daughter of twelve thousand pounds, which the 
Earl of Bedford demanded ; saying, that seeing her 



PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. 497 

affections were settled, he chose rather to undo 
himself than make her unhappy d . 

Her father in law, the second Frcuicis Earl of T "? SECOND 

7 - FRANCIS 

Bedford, by Vandyck, is in the drawing room. A Karl of 

. . . i'ii Bedford. 

full length in black, with light hair and short 
peaked beard; painted in 1636, aged forty-eight. 
He died in 1641, and left behind him a distin- 
guished character. He was of the popular party, 
but of such an excellent understanding, so good a 
heart, and of such great moderation, that it is sup- 
posed, if he had lived, his influence with his 
friends would have been exerted to have com- 
posed the unhappy violence of the times. This was 
the nobleman who undertook and succeeded in 
the arduous attempt of draining the vast fen in 
Cambridgeshire, called the Great Level, contain- 
ing three hundred and six thousand acres". 

Gertrude late Dutchess of Bedford. Gertrude 

r n i i r i i i t i Dutchess or 

. A fine full length or her worthy husband, Bedford. 
John, Duke of Bedford, represented sitting in his j 0HN duke 
robes. 0F Bedford - 

The late Lord and Lady Tavistock. His lord- Lord and 
ship in a red gown, furred. He is again repre- Tavistock. 
sented in another room, in the uniform of the Dun- 
stable hunt. 

Lady Russel, wife of Sir William Russel y lord Lady 

RlJSSEL. 

d British Biogr. v. 3534. 

* Dugdale on embanking, 344. 

2 K 



493 PORTRAITS AT WOBURN. AMPTHILL. 

deputy of Ireland, is painted in great sleeves. She 
was daughter to Edzvard Long, Esquire, of Thin- 
gay, in Cambridgeshire, and died two years before 
her lord. 

Francis Her son Francis, afterwards Earl of Bedford^ 

o^Bbd^rd! * s Panted in his childhood, in white, with green 

hose ; with a hawk in his hand, and two dogs in 

couples near him. 

Catherine A full length of Catherine, wife of the second 

Bedford? F Francis Earl of Bedford, in black, with roses in 
her hand. 
Lady Frances Lady Chandos, daughter of the first 

Earl of Lincoln, in a great ruff, a black dress rich 
in pearls, aet. 37, 1589 : lived till the year 1623. 

From TVoburn, for the sake of variety, I left the 
great road, and, crossing the county, went through 
the village oiRidgemont, and, soon after, through 
that of Millbrook, whose church is pleasantly seated 
on the bluff point of a hill. About two miles far- 

Ampthill. ther, reach Ampthill, a small market-town, on a 
rising ground, noted in old times for the magnifi- 
cent mansion built by Sir John Cornwall, Lord 
Fanhope, as Leland says, with such spoiles that he 
xcanne in Fraunce*. lie married Elizabeth, second 
daughter to John, Earl of Lancaster, commonly 
called John of Gaunt, and widow to John Earl of 
Exeter: for her he is supposed to have built the 

f ltin. i. 115. 



AMPTHILL. 

house, which was worthy of so illustrious a princess. 
It had four or five fair towers of stone in the inner 
court, beside the basse court*. This hero was son 
of Sir John Cornwall : his mother, niece to the Duke ^ LoRD 
of Brit any r , was delivered of him at sea. He was 
usually stiled green Cornwall, from the color of 
that element. He rose by his merit; was cele- 
brated for deeds of arms and acts of chivalry, and 
those equally in the field, and in the lists of arms. 
At York he fought and vanquished, in the pre- 
sence of Henry IV. two valiant knights ; one a 
Frenchman, the other an Italian. In reward for 
his prowess, Henry created him knight of the 
garter. He signalized himself at the battle of 
Azincourt, where he took prisoner Louis de Bour- 
bon Count of Vendome, and had his ransom con- 
firmed to him h , with which he might have built the 
house ; for it seems to be the spoils alluded to by 
Leland. In reward for his services, he was created 
by Henry VI. baron of Fanhope and Millbrook y 
and died in 1443. He had no lawful issue ; nei- 
ther were the large grants made to him by the 
crown, for more than the term of life, so that they 
reverted on his decease. 

The place was afterwards bestowed by Edzoard 
IV. on Edmund Lord Grey. The gift was not (as 
Leland supposes) founded on the ruin of Lord 

s Itm.l 115. h Sandford's Genealog. Hist. 258. 

2k2 



SOO AMPTHILL. 

Fanhope, after ttie battle of Northampton ; for that 
event did not take place till seventeen years after 
Fanhope died peaceably in his bed. It continued 
in the family of the Greys till the death of Richard 
Earl of Kent , who made it over to Henry VIII. 
That prince added it to the crown, and erected it, 
with the great estate belonging to it, into the 
honour of Ampthill 1 . Here was the residence of 
the injured princess Catherine of Arragon, during 
the period that her divorce was in agitation ; and 
from hence she was cited to appear before the 
commissioners, then sitting at Dunstable k . About 
the year 1774, John Earl of Ossory, on the site of 
the castle, erected a gothic column (designed by 
Mr. Essex) to perpetuate the memory of this ill- 
fated Queen, with the following elegant inscription 1 : 

In days of old, here Ampthill's towers were seen, 
The mournful refuge of an injur'd queen ; 
Here flow'd her pure, but unavailing tears ; 
Here blinded zeal sustain'd her sinking years : 
Vet Freedom hence her radiant banner wav'd, 
And Love aveng'd a realm by priests enslav'd ; 
From Catherine's wrongs a nation's bliss was spread, 
And Luther's light from Henry's lawless bed. 
Johannes Fitz-Patrick, 

Comes de Ossory, posuit, 1773. 

1 Camden, i. 340. 

k She died at Kimbolton, in Huntingdonshire, on the 8th of 
January, 1535-6. 

1 Written by the late Lord Orford. Ed. 



AMPTHILL PARK. 501 

Th e only remarkable thing I observed in the 
church, was a mural monument in memory of Church. 
Richard Nicoils, governor of Long Island after the 
expulsion of the Dutch. He was a gentleman of 
the bed-chamber to the Duke of York, and was 
slain in the celebrated engagement of May 28th, 
1672, attending his royal highness on board of his 
ship. What is singular in this monument is, the 
preservation of the very ball with .which he was 
killed, a five or six pounder, which is placed within 
the pediment, inlaid in the marble ; and on the 
molding of the pediment, on each side of the bullet, 
are the words, 

Instrumentum mortis et immortalitatis. 

Mr. Sandford has given a plate of the figures 
of Sir John Cornwall and his wife, as painted in a 
window of this church. They are either lost, or I 
have overlooked them. They are represented 
kneeling, and both with mantles of their arms over 
them : she in her ducal coronet. Between them, 
at top, is a banner with her arms ; at bottom, his 
arms included in the Garter. 

From the town I descended to Ampthill Park, Ampthill 
the seat of the Earl of Ossory ; a modern house, 
plain and neat, with eleven windows in front, and 
wings. Within, is the portrait of Richard Lord L RD 

GOWRAW. 

Goxvran, in his robes : he was ancestor to the noble 
Geneal. Hist. 259. 



502 AMPTHILL PARK. 

owner, and married, in 1718, to Anne, younger 
Sir John daughter of Sir John Robinson of Faming Wood, 

Robinson. c . 

in Northamptonshire. Another Sir John Robin- 
sons portrait is preserved here : a half-length, in a 
great wig, cravat, sash, and buff coat. He was 
an eminent loyalist ; was lord mayor of London, 
in 1663, and lieutenant of the Tower, from the 
Restoration to the time of his death. His double 
employ is expressed by a distant view of the Tower, 
and the gold chain placed by him on a table. 
Laud. Th e indiscreet prelate Laud, is admirably paint- 

ed by Vandyck. 
Cai1*frine Here is a full length of Catherine Cornaro, 

CORNARO. 

Queen of Cyprus : a bulky woman, in black, with 
flaxen hair, much curled. This distinguished fe- 
male w as daughter to Mark Cornaro, the most il- 
lustrious of the Venetian families. James Lusignan, 
or James the Bastard, king of Cyprus, in order to 
strengthen himself on his throne, demanded, by his 
ambassador, a w ife out of the republic of Venice. 
The senate fixed on this lady, adopted her as their 
own, and stiled her, from its tutelar saint, the 
daughter of St. Mark. She reigned long in that 
island, and governed fifteen years after the death 
of her husband. He had left the senate of Venice 
protectors of her, and of the child with which she 
was pregnant at the time of that event. The in- 
fant son lived only ten months ; and the Venetian 



AMPTHILL PARK. 503 

state considered itself as heir to the kingdom, in 
right of its daughter Catherine, Apprehensions 
arose, that the Turkish emperor Bajazet, and the 
Christian monarch Fei^cHnand, had designs on it : 
they determined to frustrate both, and sent George 
Cornaro, brother to the Queen, to assist her in the 
government. By his eloquence, he succeeded in 
the arduous task of persuading a lady out of her 
love of power. He promised her regal state in 
her native country. She accepted the terms, 
erected the Venetian standard in her capital, and, 
on her arrival at Venice, was met by the whole 
senate, and the ladies of rank, and received, dur- 
ing life, every mark of esteem which her patriot- 
ism merited, with a magnificent establishment, 
equal to the dignity she had so generously quitted. 
This event happened about the year 1489 n . 

Albert archduke of Austria, commonly called 

the Cardinal Infant, in black, a great ruff, and Cardinal 
' , tt ,.*, / , Infant. 

with a sword. He was fifth son of the emperor 

Maximilian II. and was originally brought up in 
the church ; became cardinal, and had the arch- 
bishopric of Toledo conferred on him His talents 
were more fitted for the field and cabinet. Ac- 
cordingly, we find him in universal esteem, for his 
prudent administration as regent of Portugal, and 

Gratiani'& Wars of Cyprus, 10, 11. 



504 AMPTHILL PARK. 

as a brave and enterprizing general in the Low Coun- 
tries, in the reign of Philip II. who had invested 
him with their government. In the year 1598, 
Philip bestowed on him his daughter, the Infanta 
Isabella, and with her the sovereignty of the Ne- 
therlands. Under him was undertaken the famous 
siege of Ostend, which cost the Spaniards a hun- 
dred thousand men. He lived till the year 1621, 
and died universally lamented by his subjects. He 
was a patron of the arts. He was so struck with 
the merit of Rubens, that he detained that able 
painter some time at Antwerp; and to him we 
owe the portrait of this illustrious prince . 

Here is a fine half-length of a general, by 
Baroccio ; an artist who died at a great age, in 
1612. The person is represented with light hair 
and whiskers, a hat, armour, and red sash. 

A conversation ; consisting of Edward late 
Duke of York, Lord Ossory, Lord P aimer ston, 
Topham Beauclerk, Colonel H. St. John, and Sir 
William Booth by: done when they were at Florence, 
by Brompton. 

Ampth'ill Park, and that of Houghton, con- 
tiguous to it, were granted by James I. to Sir 
Fidxcard Bruce of Kinloss (a favorite, brought by 
his majesty out of Scotland), or to his son Thomas 

Anecdotes of Painting, ii. 81. 



HOUGHTON PARK. 505 

Earl of Elgin. It continued for some time in his 
posterity, the Earls of Elgin and of Aylesbury. It 
became, about the year 1690 (by purchase) the 
property of Lord Ashburnham, who built the 
house, which still retains nearly the original form. 
It was alienated by John, the first earl of that 
title, between the years 1720 and 1730, to Lord 
Viscount Fitz-William. His lordship sold it in 
the year 1736, to Lady Gozvran, grandmother to 
the present Lord Osso?y. 

From hence is a very short ride to Houghton Houghton 
Park, formerly part of the estate of Ampthill. 
The house is seated on a bold eminence, and com- 
mands a fine view. The fronts are unequal ; one 
being a hundred and twenty two feet in extent ; 
the other, only seventy three feet six inches : two 
of these are very beautiful; each has an elegant 
portico and loggio above, ornamented with co- 
lumns of the Doric and Ionic orders : the rest of 
the house is of brick. On the intervening space 
are a variety of cyphers, devices, and crests; such 
as bears and ragged staves, staves and palms, 
crowned lions and crowns, and beards of arrows, 
or hedge-hogs and porcupines p . Some of these 
certainly relate to the Sydnies. This gave rise to 

* In an old edition of the Arcadia, date 1629, is a hedge- 
hog, or porcupine, as a crest to the top of a frontispiece. 



506 HOUGHTON PARK. 

the assertion of the editor of Camden, that it was 
built by the Countess of Pembroke, 

Sydney's sister, Pembroke's mother ; 

and that the model was contrived by her brother, 
the incomparable Sir Philip Sydney, in his Area- 
ta. Let this be admitted, we are not to wonder 
at seeing his devices employed as ornaments. 
From the letters on the south front, I. R. with a 
crown over them, it is evident that the house was 
built in the time of James I ; and, there is great 
reason to suppose* 5 , that Inigo Jones, who was 
warmly patronized by her son William Earl of 
Pembroke, and from whose designs the Earl built 
the noble front of his seat at. Wilton, was the 
architect, 

1 1t has since been ascertained', that Houghton house was built 
by this celebrated countess. In 1615, Sir Edward Conquest, 
keeper of the park, made over his interest in it to Matthew 
Lister and Leonard Welstead, as her trustees, when she erected 
a splendid mansion. After her decease, it was in 1630 granted 
in fee to Lord Bruce, and was, for a considerable time, the re- 
sidence of his descendants, the Earls of Elgin and Aylesbury. 
In 17S8, John Duke of Bedford purchased Houghton. The 
late duke took down the venerable remains, and applied the 
materials to the erection of the Swan Inn, at Bedford; the 
estates belonging to it became the property of the Earl of 
Ossory, by exchange in 1801. Ed. 

r Ly son's Magna Britannia, i. 96. 



TOMBS IN MAULDEN CHURCH. 50? 

This place must not be confounded with 
Houghton Conquest : a very antient house, at the Houghton 

. * . J Conquest. 

foot of the hill. This had been the property of the 
very old family of the Conquests, and was pur- 
chased, with the manor, from the last Mr. Con- 
quest, by the late Earl of Ossory. 

I did not leave the neighborhood without visit- Tombs in 

. Maulden 

ing the church of Maulden, a mile or two to the Church. 
east of Ampthill. This is noted for the octagonal 
mausoleum erected by Thomas Bruce Earl of Elgin, 
in honor of his second wife Diana, daughter of 
William Lord Burghly, and by her first marriage 
Countess of Oxford. Her tomb, of white marble, 
is placed in the center. On it is a sarcophagus, 
or at lest what was designed to represent one ; out 
of which rises a miserable figure of the countess 
in her shroud : on whom the country people, by a 
very apt similitude, have bestowed the title of The 
lady in the punch-bozvl. In a niche in the wall of 
the building is the bust of her husband, with long 
hair, a short beard, and turnover ; and on the floor 
is another bust (I think) of her son-in-law, Robert 
Earl of Elgin, placed at a respectful distance, as 
well as the other, for the reason given in the in- 
scription, Eminus stantes venerabundi, quasi con- 
templabuntur 1 . 

r See the whole epitaph in the Appendix. Thorium Earl of 
Elgin died in 1663 ; the countess in 1654. 



508 WREST. 

In the church are the brasses of Richard Faldo 
and his family, inlaid on a tomb of shell-marble. 

After a short ride, I reached the large house 
of Wrest, seated in a low and wet park, crossed 
with formal rows of trees. The pleasure-grounds 
have, since their first creation, been corrected by 
Brown : his hand appears particularly in a noble 
serpentine river. Several parts are graced with 
obelisks, pavilions, and other buildings, the taste of 
the age before. 

From his melon-ground the peasant slave 
Had rudely rush'd, and levell'd Merlin's cave. 

In the quarters of the wilderness are to be seen 
two cenotaphs, for the late duke and dutchess, 
erected by the duke himself: and, if you gain 
a steep ascent, from the hill-house is a most ex- 
tensive view of the country. The front is plain 
and extensive. Within, is a great court. This 
place is the property of the Earl of Hardwicke'; 
in right of his Lady Jemima, marchioness Grey, 
daughter to John Earl of Breadalbane, by Amabel, 
daughter to Hem*y Grey, thirteenth Earl and first 
Duke of Kent of the name. That illustrious 



Philip Earl of Hardwicke, died in 1790, when Wrest came 
into the possession of his eldest daughter, the Baroness Lucas- 
Ed. 



WREST. 509 

family had been possessed of the manor of Wrest, 
and other estates in this county, at lest from the 
time of Roger de Grey, who died owner of it in 
the year 1353. 

The portraits and their history would take up 
a volume. I must, therefore, be excused for giving 
a more brief account than their merits might de- 
mand. 

In the hall is a full length of the unfortunate Portraits. 
Mary Queen of Scots, cet. reg. 38, 1580, in black, MaryQueen 
with her hand on a table: a copy from one at OF 00TS ' 
Hampton Court. 

Another of her grandmother, Margaret, Margaret 
daughter of Henry VII. and Queen of James IV. Gotland. 
of Scotland. Another full-length, in black hair, 
naked neck, with a marmoset in her hands. 

Three very fine portraits of James I. in his James I. 
robes. Anne of Denmark, in white ; dressed in a Anne of 
hoop, with a feather fan, and neck exposed. Their 
son Henry, in rich armour, boots, and with a Henry 
truncheon. His military turn appears in the dress 
of most of his portraits. Had he lived, England 
might probably have transferred the miseries of 
war to the neighboring kingdom. His mother had 
inspired him with ambitious notions, and filled his 
head with the thoughts of the conquest of France. 
She fancied him like Henry V. and expected him 



510 



WREST. 



Lord 

SOMERS. 



CoRNARO 

Family. 

Philip 

Baron 

Wharton. 



to -prove as victorious. I am sorry to retract the 
character of this lady, but I fear that my former 
was taken from a parasite of the court l . She was 
turbulent, restless, and aspiring to government, 
incapable of the management of aifairs, yet always 
intriguing after power. This her wiser husband 
denied her u , and of course incurred her hatred. 
Every engine was then employed to hurt his pri- 
vate ease : she affected amours, of which she 
never was guilty, and permitted familiarities, 
which her pride would probably have never con- 
descended to. James was armed with indifference. 
At length, in 1619, he saw her descend to the 
grave; but not with the resignation of a good 
Christian monarch, as might have been expected 
from her conduct. 

Lord Somers, in a long wig and his chancel- 
lor's robes, -sitting. 

A person unknown ; a full length, in a black 
cloak laced with gold, laced bonnet, triple gold 
chain. 

Over the chimney is a copy of the Cornaro 
family. 

In the eating-room is a full-length of Philip 

1 Wilson. 

See Carte, iii. 746. This historian is far from being sin- 
gular in this account. 



WREST. 5U 

Baron of Wharton, with long hair, breast-plate, 
and truncheon, and boots; at, 26, 1639- This 
nobleman took part with the parlement in the civil 
wars. Mr. Granger* relates on the authority of 
Walker, that at the battle of Edgehillhe hid himself 
in a saw-pit : a fact incredible, as he gave a very 
clear account of the battle, in a long speech in 
Guildhall 7 . He survived long, and in 1677 was 
sent to the Tower for doubting the legality of one 
of Charles's parlements, after a recess of fifteen 
months z . 

Lady Rich, in black. This is, I suspect, the Lady Rich * 
lady who was married by Laud to Charles Blount 
Earl of Devonshire, during the life of her first 
husband, Robert Lord Rich, afterwards Earl of 
Warwick. She was daughter to Walter Devereux 
Earl of Essex, and had been addressed by Blount 
while he was a younger brother, and she favored 
his passion. Her friends broke off the match, and 
married her to a very disagreeable suitor, her first 
lord. When Blount, after some years' absence in 
the Irish wars, returned laden with glory, and, 
by the death of his elder brother, honored with the 
title of Mount] oy, he commenced a criminal con- 
nection with his former mistress. She was fully 

x Biog. Hist. ii. 1 42. r Brake, xi. 474. 

"* Macpherson, i. 2f6. 



5\t 



WREST. 



Earls 
Hardwicke. 



Henry Earl 
of Kent. 



Anthony 

Earl of 

Kent. 



and legally divorced from Lord Rich. Blount, 
now Earl of Devonshire, determined to make her 
reparation, and persuaded Mr. Laud, then his 
chaplain, to marry them. In those days this was 
looked on as so high a crime, that King James was 
for several years extremely averse to the bestow- 
ing any perferment on him: and Laud himself had 
such a sense of his fault, as to keep an annual fast 
on the unlucky day ever after. These two pic- 
tures were painted by Vandyck, and formed a part 
of the Wharton collection ; they were bought by 
Sir Robert Walpole, and sold after his death. 

Lord chancellor Hardwicke, in his robes, 
by Hoare : a character superior to my pen. 

His son, the present Earl, by Gainsborough. 

On the stair-case is Henry seventh Earl of 
Kent, a full length, in black. Elizabeth, daughter 
of Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury, is painted in the 
same color, with a ruff, flaxen frizzled hair, and a 
great black egret. He died in 1639 ; she in 1651. 

His successor Anthony, grandson of Anthony, 
third son of George Earl of Kent, is drawn in 
black, with his hand on a book : a meagre person- 
age. He was surprised with the peerage at his 
parsonage of Bur bach, in the county of Leicester, 
where he lived in hospitality, and the full dis- 
charge of that great character, a good parish- 



WREST. 513 

priest. He was summoned to parlement, but pre- 
ferred the duty to which he was first called*; never 
would forsake his flock, and was buried among 
them in 1643. 

His wife, Magdalene Purefoy, a half-length, is 
represented sitting, with a book in her hand, and 
a long motherly black peaked coif on her head. 

Amabella, surnamed, from her super-eminent Amabella 

* Countess op 

virtues, The good Countess of Kent, is drawn in Kent. 
black and ermine, full curled hair, and a kerchief 
over her neck; at. 60, 1675 : by Lely. She was 
second wife to Henry, son and successor to the 
parson of Burbach, and daughter to Sir Anthony 
Ben, of Surrey. Her epitaph speaks her deserts \ 

Her husband is in his robes, with a small beard 
and whiskers, painted by Closterman ; at. 53, 
1643. He died in 1651. 

Their son, Anthony Earl of Kent, and his lady, 
Mary, daughter and sole heir to John Lord Lucas; 
both in their robes, by Lely. The date to his por- 
trait is 1681, at. 36. He died in August 1702; 
she, in November, in the same year. 

The old dining-room is most curiously furnish- 
ed : mock pilasters finished with stripes of velvet, 
and worked silk festoons between each. This is 
said to have been done for the reception of Anne of 
Denmark. 

Fuller's Worthies, 299. > See Appendix. 

2l 



514 WREST. 

In this apartment is the portrait of that eminent 
statesman and honest man Sir William Temple : a 
copy from one by Lely ; yet a most beautiful pic- 
ture. He is placed sitting, and looking towards 
you, in a red vest ; his hair long, black, and flow- 
ing ; his whiskers small. In his hand is the triple 
alliance : the greatest act of his patriotic life ; but 
st)on frustrated by the profligate ministry of the 
time. 

In the chapel-closet is the glory of the name", 

Lady Jane Lady Jane Gray, the sweet accomplished victim 
to the wickedness of her father-in-law, and the 
folly of her father. Her person was rather plain ; 
but that was amply recompensed by her intellec- 
tual charms. She was mistress of the Greek and 
Latin tongues ; versed in Hebrew, Chaldee, Ara- 
bic, French, and Italian ; skilled in music ; and 

' excellent at her needle. I have seen in the library 

at Zurich several of her letters, written in a most 
beautiful hand, to Bullinger, on the subject of re- 
ligion ; and a toilet, worked with her own hand, is 
preserved there with great reverence. She fell at 
the age of seventeen. Could there be wanting any 
proof of her amazing fortitude, it was supplied 
near her last moments with the most invincible 
one : As she was passing to the scaffold (whether 

c This interesting portrait has been removed to the library. 
Ed. 



WREST. 515 

by accident, or whether by the most cruel inten- 
tion) she met the headless body of her beloved 
husband. A line in Greek, to the following pur- 
pose, was her consolation : " That if his lifeless 
" body should give testimony against her before 
" men, his most blessed soul should give an eter- 
" nal proof of her innocence in the presence of 
" God." 

The dress of this suffering innocent is, a plain 
white cap, a handkerchief, fastened under her 
arms, and a black gown : a book in her hand. 

In the same room is the picture of Banaster Banaster 
Lord Maynard, who married a daughter of this Mayxard. 
house. 

A portrait of the valiant Sir Charles Lucas, 
by Dobson : a half-length, in armour, fine sash, 
long hair. He was barbarously shot to death, at 
Colchester, after quarter given ; and for a reason 
that should have endeared him to a soldier the 
vigorous defence made by the garrison. 

His niece, Mary Lucas, sole heiress to his 
elder brother Lord Lucas, married to Anthony 
Earl of Kent. 

Sir Anthony Ben, m hoary short hair, quilled 
ruff, red dress faced with black. 

His lady, in black, a kerchief, and curled hair. 
These were parents to the good countess. 

In the passage is a most curious portrait of Lady 

2 l 2 



516 WREST. 

Lady Susanna Grey, daughter to Charles Earl of Kent, 
Grey. and wife to Sir Michael Longueoille. She was a 
celebrated workwoman ; and the dress in which 
she is drawn is said to have been a wedding-suit of 
her own doing. Her gown is finely flowered ; her 
petticoat white and striped ; her robe lined with 
ermine; her veil vast and distended ; her wedding- 
ring hanging from her wrist by a silken string. She 
is fabled to have died of the prick of a needle in 
her finger, and looks as pale as if the fact was 
true. The same idle story is told of Lady Eliza- 
beth Russel, whose monument is shewn in West- 
minster abbey, as that of the lady who suffered by 
so uncommon an accident. 

Sir Randle In another room is the portrait of Sir Randle 
Crew. ^ 

Crew, in a bonnet, run, gold chain, and robes, as 

lord chief justice of the King's Bench: a dignity 
he filled with credit in the last year of James I. 
and first of Charles I. He had the honor of being 
displaced in 1626, for his disapprobation of the 
imprisonment of those gentlemen who refused the 
arbitrary loan proposed by the court. He disco- 
vered, says Fuller, no more discontentment at his 
discharge, than a weary traveller is offended at 
being told that he is arrived at his journey's end \ 

* British Worthies, Cheshire, 178. It must not be forgot 
that Sir Randle had been speaker of the House of Commons in 
1614. 



WREST. 517 

He lived many years, in great hospitality, in West- 
minster : he purchased the estate of the Falshursts 
of Crew, in Cheshire ; built the magnificent seat 
of Crew Hall; and was the first who brought the 
model of good building into that distant county. 
He died in 1642. He was the son of John Crew 
of Nantwich, and the ancestor of the present 
flourishing family. 

The next portrait is that of his younger brother Sir Thomas 

Crew. 

Sir Thomas Crew, in red robes, and a coif as 
king's serjeant. He was among the most active 
supporters of the rights of the Commons in the 
reign of James I. The king, under pretence of 
redressing certain matters in Ireland, sent him, 
and several of the most obnoxious members, into 
that kingdom, with proper commissions d . In 
1623 he was chosen speaker, and made a speech, 
which his majesty heard with no more patience 
than approbation e ; yet, by his lord keeper, thank- 
ed him for several parts of it. He was again 
speaker to the first parlement of Charles I. and 
died in February 1633, aged 68. By his mar- 
riage with Temperance, fourth daughter of Regi- 
nald Bray, Esquire, he obtained the manor of 
Stene, in Northamptonshire ; which became the 
settlement of him and his posterity, till it devolved 
to this house, by the marriage of Henry Duke of 

4 Drake, v. 525. e Ibid.y'i. 10, 



318 WREST. 

Kent with Jemima, eldest daughter of Thomas 
Lord Crew. 

J Crew RD ^ is son ' Jh n ^ 0T ^ Crexv, is represented in 
his baronial robes, with long grey hair, and a small 
coif. He was created Lord Crew of Stene, in 1661, 
having been active in promoting the Restoration, 
and freeing his country from the confused govern- 
ment it had long laboured under. No one was 
more active in defence of the liberties of his coun- 
try, in the beginning of the troubles of the former 
reign, than himself. He had been member for 
Northamptonshire in the long parlement; was 
chairman to the committee of religion ; and was 
committed to the Tower, for refusing to deliver 
up the petitions and complaints f . He was nomi- 
nated one of the commissioners for the treaty of 
Uxbridge: he was one of those entrusted with the 
receipt of the king's person from the Scots, and 
the conveying him to Holmby House. He again 
acted as commissioner in the treaty of the Isle of 
Wight ; and finally, was so far in the favor of the 
usurper, as, in 1657, to be constituted one of the 
sixty which formed the upper house of his mock 
parlement g . The game being soon over, he con- 
ciliated himself to the approaching change, and 
proved so active an instrument in the Restoration, 
as not only to make amends for his past demerits, 
f Drake, viii. 489. * Whitclock, 233, 334, 666. 



WREST. 519 

but to obtain, in 1661, the honor of Baron of 
Stene. He died in 1 679, after attaining the good 
old age of 82. 

His wife Jemima, daughter of Edward Wal- 
grave of Lazvf'ord, in Essex, is sitting, in black, 
and a great black hood. 

A very fine half-length of their son Thomas Thomas 
Lord Crexv, in black, with long hair, and his hand 
on his breast, by Lely. In the old dining-room 
is another portrait of him, in his robes, dated 
1680. He was father to Jemima, Dutchess of 
Kent. 

Nathaniel Crew, Bishop of Durham, fifth bro- CrewBishop 
ther to the former. I Ie is in red robes faced with 
ermine, a turnover, and long hair; his counte- 
nance good. By the death of his brother, he be- 
came Lord Crew. Never was any person of his 
time so subservient to the will of his master, as 
this noble prelate. He was the most active mem- 
ber of the inquisitorial commission, established by 
James II. to promote his wild designs in religious 
matters. Of the three bishops joined in it, one 
declined acting ; a third, struck with his own im- 
prudence, resigned. Crew continued obstinately 
servile, and suspended thirty of his clergy for re- 
fusing to come into the views of the court. Con- 
scious of his conduct, he fled out of the kingdom 
at the Revolution ; but at length made his peace, 



520 WREST. 

and died in 1721, aged 88, after having been 
bishop, and of Durham, 47. His charity, it is to 
be hoped, has covered his multitude of political 
sins. Oxford participated largely of his bounty ; 
and the navigators of the Northumberland sea 
may bless his well-planned benevolence as long as 
tempests endure \ 

Lady A strange picture of Lady Harold, daughter 

to Thomas Earl of Thanet ; first married to Lord 
Harold, the late Duke of Kent's eldest son, and. 
afterwards to the late Earl Gower. She is dressed 
in the riding-habit of the time, a blue-and-silver 
coat, silver tissue waistcoat, a long flowing wig, 
and great hat and feather. 
Secretary I forgot to mention, that in a bedchamber is 

A ham NG " a portrait of Secretary Walsingham, in a quilled 
ruff: the active, penetrating, able, and faithful 
servant of Queen Elizabeth ; the security of the 
kingdom as well as of her own person. So atten- 
tive to the interests of his country, so negligent of 
his own, as to die (in 1590) so poor, as not to 
leave enough to defray his funeral expences. 
SirNicholas A fine portrait of Sir Nicholas Throgmorton : 

TO j,. " his face thin, his beard black. At his girdle is a 

large ring to hold his handkerchief. He has a 

sword and stilletto, and is graced with a gold chain 

and medal. He had a narrow escape in the time 

h See article Bamborough, Tour Scotl. 1769. 



FLITTON CHURCH. 



521 



Tombs. 



of Queen Mary ; being tried, and narrowly ac- 
quitted, for a supposed concern in Wyai's insur- 
rection. Was employed by Elizabeth in import- 
ant embassies to France and Scotland. His abi- 
lities were great : his spirit was said to have bor- 
dered on turbulence : his death, therefore, was 
esteemed rather fortunate: it happened in 1570, 
at the table of Cecil ; not without suspicion of 
poison ' : an end in those days more frequently 
attributed than it ought to be. 

The mausoleum of the Greys adjoins to the Flitton 

Church. 

church of Flitton, about a mile and a half from 
the house. It consists of a centre and four wings. 
In one is the tomb of Henry fifth Earl of Kent, 
and his countess Mary, daughter of Sir George 
Cotton of Cumbermere, Cheshire: both are in 
robes, and painted ; both recumbent, with uplifted 
hands : his beard long and square, his ruff quilled. 
This was the fiery zealot who sat in judgment on 
Mary Stuart, and, with the Earl of Shrewsbury, 
was deputed to see execution done on the unhappy 
princess. They, with true bigotry, refused her 
the consolation of her almoner in her last mo- 
ments ; and Kent had the brutality to give a most 
reluctant assent to her request of having a few of 
her domestics to perform their final duties to their 
dying mistress. Kent even burst into the excla- 
1 Complete Hist. ii. 430. 



522 FLITTON CHURCH. 

mation of saying, " Your life will be the death of 
" our religion, and your death will be the life of 
" it" A cause of triumph to Mary Stuart. He 
founded this building, and took possession of it in 
the beginning of the year 16 14. The tomb of the 
countess is a mere cenotaph ; for she was buried, 
in 1580, at Great Gaddcsden. 

Henry Earl of Kent, and his second lady, the 
good countess, repose in another wing, with Jus- 
tice, Temperance, and other virtues, on each side. 
Both are represented in white marble, recumbent, 
and both in robes. His beard is small, his lip 
whiskered ; one hand is on his breast, the other 
on his sword. She is dressed in an ungraceful pair 
of stays ; her hands before, holding her robes ; her 
neck naked; her hair curled, and enormously 
bushy. He died in 1651 ; she finished her ex- 
cellent life in 1698, aged 92. 

At one end is an inscription of Elizabeth Tal- 
bot Countess-dowager of Kent, who died in 1651 ; 
and another to Lady Jane Hart, relict of Sir 
Eustace Hart. Her figure is in white marble, in 
a reclining posture. 

On the floor is a brass of Henry Grey, second 
son of Sir Henry Grey, Knight, in armour. 

In another appears Henry late Duke of 
Kent, reclined on a sarcophagus, in a Roman 
dress, in white marble, with a coronet in his 



FLITTON CHURCH. 525 

hand. His grace died in 1740. His first dutchess, 
Jemima Crew, is represented with her counte- 
nance looking up, and leaning on one side. 
Opposite to his grace is a most amiable character 
of his second lady, Sophia, daughter of William 
Earl of Portland*. 

A monument of his son Anthony Earl of 
Harold, in a Roman dress. He died in 1723. 
And near him is another son and a daughter of his 
grace ; but not one of the figures do any credit tQ 
the statuary. 

Near the altar, on the floor, is an admirable 

figure, in brass, of an honest steward ; a true 

Vellum in aspect : in a laced night-cap, great ruff, 

long cloak, trunk breeches. This was Thomas Hill, 

receiver-general to three Earls of Kent. 

Aske how he lived, and you shall knowe his end : 
He dyde a saint to God, to poore a friende. 
These lines men knowe doe truely of him story, 
Whom God hath cal'd, and seated now in glory. 

He died May 26th 1628, aged 101. 

k Beneath is an inscription in memory of Lady Anne', 
daughter to the Duke of Kent, and wife to John Egerton, late 
Bishop of Durham; she died in 1780. In a fourth recess is a 
monument erected by the Marchioness De Grey, in honor 
of her parents the Earl and Countess of Hardwicke. The 
shoulder of a mournful figure leaning over an urn appears to 
be dislocated ; neither the design nor execution of the whole 
does any credit to the sculptor. Ed. 



524 LUTON CHURCH. 

Gratitude forbids me from leaving this place 
without my acknowlegements to the Reverend 
Archdeacon Cove, the worthy incumbent, for his 
great hospitality, and the various information he 
favored me with respecting these parts. 

From hence I went southwards, over a hilly 
and open country. Ride over Luton Downs, and 
Ltjton. reach Luton, a small dirty town, seated on the 
Lea ; remarkable for its church and tower-steeple, 
prettily chequered with flint and freestone. With- 
Fine Font, in is a most remarkable baptisterium \ in form of 
an octagon, open at the sides, and terminating in 
elegant tabernacle-work. In the top is a large 
bason, in which the consecrated water was kept, 
and let down by the priest into the font, by means 
of a pipe. On the top of the inside is a vine, 
guarded by a lamb from the assaults of a dragon. 
The vine signifies the church, protected by bap- 
tism from the assaults of the devil. 

Adjoining to the church is a chapel, founded, 
as appears by the following lines, by John Lord 
TVenlock : 

Jesu Christ, most of myght, 

Have mercy on John le Wenlock, knight, 

And of his wyffe Elizabeth, 

Wch out of this world is past by death ; 

1 Engraven in Gent. Mag. 1778. * 



LUTON CHURCH. 525 

Well founded this chapel here. 
Helpe them with y r harty praer ; 
That they may come to that place 
Where ever is joy and solace m . 

This Lord IVenlock rose in the reign of Henry r LoRD 

# O .7 VVENLOCK. 

VI. ; was knighted, made constable of Bamburgh 
castle, and chamberlain to the queen. He ac- 
quired great wealth, and was able to lend his 
master a thousand and thirty-three pounds six 
shillings and eight-pence ; for which he received 
an assignment of the fifteenth and tenth, granted 
by parlement in 1456; and soon after he was re- 
warded with being made knight of the Garter. 
He valiantly supported the royal cause at the first 
battle of St. Albans, and was carried out of it 
dreadfully wounded; yet, with the fickleness of 
the times, he joined the Duke of York in 1459, 
and was of course attainted by the Lancastrian 
parlement. He fought valiantly in Towton field, 
and received, as recompence for his former loss, 
the office of chief butler of England, and the stew- 
ardship of the castle and manor of Berkhamstead ; 
and was created a baron n . He was employed by 
the Yorkists in several important embassies, and 
advanced to the great post of Lieutenant of Calais. 

m Br. Mux. H. M. 11. fo 1531. fo. 15. 
* Dugdale's Baron, ii. 264. . 



526 LUTON CHURCH. 

Notwithstanding all these favors, he again revolt- 
ed, and joined the Earl of Warwick to restore the 
deposed Henry. He raised forces, and joined 
Margaret of Anjou, before the battle of Tewkes- 
bury. He was appointed by the general, John 
Earl of Somerset, to the command of what was 
called the middle ward of the army. When So- 
merset, who led the van, found himself unsup- 
ported in the fierce attack he had made on the 
enemy, he returned, enraged, to see the cause. He 
found Lord TVenlock, with his troops, standing in 
the market-place. Whether a panic had seized 
him, or whether, through a mutability of mind, he 
was meditating a new revolt, does not appear; 
but the earl, unable to curb his fury, rode up, and 
with one blow of his battle-ax clove the scull of the 
supposed traitor . He was interred at Tewkes- 
bury ; and his tomb is still to be seen in that 
noble church. 

In this chapel are several tombs : one very 
magnificent, in the altar-form, with a rich canopy, 
open beneath on each side. On the top are va- 
rious arms, some inclosed in a garter. On a 
wreath is a crest, a plume of feathers. 
William On the tomb lies the effigies of JVilliam Wen- 
lock, in the habit of a shaven priest : his hands 

Q Halle's Chr. xxxii. 



LUTON CHURCH. S2? 

closed as if in prayer ; beads hang from them ; 
and on a label from his mouth is a small shield of 
a chevron, between three croslet gules, and these 
words : 

Salve Regina Mater miserecordie 
Jesu fili Dei miserere mei. 

On the side which opens into the chapel is this 
inscription : 

In Wenlok brad I, in this toun lordsehipes had I. 
Her am I now layed, Christes moder helpe me, Lady. 
Under thes stones, for a tyme, schal I reste my bones. 
Deye not I ned ones myghtful God graunt me thy wones. 
Ave. 

On the other side, in the chancel, 

Wills sic tumulatus de Wenlok natus 

In ordine presbyteratus. 
Alter hujus ville : dominus Someris fuit ille 

Hie licet indignus : anime Deus esto benignus. 

This William was prebendary of Brownswood, in 
the church of St. Pauls', London, in 1 363 ; be- 
fore which he had been rector of St. Andrew's, 
Holborn. In 1 379, Richard II. made him custos 
of the hospital of Farle, in Bedfordshire p . He 
died in 1392, and was buried here, in pursuance 

p Se* Bromfield's Collect, article Let*. 



528 LUTON CHURCH. 

of his will. By the garter, in which one of the 
coats of arms is included, it is evident that the 
tomb was erected by the founder of the chapel. 
This also directs us to the origin of Lord JVenlock. 
It is most likely that his father was related to this 
prebendary, and that he left his possessions to 
him ; and that Lord JVenlock, in the height of his 
prosperity, paid this ostentatious compliment to 
the memory of his kinsman. 

In the middle is an altar-tomb of shell-marble, 
with the brass plate of a woman. 

In the wall, beneath two arches, are the tombs, 
I think, of the Rotherhams, owners of this chapel 
after the JVenlocks. On one had been an inscrip- 
tion to a Rotherham, who had married Catherine, 
daughter of a Lord Grey ; and was himself nephew 
to Scot, alias Rotherham, archbishop of York. 

The following odd medley of English and La- 
tin, merits transcribing. It is on the tomb of 
John Ackworth, Esquire, who died in 1513 ; and 
is represented here with his two wives, eight sons, 
and nine daughters. 

O man, who eer thow be, timor mortis shulde trouble the j 

For when thow beest wenyst, 

Veniet te 

Mors superare. 

And so--- grave grevys 

Ergo mortem memorare 
Jesu mercy : Lady helpe : Jesu mercy. 



LUTON CHURCH. 529 

Near the altar is a large mutilated figure m 
the wall, in a priestly habit, with a pastoral staff, 
or a crosier, lying on him. He was an abbot, and 
probably of St. Albans, for the abbots had a seat 
near this town r . The chancel appears to have 
been rebuilt by abbot IVhethamsted ; whose 
motto, Val les ha bun da bunt val les, is 
to be seen on the walls. 

Part of this place was said to have been be- 
stowed by king Offa on the monks of St. Albans. 
Gilbert de Clare Earl of Gloucester, had the pa- 
tronage of the church; which they bought from 
him in 1166, for eighty marks, and kept in their 
own hands, till they were compelled to appoint a 
vicar. The purchase was in the time of abbot 
Robert*. It appears that this place, Houghton, 
and Potesgrave, had been bestowed on the mo- 
nastery, for the support of the kitchen for the 
guests. This is seen in the charter of confirma- 
tion, made by King John, in the first year of his 
reign l . 

The church is dedicated to St. Mary, and is a 
vicarage in the gift of the Earl of Bute. 

Luton Ho, the seat of that " nobleman, lies near Luton Ho. 

r Leland Itin. vi. 63. * Chauncy, 438. 

1 Dugdale Mon. i. 179. Hatty I. had confirmed the same. 
Iu his charter the nanus are mis-spelt. See Chauncy, 434. 
u John Earl of Bute, who died in 1792. Ed. 

2 M 



530 LUTON HO. 

the London road; about three miles from the 
town. I lament my inability to record his taste 
and magnificence ; but alas ! the useful talent x , 
Principibus placuisse viris, has been unfortunately 
denied to me. I must therefore relate the antient 
story of the favored spot. In the twentieth of 
Edzvard I. it was possessed by Robert y , who took 
the addition of de Hoo, from the place ; which sig- 
nifies a high situation. His grandson, Thomas, 
was created Lord Hoo and Hastings, by Henry 
VI. in 1447. He, if no mistake is made in the 
account, settled two parts of the tithes on the 

x The editor, not having had an opportunity of visiting 
Luton Ho, takes the liberty of borrowing the following ac- 
count of it from Mr. Lysons's Magna Britannia. 

" The principal rooms, particularly the library, which is 
" one hundred and forty-six feet in length, the drawing-room, 
" and the saloon are on a magnificent scale. The collection 
" of pictures is very large and valuable, chiefly of the Italian 
" and Flemish schools. Among the portraits are, Margaret 
" Queen of Scots, with her second husband Archibald Douglas ; 
" the first Earl of Pembroke; the Earl of Strafford; General 
" Ireton; Mr. Pym; Mrs. Lane, who assisted Charles II. on 
" his escape after the battle of Worcester ; Lord Chancellor 
" Jefferys ; Ben Jonson ; Dr. Samuel Johnson, Dr. Armstrong, 
" and the late Earl of Bute, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. The 
" chapel is fitted up with vefy rich gothic carving in wood, 
" said to have been originally executed for Sir Thomas Pope 
" at Tettenhanger in 1548, but brought to Luton by Sir Robert 
" Napier" Ed. 

y Chauncy, 352. 



SOMMERIS. 531 

abbey of St. Albans, for the use of strangers. 
Lord Hoo left only daughters. From one, who 
married Sir Geqfry Bullen, was descended Queen 
Elizabeth. I do not discover the time in which 
the tower in Luton Park was built. It is an an- 
tient structure, of flint and Tottenhoe stone inter- 
mixed. 

About two miles to the north-east of Luton Sommbrm. 
Hoo, is the village of Sommeris, where, as Leland 
informs us, Lord TVenlock had begun sumptuously 
a house, but never finished it : that the gatehouse 
of brick was very fair and large. The gateway 
and part of a tower are yet to be seen. In the 
last are fourteen or fifteen brick steps ; and there 
was originally a hole, or rather pipe, which con- 
veyed the lowest whisper from bottom to top. 
Part of this, and of the other building, was pulled 
down by Sir John Napier, about forty years ago. 
Leland also acquaints us, that these estates of Lord 
JVenlock passed, by marriage of an heir general * 
of his, to a relation of Thomas Scot, alias Rother- 
ham, archbishop of York from 1480 to 1500 : a 
prelate remarkable for nepotism, and the prefer- 
ment of his kindred by marriage, and other ways a . 
This family assumed the name of Rotherham, and 
flourished here for some centuries. John was 
sheriff of the county in the seventeenth of Edzvard 
z Leland, vi. 63. a Goodwin Prces. Angl. 70. 

2m2 



552 HATFIELD. 

IV. and others, in after-times, enjoyed the same 
honor b . Luton Hoe and this place became the 
property of the Napiers ; from them they passed 
to Mr. Hearn, who sold them to the Earl of 
Bute. 

From Luton I pursued my journey southward : 
entered 

HERTFORDSHIRE, 

and near the twenty-sixth mile-stone, passed 
through the village of Hardin, or Harpedon, and 
. by its chapel, dependent on JVhethamsted. This 
manor belonged, in 1292, to Robert Hoo, and 
continued in his line till the death of Thomas Lord 
Hoo and Hastings, about the latter end of the 
reign of Henry VI. ; when it devolved to his three 
daughters c . The manor was sold soon after their 
marriages to Matthew Cressi/, in the time of Ed- 
ward IV. It continued in his line till the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, when, by the marriage of a 
female descendant, it fell to the Bardolfs. Rich- 
ard Bardolf sold it to Sir John Witherong, created 
baronet in 1 662 ; and it is now possessed by John 
Bennet, Esquire. 

b Fuller's British Worthies, 123, 124. 
c Chauncy, 525. 



HATFIELD. 533 

About four miles from this village, passed 
through St. Peter's street, in St. Albans, and 
turning towards the east, after a ride of about five 
miles, reach the small town of Hatfield, prettily Hatfield. 
seated on a gentle ascent. Its Saxon name was 
Haethfeld, from its situation on a heath. The 
important synod, held during the heptarchy, at Synod. 
the instance of Theodore, consecrated archbishop 
of Canterbury in 668, in which the most interest- 
ing tenets of Christianity were declared and con- 
firmed d , is generally supposed to have been held 
at a place of the same name in Yorkshire. Hat- 
field was part of the revenues of the Saxon princes, 
till it was bestowed by Edgar on the monastery of 
Ely. At the time of the Conquest, it was found 
to be in the possession of that great house; in 
which it continued, till that abbey was converted 
into a bishopric, in the reign of Henry I. It then 
became one of the residences of the prelates ; for 
they had not fewer than ten palaces belonging to 
the see e ; and from that circumstance was called 
Bishop's Hatfield, to distinguish it from other 
places of the same name. It probably fell into 
decay during the long wars between the houses of 
York and Lancaster ; for I find it was rebuilt and 

d .Beda, lib. iv. c. 17. p. 160. Beda had been an eleve of 
this venerable archbishop. 
e Bentham's Ely, 163. 



534 HATFIELD. 

ornamented by Bishop Morton, in the reign of 
Henry VII f . Among the shameful alienations 
made from the bishopric of Ely, by Queen Eliza- 
beth (by virtue of the imprudent statute, which 
gave her power of exchanges over all) must be 
included the manor of Hatfield. The palace had 
at times been an occasional royal residence, not- 
withstanding it was the property of the church. 
William, second son of Edward III. was born 
here in 1335, and was called, from that circum- 
stance, William of Hatfield. Queen Elizabeth 
resided here many years before she came to the 
crown % ; and, on the death of her predecessor, 
removed from hence, on the 23d of November, to 
take possession of the throne. This place did not 
continue long a part of the royal demesne. James I. 
in the fifth year of his reign, exchanged it for 
Theobalds, with his minister, Sir Robert Cecil, af- 
terwards Earl of Salisbury ; who built, on the 
site of the palace, the magnificent house now 
standing ; and inclosed two large parks, one for 
red, the other for fallow deer. At the bottom of 
the first was a vineyard, in being when Charles I. 
was conveyed there a prisoner to the army h . 

r Bentharris Ely, 181. 

See the curious account of the practices of the lord ad- 
miral on her at this place, in 1543, in Burghley's State Papers, 
99, 100. 

* Herbert's Memoirs, 30. 



HATFIELD 



535 



The building is of brick, and of vast extent, in House. 
form of an half H. In the center is an extensive 
portico of nine arches : over the middlemost rises 
a. lofty tower, on the front of which is the date 
1611, and three ranges of columns of the Tuscan^ 
Doric, and Composite orders. Between the se- 
cond are the arms of the family, in stone \ 

In the chapel is a small antient organ; a fine Chapel. 
window of stained glass, in twelve copartments ; 
and a gallery, on the front of which are painted 
the twelve apostles. 

Since the publication of the foregoing sheets, 
the grounds have been improved with great judg- 
ment, according to the present taste. The house 
has undergone a complete repair, consistent with 
the original style, under the conduct of Mr. Dono- 
well the architect. The pictures have been re- 
paired by Mr. Tomkins, and disposed from the 
former dispersed state into the several apartments ; 
and the splendor of this noble family is reviving 
with all the magnificence of the Cecils. 

The roof of the hall is supported from the sides Hall. 
with lions, each holding a shield of family arms ; 
the gallery by grotesque figures : a bad taste not 
having been quite extinct at the period in which 
this house was built. On the cieling are copart- 

1 Among Kip's Views is one of this house, engraven from a 
drawing by Thomas Sadler, Esquire. - 



536 HATFIELD. 

ments with profiles of the Ccesars. Over the fire 
place is a painting of a great clumsy grey horse, 
given by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Robert Cecil ; a 
sign that our breed was at that time far from ex- 
cellent. 

On the posts of the grand stair-case are figures 
of lions, and naked boys with musical instru- 
ments. 
Dudley In the breakfast room is a portrait of Robert 

Leicester. Dudley Earl of Leicester, the unmerited favorite 
of Queen Elizabeth. His hair and beard are re- 
presented grey, his gown black, his vest white and 
gold ; on his head a bonnet, and by him his white 
rod as steward of the queen's household. 

Sir Simon Sir Simon Bennet of Bechampton, in the county 
of Bucks, knight. His dress is that of a magi- 
strate in a robe furred, and ornamented with a 
gold chain : he has on a ruff, and high hat. He 
died in 1631 ; was uncle to Simon Bennet, who 
was his heir, and whose daughter Frances married 
James, fourth Earl of Salisbury. The date on 
this picture is aet. 70. 161 1. 

His Lady. His lady in a great ruff, red dress furred; gold 
chain, jewels on her breast, and with a feathered 
fan set in silver. 

Francis de A head of Francis de Coligni, Lord of Dande- 
lot. Short hair and short divided beard, with gilt 
armour. He was youngest son of the first Gas- 



COLIGNI. 



HATFIELD. 537 

par de Coligni, Marshal of France, by Louise de 
Montmorenci. He was brother to the famous 
admiral who perished in the massacre of Paris. 
He served during the wars of Italy and Pi- 
cardie in the reign of Henry II. and was made 
colonel-general of the infantry in 1555. By 
,his intercourse with the protestants in Germany 
he adopted their opinions. He acted under his 
brother when besieged at St. Quintin ; and after- 
wards assisted at the taking of Calais. In 1558, 
he was closely questioned by the king respecting 
his religion, but having too high a spirit to conceal 
his sentiments, he was committed to prison : on 
his release he joined the Huguenots, and died in 
1569, aged 48, not without suspicion of being 
poisoned ; leaving behind the character of a great 
soldier, of great genius, activity and enterprize. 

The subtle Gondamar appears here a three Gondamar. 
quarters piece. A thin figure with a spirited look ; 
dressed in black, with a high hat. The most ver- 
satile man of his time ; out-drank a king of Den- 
mark ; was gallant among the ladies ; a speaker 
of false Latin to King James, that the princely 
pedagogue might have the pleasure of correcting 
him ; and finally, was hardy enough to assure the 
Earl of Bristol, our ambassador at Madrid, that 
he was an Englishman in his heart ; adroitly de- 
ceived all, and most effectually made our monarch 
his dupe. He died in 1625 at Rommel in GueU 



533 HATFIELD. 

derland ; sent, as was supposed, to propose the 
surrender of the Palatinate, and conciliate mat- 
ters ; and bring on a peace between his master 
and our pacific court. 
Ambrose Ambrose Dudley Earl of Wartvick, eldest sur- 

DlJDLEY. J 

viving son of Dudley Duke of Northumberland. 
Condemned with his father, but restored in blood : 
took to a military life ; was appointed by Queen 
Elizabeth Master of the Ordnance, Earl of War- 
wick, and elected Knight of the Garter ; and had 
the more substantial favor of a grant of the castle, 
manor, and borough of Warwick, forfeited by his 
father. He died in the year 1589, and lies be- 
neath an elegant tomb in Wanvick church. 
Lord Bur- Lord Burleigh and his son Robert, afterwards 

LEIGH AND 

his Son. Earl of Salisbury, are in one piece, half-lengths ; 
each with a blue ribbon and white rod. The fa- 
ther in a bonnet ; the son respectfully bare-headed. 
This picture must have been drawn after the death 
of Burleigh, for the son had neither the ribbon or 
the white rod till long after the death of his father. 
Here is besides a half-length of the latter, in black, 
Avith the George pendent to a chain ; a bonnet and 
white rod : also a third in his robes with a white 
beard, and the motto, Cor unum, via una, truly ex- 
pressive of the integrity of his character. 

J eline A portrait of the famous Jaqueline Dutchess 

Dutchess of f fl amau it only daughter of JVilliam Duke of 
Hainault. . 

Hainault, in her advanced life : a very ugly old 



HATFIELD. 539 

woman, in black ermine, and a cap worked with 
lions, alluding to the arms of her country of Hai- 
nault, which are, or, a lion rampant sable. This 
lady passed through a variety of adventures : was 
first married to John of France, Dauphin of Vi- 
enne, and son of Charles VI. She afterwards 
espoused John Duke of Brabant, cousin-german 
to Philip the good Duke of Burgundy. After 
living ten months with John, she eloped, and was 

conveyed into England by Sir Bobsart 

knight, where she married (her husband still 
alive), the good Humphry Duke of Glocester. She 
after that raised forces to maintain her dominions 
for this favoured husband, who was obliged to 
desert her on the Pope, Martin V. disannulling 
this adulterous connection. She then gave her 
hand to Francis Lord of Borselle and Count of 
Ostrevant, Knight of the Golden Fleece; on 
which Philip Duke of Burgundy arrested him, 
and in the end Jaqueline was obliged to ransom 
him by the cession of her estates to this good 
duke, her cousin-german. Soon after which she 
died of grief, in 1436. On the portrait is this 
inscription : 

Vrow Jacobea tan Beiren gravana van Holland. Star/. 1436. 

A portrait of Queen Elizabeth, richly dressed, queen Eli- 
On the table is a great sword, as if she was sitting ZABETH - 



MOND. 



540 HATFIELD. 

ready to confer the honor of knighthood : a spot- 
ted ermine, with a crown on its head and collar 
round its neck, is represented running up the arm 
of her highness. This little beast is an emblem k 
of chastity, and placed here in compliment to the 
virgin queen. 
Margaret The next portrait is on wood, of a princess of 

Countess 

of Rich- high rank, celebrated for her piety and great au- 
sterity. The love of her people, or the love of 
power, might determine the spirited Elizabeth to 
shun the nuptial bed. Margaret Countess of 
Richmond, with equal mental purity, did not pique 
herself (virtuous as she was) on any such romantic 
ideas. The pious prelate Fisher, to whom she 
entrusted her conscience, gravely tells us, she ac- 
cepted her first husband, Edward Earl of Rich- 
mond, at the instance of St. Nicholas, patron of 
virgins, who appeared to her in a dream. We 
are not told at whose recommendation she took 
Sir Henry Stafford, and Thomas Earl of Derby ; 
for she liked the state matrimonial so well, as 
afterwards to accept the hands of both. She sig- 
nalized herself during life by her piety, charity, 
humility, and chastity. The first appeared in her 
rigorous attendance on the duties of the church, 
and her admittance into the fraternity of five reli- 
gious houses. The second, in her noble founda- 

k Gxoilim's Heraldry, 1 4-. 



HATFIELD. *** 

tions of Christ College, and that of St. John's in 
Cambridge, besides a number of other great deeds 
of charity. The third, in her declaration, that, 
" if the princes of Christendom would undertake 
a crusade, she would chearfully be the laundres8 
to the army:" and then for her chastity! In her 
last husband's days she obtained a licence from 
him to live chaste, and after his death made the 
marvellous self-denying vow in the presence of 
Bishop Fisher, the year after her grand climac- 
teric, in words and form below given 1 ; for this 

1 " In the presence of my Lord God Jt.su Christ, and his 
" blessed mother, y e glorious Virgin St. Mary, and of all y* 
" whole company of heaven, and of y u also my ghostly father. 
" I Margaret of Richmond, with full purpose and good deli- 
" beration for y e weale of my sinfull saul, with all my hearte 
" promise from henceforth y e chastyty of my bodye, that is, 
" never to use my bodye having actual knowledge of manne 
" after the common usage in matremony, the w ch thing I had 
" before purposed in my lord my husband's days, then being 
" my ghostly father y e byshop of Rochester, Mr. Richard 
" Fitzjames, and now eft-sence I fully confirm it, as far as in 
" me lyeth : beseeching my Lord God that he will this poore 
' wylle accept to y e remedy of my wretched lyfe, and relief 
" of my sinful soule, and that he will give me his grace to 
" perform the same ; and also for my more meryte, and 
*.* quyetness of my soule in doubtful things perteyning to the 
" same, I avovve to you, my Lord of Rochester, to whom I am, 
" and have been sense y c first time I see you admitted, ve- 
" rely determined as to my cheife trusty counsellour, to owne 
" my obedience in all things, concerning the weale and pro- 
" fyte of my soule." 



542 HATFIELD. 

reason she is usually painted in the habit of a nun, 
and is here represented veiled. 
Curious 1$ this room is the very curious picture on 

Historical . 

Piece, board, representing some of the amusements of the 
court of Henry VIII., who frequently relaxed his 
savage disposition in little progresses about the 
neighborhood of his capital. This appears to 
have been in the spring of the year 1533; for Halle 
says m , that " this seasone the kynge kepte his pro- 
" gresse about London, because of the quene ;" 
which means on account of Queen Anna Bullens 
being then pregnant. Accordingly we see Henry, 
with his royal consort", in the condition described, 
at a country wedding, fair, or wake, at some place 
in Surrey, within sight of the Tower of London. 
In the back ground is an open room, in a tempo- 
rary building, with the table spread. At the en- 
trance appears a man, seemingly Henry s favor- 
ite, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, inviting 
them in. 

There are great numbers of other figures; 
many of which appear to have been portraits. In 
one group, is a lady with a gold chain, between 
two men with white beards. The utmost festivity 
is exhibited. There are four fidlers, and a number 
of dancers. Behind the king, is his 'squire, carry- 

m P. CCXVII. 

n I think the king and queen are masked. 



HATFIELD. 543 

ing the dagger and buckler ; and near Henry are a 
boy and a girl. 

Other figures are a man on foot, with a buck- 
ler on his back : a yeoman of the guard, in red, 
with a rose and crown on his breast : a person very 
much resembling Cranmer, who, at this period, 
was in high favor, appears with another, walking 
on each side of a young lady : five figures on horse- 
back ; the first with a hawk on his hand, and a 
portmanteau before him ; the second, on a bay 
horse, followed by a lady on horseback ; after her, 
a cavalier, with another lady behind him. 

A beautiful painting of a Madonna and the AMadonxa. 
Child by Rubens, concludes the list of pictures in 
this room. 

In the drawing-room are heads of that gloomy Philip and 
pair, Queen Mary and Philip II. 

A portrait of Charles Gerard, Baron Gerard Gerard 

.Larl of 

of Brandon, created Earl of Macclesfield in Maccles- 

FIELD. 

1679; he died January 7th, 16.94. He is dressed 
in black, in a sitting attitude, with his head on his 
breast; a close coif on his head, a turnover on his 
neck, and with grey hair and beard. He was a 
brave and successful commander on the side of 
Charles in the civil wars ; yet, notwithstanding his 
zeal for the royal cause, he was one of the persons 
who thought it his duty to present the Duke of 
York, in the King's Bench, as a Popish recusant : 



544 HATFIELD. 

in which he thought he did his country equal ser- 
vice, as when he bled in the field in support of regal 
authority. It is thus, that sometimes Tories are 
taken for Whigs, or Whigs for Tories, when they 
censure the deed of their party disgraceful to mo- 
rality, or adopt a measure urged by the opposite, 
which they may think essential to the interests of 
the community. An honest man cannot be a par- 
tizan. 
Guise* 5 ^ he ^ uc ^ c Giiise, called Lc Balafre, or the 
slashed, from a scar on his left cheek, occasioned by 
a wound he received in the battle oiThierri against 
the Huguenots. He is dressed in black with a 
blue ribbon ; his beard peaked. He was a prince 
of great military talents ; and by his success, the 
most popular leader of the league ; by his insolence 
and his turbulent disposition, he became dangerous 
to the state. He was grown too potent to be 
taken off by the ordinary means of justice. It was 
determined, by his king Henry III. that he should 
be assassinated. No notice from his friends could 
prevent him from rushing on his fate. The beau- 
tiful Noirmoutier went to him at Blois for that pur- 
pose, and passed the last night in his arms. He 
fell the next day by the poinards of a select party 
of the guards, on December 23d, 1588, at the age 
of 38. His brother the cardinal was killed the 
next day ; and both their bodies reduced to ashes, 



HATFIELD. 545 

least the tragical sight should excite the people, 
by whom Guise was idolized, to rise into open re- 
bellion . 
Jane, the mother of lord treasurer Burleigh, Mother of 

' ' Treasurer 

and daughter and heir of William HeckingtoJi, of Burleigh. 

Bourn, in the county of Lincoln. She died March 

10th 1587, far advanced in years, and was buried 

at Stamford. She is sitting, dressed in black, with 

a stick in her hand, and represented blind and very 

decrepid. This portrait has hitherto been mistaken 

for the wife of the treasurer 9 . 

Asa contrast, in the same room, is a head by 
Lely, of the profligate, rapacious Dutchess of Dutchess of 
Cleveland, the well known mistress of Charles II. 
To stamp the utmost infamy on her, no more need 
be added, than that she contributed to the ruin of 
the virtuous Clarendon, who, with a generous 
pride, scorning to stoop to so worthless a character, 
incurred her insatiable revenge. 

A beautiful picture, by Kneller, of a dowager A Countess 
countess of Salisbury, sitting in her weeds in an bury. 
easy attitude, pensive, with her arms across. This 
lady was Frances, daughter to Simon Bennet, esq. 
and relict to James fourth Earl of Salisbury. She 
died in 1713. 

See in Davila, book ix a full and curious account of the; 
whole transaction. 

* This mistake was corrected by T. C. Brooke, Esquire. 

2 N 



54$ HATFIELD. 

A Farl N N A most charming picture, by Vandyck, of Al- 

Northum- -grcmon Earl of Northumberland, of Ann, his first 
wife, daughter of William second Earl of Salisbury, 
and of one of their daughters, a child in white. 
Both Earl and Countess are in black : he standing; 
lady sitting. His abilities as a seaman are well 
known. He took the side of liberty at the 
beginning of the civil wars, but soon grew weary 
of counsels which he foresaw tended to the sub- 
version of the state. After the unsuccessful 
treaty of ILvbridge, in which he acted as first 
commissioner for the parlement, he had the 
charge of the king's children till they effected 
their escape. After the murder of the king, he 
retired to Petworth, till the Restoration, which 
he was active in promoting; he received several 
honorary acknowledgements, when he returned 
again into retirement, and died in 1668, aged 
66. 

Lord Cran- A lord Cranburn, in yellow hair, dressed in 
burn. black: a fine three quarters piece. 

Catherine Catherine, daughter of the first Earl of Salis- 

CoUNTESS OF ' ^ - 

Cumber- bury, and wife to Henry Earl of Cumberland; 

light full hair, a kerchief over her neck ; dressed in 

black, with coloured ribbons. 
T,ord Loud Burleigh, by Zucchero, a three quarters. 

urleigh. pj e j g j n ^ s roD es, a bonnet, and has a white 

beard. 



HATFIELD. 547 

A full-length on board, of Mary Queen of Queen of 

J Scots. 

Scots, in a rich close cap, a long black mantle 

edged with white, reaching to the ground, and 
greatly distended, body black, sleeves striped, a 
small gold crucifix, a cross and rosary ; beads of 
gold richly wrought, and set in rubies. The in- 
scription, 

Maria D. G. Scotiae piissima regina Franciae dotaria. Anno 

aetatis regnique 36. 
Anglicse captivitatis JO. S. H. 1573. 

This very much resembles one I have seen in Scot- 
land; the inscriptions the same, only the dates on 
the latter are 36 and 1578, which is right, for she 
was born in 1542. 

Her cruel rival, Queen Elizabeth, by Zucchero. p^ "* 
A portrait extremely worth notice ; not only be- 
cause it is the handsomest we have seen of her, 
but as it points out her turn to allegory and apt 
devices. Her gown is close bodied ; on her head 
is a coronet and rich egret, and a vast distended 
gauze veil : her face is young, her hair yellow, fall- 
ing in two long tresses ; on her neck, a pearl neck- 
lace : on her arms bracelets. The lining of her 
robe is worked with eyes and ears, and on her 
sleeve a serpent is embroidered with pearls and 
rubies, holding a great ruby in its mouth : all to 
imply vigilance and wisdom. In one hand is a 

2n2 



i4i> HATFIELD. 

rainbow, with the flattering motto. Non sine sole 

IRIS. 

Robert Robert, first Earl of Salisbury, in his robes, 

FIRST . J 

Earl of with his wand as Lord High Treasurer : short grey 

Salisbury. 

hair. 
Henry vni. Henry VIII. painted thinner than I ever saw, 
with a hooked nose ; in a bonnet and feather, rich 
jacket, black cloak furred: the George pendent 
from a rich chain; his hand on his sword. A three 
quarters piece. 
William William, second Earl of Salisbury, in black, 

second Earl 

of Salis- -with long hair, a star on his cloak, and a dog by 
him. He was captain of the band of gentlemen 
pensioners to Charles I. privy-counsellor and 
ambassador extraordinary to the court of France. 
He was one of those characters who preferred his 
own safety, to all other considerations. He had 
been in two reigns so supple a courtier, as to over- 
act every thing he was required to do ; no stretch 
of power was ever proposed, which he did not ad- 
vance and execute with the utmost tyranny ; but 
on the first appearance of danger he deserted his 
royal master, fled to the parlement, and subscribed 
an engagement to be true to his new party, to 
whom he passively adhered : and on the usurpa- 
tion, condescended to be a member in Croni- 
we/fs parlement. He ended his inglorious life in 
1668, aged 78. This portrait and that of his sou 



HATFIELD. T49 

Charles, Viscount Cranbourn, who died in his fa- 
ther's life-time, are both by Lclg q . 

Henry VI. on board, in a close black cap ; Henry vr. 
blue body, black sleeves ermine, rich chain: a 
meagre, meek, devout figure with his hands 
clasped. There is another picture of this prince 
at Kensington, from which Vertue made a print. 

William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke, in William 
a black dress, sitting : has a blue ribbon and piu> or p EM . 
pie hose. \ BR0KE - 

Richard III. represented with three rings ; Richard hi. 
one of which he is taking off or putting on his 
little finger. His countenance discredits the re- 
lation of his having been a handsome man. 

James I. James i. 

Henry VIII. in a gold vest, by Mabuse. Henry vnf. 

Fair Rosamond, and her bowl: fictitious as to fair Rosa- 
the painting. M0ND - 

The head of Laura, in a furred robe with red Laura. 
sleeves, reading. La Belle Laure, the celebrated 
object of love with the virtuous and elegant 
Petrarch, for the space of twenty one years before, 
and twenty six after her death ; for he first saw her 
on April 6th 1 39,7. She devoted herself to religion, 
and persuaded him to do the same. Laura died in 

* Of the latter, there is a fine whole length, in a Vandyck 
dress, at Petworth : his sister Anne married Algernon Percy, Earl 
of Northumberland, the owner thereof. 



550 HATFIELD. 

the convent of the Cordeliers, in Avignon, April 
6th, 1348 : he in 1374, in Italy, his native coun- 
try, to which he had retired, after the loss of 
the object of his affection. Her age was probably 
about 40, his 70 ; both of them became the sub- 
ject of the finest pens for centuries after their 
death. Francis I. celebrates her memory in a 
beautiful epitaph. The tender and amorous Earl 
of Surrey made them the subjects of two sonnets : 
he modestly yields the palm to Petrarch, but der 
nies the superiority of beauty in Laura, in pre- 
ference to his mistress, the fair Geraldine. The 
inscription on this picture is, 

Laura fui ; viridem Raphael fecit, atque Petrarcha. 

Elizabeth Elizabeth of York, in a rich crimson gold 
of York. . . . . , , ' 

and ermine dress, with a red rose in her hand. 

She was eldest daughter to Edward IV. 

born at Westminster, February 11th, 1466, 

promised in marriage to the Dauphin, son of 

Lewis IX. wooed by Richard III. red with the 

murder of her two innocent brothers, and, at 

length, married to that ungracious prince Henry 

VII. Happy only by that alliance, in giving 

peace to this kingdom, long visited with the 

scourge of civil war. She died on her birth day 

in 1502, and was interred with great pomp in 

Westminster abbey. 



HATFIELD. (551 

In* the room called my Lord's apartment, is the 
head of a Due de Guise, with short brown hair Charles 

Due DE 

and turnover, pale brown and red jacket; black Guise. 
cloak ; a narrow blue ribbon. I believe him to 
have been Charles, son of Le Balqfre. After the 
death of his father, he was imprisoned in the castle 
of Tours, from which he escaped, and made se- 
veral fruitless attempts to resist the power of 
Henry IV. Struck with the virtues of that great 
prince, he returned, by the mediation of Sully, to 
his allegiance, and served the king with distinguish- 
ed zeal, courage, and success. He died in the 
year 1640, aged 69. 

Here is the head of another Due de Guise. A Henry Due 

de Guise. 

thin, pale, long-faced figure, in a black dress ; a 

bonnet with jewels, and a blue ribbon. Perhaps 

another Henry, second son to the former, who 

succeeded to the title r . 

A head of the enthusiastic assassin Ramillac, Ravaillac. 

is among these illustrious personages. His dress 

is black ; on his head is a bonnet ; his face is 

deformed by several stains of black, and other 

colours. 

Ahead of our great physician, doctor Syden- Doctor 

Sydenham. 

* The portraits of foreigners, in the houses of our antient 

nobility, are well worth notice, as they are generally originals, 

presented on embassies and other negotiations. I am told the 

French give any money for them when sold. 



552 HATFIELD. 

ham, as noted for his charity and liberality, as his 
extraordinary skill in his profession. Among his 
other great merits, was his introducing the cool regi- 
men in the small pox. Thousands have fallen a 
sacrifice to the neglect of it by his successors *, till 
in our days it has been happily revived, to the pre- 
servation of thousands. 
First Eari. Thomas, eldest son of the treasurer Burleigh, 
created Earl of Exeter by James I. in 1604. He 
was a nobleman of great merit, and shone equally 
in the field and in the tilt yard ; distinguished him- 
self in the wars of the Low Countries, and with 
his brother, Sir Robert, was a volunteer on board 
the fleet which destroyed the Spaiiish armada. 
His pious foundations were also very considerable. 
He died in February 1622, aged 80. His dress 
is a black cloak furred ; a bonnet. In his hand is 
a glove. He has a white rod, and by his white 
beard, (which is divided) appears to have been 
advanced in life, at the time he was painted. I do 
not know his pretensions to the wand. 

* I had the small pox when I was a child, it was in the heat 
of summer. I lay in a red bed in a room exposed to the 
western sun ; and was half smothered with bed cloaths. My 
ferer increased by a great fire, and by the exclusion of all 
air, my disorder, which was an excellent kind, had a good 
chance of becoming putrid. I recollect very well, that the 
very air about me was infected, and I abhorred my own at- 
mosphere. 



HATFIELD. 55$ 

Catherine Cornaro Queen of Cyprus. I have Catherine 

. . . - CORNARO. 

given an account of this illustrious female in p. 502. 

James, the late and sixth Earl of Salisbury, a Late Earl 
head in crayons. He is in his robes, with full grey bury. 
wig. . 

A very fine Madonna, after Corregio: and 
another, by Guido. 

An antique of Alexander's head. On the back An antique. 
of the helmet, is the face of Socrates. This was 
found in the park. It is set, and has round it a 
Saxon inscription. Possibly it might have been 
converted into an amulet, and used as such by an 
ignorant and superstitious people. In one of the 
apartments is a statue, in brass, of James I. 

In the coffee-room is a painting of Hatfield, be- 
fore it underwent any alteration. 

In King James's dining-room, is a full-length of 
that lunatic hero, Charles XII. in his blue cloaths Charles xn. 
and boots. 
. His illustrious rival, Peter the Great ; a full- Peter the 

Great 

length, in armour, with a rich robe over it ; at a 
distance a view of a fleet. 

. Lady Sondes in grey, sitting; by old Stone. Lady 
She was wife of Sir Gregory Sondes, of Leescourt, 0NDES - 
in the county of Kent, afterwards created Earl of 
Fever sham. < f 

* Present Earl of Salisbury in his robes, by Present 

Earl of 
Salisbury. 



554 HATFIELD. 

Romney, and his lady in yellow by Reynolds, the 
latter is engraved. 
Charles i. A very good portrait of Charles I. in a grey 
jacket and boots, with the blue ribbon tied under 
his arm, instead of being pendent, a mode begun in 
his reign. This is said to have been the dress in 
which he set out for Spain, on his romantic court- 
ship. 
Margaret Margaret Countess of Salisbury, wife to 
Salisbury. James the third Earl. A half-length in blue, with 
flowers in her hand ; by Lely. 

Mary Queen of Scots, full-length. 

Count Christopher de Harlay, count Beaumont, 
Beaumont. 

ambassador from Henry IV. to Queen Elizabeth 

in her last year, and the first of her successor. He 

was a nobleman of great personal merit, and an 

able negotiator. He is painted as a tall thin man, 

in a dark jacket with white sleeves, and a great 

ruff, cet. 34, 1605, the year in which he concluded. 

his embassy. He died governor of Orleans in 

1615. 

Gallery. The gallery is a hundred and sixty-two feet 
long, with two great wooden chimney pieces on the 
sides, and the same at each end. Here is pre- 
served a small and very antient organ. 

Library. The library is fifty-eight feet and a half by 
twenty-six. Over a vast marble chimney-piece is 



HATFIELD. 555 

a portrait, in mosaic, of the first Earl of Salisbury, 

with grey hair, at. 48. The room is hung with 

the original gilt leather. 

, In the winter dining-room, (for this vast house 

hath both its winter and summer apartments), is a 

three quarters piece of Thomas, sixth Earl of Earl of 

Thanet. 
Thanet, in his robes, and a great full-bottom black 

wig ; and another portrait, by Lely, of his lady, in His Lady. 
blue with a red mantle, and dark hair. They were 
connected to this family by the marriage of their 
daughter Anne with James, fifth Earl of Salis- 
bury. 

James third Earl of Salisbury, a full-length, in James third 
his robes of the garter; a full-bottom wig, with hat Salisbury. 
and feather on a table. He was called to the 
council board in 1679, elected knight of the garter 
in 1680 ; measures merely of policy to deceive the 
people into a notion of a change of measures. 
Other popular leaders received marks of favor 
from the court, but to no sort of effect, for the 
earl not only voted for the exclusion bill, but 
even seconded the violent Shaftesbury s motion for 
the king's divorcing his queen, and taking another 
from a protestant house. He died in 1683. 

His lady Margaret Manners, daughter of His Lady. 
John Earl of Rutland ; a. full-length, in brown, with 
a blue mantle. 

A beautiful picture of a Lady Latimer, in Lady 

r J Latimer, 



556 HATFIELD. 

brown, with a blue mantle : with her hands clasped, 
reading; by Lely. She was daughter and co- 
heiress of Simon Bennet, of Bechampton co. Bucks, 
esquire ; wife of Edward Osborne, Lord Latimer, 
eldest son of Thomas, Earl of Danby, and sister 
of Frances, wife of James, fourth Earl of Salis- 
bury. 

Lady A lady in a loose dress and green mantle : a 

Ranelagh. . 

three-quarters piece, sitting. This I believe to be 

the beautiful Lady Ranelagh, daughter of James, 

third Earl of Salisbury, and second wife to 

Richard Jones, Earl of Ranelagh. She was first 

c married to the elder brother of the last Lord 

Stawel, who piqued himself on having the finest 
woman, horse, and house in England. He had 
begun the last, but died before it was half finished. 
Lady Ranelagh is among the beauties at Hampton 
Court. In the decline of her beauty, she never 
would be seen but by candle light. 

Frobenius. I missed in this visit, a picture very worthy of 
preservation, a head of John Frobenius, by Hol- 
bein. He is dressed in a black gown, lined with 
fur. Frobenius was a native of Franconia ; but 
settled at Basil in Switzerland, of which city he 
became a citizen. He was a man of considerable 
learning, and the finest printer of his time. Eras- 
mus resided a long time with him, attracted 
by his personal merit and his admirable skill in his 



HATFIELD CHURCH. 557 

profession ; for to him we are indebted for the most 
beautiful edition of the works of his illustrious 
friend. Frobenius died in 1527, and was honored 
by the same hand with two epitaphs, one in Greek, 
the other in Latin. 

Neither did I find the picture inscribed 
Frederic P. lagra, de Dieu comte Palatyn deRyk. 
Small, and in an ermined cap, in his hands two 
covered dishes, with a napkin over them. I be 
lieve this prince to have been Frederic IV. father 
of the unfortunate palatine, king of Bohemia. 

I forgot to mention in their places, in the Pa ^J** s 
first rooms ; a holy family, by Leonardi di Vinci ; 
a naked child lying at full length, contemplating a 
scull ; and a Jupiter and Leda ; all by the same 
great master; also a good painting of .a young 
woman, with a melancholy look, sitting, and 
leaning on one hand, behind her is an old woman 
with a letter. 

A flight into Egypt, very good ; and another 
painting, both by Bassan. 

The church of Hatfield is dedicated to St. Church. 
Ethelreda, the virgin wife; first, of Tonbert, 
prince of the South Girvii, and afterwards of 
prince Egfrid, son of Qswy, king of Northumber* 
land, as I might prove by several credible wit- 
nesses '. 



1 Bentham's hist. Ely, 49, to whom I refer for the evidences. 



558 &ATFIELD CHURCH. 

In the Salisbury chancel, built by the first earfr, 
is the monument of the great founder, who is re- 
presented in white marble, in his robes, recum- 
bent on a black slab, beautifully executed. This 
is supported at each corner by a cardinal virtue, 
with the attributes of each, poorly done. Beneath 
is a skeleton, in white marble, lying on a mat of the 
same colored marble, admirably counterfeited. I 

A strange figure, sprawling on one side with 
a great bird, naked arms, and well-cut drapery, in 
stone, commemorates William Gurle, cur wardo* 
rum et libaconum. He died April 16th 1617, 
cet. 78. 

A mural monument of Sir John Brocket, of 
Brocket Hall, in this parish, who died in 1598. By 
the death of Sir James Brocket, this antient and 
respectable family became extinct in the male line. 

Here is a large monument with two ladies one 
over the other, lying on their sides. One is dame 
Elizabeth, wife of the aforesaid Sir John Brocket ; 
she was widow to Gabriel Fowler, esquire, and 
daughter of Roger Moore, esquire, by Agnes 
Hussey, relict of three husbands, Moore, Curson, 
and chief baron Saunders" 1 . The other figure is of 
this Agnes, who died in 1588. This memorial was 
erected by Richard Fowler, son to Lady Brocket, 
by her first husband. . 

An extraordinary person, see Granger III. 367 octavo. 



GOBIONS. 559 

A monument of Sir James Read, baronet, of 
Brocket Hall, which descended to him by the 
marriage of his grandfather Thomas Read, esquire, 
with Maty, fifth daughter of Sir Thomas Brocket. 
This is mural, with a bust of him and his wife, who 
left daughters, coheirs. 

From hence I continued my journey along the Gobions. 
great road. Passed by Gobions, in the parish of 
North Mims, which took its name from the old 
family of the Gobions, its antient lords, as early as 
the time of King Stephen*. The Mores afterwards 
possessed it for some generations. Sir John, the 
father of the celebrated Sir Thomas More, owned 
it in the reign of Henry VII. and it became the 
residence of that illustrious character till the time 
of his cruel sacrifice; when the son was stripped 
of every part of his fortune by the most arbitrary 
attainders. It reverted again to the family, but 
the grandson of Sir Thomas, being ruined by the 
civil, wars, sold it to Sir Edzvard Desborevy. It 
afterwards came by sale to Mr. Pitchford, and to Sir 
Jeremiah Sambroke. From his sisters it devolved 
to Mr. Freeman, of Hammels, and was afterwards 
sold to the present owner, Mr. Hunter. 

Not far from a place called Potters-bar, (proba- 
bly from some pottery, such as is still carried on 

* Salmon's Herts, 46v i 



560 ENFIELD PALACE. 

at Woodside, about two miles to the north, on the 
same road) I entered the county of 

MIDDLESEX : 

kept along the edge of E?ijield Chace' 1 to Hadley ; 
passed through Cheping Barnet, and, in less than 
a mile beyond, quitted the great road at Pricklers 
Hill; again skirted the Chace, descended Winch- 
more Hill, and concluded the day's journey at En- 
fold, the object of this little digression. 
New River. The New River, the work of my illustrious 
countryman Sir Hugh Middleton * (which on the 
north edge of this parish, for some yards, as till 
lately at Islington, is conveyed in a trough of wood 
lined with lead, called The Boarded River, over a 
brick arch fifteen feet high) was the first object of 
my attention. 

I next visited the antient brick house called 
Enfield Palace, built by Sir Thomas Lovel, knight 

of the Garter, and privy counsellor to Henry VII; 



y This chace was inclosed by act of parliament in 1779 ; and 
of the 8000 acres whereof it consisted, 2584 were appropriated 
to the use of the Crown, and the residue divided between the 
four adjoining parishes of Enfield, Edmonton, Hadley, and 
South Mints. 

e See some account of it in my Welsh Tour, vol. ii. p. 29. 
ed. 1810. vol. ii.p. 152. 



ENFIELD PALACE. 56l 

where he died in 1524\ It is conjectured that 
Henry VIII. bought it for a nursery for his chil- 
dren b . Here Edward VI. received the first news 
of his father's death, and his own accession. On 
the chimney-piece of the great parlour are the arms 
of England in a Garter, supported by a Lion and a 
Griffin ; on the sides, the Rose and Portcullis 
crowned ; with E. R. beneath. These initials are 
also on the stucco in front of the house. 

Queen Elizabeth used sometimes to make this 
place a visit. Robert Cary Earl of Monmouth 
informs us he once waited on her Highness at En- 
field, where she went to take a dinner, and had 
toiles set up in the park, to shoot at bucks, after 
she had dined . 

In the time of the great plague, in 1665, a very 
flourishing school was kept here by Mr. Uvedale. 
That gentleman was very fond of gardening, and, 
among other trees, planted a cedar of Libanus; Great 
which is still in being. The storm of 1 703 broke 
off eight feet from the top. The dimensions of it 
at present are : 



Camden, i. 398. 

b See the Antiquarian Repertory, ii. 23 1 j where a print of 
this palace is given. It is now divided into several dwellings. 

* His Memoirs, 2d edit. p. 136. . 

2 o 



Cedar. 



36<2 WALTHAM CROSS. 



Height 45 feet 9 inches. 


Girth at top 3 


7 


Second girth 7 


9 


Third 10 





Fourth 14 


6 d 



Worcester Not far from hence, on the north side of Four- 

House. 

tree-hill, stood Worcester House, built by the ac- 
complished John Tibetot, or Tiptoft, Earl of Wor- 
cester" f who was beheaded in 1470. The manor, 
which still retains his title, descended to him from 
his father, Sir John Tiptoft. The house was re- 
built on higher ground, by Sir Nicholas Raynton, 
knight, lord mayor of London in 1640, who died 
in 1647, and has a splendid monument in Enfield 
church. The place is now owned by Eliab Breton, 
Esquire, who married a co-heiress of the Raynton 
and JVolstenholme families. 

I made a visit from hence to TValtham Abbey, 
seated in Essex, about three miles from Enfield, 
Waltham on the west side of the river Lea. I past by Wal- 
tham Cross, one of the affectionate memorials of 
Edward I. towards his beloved queen Eleanor. 
The cross is in excellent preservation, and richly 

d See the ingenious account of cedars planted in England, 
by my respected friend the Reverend Sir John Culhan, bart. 
Gent. Mag. 1779, p. 138. 

c Norden's Middlesex, 19. 



WALTHAM CHURCH. 5G3 

adorned with gothic sculpture. This tract is a rich 
flat of verdant meadows, watered by the Lea, and 
bounded on each side by gentle risings. The 
meads belonging to the abbey are distinguished by 
the name of Halifield, or The holy field. 

The present church oiWaltham is only the nave Church. 
of the antient structure,which was in the form of a 
cross, with a central tower ; the latter fell down after 
the dissolution, and the new tower was built at one 
end in 1555. Within are six massy pillars ; some 
carved with spiral, others with zigzag furrows, like 
those of the nave of Durham cathedral. The 
arches are round ; above them are two rows of gal- 
leries, in what is called the Saxon stile. At the 
east end remains one vast ronnd arch of the tower. 

The only monuments of any note, are those of 
the Dennies. That of Sir Edzvard Denny, and 
Joan his wife, has on it their figures, in a reclined 
posture; he in armour; in front are the figures 
of six of their sons and four of their daughters 
kneeling. Sir Edward was of the privy chamber 
to Queen Elizabeth ; governor of Kerry and Des- 
monde, and colonel of some Irish forces. He died 
in 1599, aged about fifty -two, and, I hope, merited 
this eulogy inscribed on the tomb : 

Learn, curious reader, how you pass; 
Your once Sir Edward Damy was 

2 o 2 



564 WALTHAM ABBEY. 

A courtier of the chamber, 

A soldier of the field ; 
Whose tongue could never flatter; 

Whose heart could never yealde. 

The tombs of Earl Harold, founder of the 
abbey; of the famous Hugo Nevill, who slew a 
lion in the Holy Land, and of several others, are 
now lost, having perished with the fall of the tower 
on the eastern part of the church, in which they 
were placed f . 
Abbey. The abbey stood near the church. Its only 
remains are a gate and postern, with the arms of 
England in the time of Henry III ; part of a clois- 
ter, and an elliptic bridge over the moat. The 
edifice was pulled down after the dissolution, and 
the materials applied to building a mansion by Sir 
Anthony Denny (father of Sir Edward) to whom 
the place had been granted by Edward VI. His 
lady afterwards purchased the reversion in fee of 
JValtham manor, from the same prince, for be- 
tween three and four thousand pounds, with seve- 
ral large privileges in the adjoining forest 5 . This, 
and the great estate of the family, passed after- 
wards to the luxurious Hay Earl of Carlisle, by 
his marriage with the heiress of Edward Denny 
Earl of Norwich, grandson of Sir Anthony. The 
f Weevcr, 644. Fuller's Hist. JValtham Abbey, 13. 



WALTHAM ABBEY. 565 

fortune was soon dissipated ; and the estate sold by 
their heirs to Sir Samuel Jones of Northampton- 
shire, who gave it to the Wakes ; it is at present 
owned by Sir William Wake, baronet. 

The abbey was founded in 1062, by Earl 
Harold, afterwards king of England. It might 
more properly be stiled a college, having a dean 
and eleven secular black canons, who were excel- 
lently provided for; six manors being appropriated 
to the dean, and one to each canon. A copy of 
the charter of confirmation by Edward the Con- 
fessor is preserved by Sir William Dugdale* 1 . 

After the battle of Hastings, Githa, the mo- 
ther of Harold, and Osegod, and Ailric, by their 
prayers and tears moved the Conqueror to deliver 
to them the corpse of the Sa,von monarch, and of 
his brethren Girth and Leofwin, to be interred 
here. Harold's tomb was of rich grey marble, 
with a cross fleury on it, and supported by four 
pedestals K 

Henry II. in 1 177, changed the foundation into 
an abbot and regulars, of the order of St. Austin k . 
The first abbot was Walter de Gaunt, who ob- 
tained the privileges of the mitre, and of being 
exempt from episcopal jurisdiction 1 . 

Robert Fuller was the last abbot, who, with 

h Monast. ii. 11. i Fuller's Waltham, 7. 

* Tanner, 119. ' Willis, i. 191. 



5GG COPTHALL. 

seventeen of his religious, resigned the monastery 
to the king, March 23d, 1540. Their whole num- 
ber was twenty-four. Their revenue, according 
to Dugdale, was . 900. 4*. 3d. ; to Speed, 
. 1079. 12*. Id. 

The largest tulip-tree, I believe, in England, 
stands within the abbey precinct ; being fourteen 
feet in circumference near the bottom. 
Copthaix. From hence, at a distance, on a rising ground, 
I saw Copt hall, once a villa and park belonging to 
the abbots. Richard I. bestowed the lands on 
Richard Fit z- Anchor, to hold them in fee, and 
hereditarily of the abbey. He fixed himself at 
this seat. At length the abbot became possessed 
of it, and retained it till the dissolution. Queen 
Elizabeth granted it to Sir Thomas Heneage. His 
daughter, afterwards Countess of JVinchelsea, sold 
it to the Earl of Middlesex, in the reign of James 
I. Charles Earl of Dorset sold it, in 1700, to 
Thomas TVcbster, Esquire, created Baronet in 
1703 : and he sold it to Edward Cony ers, Esquire, 
of Walthamstmv, whose grandson, John, is the 
present possessor m . 

m The late Mr. Conyers took down the old house (of which 
a print may be seen in Farmer s History of Waltham Abbey) 
and built the present on a higher site, about thirty years ago. 
The beautiful east window in St. Margaret's church at West- 
minster, came originally from the chapel of this old mansion. 



THEOBALDS. 567 

Returning the same way over the Lea, I 
could not but reflect on the different appearance 
this tract now makes, to what it did in the days of 
King Alfred, when it was navigable for ships to e^"*/^ s tN 
the Thames, and by which the piratical Danish 8 9 6 - 
navy came up quite to Hertford. Our great 
monarch instantly set about frittering this vast 
water into various small streams; and, to the amaze- 
ment of the free-booters, left their fleet on dry 
land". At present a useful canal passes along the 
country. 

Close to Cheshunt stood the magnificent palace Theobalds. 
of Theobalds, built by lord treasurer Burleigh. 
When James I. came from Scotland to take pos- 
session of the English throne, on May 3d, 1603, 
he was received here by the lords of the privy 
council, and was most sumptuously entertained by 
the owner, Sir Robert Cecil, afterwards Earl of 
Salisbury. James fell in love with the place, ob- 
tained it from Cecil in exchange for Hatfield, en- 
larged the park, and inclosed it with a brick 
wall ten miles in circuit : it was resigned to the 
king and queen, on the 22d of May 1607. A 
poetical entertainment was made on the occasion, 
by Ben Jonson, and suitable scenery invented, in 
all probability by Inigo Jones . The Genius of 

n Saxon Chr. 96. Chr. J. Bromton, SI 3. 
Tour in Wales, ii. 142. 



568 THEOBALDS. 

the place is at first very anxious about her lot; at 
last is reconciled to it by Mercury and the Fates, 
and the piece concludes with a most flattering 
chorus p . James was particularly fond of this 
palace, and finished his days here in 1625. In 
1651 , the greatest part of this magnificent place 
(so particularly described by Hentzner) was 
pulled down, and the plunder given to the soldiers. 
The small remains (such as the room in which the 
king died, and a portico with the painting of the 
genealogical tree of the house of Cecil) were de- 
molished in 1765, by the present owner, George 
Prescot, Esquire, who leased out the site to a 
builder, and erected a handsome house for him- 
self a mile south of it ; so that its memory is only 
preserved by the picture in the possession of Earl 
Poulet, at Hinton St. George ; and the descrip- 
tion, from Lord Burleigh's own hand-writing, pre- 
served in Murderis State Papers q . 

I returned by Enfield, pursued the direct 
road to London, passed by Tottenham High Cross 
(so called from a wooden cross formerly placed on 
a little mount) and in a short time joined my friends 
in the great metropolis. 

P Ben Jonson's Works, v. 226. 

' Mr. Gough's Br. Topogr. i. 426. 



APPENDIX. 



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APPENDIX. IT. 



N II. 



CATALOGUE OF THE PICTURES AT BLITHEFIELD. P. ne. 



DRAWING ROOM. 




The Rape of Europa - 


Albano 


A Landscape ; St. John baptising Christ 




in the Wilderness 


Zuccarelli 


St. Jerome presenting his Works to the 




Infant Jesus 


Corregio 


Rachel at the Well 


C. Lotti 


A Landscape the Flight into Egypt 


Zuccarelli 


A Bird Piece 


Hondekccter 


A Boy's Head 


Fr. Bartolomeo- 


The Annunciation of the Virgin 


Domenichino 


A small oval Landscape ; a Storm 


G. Poussin 


Portrait of a Singer 


Murillo 


Nativity of St. John 


Al. Veronese 


Virgin and Child 


Raphael, in his 




'irst manner 


Players at Minciati ; Portraits 


Alb. Durer 


Oval Landscape ; Rocks, &c. 


G. Poussin 


Oval Portrait 


Vandyck 


Burning the Vatican (from the Car- 




toons) 


Raphael 


A Magdalen 


Guido 


Boors drawing Wine from a Vat 




A Concert - 


Palamedesj 


A Landscape, with Ruin 


N. Poussin 



APPENDIX. II. 



57S 



A Supper, with Singers 
Virgin, and dead Christ 
Head of St. John 

Three Manfs, with the Body of Christ 

(a copy from) 
Moliere(p. 115.) 
Stoning St. Stephen 
Boors drinking 

Altar-piece, with Virgin and Child 
Fruit and dead Game - 

Landscape, with a Mill Pool 
An oval Head - m 

A Pass of the Alps 



Palamedes 
Dan. de Volterra 
Guercino 

An. Caracci 
Spanish School 
Filippo Laura 

Benv. Garofolo 
Fyt 

Van Goyen 

Tintoret 

Colomba 



VESTIBULE. 



Ruins of Roman Buildings - P. Panini 

The Duke of Buckingham a - Giorgione 

A Landscape - P. Brille 

Angel appearing to the Shepherds And. Sacchi 

A Landscape P. Brille 

Jacob's Journey - - Castiglione 

A Popish Idea ef the Trinity b - Alb. Durer 
Virtue triumphing over Vice. A Sbozzo 
of the great picture in the Council 



a Engraved as such, under the title of Humphrey Stafford, 
or Bagot, in the History of the Royal Tribes of Wales, by 
Philip Yorke, Esq. but evidently the portrait of an Italian 
nobleman, of a much later period. Ed. 

b Christ in the lap of the Deity, who wears the Tiara ; a 
Dove above. Painted on a gold ground. Ed. 



574 APPENDIX. II. 

Chamber of the Palace of St. Mark at 
Venice - - Paolo Veronese 

l/)t and his Daughters. (Engraved by 

Strange) - . Guercino, in his 

light manner 
The Continence of Scipio - Seb. Conca 

Judgment of Solomon - S. Vouet 

The Feast of Levi (a Sketch) - P. Veronese 

Inside of a Kitchen - Giac. Bassan 

Women preparing Pot-herbs - Ostade 

Landscape and Figures - Holbein 

A Sketch - C. Cignani 

Two Neapolitan Officers - Valentino 

Boors at Cards - Teniers 

Head ; a Study C. Maratti 

A Poor Family Le Nain 

Portrait of a young Italian Lady Rosalba 

Petrarch's Triumph of Time. This pic- 
ture contains Portraits. The figure 
in scarlet, holding a bubble, is Pe- 
trarch himself. The man in black, by 
him, is Giovanni Villani, the Floren- 
tine historian. The figure in green, 
on the black horse, is the emperor. 
The two, on white horses following 
the car, are Roger King of Sicily, and 
the Constable Cohnna, Petrarch's 
friends and favourites. The figure on 
foot, in black, with a long beard, pre- 
ceded by two boys, in short students' 
cloaks, is Bmnetti Latini - Old Franks 



APPENDIX. II. 



575 



St. Peter's at Rome. 
Cupids at Play 
Virgin and Infant 
Landscape, with Goats, &c. 
the figures by 



G. Occhiati 
Rottenhammer 
Italian School 
P. Brille 
An. Caracci 



BREAKFAST ROOM. 

Waltei* Chetwynde of Ingestrie - Sir P. Lely 
A Battle Piece - - Bourgognone 

Portrait of a Piper - - Fr. Hals 

Virgin Mary - - C. Maratti 

Christ bearing the Cross - Van Eyck 

The Nativity - - Van Eyck 

The Scourging of Christ - Van Eyck 

A Flemish Officer and Woman on horse- 
back - Blekers 
An Italian Poet, or Improvisario, with 

a Guitar ; supposed to be Ariosto Lanfranco 
A Landscape from Both - De Heusch 

Portrait of a Friar in the Character of 

Diogenes - - Lanfranco 

A Man driving Cattle - Castiglione 

An old Man reading - Mrs. Anson 

Landscape - - Van Goyen 

Devereux Earl of Essex. (P. 113.) 
Sir Walter Aston. (P. 112.) 
Villiers Duke of Buckingham. 
Henry Earl of Huntingdon. (P. 112.) 
Lewis Bagot. 

Portrait unknown. Date 1622, at. 40. 
Lord Burleigh, (P. 111.) 



576 APPENDIX. II. 

STAIRCASE. 

Hugo Grotius - - School of Rembrandt 

Landscape ; Cattle and Figures Paiel. 

A Fish Market - - Batt. Bassan 

LIBRARY. 

St. Paul shaking off the Viper Guercino, in his dark 

manner. 



N III. 

EXPENCES IN THE REPAIRS OF LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL, 
AFTER THE RESTORATION. P. 143. 



[From. Mr. Greene of Lichfield's MSS.] 



. s. d. 



By the accounts of the late Bishop Hacket, 
Mr. Glazier, and Mr. Harrison, the sum 
of money received by them, for the re- 
pairs of the cathedral church of Lichfield, 
amounts to - 9092 1 7| 

Besides two fair timber trees, which his 
majesty gave out of Need-wood, inserted 
but not valued, in the book of the said 
accounts - - - 0$ 

As also, there is omitted out of the said ac- 
counts, glazing seven of the south win- 
dows, by Mr. Creswell; wherein his arms, 
which (saith he) cost about - 30 

Out of which . 9092 1*. 7fd. the late 
Bishop Hacket gave out of his own purse, 
to the repairs of the said cathedral 1683 12 



PICTURES AT GORHAMBURY. 

<. s. d. 
Bishop Wood, when dean, gave - 50 

And since bishop - - 10 

And promised (saith Dean Smalhvood) more 100 

In St. Peter's chapel (which is now a place to lay lad- 
ders and scaffolding) was painted upon the wall St. Peter 
crucified with his head downwards ; and two other apostles. 
And in this place is the noted St. Chad's tomb (though de- 
faced) removed from the Lady Choir, to be put here, 
since the Restoration. 



577 



N IV. 

ADDITIONAL LIST OF 

PICTURES AT GORHAMBURY. Page 337. 



DRAWING ROOM. 




A Sea Piece - 


S. Ruysdael 


Landscape - 


Zucarelli 


Landscape and Figures 


Mola 


Theseus and his Mother 


S. Rosa 


Boors drinking 


Tenters 


Christ healing the Sick 


Bassan 


Back of a Woman 


Titian 


Landscape - 


Zucarelli 


Landscape -' 


Dean 


Landscape and Cattle 


Berchem 


View of a Port 


Weeninx 


Inside of a Church 


P. Neeffs 


Mercury and Battus 


Domenichino 


A portrait and figures 


Teniers 


Landscape and figures 


Brueghel ' 



2p 



578 



APPENDIX. IV. 




Small Interior - 


Stelnivyck 


Cook Maid and Dead Game 


Sir N. Bacon 


Landscape ; Angel and Balaam 


Swanefeld 


Landscape - - 


S. Rosa 


Companion 


S. Rosa 


Men securing a Bull 


P. Potter 


St. Tliomas - - 


S. Rosa 


An Encampment 


Wouvermarm 


Small Landscape 


Brueghel 


Companion 


Bruegliel 


Landscape - 


Bolognese 


Mary Magdalen 


Caracci 


Our Saviour and St. Peter 


Baroccio 


Venus and Adonis 


Titian 


Holy Family 


C. Maratti 


St. Augustin 


Ag. Caracci 


Small Head 


Schalken 


Head 


Vandyck 


Landscape - 


N. Poussin 


Companion - 


JS. Poussin 



DRESSING ROOM. 

Col. Taylor - Kneller 

Mr. Grimston, son of William Viscount 

Grimston - Kneller 

Earl of Arundel. 
Our Saviour ; a Sketch - Tintoretto 



BED-CHAMBER. 

Portrait of Mrs. IValler - Sir J. Reynold* 

Flower Piece - T. Baptiste 

Snow Piece - - Van Diest 



CONVENT OF ST. ANDREWS. 579 

Flower Piece - T. Baptiste 

Inside of a Church - -P. Neeffs 

Entering the Ark --/". Brueghel 

LADY GRIMSTON's DRESSING ROOM. 

Sea-port Moonlight - - Tliom. Wycke 

Cupid m Vandyck 

Student Drawing - - Schalken 

Landscape J. Brueghel 

A Shipwreck - A Van Diest 

Landscape - - Paul Bril 



NV. 

THE RESIGNATION OR SURRENDER OF THE PRIOR AND CON- 
VENT OF ST. ANDREWS, NORTHAMPTON : WITH A RECOG- 
NITION OF THEIR MANIFOLD ENORMITIES. Page 408. 

Most noble and vertuous prince, owr most rightuous and 
gracyous soueraign lorde, and vndoubted founder, and in 
erthe next vndre God supreme heed of this Englyshe 
churche. We yowr gracys pore and most vnworthy sub- 
iects, Francys, priour of yowr graces monastery of Saint 
Andrew the apostle, within yowr graces town of North- 
ampton, and the hoole couent of the same, being steryd by 
the gryffe of owr conscience, vnto greate contricion for the 
manifolde negligence, enormytes, and abuses, of long tyme 
by vs and other owr predecessours, vndre the pretence and 
shadow of perfyght religion, vsyd and commytted, to the 
greuous displeasure of Almyghty God, the craftye decep- 
cion, and subtell seduccion of the pure and symple myndys 

2 p 2 



580 APPENDIX. V. 

of the good Christian people of this yoWr noble realme, 
knovvlegen owr selffes to haue greuously offendyd God, and 
yowr highnesse owr soueraign lord and founder. Aswell in 
corrupting the conscience of yowr good Christian subiects, 
with vayne, superstitious, and other vnprofitable ceremo- 
nyes, the very means and playn induccions to the abomi- 
nable synne of idolatry ; as in omyttyng the execucion of 
suche deuowte and due observances, and charitable acts as 
we were bounden to do, by the promises, and avovves made 
by vs and our predecessors, vnto Almighty God, and to 
yowr graces most noble progenitors, orygynall founders of 
yowr saide monastery. For the which obseruances, and 
dedys of charyte, only, yowre saide monastery was indowed 
with sondry possessions, iewels, ornaments, and other goods, 
moueable and vnmoueable, by yowr graces said noble pro- 
genitors. The revenues of which possessions, we the saide 
priour and couent, voluntaryly onely by owr propre con- 
science compellyd, do recognyce, neither by vs, nor owr 
predecessors to haue ben imploied accordyng to the origy- 
nall intent of the founders of yowr saide monastery : that 
is to saie, in the pure observaunce of Chrysts religion, ac- 
cordyng to the deuowte rule, and doctryne, of holy Saint 
Benedict, in vertuose exercyse, and study, according to 
owr professyon and avowe ; ne yett in the charytable sus- 
taining, comforting, and releiuing of the pore people, by 
the kepyng of good and necessary hospitality. But aswell 
we as others owr predecessours, callyd religiouse persones 
within yowr said monastery, taking on vs the habite or 
owtewarde vesture of the saide rule, onely to the intent to 
lead owr liffes in an ydell quyetnes, and not in vertuose 
exercyse, in a stately estymacion, and not in obedient hu- 
mylyte, haue vndre the shadowe, or color of the saide rule 



CONVENT OF ST. ANDREWS. 581 

and habite, vaynly, detestably, and also vngodly, employed, 
yea rather deuowred the yerely reuenues yssuing and co- 
myng of the saide possessions, in contynuall ingurgitacions 
and farcyngs of owr carayne bodyes, and of others, the 
supportares of owr voluptuose and carnall appetyte, with 
other wayne and ungodly expensys to the manyfest svbuer- 
tion of deuocion, and clennes of lyuyng ; and to the most 
notable slaunder of Chrysts holy euangely, which in the 
forme of owr professyon, we dyd ostentate, and openly ad- 
vaunte to kepe most exactely : withdrawing therby from 
the symple and pure myndys of yowr graces subiects, the 
only truth and comfort, which they oughte to haue by the 
true fait]} of Christe. And also the devyne honor and 
glory; onely due to the glorious maiestye of God Almighty, 
steryng them with all persuasions, ingynes, and polyce, to 
dedd images, and counterefeit reliques, for owr dampnable 
lucre. Which our most horryble abhominacions, and ex- 
ecrable persuacions of yowr graces people, to detestable er- 
rours, and our long couered ipocrysie cloked with fayned 
sanctitie ; we reuoluing dayly and continually ponderyng 
in owr sorrowfull harts, and therby perseyuing the bottom- 
les gulf of euerlastyng fyre redy to deuowre vs, if perseyst- 
ing in this state of lyuynge, we shulde departe from this vn- 
certayn and transytory liff; constrayned, by the intollerable 
anguysh of owr conscience, callyd as we trust by the grace 
of God, who wolde haue no man to perysh in synne : with 
harts most contrite, and repentante, prostrate at the noble 
feet of yowr most roiall maiesty, most lamentably doo 
craue of yowr highnes, of yowr habundant mercy, to grant 
vnto us, most greuous agaynst God, and yowr highnes, 
yowr most gracious perdon, for owr saide sondry offences, 
omyssyons, and negligences, commytted as before by vs is 
confessyd, agaynst yowr hyhnes, and yowr most noble pro- 



582 APPENDIX. V. 

genitors. And where yowr highnes, being supreme hedd, 
immediately next aftre Christe, of bis cburch, in this 
yowr roialme of England, so consequently generall and 
only reformatur of all religious personnes there, haue full 
authority to correct or dyssolue at your graces pleasure and 
libertye, all couents and religious companyes abusyng the 
rewles of their profession. And moreouer to yowr high- 
nes, being owr soueraygn lord and vndoubted founder of 
yowr saide monastery, by dissolucion wherof apperteyneth 
onely the oryginall title, and propre inherytance, as well of 
all other goods moueable and vnmouable, to the saide mo- 
nastery in any wise apperteyning or belonging, to be dis- 
possessed, and imployed, as to yowr graces most excellent 
wysdome shall seme expedyent and necessary. All which 
possessyons and goods, yowr highnes for owr saide offences, 
abuses, omyssyons, and neglygences, being to all men obe- 
dyent, and by vs playnly confessed, now hath, and of long 
tyme past hath hadd, iust and lafull cawse, to resume into 
yowr graces hands and possessyon at your graces pleasure. 
The resumption wherof, yowr highness neverthelesse, licke 
a most naturall lovyng prince, and clement governour, ouer 
vs yowr graces pore, and for owr offences, most vnworthy 
subiects, hath of long season differred, and yet doth, in 
hope and trust of owr voluntary reconciliation and amend- 
ment, by yowr graces manyfolde, louyng and gentyll ad- 
monyshments, shewyd vnto vs by dyuerse and sondry 
meanys. We therfor consyderyng with owr selffes your 
graces exceedyng goodnes and mercy, extended at all tymes 
vnto vs, most miserable trespassers against God and yowr 
highnes ; for a perfight declaracion of owr vnfeyned con- 
tricion and repentance, felyng owr selffes uery weeke, and 
vnable to obserue and performe owr aforesaid avowes and 
promyses made by vs and owr predecessors, to God, and 



CONVENT OF ST. ANDREWS. 583 

yowr graces noble progenitors ; and to employ the posses- 
syons of yowr saide monastery, accordyng to the fyrst will 
and intent of the oryginall founders. And to the intent 
that yowr highnes, yowr noble heires and successors with 
the true Christian people, of this yowr graces roialme of 
England, be not from hensforth eftsones abused with such 
feyned deuocion, and deuilysh persuasions, vndre the pre- 
text and habyte of relygion, by us or any other, which 
shulde happen to bear the name of relygyous within yowr 
saide monastery : And moreouer, that the said possessyone 
and goods shulde be no lenger restreyned, from a bettyr or 
more necessary employment : Most humble beseechen 
yowr highnes, owr most graycious soueraign lord and 
founder, that it might licke yowr maiesty, for the dis- 
charging and exonerating vs, of the most greuous bourden 
of owr payned consciens, to the immynent parell and dan- 
ger of owr dampnacion, that we shulde be in, if by persist- 
ing in the state that we now rest in, we shulde be the lett 
of a more godly and necessarie imployment : graciouslie to 
accept owr free gifts without coercion, persuasion, or pro 
curement, of any creature living other then of our volun- 
tary free will, of all such possessions, right, title, or interest, 
as we the sayd prior and couent hath or euyr hadd, or a sup- 
posed to have hadd in or to our sayd monastery of North' 
ampton aforsaide. And all and euery parcell of the lands, 
aduousons, comodytes, and other reuenues, whatsoeuyr 
they ben belonging to the same. And all maner of goods, 
jewels, ornaments, with all other manner of cattals, moue- 
able and vnmoueable, to the sayd monastery in any wise 
apperteyning or belonging, into whoes handes or possession 
so euyr they ben come into, to be imployed,and disposed, as 
to your graces most excellent wysedome shall seme expedy- 
ent and necessary. And although, most gracious soueraign 



584 APPENDIX. V. 

lord, that the thyng by vs gyven vnto your highnes, is pro- 
perly, and of right ought to be yowr graces owne, as well by 
the meryts of our offences, as by the ordre of your graces 
lawes ; yet notwythstandyng we eftsones most humble be- 
seechen yowr highnes, graciously, and benevolently to ac- 
cept owr free wyll, with the gyft therof, nothing requyring 
of yowr maiesty therfor, other than yowr most gracious per- 
don, with some pece of yowr graces almes, and habundant 
charyte towards the mayntenance of owr pore lyving, and 
lycence hensforth to Hue in such forme in correcting the 
rest of our liffes, as we hope to make satysfaccion therby 
to God, and yowr highnes : for owr hypocrasie, and other 
owr greuous offences by vs commytted, as well againe his 
Deite, as your maiesty. And for the more infallyble proffe 
that this our recognycion vnto yowr highnes, is only the 
mere and voluntary acte of us the said priour and couent 
aforesaid, withought any compulcion, or inducement, other 
then of owr propre consciens, we haue not only publyshed 
the same, openly in the presence of your graces true and 
faithful subiects, and seruants, Sir Wylliam Aparre, 
knyghte, Richard Layton, doitor in the lawes, arche- 
deacon of Buckingham, and Roberd Southwell, attur- 
nay for the augmentacions of yowr graces most noble 
crowne, yowr graces commyssyoners here, with diuerse 
other that wer present at that tyme. And vndre this owr 
present recognicion sealed with our couent seale, subscrybed 
owr owne names; but also haue made sealed with owr 
couent seale, and delyuered to the saide Roberd South- 
well, to yowr highnesse vse, a sufficient and lawfull deade, 
accordyng to the form of yowr graces lawes, for the posses- 
sing your grace, yowr noble heires, and successors therof 
for euyr, to be presented by him vnto yowr highnes, toge- 
ther with this owr free recognicion and assent ; offering 



CONVENT OF ST. ANDREWS. 585 

owr selffes most humbly vnto your highnes, to be at all 
tymes redy to do from tyme to tyme, any other act or acts, 
as by yowr highnes, and yowr most honorable councell shall 
be of vs farther requyred, for the more perfight assurans of 
this owr voluntary surrendre and gift vnto yowr highnes. 
And fynally we most humbly, and reuerently,with habundant 
teares proceedyng from our harts, having before owr eyen 
owr detestable offences, submytt owr selffes totally to the 
ordre of God, and yowr mercyfull and benygne maiesty, 
most hartely beseching Almyghty God, to grant your 
highnes, with the noble prince Edward your graces most 
noble and naturall sonne, next vnto yowr grace the most 
precious iuell, and chyfe comforte of this yowr graces 
roialme, long to lyue among vs, yowr graces honorable and 
deuoute procedings, which hytherto thorow yowr graces 
most excellent wysdome, and wonderfull industry, assidu- 
ally solycyted abought the confirming and stablyshying 
mens consciens contynually vexed, with sondry doubtfull 
opynions, and vaine ceremonyes, haue taken both good 
and lawdable effecte ; to the vndoubted contentation of Al- 
mighty God, the great renowne, and immortall memorie 
of your graces hye wysedome and excellent knowledge, 
and to the spyrituall weale of all your subiects. Datyd 
and subscrybyd in our chaptre the first day of March in the 
xxix yeare of yowr graces reign. By the hands of yowr 
graces pore and vnworthy subiects : 

Per me Franciscum priorem. Per me Iohannem Petto. 

Per me Iohannem snbpriorem. Per me Io. Harrold. 

Per me Tho. Smyth. Per me Tho. Barly. 

Per me Tho. Golston. Per me Will. Ward. 

Per me Rob. Martin. Per me Tho. Atterbury. 

Per me Iacob. Hopkins. Per me Will. Foivler % 

Per me Rich. Bunbei'y. 



586 APPENDIX. VI. 



N VI. 



THE WILL OF SIR EDMUND MULSHO. Page 442. 

In the name of the highe Trinitie, Fader, Sonne, & Holy 
Ghost. Amen. The firste daye of the monethe of Maye, 
the yeare of our Lorde Godd m.cccclviij, and in xxxvj'* 
yeare of the raigne of my soveraigne lorde kynge Henry 
the Syxte, I Edmunde Mulso, knight, of our Lorde Gods 
vysitation, weake, sycke, and feble in bodie; neuerthe- 
lesse, of nolle, sownde, and clere mynde, and of sensible 
witte, beinge honorid & thancked my Maker : I make and 
ordeyne this my prnte testament and laste will, in maner 
and forme that suethe. First, I bequethe & recomende 
my soule unto Almightye God, my Maker and Sauior, and 
to his blessyd moder virgin Marie, and all the companye of 
heauen ; and my bodye to be buryed in the chappell of o' 
ladye, in the churche of St. Mychaell, called Pater Noster 
Churche, in the Ryall of London, besyde the tombe where 
the worshipfull knight Herre Tancke lyethe buried. And 
I will firste, afore all thinges, after y* my bodie ys buryed, 
that all my debtes, in w ch of right I am bownde, be fully 
contentid and payed, in discharge of my soule. Alsoe, I 
wyll & ordayne, that myne executors under wrytten 
make and ordayne, or do to be made and ordayned, in all 
godly and honest wise, w th in the firste yere next after my 
deceasse, a tombe of allabaster, in the place whereas my 
bodye ys buryed, as ys aforesaid, w th an image ouer the 
same tombe, after my p.son and degree, to be sett with 
myne armes aboute the same, in all places therupon, wher 
as myne executors shall seeme moste conuenient and ne- 
cessarye. And I bequethe for the same tombe so to be 



WILL OF SIR EDMUND MULSHO. 587 

made, xl l sterlinge, or more, as yet neadethe, after the 
discrection of myne executors. Allso, I bequethe all my 
goods, Jewells, and ornaments, in any wise belonginge to 
my chappell, for to serue at the aulter of our Ladie, in the 
chappell abouesaid, for any tow prists there, for to synge as 
hereafter followethe, as longe as they maye endure. Also, I 
bequethe my ornaments and garments of clothe of golde 
and veluit, in any wise belonginge to my bodie, to be 
made in alter clothes, and vestments so made, I bequethe 
to be distributed and disposed, by my executors, unto the 
chappell of our Ladie abouesayd, and to the churches of 
Miche Newton and Lytell Newton, in the shier of NorthU 
after there beste discrection. Also, I will that mine exe- 
cutors ordeyne and doe make an aulter clothe, and a 
frounte, of white satin or damaske, with low curtaynes of 
the same sute, w th my armes, which I bequethe unto the 
auter of our Ladye at Pewe, Westmi7i r . there to serve as 
longe as they maye enduer. Also, I bequethe, to be dis- 
posed and distributed unto the sayd churches of Miche 
Newton and Lyttell Newton, xx 1 sterlinge in bookes, Jew- 
ells, and ornaments, after the best discrection of my exe- 
cutors, Soo : alwayes that the p.sons and p.ishons of bothe 
saide churches devoutly, every Sondaie, pray hartely God 
for the goode estate and prosperytie of the noble prynce 
Ric. Duke of Yorke, and of dame Cecyley his wyffe, and 
for the souls of me and my fader and moder, and for the 
soule espially of John JVashebourene, all Xtian soules. 
Also, 1 bequethe to Wyllm. Mulso, my brother, XL 1 ster- 
linge. Also, I bequethe to Margrett Langley, my syster, 
xll sterlinge, and a standinge cuppe coverid of syluer. 
Also, I bequethe to John Mulso, my nephew, xx* sterlinge, 
and parte of my rayment and vesture longinge to my body, 



588 APPENDIX. VL 

after the discrection of my chosen Rychard Whettehey to 
be dd to the same John. Also, I bequethe to Alice and 
Margrett, daughters to the said Symon, xx te markes ster- 
linge : that is to say, to every of them tenne markes ster- 
linge. Also, I bequethe to Alyce Chamber, the dowgh- 
der of Willm, cytyzen & mercer, whilst he lived, tenne 
markes sterlinge. Also, I bequethe to Tluomas Tanner, 
cytezen and scryvener of London, xl\ sterlinge. Also, 
I bequethe to John Purfoote, late seruant to my saide 
lord the duke, tenne markes sterlinge. Also, I bequethe, 
to be disposed emongste my servants and mene, xxx 1 ster- 
linge, after the discrection of my executors, as I have 
mencyoned in a byll of pap. under my signe manuell. I 
bequethe to him or hir, now on lyve, next of the blood of 
the Candyshes, that laste hadd off the manor off Pentlow, 
in possession before me and my feoffees, xl* sterlinge. 
Also, I bequethe a C markes sterlinge, to be disposed and 
distrybuted for my soule, and for the soules abouesayd; as 
in massis to be songe, highe waies and brydges to be 
amendid and holpen, and to poore people most needefull, 
and in other wourkes of charytie and pyttie, to be done af- 
ter the best discrection of mine executors. Also, I will 
and bequethe, that all my lands and tenements, rents, and 
seruices, w tb thappurtennes in Nassingtoii and Yarwell, 
in the county of North*, shale remayne to my executors, 
by them to be solde ; and all the mony of that same sale 
comeinge, I bequethe to be disposed and distributed by my 
sayde executors into the p.formeigne of my bequests, and 
for my soule, and for the soules above sayde, and in espiall 
for the soule of my son Walt, in works of charitie and 
pittie, as is abouesaid. Also, I will and ordaync, that 
myne executors, imediately after my decesse, sell my 



WILL OF SIR EDMUND MULSHO. 

manor of Ryckmonds, in Thackstedd, in the shier of Essex, 
with the appurtennances, in the best wyse and the most 
auailable proffitt that they can or maye ; and all the mo- 
ney of that sale comeinge, I bequethe to p.forme and full- 
fill the bequests in this my testament contayned : and yf 
by any p.son now one liue, being next vnto the kyneredd 
of the Rychemonds that last had the said manor of Ryche- 
mond in possessyon before err yt came into the hands of 
me, or any feoffees that woll bye the sayd manor of RycJie- 
monds ; than I will that he haue it better cheap then any 
other by xl markes sterling. Also, I will & ordeyne, that 
myne executors, immediatlye after my decesse, sell my 
manor of Greys, in the shier of Suffolke, w th thappurte- 
nances, in the best wysse, and to the most auaile and pro- 
fitt that they can or maye ; and all the monney of that 
same sale comminge, I bequethe to fullfill and p.forme the 
bequests in this my testament conteyned : and if there be 
any p.rson now one lyve, beyinge next unto the kyndred of 
the Greys that laste hadd the sayde mannor of Greys in 
possessyon before yt came to the hands of me or my feof- 
fes, that will bye the sayde mannor of Greys, with the ap- 
purtenances ; than I will that he have the sayde mannor of 
Greys bett. chepe then any other, by a C markes sterlynge. 
Also, I will that myne executors, imedyatelye after my de- 
cesse, sell th'advouson of the church of Candyshe, in the 
saide shier of Suff. ; & all the money of that sale comeinge, 
I bequethe to fulfill the bequestes in this my present testa- 
ment contayned. Also, I will & inwardly desire, and praye 
and beseech the most reverend Fader in God, and my 
goode lorde Ttiomas archebishopp of Cant'bury, his bro- 
ther my lorde Bourcher, & all my feoffees I straightly re- 
quier w ch of great trust and confidence bene feoffees o en* 



589, 



590 APPENDIX. VI. 

feoffid in any of my landes and tenements, rents & seruices, 
mannors & advousons, as of churches or chappells, w th 
th'appurtenances, wheresoever they be, within the realme 
of Englonde, or in any other place, that they make such 
estates, feoffments, and releases thereof, to suche p.sons, & 
in such convenyent and lawfull forme as myne executors 
shall desyer, assoone after my deceasse, as myne executors 
them thereto shall praye & requyer. Also, I bequethe 
to Dame Elizabeth Mutton j pewe bason, and a peue ewre 
of syluer, or a pewe pottes of hir choyse. Also, I bequethe 
unto John Neuell, knyght, my black horse. Also, I be- 
quethe unto John Otter fiue markes sterlinge. Also, I be- 
quethe unto Robert Kolfey flue markes sterlinge. Also, I 
bequethe to John Groue, scryuener, xl 8 sterlinge. Also, I 
bequethe unto y e chappell and fraternitie of the Resurrec- 
tion, in the churche of St. Nicholas, of the towne of Calace, 
XL d sterlinge. Also, I bequethe to the reparation of the 
same churche xxvj*. viiij d . sterlinge. Also, I bequethe to 
the fraternytye and almes table in the same churche of the 
Holye Trinitye, of the same churche, vj. viij. sterlinge. 
Also, I bequethe fiue markes sterlinge to the makeinge of a 
new glasse wyndow to my memory, to be made in our La- 
dye churche of Calace, w th three images of the Holye Tri- 
nitye, our Lady, and St. George, and my good angel pre- 
sentinge my persone w th my armes. Also, I bequethe to 
the hospitall of Callace, called the May son dyne, & to the 
poore peoples fyndinge there, & to the relieuing of the 
lazar-house, withoute the town of Callace, to be disposed 
by the discrection of Richard Whyttvcell, xxvj*. viij d . ster- 
linge ; also, to be dealte by the discrection of the same 
Richard, to the prysoners in Callace, where mooste neede 
ys, xxvj* viij sterlinge. Also, I bequethe to fryer James 



WILL OF SIR EDMUND MULSHO. 591 

Stope, to praye especyallye for me to God in his massys, by 
a yeare, Lij s . iiij d . sterlinge. Also, I bequethe to the pryer 
and couente of the fryers churche in Callace, that they spi- 
ally have my soule recomendid to God, xxvj\ viij d . ster- 
linge. Also, I bequethe Liij*. iiij d . to the reparation of the 
churche of St. Peter w th oute Callace, and to the makeinge 
of an auter clothe, and a frontell, stayned w th an image, or 
the storye of St. Peter, and myne armes, & name of them, 
to be made ; there to serue at the highe alter, in the honor 
of God and St. Peter, as longe as it maye enduer. Also, I 
bequethe to the makeinge of a challyce to the parryshe of 
Bockarde, in the marche of Callace, where Doctor Sal- 
mon ys parson, xx s . sterlinge. Also, I giue and bequethe 
to Johanat of Fanne, at Thakestedd, xx tie markes starlinge. 
Also, I bequethe to the chappell of ourLadye in the Woule, 
in Callace, vj\ viij d . sterlinge. Also, I will and bequethe 
that ccl. markes sterlinge of my moveable goodes, Jewells, 
and ly velood, shale reraayne in the hands of my deare sis- 
ter Margarett Langley, and of my cosen Rychard Whyt 
well; and they to dispose the same some withoute any 
mynyshing,defalcacon or abridgement of eny parte there of 
in suche wyse as I have declared unto them my wryght- 
inge, under my sygnett and sygne manuell, by me delyuerid 
afore my menyall meny to the sayde Richard WJiyttwell. 
Also, I will that my householde and menye shale be kepte 
wholle and togyder fownden of my goodes by xv. dayes 
nexte sueinge after my decease. Also, by this my present 
testamente and will, I adnull & defeate my former testa- 
ment and will that I made in Englonde, afore that I came 
to Callace, and all the bequestes conteyned in the same, 
bearynge date the tenth daye of the moneth of September, 
in the yeare of dr Lord God m.cccliii, and in the yeare of 



592 APPENDIX. VI. 

y e raigne of kynge Hem-y the Syxt, after the Conqueste 
the xxxij th , and all other testaments and vvilles by me made. 
As for my proper goodes and lyue lodde, yf eny be afore 
this my present testament. Also, I will and specially re- 
quier, that all the parsons that have any moueable goodes 
or Jewells of myne, by wrytinge or other wyse, in there pos- 
sessyon and keepinge, that they, and euery of them, make 
delyuerance thereof to my executors, when they desyer 
them. Also, I will that myne executors be rewardid, re- 
compensyd, and allowed, for all manner of costes and ex- 
pensys that they make, or shale make and dafer me in eny 
wyse, in any of the matters and causys conteyned in this 
my testament, and by the ouersight and knowledge of my 
overseers wnder written. Also, I bequethe unto the Try- 
nitie Table, w th in our Ladye churche of Callace aforesayde, 
vj*. viij d . sterlinge. The resydue of all my goodes, cattails, 
and debtes, whatsoeuer they be, in whose hands that they 
be, after that my debts be payed, my body brought on 
earthe, my bequests fullfilled and payed, and this my present 
testament & last will in all wyses performed, I bequethe to 
my executors underwrytten, they therwithe for to do dis- 
pose and distribute for my soule, & for all the soules above 
rehearsed in werkes of charytie and pittie, in maner and 
forme aboue specyfyed, as they maye beste please God and 
most profitt my soule. And over all this, as to the dispo- 
sytion of my maner of Pentlowe, with appurtenances, in 
the shier of Essex, and the advouson of the churche of 
Pentlowe there, I will, requier, and hartelye praye all my 
feoffees in the saide mannor of Pentlowe, w th th'appurte- 
nances & th'aduouson of the same churche, and myne ex- 
ecutors vnder wrytten, that they, or the more parte of them, 
with th'aduise of learned councell, imediatly after my de* 



WILL OF SIR EDMUND MULSHO. 593 

ceasse, sue, purchase, and gett of the kynge, our soueraigne 
lorde, his lers patents, to be made and hadd unto them 
in all sufficyent and suer wyse, vnder his greate seale, 
whereby that my feoffees or executors, or on or moe of 
them, may haue power and auctoritye sufficient, after the 
forme of lawe, to giue and graunt vnto M r . Thomas Ebo- 
rall, p.son of the churche of S l . Michall, abouesaide ; and 
to the wardins & keep.s of the goodes and ornaments of 
the same church of S r . Michaell, and to their successors, 
p.sons and wardins of the same church, w ch fpr the tyme 
shalbe, for euermore, my said mannor of Pentlowe, w th th'- 
appurtenances and advouson of the saide churche of Pent- 
low ; and so therof that they establish mortise and fowunde 
a chaunterie in the saide churche of S*. Michaell, and to 
be cauled Mulso Chaunterie, for tow preists there perpe- 
tually for to singe for my soule ; to have and to hold to the 
said parson and wardins, and to their successors of p.sons 
and wardins of the saide church of S l . Michaell for the 
tyme beinge for evermore, vnder the maner & forme and 
condition that followethe ; that ys to saye, First, I 
will and ordayne the sd. p.son and wardins, and there 
successors, parsons & wardins of the saide churche of 
Saincte Michaell for the tyme beinge, of the reveneW 
and profitts cominge of the saide manor of Pentlowe, and 
th' advouson of the churche off Pentlowe, w th appurtenan- 
ces, fynde tow seculer priests dailye & perpetually, for to 
singe in the saide churche of S l . Michaell's for my soule, 
and for the soules of my fader and moder, and my friendes 
& kyneffolkes, for euermore. And I will & ordeyne, that 
the sayde towe priests be alwayes chosen, receiued, and ad- 
mitted to the sayd chaunterye by the sayd parson and war- 
dins, and their successors, parsons & wardins of the saide 

2q 



594 APPENDIX. VL 

churche of Sabicte Mickaell for the tyme beinge ; and the 
saide towe priests to be honest goode men, & of goode name 
and fame, & of honest conversation and condicon ; and 
that they be at all mattins howers, masseys, and even- 
songes, and at all other divine services & obsequies there 
now used and done, and to be used and done. And yf the 
saide towe preistes, or eyther of them, so chosen, receyued, 
and admitted to y 1 saide chaunterie at eny tyme hereafter, 
be unhoneste, or any vngodly or outragyous wyse behaue or 
beare him, then I will and ordeyne that the saide towe 
preists, or either of them, lyueinge unhonestly, or in any 
ungodly or outragious wyse ruleinge, behavinge, or beare- 
inge himselfe, be removed by the sayde parson and wardins, 
and theire successors, parsons and wardins of the saide 
churche of St. Michael's for the time beinge, from the 
saide service ; and that another prieste or preistes, in his 
place or their places, by the saide parsone & wardins & 
their successors, parsons & wardins, unto the said chaun- 
terie be chosen and putt in, in the maner and form above- 
saide ; and so from tyme to tyme to be done, as ofte as yt 
so happethe or faullethe vayde by the death of them, or 
that they, or eyther of tbem, be promotid to any benyfyce 
or offyce. Also, I will and ordeyne the revenewe and pro- 
fitts cominge of the saide manor of Penthw, and advouson 
of the church of Pentlow, w th th'appurtenances, duely re- 
payere, sustaine, & meynteine the said manor, w* th'ap- 
purtenances, & all manner rents and chargis thereof go- 
inge out, pay and supporte yerely for ever more. And 
that the said parson and wardins, and their successors, 
parsons and wardins of the saide churche of Saincte Mi- 
chall for the time beinge, pay yearely for evermore unto 
the sd, towe preistes for their salarie, xx. tie markes sterlinge, 



WILL OF SIR EDMUND MULSHO. 595 

att the feastes of Xmas, Easter, Midsomer, and Mychaell- 
mas, by euen portions ; that is to saye, to each of them x 
markes sterlinge. And I will & ordeyne furthermore, that 
the saide parson and wardins, & their successors, parsons 
and wardins of the saide churche of St. Michaell, which 
for the tyme shall be, withe a parcell of the revenews come- 
inge of the saide mannor of Pentlow, w th th'appurte* 
nances, yerely for euermore, in the churche Saincte My-* 
chaell abouesaide, holde and keepe myne anniversarie the 
daye of my deceasse ; that is to saye, in the even, dirige by 
note, & one the morrow, masse of requiem by note, w th 
tow tapers at my saide tombe, eache of tow pounde of waxe; 
and that the parson have for his labour, being there present 
in there obsequies, xx d , and every of the priests xu d , and of 
the clarks xu d , and either of the church wardins xx d ; and 
that there be disposed emongste xxiiij poore men and the wo- 
men, the same daie of my anniversarrie, iiij s in money yerely, 
for ever more. Also, I will and ordayne, that the day follow- 
ing myne anniversarye, an account be had and made be- 
tween the parson and wardins, and their successors for ever- 
more, yerely, of all the receiptes, payments, & chargis, by 
them hadd and done within y e yere ; and that all the mo- 
ney that upon such accounts, from yere to year, over and 
above the sustentacon of the saide towe preists, reparatyons 
of the saide mannor of Pentlowe, w th th'appurtenances, 
fownden & done, the saide anniversarie kept and holden, 
and all other chargis aboue saide done & payde, remayne 
the cleare, be put in a boxe, or in a chiste with tow lockes 
and keyes, fast locked, for the reparacyon and new edefica- 
tiones and sustenation of the saide manor of Pentlowe, w th 
th'appurtenances and chargis aforesaide,in the saide churche 
safelye to be kepte j and that the &aide parsone have and 

2q2 



596 x\PPEND1X. VI. 

keepe the one keye, & the saide wardins the other keye. 
Furdermore, I will and ordeyne, that if the saide person 
and wardins, and their successors, parsons and wardins of 
the saide churche of Saincte Mxchcell for the tyme beinge, 
at any after, by neglygent and slothfull, and fynde not the 
towe preistes, nor keepe not the saide anniversarye, & all 
other chargis abouesaide, in manner and forme aboue de- 
clared, and haue no cause reasonable whereby they shoulde 
be lettid or tarryed : tlien I will that the state, right, and 
possession of the said parson and wardins, & their succes- 
sors, parsons and wardins of the saide churche of Sat. Mi- 
chaell for the tyme beinge, be voide & of no strengthe ; 
and than I will and ordeyne, that the saide mannor at 
Pentloive, with th'advouson of the saide churche of Pent- 
lowe, and all th'appurtenances, remayne & turne unto Mr. 
Tlio*. Bucksall, maister of the colledge of Fodringhey, in 
the shier of Northampton, to have and to holde all the saide 
manor of Pentlowe, and all th'appurtenances, to the saide 
now master of the saide colledge of Fodringhey, and to 
his successors, maisters of the said colledge, forevermore ; 
so alwaies that the same maister & his successors fynde for 
evermore towe preistes dayleye for to singe in our Ladye 
chappell there, for the soule of me the saide Edmonde, and 
the soules before rehearsydd ; & also hold and keep my 
anniuersaiye in the maner and forme aboue writtenn, 
and all other chargis and things, before rehearsed, do ob- 
serue and fullfill yerely in the saide colledge, in manner 
and forme as ys aboue specifyed and declared evermore. 
Also, I charge and requier, and will that none of myne 
executors, in absense of the other, in the execution of this 
my testament and laste will, take upon them, nor presume 
to doe any thinge w th out the agreement, will, and assent of 



WILL OF SIR EDMUND MULSHO. . 597 

them all, or the more parte of them; and when neede be, 
they to take thadvise of the overseers hereafter named of 
this my testament, except only as for the ccl markes be- 
quethed and assigned to my saide sister Margarett Lang- 
ley, and my cosen Richard Whytti'ell, in forme aforesaid; 
and also all suche thinges as of right and very nescessitye 
must be done in Callace and marches of the same ; the 
which I comytt only, by this my testament, to my saide 
cosen Rychard fVhytwell, in absence of his fellowship co- 
executors with hym, wholly to execute and parforme. Of 
this my present testament and last will, I make & ordayne 
myne executors ; that is to saye, the wor" knight William 
Oldehalle, Mr. Robert Wyatt, clerke, the saide Willm. 
Mulso, Symon ReyJiam, and Rychard Wliyttivell, And I 
bequethe to the sd. William Oldhall, knight, for his labour 
in this behalfe to be had, xx L sterlinge, and a gowne of 
fyne French blacke, or of puewke, and a furre with a pursle 
of browne martirs for the same. Alsoe, I bequethe to the 
saide Mr. Robert, Wm. Mulso, & Symon Reyham, for their 
labore about the premyssys trewly to be done, xxl sterlinge 
eche of them to have. iVnd to the sd. Rychard Whytt- 
well, for hys labor, I bequethe fiftye poundes sterlinge. 
And I make overseers of y s my present testament and laste 
will; that is to say, the mooste reverende Father in God, 
and my right goode lorde, Tliomas archebishop of Canter- 
bury ; the high, mightie, and my full good lorde, Rych- 
arde earle of Warwicke ; Henry Bourchere, knight, lord 
Bourchire ; & th'aforesaid M r . Thomas Eborall, And I 
bequethe to the saide most reverende Fader the Arch- 
bishopp, xxl sterlinge; to the saide mightie earle, my 
double harneys complete, that I had of the gifte of the 
dolphin of France ; to my saide lorde Bourchir, x.il ster- 



598 APPENDIX. VI. 

linge; and to the saide M r . Tnomas Eborall, x L sterlinge. 
instantly beseeching & desyreing my saide goode lordes ? 
and requireinge all other of my overseers and executors of 
this my testament and laste will, to shew and doe for me 
in th'execution of all the premisses, as they would I did 
for them in semblable wise one God his behalfe. Over 
this, I will that an able preiste of conversation synge and 
pray for my soule, and the soules of my fader & moder, and 
of all other soules that I am in deade to praye for at Scala : 
Cell, in Rome, by the space of one wholle yeare and xxx 
daies; and, w th in the same tyme, I will that the same 
preiste shale synge and praye for my soule, and the soules 
afore rehearsed, a trentall in certeyne principall churches 
at Rome aforesaide in suche forme, and at suche tymes, as 
Saincte Gregoiy did, and as yt is there used and accus- 
tomed ; for the which seruice so to be done by the saide 
preiste, I will that my saide executors giue him a compe- 
tent sallary, in suche forme as they w th hym conveniently 
may accorde. Also, I will that my saide executors ordeyne 
and doe prouide a gentill and a well doinge horse, w th 
an harneys to the same ; and that the saide horse and 
harneys, and also my chawferyn w th the whyght feather 
for the saide horse, by my executors, for and in my name, 
be giuen to righte noble lorde the earle of Marche, as for 
my remembrance to his goode lordshipp. Provydid al- 
wayes, that if any goods moueable, as well here as CaU 
lace, and in the marches of the same, as in Englonde, 
and my londes and tenements beinge in my feoffees 
hands, wheresoevere they byn, will not suffice ne streche 
easely to the performing and fulfillinge of these my 
saide bequestes and will (as I trust to God they shalle), than 
I will nd ordeyne by this my testament and laste will, that 



WILL OF SIR EDMUND MULSHO. 699 

my saide executors abridge and make defalcacou of parte 
of all and every of my saide bequestes, wills, and ordinan- 
ces, in suche forme as they shall eseeme most expedient and 
behofefull to be done for the health of my soule, except only 
the ccl markes bequethed and assigned to my saide sister 
Margarett Langley, and to my cosen Ry chard Whyttwell, 
and also the said xx tie markes to the said Johane at Fann; 
whiche towe somes I will specially to be performed, and my 
debtes payed. In wyttness whereof, to this my present 
testament and laste will I have putte my seale, wrytten 

and yearenthe day and yeare afore rehearsed. 



TestamentQ Edmundi Mulso, militis, quo ad disposio- 
nem tarn omnm et singuloru. manerioriu, terrarti, et tene- 
mentorti suorQ quam omniu et singuloru bonorfl suonl 
mobiliu ; ultimam suam in se contineQ volunt ap.te lect 
p. dictti Edmundu sigillo suo ad arma sigillat. in p.sentia 
testitl subscriptoru specialiter ad hoc vocatom. 



iErat. 



John Groue *\John JVryght 

Robt. Wynnington iJohn Deley 
John Pycharde I Willm. Toste 
Radi Knyston (Robti. Leche 
Thome Laverocke I Guuley JValmesley. 
Thome Vsher J 



600 



APPENDIX. VII. 



N VII. 

CATALOGUE OF PICTURES AT WOBURN ABBEY, NOT MEN- 
TIONED IN THE BODY OF THE WORK. Sept. 1810. P. 467. 



DINING ROOM. 




Twenty-four Views in Venice 


Canaleiti . 


' 




LIBRARY. 




Portrait - 


Rembrandt 


Daniel Mytens and Wife 


Vandyck 


Rubens - 


Himself 


Philip Le Roy - - 


Vandyck 


John Kupetzky - , 


Himself 


Sir Godfrey Kneller 


Himself 


Michael Merevelt 


Himself 


Rembrandt - 


Himself 


Diogenes * 


Salvator Rosa 


Vesaleur - 


Titian 


David Teniers 


Himself 


Charles de Mallery 


Vandyck 


Franck Halls 


Himself 


Bartoleme Estevan Morelli 


Himself 


Tintoret - 


Himself 


Joannes Spellinx 


Vandyck 


Paul de Jode and Family 


Vandyck 


Martin Pepyn 


Himself 


John Steen - 


Himself 


" Joan Worevius of Antwerp" 


Vandyck 


Titian - 


Himself 


Colbert - 


Champagne! 



PICTURES AT WOBURN. 601 



ETRUSCAN ROOM. 

Landscape with Cattle - Paul Potter 

Sea Piece - Vandevelde 

Landscape with Cattle - Both 

Landscape - - - - Berghem 

Sea Piece - - - Vangoyen 

Dutch Merry-making - - Teniers 

Sea Piece - - - Van dc Capelle 

Fall of Hippolytus - - - - Rubens 
Dutch Feast - - Teniers 

Fishing under the Ice - - Cuyp 

INDIAN SILK ROOM. NORTH FRONT. 

Fruit Piece over the Chimney - Snydeis 

INDIAN PAPER ROOM. 

Game Piece over the Chimney 

FRENCH BED ROOM. 

Landscape over the chimney 

Ditto over the east window 

- 

Ditto over the west door 

FRENCH DRESSING ROOM. 

Landscape over chimney " 

Portrait at west end. Gertrude Duchess 

of Bedford - - Sir /. Reynolds 

Landscape over west door 
Do. over east door 
Portrait at east end. Francis Marquis of 

Tavistock - ' - - Sir J. Reynolds 



602 



APPENDIX. VII 


:. 


BILLIARD ROOM. 








Inside of a Hall 


Van Delcn 


Landscape 


Everdingen 


Landscape - - - 


Fynaker 


Landscape with Bridge, &c. from M, 




de Calonne's Collection 


Ruysdael 


Landscape, Cattle, &c. 


Isaac Ostade 


Landscape 


Lingelbach 


Sea-coast, Beacon, &c. 


Woverman 


Dutch Cottage, &c. (in manner of 




Browers) 


Teniers 


Portrait of Cuyp 


Himself 


Sea Piece 


Backhuysen 


Landscape 


G. Poussin 


Landscape 


Both 


Madonna and Child, from M. de Ca- 


Murtllo 


lonne's Collection 


Landscape with Ruins, &c. 


Ruysdael 


Virgin teaching Infant Jesus to read 


Schedoni 


Portrait of Descartes 


P. de Champagne 


Flemish Prize-Ox 


Cuyp 


Flemish Merry-making 


Teniers 


Inside of a Church 


Peter Nief 


Landscape ; the original in Lord Staf- 


r 


ford's Collection. Copy from 


G. Poussin, 


Lions - 


Rubens 


Flemish Twelfth-day Feast 


Jan Steen 


Horse in a Stable 


Cuyp 


Portrait of Lady Coventry 


Gavin Hamilton 



PICTURES AT WOBURN. 



603 



INNER DRAWING ROOM. 



Landscape 


Claude, copy 


View of a Cavern 


Salvator Rosa 


Gallery of Paintings and Sculpture 


Teniers 


View of a Cavern 


Salvator Rosa 


Landscape, Mountains and Cattle 


Berghem 


Landscape. Extensive View of Fields, 


Water, &c. with Cattle 


Cuyp 


Playing at Bowls 


Teniers 


Flemish Girl 


Rembrandt 


Dogs - - 


Titian 


Boy with Pigeon 


Francisca Mola 


Landscape; Hawking 


Paul Potter 


View ; Sea-coast with Traders, &c. 


Wouverman 


Sea Piece 


Van de Capelle 


Landscape 


Claude 


Fish Stall and Poultry 


Van Staverow, a 


Scholar of Gerard Dow 


Landscape ; Ruinous Bridge 


John Ascleen 


Itinerant Tooth-drawer - 


Andrew Both 


Old Woman and Child . - 


Teniers 


Sea Piece - 


D. Vlujer 


Four Seasons 


CRotenhamer and 
^Breugel 


Ballad Singers 


Andrew Both 


DRAWING ROOM. NORTH OF SALOON. 


Landscape - 


Wynants 


View of Old Rome 


Claude 



604 



PICTURES AT WOBURN. 



Landscape 


Wynants 


Landscape 


Poussin 


View of Houghton House 


Wilson 


Landscape - I 


Poussin 


Landscape 


Wynants 


View of Nimegiien 


Cuyp 


Landscape u - 


Wynants 


. 




SALOON. 




Dccdalus and Icarus ~ - 


Vandyck 


Elizabeth (Keppel) Marchioness of 


Tavistock 


Sir J. Reynolds 


Portrait; Adrian Panlido Parcja 


Velasquez 


Joseph interpreting the Baker's 




Dream 


Rembrandt 


Sportive Boy ; Angels flying, &c. 


Murilh 


Abel slain 


Rubens 


The Israelites' departure from Egypt 


Castaglione 


Landscape 


G. Poussin 


Landscape 


G. Poussin 


Christ in the Garden 


Annibale Caracci 


Portrait ; Francis Duke of Bedford 


Hoppner 


Christ's Vision - - 


Luca Giordano, 


Samson's Parable " - 


Guercino 



DRAWING ROOM. SOUTH OF SALOON. 

Portrait ; Francis Earl of Bedford, 

eetatis 48. Vandyck 1G36 

Anne Countess of Bedford, Wife to 
William fifth Earl of Bedford, and 
first Duke - - Vandyck 



LADY JANE SEYMOUR. C05 

Earl of Haddington ; from the Orleans Collec- 
tion - . - - Vandyck 

The Lady Herbert ; formerly in M. de Cahnne's 

Collection - Vandyck 

Albertus Minus, Dean of Antwerp - Vandyck 

Person unknown, formerly in M. de Cahnne's 

Collection - - Vandyck 

Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland - Vandyck 

Dutchess of Orleans - - Vandyck 

Person unknown, in a rich dress, from the 

Orleans' Collection . - Vandyck 



WAITING ROOM. 

Digby, Earl of Bristol, and Sir William Russel Vandyck 
Louis Quinze, from - - Varho 



OMITTED AT PAGE 482, 1. 3. 

I now turn my eyes to a lady whose felicity consisted in Lady Jane 
a different fate ; in being early cut off from the embraces of Seymour. 
a capricious tyrant, whose inconstancy and whose lusts would 
probably have involved her in misery, had not Heaven, in 
its mercy, taken her to itself. Lady Jane Seymour, the 
lady in question, became queen to Henry VIII. in 1536, 
and was released from him, by death, in 1537. The por- 
trait expresses the elegance of her person. She is dressed 
in red, with great gold net-work sleeves, and rich in jew- 
els. Her print, among the illustrious heads, does her little 
justice. 



COG APPENDIX. VIIL 



N VIIL 



ON THE DEATH OF THE COUNTESS OF SOMERSET. P. 174. 

" Her death was Infamous : and though she died (as it 
" were} in a corner (in so private a condition), the loath- 
" someness of her death made it as conspicuous as on a 
" house-top : for that part of her hody which had been the 
" receptacle of most of her sin, grown rotten (though she 
" never had but one child) the ligaments failing, it fell 
" down, and was cut away in flakes, with a most nauseous 
" and putrid savour ; which to augment, she would roll 
" herself in her own ordure in her bed ; took delight in 
" it. Thus her affections varied; for nothing could be 
" found sweet enough to augment her beauties at first, 
" and nothing stinking enough to decypher her loath- 
" someness at last. Pardon the sharpness of these ex- 
" pressions ; for they are for the glory of God ; who often 
" makes his punishments (in the balance of his justice) of 
" equal weight with our sins." 

Wilson's Life of King James I. p. S3. 



APPENDIX. IX. 607 



N IX. 



EPITAPH IN AMPTHILL CHURCH. P. 501. 



M. S. 

Optimis parentibus nunc tumulo conjunctus 

Pietate semper conjunctissimus 

Hie jacet 

Richardus Nicolls Francis. /** ex Margar. Bruce 

Filius, 

Il.limo Jacobo Duci Ebor. a cubiculis intimus ; 

Anno 1663, relictis musarum castris, 

Turmam equestrem contra rebelles duxit, 

Juvenis strenuus, atq; impiger, 

Anno 1664, aetate jam & scientia militari maturua 

In AMERICAM 

Septentrionalem cum imperio missus 

Longam I.s.lam cseterasq; insulas, 

Belgis expulsis, vero Domino restituit. 

Provinciam arcesq; munitissimas 

Heri sui titulis insignivit, 

Et Triennio pro preside rexit. 

Academia Literis 

Bello Virtute 

Aula Candore Animi 

Magistratu PrudentiS. 

Celebris : 

Ubiq; bonis carus, sibi & negotiis par, 

28 Mail, 1672, 

Nave praetoria contra eosd. Belgas 



G08 APPENDIX. IX. 

Fortiter dimicans, 

Ictu globi majoris transfossus oceubuit. 

Fratres habuit, 

Prseter Gulielmum praecoci fato defunctum, 

.; Edvardum, et Franciscam. 
Utrumq; copiarum pedestrium centurionem, 

Qui faedse et servilis tyrannidis 

Quffi tunc Angliam oppresserat impatientes 

Exilio preelato (si modo regem extorrem sequi exit, sit) 

Alter Parisiis, alter Hagd comitis, 

Ad coelestem patriam migrarunt. 



APPENDIX. X. 601) 



N X. 



EPITAPH IN MAULDEN CHURCH. P. M7. 

Diana 

Oxonii et Eligini Comitissa 

Quae 

Illustri orta sanguine, sanguinem illustravit, Cecilio- 
rum meritis clara, suis clarissima, ut quae nesciret minor 
esse maximis. Vitam ineuntem honoravit, et prodeun- 
tem ampla virtutum cohors, et exeuntem mors beatis- 
sima decoravit, volente Numine ut nuspiam deesset aut 
virtus aut felicitas. Duobus conjuncta maritis, utriq ; cha- 
rissima; primum (quem ad annum habuit) impense di- 
lexit ; secundum (quem ad 24) tanta pietate et amore co- 
luit, ut cui vivens obsequium, tanquam patri praestitit, mo- 
riens testimonium filio reliquit. Noverca quum esset ma- 
ternam pietatem facile superavit ; famulitium adeo mitem 
prudentemq; curam gessit ut non tarn domina familiae prae- 
esse quam anima corpori inesse videreturj deniq; cum 
pudico, humili, forti, sancto animo, virginibus, conjugi- 
bus, viduis omnibus exemplum consecrasset integerrimum, 
terris anima major ad similes evolavit superos 

Anno salutis 1654, April 27, aetatisqj 58. 
Ita gemuit Dominus Thomas Bruce, Comes Eliginjsnsis 
et Baro Bruce de Whorlton, qui hoc monumentum aeque 
sacellum 

In perpetuam conjugis optimae memoriam 

Erigendum curavit 

Anno 1656. 

2R 



610 APPENDIX. X. 

The following inscription appears under a busto : 

Thomas Comes de Elgin 
Baro Bruce de Whorlton 
In comitatu Eboracensi, 

Hanc dilectissimi patris sui effigiem Robertus Comes de 
Ailesbury et Elgin, &c. filius unigenitus in extimo sacelli 
circulo erigendam curavit. Medium quippe soli Comitis- 
sae de Oxford uxori suae carissimae praedictus Thomas sa- 
crum voluit, cujus in aeternam memoriam monumentum 
illud centrale extruxit, quod et ipse et prosapia sua, fatis 
olim cessura, eminus stantes venerabundi quasi contempla- 
buntur. 

Obiit Decemb. anno salutis 1663. 
JEtatis suce 73. 

Edwardus Bruce Armiger, Rob. Bar 15 Bruce, filius do- 
ma Diana Henrici Grey Com 1 * de Stamford, filiae n n . m. 
quinetiam Thomce Comitis de Elgin nepos a quo hanc Vi- 
vendi rationem cum didicisset, gratus scholaris exemplo 
suo docuit avum (ei vix paucis mensibus superstitem) 
mori. Anno salutis 1663. jEtatis suae l7 m \ 



EPITAPH ON LADY KENT. 611 



NXI. 

EPITAPH IN FLITTON CHURCH, ON THE GOOD COUNTESS 
OF KENT. P. 522. 

Here lyes the Right Hon ble . Amabella, late countess dow- 
ager of Kent, entombed by her dear lord Henry Earl of 
Kent, to signifie her resolution to dye with him to the rest 
of ye world, and to live after so great a loss only to God, & 
the interest of this noble family. This she made good, by 
her exemplary piety & regular devotion in her chappel ; 
whereto she obliged all her domesticks, every morning & 
evening, to attend her. 

And, surviving her own monument 45 years, she had 
time to raise to herself a more lasting one, by restoring the 
fortune of this illustrious family, which she found under an 
eclipse, to near the height of it's ancient splendour. 

This she effected by her wise conduct & large acquisi- 
tions, & by the advantageous disposal of her only son An- 
thony Earl of Kent, in marriage, with Mary, sole daughter 
and heiress of the R*, Hon ble . John Lord Lucas, baron of 
Shenjield, in Essex. 

To the concerns of her children & grandchildren she 
confined her thoughts ; & fixed her residence at Wrest, 
their usual seat; which she wonderfully improved & 
imbellished ; continually adding to the profit or orna- 
ment of the place, until death gently seiz'd her, Aug?*. 
17 th , 1698, in the 92 d year of her age; & was here in- 
terred by the R*. Hon ble Anthony Earl of Kent, her most 
dutiful son ; who would have caused y s to be engraven, 
had not a sudden death prevented him ; but it was after- 
wards performed, in due acknowledgement of her great be- 

2r2 



612 APPENDIX. XI. 

neficence, & to perpetuate her precious memory to all his 
posterity, by her grandson, 

Henry Duke of Kent. 

Mary, one of the daughters of Sir George Cotton of 
Combermere, in y e county of Chester, knight, first espowsed 
to Edward earle of Derty, & after, to this Henry earle of 
Kent ; who deceased the 1 6 th of November, in the yeare of 
our Lord God 1580, and lieth buried at Great Gaddesden, 
in the covnty of Hertford. In tender affection & good 
respect of w h . lady, the said earle of Kent, her husband, 
caused this remembrance to be made of her. 

Here lyeth the body of the most noble, vertvous, & 
worthy peere, Henry Grey earle of Kent, lord Hastings, 
Weisford, & Rvthyn, lord lievtenant of the covnty of Bed-^ 
ford : ever loyall to his prince, assvred to'his covntry, kinde 
to his friends, loving to al good men, & charitable to the 
poore ; the first erector & fovnder of this chapell j who 
deceased the 31 st of Janvary, 1614. 






INDEX. 



\ 



613 



Abbot, archbishop, page 324 

Acton church, 26 

Alban's, St. See Saint Al- 

ban's. 
Albert, archduke of Austria, 

503 
Allesey village, 188 
Altar, Roman, at Chester, 1 
Amphibalus, St. 301 
Ampthill,49H 

park, 501 

Ankor river, Drayton's verses 

on, 168 
Anne, dutchess of Bedford, 

daughter to Robert Car 

earl of Somerset, her story, 

496 
Anson, Thomas, his amiable 

life, 91.93 
Ardbury hill, 394 
Armour, great attention paid 

to, 230 



Arundel, Thomas earl of, 
336 

Ashmole, Elias, 1 80 

Assassination, vindictive, 96 

Aston-hall, 79 

Aston, Sir Edward, tomb of, 
99 

Aston, Sir Walter, lord For- 
far, 112 

Audley church, 58 

Audley, lord, and his E- 
squires, 53 

Avon river, 250 

B 

BacJcwell, Eduard, 457 
Bacon, Sir Francis, 33 1 

, his monument, 347 

, Sir Nuthaniel, 332 

, Sir Nicholas, 333. 

467 
, lady, second wife of 



Sir Nicholas, 334 
Badby manor, 393 



614 



INDEX. 



Bagot family, 114 
Baltimore, first lord, 319 
Barnet town, 390 
Barrows, 64 
Battle of Barnet, 382 

Bloreheath, 61 . 

Hopton Heath, 98 

Northampton, 433 

St. Alban's, first, 



377 



St. Alban's, se- 



cond, 379 
Beaudesert, 130 
Bedford family, 465 
I , Anne, countess of, 



496 



, Edward, earl of, 485 

, Francis, second earl 

of, 485 
, , fourth earl 

of, 497 
, Gertrude, duchess 



of, 494. 497 

, John, earl of, 482 

, Lucy, countess of, 



475 



, William, duke of, 

483 
Beeston-hall, 12 

family, 1 3 

castle, 1 4 

Beighton, the surveyor, 252 
Bertelin, the hermit, 102 
Bethenei, now Stafford, 102 



Billings, Little, 43 1 
Billing ton Bury, 104 
Binley church, elegant, 237 
Bishton, 108 
Blecheley church, tombs in, 

284 
Blithe-hall, 180 
Blithefield, 110 
Bloreheath, battle of, 6 1 
Boadicea sacks Verulamvum, 

343 
Bohemia, Elizabeth queen 

of, 241 
Borough-hill, near Daven- 

try, 258 
Bough ton, 2 
Brandon, Charles duke of 

Suffolk, account of, 489 
Braunslon village, 253 
Brickhill, 290 
Brindley, James, 72 
Brook, lord, 141 
Broughton family, 59 
Bruff, the, 63 
Buckingham, George Villiers, 

first duke of, 328 
Bunbury church, 19 
Burbot fish, 109 
Burleigh, lord treasurer, 

111. 487.538 
Burnt walls, 262 
Burston, 79 

Bury-bank, near Stone, 66 
, Stafford, 105 



I N D E X. 



6\5 



Calveley, 25 

, Sir Hugh, his tomb 

and history, 21 
Camp hills, 64 
Canal, Cheshire, 14 
, Staffordshire, 68 
, Oxford or Coventry, 

205 
Cank wood, 106. 133 
Camvell, 172 
Castle Ashhy, 418 

dikes, 266 

hill, 132 

Catesby, 394 
Cecil, Sir Edward, 2 14 
Chad, St. or Ceadda, 136 
Chalk, antiquity of its use, 

292. 303 
Chalk-hill, 291 
Chartley castle, 85 

house, 84 

Chartreux, 248 
Chester, 1 

Christleton village, 2 
Clarendon, Hyde, earl of, 

323 
Cleveland, Barbara, dutches? 

of, 545 

' , Thomas, earl of, 

327 



Clifford hill, 431 
Clifton church, 162 

village, 162 , 

Clinton, Roger de, bishop of 

Lichfield, 138 
Coleshill, 174 

hall, 178 . 

Colton, 1 10 

Colwich, 107 

Cowfee abbey, 237 

Combustible woman, 227 

Compton family, 421 

Copthall, 566 

Cornara, Catherine, queen 

of Cyprus, 502 
Cornwallis, first lord, 316 
Corpus Christi plays, 221 
Courtney, earl of Devonshire, 

his story, 467 
Coventry, 188 

castle, 1 98 

trade, 194 

, its churches, 202. 

213,214 

, the priory, 208 

, lord keeper, 325 



Craven, Sir William, 246 

, William lord, 242 

Crew, bishop, 519 

lord Crew, 5 1 8 

, SWRandle, 516 

Croke, Sir George, a judge, 

310 
Cross, queen Eleanor's, 433 
Croxall church, 162 



16 



INDEX. 



Cumberland, Margaret, coun- 
tess of, 314. 487 
Curdworth, 174 



D 



Dauby, Harry, earl of, 477 

Danes, at Toucester, 27 '3 

Danvers, earl of Danby, 477 

, lady, her fine tomb, 

267 

Darlastan, 66 

Davenlry, 255 

Delves, Sir John, 51 

Devonshire, Christiana, coun- 
tess of,- 473 

- , Courteney, earl of, 

467 

Digby, George, his singular 
epitaph, 82 

family, 439 

, Sir Everard, 439 

, Sir Kenelm, 448. 450 

pedigree-book, 441 

, Lady Venetia, 451 

Doddington-hall, 53. 59 

Dodford church, 263 

Dorset, Edward, earl of, 309. 
422 

Duel, great, in 1398, design- 
ed at Coventry, 231 

Dugdale, Sir William, 179 



Dunchurch, 251 
Dunsmorc heath, ib. 
Dunstable, 292 
Dwina, first bishop of LicA- 
,/ieW, 136 



Easton Mauduit church, 430 

> house, 426 

Easton Neston, 275 
Eleanor, queen, her crosses, 

433 
Elford church and village, 

159 
Elgin, Diana, countess of, 

her strange tomb, 507 
Elizabeth, queen, portraits 

of, 330. 492. 539 
Eltavon, 434 

Empson, Sir Richard, 273 
Enfield chace, 560 
Epitaphs, absurd, 148 
Erdeswik, Sampson, SI 
Essex, Robert, earl of, 330. 

471 

, Walter, earl of, 113 

Ethelfleda, countess of Mer- 

cia, 102 
Etocetum, 158 
Exeter, Thomas, earl of, 472. 

552 



INDEX. 



617 



Fairwell church, 1 34 

Fanhope, lord, 499 

Fawsley house, 394 

Fenny Stratford, 289 

Fermor family, 275 

Finchley common, 391 

Fisherwick, 159 

Flamsted, 300 

Flitton church, 521 

Flore church, 401 

Font at Luton, 524 

Stafford, 100 

Fox, Sir Stephen, 423 

Free-warren, 3 

Frevils, 166 

Frobenius, the printer, por- 
trait of, 556 

Froissart, quotation from, 
230 

Fuller' s-earth, 461 



G 

Geese dropping down mira- 
culously, 265 

Geraldine, the fair, 437. 489 

Gerard family, 49 

Gobions, seat of Sir Thomas 
More, 559 

Godiva, 189 



Goldington, 437 
Gondamar, 537 
Gorges, Sir Edward, 493 
Gorhambury, 304 
Gosford-green, remarkable 

duel designed at, 229 
Gothurst, 437 
Gray, lady Jarac, 514 
Greene, Mr. of Lichfield, his 

cabinet, 155 
Gr<^ family, 508 
Grimston, Sir Edward, 325 

, Sir Harbottle, 308 

Gse, due tte, 544. 551 



H 

Hacket, bishop, 143 
Hadley, 386 
Hardingwood, 59 
Hatfield house, 535 

church, 557 

Heledd-Wen, 36 

Henry, prince of Wales, 509 

VI. 549 

VIII. 548, 549 

Hermitage, Mr. Lyster's, 117 

Hey wood, 89 

bridge, 90 

Highgate, 391 

Historical piece, curious, at 

Hatfield, 542 
Hockley, 290 
Hockliffe, 291 



618 



INDEX. 



Ho family, 530 
Hopton-heath fight, 98 
Norton church, 435 
Houghton Conquest, 507 

park house, 505 

Humphry, duke of Glouces- 
ter, his tomb, S59 
Hunsborough, 434 
Huntington, Henry, earl of, 
112 



Jekyll, Sir Joseph, 454 
Iknield- street, 292 
Ingest re, 97 



K 

AT<7i/, Amabella, countess of, 
513 

, earls of, 512 

King's Bromley, 1 20 
Knightley family, 395 
Knightlow, 250 

Langton, bishop, 139 
Latimer, lady, 555 
Laud, archbishop, his por- 
trait, 502 



Laura, portrait of, 549 

Lazar houses, 20 1 

Lea river, 567 

Leicester, Dudley, earl of, 

536 
Leofric, earl of Mercia, 1 89 
Lqyers, 201 
Lichfield, 136 

cathedral, 137 

castle, 157 

Lincoln, Clinton, first earl of, 

488 
Littleton, lord keeper, 180 
Longdon village, 129 
Lucas, Sir Cliarles, 515 
Lucy, countess of Bedford, 

239. 473. 475 
Luton town and church, 

524 
Ho, 529 



M 

Macclesfield, Gerard, earl 

of, 543 
Madning-money, 293 
Magiovinum, 292 
Maiden's Bower, ib. 
Maisterson, his epitaph, 43 
Mandeville, Sir JoAra, his 

birth-place, 368 
Margaret, queen of Henry 

VI. 61. 214. 379 
Market-street cell, 299 



INDEX. 



619 



Market- street, 300 

Mary queen of Scots, 547 

Maulden church, 507 

Maveston, Sir Robert's tomb 
and singular history, 118 

Maxstoke castle, 182 

Maynard, Banaster, lord, 
515 

Meautys, Sir Thomas, 332 

Mere, Staffordshire, 63 

Middleton, 172 

Milton's widow, account of, 
47 

Mireden village, 185 

Moliere, 115 

Monk, General, his begin- 
ning, 47 

, , charac- 
ter, 318 

Mostyn, Sir Thomas, 13. 

Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, 
229 

, his designed du- 
el, ib. 

Moxhull, 173 

Muccleston church, 60 

Mulso family, 296 

, Sir Edmund, his cu- 
rious will, 432 



N 

Nantwich, 32 
Nassau, count de, 484 



Nehelennia, goddess, 292 

Nen river, 402 

New River, 560 

Newport Pagnel, 458 

Nicolls, governor, his epi- 
taph, 501. 607 

Norfolk, Thomas, duke of, 
327 

Northampton, 402 

, Comptons, earls 

of, 421 

Northumberland, Algernon, 
earl of, 546 

Nottingham, chancellor, 317 

Nouers de, family, 455 



O 

Offa, king, 350 
Offley family, 61. 128 
Orgrave house, 121 
Orphan, supposed origin of 

that play, 486 
Otho I. legend of, 245 
Ouse river, 437 



Packington house, 184 
Paget family, 131 
Pagnel, Newport, 458 



620 



INDEX. 



Parliamentum diabolicum et 
indoctum, 193 

Parr, William, lord, 435 

Passenham church, 282 

Pembroke, Philip, earl of, 
311 

, William, earl of, 

316 

Pennocrucium, 158 

Philip Le Bon, duke of Bur- 
gundy, 335 

Portland, Weston, earl of, 
321 

Potter's Pery, 28 1 

Pre, de la, abbey, 432 



R 

Ramridge, abbot, his tomb, 

359 
Ranelagh, lady, 556 
Redburn, 301 

Rich, lady, her story, 5 1 1 
Richard III 549 
Richmond, James, duke of, 

240. 328 
, Ludovic, duke of, 

317 



> , Margaret, coun- 
tess of, 540 

Roger and Chris, dialogue 
between, on the battle of 
Barnet, 385 

Rogers, comptroller, 484 



Roman roads, 158. 251. 

284. 292. 343. 
Roos family, 254 
Rotheram family, 528 
Rudgley village, 128 
Rufin, prince, 136 
Russel, lady Rachel, 480 

, lord William, 479 

, lord Edward and Sir 

Francis, singular portrait* 

of, 486 



Saint Alban's abbey, 350 

town, 373 

Salince, 37 

Salisbury, Robert, earl of, 

472. 548 
* , William, earl of, 

548 
Salt, its antient history, 35 
Salt-works, 34 
Sandon church, 60 
Scioppius, account of, 82 
Sekindon village and church, 

164 
Seymour, lady Jane, 623 
Shugborough, 90 
Someris tower, 531 
Somerset, countess of, her 

infamous life, 469 
, loathsome death, 

606 



INDEX. 



621 



Somerville, Sir Philip, 122 
Sommers, Will, the jester, 27 6 
Sopewell nunnery, 381 
Southampton, Henry, earl of, 

476 
< , Thomas* earl 

of, 322 
Sow river, 90 

Sparke, reverend Dr., quib- 
bling epitaph on, 286 
Stafford town, 99 

castle, 103 

family, 104 

Stapleford, & 

Stone, 11 

Stonefield, 68 

Stow church, near Lichfield, 

152 
, near Chartley, 

87 
Stow-nine- Churches, 267 
Strafford, Wcntworth, earl of, 

321 
Stratford, Fenny, 289 

, old, 282 

, Stoney, 284 

Strayler, Alan, an old painter 

at St. Alban's, 365 
Suffolk, Brandon, duke of, 

489 

, countess of, 330 

Surrey, earl of, his passion 

for the fair Geraldine, 489 
Swinerton house, 65 
Swinfen, 171 



Sydenham, doctor, 551 
Sydney, Sir Philip, 463 



Talbot, John, first earl of 
Shrewsbury, curious por- 
trait of, 419 

Tame river, 164' 

Tamworth, ib. 

Tarvin village, 5 

Tenure, singular, 122 

Tern river, 63 

Testament, singular, 442 

Theobalds, 567 

Thomasine, John, 7 

Thornhaugh, baron, 485 

Tlwrp, Const ant ine, 163 

Throgmorton, Sir Nicholas, 
520 

Tixal, 94 

Torporley village, 9 

Totness, George Carew, earl 
of, 312 

Toucester, 272 

Tore river, ib. 

Trent river, 67 

Tyringham house, 455 



Ver, or Verlume river, 339 



622 



INDEX. 



Verses on a column at Amp- 
thill, 500 
Verulamium, page 339 
Upton village, 402 
Utkinton, 8 



W 

Wall, the antient Etocetum, 

158 
Walsingham, secretary, 520 
Waltham abbey, 564 

cross, 562 

Watling-street, 17 1 . 284. 290 
Wedon, 264 
Wenlock, lord, 525 
Wliarton, Philip, earl of, 510 
Whethamsted, abbot, his 

tomb, 364 
Whichenoure flitch, 122 
Whitley, 250 
Whittington, 159 



Whittlebury forest, 279 
Willoughhy, 25 1 
Wills, curious, 4 i2 
Wimbledon, lord, 244 
Woburn town, 463 

abbey, 464 

Wolseley bridge, 108 

, Edward, earl of, 

326 
Ware, 60 
Worcester house, 562 

Edward, earl of, 326 

Wrest house, 50S 
Wright, Sir Nathan, 454 
Wybunbury, 49 
JFycA Weston, 89 



yefoerfon family, 427 

tombs, 430 

York, Elizabeth of, 550 



THE END. 



Printed by S. Hamilton. Weybridge. 



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