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xi 1 IV 














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Of the Bengal Educational Service, Member of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, etc. 




NEW Y O E K : 

L O N D ( ) X : 







ict0 2. 


S All AT Chandea Das was born in the town of Chittagong, in Eastern 
Bengal, in 1849, in a Hindu family of the vaidiia, or medical caste. 
He received his education in the Presidency College at Calcutta, 
where he became favourably known to Sir Alfred Croft, the present 
Director of Public Instruction of Bengal, who ever since has been his 
friend and guide in his geographical and literary work, and by whose 
representations to the Indian Government it became possible for him 
to perform his important journeys into Tibet. 

While still in the engineering department of the college he was 
appointed in 1874 head master of the Bhutia Boarding School, just 
opened at Darjiling by order of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, 
Sir George Campbell. Sarat Chandra at once applied himself with 
characteristic energy to the study of the Tibetan language, and 
established friendly relations with the Raja of Sikkim and many of 
the leading lamas in that country, to which he made several short 
trips in the succeeding years. 

In 1878, lama Ugyen-gyatso, who was attached to his school as 
Tibetan teacher, was sent to Tashilhunpo and Lhasa with tribute from 
his monastery, and advantage was taken of tliis opportunity to 
ascertain whether permission could not be obtained from the Tibetan 
authorities for Sarat Chandra to visit Tibet. The lama was so 
fortunate as to obtain from the Prime Minister of the Panchen 
rinpoche of Tashilhunpo an invitation for Sarat Chandra to visit that 
great centre of lamaist learning, of which George Bogle and Samuel 
Turner have left us such interesting descriptions ; and, so as further to 
insure his safety and justify his presence in the country in the eyes 
of the suspicious lamas and Chinese, the Minister had the Babu's 
name entered as a student of theology in the Grand Monastery of that 


place. A passport was also brought Sarat Chandra by the laraa, 
issued to him by the Prime jMinister, by which a choice of roads to 
enter Tibet was given him, and his safe conduct insured to Shigatse. 

Armed with these credentials, Sarat Chandra set out for Tashi- 
Ihunpo in June, 1879, accompanied by lama Ugyen-gyatso, and there 
he remained for nearl}- six months, the guest of the Prime Minister, 
with whose assistance he was able to make a careful examination of 
the rich collections of books in the great libraries of the convent, 
bringing back with him to India a large and valuable collection of 
works in Sanskrit and Tibetan, He also explored during this journey 
the country north and nortli-east of Kanchanjinga, of which nothing 
was previously known, noting with great care observations of bearing 
and distances. Not the least valuable result of this journey was, 
however, the friendly relations which the traveller was able to 
establish with the liberal and powerful Prime Minister, who, deeply 
interested in w^estern civilization and its wonderful discoveries, of 
which he had learned much from the mouth of Sarat Chandra, 
requested him to come back again to Tashilhunpo, to instruct him 
further in the wonders of the west. 

An account of tliis first journey was printed by the Bengal 
Government some time after tlie author's return, with a prefatory 
note by the traveller's friend. Sir Alfred Croft. As the route therein 
described is the same as that followed by the traveller in his second 
and more extended journey of 1881-82, and as the results of his 
studies in Tibet in 1879, as shown in this report, bear nearly 
exclusively on historical and religious subjects, it has been deemed 
advisable to omit it from the present publication, embodying in footnotes 
all such details as have been found in it bearing on the geography 
and ethnology of Tibet, and which are not in the later and fuller report. 

The year 1880 was passed by Sarat Chandra at his liome in 
Darjiling, working on papers on the history, religion, etlmology, and 
folk-lore of Tibet, drawn from the data collected during his journey. 
These papers, most of them of great value to Oriental students, have 
since appeared in the Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society and in 
that of the Buddhist Text Society of India, which Sarat Chandra 
founded in 1892, and of which he has since remained the secretary. 


In Xovember, 1881, in fulfilment of the promise previously made 
to the Prime Minister of the Panchen rinpoche, Sarat Chandra 
started on his second journey to Tibet, again accompanied by Ugyen- 
gyatso, who acted as secretary, collector, and surveyor, though much 
of the later work, including the extremely important survey of Lake 
Palti (Yamdo tso), was done by the traveller himself. Sarat Chandra 
again established his headquarters at Tashilhunpo, whence he made 
various excursions along both banks of the great Tsangpo, from Sakya 
in the west to Samye and Tse-tang in the east. He was also so 
fortunate as to be able to make a short visit to Lhasa, which had 
only been done twice by native explorers prior to his time, once in 
1866 by i^ain Singh, and again in 1880 by Kishen Singh, the latter 
making a detailed map of the whole city and its environs. He was 
present at an audience of the Tale lama, and visited a number of the 
important monuments of the city ; but for various reasons, especially 
of a prudential nature, he was prevented from seeing many places of 
great interest in and around the city ; but his valuable notes are 
a most important addition to the descriptions left us by previous 

After tins brief visit to the capital of Tibet, Sarat Chandra 
explored the valley of the Yalung, where Tibetan civilization is said 
to have first made its appearance, gathering everywhere, with the 
usual thoroughness which distinguishes his work, valuable information 
concerning each locality traversed. In January, 1883, he re-entered 
India after an absence of about fourteen months. 

The report of this journey was printed in two separate publica- 
tions by order of the Government of Bengal. They are entitled, 
" Narrative of a Journey to Lhasa," and " Narrative of a Journey 
Round Lake Palti (Yamdok), and in Lhokha, Yarlung, and Sakya." 
For various reasons these reports were kept as strictly confidential 
documents by the Indian Government until about 1890, when 
selections from them, bearing exclusively upon the ethnology of 
Tibet, however, appeared in an article in the July number of the 
Contemporary licview, and five years later further extracts from them 
were published in the August number of the Nineteenth Century. It 
is these reports which, with only such slight modifications as have 


seemed absolutely necessaiy to make the narrative connected, are 
published in the present volume. 

In 1885, when the Government of India contemplated sending a 
mission to Tibet, and the late Honourable Colman Macauley was sent 
by it to Peking to obtain the necessary authorization of the Chinese 
Government to the projected embassy, Sarat Chandra accompanied 
him to the Chinese capital, where he remained several months in the 
early part of the year. It was during this visit to Peking that I 
became acquainted with the Babu, to whom I felt strongly drawn by 
my lifelong interest in Tibetan studies. Sarat Chandra lived, while 
at Peking, in the lamasery outside the An-ting gate, known as the 
Hsi Huang ssu, and in which all Tibetan traders stop when at 
Peking. He wore the dress common to lamas in China, and was 
always called the " Ka-che lama," or " the lama from Kashmir." His 
knowledge of Tibetan, his extensive travels, and his courteous manners 
gained for him the friendship of many of the lamas, among others of 
the Chang-chia Hutuketu, the Metropolitan of the lama church in 
China. Had the mission ever been sent to Tibet, it was understood 
that Sarat Chandra was to accompany it, and he would have rendered 
it valuable service ; but the project was abandoned, and since then 
the Babu has bent all his energies to the publication of Tibetan texts 
and to the preparation of other works on Buddhism while living in 
Darjiling, where he holds the position of Tibetan translator to the 
Government of Bengal. 

The services he rendered Mr. Macauley while in Peking were 
deemed, however, of such value Ijy the Indian Government, that on 
his return to Bengal he was given the title of Eai ]:>ahadur, and 
created a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire, and in 1887 
the lioyal Geographical Society awarded him the " Back Premium " 
for his geographical researches. 

The amount of literary work accomplished by Sarat Chandra since 
his return from Tibet in 1883 is enormous in bulk, and its value to 
students cannot Ije over-estimated. He brought back with him from 
his travels over two Inmdred volumes, manuscripts or lilock-prints, 
cibtained from the great libraries in Tibet, a number of them in 
Sanskrit, and for many centuries past lost in India. From these 


sources he has drawn for the preparation of the valuable papers 
which he has since publislied, a list of which would occupy several 
pages. Besides a large number of translations into English of Tibetan 
texts, he has edited in Sanskrit for the ' Bibliotheca Indica ' 
Kshemendra's poem, entitled " Avadana Kalpalata," which he was so 
fortunate as to discover in Lhasa, and in Tibetan an historical work 
of great value, another giving the history of the pre-Buddhist or Bon 
religion of Tibet, a very valuable native grammatical work, and others 
too numerous to mention. He is now engaged, and has well on 
through the press, a Tibetan-English dictionary, which, he tells me, 
will be of about two thousand pages, exclusive of a Sanskrit-English 
appendix of Buddhist terms. 

This brief notice of Sarat Chandra's literary work will suffice, 
however, to show that his labours in this field are as important as 
those which he has rendered to geography. Personally, I am under 
a lasting debt of gratitude to him for the valuable information which 
he gave me while in Peking, and which was later on of great use to 
me during my explorations in Tibet, and I hold myself particularly 
fortunate in having been chosen by the Eoyal Geographical Society 
to edit his reports, as it is a means of publicly expressing my 
indebtedness to him, and also, I trust, of helping him to take the 
place he so justly deserves beside Csoma de Koros, as one of the 
greatest pioneers of exploration and discovery in Tibet. 

This introductory note would not be complete if further reference 
were not made to the Babu's faithful companion and assistant in his 
two journeys to Tibet, lama Ugyen-gyatso. The lama, who is a 
Tibetan from Sikkim and connected with the reigning family of that 
State, was born in 1851 at Yansang, and at the age of ten entered the 
lamasery of Pema-yangtse, where he took the usual course of monastic 
studies for twelve years. In 1873 he visited, for the first time, 
Darjiling in the suite of the Eaja of Sikkim, and a little later on in the 
same year he was designated by that Prince, and at the request of 
the Deputy-Commissioner, Mr. Edgar, to fill the post of Tibetan 
teacher at the Bhutia school at Darjiling, which it was proposed to 
open. For a time the lama was employed in the ofl&ce of the 
Deputy-Commissioner, and accompanied that officer on a visit to 


Sikkiiii. In IS 74 lie entered upon his duties as teacher in the 
school, and continued there until 1878, when he went to Tibet, as 
previously noted, to bear tribute from his lamasery to the heads of 
the church. During the lama's residence at iJarjiling he had been 
instructed in the use of such surveying instruments as it is customary 
for the trans-frontier surveyors to use, and the accurate work which 
he did during his various journeys bears witness to the thoroughness 
with which he was instructed and to his own ability. From this 
journey of 1878, the lama brought back with him the passport which 
enabled Chandra Das to make his two journeys to Tibet, in both of 
which he accompanied him, rendering him everywhere true and 
valuable service. 

The discovery by Sarat Chandra in 1882 of the true dimensions 
and shape of Lake Palti,* seemed to Sir Alfred Croft so important 
that in June, 1883, he despatched the lama to cover the same ground 
in order to check off, verify, and complete the survey of the Babu. 
This he successfully did, adding only to the latter's work a small 
portion to the south-east of the lake, l)ut establishing the great 
accuracy of the previous survey. He also explored the Lhobrak (Manas 
valley, and again visited Lhasa, returning to India by way of the 
Tang la and Chumbi valley, and reaching Darjiling in December of 
the same year. A report of this work was prepared by Colonel, now 
Sir Thomas, Holdich, and appeared in the " Report of the Explorations 
in Sikkim, Bhutan, and Tibet from 1856 to 1886," which was 
published in 1889 by the Trigonometrical Survey of India, and is 
frequently quoted in the notes to the present narrative. 

Since then the lama, whose services have been rewarded by the 
Indian Government with the title of Eai Bahadur, a silver medal and 
a grant of money, has been employed as chief Tibetan translator to 
Government, serving in that capacity during the late Sikkim expedi- 
tion, and has also given valuable assistance to Sarat Chandra in 

editing Tibetan texts. 

Block Island, U.S.A., 
July 27, 1899.t 

* Sai-iit Cliandra has, in lionour of Sir Alfred Croft, named the lake Yanido Croft. 
See Journ. Buddh. Text Soc, iv. jjt. iii. p. iv. 

t The publiciitiou of thia volume lias been unavoidably delayed. 




II. Residence at Tashilhuxpo ... ... ... ... 45 

III. Journey to Dongtse ... ... ... ... ... G9 

IV. Residence at Tashilhuxpo, axd preparations for Journey to 

Lhasa ... ... ... ... ... ... 104 

V. Froji Tashilhuxpo to Yamdo Samdixg, and thexce to Lhasa 122 

VI. Residexce at Lhasa ... ... ... ... ... 148 


VIII. Returx TO Tashilhuxpo an-d Ugyex- gyatso's visit to the Bon'bo 

Saxctuary of Rigyal Sent)Ar .. ... ... ... 105 


Lamasery of Samye axd to Yarluxg ... ... ... 213 

X. Visit to Sakya axd Return to India ... ... ... 237 

XI. Social DmsioNS — Marriage — Fuxeral.s — ^Iedicixe — Festivals 246 



Portrait of Sarat Chandra Das ... ... ... ... Frontispiece 

Map showing the Routes op Sarat Chandra Das through Sikkim and 

Tibet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

A LiMBu Woman of the Kikati Tribe ... ... ... ... ... 9 

A Lepcha Soldier ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Sarat Chandra crossing the Donkhya Pass ... ... ... ... 42 

Town of Shigatse ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 45 

The Grand Monastery op Tashilhunpo . . . ... ... ... ... 50 

Khandko Ye-shes. Padma Sambhava. Lha-cham Mandaeasa ... 58 

Chang-sa Egyab-pa, Wine-drinking concluding Wedding Ceremonies ... 73 

Black-hat Dance (Shanag Cham) ... ... ... ... ... 115 

A Tibetan Lhacham (Tibetan Princess) in Full Dress ... ... ... 120 

Tibetan Nobleman ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 125 

Nam Tos-sras (Vaisravana), the Guardian King op the North ... ... 136 

The Disposal of the Dead (by cutting the Corpse into pieces) ... 140 

Plan of Lhasa ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 149 

Plan of the City of Lhasa ... ... ... ... ... 151 


Paldan Lhamo (srimati-devi) ... ... ... ... ... 158 

Cho-Khang, THE Grand Temple of Buddha, at Lhasa ... ... ... 160 

Funeral Procession ... ... ... ... ... ... 164 

Potala, the Palace op the Grand Lama ... ... ... ... 166 

Lama delivering an Oracle ... ... ... ... ... 175 

A Little Girl, Daughter of a Tibetan Nobleman ... ... ... 200 

The "Shabdo" (Foot Dance) of Tibet ... ... ... ... 201 

Lake below the Yumptso La, Sikkim ... ... ... ... ... 215 

View in Lhonak looking towards the Naku La ... ... ... 219 

View in Lhonak near Tebli ... ... ... ... ... ... 223 

Cane Bridge on the Rungit River ... ... ... ... ... 229 

Bamboo Galleries in Talung Valley ... ... ... ... ... 233 

Waterfall above Talung Monastery on the Way to Yumptso La ... 239 

View in Lhonak, Chomuimo in Distance ... ... ... ... 243 

Spurs op Simvu and Kangchenjunga from the Moraine of the Zemu Glacier 249 

SiNIOLCHUM OR D" ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 253 

Map op Tibet and the surrounding Regions ... ... ... At end 

* The views are intended to show the general character of the scenery, and do not 
necessarily illustrate places visited by the autlior. 




November 7, 1881. — On the night of my departure from Darjiling,* 
the moon was shining brightly, though some dark clouds presaged 
a slight fall of rain. Our eyes often turned with anxiety towards the 
mountain-tops on the eastern outskirts of Nepal, to see if snow was 
falling on them ; and the fear of death in the snows and the hope of 
overcoming the obstacles of nature alternated within me as I left my 
home in Darjiling, soon to bid a long farewell to my native land, 
with but faint hope that I would ever see it again. 

I rode on silently, and, to my great relief, unnoticed by any one, 
save one or two Bhutias on their way towards Darjiling, and in 
the stillness of the night we could hear the songs of the workwomen 
of Takvar and the music of their pipes and drums. Coming to the 
river, which was rather broad at this season of the year, I met lama 
Ugyen-gyatso, who was waiting to help me across. Three or four 
bamboos loosely laid over the main stream enabled us to cross, though 
with some difficulty, and with the help of an intelligent Bhutia 
attendant I was able to push on over the narrow slippery path till 
half-past one, when I reached Gok, now a deserted village, where, in 
place of the dozen shops and pretty Buddhist shrine which formerly 
marked the place, I found but a cow-shed where a Nepali was snoring 
fast asleep. It was here that the up-country grain- sellers used to 
come to buy large quantities of Indian corn and cardamom seed to 
resell in the Darjiling bazar. 

* On the origin of Darjiling as a eanatorinm, see Hooker, 'Himalayan Journals,' 
(1854) 1. 115. 



Spreading our rugs in the long grass near the cow-shed, we tried 
to rest for a wliile ; hut what with the unevenness of the ground, 
insects creeping over me, the prickly points of Ijramhles and weeds 
penetrating the thin rug on which I lay, and a shower of rain 
which wetted us through, we could get no sleep, so we started again 
at four in the morning. The path, hardly a foot broad, was choked 
with weeds and long grass. Lighting my lantern, I followed 
Plmrchung, my shot-gun tied across the top of the load he carried, 
and with many a slip and tumble we reached the valley of the 
Rummam at daybreak. 

Novcmher 8. — The Eummam, one of tlie principal feeders of the 
Great Piungit, rises in the Singli mountains, and forms the boundary 
between Britisli territory and independent Sikkim on the north-west, 
all the country to the right (south) of it belonging to the former 
(iovernment. We found it a raging torrent, and only spanned by a 
light footbridge of bamboo poles resting on a huge boulder in the 
middle of the stream, and held down by rocks. The Lepchas and 
Limbus catch fish, sometimes of considerable size, in the cold season 
in the pools in the river-bed, which the former sell in the Darjiling 
bazar. Sal trees were abundant, and on the hill-slopes we saw 
cardamom and cotton now ready to be picked. On the larger patches 
of cultivation, guards were stationed in bamboo watch-houses to scare 
away the monkeys and bears with bamboo clappers. I was told that 
a large species of monkeys, besides the small variety of which we 
saw a few, are found in this valley, and that they are a terror to the 
peasants and to solitary female travellers.* To kill these the Lepchas 
use dogbane and other poisonous roots, which they mix with cooked 
edible roots or rice. 

On nearing the bridge, we fell in with some twenty men carrying 
oranges to Darjiling, but I was fortunately able to pass by unnoticed. 
After a short rest, during which I had some breakfast, and changed 
my Indian dress for a Tibetan one, we resumed our journey uphill, 
leaving the Mitogang road on our right. Antelope and wild goat 
iiliuiunl lieveabout, l)ut the villagers shoot but little : they are so poor 

* Hooker, op, cit., ii. 37, mentions sceinp; a troop of large monkeys in the 
Lamteug valley (alt. 9000 feet) in Sikkim. Ihid.,]>. 108, he says that in the most snowy 
part of Sikkim (near the Tnnkra la) "large monkeys are also found on the skirls of 
the pine forests, and a curious long-tailed animal, Ailurun orJiracmts, iieculiiir to the 
Himalaya, sometliing between a diiiiinulive bear and a squirrel." Large monkeys are 
also found in Eastern Tibet at about 'JOOO feet alt.— (W. R.) 


that they have hardly a dozen matchlocks among them all. Nepalese 
settlers are numerous here, and I noticed some Brahmans and Chetris 
who live chiefly by selling milk and butter. "We passed several 
paddy fields made on terraces along the hillsides, where ploughs 
drawn by bullocks were used ; but the Bhutias neither terrace the 
hillsides nor do they use ploughs, but keep to their time-honoured 
implements, hoes and clubs {in) of oak, by which they get but scanty 
returns. The Limbus * till the ground for three consecutive years, 
and then leave it fallow for three, when the weeds are cut and burnt, 
and it is again put under cultivation. 

After ascending several hills by steep paths, we came to the top 
of a ridge marked by a mcndoiKj and a cJwrten,'\ and from whence a 
picturesque view of the valley of Dhuramdien, dotted with numerous 
houses, and of the surrounding country is obtained. This spot is 
called Mani-dara by the Pahirias, and Chor ten-gang by the Bhutias, 
both names meaning " the ridge of the sacred stuim!^ Here we halted 
by the side of a rill, and purchased two bottles of imcnva beer J and 
vegetables from some Limbus. 

November 9. — Our way led along an easy path by Limbu houses 
with sheepfolds and pigsties in front of them, and around which a few 
goats and cows were also seen. The Limbu fowls, by the way, are 
not so large as those of the Bhutias. As I journeyed on we talked of 
some of the Limbu § customs, the most remarkable of which is that 

* Called Chung by the Lepchas. Though not divided into castes, they belong to 
several tribes. All consider themselves as the earliest inhabitants of the Tambur valley, 
thougli they have a tradition of Laving originally emigrated from Tibet. See Hooker, 
op. cit., i. 137. 

t It would, perhaps, be better to transcribe this mangdong (from Tibetnn mang, 
" many ; " and dong, " stones "). Chorten is mchod, " ofiering ; " rten, " receptacle." It 
is usually pronounced chiirten. See infra, 37, 40. — (W. R.) 

X Made from half-fermented millet. Murwa is Eleusine coracana. See Hooker, op. 
cit., i. 133, 175.— (W. E.) 

§ The country between tbe Arun and Tambur is called Limbudu by the Nepali 
natives, and the aboriginal people who have dwelt there from time immemorial are 
designated by the name of Limbu, though they call themselves by the name of Yak- 
thanga. In the same manner the tribes inhabiting Kirauta, or the regions between 
Dudkosi and the Arun, are called Kirat, which name is as old as that of the great 
Hindu deity Mahadeva. The Kirat of the north and the Limbu of the south were 
known to the ancients by the name of Kirata, on account of their living by hunting and 
carrying on trade with the natives of the plains in musk, yak-tails, shellac, cardamoms, 
etc., from the earliest Hindu periods. See also infra, p. 26. 

The Tibetans and the Bhutias of Nepal and Sikkim call the Limbus by the name 
of Tsang, probably on account of their having emigrated from the Tsang province of 
Tibet. Both tradition and written Limbu works relate that the Limbu people partly 


of beating drums on even' trixdal occasion. Every Limbu family, be 
it poor or rich, j)03ses3es, as a rule, three or four tambourine- shaped 
drums, which they beat on going out of or returning to their villages. 
The wife or children beat them in honour of the husband when he 
goes out, and the latter when he leaves the house. 

Crossing the range we entered a richer country, as was evidenced 
by the vegetation and the abundance of trees. We saw long canes 
growing luxuriantly, and there was quite a large grove of plantation 
trees, showing the warm climate the country enjoys. 

Noveiiiler 10. — The sky was cloudy and the atmosphere filled 
with fog when we set out. Along the banks of the streams we 
had to cross grew tall pines and giant ferns, wdiile thick brush- 
wood, ferns and rattans lined the banks, the water dashing down 
from the hill-tops in cascades. Pushing our way through the dense 
forests of the Hi range, the sky scarcely visible through the lofty 
oaks, pines and magnolias, we reached after an hour's hard ascent 
the Eishi chorten, near which is a moss-covered mendong. The 
Hi La commences here, and from it one commands an excellent 

emigrated thither (to Limbuan) from Tsang in Thibet and Kashi in tlie Madhya Desh, 
and partly sprang from underneath a hnge rock in the village of Khedab, to the north- 
east of Taanpur. So that the Limbu people were divided into three great tribes, 
according to their original homes, Tsang, Kashi, and Phedah. The first brancli from 
Tsang spread over Tambur-Khola, Phalung, Mirva Khola itself, Mayiwa, and 
Yangrub, being designated by the 'i'ibetans as Tsang Monpa, or the Limbus inhabiting 
the defiles. Those who came from Kashi occupied Chaibisa, Kaikhola, and Tsolkar. 
Those that sprang from underneath the great rock of Phedah were also called Baiphuta. 
The name of the place in the middle of which stands the huge slab of rock, measuring 
a hundred fathoms on either side, was Phedah Pangi-loma, which is evidently a corrup- 
tion of the name Pheduh Pangi-lungpa, oi "the pasture land in Pheduh." See also 
infra, p. 2(5. 

The Baiphuta Limbu were the most powerful and numerous; their chief, Baiphuta 
Han Ilaja, ruled over Eastern Nejjal. All the Limbu tribes, as well as the Kiratas, 
paid him tribute and military service, in a manner resembling the feudal system of 
Europe. The fKjwer of this family havlug declined, the third tribe assumed the 
supremacy, and ma.ssacred the adherents of the former rulers. After the fall of the Han 
dynasty there was anarchy all over Eastern Nepal, until there arose in the Srisobha tribe 
a mighty man called Marang, who succeeded in reconciling the different tribes, and was 
elected king over all the aboriginal tribes of Eastern Nepal, the southern X'ortion being 
ruled by a Xewar chief. After the death of the most distinguished of his successors, 
Mohan i Raja, the Limbu tribes again fell into anarchy, and continued in this state for 
more than a century. At last, probably in the ninth centurj-, appeared the famous 
Srijanga, the deified hero of the Limbus. The cis-Himalayan Bhutius identify him 
with an incarnation of Padma Sambhava, and attribute to him the introduction of the 
art of writing by the invention of an alphabet. Tradition also attributes the introduction 
of this art to Marang Kaja, and its revival to Srijanga. — (S. C. D.) See Gazetteer of 
Sihldm. pp. 36-38. 


view of South-Western Sikkim, including Tonglo and Singli, and 
the hills of Darjiling. In the thickets roundabout were to be seen 
the tracks of wild pigs, and the woods were alive with monkeys 
which feed on acorns. 

At about 1 p.m. we reached the top of the range, some 6000 
feet above the level of the sea. Crossing a number of brooks which 
empty into the Eishi, we came to some cowsheds, where I would 
have liked to have rested; but no rest was possible, for I could 
see the leeches * spanning their length with swift but measured 
paces, making for me with haste. 

At 4 p.m. we commenced our descent from the top of the ridge, 
which is marked by a lartse f — here a bush of dwarf bamboos, with 
scraps of red cloth tied to it, near which Phurchung uttered his 
Iha sol,X or invocation to the mountain deities. We halted for the 
night in a little clearing in the jungle at the foot of a gigantic 
oak, a few miles above the village of Lingcham. The giant nettle 
creeper here attains its largest growth, some more than 100 feet 
long. The tree nettle also abounds in this forest, and our servants 
found also the common nettle, the tender leaves of which make 
excellent soup.§ 

November 11. — The sky was overcast, and there was rain and 
sunshine at the same time, a phenomenon the IMiutias call mdog- 
ckarpa, or " flowery shower." The village of Hi, by which we passed, 
contains several Bhutia, Lepcha, and Limbu houses. || The latter 

* Cf. Hooker, op. cit., i. p. 107 : " They puncture through thick worsted stockings, 
and even trousers, and when full roll in the form of a little soft ball into the bottom of 
the shoe. . . ." Ibid., p. 167, he makes mention of them swarming below 7000 feet. 
" a small black species above 3000 feet, and a large yellow-brown solitary one below 
that elevation." — (W. K.) Leeches are found at all elevations up to 10,000 feet at least. 

t La, " pass ; " rise, " point, summit ; " usually a pile of stones with brush stuck in 
it, on which rags are hung. — (W. R.) 

X Lha, "god;" gsoJ, "to beg." The invocation I have always heard used is " Z/m 
gya lo, lha (jya lo," meaning, " god (give me) an hundred years, god (give me) an hundred 
years ! "— (W. R.) 

§ The giant nettle is the Urtica heterophyUa. Hooker, op. cit., i. IS'2. Tiie 
fibres of some nettles are twisted for bowstrings, others as thread for sewing and 
weaving, while many are eaten raw and in soups, especially the numerous little 
succulent species. The Urtica crenulata, or great shrubby nettle, grows also in 
these parts. Hooker, op. cit., ii. 18S. — (W. R.) 

!1 On the Lepchas. see Dr. A. Campbell, Jour. Anth. Inst., i. 128, et seq. Dr 
r'ampbell has also written several valuable papers on the Limboos in the Jour. Asiat. See. 
of Bengal for 1855 and other years, and in the Jour. Anth. Ind., vol. i. ; also papers on 
the Mnrnis and Haius of Nepaul and 8ikkiin, in the same collection, I believe ; but 


people seem to be prosperous ; they cultivate rice on irrigated terraces, 
and use a plough drawn by buffaloes. A few liundred yards above 
the Pdver Kalai (also called Kalhait) we saw cardamom patches 
carefully fenced. The Kalai river, which we found rapid at even 
this season of the year, rises in the Singli pass, and after a cir- 
cuitous course of about 20 miles, empties into the great Pamgit near 
the foot of Tashiding hill. Villages are numerous along the river for 
many miles ; they are situated on ridges, which look like lateral 
ribs of a ranQe running on either side of the Kalai from west to 
east, generally sending out southerly spurs. 

The Kalai is overhung on both sides by lofty trees growing on 
steep banks apparently inaccessible when looked at from the river 
bank. The river is bridged by two long, stout Ijamboos resting on 
a huge Ijoulder in the middle of the stream, and weighted down with. 
slabs of stone. 

In the shallow part of the stream piles have been driven to hold 
bamboo nets for capturing fish. This torrent is well known for its 
delicious fish; and we saw growing by some of the Limbu houses 
the na-dag-sldg* a tree, the leaves of which are used to poison fish 
which swarm in the stagnant pools in the river. 

There are five classes of priests among the Limbu people, who 
perform their religious and secular ceremonies. They are called 
Phedanfjla, Bijna, Dami, Baidaiuj, and Srijanr/a.^ 

The Phedangba enjoy the privilege of conducting tlie religious 
ceremonies, and of dealing in omens and fortune-telling. The Bijuba 
are trained to the Shamanic worship, of which fantastic dances 
are the characteristic feature. The third order practice witchcraft 
exclusively, and are said to be able to expel evil spirits through the 

they are not accessible to me. Dr. Hooker, op. cit., i. 127-136, says of the Lepchas : 
" They, or at least some of their tribes, call themselves Rong and Arratt, and their 
country Dijong. I'olyandy is unknown among them, and polygamy rare. Marriage 
is by purchase. Tlie dead are burnt or buried. Omens are sought in tlie entrails of 
fowls (p. i:!5). They have no religion, tliough acknowledging the existence of good 
and bad spirits." — (W. R.) 

* Perhaps Nya-dug-shing (nya, " lisli ; " dug, '' poison ; " nhing, " tree "). Dr. 
Hocjker (o;;. cit., i. J 68) mentions as growing in Sikkim, aconite and convallaria 
yielding the hihh poison. — (W. R.) 

t Dr. Hooker (op. ell., i. 138) says that in their funeral ceremonies " the Bijooa 
of the Lepchas is employed; but the Limboo has also priests of his own, called 
' Phednngljos,' who belong to ratlier a high(;r order than the Bijooas." Dr. Hooker's 
description of the Bijua and of the Lepchas' religious beliefs prove tliem conclusively 
to profess nearly the same religion as tlie Honbo of Tibet. — (W. R.) 


mouth. The fourth class, called Baidang, are physicians, the name 
Baidang being undoubtedly derived from the Sanskrit Baidya. The 
fifth, which is the most important of the five orders, has the exclusive 
privilege of interpreting the religious books, and of studying religious 
observances and rites. My informant, though a Srijanga, combined 
in his person the qualifications of the other four orders; hence his 
great reputation among the Limbus, who considered him endowed 
with divine attributes. 

Leaving the banks of the Kalai, we pushed on uphill through 
long grass and reed thickets, where wild pigs were numerous and 
the porcupine abounds.* The latter animal is said to do much harm 
to pulse and radish fields, and destroys a great many of the wild 
yams on which the people chiefly subsist. On ascending about 
3000 feet above the Kalai valley, we enjoyed distant views of 
Pema-yangtse, Yantang, Hi, Sakyang, and other villages on the 
high flat ridges on either side of the Kalai and Eatong rivers, 
and on our right was the village of Lingcham with its orange 
groves and numerous muriva fields. We halted near a Limbii 
house, and the coolies plucked wild onions {lagog)-f growing in 
the crevices of the rocks, with which they seasoned their curries. 
This lagog, though smelling like the common garlic, is not half so 
strong, and gives a peculiar flavour to meat. It is said to produce 

November 12. — We continued to ascend by a hardly discernible 
trail, passing patches of Indian corn and a few miserable Limbu 
houses : one woman we saw was carrying a Ijasketful of wild apricots. 
At 2 p.m. we reached the top of the ridge, on the furthest extremity 
of which to our right was the Sangnag Choiling (pronounced 
Changachelling) monastery, while near the path we were following 
was an old moss-covered chorten. 

Passing through dense woods of oaks and pines, and pushing our 
way through thickets of tree-nettle and underbrush, we reached, 
after two hours, the little village of Tale, where there are some 
twenty houses, and around which some mares, buffaloes, pigs, and a 
large number of cows M^ere feeding. The inhabitants were anxious 

* Cf. Hooker, op. cit, i. 205.— (W. R.) 

t The Tibetan word lagog is usually translated garlic. I have always heard onion 
called by its Chinese name tsung. Wild onions are very common in Northern Tibet, at 
elevations of 15,000 feet and upwards.— (W. R.) 


to get salt from us iii exchange for clucnij* for the October fall 
of snow had prevented the Yangpung salt dealers from reaching 
this place, and salt was in consequence scarce ; but we had to decline 
their offers, as we had no more than we required ourselves.f 

Novemher 13. — Our way led us through the village of Tale to 
the Eingbi river, a stream as rapid as the Kalai. There is a strong 
bamboo bridge over it, but we crossed by some bamboos laid side by 
side wliere the river was narrowest. To the north-west of the village, 
on a parallel ridge trending northward from the same range of hills, 
is the village of Nambura. We followed the stream up for 5 miles 
by a circuitous trail, and then crossed over again to the right 
bank, a little below Nambura. The path led along the side of a 
cliff, and we had great difficulty in making our way along its slippery 
side, placing our feet in fissures of rocks and holding fast by creepers 
and grass. Then, following the course of the river, we ascended 
towards the village of Eingbi, and looking back we saw Tale, Nam- 
bura, and many other villages perched high up on the mountain 
sides several thousand feet above us. 

Passing under a huge rock, below which the stream had cut 
gullies, we crossed over by means of bamboos and wooden ladders. 
Looking up once I saw some stuffed pheasants and a Tibetan shirt 
of red cloth hidden in a fissure of the rock, evidently by some 
bird-s///7.fl?7'.s'. Birds of various hues, especially several varieties of 
pheasants, abound in these woods, which are frequented by shikaris 
who earn a livelihood by selling stuffed birds at Darjiling. 

A mile further on we came to the village of Eingbi,:^ situated 
in a beautiful plain, behind which rose cragged rocks ; to the north 
and east the Eingbi river roared far down below us. The wild 
plantain, a gigantic rattan, and numerous pines and oaks covered 
the hills on the other side of the torrent. There are here a half- 
dozen houses inhabited by Limbus, who raise rice, Indian corn, 
murwa, and other varieties of millet. 

As soon as Phurchung had laid his load on the ground, he ran 
off to the house of an acquaintance to buy for me some bottles of 

* Cluing \h made from half fermonted barley, and is the national drink of Tibet. 
On its preparation, see daeschke, ' Tib.-Engl. Dictionary,' s. r. chaiig, and infra 34, 
note 1.— (W. R.) 

t On tiie salt trade rit'i the Rathong valley, see Hooker, op. cil., i. 340, 350. 

X Hooker's Rinpjbee. 



beer, and presently returned with three, of which he well knew 
one would be given him. Our tent was pitched on the flat near 
the river, and my rugs being spread, I stretched myself at my 
ease, forgetting the fatigues of the journey. The servants had 
dispersed, some to collect firewood, some to pick edible wild plants, 


Others to buy vegetables for our evening meal— nothing broke the 
silence save the sound of the rushing torrent below. I slept soundly, 
my mind more occupied with the future than the past. 

Novemhcr 14.— The morning was clear, the view on all sides 
superb, and, though familiar with mountain scenery, my eye never 
tired of its wild grandeur. We waited and waited for hours for 


riiurehung, whom I had sent to NauiLura to buy provisions ; but, 
as he had not appeared by noon, we had to give up all thoughts of 
travelling that day. In the afternoon he made his appearance, 
loaded with rice, maize, murwa, eggs, vegetables, etc., and leading a 
ewe, which he said had cost him liS. 4. He was very drunk, but 
conscious of his condition. He begged to be excused, and, after 
numerous salams and loUings of the tongue after the Tibetan fashion, 
he vanished from our sight. 

IVe were asked by the Lirabus to exchange salt, of which they 
stood much in need, for tsuo* a dyeing creeper which grows here in 
abundance, and of which they had collected many large bundles ; but 
again we had to refuse. 

Phurchung much regretted that one of his best friends among the 
Limbus of this place had gone to a distant village to attend a 
marriage, for he might have rendered great assistance in many ways. 

The marriage customs of this people are very curious and interest- 
ing. Some among them at the time of marriage consult astrologers. 
When a man and a girl think of marrying, they meet, without con- 
sulting their parents, at some place — a market, if there l)e one near — 
in order to sing witty songs, in which test the man is required to 
excel his fair rival. If he is beaten in this contest by the maiden 
whose hand he covets, he runs away in deep shame at his defeat ; 
but if he wins, he seizes her by the hand and takes her to his home 
without further ceremony, but usually accompanied by a female 
companion. If the man has had some previous knowledge of the 
girl's superior attainment in singing, he sometimes liribes the maiden's 
companion to declare him the winner in the singing competition. 

Another means of wife-winning is by courting her in the house 
of her parents, to which free access is readily gained by presenting 
the girl's nearest relative living in the house with a pig's carcass, a 
present called in their language fliudang. When the marriage cere- 
mony takes place, the bridegroom, if rich enough, kills a buffalo or a 
pig, which is presented to the bride's parents, a native coin fixed on its 
forehead. Among the lower people, the parents of the bride seldom 
know anything about the marriage till the return of the girl from her 
captor's house. I'hen the marriage ceremony takes place. The 

* 2W Cpron. <),o) means "dye" in Tibetan. Tlie dye here referred to is probably 
the yellow one prepared from the synqilocos. See Hooker, op. cit., ii. 41, and J.Ii.A.S., 
1891, '218.— (W.K.) 


friends and relatives assemble in some spacious courtyard, each 
bringing a present of a basket of rice, a bottle of murwa or arrack. 
The bridegroom then beats a drum, to the music of which the bride 
dances, outsiders also taking part in the dance. This over, a Phe- 
dangba priest conducts certain religious ceremonies beginning with 
the following mantra : " According to the commands handed down to 
us from ancient times and the doings of the patriarchs, we bind our 
son and daughter to-day in marriage." 

As the priest repeats the formula, the bridegroom places his palm 
on that of the bride, holding at the same time a cock, and she a hen, 
which they afterwards hand over to the Phedangba. When the above 
formula has been recited, the fowls' throats are cut, and they are 
thrown away for any one to pick up and keep, and the blood is col- 
lected on a plantain leaf, and from it omens are drawn. In another 
leaf is some vermilion paint, in which the bridegroom dips his middle 
finger, which he passes across the forehead of the priest to the tip of 
the bride's nose. The bridegroom then says, " Henceforth, maiden, 
thou art my wife ; " and shouting repeatedly, " Maiden, thou art my 
wife," he puts a vermilion mark on her brow. 

The following morning the priest invokes some friendly spirit, 
and says to the newly married couple, " You two should henceforth 
live as husband and wife as long as you remain on this earth ; " to 
which the parties suitably reply, "We will do as you command." 
Unless this period of a lifetime is mentioned, the marriage is held 
to be unlucky ; and to make it fortunate further ceremonies, which 
open new sources of profit for the priest, are considered necessary. 

At the marriage feast, where first murwa is served to each guest, 
the meat is generally pork, and finally a dish of rice is presented 
to every one of the party. 

When the marriage ceremony is over, the bride, released from 
her captor's hands for the first time, returns to her parents, who are 
supposed to have been in ignorance of the previous proceedings. 
Two or three days after her return comes a go-between, or iKirmi* 
to settle differences with the bride's parents. He brings, as a rule, 
three things — a bottle of arrack, the carcass of a pig, and a silver coin, 
as presents to the bride's parents. Just as he is about to make 
them the presents, they are bound to fly into a passion and threaten 

* Parmi seems to be Tibetan bar, " middle ; " mi, '• man." — (AV. R.) 


to beat him, wliereupon he entreats them not to do so, and tries to 
pacify tliom with the present of another rupee. Then they ask him 
in an angry tone, " Why did you steal away our daughter { " and such- 
like questions. When their anger has subsided, he pays the price 
of tlie bride, winch, according to the wealth of the groom, varies 
from Pts. 10 to Rs. 120, or the equivalent; but in all cases a pig is an 
indispensable part of the price. Then a further present of usually 
Es. 12, or its equivalent, is made to the sofas (subahs) and village 

This present is known in Limbu as turayimhag, meaning satis- 
faction to the parents for stealing their daughter ; and though it is 
really due to the bride's parents, it is nowadays ap])ropriated by 
the village officials. 

Like the Tibetans, the Limbus present white cotton khntafi to all 
who are interested in tlie marriage. When the time comes for deliver- 
ing up the bride to the ^wr?^w', the parents must say, " Oh, our 
daughter is lost ! She is not to be found ! Some one must go and 
find lier ! " Then a couple more silver coins are paid, and one of 
the relatives discovers the lost bride, who lias usually hidden herself 
in the storeroom, and she is handed over to the parmi. Now- 
adays, however, it is more common for the bride to come forth of 
herself as soon as the money has been paid, but not before.* 

November 15. — The villagers tried to dissuade us from attempting 
to cross the passes where the paths were hidden by the snow, saying 
that it M'ould l)e more convenient to stay at Ringbi, where pro- 
visions were easily procurable. If I remained here, however, various 
re})orts would be spread to prejudice the frontier guards of Tibet 
against us, and we would, moreover, be unal)le to ascertain when the 
snow should liave hardened sufficiently to admit of our setting out 
on our journey, as the passes were three or four days' march from 
the village. We determined to try the Yampung la, which still 
remained free IVom snow. Our coolies gave the villagers to under- 
stand that we shikaris (for Thurclmng, with his fowling-piece and 
load of cartridges, was enabled to pass us off as such) had very little 
to (In with ih(! passes, except for going to Kangpa-chan, where game 

* Cf. Hooker, op. lit., i. i;;7, 138. Speaking of their buriiil (;(!r(;monics, ho says, 
" They moiiru, burn, and hiiry tlieir dead, raising a mound over the corpse, erecting 
a lieadstonc, and surrounding tiie grave with a little paling of sticks; they then 
scatter eggs and pebbles over tlio ground." — (W. It.) 


was more abundant : if we failed entering Namga-tsal, we shcjuld 
most probably return by Jongri to Darjiling. 

We passed behind the village, where there are some tall cypresses 
and a solitary juniper tree, which the people erroneously call cliandan, 
or sandal wood.* A short distance from the village we passed the 
road leading to Declian phug, " the cavern of bliss," a huge rock, the 
hollow in which is haunted by numerous demons and evil spirits. 
Now and then we saw Limb us making bamboo mats or collecting 
osiers to thatch their houses. The road along the river was easy, 
the rills falling into it bridged, and the steep banks carefully crossed 
by stone dykes, while steps were cut in the rocks where necessary. 

By one o'clock wo. reached Paongtang, where, in a wretched slied 
for travellers {doiig-kliang), we made our camp. A light rain was 
falling, so we had to cook our food in the miserable shed, where we 
could not stand erect, where ants and centipedes were creeping over 
everything, and the smoke and dust raised by the bellows nearly 
suffocated us. Though we had a tent, the obstinacy of my servants 
compelled me to forego the comfort it afforded, for to them the 
doiig-lkaay was a comfortable dwelling, and they insisted that I should 
enjoy it too. 

Phurchung bought some milk, cheese, murwa, and excellent 
tish from one of the neighbouring herdsmen, a cousin of his ; and 
when we had refreshed ourselves with the beer, we sat listening to 
two of our companions, Jordan and Tonzang, as they sang and 
declaimed over their drink. Though these men carried our loads, 
they were men of much respectability in their own country, and had 
lieen induced to do menial work only to oblige me, as I did not care 
to trust outsiders with the secret of my movements. I amused 
myself listening to Jordan, and really wondered that even among 
the uncivilized dwellers of the hills wine could inspire such eloquence. 
Among the volleys of his eloquence were quotations from a book 
called ' limchcn Tenioa' or ' The Precious liosary.' 

" All here assembled, pray attend. 

" The eagle is the king of birds ; ^\'hen he rises, all rise. 

" The lion is the king of beasts ; when he leaps, all leap. 

* Trees or shrubs, willi aromatic wood or having sweet-smelliug flowers, are fre- 
quently called cliandan iu Tibet. At Kumbum, for example, the famous tree, which 
is said to have sprung from the hair cut from tbe head of Tsongkhapa, and which is 
in all probability a Syringa, is called Tsandan (or Chandan) Jairjjo.—^W. R.) 


" lie \vlio drinks is tlie prince of speecli ; Avlien lu; speaks, allliear." 

Here Jordan's analogy broke down, for lie should have said, 
" When lie speaks, all speak ; " but as his were quotations, he could 
take no liberties with the text.* 

Xovcmher IG. — After having started Jordan and Tonzang to 
Darjiling with letters and my Indian clothing, we resumed our 
journey, and after a mile along the course of the Eingbi we climbed 
the Lungmo la, which is thickly covered with dwarf bamboos and 
mossy oaks of immense size. 

At 2 p.m. we came to Chonjom, the junction of the two head- 
streams of the Eingbi, where there is a well-made bridge across the 
river with strong boulder-made buttresses ; its bed is here covered with 
thick green moss. A little later on we halted at a place called Keta, 
in the midst of dark woods, the abode of bears, pigs, and Sikkim 
leopards. As I had sent my tent back, we had to make a shelter 
against the inclemency of the weather by a contrivance made with 
our bed-clothes, and on the branches of a neighbouring tree we hung 
our meat and fish, which attracted owls and mice during the night. 

Novemlcr 17. — Our hearts quaked as we continued our way 
through the dense wood and thick undergrowth, for a man-eater was 
reported to have killed two Nepalese wood-cutters in the Singli la. 
The year before last a tiger came up to Jongri, where it killed a dozen 
yaks, and we feared lest now it might have come back to make havoc 
on the Yampung yaks. While crossing one of the numerous fences 
dividing different pieces of property, we found a pheasant caught by 
the neck in a hair-trap. The way was steej) and stony, and the cold 

At noon we reached the zone of rhododendrons, and, passing 
through the pines, where we startled pheasants and some other 
birds of beautiful plumage, we came to a snow-covered ridge. Then 
we began the ascent of a steep spur, where we were told the Lepcha 

* This work of Sukya Pandita, the Sanskrit title of wliich is ' Suhhashita ratna 
nidhi,' is well known to Oriental scholars by the translation, accompanied by the 
Tibetan text, publL-ihed l)y Csonia de Koros in vols. xxiv. and xxv. of the Journ. Bengal 
Asiat. Soc, and by the French translation of a selection from it made by Ph. E. Foucaux, 
Paris, 1858, 8vo., under the title of • Lc tresor des belles paroles.' Tlie orij^iial work 
is in 45t stanzas. Csoma only translated tlie 234 first. Sakya Pandita's Indian 
name was Ananda Dhwadja ; lie lived in the thirteenth century. His Tibetan name 
is derived from that of the lamasery of i«akya, near Tashilhunpo, where he resided. — 
(W. R.) 


troops of Sikkim had repelled tlie Gurkha invaders, shooting their 
arrows at them, and then rolling rocks down on the enemy. After 
this difficult piece of road, the ascent became more gradual and easier. 
On the way we saw some beehives, which differ in shape from those 
of the plains, being like great wldte fungi projecting from the rock. 

At 2 p.m. we reached the Dok of Yampung, situated on the lee 
side of the range. Long mcndong mark the approach to the village, 
and iiying flags show the whereabouts of the yak-sheds and houses ; 
patches of snow and ice glistening in the sun gave, from a distance, a 
fine appearance to the village, but, on approaching, the beauty vanished, 
as we perceived the forlorn and deserted condition of the place. Not 
a living being, not a yak, nor a dog, only some hungry crows perched 
on the flag-poles and the roofs. The village is composed of a dozen 
houses built very rudely of loose stone slabs, the roofs made of long 
pine planks kept in their places by stones. The larger houses were 
locked up, and the doors of those without locks were sealed by 
strings. Heaps of red dye-creepers w^ere in every house, which the 
people exchange for salt brought here from Eastern Nepal in the 
summer months and in November after the first snows. The Limbus 
and Lepchas of Western Sikkim come here annually to buy salt, 
wool, tea, and Tibetan earthenware, in exchange for murwa, maize, 
dye-creepers, and other little commodities of the Darjiling bazar. 

Kovcriibcr 18. — The Yampung la, though not lofty, presented much 
difficulty in the ascent, the vegetation on its sides not so luxuriant as 
that on the Jongri la, which is nearly of equal height. To the north 
the range skirts the snows of the famous Kangchan, the dreaded 
Khumba Kama of the hillmen. The eye, on all sides but the east, 
met only snow, and as I descended to the south-western flank of the 
Du la, "Demon Mount,"! looked down towards the deep gorge through 
M'hich the Eingbi leaps with ceaseless roar. The snow-streams from 
the Yampung la flow into a lake some half-mile in circumference, 
called Tama chu, on account of its crescent shape ; the Nepalese call 
it Lampokri. 

With the Du la the difficulties of the ascent began. Ugyen com- 
plained of headache and shortness of breath, and said he was sick with 
la dug (mountain-sickness) ; and to add to our troubles, such a gale 
was blowing that I was thrown to the ground several times. One of 
the coolies fell helpless to the ground, his feet frost-bitten. I gave 
him my shoes and Kabul socks, putting on myself a new pair of 


Tibetan boots. The direct way to Gumo tang was blocked with snow, 
so we had to make a detour by the northern and western flanks of 
the pass. The snow was frozen, and ^^•alking became very dangerous. 
I made my way as best I could, using both hands and feet. The 
gorge along which we advanced was so deep that the eye tired of follow- 
ing its windings. The snows from the pass supply the headwater of 
the Yong-dso chu, w^hich runs past the Jongri (la). The descent was 
even more dangerous than the ascent ; my coolies, used to such work, 
had soon left me far behind. 

Leaving the snows of the Du la, w^e again came in sight of deep 
gorges filled with pines, with here and there bits of pasture-land 
overhung by rugged cliffs. 

Again we had to cross a spur, Ijeyond which lay Gumo tang, our 
next halting-place, in a deep gorge, some 2000 feet below us. We 
followed a glacier, and by six in the evening I reached the beautifully 
wooded Gumo tang gorge, and found it flooded by a torrent coming 
from the melting snows to the north-east. On the other side of the 
precipice which overhangs Gumo tang is Lachmi pokri, " The Lake 
of Fortune," said to contain gold and precious stones. It is a mile in 
circumference, deep black in colour, and in its depths are water- 
elephants, the people say. 

A'Ofcmhcr 19. — Crossing a stream, with water knee-deep, flowing 
eastward to feed the Eatong, we began the ascent of the IJogto la. 
Firs and junipers of various species overhung our way, which lay 
along the sides of a dry, glacial channel, with a stream flowing down 
it, and debris on either side. There are two tracks from here leading 
to the only shed on the slope of the Bogto ; one follows the course of 
the stream which comes down from the Tso-nag lake, and is usually 
taken by the Yampung herdmen and the salt traders from Yangma ; 
but the one we followed is not liked by them, as there grows along 
it a plant called Dug .shin;/* a deadly poison if eaten by yaks or 
sheep. I'heasants were feeding on the rhododendron berries, and we 
also saw herds of wild sheep ; but before we reached the summit 
the rliododendrons and junipers disappeared, and we only saw now 
and then some lichens or moss-like vegetation in the clefts of the 
rocks, t 

lleduced for the last few days to a miserable diet of rice and tea, 

* JJug, "poison;" shiiig, " tri'o or wood." — (W. K.) 
t Cf. Hooker, op. cit., i. 254. 


we were but ill prepared to go through the exertion of climbing up 
to sucli high altitudes. I pushed on for half a mile, my head aching 
violently and with continual retching; I finally fell to the ground, and 
lay there breathless and utterly exhausted. The coolies suffered even 
more than I, for while I had only my heavy clothing to carry, they 
had their loads besides. The wind was piercingly cold, and clouds 
scudded across the sky. One of the men prepared some tea ; I drank 
a little, but I had no desire for food, though Phurchung insisted on 
my eating a frozen egg and a little dried fruit. Wrapped in all my 
blankets, I lay prostrate, my feet resting against one of the loads to 
prevent me rolling into the abyss. I passed the night in a troubled 
sleep, while close by me my companions were snoring in deep slumber. 

Novcmhrr 20. — The sky was overcast and a gentle breeze was 
blowing, and the guide, who saw signs of a snowstorm, took up his 
load reluctantly, after chanting some mantras, and, leaving this 
dreadful place, called the Noga slope, w^e began the ascent of the pass. 

A few hundred yards of ascent brought us to tlie Tso-nag tso, a 
lakelet now frozen to the bottom, of oval shape, and about 400 yards 
long and 200 broad ; passing this we crossed from ridge to ridge, 
each covered with sheets of ice, the scenery of the wildest grandeur, 
the solitude appalling, no sound of water, not even the fall of an 
occasional avalanche was heard, no one spoke, all were intent on 
making their way over the slippery surface. 

After a mile ascent we reached another frozen lake. The guide 
ran forward, and, collecting some snow and pieces of ice, he sprinkled 
them across the lake to show us the path and prevent us from slip- 
ping. This lakelet, of about the same size as the one just referred to, is 
held in the sacred books of the Sikkimese to be an object of special 
sanctity. It is called Tso dom-dongma, " The Lake of Peacock's 
Spots," and the eye of the enchanted devotee can see something like 
spots in the bubbles in the icy sheets of the lake. The glorious peak 
of Chum-bok la rose right before us. Clouds now swept swiftly 
across the sun, and within half an hour the whole vault of heaven 
was hidden from our view. Courage then failed our hitherto intrepid 
guide. " Why proceed further up, sir ? " said he. " Death awaits us in 
this desolate place. One hour more and we shall be gone." " What 
do you mean by this, Phurchung ? " said I. " Where see you death ? " 
" Sir, look at the sky ; those clouds will shortly fall in heavy snow 
on us, from which no human means can enable us to escape. If you 



escape the snows on this side of the path, you cannot do so on the 
other." He trembled and looked pale and depressed, lie cried, and 
said, "Oh, sir, we poii-i/or/ [master and servant] will |)erish if we go 
not back to Bogto. The skies are ominous, and tell you to return 
towards the Bogto la." He repeated his entreaties with childish 
tears, but in vain. I told him and the coolies that I was determined 
not to retrace a single step, and that all his entreaties were to no 
purpose. In an hour's time we could scarcely reach Bogto, and if the 
snow began falling in the mean time, we could hardly escape ; besides, 
such a course would not lessen our troubles, as we should have the 
risk of recrossing the distance we had now travelled over. There 
might be a second snowfall, when we should again have to turn 

Ceding finally to my arguments, Phurchung pushed forward. I 
took the lead, and with fresh energy clambered on, till after an hour 
we stood on the pass. The skies had cleared up, the azure heavens 
again smiled on us, and the welcome reappearance of the brilliant 
sun dispelled all our fears. To our left was Sundub pliug, to the 
right the towering pinnacles of Kangla jang-ma, while the rounded 
form of the lofty Lap-chyi in the Shar-Khambu district of Nepal 
rose above the haze. The valley of the Chum-bok la is called Chu 
lonkyok, "The Water-spoon," because it receives the waters of the 
surrounding mountains in a spoon-like basin. 

I had hardly time to congratulate myself on having reached the 
summit, when our guide, now smiling, put his arms in the straps 
(namlo) of his load, and uttering the usual prayer (/ha sol), resumed 
his journey. The descent was fraught with immense dangers, for 
it lay through trackless snows. The guide sounded the snow every- 
where for a path, and not finding one, he took a circuitous direction 
which seemed practicalde to his experienced eye. 

After walking about an hour we found we had made l)ut little 
progress, when we came on the tracks of a Tibetan long-tailed leopard 
{sail).* I wondered how the animal had been able to w^alk along 
over the soft snow without ever sinking in it, but my men explained 
this by attributing supernatural powers to this beast, which they 
said was indeed tlie goblin of leopards. An hour's struggle in the 
snow exhausted my strength, and I could proceed no further. The 
guide opened the loads and repacked them, putting all the breakable 

* ■\Vritten, I believe, gslia. — (W. R.) 


objects in one, all the clothing and provisions in the other. The 
latter he threw down the slope, and it ploughed a path, down which 
I followed till the load brought up against a rock. Then I let myself 
slide down the half-hardened snow, guiding myself with my elbows 
so as to escape any crevasse across my path. 

By 3.30 p.m. we had descended so far in the gorge of Chu 
lonkyok that patches of grass showed here and there amidst the 
snow, and I saw an alpine shrub called upala* with large pink 
leaves at the top like those of the water-lily, waved in the wind, 
which had again begun to blow. The coolies now pushed rapidly 
ahead, leaving me far behind, but the gradual reappearance of grass, 
rhododendrons, and juniper bushes revived my spirits as I walked 
on, frequently halting to catch my breath. Continuing down the 
gorge through rhododendrons, junipers, and several species of prickly, 
sweet-scented shrubs, we finally reached, about dark, a great boulder, 
underneath which we camped. In front of it ran a brook about four 
feet wide, said to be the head-stream of the famous Kabili of Nepal, 
which receives the waters from the Chum-bok and the Semarum 

November 21. — Though I still felt, when I awakened, greatly 
exhausted, I had to start witliout breakfast, as the coolies had left 
early, fearing lest the fine morning might be followed by a bad after- 
noon. Dressed very lightly in order to be able to climb more easily, I 
set out, following in Phurchung's footsteps. The trail at first presented 
no great difficulty, though it was continually up and down over 
mountain ridges five or six hundred feet high ; but our previous day's 
experience made us think little of such a road. After a few miles 
we reached a kind of gateway lying between two rocky cliffs, where 
began the region of scanty vegetation that invariably is found just 
below the snow-line. Here we halted for a while and drank some 
tea ; then, resuming our journey, we reached the summit of Semarum 
after a couple of hours of most trying climbing over ice and melting 
snow. The pass is protected to the south and west by a very rugged 
cliff resembling the outspread wings of an eagle both in colour and 
shape, and inspired me with a strange feeling of dread. Sitting on 
the summit of the pass, I enjoyed, though tired and unwell, the 

* Ufpala, or Uclpala, is the blue lotus of India, also used medicinally. Mr. Jaeschke, 
'Tib.-Engl. Diet.,' s.v., says, "In Lliadak this name seems to be transferred to Polemo- 
nium caeruleurn." — (W. R.) 


grandeur and sublimity of the scene. No poet could adequately 
describe Nature's exploits in this part of the world, no pencil could 
delineate these romantic scenes. 

Legend has it that many years ago, on this very pass, a certain 
cunning and designing Limbu of Tambur Khola concealed under 
the rocks a red earthen jar filled with charcoal, with the object of 
establishing his heirs' right over the whole easternmost part of 
Nepal, called Yangoro, which includes Singli la, and in his will he 
made mention of this bequest. A few years later hostilities broke out 
between the Limbus of Tambur Khola and Yangoro, which lasted for 
nearly twelve years, during which time the Gurung were the chief 
sufferers. Pasturing their cattle on the disputed land, both parties 
stole them as a rent for the right of pasture. Finally the Chambisi 
Eajah, who ruled at Bhatgaong, settled the dispute in favour of the 
Yangoro Limbus, the trick of the Tambur Khola Limbus having been 
found out. 

From the Semarum pass I saw the Choma Kankar, or " Lord of 
Snows," the famous sacred mountain of the Buddhists which over- 
hangs Lap-chyi, the highest of its three peaks, dome-shaped, the two 
others standing side by side, of truncated cone shape ; then to the 
north-west of these appeared the Shar Kliambu Mountains, half lost 
in the rising mist ; to the west, beyond the great chasm formed by 
the Tamljur valley, were the valleys of Feylep, Yalung, Dhunkota, 
all indistinct in the general haze. 

rhurchung endeavoured in vain to find a way down through the 
deep snow which everywhere covered the ground, and finally we had 
to slide down through the snow for several hundred feet ; and then, 
iinding a foothold, we waded on, dragging the loads behind us. I 
saw tracks of rabbits,* snow-leopards, and a species of bird 
called chamdaiKj, probably the snow-pheasant. After a little while 
we could advance no further down the slope, so Phurchung made a 
detour over a ridge to our right, its summit a huge bare rock some 
forty to fifty feet high. From this we descended with great difficulty, 
tlirowing the loads down ahead of us and sliding down ourselves in 
the deep, soft snow. 

By 4 i).m. we were clear of the snow, and once more found 
vegetation. After a short rest we resumed our journey along the 
gentle rill which leaps down from here ^ith a pleasant murmur, and 

* IlarcB, I take it, are meant. — (W. R.) 


is known as the second headwater of the Kabili, although the brook 
which we followed empties into the Namga stream which rises in the 
Kangla Nangmo pass near Jongri. The snow, reaching several miles 
below the Kangla pass on either side of the Namga, showed us that 
this pass was inaccessible. These early snows are called shingsa 
pahmo. The road led through dwarf rhododendrons, bushy junipers, 
and prickly shrubs bearing a red fruit. The river was frozen over, 
except in the narrow parts. In the distance the pine-clad flanks of 
Juonga, through which the Yalung dashes, were seen resplendent in 
the rays of the setting sun. We plodded on to 6 p.m., when we 
reached a broad flat called Namga tsal, "The Grove of Joy," and 
shortly after crossed the river by a wooden bridge of the East Nepalese 
type, and some forty feet long, and came to the halting-place under 
the widespread branches of a high dung shing or cedar. Namga tsal 
received its name, I was told, from Lha-tsun, the great Buddhist 
patriarch of Sikkim, having spent a few days here to rest from his 
fatigue when travelling for the first time from Tibet to convert the 
Lhopas (Southerners). He so enjoyed his rest here that he ordered 
his disciples to hold the place sacred, and to celebrate their annual 
inaugural religious ceremonies at the cavern in which he had spent a 
few days. We could see the cave from where we were camped, and 
were told that the Buddhists of Sikkim and Eastern Nepal still resort 
to this place on pilgrimage. 

Novcmhcr 22. — Crossing two streams with swampy banks, the way 
led uphill for a while through thickets of rhododendrons, where we 
saw numerous green pheasants of the colour of a green parrot, with 
spurs on their legs and a deep, thick red line round their eye. In 
size they were larger than a domestic fowl.* Next we came to the 
Yalung river, which we crossed by a substantial bridge of cedar logs 
and silver-fir planks, and tlien we began the ascent of the steep and 
lofty Chunjorma, or " Collection of Cascades." In the wooded soli- 
tudes on the lower slopes of the great Kanchanjinga stood the 
little monastery of Dechan rolpa. The predecessor of the present 
abbot, it is said, was able to visit Na-Pematang, the Lepcha Paradise, 
which has only been entered by seven families, and which lies 
between the Cho-kanchan and Cho-kanchanjinga. 

* Dr. Hooker, of. cit., i. 255, states having found similar pheasants near the 
Nango la. The male bird had two to five spurs on each of its legs, according to its 
age. — (W. E.) Ithagenes Cruentus. 


Some three miles to the west of the Dechau rolpa gomba is the 
village of Yalimg, where twelve families live who spend their summer 
in tending yaks at Yalung, and their winter at Yanku tang, in the 
valley of the Kabili.* 

Passing by the two lakelets of Tso chung donka, we ascended the 
mountains of the same name, and finally reached by the ISTango la 
the summit of Chunjorma, which name a])plies to the portion of the 
pass between the Nango la and the ]\Iirkan la, where the road from 
Nepal by Klian-do-phug joins it. 

From Mirkan la we passed some lofty crags, called Ta-miran 
kukyab, the principal of which is said to be the image of the horrible 
deity Tamdriu, or Haryagrilia. In shape it resembles a horse's head 
(Ta-mgrin) facing towards Kanchanjinga. Descending, we found 
grass growing on the Pangbo la, and on the Zinan la were junipers and 
rhododendrons. At about 7 p.m. we reached Mudang phug, Phurchung 
carrying me on his back for part of the way. 

November 23. — Our M^ay led along an extensive moraine, the huge 
reddish boulders of which were covered with creeping tamarisks and 
dwarf junipers. After about a mile we reached Manda phug, a 
hollow between two gigantic boulders, the one inclined towards the 
other ; and here we took our breakfast of rice and buttered tea. The 
vegetation improved as we neared Manda la, and the sight of thick 
forest growth in the deep glens refreshed our eyes, so long tired with 
looking on barren rocks. From Tama la, where we saw some shep- 
herds tending their flocks and some yaks, one descends the Yamatari 
valley, the top of the slope being held sacred to the dreaded Mamo 
goddesses ; on the rhododendron bushes were white and red flags 
offered to them by wayfarers. From tliis point I obtained a good 
view of the Kangpa-chan valley. 

Finding that 1 was greatly exhausted, DaoNamgyal, Pliurcliung's 
Ijrother- in-law, took me on his back and carried me till we reached 
tlie north-west flank of the Tama la. Soon after this we came to a flat, 
grass-covered valley with tall rhododendrons and ferns growing about. 
I'luircliuiig held this spot to have been a singularly lucky one for him, 
for it was here that his parents had met Hooker some tliirty-five 
year.s ago, while the great botanist was exploring Nepal. I'hurchung's 
fathei*. sufi'ering from snow-blindness, was led by his wife to the 
Doctor, wlio uoi oidy gave him excellent medicine, but presented her 

* a. Hooker, (>]>. cit., i. 275.— (W. R.) 


with a pretty coin to hang about the neck of her chikl, Phurchung, 
then a baby in the arms.* 

At about 2 p.m. we reached the Yamata ri, formed by the 
streams which issue from Kanchanjinga. Tlie gorge in which this 
river flows is singularly beautiful. Above the steep crags on either 
side were blue glaciers, and at their feet forests of native firs 
and larches, covered with pendant mosses waving like feathers in the 
breeze. Just before reaching Kangpa-chan (Gyunsar) village, the 
Yamata ri river is crossed by a little bridge, and then the village 
with its wooden huts comes in view. Some of the houses were 
empty ; a few old hags with goitre sat on their thresholds basking 
in the sun and spinning. 

Phurchung had reached this, his native village, ahead of us, and 
he now came, much the worse for drink, to greet us, and led us into 
his mother's house, where a fire of rhododendron boughs and aromatic 
firs blazed in the middle of the room. Chang f was ready in wooden 
bottles, and his mother poured some boiling water into them as soon 
as we were seated on the cushions placed for us. Some dry junipers 
and pines were burnt as incense, and two joss-sticks smoked before 
us. Then two brass plates full of boiled, red-skinned potatoes 
were offered us, followed by rice and boiled ]nutton, the rice being 
served wrapped up in the broad leaves of some kind of hill plant. 
When night came on we sat around the fire, each with a bottle 
of murwa before him ; but drowsiness soon overtook me, and I fell 

Novemlcr 24. — The village of Kangpa-chan | is built on several 
terraces facing the south-west, the houses enclosed in low stone walls. 
Several small streams empty into the Kangchan below the village, 
and mountains covered with snow and ice rise precipitously on 
either side of it, their lower slopes clad with thick forest growth 
of mos3-covered silver firs, deodars, and larches. Juniper and 

* See Hooker, op. cit., i. 263.— (W. R.) 

t Tibetan beer. Its preparation is thus described by Jaesclike, op. cit., s.v., Chang : 
'' When the boiled barley has grown cold, some inliabs (yeast or dry barm prepared 
in Balti of tlour, mixed with some ginger and aconite) is added, after which it is left 
standing for two or three days, until fermentation commences, when it is called glum. 
Having sufRciently fermented, some water is jjoured to it, and the beer is considered to 
be ready for use." — (W. E.) 

:;: Hooker's Kambachen {op. cit., i. 257). He gives its altitude at 11,380 feet 
above sea-level. — (W. E.) 


rhododendron bushes surniund the village. IJouiid about it are 
patches of barley,* from one to the otlier of whicli Hew Hocks of wild 

Coining back from a stroll, 1 found two men waiting to invite 
me to drink chang at their houses ; and having accepted their invita- 
tion, I went first to that of a man called Jorgya. Taking my seat on 
a thick mattress-like seat covered with a piece of Khamba carpet, a 
bamboo bottle filled with murwa, with a little piece of butter placed 
on top of it, was set before us.f Tea was first drunk, the housewife 
serving mine in a china cup, a form of Tibetan politeness only shown 
to persons of superior social standing, those of equal or inferior rank 
to the host u.siug the wooden bowls each one carries about in the 
breast of liis gown. After this, a brass plate filled with potatoes was 
placed before us on a little table, together with parched Indian corn, 
milk, and butter, of all of which we ate heartily. 

Our host advised me not to attempt to go by Wallung, as 1 would 
be sure to meet with much difficulty, but rather to enter Tibet by 
Yangma and the Kangla chen pass, which was still possible, he said, 
even at this advanced season of the year. 

I next went to the house of Pemazang, Phurchung's uncle, which I 
found well plastered and with a tastefully painted chapel. His son 
and wife received me at the head of the ladder, and led me into the 
hous(i. Pemazang had long, tliick, and tangled hair. He wore gold 
earrings in the shape of magnolia fiowers, and his looks and talk were 
grave and serious. He often sits in deep meditation for tlie purpose 
of arresting hail or other storms by the potency of the charms he is 
able to pronounce. I 

Leaving Pemazang, we crossed the river and paid a visit to tlie 
Tashi-chos ding monastery, which we found nearly deserted, one or 

* Hooker {loc. cit.) says that the only cultivation here consists of radishes, potatoes, 
and barley : no wheat is gnAvn.— (W. K.) 

t This custom of putting a little piece of butter on tlie moutli of a bottle or neek of 
a jug of wine when offered to any one is observed by all Tiljetans. and by most of the 
Mongol tribes with which I am acquainted.— (W. K.) 

X From this descri])tion of Pemazang, it may be inferred that he was a Khamba, 
a Tibetan from the north-east. We know by Hooker, ojp. cit., i. 137, that many 
Khamba came to Sikkim witli tlie first Sikkim rajah. They are, as a people, famous 
" rain-makers; " while the people from other parts of Tibet are not much given to per- 
forming rain-making or rain-dispelling ceremonies. Cf. 'The Land of the Lamas,' 
p. 188.— (W. K.) 



two old women here and there turning the prayer-wheels outside 
the temple. Ascending two flights of ladder-stairs, we entered the 
lama's house. He and his ani * received us most kindly, and the 
latter asked me for some medicines for the old gentleman, who was 
suffering M'ith dyspepsia {paJcan). 


Eeturning to our lodgings, we found that the lock of the bag in 
which I kept my money had been tampered with, but I did not 

* The term ani (also pronounced aneh') is used to designate a wife, concubine, or nun. 
In the present case it certainly means a nun livino; in a state of concubiunge with a 
lama. It is a common practice in Tibet, and in many places lamas (graba) and 
ani live in the same convent. See ' Report on Explorations in Sikkim. Bhutan, etc., 
from 185G to 1«S6,' pp. 9 and 12, and infra, p. 42.— (W. R.) 


open it, as six other persons were living in the room we occupied, 
and I feared lest tliey might see the contents. Whatever the loss 
might be, I made up my mind to bear it silently, and keep my 
suspicions to myself. 

Novemler 25, — Phurchuug's brother, Dao Namgyal, brought me 
a quantity of presents — potatoes, murwa, millet, butter, and last, but 
not least, a kid, for which I gave him a return present of five rupees. 
The poor people of the village all followed with various presents, not 
that they had any great respect for me, but solely with an eye to 
return presents, which they hoped would be greater than the value 
of theirs. Fortunately there were but few people in the village, 
otherwise they would have drained me of all my cash. 

By noon Phurchung had sufficiently slept off his drunkenness to 
procure for me several pair of Jcijar* or snowshoes, from the people 
of the village. I had learnt from a newly engaged coolie that he 
had lately crossed the Kangla pass on kyar, and had reached Jongri, 
where he had met Captain Harman, who had been much struck by 
the great usefulness of this rude contrivance. 

In the evening the men killed two kids ; the blood was poured 
into the intestines, which had been washed and cleaned, barley-flour 
{tsamha) being mixed with it.f These blood puddings were boiled 
and packed away with the tripe in a small wicker basket for my 
use on the journey. 

It is told of the upper Kangpa-chan valley that it was first peopled 
])y Tibetans, called Sharpa (Easterners), whose original home was in 
the mountains of Shar Khambu, or Eastern Kirata.J Lower down 
the valley lived the Magar tribe from Nepal, whose chief extended 
his sway over the Sharpa, and exacted such oppressive taxes from 
them that they decided to avenge themselves. The Magar chief, 
going to the village of Kangpa-chan, he and his followers were 

* Written, according to Jaesclike, op. cit., dtjhar. The word and the thing are 
unknown, I believe, in other parts of Tibet. — (W. R.) 

t Throughout Tibet and the greater part of ISIongoIia, llie intestines, stuftVd with 
the hashed heart, liver, and liglits, compose the meal made from a freslily killed 
sheep or kid. The head and pelt are u.sually given to the person who has sold the 
sheep, this not being included in the price paid. Cf. infra, p. 41. — (W. R.) 

X The Kirata are well known as a tribe of non-Braiiraanical people (MIecha) in the 
Veda. See Chr. Lassen. ' Indis. Alterthumskunde,' vol. i. p. 78: "The land between 
tiK; San Roci and Kankiiji is approximately th(; same as that of tlie Kiratas." A com- 
plete discussion on tlie Kiratas is to be found in 'Zeitschrift fiir Kunde des Morgen- 
lander,' vol. i. p. So ft". See »upra, \\ 3. — (W. R.) 


murdered, and their bodies buried. aSTo clue could be had of the 
missing men, so the chiefs wife went herself to Kangpa-chan, but 
she also failed to discover what had become of them. While going 
along the river bank, a boulder, undermined by the current, tumbled 
down, when a swarm of flies flew buzzing out. Attracted by this, 
the queen had the earth removed, and discovered the bodies of her 
husband and his followers. Eeturning home with the chief's body, 
she ordered great funeral ceremonies to be held at a place some six 
miles up the river, near the Kapa-chan torrent, midway between the 
two great villages of the Kangpa-chan valley — Gyunsar and Yarsa,* 
as being more accessible for the people, for whose entertainment 
great bowls of wine were to be provided. In the wine poison was 
mixed ; and as soon as the Magars had finished drinking, they passed 
it to the Kangpa-chan people, who drank deeply, and fell asleep to 
awake no more. Nearly a thousand people were in this way done 
to death, and the babies were carried away by the queen's followers. 
The place where this foul deed was done became known as Tong- 
shong phug, " the place which witnessed a thousand murders." 

The few who escaped carried the news to Tibet, and soon returned 
with a large army to wage war against the Magars. The queen shut 
herself up in one of her castles, and, though ill-prepared to stand a 
siege, she and her people defended it for three months. The Tibetans 
decided to reduce the place by famine and by cutting off the water- 
supply. Then the queen, to deceive them, opened the reservoir in 
the castle and let the water flow towards the Tibetan camp ; and the 
enemy, thinking that she must have a great store of it and that 
their attempt was vain, raised the siege, and withdrew to a distance. 
The queen now attacked them in turn, but fell in the first 
skirmish, fighting valiantly. The Tibetans finally expelled the 
Magars from the Kangpa-chan and Tambur valleys, and restored them 
to their former possessors. 

It was among the Kangpa-chan tribe that I had found Phurchung, 
the most devoted and faithful of all the men I ever came across in 
the Himalayas. Although Ugyen distrusted him, and he abhorred 
Ugyen, yet I placed implicit confidence in his loyalty and ability, 
and his devotion and fidelity to me were boundless. 

Novcmhcr 26. — We left Kangpa-chan, our party now comprising 

* Yarsa probably means " upper {yar) land (sa)." Yara mora, or ijarka marha, 
meaning •■ upper and lower," are terms used throughout Tibet. — (W. R.) 

28 JornxEY to lb as a am> central tibet. 

four coolies. Pliurehiing marched aloug with my gnu as a sign of 
his importance, Imt its red cloth cover, its principal beauty, had 
been stolen the night before; his younger brother, Sonam-dorj, 
carried his pack. Ugyen-gyatso and I rode ponies, hired for eight 
annas each, to take us halfway up the Xango la. The old women 
{ama) of the village waited our approach at the east end of the 
bridge to give us the stirrup cup {chang hjd) (a custom invariably 
observed in Tibet at the parting of friends setting out on a long 
journey), with bowls of wine in their right hand, and plates full 
of parclied barley Hour (tsamha) in their left. Each of the old 
women poured a little wine into a china cup, to which a pinch of 
Hour was added, and we were asked to take a sip, with the wish 
of ":\ray we ofler you the like on your return." We thanked them 
for their kindness, and put a couple of rupees in one of their plates, 
to be divided amongst them. 

We rode slowly on by the bounding river, into which a number 
of little rills empty, flowing down from behind the monastery, and 
over which were several prayer-wheels turned by the water. Our 
way lay amidst thick woods up to Daba ngonpo, where the natives 
used to get blue clay to make images. This clay they held to be 
exceptionally good, as it came from the summit of a holy mountain. 
From this point we followed up the bed of a former glacier, passing 
Kamai phugpa, and reaching at Khama kang tung, the timber line. 
A mile lieyond the latter place we came to the end of the pasture- 
lands on this side the Nango la, not far from which we saw a flock 
of spotted birds, called srcr/pa* which Ugyen tried, without success, 
to shoot. 

The ascent of the Xango la now began over deep snow, in some 
places its surface frozen, in others so soft that we sunk knee-deep 
in it. I soon became so exhausted that I had to get one of the 
coolies to carry me on his back, and so we reached the summit 
of the pass.t 

Two miles to the west of the pass is Sayong kong, a plateau 
whence there is a direct road leading to Yangma. A mile below 
this place is Sayong-hok, | where vegetation begins again, and 

* Tetraogallus Tibelunus. 

t Cf. Hof>ker, op. cit., i. 250-254. lie made tlie altitude of this iiass to be 
15.770 feet iibove scii-level.— (W. R.) 

; Ifok (or og) menus " lower," l,ong or fjnug ineuus " upijer." — (W. R.) 


gradually increases as one advances along the Lungkyong chu. We 
camped on the river bank under a great boulder, spreading our ru^s 
on beds of long dry grass, which covered, but very imperfectly, the 
rough, stony soil. 

Novcmhcr 27. — We followed down the Lungkyong chu (the only 
way of communication between Kangpa-chan, Yangma, and Walking), 
the mountains on our left nearly hidden in the mornino- mists. For 
part of the w\ay our road led along a steep path through thick woods 
of firs, feathery larches, and deodars, amidst which I saw many 
pheasants and other kinds of birds, and the coolies told me that 
musk deer and wild sheep were also found there. 

About two miles above the junction of the Yangma with the 
Lungkyong, we crossed the former stream by a wooden bridge, and 
finally arrived at the village of Tingugma, where we rested a while 
and ate a light meal. 

Shortly after starting again we met a party of Yangma natives 
driving before them a few sheep and a dozen yaks laden with 
blankets, yak hides, barley, and salt. They were going to a village 
called Chaini, in the Tambur valley, to exchange their goods for rice 
and Indian corn. Phurchung asked them if the Kangla chen pass 
was still open. Some said we could easily cross it ; others expressed 
doubts about it, for they said three feet of snow had fallen on it a 
few days previously. 

Passing by Maya phug (a cavern sacred to the goddess Mamo). 
we crossed a little juniper-covered plateau called Shugpa thang 
(" Juniper plain "), and after a short but steep climb reached the 
summit of the pass, from whence I had a most extended and 
beautiful view of the surrounding country — behind me great reddish 
granite rocks, looking like the ruins of gigantic ramparts ; before 
me a plain some two miles long, the bed of a former glacier, encircled 
by snowy mountains rising the one above the other ; while to the 
south-east was the Nango la, and behind it the plain of Sumdougma. 
Crossing the Djari thang, or " Plain of Gravel," and the Do la, or 
" Eocky pass " (round the base of which the Yangma flows), I reached 
by dusk the monastery of Yangma, or Manding gomba, situated on 
a broad, shrub-covered terrace some 40 to 50 feet above the stream ; 
where Phurchung found me lodgings in a wretched cell, where I 
settled myself as best I could for the night. He obtained a few 
eggs and some milk from the lamas ; and while one of the nuns {aid) 


helped Dao Xanigyal to cook the food, another blew the bellows. 
The lamas were engaged in their annnal reading of the Kahgyur, 
which occupied them daily from .") in the morning to 7.30 p.m., when 
they retired to their respective cells. There Avere fifteen monks and 
seven ani in the lamasery.* 

Ugyen had been suffering most of the day with violent pains in 
tlie bowels ; he now wrapped himself in all the blankets I could 
spare, and lay groaning and crying, " Achi-chc (qm-ouh ! " so that I felt 
grave apprehensions for him, and feared that his illness might oblige 
us to stop over in this wretched place. 

Xorcmhe)' 28. — Phurchung had been away on a drunken bout 
all night, and I arose full of fear lest he might have disclosed our 
plans to his companions, and Ugyen shared my alarm. After a 
while riiurchung and Phuntso appeared, and with much salaaming 
and lolling of the tongue asked me to wait here a day, the latter 
assuring me that he hoped to obtain, without much difficulty or 
the payment of custom duty (called chiia in this part of Nepal), 
permission for us to proceed on our journey. Shortly after the 
elders arrived, the richest man among them recognizable by his 
tamiisl-i hat, a long earring, and a deep red serge robe of purug.^ 
He had come from the village of Yangma riding a half-breed yak 
(jo), which, with the saddle still on its back, stood tied at the gate 
of tlie monastery. 1 anxiously awaited the result of their con- 
ference with my men, and in great anxiety prayed to the Supreme 
] )ispenser of our destinies that nothing might happen unfavourable 
to ourselves and our enterprise. 

The Handing gomba, or Nub IMan-ding gomba, " The Western 
Plying-^ledieine ^Monastery," owes its name to the fact that lama 
Llm-tsun once lived for three years in a cave close by called the 
Zimphug, to discover medicines of wonderful potency, and that he 
there obtained three wonderful pills. One came to him through the 
air, i'alling on the spot where the lamasery now stands. The second 
]till fell a little al)Ove the monastery, where the people of the village 
now burn tlieir dead ; and the third alighted on the spot where the 
2reat chorten now stands. 

* See infra. j». :!7. imtc '2. 

t Vurng is ratlicr a poor transcription of the word phrug (pronounced iruk)^ but better 
known by tlio name of ptilo. Pulo, tbough now a Cliinese word, is a borrowed 
t<rn), probably the Tibetan name. Phru(,' is native Tibetan clotli made in pieces usually 
nine or ten fatboinn (ilamfxi in Tibetan) long and about fourteen inches broad. — (W'. 11.) 


Manding gomba is held in great sanctity, for it is one of the 
first cis-Himalayan lamaseries founded by the great red-hat Lama 
Lha-tsun; but Wallung ranks first, and Kangpa-chan second, in point 
of wealth and power. Manding possesses a fine copy of the Kahgyur 
in 125 volumes. 

The Lha-hhang, or temple, has massive and neatly painted walls 
and doors, after the manner of the Sikkim donpa. The huts or cells 
of the monks in its immediate vicinity, all painted red with clay 
obtained from the adjacent mountains, are of irregular and ugly 
style, the doors, windows, and cornices being roughly made; each 
house has around it a low stone wall, inside of which the sheep and 
yak find shelter. 

After a little while Phurchung and Puntso came back to me in 
high spirits over the result of their conference with the village elders. 
They had told them that I was only a pilgrim {nal'orjxi) who spoke 
Tibetan and dressed in Tibetan fashion. The head lama said that 
he knew of no order from the ISTepalese Government for stopping- 
pilgrims on their way to Tibet, and that he would certainly not 
prevent me doing so, as I spoke Tibetan with greater fluency and 
accuracy than many Nepalese. The headman {gopa) asked that 
Phurchung should give bond, holding himself personally responsible 
for my character as a traveller, and a custom duty of eight annas 
a head was levied on our party. Phurchung also told me that the 
headman and head lama were coming to bid me farewell, and that 
I must not forget, after exchanging compliments with them, to say 
sangpoi ja chog, " May we meet again next year." 

In a little while the big men arrived. The headman, conspicuous 
by his earring, boots, and red serge robe, nodded to me slightly, and 
took off his hat. He asked me why I had chosen such a bad season 
for going to Tibet. I told him that I did so in obedience to the 
command of our holy and learned chief lama {Tsmvai), and not by 
my own wish. His object in coming to see me was to find out if 
I spoke Tibetan and understood the Buddhist religion. My fluency 
in Tibetan, and the citing of one or two proverbial sayings in course 
of conversation, made him form a high opinion of my knowledge of 
the sacred texts and histories, as well as of my character and holiness. 
" Laso, laso " (yes, yes), he said, and then he apologized for not having 
brought me some presents ; but I answered him that our acquaintance 
was only just begun, and there would be time in the future to 


cultivate it, ami. haiidinu him a scar ^khat a r/), I expressed the hope 
that we might meet the next year {saiv/poi ja choq). ]\Iaiiy of the 
bystanders made wishes for our welfare, but some one in the crowd 
said tliat I was certainly not a Tibetan. Then another swore I was 
an Indian ; and a third said that they would soon have news of me : 
'* That Hindu will surely die in the snows, and his servants will soon 
return here with the news of his death." 

It was past noon when the coolies picked u]) their loads, and I set 
out in excellent spirits, having now escaped the much-feared obstruc- 
tion from the Yangma people, on whose mercy and good-will our 
success entirely depended. 

We passed by some memlo/i;/ and chorten at the entrance to the 
convent, and then followed up the course of the Yangma, passing by 
a pretty lakelet, the Miza, or " man eating," * now filled with ice, 
and seeing on the way some very high chorten, known as thongwa 
huadol,] "bringing deliverance when seen," which had a few years 
previously been repaired by the head lama of Wallung. Near these 
we saw a half-dozen wild sheep (uao), but we gave up all idea of 
shooting them when told that the Yangma people think the gods of 
the land and mountains (Ski-hdaf/, rl-lha) would be deeply offended 
if any one molested them. 

By 3 p.m. we got sight of tlie village of Yangnia,J whose 
houses could only be distinguished from the boulders everywhere 
strewing the ground by the smoke issuing from the roofs. There 
were not more than a hundred houses in the village, and the fields 
round about were enclosed within low stone walls. Buckwheat, 
barley, turnips, radishes, and potatoes are grown here, and rice 
Ijrought from Yang-ku tang and other villages in the warmer valleys 
is procuraljle. The village was founded by Tibetans from Tashi-rabka, 
one of them having discovered the valley and its comparative fertility 
M-hile hunting for a lost yak calf. The name Yangma was given it 
on account of tlie Ijroadth of the valley.§ 

The male pait of the ])opulation is idle in tlie extreme, but tlie 

• Mi, " man ; '" za, " to eat." — ( W. It.) 

t 3/</(o;i;/-ifa, " seen ; " /cwx, " entire ; " j/roZ, " freedom." — (W. R.) 

X Alao visitid by Hooker. He says that it was (in 1848) a miserable collection 
of 2U0 to 300 stone huts. Its altitude is about 13,500 feet above sen-level. See Hooker, 
(ip. cit., i. '238. On p. lil'i of his work is a "diagram of the glacial terraces at the fork 
of tlie Yangma valley." — (W. R.) 

§ Yaug-ma, meaning " broad." — (\V. R.) 


women are correspondingly busy; some I saw were threshing corn, 
some gathering fuel, others engaged in various kinds of household 

By 5 p.m. we got off from this wretched valley, where Phur- 
chung and the coolies, by the way, were most desirous to remain to 
continue drinking chang, though Phurchung showed unmistakable 
signs of having already imbibed too much. After an hour's march 
we reached Ki phug, where we found, under an overhanging rock, a 
bit of ground free from snow on which to camp; but Pliurchung 
remained behind in Yangma, in a helplessly drunken condition. 

November 29. — The way lay along the Yangma, whicli was 
scarcely visible, snow and ice covering entirely its bed. There was 
nothing to give life to the scenery ; the river flowed in a deep gorge, 
or else opened out into lake- like expanses ; on either side the 
mountains seemed to reach to the sky ; not a bird, not even a cloud 
in the heaven, not a sound save that of our feet crushing the light 
dry snow. It was 11 a.m. when we came to an unfrozen pool, by 
which we ate our Ijreakfast of tea and meal. This place, which is in 
a broad portion of the valley, is a favourite summer pasture-ground 
{tser chan) for the Dokpas, who, from July to September, bring their 
herds of yaks here. 

Po phug was reached after a march of three miles through the 
snow, then the ascent became steeper and freer from snow, and we 
came to Luma goma, " Fountain head," the source of the Yangma 
river ; and after an easy ascent of half an hour we arrived at Tsa- 
tsam, the limit of vegetation.* 

Here we began climbing a huge glacier, a quarter of a mile wide 
and more than three miles long, the Chyang-chub gya-lam, or "High- 
way to Holiness," over which I was carried on Phurchung's back 
wherever the snow lay deep. Then we climbed a huge mass of bare 
black rocks (Dsama nagmo), and darkness had overtaken us before we 
reached the " White Cavern " {Phugpa iMrpo), where we proposed 
passing the night. The fog added to the obscurity of the night, our 
feet were benumbed by the cold, and we frequently slipped into 
crevasses or between the clefts of rocks. Finding it impossible to 
reach the cavern, we scraped away the snow from between some 
rocks, and there I sat, my knees drawn up, hugging myself during 
the long night. 

* Rtsn, " grass ; " mtsams, " boundarj'-line, limit." — (W. R.) 


How exhausted we were witli tlie fatigue of the day's journey, 
how overcome by the rarefication of the air, the intensity of the cold , 
and liow completely i.rostrated by hunger and thirst, is not easy to 
describe. The very remembrance of the sufferings of that dreadful 
night makes me shudder even now, but I quickly recover under the 
inexpressible delight I feel at the consciousness of my great success. 
This was the most trying night I ever passed in my life. There was 
a light breeze blowing, attended with sleet, which fortunately weighed 
my blankets down and made them cover mc closer than they other- 
wise would have done. And so witli neither food nor drink, placed 
as if in the grim jaws of death in the l:)leak and dreary regions of 
snow, where death alone dwells, we spent this most dismal night. 

Xovcrnhn- 30.— The coolies once more picked up their loads, and 
our guide began in his gravest tones to recite his Pema-juiuj-ne samJm 
ihiha and other mantras. Tlie morning was gloriously radiant, and 
the great Kangla chen glittered before us, bathed in a glory of golden 
light. Fortunately for us, there was no fresh snow on the ground ; 
for, liad there been any, we could not possibly have advanced. 
"We found that we had stopped not more than a furlong from the 
rinigpa karpo, which, by the way, is not a cave at all, but only a 
crevasse between two detached rocks. Our guide, leaving his load in 
charge of his brother, took the lead, driving his long stick into the 
snow at each step, and digging footholds in the soft snow. From 
the White Cavern the top of the pass bore due east, and was distant 
about two miles. Just at the base of the final ascent there is a little 
sandy ]ilain, in the middle of which is a huge boulder : this is the 
"Place of Salvation" {Tarpa (janrj), thus called because, when once 
this point is reached, travellers may be confident of attaining tlie 
summit of tlie pass. 

I steadily followed in tlie footsteps of the guide, and would not let 
him take me on his l)ack ; for if I succeeded in ascending to the 
highest summit of Kangla chen without any help, I could look to 
the achievement with greater pride. Ugyen here gave out, and it was 
with diflicully that I persuaded Phurchung to carry him on his back, 
ior they Merc far from being on the best of terms. An hour's hard 
climliing brought us t(j the summit of the pass. The sky was 
eloudless and of the deepest blue ; against it a snow-clad world of 
mountains stood out in bold relief. Far beyond the maze of snow- 
clad peaks we saw in the north-Avest the mountains of Pherug, 


in Tibet, while those of Shar Khambu stood gloriously out to the 

The summit of Kangla chen is a plateau, some two miles from east 
to west, and one mile and a quarter from north-west to north-east ; 
it inclines towards the west, while to the north-west it is bounded by 
a mountain of considerable height. Our snowshoes (hjar) now stood 
us in good need ; unfortunately we had but three pairs, so Phurchung 
and I had to wade through the . deep snow in the footsteps of the 
others, with many slips and more than one narrow escape from falling 
into the deep crevasses. On all sides there was nothing visible but an 
ocean of snow. Innumerable snowy peaks touched with their white 
heads the pale leaden skies, where stars were shining. The rattling 
roar of distant avalanches was frequently heard ; but, after having 
succeeded in crossing the loftiest of snowy passes, I felt too trans- 
ported with joy to be frightened by their thunder. 

These splendid scenes of wonderland, the grandest, the most 
sublime my eyes have ever beheld, which bewildered me so that even 
now my pen finds no words to describe them, inspired me with 
feelings of deep gratitude to Heaven, by whose mercy my life had 
been spared thus far. 

We camped on a rock bare of snow, and passed another miserable 
night with nothing to drink, and Init a couple of dry biscuits to stave 
off our hunger. To add to my misery, Ugyen was still suffering, and 
I had to give him half my covering, for he had none of his own ; and 
so, with not even enough room to lie down, we passed the night 
huddled together, the loads placed on the lower side of the rock so as 
to prevent our falling off in our sleep. 

Dcccmher 1. — 'Twas not yet dawn when all were on foot and 
busy packing up. The track was hardly visible ; below our path lay 
the great glacier, extending for miles, which feeds the Tashi-rabka 
river. The snowy sides of the mountains beyond this were furrowed 
by glacial streams, very noticeable in their varied shades of blue and 
green, and on the surface of the glacier itself rose huge rounded 
surfaces, or hummocks, evidently produced by boulders concealed 
under the ice. 

Following carefully in the footsteps of Phurchung, we crossed 
some six spurs of the Dorjetagh range, and then came to an easy 
path down the central moraine of a former glacier, now only a huge 
heap of boulders and dehris. The mountains lost, as we advanced, 


thu whitish colour peculiar to the Indian ranges, and assumed the 
blackish or ochre colour distinctive of the Tibetan region. 'Twas 
with a feeling of intense relief that we finally discerned vegetation 
and heard the babbling of a little brook, near which flew birds feed- 
ing on rhododendron and juniper berries, and a little way off we 
saw some herds of yaks grazing, and smoke rising from a camp fire. 
Here we stopped at the foot of a great rock, and enjoyed, after our 
long fast of two days, a meal of rice and buttered tea. 

"We continued down tlis course of the stream, passing with some 
apprehension near a huge bull-yak or .<<halu, though low stone walls 
separated us from him and kept him away from the she-yaks (di) 
in the adjacent pasturage. This part of the valley is frequently 
visited by packs of wolves, which kill large numbers of yaks, but 
the bulls are able to drive them off with their long sharp horns. 

At 3 p.m. we passed Dsongo, the extreme border of the district 
of Tashi-rabka, and where are the ruins of a stone house built 
on a huge boulder. This was formerly a stage-house used by the 
Sikkim Kaja's people, when the Yangma and Wallung districts still 
belonged to him, wdien going to or returning from Tibet. A little 
way beyond this point we met some herdsmen, who made inquiries 
as to whence we came and where we were going. Near by were their 
tents, where I noticed two swarthy women and a fierce Tibetan 
mastiff. Phurchung entered one of the tents, sat down to chat and 
drink a cup of fara, a sort of thin curd.* 

Ugyen was much preoccupied about our getting by Tashi-rabka 
and escaping its headman {Tow/zungpa). At about 6 o'clock we 
were close to the village, and so we hid till dusk in a gully, where 
we boiled our tea and ate some tsamha. The moon shone out 
lirightly when we resumed our march and passed along a portion of 
a high stone wall, erected by the Tibetans during the Nepalese war, 
when, it is said, they put up five miles of it in a day under orders 
of their general, the Shape Shata.f This wall is carried across the 

* Tara, or tarah, ia iiiudo of curdled ruilk slightly cooked and stirred up in the 
process. It is si favourite dish throughout Tibet and Western Mongolia, in which latter 
country it is also known as tarah. It is generally eaten just before meals. In Eastern 
Tibet and the Kokonor it is called djo (pr. sho). It is the same as the yaurt of the 
Turks and the people of the Ilalkanic States.— (W. R.) 

t StiitjiC is the c(jllo(iuial title given to tiie ministers of State (Kalon) of the Tale 
lama. Tlie word is pot-sibly {ighags, "justice ; " dpe, " model," though it is now written 
as in the text. See infra, p. 174. — fW. R.) 


river on a bridge, where it has eight small watch towers. It 
crosses the whole valley, its ends being high up on the sides of the 
mountains. On the farther side of the wall is the village. Ugyen 
and Phurchung stood trembling, not knowing whether to turn back 
towards the Kangia chen pass or to proceed onward towards the 
cliorten, near which the headman resides. Phuntso alone was equal 
to the occasion. " If the guards are awake, we will sing some of 
our national Walking songs, and pass ourselves off for Wallungpa." 
After a few words of encouragement to the others, we set out. 
Before we had reached the chorten, a voice from a yak-hair tent 
cried out, " Whence are you, and where are you going ? " To which 
Phuntso replied that we were Wallungpa going to Shigatse, asked 
them where they were going, and without waiting for a reply we 
hurried on and passed by the dreaded headman's house without 
awakening any one, not even the fierce mastiffs tied up in front of 
the dwelling. 

About 30 yards beyond the house we came to the bridge, a 
rough structure of logs and stone slabs. The Tashi-rabka river was 
partly frozen, and its swift current was sweeping down blocks of 
ice. We crossed over unnoticed, and I then broke the silence with 
thanks to merciful God who had enabled us to overcome this the 
most dreaded of all difficulties, one which had frightened rny staunch 
friend Phurchung, that the snows of the Kangia chen had not 

We followed the river in an easterly direction, passing on the 
way two poor traders (Gyagar Kliamha *) who were going to Wallung 
to sell a wild sheep {new) they had killed. Then we came to Pti-u, 
where is a large Nyingmaj monastery, and three miles further on to 
a bridge over the two branches of the river. 'Twas nearly midnight 
when we reached a sand-covered hillock called Shara, where we 
halted for the night, and slept in a sheepfold, near which two hunters 
with a hound {sltyaJchi) were also camped. 

Dece^nber 2. — At sunrise we resumed our journey, and after an 
hour's march got sight of the village of Ckima Shara, at the foot of a 
range of mountains trending north-west and south-east. Leaving 

* Gyagar Khamha meaus " Indian Khamba," the same as probably Hooker's Khumba 
of Sikkim. See p. 107, note ; and Hooker, i. 136.— (W. R.) 

t Nyingma, or Nyingma, the old or red-hat sect of lamas. Their chief stronghold is 
Ulterior Tibet, Sikkim, and Bhutan.— (W. R.) 


this \-illage some miles away (on our right ?), we turned a little to the 
north and made for the Langbu la. There was not a soul to be seen 
on the vast table-land we were traversing, only a few little birds 
like swallows twittered on the hillsides by the way, and some kites 
were soaring in the sky near Guma Shara. We ascended steadily till 
we came to the foot of the pass, from which point the summit was 
reached by a zigzag cut in the rocks, the whole surface of which 
was inscribed with the mystic syllables, Om mani imdme hum* I 
became so fatigued before the summit (some 700 feet above the 
jdateau) M-as reached, that Thuntso had to carry me up; and Ugyen 
also made the ascent on IMiurchung's back, as he was still feeling 
very badly and was C|uite unable to keep u]) with us. From the 
summit we could see due north, perched on a lofty peak, the Lhakha 
of Sakya., and to our west were snow-clad peaks of the lofty Perugh 

On the northern slope of the Langbu we found much drifted 
sand, and a short distance from the foot of the pass we came to the 
source of the Ge river,t where we met a party of rice-collectors 
{daduhpa) on their way to Tashi-rabka with a dozen yaks and some 
donkeys, there to buy rice from the Wallung traders. While 
I'hurchung talked to one of them, a former acc|uaintance, I slipped 
by without attracting tlieir attention ; for had they spoken to me, 
they would certainly have detected my nationality by my appearance 
and speech. 

Proceeding onward, we met other parties of swarthy Tibetans, in 
which the women were conspicuous by their headdress {2Mtiuj). 
Their dirt-covered faces, their white teeth and eyeballs, made them 
look exceedingly wild. Crossing the rivulet by a bridge made of 
two stone slabs, the valley broadened as we advanced, till we found 
ourselves on a plateau several miles broad, where the rivulet turned 
to the west, to empty probably farther on into the great Arun. 
Pluirchung liere pointed out a place \vliere there is a large under- 
ground monastery,! the chief temple {tswjla hhawj) of which is cut 

* The fuui(jU8 ■' bix-syllablf prayer." Sue my ' Land of the Lamas,' p. 326 et aqq.— 
(W. K.) ' f -/i 

t A hiuall .stream emptyiii- iuto the Taya Tdau<,'po of our maps.— (W. R.) 
X vi^iited in 1,S83 another rock-cut hermitage in this neighbourhood, 
at a place called Kyil-khor ta dub, some 10 miles from the She-kar gomba, at the foot 
of the Lama la. It was about a .luarter mile long. Padma Sambhava is said to have 
hvtd in It. See ' RejKirt ou L.vploratiuus in Bhutan, etc.,' p. 2U, § 20.— (W. 11.) 


out of the massive rock. There are twenty inmates to this lamasery, 
and the church furniture and images are said to be of great 

Fording the little Tibgyu chu, said to rise in the Chabug la, we 
proceeded in an easterly direction, and passed the little village of 
Wena, a mile from which stands the village of Chani, where lives 
the Chyugpo niepang family, or the " rich men who never reply 
nay." When travellers passing by this way have asked the rich 
men {chyugpo *) if there was such and such a thing to be had at 
their place, they have never replied in the negative. One day, in the 
month of August, a traveller who had heard the story concerning 
this family came to test its truth, and asked the housewife to give 
him a piece of ice, when she at once produced a piece from the butter- 
cask. On another occasion a traveller asked for a chile pepper in 
February, and the mistress of the house gave it to him at once. 

December 3. — At about a mile from our camp of last night we 
came to a rivulet some fifteen feet broad, flowing in a north-easterly 
direction. We selected a shallow part of it, across which Phurchung 
waded, carrying me on his back. Irrigation ditches led the water of 
this stream on to the neighbouring barley-fields. We stopped 
towards 7 o'clock at the camp {dohX) of Pole, situated in the middle 
of a plain extending from east to v/est some ten miles, and bounded 
to the north by the Arun river. There were several sheep-folds with 
walls of sun-dried bricks six or seven feet high and two feet thick ; 
in the corners of tliese folds were turret-like houses, in which the 
shepherds sought shelter from the severity of the weather. Here we 
hired two yaks for a tanha | a-piece to carry us to the village of 
Tebong, about six or seven miles away. This whole plateau was 
covered with a species of briar, amidst which grew long fine grass, on 
which cows and jo (half-bred yaks) were feeding, and whence innu- 
merable hares and foxes ran, startled by our approach. Midway 
between Pole and Tebong, but on the mountain side, lies the village 
of Mug, with some forty families {jiiitsang). Before reaching Tebong, 

* Written phyug-po. Med (from me), "no." — (W. E.) 

t Written lihrog, and usually pronouuced dru, du, or do. The name dopa or drvpa 
applies equally to all pastoral tribes, and they, when speaking, use it with the accepta- 
tion of " house, dwelling, tent, home." — (W. R.) 

X Three Tibetan tankas are the equivalent of one rupee. There were four varieties 
of tankas then current in Tibet, two of Nepalese minting, two made at Lhasa, the best 
being that known as Gadan tanka, and made at tlie Castle of Gadaii.— (W. E.) 


which is the first village this way on Tashilhunpo soil, we crossed 
the dry bed of the Chorten Xyiuia river, forming tlie boundary, and 
which I had already passed over on my first journey to Shigatse in 
187i>.* Xear here we were overtaken by a violent dust-storm, which 
hid the whole country from our view and forced us for a while to 
remain motionless. 

Once on Tashilhunpo territory, all my fears of being arrested were 
over, and I walked on to the village of Tanglungf with a light 
heart. An hour's walk brought us to the door of my old acquaintance, 
Xabu I "W'anga, who led me with much ceremony into the best room 
of his home, apologizing for his not being able to lodge me in his 
chapel, which was filled with carcasses of sheep and goats drying for 
winter use. 

December 4. — Our host appeared early in the morning to inquire 
what we required in the way of food for our journey, and Ugyen gave 
him a list of articles, comprising mutton, barley-meal (tsarnha^), butter, 
etc. He also undertook to procure us three ponies, for which I was to 
pay Us. 4 each as far as Shigatse. While we were breakfasting a 
number of old acc[uaintances came in, bringing me presents of tmmha 
mutton, butter, and cliang. One man, a doctor (amcJd), brought a 
fox-skin cap of ingenious make, which he offered to sell me. It was 
so contrived that it protected every part of the head, leaving only 
the eyes and nose exposed, or it could be turned up and used as an 
ordinary hat.|| 

In the evening Delah Tondub, the head of the militia or village 
police (yulmajj ^7), received an order from Khamba djong, which he 
brought me to decipher. It was to the effect that he must hold 
himself and force in readiness to proceed at once to the Lachan 
boundary, fully equipped with matchlocks, lances, swords, slings, etc., 

* In 1879 Chandra Das crossed the Choiien nyitiia hi, probably 20 to 30 miles 
south of tlie village of Tebong (called then by him Tliokong). He followed the 
Chorten uyima river from its source in the mouutaiu of the same name to near its 
mouth at Tebong, where his route ioined the one described in the present narrative. — 
(W. R.) 

t Or, more correctly, Drang-lung; for he says, in his diary for 1879, that it means 
"cold valley."— (W. II.) 

X Nahii, or, more correctly, Naho, means " host, landlord." — (W. R.) 

§ Called satu by Anglo-Indian writers. This word is also found in Georgii, ' Alpha- 
betum Tibetanum ' (17(j'2), j). 445: " ilordei farinani in jentaculi, pultisque formam 
Buljactam Salii communi vocabulo dicunt." — (W' . R.) 

II This is the ordinary style of Mongol fur cap, very generally used in Tibet. — (W. R.) 

^ On this organization, see chap. vii. p. 180. 


in view of the fact that a " very important European official, deputy 
of the Lieut.-Governor of Bengal, was on his way to the Tibetan 
frontier. This information was communicated by the frontier guards, 
in consequence of which necessary precautions were urgently needed." 
I told them that the official referred to was probably Captain Harman 
of the Survey Department, with whom he was acquainted, having 
met him the year before at Tangii, near Lachan. 

December 5. — Our arrangements, being completed and the ponies 
at the door, we hastened to finish our breakfast. From the sheep- 
pen close by the house we saw some fifty sheep led to the slaughtering- 
place behind the village. The butchers mutter some mantras over 
each one before killing it, and they receive as their perquisite the 

Following the same route I had taken in 1879, we left the 
village of Mende * on our left, and, crossing several frozen streams, 
we came to the village of Targye, where we stopped in the house of 
an old man, who invited us to be his guests in the hope of getting 
some medicine for dyspepsia from which he was suffering. He put 
us up in his storehouse, amidst his barley, yak-hair bags, farming 
implements, etc. He had manufactured some rugs, and I bought one 
from him for a couple of rupees. The villagers, hearing of my pur- 
chase, brought me a number of their choicest carpets, but the price 
asked was larger than I cared to give, 

December 6. — I learnt with pleasure from my host that the 
Minister of Temporal Affairs {Ki/ab ving t) of Ulterior Tibet {Tsang) 
was Phendi Khangsar, to whom I was well known. My host and 
his wife came and begged some medicine, and I prepared for him 
an effervescent draught, which the old man swallowed with much 
difficulty. " Oh, sir," he exclaimed, " it boiled and foamed even as 
it ran down my throat ; it must be a medicine of wonderful potency ! 
I never took such a drink in my life, nor heard of its like before I " 
And the spectators all said, in amazement, " This amchi is a miracle- 
worker (tidpa) ; his medicine boils in cold water." And so my fame 
was noised abroad. 

* In his journey of 1879, he speaks of Mende as " the pretty village of Mende. . . . 
Facing the village is a flower-garden, in which are also dwarf willows, stunted birch 
and juniper trees." He also says that Targe (Targye) is on the Yaru-tsang-po (the 
Taya tsang-po of the maps), probably a local appellation for the upper Arun. Taya 
tsang-po is probably Targye tsaug-po, "the river of the Tar-gye." — (W. R.) 

t Probably Khyah-dvang, "all-powerful," a title in frequent use in Tibet.— (W. K.) 



Crossing the Yara la, we made for Kurma, before reaching which 
place we experienced some difficulty in crossing the broad bed of the 
frozen river.* Near the village we saw in the fields several wild 
asses {h-!/i'n!j), some wild goats (ruf/ijo), and wild sheep (nao). At 
Kurma we j-ut up in the house of a doctor, an acquaintance of 
Phurchung, who liad brought him a quantity of medicines the amchi 
had the year past commissioned him to buy at Darjiling. Our 


supply of meat being exhausted, Ugyen bought a sheep's carcass 
{pafjru). When the sheep get very fat, the people, for fear of losing 
any (jf the fat by skinning them, roast the whole as they would a pig.f 

* Tliis river is tlie Clie chu (or Chi elm), the great Aruu. Kurma, the author 
tells us in iiis journal of 1870. is a "Dokpa towneontaining about six hundred families. 
. . . All supplie.s are brought liere from Shigatse.'" — (W. E.) 

t Hence the name plia(j, "pig;" ra, "goat." S. C. D. says they roast them alive. 
This must be a mi.stake. I never heard of meat being roasted in Tiljet. He evidently 
means that the slieepare cooked without the skin being removed. The Mongols do the 
same thing, throwing tiie carcass (some say the live sheep) in boiling water. These 


December 7. — Leaving Kiirma early in the morning, we arrived at 
lago * by 6 p.m., where we got accommodations in the house of a rich 
farmer, paying him a tanJca as room-rent (nala). I had been feeling 
very badly all day, but Phurchuug whispered to me to let no one 
know I was ill, as sick men are not admitted into people's dwellings 
in this country. 

Decemler 8. — By 10 a.m. we reached Tamar,t in the valley of the 
Ee chu, here thickly dotted with hamlets. Numerous flocks of 
pigeons and swallows were picking worms and grain in the fields, 
and Ugyen told me that the pigeons were a serious nuisance to the 
people, for they are not allowed to kill them, animal life being held 

We passed the foot of the hill on which the Eegyinpai lamasery % 
is situated, and by 2 p.m. came to Labrang dokpa ; but finding all 
the houses closed, we continued on to the Xambu la,§ crossing which 
we reached the village of Nambu, where we stopped in the house of 
a friend of Phurchung. 

December 9. — We arose by 3.30 in the morning, and put on our 
best clothes, for to-day we were to enter Tashilhunpo. Travellers 
were more numerous now ; we met several parties of traders with 
yaks and donkeys or laden sheep going to or coming from Shigatse. 
The day was cold, and there was a light wind blowing. I alternately 
rode and walked, and though I was by this time greatly reduced in 
flesh by the hardships I had had to encounter, I was in high spirits 
at the success which had so far attended me. Not so Ugyen : he was 
ill, and fretted fearfully, his appearance was repulsive, and his language 
to the Tang-lung men, whose ponies we rode, was most abusive, but 
they bore patiently with him. At 9 o'clock we passed through Chuta, 
and an hour later came to the village of Jong Luguri,|| where I was 

carcasses are sold in a frozen state by the Mongols in Peking in winter, and are known 
as Tang-yang, or " scalded sheep," in Chiuese. Cf. C. K. Markham's ' Narrative of the 
Mission of Geo. Bogle,' 86.— (W. K.) 

* It is called Ya-go on the maps. S. C. D. says, in the account of his first journey, 
that this village is on the boundary-line between Lhasa and Ulterior Tibet, belonging 
to the former country.— (W. E.) 

t The Tagmar of our maps. The writer says elsewhere that it has about two 
hundred houses. — (W. E.) 

X The Bra-gyin pa gomba of the maps. — (W. E.) 

§ The Ngambu dung la of our maps, altitude 14,800 feet ; but in the account of his 
first journey S. C. D. says it is 13,500 feet high. The descent on the north side, he 
adds, is very steep. — (W. E.) 

II Or Luguri jong, as he calls it elsewhere. — (W. E.) 


most kindly received by my former host of 1879, Lobdon puti. I 
ate a couple of e,ii:gs and drank a few cups of tea ; then, reloading our 
ponies, we paid our bill {jaltsc) and set out for Tashilhunpo, where we 
arrived by half-past four, entering it by the small western entrance 
marked by two cliortcns* 

* S CD. reached this city for the first time on July 7, 1879. 






We entered the monastery of Tashilhunpo by the little western gate, 
in front of which stand two cliortens — one very large with a gilt 
spire, the other smaller but neatly constructed. I walked along the 
narrow lane, lined on either side by lofty buildings, with the 
measured steps and grave demeanour which all wearers of the sacred 
costume are supposed to have. The rays of the setting sun shone 
on the gilded spires of the houses and tombs in the monastery, and 
made a most enchanting picture.* 

The minister, I learned from liis head cook {Machen f), whom I 
now met, had gone to Dongtse, his native town, but he had left 
instructions that I be lodged in the Targod chyi-khang until his 

Though the news of tlie absence of my friend Phendi Khang-sar 
somewhat damped my spirits, yet the pleasing thought of having 
been able for the second time to visit Tashilhunpo was a source of 
infinite gratification. The Machen opened the padlock which closed 
the great door of the house, and ushered me in with outstretched 
hands and greetings of " Pundib la, cliyag-'plieb nang^' " Welcome, Mr. 
Pundit." t 

The building was a three-storied one, the ground floor, adjoining 
which were two stables, being used as a godown. The rooms on the 
first floor were spacious and neat, but very cold on account of the 

* " If the magnificence of the place was to be increased by any external cause, nono 
could more superbly have adorned its numerous gilded canopies and turrets than the 
sun rising in full splendour directly opposite. It presented a view wonderfully beauti- 
ful and brilliant ; the effect was little short of magic, and it made an impression which 
no time will ever efface from ray mind." — Captain Samuel Turner, ' Embassy to the 
Court of the Teshu Lama,' 230. 

t This word is colloquially used to designate the cook of any dignitary or ofBcial. — 
(W. R.) 

X Or rather, " Please walk in, Mr. Pundit."— (AV. R.) 


height of the roof and the absence of sunlight. Tlie third story, 
though it looked snug, was exposed to the wind, and therefore un- 
inhaliitable. The minister's steward {Nerpa *), coming in while we 
were looking over the house, recommended the first floor for our 
residence, as it would be warm in winter, when much air is not 
desirable. Having made up my mind to occupy it, he had the rooms 
dusted, and removed some two hundred volumes, a pile of printing- 
blocks, boards, and tallies with whicli the rooms were encumbered; 
and tlien, some thickly stuffed cushions having been spread, on which 
our carpets and rugs were placed, he begged us to be seated. Cups 
were placed on some small tables before us, and tea was brought 
from the minister's kitchen and served us by the head cook. A few 
twisted biscuits,t some pieces of mutton and tsmnba were put before 
me, and from another teapot tea, of evidently an inferior quality, 
was served to my companions. 

The Nerpa told me that we were to be lodged here by tlie 
minister's order, but if we did not like the place we might write 
to him on the subject, and he would have the letter forwarded to 
Dongtse. The remoteness of the house, with only that of the 
minister near it, and, above all, its location near the western gate, 
gave it peculiar advantages, whicli appeared to me very essential 
for my purposes, and we liad every reason to be delighted at the 
forethought of our patron, wlio liad shown himself so anxious about 
our safe arrival and comfort. 

When the Xerpa and ]\Iachen had left us, I consulted with 
Ugyen about making presents to the servants of the minister and 
to our former acquaintances. ]\Ioney, being very scarce in Tibet, 
is valued above all things, so that for the renewal of our former 
acquaintance we could do nothing better than to make presents of 
silver coin and scarves {IJintag). 

Later on in the evening we returned the visits of the steward 
and his comrades, and presented them with rupees, eiglit-anna or four- 
anna pieces, according to the importance of their respective offices. 
With difficulty we persuaded them to accept the presents, for tliey 
feared lest the minister might be vexed at their taking money from me. 

* Or Nyor-pa (gnyer-pa) ; this word is generally used to designate the procurator 
or manager of the temporal affairs of a lamasery.— (W. K.) 

t Called ma-hua by the CJiiuese; made of thin strips of dough thrown into boiling 
grease for a minute or two. They are eaten all over China, Mongolia, and Tibet. I 
do not know the Tibetan name; Mongols call them by the Chinese term of ma-hua-erh. 
-(W. !{.; 


Beccmher 10. — Ugyen and Phurchung were up by dayliglit, 
arranging things and buying firewood and otlier necessaries. Shortly 
after I had arisen the men we liad hired at Tang-lung to lead our 
ponies came in for their rewards. I gave each of them six tanlms, 
and some twisted biscuits to carry home to their children, all of 
which pleased them greatly. It felt strange to me not to have a 
day's journey before me, so accustomed had I become to daily travel, 
instead of which I could sit peacefully reclining on my cushions on 
the balcony, lighted up by the rays of the morning sun. Phurchung 
was the only servant I now had to attend on both myself and Ugyen, 
so it was decided to hire a man to help him in fetching water and 
in blowing the bellows. We had to wait till the Shigatse market 
{torn) opened at 11 o'clock before we could get any breakfast, for 
our provisions were exhausted. Both Ugyen and Phurchung went 
to the market, from which they shortly returned with butter, salt, 
mutton, tsamha, 2)hiug* and a few Chinese cakes for me. They had 
been surrounded on the way by two parties of beggars {Eogyaha), 
who, recognizing Ugyen as a new arrival from Sikkim, had by 
alternate threats and solicitations succeeded in squeezing from him 
several silver pieces. They had also seen an altercation between 
a woman selling salt and some Khamba traders. One of the latter 
had bought several seers of salt from the woman, and had offered her 
a debased tanha in payment, which she had refused. The Khamba 
would not return the salt or pay in better coin ; he called six or 
seven of his friends to him, threw the salt on the ground, and wanted 
to beat the woman, whom there was no police to protect. It ended 
by the savage Khamba walking off unmolested, and the poor woman 
losing her salt. Ugyen was greatly surprised at the lawlessness of 
the people in the market, their violence toM'ards the helpless, and the 
absence of police supervision. I smiled at his fears, and told him 
to take a hearty breakfast. In the evening I called at the Phuntso 
Khangsar, and learnt from tlie steward that Kusho Tung-chen,t the 
minister's secretary, would be back on the following afternoon. 

* This appears to be the Chinese ping, meaning " cake or pastry," In North-West 
China and Szechuan this word designates a thin cake of wheat-flour the size of a plate, 
cooked on a hot iron or in a shallow dish. In Tibetan it is called pale. — (W. E.) 

t Kusho is the Tibetan equivalent of " Mr. " ; Tung-chen is Brimg (yig) chen-po, 
" chief secretary," not a name, as one might suppose by the way it is used in tbis 
narrative. The minister's residence, S. C. D. says elsewhere, was at the northern end of 
the town. It is a stone building three stories high, the exterior painted yellow. — (W. E.) 


Dccemhcr 11.— My breakfast consisted of a cup of broth {tugpa), 
with tmmha, radishes, marrow, and luineed mutton, a little salt and 
some dried cheese {clwm) m it. When it was over Ugyen and 
rhurchung went to market, and on the way they met Choi-tashi, 
a 3[ongol monk, whom I had once helped at Darjiling with food 
and money. The faithful :\Iongol had not forgotten my kindness : 
as soon as he saw Ugyen he threw his arms around him and led 
him to his home in the lamasery. Ugyen learnt from him of the 
whereabouts of some of my old acquaintances— Lo])-zang Tanzing 
and other Mongol friemls. Lob-zang had failed to pass his final 
examination for admission into the monastery, in which it is required 
of candidates to repeat without a single omission or mistake 120 
pages of selected sacred texts,* so he had been deprived of subsistence 
allowances, and had seen his name struck off" the roll of monks. He 
had in consequence left Tashilhunpo four months before my arrival 
for his native land, proposing to visit Lhasa on the way. 

In the market Ugyen met another old acquaintance, the Chinese 
head of the Shigatse police, who invited him into his house, where 
his mistress {ani) served them cliang and a dish of vermicelli 
{jya tv/j).^ Then the Chinaman told l^gyen of the recent row in 
which the junior Andjan had been involved, and of his own incredibly 
swift ride to Lhasa to carry dispatches to the senior Amban. As 
the senior Amban, together with the Shape Sa-wang rampa and 
Lhalu, had come to Shigatse to settle the trouble, tlie head constable 
claimed foi" himself no small share in the successful termination of 
the affair. It was also said that the Shape, together with the Amban, 
had decided to enforce the circulation of every kind of silver coin, 
no matter how debased. The distinction made in the Shigatse 
market between good and bad coin was considered to be productive 
of much inconvenience to trade, and so they had forbidden it. The 
same order had been recently enforced at Lhasa, to the great con- 
venience and satisfaction of the peo])le. Secret orders w^ere issued 
to arrest the few respectable monied men wlio might offer objections 
to the enforced circulation of debased coin, by which means all 
trouble in the matter, it was hoped, \vould be averted. In con- 
sequence <ii' tills I'gyen took care not to get into troulde by changing 

* Farther on (p. 57) our autlior says 125 pages. 

t Ciilkd in Chinese mien, ami nearly the same as the Itiiliau spaghetti. The word 
is also frequently used tor the Chinese hua-mien. — (W. R.) 


our Indian coins for Tibetan fanha, by exchanging them in the 
monastery itself. 

In the market-place my men saw several parties of prisoners 
loaded with chains weighing twenty pounds and upwards. Some 
had their hands manacled, others their arms passed through blocks 
of wood, not a few had their eyes put out. The Government does 
not provide these miserable wretches with food, but lets them beg 
their sustenance in the market-place. They are more troublesome 
than even the Eagyabas, and pour out curses and vile abuse on all 
who do not at once give them alms. At 4 p.m. I was told that the 
minister's secretary, the Kusho Tung-chen, had arrived, and wanted 
to see me ; so I dressed myself in my lama costume, and, accom- 
panied by Ugyen carrying a few coins and some Ichatag, I went to 
the Puntso Khangsar. 

Being conducted into his presence, I presented him with a scarf 
and a couple of rupees, and Ugyen did the same. We were then 
given fine 'kliatag, and asked, with an air of genuine cordiality and 
kindness which greatly pleased me, to be seated beside him. A 
stuffed raised seat, covered with a Chinese rug, was given me, and 
a small table placed before me. Ugyen occupied a lower seat, and 
the table given him was also lower than mine, to show the difference 
of rank between us. Plates of dried and boiled mutton, together with 
bowls of tsamha, were served us. An attendant then brought from 
the minister's shelves handsome china cups, and, filling them with 
tea, asked me to drink with " Pundib la, sol-ja-she " (" Please drink, 
Mr. Pundit "), at which I drank about a third of the contents ; for 
it is customary in Tibet not to drink more than this at first, while 
to drink less would be a reflection on the cook or the host. After a 
short conversation of no importance I returned to my dwelling. 

December 12. — The secretary sent to inform us that he would be 
despatching a messenger to Dongtse in the evening, and that if we 
had any letters to send they should be ready before noon. We at 
once applied ourselves to drafting a letter to the minister, which was 
no easy matter, as the form of the paper, the margin to be left at the 
top and bottom of the sheet, and the choice of complimentary words 
at the beginning, had all to be carefully weighed. We tried to 
convey to the minister how sorry we were in not having had the 
honour and pleasure of meeting him at Tashilhunpo, and how thank- 
ful we felt to him for his great kindness in arranging for our comfort 


and accommodation. "We begged him, if possible, to return to the 
capital for the good of all living beings, and particularly for ourselves, 
who depended solely on his mercy for the security of our lives. We 
also told him that the lithographic press he had ordered me on my 
first visit to buy for him in India had arrived at Lachan, where it 
was held by the prefect of Khamba djong. Ugyen wrote a separate 
letter to the minister, and then we took them to the secretary, who 
added a few lines to our notes, asking his master to vouchsafe his 
sacred protection and mercy to us who had come so far and had 
encountered such incredible hardships and dangers. 

Eeturning home, I found Lupa gyantsaan (gyaltsan ?), a former 
acquaintance, awaiting me. He presented me some provisions and 
other things, and offered his services to buy what I might require, 
and see that I was not cheated. He also agreed to send me a good 

In the evening I called on another old friend, a most respectable 
man, Kusho Dechang. He was delighted to see me. Eising from his 
cushion, he begged me come in, saying, " Chyag-pkeb-nang-cldg." Tlie 
steward {soljjon *) then served tea, replenishing my cup from a silver 
teapot (cJiamhim) as soon as it was about a third empty. Kusho 
Dechang then questioned me concerning the present condition of 
affairs in Ar}-avarta (India), and about its government under the 
Frang (Europeans). The conversation then turned on the recent 
row with the Chinese and its settlement, reached to-day. 

The two Chinese Residents at Lhasa inspect each year in turn 
the Nepal-Tibet frontier, in order to ascertain the discipline of the 
garrison at Tingri and the state of the defences and military re- 
sources of the several frontier posts. As the task is a most tedious 
and fatiguing one, oMdng to the desert-like condition of the country, 
the Ambans draw lots to find out who is to go on the inspection 
tour. In the latter part of October of this year it fell to the junior 
Amban's lot to visit Tingri djong and Shigatse. He started accord- 
ingly, accompanied by an experienced Tibetan civil officer with the 
rank of Tsipon (accountant), who was to arrange, as usual, for the 
tranisportation of the Amban and his retinue by sending messengers 
{ngoiulo) ahead to the different stations along the road. The Amban 
decided to follow the northern road {chaag lam) via Toilung Tsorphu. 

* Or, more correctly, '• the cup-bearer, or teapot-bearer." The Solpon chen-po is 
one of the great officers of State both at Tasliilhunpo and Lliasa.— (W. R.) 





the motiaMery of 

reijcd stone structure, 
lo7iy^ and 60 feet wide. 
ry is hung duriiig the 

in which relics of 
'■■ deposited. 

: AJTJohiistan-Iicnilecl.Edmbur^ A londfln.. 


^, L ^ it N 

■ul-liHh*d by th» RcB'"! r.eogr«phie«l Si 


Now, according to pre-established custom, the Tibetan treasury has 
to pay the Amban a daily travelling allowance of four docltc, or 
lis. 500 ; * but the Government of Lhasa, instead of paying it out 
of the Government treasury, raises it from the people at the time of 
the Amban's journey and along his route. The obligation of raising 
the Amban's allowance then devolved on the Tsipon Kong chyang- 
lochan. On arriving at Shigatse, the Amban demanded six docJies, 
or lis. 750, instead of four. The Tsipon notified the people {misser) 
between Shigatse and Tingri, and when they, refused to give this 
amount, the headmen {tsofj-pon) were flogged, and their ponies and 
property sold to make up the amount. 

lieturning to Shigatse on his way back to Lhasa, the Amban 
stopped there several days, during which he insisted on a daily allow- 
ance of Es. 750, which, the people protesting they could not pay, the 
Chinese soldiery, by various oppressive means, tried to squeeze out 
of them. The Tsipon tried to resign his commission, and then the 
Amban visited his anger on him. In the mean time the people 
combined in a body to resist the exaction, and, with the connivance 
of the two prefects {Djongpoii) of Shigatse, openly refused payment 
of the Amban's unjust demands. Tlie Amban, furious, ordered his 
Chinese soldiers to arrest the Djongpon and put the Tsipon in irons ; 
but the former fled, and the soldiery were stoned by the mob. The 
next day the Tsipon was tied to a pillar of the Amban's house and 
flogged. After he had received some fifteen cuts, volleys of stones 
were thrown, and the Amban severely hurt before he could escape 
into the house, and he was only saved from the infuriated populace 
by the prompt arrival of the Tibetan general {Dah-jjon) with the 
troops under his command. Then it was that a messenger was sent 
post-haste to Lhasa, and the senior Amban, the ministers (Shape) 
Eampa and Lhalu having arrived, formed, with the temporal minister 
of the Tashi lama [Kyal-dvang chcnjJo) and the paymaster of the 
forces, a commission to investigate the matter. 

Their judgment in the case was made known on the 12th. It 
bore that the two Djongpon of Shigatse should be degraded from 
the third to the fourth class of Chinese official rank, losing also their 
position as Djongpon for that of Djongnyer under new Djongpon ; 

* Kdo-tsad, an ingot of silver weigliing fifty Chinese ounces (taels), and also called 
yambu (from the Chinese yuaii-pau), tarmima (rta-rmig-ma, also pronounced idnpema), 
or simply do. A do is usually exchanged for Ka. 160. Turner, 'Embassy,' p. 345 
speaks of masses of pure bullion called Tariema. — (VV. R.) 


and that, furthermore, each of them sliould receive two hundred blows 
with the bamboo. The village headmen {Uoy-pon.) were to receive 
four hundred blows with the bamboo, and be imprisoned for two 
months in the jails of Ee and Khamba djong. Eight elders ((jampo) 
were to receive fifty blows of the bamboo, and wear the cangue for 
six months. 

As to the junior Amban, it being proven tluit he had attempted 
to extort more than his allowance from the people, the Commis- 
sioners decided to petition the Court of Peking to no longer allow 
the payment by the Tibetan people of the Chinese travelling allow- 
ance {jija-tal *) in such cases, only supplying the usual travelling 
facilities. To obtain this concession, it is said that two Lhasa Shape 
paid the Amban fifteen doclic, or lis. 1875. 

Dechang then inquired wliat medicines I had brought, as he was 
suffering from a cold and cough, and I promised to give him some 
later on. Then, pouring the contents of my cup into tlie slop-bowl 
(shalu t), as a sign of taking leave, I arose and went home. 

December 13. — To-day some ir),()00 persons assembled at noon in 
the market-place to see the arrival of the Kashmir Envoy with his 
guards and escort in military dress. All the alleys of Shigatse, the 
courtyard of Kesar Lhakhang, and the adjacent gardens were tilled 
with people all eagerly waiting for the tojio (sight). There was the 
Envoy of the ]\Iaharaja Mdtli some fifty sowars, all in uniform, besides 
a hundred mounted followers of various nationalities, some Sikhs, 
Mohammedans with flowing beards and white turbans, Ladakis in 
clumsy lambskin dresses, Murmis from Kepal, Dokpas from Chang, 
a few Nepalese, and some Tibetans from Kirong. There were also 
with the Envoy a number of merchants dressed in jirincely style, and 
attended by servants in liveries of .silk and broadcloth. Some of their 
ponies were also richly caparisoned with ornaments of silver and 
brocade of gold. The Kashmir Government, I learnt, sends an envoy 
to Lhasa every three years with presents (called tribute) to the (Jrand 
Lama. The Tibetan Government, on receiving notice of the proposed 
setting out <)\' the mission, has relays (ta-u) of ponies and mules 
about 5()U liciid, and also coolies, prepared at all the towns and post^ 

* The oolloquiiil niimc for Chinese iu Tibet is Gyu. In the olHcial hmguage they 
are ealhd Gija-iuKj. — (\V. I'l.) 

t Or Ja-lu {ldwj)\ also called y« lu-»a, "bowl (or place) to pour ten in." Usually a 
cup with a metal cover. — ( 


stations along the road from the Ladak frontier to Lhasa. Although 
so large a number of ponies and men is hardly necessary for the Envoy, 
who only brings presents of precious things of little bulk, the party 
avails itself of the privilege for the carriage of personal property and 
merchandise to and from Lhasa. As the mission passed by, we heard 
the people remark that all this splendour and ostentation was at the 
expense of the Government of Lhasa, and to the ruin of the poor 
people of Tibet. 

The origin of this tribute from Kashmir to Lhasa is as follows : 
After the conquest of Ladak, Balti, and Skardo, Zorwar Sing, the famous 
Sikh general of Maharaja (lolab Sing, turned his arms against Paidok 
and Gar in the year 1840-41. These two provinces, which produce the 
finest wool of Tibet, and contain the wealthiest and most sacred of 
its monasteries, were held by the great Buddhist ruler of Tibet as his 
most valued possessions, and the Sikh general, by attempting tlieir 
conquest, excited the wrath of the Lhasa Government, who, applying 
to their suzerain, the Emperor of China, was able to put more than 
10,000 men in the field. Zorwar Sing, with some 5000 men, invaded 
these two provinces, and the governor (garpon) fled to the Chang 
tang,* leaving the fort (of Eudok ?) and the whole country at the 
mercy of the enemy. The general established himself near the sacred 
lake Mapham (Manasarowar), and sent detachments all over the 
country to pillage and spread desecration in the holiest of Buddhist 
sanctuaries at Mapham and Kailas ; and one body of troops he posted 
at Purang, near the Nepal frontier, to watch the Lhasa forces. The 
combined forces of Lhasa and China now marched on Eudok under 
the leadership of one of the Shape ; and Zorwar Sing, whose contempt 
for the Tibetan soldiery was great, and who underrated the strength 
of the forces opposed to him, sent some small detachments of his 
troops to oppose their advance. These were cut to pieces, when he 
himself, at the head of his troops, advanced to encounter the Lhasa 
forces. The two armies fought for two days and nights without any 
decisive result, but on the third day the Sikh general fell, and victory 
declared itself for the lamas. The defeat was complete, and the 
number of slain on both sides immense. The victorious troops now 
threatened Ladak, and the Maharaja sued for peace. A treaty was 
concluded by the agent of Golab Sing and the Government of Lhasa, 
of which one of the terms was the payment of a triennial tribute. 

* The northern ptirt of Tibet, inhabited by a few pastoral tribes only.— (W. K.) 


Talking with the Kiisho Tung-chen of the severity of the punish- 
ment inflicted yesterday on the Djongpon of Shigatse and the circle 
headmun {t-W!/-pon), he told me that, besides those mentioned above, 
the Djongpon liad had the llesli and skin stripi^ed off their hands. 
The tsog-pon had oifered to pay the mandarin Es. 2000 a-piece to 
escape the 400 blows of the bamboo, but the Chinese had been 

December 14. — The Tung-chen sent me one of his acquaintances, 
Norpu Tondub, a Donnyer of Dongtse, with a request that I would 
let him have some medicine, as he was suffering from dyspepsia. At 
first I refused, as I had but very few drugs with me, and only in 
quantity sufficient for myself; but, the Tung-chen insisting, I took 
my medicine-chest with me and went to his house. Lifting up the 
lid, I displayed the various bottles with their sparkling contents, the 
secretary, his friends, and the servants all looking on with amaze- 
ment, while Xorpu Tondub, at the very sight of the bottles, seemed 
to become certain of recovery, and said he would pay as much money 
as I might ask. I replied that even then I could not let him have 
any medicine, as no amount of money could get me a fresh supply 
of drugs from India once these finished, for the passes were all 
closed by the Til)etan Government. At this the Tung-chen looked 
anxious, so I opened one of the bottles and called for a china cup, 
and three or four persons ran to the kitchen and brought me half a 
dozen large and small ones. I weighed the medicine in my brass 
balance ; the drams and scruples, which glittered like gold coins, per- 
plexed them much, as they thought I was a miracle-worker who used 
gold coins for weights. I now told them that the two medicines when 
mixed would boil. The very announcement of this filled the spec- 
tators with mute amazement, and made the patient tremble with fear; 
he looked at the Tung-chen and then to heaven with anxiety, evidently 
repenting him for having pressed me for medicine, and seemed anxious 
to escape from my hands. The secretary, too, looked aghast; but 
the medicines were mixed, and to his mind they were too valuable 
to Ijc thrown away ; so, having examined if the two mixtures were hot, 
and finding that they were not, he encouraged tlie patient, saying that 
I was a great physician, and he had no cause to apprehend danger from 
my liands. I told the patient that he could depend on me that I was 
not going to administer poison to him, and to be ready to take the 
drauglit as soon as it frotlied up. All waited with eager expectation 


to see the phenomenon, when lo ! the mixture foamed with a hissing 
noise, which made the patient shrink back. I tokl him to dip his 
finger in the boiling mixture ; and when he found it cokl he uttered 
the mystic sentence, " Om mani jjadme hum," and swallowed it, and 
said it was agreeable and refreshing. He then drew from the breast 
of his gown a I'hafar/ and a few coins, and offered them to me, laying 
the scarf on the ground before me. "Great physician," he said, 
" accept this little token of my gratitude, though it is not worthy of 
your acceptance. Considering, however, that you are a pious man to 
whom money is of no value, I venture to hope you will accept it." I 
declined the money, but at the request of the Tung-chen accepted tlie 
scarf. With looks of open-mouthed astonishment and feelings of 
endless admiration for the marvellous properties of the medicine and 
for the wonderful amchi (physician) who disdained money, the little 
circle of spectators returned to their houses and work. 

The punishment of the Djongpon had filled the people with fear 
of the Chinese. They apprehended new insults at the hands of the 
Chinese swaggering about the streets of Shigatse. People who had 
come to the market from a distance to sell their goods were packing 
them up to hurry off home. I^o provisions could be had, no purchases 
could be made. Ugyen met some grain-dealers whom he knew, and 
begged them to sell him some rice, but none would acknowledge even 
that they had any for sale. An old woman who had sold us rice on 
our first visit here said, " Do not talk of rice before the Chinese and 
their friends, for they will come and take what I have away and 
throw some bad coins in my cloth. Come in an hour or two, when 
the rascals have gone away, and I will let you have what you want." 
On one side of the market-place is a large zalcliang, or restaurant, 
where Phurchung and Ugyen went to appease their hunger. While 
they were busy with their chopsticks the proprietor came in. He was 
a nobleman of Tashilliunpo, head of the Tondub Khangsar family, and 
held the office of Chyangjob of the Tashi lama. He asked Ugyen 
whence he had come, where he had put up, and what merchandise 
{cliong) he had for sale. The lady, under whose immediate super- 
vision this establishment is, is no less a personage than the wife of 
this dignitary. Her manners were gentle and dignified, and she spoke 
in a sweet and polite manner. Her head-dress was covered with 
innumerable strings of pearls, worth certainly not less than PiS. 3000, 
and besides these there were on it coral beads, rubies, turquoises, and 


other precious stones. Althoiioh she Ijelongs to one of tlie richest and 
noblest families in Tsan,u (Ulterior Tibet), besides being connected 
with the family from which the Tashi lama has sprung, yet she does 
not feel it beneath her dignity to keep the accounts of the inn and 
superintend the work of the servants. 

Dcamhcr 15. — To-day was the twenty-fifth of the tenth Tibetan 
moon, and one of the greatest holidays of the Gelugpa Church, being 
the anniversary of the death of Tsongkhapa. It is known as Gadan 
namcltoi In every chapel new torma * of tsamha take the place of 
the old ones, which are now thrown away. 

Late in the afternoon the ]\rongol monk Lobzang tanzing, to wdiom 
I have previously referred, came to pay me his respects, and pre- 
sented me a long I'hatag and the carcass of a large sheep. He had 
only a few days before been released from a two-months' imprisonment, 
under suspicion of being implicated in a case of forgery, and had been 
repeatedly flogged. His tutor had been sentenced to three years 
of imprisonment, and had been sent to the prison of Khamba djong. 

In the evening the monks of Tashilhunpo busied themselves 
illuminating their chapels. Hundreds of butter-lamps were taste- 
fully placed in rows on the roof of every building in the lamasery. 
The Government supplies butter to every house in the town and 
to every resident monk, to enable them to contribute towards the 
illumination. From the roof of my house I saw the illuminations to 
great advantage. The fantastic roofs of the four tombs {{lyopliig) 
of the Tashi lamas were beautifully lit up. The mitre-shaped 
spires, tlie upturned eaves of the temple looked most gorgeous, and 
resemlded tlie illuminated tajiahs in a mohurum procession in India. 
The great monastery of Tashilhunpo, situated as it is at the foot of 
a hill, presented a magnificent appearance. For an hour the illu- 
mination was beautiful, but towards 7.30 o'clock the wind began to 
blow a gale, and had soon extinguished all tlie lights and driven me 
into my house shivering with cold. 

One of the newly incarnated lamas of Tashilhunpo, who had just 
arrived from tlic ].vovinco of Tn-k]i;iiii,in Eastern Tibet,t took advantage 

* A torma is a small cuiie varying in lieiglit from a few inclies to a foot and more, 
made of tsambn, buttor, eupir, etc Sometimes tlie surface is coloured, and some tormns 
are of great size. They a re placed on the front of the altars in rows, and are propitiatory 
offering's. On the celebration of tiiis feast, cf. J.7?.^.^., vol. xxiii. (1891). p. 214.— (W. R.) 

+ Tu-Kham is probah)ly Stfid Kliams, or "Upper Khan'do"— in all probaliility 
De'rge is meant. — (W. R.) 


of to-day being a holiday to get himself admitted into the tu-khara 
tsan order of monks. He invited the Tanchen from Kun-khyab 
ling, and presented to 3800 monks a tanha each, making also large 
presents to the Grand Lama (of Lhasa ?), his court, and the College of 
Incarnate Lamas. At about 8 a.m. his holiness, the Panchen,* 
arrived, and was received with due honours by the monks and State 
officials. The road for about 300 yards was lined with red broad- 
cloth and banners. Some old lamas stood in a profoundly reverential 
attitude on either side of the road, bearing divers sacred objects to 
receive the Panchen's chyag-wang (blessing f). Chinese trumpets, 
melodious flutes {gyaling), and great resounding horns (dung clien) 
sounded in his honour. He took his seat on an altar in the grand 
hall of worship {Tso hhang), to preside over the inaugural ceremonies. 
By 10 o'clock the ceremony was over, and we saw the monks 
returning cheerfully to their cells, each bearing a large flat cake, 
sticks of candy, and strings of beads. The new incarnation, now 
admitted as a novice in Tashilhunpo, had gone through the usual 
course of moral discipline and study like any other monk. Within 
a year from the date of admission, every monk is required to pass an 
examination in selections from the sacred books, of wdiich he must 
repeat from memory, and without a single mistake, 125 leaves 
Candidates coming from outside Tibet are generally allowed three 
years to prepare for their final admission, which gives tliem tlie 
privileges of a resident monk, with an allowance of food. Any one 
failing to pass the final examination forfeits his rights to residence 
and his allowances. Once admitted, the monk may rise, by dint of 
industry and study, to the various degrees of lamahood % 

* During his first visit to Tashilhunpo, Chandra Das was received by the Panehen 
riniDocho. He describes him as follows : " The Grand Lama is twenty-six years of age, of 
a spare frame and middling stature. He has a remarkably broad forehead and large 
eyes, slightly oblique. The expression of his face, although highly intelligent, is not 
engaging, and lacks that sympathy and dignity so conspicuous in the minister's 
countenance. The old monks of Tashilhunpo informed me that, unlike his predecessor, 
the present Grand Lama was more feared than liked, on account of his cold and self- 
reliant spirit. He is strict in the observance of ceremonies and in the administration of 
justice, and slow to forgive." Kun-kyab ling is the name of the residence of the Pan- 
ehen lama, the great lama of Tashilhunpo. — (W. R.) 

t Bogle thus describes the ceremony of blessing by the Panehen riapoche : " Upon 
the gylongs, or laymen of very high ranlc, he lays his palm ; the nuns {anni) and inferior 
laymen have a cloth interposed between his hand and their heads; and the lower class 
of people are touched, as they pass by, with tlie tassel which he holds in his hands." — 
C. R. Markham, ' Narrative of the Mission of Geo. Bogle,' p. 85. 

X For further details on the subject see S. C. D.'s ' Indian Pundits in the Land of 
Snow,' and Waddell, ' Buddhism of Tibet,' p. 173. 



At noon there was a large crowd between Tashilhimpo and the 
Shigatse djonci (fort) — men and women in holiday dress, monks from 
the lamaseries, and not a few Chinese, to witness the annual rope- 
dancing. A long rope was stretched from the top of the fort to the 
foot of the lower castle bridge, a distance of 300 feet or more. Then 


an athlete appeared, a wliitc hhaliKj tied around his neck, and took 
his place at the upper end of the rope. With his face turned upwards, 
he invoked the gods ; then, looking downwards, he invoked the nagas 
of the nether world, raising liis voice to its highest pitch, and at times 
shrieking in a terrific manner. Then he scattered flour on all sides, 


and sang a snatch of a song, to which some one in the crowd sang ont 
a laughable reply. He then let himself slide down the rope, exchanging 
jokes thrice with the crowd on his way down, and finishing with a 

Phurchung and Ugyen, whom I had sent out to l)uy books for me, 
returned towards 2 o'clock with a quantity, and later on, while I was 
sitting making my choice of volumes, the bookseller's son came in to 
carry back those I did not require. I had a talk with him about 
different books, and he gave me some very interesting information. 

I engaged also, to-day, a new cook in place of Phurchung, whom 
I proposed sending to Khamba djong to arrange for the conveyance 
from the Lachan barrier to Khamba of the lithographic press bought 
for the minister. 

Dccemhcr 16. — Getting up from bed at 7 a.m., I spread two 
mattresses on the third floor, opened the shutters, and, while basking in 
the sun and sipping tea placed on a little table before me, began to turn 
over the leaves of one of my newly purchased volumes. The residents 
of the neighbouring houses peeped out from their windows to observe 
my manners and habits. Henceforth I was careful to conduct myself 
like a good gelong (priest). Eeading attentively, writing and making 
notes was the chief occupation of my days. It was not my habit to 
chant mantras, or hymns, or say my beads, for in the former practice 
I was never proficient, and with my beads I could only separate one 
bead from another ^^'ithout any knowledge of the prayers meant to 
accompany that mechanical action. 

The new cook has proved no improvement on Phurchung; he is 
a sloven, and though I promised him a reward for cleanliness, he 
neither washed his face nor cleaned his teeth,t and always smelled 
most offensively. Finally I got Phurchung to make him wash his 
clothes and face. Our breakfast usually consisted of a few pieces of 
bread, tea, and one or two cups of a thin paste made of boiled tmmha, 
mutton, and dried milk, and called yatuij. In the evening I met the 
Tung-chen, the minister's secretary, and talked to him about getting 
the lithographic press here. Two of his friends were sitting witli 

* W. Moorcroft, ' Travels in the Himalayan Provinces,' i. 17, describes this feast as 
witnessed in Kashmir. It is there called Barat, and is celebrated to avert impending 
evil. Chinese authors say it is celebrated at Lhasa a few days after the New Year. 
See J.B.A.S., vol. xxiii. (1891), p. 209. 

t Tibetan cooks have invariably soot-covered faces; this seems as indispensable a 
part of their make-up as the white cap is to the French c//e/.— (W. R.) 


liim, one of them engaged in muucliing a piece of boiled mutton. He 
told me that tlie Tung-chen had toothache, caused by worms in the 
root of a tooth, and could only eat hashed or pounded meat. The 
secretary showed me the cavities made, he said, by thread-shaped 
worms (ringpa). He had killed several, lie added, by inserting red- 
hot pins in the cavities.* 

Dcecmher 17. — A messenger arrived from Dongtse with a letter 
from the minister asking Uygen and me to come to Dongtse, a 
distance of about 40 miles, which town he was unable to leave, for 
various reasons, for some time to come. Before leaving I was anxious 
to start off Phurchung for Khamba djong, and also to get winter clothes 
for myself, as the cold was getting keener every day. Our house, 
like all houses in Tibet, had no ciiimney, and as the ceiling was 
covered with fine Chinese satin, dung-fuel was most objectionable, so 
I had charcoal burnt in the room in nicely made earthen stoves 
{jalang), paying about a rupee four annas a maund weight. 

At about noon a great procession arrived from Dechan Phodang f 
to pay homage liefore the image of the Emperor of China kept in 
the monastery. From the roof of the minister's house I commanded 
an excellent view of the southern and western quarters of the town. 
The Tung-chen told me that to-day was a Chinese holiday, the 
anniversary of their present Emperor's accession to the throne, when 
all Chinese and subjects of the Emperor are required to offer him 
homage and to pray to Heaven for his long life and prosperity. 
AVithin the monastery there exists an image of the Emperor of 
China, probably Chien-lung, to pay reverence to which the procession 
I now saw, headed by the Lhasa Shape, the Ambans, the Shape Bora 
of Tsang, was now advancing. Flag-bearers and a mounted troop 
came first, then Tibetan officials, in their best apparel of brocaded 
satin (Jcinlah), painted with the dragon of the Tartars, and Chinese 
satins of various colours and patterns, riding on richly caparisoned 
ponies, were marcliing slowly and solemnly towards the western gate 
of the monastery. The Chinese were conspicuous by their pigtails 
and petticoats, and, tliough very well dressed, were all black and 

* This idea is common to Cliineso, Mongols, and Tibetans, among whom " A worm 
has bored a hole in my tooth" is equivah-nt to ''I liave a cavity in my tooth." Tiic 
extraction of the dead nerve confirms tiiem in the idea. — (W. K.) 

t In the narrative of his first journey, Chandra Das says this is the Panchen 
rinpochc's summer residence. 'J'here is no image of tlic Kinpcror, hut an imperial 
tablet and a throne, or chair of state. — (W. R.) 


of villainous appearance, greatly contrasting with the respectable 
Tibetan gentry, which forced me to think that they were all recruited 
from low-class people from Western China ; and the Tung-chen told 
me that these men were noted in Tibet for their dissipated and 
licentious habits. 

Some men carried boards about two feet square, on which were 
written the Amban's titles and his commission to supreme authority 
over the whole of Tibet.* Some of these inscriptions were in 
Chinese, and were carried by Chinamen ; others, in the Tibetan lan- 
guage, were carried by Tibetans. The Shape also rode, their advance 
heralded by two men who warned passers-by to keep out of the way. 
Each was escorted by three mounted men, one on either side of him, 
and one marching in front, keeping off the crowd with whips, which 
they freely used, while two grooms ran behind holding his horse's 
tail. There were about three hundred dignitaries and gentlemen of 
the provinces of U and Tsang, besides the followers and retainers 
of the Ambans. The Ambans' sedan chairs were carried by eight 
Chinese soldiers to each, and some fifty Tibetan soldiers helped to 
drag them with long cords attached to the bars of the chairs. f After 
paying homage at the sacred chapels and tombs of the departed 
saints, the procession came out of the monastery by the eastern gate, 
and, headed by the Shape Bora, marched across the market-place 
towards Kun-khyab ling. Pirst came the oihcers of state, then 
followed the paymaster's {Porjpon X) party, then the Chinese officials, 
followed by the chief Amban in his state chair. The flags, carried in 
tasteful array, were all of China silk, those at the point of the lances 
of the guard being of brocade, and inscribed in Chinese and Tibetan. 
Throughout the march the Tibetans occupied a subordinate position, 
and the Chinese displayed their superiority in every possible way. 
Though the crowd had reason to fear a whipping from the Chinese, 
who ran on all sides, they did not suffer from the Amban's guard. 
The junior Amban, as he followed on horseback, seemed pleased to 

* Such tablets are always carried in official processions in China.— (W. K.) 
t This is known in China as la chiao, " to drag the chair." It is rather a mark of 
respect to the official being carried in the chair than assistance to the bearers. It is 
a form of corvee throughout the empire. In Tibet the Emperor's representatives and 
the Tale lama and Panchen rinpoche alone have the right to be carried in green 
sedan chairs. — (W. K.) 

X Spogs-dpon. Spogs (pron. pog) means " salary of officials," and more especially 
that allowed lamas by Government or the monastic authorities.— (W. K.) 


see the lieuvily chained prisoners, the recently punished headmen 
groaning under the weight of their cangues. His sedan chair was 
carried by the same number of soldiers as that of the senior Aniban, 
and his retinue and followers resembled his. Then came the other 
Shape with their respective retinues. The guards were all armed 
with Chinese matchlocks and long spears. Following them came 
the captains and lieutenants of the army, with a hundred men ; and 
behind these marched the yellow and black turbaned officers of 
Labrang and the Djong. The Ambans were received by his Holiness, 
the Pancheu, with due honours, and they paid him the reverence due 
to his exalted position and holy character. 

In the evening I saw the Tung-chen, who gave me a very 
valuable manuscript entitled DsamUng gyeshc, or " Creneral account of 
the world." * I carried it off with me to my house to read. 

Uiccmhcr 18.— The Tung-chen sent one of his storekeepers, 
Tsering-tashi by name, to Tondub Khangsar to get a passport 
Qam-yiij) to enable me to send Phurchung to Khamba djong and 
Lachan, to bring here our heavy luggage. The tailor came at 
7 o'clock this morning to begin work on my winter clothes. We 
kept ready for him a kettle of tea on an earthen stove. A cup, a few 
pieces of boiled mutton, and a wooden bowl filled with tsaniba 
remained all the time before him, and he drank some tea every hour 
or so, making also three meals a day. His breakfast consisted of 
mutton, tsaniba, and tea ; at noon we gave him a dish of rice and 
mutton curry, tsamha, and tea; and at 6 o'clock he ate a few balls 
of tsamha, put on his yellow turban (baJdo), and, making a low bow, 
walked off towards his home at Tashi-gyantsa. I was much pleased 
with his steady work, which had earned for him the proud title of 
Uje chenpo, or " head craftsman," f and secured for him a tanha a 
day wages, exclusive of food. 

Ucccmhcr 19. — Tsering-tashi was despatched again after the pass- 
port. The delay in securing it was occasioned by the Tung-chen 
not having tipped the clerks and officials who had charge of the 

* Clifunlra Das has given u transliitioii of an extract i'roni this work in the Journal 
of the Asiatir, SocMy of Bengal, vol. Iv. pp. 201-203, ami in part vii. of his 'Narrative 
of a Journey round Lake Y'amdo ' (Palti). pp. 117-130. Thougli full of interesting 
details, it has been thought advisable to omit it from the present work, most of the 
Tibetan names of i)lace8 being still uuidentified. He says the work is by Lama 
Tsanpo Nomenklian, of Amdo. — (W. 1{.) 

t Or rather " master-tailor,' Wu-je iDwu-rJe) tsem-iw ou Tashi-gyantsa, see infra, 
p. G7.-0V. R.) 


matter. The senior Ainban started to-day for Lhasa via Gyantse 
and Nangartse djong. All the ponies of Shigatse had been requisi- 
tioned to supply his numerous retinue with riding and pack animals, 
so the junior Amban and the Shape could not get off for want (jf 
^lIcc, and the local authorities of Gyantse were ordered to supply 
what they could to them as soon as the senior Amban reached their 
place. In the meanwhile the Chinese were strolling about the 
Shigatse market, carrying off the best of everything, paying nothing, 
or only a nominal price for the things they took. People coming 
into town saw their ponies seized by the ta-u officers for the 
Amban's service, and started off with loads to Gyantse. ]\Iy men 
could buy nothing, for most of the people had packed up their wares 
and fled ; but they managed to purchase some mutton and rice inside 
the monastery, and we found out that good things could be had 
there at comparatively moderate prices. 

Decemher 20. — I passed most of my day reading a collection of 
hymns, the composition of the second Dalai lama,* which I liad 
bought from a Lhasan bookseller. To-day there arrived five men 
from Gyantse, whose advent was at once detected by the Eogyabas, 
for these pests are always on the look-out for new-comers, whom they 
at once surround with clamorous solicitations for alms. Few can 
escape from their hands without paying them something. As soon 
as the Eogyabas saw these Gyantse men, they informed all the 
fraternity of the new prey, on which vulture-like they pounced. 
Well do they deserve their name, which means " corpse-vultures," 
though, to speak the truth, they prey on the living.f These Gyantse 
men brought news about the orders issued by the Lhasa Govern- 
ment stopping the egress and ingress of all traders at the frontier 
passes. The two Djongpon of Phagri were busy executing these 
orders ; no one, it was said, had eluded their vigilance and reached 
Darjiling. Even some Bhutanese traders on their way to Lhasa 
were stopped at Phagri ; but another party of these people had started 

* The second Tale lama was known by the name of Gedun-gyatso. Born in 1476. — 
(W. K.) 

t Our author says their name is written Eogyo-pa, meaning " corpse-vulture." 
According to Jaeschke, the -'vulture " is go-vo, while ro means " corpse." Further on 
(p. 163) S. C. D. calls them ragyahas, and tells us that their houses (at Lhasa at all 
events) must have walls made of horns. From the fact that " horn " in Tibetan is 
ra-cho, we might suppose that the name of this class of people is Ea-cho-pa, '' the 
horny ones." I have never met with the name in writing. — (W. R.) 


out, in iletiauce of the Djoiigpon, for Lhasa. The Bhutan Govern- 
ment resented such unusual interference on the part of the Tibetans 
in a trade which had been carried on from ancient times. 

December 21. — To-day is the new moon {nam-gang, or " full night"), 
one of the holiest days of the month. The conch-shells called loudly 
the lamas to prayers. From break of day to an hour after sunset 
large numbers of men and women circumambulated the monastery, 
some carrying strings of l)eads, others prayer-wheels. Early in the 
morning the Nepalese, beating cymbals and chanting Sanskrit 
mantras, walked around the great monastery. 

Towards 10 o'clock my attention was attracted by an unusual 
scene to the east of the monastery, where the entire space between 
the great mcndong of the market-place and the eastern gateway of 
Tashilhunpo was filled witli beggars, both men and women. Among 
them were people from Amdo and Khams, whose eyes had been put 
out for crimes such as murdering lamas ; some were cripples and 
walked with crutches, some in heavy chains and drawn on wheel- 
barrows, some maimed, otliers deaf and dumlj, others, again, still 
bearing traces of the torture to which they had been subjected-r-a 
vast concourse of misery and pain. In their midst stood the well- 
known Lhagpa-tsering distributing alms, an anna to each one. Yor 
ten years past he had done thus on the first of every moon. The 
circumstances which led this worthy man to undertake giving alms 
to the indigent is very remarkable and instructive. 

Lhagpa-tsering had been a silversmith, and had by patient work 
amassed such wealth that he established himself as a jeweller and 
banker. His business prospered ; in his shop were all kinds of goods 
— fine china, besides pearls, coral, turquoises, and jade ; and here came 
all the great men of the country. He became noted also for his 
munificent gifts to the lamasery of Tashilhunpo. Some ten years 
ago there lived at Shang a saintly lama called Chyabtam lama ; the 
purity of his life and his vast learning had made him an object of 
worship ibr all classes of people in Tsang. The jeweller Lhagpa, 
believing that if he made offering to so holy a personage his profits 
in trade would increase a hundred-fold, went to Shang and offered 
the lama Rs. 1250, besides numerous objects of value. The saint 
refused them all, telling him that they represented dishonest earnings, 
and were the property of a dishonest man. " In a previous existence 
you were a great sinner, and in yuur next you will be a crocodile." 


On the following morning Lhagpa, filled with liorror at liis 
impending fate, came and begged the sage to tell him how he might 
avert the horrible punishment — what acts of charity, what good deeds 
would save him ; but the lama made no reply. Again the next day 
he came, and the saint looked in his magic mirror, and said, " If hence- 
forth you give alms to the poor and helpless, of whatever station, creed, 
or country they may be, on every new moon throughout the year till 
your death, you will surely get immense wealth, as well as escape 
from rebirth as a crocodile. There are no other means to save you ; " 
and he sent Lhagpa away without accepting his gifts. Since then he 
has been in the habit of distributing alms on the first day of the 
moon. His example has produced a wholesome influence on the 
merchants of Khams, who now show some hesitation in cheating. 
A trader, when he cheats others, thinks, as a general rule, if he is a 
Buddhist, that the amount thus gained was due to him in a previous 
existence. This is a dangerous principle. 

Close to the cemetery of Shigatse, called Kega tsal, is the Chinese 
graveyard, where there are about three hundred tombs of varying size 
and very rude construction. At a short distance from this is the 
parade-ground, about half a mile square, called Jah-hu-tang, and 
touching it a walled enclosure, used for target practice with bow and 
gun, in the centre of which is a large house used by the Ambans. On 
the sides are high towers for the drum-beaters and trumpet-blowers. 
The headmen of the whole country had assembled here to-day to 
muster the porters and pack-ponies required by the junior Amban 
and the Tibetan officials returning to Lhasa. Three hundred ponies 
were ready, and it was decided that one man should accompany each 
horse. Orders had been given by the Amban to requisition all the 
ponies in the province, no matter whether they belonged to subjects, 
traders, or pilgrims. 

Dccemhcr 22. — To-day, at 9 a.m., the junior Amban, with a 
retinue of 300 men on horseback, left for Lhasa. The owners of the 
relay ponies followed them on foot, keeping pace with the ponies, or 
if they lagged behind they were whipped by the men on horseback ; 
so that some dropped out and disappeared, abandoning their property 
to the Chinese rather than undergo their ill treatment. Of the six 
village headmen exiled to Ee and Khamba djong for their share in 
the recent trouble, I learnt to-day that one had died on the road, and 
another is hanging between life and death. 



Deccmler 23.— To-day the Shape Lhalu and 100 followers, all 
on horsehack, left for Lhasa. The ponies and the men who have 
to accompany them on the uhi are treated with great hardship. They 
have to carry their food with them, as well as provender for their 
beasts. In the present case they had received but short notice, and 
are ill prepared for the long journey. This forced service is, however, 
patiently borne by the people, as it is a recognized custom of the 

The market to-day received a large supply of pottery from the village 
of Tauag and Lholing, on the Tsang-po, a few miles nortli-west of 
Shigatse. In these localities excellent potter's clay is obtainable, and 
the people carry on a profital)le trade in earthenware with the sur- 
rounding districts. The Tanag pottery has not only an extensive sale 
in Tibet, but in the cis-Himalayan countries as well, where most 
utensils are of untinned copper, and the Sikkim and Darjiling 
people use them exclusively in preference to the earthenw^are made by 
the Nepalese inhabiting the Lower Himalayas. The Tanag earthen- 
ware is carried to the banks of the Tsang-po on donkeys, and there 
transferred to hide-boats (kodrtc), in which it is brought down to the 
I'atama ferry, about four miles to the north-east of Shigatse. The 
Patama dealers, who, by the way, raise fine crops on the alluvial soil 
along the river banks, and make a good deal of money by fishing and 
ferrying, carry the earthenware to Shigatse on donkeys that jog 
slowly along the road to the jingle of big bells fastened around their 
necks. The Lholing pottery is brought to Shigatse via Tanag ; this 
locality manufactures very large vessels for keeping wine or water 
in, and so heavy that two men can hardly lift them. The Tanag 
pottery is so highly glazed that it compares favourably with the 
Chinese and European earthenware sold in the Calcutta shops.* 

There were on the market-place many wildly dressed Dokpas of 
the Chang province. The women wore such heavy and fantastic 

♦ I have never .seeu pottery made in Tibet, but know that no wheel is used. 
Capt. R. B. Pcniberton, in his • Report on Bootan ' (in ' Political Missions to Bootan,' 
p. 74), gives a minute description of the mode of makinj; pottery among tlie Butia. 
lie remarks that " a lump of the compost was jjlaced on a flat board, supported on the 
top of three sticlcs, and was kneaded from the centre outwards, until an ojjening liad 
licen eff( eted tlirough tlie mass ; the orifice thus made was gradually enlarged liy the 
person wlio preserved its circular form by walking round the board on which tlie mass 
rested. . . . The- mass thus prepared formed the upper section of th(; vessel ; and the 
lower half l>eing wrought by a similar ])rocess, the two parts were united together, and 
the vessel completeil." The wliole paragraph is very interesting. — (\V. R.) 


apparel that one who had not before seen them might well be taken 
aback. From a distance these savages looked as if they wished to 
imitate tlie peacock's gaudy plumes in their costume ; tliey had so 
many beads of glass, coral, amber, and turquoise suspended from 
their headdress that one could hardly see their faces. 

To-day the tailor finished our winter suits, consisting of a Chinese 
coat (kiva-tse) and trousers {2nslm)* The lambskin lining in all the 
suits was quite neatly sewed. I was also furnished with a foxskin 
(ivajja) cap, made after the Lhasa fashion. Provided with these, I felt 
well equipped for my journey to Dongtse. To make the linings of 
the coat, I had bought about sixty fine lamb-skins at a cost of Es. 7.8. 
These skins appeared to have been obtained from very young lambs, 
which must have died shortly after birth, for the cost of a single piece 
of skin was not more than three or four annas, and as the live lambs 
would fetch at least double that price, it is not likely that they had 
been killed for their skins. It is, however, not unusual for the 
shepherds to kill ewes for the soft skin of their unborn lambs, for they 
fetch a high price. The demand from China for this kind of lamb- 
skin has, however, of late years much decreased, and the practice of 
killing ewes for the purpose of obtaining them is becoming rare.f 

In the evening Tsering-tashi brought us the passport from the 
Tondub Khangar, to enable us to bring our things from Lachan to 
Tashilhunpo. Though it is customary to issue passports in open 
covers, this one was enclosed in a letter to the Djongpon of Khamba, 
and we were therefore unable to know its wording, but feared from 
this fact that some orders, probably to examine closely our packages, 
were contained in it. The Tung-chen, however, did not apprehend 
that any trouble would arise from this fact, but we could not share 
his confidence. 

BecetJiber 24 — In the morning, after washing, I went upstairs to 
sit in the sun. The cook brought tea and placed the pot on the stove 
before me. I had emptied three or four cups, warming my numbed 
hands against the warm cup, when Dungyig Phurching, a copyist, 
arrived, and was shortly followed by the Khamba Dungyig.J I 

* Ewa-tse (or hua-tzu) is a Chinese term for a short riding-jacket. The Tibetans of 
the better class have adopted this article of Chinese clothing, and also their name for 
it. I have never heard trousers called anything but ma-yo (jsmad-gyogs).—(yf . R.) 

t Cf. Sam. Turner, op. cit., p. 303. 

X Or drung-yig, "clerk, secretary." Khamba Tungyig means "the clerk from 
Khams " (or Eastern Tibet).— (W. R.) 


receiveil tlie first with " i'Ji)/(i(j-phrh nc/ng-chig" ("Please come in"), 
extending my right liand towards him, and, as an additional mark of 
respect to the latter, I half raised myself from my seat and placed 
him on my left hand on the same rug on which I was sitting. After 
an exchange of the usual compliments, he opened a bundle of papers 
and showed me an almanac he was engaged in copying for the minister. 

He said he was sorry that he was unable to copy the manuscript 
of tlie B^(tm-Unrj-(jycshe, but recommended Dungyig Phurching; and 
the latter agreed to do the copying at the rate of six leaves for a 
Utnla, exclusive of ink and paper. 

To-day news arrived of the death of the Tsopon Shanku, one of the 
six headmen, and the richest among tliem, punished on account of the 
late riot. I saw several monks and laymen carrying from the monastery 
to Shigatse three huge copper caldrons, about five feet in diameter, 
and I learnt that tea and tiigp(( (a soup of isariiha, minced meat, and 
radishes) were to be prepared in them for the entertainment of upwards 
of a thousand beggars in honour of the deceased. The caldrons belong 
to the lamasery, and were loaned for the occasion. 

During market-time Ugyen visited a Nepalese (Balpo) * friend in 
Shigatse, from whom he learnt that Nepalese trade was suffering 
greatly by the introduction of Calcutta goods on the Tibetan market. 
" The Balpo traders," he said, " used to make a hundred per centum 
profit in former times, but nowadays the introduction of Calcutta 
goods by shorter routes than the Katmandu one we have to follow 
has caused a great falling off in our profits and the bulk of our trade." 

Later on in tlie day the Tung-ehen's men came and told us of 

the arrangements made for our j'ourney to Dongtse, and that we were 

to be ready to start on the following morning. As we would only 

remain at Dongtse a very short while — for the minister was expected 

to return in afewdays toTasliilhuiipo — we were told not to take many 

tilings with us, and were not to hire donkeys, as we had intended, to 

carry our luggage. I passed the evening writing letters to send home 

by Phurchung, who was to start at the same time as we did for the 

Sikkim frontier. 

♦ They are usually culled Peurbu in Tibetan, anil by the Cliinese these people 
are known as Ve- (or ]'ieh-)puiig-(zu. Tliey are not to be confounded witli the Gorkhas, 
who are called Korhhn. Abbe Hue, ' Souvenirs d'un Voyage, etc.,' ii. 2G7, calls tliera 
Peboun. Speaking of those of Lhasa, he says, "Les Peboun sont les seuls ouvriers 
me'tallurgistes de Lha-Ssa. C'est dans leur quartier qu'il faut aller chercher les 
forperons, Its chaudronniers, les plombiers, les ctanieurs, les fondcurs, les orfevres, les 
bijouticrs, les nn'canieiens, meme les pliysiciens et les chimistes." — (W. li.) Balpo, 
or properly Palpa, is tiie ciiief district in Western Nepal. 




Decemhcr 26. — We were up early, finishing our letters and getting 
I'hurchung ready for his journey to the Sikkim frontier. After tea I 
sent Ugyen to tlie market to buy provisions for our journey, and he 
brought back a large quantity of 2^^'^9' ^ piece of mutton, and 
vegetables, and also purchased some fresh gija-twj (vermicelli), of 
which I had become very fond. Two strong ponies were waiting 
saddled for us in charge of a groom at the western gateway {giialgo) 
of the monastery. Our traps and bags being made over to the charge 
of the Tung-chen's men, we left Tashilhunpo at 3 p.m., and rode off 
at a gentle trot towards the village of Tashi-gyantsa. The Tung- 
chen wore his church raiment, and a silk-lined chosa* or clerical 
hat, covered his head ; Ijut as soon as we had reached this village he 
changed it for a fox-skin cap lined with brown satin. The view of 
Tashilhunpo from Tashi-gyantsa was most beautiful, and the four 
gilded tombs of the former Tashi lamas, situated in the middle of 
the lamasery, blazed in the rays of the sun.f 

One approaches Tashi-gyantsa by a lane cut through a hillock 
some 20 feet high, on top of which the village stands. The alleys are 
crooked and dirty, the houses of comfortable appearance, are painted 
with clay in bands of red, black, and blue colour, and surrounded by 
walls forming a courtyard in front of each. On the left of the road 
is a neatly constructed mcndong. The whole village is inhabited by 
clerks, copyists, painters, and artisans from Tashilhunpo, most of 
whom get allowances {-pod) from Labrang. Cattle {jo) are plentiful 

* Chos dja. Probably the yellow-pointed cloth hat with Haps, and ending in a 
point on either side in front, the usual head-cover of lamas outside Iheir monasteries. 
Inside the lamaseries all go bareheaded. — (W. E.) 

t In the account of his tirst journey, he says that these " chaits " are on top of the 
palace of the Tashi lama. 


in the villaue, ami as we passed, a few yaks with pack-saddles on their 
hacks were heing led off from the village by two tall, savage-looking 
men dressed in goatskin gowns {hol'ltu). The old people sat in their 
doorways, warming themselves in the sun, and a caravan of yaks and 
donkeys had halted at the cJio/icn just outside the village. 

"We passed by l*erong shavea, a group of hamlets, in the midst of 
wliicli is a little garden and a willow grove; then by the village 
of ]~)eki-rabdan ; and wlien two miles from Tashi-gyantsa we reached 
the large village of Khara Tedong, the chief of which is a Dahpon 
(general), lately dismissed from a command at Gartok, near Eudok. 
Judging from the outward appearance of the houses, the village is 
]:»rosperous. Passing the villages of Sunapara and Sarsha, and leaving 
1 )orhig and Semaron on our right, we came, after two miles, to the Num 
cliu, now a nearly (h-ied-u]) stream, which comes down from the 
mountains to the novtli-west of Xartang, which border the plateau- 
like valley of Cliyugpu shung. A little to the east of this stream is 
the large village of Gyatso-shar, composed of a dozen hamlets forming 
two or three groups. 

At ') p.m. we readied the village of Chyang chu, about a quarter 
of a mile from tlie Xum chu, belonging to our friend the minister. 
To tlie east of the hamlet is a little garden, and in it a small house 
called Lobding ; here the minister spends a few days during the 
autumn holidays, and takes the baths. Chyang chu is the birthplace 
of the Tung-chen, and we put up in his house, at the gate of which 
were chained two big mastiffs. Two servants assisted us to alight 
from our ponies, and two held the dogs back while we walked in. 
The headman of the ^'illage, the Deba Shikha,* received us, and 
recognized me as an old acquaintance. We were conducted to the 
central room of the upper story, where we found two stuffed seats 
{hu-fhrn) spread for us. The room, though spacious, was dark and 
dusty, and a heap of yak-liair bags, resembling Indian gnnnus, filled 
a corner of tlie i-oom. ]\Iy servant, Lhagpa-sring, spread my khamba 
rug on the seats, and busied himself fetching our bags and traps from 
the courtyard. The Deba presently arrived, and begged us to refresh 
ourselves with tea and cluing. Lhagpa, looking with peculiar eager- 
ness at the maid-servant who was .pouring chang in Ugyen's cup, 
winked at her to lill his cii]) from her bowl, but to his disappointment 
she turned away ; but shurLly after another maid appeared with a large 
* Elbewbere he Bays that Shihha means "bailiff." 


bowl, and poured out wine to the servants. Then the Deba's wife, 
with a very pretty jug in her hand, came to serve me, but I declined. 
After a few minutes dinner was served in tiii-Ihied copper dishes 
resembling salad-bowls, the first course consisting of minced mutton 
and tsamha. This was followed by minced mutton and vermicelli, 
the Deba waiting upon me himself, to show me the attention due to 
a guest from a distant country. 

After dinner the Tung-chen, who had taken his meal in a separate 
room, led me to his mother's room, where old lady Angla * and the 
Deba's son, Damdul, were sitting around a blazing fire in a stove 
{jalang). The old lady had seen upwards of eighty summers, and her 
hair was snowy white. I joined the party, which was shortly added 
to by the entrance of several other members of the household, and we 
sat drinking tea and talking of the sacred cities of India, of Vajra- 
shena, Varanasi, and Kapilavastu, and the state of Buddhism in 
modern India. Angla sighed repeatedly when she heard that all their 
sacred places in India were now in ruins. I then gave her a short 
history of ancient India and Tibet, which delighted the whole party, 
and the Tung-chen expressed himself highly pleased with my narra- 
tive. Before taking leave for the night of my kind host, I presented 
the Tung-chen with a couple of rupees, and his mother with one. 
They very reluctantly accepted them, saying, however, that as it was 
their duty to please me, they would not deny me the pleasure of 
making them presents. Lhagpa led me to my bed, which was spread 
in a corner of the room where we had dined ; and the Deba, coming in 
to see if I was comfortable, found my wraps rather light, and brought 
me two thick blankets, in which my servant wrapped me up. 

December 26. — The Deba has a dozen jomo and cows yielding 
plenty of milk. A jomo yields four times the quantity of milk which 
a cow or female yak gives. The di yak cow, which pastures on moun- 
tain-tops, yields ordinarily two seers of milk a day, is not much 
prized, though yak milk is both sweet and wholesome ; but the Tibetans 
value very highly the jo, which is, besides a good milker, most useful 
in husbandry. 

* The syllable la, here and throughout this narrative, whenever it is a suffix to a 
name of a person, forms no part of the name, but is only an honorific expletive. It 
is even used after titles, as Ponbo la, Pundib la, Lhachara la, Kusho la, etc. Chandra 
Das hardly ever gives the names of the Tibetans he refers to in his narrative, because 
a person's name is never used when he or she is addressed, nor is it but rarely mentioned. 
He probably never heard the names of most of the people of whom he speaks.— (W. K.) 


The women of the house were up by four and busy milking and 
churning. The village looked i'rom afar like one big liouse, but it is 
in reality composed of a number of houses, each witli a courtyard in 
front. The place is vulgarly called the " Anthill " (i>t»<7 tsanf/ *), on 
account of the great number of serfs inhabiting it. After breakfast, 
which consisted of boiled mutton, minced radish, and jja-^wr/, or 
balls of flour cooked in mutton brotli, we mounted our ponies and 
started off. 

To the south-west of Gyatsho-shar f is the })lateau of Chyugpu 
Shung, dotted Mith iiuiiieruus handets, chief of which is Lhena djong. 
About two miles i'roni Ch}'ang chu is ISTorgya Nangpa, with numerous 
hamlets surrounding it, and one mile and a half to the east of Norgya, 
where the valley approaches the edge of the mountains to the south, is 
Jvena,J composed of a dozen hamlets. The houses of Kena are well 
built anil prosperous looking, the door-frames and windows showing 
considerable taste, and the walls of most of them painted with long 
Idue and red stripes, the favourite colours of the Tibetans. From 
Kena the mountains of Pankor-shornub, § notorious as a lair of 
Itrigauds, were clearly discernible, and far to the east, across the 
Xyang chu, we could iust discern the villaue of Sanga-ling. At 
Kena we crossed, by a culvert some fifteen feet lontj, an irrigation canal 
whicli comes down from ISTyang chu. From this point our way lay 
over a barren plateau more than two miles broad ; in the up])er part 
of it are several villages, in the largest of which is the Shalu monas- 
tery. A little above the junction of the Shalu with the Nyang chu 
stands the hamlet of Chuta Chyangma, three or four dilapidated mud 
liovels, the ground everywhere overgrown with thistles and briars. 
Here, Ave were told, the Grand Lama's || camels are pastured in winter. 
The Nyang chu flows liere in several channels, and some cranes were 
seeking for food in the ice along the banks. 

Going south-eastward for nearly Wo miles and a half, we reached 
a fertile tract of land, in which stand the villages of Panam-gang, 
Jorgya, Pislii, Penagangdo, and Natog,1I A\]iich, we were told, belonged 

* Written >jrog txoiig, or (jrorj-ma tsanff.—{'\N . R.) 
t Or lOastcrn {»hur) ;,'yats().— ( W. R.) 

+ Kye-ua of tlie iiiiiii.— (W. R.) 

§ Prohubly 81iorimb is xhar, "cast;" nuh, '• west."— (W. R.) 

i ]5y "(Ji-iiiKl Lama" tli.' aiitiuir iiieaii.s llie J'aDchcii Riiiixiclie or Tc.slni lama of 

• Called on tlie iMaj) Gang, J.)r-f,'ya, Putshal, Pen jaiig. Nato.i,^ does not appear on it. 
On p. 74 lie ealltj Pena^'aiiKdo, Penjang, and Pislii, Patal.— (W. R.) 



to Hamdang Kaiu-tsan of Tashilhimpo. At Jorgya, which belongs to 
the Djongpon of I*agri, the same who stopped Sir Eichard Temple 
near Chumbi, there is an irrigation canal running from the Nyang 
chu, and on its bank is a beautiful garden Ijordered with poplars, 
willows, and other fine trees. Its walks are tastefully laid out, and 
the two-storied building in its centre is the finest one this side of 
Tashilhunpo. In the principal lane of this village is a deep well 


about four or five feet in circumference at the moutli, and a number 
of women w^ere drawing water from it in sheep's paunches. 

A short distance beyond Jorgya we came to Pislii Mani Lhakbang 
in a grove of poplars and willows, with a large orchard and several 
hamlets close by. This place, which belongs to the Pishi Deba, is 
famous for its manufacture of a superior quality of serge and broad- 
cloth called unam* At the entrance to the Mani Lhakbang, a 

* I have never heard of imam; Imt gonam (sgo snam ?) is the uaiiie generally givcu 
to Beiges and foreign (Russian) broadcloth. — (W. E.) 


c/w77c;t-shaped edifice, are rows of drum-shaped prayer-^vheels.* 
Five furlongs farther on we passed through Panam-doi,t and two miles 
beyond tliis place we came to the village of Taugaug (or Tagong). 
The trail — for there is no regular road— then led by Patsal, Belung, 
to Penjang, from which village we could see, on the hillside beyond 
the Nyaug chu, the large monastery of Kadong. We were now in 
the district of Panam,| said to be very fertile, and to this the 
numerous handets scattered about give testimony. A mile to the 
south of Tagong we came to Tashigang, around which there is no 
vegetation, not a blade of grass nor a tree, nothing but sand and 
gravel. Here we were to spend the night. We were kindly received 
by an old lady, Angputi by name, and shown by the servant up a 
flight of stone steps to the top floor, where rugs were spread for us. 
.Vngputi had a headdress {patug) studded with flawed turquoises 
and faded coral ; she had worn it, she said, for nearly twenty years, 
and purposed leaving it as a legacy to her second son. Shortly 
after we were seated, her daughter, a nun wdio had lately arrived 
on leave from her convent, brought us a kettle of tea and two wooden 
bowls of (saiiiha.^ Tlie Tung-chen was given the room the minister 
nses Mhen travelling along this road. It was provided with curtains, 
silk-covered ceiling, some nice tables, and had in it several volumes 
of Yum scriptures,!! a small chapel, two dozen bells, oblation cups, 
a sofa-like altar, and a number of pictures. The rugs in this room 
were made of the finest Panam wool, and were the best articles of 
furniture in the house. After drinking tea, the hostess brought me 
some boiled and dried mutton, tsaniha, and tea. This kind of present 
is usually offered to guests on their arrival in a house, and is called 
solichi,^ or "first show." 

* A mani lliakhang is usually a churten around wliich arc, under covered galleries, 
rows of large prayer-wheels, or rather prayer-barrels. I have never seen any temple 
attached to such structures ; but the chortens are hollow, with an opening at tlic base 
by whicli clay isu-tsu offerings can be put in the monument. — (W. R.) 

t Doi of the maps.- (W. E.) 

X Pcniim jong of the maps. Cf. Captain Turner, oj). ciL, '229 (he calls it Painam), 
and C. K. Markhiim, op. cit., 78, where Bogle also refers to it as Painam.— (W. E.) 

§ In Tibet a married woman is called chang-ma, or " wine companion." One of her 
princijtal duties is to present wine to her friends and guests. It is to avoid this duty 
tliat many women enter monastic life (S. C. D.). I think S. C. D. was misinformed. 
A wife is called chung-nm, not chang-ma. Chnng means " little," and ma " motlicr." 

-(W. E.; 

11 The metaphysical pnrtioii of the Tibetan lUiddhist scrii)ture.s, called in Sanskrit 
Abliidliarma— (W. E.) 

t Or (jml gchig, i.e. " lirst meal."- (W. E.) 


Beccmher 27. — Leaving the Tashigang valley, we came to the foot 
of the range which here borders the left bank of the Nyang. Two 
and a half miles to the south-west (east ?) there is a precipice called 
Eitong, where some twenty years ago two generals of Lhasa were 
murdered l)y the usurper Gadan Gyahu, At this point we obtained 
a fine view of the fort of Panam, of Gontai, of Takar, Palri,* and 
various other monasteries. Up to this point the river banks are 
overgrown with furze, brambles, and various thorny plants of which 
it is said camels are very fond. 

Two miles to the west (east ?) of this place we came to a large 
village, called Tsog-chi,t with an imposing castle, formerly the 
residence of several noted generals, but now the property of one 
of the chief civil officers (Bung-khoi' X) of Lhasa. Close by is 
Dukpa-nagpa, formerly a town of Sorcerers or Nagpa,§ but now 
mostly in ruins, and inhabited by only a half-dozen families. 

A mile and a half farther on we came to Norpa khyung-djin 
("Eagle's Gem" ||), where there was once an important lamasery of 
the Karmapa sect. Its ruins crown the hilltop, and the village, of 
a hundred houses, is scattered along the slope and the base of the 
hills. Near this place is Nembotong and Pangang.H 

In the upland near Taimen,** a hamlet of three huts, where the 
wind that sweeps the broad plateau on which this place is built 
has drifted the sand in long waves, are the villages of Phola and 
Wangdan. The former place is the birthplace of King Miwang, 
and the latter is noted for the excellence of its rugs. Due south 
from Taimen, and at the head of the broad valley which opens 
between that place and Norpa khyung-djin, is the Gingu la, over 
which a trail runs to Pietoi, or Upper PtC, near lago, and also the 
fort of Darchung djong.ft 

A little more than a mile in a southerly direction from Taimen 

* Pe IL of the maps.— (W. R.) 

t Chog-tse of the maps. — (W. R.) 

X See /. n. A. S.. n.s., vol. sxiii. p. 220. The Dung-khors' offices are mostly hereditary. 
— (W. R.) 

§ Nagpa, "enchanters or experts in incantations." See Waddell, op. ciL, 47o, -183. 
' Land of the Lamas,' p. 217.— (W. R.) 

II Or Norbu khyung hdjiu (?), "the i^recious j/arMfZa-holder." The garuda {khyumj) 
is the king of birds, according to Tibetans. — (W. R.) 

Tf Pong kong of the maps. — (W. R.) 

** Called Tho-man on the maps. — (W. R.) 

tt Gring-gu la, Ya-go, and Tuchung-Jong of the maps.— (W. R.) 


brought us to Shar-cliyog Aniung, also called Isa.* The poplar and 
willow groves arouud it give it a most prosperous appearance. 
Here we overtook a monk of the Doiigtse monastery, sent Ijy the 
minister to fetch him some books from the Kahdong gomba, near 
Panam djoug. His tall, lithe frame, but poorly covered with torn 
raiment, his curious boots and headdress, and the bundle of incense- 
sticks slung like a quiver across his back, evoked smiles from our 
party as he walked swiftly along, keeping pace with our ponies. 
Across numerous frozen irrigation ditches, and through various 
little hamlets of three and four houses, the road led us by Taling, 
Dao-targe,t and Pangri, to tlie village of Nesar, where live some 
twenty families. Just before reaching this place a mad dog ran 
by, and though it bit an old man and several donkeys, the Tung-chen 
would not let me sh(jut it. Xesar has, on the hillside above it, a 
neatly built temple and a number of small towers, the latter sacred 
to the sylvan goddesses or ]\Iamos. The images of Shenrezig and 
Padma Sambhava are painted on the walls of its mani Ihahhang 
and on tlie towers on the hill. A little beyond this village we fell 
in with four Khambas, each armed with a long, straight sword, 
Mho were unquestionably highwaymen. Their dress and features 
showed tlieni to be natives of Gyarong, in Markham, in the eastern 
part of Tibet.J 

At 5 o'clock we arrived at l)ongtse.§ The monastery where the 
minister was residing was on a rocky eminence some 300 feet above 
the village. After walking u]) several flights of stone steps, we 
reached the gateway in the no\\- partly ruined ^^•all of the monastery. 
Near this I was welcomed by the minister's page, and led to the 
eastern room of his master's a]»artments, which had been set apart 
for my use. Before we had finished drinking tea a message came 
calling me to tlie minister's presence. With two scarves and a 
couple of rupees in our hands, we proceeded to the drawing-room, 
and approached his lioliness with profound salutations. He touched 

* Called Shar cho ening on the maps. Shar, "ea8t;"chyog ipyogs), "quarter." 
— (W. R.) 

t Dowa targya of the iiiiip.— (W. ]{.) 

X Tiie author is .slij<htly mistaken here. The Gyarong is on the west border of Sze- 
ch'uan and identical with tiie Chinese Chin-ehuan, wliile Markham is to the west of 
the Kivor of Gold(;n Sands (Chin .sha chiang), in 29° N. lat., witli its capital at Gartok 
(or Ghiang-ka). and is one of the easternmost provinces ruled by Lhasa.— (W. K.) 

§ ( Jeorgi, ' Alph. Tibet,' p. 450, appears to refer to Dongtsc when lie says, « Anteciuam 
l^erv.-mas Kiangse Feudum est Kalouii Prouse, Castellum Yallo minutum, et Auri- 
tiidina." (W. I{.) 


our heads with his hand, and returned us the scarves we had in 
the first place presented hira, tying them around our necks. His 
holiness graciously inquired after our health, and asked if we had 
not suffered great privations and hardships on the way. We "ave 
a brief account of our troubles in the snows and of our miraculous 
escape at Tashi-rabka. " By the grace of the Three Holies," * I 
added, "we have overcome all difficulties, and now our delight is 
boundless in being able to present ourselves at last at your Holiness's 
feet." The minister expressed his regrets at our sufferings and his 
pleasure on our safe arrival after an absence of three years. He had 
to go to prayers, but before leaving he gave orders that all proper 
attentions be shown us. Large dishes of biscuits, bread, fruit, and 
meat were then placed before us, and tea was poured into our cups 
from the minister's own pot, as a mark of his special favour. 

December 28. — After we had finished taking tea the page Ka-chan 
Gopa called us to the minister's presence, to whom we gave a detailed 
account of our journey. After listening with attention, he observed, 
" Pundib la, I fail to see why you chose such a dangerous route as 
that by the Kangla chen and Tashi-rabka, for you had the pass- 
port issued to you three years ago by which you were permitted to 
return to Tsang by way of Khamba djong. Did not the officials at 
that place treat you well when you passed there on your way back 
to India ? " I replied saying that I had feared that difficulties might 
have been raised by the Sikkim Durbar at the instance of i;he Phodang 
lama, who had of late been making trouble in Sikkim. The minister 
again remarked that there had been no necessity for our undertaking- 
such a difficult and perilous journey through the Tingri djong country, 
when we had the Grand Lama's (Panchen Einpoche's) passport 
authorizing us to cross the Lachan pass, which was very easy and 
free from snow. After a short conversation he retired to his 
contemplation room (oratory). 

December 29. — We had an interview with the minister in the 
Niltog t on the roof of the Tsug-la-khang, over which a canopy had 

* Kon-chog sum, i.e. Buddha, the Law and the Brotherhooil (Sangha). Protestant 
missionaries have, very wrongly, I tliink, used the word Kon-cliog as a transhition of 
our word God, which is as untranslatable into Tibetan as it appears to be into Chinese, 
unless the Jlohanimedan expression Chen chu, " the real Lord," be used. — (W. R.) 

t Or Ngi-hok, an open quadrangle on the roof of a house, enclosed on all sides by 
walls, in two of which are door-like openings (S. C. D.). Jaeschke explains the 
word nyi-yol by " any screen or shelter from the sun's rays: awning, curtain, parasol, 


been spread. His holiness said that since last I had been to Tibet 
he had composed two large volumes on the history of tlie philosophical 
schools of Tibet, and that they were now being stereotyped at the 
Namrinf^ monastery. He showed us the manuscript of the second 
volume, and read us extracts from it. 

Dcccmher 30. — After breakfast Ugyen-gyatso ami I went to 
make obeisance to the deities {choi jal), carrying with us a bundle 
of incense-sticks, two tanJcas worth of clarified butter, and about a 
dozen Ihatar/, to present as offerings to the gods. Descending a steep 
ladder we came to the lobby of the congregation hall (du-Miang) of 
the TsufT-la-khang. The portico faced eastward ; its painted wooden 
pillars had capitals most fantastically and picturesquely carved, the 
walls painted in fresco, with relief images of the sixteen Staviras 
(Naten chudug*) gorgeously coloured, but of a much lower style of 
work than what is seen in India, though the thick coat of varnish 
which covered them hid their defects, when not examined too closely. 

The most remarkable part of the building was the floor made of 
pebbles, nicely set and smoothly beaten to make a glossy surface.f 
The du-l-hang is about 25 feet long and 20 broad ; the images of the 
crods were arranged on a beautifully carved wooden and metal altar 
alonfT the north and south-west side of the building, the principal 
ones occupying niches. Most of the images were very old, and of 
gilt-copper, called ser-zany ("gilt-copper"), and had been made 
with much skill. The image of the Lord (Jovo) Buddha had been 
made, the Tung-chen told me, by a great Indian Buddhist in imita- 
tion of the great image of Shakya tuba at Lhasa. J The founder of 
tlie monastery, Je Lha-tsun, once prayed that the gods might send 
him a skilful artist to make images for the newly built lamasery ; 
and sliortly afterwards an Indian visited Dongtse, made this image, 

* Gnas-hrlan hcUu-drug, the sixteen highest disciples of the Buddha Gautama. — 

(W. R.) 

t Cf. Captain Sam. Turner, op. cit., '23G, and Geo. Bogle (in C. R. Markham's 
' Narrative of the ISiissiou, etc.,' 97). Bogle there saye, " The floor is of a chalky 
clay, mixed with small pebUos, and formed into a smooth and very beautiful terrace, 
wliich, by the laliours of a young gylang, who every morning gets his feet upon two 
wtiiillen cliitlis, and exercises himself for three or four hours in skating about the room, 
will, in the course of fifteen or twenty years, acquire a polish equal to tlie other floors 
in tlie palace, which are not inferior to the finest variegated marble." — (W. R.) 

J This image is called the Jo-vo. It is in the Lhasa Jokhang, in tlie centre of the 
city. See my 'Land of the Lamas,' p. 10.'), note 2. See also chap. vi. p. 151 of the 
present narrative. — (W. R.; 


and then returned to India. The Tung-chen, when he had toUl nie 
this, smilingly asked me if I was not a reincarnation of this Indian 
Buddhist, and I felt proud to hear of my countrymen l)eing so highly 
admired and venerated. Ugyen-gyatso prostrated himself before 
every one of the images, and touched with his head their feet or body, 
and I showed my veneration for these sacred shrines by touching with 
my head their right hand, to thus receive their chyag vmng (blessing). 
My companions muttered mantras and made prayers to them, while 
I felt reverential gratitude to the Supreme Euler alone, whose 
merciful providence had brought me safe thus far. 

The roof of the du-kliang is supported by two rows of pillars of 
wood, on the artistically constructed capitals of which hang shields 
and quivers full of arrows, the arms of the Dharmaplas,* with which 
they protect Buddhism against demons and heretics. From the 
ceiling of the hall hang rich China brocades, with dragons magnifi- 
cently embroidered on them in gold and silver. Among the various 
pictures seen here, the most interesting is that of the first Dalai 
lama, Lobzang-gyatso, in which he is portrayed receiving the king- 
dom of Tibet from the Mongol conqueror, Gushi Khan. His prime 
minister, the celebrated Desi Sangye, is seated on his left, and is 
thanking the magnanimous and liberal prince for his munificent gift 
on behalf of his thrice holy master. I was also shown the dais 
reserved for the minister. Opposite it, and at the top of the second 
row of seats reserved for the monks, is a chair three feet high, on which 
the head lama of the monastery sits during service. There is accom- 
modation for about eighty monks in this hall, and I was told that 
service is held in it daily, at which most of the monks are present. 
They receive a monthly allowance of sixty pounds of barley from the 
church endowment fund {lahrang gzi). This they parch and grind 
themselves, and bring a little supply of it daily with them to the hall 
in a small bag, to eat with the tea, which is given them three times 
during each service, and is furnished from the church stores {lahrang 
djo). On returning from the ehoijal, I was called to the minister's, 
whom I found seated on a satin-covered cushion in the shade of a 
nyi-liok on the roof of the third story of the chief temple of the 

His page {shahdang),\ Ka-chan Gopa, placed a cup of tea before 

* Called in Tibetan Chos-gyong (skyong), "protectors of tlie doctrine," or Ku na 
gyalbo, "five great kings." See Emil Schlaginweit, ' Buddhism in Tibet,' p. 157. 

t Dzahs-drung-(pa'), lit., "one near the feet of." The expression hu-drung-pa, " near 
the body," is also used. — (W. R.) 


me, together with some tsamla, meat, ami twisted sugar-biscuits. 
The minister raised his cup to his lips, and graciously said, " Drink, 
Pundit, please" {Pundih la, sol ja nang). I at once drank a tliird of 
my cup, as etiquette requires, and every time he drank I also took a 
sip. He made inquiries respecting the lithographic press and the 
various other articles which I had brought to present to him, and 
which were now on the way to Tashilhunpo. After dinner he showed 
me a work he was writing on history, rhetoric, astrology, and photo- 
grapliy. The latter section he had composed from notes I had 
furnished him, in 1879, from Tassinder's ' Manual of Photography,' 
and I was delighted to see the diagrams he had drawn to represent 
the various photographic apparatus I had then left with him. He 
afterwards read to me an account of the ancient controversies between 
the Brahmans and Buddhists of India. 

"While we were thus engaged the page informed him that the 
Dahpon * Phala and Kung Chyang-chan were approaching Dongtse, 
so we went to the top of the fourth story of the Dongtse choide to 
see them arrive. The Dahpon being the chief of Dongtse, the monks 
had to show him due respect. When the party got near the foot of 
the hill on ^^•hich the choide stands, two monks in full canonicals blew 
two long copper hautboys (horns ?), two others played on a clarionet-like 
instrument called gi/a-ling ; and when the party came to the grove, or 
lingo, in front of the castle, the Chya-dso-pa f received them with 
his band — a gong and two tambourines. The Daphon and his friend 
rode spirited mules gaudily caparisoned with brocades and tinsel. 
They were preceded by five sowars, and followed by an equal number, 
all carrying lances with pennants at their points. The minister told 
me that of the four Daphons, or commanders of forces in Tsang, two 
are ordinarily, stationed at Shigatse, one at Gyantse, and one at 

Deccmlcr 31. — I was anxious to take a trip to Gyantse, which 
Ugyen said was only eight miles distant, and could be reached in two 
hours. He dissuaded me, however, saying it would not be prudent, 
as that place is frequented by lihutia traders from Darjiling and 
Phagri. At nine I was called in to the minister's, and read a few 

* Mddh-ilpoii, •' master of the arrow," is a military officer of al)Out tlie rank of a 
general; they are given liglit-lihie Imttoiis (4th class) by the Chinese authorities. — 
(W. R.) 

t A Chyau-dso-pa, or Chya-djo-pa ( Phyag-miljod-pn), is a civil officer (of .')tli class 
of CiiincHi- offiriiil rank) of the treasury. — (W. R,) 


sentences of English from the ' Eoyal Keader No. 1 ' with him. After 
this I asked to be allowed to visit the great temple of G-yantse, called 
the " Palkhor choide," " If you want to visit G-yantse," he replied, 
"I will arrange it for you; but you must bear in mind that the 
people of that town are not good. They speak much, and are given 
to spinning a great deal out of a little. I will have the Tung-chen 
take you there." Ugyen-gyatso then asked if he might go there, as 
he wanted to buy me some blankets ; and having obtained the 
minister's authorization, he left at noon. 

January 1, 1882. — -For about half an hour the minister practised 
writing the Eoman characters on a wooden slate (chi/ang-shing) about 
two feet long and ten inches broad. A little bag of powdered chalk was 
tied to it ; and when the slate had been washed and dried, the minister 
rubbed the chalk-bag lightly over the board, and thus covered it witli 
a thin white film. In this he scratched letters with a steel style about 
a foot long. I told him of the slates we had in India — how much 
more convenient and neat they were than his rude contrivance. He 
smiled and said, " My chi/ang-shing is a very nice one ; even the great 
ministers of China use the like ;* but they are not clean. And if you 
can get me a couple of your Indian slates from Calcutta, I shall be 
much obliged." 

January 2. — In the morning preparations were made for a grand 
reception of the Dahpon Phala and Kung Chyang-chan, the Tsipon.f 
All the furniture of the room we occupied was replaced by choice 
articles from the minister's storeroom. Silk drapings and curtains 
were hung in the waiting-room and lobby, beautiful silk cushions 
were spread in the minister's drawing-room, and its ceiling made 
resplendent with a covering of orange-coloured Chinese brocade. 
Artistically worked dragons appeared everywhere — on the ceiling 
draperies, on the curtains, and even in the carpets. Handsome dining- 
tables, three feet by eighteen inches, and two feet high, were placed 
before each cushioned seat. The minister's seat was placed as usual 
before a gilt chapel (niche), and three feet above the floor, on his 
right hand, were seats, two feet high, for his two guests, and to his 
left two other cushioned seats, about eighteen inches high, for their 

* The minister was not correctly informed. So far as I am aware, tiie Chinese never 
use this kind of " white board." It is, however, in general use among the Western 
Mongols, where paper is quite as rare as in most places in Tibet. — (W. E.) 

t A Tsipon is an accounting oiticer, and is assimilated by the Chinese to a 4th class 
official among them. — (W. R.) 



sons. Pretty china cups, painted wooden and gilt metal bowls, were 
set on the tables, and all the curiosities and ornamental objects the 
minister had here with him were conspicuously displayed. On the 
corner of his table was the beautiful stereoscope I had given him 
in 1879, with some two hundred slides, and in the middle of the table 
a calendar-watch and some toys I had recently presented him. 
Different kinds of Tibetan and Chinese dainties were arranged by the 
head couk, under the Tung-chen's directions, and the minister person- 
ally supervised the arrangement of the seats and the decorating of the 
room. "When all was ready I went on to the roof to see the proces- 
sion arrive. On both the roads leading to the monastery from 
Dongtse the monks were waiting, bearing a dozen or so flags and 
nmsical instruments — two flageolets, a pair of brass hautboys (horns ?), 
or ditngchcn, two tambourine-like drums, the same number of 1)ells, 
and a gong. 

At 1 o'clock the Dahpon and his friend, the Tsipon, together with 
their sons, arrived at the Dongtse choide, escorted by the Chya-dso-pa. 
They were very simply dressed in silk robes, Chinese jackets, soft 
yellow woollen hats, velvet boots, and silk trousers ; from their right 
(left ?) ear hung long earrings.* The Dahpon appeared to be about 
thirty years old, the Tsipon a little older. 

Arriving before the minister, they thrice prostrated themselves, 
each time touching their foreheads with their joined palms. The 
minister touched their heads with the palm of his hand and blessed 
them, and then they presented him with two pieces of red English 
broadcloth and a handful of silver coins each. 

I was surprised to see such powerful and wealthy chiefs kotow 
before the minister; but great is the triumph in this country of the 
Church over the laity, and the greatest ministers of state fall down at 
the feet of the incarnate lamas ! 

Dinner was served with great ceremony. As soon as the minister 
had said grace, all fell to with chopsticks and spoon, and partook 
of each succeeding course in profound silence. After dinner, tea 
was served, when at last the silence was broken, conversation began, 
and the guests M^ere shown the minister's curios, the watches and the 
stereoscopic views especially interesting them. 

Ill the evening there was a review in the pleasure grove, or liiuja, 

* Ouc of these earrings in figured ia Ilookcr'd ' Jliiiuilayan .Journals,' ii. 271. 
Tibetan men always, I believe, wear their earring in the left ear. — (W. K.) 


by the coininander of the militia, when exercise in musketry, I'uuuing, 
archery, etc., took place in the presence of the two dignitaries. 

January 3. — After tea I was asked to read English with the 
minister. He transliterated the English words phonetically, but did 
not take the trouble of spelling them, observing that his ordinary 
duties left him hardly any time to devote to study. He intended 
asking the Grand Lama to relieve him for a time from his numerous 
duties in connection with the Church, when he hoped to be able to 
apply himself assiduously to the study of English. 

Breakfast was now Ijrought in, and consisted of a kind of pot-herb, 
called 2^(i-fsal* cured in the cold draught, potatoes, and radishes, 
which had been kept in sand underground. I asked the minister if 
I might go to visit the Palkhor clioide of Gyantse with the Tung-chen 
on the morrow ; and having obtained his consent, two ponies were 
ordered to be ready for an early start. 

Jamiary 4. — The ponies were ready at an early hour, and after 
receiving from the minister a few khatag to present to the deities of 
the Palkhor choide, the Tung-chen and I rode off. 

Our way lay across fields watered by the Nyang chu. The 
Nyang chu valley is one of the richest in Tibet, and extends from 
Shigatse to about 15 miles beyond Gyantse, a distance of from 60 to 
70 miles, and has an average breadth of 10, every inch of which is 
cultivated. Its great natural fertility, and its being so very favourable 
for the growth of different kinds of millet and pulses, has given the 
whole district the name of Nyang, or " land of delicacies," and the 
river which fertilizes it has been called Nyang chu,t or " the river of 
delicious water." 

Flocks of wild geese and ducks were swimming on the river, near 
the bank of which our road now and then led us, and long-billed 
cranes were stalking along searching for food. From the bushes of 
furze and other thorny plants with which the river banks were over- 
grown, hares X leaped out and made off towards the mountain recesses, 

* I tliiuk the author means pe'-t^e', the usual Tibetan iDi-onunciation of the Chinese 
■pai-ts'ai, and meaning " cabbage." " Cured in the eokl draught" is a culinary prepara- 
tion unknown to me. White potatoes are used all over Tibet; they were introduced 
into Bhutan in 1774 by Mr. Bogle (see Markham's ' Tibet,' p. U)). Kadishes, or rather 
turnips (la-pvg, from the Chinese lo-po), are usually eaten raw ; they are also dried 
for winter use. — (W. E.) 

t A. K. calls it Pena Nang Chu river.— (W. R.) 

X The Tibetans neither kill nor will they eat hares. All wild fowl are equally safe 
from their guns. — (W. R.) 


and beautiful little birds, probal)ly a variety of kingfisher, were seen 
fishing in the stream— but the Tung-chen said that though the bird 
was pretty to luok at, it emitted a most offensive odour from its 

Passing a few villages, we came to a stream flowing into the 
Xyang chu from the south. Here were two flour-mills, of which we 
liad seen at least a dozen since leaving Shigatse. Tiiey were very 
large, and the stones four times the size of our ordinary millstones in 
India. In the village of Gyabshi the people seemed very industrious, 
the women engaged with their looms or spinning, the men tending 
sheep or collecting fuel from the fields. 

"When we came within two miles of Gyantse, our attention was 
attracted by the Tse-chan monastery, the entire north-eastern slope 
of a hill being closely covered by iLs whitewashed houses, so that it 
looked like a great castle of towering height. The Tung-chen told 
me that this lamasery was nearly eight hundred years old, and that 
the great reformer Tsong-khapa had spent several years here in the 
study of metaphysics {isan-nyid). I was also shown the Tinkar la, 
by which herdsmen travel to the foot of the Lachan pass of Sikkini, 
this being the shortest route between Gyantse and the latter country. 

A few minutes' ride brought us to the bridge over the Nyang chu, 
a light temporary wooden structure, about twenty feet long and six 
feet broad, Ijuilt on the ice which covered the stream. 

We entered the town of Gyantse,* passing beside a long mendong, 
on either side of which were dwellings, and by a narrow lane reached 
the gate of tlie Gandan Chakhang on the left side of the main street, 
and facing the great cliorten of the Palkhor choide. 

The Kunyer, or priest, of the Gandan Chakhang, an acquaintance 
of the Tung-chen, greeted him, and, sliowing him to a seat, had tea 
served us. We sent the groom, Lhagpa-rida, to the market to buy 
arrack, and he there met Ugyen, and told him of our arrival. 

* A. K. tiivij of tills pluce (wbicli he reached on August 21, 1878): "Giaugche, a 
buiall tuwu ou the right bank of the Peua Naug Chu river. The town is situated about 
two small hills which lie east and west, and arc united by a saddle; the western liill 
is further connected with the chain of mountains to the north. On the eastern liill, 
which is aljout COO feet above the surrounding plain, is a large fort, . . . and on the 
western hill a (iomba inhabited liy live hundred Dabas. In tliis Gomba there is a 
Chiorten, called Pangon Chioilen, wliich is considered by the Tibetans a most holy 
place. 15e>ides the f(jrt and temple, there are about one tiiousand dwelling-houses on 
three sides of the douljle hill. Woolh.'u cloth called Nhambii is manufactured. There 
is a large market ; and traders from Nepal and China reside here." iSee 'Report on 
the Explorations in Great Tibet.' by A. K., p. ;jl. 


As we were eating our meal several pilgrims chanting sacrcMl 
hymns entered the chapel of the Lhakhang, and added some spoonfuls 
of butter to the lamps. Some of them stared at Ugyen and me, 
observing to one another that we were strangers from l)eyond tlie 
Himalayas, taking Ugyen for a Sikkimese, but not l)eing able to 
decide whether I was from Ladak or Besahir. 

Ugyen told me of his movements since leaving me at Dongtse on 
December 31. 

He had left Dongtse at noon on December 31, riding one of the 
Tung-chen's ponies. On the road he met some of the muleteers of 
the Dongtse Dahpon Phala, who were proceeding to Lliasa with 
barley, butter, and meat for the use of Bangyc-shag, IMiala's resiihuice. 

Ugyen inquired of tliem about the state of the road to Lhasa, and 
the best time to make the journey there. They told him that winter 
was the best season to travel to Lliasa, for then there was no rain, 
and one could easily ford the streams and get across the Tsang-po ; 
moreover, feed was cheap, and meat, l)arley, and wine obtainal)lo 

The following day (January 1, 1882) Ugyen visited the Gyantse 
torn. This market and the town generally are inferior to Shigatse in 
importance and in the variety of articles for sale. There were people 
selling Calcutta and Chinese goods of very inferior equality. He saw 
fifteen or twenty Nepalese shops and half a dozen pastry shops kept 
by Chinese. The torn (or market-place) is the property of the Palkhor 
choide, the great monastery of Gyantse, and contributes largely to 
its maintenance. The monastic authorities also collect rents from 
the shops in the vicinity of the torn, which do not belong to either 
the Government or landholders {(jcrpas). The barley for sale was 
inferior to that of Shigatse, as was also the chawi, which was, how- 
ever, cheaper than there; and butter and mutton were in larger 
quantities than at the latter place. 

The market only lasts for three hours daily, opening at 10 a.m. 
Ugyen here saw, for the first time, women selling fresh meat and dried 
carcasses of sheep and yaks. At Shigatse they never take part with 
the men in this business.* Some of these women have amassed much 
wealth by this profession, and wear rich headdresses {-pctiirj) thickly 
studded with pearls, amber, and turquoises. 

* But women throughout Tibet do most of the sellino- i,i the .shop* and the 
markets.— (W. R.) 


IJeturiiin,!;- to his lodi>in<js, Fgyen made the acquaintance of a 
lieutenant, or Dingpon, named Nyima tsering, who was putting up 
in the same house. Ugyen plied him with chan;/, and when he 
had become very jolly over it, he questioned him about the military 
arrangements of Gyantse. The Dingpon stated that there were 
ordinarily 500 Tibetan soldiers stationed liere. This force w^as 
lUvided into two battalions under two Eupon. Under each Eupon 
were two captains (Gyapon) and four lieutenants, or Dingpon. The 
commander, or Dahpon, of the Gyantse troops was Tedingpa, 
Besides these troops there are 50 Chinese soldiers under a Chinese 
official called Da-loyc* and the native militia. The troops both at 
Ctvantse and Sln'gatse are under the inspection of the Chinese pay- 
master (]'(y/2i(ni) of Shigatse, Nyima tsering told Ugyen that the 
Tibetan soldiers were very poorly paid by the Government. The 
Emperor of China contributes towards their maintenance five rupees 
per man a year, and the Government of Tibet gives them forty pounds 
of barley per man a month, but no pay in money, on the ground that 
they are furnished l)y the landholders at the rate of one soldier for 
every lang f of land. 

The Dingpon and Gyapon receive pay at the rate of thirteen 
sranff and twenty-five srang a year from the imperial treasury, but 
no more rations from the Tibetan CJovernment than tlie soldiers. 

The Emperor allows Chinese soldiers serving in Tibet a family 
allowance of six srang a month and sixty pounds of rice per head as 
subsistence allowance, in addition to their monthly pay of six sraiu/.i 
On the next day (January 2) Ugyen surveyed the town and its great 
monastery, the Palkhor choide. A stone wall nearly two miles and a 
half long surrounds the town. He estimated its length, by means of 
his prayer-beads, to be 4500 paces.§ At each pace he dropped a bead 

* Ta Laoyeh is the honorific appellation claimed by all subordinate Chinese oflScers 
in Tibet, from the rank of Pa-tsiing (sergeant) to that of Shou-[-ei, or major. The 
Ciiincse officer In command of the post of Gyantse is, I believe, a Chien-tsimg, or 
lieutenant. f)n the Tibetan military organization, see chap. vii. p. 180.— (W. R.) 

t The ordinary hang is a measure of land in wliich about 400 lbs. of seed-grain can 
be sown. The State tax on each kang is 50 srang (or ounces of silver) a year. — (S. C. D.) 

X On the pay and allowances of the Chinese troops in Tibet, see /. It. A. S., n.s. 
xxiii., p. '27<i-278. In i;iany places along the route lictwccn Lhasa and Tachienlu the 
Chinese soldiers are never pai<l in cash, but only receive brick-tea, the value of which 
is arbitrarily fixed by the jiaymasster, who cheats the poor devils most disgracefully. 
A Hrang is an ounce of silver, the Chinese tael.—CW. R.) 

§ Qcorgi, op. c!l., p. 451, .says of tin's town, Kiang^fi: " Civitas prEEclara et planire 
ad radius montium. Ad TIrl.i.s, |)rffi8idiinn Arx est injeclificata rupi, musis,et fossis aqua; 


and muttered om manl ixidrm hum, and the good people of Gyantse 
who accompanied him in his circumambulation {lingkor) little sus- 
pected the nature of the work he was doing. When he reached the 
foot of a mendong called Gojogs, and situated to the north of the 
Djong, he took the bearing of the Tse-chan monastery, one of 
the most ancient religious establishments of Tibet. It bore south- 
west, and was nearly three miles from him. To the north of Gyantse 
he saw Eitoi gomba, a cloistered lamasery with five or six long houses, 
each with a large number of cells. To the south-south-east of 
Gyantse djong is the road to Pagri, in the direction of the Nia-ni 
monastery and the Xiru chu, one of the principal feeders of the 
Nyang chu, which drains the northern glacier of the Chumo-llia ri 
mountain. To the north-east of Gyantse the Nyang chu is visible 
for a great distance, and I^gyen conjectured from its course that it 
came from the snow-clad Nui-jin kang-sang mountains, which stretch 
out to the north and north-east. On the uplands to the north of 
Gyantse, and some three miles away, is the Choilung gomba. 

The Chinese cemetery Ugyen found situate at the foot of the hill 
on which the Djong stands, a little above the high-road to Lhasa, and 
some three miles from the town. He counted three hundred tombs, some 
of which appeared very old and dilapidated, but a few quite new. 

The castle or Djong of Gyantse stands on the top of a hill nearly 
500 feet above the town. It is very strong, and was built hj the 
famous Choigyal rabtan who ruled in the fourteenth century over the 
province of Nyang, of which Gyantse was the capital. This province 
was a part of the domain of the Sakhya hierarchs. He had built a 
long stone-covered way running from the Djong to the foot of the hill, 
by which he meant to secure a supply of water in time of siege from 
the three deep wells at the foot of the hill. Ugyen visited these 
wells, where water-carriers were drawing water in hide buckets 
attached to a rope about 150 feet long passing over a pulley. 

The landlord of the Litophug sub-division of Gyantse told Ugyen 
that about eighteen years ago the ex-Dewan of Sikkim had come 
here on some State business, and had put up in the same house in 
which he was now stopping. Que night about fifty sinister-looking 
Khamba traders suddenly broke into the house, beat him with clubs, 
tore his earring out of his ear, stripped him of his clothing, carried off 

vivae circumvallata. Ccenobium vero adeo vastum, et magnificum, ut quum luillia 
aliquot Xacaitaruin contineat, alterius cujusdam civitatis speciem praBreforre 


all liis property, and tlirasliod In's servants and forced them to run for 
their lives. Some of the robbers ran away from flyantse, takinj^ the 
Dewan's property, his mules and ponies ; but on the following morn- 
ing, when the matter was brought to the notice of the Djongpon, the 
chief of the rol)bers, who had stayed behind, was apprehended. He 
said that a year previously the Dewau had treated him and his 
accomplices most harshly during their stay at Chumbi on their way 
to Parjiling, exacting from them the last ;picc they had in their 
purses, besides depriving them of all their property to the value of 
upwards of Es. 500. The Dewan lost, in his turn, over Es. 1000 in 
cash, besides jewellery, clothes, etc. 

A well-informed Nyingma lama, the manager of Palri kusho's (an 
incarnate lama) estate near Panam Jong, came and put up at the 
house where Ugyen was stopping. He was on his way back from 
Lhasa, where he liad stayed^for two or three months after a pilgrimage 
to the Tsari country. His master was studying sacred literature at 
Lhasa. He ]iromised to let Ugyen see the books of the Palri library, 
and to lend them to him on the surety of the minister or his Cliyag- 
dso-pa. He told him, furthermore, that there existed two printed 
volumes about Choigyal rabtan, the famous king who had founded 
the Palkhor choide of Gyantse, but that these works and the history 
of Gyantse were now kept as sealed works (tcrchoi) by the Lhasa 
Government. L^gyen also learnt from the lama that in the recluses' 
monastery of Lhari-zim-phug, situated on a wild mountain to the east 
of Panam djong, there was a complete account of the life and writings of 
Lama Llia-tsun clienpo, who had introduced Puddhism into Sikkim.* 

At this season of the year the climate of Gyantse is very bad, 
high winds blowing daily, raising dense clouds of dust. The inhabi- 
tants spend this time of the year in idleness, having but little to do 
besides weaving and spinning. 

Such was the information that Ugyen gave me to-day. 

AVhon we had finished our breakfast we went Avith the Kunyer 
of rjandan Lhakhang to perform choi-jal at the different shrines of 
Gyantse. The cliorten is a s])lendid edifice of an unique style of 
architecture. Hitherto I had been under the impression that choricn 
were nothing more than tombs intended solely to contain the remains 
of departed saints, but now my views became entirely changed. 
This fhortm is a lofty temple nine stories high. Ugyen, T, the 
* Born in a.d. I."i9r) in S.E. Tibet (see WaddcU, op. cit, p. 4).— (W. li.) 


Kimyer, Lhapa-rida, and our servant, Lhagpa-sring, went into the 
enclosure and entered the shrine with a number of pilgrims and 
travellers, most of whom seemed to be from Ladak or the Chang- 
tang. In the service hall, where the priests were assembled for 
religious service, hundreds of lamps were burning, and incense-sticks 
were smoking so as to nearly darken the room. We ascended at 
once to the top story, but the other visitors began their circu- 
niambulation from the bottom upwards — the usual practice, though 
many become so wearied going round and round that they do not 
reach the uppermost story. The chortcn is about 100 to 120 feet 
high, the top covered by a gilt dome, the gilded copper plates of 
which are so thick that they have withstood centuries of exposure to 
the weather. The base of this sacred edifice is, we found by actual 
count, 50 paces square. From the cupola {inimjia), immediately 
under the gilt dome, I had a magnificent view of tlie town and 
monasteries and the surrounding hills and distant mountains ; their 
black surface, broken here and there by some white-walled monastery, 
offered a singularly wild aspect. 

There were inside the chortcn innumerable niches filled with 
images of Buddhas and saints, and in visiting the various chapels we 
were required to do so walking from left to right, for this is the 
Buddhist usage. 

On the first floor we were shown the statue of Choigyal rabtan, 
under whose benign rule Gyantse became famous, and who gave a 
fresh impulse to Buddhism and literature. The Kunyer of tlie cliorfcn 
touched our heads with the sword of this illustrious monarch, and 
said that by his blessing {jin-lal)) we could triumph over our enemies 
and enjoy longevity and prosperity in this world. 

We were also shown two images of Dorje chang, the supreme 
Buddha of the Gelupa sect," one of which was very old and of small 
size, the other large and very higlily burnished. Once on a time, the 
Grand Lama of Tashilhunpo, visiting the chortcn, touched the breast 
of the former image to see if it was warm and full of life, as was 
popularly said. He soon repented him of his sacrilegious act, con- 
fessed his sin, and, to atone for his wrong-doing, had made the large 
gilt image, which was placed beside the old one. 

Eeturning to the Gandan Lhakhang, we were refreshing ourselves 
with copious draughts of tea, when the abbot of the Palkhor choide, 
* Probably an error for Dorje chyak, Fadjrapani.— (W. R.) 


with linlf a dozen disciples, came to make reverence to the great 
image of tlie Buddha in the shrine, on whose right and left were 
images of Tsong-khapa and Maitreya. 

The Kunyer remarked to me that I was peculiarly fortunate in 
having come to Gyantse to-day, as it was the full moon, a sacred day 
with Buddhists, on which day, and on the day of the new moon, the 
doors of all the shrines and of the great clwrtcn were thrown open to 
the public. 

After an hour's rest I went with the Tung-chen and Ugyen to 
visit the Palklior clioide. Its grand "temple of learning" (tsug-la 
hhang) is a splendid and lofty edifice, the hall lighted by one thousand 
lamps. On three sides — the north, east, and west — are high niches, in 
which are huge images of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas. The image 
of the Buddha is made of copper, heavily gilt. Five hundred monks 
were engaged in divine service, and some two hundred more were 
occupied reading the sacred scriptures. No one lifted his eyes to 
look at us, so strict is the discipline observed here. We were con- 
ducted to the great library, the very sight of which filled my mind 
with feelings of awe and reverence. The books were all old, broad- 
leaved, and some two to four feet long. I was shown the sacred 
scriptures, all written in letters of gold. 

With what assiduity and devotion the Buddhists perform the 
sacred duties of their religion, the deep interest they take in the 
collecting of sacred books and images, and their zealous care in pre- 
serving them, can only be realized by visiting such places as this. 
I was shown some sculptures executed by Indian Buddhists, and 
some stone images similar to what I had seen at Buddhagaya. The 
gilt, Indian-made images of the Sravakas, of Saripu, Mudgalputra, 
Ananda, Kashyapa, and other arhats were of exceeding interest. On 
each side of the image of Shakya Buddha were four rows of monks, 
of twenty each, and in front of them burned hundreds of butter- fed 
lamps. Behind the seats of the monks were drums, each witli a long 
handle ; tliese the monks beat at intervals, and to the accompaniment 
also (if cym])als, lirass hautboys {duiuj chm), and cLivionets {ijijuVmii), 
they olianted liymns in deep sonorous voices. 

When exliausted by continual repetitions of viantfioiy they re- 
freshed themselves with tea. Wine is not brought within the pre- 
cincts of these Oelugpa monasteries; and, in fact, all drinkers of wine 
among the monks are expelled from the Gelugpa Church. 


In the lobby of the monastery I found a grand collection of 
stuffed animals, such as the snow-leopard, wild sheep, goat, yak, 
stag, mastiff, etc., and a Bengal tiger.* 

Eeturning to the Gandan Lhakhang, we visited the second and 
third floors of that building, where several recluses were reading the 
sacred books. I was told that when the Tashi lama visited the 
Palkhor choide, he puts up in this building, and I was shown 
the raised seat he occupies when here. I also learnt that successful 
students among the monks of Tashilhunpo are sent here to complete 
their course of study for the degree of tom-ram-pa f (bachelor of sacred 
literature), which this lamasery alone has the right to confer. 

In the portico of the building and underneath its eaves I noticed 
several sorts of flowering plants in bloom. 

At 3 p.m. we left for Dongtse, where we arrived before dusk. 
The minister's page met me at tlie foot of the hill, and led me to his 
master, who made many kind inquiries about my trip. I told him 
how greatly I had enjoyed it, and that, as it was a holiday, all the 
buildings, the great chortcn and the temples, had been open to me. 
" I rejoice at it," he replied ; " and I must say the gods have shown 
you the way \Iha lam tan som/], for it did not strike me at the time 
that to-day was a holiday. If you should have put it off till to-morrow, 
you would have seen but very little." 

January 5. — I called on the minister, and talked to him of my 
visit to Gyantse. He told me that there were half a dozen cliorten 
in Tibet like the one I had seeti there. There were now, he said, 
about six hundred monks in the Palkhor choide, and an equal 
number in the adjacent lamaseries, but in former times there were 
three thousand monks on the register of the college. 

Ugyen-gyatso returned to-day from Gyantse, and told the 
minister of his experiences there. He had been lodged in Litophug 

* In tlie Lhobrak country lama Ugyen-gyatso visited tlie celebrated shrine of Seh 
Guru Chlioi wang. built after tlie model of the famous monastery of Nalendrajn Magadba. 
" The shrine . . . contains some important relics, among others a stuffed horse of great 
sanctity (belonging to the Great Guru), which is called Jamling ninkhore, or 'tlie 
horse that can go round the world in a day.' Observing that the horse was bereft of 
his left leg, U. G. inquired the cause, and was told how the leg had been stolen by 
a Kh;imba pilgrim with a view of enchanting the ponies of Kham." See ' Report of 
Explorations from 18.5G-86,' p. '2?). Probably the objects seen at Gyantse by our 
author were oiiginally votive ofieriugs, and now simply curios.— (W. R.) 

t Probably written Ston ran-pa, "one who may teach; a doctor." See 'Indian 
Pundits in the Land of Snow? ' It is probably the same degree as Ge-she.— (W. R.) 


ill a ]»vit'st's lionse, wliere tlie luastor {milxi) and mistress (nnmo) 
showed him great courtesy. Tlgyen presented the minister a dozen 
oranges lie liad bonglit in tlie Gyantse market for one anna each. 
I told the minister that these oranges came from Sikkini. " Oh, 
indeed ! " he said. " It must l)e a happy land. In Tibet no oranges 
mature ; at Lhasa there are orange trees producing small fruit, which 
do not, however, ripen." 

Ill the evening Ugyen told me a tale he had heard from the 
Chyag-dso-pa of the Palri monastery. 

Once on a time Dugpa-kunleg, a famous Ijut eccentric saint of 
the red-hat school, was staying at Khang-toi shikha, in Lliasa. He 
saw the wife of his host stealing a piece of aml)er from the bag of a 
beggar who was stop])ing in the house, and putting an apple in its 
stead into his wallet. The saint told her it was both sinful and 
criminal to act tlnis, and related to her the following tale by way of 

In ancient India there lived two friends. One, a highlander, was 
a dishonest man ; the other, a lowlander, was upright and honest. 
One day the two, while walking in a valley, found a bowl of gold. 
The lowlander said, " Well, now that fortune has favoured us with a 
treasure, let us first return thanks to the local divinities, and then 
divide the gold between us." The other rejoined, " Friend, the day 
is far advanced; we can do all this to-morrow; let us rather take the 
1'|>\\1 lioinc now." 

I'o this the lowlander agreed. The next morning when he called 
at his friend's house, he found him in a corner wailing and shedding 
tears. " Ah, friend," he exclaimed, " my heart is fdled with grief 
and sliame. How can I tell you! The bowl of gold has been 
miraculously changed, for this morning 1 found but sawdust in it. 
The gods alone know what has become of the treasure! This, I am 
grieved to say, will put an end to our friendship, for it will create in 
your mind a suspicion against me." So saying he began weeping 

The other, perceiving his design, said, with wonderful calmness, 
" Friend, you need not cry. The loss of the treasure is not the 
greatest mishap which might befall us. If we two continue friends 
we shmild liold (nirselves very happy. Chance brought the treasure; 
chance has taken it away ; crying will not bring it back." 

The false friend, thinking he had gained his end, soon dried his 


tears. Before leaving for his home, the lowlander said, " Friend, I 
have not mentioned something to you. In my orchard most delicious 
mangoes and other fruits are now ripe. I have no children to eat 
them ; let your two sous come home with me tliat I may regale them 
with the luscious fruits." 

To this the other assented, and the two boys accompanied the 
lowlander home. On his return to his home he bought two monkeys, 
to which he gave the same names as the boys, and trained them to 
come when called by their names. 

After a while the false friend came to take his boys home, when 
the other came out crying in a loud and pitiful voice, " Friend, my 
heart bleeds to have to tell you of the misfortune which has befallen 
you. Your two darlings have been changed into monkeys ! " " How 
can I believe such a story ? " the other replied. " If you doubt it, 
call your sons, and you will see." So the father called his older son 
by name, and a monkey came leaping forth, and sat upon his lap, 
fondling him and chattering to him as if he were an old friend. Filled 
with surprise, he called his second son, when out came the other 
monkey, and climbed into his lap also. 

After a while the lowlander asked his friend, '• How can this have 
come about ? Tell me how it was that the gold was changed into 
sawdust ; it may help to explain this new wonder," The other, 
fearing lest his sons had been transformed into monkeys by the 
incantations of the friend he had deceived, replied, " Friend, I 
deceived you when I said the gold had been turned into sawdust. 
I have got it with me ; we will divide it equally between us. Is 
it true, my much injured friend, that my sons have been transformed 
into monkeys ? " " Oh no. How could men become monkeys ? 
Your sons are in excellent health, and are now in one of my distant 
orchards." So the two returned to their houses with their respective 
treasures — the one with his children, tlie other with his gold. 

Years passed by, and the two friends were finally summoned to 
the court of the Lord of death, there to have their good and bad acts 
weighed. Their moral merits and their prayers were also weighed, 
and the balance turned in their favour. A game of chess was then 
played by the gods and the demon, in which, by means of casting 
dice, the merits and demerits of gods and men are determined. In 
the mirror of karma (mundane actions) the two friends saw and 
blushed for the evil deeds they had done — the gold turned into 


sawdust, and the boys into monkeys. Tlie Lord oi' death decreed that 
the uplander should pass five liundred years in hell, and that the 
other should for live hundred existences be born a monkey. The 
punishment of the latter was the severer in that he had stolen human 
beings, and said tliat they had been transformed into monkeys ; but 
because he had desired to make offerings to the gods when the treasure 
had been found, the gods had pleaded for him. 

Having finished his tale, Dugpa kunleg exhorted the woman to 
keep from stealing, and threatened her with such-like dire punish- 
ment if she did not desist. The woman put the amber back in the 
befrsrar's bac;, and the saint left her house and returned to Lhobrag, 

Ugyen also heard at Gyantse that much was to be learnt con- 
cerning the ancient history of that place in a work called ' Nijang 
chol jiiwj Nyimai odscr.' He furthermore told me that he had 
heard tliat last year a mendicant from Gyantse visiting Sikkim gave 
out there that he was one of the discoverers of sacred books of which 
the Nyingma history of Sikkim makes mention. Pie showed what he 
claimed was a very ancient manuscript volume on the propitiatory 
ritual of Guru Thag-mar, a fearful deity of the Ningma pantheon. 
The Sikkani rajah gave him a very warm welcome, and, in con- 
sultation with the chief lama of his Durbar, arranged to have block 
prints made of the text. Eecently this impostor had returned to 
Gyantse, bringing with him many valuable copper and brass articles, 
silk gowns, and coined money. 

January 6. — The minister's mother, accompanied by a maid- 
servant, came to pay reverence to her saintly son while I was seated 
willi liim. I could not believe that she was his mother when I saw 
her make three profound salutations before tlie minister, touching 
the ground witli her forehead and receiving his blessing. She then 
presented him with a few balls of butter and a khatag ; and when his 
holiness said he would leave for Tashilhunpo in three days, she wept 

Jamiarij 7. — Early in the morning we received a message from 
the minister asking us to postpone our departure for Tashilhunpo, 
as the Chyag-dso-pa much wished me to accompany the minister 
to his house at Kye-pa Khangsar, where he proposed staying three 

The parents of the minister, accompanied by their youngest boy, 
came again to pay their respects. The father, a quiet, respectable- 


looking-, elderly man, saluted me by taking off his yellow felt turban 
and inquiring after my health. They kotowed before the minister, 
who gave them his blessing by touching the crowns of their heads 
with his hand. 

At 2 o'clock the minister, dressed like a Buddhist cardinal, and 
accompanied by the Tung-chen, ourselves, and his domestics, entered 
the grand hall of worship {(lu-kang), the Tung-chen carrying a 
bundle of incense-sticks and some Ichatag. The head lama threw 
some grains of barley towards the images of the deities, and recited 
some mantras; then the minister, standing, recited a short prayer, 
and approaching the image of the Buddha, took off his mitre and 
placed a Mataij on it. Then the head lama took the other khatag 
which the Tung-chen had brought with him, and flung them one 
by one at the other images, while the monks who accompanied him 
scattered flowers before them. 

After this we circumambulated the monastery, and descended to 
the foot of the hill, where the son of the Chyag-dso-pa, dressed in a 
rich Mongol costume, was awaiting us with two spirited and richly 
caparisoned ponies held by grooms, one of which the minister 
mounted, while we walked the short distance which separated us 
from the gateway of Kye-pa Ivhangsar. A band of drums, hautboys, 
bells, gongs, and fifes marched before us, playing as we went through 
the lay town {slio) and along a broad road lined with poplars to the 
gate of the Khangsar, where the Chyag-dso-pa was standing to receive 
the minister. He was dressed in a rich scarlet satin robe girded by 
a yellow scarf, a yellow woollen turban, and a pair of Tartar velvet 
boots. His tall stature, graceful looks, broad forehead, and uncom- 
monly well-shaped nose, gave him a commanding appearance. He 
greeted the minister with a profound bow, and presented him a khatag, 
and received a Ijlessing {cliyag v:ang) from the latter, who afterwards 
dismounted, putting his foot on a velvet-covered stool placed here 
for the purpose. 

The Chyag-dso-pa salaamed to Ugyen, whom he took for me; 
and the latter, not taking off his hat to return his salutation (or pay 
his chgam-liu, as it is called), was reminded of it in a whisper by 
the Tung-chen. 

We then ascended a flight of steps and entered the building. 
The minister was conducted by the host to his drawing-room, while 
we were led bv his third son, Phuntso Yu-gyal, in company of the 


Tuug-clien, to the chapel, the central room on the first floor. The 
house \vas very neatly built, with solid rubble walls and beautifully 
carved beams of old poplar. Tliere was a skylit>ht in the centre of the 
roof; thick cushions covered with Khamba rugs were placed around, 
and on these we took our seats. A collation was served on little 
tables consisting of Chinese cakes, buckwheat cakes, twisted sweet bis- 
cuits, and tsamla and tea was given us by the Chyag-dso-pa's page 
Pinu. After a little while we were led into the Chyag-dso-pa's 
presence, when we presented him hhatcuj and a few rupees, also a 
kliatag to his wife, Ama Tung-la, and his daughter-in-law, Einpoche. 
After dinner we were conducted to a dormitory on the south side 
of the chapel, where we found three bedsteads, and after a cup of 
tea we retired to rest. 

Januarij 8. — Early in the morning we asked our iiost's leave to 
start for Tashilhunpo, but he was most reluctant to let us go, and, 
having obtained the minister's sanction to our remaining here two 
days more, we postponed our departure. 

Breakfast was served by a maid-servant (shctama) and our host's 
daughter-in-law (jxctsa), llinpoche, the onl y w ife of his t\vo sons. 
She is entitled to be addressed as Ohi/am Kusho, though it is seldom 
used in speaking to her. She is a young lady of about twenty, of 
modest manners and intelligent looks. She lingered about until the 
servants and other guests had left, with the evident intention of 
conversing v/ith us. 

Ugyen-gyatso opened the conversation by asking her to what 
family of Ti])et she belonged. She replied by asking him if he had 
ever heard of Kusho Maukipa of Tanag. " Yes," replied he, " if you 
speak of Manki, who is the maternal uncle of the IJajah of Sikkini." 
" 'Tis he," she said ; " and lie died last year without my seeing him. 
Are you a subject of my cousin Den Jong gyalpo [the chief of 
Sikkini] ? Oh, how I long to see my aunt ! " And she began to 
weep. "It is now full three years since I came iiere, and never in 
that time have I been allowed to visit my fatherland. Oh, I am 
miserable! 1 have to work continuously at the loom, supervise 
the workwonxen, attend to the kitchen, and serve the meals. My 
mother-in-law is without mercy. She thinks my frame is made of 
iron. Tliough this family is rich, tliey work like ploughmen." 

She then begged Ugyeu t(j inform the Sikkini rajah's mother, 
Lliu-yuin Ivusho, of her trouble, and to persuade her, if possible, to 


take her to Chumbi for a couple of months. I told her, by way of 
consoling her, that she was a most accomplished person, married 
into one of the richest families of Tsang, and might hope to soon be 
a mother, so she must not consider herself miserable. " Do you 
know palmistry I " "" she suddenly asked ; and placing her right hand 
on the table, she desired me to tell her fortune by the lines on her 
hand (lag-ri). I was much embarrassed, and told her that I under- 
stood very little of this art. Fortunately just then a servant came 
and called us to the presence of the Chyag-dso-pa. 

I took a seat on his right hand, and his wife, Ama Tung-la, 
occupied one on his left, while Ugyen, seated a little distance off, 
acted as my interpreter. The Cliyag-dso Kusho began witU: "In 
the sacred books we find mention of Indian Punditas who laboured 
for the diffusion of the enlightened religion. If you be a Pundita, as 
I hear from the minister that you are, we are most fortunate to have 
you among us. I also learn that you know about medicines, and 
I will later on avail myself of your knowledge." Then, calling his 
son, Phunsho Yugyal, he desired me, to my great embarrassment, to 
foretell his fortune by the lines on his hand. Being considered a 
Pundit, it was impossible for me to say that I did not know such an 
essential science as palmistry. After mature reflection I told him 
that although I had studied a little palmistry, I never attached 
much importance to explanations it afforded of men's fortunes. The 
science was very little understood, anyhow, and, in my opinion, it 
did not deserve any more attention than it had received : nothing 
could be more unpleasant than a foreknowledge of one's misery, 
Human life was, albeit, full of trouble ; it was for deliverance from its 
recurrence that the Buddha has expounded the doctrine of nirvana. 

He listened attentively to me, and seemed to think very highly 
of me. He said that if he but knew how long he and his son would 
live, he could devise means of preventing accidents in consultation 
with the minister, for in the sacred books one is told of religious 
remedies by the use of which calamities caused by devils (de) can be 
averted. He pressed me to examine his palm, and stretched it out 
toward me. How could I refuse, and how could I predict falsely ? 
So I told him that there are certain figures and lines in the palm of 
the hand from which experts in pahnistry can draw indications of a 

* Both Bogle (op. cit., p. 107) and Captain Turner (op. ciL, p. 281) mention the 
fondness of the Tibetans of Shigatse for palmistry.— (W. R.) 



long or short life. In his palm the line of life was very long ; and as 
to fortune, it was well known that he was favoured by the gods. 

Ama Tung-la then showed me her hand, and I said, " Ama-la, 
you are very fortunate. The mother of three sons, all of them grown 
u]) and accomplished men ; the wife of a great man. What more can 
you want of the gods ? " She smiled at this, and said that for some 
days past she had been suffering from a cough; could I give her 
some medicine that would relieve her ? I asked for some black 
pepper and rock-candy, and i)repared a powder for her. 

At noon we dined with the minister and the (Jhyag-dso Kusho. 
The dishes were prepared and served in the Chinese fashion. Chop- 
sticks and spoons were used. The first course was rpja-tug, a tape- 
like preparation of wheat-flour and eggs, cooked with minced mutton, 
and soup. The minister did not eat it, as he had, in common with 
all lamas, taken the vow of abstaining from eggs. The second course 
was rice and half a dozen preparations of mutton curry, rice, mutton 
with preserved vegetables, white and black mushrooms, Chinese green 
grass, vermicelli, potatoes, and fresh shoots of peas.* The third 
course {lea, literally, "chapter") was buttered and sweetened rice; 
tlie fourth, and last, boiled mutton, tsamha, and tea. The Tung-chen 
told me that at sumptuous entertainments thirteen courses are usually 

About an hour after dinner we visited Jerung la, the second son 
of tlie Chyag-dso Kusho, who is a monk in the castle of Diba 
Dongtse. This Ijuilding, about six hundred years old, is built of 
stone of the best quality ; it faces south, and has balconies (rah-sal) 
provided witli shutters along each of its five stories. It is of a partly 
Indian, partly Tibetan style of architecture, with a central court- 
yard about 100 feet broad and 200 long. Around this, on the 
sides, tlie building is 40 feet high, and has three stories, along the 
outer eilge of wliicli, on the courtyard side, arc rows of drum-sliaped 
prayer-wliecls two feet high, and as much in diameter, that take the 
place of railings. There are some three hundred of these prayer- 
barrels on the stories of the three sides. The main building is on 
the north side of the court, and is some 60 to 70 feet high. We 
ascended to the top story by a steep ladder, and were there shown 
tlie (jonkhaiKj,^ the shrine of the guardian deities — terrible figures, 

* All these are Chinese dishes.— (W. R.) 

t Gong lihang means " Ujipor liouse."— (W. It.) 


among which I noticed three of Mamos, resembling Jaganath, 
Balavendra, and Subhadra, of the Hindus. 

There were several chapels, in each of which was a resident 
priest called am-choi. On the balconies of the wings three or four 
old women were weaving blankets, and at the entrance to the build- 
ing a huge mastiff was chained, who made furious attempts to rush 
at us as we passed. 

One hundred yards south of the castle is a garden (lingo) with 
tall poplars — some 80 to 100 feet high, and four other kinds of trees 
planted in rows along its four walks, in the middle of which is a 
tastefully built summer-house, its cornice and external decorations 
remarkably pretty. One hundred yards away from it is a target foi- 
musket and bow practice. 

While we visited the linga a greyhound * was running about it, 
but he paid no attention to us. On our way homeward we passed 
through the village where, under some tall poplars, tradesmen were 
displaying pottery for sale. We also saw four yellow-turbaned men, 
who, we were told, were the tax-collector's understrappers. 

January 9. — While we were breakfasting Rinpoche came in, and 
again spoke of her hard work and of the merciless treatment of her 
mother-in-law. I asked her if her husband was not fond of her, 
" Oh, sir," she said, " we two are like one soul and body ; but he is 
most of the time at Shigatse, where he is the Dahpon's steward " 
{NyerpaX). She told me that she had just heard that her cousin, the 
Eajah of Sikkim, was coming to Tibet to get married. If his mother 
came with him, she could surely persuade her to take her with her 
to Chumbi for a couple of months. She also said to me that her 
mother-in-law ought not to have given her such a high sounding 
name as Rinpoche (" the Jewel "), for it is a name given to incar- 
nate lamas and chiefs ; but 1 answered, to her evident pleasure, that 
Rinpoche was a most appropriate name for handsome and accom- 
pKshed women. 

After this I went to the minister's apartment for dinner. Before 
it was served we washed our hands. A large copper bowl, or luttora, 
was placed for the purpose before the minister, who, in washing his 

* Most likely imported into the country by some Chinese. I have never seen a 
greyhound in Tibet, and they are rare even in China and Mongolia.— (W. R.) ^ 

t Apparently we should read "husbands," for the author has told us that this 
accomplished young woman was the wife of tlie two sons of the Chyag-dso-pa.— (W. E.) / 


bauds, rubbed them with a kind of wood dust called sugpa* obtained 
from a plant growing in Tibet, and used instead of soap. 

After dinner the Chyag-dso-pa made presents to the minister, 
consisting of blankets, Tibetan serge {pido), three pieces of red, 
scarlet, and yellow English broadcloth, Gyantse rugs of superior 
quality, Khamba rugs, Chinese brocaded satin, spotted woollen chintz, 
about two bushels of tsamha, a large quantity of buckwheat cakes, 
twisted sugar cakes, loaves of bread, and three liundred tankas. The 
presentation of these gifts he accompanied by profound salutations, 
and the minister gave him his blessing, when he begged him 
to pray to the gods to make him prosperous and happy. After 
this he gave presents of about half the value to the Tung-chen, and 
so on, less and less, according to each one's rank ; to me he gave 
two Gyantse rugs, two pieces of spotted 'pulo, and a VlmfcKj. Aims 
"were also distributed among the monks and the minister's menials. 

When the Chyag-dso Kusho had finished making all these 
presents he returned to the minister's room, where we were with 
him. In course of conversation he suggested the propriety of my 
presenting the Tashi lama with an elephant. He said that two had 
recently been sent by the Eajah of Sikkim to Lhasa, to be pre- 
sented to the Dalai lama, one of which had died on the way.j 
He also spoke of the superiority of Indian metal images over 
those made in Tibet, and said that those made in Ma<j;adha, and 
called Jai-khim, were very rare in this country. " If you had brought 
some of these, or of shar-li [Bengal bell-metal], or nul-li [lower 
Indus valley], $ and presented them to the minister, he would have 
been infinitely more pleased than with glass and other fragile and 
useless toys." 

In the evening it was settled that the minister should start for 
Tashilhunpo on the morrow, and that Kusho Jambala, the Chyag- 
dso-pa's elder brother, who was suffering from ophthalmia, should 
accoin])any him, to sul)niit there to my medical treatment. 

* Jaeschkc, ' Tib.-Engl. Diet.' s.\., oug-pu, says tliis word is used to designate 
a medicinal plant. It usually, however, means " hand." Soap is known and occa- 
sionally used in Tibet, thougli not manufactured there. It is usually called hingh 
(written '' glmuj-glad") It i.s brought there from India or China, the former kind 
being the best. — (W. It.) 

t See chap. vii. p. 171. 

X Hhar-li means, liternlly, " Eastern bell-metal ; " and Ntih-li, " Western bell-metal." 

-(w. n.) 


Jamiary 10. — We were up early, and got ready to leave for 
Tashilhunpo. The Tung-chen advised me to start ahead of the 
minister, who would overtake me on the road, as he travelled very 
rapidly, and he furthermore let me pick out for my use the quietest 
pony in the stable. We had not gone four miles when the minister 
and four attendants caught up with us. We rode on together some 
six miles, and when we reached the bed of the stream, now dry, 
which empties into the Nyang cUu, we all alighted. The minister 
ordered his page to bring him a basketful of earth from a spot ho 
pointed out. This was placed before him as he sat cross-legged on a 
rug, when he muttered some mantras and made an oblation of tsaniba 
and water. The Tung-chen informed me that on the last journey 
the minister had made this way he had at this spot fallen from his 
pony, and it was supposed that some evil spirit haunting this spot 
was desirous of hurting him, and so this ceremony was performed 
to drive it away. 

When it was over we had a light collation, the minister giving 
me some dried dates and C'abul fruits, while the Tung-chen gave 
the others treacle, biscuits, and tsamba. 

At 4 o'clock we reached Tashi-gang, After partaking of 
refreshments the minister took his seat on the roof of Ang-putta's 
second story. He called me and Ugyen up, and asked us to teach 
him the foreign system of land surveying. Ugyen showed him his 
prismatic compass with attached clinometer. We explained the use 
of these instruments, and expressed regrets that we had no tape- 
measure or chain with which we could take measurements, carefully 
abstaining from mentioning measuring distances by pacing, lest he 
might suspect us of being surveyors, and withdraw his protection. 

He then spoke of his desire to have a sextant, various mathe- 
matical instruments, a chest of medicines, and an illustrated work 
on astronomy. Ugyen expressed his willingness to go to Calcutta to 
purchase them, were it not that he could not leave me here alone., 
and with my desire to see Lhasa unfulfilled. The minister replied, 
" That is easily provided for. I will look after the Pundit ; and as 
to his going to Lhasa, why, there is every probability that the Tashi 
lama will ffo there to ordain the Dalai lama in the fourth month 
(June), when it will be possible to arrange for the Pundit's going 
there also. The Shape Eampa, and Phala are my friends ; they will 
help him. However, we will think of all this later on at Tashilhunpo." 


He then said there were five persons in Tsang who took interest 
in science and study — the Shape Porapa, the Chief Secretary (Dvnr/- 
yig ehcnpo) Ka-chan ])ao, tlie Donyer, and liimself. " There are," he 
added, " many other learned men at Tashilhunpo and in various other 
monasteries of Tsang, but they only interest themselves in sacred 
literature ; they do not care to know of the science and civilization of 
other great countries such as that of the Phylinri (foreigners) and 

The minister finally informed me that to-morrow he would visit 
tlie Kyi-plnig nunnery, al)Out three miles off in the hills behind Tashi- 
gang. The Lady Superior and her nuns (tsiin-mo) had repeatedly 
begged him to visit tlieir convent, but he had been so pressed for 
time that he had only been able to do so once in the last six 

January 11. — The minister and liis party left for the Kyi-phug 
convent at 7 a.m , and we set off for Tashilhunpo after breakfast. 
Old Kushu Jamljala was unable to keep up with us. As he followed 
slowly the minister's muleteers, his yellow-satin mitre, his spectacles, 
his manner of sitting on his pony, and his tall lank figure recalled 
to my mind the renowned knight of La Mancha. With his leave 
we rode ahead. We saw on the way a woman sweeping the ground, 
and on inquiry she told us that she was removing the thick grime 
which covered the ground so that her cattle might the more easily 
pick up the grass. Many sheep, we were told, die in winter on 
account of the ice crust which covers the grass. At 4 p.m. we 
arrived at Chyang chu, where we were most kindly received l)y the 
Delja Sliikha, and lodged in the same quarters we had previously 

Janiifiry 12. — After lireakfast wo strolled about the lingd in front 
of the minister's bathing-house {cham chu). It is surrounded by 
a wall of sun-dried bricks, stones, and turf seven feet high. In the 
south-east corner is the snug little two-storied house where the 
minister passes a few days in October. The cooking and bathing 
is done under yak-hair tents pitched in the western avenue of the 

At 9 o'clock we set out, and were at Tashilhunpo l)y noon, and 
there found riiurdning, who liad arrived the day before from Kliamlia 
jong. Tlu! Djongpon, who knew him, had told liim that unless he 
came bearing a passport from the Tashi lama or the Commander 


of Sliigatse, be could not let him pass the frontier. There were 
formal orders from the Lhasa Government not to let any one cross 
the frontier, even if bearing letters from the high officials of Labrang, 
who are not, however, in charge of frontier affairs. So Einzing 
Namgyal had to leave our luggage with the Pipon of Laclian, and 
had gone back to Darjiling. 





January 13.— Tlic money we had brought from Darjiling bemg 
almost expended, we were now in the necessity of selling the pearls 
and gold we had brought with us. I therefore sent Ugyen to the 
market to inquire of Lupa gyaltsan, with whom we had left some 
tolas of pearls for sale, if he had been able to dispose of them. Lupa 
gyaltsan told him that he had shown the pearls to a Lhasa merchant, 
who had not offered more than cost price for them. The market for 
pearls, ho added, was very poor, and we must not expect to realize 
much profit out of ours for some months to come. 

He also told Ugyen that great preparations were being made for 
the Grand Lama's visit to Lhasa in May, for the ordination of the 
Dalai lama.* On that occasion the Tashi would have to make 
return presents and give rewards in money to the various officials 
and chiefs of Tibet, for which robes, boots, etc., were now being made 
in great numbers. 

Januarij 14. — On the way to the market to-day Ugyen met Lupa 
gyaltsan, who informed him that some traders from Phagri, Chumbi, 

* On July :;i, 1S79, the thirteenth incarnation of the Dalai lama was placed on 
the throne of Lhasa. Chandra Das speaks of this event in the following terms : " The 
princely infant, into whose person the spirit of the late Dalai had passed, had been 
brought up till now in a small i)alace of Gyal-kup, near Lhasa. Last year the 
Tashi lama, at the invitation of the Emperor of China and the high officials of Tibet, 
had gone to Lhasa to examine the infant Dalai, and report if the spirit of the last 
Dalai had really passed into his person. For several days oracles were consulted, the 
result being to establish beyond doubt that the infant was the incarnate Shenrazig, 
the patron of Tibet. On the day wlien he pronounced the infant's claim to the pontifical 
throne to be good ami valid, a magnificent rainbow is said to have ajjpeared over the 
palace of Potala. The Tashi lama had fixed July 31 for the Dalai's accession to the 
throne " (see ' Narrative of a Journey to Tashilhunpo,' p. 25). 


and Ein-chen-gang had just arrived, and that, to judge from their 
conversation, they were not well disposed towards us. He therefore 
cautioned Ugyen, so that he might not meet them unprepared. 
Ugyen, in consequence, first went to the police station and learnt 
from his friend, the Chinese havildar of Shigatse, who the new- 
comers were ; then he looked them up, and questioned them about 
the passes to India. They told him they had been able to get here 
through the Lhasa Government having declared the Phagri pass open. 
As to the Sikkim rajah coming here, they could give no definite 
information, though they said there was much talk about his 
marrying the daughter of a great man of Lhasa. 

In the afternoon the minister sent for me, and told me that tlie 
boxes containing the lithographic press sent him some months ago 
had not been opened for fear of small-pox. " I thought the cases 
contained some miraculous remedies which could neutralize small- 
pox. One night I smelt some gaseous emanations coming out from 
the boxes, which I thought contained the germs of small-pox ; so I 
could not sleep that night, so troubled was my mind lest small-pox 
should attack us," We laughed heartily at his holiness's fancies, and 
I told him that the vaccine he had asked for was among the things 
still at the Lachan pass. At last he was convinced of the ground- 
lessness of his fears, and joined with us in laughing at them. 

Januarii 15. — After breakfast we unpacked in the minister's 
library the lithographic press, and set it up, the minister taking great 
interest in the work and assisting me himself. 

January 16. — After breakfast, which we took with the minister 
in the west drawing-room of the Phuntso khangsar, he told me that 
he was most anxious to get the things I had at Lachan. Phurchung 
was not intelligent enough to get around the Djongpon of Khamba, 
even if he were provided with the best of passports. He thought 
it indispensable for Ugyen to undertake the journey to Lachan, 
especially as he had relatives there, a circumstance which would 
greatly facilitate the accomplishment of his mission. 

Ugyen objected to start on such a difficult journey at a season of 
the year w^hen the cold would be intense and the Kangra lamo pass 
would be blocked with snow ; but he felt, nevertheless, called upon to 
comply with the minister's request, if he provided him with a proper 
passport. Not only did the minister promise to give him an excellent 
passport, but he also said that he would propitiate the gods to the end 


that tliey would protect him from dangers from man, beast, or disease, 
till the first of the third Tibetan moon (end of April, 1882). 

"\Mien this was settled Ugyen begged the minister to look after 
me in his absence, and not to allow any injury to be done me on the 
ground that I was a foreigner. He asked him to give him a letter 
stating, first, that he (the minister) would see to my welfare, and that 
I Avould be in no w^ay molested ; second, that on Ugyen-gyatso's 
return he and I might go on a pilgrimage to Central Tibet ; third, 
that we should be protected in any difficulty which might arise on the 
score of our being foreigners. 

Besides the great importance of obtaining these written assurances 
from the minister, tlie production of such a letter by Ugyen, in case 
of my death during his absence, would relieve him of all responsibility 
towards our Government. 

Tlie minister promised to keep me in his house as a member of 
liis family, to defray all my expenses, and to send me to Lhasa in 
May with the Tashi lama's party. Should, however, neither the 
Grand Lama nor himself go to Lhasa, he would make other arrange- 
ments for our pilgrimage there. As to the third point mentioned in 
the aljove agreement, he said that he was fully aware when he invited 
us to come to Tashilhunpo of the responsibility he assumed towards 
us, and that he would not allow us to be molested by any one during 
our stay in Tibet. 

January 17. — The minister went in the morning to Shigatse, to 
grant absolution to the departed soul of Shang-po, one of the six Tso- 
pon who had been so severely punished by the Chinese authorities 
on the 13th of December last, and who had died from the effects of the 
flogging tlien received. We devoted the whole day to the setting up 
of tlie lithographic press. 

January 18. — The minister told Ugyen that Kusho Badur-la, the 
head of the transportation de])artment, wished to see the pearls we 
had brought with us. Ugyen did not find him at home, but conversed 
with his wife, whom he at once recognized, having seen her at Tumlung 
and Chumbi, she ])eing the elder sister of the present Kajah of Sikkim. 
She gave him a very kind reception, and talked to him for nearly an 
hour, treating him to tea and yya-tug (vermicelli). 

Jamtary 19. — To-day being the day of the new moon, nearly a 
thousand beggars lined the road leading from Tashilhunpo to Shigatse, 
where Lliagpa tsering was distributing alms to them. 


At noon Ugyen visited the market-place, where he witnessed a 
quarrel between a woman and a Khamba over a tanka's worth of 
tsamha, in the course of which the woman challenged the man to take 
an oath very common in Tibet, namely, that if he told an untruth, he 
might never see the Grand Lama's face. The people of Khams are a 
fierce race who infest the solitudes of Tibet, and generally carry on 
depredations on the isolated villages north of Lhasa. Tliey are a 
dangerous class.* 

Jamiarij 20. — Early in the morning we received an invitation to 
dine with our acquaintance, Lupa gyaltsan. We were told that to-day 
was the New Year's Day of the working class, and was so observed by 
all the people of Tibet, with the exception of the clergy. 

After breakfast we went to the minister's, and told lum the press 
was ready for working. I asked him to print a very auspicious hymn, 
that the first fruit of our labour might be a sacred composition. He 
at once ran to his study and brought a stanza, or stotra, composed by 
the present Grand Lama (of Tashilhunpo ?) in honour and praise of 
the minister. This he copied himself on the transfer paper, and we 
obtained excellent impressions of it, much to his delight. The "stone 
press " {do par) was forthwith given the name of the " miraculous 
press " {till par). 

At three in the afternoon we asked leave to go to Lupa 
gyaltsan's house, where I had a most hearty reception, he and his 
wife coming to help me dismount from my pony. We were ushered 
into a newly finished room on the first floor, where was also his 
chapel. First chang was served, then tea was brought by his 
daughter, a girl of ten, and the wife placed a wooden bowl filled with 
tsamha and some pieces of boiled mutton on a little table before us. 
Then Lupa gyaltsan, taking off his turban, asked me to take sol ja 
and consider that I was dining in my own house. Shortly after, 
Ugyen, in accordance with Tibetan custom, made a short speech 
exhorting Lupa to always inquire after my health during his absence 
from Tashilhunpo, and to get for me all such articles of food, etc., that 
I might want. He thanked him for his kindness, and added that, as 
Lupa and I were old acquaintances, we should behave to each other as 

* The Khamba avemuch dreaded throughout Tibet; frequent mentions are made in 
the narratives of the Indian explorers of their lawless ways. For fuller particulars 
regarding them and their country, I must refer the reader to my ' Land of tlie Lamas ' 
and to the narrative of A. K.'s journey. — (W. R.) 


brothers born of the same mother. So saying, he presented him and 
his wife with a rupee and a Mata;/ each, putting the coins in their 
hands and the scarfs round their necks. Ugyen then put a khatag 
around my servant Lhagpa's neck, telhng him to serve me ever faith- 
fully. Lupa's daughter, ha\'ing dressed herself in her gala dress, danced 
for us and sang a song, first in the Tibetan way, then in the Chinese ; 
she sang also a Chinese song, Lupa accompanying her on the flute 
{ling-hii). After this Lupa's wife sang a song, and then wished us a 
happy new year. We tlien took leave of our hosts, wishing them 
also a happy new year. 

Having inquired if the observance of this day w^as a purely Tibetan 
custom, I gathered from their reply that this was the New Year's Day 
according to the Tibetan custom of the pre-Buddhist period. It is 
tlie only remnant of ancient Tibetan custom, as far as I know, which 
has not been displaced by Buddhism. 

January 21. — This day was also observed as a holiday by the 
laity. There were so few persons in the market-place that Ugyen 
could buy no provisions. The minister graciously insisted that I 
should take up my quarters in his residence, Puntso khangsar, where 
he offered me the library with an attached waiting-room and bath- 

In the evening Nyima-dorje, the oldest son of the Chyag-dso-pa 
of Dongtse, came and consulted me about his eyes. On the right one 
I found that a cataract had formed. I told him I was exceedingly 
sorry I had no medicines with me to suit his case, but that Ugyen 
was going to Calcutta as soon as he had obtained a passport, and that 
he would Ijring back some drugs with him. He then said that it was 
this passport that had brought him here to speak to the minister 
about, and that he believed it would be ready in a day or two. 

January 22. — I resumed reading English and working sums in 
arithmetic with the minister. After reading a few lines he turned 
over the pages of Ganot's ' Physics,' and asked me to explain the 
diagrams on telegraphy and the camera obscura. He wanted every- 
thing explained to him ; Init, unlbrtunately for me, I was not myself 
acquainted with most of the sultjccts which excited his curiosity. 
Not prepared to expose my ignorance, I dwelt longer on such 
questions as I could best explain, and with which I was most 
familiar ; l)ut in spite of all my attempts to evade his inquisitive- 
ness, the shrewd minister gauged me well, and expressed his earnest. 


desire to meet such men as I had described to him, Dr. Sircar and my 
brother, Navin Chandra, to be. 

In the afternoon Nyima-dorje brought the lam-yig (passport), and 
presented it to the minister. We were called in and shown it ; but 
Ugyen disapproved of it, as nothing was said in it of liis return 
journey here, so it was sent back for correction. 

Jaimarij 23. — Crowds of visitors came to receive the minister's 
blessing {chyag-wang) ; among them were many Khalkhas and other 
Mongols from remote sections of that country. The Khalkhas were 
introduced by Lobzang Arya, my cook during my first sojourn at 
Tashilhunpo in 1879, and now a man of standing and elder {gyer-gycm) 
of the Khalkha Kham-tsan. The minister talked with him in Mon- 
golian, after receiving the pilgrims with much kindness. 

January 24 — Early in the morning I was called by the minister, 
and found a young monk of the Nyagpa Ta-tsang (a Tantrik school) * 
sitting with him. The minister asked me to examine his eyes, which 
were a little swollen, telling me at the same time that this young 
man had served him devotedly during his residence at the Nyag-khang, 
and was deserving of my care. I gave him a few doses of alum lotion 
to wash his eyes with, and made liim promise to walk round the 
monastery several times a day whenever it was fair weather. 

In the afternoon I lunched with the Tung-chen, and we conversed 
about the high winds which at this season blow every afternoon. He 
spoke also of the Phagri pass, and told me that the collector of customs 
(Serpen) there was a friend of his, and that if Ugyen went to Dar- 
jiling by the Phagri pass, he could give him a letter of introduction 
to that officer. I thanked him for his kindness, adding that Ugyen 
preferred the Lachan pass, as he had a passport from the commander 
of Shigatse which did not extend to Phagri djong. 

January 25. — The minister told me that in certain stellar maps 
he had examined he saw that figures were given the different con- 
stellations, and that he understood these figures really existed in the 
sky ; so, wishing to see them, he had bought a large telescope at much 
cost. He did not know, however, how to use it, and was most 
anxious to have a well-illustrated work on astronomy, that he might 
know what to look for and where to look for it. He also remembered 
my saying that the regions of the moon, Saturn, and even of the sun, 
were visible through the telescope, and he was curious to know what 

* See fupra, p. 75. 


these luiiiinaries contained, for lie liad hitherto been under the 
im])ression that these celestial bodies were angelic luminaries who, 
lor the excellence of their moral merits, had been promoted to celestial 
mansions of different heights, thence to shed on us their radiant lustre, 
and thereby guide all living beings of the earth in the path of dkarina. 
"While we were thus talking Nyima-dorje arrived, and presented 
the passport to his lioliness. After perusing it he handed it to me, and 
I passed it to Ugyen. "We found that the commanders of Shigatse 
(DaJipon), in order to prevent tlie introduction of small-pox, had 
instructed in it the Djongpon of Kliamba to examine the contents of 
our buxes, to })revent contagion being brought into the country in 
them. This would put the Djongpon in a position to exact from 
Ugyen any amount of money he might choose ; but as it would be 
inconvenient to wait longer for a corrected lani-ijyj, the minister 
advised Ugyen to be satisfied with the present one, and to do the 
best he could with it. 

January 26. — Ugyen declared that lliurchung's services were 
absolutely necessary to him, and asked that he be lent to him for six 
months, adding that without liim he would not start on the journey. 
After breakfast the minister consulted with tlie Tung-chen and Gopa 
aliout keeping me with him. Arrangements were soon made; but 
they all o])jected to my kee})ing Lliagpa as my servant, telling me 
that a Sliigatse man could not be trusted, as they were cunning, 
deceitful, and faithless. He added tliat, as he had undertaken to look 
to my wants and comforts, there was not the least necessity for my 
keeping a servant at my own expense. Fearing lest he should suspect 
me of ulterior designs, I at once accepted his decision, though I had 
hoped, by means of Lhagpa, to keep myself informed of what was 
going on in the monastery and the^ town, I myself being practically 
confined within the walls of the minister's residence, as I was re- 
quired, according to custom, to wait upon his holiness. 

JanvMrij 27. — Ugyen and l*hurchung busied themselves in pre- 
paring for the journey. The former took a pair of Gyantse blankets 
and a suit of lamliskin clothes, and I gave Phurchung a pair of my 
own blankets for his use during the journey. They purchased a 
large quantity of sheep's fat to distribute among the Sikkimese on 
the way. Dried mutton, tsaniba, and sheep's fat are the dainties 
the Sikkimese esteem above all others. They hired four ponies to 
ride and carry their luggage. 


In the evening we were invited to take tea with the minister, when 
Ugyen took formal leave, making three profound bows to his holiness, 
and praying that his blessing might always be on him, and that, by 
the mercy of the sacred Buddhas, he might reach his destination safely. 
Januarii 28. — To-day, the 10th of the 12th moon, was considered 
a highly auspicious day on which to start for India. At 6 o'clock 
Ugyen, Phurchung, and I went to the minister's apartment, when his 
holiness, after a short prayer, wished them a safe and pleasant journey, 
and placed khatag on their necks. At Ugyen's special request I 
desired Phurchung in a short speech to serve Ugyen as he would 
serve me, to which he answered, " La laso, laso " (yes, sir, yes). Then 
we returned to the Torgod chyi-khang, our lodging, where, after break- 
fast, I presented parting hhatag to my faithful companions. The 
scene was extremely touching, and they shed tears at leaving me 
alone. I, too, could not suppress my feelings as I exhorted them 
to take care of themselves in the snows, and to be prepared for 
heavy snowfalls. They both rode off in high spirits towards Del el.* 

Shortly after I sent Wang-chyug gyalpo and the minister's page 
to fetch my clothes, utensils, etc., to my new quarters. They brought 
some, and told me that my trusted servant, Lliagpa, was quietly 
carrying off my kettles and plates. I immediately went to the 
Torgod chyi-khang, and asked him to give up the missing articles, 
but he denied any knowledge of them, though we could see the 
breast of his gown stuffed out with them, and he insisted the devils 
{de) must have carried them off. I at once sent for the Nyerpa and 
the Tung-chen. It was impossible, however, to search Lhagpa, so 
we had to confine ourselves to drawing up a list of the things missing 
and of the things I had with me ; and then, locking the door of my 
lodgings, the Tung-chen told Lhagpa to return quietly to his house. 
The Tung-chen smiled at the roguery of my trusted servant, and made 
me understand that I knew very little about Tibetans, and that I 
should not have trusted Shigatse people. 

January 29. — The minister came to my rooms, and insisted on 
nailing up a curtain, so as to divide the room in two, the books in 
the northern part, and my seat and bedstead in the southern half 
of it. He said that such an arrangement was necessary, as the books 
were of arsenical paper, and I would fall ill if I continually breathed 
the air of this place. Underneath my room was the cook-room 
* De-le of our maps.— (W. K ) 


(sol-tab), the heat from which kept the library dry and warm. There 
Avas but one window, about four feet square, in my room, through 
which 1 could see the Xartang hills. 

At o'clock breakfast was announced, when the Nyerpa con- 
ducted me to the minister's presence. Tea was served me in a pretty 
china cup, and Kachan gopa brought me a bowl of tsamha and a few 
slices of boiled mutton, and, noticing my difficulty in making dough 
of the tsamha and tea after the Tibetan fashion, took it from me and 
mixed it himself, twirling the cup on the palm of his hand, and 
mixing the flour and tea with his forefinger. 

In the dining-room there was a parrot lately presented to the 
minister by the Chyan-dso shar of Tashilhunpo, and a small saffron 
plant raised from some seed brought from Kashmir. This plant 
throve well, I was told, but yielded no saffron. 

After breakfast I returned to my studies, and, with the permission 
of the minister, commenced a search for Sanskrit books in his library. 
At noon tlie cook placed on an earthenware stove near me a pot of 
steaming' tea, and in the afternoon he filled it again. I was told 
it was injurious to drink cold water; Tibetans very seldom drink it ; 
the laymen quench tlieir thirst with draughts of cold fermented 
barley liquor {clcang), and lamas with hot tea. 

As the minister, on account of his vows, was debarred from eating 
in the afternoon, evening, or night, he desired me to take my supper 
with the secretary; so when the lamp was lighted I went down- 
stairs, and sat gossiping in the kitchen with him. 

Januarij 30. — To-day I discovered three Sanskrit works written 
in the Tibetan character. They were the Kavijadarslia, by Acharya 
Sri Dandi ; the Chandra Vyakarana, by Chandra Gomi ; and the 
Svarasvat Vi/aJcarana, by Acharya Ami. I was transported with joy 
when I saw that they contained explanations in Tibetan. 

In the afternoon I showed Sri Dandi's work to the minister, who, 
to my surprise, was able to give me more information concerning 
him than I had expected, and he had committed the entire work to 
memory. " Dandi," he said, " must have lived a thousand and more 
years ago, for this work was translated into Tibetan by one of tlie 
Sakya hierarchs who lived about six hundred years ago, and it is 
probable that the work was not xary new when it came to be known 
in this country." 

Januarij 31. — Preparatiuns for the new year's ceremonies now 


occupy the attention of all classes. Large numbers of men are 
coming to take the first vows of monkhood, and Kachan Shabdung 
introduced to-day a number of them to his holiness. The minister's 
time was largely taken up with these religious duties, and I could 
not see him for more than ten or twelve minutes. When I withdrew 
to my room, the astrologer, Lobzang, came to see me ; he was busy 
with the almanac for the new year, and kept turning over its pages 
to see if there were any mistakes. The minister also had to examine 
it before submitting it to the Grand Lama. 

Lobzang, seeing the lithographic press, was curious to know what 
" those stones and wheeled apparatus," as he put it, were meant for. 
He begged me to explain the process of printing, but I evaded his 
questions, as I had been told not to talk of the press to outsiders. 

In the evening the Deba Shika arrived with a large supply of 
butter and tsamba, evidently to be used in the new year's ceremonies. 

Prom this time on I devoted myself to the study of the sacred books 
and histories of Tibet, and ceased to keep a regular diary, noting only 
such things concerning the customs and manners of the country as 
seemed interesting. When I felt tired of Tibetan I refreshed my 
mind with the melodious verses of Dandi's Kavyadarsha, both in 
the original and the Tibetan translation, and during my leisure hours 
I conversed with tlie Tung-chen, the Nyerpa, and other well-informed 

The first part of February was very cold ; the north wind blew 
daily, raising clouds of dust in the plain to the west and south of the 
city. People, however, were busily engaged out-of-doors, gathering 
fuel and tending cattle ; in fact, this is the busiest season of the 
year, a period of universal merry-making, and also of great activity 
in trade. 

The Tibetans, whether monks or laymen, are very early risers. 
In the monastery the great trumpet {dung chcn) summoned the monks 
to the congregation hall for prayers at three in the morning, and 
those who failed to be present were punished at the Tsog-chen ; for, 
though there is no roll call, yet the absence of a single monk is surely 
remarked by the provost. 

The minister, who frequently peeped into my room to see wdiether 
I was studying or no, excused me from early rising on tlie ground 
that he often found me up with my books at midnight. 

On the 16th I was asked by the Deba Shika to go with him 



the following day to see the Grand Lama dance, or chain* On my 
observing that I feared the M-Jdps of the stage guards {<^jiin-!/(';/-2)(() i^ 1 
nuxed with the crowd, he promised to have seats reserved for our party. 

Early the next morning men and women dressed in their best 
be"an streaming into the monastery to see the chdvi. Accompanied 
by the Tung-chen, the Deba Sliika, and a lama friend, we M^ent our 
way towards the Nyag-khang, in the courtyard of the Tsug-la khang, 
in which the dances were to begin. On the way we stopped to visit 
an old chapel containing several inscriptions relating to Gedun-dub, 
the founder of Tashilhunpo, and the mark of a horse's hoof impressed 
on a rock, which passers-by touch with their heads.f 

Then we took our seats on the balcony of the second floor of the 
Xyao--khang building, and watched the preparations for the dance. 
Twenty-four sacred flags of satin, with embroidered figures of dragons 
and other monsters worked in threads of gold, were first unfurled at 
the top of long and slender poplar poles, and square parti-coloured 
flags were also hung all around the Tsug-la khang. About a dozen 
monks wearing coats of mail had masks which, for the most part, 
represented eagles' heads. The dancers entered one after the other, 
and then followed the abbot of the Nyag-pa Ta-tsan, Kusho Yon- 
djin Lhopa by name, holding a dorje in his right hand, and a bell in 
his left. He wore a yellow mitre-shaped cap, with lappets covering 
his ears and hanging down to his breast. He was tall and fair ; he 
looked intelligent, his manners were most dignified, and he per- 
formed his part most cleverly. 

After a wdiile the flag-bearers, the masked monks, and all the 
cortege repaired to the great Tsug-la khang of Tashilhunpo, which is 
about 300 yards long and l.~)0 feet broad. Piound this courtyard are 

* Speaking of the dances of Tibet, our author sa.vs elsewhere that Padma Sani- 
bhava, in tlie eiglith century, a.d., is the reputed originator of religious dances in Tibet. 
He introduced the war-dance and the famous luasqued dance, or bag chams {hhag 
hchams), the former being but a modification of tiie latter. At present the great 
religious dance of 'J'lbet is the black-hat dance (I)za nag chum), which was introduced 
in the eleventh century, a.d., to commemorate the assassination of the iconoclast King 
Langdarma by Lama Lhalun Paldor, the murderer having disguised himself in black 
when seeking to ajiproach the king. Tiie ordinary dance of Tibet (dzahs hro) is per- 
formeil by men and women on all or any occasion of rejoicing. Sometimes they dance 
in pairs, sometimes in a ring, and at others the women haiid-in-hand on one side, the 
men in like fasliion on the other. (S. C. D.). Cf. Markham, ' Tibet,' \). !)2 : E. F. Knight, 
' Where Three Empires Mtet,' p. 202 *•/ I'r/ry. ; Waddell, ' I'.uddhii^m of 'J'ihet,' pp. 34, 
•1-77, 51;") et gqq. 

t Cf. infra, p. IK). 


foiir-storied buildings with handsome piUared balconies, the Grand 
Lama's seat being on the western side. The long balconies on the 
east and south w^ere occupied by the nobility of Tsang, and those on 
the north by Mongol pilgrims and a number of Shigatse merchants. 
The abbots of the four Ta-tsan had seats just above the Nyag-pa, 
who, to the number of fifty odd, and assisted by their Oni-dse * and 


the Dorje Lopon, these holding in their hands cymbals and tam- 
bourines, went through a short religious service under the direction 
of the Kusho Yon-djin Lhopa. This latter made during this service 
peculiar motions with his hands, in which he held, as I have said, a 
clor]c and a bell. 

When this was over a figure with a dark-coloured mask, and 
representing the Hoshang Dharma-tala,t advanced, and the spectators 

* The office here mentioned is well known in Sikhim. See the Sikhim, Gazetteer, 
p. 30i, vi. The araged, as colloquially pronounced, is the active ruler of the monasterj-, 
and often a very important person. 

t This Chinese Buddhist monk (or hoshang) came to Tibet in the reign of King 
Srong-btsan gambo (a.d 629-098). He is usually called Mahadeva, not Dharmatala 
— (W. R.) 


fhiDi: him I'hatags, which his two yellow-faced wives picked up. 
When these three had left the scene, the four kings of the four 
cardinal points appeared, dressed in all the wild and barbaric 
splendour in which such monarchs could indulge. Then came the 
sons of the gods, some sixty in number, dressed in beautiful silk robes 
(flittering with gold embroideries and precious stones. These were 
followed by Indian atsams, whose black and bearded faces and 
uncoutli dress excited loud laugliter among the crowd. Then appeared 
four guardians of the graves, whose skeleton-like appearance was 
meant to remind the spectators of the terrors of death. After this 
the devil was burnt in effigy on a pile of dry sedge, and with this 
the cliani came to an end.* While it was in progress incense w^as 
burnt on Mount Dolma (Dolmai-ri), behind the monastery, and on all 
the other neighbouring mountain-tops. I learnt from the Tung- 
chen that there were several books on the subject of these religious 
dances and music. 

The following day (February 18) I went with the Tung-chen for 
a walk. Proceeding about 300 paces, we came to a flight of stone steps 
below the western gateway. This latter, which is some twelve feet 
high and eight wide, has massive doors, which are closed between sun- 
set and sunrise ; it is the principal entrance of the monastery. About 
fifty feet beyond this gate, and on a line with the gilt mausolea of the 
grand lamas {gya-phig), we came to another flight of steps, some of 
them cut in the rock, which led us to the north-western corner of the 
monastery and well up the slope of the Dolmai-ri, whence we obtained 
a good view of the whole of Tashilhunpo monastery, the adjacent 
villages and mountains. 

We now turned to the north-east along a narrow rocky path, 
which brouglit us behind the Nyag-khang. I was surprised to notice 
among the rocks some willows {cliyoMg-ma) in flower, and we saw 
also tlie impress of lioofs o the rocks, left there, the Tung clien said, 
by the chargers of some Bodhisattvas ; rang chyung, or " naturally 
produced," the Tibetans say of such marvels. There were several 
half-starved pariah dogs lying about, who looked at us with sleepy 

* Gfo. Ijogle, op. cit., p. 100, witnessed a somewhat similar dance at Tashilhunpo 
on New Year's Day. An effigy of the devil was likewise burnt, Tibetans use the word 
atsara iiiucli as the ChinCf-e do yang huei-tzu, or " foreign devils," though it was 
origin dly tiie name given to learned Indian pilgrims. The word is Sanskrit, acharya. 
-(W. R.) 


eyes, and the Tung-chen remarked that in all probability tb.ey bad 
been sinful (j clang (monks) in some former existence, and were now 
expiating their evil deeds. He much regretted that we had not 
brought some balls of tsamha for them. 

Some 200 paces farther on in the same direction we came to a 
huge stone building called Kiku-tamsa. It is about 60 paces in 
length and 30 in breadth, and I counted nine stories in it. Though 
it is upwards of two hundred years old, it is still in excellent repair. 
Captain Turner made a sketch of it in 1783,* but he mistook it 
for " a religious edifice." It is at present used as a godown for dried 
carcasses of yaks, sheep, and goats. Every year, in the latter part of 
November, all the sacred pictures of the Labrang are hung up on this 
building for the benefit of the people, who, by touching these paintings 
with their foreheads, receive the blessings of the gods they represent.f 

On our way down to the eastern gateway of Tashilhunpo we met 
two Ladaki Tibetans, who told us that they liad just come from the 
Chang-tang, or the desert in the north-western part of Tibet4 

The Tung-chen showed me the Dongtse Kham-tsan, where the 
people of Dongtse and neighbourhood put up. We also saw a juniper 
bush planted by Gedundub, the founder of Tashilhunpo, in which 
that saintly lama's hair is said to still exist.§ I had pointed out to 
nie, as we walked along the spacious buildings of the Taisamling 
college, the Kyil khang Ta-tsan and the Shartse college. 

The descent to the foot of the hill proved very steep, but all along 
it we found rows of prayer- wheels, which we put in motion as we 
passed ; near the gateway, and beside a metidong, there were two 
dozen of them together. 

Passing by the main Mani Iha-khang, we reached the eastern 
gateway of Tashilhunpo. Over it is a notice forbidding smoking 
within the monastery, for both the red and yellow-hat schools of 
lamaism strongly denounce tobacco -smoking by monks. 

* See Captain Samuel Turner, " Embassj',' p. 314. 

t According to Chinese authorities, this, or a similar feiist, is celebrated at Lhasa 
in the second moon of tlie year. Another analog .us fi stival is held ou the 80tu day of 
the sixth moon. See J.B.A.S., xxiii. pp 212, 218,— (W. K.) 

t The Chung-tarig is not au uniuhabiteil desert, for numerous tribes of Driipa 
pasture their herds there the year 1 .ng, and keep up a considerable trade with Lhasa 
and Saigatse, wiiich they supply with salt. It has beun repeatedly crossed by European 
explorers. — (W. R.) 

§ Cf. the legend of the miraculous tree sprung from the hair of Tsongkhap i, and 
still growing in the courtyard of Kumbum gombii. ' The Laud of the Lamas,' pp. (i7, 68, 


From this gateway a road leads south to the Kiki-naga, where the 
Grand Lama's mother resides, while ainjther runs westward to the 
court of the Tashi lama, or Labrang gyal-tsan tonpo. 

It was dusk when we had finished our walk around the monastery, 
and lamps were already burning in many of the liouses to bid farewell 
to the old year. 

Fchruary 19, New Year's Day.* — The preparations for the day's 
celebration commenced before dawn, and the noise of the blowing of 
the kitchen fires never ceased, as there were many dishes and dainties 
to be got ready for the dinner the minister was to give to a large 
party of nobles and incarnate lamas. 

AVhen the minister came back from ^•isiting the Grand Lama, he 
told me that the latter had inquired about me, as he had some trans- 
lation into Sanskrit which he desired I should make for him. " His 
holiness," the minister said, " has given me a hundred and twenty 
titles of chapters of a work he has written, and wishes you to put 
them into Sanskrit for him." The minister further said that when 
I had finished this work he would present me to the Grand Lama. 

The next day the minister was called to Dongtse by the illness of 
the Dahpon Phala's wife ; his prayers, it was hoped, would restore 
her to health. About a week after his departure he was suddenly 
recalled by the Grand Lama, with whom he had, on March 3, a long 
conference. The Dalai lama's Government had protested against the 
Tashi lama liaving taken the vows of monkhood from the Sakhya 
Pan-chen, a red-hat lama, the hierarch of the Sakhya school. The 
Dalai lama charged him with encouraging heresy, if not with being a 
heretic himself. It was for this reason that the Tashi lama had not 
been invited to ordain the supreme ruler of Tibet, for, belonging to the 
Gelugpa or yellow-hat school, the Dalai lama could have no connection 
with the school of which the Sakhya Pan-chen was the chief. 

On March 4 the minister ordained some forty monks gcloiuj. 
Formerly the Grand Lama used to perform this ceremony himself, 
but he has now delegated a large portion of his religious duties, 
including ordination, to the minister.! 

Two days after this the minister was again asked to go to Dongtse. 
as the wife of the Dalipon was still ill, and he (the Dahpon) had 

* Ou till' new year festivities, see Waddell, op. cit., p. 513. 

t On lamaist luouachism, see Sarat Chandra Das'a ' Indian rundits in the Land of 
Haow,' and Waddell, op. cit., pp. It!'.) et stjq. 


orders to proceed at once to Lhasa. The minister asked me if I 
would accompany him, and I readily assented, as it would enable me 
to make arrangements for my journey to Lhasa during the next 

On March 7 we started, and reached Tashigang the same day. 
Some of the people we passed were already ploughing, and the trees 
showed signs of budding. 

The next day we reached Dongtse by 4 o'clock in the afternoon. 
We found the Dahpon's wife, a lady of about thirty, and his sister, 
Je-tsun Kusho, in the central room of the fifth floor of the castle 

The Lhacham was dressed in a Mongol robe ; on her head was a 
crown-shaped ornament studded with precious stones and pearls of 
every size. Pearl necklaces, strings of amber and coral hung over her 
breast, and her clothes were of the richest Chinese satin brocades and 
the finest native cloth.* The Je-tsun Kusho, an elderly woman and 
a nun, was dressed very plainly ; but, though nuns all shave their 
heads, she wore all her hair. She belonged, it appears, to the !N"yingma 
school, which allows nuns certain privileges, this one among others.f 

The following day I prescribed some medicines for Je-tsun Kusho, 
who was suffering from bronchitis, and four days later I administered 
some to the Dahpon's wife, who had had until then a lama from the 
Tse-chan monastery attending her. My medicines did her no good, and 
at this the minister appeared much concerned. I tried a second dose, 
but with like absence of effect. In fact, the Tihacham felt worse, and 
said that evil stars were in the ascendant in her quarter of the sky 
{khams), and would work her ruin. Some people, she said, insisted she 
was being persecuted by evil spirits who had followed her here from 
Tingri (Djong), but she did not believe it ; it was the stars which were 
against her. The minister looked at me and asked me how it was 

* In the narrative of his journey in 1879 (p. 26), S. C. D. thus describes the headdress 
of the hxdies of wealth and fashion at a festival at Tashilhunpo : " Their headdresses 
struck me much. The prevailing form consisted of two, or sometimes three, circular bands 
of plaited hair placed across the head and richly studded with pearls, cat's-eyes, small 
rubies, emeralds, diamonds, coral and turquoise beads as large as liens' eggs, pearl 
drops, and various sorts of amber and jade encircled their lieads, like the halo of liglit 
round the heads of goddesses. These circles were attached to a circular headband 
from which six or eight short strings of pearls and regularly shaped pieces of turquoise 
and other precious stones hung down over the foreliead." 

t Farther on (p. 138), our autlior tells us that tlie incarnate goddess Dorje phagmo 
also wore her hair loug. 


that my medicines were unavailing in the Lhacham's case. In the 
midst of a dead silence I told him that all the medicines which 
different persons had administered to the patient were affecting her 
nervous system, each in a different way. I had heard her say that 
she had fh-st taken tliose of a Chinese quack, then those of a Nepalese 


physician, and lastly the medicines of several learned lama doctors. 
Under the circumstances I should not have prescribed for her at all, 
but that as every one had expected me to do something for her, I had 
ceded to their wishes. It was, however, my opinion that if the 
Lhacham would be cured, the only medicine slie required was no 
medicine at all. 


Under this new treatment, which she promptly adopted, there 
was a marked improvement in the Lhacham's health within the next 
ten days. I used frequently to talk with her, and she seemed to 
entertain a kind regard for me. One day the minister suggested in 
her presence that it would be a good thing if I could be sent to Lhasa 
to see the Lord Buddha, the incarnate Shenrezig, the Dalai lama. 
The Lhacham approved the suggestion, and promised to have me 
lodged in her residence at Lhasa, and to take me under her protection 
while there. 

On March 23 I left Dongtse for Tashilhunpo. On the way to 
Tashigang we saw lambs picking the young shoots of grass, and the 
country folk were busy in the fields with their yaks, which were 
decorated with red, yellow, blue, and green hair tassels, and collars of 
coloured wool, and cowries. The farmers hold certain religious cere- 
monies on beginning ploughing and on first putting the yokes 
(nya-shinff) on their yaks. They also have at this time most amusing 
ploughing races. 

Beyond Norbu khyung-djin we saw, as we rode along, afar off 
on a slope of rock, incised in gigantic characters, the sacred formulae, 
Om vajra pani hum, om wagishvari hum, om ah hum, etc. 

The next day, at 3 p.m., just as we reached the house of the Deba 
Shika, there was quite a heavy fall of snow. On the 25th we arrived 
at Tashilhunpo, and I once more took up my interrupted historical 




Ox "Wednesday, April 26, 1882, being the eighth day of the third 
moon of the water-horse year of the Tibetan cycle, I left Tashilhunpo 
for Dongtse, there to make my final arrangements for the journey to 

The cook, Dao-sring, nicknamed Aku chya-rog, or " Uncle Daw," 
on acconnt of the dirt and soot whicli always covered liis face, now 
turned out with well-washed face and hands, in new leather boots and 
fur cap, and helped me to mount my pony. 

Tsering-tashi, who had been designated to accompany me, had 
procured all that was necessary for a long journey — butter, meat, 
pounded dry mutton, spices, rice, a copper kettle, an iron pan, flint 
stones, tinder, and a bellows, and the Tung-chen had presented me 
with tsamba, chura, and pea-flour for the use of the servants, and peas 
for the ponies. Of all the articles Tsering-tashi had brought, the one 
which he valued the most was a bamboo tea-churn,* which he thought 
the most beautiful and useful of all our belongings. 

1 tied up my medicine-case in one of my saddle-bags, and in the 
other I put my clothes, and at 2 o'clock we started. There were five 
of us in the party, all mounted, and riding in single file : first came the 
Tung-clicn, then 1, then came Tsering-tashi, and the cook and a 
groom brought up the rear. We followed the same road I had already 
gone over on several occasions, and stopped the first night at Chyang- 
chu, where we put up in the house of our friend the Deba Shikha. 

Ajjril 27. — About two inches of snow had fallen in the night, and 
there was a slight fog when we got up in the morning. In front of 
the house I noticed some men and women diff^d a kind of root called 


* See my ' Diary of a Jourmy tlirotigh IMoiigoliiiand Tibet,' p. 25(j, where two such 
tea-diuins are shown. — (W. K.) 


rampa. This underground grass acquires, in some places, a length 
of five or six feet, and in the early spring, when vegetables and 
forage are scarce, it is dug up. The people know where to dig for it 
by the little shoots which rise above the ground.* 

We were detained at Chyang-chu all day, waiting for Tsering- 
tashi, who had been obliged to stop over at Tashi-gyantse to make 
some purchases. 

In the evening tea was served by Po-ka-chan, a grey-haired monk 
who works on the estates of the minister at Tanag. He had travelled 
much in Kongpo, Naga, and among the Mishmis, and in Tsari. He 
related how the savage Lhokabra t harassed the Tibetan pilgrims, and 
how the Tsang-po river entered the country of defiles in Eastern 
Bhutan, rushing in a tremendous waterfall over the top of a gigantic 
precipice called the " Lion's Face," or Sing-dong. 

Ajyril 28. — The villagers had all assembled to bid us farewell, 
and the Tung-chen's sister presented me with a " scarf for good luck " 
(tashi hhatag). We saw as we rode along numerous flocks of cranes 
{tontong), and brown ducks with red necks were swimming in the 
river and the irrigation ditches. We stopped for the night at Pishi 
Mani Ihakhang, where Angputti received us with the same kindness 
she had shown us on my former visits. Snow fell during the night, 
but our hostess's servants watched over our ponies, and stabled them 
under the roof of the oJc]iang,X or godown, on the ground floor. 

We reached Dongtse at 4: p.m. on the 29 th, and took up our 
lodgings in the Choide; but in the evening the Deba Chola came 
and invited us to put up at the castle, where the minister was still 

* I think our author was misinformed. Rampa (Polygonum vivipariim, L.) docs not 
grow as described here. Eampa seed is oaten, after being parclied and ground, mixed 
with tsamba. Choma {Potentilla anserina), also eaten all over Tibet wherever it occurs, 
is dug out of tlie ground ; it is not a grain, however, but a small root. I think Chandra 
Das must refer to choma, though it is a small tuber not over IJ inches long.— (W. K.) 

t Lama Scrap gyatsho says there are three different kinds of Lobas, viz. Lo Karpo, 
Lo Nagpo, and Lo Tawa, or Lo Khabta. The Lo Karpo means " white, and little 
civilized." The Lo Nagpo means " black, and little civilized." The Lo Tawas, or 
stripped Lobas, meaning "quite barbarous Lobas," live on the lower part of the 
Tsangpo, on the east bank. They are said to kill the mother of the bride in perform- 
ing their marriage ceremony, when they do not find any wild men, and eat her flesh. 
Report on Explorations, etc., p. 7. See also ibid., pp. 16, 17 ; and Pundit Nain Singh's 
Journey, in Jour. Roy. Geo. Soc, vol. xlvii. p. 120. 

X Og khang means "lower liouse," as opposed to Gong khaug, "upper house, or 
story."— CW. R.) 


The Tung-cheii took an early opportunity to inform the minister 
that his presence was anxiously expected at Tashilhunpo, where 
hundreds of lamas were awaiting his return to be ordained fjdoag 
(priests). He also told him that tlie Mirkan Pandita, a Mongol Kutu- 
ketu who liad come to Tibet for the sole purpose of studying under 
the minister, now intended coming to Dongtse, and had begged that 
arranuements micrht be made for his accommodation in the minister's 
residence. "WhQe the minister recognized the necessity for his re- 
turning to Tashilhunpo, he said he could not leave until the services 
for the propitiation of the Lord of death, Dorje jig-je, to be under- 
taken for the recovery of the Dahpon's wife, were finished. 

Mai/ 2. — The monks of Dongtse, headed by a learned old lama 
named Funlo, arrived at the castle to commence reading the Kahgyur. 
Arrangements were made in the ni/ihoJi for the worship of Dorje 
jig-je. Torma offerings * were placed on the terrace on the top of 
the castle, and rugs were spread on the floor of the little glazed room 
{nyihok) on it for the accommodation of the lamas. In the house was 
a raised seat for the minister, and in a corner of the room a little 
chapel, with all the necessary church furniture, among which the tsegi 
hiimha, or " bowl of life," of Tse-pamed was conspicuous.f This pro- 
pitiatory ceremony occupied three days. 

May S. — News arrived to-day that small-pox was raging at Lhasa 
and other places of Central Tibet. Several persons had also died of 
it at Gyantse, and three or four localities between that town and Lhasa 
were infected. The Lhacham was in so sjreat dread of the disease 
that she confined herself to her sitting-room, refusing to see any one. 

On May 9 the Lhacham left for Lhasa, after confiding to the 
minister's care Ane, her third son, a boy of ten, who was destined 
for the Church. The Lhacham and her two other sons, Lhasre % and 
Kundi, made their devotions at the different chapels of the castle, 
which it took them nearly an hour to accomplish, and then returned 
to the fifth story of the building to receive the minister's blessing, 
after which they took their leave. 

* Torma offerings are cones made of tsamba, butter, treacle, and sugar, and not 
uufrequontly of cardboard, and sometimes painted red, blue, or green. They are placed 
in front of the images of malignant g.ids as prop tiatory offerings. See Waddell, op. eil., 
297. On the word nyihol; see supra, p. 77. — (W. E.) 

t One of these libatiou bowls is represented on p. 90 of ■ Laud of the Lamas.' — (W. E.^l 
X Lhasre is the usual title of sons of very high officials. It means, literally, ''son 
of a god," but may be conveniently translated by " prince." — (W. K.) 



At the foot of the ladder in the courtyard a white pony, with 
handsome housings of embroidered cloth and a Tartar saddle, awaited 
the Lhacham. With her pearl-studded headdress, her gold and ruby 
charm-boxes, her necklaces of coral and amber, and her clothes of 
satin and kinkab, she looked like a heroine of romance or a goddess. 

On the following day I went with the minister and the Kusho 
Ane, and took up my residence in the Dongtse Choide. Here 


I witnessed the opening ceremonies connected with the Kalachakra 
mandala worship. The Om-dse,* or high priest of the Choide, with 
the help of two assistants, had described with coloured tsamba a 
circle about 20 feet in diameter on the floor of the northern room on 
the third floor of the Tsug-la khang. Within this mandala were drawn 
the entrance, spires, doors, and domes of the Kalachakra mansion. 
The presiding deity was tall, many-armed, and had several heads ; 
his attendants were of the tantrik order of deities, and all these 

* See uote 1, p. 115. 


paintings were made in coloured powders and tsamha. * The minister 
highly praised the work, and gave as a gratuity to each of the eighty 
monks of the monastery lialf a tanka, and an entertainment of tea 
and tsamha. 

Mai/ 11. — A messenger arrived to-day to inform us that the 
Lhacham would leave Gyantse the next morning, and that we would 
do well to see her at Gyankhar before she started ; so, though I was 
feeling very poorly, I made up my mind to start at once. 

My ponies were brought inside the monastery by Pador, a stalwart 
young fellow who had been several times to Lhasa, and who had 
been chosen by the Chyag-dso-pa f to accompany me, and I got ready 
to leave early on the morrow. 

At an early hour the next day I went with Tsering-tashi to see 
the minister, ask his protection {hyah^u), and beg to be favoured with 
his advice as to the conduct of our journey, or sumj-ta, as it is called. 

As is usual on such occasions, each of us presented him with a 
Icliatag, in tlie corner of which were tied up a few tanlms in a bit of 
paper, on which was written our request. 

After a hurried breakfast, while the servants were engaged in 
saddling the ponies and packing, I went and kotowed to the Buddha 
in the temple, placed Ichatag on the sacred images, and distributed 
alms to the monks assembled in the courtyard to offer prayers for 
my safe journey. Then I returned to my room, picked out the hand- 
somest Ixludag I possessed, and presented it to the minister. His 
holiness graciously touched my head with his palms, and in solemn 
tones said, " Sarat Chandra, Lhasa is not a good place. The people 
there are not like those you meet here. The Lhasa people are 
suspicious and insincere. You do not know, and, in fact, you cannot 
read their character, I advise you not to stay long in one place 
there. The Lhacham Kusho is a powerful personage in Lhasa ; 
she will protect you, but you should so behave as rarely to require 
her protection. Stay not long in the vicinity of the Dabung or 
Sera monasteries. If you intend to make a long stay at Lhasa, 
choose your residence in a garden or village in the suljurljs. You 

* The "presiding deity" was probably Dorje sempa or Vajrasattva. The Kala 
Chakra mysticism and its standard work in the Tibetan Tanjur, called ' Dus-gi khorlo,' 
wliich I once tried to read, have remained beyond my comprehension. Emil 
Schlaginwoit, ' Buddliism in Tibet,' pp. 4G-57, and p. 242 el sqq., gives many details on 
the subject. Hee also Waddell, op. cit.. If), 144, 397.— (W. R.) 

t This ofiicial is referred to, p. rt4.— (W. R.) 


have chosen a very bad time for your pilgrimage, as small-pox is 
raging all over Central Til)et; but you will return safely, though 
the journey will be trying and fraught with immense difficulties." * 
Then, turning to Tsering-tashi, around whose neck the minister's 
page put a Wiatag, he said to him, "Tsing-ta, I believe you know whom 
you are accompanying. You should serve him as you would serve 
me ; your relations with him must be those of a son with his parents." 

After saying good-bye to the members of the minister's household, 
presenting and receiving hhatag and various other little presents, and 
drinking tea, I mounted my pony and set out for Gyantse. Thus did 
I start on a journey to a hostile, inhospitable, and unknown country 
with only two men as my companions, and they strangers to me. 

At a huge willow stump I waited a while for Tsering-tashi to 
join me, for Pador, with the pack-pony, had gone to liis home to "•et 
his lance. As Tsering-tashi came up, he was delighted to see water 
flowing from a pool in the direction we were to follow ; this he took 
for a most auspicious sign. On reaching chortcn, about a mile 
from the town, we alighted and waited for Pador, who shortly after 
made his appearance with a lance full 12 feet long in his hand. 

By noon we reached Gyantse, and, passing rapidly through the 
market-place, where I feared to be recognized, we entered the Gyan- 
khar, or castle of Gyantse. 

At 1 p.m. the Lhacham and her sons started for Lhasa, and as 
she passed by me slie told me to meet her at Gobshi that evening. 

I was now surrounded by the Chyag-dso-pa and his family, all 
curious to see the Indian physician of whom they had heard so mucli 
of late. From what tlie Chyag-dso-pa told me, I concluded he had 
chronic bronchitis, which might end in consumption. I gave him a 
few grains of quinine and some doses of elixir of paregoric, and 
directed him also as to his diet. 

After partaking of some gyatug, rice, and boiled mutton with the 
family, I asked permission to leave, and was escorted to the gate, 
where, mounting my pony, I bade them farewell. 

The Lhasa high-road I found very similar to a rough Indian 
cross-road; in some places it is more than 20 feet wide, in others 
a mere trail, while in many places, where it runs between fields, it 
is also made to serve the purpose of an irrigation ditch. The Tibetan 

* Chandra Das's expeiience recalls to my mind the prophecy made me in 1SS9 by 
an incarnate lama in the Tsaidam. ' Land of the Lamas,' pp. 1G4. 10.5. 


Government pays very little, if any, attention to road-making, though, 
in such a dry climate, it would be easy to construct good ones, and 
it Moukl be little trouble to keep them in repair. Thus far on my 
travels in Tibet I had seen no wheeled conveyances, and I now learnt 
that such things are unknown throughout the country. 

Shortly after starting it began snowing heavily. As we rode on 
along the bank of the Nyang chu, Tsering-tashi pointed out to me 
the road to Phagri, the monastery of Na-niug, the ruins of Gyang-to, 
both formerly places of importance. Then we entered the ro7ig, or 
defiles,* where used to live three tribes of herdsmen, the Gyangro, 
Ning-ro, and Gang-ro, who carried on a thriving trade in yak-tails 
(cho2vries), felt hats, felt, and blankets. 

Crossing the river at Kudung zampa, we reached by dusk the 
villa<Te of Gobshi,t where the Lhacham had only preceded us a little. 
I found her very gloomy, for she had just learnt that there were in 
the house where she was now stopping five small-pox patients. I 
was asked to vaccinate her and her whole party ; but, unfortunately, 
the lymph which I had asked for in India had not reached me before 
leaving Tashilhunpo ; it was still at the Lachan barrier with Ugyen- 

Mai/ 13. — Gobslii, or "four gates," is a large village of about 
fifty houses, half of it belonging to the Lhacham's father-in-law. 
There are a few poplar and pollard willow trees growing in front of 
the village, and terraced fields planted with barley extend along the 
river banks. A little to the east of the village, in the hills beyond 
the confluence of the Nyang and Niro chu, there is a very ancient 
Bonbo lamasery, called Khyung-nag, or "Black Eagle" monastery, 
which in the fifteenth century was a place of pilgrimage famous 
throughout Tibet. 

After leaving Gobshi, we passed by Kavo gomba, a Ningma 
religious establishment, and Tsering-tashi called my attention to the 
blue and red bands painted on the walls of the temple and dwellings 
of the lamas, telling me that these coloured stripes are characteristic 
of this sect. 

Pushing on tlirough a numljer of small villages, the road in some 
places extremely difficult and oven dangerous, we forded the Nyang chu 

* Bonq usually means a fortile valley where cultivation is possible, or which is 
cultivated.— (W. R.) 

t Gab zi on tlie maps. It must ho. the same as A. K."s Upsi village, where, he says, 
there is a large Chinese stage-house.— (W. R.) 


at Shetoi,* took a short cut to the Ralung zamba, and by 3 p.m. 
reached the village of Ralung chong-doi, crossing once more tlie 
river by a wooden bridge before entering it. 

Ealung t is one of the most sacred places in Tibet, for it is here 
that the great Dugpa school of red-hat monks originated, a school 
still influential with numerous adherents in Southern, Northern, and 
Eastern Tibet, and in Bhutan, which latter country is, in fact, called 
Dugpa owing to the preponderance of this sect. The Ralung-til, 
the head monastery of the Dugpa, is to the south-east of this village. 
This monastery owes its name to the fact that it is surrounded by 
mountains as the heart (mt'il) of a lotus is by the corolla. 

J/rc// 14. — We left without even waiting for a cup of tea, as the 
Lhacham was desirous of reaching JSTangartse the same day, and, in 
spite of my enfeebled condition, I was anxious to keep up with her 
party, for the country we had to traverse is infested by brigands. 

After following up the river for a while, we ascended the Karo \a,l 
a lofty plateau from which we could distinguish to the north-east the 
snow-covered slopes of the Noijin kang-zang (or Noijin norpa zang- 
po and Kang zang-po). The plateau of the Karo la is called Oma 
tang, or " milky plain," § as is also the little hamlet near the summit 
of the pass. On this plateau, which is about five miles broad where 
w^e traversed it, there is fine grazing, and we saw numerous herds 
of yaks by the sides of the little streamlets which meander over its 
surface, the one flowing westward becoming the Nyang chu; the 
other flows to the east, and is called the Kharnang-phu chu, and along 
this the road led. On the summit of the pass 1 noticed a species 
of thorny shrub, the like of which I had not seen in any other part 
of Tibet ; the thorns were quite long, and the stem and leaves of 
the plant of an ash grey colour, 

A short way down the other side of the pass we came to a 
little hut made of loose stones, where we rested and partook of some 

* Called Slietot on the map.— (W. R.) 

t A. K. says that there is also at this village a large Chinese post station. These 
post stations are called tang in Chinese ; the building itself is a ku7ig huan. Ou the 
Dugpa sect, see ^Yaddell, op. cit. He says it originated in the Xllth century.— (W. R.) 

X Also known as Ralung la, according to A. K. — (W. R.) 

§ Jaeschke, Diet., s.v. o-ma., says that this name designates the plain ou which Lhasa 
stands. ' Georgi, op. cit., p. 451, mentions between Gyautse aud Nangartse, Lhomar 
and Lhamentung. The first jjlace I do not find on any maps at my disposal. The 
latter, however, corresponds with the Langma of the maps. According to the maps, the 
Karo la is 16,600 feet high,— (W. R.) 



refreshments. In conversation with the Lhacham, I mentioned the 
superiority of sedan chairs {shing-chyam) over saddle-horses, especially 
for women when travelling. V>\\i she held that it was degrading 
men to make them serve as beasts of burden, and that if it 
shoidd be tried in Tibet the people would certainly resent it as an 
indignity. " There are only the two Great Lamas, the Amban and 
the Eegent, who are allowed to use sedan chairs in Tibet," she went 
on to say ; " no other persons, however great they may be, can make 
use of them." 

About six miles down the valley we came to the hamlet of Ring-la, 
where the Kharnang-phu chu turns north to empty into the Yamdo- 
yum-tso. At this village the Nangartse plain begins, and the 
monastery of Samding becomes faintly visible. 

The road now became good, and the ponies quickened their pace, 
and by 5 o'clock we came in view of the town of Nangartse. 

The houses of the fishermen and common people (tnisscr) are 
perched on the hillside overlooking the prefect's house {djong), and 
the broad blue expanse of Lake Palti's waters spreads out beyond. 
Tlie party stopped, and the Lhacham changed her garments for finer 
ones, and put on her jewelled headdress {];>atug). On arriving at the 
gate of the house where we were to stop, there was a raised platform 
covered with soft blankets; here the Lhacham alighted, while her 
sons and the rest of the party got down near by. 

The brother and nephew of the host were laid up with small-pox 
(Ihcm-dum), and in a corner of the house some lamas were reading 
the holy books to bring about their speedy recovery.* In the court- 
yard lay another man lately arrived from Lhasa, and suffering from 
the same disease, and near him were two lamas chanting mantras to 
the discordant accompaniment of a bell and a damai'u (hand drum). 

I passed a miserable night, with a raging fever and violent 
cough racking my whole frame. My two companions sat beside me 
and did what they could, but concluded that it was impossible in 
my present state for me to keep up with the Lhacham's party all the 
way to Lhasa. 

The next morning 1 was no better, the fits of coughing were 

more violent. The sons of the Lhacham and her attendants came 

to see me, and expressed tlieir sorroM^ at having to leave me. The 

host said that the best thing for me to do was to go to the Samding 

* On such religious snrvicee, see Waddell, op. cit, 353, 494 et eqq. — (W. R.) 


monastery, where there were two skilful physicians who had recently 
successfully treated a case similar to mine. Hearing this, one of the 
Lhacham's maids suggested that her mistress might give me a letter 
of introduction to the lady abbess of this convent, the Dorje Phagmo, 
with whom she was related and on the most friendly terms ; the only 
danger was that she niiglit not allow me to enter her convent, as, on 
account of the epidemic of small-pox, she had closed it to pilgrims. 

I followed the advice of those around me, and the Lhacham kindly 
wrote to the Dorje Phagmo to take care of me and look to my 
wants ; and after taking an affectionate farewell, and telling me to 
come straight to her house at Lhasa as soon as I recovered, she 
recommended me to the people of the house and rode off. 

After taking a little breakfast, I made up my mind to o-q at once 
to the Samding gomba, which I learnt could be reached in two hours' 

My companions wrapped me in woollens and blankets, and with 
a turban round my head they set me on my horse. About two miles 
from town we came to the river (the same we had followed since 
crossing the Kharo la), and found it teeming with a small variety of 
fish. After crossing several rivulets we came to the foot of the hill, 
on the top of which stands Samding lamasery,* A flight of stone 
steps led up to the monastery, and I looked at the long steep ascent 
with dismay, for I did not see how I would ever be able to climb 
it in my present condition. Taking a rest at every turn in the 
steps, I managed finally to reach the top, some 300 feet above the 
plain. We had not, however, arrived at the convent ; a narrow path- 
way led up to the gateway, near which were chained two fierce watch- 
dogs {do hhyi), who barked furiously and strained at their chains as 
we passed. The Yamdo dogs, I had heard, were famous throughout 
Tibet for their size and fierceness, and these certainly justified the 
reputation given them. 

I sat down on a stone near the gateway to wait until Tsering- 
tashi had looked up the physicians. After an hour he returned and 
informed me that one of the Amchi (physicians) was in the lamasery, 
and he led me to his house, at the top of which I waited his coming. 
After a little while the doctor made his appearance. He was a man 
of about seventy years of age, but still sturdy, of middle stature, with 

* The name is written Bgam-kling, meaning, apparently, " fancy iloating." It was 
founded, according to Chandra Dats's authorities, by Shou-nu drupa.— (W, K.) 


an agreeable face, broad forehead, and dignified appearance. He 
asked me a few questions, examined my eyes and tongue, and then 
led the way into his house. We ascended two ladders, and thus 
reached the portico of his apartment. The old man sat for a while 
turning his prayer-wheel, and taking frequent pinches of snuff while 
he scrutinized me closely.* Then he gave me a powder to be taken 
in a little warm water, and ordered his cook to give me some weak 
tea {clia fang), after which, bearing the Lhacham's letter in his hand, 
he went with Tsering-taslii to present it to the Khyabgong Dorje 


In the evening I was led to a house in the western end of the 
lamasery lielonging to a monk called Gelegs namgyal, where I had to 
accommodate myself as best I could under the portico. 

Tsing-ta, as Tsering-tashi was usually called, told me that he had 
asked the Dorje Phagmo to tell my fortune, and that she had made 
out that my illness would prove very severe but not fatal, but the 
performance of certain religious ceremonies was most urgently needed 
to hasten my recovery. She sent me word that, in view of the letter 
of introduction from the Lhacham I had brought with me, she would 
shortly be pleased to see me, and that we might have all we required 
while stopping in Samding. 

The next day my companions asked me to give a " general tea " 
{mang ja) to the eighty odd monks of the convent, and to distribute 
alms to them at the rate of a karma (two annas) a head. I gave my 
consent, and at the same time my companions made, in my name, 
presents to the Dorje Phagmo and to the deities that were pointed 
out to them as best able to drive away the fiends of disease which 
surrounded me. 

The Dorje Phagmo gave Tsing-ta a sacred pill (rimcl) containing a 
particle of Kashyapa Buddha's relics, and the latter hastened to bring 
it to me, and insisted on my swallowing it forthwith.! 

* Tibetan. Mongol, and Chinese doctors ask their i^atients but few, if any, questions. 
They are suijposed to diagnose the disease by tlie general appearance of the patient 
and by his pulse and the condition of his urine. — (W. II.) 

t Khyab-gong and Khyab-gong rinpoche are titles given all the higher incarnate 
lamas. The word means " protector."— (W. R.) 

X Such pills are usually called mani rilbu. On the ceremonies performed in making 
them, I must refer the reader to my paper on the subject in Proceedings of the American 
Oriental Society, October, 1888, j). xxii. On the subject of "general teas," sec Hue, 
'Souvenirs,' vol. ii. p. 122 ; 'Land of the Lamas,' p. 101 ; and Waddell, ' Buddhism of 
Tibet,' p. 191.— OV. R.) 


The Amclii advised me to carefully abstain from drinking cold 
water, especially as the water of the lake was injurious to many 
persons even when in good health. He also forbade me drinking 
buttered tea. 

By agreeing to pay my host a daily sum of four annas, I managed 
to rent his two miserable rooms. They were about six feet by eight, 
and six feet high. In the bedroom were a couple of little tables, 
half a dozen books, and a couple of boxes; in a corner there was 
a little altar and two images of gods. 

The next day there was a new moon, and the monks assembled 
early in the congregation hall to perform religious services, as on the 
morrow began the fourth month (saga dao)* the holiest of the year. 

At the conclusion of the ceremonies Tsing-ta again saw the Dorje 
Phagmo, and, presenting her with a khatag and a couple of tanka, 
obtained another sacred pill. The doctor and his assistant impressed 
upon me the importance of only taking such medicines as experience 
had shown were efficacious in the Yamdo country. They also in- 
sisted that it was essential to my recovery that I should not sleep in 
the daytime. I felt so weak and ill that towards midnight I called 
my companions to my side, and wrote my will in my notebook- 
Later on some medicine given me by the doctor's assistant, Jerung, 
brought me some relief. 

May 18. — Tsing-ta again gave the lamas a mang ja and money 
to read the sacred books to my intent, and got still another sacred pill 
from the Dorje Phagmo. On his way back to our quarters he saw the 
ex-incarnate lama of the Tse-chog ling of Lhasa. He had been 
degraded for having committed adultery. 

Seeing no pronounced improvement in my condition, my faithful 
follower went again in the afternoon to see the Dorje Phagmo, presented 
her a khatag and ten tanka, and got her to perform the ceremony 
known as " propitiating the gods of life " (tse dul). She also gave 
him a long list of religious rites, which, according to her, it was 
imperative that I should immediately get learned lamas to perform 
to insure my speedy recovery. 

These rites were the following : 1. Eeading the Pradjna paramita 
in 8000 shlokas, together with its supplements — twelve monks could 

* Sa-ga is the name of the 15th lunar mansion (gyu-har\ and also of a month of 
the year. Dao is Da-iva, "a month." On the new moon festivals, see Waddell, op. cit., 


'\o this ill two days. 2. Making the three portion [vliu (jmui) offerings, 
these consisting in painted wafers of fsarnha and bntter. One-third 
is ottered to the ten guardians, (iya-ljin (Indra), the god of tire, the 
ruler of Hades, the god of wind, etc. ; another portion is offered to 
the spirits, and the third to the denii-gods. 3. Gi/al-ysol, or pro- 
pitiating certain genii to the end that the patient's inind may be at 
rest and he enjoy peaceful dreams. 4. Libations to the gods or Gser- 
skyenis. This is held to be one of the most efficacious ways of pro- 
pitiating the gods. 5. "To deceive death" (/w7</-s/m), by offering an 
image of the sick person, together witli some of his clothes, and food 
to the Lord of death, and beseeching him to accept it instead of 
the person it represents. This means is resorted to after all others 
have failed. (J. "To deceive life" (srog-sln), by saving from death 
animals about to be killed. This is also known as " life-saving 
charity." The saving of the lives of men, beasts, and particularly 
iishes, is calculated to insure life.* When Tsing-ta proposed this to 
me, I at once agreed to save five hundred fish. The old doctor said 
he would go to the fishermen's village, some three miles away, buy the 
fish, and set them free for me, if I would but lend him a pony. He 
came back in the evening, and reported that he had successfully 
accomplished this most important mission, by which much merit 
would come to me. 

In spite of all these rites and observances, for some days my 
illness showed no signs of improvement, and so at last, on May 22, 
Tsing-ta went once more to the Dorje Phagmo, and, making her a present 
of five taiila and a Jchatag, asked her to find out by her divine know- 
ledge if the old Amchi was the right man to attend to me. She 
threw dice {s/io-inon),^ and then said that the two physicians could be 
depended on. 

Accordingly, 1 sent for the j)liysicians, gave them each a present, 
and begged them to prepare some new and energetic remedy for me. 
In tlie evening Jerung brought me some pills, which smelt strongly 
of musk, and some })Owders, probably those known as gurhum 
cJuisu/a.l After having taken some of each I felt somewhat better. 

By the following morning there was a marked improvement in 

'' This custom prevails in Cliina, where it is chUmI fang shenrj, " to let go living 
creatures.'— (W. R.) 

t See ' Land of the Lamas,' p. 1G4. 

X Gurhiim is satt'ron. Cliusum may be rliuburb.— (.W. li.) 


my condition, and I was able to sit propped up on my blankets. 
The news of the favourable change was at once reported to the Dorje 
Phagmo, who advised Tsing-ta to have performed the ceremony for 
propitiating Tamdrin, Dorje l*liagmo, and Khyung-mo (the Garuda) ; 
especially of the first-named. Tsing-ta made her a further present 
of seven tanha and a khutcuj, and she agreed to perform these 
ceremonies herself. 

May 24. — Early this morning the old doctor visited me. " The 
danger is over," he said ; " the fatal stage is passed ; you can take 
a little food, some tsamha, a little soup and meat." In truth, I felt 
so much better to-day that I took some exercise, and the fresh, bracing 
air did me a world of good. 

The next day I was able to visit the shrines of Samding, on 
which tour my two companions accompanied me, carrying a bowl 
of butter, a bundle of incense-sticks, and about fifty khatcuj. 

We first went to visit the kind old physician and his assistant, 
and I was much struck by the neat appearance of the floors of his 
rooms, made of pebbles very evenly laid in mortar, and beautifully 
polished. In the doctor's sitting-room the walls were frescoed with 
Buddhist symbols, trees, and hideous figures of guardian deities. The 
furniture comprised of four painted chests of drawers, half a dozen 
small low tables, some painted bowls for tsamha, two little wooden 
altars covered with images of gods, and some rugs spread on the 
top of large mattresses. On the walls hung some religious pictures 
covered with silk curtains, and in a corner there were a sword and shield. 

On leaving the physician's house I entered the courtyard of 
the monastery, which I found more than 150 feet long, and 100 
broad. There were buildings on three sides, and broad ladders, each 
step covered with brass and iron plates, leading to the main floor ; 
the middle ladder is used by the Dorje Phagmo alone. On inquiring 
for her holiness, we learnt that she was engaged in certain religious 
duties, and would see me later. 

In the meanwhile I visited various chapels and shrines. In the 
gong-hhang (upper rooms) are lodged the most terrifying of the demons 
and genii ; their appearance is so awful that they are usually kept 
veiled. Almost all the images were dressed in armour, and held various 
weapons in their hands. To each of the images Tsing-ta presented 
a khatag and a stick of incense, and Pador poured a little l)utter in 
the brass or silver lamps kept continually burning before them. 



It is due, by the way, to the Dorje Phagmo's spiritual influence 
that the waters of the inner lake or Dumo tso (" Demons' Lake "), of 
the Yamdo tso, are held in bounds, for otherwise they would overflow 
and inundate the whole of Tibet. 'Twas for this that the Saniding 
lamasery was originally built. 

In the largest room on the same floor are the mausolea of the 


former incarnations of Dorje Pliagmo. The first is made of silver 
gilt, and was built in honour of Je-tsun Tinlas-tsomo,'* the founder 
of the monastery. The whole surface of the monument is studded 
over with large turquoises, coral l)Gads, rubies, emeralds, and pearls. 

* Cf... liowevcr, noto, p. i;]l, wlnre be says thiit the fouuder of tliis lamasery was 
Shon-nu dnipa. — (W. It.) 


In shape it resembles a chorten, six to seven feet square at the base. 
Inside of it, on a slab of stone, is an impress of the foot of the 
illustrious deceased. The second monument is also of silver, and in 
shape like the preceding, but I could not ascertain the name of the 
incarnation in whose honour it had been erected. The third, also 
of silver, is that of Nag-wang kun-bzang, the predecessor last but 
one of the present incarnation, and has around it, placed there as 
great curios, some pieces of European chinaware and some toys. The 
upper part of the monument is most tastefully decorated with 
gold and precious stones. This work, I believe, has been done by 
ISTei^alese, though some persons said it is of native workmanship. 

In another room, not open to the public, however, are the mortal 
remains of the former incarnations of Dorje Phagmo. I was told that 
each incarnation of this goddess visits this hall once in her life to 
make obeisance to the remains of her predecessors. 

After visiting all the shrines we returned to the Dorje Phagmo's 
apartments, where I was most kindly received. She occupied a 
raised seat, and I was given a place on her left, while the ex-incar- 
nate lama, of whom I have previously spoken, occupied one a little 
behind her, but his seat was higher than mine. The ceremony of 
propitiating Tamdrin (Hayagriva) was proceeding, and twelve lamas in 
full canonicals were acting as assistants. A number of respectably 
dressed men and women who had come to be blessed were also seated 
about on ruo;s. 

The service lasted about two hours. Every now and then the Dorje 
Phagmo used an aspergill, with an end of peacock feathers and kusha 
grass,* to sprinkle saffron water taken from a " bowl of life," most of 
it, much to my annoyance, for I feared catching cold, falling on me, 
but it was a much envied token of her special favour, I could not 
catch the words of the charms {mantras) she uttered, as she spoke 
very rapidly, so as to get through the services as quickly as slie 

At the termination of the service sugared tsaviha balls, about 
the size of bullets, most of them painted red, were distributed among 
tliose present. Before each person received any he prostrated himself 
before her holiness, who then gave them to him. 

When all the spectators had left, the Dorje Phagmo told me that she 

took gi-eat interest in my recovery on account of the Lhacham, who 

* See ' Land of the Lamas,' p. 1U6. On Tamdrin, see Waddell, op. cit., G'2 and 3G4. 


was not only her friend, but her half-sister. I besought her to 
allow me to proceed on my journey to Lhasa, as I was most desirous 
of reaching the sacred city by the 15th of the present moon (June 1), 
the birthday of the Buddha, and she graciously gave me leave to 
start as soon as I was strong enough to bear the fatigue of travelling. 

On taking leave, she gave me three more sacred pills, and directed 
her valet {gzim-dpon) to show me through her residence, where there 
was great store of handsomely carved and painted furniture, images 
of gold, silver, and copper neatly arranged on little altars. There was 
also a library with about 3000 volumes of printed and manuscript 
books. One work, in 118 volumes, was by Podong-chogleg namgyal, 
the founder of the sect to which the Dorje Phagmo belongs. 

The present incarnation of the divine Dorje Phagmo is a lady of 
twenty-six, Nag-wang rinchen kunzang wangmo by name. She wears 
her hair long ; her face is agreeable, her manners dignified, and some- 
what resembling those of the Lhacham, though she is much less pre- 
possessing than she. It is required of her that she never take her 
rest lying down ; in the daytime she may recline on cushions or in 
a chair, but during the night she sits in the position prescribed for 

I learnt that the Dorje Phagmo, or the " Diamond Sow," is an incar- 
nation of Dolma (Tara), the divine consort of Shenrezig. In days of old, 
before the time when the Buddha Gautama appeared, there was a 
hideous monster called Matrankaru, who spread ruin and terror over 
all the world. He was the chief of all the legions of demons, goblins 
and other evil spirits ; even the devils (raJcsha) of Ceylon had to 
become his subjects. He subdued to his rule not only this world, 
but the eight planets, the twenty-four constellations, the eight Nagas, 
and the gods. By liis miraculous power he could lift Mount liirab 
(Sumeru) on the end of his thumb. 

* Georgi, ' Alph. Tibet,' p. 451 says, " In Australi eoruiii (montium) latere Monas- 
terium, at Scdes est Majinse Eenataj Lhamisste Tiircepaino. Eain lutli quoque Nckpal- 
leDses, tanquaiii ipsi-simara Deain ]5avaiii venerantur et colunt." Mr. Geo. Bogle 
visited her at Tasliilhunpo in 1775 : " The mother went with me into the apartment of 
Durjay I'aumo, wlio was attired in a gylong's dress, lier arms bare from the sboulders, 
and sitting cross-legged upon a low cushion. She is also the daugbter of tiie lama's 
brother, but by a different wife. She is about seven and twenty, witb small Chinese 
features, delicate, though not regular, fine eyes and teeth. . . . She wears her hair — a 
l)rivilege granted to no other vestal I have seen ; it is combed back, witliout any orna- 
nicnts, and falls in tresses upon her shoulders. ... I never visited her but this time. 
Mr. Hamilton used to be there almost every day." Markbam, ' Tibet,' pp. 1U5, 108, 109. 


Finally the Buddha and gods held council to compass about 
Matrankaru's destruction, and it was decided that Shenrezig should 
take the form of Tamdrin ("Horse-neck"), and his consort, Dolma, 
that of Dorje Phagmo (" the Diamond Sow "). When the two had 
assumed these forms they went to the summit of the Malaya moun- 
tains, and Tamdrin neighed three times, to fill the demon with terror, 
and Dorje Phagmo grunted five times, to strike terror into the heart 
of Matrankaru's wife, and soon both were lying prostrate at the feet 
of the two divinities. But their lives were spared them, and Matran- 
karu became a devout follower of the Buddha, a defender of the faith 
{ehos ijyong), and was given the name of Mahakala. 

In 1716, when the Jungar invaders of Tibet came to Nangartse, 
their chief sent word to Samding to the Dorjo Phagmo to appear before 
him, that he might see if she really had, as reported, a pig's head. A 
mild answer was returned him ; but, incensed at her refusing to obey 
his summons, he tore down the walls of the monastery of Samding, 
and broke into the sanctuary. He found it deserted, not a human 
being in it, only eighty pigs and as many sows grunting in the con- 
gregation hall under the lead of a big sow, and he dared not sack 
a place belonging to pigs. 

When the Jungars had given up all idea of sacking Samding, 
suddenly the pigs disappeared to become venerable-looking lamas 
and nuns, with the saintly Dorje Phagmo at their head. Filled with 
astonishment and veneration for the sacred character of the lady 
abbess, the chief made immense presents to her lamasery. 

May 26. — To-day we made our preparations for the journey to 
Lhasa, and as food of all kinds was very scarce at Samding, the Dorje 
Phagmo was so kind as to supply us with all the necessary provisions. 
The old doctor presented me with a basket of dried apricots and 
some rice, and our landlord brought us some wild goose eggs. 

May 27. — We left to-day for Lhasa. From a little hillock behind 
our lodgings I cast a last glance towards the lake and the dark 
hills around it, behind which rose the snow-covered mountains. My 
eyes fell on the Dumo tso, and on the place where the dead are 
thrown into the lake, and I shuddered as I thought that this had 
come near being my fate. Dead bodies throughout Tibet are cut up 
and fed to vultures and dogs, but on the shores of Lake Yamdo the 
people throw their dead into the lake. It is generally believed 
that a number of Lu (serpent demi-gods) live in Lake Yamdo, and 



that they keep the keys of lieaven. In a palace of crystal in the 
deep recesses of the lake lives their king, and the people think 
that by throwing their dead into the lake there is a chance for 
them of reaching heaven by serving the king of the Lu during the 
period intervening Ijetween death and regeneration. Bardo this time 
is called. 

Passing through cultivated fields, where the ponies sank up to 
their knees in mud, we came to a broad steppe where wild goats 


and sheep and a fe\\- musk deer were grazing. Dorje Phagmo is 
their special patron, and no wild animals may be killed in the 
Yamdo district. 

At aljout 2 o'clock we reached Nangartse, and, passing by the 
town, proceeded northward along the bank of the far-famed Yamdo 
(ralti) lake, also called Yum tso, or " turquoise lake " — a name which 
the deep blue waters of the lake amply justify. 

Travelling along the lake-side by the ^-illages of Hailo,* Dab-lung, 
and Dejihu, where the fishermen's hide boats {hiulrv) were drying 
* Hailo must be the Haug of tlie maps. — (W. R.) 


against the houses, and near which are a few fields where a little 
barley is raised, we came to the Kal-zang zamba, where we rested a 
while and drank some tea. Though this place is called " bridge " 
{zamla), it is in reality an embankment about 300 to 400 feet long 
dividing a narrow arm of the lake into two parts. 

A little beyond the Kal-zang zamba, at a place where a string 
of coloured rags, inscribed with prayers, stretched between two crags 
on either side the narrow path, Tsing-ta made me dismount. ITe 
climbed on to a large rock, and scattered a few pinches of tsfmki, 
and, striking a light, lit an incense-stick, which he fixed in a cleft in 
the rocks. This place is called Sharui teng, and is the haunt of 
evil spirits ; should any traveller neglect to make these offerings, he 
would incur their anger. 

On reaching Palti djong,* we put up at a house where the 
Lhacham had stopped when on her way to Lhasa, and were most 
hospitably received. We bought some milk, a few eggs, and some 
cJiang from the hostess, who supplied us also with water, firewood, 
and two earthen cooking-pots. I was offered some fish, but I forbore 
buying any, as it would have been incompatible with my character 
of a pious pilgrim, such indulgence being forbidden by the Dalai 
lama. The Grand Lama, I must mention, having lately taken the 
vows of monkhood, had issued an edict prohibiting his subjects 
killing or eating fish for the space of one year. 

From ancient times the town of Palti has been a famous seat 
of the Nyiugma sect, and the lake was popularly known by its 
name. The name of the town as applied to the lake by foreigners 
probably originated with the Catholic missionaries who visited Tibet 
in the eighteenth century. 

When, in the eighteenth century, the Jungars invaded Tibet, their 
wrath was especially turned against the lamaseries and monks of the 
Nyingma sect. There then lived in Palti djong a learned and saintly 
lama, called Palti Sbabdung, well versed in all the sacred literature, 
and proficient in magic arts. Hearing that the invaders had crossed 
the ISTabso la and were marching on Palti, he, by his art, propitiated 

* Georgi, 'Alph. Tibet.,' p. 451, speaking of Lake Palti, says, "Palti: Lacus, 
alias Jamdro aut Jang-so uuncupatus. Maximse amplitudinis est, quam homo pedi- 
bus, uti indigene tradunt, nonnisi octodecim dieruni spatio circumire queat. Sic 
totus ambitus 300. circiter milliariorum esset." A. K. calls the town Pete Jong, and 
on the maps it figures as Pe de Jong, or Piahte-Jong. The Chinese call it Pai-ti, but 
I have been told by Tibetans that the name is Pe'-di (written Spe-di). — (W. K.) 


the deities of the Like who caused the waters of the lake to appear 
to the Jungar troops like a plain of verdure, so that they marched 
into the lake and were drowned, to the number of several thousands. 
Another corps which had advanced by the Khamba la, not finding 
the troops wliich had gone by the Nabso la, retraced their steps, and 
so the town of Palti was saved. 

May 28. — We left by daylight, and followed along the shore of 
the lake till we reached the foot of the Khamba la. The ascent was 
comparatively easy ; on the rocks by the wayside were painted in 
many places images of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. FromTamalung,* 
a small village halfway up the mountain, a trail led eastward along 
the cliffs overhanging the lake, and the sinuosities of the shore could 
be followed with the eye to the remote horizon. 

On the summit of the pass are two large cairns, to which each 
of mv companions added a stone ; they also tied a rag to the brush 
sticking out above the heaps, and already covered with such offerings. 
Then they made an offering of a little isamha and some dust, instead 
of wine, to the mountain god, reciting a prayer the while, which tliey 
brought to an end by shouting — 

" Lha sol-lo, LJia sol-lo ! 
Lha gyal lo, lha gyal lo ! 
Kei-kei — ho, liooo ! " 

From this point I enjoyed one of the grandest views I have ever 
had in Tibet — the valley of the Tsang-po was before me, the great 
river flowing in a deep gorge at the foot of forest-clad mountains. 
Here and there was to be seen a little hamlet, most of the white- 
walled houses surrounded by a cluster of tall trees. 

By 3 o'clock we had reached the foot of the pass, the way down 
being over a tedious zigzag for over five miles. Along the wayside 
grew brambles and wild roses, a few evergreens and rhododendrons, 
and some flocks of sheep were grazing on the hillsides. 

Then we canui to a sluggish stream, and shortly after reached 

the straggling village of Khamba partshi,t with some forty wretched 

stone hovels. Passing through a patch of barley surrounded by 

pollard willows, we reached the sandy banks of the Tsang-po, and 

followed along it to Tongbu, the surrounding plain being known as 

Khamba chyang tang. 

* The nam(! is also written Slia-ma-luiig and Demalung.— (W. 1{.) 
t The Khamba barclii of tin; native explorers. It is also called Kampa lacha. — 
Khamba chyang tang means •' Plain north of Khamba." — (\V. K.) 


Two women weeding their barley patch approached me as I rode 
by, and offered me a bunch of the young sprouts, in the hope, as 
Tsing-ta explained, that I would give them some money. This is 
a custom obtaining throughout Tibet, and is called luhul. 

Further on, near Toi-tsi, we saw women making bricks, and 
some donkeys and yaks were carrying away those which had become 
sufficiently dry to be used. Two miles beyond this point we came 
to the famous Palchen chuvori monastery and the chain bridge 
{chafj-zam) over the Tsang-po.^ This bridge, built, tradition says, by 
Tang-tong gyal-po in the fifteenth century, consists of two heavy 
cables attached at each end to huge logs, around which have been 
built large cliortcii* 

The bed of the river here is about 400 feet bi'oad, but at this 
season of the year it spreads out several hundred feet beyond the 
extremities of the bridge, and travellers are taken across in boats. 

The monastery of Palchen chuvori was also built by Tang-tong 
gyal-po, wdio is likewise credited with having constructed eight chain 
bridges over the Tsaug-po, 108 temples, and 108 cliortcn on the 
hills of Chung Rivoche, in Ulterior Tibet, and of Palchen chuvori, 
in Central Tibet, or U. The Palchen chuvori monastery, where 
there are upwards of one hundred monks, is supported by the toll 
collected at the ferry. 

We and our ponies crossed the river in a roughly made boat 
about 20 feet long, but a number of skin coracles were also carrying 
travellers and freight from one side to the other. It was sunset 
when we reached the village of Jim-khar, belonging to the Namgyal 
Ta-tsan, the great monastic estaldisliment of Potala at Lhasa. 
Here we obtained lodgings for the night in the sheepfold attached 
to the house of the headman, or gyan-po. All the members of the 
(jyan-pds family were ill with small-pox, and he himself had but 

* A. K. thus describes this bridge : " The bridge is formed of two iron chains, 
one on each side ; from the chains thick ropes are suspended to the deptli of four yards ; 
by these ropes planks, three feet long and one foot broad, are supported lengthwise, so 
as only to admit of one person crossing at a time. The chains are stretched very tight, 
and are fastened around huge blocks of wood buried beneath immense piles of stone ; 
the length of the bridge is about 100 paces." 'Report on the Explorations,' p. 31. 
This is the usual style of Chinese suspension bridge common throughout Western China 
and Tibet. This one was in all likelihood built by the Chinese in the eighteenth 
century. I am not aware that the Tibetans ever build this style of bridge ; theirs are 
usually of wood and of the cantilever description. Sec my ' Diary of a Journey.' p. .304. 
— (W. R.) 


recently recovered from it. It began to rain shortly after our arrival, 
and what Avith the leaks in the roof and the noise made by nine 
ponies tied up near us, we passed a miserable night, and were glad 
to resume our journey at the first streak of dawn. After proceeding 
some distance we came in sight of the ruins of Chu-shul djong, on 
a ledge of rocks about a mile from where the Tsang-po is joined by 
the Kyi chu, the river of Lhasa. Some two hundred years ago 
Chu-shul was a place of importance, but now it is but a village of 
about sixty houses, surrounded by wide fields, where barley, rape, 
buckwheat, and wheat are grown.* 

Passing near the hamlets of Tsa-kang and Semu, the road in 
many places so boggy that the ponies sank in the mire up to their 
knees, we came, after about four miles, to the ruins of Tsal-pa-nang,t 
where we overtook some of the attendants of the Lhacham on their 
way to Lhasa. After conversing with them for upwards of an hour, 
they rode on ahead, as they were desirous of reaching Netang by 
sunset; and they advised us to put up in the Jya-khang (or 
Chinese post station) of the same place, where we would find good 

Beyond Tsal-pa-nang the road led over a sandy plain, while 
crossing which we scared up several rabbits (hares ?). Proceeding 
eastward for several miles, we came to the large village of Jang hog, 
or " Lower Jang," then to Jang toi, or " Upper Jang," X wliere the 
beauty of the country so greatly charmed me, each cluster of houses 
surrounded by groves of willows and poplars, and the fields a mass 
of flowers, that I called a halt, and, spreading my rug under a 
willow tree, we made some tea, and ray companions indulged in a 
good long drink of chaiKj. 

From Jang toi, following a narrow trail overhanging the Kyi chu, 
we came to Nam. Beyond this little hamlet the path leads over 
a confused mass of rocks and boulders along the river bank ; it is 
called //ft// lam, or " narrow road," and a false step would throw one 
amidst tlie quicksands on the river's bank, or into its eddying waters. 
I was not surprised to be told that the two elephants sent to the 
Grand Lama by the Sikkim rajah had had great difficulty in getting 

* Chinese autliors say that convicts used to be confined at this place See Jour. 
Jioy. Ae. Soc, 1891, p. 78*— (W. R.) 

t On the maps lliiw placr is called Tsha-bu-na. — (W. K.) 
X Called Chiang-li by the Chinese.— (W. R.) 


by this place. After a tedious journey of about three miles through 
the sand and over the rocks, we got sight of the famous village of 
Netang,* where the great saint and Buddhist reformer, Atisha, or 
Dipankara, died. 

An old woman led us to the Jya khang, where we were most 
hospitably received, and though there were other travellers stopping 
in it, we were accommodated for the sum of a tanha in a well- 
ventilated outer room, the inner ones being reserved for officials, 
particularly Chinese. Netang has about forty or fifty houses, all 
built closely together, but many are only miserable hovels. 

May 30. — We were off at an early hour, as to-day we wanted 
to reach Lhasa. The hamlets of Norbu-gang and Chumi^-frang, 
through which we passed, had a number of fine substantial houses 
belonging to civil officers {Dung-hhor) of Lhasa, and around theni 
were gardens and groves of trees. Leaving these places behind, we 
travelled for some miles over a gravelly plain, the river some distance 
on our right. 

When near a gigantic image of the Buddha, cut in low relief on 
the face of a rock, Potala and Chagpori came in sight, their gilt 
domes shining in the sun's rays. My long-cherished wish was 
accomplished — Lhasa, the sacred city, was before me. 

Four miles over a fairly good road now brought us to the Ti chu 
zamba, a large and handsome stone bridge about 120 paces long 
and eight broad, beneath which flowed a rivulet coming from the hills 
to the north-west, where stands the monastery of Tsorpu, founded by 
Karma Bagshi, one of the two celebrated lamas who resided at the 
Imperial court of China in the time of the Emperor Kublai. 

The Ti chu zamba is in the lower part of the big village of 
Toilung, around which are numerous hamlets, each amid a little 
grove of pollard willows. The adjacent plain, watered as it is by 
the Kyi chu and the Ti (or Toilung) chu, is extraordinarily fertile. 
The country around was everywhere cultivated, and the barley, 
wheat, and buckwheat were in many places already a foot high. 

The road now became alive v/ith travellers, mostly grain-dealers 
or argol-carriers, on their way to the city with trains of yaks, ponies, 
mules, and donkeys with jingling bells. 

* The name is also written Nyer-tam. The Chinese call it Yeh-tang. Atisha came 
from India to Tibet in a.d. 1083. His proper Indian name was Dipankara Srijnana. — 
(W. E.) 



We halted for breakfast in a small grove in front of the village 
of fShing donkar, belonging to Sa-wang Eagasha, one of the senior 
Shape of Lhasa. Via could hear from where we sat the voices of 
lamas chanting prayers, and I learnt from an old woman who brought 
my men some ehang, that there were some eighteen Uabung lamas 
reading prayers for the recovery from small-pox of the foreman 
{shinycr) of the farm. 

About a mile from Sing donkar we came to Donkar, which is 
considered as the first stage for persons travelling officially from 
Lhasa.* Then we passed by Cheri, where is the city slaughter- 
house ; and liere, strange as it may seem, the Kashmiris come to buy 
meat, for most of those living at Lhasa are so lax in their observance 
of tlie ]\Iohammedan laws about butchering that they will eat yaks 
killed by Tibetans, even though they have been put to death by 
wounds of arrows or knives in the stomach. 

"We stopped at Daru at the foot of the hill covered by Debung 
and its park, and Pador went to look up a friend whom he was 
desirous of attaching to my service. After an hour's delay he 
returned without having found him, and we pushed on, passing 
the far-famed temple of Nachung chos kyong, where resides the 
oracle by whom the Government is guided in all important affairs. 
The temple is a fine edifice of dark red colour, built after the Chinese 
style, and has a gilt spire surmounting it. At this point the road 
nears the river, and the whole city stood displayed before us at the 
end of an avenue of gnarled trees, the rays of the setting sun falling 
on its gilded domes. It was a superb sight, tlie like of which I have 
never seen. On our left was Total a with its lofty buildings and gilt 
roofs ; before us, surrounded by a green meadow (maidan), lay the 
town with its tower-like, wliitewashed houses and Chinese buildings 
with roofs of blue glazed tiles. Long festoons of inscribed and 
painted rags hung from one building to another, waving in the breeze. 

Beyond Daru tlie road lay for a while through a marsh {dam-iso) 
overgrown with rank grass ; numerous ditches drained the water into 
the river, and at tlie north-east end of the marsh we could distinguish 

* What tbe Chinese call chan. Tliey are ridiculously short ou the high-road 
between Lliasa and Cliina, and probably elsewhere. Tiiia is so as lo make the ula 
les.s opiJressive, and I suspect it lias something to do with the allowances of the Chinese 
officers who have to travel (ner it, and which are regulated by stages, not by miles 
travelled.— (W. R.) 


the famous monastery of Sera. Beyond a high sand embankment on 
our left was the park and palace of Xorbu linga, and the beautiful 
grove of Kemai tsal, in the midst of which stands the palace of 
Lhalu, the father of the last Dalai lama. 

At 4 p.m. we passed Kunduling, the residence of the regent, 
and entered the city by the western gateway, called the Pargo kaliug 
chorten, and my heart leaped with exultation as I now reached 
the goal of my journey— tlie far-famed city of Lhasa, the capital 
of Tibet. 




PRECEDED by Pador canying his long lance and by Tsing-ta driving 
the pack-pony, we entered the city. The policemen {I'orcliafjpa)'^ 
marked us as new-comers, but none of them questioned us. My 
head drooped with fatigue, my eyes were hidden by dark goggles, 
and the red pagri around my head made me look like a Ladaki. 
Some people standing in front of a Chinese pastry shop said, as I 
passed, " Look ! there comes another sick man ; small-pox has affected 
his eyes. The city is full of them. What an awful time for Tibet ! " 

After a few minutes' ride we came to the Yu-tog zamba, a short 
stone bridge with a gate, where a guard commanded by a lama is 
stationed, which examines all passers-by to ascertain the object of 
their visit to the city. To the great delight of my companions, who 
had been most anxious about my getting over the bridge, we passed 
by without a question being asked us. 

Near the bridge I noticed the dorimj,\ a monolith on which is 
an inscription in Tibetan and Chinese. Though a thousand years 
old, the stone has been but little affected by the weather, and the 
characters can be easily read. The monolith I took to be between 
eight and ten feet in height, and it stands on a low pedestal. 

At the Yu-tog zamba the city proper begins. The street on both 
sides was lined with native and Chinese shops ; in front of each was 
a pyramidal structure, where juniper spines and dried leaves obtained 
from Tsari are bui'iit as an offering to the gods. 

* I have always lieard policemen called sa sung (jfrunfj) pa by Tibctana. Tlic word 
used by our autlior sccmn to be lilior die (byed) 2>a, wliich would correspond to "patrol- 
men." Hue says Ibat Lhasa is about two leagues in circuii)fercnc(!, and A. K. that it 
is about six miles. — (W. R.) 

t Dorin;^ (or rdo ring) mfans "iincient stone," or " stone from lonp: ago." On the 
inscription here referred to, see Jour. Hoy. As. Soc. (now series), vol. xii. 48G et sqq.; 
and vol. xxiii. p. 2(j4. Yu-tog zamba means " blue roofed bridge." — (W. li.) 

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Coming to the street to the south of Kyil-khordiiig,* we found on 
either side of it Nepalese shops several stories high, also Chinese 
ones, where silk fabrics, porcelain, and various kinds of brick-tea 
were exposed for sale. 

A lama guided us from this street to the Bangye-sliag, a castle- 
like building three stories high, the residence of Sawang Phala, the 
husband of my protectress, the Lhacham, Leaving me at the postern 
gate, my two companions went in and presented the lady with a 
li'hatag, and she directed them to take me to Paljor rabtan, a building 
belonging to the Tashi lama, where all officers and monks from 
Tashilhunpo find lodgings when iw Lhasa, and where we would be 
given accommodations. 

The gateway of Paljor rabtan was about eight or nine feet high and 
five feet broad, and from the lintels fluttered fringes about a foot and 
a half broad.f Two stout flag-poles 20 to 25 feet high, carrying 
inscribed banners, stood on either side of it. Ascending a steep 
staircase, or rather a ladder, we came to a verandah, opposite which 
was a pretty glazed house, the dwelling of the liJiang-nijer (or " house- 
keeper"), and were soon given by him a room to lodge in, and 
served with tea and cliang by an old woman. From the window 
of our room we could see the damra, or grove of poplars and willows 
in a marshy bit of land adjacent to the Tangye-ling monastery, and 
further west shone the lofty gilt spires of Potala. 

Mag 31. — The heavy shower which had fallen last evening cleared 
up the atmosphere, and the gilt domes and spires glittering in the 
morning sun filled me with delight, and I had difficulty in subdu- 
ing my impatience to visit all the monuments now before me, and 
of which I had dreamed for so many years. At 7 o'clock Pador 
brought me a pot of tea prepared in the house of the water-carrier ; 
but, instead of butter, tallow had been used in its preparation, and I 

* Better' kuowu by its jjopular name of Cbo or Jo khang, or Lha?a Jo-wo kbaiig. 
A. K. calls it Jhio. Ho also mentions Azimabad (Patua) mercbants as having 
sbops in Lbasa. — ' Keport on the Explorations,' p. 32. See also Waddell, op. cit., 300 
tt sqq. 

t Tbese " fringes" are cotton strips on wbicb are printed cbarms (^mantras). Usually 
tbe figure of a horse occupies the middle of tbe strip. They are called lung-ta, or 
'■ wind-horse." E. Schlaginweit, ' Buddhism in Tibet,' p. 253, and plate xi. The 
" inscribed banners " belong to tbe same class of objects, and have also prayers 
or passages from tbe scriptures printed on them. Georgi, 'Alph. Tibet,' p. 509, 
refers to these "tiag-poles" as being called Tarpo cJie(tar-paisMng?), " Arbor salutaris, 
depulsoria mali." See also W^xddell, op, cit,, -IGS et sqq. 


could not swallow it ; * but we managed, after a while, to make some 
in our own room. Shortly after Tsing-ta came in, hringing a pair of 
ruffs. two cushions, and two little tables he had borrowed at the 
Bangye-shag. He had also an invitatiim from tlie Lliacham to visit 
her in the afternoon. 

Having shaved ami donned my lama costume and goggles, we 
started for Bangyeshag, which was about a mile from our lodgings. 
Most of the shops we saw were kept by Kashmiris, Nepalese, or 
Chinese ; the Tibetan ones were few and poorly supplied. 

Bangyeshag is a lofty, fiat-roofed stone building with two large 
gateways. The ground floor is used as storerooms and quarters for 
the amlas or retainers of the Phala estates. The beams, the cornices, 
as also the winddw-frames, are painted red ; a few of the windows 
have a little jjane of glass in them, but most of them are covered 
with paper. On reaching the second floor, the Lhacham's maids 
{shctama) greeted me most kindly, and insisted on my taking a cup 
or two of tea, after which they led me to her ladyship's room, where, 
taking off my hat, I presented her a visiting scarf [jadar) and a piece 
of gold of about a dzo weight.f Making motion to one of her maids 
to present me a scarf, she kindly wished me welcome (" Chyag-^jeb 
nanff chig, PvMdih la "), and bade me take a seat (" Pundih la, shu dang 
shag, shu dang shag ' ). After conversing with her a while about my 
recent illness, and telling lier of the kindness of the Dorje Phagmo, 
that merciful Lady of the Lake to whom I owe my life, I took my 
leave and returned home. 

Jttne 1, — June 1 is the holiest day of the year, saga d((va,X ^lie 
day of the Buddha's nirrana, and incense was burnt on every hilltop, 
in every shrine, chapel, lamasery, and house in or near Lhasa. Men, 
women, and children hastened to the sacred shrine of Kyil-khording (or 
Jo khang, as it is commonly called), to do ;>//_/« to the Jo-vo (" Lord 
Buddha") and obtain his blessing. All carried in their hands 
bundles of incense-sticks, bowls of butter, and khatag of all sizes and 
cjualities. Our fellow-lodgers went with the rest, calling at my room 
on the way out, and in a short time we also joined the crowd. 

* -Mutton fat i.s u cuiiiiuoii substitutf for butter in tea among thc^ Tibolims, and is 
not always used as a, pu aller, but in preference to butter.— (AV. R.) 

t A <ho is a tenth of an ounce {mnij\ or about two-thirds of a rupee in wi-i<,'ht. In 
India its equivalent is a tola. — (\V. R.) 

X The Buddha's death is said to Imve occuind on the ir>tli of Die 4th month, which 
only occasionally falls on June ].— (W. R.; 


A broad street runs in front of the Jo khang, and the road which 
comes from the Pargo kaling gate terminates on its western face, and 
liere grows a tall poplar said to have sprung from the hair of the 
Buddha. Beside this is the ancient stone tablet erected by the 
Tibetans in the ninth century to commemorate their victory over 
the Chinese, and which gives tlie text of the treaty then concluded 
between the Emperor of China and King Ealpachan.* 

The magnificent temple engrossed, however, all my attention. 
In front of it is a tall flag-pole, at the base of which hang two yak- 
tails, some inscriptions, and a number of yaks and sheep-horns. In 
the propylon of the chief temple {Tsang khang), the heavy wooden 
pillars of which are three to four feet in circumference, and about 
twelve feet high, upwards of a hundred monks were making prostra- 
tions before the image of the Lord (Jo-vo) on a throne facing the west. 
This famous image of the Buddha, known as Jo-vo riapoche, is said 
to have been made in Magadha during the lifetime of the great 
teacher.f Visvakarma is supposed to have made it, under the 
guidance of the god Indra, of an alloy of the five precious substances, 
gold, silver, zinc, iron, and copper, and the " fi\'e precious celestial 
substances," probably diamonds, rubies, lapis-lazuli, emeralds, and 

The legend goes on to say that the image was in the first place 
sent from India to the capital of China in return for the assistance 
the Emperor had given the King of Magadha against the Yavanas 
from the west. When the Princess Konjo, daughter of the Emperor 
Tai-tsung, was given in marriage to the King of Tibet, she brought 
the image to Lhasa as a portion of her dowry. 

* " Outside the gale (of the Jo khang) there is a stone pillar in a poor state of pre- 
servation : it is the tablet containing the alliance of Tang Te-tsung with his nephew. 
On either side of the pillar are old willows, whose aged trunks are bent and twisted 
like writhing dragons. It is said that they date from the Tang period." Jour. Boy. 
As. Soc. (new series), vol. xxiii. p. 264. This inscription bears date a.d. 783. — (W. R.) 

t See I. J. Schmidt, 'Geschicbte der Ost-Mongolen von Ssanang Ssetsen,' p. 35. 
According to Tibetan historians, this same princess (or Kung chu, her name was 
Chin-Cheng), the wife of King Srong-btsan gambo, introduce I into Tibet, among 
other things, the art of pottery, grist-mills, looms, etc. Emil Schlaginweit, ' Die 
Konige von Tibet,' p. 49. Chinese authors (see Jour. Boy. As. Soc, vol. xxiii. 
p. 191) attribute to her influence the first use of winepresses, paper, ink, the Chinese 
almanac, and the introduction of the silkworm. Tliis princess was not a daughter of 
the Emperor Tai-tsung, but a member of his family. She appears to have travelled 
from China to Lhasa by the Hsi-ning road, which passes by the sources of the Yellow 
River.— (W. R.) 


The image is life-size and exquisitely modelled, and represents a 
handsome young prince. The crown on its head is said to be the 
gift of Tsong-khapa, the great reformer. The Jvunyer said that the 
image represented the Buddha when at the age of twelve ; hence 
the princely apparel in which he is clothed and the dissimilarity of 
the image to those seen elsewhere.* On the four sides of it were 
gilt pillars with dragons twined around them, supporting a canopy. 
On one side of the image of the Buddha is that of Maitreya, and 
on the other that of Dipankara Buddha.t Behind this, again, is the 
image of the Buddha Gang-chan wogyal, and to the right and left of 
the latter those of the twelve chief disciples of the Buddha. 

We were also shown the image of the great reformer, Tsong-khapa, 
near which is the famous rock, called Amolonhha, discovered by 
Tsong-khapa.J On this rock is placed the bell with a gem in the 
handle, supposed to have been used by Maudgalyayana, the chief 
disciple of the Buddha, 

After the image of the Buddha, the most celebrated statue in this 
temple is that of Avalokiteswara with the eleven faces (Shen-re-zig 
chu-cliig dzal). It is said that once King Srong-btsan gambo heard a 
voice saying that if he made a full-sized image of Shenrezig, all his 
wishes W'Ould be granted him ; so he constructed this one, in the 
composition of which there entered a branch of the sacred Bo tree, 
some soil of an island in the great ocean, some sand from the Eiver 
Nairanjana,§ some gosirsha sandalwood, some soil from the eight 
sacred places of India, and many other rare and valuable substances. 
All these were first powdered, then, having been moistened with the 
milk of a red cow and a goat, made into a paste and moulded into a 
statue. To give it additional sanctity, the king had a sandalwood 
image of the god brought from Ceylon put inside of it. 

This statue is also known as the " five self-created " {n//a rang 
chgiiag) ; for the Xepalese sculptor who made it said that it had 
sprung into shape rather than had been moulded by him, and it is 

* On the various cel-jbrnted images of the Buddha, see ' Land of the Lamas,' p. 105, 
note 2. Kunyer is the " keeper of images." — (AV. It.) 

t Maitreya (Chyamha, in Tibetan) is tlie Buddha to come in the last period of this 
cych-, and Dijtankara (Mar-mc chad) is the Buddha of the first period. The historical 
Buddha, or Sachya tubpa, is the Buddha of the present era.— (W. R.) 

X Our author calls it "a fossil rock . . . discovered in a rock cavern in Tibet." I 
can offer no explanation of the nature of this relic. — (W. R.) 

§ A river of Magadha famous in early history, and in whicli the Buddlia 
is said to have bathed alter attaining omniscience. — (W. \{.) 


further said that the souls of King Srong-btsan gambo and his 
consorts were absorbed in it. It occupies the northern chapel in 
the temple, and is surrounded by the images of a numljer of gods 
and goddesses. 

In the outer courtyard of the temple is a row of statues, among 
which is that of King Srong-btsan gambo and various saints and 
Pundits. On the porch of the Tsang-khang are images of the Buddhas 
of the past, present, and future. Iiniumerable other highly interesting 
images and votive offerings were shown us, among which I will 
mention a hundred and eight lamps made out of stone under Tsong- 
khapa's directions. 

Among the other objects of interest shown us was a stone slab 
{Padma 'pung-'pcC) which King Srong-btsan gambo and his wives were 
wont to use as a seat when taking their baths, and a life-size statue 
of Tsong-khapa surrounded by images of gods, saints, and worthies. 
In the room where these statues are seen, and which is closed by a 
wire lattice, is also a famous image of the god Chyag-na dorje (Vaj- 
rapani). "When the iconoclast King Langdarma * began persecuting 
Buddhism, he ordered this image to be destroyed. A valet tied a 
rope around its neck to drag it from the temple, but he suddenly 
became insane, and died vomiting blood, and the image was left 

In the outer court, or lcl(ijamra,\ is the image of the god Tovo Me- 
tsig-pa,J by whose power the invading armies of China were routed 
in the war which immediately followed the death of King Srong- 
btsan gambo. Near it are statues of the king and his two consorts, 
and some huge yak-horns, of which the following anecdote is told to 
inquisitive pilgrims by the temple servants {Jmnyer). Ea-chung-pa, 
a disciple of the great saint ]Milarapa,§ had been to India, and had 

* This king reigned over Tibet at the end of the ninth century, a.d. He appears 
to have been a fervent follower of the Bonbo religion. He was murdered in 900 by 
a lama who had disguised himself so as to be able to approach the king, and went 
through clownish tricks and dances. The murder of the king is still feted by dances, 
in which the participants wear costumes resembling those of the murderer of tlic 
iconoclast. See supra, p. 114. — (S. C. D.) 

t Presumably Chijl (phyi), "outside ; " and ra-iva, " an enclosure." 

X I sup25ose this name means "innumerable beings; legions of beings (gro-vo) ; a 
host in himself." The title To- wo or, "Angry," applies to a wliole class of deities of 
the Protector (or Chos-gyong) class. — (W. R.) 

§ A wandering lama and saint who lived in Southern Tibet in the eleventli century, 
and who taught by parables and songs, some of which have considerable literary merit. 


there studied under the most learned masters all the mysteries of 
the fiiith, and had returned to Tibet filled with pride over his know- 
ledge. Travelling to Lhasa with his master, they reached the middle 
of the desert called Palmoi-paltang, when Milarapa, who knew of 
the conceit of his disciple and wished to teach him a lesson, ordered 
him to fetch him a pair of yak horns lying near by. IJut Ea- 
chung-pa said to himself, " The master wants everything he sees. 
Sometimes he is as fretful as an old dog, at others as full of childish 
fancies as an old man in his dotage. Of what possible use can the 
horns be to liim ; he can neither use them for food, drink, nor cloth- 
ing ? " Then he asked the sage what he proposed doing with them. 
" Though it is not possible to say what may occur," replied Mila- 
rapa, " they will certainly be of use some time or other ; " and lie 
picked them up himself and carried them along. 

After a while a violent hailstorm overtook the travellers, and 
there was not so much as a rat-hole in which they could find shelter, 
Ea-chung-pa covered his head with his gown, and sat on the ground 
till the storm had passed by. When he searched for the lama, he 
could see him nowhere ; but he heard a voice, and, looking about, lo ! 
there was Milarapa seated inside one of the horns. " If the son is 
the equal of the father, then," said the saint, "let him seat himself 
inside the other horn ; " l)ut it was too small to even serve Ea- 
chung-pa for a hat. Then Milarapa came out of the horn, and 
Ea-chung-pa carried them to Lhasa, and presented them to the 

After visiting all the ground floor we climbed up to the second 
and third stories, where we were shown a number of other images, 
among Aviiich I noticed that of Paldan Ihamo. By the time we had 
seen all the images we had exhausted our supply of butter, for Pador 
b;id ])ut a little in every lamp lighted that day in the chapels. 
Those before the image of tlie Jo-vo were of gold, and each must have 
held ten or twelve pounds of butter. 

I5y the time we reached our lodgings I was completely worn out, 
and passed tlie rest of the day in my rooms or on the housetop, the 

The two principiil works iiscribcil to liim are an autobiography, or 'Nam-tar,' and a 
collection of tracts called ' Lu bum,' or '' the myriad .songs." They arc still among the 
most popular books in Tibet. See Nineteenth Century, Oct., 1899, pp. (J13-G32.^(W. K.) 
* Though I have not a copy of INIihinipa's ' I.u bum' witli m<', I feel sure that tliis 
anecdote is taken from it. — CW. li.) 



Wl a Tf .TnTmntim I.TmittJ 




view from which always charmed me, especially when the rays of the 
setting sun shone brightly on the gilded domes of tlie temples and 

I was much troubled in my mind by hearing from Tsing-ta tliat 
small-pox was raging in town, even the keeper of our house, his wife 
and children, were down with the disease, and in every dwelling in 
the neighbourhood some one was ill with it. 

On the following morning (June 2), after an early breakfast, I 
went to visit the famous shrine of Eamoche,* carrying, as on the 
previous day, a bundle of incense-sticks, some butter and khatags. 
We took a horribly muddy lane, where heaps of filth emitted a most 
offensive odour ; then, turning northward, we crossed the Potala road at 
tlie north-west corner of the Tomse-gang, as the Kyil-khording square 
is commonly called, and passed by the lofty Wangdu cTiortcn, which 
was built to bring under the power {ivang, "power;" clu, "to sub- 
jugate ") of Tibet all the neighbouring nations. This spot is also 
called Gya-bum gang, for it is said that once during tlie Ming dynasty 
of China 100,000 {gya-hum) Chinese troops camped (f/aw/) on the 
plain to the north of this chorten. Other accounts explain this name 
by saying that in the war with China, after the death of King Srong- 
btsangambo, 100,000 Chinamen were killed in a battle near this spot.f 

A few hundred paces beyond this place we reached the gate of 
Eamoche, the famous temple erected by the illustrious Konjo, % 
daughter of the Emperor Tai-tsung, and wife of King Srong-btsan 
gambo. It is a flat-roofed edifice three stories high, and has a wide 
portico. At the front of the building there is to be seen a very 
ancient inscription in Chinese, giving probably the history of tlie 
building of the temple. The image of Mikyod dorje (Vajra Akshobhya), 
brought here by King Srong-btsan's second wife, a Nepalese princess, 
is of undoubted antiquity, even tliough the face of the statue is 
covered with gilding. 

In the northern lobby are heaps of relics — shields, spears, drums, 
arrows, swords, and trumpets, and in a room to the left of the entrance, 

* Ramoche means " a large enclosnro " : it was probably the name of the locality 
on which the famous temple was built, and not tlie original name of that structure. — 
(W. E.) 

t A. K. (op. cit., p. 33) mentions this chorfen which he calls Giaug Bimmoche, 
'•erected in honour of a Tibetan hero who is said to have killed 100,000 of his enemies 
(Chinese) on the spot.'" — (W. K.) 

X The princess is said to have been buried in this temple.— (W. R.) 


and sliut in by an iron lattice, are a few very holy images. With 
the excex)tion of a very small gilt dome built iu Chinese style, I saw 
nothing strongly indicative of that description of architecture, and, 
taking it all together, Eamoche fell far short of the preconceived 
idea I had formed of it.* 

Lay monks, or Serkempa, usually perform the services held at 
Eamoche, and half a dozen of them and a lamycr (sexton) live in 
the upper stories of the temple. 

As we left the temple we were met by a party of singing beggars, 
who followed us to our house clamouring for solra, or alms ; finally 
we sent them oif witli a Icarma, or the value of two annas. Had we 
given more we would have been persecuted by numerous other parties 
of these pests. 

June 3. — A lama of Khams, whom I had met at Tashilhunpo, 
came to see me to-day. He told me that he was waiting for nine 
loads of silver from Tashilhunpo, on the arrival of which he would 
leave for Western China, coming back to Lhasa next March or April. 
I had heard at Tashilhunpo that he had a caravan of 700 mules, and 
carried on trade between Darchendo t and Lhasa. This Pomda | 
lama was a man of gigantic stature, something over six feet, well 
proportioned, and of great strength ; he was well known to brigands, 
and none dared molest him. j\ly further acquaintance with him 
confirmed me in the opinion I had formed of the Khambas. Though 
they are wild, they are devoted friends, and when once one becomes 
intimate with one of them, he will be faithful to the end. 

I heard to-day the following story about the famous Eegent 
Tsomoling and his social reforms : Once there came to Lhasa a lama 
pilgrim from Tsoni, in Amdo,§ and he was admitted into the Sera 

* Gcorgi, 'Alpli. Tibet.' p. 242, says, " Magia; D( tctores iS^t Jiam/«< dicti, diabolicse 
liujus sapientiaa mysterii.s initiantur, Magica Laiirea soleimiiter ornantiir in duobus 
Lhassie Coenobii.s Ramoie Chintopa and Moru Cliiupa uuncupalis. . , . Oracula sunt 
iuni publica tnm domestica, quir; ropuli, quae C'ives, qujE sacri ac profani IMagistiatus 
adeant rcsponsa capturi." 

t Or Ta-chien-lu, on the border of Sze-chuen. — (W. R.) 

+ Pomda ajipears to be Pungde, a little post-station two days' ride from Chamdo, 
and south-east of that town. It is called by the Chinese Pao-tuu. Sec my ' Diary of a 
Journey,' p. 31G.— (W. R.) 

§ Amdo is that portion of tlie western liordur-land of the Chinese province of Kan- 
su and Sze-ehuen whicii is occupied by Tibetan tribes. This anecdote is also found 
in Ugyen-gyatso's relation of his exploration, ' Report on Explorations from 1856 to 

i88(;,' p. :n. 


convent, where he studied under a learned Mongol lama. After a 
few years the Amdo lama's tutor returned to his home, and on parting- 
he left his pupil a couple of earthen pots, a hhatag, and a bag of 
barley, the most valuable things he possessed, as he told him. The 
pupil, disappointed with these gifts, carried the pots to the market 
and sold them for half a tanha, with which he bought butter that he 
put in the lamps burning before the great image of the lord (Jo-vo), 
praying that if he ever became Eegent of Tibet, lie might be able to 
reform the social customs of the country. 

In the course of time he rose to the dignity of a teacher in liis 
convent ; then he became its abbot, or Jchanpo ; and finally he rose to 
the rank of regent. One of the first acts of his administration was 
to expel all public women from Lliasa, and to compel all women 
to cover their faces witii a coating of catechu, so as to hide their 
comeliness from the public view.* Women were also made to 
wear a bangle cut out of a conch-shell on tlieir right wrist, by 
which they could be held when arrested. From his time also dates 
the nse by women of aprons (jjancf-dcn) and of the present style 
of headdress, or patiuj. The old style of 'p'g.tiui is now only worn 
by the wives (or Lhacham) of the Shape (ministers). He was the 
first of the Tsomoling lamas, and his reincarnations still inhabit the 
lamasery of that name behind Eamoche. 

On June 4 I again visited the Jo khang.j After paying reverence 
to the Jo-vo and circumambulating his sacred throne, the hunyer 
poured some holy water (tu) into my hand from a golden vessel. In 
a little cJiortcn in one of the chapels on the south side of the temple 
is kept a statue of red bell-metal, or li-mar, made, so says tradition, 
in the days of King Kriki, when men lived 20,000 years. For many 
centuries it was kept by the kings of Nepal ; but when a princess 
from that country married King Srong-btsan gambo, she brought it 
to Tibet, and placed it in this temple, where it is the object of 
constant worship. 

But perhaps the most revered of all the images in the Jo khang, 

* Cf. Hue, ' Souvenirs d'un voyage daus ia Tartaric et le Tliibet,' vol. ii. p. 258 ; 
and ' Land of the Lamas,' p. 214. 

t Georgi, op. cit. p. 406 et sqq., describes very fully and accurately this famous 
temple, of which he also gives a ground plan. He calls it the Lalipranga Lhassensi. 
This description agrees very closely with that of our author, and is highly interesting, 
as the analogies between its style of architecture and that of Christian churches are 
discussed. — (W. E.) 



exclusive of that of the Jo, is that of Paldan Ihaiiio (Srimati devi). 
The terrifying face of the goddess is kept veiled, but the kunycr 
uucovered it for us. This terrific goddess is regarded as the guardian 
of the Dalai and Tashi lamas. The chestnut-coloured mule she rides, 
the offspring of a red ass and a winged mare, was given her by the 


goddess of the sea. The saddle she sits on is the skin of an ogre, and 
the l)ridle and crupper are vipers. Kya dorje gave her dice with 
which t(» i»lay for lives, and the ogres, oi^Srinpo, presented lior a string 
of skulls, wliich she holds in her left hand, and the goblins that haunt 
graveyards gave her corpses, on which she feeds. In her right hand 
she holds a club given her by the god Chyagna-dorje. 'Twas in such 


fearful attire that she waged war against the foes of Buddhism, and 
became the greatest of all its guardian deities. 

The chapel of Paldan Ihamo is overrun by mice, so tame that 
they crawled up the kumjers body. They are supposed to have 
been lamas in former existences. On one of the walls we saw a 
painting made with the blood of King Srong-btsan. 

As we were walking home I saw some men hawking books, and 
told them what works I would buy if they could but procure tliem 
for me. They promised to luring them to me shortly. 

The excellent brick-tea {du tang-nyipa) which I had brought 
from Tashilhunpo was now exhausted, and I was reduced to drinking 
a miserable quality known as <jija-])a. Du tang, or first-quality tea, 
is more highly flavoured than the quality I liked, but it was too 
strong for me. 

Tea was introduced into Tibet earlier than the tenth century, but 
it only became of universal use from the time of the Sakya hierarchy 
and the Phagmodu kings.* During the early part of the Dalai lama's 
rule the tea trade was a governmental monopoly, and since the 
beginning of the present century, though nominally open to every 
one, the trade is practically in the hands of the officials. 

Some notes on the mode of selection of incarnate lamas may not 
be out of place here. It used to be customary when selecting incarnate 
lamas to either decide by throwing dice or by some other trial of luck, 
or by taking the opinion of the College of Cardinals ; but that method 
not giving perfect satisfaction, it was decided that the candidates 
should undergo certain examinations, which, together with the hints 
thrown out from time to time by the defunct incarnation as to where 
and when his successor would be found, helped in the determination 
of the lawful reincarnation. 

From the middle of the seventeenth century down to 1860, when 
the Dalai lama, Tinle-gyatso, was chosen, the rightful reincarnation 

* Phagpa was given the government of Tibet by the Emperor Kublai in i.D. 1260. 
The first of the Phagmodu kings was Nyakri btsan-po, who is said to have ascended the 
throne of Tibet (then a little principality south of the Tsangpo, in the Yarlung valley) 
B.C. 313. See I. J. Schmidt, op. sup. viL, p. 23 ; and Emil Schlaginweit, ' Die Konige 
von Tibet,' pp. 39-41. From b.c. 313 to a.d. 1260 is such a long period of time, that we 
are hardly able to say that the date of the introduction of tea into Tibet has been fixed. 
It is probable that the Tibetans did not use tea before the eighth century, at the 
earliest, and its use only became common in recent times. No mention. I believe, is 
made of tea in the works of Milarapa (eleventh century), nor in any of the older 
books known to us in the Tibetan language. — (W. R.) 


of a defunct Scaint was found out by the use of the goklen jar, or 

Three years after the death of an incarnate hima the names of 
the ditt'en'nt cliikh-en, wlio it was chximed were his reincarnation, 
were taken down. These names, in the case of the Dalai or Tashi 
lamas, were sent to the regent for examination, after which the 
president of the conclave, in the presence of the IJcgent and the 
ministers, enclosed in tsariiba balls slips of paper, on each of which 
was written the name of a candidate. In other tsamha balls were 
slips on whicli was written " yes " or " no," as well as some blank 
slips. All these were put together in a golden jar, wliich was placed 
on the altar of the principal chapel of Lhasa, and for a week the 
gods were invoked. On the eighth day the jar was twirled round a 
certain number of times, and the name which fell out three times, 
together with a pellet in which was a slip inscribed " yes," was 
declared the true reincarnation. Those wlio were sent to bring the 
reincarnated saint to Lhasa or Tashilliunpo submitted him to certain 
trials ; as, for example, picking out from a number of similar objects 
the rosary, the rings, cup, and mitre of the deceased lama.f 

In 1(S75, a year after the death of the Dalai lama Tinle-gyatso, 
the regent and the College of Cardinals consulted the celebrated 
Xachung Chos-gyong oracle ^ aljout the Dalai's reappearance, and the 
oracle declared that the reincarnation could only be discovered by 
a monk of the purest morals. It required, again, the supernatural 
powers of the oracle to find the future discoverer of tlie Grand Lama ; 
he was the Shar-tse Khanpo of Gadan, a lama of great saintliness 
and profound knowledge. The oracle further stated that he should 

* Accor(lin<? to Chinese authors, the selectiou of incarnate lamas by the d rawing 
of lots from a golden vase dates from 1793. See Jour. Roy. As. Soc, vol. xxiii. ; 
' Land of the Lanias,' p. 290 ; Waddell, op. cit., 245 et sqq. and 279, note 2 ; also Hue, oj>. 
cit., vol. ii. p. 348. rran5ois Bernier, in his 'Voyages' (1723), vol. ii. p. 310, gives 
some interesting details about the reincarnation of the Grand Lama, as told him by an 
attache to a mission from the King of Little Tibet to Aureng-Zeb. — (W. R.) 

t Among the strange events which occur on the birth of a reincarnation of the 
Tale lama may be mentioned '■ the blossoming, in the immediate vicinity of the birth- 
place, of fruit-trees some months before their usual season ; the casting of two or more 
young by animals whicli as a rule do not cast so many at a birth ; and tlie sudden 
recovery from fatal illnesses of persons coming in contact with the newborn child." 
See 'Keport on E.xplorations,' made by A. K., p. 32. — (AV. R.) 

X See "Waddell, op. cit., p. 478. He calls him "the Necromancer-in-Ordinary to the 
CJovernment." He was iirst brought to Tibet by Padma-sambhava, the founder of 
Lamaism in the middle of the eighth century, — (W. R.) 









K Ajl^JcQnistcmJJmited j;ftiiibur;gh A tandcTi . 






go to Choskhor-gya, as the reincarnation was to be found somewhere 
near Kong-po.* The Khanpo went there accordingly, and sat in deep 
meditation for seven days, when, on the night of tlie last day, he had 
a vision and heard a voice which directed him to repair to the 
Mu-li-ding-ki tso (lake) of Choskhor. Awakening from his sleep, the 
Khanpo went to the lake, where, on the crystal surface of the water, 
he saw the image of the incarnate Grand Lama seated in his mother's 
lap, and his father fondling him. , The house, its furniture, all was 
shown him. Suddenly the image disappeared, and he set out at 
once for Kong-po. On the way he stopped in Tag-po at the house 
of a respectable and wealthy family, and at once he recognized the 
child and all the images seen in his dream. He promptly informed 
the Government at Lhasa, and the regent and the cardinals came 
to Tag-po and took the child, then a year old, and its parents to the 
Kigyal palace, near Lhasa. This child, now aged ten, is called Nag- 
wang lo-zang tubdan gya-tso, " the Lord of speech, the mighty ocean 
of wisdom." f 

The reason why the golden jar was not used for finding this re- 
incarnation was because of the apprehension that the Dayan Khanpo's 
spirit — he had but recently died, and had been violently opposed to 
the Dalai lamas and their form of government — might be able to 
cause a wrong name to be drawn from the jar. 

June 5. — Early this morning I was invited to dine with the 
Lhacham at Bangye-shag. I was received most graciously, and was 
led by the Lhacham to her drawing-room, a room about IG feet by 
12, facing the south and on the third story of the building. There 
were in it two Chinese chests of drawers, on top of which were a lot 
of porcelain cups ; Chinese pictures — -picnics and dancing most of 
them represented — covered the greater part of the walls ; the ceiling 
was of Chinese satin, and thick rugs of Yarkand and Tibetan make 
covered the floor. Well-polished little tables, wooden bowls for 
tsamha, and some satin-covered cushions completed the furniture of 
the room. 

* A small and fertile district a little to the east of Lhasa. The cliief towu in this 
district is usually called Kong-po gyamda. Esjjlorer K. P. visited it in 1SS.3 (?). He 
says that " there are about twenty Nepalese shops and fifteen shops of Tibetans at 
this place." See ' Eeport of Explorations in Butan and Tibet,' p. 15. — (W. R.) 

t Of. Ugyen-gyatso's account of this discovery in ' Report on the Explorations,' 
p. 31. The place of his birth was " Paruchude, near Nam Jong, in Takpo," according 
to the explorer K. P., op. sup. cit., p. 8.— (W. R.) 



After conversing for a while and drinking a few cups of tea, the 
Lhachani withdrew, and one of her maids showed me the rooms in 
the mansion. The furniture was much the same as that in the 
Lhacham's room, only of inferior quality and ruder make. The 
walls were painted green and blue, with here and there pictures of 
processions of gods and demons, and the beams of the ceiling were 
carved and painted. The doors were very roughly made and without 
panels ; the windows were covered wdth paper, with a very small 
pane of glass fitted in the middle of each. There were no chimneys 
in any of the rooms, but earthenware stoves, or jala. In a few of the 
rooms flowers were growing in pots. 

Eeturning to the Lhacham's room, dinner was served me at 
noon, and while I ate she asked me many questions concerning the 
marriage laws of India and Europe. Wlien I told her that in India 
a husband had several wives, and that among the Phyling * a man 
had but one wife, she stared at me with undisguised astonishment. 
" One wife with one husband ! " she exclaimed. " Don't you tlunk 
we Tibetan women are better off? The Indian wife has but a portion 
of her husband's affections and property, but in Tibet the housewife 
is the real lady of all the joint earnings and inheritance of all the 
brotliers sprung from the same mother, who are all of the same flesh 
and blood. The Ijrothers are but one, though their souls are several. 
In India a man marries w^ell several women who are strangers to 
each other." " Am I to understand that your ladyship would like to 
see several sisters marry one husband ? " I asked. " That is not the 
point," replied the Lhacham. " "What I contend is that Tibetan 
women are happier than Indian onc^s, for they enjoy the privileges 
conceded in the latter country to the men." f 

Juiv 7. — My two men had heard from Gadan Tipa, a soothsayer, 
that they would be stricken with small-pox if they ventured to go to 
Samye, and they besought me to give up the idea ; but I declared 
emphatically my resolve to visit that famous lamasery, and also that 
of Gaden. 

* I.e. " foreigners ; " literally, " outside-country." The word has no connection, as 
was once supposed, with Ferawjlii or Franhs. — (W. E.) 

t Our author tells us further on (p. 2IG) of a woman married to two men not 
related. P^lsewliere he makes mention of a lamasery in which monks and nuns cohabit, 
and bring up their children in their profession. Polygamy also obtains among the 
wealthier Tibetans, who have probably adopted it from the Cliinese, and monogamy 
has a few votaries. See ' Land of the Lamas,' p. 211 et sqq. 


On June 8 I again visited the Jo khang. The nuiaerous wooden 
pillars supporting the second story are among- the most remarkable 
things in this temple. The largest of these have capitals with 
sculptured foliage, and are called Iri-wa shinff-lho chan.* At their 
base are Ijuried, it is said, great treasures of gold and silver. Other 
pillars, with dragon-heads as capitals, have hidden under them charms 
against devils, for curing diseases, and for keeping off and thwarting 
the evil designs of the enemies of. Buddhism and of the government 
of the church. Other pillars, again, called scvf/ f/o-chan, " having 
lions' heads as capitals," have concealed under them many potent 
charms {yang-yig) f to insure bounteous crops. 

Under the floor of the Lu-khang are many charms and precious 
things wrapped in snow-fox or snake-skin. These, it is supposed, 
preserve the flocks and herds of Tibet. Beneath tlie image of 
Dsambhala is hidden in an onyx box some tar/-sJia,'\. which preserves 
the precious stones, the wool, the grain, and the other riches of the 

Among the other objects of special sanctity, I was shown in the 
passage for circumambulating the temple a cavity in the rock where 
neither moss nor grass grow ; it is said to keep back the waters of 
the Kyi cliu from invading the Jo khang.§ 

June 9. — I went out walking to-day in the direction of Eamoche. 
On the streets I met numerous bands of rafiijahas, or scavengers, 
wandering from place to place, clamouring for alms from every new- 
comer or pilgrim they saw. If no attention is paid to them, they 
thrust their dirty hats in the stranger's face and lavish insults on 
him ; and if he take ofience, they reply, " Why, my lord, this is 
not insolence ; we are but saluting you ! " 

These ragyahas of Lhasa form a guild. Persons convicted of any 
crime, or vagabonds, are usually sent back to their native villages, 
there to work out their sentence ; but when the authorities cannot 
learn whence they come, they are handed over to the chief of the 
ragyahas, who receives them into his guild. Besides begging, the 
ragyahas cut up the corpses which are brought to the two cemeteries 

* Meaning, literally, "pillars of southern wood." The "southern -wood" is 
probably the same as the nan mii or teak of the Chinese. — (W. K.) 

t The term yang-yig usually means " musical score," the lamas using sometimes a 
descriptive score to teach chanting. — (W. R.) Lu kang means " Snakehouse." 

X A medicinal plant. — (S. C. D.) 

§ See Jour. Boy. A&iat. Soc, xxiii. p. 70, and Hue, op. ciL, ii. p. 191.— (W. R.) 



of Lhasa, near which they live, and feed them to vultures and dogs. 
A rcujijalja may not show his wealth, however great it be ; the walls 
of their houses must be made with horns of sheep, goats, or yaks, the 
convex sides turned upwards.* 

At present the chief of the ragyahas is a man of about fifty years, 
called Abula; he wears a red serge gown and a yellow turban. 
Cursed is the lot of the rcufyahm, and twice cursed is Abula, if a day 
passes without a corpse being brought to the cemetery ; for people 


Ijelieve that if a day passes without a death it portends evil to 

In connection with the erection of Eamoche, it is said that the 
princess who had it built discovered that the spot on which the 

* " In the faubourgs tliere is a quarter where the houses are built entirely with 
horns of oxen and sheep. These curious buildings arc extremely solid, and present a 
rather pleasing aspect. The ox-horns being smooth and whitish, and the sheep-horns, 
on the contrary, black and rough, these strange building materials lend themselves 
marvellously well to endless combinations, and form on the walls designs of infinite 
variety ; tlie spaces between the horns are filled with mortar. These houses are the only 
ones which are not whitewashed," Hue, ' Souvenirs d'un voyage,' vol. ii. p. 254. 


temple was erected was in communication with licll, ami tlrat there 
was a crystal palace inhabited by the JSTagas deep in tlie earth under- 
neath this place.* 

Among the most remarkable relics preserved in this temple, and 
which I had not had time to examine on my first rather hurried visit, I 
now noticed one of Dolma f made of turquoise, and which is said to 
render oracles, one of Tse-pa-med % made of coral, and one of 
PJn-chen Khadoma § in amber, and a number of others of jade, conch- 
shells and mwmcn,\ besides many jars and l)0wls of jade and gold. 

In the afternoon I called on the Lhacham, and was sorry to 
learn that her second son had small-pox. I told her how disappointed 
I was at not having been able to get even a glimpse of the Kyabgong^ 
the " lord protector " of Tibet, the Dalai lama. " Alas ! " I added, 
" I have not acquired a sufticient moral merit in former existences 
to be able to see Shenrezig in flesh and blood ! " 

" Do not be cast down, Pundib la ; though it is not an easy matter 
for even the Shape and nobles of Tibet to see the Dalai lama, I will 
arrange an audience for you." IT 

Early the next day a gentleman {hii-dag), who was a ] )ungkhor of 
Potala, called on me, and said that the Kusho Lhacham of Phala had 
arranged with the Donyer chenpo of Potala for an audience for me 
with the Dalai lama, and that I must get ready as soon as possible. 

Swallowing breakfast as quickly as possible, I put on my best 
clothes, and had hardly finished when the Dungkhor Chola Kusho, 
accompanied by a servant, arrived. Having provided myself with 

* The Kung-chu came to Tibet ad. 639 (see I. J. Schmidt, op. fit., p. 341). He 
there says (trauslating from the Bodhimur) that when the princess reached the spot 
where the Ramoche temple now stands, the cart on which was the image of the Buddha 
(Jo-vo) stopped of itself, and could not be made to move forward.— (W. R.) 

t Dolma, or Drolma (Sanskrit Tara). The two wives of King Srong-btsan gambo are 
worshipped under this name. The Chinese princess is called Dol-kar, or " tlie white 
Dolma," and the Nepalese ijrincess Dol-jang, or " the green Dolma." The latter is 
prayed to by women for fecundity. On the worship of Dolma, see Waddell, op. cit., 
p. 435 et sqq. 

i The god of eternal life ; in Sanskrit, Amitayus. 

§ The Ka-dro (mlmli-hgro') are nymphs or fairies, all friendly to man. In Sanskrit 
they are called Dakini. See Waddeli, op. cit., p. 300. 

II Mumen, " a precious stone of dark blue, but inferior to the azure stone, occasion- 
ally used for rosaries." Mention is also made of mumen dmar-po ("red mumen^'). 
Jaeschke, ' Tib.-Engl. Diet.,' s.v. mu-men. 

t From what the author says a little later, it would appeav that, on the contrary, 
the Tale lama is very accessible. Manning called repeatedly on him in 1811, and 
Hue tells us there was no diiUculty about being admitted to his presence.— (AV. R.) 


three bundles of incense-stieks and a roll oiUtatag, we mounted our 
ponies and sallied forth. As we crossed the doorway we saw a calf 
sucking, and several women carrying water. My companions smiled, 
and Chola Kusho remarked that I was a lucky man, as these were 
most auspicious signs.* 

Arriving at the eastern gateway of Potala, we dismounted and 
walked through a long hall, on either side of which were rows of 
prayer- wheels, which every passer-by put in motion. Then, ascending 
three long flights of stone steps, we left our ponies in care of a by- 
stander — for no one may ride further — and proceeded towards the 
palace under the guidance of a young monk. We had to climb up 
five ladders before we reached the ground floor of Phodang marpo,t or 
" the Eed palace," thus called from the exterior walls being of a dark 
red colour. Then we had half a dozen more ladders to climb up, and 
we found ourselves at the top of Potala (there are lune stories to this 
building), where we saw a number of monks awaiting an audience. 
The view from here was beautiful beyond compare : the broad valley 
of the Kyi chu, in the centre of which stands the great city sur- 
rounded by green groves ; the gilt spires of the Jo-khang and the other 
temples of Lhasa, and farther away the great monasteries of Sera 
and Dabung, behind which rose the dark blue mountains. 

After a while three lamas appeared, and said that the Dalai lama 
would presently conduct a memorial service for the benefit of the 
late Meru Ta lama (great lama of Meru gomba), and that we were 
allowed to be present at it. Walking very softly, we came to the 
middle of the reception hall, the roof of which is su})ported by three 
rows of pillars, four in each row, and where light is admitted by a 
skylight. The furniture was that generally seen in lamaseries, but the 
liangings were of the richest brocades and cloths of gold; the church 
utensils were of gold, and the frescoing on the walls of exquisite 
fineness. Behind the throne were beautiful tapestries and satin 
hangings forming a great <jijal-tsan, or canopy. The floor was 

* Cf. Jour. Roy. Asiat. Soc, xxiii. p. 285. 

t The earliest name of Mount Potala was Marjjo ri, " the red hill." King: Srong- 
htsan gambo is said to have built a palace on its sunimit, and it was occupied by the 
kings of Tibet down to the time of the fifth Tale lama, who built about tlie middle of the 
seventeenth century the present palace. See Emil Schlaginweit, ' Die Konige von Tibet,' 
J). 49. Our author says the palace was built " by the fifth Dalai lama and his illus- 
trious Regent Desi Sangye-gyatso." In connection with our author's audience of the 
Grand Lama, it is interesting to read Manning's account, which agrees with it very 
closely,— (W. 11.) 


beautifully smooth and glossy, but the doors and windows, which 
were painted red, were of the rough description common throughout 
the country. 

A Donyer approached, who took our presentation Jchatag, but I 
held back, at the suggestion of Chola Kusho, the present I had for 
the Grand Lama ; and when I approached him I placed in his lap, 
much to the surprise of all present, a piece of gold weighing a tola. 
We then took our seats on rugs, of which there were eight rows ; 
ours were in the third, and about ten feet from the Grand Lama's 
throne, and a little to his left. 

The Grand Lama is a child of eight with a bright and fair 
complexion and rosy cheeks.* His eyes are large and penetrating, 
the shape of his face remarkably Aryan, though somewhat marred by 
the obliquity of his eyes. The thinness of his person was probably 
due to the fatigue of the Court ceremonies and to the religious duties 
and ascetic observance of his estate. A yellow mitre covered his 
head, and its pendant lappets hid his ears ; a yellow mantle draped 
his person, and he sat cross-legged with joined palms. The throne 
on which he sat was supported l»y carved lions, and covered with silk 
scarfs. It was about four feet high, six feet long, and four feet broad. 
The State officers moved about with becoming gravity : there was the 
Kuchar Klianpo, with a bowl of holy water {tu), coloured yellow with 
saffron ; f the Censor-carrier, with a golden censor with tliree chains ; 
the Solpon chenpo, with a golden teapot ; and other household officials. 
Two gold lamps, made in the shape of flower vases, burnt on either 
side of the throne. 

When all had been blessed and taken seats, the Solpon chenpo 
poured tea in his Holiness's golden cup, and four assistants served 
the people present.! Then grace was said, beginning with Om, Ah, 

* Manning says of the then Tale lama (Lozang lung-tog-gyatso by name), " The 
lama's beautiful and interesting face and manner engrossed almost all my attention. 
He was at that time about seven years old; had the simple and unaffected manners of 
a well-educated princely child. His face was, I thought, poetically and atfectingly 
beautiful. ... I was extremely affected by this interview with the lama. I could 
have wept through strangeness of sensation." See Markham, op. cit., pp. 'IGb, 206. I 
am sorry I have not now access to Nain Singh's report of his interview with the Tale 
lama in 18C6; but. if I remember rightly, it contains some interesting details on his 
audience with the Dalai lama Trin-las-gyatso.— (W. R.) 

t Water used for oblations in Tibet is usually coloured (or perfumed?) with saffron. 
See Waddell, op. cit., p. 208.— (W. E.) 

X Manning says (op. cit., p. 265), ''The ceremony of presentation being over 
Munshi and I sat down on two cushions not far from the lama's throne, and. had suchi 


Hiuii, thrice repeated, and fullowed by, "Never losing sight even for 
a moment of the Three Holies, making reverence ever to the Three 
Precious Ones. Let the blessing of the Three Konchog be upon us," 
etc. Then we silently raised our cups and drank the tea, which was 
most deliciously perfumed. In this manner we drank three cupfuls, 
and then put our bowls back in the bosoms of our gowns. 

After this the Solpon clienpo put a golden dish full of rice before 
the Dalai lama, and he touched it, and then it was divided among 
those present ; then grace was again said, and his Holiness, in a low, 
indistinct tone, chanted a hymn, which was repeated by the assembled 
lamas in deep, grave tones. When this was over, a venerable man 
rose from the first row of seats and made a short address, reciting the 
many acts of mercy the Dalai lamas had vouchsafed Tibet, at the 
conclusion of which he presented to his Holiness a number of valuable 
things ; tlien he made three prostrations and withdrew, followed by 
all of us. 

As I was leaving, one of tlie Donyer chenpo's (or chamberlain) 
assistants gave me two packets of blessed pills, and another tied a 
scrap of red silk round my neck — these are the usual return presents 
the Grand Lama makes to pilgrims. 

As we were going out of the hall, we were met by Chola Kusho's 
younger brother, a monk in Namgyal Ta-tsan, the monastery of the 
palace, "and in his and his brother's company I visited the palace, and 
learnt from them much relating to the history and the traditions of 
the place. 

AVe first visited a chapel where is an image of Shenrezig with 
eleven heads and a thousand arms, an eye in the palm of each of his 
hands. Near it is an image with four arms, also many small gold 
chortcn and objects in bronze. Next I was led to a hall where 
there is an old throne, opposite which are images of King Srong- 
btsan, his two consorts, his minister Tonmi Sambhota, General Gar, 
and I'rince Gungri gung-btsan.* Leaving this room, we went to the 

brought us. It was most excellent, and I meant to have mended my draught and 
emptied the cup, but it was whipped away suddenly, before I was aware of it." SucM 
is sol ((jsol)Ja, the polite term for "tea." "Perfumed tea" is the Cliinese lisiang pieii 
ch'a.—{W. R.) 

* Tonmi Sambhota introduced the alphabet of India into Tilict, and negotiated the 
king's marriages with his two famous consorts. Gar {Mijar) was an equally famous 
general of the .same epoch, and Prince Gungri guug-tsan is, I think, Srong-btsan gambo's 
grandson. See Emil Schlaginweit, ' Die Kiinige von Tibet,' p. 17 et sqq.—iW. R.) 


great hall where Nag-wang lob-zang, the fifth Dalai hiiiia, used to 
hold his court. Old paintings, supposed to be indestructible by fire, 
representing King Srong-btsan's family, Shenrezig, and the first Grand 
Lama, hung from the pillars, and several images, among which one 
of sandalwood representing Gon-po,* may be seen here. 

We were then led to the hall where the Desi Sangye-gyatso used 
to hold his councils.! Here also is the tomb of the first Dalai lama. 
It is two-storied, and the dome is covered with thin plates of gold. 
The Dalai's remains are entombed with many precious things, and 
the sepulchre is ornamented with various objects of the richest designs 
and most costly materials brought hither by devotees. This tomb is 
called the Dsamling gyan, % fiii<l is the prototype of the tombs we saw 
around it containing the remains of the other incarnations of the 
Dalai lama ; but these are all smaller than it. 

After visiting these halls we descended to the Nanigyal Ta-tsan. 
The architecture of the Phodang marpo embarrassed me greatly, the 
halls and rooms being piled up story on story. The stonework was 
beautiful, but it is so poorly drained that in many places the odours 
are stifling. 

Entering a small room, the cell of our guide, we were given seats 
and served witli tea and a collation. Shortly after we started home, 
having expressed in the warmest terms our thanks to Chola Kusho 
and his brother for their kindness. We followed the ling-Ichor, as the 
road which encircles Lhasa is called. On the way we passed a small 
grove where is the elephant-shed, the solitary occupant of which — a 
present from the Eajah of Sikkim — was standing in a barley patch 
near by. Further on we came to a place where the corpses of the 
townspeople are fed to pigs, whose flesh, by the way, is said to be 
delicious. N'ear here are numerous huts of Eagyabas. 

In the evening a drove of donkeys loaded with tscunha and butter 
arrived from Gyautse, and I was distressed to learn that my friend 
the minister had small-pox. My men again began pestering me to 
return to Tsang, alleging as a pretext that I might be of assistance 

* There are seventy-five gods bearing this name. Tlie gon-po (jngon-po) are the 
fiercest of the terrifying type of divinities. — ("SV. R.) 

t On this famous Tibetan statesman (" Tisri vir ingenii sagacissimi," as Geoi-gi, 
op. cit, p. 329, calls him), see Georgi's notice, loc. cit, and Jour. Roy. Asiat. boc, xxiii. 
p. 186. 

X Meaning " the ornament of the world." 


to the minister, and I finally prepared to go to him, especially as the 
donkey-men said he had expressed a desire to have me near him. 

On June 11 I went to see the Lhacham, thanked her for having 
obtained for me an audience of the Kyab-gong Einpoche, and spoke 
to her about my intention of setting out for Dongtse. She advised 
me to leave at once, as small -pox was raging at Lhasa ; her two sons 
now liad it, and from her appearance I feared that she was about to 
foil ill of the same disease. 

Eeturning to our lodgings, 1 despatched Tsing-ta to her to ask a 
loan of 200 tanlas. The sum was l^rought me in the evening bv her 
maid Apela, and the Lhacham also sent me provisions for tlie journey 
and feed for the ponies. 




The Dalai lama's * position resembles that held until lately by the 
Pope in the Christian world. He is believed by the Northern 
Buddhists to be the Buddha's A'ice-regent incarnate on earth, and the 
spiritual protector of Tibet. He is known as Tug-je chenpo Shen- 
rezig, or the Most merciful Avalokiteswara. He never dies, though 
at times, displeased with the sinfulness of the world, he retires to the 
paradise of Gadan,t leaving his mortal body on earth. The ancient 
records of Tibet say that he has only appeared on earth fourteen 
times in the eighteen centuries from the time of the Buddha's death 
to the beginning of the fifteenth century. 

In the year l-iv-i Gedun-gyatso was born, an embodiment of 
Gedun-dub, who was an incarnation of Slienrezig, and the founder of 
the famous lamasery of Tashilhunpo.ij: Gedun-gyatso was elected 
head lama of Tashilhunpo in 1512, which office he resigned to fill the 
same position in Dabung, the chief lamasery of Lhasa. He had 
built at this latter place the Gadan phodang of Dabung, which since 
then has been famed as the principal seat of Buddhist learning. § He 
was the first of the line of Dalai lamas. 

* Pronounced Tale lama. This Mongol name is in common use in Tibet. He is 
also known as Gyal-wa-gyatso, or Kyab-gong Kinpoche ; but this latter title is applied 
likewise to all very high incarnate lamas. A. K.'s Kiamkun Eingboche is but an 
inaccurate transcription of Kyab-gong Einpoche, which means " the Precious Protector." 
— (W. K.) 

t Or rather De-wa-chau, "the happy (place) " in Sanskrit Sukavati ; also called 
Nub-chyog Dewachan, or " the western abode of bliss." — (W. E.) 

X On the Tale lamas, see Jour. Roy. Asiat. Soc, xxiii. p. 285 et sqq., and Waddell, 
op. cit, p. 227 ; the dates given in the former work are derived from Chinese sources, 
and diifer by a year or two from those usually accepted by Tibetans. — (W. E.) 

§ I believe that the Lhasa mint is in this Gadan phodang. Tibetan silver coins 
(tanha) are inscribed Nam-gyal Gadan phodang chyog-las, '• From the Gadan phodang 
of the Victorious (Tale lama)." See Lacouperie, ' The silver coinage of Tibet.'— (W. E.) 


His successor was Sonam-gyatso. He was invited to Mongolia 
by the famous conqueror Altan Khan, and on his arrival at the 
hitter's camp the Khan addressed him in Mongol by the name of 
Dalai lama, the Tibetan word gyatso, " ocean," being the equivalent 
of dalai in IMongol. Altan, knowing that the lama's predecessor had 
also the word gyatso in his name, took it for a family name ; and this 
mistake has been the origin of the name of Dalai lama since given 
to all the reincarnations of the Grand Lama. 

In 1642 Kushi Khan conquered Tibet, and made over the sove- 
reignty of the central portion of it to the fifth Dalai lama, Nagwang 
lozang-gyatso, and that of Tsang, or Ulterior Tibet, to the Grand Lama 
of Tashilhunpo, though he continued himself to be the dc facto 
sovereign, appointing Sonam chuphel as Desi, or Governor, of Central, 
and another as administrator of Ulterior Tibet. The spiritual govern- 
ment remained, however, in the Dalai lama's hands, and he con- 
ferred on Kushi Khan the title of Tandjin chos-gyi Gyalbo, " the most 
Catholic king." 

In 1645 the Dalai lama erected the palace of Potala, Kushi Khan 
having his residence in the Gadan khangsar palace in Lhasa itself. 
Engrossed with extending and consolidating his newly acquired 
kingdom, he had, little by little, to transfer to the Dalai lama and the 
Desi most of his authority over Tibet. In 1654 Kushi Khan died, 
and the Desi Sonam chuphel followed him shortly to the grave. 15y 
this time so much of the temporal authority had devolved on the 
Dalai lama, that, from the time of the death of Kushi till his suc- 
cessor Dayan arrived in Lhasa in 1660 — even though for a year 
(1658-1659) there w\as no Desi — the country enjoyed peace and 
prosperity under his rule. 

During Dayan Khan's reign, which only lasted eight years, a 
Mongol chief, Jaisang Teba, was Desi of Tibet, and the Desi who 
succeeded him was appointed by the Dalai lama himself. 

The successor of Dayan was Ratna-talai Khan, but by this time 
the management of .State affairs had entirely ])assed into the hands of 
the Grand Lama. In ICxSO lie ajipointed Sangye-gyatso Desi, and 
conferred on him such authority that, under the title of Governor- 
Treasurer {Sa-l-yong-ivai dtyag-dso), he was in reality King of Tibet. 
He remodelled the Government, and introduced many useful reforms 
in every branch of the public service. 

The Desi is commonly called "regent" {gyal-tsah), or "king" 


(r/j/alho).* The office is now elective, but no layman may hold it ; it is 
filled by a lama from one of the four great linr/s, Tangye ling, Kundu 
ling, Tse-chog ling, and Tsomo ling ; though there have been cases, 
as, for instance, that of the Desi Shata (or Shadra), wliere lamas from 
other places have been selected.f 

The council of ministers (Kalou) and the Prime Minister {Chyi- 
l-ycd) hhanpo %) select the regent, and their choice is confirmed by the 
oracles of iSTachung chos-gyong and Lhamo sung chyong-ma ; and, 
lastly, the nomination is ratified by the Emperor of China. 

When the Dalai lama reaches his majority, fixed at eighteen 
years, the regent, in the presence of the Kalon, the chiefs and nobles, 
presents him with the seals of of&ce of both spiritual and temporal 
affairs. Since the beginning of the present century no Dalai lama has 
reached majority, and the regency has been without interruption. § 

The regent is assisted by a Chasag, whose appointment is also 
subject to confirmation by the Emperor of China. He wields great 
power, and sometimes exercises the functions of the regent himself. 
No petitions on any official business can reach the regent without 
passing through his hands. He is entrusted with the great seal, and 
when a paper has been prepared by the chief secretary, or Kadung, 
the Chasag affixes the seal to it. The word Chasag means "a strainer 
for tea," the dignitary so designated being the test and model of 
merit. 11 

* Manning calls the King " Ti-mu-fu, or Hu-lu-tu." See Markliam, • Tibet,' p. 2G4. 
I am unable to explain satisfactorily tliese names, though the first has a rather Cliinese 
tournure. The second may be the Mongol Hutuhetu,^' incarnate saint of the first rank." 
The Cliinese call the Regent Tsang Wang, or " King of Tibet." See also, on the 
selection of this functionary, ' Land of the Lamas,' p. 289, and ' Report on Explorations, 
185G-1886,' p. 31. 

t In this connection the following is interesting : " Some few years ago the Grand 
Council of Lhasa (Caphyu) was composed of three men, named Semeliug, Tengeling, 
and Kunduling. A man of influence named Sape Satya complained to the Emperor 
of China of the oppressive and inefficient rule of these men. The Chinese commissioner, 
' Kissen,' came from China, ai^prehended Semeling, and took him off as a prisoner to 
China." — Ashley Eden, ' Report on the State of Bootan,' p. 131 ; cf. Hue, op. cit., ii. 287 
et sqq. 

X He is also called Cliyi-lon Hutuketu. He is Chancellor of the Exchequer ; the 
Chinese Ambau is his colleague, and his approval of any expenditure is necessary. — 
(W. R.) 

§ See Hue, op. cil., ii. 286. 

II Our author's informant must have written ja tsag, meaning " tea-strainer " ; but 
Chasag is spelt rgijal tsab, and means " viceroy." The Lhasa Amban is in like 
manner called Gong-ma tsab, " the Emperor's deputy." — (W. R.) 


The council of ministers, or Kalon sluuj Iciujjja, is composed of 
four laymen and one monk, all of them appointed for life. Formerly 
there were only four Kalon, but of late the preponderating influence of 
the clergy has forced the Grand Lama to put in the council one of its 
members, and he takes the first seat in the council hall, or kasliag, the 
Kalon kripa coming next to him. The council sits daily from nine 
to two, and transacts the political, judicial, and administrative work 
of the Government. It hears appeals from the Djongpon, or from 
the Court of the Timpon of Lhasa, known as " the black court " 
{Nagtsa-shar)* The ministers sit cross-legged on thick cushions 
placed on raised seats, with a bowl of tea on a little table in front of 
each of them, which is kept full by the Court Solpon. The secretaries 
and clerks occupy adjoining rooms. The ministers and all the officers 
of their court are provided with dinner at the expense of the State. 

Estates (or Loiislii) are set apart for the maintenance of the 
ministers, who receive no other salary. They are not allowed the 
privilege of being carried in sedan chairs (j^hch-chyam), the Amban, 
the Dalai, the Panchen lamas, and on certain occasions the regent, 
being alone permitted to use this conveyance. The Kalon dress in 
yellow tunics, and wear Mongol hats with a coral button on top.j 

When the office of a Kalon becomes vacant, the regent, in con- 
sultation with the other Kalon, selects two or three generals 
(Dahpon), and sends their names to the oracles of Nachung and 
Lhamo sung-chyong-ma of Potala for them to pronounce upon. The 
person approved of by the oracles is appointed. 

In literary style the ministers are called CJi;/i/tff-fianfj or Dun- 
na-dun, but colloquially they are known as Kalon or Shape, and the 
title of Sa-v:ang (" power of the land ") is usually afiixed to their names, 
as they are selected from among the wealthy and powerful nobles. 
When sitting in a judicial capacity they are known as Shalchepa, 
and Sludewpa when they perform the duties of advocate. 

Formerly the wives of Gyalbo and Desi were ad(h'essed by the 
title of Lkacham, but nowadays it is only given to the wives of 
Kalon. Their sons are called Llia-are, or " })rince." 

* Cf. Jour. lloy. Aniat. Soc, xxiii. pp. 11, 220, 239, 242. Tlie nominees to tliese 
positions are coufirmeil by tlic; iMnpeior ol' China. — (W. R.) 

t This button is given them by tlie Emperor (or rather the Amban). 'J'he lama 
minister does not wear one. According to Ciiinese authorities, the Kalon have only 
3rd class, or blue, buttons. The coral button belongs to the Ist class.— (W. R.) 



There are four secretaries, or Kaduntj, chosen from among the 
Dungkhor, and one chief clerk, or K((hshopa, attached to tlie Kalon's 
court. Under these secretaries are 175 Dungkhor, or civil officers, 
under the immediate supervision of the Tsipon, or accounting 


The Dungkhor * are chosen from among the best scholars of the 
Yutog school, where the sons of nobles and the leading people are 
educated. They are taught accounting by serving five years in the 
Bureau of Accounts, or Tsi-khang, after which they are de^mted to 
perform various duties, especially in connection with the treasury, 

* On the Dungklior, see Jour. Boy. Asint. Soc, xxiii. pp. "220, 241?. 


and the most experienced among tliem are appointed Djongpon, or 

The salaries of the Dungkhor are harely sufficient for their main- 
tenance ; but, as they belong for the most part to well-to-do families, 
this question is unimportant.* The Dungkhor have a peculiar way 
of dressing their hair, which distinguishes them from all other 

Those among the sons of the wealthy and prominent people of 
Lhasa who, having become members of the Church, desire to enter 
public life, are trained at the Tse labdra of Potala, after which they 
become Tiic-dung, or monk officials. The number of these Tse-dung 
cannot exceed 175. In all places of trust and responsibility there 
are two officers, and sometimes more, one at least of whom is a 
Tse-dung. Thus, in the office of the treasurer of Potala there are two 
Tse-dung and one Dungkhor ; in the Labrang treasury there are 
two Tse-dung and one Dungkhor, etc. The Tse-dung are appointed 
to these offices for a term of three years. 

The Djongpon, or prefects, are entrusted within their respective 
DjoiKj with civil and military powers ; they try civil and criminal 
cases, and levy taxes, the latter duty being performed under Kargya, 
or, as we would say, Pnncanas from the Court of Kalon. There are 
53 Djong and 123 Sub-prefectures under Djongnyer. 

There are t^'O Djongpon to every Djong,t their authority being 
equal in all respects. In military matters they are subordinate to 
the generals and the Amban. They render yearly accounts to the 
Aniban of the military stores in their district, and have also to 
show their proficiency in shooting, riding, and other athletic sports at 
the annual inspection of the troops made by the Amban and the 
Dahpon ; and the former confers on them blue or crystal buttons, to 
be worn on their official hats. J 

The establishment of a Djongpon comprises two Dungkhor and two 
storekeepers (Z>yo7i(/-n^rr) — administering sub-districts — and a number 
of under-strappers. The heads of villages (or Tsopon), the headmen 
(or Mq'ion), the elders (or Gyanjio), all of whom are elected for a term 
of years, are also under his orders. 

* Our author forgets the " squeezes," which swell all salaries to verj' respectable 
sizes.— (W. R.) 

t A Inma (Tsc-duiig) and a layman. — (S. C. D.) 

X On the military inspections made by the Amban, see Peldng Gazette, January 24, 
188G, and Jour. Roy. Asiat. Soc, xxiii. p. 216. 


In every Djoug there are two store-houses — the har-gija, or reserve 
store, and the djong-dso, or repository of the Bjong. The keys of the 
former are kept by the Kalon, and it is opened only once or twice a 
year. The Government sends annually a revenue officer to check the 
accounts of the Djongpon and tax-collectors {Khraldupa), and to take 
over the revenue collected by them. The Djongpon liave, like the 
Kalon, their /a^irs or djong-slii for their maintenance, in lieu of salary. 

The following citation, taken from a work entitled ' Sherab dongbu,' 
or ' Bits of Wisdom,' ma}- prove of interest : — 

" Whenever petitions or requests are made, they should be care- 
fully examined. Impartiality should be shown to all classes alike, to 
great and small, to lamas and to laymen. Uninfluenced by gratuities or 
the fear of criticism, the Djongpon should administer perfect justice. 
Questions of jurisdiction, of taxes due by the misser, and of forced 
labour, should be settled by the rules (tsa-tsig) of each Djong. The 
villages, houses, and inhabitants should be counted and inspected 
yearly, and the numbers compared with those of preceding years. He 
should have returned to their houses those who have left them, par- 
ticularly misser who have been absent from their houses for not more 
than five years. Servants and labourers of the Djong should not be 
employed by him at his private work ; the number of servants allowed 
him is fixed by the tsa-tsig. He should be kind to the misser, and 
not without a good cause have disputes with neighbouring Djongpon, 
as the Government's interests would thereby suffer. He should not 
allow the public lands to be encroached upon, nor should tenants on 
them be taken away by landholders (gerpas). 

" No women should be allowed to loiter about the Djong, and the 
Djongpon should carefully refrain from any flirtation. He should see 
to facilitating the courier service, and he should see that no one 
receives supplies for tlieir journey unless they are bearers of passports 
(leim-yig). Frontier or foreign traders who cannot show a passport 
should be held, and any information he may obtain of affairs in other 
quarters should be transmitted to Lhasa." * 

As previously mentioned, the Kalon and Djongpon exercise 
judicial functions. In the case of the Sera and Dabung lamaseries, 

* Of course most of the Djongpon only attend to a very few of these duties. They 
squeeze the people under them, exact as much service as possible, and, together with 
the lamas, get everything they can out of them, and only stop when their exactions 
appear likely to cause serious trouble. — (W. li.) 



the abbots decide all miiioi- offences committed within the monastery 
limits, but the more serious charo-es are committed to the court of the 
regent and the Kalon. In all other lamaseries only offences against 
the common law are tried by the convent authorities. 

It is customary for both parties in a suit to make presents to the 
judge. "When the case has been examined, the judge fixes the 
costs (tim-tiy) to be borne in ecj^ual portions by the plaintiffs and 
defendants. As a general rule, disputes are settled l)y the village 
elders ; but few lawsuits occur on the whole, for the Tibetans are a 
peaceful, kind-hearted, law-abiding people, and very amenable to reason. 

The Amban, or Imperial Resident of China in Tibet, is the head 
of the Tibetan army. His Chinese staff consists of an Assistant 
Amban, two Laoyeh, and a paymaster (j^oi/^ion).* There is also one 
Tibetan general, or Magpon, six Dahpon,* or division commanders, 
six Eupon commanding regiments, and a number of subordinate 

The Andjan is the medium of all communications befjween the 
Tibetan Government and China. He settles all political differences 
between the various states of Tibet and the Lhasa Government ; he 
confers titles and honours on native military officials ; but he has, 
theoretically, no authority in the internal administration of the 
country. He ordinarily resides at Lhasa, and annually makes an 
inspection of the Nepalese frontier as far as Tingri djong. Sometimes 
the Assistant Amban performs this duty, and he then inspects the 
military stores and forces at the different Djong. 

The political relations between Tibet and China are now so 
intimate that the Imperial Eesidency established at Lhasa in the 
first quarter of the last century has converted Tibet from a protected 
state into a dependency of China. The two Ambans are commanders 
of the militia, and arrogate to themselves the supreme political 
authority of the country. The a})pointment of two Ambans to watch 
the political interests of the country is probably based on the principle 
tliat the one acts as a spy on the other. This has, as in China, 
] become a custom in Tibet. 

The Ambans are the terror of the Tibetans, who abhor them from 

* In Chinese, called Liang-tai. On the Chinese military establi-shmeiit in Tibet, see 
Jour. Roy. Asiat. Soc. xxiii. p. 27.5 et sqq. ; ami on the Ainban'.s duties, ibid., p. 7 et 

t In the Anglo-Tibetau war there were four jNIagpons or Mafeas, and eight Dahpons. 


the depth of their hearts.* Whenever they leave the capital on 
pleasure excursions, or on inspection tours, provisions, conveyances, 
and all sorts of labour are forcibly exacted from the poor villagers, 
who are deprived of their ponies and }'aks, which, owing to the merci- 
less treatment of the Ambans' numerous retainers, die in numbers on 
the road. No compensation is given them for their losses, and no 
complaints are admitted by the courts of justice, presided over by the 
lamas, against this kind of oppression. Tsamha and sheep are also 
on these occasions taken away by force from the people, who, unable 
to bear the oppression, not unfrequently rise in a body against the 
Ambans' retainers, when matters are settled by the district Djongpou, 
who are generally the creatures of the Ambans. Nor is this all. 
Every Chinese or Manchu soldier or merchant who enters Tibet, 
whether in a public or private capacity, is provided with a pass from 
Peking, which facilitates his journey and brings him safe to his 
destination free of charge, f The same is the case with those who 
leave Tibet for China, the Ambans being the only ofl&cials qualified 
to grant passports. The happy traveller, armed with the Ambans' 
authority, takes every advantage of his pass, and never fails to use 
his whip freely when the villagers delay in complying with his 

One of the Ambans at least is required to pay a visit to the Tashi 
lama once a year, to confer with him on State affairs, when, as the 
representative of the Emperor of China, he is received with the highest 
marks of distinction. The Amban is required to make a low saluta- 
tion with joined palms, and as he approaches the throne he presents 
a hhatag to the lama. The Tashi lama, on his side, blesses him by 
touching his head with his open hand, and seats him on his right on 
a State cushion. After a short interchange of compliments the con- 
versation turns on the health of the Emperor, the happiness of the 
people, and the prospects of the year's crops. Interpreters who 

* Thos. Manning (Markbam, ' Tibet.,' p. 274) says, "It is very bad policy thus per- 
petually to send men of bad character to govern Tibet. It uo doubt displeases the 
Grand Lama and Tibetans in general, and tends to prevent tiieir affections from 
settling in favour of the Chinese Government. I cannot help thinking, from what I 
have seen and heard, that they would view the Chinese influence in Tibet overthrown 
without many emotions of regret." — (W. R.) 

t This is not correct. Traders only have a permit issued either at Ta-chien-lu by 
the Chun-liang-fu or at Lhasa by the Amban allowing them to enter or leave Tibet. 
All officials, even common soldiers — the latter only when going to Tibet or when 
on duty — have ula supplied them. — (W. E.) 


understand the Mongol, Mancliu, and Chinese languages always 
accompany the Amban, and the Tashi lama has also his interpreters. 
When the Amban appears abroad he is carried in a yellow chair, and 
attended by a numerous retinue bearing the insignia of his high office. 

Of the Dahpon, two are stationed at Lhasa, two at Shigatse, one 
at Gyantse, and one at Tingri djong. Three of the six Elipon belong- 
to Central Tibet, and three to Ulterior. 

The regular army consists of 6000 men, 3000 being under arms, 
and the other 3000 at home on half-pay. Those in active service 
serve for three years at a monthly pay of two ounces of silver. After 
this they return to their homes, and enter the territorial army, or 
yvl-mag, whence they may be at any moment recalled to active service. 
They are not usually uniformed, though some wear a black Chinese 
jacket. They are armed with matchlocks, bows and arrows, long 
spears, and slings {ordo). 

Besides the regular army, the Government may, in case of need, 
call out all the forces of the country, when each family has to supply 
one man fully equipped and provisioned, and every landholder sends 
a man for every kany * of land he owns, and a follower to carry his 
provisions. The Kalon, Djongpon, Dahpon, and chief men furnish 
quotas of cavalry (or tariKuj), all those who have ponies being incor- 
porated in this arm. 

Besides the expense of maintaining the army — each Chinese 
private being paid fourteen rupees a month and thirty surs of tsamha, 
and every Tibetan 2\ rupees a month — the Tibetan Government has to 
contribute 50,000 rupees to the Eesidency establishment, exclusive of 
the Amban's salary. The Tibetan Government, as well as the whole 
nation, groan under this excessive and useless expenditure ; but the 
maintenance of this order of things is declared to be essential for the 
protection of the holy lamas against the encroachments of the English, 
Nepalese, and Kashmir Governments. Both the latter states are 
allies of Tibet, while the very name of the first is dreaded by the 
Government officers, especially the monk officers, as an invincible 
power, and as being the incarnation of the Lhamayins (giants) who 
fought against the gods. 

It is universally believed in Tibet that after two hundred years the 
Tashi lama will retire to Shambala, the Utopian city of the Buddhists, 

* A kang is a piece of hind to sow wliich 10 yak-loads of barlty are used, or one 
which pays 50 to 55 ounces of silver a year as taxes. — (S. C. D.) 


and will not return to Tibet, and that in the mean time the whole world 
will succumb to the power of the Phylings (Ilussians and Eno-lish). 
Neither the Emperor of China nor the coml)ined legions of gods and 
demi-gods who reside round the golden mount of Eiral> (Sumeru) will 
be able to arrest the progress of their arms or the miracles of their 
superior intellect. It is the policy of the Tibetans to keep them at a 
distance, not by open hostilities, but l)y temporizing and diplomacy. 
They were initiated into this policy by the Ambans, who are always 
busy in devising fresh plans for guaranteeing the safety of the country 
against all sorts of imaginary foreign aggressions. 

Tlie ISTepalese are not now so much the object of this terror as 
they were a century ago, but are regarded as peaceful allies under the 
rule of the Emperor of China, Tibet pays no tribute to Nepal, nor 
does it entertain any agent at Katmandu, while Nepal maintains an 
agent at Lhasa to promote friendly relations, as also to protect her 
commercial interests with Tibet. It is to be remembered that the 
richest merchants and bankers of Lhasa are Nepalese Palpas. 

During the late disturbances between the monks of the To-sam ling 
College and the Nyer-chang chenpo, the late Tashi lama did not 
consult the Amban, or invite the aid of his soldiers to quell the 
rebellion among the 1500 disaffected and unruly monks, but secretly 
apprised his subjects of the neighbouring villages of his intentions, 
and on the appointed day 10,000 armed men were assembled, carry- 
ing long spears, bucklers, matchlocks, and slings, who at once 
struck the rebel monks with terror. He has since that day been 
convinced of the sincere veneration and devoted loyalty of his people 
and of the perfect uselessness of the Amban's forces. This instance 
of tact in the Panchen rinpoche has raised him higher than ever in 
the estimation of the people, much to the discomfort of the jealous 
Amban. It is also pleasing to notice some signs of independence in 
the youthful Tashi, who is now the senior sovereign of Tibet, the 
Dalai lama being as yet an infant. The villagers and common folks, 
who suffer most from the Amban's tyranny, say that in course of time 
the present Tashi will prove a worthy successor of the great Tempai 
nyima * in faith as well as in strength of mind. 

The principal sources of revenue of the Lhasa Government are 
the family-tax and the land-tax, the first being usually paid in coin, 

* The 4tli Panchen rinpoche was called Pal-dan Tan-pai nyi-ma. He was born in 
1782. He died in the early fifties. Turner, ' Embassy,' p. 2:J0.— (W. U.) 


and the latter in kind. The family-tax may be jiaid at any time 
of the year. 

Apart from the lands held liy chiefs and noltles, there are, as 
already stated, altogether fifty-three Djong, or districts, under Djongpon, 
and a hundred and twenty-three sub-districts under Djongnjicr. 
These constitute wliat are called shung shi, or State lands. Each 
djo7ig contains, on an average, five hundred families of misser, or 
farmers. A misser family consists of one wife, with all her husbands, 
children, and servants. Each family, on an average, possesses two 
or three knng of arable soil. If one Mai (50 lb.) yields nine or ten 
Ihd.I, it is considered a good harvest ; six to eight is a tolerable crop, 
four to six a bad one. The Government revenue for each Jmiu/ is, 
on an average, fifty sirmg (125 rupees), or about one hundred and 
fifty Ihal of grain. The Crown revenue, if taken entirely in kind, 
would therefore amount to 2,625,000 Jrkal, which would be equivalent 
in money to 2,000,000 rupees. This is partially expended by the 
State for the Church, and in distributing alms to the whole body of 
lamas belonging to the monasteries of Potala, Sera, Dabung, Gadan, 
etc. In every Djong are kept registers, in which are entered the 
collections in previous years and the quality of the land under 
cultivation. The collector, after examining these, inspects the crops, 
and estimates the quantity of the yield, and by comparison with that 
of the five preceding years he fixes the tax for the current year. In 
very prosperous years the State takes two-fifths of tlie crop (the 
maximum allowed it). 

Ulag consists in supplying to all those bearing a Government 
order for ulag, in which the number of animals, etc., is enumerated, 
beasts of burden — ponies, mules, yaks, and donkeys. If the misser 
have no ponies, they have to furnish yaks or donkeys instead. Eor 
stages along which neither yaks nor ponies can pass, porters must 
be supplied for carrying the traveller's goods. In default of these, 
the misser are required to pay a certain sum for carriage or convey- 
ance. Bfisscr, and all those who own more than one I'ang of land, 
must supply ulag and ta-v, consisting of either one coolie or pony, 
free of charge when the traveller produces his Government pass. 
The system of levying ulag is a kind of indirect taxation, accounts 
of which are kept by the village headmen. Some families supply a 
hundred ulag in a year, others only five or ten. If a misser fail to 
Supply ulag once in a year, he is required to supply double the amount 


the following year. This duty is levied on all kinds of State lands and 
subjects, freeholds and private property granted to sacred personages 
alone being exempt from this hateful tax. Lands purchased from 
Government are also liable to it. Under the Lhasa Government 
there are about a hundred and twenty landlords, out of wliom about 
twenty are very rich and poM^erful. The present regent. Lama 
Ta-tsag Einpoche, of Kundu ling, has upwards of 3000 mlssrr on 
his estates in Kharu and Tibet Proper. The ex-regent, whose estates 
lie in Kongpo, has about 5000 misser, and other great lamas and 
laymen about 1000 misser each. The greatest noble of Tibet, Phags- 
pa-sha, of Chab-mdo,* is lord over 10,000 misser. 

When questions arise about newly reclaimed lands, the tax- 
collector, having no register {tsi-shi) to guide him, measures the h'ekl 
and superintends the harvesting, when he fixes the amount due to 
the State. He is forbidden fixing his assessments otherwise than' by 
personal examination. The land-tax may be paid in three instal- 
ments — in November, December, and January, at which latter date 
it is remitted by the Djongpon to Lhasa or Tashilhunpo, as the case 
may be. The tax-gatherer has authority to remit a portion of the 
tax when the crops have failed for some reason or other ; in fact, as 
a Tibetan author puts it, " as eggs are quietly taken from under a 
sitting-hen without disturbing the nest, so should the tax-gatherer 
collect the taxes without oppressing or disturbing the misser" f 

The great monasteries at Lhasa and its neici-hbourhood, such as 
Sera, Dabung, Gadan, Samye, etc., have large freehold estates. 

Besides these, there are more than three hundred landholders, 
called (jerpa, who pay a nominal revenue to the Government, varying 
from ten to thirty doclie (1250 to 3750 rupees), and who are also 
called upon to furnish 'idcuj, ta-n, and other indirect taxes. Cows 
and jomo belonging to the Government and tended by dolqxt are 
calculated to yield at the rate of five pounds of butter per head per 
year. In the provinces of Kong-po and Pema-kyod numerous pigs 
are reared, and rich families count their pigs by the thousands. The 
Lhasa Government levies a tax of one tanha on every pig, and 
derives no inconsiderable revenue from these districts from this 

* Chamdo, in Eastern Tibet. It is an ecclesiastical fief uudcr the rule of a high 
iligtiitary of the Gelngpa sect who bears the title of Phapa Uia. — (W. R.) 

t In other words, he should take all he can possibly get without forcing tlie misser 
to open revolt. — (W. R.) 


source. The tenants in eacli Djong contriljute ten days' labour 
per head for tlie ploughing or liarvesting of the State lands. This 
service is called the las-tal, or " labour-tax." 

There is in Tibet no fixed rate of duties on merchandise, nor 
is there a regular import duty. Eich merchants who come from 
foreign countries are required to pay annually a tax of fifty sra7ig to 
Government ; large traders are charged twenty-five srang, and small 
traders three srang. Shopkeepers and pedlars pay five sho (1| rupee) 
annually, and itinerant Khamba hawkers who carry their own loads 
are charged half a tanka per quarter both in U and Tsang. 

For crossing large bridges the charge is from one I'J/ft (one anna) 
to one tanlrt per head for a man, and a ]:arma (two annas) to a sho 
(four annas) for ponies. For pasturing cattle on pul)lic lands there 
is a charge of from three to five sho yearly for every head. Besides 
these, there is a capitation tax of from two to three srang (7?, rupees) 
on people owning no land but only homesteads. The revenue- 
collectors {Khralduiia) and their servants get conveyance, ponies, and 
yaks at every stage free of charge, and the villagers are bound to 
furnish them in addition with attendants, water, fuel, and lodgings. 
The revenue-collectors may accept for their own use all the I'hatag, 
butter, tea, and silver coin which the misscr may see fit to offer them. 
They are also authorized, when on tour, to kill one out of every 
hundred sheep belonging to the misscr for their own consumption.* 
In all other matters they are guided by tlie usages and laws of the 
country. No Government official, revenue officer, or Djongpon may 
oppress the poorest misscr. If one of these peasants fails to pay his 
taxes in money, he may offer the equivalent in tea, butter, or blankets ; 
but live stock, except when nothing else is available, are not to be 
accepted. The property in cattle belonging to the Lhasa Government 
exceeds 1,000,000 head. There is a superintendent of this Government 
stock, who, at the end of every year, submits an account of the live 
animals and tlie number died or killed during the year. In order to 
satisfy the authorities, lie is required t(j produce the entire dried 
carcasses of the dead animals witli their tails and liorns. These 
superintendents are appointed annually, and as a consequence they 
take every opportunity of making their fortune at the expense of 
the State before the expiration of their term of service. 

* This spems impossible, in view of tlie large flocks owned by most of the people 
One in a thousiind would already be a heavy tax. — (W. K.) 


Letters are carried by messengers and special couriers called 
cliih-zamha (or ta-zamha), meaning, literally, " liorse-lnidge." The 
couriers generally discharge their duty with admirable efficiency, and 
every one assists them with great promptness. All Government 
messengers are provided with the best and swiftest ponies, and at 
every halt are furnished with lodgings, water, firewood, and a man 
to cook their victuals. Couriers on foot usually travel from 20 to 
25 miles a day, while those who ride do from 30 to 35 miles. The 
latter is the express rate, for which the Government generally gives 
an extra remuneration. Government couriers alone get ta-u, or 
ponies for travelling ; private letters of officials are carried by them, 
while common people make their own arrangements for the convey- 
ance of their letters, which are not, however, numerous. 

The express couriers, or te-td, on the road between Lhasa and 
China are dressed in tight blue-coloured gowns, the tape fastenings 
of which are tied on their heads, and the knot sealed. They are 
required to subsist daily on five hen's eggs, five cups of plain tea, 
a pound of corn-flour, half a pound of rice, and a quarter-pound of 
lean meat.* They are forbidden to take much salt, and are strictly 
forbidden to eat onions, garlic, red pepper, butter, or milk. At mid- 
night they are allowed to sleep in a sitting posture for three 
hours, after which they are awakened by the keeper of the stage- 
house. It is said that these couriers are in the habit of taking 
certain medicines to give them the power of endurance against 
fatigue.f The letters are enclosed in a yellow bag, which the courier 
carries on his back, generally using some soft feathers to keep it 
from coming into contact with his person. They get relays of ponies 
at the end of every five lebor.X Arriving at a stage-house, they fire a 
gun as a notice to the keeper of the next postal stage to make ready a 
post-pony. At every sucli stage a relay of five ponies is usually kept 
ready. The courier is allowed to change his dress once a week.§ 

A special class of trained men are employed on this service. The 
distance between tlie Tibetan capital and Peking is divided into a 

* A pretty good allowance, one would tliiuk. Cf., on this courier .service, Hue, 
op. ciL, vol. ii. p. 450.— (W. R.) 

t In China of the couriers are opium-smokers. — (W. R.) 

X A lebor is, says our author, equal, to 720 yards. It is the Chinese li, but I have 
heard the word always pronounced leu. A li, however, is about GOO yards. — (W. R.) 

§ I fancy our author means rearrange or remove his dress. A travelling Tibettm 
never changes his dress. — (W. R.) 


hundred and twenty fpjd-tsuij, or postal stages, of about 80 to 
90 lebor each. This distance of nearly 10,000 hlior is retjuired 
to be traversed in seventy-two days. Couriers are generally allowed 
a delay of five days, but when they exceed that they are punished. 
On occasions of very great importance and urgency the express rate 
to Peking is thirty-six days.* During the last affray between the 
junior Amban and tlie people of Shigatse the express took a montli 
and a lialf to reach Peking. 

As regards the administration of justice and the laws of Tibet, 
the following peculiarities may be noted : Both parties in a suit make 
written statements of their case, and these briefs are read in court. 

The judge has the evidence, depositions, and his decision written 
down, three copies of the latter being given to the parties concerned. 
Then he states the law fee {tim teg) and. the engrossing fee {myurj-rin), 
both of which vary with the importance of the case, and are borne 
by both parties to the suit. 

The death punishment is only inflicted in certain cases of dacoity 
{chagpa), when tliose convicted are sewed in leather bags and thrown 
into a river. 

Offences of a less heinous nature are dealt with by banishment 
to the borders, whipping, imprisonment, or fines.f 

Nothing can be more horrible and loathsome than a Tibetan jail. 
There are some dungeons in an obscure village two days' journey up 
the river from Tashilhunpo, where life convicts are sent for confine- 
ment. The prisoner having been placed in a cell, the door is removed 
and the opening filled up with stone masonry, only one small aperture, 
about six inches in diameter, being left, through which the unhappy 
creature is supplied with his daily food. There are also a few small 
holes left open on the roof, through wliich the guards and tlie jailor 
empty every kind of filth into the cell. Some prisoners have 
lived for two years under this horrible treatment, while others, more 
fortunate, die in a few months.^ 

* There arc cases on record in which a despatch from Lhasa lias been delivered in 
Peking within a month.— (W. R.) 

t Cf., however, Jour. Roy. Asiaf. Soc. xxiii. pp. 216-218. See also 'Report on 
Explorations made by A. K.," p. J53. The Chinese punishment of the cangue is now 
adopted throughout Tibet, the criminals wearing it being also heavily chained. The 
cangue is called in Tibetan, tse-go. — (W. R.) 

X This, I fancy, is hearsay testimony, and, I tliink, should be taken with several 
grains of salt. The Tilietans are not cruel, though, like all Asiatics, they believe in 
deterring from crime by the terror of the punisliment. — (W. R.) 


In cases of murder, there are four fines to be paid l)y the 
murderer: first, "blood-money" {toiuj jcd)\ second, a sum for funeral 
ceremonies for the benefit of the slain ; third, a fine to the State ; 
and fourth, a peace offering to the family and friends of the mur- 
dered person. These fines vary from the weight of the liody of 
the slain in gold, to five ounces of silver, or the equivalent in 
kind. Should these fines not be paid, the murderer is thrown into 

When the murderer is insane, or a minor, aged less than eight 
years, the relatives or friends are only required to pay the funeral 
expenses of the victim ; the same rule applies if any one is killed by 
a horse, yak. or other animal, the owner paying the funeral expenses 
of the person killed. 

When a husband kills his wife, or a master his servant, he is 
required to pay the usual fine to the State and the funeral expenses. 

Thieves have to pay from a hundred to seven times the value 
of the goods stolen, according to the social standing of the person 
from whom they have stolen. 

When the thief is a recidivist, his hands ma]i be cut off if it is 
his fifth conviction, and he may be hamstrung if it is his seventh. 
For tlie ninth conviction his eyes can be put out. 

If a thief is punished by the person from whom he is attempting 
to steal, the courts will not take cognizance of tlie case ; but should 
the thief be killed, blood-money, to the amount of five ounces of 
silver, must be paid to his family. 

Children aged less than thirteen are not punishable for theft, but 
their parents are remonstrated with. When a woman commits a 
theft, the fines and possible corporal punishment are borne in equal 
proportions by herself and her husband. 

No corporal punishment can be inflicted on a pregnant woman, 
nor on those suffering from an illness, who have recently lost 
parents, or who are older than seventy. 

He who harbours a thief is held to be a greater culprit than the 
thief himself. If a person witness a theft and do not give notice 
thereof, he is held equally guilty with the thief Thefts by one 
member of a family on another member should be punished by the 
head of the family alone. 

The theft of a lock, a key, or a watch-dog, is considered equi- 
valent to robbing the objects they keep safe. 


Eape on the person of a married woman of liigh degree is punish- 
able by emasculation and lines. In case the woman belongs to the 
middle or lower classes, the culprit pays the husband a fine and 
gives the woman a suit of clothes. 

If a man of low rank has intercourse with the unmarried daughter 
of a man of high standing, he must serve the father without wages 
for a term of years. If the offender is of high standing, he has only 
a fine to pay. 

In all cases of assault and battery, fines, known as song jal, or 
" life money," are alone imposed, to which may be added the amount 
necessary for medical treatment for the wounded party. Tlie amount 
of the fine is fixed by the size and depth of the wounds, the impor- 
tance of the bone broken or the organ injured. 

When judges or arbitrators are unable to reach a decision, they 
may permit the plaintiff to challenge the defendant to make a 
deposition on oath, or undergo an ordeal. In Khams and Amdo 
this practice is dying out, but it is still in vogue in Central Tibet. 
On account of the nature of these oaths and ordeals, the law exempts 
certain classes of men from taking them. Lamas, teachers, gcnyen 
(semi-priestly laymen), monks, and novices are not allowed to 
take oatlis and pass through ordeals, nor are Tantriks (religious 
sorcerers) and other practitioners of mystic incantations, who are 
supposed to be able to counteract the fearful consequences of breaking 
an oath by means of their powerful spells. Destitute and famished 
people, to whom food and clothing are all in all, and men who will 
do anything they like, regardless of the consequences in a future 
existence, are not allowed to make a deposition on oath, nor are 
wives and mothers, who can easily be persuaded to swear in the 
interests of their husbands and children. Besides these, young boys, 
lunatics, and the dumb, who do not understand the difference 
between good and evil, happiness and misery, are equally exempt. 
All others, not included in the above list, who are honest, know the 
difference between good and evil, believe in the inevitable conse- 
quences of one's actions {karma), are held proper persons to take 
oaths and undergo ordeals. 

The challenger is required to pay the defendant the " oath 
compensation," or "oath blood" {na-tra), which varies from a trifling 
amount to a very large sum, according to the nature of the case ; 
but for one of considerable importance the usual compensation is 


fifty silver srang (125 rupees), and a yak ; besides this " oath flesh " 
{na slia) is claimed. 

The person challenged to take the oath first offers prayers to the 
all-knowing gods, the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, to the gods of tlie 
land and to the goddesses called Sntiuj-ma (protectresses), to the demi- 
gods of the land, and to the goblins and nymphs who live in the land, 
invoking them to bear witness to his solemn deposition. Then he 
speaks the following words : "What I depose is the truth, and nothing 
but the truth." He then seats himself naked on the skin of a cow 
or ox newly slain, smears himself with the blood of the animal, and 
places an image of Buddha, with some volumes of religious books, on 
his head. Xext, after eating the raw heart of the ox, and drinking 
three mouthfuls of its steaming blood, he declares to the spectators, 
" There is certainly no guilt in me, and if there be any, may the 
guardians of the world and the gods make me cease to exist before 
the end of the current month." He then receives the oath com- 
pensation (na-fra) and the slain ox or " oath flesh " (na sha). 

It is commonly believed among the Tibetans that, should one 
perjure himself, he either becomes insane, or dies vomiting blood, 
before the expiration of a hundred and seven days. When this does 
not befall him, other misfortunes happen, such as the loss of his 
wife or children, quarrels, feuds, or the loss or destruction of his 
property. Death is believed to be the most common consequence 
of perjury. 

The undero'oinff of such an oath liberates the swearer from the 
penalty of death, and from paying fines in all cases of robbery and 
murder, as well as from civil liabilities, such as debts and disputes 
about land, even though it involves thousands of srang. On the 
other hand it is believed that if the challenger be guilty of false and 
malicious accusation, all the evils reserved for the perjured swearer 
will fall upon him. 

In certain cases the guilt or innocence of parties is decided by 
the tlirowing of dice, the person being exculpated who gets the 
greatest number of points. 

Important cases of murder, dacoity, and theft are also decided 
by ordeals, of which there are two kinds — picking out white and 
black pebbles from a bowl of boiling oil or muddy water, and 
handling a red-hot stone ball. In the presence of the prosecutor, 
the witnesses, the judge, or his representative, and many other 


spectators, the accused person invokes the gods and the demi-gods 
to bear witness to his statement, and declares that he tells the 
perfect truth. A copper or iron bowl filled with boiling oil or muddy 
water is then placed before him, in which two pebbles of the size 
of an egg, one white and the other black, each enveloped and tied 
up in a bag, are thrown. The swearer washes his hands first with 
water, and then with mill-:, and, having heard read a section of the 
Law written on a tablet with the blood of a cow slain for the 
occasion, plunges his hand in the boiling oil or water, and with- 
draws one of the pebbles. If he takes out the white one without 
scalding his hand, he is believed to be innocent ; but if his hand 
is scalded, he is considered to be only partially innocent. If he 
brings out the black stone and gets his hand scalded besides, he is 
pronounced guilty. 

The second form of ordeal is performed by heating a stone ball 
of the size of an ostrich's egg red hot, and then placing it in an 
iron vessel. The person taking the oath, having washed his hand 
in water and milk, seizes the ball and walks with it to a distance of 
seven, five, or three paces, according as his challenger is of the 
first, second, or third class of social rank. After this, his hand is 
enveloped in a white cotton bag, which, in the presence of the 
spectators, is tied up and sealed. At the end of the third, fifth, or 
seventh day, the bag is opened and the palm examined. If it is 
found unscalded, with only a pale yellowish line or stain upon it, 
the accused is declared innocent ; if there appear a blister of the 
size of a pea, he is thought partly guilty ; if three blisters of that 
size appear, he is considered half guilty ; but if his hand be burned 
all over, he is held guilty of all the charges. 

According to the laws of Tibet, the interest on money, grain, or 
any other commodity is twenty per cent., or one measure for five 
measures yearly. Tlie courts in a few cases admit contracts at even 
a higher rate of interest; but those who claim more according to 
their contract deeds may be punished as usurers, though sometimes 
their claims are allowed. In urgent cases thirty-three per cent, have 
been known to have been agreed upon. All contracts are required 
to be made in writing, attested ]jy witnesses, and duly signed and 
sealed. The interest must be paid at the end of the year. If the 
debtor abscond, the witnesses are called upon to make good the loss 
sustained by the lender ; but if he die, or become insolvent, and the 


money be not realized, the witnesses are not held responsible. If, 
however, the money has been lent by the Government, by certain 
monasteries, or lamas, or by the paymaster of the army, the amount 
is realised from the relatives, witnesses, and neighbours of the debtor. 
At every military station, a certain amount of money is generally lent 
out by Government, on the interest of which the militia is paid by the 
quartermaster, who is one of the chief Government money-lenders. 
Usually when the person soliciting a loan is not known, or if doubts 
about his honesty are entertained, securities are required. Xot so in 
Tibet, where the lenders have been known to use their power to collect 
debts from the heirs of debtors to the third generation. The more 
the debtor exceeds the fixed term for the payment of his debt the 
more urgent is the creditor in his demands. The court, when it sees 
that the creditor has extracted compound interest for many years 
from the debtor, can put a stop to the accumulation of further com- 
pound interest; but there is no fixed period mentioned in the law 
after which compound interest must cease to accumulate.* 

In Tibet such articles as household utensils, implements of 
husbandry or war, drinking cups, borrowed articles, articles held in 
trust, landed estates of which the revenue is paid to the State, and 
images of gold, are never given in loan or mortgaged. 

When a man has a single pony, one milch cow or jo, one plough, 
one span of bullocks or yaks, or one suit of clothing, nobody can ask 
for a loan of any of these articles without committing the offence of 
" impudence," for which he may be severely rebuked. Creditors, 
whether the Government or private persons, cannot seize upon any of 
these properties for debt. This is the Grand Charter of the Tibetans. 
Nor can any creditor by force seize the property of his debtor. If 
without the debtor's permission he removes one sraivj, he forfeits his 
entire claim on a loan of a hundred srang ; if he remove two, on 
two hundred s.rang, and so on in the same proportion. ISTobody, be 
he a public (jfficer, landlord, master, or creditor, can, for any kind 
of pecuniary claim, exercise violence on the people. If, while beiog 
in possession of means to do so, a man of the people refuses to pay off 
his liabilities or debts, his creditors may employ mediators, or institute 
proceedings against him in a court of justice ; but if, without 

* All this does not add materially to our knowledge of Tibetan business methods. 
It would seem that the Tibetans follow the rules coueeruing loans which obtain in 
China and India, but the text is not very clear. — (W. K.) 


resorting to these means, they beat him or use any kind of violence 
on him, they forfeit all claims upon him. 

If after buying an article the purchaser wishes to return it on the 
same day, he must forfeit one-tenth of the price. If he return it on 
the following day he forfeits one-fifth; on the second, one-half; and 
if he keeps it beyond the third day it is not returnable. If a house- 
holder cheat a merchant lodger, he is required to pay compensation 
at the rate of five sramj for every sraiufs worth stolen. If a trader 
deceive his customers by using false weights and measures, or by 
selling adulterated goods, imitation gems or jewels, or by circulating 
counterfeit coin, he must be immediately handed over to the police, 
and committed for trial. If the merchant convicted be a Tibetan 
subject, all his goods are confiscated, and he is sentenced to penal 
servitude for a certain number of years. If he be a subject of some 
foreign Government, such as China, ]\Iongolia, Kashmir, or Nepal, 
such fine, as is prescribed by law, is exacted from him. His goods 
are seized, examined, taken stock of, and after being securely packed, 
are sent with the owner in charge of the police to his own Govern- 
ment, together with a document complaining of his conduct, and 
stating the amount of the fine exacted from him. 

The jealousy of the Tibetans towards Europeans is supposed to 
date from 1791-92, when English soldiers were believed to have 
taken part in the war which followed the incursion of the Gorkhas 
into Tibet ; and as the English Government, then in its infancy in 
India, took no steps to cultivate tlie friendship of the Tibetans, that 
feeling took a lasting hold on their minds. The shock which China, 
Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim have received from their reverses when at 
war with the British power, has also extended to the peace-loving 

Throughout the iiineteenth century the Tibetans have followed the 
Chinese policy of exclusiveness, not from fear of annexation, but 
because they had been shortly before nearly conquered, and were 
entirely under Chinese influence. This fear has been sedulously 
encouraged by an ex-minister of the Bajali of Sikkim, the Dewaii 
ISTamgyal, wlio was expelled from tliat country for his treatment of 
Drs. Hooker and Campl)ell,* and subsequently obtained from the 

* See Hooker's ' Himalayan Journals,' vol. i. p. 117, and vol. ii. p. 202 et sqq. He 
says, in siieaking of the Dewau, " Considering, however, his energy, a rare quality in 
these countries, I should not he surprised at his cutting a figure in Bhutan, if not in 
Sikkim itself (ojj. cit., vol. ii. p. 241).— (W. R.) 


Grand Lama the post of frontier otficer, to watch the "encroach- 
ments" of the Indian ({overnment. The attempts of Dr. Hooker, 
Mr. Edgar, and lastly of Sir Eichard Temple, to enter Tibetan 
territory were described by him as instances of encroachment on the 
part of the Government of India, which he represented as devoting all 
its energies to the invasion of Tibet, and as having been foiled by his 
diplomatic skill and wisdom, aided by the zealous co-operation of the 
Djongpon of Khamba and Phari. On one occasion he even stated to 
the Lhasa officials, as a proof of his unshaken loyalty to the Grand 
Lama, that he had refused a pension of fifty rupees which had been 
offered to him by the Indian Government for supplying information 
respecting the state of affairs in Tibet ! This functionary lias, how- 
ever, together with his coadjutor the Djongpon of Khamba, lately 
fallen into disgrace with the Grand Lama, and has also lost all 
influence at Tashilhunpo. 

The exclusiveness of the Tibetan Government is to be chiefly 
attributed to the hostile and intriguing attitude of tlae fi'OKtier officials 
towards the British Government. Next to it is the fear of intro- 
ducing small-pox and other dangerous diseases into Tibet, where the 
people, being ignorant of the proper treatment of this disease, die in 
great numbers from it. Death from small-pox is the most dreaded, 
since the victim is believed to be immediately sent to hell. Not the 
least important cause, however, is the fear of the extinction of 
Buddhism by the foreigners — a feeling which prevails in the minds 
of the dominant class, the clergy. 

Besides jealousy of foreigners, there is another cause of great 
importance, being connected with the commercial interests of China. 
Peking is eight or ten months', and Silling (Hsi-ning) four months' 
journey from Lhasa, yet the Tibetans carry on a brisk trade with these 
and other noted cities of China in tea, silk, wooden furnitm-e, and other 
commodities. The Government of Lhasa sends every year two or more 
caravans to purchase goods for the State from the commercial centres 
on the borders of China. An escort of 500 soldiers accompanies each 
caravan, for it is not unusual for mounted bands of robbers, from 200 
to 300 strong, to attack the caravans. By the opening of the Darjil- 
ing railway, Calcutta, where most of the Chinese articles valued in 
Tibet may be easily and cheaply procured, will be brought within 
three weeks' journey of Lhasa. 

The Tibetans thoroughly appreciate these facilities, and every 



Tibetan who has ever visited IJarjiling warmly praises our Govern- 
^e, for making the Jalep la road. Tl>e (Innese Governmen 
naturally fear that with the opening of free mtercourse between Tib 
"n Ind a, China will be a great loser so far as her commercial mterests 




The bells of the Jo kliang were ringing and the great truni])ets of 
Tangye-ling were summoning the lamas to early morning service, 
when, on June 13, 1 took from the roof of our house a last look at the 
gilded spires and red walls of Potala, and started out for Tashilhunpo. 
I noticed near our lodgings a number of women drawing water from 
a well in rawhide buckets. The water of Lhasa is excellent, and 
both abundant and very near the surface, most of the wells being not 
over four feet deep ; and this is the reason for the belief that the town 
is over a subterranean lake. 

Arriving at the foot of Chagpori, on the summit of which is the 
College of Surgeons of Tibet, I got off my horse and ascended the hill, 
as I had promised to visit an old doctor known as Amchi Eivola, who 
was afflicted with cataract. On the way up I was met by one of the 
Amchi's pupils, who presented me with a khatag. 1 was led into 
a nice room containing a few neatly-finished tables, on one of which 
was a cup full of delicate rose-coloured tea of the most delicious 
aroma.* The ceiling was covered with silk, and satin hangings hid 
the walls, on which hung also pictures of the god of medicine and his 

Amchi Eivola soon made his appearance, a man of commanding 
looks and heavily built. He was the Principal of the Vaidurya Ta- 
tsan of Chagpori, and physician to the regent. He expressed his 
pleasure at seeing me, and said he had heard me most kindly spoken 
of by the Lhacham Phala, and he would be greatly pleased if I would 

* I fancy our author refers to the hsiang pien cha usually drunk hy Chinese in 
Peking and elsewhere in the north. Jasmine flowers are dried with tlie tea, and 
impart to it a strong and agreeable perfume. — (W. R.) 


postpone my journey to Sliigatse iind endeuvour tu cure his disease, 
Avliicli lie thought curable by an operation, but he knew of no surgeon 
in Tibet able to perform it. 

I was pained at my utter inability to help liini, and told him that 
I would willingly prolong my stay at Lhasa if I had any means of 
curing him, but I had none whatever, and must take my leave. So 
saying, I rose from my seat, and left alter the usual leave-takings.* 

Following the same road by which we had come to Lhasa, we 
stopped that night at Netang. On the loth we reached Palti djong, 
and on the IStli arrived at Uongtse at 10 o'clock at night, and put up 
in Pador's house. 

Early the following morning I went to the monastery, and was 
promptly led to the minister's apartments, where I found him covered 
with small-pox pustules, and hardly able to speak. The Lhacham's 
son was also ill with the same disease, but convalescing. 

AVhen the minister fell asleep, I went to the Tung-chen's room. 
He asked me if I had not met Phurchung on the road, as he had left 
for Lhasa only a week ago carrying my letters and a shot-gun. As 
to Ugyen-gyatso, he had returned from Lachan with the luggage that 
had been left there, and was now waiting for me at Gyatsoshar, near 
Shigatse. I remained at Dongtse until July II, when, in company 
with Phurchung and l*ador, I set out for Gyatsoshar, which place we 
reached the following day, and Ugyen gave me, to my infinite delight, 
a package of letters from India. 

Ugyen told me that since his return from the Lachan barrier he 
had been busy collecting plants. He had also carefully kept a diary 
from which I culled the following details, which may prove of 

One evening a lama friend had called on him, and asked him 
if he would like to meet a Golog from Amdo. These Goloti', his 
friend went on to say, are a nation of brigands living in Amdo in 
Eastern Tibet.f Their country is nowhere cultivated, but they breed 

* It ib straii',^e that our author tells us nothing of this famous lamasery of Chagpori. 
We know, however, that it is one of the oldest in Tibet, that the medieal school is 
attended by some .300 students, and that it sujiplies witli medicines, most of which are 
simples collected by th(; lamas thi-msilves, not only Lhasa, but remote parts of Tibet 
and Mongolia. I liave seen remedies bought at Chagpori used in the Tsaidam, tlie 
Koko Nor, and all over Eastern Tibet. — (W. 11.) 

t Amdo being used here in its broadest sense as including all North-east Tibet. 
rhese Golok (or (Jolog) trade witli Kumbum, Sungpan (in North-west Sze-ehuen), and 
with the Lhasa country. " At Pberehode (near Naiudjong in Takpo) many traders called 


many ponies, which they nse for making raids on the adjacent 
peoples. Their chiefs exact black-mail {cJiafj tal) from all people, 
and rob all they fall in with, unless they have passports frcmi the 
Golog chiefs. 

The Gologs have a few lamaseries, the heads of which come from 
Tashilhimpo, and are appointed for a term of five years, after whicli 
they return to Ulterior Tibet. Not long ago one of these lamas 
returned to Tashilhunpo, after having enjoyed during his sojourn in 
Crologland the confidence of the people and chiefs. He had amassed 
considerable wealth, and he spent on his return several thousand 
rupees in entertaining all the Tashilhunpo monks, and in giving them 
presents of money. Two years ago the wife of the Golog chief, near 
whom he had lived, came to Tashilhunpo on a pilgrimage, and after 
visiting the temple, she expressed a desire to see their former lama, 
but he was nowhere to be found, though it was known that he was 
at Tashilhunpo. Among the Golog people it is customary to greet 
one another with a kiss, and whoever omits the kiss when meetins 
or parting with an acquaintance is considered rude and unmannerly. 

The lama had kissed this lady hundreds of times in her own 
country, but how could he kiss her now before all the monks ? and 
particularly as the Panchen rinpoche was present at Tashilliunpo ; 
how could he hope to escape unpunished if he committed an act of 
such gross immodesty ? 

The lady, however, before leaving Tashilhunpo, invited him to 
a dinner, and as soon as she appeared in the room he shut the door 
and greeted her with a kiss on the mouth, and explained to her the 
reason of his failing to see her at first, and the embarrassment he 
had felt in approaching her in public* 

Ugyen's friend also told him that in the Bardon district of 
Khams,t when two acquaintances meet they touch each other's 
foreheads together by way of salutation. 

The same friend, who had imparted to Ugyen the preceding 
information, told him one day this fable : In times of yore, wlien 

'Golokpas' come with large lierds of yaks fo trade, and annually visit this place in 
the months of October and November with merchandise, chiefly consisting of salt and 
wool." ' Kei^ort on the Exploration, from 1S5G to 1886,' p. 8. 

* This is at all events a good story, but I doubt whether the Golok, any more than 
the Chinese, Mongols, or other Tibetan tribes, kiss in public. --(W. R.) 

t I have never heard of any district of this name. Tliis mode of saluting is a 
Mohammedan one. — (W. R.) 


beasts could talk, a leopard met an ass, and, though he had a strong 
inclination to kill him, he was impressed by his strength, of which 
he judged by his loud bray, so he offered him his friendship on 
condition that he would watch his den when he went out in search 
of prey. 

One day the leopard sallied forth with a mighty roar by way 
of prelude to his day's work, and forthwith a wild yak rolled down 
the cliff overhanging his den, killed from fright at the sound. When 
the leopard returned and saw the dead doivi, the ass said he had 
killed it, and stuck out his tongue, smeared with blood, in proof of 
his prowess. 

The leopard believed him, and promised to help him when the 
time came. One day he told him to go and graze in the meadow 
on the other side of the hill. When the ass had eaten his fill he 
brayed twenty or thirty times in sheer wantonness, and the leopard 
thinking his friend in trouble, ran to his rescue, but the ass told him 
he was only braying for pleasure. A little while after a pack of 
wolves attacked the ass, when he brayed loudly, calling his friend 
to his help ; but the leopard thought that he was only amusing him- 
self, and did not go to his rescue, and the ass was torn to pieces by 
the wolves. 

On the 7th of the eighth moon (June 23) a grand military review 
was held at Shigatse, when more than a thousand soldiers were 
present, and there was a sham fight in the presence of the general. 
There are two reviews {mag clvjamj) every year, one in summer, the 
other in winter ; and besides these there is one whenever the Amban 
visits Shigatse on a tour of inspection. 

On June 29 the summer prayer ceremony (or monlam) was 
celebrated.* All the monks of Tashilhunpo, some three thousand odd, 
assembled at Chyag-tsal-gang. A satin wall or gyahyal, 1000 feet 
in circumference, was erected, and inside it was a great State canopy, 
under which the Panchen rinpoche's throne was placed. He was 
unable to be present, but his stole and mitre were put on the throne, 
and round it thronged tlie lamas in order of precedence and rank. 
The people of Shigatse were there, some under tents, others under 
bowers of cypress and willow branches, all amusing themselves 

* Tsongkhapa, the great lama reformer in the 14th century, instituted these annual 
prayer meetings. The most important one is the " great prayer meeting " (mon-lam 
chen-po) in tlie early part of the year. — (W. R.) 


singing and joking. A mast about 120 feet high was erected, and 
ropes stretched from it to the great Kiku Ijuilding, and on these 
were hung pictures of all the gods of the pantheon. At Shigatse, the 
while, there was racing and military manceuvres and drill. 

The following day was sacred to Dipankara Buddha, and his 
picture was made to occupy a prominent place in the exhibition. 
This representation of him was about 100 feet high, and skilfully 
worked in different coloured satins. On either side of it were 
gigantic representations of the Buddha. 

All the lamas and nobles of Shigatse with their families made 
merry under the great tent in the Chyag-tsal-gang. Sumptuous 
dinners, cooked by the best native and Chinese cooks, were served 
to the great personages of Tashilhunpo and of the Government. 
Many persons had pitched tents near the great one, and were amusing 
themselves there with their families and friends. From morning to 
evening the deafening music of drums, cymbals, and trumpets never 

No one was absent from the fete save the Grand Lama, who, it 
was rumoured, was laid up with small-pox at Tobgyal, where he had 
gone after a visit to the hot springs of Tanag. On either side 
of the great nine-storied building of Kiku, between Shigatse and 
Tashilhunpo, were two huge lions in which men were concealed ; 
these were moved about from time to time to the Gfreat delight of 
the people. 

The next day was the full moon, and was sacred to Sakya Buddha. 
The great picture of Dipankara Buddha was removed, and one of 
Sakya Sinha, of gigantic size, and surrounded by all the Buddhas of 
past and future ages, took its place. This picture was brought out 
from the lamasery to the sound of deafening music, and with great 
ceremony. Ten black priests {Nagpa), well versed in tantrik rituals, 
conducted a solemn religious service, and were assisted by :>00 
lamas from Tsomaling chanting hymns. 

In the plain of Chyag-tsal-gang the lamas and people again 
feasted and enjoyed themselves as on the previous day. 

On the morrow (July 2) the picture of Sachya tubpa was dis- 
placed for one of the Buddha who is to come, Maitreya (or Chyamba). 
It was brought out and hung up with the same ceremony as was 
observed on the preceding days. This day Tashilhunpo was open to 
women, and crowds of them in the gayest and richest apparel visited 



the temples and shrines. Ugyen estimated the value of the head- 
dress of one lady he saw at 40,000 rupees. In the evening every 
one went and touched w^ith his or her head the picture of Chyaniba, 
and thus received his blessing.* 

During my stay at Gyatsoshar I occupied the little pavilion 

A J ri'lLE GIUL, UAUGHTI.Ii (jl 

I ll.l.i A.S ;>wl.l,HIAN. 

belonging to the minister, wliicli I liave described ])reviously.t Tlie 

* Cliinese aiithoi-B make moution of ii similar festival, held at Lhasa yearly, 
beginning on the latter i)art of the second moon (middle IMarcli), and lasting for a 
month. Another of like deserijition is held in the sixtii moon. See Jour. Boy. 
Asiat. Soc, xxiii. pp. 212, '21.'!. 

t tiee]snpr((, p. 70. 



flowers in the garden which surrounded it filled the aii' with their 
fragrance; the tall poplars, the widespread willows, the fragrant 
junipers, the graceful cedars, all contributed to make this place the 
most favoured of all the neighbourhood. 

My health rapidly improved in these pleasant surroundings and 
genial temperature, and I worked diligently at transcribing works 
of great interest into the nagari character which had, though written 
in Sanskrit, been preserved in the (JVu-chan) script of Tibet. Ugycn 


devoted himself to botanizing, extending his excursions to consider- 
able distances. Finally, to facilitate bringing in his collections, he 
bought a donkey and a pony for himself to ride. 

July 19 was kept as a great holiday, it being the day on which 
the Buddha first turned the Wheel of the Law. The people of 
Shigatse and neighbourhood visited the different chapels and sanc- 
tuaries and thronged in every corner of Tashilhunpo. 

Two days later the Deba Shikha, of whom I have had so often to 
speak, gave a garden-party to a number of his friends in the garden 
surrounding the house in which I was living at Gyatsoshar. There 
were a dozen men and women ; the former amused themselves the 


whole day at archery and quoits,* in both of which they exhibited 
considerable skill. The same day Ugyen started on a botanizing 
trip, which took liini as far as Sakya. 

On July 26 I returned to Pongtse, and was pleased to find 
that the Minister had recovered from the small-pox. I found the 
Tung-chen busy preparing for the ceremony of consecrating a new 
house of the Seng chen,t as tlie minister is called, now nearly com- 
plete, and built a little to the north of the Tsug-la khang temple. In 
the room given me were some five or six hundred balls of butter of 
about two pounds weight each, and a number of bags of tsamha and 
wheat flour. 

I had only been here four days when I was requested by the 
Chyag-dso-pa of Gyantse to visit him and see if I could not do some- 
thing for the complaint from which he had now been suffering for 
some time. The invitation was so pressing that I could not refuse ; 
so I set out at once, and was most kindly received by him and his 
family. I remained here until August l'.\, when a letter reached 
me from the minister, who was still at Dongtse, asking me to rejoin 
him there at once. This letter of the minister, though written in 
Tibetan, was in the Eoman character, which I had taught him to 
write the preceding winter. | 

As I rode back to Dongtse I was greatly struck by the beauty of 
the vegetation ; the little pools were frequently covered with lilies, 
and wild- flowers were in full bloom. 

The minister asked me if I would go to Tobgyal and see the 
Grand Lama, who was desperately ill. He had received a letter from 
him asking for some consecrated pills (tse-i^il) ; I could take this 
medicine along with me, and at tlie same time he would inform the 
Panchen that I was a skilful physician and might be able to cure him. 

Hearing of the desperate condition of the Grand Lama, I naturally 
hesitated to undertake this commission, and so asked for time for 
reflection. The next day, however, I told the minister that I could 
not venture to wait on the Grand Lama unless he expressed a wish 

* This game is one of the very few national games of Tihet, hut is prohahly of 
foreign origin. I have never seen it played in Northern or Eastern Tibet. In 
Bhutan tlie people appear to be specially skilful at it. — (W. R.) 

t Senff clien is a Chinese title, meaning " tlie Monk Minister." — CW. R.) 
X Hue, op. cit., vol. ii. p. 338, tells us of the ]il(asure the Regent of Lhasa found 
in learning from him th(: Roman alphabet. I my.self have found it the one subject 
which never failed to interest Tibetans, lamas, and laymen. — (W. R.) 


to see me ; or, at all events, unless I was accompanied by the minister 
himself. He finally decided that he would send the tse-ril by a con- 
fidential servant, and hint in his note accompanying them, that 
perhaps Indian medicines might prove beneficial. 

On Angust 25 and 26, the final ceremonies of consecrating the 
new house built by the minister (and which had been going on for 
the last five days) were begun. The last ceremony is called the 
cliin-srcg* The mask of the god of death (Shinje gyalbo), his weapons 
and armour were hung on a stake stuck close to the fireplace. Then 
bundles of sandalwood were arranged in six heaps, and melted butter 
poured over them to feed the flame ; and a lama, chanting hymns, 
sat opposite each fire. Sesamum and barley were scattered about. 
At the termination of the first day's ceremony, a dinner was served 
to all the guests and monks. 

The cliin-srcg ceremony on the 26tli was similar to that of the day 
before, and wound up with a long service. In the afternoon the Seng 
chen (the minister) took his position on a raised seat under a spacious 
awning spread on the roof of the tsug-lha-l-liang, and ordered all the 
lamas, carpenters, masons, coppersmiths, gilders, etc., to assemble, 
when he distributed presents to them. To the lamas and monks he 
gave silver coins, Jchatag and blankets ; and to the head labourers, 
rugs {tumslii), felt hats {Uiamljo), and homespun cloth {gyantsc). 

On the 28th news reached us that two of the Grand Lama's 
physicians had run away, another had gone mad, and the fourth was 
without hope or ability to do anything more for the illustrious patient, 
who had had a severe hemorrhage. 

On the 31st the dreaded event took place, a letter was handed tlie 
minister announcing the Grand Lama's death. He had died on the 
day previous at Tobgyal, or, as it is the custom to say, " He had left 
this world for repose in the realm of bliss (Deva-chan)." 

A notice was issued to the people to assume signs of mourning ; 
the women were forbidden to wear their headdresses or any other 
jewellery, and amusements and ornamenting of houses were pro- 
hibited. The people showed signs of deep distress at the untimely 
death of the Panchen ; some attributing it to the sorrow he had felt 
at the disloyalty of his people, others said he had left this world on 

* On this ceremony of burnt-offering, cliin (sbyin), " alms;" sreg, "to bm-n up," see 
Emil Schlagintwcit, ' Buddlusm in Tibet,' p. 2-id <t gqq. ; and Waddell, op. cif., p. 498. 


accoimt of the discourtesy of the Dalai lama in not inviting liini to 
his consecration. 

At Dongtse, where I was, the minister was having performed as a 
termination to the ceremonies attending the consecration of the new 
building, a grand religious dance in the courtyard of the Choide. A 
»reat crowd, all in their holiday attire, was assembled on the roofs 
and balconies of the tem])le. The dance had but commenced ; the 
minister's page, who impersonated the herald of the gods, had twice 
fired off a gun, and had proclaimed the arrival of the four guardian 
deities of the w^orld ; the devils and goblins had gone through their 
part of the performance, when the news of the death of the (Irand 
Lama was made known to the minister. At once the dance was 
stopped, and the dancers and the crowd rapidly dispersed. 

On September 3 it was reported to me that the Chinese commander 
of Shigatse had flogged several of the Grand Lama's servants for not 
having told him of the gravity of their master's illness. One of the 
physicians of the Panchen had been severely beaten, and the other 
medical attendant was found dead shortly after the Grand Lama had 
breathed his last. I thanked God I had not consented to the 
minister's proposal to go and attend the Grand Lama ! 

On the 6th Ugyen returned to Dongtse from his trip to Sakya, and 
from his journal I take the following facts, M'hich may be of 
interest : — 

He had started, as previously stated, on July 21, and on the 
23rd crossed to the left bank of the Tsang-po near Tashi-gang, and 
camped in the valley of Tang-pe. Thence he and his companion, a 
Mongol lama by the name of Chos-tashi, went to the Tanag district, 
where a fine quality of pottery is manufactured.* They conld not 
get lodgings anywhere, so afraid \vere the people that they might 
introduce small-pox among them, coming as they did from the 
infected city of Shigatse. 

On July 26 they crossed the Tanag Tong chu by an iron suspen- 
sion bridge, and, travelling westward, stopped for the night in the 
lamasery of Tubdan, Leaving Tubdan on the 2Sth, the travellers 
reached, after a march of twelve miles in a northerly direction, the 
famous hot springs of Burchu-tsan. A circular wall of stone encloses 
a portion of the springs, and here the Grand Lama takes his baths. 
The ])laco where he camps is surrounded by a low turf wall. Tlie 

* See supra, p. 60. 


Graud Lama had recently taken the baths, but it was sui)posed 
that the water gods (or nagas) had in some way (jr other been 
offended, as the water had but aggravated his (;omplaint. To 
propitiate these lu a hundred lamas had been employed here until 
within a few days conducting religious services. In and near these 
springs are numerous black snakes which, though they are said to be 
venomous, do no harm to either man or beast. They enter houses in 
the neighbouring villages, but no one ever thinks of hurting them. 

The next day they crossed the Jeh la and stopped for the niglit at 
the village of Keshong, but again they could not get lodgings. On 
the 30th they reached the old village of Shendar ding,* near which 
is situated the famous Bonbo monastery of Eigyal Shendar. Ugyen 
visited this lamasery the following day, and represented himself 
as a Bonbo from Sikkim on a pilgrimage to the sanctuaries of Bonbo 
Shenrab mivo, the chief deity of this religion. He expressed a 
desire to give a general tea {inany ja) to the monks, presented the 
manager five tanka for the purpose, and it was arranged that the 
entertainment should take place on the morrow. 

In the mean time he was shown about the temple. In the con- 
gregation hall the priests were reading the Bonbo scriptures. In the 
chapel of the upper story he noticed among the images of tlie various 
gods of the Bon pantheon that of Sakya Buddha. 

The next day the mang Ja took place. There M'ere about thirty 
monks (dahas) present,! and, on inquiring why there were so few, 
Ugyen was told that a large number of monks who are natives of 
Khams Gyarong had gone to the Chang-tang J to look to the interests 
of the Bon church there. 

Ugyen, in company with the head priest (o7n-dsc), then visited the 
gloomy chapels of the monastery, only lighted by torches and butter- 
fed lamps, where he saw a number of curious pictures and tapestries 
on which were represented various terrifying gods. After this he 

* Ding means something like " village." It is a very common termination to names 
of places throughout Tibet.— (W. R.) 

t Duba, or Draba, is the name apijlied to all lamas irresijective of rank. The word 
Zama is only used when speaking of some liigh dignitary in the church, or of a ijeloiuj, 
or '• priest." — (W. R.) 

X The Gyade country, which extends from the high-road from Nagchukha to 
Hsi-ning in Kansu and toChamdo, is not under tlie rule of Lhasa, it is a purely lioubo 
country. I traversed this region from west to east in 1892. Khams Gyarong refers 
to the Chin chuan, a small region on the Upper Ta-tung river, in North-west Sze-chuen, 
where this religion has many adherents. — (W. R.) 


was presented to the high priest, Je Khiidub rinpoche, who received 
him most kindly. He was a man of sixty-eight years of age, but 
strong and hearty. He explained to Ugyen various points of the 
" black water " {chab-nag) mysteries of Bonism, and lent him some 
books to read, a number of which Ugyen made copies of.* 

The Rigyal Sendar monastery is said to have been erected on the 
site of an ancient Bon temple, called Darding sergo tamo, and was 
built several hundred years before Tashillmnpo ; and was sacked by 
the Jungar Mongols in the 17th century. When they demolished the 
chapel, the Bon high priest hurriedly concealed tlie sacred treasures 
and scriptures, written in silver on dark blue tablets, in the deep 
recesses of a cavern, and hence the sacred writings of the Bonbo are 
now in a confused state. The church furniture and other requisites 
of worship in the monastery are extremely ancient. Among them 
are the huge tambourines {shang), and gigantic cymbals made of the 
finest bell-metal, paintings representing the Seven Heroic Saints 
{Pao-rab dun), numerous old tapestries, and several volumes of scrip- 
tures written in silver and gold on thick dark-blue (card) boards. 
The roof of the great hall of congregation is supported by forty- 
two pillars, six feet apart, and all around the monastery are fine- 
looking chorten, mcndong, and cairns, which visitors are allowed to 
circumambulate from right to left, instead of from left to right, as do 
Buddhists. When questioned respecting the reason for this custom, 
the priests replied that salutation, circumambulation, and the chanting 
of mantra being intended by the sages as processes to sanctify the 
body, speech, and mind, they did not at all Ijenefit the divinity. It is, 
therefore, immaterial how and which way one salutes and circumam- 
bulates the sacred things, but it is the established usage of the Bon 
community to circulate from right to left.f 

The Bon monastery of Shendar is now in the joint possession 
of the four powerful members of the family of Shen-tsang. Though 
they are laymen, having wives and children, yet being the descendants 
of Shenrab Mivo, the illustrious founder of the Bon religion, they are 
venerated as lamas. The mother of the two leading members of this 
family was tlie elder sister of Sikyong, the late Bajah of Sikkim. 

* The present Boiibo religion is hardly distinguishable from Tibetan Buddhism, 
except in a few peculiar reversals of lamaist customs, and in the names of the gods. 
See ' Land of the Lamas,' p. 217. Schiefner, Sarat (Jhandia, and Laufcr have published 
translations and texts of some I'.onbo works. — (W. It.) 

t Not a very intelligible or satisfactory explanation. See Waddell, op. cit., p. 287. 


The late Paiichen rinpoche was the nephew of these brothers, in 
consequence of which they are addressed by the people as Ku-shawj, 
" Eoyal Maternal Uncle." The late Grand Lama was of pure Bonbo 
stock, and the two families from which he sprang are known Ijy the 
names of Shen-lug and Tu-lug. People inquire with wonder why 
the vice-regent of Buddha in the flesh should have been born in the 
family of Shenrab Mivo, the heretic. Some disaffected Tibetans were 
even in the habit of ridiculing this Grand Lama by calling him the 
offspring of Bon heretics. 

In the monastery are two sections of monks, called respectively 
the Tibetan Association {Bod kham-tsan) and the Khams Association 
{Kliamba Jcham-tsan) , the latter being the most numerous. The 
officers consist of one priest for the grand congregation {Om-dse), two 
discipliners {Ckos-tims), two church directors (GeJihor), two general 
managers {Chi-nycr), and two chapel-keepers {Kit-nijcr). 

While conducting service the monks dress like the Gelugpa 
monks of Tashilhunpo. They wear tall mitre-shaped yellow caps, and 
a yellow cloak covering the bodies. The ordained monks hang the 
chab-lug, or badge of celibacy,* from their waist-bands like the 
Buddhist monks, and wear red serge boots. They are not allowed to 
wear anything that is blue, green, black, or white. During their 
residence at the monastery they wear the church costume, composed 
of the sliam-tab and tougir^^ and red boots made according to the Bon 
fashion. When they enter the congregation hall for service they 
leave their boots at the door. The cost of the tea drunk during the 
services is borne for the most part by the Shen-tsang family. The 
monastery is maintained by a small endowment, supplemented by 
the donations and subscriptions paid by the Bon community of Chang. :J: 

The monks of the Khams Association, numbering about forty, go 
annually during the summer to conduct religious services in the 
houses of the Bon people of Chang. Li the winter they remain in 
the monastery. During divine service the monks are allowed to 
drink as much tea as they like, there being no restriction in this 
respect, as in the great Buddhist monasteries. 

* The little water-bottle carried by geloDgs, and with which they moisten their 
mouths in the forenoon when they arc not allowed to eat or drink. Waddell, op. cit., 
201.— (W. E.) 

t The Sham-tub is a plaited petticoat of red pulo; it is worn liy all lamas. The 
toiKjii is the upjjer shawl. 

X By which he means, I suppose, the Chang tang Bonbos of Gyade.— (Vv'. R.) 


The lamas here are divided into two sects, which ditier slightly in 
their vows. In the one called Shen-tang srung-lug, a man may take 
vows when sixty years of age ; while in the otlier, called Shen-tsang 
lug, he must take the vows of abstinence and piety as soon as he has 
finislied his final clerical examinations. The higli priest, or Je Kadub 
rinpuche, Ynng-drung gyal-tsan by name, administers vows and 
ordains monks. 

The rules of moral discipline, called tsa-i/ii/, written on a broad 
sheet of pasted daphne paper, are posted in a conspicuous position 
in the monastery. When an ordained monk is found guilty 
of violating these rules, and particularly those of chastity, he is 
immediately punished and expelled from the monastery. Such 
punishments are, however, commutable into fines, such as the pay- 
ments of money to the lama who ordained him, and providing enter- 
tainment and presents for the other monastic authorities and the 
members of the congregation. 

The marriage ceremonies of the Bonbo are the same as those of all 
other Tibetans : so also the funeral rites, although some communities 
throw their dead into rivers and lakes.* After death the body is 
kept in the house twenty-four hours, after which it is removed to the 
temple or monastery. On the fourth day the ornaments and clothes 
worn by the deceased are placed before the gods, and prayers offered 
to them to take charge of his soul. At the end of the ceremony the 
corpse is removed to the cemetery, where it is cut into pieces to be 
devoured by vultures and dogs.f 

Ugyen left Shendar ding on August 5, and stopped at noon at the 
hot springs of Langpag, where the Tashi lama has a temple-like house 
in charge of an officer. The water is so hot that meat can be cooked 
in it in half an hour. 

l*roceeding thence they came to Non chu, where he saw the 
Non chu lama rinpoche, who made many inquiries about Calcutta, 
tlie railways, telegraphs, and telephones of which he had heanl 
travellers speak. He himself, lie said, had invented a telephone, and 
was just then engaged in making a new instrument with wliich lie 

* This is also done amonj; Buddhists, as in the Palti lake country. See sfupra, j). ]:!'.». 

t Moorcroi't. ' Travels.' ii. <!S, refers to Bonbo lamas when he describes the lamas of 
I'iu (in Ijadak). wlio allow their hair to grow and become matted, and wiio wear black. 
Nain Singh makes mention of the Bonbo country of North Tibet, which he calls " the 
Ombo, or Pembo country," Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, xlvii. p. 107.— 
(W. K.) 


would be able to communicate with people at a distance by means of 
strokes of a hammer.* He was also most curious to know iibont 
illuminating gas. 

The next day Ugyen again called on the lama, who asked many 
questions about the resources of India, its government, commerce, 
laws, etc., and as Ugyen replied he noted down all he heard. 

Taking leave of the lama the same day, the travellers reached 
Eag-tso ferry, where they crossed the Tsang-po in a rudely constructed 
boat, in which men and animals were ferried across. They halted for 
the night at Tondub ling, in the district of Jerong. They were unable to 
gain admittance to any house, and had to pass the night in a sheepfold. 

The next day they came to Phuntso ling, where there is a lamasery 
with five hundred inmates. This was formerly the seat of the 
Taranath lama, and from here he went to Urga in Mongolia. Ugyen 
visited the cave where Taranath once lived as an ascetic. He also 
saw the printing-house of the Phuntso ling lamasery, which contained 
printing blocks for many valuable historical works. 

Two roads lead to >Sakya from this place, one via Tondub ling, 
the other by way of Lhartse. The travellers followed the latter, 
which is the shortest, arriving at Lhartse on August 10. Shakar 
djongjf Ugyen learnt, can be reached from Lhartse in a day. The 
monks of Shakar are noted for their wealth, much of which is 
acquired by buying gold. 

Lhartse castle {djong) is on a fine eminence overlooking the Tsang- 
po. It is the chief place of trade of Upper Tsang. Its monastery used 
to contain one thousand lamas, but now tlie number is considerably 
smaller. Some distance from Lhartse is the famous monastery of 
Namring, whose monks are noted for their great learning. 

Proceeding by way of Tana and Lasa, Ugyen and his companions 
reached Sakya on the 14th, and put up in a house belonging to the 
chief of the ulag department. There is a good market in tliis town, 
but with the exception of meat, all articles of food are dearer than at 
Shigatse. No good tsamhc could be bought, and straw and hay were 
very dear, a tanJca for a basketful of not over five pounds weight. 

Sakya is a notorious place for thieves and all kinds of bad 

* I have heard of Chinese claims to the discovery of the telephone, hut never before 
of Tibetan. I fancy the lauia had heard of the Morse transmitter, which may liavo 
been taken for a little hammer struck on a board. — (W. R.) 

t Visited by Ugyeu-gyatso in 1883. 



characters, aud the cattle have to be locked up at night in the stables 
and sheep-pens. 

The next day, being the anniversary of the birth of Feme 
Chyungnas (Padma Sambhava), a grand religious dance took place 
in the courtyard of the temple, in the presence of the five surviving 
members of the royal Khon family of Sakya, who sat on chairs on 
a raised dais under a large Chinese umbrella, with attendants carry- 
ing the gyal-tsan or banners, and the sceptre. 

Eighty gaudily dressed dancers {chyam])a) danced the day long 
to the music of clarionets, trumpets, kettle-drums, tambourines, and 
cymbals, stopping only occasionally to partake of tea. When they 
finally stopped they carried off with them on their shoulders quantities 
of 1,'hatad flung to them by the audience. 

This dance, called the "club dance" {pliAtrpcd Ml chijam), \yq.s 
performed in celebration of the birth, from a lotus flower in the lake 
of Dhanakosha, of the sage Uddayani. Two Timpon and a dozen 
policemen kept the great crowd in order with their whips. 

When the ceremony of the day was over, the heir apparent of the 
Sakya Panchen took his seat in the maidan in front of the great 
temple, and gave his blessing {chyag wang) to all who approached. 
Ugyen visited tlie same day the famous library, where lie saw many 
manuscripts written in gold, the pages some six to eight feet long 
and three or four feet broad.* On the board which covered these 
volumes were painted in gold and silver the images of innumerable 
Buddhas. There were also many books in Chinese, dating back to 
the early years of the Christian era. 

The next day another kind of dance, called the dsa-nag, or " black 
hat " dance, was performed in the court of the residence of Gong-sa. 
There were about eighty dancers. Seventy kept up the dance con- 
tinually, while the ten remaining took refreshments. They danced 
with much grace, the movements of their arms and hands being 
especially curious. 

On August 17 Ugyen left Sakya, and travelling by way of 
Lhadong, Shong-mar-tse, the Pa la and Cliihhnig.. reached Dobta on 
the 20tli.t Tills latter locality he found very poor, the people living 

* Our author fartlier on (p. 241) says tliat these volumes are about six feet long by 
eighteen inches broad. This appears more likely. The age of the Chinese books is 
certainly greatly exagi;erated. — (W. 11.) 

t Dob-tha jong of tiie map. Our author passed through it when returning to 
Darjiling, .see infra, p. '244. 


in great squalor. The country is rocky and l)arren, yet the peasants 
have to give half the produce of their fields to the Sikkini Eajah. 

Leaving Dobta, Ugyen came to the Tsomo tcl-tung, or " Mule's 
Drink Lake," which he went around, keeping it to his left, an heretical 
action according to Buddhist ideas. 

Stopping at Naring for the night, he then passed through Tagnag 
and reached Targye on the 24th.* Near here is the Dora chu-tsan 
("Hot Springs"), in the neighbourhood of which he saw several 
carpet looms, on which excellent rugs, called titm-shi, were l)eing 
made by women, who showed great taste, in designing patterns. 

Leaving Targye the travellers passed without any incidents 
through Kurma, Kyoga, Labrang-dokpa, and Luguri Jong,t and 
reached Shigatse about noon on August 29. 

Ugyen remained at Shigatse for seven days, drying the plants he 
had collected on his journey, and observing the different incidents 
which took place after the death of the Grand Lama. 

The day after the Grand Lama's death, he and a friend had gone 
to Tashilhunpo to perform their devotions, but were refused ad- 
mittance. No outsider was admitted into the lamasery, the inmates of 
which were now not allowed to see any one or leave the monastery. 

As they were coming back they passed in front of the palace of 
Kun-khyab ling, and saw a large pack of hounds and mastiffs, which 
the Panchen kept for hunting ; for, though his sacred character 
forbade him shooting animals, he could indulge in this other form of 

While in the palace of Phuntso phodang, the lama's favov^rite 
residence, and where they were allowed to enter, an officer from the 
Labrang attached seals on everything Ijelonging to the deceased, and 
on all the doors of the principal rooms in Kun-khyab ling. 

The next day there was a report that the lama had come to life 
again, and every one was thanking the gods ; the tscmiha vendors on 
the market-place were throwing handfuls of their ware heavenward 
as offerings to the gods who had restored their Grand Lama to them. 

The Dingpon of Shigatse said, in the hearing of Ugyen, that last 
year, when the Government of Lhasa had consulted the oracle of 
Lhamo sung-chyongma, it had foretold great calamities for Tibet. 

* About five miles from Kliauiba djong. — (W. E.) 

t The same road followed by him and Chandra Das when going to Shigatse.— 
(W. K.) 


These were inevitable, in view of the perversity of the people who no 
longer had faith in the gods, but let themselves be led by demons in 
human shape. 

Witchcraft was steadily increasing, he said, and in every village 
there were those who said they were in communion with devils. An 
edict had been issued forbidding witchcraft and fortune-telling. It 
was found that under tlie castle of Shigatse itself there were fifteen 
witches {-paonal jorma). These had been brought to trial, and had 
been submitted to an examination which required them to describe 
the contents of several chests filled with a variety of things. Four 
alone were able to answer, the others were flogged and then released 
on condition that they should give up imposing on the public credulity 
and would furnish bonds for their srood behaviour. 




On September 19 the minister left Dongtse, and I despatched 
TJgyen once more to the Eigyal Shendar monastery to obtain further 
information on the Bonbos and their religion. I myself went to 
Gyantse, where I was most kindly received by the Chyag-dso-pa 
and his family. 

The Chyag-dso-pa of Gyantse has under his superintendence a 
large rug and blanket factory in which about ninety women are 
kept constantly employed, some picking the wool, some dyeing it, and 
others weaving. The fso, or " dye plant," grows in rocky soil and is 
collected by the Dokpas. It supplies a beautiful yellow colour. The 
leaves only are used in dyeing.* 

The people employed in this factory are kept under the strictest 
discipline. One day one of the women who was late beginning her 
work, was whipped by order of the Chyag-dso-pa. A boy caught 
stealing wool was also punished in the same way and imprisoned for a 
fortnight. I was rather surprised at seeing the Chyag-dso-pa thus 
taking the law in his own hands ; but he told me that the Government 
allowed great landholders like his master, the Shape Phala, judicial 
power over their own serfs. I may here note that the pastoral tenants 
on this, and probably all other estates, pay the owners every year two 
pounds of butter for every she yak they own, and two pounds of wool 
for every sheep. 

On September 25, corresponding to the 13th of the 8th moon, 
harvest began. This day was selected as it was a very lucky 

* It is a slimb (Syrnplocos) common in Sikkim. See Hooker. ' Himalayan Journals,' 
ii.41. Tso (or Tsos) is not, I believe, the Tibetan name of the plant, but only means 
'• dye." -(W. R.) 


one. All the peo^jle turned out for the work, and I went to the roof 
of the castle to watch the reapers. While working they sang hymns 
and offered the gods bunches of barley, peas, and wheat, as first- 
fruit offerings. 

Ugyen returned from his trip on the 1st of October. 

On September 13 (25 ?), the day of the full moon, while he was 
still at Shigatse, the dead Grand Lama was brought from Tob-gyal 
to Tashilhunpo. First of all came a crowd of people on foot, followed 
by about a hundred men on ponies. After these came the officials of 
Labrang, followed Ijy the chiefs, nobles, and high officials of Tsang, 
all on horseback. Behind them was carried the sedan containing the 
remains of his holiness, the Panclien rinpoche. The sedan was 
followed by the Chinese garrison, consisting of fifty soldiers. The 
lamentations of the people increased as the procession approached, 
and Ugyen said he cried like a child. Some prayed loudly, looking 
towards heaven : " God and saints ordain that our beloved protector 
{kyab-gong), may soon return to this world for the good of all living 
beings." Ko bells were rung, and the procession passed on in solemn 
silence, all, laymen and monks, dressed in dark red apparel, without 
any ornaments. When the procession entered Tashilhunpo, the sedan 
chair was placed on the State altar, in the Hall of Departed Saints. 
On the following day Ugyen went to make his obeisance to the dead 
Lama. He found the body {ku-por) wrapped in l-hatags, and placed in 
a sitting posture. It was very small, bearing no proportion to the 
stature of the Lama when living. Ugyen was told that this was the 
result of the embalmment.* 

The same day the period of summer retirement (yar-nas) for monks 
came to an end. It was observed as a holiday by the people : there 
was racing and other sports, and all the people, lamas, men, women, 
and cliildren bathed together in the Nyang chu. The only sign of 
mourning still observed this day was keeping the windows of the 
houses in town and at Tashilhunpo shut. 

On the 17th Ugyen reached Shendar ding, where he put up in the 
house of a man whose wife had just been confined. A woman in 
Tibet, as in India, is held to be unclean (Jcycdih) for a month after her 
confinement, at the expiration of which time certain religious 
ceremonies are performed for her purification. 

* See infra, p. 256; tlie details there giveu du not ^uite agree with what he say.s on 
tliis occasion. — (W. K.) 


Ugyen remained in this place until the 26th, and obtained from 
tlie high priest of the lamasery much valuable information bearing on 
the theology and history of the Bon religion. He also copied many 
valuable works on these subjects, which were obligingly put at his 
disposal by the lama.* 

Having been prevented wlien at Lhasa, as previously narrated, 
from going to the celebrated monastery of Samye, the most ancient 


and famous, probably, of all Tibetan lamaseries, I now endeavoured 
to make arrangements for this much longed-for trip. I sent Ugyen 
to Dongtse, after his return from his trip to Sliendar ding, to try and 
get a guide ; but he failed, as rumours had got abroad that I was a 

* Our author gives several pages of text on the ethics, etc., of the Bonbo, but they 
are so technical that I have been obliged to omit them. The Bonba terminology used 
by him is pr^cticHlly the same as thut of the lamas. He tells us that tiie Bonbo are 
divided into sis sects, the most popular of which is the Tu lug, to wliich the people of 
the Chang tang and Gyade belong. The Shen-tsang lug is the second iu importance. 
See also supra, 208. — (W. R.) 


British employe, and Pliurchung was accused of having brought me 
into Tibet in vioLation of the express orders of the Nepal Durbar. 

In view of these disturbing rumours, I left Gyantse on October 4, 
and returned to Tashilhunpo, where I was rejoined on the 13th by 
Phurchung, who had been sent with letters to India in August. 

I now decided to send Ugyen back to India with the botanical and 
other collections he had made, while I would visit Samye, and the 
Lhokha country south of it. He bought ten yaks for a hundred 
rupees, and pack saddles, and engaged Lachung men to accompany 
him to Khamba djong. He started on the 17th, while Phurchung and 
I returned to Gyantse, arriving there on the 18th. 

The people were now busy threshing their barley — cows, their 
muzzles covered with wicker baskets, treaded it out, and were kept 
to their work by two boys. 

The Chyag-dso-pa lent me a man to guide me to Samye and the 
south country (Lhokha) ; his name was Gopon. He told me he 
was ready to start at any time, for his brother (namdo pun, "joint 
brother "), as he called him, had now returned from Shigatse, and he 
could leave his wife. These two men had, though not related, one 
wife between them, and the three of them got on very well together. 

On October 21 I j&nally started for Samye, and followed, as 
far as the ruined village of Eing-la, the high road to Lhasa I 
had travelled over earlier in the year. There is but one family now 
living in this once prosperous place. These poor people earn a 
precarious livelihood by making pottery. A concave wooden pan is 
used for the purpose, in which the pots are shaped with a piece of 
wood or the lingers, by turning the pan or mould around with the 
hand. This is the usual method employed in Tibet. 

Leaving Eing-la, we travelled through the fine pasture-lands 
adjoining the Yamdo tso, and over desolate highlands with an 
occasional stump of a juniper or cedar tree, till we reached the village 
of Ta-lung, famous, as its name implies,* for the number and breed of 
its ponies. Around the village the land is cultivated, and showed 
evidence of great industry on the ])art of the people. 

We at first failed to secure a night's lodgings in any of the houses 
of the village, for the people took us for Lhopa or Bhutia, of whom 
they stand in great dread, as they frequently make raids on this 
district ; but we were so fortunate in the end as to secure the good- 

* Ta, "horse;" Ititirf, "valley." On the name Yamdok tso, see Journ. Buddh. 
Tt.rt. Sac. of India. IV. Tt. 111. p.t.— (W. R.) 


will of a lama of the mouastei-y, who got a friend of his to admit us 
to his house. 

The next day (October 24) we resumed our journey by daylight, 
and crossing the Shandung chu bay of Lake Yamdo, followed along 
the base of the steep hills which overhang its shores. We got sight, 
on the way, of the Chong-khor monastery,* from which come all the 
amcM Ihavio dancers and mimes.f some of whom annually visit 
Darjiling. Passing the Eivotag river some eight miles north of the 
Djong of the same name, we ascended a ridge, from the top of which 
we saw the villages of Yurupe, Ke-utag, and Khyunpodo. The 
country was everywhere thinly populated ; but large numbers of yaks, 
donkeys, sheep, and goats were grazing about. 

We stopped at the village of Shari, prettily situated between the 
Yamdo and a little sweet-water lakelet, and put up in the mani Iha 
lilianKj, the centre of which was taken up by a great prayer-wheel about 
six feet high and three feet in diameter. An old man lived here 
whose sole occupation was to turn the wheel. 

The next morning we crossed a low hill, the Kabu la, and, skhting 
the northern extremity of the Eombujalake, reached by eleven o'clock 
the village of Melung,* thus called from the fire (vne) stones found in 
the valley {lung) in which it is situated. 

After a short halt at Melung, we resumed our march, the country 
opening a little as we advanced, and villages and hamlets becoming 
more numerous. That night we stopped at Khamedo, where there 
live about a hundred flimilies. 

AYe were off by sunrise, and passing some distance to the north of 
the large village of Ling,§ where the Djongpon of the Yamdo district 
reside, we soon after found ourselves in the broad pasture-lands of 
Karmoling, here some ten miles broad, wdiere hundreds of ponies, 
belonging to the Lhasa Government, were seen grazing. 

We ate our breakfast at Shabshi, and then, passing through the 
hamlet of Tanta,|| we began the ascent of the Tib la, which marks in 
this direction the boundary between the Yamdo and Lhokha districts, 

* The Choi-khor-tse of the map. — (W. E.) 

t Certain dancers represent the celestial musicians or hinnara, called in Tibetan 
mi ham-chi. These are probably what S. C. D. refers to. Ki-o-tag Jong of the map. 
— (W. E.) 

X Probably Nyema lung of the map.— (VV. E.) 

§ Called Loh-bu Jong ou the maps.— (W. E.) 

II Tang-da of the maps.— (W. E.) 


and from the top of which I had a magnificeiit view of the whole lake 
country, the like of which I have seen nowhere in the Himalayas. 

The difiiculties attending the descent of the Tih la were infinitely 
greater than those of the ascent, and the violence of the wind made 
it difficult even to stand erect. By five o'clock we reached the 
village of Tib, where there are about ten houses, around which grow 
a few stunted willows. The villagers were busy treading out their 
harvest with their cattle, and their merry songs, wafted by the night 
wind, fell pleasantly on my ears till I dropped asleep. 

Tib is under the authority of the Gongkhar Djongpon, who, with 
his two lama assistants, or Tsc-dimg, usually resides in the neighbour- 
ing town of Tosnam-gyaling. 

Odohcr 27. — Our road led us down the course of the Tib chu. 
The valley was covered with willows (here called nijamijam slbiiyj, or 
"mourning trees"), cypresses, junipers, and a species of silver fir, 
and though the way was stony, it was pleasant on account of the 
forest growth through which it led. 

We reached Tos nam-gyaling djong * early in the afternoon. 
This place is celebrated for the serge and broadcloth manufactured 
here. The Tib chu, as it flowed through the town between low 
banks covered with flowers, and the tall poplars and walnut trees 
surrounding the high, well-built houses, gave this place a most 
attractive appearance. We met here a party of Horba f with a 
caravan of yaks laden with salt, which they had brought from the 
north for sale in this country. 

Before reaching the town we passed by the little nunnery of 
Peru, and shortly after leaving it we came to the large lamasery of 
Toi Suduling, with about five hundred monks of the Gelugpa sect. 

We stopped for the night at Khede-sho,| a small town with two 
castles, and situated near the Tsang-po. Tlie town looks like a 
fortress, with its old-fashioned solid houses, its narrow streets, the 
Dombu choskhor, or lamasery, with encircling walls painted blue and 
red, and an old monastery on top of the hill commanding the town. 

It seemed to be a prosperous place ; there were flower gardens 

* Ton namgyalling Jong of the maps. Altitude 12,430 feet.— (W. R.) 
t Tibetans from Nortli-eiist Tibet. Tliese were more probably Chnngpa from the 
Chang tang, for the Horba do not bring salt to Central Tibet.— (W. R.) 

X Kedeslio Jong of the maps. A. K., who passed through it the same year, only a 
fortnight before our author, calls it Chitiohio Jong. He says there are about a thou- 
sand liouses in it.—' Report on the Explor. made by A. K.,' p. 84.— (W. R.) 



and groves of trees, and in nearly every window and doorway flowers 
were growing in pots. Two Nyerpa are stationed here, who administer 
the town and supervise the manufacture of serge and cloth for tlie 
Dalai lama and Panchen rinpoche. 

The next morning we passed through two miles of soft sand, and 
Anally came to the mighty Tsang-po, and after mucli shouting to tlie 
boatmen on the farther side to bring over their junk (sJiaiijiK)* and 


after a couple of hours waiting in the cold and fog, it came slowly 
across, rowed by three women and two men, who sang lustily as they 

The river is here about half a mile broad, very deep, but with a 
sluggish current. We were soon landed at the Dorje-tag ghat, where 
we paid a tanka for each of our ponies, and five I'arnia (or two 

* Sluuipa DQeauB " boatman." not boat. — (W K.) 


aiiuas) for each iiiaii as ferry charges. The ferry belongs to the 
Dorje-tag lamasery near by, one of the oldest and holiest of the 
Nyingma sect. The incarnate lama who rnles this lamasery died 
about a year and a half ago, but he has reappeared recently in the 
flesh at Darchendo.* This convent is at the foot of a range of hills 
which stretches along the river to beyond Saniye, and a large grove 
extends from near it to the high road. 

We stopped for tiffin on the river bank, where I noticed the 
ground covered with fish-bones and shells. Gopon told me that all 
the small fry which the people of this country catch are used to 
manure the fields with, as they are too bony to eat. 

Gopon, who, by the way, was a most loquacious fellow, told me 
while we drank our tea that when a new-born child dies in this 
country the body is packed in an earthenware jar or wooden box, 
and is thus kept in the storeroom, or hung from the ceiling of its 
parents' house.f In Upper Tibet the body is usually kept on the 
roof with a little turret built over it ; though the people who cannot 
afford to do this keep it also hung from the ceiling, the face turned 

The road now led over sand hillocks and spurs of rock, in some 
places close to the edge of the river, where great care was necessary 
in getting the ponies along. 

We stopped at Tag, behind which rise the forest- covered moun- 
tains, and where we got quarters in a fine new house, and were made 
most comfortable by the owners. 

The next day we were off" before sunrise, and after a few miles 
through heavy sand, came to Songkar| with about two hundred 
houses, and around which grow walnut, willow, peach, poplar, and 
other varieties of trees. It is said that Prince Lhawang, son of 

* Ta-cliieu-lu, on the l)or(ler of Sze-cluieu. The Durje-tag (Rdo-rje brag) hxmaiery 
has given its name to a sect. See Waddell, op. cit., 73. 

t This seems to be the same custom as obtains in Eastern Tibet, where all corpses 
are kept until the crops have been reaped, and then either fed to vultures, burnt, 
or otherwise disjiosed of. See ' Land of the Lamas,' p. 28G. The text is not quite 
clear, for it does not state whether or not the corpses are kept permanently in the houses 
of the parents. — (W. E.) 

X Called Tsong-ka on the maps. All this route was again gone over by Ugyen- 
gyatso in 1883. See ' Report on Explorations from 1S5G to 1886.' p. 28 et sqq. lie says 
Cp. 29) that the river at Tsong-ka is over a mile broad. King Me a^^tsoms was the 
father of Tisrong detsan, of wliom our author has so often occasion to speak. He 
reigned over Tibet in the latter half of the seventh century, ad. — (\V. K.) 


King Me agtsoms, was drowned liere, and the kino-, furions at the 
river gods for having caused the death of his lieir, ordei'ed the river 
to be whipped. The nagas were terrified when they learnt tlie order, 
and repairing to the king, told him that if he would forbear, they 
would show him many good omens. 'Tis for this that this place is 
also called Songkar (or Zungkhar) Iha-tag, or " Zungkhar of the gods' 

Near the village passes the road to Lhasa by the Songkar la and 
Dechen,* over which a great deal of timber is carried on yaks to 
Dechen and thence by boat to Lhasa. 

From Songkar to Samye most of the way is over a great sandy 
plain called Nagshu chyema,t which stretches from the l)ase of the 
rugged Lomda hills to the Tsang-po. Eeaching tlie top of a low hill, 
Samye stood before me, its gilded domes glittering in the sun, and 
the hillock of Haboi ri rising amidst the sands to the south of the 
great monastery. 

Passing under some willow trees growing througli the sand just 
outside the lamasery walls, we entered by the soutliern gate, over 
which was a chorten made somewhat in the shape of a dorjc.X The 
guide led us to the house of the mother of the Om-dse (head priest), 
and we were most hospitably received by the old lady, who gave us 
her oratory to lodge in. Before the rooms assigned us was a little 
flower patch, and other plants were growing here and there in pots. 
There were also two singing-birds in cages, 

Tung-ma, our hostess, was a line-looking old lady of about sixty 
years of age. She wore as a necklace a number of silver ornaments 
and charm boxes set with turquoises. Her head-dress differed from 
any I had seen, being in shape like a pointed cap.§ 

Phurchung was delighted with Samye ; he had not only reached 
the holiest of Tibetan sanctuaries, but a place where chang was 
extraordinarily good and cheap ; what more could he ask for ? 

After taking tea I went with my two companions to visit the chief 

* The Gokbar la crossed by Nain Singh in 1873. Dechen djong is on the Kyi ehu, 
a day's journey east of Lhasa. — (W. R.) 

t Chyema (lye-ma) means " sand," nagslm probably means " black." — (W. R.) 

X I cannot conceive how a chorten can resemble a dorje (rajra). The com- 
parison is not a happy one. — (W. E.) 

§ Perhaps she came from Litang. The women there wear a large silver plaque 
on either side of the head, which meet over the crown in a point, so that, from a dis- 
tance, the head-dress looks not unlike a pointed cap.— (W. R.) 


temple of Wu-tse (Amitabha). I inquired of the beadle (ku-nj/cr) 
the whereabouts of the celebrated library with the famous Indian 
books which Atisha had found here when he came to this monastery 
eight hundred years ago. I was told, to my great disappointment, 
that " for our sins the great library was destroyed by fire about sixty 
years ago, and there are at present but modern reprints in it." 

In the great congregation hall the Dalai lama's throne occupies 
the north-eastern corner of the chapel of the -To-vo. Near this latter 
is an image representing the first Dalai and statues of the principal 
disciples of the Buddha. 

In the second story of this building are images of Tsepamed 
(Amitayus) and of the historic Buddha, besides many others of minor 
interest. In the third or upper story are images of the three Buddhas 
of the present cycle. From this story I had a splendid view of the 
Tsaiig-po, wdiich is very wide here. 

On the wall surrounding the Wu-tse temple are painted various 
mythological and historical scenes, also pictures of the principal 
sanctuaries of Tibet.* The monks attached to the temple live close 
by in a two-storied building. 

The next day (October 30) I visited the four ling, or minor 
temples built around the Wu-tse, and the eight ling-ten or lesser 
shrines. In some of the smaller chapels were life-size images of 
Indian sages who had visited Tibet in the early ages of Buddhism in 
this country, and these images are said to have been made by Hindu 
artists. I also noticed growing in some of the court-yards some 
stunted Ijamboos and Indian shrubs. 

After visiting the white diorten, we went outside the temple walls 
to see the chapel built by the wives of King Tisrong detsan, which 
resembles in style the Wu-tse, though much smaller than it. 

We made an excursion the next day to the famous cave called 
Chim phug, where Padma Sambhava and other worthies gave them- 
selves up for a period to abstraction. 

AVe passed through the village of Samye, in which there are 

probably a thousand people and a few Chinese and Nepalese shops, 

and then for a few miles travelled through cultivated fields, with here 

and there a little village, till we came to the foot of tlie Cliim phug 

liill. The range of wliich it forms a part is a thousand feet or so 

* These are tlie sul)ject8 usually seen in such frescoes throughout Tibet and 
Mongolia. — (W. R.) 


high, well covered with fine timlier, and inhabited, so some of the 
numerous woodcutters we met told us, by wild goats, sheep, deer, and 
snow leopards. 

We reached the temple before noon. It is a two-storied, fiat- 
roofed building built on the rock. In the rock underneath the 
temple there is a fissure about fifteen feet long and six feet broad, 
and varying in height from three to six feet. In this there is a little 


chapel where the image of Padma Sambhava, flanked by two female 
attendants, is to be seen. In the building above are images of a host 
of deities and saints, as also that of King Tisrong. The books I 
looked at in the temple belonged to the Nyingraa sect, and were of no 
special interest. 

Leaving Chim phug after a couple of hours' rest, we returned 
to Samye by another road, passing three little temples, or rather 


liermitaCTes, where Indian pundits are said to have lived in times 
of yore. Flocks of pigeons were hovering about them, and walnut 
and willow trees grew around, giving them a peaceful and secluded 

The sands are slowly but surely burying Samye, and a large 
portion of the town, including some of the temples, is already lost 
under them. There is a prophecy attributed to Padma Sambhava, 
to the effect that Samye will be engulfed in the sands, and it is in a 
fair way of being accomplished. 

Norcmhcr 1. — I again visited the Wu-tse. The principal room in 
the gonff Jchang (upper hall) is full of all kinds of weapons and armour 
sacred to the gods, protectors of religion (l)armapalas). In the 
beautiful temple of Behor and Noijinhamara * is a room called the 
vm-hhang, where the breath of the dying is kept in a jar specially 
consecrated to this purpose.! 

A few notes on the famous lamasery of Samye and Padma Sam- 
bhava find place here. 

The temple was built by King Tisrong detsen, whose capital was 
on the hill of Haboi-ri, just south of where Samye now stands, at the 
suggestion of the Indian sage Santa Piakshita, and with the assistance 
of Padma Sambhava, the originator of monasticism in Tibet. J It was 
a copy of the great temple of Odantapura in Central India. Its three 
stories were each in a different style of architecture, one Tibetan, 
another Indian, and the third Chinese : so it was after a while given 
the name of San-yang or "three styles," which in Tibetan is pro- 
nounced Samye, § though it was originally named ]\Ii-gyur Ihun-grub 
Tsug-lha-khang, " the temple of the unalterable mass of perfection." 

* Behor must be Bihar gyalpo, one of the five great patron saints or Chu-gyong, of 
Tibet. Noijinliamara may be tlie god of wealth. — (W. R.) 

t Wu-hhang would appear to mean " central room or house." I have never heard of 
bottling up the breath or spirit of the dead among any Buddhist people. This must 
be a survival of some pro-Buddhist superstition. — (W. R.) 

X Tibetan historians inform us that Padma Sambhava (Feme chyung-nas) was called 
to Tibet from Kafiristan {0-rgyan) by Santa Rakshita {Dji-wa tso), who could not 
withstand the onslaught of the Bonbos. See Emil Schlaginweit, ' Die Konige von 
Tibet,' p. 52 et sqq. 

§ Written Bmm-ijas. I du not believe that this interpretation of the word Samye is 
correct. San yang, it is true, means " three styles " in Chinese, but Chinese yaug would 
never be pronounced ye in Tibetan. Waddell, op. cit., 2GG, translates the name, " the 
academy for obtaining the heap of unclianging meditation." Nain Singh visited Samye 
(he calls it Sama-ye Gomba) in 1873. '• It is surrounded by a very high circular wall, 
li mile in circumference, with gates facing the four points of tlie compass. On the top 


Both Santa Eakshita and Padma Sambhava were unable, on account 
of the open hostility of the Bonbo, to remain long in Tibet It is said 
by some that the latter sage remained tliere six years, others make 
his sojourn there eighteen years, after which he returned to India ; 
but, however long he stayed, he firmly implanted mysticism in Tibet. 

King Tisrong gathered together at Samye sacred images and 
treasures from India and the borderlands of China ; but of all the col- 
lections made here the most valuable was the great library of Indian 
works, of which Atisha, who visited Samye in the eleventh century, 
said that there were more Indian books here than in the great Indian 
convents of Buddhagaya, Vikramashila, and Odantapura united, 

Samye has experienced, since the days of its foundation, manv 
vicissitudes : it was partly destroyed by King Langdharma,* and 
again later on by other followers of the old religion. Then it was 
partially destroyed by an earthquake, in 1749 (?), and in 1808 (?) the 
Wu-tse itself was destroyed by fire.t To rebuild it the people of 
Tibet gave a hundred thousand ounces of silver, and the Shape Shada 
Dondub dorje, who had charge of the works, occupied five hundred 
workmen for seven years in reconstructing the temple. Again, in 
1850, an earthquake caused great damage to the temple, the dome fell 
in and the frescoes, floors, etc., were irreparably injured. But the 
damage was again repaired by means of public subscriptions and 
grants from the State, amountiug together to about 175,000 oimces 
of silver in value, i 

of this wall the Pundit counted 1030 chharfans {cliorten) made of burnt bricks . . . 
The interiors of the (stone) walls of these temples are covered with very beautiful 
writing in enormous Hindi (Sanscrit) characters . . ." Jour. Boy. Geug. Soc, xlvii. 
p. 114. Sarat Chandra says that a work, entitled ' Pama Kahthang ' (' Peme Katang ? '). 
contains a full description of this famous lamasery. See also Waddell, op. cit., 

* This iconoclast, who appears to have been born in a.d. 861, interdicted the 
Buddhist religion in Tibet in 899, and was murdered in 900. See Csoma, 'Tib. 
Grammar,' p. 183. Cf. Emil Schlaginweit. op. cit, p. 59, and I. J. Schmidt, ' Geschichte 
der Ost Mongolen,' pp. i9. 362, et sqq. In the last work is the history of the murder 
of the king by the hermit, Lha-lung palgyi dorje. It agrees with what our author ha.^ 
told us supra, p. 153, when describing the origin of the "black hat " dance.— (W. K.) 

t Our author says, only " in the year jire-tiger of the thirteenth cycle," and " again, 
after a period of ten years, in the month of May (fire-tiger of the fourteenth cycle)." 
This is impossible, as jire tiger is the third year in the cycle of sixty years. Assuming 
the first date to be correct, the second must be a.d. 1808. Waddell, op. cit., 267, says 
the library was destroyed about ISltJ. — (W. R.) 

X Nain Singh speaks of a town called Sawe, where the Tibetan treasury is kept. See 
Markham's ' Tibet,' p. csiii. This is Samye. Explorer A. K. passed here in October, 



On November 2 I left Samye for a visit to Yarlung, the early 
home of the first Tibetan kings, if tradition is to be believed. 

The road we followed led eastward, over a sandy plain and by 
numerous villages, the most important of which was Do, until we 
reached Taga-sho, around which were many walnut {taga), peach, 
plum, poplar, and willow trees, all planted with great regularity. * 
Here we put up, in the house of a friend of our guide, who himself 
was from the neighbouring village of Do. 

I was pleased to find mutton selling here at a very low price, 
a result of the presence of a party of Hor Dokpa from Piadeng.f 
who had brought large quantities of salt, wool, and meat. Their 
yaks were the largest I have seen in Tibet. 

Leaving Taga-sho the next morning, wo, passed by tlie ruins of 
Tagkar-sho, probably at one time the residence of the kings of the 
Phag-modu dynasty, who derive their name probably from a village 
near by still called Phagmodu.| Near this place, in a commanding 
position, is the lamasery of Nari ta-tsang, founded by the Dalai lama 

At the village of Jong § we began the ascent of the steep hill on 
whose summit is the old lamasery of Densa-til, the principal building 
nestled amidst frowning crags, on which grow here and there a few 
firs and juniper trees. In the adjacent cliffs were numerous caves 
for recluses. 

This temple differs somewhat from all other buildings of this kind 

1882. but his notes contain nothing about this celebrated place. Ugyen-gyatso visited 
it in October, 1883, but his report also contains little of interest. See ' Reiwrt on Ex- 
ploration from IS.IO to 1886,' pp. 28, 29. Osoma, 'Tib. Grammar,' p. 183, says it was 
founded a.d. 749. Cf. Emil Schlaginweit, ' Die Konige von Tibet,' p. 53. Ssanang 
Ssetsen (I. J. Schmidt, ' Geschichte der Ost Mongolen '), p. 41, says the building of the 
temple was begun in a.d. 8)1, and finished in 823. Tiie date given by Csoma is 
l)robably correct, as King Tisrong detsan's father was a contemjDorary of the Tang 
Emperor Chang-tsung, who reigned in GS4. Tisrong reigned from 740 to 786. Ho 
was born, according to Csoma, a.d. 728. — (AV. R.) 

* Ugyen-gyatso also speaks of the woods and gardens, and especially the walnut 
trees of this section of coiintry. He refers also to the excellent roads. See ' Report on 
tiie Explor. from 18.56 to 1886,' p. 28. A. K. speaks of the village of Do as Dushio. 
Tso {shin) means village, and is an abl)reviatioii from grong-tso (pr. drong-tgo). — 
(W. R.) 

t There is a Reting gond^a on the big broad between Lhasa and llsi-niug, not far 
from Nagchukha. The party referred to may have come from this neighbourhood, 
though the Dokpa of that region are not Horba. — (W. R.) 

X Phamu bub of tlie maps.— (W. R.) 

§ Jang on the maps. — (W. R.) 


I have seen in Tibet, tlie j^lan of it approaching rather that of a 
modern public building in bengal. I noticed here eighteen beautiful 
silver and copper chortcn, the finest specimens of such metal work 
I have seen. Six tablets of gold, each six feet long and six inches 
broad, hung from the ceiling, besides six piles of similar but smaller 
tablets in a corner. 

Of all the monasteries in Til3et, this is perhaps the richest in 
religious treasures,* and the Government of Lhasa talvcs particular 
care of it. Among the curious objects placed before the images of the 
gods in the principal temple, I saw some bowls filled with various 
kinds of seed and some fossils, among which some grains of barley. 

The next day we resumed our journey. The road at first led 
through a forest said to have sprung from the hairs of Je Phagmodu, 
the founder of the Densa-til lamasery, f 

All the way to Samdub phodang,the capital of the Phagmodu kings, 
was a gentle descent over gravel and mica-schist rock. Crossing a 
fine wooden bridge about fifty yards long, with railings running along 
either side, we found ourselves in the principal street of the town, in 
which a large number of Dokpa traders were camped under some 
walnut trees. 

The three-storied castle, once a royal residence, is now occupied 
by the Djongpon and the two Tsedung from Lhasa. Samdub pliodang 
is now a gon-shi, or " Crown Demesne " of Lhasa. 

A few miles beyond this town we came to the Sangri khamar 
lamasery, % situated on a beautiful eminence overlooking the Tsang-po, 
whose surface is broken here by huge masses of rock. Around the 
great lamasery stretched broad fields of barley, now ripe for the 
sickle, and the beauty of the crops surpassed anything I have ever 
seen in Tibet, 

Here at Sangri khamar once lived Saint Machig labdon,§ an 

* Quoting from the Dsamling yeshe, our author says elsewhere that tliere arc 
here eighteen silver tombs of the successive Phagmondu lama rinpoche. 

t Trees sprung from the hair of saints or deities are frequently found in Tibet and 
in other Buddhist countries. The most famous is the " white sandalwood tree " of 
Kumbum, described by Hue and other travellers. Chandra Das tells us (supra, p. 117) 
of a juniper within the walls of Tashilhunpo, which had sprung from the hair of Gediin- 
dub, the first Panchen rinpoche. Explorer Ugyen-gyatso (' Report on Explor. from 
1856 to i886,' p. 28) refers also to the Densatil forest. Csoma, ' Tib. Gram.,' p. 18.5, 
says the Diin-sa tel (gdan-sa tel) monastery was founded in A.n. 11.56.~(W. K.) 

X The Dsamling yeshe calls it Zangri khang mar.— (S. C. D.) 

§ Elsewhere called I.abkyi Donma. — (S. C. D.) 


incarnation of Arya Tara. I visited the cell she lived in, and saw her 
tomb and an image of her. There are now two ascetics living here, 
who ha\'e made vows never to come out nor to speak a word so long 
as they live. When I approached them they smiled and seemed 
pleased with the little present I made them. The beadle who 
accompanied me said they had been immured in their cells for ten 

Eesuming our journey, we passed by Sangri Jong, and following 
a narrow path, scarcely a yard wide, overhanging the eddying river, 
reached Logang ferry ; * but, though we shouted for an hour to the 
boatmen on the other side, we could not get them to come over for 
us, so we had to return to the village of Jong at the western base of 
the Densa-til mountain. Here we got lodgings for the night in the 
house of the headman. 

Kovemher 5. — A little before dawn we left Jong and made for the 
Xango t ferry. There is an iron suspension bridge at this place, but 
it is so much out of repair that it cannot be crossed over, and Ave 
were ferried across in a large boat, together with a number of traders 
and their donkeys. The river is very narrow here, scarcely a hundred 
yards in breadth. Passing tlirough the village of Khyungar we 
entered Tse-tang, % the capital of Yarlung, and formerly a place of 
great importance. Our guide procured lodgings for us in the house of 
a woman whose husband, a Kashmiri, had died a year or so before 
and who was now living alone wdtli her Inisband's son. The Kache 
(Kashmiri) received us very kindly, but after a short conversation 
with me he became alarmingly suspicious of my true character, and 
kept continually turning the conversation to the Shaheb-logs ("English- 
men") lie had known at Katmandu, and the greatness of the Engrez 
Maliarani ("Queen of England"). As often as he spoke of these 

* From Sangri kliamar the traveller turned westward along the river-bank till he 
came in front of Logang (or Lu-kang-tu), where there is a ferry-boat. — (W. R.) 

t Nyen on the maps. I find no mention of this bridge in the reports of other 
exi)lorer8. — (W. ll.) 

X Called Chethang by all the other explorers. A. K. calls it " a large town con- 
taining 1000 houses, a bazar, a gomba, and a fort," ' Report of Explor. made by 
A. K.,' p. 83. Explorer Ugyen-gyatso, who visited in October, 1883, says, " Mahoraedan 
shops were found in the market in which wheat and meat soup were sold. It is curious 
tliat tlie lama notes tliat pork is specially cheap at this place, three annas being the 
price paid for a pig's head, and eight annas for a quarter. Radislies, carrots, and yak's 
flesh are also sold in the i)ublic market," 'Report of Explor. from 1850 to 188G,' p. 27. 
Nain Singh, who visited Chetaiig in 1873, says there are 700 lamas in tlie two 
monasteries, .see Jour. Hoy. Geog. Soc , xlvii. 117. — (W. R.) 



subjects, so often did I rejoin with some inquiry about Buddhism or 
a lamasery I wished to visit. 

I soon began to feel excessively nervous, and told my men that 
we had better leave Tse-tang as soon as possible ; but I'hurchung 
assured me that I need have no fear, that furthermore the ponies 
absolutely required rest, so that we must stay here a few days. 


The day after our arrival at Tse-tang I went on the roof of our 
house, and was able to see a broad stretch of the surrounding 
country. To the north of the town was the Gonpoi ri, one of the 
favourite resorts of Shenrezig (Avalokiteswara), and where, according 
to tradition, the monkey king and the goblin raised their family of 
monkeys, from which ultimately descended the Tibetan race.* 

* This legend is told in the thirty-fourth chapter of the ' IMani kambuni,' and our 
author gives au abstract of it. I have translated the full original text in my 'Land 
of the Lama?,' p. 355 tt sqq. — (W. K.) 


There are four lamaseries around Tse-tang, and in the town are 
some fifteen Nepalese, twenty Cliinese, and ten Kashmiri shops, 
besides native traders from all parts of Tibet. ]\Iutton and butter 
were abundant, but barley, though cheap, is of inferior quality. 

I left Tse-tang on November 17 for a visit to the Yarlung valley 
and its monuments. 

A short distance to the south of Tse-tang we passed through 
Ne-dong djong, where resides the Djongpon of this district, and which 
used to be a royal city of the Phagmodu kings. Save tlie lamasery of 
Benja, little remains but ruins to attest its past importance. 

Following up the course of the Yarlung river, we came after a few 
miles to the temple of Tandub, one of those said to have been built 
in the seventh century by King Strong-btsan gambo, and to which a 
monastery was later on added by Tisrong detsan. It is a copy, on a 
small scale, of the Jo khang of Lhasa, and contains many objects of 
interest to the pious pilgrim. 

Three hours' ride from Tandub brought us to Ombu Iha-khang,* 
the most ancient of Tibetan palaces. It is situated on the side of a 
range of bare liills, and is about a hundred yards from tlie village of 
Ombu, which derives its name from tlie number of ombu trees 
(tamarisks) which grow around it. Ombu Iha-khaug, though it has 
temples and shrines, is more properly a kind of memorial hall. The 
images in it are not those of gods and saints, but of kings, nobles, and 
ministers. The building itself is a curious mixture of the Indian and 
Tibetan styles of architecture, and the interior arrangement of the 
rooms and their decorations were unlike those of Tibetan buildings. 
The rooms, I may add, all face eastward. 

After taking our lunch under a tamarisk tree, we remounted our 
ponies and rode on to Phodang djong, the most ancient town in Tibet. 
As all the kings of the dynasty which sprang from tliis place bore the 
title of Chos-cjijul, or " Catholic majesty," this town is also called 
Clios-gyal phodang. The present chief of this place claims descent 
from this very ancient line, but even his own people do not believe 
mucli in liis pretended genealogy. 

* Called on the mai)« Zomba T.hii kliang (•' Ancient Palace "'). The name is variously 
written U-bu la-^ang, Oniho lang-gang. See Emil Sciilaginwert, 'Die Konige von 
Tibet,' |). 42. It is said to have been built by King Nya-lvri tsanpo (IVth century, 
B.C.?), or by King Totori nyau-lsan (Ilird century, a.u.)- I- ■!■ Schmidt, oj^ cU., p. ^17 
•luoting the Bndhimur), says it wa.s called Ombre lang-ti. — (W. \\.) 


A few miles over gently rising ground brought us by sunset to the 
top of a hill, on which is situated the Tag-tsan buniba, or " Dome of 
Good Omens." * We were kindly received by the young monk in 
charge of the shrine, who presented me with a basket of splendid 
white potatoes, which vegetable he assured me had grown around this 
place from time immemorial.f 

November 8. — We left before daylight, and, crossing the Yarlung, 
reached the Rachung lamasery on the top of a steep hill, where we 
gained admittance after a good deal of trouble, the keeper being 
away and the incarnate lama, Eachung, confined in a cell performing 
certain vows. A little below the monastery we were shown the cave 
in which the original Eachung, the greatest of Milaraspa's disciples, 
dwelt for three years, three months, and three days.| 

We rested here for a while, and then went to the village of 
Eachung at the foot of the hill, where we found good lodgings for the 
night in the house of an old acquaintance of our guide, Gopon. 

Formerly this broad valley of Yarlung, or Gondang-tangme, was 
covered with innumerable populous villages, and in no other part of 
Tibet was there such opulence. But one day the snows melting on 
the Yarlha-shampo and torrential rains caused a mighty flood which 
submerged the wliole plain for many days. The villages were 
utterly destroyed, and the people all perished, and when the waters 
had retired a deep deposit of sand covered everything. In course of 
time the country was reclaimed, and has now reached a certain 
degree of prosperity, but it has never recovered its primitive 
flourishing, state. 

The next day we rode across the northern slope of the Shetag 
mountains, or "Black Crystal" {Shcl-tag), thus called from the 
glistening black rocks exposed to view along the road,§ and after a 
few miles came to the great cemetery which adjoins the lamasery of 
Yarlung-shetag. Phurchung and Gopon rolled themselves on the 

* Tag chlien Poinda on the maps. — (W. R.) 

t The young monk was certainly misinformed. Potatoes were intioduced into 
Bhutan by Warren Hastings, and spread from there into Tibet within the last hundred 
years. On the eastern border of Tibet potatoes have been introduced by the Chinese 
and the French missionaries. — (W. R.) 

% Ras-chung Dorje gragspa, or "Dorje drapa of Rachung," was born in 1083. Tliis 
lamasery, which he founded, is also called Ras-cliung phuggomba. "the lamasery of the 
cave of Ras-chung." — (W. R.) 

§ Probably porphyry. — (W. R.) 


blood-stained stone slab, on which corpses are cut up, and mumbled 
some mantra. 

In this lamasery there live forty monks and as many nuns : * 
their children are brought up to the professions of their parents. 
This arrangement has been sanctioned by the Nyingma church, as the 
lamasery was so lonely that no monks could be induced to reside in 
it till this privilege was conceded them. 

Beyond this lamasery the trail led along the edge of a precipice 
where we passed a number of little cells occupied by hermits (or 
tsampa), who, as we passed, stretched out their hands for alms 
through the little opening left in the front of their dens. Some of 
these men had been immured five years, and many of them had also 
made vows of silence. 

A little way beyond this point, and about 500 feet below the 
summit of the hill, we reached the cell of Padma Sambhava, near 
which is a chapel called the Upper Lha-khang of Shetag. The 
keeper led us to a heavy door under a huge rock ; unlocking it we 
entered the cavern, which is held the most sacred shrine of the 
Nyingma sect. In it I saw a silver reliquary in which is kept a 
silver image of the saint, representing him as a boy of twelve. 
There was a plate before the image filled with rings, earrings, 
turquoises, pieces of amber, gold and silver coins, the offerings of 

Passing the Shetag, we came to the village of Ze-khang shikha. 
and thence by a gentle descent we reached the famed temple of 
Tsandan-yu lha-khang, " the temple of sandal-wood and turquoise." 
It was thus called, it is said, because that its founder, King Strong- 
btsan gambo, only used in building it sandal-wood, and that the blue 
tiles which covered it were glazed with melted turquoises.f It is a 
rather Chinese-looking structure, but one of the handsomest I have 
seen in Tibet. Every month six monks come here from Tse-tang to 
hold service. 

A very short distance to tlie west of this sanctuary is the Llia- 
bab-ii, or " tlie mountain of the descent (of the king or god) " {Uia 

* This is a common practice in the Nyingma sect. Explorer K. P. found at 
Tlium Tsun^ (Lower Tsangpo valley) a monastery in which "both men and women 
are allowed to preach and live together." He found the same practice in the adja- 
cent village of Bhal gonpa and Maritung. ' Eejwrt on Explor. from 185C to 1886,' pp. U 
and 12.— (W. K.) 

t These blue tiles are certainly of Chinese manufacture.— (W. It.) 



having both meanings), where the first king of Tibet, Nyakri-btsanpo, 
was seen for the first time by Tibetans. There is a little plateau on 
this hill, called the " King's Plain," or Btsan-tang, where a temple 
has been built called the Btsan-tang Iha-khang.* 

Leaving this interesting spot behind, we rode on across the fields 


wdiich the peasants were ploughing and irrigating for the autumn 
crops, and came, after a few hours, to the sanctuary of Gadan 
namgyal-ling, where Tsongkhapa took his iinal vows of moiddiood. 

* For tLis legend see I. J. Schmidt, op. cit., pp. 21 and 316. Also Eiuil Scblaginweit, 
' Die Konige von Tibet,' p. 39 et sqq. Ugyen-gyatso visited this spot in 1883, and 
refers to this legend, op. cit., p. 27. — (AV. R.) 


It is a fine building in tlie midst oi a grove of trees, tlirougli which 
flows a brook. 

From this point we retraced our steps to Tse-tang, which we 
readied the same day, recrossing the Yarhmg chu by a long stone 
bridge near the monastery of Tse-chog-pa, where we saw a number 
of the monks bathing in the river. 

The Yarluug valley appeared to me to be a most prosperous one, 
the people gentle and good-natured. The soil produces grain and 
fruit in greater abundance than any other part of Tibet ; chmvj, 
butter, meat, oil, barley, wheat, and fuel were everywhere plentiful. 

On November 10 we left Tse-tang, on the return journey to 

"We forded the Yarlung river, in which there was but little water, 
nearly all of it having been drawn off by irrigation ditches higher up 
the valley, and passing to the villages of Yangta and Gyerpal, we 
came to the old sanctuary of Yarlung, called the Chyasa Iha-khang, 
or " the resting-place-of-birds temple," for the vast flocks of birds * 
which pass here in their migrations make it a resting-place. It is 
situated on the l)anks of the Tsang-po, and is a finely built and well- 
kept edifice, with a courtyard and beautifully frescoed walls. The 
image of Sakya Buddha in the temple is said to be made with an 
alloy of gold, silver, copper, and iron. 

Following the bank of tiie Tsang-po, through heavy sands or over 
low hills, we came towards evening to Chincho-ling, a secluded and 
desolate little hamlet, the houses surrounded by low walls of stone to 
keep off the drifting sands, and here we put up for the night. 

The next morning there was a heavy fog — quite a rare phenomenon 
in these parts — when we started. We breakfasted at the little fisher 
village of Dong-sho,t and a mile or so beyond this entered a well- 
cultivated valley containing numerous villages and fine trees. Near the 
first village we came to stands the monastery of Chongdu-chog. :|: We 
reached, before evening, tlie famous Nying-ma lamasery of Mindol 
ling, in a dale opening on the west side of the valley ; a little below 
it is a very large village, where we found, after some difficulty, 
accommodation in the house of a well-to-do man. 

* Called Bya (pronounced Chya). It is called Clia Sa on the maps. A. K. speaks 
of it as "tlie temple of Chyasa (Clieuse) Lliakhang."— (AV. R.) 

t Toug-slioi on tlic maps. A. K. mentions, IJ miles west of this point, the Gerpa 
Duga ferry.— (W. R.) 

X Or TsoDf,' du ta-tsaug, according tu Ugyen-gyatso. — (W. i!.J 


The next day we visited the temple, which is very beautiful, 
though the lamasery itself has never recovered from the pillage l)y 
the Jungars in the seventeenth century ; and the Nyingma* Church 
being at present, moreover, persecuted by the dominant Gelugpa, no 
longer enjoys its former wealth. The neatness of tlie stonework and 
the finish of all the masonry about the temple were very remarkable, 
and the courtyard was regularly paved with stone slabs. 

To the south of the monastery is the residence of the abbot, wlio 
is always selected from the Tertalingpa family, in which this office is 

I left Mindol-ling on November 12, returned to the Tsang-po, 
and reached the village of Cho by dusk. Quite early the next 
morning we entered Khede-sho, where our route joined that we had 
taken when going to Samye. 

We left Khede-sho by daylight the next morning, and continuing 
along the bank of the Tsang-po, crossed the long meadow of Ding- 
naga, which is covered with a fine, short, moss-like sod. Then passing 
through the villages of Kyishong, Panza, and Gyatu-ling, we came to 
where the Gonkhar mountains abut on the river. On their farther 
side is the town of Gongkhar, % still surrounded by imposing, though 
ruined walls. Here, after much difficulty, we managed to obtain 
shelter in the house of a fisherman, who gave us leave to pass the 
night in a hovel half filled with yak hides. He and his wife were 
very kind to us, and looked, to the best of their ability, after our 
wants and those of our ponies. 

"VVe resumed our journey at 4 in the morning, and pushed on 
slowly and with considerable difficulty, for the path was over rocks, 
in places overhanging the roaring river. At daybreak we passed by 
the village of Shyati-ling, and shortly after the sun pierced the fog 
which had enveloped us. A low col, called Yab la, was next passed, 
and we joined the high-road between Lhasa and Shigatse, which I 

* This lamasery shares with Dorje-tag, previously referred to, the honour of being 
the supreme one of this sect. Waddell, o/>. cit., 217. — (W. R.) 

t Ugyeu-gyatso says that should the married member of the Tertaling family 
die without issue, " the throne " Lama, in spite of his vows, is expected to marry the 
widow, and raise up his own heirs to govern. A total failure of heirs is attended by 
widespread calamities— war, famine, and general disaster. ' Report of Kxplor. from 
1856 to 1886,' p. 29. 

X A. K. says there are 600 houses in Goug-klia Jong and 200 around the Gougkha 
Chorten (i.e. Gong-kar chosde). — (W. R.) 


have preA'iously described. We stopped for the nig-ht at Taina- 

Tlie next day (Xovember 16) we reached Palti djong. 

On the 18th, a mile or so to the west of Oma-tang, where we had 
passed the night, we fell in with the Chinese Amban and his train on 
their way to Lhasa. First came numerous parties on horseback, 
then about three hundred men on foot carrying all the paraphernalia 
common to Chinese processions, and finally the Amban's chair carried 
by Chinese and sixteen Tibetans, the latter only holding strings 
attached to the poles to show that they were assisting in the work. 
Two Chinese armed with whips kept the way cleai'. 

On November 2-4 I found myself once more at Tashilhunpo, and 
immediately set to work to prepare for a trip to Sakya, from whence 
it was my intention to proceed directly to India, A day or so after 
my arrival I was delighted at the receipt of a passport from the new 
Shape of Shigatse, permitting me to proceed to India and return 
to Tibet. It had been obtained at the instance of my friend, the 




On November 30, 1882, I said farewell to Tashilhunpo, and, 
accompanied by Phnrchung and Gopon, my recent guide to Saniye, 1 
started for Sakya, from which place I proposed returning to Dar- 
jiling by way of Khamba djong and the Kongra lamo pass. 

The country was now bare, the brown rocks, the gravelly soil, and 
the distant snow-covered mountains, added additional bleakness to 
the scene. "We reached the village of Nartang the same evening, 
and were kindly received by some old friends of Phurchung. 

A little before daylight the next morning we set out, following 
the great high-road which leads to Upper Tibet, instead of taking the 
direct road which leads there hy the Lang la, but which is infested by 

At the little hamlet of Chagri * we stopped to make some tea, and 
had to pay three annas for a little water, as the people have to bring 
all they use from a very considerable distance. 

The wind was blowing violently when we resumed our journey, and 
the dust was so thick that we had to stop at Ge-chung, a little village 
to the west of the Singma la. 

At daybreak we set out again, and after crossing the Re chu (here 
called Shab chu), along whose banks are numerous hamlets, we came 
to Lhimpotse, near which is a large lamasery built on a rocky 
eminence. t 

We stopped for the night at Samdong, just beyond which village 
is a long wooden bridge. We got accommodation in the house of a 

* Chiakri on the maps. — (W. R.) 

t Called Lingbo chen on the maps. Our author's narrative is not at all clear in 
this part. If, as he states, the Re chu (Shab chu) flows by Samdong, the maps arc 
wrong, for they make this river to flow seven miles east of that village (Sau chong on 
the map). It is probable that the brook (?) which flows by Samdong is an affluent of 
the Shab elm, but the maps do not show any watercourse at this point. — (W. R.) 


rich A'illao-er, the younger of the two husliauds (and they not lirotliers) 
of the woman of the house. The other husband was the headman, 
or Sa-yong, and when he appeared, he oblighigly sohl us very good 
clicmg, mutton, onions, and other vegetables. 

JDecetiiber .3. — After drinking a cup of steaming cliaiKj * we set 
out, and following the course of the Shab chu, came to where the 
Tsarong chu empties into it, when we took up the course of this 
stream and followed it to its source. 

Several miles above the village of Sikya, where cultivation 
practically ceases, we came to the large Dokpa village of Jig-kyong, 
where we stopped for the night. In all the villages small-pox was 
raging, and where the people were free from it, they showed great 
apprehension about letting us in, lest we should introduce the 
dreaded disease among tliem. 

The next day (December 4) we crossed the Shong la,t which, 
though quite high, was of easy ascent, and traversed the Tao valley. 
After taking lunch at the Kham-yol we came to the Aton la, from 
whose summit Sakya is visible, with all its red-walled buildings 
and gilded spires,} bearing in a north-westerly direction. 

We secured lodgings in a house in the town, near the bridge over 
the Tom chu, and from the window of my room, which opened to the 
south, I had a gorgeous view of the town by which the river gently 
flows ; also of the great temple, and beyond these, of the snow- 
covered peaks of Tinki (Tingri) and Pherrug. 

In the evening I strolled about the clean, though narrow streets, 
where the market people were still busy selling their wares. 

Sakya is built on the eastern flank of Ponpoi ri, along whose base 
flows the Tom chu. Facing the town, but on the other side of the 
river, is the Lha-khang chenpo with its famous liljrary and temple. 

The a])pearance of Sakya is different from that of most Tibetan 
towns, Tlie walls of almost all the public buildings, temples, and 
dwelling-houses are painted red with a clay obtained from the 
neighbouring hills. Pdack and blue stripes about nine inches broad 
cut the walls perpendicularly. § 

* Usually Tibetans drink tlicir clumrf cold. Heating it is the Chinese fashion. — 
(W. R.) 

t Chong la on the maps.— (W. R.) 

+ I am unable to follow on the maps our author's route from tlic Chong la to 
Sakya. He appears to liave taken a very roundabout way.- — (W. R.) 

§ This, our author has told us elsewhere, i.s a distinguishing sign of all Nyingma 
religious and lay buildings. — (W. R.) 



The four Labiung * temples, built vvitli Cliiiiese roofs and -ilded 
spires, are especially noticeable. They are called Lal)rang-shar (or 
"eastern"), Labrang-nub (or " western "), Labrangkhung, and Khansar 
chenpo, and in their general arrangement tliey do not differ from the 
temples I had seen at Tashilhunpo and elsewhere. 


In the palmy days of the Sal^ya hierarchy there were four abbots 
under the hierarch who ruled these four Labrang. Tlie rank was 
hereditary in their families, and all those al)bots, the hierarch in- 
cluded, were allowed to marry. This system of hereditary hierareliy 

* Lahrang means literally " dwelling of a lama dignitary." Phodrang is a palace 
or residence of a secular oflficer. — (W. R.) 


M-as known as dun-gyu. At the present time the abbots are Tantrik 
lamas from Khams. I was told that neither the lamas nor the nuns 
of Sakya are held by the people to be exceptionally virtuous, and, to 
tell the truth, the laity of Sakya has a similar unsavoury reputation 
in Tibet. 

The Emperor Kublai made the hierarch Phagpa ruler of Tibet,* 
and it was the latter's deputy (or Panchen f), Kunga zangbo, who 
began building the Lha-khang chenpo of Sakya, which was completed 
by one of his successors in office, Angien tashi. This latter proved 
himself an able and vigorous administrator, and annexed Tagpo to 
the Sakya principality. Zangpo-pal, the then reigning hierarch, sent 
him on a mission to the Emperor of China, Buyantu,| who granted to 
him and his heirs in perpetuity the Yamdo lake country. The Sakya 
Panchen have, down to the present time, been taken from this 
family. The last Sakya Panchen, Kunga nyingpo, died on June 
20, 1882 ; his tomb, at the time of my visit to Sakya, was almost 
finished, and his wife was still wearing mourning. 

It is told of the late Sakya Panchen that, some sixteen years ago, 
after the death of the two famous Dayan khanpo, the treasurer of the 
Gadan gomba of Lhasa, when his wicked spirit was causing various 
dire calamities to Tibet, every endeavour to expel it from the country 
proved abortive. So finally the Government of Lhasa, at the sug- 
gestion of the oracles, requested the Sakya I'anehen to visit Lhasa 
to drive the fiend away. At the foot of Mount Potala he had lighted 
a great fire, and, by the potency of his cliarms, drove the evil spirit 
into a lay figure prepared for the occasion, whereupon it fell straight- 
way into the fire. Then the Panchen drove his charmed 2>hu,rhu § 

* Phagpa (or Dro-gon Phagpa) is said to have been born a.d. 1233, and became ruler 
of Tibet in 1251. Csoma, ' Tib. grammar,' p. 186. The latter date is, however, incon- 
sistent with facts, as Kublai only mounted the throne in 1260, and became actually 
seated on the throne of China in 1280, and it was he who made him Kuo shih, or 
" Preceptor of the realm." H. H. Howorth, 'History of tlie Mongols,' i. p. 506 et sqq., 
makes no mention of Kul)lai raising Phagpa to be ruler of Tibet. 

t Abbreviation of Poubo chenpo, or " great officer." The Sakya monastery was 
founded in a.d. 1071, according to Csoma, op. cit., p. 197. Phagpa was a nephew of the 
famous Sakya Pandita, the author of many standard works of Tibetan literature. 

+ Buyantu reigned from 1312 to 1320. Ssanang Ssetsen says that the lama Sakya 
Sribadra was head of the church under him. I. J. Schmidt, op. cit., p. 121. The Sa- 
skya-pa sect was, prior to the rising of the present Gelugpa sect, the most powerful of 
tlic reformed schools of Tibetan Buddhism. — (W. II.) 

§ A spike of iron or bronze with a triangular section. The top of it terminates in 
a dorje. It is used in (i.Korcisms. Emil Schlaginweit, 'Buddhism in Tibet,' p. 257 
tt sqq., and Waddell, op. cit.. pp. 311, 483, and 488.— (W. R.) 


into the imaj^e, but while so doing the flames of the pyre surroumled 
him, and all thought he was dead ; but lo ! after an hour or so he 
came out of the flames dressed in rich satins, and with not even 
so much as a hair of his head scorched. 

Panchen Jimed wang-gyal, or one of the other sons of the late 
Panchen, will succeed him as ruler of Sakya. One son is an incarnate 
lama and superior of the Tanag Donphug lamasery,* but he is obliged 
to reside continually at Sakya on account of a nde which prescribes 
that when the re-embodiment of a lama takes place in Sakya, the re- 
incarnation cannot return to the locality he occupied in his preceding 
existence. The names of the four other sons of the deceased Panchen 
will shortly be sent to Lhasa, and the Nachung oracle will decide 
who shall become the ruler of the principality. 

These princely lamas wear long hair, ordinarily plaited in two 
queues hanging down their backs and tied at the ends with white 
cotton handkerchiefs. Over their ears they wear covers of gold 
studded with turquoises and emeralds, and almost reaching to their 
shoulders. To the lower part of these are appended earrings.f 

In the Lhakhang chenpo (or great temple) are five seats of equal 
height, on which the princes take tlieir places when conducting 
religious services ; the one reserved to the hierarch remains vacant 
so long as the successor to the title has not been chosen. 

Under the hierarch there is a Shape, or minister, who attends to 
all the temporal affairs of Sakya. The monks are divided into two 
orders, according to the locality of their birth ; those from Tibet 
proper forming one set ruled by a Gekor, and having their cells near 
the great temple, and those from Khams (or Eastern Tibet), also with 
a Gekor over them, who live in the town. 

As to the great library of Sakya, it is on shelves along the walls 
of the great hall of the Lhakhang chen-po. There are preserved 
here many volumes written in gold letters ; the pages are six feet long 
by eighteen inches in breadth. On the margin of each page are illu- 
minations, and the first four volumes have in them pictures of the 
thousand Buddhas. These books are bound with iron. They were 
prepared under orders of the Emperor Kublai, and presented to 
Phag-pa on his second visit to Peking. 

* On this lamasery, see supra, p. 06. 

t Apparently the earrings are attached to the ear-covers of gohl, not to the ear 
itself.— (W. E.) 



There is also preserved in this temple a conch shell with whorls 
turning from left to right, a present of Kublai to Phagpa. It is only 
blown l)y the lamas when the request is accompanied l)y a present of 
seven ounces of silver ; but to blow it, or have it blown, is held to 
be an act of great merit.* 

On December 5 I left Sakya, and passing by the Choskhor-lhunpo 
monastery, entered the broad Yalung valley, in which stands the big 
village of Lora and numerous scattered hamlets. We stopped at Lora 
to eat our breakfast, but so intense was tlie fear of the people of 
small-pox, of which there were several cases in the village, that they 
would have absolutely nothing to do with us, not even to sell us 

After crossing the Yalung river we ascended the Doug la, from 
whose summit we saw the Chomo kankar (Mt. Everest), and the 
endless ranges of mountains which jut out from it westward. At the 
Dong la the Arun and the Kosi have their sources. 

The descent of the Dong la was very gradual, the country 
extremely bare, not a single tree was to be seen anywhere. We 
reached Chu-sho, at the foot of the pass, at about five o'clock, and it 
was only after much persuasion that we gained admittance to a poor 
hut occupied by an old woman and her son. 

The next day we followed for a while the course of a little stream, 
called the Chu-shu, and then came upon a broad, barren plain, on 
either side of which rose l)leak and lofty mountains. 

Leaving the village of Map-ja, in which there are about one hundred 
houses, we breakfasted at Donkar, and then made our way towards 
the Shong-pa la, following up the course of the Shong chu. The 
ground in many places was riddled with holes made by a burrowing 
animal called srimoivjX and our ponies had many tumbles by putting 
their feet in them. 

* Called in Tibettiu, Ya chyil dung-liar : and in Chinese, Yu Jisiiau pai-lei. Both 
nations consider such shells as treasures of inestimable value. 'J'here is one in China, 
kept at Fu chu by the Ti-tuh. See Pelthuj (ruzetfe, February 23, 1867, and one at 
Lhasa. ' Tlie I^and of the Lamas,' p. 110. — (W. R.) 

t "In 1791 tiie Talc lama, under orders from the Emperor, erected special iiospitals 
for small-pox patients, in which they were supjdicd with food and every necessary, and 
which were in care of a special officer. . . . Tlie same plan has been adopted by the 
aiitliorities of Tashilhunpo and Chamdo" (Jour. Eoij. Asiat. Soc 7t.8. xxiii. p. 2;i5). 
I am not aware that these hospitals are kept up at the present day. — (W. R ) 

X Tlic marmot is called Chyi (piiyi)-wa. Mimg I am unable to explain; perhaps it 
is the same animal which our author calls elsewhere the sremong (sri), and which is 


On descending from the Shong-pa la we found ourselves in the 
broad Chib-lung valley,* and towards six o'clock we reached the 
village of Dogang, and found shelter for the night in the hut of some 
poor people. 

The following morning we passed through Tashigong and break- 
fasted at Cure, a village belonging to my friend the minister. Leaving 


this place, we began the ascent of a high range which separated us 
from lake Tel-tung, or " Mule's Drink." f This pass is known as the 
Dobta Lachan la, and one commands from it a most gorgeous view of 
a wide expanse of countrj-, tlie ISTepalese and Sikkimese Himalayas, 

smaller than a cat. with tawny hair. The skin, he adds, is luiich used in witchcraft. 
The skin is blown up after putting inside it a slii) with the name of the jjcrson it is 
desired to injure on it. The victim dies of an inflated body within seven days. — ( W. R.) 

* The Chiblung tsangpo, the Upper Arun, flows througli this valley. — (W. R.) 

t On this lake, see supra, p. 211. 


with lake Tel-tuiig and Dobta djong, belonging to the Sikkim Kajah, 
on a hillock beside the lake in the foreground. 

We stopped for the night at Chorka, a part of Dobta, where a 
villager gave us the use of a yak-hair tent standing in his courtyard. 
We only remained here a short while, leaving before daylight, as we 
wanted to reach Khamba djong the same day. The cold was intense, 
and tlie violent wind which blew made it more piercing. Our way 
led along the margin of lake Tel-tung, now completely dried up and 
more resembling a broad pasture land than a lake. The country 
was alive with game ; wild sheep, goats, and asses were specially 

Leaving this broad plain, we entered the valley of the Che chu 
by a low col between the Dobta and Yarn la ranges. Crossing the 
river, we stopped for a while at Targye,* wliile Phurchung went on 
ahead to Khamba djong to secure lodgings for us. 

At live o'clock we reached the village of Khamba, and were 
received most kindly by Phurchung's friend, Wang-gyal, who, together 
with his wife, did everything in their power to make us comfortable. 

After tea I went with Phurcliung, who had put on his best clothes 
for the occasion, to visit the Djongpon. The Djong stands on a 
hillock, the ascent of which is rather steep, and is made by flights of 
stone steps. The fort is a spacious two-storied building, and is 
supplied with water brought there through clay pipes from the 
mountains to the north, a piece of work of which the people are not 
a little proud, t 

The Djongpon were reading religious books when I entered their 
presence, and the lama one asked me questions about myself and the 
object of my journey, all of which I managed to answer satisfactorily. 
I showed my passport, to which they put their seals, retaining a copy 
of the document. When I left they presented me with a dried 
sheep's carcass, ten pounds of rice, and a rug, and expressed the 
hope that they would see me again the following year. 

On returning to our lodgings I hired two ponies and a yak-hair 
tent for our use as far as Gen-pang tang. 

We left early in the morning, after saying farewell to our faithful 
guide Gopon, who h'ft us here to return to his home at Gyantse, and 

* At this point our author's route joined that which lie had taken wluu coming into 
Tibet. — (W. H.) The Ch(; chu is tlic Arun, slo sujjra, p. 42. 

t Certainly not of their own invention or manufacture. — (\V. I\.) 


breakfasted at Geru. On the way we saw several flocks of wild 
sheep and some foxes. Leaving Geru, we ascended, one after the 
other, the foothills of the Kongra lamo pass, through a wild but 
beautiful country, till we finally reached the snow-covered summit, 
near which we camped on a bare rock. Thanks to the yak-hair tent 
and the good fire of argols which Phurchung kept burning, we did 
not suffer from the intense cold and piercing wind. 

The following morning (December 10) we reached, at an early 
hour. Gen-gang, which forms the boundary lietween the territories of 
the Grand Lama and the Rajah of Sikkim, a vassal of the British 
Raj. From this point my way lay through Sikkim by a route 
followed by various European travellers, and concerning which I 
need say nothing here. I reached Darjiling and my home on 
December 27, after an absence of over a year. 




In Tibet there are three distinct chisses among the people, lay and 
clerical, which are determined by birth and social position, and each 
of these has three sub-divisions.* They are as follows : — 

First, or highest class. Bah : — 

1. — Rah-hyi rah. The king, members of the royal family, and 
incarnate lamas who have appeared many times on earth. 

2. — Bah-hji ding. The Desi, or regent, ordinary incarnate lamas, 
ministers and councillors of state, learned lamas, or abbots, professors 
at important monasteries. 

3. — Bah-laji tama. Secretaries to the Government, IJahpon, 
Djongpon, and inferior lamas, or abbots. 

Middle classes. Ding :■ — 

1. — Bing-hyi rcib, or " upper middle class," including families who 
have for generations possessed great wealth, landlords who do not 
claim descent from illustrious ministers or warriors ; 1 )ungkhor, old 
families and men who have personally contributed in a marked degree 
to the welfare of the country ; and lastly, the Don-nyer. 

2. — Ding-l'yi ding. This class includes the Dung-yig, or clerks, 
stewards, chamljcrlains, head grooms, head cooks, and other petty 

3. — Ding-hiji tama. Soldiers and sul))ects. f 

Lowest class, Tama : — 

1. — Tamai rah. Grooms, menials engaged in domestic service, 
and other hired servants. 

* I think thc'bc " classes " arc more theoretical thau real, and that these remarks 
are proliably borrowed from some work, based on Indian notions. The idea of caste is 
nn-Tibetan as it is un-Cliiuese. Bah (robs) means " family, race, social class." Rah- 
hyi rahs means " upper superior class; " Itah-laji ding, " middle superior class; " Rah- 
lyi tamn, '• lowest sujierior; " lJin(j-l:yi rah, " superior middle class," etc., etc.— (W. R.) 

t By "subjects" I fancy our author must mean serfs or tenants (misser). 


2. — Tamed ding. Those who liave no fixed homes, men wlio 
keep concubines, but no wives, loose wcmien, professional beggars, 
vagabonds, and paupers. 

3. — Tamai tama. The lowest of the low are Ijutchers, scaveno-ers. 
disposers of dead bodies, blacksmiths, and goldsmiths. 

In Tibet there are no caste restrictions with regard to marriage as ■ 
in India. The rich may bestow their daughters on tlie poor, the 
daughter of a poor man may become the bride of the i)roudest noble 
of the country. But the girls of the royal family and those of high 
rank are not generally bestowed on the low classes ; but in the event 
of their not finding a suitable matcli, they are sent to convents. The 
daughters of commoners do, however, occasionally become the wives 
of nobles. 

The nuptial ceremonies are alike for all classes, the only difference 
being in the amount of money expended in the festivities. In 
the first place, the friends of the bridegroom employ a go-between 
to make the first overtures to the parents or guardians of the girl. 
Should the latter entertain the proposal, the parents of the would-be 
bridegroom either take or send presents to them, consisting of Jcliatag 
and wine (called long chang, " proposal wine "), and formally make 
an offer of marriage. The girl's parents make excuses, saying that 
she is neither handsome nor accomplished, and will be of no service 
to the suitor. The go-betweens thereupon more and more earnestly 
press their suit. After these conventional phrases liave been 
exchanged, the girl's parents say, " If you are really in earnest, and 
believe that she will be of service to you, we shall consult with our 
friends and relatives, and let you know our decision." 

A few days later their consent to the union is formally conveyed 
to the suitor's parents, when the latter, taking with them twenty or 
thirty gallons of wine, proceed to the home of the bride, where they 
entertain not only all her relatives, but also the servants and neigli- 
bours, and present each with a scarf. The purchase-money (rin) is 
then paid, which, for the middle classes is usually five or six doche 
(625 to 750 rupees), and about fifty gallons of wine. Another scarf 
is then presented to each of the elder members of the bride's family, 
and also to prominent persons among her friends and neighbours. 

After an auspicious day has been fixed for the wedding, the 
parties make the arrangements necessary for the occasion. On the 
appointed day the bridegroom's parents depute some seven or eiglit 


respectable men to ^o as their representatives to bring home the 
bride. They remain at her father's house three days, during which 
they are engaged in making negotiations and in assuring their hosts, 
by whom they are provided during this period with all necessaries, 
that their daughter will be liappy in her new home. At the end of the 
three days the bride is told by her parents to go to the bridegroom's 
house. They give her a good milch-cow or yak, a pony, four or five 
oxen, two suits of summer and winter dress, a complete set of jewellery 
according to the custom of the country, a piece of stuffed carpet and 
a small dining-table, cups, plates, cooking vessels, and other articles 
for domestic use, fifty ounces of silver, and a female attendant. All 
those who have received scarves now come to present her in return 
with a scarf and a piece of money. The nearest relatives and friends 
of the parents, the chief of the country, and other people of position, 
present her with scarves, clothes, blankets, etc., and silver coins. 

Presently about twenty of the bridegroom's friends arrive to 
conduct the bride to her new home. For the first half of the journey 
the arrangements are made and expenses defrayed by the bride's 
parents ; for the second half by those of the bridegroom, and it is 
made on horseback, the bride riding in the middle of the party. 
Arriving at their destination, the bride is seated on a cushion placed 
on a raised stand by the side of her husband in the middle of the 
bridal party. At an auspicious hour a short religious service is 
performed by the village lama, and the parents or sponsors of the 
parties offer prayers for the happiness of the union.* The bride- 
groom's parents then beseech the gods to witness the ceremony of 
their son's marriage, and declare that lienceforth the bride will Ije 
owned by the Ijridegroorn and his brothers alone. For three days the 
festivities continue, during which time as much as fifty chiqnm of 
wine, three oxen, and three pigs are sometimes consumed. The 
notables among the bridegroom's friends arrive with presents of 
scarves, and are entertained by his father. 

On the third day the bride exchanges the clothes and jewellery 
she wore on her arrival, for others supplied by the bridegroom. After 
a short prayer to the gods the pair are left together, for the first time, 
and on the following morning the bride begins to apply herself to her 
houseliuld duties. Her brotliers and relatives who have accompanied 
lier, return liome at tlie expiration of seven days. 

* Cf. Jour. Boy. Anat. Soc, n.s. xxiii. pp. 228-230. See also Wudilcll, op. cit.. 


Some three months after the wedding her parents, accompanied 

by the chief men among tlieir friends and by servants, arrive with 
presents of food, and request that their daughter may pay them a 


vi.'^it. After being entertained for ten or twelve days, tliey return 
home, and are followed some weeks later by the young couple, who 
are accompanied by a number of female servants bearing presents of 
scarves, provisions, wdne, etc. They remain a month, and on their 
departure the bride receives from her father a new costume and 
jewellery, and the husband a complete suit of clothes and the 
inevitable scarf. 

Among the very poor the proceedings are much simplified, the 
negotiations being conducted by the parents in person. 

There is no fixed limit of marriageable age in Tiliet. The average 
age, however, for ])oth sexes, is from fifteen to twenty-five, and 
frequently the l)ride is older than the bridegroom. 

When parties are desirous of dissolving the marriage bond, the 
reason for so doing must first be investigated. If the husband be 
found entirely blameless and willing to live with his wife, but she 
be resolved to divorce him, she is required to pay double the rin, or 
price paid for her, as a fine for the dissolution of the marriage con- 
tract, called horche and den tjo, that is, " divorce fine" and " innocence 
fine." * In the absence of a marriage contract, the divorce fine fixed 
by law for the wife to pay amounts to eighteen gold slw, equal to 135 
rupees; and for the husband three gold srang, equal to 180 rupees. 
If the husljaud's innocence be doubtful, but the wife's charges remain 
unproved, the wife is required to pay as divorce fine a complete suit of 
clothes, a pair of shoes, a bed-carpet, bed-rug, and a wrapper, and the 
husband must present to his wife a second scarf and a tliird article of 
any kind. 

On the other hand, if a wife be found perfectly innocent, and 

willing to live witli her husband, but the husband be resolved to 

divorce her for no fault of hers, he is required to i)ay to her twelve gold 

sho, equal to ninety rupees, as divorce fine, and also yog la, " service 

wage," amounting to six pounds of barley for every day and six for every 

night which she has spent with him from the day of marriage to the 

date of sejjaration. The husband is also required to return the price of 

all the clothes and other gifts made to the wife by her friends since the 

time of their marriage. The divorced woman also takes away with 

her all jewellery given her by her relatives, but not that given 

* Tlie information contained in this section lias been compiled, our author says, 
from "a Icj^al work." I doubt if its rules are in practice. Borche appears to be hhor-wa 
chyt; (Ityed), " to cast away, to abandon." Den yo is bde7i, " truth; " and perhaps gyogs 
(for yo), " covering of." — (W. R.) 


to her by her husband. The wife cannot demand tlie " innocence 
fine." If there be children at the time of separation, the father takes 
the boys, and the mother the girls. If the ]iusl)and be a. man of 
property, the court may order liim to give the divorced wife a certain 
share of his possessions for the maintenance of the girls. On the 
other hand, if the wife be possessed of property, she may be required 
to give something for the maintenance of her sons. 

Again, when a marriage is contracted between a man of noble 
blood and a woman of humble rank, or vice versa, with the definite 
understanding that they shall share each other's good and adverse 
fortune, their property in case of divorce is to be divided between them 
according to their faithfulness or guilt, and their amount of mutual 
presents at the time of union. In cases of divorce between parties 
who were united at their own M'ish for the enjoyment of pleasure or 
merriment, the court should, without regard to the nature of their 
guilt, divide their property equally between them.* In cases of 
marriage between slaves or serfs, tlie owner decides their separation 
or continued union. A man of this class is, for instance, married to 
a woman who, the owner thinks, might be of some service to him. 
When the woman is found useless, she is dismissed, being given one- 
sixth of her husband's belongings, and her place is supplied by a new 
wife chosen by the owner. 

In Tibet members of the same family are forbidden Ijy law to 
contract matrimonial alliances with their kindred within seven 
degrees. This rule is, however, nowadays disregarded by the people, 
who are known to make alliances with their kinsmen who are distant 
only three or four degrees of consanguinity. Among the Pobos and 
Khamlja marriage is promiscuously contracted, the brother marrying 
his sister, the nephew his aunt.f Among the common Tibetans, so 
long as the parties do not claim a common father, there is no objec- 
tion to the marriage ; the uterine brother and sister may be united, 
and a man may marry his stepmother or aunts. 

The custom of several brothers making one woman their common 
wife, to keep the ancestral property entire and undivided, is said to 

* This would appear to refer to temporary marriages. — (W. K.) 
t So far as the Khamba are concerned, I think our author is not correct in his 
staten.ent. That it may have once been as lie says is highly probable, but at present 
it is certainly not so ; intercourse with the Chinese has, I believe, caused not only the 
people of Eastern Tibet, but of all Tibet to adopt to a great extent their ideas concerning 
marriages between near relations. — (W. K.) 


have had its origin in Kliams, "wlicre it is at this day extensively 
practised. The Tibetans of U and Tsang have borrowed it from their 
cousins of Khams, but it is not universal with them.* The wife is 
claimed by the younger brothers as their wife only so long as they 
continue to live with the eldest one. When they separate from their 
eldest brother, they cannot ask him to pay compensation for their 
share in the wife, and she remains the lawful wife of the eldest 
brother. It is not unusual for a father or uncle to live with his son's 
or nephew's wife, and even in high life a fatlier makes himself a 
partner in the marital rights over his son's wife, f 

The cessation of the pulse and the suspension of breathing are not 
considered tests of the extinction of vitality. The Tibetans consider 
that the spirit {nam she) usually lingers in the mortal frame for not 
less than three days, though the spirits of those who have attained to 
some stage of holiness quit the body immediately after the last breath 
has been drawn, for communion with the dwellers in Paradise, called 
Gadan or Tushita ; but instances of such saintly personages are of 
very rare occurrence. It is consequently considered a very sinful 
action to move or dispose of the corpse immediately after death. 
Nowadays in Tibet and Mongolia the dead bodies of all classes of 
men are carefully kept within doors for three days, during which 
time their friends and relations attend on them and make prayers for 
their future well-being. On the morning of the fourth day the 
horoscope of the deceased, and that of the man who is selected to be 
the first to touch the corpse for removal, are consulted. A lama is 
employed to perform certain funeral ceremonies, with a view to cause 
the spirit of the deceased to pass out through a certain slit in the skull. | 
If this ceremony is omitted the soul Avill make its exit by some other 
passage and go to a state of damnation. The lama remains ah)ne 
with the corpse, all the doors and windows being closed, and no one 
is allowed to enter until he declares l)y wliat passage the soul has 
fled. In return for this important service he receives a cow, yak, 
sheep, or goat, or a sum of money, according to the means of the 

Before the dead body is removed from the house, an astrologer 

* Neither is it in Kliamdo. See my ' Land of the Lamas,' p. 211 et sqq.—CSV. K.) 
t I hardly imap;ine tliat our aullior intends to convey thi; idea tliat this is a custom 
..f tlic Tiiietaiis.— (W. K.) 

X Sec Waildcll, oj). (tit., p. 88. He says the "soul-extracting lama" is called lipnho. 



notes the dates of birth of tlie friends and rehitions present. If any 
among them were born nnder the same constellation and planet as 



the dead person, tliey are said to incur the risk of l»eiiig ridden by 
his ghost, and are consequently not allowed to attend the funeral. 
The astrologer also receives his reward in money or kind. Then the 
corpse, tightly wrapped in clothes, is placed on a stretcher facing the 
direction which has been declared auspicious by the astrologer, and 
is placed in a corner of the house. Five butter lamps are lighted 
near the head, and a screen is drawn round it, within which his usual 
food and drink, together with a lamp, are placed. Early on the 
morning of the day appointed for the disposal of the body, it is 
carried to the nearest cemetery. At the time of its removal the 
relations make profound salutations to it. Two men carrying wine 
or tea, together with a dishful of tsamba, follow the bier. The family 
priest, or lama, of the deceased throws a hhatag on the litter and 
walks behind at a slow pace, holding a corner of another scarf tied 
to it. As he proceeds he mutters funeral manfra, turning a hand- 
drum (dariLciru) with his right hand, and with his left ringing a bell. 
It is inauspicious to place the litter on the ground before its arrival 
at the cemetery. If by accident this should happen, the body must 
be disposed of at that spot, instead of in the cemetery. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Lhasa there are two sacred cemeteries, Phabongka and 
Serashar. Those who dispose of dead bodies at the former pay two 
or three tanha for tea to the monks of Phabongka monastery; and 
at the latter they pay one tanha to the cemetery keeper, who also 
gets the bedding and clothes of corpses. 

In every cemetery there is a large slab of stone, on which the 
corpse, stripped of its coverings, is placed face downwards. The 
oflQciating lama then crosses it with lines, and while repeating 
'mantras, cuts it in pieces. The first pieces are flung towards the 
Ijiggest and oldest vulture of the flock, called tanlcar, and the remain- 
der to the rest. They are so tame that they come one by one at the 
call of the priest. Last of all the head of the corpse is crushed, and 
the bones pounded together are mixed with the brain and distributed 
among the vultures.* Then a new^ and unused earthen bowl, tilled 
\\\\A\. lire of anjol (dried cowdung), with some butter and barley Hour 
burnt in it as incense, is presented to the departed by being placed 
in the quarter towards which he is sup])osed to have gone. The 
funeral attendants now wasli their liands, and retiring to a short 
distance from the cemetery, breakfast, and at about midday return 
* Cf. • Land of the Lamas,' p. 287. — (W. R.) 


home. During forty-nine days after the drawing of the last breath, 
food and drink are offered to the departed in his favourite dish ; and 
incense, consisting of barley, butter, and juniper spines, is burnt. 

During this period of hardo, as the interval between death and 
regeneration is called, the departed spirit is believed to wander, and 
in order to prevent its being subject to misery, on the forty-ninth day 
some of the clothes, shoes, head-dress, coins, etc., which belonged to 
the deceased, after being washed and sprinkled with saffron-water, 
are presented to some incarnate lama for his blessing. The last 
service is conducted by a Tantrik lama, with a view to expelling all 
the evil spirits and hungry ghosts which haunt the house of the 

On the seventh day after death, prayers are moreover offered for 
the deceased's well-being, and alms in coin, food, tea, gold, and silver 
are distributed among religious men. This is repeated on every con- 
secutive seventh day until the forty-ninth day, when a grand feast is 
given to the congregation of lamas. Nowadays, however, the rich 
people of Lhasa generally distribute alms, at the rate of one tanha 
each to the monks of Sera, Dabung, and Gadan, dispensing with the 
other costly ceremonies. They also present the clothes belonging to 
the deceased to the professors and heads of those monasteries. Some 
bequeath the wliole of their property to these monastic institutions or 
to Lamas of great repute. 

The practice of making wills has been followed by the Tibetans 
from very remote times. Every man of property leaves a will l^e- 
queathing his movable property to his children or friends, and leaving 
instructions for the performance of his funeral obsequies and otlier 
pious works. 

The cutting up and distributing of a corpse is a practical illustra- 
tion of the Tibetan belief that charity is the highest of all the moral 
virtues. That man is said to be most virtuous whose funeral is 
attended by the largest number of vultures, while if his corpse 
attracts but a small company, the very dogs not deigning to touch 
his defiled remains, he is judged to have led a sinful life. 

The dead bodies of pregnant and barren women, and also of le^^ers, 
are packed in leather bags and thrown into the waters of the great 
Tsang-po. A Tibetan proverb says, " She whose son dies after birth 
is white barren (rah-clia harpo) ; she whose daughter dies after 
birth is partly barren {rab-cha tavo) ; she who has borne no children 


is black barren (ra.b-cha nagpo)." The corpses of such and of lepers 
are considered particularly unclean, and should not be kept within 
the limits of the country, but must either be thrown beyond nine 
hills and dales, or packed in horse's or ox's skins and tlirown into the 

The dead bodies of incarnate lamas are occasionally burnt, and 
tlieir ashes and bones deposited in chortcn. The remains of saintly 
personages, such as pretend to have emanated from Bodhisattvas and 
Buddhas, are preserved like the Egyptian mummies, being embalmed 
or salted and placed within gold, silver, or copper chortcn, where 
they are seated in a meditative posture, like the conventional image 
of Buddha. These incarnate lamas, at the time of death, mention the 
time when and the place and the family where their souls will subse- 
quently find re-embodiment, and also the name and race of the family, 
and instruct their friends to perform rites and ceremonies for their 
well-being after death. 

On the demise of the Dalai and Tashi lamas, the work in all the 
public and private offices, all business, and market gatherings are 
suspended for seven days. For thirty days women are forbidden to 
put on their jewellery, and men or women may not wear new 
apparel. Lamas and monks must, on such occasions, mourn for ten 
days, during which they must not shave their heads, or wear their 
church head-dresses during services. All classes of people refrain 
from amusements and festivities, and from going into groves for plea- 
sure, sports, or love-making. It is only in honour of the death of 
these two great hierarchs of Tibet that the whole country goes into 
mourning. The mourning for abbots of other monasteries and heads 
of families is confined to the friends and monks who are near to them, 
liich and respectable men do not, watliin a year after the death of 
their parents, take part in marriage ceremonies and festivities ; and 
do not undertake journeys to a distance. 

Among the Sikkim Buddhists, dead bodies are burnt. On the 
fourth day after cremation, a lama performs the tusol, or washing 
ceremony, which consists in removing the relics, ashes, etc., and 
washing the place of burning with water. The relics are placed in 
an urn and deposited in a chorten. The ashes are thrown into 
a mountain stream, such as the Tista or Rungit.* The relics of 

* Tlio tuisol, or " cleansing ceremduy " (hhrus, washed ; gsol, to pray), is performed on 
numerous occasions and for various purposes. I suppose that by " relics," remains after 
cremation are here meant. — (W li.) 


lamas and important men, after being pulverized, are mixed with 
clay and cast in moulds into miniature cliorten. These relic clior- 
ten are deposited in sacred places, such as monasteries, temples, 
caverns, etc. On the seventh day the funeral ceremony, called Ten- 
zung, is performed. All relations and neighbours are invited to this 
funeral feast. At dusk all the evil spirits which are believed to have 
been invited to the departure of the deceased, are expelled by a Tan- 
trik priest, assisted by the deafening yells of the guests.* 

The physicians of High Asia have, I am told, discovered such 
remarkable properties of vegetable drugs, and of the flesli and bile of 
certain animals, and of some sorts of excrements in healing different 
kinds of sores, that if the statements of niy informant be true, the 
surgeons of civilized countries would be struck with wonder at their 
marvellous performances. For this remarkable success, the Tibetans 
do not appear to be indebted to their Chinese or Indian neighbours.! 
Their medicines are mostly indigenous, and their discoveries in 
surgery have resulted from their own experience. They supply the 
greater number of physicians and surgeons to the Mongols and other 
neighbouring peoples. 

The treatment of small-pox is very little understood by Tibetan 
doctors. Inoculation is, however, resorted to, and a new method of 
performing this operation has been discovered by the Northern Chinese 
physicians. It consists in selecting the best lympli from the light 
white pox pustules of a healthy child, which, mixed with camphor 
powder, is blown with a pipe into the nostril of the person to be in- 
oculated. | Great care and experience are required in selecting the 
lymph, on which alone depends the safety of the patients. Chicken- 
pox occurs only in a mild form, and is generally left to take its course. 

Hydrophobia is very prevalent in Tibet, Mongolia, and China, and 
its effects are considered to manifest themselves, according to the 
colour of the dog, at periods varying from seven days to eighteen 
months, and also according to the time of day at which the bite was 
received. The remedies are, however, sufficiently practical. As soon 

* Waddell, op. cit., 491, calls this sacrifice to the manes of tlie deceased ting-shag. 

t Our author is not quite riglit liere, a^ the Tiljetans have borrowed the major pait 
of their pharmacopojia from China and India. Most of their medical works are purely 
Chinese or Indian, and I do not believe they have much more, if even so mucli. know- 
ledge of surgery as tlie Chinese, who are terribly ignorant themselves in thi.^ art. 
Tibetan medicines are in high favour among the Chinese and Mongols.— (W. K.) 

X This is the usual Chinese method of inoculation.— (W. E.) 


as possible tie a ligature four fingers above the wound ; draw out the 
poison by means of the sucking apparatus, called rnijahs-ras, similar 
to the cupping-glasses of the Indians, and then bleed the wounded 
part. If the patient presents himself to the physician a day after 
having been bitten, the latter should only cauterize the wound, and 
then apply an ointment made of butter, turmeric, a poisonous bulb 
called hon-nya, and musk. 

In Lower Kongbo, Pobo, Pemakyod, and other mountainous dis- 
tricts of Southern Tibet, and in ISTepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan on this 
side of the Himalayas, goitre is the most prevalent disease. It owes 
its origin to the calcareous nature of the water drunk by the natives. 
Six varieties of goitre are recognized by Tibetan physicians, which are 
variously treated by cauterization, bleeding the jugular vein behind 
the ear, and also the swollen muscle of the goitre, and the administra- 
tion of nostrums composed of the dried gullet of the yak or sheep, dried 
fish, different kinds of salts, Fipcr longum and pepper, and powdered 
conch-shell, burnt in a hermetically closed vessel. 

Snake-bite is of rare occurrence in Higher Tibet, but in the lower 
valley of the great Tsang-po, great numbers of snakes are found, and 
also on the western frontier of China bordering Tibet.* Snake-bites 
are treated like hydrophobia, by tying a ligature above the part bitten 
and cupping. The wound is then washed with curd or milk, camel's 
milk being the most efficacious.! It is believed in High Asia that if 
a snake bite a camel, the snake dies immediately without injuring the 
camel. If there be no burning heat as a consequence of the bite, the 
wound should be cauterized. Internal remedies are also taken, con- 
sisting of cardamom, musk, pepper, and other native drugs. The 
Olak-los (wild petjple) of Pemakyod % immediately cut off the bitten 
portion, or the bitten limlj, if possible, after which they apply musk 
and bear's bile (gall ?) to the wound and bind it up. The Lalos eat 
snakes, of wliieh, however, they reject the head and tail as injurious. 

* Our author was misinformed. Snakes are very rare along the western border of 
China, venomous ones especially. — (W. 11.) 

t Camel's milk must be as great a rarity in most parts of Tibet as is elephant's 
milk, anotlicr remedy much prized in that country. — (W. R.) 

% Probably tlie same as the Lo Tawa, or " stripped Lhopas," mentioned by lama 
Serap-gyatso, 'Report on Explor. from 185G to 1888,' p. 7. Tiiis explorer dis- 
tinguishes three classes of Lhopas — Lho karpo, or " white Lhopas," who are some- 
what civilized ; Lho nagpo, or " black Lhopas," who are a little less civilized ; and 
the Lho tawa (Aya-y<a), or uncivilized, literally "mottled" Jjhopas. Cf. also, op. cit, 
pp. 16, 17, and Nain Singh's remarks in Jour. Boy. Geog. Soc, vol. xlvii. p. 120. 


During the months of January and February, when the great 
mon-lam (or prayer-meeting) fair takes phace at Lhasa, the city is 
occasionally visited by a highly infectious disease which causes great 
havoc among the people when the crowd is great. When the disease 
is not properly treated the patient generally dies before the tenth 
day, but those cases which have passed the thirteenth day are con- 
sidered hopeful. Tibetan physicians, by watching this disease in its 
different phases, have achieved remarkable success in treating it with 
their indigenous drugs. 

In Lhasa, Shigatse, and other towns and monasteries of Tibet, the 
principal disease from which people suffer and die is paralysis.* Five 
different kinds of this disease are recognized by Tibetan physicians, 
who also profess to have observed that the first symptoms generallv 
show themselves on the 4th, 8th, 11th, 1.5th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, or 29th 
day of the lunar month. Persons who have passed their sixtieth year 
seldom survive a paralytic stroke of any kind. All other cases in 
their milder forms are curable by proper and regular medical treat- 

Leprosy is prevalent in most of the countries of High Asia. It is 
variously q.qWq([ ghid-nad, "the nag's (serpent's) disease," and mje-^iad,^ 
the " corroding malady," and is believed to originate from various 
causes, fanciful and real. By digging in pestilential soil where 
snakes live, turning up stones under which these reptiles lurk, 
felling poisonous trees, throwing tea, water, or cooked food and other 
refuse on the blazing hearth, men are said to excite the wrath of the 
Nagas and mischievous spirits of the upper and nether worlds, who 
delight in working the ruin of the human race. They spread this 
hateful malady by the exhalation of their breath, by their poisonous 
touch or malignant glance, or even by the power of their malignant 
wish. The " charmed banner " J is a great preventive of these evils. 
The people of High Asia generally fix banners with printed charms 
thereon near to or on their houses, as they are believed to prevent 
the Nagas entering them. Leprosy is likewise assumed to be the 

* Our author gives tlie name of this disease as gzah-nacl. Jacschke, • Tib. engl. 
diet.,' translates this word by " apoplexy," adding tliat, in Western Tibet it seems to be 
used only for " epilepsy." — (W. E.) 

t Kill nad, or Klin gnod-nad, meaning that tlie Nagas brings about the disease. 
Mje nad is indje nad. — (W. R.) 

X These charmed banners are the lung-ta, or " airy horses," of which mention is 
frequently made in this work. 


consequence of the sins of former lives.* It also originates from dis- 
orders produced by irregularity and intemperance in food and habits, 
whereby the black and yellow fluids of the body are increased, and 
give rise to this distressing malady. Eighteen different kinds of 
leprosy are recognized. The chanting of charms and mantras of 
Vajrapani Buddha by the patient or the physician is resorted to, that 
wrathful deity being a mighty subduer of all malevolent demons and 
Nagas, and various native drugs are also administered in the form of 

Dropsy, though rare in High Asia, prevails in the southern and 
eastern districts in Tibet, and is caused by drinking much water after 
exercise, lying down in damp places, taking cold, or by light unsub- 
stantial food, by which the digestive powers are deranged. Twelve 
varieties of this disease are recognized, wliich are divided into two 
main groups, characterized as " the hot " and " the cold fluid " re- 
spectively. Bone-ash is believed to be the best remedy ; but other 
medicines, consisting of grapes, cinnamon, oxide of iron, pomegranate 
(rind ?), lime, and other ingredients, are also prescribed.f 

Dyspepsia (jxid-hau) is one of the commonest diseases in Tibet, 
and forty-three different varieties of this malady have been observed 
by native physicians. 

Toothache is also a very general complaint of the people of Tibet, 
due to the extreme rigour of the climate and the coldness of the water. 
The inhabitants of the remote province of Chang-tang usually lose 
their teeth before reaching the age of thirty. 

Among the games played by the Tibetans, there are some such as 
mig-manfj, or " many eyes," resembling chess ; srid-inii Icliorlo, or 
" the circle of life," | and dice, which even the clergy are permitted 
to amuse themselves with. Others, as, for instance, wrestling, archery, 
polo, foot and pony races, are confined to the people ; nor are the 
lamas allowed to amuse themselves with singing and dancing except 
at stated times, as, for example, during the New Year holidays. 

* This remark applies equally well to all diseases in Buddhist estimation. 

t Jacsclike, ' Tib. engl. diet.,' call.s this disease pag» elm, " skin water ; " snying chu, 
■• lieart water ; " dmu chu, " dropsy, especially in the chest aud belly." Ou the medical 
knowledge of tlic Tibetans, see Journ. Bengal Asiat. «S'oc., iv. pp. 1 et sqq. — (W. R.) 

X In this game, wliich is an invention of one of the Panchcn rinpoclies, dice are 
thrown, by which the players get (lifl'creut positions in tlie various liravens or hells — 
(S. C. D.) Our autlior also mentions a game called te-pi, or rochet, but, unfortunately, 
does not give any idea of the game itself. See also "Report U.S. National Museum,' 
1893, p. 723.— (AV. R.) 


At midsummer the people and nobility dress tents, and for several 
days amuse themselves under them, picnicing, dancing, and singing. 

In the 8th moon the jon-gijtc festival takes place, lasting for seven 
or fourteen or even twenty- one days. On this occasion the lamas 
and people amuse themselves with sports, games, dancing, and feast- 
ing. This festival is observed in all northern Buddhist countries.* 

Again, in the latter part of the 12tli moon, there is a lama dance 
in every monastery, after which the evil spirits are exorcised.f Some- 
times the 4th of the 6th and the 22nd of the 9th moons are observed 
as feast days ; the latter as the anniversary of the Buddha's descent 
from the Tushita heaven.^ 

In the summer, commencing with the full moon in July and 
lasting for a period of forty-five days, all lamas make a retreat in 
their monasteries, during which time they are not allowed to go 
without the lamasery walls, or take part in any amusement. This 
is known as the i/(W-nas.l 

The birthdays of the Dalai and Tashi lamas are also kept as holi- 
days, and on their reaching the age of three, twenty-five, forty -nine, 
sixty-one, seventy-three, or eighty-five, there are also great festivities. 

When eclipses of the sun or moon occur, the Tibetans hold 
religious ceremonies similar to those of the Hindus. 

Of all feasts, that of the New Year is probabl}' the most popular. 
At Lhasa the State makes arrangements for the celebrations, beginning 
them about a month beforehand. 

* Chinese aiithors say that. " during the 7th and 8th moons tliey (the Tiljetans) put 
up tents along the river banks, and men and women bathe together in the river, it 
being symbolical of the purification ceremonies of the 13th of the 3rd month (in China)," 
Jour. Roy. Asiat. Soc, No. xxiii., p. 213. — (W. R.) 
t On the 29th day of the moon.— (W. R.) 
X Our author mentions also the following festivals : — 
15th of 1st moun : Buddha's birthday. 
15th of 3rd ,. First preaching of the Kalachakra tantra. 

8th of 4th ., Buddha became a mendicant. 

15th of -Ith .. Buddha's nirvana. 

5th of 5th ,, Feast of god of medicine. 

4th of 6th ., Buddha's first sermon. 

10th of 7th ,. Birth of Padma chyuug-uas (Padma Sambhava). 

15th of 7th „ The snowy mountains are worshipped. 

25th of 10th „ Birth of Tsongkhapa. 

Cf. "NVaddell, op. cit., 502 et sqq. 

§ Kuowu in southern Buddhist countries as var><ha or Barfat. Yar is dbyar (usually 
pronounced chyar), " summer ; " and nas (gfnn.s), " abode." I do not believe the practice 
is generally observed. Cf. Waddell. op. cit., 224. and supra.— (W. U) 


The kitchen of the Grand Lama is in a large yellow building 
called the Phodang serpo, or Jag-ming khang (IJags-rning Jihang), 
situated to the east of the palace. The cooking-stoves are orna- 
mented wdth gold, silver, and ])recious stones, estimated to be worth 
Es. 20,000, and all the cooking utensils are of solid gold. All the 
butter and milk used here is obtained from the herd of live hundred 
jomos (half-breed yaks) belonging to the Dalai lama, which herd the 
people salute as it passes, taking off their hats or kotowing to the 
animals. Twenty Tse-dung (lama officials) herd these cattle, milk 
them, and churn the butter. 

Here, when New Year is approaching, five lamas prepare cakes 
and dainties for the Grand Lama, their mouths covered with eight 
thicknesses of silk, so that the food may not be polluted by their 
breath. In the village at the foot of Potala, called the Shedo khang, 
two or three hundred men make cakes and biscuits for the officials, 
lamas, and people ; and every one, whether rich or poor, has some 
prepared for the festival. 

On tlie loth of the 12th moon two hundred workmen begin white- 
washing the walls of Potala, which work occupies them for three 
days ; and then, but only then, people are at liberty to have the walls 
of their houses whitened, and there is no one so poor that he does 
not at this season renovate the exterior of his dwelling. 

On the 18th all public offices are closed for fifty days. Booths 
are erected to supply the crowds which assemble for the onon-lam 
chcnpo, or "grand prayer-meeting," which, beginning on Xew Year's 
day, lasts for a month, and many of the officials visit Tse-dung 
linga, a beautiful park to the south of the city, where there is a 
Chinese restaurant and singing and dancing girls, called Tung- 
shema, or " drinking ladies." 

On the 22nd in all lamaseries and in many houses of the people 
torma offerings are made, to be offered the following day to the 
household gods. Then tlie people bathe and get themselves ready to 
make visits of congratulations, which they begin doing on the 27th. 
On the 29th each householder has a general house cleaning, and the 
dust and dirt is thrown in a cross-road, and thus all im]-)ending 
misfortunes are got rid of witli the rubljish. 

Early on tlie moniiiig of the 29th large and gorgeously decorated 
tents are erected in the great courtyard of Potala and other temples, 
in each of wliich three or four liundred people can be seated. In the 


centre of each tent are cstmdes of carved and gilt sandal-wood (?), on 
which the abbots, head lamas, and guests of distinction take their 
seats, while on lower seats are the other guests. A number of lamas, 
with little tables of sandal-wood in front of tlieiii, on which different 
instruments of music, and implements used in church ceremonies, 
such as dorje, bells, damaru, etc., are placed, occupy another portion 
of each tent. When the preliminary service is over the grand 
" black hat " dance, of which I have previously made mention, 

The dancers are eighty in number, and their gowns are made of 
w^hite, red, and green satin. Each one holds in liis left hand a 
wooden skull, and in his right a short club, from which hang five 
silk scarfs of different colours. They prance about, wildly waving 
their arms, for half an hour or so, when suddenly there is heard wild 
shrieking, and a second set of dancers, or masks called Kambah, 
come in. They are dressed to represent the various gods, most of 
them extraordinarily hideous to look at. These continue the wild 
dance to the music of cymbals, drums, and flutes for a couple of 

When the Kambab have stopped, four skeleton-like figures appear : 
they are the Diirdag, or " lords of cemeteries," and they dance in 
their turn. These are followed by sixteen figures representing Indian 
atsaras, who, by their dress and contortions, excite wild mirth among 
the people. A number of dancers wearing stag heads then appear, 
and finally the " black hat " dancers come out once more, each with 
a cymbal or a drum in his hand, and the dance comes to an end. 

At the termination of the dance the lamas who performed the 
religious service earlier in the day form in a procession and proceed 
to throw away the torma offering. 

Five hundred soldiers and twenty-four flag-bearers accompany the 
procession. Three lamas carry on an iron tripod the tsamha torma, 
which is of pyramidal shape, about ten feet high and painted red, with 
projecting edges to represent flames, and frequently surmounted by a 
skull moulded in tsamha. Three other lamas bear on a large iron 
tray supported by a tripod a skeleton also made of tsamha. The 
procession goes to about a mile from the temple to where a shed, or 
Jwm, J'hang, of straw or brush has been made, in which the torma and 
the skeleton are placed and then set on fire. 

* See p. 114. Oil the New Year festivities, see Waddell, op. cit., 518. 


"When the flames break forth the flag-bearers lower their flags and 
run back to the lamasery with all speed, to escape the devil's assaults, 
and tlie soldiers lire off their guns at the burning mass to prevent the 
evil spirits escaping from the fire in which they are now supposed to 
be roasting.* 

On the thirtieth da}' of the moon, New Year's eve, all house 
decorations and furniture are renewed or cleaned, and offerings and 
oblations made in every domestic chapel. The walls, pillars, posts, 
lintels, etc., are washed with whey. A lotus, finger-marks or marks 
of animals' claws are painted on the wooden floors of the rooms, or a 
sheep's head is scorched, and its eyes, ears, and nose painted with the 
five colours mixed with butter : this is said to be a certain means of 
insuring good luck, and is believed to be a pre- Buddhist custom of the 

In the evening the whole city is illuminated, and this is kept up 
for three successive nights. 

New Year's day is called Gyalpo lo sar, or " the King's new year," 
and the Grand Lama holds a levee on this occasion. The Donnyer 
chenpo, or Grand Chamberlain, opens the ceremony by wishing the 
lama all happiness (" tra-shi de leg fliun-sum Isog "), and presenting 
him some wine and tsamha. The Grand Lama replies, " Tan-du de-wa 
tohpar sliog," and dipping his finger in the wine, sprinkles a little about 
as an oblation, and then tastes the tsamla. Tlien the great trumpets 
sound, and tlie Dalai lama takes his seat on the throne in the great 
hall, and all the ministers and church dignitaries take their places 
according to precedence. Tea is then served, followed by toma, a kind 
of red potato of Tibet, cooked in butter and sugared. -j- AVhen they 
have finished eating, every one presents His Holiness with hli.atag 
about eighteen feet long, and he gives each one in return his blessing. 

In the mean time " the good luck dance " (tra-sM-gi gar) is going 
on outside the hall, in which some twenty little boys, of eight years 
of age, take part, the lower officials, such as the Dungkhor, forming 
the audience. 

In every house of any importance tlie master, his wife, and children 

* I have witnessed a mimbor of tliese lurim, or guilt-ofteriiig cereinouics, but none 
of such magnitude as the one held at Lhasa. See, for a picture of this procession at 
Lhasa, Georgi, ' Alph. Tibet.' p. 212.— (W. R.) 

t Toma is droma (or doma), the root of the potentilla anserina, and called chuoma 
in Eastern and North-eastern Tibet. It is mealy, and tastes like a bean ratlier than 
a potato. It is about H inclies long. — (W. R.) 


are offered the compliments of the season by all tlieir relatives, 
dependents, and friends, who, in tlieir turn, are treated with wine 
by them. When the New Year's wine has been drunk, the misser 
(serfs) sing some hymns or glees. 

At the New Year the Tibetans watch out for omens for the forth- 
coming year, the best of which, if one is to start soon on a journey, is 
to see a young woman with a child in her arms. To see flags, banners, 
milking of cows, persons carrying' vessels filled with water or any 
other liquid, or timber for house-building or firewood, is lucky, as is 
also the sight of a corpse on a bier. To meet well-dressed persons, 
to be greeted by friends, to hear a lucky name, are also held to be 
signs of good luck ; but to see beggars, ragged persons, empty vessels, 
a person descending a hill, or carrying shoes in his hand, a saddled 
horse without a rider, to hear impolite or rough language, are portends 
of bad fortune.* 

On New Year's day dancing beggars (or Dre-kar) make their ap- 
pearance in the streets and houses. They wear masks, usually 
representing a black devil, with a shaggy, white beard, with cowries 
for eyebrows and encircling his face, and sometimes with a cowrie on 
either cheek. They dance and crack jokes to the delight of the guests 
assembled in each house for the New Year's breakfast.f 

In the afternoon there is further feasting in most of the houses, 
and the guests, both male and female, frequently end the entertain- 
ment with a dance (shahdo) ; first, the women dance alone, then the 
men, and finally, both sexes together.^ 

The New Year's festivities terminate on the third day at noon, 
when the monks of the great lamaseries all meet in the Kyil khording 
(or Jo khang) to hear the Grand Lama expound the faith. On each 
succeeding day, till the 24th of the moon, they hold the great x^rayer- 
meeting, or monlain. chen'po.^ 

* All tliese omens of oood and bad luck are of equal importance at any time of tlie 
year.— (W. E.) 

t I liave seen these mummers in North-eastern Tibet. See ' Land of the Lamas,' 
p. 246.— (W. K.) 

X On the second day of the new year, all the inhabitants gather together to witness 
a feat performed by two men, each of whom in turn mounts on a wooden saddle and 
slides down a strong rope fastened from the fort walla to a post buried about nine feet 
in the ground. ' Eeport on the Explorations of A. K.,' p. 33. Cf. Jour. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 
n.s.. x.xiii. p. 209, and ' Eeport on lama U. G.'s Exploration.' p. :52, where we learn that 
on the second day of the New Year the Nachung chos-gyong prophesies the events of 
the year beginning. See also Hue, ' Souvenirs d'uu voyage,' ii. 375 tt s>jq. 

§ The monlam chenpo was instituted by Tsongkhapa in 1-107. Csoma,' Tib. gram..' 187. 



lu the afternoon of the third, the Tsog-chen Shahiyo of Dabung 
assumes the government of Lhasa for the next month and a half, 
previously informing the police magistrates of the fact, and henceforth 
all authority, even that of the Kalon, as far as the city is concerned, 
is vested in him alone.* 

* Cf. lama Ugyen-gyatso's account of the Shalnyo's rule in 'Keport on explor. 
from 1856 to 1888,' p. 32. Also A. K., op. cit., p. 33; and Hue, oj). cit., ii. 380. He 
calls this rule of the Shiilnyo, the " Lha-ssa Morou," but he says it only lasts six days ; 
but all other authorities agree in saying that the rule of the city is turned over to the 
Dabung lama for a montli. — (W. E.) 

J?n 'yna 

0^"-^*^ A^X^^yyi 


Absolution to deceased official, 106. 
Acharya Ami, his Svarasvat Vyaharana, 

Ailurus ochracetis in Sikkim, 2. 
Allowauce, for oificials travelling, 51, 52 ; 

to monks, 79. 
Almanac, preparation of, 113. 
Altan Khan, first uses the name Dalai 

lama, 172. 
Altars in front of houses in Lhasa, 148. 
Amban,the senior and junior, 48 ; trouble 

of junior with Tibetan authorities, 48, 

50-52 ; inspections by, 50 ; expenses for, 

51 ; in procession, 61 : goes to Lhasa, 63 ; 

his power in Tibet, 178 ; exactions of, 

179; his salary, 180; disliked by 

Tibetans, 181 ; author meets him on 

road, 236. 
Amchi, or physician, 41, 55 ; at Samding 

gomba, 131 ; Ihamo daiicers, 217. 
Amdo, province of, 64, 156, 196. 
Amolonkha, a sacred rock, 152. 
Ant, or nun, 25, 29 ; meaning concubine, 

Animals, not allowed to be killed, 43, 76, 

Antelope, in Sikkim, 2. 
Apricots, 7; dried, 139. 
Aprons of women, 157. 
Archery, 202, 260. 
Arms, of soldiers, 180. 
Army, force of, 180 ; how recruited, 180. 
Arun valley, inhabitants of, 3 ; river, 38, 

39, 42 ; source of river, 242 ; upper 

course, 243. See Ohe-chu. 
Aspergill, used in religious ceremonies, 

Asses, wild, 42, 244. 

Astrologer making almanac, 113 ; at 

funerals, 252, 253. 
Atisha, died at Netang, 145 ; at Samye, 222. 
Aton la, 238. 

Bachelor of theology, 91. 

Bad luck, signs of, 265. 

Balpo, or Nepalese, 68. 

Bangle worn by women, reason for, 157. 

Bangye-shag, residence of Phahv, 85 ; 149, 
150, 161. 

Banquet, to Tibetan general, 81, 82. 

Barat, feast thus called, 59. 

Bardo, period between deatli and re- 
generation, 14U, 255. 

Bardon, a district of Kliams, 197. 

Barley, near l^hasa, 145. 

Bathing, house, 102 ; after summer retire- 
ment, 214. 

Bears, 2, 14. 

Beehives, 15. 

Beggars, at Shigatse, 47 ; alms distri- 
buted to, 64, 68, 106 ; at Lhasa, 156 ; 
dancing, 265. 

Behor, temple of, 224. 

Bellows, 30. 

Belung, hamlet of, 74. 

Bhutan. See Dugpa. 

Birthplace of Tibetans, 229. 

Black Court of Lhasa, 174. 

Black-water mysteries of Bonbo, 206. 

Blessing, 57,95, 109. 

Boats, of skin, 140, 143. 

Bogto la, 16, IS. 

Bonbo sect, 205 ; their deities, 205; high 
priest, 206 ; mysteries, 206 ; lamas, 207, 
208 ; moral rules governing them, 208 ; 
tenets of their faith, 215. 



Books, at, 88, 90, 94 ; arsenical 
paper used for. 111 ; search for Sanskrit 
ones, 112; on lama dances, 118; written 
by Pan-chen lama, 120 ; owned by the 
Dorje Phagmo. 138 ; of Bonbo at Rigyal | 
Seudar, 20G; at Phuutso ling, 209; at 
Sakya, 210 ; copied by U. G. at Shendar, 
21o"; atSamye,222, 225; at Sakya, 241. 

Bora, the t^hape, 60, 61. 

Bra-gyin - pa gonba. See Regyin-pai 

Bribery of Chinese officials, 52. 

Bridge, bamboo, 1 ; over the Rummam, 
2 ; over the Kalai, 6 ; over Rigbi, 8, 14 ; 
over Yalung, 21 ; over Yamatari, 23 ; 
over Yangma, 29 ; at Tashi-rabka, 37 ; 
over Nyang chu, 84 ; of chains over 
Tsang-po, 143 ; over Ti chu, 145 ; over 
Tong chu, 204 ; over Tsang-po, 228. 

Brigands, 72, 129. 

Broadcloth, superior quality made at Pishi 
Mani Lhakhang, 73 ; of Tosnam-gyaling, 

Broth, Tibetan, 48, 72. 

Btsan-tang, pU^teau of, 233; Iha-khang, 

Buckwheat, 32, 144, 145. 

Bufl'aloes, 7. 

Bur-cliu tsan, .sprjnjis, 204. 

Burnt offerings, 203. 

Butchering, Tibet.m usages, 41 . 

Cabbages, S3. 

Calcutta, goods in Tibet, 68; goods in 

Gj'antse, 85. 
Camels, winter pasturage of Pan-clien 

lama's, 72. 
Campbell, Dr., badly treated. 193. 
Cangue, punishment of the, 186. 
Curdamom, 1,2, 6. 
Catechu, used by women to smear faces, 

157 ; origin of custom, 157. 
Cavalry, liow recruited, 180. 
Cedar trees, 21. 
Cemetery, at Shigatse ; at Gyantse, 87; of 

Lhasa, 163. 
Censor carrier of Dalai lama. 167. 
Chabug la, 39. 

Chagpori, Mount, 145, 195, 196. 
Ciiagri, hamlet of, 237. 
Chaini, village of, 2'.i. 
Chamdang bird, 20. 

Chandra Gomi, his Chandra Vijaharann 

found, 112. 
Chang, national drink of Tibet, 8 ; its pre- 
paration, 23; drinking, 24, 70, 112. 
Chang tang, plain of North Tibet, 52,53; 
pilgrims from, at Gyantse, 89 ; travellers 
from, 119 ; lamas from, 205, 207. 
Chani, village of, 39. 
Changacbelling monastery, 7. 
Charcoal, used as fuel in houses, GO. 
Charit}-, 64, 255. 
Chasag, or Chancellor, 173. 
Che (or Chi) chu, the Arun river, 42, 244. 
Cheese, dried, 48. 

Cheri, slauglitcr-house of Lliasa, 1-16. 
Che.s8, game of, 260. 
Chethang. See Tse-tang. 
Chiakri. See Chagri. 
Chiblung, village of, 210 ; valley, 243. 
Chim phug, 222, 223. 
Chincho-Iing, hamlet of, 234. 
Chinese, at Shigatse, 48 ; harsh treatment 
of Tibetans, 51 ; aid Tibetans against 
Sikhs, 53 ; arrogance of, at Shigatse, 
55, 63 ; in procession, 60 ; cemetery at 
Shigatse, 65 ; in Gyantse, 85, 86 ; 
cemetery at Gyantse, 87 ; in Lhasa, 
148, 150; iwlitical relations with Tibet, 
178,192, 193, 194; Chinese at Samye, 
222 ; at Tse-tang, 230. 
Chitishio Jong. See Kidesher. 
Cho, vilhige of, 235. 
Choigyal rabtan, ruler of Nyang, 87; 

books about him, 88 ; liis statue, 89. 
Choi-khor-tse. S'eeChong-khor monastery. 
Choilung monastery, 87. 
Cho-kanchanjinga, 21, 23. 
Choma, an edible root, 125. 
Chomo Kankar mountain, 20, 242. 
Chongdu-chog lamasery, 234. 
Chong-khor monastery, 217. 
Chong la. See Shong la. 
Chonjom, on tlie Riiigbi, 14. 
Chopsticks, used by Tibetans, 82. 
Chorka, part of Dobta djong, 244. 
Chorten, 3, 7, 3U, 32 ; at Tashilhunpo, 45 ; 
at Gyant.'se, 88; great ones in Tibet, 9; 
at Potala, 168; of Bonbo, 206; at 
Samye, 222; at Jong, 227; made of 
human ashes, 257. 
Chorten-gang, 3. 
Chorten Nyima river, 40. 



Chosthor-gyal phodang. See Phodang 

Chos-gya, in Kong po, 161. 

Choskhor-lliiinpo monastery, 242. 

Chu lonkyok. ,S'ee Clinm-bab la. 

Chiim-bok la, 17, 18, 10. 

Chumbi, 73; traders from, at Shigatse, 

Chumig-gang, bamlet of, 14.5. 

Clmmo-lha ri, 87. 

Cbnug, a name of Limbus, 3. 

Ch.ung Kivoehe. 143. 

Chunjorma mountain, 21, 22. 

Chu-sbo, Tillage of, 242. 

Chu-shu, brook, 242. 

Cliu-shul djong, 144. 

Cliuta, village of, 43. 

Chnta Chyangma, village of, 72. 

Chyabtam lama, tells a rich man how to 
escape evil birth, 64. 

Chijng-dso-pa, or Treasurer, SO, 94, 95. 

Chyag-na dorje, the god, 153; miracle 
working image of, 153 

Chyag-tsal gang, place of prayer-meeting, 
198, 199. 

Chyamba, the future Buddha, 152. 

Chyang chu, village of, 70, 102, 124, 125. 

Chyang-chub gya-lam, 33. 

Chyaiigjob, household officer of Panchen 
lama, 55. Iha-khang, sanctuary, 234. 

Cluji-hhyab KhaniM.or Prime Minister, 173. 

Chyi-lou Huteketu. See Minister. 

Chying-sang, a name given the Kalon. 174. 

Chyugpo mejDang family, 30. 

Chyugpu Shuug, plateau of. 72. 

Circumambulating, 78, 88 ; by Bonbo, 20G 

Club dance, 210. 

Coin, debased, forced circulation of, 48 ; 
exchange of Indian coin for Tibetan, 49. 

Complimentary address, 31, 32, G8, 264. 

Conch shell, 242. 

Contracts, how prepared, 190. 

Corpse thrown into Lake Dumo, 139, 140; 
fed to vultures and dogs, 164 ; to pigs, 
169 ; how disposed of by Bonbo, 208 ; 
of Panchen lama, 214 ; of children, how 
disposed of, 220; stone on which cut 
up, 232, 254; liow treated on death, 
252 ; releasing the spirit, 252 ; corpses 
f)f pregnant and barren women, 255 ; of 

lepers. 256; of incirnate lamas, 25G; 

burning of corpses, 256 ; disposal of 

ashes, 257. 
Cotton, 2. 

Courier service, 177, 185. 
Corvees, 182. 183, 184. 
Courts, of Lhasa. 174. 
Cranes, seen on Nyang chu, 72, 83, 125. 
Cushions, 70. 
Custom dues, 30, 31, 184. 

Daba xgoxpo, •' blue clay," 28. 

Dab-lung, village of, 140. 

Dabuug monastery, 146; by whom founded, 
171; judicial power of Abbot, 177; 
revenues of, 182; annual rule of Da- 
bung monks over Lhasa, 266. 

Dacoity, penalty lor, 18(; ; ordeal for prov- 
ing, 189. 

jDa/i^JOn, or general, 51,70,80; of Gyantsr. 
86; where stationed, 180; social rank 
of, 246. 

Dalai lama, collection of hymns by, 63 ; 
picture of the first receiving throne of 
Tibet, 79 ; ordination of, 104 ; enthrone- 
ment of, 104 ; palace of father of, 147 ; 
mode of .selecting, 1.59-161; discovery 
of latest incarnation, 161 ; audience of, 
165 ; description of, 167; audience hall 
of fifth Dalai lama, 169 ; his position in 
Buddhist church, 170; incarnation of 
Shenrezig, 171; first one, 171; succes- 
sors, 172; become sovereigns of Tibet, 
172 ; origin of name, 172 ; majority at 
eighteen, 173; his throne at Samye, 
222 ; his kitchen, 262 ; mode of pre- 
paring food for, 262 ; New Year's levee, 

Dam-ra, or ■' grove in a swamp," 149. 

Dance by Tibetan girl, IDS; by pro- 
fessionals, 217, 262, 265 ; on New Year's 
day, 263, 265. See also Lama. 

Dao-targe, village of, 76. 

Darchendo, the town of, 156. See aUo 

Darchung djong, 75. See also Tuchung, 

Darding sergo tamo temple, 206. 

Darjiling, 1 ; Tibetan pottery sold at, GG; 
railway a danger for Chinese trade, 193; 
return to, 245. 

Daru, near Lhasa, 146. 



Dates, dried, 101. 

Dayan Khan, 172. 

Dayan Khanpo, feared his spirit might 
exercise evil iutiuence, 161 ; expelled 
by Sakya Panchen. 240, 241. 

Death, Lord of, weighing men's acts, 93 ; 
his image, etc., in commemoration cere- 
mony, 203; spirit after, 252; period 
before rebirth, 255. 

Deba, or chief, 70. 

Deba Shikha, 70, 102, 123, 124, 201. 

Dechan phodang, of Tashilhunpo, 60. 

Dcchan phug, haunted cave, 13. 

Dechan rolpa monastery, 21, 22. 

Dechen, village of, 221. 

"Deceiving deatli," ceremony of, 134; 
life, ceremony of, 134. 

Deki rabdan. village of, 70. 

Demalung. See Tamalung. 

Densatil, monastery of, 226; its founder, 

Deodar tree, 23, 29. 

Dejjhu, village of, 140. 

Desi, or regent, 172, 246. 

Devil, burnt in efiSgy, 118. 

Dewan, ex, of Sikkim, his influence in 
Tibet, 192, 193. 

Dhuiikota valley, 20. 

Dhuramdien, valley of, 3. 

Diba Dongtse, castle of, 98. 

Dice used for divination, 134 ; game of, 

Ding-naga, meadow of, 235. 

Ding-pon, or lieutenant, 86. 

Dipankara Buddha, 152 ; feast in his 
honour, 199. 

Divination, modes used for selecting in- 
carnate lamas, 159. 

Divorce, 25(J, 251. 

Djari tang, 29. 

Djoncf. or prefectural town, 177 ; dso, or 
prefectural store-house, 177 ; shi, or pre- 
fectural lands, 177; accounts, 182. 

Djim-khar, village of, 143. 

Jjjonfj-nyer. or sub-prefect, 51, 176; their 
number, 182. 

Djongpon. or prefect, 51 ; of Phagri, 73 ; 
appeals against to Lhasa, 174; their 
duties, 176, 177 ; their number, 176, 
182 : their salaries, 177, 182 ; social rank 
of, 246. 

Do, village of, 220. 

Doche, ingot of silver, equivalent terms 
for, 51, 183. 

Do la, 29. 

Dobta djong, 210, 244 ; Lachau la, 243 ; 
mountains, 244. 

Dog, mad, 76 ; pariah, re-embodiment of 
sinful lamas, 119; watch-dogs of Yamdo 
famous, 131 ; kept for hunting by Pan- 
chen lama, 211. 

Dogaug, village of, 243. 

Dogbane, 2. 

Dog tsang, village of, 72. 

Doi. See Panam gang. 

Dokpas, Tibetan pastoral tribes, 52 ; dress 
of women, 67. 

Dolma, the goddess, incarnate in Dorje 
l^hagmo, 138 ; turquoise image of in 
Ramoehe, 165 ; in Machig labdon, 228. 

Dolmai ri, mount behind Tashilhunpo, 

Dombu choskhor or monastery, 218. 

Dong lihang, traveller's bungalow, 13. 

Doug la, 242. 

Dong-sho, village of, 234. 

Dongtse, town of, 45, 49 ; invitation to 
visit, 60, 68; leave for, 69; arrival at, 
76 ; monastery of, 76 ; the Kham-tsan 
of at Shigatse, 119; second trip of 
S. C. D. to, 121 ; visits it third time, 
125 ; fourth visit to, 196. 

Donkar, village of, 146, 242. 

Donnijer, a civil officer, 5^ ; social rank, 
246; chempo of Potala, 168. 

Dora chu-tsan, hot springs, 211. 

Doling, village of, 70. 

Dorje jig-je, Lord of death, 126. 

Dorje phagmo, incarnate female saint, 
131 ; tells author's fortune, 132, 134 ; 
performs religious ceremonies for his 
recovery, 133, 134, 137 ; throws dice 
for divination, 134 ; jiower to restrain 
waters of lake, 136 ; tombs of predeces- 
sors, 136, 137; her residence, 138; de- 
scription of present incarnation, 138; 
peculiar habits of, 138 ; incarnation of 
Dolma, lv)8; origin of incarnation, 139; 
saves monastery from invaders, 139. 
Dorje-tag mountains, 35 ; ghat, 219 ; 

monastery, 220. 
Dowa targya. See Dao-targe. 
Dragon-head pillars of Jo Khang, 163. 
Dress of lady of rank, 121, 127; of Dalai 



lama, 167; of Kalon, 174; of Bonbo 

lamas, 207; of hostess at Samye, 221. 
Dropsy in Tibet, its treatment, 260. 
Drum beating, by Limbus, 4, 11. 
Dsambling g-yan, tomb of Dalai lama, 169. 
DsamUng gyeshe, an historical work, 62 ; 

copied for author, 68. 
DsoDgo stage house, 36. 
Ducks, wild on Nyang chu, 83. 
Dugpa, sect of lamas, 129. 
Dugpa, a name of Bhutan, origin of name 

Dugpa-kunleg, saint of the red hat lamas, 

92, 94. 
Bu khang, or congregation hall, 78, 79, 95. 
Dukpa-nagpa, old Shaman town, 75. 
Du la, 15, 16. 

Dumo tso, or Devil's lake, 136. 
Dimg klior, civil officer, 75, 145; their 

number, how chosen, 175 ; their salaries, 

176 ; social rank, 246. 
Bung-yig, or clerk, 67 ; social rank, 246. 
Dye plant, 213. 
Dyspepsia, its varieties, 260. 
Dzo, a weight, a tenth of a srmig, 150. 

Earring, 24, 30, 82. 
Earthquakes, destroy Samye, 225. 
Eclipses, religious ceremonies when they 

occur, 261. 
Eggs, not eaten by lamas, 98. 
Elephant, sent by Rajah of Sikkim to 

Lhasa, 100; difficulty of road for, 144; 

shed at Lhasa, 169. 
Eleusine coracaua. See Murwa. 
Embalmment, 214. 256. 
Emperor of China, worship of, 60 ; ratifies 

appointment of regent. 173. 
Epidemic, annual, at Lhasa, 259. 
Estates, great ones of Tibet, 183. 
Exorcising evil spirits, 101. 

Fable, the leopard and the ass, 198. 

Feasts, 25th of 10th month, 56 ; of new 
moon, 64, 106 ; given general at Dongtse, 
81; New Year's day, 107, 112, 120; 
pre-Buddhist feast, 108 ; on date of 
Buddha's death, 150; prayer-meeting 
in June. 198. 199; 15th of 8th moon, 
199; July 19, great holiday, 201; 
harvest, 214; midsummer, 261 ; annual 
feasts, 261. See also Xew Year. 

Feylep valley, 20. 

Fines, in lieu of punishments, 187. 

Fir trees, 218., let loose as charity, 134 ; not eaten 

for a year by order of Talai lama, 141 ; 

used as manure, 220. 
Fishing, 2, 6. 
Flagpoles, 149, 151. 
Floor, made of mosaic, 78. 
Flutes, 57, 108. 
Fog. 234. 
Foreigners, policy of Tibet regarding, 181, 

Fortune telling, 132, 134 ; forbidden, 212. 
Fossils, as relics in temple, 227. 
Foxes, 39, 245. 
Funeral, feast, 68. 257; rites of Bonbo, 

208; of Panchen lama, 214; persons 

forbidden to be present at, 253, 254; 

ceremonie.s, 254, 255. 

Gadan, monastery of, its revenues, 182. 
Gadan Gyahu, the usurper, 75. 
Gadan khangsar, palace of, 172. 
Gadan namchoi, birthday of Tsongkhapa, 

Gadan namgyal-ling, sanctuary of, 233. 
Games, 260. 
Gampo, or elder, 52. 
Gandan Chakhang in Gyantse, 84; chapel 

in, 85, 89; description of, 91. 
Gang. See Fanam-gang. 
Gar, attacked by the Sikhs, 53. 
Garden, at Jorgya, 73 ; near Dongtse, 99 ; 

party, 201. 
Gar, General of King Srong-btsan, 168. 
Garpon, or governor of fortress, 53. 
Garrison of Gyantse. 86. 
Gartok, 70. 
Ge river, 38. 

Ge-chnng, village of. 237. 
Gedun-dub. founder of Tashilhunpo, 114; 

juniper tree grown from his hair, 119 ; 

reincarnate in first Dalai lama, 171. 
Gedun-gyatso. the Tale lama. 63 ; becomes 

head of Dabung monastery, 171 ; first 

Dalai lama, 171 ; monastery founded by, 

Geese, wild, on Nyang chu, 83. 
Gelong, or priest, 59; ordinatiou of. 120» 

Gelugpa Church, feasts of. 56 ; image of 



its supreme Bmldha, SI) ; forbid use of 

wine, 90. 
Gen-j^ang, boundary of Sikkim, 24."). 
Gem. villaoje of, 244. 
Gingu la, 75. 

Glak-los, wild people, 2.58. 
Goat, wild, ill Sikkim, 2 : at Karma, 42 ; 

stuffed at Gyantse, 91 : wild, near 

Yamdo tso, 140 ; near the tsomo Tel- 

tuug. 244. 
Gods, of land and mountains, 32. 
Goitse, at Kangpa-cliau, 23: in other parts 

of Tibet, 258 ; treatment of, 258. 
Gojogs. a mendong at Gyantse. 87. 
Gok, village of, 1. 

Golab Sing, his war with Lhasa, 53. 
Golden jar, used for selecting Dalai lama, 

Golog, their country, 19G; tlieir customs 

and religion, 197 ; kissing among them, 

Gondang-tangme. valley of, 231. Sec also 

Gongkhar, djong, 218, 235; mountains. 

Gon-po, tiie god, 1(19. 
Gonpoi ri, 229. 
<;ood luck, sign of, 1(]6 ; how insured for 

the year, 264 : dance. 264 ; signs 

watched for on New Year's day, 265. 
Greyiiound, 99. 

Guilt offering ceremony, 263, 264. 
Guma shara, village of, 37, 38. 
Gumo tang, 16. 

(lungri gung-btsan. Prince, 168. 
Gure, village of, 243. 
<iuriug tribe of Limbus, 20. 
Gushi Khan, the conqueror of Tiljet, 79. 
Gya, or Chinese, 52. 
Gva-bum gang, square of, 155. See also 

Tomse gang. 
Gyade country, 205 

Gyal-Uah, or reagent, 172. See also De.H. 
Gyampo, or elder, 176. 
Gyantse djong, 63 ; general at, SO ; town 

of, 80; author wislies to visit it, 81; 

descriptiim of, 84; market at, 85; 

ancient province of, 87 ; climate of, 

Gyapon. or captain. 86. 
Gyarong, tlie district of, 76 ; lamas from, 


Gyatso-shar, village of. 70, 196. 200; 

beauty of, 201. 
Gyatu-ling, village of, 235. 
Gyerpal, village of, 234. 
Gyunsar, village of, 2;'., 27. 

Haboi ki of Samye, 221, 224. 

Ilailo, village of," 140. 

Hall, of worship, 57; of departed saints, 214. 

Hamdang Kham-tsan, 73. 

Hares, 20, 39, 83, 1 44. 

Hariuan, Captain, 26, 41. 

Harvest, lucky day to begin it, 213. 

Hat, 30, 40 ; of lamas, 69 ; worn in lama 
dances, 114; taking off, 31, 95, 107; 
felt, 203. 

Headdresses, of Tibetan women. 38. 55, 
67, 85. 221 ; origin of, 157 ; peculiar of 
the Dungkhor, 176; value of, 200. 

Hermits, 228, 232. 

Hi, range, vegetation on. 4 ; village of, 5, 
7 ; view from jjass (Hi la), 5. 

Hooker, Dr., meets Phurchung, 22 ; at- 
tempt to enter Tibet, 192, 193. 

Horba, met at Tos nam-gyaling, 218; 
bring salt to Samye, 226. 

Horn, 57. 

Horses, richly ornamented, 52 ; hoof re- 
vered, 114, 116. 

Hoshang Dharma-'ala, the, 115. 

House, in Tashilliunpo, 45. 46: no chim- 
ney, 60 ; outside decoration, 69. 72 ; in- 
terior of, at Tashi;;;ang, 74 ; at Kye-pa 
Khangsar, 96 ; of lama at Saniding, 132, 
135; of noble at Lhasa, 150, 162; cere- 
monies for consecrating new liome, 202, 

Hydrophobia, treatment of, 257. 

Iago, village of, 43, 75. 

Illumination, of Tashiihuupo, 56. 

Images, holy, at Dongtse, 78 ; at Gyantse, 
89, 90; metal out of wliich made, 100; 
piiintcd on rocks, 142, 145; in Jo khang 
at Lhasa, 151, 152. 153, 157 ; in Potala, 
168; at Ombu Iha-khaug, 230. 

Impostor, claims discovery of sacred 
volumes, 94. 

Incarnate lama, 56; college of, 57; re- 
ceived as novice, 57; female one, 131; 
(see Dorje phagmo), degraded for 



adultery, 133; mode of selection of, 

159, IGO, 161. 
Indian corn, 1, 7, 8, 24, 29. 
Inoculation of small-pox, 257. 
Inscription, relating to founding of 

Tashilhunpo, 114; gigantic, on rocks, 

123 ; on stone in Tibetan and Chinese 

at Lhasa, 148, 151. 
Interest on money, 11»0, 191. 
Invocation to mountain deities, 5, 18. 
Irrigation, 39 ; canals, 72, 73, 76. 
Isa, village of, 76. 

.Tah-hu tang, parade ground, 65. 

Jail, horrors of Tibetan. 186. 

Jaisang Teba, the Desi, 172. 

Jang, village of, upper and lower, 144. 
See also Jong. 

Je Kadub rinpoche, Bon high priest, 20G. 

Je la, 205. 

Jelap la, value of road, 194. 

Jerong, district of, 209. 

Jetsun Tiulas-tsomo, founder of Samding 
monastery, 136. 

Jig-kyong, camp of, 238. 

Joug, village of, 226. 228 ; temple at, 227. 

Jong Luguri, village of, 43. See also 
Lugiiri djong. 

Jongri, 21 ; la, 15, 16. 

Jorgya. \dllage of, 72, 73. 

Jo-vo, " the Lord," his image, 78 ; of 
Lhasa. 78. 151 ; — khang, 149, 150 ; see 
also Kilkhordiug ; description of temple, 
151, 152, 153, 154 ; second visit to, 157; 
statue in, 157 ; pillars of temple, 163 ; 
copy of, at Tandub, 230. 

Juugars, attack Samding, 139 ; especially 
inimical to Nyingma sect, 141 ; miracle, 
141, 142: sack Eigyal Sendar, 206; 
pillage Mindol-liiig, 235. 

Juniper, erroneously called " sandal- 
wood," 13 ; grown from hair of saint, 
119; along Tib chu, 218. 

Juonga, mountain, 21. See also Cho Kang- 
chan Juonga. 

Justice, courts of, 174, 177,178; adminis- 
tration of, 186. 

Kabili river, 19, 21, 22. 
Kahsopa, or chief clerk, 175. 
Kabu la, 217. 
Ka-che, or Kashmiri. 228. 

Kadong, monastery of, 74. 

Knduiiij, or secretary, 173 ; their number, 

Kahdong monastery, 76. 

Kalai river, 6. 

Kalliat river. See Ealai. 

Kalon, or ministers of State, 173 ; their 
dress, 174 ; how chosen, 174. 

Kal-zang zamba, 141. 

Kamai phugpa, 28. 

Kamah, a class of dancers, 263. 

K imbachen. See Kangpa-chan. 

Kampa lacha. See Khamba partshi. 

Kang, a land measure, 86, 18o, 182. 

Kangchan mountain, 15 ; river, 23. 

Kangla chen pass, 24, 29, 34, 35. 

Kangla jang-ma peak, 18. 

Kangla Xangmo la, 21. 

Kaugpa-chan, village of, 12, 23; cultiva- 
tion at, 24 ; departure from, 27 ; monas- 
tery at, 31 ; valley, 22 ; early inhabitants 
of, 26; their fights with the Magar, 
27 ; road to, 29. 

Kangyur, reading of, 30 ; copy at Manding 
gomba, 31 ; at Dongtse, 126. 

Kang zang-po mountain, 129. 

Kargya, or purwana, 176 ; reserve store, 

Karma, a hundredth of an ounce, 184. 

Karma Bagshi, a celebrated lama, 145. 

Karmapa sect, old lamasery of, 75. 

Karmoling, pasture lands of, 217. 

Kasliag, or ministers' council hall, 174. 

Kashmir, envoy arrives at Tashilhunpo, 
52 ; why sent, 53 ; war between Gohib 
Sing and Tibet, 53 ; people of in Lhasa, 
146, 150; lax Mohammedans, 146; man 
at Tse-tang, 228 ; people at Tse-tang, 

Katmandu, 68, 228. 

Kedesho Jong. See Kideshor. 

Kegii tsal cemeterj', 65. 

Kemai tsal, grove of, 147. 

Kena, village df, 72. 

Kesar Lhakhang, temple of Knan-ti 
(Ka?n-ti miao of the Chinese), at 
Shigatse, 5i. 

Keshong, village of, 205. 

Keta, near the Ringbi, 14. 

Khnma kang tung, 28. 

Ke-utag vilhige, 217. 

Klial, a dry measure, 182. 




Khamba. 24 : their lawlessness. 47 ; met j 
near Dongtse, 76; attack ex-Dewan I 
of Sikkim, 87, 88 ; quarrel in Shigatse 
market, 107: lama, 156; estimate of \ 
character, 15G. j 

Khamha chyang tang. 142. - 

Khamba jong. 40, ;"iO, 5(j, r)9, G5, 216; the 
Djongpon of, stops Phurchung on his ' 
way to India, 102 ; return of author to, 
244 : its waterworks, 244. 
Khamba la, 142. 
Kliamlia partshi, village of. 142. 
Khamdo, province of, 56, 64 ; lamas from, 

Khanicdo, village of, 217. 
Kham-yol, 238. 
Kbando phug, 22. 
Kliang-nyer, or house-keeper. 149. 
Khang-toi shikha, in Lljasa. 92. 
Khara Tedong, village of, 70. 
Khatag, or complimentary scarf, 32, 49, 
55. 78, 83, 95, 125. 128, 184; red ones 
given by Dalai lama, 168. 
Kliamba barchi. See Kliamba i>artshi and 

Kampa lacha. 
Kharnang-phu chu, river, 129, 130. 
Kharo la, 129. 

Khede-sho, town of, 218, 235. 
Khon family, 210. 

Khruldupa, or tax-collector, 177, 184. 
Khunpodo village, 217. 
Kliyah-gong, a lama title, 132. 
Khyungar. village of, 228. 
Kiki-naga, residence of Panchen's mother, 

Kiku-tamsa, a storehouse, 119; pictures 

hung up on it, 119. 199. 
Kinlcah, or brocaded silk, 60, 127. 
Kingfisher, or Xyang chu, 84. 
Ki pbug, 33. 
Kirata tribes, 3, 20. 
Kiroug, district of, ."i2. 
Kissing among the Golog, 197. 
Kitchen of Dalai lama, 2G2. 
Kon-cliog sum, used to tran.slate "'god," 

Konjo, tlie Princess, brings image of 
Buddha to Tibet, 151 ; other services 
rendered by her, 151 ; temple built by, 
155; founds llamoche, 165; her image 
at Potala, 168. 
Kongpo, province of, 12."), 161, 183; goitre 

prevalent in, 258 ; Gyamda. town of, 

Kongra lamo pass, 237. 245. 
Korchagpa, or policeman. 148. 
Kosi river, its source, 242. 
Kotowing. 82, 95. 
Kuchar khaupo, official of Dalai lama's 

household, 167. 
Ku-dag, or gentleman, 165. 
Kumba karna mountain, 15. 
Kunduling, palace of regent. 147 ; mon- 
astery, 73. 
Kunga nyingpo, hierarch of Sakya, 240. 
Kunga zangbo, of Sakya, 240. 
Kun-khyab ling, palace of Panchen lama. 

Kumjer, or keeper of holy images. 84, et 

Kurhii, or guilt oftering ceremony, 263, 

Kurma. village of. 42, 43, 211. 
Kushi Khan, confers sovereignty of 

Central Tibet on Dalai lama, 172. 
Kutiiketu, a Mongol, 126. 
Kyah-dvang chenpo. See Minister of Tem- 
poral Aflairs. 
Kye-na. See Kena. 
Kye-pa Khangsar, minister's house at. 94. 

Kyi chu. tlie river of Liiasa, 144, 145 ; 

rock which keeps back its waters from 

Jo khang. 163. 
Kyil khang Ta-tsun. 119. 
Kyi-phug nunnery, 102. 
Kyilkhor-ding temple, 149, 150; square 

in front of, 155 ; New Year's cere- 
monies at, 265. See also Jovo Khang. 
Kyishong, village of, 235. 
Kyoga, village of, 211. 

Labrang. or episcopal palace, of Tashi- 
Ihunpo, 62, 69; full name given, 120; 
at Sakya, 239. 

Laln-ang dokpa (camp), 43, 211. 

Lachan, frontier post, 40, 50, 59, 77. 

Lachang pass, 84; shortest road to Sik- 
kim, 84. 

Laclimi pokri, lake, 16. 

Ladak, pilgrims from, at Gyantse. 89. 

La dug, mountain sicliness, 15, 17. 

Lamas, at Tasiiilliunpo, 48 ; music by, 
57 ; noviciate of, 57 ; studies, 91 ; taking 



vows, 113; early rivers, 113; dance, 
114, 117, 118, 201, 210, 26:'.; from 
Kliams, as traders, 156; officials, 176; 
revenues of, 182. 

Lamb skins, lining of clothing, 67. 

Lampokri. See Tama chu lake. 

Lamps, lit on New Year's eve, 120. 

Lamteiig valley, monkeys in, 2. 

Langbu la, 38. 

Langdarma, King, 153 ; destroys Samye, 

Lang la, 237. 

Langma, village of, 129. 

Lap-ebyi peak, 18, 20. 

Larche tree, 23, 29. 

Lasa, village of, 209. 

Lawsuits, how settled, 178. 

Lebor, a measure of distance, 185. 

Leeches in Sikkim, 5. 

Leopards in Sikkim, 14, 18 ; snow leo- 
pards, 20 ; stuffed at Gyantse, 91. 

Lepchas, their fishing, 2 ; mode of killing 
monkeys, 2 ; notices on, 5 ; priests, 6 ; 
marriage, 6 ; burials, 6 ; no religion, 7 ; 
paradise, 21. 

Leprosy, its cause and treatment, 259, 260. 

Letter writing, difficulty in Tibetan, 49. 

Lha-bab ri, sanctuary of, 232. 

Lhacham, or lady of rank, 121 ; stops at 
Nangartse, 130; her drawing-room, 
161 ; arranges audience with Dalai 
lama for S. C. D., 165 ; to whom title 
given, 174. 

Lhadong, village of, 210. 

Lhagpa-tsering, the charity of, 64. 

Lhakha, peak of, 38. 

Lha lihang, or temple. 31. 

Lhalu, the Shape, 51, 66. 

Lhamo sung chyong-ma, oracle of, 173, 

Lhari-zim phug, monastery, 88 ; books 
at, 88. 

Lhartse djong, 209. 

Lhasa, tribute sent it by Kashmir, 52 ; 
its war with Kashmir, 53 ; stops travel 
to and from India, 63 ; road to, best 
season to travel, 85 ; enforces strict 
rules as to foreign travel, 103 ; protests 
against Panchen taking vow of monk- 
hood, 120 ; S. C. D. advised not to stay 
long at, 128 ; first view of, 145, 146 ; 
enters city, 147 ; description of streets. 

148, 149, 150; filtli in streets, 155; 
view of from Potala, 166; author leaves, 

Lhasre, a title, 126 ; to whom given, 174. 

Llia-tsun, Buddhist saint, legend con- 
nected with. 21 ; lived at Manding 
gomba, 30, 31 ; founded Dongtse gomba, 
78 ; books concerning, 88. 

Lheua djong, 72. 

Lhimpotsc, village of, 237. 

Lhokha country, 216. 

Lholing, village of, 6G. 

Lhopas, Southerns, 21 ; various kinds 
of, 125; marriage customs of, 125; 
raid country round Lake Palti, 216. 

Limbudu, country of the Limbu, 3, 4. 

Limbus, their fishing, 2 ; tilling, 3 ; 
early habit at, 3; called Chung by 
Lepchas, 3 ; houses, 3 ; customs, 4 ; 
cultivation, 6 ; priests, 6 ; physicians, 
7 ; woman, 9 ; marriages, 10 ; divination, 
11 ; use Ichatag, 12 ; burial services, 
12 ; a Limbu legend, 20. 

Ling, the four great of Lhasa, 173; of 
Samye. 222. 

Ling, village of, 217. 

Lingbo cheu. See Lhimpotse. 

Lingcham, village of, 5, 7. 

LiiKjhor, circumambulatiou, 87 ; of Lhasa, 

Lithographic press, brought to minister, 
50, 59 ; fear it might spread small-pox, 
105 ; first printing on. 107. 

Lito phug, division of Gyantse, 87, 91. 

Lobding, country place of minister, 70. 

Logan g ferry, 228. 

Loh-bu Jong. See Ling. 

Lomba hills, 221. 

Lora, village of, 242. 

Luguri djong, 43, 211. See also Jong 

Lu khang, or " snake house," of the Jo 
khang, 1 63 ; palladium of Tibet pre- 
served in, 163. 

Lumber for Lhasa, 221. 

Lungkyong chu, 29. 

Luugmo la, 14. 

Lung ta, or '• wind horse," 149 ; keeps oft' 
leprosy, 259. 

Lupa gyaltsan, a friend of author's, 50, 
104, 107. 



Muclien, or chief cook, 45. 

:\Iacliig labiion. saiut, 227, 228. 

Mairar tribe, 26. 

Mahakala, a patron god, formerly Matran- 
kani, lot). 

]\Iaitreya, imajjre of, at Gyantse, 90 ; at 
feast at Shigatse, 199 : worship of. 200. 
Mamo, the goddesses, or she-devils, 22 : 
towers sacred to, 7() ; images of, 99. 

Jlanda phug, 22 ; la, 22. 

Blnnding monastery, 29, 30; its import- 
ance, 31 . 

Manidara, 3. 

Mantra (^charms) recited, 34, 41 : author 
not proficient in, 59 ; continual repeti- 
tion of, 90. 

Mapham, lake, 53. 

Map-ja, village of, 242. 

Magpon, or general, 178. 

Ma'ngja, or " general tea," 132, 133, 205. 

Mani Ihahhang, or prayer wheel temple, 
73,74,76; of Tashilhun[)0, 119. 

Market of Shigatse, provisions brought, 

IVIarkham, the province of, 7G. 

Marmots, 242. 

Marriage ceremonies of Bonbo, 208 ; 
customs of Tibet, 247-250; forbidden 
degrees of consanguinity, 251 ; poly- 
andric, 251, 252. 

Marsh, near Lhasa, 146. 

Mastitis, chained before gate, 70 ; stutied 
at Gyautse, 91. 

Matrankaru, the demon, 138 ; destroyed 
by Tamdrin, 139. See also Mahakala. 

Maudgalviiyana, discijjle of the Buddha, 
152 ; his bill preserved at Lhasa, 152. 

JIayaphug, 29. 

Me agtsoms. King, orders the Tsang-po 
to be whipped, 221. 

Meals, at Tashillninpo. 46, 48, 49 ; s-up- 
plied tailor, 62 ; witli the Deba Sliikha, 
71, 72; of high oflicials, 82; with 
minister, 83, 98, 99 ; with Lupa gyalt- 
san, 107. 

Medicine, given by S. V. D. to Tibetans, 
41, 54, 98; bought at Darjiling, 42; 
given to Tibetan lady, 121 ; given him 
by the Dorje pliagmo, 132, 133 ; by 
lamas, 134 ; used by Tibetans, 257. 

Molung, village of, 217. 

Mende, village of, 41. 

Mendong, or stone pile-, 3, 4. 15, 32, 64, 
69, 87 ; of Bonbo, 206. 

Mice, tame in chapel, 159. 

Mikyod dorje, the god, 155. 

Milarapa, saint, a legend concerning, 153, 

Militia, Tibetan, 40 : commanded by 
Amban, 178 : how recruited, 180. 

Mindol-ling lamasery, 234, 235. 

Minister, Prime, 173; Council of Ministers, 
173 ; duties of, 173, 174. 

Minister of Temporal Afiairs of Tsang, 
41, 51 ; letter to, 49: his country house 
at Lobding, 70 ; receives author at 
Dongtse, 76 ; his literary work, 78, 80 ; 
talk witli author, 80 ; learns to write 
Eoman characters. 81 ; learning English, 
83; his mother visits him, 94 ; exorcises 
evil spirits, 101 ; wants to learn survey- 
ing, 101 ; promises to facilitate author's 
journey to Lhasa, 101 ; promises to 
send S. C. D. to Lhasa, lOd; studies 
with author, 108: speaks Mongol, 109; 
interest in astronomy, 109 ; views on 
stars, 110: lodges S. C. D. in his resi- 
dence, 110, 111 : does not eat in the after- 
noon, 112 ; speaks of Panciien ot S. C. D., 
120; ordains priests, 120 ; S. C. D. takes 
leave of, 128; stricken with small-pox, 
169, 196; writes in Koman ciiaracter, 

3Iiiit of Lhasa, 171. 

Mipon, or headman, 176. 

Mirkan la, 22. 

Mirkan Pandita, a Mongol, 124. 

Mishniis, the, 123. 

Misser, peasantry or serfs, 51 : how to be 
treated by officials, 177 ; property of, 

Missionaries, feared in Tibet, 193. 

Mitogang road, 2. 

Mi-waiig, King, his birthplace, 75. 

Miza lakelet, 32. 

Mougul, in Tashilhunpo, 48 : lama, failed 
at examination, 48; punishment for 
forgery, 56 ; pilgrims at Tashilhunpo, 

Monkeys in Sikkim, 2. 

Monks, admission to the Kliam tsau order, 

Mon lam, or prayer meeting, 198, 262, 265. 

Month, fourth, the holiest, 133. 



Mourniug, signs of, 203 ; ou deatli of 
Panchen lama, 214, 256; of abbots and 
others, 250. 

Mountain sickness, see la-'Jiig : tops, 
prayer and oifering, 142. 

Mudang phug, 22. 

Mug, village of, 39. 

Mu-li-ding-ki tso, image of new Dalai 
lama appears on its waters, 161. 

Murder, punishment for, 187; ordered for 
proving, 189. 

Murmis, at Shigatse witii envoy of Kash- 
mir, 52. 

Murwa, bier, 3 ; fields of, 7. 

Musk deer, 29 ; near Yarado tso, 140. 

Nabso la, 141. 

Nachuug chos-kyong, oracle of, 146 ; 

description of temple. 146 ; consulted 

as to successor of Dalai lama, 160; of 

regent, 173 ; of Sakya Panchen, 241. 
Nagsliu cliyema, 221. 
Nagtsa-shar, or Black Court, 174. 
Nag-wang lob-zang, the fifth Dalai lama, 

169 ; first sovereign of Tibet, 172. 
Nag-wang lo-zang tubdan gya-tso, tbe 

present Dalai lama, 161 ; description 

of, 167. 
Naga, district of, 123. 
Nagpa, or sorceress, 75, 109 : — khang, 

114, 118. 
Nag-wang kun-bzang, a Dorje phagmo, 

Na-Pematang, paradise of the Lep-chas, 

Nairanjana, sand from the river, 152. 
Nam, hamlet of, 144. 
Nambu, village of, 43 ; la, 43. 
Nambura, village of. 8, 10. 
Namga stream, 21. 
Namga-tsal, 13, 21. 

Namgyal Ta-tsau, of Lhasa, 143, 168, 169. 
Namring monastery, 78, 209. 
Nangartse djong, 63, 129, 130, 140. 
Nango ferry, 228 ; la, 22, 38, 29. 
Nanin monastery, 87. 
Nari ta-tsang, monastery of, 226. 
Naring, village of. 211. 
Nartar g, town of, 70, 237. 
Natog, village of, 72 
Ne-dong djong, 230. 
Nembotong, village of, 75. 

Nei)al. war with Tibet. 36 ; friendly rela- 
tions with Tibet, 181. 

Nepalese, at Shigatse, 52 ; their trade 
with Tibet, t_')S; in Gyantse, 85; in 
Lhasa, 149. i:)0; in Samye, 222; at 
Tse-tang. 230. 

Nesar, village of, 7(5. 

Netang, village of, 144, 145, 196. 

Nettle, giant, in Sikkim, 5, 7. 

New moon ceremonies, 133. 

New Year's Day, 107; festivities for, 
112, 113, 260, 262-266. 

Ngambu dung la. See Nambu la. 

Niru chu, 87. 

Noga slojie, camp at, 17. 

Noijinhamara temple, 224. 

Noi-jin kang-zang mountains, 87, 129. 

Noijin norpa zang>po mountain, 129. 

Non chu, 208. 

Norbugang, hamlet of, 145. 

Norbu linga, palace of. 147. 

Norgya Nangpa, 72. 

Norpa khyung-djin, ruins of lamasery, 75, 

Num chu, its course, 70. 

Nuns, 121 ; and monks living together, 

Nyagpa, or sorceress. See Nagpa. 

Nya-kri btsan-po, King, 230, 232. 

Nyang cliol jung Nyiniai other, tille of 
historical work. 94. 

Nyang chu, 72, 73, 75 ; extent and fertility 
of, 83 ; source of, 87 ; an affluent of, 
101 ; headwaters of, 129 ; bathing in, 

Nyema lung. See Melung. 

Nyen. See Nango ferry. 

Nyer-tam. See Netang. 

Nyingma, sect of lama, 37 ; impostor of. 
claims discovery of sacred volume.-^, 94 ; 
nuns, wear long hair, 121 ; Palti djong 
one of its strongholds, 141; holiest 
shrine of, 232 ; colour of buildings, 238. 
See also Eed-hat sect. 

Oath, form of, in Tibet, 107. 

Ofleriugs to gods, 78, 134 ; at a haunted 

spot, 141 ; ou tops of mountains, 142. 
Om-dse. or master of cereiiionies, 115, 205. 
Om mani padme hum. out on rocks, 38 ; 

when recited, 55. 
Oma tang, plateau of, 129, 236. 



Ombu, Iha-klianir, palace of, 2:!0 : village 

of, 2:^0. 
Omensi, vratchcd for ou New Year's Day, 

Onions, wild, 7. 
Oranges, 7 ; in Gyautso, 92. 
Orchard, at Pislii niani Ibakliaug, To. 
Ordeals, 188-190. 

P.VDDV fields, in Sikkim, 3. 
Padma Sambhava, identified with the 
Limbu Srijanga, 4 ; image painted on 
temple, 7G ; bis birtbday, 210 ; bis cave 
at Samye, 222 ; bis prophecy concerning 
Samye, 224 ; driven away by Bonbo, 
225 ; his cell, 232. 
Painara. See Pauam-gang. 
Pa la, 210. 
Palchen chuvori, monastery of, 143 ; by 

whom built, 143. 
Paldan Ihamo, image of at Lhasa, 154, 
158 ; mice in her chapel, 159. See also 
Srimati devi. 
Paljor rabtan, house in Lhasa, 149. 
Palkhor choide, great temple of Gyantse, 
81; visit to, 88; chorten of, 84; sur- 
veyed, 86 ; l)y whom founded, 88 ; 
description of, 90. 
Palmistry, esteemed in Tibet, 97. 
Palmoi-pal tang, desert of, 154. 
Palri. 75. See also Pe-li. 
Palri Kusho, the lama, 88. 
Palti, lake, 130 ; djong, 141 ; origin of 
name, 141; town saved by miracle, 141, 
142; passed through, 196, 236. See 
also Yamdo Yumtso. 
Palti Shabdung, a saint who saved Palti 

djong, 141. 
Panam-gang, village of, 72 ; doi, 74 ; 

district, of, 74 ; djong, 88. 
Panchen lama, 56 ; attends an ordination, 
57 ; his blessing, 57 ; description of, 
57 ; receives the Amban, 62 ; punished 
for doubting gods, 89; visit to Lhasa, 
104; his literary work, 118; Lhasa 
Government accuses him of heresy, 
118; mode of selection of, 160; sove- 
reignty of Ult-Tibet given him by 
Kushi Klian, 172 ; audience to Amban, 
179; belief he will leave Tibet, 180; 
its consequence, 181 ; independent spirit 
of, 181 ; when absent from oeie.iiouies 

how represented, 198 ; fatal illness of, 
202; death of, 203; cause of. 203, 204; 
war of Bonbo stock, 207 ; incidents con- 
nected with death of. 211, 212; his 
funeral, 214. 
Pangang, village of, 75. See also Pong 

Pangbo la, 22. 
Pangri, hamlet of, 76. 
Pankor shornub, mountains of, 72. 
Pauza. village of, 235. 
Paougtang, 13. 

Parade ground, at Shigatse, 65. 
Paralysis, i>revalence of, 259. 
Pargo kaliug chorten, western gateway of 

Lhasa, 147, 151. 
Parrot in Tashilhunpo. 112. 
Passjiort, 62, 67, 77 ; severe rules enforced 
at Khamba djong. 102 ; given Ugyen- 
gyatso, 109, 110 ; duties of officials con- 
cerning, 177 ; from Golog chiefs, 197 ; 
given author, 236. 
I'atama, ferry on the Tsang-po, 66. 
Patna, merchants of in Lhasa, 149. 
Patsal, hamlet of, 74. See also Pisbi. 
Pay of troops, 86. 
Peli. See Palri. 
Peach trees, 226. 
Pearls, sale for at Shigatse, 104. 
Pema-kyod, province of, 183 ; goitre pre- 
valent in, 258. 
Pema-yangtse, village of, 7. 
Penagangdo, village of, 72. See also 

Penara jong. See Panam-gang. 
Peru, nunnery of, 218. 
Peri jang, 74. See also Penagangdo. 
Perong sliavea, hamlet of, 70. 
Peurbu. or Nepalese, 68. 
Pbagiiiodu, dynasty, 159. 226 ; origin of 
name, 226 ; its old capital, 227 ; village 
of, 226 ; royal city of, 230. 
Phagpa, the lama, 159, 240 ; books pre- 
sented him, 241. 
Phagpa Iha, greatest noble of Tibet, 183. 
Phagri djong, 63; road to and from 
Gyantse, 87; traders from at Shigatse, 
104 ; pass, 109. 
Phala, the Dahpon, 80 ; reception of at 
Dongtse, 81 ; his home in Lhasa, 85, 
149, 150 ; a friend of the minister, 101 ; 
his wife ill, 120. 



Phamu-bub. See Phagmodu. 

Pheasants, 1-1, 16 ; snow, 20 ; green, 21, 

Phendi Kbangsar, minister of Tsaug, 41. 

Pherng mountains, 34, 38, 238. 

Phodaug djong, 230. 

Phodang marpo, palace of Potala, 16G; 
architecture of, 169. 

Phola. village of, 75. 

riirug, or serge, 30. 

Phugpa karpo, 33, 34. 

Phuntso Khaugsar, residence of minister 
at Tasbilhunpo, 47, 49, 107, 108, 211. 

Pbunsto ling monastery, 209. 

Phurchung, 2, 10, 20 ; his brother-in-law, 
22 ; his meeting with Sir Joseph 
Hooker, 22 ; native village of, 23 ; his 
uncle, 24; his faithfulness, 27; drunken- 
ness, 30 ; gives a bond for S. C. D., 31 ; 
his duties at Tashilhunpo, 47 ; sent to 
Khamba djong, 60 ; returns to Tashi- 
lhunpo, 102 ; prepares to return to 
India with U. G., 110 ; starts ou journey, 
111; returns to Shigatse, 196; rejoins 
S. C. D., 216. 

Phjjling, or foreigner, 102. 

Pictures hung up for bestowing blessings, 

Pigeons, 43, 224. 

Pigs, wild, 7, 14 ; at Tale, 7 ; fed on 
corpses at Lhasa, 169 ; where raised, 

Pillars of Jo khang, 1G3. 

Pills, magical, 30. 132, 138, 168, 202, 203. 

Pishi, village of, 72. 

Pislii mani Ihakhang, 73, 125. 

Plantain, wild, 8. 

Ploughing, in Sikkim, 3 ; ceremonies at 
beginning of. 123. 

Plum trees. 226. 

Pobo. province of, 258 ; goitre prevalent 
there, 258. 

Po phug, 33. 

Podong-chogleg namgyal. author, 138. 

Pogpon, or paymaster, 62 ; of Sliigatse, 86. 

Poison, for killing bears, 2 ; for fishing, 6 ; 
weed near Bogto la, 16 ; natives killed 
by, 27. 

Pole, camp, 39. 

Police, Tibetan, 40 ; Chinese at Shigatse, 

Polo, game of, 260. 

Polyandry, 96; Tibetan views on, 162; 

husbands not related, 216, 238 ; origin 

of custom, 251, 252. 
Pomda, town of, 156. 
Pong kang. See Pangang. 
Ponpoi ri, 238. 
Poi)lars. near Shigatse, 73; at Aniung, 

76 ; at Dongtse, 95. 99 ; near Lhasa, 

144, 149 ; sprung from hair of Uuddlia, 

151 ; along Tib chu. 218 ; at Taga-sho, 

Postal service, 177. 185 ; diet of couriers, 

Potala. mount, at Lhasa. 145. IKJ; visit 

to, 166; audience with Dalai lama at, 

166-169 ; annual white-washing of, 262. 
Potatoes, 23, 24, 26, 8:!, 98. 231. 
Pottery, of Tanag, 66 : manufacture of. in 

Tibet, 66; at Ring-la, 216. 
Potentilla ans:rina, used as food. 264. 
Prayer-wheels, 25 ; turned by water. 28 ; 

at Dongtse, 98; at Tashilhunpo. 119; 

at Potala, 166; at Shari, 217 ; meeting, 

189, 262. 
Presents, money and scarves usually used, 

46, 49, 71 ; made guests on arrival, 74 ; 

to Chyag-dso-pa, 96 ; to minister of 

rugs, serge, etc., 100; to Dalai lama, 

etc., 104 ; of green barley. 143 ; to 

Dalai lama, 167; Xew Year. 264. 
Prisoners, cruelly treated, 49, 51, 62. 186. 
Procession, to worship Emperor of China, 

60 ; on arrival of general at Dongtse, 

80, 82 ; escorts minister out of Dongtse, 

95 ; New Year's, 263. 
Property, exempted from seizure, 191 ; 

disposal of at death, 255. 
Propitiatory ceremonies of Lord of death, 

124; of gods of life, 133, 134; of Tam- 

drin, 135, 137. 
Pudding, blood, 26. 
Fido, or serge, 100. 

Pungde, town of, 156. See also Pomda. 
Punishment, of Tibetan officials, 51, 52, 

54; for forgery, 56; for murdering 

lamas, 64 ; of work-people, 213. 
Purang, on Nepal border, 53. 
Purug. See Phrug. 

Quoits, game of, 202. 



Rachung, saiuf, a lejjend conceriiiuf^. 153, 

154; his cave, 231; monastery, 231; 

village of, 231. 
Radeng, Hor Dokpa from, 220. 
Ragaslia, the Shape, 146. 
Rag-tso ferry, 209. 
Ralpachan, King, 151. 
Railing zamba, bridge over Nyang chu, 

129: chong-doi, village of, 129; til 

monastery, 129. 
Ramoche, temple of, 155 ; relics preserved 

at, 155, 15tj; services held at, 156; 

communicates with hell, 165 ; relics in, 

Rampa, the Shape. 101. 
Bampa, a food plant. 125. 
Rapa-chan, stream, 27. 
Rape, how punished, 188. 
Rape, raised at Chu-shul, 144. 
Ratna talai Khan, 172. 
Ratong river, 7, 16. 
Re chu, 43, 237 ; district of. 65 ; road to, 

75. See also Shab chu. 
Red-hat sect of lamas, 31. 
Regent, office elective, 173 ; how chosen, 

172 ; duties of office, 173. 
Regyinpai monastery, 43. 
Religious services, at Gyantse, 90. 
Restaurant, at Shigatse, 55. 
Revenue of State, 181 ; how paid, 182 ; in 

cattle, 184. 
Review of troops, 82, 178, 198. 
Rhododendrons, 142. 
Rice, at Ringbi, 8; at Cliaini, 29; at 

AVallung, 38; given by Dalai lama at 

audience, 168. 
Rigyal Shendar, monastery of, 205 ; 

description of, 205, 206 ; second visit of 

U. G. to, 213. 
Rin-chen gang, traders fr(jm, at Shigatse, 

Rin-chen Khadoma, the goddess, amber 

image of, in Ramoche, 16."). 
lUnchen teniva, quotixl, 13. 
Ringbi, river, 8, 14; village of, 7, 8. 
Ring-la, hamlet of, 130, 21G. 
Rishi chorten, on Hi range, 4. 
Rishi stream, 5. 
Ritoi monastery. 87. 
Ri-tong precipice. 75 ; view I'rom, 75. 
Ri-u, village of, 37. 
Rivotag, river, 217 ; djong, 217. 

Rogijaha, beggars, at Shigatse, 47 : origin 
of name, 63 ; form a guild in Lhasa, 
163; how recruited. 163; cut up dead 
bodies, 164 ; tlieir chief, 164 ; their 
houses, 164, 169, 

Rombuja lake, 217. 

Rope, sliding down, at festival, 58, 59, 

Roses, wild, 142. 

Rudok, attacked by the Sikhs, 53. 

Rugs, made at Targye. 41, 211 ; at Phola, 
75 ; at Gyantse. 100, 203, 213. 

Rummam, the river, its source, 2. 

Rungit, great, the river, 2, 6. 

Bupon, or colonel, 86, 178. 

Saffron plant, injiot at Tashilhunpo, 112. 

Sakya, hierarchs of, their ancient domain, 
87 ; translate work of Sri Dandi, 112 ; 
ordain the Panchen, 120 ; visit to, 204: ; 
roads to, 209; arrival of U. G. at, 209 ; 
description of, 209, 210 ; — Pauchen, 
210 ; first view of town, 238 ; description 
of town, 238, 239 ; hierarchs marry, 239 ; 
succession, 241 ; their dress, 241 ; 
government of principality, 241 ; trea- 
sures in temple, 242. 

Sa-sung-pa, policeman, 148. 

Sa-tvamj, title given the Kalou, 174. 

Sa-wang Rampa, the Shape, 48; Phala, 

Sakyang, village of, 7. 

Sal trees, 2. 

Salaries of ministers, 174 ; of Djongpou, 

Salt, 8 ; trade at Yampuiig, 15. 

Salutation, mode of, in part of Khams, 

Sam ding, monastery of, 130 ; arrival at, 
131 ; description of, 135, 136, 137 ; 
origin of, 136; founder of, 136; saved 
from destruction by Dorje pliagmo, 139. 

Samdong, village of. 237. 

Samdub phodang, 227. 

Samye, monastery of, 215 ; S. C. D. starts 
to visit it, 216; first view of, 221; 
library of, 222 ; images at, 222 ; pictur(!S 
on temple walls, 222 ; village of, 222 ; 
adjacent country, 223 ; sands rapidly 
engulfing it, 224 ; temples of, 224 ; 
history of, 224. 

Sandalwood image, 169. 



Sangri joug, 228. 
Sangri khamar monastery. 227. 
Sangye-gyatso, the Desi, 79, IG'J, 172. 
Sanskrit, books found by S. C. D., 112. 
Santa Eakshita, saint, 224 ; driven away 

by Bonbo, 225. 
Sarsha, village of, 70. 
Satu. See Tsamba. 
Saving life, to acquire merit by, lo-t. 
Sawe. See Samye. 
Sa-yong, lieadman, 238. 
Sayong kong, plateau, 28 ; hok. 28. 
Science, interest in, in Tibet, 102. 
Seal, great, by whom held, 173 ; attached \ 

on property after death, 211. 
Sedan chairs, by whom used in Tibet, 61, 

130, 174. 
Semaron, village of, 70. 
Semarum la, 19, 20. 
Semu, village of, 144. 
Sera, monastery of, 147 ; judicial power of 

abbot of, 177 ; revenue of, 182. 
Seng-chen, or lama minister, 202. 
Serge, 30 ; superior quality made at Pishi 

Mani Ihakhang, 73 ; presented to 

minister, 100; of Tos nam-gyaling, 

Serkempa, or lay monk, 156. 
Serpon, or collector of customs, 109. 
Sbab chu. See Ee chu. 
Shabdung, or page, 79. 
Shabshi, village of, 217. 
Shalchepa, title given the Kalon, 174. 
Shalu, monastery, 72 ; chu, 72. 
Shamaluug. See Tamalmig. 
Shandung chu, 217. 
Shape, minister of State, 36, 48, 51 ; in 

procession, Gl ; also called Kalon ; 174. 
Shari, village of, 217. 
Shar Khambu district, 18, 26 ; mountains 

of, 20, 35. 
Shata, the Shape, 36, 173. 
Shar-chyog Aniuug, village of, 76. 
Shartse college, 119 ; Khanpo of, tinds the 

Dalai lama, 160, 161. 
Sharui teng, a haunted spot, ofleriug made 

at it, 141. 
Sheep, wild, 16, 32, 37, 42, 244, 245; 

carcasses cooked whole, 42 ; wild, stuffed 

at Gyantse, 91 ; horns hung before 

temple, 151. 
Shendar ding, village of, 205, 214. 

Shenrab mivo, chief deity of the Bonbo, 
205 ; his descendants, 206. 

Shenrezig, the god,. 76 ; incarnate in 
Tnmdrin, 138, 139 ; famous statue of, in 
Lhasa, 152; statue at rotala, 168; 
incarnate in Dalai lama, 171 ; one of his 
favourite resorts, 229. 

Shen-tang srung-lug. sect of Bonbo, 208. 

Sheu tsang family, 206, 207; — lug, sect 
of lamas, 208. 

Sherab dongbu, cited, 177. 

Shetag mountains, 231. 

Shetanta, maidservant, 96, 150. 

Shetoi, village of, 129. 

Shetot. See Shetoi. 

Shigatse, town of, 43; market at, 47, 51, 
52 ; people dishonest. 111 ; climate, 113 : 
return of U. G. to, 211. 

Shikya, village of, 2,38. 

Shing donkar, village of. 146. 

SJnnyer, or foreman, 146. 

Sho, tenth of an ounce, 184. 

Shong la, 238. 

Shong-mar-tse, village of. 210. 

Shong chu, 242. 

Shong-pa la, 242, 243. 

Shugpa tang, 29. 

Shulenpa, title given the Kalon, 174. 

Shyati-ling, village of, 235. 

Sikhs, at Shigatse with envoy of Kashmir, 

Sikkim, north-west boundary of, 2 ; Tibetan 
potter}' sold in, G6 ; Rajah's sister, 206. 

Sing-dong, waterfall in the Tsang-po, 125. 

Singing songs, 108 ; birds, 221. 

Singli mountains, 2, 5, 6, 20. 

Singma la, 237. 

Slate, wooden, used to learn to write on, 

Small-pox, fear of, 105, 110, 193; in Central 
Tibet, 126; at Xangartse, 130; cere- 
monies for recovery, 130 ; persons ill 
with, 143 ; prayers for recovery, 146 ; 
spread of, in Lhasa, 155, 170; near 
Sakya, 238; hospitals for, 242; treat- 
ment of, 257. 

Snakes, at hot springs, 205; their bite 
rare, 258 ; treatment of, 258 ; eaten by 
Lalos, 258. 

Snow, fall of, 123, 124. 

Snow-shoes, 26. 

Soap, substitute for, 100. 



Social divisions of Tibet, 24G, 247. 

Solpon, or steward, 50 ; cheupo. or cup- 
bearer of the Dalai lama, 107. 

Souam cliuphel, the Desi, 172. 

Sonam-gyatso, tlie Dalai lama, 172. 

Songkar, village of, 220 ; origin of name, 
221 ; la, 221. 

Springs, hot, 204, 211. 

SraiKj, or ounce, 182. 

Sri Dandi, his Kaiyadarsha found, 112; 
minister's opinion of, 112: study of it 
by S. C. D., 113. 

Srang-btsan gambo. King, his Chinese 
wife, 151 ; image of, Slienrezig made by 
him, 152 ; his soul absorbed in it, 153 ; 
image of king, 153 ; his stone seat, 153 ; 
picture painted with his blood, 159; his 
image in Potala, 1G8; temple built by, 
230, 232. 

Stag, stnfted at Gyantse, 91. 

Stirrup-cup. 28. 

Store houses in Djong, 177. 

Stove, earthenware, 60, 112, 162. 

Stuffed pheasants, 8 ; animals of Gyantse, 

Sumdongma plain, 29. 

Summer retirement of lamas, 214, 261. 

Sunapara, village of, 70. 

Sundub phug, 18. 

Surgeons, college of, at Lhasa, 195, 196. 

Surveying mode followed for Gyantse, 
86, 87 ; minister wants to learn, 101. 

Swallows, 43. 

Ta-cuien-lc, the town of, 516. 

Tag, village of, 220. 

Taga-sho, village of, 226. 

Tag chhen Panda. See Tag-tsan bumba. 

Tagkar-sho, ruins of, 226. 

Tagmar. See Tamar. 

Tagnag, village of, 211. 

Tagong. See Taugang. 

Tag-po, birth-place of new Dalai lama, 

161 ; annexed to Sakya, 240. 
Tag-tsan bumba, shrine of, 231. 
Taimen, hamlet of, 75. 
Taisamling college, 119. 
Takoar, village of, 1. 
Tale of the two friends who tried to 

deceive each other, 92-94. 
Tale, village of, 7, 8. 
Ta-lung, village of, 216. 

Tama chu, lake, 15. 

Tama la, 22. 

Tama lung, village of, 142, 236. 

Tamar, village of, 43. 

Tamarisk trees, 230. 

Tambur valley, early inhabitants, 327 ; 
Khola Linibu, 20. 

Tamdrin, the god, 22 ; see also Harya- 
griva ; incarnation of Shenrezig, 138 ; 
destroys demon, 139. 

Ta miran kukyab, crags, 22. 

Tana, village of, 209. 

Tauag. village of, Gd ; estate of minister 
at, 125 ; visited by U. G., 204 ; incarnate 
lama at, 241. 

Tanag Donphug, lamasery of, 241. 

Tandub, temple of, 230. 

Tang-da. See Tanta. 

Tanglung, village of, 40. 

Tang-jje, valley of. 204. 

Tangye-ling monastery, 149, 195 ; regent 
taken from, 173. 

Tang-tong gyal-po. King, builds bridge 
over Tsangpo, 143; his other works, 

Tanka, Tibetan coin, 39. 

Tanta, hamlet of, 217. 

Tao valley, 238. 

Tarauath lama, early residence, 209. 

Targod chyi-khang, author lodged in, 45 ; 
leaves it, 111. 

Targye, village of, 41, 211, 244. 

Tarmiina. See doche. 

Tarpa gang, 34. 

Taslii-chos ding monastery, 24. 

Tashiding hill, at mouth of Kalai river, 6. 

Tashigaug, village of, 74, 101. 121, 123, 

Tashigong, village of. 243. 

Tashi-gyantsa, village of, 62, 69, 125 ; 
description of, 69. 

Tashi lama. See Panchen lama. 

Tashilhunpo, frontier of, 40 ; author's first 
journey to, 40 ; arrival at, 43, 44 ; resi- 
dence at, 45 et sqq. ; beauty of, 45 ; 
illumination of, i)G\ worship of Emperor 
of China in, (;0; view of, 69; employe's 
living at Tashi-gyantsa, <i9; inscription 
relating to founder of, 114 ; great 
temple of, 114, 117; S. C. D. leaves it 
for Lhasa, 124 ; house in Lhasa belong- 
ing to, 149 ; final departure from, 237. 



Tashi-rabka, 32, 3."), 3G, 77 ; wall at, 3G ; 

bridge at, 37 ; trailers at, 38. 
Ta-tsan or colleges of Tasliilliunpo, 117. 
Ta-u, relay of horses, 52 ; officers of the, 

63 ; tax, 182 ; by whom due, 185. 
Taugaug, village of, 74. 
Tax-collectors, 177 ; duties and rights, 184. 
Taxes, 181 ; exempted classes, 182 ; fixa- 
tion of, 182, 183 ; lamaseries exempted 

from, 183; assessments, how made, 183; 

on wine, 183 ; on store-keepers, pedlars, 

184 ; paid to landlords, 213. 
Tea, drinking, 24, 49, 77-80; "general 

tea," 132, 205 ; varieties at Lhasa, 159 ; 

its introduction into Tibet, 159; grace 

before drinking, 167, 168; drinking by 

lamas, 207. 
Teak wood pillars, in Jo khaug, 163 
Tebong. village of, 30. 
Telephone invented by lama, 208. 
Teling, hamlet of, 76. 
Temple, description of, at Dongtse, 78 ; at 

Gyantse, 90 ; at Samye, 222 ; at Sakya, 

Temple, Sir Kichard, 73. 193. 
Tertaliiigpa family, 235. 
Theft, how punished, 187 ; ordeal for 

determining, 189. 
Thorny shrub on Oma tang. 129. 
Threshing, method of, 216, 218. 
Tibchu,218: villageof,218; la, 217, 218. 
Tibgyu chu, 39. 
Ti chu, 145 ; bridge over, 145. 
Tiger, in Sikkim, 14 ; stuli'ed, at Gyantse, 

Timkra la, monkeys near, 2. 
Timpon. police court of Lhasa, 174. 
Tingri djong, 50, 121 ; road to, 50 ; general 

at, 80 ; visited by Amban, 178. 
Tingugma, village of, 29. 
Tiukar la, 84. 
Tinki, peaks of, 238. 
Tinle-gyatso, the Dalai lama, 159. 
Tisrong detsan, King, 222 ; his image, 
228 ; founds Samye, 225 ; monastery 
built by, 230. 
Tobacco, smoking forbidden, in Tashi- 

Ihunpo, 119 ; by lamas generally, 119. 
Tobgyal, palace of, 199; Panchen lama 

dies there, 203, 214. 
Toilung, village of, 145. 
Toilung chu. See Ti chu. 

Toilung Tsorphu, 50. 
Toi Suduling, monastery of, 218. 
Toitsi, village of, 143. 
Toll, bridge, 184. 
Tom chu, 238. 

Tombs, of Panchen lamas, 56, 69, 118 ; of 
Dorje phagmo, 136, 137 : of first Dalai 
lama. 169. 
Tomse-gang, sijuare of, 155. Se(s also 

Gya-bum gang. 
Tondub Khaugsar, family. 55 ; office at, 

62 ; passport from, 67. 
Tondub ling, 209. 
Tongbu, village of, 142. 
Tong chu, 204. 
Tonglo mountain, 5. 
Tong-shoi. See Dong-sho. 
Tonmi Sambhota, the minister, 168. 
Ton namgyalling Jong. See Tos nam- 

Toothache, caused by worms, 60 ; its pre- 
valence in Tibet, 260. 
Torma offerings, 56, 126, 262. 
Tos-nam-gyaling, town of, 218. 
Tovo Metsig-pa, the god, 153. 
Trade, between Lhasa and China, 156; 

customs in Tibet, 191, 192. 
Trap, for pheasants, 14. 
Treasury of Tibet, 51. 
Trees sprung from hair of saint, 227. 
Troops, their paj^, 180. 
Tsa-khang, village of, 144. 
Tsal-pa-nang, ruined village, 144. 
Tsamba, parched barley meal, 40 ; how 

eaten, 112. 
Tsandan-yu llia-khang, temple of, 282. 
Tsang l:lian<j, or '"chief temple," 151, 158. 
Tsarong chu, 238. 
Tsa tsam, 33. 
Tsang, or Ulterior Tibet, 41 ; generals in, 

Tsang-po, the river, 66 ; waterfall at entry 
into Bhutan, 125; first view of, 142; 
bridge over, 143 ; crossing of by boat, 
143 ; crowd near Tashi-gang, 204 ; ferry 
at Rag-tso, 209 ; passage near Kideshor, 
219 ; at Samdub, 227 : ferry at Logang, 
228 ; journey along, 234, 285. 
Tsari, country of, 88, 125. See also Yaru 

Tse-chan monastery, 84; one of most 
ancient in Tibet, 87 ; doctor from, 121. 



Tse-cbog ling, iiicaiuatelainn of, degraded 
for adulteij', ISo ; regent chosen from, 

Tse-chog-pa monastery, 234. 

Tse-dung, or lama officials, 17(3 ; their 
number and duties, 116; liuga, 202. 

Tse labdra scliool of Potaia, 176. 

Tse-pa-med, the god, coral image of, in 
Eamoche, 1G.5; image at Saraye, 222. 

Tse-tang, town of, 228, 229 : lamasc ries 
at, 230 ; lamas from, 232 ; returns to, 
234. See also CLe-thang. 

Tsha-bu-iia. See Tsal-pa-nang. 

Tgi-hhang, or Bureau of Accounts, 17."). 

Tsipon, or accountant, ."iO, 81. 

Tso chuug donka. lakelets, 22. 

Tao dom-dongma, lake. 17. 

Tsog-chen shalnyo, his annual reign in 
Lhasa, 2G6. 

Tsog-chi, village of, 7.'). 

Tsogpon, or headman, 51, 52. 

T>!0 kliaiig, or hall of worship, 57. 

Tsomoling, the regent, 156 ; his reforms, 
157; anecdote concerning, l.")6, 157; 
regent chosen from, 173. 

Tsomoling lamaserjs 157. 

Tsomo tel-tuug, 211, 243; visit to lake, 

Tso-nag lake, 16, 17. 

Tsong du ta-tsang. See Chong du-chog. 

Tsoug-khapa, his birthday, 56 ; lamasery, 
near Gyantse founded by, 84 ; image at 
Gyautse, 90 : crown on Lhasa Jo-vo 
presented by, 152 ; his statues at Lhasa, 
152, 153; rock discovered by, 152; 
stone lumps given by, 153 ; his prayer- 
meeting, 198; place where he took his 
vows, 233. 

Tsoni, in Ando, 156. 

Tsopun, or head ot village, 176. 

Teorpu monastery, 145. 

Tubdan. lamasery of, 204. 

Tuchiiiig Jong. See Darclmng djong. 

Tu Kham, or upper (Stod) Khamdo. See 

Tu-lug, family of 13unbo, 2()7. 

Tamj-chen, chief secretary, 47 ; goes to 
Dongtse, 69; his dress, 69; his birth 
place, 70; visit to his motlier, 71. 

Turban, yellow, 62, 95, 99. 

Turnip, 32. 

U, or Central Tibet, (U. 

Uddayani, dance in celebration of birth of. 

Ugyen-gyatso, lama, 1, 24, 27; goes to 
Gyautse, 81 ; his visit of Gyantse, 85- 
88 ; surveys the town, 86 ; questions 
traders, 105; sent to the Lachan pass, 
105, 106; recommends S. C. D. to friend, 
107; prepares for journey, 110; leaves 
Shigatse, 111; returns to Gyatso-shar, 
196; botanizes, 201; visits Bonbo sanctu- 
ary, 205, 206, 207, 208; revisits Bigyal 
Sendar, 213 ; returns to India, 216. 

Vlag, hardships on people, 51, 53, (Jd, 179 ; 
given Chinese Amban, 63, 63 ; given all 
soldiers and mercliants, 179 ; definition 
of, 182 ; by whom due. 182, 183 ; who 
exempted, 183. 

I'nderground monastery, 38. 

Urga, the town of, 209. 

Usury, 190. 

Vaccine, author brings some to Tibet, 

Vaidurya Ta-tsan, 19."). 
Tajra Akshobhya, the image of, at Lhasa, 

Vermicelli, 59. 
Visvakarma, sculptor of image of the 

Buddha, 151. 

AVallung, village of, 24; road to, 29; 

lamasery of, 31 ; district of, 36 ; traders 

from, 37. 
Walnut trees, 218, 224. 226. 
Wangdan, village of, 75. 
Wangdu chorten, of Lhasa, 155. 
Washing bauds before meals, 99. 
Watchmen in fields. 2. 
Water, cold, not drunk, 112. 
Weather makers, 24. 

Well, mode of drawing water, 73, 87, 195. 
Wena, village of, 39. 
Wheat, grown at Chu-shnl, 144; near 

Lhasa, 145. 
Willow trees, 70, 73, 76, 118 ; near Lliasa, 

144, 145, 149 ; at Tos nam-gyaliug, 218; 

near Samye, 224, 226. 
Winds, at Shigatse, 109. 
Wine, not allowed lamas, 90. 
Witchcraft, spread of, 212. 



Wolves, 36. 

Women, occupied in business, 55; their 
labours, 72 ; sell in market, 85 ; not in 
business at Shigatse, 85 ; harshly- 
treated, 99; dress of wealthy, 121; 
make bricks, 1-13 ; official duties to- 
wards, 177 ; when unclean, 214 ; puri- 
fication of, 214. 

Worship, in temple of Dongtse, 78 ; by 
minister, 95; Kalachakra mandala, 127, 

Wu-tse temple of Samye, 222, 224. 

Yab la, 235. 

Ya-go, village of. See lago. 

Yak, riding, 30; bulls drive off wolves, 

36; stuffed at Gyantse, 91 ; horns hung 

before temple, 151 ; legend concerning 

some yak horns. 153, 154. 
Yakthanga, name of Limbus, 3. 
Yalung, valley, 20, 242; river, 21; 

village, 22. 
Yamata ri valley, 22, 23. 
Yamhu, a weight of silver, 51. 
Yamdo tso, 136, 216. See also Palti, lake, 

and Yamdo-yum tso. 
Yamdo-yum tso, lake, 130, 140. 
Y'ampung la, 12, 15 ; village, 15 ; trade at, 


Yangaro district, 20. 

Yang-ku tang, village of, 32. 

Yaugma. 16, 24, 32; road to, 28, 29; 

river, 29, 32, 33; traders from. 29; 

cultivation at, 32 ; district of, 36. 
Yangpung, salt dealers from, 8. .S'ee also 

Yangta, village of, 2'!4. 
Yanku tang, 22. 
Yaiithang, village of, 7. 
Yarllia-sliampo moiintnins, 231. 
Yarlung, district of, 226 ; its capital, 228 ; 

inundation of, 231 ; its fertility, 234; 

river, 231, 234 ; — shetag lamasery, 231 . 

See also Gondang-tangme. 
Yarsa, village of, 27. 
Yaru la, 42, 244. 

Yarn tsangpo, river 41. See also Tsang-po. 
Yurupe village, 217. 
Yu-tog, zamba. 148 ; school, 175. 
Yong-dso cliu, 16. 

Zangpo-pal. hierarch of Sakya, 240. 

Ze-khaiig shikba, village of, 232. 

Zim phug, 30. 

Zinan la, 22. 

Zomba Lhakiiang. See Ombulha-khang. 

Zorwar Sing, the Sikh general, 53. 

tup: end. 



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