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Full text of "[untitled] The Harvard Theological Review, (1917-10-01), pages 391-394"

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BOOK REVIEWS 391 

bution are very perplexing indeed, such as the appearance of Melane- 
sian motives in the southeastern regions. As the author realizes, 
a satisfactory interpretation of the data is rendered difiBcult by the 
absence of Tasmanian and West Australian data. 

Throughout the volume Professor Dixon pays attention to the 
problem of historical connection, offering tentative but for the most 
part sane and stimulating suggestions as to the contact of the several 
Oceanian populations. It seems a great pity, and is probably the 
only serious deficiency of his work, that he has not been equally 
generous in his treatment of American parallels. To be sure, a fair 
number of these are mentioned, but their theoretical treatment is 
casual and in the conclusion entirely too summary. These resem- 
blances are so remarkable that Tylor in his Researches into the Early 
History of Mankind, in spite of his bias in favor of independent 
development of cultural features, was constrained to suggest an 
historical connection between the New and the Old World. This 
general problem has become a perennial one in ethnological circles, 
and a table setting forth all the significant similarities between 
Oceanian and American lore would have been of the greatest service. 

In conclusion, a tribute should be paid to the literary deftness with 
which Professor Dixon has handled his subject. Even to the pro- 
fessional ethnologist a volume of primitive tales generally forebodes 
a considerable measure of boredom, but the author's method of treat- 
ment has very successfully overcome this difficulty, so that the book 
makes decidedly interesting reading. 

ROBEBT H. LowiEj. 
American Museitm of Natural History, 
New York. 



The Individual DELiNQUBajT. Wilmam Healy. Little, Brown, & Co. 
1915. Pp. xviii, 830. 

Criminological literature since the days of Lombroso has been 
characterized by the lavish production of one-sided theories con- 
cerning the origin of crime. A few notable text-book writers (e.g., 
Aschaffenburg, Ferri, Bonger, De Quiros) have synthesized the 
findings of the monographists and have suggested that each criminal 
act is to be traced to a variety of factors, both constitutional and 
environmental. Few studies of all of the important causative 
factors of crime have been written covering large numbers of in- 
dividual criminals. Recently, however, two very significant con- 
tributions have been made to this literature, both of which are more 
valuable in many respects than any preceding studies in this field. 



Sm HARVARD THEOLOGICAL REVIEW 

These two are Goring's The English Convict and Healy's The Indi- 
vidual Delinquent. The former, prepared by an associate of Karl 
Pearson, is a biometrical study of 3000 adult males "guilty of grave 
and repeated offences" and imprisoned in the Parkhurst Prison in 
England. The latter is a study made in Chicago of 1000 juvenile 
delinquents, mostly repeaters. 

The cases covered in The Individual Delinquent were selected 
from those brought before the Psychopathic Institute of the Juvenile 
Court of Chicago. The study was confined to the "formative 
period, for the sake of learning the structural growth of whole de- 
linquent careers." "Just because the delinquent's character is the 
result of a long-continued process of growth, one needs to regard 
him as the product of forces, as well as the smn of his present con- 
stituent parts; one must study him dynamically as well as statically, 
genetically as well as a finished result." 

The aim of Dr. Healy's work is stated to be " to ascertain from the 
actualities of life the basic factors of disordered social conduct," 
and its field is termed "characterology," for "as students of character 
we are dealing with the motives and driving forces of human conduct, 
and, since conduct is directly a product of mental life, we immediately 
become involved in individual and differential psychology." Dr. 
Healy's book, though it may not be criticised fairly as unilateral, 
stresses the psychological factors of crime. 

The first chapters are on Orientations and the Mental Bases of 
Delinquency. These are followed by three chapters on Working 
Methods, submitting a schedule used for recording case-histories, 
and showing the order and the form of examination of each case, and 
by a long chapter on the mental tests, which includes a description 
of some new tests devised by Dr. Healy. These are followed by a 
chapter on Statistics, which classifies and enumerates certain of the 
causes of crime, by a chapter on methodological conclusions, and by 
another on conclusions as to treatment of cases. 

The chapter on Statistics of the cases is a summary of Dr. Healy's 
findings. The Statistical analysis of home-conditions, of mental 
conflicts, of sex-experiences, of physical conditions, of "unsatisfied 
interests," of early developmental conditions, has the appearance of 
precision. It is unfortunately not well explained nor is the basis of 
the differentiation of cases well shown. Nevertheless, the chapter, as 
it stands, is an important contribution to criminological literature. 

The cautiousness of the writer is displayed at several points in the 
statistical chapter. Avoiding the present tendency to blame crimi- 
nality upon heredity, he lists defects of heredity as a minor causative 



BOOK REVIEWS 393 

factor of criminality in 502 out of 823 cases, and never as a main 
factor. (We wonder if heredity played no appreciable part in the 
production of the remaining cases of criminality.) "Feeble-minded- 
ness" is listed as a major factor in 92 cases, and "mental sub- 
normality" in 66 cases, but 455 are listed as showing "mental 
abnormality " or " peculiar mental characteristics . ' ' This is a cautious 
attempt to sub-divide narrowly the mental peculiarities of cases. 
Other specialists would probably have classified a larger fraction of 
cases under "feeble-mindedness." One may wonder also what may 
be the significance of listing 455 out of 823 cases as possessing 
"mental peculiarities." How large a percentage of the general 
population would he have discovered by the same tests to suffer from 
" mental peculiarities ' ' ? 

Dr. Healy's findings concerning the stigmata of degeneracy are 
of interest, because like Goring he discovers no support for the 
theory of the origin of crime in atavism, as broached by Lombroso. 
Well-marked stigmata were found in 133 of the 1000 cases. Those 
structural anomalies "which could be found by careful examination 
on almost every human body have altogether been left out of count." 
The presence of the stigmata is considered in its relation to mental 
pecuUarities, and Healy concludes, "If the cases of mental ab- 
normality were taken out of our series, the proportion of marked 
stigmata would be Kttle, if any, larger than in the general popula- 
tion." 

Book II treats of "Cases, Types, Causative Factors," and deals 
in considerable detail with cases illustrating factors of heredity, 
physical ailments and abnormahties, the use of stimulants. En- 
vironmental factors are treated briefly, but psychological factors are 
discussed through twenty chapters. The chapter-headings indicate 
satisfactorily the classification: Professional Criminalism, Deliberate 
Choice of Criminalism, Mental Imagery, Mental Habit, Mental 
Conflict and Repressions, Abnormal Sexualism, Epilepsy, Mental 
Abnormality in General, Mental Defect (four chapters). Mental Dull- 
ness from Physical Conditions, Psychic Constitutional Inferiority, 
Mental Aberrations (three chapters). Mental Pecvdiarities (four 
chapters). Pathological SteaUng, etc. This second book consti- 
tutes Dr. Healy's major contribution to criminological literature. 
176 case-histories are placed in turn before the reader, with com- 
ments which indicate fairly well the method of interpretation and 
classification. 

It is impossible in a book of 830 pages to treat cases of criminality 
in suflScient detail to convince the reader of the correctness of 



394 HARVARD THEOLOGICAL REVIEW 

diagnosis. That is a difficulty inherent in the production of this 
type of book. An elaborate monograph concerning each case would 
still leave important questions unanswered. The author has, 
however, provided us with a good outUne of his method, and has 
shown us in a large number of cases how that method was applied 
and what his findings were. These cannot fail to be in a high degree 
valuable to any reader, layman or sf»ecialist, and out of the inevitable 
disagreement as to interpretation will come improvement of method 
of analysis of character. 

On its psychological side, this work makes its major claim to 
resp»ect. The newer psychoanalysis is but slightly applied, and 
Freud, Jung, and the mass of recent psychoanalytical literature 
are seldom mentioned. It is qiiestionable whether any one individual 
could do what Dr. Healy has done and yet offer at the same time that 
psychoanalytic treatment of cases which is now urgently needed by 
penologists. It is to be hoped that some day in the not distant 
future we may have a collaborated study of a 1000 individual 
delinquents comprising correlated studies of each individual case 
by a physician, a social scientist, a psychologist, and a psycho- 
analyst, each highly trained and competent. Dr. Healy's admir- 
able book is frankly submitted as a preliminary study of a large 
question. It is a notable volume, a unique contribution to crimi- 
nology, and should be utilized not only by specialists in criminology, 
sociology, and psychology, but by ministers, teachers, social workers, 
physicians — all persons whose function it is to guide youth in the 
process of character building. 

James Ford. 
Harvard University. 



A Guide to the Study of the Chbistian Religion. Edited by G. B. 

Smith. The University of Chicago Press. 1916. Pp. x, 759. $3.00. 
The Belief in God and Immortality. James H. Leuba. Sherman, 

French, & Co. 1916. Pp. xx, 340. $2.00. 
The Foundation of Modern Religion. The Cole Lectures for 1916. 

Herbert B. Workman, D.D., LL.D. Fleming H. Revell Co. 1916. 

Pp. 249. $1.25. 
Is Christianity Practicable.' William Adams Brown. Chas. Scrib- 

ner's Sons. 1916. Pp. xviii, 246. $1.25. 

In the making of sermons, a text may be either a point of de- 
parture or a point of arrival. It may be taken as a statement of 
revealed truth calling for explication and enforcement, or, by an 
approach from ordinary human experience, it may be discovered as