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Volume XIV OCTOBER, 1921 Number 4 




Professor op Church Histobt in Giessen, Geruant 

I. Early Church History 


I. General Church History 287 

IT. The Ancient Church. 

1. General 291 

2. Christianity and Paganism. 

(a) General Belations 295 

(&) The Emperors and Christianity 298 

(c) Martyrology and Hagiography 300 

(d) The Spread of Christianity 304 

3. Lives, Writings, and Doctrine of the Fathers. 

(a) Editions 305 

(6) Translations 312 

(c) General Works on Patristics 313 

(d) Monographs and Critical Investigations. 

1, General 815 

2, The Fathers in Alphabetical Order 320 

4. Church Life. 

(a) The Creed 341 

(6) Liturgical Problems 343 

(c) Feasts and Fasts 348 

(d) Archaeology and Art 350 

(e) Organization 356 

(J) Discipline 364 

(g) Asceticism and Monasticism 867 




AA Alttestamentliche Abhandlungen. 

AAB Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 

AGPh Archiv fUr Geschkhte der Philosophic. 

AGW Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu GSttingen. 

AMM Abhandlungen aus Missionskunde und Missionsgeschichte. 

BFTh Beitrage zur Forderung der christlichen Theologie. 

BGPhM Beitrage zur GJeschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters. 

BGThPrPred Beitrage zur Geschichte, Theorie und Praxis der Predigt. 

BKV Bibliothek der Kirchenvater. 

BphW Berliner philologische Wochenschrift. 

CSEL Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum. 

DTh Divus Thomas. Jahrbuch fUr Philosophie und spekulative Theologie. 
Seit 1914. 

FLDG Forschungen zur christlichen Literatur- und Dogmengeschichte. 

FRLANT Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten imd Neuen Testa- 

FrThSt Freiburger Theologische Studien. 

GChrSchr Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller. 

HJG Historisches Jahrbuch der GSrres-Gesellschaft. 

HPBI Historisch-politische Blatter. 

HZ Historische Zeitschrift. 

KA Kyrkohistorisk Arsskrift. 

Kath Der Katholik. 

KIT Kleine Texte, hrsg. von H. Lietzmann. 

LF Liturgiegeschichtliche Forschungen. 

LQ Liturgiegeschichtliche Quellen. 

LZBl Literarisches Zentralblatt. 

NA Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen. 

NADG Neues Archiv fUr die altere deutsche Geschichtskunde. 

NAKG Nederlandsch Archief voor Kerkgeschiedenis. 

NGW Nachrichten der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. 

NJklA Neue Jahrbilcher fUr das klassische Altertum. 

NkZ Neue kirchliche Zeitschrift. 

NThT Nieuw Theologisch Tijdschrif t 

OChr Oriens Christianus. 

RhM Bheinisches Museum. 

RQ RSmische Quartalschrift. 

SAB Sitzungsberichte der Akademie zu Berlin. 

SAH Sitzungsberichte der Akademie zu Heidelberg. 

SAW Sitzungsberichte der Akademie zu Wien. 

SchrGesStr Schriften der wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft zu Strassburg. 

StGKA Studien zur Geschichte imd Kultur des Altertimis. 

StMB Studien und Mitteilungen aus dem Benediktinerorden. 

StML Stimmen aus Afaria Laacfa. Seit 1915 duicb StZ ersetzt. 



Stimmen der Zeit. 


Theologie tud Glaube. 


Theologiscbes Literaturblatt 


Theologische Literaturzeitung. 


Theologische Quartalschrift 


Theologische Rundschau. 


Theological Revue. 


Theologische Studien. 


Theologische Studien und Kritiken. 


Texte und Untersuchungen. 


VerSffentlichungen aus dem kirchenhistorischen Seminar MUnchen. 


Verbffentlichungen der Sektion fflr Rechts- und Sozialwissenschaft der 



Wiener Studien. 


Zeitschrift tUr Kirchengeschichte. 


Zeitschrift fUr katholische Theologie. 


Zeitschrift tUr Missionswissenscfaaft. 


Zeitschrift fUr neutestamentliche Wissenschaft. 


Zeitschrift fUr wissenschaftliche Theologie (1914 eingegangen). 

In the preparation of the following survey two methods were 
possible. I might select for fuller notice certain of the most 
important productions and by means of them illustrate the 
progress in this branch of historical science during the period 
of the war, or I might endeavor to give as complete an account 
of the literature as possible, including notices of less significant 
but nevertheless useful publications. I decided upon the second 
course, partly because the mass of production seemed to me 
too large and varied to be satisfactorily exhibited by the more 
or less arbitrary selection of a few works, partly because it 
often happens that a seemingly unimportant note may be of 
worth to some scholar who happens to be pursuing research in 
that particular field — something which in the many years during 
which I edited the Theologische Jahresbericht I have often 
foimd true in my own experience and that of others. Unfor- 
tunately the Jahresbericht, which seemed to us indispensable, 
as well as the Theologische Rimdschau, edited by Bousset, 
whose untimely death we mourn, have both succumbed to the 
unfavorable conditions of the times. All the more necessary 
does it seem to create at least a partial substitute for them, and 
I embraced the opportmuty oflFered me by the editors of this 


Review the more gladly because in my own country it will for 
the present be quite impossible to publish such a survey.^ 

Manifestly in such an undertaking exhaustive complet«iess 
is not to be achieved or even aimed at. Having regard to the 
readers of this Review, it is clear that, of writings on the history 
of the church in individual countries, only those should find a 
place in our survey which may claim a general interest; to 
say nothing of the fact that it is beyond the power of a single 
reviewer, even with the friendly assistance of others, to record, 
much less to read, everything. But here again a distinction is 
necessary. The history of the ancient church is a peculiarly 
international field, and accordingly it is desirable here to in- 
clude as far as possible everything which by its scientific 
character is adapted to advance learning, even if only in a 
single minor point. To achieve a certain degree of completeness 
for this period was in itself an attractive task, and one which 
I took upon me the more gladly because in fulfilling it I should 
be acquitting myself of a debt of honor. In the field of early 
church history German spholarship has from the beginning 
taken the lead. That it is not disposed to reUnquish this 
leadership was proved during the war, and is still being shown 
in the distressful years that have followed. It was not without 
a feeling of pride that I took up the January number of this 
Review bearing witness to this, as it does, by the prominent 
place occupied in it by German scholarship; and I cannot 
think without bitterness of the political servitude and the 
internal derangement of my own country which, unless condi- 
tions soon change for the better, must lead to the decline of 
this prestige also. 

In regard to the limits of the period covered by this survey, 
I would remark that the history of primitive Christianity does 
not fall within its scope. This subject can be advantageously 
treated only in connection with the literature on the New 
Testament, which Professor Windisch, of Leiden, has under- 
taken. Gnosticism also belongs in his field. The external ar- 

' For a comprehensive survey of important publications on Antenicene church his- 
tory, see Hans von Soden, Die Erforschung der vomic&nischen Kirchengeschichte seit 
1914, in ZKG 39, 1921, 140-166. 


rangement of the Jahresbericht, which experience has proved 
practical, has been retained, with such changes as the contracted 
space dictate. The abbreviations in the bibliography are those 
employed in the Jahresbericht with the addition of a few new 
ones. As readers cannot be expected to understand these sym- 
bols without explanation, an alphabetical list of those which 
occur in this first article is prefixed. All these periodicals, re- 
ports of the sessions of Academies, and similar publications, 
are having a hard struggle for existence, and many of the sym- 
bols in our list will shortly disappear. 

Of the literature which has appeared in the German language 
I have seen almost everything, for which I am in part indebted 
to the kind cooperation of the publishers. The prices noted are 
the original ones; beyond which considerable excess charges 
must be reckoned with. In ordering a book it would be advis- 
able to refer to my report, or to use my services by ordering 
the book through me. Of the literature in other languages only 
the smallest part has come under my eyes. I am the more 
grateful for the generous assistance of scholars who in response 
to my request have aided me by furnishing notices of such pub- 
lications — Professor Karl Volker, of Vienna, for Austria; 
Professor O. Ammundsen, of Copenhagen, and Professor Sig- 
mund Mowinckel, of Christiania, for Denmark and Norway; 
the Rev. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Theol. Doct., of Nieuw 
Dortrecht, for Holland; Professor Hjalmar Holmqvist, of 
Limd, for Sweden. The names of these scholars are attached to 
the notes contributed by them. 


Aulin, Gosta, Dogmliistoria. 362 pp. Stockholm, Norsted, 1917. kr. 12. 

— Bess, Bernhard, Unsere religiosen Erzieher. 2. Aufl. 2 BUnde. xi, 335; 
iii, 344 pp. Mit Bildnissen. Leipzig, Quelle und Meyer, 1917. Geb. M. 14. 

— Bonwetsch, 6. Nathanael, Grundriss der Dogmengeschichte. 2. Aufl. iv, 
219 pp. GUtersloh, Bertelsmann, 1919. M. 12; geb. M. 14. — Brandrud, 
A., Den kristne kirkes historie. 410 pp. Kristiania, Aschehoug, 1915. — 
Ehrengabe deutscher Wissenschaft, dargeboten von katholischen Gelehrten, 
dem Prinzen Johann Oeorg von Sacksen zum 50. Geburtstag gewidmet. 
XX, 858 pp., mit 34 BUdem und 7 Tafeln. Freiburg, Herder, 1920. Geb. M. 
250. — Ehrhard, Albert, Die Stellung der Slawen in der Geschichte des Chris- 
tentums. 46 pp. Strassbin-g, Heitz, 1918. — Festgabe, Alois Knopf ler 


zur Vollendung des 70. Lebensjahres gewidmet. viii, 415 pp. Freiburg, 
Herder, 1917. M. 30. — Festschrift, Theologische, fUr G. Nathanael 
Bonwetsch zu seinem 70. Geburtstag. iii, 147 pp. Leipzig, Deichert, 1918. 
M. 5. — Hamack, Adolf von, Dogmengeschichte. (Grundriss der theologi- 
schen Wissenschaften 4). 5. Aufl. xii, 472 pp. Tubingen, Mohr, 1914. M. 7; 
geb. M. 8. — Hergenrother, Jos^, Handbuch der allgemeiaen Kirchenge- 
schichte. (Theologische Bibliothek). Neu bearbeitet von Johann Peter 
Kirsch. 5. Aufl. 3. und 4. Band, xiv, 864 pp. mit einer Karte; x, 798 pp. 
Freiburg, Herder, 1915 und 1917. M. 13, 60 und M. 14; geb. M. 15, 40 und 
M. 16. — Heussi, Karl, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte. 4. Aufl. xv, 
637 pp. Tubingen, Mohr, 1919. M. 12; geb. M. 15. — Heussi, Karl, und 
Hermann Mtdert, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte. 66 Karten auf 12 BlSttem. 
2. Aufl. 18 pp. Text. Tubingen, Mohr, 1919. kart. M. 7.— Knopjler, Alois, 
Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte. 6. Aufl. xxv, 862 pp. mit einer Karte. Frei- 
burg, Herder, 1920. M. 30; geb. M. 36. — Liiheck, Konrad, Georgien und 
diekatholischeKirche(AMM6). 119 pp. Aachen, Xaverius-Verlag, 1918. M. 
8, 50. — Miiller, Karl, Kirchengeschichte. (Grundriss der theologischen 
Wissenschaften 4, 2). 2. Band. 2. Halfte. xxiii, 788 pp. Tubingen, Mohr, 
1919. M. 18; geb. M. 21. — Pijper, F., Handboek tot de Geschiedenis der 
Christelijke Kunst. Mit 125 afbeeldingen. 191 pp. 's Gravenhage, NijhoflF, 
1918. fl. 7; geb. fl. 8, 50. — Schubert, Hans von, GrundzUge der Kirchen- 
geschichte. 6. Aufl. xi,344pp. Tubingen, Mohr, 1919. M. 6,75; geb. M. 9. 
— Seeberg, Reinhold, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte. (Sammlimg the- 
ologischer Lehrblicher). 2. und 3. durchweg neu ausgearbeitete Auflage. 
4. Band in 2 Abteilimgen. xii, xvi, 896 pp. Leipzig, Deichert, 1917 und 1920. 
M. 10, 50 und M. 54. — Studien, geschichtliche, Albert Hauck zum 70. 
Geburtstag dargebracht. xii, 352 pp. Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1916. M. 13, 50; 
geb. M. 15. 

No new treatise covering the whole of church history has ap- 
peared within our period. The books whose titles are given 
above are for the most part good old acquaintances, and the 
circle of their readers will doubtless be enlarged through the 
new editions, which have in all cases been supplemented and 
brought up to the present stage of knowledge. Miiller has 
continued his admirable work, which has been widely praised 
without as well as within the lands of German speech as a land- 
mark in ecclesiastical historiography, from the Reformation to 
the end of the seventeenth century. At this point, unfortu- 
nately, he proposes to lay down his pen, so that a critical 
account of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries — a thing 
that does not exist in any language — is likely long to remain a 
desideratum. The latest volume, like its predecessors, is dis- 
tinguished by thoroughness of investigation and independence 
of judgment. Especially noteworthy is the skill with which the 


author has apprehended and presented the connections, in- 
cluding those that belong to the general history of civilization. 
Besides this there are many new observations in particulars. 
Thus, to take a siagle example, Miiller is the first adequately 
to appreciate the great importance for Holland, England, and 
Germany of Jacobus Acontius, a notable champion of re- 
ligious toleration whose very name has hitherto not found a 
place in our church histories.^ Protestantism and Catholicism 
are treated by Miiller with equal thoroughness, and within the 
sphere of Protestantism he has given the same attention to the 
non-German churches as to the German. I cannot doubt that 
the sections on England and Scotland will be found instructive 
by English and American theologians anki historians also. 

Seeberg's work is bibliographically described as the second 
edition of the Lehrbuch issued in two volumes in 1895 and 
1898. In reality it is an entirely new work, of which the first 
three volumes appeared in 1908-1913, and with the fourth 
volume noted above is now complete. The first part of this 
volume treats of the formation of Protestant doctrine, with a 
specially detailed estimate of Luther's teachings; the second 
part, of the further development of the doctrines of the Refor- 
mation and of the Counter-Reformation. For Catholicism he 
takes the Vatican Council (1870) as the terminus, for Lutheran- 
ism the Formula of Concord (1580), for Calvinism the Synod 
of Dordrecht (1619). The lines of development which connect 
this history with the present the author has traced in an in- 
structive and readable concluding chapter on the several con- 
fessional types as the ultimate outcome of the evolution of 
dogma. Seeberg's work has an importance of its own by the 
side of Hamack's great History of Dogma, since for the recent 
period Hamack gives no more than a sketch. Seeberg has 
endeavored throughout to give due importance to the connec- 
tion between the development of religious ideas and the gen- 
eral history of thought. The reader who is acquainted with 

' On Acontius see now Gaston Sortais, S. J., La philosophie moderne depuis Bacon 
jusqu'a Leibniz. Tome i. Paris, 1920, pp. 41-53. See also Adolf Matthaei, Jacob 
Acontius, mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung seiner Gedanken fiber Toleranz, NKZ 30, 
1919, 290-308. 


Troeltsch's 'Soziallehren der Christlichen Kirchen' (Tubingen, 
Mohr, 1912) — a brilliant work, but often provoking contra- 
diction — will follow with special interest Seeberg's acute and 
well-considered discussion. It is gratifying also to find that 
this Lutheran scholar has so fine a sense for the distinctive 
features of the Calvinistic type of doctrine, which expresses 
itself in well-considered judgments. Seeberg could not make 
up his mind to assign to modern Protestantism a place in the 
history of dogma as a distinct type of religious life. At this 
point workers in the field will have to address themselves to 
the problem with greater energy than heretofore. — The His- 
tory of Dogma hy AulSn is praised by Professor Holmqvist as a 
remarkably clear outline. — Professor Ammundsen describes 
Brandrud's short general sketch as interestingly written, 
without bibliographical references, but with good illustrations. 

Pijper's volume, according to information furnished by Dr. 
Bakhuizen van den Brink, deals with the whole development 
of Christian art, paying special attention to ancient art. The 
reader is made acquainted with the scientific investigation of 
the catacombs, and the well-known thesis of Strzygowski, 
'Orient or Rome,' is discussed, the author endeavoring to steer 
a middle course. The merits of the book lie on the one hand in 
the clear, concise, and progressive presentation, on the other 
in the selection of material with an eye particularly to Dutch 
readers, and therefore giving especial though not one-sided at- 
tention to Dutch art. 

Pursuant to a graceful custom, which has been kept up even 
in our present trying situation, when a noted scholar has com- 
pleted an epoch in his life, grateful pupils, colleagues, and friends 
have in several cases contributed to a volume of scientific 
papers in his honor. Such collections are recorded above in 
the bibliography. So far as these essays are of general interest 
for church history they will be specially noted below in their 
proper place. For more detailed information about the con- 
tents the following notices may be consulted: for Bonwetsch, 
Schuster, ThLZ 44 (1919), 49; for Hauck, Kohler, ThLZ 41 
(1916), 247; for Knopfler, Seppelt, ThRev 17 (1918), 447. 



1. General 

Arnold, Carl Franklin, Die Geschichte der alten Kirche bis auf Karl den 
Grossen im Zusammenhang mit den Weltbegebenheiten kurz dargestellt. 
(Evangdisch-theologische Bibliothek, hrsgg. von Bemhard Bess), xvi, 284 
pp. Leipzig, Quelle und Meyer, 1919. M. 7; geb. M. 8. — Harnack, Adolf 
von, Aus der Friedens- und Kriegsarbeit. viii, 373 pp. Giessen, TSpelmann, 
1916. M. 8; geb. M. 10. — Heckel, Andreas, Die Kirche von Aegypten. 
Ihre Anfange, ihre Organisation und ihre Entwicklung bis zur Zeit des Nicae- 
nums. (Diss.) vii, 85 pp. Strassburg, Heitz, 1918. M.S. — Schrijnen, 
Jo«e/, Uit het leven der oude kerk. vii, 300 pp. Bussum, Brand; Utrecht, 
Dekker en van der Vogt, 1919. fl. 7; geb. fl. 8, 50. — Seeck, 0«o, Regesten 
der Kaiser und PSpste fUr die Jahre 311 bis 476 n. Chr. 2 Halbbande. 200 
und xi, 487 pp. Stuttgart, Metzler, 1918 und 1919. M. 100; geb. M. 140 (no 
excess charge) ; Geschichte des Untergangs der antiken Welt. 6. Band. 380 
pp. Ebda., 1920. M. 32; geb. M. 42. — Soden, Hans Freikerr von. Die 
Entstehung der christlichen Kirche. Vom Urchristentum zum Katholizismus. 
2 Bande. (Aus Natur und Geisteswelt. Nr. 690 und 691). 138 und 130 pp. 
Leipzig, Teubner, 1919. Je M. 2, 80; geb. M. 3, 50. — Troeltsch, Ernst, 
Die alte Kirche. (Logos 6, 191&-17, 265-314). 

'A study in the philosophy of civilization,' is the characteriza- 
tion Troeltsch gives of his article on the nature and significance 
of the ancient church. The fundamental idea is that Christian- 
ity as a supernatural institute of salvation found its classical 
form in the ancient, that is to say, the catholic church. The 
church is the last great creation of the ancient world, and as 
such the source of power for the beginning of a new civilization, 
the mother's womb from which the Occidental world was born. 
It is therefore a great and weighty question how this church 
arose out of the whole situation of the ancient world, and 
wherein its significance in particulars consists. The church 
itself, under the influence of its belief in its immediate divine 
origin, has, consciously or unconsciously, refused to recognize 
the traces of its own origin, effaced them, or even destroyed 
them. Troeltsch traces the lines of development which are 
nevertheless recognizable in two directions. One points back 
to Hebraism, and makes the church appear as the conquering 
power of the prophets and of the gospel. The other leads to 
Hellenism, and shows us in the church the means by which the 
ancient world in a time of grave distress and in a complete 
intellectual overturning brought to fulfilment the most char- 


acteristic tendencies of its life, and found the satisfaction of its 
needs. How this came about in particular cases, Troeltsch has 
developed in a stimulating way. He thus sums up the con- 
clusions: 'Die Bedeutung der alten Kirche liegt in der Zusam- 
menschweissung der christlich-religiosen Ideenwelt der Schop- 
fung, der Freiheit, der Gnade, der Wesensumkehr, der Gottes- 
und BruderUebe, mit der antiken, wesentlich von den Hellenen 
gepragten Kultur der allgemeinbegrifflichen gesetzlichen Wis- 
senschaft der rationalen Staats-, Gesellschafts- und Rechts- 
gestaltung, der humanitaren Vernunftethik, der jisthetischen 
Immanenz der Form in StoflFe.' These are fundamental con- 
trasts; yet, as Troeltsch believes, they have since become so 
closely bound together that they can not be separated from 
each other. No one who wishes to go to the bottom of these 
questions should neglect this study, which, it must be confessed, 
makes great demands upon the reader. An English translation 
would be all the more desirable since the essay appeared as an 
article in a periodical, and can not be obtained separately 
through the booksellers. (Compare also the note on Troeltsch's 
'Augustin,' below, p. 327.) An article on 'de dogmenhistorische 
theorieen van Ernst Troeltsch' was published by J. Lindebloom 
in ThT 53 (1919), 181-223. 

Arnold's book is intended primarily for students; but even 
professional scholars will be surprised to find how much valu- 
able information has been compacted in small space yet in 
readable form by a skilful use of small print. The author has 
not only the advantage of his many years' experience as a 
teacher of chm-ch history (he is professor in Breslau), but pos- 
sesses a happy gift of portraying the spirit of an age by means 
of skilfully selected details. The book has thus a personal note 
which distinguishes it from other manuals. — Von Soden's 
little volumes are made up of lectiu-es which the author (now 
professor in Breslau) delivered as chaplain in war-university 
courses on the western front. His aim was to make one of the 
most important epochs in intellectual and political history 
intelligible to educated readers with no special knowledge of 
the subject. It is not an ordinary case of popularization, how- 
ever; a high scientific level is maintained throughout, and the 


many extracts from the sources interspersed through the 
volume add to its value. — It is to be regretted that condi- 
tions have permitted the printing of only the first chapter of 
Heckel's work. In it the author, bringing to the task an 
excellent methodical training, examines the lists of Alexandrian 
bishops, which he finds to be untrustworthy, and the tradi- 
tion that Mark the Evangelist was the founder of the Alex- 
andrian Church, which he rejects as legendary. To this he 
subjoins some observations on the planting and spread of 
Christianity in Alexandria and Egypt. — Iselin's work is 
commended by H. Jordan ThLBl 39 (1918), 431 as a careful 
critical summary of results hitherto attained. 

Seeck's 'Regesten' is one of those books which every one 
concerned with investigations in that field must find completely 
indispensable. The work is intended as a supplement to Momm- 
sen's famous edition of the Codex Theodosianus, and at the 
same time as a preliminary study for a Prosopographia of the 
period of the Christian empire which was among the projects of 
the Berlin Academy. The framework is furnished by those laws 
in the Theodosian Code (completed in 438) the dates of which 
can be determined. Seeck did not, however, confine himself 
by this limit, but brought his work down to 476. For this con- 
tinuation the imperial laws offer no material for the western 
half of the empire and very little for the eastern. Consequently 
it was necessary to have recourse to the chronicles and the 
letters of the popes, which had already been employed in criticism 
of the data of the Theodosianus and as supplementary to it. In 
this way the Regesta eventually grew into chronological tables, 
from which, however, everything is excluded that can be dated 
only in a given year, but not to the month or at least the season. 

After a long interval — the fifth volume appeared in 1913 — 
Seeck has brought to completion his 'Geschichte des Unter- 
gangs der antiken Welt.' The concluding volume deals with 
the period from the death of Alaric to the end of the Western 
Roman Empire (476.)* The ecclesiastico-political movements 

• More recently the notes to vol. 6 have appeared (1921), as pp. 385-504 of that 
volume. They contain the references to the sources and some chronological discussions. 
The author died June 29, 1921. 


of the time receive ample attention. The author's extreme 
subjectivity, which characterizes the whole work, appears 
again in full force in this volume. The plainest proof of this 
is given by the chapter on Augustine. To use a familiar Ger- 
man expression for which we have no equally drastic English 
equivalent, Seeck "lasst an Augustin kein gutes Haar." To 
read him one would think that in Augustine one had to do not 
with a genius but with an intellectually and morally inferior in- 
dividual. "He never had a single new idea of his own, except 
that of investing his autobiography with the form of a confes- 
sion — an idea of extremely dubious value." "His City of 
God is as untrue and full of mental reservations as his Confes- 
sions." "The question may well be raised how a book so shal- 
low and of so little originality (viz. De Civitate Dei!) could 
exert so profound an influence on the whole of the Middle 
Ages, and even to a later time." Such quotations might be 
multiplied. Fortunately not all parts of the work are so satu- 
rated with antipathy; and, at any rate, the gifted author 
everywhere captivates us by his original way of viewing the 
subject. Even by his unjust judgment upon Augustine the 
reader may review his own. We must remind ourselves that 
it is the same Seeck who wrote the 'Regesten,' noticed above, 
and therein gave conclusive proof that he has in the most 
thorough-going way made his own the materials contained in 
the sources. Since Gibbon's immortal work, it would be hard 
to name another which brings before us in such enthralling 
presentment persons and conditions in the decadent empire. 
(In ordering the volume it must be noted that the publisher, 
who for the earlier volumes was Siemenroth in Berlin, has been 

In the collection oi Harnack's addresses and essays the fol- 
lowing studies bearing on the history of the ancient church are 
reprinted: pp. 21-44, Die alteste Kircheninschrift u. die alteste 
Kirchenbibliothekinschrift; pp. 45-65, Griechische und christ- 
liche FrQmmigkeit am Ende des 3. Jahrhunderts (Hibbert Jour- 
nal 1911); 67-99, Die Hohepunkte in Augustins Konfessionen 
(Die Christliche Welt 1912, 1913); 101-140, Der Geist der 
morgenlandischen Kirche im Unterschied von der abend- 


ISndischen (SAB 1913); 141-161, Die Askese (infra, p. 367); 
163-172, Bericht iiber die Ausgabe der Griechischen Kirchen- 
vSter der drei ersten Jahrhunderte (SAB 1916). — Schrij- 
nen's volume also is a collection of studies on life in early 
Christian society, in which a Catholic apologetic tendency is 
combined with a serious scientific aim. A few papers by other 
authors are included. The subjects treated are: The Cult of 
the Saints; The Tombs of Peter and Paul in Rome; Sunday 
in the Early Church; The Virgins' Wreath; Women and Propa- 
ganda; Cremation or Burial; The Civilizing Work of the 
Early Christians and the Edict of Milan; The Form of Chris- 
tian Communities in Roman Law (W. Pompe) ; AntimiUtarism 
and the Duties of the Citizen; Ecclesiastical Latin; Commo- 
dian (H. B. Vroom; vide infra Commodian); Slavery; Cle- 
ment of Alexandria and Trade (O. van der Hagen; inadequate) ; 
Apologetics; Church Penance (in/rc, p. 364) ; The 'Salvatore 
Olandese.' This last essay has for its subject a fresco of 
Christ discovered in 1912 by two Hollanders in the crypt of St. 
Cecilia in Rome. The author dates it about the end of the 
fifth or the beginning of the sixth century; Christ is still rep- 
resented without a halo. A good reproduction adorns the book. 
[Bakhuizen van den Brink.] 

2. Christianity and Paganish 

a. General Relations 

Birt, Theodor, Charakterbilder Spiitroms imd die Entstehung des mo- 
demen Europa. vi, 492 pp. mit 6 Bildem. Leipzig, Quelle und Meyer, 1919. 
Geb. M. 16. — Geffcken, Johannes, Der Ausgang des griechisch-rSmi- 
schen Heidentums. (Religionswissenschaftliche Bibliothek, hrsg. von Wil- 
helm Streitberg 6). viii, 347 pp. Heidelberg, Winter, 1920. M. 20; geb. M. 
25; Stimmungen im untergehenden Altertum (NJkIA 28, 1920, 256-269); 
Kaiser Julianus. (Das Erbe der Alten, hrsg. von Otto Crusius u. A. 8). x, 
174 pp. Leipzig, Dieterich, 1914. M. 4; geb. M. 5. — Harnack, Adolf 
von, Porphyrius "Gegen die Christen," 15 BUcher. Zeugnisse, Fragmente und 
Referate. (AAB 1916, 1). 115 p. 4°. Berlin, Reuner, 1916. M. 5, 50. — 
Hartman, J. J., Honderd jaar geestelijk leven in den Romeinischen kei- 
zertijd. 555 pp. Leiden, van Doesburgh, 1918. fl. 17, 50. — Kurfess, A., 
Plates Timaeus in Kaiser Konstantins Rede an die heilige Versaminlung 
(ZNW 19, 1920, 72-81). — Lucdanus, de dood van Peregrinus, van inleiding 
en aanteekeningen voorzien door D. Plooij en /. C Koopman. (Aetatis 
imperatoriae scriptores graeci et romani adnotationibus instructi curantibus 


P. J. Enk en D. Plooij). 114 pp. Utrecht, Ruys, 1915. fl. 2. — Meyer, 
Eduard, ApoUonios von Tyana und die Biographie des Philostratos (Hermes 
52,1917,371-424). — Plooij, D., De schoolstrijd onder Keizer Jnlianus. 
(Stemmen des tijds 4, 1914-15, 162-180). — Schepelern, F., Montanismen 
og de phiygiske kulter. 212 pp. Kopenhagen, Pio, 1920. 

The end of Greek and Roman paganism is a subject which 
has at all times particularly attracted historians of civilization 
and of the church, but it had not been comprehensively treated 
since the much-used books of Victor Schultze and Gaston 
Boissier. effc ken, professor of classical philology in Rostock, 
has attacked the subject in a new way. It is his aim to seize 
upon the chief traits of the history of religions in the Roman 
empire from the second century of our era. He accordingly 
shows what cults are concerned, when and through what in- 
fluence they declined and disappeared, the attitude of the sev- 
eral emperors toward the religions of their time, the significance 
of philosophy, and the reflex influence of the conflict upon 
belles lettres, in order in the end to throw light upon the out- 
come of these centuries of religious agitation, namely the 
gradual accommodation between pagans and Christians. All 
this is based on an amazing wealth of material gathered from 
literary sources, inscriptions, papyri, and coins, and worked up 
by the hand of a master. The inscriptions, in particular, have 
never before been used in such completeness. Besides all this, 
Geflfcken has given his work a well-rounded, artistically satisfy- 
ing form, both in his reproduction of the general milieu and in 
remarkably successful portraits of leading figures, such for 
instance, as those of the Neoplatonists Plotinus, Porphyry, 
lamblichus, Proclus, and Synesius, and of the emperor Julian. 
To the last he has devoted a separate monograph, and in spite 
of all the Neoplatonic rubbish that surrounds that remarkable 
figure, esteems him as a genuinely religious nature. Indeed it 
is a great merit in Geflfcken that he everywhere shows true 
comprehension for religious feeling and experience. Thus his 
book is of importance alike for theologians, philologists, his- 
torians, and philosophers; educated laymen also will derive 
great profit from it. — The * Charakterkopf e, ' also, by Birt, the 
Marburg philologist, is a brilliant — perhaps rather too brilliant 


— book, and the pictures which he draws of the emperors after 
Septimius Severus, including their relations to Christianity, and 
the sharply defined characterization of men like Ambrose, 
Jerome, and Augustine, make charming reading. — Hartman, 
professor in Leiden, calls his book a causerie; it is, however, the 
fruit of scientific investigations. He treats of the nature of 
heathenism, of sophists and philosophers, of Lucian, Dio 
Chrysostom, and Seneca; and, in a special division of the work, 
of the correspondence between Pliny and Trajan about the 
Christians, which he shows to be genuine. A translation of the 
whole correspondence is appended. [Bakhuizen van den Brink.] 

In the first part of the collection entitled 'Aetatis impera- 
toriae scriptores graeci et romani,' Plooij and Koopman 
have edited Lucian's ' De morte Peregrini.' As the basis of his 
text Koopman, after a critical examination, took the edition of 
Levi (Berlin 1892). The ample commentary is instructive and 
valuable. The introduction by Plooij offers a clear view of the 
religious conditions of Lucian's environment, particularly of 
the cynics, at whom the story of the death of Peregrinus was 
aimed. The facts from the life of Peregrinus which Lucian re- 
lates are regarded by Plooij as trustworthy; Lucian's exaggera- 
tions are pointed out. The relations that have been thought to 
exist between the treatise and the letters of Ignatius are con- 
sidered by Plooij of small consequence. [Bakhuizen van den 
Brink.] — In an excellent study, the Berlin historian Meyer 
has shown that for the purposes of his philosophical romance 
Philostratus completely transformed the portrait that tradition 
gave of the wonder-worker ApoUonius, 

Since Lardner in his ' Credibility of the Gospel History ' 
(1727-1757) brought together the fragments of Porphyry's book 
against the Christians, much has been written about the work, 
and many attempts have been made to reconstruct it; but no 
critical edition has been produced. Harnack has now col- 
lected all the material, which has been considerably enlarged 
since Lardner's time, and rearranged it. He has included also 
the extracts from a writing by an unknown author preserved 
in Macarius Magnes, believing that the results of his earlier 
investigations (TU 37, 4, 1911) warrant him in reclaiming them 


for Porphyry. — Kurfess defends the genuineness of the 
'Oratio ad sanctorum coetum,' attributed to the emperor 
Constantine, and decides for a Latin original. The objection 
that Plato's Timaeus is used in the speech, he thinks may be 
met by supposing that the emperor read Plato's work in Cicero's 
translation. To the reviewer this does not seem very plausible. 
— Plooij treats the conflict about schools under Julian as the 
first historical emergence of the fundamental question whether 
instruction without relation to religion is possible. [Bakhuizen 
van den Brink.] — Schepelern arrives at the conclusion that 
although Montanism was originally a Christian phenomenon, 
it later became an orgiastic religion resembling the Phrygian 
cults, which are described at large. [Professor Ammundsen.] 

b. The Emperors and Christianity 

Bihlmeyer, Karl, Die "syrischen" Kaiser zu Rom und das Christen turn, 
vii, 166 pp. Rottenburg, Baader, 1916. M. 3; Das angebliche Toleranzedikt 
Konstantins von 312 (ThQ 96, 1914, 65-100, 198-224). — Eberlein, Hei- 
7»M<, Kaiser Mark Aural und die Christen. (Diss.) 54 pp. Breslau, Genos- 
senschaftsdruckerei, 1914. — Faulhaber, Ludwig, Die Libelli in der Chris- 
tenverfolgung des Kaisers Decius (ZkTh 43, 1919,439-468,617-656).— 
Linderholm, Emanuel, Om den kristna statskyrkans uppkomst. 135 pp. 
Uppsala, Almqvist och Wieksell, 1914. — Linsenmayer, Anton, Eine 
christliche Kaiserin in der vorkonstantinischen Zeit (HPBl 164, 1919, 721- 
729). — Schroers, Heinrich, Die Bekehrung Konstantins des Grossen in 
der Ueberlieferung (ZkTh 40, 1916, 238-257); Zur Kreuzerscheinung Kon- 
stantins des Grossen (ebda. 485-523). — Sild, Olaf, Das altchristliche 
Martyrium in Berlicksichtigung der rechtlichen Grundlage der Christenver- 
folgung. 184 pp. Dorpat, Bergmann; Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1920. M. 35. 

In view of the many investigations that, since the appearance 
of Mommsen's famous 'Religionsf revel nach romischem 
Recht' (1890), have been devoted to the problem of the legal 
grounds of the persecution of Christians, a new one may seem 
almost superfluous. The reviewer would find it difficult, more- 
over, to attempt to state in a few words, precisely wherein the 
new element mSild' s investigation lies. He must be content 
therefore to say that scholars will find in the book an independ- 
ent discussion of the sources and literature, and one which 
prompts to reflection, although its effect is unfortunately im- 
paired by a clumsy treatment. What the author says about 


the difference in legal doctrine and practice between the East 
and the West in regard to the persecution and condemnation of 
Christians deserves attention, though it will hardly bear the 
test of closer examination. Sild draws too large conclusions 
from the fact that the cult of the emperors had not as much 
importance in the West as in the East. — The church historian 
Bihlmeyer, of Tubingen, has addressed himself with great 
thoroughness to the critical problems presented by the literary 
tradition about the so-called Syrian emperors, Caracalla, 
Elagabalus, and Severus Alexander. Bihlmeyer's contribution 
to the criticism of the 'Scriptores Historiae Augustae,' par- 
ticularly of Lampridius's Vita of Severus Alexander is worthy 
of notice. The statements of Lampridius about the religious 
attitude of the emperor which have so often been utilized will 
hereafter have to be employed with greater caution. In the 
articles in the Quartalschrift named above Bihlmeyer rightly 
denies that any special imperial edict in favor of the Christians 
is to be interposed between the Edict of Galerius in 311 and the 
Constitution of Milan in 313. — Eberlein gives, among other 
things, a well-considered criticism of the legend of the miracu- 
lous downpour of rain (Thundering Legion). Unfortunately 
his work is printed only in part. — Faulhaber comes to the 
conclusion that the Egyptian Libelli should be regarded as cer- 
tificates that the holder had offered sacrifice, issued, not to 
Christians who had not really done so, but to pagans and to 
so-called Sacrificati. This, he thinks, is proved by the edict of 
Decius ordering sacrifice universally, and by the contents of 
the Libelli, especially that of Aurelia Ammonus, priestess of 
Petesuchos. Only in this way can it be explained that the issuing 
of Libelli for the whole empire was directed from one central 
oflSce. — The empress whom Linsenmayer claims as a Chris- 
tian because she is represented on bronze coins as 'Augusta in 
Pace' is the wife of Gallienus, Cornelia Salonina. — Linder- 
holm, professor in Upsala, gives a good survey of the develop- 
ment of the relations between church and state down to 380. 
[Professor Holmqvist.] 


c. Martyrology and Hoffiography 

The Meaning of "Mahtyb." Corssen, Peter, BegriflE und Wesen des 
Martyrers in der alten Kirche. (NJklA 34, 1915, 481-501) ; MdpTUs und '^eu- 
So/jLapTVs. (ebd. 35, 1916, 424-426) ; Ueber Bildung und Bedeutung der Kom- 
position '^€vSoTpoct>'fiTris, tpevSofiavTis, \(/€vSofiapTvp. (Sokrates 6, 1918, 106- 
114). — Doergens, Heinrich, Zur Geschichte des Begriffs "Martyr." 
(Kath. 98, 1, 1918, 205-208). — Holl, Karl, Die Vorstellung vom MSrty- 
rer und die Martyrerakte in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwickelung. (NJklA 33, 
1914, 521-556); Der ursprtingliche Sinn des Namens Martyrer. (ebd. 35, 
1916, 253-259); -^evdonaprvs. (Hermes 52, 1917, 301-307).— Kruger, 
Gustav, Zur Frage nach der Entstehung des Martyrertitels (ZNW 17, 1916, 
264-269). — Reitzenstein, Richard, Bemerkungen zur Martyrienlitera- 
tur. i. Die Bezeichnung MSrtyrer. (NGW 1916, 417-467). — Schlatter, 
Adolf, Der Mgrtyrer in den Anffingen der Kirche. (BFTh 19, 3). 86 p. 
Gutersloh, Bertelsmann, 1915. M. 3, 50. — Strathmann, Hermann, Der 
Martyrer. (ThLBl 37, 1916, 337-343. 353-357). 

Acts and Legends of Mabtyks. Allgeier, Artur, Untersuchungen 
zur syrischen Ueberlieferung der Siebenschlaferlegende (OChr 4, 1914, 279- 
297; 5, 1915, 10-59; 263-270); Die aelteste Gestalt der Siebenschlafer- 
legende herausgegeben und ubersetzt (ebd. 6, 1916, 1-43; 7, 1918, 33-87). 

— Anrich, Oustav, Hagios Nikolaos. Der heilige Nikolaos in der griechi- 
schen Kirche. Texte und Untersuchungen. 2 BSnde. xvi, 464 und xii, 592 pp. 
Leipzig, Teubner 1913 und 1917. M. 18 und M. 24. — Bruck, W., Das Mar- 
tyrium der heiligen Apollonia und seine Darstellung in der bildenden Kunst. 
xi, 152 pp. Mit 100 Abbildungen. Berlin, Meuser, 1915. M. 12. — Cors- 
sen, Peter, Das Martyrium des Bischofs Cyprian (ZNW 15, 1914, 221-233, 
285-316; 16, 1915, 54-92, 198-230; 17, 1916, 189-206; 18, 1917/18, 118- 
139, 202-223) ; Der Schauplatz der Passion des romischen Bischofs Sixtus II 
(ebd. 16, 1915, 147-166). — Gerhardt, Rudolf, Ueber die Akten des hi. 
Anthimus und des hi. Sebastianus. (Diss.) 50 pp. Jena, Frommann, 1916. 

— Grohmann, Adolf, Studien zu den Cyprianusgebeten (WZKM30, 1917, 
121-150). — Kirsch, Johann Peter, Die Passio der heiligen "Vier Ge- 
krtjnten" in Rom (HJG 38, 1917, 72-97); Die Martyrer der Katakombe "ad 
duos lauros." (Ehrengabe filr Johann Georg von Sachsen [vide supra, p. 287] 
577-602).— 3fierfema,K., Menas en Men (ThT48, 1914, 390-404) ; De won- 
derverhalen van den heiligen Menas (NAKG 14, 1918, 210-245). — Nieder- 
meyer, Hans, Ueber antike ProtokoU-Literatur. (Diss.) 91 pp. G5ttingen, 
Dieterich, 1918. — Reitzenstein, Richard, Bemerkungen zur Martyri- 
enliteratur. ii. Nachtrage zu den Akten Cyprians (NGW 1919, 177-219); 
Cyprian der Magier (ebd. 1917, 38-79). — Reuning, Wilhelm, Zur Erkla- 
rung des Polykarp-Martyriums. (Diss. Giessen.) ix, 49 pp. Darmstadt, 
Winter, 1917. M. 1, 60. — Srapian, Moses, Das Martyrium des heiligen 
Pionius aus dem Altarmenischen uebersetzt (WZKM 28, 1914, 376^05). — 
Waal, Anton de. Sent' Eutichio Martire (RQ 29, 1915, 271-275). 

The Meaning op "Martyr." A vigorous and instructive 
debate has been evoked by Holl's study of the idea of a martyr 
and of the Acts of the Martyrs in their historical development. 


In 2 Cor. 15, 14, HoII finds warrant for maintaining that even 
in the primitive Christian communities the apostles were given 
the title fx&prvpes tov 6(ov because they were regarded as wit- 
nesses of the resurrection of Christ. This title was transferred 
to those who witnessed in their blood, because they too were 
deemed to be witnesses of the resurrection. For according to 
the conviction of the early Christians, to one who thus bore 
testimony by his death, it was granted, in the decisive hour, to 
behold with the eyes of the spirit the world above and the Lord 
whom he confessed. Here the connection with the late Jewish 
conception of the necessary death of the prophet, who was 
looked upon as n&prvs rod dtov, is unmistakable (on this point 
see also Schlatter). Thus the Spiritism of the primitive age 
of Christianity was kept peculiarly alive in the conception of 
martyrs; and herein the conditions were given for the repre- 
sentation of the conflict of the martyrs in a special form of 
literature, the Acts of the Martyrs. HoU traces the develop- 
ment of this kind of literature in its two types, narration in a 
letter (Martyrdom of Polycarp, the Martyrs of Lyons, etc.), 
and the records of trials (Acta Justini, Acta Scilitanorum, etc.), 
as they were influenced by Jewish prototypes (2 Maccabees), 
and by Hellenistic models. Convincing as his treatment of the 
Acts of the Martyrs is, the attempt to explain the origin of the 
title martyr has not commanded corresponding assent. Reit- 
zen stein, in particular, has pointed out that it is not the con- 
fession alone that makes the martyr, but above all the joyful 
endurance of the suffering (the tpy(j$ naprvpetv), and that the 
conception of martyrdom is thus intimately connected with 
Hellenistic ideas of the iaKrjTris, &8\rirr]s, iycaviarris, aTpaTiurrjs. 
This connection does not, however, sufficiently explain the 
Christian use of the title, in which the testimony rendered in 
blood is the essential factor. For this the idea that the martyrs 
are fiadyjrai Kal ninrjral rod Kvpiov is decisive. Our best source 
of information on these points is the Martyrdom of Polycarp, 
the inestimable value of which as a classical document has 
again been made most evident by this new discussion. (See 
also p. 369 f. Reitzenstein.) The attention of scholars should 
be earnestly directed to the whole controversy. 


Acts and Legends. Niedermeyer shows the relations be- 
tween the Acts of Christian martyrs and the pagan judicial 
Acta. He finds that for the evaluation of an account a definite 
date is of decisive importance. Acts that bear no date, or only 
a general indication of time, were composed independently of 
the protocols and the official records, and therefore fall into the 
category of stories with a purpose. Among the most important 
of the martyr stories from the point of view of the history of 
literature are the letters from the Church in Smyrna about 
the death of Polycarp, and the different versions of the Martyr- 
dom of Cyprian, which are ultimately derived from a judicial 
document. The former has been subjected by Reuning to a 
fresh investigation, in which he has laid special emphasis on a 
comprehensive interpretation of Polycarp's prayer. Reit- 
zenstein had already put the accounts of the death of Cyprian 
in a new light in 1913 by a very important pai>er in the SAH. 
He has continued his work and made a complete investigation 
of the different versions of the Martyrdom in the mediaeval 
Passionals and in the manuscripts of Cyprian, to the list of 
which he was able to add. Contrary to Pio Franchi de' Cava- 
lieri (Studi Romani, Rivista di archeologia e storia 2 (1914), 
189), he believes that the version found in the manuscripts can 
be proved to be the original. The articles by Corssen, which 
include in their purview not only the Acts of Cyprian but also 
the Life of Cyprian by Pontius, would be more effective if they 
were less diffuse and circumstantial. (See also below, p. 332, 
' Cyprian.') — It is known that in the legend the bishop of 
Carthage is confused with another Cyprian, the scene of whose 
martyrdom is laid in Antioch. The legend of this other Cyprian 
has been newly examined by Reitzenstein, and its anteced- 
ents clearly traced through successive stages back to the classi- 
cal form given it by the empress Eudokia about 450. Beside 
the legend, prayers by this Cyprian have been handed down, 
the original Greek text of which was first published by Scher- 
man in OChr 1903. Grohmann now publishes a German trans- 
lation of them from the Ethiopic. 

Allgeier, on the basis of a minute investigation of the tradi- 
tion, shows that the oldest form of the Syriac version of the 


legend about the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus is preserved in the 
Cod. Sachau 321 and Cod. Par. 235. This version he publishes, 
with a German translation. — The Acts of Anthimus and of 
Sebastian are the production of an unknown writer of legends 
of the fifth century, whose narrative bears the marks of free 
invention, but is nevertheless instructive from the point of 
view of the history of civilization. Gerhard has treated these 
Acts comprehensively. — Kirsch thinks that the solution of 
the much discussed problem of the Quatuor Coronati is to be 
found in the following way: 1. The four saints buried on the 
Via Labicana are not Pannonian, but Roman martyrs. 2. These 
alone constitute the group which was venerated under the desig- 
nation Quatuor Coronati. 3. The author of the legend, without 
any historical warrant, shifted the scene of their martyrdom 
to Pannonia, and endeavors in his last chapter to explain how 
they came to be venerated at Rome. 4. Thus the Pannonian 
martyrs also are legendary. — Sr apian has published from 
the Cod. Mechitar. 224, anno 1428, an Armenian text of the 
Acts of Pionius (Greek in von Gebhardt, Martyrerakten, 2d ed., 
p. 56) with a German translation. At this point attention may 
be called to the fact that Karl Schmidt in his edition of what he 
calls the Epistula Apostolorum (see the article by Professor 
Lake in the Harvard Theological Review, January, 1921, p. 
15 ff.) has again emphatically controverted the theory of 
Corssen and Schwartz that the martyr Pionius was the author 
of the Life of Polycarp. He sees in that Life the work of a 
Syrian author of tlie second half of the fourth century. — 
Saint Eutychius, on whom de Waal writes, seems not to have 
suffered martyrdom under Diocletian, as has been generally 
supposed, but under Decius. 

The most conspicuous achievement in the field of hagiog- 
raphy that we have to record is beyond doubt the work of 
Anrich (at the time of his writing professor in Strassburg; 
now teaching in Bonn). The first volume contains the Vitae, 
Encomia, and Thaumata, the literary precipitate of the legends 
of Nicolaus, edited on the basis of a very extensive manuscript 
apparatus. The second volume, besides the prolegomena to 
these texts, contains wide-ranging and profound investigations 


concerning the two heroes of the legend, the Archimandrite 
Nicolaus of Sion and the Bishop Nicolaus of Myra, whose two 
figures are so strangely intertwined. A chapter is added on the 
geography and topography of Lycia. Of the rich contents of 
these researches a brief notice like this can give no adequate 
idea, but any scholar who works through these two volumes 
thoroughly will be well rewarded for his pains, for they touch 
upon subjects of the most varied interest — the history of 
tradition and of language, archaeology and folk-lore, the history 
of literature and of civilization. Anrich writes in a captivating 
style, disposing his matter admirably, and masters the details 
so that even the most ungrateful material becomes attractive 
in his hands. — Continuing his work on St. Menas, begun in 
his Leiden dissertation on Menas (Rotterdam 1913), Miedema 
discusses the connection between the Menas cult in Egypt and 
the worship of Men in Phrygia. He agrees with Delehaye in 
believing that the Menas cult originated in Egypt, whence it 
soon found its way into Phrygia. The legend then transformed 
the originally Egyptian saint into a native Phrygian one. In 
Miedema's opinion a relation between the names of the two 
saints is possible, but not between their respective characters 
and history. To illustrate the character of the Menas legend 
Miedema has edited ten miracle stories from the Codd. Vatic, 
gr. 866 and 797. The legends bear distinctively Egyptian ear- 
marks. Like Horns, Menas appears as the avenger of wrong, 
and on horseback. [Bakhuizen van den Brink.] 

d. The Spread of Christianity 

Allgeier, Artur, Untersuchungen zur aeltesten Kirchengeschichte in Per- 
sien (Kath. 98, 2, 1918, 224-241, 289-300). — Aufhamer, Johann Baptist, 
Armeniens Missionieruug bis zur Griindung der armenischen Nationalkirche 
(ZMW 8, 1918, 73-87). — Harnack, Adolf son, Die Mission undAusbrei- 
timg des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten. 3. Aufl. 2 B^de. 
xvi, 483 und 387 pp. Mit elf Karten. Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1915. M. 15; gab. 
M. 21. — Liihech, Konrad, Die altpersische Missionskirche (AMM 15). 
131 pp. und 1 Karte. Aachen, Xaveriusverlag, 1919. M. 8, 50. — Sachau, 
Eduard, Die Chronik von Arbela (AAB 1915, 6). 94 pp. Berlin, Reimer, 
1915. M. 4; Vom Christentum in der Persis (SAB 1916, xxxix, 958-980). 
Ebd. 1916. M. 1; Zur Ausbreitung des Christentums in Asien (AAB 1919, 
1). 80 pp. Ebd. 1919. M. 6. 


Harnack has dedicated the third edition of his famous book 
to Thomas Cuming Hall, 'investigator and teacher, the ener- 
getic and faithful friend of Germany.' The new edition is a 
considerable enlargement upon the second, so that even those 
who possess the latter should find the new edition indispensable. 
— The works oi Sachau and Allgeier have substantially en- 
riched our knowledge of the spread of the earliest Christianity 
in Asia. The chronicle of Arbela in Adiabene (Assyria) has 
proved in this respect a valuable source, since for the earliest 
period the Greek and Latin writers fail us. The traditions which 
connect the mission with the names Bartholemew and Thomas 
have gained in importance. It may with much confidence be 
assumed that the mission in Persis was already in existence in 
the first century. Sachau's latest work is occupied with the 
expansion of the Nestorian Church, and gives valuable infor- 
mation about the several dioceses and their bishoprics. — 
Liiheck has given a readable sketch of the development of 
Christianity in the region under the Catholicos of Seleucia- 
Ctesiphon down to the time when the countries comprised in 
it were conquered by the Arabs. 

3. Life, Writings, and Doctbine of the Fathers 

a. Editions, in Alphabetical Order 

Ambrosius. Sancti Ambrosii Opera. Paxs vi: Explanatio Fsalmorum XII. 
Rec. M. Petschenig (CSEL 64). v, 474 pp. Wien, Tempsky; Leipzig, 
Frey tag, 1920. M. 70. Apologists. Ooodspeed, Edgar J .tJyKBudte&Usa 
Apologeten. xi, 380 pp. Gottingen, Vandenhoeck imd Ruprecht, 1915. M. 
7, 40. — Kriiger, Gustav, Die Apologien Justins des Martjrers. 4. Aufl. 
(SQ 1). xii, 91 pp. Tubingen, Mohr 1914. M. 1,25; geb. M. 1,75. Athana- 
sius. Fromen, Heinz, Athanasii historia acephala. (Diss. Jena.) 86 pp. 
Milnster i. W., Bredt, 1914. Augustinus. Sancti Aureli Augustini Tracta- 
tus sive Sennones inediti ex Codice Guelferbytano 4096. Detexit adiectisque 
commentariis criticis primus edidit Germamis Morin, O. S. B. Accedunt SS 
Optati Milevitani, Quodvultdei Carthaginiensis Episcoporum aliorumque ex 
Augustini schola Tractatus novem. xxxiii, 250 pp. Kempten und MUnchen, 
Kosel, 1917. M. 15; geb. M. 21. Didymus of Alexandria, Zoepfl, 
Friedrich, Didymi Alexandrini in epistulas canonicas brevis enarratio. 
(Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen, hrsg. von M. Meinertz 4, 1). viii, 48* 
imd 148 pp. Milnster i. W., Aschendorff, 1914. M. 5, 70. Epiphantos op 
Salamis. Epiphanius, hrsg. von Karl Holl. 1. Band. Ancoratus und Pan- 
arion Haereses 1-33. (GChrSchr 25). x, 464 pp. Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1915. 
M. 18; geb. M. 20, 50. Gelasius of Ctzikus. G. 's Kirchengesckiclite, 


hrsg. von Gerhard Loeschcke{'\) durch Margarete Heinemann. (GChr 
Schr 28). xl, 263 pp. Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1918. M. 13, 50; geb. M. 18, 50. 
HiEKONTMtrs. Sancti Eusebii Hieronymi Epistulae. Pars iii: Epp. cxxi-cliv. 
'Rec. Isidorus Hilberg. (CSEL 56). viii, 368 pp. Wien, Tempsky, und 
Leipzig, Freytag, 1918. M. 24. Hilarius of Poitiehs. S. Hilarii Episcopi 
Pictaviensis Opera. Pars iv: Tractatus Mysteriorum. Collectanea Antiari- 
ana Parisina (Fragmenta historica) cum appendice (Liber I ad Constantium). 
Liber ad Constantium imperatorem (Liber II ad Constantium). Hymni. 
Fragmenta minora. Spuria. Rec. Alfredus Feder S. J. (CSEL 65). 
Ixxxviii, 324 pp. Wien, Tempsky, und Leipzig, Freytag, 1916. M. 16, 80. 
HiPPOLTTTJS. Hippolytus Werke. 3. Band. Refutatio omnium haereseum. 
Hrsg. von Paul Wendland. (GChrSchr. 26). xxiv, 337 pp. Leipzig, Hin- 
richs, 1916. M. 16; geb. M. 19. Ikenaeus. S. Irenaei Episcopi Lugdunen- 
sis Demonstratio Apostolicae Praedicationis (Ets iTldu^LV rod (XTroa-ToXtKou 
K-qpiiyixaTos). Ex armeno vertit, prolegomenis illustravit, notis locupletavit 
Simon Weber, viii, 124 pp. Freiburg, Herder, 1917. M. 3. Methodius 
or Olympus. Methodius. Hrsg. von G. Nathanael Bonwetsch. (GChr- 
Schr 27). xlii, 578 pp. Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1917. M. 27; geb. M. 20. Ori- 
GENES. Origenes Werke. 6. Band. Homilien zum Hexateuch in Rufins Ueber- 
setzung.Srsg. von W . A. Baehr ens. Erster Teil. Die Homilien zu Gene- 
sis, Exodus und Leviticus. (GChrSchr. 29). xxxvii, 507 pp. Leipzig, Hin- 
richs, 1920. M. 31,25; geb. M. 47,25. Dazu vgl. Baehrens, W. A., 
Ueberlieferung und Textgeschichte der lateinisch erhaltenen Origenes- 
Homilien zum Alten Testament. (TU 42, 1). viii, 257 pp. Leipzig, Hinrichs, 
1916. M. 9, 50. Pseiudo-Ctprian. See TertuUian. Tektullian. Rau- 
schen, Gerhard, Florilegium patristicum 10: Tertulliani de paenitentia et 
de pudicitia recensio nova, iv, 104 pp. Bonn, Hanstein, 1915. M. 2. — 
Ibid. 11 : Tertulliani de baptism© et Ps.-Cypriani de rebaptismate recensio 
nova, iv, 77 pp. Ebenda 1916. M. 12; Emendationes et adnotationes ad 
Tertulliani apologeticum. 58 pp. Ebenda 1919. M. 1, 20. Victohinus op 
Pettau. Victorini Episcopi Petavionensis Opera ex recensione Johannis 
Haussleiter. (CSEL 49). Ixxiv, 194 pp. Wien, Tempsky, und Leipzig, 
Freytag, 1916. M. 15. 

The large number of exemplary editions of the works of the 
Church Fathers which have appeared during and since the war 
is surely one of the best proofs of the eagerness and the success 
with which work has been carried on in Germany in these 
sorry times. In particular, the two collections which we are 
accustomed to call the Vienna Corpus (CSEL) and the Berlin 
Corpus (GChrSchr) have been enlarged by a number of valu- 
able volumes, and still others are in prospect. We shall take 
up the new editions severally in alphabetical order. Of Pet- 
schenig's edition of Ambrose's Explanation of the Psalms 
the second volume has appeared. This contains the Enarra- 
tiones in duodeeim psalmos Davidicos (Psalms I, 35-40, 43, 45, 


47, 48, 61), which were composed at different times. The not 
very numerous extant manuscripts fall into two classes, whose 
archetypes must have been written in the early Middle Ages. 
The codices of the first class (Paris 1733, Ambros. (without 
numeral), Trecensis 933), from the eleventh and twelfth cen- 
turies, have the greater value; nevertheless the leading man- 
uscripts of the second class (Paris 1739, 14465, 16398) from the 
twelfth century are not to be neglected. Codex Parisinus 1733 
must be regarded as the true basis for the text. 

The lack of a handy complete edition of the Greek Apolo- 
gists of the second century has long been felt, and this has now 
been supplied by Goodspeed. Theophilus of Antioch alone is 
not included, an omission which is explicable in view of the 
great length of his Apology, but is nevertheless to be regretted. 
The Syriac Aristides is presented in Latin translation; the 
Greek fragments are introduced essentially in the form in which 
the text was given by Geffcken (Zwei griechische Apologeten, 
Leipzig 1907). For Justin the Codex Parisinus was freshly 
collated, and the text of the manuscript is followed substan- 
tially throughout, with rather excessive conservatism. In the 
case of Tatian, too, a more conservative attitude toward the 
manuscript tradition is maintained than was held by Schwartz 
in his edition (TU4, 1888). For Athenagoras a photograph of 
the Arethas manuscript was employed for comparison with the 
editions of Schwartz (TU 4, 1891) and Geffcken (see above). 
The brief introductions to the several authors are written in 
German. That Goodspeed's edition does not satisfy all re- 
quirements may be seen, for example, from Geffcken's review 
of it in ThLZ 40 (1915), 368. 

Fromen has brought out a critical edition with historical 
explanations of the 'Historia Acephala,' which is an important 
source for the history of Athanasius. As the time of its com- 
position he leaves the years from 373 to 380 open, whereas 
hitherto a date between 385-402 had been accepted. — A very 
welcome discovery has been made by the indefatigable Morin. 
In a Wolfenbiittel manuscript which must have been written 
in the ninth century in northern Germany, he discovered 
ninety-five (ninety-six) sermons, of which seventy-two can with 


certainty be ascribed to Augustine, including thirty-three 
which were previously wholly or in part unknown. Morin has 
published these thirty-three, and in an appendix nine other 
sermons, one of which he attributes to Optatus of Mileve, and 
four to Quodvultdeus of Carthage, to whom Augustine ad- 
dressed his treatise 'De haeresibus.' The authors of the four 
others he is unable to determine. The gem of the collection is 
sermon 32, 'de ordinatione episcopi,' an extensive discourse 
which Augustine must have delivered soon after the CoUatio 
cum Donatistis (411). The edition has been prepared with that 
circumspection and painstaking care which were to be expected 
of Morin. The external form of the volume may fairly be called 
magnificent, worthy of the great subject, and a treasure for 
book-lovers. A full descriptive account of the several pieces in 
the collection is given by Carl Weyman, HJG 39 (1919), 117. 
The Greek text of the commentary on the Catholic Epistles 
by DiDYMUS THE Blind is lost, but for insignificant fragments. 
The Latin translation made by Epiphanius Scholasticus, the 
friend of Cassiodorus, has to serve instead of the original. Of 
this translation Zopfl has furnished a critical edition, taking 
as a basis, in addition to the manuscripts (Codd. Laonensis, 
Berolinensis, Vaticanus), the editio princeps of 1531, which 
rests on a manuscript basis of its own. 

A critical edition of the writings of Epiphanius of Salamis 
has long been felt to be one of the pressing needs of learned 
studies in this field, since neither Dindorf nor Oehler based his 
text on adequate material, or was able to form any clear idea 
of the manuscript tradition. This lack has now been supplied 
by Holl. As far back as 1910, in a monograph in TU 36, 2, he 
had laid the foundations for a text which should satisfy all de- 
mands, and such a text he has given us in this edition. Un- 
fortunately, though some of the manuscripts are old (Cod. 
Vatic, goes back without intermediary to a complete edition 
of the works current in the ninth century) , the tradition is poor 
and the editor is constrained at every turn to resort to conjec- 
tural emendation. In this procedure, Holl has shown the skill 
of a master, and has presented us a text that is not arbitrarily 
made to conform to preconceived notions, but rests on sober 


and trustworthy considerations. A special merit of this 
edition is the apparatus, which gives not only references to all 
Biblical passages and parallels in other authors — of itself an 
extremely laborious undertaking — but also abundant refer- 
ences to the modern literature and many observations of the 
editor's own. The whole work has deservedly been called a 
philological masterpiece of the first order. — A substantial 
addition to the tools of our learned craft is an edition of Gela- 
sius's Church History, prepared by the church historian 
Loeschcke, who unfortunately died prematurely before the 
war. We had previously no complete edition of this history, 
but had to depend for books 1 and 2 on Balforeus's edition of 
1599 and reprints of it, and for book 3 on Ceriani's edition of 
1861. The chief manuscripts have proved to be Codd. Ambros. 
534, Vatic. 1142, and Hierosol. 111. None of these manu- 
scripts is free from errors, and it was the task of the editor to 
construct by means of internal criticism a text which should 
correspond as closely as possible to the original text of Gelasius. 
In this, by general consent, Loeschcke was most successful, 
and, unless new material should comp to light, his edition may 
be considered definitive. 

Oi Hilberg's edition of the Letters of Hieronymus the 
third and last volume of the text has appeared. The Prolego- 
mena and the Indices are still lacking; the manuscript of these, 
according to the editor, has been handed in to the Academy, 
but has not yet been printed. — Feder had already done pre- 
liminary work for his edition of the minor writings of Hilarius 
in his 'Studien zu Hilarius von Poitiers,' which appeared in 
1910-12 in SAW, and for the Prolegomena he could refer to 
this work. The chief interest of scholars has always centred 
upon the polemic-historical writings, and above all upon the 
so-called ' Fragmenta Historica.' These Feder proposes to desig- 
nate as 'Collectanea (not collectio) antiariana Parisina,' in 
view of the contents and tradition an appropriate title. Hap- 
pily he has resisted the temptation to arrange the fragments ac- 
cording to his personal surmises. If Feder is right, Hilarius 
wrote in 356, before he went into exile, a work probably bearing 
the title 'Opus historicum adversus Valentem et Ursacium.' 


To this the first two fragments belong, and probably the third 
also, as well as the 'Liber I ad Constantium.' After Seleucia 
and Rimini, probably in December 359, he wrote in Constanti- 
nople a book with the same title, and as 'Liber II ad Constan- 
tium,' to which fragments 4-10 may be ascribed. The remain- 
ing fragments may belong to a Liber III, which appeared shortly 
before the death of Hilarius (367), or shortly after. The ex- 
cerpts from the work which led to the present collection were 
made before 400. In the new edition of the 'Tractatus Mys- 
teriorum' many errors of the first editor, Gamurrini (1887), 
were to be corrected as a result of a fresh examination of the 
Codex Aretinus. Besides the undoubtedly genuine hymns, 
those that are doubtful, or are certainly not genuine, are also 
printed. Feder offers supplementary notes in WSt 41 (1920), 
51-60, 167-181. 

The edition of Hippolytus' Refutatio by Wendland is de- 
signed to replace the Gottingen edition by Duncker and Schnei- 
dewin, the Oxford edition by Miller, and the Paris edition by 
Cruice. This end has been fully attained. The volume cannot, 
however, be taken up without sadness, for Wendland died 
(1915) before he had finished his work. A short preface signed 
by Hermann Diels and Karl HoU informs us that Wendland 
was able to supervise the printing of the text and to prepare the 
indexes; but for the introduction, which was to deal not only 
with the history of the tradition, but also with material prob- 
lems, he had got no farther than a sketch, only a few parts of 
which had been completely worked out. No attempt has been 
made to make a whole out of these fragments. The only addi- 
tion to the author's work is the account of the manuscripts and 
printed editions which was indispensable to the use of the 
edition. One excellence of this new edition, as in HoU's 
Epiphanius, are the references beneath the text to cognate ideas 
in other authors. The short tractate of Irenaeus, preserved 
only in Armenian, in proof of the Apostolic preaching, was 
translated into German by Weber 1912 for the Bibliothek der 
Kirchenvater. He has now published it in Latin translation. 
Scholars who know Armenian, like Allgeier (ThRev 17, 1918, 
253) and Preuschen (ThLZ 44, 1919, 77), praise the trust- 


worthiness of this literal translation. In 1891 Bonwetsch made 
accessible to us a collection of the works of Methodius by 
a Slavic translator which greatly enlarged our knowledge of the 
hterary production of the Bishop of Olympus. The new edition 
of his work imites in one volume all the remains of the writings 
of Methodius. A comparison of the introduction to this volume 
with the Prolegomena of the edition of 1891 shows at every 
point that in the meantime Bonwetsch has not been idle. In 
view of the completeness with which all the attainable material 
has been brought together and the thoroughly reliable way in 
which it has been edited, the edition may well be called defini- 
tive. The volume begins with the avfiirdcriov rj irepl ayveias (this 
is the correct title), for which Bonwetsch has had recourse to 
the direct tradition. This is followed by the other writings 
in the order in which they stand in the Slavic Corpus; and at 
the end are the fragments from irepl ruiv yevr^rSiv (Photius), 
Kara TIop<l>vpiov, on Job, irepl ixapriipav (Theodoret, Parallela 
Sacra), and some fragments which it is impossible to assign 
definitely. The copious index of passages makes it easy to get 
an insight into Methodius's sources and cognate material. 

After the death of Franz Skutsch the edition of the HomiUes 
of Origen on Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Joshua and 
and Judges, was entrusted to Baehrens, who in a study pub- 
lished in 1916 in the TU made clear the relations of the textual 
tradition. For the history of the text it is an important fact 
that, as Baehrens proved, the five archetypes of the Latin 
translation preserved to us come from Cassiodorus's library at 
Vivarium, whither they had probably beep brought from the 
library of Eugippius in Castellum LucuUanum. There was no 
other tradition of the text than that which goes back to these 
archetypes. The Greek fragments are included in the edition 
under a rule. It adds to the usefulness of the edition that the 
parallels found in Philo, Procopius, Ambrose, and especially 
in Origen himself, are included in the literary apparatus. An 
important aid is thus provided for the study of the Alexandrian 
interpretation of the Bible, since the large dependence of Origen 
upon Philo is nowhere more demonstrable than in these 


Rauschen's editions of two writings of Tertuloan, de- 
signed primarily for seminary exercises, have text-critical value. 
Professor Esser in Bonn, one of the most competent judges in 
the matter, has described the edition of 'De paenitentia' and 
'De pudicitia' as the best that we possess. In many places the 
correct reading has been restored, and the text is accompanied 
by an ample apparatus of valuable notes. On these editions 
cf. further, G. Esser, ThRev 15 (1916), 65 and 16 (1917), 25Q. 
— On the edition of the Pseudo-Cyprianic treatise 'De re- 
baptismate' cf. the additional critical remarks of Ernst, 
ZkTh 41 (1917), 726-741. For the work of Victorinus no 
editor better qualified by his knowledge of the subject could 
well have been found than Haussleiter. He has been occu- 
pied with preparations for a complete edition of this author for 
the Vienna Corpus ever since 1886. He discovered that in Cod. 
Ottobon. 3288A the commentary on the Apocalypse by the 
bishop of Pettau was preserved in its original form, not dis- 
figured by Jerome's alterations, as in all the printed editions. 
His efforts to discover other witnesses to this text were un- 
fortunately vain, and the Ottobonianus remains our only 
source. Facing the genuine Victorinus laboriously recovered 
from that manuscript, Haussleiter sets on the opposite page the 
bastard text of Jerome, distinguishing in it the later recensions 
by means of an easily intelligible system of brackets. Those 
who use the edition can hardly realize what a wearisome task 
this presentation of the text involved. The edition of the 
Commentary is preceded by the little treatise 'De fabrica 
mundi.' For the text of this also there is only a single witness, 
the Lambeth Codex 414. 

b. Translations 

Bibliotkek der Kirchenvater. Eine Auswahl patrlstischer Werke in 
deutscher Uebersetzung. Hrsg. von Otto Bardenhewer, Theodor Scher- 
mann, Carl Wey man. 1&-37. Band. Kempten und MUnchen, KSsel, 1914- 
1920. Jeder Band geb. M. 4,50. — Hertling, Georg Graf von. Die Be- 
kenntnisse des hi. Augustinus. 8.-15. Aufl. x, 520 pp. Titelbild. 12°. Frei- 
burg, Herder, 1915-19. M. 5; geb. M. 6, 50. —Oud-Ckristelijke Schrij- 
vers in Nederlandscke Vertaling, onder B«dactie van H. U. Meyboom. 
Leiden, A. W. Sijthoff. Each Part, fl. 1, 50. — Zettersteen K. V., En anonym 
biografi ofver biskop Babbula i Edessa. Ofversatt fr&n syriska (EA 16, 1915, 


1-40). — Zurhellen-Pfleiderer, Else, Augustins Bekenntnisse. Geklirzt 
und verdeutscht. S.Auflage. 159 pp. GSttingen, Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 
1920. M. 2,50. 

That important undertaking, the Bibliothek der Kirchen- 
vdter, the first volumes of which appeared in 1911, has made 
active progress. The translations are in all cases careful; the 
introductions, frequently dealing minutely with the subject, are 
based upon thorough acquaintance with the literature, and may 
be consulted with advantage even for questions of critical de- 
tail. The following volumes have appeared in the period cov- 
ered by our survey; volumes 17, 21, and 32, Ambrosius, Hexa- 
meron, Lukaskommentar, Ethische Schriften (J. E. Nieder- 
huber); 35, Apostolische Vater (F. Zeiler); 31, Athanasius, 
Reden gegen die Arianer (A. Stegmann); Leben des Antonius, 
and (as an appendix) Leben des Pachomius {H. Mertel) ; 16, 18, 
19, 28, 29, 30, Augustinus, Gottesstaat {A. Schroder) ; Johannes- 
evangelium {Th. Specht); Bekenntnisse und Brief e (A. Hoff- 
mann); 20, Kegel Benedicts von Nursia (P. Bihlmeyer); 23, 
25, 26, 27, Chrysostomus, Matthauskommentar (J. Chr. Bauer); 
Vom Priestertum (A. Naegle); 34, Cyprian, Traktate (J. 
Baer); 37, Ephraem der Syrer, Reden und Hymnen (0. Bar- 
denhewer); 33, Justin, Dialog und Mahnrede {Ph. Hduser); 
36, Laktantius {A. Hartl); 20, Sulpicius Severus, Martin- 
schriften (P. Bihlmeyer); 24, TertuUian II (G. Esser); 20, 
Vincenz von Lerinum (G. Rauschen); 22, Persische Martyrer 
(0. Braun). 

In the collection of Dutch translations imder the direction of 
Meyhoom, the works of Clement of Alexandria (11 parts), and 
Irenaeus's "Weerleging en Af wending der valschelijk dusge- 
naamde Wetenschap" (4 parts), both by Meyboom, have ap- 
peared. In the judgment of Bakuizen van den Brmk the 
translation is faithful and readable. 

c. General Works on Patristics 

Bardenhewer, Otto, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur. 2. Band. Vom 
Ende des 2. bis zum Anfang des 4. Jahrhunderts. 2. Aufl. xiv, 729 pp. Frei- 
burg, Herder, 1914. M. 14; geb. M. 16, 60. — Marx, J., Abriss der Patro- 
logie. 2. Aufl. viii, 201 pp. Paderbom, Schoningh, 1919. M. 6. — Schanz, 


Martin , Geschichte der rijmischen Litteratur bis zum Gesetzgebungswerk des 
Kaisers Justinian. 4. Teil: 1. HSlfte: Die Litteratur des vierten Jahrhun- 
derts. 2. Aufl. xv, 572 pp. MUnchen, Beck, 1914. M. 17, 50; geb. M. 33, 60. 
2. Hidfte: Die Litteratur des fiinften und sechsten Jahrhunderts. Von 
Martin Schanz (f), Carl Hosius und Gustav Kriiger. xviii, 681 pp. 
Ebenda 1920. M. 50; geb. M. 72. 

The second edition of the second volume oi Bardenhewer's 
Litteraturgeschichte everywhere gives evidence of careful re- 
vision. The formal side of the writings, in particular, receives 
more attention, and the sections on the development of the 
literature in general have been thoroughly recast. It may be 
remarked here that the concluding volume of Bardenhewer's 
work has not yet appeared. On the other hand, Schanz's 
Romische Literaturgeschichte has been brought to completion, 
and in it a work of reference created such as in similar compre- 
hensiveness we have hitherto not had either in German or in 
any other language. After Schanz's death (1914) the task was 
taken up hy Hosius, professor of classical philology in Wiirz- 
burg, and Kriiger, professor of theology in Giessen, the author 
of the present review. While in the part of the work which he 
undertook Hosius was able to avail himself of preparatory 
studies by Schanz which were already well advanced, Kriiger 
had to break up completely new ground, so that the part pub- 
lished by him is entirely his own production. Especial pains 
have been taken in the characterization of the several writers, 
the assembling of the whole scientific apparatus, and the ex- 
position of the learned controversies. That the author was 
enabled to include the most recent literature in English he owes 
to the active assistance of Professor Alexander Sbuter in Cam- 
bridge. Inasmuch as in a work of this kind the personality of 
the author is completely in the background, it will not be re- 
garded as an exhibition of vanity on his part if in this place he 
says of his own work that it will be an indispensable aid for all 
learned studies in the history of the literature of its period.' 

' It may be noted here that the third part of Schanz, comprising the literature from 
Minucius Felix to Lactantius, which is at present out of print, will be ready in a new 
edition, completely revised by the present writer, in the autumn of this year. 


d. Monographs and Critical Investigations 

1. General. 

Baur L., Untersuchimgen ilber die VergSttlichimgslehre in der Theologie 
der griechischen Vater (ThQ 98, 1916, 467-491; 99, 1917/18, 225-252; 100, 
1919, 426-444). — Bousset, Wilhelm, JUdisch-christliclier Schulbetrieb in 
Alexandria imd Rom. (FRLANT, Neue Folge, 6). viii, 319. Gottingen, 
Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1915. M. 12. — Emmel, Karl, Das Fortleben 
der antiken Lehren von der Beseelung bei den Kirchenvatem. (Diss. 
Giessen.) v, 107. Borna-Leipzig, Noske.* — Harnack, Adolf von, Der 
"Eros "in der alten christlichen Literatur. (SAB 1918, v, 81-94). Ber- 
lin, Reimer, 1918. M. 1. — Harnack, Adolf von. Die Terminologie der 
Wiedergeburt und verwandter Erlebnisse in der altesten Kirche. (TU 42, 3, 
97-143). Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1918. M. 13, 20 [see below, under Origen]. — 
Holzhey, Karl, Das Bild der Erde bei den Kirchenvatem. (Festgabe 
Knbpfler {swpra p. 287], 177-187). — Huebner, Margarete, TJnter- 
suchungen uber das Naturrecht in der altchristlichen Literatur, besonders des 
Abendlandes, vom Ausgang des 2. Jahrhunderts bis Augustin. (Diss.) xi, 82. 
Bonn, (Jeorgi, 1918. — Kneller, C. A., Joh. 19, 26-27 bei den Kirchen- 
vatem (ZNTh40, 1916, 597-612). — Kriiger, Gustav, Die Bibeldichtung 
zu Ausgang des Altertums. Mit einem Anhang: Des Avitus von Vienna 
Sang vom Paradiese, zweites Buch, im Versmass der Urschrift ilbertragen. 
32. Giessen, TOpelmann, 1919. M. 2. — Loofs, Friedrich, Die Christo- 
logie der Macedonianer. (Studienf ur Hauck [supra p. 288], 64-76) ; Zwei ma- 
cedonianische Dialoge. (SAB 1914, xix, 526-551). Berlin, Reimer, 1914. 
M. 1. — Meyer, Hans, Geschichte der Lehre von den Keimkraften von der 
Stoa bis zum Ausgang der Patristik. v, 227. Bonn, Hanstein, 1914. M. 4, 50. 

— Nelz, R., Die theologischen Schulen der morgenlandischen Kirchen 
wShrend der sieben ersten christlichen Jahrhunderte in ihrer Bedeutimg fUr 
die Ausbildimg des Klerus. iii, 112. Bonn, Hanstein, 1916. M. 1, 50. — • 
Schilling, Otto, Naturrecht und Staat nach der Lehre der alten Kirche. 
(VRSG 24). viii, 247. Paderbom, Schtoingh, 1914. M. 7. — Schulte, 
Eleazar, O. F. M., Die Entwicklung der Lehre vom menschlichen Wissen 
Christi. (FLDG 12, 2). vii, 147. Paderbom, Schoningh, 1914. M. 4, 50. — 
Walther, Oeorg, TJntersuchungen zur Geschichte der griechischen Vaterun- 
ser-Exegese. (TU 40, 3). viii, 123. Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1914. M. 4, 50. — 
Zahn, Theodor, Ein Kompendium der biblischen Prophetie aus der afri- 
kanischen Kirche urn 305-325. (Studien Hauck [supra, p. 288], 52-63). 

— Haase, Felix, Christlich-orientalische Hanschriftenkataloge (Ehrengabe 
[vide supra, p. 287], 1-15). 

General. The variety of subjects brought together under 
this heading is so great that the reviewer is constrained to 
abandon any attempt at a methodical grouping and to fall 
back upon the simple alphabetical order. Bauer's investiga- 
tion has to do with the question how the doctrine of d^o-is was 

* Haase, see below (after Zahn). 


worked out into the comprehensive, speculative, fundamental 
concept of the dogmatics of the church, so that it was not only 
made fruitful for the theoretical comprehension of Christian 
doctrine, but the moral demands and the content of the sacra- 
mental litiu-gy were linked with it, and thus the glow of Chris- 
tian mysticism could be kindled from it and inflamed to the 
highest pitch. Bauer endeavors to make this clear to begin 
with in the writers of the first two centuries. The articles are 
not yet concluded: Irenaeus and Clement are still lacking. 

The theme which Bous set treats is equally significant for 
philologists and theologians. In a study of the writings of Philo 
and Clement of Alexandria he came upon the problem how to 
separate what was original in the two men from what they had 
received through a school tradition. Investigation showed that 
Philo built up his exegetical work on an older foundation which 
is almost everywhere clearly recognizable. The sources which 
he thus used stand much nearer to the spirit of Hellenistic cul- 
ture and philosophy than Philo himself. This material came 
to him from Jewish exegetical schools in Alexandria. Similarly 
Clement in large parts of the Excerpts and Eclogae, apparently 
also in his Hypotyposes, drew largely from an extraneous 
source characterized by peculiar ideas which Bousset desig- 
nates as in the broader sense of the word gnostic; as the author 
he is inclined to conjecture Pantaenus. In the Paedagogus and 
the first five books of the Stromata, Clement is more independ- 
ent; while the last books show that after he left Alexandria he 
fell back upon his earlier note books. Thus, as we find the prod- 
ucts of Jewish exegetical schools behind the literary produc- 
tions of Philo, so there emerges behind those of Clement the 
teaching of the Alexandrian catechetic school. Bousset thinks 
that the work of very different minds is clearly to be discerned 
in it — antiquarians whose learning commanded Clement's 
highest respect, and theosophists who influenced his whole 
thinking, although his personal interest did not fasten upon 
their perilous fantastic notions, but was throughout dominated 
by the great idea of a reconciliation of Christianity with Greek 
philosophy. With the key to the understanding of Philo and 
Clement which he has thus discovered, Bousset endeavors in 


the last section of his book to explain certain phenomena in the 
Christian literature of the second century, and to gain an in- 
sight into the nature of the ancient Christian SiS&aKoXos and 
his method of instruction. The work in all its parts is unusually 
stimulating, and will keep its charm under critical examination 
and in further development. That its author was taken away 
by an untimely death (March 8, 1920) ^ is a great loss to inter- 
national scholarship. — Emmel's dissertation deserves atten- 
tion both on account of its subject and of the copious material 
which the author has collected. Emmel shows how the con- 
troversy about the origin of animal life in the foetus which had 
its rise in Greek philosophy was taken up in Christianity, and 
particularly the form and application which the Church Fathers 
gave it in order to create a theoretical substructure capable of 
supporting the doctrine of original sin. 

Haase gives a catalogue of the Syrian, Armenian, Coptic, 
Arabic, Aethiopic, and Abyssinian manuscripts of Christian 
origin. They offer much material for the textual criticism of 
the Old and New Testaments, for liturgies, hagiography, the 
history of theological literature, and heresiology. Through the 
numerous Apocrypha preserved in them, they are also an inex- 
haustible mine for folk-lore and for piety. 

Harnack aims to exhibit the development through which 
the conception of epus as sensual love, which was current among 
Christian writers (Ignat. ad Rom. 7), was transformed into the 
lofty appraisal of it that is found in Origen and still more in 
Dionysius the Areopagite: Beibrepov elvai to tov epcoros ovofia rod 
TTJs aycLTnjs. In the essay named in the second place above 
Harnack gives a wide extension to the idea of 'regeneration'; 
almost everything is discussed which stands in any relation to 
the Christian 'renewal' {avaKaivwa-is) . The article is not merely 
a collection of materials, but makes contributions to method- 
ology. Harnack is especially concerned to oppose the — in his 
opinion erroneous — method of the historians of rehgion, who 
think that they throw light upon the Christian religion by as- 
certaining where particular opinions, ideas, and images origi- 

* Not March 15, as was stated by mistake in the January number of this Review, 
p. 80, n. 4. 


nated, and what their original meaning was. — Holzhey has 
treated an interesting theme with much intelligence. He shows 
how the doctrine of the spherical form of the earth, which was 
entirely familiar to Greek science, fell into discredit with the 
Fathers in their endeavour to rescue the Mosaic account of 
creation and especially the biblical idea of the a-repecona, and 
eventually so completely disappeared that it had to be redis- 
covered at the end of the Middle Ages. — Kneller showsthat 
the Fathers interpreted the words of Jesus on the cross to his 
mother and to John as a testimony to the birth from the Virgin, 
and to give support to the custom of virgines subintrodudae. — 
Kriiger' sendesivour is chiefly to rescue the poetical paraphrase 
of Scripture by Avitus of Vienna from unmerited oblivion. He 
sees in it the climax of epic composition in the ancient church, 
reminiscences of which may be discovered even in Milton. — 
Loofs supplements his numerous studies on the history of the 
Arian controversy by an admirable account of the homoiousian 
party, for the purpose of illumining the Christology of the 
Macedonians, who developed out of that party under homoian 
influence. In the second of the articles noted he has investi- 
gated the Macedonian quotations in Didymus of Alexandria, 
and with them collected the other scanty identifiable remains 
of Macedonian writings. — Especially to be commended is the 
admirable study of If e 2/ er on the doctrine of the X67ot awep- 
narcKoi in Greek philosophy and in the Church Fathers. It 
would be hard to find an equally thorough philosophical inves- 
tigation which deals with difficult problems in so readable and 
suggestive a fashion. Augustine is treated with especial 

Schilling's work is occasioned by Troeltsch's celebrated 
book on the 'Soziallehren.' He is not convinced that Troeltsch 
is right in his contention that the state and its institutions ap- 
peared to the early ecclesiastical writers to be founded upon 
'Urfreveln der Menschheit,' and that consequently these writers 
contradict their own fundamental principle when — since they 
could not simply reject the state — they took up and adapted 
the Stoic lex naturae to give a justification to it. In Schilling's 
view no such contradiction exists. The truth is rather that in 


regarding the state from the pomt of view of the law of nature, 
these writers were not adapting kindred, but non-Christian, 
forces and ideas; the law of nature is, on the contrary, from 
the very beginning rooted and grounded in the Christian idea 
as it is set forth by Jesus (Matt. 7, 12) and by Paul. To prove 
this Schilling treats first the classical doctrine of the law of 
nature in the Stoa and the doctrine of the Roman jurists, and 
then traces the development of the Christian doctrine of the 
law of nature in the individual Fathers down to Isidore of 
Seville. The addition and expansion which Schilling thus gives 
to Troeltsch's presentation of the subject are recognized by 
Troeltsch himself as valuable (ThLZ 40, 1915, 435, and HZ 115, 
1915, 99-109). — In her re-examination of the problem Frau- 
lein Huebner comes to the result that the Fathers, notwith- 
standing all their agreement with the Stoic theory, did not find 
their way to a recognition of the state. The historical state ap- 
peared to them, in spite of everything, as a result of sin; and 
they gave hardly any serious consideration to the possibility of 
a development of it on the good side. According to Fraulein 
Huebner therefore Troeltsch's conclusion must be regarded as 
substantially estabUshed. 

The problem of the human knowledge of Christ ever afresh 
occupies theologians, most recently Bishop Gore (The Problem 
of the Consciousness of our Lord in his Mortal Life, 1917). 
Schulte gives a resume of the history of the problem from 
Origen to the Carolingian theologians. Unfortunately, as F. 
Diekamp in ThRev 14 (1915), 101-108 has shown by numerous 
examples, the work lacks critical acumen and accuracy in de- 
tails. — Walther investigates the question whether the Greek 
patristic interpreters of the Lord's Prayer were influenced by 
one another in their understanding of it, and if so to what ex- 
tent. The Fathers examined are Clement, Origen, Cyril of 
Jerusalem, Gregory of Nyssa, Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, 
Maximus Confessor, and Peter of Laodicea. It turns out that 
they hardly ever get beyond the questions which Origen had 
raised. Cyril of Jerusalem influenced especially Gregory and 
Chrysostom. The influence of the latter Fathers is not easy 
to estimate, but that of Chrysostom is evident in Peter. Val- 


uable critical additions are made by G. Wohlenberg, ThLBl 35 
(1915), 82-86. — Zahn reprints, after a fresh collation, the 
'Prophetiae ex omnibus libris,' which Amelli published in the 
Miscellanea Casinense from Cod. Sangall. 133. Zahn considers 
it to be a handbook of biblical prophecy for readers who had 
small acquaintance with the Scriptures. Compare the review 
by G. Wohlenberg, ThLBl 36 (1916), 65-69. 

2. The Fathers, in Alphabetical Order. 

Ambbosxasteh. Mundle, Wilhelm, Die Exegese der paulinischen Briefe 
im Kommentar des Ambrosiaster. Diss. 95 pp. Marburg i. H., Chr. Schaaf . 
Ambrosius. Friedrich, Philipp, St. Ambrosius von Mailand Uber die 
Jungfraiilichkeit Marias vor der Geburt (Kath. 97, 2, 1917, 145-169, 232- 
258, 319-333; St. Ambrosius von Mailand uber die Jungfraugeburt Marias. 
(Festgabe Knopfler [supra p. 287], 89-109). Ammontcts. Zahn, Theodor, 
Der Exeget Ambrosius (ZKG 38, 1920, 1-22, 311-336). Apologists. 
A ndres, Friedrich, Die Engellehre der griechischen Apologeten des zweiten 
Jahrhunderts und ihr VerhSltnis zur griechisch-romischen Damonologie 
(FLDG12, 3). XX, 183 pp. Paderbom, Schoningh, 1914. M.6. — Casel,Odo, 
Die Eucharistielehre des hi. Justinus Martyr (Kath. 94, 1, 1914, 153-176, 
243-263, 331-355, 414-436). — Friedrich, Philipp, Studien zum Lehrbegriflf 
des friihchristlichen Apologeten Marcianus Aristides (ZkTh 43, 1919, 31-77). 
— Haase, Felix, Der Adressat der Aristides-Apologie (ThQ 99, 1918, 422- 
429). — Harnack, Adolf von, Rhodon und Apelles. (Studien Hauck [see 
p. 288], 39-51). — Preuschen, Erwin, Die Echtheit von Justins Dialog 
gegenTrypho (ZNW 19, 1920, 102-127). — Waibel, Alfons, Die natUrliche 
Gotteserkenntnis in der apologetischen Litteratur des zweiten Jahrhunderts. 
(Diss. Breslau.) ii, 140 pp. Kempten, Kosel, 1916. Asterius of Amasea. 
Bretz, Adolf, Studien und Texte zu Asterios von A. (TU 40, 1). iv, 124 pp. 
Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1914. M. 4. Athanasius. Hugger, V., Des heiligen Atha- 
nasius Traktat m Matth. 11, 27 (ZkTh 42, 1918, 437-441). — Reitzenstein, 
Richard, Des Athanasius Werk Uber das Leben des heiligen Antonius. 
(SAH 1914, 8). [See below under Monasticism, p. 369 f.] — Stegmann, 
Anton, Die pseudoathanasianische ivte Rede gegen die Arianer als Kara. 
'Kpuavwv X670S ein ApoUinarisgut. 214 pp. Rottenburg, Baader, 1917. 
M. 4, 50; Zur Datierung der drei Reden des hi. Athanasius gegen die Arianer 
(ThQ 96, 1914, 423-450; cp. 98, 1916, 227-231). — Weigl, Eduard, Unter- 
suchungen zur Christologie des heiligen Athanasius. (FLDG 12, 4). viii, 
190 pp. Paderbom, Schoningh, 1914. M. 16. — Woldendorp, Johannes 
Jacob, De incarnatione. Een Geschrift van Athanasius. (Diss.) 72 pp. 
Groningen, Wolters, 1919. Augustinus. Aalders, W . J., A. 's bekeer- 
ing (Stemmen des tijds 4, 1915, 1-28. 123-155). — Adam, Karl, Die kirch- 
liche SUndenvergebung nach dem heiligen Augustinus. (FLDG 14, 1). x, 
167 pp. Paderbom, Schoningh, 1917. M. 6. — Boehmer, Heinrich, Die 
Lobpreisungen des Augustinus (NkZ 26, 1915, 419-438, 487-512). — Drae- 
seke, Johannes, Zur Frage nach den Quellen von Augustins Kenntnis der 
griechischen Philosophic (ThStKr 89, 1916, 541-562). — Eisenhofer, Lud- 


mg, A. in den Evangelien Honulien Gregors des Grossen. (Festgabe KnSpf* 
ler [supra p. 287], 5&-6e). — Haitjema, Th. L., A'. Wetenschapsidee. 247 
pp. Utrecht, van Druten, 1917. — Harnack, Adolf von. Die Hahepimkte in 
Augustins Konfessionen. (Aus der Friedens- imd Kriegsarbeit [supra p. 294 f .], 
67-99). — Hessen, Johannes, Die BegrUndung der Erkenntnis nach dem 
heiligen Augustinus. (BGPhM 19, 2). xii, 118 p. MUnster i. W., Aschen- 
dorff, 1916. M. 4, 20; Die unmittelbare Gotteserkenntnis nach dem hi. 
Augustinus. 60 pp. Paderbom, Schoeningh, 1919. M. 4, 50. — Hiiner- 
mann, Friedrich, Die Busslehre des heil. Augustinus. (FLDG 12, 1). xii, 
157 pp. Paderbom, Schoeningh, 1914. M. 4. — Jiilicher, Adolf, Augus- 
tinus und die Topik der Aretalogie (Hermes 54, 1919, 94-103). — Karsten, 
H. T., Een Commentaar op Augustinus de civitate dei. [H. Scholz 1911] 
(NThT 3, 1914, 64-74). — Kratzer, Die Frage nach dem Seelendualismus bei 
Augustinus (AGPh 21, 1915, 310-336, 369-395). — Lindau, Bans, Augu- 
stin und das Daemonische (ZKG 36, 1916, 99-108). — Mager, Alois, Die 
Staatslehre des Augustinus. 15 p. Miinchen, Lentner, 1920. — Noerre- 
gard, J., Augustins religiSse Gennembrud [Conversion]. (Diss.) 343 
pp. Kopenhagen, Pio, 1920. — Offer gelt, Franz, Die Staatslehre des heil. 
A. nach seinen samtlichen Werken. viii, 86 pp. Bonn, Hanstein, 1914. M. 
1, 50. — Ohl, Augustins Lehre Uber die Tugenden der Heiden (NkZ 25, 1914, 
413-449). — Peters, J., Die Ehe nach der Lehre des heil. A. (VRSG 32). 
viii, 77 pp. Paderbom, Schoeningh, 1918. M. 3, 60. — Poschmann, Bern- 
hard, Hat A. die Privatbusse eingefuhrt.'' 34 pp. Braunsberg, Bender, 1920. 
M. 3, 20. —Rolfes, E., Hat Augustin Plato nicht gelesen? (DTh 5, 1918, 17- 
39). — Rating, PF. , Untersuchungen liber Augustins Quaestiones und Locu- 
tiones in Heptateuchum. (FLDG 13, 3. 4). x, 390 pp. Paderbom, Schdningh, 
1916. M. 15. — Troeltseh, Ernst, Augustin, die christliche Antike und 
das Mittelalter. (Historische Bibliothek 36). xii, 173 pp. Miinchen, Olden- 
bourg, 1915. M. 11. Cassianus. Schwartz, Eduard, Konzilstudien. 1. 
Cassian und Nestorius. (SchrGesStr 20, 1-17). Strassburg, Triibner, 1914, 
M. 3, 60. — Wrzol, L., Die Psychologic des Johannes Cassianus. (DTh 5. 
1918, 181-213, 425^56). Chbtsostomtjs. Naegle, August, Zeit und Ver- 
anlassung des Abfassung des Chrysost.-DiaJogs de sacerdotio. (HJG 37, 1916, 
1-48). — Schievnetz, Stephan, Die Eschatologie des heiligen Chrysost. und 
ihr Verhaltnis zu der origenistischen (Kath 94, 1, 1914, 271-281, 370-379, 
436-448). — Stiglmayr, Josef, Die historische Grundlage der Schrift des 
heiligen Chrysost. Uber das Priestertum (ZkTh 41, 1917, 413-449). Clatj- 
DiAJSTjs Mamebttjs. Zimmermann, F., Des CI. M. Schrift De statu animae 
libri tres (DTh 1, 1914, 332-368, 470-495). Clemens of Alexandria 
Eihl. H., Die Stellung des Clemens v. Alex, zur griechischen Bildung (ZPhKr 
164, 1917, 33-59). Commodiantjs. Martin, Jo*e/, Commodianea. Text- 
kritische Beitrage zur Ueberlieferung, Verstechnik und Sprache der Gedichte 
Commodians. (SAW 181, 6). 118 p. Wien, Hoelder, 1917; Spuren einer alien 
Weiheformel bei Commodian. (ZNW 16, 1915, 231-233). — Vroom, H. B., 
De Commodiani metro et syntaxi annotationes. (Diss.) Utrecht. 1917. 
Cyprian. Dessau, Hermann, Pontius, der Biograph Cyprians (Hermes 
51, 1916, 65-92). — Kneller, Karl Aids, Der heUige C3rprian und das Kenn- 
zeichenderKirche (115. ErggnzungsheftzudenStML). iv, 72 pp. Freiburg, 
Herder, 1914, M. 1, 80; [vide infra Pesch, Nestorius]; Sacramentum Uni- 


tatis. Zu Cyprians Schrift an Donatus (ZkTh 40, 1916, 676-703). — Men- 
gis, Karl, Ein donatistisches Corpus cyprianischer Briefe. (Diss.) 76 pp. 
Freiburg, Caritasdruckerei, 1916. [cp. ZNW 15, 1914, 274-279]. — Rett- 
zenstein, Richard, Ein donatistisches Corpus cyprianischer Schriften. 
(NGW 1914, 85-92). — Cp. Pseudo-Cyprian. Cybil of Alexandria. 
Tyszkiawicz, Stanislaus, Der heil. Petrus in den Schriften Cyrills von Alex- 
andrien (ZkTh 43, 1919, 543-550). Dionysius Abeopagita. Mtiller, H. 
F.,Dionysios, Proklos, Plotinos. (BGPhM 20, 3. 4). viii. Ill pp. Munster 
i. W., Aschendorff, 1918. M. 5. — Sassen, Ferdinand, Pseudo-D. de Are- 
opagiet (De Beiaard 1919, 221-243). — Weertz, H., Die Gotteslehre des 
sogenannten Dionys. Areop. (ThGl 6, 1914, 812-831). Epiphanius of 
Salajos. Gressmann, Hugo, Judisch-aramaeisches bei Epiphanius (ZNW 
16, 1915, 193-197). — Holl, Karl, Die Schriften des Epiphanius gegen die 
Bilderverehrung. (SAB 1916, xxxv, 828-868). Berlin, Reimer, 1916. M. 2. 
— Wilpert, Josef, Drei unbekannte bilderfeindliche Schriften des Epi- 
phanius. (HJG 38, 1917, 532-535). Eusebius of Caesabea. Doergens, 
Heinrich, Eusebius von Caesarea als Darsteller der phoenizischen Religion. 
(FLDG 12, 5). xi, 103 pp. Paderbom, Schoeningh, 1915. M. 3, 60. — 
Zahn, Theodor, Eusebius von Casarea ein geborener Sklave (NkZ 29, 1918, 
59-82). FiHMicus Matbrnus. Groll, F., De syntaxi Firmiciana. (Diss.) 
viii, 66 pp. Breslau, Favorke, 1918. — Morin, Germain, Ein zweites 
christliches Werk des Firmicus Maternus: "Die Consul tationes Zacchaei et 
ApoUonii." (HJG 37, 1916, 229-266). — Reatz, August, Das theologische 
System der Consultationes Zacchaei et Apollonii mit Beriicksichtigung ihrer 
angeblichen Beziehung zu Firmicus Maternus. (FrThSt 25). viii, 153 pp. 
Freiburg, Herder, 1920. M. 12 (cp. Kath. 98, 2, 1918, 300-314). Gelasius 
OF Caesarea. Glas, Anion, Die Kirchengeschichte des Gelasios von Kai- 
sareia die Vorlage fUr die beiden letzten Blicher der Kirchengeschichte Rufins. 
(Byzantinisches Archiv 6). vi, 90 pp. Leipzig, Teubner, 1914. M. 4, 80. 
Hieronymus. Kunst, Carl, De S. Hieronymi studiis Ciceronianis. (Disserta- 
tiones philologicae Vindobonenses 12, 109-219). Ill pp. Wien und Leipzig, 
Deuticke, 1918. — Lammert, F. Die Angaben des Kirchenvaters Hieronymus 
iiber vulgares Latein (Philologus 76, 1919, 395-413). — Wutz, Franz, Ono- 
mastica Sacra. Untersuchungen zum Liber interpretationis nominum he- 
braicorum des hi. Hieronymus. 2 Vols. (TU 41, 1. 2). xxxii, 1200 pp. Leipzig, 
Hinrichs, 1915. M. 40.* Hippolytus. Baumstark, Anton, Hippolytos 
und die ausserkanonische Evangelienquelle des agyptischen GaJilaa-Testa- 
ments (ZNW 15, 1914, 332-335). — Preysing, Konrad Graf, Der Leser- 
kreis der Philosophumena H.s (ZkTh 38, 1914^ 421-445) ; Hippolyts Aus- 
scheiden aus der Kirche (ebd. 42, 1918, 177-186). Ibenaeus. Hoh, 
Johannes, Die Lehre des hi. Irenaeus iiber das Neue Testament. (NA 7, 4. 
5). xiii, 208 pp. Munster i. W., Aschendorff, 1919. M. 11, 20. — Liidtke, 
W., Bemerkungen zu Irenaeus (ZNW 15, 1914, 268-273). Isidore op Pe- 
LusitiM. Bayer, Leo, Isidors von P. klassische Bildung. (FLDG 13, 2). 
xi, 102 p. Paderbom, Schoningh, 1915. M. 4, 20. Jovinianus. Bakel, H. J. 
van, De "Protestant" Jovinian (NThT 7, 1918, 51-71). Julian von 
Aeclantjm. Stiglmayr, Josef, Der Job-kommentar von Monte Cassino 

* HiLAEHJS, see below (after Vincentius of Lerinum). 


(ZkTh 43, 1919, 269-288). Lactantius. Kock', Hugo, Zwei Ubersehene 
Stellen bei Lactanz (ZNW 18, 1917/18, 196-201); Der "Tempel Gottes" bei 
L. (Philologus 76, 1920, 235-238). — Stangl, rAoma«,Lactantiana(RhM 
70, 1915, 224-252. 441-471). Ltjcian of Antioch. Loofs, Friedrich, 
Das Bekenntnis Lucians des Martyrers. (SAB 1915, xxxviii, 576-603). Ber- 
lin, Reimer, 1915. M. 1. MiNTjcius Felix. Baehrens, W. A., Literar- 
historische Beitr^ge. 3. Zu Minucius Felix (Hermes 50, 1915, 456-464). — 
Buizer, C, Quid Minucius Felix conscribendo dialogo Octavio sibi propo- 
suerit. 188 pp. Amsterdam, Kruyt, 1915. — Plooij, D., Minucius Felix 
een Modernist? (ThSt 32, 1914, 30-51). — Reitzenstein, Richard, Philolo- 
gische Kleinigkeiten. 4. Zu Minucius Felix (Hermes 51, 1916, 609-623). 
Nestorius. Pesch, Christian, S. J., Zur neueren Literatur Uber Nestorius. 
(115. Erganzungsheft der StML). iv, 72 pp. Freiburg, Herder, 1914. M. 
1, 80 [vide supra Kneller, Cyprian]. Novatian. Koch, Hugo, Zum no- 
vatianischen Schrifttum (ZKG 38, 1920, 86-95). Okigenes. Baehrens, W. 
A., Ueberlieferung u. s. w. [vide supra p. 306]. — Harnack, Adolf von, 
Der kirchengeschichtliche Ertrag der exegetischen Arbeiten des Origenes. 
2Teile. (TU42,3.4). iii, 143; v, 184 pp. Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1918. 1919. M. 
13,20; M. 18. — Ho II, Karl, Die Zeitfolge des ersten origenistischen 
Streits. (SAB 1916, ix, 226-255). Berlin, Reimer, 1916. M.i. — Jiilicher, 
Adolf, Bemerkungen zu der Abhandlung des Herrn Holl: Die Zeitfolge u. s. 
w. (SAB 1. c. 256-275). — Rietz, G., De Origenis prologis in Psalterium 
quaestiones selectae (Diss.) 47 pp. Jena, Pohle, 1914. — Wagner, Aemilian, 
DieErklarungdes 118. Psalms durch Origenes. 4 Programme des Benedikti- 
nergymnasiums Seitenstetten, 1916-1919. Patjlinus of Milan. Gruts- 
macher, Georg, Die Lebensbeschreibung des Ambrosius von Mailand von 
seinen Sekretar Paulinus (Studien Hauck [vide supra p. 288], 77-84). Pau- 
LiNTJS OF NoLA. Kraus, L. Die poetische Sprache des Paulinus Nolanus. 
(Diss.) WUrzburg. 93 pp. Augsburg, PfeifFer, 1918. Petrus Chrysologus. 
Bohmer, Gottfried, Petrus Chrysologus, Erzbischof von Ravenna, als 
Prediger. (BGThPPr 1). viii, 129 pp. Paderborn, Schoningh, 1919. M. 7, 
80. — Peters, Franz Joseph, Petrus Chrysologus als HomUet. xii, 168 pp. 
Koln, Bachem, 1918. M. 4. Proclus of Constantinople. Bauer, 
Franz Xaver, Proklos von K. (VKSM 4, 8). xii, 148 pp. Miinchen, Lent- 
ner, 1919. M. 5, 50. — Schwartz, Eduard, Konzilstudien. 2. Ueberechte 
und unechte Schriften des Bischofs Proklos von K. (SchrGesStr 20, 18-53). 
Strassburg, Triibner, 1914. M. 2. Pseudo-Cyprian. De Bruyne, Dona- 
tien, Un traite gnostique sur les trois recompenses (ZNW 15, 1914, 280-284). 
— Ernst, Johann, Antikritische Glossen zum Liber de rebaptismate 
(ZkTh 41, 1917, 164-175) ; Die Zeit der Abfassung des Liber de rebaptismate 
in der Zeit Cyprians (ebd. 41, 1917, 450-471). — Heer, Michael, Pseudo- 
Cyprian vom Lohn der Frommen und das Evangelium Justins (RQ 28, 1914, 
97-186). — Rauschen, Gerhard, Die ps.-cyprianische Schritt de rebaptis- 
mate (ZkTh 41, 1917, 83-110). — Reitzenstein, Richard, Eine friihchrist- 
liche Schrift von den dreierlei Friichten des christlichen Lebens (ZNW 15, 
1914,60-90). — Seeberg, £rtcA,EineneuaufgefundenelateinischePredigt 
aus dem 3. Jahrhundert (NkZ 25, 1914, 260-370, 472-544). Pseudocle- 
MENTiNA. Boll, Franz, Das Eingangsstuck der Pseudoklementinen (ZNW 
17, 1916, 139-148). — Bousset, Wilhelm, Die Geschichte eines Wieder- 


erkennungsmarchens (NGW 1916, 469-551). — Heintze, Werner, Der 
Klemensroman iind seine griechischen Quellen. (TU 40, 2). vi, 144 pp. 
Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1914. M. 5. Quodvultdeus of Carthage. Franses, 
Desiderius, 0. F. M., Die Werke des heil. Quodvultdeus, Bischofs von 
Karthago. (VKSM 4, 9). iv, 90 pp. MUnchen, Lentner, 1920. M. 5, 50. 
Sedumus. Mayr, Theodor, Studien zu dem Paschale carmen des christlichen 
Dichters Sedulius. (Diss.) MUnchen. 96 pp. Augsburg, Pfeiffer, 1916. 
Sevehian of Gabala. Durks, Guilelmus, De Severiano Gabalitano. 
(Diss.) 84 pp. Kiel, Schmidt und Glaunig, 1917. — Zellinger, Johannes, 
Die Genesishomilien des Bischofs Severian von Gabala, (AA 7, 1). vi, 128 
pp. MUnster i. W., Aschendorff, 1916, M. 3, 40. Synesius of Cybene. 
Ludwig, A., Die Schrift irtpl kvinrviuv des Synesios von Kyrene (ThGl 6, 
1915, 547-558). — Stiglmayr, Josef, Synesius von Cyrene, Metropolit der 
Pentapolis (ZkTh 38, 1914, 509-563). Tertullian. Akerman, Malte, 
TJeber die Echtheit der letzteren Halfte von Tertullians Adversus ludaeos. 
vi, 116 pp. Lund, Lindstroem, 1918. — Esser, Gerhard, Die angebliche 
Raise Tertullians nach Griechenland (Kath. 94, 2, 1914, 353-361). — Har- 
nack, Adolf von, Tertullians Bibliothek christlicher Schriften. (SAB 1914, 
X, 301-334). Berlin, Reimer, 1914. M. 1. — Holl, Karl, Ueber Zeit und 
Heimat des pseudotertullianischen Gedichts adv. Marcionem. (SAB 1918, 
xxvii, 514-559). Berlin, Reimer, 1918. M. 2. — Kroymann, E., Das Tertul- 
lian-Fragment des cod. Paris. 13047, die sogenannten Schedae Scioppianae 
imd die Ueberlieferung des verlorenen Fuldensis (RhM 69, 1915, 358-367). 
— Lbfstedt, Einar, Tertullians Apologeticum textkritisch imtersucht. 
(Lunds Universitet Arsskrift. N. F. Afd. 1, Band 2, Nr. 6). viii, 123 pp. 
Lund 1915; Leipzig, Harrassowitz. kr. 2, 75. Dazu: Kritische Bemerkungen 
zu T. s Apologeticum. (Aus: Festskrift utgiven af Lunds Universitet vid 
dess Tv&hundrafemtio&rsjubileum 1918). 119 pp. Lund 1918. Leipzig, 
Harrassowitz. kr. 3, 75. — Rauschen, Gerhard, Prof. Heinrich Schrors 
und meine Ausgabe von Tertullians Apologeticum. 136 pp. Bonn, Hanstein, 
1914. M. 2. — Schrors, Heinrich, Zur Textgeschichte imd Erklarung 
von Tertullians Apologeticum. (TU 40, 4). vi, 125 pp. Leipzig, Hinrichs, 
1914. M. 4, 50. — Thornell, Gosta, Kritiska Studier till Tertullianus 
Apologeticum, Upsala 1917; Studia TertuIIianea, Upsala 1918. — Wohleb, 
Leo, Tertullians Apologeticum (BphW 1916, 539. 603. 637. 648. 1537. 1568. 
1603. 1635). ViNCENTius OF Lerinum. Globus, L., De H. V. van Lerins 
en zijn Commonitoria (ThSt 46, 1914, 1-37). Hilarius. Feder, A. L., 
EpUegomena zu Hilarius, WSt 41 (1920), 51-60; 167-181. 

Ambrosiasteb. The importance of the Ambrosiaster in 
the history of exegesis justifies the detailed discussion which 
Mundle devotes to his commentary on the Pauline epistles. 
As a result it appears that Ambrosiaster did not do full justice 
to the peculiar formulation of Paul's ideas. He was too sober 
and rationalistic to do so, and very little genuine religious feel- 
ing is to be discovered in him; but the fact that he is unaffected 
by the allegorical method of the Alexandrians, the comparative 


absence of bias in his exegesis, and its acuteness, give him a 
right to an honorable place in the history of interpretation. 
On the question who the author was, Mundle also is unable to 
say anything certain. He does not accept any of the hypotheses 
thus far advanced, including Morin's last, which identifies him 
with Evagrius of Antioch, translator of the Vita Antonii. — 
Ambrosius. Friedrick gives a painstaking account of the 
numerous utterances of Ambrose about the Virgin Mary, in 
connection with that Fathers's general attitude to the idea of 
flight from the world and of virginity. The author's Catholic 
standpoint exempts him from the necessity of a critical treat- 
ment. — Ammonius. Zahn believes himself warranted in 
claiming, among the numerous Ammoniuses, as the only pos- 
sible author of the Scholia to the Gospel of John and to the 
Acts, and the other fragments which with more or less confi- 
dence are attributed to an Ammonius, one of the four so-called 
'Tall Brothers' (ol naKpoi), who played a considerable part in 
Egypt about 400 in the history of the Origenistic controversy. 
In his exegesis also Ammonius is true to his decisive rejection 
of the crude notions of the anthropomorphists. — Apolo- 
gists. Andres sets forth the angelology and demonology of 
the Greek Apologists, followed by a presentation of contempo- 
rary Greek and Roman demonology, and inquires into the 
mutual relations of the Hellenic and Christian views. He em- 
phasizes the endeavour of the Apologists, in spite of their 
unmistakable borrowings from the Greeks, to set up an inde- 
pendent doctrine of spirits over against heathen beUefs. The 
work is trustworthy, and based upon comprehensive material. 
An exhaustive bibliography, enumerating something like two 
hundred books and articles, is appended. — ffaase comes out 
very positively for the tradition, attested by Eusebius but re- 
jected by most modern investigators, that Aristides presented 
his apology to the emperor Hadrian, not to Antoninus Pius. 
The present reviewer is inclined to agree with him. — In con- 
nection with the well known story in Eusebius Hist. Eccl. v. 
13 about a conversation between the Apologist Rhodon and 
the Marcionite Apelles, Harnack contrasts the two theolo- 
gians in a brilliant characterization. — The doubts which 


have been occasionally expressed about the genuineness of 
Justin's Dialogue with Trypho have been materially strength- 
ened hy Preuschen's thorough investigation. His opinion is 
that, if the Dialogue be not wholly spurious and composed later 
than Irenaeus and TertuUian with the use of their writings, it 
must at least have been interpolated in the third century; the 
Dialogue cannot have attained its present form earlier than 
249 A.D. Whether this contention will stand the test of re- 
examination remains to be seen. Unfortunately the author, 
who died May 25, 1920, was not able to bring his study to en- 
tire completion. — WaiheVs painstakiag dissertation gives a 
good insight into the philosophical thinking of the Apologists, 
but does not bring out anything new. — Asterius of Amasea. 
Bretz re-examines and carries farther the works of Max Schmid 
and Michael Bauer which appeared in 1911. Contrary to 
Bauer he regards the Encomium on St. Basil as not genuine; 
but believes himself to have demonstrated the genuineness of 
the three discourses attested by Photius (on Stephen, Concern- 
ing Penitence, and the Fast-day Sermon). In a concluding 
section he treats of Asterius's relation to Greek rhetoric and on 
the features of the diatribe recognizable in his diction and style. 
Athanasius. Against Loofs and Stiilcken, who would date 
the discourses against the Arians as early as about 338, Steg- 
mann, relying upon external testimonies and internal criteria, 
adheres to the traditional date of about 357. In a careful 
examination Stegmann has again proved the spuriousness of 
the fourth discourse against the Arians, of which scholars fa- 
miliar with the subject have long been convinced. The present 
reviewer doubts whether he is right in recognizing in this dis- 
course a writing of ApoUinaris of Laodicea. Stegmann has 
done a useful service in editing the text critically upon the 
basis of the entire manuscript tradition, though material devia- 
tions from the text of the current editions do not result. — 
Weigl's presentation of the Athanasian Christology, though 
otherwise well done, suffers from the fact that the author em- 
ploys as trustworthy sources such contested writings as the 
fourth discourse against the Arians, the books against Apolli- 
naris, and *De incarnatione Verbi.' — In a Berlin dissertation 


of 1913 Tr. Kehrhahn endeavored to prove that in the treatise 
on the incarnation of the Logos attributed to the youthful 
Athanasius, Eusebius's Theophania was used, which would 
exclude the possibility of its being a work of the Alexandrian 
Father. Woldendorp holds that this thesis is not established, 
and attempts to prove that Athanasius is the author by a elab- 
orate comparison of the theology of the 'De incarnatione' with 
that of his later writings. On the other hand H. Windisch in 
the Museum, 1920, has corroborated Kehrhahn's observations 
by the comparison of a whole series of new passages, so that 
the question about the genuineness of the youthful production 
has again become a burning one. 

Augustine. Of works upon Augustine Troeltsch' s is by far 
the most important. In it he endeavors to prove that the idea 
that Augustine was the intellectual pioneer of the Middle Ages, 
which has become current especially through modern works on 
the history of doctrine, is erroneous. Augustine is rather to be 
regarded as the consummator of Christianized antiquity. It is 
needless to say that Troeltsch has no intention of denying or 
minimizing the actual influence of Augustine's thinking on the 
Middle Ages. In this, however, he sees, not a development of 
genuine Augustinianism, but an entirely different spirit and 
meaning, the explanation of which is to be found in the com- 
pletely changed character of mediaeval culture in contrast to 
the ancient world. Accordingly, in 'De Civitate Dei,' which 
he makes the starting point of his discussion, he sees, not the 
product of reflection on the philosophy of history by which 
directives for the future are projected, but only the final out- 
come of ancient Christian apologetic, the last great attempt to 
justify the church against the old charge that it was responsible 
for the dissolution of Roman society. The positive significance 
of Augustine's attempt lies, according to Troeltsch, in the crea- 
tion of the first great 'Kulturethik,' an ethic which, however, 
is wholly oriented to ancient conditions. For my part, I am 
of the opinion that this thesis is one-sided, and in particular 
that however fully we may recognize the apologetic intention 
of 'De Civitate Dei,' the work has every right to be described 
as a philosophy of history, and the first work that deserves that 


name. However that may be, Troeltsch has developed his 
thesis in a masterly way, in regard both to the development of 
Augustine as an ethical thinker and to the particular features 
of his ethics. Troeltsch lays particular emphasis upon the 
erroneousness of the widely current notion that Augustine de- 
fined his two Civitates empirically simply as State and Church. 
For Augustine there are here only relations, not equations. 
His subject throughout is Christian salvation and heathen cor- 
ruption, nowhere State and Church as such. The Middle Ages 
approached the latter far-reaching problem from its own pre- 
suppositions, and in doing so was able to claim Augustine for 
its theory of the relation of regnum and sacerdotium. An Eng- 
lish translation of Troeltsch's book is to be desired, in order 
that the discussion he has started may have as wide a response 
as possible. He himself gratefully acknowledges his obligation 
to previous works of others, for instance to the brothers Carlyle 
(History of Mediaeval Political Theory in the West), Mausbach 
(Die Ethik des heiligen Augustinus), Schilling (Die Staats- und 
Soziallehre des hi. Augustin), Scholz (Glaube und Unglaube 
in der Weltgeschichte), and others. A very good critical sum- 
mary of Troeltsch's position is given by H. Lindau, ZKG 37 
(1918), 406-432. His excellent remarks on the demonic should 
not be overlooked. — Off er gelt' s discussions of the doctrine 
of the state in Augustine are in the same general line with 
Troeltsch's. He too gives warning against imputing to Augus- 
tine a modern idea of the state, and like Troeltsch points out 
that one of the principal sources of erroneous interpretation is 
the habit of translating civitas terrena, which expresses a meta- 
physical or religious-ethical conception, by the word 'state,' 
thus making of it an empirical magnitude. He does not how- 
ever question the fact that Augustine's teaching contains 
materials for the construction of a theocratic legal system. — 
Boekmer in a finely elaborated study shows that Augustine's 
life-long repentance is one-sidedly judged when it is viewed ex- 
clusively from the standpoint of the Confessions, forgetting 
that the predominating note in it is praise to God who had so 
graciously led him. — Draeseke with good reason doubts that 
Augustine had read Plato in any other way than through a 


translation, and refers the quotations from the Timaeus in De 
Civitate Dei to Cicero's version of that dialogue. Rolfes' argu- 
ments to the contrary are not convincing. — H ait j etna's 
characterization of Augustine's idea of science is in effect as 
follows: The theism of the Christian creed alone is capable 
of explaining the world, and no development of science is 
thinkable that Christianity is not capable of becoming master 
of. In the Neoplatonic idealism Augustine found a great deal 
of material which he could use upon his theistic basis. But 
science, morals, and religion are for him one thing. He is there- 
fore not the 'modern man' that he is often called. He still did 
not see science as a unity in the light of universal divine grace. 
The several sciences, as fruits of civilization, are, however, 
gifts of the grace of God, and Christians should employ them 
to the glorifying of God. Christian science as such is the same 
with the Civitas Dei, and thus loses its independent worth. 
In particulars, there are good remarks upon Augustine's con- 
version, our conception of which should not be based exclusively 
either upon the Confessions or on the Dialogues. Haitjema, 
also, thinks that the thing of greatest moment in the conversion 
was the transformation of Augustine's moral life. — Hess en sums 
up the result of his investigation of Augustine's theory of the 
grounds of knowledge in the following theses: 1. By the side of 
the sphere of a priori intelligence (sapientia) Augustine recog- 
nized a realm of inferior knowledge (scientia), in which we are 
able to arrive at knowledge by induction and abstraction. 
2. The so-called cosmological proof for the existence of God is 
not formally developed by Augustine, but is substantially pres- 
ent in his thought. 3. The specifically Augustinian proof of the 
existence of God is not the argmnent from causality, but rests 
upon a Platonic evaluation of the veritates and rationes aeternae. 
4. The true meaning of his theory of divine illumination lies 
between the two extremes of the ontological and the Thomist 
doctrine. — Hiinermann sees in Augustine an unexception- 
able witness to the cmrent Catholic doctrine of penance. This 
view, as Adam has correctly observed, is erroneous; it over- 
looks the decisive influence of Augustine's conception of the 
saviog power of the particular gracious will of God on his 


estimate of the sacraments, and of penance in particular. 
Ecclesiastical penance is for him not primarily what it was 
for TertuUian and Cyprian, an inducement to the utmost 
possible reparation of the fault; and not excommunicatio but 
communio is for him the true way of life in a real peniten- 
tial discipline. This led him to advocate and to introduce in 
his diocese the form of penitence which was accomplished 
within the communion of the church and in the presence 
of the minister alone. Adam thus regards Augustine as the 
speculative founder of private penance in the Western Church. 
Poschmann takes the opposite side, and Scheel (ThLZ 45, 
1920, 294 f.) gravely questions the thesis. At any rate it is 
very energetically propounded. — Jiilicher shows that the 
Curma anecdote narrated by Augustine in his 'De cura pro 
mortuis gerenda' rests on an actual occurrence, and is therefore 
not a travel-tale to be relegated to the domain of Aretalogy. 
— In the judgment of Professor Ammuhdsen, Noerregaard's 
work is the best investigation we possess of the history of 
Augustine's conversion. In the discussion started particularly 
by Wilhelm Thimme (1910) about the value of the Confessions 
as a source for this history, Noerregaard takes a tolerably con- 
servative position: the philosophical writings from the time 
when Augustine was living in Cassiciacum are more Christian 
than Thimme allows, and in the Confessions themselves Au- 
gustine's subsequent reflections are easily distinguished from 
his memory of the events. The author is master of the whole 
German, English and French literature on the subject. Alfaric's 
extensive work on Augustine's development, in which a some- 
what different view is taken of the relative value of our 
sources, appeared too late for Noerregaard to avail himself of 
it, but he has treated independently and thoroughly Augustine's 
relations to Manichaeanism and Neoplatonism. — Aalders's 
chief endeavor is to bring out clearly the continuity in Augus- 
tine's intellectual life before, in, and after his conversion. He 
bases his presentation on the Confessions and the philosophical 
Tractates: in the Confessions it is the catechumen and the 
future that speak, in the Tractates the rhetor and the past. 
[Bakhuizen van den Brink.] 


Cassian. The chief importance of Schwartz's study lies in 
the new proof it gives of the preservation of fragments of Nesto- 
rius in the Massilian author, a more complete demonstration 
than that of Loofs in his Nestoriana (1905). — Chbtsostom. 
Naegle (see, in addition to the essay named above, the exten- 
sive introduction to his translation of 'De sacerdotio' in BKV, 
swpra p. 312) adopts the opinion most recently propounded by 
Colombo in the Didaskaleion (1912) that the dialogue form of 
the writing is purely a literary device, and supports this view 
with noteworthy arguments. Stiglmayr, on the contrary, 
abides by the opinion that Chrysostom's own account of the 
occasion of the composition (endeavor to escape the election to 
the bishopric) has a historical foundation. He accordingly 
dates the writing before 374, while Naegle with more probabil- 
ity assigns it to the years of Chrysostom's presbyterate, be- 
tween 386 and 390. — Commodian. Martin's essay is de- 
voted to showing that Dombart's text of Commodian's poems in 
CSEL is in many places exposed to criticism. In the forefront 
stands the false estimate of the value of the two manuscripts 
in Leiden and Paris respectively, which Dombart treated as 
independent witnesses to the text, whereas in reality they are 
both derived from the Codex Berolinensis 167 (formerly in the 
Cheltenham Library). A fresh comparison of this manuscript 
led Martin to discover many errors in earlier collations which 
seriously impair the recension of the text. In the second of the 
articles named above, Martin makes it probable that in the 
composition of Instr. ii, 26 (lectoribus) Commodian was influ- 
enced by the ancient formula of consecration of which there 
is an echo also in Const. Apost. viii. 22, 2. See further below 
on TertuUian (HoU). — Cyprian. In a Wurzburg manuscript 
Reitzenstein has found a small collection of genuine and 
spurious writings of Cyprian, of the major part of which account 
is given below under Pseudo-Cyprian. Internal evidence makes 
it certain that the collection comes from Donatist circles. The 
four Epistles contained in the collections (Epp. 67. 6. 4. 10, 
Hartel), besides other variations, exhibit a biblical text fre- 
quently dififerent from that represented in the printed editions 
of the letters. Mengis, in an excellent dissertation, has care- 


fully edited the Epistles and discussed the text of the quotations. 
— Dessau would identify Pontius, the author of the life of 
Cyprian, with a resident of Curubis who is proved by an in- 
scription to have lived about the middle of the third century. 
If this is true we should have documentary evidence that the 
biographer was a contemporary of the bishop, which Reitzen- 
stein (SHA 1913) had contested. 

DiONYSius Areopagita. In the studies which Koch, Stigl- 
mayr, and others devoted to the Areopagite his dependence 
upon Proclus was proved. Milller, accepting this demon- 
stration, has investigated the indications that lead to the con- 
clusion that the Areopagite was directly acquainted with Plo- 
tinus also. He makes it probable that the Hierotheos, whom, 
along with Paulus, Dionysius names as his teacher, was no 
other than Plotinus himself. He discusses Dionysius' doctrine 
of the good and beautiful, of Eros, of the origin of evil, his 
doctrine of God and the ways to the knowledge of God, and 
finally of union with God. Copious extracts from the text both 
of Plotinus and of the Areopagite present the evidence to the 
eye of the reader. — Sassen's article oifers nothing new to 
those who are acquainted with the subject. — Gressmann 
treats: 1. the formula of Elxai (Epiphanius, Haer. 19, 4, 3); 
2. the first formula of the Marcosians (Haer. 34, 20, 2ff.); 3. 
the second formula of the Marcosians (ibid.) ; 4. the names of 
the planets among the Pharisees (Haer. 16, 2 ff.). — Holl 
draws the attention of scholars to the fragments of three writ- 
ings of Epiphanius against the worship of images which are 
transmitted in Nicephorus (about 815); namely, a fragment of 
a pamphlet, one of a letter to the emperor Theodosius I, and one 
of a testament of Epiphanius to his churches. The genuineness 
of these pieces is established by Holl on convincing grounds. 
Apropos of this luminous essay, Wilpert shows that in the 
face of such opinions as are propounded by Epiphanius, reli- 
gious monumental art in the East could make but slow progress. 
See also below, p. 350 (Koch). — Exjsebixjs. Doergens has 
re-examined the notices about the Phoenician religion in the 
Praeparatio Evangelica, with unfavorable results. There is no 
trace whatever of actual acquaintance with the subject on the 


part of the bishop of Caesarea; borrowed material is exclu- 
sively used. — Zahn brings weighty arguments to prove that 
the words 6 tov IXaju^iXou appended to the name of Eusebius 
should be interpreted as 'the slave of Pamphilus.' Even as late 
a writer as Photius seems to have understood them so. Zahn 
would account for certain weaknesses in the ecclesiastical, 
political, and theological attitude of the bishop by his humble 
origin; and in this also has the support of the Byzantine author. 

FiRMicus Maternus. In the twentieth volume of Migne's 
Patrologia, under the title ' Consultationum Zacchaei Chris- 
tiani et ApoUonii philosophi libri tres,' is a dialogue in the 
course of which the heathen philosopher's pride of knowledge 
yields to the simple grandeur of the Christian confession. 
Morin has no doubt that the writing is to be dated about the 
middle of the fourth century, and, on the ground of numerous 
parallels in language, attributes it to Firmicus Maternus, the 
author of the 'Mathesis,' and of the Christian writing, 'De 
errore profanarum religionum.' Reatz has tested this thesis 
and does not regard the authorship of Maternus as established. 
But he also confidently maintains that the writing originated 
not long after the middle of the fourth century. The emphatic 
rejection of Sabellianism and Photinianism, as well as the posi- 
tive theology of the author, which bears throughout the stamp 
of the pre-Augustinian theology, seems clearly to point to this 
period. In regard to the importance of the writing, Reatz 
agrees with Morin, who recognizes in it not only a luminous 
presentation of the Christian faith and a model of apologetic 
composure and tactical skill, but also a precious monument of 
Christian Latinity in its early formative period. — Gelasius. 
Gelasius, metropolitan of Caesarea, a nephew of Cyril of Alex- 
andria, wrote a church history which, as Glas has proved, is 
the source of the last two books of Rufinus's Church History, 
where he is beyond the limits of Eusebius. Here also Rufinus 
was merely a translator. 

HiERONYMUS. Kunst examines the Epistles of Jerome, par- 
ticularly Ep. 60, 'De consolatione Heliodori,' for traces of that 
Father's reading in Cicero. The work is valuable. — The 
name Onomastica Sacra is given to ancient Christian coUec- 


tions of proper names from the Old and New Testaments, with 
etymological interpretations, a species of literature which the 
Alexandrians had taken over from Philo, a^d which Jerome had 
made accessible to the Western Church also in a trustworthy 
translation. Wutz has investigated the sources and system of 
these collections with marvellous industry. Above all he has 
reprinted the texts of these Onomastica, a work which Lagarde 
(1870, 2d ed. 1887) had already done for the Greek and Latin 
texts, but which Wutz has now materially enlarged by the edition 
of the Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopic, and Slavic collections. Ex- 
haustive indexes are appended. That even in so carefully 
elaborated a work not everything is achieved that might be 
desired may be seen from the review by Erich Klostermann in 
LZBl 66 (1915), 137, and 68 (1917), 497. But for what has been 
accomplished the small circle of scholars who have an interest 
in the matter will be unanimous in their gratitude. — Hip- 
POLTTus. Baumstark shows that in Hippoly tus's commentary 
on the Song of Solomon there are traces of the extracanonical 
gospel used in the Ethiopic 'Testamentum domini nostri Jesu 
Christi,' in which he would repognize the Gospel according to 
the Egyptians (cf. his article in ZNW 14, 1913, 232-247). -- 
In opposition to the assumption that Hippolytus was put out 
of the Church when his enemy Callistus ascended the episcopal 
throne. Prey sing tries to prove that he remained in the com- 
munion of the Church for a time after the election of Callistus, 
and allowed himself to be elected as rival bishop only after 
Callistus had excommunicated him on the ground of ditheism. 
The antagonism between the two was partly due to the social 
separation of the adherents of Hippolytus, who according to 
Preysing belonged to the upper classes of Roman society. 

Irenaeus. The merit of Hoh's work on the teaching of Ire- 
naeus concerning the New Testament lies chiefly in the com- 
plete and conveniently arranged collection of the material. 
The author has, however, also contributed independent obser- 
vations to the discussion both of the history of the canon and 
of the history of doctrine. — Liidtke offers text-critical notes 
on a sermon on the sons of Zebedee attributed to Irenaeus 
which was published by Jordan in 1913 from the Ethiopic, to- 


gether with notices of Slavic and Ethiopic fragments, and finally 
an allusion to Irenaeus in Maximus Confessor. — Isidore op 
PELtJgrtJM. The breadth and depth of Isidore's classical edu- 
cation has never before been investigated; consequently, in- 
significant as the subject is in itself, Bayer's industrious study 
fills a vacant place. It appears that Isidore's culture had nar- 
row limits; he nowhere betrays any independent philosophical 
or historical interest. — Julian of Aeclanum. In the third 
volume of the Spicilegium Casinense, Amelli published in 1897 
a commentary on Job which in the tradition is designated as 
the work of the presbyter Philip, a disciple of Jerome. Vaccari 
in 1915 attributed this commentary to Julian. Stiglmayr 
has subjected this theory to a thorough examination, and on the 
ground of the formal and material differences which he has 
established thinks that it must be rejected. — Lactantixjs. 
In support of the attribution of the 'Mortes' to Lactantius, 
Koch refers to Div. Inst. ii. 4, 16 and ii. 4, 7, where obvious 
points of contact with topics developed in the Mortes are 
found. In his second note Koch contends that the templum del 
in Inst. div. 5, 2, 2 is to be understood figuratively, and not to 
be referred to the destruction of the church in Nicomedia, Feb. 
23, 203; so that the passage does not fix the date of the Institu- 
tiones. — S tang I offers material contributions to the criticism 
of the text of all the writings of Lactantius. Notwithstanding 
the recognized merits of Brandt's edition in the CSEL, numer- 
ous improvements are possible and necessary. — Lucian of 
Antioch. Loofs proves that by the so-called 'Dedication 
Formula' {iv rots iyKaiviois) of the Synod of Antioch in 341 
is meant the second Antiochian formula (Hahn § 154), and that 
in this formula, taken together with Sozomen Hist. Eccl. iii. 5, 
9, the confession of the martyr Lucian is to be recognized. 

MiNucius Felix. The discussion of the literary character 
of the Dialogue of Minucius Felix and the circumstances of its 
composition shows no signs of coming to an end. While 
Baehrens again takes sides for a date of composition earlier 
than TertuUian, Buizer with great positiveness decides for the 
reign of Severus Alexander (225-230). In his view Minucius 
Felix does not belong at all to the Apologists of the type of 


TertuUian. His book is a literary effort by which Christians 
are to be confirmed in their faith, and heathen incited to follow 
the example of Caecilius and connect themselves with the 
church. The model he has in mind is not so much Cicero's 'De 
natura deorum' as Paul's speech on the Areopagus. — Plooij 
also puts Minucius Felix before TertuUian. His article is di- 
rected against J. van Wageningen in ThT 96 (1912), 217. On 
the question whether Minucius Felix was a modernist he takes 
the negative side. — Novatian. Koch adduces noteworthy 
reasons for not regarding Novatian's authorship of 'De specta- 
culis' and 'De bono pudicitiae.' as securely established. — 
Origen. The exegetical works of ecclesiastical writers have 
hitherto contributed almost nothing to church history, because 
nobody has taken the trouble to go through them systematically 
in quest of significant historical notices. The recognition of 
this fact has led ffarwac A; to make a beginning in this un- 
touched field, and to work through the homilies and commen- 
taries of Origen from the historical point of view. Harnack's 
keen observation and his great gift for extracting rich gains 
from seemingly unimportant matter are brilliantly evidenced 
in this self-denying investigation. — The chronology of the 
years 395-402 has been securely established by the studies of 
Holl and Jiilicher, both of which exhibit complete mastery of 
the sources. The minor differences in their results are negligible. 
The Catena codex Vaticanus 754 (cf. Karo-Lietzmann, p. 41) 
contains sixteen prologues, five of which can be proved to 
Origen. Of these Rietz gives a critical text with explanatory 

Petrus Chrtsologus. Peters and Bohmer have simul- 
taneously devoted two excellent pieces of work to the arch- 
bishop Peter of Ravenna, whose pulpit eloquence gained him 
the honorific name Chrysologus. Both endeavor to give an ex- 
haustive account of the contents of the sermons. Bohmer has 
in addition directed special attention to the stylistic side, and in 
an extensive appendix has treated at length the technic of the 
close of sentences (the so-called cursus). — Proclus of Con- 
stantinople. To this opponent of Nestorius, 5 awer, with a 
good knowledge of the sources, has devoted a monograph which 


may well be described as a valuable contribution to the knowl- 
edge of a period of church history which scientific research has 
by no means exhausted. — ScAwaris gives more than the title 
of his treatise indicates, namely an admirably written sketch 
of the situation about the year 435, unquestionably the best 
that we have on the subject, and in the reviewer's opinion a 
little gem of historical presentation, Cf. also the article by 
Schwartz noticed on p. 359. — Pseudo-Cyprian. From the 
collection of Cyprianic writings noted above under Cyprian, 
Reitzenstein has published a hitherto unknown writing, 
which may with certainty be described as a sermon, although 
the beginning is lost. The three parts preserved treat of the 
three manner of fruits of the Christian life (Matt. 13, 3ff.). 
The hundredfold gain (centesima) is assigned to the martyr, 
the sixtyfold (sexagesima) to the ascetic (agonistes), the thirty- 
fold (tricesima) to the ordinary Christian (iustus). Cyprian 
cannot be the author. The plainly recognizable aflSnity be- 
tween his writings and this sermon, Reitzenstein would explain 
on the assumption of the priority of the preacher. That would 
make the discovery of great importance, for a Latin sermon 
from the age before Cyprian would be an event. Further in- 
vestigation, however, in which Harnack (ThLZ 39, 1914, 220- 
223),De Bruyne,Heer, Seeberg, Wohlenberg (ThBl 36, 
1915, 65-69), and others have taken part, has apparently put 
it beyond question that our preacher is dependent upon Cy- 
prian. On the other hand it is not to be denied that many of his 
peculiarities, e.g. his Christology, have an archaic stamp. 
Reitzenstein, and still more positively De Bruyne, contend 
that the author was a Gnostic; while the other investigators 
emphasize on the contrary his correct churchly position. The 
resemblance between the biblical text employed by the preacher 
and the quotations from the Gospels in Justin has led Heer to 
the bold surmise that, not indeed the sermon in its present form, 
but its basis may be a Sunday sermon from the age of Justin. 
The text of the sermon, however, gives no occasion to assume 
that it is the revamping of an older composition. For the pres- 
ent it is not possible to say where and when the sermon was de- 
livered. Africa and Spain are the most natiu*al conjectures, and 


as to the time, the whole period between about 260 and 370 is 
open. De Bruyne expresses himself the most definitely : ' Rien 
n'emp^che qu'il y ait en quelque part en Afrique une petite 
eglise dissidente avec une Bible delib6rement corrompue et des 
dogmes manifestement gnostiques.' For the date he would not 
go beyond the end of the third century. Notwithstanding the 
objections of his fellow investigators, Reitzenstein continues to 
hold that the writing originated either about the end of the 
second century, or was composed not very long after Cyprian, 
with the use of an older work (cf . his Vita Antonii, infra p. 369, 
24 n. 1). — Rauschen takes the ground that the 'De rebaptis- 
mate' originated in the fourth century, to which period its 
peculiar doctrine of baptism, in particular, assigns it; while 
Ernst sees in it a document from the time of the controversy 
over heretical baptism in the middle of the third century. 

Pseudo-Clementina. Attention has often been called to 
similarities between the introductory chapter of the Clemen- 
tine romance and Lucian's Nekyomanteia. Boll has now dis- 
covered similar and still plainer resemblances to an astrological 
writing by a certain Harpokration, a contemporary of Lucian 
of Samosata. The three texts are, however, independent of one 
another, and their resemblances are accounted for by the exist- 
ence of a type of religious novel, evidently widely distributed, 
which Harpokration and the author of the Clementine romance 
appropriated, while Lucian parodied it. — It is impossible to 
give a survey in brief of the very complicated problems of 
sources which Heintze, carrying further the work of Waitz 
(TTJ 25, 4, 1904), endeavors to solve. In addition to the com- 
mon source which Waitz recognizes as underlying the Homilies 
and the Recognitions, Heintze would assume another common 
source, the Jewish disputations with Apion, which he dates 
about 200. He is in all probability right in the opinion that the 
principal source had its origin in the third century in Syria. 
The evidence he adduces that the Recognitions had also a 
source used by Cicero deserves attention, as do also his remarks 
on the connections between the Christian romance and the 
Greek romance literature. On this point Bousset's work should 
be compared, though its main purpose is an investigation of the 


much discussed Placidas legend, which does not here further 
concern us. On Heintze see the review by Hans Waitz, 
LZBl 66 (1915), 1025-1028. — Qxjodvultdkxjs. Morin has 
directed attention to bishop Quodvultdeus of Carthage (ca. 
453) as a preacher in an article in Revue Benedictine, 1914, 
and in his edition of recently discovered sermons of Augustine 
(see above p. 307 f.), attributing to him a number of pseudo- 
Augustinian sermons. Franses has re-examined these attri- 
butions, and been able to confirm almost all of them. To his 
presentation of the evidence he adds detailed proofs of the im- 
portance of these sermons for biblical learning, the history of 
doctrine, and liturgies. — Severian of Gabala. The explora- 
tion of the exegetical remains of Severian has hitherto been 
greatly neglected. Durks's first endeavor is to determine the 
extent of these literary remains, which have come down to us 
in part under other names, especially Chrysostom's. In con- 
clusion he gives a comprehensive survey of all Severian's homi- 
lies, after separating the spurious from the genuine. Zellinger 
has undertaken the detailed criticism with great circumspec- 
tion. He first tests the tradition of the homilies on Genesis, 
with the result that all of them, including the two which SavUe 
put among the Dubia, are to be ascribed to Severian, and then 
proceeds to give a critical view of their contents. It becomes 
manifest that Severian's commentary fills a gap in the exegesis 
of the Hexaemeron, inasmuch as we discover in him an Antio- 
chian of the strictest school, whose sources have in large part 
been lost. 

Tertulhan. The question of the importance of the lost 
Codex Fuldensis for the textual tradition of the ' Apologeticum' 
has provoked much discussion. In general it is agreed that its 
value is very high, and that, although not free from errors, the 
Fuldensis is throughout to be made the basis of a recension of 
the text. The contrary opinion oi Schrors, that the Vulgata is 
a revision by the author himself of a first draft represented by 
the Fuldensis, has been almost imiversally controverted. 
Nevertheless Thornell, Wohleb, and Lofsiedt (the latter at 
least in his second work) hold that the Vulgata deserves con- 
sideration by the side of the Fuldensis; while Rauschen in his 


Emendationes has adopted the readings of the Fuldensis in 
much larger measure than he did in the second issue of his well 
known edition of the Apologeticum (Bonn, 1912). On this 
problem, besides the works named above, Esser's translation in 
the Bibliothek der Kirchenvater (see above p. 313) should be 
compared. Esser is here in full accord with Rauschen. It may 
be added here that the Belgian scholar. Waltzing, has expressed 
himself on the matter in his fitude sur le cod. Fuldensis de 
I'Apologetique de TertuUien (Liege-Paris 1914), and more 
recently in an edition of the Apologeticum (1920) has likewise 
made large use of the Fuldensis. — Harnack collects all the 
references in the works of TertuUian to Jewish and Christian 
writings used by that author, from which it appears that the 
number of those with which he was acquainted is very consider- 
able, both in itself and in comparison with what was then ex- 
tant. Unfortunately the wealth of Greek Christian learning 
and of Greek Christian books which he had at his command 
were after him as good as unknown in the Latin Church down 
to the time of Hilary and Jerome. — In an article character- 
ized by admirable method, Holl has proved conclusively that 
the five poetical books against Marcion, erroneously attributed 
to TertuUian, originated in Gaul in the last quarter of the fifth 
century, or but little later. The dependence of the poet upon 
Commodian which had been observed by earlier investigators 
is confirmed by Holl. With Brewer he puts Commodian, how- 
ever, in the fifth century, a thesis which I also regard as correct 
(see my remarks in Schanz [above p. 314], p. 397). — Acker - 
man has, in the opinion of the reviewer, finally settled a much 
discussed problem, proving by a thorough philological investi- 
gation that the second half of the book 'Ad versus Judaeos' is 
not genuine. That I replied at length in GGA 1905, 31 ff. to 
Harnack's contrary opinion escaped Ackerman's notice, but 
his demonstration has not suffered from this oversight. He 
might, however, have noted in addition that in chap. 13, 
Daniel is quoted in the version of Theodotion, but in chap. 14 
(=Adv. Marc. 3, 7) from the Septuagint. With a notice of 
this excellent work by a Swedish scholar the patristic part of 
our survey may close. 


4. Chuhch Life 
a. The Creed 

Harnack, Adolf von, Zur Abhandlung des Hr. HoU "Zur Auslegung" u. s. 
w. [vide HoU]. (SAB ;1919, vii, 112-116). — Haussleiier, Johannes, 
Trinitarischer Glaube und Christusbekenntnis in der alten Kirche (BFTh 25, 
4). 124 pp. GUtersloh, Bertelsmann, 1920. M. 17, 50. — HoU, Karl, Zur 
Auslegung des 2. Artikels des sogenannten apostolischen Glaubensbekennt- 
nisses. (SAB 1919, I, 1-11). — Lietzmann, Hans, Die Urform des apo- 
stolischen Glaubensbekenntnisses. (SAB 1919, xii, 269-274). — Peitz, 
Wilhelm Jf ., S. J., Das Glaubensbekenntnis der Apostel (StZ 94, 1918, 553- 
566). — Thieme, Karl, Das apostolische Glaubensbekenntnis. (Wissen- 
schaftundBildungl29). 144 pp. Leipzig, Quelle und Meyer, 1914. M. 1, 25. 

Our knowledge of the conditions under which the creed of 
the ancient church was formed has been materially advanced 
by a number of excellent works. Among these Haussleiter's 
book is to be named in the first place, and it is the welcome 
duty of the reviewer to direct the special attention of scholars 
to it. The methodical fault of previous investigation, as Hauss- 
leiter points out, was the ever recurring attempt to derive the 
whole great body of baptismal symbols from one single primi- 
tive formula. In fact two types must be distinguished. The 
older type, which originally prevailed in Rome as well as else- 
where, is characterized by its division into two distinct parts: 
a very brief trinitarian confession derived from the command to 
baptize converts (Matt. 28, 19), and a longer confession of 
faith having its source in the Kerygma about Christ, which was 
taken as the basis of the second article. The younger type grew 
out of the older by the introduction of the extended confession 
of Christ into the trinitarian scheme. In this way the old 
Roman Symbol and its derivative formulas, as well as the 
Nicene-Constantinopolitan creed, the Textus Receptus of the 
Apostles' Creed, etc., arose. The older type, however, did not 
cease to maintain itself and to develop new forms. Its influence 
is visible in the structure of the Athanasian Symbol, and in a 
long series of Oriental baptismal confessions and private creeds. 
Haussleiter finds the point of departure for his demonstration 
in the detached position of the trinitarian formula and the con- 
fession of Christ in certain formulas of the Liber Diumus, that 
is, in the official book of the Papal chancellery, which, follow- 


ing Peitz{see below p. 363 f .), he dates considerably earlier than 
experts have hitherto done. The choice of this starting-point 
may seem to be somewhat incautious, inasmuch as the ques- 
tion about the Liber Diurnus can by no means be regarded as 
definitively settled; but in any event Haussleiter's other evi- 
dence for the origin and wide distribution of the older type in 
the earliest age of the church is very noteworthy. Thus the 
peculiarity of what seems to be the first union of the separate 
parts in Irenaeus also appears in its true significance. Strik- 
ingly novel is the theory, intimated by Peitz and carefully built 
up by Haussleiter, that the fixed formulation of the old Roman 
Symbol came about in the course of the Monarchian contro- 
versies under the Roman bishop Zephyrinus (199-217). All 
this naturally demands re-examination, a task which is made 
easier by Haussleiter's lucid, methodical exposition. 

In a study which has attracted much attention Holl endeav- 
ors to find a key to the construction of the second article. He 
sees in it an artistic structure. The two titles {top viov avrov 
t6v novoyevfj and top Kvpiov rin&v) are followed by two clauses 
corresponding respectively to the two titles. In support of this 
view he makes connection with Luke 1, 35 and Phil. 2, 6ff., and 
points to the 6t6 in both passages, which in the one introduces 
the argument for the divine sonship, in the other that for 
Christ's lordship {Kvpior-qs). Harnack supplements this obser- 
vation by showing that it can be naturally applied to the other 
articles and constructs the following scheme: 

Ilwrreiiw els (1) Qeov = (2) UaTe'pa = (3) JlavTOKpdropa 

Ktti eij (4) xpt<7T6j'\= (5) rwuidj' aiiToOl /„n , , , „ 

,T - f i - (= (o) TOV KVplOV rifiUP 

iriaovv) TOV novoyevrj) 

Kal els (7) TTvevna \= (8) ayiav 1 = (9) a<f>e<7iv afiapnuv 

iiyiov J tKKKrjffiav J aapKds ava<TTa<nv 

He tries to bring these members into relation with one another 
not only horizontally but vertically. This may all seem to be 
a kind of play, but the observations which underlie it have wide 
scope and are perhaps not without weight. For the evidence of 
this Harnack's article itself must be consulted. The lack of 
symmetry in the bifurcation of article nine is obvious at first 


sight. Lietzmann somewhat relieves this difficulty by point- 
ing out that the creed which is preserved as a part of the 
Egyptian liturgy in the papyrus from Dlr-Balyzeh (see Puniet 
in RB 26, 1909, 34, and Schermann, TU 36, lb, 1910) has in 
fact a nine-fold division, the &<l>e<n,s &fiapTt,S>v is lacking. — 
Thieme came too soon to make use in his resume of the works 
above described, but anyone who desires to inform himself 
about the stage which the investigation had reached in 1914, 
and to follow the history of the Apostles' Creed down to the 
present time under the guidance of an expert will learn much 
from his well-considered and unprejudiced presentation. 

b. Liturgical Problems 

Bousset, Wilhelm, Eine jlidische Gebetssammlung im siebenten Buch der 
apostolischen Konstitutionen. (NGW 1915, 435-489); Zur Deprecatio 
Gelasii. (NGW 1916, 135-168). — Dolger, Franz Joseph, Die Sonne 
der Gerechtigkeit und der Schwarze. (LF 2). xii, 150 pp. mit einer Tafel. 
MUnster i. W., Aschendorff, 1918. M. 8; Sol Salutis. Gebet under Gesang 
im christlichen Altertum. (LF 4. 5). xii, 342 pp. Ebd., 1920. M. 25. — 
Dold, Alban, Ein vorhadrianisches Gregorianisches Palimpsest-Sakramen- 
tar in Gold-Uncialschrift. (Texte und Arbeiten 1, 5). viii, 79 pp. mit einem 
Lichtdruck. Nebst Zugabe einer unbekannten Homilie iiber das kanaanaische 
Weib. Beuron, Kunstverlag der Erzabtei, 1919. M. 5. — Koch, Hugo, 
Zur Agapenfrage (ZNW 16, 1915, 139-146). — Lietzmann, Hans, Die 
liturgischen Angaben des Plinius. (Studien fur Hauck [vide supra p. 288], 
34-38; cf. also RhM 71, 1916, 281-282). — Mohlberg, Kunibert, Ziele 
und Autgaben der liturgischen Forschung. (LF 1). viii, 52 pp. MUn- 
ster i. W., Aschendorff, 1919. M. 4, 20; Das frankische Sacramentarium 
Gelasianum in alamannischer Ueberlieferung (LQ 1. 2). civ, 292 pp. mit zwei 
Tafeln. Ebd., 1918. M. 15. — Plum, N. M., Forsagelsen ved Daaben. 
316 pp. Eopenhagen, Gad, 1920. — Rauschen, Gerhard, Florilegium patris- 
ticum. vii. Monumenta eucharistica et liturgica vetustissima. Edit. 2, iv, 
181 pp. Bonn, Hanstein, 1914. M. 3, 80. — Schermann, Theodor, Die 
allgemeine Kirchenordnung, friihchristliche Liturgien und altkirchliche 
Ueberlieferung. (StGEA, 3. Erganzungsband). 3 Telle, viii, x, viii, und 
750 pp. 1. Die allgemeine Kirchenordnung des zweiten Jahrhunderts. viii, 
136 pp. 2. Friihchristliche Liturgien. xii, 438 pp. 3. De kirchliche Ueberlie- 
ferung. viii, 176 pp. Paderbom, Schoningh, 1914-1916. M. 6, 18 und 8, 40; 
Friihchristliche Vorbereitungsgebete zur Taufe (MUnchener BeitrSge zur 
Papyrusforschung, hrsg. von Leopold Wenger 3). vi, 32 pp. Munchen, 
Beck, 1917. M. 1, 60. 

Under this head we have in the first place to direct attention 
to a new undertaking which seems to be destined substantially 
to widen and deepen our knowledge of the ancient liturgy of 


the Church. The Benedictine abbeys of Beuron, Emaus- 
Prague, St. Joseph-Coesfeld, Maria Laach, and Seckau, have 
joined forces for the publication of Liturgiegeschichtliche Quel- 
len and Liturgiegeschichtliche Forschungen, the editing of 
which has been committed to three well-known scholars, Pro- 
fessors Dolger in Miinster, Rticker in Breslau, and Father Mohl- 
berg of the abbey of Maria Laach. The two series are to con- 
stitute an 'Archiv der liturgiegeschichtlichen Forschung,' and 
by detailed investigations on the broadest basis are meant to 
subserve a progressive definition of the lines of development of 
Christian worship and the texts connected with it. Minor 
contributions are to be brought together in a Jahrhuch fiir 
Liturgiewissenschaft, which is also to furnish critical accounts 
of discoveries and new publications in the field of liturgical 
science. In the first number of the 'Forschungen,' Mohlherg 
defines the aims and tasks of this science clearly and with 
abundant bibliographical references. 

The investigations are admirably inaugurated by the two 
works of Dolger, whose name is widely known through his 
writings on Exorcism, on Sphragis, and on Ichthys. In the 
course of his studies he has come to recognize more and more 
fully the immense importance of the religious conflict in the 
fourth century which is expressed in the words. Solar religion 
and Christianity. In this way he was brought to confront the 
problem of orientation (facing eastward) both in the plan of 
the basilica and in the attitude of prayer; and subsidiary to 
this, the westward position in the renunciation of the devil 
('the black one') and the eastward position in the addiction to 
Christ ('the Sun of Righteousness, Sun of Salvation'). It is 
impossible in a brief notice like this to give any adequate notion 
of the brilliant light, both from the general history of civiliza- 
tion and from the history of religion, into which Dolger has 
brought his problem. An extended critical review by a special- 
ist would be most appropriate, and could count with certainty 
upon the interest of a large circle of readers. Dolger describes 
the work whose title stands first above as a 'Studie zum Tauf- 
gelobnis,' and is particularly occupied with the symbolism of 
the rites connected with baptism. With this he discusses also 


the idea of a compact with the devil and of the oath of fideUty 
(sacramentum) to Christ taken in baptism. On this point 
Dolger is inclined to refer to the baptismal rites the allusions 
to the ritual in Pliny's letter to Trajan, as Lietzmann also 
does; but, unlike Lietzmann, he understands by the carmen not 
the baptismal symbol alone, but, in accordance with ancient 
linguistic use (Livy x, 38), the whole oath of fidelity to Christ. 
The eastward position in prayer gives him occasion for very 
profitable remarks on important constituents of the liturgical 
prayers, such for example as the Kyrie Eleison. The studies 
already published do not exhaust the subject. They are to be 
completed on the archaeological side by a discussion of the 
orientation of ancient basilicas, and on the side of the history 
of religion and of the liturgy by studies of the vigil of Easter in 
its relation to ancient pagan Pannychis. 

The series of 'Quellen' is opened hy Mohlberg with an ex- 
cellent edition of the Frankish Sacramentarium Gelasianum 
from Codex Sangallensis 348. The introduction exhibits the 
history of the textual grouping of manuscripts of the Roman 
sacramentaries, in particular the Frankish recension of the 
Gelasianum. The original sacramentary of Codex 348 is dated 
by him about 800. Corrections in the text and marginal notes 
indicate that the manuscript is a transitional form between the 
Gregorian Gelasianum and the reform of Alcuin. — It would be 
a point of importance if Dold were right in his contention that 
a palimpsest fragment from Mainz, which he has published, 
contained a pre-Hadrianic sacramentary, for which he claims 
an English origin. Against so early a date, Mohlberg, in ThR 
18 (1919), 210-213 (cf. 328 f.), has raised emphatic and, as it 
appears, well-grounded objection; but he does not dispute the 
fact that the new text has an especial value as a remnant of 
one of the finest and best Gregoriana of the Carolingian period. 
It may be further noted here that Lietzmann expects to publish 
in the current year (1921) in LQ, Codex 164 (159) from Cam- 
brai, that is to say, the principal witness to the Carolingian 
Sacramentarium Gregorianum, from a photographic reproduc- 
tion made during the war and turned over to the University of 


As the titles of the several parts given above show, the ex- 
tensive work oi Schermann might with equal propriety have 
been included in the literature of ecclesiastical law. It is 
noticed here, however, because the parts which deal with the 
history of the liturgy seem on the whole to be of the greater 
importance. In the first part Schermann gives critical editions 
of the 'Apostolische Kirchenordnung' and of the so-called 
'Aegyptische Kirchenordnung,' in which two documents he 
would recognize the book of Church Order generally accepted 
at as early a time as the second century. Indeed he asserts, and 
in the third part endeavors to prove, that this Church Order, 
in the production and redaction of which Rome had the princi- 
pal part, originated at the beginning of the second century, if 
not even in the first. The relation long ago observed between 
the Apostolic Church Order and the Epistle of Barnabas he 
explains by the fact that they had the same author, or perhaps 
that the Church Order was in the hands of the author of the 
Epistle (!). Furthermore, he regards the postulated general 
Church Order as the middle section of a irapaSocxis eKKkr}<n,a<TTiKr] 
or Krjpvyixa eKKkrja-iaaTiKdv, which had already been fixed in 
writing at the beginning of the second century; a work which 
served as a normative basis both for the early catechetical in- 
struction of the church and for its theological literature. Be- 
sides this middle section, it contained, as the first part, a series 
of events from the life of Jesus connected with words of the 
Lord, and, as its third part, that compendium of the Christian 
faith which is called by ecclesiastical writers kuvuv t^s aXrjdeias 
or TriaTews, in Latin regula fidei. That would certainly be a sur- 
prisingly simple solution of the difficulties over which the 
learned have repeatedly wearied themselves. Unfortunately 
the thesis, in spite of all the industry expended upon it and the 
author's comprehensive knowledge of the sources and of the 
literature, rests upon a wholly unstable foundation; for the 
existence, in writing, of such a tradition of the primitive church 
as early as the age immediately following the Apostles, is in the 
end only assumed, without any serious proof whatever. The 
real value of Schermann's work lies in bringing together the 
whole material, with constant reference to the critical con- 


troversy. This is especially true of the second part, which 
treats in five sections of Church Organization, Baptism, Peni- 
tence, the Eucharistic Liturgy, and the Ministry of the Word 
of God. Excellent indexes increase the usefulness of the book, 
which notwithstanding all objections which may be raised to 
the principal thesis, will be found by the critical reader a wel- 
come addition to his apparatus. — In his smaller work Scher- 
mann has reprinted the prayers, first published in the 'Neu- 
testamentliche Studien' fiir Heinrici (Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1914), 
from the Berlin papyrus 13415; and has furnished them with 
ample parallels from early Christian literature. He thinks that 
they are to be regarded as prayers preparatory to baptism, and 
in this he is perhaps right; but his attempt to assign them to 
the second century is unsuccessful, for precisely those turns of 
expression which are characteristic of them seem to point to a 
later time. 

Bousset believes himself to have proved that the whole col- 
lection of prayers in the Apostolic Constitutions vii. 33-38 are 
borrowed from the synagogue, and present a Jewish collection 
only slightly modified by Christian hands. In the eighth book, 
also, he believes it demonstrable that Jewish prayers and formu- 
las of prayer have been worked in. In the so-called * Deprecatio 
Papae Gelasii' in Cod. Paris. 1153 (cf. W. Meyer, NOW 1912, 
87), he sees a collection of general intercessions and evening 
and morning petitions such as the Constitutions prescribe for 
the daily services, and inquires further by what route these 
prescriptions for prayer may have migrated into the West. — 
Plum makes a careful investigation of the whole history of the 
Abrenuntiatio. He is of the opinion that in the original con- 
ception (TertuUian) the renunciation meant only a rejection of 
idolatry, and accordingly belonged to baptism within the 
church; he observes, however, also that already in Cyprian 
another conception is present, namely the assumption of moral 
obligation. [Professor Ammundsen.] 


c. Feasts and Fasts 

Corssen, Peter, Das Osterfest (NJklA 39, 1917, 170-189). — Fischer, 
Ludwig, Die kirchlichen Quatember (VKSM 4, 3). xii, 278 pp. MUnchen, 
Lentner, 1914. M. 6, 20. — Holl, Karl, Der Ursprung des Epiphanien- 
festes. (SAB 1917, xxix, 402-438). Berlin, Reimer, 1918. M. 2. — Koch, 
Hugo, Pascha in der aeltesten Kirche (ZwTh 55, 1914, 289-313). — Nils- 
son, Martin P., Studien zur Vorgeschichte des Weihnachtsfestes (AR 19, 
1917, 50-150). 

Before proceeding to the review of the works named above, 
attention may be directed to the comprehensive investigation 
which Karl Schmidt, in one of the excursuses to his edition of 
the Epistula Apostolorum (see the article by Professor Lake 
in the January number of this Review, pp. 15-29) has devoted 
to the Paschal controversies of the second century. The oc- 
casion for this investigation was the fact that the Epistola is a 
new witness to what is known as the Quartodeciman Paschal 
festival, because it was held on the 14th of Nisan in commemo- 
ration of the death of Jesus. This testimony retains its im- 
portance even if Schmidt's opinion that the Epistle originated 
in circles of Quartodeciman observance in Asia Minor should 
not prevail. For it is definitely established by the Epistola that 
the festival was kept in commemoration of the death of Jesus, 
and a controversial issue which was perpetually renewed among 
scholars seems therewith to be finally disposed of. Koch's 
discussion, so far as it has to do with this particular question, 
is antiquated by this new evidence; but what he has to say 
about Easter and Pentecost in Tertullian retains its value. — 
Corssen directs attention not so much to the Paschal contro- 
versies as to the origin of the festival of the Roman Church, 
the Easter festival, in contrast to the Paschal festival. He is 
of the opinion that the former was created by a deliberate 
action of the church, probably in Rome, and very likely in the 
sequel of the negotiations between Anicetus and Polycarp, 
which brought to maturity the decision on the part of the Ro- 
mans to signalize in an especial manner the first Sunday after 
the Jewish Passover as a festival Sunday. He is struck by cer- 
tain parallels between the Christian celebration and the Attis 
festival, which had before this time grown into a popular festi- 


val, and in which the lamentation for the death of the god 
changed into the rejoicing of the Hilaria on the twenty-fifth of 
March. If Corssen means to infer from this that the festival 
of the Roman Church was introduced to compete with a heathen 
festival, he may not find it easy to adduce evidence, however 
strongly the analogy of both Christmas and Epiphany may 
seem to suggest it. 

For Epiphany, Holl, in a model investigation, has made it 
at least highly probable that this festival was a Christian sub- 
stitute for a festival kept in Egypt on the 6th of January in 
honor of a god Alon, more particularly of his birth from a virgin. 
With this festival was connected a ceremonial drawing of 
water from the Nile; and a further belief that the Nile water 
changed into wine is attested. In this way an explanation would 
be found of the fact that the church, following the lead of the 
Basilidians, before the setting off of the Christmas festival, cele- 
brated on the sixth of January, along with the birth of the Son 
of God, the hallowing of the water by his baptism, and the mirac- 
ulous transformation of the elements at the marriage in Cana. 
In the Greek church the baptism of Jesus later completely 
crowded out the other motives. In the West, Pope Liberius 
(352) still kept Epiphany as the festival of the birth of Christ, 
and at the same time of the marriage in Cana, and of the miracu- 
lous feeding of the multitudes. The detachment of Christmas 
as a festival of Jesus' birth signified at the same time opposi- 
tion to taking the sixth of January as the commemoration of 
his baptism. In its stead, the adoration of the Magi became 
dominant. On HoU's article cf. O. Weinreich AR 19 (1918), 174- 
190 and F. Boll, ibid., 190 f. — Nilsson, in the first part of 
his study gives a sketch of the development of the Roman festi- 
val of the Kalends of January, and in the second part, in op- 
position to the works of Tille and Bilfinger, discusses the ques- 
tion whether Christmas customs were influenced on the one 
side by the Roman New Year's customs, and on the other by 
the nordic Yule festival. 

Against Morin, who sees in the introduction of the four 
Ember Days a substitute for the pagan feriae messis, vinde- 
miales, and sementinae, Fischer would explain their origin 


from the ancient Christian conception of fasting as a statio, i.e. 
as a means to combat the saeculum; an explanation which 
seems to be favored by the great r61e which vigils play in the 
Quatember liturgy. Fischer regards as trustworthy the notice 
in the Liber Pontificalis that Pope Callistus introduced the 
Ember days. The idea of festivals of thanksgiving for the har- 
vest was, he thinks, first connected with them after the time 
of Leo the Great. The major part of this useful work is devoted 
to the liturgy of the Ember Days, to the legal character of these 
days, and to their significance from religious and moral, civil 
and social, and mythological points of view. 

d. Archaeology and Art 

Achelis, Hans, Altchristliche Kunst (ZNW 16, 1915, 1-23. 17, 1916, 81- 
107). — Achelis, Hans, Der Entwicklungsgang der altchristlichen Kunst. 
47 pp. Leipzig, Quelle und Meyer, 1919. M. 2. — Harnack, Adolf von. 
Die aelteste griechische Kircheninschrift. (SAB 1915, xliii, 746-766). Berlin, 
Reimer, 1915. M. 1. — Kaufmann, Carl Maria, Handbuch der altchrist- 
lichen Epigraphik. xvi, 514 pp. mit 254 AbbUdungen sowie 10 schriftver- 
gleichenden Tafeln. Freiburg, Herder, 1917. M. 18; geb. M. 20. — Kauf- 
mann, Carl Maria, Die heilige Stadt der WUste. Unsere Entdeckungen, 
Grabungen und Funde in der altchristlichen Menasstadt. ix, 218 pp. mit 
190 AbbUdungen. Kempten, Kosel, 1919. M. 15; geb. M. 18. — Koch, 
Hugo, Die altchristliche Bilderfrage nach den literarischen Quellen. 
(FRLANT, Neue Folge, 10). iv, 105 pp. Gottingen, Vandenhoeck und Rup- 
recht, 1917. M. 4, 80. — Lietzmann, Hans, Petrus und Paxilus in Rom. 
Liturgische und archaeologische Studien. xii, 189 pp. mit 6 PlSnen. Bonn, 
Marcus und Weber, 1915. M. 6, 80. — Pfeilschifter, Georg, Oxyrhyn- 
chos. Seine Kirchen und Kloster auf Grund der Papyrusfunde. (Festgabe 
Knopfler [vide supra p. 287], 248-264). — Schrijnen, Josef, De ontwik- 
keling der boetetucht in het licht der oud-christelijke kunst (De Beiaard 1916, 
253-259; 1917, 201-210; [vide supra p. 295]). — Schultze, Viktor, Grund- 
riss der christlichen Archaeologie. viii, 159 pp. mit Titelbild. MUnchen, 
Beck, 1919. M. 5. — Smit, E. L., De Oud-Christelijke Monumenten 
van Spanje. Met 2 Kaarten en 11 afbeeldingen. (Diss. Leiden). 158 pp. 
's Gravenhage, Nijhoff, 1916. fl. 4, 75. — Stuhlfauth, Georg, Die "aeltes- 
ten Portrats " Christi und der Apostel. 26 pp. mit zwei AbbUdungen. Berlin, 
Huttenverlag, 1918. M. 1. 90. — Sybel, Ludwig von, Auferstehungshoff- 
nung in der fruhchristlichen Kunst? (ZNW 15, 1914, 254-267). — Sybel, 
Ludwig von, PrUhchristliche Kunst. iv, 55 pp. mit TitelbUd. MUnchen, 
Beck, 1920. M. 4, 50. — Waal, Anton de. Die jungsten Ausgrabungen in 
der BasUika des hi. Sebastian zu Rom (Kath. 95, 1, 1915, 395-411). 

Kaufmann, whp is most favorably known by his 'Hand- 
buch der Christlichen Archaologie,' and by the excavation of 


the city of Menas conducted under his direction, has now given 
us the first handbook of early Christian epigraphy worthy of 
the name. The labor involved may be judged from the fact 
that the number of monumental inscriptions now known ex- 
ceeds 4900. Of these Kaufmann has employed for his text 
2000, and has reproduced 700 by cuts or in type facsimile. He 
has not confined himself to the Roman and Occidental sources 
which hitherto have been almost exclusively utilized, but has 
drawn also upon inscriptions from regions of Greek speech and 
from the Near East. After introductory paragraphs on the 
conception and task of such a work, the sources and literature, 
the author treats of the external phenomena, the alphabets, 
language, and the dating of the inscriptions. This is followed 
by: 1. Sepulchral inscriptions, selected texts illustrating secvdar 
and social life, doctrinal texts, inscriptions bearing on the his- 
tory of the church and hierarchy; 2. the graflStti; 3. documen- 
tary inscriptions; 4. inscriptions referring to the erection of 
buildings. In special sections are treated the inscriptions of 
Pope Damasus, and the later historical inscriptions (eulogies 
of martyrs, titles of buildings from the Roman catacombs, 
titles of basilicas). An appendix contaias an ample apparatus of 
tables (forms of the inscriptional characters for purposes of 
comparison, the Julian calendar, chronological tables). Ex- 
haustive indexes facilitate the use of the well-arranged and 
well-written book. With such an abundance of material, and 
in a first attempt, all sorts of errors are inevitable. Searching 
critical reviews (e.g. J. Wittig, ThRev 17, 1918, 389-392; W. 
Larfeld, Byzantinisch-neugriechische Jahrbiicher 1, 1920, 208 ff.; 
R. Herzog, HZ 122, 1920, 301-304) have indeed convicted the 
author of many sins of omission that might easily have been 
avoided, and have even charged him with being lacking in the 
necessary accuracy. These shortcomings should not cast into 
the shade the good features of a handbook which in the opinion 
of the reviewer is — until we have a better one — indispensable. 
Inasmuch as there are in English no comprehensive treatises 
on Christian archaeology of any scientific value, Schultze's 
outline should be able to count on a favorable reception, and it 
would be well deserved, for the little volume is both in form 


and contents simply admirable. What Schultze here ofifers is 
the well-pondered result of forty years of scientific occupation 
with the subject; and scholars who are acquainted with the 
field will not fail to observe that upon almost all important 
points he has endeavored to carry research deeper or fatrher 
afield. But the layman in the subject will also find his account 
in it, since Schultze has had in mind especially the use of the 
book by his student hearers. Great attention has also been 
given to externals, especially in the references to the literature. 
A translation into English would be well worth while. — The 
somewhat more advanced student will read von Sybel's 'Leit- 
faden ' also with profit. Few scholars have promoted investiga- 
tion in this field by independent work in a degree comparable 
to von Sybel, and in this volume he writes, as in a survey from 
some mountain peak, the history of the development of early 
Christian art from its beginning under the Flavian emperors 
down to Theodosius. The epochs of this history as he maps 
them out are: the period before Hadrian, from the Antonines 
to Valerian, from Gallienus to Constantine, from Constantine 
to Theodosius. The treatment is very concise, and everywhere 
shows the hand of the master who has his material in complete 
command. The article in ZNW is devoted to the establishment 
by detailed proof of a thesis for which von Sybel contended in 
his well-known work, 'Die christliche Antike,' namely that 
early Christian art, and especially the paintings in the cata- 
combs, are not, as Victor Schultze and after him Hans Achelis 
maintain, inspired by the thought of a future resurrection of 
the flesh, but are to be understood in the light of the idea of the 
present blessedness of the dead in paradise. 

In an investigation that is a model of method, Smit has 
collected and turned to historical account the archaeological 
material for Christianity in Spain. To the 426 inscriptions previ- 
ously known he adds seven hitherto unpublished. Besides the 
inscriptions, the sarcophagi, which range from the fourth 
(third?) to the seventh century, are discussed. The inscrip- 
tions are chiefly from the Visigothic period; twenty-two are of 
the fourth century or earlier. Smit seeks the origin of Spanish 
Christianity in Rome, though North Africa may have been the 


intermediate station. In any case, Christianity had a very 
independent development on Spanish soil. The general desig- 
nation of Christians on the Spanish monuments is Famulus 
Dei. Not as much as one per cent of the Christian inscriptions 
are from soldiers, against six per cent among the non-Christian 
inscriptions. The inscriptions yield valuable testimony in re- 
gard to Christology, penance, and the like. The formulas 
warning off violators of tombs, Smit derives from the primitive 
belief in the resurrection of the flesh. In the consciousness of 
these Christians the material burial ad sanctos and the spiritual 
eternal life with the saints in Paradise are still undistinguished. 
Bakhuizen van den Brink, to whom the above notice is due, 
describes the volume as a very valuable contribution to Chris- 
tian archaeology. 

In ZNW.4cAeZis has brought to completion the series of 
articles which he began in 1911-1913. The leading ideas are 
repeated in the admirable address delivered by him when he 
entered upon his professorship of church history in Leipzig. 
The prominent thing in it is the development of the cycle of 
early Christian pictures, in which he gives more consideration 
than archaeologists are in the habit of doing to points of view 
taken from the history of the church. Thus, for example, he 
brings a group of pictures in which the idea of the foregiveness 
of sins seems to be manifest (Good Shepherd, Peter's denial) 
into connection with the controversies in the Roman Church 
about repentance. Here it may be questioned whether he has 
not allowed himself to construe too freely (see also below, p. 354, 
Schrijnen). Again, in making the epoch of Constantine, which 
is so important in church history, a main division in the de- 
velopment of Christian art also, and in consequence sharply 
separating the period of the catacomb paintings from that of 
the sarcophagi and mosaics, Achelis will hardly be followed by 
the archaeologists. See the adverse criticism on this point by 
G. Stuhlfauth, ThLZ 45 (1920), 248-250. — Since Ludwig von 
Sybel defined early Christian art as ancient art, archaeologists 
have frequently repeated that what is Christian in this art Ues 
solely in the subjects, not in the artistic technic or style — 
in the content, that is, not in the form. Jordan doubts the 


correctness of this proposition, and contends that early Chris- 
tian art, compared with the antique, contains new stylistic ele- 
ments also. 

In other respects also the theories of the archaeologists seem 
to church historians to demand reconsideration. Above all, 
when it is a question of dating or making use of the monuments 
of Christian art, the historian notes that insufficient attention 
is given to the literary sources. Thus, the rich discoveries of 
decorative painting in the catacombs have obscured the fact 
that the patristic writers of the first centuries unanimously 
testify that the Christians rejected art on principle. Koch 
proves this by an examination of the witnesses from TertuUian 
to Epiphanius (see above p. 332, under Holl). He also reminds 
us that Spanish (Council of Elvira), Africaji, or Oriental deliver- 
ances are not to be interpreted out of the way and disposed of 
by a glance at the Roman catacombs. The Roman Church 
seems to have been the least conservative of all, and more 
ready than any other to adapt itself to new conditions and to 
respond to the currents of the times. — Schrijnen, like Achelis 
(see above), brings the picture of the Good Shepherd into 
connection with the controversy over the stricter or laxer peni- 
tential practice. The Good Shepherd brings the soul upon his 
shoulders into the communion of the saints. Down to the time of 
Callistus, however (see below p. 365f., under Esser, and Koch), 
the saints were always the true believers who had kept un- 
stained the garments of baptismal grace. The picture is there- 
fore not to be referred exclusively to the other life, but also to 
the church on earth. Consequently it signifies either a last ap- 
peal to the mercy of God after death, or a protest against the 
Montanistic contention that the church has no power to re- 
move sin in a second repentance. Schrijnen hardly pays any 
attention to the natural objection, supported by the dates as- 
signed by the archaeologists to these paintings, that the oldest 
frescos of the Good Shepherd carry us back to the second cen- 
tury, that is to a time antecedent to the controversies about 
repentance. On the other side it is naturally not to be ques- 
tioned that during these controversies the picture actually 
sCTved to express the hope of the lapsi. The article contains 


many other interesting combinations and may therefore be 
commended to the attention of archaeologists and church 
historians. [Bakhuizen van den Brink.] 

George La Piana has dealt at length in this review (January 
1921, p, 53-94) with Xie<3wionn'« valuable studies on the 
tombs of the Apostles Peter and Paul, and has cited the rest of 
the literature (p. 87). I have therefore only to refer here to 
de Waal's article. — In the course of excavations at Antioch 
in Syria in 1910 a silver chalice was found with representations 
of Christ and the Apostles, which is now in New York. Gus- 
tavus A. Eisen asserted (1916) that the chalice dates from the 
first century, and that it is to be assumed that it gives us por- 
trait likenesses of the persons represented. Stuhlfauth re- 
futes this rash assertion, and shows that the chalice is to be 
assigned to the fifth century at the earliest. — In Volume 11 of 
the Oxyrhynchus Papyri (1915) a papyrus was published 
which contains a list of o-wdfeis, i.e. gatherings for worship, 
which, like the Roman-Latin Stationes, were held annually at 
fixed times (Saints Days) in certain churches, the bishop being 
present. It is thus a kind of calendar, which is unfortunately 
preserved for only about half a year. It was drawn up about 
the year 535. Pfeilschifter makes use of it only to determine 
the number of church buildings in Oxyrhynchus. The list for 
the half-year shows 26 churches (possibly 28), so that a total 
of 40 would not seem to be too high. This would indicate that 
the needs of the chiu-ch were well supplied, and that there was 
an active religious life in the Egyptian cities. In the course of 
his study Pfeilschifter adduces from the papyri other material 
referring to the churches and monasteries named in the list. — 
Harnack examines from all sides the inscription (Le Bas et 
Waddington 3, 1 No. 2558; 3, 2 p. 582) of the year 318-319 
found in Deir-Ali near Damascus, which once adorned a <rvva- 
yuyii M.a.pKWivuiT&v. 

In a handsome publication intended for general readers 
Kaufmann presents the results of his excavations in the year 
1905. He was fortunate enough at that time to bring to light 
the famous, but till then wholly lost, sanctuary of St. Menas, in 
the Lybian desert south of Alexandria, an extensive monument 


of civilization in the fifth century. His scientific reports on the 
excavations from the years 1906-1908, and his great publica- 
tion on the principal basilica (1910), are well known to scholars. 
The new popular presentation gives a survey of the whole, in 
which the reader is skilfully and entertainingly made ac- 
quainted with the ruins. An introduction on the legend of 
Menas and the history of the sanctuary is prefixed. The volume 
is adorned by an abimdance of photographic views excellently 
reproduced. (This notice follows a review by H. Lietzmann, 
ThLZ 45, 1920, 150.) The volume is at present out of print; 
the appearance of a new edition, which the publisher promises, 
is not likely to be in the immediate future. 

e. Organization 

General. Goeller, Emil, Die Bischofswahl bei Origenes. (Ehrengabe fiir 
Johann|Georg von Sachsen [vide supra p. 287], 603-616). — Koch, Hugo, 
Zur klerikalen Laufbahn im Altertum (ZNW 17, 1916, 78-79) ; Zur Geschichte 
des monarchischen Episkopats (ebd. 19, 1919/20, 81-85). — Melxner, E., Die 
Verfassung der Kirche in den zwei ersten Jahrhunderlen unter besonderer 
Beriicksichtigung der Schriften Harnacks. vii, 248 pp. Danzig, Westpreus- 
sischer Verlag, 1919. M. 10; geb. M. 12. — Moe, Oahar, Det monarchiske 
Episcopats Oprindelse [Origin]. 211 pp. Kristiania, Lutherstiftelsen, 1917. 
Councils. Acta conciliorum oecumenicorum, iussu atque mandato Societatis 
scientiarum Argentoratensis edidit Eduardus Schwartz. Tomus III: Con- 
cilium universale Constantinopolitanum sub Justiniano habitum. Vol. II: 
Johannis Maxentii libelli. CoUectio codicis Novariensis XXX. Collectio 
codicis Parisini 1682. Procli tomus ad Armenios. Johannis papae II epistula 
ad viros illustres. 6, xxxii, 210 pp. 4°. Strassburg, Triibner, 1914. M. 30. — 
Neue AktenstUcke zum ephesinischen Konzil von 431, herausgegeben von 
Eduard Schwartz. (AAM 30, 8). 121 pp. MUnchen, Franz, 1920. M. 20. — 
Flemming, Johannes, Akten der ephesinischen Synode von 449. Syrisch 
mit Georg Hoffmanns deutscher Uebersetzung und seinen Anmerkungen 
herausgeben. (AGW 15, 1). vii, 188 pp. Berlin, Weidmann, 1917. M. 18. — 
Haase, Felix, Die koptischen Quellen zum Konzil von Nicaea. (StGKA 
10, 4). vii, 124 pp. Paderborn, Schoningh, 1920. M. 14. — Heckrodt, 
Ella, Die Kanones von Sardika aus der Kirchengeschichte erlSutert. (Diss. 
Jena.) x, 128 pp. Bonn, Marcus und Weber, 1917. M. 3. — Koch, Hugo, 
Die Zeit des Konzils von Elvira (ZNW 17, 1916, 61-67). — Schwartz, 
Eduard, Zur Vorgeschichte des ephesinischen Konzils (HZ 114, 1914, 237- 

The Roman Chubch and the Papacy. Bruining, ^., De Roomsche kerk 
en Augustinus (NThT 4, 1915, 97-122). — Esser, GerAard, Das Irenaeus- 
zeugnis fiir den Primat der rombchen Kirche (Kath. 97, 1, 1917, 289-315; 
2, 16-34). — Harnack, Adolf »on, Zur Geschichte der Anfange der inneren 
Organisation der stadtrSmbchen Kirche. (SAB 1918, xliii, 954-987). Berlin, 


Reimer, 1918. M. 2. — Kitsch, Johann Peter, Die romischen Titelkirchen 
im Altertum (StGKA 9, 1, 2). x, 224 pp. Paderbom, SchSningh, 1918. 
M. 10. — Koeh, Hugo, Zum Lebensgange Kallists (ZNW 17, 1916, 211 sq.) ; 
Petrus und Paulus im zweiten Osterfeststreit? (ZNW 19, 1919/20, 174-179). 
— Peitz, Wilhelm M., Aus dem Geheimarchiv der Weltkirche (StZ 94, 
1917, 280-290); Das Register Gregors I (Erganzimgshefte zu den StZ 2, 2). 
xvi, 222 pp. Freiburg, Herder, 1917. M. 11; Liber Diurnus, Beitrage zur 
Kenntnis der aeltesten pSpstlichen Kanzlei vor Gregor dem Grossen. I. 
Ueberlieferimg des Kanzleibuches und sein vorgregorianischer Ursprung. 
(SAW 185, 1918, 4). 144 pp. Wien, Holder, 1918; Neue Aufschlusse uber 
den Liber Diurnus, das Vorlagenbuch der mittelalterlichen Papstkanzlei (StZ 
94, 1918, 486-496); Martin I und Maximus Confessor. Ein Beitrag zur 
Geschichte des Monotheletenstreites in den Jahren 645-668 (HJG 38, 1917, 
213-236). — Preysing, Konrad Graf, Zwei offizielle Entscheidungen des 
romischen Stuhles um die Wende des 2. Jahrhunderts (ZkTh 41, 1917, 595- 
597). — Rauachen, Gerhard, Florilegium patristicum ix: Textus ante- 
nicaeni ad primatum romanum spectantes. vi, 60 pp. Bonn, Hanstein, 1914. 
M. 1, 40; kart. M. 1, 60. — Silva-Tarouca, Karl, Beitrage zur Ueber- 
lieferimgsgeschichte der Papstbriefe des 4.-6. Jahrhunderts (ZkTh 43, 1919, 
469-481, 657-692)^ — Tangl, Michael, Gregor-Register und Liber Diur- 
nus (NADG 41, 1919, 741-752). 

Genebal. Metzner vindicates the Catholic conception of 
the primitive Christian organization. To this end he takes up 
Harnack's writings and endeavors to refute them. He has 
certainly done his work with industry and care, and in incidental 
particulars he may merit a hearing. As a whole, however, his 
book is only a new proof that dogma and history are in contra- 
diction. — In connection with the statement of Epiphanius, 
Haer. 68, 7, that, imlike other cities, Alexandria never had two 
bishops, Koch calls attention to several well-authenticated in- 
stances of an episcopal duumvirate during the third century. — 
Moe is of the opinion that the Christians in the East were 
organized as Stao-oi under a irpo<TTarri$, whereas in the West 
they chose a prominent member of the congregation to be their 
'patron.' [Professor Ammundsen.] 

Councils. In 1909 the Strassburger Wissenschaftliche Gesell- 
schaft resolved to undertake the publication of a critical edition 
of the acts of the oecumenical councils of Ephesus, Chalcedon, 
Constantinople 553, Constantinople 680-681, Nicaea 787, Con- 
stantinople 869, and Constantinople 879, and intrusted the task 
to Eduard Schwartz. Properly recognizing that more was 
involved than merely the acts in the narrow sense, that is the 


transactions of the councils themselves, which are already 
easily accessible in the current collections, Schwartz directed 
his first efforts to those compilations which, like the Synodicon 
Casinense or the Codex Encyclius, afford glimpses of the ante- 
cedent proceedings of the synods and of the diplomatic nego- 
tiations that accompanied or followed them. The first volume 
to appear in this great enterprise contains a number of such 
documents which are important for the understanding of the 
history of the council of 553, relating in part to the Theopaschite 
controversy, in part to that of the Three Chapters, and in part 
to the actual proceedings of the council. The volume begins 
with the writings of Johannes Maxentius, once edited by Coch- 
laeus from a manuscript which later found its way to Oxford, 
and has been identified for the first time by Schwartz in Cod. 
Bodl. 580. These are followed by the sections concerning the 
Theopaschite controversy in the so-called CoUectio Novarien- 
sis, that is, the documents preserved in Cod. Nov. 30 and 
published by Amelli in the first volume of the Spicilegium Casi- 
nense. The third group consists of the texts of the CoUectio 
Codicis Parisini 1682, largely papal letters, together with the 
account of Innocentius of Maronea concerning the so-called 
CoUatio cum Severianis (Mansi viii, 817-834), which Schwartz 
assigns, as the present writer had already done, but partly on 
the basis of fresh considerations, to the year 533 instead of 531. 
An appendix supplies the encyclical addressed by Proclus of 
Constantinople to the Armenians in the year 435 (Mansi v, 
421-437) with the Latin translation of Dionysius Exiguus, be- 
sides a letter from Pope John II to certain senators (Mansi 
viii, 803-806). The prolegomena deal in the main with ques- 
tions regarding the history of the tradition, touching upon 
material problems only where intelligibility requires. But 
once does the author allow himself to discuss such a subject 
on a more extensive scale: the much-debated history of the 
Scythian monks is reviewed in the masterly manner which 
Schwartz has accustomed us to associate with his work. Com- 
plementary to this publication are the studies in the history 
of the councils noticed above on p. 331 (Cassianus) and p. 337 


The war and its consequences have unhappily greatly les- 
sened the hope of being able to carry through without change 
this largely planned undertaking, but Schwartz has not given 
it up. In the meantime he has presented us in the Abhand- 
lungen of the Munich Academy with a valuable parergon. In 
a manuscript in the library of the Society of Christian Archae- 
ology in Athens he found a rich collection of documents for the 
history of the Coimcil of Ephesus in 431. Of the one hundred 
and seventy-seven pieces in this collection he now prints those 
that were unknown, or had hitherto been published only in 
Latin translations. Among them are letters from Cyril of 
Alexandria, John of Antioch, Popes Celestine and Sixtus III, 
Theodoret of Cyrus, and others. The transactions concerning 
the right of the Patriarch of Antioch to consecrate bishops on 
the island of Cyprus, which are of such great importance for 
the interpretation of the sixth canon of Nicaea are now acces- 
sible in their Greek text. To the reproduction of these docu- 
ments Schwartz had added an investigation of the relations of 
this 'CoUectio Atheniensis' to those which have been trans- 
mitted to us in the libraries of the West (CoUectio Seguieriana 
and CoUectio Vaticana). In the concluding section, Schwartz 
turns his attention to the Latin translations which were made 
upon the basis of these Greek collections, particularly to that 
which is known imder the misleading designation 'Synodicon 
Casinense.' He shows that the CoUectio Casinensis is an am- 
plification of the CoUectio Turonensis preserved in Cod. 
Paris. 1572. The Roman deacon Rusticus, nephew of Pope 
VigUius, is to be regarded as the author of this work. We pos- 
sess from his hand a Latin redaction of the Acts of Chalcedon, 
which belongs together with the amplification of the CoUectio 
Turonensis and its continuation in the so-called Synodicon 
Casinense. To the whole Schwartz gives the title 'Synodicon 
of Rusticus.' The next task which Schwartz has set himself is 
to publish the first two parts of this Synodicon. The manu- 
script is already complete, and the type-setting is said to have 
begun; but if it is to be completed, large support by early sub- 
scription is necessary. Schwartz justly writes: "I think I 
have suflSciently shown by this Memoir that the undertaking 


is necessary; and that it will contribute to science an abundance 
of new material, or material made for the first time usable by 
new editions, sufficient to engage the labor of generations. I 
sincerely hope that, after all my toil, it may not be brought to 
a halt." This hope I would most urgently second. 

The account of the last day's session of the Ephesian synod 
of 449, the 'Robber Synod,' has come down to us only in Syriac 
(Cod. Mus. Brit. Add. 14530 Syr. 905), and the edition of that 
text by S. G. F. Perry (Oxford 1875) has unfortunately re- 
mained practically unknown. Even acquaintance with the 
German translation by Georg Hoffmann (1873), the French by 
P. Martin (1874), and the English by Perry (1875), has been 
limited to the narrow circle of a very few investigators. It is 
to be hoped that the new edition now offered by Flemming 
will meet with a better fate. Facing the Syriac text Flemming 
prints the translation of Hoffmann, whose instructive notes are 
added, substantially unaltered, at the end of the volume. — 
On the subject of one or other of the individual councils there 
are a number of valuable contributions. In opposition to 
Duchesne, whose assignment of the council of Elvira to the 
period about 300 (that is, before the Diocletian persecution) 
has been accepted by many scholars, Koch advocates, on very 
respectable grounds, the period between 306 and 312, with a 
preference for the earliest possible date within these limits. — 
The Coptic sources on the Council of Nicaea, which Eugene 
Revillout published in the Journal Asiatique, 1873-75, have 
never been thoroughly investigated. A study of them has now 
been made by Haase, who comes to the conclusion that they 
are not official 'Acts,' but rather a gradually accumulated pri- 
vate corpus of documents of various origin. The creed, cata- 
logue of bishops, and canons — the latter only partially pre- 
served — are fairly good translations of Greek prototypes 
whose text was in parts better and more original than the 
Greek texts which have come down to us. The doctrinal sec- 
tions cannot have been composed before ApoUinaris of Laodicea 
and the earliest controversies on the doctrine of the Holy 
Ghost. The corpus comprises the iK$e<Tis iricrews printed 
among the works of Athanasius, with the civrayfia didaffKoKlas 


irpos twv&^ovTas which is appended to it, besides a valuable 
collection of apophthegms. In addition to these studies, Haase 
supplies a German translation of all the texts. — Fraulein 
Heckrodt attempts to show that the canons of Sardica may 
without violence be fitted into the ecclesiastical movements of 
the foiu^h century, so that there should be no suspicion of 
forgery. The Greek text is the original. The authoress ex- 
pounds this text with great diligence. She has brought to- 
gether and worked over a vast amount of material which 
hitherto had to be laboriously sought in widely scattered 
sources. Even such much-discussed questions as that of the 
position of the Roman bishop in the third and fourth centuries 
she manages to treat with a certain degree of originality. — 
Schwartz offers a section of an unpublished work on the ec- 
clesiastical policy of the Eastern Empire in the fifth and sixth 
centuries. He succeeds in shedding light, sometimes new and 
always interesting, on questions both of the history of doctrine 
and of chiu-ch polity. This study can be read with pleasure as 
well as profit, for the author has a rare faculty for presenting 
valuable material in attractive form. One matter of detail may 
be mentioned. The opinion which as the result of Hort's re- 
searches (Two Dissertations, 1882) has become universal among 
scholars, that the Nicene-Constantinopolitan creed was not 
adopted at the synod of 381, but originated later, is rejected by 

Roman Church. Professor Kirsch of Freiburg, Switzer- 
land, has undertaken a comprehensive study of the group of 
so-called title-churches (Tituli), which have an important bear- 
ing on the church life of Rome in antiquity. He aims to deter- 
mine the character of these Tituli, to ascertain their origin and 
historical development, and to define the position they occupied 
in the ecclesiastical organization of the Roman church in early 
times. There were twenty-five such churches, of which all but 
two (Titulus S. Cyriaci and Titulus S. Matthaei) survive as 
cardinal churches to this day. Their origin is to be traced to 
the third century. Eighteen of them were already in existence 
before the great persecution. Most of the Tituli were originally 
private houses, with the name of the owner indicated by means 


of an inscription over the entrance. In the middle of the fourth 
century these houses, which up to that time had not been much 
altered began to be replaced by basilicas. Only in the sixth 
century was the historical development of the Tituli completed. 
As may be imagined, our sources for a knowledge of their place 
in the ecclesiastical organization are scanty; but the author 
makes them yield valuable information nevertheless. — A wel- 
come supplement to the researches of Kirsch is furnished by 
Harnack. The latter's principal concern, however, is with the 
origin of the Roman 'regions' and with the related subject of 
the diaconal and presbyterial organization of the Roman church 
in the third century. That Rome had a permanent central 
church and episcopal residence before the time of Constantine, 
he believes must be denied; though he thinks the bishop did 
maintain, in the vicinity of his church, an extensive chancellery 
with the requisite apartments. 

B ruining breaks a lance for the Augustinianism of the 
Catholic Church. At the synod of Orange in 529 she accepted 
genuine Augustinianism, and held firmly to that position ever 
after, properly rejecting such extreme views as those of the 
monk Gottschalk and of the Jansenists. [Bakhuizen van den 
Brink.] — The much-discussed passage in Irenaeus, Adv. Haer. 
iii. 3, 1, has been subjected to renewed study by Esser, who 
comes to the conclusion that the principle 'what is Roman is 
catholic,' and indirectly also the theory of the infallibility of 
the Roman church, are already discoverable in Irenaeus. 
Against this daring conclusion there has appeared meanwhile 
a convincing article by Koch, ThStKr 94 (1921), 54-72; who 
admits, however, that Esser's translation of the celebrated pas- 
sage is entirely correct linguistically. — Koch attacks the re- 
ceived view that the reference by Polycrates of Ephesus to the 
ney6.\a aroix^la which remain in Asia, in his letter to Victor of 
Rome (Euseb. Hist. Eccl. v. 24, 2), was occasioned by Victor's 
appeal to Peter and Paul and the presence of their graves in 
Rome. In a second note, Koch maintains that the statement of 
Hippolytus (Philos. ix. 12, 4) concerning Calixtus can only be 
interpreted in the sense that Zephyrinus admitted Calixtus into 
the clergy and intrusted him with the management of the 


Koiiiifriipiov. — Graf Prey sing sees in the 'edicts' of Zephyri- 
nus and Calixtus reported by Hippolytus (Ref. ix. 11, 12) two 
oflScial utterances which indicate that even at that time the 
offices of the Roman see employed a distinctive court style. 

In recent years the Jesuit scholar, Peitz, has attracted the 
attention of scholars by his attempts to overturn apparently 
well-established results in the field of documentary criticism. 
The importance of the positions he attacks makes watchfulness 
on the part of critics especially necessary, the more so that 
Peitz puts forward his assertions not only with much learning 
but also with great self-assurance, and that there is a tendency 
among his associates to hail him as a veritable reformer of the 
science of diplomatics and 'a star of the first magnitude in the 
historical heavens.' His first point of attack is furnished by the 
well-known researches of Paul Ewald in the NADG for 1879, 
which formed the basis of the edition of the letters of Gregory 
the Great in the Monumenta Germaniae. According to Ewald 
the foundation of our tradition is supplied by three manuscript 
collections, compiled at various times from the Lateran official 
register: 1. the Hadrianic register, that is, the collection of 686 
(683) letters compiled at the behest of Pope Hadrian I; 2. the 
collection of 200 letters in the Cod. Colon. 92, saec. viii and 
other manuscripts; and 3. the so-called CoUectio Pauli (prob- 
ably Diaconus). These three series of selections formed the 
basis of his edition. Peitz now strives to maintain that the 
first named collection is a true and complete copy of the original 
register; from which it would follow that that collection alone 
should have been made the basis of Ewald's edition, and that 
the latter is therefore fundamentally defective. But this as- 
sumption of Peitz breaks down completely when confronted 
with the unequivocal testimony of the tradition, as has been 
convincingly shown by Tangl, one of our foremost authorities 
on diplomatics. Still bolder are Peitz's conclusions regarding 
the Liber Diumus, or Papal chancellery-book. In opposition 
to its editor, Sickel, who, while distinguishing between an older 
strand and later additions, places the compilation of the formu- 
laries not earlier than the eighth century, Peitz not only claims 
for all the formulae a pre-Gregorian origin, but would push 


them back into early Christian times, even into the second cen- 
tury. What the predication of so early a date involves, may be 
seen from the fact that Peitz thinks he can recognize in the 
earlier stratum of the bishop's confession of faith, contaiued in 
Liber Diurnus No. 73, the original form of the Apostles' Creed. 
(See above, p. 341 f ., on Haussleiter.) Peitz also believes he 
can demonstrate the authenticity of the papal documents for 
Lorch-Passau and for the archbishopric of Hamburg. We shall 
have occasion to return to this subject in our survey of the 
literature on the history of the church in the Middle Ages. 
It is to be expected that many other pens will be set in motion 
by the revolutionary theses of Peitz. Nor should his 'Beitrag 
zur Geschichte des Monotheletenstreits' be overlooked, in 
which, while discussing the views of the present writer and 
other investigators, he seeks to settle more than one disputed 
point by a new method of approach. 

Rauschen has brought together the most important passages 
beariug upon the earliest development of the idea of primacy 
in the episcopate. Those who possess Mirbt's 'Quellen' will 
find nothing new in this publication. — Silva-Tarouca, 
whose articles are not yet concluded, deals first with the edi- 
tions of Constant, the brothers Ballerini, and Thiel, and then 
with the earliest collections of the decretals. He concludes that 
the decretals of the popes from Siricius to Coelestinus, which 
have come down to us in the collections of canons, go back to 
selective compilations which were pretty certainly complete 
about the middle of the fifth century. We must suppose them 
to have been copied from transcripts of the original decretals 
which were sent to the various ecclesiastical provinces by the 

f. Discipline 

Adam, Karl, Das sogenannte Bussedikt des Papstes Kallist. (VKSM 4, 5). 
64 pp. MUnchen, Lentner, 1917. M. 1, 60. — Boehmer, Heinrich, Die 
Entstehimg des Zoelibates. (Studien Hauck [vide supra p. 288], 6-24. — 
Brander V., "Binden und Loesen" in der altsyrischen Kirche (Kath 95, 1, 
1916, 220-232, 287-304). — Companus, F. Ferr., O. F. M., De biecht in 
de eerste eeuwen der kerk. (Geloof en wetenschap 11, 5). 63 pp. Nijmegen, 
Malmberg, 1916. — Esser, Gerhard, Der Adressat der Schrift Tertullians 
"de pudicitia" und der Verfasser des romisclien Bussedikts. 46 pp. Bonn, 


Hanstein, 1914. M. 1; Die Behandlung der Haeresie in der Bussdisziplin der 
alten Kirche (ThGl 8, 1916, 472-483). — Kemper, J. W., Biecht en boete in 
de drie eerste eeuwen, naar aanleiding van een nieuw boek [d' Al^s, L' 6dit 
de Calliste, Par. 1914]. (Studien 46, 1914, 49-69). — Koch, Hugo, Kallist 
und Tertullian. (SAH 1919, 22). ii, 98 pp. Heidelberg, Wmter, 1920. M. 5, 
40. — Preysing, Konrad Graf, Existenz und Inhalt des Bussedikts Kallists 
(ZkTh 43, 1919, 358-362). 

There are some problems to which scholars constantly recur. 
One such is that which relates to the growth of the system of 
penance in the first centuries, and in particular to the evalua- 
tion of Tertullian's writings 'De paenitentia' and 'De pudi- 
citia,' as well as to the alleged edict (edidum peremptorium) 
which is the object of attack in the latter treatise. These ques- 
tions have been the subject of renewed and lively discussion in 
the period covered by the present survey. Professor Esser of 
Bonn, who by reason of his life-long studies in Tertullian (see 
above, p. 312, under BKV) has won the right to a most respect- 
ful hearing, holds that the 'De pudicitia' was addressed, not 
to the bishop of Rome, but to the catholic church of Carthage 
or else to its bishop. The bishop of Rome was, it is true, the 
author of the 'edict,' but he was not responsible for the contro- 
versy at Carthage; he merely took a hand in it after his aid 
had been invoked by the bishop of that church. The bishop 
of Rome in question, moreover, was not Calixtus, as has been 
generally assumed on the basis of the familiar passage in the 
Philosophumena of Hippolytus, but his predecessor Zephyri- 
nus. In support of this view Esser seeks to show (as does also 
Graf Preysing) that the statement of Hippolytus to the eifect 
that Calixtus was the first to deal leniently with sins against 
chastity does not refer to a special decree on the subject of 
penance. Also he thinks the 'De pudicitia' must be dated much 
earlier than is usual, that is, in the year 213; in which case 
of course it could not refer to Calixtus. These conclusions 
of Esser have secured the assent of so highly esteemed a 
co-worker as F. Diekamp, ThRev. 13, 454-456. Adam goes 
further. He believes that even the 'edict' originated with the 
bishop of Carthage; so that the connection with Rome must be 
wholly eliminated. As regards the 'edict' itself, both Esser and 
Adam are of the opinion that the toleration there expressed 


towards sins of the flesh was not an innovation, but merely a 
confirmation of the common practice of the diurch in opposi- 
tion to the strict requirements of the Montanists. 

All these assertions are controverted by Koch in an essay 
which exhibits at their best the merits of that excellent scholar's 
critical method. He recognizes, of course, as have all previous 
investigators, that the 'De psenitentia' contains expressions 
which seem to favor the idea that it was the custom of the 
church even then to rehabilitate the most serious offenders on 
performance of due penance. But he shows that those passages 
must be controlled by others which unmistakably prove the 
opposite. And he points in this connection to some little- 
noticed passages in the 'De baptismo' (c. 5) and the 'Apolo- 
geticum' (c. 39), from which it appears plain that certain sins 
were punished with permanent exclusion from the fellowship of 
worship and the sacraments. So that the procedure of the 
bishop who uttered the 'edict' was in fact an innovation. He 
goes on to re-establish the connection between the Hippolytus 
passage and the statements of TertuUian, which is disputed by 
Esser and Adam; disposes of the objection drawn from the 
chronology of the 'De pudicitia,' by showing that the latter 
must have been written before the 'De monogamia' and the 
'De ieiunio ad versus psychicos,' hence necessarily during the 
episcopate of Calixtus, and so brings back into honor the view 
that Calixtus was the author of the 'edict.' Moreover, the op- 
ponent addressed in the 'De pudicitia' can hardly be any other 
than the bishop of Rome, to whom alone the derisive designa- 
tions 'pontifex maximus' and 'episcopus episcoporum' (the 
latter misinterpreted by Adam) could apply. To be sure, 
Tertullian extends his condemnation to every other bishop who 
follows the example of the bishop of Rome, as well as to all 
'psychics' who are of the same mind, against which latter, as 
its title indicates, his treatise is directed. Koch devotes a final 
section to the confutation of the efforts to employ this writing 
of Tertullian (as Esser in particular attempts to do) in support 
of the thesis that the legal primacy of the Roman bishops was 
already recognized at that time. I may note in this connec- 
tion that German scholars were already acquainted with the 


book of D'Ales, L'^dit de Calliste, Paris 1914. — By means of 
a judicious combination of old and new materials, Boehmer 
aims to determine the motive which led the ancient church to 
require of those who ministered at its altars, not indeed celibacy, 
but continence in the marriage relation. The officium coniugale 
does not comport with service at the altar. Accordingly, where 
the eucharist was celebrated daily, as was already the case in 
the West before 300, there was a strong tendency toward con- 
tinued continence. It was otherwise in the East, where the 
celebration took place only several times a week, and hence 
temporary abstention on the day preceding the offering was 
deemed sufficient. The ancient church had as yet not the least 
idea of introducing the celibacy of the priesthood; that was 
reserved for the Middle Ages. — The works of Companus 
and Kemper contain, as I am informed by Bakhuizen van den 
Brink, nothing of scientific interest. 

g. Asceticism and Monasticism 

Crum, W. E. Der Papyrus codex saec. VI-VII der Phillippsbibliothek 
zu Cheltenham. Koptische theologische Schriften herausgegeben und 
Ubersetzt. Mit einem Beitrag von Albert Ekrhard. (Schr Ges Str 18). 
xviii, 171 pp. Mit zwei Tafeln in Lichtdruck. Strassburg, TrUbner, 1915. M. 
15. — Hesseling, D. C, Bloemlesing uit het Pratum Spirituale van 
Johannes Moschus van inleiding en aantekeningen voorzien. (Aetatis im- 
peratoriae scriptores graeci et romani adnotationibus instructi curantibus P. 
J. Enk en D. Plooij.) Utrecht, Ruys, 1916. fl. 2. 


AU/ers, Bruno, Der Geist des hi. Benediktus. viii, 112 pp. Freiburg, Herder, 
1917. M. 1, 20. — Bickel, Ernst, Das asketische Ideal bei Ambrosius, 
Hieronymus und Augustinus. 38 pp. Leipzig, Teubner, 1916. M. 1, 50. — 
Bousset, Wilhelm, Komposition und Charakter der Historia Lausiaca 
(NGW 1917, 173-217). — Casd, Odo, Zur Vision des heil. Benedikt (StMB 
38,1917,345-348). — Degenkart, Friedrick, Der heilige Nilus Sinaita. 
Sein Leben und seine Lehre vom Monchtum. (BeitrSge zur Geschichte dea 
alten MSnchtums und des Benediktinerordens 6.) xii, 188 pp. MUnster i. 
W., Aschendorff, 1915. M. 5; geb. M. 6, 50; Neue Beitrage zur Nilusfor- 
schung. V, 50 pp. Ebd., 1918. M. 1, 50. — Herwegen, Ildefona, Der 
heilige Benedikt. 2. Aufl. xii, 170 pp. DUsseldorf, Schwann, 1917, M. 7. — 
Heussi, Karl, Untersuchungen zu Nilus dem Asketen. (TU 42, 2). iv, 
172 pp. Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1917. M. 6, 50; Nilus der Asket und der Ueberfall 
der Moenche am Sinai (NJklA 35, 1916, 107-221). — Kriiger, Gustav, 
Asketika (ThR 20, 1917, 63-83). — MUller, Engelbert, Studien zu den 


Biographien des Styliten Symeon des JUngeren. (Diss. Munchen.) 66 pp. 
AschafiFenburg, Werlrun, 1914. — Reitzenstein, Richard, Des Athanasius 
Werk Uber das Leben des Antonius. (SAH 1914, 8). 68 pp. Heidelberg, 
Winter, 1914. M. 2, 40; Historia monachorum und Historia Lausiaca. Eine 
Studie zur Geschichte des Monchtums und der friihchristlichen BegriflFe 
Gnostiker und Pneumatiker. (FRLANT, Neue Folge, 7). vi, 266 pp. Got- 
tingen, Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1919. M. 10, 40. — Salonius, A. H., 
Vitae Patrum. Kritische Untersuchungen Uber Text, Syntax und Wortschatz 
der spfitlateinischen Vitae Patrum (Buch iii, v, vi, vii). (Skrifter utgivna 
av humanistiska vetenskapssamfundet; Lund. Acta Societatis humaniorum 
litterarum Lundensis. II). xi, 456 pp. Lund., C. W. K. Gleerup, 1920. 
M. 120. 

Texts. The Philipps Library papyrus codex dating from the 
sixth or seventh century, now in the possession of Mr. T. Fitz- 
roy Fenwick of Cheltenham, contains several interesting Coptic 
writings of a theological character which are best discussed at 
this point, since they originated in the circles of Pachomian 
monachism. They have been edited by Crum with his usual 
care, and he has also supplied a German translation. To 
Ehrhard we are indebted for an excellent historico-critical 
introduction to the texts. In the main they group themselves 
about four persons, three of whom, the archbishops Theophilus 
and Cyril of Alexandria, and Horsiesius, third abbot-general of 
the Pachomian monasteries in the southern Thebais, are well 
known from the ecclesiastical and monastical history of Egypt, 
while the fourth. Bishop Agathonicus of Tarsus, appears here 
for the first time. The popular character of these texts makes 
them especially valuable; they afford a more direct and vivid 
insight into the religious life of the Pachomian monks than can 
be had from the learned theological literature. They fall into 
three parts: 1. the account of a journey of Horsiesius to Alex- 
andria, an interesting episode from the life of this second suc- 
cessor of Pachomius, concerning whom our information is other- 
wise quite meagre; 2. the 'Questions and Answers,' in which 
Cyril of Alexandria plays the chief r6le, and which, according 
to Ehrhard, do not belong to the class of ipwrairoKpiffeis, but 
grew out of an actual colloquy between the patriarch and his 
two deacons, Anthimus and Stephanus; and 3. a group of 
pseudepigrapha, put into the mouth of an otherwise xmknown 
Bishop Agathonicus of Tarsus by a Pachomian monk, who 


made use of a pseudonym for the discussion of several disputed 
points of doctrine. Crum leaves the question open whether 
the texts were originally composed in Coptic or are translations 
from the Greek, while Ehrhard confidently decides in favor of 
the first alternative. — Professor Hesseling is known as one 
of the foremost investigators in the field of the Koine. The edi- 
tion of extracts from the 'Pratum Spirituale' of Johannes Mos- 
chus which he has prepared for students of philology and the- 
ology, with its summary of the history of the Koine and brief 
grammatical notes, fully sustains his reputation. The intro- 
duction deals with the life of Johannes, and emphasizes the 
value of his book for a knowledge of the state of religion at the 
end of the sixth century. [Bakhuizen van den Brink.] 

Studies. In his 'Hellenistische Wundererzahlungen, ' pub- 
lished in 1906, Reitzenstein had already attacked the literary 
problem of the oldest monastical histories. In 1912 appeared 
Holl's important study, 'Die schriftstellerische Form der Heili- 
genlegende' (NJklA 29, 1912, 406-^27). In that study HoU 
showed that the Vita Antonii of Athanasius was the prototype 
of the Greek lives of the saints, and found the characteristic dif- 
ference between the Christian narratives and classical biography 
to consist in the fact that in the former the biographical element 
serves only as a means for the representation of the ideal. At 
the same time he pointed out that the model for the Vita 
Antonii must have been furnished by a lost /3tos Hvdaybpov. 
Reitzenstein has extended these observations. Upon further 
study, the astonishing fact was disclosed that not only were 
parts of the narrative in the Vita extracted quite mechanically 
and unintelligently from a life of Pythagoras, but even its 
ideal of the Christian ascetic was formed under the immediate 
influence of the Neopythagorean ideal of human perfection. 
The very conception of asceticism reflects that ideal, since as- 
ceticism aims not at the destruction of the body, but merely at 
its subjection to the spirit, and the restoration of man to his 
original state, his true nature. Thus Athanasius transferred to 
Christianity the philosophical ideal of the perfect wise man, 
standing above all earthly things. In so doing, Reitzenstein 
supposes he sought to portray an ideal that should contrast 


with another conception of the value and dignity of the ascetic 
life already widely prevalent in the monastic life of his time 
(about the middle of the fourth century), namely, the concep- 
tion of the monk as a Pneumatic or Gnostic, a superhuman 
being. The question then arises, how nearly we can get at this 
other conception. A thorough examination of certain technical 
terms, particularly of the word nova^eiv, showed that while 
monasticism as an historical institution was influenced by Neo- 
pythagoreanism, its fundamental ideas must have been formed 
in the main under the influence of Gnosticism. To confirm these 
observations, however, it seemed necessary to make a com- 
prehensive study of the older monastical narratives, especially 
the Historia Monachorum and the Historia Lausiaca; to in- 
quire into their literary character, determine the historical 
value of their statements, and to set forth the ideas and con- 
ceptions of their authors. But even then the circle of the sources 
to be investigated would have been too narrowly drawn. The 
monastical writers on ethics — an Evagrius Ponticus and a 
Diodochus of Photice — had also to be examined, with the 
correct recognition of the fact that for the proper evaluation 
of the monastical novel the ascetic-gnostic didactic writings 
must necessarily be taken into consideration. In this way a 
new book has been produced, concerning which one cannot help 
regretting that its readableness is in inverse proportion to its 
importance. Reitzenstein is fond of studying coram publico. 
He conducts his readers all along the path he himself has trav- 
elled, with all the detours which were unavoidable for him, to 
be sure, but which they might well have been spared. 

The course of Reitzenstein's investigation may be sum- 
marized as follows: Unlike Lucius in his well-known book, 
'Die Anfange des Heiligenkultes,' he thinks of the 'legend' 
only as a literary product (chap. 1-4). Not the person, but the 
purpose, determines the plan of the narrative. The two great 
collections, the 'Historia Monachorum' and the 'Historia 
Lausiaca,' derive their value, not from the description of events, 
nor yet from their representation of the attendant circum- 
stances, the milieu, but from the views of the authors which 
there find expression — the views of Rufinus (Reitzenstein 


holds, with Preuschen, that the Latin form of the Historia 
Monachorum is the original) and of an unknown author (after 
the name of Palladius as author of the Historia Lausiaca, 
Reitzenstein puts a question mark) ; or, to be more exact, the 
views of those circles in which the narratives committed to 
writing by these authors arose as a kind of popular literature 
in the form of separate stories. Next (chap. 5) he examines the 
idea of the ascetic as superman, with regard to its origins and 
various ramifications. He shows the connection between the 
stories of monks and those of martyrs, and takes occasion to 
investigate anew the origin and significance of the title of 
'martyr' (see above p. 300 f.), as well as the position and law of 
the Christian Pneumatics. The language of asceticism in the 
Stoics, Neopythagoreans, Philo, and Porphyry (with especial 
emphasis on the often neglected writing 'Ad Marcellam') is 
inquired into, and the 'decisive fact that most of the terminol- 
ogy of monasticism is borrowed from heathen philosophy' is 
placed in its proper light. In this way he shows that the in- 
fluence of Pythagoreanism upon nascent monasticism was sup- 
plemented by that of the Hellenistic mysteries and of early 
Christian Gnosticism. The sixth chapter is devoted to Evagrius 
and Diadochus. Here especial attention is paid, on the one 
hand, to the examination of the conception of Gnosis in its 
double aspect as the higher and the lower Gnosis, and on the 
other, to the gradual rejection of the ascetics' claim to belong 
to a supramundane order of beings. The seventh and eighth 
chapters are occupied with the Historia Lausiaca (analysis of 
sources, question of revision); the ninth with the opposition 
between the episcopacy and the ascetic class (Massaliani, En- 
cratites). His closing chapter the author devotes to a fresh and 
exhaustive discussion of the original significance of the early 
Christian terms 'Gnostic' and 'Pneumatic,' which, as our re- 
view has shown, are of prime importance for the whole in- 
vestigation. The extremely polemical tone of this discussion 
will be regretted. In opposition to Hamack, Reitzenstein de- 
fends the definition of Gnosis which has been reached by recent 
researches of philologists and students of the history of religion. 
For further information on this subject the reader is referred 


to the present writer's (Kriiger) above-mentioned notice in the 
ThR, or better still to the publications of Reitzenstein and 
Harnack on the formula 'Glaube, Liebe, Hoffnung'; the latter 
belong in the department of the New Testament and early 
Christianity, and hence cannot be reviewed in this place. 

Reitzenstein, who teaches at Gottingen, dedicated his book 
to Wilhelm Bousset on the occasion of the latter's departm'e 
from Gottingen to take a chair at Giessen. Bousset himself 
had given a good deal of attention to the older monastic litera- 
ture. His essay on the composition and character of the His- 
toria Lausiaca starts with the observations of Reitzenstein, in 
particular with the fact, so significant for the literary criticism 
of the Historia, that the terms yvSKris, yvoxrri.Kos, irv€viJiaTi.K6s 
are found exclusively in certain sections of the work, that is to 
say, in the second half and in the first four chapters of the first 
half. This signifies that those expressions are to be found 
only where there is reason to believe that we are dealing with 
the compiler of the Historia Lausiaca himself, and not with one 
of his written sources. Bousset strives to identify those earlier 
sources. He thinks he can recognize as such: 1. a collection of 
stories about the monks of the desert of Scete; 2. matter from 
the traditions concerning Pachomius; 3. a catalogue of Syrian 
saints, with brief characterizations; and 4. (perhaps) a collec- 
tion of 'lives' of holy women. I venture to add, in this con- 
nection, that among the papers left by Professor Bousset there 
is a manuscript work, completely ready for the printer, on the 
history of the Apophthegmata Patrum.* Its publication would 
be a real gain for science, but no publisher could undertake it 
without very considerable contributions towards meeting the 
cost of printing. As Germany alone is unable to supply the 
necessary funds at the present time, it is perhaps permissible 
to draw the attention of non-German scholars to this unques- 
tionable 'good work.' — In his sketch Bickel tries to show 
how the three currents of evangelical, monastic-gnostic, and 
philosophical asceticism are imited in the ascetic ideal of the 

' In the " Festgabe " commemorating Harnack's seventieth birthday (Tubingen, 
Mohr, 1921) Bousset (pves a brief summary (pp. 102-106) of the results of this ex- 
tensive work. 


three great theologians of the western church. To retrace the 
sources of this ideal he goes back, beyond the Alexandrians 
Clement and Origen, to Posidonius and the Socratic philos- 
ophy. At the same time he attempts to do justice to the liter- 
ary individuality of each of the three theologians. For so short 
a treatise this is quite too large a task. But the skilful author 
manages to awaken lively interest in his subject nevertheless. 

In his painstaking monograph on Nilus Sinaita, Degenhart 
did not attempt any critical treatment of the literary tradition, 
in which the true and the false are palpably intermingled. 
Heussi has undertaken to make good that omission. Unless 
he is mistaken, the fascinating story of the attack on the monks 
of Sinai, upon which the traditional life-story of Nilus has been 
built up, cannot hereafter be employed as an historical source, 
though it does not thereby lose its value as a picture of con- 
temporary life. For our knowledge of Nilus we must therefore 
depend upon his own writiugs, especially on the collection of 
his letters. The investigation of that collection forms the kernel 
of Heussi's work. As in the case of Isidore of Pelusium, the col- 
lection consists of real letters, not rhetorical exercises in style 
or mere excerpts from the Church Fathers. Because of their 
impersonal character, which will surprise no one who is familiar 
with the literatm-e of asceticism, the letters throw very little 
light on the conditions under which the author lived. But 
references to Sinai are entirely lacking, and Heussi believes the 
author must be sought rather in northwestern Asia Minor. 
The circle of his readers embraced the whole of Byzantine 
society from emperor to slave — monks, clergy, and laymen. 
In his second study, Degenhart seeks to maintain the historic- 
ity of the Sinai story with old and new arguments. We may 
expect a rejoinder from Heussi.* 

Simeon the younger, the celebrated Stylite (521-596), had 
three biographers: Arcadius, archbishop of Constantia in 
Cyprus (died after 626), Johannes Petrinus (tenth century), 
and Nicephorus, sumamed d Ovpavhs (about 1000). Miiller 
furnishes first a critical text of the Vita by Petrinus from the 

^ This has just been published. See Karl Heussi, Das Nilusproblem. 32 pp. Leip- 
zig, Hinrichs, 1921. M. 6. Heussi, as nught be expected, declares himself unconvinced. 


Munich manuscript, which had previously been only partially 
edited, and then proceeds to examine the mutual relation of 
the several biographies. He reaches the conclusion that the 
earliest biography by Arcadius has not been preserved, but 
that all three extant ones were derived from it. — Among the 
works relating to Saint Benedict, that of Herwegen, abbot of 
Maria Laach, deserves especial notice as a delicate and care- 
fully drawn character-sketch, which, with all due reverence for 
tradition, is not devoid of critical method. With Benedict, 
however, we have reached the threshold of the Middle Ages, 
and so our survey must be suspended at this point, to be re- 
sumed in another place. 

In the paucity of works on the history of late Latin, the 
thorough investigation which Salonius has devoted to the so- 
called Vitae Patrum (reprinted in Migne, Vols. 73 and 74, after 
Rosweyd) must be characterized as very useful. Of the ten 
books of the Vitae, Salonius has selected Books 3, 5, 6, and 7, 
because they stand in closer relation to one another both in 
content and in language. Salonius proves at large that Book 3 
passes erroneously under the name of Rufinus of Aquileia, 
while there is no reason to doubt that the author of Book 5 
was the Roman deacon and later Pope Pelagius I (555-560); 
of Book 6, the subdeacon John, later Pope John III (560-563); 
and of Book 7, the Spanish monk, Paschasius, about the middle 
of the sixth century. The Lives are in all cases translations 
from the Greek, and the discovery of the Greek originals would 
be of great importance for the reconstruction of the Latin text. 
As the matter now stands, it can often not be decided whether 
an error is to be attributed to the editors, the copyists, or the 
translator. In this respect Salonius is very cautious. The 
especial attention of students of the language may be called 
to the rich material which he offers them.